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Full text of "The second Epistle of Peter, the Epistles of John and Judas, and the Revelation; tr. from the Greek, on the basis of the common English version, with notes"

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THE 



SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER, 



THE 



EPISTLES OF JOHN AND JUDAS, 



AND THE 



REVELATIOI: 

Craiislatcit from t|e ^xttli, 

ON THE BASIS OF THE COMMON ENGLISH VEKSION, 

WITH NOTES. 



Quill igitur, damnamus veteres? ininime: sed post 
priorum studia quod possumus in domo Domini laboramus. 

Jerome. 

Neque statini ofl'endere, si quid mutatum offenderis. sed 
expende, num in melius mutatum sit. Erasmus. 

To yap fiij TXnoeoyco^ dy.oi:£ir raiv d'so)^oyty.c3t' tpcovcovt 
a).).a netoaad'ai tov iv exrioTrj ).e^ei y.al syiiarr; avD.n^J] 
y.Eyovu^svnv Tor rovr e^e/j'ev£tr, ovx itQyoyv eis evoi^etav, 
aX?.fi yi'ctpt^oi'Tcoi' ror oxottoi' rtii y.}.i]oeoii i^ftcov. 

Basil. 



TV. 



/ 



NEW- YORK: <{V''^'^ 

AMER ICAN BIBLE UNION. • - V^SS" 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO., No. 12 PATERNOSTER ROW. %," 

1854. 



AMERICAN BIBLE UNION, 

New- York, April 20, 1854. 



This revision is not final. It is circulated in the expectation, that it will be subjected 
to a thorough criticism, in order that its imperfections, whatever they may be, may be 
disclosed and corrected. 

W. H. WYCKOFF, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by 

THE AMERICAN BIBLE UNION 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Southern District of New- York. 



Hoi.MAN, Gray & Co., Printer-s & Stereottpers, New-York. 



IITRODUCTION. 



The general character and design of this work may be learned from the following Rules and 
Instructions, in conformity with which it has been prepared, except as regards a literal observance of 
the third Special Insti'uction : 

'GENERAL RULES FOR THE DIRECnON OF TRANSLATORS AND REVISERS EMPLOYED BY THE AMERICAN BIBLE UNION. 

' 1. The exact meaning of the inspired text, as that text expressed it to those who understood the original scriptures at the 
time they were first written, must be translated by corresponding words and phrases, so far as they can be found, in the 
vernacular tongue of those for whom the version is designed, with the least possible obscurity or indefiniteness. 

' 2. Wherever there is a version in common use, it shall be made the basis of revision, and all unnecessary interference with 
the established phraseology shall be avoided ; and only such alterations shall be made, as the exact meaning of the inspired text 
and the existing state of the language may require. 

' 3. Translations or revisions of the New Testament shall be made from the received Greek text, critically edited, with known 
errors corrected. 

'SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE REVISERS OF THE ENGLISH NEW TESTAMENT. 

'1. The common English version must be the basis of the revision: the Greek Text, Bagster & Sons' octavo edition of 1851. 

' 2. Whenever an alteration from that version is made on any authority additional to that of the reviser, such authority must 
be cited in the manuscript, either on the same pnge or in an appendix. 

' 3. Every Greek word or phrase, in the translation of which the phraseology of the common version is changed, must be 
carefully examined in every other place in which it occurs in the New Testament, and the views of the reviser be given as to its 
proper translation in each place. 

' 4. As soon as the revision of any one book of the New Testament is finished, it shall be sent to the Secretary of the Bible 
Union, or such other person as shall be designated by the Committee on Versions, in order that copies may be taken and furnished 
to the revisers of the other books, to be returned with their suggestions to the reviser or revisers of that book. After being 
re-revised with the aid of these suggestions, a carefully prepared copy shall be forwarded to the Secretary.' 

I. The Greek Text of the Bagsters, liere referred to, is that of Mill (1707), ' pi-eferred,' say the 
publishers in their preface, ' as being that which is most current in this country : Mill's text,' they add, 
' is in fact a i-eprint of Stephens's third edition (folio, 1550), with one correction and a few unintentional 
changes.' This third edition of Stephens follows the fifth of Erasmus (1535), with the exception of 
the Apocalypse and a very few places in the other books, wliere Stephens introduced the readings of 
the Complutensian Polyglott (published with the Pope's consent in 1520, though printed a few years 
earlier at Complutum, or Alcala, in Spain) ; and in its turn it formed the basis of Beza's editions (1565, 
157G, 15S9, 159S), on which the common English Version mainly rests, and which are said to differ 
from the Stephanie only in about 50 places ; as also of the Elzevir (1624, 1633), in which 152 variations 
have been noticed, and these taken, not from MSS., but from the text or margin of previous editions.* 

It thus appears that the ordinary text of the Greek Testament, whether Mill's or the Elzevir, is 



* Griesbach : ' Editiones recentiores sequuntur Elsevirianam ; haec compilata est ex editionibus Bezae et Stephani tertia; 
Beza itidem expressit Stephanicam tertiam. nonnullis tamen, pro lubitu fere ac absque idonea auctoritate, mutatis ; Stephani 
tertia presse sequitur Krasmicam quintam. paucissimis tantum locis et Apocalypsi exceptis, ubi Complutensem Erasmicae prae- 
tulit ; Erasmus veto textum, ut potuit, constituit e codicibus paucissimis ct satis recentibus, omnibus subsidiis destitutus, praeter 
versionem Vulgatam interpolatam, et scripta nonnuUurum, sed paucorum, nee accurate editorum, Patrum.' Prolegomena in N. T. 



IV INTRODUCTION. 



substantially the Complutensian and the Erasmian. ' But,' to use the words of Bishop Marsh {Lectures 
on the Criticism of the Bible, Cambridge, p. Ill), ' neither Erasmus nor the Complutensian editors printed 
from ancient Greek manuscripts ; and the remainder of their critical apparatus included little more 
than the latest of the Greek Fathers and the Latin Vulgate.' Or, as the case is stated by Dr. Davidson 
(Treatise on Biblical Criticism, Edinburgh, 1852, Vol. ii. p. 118) : 'The materials in possession of the 
earliest editors were scanty. They were of inferior quality. And those who employed them did not 
even make the best use of them. . . . Indeed, they had no critical rules by which they professed to be 
guided.' Under these circumstances it is not at all strange, that the changes made in that text by 
subsequent editors, as the result of a large accumulation and a more rigorous scrutiny of evidence, are 
found to be numerous, and occasionally of considerable interest. 

In what way, however, shall we safely distinguish, in the crowd of questionable readings, what 
may fairly be regarded as the ' known errors,' of which our plan requires the correction ? The present 
writer could think of no test so simple and satisfactory, as the general consent of the critical editors — 
however differing in their principles of recension— ^/br the last hundred years. While this rule would no 
more than any other secure a perfect text, or even all the preferable readings, its operation, so far as 
it went, seemed likely to be attended with the least perplexity or doubt, and so to guarantee a general 
result, having far better claims noiv to rank as the textits receptus (Received Text), than what assumed 
the title more than two centuries ago.* Accordingly, this test is here applied throughout, the following 
editions having been carefully collated for the purpose : — 

Bengel (Beng.), Novum Test. Graecum, 3d ed., Tubingen, 1753. Sometimes his later decision is 
cited, as it appears in the Gnomon, or in the German version of Revelation. 

Bloomfield (Bloomf ), The Greek Testament, 1st American from the 2d London ed., Boston, 1837 : 
— also the Supplemental Volume (Supp.) of Annotations, 2d ed., London, 1851. 

Griesbach (Griesb.), Novum Test. Graece, Cambridge, Mass., 1809 (printed from the Leipzig ed. 
of 1805). 

Haenlein (Haenl.), Epistola Judae Graece, Eiiangen, 1804. 

Hahn, Novum Test. Graece, Leipzig, 1840. 

Knapp (once or twice Kn.), ed. Theile, Leipzig, 1852. 

Lachmann (Lachm.), Novum Test. Graece et Latine, vol. ii., Berlin, 3850. Three places where 
this ed. differs from the small Leipzig ed. of 1846, which had been collated on 
the Epistles, are noted among the Errata. 

Matthaei (Matth.), Joannis Apocahjpsis Graece et Latine, Riga, 1785. 

Meyer (Mey.), Das Neue Test. Griechisch Jcritisch revidirt, Gottingen, 1829. 

ScHOLz (Sch.), Novum Test. Graece, 1830 — 1836, cited from Bagster's Hexapla. 

Theile, Novum Test. Graece, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1852. 

TiscHENDORF (Tisch.), Novttm Test. Graece, Svo ed., Leipzig, 1850. 

Tregelles (Treg.), The Book of Revelation in Greek, London, 1844. His later decisions are given 
from the 2d ed. of the version, London, 1849. 

Wordsworth (Words.), The Apocalypse, London, 1849. 

Wherever these concur on a reading, that reading is in the Notes recommended for adoption, and, 
in the Version as printed in paragraphs at the end of the volume, is incorporated with the text. 

The instances that occur, of deviation from the letter of the above rule, will not be reckoned vio- 
lations of its spirit. They concern chiefly cases, where the unanimity of the editors is broken by 



* The preface to the second Elzevir edition having first cmplojed the phrase, which immediately became classical : Te.vtum 
ergo hahes nunc ab omnibus receptum. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Bengel, or Bloomfield, or both. It is to be considered, that in Bengel's time the materials for textual 
criticism were by no means so abundant as they afterwards became, nor had they been so carefully 
sifted as they have been since ; besides that in very many cases readings, vs'hich appear on the margin 
of our edition as equal or superior to the common ones, or even as undoubtedly genuine, were in later 
editions taken into the text. And, in like manner, there is a third edition of Bloomfield's Greek 
Testament, into which he speaks in the Supplemental Volume of having received at least 'numerous 
deviations from the textus rece-ptus' of the Apocaljqjse. 

Of the Apocalypse, indeed, it is well understood that the received text is more than ordinarily 
defective. Bloomfield saj's, that it is 'in a lamentably imperfect state.' And here, accordingly^ is 
found the great majority of the proposed changes. — In forming his text of this book, Erasmus is known 
to have employed a single manuscript, and that, says Tregelles, ' appears to have been in a mutilated 
condition. It contained the Greek text with a commentaiy interpersed, and he had to separate the 
words of the text as well as he could. In not a few places he clearly took the commentary for the 
text, and thus inserted readings found in no Greek MS. ; where his manuscript was altogether illegible 
he appears to have relied on the Latin Vulgate, and to have supplied words in the Greek by retranslating 
them from it. We hiow that this was the case with the last six verses of the book ; in his MS. they 
were wholly wanting, owing to its mutilated condition, and he ventured on the bold expedient of 
supplying them by his own translation from the Latin : this he acknowledges himself;' and of this 
adventurous work fragments adhere to the received text at the present day. The Complutensian 
editors also are stated by Wetsteia to have had but one manuscript of the Apocalypse ; yet from their 
text, according to Mill, Erasmus at once transferred to his fourth edition (1527) 90 variations ; while 
of Stephens it is asserted, that he used only two imperfect and inaccurately collated MSS. 

Now there are at least 9S MSS. extant, containing the Apocalypse more or less complete, 69 of 
which have been collated wholly or in part. In Tregelles' Introduction these are numbered and 
described ; and, having availed ourselves throughout of his valuable summary of the evidence both 
from MSS. and from ancient Versions, it is necessary that we liere insert extracts sufficient to enable 
every reader to understand his notation : — 

'A. Codex Alexandrinds, preserved in the British Museum. ... Its supposed date is iha ffth century, and it appears 
probable that it was written at Alexan Iria. 

'B. Codex Basilianus at Rome— formerly in the convent of St. Basil . . . now in the Vatican Librarj- . . . probably of 
the seventh century. 

'C. Codex Ephraemi at Paris . . . The vellum was used afterwards as material on which to write some of the Greek 
works of Ephraem the Syiian ... It probably belongs to the early pait of the fflh century.'' 

Since the preparation of the Greek Text by Tregelles, the MSS. B. and C. have been for the first 
time published by Tischendorf, and collated throughout by Wordsworth from Tischendorf s editions. 
Wherever, therefore, the important testimony of these three oldest, or, as they are often called, micial 
or large-letter, MSS. is cited more fully by Wordsworth (who professes — though, in fact, he does not 
aiwaijs so restrict himself — to have constructed his text solely from them,) than by Tregelles, A. B. C. 
are exempted from the quotation-marks, that denote the siimmaries of the latter. It should also be 
remembered that, when B. is referred to under the Epistles, the letter designates another MS., the 
celebrated Codex Vaticanus, assigned by some to the early part of the fourth century. 

'The Manuscript Authorities may be divided into four classes: — 

'a. Perfect MSS. which have been collated throughout' = A. B. and 28 cursive or small-letter MSS. 

'p. JISS. with defects which are noted, but which have been collated throughout in the parts where they arc perfect; also 
some MSS. of which a known part has been collated ;' = C. and 11 cursive MSS. 

'y. MSS. which are only occasionally cited ; either parti illy collated or partially defective ; the siUnce of these M^S. with 
regard to any particular reading, cannot of course be regarded as aflbrding any evidence.' This class includes 24 cursive MSS. 

' 5. MSS. which are known to exist, but are altogether uncited,' = 32 cursive MSS. 



VI INTROBUCTION. 



' The uncial MSS., A. B. C, are cited ... by these designations ; the other MSS., when many support a particular reading, 
are cited by their classes, e. g. a 17. ^ 7. y 3., would imply so many MSS. of these several classes as containing the cited reading; 
when but a few JISS. support a reading, they are cited nominatim ;' e. g. 2. 4. 7. 

' An asterisk after the designation of a MS. e. g. A.* denotes a reading d. primd manu, afterwards altered. 

' Two asterisks, thus :— A.** mark a reading from correction.' 
The Versions cited by Tregelles are : — 

1. The Latin Vulgate (Vulg.), 'executed by Jerome about the end of the 4th century.' MSS. of the whole or part of this 
version are the Amiatinus {Am.) of the 6th century, lately published by Tischendorf ; the Toletanus ( Tol.) ; and the Harleianus 
(Harl.), of the 7th century. 

2. The Coptic (Copt.),  probably executed in the 3d or 4th century.' 

3. The Aethiopic (Aeth.), 'probably executed in the 4th century.' 

4. The Sjriac (Syr.). ' This must not be confounded with the Peshito, executed probably in the 2d century, in which this 
book forms no part' (and the same remark applies to IT. and III. John, II. Peter, and .Jude) : ' the version of the Revelation 
may perhaps be assigned to the 6th century.' 

5. The Armenian (Ann.), 'completed in the year 410.' 

6. The Arabic. 'Erp. is here used, (as has commonly been done,) to denote the Arabic version published hj Erpenius. 
At. p. is the Arabic version of Walton's Polyglott. Arr. denotes both the Arabic versions ;' — ' probably made in the 7th century 
or later.' 

7. The Slavonic (Slav.), of the 9th century :— editions and MSS. 

On this subject of the Grreek Text, it remains to be added, that a large selection from the various 
readings is given in the Notes, while only a very few are admitted into the margin of the Version. 

II. The Revised Version. Here the one object has been to furnish as close a representation of 
the original, even in its minuter forms and constructions, and in what Jerome calls ' the mystery of its 
verbal arrangement' (ubi ijjsc verborum ordo mystcrium est), as an application of the strict modem philology 
might suggest, and the genius of our language at all admit of. Of course, it would have been easy, 
along with this, to impart a much more modern air to the whole, by such expedients, for example, as 
that of everywhere exchanging unto for to, hath for has, &c. But it is scarcely worth while to attempt 
an explanation of the reasons, why the translator has refrained from doing this. The matter belongs 
to the sphere of taste and feeling, where disputation is more apt to be abundant, than satisfactory and 
conclusive. 

III. The Notes, except in what relates to the textual readings, are nearly confined to the illus- 
tration of the Version, or rather of the changes introduced. But, even with this limitation, the pains- 
taking reader will discover, in the brief exegetical remarks, and in the frequent references to parallel 
passages (which he is earnestly requested to examine), as well as in the numerous versions and opinions 
quoted, no inconsiderable amount of carefully condensed commentary. In a volume of this sort, it 
were perhaps too much to promise absolute accuracy of citation ; but it is due alike to the writer and 
the reader to say, that very great labour has been expended on the attempt to make the work in this 
respect thoroughly reliable. 

It will be perceived, that to every change, however slight and seemingly unimportant, a note is 
attached in explanation or defense ; and it may be objected, that a needless scrupulosity is thus often 
shown about alterations of no consequence, and which, therefore, ought not to have been made at all ; 
or else in justifying alterations so obviously proper, as to render apology superfluous. But as, on the 
one hand, whatever improvement, if any, is effected in the exactness and general tone of the version, 
is, and must be, the result mainly of attention to what the cursory reader will reckon microscopic 
trifles, so, on the other hand, the author was quite willing to incur the censure of an excessive and 
irksome nicety, rather than, by sparing his own labour, to expose himself to the charge of having dealt 
lightly with a work at once so venerable, and so dear, as the common English Version of the Bible. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATION'S. 



vn 



Of the manifold excellencies, intrinsic and comparative, of that Version, he trusts that he has now a 
more intelligent appreciation, than before he undertook his present task ; though at the same time he 
will be allowed to add, that, so far as a judgment might he formed from the imrtion here reviewed, he could 
much less readily now acquiesce in the opinion, that any other than a very moderate share of the 
world's gratitude is due to King James and his fifty-four Translators. 

Since the first edition of the Epistles in 1852, that portion of the work has been almost wholly 
re-written, and greatly enlarged, and every quotation and reference verified anew. It is proper also to 
mention, that, with a few (11) exceptions, where the author is happy to acknowledge the kind courtesy 
of correspondents, the modifications now introduced are the fruit of a fresh and prolonged study of the 
sacred text. — Extracts Irom the Dutch Annotations and German commentaries are here generally 
given in English. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ABBREYIATIONS, 



AND 



WORKS MOST FREQUENTLY CITED. 



The authorities are cited in groups, as here arranged, but generally with some regard to the 
chronological order, and in all cases directly from the editions specified. Those, to which this specifi- 
cation is not appended, are taken at second hand from various sources. 

It is also important to bear in mind, that, except where the Note explains itself otherwise, words 
in Italics or within quotation-marks, and enclosed in a parenthesis, belong to the writer immediately 
preceding ; but, when a comma intervenes between the parenthesis and the name, they are common to 
all the names in that group preceding the parenthesis. Wliere names merely are mentioned, they are 
to be understood as directly sustaining the Version. 



E. V. — English Version. The text is printed from the American 
Bible Society's pica 8vo ed. of the New Testament, 1851. 
In the Notes, the Society's Revised Bible of 1851, and the 
original ed. of IGll, as given in Bagster's English Hexapla 
and in the 4to Oxford Reprint of 1833, have been collated. 
Two instances, where the Hexapla and Oxford differ, are 
noted among the Errata. 



W.— Wiclif, 1380, 
T.— Tyndale, 1534, 
C. — Cranmer, 1539, 
G. — Genevan, 1557, 
R.— Rhemish, 1582, 



from Bagster's English Hexapla, for 
the most part with the modern or- 
thography. 



Aeth. — Aethiopic Version. 

Ar.— Arabic Version; from the Paris Polyglott (P.), 1633. 

Copt. — Coptic Version. 

Dt. — Dutch Version, 1637 ; from the Netherlands Bible Society's 

ed. of 1836 ; with occasional reference to the 4to Gorinchem 

ed. of 1748. 



Fr. G. — French Geneva Version, 1588 ; from the Amsterdam 
ed. of 1761. 

-M. — Martin's French Version, 1096-1707 ; from the American 
Bible Society's ed. of 1852. 

-S. — Swiss Version, 2d ed., Lausanne, 1849. 

Germ. — Luther's German Version, 1545 ; from Stier and 
Theile's Polyglotten-Bibel, 2d ed., 1849. 

It. — Diodati's Italian Version, 1641; from the British and 
Foreign Bible Soc.'s ed. of 1848. 

Syr. — Syriac Version ; from Greenfield's 12mo ed., 1828; with 
occasional reference to De Dieu's (De D.) ed. of the Apo- 
calypse, the Paris Polyglott (P.), and Lee's (L.) 4to ed. of 
the N. T. in 1816. 

Vulg. — Latin Vulgate; from the Polygloiten-Bibel; with oc- 
casional reference to the codex Amiatinus {Am.). 



Alb.— Alberti. 

Alex. — Alexander on Isaiah, New- York, 1846-7; and on The 

Psalms, New- York, 1852. 
Alf.— Alford's Greek Test., 2 voU., London. 1849, 1853. 



Vlll 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



All.— Allioli's IVeues Testament, Ncn--Yoik, 1848. 

All^. — Allwood's Key to the Rev., London, 1829. 

Andr. — Andreas. 

Areth. — Aiethas, in Apoc. Comment. ; from the 2J vol. of 
Oeciimenius, Pari.*!, 1031. 

Aret. — Areliu.s, in iV. T. Commenlarii, Gene-va. 1G18. 

Arn.— Arnaiid, Reditrches Critiques siir I'Ep. de Jticle, Stras- 
bourtr, 1851. 

Aug. — Augustine, in Ep. Joann. ad Parthos Tractatus de- 
cern; from vo!. iii., 1837, of the Paris cd. of his "Works. 

B. and L. — Tjeausobre and L'Enfant, L.e Nouteau Test., Am- 
sterdam, 1718. 

Rarr.— Barnes' Notes, New York, 1S52. 

Beng. — Bcngel, Gnomon \ovi Test., Tiibingcn, 1850; and 
Erklarte Offenb., Stuttgart. 1834. The German version 
of the Epistles is tiled fjom the Polyglotten-Bibel. 

Bens. — Benson. 

lieil. Bib. — Berhnhurger Bibel; from the Pnhjglotlfn-Bibel. 

Bez. — B( zi ; from Junius and Tremellius' Novum Test , 
Ilanau. 1023, with occasional reference to the Philadelphia 
ed. of 1848. 

Bierm. — Biermann, Clavis Apocalyptico-Prophetica, Utrecht, 
1702. 

Blaekw. — Blackwall's Sacred Classics, Londnn, 1737. 

Bloon}f. — Bloomfield's Recensio Sijnptica {Pec. Syn.), Lon- 
don, 1828 ; Greek Test., Boston, 1837 ; Supplemental 
Volume (Supp.), London, 1851. 

Braun. — Braunius, Selecta Sacra, Am>terdam, 1700. 

Brightm. — Brightman's Revelation of the Rev., Amsterdam, 
1C15. 

Budd. — Buddeus. 

Calv.— Calvin, in N. T. Commentarii, ed. Tholuck, Berlin, 
1838. 

Cam. — Cameron, Myrothecium Evangelicum, Saumur, 1677. 

Campb. — Campbell, Tfie Four Gospels, with Preliminary Dis- 
sertations, Andover, 1837. 

Carpz. — Carpzov, Epp. Cathol. Septenariiis, Halle, 1790. 

Castal. — Castalio, Biblia Sacra, Leipzig, 1750. 

Charn. — Charnock's Works, London, 1684. 

Clarke, Commentary on the N. T., New York, 1831. 

Cler. — Clericus, Animadversiones in Hammondi N. T, Am- 
sterdam, 1700. 

Cocc. — Cocceius, Opera, Amsterdam, 1700-06. 

Crol. — Crolj's Interpretation of the Apoc, London, 1827. 

Daub.— Daubuz, Commentary on the Rev., London, 1720. 

Dav. — Davidson's Introduction to the N. T., vol. iii., London 
1851. 

De D.— De Dieu. Critica Sacra, Amsterdam, 1693. 

De W.— De Wette, Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch 
zum N. T., vol!, i. iii., Leipzig, 1846-48. 

Dietl.— Dietlein, Der zweite Brief Petri, Berlin, 1851. 

Dodd.— Doddridge's Family Expositor, London, 1825. 

Drus.— Drusius ; from the Critici Sacri, vol. viii., Amsterdam 
1698. 

Dt. Ann.— Dutch Annotations {Verklaringen), Gorirchem 
1748. 



Durh. — Durham ; fiom Pali Synopsis. 

DUst. — Diisterdieck, Die drei Johanneischen Briefe. vol. i. 

(containing the commentary on 1 John 1: 1 — 2: 28), 

Guttingen, 1852. 
Ebr. — Ebrard, Die Offenb. Johannes, Kunigsberg, 1853. 
Eichh. — Eiehhorn, Commentarius in Apoc, Gotlingen, 1791. 
Ell. — Elliott's florae Apocalyplicae, 2d ed., London, 1846. 
Engh Ann. — English Annotations, London, 1045. 
Erasm. — Erasmus, Novum Test, omne, 3d td., Basle, 1522. 

His notes are from the Critici Sacin. 
Est. — Estius; from Puli Synopsis, and other sou'ce.=. 
Ew. — Ewald, Commentarius in Apoc, Leipzig, 1828. 
Gerl.— Gerlach, Das Neue Test.. Berlin, 1844. 
Gill, Exposition of the N. T., Philadelphia, 1811. 
Gom. — Gomarus ; from Poli Synopsis. 
Goss. — Gossner; from the Poly glotten- Bibel. 
Greenf — Greenfield, ncirj" ri"i3n ISO, London, 1831. 
Grell. — Grellot, Prodromus in Apoc, Leyden, 1075. 
Grot. — Annotationes in N. T. Paris, 1050. 
Guyse, Practical E.\po.sitor, Edinburgh, 1797. 
Haenl. — Haenlein, Ep. Jiidae, Erlangen, 1804. 
Hamm. — Hammond's Paraphrase and Annotations on the 

N.T.. London, 'l 659. 
Heinr. — Heinrichs, Apoc Graece, perpetua Annot. illustrata, 

Gottingen, 1818. 
Heins. — Heinsius. 

Hengst. — Hengstenberg, Die Offenb., Berlin, 1849-51. 
Herd.^ — Herder, Johannes Offenb., Stuttgart, 1829. 
Homb. — Ilombergh . 
Huth.^ — Huthor, Kritisch exegetisches Handbuch iiber . . . den 

Brief des Judas imd den 2. Brief des Petrus, Gottingen, 

1852. 
.Jones, Lectures on the Apoc., London, 1833. 
Kell. — Kelly, The Apoc. Interpreted, 2 voll. (to the end of 

ch. xvi.), London, 1849, 1851. 
Kenr. — Kenrick's Translation of the Cathnlic Epp. and the 

Apoc, New York, 1851. 
Kist. — Kistemakcr; from the Polyglotten-Bibel. 
Laun. — Launoi. 
Laurm. — Laurman, Collectanea in Ep. Judae, Gruningen, 

1818. 
Lee, Exposition of the Rev., London, 1849. 
Lightf.— Lightfoot's Works, London, 1084. 
Lord, Exposition of the Apoc. New York, 1847. 
Lowm.— Lowman's Paraphrase and Notes on the Rev., London, 

1809. 
Liicke, Commentar iiber die Schriften des Johannes, vol. iii, 

1st ed., Bonn, 1825. 
Luth. — Luther. 

Mack. — Macknight on the Epistles, Philadelphia, 1835. 
Matth. — Matthaei, Animadversiones Criticae in Apoc, Riga, 

1785. 
Mey. — Das Neue Test., Gottingen, 1829 ; with occasional re- 
ference to the commentaries, 1835-53. 
Midd. — Middleton on the Greek Article, New York, 1813. 
Mill, Novum Test. Graecum, ed. Kiistor, Leipzig, 1723. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



IX 



Jloldenh. — Moldenhawer. Grundllche Ertdnlerimg der hei- 
Ugen Biiclier neues Test., vol. iv., Leipzig, 1770. 

Mor. — Alex. Jlorus, ad quaedam Loca Nbvi Foederis Notae, 
printed with Cameron's Myrothecmm. 

More, Henry More's Theological Works, London, 1708. 

Murd. — Murdook's Translation of the Syriac N. T., New- York, 
1851. 

Newc. — Newcome, Attempt toward revising our English 
Translation of the Greek Scriptures, Dublin, 1790. A few 
instances of misquotation, in consequence of the partial 
use of another ed., are noted among the Errata. 

Newt. — Newton, Dissertations on the Prophecies, London, 1835. 

Oec. — Oecumenius, vol. ii., Paris, 1631. 

Pagn. — Pagninus ; from Wolder's Biblia Sacra, vol. iii., Ham- 
burgh, 1596. 

Par. — D. Parens, Opera Theologica E.vegelica, vol. ii., Frank- 
fort, 1647. The Conimentar3' on Jude is by David's son, 
Philip. 

Pears. — Pearson. Exposition of the Creed, New- York, 1843. 

Peile, Annotations on the Apostolical Epp., vol, iv,, London, 
1852. 

Penn, The Book of the New Covenant, London, 1830. 

Pise. — Piscator ; from Poll Synopsis. 

Pol. Syn. — Poll Synopsis, vol. v., Frankfort, 1712. 

Pric. — Pricaeus ; from the Critici Sacri. 

Pyle, Paraphrase on the Acts and the Epp., vol. ii., London, 
1705. 

Ramb. — Rambach, Institutiones Ilermeneuticae, Jena, 1732. 

Ros. — Rosenmiiller, Scholia in N. T., Nuremberg, 1831. 

Scholef. — Scholefleld, Hints for an Improved Translation of the 
N. T., London, 1850. 

Scott, Commentary on the Holy Bible, vol. v., Philadelphia, 
1852. 

Sept. — Septuagint Version, Bagster's 8vo ed., London. 

Sharpe, The New Test. Translated, London, 1844. 

Steph. — II. Stephanus; from the Critici Sacri. 

Stier, Der Brief Juda, Berlin, 1850; and the Polyglotten- 
Bibel. 

Stolz ; from the Polyglotlen-Bihd. 

Stu. — Stuart, Commentary on the Apoo., Andovcr, 1845. 

Sym. — Symonds, Observations upon the Expediency of revis- 
ing the present Engli.sh Version itc, Cambridge, 1789, 1794. 

Thom, — Thomson, The New Covenant Translated, Philadelphia, 
1808. 

Till. — Tilloch, Dissertations on the Apoc, London, 1823. 

Treg.— Tregelles, The Book of Rev. Translated, London, 1849. 

Tremell. — Tremellius, Novum Test, e.v vetustissima tralatione 
Syra, Hauau, 1623. 

Trol. — Trollope's Analecta Theologica, London, 1842, 

Vail. — Valla ; from the Critici Sacri. 

Van Ess ; from the Polyglotten-Bibel. 

Vat. — Vatablus, Biblia Sacra, vol. ii., Salamanca, 1584. 

Vitr. — Vitringa, Anacrisis Apoc, Weissenfels, 1721. 

Vorst. — Vorstius. 

Wakef,— Wakefield's Translation of the N. T., Cambridge 
(Mass.), 1820. 



Wells, Help for the more clear and easy L^nderstanding of the 
Holy Scriptures. Oxford, 1715, 1717. 

Wesl. — Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Now Test., New- 
York, 1850. 

Wetst.— Wetstein. 

Whist. — Whiston, Essay on the Rev. of St. John. London, 1744. 

Whitb, — AYhitby, Paraphrase and Commentary on the Epp., 
Philadelphia, 1848. 

Wits. — Witsius, Commentarius in Ep. Judae Ap., Leyden, 
1703 ; with occasional reference to his other works. 

Wolf. — Wolfius, Curae Philologicae el Criticae, Hamburgh, 
1735. 

Words. — Wordsworth, Translation of the Apoc, London, 1849. 

Zeg. — Zegerus; from the Critici Sacri. 

ZulL— ZiiUig. 



Bretsch. — Bretschneider, Le.vicon Afanuale in N. T., 2d ed., 

Leipzig, 1829. 
Buttm.— Buttmann's Greek Grammar, by Robinson, New- 
York, 1851. 
Ges, — Gesenius, Thesaurus Vet. Test., Leipzig, 1829-53. 
Green, Grammar of the N. T. Dialect, London, 1842; and 

Lexicon to the N. T., London. 
Gusset. — Gussetius, Lexicon Linguae Hebraicae, Leipzig, 

1743. 
Ilerm. — Hermann ad Viger. de Idiolismis, 4th ed., Leipzig, 

1834. 
Hesych. — Hesychius, Glossae Sacrae, ed. Ernesti, Leipzig, 

1785. 
Hoog. — Hoogeveen ; from Hermann's Viger. 
Johns. — Johnson's English Dictionary, Philadelphia, 1818. 
Kiihn. — Kiihncr's Greek Grammar, by Edwards and Taylor, 

New-York, 1853. 
L. and S. — Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, Oxfofd, 

1845. 
Leigh, Critica Sacra, London, 1650. 
Nork, VoUsltindiges Hebr.-chald.-rabbin. Wui'terbuch, Grimma, 

1842. 
Pas. — Pasor, Manuale N. T, Leipzig, 1040. 
Pass. — Passow, HandwOrterbuch der Griech. Sprache, Leipzig, 

1841—53. 
Phavor. — Phavorinus. 

Rich. — Richardson's English Dictionary, London, 1838. 
Rob. — Robinson's Lexicon of the N. T., New- York, 1850; and 

of the 0. T., Boston, 1844. 
Scap. — Scapula, Le.vicon Graeco-Latinttm, Basle, 1020. 
Schirl. — Schirlitz, fVOrlerbuch zum N. T., Giessen, 1851. 
Schleus. — Schleusner, Lexicon in N. T., Glasgow, 1817. 
SchOttg. — Schottgen, Lexicon in N. T., ed. Kiebs, Leipzig, 1765. 
Steph. — Stephanus, Thesaurus Graecae Lingue, ed. Valpy, 

London, 1810—20. 
Suic. — Suicer, A''. T. Glossariwn, ed. Hagenbuch, Zurich, 1744. 
Suid. — Suidas. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



Tittm.— Tittmann, De Synonymis in N. T., Leipzig, 1829, 1832. 
TroL— Trollopc's Greek Grammar to the N. T., London, 1842. 
Vig. — Viger, De IdioHsmis, ed. Hermann. 
"Wahl, Clavis AC T. Philologica, cd. mhior, Leipzig, 1831. 



"VYebst. — Webster's English Dictionary. 2 veil. 4to, New- York, 
1828 ; and Goodrich's 8vo ed., New- York, 1852. 

Win. — Winer, Grammaiik des neutest. Sprachidioms. •5th ed., 
Leipzig, 1844. 



The following Versions, having been directly collated throiighont, are included under their respec- 
tive general references ; thus : — 



English verss. = Wiclif, Tyndale, Cranmer, Genevan, Rhemish ; 
— Allwood (Rev., ch. iv. — sxii.), Daubuz (Rev.), Doddridge, 
Hammond, Kenrick, Lord (Rev.), Macknight (the Epp.), 
Murdock, Newcome, Penn, Sharpe, vStuart, Thomson, Tre- 
gelles (Rev.), Wakefield, Wells, Wesley, Wordsworth (Rev.). 

Latin verss. = Vulgate; — Beza, Calvin (II. Pet, I. -John, Jude), 
Carpzov (II. Pet.), Castalio, Cocceius (II. Pet., .Jude, Rev.). 
Erasmus, Pagninus, Pareus (.Jude, Rev.), Vatablus, Vi- 
tringa (Rev.). 



German verss. = Luther ; — Allioli, Bengel (Rev.), De Wette, 
Ebrard (Rev., ch. xi. — xxii.), Hengstenberg (Rev.), Herd. 
(Rev.), Meyer, Moldenhawer, Stier (Jude). 

French verss. = Geneva, Martin, Swiss ; — Beausobre and L'En- 
fant, Arnaud (.Jude), 

Foreign verss. = all the versions here classed, as Latin, Ger- 
man, French ; together with the Syriac, Dutch. Italian, 
and Greenfield. 



Of these Versions, Wiclif, the' Rhemish, Allioli, Kenriclc, being translated from the Vulgate ; and 
Murdock, from the Syriac ; are cited, not a.s authorities, but for the sake of comparison. 



ERRATA 



Page 14, 

„ H 

:, 16, 

„ 23, 

,. 25, 

„ 38, 

,. 40, 

„ 41, 

:, 45, 

» 49, 

. 51, 

„ 55. 



5o, 
80, 
87, 



Revised Version, verse C, for shall reatZ should after- 
ward. 
I, ,. ,, 8, for 'day read 'day. 

Note s, for except Peile read except Newc, Pcile. 

,, r, for Mey. read Knapp, Mer. 
Revised Version, verse 13, for dwelleth righteousness 
read righteousness dwelleth. 
,, ., „ 5, for hath read ''hath. 

Note r, dele Newc. marg. 
Chap. 3 : 1, Note b, afta' Newc. read (has it as a 

supplement). 
Note a, dele Lachm. 
„ q, dele Newc. mar^. 
,. n, dele the reference to Lachm. 
,, n, for 14. read 14." 
Revised Version, verse 16, Jor them that read those 
who. 
,, „ ,, 5, for a new commandment 

unto thee 7ead unto thee a 
new commandment. 
Note a, for transpose read Tisch. transposes. 
„ w, after E. V. read (according to the Ilexapla). 
„ X, for Hades, q. d. the invisible state' read Hades. 
Revised Version, verse 19, for shall read are to. 
Revised Version, verse 10, for shalt . . . shall cast read 
art about to ... is about to cast. 



Page 



92, 

93, 

93, 

98, 

100, 

101, 

105, 

106, 

108, 

108, 

113. 

141, 
173. 



196, 
198, 

219, 
221, 

247. 



Note s, after E. V. read (according to the Ilexapla). 
Note T, for N. m read N. n. 
„ a, for Treg. read Lachra. and Treg. 
,. p, dele Newc. marg. 

„ k, for Tisch. dxxa read Lachm. and Tisch. aXKa. 
Revised Version, verse 10. for shall read is about to. 
Note d ; see ch. 21 : 6, N. x. 
Revised Version, verse 1, for be read come to pass. 

„ „ ,, 7, for an read "lan. 

Note g, for auro read iavto. 
:; V) fo^ Lachm. and Tisch. read Lachm., Treg., 
Tisch. 
Revised Version, verse 1, for rod read a rod. 
Note z, it was not observed that the author had him- 
self corrected the Latin er- 
ratum. 
.. 0, for in read is. 
Revised Version, verse 8,yb/- righteousness read right- 
eousnesses. 
,, „ .. 7, read is in Italics. 

,-. ., ,, 15, for scorcerers read sor- 

cerers. 
., ., „ 2, dele the first from. 



In several instances the Greek Jiccents and Hebrew points 
have been broken off in the prejs. 



m. 



'^t 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETEE. 



KING JAMES' VEPtSlON. 

CHAP. I. 

Simon Peter, a servant and 
an apostle of Jesus Christ, to 
them that have obtained hke pre- 
cious faith with us througli the 
righteousness of God and our 
Saviour Jesus Christ: 

2 Grace and peace be, multi- 
plied unto you through the know- 
ledge of God, and of Jesus our 
Lord, 



GEEEK TEXT. . 

CHAP. I. \ 

^ STMEHN n^rpos hvTj^ xai 
ajtoartoXog 'lysaov XpiffToiij roig' lad- 
Ti^ioy nuiv Tjxj^ovgl Ttianv h hixaio- 
GvvYi Tov Qeov r,ucov xa.1 GcStyipog 
'IriaoiJ Xp((TToii\ 

2 Z^P'^i W^'^ ^'^^ el^avYi TtXyjOvvdeiri 
iv imypoxysL roi) &eov, xai 'lyiaov 
tot) Kvpiov rifiov.^ 



REVISED VERSION. 



CHAP. I. 



"Symeon Peter, a servant 
and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to 
''those 'who have obtained like 
precious faith with 



the 
and 



us "in 
righteousness of ''our God 
Saviour Jesus Christ; 

2 Grace ' unto you and peace 
be multiplied in the knowledge 
of God, and of Jesus our Lord.s 



' Acts 15 : ]U1 is the only other place where this Jewish form 
of the name is used of Peter, and this circumstance may havg 
led to the substitution in B. and some minor MSS, of the more 
common Sifiux, which Lachra. alone edits. — E. V. inarg.;- 
Fr. S.;-Va11., Erasm., Engl. Ann., Oocc, Moldenh., Mack., Mey., 
De W., Alf., Peile. At Acts 15: 14 and elsewhere the text of 
E. V. has Simeon, which, as answering; still more nearly to the 
Hebrew ]iyDK^, and as always employed for it in E. V., I 

would here adopt (see ch. 2: 6, N. c; Ptov. 7:6, N. o). 
And so G.;-Dt.;-Vat., Bez., Zeg., Drus., Beng., Carpz., Clarke ;- 
all the lexicons. 

" Dod(f., Newc, Murd., Kenr. See Rev. 2: 2, N. h. 

" Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Scott, Murd., Kenr. See Rev. 1 : 5, 
N. V, &c. 

'' We are not unnecessarily to substitute a secondary sense 
for the primary, (as Rob. takes niam here to mean the gospel). 
No reason can be given why the connection between ' faith' and 
' righteousness' in this verse may not be the same as between 
'faith' and 'blood' Rom. -8: 25, 'faith' and 'Christ .Jesus' Gal. 
3: 26; &c. For Six. tov &eov as the object of faith, see Rom. 
1 : 17^ 3 : 21 ; 10 : 3 ; &c.— W., T., R.;-Vulg., Syr. (= Greenf.'s 
3), Germ , It., Fr. S.;-Hamm., Cocc, Beng., Moldenh., Wakef, 

Thom., Scott, Penn, Scholcf., Bloomf, Sharpe, Trol., Peile, 
Kenr., Iluth. — The general remark above applies equally to h 



in V. 2, and is there supported by T., R.;-Vulg., Syr. (as before), 
It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Castal., Bez., Cocc, Sharpe, Kenr. Even 
where the primary sense cannot so well be retained in English, 
its presence in the original is scarcely less obvious ; e. g. v. 4, 
ep irddv/iia, if connected with ir xoofi^, means ' lying, sunk, in 
lust;' or, if with ^dopaii (De W., Iluth.), 'corruption, having 
its source or ground m lust.' And so ch. 2: 16, 18; &c. 

« E. V. marg. ; and so in the text at v. 11 and ch. 8 : 18, 
where the order is the same as here ;-W., T., C, G., R.;-Latin 
verss. (Deinostri et Salvatoris [Servatoris'}). Dt., Fr. G.,-M.,- 
S.;-Wells, Wolf, Dodd., Wesl., Gill, Mack., Thom., Scott, Clarke, 
Slade, Valpy, All., Home, Trol., Bloomf, Scholef , Peile, Kenr.;- 
Midd., Green. This construction is vindicated at v. 11 and 
elsewhere by Win., though he omits any reference to this test ; 
and De W., while he does not himself adopt it here, acknowl- 
edges that it is required by the ordinary rule of grammar. — 
Many others connect r;fiuiv with tov ®iov, but repeat before 
ffwf^po; either the pronoun (Syr., &c.)or thearticIe(Germ., &c.). 

' The Greek order is to be preferred as better suggesting the 
mutual relation of 'grace' and 'peace.' In every other parallel 
case it appears in E. V., and here also is retained by T., C, G., R.;- 
Latin verss.;-Mey., All., De W. 

° Here ends the sentence containing the inscription and salu- 
tation. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 



3 

power 



According as his divine 
hath given unlo us all 
things that iKrtain unto life and 
godliness, through the knowledge 
of him that hath called us to glory 
and virtue : 



GKEEK TEXT. 



3 'DS Ttdvra r^ulv tr,g Oeiag hvvd- 
juecj, ai'Toii ra Tipog ^cj/.j^ xai ems- 

aeug tov TcaTisoavrog ^tag 6ta oo^yjg 
xcd dperr,g, 



REVISED VERSION. 

3 ''Forasmuch as his divine 
power hath given unto us all 
things that iKrtain unto life and 
godliness, through the knowledge 
of him 'who •> called us ''by glory 
and 'might : 



'' V. 3 is the protasis of v. 5 ; v. 4, an cpcxtgetical confiima- 
tion of V. 3. — This structure of the context is recognized more 
or less distinctly in the German and French verss ;-Oec., Aret., 
Dt. Ann., Est, Wells, Whitb., Wolf., Beng., Bens., Carpz.,Pott, 
Thoni., Ros., Bloomf., Trol., Sharpe. Barn., Dav., Peile;-Win. — 
The iJ5, in connection with the genitive absolute, indicates, not 
a standard of comparison, but the ground of the subsequent 
exhortation. 

' See V. 1, N. c, &c. 

' In the treatment of the tenses the older versions and co.n- 
mentators often quite unnecessarily, and sometimes lo the injury 
of the sense, disregarded the common principles of the language. 
nere the reference may very well be historical, to the life and 
ministry of the Saviour. — E. V., Rom. 8: 30 ; 1 Cor. 1:9; Gal. 
1 : 6, 15 ; lic.j-W.j-Wakef., Sharpe. See v. 14, No. a. 

k E. V. maT-g-. ; v. 4 ; Rom. 6: 4; Gal. 1: 15; 2Thess.2:14; 
&c.;-T., C, R.;-foreign verss. (except the Dt., which, however, 
has door in the marg.; Bez., whom E. V. often errs in following ; 
and Carpz.);-Aret., Est, DeD., Grot, Charn.,Wits., Wells, Vitr., 
Whitb., Alb., Wolf., Dodd., Wesl., Pyle, Wakef., Newc, Thom., 
Ros., Bloomf.. Sharpe, Scholef., Dav., Kenr.. IIuth.;-Schottg., 
Tittm., Win., Green, Bretsch., Rob. See ch. 3 : 5, N. m. 

1 In the Sept. dpf^j} is found for "in the majesty of God, 
Hab. 3: 3; Zech. 6: 13, and in the plural for Ti^riD or 

ni'^nn His praise or praises, Is. 42 : 8, 12 ; 43 : 21 ; 63 : 7. 

In the N. T. it occurs only in Phil. 4: 8 {moral excellence) ; 
1 Pet. 2 : 9 (plural : the perfections existing in the divine na- 
ture, and illustrated in the calling of the Church) ; and in the 
present context. In this verse, and among such as rightly inter- 
pret the hia, or else follow the reading of the Vulg., Lachm. and 
Tisch., ihia, hotri xai dptr»7, '' ^^^ been rendered, 1.. virtus, Tu- 
gend, virlU, vertJc, virtue, (T., C, R.;-Latin verss.,* Germ., It.. 
Fr.M.,-S.;- Wells. B. and L., Dodd., Newc, Thom., Scott 
Sharpe, Kenr.), the moral attributes, (as these words are here 
most naturally taken to mean ; though Zeg. explains by pate- 



* It is worthy of note, that the Vulg. habitually translates 
Suia/jts (as at ch. 2: 11) by virtus, and is followed by W., vir- 
tue. The only remains of this in E. V. are in JIark 5 : 30 ; 
Luke: 6, 19; 8:46. 



stas. Wells by power, B. and L. by force, Dodd. and Scott 
by energy, Wesl. by fortitude, Gerl. by Gotteskraft), of 
God, or (Castal., Aret, Clar., Moldenh.) of Christ ; 5o|a 
being then supposed to denote the natural attributes 
(Beng.) or the manifestation of the moral: — 2., bonitas 
sive miscricordia, Gate, benignitas, kindness, beneficence, 
goodness, &c., (Est., Carpz., Mey., Ros., Bloomf. Trol.;- 
Schdttg.), a sense unexampled in the N. T. and Sept., and of at 
least doubtful occurrence anywhere : — 3., puissance, robur, po- 
tentia, power, "PTI, Macht, Kraft, 6ila ivvafnf, Gotlesmacht, 

efficacia, (Fr. G.;-Drus., Heins., De D., Grot, Harara., Mede, 
Cham., More, Vitr., Ilomb., Alb., Pyle, Greenf., Van Ess, Goss., 
All., Stolz, De W., Scholef., Barn., Dav.;-Bretsch., Win., Rob., 
Schirl.). In this view I am led by the following considerations to 
acquiesce : — (1.), E.xcepting Matt. 9 : 13, where xa^ia is merely 
the outward summons, it is God, the Father, who is always in the 
N. T. represented as calling men, by Jesus Christ His Minister ; 
Rom. 8 : 30 ; 9 : 11, 24 ; 1 Cor. 1 : 9 ; 7 : 17 (according to the read- 
ing of Griesb. and all subsequent editors); &c.; — (2.), the writer, 
having in v. 2 mentioned, as the joint element and medium of all 
spiritual blessing, ' the knowledge of God, and of Jesus our Lord' 
(comp. John 17 : 3), seems now to make separate reference to the 
former, as in v. 8 he does to the latter ;^but. (3.), while dpti'^ in 
classic Greek often bears the general sense of excellence, of body 
or mind, it is nowhere employed distinctively for the moral per- 
fections or holiness of God; ^ a^irr^v pro ayiagfiov non facile 
uspiam invenies', says Drus.; and so Scott; — nor, (4.), is it 
the characteristic force of 6d|a to express either the mani- 
festation of those moral perfections apart from the natural, or 
the natural perfections themselves apart from the moral ; 
■John 17:6; 2 Cor. 4:6; Eph. 1:17; Heb. 1 : 3 ; — (5.), the 
specific signification adopted rests on the etymology (as com- 
monlj' given) and familiar classical usage; — (6.), is kindred 
with that in the apodosis, v. 5, N. x; — (7.), thus imparting ad- 
ditional force to the exhortation ; q. d. ' Let your faith exhibit 
something of the energy of its source;' — and. (8.), it brings out 
more sharply the correspondence ('Explicatur,' says Beng., 'quid 
sit divinapotentia.') between the beginning of the verse and its 
close, dpff^f answering to Swdfuas, and So^r;; to diias. By 6d?o, 
therefore, I here understand whatever is glorious in the divine 
nature ; by dptfij. its corresponding efficiency (so Huth.: ' &6%a 
bezeichnet das Sein. dptr); die Wirk,samkeit.') ; and this requires 
us to dispense with the hendiadys (glorious kindness, glorious 
power, <^c.) assumed by most ; which Rom. 6 : 4 also shows to 
be unnecessarj'', 5d|a being there properly defined by Mey. as 
'die glorreiche Gesammtvollkomnienheit Gottes;' nor is (hat 
construction favoured by the plural relative of v. 4. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

4 Whereby are given unto us 
exceeding great and precious 
promises ; that by these ye might 
be partaisers of the divine nature, 
having escaped the corrujition 
that is in the world through lust. 

5 And besides this, giving all 



GREEK TEXT. 



4 ^t' cjv ta [lEyiara ^dv xat ti^ua 
STtayyi'kiia'Ta hehid^Yitai, iva hia. tov- 
tidv ysvriaQs deiag xoivmm ^rcrecjg, 
a.7to(puy6preg rr,g iv xoa^iG) evimOv^a 
cpdopag. 

5 xal avto tovro hs, Gnovhrf Ttaa- 



KEVISED VERSION. 

4 Whereby "he hath given un- 
to us "the exceeding great and 
precious promises, that by these 
ye might "become partakers of 
the divine nature, having escaped 
Pfrom the corruption that is in the 
world through lust : 

15 ""But *for this ver}'' reason 



" The verb is not passive, but middle deponent, as in v. 3 ; 
and is so taken by Vulg., Syr.j-Castal., Bez., Pise, Engl. Ann., 
Cocc, Wolf., Wesl., Moldenh., Caypz., Thorn., All., Trol., Penn, 
Scholef., De W., Dav., Kenr., Hiith.;-Bretsch., AVm., Wahl, Rob., 
Schirl. 

" ' The promises well-known, and superior to all others (Cocc). 
even to tho.se held by the national Israel (Aret.).' Comp. Heb. 
7 : 19 ; 8:0; 11 : 40. — Foreign verss. generally ; Bez. {jlla) ;- 
Mack., Wakof. (_lhese), Sharpe, Dav. 

° Foreign verss. (except Fr. S., B. and L.) ;-Wesl., Mack., 
Wakef., Thorn., Bloomf., Sharpe, Barn., Murd., Kenr. (be made), 
Peile. 

p Scholef.: ' Not having escaped its entanglement, but having 
escaped from it after being entangled.' — It., Fr. G.,-M.;-Erasm., 
Vat., Cocc, (change corruptionem of the Vulg. into a corrup- 
tione), Bez. (e.v), Eugl. Ann., Wells, Thom., Greenf., Murd.. 
Peile. 

1 Here begins the apodosis of v. 3 (.see N. h). 

 'It is really curious to observe,' says Win. (§ 57. C), 'how 
the commentaries (until within a period of ten years) are con- 
stantly tutoring the apostles, and almost always foisting upon 
thern a different conjunction from what actually stands in the 
te.vt . . . This has introduced great arbitrariness into the N. T. 
exegesis ;' and, accordingly, this same abuse, which extends also 
to the prepositions, is one of the most frequent blemishes in E. V. 

The truth about Si is thus expressed by Kiihn.: ' Ac most 
generally has an adversative force, and hence can express every 
kind of contrast. In respect to its signification, it ranks, like 
the Lat. autem, between the copulative connectives (ri, xai) and 
the adversative (axxd, etc.), since it contains both a copulative 
and adversative force, and hence either opposes one thought 
to another (adversative;, or merely contrasts it (copulative). 
Hence it is very frequently used in Greek, where the English 
uses and. The new thought being different from the preceding 
is placed in contrast with it.' Similar to this is Win.'s own 
doctrine, and De W.'s. The former (§ 57. 4, 6) describes this 
particle as ' antithetically connective, adding something else dif- 
ferent from that which precedes . . . Nowhere is Si a mere co- 
pula or particle of transition.' The ordinary misconception of 
this word arises mainly from these two circumstances, that very 
often, as where the diversity, though never entirely absent, is 
less prominent than the mere addition, (see, for example, the 
subsequent clauses ; though even there the Latin verss. retain 



vera or aulem), we have no exact English equivalent for it, and 
that very often also the idea, to which Si introduces a limitation 
or contrast, is not expressed at all either in the sentence or the 
context. The present is a case of the latter sort.  God's grace 
having already done so much, abuse not that grace to your en- 
couragement in indolence and sin, but &c.' Nor is this case 
essentially changed by the previous occurrence of xai in the 
same clau.se. Rob., indeed, (s. Si, 2. d), translates xai . . . Si 
by and also, and refers to Buttm. § 149. m. 9. of the Gram. 
' Very often,' says Buttm., 'this junction' (xai and Si in one 
sentence) 'occurs where we say and also: for since in Greek 
one cannot say xai xai, in such cases the looser connective Si 
supplies the place of xai or our and. E. g. Cyr. 3. 3. 44 vvv 
Ttepi 4^;Kuiy tuv vfiitipoiv iafiv 6 dywv, xai Ttfpi yiiraixwi' Si 
xai tixvav. If now we should here translate xai . . . Si literally : 
but also for your wives and children, this would give an entirely 
false emphasis to the construction ; it means simply : the con- 
test is now for your own lives, and also (and in addition) for 
your wives and children.' For reasons already stated, and also 
may frequently be the best practicable translation, but let it be 
observed that the example docs not sustain the doctrine ; whvs 
and children being mentioned, not merely 'in addition,' as still 
other interests, though omitted in the quotation, are there men- 
tioned and introduced by the simple copula, but as carrying the 
tenderest appeal of all to the hearts of those addressed.* Rob.'s 
own references to the N. T. are equally unsatisfactory ; he cites 
not one passage that is not damaged by entirely sinking the 
proper power of the Si. And the same remark is true of Cyr. 
1. 4. 20 (25), to which he also appeals. Says Win. (§ 57. 4, b) : 
 xai ... 66 in one sentence, as often in the best authors, is but also 
(aber audi), el . . . vero, et . . . autem (connection with opposi- 
tion), and has no difficulty.' So Schirl.— Vulg. (autem), Syr. 
(=et . .. vero) ;-Erasm., Vat., (sed et), Castal., Bez., Aret., 
(vero), Cocc. (et . . . autem), Moldenh. (so... dock), De W. 
(so... aber auch), Kenr. (but), Huth. (aber auch). Many 
others have simply also or its equivalent. 

' • Divine grace having supplied the motive, and the spiritual 
ability.' Corap. John 15: 5; Phil. 2: 12, 13; 4: 13; 1 John 
4: 19 ; &c. — This force of aitis ■tovto as an adverbial accusative 

* Such, I perceive, was Hoog.'s understanding of the passage. 
After remarking that xai... Si may be rendered and moreover, 
and indeed, but that ' here too Si retains its adversative sense,' 
he cites the whole sentence, and adds : ' i. e. ov rttpi toiituy fto- 
vov, jj.a'Kic ■( a Si rtepi fwv ■yv>'a«w>' xai tixviM. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

diligence, add to your faith, vir- 
tue; and to virtue, knowledge; 



6 And to knowledge, temper- 
ance ; and to temperance, pa- 
tience ; and to patience, godli- 
ness ; 

7 And to godliness, brotherly 



GREEK TEXT. 

av Ttapsiasvsyxav^sg, eTti^opYiyrfyats 
tri dpstYi ir.v yv'uciv, 

6 ev he tri yvMei tr.v iyx^drsLav, 
iv Ss TYi iyxpaTsia rr^v vnouovr.v, ev 
& Txj V7tO[10l'Yl Tr,v £W£i3eiav, 

7 iv 8s trt EvaefBeicL rnv ^i?jxhE2r 



REVISED VERSION. 

■^also 'do ye, "contributing all 
diligence, ^furnish ^''in j^our faith 
^fortitude ; and ^in '■fortitude, 
knowledge ; 

^6 And in knowledge, ^ self- 
control; and in ^self-control, pa- 
tience ; and in patience, godli- 
ness ; 

^7 And in godliness, brotherly 



is noticed by Pass. (s. oiroj II. C), Kiihn. (J 278. R. 2) ; and 
is here applied (some, however, overlooking the strengthening 
ait6) by Fr. G.,-M.;-Engl. Ann., Hamm., Wells, Wolf., Barn., 
(as an allowable explanation), Owen, More, Whitb., Guyse. Py le. 
Moldenh., Carpz., Mey., Ros., Grcenf., Sharpe, Scholcf., Bloomf.. 
De W., IIuth.;-Vig. (p. 589), Win. Q 21. 2. 3), Trol., Gieenj 
Wahl, Rob., Schirl. 

I Beng. regards the rtapa of the participle aaffiacv. as= sub. 
indicating modesty. It is rather equivalent to on your side 
(De W., Huth.), and the easiest way of compensating this seems 
to be by expressing the subject of the finite verb, as in W., R.;- 
Vulg. (which is, therefore, thought by some to have followed 
the reading of A. aitoi &e, edited by Lachm.), Syr., Dt., It., Fr. 
G.,-M.;-Castal., Bez. (but as a supplement), Engl. Ann. (in one 
version). Wells, Mack., Gerl. B. and L. (de cotre cole), Thorn. 
{on your pari), Peile (do you also on your pari). 

» See N. t. — Dt. (loebrengende) --Bcz. (praeterea collalo), 
Aret. (•obiter afFerentes quasi de suo'), Grot, (conferle), Clarke 
(furnishing), Bloomf., Barn, (bringing in), Peile. The word 
occurs nowhere else in the N. T., and is rendered by Pas., Leigh, 
Suic., Wahl, confero; by Rob., to bring foi-ward along with, 
to exhibit therewith; by Schirl., darzubringen. 

' Everywhere else (4 times) E. V. translates this verb, accord- 
ing to its secondary sense, to minister. See also E. V.'s treat- 
ment of the cognate noun in Eph. 4: 16 ; Phil. 1 : 19. Here it 
follows Bez. (adjicile) and the Syr. The suggestion of Dodd., 
Clarke, Dietl.. and some others, about leading tip as in a 
dance, is more fanciful than sound.— W., T., C, R., (minister) ;- 
Vulg. {ministrate), Germ, (reichet dar) ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat.. 
Wolf, (sub ministrate), Aret., Cocc, (suppeditate) , Moldenh., 
Stolz, (use darslellen), Wakef, Bloomf. ('furnish forth, sup- 
ply, in order'), De W. ('eig. reichet dar, steuert bei gleichsam 
alsBeitragzumHeilswcrke'),Kenr. (asR.). Huth. (as Germ.);- 
Pas., SchOttg., (suppedito, subministro), Suic. (suppedito, exhi- 
beo), Schlcus. (praesto, ostendo, cvhibeo, una ostendo, sinml 
declaro), Bretsch. (subministro, praesto), Wahl (d^;claro), Pass. 
(gewiihren, geslatten, zukommen lassen), L. and S. (to furnish 
or supply besides), Rob. (to furnish besides, to supply further, 
to minister), Schirl. (;noch dazu gewiihren). See v. 11, N. p. 

" See V. 1, N. d. 'Abide in that to which you have attained, 
and, in the spirit and power of that, go on unto perfection. 

Each Christian grace lies contiguous to every other' (and 

hence great stress is not to be put on the order of enumeration)— 



'though of the whole domain faith is the centre and citadel.' It 
accords with this, in part, that some (More, Wolf., Moldenh., 
Pott) make iv = 6id. Or : ' Let one grace be in the other, 
mingled with it, and exhibited along with it ;' which includes 
the explanations that make i r = jvr (as G.;-Dt. 6y.;-Pagn., 
Carpz., Wakef. furnish your belief with, 'Mey. and All. verbin- 
del mil, Ros. una cum, Wahl), as well as that which might re- 
gard the construction as parallel to Rom. 5 : 5, and other similar 
instances, where tt with the dat. comprehends tij with the accus. 
Any one of these methods is preferable to saying with Grot. : 
' irti;top'?7"'' hoc loco adjicere, et iv abundat.' — W., T., C, R.;- 
Vulg. (in with the abl.). Germ.. Dt. ?ftar^.;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., 
Castal.. Cocc, (as Vulg.), De W., Huth., (in, bei), Kenr. 

» This restricted sense of apirr;, fortitude, firmness, courage, 
which is even more akin to the original force of the word, is here 
preferred, 1., as more readily admitting and inviting the subse- 
quent specification ;-2., as more accordant with Peter's use of 
the term elsewhere (see v. 3, N. 1) ;-and, 3., as having a more 
general concurrence of testimony in its favour; e. g. Zeg., Grot., 
Hamm., More, Whitb., Bens., Beng. (slrenuus animae tonus ac 
vigor), Guyse, Dodd.. Wesl., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Clarke, 
Scott, Greenf., Trol., Dr. John Brown, De W. (gives die Tu- 
gend, adding as explanatory, along with Beng.'s note, 'sitt- 
liche Tilchligkeit, Charakter, insbesondere Seelenstdrke ;'-and 
so Huth.). Kist. (kraft), Stolz (Slandhaftigkeit), Dr. Tayler 
Lewis (regards it as equivalent to avb^iia, as applied by Plato 
to the Deity in the sense of energy of will). Barn., Wright 
(Translator of Seiler''s Bibl. Herni.). Many others, as Gill, 
Ros., allow this interpretation. — It is observable that no other 
N. T. writer employs this very common Greek noun, except 
Paul, and that but once, Phil. 4 : 9. 

y For a7id, throughout vv. 6, 7, see v. 5, N. r.— For in, 
throughout the same verses, see v. 5, N. w. 

• Rob. and Green define iyxparna as ' continence, temperance, 
self-control.^ But in modern English continence is commonly 
used with special reference to the virtue of chastity, and tem- 
perance, in like manner, of moderation in eating and drinking ; 
if, indeed, the later and much narrower application of the latter 
term to abstinence from intoxicating drinks has not come to be 
still more current and popular. 'Kyxfdtiia,, on the other hand, 
retains throughout the X. T. (Acts 24: 25; Gal. 5: 23), as in 
the Sept. (Sir. 18: 30, &c.) and classical Greek, its general ety- 
mological force. See Schleus. Wahl, Pass., L. and S., Schirl. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

kindness ; and to brotherly kind- 
ness, charity. 

8 For if these things be in 
you, anil abound, they make you 
that ye shall neither be barren nor 
unt'ruilful in the knowledge ol'our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 



GREEK TEXT. 

8 ravra yap v[.dv vndp^ovta ;cai 
TtXeoj'd^oj'Trx, ovx dpyovg oi6e uxdp- 
Ttoi's xadlaTYidLV eig t%v tov Kupibi) 
ri^wv 'hiaoi XptcTT'oi) emyvcdGLV 



REVISED VERSION. 

kindness ; and in brotherly kind- 
ness, "love. 

8 For '' these things ''being 
•^yours, and ''increasing, ''render 
you "^not Sidle nor unfruitful ''as 
to the knowledge of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 



{Seibstbeherrschung, Mdssigung).—Occ. (teaches the necessity 
of this grace to the Christian, u; av ftrj e^vfifilCoi tiji niyidii irji 
6u|jfa;.), AVakef. (self-command). Mack, (government of ynur 
passions), Van Ess (Selbstbeherrschung), Kenr. (■ self-control 
in regard to sensual enjoyments'), Huth. (' Beherrschung der 
eignen Begierden'). The foreign verSs. generally are not liable 
to the objection here taken to E. V. 

' T., C, G.;-Syr., Germ, (gemeine Liebe), Dt. (liefde [jegena 
alleii']), Fr. S.;-Erasm., Vat., Grot., Ros., (dilectiunem ;-for the 
Vulg. charitatem), Beng. (amor), Dodd., Wesl., Moldenh. (as 
Germ.), Wakef. ([unii-ersal'] love). Mack, (love to all men)^ 
Newc, Thom. (universal love), Clarke, Greenf., All. ([Men- 
schen-] Liebe), Stolz, Van Ess, Kist., Goss.. De W., (Menschen- 
liebe), Penn, Gorl. (allgemeine Liebe), Sharpe, JIurd.;-Kob. 
I recommend that dy. be everywhere so rendered. 

^ The writer enforces the exhortation by an appeal to the 
common experience of Christians. He does not suppose a case, 
but, with his eye on the case before him, the profession and 
standing of those addressed (vv. 1, 10), what properly belongs 
to that (vv. 3, 4, 9), and their actual attainments (vv. 12, 19), 
he announces the present working of a general law of the divine 
life ;-and hence, perhaps, the omission of v/taj in connection with 
dpyovj.  The effect, indeed, depends on its cause ; but the neces- 
sary conditions are assumed as realized in these believers. Nor 
is this view contradicted by the hortative style of the previous 
context. Apostolic zeal and intercessions, no less than apostolic 
joy and thank.sgivings, are ever quickened by the fidelity of the 
churches. Comp. Rom. 1: 8-11; Eph. 1 : 15-18; Col. 1 : 3-10; 
1 and 2 Thess. throughout ; &c. — Erasm., Pagn., Vat., (change 
the Vulg. si adsint into cmn adsint), Wesl., Mack., Thom., (re- 
tain the participial construction). Diet!., Huth., (indent -j-kr 
Luth.'s wo). 

' For the dat. of the possessor after t'rtap;^". see Acts 3:6; 
4: 37 ; 28 : 7.— Dav. (belong to) ;-Bretsch., Wahl, Rob., Schirl. 

•^ 'The natural development of the vTtdpxoyta.'' Beng.: 'Veri- 
tatem celeriter sequitur abundantia.' Comp. Job 17:9; Prov. 
4 : 18 ; Matt. 13 : 33 ; John 15:2; Eph. 4 : 12-16 ; PhiL 3 : 
12-14; Heb. 6:1; &c. What is meant is, not the believer's 
present abundance, or his superiority to others (Wahl : 'nobis 
. . . magis insunt, qnam in aliis.'), but his own continual growth 
in grace. In 1 Thess. 3 : 12 E. V. renders this verb, taken 
ti'ansitivel}', make to increase. — Fr. S. (se nudtiplient) ;-Grot., 
Ros., ('non aderunt tantum. sed ct accrescent in dies.'), Cocc. 
('sive copiosiora fianV), Gill ('increase in their acts and exer- 



cises, &c.'), Moldenh. (immer- zunimmt), Clarke ('increase and 
abound'), Bloomf. (continually increasing), Stolz (sicli ver- 
mehret), Kist. (sich me/iref ;-which De W. also allows), Peile 
(on the increase), Huth. (' crescere, zunehiiien ; cf. Rom. 5 : 20 ; 
6: 1' — in both of which places Alf. has multiply). This sense 
of the word is recognized by all the lexicons, and here applied by 
Schleus., Rob. (' to abound more, to he abundant, to increase'). 

"^ It. (renderanno) ;-Penn, jMurd., Dav., Kenr. (will render) ; 
-SchOttg., Schleus., Wahl, (here u.se reddo), Rob. (to cause to be, 
to render, to make). 

' W., R.;-foreign verss. (except All.) ;-Murd., Kenr. 

^ E. v., 6 times out of 8 ;-T., C, G.;-Syr. (as in Matt. 20 : 6), 
Germ, (faul), Dt. (ledig). It. (oziosi), French verss. (use 
oisif) ;-Erasm. and sub.>equent Latin verss. (otiosos ;-except 
Bez., inertes), Engl. Ann., Hamm. (slothful -j-smi so Wells, 
Guyse, Wesl., Mack., Scott, Murd.), Dodd. (inaciire), Jloldenh., 
De W., (milssig), Tliom., Mey. (chne Thatigkcit), Greenf. 
(C'^i'v)) ^'^" Ess, Goss.. (untliatig), Sharpe, Barn.;-the lexi- 



^ ' As regards your onward progress into &o.' As the Chris- 
tian life has its beginning, element, and support, in the know- 
ledge of God and of Christ (vv. 2, 3 ; John 17:3; &c.), so there 
it looks to find its consummation (1 Cor. 13: 12; Phil. 3: 10; 
1 John 3:3; &o.). Between this knowledge, moreover, and 
the sanctification of the Church, there exists a reciprocating 
action. Comp. ch. 3: 18; Ps. 25: 9, 14; Prov. 3: 32; Hos. 
6:3; Matt. 5:8; 6 : 22 ; John 14 : 21, 23 ; Phil. 3:15; &c. 
To make ti;^ h (Grot., Ros., &c.) involves a tautology, which 
is not concealed by the introduction (E. V., Vulg., and many 
others) of the future tense. Nor ought it to be avoided by 
translating xaSiatrjai,. erscheinen lassen, darstellen (Dietl.), will 
show you to be (Bloomf.; who appeals m vain to Thucyd. ii. 42 
and Soph. Ant. 657). — Dt. Ann. ('of, tot de kennis, d. is, tot 
meerder en overvloediger kennis : gelyk ond. 3 : 18.'), Fr. S. 
(pour) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Castal., (ad cognitionem ;-for 
Vulg. in cognUione), Aret. ('turn demum rccte cognoscitur 
Christus. si studio virtiitum recte infiammati fuerimus : ut ilia 
sit argumenti vis hoc loco: Tum demum utiliter cognoscetis 
Christum: Ergo, &o.'), Hamm., Wakef., (unto), Cocc. (in cog- 
nitionem), Thom., Dav., (for), Mey. (hinsichtlich), Sharpe (to- 
wards), Bloorat (quod, attinet ad), De W. (/ur;-and adds: 
• The writer regards all these virtues but as steps to the know- 
ledgeof Christ.'). Huth. (in Beziehung auf;-anti explains as De 
W.) ;-Wahl (ratione habita), Schirl. (m Riicksicht auf). 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

9 But he that lacketb these 
things is bhnd, and cannot see 
afar off, and hath forgotten that 
he was purged from his old sins. 

10 Wherefore the rather, 
brethren, give diligence to make 
j'our calling and election sure : 
lor if ye do these things, ye shall 
never fall : 

11 For so an entrance shall 
be ministered unto you abun- 
dantly into the everlasting king- 
dom of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 

12 Wherefore I will not be 
negligent to put you always in 
remembrance of these things. 



GREEK TEXT. 



9 a yap f.in Ttapean tavta, tv^- 

Toi) xadapLG^ov tuv tuOml avtov 
a^iapncjv. 

10 A(o ^aXkov, aheT^^l, dTtovhd- 
aats (3el3aiav v^ov t'hv ■x.'kr.oiv xai 
lx7.oyry TtoisLadar rai'Ta yap Ttoiovv- 
-Te$ oil ^y; Ttraiayite Ttots. 

11 ovru yap 7t2x)vai(^g iTtixopyjyyi- 
dr0erai v^dv fi elao^g eig tr,v aiuvtov 
l3aai?^iav rov livpiov r^uv xai OidXr,- 
poc, 'Iridov Xpiaroi;. 

12 Ato ovx af^ieXrsyi^viidc, del VTto- 
jM^v/,ax£iv Ttepi TovTiov, xouTtep eib- 



9 

things 



sighted 



REVISED VERSION. 

'For he that lacketb these 
is blind, •> being near- 



forgotten 'the 



■'havin^ 
cleansing away of his old sins 

10 Wherefore the rather, 
brethren, ™be diligent to make 
your calling and election sure ; 
for, "doing these things, ye shall 
never fall : 

11 For so there shall be "richly 
P furnished unto you ithe en- 
trance into the everlasting king- 
dom of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 

12 Whereibre I will not be 
negligent to '^remind you always 
of these things, though ye know 



' A negative illustration and proof of the truth asserted in 
V. 8, (which, accordingly, no recent edition of the Greek text 
allows to end in a full pause), that increase of holiness increases 
also the range and clearness of spiritual vision. Nor in any 
case is yap = &i. — E. V. nowhere else translates yap, but, except 
in 1 Pet. 4: 15; and once, Rom. 5: 7, yet;-Q., R.;-Latin verss. 
(except Castal. and Carpz.), Syr., Dt., Fr. S.;-Beng., Thom., 
Ros., Bloomf., Sharpe, De W., Jlurd., Kenr.;-Win. — The condi- 
tional firi suggests that the case of the barren professor is put 
only hypothetically, q. d. Jie that should lack, &c. 

1 ' Able to look only, and that but with bleared eyes, at the 
things which are seen (2 Cor. 4: 18). To the things which are 
not seen, but are far above out of his sight (Ps. 10 : 5), to wit, 
the glory of Christ, the grand object of the saving knowledge 
just spoken of, he is, therefore, blind (Is. 53 : 2 ; 2 Cor. 4 : 4, 6).' 
This word occurs nowhere else in the N. T., and is translated 
by many (Steph., Bochart, Suic, Wolf, Bens., Moldenh., Mack., 
Newc, Thom., Clarke, Penn, Trol., Dietl., Peile) according to 
what they regard as its etymological force (fi-vu, Ci-^), shutting 
the eyes, the blindness being voluntary. But as /j.vu-^, from which 
the verb immediately comes, is not one who thus wilfully closes 
his eyes, but one who, in order to see an object, is compelled by 
a defect in the organ to wink, or contract the eyelids, (Iluth.;- 
and hence its current use, according to Pass., for shm't-sighted. 
The It. here has ammicando con gli occhL). so the /^vuxd^ovtef 
are described by Aristotle, Probl. sect. 31, thus: oi ix yfvttrii 
■fa fiiv tyyvj ^'Kijiovti^, -fa Sf £§ drtocfT'afffcjj ovx opwvT'Ej* ^yai^T'ta 
hs rtdox^*^^''^ ^ yepCivtes toc$ ^vi^rta^ovdiv' ta yap iyyiig firi oputvt^i 
fo rtop/jwafK /3>.trtoti»ir. And so. is the word here understood 
by G. (as E. I".);-Dt., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Pagn. (qui emiiuis nihil 
cernat), Bez. {nihil prncul cernens), Aret., Est., Grot., Ilamm., 
Cocc. (parum prospiciens'), Wells. Guyse, Dodd. and Sharpe 
(short-sighted). Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl. in the note (^purblind), 
Scott, Mej'. {kurzsichtig ;-and so Ros., Stolz, Van Ess, De W.), 
Stier (blodsichtig), Barn., Huth.;-Pas., Pass., L. and S., Rob., 
Schirl. T., C.;-Vulg. audits followers, Germ.;-Erasm., Calv., 



Vat., B. and L., translate according to the gloss ■^t.o^uv, grop- 
ing. Hesych. o^ea^jivtiv. 

^ The participial construction is retained by R.;-Latin and 
French verss., Dt., It.;-Wesl., Wakef., Thom., Scott, Penn, 
Sharpe, Kenr. 

1 Comp. Sept. Job 7: 21; Acts 22: 16; Heb. 1 : 3 (Greek 
and E. V.). In E. V. the noun is twice, cleansing ; the verb 
very often, cleanse. — The substantive construction is retained 
by W., R.;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.. S.;-Calv., 
Castal., Aret., Hamm. {the purification q/";-and so Gill, Wakef, 
Mack., Thom., Penn), Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Scott, Dav., ( purifi- 
cation from), Moldenh., Huth., (der Heinigung von), Greenf., 
All., De W., Murd. {the purgation of ), Kenr., Peile (the cleans- 
ing of) ;-Win. 

"■ E.V., ch. 3:14; Tit. 3: 12;-W. (be yebusy);-lUmm., 
Murd., (be ye . . diligent), West, Kenr., (be . . dil.). 

" The participial construction is retained by W.,R.;-Vulg., Syr., 
Dt., It, French verss.;-Castal., Cocc, Wakef. and Murd. (by 
doing), Mack., Kenr. ' 

" E. v., Cok 3: 16; 1 Tim. 6: 17 ;-Germ., Dt., Fr. S.;-Cocc 
(locupletem. in modtini), Gnj'se, Moldenh., !Mack., Newc, Penn, 
Do W., Barn., Dav., Peile (in rich abundance), Uuth. (in 
reicher Fiille). 

P The same word as in v. 5 (see N. v.). God deals with his 
children on the principle of Luke 6 : 38. — Wakef (ye shall be 
furnished with), Dav. (afforded), Peile (shall you ... be f. 
with). 

1 The article points to that great object of Christian hope ; 
ilniXBt tii trjn ^tapcij' tov xvplov ffou (Matt. 25: 21). — W.;— Ger- 
man and French verss. (except AH.), Dt., It.;-Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

 Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Penn, Sharpe, Murd., Dav. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

though ye know them, and be es- 
tablished in the present truth. 

13 Yea, I think it meet, as 
long as I am in this tabernacle, 
to stir you up by putting you in 
remembrance ; 

14 Knowing that shortly I 
must put off this my tabernacle, 
even as our Lord Jesus Christ 
hath shewed me. 

15 Moreover, I will endeavour 
that ye may be able, after my de- 
cease, to have these things al- 
ways in remembrance. 



GREEK TEXT. 

otag, xcxi edtyipiy^svovg iv Trj Ttap- 
orCyj dXyideici.. 

13 hixaiov hk Tiyov^ai £<|)' ocrov 
dill iv Toi'Tcj TO) axYivGiixan, hieyeipetv 
ii^d^ sv vnoiivrfSEC 

14 sihiog otl ta-)^ivr, idtiv n cxTlo- 
Beaig tov axyjiu^iarog /.lov, xadcog xai 
6 Kvpiog r^uijv 'I/ycroiJg Xptcrfog f.8riM->- 

G£ ^lOL. 

15 CTTtow^dffco 5s xdi exdatoTE £X£iV 
vfidg juera rnv i^ir.v e^obov, fhv Tov- 
■Tuj' iLvnpiv TtoieiaBai. 



REVISED VERSION. 

them, and 'are established in the 
present truth : ' 

13 'But I think it "right, ^so 
long as I am in this tabernacle, 
to stir you up ""by way of re- 
membrance ; 

14 Knowing that 'the laying 
aside of my tabernacle is ^speedy, 
as ^also our Lord Jesus Christ 
"shewed me: 

15 ''But I will endeavour that 
ye may "^even ''at all times be 
able, after my 'departure, to ^call 
these things to mind. 



' Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Penn, Murd., Kenr. 

' ' On the contrary' — in opposition to anArjau. See v. 5, N. r. 
The adversative power is preserved in R.;-Vulg., Syr.j-Erasm., 
Calv., Vat., Castal.. Bez., Hamm., Dodd., Moldeuh., Carpz., Ros., 
Gerl., De W., Kenr. 

" ' A matter of fraternal and official obligation.' Comp. Rom. 
1 : 14. — E. V. elsewhere, except Phil. 1 : 7, (right, righteous. 
jiist) i-W. {justly) ;-Vulg. (justum), Syr. (= Murd. right). 
Germ. (biUig), Dt. (regt), It. (ragionevole), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., 
(juste) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Bez., Aret., Coco., {as Vulg.), 
Castal., Carpz., {aequum),'En^. Ann., Gill, {^ Ov.jusf), B. and 
L. {de mon devoir), Guyse ('a piece of justice'), Dodd., Wesl., 
Moldenh. (as Germ.), Wakef., Newc, Thorn., Scott, Mey. {fUr 
Schuldigkeit), Ros. {rectum), Greenf. (p~l!i), All., Van Ess. 

Kist., De "W., Diet!., (use Pflicht), Penn, Sharpe. 

' Wesl., Scott, Penn. Murd. 

» E. v., ch. 3 : 1 ;-Dodd. 

» This literal rendering, 1., avoids unnecessary periphrasis ;- 
2., gets rid of the mixture of metaphors assumed by De W. and 
others ;-3., is more consonant with the waiter's anticipations of 
martyrdom. — In the other case where ajtoO. occurs (I Pet. 3:21) 
it is rendered in E. V. ' the putting away ;' and so W. here ; 
G. {the time that I must lay down), R. {the laying away) ;- 
Vulg. {depositio), Dt. {de afflegging) ;-Cocc. {as Vulg.), Berl. 
Bib., Beng., De W., {die Ablegung), Wakef., Thom., {mitst lay 
aside), Mack, {tlie putting away) ;-the lexicons, (Leigh, Rob., 
Green, as above). 

y 'In its approach, and therefore soon to be expected,' or, 'in 
its execution ; sudden.' The word occurs again in ch. 2 : 1 (no- 
where else in N. T.), and there in E. V. it is swift. — "W. {swift) ;- 
Vulg. {velo.v), Dt. marg. {haastig) ;-Cocc. {as Vulg.), Berl. 
Bib. {geschwind), Beng., Huth., {repentina), Scott, Murd., 
Kenr.;-Pas. {celer, perni.v), Leigh (quick), Suic, SchOttg., (celer, 
relo.r;-to which Schleus. adds cilus, repentinus, but translating 
it here, hrevi). Hrei^ch. (repentinus, stdjitus), Wahl (celer, repen- 
tinus), L. and S. (quick, swift, fast, fleet, speedy), Rob. (swift, 
speedy, adding for explanation: 'i. e. near at hand, impend- 
ing.'). See ch. 2 : 1. N. j. 



' The emphatic xai bears always on what follows, and is not 
superfluous here, even according to the first-mentioned, and most 
commonly assumed, interpretation of raxi^fr; (seeN.y). Peter 
might know, as an old man, that his death was near, and then he 
knew also from his Lord's prophecy, John 21 : 18 ' when thou 
shalt be old &c.,' that he was not to live out all his days. — E. V., 
Luke 6: 36; II: I; itc.j-Vulg., Syr., Germ, verss. (Moldenh. 
giving it the force of avtof. selbsl), Dt., It., Fr. G. and-M. (lui 
meine), Fr. S.;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Cocc. Murd., Kenr. — 
See v. 15, N. c. 

"■ See V. 3, N. j. Here the aorist seems to refer historically to 
that occasion, John 21. — The hath is omitted by C, R.;-Wesl., 
Wakef., Newc. 

'' 'And not only so, but &c.' Or: 'Notwithstanding what I 
know respecting my speedy death, and for that reason.' See 
V. 13, N. t, &c. 

' See V. 14, N. z. C, R., (also) ;-Latin verss., except Castal. 
and Cocc, (etj-Calv. eiiam), Syr., Dt. (ook), It. (ancora). Fr. 
G.,-M.,-S., (aussi) ;-Oec., B. and L. (si bien . . . mime), Wakef., 
Penn, (as C), Mey., All., De W., (auch), Greenf., Murd. (too). 
But most of these err in attaching the xai to BTtm&dau. 

•^ 'In every emergency'-the only N. T. instance in which 
ixdaroit occurs. — T. (on every side) ;-Syr. (= constanler), 
Germ, (allenthalben) , Dt. (hij alle gelegenheid), Fr. G..-JI., 
(co)ilinuetleinenl) ;-Bez. (subinde), Cocc. (singidis temporibtis), 
Berl. Bib., Huth., (jederzeit), Beng. {'quovis tempore; quotics- 
cunque usus venerit.'), Wakef. {o7i every occasioyi) , Penn, Gerl. 
(' allezeit; WortUch,jedesmaP), De W. (allezeil). The adverb 
belongs to txC'V, not to TloihaQai,. 

' 'Out of this tabernacle;' w. 13, 14. The word occurs 
once again in this same relation, Luke 9 : 31 ; and once of the 
.Jewish exodus, Heb. II : 22, where E. V. has departing. — T. 
C, G., (departing) i-Sjr. (= Murd. departure), Germ. (Ab- 
schied), Dt. (uitgang). It. (jiartita), French verss. (depart);- 
Erasm., Pagn., Vat.. Bez., Wolf., (e.Titum), Calv., Castal., Carpz., 
(discessiim), Engl. Ann., Clarke, (going out), Cocc. (excessum), 
Guyse, Dodd., Gill ('or. Exodus''), Moldenh. (as Germ.), 
Wakef., Thom., Mey. ( Weggang), Penn, Murd., Kenr. 

' Somewhat nearer the middle force of the original, and, like 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

16 For we have not followed 
cunningly devised failles, when 
we made known unto you the 
power and coming of our Lord 
Jfesus Christ, but were eye-wit- 
nesses of his majesty. 

17 For he received from God 
the Father honour and glory, 
when there came such a voice to 
him from the excellent glory, 
This is my beloved Son, in whom 
I am well pleased. 

18 And this voice which came 
from heaven we heard, when we 
were with him in the holy mount. 

19 We have also a more sure 



GREEK TEXT. 

16 0^ yap aeao^LGf.dvoLC, ^vdotg 
£^axo/{.ov6ri(yai'Teg syvcopiaai^iev vixlv 
■rnv tot) Kvplov 'h^v 'lyjaov 'Kpiotov 
8vva^iv xdi napovaiav, aXX htwttai 
yevy;devT£g tr^q sxeivov ^eyaT^ei&tYi- 

17 ?ja[3cov yap Ttapa Qeov Ttarpog 
Ti^r,v xai bo^ai', <pcdvr,g evs^dsiayig 
av-ro) rotdaSe irjto Tr,g ^isyaXonpeTtovg 
^o^yjg, OvTog eativ 6 vlog (jov o dya- 
TtYirog, Eig bv iya evhoxTiaa. 

IS Kat ravtriv tr(v ^dvxv niidg 
rycovOaiiEV a^ oifavov svs^Osiaav, am 
avta bvteg ev ta bpei toj hyM. 

19 Kai, ixo^iev (3£(3ai6ti;pov rbv 



REVISED VERSION. 



16 



cunningly devised 



For we ^haj not ibllowed 
fables, when 
we made known unto you the 
power and coming of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, but ^had been 
eye-witnesses of his majesty. 

17 ''For he received from God 
the Father honour and glory, a 
voice 'being borne to him J'such 
as this from the excellent glory: 
This is my beloved Son, in whom 
I am well pleased ;'' 

18 And this voice ''we, 'being 
with him "on the holy mount, 
heard "borne from heaven. 

19 "And we have ^more sure 



that, a variation of the phrase in w. 12, 13.— It. (rammemorarvi), 
Fr. G.,-M., (^vous remetire . . dans votre souve?ur). Fr. S. (vous 
rappeler) ;-Whitb. (make a remembrance), Moldenh., Van 
Ess, AH., Goss., Huth., {euch erinnern), Wakef. (recollect for 
yourselves), Thom. (recollect), De W. (euch in Erinnerwig ru- 
fen) ;-Rob. (call to mind, hear in recollection). 

^ E. V. does not shosv as clearly as the Greek does, that the 
writer is speaking of the precedent grounds of the apostolic test- 
imony, while Scholef.'s version adopted in our first edition : 
' For it was not from having followed cunningly devised fables 
that we &c., but from having been eye-w. &c.,' exhibits the scene 
on the mount as the sole ground. For the familiar use of the 
aorist for the pluperfect, see Buttm. § 137. 3, 6;. "Win. § 41. 5. — 
The pluperfect is introduced in the last clause by Wakef. and 
Murd. 

>" The participial construction of this verse imports that it is 
logically subordinate to v. 18, where we find the corroboration 
(yap) of the irtoTtrat yivtjOivtii. 

' Nowhere but in this chapter is ^a'po^ai. rendered in E. V., 
come -j-Dt. (gebragt werd), It. (essendo recata) ;-Erasm. and 
the later Latin verss. (delald :-except Calv. and Cocc, allatd), 
Mack, (being brought), Peile (was borne). Others (Vulg., Fr. 
S., &c.) retain the participial form. See v. 18, N. n. 

i Not tantus, but talis, as in taliafatur ( Virg., Aen. i. 131.). — 
R, (this manner o/") ;-Latin verss. (hujusmodi ;-cxce\it Cocc, 
tali), Syr. (= Greenf riT3);-B. and L. (cette), Moldenh., 

Mey., All., DeW., (diese), Wakef., Kenr., (this), Mack, (of this 
kind), Penn (unnecessarily marks as <7»'s as supplied), Murd. 

(thus), Peile ('in these words'). For o — 6, see 1 John 2: 7, 

N. 0. 

I* ' We, who made known unto you &c. (v. 16) ; and, in par- 
ticular, 1 Peter.' See 1 John 2: 20, N. p, &c. In this case the 
proposed arrangement of the verse seems to be the easiest way 
of indicating the emphasis. — Latin verss. (express the prono- 
minal subject) ;-B. and L. (nous. . . nous-memes), Beng. ('Jo- 



hannes etiam adhuc vivebat.'), Wesl. (as above). Thorn, (u'e 
ourselves). 

' T., G.,-It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Hamm., "Wesl., Mack. 

" A case of iv before heights and surfaces. — E. V., Luke 
8: 32; &c.;-German and French verss., Dt.;-Mack., Newc, 

Thom., Clarke, Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile ;-Win. For i — o, 

see 1 John 2 : 7, N. o. 

° See V. 17, N. i. W., R., (brought) i-Yulg. (allatam), 
Germ, (gebracht), Dt. (als zij gebragt is geweesi). It. (recata) ;- 
Erasm. and later verss. (rfe?aiam ;-except Cocc, latam), Mack. 
(as W.), Peile. 

" 'Having seen that glory, and heard the voice.' — W., R.;- 
Latin verss. (except Castal.). Syr. (= Murd. and . . . moreover), 
Dt., Fr. S.;-Hamm., Dodd., Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef, Mack., 
All., Penn, Gerl., Sharpe and Peile (and so), De W. 

p ' Than ever ;-the transfiguration of the Lord having been to 
us, according to His own declared design, an ocular confirmation 
of the promises respecting His second coming in power.' See 
the connection in which all the three narratives of the trans- 
figuration stand : Matt. 16 : 28 + 17 : 1 ; &c.; Mark 9 : 1 -)- 2, &c.; 
Luke 9 : 27 -f- 28, &c. Huth. objects, 1., the want of a vlv or ix 
I'oij-i'oD ;-2., that this thought is not dwelt upon in what fol- 
lows ;-(De W. had already .suggested both these scruples; but 
he properly regards them as insufficient to set aside the inter- 
pretation) ;- 3., that 'if the transfiguration-testimony stood 
higher with the writer than that of prophecy, his readers must 
have been invited rather to lay the former to heart.' The answer 
to this is : 1., The question being, not so much whether the Mes- 
siah of prophecy was to be a mighty Prince, as (v. 16) whether 
Jlessiah's crown would yet be seen on the head of Jesus of Na- 
zareth, the writer appeals to the transfiguration, in which the 
audible voice of God proclaimed the Divine Sonship of the man 
of sorrows, and to which the Lord had himself referred as a 
type of the coming kingdom ;-but, 2., that appeal is not made 
as to something intrinsically surer than the prophetic scriptures, 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

word of prophecy ; whereunto 
ye do well that ye take heed, as 
unto a light that shineth in a 
dark place, until the day dawn, 
and the day-star arise in your 
hearts: 

20 Knowing this first, that no 
prophecy of the scripture is of 
any private interpretation. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Tipoas^ovteg, wg /li'^J'cj <paivovtt ev 
av^[.ir;p:o tonu) ajg oii 'qdpa 6iavyd- 
GYi, xac <pija(puQog dvarsi/iYi, ep talg 
xap^iaig v[.tuv 

20 Troi>ro TtpQtov yivaaxovtsg, oTt 
TCdOa 7tpo(pyit8la ypa<pr,g, iSlag inCkv- 
dscog ov yiverai. 



REVISED VERSION. 

'the "^prophetic word, whereunto 
j'e do well that ye take heed, as 
unto a 'lamp 'shining in a dark 
place, until "day dawn, and the 
daystar arise," in your hearts; 

20 Knowing diis first tliat ^"no 
prophecy of ''Scripture ^'cometli 
from one's own interpretation : 



but as to a historical elucidation to the eye and ear of their true 
refeicnce and import, as well as an additional seal ;-3., the read- 
ers, therefore, who had not been with the writer on the holy 
mount, but who had the lamp of prophecy in their hand, are 
very naturally commended for giving heed thereunto, burning, 
as it now did, with a brighter flame. Btjlawtepof is taken as a 
predicate by (probably R.;-It., Fr. G. -S.) ;-Oeo., Grot., Beng., 
^¥es\., Wakef., Mack., Nesvc, Thorn., Midd., Clarke, Knapp, Ros., 
Penn, Sharpe, Trol., Stolz, Dr. John Brown, De ^Y., Dav., Dietl., 
Peile. Others (Erasm., Zeg., &c.) allow this construction. — All., 
Blooraf., etc., understand the clause thus : ' We have a surer, viz. 
the prophetic, word.' But how surer, than the visible glory of 
the transfiguration and the immediate voice of God, or than the 
apostolic word regarding these facts 1 ' To the Jews,' answer 
Whitb. and others. But to the unbelieving Jews there is no 
reference whatever in the passage. ' The appearance and voice 
on the mount were transient, and only three persons witnessed 
the interesting scene' (Scott, &c.). But the record remained, 
nor was there, between the writer and his readers, any dispute 
or doubt as to its perfect accuracy ; not to mention that against 
a very large portion ef the Scriptures, prophetic and historical, 
the same, or a similar, objection might be urged. The more 
plausible answer of Sherlock, Guyse, Gill, Bloomf., Huth., that 
the transfiguration was in itself only a historical occurrence, or, 
at the most, but a type, and not an express prophecy, of the 
future coming in power and glory, has been already met in the 
remarks on Huth.'s third objection, above. — The other explana- 
tions of /3f/3., as used for a positive (Syr., Germ.j-Yat., Zeg., 
Carpz., &c.) or for a superlative (Ar., Dt., Fr. M.;-Pagn., Bez., 
&c.), are mere evasions of a diiBculty. 

9 'Prophecy as a whole' — unioersmn testimonium (Beng.) — 
' all whose rays, from whatever point they come, and whatever 
else they touch in passing, converge upon the throne of our 
Lord's glory.' See Luke 24:20,27; Acts 3 : 19-21; 1 Pet. 
1: 10, 11. ('Far off His coming shone.' Jlilton, P. L. vi. 
709).— R.;-Dt., It.. French verss.;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl, Mol- 
denh., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Clarke, Mey., Ail., Stolz, 
Penn, Sharpe, Trol., De W., Barn., Kenr., Peile, Huth. 

 The word rtpo^jjt'txd;. which occurs only here and Rom. 
16 : 26, is here rendered by an adjective in R.;-Latin and Ger- 
man verss. (except Mey.), Dt., It., Fr. S.;-Hamm., Dodd., Mack., 
Thom., Clarke, Penn, Barn., Kenr. 

• See Ps. 119: 105, where for the Hob. ^3 (Greonf.'s word 



here) the Sept. has %vxvoi; E. V., lamp ;-also 2 Sam. 21 : 17 in 
the Heb., Sept., and E. V. marg. — W. {lantern), R. (candle) ;- 
Latin verss. (Zwceniae ;-except Carpz., lijclinum), Syr. (as in 
Ps. 119: 105), Dt. marg. {lantaeru, kacrsse). It. (lampana), 
Fr. G.,-M., (chandelle), Fr. S. (lampe) ;-B. and L. {flambeau), 
Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Mey. 
{Leuchte; and so Stolz, DeW.;-for Luth.'s Licht), Penn, 
Sharpe, Trol., Barn. {' candle, lamp, or torch'), Kenr., Peile. See 
Pass., and the lexicons generally ;-a!so Rev. 1 : 12, N. c. 

' The participial form is retained by W., R.;-Latin verss., 
Syr., Dt., It. Fr. S.;-Dodd., Wakef, Mack., Newc, Thom., Scott, 
Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

" 'Many Edd. have ij jj/it'pa: the Editors did not consider 
that the day spoken of was not yet in existence, in which case 
the article is more properly omitted, iua^opos is used as a 
proper name.' Midd. 

■' This punctuation leaves it doubtful, as the text does, 
whether ' in your hearts' is to be construed with the words im- 
mediately preceding, or, as some have thought, with ' take heed.' 
Sch. encloses uj %vx''<ii • • • watiAf! in a parenthesis. 

» In the only other passage of the N. T. where ypa^jj occurs 
without the article, 2 Tim. 3 : 10, E. V. also omits it ;-W., R.;- 
Wells,Dodd.,Wesl.(Scn>/!(repro/i/teci/),Wakef., Mack., Newc, 
Scott, Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile.— The word here referring to 
the whole volume of inspiration, it is printed with a capital S, 
in accordance with the rule of the Amer. Bible Soc.'s recent 
Revision. 

'» ncisa . . . ov = ovSinia. See Win. { 21. 1. Huth.: ' yiV- 

Ef at is = iiy-iiv.' But, while the past tenses of ytVoftai. are often 
used as corresponding parts of ilmi, this is not true of the pres- 
ent. Here the distinction, as between Jieri and esse, is strictly 
maintained, yivofiai carrying with it the idea of origin, residt, 
or change of state. E. V., accordingly, renders it variously, to 
be made, Matt. 9: 16; 27: 24; Mark 2: 21; 1 Cor. 14: 25; 
Heb. 7 : 12 (less accurately in v. 18) ;-?o be wrought, Mark 
6 : 2 ;-to be done, Mark 4:11; Luke 9:7; 2» : 8 ; Acts 4:30; 
14: 3; &c.;-to become. Matt. 13: 22; Mark 4: 19, 32;-to arise, 
Mark 4 : 37 ;-to co')ne, Acts 26 : 22 ; 28 : 6 ; 1 Tim. 6:4; (Acts 
27 : 33, ifiiM-fv rifiifia yiviaOai day was coming on);-to come to 
pass, Mark 11 : 23 ; 13 : 29 ; Luke 12 : 55 (less accurately in 

2 



10 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

21 For die prophecy came not 
in old time by the will of nuin : 
but holy men of God spake as 
they were moved by the Holy 
Ghost. 



GREEK TEXT. 



21 Oil j^ap d£?in[J.atL dvOpuncov r,v- 
ij^Yi Tiore Ttpo^Yfteia, a?iX vTto Uvev- 
[.larog 'Aylov ^b^u^isvol i2.d7iYiciav ol 
dyLOL Qeov dvOponoi. 



REVISED VERSION. 

21 For ''not by ^man's will 
"was ''prophecy "brought "^at 
any time, but ''the holy men ot 
God spake ''being moved by the 
Holy 'Spirit. 



y The negative is kept here by R.;-Latin verss.. Syr.;-B. and 
L. (ce n'est pas par), Mack., Jley., Greeuf., AH., Van Esa, De W., 
Murd., Peile. 

^ W., R.; - Fr. S. (une volun:e dViomme) ; - Van Ess (eines 
Meiischen iVillkiihr). 

» See V. 18, N. n, &c. W., R.;-Vulg. {allata est), Germ, {ist 
hervor gebracht). Dt. (is vooitgebragt). It. {fu recata), Fr. 
G.,-M., (a He apportee), Fr.S. {fut app.) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., 
Vat., Bez., (as Vidg.). Hamm., Cocc. and Beng. {lata est), Dodd., 
Moldenh. and All. {as Germ.), Mack. 

■^ W., R.;-Pr. S.;-IIamm., Wells, Beng. {• prophetia sine ar- 
ticulo, indefinite dicitur.'), Dodd., Wesl., Moldenh. and later Ger- 
man verss. {eine iVeissagung), Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn.. 
Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Barn., Kenr. 

' The ov . . . no-ti here answers to the Ttaaa ... oi of v. 20. — 
E. V. marg.; 1 Cor. 9: 7 {any time) ; 1 Thess. 2:5; &c.;-W. 
{any time). R.;-Syr.;-Castal., Cocc, Wits., Beng., Carpz., Ros., 
{unq^iam), Kngl. Ann. ('or. at any time'), Hamm. {as JV.), Pyle 
{ever), Mack., Newc, Mey. and De W. (Je), Kenr. ;-Schottg., 



Brctsch., Schirl. Many others (T., C.;-Germ., Fr. S.;-Bloomf., 
Iluth., &c.) connect with the negative (as in E. X., v. 10) =; 
never. 

^ W., R.;-Germ., Dt., It., French vcrss.;-Engl. Ann. ('or 
those'), Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Mey., 
Ros. {i!li), Greenf., Kist., Goss., Van Ess {jene). — But Gricsb. 
and all the later editors cancel the ot 'on the evidence of almost 
all the authorities' (Huth.). I recommend that this reading bo 
adopted, and that the article be omitted. 

" Not merely the manner of their speaking, but ' that they 
spoke at all in the utterance of prophecy, was immediately and 
absolutely dependent on the divine impulse' — Nothing answer- 
ing to the E. V. supplement (which was taken from T.) is found 
in W., R.;-any foreign vers.;-EngI. Ann., Hamm., AVakef., Mack., 
Thorn., Clarke, Penn, Kenr. — For (fipojuat, in the sense of being 
borne along, driven, see Acts 27 : 15, 17. Here also the Germ. 
verss. have getrieben; Dt., gedreven zijnde; It., essendu sos- 
pinti; French verss., powsses ;-Erasm., Calv., Ros., impulsi; 
Engl. Ann., Hamm., {[being'] carried). Thorn, {by an impidse). 

"■ Guyse, Dodd., Wakef., Newc, Thorn., Scott, Penn, Sharpe, 
Murd. 



V. 54) ; 21 : 7, 28, 31, 30 ;-/o draw {iyyv; nigh unto), John 6 : 19. 
In other cases, where E. V. translates by the simple copula, it 
fails, as here, to give the full force of the original ; e. g. JIatt. 
12: 45, Luke 11 : 26, comes to 6e;-Luke 6: 36, the disciples are 
required to become what God essentially is ; comp. 1 Pet. 1 : 16 ;- 
Luke 15 : lO. joy arises, a fresh spring of joy ;-20 : 33, does she 
become ?;-Rom. 11:6, comes to be no more grace ;-Heb. 11:6, 
that God is. and, in the order of his providence, becomes a re- 
warder, &c. (See Kitto's Journal nf Sac. Lit., Vol. vi. pp. 

433-6). Besides 17 cases of xat' iSiow, tSio; occurs 96 times, 

and IS 78 times translated in E. V. by own, his own, her own, &c., 
according to the reference; and in all the other (omitting the 

present text) 17 instances this is still the force of the word. 

'ErtiVvffts (Pass.: ' 1. LOsung, Befreiung wovon ; 2. Auflusung; Er- 
klarung, Deutung.'), found nowhere else in the N. T., is employed 
byAquilaforC'jTinS Gen. 40: 8 (Sept. Siaua'^iystj ; E. \. inter- 
pretations), and by Symmachus for □"iCID Hos. 3 : 4 (under- 
standing probably by the word an oracular response, or the 
means by which it was obtained. Theodotion here has Ihvkvo- 
jiivov ; and Aquila, the same form at Gen. 41 : 8). The etymo- 
logical idea of unloosing, setting free from entanglement, and 
hence, figuratively, of making clear, settling by e.vposition, is 
apparent in the N. T. use of tTtaia, Mark 4: 34 (E. V. ex- 
pounded) ; Acts 19 : 39 ; and, according to some copies, in the 
Sept. Gen. 41 : 12. 



Dismissing the conjectural emendation j Ttj^XroEuj (Calv., Grot., 
&c.) as of no manuscript authority ; and the Syriac construction 
of ihiai with ypa^^s, which would also require t jtaudtj ; and 
even the gloss of Suid. making i7ii7.vaii= £$o6os, accessics ; we 
may still arrange the interpretations and translations of this 
verse-( Crucemji.xit interpretibus, saysWolf )-into three classes, 
according as iSias is referred to, 1., the readers of prophecy; 
' they are not to interpret, each for himself' irreppectively of, 

\ {!.), Catholic consent — the Romish idea; or, (2.), divine illu- 

' nfiination, or the general sense of Scripture. So perhaps T., C, 
{hath any pr. int.) -j-anA so Bede, Luth. ('Petrus hat es ver- 
boten, du sollst nicht auslcgen ; der Heilige Geist selbst soli 
esauslegen oder soil unausgelegt bleiben.'), Erasm., Bcz., Aret., 
Par., Dt. Ann. (as one reference), Engl. Ann., Cocc, Mor.. Marck, 

i Wells, B. and L., Carpz., Pott, Scott, Steiger, Kenr.;-Schottg.: — 
2,, to prophecy itself; ' no pr. is of se//'-interprctation,' but needs 
light from the event, or other revelations. So Syr., Ar.;-Weren- 

. ffcls, Hor.sley, Wakef , Thom.. Ros.,I31oomf , Home, Trol,, Dr. John 
Brown, Dietl., Peile;-Bretsch, under the word iSt'oj, Wahl, Schirl. 
But, (l.),a multitude of prophecies, themselves all equally inde- 
terminate, could not by combination be made to determine the 
meaning of one another. All prophecy, prior to the fulfilment, 

' must be only useless and bewildering. The 'light shining in a 
dark place' would itself be darkness ;-(2.), this interpretation 
is, therefore, irreconcileable with the nature of Christian faith 
and hope ; Heb. 11 : 1, &c.;-(3.), it contradicts the testimony of 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



11 



KING JAMES VERSION. 
CHAP. II. 

But there were false prophets 
also among the people, even as 
there, shall be false teachers 
among you, who privily shall 
bring in damnable heresies, even 



GREEK TEXT. 



CHAP. II. 



1 'ErENONTO Ss xal n^sv^Ttpo- 
^rftai iv ta /loo, ug xai iv v^tv laov- 

rat '^evhohiha.axaT.oi, oltiveg Ttapeicrd- 
^ovaiv aipeaeig (XTtu/iEiag, ;^at rov 



REVISED VERSION. 
CHAP II. 

But there were ""also false pro- 
phets among the people, ''as also 
''among you there shall be false 
teachers, who privily shall bring 
in destructive 'sects, ''even deny- 



" ' Besides the true, just spoken of.' See ch. 1 : 14, N. z, &c. 
—The particle is here kept in its proper relation by W., R. ;-all 
foreign versions (except the three older French, which omit 
it);-Guyse, Dodd., Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Clarke, Trol., Bloomf., 
Murd., Dav., Kcnr. 

^ See ch. 1 : 14, N. z, &c. Comp. 1 Cor. 10 : 11. 

' The h v/ilv retains its place in "W., R ;-Latin and German 
verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Mack. Most others translate 4.£iiSo«. in 
immediate connection with oiVtKff. 

'' Germ, (verderbliche), Dt. (verderfelijke) ;-Erasm., Vat., 
Castal., Grot., Carpz., {pernicioaas) , Pagn., Bez., Pise, {exi- 
iiales), Engl. Ann., Sharpe, Barn., {of destruction), Cocc. 
(exitii i-ioTYa]^. perditionis), B. and L. (pernicieiises). Dodd., 
Wesl., Moldenh. (as Genu. ;-and so Mey., De W.), Wakef, 
Mack., Newc, Thorn., Penn., Bloomf. {pernicious), Murd., Peile 
('pern, or dest.') ; - Schleus., Bretsch., Wahl, (as Erasm.), 
"Win., Rob. See v. 3, N. p. I recommend that the note: 'Gr. 
sects of destruction,' be set in the margin. 

' Al'ptat.;=' electa vitie disciplina, serfo ' (Bretsch.), 'sert, 
school, party' (Rob.), retains this its ' true original meaning' 



(Dav.)-' uniform import' (Campb.)-in E. V., Acts 5 : 17; 15: 
5 ; 24 : 5 ; 26 : 5 ; 28 : 22 ; and might have been so rendered 
elsewhere, Acts 24 : 14 ; 1 Cor. 11 : 19 ; Gal. 5 : 20 ; 2 Pet. 2 : 
1 ; though in the last three places Bretsch. and Rob. give as a 
secondary sense, dissensin, discord. Under artJ^T^eia, indeed, 
Rob. translates the word in this instance heresies. But this 
use, which Bretsch., Wahl, Green, do not mention at all, is as- 
signed by the general lexicons (Steph., Pass., L. and S.), to the 
later ecclesiastical period. And so it is by De W., though he 
adopts it here, less, probably, (and the same thing may be said 
of Huth.), on account of any peculiarity in the present context, 
than because of his previous decision respecting the post-apos- 
tolic origin of the epistle. E. V. follows Biz.— \V., T., C, R. ;- 
Vulg., Germ., French verss. ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., Castal., 
Carpz., Thorn., Greenf. (mp'^nc). Barn, (-the idea of sect or 

party is that which is conveyed by this word, rather than doc- 
trinal errors.'), Kenr. Peile (' heresies — less doctrinal than 
sectarian and schismatical ') ;-WahI, Win. 

' ' These ruptures of the one body being but the manifestation 
of a departure from the one fiiith ;' and hence the ecclesiastical 
use of ai'psfft;. 



Scripture respecting some prophecies; 1 Tim. 4: l;-(4.), sets 
aside one main end of prophecy, the guidance and consolation of 
the Church; John 16: 13, Rev. 1: 1-3, &c.;-(5.), is at variance 
with the experience of the people of God in past ages, as of Noah, 
Abraham, David, Daniel, &c. See also Matt. 2 : 5 ;-and, (6.), there 
are very many prophecies of Scripture that do interpret them- 
.selves just as readily and satisfactorily, as Micah's prophecy of 
the birth of the Messiah in Bethlehem, or as any of its plainest 
narratives : — or, 3,, to the prophets ; either, (1.), ' they could not 
themselves explain their own prophecies ; so Oec, Knapp, Till., 
De W.;-Schleus., and Bretsch. under the word irtiT-vmi ; or, (2.). 
'they did not of themselves interpret' the future, or the hidden 
counsels of God. So W. {made by proper interp.), R. {made by 
private interp.). G., as if reading ijtrj'Kviiiai, {is of any private 
motion) ;-Vu]g. {proprid interpretaticme non ft). Germ., not- 
withstanding Luth.'s comment, {gescliieht aus eigener Ausle- 
gung), Fr. M. {ne procede d'aucun mouvement particulier) ;- 
Calv. (who, however, can find no authority for irtr'kvacuif. which 
he seems to regard as necossar}' to this sense), Cam. ('scnsus 
itaqne Petri Apostoli hie videtnr esse, Prophetas non suae men- 
tis sen.?um edidisse, sed fuisse intenpretes consilii divini, et 
sententia verborum est aperta, Prophetas non suam., sed Dei 
mentem hominibus exposuisse.'), Dt. Ann. (as another reference, 
and the first mentioned), Grot, (whose bolder criticism adopts 



iTCr;%vriiu^ as the true reading). Wits, (who would n.ake matters 
sure by uniting with this the first view also), Owen, Haram. 
(who, with others, after Cam,, finds a metaphor in irtiX., drawn 
from loosing, starting, horses in a race ; ' of their own incita- 
lion, motion, letting loose'). Pears., Oler. ('Malim IrtAvsw inter- 
pretari quasi solutionem linguae aut oris.'), Whitb. (' of their 
own incitation, motion, or the suggestion of their own private 
spirits), Beng. {• interpretatio, qua ipsi res antca plane clausas 
aperuere mortalibus.'), Guyse {the product of any man's own 
invention), Dodd. {of private impidse), Wesl. (It is not any 
man's own word. It is God, not the prophet himself, who 
thereby interprets things till then unknown.'). Gill (of a man's 
own impulse), Moldenh. {aus eigner Entwickelimg herriihre), 
Mack. {ofpr. invention), Newc. {ofpr. utterance), Clarke ('by 
the mere pr. impulse of his own mind'), Henderson. Congrega- 
tional Lecture on Inspiration, pp. 485-6, ('pr. or uninspired dis- 
closure'), Barn, {of their own disci.), Turner, Huth. ('geschiiht 
aus, oder hangt ab von eigner ("d. i. des Verkftndigers mensch- 
licher] Deutung der Zukunft.') ;-Rob. (' Cometh of pr. [particu- 
liir] int., i. e. is not an int. of the will and purposes of God by 
the prophets themselves.'). This view, (1.), satisfies the uni- 
versal term in the proposition ;-(2.), explains the use of yin-tai 
('ita enim loquitur ut ostendat unde sit Scriptura, nam vox 
yiVf^ai. ortum significat.' Cam.) ;-(3.), intimates that the ' light 



12 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



KING JAMES VEI\SION. 

clen3'ing the Lord lliat bought 
them, and bring upon themselves 

/ swift destruction. 

P 2 And many shall follow their 
pernicious wa3's; by reason of 
whom the way of truth shall be 
evil spoken of. 

3 And through covetousness 
shall they witli feigned words 
make merchandise of )-ou : whose 
judgment now of a long time lin- 
ger.eth not, and their damnation 
slumbereth not. 

4 For if God spared not tlie 
angels that sinned, but cast them 



GREEK TEXT. 

dyofidaavta avtovg SeGTtotyiv dpvov- 
(zevoL, STtdyovteg iavrotg ra^cvriv 
d7tcj?^Lav 

2 xai no}J?<jdi i^axo?Mvdr,aov(Tiv 
aur(in> ralg dvra/ieiaig, SJ ovg n oSog 

3 xai BV TtT^eovE^ia TtTjxatoig Tjo- 
yoig v[idg ei.i7topEvaovTai- dig to x^i^ia 
exTtakai ovx dpyet, xai n dTtcdXeta 
aiTcov ov vvara^ei. 

4 El <ydp 6 Qeog dyyeluv ctfiapT-/?- 
ddvtuv ovx i^eiGato, d22d GEipatg 



REVISED VERSION. 

ing the ^Master ""who bought 
them, 'bringing upon themselves 
Jspeedy destruction. 

2 And many shall follow their 
''destructive ways, by reason of 
whom the way of 'the truth shall 
be evil spoken of; 

3 And "in covetousness shall 
they with feigned words make 
merchandise of you ; "for whom 
the judgment "from of old linger- 
eth not, and their Pdestruction 
slumbereth not. 

4 For if God spared not ") an- 
gels "^when they sinned, but. 



^ So translated five times (1 Tim. 6: 1,2; 2 Tim. 2: 21; 
Tit. 2: 9 ; 1 Pet. 2: 18) in E. V., according to the proper mean- 
ing of the word, which denotes, as opposed to servant, ' master. 
head of a family, paterfamilias'' [lioh.),-Haitsherr (Pass., 
Schirl.). In three instances (Luke 2 : 29 ; Acts 4: 24; Rev. 
6 : 10), where it is used of God the Sovereign Ruler, it is fitly 
rendered Lord ; but in the two remaining cases, (here and 
Jude 4), where it is spoken of the Saviour, it seems better to 
preserve the original idea, especially since in Jude it is employed 
along with Kvptoj, Lord, and here m connection with the pur- 
chase of his servants. Comp. 1 Cor. 6 : 19, 20 : 7 : 22, 23.— 
Castal., Cocc, (herum), B. and L. (Maitre), Penn, Sharpe. 

" See ch. 1 : 3, N. i, &c. 

'. The apposition by asyndeton, at which many stumble, of 
this clause with that which precedes, suggests that the one ac- 
tion is simultaneous, as it were identical, with the other. See 
Prov. 8 : 36; and note also the opposition between Ttapftad^m- 
aiv and indyov-ti^. — The participial form is retained by R ;- 
Latin verss. (except Casta!., Carpz.), Syr., Dt., It. Fr. G.,-M.,- 
S. ;-Dodd., Mack., Newc, Thom.. Penn, Bloomf., Murd., Kenr. • 
and of these, Dt, Fr. S., Bloomf., Murd., alone supply any con- 
nective particle. 

) See ch. 1 : 14, N. y. R. ;-Guyse, Wakef.. Thom., Penn. 

^ Or, according to the more approved reading, dfftxyjtat;, 
(Jude 4), which I recommend to be followed, lascivious uays. 
So E. V. marg.—- This reading, says Bloomf., ' is found in al- 
most all the MSS., Versions, and early Editions, except the 
Erasmian and Stephanie ones, has been preferred by almost all 
critifcs, and was adopted by ^Yetst., and edited by Beng., Griesb., 
Matth., Knapp, Tittm., and Vater.' (To these may be added 
Mey., Sch., Lachm., Ilahn. Ti.sch., Theile.) 'And rightly ; for 



both external and internal evidence are in favour of it.' Of the 
older verss., it is followed by Vulg., Syr.. Ar., It. 

1 Foreign verss. ;-IIamm., Campb., Wakef., Thom., Penn. 

■" See ch. 1 : 1, N. d. W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr.;-Calv. (restores the 
Vulg. in, for the per of Erasm.). Greenf., Sharpe, Stier, De "\V., 
Murd., Huth. (■ as it were surrounded by avarice, living in it, 
mastered by it. To paraphrase t'l' by bed is not correct.'). 

" W. (to which), R. (unto whom) ;-Vulg. (qnibus), Dt. (over 
wie). It. (sopra i quali), Fr. M. (qui lew est desiinee), Fr. S- 
(pour eu.v) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Bez., Aret., Par., Cocc, Wolf., 
Beng., Ros., (as Vidg.), Moldenh. (in Ansehung welcher), 
Mack, (lo them), Thom. (for them), Sharpe (against whom), 
De "W. ('eig. fiir die '), Huth. (' Dat incommodi.'). 

o Mack., Newc, Thom., Clarke, Pott, Mey., Bloomf., De W., 
&c, connect IxH. with xpt'^ja, =pronoimced of old (comp. Jude 
4) ; Fr. S., Huth., &c., with apyH,=ever since it was pro- 
nounced.— IE. v., ch. 'i: 5 (of old) ;-Syr. (= Greenf. C'i^C), 

Germ, (von lange her). Dt. (van over lang), Fr. M. (depuis 
long-temps) ;-Cocc. (ab antiquo). Wells, B. and L. (as Fr. 
M.)-Berl. Bib. (i-on alters her), Mack., Thom., (of old), Do 
"W. {von Idngst her), Peile. 

p See V. 1, N. d. Guyse, Dodd., 'Wcsl., Wakef., Mack., 
Newc, Thorn., Sharpe, Bloomf., Murd., Kenr., Peile. This is 
the fourth occurrence of the word in these three verses, and E. 
V. renders it in as many different waj's. 

■J 'Who excel in strength' (Ps. 103: 20). Calv. : 'Argu- 
mentum est a majori ad minus.' — E. V., v. 11 ;-W., R. ;- 
Wakef., Thom., De W., Peile. 

 Peile. Comp. v. 5, N. z. Several use a participle. 



.shining in a dark place' did not originate there ;-(4.), furnishes 
a strong motive (yiruBxorrf s) for ' taking heed' ;-a«d, (5.), draws 
after it (yap) the more explicit statement of v. 21 ;-nor does any 
other interpretation meet all of these five points. The more 



common construction, indeed, would have a preposition, as ix, 
ajto, with the genitive; but this case is also employed thus 
simply by itself to express the relation of dependence or origin. 
See Rom. 9: 10. Buttm. § 132. 3. Kiihn. § 273. 1. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



13 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

down to hell, and delivered them 
into chains of darkness, to be 
reserved unto judgment; 

6 And spared not the old 
world, but saved Noah the eighth 
person, a preacher of righteous- 
ness, bringing in the flood upon 
the world of the ungodly ; 

6 And turnino; ilie cities of 
Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes, 
condemned ihcm with an over- 
throw, making them an ensample 



GREEK TEXT. 

aiv TErYiprji.iivov^- 

5 xai dp^aiov xoGfiov oix ecpsi- 
aaro, a/X oyhoov Noje hixaioavvr^g 
x'n^vxa e^v2.a^£, xataxT^va^bv xog^q 
das^QV STtd^ag' 

6 xai 7t6?.Eig Xoho^ov xai Fojtwp- 
pag te^puaag xaraarpocp/i zaT£xpt- 



REVISED VERSION. 

^having cast them ' to hell, deliv- 
ered them "unto chains of dark- 
ness, ^having been reserved "for 
judgment ; 

5 And spared not the old 
world, but "kept Noah, '' a preach- 
er of righteousness, ^ with seven 
others, ^when he brought " the 
flood upon the world of the un- 
godly ; 

6 And, ''reducing to ashes the 
cities of Sodom and "^Gomorrha, 
condemned them ''lo an over- 
throw, 'having made them an *'ex- 



• The participial construction is retained by E. V. at v. C, and 
here by Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., 
Thom., Claike, Sharpe, Peile. 

' For the omission of down, see Germ., Dt., It., Fr. G.,-S. ;- 
Cocc, Beng., Mack., Thom., Clarke, All., Peile. 

" Wakef., Newc, (to), Peile. Very many, from Vulg. (pro- 
bably) and Syr. to De W., Dav., Dietl., connect aiipals ^s a 
dative of the instrument or manner with faprapcioaj. On 
reconsideration, I adhere to the construction of E. V., for two 
reasons: 1., rtapiSuxtv naturally rerjuires a dative ;-2., and 
chiefly, fdifoj, in the other three instances of its occurrence (v. 
17 ; Jude G, 1.3), is used only as a characteristic of hell itself. 
Some, indeed, (as Mack., Thom., &c.), would translate : cmifinmg 
in Tartarus with 01 in chains. 

' Fr. S. (gardes) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Bcz., (serratos), Newc. 
(as E. v., but marking to be as a supplement), Iluth. (would 
render the received text thus : ' als solche, die [bis jetzt] anf- 
bewahrt warden sind.'). — But all the recent editors have tr;f>m- 
fiii'ovi- (except Lachm., xo'Ka^ofiimvs ■tr;pEii'), which, says 
Bloomf., ' is found in almost all the best MSS. and early edi- 
tions.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and trans- 
lated : being reserved. Sharpe (restived), De W., Huth., (als 
sulche. die aufbewahrt werden), Peile (being kept) ;-Win. 
('eigentl. als solclie, welche [)W?t] anfb. werden). See v. 9, 
N. X. — E. V. seems to come, through W., T., G., G., from the 
Yulg. reservari. 

" Fr. S. (pour) ;-B. and L. (as Fr. S.), AVakcf., Mack., 
Newc, Thom., Sharpe, De ^Y. (Jur), Peile. 

^ E. V. so translates everywhere else, except Mark 10 : 20 ; 
1 Tim. 5:21; where keep is equally suitable. From this 
statement are also to be excepted three instances of the middle 
voice, Luke 12: 15; 2 Tim. 4: 15; 2 Pet. 3: 17, where it is 
properly rendered fteirare j-W., R. ; -Vulg. (custodirit), Syr., 
(ierm. (bewahrcte), Dt. (bewaard hseft). Fr. G.,-M., (a garde), 
Fr. S. (g-07-rfa) ;- Castal., Carpz., Ros., (use conservare), Bez., 
Cocc, (as Vulg.), Hamm., B. and L. (ayant preserve), Dodd., 
Wesl. (preserved ;-andi so Wakef., Thom., Pcnn, Murd., Kenr.), 
Moldenh.; De W., (use bewahren), Greenf. ("'Dii*), All. (er- 

hallen) ; - the lexicons. 



" JIarginal note : ' Gr. Noah the eighth.' But this idiom, 
however intelligible to a Greek, does not convey to the English 
reader what all scholars understand by it. To give that vtean- 
ing, therefore, is not commentary, but translation. — Wakef., 
Mey. (nebst noch sieben Personen), Goss., Penn, Sharpe, Dav.; 
-Trol., Green. Schirl. Others give the same sense in various 
ways. The transposition (Mey., Penn) is occasioned by the 
change of idiom. 

' 'Erta'^aj is translated by a finite verb in W., T., C, G.;- 
Syr. (=Murd. when he br.), Germ., Dt. (with als), Fr. G.,- 
M.,-S. (with lorsque) ;-Castal., Cocc. (with qmcm). B. and L., 
Dodd. (as above ;-and so Mack., Newc, Thom.), Moldenh., All., 
Stier, (with da), Carpz., Wakef, Mey. (with als), Penn, De 
W. (with indem), Peile (with at the same time that). 

" The in, retained by E. V. from W., &c., does not belong to 
the verb, nor is there anything for it in E. V., v. 1 ; Acts 5 : 28, 
(the only other places where the word occurs);-any foreign 
vers, (except the Latin and Mey.);-Dodd., and the later Eng- 
lish ;-Rob., Schirl., Green. 

■^ Tfijjpdu (a N. T. artal Xiy.) is rendered, to reduce to ashes, 
by Guyse, Dodd., Mack., Thom., Penn, Ktnr., Peile ;-Grccn. 

' This orthography, which accords with the Greek, appears in 
most editions of E. V., and in Rob.'s Lex., &c. Yet it seems desir- 
able to restore the 0. T. form Gomorrah in the five instances 
where the word occurs in the N.;-and this has been done by the 
Amer. Bible Soc. — See ch. 1 : 1, N. a, &c. 

'' ' To an utter and permanent subversion.' — So E. V. renders 
the dative of the punishment after xataxpivu in the other 
places where it occurs ; Matt. 20 : 18 ; Mark 10 : 33 ;-Dt.. Fr. 
G.,-M.;-Hamm., B. and L., Guyse, Wesl., Moldenh., Thom., 
Ros., Greenf., Bloomf, Stolz, Van Ess, All., De W., Dav., Kenr. 
(to be overthroion), nuth.;-Wahl, Rob., Schirl. 

' Here the ruin is regarded as accomplished and still abiding. 
Corap. Jude 0, ^srjjpjjxti'.— It.;-Blooinf., Peile (' making for 
all time ; properly hamng instituted or established '). Others 
(Dt.;-Moldcnh., All., De W.) use the same time, in a finite 
form. 

' The more usual form, and always employed by E. V. else- 
where for vrtoSiiyfia; John I3 : 15 ; -James 5 : 10; Ileb. 4: 11. 



14 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. II. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

unto those that after should live 
ungodly ; 

7 And delivered just Lot, vex- 
ed with the filthy conversation of 
the wicked : 

8 (For that righteous man 
dwelling amons; them, in seeino- 
and hearing, vexed his righteous 
soul from day to day with their 
unlawful deeds ;) 

9 The Lord knoweth how to 
deliver the godly out of tempta- 



GREEK TEXT. 

vsv, vnohstyfx.a ^X^6vtu)V dde^stv 

7 jcat hixaiov Kor, xataTtovoijis- 
vov vTto fhc, tiov dQiaixav h aasT^yeia 
dvaarpocpTig, sppvaato- 

8 (3Xsn(j.atL yap xai dxori 6 Sixatog, 
syxaroixojv h' avToig, nuipav s^ r,ue- 
pag 4''^](r,v hixaiav dvo^ioig ipyoic, 

9 oiSe Kvpiog evosl^elg ix Tteipaa- 



REVISED VERSION. 

ample ^of those that ''shall 'be 
ungodly ; 

7 And delivered -"righteous Lot, 
''worn down with the filthy 'be- 
haviour of the ""lawless : 

"3 (For " in seeing and hearing 
pJid "iihe righteous man, dwelling 
among them, 'day after day Ptor- 
ment his righteous soul with their 
unlawful deeds) : 

=9 The Lord knoweth how to 
deliver the godly out of *tempta- 



^ 'Not so much for their warDing, as o/" their doom.' — E. V.. 
wherever else (4 times) irtdS. is followed by the genitive ;-W., 
R.;-Vulg.;-Pagn., Castal., Cocc, Guyse, Dodd., Carpz., Penn. 
Bloomf., De W. 

'' M£'>.>.u, construed with the infinitive of another verb, is in 
translation merged in a future of that verb in E. V., Matt. 2 : 
13, and often elsewhere (see Rev. 10: 7, N. y);-and so here, 
and in the indicative mood, by R.;-Vulg. (acturi SM?if);-Pagn. 
(sunt victuri), Peile. 

' Germ, (uses Gnttlos, as a substantive);-Castal. {impii es- 
sent futuri)), Berl. Bib., Beng., {gottlos sein), Dodd., Moldenh. 
{as Germ.;-an<i so Mey., De W.). Nevcc, Peile. See Jude 15. 
the only other place where the word occurs. 

i E. v., V. 8, bis, and 38 times elsewhere ;- Wells, Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Scott, Murd. The needless vari- 
ation in this context began with T., and is found in no foreign 
vers., except B. and L., Mey. See 1 John 1 : 9, N. a. 

^ The literal sense of the word, which occurs but once again 
in the N. T., Acts 7 : 24, and is there in E. V. oppressed. — Dt. 
(oennoeid), It. {Iravagliato) ; - Pagn., Btz. (fatigatum), 
Blooraf. (wearied out), Barn, (wearied, burdened) ; ~ Leigh 
(' He laboured under it as under a burden.'), Pass, (niederar- 
heiten), Rob., as the proper meaning, (to work down, wear 
down by labor), Green (to weary out). 

1 Conversation in this general sense, if not entirely obsolete, 
is sutliciently so to justify its disuse in the book of the people. 
Guyse, Wesl., Campb., Wakef. (manners). Mack., Newc, Thom. 
(conduct ;- a,ni so Clarke, Barn., Dav., Murd., Kenr., Peile), 
Sharpe, Bloomf. Excepting It., Fr. G., B. and L., the foreign 
verss. are free from ambiguity. 

•» In the N. T. this word occurs only here and ch. 3 : 17, and 
in neither place is there any reason for concealing its strict 
meaning. On the contrary, there is in the context (vv. 8, 10) 
special reason for retaining it— Erasm. and later Latin verss., 
except Cocc. profanorum, (use jujarius ;-Ros. explaining it as 
e.r/ex, legiim contemptor, legibus repugnam), Hamm. (which 
broke all laws), Berl. Bib. (imgebundenen), Dodd., Wakef., 
Mack., Newc. marg., Clarke, Bloomf. (men who trampled on 
all laws), De W. (nnbandigen), Dav., Murd., Pcile ;-Leigh, L. 



and S. All the other lexicons acknowledge the etymological 
force. 

" This verse being inserted parenthetically between the pro- 
tasis and apodosis of a protracted sentence, and having no syn- 
tactical connection with either, I adopt the amended punctuation 
of the Amer. Bib. Soc.'s late Revision, enclosing the verse, and 
detaching it by colons from vv. 7, 9. Comp. Ch. 1 : 3 — 5. 

" The Greek order is retained by Syr.;-Thom., Greenf , De 
W., Peile. — Vulg., Erasm., and others, who also retain it, err 
in connecting ^•Kififia-ti xai axoyj with bixaio;. 

P A different word from that in v. 7. — E. V., 8 times out of 
12;-W. (tormented);-Latin verss. (use crucio or excrucio), 
Syr., Germ, (uses qualen), Dt. (heeft gekweld), It, Fr. S. ;- 
Hamm., Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Newc, Clarke, (as W.), 
B. and L. (etoit tourmentee), Moldenh. (marterte), Wakef. (was 
tormenting), Thom. (was tormented), All. (uses peinigen), 
Scott, Penn, Kenr.. Peile, (use torture), De W., Huth., («.? 
Germ.), Barn, (tortured or tormented). See the lexicons. 

1 De W., Peile. 

 Lit. day out of day .—Dt. (dag op rfao-);-Mey. (tagtaglich), 
Greenf (DV CV), Penn, Peile ;-Rob. 

 Notwithstanding the opinion to the contrary of Par., Ros., 
Win., De W., and others, the construction is regular through- 
out, this verse and the next furnishing a full and suitable apo- 
dosis to vv. 4 — 7. So the Syr. may be understood (notwith- 
standing the commencement at v. 9 of a new Lesson in the ec- 
clesiastical division), Dt., It., Fr. G.,-S.;-Bez. (according to the 
punctuation of some editions), Aret., Hamm., Coco, ('commodis- 
sime, quod dicitur vers. 9 suspenditur a Si, quod est vers. 4.'), 
Whitb., B. and L., Wolf, Beng. (■ novit. specimina hoc osten- 
dunt De voluntate Domini, dubium non est.'), Dodd., Wesl., 
Carpz., Wakef, Newc, Thom., Mey., Sharpe. Barn., Murd., 
Peile. 

• This word occurs seventeen times in the singular in the 
N. T., and only in this instance appears in E. V. as a plural. 
What may have been at first merely an error of the press, has 
kept its place in all subsequent editions that I have looked into, 
including the last one of the Amer. Bible Soc. All other verss. 
(except Castal. and Greenf) have the singular. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



15 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

tions, and to reserve the unjust 
unto the day of judgment to be 
punished : 

10 But chiefly them that walk 
after the flesh in the lust of un- 
cleanness, and despise govern- 
ment. Presumptuous are they, 
self-willed ; they are not alraid 
to speak evil of dignities. 

11 Whereas angels, which are 
greater in power and might, bring 



GREEK TEXT. 



lioi pveadai, dSlxovg be eig n^d^av 
xpiasGig xo'Axx^ofdvovg ryipeiv 

10 judPtfcrra hi tovg oitiau) Gapxog 
iv iitiOvfua fuaafiov nopevofiivovg, xai 
xvpiotriTog xata^povovvrag. To/'v- 
fj.y]rai avddbeig, 86^oug ov tpe^ovai 
^Tjcua^Yi^ovvTeg • 

1 1 oitov dyysTdOi i^x^i scat bvvdfisi 



REVISED VERSION. 

tion, "but ''the ^'unrighteous to 
reserve "under punishment unto 
the day of judgment; 

10 But chiefly ^those ^wlio 
walk after the flesh in the lust of 
uncleanness, and despise ^gov- 
ernment. ''Daring men, *= self- 
willed, they ''tremble not 'while 
railing at dignities; 

11 Whereas angels, ''who are 
greater in ^'strength and ''power. 



" See ch. 1 : 5, N. r. R.;-Latin and Germ, verss., Syr,;- 
Peile (on the other hand). 

" Along with the contrasting force of the 6e', I restore the 
Greek order. So Latin and German verss., Syr., Dt. 

" Here the general character is meant, as in 1 Cor. 6 ; 9. — 
E. v., 4 times elsewhere ;-Hamm., AVells, DodJ., Wesl., Wakef . 
Mack., Newc, Scott, Peile;-Rob. {unrighteous, wicked). 

* Gr. being punished — which I recommend as a marginal 
note. Since the Vulg. cruciandos, verss. and commentaries 
have nearly all concurred in making xo%a.^ofjLivovi=xo7^aadr^ao- 
fitVou;, — an exegetical licence, which Beng.'s suggestion : ' futu- 
rum : et tamen pracsens, quia poena certa et imminens. v. 3,' is 
not sufficient to warrant. This use of the present participle is 
with reason denied by Win., whose own explanation, however, 
which finds the idea of futurity in the trjfiuv and then makes 
xoXai^ojiivovi ty;(iilv=trjph (liurt) xo'Ka^iLV {xoxd^taSai), is still 
more unsatisfactory. Nor is there any necessity for forcing the 
construction. The sense yielded by a strict adherence to the 
present time accords with other representations of Scripture 
(Luke 16: 23); especially with those in the protasis (see vv. 4 — 
G, which set forth a preliminary and continuous punishment of 
the wicked, besides that which shall be awarded at the xpi'ai; 
NN. V, e), and in the parallel Jude 6, 7. — Syr. {=dum crucian- 
tar ; at least not necessarily, as the Latin interpreter and 
Bloomf [the latter also erring in citing here 'the Pesch. Syr.,' 
which does not contain this Epistle], cruciandos, or, as Slurd., 
to be tormented. That •fjjpEii' is rendered by a finite future, 
does not aftect this point.), Dt. niarg. and note (' Of, gestraft 
werdende, namel. nu reeds naar de ziel.');-Bez., Cocc, (poenas 
dantes), Ilamm. {being punished), Huth. 

y See ch. 1 : 1, N. b, &c. 

' See ch. 1 : 1, N. c, &c. 

' As a marginal note 1 recommend : ' Or, lordship'' (W. lord- 
shipping i-seeRoh. and Green). — E. V. marg. has, 'Or, domin- 
ion ;' and so the text of R. and Dodd. 

^ As E. V. translates the verb, Jude 9 and generally else- 
where, durst, so the remarkable parallelisms of this chapter 
with Jude should, as far as possible, bo preserved. — Hamm., 



Dodd. (as an adjective, daring ;-and so Wesl., Sharpe, Murd., 
and other.^), Dav. {daring fself-w.] persons), Peile {daring, 
[self-w.] men). According to the lexicons, and the punctuation 
of our text and the other recent editions (except Mey., Bloomf), 
fo^/t. is here used as a substantive, and is qualified by aiSaSsi;, 
as if we should say : self-willed bravoes. The slight change of 
construction is occasioned by the want of a suitable equivalent. 

' There is nothing for the supplied words of E. V. in R.;-Vulg., 
Syr., Germ., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., Castal., Aret., 
Hamm., Cocc, B. and L., Beng., Dodd. and the later English 
ver.ss., Carpz., Mey., De W. 

■• E. V. everywhere else ; Jlark 5 : 33 ; Luke 8 : 47 ; Acts 
9 : 6 ;-Syr. {=commoventur), Germ, {erzittern), It. {hanno or- 
rore), Fr. S. (ire?re6/eft<);-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Pise, Carpz., (hor- 
rent), Hamm., Coco, {tremunt), Beng. {contreniiscunt), Thom., 
Greenf (TI~in), Sharpe, Murd. {shudder). 

: T 

' R. {blaspheming);-Vn\s. {blasphemantes), Syr.;-namm., 
Thorn., {when they rail at [rei-iVe]), Cocc. {dum blasphemant), 
Beng. {as Vulg.), Murd. (while they bl.), Ivenr. (as li.). See 
Win. § 46. 1. — E. V. rendering jixda^r,fiov in v. 11 railing, and 
the same vice being expressed in the original by the cognate 
verb in vv. 10, 12, it is better to preserve this uniformity, which 
appears also in Syr., Germ., Fr. G.,-S.;-Castal., Beng., Carpz., 
Newc, Jley., Greenf, De W., Kcnr. Wesl. here uses rail at. 

' I recommend that in all cases of personal reference which 
be laid aside as antiquated ; e. g. Matt. 6 : 1,4, G, 9, itc; Luke 
3: 23, &c— Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Newc. (that), Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Kenr. 

^ E. v., 4 times out of 11 ; (once elsewhere, as here);-W., R.; 
-Vulg. (fortitudine), Syr. (= 'p^n), German verss., except 

Mey., (Starke), Dt. (slerkte). It. (forza), French verss. (force); 
-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Aret., Cocc, Beng., (robore), Cas- 
tal., Wolf., Bez., (i-iribus), Dodd., Wesl., Wakef (might ;-and so 
Thom., Murd.), Mack., Bloomf, Kenr. See Rev. 7 : 12, N. o. 

i" E. v., ch. 1 : 3, IG; &c.;-R.;-It., French verss.;-Pagn., Cas- 
tal., (potestate), Calv., Bez., Cocc, (potentia), Dodd.. Wesl., 
Wakef, Mack., Thom., Bloomf, Kenr., Peile. See Rev. 12: 10, 

N. r. 



16 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

not railing accusation against 
them before the Lord. 

12 But these, as natural brute 
beasts, made to be taken and 
destroyed, speak evil of the 
things that they understand not ; 
and shall utterly perish in their 
own corruption : 

13 And shall receive the re- 
ward of unrighteousness, as they 
that count it pleasure to riot in 



GREEK TEXT. 

^i^oveg bvteg, ov ^ipovac xar aircov 
Ttapd Kup/cj j3?ua.a(pri^ov xplan'. 

12 ovtoi bi, o)g d?.oya ^cxx ^vaixa 
yeyevvrj nsva eig a/Loaiv xal (pOo^v, 
£v olg ayvoowsi (^'kaa^movvreg, tv 
Tyj ^Oopoi avtav xata^Oapr.aoi'^ai, 

13 xo^LOViisvoi ^LoOov ahixiag. 'YLh- 
ovTiV nyov^wvoi tr[V iv riuspa rpvip'f^v 



REVISED VERSION. 

bring not 'against them before the 
Lord -"a railing ''judgment. 

12 But these, as 'natural "brute 
beasts " born "for cnpture and 
destruction, Prailing lin tilings 
that they understand not, shall 
utterly "'perish in their own cor- 
ruption, 

13 ^And so receive the 'wages 
of unrighteousness. "Accounting 



' The Greek order is retained by Latin verss. (except that 
A'ulg., as also Syr., follows the text, edited by Lachm. and 
Tisch., which omits jtapa. xvplot), It.;-Greenf. 

' Hamm., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thom., 
Sharpe, Bloomf., Jlurd., Kenr. 

'' Beng.: ' Judicem, eumque praesentcm, reveriti, abstinent 
judicio. . . Deo eonvenit judicium, nou angelis.' — E. V., 41 times 
out of 48 ; (only in the parallel Jude 9, as here);-W. {doom), 
T., G.j G., R.;-foreign verss., (Castal. changing judiciuin to sen- 
fewZtoOT);-Engl. Ann., Guyse {censure), Barn., Kenr.;-the N. T. 
lexicons do not recognize the sense, accusation. 

1 The sense is given by some paraphrastically, as G. {led with 
natural sensualiti/);-'Dt. {die de natuur volgen), It.; Fr. G.,- 
M.,-S.;-Pagn., Bez., &c.: — others (T., C.;-Gcrm.;-Erasm., Calv., 
&o.) connect ^uoixa, as if ^uuixw;, wtth yiyivrrnxiva, and, with 
the same result as to sense, Lachm. and Tisch. edit the trans- 
posed reading of A. B. C., and many cursive JISS., ytyivv. fvs. 
Vulg. and Syr., which do not translate the participle, attach fva. 
to £tj oi^. xai ^9. 

■» Milton, P. L. vii. 506—8 : 

'Not prone 
' And hrute as other creatures, but indu'd 
' With sanctity of reason.' 

" E. v., 39 times ; (nowhere else, as here);-C. {brought forth); 
-Protestant German verss., Dt. {roortgebragt ;-marg. ' geteelt 
of geboren'), It., Fr. S.;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., {genita), Castal., 
Cocc, Beng., {nata), Wesl., Penn ;-Rob. The comma of E. V., 
though retained in the Amer. Bible Soc.'s Revised Edition, is 
worse than superfluous, and does not appear in the original Edi- 
tion of IGIL 

" The substantive forms are retained by W., R.;-Latin verss. 
(except Pagn., Bez.), Syr., Dt. marg.;-TieT\. Bib., Guyse, 
Wakef., Mack., Thom., Stolz, De W.. Murd.;-Rob., &c. 

P See V. 10, N. c. The participial construction is retained by 
W., R.;-Latin verss. (except Castal., Carpz.), Syr., It., French 
verss.;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thom., Murd., 
Kenr., Peile ; and cannot be changed without injury. The 
point of comparison with the beasts is not the railing, but the 



ignorance, sensuality, and utter destruction of these men. Dt. 
{dewijl sie lasteren). 

I 'In cases where their ignorance unfits them for any thing 
else but to rail, and helps them in that.' E. V. would require 
a. Ttcpi or xata uv, or tij a. — W., R.;-Vulg., Syr., It.;-Erasm., 
Calv., Vat., Cocc, Whitb. (in the note), Beng., Wakef. {in their 
ignorance), Newc. 

•■ The difference of idiom renders it impossible to retain the 
exact form of the original ; fij ^9opa>/. . .iv tij ^9opa aviuv xa-ra- 
^Sapr-iaovtai,. The Dt. attempts it partially {zullen in hunne 
verdorvenheid verdorven wordeny.-De W. fully (zwm Verder- 
ben. . .werden in ihrem Verderben sich verderben oder verderbt 
werden), Beng. less successfully in Latin {in corru^tionem. . .in 
corruptione sud plane corrumpentur). 

' The participial construction of the Greek intimates that this 
clause, instead of announcing an additional punishment, is mere- 
ly an explanatory appendage of the previous xata^eapr^aovto.t,. 
Hence the use of the present participle in R.;-Vulg., It.;-Erasm., 
Calv., Vat., B. and L., Beng., Dodd. and the later English 
verss. (except Peile). But, xo^iov^fcoi being future in form as 
well as in sense, Pagn., Castal., Bez., employ the future partici- 
ple; G., E. v., Fr. G.,-M.. &c., a finite future, which appears 
also, but without the repetition of the future sign, in W., T., 
C; - Germ.; - Moldenh., De W. Cocc. {dum. reportabunt), 
Whitb. ('Gr. receiving, by this destruction, v. 12'), Carpz. 
(transposes, thus : poenam dabunt malitiae atqtie interibunt), 
Mey. {indem sie. . .empfangen), Ros. {atque ita accipient), 
Peile {it being certain that they shall reap). 

' E. v., V. 15;-W. (/iiVe);-Guyse, Dodd., Wakef, Thom. 

° The construction and punctuation of w. 12 — 16 are very 
various. I adhere closely to the text before me, preserving in 
particular its accumulation of participial and exclamatory 
clauses, as best suited to the tone of impetuous invective which 
pervades the passage, and which was, we can well believe, char- 
acteristic of the writer. (See Rev. 1 : 13, N. h). The Fr. S. 
arrangement is nearly identical. It commences a period, how- 
ever, at the beginning of v. 13, and errs in translating xofiiov- 
fiivoi as a present participle. {Becevant). — For accounting^ see 
E. v., ch. 3 : 15 ;-Dodd., Wakef, Murd. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



17 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

the dny-time. Spots they are 
and blemishes, sporting them- 
selves with their own deceivings 
while they feast with you ; 

14 Having eyes full of adul- 
tery, and that cannot cease from 
sin ; begniling unstable souls : an 
heart they have exercised with 
covetous practices ; cursed chil- 
dren : 



GREEK TEXT. 

taiq UTtdraig avrojv, ovvevui^ov^vot 

VjMV, 

14 o^dak^ovi; e'/pvtec, (.isatovq ^loi- 
XOiTdhoq xal dxataTtavarovg auap- 
tiag, &/lfU^oj'Te$ ■^vx,o.i dary;piy.Tovg, 
xap^iav yeyv^ivaa^ievyjv Tiksove^iatg 
sj^ovTeg, xaTapag Texi'a, 



REVISED VERSION. 

it pleasure to ''revel '^in the day 
time, spots ^ and blemishes, "rev- 
elling ^in their own ^deceits, 
while "feasting with you, 

14 Having eyes full of ''an 
adulteress and "^ceasing not from 
sin, ''alluring unstable souls, 'hav- 
ino; 'a heart exercised swith cov- 
etous practices, ''children of a 
curse. 



" Tpv^rjv.. .iptpvfZvtii. The affinity is prpserved, though 
with various degrees of accuracy, by Vulg., Sjt., Fr. G. -M.,- 
S.;-Calv., Hamm., Cocc, Wells, Mack., Newc, Thorn.-, Mey., 
Ros. For the noun, Wakef. has revels ;-for the participle, R., 
Hamm., Wells, Mack., Newc, Thom., have rioting, rioting 
themselves, living in riot ; Peile and Rob., revelling. 

" T., C, G.;-Vulg., and such as follow it, {diei delicias), 
Germ.;-Calv., Grot., Beng., De W., Dav., Huth.;-Bretsch., 
Rob.;-take h rjnipa as=for a day, for a season, temporary. 
But to tind ' the pleasures of sin' pleasurable, so long as they 
last, is not such a proof of a reprobate mind as that furnished 
by the sense which we retain, and which, while justitied by 
classical usage (• h ^/j-ipa, bei Tage. Pind. Hdt. u. Att. von 
Aesch. u. Thuc. an.' Pass.), is at the same time strikingly 
parallel to such passages as Acts 2 : 15; 1 Thess. 5:7; and is 
given by Syr.;-Hamm., Wells, Whitb., Bens., Guyse, Dodd., 
Wcsl., Gill, Pyle, Wakef, Mack., Newc, Thom., Scott, Clarke, 
Penn, Sharpe, Trol., Bloomf , Barn., Peile. — The meaning daily 
appears in Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.;-Oec., Pagn., Castal., Bez., Cocc, 
Vitr., B. and L., Moldenh., Carpz., Pott, Mey., Ros.;-Schuttg., 
Schleus., Wahl, Schirl. — Fr. S. {tout le jour). 

» See N. u. Nothing is supplied in R.;-Latin verss., Syr.;- 
Wesl., Wakef, Kenr., Peile. 

y W., T., C, G., R.;-Latin verss. (except Pagn., Bez., Carpz.), 
Dt., Fr. S.;- Wells, Newc, Scott, Penn, Sharpe, Stier, De W., 
Peile, Huth.;-Rob. 

' Sharpe, Peile and Rob. (fraiuh). The Vulg. and many 
other verss. follow the reading dyartaij (.Judc 12), edited bj' 
Lachm. 

' The participial construction is retained by W., T., C, G. 
(iti feasting -j-sStec Bez., convivando), R.;-Latin verss. (except 
Pagn., Carpz.), Syr., Fr. S.;-Dodd., Thom., Sharpe, De W., 
Kenr. 

'' Aret. : 'Habitat enim Yenus in oculis et toto vultu.' — E. V. 
has this in the marg. as the proper meaning of the Greek, and in 
the text at Rom. 7 : 3 bis, and James 4 : 4 ;-Oec (oiiev aXXo 
/Sj.f'rtoriji.i' ^ fioixa'KiSai), Erasm., Calv., Vat., Engl. Ann., Est., 
Humm. {the ad.). Cocc, Owen, Wolf., Beng., Dodd., Pyle, Mol- 
denh., Mack., Till., Scott, Clarke, Ros., De W., Barn., Peile 
{an harlot -j-ihough his supplement of ■^X'is from the sub- 



sequent .^vza; dufr^f,., or from V. 8, cannot be allowed), Huth ;- 
Bretsch., Wahl, Rob. The other lexicons do not produce another 
instance of the use of i^oiza'KCi for ;u.oi.;ta?.i-'a ; and even here the 
latter term is found in some of the MSS., and may have been 
read by the Vulg., adulterii. 

' In the case of verbal adjectives in — foj the idea of ability 
or inability is only secondary and inferential, and it is not here 
introduced by Dt., It., French verss. ;-Calv., Est, Hamm., Cocc, 
Wesl., Moldenh., Mack., Ros., Greenf , Penn, Sharpe, De W., 
Dav., Huth. ;-Bretsch., Rob., Schirl. — The Vulg. reads dxai'a- 
Ttavarov. incessabilis delicti. 

■^ The etymological meaning of SiXEa^siv, to catch by a. bait, 
is thus preserved by E. V., v. 18 ;-R. ;-Wakef (luring), Mack., 
Newc, Kenr. ;-and appears also in German verss., Dt., It., Fr. 
S. ;-Erasm. and subsequent Latin verss., except Carpz., {ines- 
cantes ;-for Vulg. pellicientes), Hamm., Dodd., Wesl., Thom., 
Penn, Peile, {ensnaring), B. and L., Barn. 

' See V. 13, N. u. The participial construction is retained in 
R. ;-Latin verss. (except Carpz.), Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Dodd., "Wesl., 
Wakef., Newc, Thorn., Penn, Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. 

' 'That, in respect to the indefinite article, the form an be 
used before all vowels and diphthongs not pronounced as con- 
sonants, and also before h silent or unaccented ; and that the 
form a be employed in all other cases.' This rule of the Amer. 
Bible Soc is followed also in this Revision. 

^ For rtHfOffliatj, Griesb. and all the later editors have nT-to- 
I'sli'aj, on the authority of 'almost all the MSS., at least of any 
note' (Bloomf). I recommend that this reading be followedj 
and translated : in covetonsness. See Win. § 30. 4. 

■• 'The relation of children being implied in the connection 
in which they are thus placed with the curse^ (Scholef.). Comp. 
E. v., Eph. 2 : 2, 3 ; Job 41 : 34.— W. {the sans nf cursing), 
R. {tfie ch. of malediction) ;-Vulg. {inalediciionis flii), Syr., 
Dt. {kinderen der vervloeking). It. (figliuoli di maledizione), 
Fr. G.,-M.,-S., ([rfes] enfants de malediction) ;-Cocc. {exsecra^ 
tionis fiUi), Berl. Bib. and later German verss., except Moldenh. 
and j\Iey., {Kinder des Fluchs), Dodd., Gill, ('or, ch. of the c.')) 
Wakef., Mack. {ch. of the c), Sharpe {ch. of cursing), Murd., 
Kenr., {ch. of mated.). 



18 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



KING JAMEs' VERSION. 

15 Which have forsaken the 
right way, and are gone astray, 
following the way of Balaam 
the son of Bosor, who loved the 
wages of unrighteousness ; 

16 Bat was i^ebuked for his 
iniquity: the dumb ass, speaking 
with man's voice, forbade the 
madness of the prophet. 

17 These are wells without 
water, clouds that are carried 
with a tempest ; to whom the 



GKEEK TEXT. 



15 xataT^atovteg Trrv evdslav bhbv, 
en7>.avr^r,aav, e^axo/{.ovQrfyavrEg tyi 
oSq tov Ba/lattfi rov Boffop, 6g ^aodov 
dSixlai; T.yanYiOEV, 

16 iT^y^iv hi i(^%EV Ihia^ Ttapavo- 
jMO^- vTto^vyiov d^ovov, iv dvdpoTtov 
(pavrj (pOey^duEi'ov, exiSkvGe rr.v Tov 
Ttpo^yJToD Tiapa^poviav. 

17 Oiirot acrt nyiyai avvSpoi, ve^e- 
Tuat, vTto TjOiTMTtog 8?javv6^vai, oig 6 



REVISED VERSION. 

'15 -"Having forsaken the right 
way, they ''went astray, 'having 
followed the way of Balaam "the 
son of Bosor, who loved the wages 
of unrighteousness, 

16 But "had "a reproof Pof his 
transgression ; 'a dumb ''ass, *hav- 
ing spoken with man's voice, 
'restrained the madness of the 
prophet. 

17 These are wells without 
water, "clouds "driven "by a tem- 
pest; ^for whom the ''blackness 



' See V. 13. N. u. 

' The participial construction is retained by R. {leaving) ;- 
Vulg. {dereUnqiief)ites),-Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.-S. (apres avoir 
abandonne) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Casta!., {relicta recta via), 
Vat. {as Vulg-.), Bez., Cocc, Carpz., {derelicta &c.), Aret. {relin- 
quentes), B. and L. (ere quittant), Dodd. {deserting), Mack., 
Thom., Penn, Kenr. {forsaking), Sharpe, Murd. {having left). 
— All the recent editors cancel the ■ri;!', 'almost all authorities be- 
ing against it' (Huth.). With this reading Midd. compares Sept. 
Is. 33 : 15, and remarks : 'A straight road appears to be equi- 
valent to rectitude. I cannot, however, but remark that the 
style of St. Peter is even more anarthrous than that of St. Paul.' 

' 'The one thing followed immediately upon the other.' See 
Ch. 1 : 3, N. j, &c. 

1 Latin verss. {segimti) ;-Kenr. — Wakef. has wholly following; 
q. d. following out. But it is better to regard the i% as resum- 
ing the idea of the first clause, that of deviation from the right 
way. And so in ch. 1 : 16; 2:2; the only other places where 
the word occurs. 

"> E. V. ;-Whitb., Dodd., Mack., Newc, Penn, &c., err in 
supplying the, the second toi being in apposition with Bo^ao/i. 
— Dt. {den [zoon] van B.) ;-AVesl., Wakef. 

" W. {he had), R. ;-Vulg. {habtiit), Germ, {hatte), Dt. {hij 
heeft gehad), It. {egli ebbe) ;-Pagn. {sustinuit), Bez., Cocc, {as 
Vulg.), Dodd., Wakef., Bloomf., {he received), Wesl., Mack. 
{received ;-and so Newc, Penn), All. {empfing), Sharpe, De W. 
(erhielt), Pcile. 

° W. {reproving) ;-Dodd. {the rep.), Wakef., Bloomf. {rep.) 
The other verss. cited in N. n retain, of course, the substantive 
construction, and generally with an indefinite article. 

p Germ, {seiner Uebertretung), Dt. marg. (overtreding) ■- 
Pagn., Bez., {suae tra7isgressionis), Cocc {propriae tr.), Dodd., 
Moldcnh. and Huth. {as Germ.), Wakef., Mack, {for his own 
tr.), Newc, Bloomf, {for his tr.), Thom., Penn, Murd. 

1 W.;-lt., French verss. ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Wakef., Thom., 
Van Ess, All., Bloomf, Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

' Many retain the etymological sense of {beast under the 
yoke) beast of burden, &c. But from the horse not being in- 
digenous in Palestine, and the ass being, therefore, in much more 



common use, the general term irto^vytov seems to have acquired 
the force of a specific designation. Hence its frequent occur- 
rence in the Sept. (as in Ex. 22 : 9, 10 ; &c.) for "licn. Comp. 

Matt. 21 : 5 with Zech. 9 : 9 (Sept. and Heb.). 

' 'On that one occasion ;' not as in v. 18. And besides, it is 
the fact of an ass havmg thus spoken, rather than what it said, 
that is represented as restraining, &c. — It. ;- Castal., Bez., 
Cocc, (substitute the perfect participle of loquor for the Vulg. 
present), Peile. 

' Syr. (= nj<b2, Greenf.'s word), Germ, (wehrete), Dt. 

{heeft verhinderd), French verss. {reprima) ;-Castal., Bez., {in- 
hibuit ;-for Vulg. prohibuit), Cocc. {coercuit), Dodd., Wakef. 
(stopped). Mack., Peile, (put a stop to), Thom., Mey. (hemmte), 
Ros. (cohibuit), All., De W., (as Germ.), Stolz, Ivist., (that 
Einhalt), Van Ess (steuerte), Penn, Bloomf. (repressed) ;- 
Wahl, Rob., Green, Schirl. 

° Griesb. and all subsequent editors (except Bloomf), for 
vi^ixai, read xai tifxlx'^o.i, (Vulg. et nebidae), with the appro- 
bation of De W. and Huth. Beng. had marked this reading as 
one, though not quite certain, yet superior to the other in the 
authority of MSS. ; and Bloomf (Supp.) acknowledges that 
it has also 'a certain support from internal evidence, as existing 
in the circumstance that vi^. has every appearance of being a 
gloss or easier reading.' The latter was probably transferred 
from Jude 12. I recommend that the margin contain this 
note : 'Or, as many copies read, and mists.^ 

' E. v., Luke 8 : 29 ; James 3 : 4 ;-W. ;-Dt. (gedreven). It. 
(sospinte), Fr. S. (poussees) ;-Calv., Castal., Cocc, (use agar), 
Est. (impulsae), Hamm., Beng. and Mey. (getrieben), Wesl., 
Wakef, Mack., Newc. (drivenaway), Thom. (impelled), Greenf. 
(CDIi!"), Penn, Sharpe (driven along), De W. (gejagte), 

Murd., Dav , Peile. 

^ Hamm., Dodd., and all subsequent verss. 

' Wakef., Mack., Thom., Scott, Penn, ]\Iurd., Peile. 

y E. v., Jude 13;-G. (black) ;-Latin verss. (caligo), It. (la 
caligine) ;-Hamm., Wells, Whitb., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef 
(blackest). Mack., Newc, Thom. (gloom), Murd., Dav. ;-Rob. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. II. 



19 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

mist of darkness is reserved for 
ever. 

18 For when they speak gi-eat 
swelling words of vanity, they al- 
lure through the lusts of the flesh, 
through much wantonness, those 
that were clean escaped from 
them who live in error. 

19 While they promise them 
liberty, they themselves are the 



GREEK TEXT. 

^o^g toil Gxotovg slg odava tetYipyj- 
rai. 

18 'Tnepoyxa yap [latatotyitog 
<pQeyy6i.ievoL, h£7^6Z,ovaiv iv iTtiQviu- 
aig Gapxog, dc!s2.yeiaig, tovg ovrcog 
dno^vyovfag tovg iv n/idvri dva- 
atps^o^vovg, 

19 iXevQepiav avtoig liXayyOO^ 
[i£voi, avtoL hoi'XoL hndp'XpvtEg tng 



REVISED VERSION. 

of darkness ^for ever "hath been 
reserved. 

18 For, ''speaking great swell- 
ing words of vanity, they allure 
■^in the lusts of the flesh, ''by "la- 
scivious ways, those 'who were 
^really escaped from ''those who 
live in error; 

19 'Promising them liberty, 
J while they themselves are ^ slaves 



" That tt; aiuva, (which Lachm. and Tisch. alone of the recent 
editors omit) belongs not to tc'trfiritai, but to •foi (jxdrov;, 
(= 'ever-during dark,' Milton, P. L. iii. 45. It is even trans- 
lated by an adjective, sempitema, everlasting, ewig, eternal, by 
Castal., Thorn., All., Van Ess, Dav.), may be inferred from the 
toi before ax6t. (comp. Matt. 8 : 12 ; 22 : 13 ; 25 : 30) and 
especially from the time of the verb (see N. a). It is kept in 
immediate connection with Toi exit, by the Germ, vcrss. (Mey. 
welches ewig wdkrt), Dt. ;-Erasm. and later Latin verss. (the 
Vulg. and Syr. omitting d; atiira). Wells, Dodd., Greenf, 
Sharpe, Peile {that shall be for ever). 

• The principle of Huth.'s remark at 1 Pet. 1:4: 'The per- 
fect indicates, gloriam illam calestis hcereditatis ab omni ceter- 
nitate esse paratatn, conservatam et asservatam ; comp. Ool. 
1 : 5,' is equally applicable here. See Rev. 14 : 10, N. x. 

'' The participial construction is retained by G. (in sp.), R. ;- 
Vulg., Syr., Dt., It., Fr. G. (with en ;-so Fr. M.,-S.) ;-Pagn., 
Castal., Bez., (loqicendo), Cocc, B. and L., Dodd., Wesl. and Penn 
(with by), Carpz., Mack., Thom., De AY., Kenr., Dav., Peile. 

' 'Themselves held captive in them.' See ch. 1 : 1, N. d. — 
"W., R. ;-Vulg. ;-Cocc., B. and L., Dodd., Wesl., Kenr., Huth. ;- 
some of these understanding it of the 6f7.£a2fojU£voi,, as if ^^ = £15. 

^ The dative of the instrument, and not dependent on a sup- 
plied h ; nor, indeed, is through given as a supplement in the 
original edition of B. V. Some cursive MSS. have h before 
o.at'Ky., while others have the genitive aaiXyiiai, a reading fol- 
lowed by Vulg., Syr., &c., and edited by Tisch. — Mack., Thorn., 
Sharpe. 

' See v. 2, N. k. The verss. generally retain in some way the 
force of the plural (as Dodd., 'all variety of Zosc' ; Mack, in 
the comment., all kinds of lasc. ; Thom., acts of lose), for 
which the much of E. V. was intended as a compensation 
(comp. ch. 3 : 11), and was, therefore, not marked as a supple- 
ment in the original edition. 

f See ch. 1 : 1, N. c, &c. 

^ The vrord occurs 10 times, and in E. V. is 6 times indeed, 
once certainly, once of a truth, once verily ;-Dt. (waarlijk), 
Fr. G.,-M., (veritablement), Fr. S. (reellement) ;-Oec. {aXriBCii), 
Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Bez., Par., Cocc, (vere), Engl. Ann., 



Thom., (indeed), Hamm., B. and L. rtiarg. {as Fr. S.), Bcrl. 
Bib. {wahrhaftig), Moldenh., De W., {wirklich). Mack, (act- 
ually), Scott {truly, actually), Greenf. (nDN'3), Dav.;-the lexi- 
cons. But all the recent editors (for Beng.'s final judgment, 

see the Gnomon) give up ov-tus, s^nd (except Bloomf., who saj'S : 
'I doubt not that the true reading is d%iya>, within a little, almost,' 
and then adds : 'Or perhaps the true reading may be 6%iyov . . . 
in the very same sense.') adopt ('and with reason,' says Bloomf., 
-not, however, as he intimates, oxlyov, but) 6%iyas, which, Huth. 
thinks, 'expresses time as well as measure, answering to the 
German kaiim, eben.' Vulg. has paululum (W., R., a little; 
A\\.,kaum; Kist., e6e?j) ; \t.,unpoco; Ca.s,taX.. propemodum,; 
while oiityoj (used by Aquila at Is. 10: 7 for m;D) is ex- 
plained by Beng. as parum; Dodd., almost; Gill, Mack., a 
little; Newc. Peile, 7iearly; Me}'., erst vor Kurzem; Ros., 
via; fioxii ; Penn. somewhat ; Gerl., kaum ; De W., wenig ; 
Barn., little, but a little, scarcely ;-Bretsch., Wahl, paululum, 
parum; Rob., ^little, but a little, not yet fully'; Green, little, 
scarcely. I recommend that this reading be adopted, and trans- 
lated : scarcely, and that the note : ' Or, according to some 
copies, really,' be set in the margin. E. V. marg. has: 'Or, 
for a little, or, a while, as some read ;' referring probably to 
the reading 67.iyov, which is followed by Grot, {ad tempus) and 

Wakef. {for a short time only'). Knapp, Mey., Lachm., 

Theile, Tisch., edit axofiiiyovtai (A. B. C, &c.), with the ap- 
probation of De W. and Huth. 

>■ See 1 Pet. 1 : 1, N. b, &c. 

' G., R.;-Vulg., Syr., Dt, It, Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Pagn., Castal., 
Bez. {pollicendo), Aret., Cocc, Dodd., Wakef., Thom., Sharpe, 
Kenr., Dav., Peile. 

1 R. (whereas) ;-Vulg. (cum), Syr., Fr. S. (tandis que) ;- 
Pagn., Vat., Bez., Aret., Cocc, (as Vulg.), Wakef. (whilst), 
Thom., Murd., Kenr., Dav., Peile. 

■^ The latter half of the verse shows that Soixoi has here its 
strict sense. — T., C, G., (bond servants), R. ;-French verss. ;- 
Wells (bondmen), Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, 
Thom., Scott, Clarke, Mey., Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Barn., Murd. 
Dav., Kenr., Peile (bond-slaves), Huth. The article is omit- 
ted by W. ;-foreign verss. generally ;-Dodd., Wakef., Jlack. 
Thom., Scott, Clarke, Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf, Kenr. 



20 



THE SECOM) EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. H. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

servants of corruption : for of 
whom a man is overcome, of the 
same is he brought in bondage. 

20 For if after they have es- 
caped the pollutions of the world 
through the knowledge of the Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are 
again entangled therein, and over- 
come, the latter end is worse with 
them than the beginning. 

21 For it had been better for 
them not to have known the way 
of righteousness, than, after they 
have known it, to turn from the 
holy commandment delivered 
unto them. 

22 But it is happened unto 



GREEK TEXT. 



cpdopag- u yap tig r.ttYitai, roitco 



20 El yap d7to(pvy6vrsg, to. (iLaa- 
jiata rov xoGf-iov iv tmyvaasi tov 
Y^vpiov xai (ToT)?pog 'Irjaov ^Kpiatov, 
toi'Totg & 7td?uv e^iTikaxivteg rdTLov- 
rai, ysyovev aitoig ra ia^ata jzi- 

pOJU rCdr TtpCJTCdV. 

21 xpstrrov yap ro' avroig H'h STte- 
yvidxivai tr.v bhbv trjg bixaioaH'yig, 
ri sTiiyvovOiv eTtiarps^ai sx rr.g Tta- 
paSodsla-i^g aiVotg ay lag hroXr.g. 

22- avn[3i^Yixe hk avtoig to T?,g 



REVISED VERSION. 

of corruption ; for 'by "what "any 
one "hath been overcome, 'by 
■"that "hath he Palso been <ien- 
slaved. 

20 For if, ''having escaped 
'from the pollutions of the world 
through the knowledge of the 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
they are "yet entangled again 
therein, and overcome, the ^last 
''state is ^become worse with them 
than the "first. 

21 For it ^were better for 
them not to have known the way 
of righteousness, than, ^having 
known if, to turn "back from the 
holy commandment delivered 
unto them. 

22 But ''there hath happened 



1 The use of of for by is marked by .Johnson as already ob- 
solete in his day, and is liere avoided by Guyse, Dodd., and later 
verss. 

" The pronouns <o and T'ovi'ip are treated as neuter, the force 
of the statement as a general proposition being thus strength- 
ened, by K. ;-Syr. ;-Guyse, Wakef., Mack., Kewc, Thom., 
Sharpe, Barn., Murd., Ptile. 

° An indefinite pronoun, and without a substantive, is em- 
ployed by Latin, German, and French verss., Dt., It. ;-Dodd., 
"VVakef , Thom., Penn, Barn. 

■> The proper force of the perfect is allowed m one or the 
other, or both, of these instances by Germ. ;-Hamm., B. and 
L., Beng., Moldenh., Peile, Hulh. 

p See ch. 1 : 14, N. z, &c. The xai is retained by W., R. ;- 
Latin verss. (except Castal.), Syr., Dt, It. ;-Beng., Dodd., WesL, 
Moldenh., Carpz. (vicissim), Mack., Newc, Sharpe, Murd., 
Huth. 

■i The verbal correspondence between the SolTiot and the Si- 
&ov%uta(, is preserved by W., R. ;-foreigu verss. (except Fr. G., 
-M.,-S. ;-Castal., Grecnf, ) ;-AVells, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., 
Newc, Thorn., Sharpe, Murd., Kenr., Peile, Huth. 

 The participial construction is retained in R. ;-Vulg., Fr. 
G.,-M.,-S., (apres s'tlre retires) ;-Pagn., Castal., Aret., Beng., 
Dodd., Mack., Thom. {after fleeing), Penn {after having esc), 
Bloomf., Kenr., Peile {after having emancipated themselves). 

• See ch. 1 : 4, N. p. 

I Lachm., with Huth.'s approbation, inserts ^y/twi- after KvpCm. 

° The Si does not abound (Grot.), but marks the contrast to 
the preceding clause.— T., C, G.;-Germ. {aber), Fr. G ,-M., 
{totitefois) ;-Erasm., Vat., Est., {tamen), Coco, {vero), Beng. 
(autem. Antitheton inter duo participia.'), Peile. 



' One or other, or both, of these superlative forms are retained 
by all the foreign verss. (except Vulg. and Castal.) ;-Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef., JIack., Newc, Thom., Dav., Peile. 

" Dodd., "Wesl., Wakef. (supplies condition), Mack, (supplies 
pollutions), Newc, Thom., Murd., Dav., Kenr., Peile. 

" Buttm. : 'Where ytyoi-a can be tran.^lated as a present, lam, 
it has always the more special sense, I a7n by-birth, or I hare be- 
come.'' This is invariably observed in the N.^'., nor is yiyoia ever 
in E. V. translated as the present, or iyeyoviw as the imperfect, 
of (ifil, except in the following cases, where, however, the proper 
force of ylvonai, can easily be vindicated, and is in some of 
the instances of importance to the sense ;-John 6:17; 14 : 22 ; 
Rom. 11 : 5 ; Heb. 5 : 11 (comp. v. 12) ; James 2 : 10 (conip. v. 
11); 5: 2; 2 Pet. 2: 20; 1 John 2: 18 (see N. g). Here 
the distinction is recognized by W., R. ;-aIl the foreign verss. 
(except Fr. G.,-M. ;-B. and L., Greenf.) ;-Mack., Kenr., Peile 
(though his inexact rendering, is really, is not required either 
here, or in Rom. 2 : 25 ; James 2 : 10, 11, to which he refers 
for 'a similar use of yiyoviv.''). 

y The imperfect (indicative or subjunctive) is retained by W., 
R. ;-Vulg., Germ., Dt., It. ;-Calv , Aret., Cocc, B. and L., Mol- 
denh., Wakef., Sharpe, De W., Kenr. 

' Dt. ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., (ablative absolute), Dodd., 'Vyesl., 
Mack., Thom. and Sharpe {after knowing), Slurd. {after having 
kn.), Dav. (knowing), Peile {after having had knowledge). 

" R. ;-Vulg., Syr., It. ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Hamm. {return 
backward), Jloldenh., Carpz., Murd., Kenr., Huth. (referring to 
Mark. 13: IG; Luke 8: 55). 

'' The grammatical relation between avy.pil3rixi and ro is pre- 
served by ^Y., R ;-foreign verss. (except Mey ) ;-Hamm , Mack., 
Penn, Murd., Kenr. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF TETER. CHAP. HI. 



21 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

them according to the true prov- 
erb, The dog is turned to his own 
vomit again; and, The sow that 
was washed, to her wallowing in 
the mire. 

CHAP. III. 

This second epistle, beloved, 
I now write unto you ; in both 
which I stir up your pure minds 
by way of remembrance : 

2 That ye may be mindful of 
the words which were spoken 
before by the holy prophets, and 
of the commandment of us the 
apostles of the Lord and Saviour : 



GREEK TEXT. 



duiridovg Ttapotfiiag, Kruv ETtiffT'p&^g 
sTtL To i8iov e^ipa^w xai, "Tg /loixTot- 
fiivy;, elg xv'kio^ia I'SopfSopov. 



CHAP. III. 

TATTHN r,8y], dyaTtyjroi, Ssv- 
repav v^dv ypdcpo enLato7Sav, iv atg 

jcptr/; ^idvotav, 

2 i.Lvr.adr.vai TCiV 7tpoeipv;[.ihuv pyj- 
fiUTuj^ vTto Tcji' hyiciv npotpyiriov, xai 
TTtg tlov d7to(TTO/lcjv r^uQv kvrokf.g, 
toil Ki^pi'ou xai CGiTnpog- 



REVISED VERSION. 

unto them "^that of the true prov- 
erb : ''A dog ^that "^turned back 
to his own vomit ; and : ''A sow 
that was washed, einto ""the wal- 
lowing place 'of J mire. 

CHAP. III. 

This second epistle, beloved, 
I now write unto you, in both 
which I stir up your pure "mind 
by way of remembrance, 

2 That ye may be mindful of 
the words '' spoken before by the 
holv prophets, and of the com- 
mandment of "^us the apostles, of 
the Lord and Saviour : 



' Corap. the construction in Matt. 21 : 21. Here it is copied 
as above by R. ;-Vulg.;-II.imm., De W. Jlost other verss., 
varying the construction, yet render the to by a demonstrative 
pronoun. 

'' Spoken biixux^i (Win. } 40. 2. b) ; q. d. 'See, a dog, &c.' 
— The indefinite article is used in one or other, or both, of 
these cases by W. ;-Fr. S. ;-Guyse, Jley., De W., Ivenr., Peile, 
Huth, ;-Win. 

' The participial construction is retained, or replaced by a 
relative, in Vulg., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Erasm , Calv., Vat., Castal., 
Hamm., Mey., De W., Peile, Huth. ;-\Vin. 

f See V. 21, N. z. 

^ R. ;-B. and L. {[s^est replongee] dans). 

*' Latin verss. (use volutabrum) ;-Thom. (for both nouns : 
wallowing slough), Kist. (Pfuhl), De W. ( Walzorte), Huth. 
{Ort zum ira/ze;!) ;-all the lexicons. The possessive pronoun, 
which does not appear in any foreign vers., is omitted by Dodd., 
Wakef., Kenr., Peile. 

' The genitive is retained by Latin verss., Syr. ,-De W. 
I The article is not used by "VV. j-Wakef. 

" The singular is retained by E. V. elsewhere ;-"W., C, R.;- 
foreign verss. (except Fr. M.) ;-:Mack., Newc. {understanding), 
Thom., Sharpe, Murd., Kenr, Peile (pjtrpose; in close connec- 
tion with ^vrjae. of V. 2). 

'' The participial construction is retained by It. ;-Coco., 
Wakef., Mack., Newc, Sharpe, De W., Peile. 

' De W., thinking it 'scarcely possible' {kaum mOglich) to 
take ij/iuv as in apposition with ajtoatoXuv, makes the latter, 
not iiroXijs, govern it {unsrer Aposiel), and, in regard to the 
reading, i/iup, 'of nearly all the authorities' (Huth. — This read- 
ing was followed by the Vulg., [De W. errs in adding Oec], 
and has been edited by Matth., Lachm., Tisch.), says simply 
that, 'notwithstanding the .strong evidence' in its favour, he dis- 
trusts it. Possibly he might have overcome his scruple, but for 



the argument afforded by his construction of ruiuv against the 
Petrine origin of the epistle. With less caution Dav. asserts: 
'If rjiiuiv be the true reading, the passage is insuperably strong 
against the epistle's authenticity . . . The pronoun rifiCiiv cannot 
be taken in apposition with ajtoato'Kav, tis the apostles, else it 
would precede, not follow, arcostoxuv. The examples adduced 
by Feilmoser from Acts 10: 41; 13: 32 (33); 1 Cor. 1: 18, 
where the pronoun is put in apposition with an antecedent 
word, are not analogous to the present one, which is peculiar, 
on accojnt of the tov xvpt'ov xai our^poj following. "77ie com- 
mandment of our apostles of the Lord and Saviour^' denotes, 
"the apostles who have preached to us, and were sent by the 
Lord and Saviour." Assuming this to be the correct inter- 
pretation, &c.' — somewhat slender grounds, at the best, on 
which to rest so serious a conclusion, in case the received text 
is to stand. But, besides being insutEcient, these statements 
are equally inaccurate. 1., If the simple phrase, our apostles 
(supposing that to be the true construction), is enough to prove 
that the writer was not himself an apostle, then it proves still 
more clearly, not only that he was an impostor, but that he was 
also a very foolish one. He could not otherwise, after so care- 
fully adjusting his mask (ch. 1: 1, 14, 16 — 18), thus clumsily 
'betray himself (De W.) ;-2., for the interpretation, which 
puts drtofff. in apposition with ruiCip, our commandment who 
are apostles (Luth., Calv., Wolf., Pott, Dietl.), sjjuwi' would, 
indeed, have to precede aTtoat. ;-but, 3., that this order is not 
necessary, if r/fiuv, on the contrary, be in apposition with ajtoat., 
is quite certain from the passages cited above. ' Strange is it,' 
Bloomf. also remarks, ' that such perplexitj' should have been 
occasioned to the commentators by what is so common in the 
best Greek writers, especially Thucyd., and not rare even in 
Joseph, and Philo.' ;-nor, 4., is the grammatical analogy des- 
troyed, or even at all affected, by ' the tov xvfiov xcu, aui'^poj 
following.' This addition, of the original and paramount source 
of all the ministries and revelations of the Church, serves to 
strengthen the authority of the prophets and their words, as 
well as of the apostles and their commandment, and should, 



22 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. HI. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

3 Knowing this first, that there 
shall come in the last days scoff- 
ers, walking after their own lusts, 

4 And saying, Where is the 
promise of his coming ? for since 
the fathers fell asleep, all things 
continue as they were from the 
beginning of the creation. 

5 For this they willingly are 
ignorant of, that by the word of 
God the heavens were of old, and 



GREEK TEXT. 



3 toirco Ttpcytov yivudxovtsg, btt 
sT^vaovtai en ia^dtov tuv yi^uepwi' 
siiTUxXxtai, xaTa tag iSiag ainrdij' ini- 
dvfMag 7topev6iJ£V0L, 

4 xai TisyovTeg, Uov earn' ri sTtay- 
yeTda tng Ttapovdiag aiVou; d^' r,g 
yap ol Ttatipsg ixoifirfiyjffav, Txdvta 
ovra hia^VEL dn' dpj^rig xtideag. 

5 Aa^'OaT'et yap avrovg tov-to 6e- 
T^vtaug, bxi ovpavoi rssav ixTtja2xu, xal 



REVISED VERSION. 

3 Knowing this first, that there 
shall come ''at the end of the days 
'mockers, walking According to 
their own lusts, 

4 And saying : Where is the 
promise of his coming? for, since 
the fathers fell asleep, all things 
continue ?thus from the beginning 
of the creation. 

5 For ""of this they are willingly 
ignorant, that, 'by the word of 
God, J heavens were ''from of old, 



■^ Questions of interest, which this is not the place to discuss, 
respecting the chronological standpoint of the apostles, do yet 
demand from the translator the utmost exactness in rendering 
the apostolic designations of time. See ,1 John 2 : 18, N. b. 
At Heb. 1 : 1, the reading now generally preferred (Griesb., Sch., 
Lachm., Tisch., &c.), f?t' iexatov ti^v r-fi^puv rovtav, is by Owen 
translated, ' in extremo dienim istorum, in the end of these 
days;' by Beng., 'in novissimo dierum horuni.' Sept. Num. 
24 : 14, i7t iazatov 'tHiv ^fiipuv = 'ultimo tempore dierum' 
(Schleus.). Here also the adj. agrees, not with i;iiej>a.s, but 
Zpovov or fiipovi understood. — Syr., Dt. (in het laatste der da- 
gen), Ft. S. (vers la Jin des jours) ;-Oalv., Pise, Cocc, (in ex- 
tremo [postremo] dierum), Hamm., Wakef , (in the end of tlie 
[these\ days), Berl. Bib. (am Ende der Tage), Mack, (in the 
last of the d.), Peile (toward the close of the d.) ;-Win. (am 
letzten der Tage). Lachm. and Tisch. read io;^ai'wi/. 

" E. v., Jude 18, (the word occurs nowhere else) ; for the 
kindred noun ififtai/y/iuv, occurring only at Heb. 11 : S6, E. V. 
has mockings ; for the verb i/iTtal^co, which occurs 13 times, 

everywhere to mock -j-French verss. (moqneurs) ;-Dodd. 

Before ifirtalxtai, all (for Beng., see Gnomon.) the recent editors 
insert the words iv ifiTtaiyfi-ovri, on the authority of A. B. C, &c., 
Syr., Arr., &c. I recommend that this reading be adopted, and 
that the version stand : mockers in mockery. Sharpe (in scoff- 
ing), Kenr. (allows that this is 'a more strict translation' than 
the Vulg. in deceptione) ;-Rob. 

' E. v., w. 13, 15 ; very often elsewhere ;-R. ;-Vulg. (juxta), 
Syr., It. (secondo), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (selon) ;-Erasra., Vat., (as 
Vulg.), Calv., Aret., Cocc, (secundum), Dodd., Murd. 

^ E. v., often. There is no verbal supplement in R. (so) ;- 
Vulg. (sic), Syr., Dt. (alzoo [gelijk]), It. (m un medesimo 
state), Fr. S. (au mime etat) ;-Erasm., Calv., (as Vulg.), 
Pagn., Bez., Cocc, (ita), Beng. (-sic. Adverbium praegnans. 
i. e. sic permanent, ut permanent.'), Wakef. (just the same), 
Mack, (as at), Greenf., De W. (so ;-he censures the supplement 



us fiv, and, like Beng., explains the particle as involving rather, 
wie es eben ist), Murd. (jmt as), Kenr. (as /?.), Huth. ('so : 
in dem Bestande, den es einmal hat, wie es gegenwartig ist.'). 

'' Newc To the grammatically allowable interpretation : 
'They that are of this mind are ignorant' (Hamm., Homb., Pott, 
Ros., Mey., Bloomf., Barn., Huth.;-Bretsch., "\Yahl), De W. 
objects the elsewhere (in the N. T.) unexampled use of eixa, 
the arrangement of the words, the analogy of v. 8, and the com- 
parative feebleness of the sense. 

' This inverted order was probably adopted, as it is hero re- 
tained, for the sake of obviating the misconception that might 
arise in English from translating Jidy^j- immediately before the 
Civ of V. (W., R., &c.). T., C, for the same purpose, render 
Si' uv, by the which things. (It is not thought that JIack.'s 
explanation of the relative as a pluralis excellentiae referring 
to xdy^, or else as representing 'two persons, God and his Word,'' 
need be any hindrance to the above arrangement.) As Tcj rov 
®. ^dyo), moreover, relates equally to the two previous clauses, 
it ought not to be specially attached to either. 

' These articles are, one or more or all of them, omitted by 
W., R. ;-Hamm., Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Clarke, All., Penn, 
Gerl., De W., Murd., Kenr., Peile ;-Win. — Before oipavoi and 
y,}, or yij alone, Wakef., Thom., Penn, De W., Stier, introduce 
the indefinite article ; while for iJSaro; here and iSa-tt, in v. 6 it 
may be observed, that they stand in opposition, as an element 
of nature, to the avpi of v. 7. See also N. 1. 

 'From the beginning, from the day of their creation.' See 
ch. 2 : 3, N. o. The word is found only in this epistle. — Syr. 
(=Greenf OlOC), Dt. (van over long-). It. (ab antico), Fr. 

G.,-M., (de toute anciennete), Fr. S. (d'anciennete) ;-Hamm., 
Cocc (ab olim ;-for the prins and olim of other verss.), Berl. 
Bib., Beng., Huth., (von Alters her;-' not,' says Huth., 'vor 
Alters, ehedem''), Gill (from the beginning). 



accordingly, as in our Text, Beng., Sch., Bloomf, be set of by 
a comma from the clause preceding. The prophets of the 0. T. 
were Christ's prophets (1 Pet. 1 : 11); and, besides, it is by 



no means improbable, that the reference is rather to those of 
the Christian Church. Comp. Eph. 2 : 20; 3: 5; 4: 8—11; 
1 Tim. 1; 18; 4:1. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. III. 



23 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

the earth standing out of the 
water and in the water : 

6 Whereby the world that 
then was, being overflowed with 
water, perished : 

7 But the heavens and the 
earth, which are now, by the 
same word are kept in store, re- 
served unto fire against the day 
of judgment and perdition of un- 
godly men. 



GREEK TEXT. 



yn e^ vSatog, xai 8c v^atog avveata- 
(7a, ta Toi Qeov Tjoya, 

6 hi tiv 6 t&TB xoOfiog v8atL xat- 
axkvaQeic, aiuJketo- 

7 o\ hi vvv ovpavoi xal n yri avtov 
?u6yo) tedyjaavpiaiievoi Eiai, nvpl tvi- 
poifiei'OL eic, hft^pav xpiasidg xat OTtu- 
/Ifiag tav daelSuv drdpoiTtuv. 



REVISED VERSION. 

and J earth ' out of •" water and 
"by J water "consisting ; 

6 "Whereby the world that 
then was, being Pflooded with 
water, perished : 

7 But the heavens i which are 
now, and the earth, "'have by "his 
word been 'laid up in store, "being 
reserved "for fire ^unto the day 
of judgment and ^destruction of 
^the ungodly men. 



1 'Earth out of water and by water ;-the divine word ac- 
complishing its end by means the most unlikely (Job 26 : 7, 8 ; 
1 Cor. 1 : 27, 28. Comp. a similar collocation in 2 Cor. 4:6: 
ix exotovi tw5.), even (v. 6) by such as were then made sub- 
servient to a directly opposite effect. So far is it from being 
true, that the perpetuity of the universe, any more than its 
existence, is the result of powers inherent in itself, and independ- 
ent of Him who in the beginning created (Gen. 1: 1), and 
still continually itpholdeth (Heb. 1 : 3), all things.' — yiq and i| 
i'Saroj stand close together in "W., C, R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., 
Dt ;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Bez., Carpz., Mack. It may 
be added in favour of this arrangement, that it obviates the too 
close connection between water and the subsequent relative. 

° See ch. 1 : 3, N. k. W., C. and R. (through) ;-Vulg. (per), 
Syr. (=lir), Dt. marg. (door), Fr. S. (an moyen de) ;-Oec. 

(H yij i| vSato; fiiv, lij ^| iiXixov aitCov, Si' vSatOi Si 05 8ia- 
tiXixoi. i'Sup yap to avvixo" 'f^" y^", xtf..), Erasm., Calv., Vat., 
Cocc, Beng., (as Vulg.), Engl. Ann., Gill, ('or, by'), Berl. Bib., 
Moldenh., Stolz, Van Ess, De W., (durch), Dodd., Wakef. (by 
means q/";-and so Trol., Bloomf , Murd.), Mack, (as fV.), Scott, 
Clarke, Barn, (through or by), Kenr., Peile, Huth. ('i? regards 
the material, Sid the means.') ;-Schottg., Tittm. (-Nam f| i'Sa- 
foj signiflcat, ex aqua, tanquam materia, terram ortam ; quod 
factum est St' iiSarof, ipsius aquae vi, omnipotente voluntate di- 
vina.'), Rob. 

° E. V. marg. ; Col. 1 : 17 ;-R. (through) ;-Latin verss., ex- 
cept Carpz., (use consisto). It., French verss. (use subsister) ;- 
Engl. Ann., Gill, (as one rendering), Hamm., Dodd. (subsist- 
ing -^-this verb is used by Scott and Clarke), Pyle, Jlack. (co?i- 
si^ts ; in the comment., subsists), Bloomf., Barn, ('consisting 
or constituted'), Peile (held together) --ao lexicon justi&es the 
rendering of E. V. 

° Whatever ambiguity exists here as to the antecedent, is not 
greater than in the Greek, where Si uv (see v. 5. N. i) has been 
referred to ovpai-oc,' (Vat.), to ovp. xai y^ (Oec, Dt. Ann., Cocc, 
Wolf., Beng., Wesl., Trol., De W.), to ovp. xai yrj and t^ toi 
®iov x6yii> (Moldenh.), to the double vSato; (Calv., Guyse, Pott, 
Clarke, Mey., Barn., JIurd., Kenr., Huth. who would include 
■re, toy 0. >..), and to the constitution of things just described 
(Pagn., Bez., Pise, Grot., B. and L., Dodd., Newc, Ros.). 

P While the Greek verb is not found elsewhere in the N. T., 



the cognate noun, occurring 4 times, is always in E. V. (as ch. 
2: 5), flood. — Latin verss. (Mmractows ;-except Carpz., diluvio). 
Germ, (mit der Siindfluth), Dt. (met het water van den zond- 
vloed bedekt zijnde). It. (diluviato), Fr. G.,-M., (submerge 
des eaux du deluge), Fr. S. (ensevelis) ;-Dodd., Thom., (de- 
luged), Wakef. (by a flood). Mack, (overflooded), Kenr., Peile 
(under a deluge). 

■J The grammatical relation of vvv to ovparoo is retained by 
W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Cocc. (restores the 
Vulg. coeli autem, qui nunc sunt, et terra, for the qui autem 
nunc sunt coeli ac terra, of other verss.), Berl. Bib., Beng., 
Moldenh., Mack., De W., Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

 See oh. 2 : 17, N. a, &c. Bong, (gesparet worden sind). 
Peile notes the 'appearance of tautology which our Translators 
have fastened upon the passage, by rendering tiSrjaavfi. ^lai as 
though the Apostle had written Orjaavpi^ovrai,, are being kept 
in store,' and thinks, that 'a greatly improved version' is got 
by connecting jtvpi with tiOrja. lial (Mey., Lachm., Hahn, 
Theile), stored with fire. But since, according to the uniform 
usage of the verb, tidr^a. Tivpl could still mean only stored for 
fire, it is better to regard tiBriaawfitsiiivoi tirsi as declaring the 
accomplished, permanent act ; jtvfi irj^ovfiiroi, the present de- 
sign of God in that act. 

' The reading t^ avt^ xdy^ (A., Vulg.) is edited by Lachm. 
and Hahn. 

' In the other 7 cases of Stjeavpi^a E. V. preserves the idea 
of laying up (Matt. 6 : 19, &c.), treasuring up (Rom. 2 : 5), 
heaping treasure together (.James 5 : 3). It is given here also 
by the Latin verss., Syr., Dt. (als een schat weggelegd), It., 
Fr. S. (mis d part) --Dodd., Gill, Wakef, Mack., Thom., Scott, 
Clarke, Barn., Murd. 

» It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Whitb., Dodd., Mack., Thom., Murd. 

' Fr. G.,-M. ;- Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thom., Mey., All., Stolz, 
Penn, De W., Murd., Kenr. 

" E. v., ch. 2: 4, 9; Jude6; &c ;-R. ;-Thom. (for), Sharpe 
(until), Kenr. Others have on, at. 

* G.;-Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Newc, Thom., Sharpe. 

y 'Who now mock at these terrors.' Calv. : 'Quoniam autem 
cum impiis habebat negotium, de ipsorum negotio nominatim 
loquitur.' Or as Beng.: 'Horum ipsorum, et reliquorum.' — 
B. ;-foreign verss. (except Greenf.) ;-Wakef., Thom., (these). 



24 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. HI. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

8 But, beloved, be not igno- 
rant ot" this one thing, that one 
day is with the Lord as a thou- 
sand years, and a thousand years 
as one day. 

9 The Lord is not slack con- 
cerning his promise, as some men 
count slackness ; but is long- 
suffering to US-ward, not wiihng 
that any should perish, but that 
all should come to repentance. 

10 But the day ot" the Lord 
will come as a thief in the night ; 
in the which the heavens shall 
pass away with a great noise, 
and the elements shall melt with 
fervent heat, the earth also and 
the works that are therein shall 
be burned up. 



GREEK TEXT. 

8 "Ev 8e toirro fin "kavQavtrid I'/ciag, 
aryanYiToi, on /.ua r.uspa Ttapa Kipi'w 

fiia. 

9 01) ^pai^i'VSL 6 Kipiog Tng eitay- 
yeTlag ag tivsg ^pabvTr,Ta riyovvTar 
ctX/la fiaxpodvfm ei'g 'hfioig, fch jSov^iO- 
fiei^og tivag (XTtolsodai, dX/la Ttdvtag 
elg iietdvoiav ;^opr,o'a(. 

10 "H^et bs 7] r^ispa Kvpiov og 
xXkittYig £v vvxti, sv '(i ot ovpavoL 
poL^y;8ov Ttaps^^iooi'Tai, aroi^sia 6e 
xavaov(.i£va Xvdrjcrovtai, xai yn xai 
ra iv avrTi epya xataxanaerai. 



REVISED VERSION. 

8 But ^of this one thing be *3'e, 
beloved, not ignorant, that one 
day is with the Lord as a thou- 
sand years, and a thousand years 
as one day. 

9 ''The Lord is not ''tard}' con- 
cerning his promise, as some ' ac- 
count ■'tardiness; but is long- 
suffering "^towards us, not willing 
that any should perish, but that 
all should come to repentance. 

] But the day of the Lord 
will come as a thief *'in the night ; 
in s which the heavens shall pass 
away with a ''rushing noise, 'but 
the elements shall J'be dissolved 
with fervent heat, and the earth 
and the works '' therein shall be 
burned up. 



 Literally : let not this one thing- escape you. But it is more 
irnportant to preserve the reference to v. 5. In this form, how- 
ever, or as above, the Greek order of the verb and subject is 
retained by R. ;-Latin and Germ, verss., Syr., Dt., It. ;-B. and 
L., Dodd., Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Murd., Kenr. Comp. E. V., 
V. 5. 

' 'In opposition to the wilful ignorance of the mockers, v. 5.' 
— The pronoun, or the force of it, is expressed by W. -j-Latin 
and Germ, verss. (except Moldenh.), Syr., Dt., It, Fr. G. and 
-M. (improperly marking it as a supplement);-B. and L., Guyse, 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Thom., Scott, Clarke. 

'' Or, The Lord of the promise is not tardy. This construc- 
tion, allowed by Win., is by many preferred. Thus 0. ;-Fr. 
S.;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., (quipromisit), Engl. Ann. (allows it). 
Mack., Sharpe;-Bretsch. ('non cunctabitur dominus promissio- 
nis, i. e. vel : dominus qui promissionena dedit et ratam faciet, 
vel: dominus promissus ipse.'). "Wahl gives both construc- 
tions. The primary sense of /SpaSiJj'u (see the only other in- 
stance in the N. T., 1 Tim. 3 : 15) suits the context better than 
the secondary, and appears in W. ;-foreign verss. ;-Dodd., Wesl., 
AVakef., Mack., Newc, Penn, Sharpe. Trol., Bloomf., JIurd., 
Kenr. ;-Pas., Leigh., Suic, SchOttg., Schleus., L. and S., Green, 
Schirl. 

' For the omission of men, see W., B. ;-foreign verss. gen- 
erally ;-Dodd., Mack., and later English verss., except Sharpe. 
For account, see ch. 2 : 13, N. u;- Wakef., Mack., Peile. 

'' See N. b, and, in addition to the authorities there cited, 
Rob., who conforms to E. V. in his rendering of the verb — 
(although to be slack is not synonymous with to be slow, to de- 
lay, the other explanations he gives)— but translates this clause, 
'as some count it tardiness,' and refers to the previous article 
on /SpaSiSvu. 



' Dodd. and later verss., except such as follow Lachm.'s read- 
ing Si ifiii ( Vu\g. propter vos). Tisch. has ci; v^a.;. 

f The reading iv vvxtl is marked by Beng. as inferior in ma- 
nuscript authorit}' to that which omits these words. They are 
bracketed by Knapp and Bloomf. (the latter remarking that 
they 'are probably an interpolation from 1 Thess. 5 : 2'). and 
cancelled by all the other recent editors. I recommend the 
following as a marginal note : 'Many copies omit the words, in 
the night.' 

^ W.;-Dodd., and the later verss., though some render iv y, 
lohen. 

^ In poi^ijbov there is an onomatopoeia, which most verss. 
have sought to preserve : — W. (great birr) ;-Germ. (grossem 
Kraclien), Dt. {een gedruisch), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (un bruit sif- 
flant de tempete) ;-Pagn.. Beza, Pise, Vitr., (stridore), Beng. 
('vocabulum potfoj habet literas stridorem referentes sagittae, 
aquae, &c.'), Thom. (a crashing roar), Trol., Peile, (use whiz- 
zing), 'Bloomf. (a mighty crash — properly w/i/z), Stier (Cre- 
rdusch) ;-L. and S. (with a rushing sound or motion), Rob. 
{with rushing sound — leith a crash). 

' The connection by di indicates that this clause completes, 
by addition and contrast, the description of what shall befall 
the heavens. — R. ;-Latin verss. (except that Castal. and Oarpz. 
omit the particle), Syr., Germ.j-Moldenh., De W., Huth. 

' The proper meaning of the verb, and the passive form, are 
recognized (though some translate as if -kvB. were in the 
middle) by E. V., vv. 11, 12;-W., R. ;-Latin and French verss. 
(except Oarpz.), Syr., Dt. marg.. It. ;-Hamm., Wells, Berl. 
Bib., Beng., Dodd., Moldenh., Mack., Newc, Thom., Jley., Penn, 
De W., Barn., Murd. 

k There is nothing supplied by Syr. ;-Dodd. (its works), 
Moldenh., Mack., Newc, Thom., Sharpe, De W.. Murd., Peile 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. HI. 



25 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

11 Seein<r then that all these 
tilings shall be dissolved, what 
manner o/jjersons ought ye to be 
in all holy conversation and god- 
liness, 

12 Looking for and hasting 
unto the coming of the day of 
God, wherein the heavens being 
on fire shall be dissolved, and the 
elements shall melt with fervent 
heat? 

13 Nevertheless we, according 
to his promise, look, for new hea- 
vens and a new earth, wherein 
dwelleth righteousness. 

14 Wherefore, beloved, seeing 
that ye look for such things, be 
diligent that ye may be found of 
him in peace, without s^Jot, and 
blameless. 

15 And account that the long- 
suffering of our Lord is salvation ; 



GREEK TEXT. 

11 Tovtov ovv Ttavtciv "kvo^-iiviov, 
TtotaTtovg hei ii7(up;^etv vi-iaq iv hyi- 
aig dpaatpo^aii xai evGelJeiaig, 

12 TtpoG^oxQvtag xai CTtsv^ovtag 
triv napovaiav trig tov Qsov rifiepag, 
8t r,v ovpavoL Ttupovfif rot ?uv6r,aovTai, 
xai aroi^ela xavaov^eva tryittau; 

13 Katroi'5 hk ovpavovg xai yr,v 
xaivr^ xara To sTtdyyETij-ia awov 
Ttpoa^oxcjiiev, iv oTg SixaioGivri xat- 
oixei. 

14 Sio, dsyanrfCoi, tavta TtpoaSo- 
xuvreg, CTtovSaaare darttXct xai d^cj- 
fiyiroi avroj evpednvaL ev elpr^vri, 

15 ;:at rr^v rov Kvpiov r^uv jia- 
xpoBv^av, GcoTYipiav nyslade' xadcog 



REVISED VERSION. 

11 'Since then all these things 
"are dissolving, what manner of 
persons ought ye to be in ^all holy 
"behaviour and godliness, 

12 Looking for and •'hastenina; 
the coming of the day of God, '^m 

\ consequence of which the heavens 
being on fire shall be dissolved, 
and the elements  melt with 
fervent heat. 

13 '^But, ' according to his pro- 
mise, 'we look for new heavens 
and a new earth, wherein dwell- 
eth righteousness. 

14 Wherefore, beloved, "look- 
ing for "these things, be diligent 
that * spotless and blameless j'e 
may be found ^by him in peace, 

15 And y the long-suffering of 
our Lord account salvation ; even 



1 Dodd., Newc, Penn., Sharpe, Kenr. 

"■ ' Their doom being even now written on them, and work- 
ing in them.' Comp. 1 Cor. 17 : 31 ; 1 John 2 : 17.— The 
present time is emploj-ed by Dt., Fr. S. ;-Era-m., Pagn., Calv., 
Vat., Cocc., (solvantur ;-for the Vulg. dissolvenda sinl), Bong, 
('praeseiis: quasi id jam fiat.'), Wesl. {are dissolved •,-^lnck. 
also gives this as the strict rendering), Greenf. (CImII), De 

W., Dietl.j Huth.;-AYin. (atifgelost wird. He explains thus: 
' That is, naturally destined to dissolution ; the fate of dissolu- 
tion inhering as it were in these things already.'). 

" Supplied as a compensation for the two plural forms. Comp. 
oh. 2 : 18. 

° See ch. 2 : 7, N. 1. 

p This interpretation of the STtivh. appears in E. V. marg. ;- 
Fr. M.,-S. ;-Erasm., Vat.. Casta!., Engl. Ann. and Gill (as al- 
lowable), Hamm., Schmidt, Cocc, "Wells, B. and L., Berl. Bib., 
Wolf., Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Mack, and Barn, (as the primary 
meaning), Bloomf., De W. (e.xplaining thus: 'In this way they 
hasten it, that through repentance and holiness they complete 
the work of salvation, and render no longer necessary that 
juaxpoStJ/ti'a of V. 9.'), Peile, Huth. ;-Steph. 

■J At' ijv is not =|y J (v. 10), but, as De W. and Huth. ob- 
serve, marks the occasion or cause. Comp. Joel 2 : 11 ; Mai. 
3 : 2.— W., C, R., {by) j-Vulg. {per). Dt. marg. {door), It. 
{per), Fr. G. {par), Fr. S. (d cause de) ;-Erasm., Vat., Castal., 
Grot., Wolf.. Carpz., {as Vidg.), Calv., Est., Cocc, Beng., 
{propter). Gill ('or, bif), Mey., All., De W., {durch), Scholef., 
Kenr. {by), Peile {consequent on), Dietl., Huth,, {urn dessent- 
willen) ; — many of these referring f,v to Ttafovalav. 



' Most translate according to the reading raxr^ottai (C, Vulg., 
Lachm,), or take trixirai itself in the future sense. 'Interim,' 
says Wolf., 'nihil est mutandum. Patut enim, Apostolum in 
duobus his commatibus, data opera, nunc praesenti •Kvofiivuiv et 
trixitai,, nunc future wBriaftai, de ea re uti, quae tam certa fu- 
tura erat, ac si jam fieret.' — Cocc. {liquescunt), Penn, De W. 

 G., R. ;-foreign verss generally ;-Hanim., Dodd., Wakef., 
Penn, Murd., Kenr. 

' The Greek does not warrant the emphatic position of the 
pronoun, nor is empha.sis of any kind allowed to the subject of 
the verb in W., T., G., R. ;-any foreign verss. (except B. and 
L.) ;-Wesl., Mack., Newc, Sharpe, Kenr. 

" The participial construction is retained by W., R. ;-A'ulg., 
Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Cocc, Whitb., 
Beng., Dodd,, Mack,, Ros,, Sharpe, Kenr. See v. 17, N. g. 

' A demonstiative is employed by W., R. ;-foreign verss. 
(except Mey.);-Whitb., and the later English. 

" This personal holiness being the matter of immediate con- 
cern and the condition of future peace, the original order is 
properlj' followed (more or less closely) by R. ;-all foreign 

verss. (except Greenf.) ;-Mack., Kenr. "AaTtiXoi, is rendered 

by an adjective in E. V., -lames 1 : 27 ;-W,, R, ;-Latin and Ger- 
man verss., Dt., It.;-Dodd,. Mack., Newc, Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., 
Kenr., Peile. 

=■ See ch. 2 : 19, N. 1. 

y Here again the Greek order and construction are better, 
and are followed, one or the other or both, more strictly than 
in E, v., by W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Fr. M,, B. and L, );- 
Dodd,, Wesl., Wakef. (supplies to be before salcation ■-a.nd so 
Thorn., Scott, Penn, Murd.), Mack, (supplies to be for), Sharpe, 
Kenr., (supply as). 

4 



26 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PETER. CHAP. HI. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

even as our beloved brother Paul 
also, according to the wisdom 
given unto him, hath written unto 
you ; 

16 As also in all his epistles, 
speaking in them of these things ; 
in which are some things hard to 
be understood, which they that 
are unlearned and unstable wrest, 
as they do also the other scriptures, 
unto their own destruction. 

17 Ye therefore, beloved, see- 
ing ye know these things before, 
beware lest ye also, being led 
away with the error of the wick- 
ed, fall from your own steadfast- 
ness. 

18 But grow in grace, and in 
the knowledge of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ. To him 
he glory both now and for ever. 
Amen. 



GREEK TEXT. 

xai 6 dyaTtyirog vifiajv dSe/l^og Uai- 
/log xata trd' avra boBsiaav Go^iav 
e'ypa'4'EV vfdv, 

16 (j$ xal sv Ttdaaig taig eTtiaro- 
Tuatg, 7^a7.i,iV bv aitaic, Ttfpi toituv 
h o'lg iati hvavoritd tiva, a. ol dfia- 
deig xai daTcpixroL arpe/^Xorca', og 
;cat Tag ?Mi7tag ypa<pag, 7tpo$ T'hv t&- 
av avtcbv aTtci/ieiav. 

17 'Tf-iEig ovv, dyaTtyjroi, Ttpoyu- 
vuaxoi'Teg ^v^-daceads, iva (iri rri 
rcov dQeaiix^i Ttkdvri avvaTtaxOevrsg, 
BXTtiayytE rov iBiov aty;piy^iov- 



IS av^dvete 8s ev ;tuptTt xal yvoy 
Oei tov Ylv^iov r^uv xai Gi,ytr,pog 'Iy;- 
aoi) XpiCTori. aiTQ n &^a xal vvv 
xal eig r^epav aicsvog. dfir^. 



REVISED VERSION. 

as ^ also our belovedbrotherPaul, 
according to the wisdom given 
unto him, ^wrote unto you, 

16 As also in all ""the epistles, 
speaking in them of these things ; 
■^among which are some things 
hard to be understood, which ''the 
unlearned and unstable wrest, as 
^ also the other scriptures, unto 
their own destruction. 

17 fPo }'e therefore, beloved, 
eknowing these things before, be- 
ware lest,'' 'carried away with 
the error of the Jlawless, j-e fall 
from your own steadfastness ; 

IS But grow in ''the grace and 
knowledge of our Lord and Sa- 
viour Jesus Christ. To him' "the 
glory both now and "unto ^the 
day of eternity. Amen. 



^ See ch. 1 : 14, N. z, &c. 

' See ch. 1 : 14, N. a, &c. W., T., G. ;-Wakef., Murd. 
' 'Known as his.' — The pronoun is not introduced by "W., T., 
C, G., R. ;-Latin and German verss. (except Jloldenh., All.), 
Dt. ;-Kenr. Lachm. and Tisch., with Huth.'s approbation, 
cancel the tali, according to A. B. C. 

° According to the received test (and Lachm. alone adopts 
h als), the antecedent is, not the epistles, but the things of 
■n-hich they treat.— T., C, G. ;-Dt. (in welke diiigen), Fr. S. ;- 
Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Engl. Ann., Hamm., Guyse. Many supply 
things, or otherwise indicate the reference. 

'' The article is retained by R. ;-Germ., Dt., It., French verss. ;- 
Dodd.. Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Scott, Clarke, 
Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, De W., Dav., Kenr. Most others avoid 
the periphrasis of E. V. 

« R. ;-foreign verss. (except Fr. G.,-M. ;-Moldenh.) ;-Wakef., 
Kenr. 

f Wakef., Peile. 

^ See V. 14, N. u. Here also the participial construction is 
retained by VV., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Dt., It. ;-Calv., Castal., Coco., 
Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

 There is nothing for also in W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr. ;-Pagn., 
Castal., B. and L., Dodd., Carpz., Newc, Thom., Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, Murd., Kenr., Peile. It might, indeed, stand as a com- 
pensation for the avv of (jvcarta;^. (Erasm., &c., simid cum aliis ; 
better Luth., <S;c., sammt ihnen, i. e. tZ>v aBtafnav ; best of all, 
Dt. and the later German verss. See N. i), were it not for the 
undue prominence into which it brings the subject of txrtEOJjre. 
' E. v.. Gal. 2: I3;-T., C, G,, {plucked away) ;-Dt. {mede 
afgerukt), It. (trasportati iiisieme), Fr. G.,-M., {etant empor- 
tes avec les autres) ;-Calv. (simul ahacti), Grot., Ros., (use ab- 



ripi), Berl. Bib. {mit hingeruckt), Moldenh. {mit hingerissen), 
Mey., All., Stolz, Goss., De W., Huth., {mitforlgerissen), Mack. 
{being carried away with others), Pylc, Thom., Bloomf., (use 
the verb, to hurry au-ay), Peile. There is nothing for being in 
R. ;-Bloomf., Peile. 

i Seech. 2: 7, N. m. 

'' The double reference of tov Knp. xtx. is adopted by 
Germ., Dt., It. ;-Erasm. and the later Latin verss. (omit the 
second i?i of the Vulg.), Grot., Mey., (make ;^a'p. xai yv. a hen- 
diadys), Wakef, Newc, Thom., Ros.. All., Penn (m gr. and 
kn. ;-so Sharpe, Peile), Bloomf. {ill the gr. and the kn.), De W. 

I There is no copula supplied in the Latin verss. (except 
Carpz.), Syr., Fr. S. ;-Greenf , De W. Murd. takes it affirm- 
atively {whose is). See Rev. 1 : 6, N. d, &c. 

" Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Wesl., Wakef., Thom., Greenf., Murd., 
Peile. See Rev. 1 : 6, N. e, &c. 

" W. {into), R. ;-Yulg. {in diem). Syr. (= Greenf. 7), Germ. 

(zu), Dt. {in den dag), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., {jiisqu^d) ;-Erasm., 
Calv., Vat., Castal., Cocc, (as Vulg.), Engl. Ann., Wesl., Gill, 
Scott, Clarke, Murd.. {to). Mack., Kenr., All. {as Germ.), 
Sharpe {until). 

P The peculiarity of the phrase, rjii. aiujo;, which occurs 
nowhere else, is preserved by W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr. (^Murd. the 
days of et.), Dt, Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., Engl. 
Ann., Cocc, Beng. {'■diem aeternitatis. Congruit haec appellatio 
cum eo sensu, quem apostolus hoc toto capite habuit. Aeternitas 
est dies, sine nocte, merus ac perpetuus.'), Wesl., Gill (' or to 
the day of et.'), Mack., Scott. Clarke, Greenf, Kenr., Peile 
{the day of everlasting Ufe), Huth. See Jude 25, last note, &c. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. I. 



27 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMES' VERSION. 

CHAP. I. 

That which was from the be- 
ginning, which we have heard, 
which we have seen with our 
eyes, which we have looked up- 



GREEK TEXT. 

CHAP. I. 

"0 '^HN 0.71 dpjrr.g, o dxyjxoa^isv, 
ii^pdxa^iev rolg 6(pda/[.^oig r^uv, 6 



REVISED VERSION. 

CHAP. I. 

"What was from the begin- 
ning, "what we have heard, "what 
we have seen with our eyes, 
"what we ^ gazed upon, and our 



» E. V. translates the 6 at the beginning of vv. 1, 3, as a com- 
pound relative, and in the intermediate instances as a simple 
relative. This difference of treatment, which appears also in 
the older English versions, has its ground solely in taste or a 
supposed convenience, not at all in the Greek Text, and is still 
further objectionable as limiting tliat which was from the be- 
ginning to what was heard, &c. This limitation, indeed, or 
identification, suits the interpretation which refers the first 
clause, equally with the rest, to what 'occurred as a manifesl- 
alion of what the Son of God was' (Barn.), 'from the begin- 
ning of the [preaching of the] Gospel' (Bloomf.). But Bloomf. 
strangely errs when he says that this ' must be the sense,' and 
that it has been ' expressed by almost all the best Interpreters.' 
The truth is that, with the exception of Socinus, Whitb., Bens., 
SchOttg., Semler, Lange, Ros., Paulus, there is scarcely one 
interpreter of any note, from Aug. to Diist., who does not insist 
on taking ait dp;t>55 ^s synonymous with h afxy "f John 1 : 1 
(which also Grot, concedes), and the rp of v. 1 as nothing 
different from the fiv of v. 2 or of John 1 : 1. Barn, objects 
that, if the writer had ' meant to apply this terra (6) directly 
to the Son of God, he would have used the masculine pronoun.' 
But, 1., for the use of the neuter in a personal reference, see 
eh. 5: 4; Matt. 1: 20 comp. Luke 1 : 35; John 3: 6; 1 Cor. 
1 : 27, 28 ; 2 Thess. 2 : 6 comp. 7 ; Ileb. 7:7; &c. (Win. § 27. 
4.) ;-and, 2., the ground of this use in the present case is found 
in Calv.'s note: 'Duae naturae personam unam constituunt, 
et unus est Christus, qui a patre prodiit ut carnem nostram in- 
dueret.' And so Bez., and others. The other reference, more- 
over, unwarrantably makes riv=iyhn:o, 'occurred' (Barn.), 
'took place' (Bloomf.). — The 6 is rendered throughout vv. 1, 
3, as a compound neuter relative, by the Latin and French verss., 



Dt, It. ;-Dodd., Moldenh. and the later Germ, verss., Wakef., 
Thom., Greenf., Sharpe, Peile (except in the two last instances 
in V. I). 

i" These aorists, like the E^avrpiie?! of v. 2, serve to establish 
the historical bridge between the eternal preexistence of the 
Word (5 ^i; aft a.fx-) and the present qualifications of the 
apostles as His witnesses {axy^xoafitv, iupoxa^tr). Diist. alone 
notes this change of time, but, following the verbal succession, 
he represents the perfects as the link between S ?iv and iBtaa. 

That ^taaBai, which .sometimes, indeed, seems to be little 

more than ibilv or opav, has here its own proper force, i. e., ac- 
cording to Tittm.'s explanation of the word, ' notionem studii, 
intentionis animi ejus, qui aliquid intuetur, ut conspiciat et 
cognoscat,' is generally acknowledged, but is not sufficiently 
indicated in E. V. W. {beheld) ;-Vulg. {perspexiimis), Germ. 
{heschauet haben), Dt. (aanschouwd hebben), It. (abbiamo 
conteinplalo), French verss. (aeons contcmple) ;-Oec. (^tacrSoi. 
yap iati to ficfa ^av/iatos xai ^dji^ovi opaf.), Erasm., Vat., (as 
Vidg.), Pagn., Castal., Bez., Aret., Grot., (speclavimus), Calv. 
{intuiti sumus), Engl. Ann. ('wishly and deliberately'), Cocc, 
Beng., Carpz., Ros., (coniemplati sumus ;-Grot., using the same 
word, adds : diu multuvique ; and this specific idea [das ver- 
weilende, genauere Beschaiien und Betrachten]. rather than 
that of Oec, appears in Erasm., Liicke, De W., Diist., &c.), 
Mey., Kist., (angeschaut /(.), Barn. (' there was an intense and 
earnest gaze'), Peile (have gazed upon). Other modern En- 
glish verss. and commentators (except Penn and Sharpe) either 
simply change the word to behold, observe, contemplate, or add 
to these and such like, or to E. V., such specifications as atten- 
tively, delightfully, frequently, &c. See the lexicons, especially 
Leigh, Schleus., Pass., Rob. 



2S 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. I. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

on, and our hands have handled, 
of the Word of life ; 



GREEK TEXT. 



sdEoujdiieOa, xai at ^eipe^ ri^v s4^- 



REVISED VERSION. 

hands '' handled f ''concerning the 
^word of ''the ^Life,' 



' The construction, mentioned by Erasm., which gives to the 
relative clauses of v. 1 their apodosis in xai at x^^fi^S rjiiuiv i-i/rp^. 
{idem eiiam manibus contrectavimns), has for three centuries 
scarcely had a follower. Erasm. himself seems disposed to 
begin the apodosis, as Zeg. and Carpz. also do, at xai fiaptvp- 
oviiiv of V. 2 (('(/ etiam teslificamur). Castal. incloses Ttspi 
*. %. i. ^., xai 71 ^ut; ifav. in a parenthesis, and proceeds thus : 
'id, mquam, et vidimus, &c.' But the great mass of editors 
and commentators agree in making v. 3 the apodosis, and in 
regarding the whole of v. 2 as a parenthesis. They differ 
mainly respecting the connection and interpretation of rtepi toi 
iioyoi) T'jjf ifco^s- By most this clause is attached to the verbs 
of V. 1, or especially to t^jjx. (which, however, in nearly all 
other editions of the text, is followed immediately by a comma), 
and. the 7.0705 being then commonly understood in the personal 
sense which it bears in John 1 : 1, trji ^uiji is explained as a 
genitive of quality, q. d. ' the living, or the quickening, Word.' 
But this view, which may be said to rest on the quite obvious 
general resemblance between the present context and the open- 
ing of the fourth gospel, and on the occurrence in both places 
of the term ^0705, has to contend with very serious difBculties. 
1., While, as regards the N. T., only in John 1 and Rev. 19 : 
13, (for 1 .John 5 : 7, see in loc.,) is 6 %6yof used (in the former 
place, absolutely ; in the latter, with the addition of foi &iov) 
as a personal designation, the phrase occurs again immediately 
in V. 10, and thrice iu ch. 2. in its common acceptation, the 
evangelical word ; and this argument from the usage is greatly 
strengthened by a comparison of passages, where Xoy. is at- 
tended by a genitive of the subject-matter, e. g. Matt. 13:19; 
Acts 13 : 26 ; 14 : 3 ; Rom. 9:9; 1 Cor. 1 : 18 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 19 ; 
Phil. 2 : 16 comp. Acts 5 : 20 ; Col. 1 : 5 ;— 2., this construction 
at once renders it impossible to give any intelligible account of 
the rtfpi — (a diflBculty, which is merely disguised by the E. V. 
of). Certainly the ungrammatical suggestion that rttpc'^drto 
Acts 2 : 17. indicating that the knowledge referred to was, after 
all, but partial; or Bez.'s remark: 'distincte considerans in 
Christo aliud atque aliud' (to wit, the divine, and human na- 
tures), ' maluit scribcre rtspt i. %. t. ^. quam rov Xoy t. ^., ne 
scilicet sentire vidcretur idem esse id, quod viderat et palpa- 
verat, atque id quod erat a principio,' cannot be accepted as a 
satisfactory solution ; — 3.. the parenthesis, v. 2, starting, as it 
plainly does, from the phrase toi ^oyov f ^5 fw^s, is yet full, not 
of the personal 7.0705, but of the jiersonal fujj, and any refer- 
ence that it contains to roi x6y. is in the fiaptvfov/xtv xai drtayy. 
For these reasons I prefer to take the clause under consider- 
ation as furni.shing a new point of departure, and as looking 
forward, beyond the parenthesis, to the a7tajyyiM.0fi.tv (v. 3) of 
the apodosis. So Diist., who cites, as in favour of this con- 
nection, ' Cornelius a Lap., Ijijramis (bei Calov)^ Luther. Socin 
Winer (Grammatik 1836.* S. 495). Lilcke, Jachmann, De 

* In 1844 Win. withdrew the remarks referred to. 



iVeite, Neander u. a.' Perhaps the complicated appearance of 
these three verses (Calv. : ahrupta est et confusa oratio.) 
is to be explained thus : — The writer means at the outset of 
the epistle once more to certify his readers, that, in preaching 
Jesus Christ, the apostles, as eye and ear witnesses, 'spoke 
what they knew, and testified what they had seen' (comp. ch. 
4: 14; -John 1 : 14; 19 : 35 ; 2 Pet. 1 : 16), and also to remind 
them of what this gospel aims at accomplishing in them. But 
the strong, overflowing fountain finds for itself, (as Diist. sug- 
gests,) at its first gushing forth, no regular way. Foremost, 
as was befitting, the great theme itself, the Son of God, the 
Eternal, the Incarnate, is presented to the adoration of faith, as 
it were apart and independently, without regard to the sub- 
sequent grammatical adjustment, and yet in such a manner as 
at the same time lays a firm foundation for what is to follow. 
Then comes, in rtepi ■r'oC Xoyov iijs ?"^J, * distinct, conscious 
advance upon the immediate object, which, however, though 
partially anticipated in the parenthetical v. 2 (svhose redundant 
assurances respecting both the theme and the testimony, all 
clustering still around the person of the ^ur;, serve to the 
further securing of the foundation), is only fully reached in 

V. 3. See the remaining notes on vv. 1-3. The comma after 

handled 0? T., C, G., and which was introduced in the later 
editions of E. V., is retained by the Amer. Bible Soc. 

"i. See N. c, &c. Latin verss. {de), Fr. S. {au sjijet de) ;- 
Ilamm., B. and L. {touchant). Wakef , Mack., Newc. {as con- 
cerning), Thorn, {with respect to), Greenf {^V), Stolz {betref- 

fend), Van Ess (in Beziehung anf), Sharpe {about). De W., 
Schirl., Dust., {in Betreff), Barn. (' respecting, or pertaining 
to'), Pcile {in relation to). 

' See N. c, &c. The initial capital, adopted by the Amer. 
Bible Soc, does not appear in the original edition of E. V., 
which has it at John 1:1. So the following verss., which 
employ a capital letter in the translation of ?Ldyo5 in the gospel, 
avoid it here :— R. ;-Vulg., Fr. S. ;-Calv., Vat., Dodd., Wakef. 
(here doctrine; in the gospel, Wisdom), Thom., Murd. — 
Diist., who ably discusses this context, concludes that toi 7.6ycw 
does not hare denote the personal Word, and cites, among others, 
Luth. and Beng. as of the same opinion. Beng., however, he 
misapprehends. 

' See N. c, &c. The article is expressed by C. ;-German 
verss. (except Mey.), Dt., It., Fr. S. (the other three French 
verss. wanting it);-Thom. 

^ Ros. : ' Quicquid sit' (with regard to toi 7.dyou), ' hoc saltim 
ccrtum est, Christum ipsum desig-nari nomine ifu^s. quia statim 
additur Vs. 2. ij fu^ ^1/ 7tf>6; tor rtaripa. Ergo fu»; exprimit 
aliquod Subjcctum, quod apud Patrem fuit, Christum.' So 
Diist., who also cites Luth. Comp. the personal use of fuj; in 
ch. 5: 20; John 11: 25; 14: 6; Col. 3: 4.— In v. 2 the per- 
sonality of the fu^ is commonly recognized, though here the 
initial capital is employed only by Penn and Peile. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. I. 



29 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

2 (For the life was manifest- 
ed, and we have seen it, and 
bear witness, and shew unto you 
that eternal life which was with 
the Father, and was manifested 
unto us;) 

3 That which we have seen 
and heard declare we unto you, 
that ye also may have fellow- 
ship with us : and truly our fel- 
lowship is with the Father, and 
with his Son Jesus Christ. 

4 A[id these things write we 
unto you, that your joy may be 
full. 

5 This then is the messaae 



GREEK TEXT. 

2 xat n fo/i i<pav£p(l)dy!, xai icopd- 
xa^iev, xai fia^rvpovnev, xai mxay- 
yeXko^ev v[.dv T'hi' ^ur;j' rr,v aicjviov, 
r.Tig r,v Ttpog tov Ttarspa, xai icpave- 
pd)0y; rifJ^LV 

3 o k.ypdxa^isv xai dxy;x6a^ev, 
d7Tayy£?i?MfiEv I'/t^a', hu xai vfiEig 
xoLVidviav shifts /ufO' nuav xai ri 
xoLvuvia Ss 7] hierepa ^lera Tov 7ta- 
Tpog xai ^leta Toi' v'lov ainov Tjyffoii 

XpfCTTOl'- 

4 5i:ai raivra ypd^ofZEV vfuv, 'iva 
n ;^apu viLuv (1 7lE7l/\.r,piM£vy;. 

5 Kai aikr; iariv n iytayyE/iia 



REVISED VERSION. 

^2 ('And the J'Life was mani- 
fested, and we have seen,'' and 
'do testify, and "declare unto you 
that eternal JLife which was with 
the Father, and was manifested 
unto us,) 

3 "What we have seen and 
heard declare we unto you, that 
ye also may have fellowship with 
us ; "and, again, our fellowship 
is with the Father and with his 
Son Jesus Christ. 

4 And these things Pwe write 
unto you, that j^our joy may be 
^fulfilled. 

5 ■'And this is the ^message 



^ See V. 1, N. c, &c. The Amer. Bible Soc. has, with very 
questionable propriety, abolished the parentliesis, and, retaining 
the semicolon at the end of v. 1, has raised that at the end of 
V. 2 to a colon. 

' The grammars and lexicons generally do not acknowledge 
the meaning /or. This 'particle,' says Win., 'though very va- 
riously applied, yet even in the X. T. proceeds upon iwo primary 
senses, and and also ... In most cases, where xai is felt to be 
more than a simple copula, and suffices and occasions no ob- 
scurity, and to this particle the translaCor must adhere, who 
would not disturb the complexion of the language.' — W., C, 
R. ;-Syr., Vulg., Germ., Dt. marg.. It., Fr. S. ;-Aug., Erasm., 
Calv., Vat., Aret., Hamm., Wells, Dodd. and Thorn, (eren), 
Lttcke, Sharpe, De W., ^Nlurd., Kenr., Peile {both), Dust. See 
V. 5, N. r, and ch. 2 : 20, N. o. 

' See V. 1, NN. c, g. 

I-' E. V. supplies an object to this verb out of the preceding 
clause, (which Lucke regards as the easier and simpler con- 
struction for both iuipdxafiiv and jxap-tvjioi'fiev ■-and so Fiitzsche. 
De W., Dilst. Comp. John 19 : 35.) and takes ^aprupoi^fi' 
absolutely. But the other construction, which treats these 
verbs as referable, equally with axayyirKofiiv, to the noun fol- 
lowing, is edited by Lachm., Hahn, Theile, Tisch. ;-allowed by 
Lucke ; and adopted by many others. — There is nothing sup- 
plied in W., T., C, G., R.;-Syr., Vulg., Germ., Dt.;-Erasm., 
Calv., Vat, Haram., Wells, Moldenh., Thom., Greenf, Sharpe. 
Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

1 This better admits of the second construction mentioned in 
N. k. — E. v.. ch. 4 : 14. In 18 other instances E. V. translates 
/iapfvpc'u, to testify ;-R. ;-Wesl.. Thom., Kenr., Barn., (testify), 
Bloomf. (do witness), Murd., Peile (are witnesses for). 

° E. v., V. 3 ; Luke 8 : 47 ; Heb. 2 : 12 ;-R. ;-Wells, Dodd. 
Wesl., Wakef., Mack.. Thorn, (announce ;-and so Jlurd., Peile), 
Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Barn., Kenr. — E. V., following T., C 
G., is nearly alone in translating axayy. by difl'erent words in 
vv. 2, 3. 

° See V. 1, N. a. 



° See 2 Pet. 1 ; 5, N. r. The true doctrine of xai . . . 61, as 
involving not merely addition, but also opposition or contrast, 
if not required to justify, certainly facilitates the change from 
the subjunctive mood (in which the supplied verb of this clause 
appears in all the older English verss. ;-Vulg., Germ., Dt., It., 
Fr. G.,-M.;-Aug., Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Bez., Grot., Ilamm., Mol- 
denh.) to the indicative. 'And remember that the apostles' fel- 
lowship is not merely a human or church fellowship, but &c.' 
For be it observed that the ruittifa, as well as the r;fiav in the 
previous clause, refers only to the apostles. The Church rests 
on the foundation of apostles and prophets. Through her fel- 
lowship with them she has fellowship with the Father and the 
Son. — Syr. ;-Erasm., De AV., (et . . . vero), Vat. (changes sit to 
est, and adds this note : ' vero. id est, haec autem societas nostra 
est cum ifec.'), Castal. (aiiteni), B. and L. (or), Thom., Bloomf., 
(now), iley., Stier, (aber), Lilcke ('et vero, et vero etiam, aber 
audi, auch andrerseits''), Ros. (jam vero), Peile (and fellow- 
ship with us, we tell you [Si], is (^c). Dust, ('an exceedingly 
fine example of the genuine classical xai — Si, in which are ex- 
pressed at once simple conjunction, and opposition.'). 

p W. and R., and the later English verss. (except Wells, 
Wesl.), avoid the needless inversion adopted here by E. V. from 
T., C, G. In V. 3 it helps the antithesis between the personal 
experience and the ministerial function. 

1 E. v., John 3 : 29 ; 17 : 13 ; Phil. 2 : 2 ;-Dt. (vervidd) ;- 
Vat. (changes plenum of Vulg. to impletum), Berl. Bib. (er- 
fiilll), Dodd., Scott (filled, completed). Greenf. (xbfDD), Penn. 

•• T • 

Most others use a passive verb. See Rev. 3 : 2, N. f. 

■• See V. 2, N. i, &c. E. V., ch. 2: 25 ; &c. ;-W., T., C, R. ;- 
Syr., Vulg., Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Aug., Erasm., Calv., Vat., Aret., 
Wells, Whitb., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef, Liicke, Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, De W., Murd., Kenr. 

• All the recent editors read oyyAla, and everywhere else 
(52 times) E; V. renders ixayyBxla, promise. According to 
classical usage, indeed, ijtayy. itself would bear the more 
general sense here required. 



30 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. II. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

which we have heard of him, 
and declare unto you, that God 
is light, and in him is no dark- 
ness at all. 

6 If we say that we have fel- 
lowship with him, and walk in 
darkness, we lie, and do not the 
truth : 

7 But if we walk in the light, 
as he is in the light, we have 
fellowship one with another, and 
the blood of Jesus Christ his Son 
cleanseth us from all sin. 

8 If we say that we have no 
sin, we deceive ourselves, and 
the truth is not in us. 

9 If we confess our sins, he is 
faithful and just to forgive us our 
sins, and to cleanse us from all 
unrighteousness. 

10 If we say that we have not 
sinned, we make him a liar, and 
his word is not in us. 

CHAP II. 

My little children, these things 
write I unto you, that je sin not. 



GREEK TEXT. 

riv dxyixoafiEV an avtov, ;cat avary- 
yeXXo^v vfiLV, o-Tl 6 Qso^ <^og iati, 
xal cxotia iv avra ovx sariv ovSe- 
(ua. 

6 mv siTta^v '&tt xoLVOviav s^o- 
fiev [xer avroii, xal iv ra ax&tst 
TtepLTiaTo^iev, '^evi^o^ieda, xal ov noL- 
ov/iev TriP aXriQELOiv 

7 edv hi iv <rdj ^uTt TtspiTtarofiev, 
c)g avrog iotiv iv ru ^urri, xoivuj'iav 
iXO(.t£v fiET a22,r,?Mv, xcd to oujua 
'lYjaov XpfffToi) toil vlov avtov jcafia- 
pi^EL riudg CLTto TtucDjs ai.iaptiag. 

8 'Eav siTtidUEV bti afxaptiav ovx 
i^ojiev, iavrovg tOxlvqiiev, xal n 
aXr^Eia ovx iariv iv ri^dv. 

9 iav b^TxyycbfiEV rdg a[iapriag 
r^icov, TtLOtog idti xal hixaiog, iva 
d<p(i r^lv rag afMxpriag, xal xadapiOYi 
ri^dg (XTto TtdcDjg dSixiag. 

10 iav EiTtonEV ott, ovx '^'^^'fc 
xafXEV, ■^/Evaryjv Ttoiovfisv avtov, xal 
6 Tuoyog avtov ovx iattv iv 'i^dv. 

CHAP. II. 

TEKNIA ^ov, tairta ypd^ vfitv, 
'iva [in dfidptYitE- xal idv tig d^idptri, 



REVISED VERSION. 

which we have heard *from him, 
and "report unto you, that God 
is light, and "daikness in him there 
is none. 

6 If we say that we have fel- 
lowship with him, and walk in 
"the darkness, we lie, and do not 
the truth; 

7 But if we walk in the light, 
as he ''himself is in the light, we 
have fellowship one with another, 
and the blood of Jesus ^Christ 
his Son cleanseth us from all sin. 

8 If we say that we have ^no 
sin, we deceive ourselves, and 
the truth is not in us. 

9 If we confess our sins, he is 
faithful and "righteous to forgive 
us our sins, and *" cleanse us from 
all unrighteousness. 

10 If we say that we have not 
sinned, we make him a liar, and 
his word is not in us. 

CHAP. II. 

My little children, these things 
*I write unto you, that ye sin 



' Engl. Ann., Dodd., and later Engl, verss. (except Wesl.). 

° E. v., 1 Pet. 1 : 12;-Brasm. in the comment., Pagn., Bez., 
(renuntiamus), Bcrl. Bib. (wieder verkiindigen), Beng. (' Quae 
m ore Christi fuit ayyixia. earn apostoli avayyixKovaC nam dy- 
ytJ.i'ai', annimcia/ionem, ab ipso acceptara reddimt et propa- 
gant.'), Ros. (tradmuis), Penn, Peile (tell over again, report). 
Diist. {hinwieder verkiindigen. He refers to John 16: 13-15, 
and adds : '.John appears everywhere to observe the nice dis- 
tinction between drayy. and drtayy.'). 

' Latin verss., except Castal., (lenebrae in eo non sunt iillae, 
or nee ienebras in eo esse ullas) ;-De W. {Finsterniss in ihm 
keine ist). 

" Dt., It., French verss. ;-Moldenh. and later German verss.. 
Greenf., lAIurd. See ch. 2 : 8, K. r, and 9, N. s, &c. 

* Win.: 'Among the Greeks, as is well known, aitof in the 
castis rectus does not stand for the mere unemphatic he, nor 
could any decisive examples of this use be found in the N. T ' 
Rob. : ' Aitos thus standing alone in the nominative (very 
rarely in an oblique case) is i. q. myself, thyself, himself, and 
the like ; or at least for /, thou, he, etc. pronounced with em- 
phasis ;'-and so the grammars and lexicons generally. This 



rule is frequently recognized in E. V. (ch. 2:6; Matt. 8 : 17 ; 
John 18 : 28 ; &c.). and frequently it is overlooked to the 
injury of the sense (Matt. 1 : 21 'He, emphatically; He alone' 
[Alf]; 21: 27 He also; Acts 21 : 35; &c.).—W. (also he), 
R. (he also) ;-Latin verss. ([et] ipse), Ft. G., -M., (Dieu), Fr. 
S. (il . . lui-meme) ;-B. and L. (as Fr. S.) Berl. Bib. (er 
selber), Dodd., Me3\ (er selbst), Liicke in the comment. ( Gott 
selber), All. (auch Er), Penn. See ch. 2: 2, N. d, and 25, 
N. f. 

' Lachm. and Tisch. cancel Xpicr^oii, on the authority of B. C. 

' 'Afiafftlav without the article = any sin, and with the 
negative = no sin. 

• See 2 Pet. 2 : 7, N. j. The word occurs other five times 
in this Epistle, and is always in E. V. so rendered. The oppo- 
sition, moreover, between God as Si'zaiof and the dSt«a from 
which the Church is cleansed, is lost in E. V. — Murd. 

•' The absence of a second CVa is represented in W., R. ;-all 
foreign verss. (except B. and L., Greenf.) ;-Wakef., Mack. 

" See ch. 1 : 4, N. j. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. II. 



31 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

And if any man sin, we have an 
advocate with the Father, Jesus 

Christ the righteous : 

2 And he is the propitiation 
for our sins : and not for ours 
only, but also for the sins of the 
whole world. 

3 And hereby w^e do know 
that we know him, if we keep 
his commandments. 

4 He that saith, I know him, 
and keepeth not his command- 
ments, is a liar, and the truth is 
not in him. 

5 Butwhoso keepeth his word, 
in him verily is the love of God 
perfected : hereby know we that 
we are in him. 

6 He that saith he abideth 
in him, ought himself also so to 
walk, even as he walked. 



GREEK TEXT. 



^l/iaovv Xp^ffTov hixaiov 

2 xal auTog t/laffjuog Jcrrt Ttept ttov 
^s fiorov, d^/la xat TTfpi 6'A.ov tov 

XOdf-lOV. 

3 Kat £v tovra ywcxsxoiiev on 
eyvuxa/.tev avrov, iav rag htohx^ 
avtov ry;pc)i.i£V. 

4 6 ^Lsyciv, ^'Eyvoxa avtov, xai 
Tctg svto2jdg avtov ^in trjpcov, 4'fi'- 
ar^g earl, xaL iv toiVq n d2.nd£ia ovx 
satLV 

5 og 6' av tYipri airtov tbv Tjoyov, 
akri^ix;, h tovta n ayanvj tov Qsov 
reTeXa'coTat. iv tovta yLvcxyxofxev 
on iv avta ia(jjev. 

6 6 TAyotV iv airta [liveiv, ocpsiT^L, 
xaQcjg ixeivog TtepiETtdtrjas, xai avTog 
ovtag TtepiTtareiv. 



REVISED VERSION. 

not : and if any ""one '^have sin- 
ned, we have an advocate with 
the Father, Jesus Christ the righ- 
teous ; 

2 And he is %imself the pro- 
pitiation for our sins ; *yet not 
for ours only, but also for ''the 
whole world. 

3 And hereby we ^ know that 
we ''have known him, if we keep 
his commandments. 

4 He that saith : I ""have known 
him, and keepeth not his com- 
mandments, is a liar, and the 
truth is not in him ; 

5 But whoso keepeth his word, 
'truly in Jthis man hath the love 
of God been perfected : hereby 
•'we know that we are in him. 

6 He that saith he abideth in 
him ought himself also so to walk, 
even as 'He walked. 



^ See 2 Pet. 2: 19, N. n. Here may be added It. (alcuno), 
French verss. (quelqu'un) j-Wesl. and later English verss. 
(except Newc, and Peile a man). 

" Here is rather consolation and healing for the actual peni- 
tent, than security for the future transgressor. — Latin verss. 
(peccaverit), Dt. {gezondigd heeft), It. {ha peccato), Fr. G., 
-M., -S., (o peche) ;-Bc'rl. Bib. {gesiindiget hdtte), Moldenh., 
All., (ges. hat), Wakef., Mard., (should sin), Pyle, jMack., 
(hat!i sinned), Scott, Van Ess (hat aber Jemand ges.), Kenr., 
Peile. 

 See ch. 1 : 7, N. x, &c. Here the emphatic or exclusive 
force of aitii is important. He is the only propitiation for 
sin. The penitent may trust the Advocate who, righteous him- 
self, died for him. Such an Advocate God will hear. — T., C, 
G., (he it is that) --Syr., Latin verss. (ipse ;-except Castal., 
qui idem). Germ, (derselbige), Fr. G.,-M., (c^est lui qui) ;- 
Beng. (• ipse. Hoc facit epitasin. parachtus valentissimus, 
quia ipse propitiatio.''), Moldenh. (derselbe), Lucke, Peile, 
(idemque ille, derselbige), De W. (er selbst), Murd. 

« See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. 

f In his last edition Win. ranks this as a case, not of brachy- 
logy, but of oratio variata. And so Syr., Fr. S ;-Wakof., 
Clarke, Liicke, Greenf., Sharpe, De W., Murd. 

^ The emphasis is not upon the fact of this conviction, but 
on the means of its attainment. — The form in E. V. I find in no 
other English vers. 



'■ ' Have attained to this knowledge.' Where knowledge is 
spoken of merely as present, ytvutsxu or olSa is used, not lyraxa,. 
See John's Epistles passim. — E. V., vv. 13, 14; ch. 3: 6; 4: 
16 ; 2 John 1 ; and generally elsewhere. See 2 Cor. 5 : 16, 
where the verb occurs, as here, in both the present and perfect 
tenses ;-R. ;-Latin verss. (cogtiovimus ;-except Castal., and 
Bez. novimus); Dt, It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Hamm., Whitb., 
Mack., Thorn., Scott (they ' knew that they thus knew, or had 
known, &c.'), Gerl., De W., Stier, Kenr., Dust. Of these, the 
Latin verss. in v. 4 use novi; Dt., Thorn., a present tense ; 
while Berl. Bib., Beng., Guyse, there retain the perfect. See 
ch. 3 : 16, N. q. 

' Nowhere else verihj in E. V. — E. V., Matt. 27: 54; Mark 
15: 39 ;-IIamm., Wakef., Mack., Newc. (of a truth), Penn, 
Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. The Greek order is retained by the 
Latin veiss. ;-Wesl., Mack., Newc, Greenf., Kenr. 

1 Syr., Latin verss. (Calv. has ipso), Germ, (solchem), Dt. 
(dien), It. (tale) ;-Hamm., Jloldenh. (demselbe/i), Mack. 

I" ' Love being, not the reward, but the condition and motive, 
of obedience.' — The perfect tense is retained by Dt. ;-Hamm,, 
Pyle (at ch. 4: 17), Stier, Peile ('has the redeeming Jove of 

God attained its proposed end.'). For loe know, see ch. 1 : 

4, N. p. 

1 In the six instances in this Epistle, in which John thus 
refers to the Saviour, I recommend that the emphasis in ixsivos 
be thus indicated. 



32 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. II. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

7 Brethren, I write no new 
commandment unto you, but an 
old commandment which ye had 
from the beginning : The old 
commandment is the word which 
ye have heard from the begin- 
ning. 

8 Again, a new command- 
ment I write unto you, which 
thing is true in him and in you : 
because the darkness is past, 
and the true light now shineth. 

9 He that saith he is in the 
light, and hateth his brother, is 
in darkness even until now. 

10 He that loveth his brother 
abideth in the light, and there is 
none occasion 
him. 

11 But he that hateth his 
brother is in darkness, and walk- 
eth in darkness, and knoweth 
not whither he goeth, because 
that darkness hath blinded his 
eyes. 

12 I write unto you, little 



of stumbling in 



GREEK TEXT. 

7 db£2.^oi, ovx ivToTm' xaivriv 
ypd<pu i'^iv, dXA' svro/inv 7(a?.aiav, 
r,v £l'](^e're an dp;^%- ri ivtoXri n Tta- 
/la(d ianv 6 ?Myog bv rymvoate an 

8 TtiiXti' evtakTiV xaLvr.v ypd^ 
'hfitv, b iOTLV d?^r,d£g iv ainrdj xal iv 
v^dv atL n axoria. Ttapdyetai, xal 
To ^og to d?^yiOLv6v y;&7 (paivst. 

9 6 TJyoiv iv Tfj ^arl elvai, xcu 
rdv dSe?^^ov avtov ^lOuv, iv rri oxo- 
ticc eativ tog dpti. 

10 6 dyaTtuv tov dSe2.^ov avtov, 
iv tu) (jiuTt [.dvsL, xal axdvhaTjav iv 
aito ovx i<sttv. 

11 6 & [iKTav tov dSe2.^ov avtov, 
iv t^ axotia iatl, xai iv tri Oxotia 
TtspiTtatEL, xai ovx oiSs nov vndyet, 
ott n axotia itv^?MaE tovg o^da/i- 
juoi's avtov. 

12 ypd^G) vfJiv, texvia, oti d^i- 



RE VISED VERSION. 

7 "Brethren, I write "not a 
new commandment unto you, but 
an old commandment wliich ye 
had from the beginning: "this 
old commandment is the word 
which ye p heard from the begin- 
ning. 

8 Again, a new command- 
ment I write unto ''you, which 
thing is true in him and in you ; 
because the darkness ''passeth 
away, and the true light now 
shineth. 

9 He that saith he is in the 
light, and hateth his brother, is 
in ^the darkness 'until now. 

10 He that loveth his brother 
abideth in the light, and there is 
"no occasion of stumbling in him. 

11 But he that hateth his 
brother is in ''the darkness, and 
walketh in ''the darkness, and 
knoweth not whither he goeth, 
because "the darkness ^hath 
blinded his eyes. 

12 I write unto you, little chil- 



" 'AyaTtTjtoL for aSi\^oi, is marked by Beng. as per codices 
Jirmior (he subsequently received it into the text), and has 
been adopted by all other recent editors except Bloomf., on the 
authority of A. B. C, Syr., Vulg., &c. I recommend that this 
reading be followed : Beloved. 

° W., R. ;-Syr., Latin and French verss., Germ., It. ;-WesI., 
Moldenh., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Greenf., Pean, Kenr. 

° Vig. : ' Articulus geminatus rem exponit et distinguit, ut. tyii 
tlfii, o Ttoiff^v u j:a>.d{, Joh. 10 : 12. Ego sum pastor ille bonus 
xal' i^ox^.' But whether it shall be rendered by a demon- 
strative pronoun, is very often merely a, matter of taste. It is 
so rendered by E. V., eh. 1 : 2; John 6 : 27 ; &c. (see Rev. 9 : 
14, N. g) ;— and here by G. ;-Dt., Er. G., -M. ;-Pagn., Bez., 
B. and L., Guyse, Wakef., Thom., Ros. (illiid). Penn, Peile, 
(that). 

p See 2 Pet. 1 : 3, N. j. E. V., eh. 3 : 11 ; Col. 1 : 6, &o.;- 
W., T. ;-It. ;-Hamm., Guyse, Dodd., Wakef., Thorn., Sharpe. 

The words art apj;^; at the close of the verse are bracketed 

by Ivnapp and Hahn ; cancelled by Jley., Lachm., Tisch., Theile. 

1 The i;iilv is without doubt an error of the press for v/xlv. 

' Never in John's writings does ^ axotia mean ' tempus sub 
lege Mosis' (Grot.), or 'the ancient systems of error, under 
which men hated each other' (Barn.), but the ' darkness of this 
world' (Eph. 6 : 12), ' the darkness of error and of sin' (Liicke) ; 



and that is not 'past,' though the light hath dawned. ' Obser- 
vandum praesens,' says Beng., 'ut in lucet.'' See Rom. 13: 
12; and Alf.'s note on John 1 : 5. — The present is retained by 
E. v., V. 17; 1 Cor. 7: 31;-Dt., It., Fr. S.;-Oec., Erasm. and 
later Latin verss. (for the Vulg. transierunt), Hamm., Berl. 
Bib. and nearly all the later German verss., Guyse. Gill, 
Wakef., Mack., Newc. iriarg., Clarke, Penn, Peile. 

' The apostle's nice discrimination in the use of axotia with 
and without the article should appear in the translation. See 
V. 8, N. r; V. 11, N. v; 1: 6, N. w.— R.;-Dt., It, French 
verss. ;-Dodd., Moldenh., Wakef., Mack., Liicke, Greenf., All., 
Penn, De W., Stier, Dust. 

' "Eu5 (ipt't may be everywhere so rendered (instead of the 
E. V. variety, hitherto, unto this hour, unto this day, unto this 
present). E. V., John 2:10 ;-W. (yet) ;-Wesl., Mack., Newc, 
Thom. (still), Murd. ;-Rob., Green. 

" See ch. 1 : 8, N. z. The form no for none is found in Wells 
and the later English verss. 

' See V. 9, N. s, &c. Here Wakef., Sharpe, Murd., Kenr., 
omit the first and second articles ; Thom. and Penn have all 
three ; and so has Mack., except that for the second he intro- 
duces the demonstrative pronoun. The E. V. that after 

because is not found in W., R. ;-Dodd., or any later vers. 

" Literally : Minded ; as soon as he entered into it. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IT. 



33 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

children, because your sins are 
forgiven you for his name's sake. 

13 I write unto you, fathers, 
because ye have known him that 
is from the beafinnina;. I write 
unto you, young men, because 
ye have overcome the wicked 
one. I write unto you, little 
children, because ye have known 
the Father. 

14 I have written unto you, 
fathers, because ye have known 
him that is from the beginning. 
I have written unto you, young 
men, because ye are strong, and 
the word of God abideth in you, 
and ye have overcome the wick- 
ed one. 

15 Love not the world, neither 
the things that are in the world. 
If any man love the world, the 
love of the Father is not in him. 

16 For all that is in the world, 
the lust of the flesh, and the lust 
of the eyes, and the pride of life, 
is not of the Father, but is of the 
world. 

17 And the world passeth 
away, and the lust thereof: but 
he that doeth the will of God 
abideth for ever. 

18 Little children, it is the 
last time : and as ye have heard 



GREEK TEXT. 



uvrat v^Lv at a^apriat Sid to ovofia 
airtov. 

13 Fpu^.j vfdv, Ttatepsi;, ort i'yvo>- 
xars tov an dp^r,g. ypdcpa v^iv, 
vsaviaxoL, oti vevLxnxaTe tov novrj- 
por. j/pd^co vf.dv, Ttaihia, bti eyvo- 
xate tov Ttatepa. 



14 "Ej'pai/'a v^tv, Ttatepeg, oti 
eyvQxate tov dn' dpj^rig. "E^pai^a 
vfiiv, vsaviaxoi, oti la^vpoi sate, xal 
6 9i6yog toil Qsov iv viuv [uivei, xal 
VEVixnxate tov Ttovyj^v. 



15 (tty; dyandts tov xoa^ov, ^Yjhk 
td iv tO) xoCifUi}. sdv tig dyaTta tov 
xoty^iov, ovx Edtiv 7\ dyduy; tov tkc- 
Tpog iv aiti)- 

16 ott ndv to iv ta x6(y^ia, ri 
inSv^a tr,g aapxbq, xai n iTtidv^a 
tcov oipdaT^ncov, xal n djia^oveia tov 
(Siov, ovx iotiv ix tov Ttatpog, d2.X 
ix tov xoauov sdti. 

17 xal 6 xoa^og Ttapdyetai, xal n 
iTtiBv^iua aitoiy 6 & Ttoicov to ds2,y]iia 
toil Qsov, [xsvsi eig tov alava. 

18 Ilat&'a, i(Sj(dtri wpa Icrr xal 
xaOcdg r,xovaat£ oti 6 dvtix^Latog 



REVISED VERSION. 

dren, because your sins ^have 
been forgiven you for his name's 
sake. 

13 I write unto you, fathers, 
because ye have known him that 
is from the beginning. I write 
unto you, young men, because 
ye have overcome the wicked 
one. I ^write unto you, little 
children, because ye have known 
the Father. 

14 I have written unto you, 
fathers, because ye have known 
him that is from the beafinnino:. 
I have written unto you, young 
men, because ye are strong, and 
the word of God abideth in you, 
and ye have overcome the wick- 
ed one. 

15 Love not the world, neither 
the things ^ in the world : if any 
^one love the world, the love of 
the Father is not in him : 

16 For all that is in the world, 
the lust of the flesh, and the lust 
of the eyes, and the pride of life, 
is not of the Father, but is of the 
world : 

17 And the world passeth 
away, and the lust thereof: but 
he that doeth the will of God 
abideth for ever. 

18 Little children, it is the 
last ''hour ; and as ye "= heard that 



• Tlieir actual attainments furnished motive sufficient for the 
present wi-iting. Oomp. v. 13. — Syr. (= remissa sunt) ;- 
Pagn., Bez., Ben;., Carpz., Ros., (as Syr.;-k>i the Vulg. remit- 
tuntur), All., Gerl., TroL, Peile, Dust. 

y For this ypa^iu, Lachm., Hahn, Tisoh.. edit typa^a 'from 
four uncial, and perhaps the major part of the small letter 
MSS. ; and, considering that internal evidence is in its favour, 
it may be considered the true reading' (Bloomf.). It appears 
in the Syr. and Coptic verss. ; generally in the Church Fa- 
thers; and is approved by Grot., Wells, Mill, Lange, Lilcke, 
Gerl., De W. {gelesen werden muss), Barn., Peile, Dust, (who 
says of ypo'(j)u. that 'it rests on really no critical authority.'). 
Should f'ypa^-a, which I regard as the better reading, not be 
followed in the test, I recommend the following as a marginal 
note : ' Or, as very many read, / have written' — the epistolary 
aorist, as in v. 14, &c. 

' Wakef , Thorn., Sharpe. 



' See V. 1, N. b, &c. 

'' The solemn announcement of this verse avowedly rests on 
the great prophetic truth, revealed to Daniel, taught by our 
Lord and his Apostles, and for ages received universally by the 
Church of God, respecting the rise and reign of Antichrist as 
immediately preceding the future glorious coming of the Son 
of Man in his kingdom. Dan. 7 : 8—14, 24—27 ; Matt. 24 : 
23—29; 2Thess.2: 1—4; 2 Tim. 3 : 1—9; 2 Pet. 2: 1—12; 
Jude 17, 18 ; &c. ' Venit Antichristus, sed et supervenit 
Christus: grassatur et saevit inimicus, sed statim sequilur 
Dominus, passiones nostras et vulnera vindicaturus ;'-there 
was no doctrine of primitive times, that received a more general 
and unquestioned acceptance among the orthodox faithful, than 
that which Cyprian (Ep. 58) expressed in these words. So 
Aug., in his third Tract, on our Epistle : ' Sed dicturi sunt 
aliqui : Quomodo novissimum tempus 1 quomodo novissima 
horal Certa prius veniet Antichristus, et tunc veniet dies 

5 



34 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. H. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

that antichrist shall come, even 
now are there many antichrists ; 
whereby' we know that it is the 
last time. 

19 They went out from us, 
but they were not of us ; for if 
they had been of us, they would 
710 doubt have continued with us : 
but they went out, that they might 
be made manifest that they were 
not all of us. 



GREEK TEXT. 

e^'X^etai, xal vvv avtiy^piaroi, 7Xa'k7.oi 
ysyovaGiV odsv yiVQaxo^isv &Ti 
eGx,dTy; wpa iariv. 

■/icrav £^ r,^idv si ya^ taav e^ r^Qv, 
liefiEvr,xeL(Jav av ^leff 'hf-icov oikX iva 
^vepijdcjaiv oTL ovx dal Ttdvreg i^ 
r[uuv. 



REVISED VERSION. 

''the antichrist "cometh, even now 
•^there are many ^become anti- 
christs; '"whence we know that 
it is the last ''hour. 

19 'From us they went out, 
but they were not of us ; for if 
they had been of us, they would 
J have ''abode with us ; but ^it 
was that they might be made 
manifest that ™none of them "are 
of us. 



■' See N. b. Germ., and all subsequent foreign verss. (except 
Mey.);-More ('that famous'), Mack., Thom., Till., Greenf., 
Sliarpe, Trol., Blooraf., Kenr., Peile. See v. 22, N. u, and conip. 
2 Thcss. 2 : .3, 4. 

« The present time is retained by W., R. 5-83 r., Vulg., 
Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-IIamm., Wells, Whitb., Beng., Dodd., 
Wesl., Gill, Wakef., Mack., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr. See 
Rev. 1 : 4. N. 0. 

' The inversion is avoided by R ;-Dodd., and the later verss. 

^ For the force of yEyora see 2 Pet. 2 : 20, N. x. W. (made), 
T., G., {coine), C. {begone to be), R. ;-Vulg. (facti), Germ., Dt., 
(g-ewor(/e«) ;-Aug. (as Vulg.), Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Bez., 
(coeperunt esse), Pise, (exorti), Cocc, Ros., {extitermit), 
Beng. (' Venit, aliunde, antitheton. facti sunt, ex nobis, v. 19. 
Conf. Act. 20 : 29, 30.'), Moldcnh. (entstanden), Lucke, Kist, 
De W., {aiifgeslanden), Mey. (axijgetreten). All. (as Germ.), 
Peile (hace really come, have been realized). — The construc- 
tion of a.vtixp''3''o'' ^ith yEyotaaH- as a predicate draws on v. 19 
as explanatory. This construction I have observed certainly 
indicated only in C. (are there many begone to be antichrists). 

" E. v.. Matt. 12: 44 (from wh.) ; Luke 11 : 24 ; &c. No- 
where else as here ;-Wakef , Slack., Kenr. 

' The leading idea, alieady suggested by v. 18, is, that these 
men had once belonged to the visible Church ; and this is better 
brought out by the Greek order, which appears in Syr. ;-Latin 
verss., Mey., De W., Murd., Peile. 

' The ' no doubt ' of E. V. is equally unauthorized and un- 



necessary. It is the utique of the Vulg., but there is nothing 
for it in W. ;-Syr., Dt., It., French verss. ;-CastaI., Whitb., 
Wesl., Moldenh. and later Girman verss., Carpz., Wakef., 
Mack., Newc, Thom., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Barn., 
Murd., Peile. 

'' Mii/u occurs 26 times in John's Epistles, and is 14 times 
rendered in E. V. ai/de ; which word is just as suitable in the 
other 12 cases (see v. 24, N. d, and ch. 3 : 17, N. x), and is here 
employed by Mack., Peile. 

1 T. (that fortuned), G. (this cometh to pass) ;-Dt. (dit is 
geschied), It. (conveniva), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (c'est) ;-Pagn. (7ioc 
factum est). Grot, (permissum est a Deo ;-and so Ros., Barn.), 
B. and L. (cela est arrive), Dodd. (this hath happened), 
Wakef (t/iis was done), Newc. (this hath come to pass), Lvicke 
(would supply rovro iyivito), Sharpe. Bez. supplies egressi 
sunt ex nobis, after the Syr. ; while the Vulg. and many others 
supply nothing. 

" ' None, out of all the number, and notwithstanding their 
number.' Literally, 9. rf. 'they are not (and this holds true 
of them all) of us.' E. V., taking fitfi.'=^aai' (and so T., C, 
Syr. ;-Calv., Engl. Ann., Hamm., Whitb., Guyse, Wesl., Pyle, 
Mack., Mey., Sharpe), seems also to imply that some of the 
apostates had belonged to the Church in a sense, in which that 
former relation is denied of the rest ; and the same, or a similar, 
distinction may be inferred from G., R. ;-Vulg., Germ., Dt., Fr. 
S. ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., Ilamra. (in the vers.), Wesl., Wakef, 
Mack., Clarke, Greenf., Sharpe, Kenr. But certainly this is 



judicii. Vidit Joannes cogitationes istas : ne quasi securi 
fierent, et ideo non esse horam novissimam putarent, quod ven- 
turus esset Antichristus, ait illis, Et sicut aiidistis quod Anli- 
christus sit xenturus, nunc antichristi multi facti sunt. Num- 
quid posset habere multos antichristos, nisi hora novissima V 
To the ready objection, that so long an interval has occurred 
Calvin (in loc.) gives this answer: 'Respondeo. Apostolum 
vulgari Scripturae more denuntiare fldelibus, nihil jam amplius 
restare, nisi ut Christus m mundi redemptionem appareat.' 
And it need only be added to this, that in the 'many anti- 
christs' then present John saw the precursors of the coming 
Antichrist (Gee: TtpooSortotovyruv T'tov rto^^wv 'Avtixp^fST^^v fcj 
ivL) ; though how many such precursors there were to be, and 
at "what particular moment 'their mighty chief should him- 



self appear ;-on these points, and consequently on the precise 
historical duration of the last hour, the apostle here gives no 
information, and had probably none to give. These considera- 
tions, joined to the earnest tone of crisis and urgency that 
sounds in the emphatic reiteration, determine my preference of 
the specific to the more indefinite word (comp. 2 Pet. 3 : 3, 
N. d) ; not to mention that out of 109 times, that i2pa is found 
in the N. T., it is 89 times so rendered in E. V. — W., R. ; — 
Vulg., Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Aug., Calv., Aret., Par., Engl. Ann., 
Hamm., Cocc, More, Whitb., Beng., Wakef, Mack., Li'icke, 
All., Sharpe, De. W., Kenr., Dilst. ;-Rob. (who adds that it 
' refers to the last times of o aluv ovroj.'). 

' See V. 7, N. p. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. II. 



35 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

20 But ye have an unction 
from the Holy One, and ye 
know all things. 

21 I have not written unto you 
because ye know not the truth, 



GREEK TEXT. 



20 Kai vnEig ;^p('(T^fa £;^eTf d.7tb 
toi) ayiov, xal oibare navta. 

21 oix ey^a-^ vf^uv, oTi ovx oi- 



REVISED VERSION. 

20 "And Pyou, ye have an 
■ianointing from the Holy One, 
and "^ know all things. 

211 have not written unto you 
because ve know not the truth, 



■> See ch. 1 : 2, N. i, &o. If xai has ever an ailversalive sense, 
' it has it not of itself,' says Iloog., ' but takes it from the nature 
of the opposed clauses or members.' 'Apparently adrersative,' 
Rob. well remarks of this alleged use of xai, 'but only where 
the antithesis of the thought is clear in itself, without the aid 
of an adversative particle.' Win., accordingl}', would almost 
confine it to ' the simple, narrative style.' In the present case 
xal is generally, and even by Lilcke, De W., Bloomf., Peile, 
taken in this sense; but without any necessity, and with no 
advantage to the connection of the verse, which really presents 
an additional mark of discrimination between the faithful and 
the apostates, another provision for the security of the former 
against the evil principles of the latter. — T. ;-Syr., Germ., Dt. 
marg., Ft. S. ;-Aug., Calv., Oastal.. Aret, Hamm., Wells, Beng., 
Dodd., Thorn, {even), Dust, {und; though he explains as 
Liicke, &c.). 



P Kiihn. : ' When the subject is a personal pronoun, it is not 
expressed, unless it is particularly emphatic' Win. : ' Com- 
monly they' (the personal pronouns in the nom.) 'involve an 
antithesis more or less obvious, forming, in the N. T. also, an 
emphasis.' — Syr., Latin verss. {vos. Zumpt :  The personal 
pronouns are expressed in the terminations of the verb, and 
are expressed only when they denote emphasis or opposition.'), 
ft. (quanV e a voi), Fr. S. ;-B. and L. (pour voiis), Dodd. (as 
for yoi(,;~h'it as a supplement), Thoin. (you yourselves). See 
V. 24, N. a, and 27, N. p. 

1 E. Y., V. 27 ;-W. (without the article) ,-Well.s, Dodd., Wesl., 
Ncwc, Sharpe, Barn, (seems to prefer it). 

 W., R. ;-German verss., It. ;-Wesl., Wakef , Mack., Newo., 
Thorn.. Peile. 



not what the writer intended. Some, accordingly, as Lilcke, 
De W., Dust., find in oix liai niivtii a change, or an extension, 
of the subject of ^avifi^^uaiv. In other words, there is here, 
as De W. expresses it, 'a drawing together of two thoughts: 
1., iva ^arf pu9^ oT't oix (irfl Ttuvtf^ ft y^wv \ 2., 'iva <J)arfpw- 
ewdn/ 6rt oix fifft i% rifiuv. The apostle would say : it was to 
become manifest that they, as generally alas ! not all, do not 
belong to us.' But, if E. V. tightens the knot, this, it may be 
said, cuts rather than unties it. Of the ' two thoughts ' neither 
is expressed in the Greek, and both together can be driven into 
it (unless, indeed, we adopt the It. construction : ' ma conveniva 
che fosser manifestati : percioche non tutti son de' nostri ;' as if 
he had said generally of those in church-fellowship: oi yap 
ttdvtav fj TcCans 2 Thess. 3 : 2 ;-and so Dodd., Moldenh., Newc. 
marg. ; Thorn., thus : ' But to the end that they might be 
made manifest [because all are not of us] even you yourselves 
have an unction, &c.') only by paraphrastic violence. Hence, 
while many commentators are fain to include both in their ex- 
position, such verss., as do not rest in what Diist. calls the 
'intolerable' (unertraglich) implication of E. V., have to be 
satisfied with one or the other of them. Thus, the first ap- 
pears, sometim-'S in the form of i'j/o ek aiioi; ^av^puSri xt%. 
in Fr. G.,-M. ;-probably Pugn. (ut patefieret quod non sinl 
omnes ex nobis), Oastal., Bez., Engl. Ann. (as one explanation), 
Carpz., Newc, Mey., All., Penn, De W. and Diist. themselves, 
Peile ; — the second, in W., T., 0. ;-Syr. ;-the notes of Bloomf. 
and Barn ; all of these latter overlooking the rtav-tti entirely, 
and so evading the diflBculty. But the other alternative also, 
(I.), substitutes for ^avifmBwaiv an impersonal form, nor can this 
change be justified by the addition of h aitoi;, an ihnen, in 
them; — (2.), would probably have had oi Ttdvtci ilaiv t'S ijniiv 
(comp. Matt. 7 : 21 ; 19 : 11 ; Johu 13 : 10, 11,18; Acts 10 ; 41 ; 



Rom.9: 6; 10: 16; ICor. 6: 12; 8: 7; 10: 23;2Thess 3:2); 
— (3.), yields, after all, but a frigid sense : ' These apostatized in 
order that it might be shown, that professors of Christ are not 
all true Christians ;' — and, (4.), the sense, such as it is, is not in 
keeping with the context, or the rest of the Epistle, throughout 
which the apostolic charit3r assumes, that those who remained 
were genuine believers. Against Episcopius' rendering of ov 
ndvci^ here by nulli Diist. objects, 1., that, had John meant 
that, he would have written, not tiai, bnt riaav. This, however, 
is not at all certain. Seeing those men now at last standing 
where they had always spiritually belonged, outside of the 
Church's pale, the apostle ma}' very well be understood as say- 
ing: ' They went out, that it might appear that they are, all of 
them, just what they are, not of us.' the inference being then 
immediate, that formerly they wore a mask ; and this is still 
more natural, from the truth in regard to the past having al- 
ready been expi'essly asserted : ovx ^aav it r-fiCtv. 2., Another 
objection i.s, that oi, being .separated from Ttditti only by the 
copula, must belong to it as the subject, not to the predicate 
iialv it rjfii^i', and that the latter connection, moreover, would 
have required either 6ti Ttdvtes oix hai (^Bav) i| rifi. or 6*t oi«s 
lid. it yiiJr. Tidvic;. But see Rom. 3: 20; 1 Cor. 1 : 29; and, for 
other examples of this hebraism (Win.), Matt. 24: 22 (Mark 
13 : 20) ; Luke 1 : 37 ; Acts 10 : 14 ; Gal. 2:16; Rev. 21 : 27. 
— Engl. Ann. (as another explanation, and the first mentioned: 
' That none of them were of zis. An Hebrew phrase.'), Hamm. 
and Guyse (in the paraphrase). Wells, Whitb. (that they all 
were not), B. and L. (que tons ces gens-ld ne sont pas), Pyle, 
Slade, Ros. (allows it: nullum eorum), Trol. 

" W. (be), G., R. ;-Vulg., Germ., Dt., It., Fr. G. -JL ;-Erasm., 
Pagn., Vat., WelKs, B. and L., Dodd., Moldenh., Newc, Liicke, 
AH., Penn, De W., Kenr., Peile, Diist. 



36 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IT. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

but because j'e know it, and that 
no lie is of the truth. 

22 Who is a Har but he that 
denieth that Jesus is the Christ? 
He is antichrist, that denieth the 
Father and the Son. 

23 Whosoeverdenieththe Son, 
the same hath not the Father : 
[6m< he that acknowledgeth the 
Son hath the Father also.^ 

24 Let that therefore abide in 
you, which ye have heard from 
the beginning. If that which ye 
have heard from the beginning 



GREEK TEXT. 

avrr,v, xai ort, Tfdv ^^evSog ix tng 
a2.y!deiag oix tan. 

22 liq iottv 6 ^l^svotrig, el [.in 6 
dpvov[ievog 6-Tt 'lyiaovg ovx iarLV 6 
XpfCTog; oiirog sanv 6 avrixp^ytog, 
6 d^vovi-ievog rov Ttarepa, xai rov 
viov. 

23 Ttctg 6 a^vox'iievog t'ov vibv, 
ov8s 'vov narspa e;^f t. 

24 'Tf.tELg ovv o r)covnats an 
o.p'xr.g, iv i'liiv (.iBvitco. iav ev v[^uv 
^siVYt 6 ctTt' dpx'^ig r^xovaats, xai 



REVISED VERSION. 

but because ye know it, and that 
no he is of the truth. 

22 Who is 'the har, but he that 
denieth that Jesus is the Christ ? 
'This is "the Antichrist, "who de- 
nieth tlie Father and the Son. 

"'23 ^Every one that denieth 
the Son, ^'neither hath he the 
Father.^ 

24 "You, therefore, let that 
'' which ye "= heard from the be- 
ginning abide in you : if that 
■^abide in you which ye "= heard 



' The article is here strongly emphatic, and indicates that the 
highest ■^ivSof (v. 21), even all religious error, is involved in 
this denial. There may even he in it a demonstrative force, 
explained in the latter half of the verse. — Dt., It., Fr. M.,-S. ;- 
Beng. (' vim relativam habet ad abstractum mendacium, v. 
21, i.e. Quis est illius mendacii imposturaeque reus 7 '), Wesl. 
{tlmt), AVakef., Mack., Thom., Midd., Greenf, All., De W., 
Stier, Kenr., Peile, Diist. 

* OiJT'os points, not to o a^vov^ivo^ tov rtarepa xai tov vlov 
(which is, therefore, not in apposition with oitoi, but belongs 
as a predicate to o avtixpinfoi), but to o apvovfiivos bti 'irjgois 
xtx., in the preceding clause. In reply to the challenge there 
given, we have now a peremptory declaration, that the denial of 
Jesus as the Christ does carry in it the extreme Antichristian 
apostasy. — The demonstrative force is preserved in the old En- 
glish and all the foreign verss. ;-Hamm., Guyse, Dodd., Wakef., 
Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

" See V. 18, N. d, &c. T., C. ;-foreign verss. (Cocc. ille) ;- 
Hamm., Wakef. (that), Mack., Thorn., Scott, Sharpe, Peile. 

' AVesl., AYakef., Jlack., Newc , Thom., Penn., Kenr. 

' This verse is the formal justification of the one preceding. 

^ So Ttaj o may be correctly translated throughout (see Rob. 
on rttt; before a participle with the article). In cases, however, 
where a negative predicate follows, as in ch. 3 : C, 9. &c., the 
whosoever of E. V. is perhaps less liable to popular misappre- 
hension. Here the emphasis in the oi&i is brought out by 
treating mdj o as a nominative absolute. — E. V., v. 29 ; ch. 4 : 
7 ; 5 : 1 ; &c. ;-W. (each that), R. ;-Vulg. (omnis qui), Dt. 
{een iegelijk, die);-Ang., Calv., Beng., (as Vulg.), Dodd., 
Kenr., (erery one who), Greenf., All. and De W. {Jeder, der), 
Stier {Ein Jeglicher, der), Murd. at ch. 3: 6. 

7 The emphasis is on the predicate, not on the subject ; and 
so it appears in R. (which gives the whole verse as above) ;- 
all foreign verss. (except B. and L., who drop the emphasis 
altogether) ;-"Wakef. (as above), Kenr. (halh not the F. either). 

' The additional clause, o- o/toXoyuii' ■roi' vlov xai tov na-ti^ia 
txth which is marked as doubtful by the English Translators, 



though that mark has been removed in the Amer. Bib. Soc.'s 
recent Revision, being now universally received by editors and 
critics, I recommend that it be restored to the verse thus: 'the 
Father ; he that confesseth the Son hath the Father also.' — 
The but supplied by E. V. is rather a disadvantage than other- 
wise, and is not in C, R. ;-such foreign verss. as have the clause 
(except Mey., All.) ;-'VVells, AVesl., Penn, Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. 
'Ofio^oyiu occurs other 5 times in John's Epistles, and is always 
in E. V. confess; and .so 12 times elsewhere, and always when 
opposed, as here, to dpvt'ofiai. R. ;-Murd., Kenr. 

' See V. 20, N. p, &c. The antithetical (De W., Diist. : nach- 
drilckKch [kraftvoll] vorangestellte) vfiilf here and in v. 27 is 
explained by Beng., De W., and others, as belonging by hyper- 
baton to r^xoijaate. I prefer to regard it as in both instances a 
rhetorical anacoluthon, which had better be preserved. See 
Grot., Liicke, Ros., Win. § 28. 3 and 64. 2. d. Dust., and Rev. 
3 : 12, N. i. Others, as Wolf., Trol., &c., allow either construc- 
tion. — The emphasis is here variously given also by R. ;-Syr., 
Vulg., It., Fr. S.;-Aug., Erasm., Vat., Castal., Bez. (as cited in 
Pol. Syn.), Tremell., Aret., Dodd. (as for you ; and not, as in v. 
20, as a supplement), Carpz., Thom. (as Dodd.), Peile (on your 
part). Comp. the Hebrew use of iJN and i^{<1 1 Chron. 28 : 

2; Is. 59: 21; &c. 

'' Nothing is gained in this verse by the double inversion 
(adopted bj' E. V. from T., C, G.) of the Greek order, which 
is followed in both mstances by W., R. ;-Syr., Latin and Ger- 
man verss. (except iley.), Dt. 

' See V. 7, N. p, &c. 

^ See V. 19, N. k, &c. The avowed aversion of the English 
Translators to ' uniformity of phrasing' is strikingly exempli- 
fied in their threefold rendering of ^Ua in this one verse. But 
is not that ' a verbal and unnecessary changing V The worst 
is, that the simple beauty and force of the original are sacri- 
ficed to ' a great number of good English words.' W., R., and 
all other versions that I have looked into, except T., C, G., 
avoid this unprofitable exuberance. — For the order, see N. b. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. II. 



37 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

shall remain in j'ou, ye also shall 
continue in the Son, and in th<3 
Father. 

25 And this is the promise that 
he hath promised us, even eternal 
life. 

26 These iAJreo-* have I written 
unto you concerning them that 
seduce you. 

27 But the anointing which }'e 
have received of him abidelh in 
you, and ye need not that any 
man teach you : but as the same 
anointing teacheth you of all 
things, and is truth, and is no lie, 
and even as it hath taught you, 
ye shall abide in him. 

28 And now, little children. 



GREEK TEXT. 



v^ig £v TO rta xai sv tu Ttarpi 
fiEveLTe. 

25 xal aikr; iariv n evtayyeTua, 
r,v avtog STt/iyyeiTjo/to h^tv, rip ^anv 
trf aiuviov. 

26 Tairta eypa^a v^dv Ttspl tav 
TlTjxvuvtQV vfiag. 

27 Kat I'liEig to Z9''^^^ o sXd^ets 
an' avroii, iv v^iv /.isvei, xal ov 
Xpeto-v exste Iva tig hthaax-n vfidg- 
d^/l' ug to avtd ;^p('cr|Ua hhaaxn 
vf-idg Ttepl TxdvTidv, xal a?.y]6eg eatt, 
xal ovx eatL '4^£v?iog- xal xaQiog £&'- 
8a^£v i);ud$, nEvelts ev aita. 

28 Kat vin>, tsxvia, fievets ev 



REVISED VERSION. 

from the beginning, ye also shall 
''abide in the Son and in the 
Father. 

25 And this is the promise 
^which he "^himself ? promised us, 
''the life eternal. 

26 These 'things -"T have writ- 
ten unto you concerning ''those 
'who ""would "deceive you. 

27 "And Pyou, the anointing 
which ye "i received "'from him 
abideth in you, and ye 'have no 
need that any 'one teach you : 
but as the same anointinsr teach- 
eth you "concernmg all things, 
and is "true, and is no lie, and 
even as it ^ taught you, ye ='shall 
abide in him. 

28 And now, little children. 



' R. ;-Guyse, Dodd., and the later verss. (except Sharpe). 

' See ch. 1 : 7, N. x, &c. The writer thinks of the promise, 
not so much as something recorded in his own Gospel, 6 : 27 ; 
17 : 2, 3 ; as what he heard from the Saviour's lips. 

^ The historical reference, suggested in the last note, to cer- 
tain memorable occasions, or at least to the personal ministry 
of the Saviour while on earth, seems to require that the verb 
here (as in v. 6 of this chapter, and Acts 20 : 35, where the 
same kind of reference cannot be mistaken,) should be given in 
its proper aorist form. — W., R. ;-Wakef. 

 For the omission of the E. V. supplement, see 'W., R. ;- 
Syr., Vulg., German verss., Fr. S.;-Erasm., Vat., Carpz., Greenf., 

Sharpe, Kenr. For the article, see v. 7, N. o, &c. ;-forcign 

verss. generally, (Pagn., Bez., ilia) ;-Wakef., Mack., Thom, 

See ch. 5 : 20, N. p. For the order, life et., see E. V., Matt, 

25 : 46 ; John 4:36; 17:3 ;-R, ;-AVakef., Mack, {life which 
[is] et. ;-this relative construction appears also in Berl. Bib., 
Thom.), Murd., Kenr. See ch. 5 : 20, N. p. 

' It is not necessary to mark things as a supplement here, 
any more than in v. 2 ; ch. 1 : 4 ; &c., nor was it so marked in 
the original edition. 

' See ch. 1 : 4, N. p. 

k See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. b, &c. 

1 See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. c, &c. 

■^ The context (vv. 20, 21, 27) shows that this is a case of 
the present 'de conatu, i. e. an endeavour or purpose'' (Buttm. 
§ 137. n. 10.), and so it is generally understood; as by AVhitb., 
B. and L., Blackw., Beng., Guyse, Dodd. (as above ;-and so 
Wesl. in the note, Newc, Penn, Barn., Peilc), Gill, Moldenh., 
Carpz. (volunt). Scott, Clarke, Mey. (TCoMe«;-and so Stolzj 
Van Ess), Ros., De W. 



" nxavdu is in B. V. to seduce only here and Rev. 2 : 20 ; in 

the other two instances in this Epistle and 22 times elsewhere, 
to deceive.— 'W ., T., C, G.;- Blackw., Dodd., Mack., Newc, 
Sharpe. 

" In addition to the apostolic warning, they had the secu- 
rity of their spiritual anointing, and union to Christ. See v. 20, 
N. o, &c. 

P A yet stronger case of hyperbaton, De W. thinks, than 
that in v. 24. But see there N. a, &c. 

■! Comp. Gal. 3 : 2, and see v. 7, N. p, &c. "W., G. ;-Wakef , 
Sharpe. See N. w. 

 See ch. 1 : 5, N. t. 

' E. V. translates ;i-p£i,'ar fj^jii/, to have need or lack, 24 times; 
in 6 of which the phrase, when accompanied by the negative 
particle, is, to have no need ;-W, (have not n.), R,;-Dodd, {have 
no necessity), Wakef., i\Iack., Thom., Penn {as W.), Kenr., 
Peile. 

t See V. 1, N. b, &c. 

" See oh. 1 : 1, N. d. 

' The adjective is retained by E, V. in ch. 2 : 8 ; Acts 12:9; 
-here, by the older English and all the foreign (except Greenf) 
verss. ;-Dodd., "Wesl., Wakef, Newc, Thom., Penn., Murd., 
Kenr., Peile. 

* ' At first, when ye received it ' (previous clause). As the 
anointing was the same (' to aito. idem semper, nou aliud atque 
aliud, sed sibi constans; et idem apud sanctos omnes.' Beng.), 
so ' the whole truth' (John 16 : 13 Ttdaav triv aXrfiiiav), into 
which it evermore guides the Church, is still essentially the 
'one faith' (Eph, 4: 5 fila, xiati;), universal and unchangeable, 
of God's elect. See N. q, &c.— W., T., G. ;- Wakef , Sharpe. 

" Lachm. and Theile have ^heti as in v, 28, and of this Diist. 
approves, citing for it A. B. C. 



3S 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAR III. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

abide in him ; that when he shall 
appear, we may have confidence, 
and not be ashamed before him 
at his coming. 

29 If ye know that he is right- 
eous, ye know that every one 
that doeth righteousness is born 
of him. 

CHAP. III. 

Behold what manner of love 
the Father hath bestowed upon 
us, that we should be called the 
sons of God ! therefore the world 
knoweth us not, because it knew 
him not. 

2 Beloved, now are we the 
sons of God, and it doth not yet 



GREEK TEXT. 

aira- 'iva brav ^vspudTi, £x,°l^^ 
TtappYiaiav, xal ^m aiaj(vvQu^v an 
avvoi, tp TYi TtapovaicL autov. 

29 edv f(&^T£ or I 



8ixai6g 

yiVLxrxETE otL Ttag 6 Ttoicjv tnv 
oavvyjv, i^ airov yeysvrritai. 



sati, 
hixat- 



REVISED VERSION. 

abide in him ; that, when he shall 
3'be manifested, we ^may have 
confidence, and not be "shamed 
away from him, at his coming. 

29 If ye know that he is righ- 
teous, ""ye know that every one 
that doeth righteousness "^hath 
been ''begotten of him. 



CHAP. III. 

Behold "what manner of love 



CHAP. III. 

'lAETE Ttotannv dydnyiv hsScdxsv 
7[ULV b 7taTy;p, iva texva Qeov x7.rr ' t^ie Father hath bestowed upon 
dcouEV. Siaroirto 6 xdauog ov yivciy us, that we should be called ''ch.l- 

„ '  - '- ' 1 „,'*^,. dren of God r therefore the world 

' ' knoweth "not us, because it knew 

^not him. 

2 Beloved, now are we ' chil- 
dren of God, and it ^hath not yet 



2 dyanyirol, virf texvol Qeov eo^v, 
xai oi'Tto E^ars^dvi ri iao^iEda- oi- 



y This verb is several times used in this Epistle of the per- 
sonal appearing of our Lord, and in that relation is always, 
except here and ch. 3 : 2, rendered in E. V., was manifested. 
I think it better to retain the passive form in all these instances, 
not only for the sake of uniformity, but also as suggesting the 
agency and love of the Father (so prominent in the Christo- 
logy of John) in the second, as well as in the first, coming of 
the Saviour. Comp. ch. 4: 9, 10; Acts 3: 18, 20; 1 Tim. 6: 
15. E. V. here follows the Vulg. (apparuerit). — Syr., Germ., 
Dt., Fr. S. ;-Aug., Pagn,, Bez., Tremell., Berl. Bib., Beng., 
Newc, Greenf., Murd., Peile. See ch. 3 : 2, N. f. 

' The f'j;o/i£i' of our Text is an error of the press for J'j^ujufr. 
Lachm. and Tisch. give ax'^f-iv. 

' 'Art' avtov cannot mean ' before him,' but, in connection 
with the verb, indicates the shrinking, under the pressure of 
inward shame and universal contempt, of the false professor 
from the glory of Him, whose name he had dishonoured. Comp. 
Ps. 73: 20; Is. 2: 19-21; Dan. 12; 2; Matt. 25 : 41 (Hoptv- 
foSf art' ijiov); Mark 8 : 38; Luke 21: 36; Rev. 6: 16 (xpv- 
■^ati riiiai Mo upoaurtov)- — Dt. {ran hem) ;-Calv. (pudpfiamus 
ab ejus praesentia), Stcph. (ab eo discedamus piidej'acti), 
Hamm. in the paraphrase (^turned with shame from him), 
Greenf. (VJ?'7D li*i33), Bloomf. (assents to Green's rendering, 

shrink from him with shame), De "W. (' 6.7(6, pregnant, including 
the idea of turning away, as aiax- orto rtpooiJrtov Sir. 21 : 22.'). 
Peile {'put to confusion efface as being cast away from him'), 
Diist. (who also cites Bez., Episcopius, J. Lange, Lticke) ;-Rob. 
('pr. so as to turn away from him'). 

^ rtvusxefe is rendered as an imperative mood in E. V. marg.; 
-W., T., C, R. ;-Syr , Latin verss. (except Pagn., Bez.), German 
verss. (except Moldenh.), Dt., It., French verss. ;-"Wakef., Newc. 
I prefer the affirmative construction for the reason assigned by 
Bez. : ' Ubiq^ue enim negat se docere irpperitos.' See ch. 4 : 2, 
N. a. 



' Scott: 'In all the passages in this epistle' (except once, ch. 
5 : 18), 'and in several of the others, the passive perfect is used, 
which is properly, ftas been &c.' See 2 Pet. 2 : 17, N. a, &c. — 
Fr. S.;-Engl. Ann. (at ch. 3: 9), Mack. 

'^ This rendering of ytuj'aw, which is required at ch. 5:1, is 
equally suitable throughout the Epistle. — E. V. ch. 5: 1, 18; 
Acts 13 ; 33 ; 1 Cor. 4:15; Philem. 10 ; &c. ;-Fr. S. {engendre ;- 
for ne of other ver.ss.) ;-Calv., Cocc, Carpz., (genitus ;-for na- 
tus of other verss.), Engl. Ann. at ch. 3; 9, Scott, ('or, beg.'). 
Mack., Clarke, Penn, Barn. 

» The comma here restored by the Amer. Bib. Soc. is not 
needed, any more than in the other cases of the dependent con- 
struction of rtorartos, where E. V. omits it ; Mark 13,1; Luke 
1 : 29 ; 7 : 39. It may be added, that the restoration of the 
comma made it only the more proper to retain the point of ex- 
clamation, which the Soc. has dropped. — W., T., R. ;-Latin and 
French verss. (except Castal.), It. ;-\Vesl., Mack,, Newc, Thorn., 
Clarke. 

^ The article is omitted by all foreign verss. (except Fr. M-) ; 
-TTakef., Newc, Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Dav., Kenr,, Peile ;- 

Rob. For children, see E. V. throughout John's Epistles 

(except here and v. 2), and generally elsewhere ;-German and 
French verss., Dt. ;-Dodd. and the later English. 

» The addition of xaX ianiv after x7.rfiuit.iv (A. B. C, Yulg., 
&c.) is adopted only by Lachm. 

^ The Greek order is kept in both instances by W., R. ;- 
Latin verss. (except Castal.) ;-"Wakef., Mack., Thorn.: — in the 
first instance, by Syr. : — in the second, by T., C, G. ;-It ;- 
Dodd., "West., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr. 

' See v. 1, N. b. 

' See ch, 2 : 28, N. y. A passive verb, with or without an 
adjective, is employed by Syr. ;-Dt., French ver.ss. ;^Aug., Bez., 
Hamm., Pears,, Berl. Bib., Beng., Wakef., Newc, Thom., Scott, 
Greenf., Yap Ess, Penn, Peile. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. III. 



39 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

appear what we shall be : but 
we know that, when he shall 
appear, we shall be hke him ; 
for we shall see him as he is. 

3 And every man that hath this 
hope in him purifieth himself, 
even as he is pure. 

4 Whosoever committeth sin 
transgressed! also the law ; for 
sin is the trangression of the law. 

5 And ye know that he was 
manifested to take away our 
sins ; and in him is no sin. 

6 Whosoever abideth in him 
sinneth not : whosoever sinneth 
hath not seen him, neither known 
him. 

7 Little children, let no man 
deceive you : he that doeth right- 
eousness is righteous, even as he 
is righteous. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Sansv 8e otL iav ^j'spaB^, b^ioioi 
avra iaoj^eda, oTt o'^o^ieQa airtov 

3 Kai Tiag 6 ij(av rr:v i?c7ti8a 
ravryiv en' avta, ayvi^sL iavtov, 
xaBug ixsivog ayvog iatu 

4 nd$ 6 TToiQV Tr,v aiiaptiav, xal 
trtf OLVo^av Ttoiei- xal n a[.iapTia 
sarlv n avo^a. 

5 xal oibatE otL Bxslvog i^avepoi- 
Oy], iva rag a^apviac, riffov upyj- xat 
h^iaptia h' avru ovx katL. 

6 7td$ 6 £2^ avro} ^evav, ov^ h^ap- 
rdvEi- nag b a^apravidv, ov^ iupa- 
xev alrtbv, ovSe syvcdxev avtov. 

7 Tsxvia, [.lyiSsig n2.avdtu vi.idg' 
6 Ttoitiv rr,v hixaioavvYiv, hixaiog iaTi, 
xaOug exELvog bixaiog iatLV. 



REVISED VERSION. 

been manifested what we shall 
be, but we know that, when ^it 
shall '"be manifested, we shall be 
like him, for we shall see him as 
he is. 

3 And every 'one that hath 
this hope Jon Him purifieth him- 
self even as ''He is pure. 

4 'Every one that committeth 
sin "committeth also "violation of 
law ; "and sin is "violation of law. 

5 And ye know that PHe was 
manifested to take away our sins ; 
and in him is 'no sin. 

6 ■'Every one that abideth in 
him sinneth not ; ''every one that 
sinneth hath not seen him, neither 
known him. 

7 Little children, let no 'one 
deceive you ; he that doeth right- 
eousness is righteous, even as 
'He is righteous. 



^ Or, ^e;-which personal reference, besides being favoured 
by ch. 2: 28 and Col. 3 : 4, appears in W , G. (as a supplement), 
R. ;-Dt (as G.), It., Fr. G.,-JI.,-S. ;-Pagn,, Bez., (supply ipse), 
Calv. (in the comment.), Wells, "VVhitb., Berl. Bib., Guyse, 
Dodd., Moldenh., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Scott, Clarke, 
Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf Yet I prefer the impersonal construc- 
tion as being that of the previous clause, and because, had a 
change been intended, it would have accorded with John's 
manner to say, ixsivoi ; as at vv. 3, 5, &c. So T., 0. ;-Germ. ;- 
Casta!., Engl. Ann. ('or, ti'), Grot., B. and L., Beng., Bens., 
Carpz., Lucke, Mey., Ros., Trol., De "W., Stier, Peile. — Syr. 
and Vulg. are doubtful ; though Tremell. and Murd., All. and 
Kenr., adopt the personal reference. 

'' ''When the mystery of our future being is unveiled, this 
is what shall be disclosed : " IVe shall be like ^ini"-whateverof 
glory and blessedness that involves.' See N. f, &c. 

' E. v., ch. 2 : 29 ; Matt. 7 : 8 ; &c. ;-R. ;-Dodd. and the later 
verss. (e.xcept Newc). 

1 The ambiguity of E. V. is, perhaps, commonly misunder- 
stood by the English reader as=^j/ lavT^- — E. V., Ps. 119 : 49 
(tipoTi) ;-Syr. (=bv), Germ, (zu), Dt. ;-Engl. Ann. ('or, on'), 

Hamm., Berl. Bib., Moldenh. (as Genu.), Newc. (placeth this 
h. in him), Mey., All. (diese Hoffnung aiif ihn setzt), De W., 
Peile (set on him). The capital H also would help to guard 
the reader against mistake. 

k See ch. 2 : 6, N. 1. 

iSeech. 2:23, N. X. 



"■ The correspondence between o jtoiwv and jtoiil is preserved 
by W., T., C, R. ;-Latin verss. (except Pagn., Boz. ;-whose 
transgreditur is followed in E. V.), German verss. (except 
Moldenh., All.), Dt., It, Fr. G.,-S.;-Hamm., Dodd., Mack., 
Thorn., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

" Elsewhere E. Y. renders dfo^i-'a twelve times, iniquity; and 
once, U7irightemisness. Here the allusion to the composition 
of the term is stronger than either of these English words 
conveys. — Dodd. ('I choose violation as rather a more express- 
ive word than transgression, and so answering more exactly 

to axo^ia.'). Thorn., Peile (non-conformily to law). 'Avo/iia 

(like a/iafitla) takes the article as an abstract noun, not as re- 
ferring to any particular law. No article is introduced in either 
clause by W., T., C, R. ;-Greenf , Murd., Kenr., Peile. Mack., 
Thom., omit before law ; Penn, before transgression. 

" See ch. 1 : 2, N. i. It is in the style of John, that this 
assertion in the abstract of the essential oneness of sin and 
lawlessness should be attached to the previous concrete form 
rather as an additional, cumulative statement, than as an argu- 
mentative ground or justification. — W., 0., R. ;-Latin verss. 
(except Pagn.. Bez.), German verss. (except Moldenh. and 
Mey.), It., Fr. S. ;-Wells, Ros., Greenf, Kenr., Peile (yea). 

p See ch. 2 : 6, N. 1. Lachm. and Tisch. cancel r;fi.uv. 

1 See ch. 1 : 8, N. z. 

■• Seech. 2: 23, N. x:. 

 See ch. 2 : 1, N. b, and 4 : 12, N. y, &c. 

<■ See ch. 2 : 6, N. 1. 



40 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. III. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

8 He thai committeth sin is of 
the devil ; for the devil sinneth 
from the beginning. For this 
purpose the Son of God was 
manifested, that he might destroy 
the works of the devil. 

9 Whosoever is born of God 
doth not commit sin ; for his seed 
remaineth in him ; and he can- 
not sin, because he is born of 
God. 

10 In this the children of God 
are manifest, and the children 
of the devil : whosoever doeth 
not righteousness is not of God, 
neither he that loveth not his 
brother. 

11 For this is the message 
that ye heard from the begin- 
ning, that we should love one 
another. 

12 Not as Cain, wJio was of 
that wicked one, and slew his 



GREEK TEXT. 



8 6 TtoLav rnv aiMapriav, ix tov 
haj36?jov iariv brt an dp;^^ 6 ^td- 
(Jo/\.og d(UapTdwt. etg touto e<pav£- 
pcl)&)q 6 vlog tov G>£Ov, iva. "kvori ra 
ipya tov Sux(362jov. 

9 7td$ 6 ysyevvYi^ievog ix tov Qsov, 
a.[.iaptiav ov ttoul, otL anep^ia aitov 
iv aijT6) ^evsr xai ov SivataL hfiap- 
tdvEiv, bti sx tov Qeov ysyivvYitau 

IQ sv tovta ^avepd eati td TfPfj'a 
Toil Qeov xai ra T£xva Toii hia[i6%ov. 
Ildg 6 |U/i TtOLQv hixaioainriv, ovx 
kativ ix tov Seov, xai 6 ft/i dyarcajv 
tov dheTi^ov avtov. 

1 1 OtL avtri iativ n dyyE?ua r(v 
r,xovaat£ an dp;^j^s, iva dyanonev 
dyl/lyiXovs" 

12 ow xaOag KdiV ix tov novr^^v 
riv, xai sa<pa^£ tov d8£?L^ov avtov- 



REVISED VERSION. 

8 He that committeth sin is of 
the devil; for the devil sinneth 
tiom the beginning. For this " 
was the Son of God manifested, 
that he might destroy the works 
of the devil. 

9 'Every one that "hath been 
^begotten of God doth not com- 
mit sin, for his seed ^abideth in 
him ; and he cannot sin, because 
he "hath been ^begotten of God : 

10 In this "^are manifest the 
children of God and the children 
of the devil. ^Every one that 
doeth not righteousness is not of 
God, ''and he that loveth not his 
brother. 

11 For this is the "^message 
that ye heard from the begin- 
ning, that we should love one 
another ;** 

12 Not as Cain ^ was of ''the 
wicked one, and slew s^his broth- 



" There is nothing for purpose in the Greek ;-R. ;-any for- 
eign vers. ;-Sharpe (for this was), Kenr. (for this hath the S. 
of G. appeared). 

- See ch. 2 : 23, N. x. 

^ See ch. 2 : 29, N. c, &c. 

" See ch. 2 : 29, N. d. 

•" Seech. 2: 19, N. k, &c. 

'All foreign verss. (except Dt. ;-Moldenh.), and Wakef, 
translate ^avfpa iati, before either of the subjects ; Penn and 
Kenr., after both. 

' See ch. 2 : 23, N. x. Here begins a new section, in which 

the general doctrine of the previous context is applied to the 
ca.se of loving our brother. This closer connection of the first 
half of v. 10 with what precedes, and of the second half with 
what follows, or at least this latter connection, is variously 
indicated in the editions of Beng., Griesb., Mey., Lachm., 
Bloomf , Sch. 

^ "W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Jley.) ;- 
Dodd., Sharpe (as also), JMurd., Kenr., Peile (also). 

" E. V. marg: : ' Or, commandment.^ 'Ayyrtia, which oc- 
curs nowhere el.se in the N. T., has both meanings in classic 
Greek. Here they may be said to coalesce. 

^ The close connection that exists, though in a compressed 
form, between vv. 11 and 12, is broken up by the punctuation 
of £. v.— W. and C. have a comma ; T., a colon. Others vary 
from a period to a comma. 



' Lucke : ' Some supply after oi : ayartu/itv, others jtotwjut v 
and the like. But in the first case there arises an irony un- 
suitable in this connection ; and in both cases a second supple- 
ment becomes necessary, to wit, of oj after KoiV. which, as the 
omission of the relative pronoun is in classic as well as N. T. 
Greek without example, could hardly be justified. Much simpler 
is it with Grotius to complete the sentence thus : ovx iL^tv ix 
■tov rtoi'jjpoiJ, xaOus Kd'Cv ix tov rtoyjjpov iji/.' Better still Win. : 
'Properly, there is nothing to be supplied (ijUfv or rtonojutv 
would not tit ov), but, the comparison being negligently ex- 
pressed, the reader easily adjusts the clauses for himself: that 
we love one another, not as Cain was of the wicked one &c. 
shall it or may it be so with us.' So also De W., who refers to 
John 6 : 58, and adds that the present place is ' yet more diffi- 
cult to complete, but for that very reason is not to be com- 
pleted ... as we should otherwise render the expression clumsy.' 
In like manner Erasm., Vat., Hamm., Wakef , introduce no 
supplement. — The relative construction of E. V. appears in Syr., 
Vulg., and most other verss. 

' The demonstrative is not used by W., T., G., R. ;-foreign 
verss. (except Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Bez.) ;-Dodd. and the later 
verss. (except Newc). 

^ Win. : ' In the N. T., more frequently than among the 
Greeks, avtov &c. appears for the reflexive avtmi &c., and the 
Codd. vary exceedingly in the mode of writing these two pro- 
nouns. Only the Editors of the N. T. have not generally ob- 
served this, and so at present less stress can be laid on the N. 
T. text than on that of Greek authors.' This extraordinary 
(ausserordentlich) vacillation is exemplified in this one verse, 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. III. 



41 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

brother. And wherefore slew he 
him"? Beccause his own works 
were evil, and his brother's right- 
eous. 

13 Marvel not, my brethren, 
if the world hate you. 

14 We know that we have 
passed from death unto life, be- 
cause we love the brethren. He 
that loveth not his brother, abid- 
eth in death. 

15 Whosoever hateth his broth- 
er, is a murderer : and j^e know 
that no murderer hath eternal 
life abiding in him. 

16 Hereby perceive we the 



GREEK TEXT. 

xat ;^dptv rivog soKpa^sv avtov; bti 
rd epya avTov noviq^a r,p, ra ^e Tov 
dSs2/pov airtov Sixaia. 

13 [I'h daviia^ere, d8e/{<poi ^lov, el 
l^uoet vf^idg 6 x6aj.Loq. 

14 "Hjtfetg oiha[X£v oti ^ra[3e[3n- 
xa^ev ex tov davdtov elg rrip (lonv, 
otL dyaTtcij^iev rovg dSel^ovg- 6 (zn 
dyanCiv tov d8e2.^6v, ^ivet iv ra 
davdra. 

15 7td$ 6 iiiGav tov dSsTi^bv av- 
Tov, dvOpoTtoxTovog iatr xal oiSatE 
ort Ttdg dvdpcdTtoxTovog ovx s^ei ^(o'hv 
aiQviov iv aiiTU [isvovdav. 

16 'Kv toin^a iyvQxa^ev tnv dyd- 



REVISED VERSION. 

er ; and wherefore slew he him ? 
Because s^his own works were 
■^ wicked, 'but ^his brother's righ- 
teous. 

13 Marvel not, my brethren, if 
the world Jhateth you. 

14 ''As for us, we know that 
we have passed 'out ot death 
■"into life, because we love the 
brethren : he that loveth not "Ais 
brother abideth in death. 

15 "Every one that hateth his 
brother is a Pmankiller ; and ye 
know that no Pmankiller hath 
eternal life abiding in him. 

16 Hereby ihave we known 



'■ Ilowjpd} occurs six times in this Epistle, and here only is 
translated evil in E. V. But it is of more importance to ob- 
serve, and to retain, the verbal correspondence between KaCv ix 
tov rtovj^pov rjv and -ra tpya aiitov 7iovr^^^a ^y. They were tne 
works of his father (Jolm 8: 41). — The same word is given in 
both clauses by ^V^., R. ;-Syr., Latin verss. (except Calv.), Dt.;- 
Mack., Newc, Thom., Mey., Greenf., All., Sharpe, De W., 
Murd., Kenr. 

' See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. 

' ' As it does.' — The indicative mood is retained by W. ;- 
foreign verss. ;-Mack., Sharpe. 

'' Liioke : 'Full of emphasis : ^/iEtj — in opposition to the dark 
world full of hatred and devilish fratricide.' Bloomf. : ' We, 
for our part.' Peile : ' \Ve that are Christ's disciples ;' &c. See 
eh. 2 : 20, N. p, &o. 

> 'And abide no longer in death' (last clause). — E. V., Matt. 
27: 53; 2 Cor. 4 : 6; 1 Pet. 2: 9; &c.;-Germ., Dt.;-Pagn., 
Bez., Cocc, Beng., Carpz. (e.r;-for Vulg. cle), Moldenh., Mey., 
De W. 

" E. v.. Matt. 18: 8,9; 19: 17; 25: 21, 23; 1 Pet. 2: 9; 
&c. ;-Germ., Dt. ;-CaIv., Beng., Carpz., (m;-for Vulg. ad), 
Moldenh., Mey., All., De W. 

" Lachm. and Tisch. cancel tov aSA^ov. 

" See eh. 2 : 23, N. x. 

P While in the N. T. foviv; occurs 7 times and is always in 
E. V. murdei-er, avSpurtoxtovos (not found at all in the Sept ; 
the common expression there being ^ovevtr,;, or a participle of 
^oKEiiw, though in Wisd. 12 : 5 appears fopsvs itself) is met with 



elsewhere only in John 8 : 44. There Satan is said to have 
been avdpurtoxt. an' ap;^^j, as having ' brought death into the 
world and all our woe' (comp. Wisd. 2 : 24 : fOov^ 6ia/3o>.cnj 
ddvato; dorfKOsv lif tov x6a/j.ov ; and Sir. 25 : 24). And so what 
the writer directly aims at here is, not the expression of a 
moral sentiment, but (with a conscious reference to the com- 
position of a somewhat unusual word) didactically to assert, 
that, as tending to the prejudice and ultimate ruin of the object, 
hatred of a brother involves a breach of the sixth command- 
ment of the law (comp. Matt. 5 : 21, 22. Beng. : ' Omne odium 
est Conatus contra vilam.'), and yet, of course, to express this 
without any such accompanying extenuation, as is suggested 
by the modern technical use of homicide, manslaughter. For 
the same purpose I avail myself of Dryden's word, Ovid. 
Metam. xv. (cited by Rich.) : 

' To kill man killers, Man has lawful power.' 

With an eye, perhaps, to the present context, an old English 
writer speaks of ' Kayne the manqiieller'-a. phrase which W. 
also employs at Mark 6 : 27.— W., T., C, G., (manslayer) ;- 
Syr. (=tl'1JN btpp), Latin verss. (homicida), Germ. (Todt- 

schlager), Dt. (doodslager), It. {micidiale). Fr. S. {homicide', 
-for meurtrier of Fr. G. and -M.) ;-B. and L. {as Fr. S.), 
Moldenh. {as Germ.), Wakef., Mack., Penn, Murd., (as W.), 
Scott (a killer of man). Here E. V. follows R., which at John 
8 : 44 has mankiller. 

t See ch. 2 : 3, N. h. Here the perfect tense is retained by 
W., G., R. ;-Vulg., German verss., Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;- 
Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Coco., Pyle, Mack., Newc. marg., Clarke, 
Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 



as it stands in our Text. Bloomf., Lachm., Tisch., have aitoi 
thrice. As it regards ai* oii, its use generally in the N. T., and 
in its present connection with dSsx^idj in this Epistle, does not 
warrant the emphasis given to it hy Wake^., his own ; nor is 



it because the first avtoi here stands for aitoi more certainly 
than does the second, that E. V. so renders the one and not the 
other, but merely for the sake of an easier discrimination. See 
Rev. 1 . 5, N. X, 

6 



42 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. III. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

love of God, l^ecause he laid 
down his life for us : and we 
ought to lay down our lives for 
the brethren. 

17 But whoso hath this world's 
good, and seeth his brother have 
need, and shutteth up his bowels 
of compassion from him, how 
dwelleth the love of God in 
him? 

IS My litde children, let us 
not love in word, neither in 
tongue, but in deed and in truth. 

19 And hereby we know that 



GREEK TEXT. 

Ttyjv, bti, exelvog vTtip rifuoff t'h' '^v')(r^ 
aiftov id'/jxe- xm ni^stg o^eiT^o^ev 
V7t£^ tLiV dheX^av tas '^vjqxs tidevai. 

17 og h' av s^V '^^^ /^'^^ '^o^' 
xodfJ-ov, xdi Oecjpp Toi' ahe'k^bv avrov 
X^eioiv e^ovTa, xai x7^£iari ra on/'My- 
'](va avtoi) an avrov, Ttog n ayditiq 
tov Qeov ^vei iv avtco ; 

18 tsxvia (lov, ^n ayaTto^sv Tuoyo 
^Yihi y^ujaari, akX spyo) xai dkyjdsia. 

19 Kat sv rovtci yivi^uxo^ev on 



REVISED VERSION. 

'love, because 'He laid down his 
life for us : 'we also ought to lay 
down our lives for the brethren. 

17 Butwhosohath''iheworld's 
''goods, and seeth his brother have 
need, and shutteth up his '"bowels 
from him, how "abideth the love 
of God in him '? 

18 My httle children, let us 
not love in word ''nor ^in tongue, 
but "in deed and in truth. 

19 '' And hereby we know that 



 ' What love is, and to what lengths of self-sacrifice it can 
go.' — The E. V. supplement (from Vulg. and Bez.) is avoided 
by T., C, G. ;-Protestant German verss., Dt., French verss. ;- 
Aug. (' Perfectionem dilectionis dioit.'), Erasm. and other Latin 
verss., Cocc. ('Qiialis sit vera charitas deflnit, sive quomodo 
ilia cognoscatur explicat.'), Beng., Pyle, Wakef., Newc, Ros., 
Bloomf., Barn., Peile. 
' See ch. 2 : 6, N. 1. 

' An immediate inference; as in ch. 4: 11. 'Debemus igitur 
et nos &c.' (Grot., Ros.). The also helps to bring out the 
emphasis (see ch. 2: 20, N. p, &c.), and is, accordingly, intro- 
duced (or its equivalent), though sometimes as a supplement, 
and sometimes accompanied by other conjunctions, by T., G. ;- 
Syr., German verss. (except Moldenh.), It., French verss. (of 
vrhioh the S. has nous aussi nous);-V)al>., Carpz., Penn, 
Murd. 

° Only here, 1 Tim. 6: 7 (where the later editions, including 
the Amer. Bible Soc.'s last, inconsistently mark this as sup- 
plied), and Rev. 11 : 15, is the article before xdu^of rendered in 
E. V. (after the Yulg. hujus) as a demonstrative pronoun. This 
is avoided by R.;-Syr., Dt., It. ;-Aug., Erasm. and the later 
Latin verss. (except Castal.), Beng., Dodd.. Newc, Thom., Mey., 
Greenf., De W., Murd., Peile ;-though several of these employ 
an adjective for ■roi xosft. 

' Elsewhere in E. V. jSi'oj is either life or living. In the 
latter sense, or the means of sustaining life, substance, prop- 
erty, the form good is not now current. — Germ. ( Giiter), It. 
{beni), French verss. (fii'ejis) ;-Wells, Dodd. {good things -,-^0 
Wakef, Newc), Moldenh., Liicke, AH., (as Germ.), Mack., 
Van Ess and De W. (Lebensguler), Penn, Bloomf. 

" The figure in anxdyxva is retained, and without supple- 
ment, by E. v., Phil. 1 : 8; 2: 1 ; Col. 3 : 12;-W., R. ;-foreign 
verss. (except Castal. The Germ, verss. and Dt. = heart.) •- 
Dodd., Mack., Scott. Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. It is reduced to 
compassion by T., 0., G.;-Thom., Penn; to affections, by 
Wakef. 

^ See ch. 2 : 19, N. k, &c. E. V. translates fitVa 8 times in 
John's Epistles by dwell. But that word is better for otxiw and 



its compounds, as in Rom. 8 : 9, 11 ; 1 Cor. 3 : 16 ; 2 Cor. 6 : 
10; Eph. 3: 17; Col. I: 19; 2: 9; 3: IG; 2 Tim. 1: 14; 
James 4 : 5. Mi™, on the other hand, and especially in .John's 
characteristic use of it, imports not the mere fact of dwelling, 
considered simply and absolutely; but contimiance, perseve- 
rance, in opposition to change and apostasy. See ch. 2: 19. 
Comp. also John C : 56, where E. V. has dwell, with John 15 : 
4, &c., where it has abide. Even in John 14 : 10, where ^a-u 
expresses a relation between the Father and the Son, it at the 
same time implies that the humihation of the flesh had induced 
no change in that relation. — R. (doth . . . abide), Latin verss., 
except Castal., (^manet), Germ, (bleibet), Dt. (blijft) ;-Engl. 
Ann. ('It cannot abide'), Beng. ('manet. Dicebat, se amare 
Deum: sed nonjam amat.'), Carpz. (permaneat), Wakef. (can 
. . . remain), Mack., Newc, Scott, Mey. (konnte bleiben), All. 
(as Germ.), Kenr. (as R.), Peile (can . . . have taken abiding 
possession) •j-'Pass. ('von Horn, an allg. in Poes. u. Pros. . . . 
bleiben wo man gcrade ist, nicht von der Stelle gehcn.'), 
Bretsch. ('in Johannis scriptis . . . nivitv iv tivi est : in ea eon- 
ditione, in qua quis est, perseverare.'), Rob. (to remain). See 
ch. 4 : 12, N. a. 

y R. ;-Dodd. (or), Wakef. Newc, Tho.n., Murd., (and), 
Mack., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

» Griesb. and the later editors (except Bloomf.) insert ty 
before yXuicrff};, and this reading (A. B. C, &o.) Beng. also marks 
as plane pro genuina habendam. I recommend that it be 
adopted, and translated : with the tongue. German verss., Dt.; 
-Thom., Peile. Besides these. It., Fr. G. ;-B. and L., Sharpe, 
use the article. 

" Griesb. and the later editors (except Bloomf) read, on evi- 
dence which Beng. also pronounces clearly suiBcient, h tpy^ 
xaX 6,7... I recommend that this reading be adopted, and trans- 
lated: in deed and truth. W. (in work and tr.), R. ;-Beng., 
AH., Goss., Van Ess, Berl. Bib. and De W. (use mit witTi this 
double reference), Peile. 

•^ For the various constructions of vv. 19, 20, including the 
diflScult, and not yet satisfactorily disposed of, case of the second 
oVt, see Liicke, Win., De W. It is not necessary to introduce 
here a discussion, that would not after all affect the version. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IV. 



43 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

we are of the truth, and shall 
assure our hearts before him. 

20 For if our heart condemn 
us, God is greater than our 
heart, and knoweth all tilings. 

21 Beloved, if our heart con- 
demn us not, then have we con- 
fidence toward God. 

22 And whatsoever we ask, 
we receive of him, because we 
keep his commandments, and do 
those things that are pleasing in 
his sight. 

2-3 And this is his command- 
ment. That we should believe 
on the name of his Son Jesus 
Christ, and love one another, as 
he gave us commandment. 

24 And he that keepeth his 
commandments, dwelietli in him, 
and he in him. And hereby we 
know that he abideth in us, by 
tlie Spirit which he hath given us. 

CHAP. IV. 

Beloved, believe not every 
spirit, but try the spirits whether 
they are of God: because many 
false prophets are gone out into 
the world. 

2. Hereby know ye the Spirit 
of God: Every spirit that con- 



GREEK TEXT. 

«x tnc, ak/iQeiac, ia^sv, xai e[.i7tpoadev 
antov TtsiaofiEV tag xap&'ag nfiav 

20 on sav xarayLvcjGxYi r^av ri 
zap&'a, on ^ei^uv kanv 6 ©eog trig 
xapSiag rij.iav, xai yivojaxei Ttdvra. 

21 dyaTt'/itol, eav n xa^hia n^iav 
jiYi xaraya'(liGx-(i r^iav, vtappyiaiav 
s^o^tEV Ttpog tov Qeov, 

22 xai o iav ahcofiev, ?jx^(3o.vofi£v 
Ttap' avrov, oti rag hto'kag avrov 
Tyipovfiei', xai to. dpecfra evuimov 
avtoi) Ttoiov^isv. 

23 xai aiytr; idtiv n Evto'kri avtoi, 
Iva matEVGcd^iev ta 6v6[.ian tov vlov 
avtov 'lyiffov XptaToii, xai dyanco^iEv 
dX/l7;/loi>5, xaOcog tScdXEV ivtoTu'hv 
r\im>. 

24 xai 6 ty;puv tag evtoTudg ai'i- 
tov, iv avtu [iEvet, xai atnrog iv awo. 
xai Ev tovtci yivilxsxo^LEv oti fisvEi 
iv nfdv, sx toil IlvEv^atog ov ni-dv 
eSoiXEV. 

CHAP. IV. 

'ArATIHTOI ^n Ttavti nvEviiati 
matsvEte, dTJja Soxi^d^ets ra nvsv- 
fiata, El EX tov Qeov iattv on ixok- 
Tjai ^liEvhonpcxpritai e^E/iri/iidaaiv eig 

tov XOOflOV. 

2 EV tovta yLvdidxEtE to Uvsv^a 
toil Qeov' Ttdv TtvEvua 6 6[.io?MyEL 



REVISED VERSION. 

we are of the truth ; and shall 
■^assure our hearts before him. 

20 For, if'^our heart condemn 
us, God is greater than our heart, 
and knoweth all things. 

21 Beloved, if our heart con- 
demn us not, ' we have confi- 
dence toward God. 

22 And, whatsoever we ask, 
we receive ''from him, because 
we keep his commandments, and 
do ^the tilings that are pleasing 
in his sight. 

23 And this is his command- 
ment, ''that we should believe on 
the name of his Son Jesus Christ, 
and love one another, as he sfave 
us commandment. 

24 And he that keepeth his 
commandments 'abideih in him, 
and Jhe in him : and hereby we 
know that he abideth in us, by 
the Spirit ''that he 'gave us. 

CHAP. IV. 

Beloved, believe not every 
spirit, but try the spirits whether 
they are of God : ijecause many 
false prophets are gone out into 
the world. 

2 Hereby *ye know the Spirit 
of God: every spirit, that con- 



' The marginal note of E. V., ' Gr. persuade,^ may better be 
omitted here, than in Acts 12 : 20. 

■• The construction of the first r;fiuv here is the same as that 
of the second {jfiup in v. 21, and the English possessive pronoun 
is supplied as in v. 14. 

" W., R. ;-Syr., Latin and French verss., It. ;-Wakef., Mack., 
Thom., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, JIurd., Kenr. 

' E. v., Mark 12 : 2 ; John 5 : 34 ; &c. ;-Wakef., Mack., Thorn., 
Penn, Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

^ No demonstrative pronoun is introduced by Syr., German 
verss. (except Moldenh.), It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Aug., Calv, Bez., 
Grot., Dodd., Carpz., Wakef., Mack., Thom., Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, Murd., Kenr., Peile ;— though of these the German 
and Latin verss., Wakef.. Sharpe, Peile, employ a compound 
relative. 

 This is not a direct quotation, but a general summary of 
the evangelical Jaw. The original edition of E. V., therefore, 



and nearly all previous and subsequent verss., are right in hav- 
ing no capital letter here. See ch. 4; 21. 

' See V. 17, N. x, &c. 

I Here, as in ch. 4 : 5, 6 ; &o., the antithetical structure 
secures the due emphasis of the pronominal subject (see ch. 1 : 

7, N. X, &c.). 

'' The reference is to the witness of the personal, indwelling 
Spirit (Rom. 8 : 9-16). See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f.— W. {xohom). 

1 'To abide with us for ever' (John 14: 16). Comp. the 
historical time of Gal. 3:2; Eph. 1 : 13. W., T., G. 

' See ch. 2 : 29, N. b. Nor is it likely that the ywiisxojUfv 
of V. 6 is a change of mood. — W., R., (is known ;-after the 
Vulg. cognoscittir, which, like the Sjr. and It., rests on the 
reading yivJiaxctai,, still found in some cursive MSS.), Dt.;-Beng., 
Dodd. and the later English verss. (except Wakef, who follows 
the yn/woxoj«fv of one copy [see Mill. Prol. 11731. and Penn). 



44 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IV. 



KING JAMES VEllSION. 

fesseth that Jesus Christ is come 
in the flesh, is of God : 

3 And every spirit that con- 
fesseth not that Jesus Christ is 
come in the flesh, is not of God. 
And this is that spirit of anti- 
christ, whereof ye have heard 
that it should come ; and even 
now already is it in the world. 

4 Ye are of God, little chil- 
dren, and have overcome them : 
because greater is he that is in 
you, than he that is in the world. 

5 They are of the world : 
therefore speak they of the world, 
and the world heareth them. 

6 We are of God. He that 
knoweth God, heareth us ; he 
that is not of God, heareth not 



GREEK TEXT. 



'lyiaovv Xptcrrov iv acupxl e7iri7.v6&ta, 
ix toi) Qsov ear I. 

3 xai Ttdv Ttvsvfia o ^m 6i.io?Loy£l 
tbv 'lyiaoirv Xptcrrdi' iv aapxt sT^yiTcv- 
d&ta, ex tov Qsov ovx edtr xal 
TovTo eati TO tov - avrixpiarov, 6 
dxYixoare otL ep^erai, xal v'vv ev ru 
xoa^oi eariv r.hyj. 

4 'Tfieig ix tov Qeov eats, rexvia, 
xal vsvixTotats avtovg- oTt ^siZpv 
satLv 6 ev v^v n b iv to xoa^a. 

5 Avtol ix Tov xoa^Lov star &a 
ToiiTo ex tov x6a[.iov /iaWovaL, xai o 
xoaixog avrcjv axoi'si. 

6 rifislg ex tov Qsov ia^isv 6 yi- 
voaxav tov Qsov, oxovel ri^djiv 6g 
ovx eaTiv ix tov Qsov, ovx dxovsi 



REVISED VERSION. 

fesseth •" Jesus Christ come in 
" flesh, is of God. 

3 And every spirit, that ""con- 
fesseth not ' Jesus Christ come 
in ' flesh, is not of God ; and this 
is that spirit of ^the antichrist, 
whereof ye have heard that it 
■■cometh, and ' now •" it is in the 
world Jalready. 

4 ''You, little children, are of 
God, and have overcome them ; 
because greater is he that is in 
you, than he that is in the world. 

6 'They are of the world ; 
therefore ""what is of the world 
they speak, and the world hear- 
eth them : 

6 'We are of God ; he that 
knoweth God heareth us ; he that 
is not of God heareth not us. 



■> The common construction (Rob., ScWrl., &c.) of IxjjXdSot'o 
as used for i'Kr;7.v6ivat,, which appears in one or two MSS., is 
not necessary-( Win. even denies, that the participle ever stands 
for the infinitive )-and it injuriously restricts the sense to the 
fact of the incarnation.— It., Fr. S. ;-Grot. (' Voluit Apostolus 
hie noraini Jesu addere hunc titulum, qui venit in carne, quasi 
diceret, eum dico Jesum qui non cum regia pompa et exerciti- 
bus venit, sed in statu humili, abjecto, multisque malis ac post- 
remum cruci obnoxio.^Pari de causa Apostolus Paulus, cum 
dixisset a se Christum praedicari, addidit crueifixum.'), Vorst., 
Pears., B. and L., Wolf, (says of the received reading : 'omnino 
efficacior est.'), Moldenh. {den . . . gekommenen J. C), Thorn., 
Scott (as having come), Mey. (den . . . Erschienenen), Penn 
(that J. [is\ C. come ;-so Sharpe, is the C. come), Trol., De 
W. (als erschienen. Of the other construction he says, that 
it ' somewhat changes the sense, and lays all the emphasis on 
iv a. i-Kr(K.''), Stier. Ilamm., Whitb., Berl. Bib., Beng., Guyse, 
Dodd., Wesl., adopt a relative construction (J. C. who is come). 

' This apostle does not use (japl and ij aapl indiscriminately. 
— W., R. ;-It., French verss. ;-Wakef. (marks the as supplied), 
Thorn. 

^ The reading jivtt -cbv 'itjs., quoted by Socrates, and followed 
in the Vulg. (solvit Jesum), is adopted by none of the editors, 
though Liioke and De W. suppose that from it came the tov of 
the Received Text. The words Xptorov iv a. iy^iix., are brack- 
eted by Knapp, Hahn, and cancelled by Griesb., Mey., Lachm., 
Tisch., Theile. Sch. omits only Xpiatov. 

• See V. 2, N. b. 

' See V. 2, N. c. 

^ See ch. 2 : 18, N. d, &c. 

•' The present indicative is retained by W., R. ;-Vulg., Fr. S. ; 



-Hamm., Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Thorn., All., Van Ess, 
Sharpe, Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

' There is nothing for eve7i in W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except 
Fr. G.,-M.);-Hamm., More, Dodd.. Wesl., Mack, or the later 
verss. Wakef., omitting viv, has indeed. 

i The ijSTj is given last by Mack., Newc, Peile. — Hamm., 
Wells, Wakef., Newc, Sharpe, Kenr., (it [he] is). 

k Beng. : ' Vos, .Jesum Christum agnosccntes.' See ch. 2 : 20, 
N. p, &c. Here the emphasis is retained by means of the above 
transposition of the noun in W. ;-Guyse, Carpz., Thom., Penn, 
Murd. 

iSeech. 3:24, N.j. 

"■ Not : ' things about the world ;' but : ' things having, like 
themselves, a worldly temper and origin.' Or rather : ' their 
speaking, in matter and manner, impulse and aim, has this 
character.' — G. (speak they worklli/ ihings);-SyT. (=:Greenf. 
]C), Dt. (ttit ;-thus explained in the note : ' That is, things that 

are from the world, and that accord with the understanding of 
unregenerate men, or even with their worldly lusts.'), It. (queJlo 
che parlano e del mondo), Fr. S. (comme etant) ;-the Vulg. 
de mundo is exchanged for e or ex m. by Erasm., Calv., Vat. 
('ex affectu mundi, cujus sunt.'), Aret., Cocc, Beng. ('ex mundi 
vita ac sensu sermones suos promunt.') ; for Tnundana, by 
Pagn., Bez., Par. ; for a m., by Castal. Grot. (' id est, ta ix 
tov xoa/iiov decent et praedicunt mundi affectibus congruentia.'), 
B. and L. (selon), Dodd. ([as] of), Moldenh. (aits;-foT the 
Germ. vo7i), Wakef., Thom., (suitably to). Mack., Penn, Murd., 
(from), Mey., Van Ess, (was der Welt gefdlU), Stolz (nock), 
Kist., De W., (was [von] d. W. ist). 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IV. 



45 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

US. Hereby know we the spirit 
of truth, and the spirit of error. 

7 Beloved, let us love one an- 
other : lor love is of God ; and 
every one that loveth is born of 
God, and knoweth God. 

8 He that loveth not, knoweth 
not God ; for God is love. 

9 In this was manifested the 
love of God toward us, because 
that God sent his only-begotten 
Son into the world, that we 
might live tln'ough him. 

10 Herein is love, not thai 
we loved God, but that he loved 
us, and sent his Son to he the 
propitiation for our sins. 

11 Beloved, if God so loved 
us, we ought also to love one 
another. 

12 No man hath seen God at 
any time. If we love one an- 



GREEK TEXT. 



Ti^Giv. 'Ex tovtov yivdxyxofisv to 
7tv£V[MX, rr,g o^TideicLg xai To nvei'iia 

7 " AyanritoL, dyaTtcbfiev dX^riTxivg' 
oti ri aydny; ix tov Qsov iati, xai 
Ttag 6 dyanuv, ix tov Qeov yeyivvYi- 
tai, xai yiruaxei tov Qsov 

8 6 fin dyaTtav, ovx eyva tov 
Qeov oTl 6 ©eog dyoTtY; iariv. 

9 'Ev rovTO) itpai'epdjdy; n dydnri 
tov Qeov iv nfdv, oTt tov vlov avtov 
tov fioroysi'r, dmota/'^xev b Qeog eig 
tov xoOfiov, iva ^r.aufxsv Si avtov. 

10 sv tovta iatlv n dydnri, ovj(, 
oti Tifieig nyanrfyafisv tov Qsbv, d7<X 
bti airrog rfydnriaev rifidg, xai ajti- 
(TTei/le tov vlov avtov l/\jaafi6v Ttepi 
TQi' hfiaptiuv rijioiv. 

11 dyany;tOL, el ovtog 6 Qeog r!yd- 
TtYiOev nudg, xai nuelg o^ei^Mfiev d^- 
9ir^vg dyanav. 

12 Qeov ovSeig Tumots tedeatar 
idv dyanofiev d2.2.r^ovg, 6 Qeog ev 



REVISED VERSION. 

"By this we know the spirit of 
truth and the spirit of error. 

7 Beloved, let us love one an- 
other; for love is of God, and 
every one that loveth "hath been 
•"begotten of God, and knoweth 
God: 

8 He that loveth not, knoweth 
not God ; for God is love. 

9 In this was manifested the 
love of God 'in us, ■'that God 
*hath sent his ' Son, the only be- 
gotten, into the world, that we 
might live through him. 

10 Herein is love, not that 
"we loved God, but that "he 
loved us, and ''sent his Son ^ a 
propitiation for our sins. 

11 Beloved, if God so loved 
us, ^'we also ought to love one 
another. 

12 No ^one hath 'at any time 
seen God : if we love one an- 



° The only instance in the Epistle of ix roitov, for which, 
however, Lachm. alone substitutes h tovtcji. 

" Seech. 2: 29, N. c, &c. 

P See ch. 2 : 29, N. d. 

1 ' In our case.' Or the expression may refer to an inward 
revelation of the love of God, consequent upon the incarnation 
of the Son. Comp. Rom. 5 : 5 and 2 Cor. 4 : 6.— W., R. ;- 
Latin verss. (except Castal. and Bez.), Dt. marg. ('Gr. in ons, 
gelyk ook ond. v. IG. of, onder ons.''), Fr. S. marg. (parmi) ;- 
Hamm., Thorn., {among), Berl. Bib., Beng., De W., {in [a??] 
uns ;-' i. e. amor Dei,' says Beng. in the Gnom., ' qui nunc in 
nobis est, per omnem experientiam spiritualem.' And De W. 
refers to John 9 : 3.), Dodd., Liicke (connects iv iifdv with 
i^avifC^Bri, and considers it = tjjjXv. But here, as occasionally 
elsewhere, the version, gegen uns, does not answer to the com- 
mentary.), Bloomf. {in respect oftis) ;-Win. §31. G : ' The love 
of God revealed itself in us {an uns), which is certainly 
different from : revealed itself to us {uns).' In §54. 5 he adds : 
■1 John 4: 9 maybe translated: Therein the love of God 
made itself known in us ; iv ii^lv I would not make imme- 
diately dependent on wydftri, since in that case wc should have 
i}h Tj/itv.' Green refers to Matt. 17: 12; Gal. 1 : IG ; 1 Cor. 
9: 15; 14: 11. See v. 16, N. 1. 

' E. v., V. 10; &c. ;-German and French verss., Dt., It.;- 
Hamm., Guyse, Dodd., Wesl. {because ;-so Thorn., Scott, 



Sharpe, Murd.), Wakef. {in that), Mack., Newc, Penn, Kenr., 
Peile {in the fact that). 

' ' For, in the purpose and result here specified, that mission 
is permanent and ever operative.' Comp. the aorist of v. 10 
(N. v) and again the perfect of v. 14 (N. g). — R. ;-German and 
French verss., Dt., It. ;-Kenr., Peile. 

t Mack. 

" Seech. 3: 24, N.j, &c. 

' ' Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many ... He 
dieth no more.' See v. 9, N. s. 

™ There is nothing for the E. V. supplement in W., R. ;- 
Syr., Latin verss. (except Pagn., Bez.) ;-Wesl., Greenf., Kist., 

Murd. An indefinite article, or none, is employed by W., 

T., C, G., R;-Dt.,It., Fr. S.;-Beng., Dodd. and the later En- 
glish verss., Greenf., De W. 

» See ch. 3: 16, N. t; 2 : 20, N. p, &c.; 2 Pet. 1 : 14, N. 
z, &c. 

y This rendering of ovSsii (as of fiijSf t'j ; see ch. 3 : 7, N. s), 
when used without a substantive, is suitable everywhere, and 
occasionally is of importance to the sense; e. g. John 10 : 29; 
16 : 22 ; &c. See Rev. 3 : 7. N. p, Ac— Wakef , Mack., Thorn., 
Penn, Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. 

'■ ©sov is translated last in the clause by W. ;-It.; French 
verss. ;-Dodd., Thorn., Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. Of English verss. 
R. and Peile keep it first. 



46 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IV. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

Other, God dwelleth in us, and 
his love is perfected in us. 

13 Hereby know we that we 
dwell in him, and he in us, be- 
cause he hath given us of his 
Spirit. 

14 And we have seen and do 
testify, that the Father sent the 
Son to be the Saviour of the 
world. 

15 Whosoever shall confess 
that Jesus is the Son of God, 
God dwelleth in him, and he in 
God. 

16 And we have known and 
believed the love that God hath 
to us. God is love : and he that 
dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, 
and God in him. 



GREEK TEXT. 

^dv ^svsi, xai vi dyiXTt/; avrov tsts- 
Tisu^fisvy; sariv iv rifiiv. 

13 sv rovta yivodxoiiBV on iv 
avta fiivofisv, xai avtoc, sv nfitv, '&n 
ix Ton Jli'£Vi.iarog avtov SsScdxev i^uv. 

14 Koct r^telc, refedjU£0a, xai ftap- 
TDpoiififv on 6 Ttarrip d.Tuata'kxe tov 
viiov auftn^a tov xoa^iov. 

1-5 be, av b^okoyrfy-fi otL 'Iriaovg 
sotiv b vibc, Toil ©eoii, 6 0e6g bv avtoi 
fisvei, xai avr'og sv tq Qsa. 

16 Kat vmslg syvoxafisv xai tu- 
marsmafisv rr,v ayanriv r,v sx^l b 
Qsbg sv ni-dv. 6 Qsbg aydnrt sari, xai 
b ^svuv sv ryj dydTtri, sv ra Qea 
[isvsi, xai b Qsog sv aiVcj. 



REVISED VERSION. 

other, God "abideth in us, and 
his love ''hath been perfected in 
us. 

13 Hereby "^we know that we 
■"abide in him, and *he in us, be- 
cause he hath given us of his 
Spirit. 

14 "^We also have seen, and 
do testify, that the Father ^hath 
sent the Son '' as Saviour of the 
world. 

15 Whosoever shall confess 
that Jesus is the Son of God, 
God 'abideth in him, and Jhe in 
God. 

16 ''We also have known and 
believed the love that God hath 
'in us. God is love, and he that 
"abideth in love ™abideth in 
God, and God in him. 



» See ch. 3 : 17, N. x, &c. R. ;-Hamm. (at v. 15), Wells 
(abides), West., Mack., Newc, Thom., Murd., Kenr. 

'' See 2 Pet. 3 : 7, N. r, &c. Peile : ' There is evidence in us 
of His love having fully attained its end ... of our having fully 
realized His love.' Some (Bens., Moldenh., Wakef.) ^ is per- 
fect or complete. 

' See ch. 1 : 4, N. p. 

" See V. 12, N. a, &c. 

' See ch. 3 : 24, N. j, &c. 

' ' In addition to this experimental assurance (v. 13), we 
Apostles have a historical certainty.' See v. 11, N. x, &c. 
— Aret. ('testes producit oculatos ipsos Apostolos.'), Beng. 
('erMosmet. Sic Job. 1.5: 27.'), Trol. ('The mention of see- 
ing- God suggests the reference to himself and the rest of the 
Apostles [vv. 14 sqq.] as eye-witnesses, &c.'), Peile ('Moreover, 
we his chosen witnesses.'), &c. 

^ See V. 9, N. s. R. ;-German and French verss., Dt., It. ;- 
Guyse, Dodd., Mack., Thom., Murd., Kenr. 

>■ See V. 10, N. w. For as, see Fr. S.;-Beng., Mey., All.. 
DeW. 

' See ch. 3 : 17, N. x, &c. 

J See ch. 3 : 24, N. j, &c. 

1= ' We Christians.' To this  peculiar people' is especially 
revealed the love of God, which, first manifested in the mission 
of His Son (vv. 14, 15), is now also 'shed abroad in their 



hearts' (Rom. 5 : 5 iv tal; xapSi'aif). See v. 14, N. f, &c. — 
Aret. ('omnes complectitur fideles.'), Beng. ('ei nos. Ana- 
phora: coll. V. 14. not. Est hie quoque epitasis: quare mox 
iv r,iiiv proprie valet in nobis.'), Liicke ('^J/ttij, John and his 
readers; comp. v. 6.'), &c. 

1 See N. k, and v. 9, N. q. The common construction of iv 
rjjuv here and in v. 9 as equivalent to tii iiixii, though approved 
by Rob. (who follows Bretsch. in citing also such unsatisfactory 
cases as Luke 21 : 23 ; 2 Cor. 8 : 7 ; 2 Sam. 24 : 17 Sept.), 
cannot he justified, 1.. grammatically. 'On the whole,' says 
Win. 5 54. 5, ' it is in itself quite improbable, that, with a clear 
conception of dogmatic relations, the apostles should have puz- 
zled their readers by saying iv for lii, or vice versa. At least 
they were able to write tii just as easily as the interpreters, 
who will smuggle in this preposition.' And again Trol. : ' The 
primary import of iv and jt; is so opposite, that the use of the 
former instead of the latter, as advocated by many commenta- 
tors, seems to be very doubtful ; and indeed it will be found 
that the verbs implying motion, with which it is sometimes 
found, generally involve the idea of rest also:' — or, 2., in accord- 
ance with John's style of doctrine and diction. Comp. vv. 12, 
13, 15; ch. 2 : 5 ; 3: 17 (for in this last passage also jj wYMti 
•eov ®iov may mean that Divine love which appeared in the 
vicarious death of the cross, v. 16); John 17: 26; &c. — W., 
G., R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal. and Bez.), Dt.marg.;- 
Hamm. (among us), Bloomf. (allows either construction), 
Berl. Bib. (in uns ;-and so De W., who explains iv as marking 
'the object of the love, and at the same time the medium in 
which it shows itself, and as it were dwells. Comp. John 17 : 
26.'), Peile (' the love which God hath set upon us.'). 

" See ch. 3 : 17, N. x, &c. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. IV. 



47 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

17 Herein is our love made 
perfect, tiiat we may have bold- 
ness in the day of judgment : 
because as he is, so are we in 
this world. 

18 There is no fear in love ; 
but perfect love casteth out fear: 
because fear hath torment. He 



GREEK TEXT. 



17 'Ev tovtoi rEreXsicytai n dyd- 
Ttri |«fO' ri^ov, 'iva TtappyiGiav ej(pi.iev 
iv Tri yj^Epo. T% xpiasag. on xaOcog 
exEivo^ aatL, xai yi^Etg ia^v iv ta 
xoafia tovra. 

1 S (pol^og ovx tat IV iv rri dydnYi, 
d/l/l' n TE/la'a dyaTCYi e^cj /?uX/let rov 
^oi^ov, iyti 6 ^6[3oq xoTjclgiv £;^ef 6 



REVISED VERSION. 

"17 Herein "hath p love Pvvith us 
been iperfected, that we "'should 
have 'confidence in the day of 
judgment, ' because as "He is " 
are ^we also in this world. 

18 There is no fear in love, 
but perfect love casteth out fear; 
because fear hath ^punishment : 



" The connection of thought, on which depend the translation 
and punctuation of the verse, is this : ' As the end of faith {to 
tiXo{ trii niatiai. 1 Pet. 1 : 9), and the satisfaction of hope 
(Tit. 2: 13), so likewise the consummation of love, the other 
divine element in which the Christian community lives, moves, 
and has its being, is found only in a fearless, joyful meeting with 
that Saviour at his coming, whom having not seen we love, and, 
in loving, are even now changed into the same image, this being 
the only evidence that we are his, and so a sure ground of our 
confidence.' Aug. thus expresses it : ' Quisquis fiduciam habet 
in die judicii, perfecta est in illo charitas. . . Qiiare habenras 
fiduciam ? Q,uia sicut ille est, et nos sicmus in hoc mundo.^ 
Liicke, thus : ' Therein shows itself the perfecting of cm- mutual 
love, that we (or then is our love perfected, when we) can have 
confidence in the day of judgment, because (oft) we (or: in so 
far, that is, as we, comp. ch. 3 : 9, but especially 3 : 14, where 
instead of iva and oVt is a double 6tt) so walk in the world, as 
Christ (has walked, loving the brethren).' And De TV., with 
a larger and truer conception of ^ o/ydnrj, thus: 'Love, proceed- 
ing from God, manifested in the mission of Christ, taken up 
into the communion of the faithful, trained after the pattern of 
Christ, has then reached its mark, when, as confiding children 
to their father, we draw nigh without any fear.' 

" See ch. 2 : 5, N. k. 

P See N. n. E. V. is almost alone (one or two of the later 
English verss. and Jley. follow it) in turning ^uf 9' -tjfiup into the 
possessive pronoun. On the contrary, the Syr., Vulg., &c.. 
expressly interpret the d/yajtj; as denoting God's love to us. — 
E. V. marg.;-W., T. (in us --so C, G.), R. ;-Syr. (= '\2lill), 

Latin verss. (Mo6iscM?ft;-except Pagn. in nobis [so Aug.] and 
Castal.), German verss {bei wns ;-except Moldenh. in uns, and 
Lucke unter uns), Dt. {bij ons), It. (inverso noi), Ft. G.,-M., 
(envers nous), Fr. S. (par rapport d nous) ;-Engl. Ann., 
Hamm., B. and L. (pour nous), Dodd., Mack., (as IV,), Gill 
('or, with us'), Pyle (toward !ts ;-but cites as parallel Paul's 
xo.fi'i f^i9' ifit^v.), Wakef., Newc. and Thom. (among us). 
Sharpe, De W. (' with [among] us [2 John 2] belongs to the 
verb, and maiks the Christian community as the province 
or dwelling-place of love.'), Barn. ('■ within or in us'), Bonar, 
Comment, on Leviticus, ch. 8, ('He calls it, as if the name, 
hnmanuel, were running in his mind, the love with us; i. e., 
God's display of love to us, v. 16. in his Son ; which is now 
our property.'), Murd., Kenr., Peile. 



' E. v., ch. 2: 5; 4: 12; &c.-R. ;-Hamm., Dodd., Mack., 
Newc, Thorn., Penn, Murd., Kenr. 

'■ T., C, G. ;-De W. ('iVa TtajJlnjaiav xx%. is dependent on iv 
tovti^, and the construction is as John 15 : 8. 'iva, expresses 
the work of the Tt^ftuji;.'), Green (refers for a similar use of 
iva, to ch. 5 : 3 ; 3 John 4.). 

" E. v., ch. 2 : 28 ; 3 : 21 ; 5:14; &c. ;-Engl. Ann. (' or, free- 
dom., or, confidence'). Wells, Guyse, Wakef., Newc, Thom., 
Penn, Bloomf., Kenr., Peile. 

' This is the punctuation of the original edition of E. V., and 
is better than any thing that has been substituted for it since, 
whether oti, xt%. be connected immediately with iv toitc^. or, 
as I prefer, with the intermediate clause. See N. n. — All the 
recent editors (except Mey., Sch.) and very many veiss. have 
a comma. 

" Seech. 2: 6, N. 1. 

' See V. 11, N. x, &c. 

" ' That is what properly belongs to the unfilial spirit (Rom. 
8: 15, fivsi/iia Sovxdaf ct; fofiov) at the hand of God, and is 
even now, in the very anticipation itself (^o/Sfpa ftj ixSoxr; xpi- 
aju; Heb. 10:27), in a measure realized.' Comp. the use of 
£;^u in Matt. 6 : 1 ; John 3 : 36 ; Heb. 10 : 35 ; &o. — Elsewhere 
x6%o.sis occurs but once, Matt. 25 : 46, and is there in E. V. 
punishment ; xo>,aifo^at, occurring twice, is in E. V. to punish ;- 
Syr. (the word used is translated in Tremell., irritatio ; P., 
pavor, to which Castell adds, cum quadam desperatione ; 
Trost, concitatio, to which Gutbir adds, periculum; Murd., 
peril), Vulg. (poenam), Dt. marg. ('of, straffing'), Fr. S. 
( punition) ;-Aret. ('consequentes, imo concomitantes poenas'), 
Berl. Bib., Lucke, De W., (Strafe;-{oT Luth.'s Pein), Wakef., 
Scott ('or, punishment'), Liicke ('Fear [before God, in the 
judgment] rests on the consciousness of deserved punishment, 
but (St) the fear of punishment is abolished by a perfected, 
serene, confiding love. Not, as some would have it, fear is 
punished, but, fear has in itself punishment, is connected with 
the consciousness of punishment, x67.aais, comp. Matt. 25: 46; 
2 Mace 4: 38.'), Greenf. (i:':ji;), Penn ;-Steph., Scap., Wahl, 

Pass., L. and S., Rob. 



48 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. V, 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

that feareth, is not made perfect 
in love. 

19 We love him, because he 
first loved us. 

20 If a man say, I love God, 
and hateth his brother, he is a 
liar. For he that loveth not his 
brother, whom he hath seen, how 
can he love God, whom he hath 
not seen ? 

21 And this commandment 
have we from him, That he who 
loveth God, love his brother also. 

CHAP. V. 

Whosoever believeth that Je- 
sus is the Christ, is born of God: 
and every one that loveth him 
that begat, loveth him also that 
is begotten of him. 

2 By this we know that we 
love the children of God, when 
we love God, and keep his com- 
mandments. 

3 For this is the love of God, 
that we keep his commandments ; 
and his commandments are not 
grievous. 

4 For whatsoever is born of 



GREEK TEXT. 

dyaTtri. 

1 9 n[^lg dyaTtuiiev avtov, on 
avtog TtpuTog fiy^nyjCev riffdg. 

20 'Edv tic, s'lTtri, "Oti ayanu tbv 
Qeov, xai rbv d&X^oj' avrov ^lari, 
4'SvO'pyK eotiv 6 yap ii-h dyajtav tov 
d8E?^<pov avTov bv iiljpaxe, rbv Qeo7' 
bv ovx, ^(^p<^xE, Ttug 8vvaraL dyanav ; 

21 xdi tavXYiv t'kv IvtoTsf'V ij^o- 
fiEV an avtoii, iva b dyanuv tov 
Qebv, dyaTta xai tov d8e?.^bv avtov. 

CHAP. V. 

HAS 6 TttcTTeiW btt, 'Irjaovg eativ 
b XptcTTog, EX tov Qeov yEyh'vrjtar 
xai Ttdg b dyuTtcov tov yswr^aavta, 
dyaTta xai tov yeyEVV^fisvov i^ 
avtoii. 

2 h tovtu) yivcxixon^v btt dya- 
TtofiEv <ra Texva tov Qeov, otav tov 
Qeov dyaTtcoi^sv, xai tag htoTjig au- 
tov tyipu)[i£v. 

3 avty; yap iativ n dyajtY; tov 
Qeov, iva Tag evto/'Mg avrov Tjypo- 
[lEV xai at ivto/\.ai avtov (3oipEiai 
ovx eIoiv. 

4 otL Ttdv to ysyEvvyifiEvov ix tov 



REVISED VERSION. 

''but he that feareth ^hath not 
been ^perfected iu love. 

19 We love him, because "he 
first loved us. 

20 If ''any one saj^ : I love God, 
and hateth his brother, he is a 
liar ; for he that loveth not his 
brother whom he hath seen, how 
can he love God whom he hath 
not seen? 

21 And this commandment 
have we from him, Hhat he who 
loveth God love "^also his brother. 

CHAP. V. 

"Every one that believeth that 
Jesus is the Christ ''hath been 
"begotten of God ; and every one 
that loveth him that begat, loveth 
him also that ''hath been begotten 
of him. 

2 ''Hereby we know that we 
love the children of God, when 
we love God, and keep his com- 
mandments. 

3 For this is the love of God, 
that we keep his commandments ; 
and his commandments are not 
''burdensome. 

4 For fall that ehath been ''be- 



^ 'And therefore the doctrine of v. 17 holds good.' See 
2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r, and Liicke under N. w. — W. ;-Sj'r., Latin 
verss. (except Castal.), Germ.;-All., De W. Most others give 
the Si. but either as a mere copula, or as an illative particle. 

y See ch. 2 : 5, N. k. 

' See V. 17, N. q. 

' See ch. 3: 24, N. j. &c.-: The construction: Let us love 

him, appears in Syr., Vulg. and its followers, Ar., German verss., 
Dt. marg-.;-Grot., Hamm. (as allowable ;-and so Whitb., Clarke), 
B. and L., Pyle, Carpz., Wakef., Ros., Greenf., Sharpe, Trol. ;- 
and is explained by De W. thus: 'He exhorts to the love of 
God, because this is the root of brotherly love. Its connection 
with the latter he shows in v. 20 as well as in v. 12.' But the 
closer connection may easily be, as indicated in our Test, and 
that of Beng., Griesb., Sch., with v. 18, whose general state- 
ments are here exemplified and confirmed ; as if he had said : 
' We, for example, could only have feared God, had not the 
manifestation and experience of His own prior, sovereign love 

enkindled ours.' Lachm. and Tisch. cancel the witoy. The 

former also inserts oiv after ij/tEtj, and substitutes o e^oi for 
avtof. 



i' See 2 Pet. 2 : 19, N. n. 
"■■ See ch. 3 : 23, N. h. 

•' W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Dodd. (also love his br.), Murd., 
Kenr. 

'■ So E. V. in the second clause ; and see ch. 2 : 23, N. x. 

>■ See ch. 2 : 29, N. c, &c. 

" So E. V. in the second clause, and see ch. 2 : 29, N. d. 

■• E. V. elsewhere (6 times) in this Epistle, when h toviij, is 

thus connected with ywuaxa j-Wesl., Newc. For trifs^y-tv, 

Lachm. and Tisch. read rtoiufin: 

= Comp. Matt. 11 : 30 ; 23 : 4 ; Acts 15 : 10.— W., R., (heavy) ; 
-Syr. (as in Matt. 23 : 4), Latin verss. (gravia), German verss. 
(schwer), Dt. (zwaar), It. (gravi), Fr. S. (pesants) ;-Hamm., 
Wakef., Barn., Kenr., (as W.), Mack., Clarke, JIurd., Peile. 

I W. (all thing that), T., C, G., R. ;-Syr., Vulg., Germ., 
Dt., It. (tiitto quelle che), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (lo2U ce qui) ;-Erasm., 
Pagn., Calv., Vat., Aret., Beng., Moldenh., Mack., Scott (all 
that which), AH., Barn, (every thing which), Kenr., Lucke. 

« See ch. 2 : 29, N. c, &c. 

" See ch. 2 : 29, N. d. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. V. 



49 



KING JAMEs' VERSION. 

God, overcometh the world : and 
this is the victory that overcom- 
eth the world, even our faith. 

5 Who is he that overcometh 
the world, but he that believeth 
that Jesus is the Son of God ? 

6 This is he that came by 
water and blood, even Jesus 
Christ; not by water only, but 
by water and blood. And it is 
the Spirit that beareth witness, 
because the Spirit is truth. 

7 For there are three that bear 
record in heaven, the Father, 
the Word, and the Holy Ghost : 
and these three are one. 

8 And there are three that 



GREEK TEXT. 

Qsov, vixa tov xodfiov xal avty; 
iativ n vixYj n vixnaaca tov xoa^wv, 

5 tig idtiv 6 vixuv tov xodnov, 
el (iri 6 Ttidtevav otu 'Iriaovg iotLv 6 
viag tov Qsov ; 

6 Ovtog satLV 6 eT^Qoiv 8i vSatog 
xal oufiatog, 'Irjaovg 6 XptcrTog- oix 
iv tO) v8atL (Mpov, dyiX iv ta v8att 
xal tq> cujxatf xal to nvev^d iotL 
to (la^tvpovv bti, to 7ivsvi.id iativ n 
a2rndeia. 

7 otL tpslg eldiv ol ^a^tv^vvtsg 
8V TO ovpavuj, 6 IlaT/ip, 6 A6^o$, xal 
to "AyLOV Hvsi^^a- xai ovtoi ol tpdg 
iv EiOi. 

8 xai tpslg dcsiv ol [laptvpovvteg 



REVISED VERSION. 

gotten of God overcometh the 
world; and this is the victory 
that 'overcometh the world, ■> our 
faith. 

''5 Who is he that overcometh 
the world, but he that beheveth 
that Jesus is the Son of God ? 

6 This is he that came by 
water and blood, ' Jesus "the 
Christ; not "with "the water only, 
but "with "the water and "the 
blood ; and Pthe Spirit is that 
which ''testifieth, because the 
Spirit is truth. 

7 For '^ihey are three that 'tes- 
tify '[in heaven, the Father, the 
Word, and the Holy "Spirit ; and 
these three are one. 

8 And ''they are three that 



' ' Did, or has done, so in our case, and alone has power to 
do so in any case.' The Greek aorist, according to the best 
usage, does not exclude the last of these ideas, which harmo- 
nizes the clause as a general statement with the immediate con- 
text, and requires for its expression the English present. 'All 
the children of God overcome the world, and the victorious 
weapon of their warfare is their faith.' 

' W., R. ;-Syr., Latin verss. (except Bez. nempe') ;-Wakef. 
and Green (at v. 6), All., De W., Murd., Kenr., Peile. Several 
(Germ., Wakef., &c.) here change the construction into: our 
faith is &c. 

^ A reiteration, in the way of challenge to produce an instance 
to the contrary, of the general statement of v. 4, wiirrj iativ 17 
vlxi] x-iX., accompanied by a more specific description of faith, 
the spiritual weapon. 

> See V. 4, N. j. 

°" Some MSS. omit the article. But there are other passages, 
in which Xpista; unquestionably occurs as an appellative, 
where E. V. treats it as a proper name ; e. g. Matt. 2:4; 22 : 
42 ; Mark 15 : 32 ; John 7 : 31, 41, 42 ; &c.— E. V., v. 1 ; ch. 
2: 22; Matt. 16: 16, 20; &c.;-Dt., Fr. S.;-Dodd., Moldenh., 
Carpz. (ilium), Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Mey., Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, De W. (' 'ijjs. Xpitr* 05 is in apposition with the whole 
clause, so that 'lijaoij =oii?o5, and oXpi(jtd5 = o i7y.edji> xtx.'), 
Murd., Peile ;-Rob., Green. 

"Tittm.: 'Idem indicat' (as the previous Se.' i'S.), 'sedcogi- 
tatur tantum eadem res diverso modo. Et in ilia quidem for- 
mula cogitatur causa ipsa, per quara effectum est, ut venerit, in 
hao autem cogitatur acoidens, quod conjuuctum fuit cum ad- 
ventu sic, ut simul utrumque fieret et conspiceretur.' "Win. 
§ 52. a : 'It is quite common for iv to be used of that, with 



which one is (externally) provided, which he brings with him; 
Heb. 9 : 25 daipxitai. h alfiati ; 1 Cor. 4:21; 1 Kings 1 : 25 ; 
Xen. Cyrop. 2, 3. 14.— Germ., It., Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Guyse, 
Carpz., Newc, Liicke, Mey., Penn, Peile (under the form of). 
Most of these and of other verss. make no distinction between 
the Sid and the iv. 

" E. v., V. 8 ;-Dt., French verss. ;-"Wesl., Mack., Thorn., AIL, 
De W., Murd. ;-Green. The French verss. and Murd. also 
insert the article before these nouns in the first clause. 

p The Greek order and construction of to hv. are preserved 
by W.;-foreign verss. (except the French) ;-Dodd., Thorn., Penn, 
Murd., Peile. 

1 See ch. 1 : 2, N. 1. 

' The ciaCv is here a simple copula, not a verb of existence. — 
Foreign verss. generally (except the French, il y en a trois qui) 
follow the Greek order ;-Penn. 

• See ch. 1 : 2, N. 1. 

' The words inclosed within brackets are cancelled by Griesb. 
and (excepting Knapp, Bloomf., Theile, who bracket them) all 
the later editors. Liicke asserts, that they are ' demonstrably 
spurious. No result of modern criticism is more certain than 
the spuriousness of this passage.' For the evidence on which 
this decision, now generally acquiesced in, rests, see Clarke. 
Home, Liicke, De W., Dav. {Biblical Criticism, 1852, Vol. II. 
pp. 403-426). 1 recommend that the words be transferred to 
the margin, as the reading of two or three inferior MSS. ; in 
which case a comma would be inserted after testify. 

« See 2 Pet. 1 ; 21, N. f. 

' See V. 7, N. r. 



60 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. V. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

bear witness in earth, the spirit, 
and the water, and the blood : 
and these three agree in one. 

9 If we receive the witness 
of men, the witness of God is 
greater : for this is the witness 
of God which he hath testified 
of his Son. 

10 He that believeth on the 
Son of God hath the witness in 
himself: he that believeth not 
God, hath made him a liar, be- 
cause he believeth not the record 
that God gave of his Son. 

11 And this is the record, that 
God hath given to us eternal life : 
and this life is in his Son. 

12 He that hath the Son, hath 
life ; and he that hath not the 
Son of God, hath not life. 

13 These things have I writ- 
ten unto you that believe on the 



GREEK TEXT. 

£V t'^ yri, TO Tti'evfia, xal to I'f&op, 
xai TO aifxa- xai ol Tpet^ elg To £v 

SlGlV. 

9 E( Tr^p napTvpiav rav dj'0pw7t6)V 
?Mfi[5dvof.i£v, n fjaprvpia rov &eov 
HEi^av ioTiv ati aiTri tOTLV n /.lap- 
Tvpia Tov Qeov, rjv ^^tapTvpyixs Ttept 
Tov viov avtov. 

10 6 TtiaTeiidv eig tov vlov tov 
Qeov, s^Ei Try /Mxprvpiav iv iavTqj- 
6 nn TtidTeiwv T(i) Qea, -xf/ercTT'/jr Tte- 

TtOlTlXEV atfTOV, OTi OV TteTCiCiTeVXEV 

sig TTiv ^apTvpiav, riu fie^apTvpyixev 
6 ©eog Ttept Tov vlov avTov. 

11 Kai ai!T57 Iffriv n [xapTvpia an 
^w/iv aiuvLOV iScoxev ^liv oQsog' xal 
avtyi Yi ^iMi iv T6j viu airtov saTiv. 

12 6 £%uJ' Tor VLOV, ixsi Try ^cmf 
6 (iri ix^^ '^^^ ^'^ '^°^ Qsov, Try 
^ury ovx £%ei. 

13 TATTA eypai^ vfuv Totg 7tc- 
GTEVovatv Eig To ovofia tov vlov tov 



REVISED VERSION. 

""testify on earth,] the "Spirit, and 
the water, and the blood ; and 
5'the three ^agree in one. 

9 If we receive the ^testimony 
of men, the 'testimony of God is 
gi-eater : for this is the ''testimony 
of God ''which he hath testified 
■^concerning his Son. 

10 He that believeth ^in the 
Son of God hath the ^testimony ^ 
in himself: he that believeth not s 
God hath made him a liar, be- 
cause he ""hath not believed ''in 
the ^testimony 'which God hath 
Jlestified ''concernina; his Son. 

11 And this is the 'testimony, 
that God ""gave to us eternal 
life, " and this hfe is in his Son. 

12 He that hadi the Son hath 
life ; " he that hath not the Son of 
God hath not life. 

13 These things have I written 
unto you Pthat believe 'in the 



" See ch. 1 : 2, N. 1. 

» Here also this name has an initial capital in the original 
edition of E. V. ;-Vulg., Dt., It., Fr. G. -M. -S. j-Pagn., Vat., 
Tremell., Bez., Aret., Eng. Ann., Hamm., Cocc, Wolf., Beng., 
Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Thom., Scott, Clarke, Penn, Barn., 
Murd., Kenr., Peile. Some of these have. Water, Blood ; while 
others, who use no capital, understand by ftv. the Holy Spirit. 

y The demonstrative pronoun (which comes from the Vulg.) 
is not employed by Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Peile. 

« ' Agree in the one' thing or testimony, to wit, that Jesus is 
the Son of God (v. 5). Or (and this I recommend to be set in 
the margin) : ' Amount to the one' already mentioned (v. 6) 
as that which testifies ; that one and the self-same Spirit work- 
ing all in all (1 Cor. 12: 3-11). The former .sense, with or 
without the article, is the one generally adopted, the E. V. 
expression of it being borrowed, through G., from Bez. (accord- 
ing to some editions), and by Bez., from Pagn.; in unum con- 
sentiunt. Calv. has in unum conveniunt. 

» E. v., 14 times out of 37 ; and so for /laprvptor, 15 times 
out of 19 ;-R. ;-Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, 
Thom., Scott, Penn, Bloomf (at v. 10), Murd., Kenr. Most 
verss. use a cognate substantive and verb here and in v. 10. 

*■ For rjv, Lachm. and Tisch. read Hn,. 

' See ch. 1 : 1, N. d. 

^ So E. V. renders ii{ after rtiBrtvu, 11 times ;-W. (into). 
G., R. ;-Syr., German verss. (an), Dt., It. ;-Erasm. and the 
later Latin verss., except Castal., (in Filium ;-for the Vulg. 
Filio), Dodd., Thom., Greenf., Murd., Kenr. 



« See V. 9, N. a. 

' Lachm. inserts tov ^lov before iv iamt^. So the Vulg. 

^ For ©E^, Lachm. has vlc^. So the Vulg. 

^ E. v., John 3 : 18 ; 16: 27 ; &c. ;-T., C, G., (believed) ;- 
Dt., It., Fr. G.;-M.,-S. ;-Erasm. and the later Latin verss. 
(except Castal.), Berl. Bib., Beng., Dodd., Jlack., Penn, Sharpe 
(as T.), De W., Peile. E. V. follows the Vulg. 

' E. v., V. 9 ;-R. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, 
Thom., Scott, Murd., Kenr. 

i See V. 9, N. a, and ch. 1 : 2, N. 1. 

k See ch. 1 : 1, N. d. 

1 See V. 9, N. a. 

" ' When He gave C John 3 : 16, 'iSuxsv) His only begotten 
Son.' — W. ;-Sharpe. 

° The last clause forming part of the divine testimony, the 
punctuation of the late critical editors (except Sch.), of the 
original edition of E. V., of the Amer. Bible Soc.'s Revision, 
&c., is preferred. 

" W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Syr. ;-MoIdenh., Greenf.) ;- 
Wells, Mack., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

p After vfiiv, Griesb., Mey., Knapp, Sch., Lachm., Hahn, 
Tisch., read: iVa ei&ij-te oVi ^arjv aiuviof £;^£*f [Lachm., Hahn, 
TlSch. : Q. £%. atwy.], Ofc TiLdtsvovees £tV ^o oyO|Ua tov vlov toit 
^lov, on the authority of A. B. and many minor MSS. ; Syr., 
Vulg., &c. I recommend that the following note appear in the 
margin: ' Or, as many read: that ye may know that ye have 
eternal life, who believe in the name of the Son of God.' 

1 See V. 10, N. d. 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. V. 



51 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

name of the Son of God ; that 
ye may know that ye have eter- 
nal Hte, and that ye may beheve 
on the name of the Son of God. 

14 And this is the confidence 
that we have in him, that if we 
ask any thing according to his 
will, he heareth us : 

15 And if we know that he 
hear us, whatsoever we ask, we 
know that we have the petitions 
that we desired of him. 

16 If any man see his brother 
sin a sin which is not unto death, 
he shall ask, and he shall give 
him fife for them that sin not 



GREEK TEXT. 

0£oi5, 'iva elhyfts oti ^a>ytr sj^^sts aici- 
viov, xai iva nLOtevvi'te eig to ovo^a 
tot) v'loii Toil Qsov. 

14 Kai aiiT)7 eariv riTtappriaia t^v 
sxofisv Ttpog avtov, an idv n aito- 
jU£0a jcaTa To B&'kr^^a avtov, dxovsi 

15 xai idv oiSaf-isv oti dxovei r\^im>, 
o av altO}fis6a, oi^[^v bri s^'^i.tEv ta 
alfquata u litnxa^v Ttap aiftov. 

16 'Edv Tts ihri tov dSe2.<p6v avtov 
hiiaptdvovta hiiaptiav nn Ttpog dd- 
vatov, aitriasL, xai feffei avto ^uhv, 
tolg dixaptdvovat f.in Ttpog ddvatov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

name of the Son of God, that ye 
may know that ye have eternal 
life, and that ye may beheve "iin 
the name of the Son of God. 

14 And this is the confidence 
that we have "'towards him, that, 
if we ask anything according to 
his will, he heareth us: 

15 And if we know that he 
'heareth us, whatsoever we ask, 
we know that we have the peti- 
tions that we 'have "asked ^from 
him. 

16 If any ^one see his brother 
"sinning a sin ^ not unto death, he 
shall ask, and ^ shall give him 
life, "eue/i to them that sin not 



 E. V. marg. {concerning), but elsewhere often, toward, in 
the same or similar relations, as ch. 3 : 21 ; Acts 24 : 16 ; 2 Cor. 
3: 4;-W. (to), R. {toward) ;-BjT. {=)), Vulg. {ad), German 

verss. {zu ;-except Moldenh., gegen), Dt. {tot). It. {appo), Fr. 
S. {aiipres de) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Bez., Aret., {apud), Calv., 
Eos., {erga), Castal., Coco., {as Vulg.). Hamm. {as B.), Dodd.. 
Wakef., Mack, {leith), Sharpe, Barn., Jlurd., Kenr. 

' G. ;-Hamm. and Wells (give hears as the common vers.), 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack. {hearke?ieth;- and so Thorn., 
Penn), Newc, Bloomf., Murd. The A^ulg. omits idv, and so 
W., R., Kenr., {heareth). 

' 'It follows (hat no such prayer {xata to Sixrina, aitov) has 
ever been ofiered by us in vain, but in answer to it we have, in 
present possession or in certain reversion, the very blessing 
sought.' — G. ;-foreign verss. (except Vulg. ;-Pagn., B. and L., 
Mey. [(.las Gebetene'], All. [das Erbetene]) -j-DoiiA., Wesl., 
Mack., Thorn., Penn. 

" W. ;-Wells, Dodd. and the later English verss., translate 
aXiia by the same verb, to ask (except that here Wakef. has, 
asked for), throughout vv. 14-16. A similar uniformity is 
found in the Syr., Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Pagn., Bez., Moldenh., 
Mey., Greenf., De W. 

' See ch. 3 : 22, N. f. Lachm. and Tisch. read art' aitoi. 
" See ch. 2 : I, N. b, &c. 

' ' Entering into the region and shadow of death, but still 
within reach of divine grace.'— Fr. S.;-Calv., Cocc, Bang., 
Mack., Thom. {committing), Peile. 

y E. v., vv. 16, 17;-Latin verss. (except Pagn., Bez.), Germ., 
Dt. ;- Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Liicke, Sharpe, De W., Kenr. 

' Ai-triiM xai SuSfi (Erasm.) = air^v Siiast, he shall, by ask- 
ing, give ;-the one is tantamount to the other. As God ' speaks, 
and it is done,' so is it with the prayer, even the intercession, 



of faith. This construction of the two verbs with the same 
subject, 1., is the most obvious and natural ;-2., falls in with 
the tenor of the context, vv. 14-16, respecting prayer ;-3., affords 
a striking example of apostolic Ttap^jr^eia (v. 14) on that topic ;- 
and, 4., is in harmonj' with the usage of Scripture, ascribing to 
faith and prayer the efficacy and results of the Divine working. 
Comp. Matt. 9: 22; 1 Tim. 4: 16; James 5 : 15-20; Rev. 11: 
6; &c. — Erasm. ('Subest et alius scrupulus, quid referatur ad 
verbum dabit, Deus an qui petit. Nam et qui impetrat, alteri 
quodammodo dat.'), Calv. (■ Ostendit autem in manu esse re- 
medium, quo fratres fratribus suecurrant. Vitam, inquit, per- 
eunti restituet. qui pro eo orabit. Quamquam verbum dabit 
referri ad Deum potest : acsi dictum esset : Fratris vitam Deus 
concedet precibus nostris. Verum idem semper erit sensus, eo 
usque valere fidelium preces, ut fratrem a morte eripiant. Si 
de homine intelligas, quod det fratri vitam, hyperboliea erit 
loquutio: nihil tamen continebit absurdi. Nam quod gratuita 
Dei bonitate nobis concessum est, imo quod in gratiam nostram 
aliis conceditur, dicimur aliis dare.'), Zeg. ('Sensus est, Petet 
. . .et sic petens dabit.'), Vorst., Newc. {shall obtain life for 
him -j-so Ros., precibus impetrare), Liicke (prefers this con- 
struction), Mey. (er wird dadurch), De W., Peile (' and give 
him — or what amounts to the same thing, atid God will give 
him.'). As the case may be considered a doubtful one, I re- 
commend that the other construction, which has generally pre- 
vailed, and is still retained by Win., &c., be set in the margin. 

' This clause, while it again restricts the promise to the class 
specified, at the same time extends it to the whole of that class. 
It is, accordingly, to be taken in epexegetical apposition with 
aif^, which, however Si^asi, be construed, refers not to 'him 
who offers the prayer' (Barn.), but to the sinning and endan- 
gered brother. Says Scholef. : ' I suppose that the construction 
SiScofii Bo(, ixiivcf, I give to you for him, is altogether without 
a precedent in any Greek author whatever ; and there is no 
possible reason for fabricating such a construction here.' — There 



52 



THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN. CHAP. V. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

unto death. There is a sin unto 
death : I do not say that he shall 
pray for it. 

17 All unrighteousness is sin : 
and there is a sin not unto death. 

18 We know that whosoever 
is born of God, sinneth not ; but 
he that is begotten of God, keep- 
eth himself and that wicked one 
toucheth him not. 

19 And we know that we are 
of God, and the whole world 
lieth in wickedness. 

20 And we know that the Son 
of God is come, and hath given 
us an understanding, that we 



GREEK TEXT. 

satLV a^iaptia Ttpog ddvatov ov Ttepi 

17 Tiaaa d^ixia b.[.ia(>tia lariv 
xal eatLv afia^ria ov Ttpog davatov. 

18 OiSa(j£V oTt Ttdg 6 lysysvvYii.ii- 
vog sx tov Qsov, ovx, a^ia^Taver d2.7J 
6 yEi'vyjdsig sx tov Ssov, Tvypei tavroi', 
xai 6 TtovYipog ov^, dntsrai avtov. 

19 oiSajJsv 'at I ix tov Qeov idixev, 
xai 6 xoa^iog oTjog iv Tw 7tovy;po xsLtai. 

20 olSa^v 8s Oft I 6 viog tov Qeov 
nxsi, xai hihaxsv ri^dv hudvoiav iva 
yivQaxci[j£v tav okiqQivav xai ka^v 



REVISED VERSION. 

unto death. There is a sin unto 
death : ''not for 'that do I say 
that he shall pray. 

17 All unrighteousness is sin ; 
and there is a sin not unto death. 

18 We know that ^every one 
that ''hath been ^begotten of God 
sinneth not; but he that ^hath 
been ^begotten of God keepeth 
himself, and ''the wicked one 
toucheth him not. 

19 ' We know that we are of 
God, and the whole world lieth 
in Jthe wicked one. 

20 ''But we know that the Son 
of God is come, and hath given 
us ' understanding that we may 



•■ W., R. ;-all foreign verss. (except Fr. G.-M. ;-B. and L., 
Greenf.) ;-Hamm., Wells, Thom., Peile, translate rttpt i»., with 
or without the ov, before ^iyu. 

" The demonstrative force of ixtivTjs is given by R. ;-all 
foreign virss. ;-Hamm., Wells, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Thom., 
Penn, Sharpe, Barn., Murd., Peile. 

' See eh. 2 : 23, N. x. 

' See ch. 2 : 29, N. c, &c. 

' See ch. 2 : 29, N. d. 

^ The distinctions, which E. V. and others have attempted 
between the forms o yfytcjii^/tEvof and o yivrrje^i;, are either 
fanciful, or worse. Thus, the E. V. variation, borrowed from 
T., C, 6., and suggested by the Vulg. ('omnis, qui natus est 
ex Deo, non peccat, sed generatio Dei conservat eum.'), appears 
in Fr. G.,-M. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Bez., Hamm., Wells, Whitb., 
Peile (with this farther difference: ' The born .. .he that 
hath been begotten''). Fr. S. varies only the time (est engendre 
. . .aete eng.), and .so Mack., but viae versa {hath been begotten 
...is beg.). Equally arbitrary is Beng.'s remark: 'Praete- 
ritum grandius quiddam sonat, quam aoristus.' Indeed, the 
only harmless imitation of the Greek is Greenf.'s Hebrew : 
nb"! "ItJ-'N . . . "l'?l:ri-'72.— Both participles are translated alike 

is no distinction, as to sense, made in the rendering of the two 
datives, by Syr., Dt. Qdengemn [zeg ik]'), It. ('cioe, a quelW), 
Fr. G.,-M.,-S., ('savoir d cei^a-') ;-Erasm., Pagn. and Bez. 
('peccantibiis dico'), Calv. (peccanti dico), Tremell. ('m in- 
quam'). Tat., Castal. {videlicet peccantibus'), Cocc. ('nempe 
mis'), B. and L. ('comme il la donne d toits ceux'), Dodd., 
Gill. ('This phrase is only descriptive of the persons to whom 
life is given by God, upon the prayers of saints for them, and 



in the Syr., German verss., Dt., It. ;-Calv., B. and L., Dodd., 
Wesl., Carpz., Wakef., Newc, Thom., Penn, Sharpe :-Rob. 

'' The demonstrative (adopted by B. V. from T., C, G., and 
some of the old Latin verss.) does not appear in W., R. ;-Syr., 
Vulg., German and French verss., Dt., It. ;-Calv., Castal., Dodd. 
and the later English. 

' B. V. alone supplies any copula. 

> Comp. o rtoi'jjpo; of V. 18, and here the antithetical ix tov 
OfoiJ, as well as iv t^ aXriBivai of V. 20. — Here also the adjective 
is taken as masculine by Syr., Vulg. {in maligna), German 
verss. {im Argen IBoseii]), Dt. {in het booze), It. {nel ma- 
ligno), Fr. S. marg. {dans le mechanl) ;-Calv., Bez., Aret. 
(allows this sense ;-and so Gill, Scott), Zeg., Cam., Pise, Owen, 
Wells, Whitb., B. and L., Wolf., Beng., Guyse, Dodd. (in the 
paraphrase and note), Wesl., Carpz., Mack., Thom., IMidd., 
Clarke, Slade, Greenf (j;~!3), Penn, Trol., Bloomf., Scholef, 

Barn., Murd., Peile. 

^ ' Strong as is the tyrant of the world, one stronger than he 
has come for our deliverance.' See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. — Griesb., 
j\Iey., Knapp, Sch., Lachm., Hahn, read xai oI'S. 

1 W. {wit), R. ;-It. {intendimento), Fr. S. {de IHntelligence) ; 
-Engl. Ann., Wakef and Peile {discernment), Mack., Thorn., 
Liicke {Einsicht -,-50 Mey., De W.), Penn, Sharpe, Kenr. 

not that this life is given to him that prays, and by him to be 

: given to the sinning person.'), Jloldenh., Carpz. (ei et omnibus), 

\ Wakef {'to those, I say'), Newc. {-for them, 1 say.' See N. z.), 

Greenf, Penn ('that is, to those'), De W., Stier, ('namlich 

denen'), Murd. {Ho them, I say'), Peile {will give him life, in 

all cases where). The Vulg. throws both clauses into one, 

I thus : dabitur ei vita peccanti; and so the Germ., except 

that it retains the plural rot; a/i., and disregards the aif^. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



53 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

may know him that is true ; and 
we are in him that is true, even 
in his Son Jesus Christ. This is 
the true God, and eternal hfe. 

21 Little children, keep your- 
selves from idols. Amen. 



GREEK TEXT. 

kv ta akYiQuva, iv Ta> via avtoij 'Ir;- 
aov XpiCTTW. oitTog eariv 6 d?uy!6iv6g 
Qebg, xal n ^(^ ai(l)Vtog. 

21 Texvia, <pv?M^at6 savrovg UTto 



REVISED VERSION. 

know ™the True One; and we 
are in ™the True One, ° in his Son 
Jesus Christ. This is the true 
God, and "the ^Life eternal. 

21 Little children, keep your- 
selves from "ithe idols. "'Amen. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMES' VERSION. 

The elder unto the elect lady, 
and her children, whom I love 



GREEK TEXT. 

'0 nPESBTTEPOS '^xT^xtri xv- 
picL xai totg tixvoig avrri'S, ovg iya 



REVISED VERSION. 

The elder unto "an elect lady 
and her children, whom I love 



" Comp. the E. V. forms : ' the Holy One, and the Just,' 
'the Just One,' &o. (Acts 3: 14; 7: 52; &c.), and see v. 19, 
N. j, and Rev. 19: 11. — Syr., Germ. (deJi Wahrhaftigen), Dt. 
{den Waarachtige), It. (colui cK e il vera), Fr. G.,-]\I. -S., 
(le Veritable) ;-Cal7. {ilium verum), Bez., Cocc, Carpz., {ye- 
rum ilium), Beng. ( Verum), Wesl., Greenf., Murd., Peile {the 
One that is True ...the only True One). The Vulg. follows 
the reading, tbv a.\rfii,vov 0fdv. 

" There is no supplement in T., C, (who, however, as some 
others, translate this iv by through) ;-Syr., Germ., It., Fr. S. ;- 
Erasm., Calv., Vat., Castal., Dodd., Moldenh., Carpz., Mack., 
Lucke (' The sense is : We are in fellowship with the true God 
through His Son — or, more correctly and more in the spirit of 
John's style : so far as we are in His Son.'), Greenf, Penn, 
Sharpe, De W., Murd. Peile supplies being. 

° See ch. 2 : 25, N. h. Here the article is given by the Ger- 
man and French verss., Dt., It.;-Bez. {ilia), Mack., Thom., 
Murd., Kenr. Lachm. and Tisch. cancel the ij. 

p See ch. 1 : 1 (N. g), 2. — Among English verss., the Greek or- 
der is retained by R. ;-Thom., Murd., Peile. See ch. 2 : 25, N. h. 

■5 ' AU around.' — German and French verss., Dt., It. ;-Thom., 
Sharpe. 

 Knapp brackets the a/iijv, while the reading that omits it 
is marked by Beng. as plane genuina, and is adopted by all 
the other recent editors (except Bloomf), as it was by the 
ancient verss., except the Vulg. I recommend that Amen be 
omitted. See 2 John 13, N. s. 

° Our text follows Mill, as he followed Stephens, in printing 
'ExXExtYi with a capital letter. The opinion, however, which 
Stephens thus indicated, that this was the proper name of the 
individual addressed (an opinion mentioned [not, as Barn, sup- 
poses, professed] by Oec. : ixTicxf/jv Ss, ^ 6.7(6 toi 6rdftaT05, ^ 
drto trji rtfpL tTjv dpff^v ^t>.of t^taj. xaXsl, and adopted by Grot., 
Pricaeus,. Wetst., Midd.), is disclaimed by Mill, who explains 



the word as =: 'electam, sive ad Christi fidem conversam.' 
Even the more common view among modern scholars (Heu- 
mann, Beng., Moldenh., Carpz., Liicke, Mey., Ros., De W., 
Barn., Neander, Dav.. SchafT, &c.), which regards xvfla as the 
name, is generally allowed by its advocates to involve some 
negligence of construction or of arrangement. Certainly raicjt 
rif ayartrita,, 3 John 1, which De W. cites, furnishes no parallel ; 
and even his other instance from 1 Pet. 1 : 1, ixXcxtoli xafstm- 
Sr;iio(.;, is suflBciently defined by the subsequent genitives, 6ta- 
ffrtopti; IXottou, xtx. It deserves also to be mentioned, that 
either of these interpretations {Electa, Cyria;-as well as 
Thom.'s Electa Cyria) at once excludes the reference of this 
inscription, ' not to the Christian mistress of a family, but to a 
Church. The ancients,' adds Thiersch {History of the Chris- 
tian Church, p. 264 ; London, 1852), ' understood it so. And 
the concluding words, The children of thy sister, &c., are in 
like manner to be understood of a Church, viz., of that in 
which John was at the time.' This reference has supporters 
also among the moderns (Hamm., Whist., AVhitb., Pyle, Michae- 
lis, Augusti, Hales), and finds some corroboration in the ^ iv 
BajSuT.uri avvsxXcxtri of 1 Pet. 5 : 13, where the majority of 
versions and commentators supplies ixxXriaia. The indefinite 
rendering proposed above, which I find nowhere but in Peile, 
is at least strictly grammatical, and assumes nothing but that 
the writer may have had reasons for suppressing the name of 
his correspondent, as well as his own. There is difllculty, more- 
over, in supposing that the writer meant to distinguish any 
particular member of the Church as 'the elect lady,' or as the 
peculiar object of the apostolic love in truth. — Of the editors 
not already mentioned. Griesb., Knapp, Lachm., Tisch., Theile, 
have ixx. Kvp. ; Sch., Bloomf, Hahn, ixx. xvp. The ex- 
pressed lyii (see 1 John 2 : 20, N. p) may be = ' I, whoever 
else may hate (v. 7) ; I, Christ's apostle; whom He loved.' 
This emphasis cannot be given in English without an amplifi- 
cation, or else by the tone in reading. 



54 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

in the truth ; and not I only, but 
also all they that have known 
the truth ; 

2 For the truth's sake which 
dwelleth in us, and shall be with 
us for ever. 

3 Grace be with you, mercy, 
and peace from God the Father, 
and from the Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Son of the Father, in truth 
and love. 

4 I rejoiced greatly, that I 
found of thy children walking in 



GREEK TEXT. 



ayana iv akridsia, xal om iyu (wvog, 
dX/la xcd Tuwrec, ol kyvoxoreg ttiv 

2 Sia HTy aknQHav try fxsvovaav 
iv rifdv, xcu ^/sff ri^mv ecTTat ej's tov 
aiava- 

3 earai ned' nfiov %(xpig, g/lfog, 
Eipnvy; Ttapa Qsov TtaTpbg, xai Ttcupa 
Kvpiov 'ly]aov XpiCToii rov viov rov 
Ttarpog, ev akridsicL xal dyd7f(i. 

4 'Ey^dpy;v 9uav an svpyixa ex tav 
rsxvov aov TtepiTtatoiwta^ iv a2,yj- 



REVISED VERSION. 

in '■ truth, and not I only, but also 
all "= who have known the truth, 

2 For the truth's sake, which 
''abideth in us, and ^with us *'it 
shall be for ever : 

3 eThere shall be with •'us 
grace, mercy, ' peace, from God 
the Father, and from the •• Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Son of the Fa- 
ther, in truth and love. 

4 1 rejoiced greatly that I ''have 
found 'children of thine walking 



i" The words iv aj,ti9iiq. are thus rendered without the article, 
or else adverbially {truly, sincerely, &c.), or are so explained, 
by E. v., w. 3, 4; 3 John 1 marg.,4:; Matt. 22: IG (comp. 
Mark 12 : 14 and Luke 20 : 21 in the Greek and E. V.) ; &c. ;- 
W., R. ;-Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Oec. (who opposes ay. iv ax. to 
iHi,!fKaaiaf ayartoiv, a-to/iati,, referring to 1 John 3 : 18), Pagn., 
Vat, Castal., Bez., Grot., Wells, B. and L., Berl. Bib., "Wolf, 
('i. e. d?.i;9ws'), Beng., Pyle, Carpz., Wakef., Mack., Newc, 
Thom., Mey. (mil Aufrichtigkeit), Ros., Stolz, Van Ess, Goss., 
Trol., Sharpe, De W. (though he understands the phrase here, 
not as in 1 John 3 : 18, but of love grounded in tlie Christian 
truth), Barn., Kenr., Peile. 

' For the omission of they, see W., T., C, G., R. ;-Latin and 
German verss., Dt. j-Wesl., Mack., Thom., Greenf., Sharpe, 
Kenr. — Forw/io, see Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thom., 
Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. 

^ Beng. : ' (iiiae manet. quae adhuc est. Sequitur futurum, 
erit: See 1 John 3 : 17, N. x, &c. 

' The Greek order is preserved in W. ;-Latin verss., Syr., 
Germ., Dt. j-Liioke, Greenf All. 

' The French verss. and Newc. repeat the relative ; but it is 
better with Win. (§ 04. III. 1.) to consider the construction 
changed for the sake of a more striking presentation of the 
thought. So De W. : 'und sie wird auch ewig bei uns blei- 
ben' regaMing this as 'more expressive' than the relative con- 
struction. Sharpe {and may it be), Peile {as it shall be). 
See Rev. 1 , 6, N. y, &c. 

^ ' Future for optative, by hebraism,' say Bloomf. and others. 
Better Win. (§ 41. 6.): 'Never does the future stand for the 
genuine optative; in Rom. 16: 20; Phil. 3: 15; 4: 7, 19; 
Matt. 16: 22, the signification of the future is alone admissible.' 
A like unwarrantable change of mood is found in E. V. 1 Pet. 
4 : 11. In the present instance the writer, having set out appa- 
rently to give the apostolic salutation in the usual optative 
form, is induced, by the intervention of a confident assertion 
respecting the perseverance of the faithful in the truth, to ex- 
press his heart's desire and prayer for them in the way of an 
equally confident assertion respecting their, and his own, con- 
tinued enjoyment along with that, and in consequence of that. 



of all spiritual blessings. — The future is retained in E. V. marg. 
in Dr. Blayney's and most subsequent editions ;-C.;-Syr., Dt. 
mar^. ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret.. Cocc. ('non tarn optans, quam ad- 
dicens. Petrus ut optans loquitur mridwdslr;. Paulus ambigue, 
omittens verbum, ut habeamus occasionem utrumque cogitandi. 
Johannes eniphasin interpretatur exprimendo tatai,.'), Beng. 
('votum cum affirmatione'), Moldcnh., Carpz., Peile {'there 
shall be — an Apostolic greeting, equivalent here to invokes, 
prays for there to be — grace, &c.'). 

^ This reading is followed by C. ;-Syr., Germ, (as Luth. 
gave it) ;-Erasm., Aret. ('Se conjungit piae familiae in bonis 
communibus ;'-but. on the ground of the uniform style of the 
apostolic salutation elsewhere, he thinks that the reading must 
be incorrect). Wolf (' "Esrat /ie6' v/iuv. Ita Curcellaeus : at 
editi plerique omnes fiid' ^/tuJi', et sic scripti quoque, ita ut pro 
altera ilia Millius Lincoln, cod. et Veles. lectiones, tum vero ed. 
Complut. Vulg. et Oecumenium afferre potuerit. Praetulerim 
itaque jxsS' ijiiuv, quod et B. Lutherus expressit. imprimis cum 
eadem phrasis proxime anteoedat, xaX fuS' tifiiliv tatM £ij tov 
aiwva. Hoc scilicet respiciens Joannes eos, ad quos scribebat, 
certos esse jubet, fore, ut et ipsi in agnita dootrinae salutaris 
veritate persistant et gratia misericordiaque divina perpetuo 
fruantur.'). All the recent editors, however, have vjx.uv, and 
I recommend that this be adopted : you. 

' R. ;-Latin and Germ, verss. (except Moldenh., Mey.), Dt., 
Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Carpz., Wakef, Thom., Sharpe, Kenr., Peile. 

' Mey., Lachm., and Tisch. cancel Kupi'ov, which De W. also 
considers ' unjohann.' 

It The perfect tense implies that this cause of joy still existed. 
Kuhn.'s remark also is applicable : ' By placing in contrast the 
hist, tenses in the principal sentence to the principal tenses with 
their conjunctions in the subordinate sentences, the subordinate 
sentences become more important than the principal. — R. ;- 
German and French verss. (except Aley.), Dt., It. ;-Peile. But all 
these, except R., translate ixo-i'l'' either as a present or a perfect. 

I Peile proposes this as the English equivalent of the Greek 
phrase. Dodd., Mack., &o., supply some. But this suggests 
more strongly perhaps than does the original, that this lady 
had other children of a different character. 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



65 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

truth, as we have received a com- 
mandment from the Father. 

5 And now I beseech thee, 
lady, not as though I wrote a new 
commandment unto thee, but that 
which we had from the begin- 
ning, tliat we love one another. 

6 And this is love, that we 
walk after his commandments. 
This is the commandment. That, 
as ye have heard from the begin- 
ning, ye should walk in it. 

7 For many deceivers are en- 
tered into the world, who confess 
not that Jesus Christ is come in 
the flesh. This is a deceiver, 
and an antichrist. 

8 Look to yourselves, that we 
lose not those things which we 
have wrought, but that we re- 
ceive a full reward. 

9 Whosoever transgresseth, 
and abideth not in the doctrine 
of Christ, hath not God. He that 



GREEK TEXT. 



Osia, xaSug £i«ro^rrv i?M[3oi.i£v Ttapd 
roi' Ttarpog. 

5 xai viw spa^a Ge, xvpia, ovj^ ag 
svto?i,Yiv ypd^uv GOL xaiv'hi', dX/la rtv 
el'xp^ev an dp%%, Iva ayaita^v oAr 
/Lri/Lowg. 

6 xai attYj egtIv n dydnyi, iva 
TtspiTtaTui-isv xata rag ivro2.ag avtoii. 
aiTYi sGTLv ri kvtokro xaOog rycovGate 
an ap'XT^g, iva sv aur^ TispiTtaT/its- 

7 otL 7to22joi nTAvOL slGriABov elg 
tbv xoGfiov, 01 ^n ofjo^oyovvtsg 'Iyj- 
Goiw XptcTTov tp'xpiievov iv Gapxr 
oxkog sGtLV 6 n^idvog xai 6 drT(;^pt- 
Gtog. 

8 /^XfTteTe iavtovg 'iva fxri dnoT^- 
Gdfjsv a EipyaGdneda, ouiia ^uGdov 
nTJipYi d7to/id(3c^i.iEV. 

9 nag 6 napa^aivutv, xai fj.ri ^vuv 
ev rfi h^xV '^°^' XptffToi), Qeov ovx 
ej^Et,' 6 fAJEVuv EV TYi SiSaj^ri tov Xpt- 



REVISED VERSION. 

in truth, as we ™ received ° com- 
mandment from the Father. 

5 And now I beseech thee, 
lady, not as "writing a new com- 
mandment unto thee, but that 
which we had from the begin- 
ning, that we love one another. 

6 And this is love, that we 
walk Paccording to his command- 
ments. This is the command- 
ment, "J as ye  heard from the 
beginning, "ithat ye should walk 
in it. 

7 For many deceivers 'have 
entered into the world, who con- 
fess not ' Jesus Christ coming in 
" flesh : this is ^the deceiver and 
''the antichrist. 

S Look to yourselves, that '^we 
lose not "what things we have 
''wrought, but ^ receive a full re- 
ward. 

9 "Every one that transgress- 
edi, and abideth not in the doc- 
trine of Christ, hath not God : he 



■" The reference is historical, to the ministry of the Lord 
Jesus, as revealing the truth and will of God. See 1 John 2 : 
25, N. g.— W. ;-Wesl., Mack., Thorn., Penn, Sharpe. 

" W., R.;-Fr. S.;-Wells, Wesl., Mack., Newc, Liicke, Penn, 
Sharpe, Murd., Peile. 

" W., G., R.;-Vulg., Syr., Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Pagn., 
Bez., Aret., Dodd. and the later English verss., Greenf. 

p See 2 Pet. 3 : .3, N. f. To the English verss. there men- 
tioned may here be added Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thorn., Clarke, 
Penn, Ivenr. 

' Neither the original edition of E. V., nor any other .version 
here collated, except Vat., begins this part of the verse with a 
capital letter, nor does Vat. himself transpose the iVa. The 
Greek order is observed also by Syr., Protestant German verss. 
(the Vulg. having ut quemadmodum), Dt., It., Fr. M.,-S. ;- 
Erasm., Castal., Bez., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef. (though he gives 
xa9us as a relative), Mack., Newc, Thorn., Greenf., Sharpe, 
Murd., Peile. 

' See 1 John 2 : 7, N. p, &c. 

 Newc, Barn., Peile. 

« The reference is rather to the general idea of the incarna- 
tion, than to any particular manifestation. Hence Oec, Erasm., 
and Vat., while their versions point to the second coming (the 
last two changing venisse of the Vulg. into renturimi), yet 
allow the other interpretation. 'Potest etiam legi, venisse,' 



says Vat. Erasm. thus : ' Potest accipi ut sit praeteriti imper- 
fecti temporis, qui veniebat ; et potest accipi ut sit futuri, ut 
intelligamus de Judicio supremo.' Better Oec. : Sia r oiT-o olfiM 

dx^ ovx sT^ovTfa^ iva tov^ d^ijioffpaj apvovfi^vovs tas rtapovtJtaj 
■toy KupioD fas iv aapxi ttepixdIS'tj. So De W. : ' We are not to 
assume any change of time (Beng.) ; the present denotes simply 
the idea : J. Chr. as commg in the flesh ; comp. 1 Cor. 15 : 35.' 
Seel John4:2, N. b. 

" See 1 John 4 : 2, N. c 

' See 1 John 2 : 18, N. d, &c. 

"^ Lachm. and Tisch. adopt the reading (referred to in E. V. 
niarg.) of A., Vulg., Syr., &c. : arco'Kiatjii S, clfydaaaSt . . . arco- 

^ See V. 1, N. c. Of the verss. here collated, Wells and 
Newc. alone employ a plural demonstrative ; most have a com- 
pound relative. 

y The marginal rendering of E. V., gained, may better be 
omitted. Comp. 1 Cor. 3 ; 14, 15. 

' Syr., German verss., Dt., It. ;-Castal., Hamm., Dodd. and 
Mack, (may), Wesl., Wakef., Sharpe. 

» See 1 John 2 : 23, N. x. In this verse Lachm. and Tisch. 

read rtpodyav (A. B.) for rtapajialvav (Bloonif. has no doubt 
that ' St. John wrote jtapdyav'), cancel the second toy Xptatov, 
and transpose thus : xcu tbv vlov xai tov rtatipa. 



56 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMBS VERSION. 

abideth in the doctrine of Christ, 
he hath both the Father and the 
Son. 

10 If there come any unto you, 
and bring not this doctrine, re- 
ceive him not into your house, 
neither bid him God speed : 

11 For he that biddeth him 
God speed, is partaker of his evil 
deeds. 

12 Having many things to 
write unto you, I would not write 
with paper and ink : but I trust 
to come unto you, and speak face 
to face, that our joy may be full. 

13 The children of thy elect 
sister greet thee. Amen. 



GREEK TEXT. 

atov, ovtog xai Toy Ttatspa xcu tav 
vlov £;^ft. 

10 £1 tig eoy^^stai, Ttpbg vixdg, xcu 
taxrtviv rnv hmax''fl' ov j)tpeL, [in 7mi.i- 
(3dvsifE aiftop eig oixiav, xai j^^oupsiv 
axfta fin Tuyere- 

11 b j'ttp T^j^yuiv avta ^aipsiv, xoi- 
vavet totg ipyoig avtov toig Ttovt^polg. 

12 Ilo/l/ld £x,^v vfuv 'y()d^£iv, ovx 
r,(3ov?,ridyiv 8ia j^dptov xcu (jiXavog- 
a22a iTiTti^a aWeiv Ttpbg vfidg, xai 
atofia Ttpog atofja TxiJknaai, iva ri 
;^apa vifiav ^ TtETt/lyjpcjfiir)?. 

13 ddTta^etcu as td tsxva trig 
(i&/l(^% Gov trig ixTiExtng. dfiw- 



REVISED VERSION. 

that abideth in the doctrine of 
Christ, ''the same hath both the 
Father and the Son. 

10 If any "^one ''cometh unto 
you, and "^bringeth not this doc- 
trine, receive him not into ^the 
house, neither bid him 'hail : 

11 For he that biddeth him 
%ail ^shareth in his ""wicked 
•works. 

12 Having many things to 
write unto you, JI would not '' 
with paper and ink ; 'but I ""hope 
"to come unto you, and speak 
"mouth to mouth, that Pour joy 
may be ^fulfilled. 

13 The children of thy elect 
sister 'salute thee. "Amen. 



t E. v., Matt. 5 : 19 ; 13 : 20 ; &c. ;-R. ;-Mack. All the for- 
eign verss. (except Greenf.) use a demonstrative pronoun. 
Beng. : ' hie demum.' 

■= See 1 John 2 : 1, N. b, &c. Here the verss. generally clearly 
indicate the singular. 

^ ' As, no doubt, happens often' (v. 7). Comp. 1 John 3 : 13, 
N. j. — The indicative mood is retained in W. ;-foreign verss. 
generally ;-Thom., Murd. 

' The pronoun is not supplied in B. V., Mark 13 : 15, &c. ;- 
W., T., C, G., E. ;-foreign verss. (except the French, and Mol- 
denh.) ;-Kenr., Dav. 

*■ Akenside (Pleasures of Imagination, i. 492, 496-8) : 
' As when Brutus . . . 

' call'd aloud 

' On Tally's name, and shook his crimson steel, 
'And bade the father of his country, hail !' 
W. (neither say ye to him A.ai7;-comp. E. V., Matt. 26: 49; 
27 : 29 ; &c.) ;-Sharpe, Barn, ('do not say to him, hail, or joy') ; 
-Rob. (to wish well to bid hail). Nearly all verss. avoid the 
introduction of the divine name. 

^ Wakef., Mack, (pariaketh in), Thom. (is a part, with 
him in), Murd. (is participator in). 

" See 1 John 3 : 12, N. h. R. ;-Guyse, Wakef. 

' E. v., 1 John 3 : 12; &c. ;-W., R. ;-Guyse, Wakef., Thom., 
Penn, Kenr. 

1 Beng., Lachm., Hahn, Tisch., have ij3ov?wj95ji'. 



'' No verb is supplied in W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., Germ., 
Dt. ;-Carpz., Liicke, Greenf., All., De W., Murd., Kenr. 

 For axxi. IXTti^a, Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch.. Lachm., Hahn, 
Theile, read ixttC^u ydp (Vulg.). 

" W., R. ;-Dodd. and the later verss. Foreign verss. gene- 
rally have the word most nearly answering to this. 

° For ixedv, Knapp, Mey., Lachm., Hahn, Tisch., Theile, give 
ysviddai, which Bloomf. thinks is ' probably the true reading.' 

° E. V. marg: (comp. Numb. 12: 8; Jer. 32: 4; 34: 3);- 
Vulg., Syr., Germ, (mundlich), Dt,, It. (a bocca), French 
verss. ;-Hamm., Berl. Bib. (von Mund zu Mund ;-so Stolz, 
AH., Kist.), Guyse, Thom., (by word, of mouth), Moldenh., Mey., 
Van Ess, De W., (as Germ.), Wakef., Greenf. (HC-bN PC), 

Murd., Kenr. 

p Lachm. reads viauv (Vulg.). 

1 See 1 John 1 : 4, N. q. It is true that in this expressive 
primary sense oi filling full the -verh fulfil is not now in cur- 
rent use, and it may perhaps be deemed inexpedient to attempt 
its revival. In that case I recommend that E. V. be retained. 

 E. v., 3 John 15 ; &c. ;-R. ;-Dodd. and the later verss., 
except Sharpe. 

' The a.jj.'^v is bracketed by Knapp, and cancelled by all the 
other recent editors, except Beng. and Bloomf., though Beh"-. 
also regarded it as certainly spurious. I recommend that Anie7i 
be omitted. 




THE THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



67 



THE THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMES' VERSION. 

The elder unto the well-belov- 
ed Galus, whom I love in the 
truth. 

2 Beloved, I wish above all 
things that thou mayest prosper 
and be in health, even as thy 
soul prospereth. 

3 For I rejoiced greatly, when 
the brethren came and testified 
of the truth that is in thee, even 
as thou walkest in the truth. 



GREEK TEXT. 

'0 nPE2BTTEP02 Taioi rudya- 
•KYftiii, bv eya dyaTto iv dyl>70et'a. 

2 'AyaTtyjts, Ttepi Ttdvtuv ev^o^cu 
ds ewbowdaL xcu vyiaivsiv, xadug 

3 i^dprsv yap 2.iav, ip^o^evav 
dSsT^ipcjv xal ^lapTvpovvtcdv aov rrt 
aXrfiEia, xaQcog dv iv d2.Y;d£M Ttept- 
Ttarsig. 



REVISED VERSION. 

The elder unto the "beloved 
Gaius, whom ^I love in '' truth. 

2 Beloved, °in all things I ''pray 
that thou mayest prosper and be 
in health, even as thy soul pros- 
pereth. 

3 For I rejoiced greatly, when 
^ brethren came and testified 'to 
^thy truth, ''liow Hhou walkest 
in j truth. 



' E. v., .8 times in John's Epistles, and 39 times elsewhere ;- 
T., C, G. ;-Syr., Germ, (liehen), Dt., It. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., 
Bez., (dileclo ;-for Vulg. charissimo), Wells, Berl. Bib. and 
later Protestant German verss., Dodd., TVesl., Wakef., Mack., 
Newc, Thom., Greenf., Barn., Jlurd., Kenr. For the empha- 
tic lyii, see 2 John 1, N. a. 

" See 2 John 1, N. b. 

' This explanation of Hefl ndrtav as equivalent to concern- 
ing all things, in every respect, appears in W. (though he 
renders the Vulg. de by of), T., C, R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., 
Dt. marg., It., French verss. ;-Erasm., A''at., Engl. Ann., Grot,, 
Hamm.'s Paraphrase, Pric, Wells, Whitb., Beng., Guyse, 
Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Newc, Thom., Scott, AH., Penn, Trol., 
Sharpe, De W., Barn., Murd., Kenr., Peile;-Rob., Green. E. 

V. follows Pagn., Bez., (in primis), Castal. (ante omnia). 

The Greek order is followed by W., R. ;-Latin verss. (except 
Castal.), Syr., Dt. ;-Berl. Bib., Moldenh., Carpz., Wakef., Mey., 
Greenf., Stolz, Van Ess, Goss., Sharpe, Bloomf., De W., Murd., 
Kenr. 

^ E. V. marg. ; 2 Cor. 13 : 7 ; James 5 : 16 ;-W., R., (I make 
[my] prayer) ;-Vulg. (orationem facio), Syr. (as in Matt. 26 : 
42) ;-Engl. Ann. ('or, pray'), Hamm., Guyse ('desire and beg 
of God'), Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Clarke, Greenf., All., 
Penn, Bloomf. ('heartily wish and pray'), Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

' W. ;-Fr. S. ;-Berl. Bib. .and the later German verss. (though 
some of them insert einige), Wakef. (some), Peile. 

f The dative after juaprDptw is retained by E. V., John 5 : 33 ; 
18 : 37 ; &c., and here by W., R. ;-Vulg., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., 
Berl. Bib., Beng., Mack., Thom., Stolz, All., Kist,, Goss., Sharpe, 
Kenr., Peile. 



^ Not merely : 'the truth of the gospel that is in thee' (Whitb.), 
or 'the soundness of thy doctrinal views,' but: ' thy truthful- 
ness ; the general consistency of thy Christian character, as 
resting on and pervaded by the truth.' — The paraphrastic en- 
largement of E. V. is avoided by W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., German 
verss., Dt, It, Fr. G.,-M., (ta sincerite), Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Pagn. 
(integritatem tuam), Vat., Castal., Bez. (sinceritatem tvam. 
The same word is employed by Drus., Grot. ;-and so Hamm.'s 
Paraphrase : the sincerity of thy Christian course), B. and L. 
(voire fdelite), Dodd., Wakef. (ihy fidelity). Mack., Thom., 
Greenf. (TfRON), Penn, Sharpe, Murd. (ihy integrity), Kenr., 



Peile (thy tnilhfidness). 

 Perhaps it was not intended by the English Translators 
(who follow R. = Vulg. sicut) to give the impression, which 
yet the reader can scarcely help receiving, that the writer here 
adds his own testimony respecting the outward deportment of 
Gaius to that of the brethren respecting his faith. But such a 
representation is not at all borne out by the manner of John, 
or by the context, vv. 4, 6. The clause is rather epexegetical 
of the one preceding. For this use of xoSuj after verbs of nar- 
rating, see Acts 15: 14.— T., C, G.;-Fr. G.,-M., (el comment), 
Fr. S. ([disant'] comment) ;-Castal. (uti . . vivas). Grot., Ros., 
(^jWTOorfo), Hamm.'s Paraphrase ('and gave me assurance of 
thy perseverance'), B. and L. (as Fr. G.), Moldenh. (wie, in 
the sense of quomodo. He also allows dass, that), Carpz, (et 
(jfMod), Wakef , Liicke, Mey. (dass ndinlich), Penn;-Schuttg.. 
Schleus., Bretsch., Wahl, Rob., Schirl. 

' 'Notwithstanding the general defection, and the violence 
of Diotrephes.' See 2 John 1, N, a, &c. 

1 See 2 John 1, N. b. 

8 



68 



THE THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

4 I have no greater joy than 
to hear that my children walk in 
truth. 

5 Beloved, thou doest faith- 
fully whatsoever thou doest to 
the brethren, and to strangers ; 

6 Which have borne witness 
of thy charity before the church: 
whom if thou bring forward on 
their journey after a godly sort, 
thou shalt do well : 



GREEK TEXT. 

4 i-isi^oTepav lovtov ovx e^u ;^a- 
pav, iva dxoio) ra tua tixva sv dky;- 
deia TtepiTtaTovvTa. 

5 'AyaTtYire, marbv Ttoidg 6 sav 
ipydari eig Tovg dSs'A^ovg xai eig rovg 
^svovg, 

6 o'i i/xaptvpyjadv Gov rrj dydrty 
svoitiov ixxXY;aiag' oig xa?uiig noirr 
aeig TtpoTtEjttil^^ d^fug roi) Qeov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

4 ''Greater joy than 'this I have 
none, to hear "of my children 
"walking in ° truth. 

5 Beloved, thou Pactest ''faith- 
fully whatsoever thou doest 'to- 
ward the brethren, and 'toward 
''the strangers, 

6 'Who have "testified "to thy 
"love before ^the church : whom 
thou ^shalt do well Ho "set for- 
ward on their ""way "^in a manner 
worthy of God: 



'■ The arrangement and translation of this clause are from 
Sharpe. Comp. E.V.John 15: 13. Here fififor. is given before 
the verb by R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-Beng., Carpz. (Lactitiam 
majorem habeo nullam), Mey., Stolz, All., Goss., De W. 

1 The xovtiav is recognized in W., G., R, ;-Latin and German 
verss. (except Castal.), Syr., Dt, It., Fr. G., -M. ;-EngI. Ann., 
Wolf, (who, with Bez., Beng., &c., would supply ;tapw^), Dodd., 
Wesl., Mack., Newc, Ros., Greenf.. Penn., Kenr. 

^ So E. V. translates axoiiu followed by an accusative, Matt. 
24: 6; Luke 21 : 9; &c. 

° Dodd., "Wakef., Mack., Thom., {are walking). 
" Lachm. and Tisch. insert tJ. 

p So rtou'u is often taken, especially when connected with a 
neuter adjective. See Pass., s. v., II.— Fr. G.,-M.,-S., {agU) ; 
-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Wolf., (agis), Thom., Van Ess {han- 
deist j-so All., Kist, De W.), Trol., Bloomf. The same verb 
(to act) is employed by Guyse^ Scott, Clarke. 

•! ' A faithful thing, one befitting thy standing as ««5ro5, a 
true believer.' So Oec. : a^tof rtioroi dr^pof and others gene- 
rally. Some, as It. (da [rero] fedele), Thom. (as a believer), 
Mey. (als Ochten Christen), Trol. (as a faithful man), treat 
the phrase matbv noitlf as equivalent to the French idiom, 
faire le roi. 

' E. v., 1 Thess. 4:10; &c. ;-R. (on... upon) ;-Syr., It., 
Fr. G.,-M., Fr. S. (poMr) ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Pise, Hamm. 
(in the Paraph.), B. and L. (as Fr. S.), Dodd., Murd., Kenr., 
(towards -,-50 Scott and Barn, once in the comment.), Pyle 
(once in the Paraph.), Wakef, Mack., Thom., (for), Ros., Peile 
(in relation to). 

• Dt., It., French verss. ;-Engl. Ann. (as one version), Mol- 
denh. and later German verss., Wakef., Mack., Thom., Greenf. 
Penn, Sharpe, Peile (those). Liicke's view, that xai d; roiij 
Je'covj stands in epexegetical apposition with lif toiii d5., is not 
favoured by the repetition of the preposition and the article ; 
and hence may have come, as a critical gloss, the reading xai 
toito U^ovs, which, however, has very considerable authority, 
and is adopted by Lachm., Hahn, Tisch., Theile. 

t See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 



" E. v., V. 3 ; &c. See 1 John 1 : 2, N. 1. 

' See V. 3, N. f. 

" See 2 Pet. 1 : 7, N. a. 

" Peile: ' tuirtiot 'ExxXijotas — kw^X. in open Church, in open 
Congregation — is said by the same conventional omission of 
the Article, as in classical Greek is the prevailing rule in the 
use of all such words (natrfi, /ir;ttip, }i6ai.s, ywri, ?td>.tj, 4fcrrtdr»jf, 
*. t. 7..) as express some well-known and familiar object, and 
in our own idiom also is of frequent occurrence, as when we 
say in Town, before Parliament, &c. &c.' 

y The Greek order, retained by R. ;-foreign verss., except the 
Dt. ;-Dodd., Wakef., Thom., Penn, Peile. The Syr. disregards 
the rtpo?tt/t4a5 ; the Vulg. has benefaciens deduces, as if for x. 
rtotjjsaj nfonifi-^iii, the reading of C. ; Germ., du hast wohl ge- 
Ihan, as if for x. trtolrjaai, Grot.'s conjectural reading. — Most 
of the modern English versions have wilt. But the sentence 
is an authoritative counsel and encouragement in opposition to 
Diotrephes. 

' The participle is translated by an infinitive in It.. French 
verss. ;-Thom., Greenf, Kist., Penn, De W., Peile. 

' It is evident from the context, that what the writer desired 
in behalf of the wayfareis was effectual help (comp. Tit. 3 : 13; 
&c.), rather than merely such an honourable escort as Paul 
received at Miletus (Acts 20 : 38) and Tyre (Acts 21 : 5). The 
former idea is, accordingly, here included by the critics and 
lexicons in rtpojtijurtw (as Grot, 'cum viatico dimittere'; Beng. 
'deducens cum commeatu'; Bloomf. "by sending them forward 
and helping them on their journey' ; De W. ' weiterfordern 
durch Reiseausnistung' ; &c.), and several versions express it 
more distinctly than is done in E. V. Thus : Hamm. (furnish 
for their j.), B. and L. (de les accompag/ier et de les pourvoir 
pour leur voyage). Mack, (help forward on their j.), Liicke, 
Mey., (weiter [be-'} firrderst), Stolz (ihnen weiter behillflich 
bist). Van Ess (weiter forthilfst), Kenr. (put on their way), 
Peile. 

>■ E. v.. Acts 15 : 3 ; 21:5; &c. ;-R. ;- Wakef., Kenr., Peile. 

' E. V. (after C), Wells, Wesl., and Sharpe, are the only 
verss. that evade the literal force of the phrase. E. V. has it in 
the margin; and comp. Col. 1 : 10; 1 Thess. 2: 12. 



THE THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



59 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

7 Because that Ibi- his name's 
sake they went forth, taking 
nothing of the Gentiles. 

8 We theref(H-e ought to re- 
ceive such, that we might be 
fellow-helpers to the truth. 

9 I wrote unto the church : 
but Diotrephes who loveth to 
have the pre-eminence among 
them, recciveth us not. 

10 Wherefore, if I come, 1 
will remember his deeds which 



GREEK TEXT. 

7 V7te() yap Toi) oi'df-iarog e^r^dov 
jiYlSiv "Aa^iJo-vovteg dno tc^v edvuv. 

8 riLiEic, ovv o^£iXof.isv a.7io2.a^'3a- 
vsiv rovg roioirovg, iva avvspyol 
yivufieda rri a^^rfieLCL. 

^i?M7tpcdrEVi,)v aiVtjv Aiorpe^rg ovx 
smhi'x.^rai 'nudg. 

10 hia TouTo, iav e?£G), vnaiaxcud 
aitov ra epya a noisi, 'Aoyoig Ttory;- 



KEVISED VERSION. 

7 ■'For 'in behalf of ""the name 
I hey went fortli^, taking nolliing 
■"from the 'Gentiles. 

8 JWe therefore ought to ''re- 
ceive such, that we 'may ""become 
fellow-"labourers "for the truth. 

9 I wrote p unto the church : 
but ""he who loveth to ''be fore- 
most among them, Diotrephes, 
'doth not 'admit 'us. 

10 "Therefore, if I come, I 
will "bring to remembrance his 



■' rap occurs very often, but is nowhere else in E. V. ren- 
dered because, except John 3 : 19 ; 10 : 26 ; Acts 28 : 20 ; Rom. 
4 : 15. — W., R. ;-foreign vorss. generally ;-Dodd., Wes!., Wakef., 
Thorn., Murd. 

• Comp. E. v., 2Cor. 1: 11 ; 5 : 12; 8 : 24 ; Phil. 1 : 29. 
Wakef., Murd., Peile (on b. of). 

' 'That is alike dear to us all.' The aitov of a fen- MSS.. 
followed by the Viilg., Syr., &c.. is omitted hy Erasm., Mill, 
and all the recent editors (except that Hahn Imackets it). Midd. 
indeed suggests that, even if airoi be spurious, the article may 
be ' used, as frequently happens, to signify his.' But the single 
instance, and that a poetical citation, in Acts 17 : 28, would not 
prove this to be N. T. usage. — Grot. (' Noroen enim per excel- 
lentiam, nomen Christi, Jac. 2 : 7.'), B. and L. ?«arg-., Beng. 
('Sub.audi, Z>ei ;'-so Newc). T>e \V., Peile. Wells supplies his. 

^ Bez., Wolf., Beng., Moldenh., Carpz., connect i^r-t-Sov im- 
mediately with ttjto ruv (9. ; nor do the recent editors, except 
Griesb. and Mey., insert a comma after the verb. 

" See 1 John 1 : 5, N. t. 

1 Lachm. and Tisch. read I9vi,xuv. 

1 Grot.: 'Nos Christiani ubique locorum.' See 1 John 2 : 20, 
N. p, &c. 

^ Oec. : ArtoXafifidv^iv, avtl t'ou, avaT^afij^dussOai, iJrtoSijjjf aflat. 
Bloomf., therefore, errs in attributing to Oec. the reading vno- 
Xafi^dvuv, which Lachra. and Tisch., however, edit on the au- 
thority of A. B. C, &c., and with the approbation of Bloomf.. 
De W., &c. This is. indeed, the more classical word for taking 
up, receiving under one's protection ; but the internal evidence 
for the change is by no means strong. 'ArtoXaf</3«»''"' might 
well stand in antithesis to i^ifKBov of the precedmg verse. ' For 
the sake of Ilim, whom we also love, these brethren went out 
into the heathen wilderness. And shall not we receive them 
back with a ready welcome, when in the brief intervals of la- 
bour they seek rest and refreshment in the bosom of the 
Church V Comp. Luke 15 : 27. 

1 E. v., following T., C, G., is followed by none (except 
Wells) in using the imperfect. All foreign verss. retain the 
present ; though Mill cites two or three MSS. for the reading 
ycrwjitffla. 



- See 1 Pet. 1 : 20. N. w. 

" In rendeiing owefyoi E. V. refers expressly to the f'pyov in 
cotnposition as work labour. 8 times out of 13. So heie W. ;- 
Latin verss. (except Pagn., Castal.). Dt., Fr. S. ;-IIanim., Berl. 
Bib., Beng.. Dodd. and later English vtrss. (except Thom.), 
All., Van Ess, Bloomf. 
' " Not: 'with the truth,' as Hamm and others, but : 'with 
the missionary brethren on behalf of the truth.' — Fr. S. ;-EngI. 
Ann. (or. /o7-'), Sym., Wakef, Newc, Mey., Stolz, Penn. 

p Lachm. and Tisch. insert ti. (A. B. C, &c.) after typ. 
I 1 The Greek order is retained by R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;- 
; Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

 There is this literal reference to the rtpwtoj in composition 
as foremost or first, in Syr., Dt, Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Beng. (e.sse 
priimi^; -for Vulg primatum gerere). Scott, Liicke, All., 
Sharpe, De W., Stier, Barn., Murd., Peile;-the lexicons generally. 

 R. ;- Wakef.. Mack., Thom., Kenr. (does). The same 

verss., together with W. ;-Latin verss.. Syr. ;-Dodd., Carpz., 
Ros.. Greenf., Peile, translate jj/ja; last. ' Us, his ecclesiastical 
superior ; not even our letter.' 

' A different word from that in v. 8. — Castal.. Grot., Ros., 
(adniittit -j-foT Vulg. reapit), Carpz. (curat), Wakef. (allots), 
Thom. (regard), Sharpe (heedelh), Peile. 

° The Sia roito is expressed by a demonstrative particle in 
E. v., Matt. 6 : 25, and generally elsewhere ;-German verss., 
Dt, It. ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Aret., Dodd., Greenf., Murd. :— 
by a preposition and demonstrative pronoun, with or without 
a substantive, in Vulg., Syr. ;-Erasm., Vat, Mack., Thom., 
Penn, Peile : — in the French verss. by c'est pourquoi. 

' The writer threatens, not that he himself will bear in mind, 
but that he will e.vpose. the misconduct of Diotrephes ; recall- 
ing it for apostolic censure, to the humiliation of the offender, 
and for the warning of others. This causative force of vnoftifi- 
vriaxu our remember no longer retains. But it is clearly given 
in E. v., -John 14: 26, and elsewhere; and here is either ex- 
pressed, or more distinctly than in E. V. implied, in W., T.. C, 
G., R. ;-Syr. (ax;cording to the text of the P. and that of Lee) 
and other foreign verss. ;-Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thom.. Scholef. 



60 



THE THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

he doelh, prating ogainst us with 
malicious words : and not con- 
tent therewith, neither doth he 
himself receive the brethren, and 
fbrbiddeih them that would, and 
casteth them out oi' the church. 

11 Beloved, follow not that 
which is evil, but that which is 
good. He that doelh good is of 
God : but he that doeth evil hath 
not seen God. 



GBEEK TEXT. 

vog sni rovtoig, oiVe avtog STiibs^erai 
rovg {i&?w^oi'$, xal rovg i3ov7Mfievcvg 
xcdkveL, xai ix Tr.g £xx7^r,aiag ix- 

11 'AyaTtyjTe, ^in fii^iov to xa;coi', 
d/lXa To dyadov. 6 uyaOoTtotQv, ex 
toil ©foil iativ 6 Ss xaxonoiQv, ovj(^ 
iojpaxe tov Qsov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

deeds which he doeth, prating 
against us with "wicked words ; 
and, not ^contented with ^these, 
neither doth he himself ^admit 
the brethren, and ^those ''who 
would he "^hindereth and casteth ^ 
out of the church. 

11 Beloved, ''do not imitate 
'what is evil, but ''what is good. 
He that doeth good is of God ; 
shut he that doeth evil hath not 
seen God. 



* See 1 John 3: 12, N. h. The word occurs frequently, but 
is only here rendered in E. V. malicious. Nor does this s^pe- 
ciflc sense appear in W. ;-Syr., German verss. (except Mey.). 
Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M. -S. ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., llamm., Beng., 
Carpz., Wakef., Newc., Greonf., Penn, Sharpe, Barn. ;-Rob. 
('ei)j7' [the word used in the English verss. .here cited], ^hiaiful, 
injuTioiis, mischiccous' ;-but it is better perhaps to consider the 
apostle as denouncing the immoral character, rather than the 
mischievous tendenc}- or results, of these speeches.). 

» Mey. and Fr. S. render dpx. as a participle of the middle 
(^sich begniigend, se contentant) ; many others, by a finite verb. 

"> The pronoun, in a plural or singular form, is retained by 
W., R. ;-Latin and French verss., Syr., Germ., It. ;-Dodd., 
Wakef , Thorn., Greenf., Penn, De W., Murd., Kenr. 

• See V. 9, N. t. 

' See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. b, ic. The Greek order is retained 

by R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-B. and L., Thorn., Mey., All., Penn, 
Murd. 

^ See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. c, &c. 

' See 2 Pet. 2: 16, N. t. Leigh: 'Non significat verbis tan- 
tum prohibere; sed yimquandam inhibentem seu arcentem 
denotat.' The verb to hinder is employed by E. V., Luke II : 
52 ; Acts 8:36; and here by Guyse, Dodd., Wakef., Thom. 
Penn, Peile. 

■^ The words ix r^s ixx%. ix^. are by many commentators 
(Carpz., Mey., Ros., Bloomf., Barn., Peile, &c.) understood to 
mean, that, by denying the strangers hospitality, Diotrephes 
' compelled them to go elsewhere.' But the opinion is unten- 
able. Ros. contents himself with saying : ' De excommunica- 
tione hoc vix intelligi potest ;' and Bloomf : ' It can hardly be 
supposed that Diotrephes would excommunicate any one on so 
frivolous a pretext.' It is sufficient to reply, that, if Diotrephes 
was the 'unreasonable and wicked man' (2 Thess. 3 : 2) that 
he is represented to have been, there is much less difficulty in 
that supposition than in the fact, that he resisted and disowned 
an apostle of the Lord, and maintained a position of influence 



and authority in the church, while doing so : although even of 
such enormities the Chuich History of no age since Pentecost 
(' quid postea non factum 1' exclaims Beng.) allows us to judge, 
that there is aiight in them scarcely credible (Lucke) or hardly 
conceivable. (De W.). The whole structure and arrangement 
of the sentence, moreover, are opposed to this view. Especially 
is it irreconcilable with the use of ix, not ana, before the noun 
and in composition with the verb. Peile's reference to Acts 
13 : 50, for an instance of ix^dwa used ' much in the same 
sense as here,' is plainly nugatory for his purpose. We can 
understand how Paul and Barnabas, having spent some time 
in a city, might be 'expelled out of it; but in the present case 
there could be no expulsion of these strangers from a church, 
which they had not been allowed to enter. It may be added 
that this interpretation, at best, changes what is in itself a very 
vigorous climax into something that sounds like very feeble tau- 
tology. Yet Barn, says of it : ' That it is the correct interpre- 
tation seems to me to be evident, for it was of the treatment 
which they (the strangers) had received that the apostle was 
speaking.' Rather, the apostle is speaking of the character of 
Diotrephes and his conduct toward the apostle himself, toward 
the strangers, and now lastly toward the brethren of his own 
church. — No pronoun is supplied by W., R. ;-Latin verss.. Syi.; 
-Penn, Sharpe, Kenr. 

' R. ;-Latin verss.. It., French verss. except G., (use imitor 
or a derivative), Syr. (= Greenf. ri?i~Pl '7N) ;-Engl. Ann. 

{imitate not ;-so Dodd., Wakef., Newc, Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf.), 
Hamm., Beng. (niache es nicht nach), Mack, {do not thou im.), 
Thom., Clarke. Jley. and later German verss. (akme nicht 
nach), Murd. marg. {be not an imitator), Kenr. 

f A compound relative is employed by the Yulg. once, and 
twice in the other Latin verss. (except Castal.) ;-Mack., Thom., 
Murd. 

^ All the recent editors (except Bloomf) cancel the 61. I 
recommend the adoption of this reading, and the omission of 
but. 



Kenr. {I will mind ; with the note appended : ' The Greek verb 
signifies to remind.' But this is equally signified by the Vulg. 
conimonebo.), Peile ;-the lexicons. Bloomf remarks that, 
'though authority for this use [the neuter sense] may be want- 



ing, yet in a writer like St. John that is not indispensable.' 

In any writer, however, it is very desirable. The avtoi 

stands in regimen with to. J'pya, not (as the German verss., 
Carpz., and Wakef, imply) with ixofivritia. 



THE THIRD EPISTLE OF JOHN. 



61 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

12 Demetrius hath good report 
of all men, and of the truth it- 
self: yea, and we also bear 
record ; and ye know that our 
record is true. 

13 I had many things to write, 
but I will not with ink and pen 
write unto thee : 

14 But I trust I shall shortly 
see thee, and we shall speak 
face to face. Peace be to thee. 
Our friends salute thee. Greet 
the friends by name. 



GREEK TEXT. 



12 AvjuYirpici nsf^iaprvpritaL luib 
TXavridV, xdi vn avrr.g Tr,g dkyjOsioui- 
xai Yifieig Ss fiaprvpovi-iEv, xai oibars 
6t(. n i^a^tvpia n^iav dTiyiQng eatL. 

13 rio^-Jla sl^ov ypd^Eiv, d/l/l' ov 
di^xo 8ia f.is?.ai'og xai xaTA^ov aoc 
ypd'^a.r 

14 £/l7t('^'(o 8s evBeag ISelv as, jjai 
aro^a -npog arof-ia 7M?.r,ao^i£v 

15 Eiprj'Y! aoi. dGTta^ovrai as ol 
^iTjoi. dand^ov tovg ^I'Xovg xai: 
ovo^ia. 



REVISED VERSION. 

12 ''Unto Demetrius 'testimony 
J'halh been borne by all'', and by 
the truth itself; 'but "we "also 
"testify, and Pye know that our 
'testimony is true. 

13 I had many things ''to write, 
but I will not with ink and 'pen 
'write unto thee ; 

14 But I "hope Mraightway 
*'to see thee, and we shall speak 
^mouth to mouth. 

'15 Peace he to thee. 'The 
friends salute thee. "Salute the 
friends by name. 



*■ The construction by the dative is retained by W., R. ;- 
Latin verss. (except Castal.), Syr. {== '^j;), Dt. {aan D.), It., 

Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Wakef., Mack., Liicke, Greenf., 
Van Es.s, Kist., Sharpe, Kenr. 

' See 1 John 5 : 9, N. a. R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.), 
It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (use testimonium or a derivative) ;-Dodd. 
and the later English verss. (except Penn). 

1 Erasra., Pagn., Vat., Bez., {redditum est ;-for the Vulg. red- 
ditur), Castal. {commendatus est). 

^ R. ;-foreign verss. generally ;-Wakef., Thom., Clarke, Penn, 
Sharpe, Bloomf., Barn., Murd. (every one), Kenr.. Peile. 

I Beng.: ' &i iamen, 6ts,\ jam multis ornatus testimoniis sit 
Demetrius.' See 1 John 1 : 3, N. o, &c. W. ;-Latin verss., 
except Castal., {sed), Syr. ;-All., De W., (aber), Kenr. 

» See 1 John 4 : 14, N. f, &c. 

" Hamm. and Penn, following E. V., are the only verss. that 
mark also, or its equivalent, as supplied. 

» See 1 John 1 : 2, N. 1. 

p ' You, Gains, and all likeminded, to whom this letter may 
be shown.' Lachm. alone reads olSa;. 

9 See 1 John 5 : 9, N. a. 

' Lachm. and Tisch. read ypa4at sot. 

' Gr. reed — which I recommend as a marginal note. Latin 
verss. (caZa?)i2();i ;-except that Castal. repeats charta from 
2 John 12; in which he is imitated by B. and L.), Syr. (= Greenf. 
rijp), Fr. S. marg. {le roseau) ;-Stier (Rohr), Murd. inarg. 

' Lachm. and Tisch. read yfa^iw. 



° See 2 John 12, N. m. 

' In the N. T. lieias occurs 80 times, and is always in E. V. 
rendered, immediately, fort/ncilh, straightway, with 6 excep- 
tions (Mark 1 : 30 ; 5 : 30 ; 11 : 2 ; Luke 17:7; 21:9; 3 John 
14), in all of which the same meaning is equally evident, and 
in two of them is conveyed by E. V. in another form, as soon 
as. — R. (forthwithy,-Vn\g. (protinus), French verss. (bientdt);- 
Erasm., Vat., (as Vulg.), Pagn., Bez., (statim), Wakef. (im- 
mediately), Mack. Of the lexicons, Stcph., Scap., Leigh, Suic, 
SchOttg., Pass., L. and S., do not recognize the sense of shortly. 
Rob. gives it here, but shows nothing el.se for it except Matt. 
24 : 29, where E. V. properly has immediately. 

" E. v., 2 John 12; Rom. 15 : 24 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-Vulg. and 
other foreign verss. (except the later Latin) ;-Dodd. and the 
later English (except Newc). 

^ See 2 John 12, N. o. 

y Pagn., who introduced the division of the N. T. into verses 
in 1528, numbered this as a separate verse, and has been fol- 
lowed by all the foreign verss. (except Vat. and Greenf. Castal. 
begins the verse at aaad^ovrai. ai.) ;-Dodd., Thom., Bagster's 
Hexapla ;-all the recent critical editions of the Greek Text. The 
different arrangement of E. V. (as now commonly printed) is 
no improvement on the original notation. 

' E. v., last clause ;-T., C, G., R. ;-all foreign verss. ;-'Wells, 
Dodd., Wakef., Mack., Thom., Scott, Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. 

» See 2 John 13, N. r. E. V. and Hamm., following T., C, 
G., are alone in rendering the verb here by two words, salute 
and greet ; and all other English verss., except W. and Sharpe, 
employ the former word. 



62 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES' VERSION. 



GREEK TEXT. 



JuDE, the servant of Jesus] 'I0TAA2 T/jcroii XpfCToii 8ov?Log, 

Christ, and brother of James, to a^E^^Jog ^f 'laxulSov, Totg sv Qea 
them that are sanctified by God | 



REVISED VERSION. 

'■Judas, "'a servant of Jesus 
Christ, "^and brother of James, to 
''the called, * sanctified ''ni God 



" A name of freqnent occurrence in the N. T.. but only in 
this instance abbreviated into Jitde, in order probably to distin- 
guish the writer from the traitor — a point \vhich an evangelist 
secured by adding to the name, not Iscariot. John 14: 22, and 
the writer himself by the clauses in apposition. — W., T., C. ;- 
Latin and German verss., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Guype, Sharpe. It. has 
Giuda throughout. Fr. (i. and M. have Jude here, and wher- 
ever in the evangelical history the same person is supposed to 
be meant (even in John 14 : 22, where the very ambiguity of 
'loiJ8a; is that which called for the explanatory oix " 'laxaptu- 
trii) ; in other cases they have Judas. 

'° The only instance (except Phil. 1 : 1, where the word is in 
the plural), in which E. V. prefixes the definite article to the 
descriptive title of the .writer. Here the indefinite article, or 
none, is used by all foreign verss. (except iMoldenh.) ;-Dodd., 
and subsequent English verss. 

' See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. Of this hi De W. remarks, that it 
'appends another title, different from the one preceding.' It 
may even be said that the second title is contrasted with the 
first, as being a more certain identification of the writer ; and so 
Tit. 1:1. In the present case, indeed, it is possible that some- 
thing more is implied. If this Judas was the same as the one 
mentioned in Matt. 13 : 55 and Mark 6 : 3 among the ' brethren' 
of our Lord, the antithetical copula might suggest that, no 
longer 'knowing Christ after the flesh' (2 Cor. 5 : 16), he now 
gloried in the far higher relationships (Matt. 11 : 11 ; 12 : 48- 
50; Luke 11 : 28) of the kingdom of heaven, gladly merging 
the distinction of nature in the spiritual fellowship of the 
brethren, whose one Master is Christ (Matt. 23:8). Or, if 
we proceed on any one of the other hypotheses respecting his 
personality, the bi may be regarded as disclaiming that distinc- 
tion. While, therefore, the analogy of Tit. 1 : 1 leads me to 
retain the and of E. V., I recommend that the words: 'Or, 
but,^ appear in the margin. — Latin verss., except Erasm. and 
Castal., (auiem. Beng. vera), Syr., Germ. ;-Stier. 

^ The awkward iiaf spof Ttpitifov of E. V. is not warranted 
by the Greek, where x\ritoli is used as a substantive (Erasm. : 



'nomen est, non participium.' Comp. Rom. 1 : 6 ; 1 Cor. 1 : 
24), introduced by tolf. and qualified by the two intermediate 
participles. This construction and arrangement are best pre- 
served in the German of De W. and Stier {den . . . geheili aten 
lend. . .bewahrien Beriifenen). But the same construction of 
the Gieek is apparent also (though in several instances xx. is 
not rendered as a substantive) in Syr. (which translates x\. as 
a participle, and supplies = C\*,?3/)i Germ., Dt., It., Fr. G.,-S. ;- 

Pagn., Calv., Bez., Par. (' Beza constructionem attendens, quae 
trajecta est, primo loco collocat vocatos. Hoc nauique proprie 
est subjectum recipiens, ad quos Epistola scribitur: nempe f'o- 
caii: quos ab adjunctis hucusque explicavit Judas.'), Hamra., 
Cocc, Wells, AVhitb., Moldenh., Carpz., Newc. (supplying 
brethren after called), Thorn.. Mey., Ros., Stolz, Greenf., Trol., 
Peile. Some (T., C, G. ;-Fr. M. ;-Penn), missing the con- 
struction, do yet give x%. first; and others (W.;-B. and L., 
Dodd., Arn.) have it before ■tif>if. The supplementary and 
of E. V. is from R. after the Vulg. et vocatis. 

' The participial construction here and at •rffjjpjj/t. is pre- 
served in Syr., It., Fr. S. ;-Cast.'il., Bez.. Par., Beng.. Moldenh., 

Carpz., Haenl., Ros., Greenf., Trol.. De W., Stier. For rjyiaefi., 

Beng. (in the Gnoni.), Lachm., Tisch., read jjyartjy/isVots (A. B., 
Vulg., Syr., &c.). 

f ' AVhat Acts 17 : 28 asserts respecting the natural man, 
being far more gloriously true of the new creature in Christ 
Jesus.' The iv, therefore, does not abound (Carpz.), neither is 
it = Sid (Par., B. and L., Wolf., Moldenh., Haenl., &c.). See 
2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. d ; 5, N. w; 2 : 3, N. m.— E. V., 1 Cor. 1:2; 
1 John 2 : 24 ; &c. ;-W., T., C, R. ;-Vulg., Syr. (= Greenf. 3), 
Germ., Dt. marg., It., Fr. G.,-S. ;-Erasm., Calv. (whom Par. 
misquotes as preferring per. Calv. allows per, but gives this 
reason for retaining in : ' Potest enim et hie esse sensus : Quod 
in se ipsis profani, in Deo sanctitatem habeant.'), Castal., Aret., 
Engl. Ann., Cocc. ('plus valet quam Sm.'), Wits, ('non solum 
a, sed et in Deo Patro, ut unum cum ipso sint, Joh. 17 : 21.'), 
B. and L. mars:, Dodd., AVakef., Sharpe, De W., Stier, Arn., 
Kenr., Peile. E. Y. follows Bez., who (as usual) follows Pagn. 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



63 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

the Father, and preserved in 
Jesus Christ, and called : 

2 Mercy unto you, and peace, 
and love, be multiplied. 

3 Beloved, when I gave all 
diligence to write unto you of 
the common salvation, it was 
needful for me to write unto you, 
and exhort you that ye should 
earnestly contend for the faith 



GREEK TEXT. 

reT>7p)7jU£i'0($ xV^.Yjroi^' 

2 £/\£og vfjiv xai sipnv^ xal dyajtr; 

TtkYidwdsiri. 

3 'AyanY}tol, ita.aa.v ctTtovS'hv rtoi- 
ov^evog ypd<p£iv vfiiv Ttepi t% xoivr,g 
auTYjpiag, avdyxriv ea^ov ypdi^ai 



REVISED VERSION. 

the Father, and ^kept ""for Jesus 
Christ; 

2 Mercy unto you and peace 
and love be multiplied. 

3 Beloved, 'while Jusing all 
diligence to write unto j-ou ''con- 
cerning 'the common salvation, 
■"there was °a necessity "that I 
should write p exhorting you to 
■istrive earnestly for the faith 



^ See N. e. The verb tr^pia occurs 75 times in the N. T. 

(five times in this Epistle), and in E. V. is 58 times rendered 
to keep ; only here and 1 Thess. 5 : 23, to preserve. Wherever, 
as in this verse, it is used of believers, I prefer to translate it 
by keep, not so much on the general ground of uniformity, as 
on account of the large use of that term in the same connection 
in our Lord's high-priestly prayer (John 17.). The present 
safety of the Church is the Father's answer to the Son. See 
Rev. 3 : 3, N. h.—W. 

^ Ilaenl. : ' Dativus subjecti, cui fidelcs Dei provida cura ser- 
vati sunt.' So the dative after the passive of rjjpt'u is construed 
in E. v., V. 13 ; 2 Pet. 2 : 17 ; 3:7; and here by G. ;-Vulg. ;- 
Erasm., Pagn., Castal., Bez., Engl. Ann. (' Or, preserved to J. 
C. Kept by God the Father, John 6 : 39, 40 and 10 : 29, to 
be presented to Christ blameless at the day of judgment, Eph. 
5 : 27 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 2.'), Coco., Pise, and Vorst. (in eum finem, 
ut ahquaudo Christo addjcantur tanquam sponsa sponso.'), B. 
and L. ('Oomme une Epouse est gardee preciuusement pour 
son Epoux.'), Beng. ('Christo indelibatum servari, laetum . . . 
Signiflcantur salutis origines et consummatio.' His German 
is/Mr;-and so Stolz, De W., Huth.), Moldenh., Carpz., Mey., 
Ros., Stier ('Not merely, as Luther and many others: kept in 
Jesus Christ, but: unto Jesus Christ, the Lord and Saviour, 
as a possession to Him belonging, dearly bought, ordained to 
glory [2 Thess. 2 : 14], the Bride, for Him kept faithful and 
pure, and presented unto Him [2 Cor. 11 : 2].'). 

' E. v., Matt. 27: 63; Luke 24: 44; 1 Tim. 5 : G;-Newc., 
Murd. 

1 Thom. and Kenr. employ this verb. The Greek phrase 

differs from that in 2 Pet. 1 : 5. The participial construction 

is retained by W., R. ;-VuIg., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Engl. Ann. ('Or, 
giving-^), Cocc, Dodd., Mack., Greenf., Penn (in giving), 
Sharpe, Arn., Kenr. 

k See 1 John 1 : 1, N. d. 

I After xoiviji Lachm. inserts rifiuv (Syr. The Vulg. had 
read v^wr.). 

» Gr. / had (comp. E. V., 1 Cor. 7 : 37). This ordinary 
sense of 'ixa appears in W. ;-Vulg., Syr. (in the usual form = 
est mihi), Dt. ;-Pagn., Calv., Castal., Bez., Par., Coco., Penn, 
Sharpe, Stier, Kenr. Others retain the form of iaxov as an 
active verb of the first person : R., Hamm., Guyse, Mack., 



Bloomf., using the verb to think; Germ., Mey., All., hcdten; 
Dodd., to judge ; Moldenh., De W., finden ; Wakef., Thom., 
Peile, to find; Haenl.. Ros., ducere; Arn., regarder. Very 
many of these verss. translate di'ayx»;r by an adjective ; with 
regard to which, see N. n ; and for the transference of the sub- 
ject of eaxov to ypo^at, N. O. 

° The word avdyxr; (not ;tpf I'a, as in 1 John 2 : 27 ; 3 : 17 ; 
&c.) occurs 18 times, and in E. V. is rendered thrice by must 
needs; once, by necessary; nine times, by necessity ;-Syr. 
(adopts the Greek terra, as in Matt. 18 : 7) ;-B. and L. ([je 
me trouve dans^ la necessite), Thom. The same strength of 
meaning (Erasm., Vat., Beng., employ the phrase, non posse 
non) is found, in the use of the adjective {necessary, or an equi- 
valent), in R. ;-Vulg., It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Pagn.. Calv. (' Acres 
enim stimulos admovet necessitas. Nisi praemoniti fuissent, 
quantopere sibi necessaria esset haec cohortatio, poterant ad 
legendura esse pigri et resides. Quum vero ex praesenti eorum 
necessitate se scribere praefatur, perinde est. acsi classicum 
caneret excutiendo torpori.'), Castal., Bez., Par., Hamm., Cocc, 
Guyse, Dodd.. Carpz., Wakef., Mack., Haenl., Newc, Clarke, 
Ros., Gerl., Dav., Arn., Huth. The substantive need (or an 
equivalent) is given by W. ;-Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stier, Kenr. 

» Peile: 'TJiat I should write, very exactly conveys the force 
of the Greek aorist ypw^at. as distinguished from the more pre- 
cise present ypafstv, to write.' 

p Gr. write unto you exhorting to strive. By a slight 
transposition, in accordance with Scholef.'s recommendation, 
we avoid the necessity of repeating the pronoun, and are en- 
abled to retain the participle (R. ;-Vulg. ;-Erasm., Vat, Cocc, 
Wits.. Beng. ['fo scrihere arete cohaeret cum ac/Ao?-to«s';-so 
DeW. : 'No comma!'], Dodd., Mack., Kenr.) and infinitive 
(W., R.;-Vulg., It., French verss. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Moldenh., 
Wakef., Mack., Thom. and the later English verss., Greenf., 
Gerl.). 

1 Not the same word as that in vv. 9, 23 ; and in the N. T. 
found only here. E. V. translates the simple verb thrice, to 
strive ; thrice, to fight ; once, to labour fervently. And it is 
true that the emphasis lies in the verb, not in the irti, which 
merely points to the object upon, about, for which the con- 
test is to be maintained. ' Hie valet pro' (Grot.). — W. (str. 
strongly) ; - Dodd., Wakef. (str. heartily), Sharpe (strive), 
Bloomf. (zealously str.). 



64 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VEKSION. 

which was once delivered unto 
the saints. 

4 For there are certain men 
crept in unawares, who were 
before of old ordained to this 
condemnation, ungodly men, 
turning the grace of our God 
into lasciviousness, and den^dng 
the only Lord God, and our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 



GREEK TEXT. 



vulv Ttapaxa/iov iTtwycm^sadai T^i 
OLTta^ 7tapaSodeia-(i rotg ayioig Ttiarei. 
4 HapsiGeSvaav yap riveg avSpay- 
Ttoi, ol Ttd/lat Ttgoysypa^fxBvot etg 
rovro To xpi[.ia, daelSeig, Tr;v tov 
Seov nuov ;^dp(v ij^raridivrsg eig 
dci7syEiav, xai tov ^ovov SeGTtorrjv 
Qeov mi Krptov r^v 'I>7(7oi3v Xpt- 
OTov dpvovfievoL. 



REVISED VERSION. 

" once for all delivered unto the 
saints. 

4 For there 'have 'crept in 
"privily certain men, who "have 
been "before of old "described 
"for this condemnation, ungodly ,y 
^perverting the *grace of our God 
into lasciviousness, and denying 
•"our only "^Master, God and ""Lord, 
Jesus Christ. 



 The participial construction is retained by E. ;-Vulg. ;- 
Coco., Dodd., Moldenh., Carpz., Wakef., Mack., Scott, Eos., 

Penn, De W.. Stier, Kenr. English readers, it is probable, 

commonly understand the once of E. V. as = formerly. But 
this sense, though here adopted by Pric, Carpz., Jlack., Haenl., 
Laurm., Bioomf., Am., and allowed by B. and L., Barn., is not 
recognized by any lexicon as belonging to arfaj. For v. 5. 
which has been cited in justification, see N.h ; while at 1 Pet. 
3 : 20, Mack.'s other reference, the artai is abandoned as spu- 
rious by all recent editors. Latin verss. {semel ;-which Bez., 
Est., Grot., Cocc, Beng. [• Particula valde urgens. Nulla alia 
dabitur fides.'], Bos., understand as asserting the unchangeable- 
ness of the faith), Germ, verss. (einmal ;-which Moldenh.. Stier. 
Huth., explain as = eiw fur allemal), Dt. (eenmaal ;-explained 
in the Ann. thus : ' That is, it shall never be changed, but shall 
always remain just as it has once been taught by Christ and the 
Apostles.'), It. (una volta), French verss. (une fois -j-exTplmned 
by B. and L. as = une fois pour toutes) ;-Engl. Ann. (• Or, 
once for all, not to be delivered any more'), Guyse, Dodd., Pyle, 
Thom., Scott, Peile. See also the lexicons, where, among other 
phrases, Schottg., Bretsch., Wahl, employ semel pro semper; 
Pass., ein fur alle Mai ; L. and S., Rob., Green, once for all ; 
Schirl., einmal filr immer. 

' Wakef., Newc, Thom., Penn, Dav., Peile. 

t The verb comes before its subject in Latin verss., It., Fr. 
S. ;-B. and L., Greenf., De W., Stier, Am., Peile. 

" In Gal. 2 : 4 the Ttapa in composition is in E. V. rendered 
once wiawares and once privily, the latter phrase being em- 
ployed also in the parallel 2 Pet. 2 : 1 ;-W. ;-Mack.. Newc, 
Trol. 

' See 2 Pet. 3 : 7, N. r, &c. It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Moldenh., 
Mack., Thom., Peile {whom, we find to have). 

" ' In prophecy, and by divine judgments inflicted on such 
as they ; the severity of God in His word and in His providence 
addressing itself to all His adversaries.' Beng. : ' Par omnium 
indoles et poena.' The verb Ttpoypdfu occurs (according to the 
reading preferred in Rom. 15 : 4) four or five times in the N. T., 
and, except in two instances, the simple literal meaning to xcrite 
before is transferred to E. V. Those two exceptions are Gal. 
3 : 1 and Jude 4, in the first of which the metaphorical sense 
rests on the ancient custom of writing matters of general inter- 
est on tablets for public exhibition ; hence, hath been evidently 



set forth. The same allusion exists, less distinctly perhaps, in 
the case before us, and is here also rendered by Hamm., Newc, 
set forth. E. V.'s ordained, which it borrows from G., is, at 
the best, a questionable interpretation. 'Non innuitur prae- 
destinatio,' says Beng., ' . . . sed Scripturae praedictio.' — W. 
{before written), T., C, {[of which it was] wr. afore), R. {pre- 
scribed) ■,-Vxi]g. {praescripli), Syr. (:= Vulg.), Germ, ([row 
denen..] geschrieben [ist]), Dt. {tevoren opgeschreven), It. 
{gid innanzi scrilti), Fr. G.,-M.. {auparavant ecrits), Fr. S. 
{inscrits) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat.. Par., {priiis descripti), Calv., 
Bez., Wits., Beng., {as Vulg. ;-though Bez.'s earlier editions 
have descripti), Castal. {designati), Cocc {ante scripti), 
Whitb., Pyle, {[<f ichom it was] before wr.), B. and L. {[dent 
la condamnation est] deja ecrite), Berl. Bib., Goss.. {bestimmt 
beschrieben). Wolf, {ante adjudicati), Guyse, Wakef., Thom., 
{[before] writte?i of), Dodd., JIurd., {registered), Wesl. {desc. 
beforehand), Moldenh. {nearly as Germ.), Mack, {before wr.), 
Scott {as Dodd. or Wesl.), Clarke {prosmbed and condemned 
in the most public maimer), Ros., Trol., {proscripti), Greenf. 
(12P1Dj), Stolz, De W., {[vorher] bezeichnet), Van Ess {aiif- 

gez.), Stier {zuvor beschrieben), Arn. (as B. and L. or Fr. S.), 
Kenr. {marked out), Peile {described prospectively) ;-Pas. {as 
Erasm.), Leigh {enrolled, billed, registered), Schottg., Schleus., 
Wahl, {as Castal.), Schirl. {as De W.), Green {to designate 
clearly). 

^ Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Hamm., B. and L. marg., Wakef., Newc, 
Thom., Penn, Stier, Arn., Kenr., Huth. 

y The substantive is not supplied by T., R., (W. and C, like 
Erasm., Vat., and Carpz., attach du. to the first clause) ;-foreign 
verss. generally ;-Penn, Kenr. 

' W. {overturn) -j-Oec. {MEifati.9intsi aptl tov jutrartoiowrsj, 
rtapartoioii'ffs), Carpz. {abutuntur). Mack., Haenl., Mey. and 
All. {missbrauchen), Kist., De W., Stier, {verkehren). Penn, 
Bioomf. {abusing), Murd. {who perv.) ■,~Sch\e\is., Bretsch., (as 
Carpz.), Rob., Green, {to trawfer, pervert, [abuse]), Schirl. 
{as Mey.). 

" Lachm. and Tisch. read ;tap''!'a. 

i" So Hamm., Thom., and Fr. S., retaining the ©tdv, construe 
the ^ficir. And so it must be construed (or else thus: 'the 
only Master, our God and Lord'), in case hionorr^v be referred 
to 'lr,a. Xp. ;-a reference, which, though not, indeed, required 
by grammar, is certainly favoured by the parallel 2 Pet. 2 : 1. 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



65 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

5 I will therefore put j'ou in 
remembrance, thoiigh ye once 
knew this, how that the Lord, 
having saved the people out of 
the land of Egypt, afterward de- 
stroyed them that believed not. 



GREEK TEXT. 



5 'TTtofivyiaai 8s vj-idg (SovXojiai, 
d86tag v[.tdq ojta^ Tovro, btt 6 Ki'i- 
piog Xaov sx yng AlyvTtrov crwtTocg, 
to Sevtspov rovg ^y\ TtiatsvaavTcng 

OLTtiJ/ieGiEV. 



REVISED VERSION. 

5 ''But I ^wish to ''remind you, 
s^you who ''once for all 'know this, 
j that the ''Lord, having saved 
the people out of the land of 
Egypt, 'again destroyed ""those 
"who believed not ;° 



^ ' In stern opposition to the treacherous wiles of these men.' 
See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. 

' The force of fiov-hofiai as a separate verb is brought out 
more distinctly than in E. V. by T., C, G., {my mind is) ;-all 
the foreign verss. ;-Hamm., Newc, Thorn., (desire), Guyse, 
Dodd., Peile, (woidd), Wesl. (am willing), Wakef., Penn, 
Sharpe, Bloomf., Murd. 

' See 2 Pet. 1 : 12, N. r. Here may be added Guyse, Dodd., 
Pyle, Thorn., Scott, Bloomf., Kenr., Peile. 

^ 'Who are Israelites' (as were probably most of those ad- 
dressed), ' Christian Israelites, well acquainted at once with the 
sad history and with its solemn import, and whom for that 
very reason it may be profitable to remind of both, as matters 
now of great practical interest to you.' For the writer speaks, 
not of their former knowledge as an objection, but of their 
present knowledge (see N. i) as a motivl, to the irfo^d'jjffts. 
Calv. : ' Neque enim hie tantum est verbi Dei usus, ut discamus, 
quae nunquam fuimus edocti, sed etiam ut nos excitet ad ea, 
quae jam tenemus, serio meditanda, nee torpere nos in frigida 
notitia sinat.' — The connection of this clause with what pre- 
cedes is formed in W., K., (by the relative that), T., C, G., 
(forasmuch as ye) ;-Vulg. (by a participle in agreement with 
the previous vos), Syr. (as in the Greek), Dt. (als die gij), It. 
(chi), Fr. S. (d voiis qui) ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., (cum, with a 
subjunctive), Pagn., Bez., (ut qui), Hamm. (you which), Cocc. 
(vos, qui). Wells, Wesl., Newc, Kenr., (who), Beng. (as in the 
Greek), Dodd. (as you), Moldenh., Gerl., De W., (die ihr), 
Greenf. (DriD"^!), Stier (als die ihr), Am. (vous quii-vepete 

avec une certaine emphase.') For £iS. vfi. arc. t., Lachm. 

and Tisch. read liS. art. ttavta (A. B. C, Vulg., &c.). 

'' ' It being something which, once known, can never be for- 
gotten by you.' Dt. Ann.: 'That is, certainly, duly, f idly, un- 



But the reading (A. B. C, Vulg., &c.) that cancels ©toi', a 
word which Bloomf. also brackets, is marked by Beng. as plane 
genuina. and adopted by all the other recent editors 'on strong 
evidence, external and internal' (Bloomf), and with the appro- 
bation of all the recent critics. I recommend that this reading 
be followed, and (without questioning the grammatical sound- 
ness of the translations : the only Master, even our Lord ;- 
the only Master, and our Lord) that the version stand thus : 
our only Master and Lord. — If the ®iov be retained, the fol- 
lowing, besides those already mentioned, may be cited as 
applying the whole clause to one person, Jesus Christ : Syr., 



changeably.' See v. 3, N. r. Am. doubly errs in saying, that 
artal must here mean une fois dans le temps passe, because 
'joint a un participe passe.' See N. i. 

' See NN. g, h. Though of the past time in form, tlS. is not 
so in sense.— E. V., v. 10 ; 2 Pet. 1 : 12, 14; &c. ;-W., T., C, 
G., E. ;-foreign verss. (though It., Fr. S., Am., ^ have known; 
and Castal., B. and L., change the verb into didicistis, avez 
ete deja instruits) ;-Hamm., Wakef., Penn, Bloomf., Murd. 

) Comp. 1 John 4:9, N. r. W., R. ;-Dodd. and the later 
English verss. (except that Sharpe has simply how). 

' For Kijptos, Lachm. reads 'lijaoij (A. B., Vulg., &c.). 

1 The writer thinks of the destruction as the second thing in 
order, the salvation being the first (Engl. Ann., Par., De W., 
Barn., Stier, Peile, Huth.), or perhaps as the second great na- 
tional calamity, that in Egypt, out of which the people had just 
been rescued, being the first (Engl. Ann.). We are not to 
colour the meaning of words for the sake even of getting rid of 
an ambiguity.^In E. V. Stv-f f poj is always translated by second, 
and in its adverbial uses, biittfov, to 6., ix fnvtipov, always 
elsewhere by the second time, secondarily, again. The same 
sense is given here by W., R. ;-Latin verss. (except Calv.), Syr., 
Germ., Dt., Fr. S. marg. ;-EngI. Ann., B. and L. niarg., De 
W., Barn., Stier, Murd., Peile ('as the next thing that He did;' 
though he adds as explanatory, straightxeay, shortly after- 
wards, incontinently) ;-Pas., SchOttg., Bretsch., Wahl, Win. 
(' the next time [that they needed his helping grace] He refused 
them His grace and &c.'), Rob., Green, Schirl. 

"> See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. b, &c. 

- See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. c, &c. 

"> Beng., Griesb., Jley., Bloomf., have the Greek colon at the 
end of this verse ; Lachm., Hahn, Tisch., Theile, a comma. 
See V. 6, N. w. 



Ar. P., Dt. marg., It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Bez., Aret., Par., Engl. 
Ann., Carpz. ;— and, if omitted, the following: Vulg. (as under- 
stood by All. and Kenr., the latter appealing to the Greek) ;- 
Beng., Thom., Wesl., Clarke, Mey., Penn, Bloomf, De W. (who 
would be disposed, however, but for 2 Pet. 2 : 1, and especially 
if @i6v is to remain, to have two subjects, which, says Win., 
the place 'will admit of), Barn., Hengst., Dav., Stier, Arn., 
Peile ;-Bretsch., Translators of Win., Rob. 

« See 2 Pet. 2: 1, N. g. ;-G. ;-It. ( Pat^rorae) ;-Erasm. and 
later Latin verss. (herum), Hamm., Whitb., B. and L., Beng., 
Wesl., Thom. marg., Penn, Dav., Am., Peile. 

9 



66 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

6 And the angels which kept 
not their first estate, but left their 
own habitation, he hath reserved 
in everlasting chains under dark- 
ness unto the judgment of the 
great day. 

7 Even as Sodom and Gomor- 
rah, and the cities about them in 
like manner, giving themselves 
over to fornication, and going 
after strange flesh, are set forth 
for an example, suffering the ven- 
geance of eternal fire. 



GREEK TEXT. 

6 dyyeXovi; te tovg [.in tri^fSav- 

Ttovrac, TO Ihiov olx^rripiov, elg xpioiv 
[iEyahqc, nuepag &<T|UO^ aiSmg ino 
^o^ov tetn^TiXSv 

V cjg Xohofxa xdi Fofioppa, xal at 
Ttspl altag Tto/letg, tov oiioiov tovtoig 
tprjnov ixTtopi'svdaaai, xal ajte^Sov- 
aai omao aapxbg irepag, Ttpoxsivtai 
Sdy^ia, Ttvpog aluviov hixYjv ims^ov- 
crat. 



REVISED VERSION. 

6 And P angels "ithat kept not 
their ■'first estate, but left their 
own habitation, he hath 'kept 
'vyith everlasting "bonds under 
darkness "for the judgment of 
the great day ;^ 

7 ''How Sodom and yGomor- 
rha, and the cities about them,^ 
""having given themselves over in 
like manner ""as they to fornica- 
tion, and "gone "^away after ''other 
flesh, are set forth for an exam- 
ple, * suffering the vengeance of 
eternal fire. 



p See 2 Pet. 2 : 4, N. q. The ayy£'?.oiis, without the article, 
marks the race ; tovs xr%., the class ; while ft^ exhibits that 
class indefinitely and precludes, as it were, farther specification: 
angels, such of them as &c. See Win § 19. 4 ; 59. 4. 

1 See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. E. V., 2 Pet. 2:4; &c. ;-W. ;- 
Penn, Murd. Other vcrss., from Wells down, have who. 

' I recommend that the E. V. marg. : ' Or, principality,' be 
retained. Tensions and commentaries generally are divided 
between the two meanings. Some (Calv., Dt. and Engl. Ann., 
&c.) recognize both as legitimate ; others (Wesl., Jifst dignity ; 
Carpz., primam dignitatem ; Bloomf , original dign. ;-a sense 
which also Stier and Peile would allow) combine the two. 

 See Jude 1, N. g. Here, says Huth., 'furfij^xtv stands in 
sharp opposition to fir; tr/priaavtas.' One verb, accordingly, is 
used for both in the Syr., Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Calv., 
Vat., Cocc, Beng., Wakef (keepeth), Greenf., Sharpe (as above), 
Stier, Peile (hath consigned . . . io be kept). 

t Latin verss. (vincidis -,-1:10 doubt the ablative of the instru- 
ment), Germ., Dt, It. ;-Guyse, Moldenh., All., De W., Stier, 
Huth. Not, as Wells: '/or ev. ch. under d. ai the judg.' The 
sense of the common construction is sufficiently justified (not- 
withstanding Huth.'s objection about Kiinstlichkeit, refine- 
ment) by Calv.'s note: 'Quocunque pergant, secum trahunt 
sua vincula et suis tenebris obvoluti manent.' (Milton, P. L. 
iv. 75: 'Which w.ay I fly is hell; myself am hell.') 'Interea 
in magnum diem extremum eorum supplicium differtur.' 

" E. v., 18 times out of 20 (the other exception being Mark 
7 : 35, string), has bands or bonds ;-W., R. ;-German verss. 
(except Mey.), Dt, It. (legami), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (tow) ;-Dodd., 
Thom., Peile ;-Rob. 

' See 2 Pet. 2 : 4, N. w. 

" See V. 5, N. o. Here also Lachm., Hahn, Theile, have a 
comma ; others generally, the Greek colon. 

» The superfluous emphasis is avoided by W., R.;-Dt, It, 
Fr. S. ;-Castal., Dodd., Wakef., Mack., Thom., Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, Murd., Kenr. ; all of whom make i,; = as. But, in- 
stead of regarding the particle as instituting a comparison 



between the doom of the transgressors just mentioned and that 
of the wicked cities, or (Wolf, Laurm.) as correlative to the 
o/ioCuj of V. 8, it is better to connect it immediately (like the 
oVt of V. 5) with vtfofii'ijaai. Comp. Mark 12 : 26 ; Luke 6:4; 
&c.— Fr. G.,-M., {[et] qite) ;-MoIdenh., De W., Huth. 

? See 2 Pet 2 : 6, N. c, &c. 

' In most editions (not in the original edition) of E. V. the 
words, in like manner, are erroneously attached to the clause, 
and the cities about them. The mistake has lately been cor- 
rected by the Amer. Bible Soc. 

" R. (havi7ig fornicated . . . going). But It., Fr. S. ;-Pagn., 
Bez., Par., Hamm., use a perfect participle in each instance. 
Other verss. commonly resolve ixTtopv. and aTtAO. into finite 
verbs of a past time with a relative or a conjunction. 

'' In omitting (for which there is almost no manuscript au- 
thority) rovtot,;, E. V. followed the older English verss. and 
the Vulg. 

' E. v.. Matt 8:31; 19 : 22 ; &c.— W. ;-Tulg. (abeuntes) ;- 
Calv., Aret., Cocc, Beng., (use abire), Hamm., Stier (abirrlen), 
Huth. ('In drto is expressed the deviation from the right way');- 
Rob., Green, (in connection with orti'du, [to go away after], to 
follow). See the other lexicons, and Rev. 12 : 17, N. r. 

'' E. V. marg. (Nowhere else does E. V. translate iVtpoj, 
which occurs 98 times, by strange.) ;-W., R. ;-^'ulg. (alteram'), 
Syr., Germ., Dt., It, Fr. G. -S. ;-Bez., Par., Wits., Beng., (as 
Vulg.), Engl. Ann., Hamm., Coco, and Laurm. (aliam). Wells, 
Whitb., Gill and Barn. (' Or, other'), Moldenh., Mack., Newc. 
marg., De W., Stier, Arn. ;-Rob. 

' To the construction (for which De W. cites Est. and Au- 
gusti, and which is adopted also by De Sacy, Mey., Trol., Stier, 
Huth.) of hily^ta with rtiipof aiuvitn), De W. objects that it 
leaves hixrjv vrtixminai, too bare, (Huth., indeed, avoids the ap- 
pearance of anti-climax only by transposition : ' Those cities 
are hixriv v!t£%ovtiai an example of the eternal fire.') and that 
it does not, after all, exclude the idea of the continuance of the 
punishment, — that being the alleged difficulty in the way of 
the common construction. But it deserves to be added, that, 
while in no proper sense can the cities be spoken of as a Bilyfia 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



67 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

8 Likewise also these Jillhj 
dreamers defile the flesh, despise 
dominion, and speak evil of dig- 
nities. 

9 Yet Michael the archangel, 
when contending with the devil, 
he disputed about the body of 



GREEK TEXT. 



8 'Ouoiug fisvToi xal ovtol ivvn- 
VLa^ofievoi, aa^xa (.lev fxiaivovai, xv- 
pLoryiTa Ss ddsTovai, 86l;ou; Ss /3Xacr(^>7- 

9 b 8e Mi^^ar^ 6 dp^d'yys7Mg, ote 
TO ?)La(367ju> biaxptv6i.i£Vog Sie/^iysTo 
Ttspi rod Ma)(T£(j$ aco^arog, ovx £t6X- 



REVISED VERSION. 

8 ''Vet ^in like manner these  
dreamers also 'on the one hand 
defile the flesh, 'on the other 
Jreject ''government, and 'rail at 
dignities. 

9 ™But Michael the archangel, 
when contending with the devil 
he disputed about the bod}'' of 



' ' In spite of these terrible warnings.' — The /livtot (in omit- 
ting which E. V. follows the Yulg.. Syr., and most of the pre- 
vious English verss.) is given as an adversative in E. V., at least 
4 times out of 7 ;-and here by G. ;-Dt., It, French verss. ;- 
Bez., Pise, Par., Hamm., Wells, Wolf., Haenl., Laurm., Mey., 
Bloomf., Scholef., De W., Slier, Huth. ;-N. T. lexicons, except 
Bretsch. and Green. 

^ W., R. ;-Hamm., Wells, Wesl., Mack., Newc, Penn, 
Sharpe, Bloomf., Scholef., Murd. (in the same in.), Kenr., 
Peile. 

■> In the N. T. tVvrtna^ojuat (which the Vulg. here omits) 
occurs elsewhere only in Acts 2 : 17, where E. V. renders it 
to dream, nor in the present instance is any thing like filthy 
found in any other vers., except perhaps the Syr. {== in som- 
nio imag-inantes. Murd. sensual dreamers), and Fr. G.,-M., 
(s^etant endormis [dans le vice} ). The E. V. supplement seems 
to have been suggested less by the Greek word, than by the 
odious elucidations of some of the old commentators (e. g. 
Oec), unless, indeed, as Peile thinks, the Translators got it 
from what he calls the ' more obvious interpretation' of Sept. 
Is. 56 : 10. But the epithet is to be justified by all that fol- 
lows, and not by aapxa fjnaivovisi, alone (De W.^ or princi- 
pally. 

' Notwithstanding the opinion of Carpz., Bretsch., Wahl, 
and Rob., that ftiv . . . Si are here 'merely continuative,' they 
are rather to be regarded as bringing out the striking, though 
not unusual, contrast between the debasement and the pre- 
sumption of these men. Calv. : ' Notanda autem est antithesis, 
quum dicit cos carnem contaminare: hoc est, quod minus 
praestantiae habet, dehonestare : et tamen spernere quasi pro- 
brosum, quod in genere humano maxime excellit.' The anti- 
thesis is made only more sharp and strong by the repetition of 
the Si 'with the same force' (Win.), though it cannot well be 



given in English. See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. — Latin verss., except 
Castal., (quidem . . . autem or vera), Syr. (has the Greek par- 
ticles). Germ, (aber), Fr. S. (d'lme part . . . et de I'autre);- 
B. and L. (pendant que d^autre cote), Guyse ('Yea more than 
that'), Moldenh. (eines Theils . . . andern Theils), Thom. 
(^indeed). L. andS. : 'the two particles may often be ex- 
pressed by on the one hand . . . on the other'' (einerseits . . . 
anderseits, Pass.). See v. 10, N. u. 

1 Huth.'s explanation of a^ittlv as here synonymous with 
xarafpovslv of 2 Pet. 2 : 10, and as having merely what he 
calls 'a negative signification,' as opposed to the 'positive' /J^aa- 
fij/j-slv, rests probably on his view of xvpioi-jjs as denoting the 
Godhead, more than on the etymology or prevailing u.se of the 
word, which expresses not the inward feeling so much as its 
outward manifestation. It occurs 16 times, and in E. V. is 
once disannul, once frustrate, once bring to nothing, once 
cast off, and 4 times reject. This practical sense is equally 
suitable here and in the other 7 instances, Luke 10 : 16 ; 1 Thess. 
4: 8; Heb. 10: 28.— Syr. (as in Luke 7: 30), Fr. S. (rejet- 
tent ;-and so B. and L., Arn. ;-for meprisent of the two older 
verss.) ;-Pagn., Calv., Par.. Cocc , (rejiciitnt;-nnA so at first 
Bez. ;-for the Vulg. spernunt), Castal. (repudiant), Engl. Ann. 
(' Gr. depose. Or abrogate''), Berl. Bib., Stolz, De W., Stier, 
( rent'er/ere ;-for Luth.'s verachten), Newc, Bloomf., Peile, (set 
at nought), Dav. ;-Pass., L. and S. 

" Marg. : ' Or, lordship.'— K V., 2 Pet. 2 : 10 (where see N. 
a) ;-Mack., Bloomf. 

1 See E. v., v. 9, and 2 Pet. 2 : 10, N. e. Hamm., Thom., (at 
V. 10), Wesl., Mack. (rer(7e;-and so Thom. here, Bloomf., 
Murd.). 

° Yet has been used in the previous verse for /livtoi. — Mack., 
Murd. For i Si . . . o-tt, Lachm. reads otj . . . ton (B.). 



TtDpds, the fire itself, by which they were destroyed, may well 
be regarded as a blazing forth of the rtvpo; aiwvi'ov (even taking 
the word in its strongest sense), because it was immediately 
from God, as the minister of His wrath (Gen. 19 : 24; Ps. 11 : 
6; Is. 30: 33; 06: 15, 16; Rev. 20: 9); because, as such, it 
was unquenchable and irresistible (Gen. 19 : 25 ; Ps. 97 : 3 ; 
Is. 27 : 4 ; 66 : 24 ; Jer. 49 : 18 ; Mai. 4:1; Mark 9 : 43, &c. ; 
Heb. 12 : 29 ; Rev. 19 : 3) ; and because of the utter desolation 
wrought by it (see the passages last cited) ; which desolation, 
moreover, is expressly set forth (rtpoxEin-ai) as one of the great 



historical precursors and preluding exhibitions of the fate of 
the ungodly (Luke 17 : 28-30; 2 Pet. 2 : 6, N. g. Comp. 3 
Mace. 2 : 5 : Si ■rovs . . . XoSofii-eai . . . xatiifKe^ai, jtapaSiiyfia, 
toli iitiyivofiivoi; xafaatrjdas.), and, in so far at least and so 
long (Ezek. 16 : 53, 55) as it shall be required for that purpose, 
is perpetual and remediless (Is. 13: 19, 20; Jer. 50: 39, 40; 
Zeph. 2: 9 [Sept. !t; t'oi' aiiira])- On these grounds we may 
say with Beng. : 'poena, quam sustinent, est e.remplum ignis 
aelenti, ut Cassiodorus loquitur,' without even forcing, as Beng. 
does, SHyi*a and Slxtjv into apposition. 



6S 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

Moses, durst not bring against 
him a railing accusation, but said, 
The Lord rebuke thee. 

10 But these speak evil of 
those things which they know 
not : but what they know natu- 
rall3S as brute beasts, in those 
things they corrupt themselves. 

11 Wo unto them! for they 
have gone in the way of Cain, 



GREEK TEXT. 

jU>7(TE xpiGiv sTtsvsyxEtv ^T^aa^^daq, 
diX elnev, 'ETtirifinaai aoi Ki'ptog. 

10 Ovtoi hi. baa fxsv ovx olSaGi 
(3?.aa<pyii.iovaLV baa U ^vatxag, tjg 
ra dloya ^wa, kiuatavtai, sv rov- 
toig (pdeipovTai. 

11 Oval airolg- bti Tvj bha tov 
KdtV i7to^svQr,aav, xai trt TdAdvYi rov 



REVISED VERSION. 

Moses, "did not "dare to bring 
against P/iim ** railing "[judgment, 
but said : The Lord rebuke thee. 

10 But these *rail at 'whatso- 
ever things, "indeed, they know 
not ; but 'whatsoever things they 
^naturally, as '^the %rute beasts, 
^understand, in those ^ they cor- 
rupt themselves. 

11 ^Woe '•to them ! for " in the 
way of Cain they ""walked, and ""in 



- Dodd., Wakef., Mack., Thorn., Scott, Barn., Murd. 

° See 2 Pet. 2: 10, N. b. Guyse, Murd., Dav., Peile, (use 
to venture), Dodd., Wakef., Scott, (presume), Mack, {attempt), 
Thorn, (take the liberty), Pcnn (dared). Barn. 

p The pronoun is supplied. 

1 The article is not in E. V., 2 Pet. 2:11, nor here in any 
of the older English verss. ;-It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-PeiIe. 

' See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. k (where, however, sentence should 
have been credited to Fr. G. and M.). 

• See V. 8, N. 1, &c. 

I The indefinite or the distributive force of oaoj (quantus, 
quicunque) is almost always expressed in E. V. (Matt. 7 : 12; 
14 : 30 ; &c.), and, in the few instances where it is not expressed 
(Matt. 13 : 44, 46 ; &c.), is equally apparent in the original. — 
For one or the other or both cases, W. (xvhat ever ih.), R. 
(what th. so ever) ;-Vulg. (qiiaecunque), It. (tutte le cose che). 
Fr. G.,-M., (tout ce que) ;-Calv., Bez., (as Viilg.), Beng. (om- 
nia, quae), Wesl. (all things which), Laurm. (quotquot), Stier 
([alles] M-as;-and he remarks, though with an unnecessary 
qualification : ' For oaa is scarcely ever, certainly not here, the 
same thing as the simple oi.'), Arn. (toutes les choses que), 
Kenr. (as above) Peile (all th. whereof). 

" See V. 8, N. i. R. (certes) ;-Vulg. (qiddem) ;-Cocc. (as 
Vulg.), Dodd., Mack., Laurm. ('•oaa fiiv et oaa U sibi invicem 
opponuntur.'). Kenr. 

' The Greek order is retained by R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., Dt. ;- 
Dodd., Moldenh., AH., Gerl., De W., Stier. 

* Foreign verss. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Scott, Clarke, Penn, Peile. 

» See 2 Pet. 2 : 12, N. m. 

y So E. V. distinguishes inlatafiai, from olha iu Mark 14 : 68. 
Here also the two words are distinguished in R. ;-Latin and 
French verss., Syr., German verss. (except Gerl., DeW.), It.;- 
Beng. (' Subtilius quiddam notat nonmV — oiSaat), Newc, Ros., 
Sharpe. 



' W., 
Bloomf. 



R. ;-Dodd., 
Murd. 



Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Thom., Penn, 



" Oii(u aitolf is explained, 1., as simply declaratory of these 
melius miserable condition, present or future, or both, by Calv. 
(who makes it especially a forewarning for the sake of others), 
Bez., Dt. Ann., Cocc, Guyse, Moldenh., Mack., Haenl., Peile ; — 
2., as expressive of sympathy, by Par. (though he also calls 
this oval particula graviter et severe increpandi). Grot., Pise, 
Wakef. (Alas for them.' ;-and so Newc, Thom., Sharpe), Ros. ; 
—3., as minatory, by T., C, G., ( fVo be unto them), Est., 
Wits., Beng. (' Uno hoc loco unus hie apostolus vae intentat.'), 
Wesl., Scott, DeW. and Iluth. (who include the idea of strong 
disapprobation). Gill allows any one of these interpretations, 
and Carpz. appears to combine the second and third. But per- 
haps the historical time (see N. h and v. 14, N. k) of the verbs 
following (which are sometimes quite arbitrarily rendered into 
the present or the future,) is best accounted for, if we view the 
Oval avtoli as a ci'y of horror, on taking in at one glance, from 
the mount of vision, the whole, dark, swift current of ungod- 
liness, and its final plunge into the abyss. In Woe, the 

Amer. Bible Soc. has restored the spelling of the original edi- 
tion of E. V. It is now also the more common. 

' W. ;-Wesl., Mack., Penn, Murd., Kenr. 

= The Greek order is followed in all the three clauses by the 
Latin verss., Syr. ;-Mey., De W., Stier :— in the first and third, 
by Greenf , Gerl. :— in the second, by All. :— in the third by 
Murd., Peile. 

■i In the other four instances, in which Tioftvofiai occurs in 
this Epistle and 2 Pet., and 5 times elsewhere, E. V. renders it 
to walk ;-Peile. For the time, see N. a ;-W. 

« By many (Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., 
Steph., Bez., Par., Est, Hamm., B. and L., Wolf, Moldenh., 
Laurm., De W., Arn.) tri 70.avri is rendered as a dative of cause 
= by the deception, seduction, &c. (see N. f ). Others (Germ. ;- 
Haenl., Mey., Ros., Penn, Sharpe, Huth. ;-Bretsch.) make it 
= (is triv n%avriv. I prefer to conform it to o&^, as a dative of 
the direction in which (Dodd., Mack., Thom., Scott, Stier, Peile ; 
-Wahl, Rob.). For the order, see N. c. 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



69 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and ran greedily after the error 
of Balaam for reward, and per- 
ished in the gainsaying of Core. 

12 These are spots in your 
feasts of charity, when they feast 



GREEK TEXT. 



dvTi!A.oyia roi) Kops dTtuTcovTo. 

12 Ovtoi sidLV sv tatg dydnaig 
v^icov aniTudhEg, civv£vcd'](QVf.iEV0L, d^o- 



REVISED VERSION. 



the error 'of Balaam for ^hire 
they ''rushed headlong, and 'in 
the gainsaying of JCore they 
''perished. 

12 These are 'rocks in ""your 
"love-feasts, "banqueting Ptogeth- 



' AH the authorities first named in N. e (except Hamm., 
who before fiiaeoi would supply, not hixa, as Laurm. sa5'S, but 
avti, with the sense : ' by way of reward or just ■punishment 
from God'), together with G. ;-Cocc., Dodd., Mack., Thom., 
Ros., Sharpe, construe thus : tyj n%. ioi fivadoi Ba>.. ; to which 
Trol. objects that ' the arrangement would then have been toi 
fiiadov BaT^adu ; and the clauses on each side of the present join 
the article with the proper name.' With the latter consider- 
ation, Huth. mentions the 'scarcely tolerable harshness' of this 
construction, and the 'arbitrary' sense which it attaches to 
ifKdi'r] and i^exvSr^aav. He therefore adheres to the construc- 
tion of E. V. (== ivtxa, fiiaSoi, or Oec.'s xifiSov; x^fii-v), which 
appears also in AV., T., C, R. ;-Germ. ;-Grot., Cler., Wells. 
Berl. Bib., Beng., Guyse, Wesl., Wakef , Haenl., Newc, Scott, 
Clarke, Greenf., Penn, Trol., Bloomf., Stier, Kenr. ;-Leigh. 
Bretsch., Win., Wahl, Rob., Schirl. 

« See 2 Pet. 2 : 13, N. t. E. V., Matt. 20 : 8 ; Luke 10 : 7 ; 
James 5 : 4;-Mack., Sharpe ;-Rob. Qhire or gain'). 

 Beng. : ' Ut torrens sine aggere.' — W. (be shed out), R. 
{have poured out themselves) ;-Latin verss., e.\cept Castal., 
{effii^i sunt), Dt. {zijn zij henen gestort), Fr. S. (se sont de- 
bordes) ;-Engl. Ann. {were poured out), Hamm. (' have been 
p. out or run out'). Wolf, {effusi ruerunt), Haenl., Ros., (effuso 
impetu ruunt), Newc. {rushed), Laurm. (' effuso velut cursu 
se . . . dederunt.'), Mey., Stier, (sturzen sie [dahin]), Greenf. 
(inns), Penn {have run headlong), Trol., Bloomf. {impetuously 

rush), De W. (haben sie sich ergossen), Barn, {rush tumult- 
uously), Kenr. {have poured thetnselves out) ;-Bretsch. {effitse 
mere), Rob. {to rush into . . . to give oneself up to ;-but the 
into, to, is not in the verb). Green {to rush headlong &c.) ; 

&c. For the time, see N. a. If the ran of E. V. stands for 

the perfect, it is a grammatical impropriety at variance with 
the uniform usage of that version elsewhere ; or if, as is more 
probable, the imperfect was meant, there is then a change 
of the time employed in the preceding clause. 

' See N. e and, for the order, N. c. 

1 I recommend that this form of the name, adopted from the 
Sept., the popular version of the 0. T. in the apostolic age, be, 
in this the only instance of its occurrence in the N. T., restored 
(as has been done by the Amer. Bible Soc.) to its Hebrew 
propriety : Korah, which appears everywhere else in the En- 
glish Bible. See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. a, &c. 

^ For the time, see N. a. 

' Xrtaa's, in the N. T. iLrtat 'Kiy., occurs frequently elsewhere 
(see the classical lexicons) in the sense of a rock in or by the 
sea. Here that sense accords well with the other four meta- 
phors of the series, all of them drawn from conspicuous natural 



objects, and is retained (sometimes with the specification, hid- 
den, sunken, &c.) by Oec., Phavor., Lightf., Er. Schmid, Whitb., 
Wetst., Pyle, Wakef., Haenl., Thom., Laurm. (see whose Com- 
ment.), Mey., Ros., De W., Barn.. Dav., Peile, Huth. ;-Schleus., 
Wahl, Rob., Schirl. It is allowed also by Beng. and Carpz. 
(Comp. 1 Tim. 1 : 19.) The other interpretation has in its 
favour 2 Pet. 2 : 13, ajtl'Koi, (but on this much stress cannot be 
laid against the prevailing use of a different word, especially 
as the variations between Peter and Jude are quite as marked 
as the parallelisms. Zeg., accordingly, thinks that srtiXaSfs is 
perperam scriptum pro artAoi,.), Vulg., Syr., Hesych. (^s/iiad- 
jUfVoi ;-Aug. maadati), &c. It is generally acknowledged, 
however, that this is the only case where the word can have 
this meaning, which is, therefore, either assumed, as by Stier, 
out of Peter's ' kindred word' as more agreeable to the context, 
or extracted from the proper meaning, rock, by a variety of in- 
genious methods. Thus, Aret. (and Leigh) : ^OTiAa; non solum 
est glarea, hoc est, terrae species quae maculas facile relinquif 
(and it is true that ij artixd^. sc. yjj, is used by Theophrastus for 
argillaceous earth, clay), ' sed est etiam concavum saxum in lit- 
tore maris, seu lacuum ac fluminum, in quam concavitatem tan- 
quam in commune receplaculum sordes aquarum confuunt ;' — 
Mack. (Scott, Bloomf.) : ' The word dTtCKahii propeily .signifies 
rocks in the sea, which, wheji they rise above its surface, appear 
like spots;' — Arn. follows Junius in getting this sense from the 

rocks as spotted with the sea-foam, Haenl., Lachm. and Tisch. 

insert ol after dam (A. B., Syr., &c.). with Huth.'s approbation. 

" For vjiCjv, Lachm. (in the small ed.) and Stier read aituv 
(A., Vulg., Syr., &c.). 

° Dt. (liefdemaaltijden), Fr. S. {repas d'amour) ;-Bens., 
Dodd., AVesl. {feasts of /oce ;-so Wakef., Barn.), Moldtnh. and 
later German verss. {Liebesmahle), Mack., Newc, Thom., 
Clarke, Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Dav. ;-Rob., Green. 

° Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Newc, use this verb here (Wakef., 
regaling themselves; Peile, make merry), as Dodd., Newc, 
Thom., do at 2 Pet. 2 : 13, where also I recommend that ban- 
queting be substituted for feasting. For the participial con- 
struction, see 2 Pet. 2 : 13, NN. u and a. 

p W., T., C, R.;-De W. {zusammen), Kenr. A few MSS. 
insert vulv after awivux-j no doubt from 2 Pet. 2 : 13. The 
word is not adopted by Erasm., Mill, or any of the recent 
editors, nor is it supplied by (in addition to those just named) 
the Vulg. {convivatites), Syr. ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., {inter se 
conv.), Castal., Beng., {as Vulg.), Stier {Mitschmausende;- 
' with one another and wherever there is any one like them- 
selves.'). Huth. allows either sense: with you or with one 
another. E. V.'s rendering of avvcvax- is from G., after Pagn. 
and Bez. {dum vobisciim convivantur). 



70 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

with you, feeding themselves 
without fear : clouds they are 
without water, carried about of 
winds ; trees whose fruit with- 
ereth, without fruit, twice dead, 
plucked up by the roots ; 



GREEK TEXT. 



/3(J5 tavtovc, TtoLfMaivovTEg- ve<pe2.aL 
dvvSpoi, v7tb m'8i.th>v Ttepi^Epo^evac 
Sei'Spa ^BivoTnopiva, axapna, big (XTto- 
davovta, expi^uidevta- 



REVISED VERSION. 

er ivvithout fear, ■'tending *lhem- 
selves ; clouds ' without water, 
"carried about ^by winds ; trees 
^whose fruit withereth, ^unfruit- 
ful, twice dead, ^uprooted ; 



1 All the recent editors, except Haenl. (though in the Com- 
ment, he considers the matter doubtful) and Sch., connect 
d4)o/3u5 with avpivax- i and so R. (the previous English yerss., 
by separating the adverb from the participles by a comma on 
either side, leave the reference ambiguous.) ;-Vulg.. Germ. ;- 
Vat., Casta!., Beng. ('colenda sunt convivia sacra. Convivari 
per se nil vitii habet : ideo sine timore huic verbo annecti de- 
bet.'), Wakef., AIL, Sharpe, De W., Am., Kenr., Peile. This 
construction (which is allowed also by Oec. and preferred by 
Huth., though the latter errs in citing Stier as in favour of it) 
brings dijjd/3u{ into correspondence, as regards its relation to 
cvvivt^X-^ with Peter's ivtpv^Cjv-fsi iv fatj d^atacj avtCjv. The 
present clause then contains a charge of irreverent audacity 
during the feasts ; iavtov; rtoi/iaivortes, of intense selfishness. 

' This word occurs 11 times in the N. T., and in E. V. is 
rendered 6 times, feed ; 4 times, rule ; once, feed cattle. In 
every instance it answers to the Hebrew TW^ (the verb here 

employed by Greenf., as its equivalent is by the Syr.), which 
the Sept. frequently translate by Tioifiaiva, and of which Ges. 
says that, when it is used in the sense of ruling, ' the image of 
a fiock is often preserved.' It may be doubted, whether in the 
case of the Greek verb that figure is ever wholly lost, while, 
by restricting the sense to the feeding department of ' the 
faithful herdman's art' (Milton, Lycidas. 121), serious damage 
is not unfrequently done; e.g. Luke 17 : 7; John 21 : 16; 
Acts 20 : 28 ; 1 Cor. 9 : 7 ; 1 Pet. 5:2. ' notftmVt tv,' says Ger- 
hard, as cited by Leigh, ' non ad unam tantum pastoralis ofiicii 
partem, sed ad reliquas omnes partes curandi gregem extendi- 
tur.' So Alex., on the CVI of Ps^- 28 ; 9 (Sept. rtaiiiavov av- 

rovf) : ' Feed them, not only in the strict sense, but in that of 
doing the whole duty of a shepherd.' Comp. also his note on 
Ps. 49 : 14, and see Rev. 2 : 27, N. r, &c. — German verss. (ex- 
cept All.) and Dt. (use weiden) -j-Camph. (at John 21 : IG), 
Sharpe (taking care of), Peile (being pastors of). Brown (at 
1 Pet. 5:2: act as shepherds) ;-Schuttg. (foventes et alentes), 
Schleus. (curam habentes, prospicientes), Wahl (nutrio, alo), 
Rob. {feed, cherish, take care of). Green (flourish, promote 
the interest of). 

' Beng.: 'non gregem.' Ezek. 34: 2 may be cited in illus- 
tration, though it does not appear that Jude referred exclusively 
or especially to such as held ofiice in the Church. See N. q. 

' See 2 Pet. 2 : 13, N. x, &c. ;-R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., It., Fr. 
S. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef, Mey., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, DeW., 
Stier, Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

" For rtfpit-! Mill prefers, and all the later editors adopt, 



Ttapa^ipoixEvai (A. B. C, &c.). I recommend that this reading 
be adopted, and translated: 6or«e along. Newc. (carried 
aside), Penn (driven al.), Sharpe (carried al.), Peile (driven 
past) ;-Rob. (' Pass. pr. to be borne along by. to be borne or 
carried away, e. g. clouds, .Jude 12 . . . i. e. driven rapidly along.' 
But neither by nor rapidly belongs to the word.), Green (to 
be swept al). 

" See 2 Pet. 2 : 19, N. 1. 

™ Marginal note : 'Or, of late autumn.' The word occurs 
only this once in the N. T., and very rarely elsewhere. Its 
ambiguity arises from the double meaning of both the noun 
and the verb in composition. According to Pass, (as translated 
by L. and S.), ortiipa is, 1., 'the part of the year between the 
rising of Sirius and of Arcturiis . . . not so much . . autumn, 
as our dogdays or at most the end of summer ;' and then, be- 
cause this was the season of fruit, it stands, 2., for ' the fruit 
itself esp. tree fruit ;' — and hence also the verb oniupiifw is to 
gather fruits, ^elvu, again, is used, 1., intransitively, to decay, 
wither, and, 2., transitively, to corrupt, destroy. Joining the 
two words, each in its first signification, we have ij>9wortupor 
autumn, or, more commonly, senescens auctumnus et in hye- 
mem vergens (Steph., Scap.), late autumn, the fall of the year 
(L. and S.) ; and f Sirortupi^os, belonging to that season ; — 
which are the only meanings of these compounds that the lexi- 
cons recognize as classical. In that sense, accordingly, is the 
adjective taken here, in connection with dxaprta, by W. (harvest 
tr. without fruit), T., C, (without fr. at gathering time);- 
Castal. (autumnales infructuosae), Thom. (autumnal tr. with- 
out fr.), Dav. (aut. tr. stripped of their fruits) ; and, apart 
from that connection, by R. ;-Vulg. and its followers generally, 
Dt., Fr. S. marg. ;-Engl. Ann., Ilamm., Cocc, B. and L. marg., 
Beng., Moldenh., Haenl. (erroneously cited by Huth.), Mey., 
Gerl., Barn., De W., Peile (Hr. on the wane — "fallen into 
the sere and yellow leaf"), Huth.;- Wahl, Rob., Green (au- 
tumnal, sere, bare), Schirl. The same interpretation is allowed 
also by Zeg., Wits., Gill, Laurm., Ros., Trol. ('without leaves' 
[which is also Wesl.'s version], 'as trees are in autumn'), 
Bloomf. ;- Schleus. The second significations of ^divu, and 
orfcopa, however, appear combined in the use, according to 
Phavor., of fBtvoXapov to denote rdsoj ^dCvovaa oTtupa; (hence 
Clarke: galled or diseased tr.;-ari etymology and sense 
allowed also by Wits., Laurm., Trol. ca?iA'ered;-Schleus.), and 
in Pindar's use of r)ietpoxapii. L. and S. do, indeed, mark this 
last word as a ' pecul. fem.' of ^dworcupivoi, which they explain 
to mean autumnal. But in the passage referred to — Pyth. 5. 
161, 162: ^Stvortapii avi/xav ;^ftj«£p(.'a xatartvod — ^Sivortupij evi- 
dently does not mean that, but rather the blighting influence 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



71 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

13 Raging waves of the sea, 
foaming out their own shame ; 
"wandering stars, to whom is re- 



GREEK TEXT. 



13 xv^iata ay^ia BaTAddrig, 87fa- 



REVISED VERSION. 

13 ^Wild waves of the sea, 
foaming out their own ^shame ; 
wandering stars, ''for "^which the 



'■ This phrase, which is often in EngUsh poetry applied to 
the sea or its waves (e. g: Shakspere, Tempest, i. 2: 'the wild 
waves whist.'), suggests more readily the etymological and fa- 
miliar sense of aypiof. — E. V., Matt. 3:4; Mark 1 : 6 (the 
only other instances in the N. T.) ;-VuIg. (feri), German 
verss. and Dt. (wilde) ;-Erasm., Pagn , Vat., Carpz.. (use ef- 
ferus), Calv., Bez., Aret., (use efferatus), Castal. (as Vulg.), 
Engl. Ann. (' Gr. wild. For the waves roar like wild beasts 
in the wood.'), Bloomf., Barn, ('wild and restless'), Dav., Peile. 



' Gr. shames. But this plural, though not uncommon in 
the older English classics, is now disused. 

^ See 2 Pet. 2 : 17, N. x. Here may be added Wesl., Sharpe, 

Kenr. 

' The analogy of the three preceding metaphors seems to 
justify this dependence of the relative on aatifii. A common 
reference, indeed (according to which the punctuation of E. V. 
would still be in fault), is to the dsf/Sfif, and this, Laurm. 



of these wintry blasts, and so it is explained by the best com- 
mentators of Pindar. Heyne translates thus : 'fructibus-e.ri- 
tialis ventorum hibernus flatus ;' and the most recent editor, 
Prof. Schneidewin, has the following note : ' drtupa, upa, auctum- 
nus, annus dicuntur pro iis quae gignuntur iis temporibus. 
Jam sensus : Valeas viribus et consilio etiam in posterum, ne 
ventvis 6ri«;ia& tibi perdat tempovis fruclus.' If it be said, 
that the common version requires the noun to be taken in its 
second signification and the verb in its first, it may be replied, 
1., that this acknowledged secondary meaning of the noun is 
its meaning in the only place where it is found in the N. T., 
Rev. 18 ; 14 ; — 2., that the intransitive use of the verb is by 
far the more frequent ; — and, 3., that the verb retains this in- 
transitive sense in other analogous cases of composition ; e. g: 
$9cTOxoprtoj, applied by Pindar, Pyth. 4. 471, to an oak from 
which the trees have been lopped ; and (feii-oxu^of , with wast- 
ing limbs (L. and S.). While, therefore, our present form 
fSivortuipifoi may not, in the one or two instances where it is 
found elsewhere, bear the meaning here ascribed to it, I concur 
nevertheless in the remark of Grot. : ' Si usum vocis re.«picias, 
dicit arbores auctumnales. Sed raagis respicitur itvfi.o\oyla 
vocis, ut dicat eos similes esse arboribus, quarum fructus perit 
illico.' This sense, moreover, is more in harmony with the 
design of the writer, which is to describe the charactei'istic. 
and inward, spiritual desolation of these wicked men — (Laurm.. 
accordingly, thougli undecided in his interpretation, so far even 
as to indulge in what Bloomf. considers the 'ingenious conjec- 
ture, that by 4>9n'ortupii'ot' is denoted a sort of useless trees then 
so called,' yet says he clearly perceives 'tale quid indicari, quod 
proprie ita esse non debebat, et nemo sanus in autumno ad 
hiemem vergente fruges aut folia m arbore quaesiverit ;'-a view, 
in which Bloomf. himself seems dispo.sed to concur, though he 
errs in attributing it to Hamm.) — and it lays a firmer basis for 
the dreadful climax whereby he effects that object. Comp. 
Matt. 13 : 22 ; Luke 8 : 14. Steph. : ' Insurgit autem ibi oratio, 
et primum SivSpa ^Sivoyt. vocat quae proxime absunt a xoprto- 
^dpots s. teT-ioxapTtovsi; deinde axaprta prorsus, tertio artoS., post- 
remo ixpi^.' G. (comipt) ;-Syr. {= Murd. whose fr. hath 
failed. The Syr. verb is the same as is used for a^avi,^onivri in 
James 4 : 14), It. (appassati), Fr. G.,-M., (dont le fr. se pour- 
rit), Fr. S. in the text (dont les fr. pourrissent) •,-'Piign., Bez., 



Pise, Par., (emarcidae), Aret., Carpz., (frugiperdae), Dt. Ann. 
(as one explanation), Cler. (' a, corrumpetidis fructibiis, ut habet 
Etymologicum Magnum.'), Er. Schmid, Wolf., (fructus per- 
dentes), Wells, Newc, (as E. V. ;-which Gill also allows), 
Berl. Bib. (wiirmstichige), B. and L.'s text (as Fr. G.). Dodd. 
(whose early buddings are withered ;-so Scott), Wakef. (that 
shed their fr.), Ros. ('potius arbores quae producunt marcidos 
et corruptos fructics.') Greenf. (')2i ''""iD), Sharpe (withered), 

Stier (obstverkummemde), Am. (fletris) ;-Steph. (first gives : 
extremo autumno marcescentes ;-a combination of the two 
ideas, which appears also in Erasm., Vat., Zeg., aut. marc. ; 
Calv., autumni emarcidae; Suic. ; SchOttg., 'quae non nisi au- 
tumno senescente fructus ferunt immaturos et nulli usui futu- 
ros ;' Mack., withered autumnal tr. [to which he joins axaprta, 
without fr., in one clause] ; Penn, that wither in the aut. ; — 
and then adds: ' Vel potius, Quarum ij drtiipa ^Oivei, Quae 
fructum quidem aliquem ferunt, sed corruptum et marcidum, 
qui vel succo nutrimentoque deficiente, vel vermibus exedenti- 
bus ante maturitatem decidit.'). Pas. (emarcidus, wurmstichig), 
Leigh (as Pagn.). 

^ Here perhaps may be intended, not the absence of good 
fruit, implied in ^eivojt., but an utter incapacity to produce any- 
thing fit to be called fruit. — E. V., everywhere else (6 times) ;- 
R. ;-Vulg. (infructuosae), German verss., except Mey. and De 
W., (unfruchtbare), Dt. (onvruchtbaar). It. (s/eriYj) ;-Erasm., 
Pagn., Calv.. Vat.. Bez., Par., Cocc, (infrugiferae), Castal., 
Beng., (as Vulg.), Engl. Ann.. Carpz. and Ros. (steriles), 
Wakef. (takes gjj along with it: unfr. for two seasons -j-a, con- 
struction which Haenl. also recommends), Newc. (barren), 
Scott (' wholly unfruitful'), Arn. (steriles), Kenr. ;-Pas., Suic, 
(as Carpz.), Rob. (unfr., barren), Schirl. 

y Dryden, Ode for St. Cecilia's Day: 'And trees uprooted 
left their place.' E. V., twice out of 4 times that ixpi^ou, oc- 
curs, translates it, to root up ;-Latin verss. (eradicatae ;-except 
Cocc, e.rstirpatae). Germ, (ausgewurzelte), Dt. (ontworteld), 
It. (diradicati), French verss. (deracines) ;-Dodd., Thom., (to 
be {utterly] rooted up), Wakef., Penn, Sharpe, Dav., (rooted 
up), Mack, (rooted out), Mey. (entwurzelt), Greenf. (D^ttnil'C), 

All., De W., Stier, (as Germ.), Bloomf. 



72 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

served the blackness of darkness 
for ever. 

14 And Enoch also, the sev- 
enth from Adam, prophesied of 
these, saymg. Behold, the Lord 
Cometh with ten thousand of his 
saints, 

15 To execute judgment upon 
all, and to convince all that are 
ungodly among them of all their 

■i See 2 Pet. 2 : 17, N. z. The ror before aiC^im is marked 

by Bloomf. as ' Tnost probably, or certainly, an interpolation,' 
and cancelled by all the other recent editors, except Hahn and 
Theile. 

' See 2 Pet. 2 : 17, N. a, &c. 

f ' Not only I, now ; but &c.' See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. 

' Syr. (= b), It. (a), Fr. S. (pour) ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., 

Cocc, Wolf., Beng., (his [iis] ;-for the Yulg. de his), Engl. 
Ann. ('Or, to'), Hamm., Wells, Whitb., Newc, Thorn., Bloomf., 
(to), Moldenh., May., Stier, (die.sen), Green, Peile, Huth. (fiir). 

The demonstrative is given in this order, or at least before 

the verb and its subject, by R. ;-Germ., Dt., It., French verss. ;- 
Erasm., Calv., Yat., Castal., Wesl., Moldenh., Thom., Greenf., 
AH., Bloomf., De W., Am., Murd., Kenr., Peile. 

'' See 2 Pet. 1 : 14, N. z, &c. Here the xai (overlooked by 
some) is kept close to rovroii by Vulg.. Syr., German verss. 
(except that Moldenh. omits it), Fr. S. ;-Pagn., Calv., Vat., 
Castal., Bez., Par., Cocc, AY ells, Beng. (' non modo antedilu- 
vianis.'), Wesl., Carpz., Mack., Newc, Ros., Am., Murd., Peile :- 
Green. 

' The verb is given before its subject by R. ;-Latin verss., 
Syr., Germ., It. ;-Greenf., De W., Stier, Murd. 

! ' Even so long ago were they rtpoyfypaujuirot' (v. 4). — There 
is no article in It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Greenf., Peile. Wakef. and 
Mack, have the as a supplement. 

 'In vision.' Another prophetic past; comp. Jude 11, N. 
a. — E. V. nowhere else makes ^j.9oi' = £p;j;o/tat (oomp. Rev. 1 : 
7) ;-R. (is come) ;-Latin verss., except Castal.. (venit ;-explained 
in the commentaries as praeteritum profutnro), Dt., It., French 
verss. except B. and L., Beng., (= R.);-Sha,Tpe (as R.), 
Bloomf., De W. (es kam), Peile (^hath come, or came.') ;-Green. 

' The word saints is not readily understood as including 
angels, who, on the other hand, are not (according to the com- 
mon explanation) meant exclusively (2 Cor. 6 : 2, 3 ; 1 Thess. 
4: 14; &c.). — 'Aytoj is translated as an adjective by E. V., 
wherever else it qualifies a substantive, and here, as qualifying 



GREEK TEXT. 

pf $ nXavTitai, die, o Zp^o^ tov ax&tovg 
elg tav cucbva tetr^i^riTaL. 

14 Y\^oe^r:t£vae hs xai tovroig 
St^So^iog dno 'ASaft 'Evu^.^ ^^y^v, 
'iSov nWs Ki'ptog iv ^vpuxoiv aytaig 
avtoii, 

1-5 noirssai xpldiv xatd Ttdvruv, 
xou i^eT^y^ai Ttdvtag tovg dasf^slg 
avtav Ttept TtdfTajv tov i^Qv dae- 



EEVISED VERSION. 

blackness of darkness '^for ever 
*hath been reserved. 

14 ''But sfor these ""also 'pro- 
phesied Enoch, J seventh from 
Adam, saying: Behold, the Lord 
''came with 'his holy "myriads, 

15 To "exercise judgment upon 
all, and to "convict all Pthe un- 
godly among them of all their 



^vpidtjiv, by 
Newc marg. 



Latin verss.. It., Fr. S. ;-Hamm., Beng., Mack., 
, Thom., Sharpe, De W., Stier, Kenr. Guyse, 

Dodd., Wesl., Bam., Peile, have holy ones. For jarp. dy., all 

the recent editors (except Theile) read ay. ;uvp. 

™ Fr. S. ;-Hamm., Cocc, Wolf., Beng., Guyse, Dodd., Mack., 
Newc. marg., Thom., Mey., Stolz, De W., Murd.. Peile. See 
Rev. 5 : 11, N. v, &c 

" Rob. : ' xpiaiv Ttoinv to do judgment, to act as judge, i. q. 
xfilviiv, -John 5 : 27; Jude 15.' This idea, rather than that of 
executing the judicial sentence, is presented in W., R., (do 
doom [judgment]), T., C, G., (give j.);-Yn\^. (facere judi- 
cium^, S>yT., German verss. (Gericht zu halten), Dt. (om ge- 
rigt te hoiiden). It. (far giudicio), Fr. G. (doniier jugement), 
Fr. M. (juger), Fr. S. (exercer j.) ;-Erasm., Calv., Vat., Cocc, 
(facial j), Pagn., Bez., Par., (ferat j.), Castal., Pise, (j. ex- 
erceat), B. and L., Am., (as Fr. M.), Carpz. (judicaiurus), 
Mack, (pass sentence), Peile (bring j. to bear). 

" The Greek verb occurs in the N. T. only here, and twice in 
the Sept. for n''D"iri (Is. 2:4; Mic 4 : 3 ;-E. V. rebuke ; Alex. 

decide). Here Barn, rejects convince, but errs in saying that 
convict is 'synonymous' with it, in the sense of 'satisfying a 
man's own mind of the fact that he has done wrong.' In mod- 
ern use, at least, the idea of detection, eayosure, is much 
stronger in the latter word than in the former. — Dodd., Wesl., 
Wakef (convict clearly). Mack., Newc, Thom., Penn, Sharpe, 
Bloomf ('not to convince, or even merely to convict, but, in a 
fuller sense, so to convict as to bring the convicted to judgment, 
and the execution of judgment upon him.'), Murd., Peile (call 

to strict account). For i^t^., Mey., Lachm., Tisch., read 

fT-iyiot (A. B., &c.). 

p Gr. their ungodly ones — Germ, ihre Gottlosen. The rela- 
tive construction, introduced by Erasm., and adopted also by 
T., C, G. ;-Pagn., Vat., Bez., Par., appears in no other foreign 
vers., nor in W., R. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Mack., Newc, 
Thom., Penn, Murd., Kenr. In his last edition Tisch. re- 
stores the avruij', which is cancelled by Mey., Lachm., Hahn, 
after A. B. C, Vulg., Syr., &c. 



thinks, is required by the •foiiroij of v. 14. But it is better to I bus, arboribus, fluctibus, sic jam stellis errantibus sua additur 
regard the demonstrative there as a resumption of the 011*01 ! descriptio.'), Wakef., Arn., Murd. In foreign verss. the rela- 
of V. 10, which is twice again indignantly repeated in vv. 16, [ tive. like the 015, is in itself ambiguous ; but the punctuation 
19. — W. ;-Castal. (gives ast. . . . titrfi. in one clause ;-and so ! generally corresponds to that of E. V. (as does that of nearly 
the text of Lachm., Tisch., Theile), Hamm. ('and to such stars all other editions of the text), so favouring the construction 
as these eternal darkness is reserved.'), Beng. ('Ut modo nubi- 1 proposed. 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



73 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

ungodly deeds which they have 
ungodly committed, and of all 
their hard speeches which ungodly 
sinners have spoken against him. 

16 These are murmurers, com- 
plainers, walking after their own 
lusts ; and their mouth speaketh 
greatswelling ?w/-J«, having men's 
persons in admiration because of 
advantage. 

17 But, beloved, remember 
ye the words which were spoken 
before of the apostles Of our Lord 
Jesus Christ; 

IS How that they told yo\i 
there should be mockers in the 



GREEK TEXT. 



(5eiag avTuv uv r.ai^Yiaav, xal Ttepl 
xaT avroi) afiapToXot dcre/^Etg. 

16 Ovtoi eldL yoyyvatai, [.tE[.i'^{- 
lioipot, xara rag eTtidvfuag ahtcov 
TtopEvoi^EvoL' xai to Gto^ia avtav 
/la/lft vTt&poyxa, davficii^ovrEg Ttpoffo- 
Tta, u<ps^iag %dptv. 

17 v^tg he, ayaTtritoi, ^ivri06riTs 
tutv pyj^dtov toiv 7tpoeipyi[j£vo)V Imb 
tav aTtoarokdv roi Kup/'oi; %^v 
'hqaov Xptaroi)' 

18 or I ("ksyov vficv, an iv iaj^ata 
Xpovoi iaovtai e^TtalxtaL, p^ara rag 



REVISED VERSION. 

"ideeds of ungodliness ''wherein 
they "were ungodly, and of all 
the hard 'things which ungodly 
sinners ^spake against him. 

16 These are murmurers, com- 
plainers, walking "according to 
their own lusts ; and their mouth 
speaketh great swelling words, 
^admiring '" persons ''for profit's 
sake. 

17 But yye, beloved, ^be mind- 
ful of the words which were 
spoken before *by the apostles of 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; 

18 How ""they told you, "=that 
''in the last time there ^shall be 



1 Except that aituv is sometimes (Vulg. [according to the 
interpretations of W., R., Kenr., &c.], Germ. ;-Greenf., Sharpe, 
Stier) put in regimen with aail3nas, and sometimes (It, Fr. S. ;- 
Calv., B. and L., Arn.) neglected, the above construction is ob- 
served by the verss. just referred to, and by Coco., JIack., All. 

' For uv, by attraction for oi, see Win. § 32. 1. W. (by 
which), R. (whereby) ;-Vulg. (quibus), Germ, (damit) ;-De W. 
(womit). Stier (as Germ), Kenr. (as /?.). 

 See 2 Pet. 2 : 6, N. i. For the time of the two verbs, 

see V. 14, N. k. Or the aorists of this verse might be given as 
pluperfects ; see 2 Pet. 1 : 16, N. g. 

' R. ;-It. (cose) ;-Dodd., Wesl., Mack., Thorn., Bloomf., Arn. 
(choses), Kenr. The Latin and most German verss. and Greenf. 
supply nothing, or give axXrifiuv by a substantive. 

" See 2 Pet. 3 : 3, N. f. 

' This or some other simple verb (such as icorshlp, fialler, 
honour, respect, or their equivalents) is used, either in the 
finite or participial form, by W., R ;-nearly all foreign verss. ;- 
Guyse, Wakef., Mack., Newc, Sharpe, Murd., Kenr.: — a noun 
(admirateurs, Schmeichler, admirers), by B. and L., Van Ess, 
Rob. 

^' There is nothing for men's in "W., R., (thoagh T.. C., G., 
translate rtpda. by niea) ;-any foreign verss. (Germ, makes 
rtpdff. das Ansehen der Person; Pr. S., les personnes appa- 
rentes ; B. and L., tout ce qui a quelque apparence ; AH., Stolz, 
den Mensche7i [Leiden] ; DeW.,personlichem, Ansehen; Arn., 
les gens) ;-Guyse, Dodd., Wakef. and Newc. (have nf men as 
a supplement), JIack., Thorn., Penn, Murd. (people), Kenr. ;- 
Rob. 



" See E. v.. Tit. 1 : 11 and Rom. 3 : 1 (the latter being the 
only other instance of li^tXfta) ;-R. (for gaine safce) ;- Vulg. 
(quaestus causa ;-for which other Latin verss. substitute utili- 
tatls gratia [Cocc. causaY), Germ, (um Nutzens wiUen), Dt. 
(om des voordeels wil), Fr. G.,-M., (use profit) ;-Dodd., Wesl., 
Wakef., Mack., Newc, Thom., Penn, Murd., Kenr., (for the 
sake of gain [Peile, of what they gavi]), Moklenh., Stier, 
([des] Nutzens halber), All. (umdes Gewinnes willeji), Sharpe 
(for gaui's sake), De W. (des Vortheils uegen). 

y See E. v., v. 20, and 1 John 2 : 20, N. p, &c. Here the 
pronoun is kept in its Greek position by W., T., C, G., R. ;- 
all foreign verss., except the Dt. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Thom. (as for 
you), Penn, Murd., (do ye), Sharpe, Kenr. 

' E. v., 2 Pet. 3 : 2 ; 2 Tim. 1 : 4 ;-W., R. ;-Latin verss., ex- 
cept Castal. and Cocc, (memores estote [Erasm. estis ; which 
Calv. allows]) ;-Moldenh., Stier, (seid eingedenk), Mey. (moget 
ihr eing. bleiben), Kenr. 

' See 2 Pet. 2 : 19, N. I. 

>> Comp. 1 John 4 : 9, N. r. Here that is omitted by Wakef., 
Newc, Sharpe ;-how, by Mack., Penn. 

' W., T., C, G., R. ;-Vulg. (qiconiam. Other Latin verss. 
employ the future participle) and other foreign verss., except 
Mey. ;-Dodd., Wakef. and later English verss., except Sharpe. 

'' Mey., Lachm., Tisch., read in lojjaroD [tov] ;tpdvou (A. B. 
C); Mey., with Huth.'s approbation, following B. C. in omitting 
the article. 

• R. ;-Vulg., Germ., Dt. ;-Hamm., Dodd., Wesl. and Penn 
(will), Peile. 

10 



74 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

last time, who should walk after 
their own unafodlv lusts. 

19 These be they who sepa- 
rate themselves, sensual, having 
not the Spirit. 

20 But ye, beloved, building 
up yourselves on your most holy 
taith, praying hi the Holy Ghost, 

21 Keep yourselves in the 
love of God, looking for the mer- 
cy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto 
eternal life. 



GREEK TEXT. 



19 Ovtoi eloiv 01 mXjohio^CCpvtsq, 
-^v')^Lx6i, nvev^ia (urj ^^(Qvreq. 

20 v^ig hs, dyaTtrftoL, rfi ayia- 
tdt'fi hficjv TUOtei sixoixoho^ioinneq 
savrovg, h Hvsvuati 'Ayia vtpoaev- 

XOfriSVOl, 

21 iavtovc, iv dyaitri ©foij T'/7(wi- 
(Tare, Ttpocr&^o^KVot to iksoc, tov 
Ki;p('oi; 'f]^v ^Wiaov XpfffToi), hc, ^cot;!' 
alw>iov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

mockers, ''walking ^according to 
their own ''lusts of ungodliness. 

19 These 'are they who -"sepa- 
rate, ''animal, 'having no spirit. 

20 But 3^e, beloved, building 
up yourselves on your most holy 
faith, praj'ing in the Holy ""Spirit, 

21 Keep j'ourselves in the love 
of God, "waiting for the mercy of 
our Lord Jesus Christ unto eter- 
nal life •° 



<■ The participial construction is retained by E. V., 2 Pet. 3 : 
3 ;-W., R. ;-VuIg., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Castal., Coco., Wits., Dodd. 
and the later English verss., Carpz., Greenf. 

^ See 2 Pet. 3 : 3, N. f. 

'' Comp. V. 15, N. q. Here the grammatical relation between 
iitidv/iias and dsf^fnov is preserved by Germ., Dt. marg., It., 
Fr. S. ;-Calv., Engl. Ann., Cocc, Scott, Greenf., Kist., Sharpe, 
Stier. 

' T., C, G., R. ;-Dodd. and the later verss., except Mack, 
and Peile. 

J Engl. Ann. : ' Themselves, as Heb. 10 : 25. Or, others, as 
2 Pet. 2:1,2; Acts 20 : 30 ; 2 Tim. 3 : 6.' The former sense 
is, of course, adopted by such as follow the reading of B. C. 
and Vulg., drtoS. iavtovf (Griesb., Knapp, Ilaenl., Sch., Hahn, 
Theilej-though Griesb. and Haenl. regard lavtovs as question- 
able.). Even the reading of our Text (and of Beng., Wetst., 
Matth., Mey., Lachm., Blooraf , Tisch.) may be taken (as it is 
by Grot., Schuttg., Moldenh., Huth.) with the reflexive force, 
which transitive verbs do sometimes boar (see Win § 39. 1.). 
But it more naturally suggests a more general interpretation, 
which is given by T., C, G., (makers of sects) -j-Gevva. {Rotten 
machen), Dt. marg. ;-the Alexandrian Clement, Oec, Erasm., 
Vat., Est. ('Potest absolute sumi, Separanies, id est. qui sepa- 
rationem faciunt tarn in coetibus quam doctrina.'), Pjde (make 
separations), Laurm., Mey. (die Trennungsstifter), Tro!., Van 
Ess (Spallungen verursachen), Bloomf., De W. (Trennungen 
verurs.), Dav., Peile (caiise separations) ;-Schleus. I pur- 
posely use a phrase, which, like the original, admits of either 
sense. 

'■ 'i'vx^xos is ifl E. V. rendered sensual also in .James 3 : 15, 
elsewhere (1 Cor. 2: 14; 15: 44, 46) natural. In every one 
of these cases it marks the subject in its relations to the ■^xr, 
anima (hence Fr. S. everywhere : de I'ame, ayant fame, ii'ayant 
que Vame), as distinguished from to TCvivfio., and in all of them 
it is translated animalis (animate, animal) by the Latin verss. 
(except thatCastal. hashumana in James), It. (except here), Fr. 



M. (except here and in James) ;-Hamm., Newc, (except 1 Cor. 2: 
14 ; the only place where Fr. G. has it), Mack., Clarke, Penn, 
Sharpe (except here). So Whitb. and Wakef. here and in 1 Cor. 
15 : 44 46 ; Dodd. and Thom., in 1 Cor. 2 : 14 and 15 : 44, 46 ; 
Wells, Schleus., Scott, Trol., Wahl, Bloomf, Murd., Kob., Green, 
in 1 Cor. 15 : 44, 46. I recommend that .^vx^xoi be everywhere 
rendered as above. Of German verss., Luth. here has Fleiscli- 
liche ; others, Sinnliche, Seelische, Thierische. 

1 This clause furnishes the condition (/*»j) and proof of that 
which precedes ; g.d.  they are ■^vxt-xoi, not being rivivjiatixoi ' 
(1 Cor. 2 : 15 ; 3 : 1 ; 14 : 37 ; Gal. 6:1). The Avi^it^a. thus 
standing opposed to ■^xrf. and wanting the article, is best taken 
subjectively, as the yiymrnxivov ix toy Tivii^iatoi 7<viv/xa (John 
3 : 6). It may even include, according to Von Meyer's remark 
(cited and approved by Stier), the rational spirit (v. 10, uj ra 
a.7.oya fwa). E. V. follows G. and R. — W. (not having sp.), 
T., C.;-Germ. (die da keitien Geist haben), Calv. ('Anima hie 
spiritui, hoc est, renovationis gratiae opponitur.'). Grot. (■ Jac- 
tant se miras habere inspirationes, at nullas habent.'), B. and 
L. (qu'il n'y ait rien de spirituel en eux), Wakef, Penn, 
([being^ without a sp.), Greenf. (HIT Dnb ]^N), Barn. ('The 

Holy Spirit or the spirit of true religion'), Hengst. (see Offenb. 
II. p. 45.), Stier (die Geist nicht haben), Am. (n'ayant rien 
de spirituel). Peile (having no spirituality), Huth. ('the 
higher spiritual life wrought by the Holy Spirit'). Comp. Rev. 
11 : 11, N. z. 

"■ See 2 Pet. 1 : 21, N. f. 

» E. v., Mark 15 : 43 ; Luke 2 : 25 ; 12 : 36 ; 23 : 51 ; and to 
these I recommend that Luke 2:38; Acts 23 : 21 ; Tit. 2 : 13 
be conformed ;-German verss. (use aufwarten, erwarten, har- 
ren), Dt. (vericachtende), French verss. ([en] attendant) ;- 
Sharpe, Murd., Dav. 

" Beng. : ' Qui sibi jam consuluit, consulat aliis.' This con- 
nection (see also v. 22, N. s) between w. 20, 21 and vv. 22, 23. 
is indicated as above by It. and Fr. G. A semicolon is employed 
by Fr. S. ; a comma, by Castal. and Thom. 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



75 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

22 And of some have compas- 
sion, making a difleience : 

23 And others save widi feai', 



GREEK TEXT. 



22 xat, org (.isv iT^esite Siaxpivo- 

l-lSVOf 

23 ovg 8s iv ^o^a aa^srs, ex tov 



REVISED VERSION. 

P22 And Ion some, 'indeed, 
•have compassion, 'while con- 
tending ; 

P23 ''But others save "in fear. 



V. 



21) to 



p It must be allowed that Dr. A. Clarke does but state the 
truth, though he apjiears to do it somewhat impatiently, when 
he says of ' this and the following verse,' that they ' are all 
confusion, both in the MSS. and Versions; and it is extremely 
difficult to know what was the original text. Our own is as 
likely as any.' Beng. (in the Gnomon), Lachm. and Tisch., 
after A. B., Vulg., read thus; xai ovi fisv i^iyzm (B. ixeats) 
Siaxptt'o/iifovf, ov; ii a^^efe Ix Ttvpoi aprtdCovtii. oi'j Sh i\tdtc 
(Beng. i\iitri) ii ijio^S^j, /xiaoivtii xfji. ;-and so Huth., whose 
criticism compare with that of Haenl., Laurm., De W., Stier 
(note on pp. 114, 115) ; and see N. t. 

t E. v., everywhere else;-T. ;-Dodd. and the later verss. 
(except Penn, fur). 

■• See V. 10, N. u, &c. Laurm.: 'oi; ixiv et oij U rite sibi 
invicem opponuntur.' 

• 'Deal with them in that spirit (ro txtoj tov Knp., 
which you yourselves are debtors.' 

' Dr. Clarke's complaint about the perplexity of the readings 
may be extended to the interpretations that have been given of 
each several text. Thus, the reading Staxpn/o/icVou; is in the 
Yulg., judicatos; Oec, d fiiv artoSuatavtai, iiiwv (so Gerl. : 
indem ihr sie aussondert ; and Huth., who thinks it ' answers 
to the previous drto5topi7ffni, taken intransitively.' The same 
sense would be allowed to this reading by Bretsch., Ilaenl., 
Am.) ; Grot., qui se caeleris praefenmt ; Cocc, disceptantes 
(a sense allowed, along with that of the Vulg., by Zeg. : si 
disceptent vobisque resistant) ; Hamm., Wells, Beng., Wesl., 
De W., Dav., Schirl., wavering, doubting, hesitating (the other 
sense allowed by Bretsch., Haenl., Arn.) ; Penn, who are to be 
distinguished ; <S-c. ; — a variety, of which Clarke gives one or 
two specimens, and then adds : ' or whatever else the reader 
pleases.' By the larger number of verss. and commentaries, 
however, (including three of the latest, Stier, Arn., Peile) the 
textus receptus is adhered to, and in the sense attached to it by 
E. V. The objection to this interpretation (even as modified 
by Green and Peile : making a distinction mentally, in your 
own minds) is, that no other satisfactory instance of this use 
of Siaxfivofiai has been, or probably can be, produced ; "Whitb. 
vainly referring to Acts 10 : 20 ; Rom. 14 : 23 ; and Stier, with 
only more plausibility, to James 2 : 4. Bloomf., who formerly 
had recourse to a writer of the third century (cited long ago 
for the same purpose by Steph.), has in the Supplemental Vol- 
ume deemed it advisable to append as additional confirmation 
the following : ' Of this absolute use of the word another ex- 
ample is found in Herodot. vii. 156, 4, niiiro . . . roij iv ^ixcUr; 



tTtoir^ss, SiaxptVa; (for Siaxptvdfievof), "making a distinction," 
viz. of the people at large (the many) from the few, the rich, 
the aristocrats.' Had Siaxpwdfuiiio; been used, on the contrary, 
for StaxptVa;, it would have been a case in point; the fact being 
that, wherever in classic or sacred Greek this sense is unques- 
tionable, the verb is in the active voice. ' Nunquam sumitur,' 
says Est., speaking of the middle form (in a note, cited by Leigh, 
on Rom. 14: 23), 'pro discerncre, aut dijiidicare; .sed ubi 
haec significatio occurrit, verbum activum est biaxfivnv, ut 
Matt. 10:3; Acts 15 : 9 ; 1 Cor. 4 : 7 ; 11 : 29, 31 ; 14 : 29 ;' 
and hence it is, we may suppose, that other explanations have 
been sought :— Erasm., to Calv.'s amazement, taking Siaxpwo^s- 
voi, in the passive, cum dijudicamini (and so Vat., du7n dijudi- 
cabimini) ; Bretsch., "VVahl, and Rob., in the middle, and inter- 
preting : vos ab lis separanles, separating yourselves wholly 
from them. But, in the first place, this sense of the midd. 
Smxpim/j^ai is rare, in the Sept. and N. T. without example ; 
and, secondly, it is quite unsuitable to the context. It does not 
harmonize with txiiire, and, in connection with v. 23, it implies 
a discrimination in favour of the worse class of transgressors. 
The new view proposed above (which since the former edition 
I have found indicated by SchOttg. : ' imxpivo/xai, discepto. ju- 
dicio contendo . . . Jud. v. 9. 22.') has these points in its fa- 
vour : — 1., It takes the word in a familiar acceptation, as used 
in classical Greek from the beginning ; - in the Sept., Jer. 
15: 10; Ez. 20: 35; Joel 3 : 2 ;-in the N. T., Acts 11 : 2;- 
and bj' the writer of this epistle himself, v. 9 (for although 
Laurm. says : ' Siaxfiimi' hie alia venit potestate, quam v. 9,' 
he assigns no reason for the opinion, and comes to no decision 
of his own as to what the word does mean.) ; — and, 2., so under- 
stood, the phrase serves at once as a remembrancer of the main 
object of the epistle, v. 3 ; as a transition from the unmingled 
denunciation of the previous context to these counsels of re- 
lenting grace ; and as a warning against permitting even Chris- 
tian compassion to abate the vigour and persistency of their 
contention with sin. 

" Not: by appeals adapted to produce fear (Barn., &c.), 
but: in a spirit of fear, ' with conscientious solicitude for the 
Church's salvation and your own' (De W.). So it is understood 
also, or at least it is translated as above, by the Vulg. (in ti- 
more) and its followers; by such other verss. generally, as 
adopt the Vulg. reading (see N. p); and by Castal. (religiose), 
Zeg. (•cum timore interim et circumspectione'), Dt. marg.. Engl. 
Ann. (as an allowable interpretation ;-and so Hamm. ; Pric. 
' Vel . . . festinantes et trepidantes, eorum ritu qui aliquid ex 
fliamma rapiunt, salvate eos : Sattov, ut loquitur Artemidorus ;' 
Haenl. [though he thinks iv fojScj, probably a gloss] and Ros., 
who, without naming Pric, help themselves to his note ; Scott), 



76 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

pulling them, out of the fire ; 
hating even the garment sjjotted 
by the flesh. 

24 Now unto him that is able 
to keep you Irom falling, and to 
present you faultless before the 
presence of his glorj^ with exceed- 
ing joy> 

25 To the only wise God our 
Saviour, be glory and majesty. 



GREEK TEXT. 



Ttupc^ ap7td^0T"res, ^idovvtsg xal top 
anb tng 'aapxog ityniTd^^dvov ^LTuva. 

24 To & hwa^iva ^vTA^ai av- 
tovc, dTttcuotovg, xai arriaaL xars- 
vcaitiav T?[g ho^rig avvoii d^Q^ovg iv 
dya'?L?Masi, 

25 nova Go^ Qea Gaytripi r^iov, 
86^a xal ^eyaAjuavvyi, xpdtog xal 



REVISED VERSION. 

''snatching them out of the fire, 
hating even the garment spotted 
by the flesh. 

24 '"But unto him Hvho is able 
to keep ythem from falling, and 
to ^set ^tliem "in the presence of 
his glory faultless with exceeding 
py, 

25 •'Unto the only Svise God 
our Saviour, "^ glory "^and majes- 



' Elsewhere (12 times) B. V. renders aprtafu to take by force, 
catch, catch away, catch up, pluck i-hRtm verss. (rapientes), 
Dt. (e?! grijpt), Fr. S. (ravissant -j-ior arrachant of the other 
verss.) ;-Eng!. Ann., Haram., Berl. Bib. and the later German 
verss. (use reissen --for Luth.'s riicken), Gujse {pluck), Dodd. 
and the later English, Greenf. (uses the hiphil of the verb, 
whose hophal is in the parallel Amos 4 : 11 and Zech. 3 : 2 
translated by E. A'', plucked) ;-and see the lexicons. 

" ' After all mj exhortations and your efibrts (alike vain 
without the divine blessing), "not unto us, not unto us" (Ps. 
115 : 1), but &c.' See 2 Pet 1 : 5, N. r. W.;-Latin and Ger- 
man verss., Syr. ;-Peile. 

' See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. c, &c. Guyse, Dodd. and the later 
verss. (except Newc). See Rev. 1 : 5, N. v. 

y Excepting Beng., Bloomf , Tisch., all the recent editors, for 
avfoiJs, read vfia; (C. G., Vulg., Syr., <tc. — A. has riiJ.d;.). 1 
recommend that this reading be adopted: you, but that the 
margin contain this note: ' Or, according to some copies, i/iem.' 
De W., indeed, insists upon avfotif as the harder reading, and 
explains it thus : ' Them — the readers, from whom the author 
soaring in devotion as it were turns away (just as at parting 
he gives them no salutation), and speaks in the third person ;' 
a view, which Hutli., who prefers vixai. deems 'very improb- 
able,' but which is better than to take aitovf as standing for 
tavfoi's (Bez.), or as referring ' ad improbos peccatores' (Par.: 
ad seduclores ; Huth. himself : to the last named, ov; &i) 'eo 
sensu, ut sint mali peccatores, tamen de emendatione non esse 
desperandum quousque vixerint' (Aret.), or as used elliptically 
for i^aj avT'ovf (Camerarius. Peile suggests that this — 'not 
simply ifiai — may ' possibly' be the true reading : your selves.''), 
or simply for ifiai (Beng.). Such a change of person, admis- 
sible in any language, is common enough in Hebrew ; and in the 
N. T. Rob. notes as instances of it the use of this pronoun 
n Matt. 23 : 37 ; Luke 1 : 45 comp. 44; Rev. 5 : 10 comp. 9 
(according to the reading of the recent editors; see there 
N. o.) ; 18 : 24 comp. vv. 22, 23.— Wesl. has ihem after keep, 
and supplies you after present. 

' The only instance, out of 19, in which a transitive form of 



listfini, is translated present in E. V. Generally, and always in 
cases like the present, set is the word used ;-R. ;-Latin verss. 
(constituere, statuere, sistere), Syr. (= Murd. establish), Ger- 
man verss. and Dt. (stellen ;-except Moldenh.. machen, dass 
ihr stehen kOiinet) ;-EngI. Ann. {make you stand), Laurm. 
{stare facio), Greenf. ("l^oyn'?), Penn {as Murd.), Sharpe 

{place), Peile ;-Rob. {cause to stand, set, place).. 

^ Elsewhere (4 times) E. V. translates xativ., in the sight of, 
before -j-Dt. {voor), It. {davanti), French verss. {devant -j-ex- 
cept B. and L., en [sa glorieuse] presence) ;-Erasm. and other 
Latin verss. {in conspectu ;-for the Vulg. ante conspectum, 
which E. V. and the previous English verss. follow. Cocc, 
Haenl., Ros., have coram.), Wesl., "Wakef., Newc. {before i-and 
so Thorn., Murd.), Mey. {vor), Greenf (i^D'^J), Penn, Sharpe 

{in the sight of), De W. {Angesichis), Barn. (= B. and //.), 
Kenr. ;-Rob. {^before, in the presence of). Green {in the pr. 

[sight] of). The immediate connection of xativ. with etijcsai, 

is preserved by W. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.), German 
verss. (except All.), Dt, It., Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Sharpe. 

>> As in v. 24. AY., R., {to . . . to ;-and so Guyse, Dodd., 
AVesl., Mack., Thom., Penn, Kenr.), "Wakef., Sharpe and Murd. 
(do not repeat the preposition), Peile. 

' The word 30419 (which probably came, as Mill thinks, from 
Rom. 16 : 27) is marked by Beng. as plainly spurious, by 
Bloomf. as ' most probably, or certainly, an interpolation,' and 
is cancelled by all the other recent editors (A. B. 0., &c., nearly 
all the ancient verss., &o.). I recommend that wise be omitted. 

'' The reading, which inserts here the words, hia, 'iriaov 
Xpifffoii *oi; xvpiov rifiiv (A. B. C, &c., A'ulg., Syr., Ar., &c.) 
is marked by Beng. as per codices frmior, and is adopted by 
all the other recent editors, except Bloomf. I recommend that 
this reading be followed, and translated : through Jesus Christ 

our Lord. For the omission of the supplemental be, see the 

Latin verss. (except Bez., Par.), Syr., Fr. S. ;-Moldenh. (would 
supply, if any thing, kommt zu. See N. h), Greenf, De W., 
Kenr. ;-also Rev. 1 : 6, N. d, &c. 

' This xai is cancelled by Mey., Lachm., Tisch., Theile. 



disease you endeavour to cure ;'-and so Clarke), Penn {with 
dread), Sharpe, Bloomf. {anxiously), Arn., Peile {as filled 
with apprehension for them), Huth. 



Cocc. (' in timore, ut non simus securi, scientes Satanam vigi- 
lare et in omnes nocendi occasiones intentum esse.'), Wesl. 
{'with a jealous fear, lest yourselves be infected with the 



THE EPISTLE OF JUDAS. 



77 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

dominion and power, both now 
and ever. Amen. 



GEEEK TEXT. 

s^ovcyia, xal vw xal sig Ttavtac, tovg 
aiavag. d^rii'. 



REVISED VERSION. 

ty, 'strength and ^authorit}-, '' 
both now and 'unto Jall the ages. 
Amen. 



' It is not doubted that xpdios and s^maia may often be 
properly translated apart as they are in B. V. But here, com- 
ing close together in one doxology, they should be allowed to 
retain each its own leading significance. — E. V. translates »p. 
8 times out of 12 by strength, might, power ;-Dt. (kracht), 
French verss., except S, (/o/re) ;-Bez., Par., "Wits., Beng., 
(robur), Engl. Ann. ('Or, strength^), Gu_yse, Wesl., (might), 
Mack., Greenf. {]■)]!), All., De W., {Machl), Stier {Kraft). See 
Rev. 1 : 6, N. f. 

^ See N. f. E. V. translates if. 29 times by authority ; twice, 
right; once, jurisdiction; once, liberty ;-Vyi]g. (potestas). It. 
(pudestd), Fr. S. (autorite) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Calv., Vat., Par., 
Cocc, Beng., (as Vulg.), Bez. (at first potestas; afterwards, 
auctorilas), Engl. Ann. ('Or, auth.'). Grot. ('Addidit Judas 
i%ovtsiav, agnoscens in Deo non potentiam tantum, sed et jus 
imperandi .'' This phrase is employed also by Wits.), Pears. 
(' auiho?ity, or power properly potestative'), Guyse, Wesl., 
Mack, (right), Greenf. (]1L3b'ii*)i All., DeW., Stier, ((?eTOa/«;- 

for Luth.'s Macht). See Rev. 2 : 26, N. p. 

^ Here the words, rtpo itavto; trn cUuvo; (A. B. C, &c., Vulg. 
&c.), are inserted by Mey., Lachm., Sch., Hahn, Tisch., Theile ;- 
an addition, which would require us, as De W. suggests, to 
supply iati (1 Pet. 4 : 11. See N. d), and from which may be 
derived the liturgical formula : as it was in the beginning. 

' See 2 Pet. 3 : 18, N. o. 

' Aiiiv, according to Aristotle's derivation of it from dti 
ilvM (alsv uJv), strictly means nnlimited duration, eternity, 



and is often used in that sense in the N. T. ; e. g. v. 13 ; 
2 Pet. 2 : 17 ; 3 : IS ; &c. It is also employed to express a 
specific period, and what pertains to it, as life, lifetime, gene- 
ration, age, era ; and hence the frequent occurrence in various 
combinations of the plural aiuvt^, as popularly equivalent, in 
the ever incomplete sum of them — (Milton's ages of hopeless 
end) — to the one infinite aiwr, which is then conceived of as 
aiCov tuiv aiuvciv. But these meanings perhaps exhaust the 
significance of the word as found either in sacred or classical 
Greek ; it being at least very questionable, whether the sense, 
material world, universe, which does not properly belong to it 
(any more than to its cognates, the Latin aevum, the German 
ewig, or the English ever), is required even in Heb. 1 : 2; 11 : 3. 
It seems evident, moreover, that E. V. is not justified in so 
generally — (for neither here is its practice uniform ; see Eph. 
2:7; 3 : 21, which is still very confusedly rendered : and Col. 
1 : 26, where the yiviai even are not, as in Eph. 3 : 21, made to 
disappear) — substituting for the Scriptural representation of 
ever-flowing aeons, or dispensations, the idea of an absolute, 
undivided eternity. See 2 Pet. 3 : IS, N. p, and Rev. I : C, 
N. g. — W. (all worlds of worlds ;-' worlds' being here, as in 
R. all worlds evermore, = Wellzeiten, world-periods. See 
Rich. s. V.) ;-Vulg. (omnia secula secidorum), Syr. (^ Murd. 
in all ages), German verss. (alle Ewiglceit ;-except Stier, 
alle Ewigkeiten), Dt. marg. (alle de eeuwen), It. (tutti i 
secoli), French verss. (tons les siecles) ;-Erasm. and later Latin 
verss. (omnia sec), Engl. Ann., Ilamm. (all ages ;-!md so 
Dodd., Wesl., Mack , Newc, Sharpe, Kenr., Peile), Greenf. 
(QV^)V-^3). 



78 



REVELATION. 



•THE REVELATION OF JOHN THE DIVINE. 



KING JAMES' VERSION. 

CHAP. I. 

The Revelation of Jesus Christ, 
which God gave unto him, to 
shew unto his sei-vants things 
which must shortly come to 
pass ; and he sent and signified 
it by his angel unto his servant 
John : 

2 'Who bare record of the word 
of God, and of the testimony of 
Jesus Christ, and of all things 
that he saw. 



GREEK TEXT. 

CHAP. I. 

'AHOKAA rWIE 'Irjaod 
Xpiarov, r]u eScoKei' avTco 6 Oeos, 
Sei^ai TOLS 8ovXoi9 avrov a del 
yevtaOaL Iv Toyfii, koI iarjfxavev 
airoa-TeiXas 8ia tov dyyeAov avrov 
fco 8ov\a> avTOu Iwavvrj, 

2 OS ejxapTvpTqae tov Xoyov 
TOV Oeov Koi TTju jxapTvplau Irj- 
aov XpLaTov, oaa re et'Se. 



REVISED VERSION. 

CHAP. I. 

The Revelation of Jesus Christ, 
which God gave unto him, to 
show unto his servants things 
which must ^^ come to pass short- 
\j, ^ and ""sending he signified ^ 
by his angel unto his servant 
John,'' 

2 Wlio ^testified the word of 
God and the testimony of Jesus 
Christ, ''and '^whatsoever things 
he saw -^ 



"■ It is agreed on all hands that this inscription, which varies 
unpleasantly from the title assumed in the opening of the book 
itself, is of no canonical authority. ' Antiquus ille quidem est,' 
says Beng. of the titulus ab hominibus praejirus, ' sed dubita- 
tiones de scriptore Apocalypseos, longo post seculum apostoli- 
cum intervallo ortas; Theologique cognomen et in ecclesiam 
introductum et Johanni tributum ; et alias Apocalypses nescio 
quas, a quibus haec vera diseerneretur, praesupponit . . . Johan- 
iiis nomine veteres Apocalypsin veram a tot apocryphis voluere 
discernere.' Griesb., accordingly, prefixes simply AnOKA- 
AT"*'I2 (Heinr. : ' Nam in hac una voce sibi constant, in reliquis 
omnibus mirifice variant MSS.'), and so Sch., Treg., Words. 
This example is followed also by Fr. S. (Apocalypse) ;-Sharpe 
(The Rev.), Stu., Lord, (The Apoc), &c. I recommend that 
the title be : REVELATION. 

•» The indication of time here is emphatic, as appears from 
its repetition in v. 3, and elsewhere, as well as from the arrange- 
ment of the clause. Comp. Rom. 16 : 20. — The Greek order 
is preserved in W., R. ;-Latin and French verss. (except Castal.), 
Syr., It. ;-Greenf., Woodh., Treg., De W. 

' The first two verses being designed mainly to announce the 
divine origin of the prophecy, and the successive steps in the 
process of its conveyance to the Church, the punctuation of our 
Greek Text, which many (Beng., Lachm., Sch., Hahn, Treg., 
Words., Tisch., Theile) follow, is to be preferred. All the old 
English verss., including the original edition of E. V., have a 
comma at the end of v. 1. 

' The participial construction is retained by W., R. ;-Vulg., 
It. (avendola mandata), Fr. G..-M.,-S. ;-Hamm., Cocc, Vitr., 



Dodd., Woodh., Stu., Lord, Treg. (having se7it), Murd. (by 
sending), Kenr., Barn. 

'^ Whether iarjfiaviv has its object expressed in rjv of this 
verse, or in oaa clSt of v. 2, or whether the object is to be sup- 
plied by a pronoun for artoxd'Kv^is, or for a &n yiviaSai, or, 
lastly, whether the verb is used absolutely, are questions, some 
of them at least, more difficult than important, into which we 
need not enter. A translation, especially of the divine oracles, 
ought not to be more explicit and determinate than the original. 
—No object is supplied by W., T., C, G., R. ;-Vulg., Syr. ;- 
Erasm., Vat., Castal., Cocc, Vitr., Ros., Greenf., Lord, Kenr. 

' See 1 John 1 : 2, N. 1. E. V., ch. 22 : 16, 20, being the 
only other instances in this book;-W. (bare witnessing to), 
R. (hath given testimony to) ;-Brightm., Wesl., Newc, Thom., 
Treg., Kenr., (hath [thus] test.), Hamm. (had test.), "SVella 
(has borne witness to). Daub, (witnessed), Dodd., Penn (bare 
testimony to), Murd. (bore witness to). 

' The tf, which is found nowhere else in this book, except 
in a questionable reading of ch. 21 : 12, is wanting in ' A. B. C. 
a 27. /3 7. y 8. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Erp. 
Slav.', and is cancelled by all the recent editors. I recommend 
that, in accordance with this reading, the word and be omitted. 

^ See Jude 10, N. t. A compound relative (wJiatsoever, 
whatever, quaecunqiie) is employed by W., R. ;-Latin verss. 
(except Castal.) ;- Wesl., Newc, Woodh., Stu., Lord, Treg., 
Kenr., Bam. 

 This punctuation suggests, as the main ground of the bless- 
edness asserted in v. 3, all that has just been declared respecting 
the origin and communication of the prophecy. 



REVELATION. 



79 



KING JAMES VEKSION. 

3 Blessed is he that readeth, 
and they that hear the words of 
this prophecjr, and keep those 
things which are written therein : 
for the time is at liand. 

4 John to the seven churches 
which are in Asia : Grace be 
unto you, and peace, from him 
whicli is, and whicli was, and 
which is to come ; and from the 
seven Spirits which are before 
his throne ; 



GREEK TEXT. 

3 ixuKoipLOs o dvayivcoaKcov, 
Koi ol oLKOvovTes Tovs Xoyov9 Trjs 
■7rpo(l)y]T€ia9, koI TrjpovvTes to. iu 
avTrj yeypa/xfxeva- o yap Kaipos 
eyyvs. 

4 'IcodvuTjs rat? iirra eKKXr]- 
(rlais rah eV rfj Acria- X'^P'-^ 
vfiiv Koi elprjvrj diro rod o wv kul 

6 TjV KCU 6 ipXPlXevOS' KCU OLTTO 

Ta>v eVra Trvevp-arcov a ecmv evco- 
wiou Tor) dpovov avTOV' 



REVISED VERSION. 

3 Blessed is he that readeth, 
and they that hear, the words of 
'the prophecy, and keep Jthe 
things therein written; for the 
time is ''near. 



4 John to the seven churches 
'which are in Asia : Grace " unto 
you and peace from him, "who 
is, and "who was, and "who 
"cometh ; and from tlie seven 
PSpuits "ithat are before his 
throne ; 



' T., C. ;-Germ., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Castal., Cocc, Grell. 
and Wesl. (mark the demonstrative as supplied), Beng., Herd., 
Woodh., Mey., Greenf., Sharpe, Lord, De W., Treg., Hengst. 
E. V. and others follow the Vulg. 

I Newc, Lord, (the th. wr. in it), Greenf., Sharpe and Stu. 
(the th. wr. therein), De W. (das in ihr Geschriebene). Many 
others, retaining the relative construction of the Vulg., drop 
the demonstrative pronoun. 

k E. v., Matt. 24 : 33 ; &c. ;-"W., R., (nigh) ;-Latin verss. 
generally (jjrope), German verss. (nahe), Dt. (nabij). It. (vicino), 
French verss. (proche) j-Bnghtm., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., 
Bloomf., Stu., Lord, Treg. (as IF.), Murd. 

1 The words which are are not in the original edition of E. V. 

"^ E. v., Rom 1 : 7; 2 Thess. 1 : 2; 1 Tim. 1 : 2; 2 Tnn. 1 : 
2; Tit. 1: 4; Philem. 4;-W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., It. ;-Erasm., 
Vat., Castal., Cocc, Vitr., Moldenh., Herd., Mey., Greenf., AH., 
Lord, De W., Murd., Kenr. 

" See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. The ■foij before o uv was intro- 
duced, Beng. says, by Erasm. It is cancelled by all the recent 
editors, except iNIatth. 

" As Stu. intimates, o £p;td;«fi'o; = {<2n ; but it is not neces- 

sary in English any more than in Greek or Hebrew, in order 
to get the future sense, to introduce the future form. And even 
if, according to the assertion of De W. and others (which, how- 
ever, Hengst. denies), these participles stand for 6 iaofiivo;, still 
the idea of absolute futurity, the near as well as the remote, is 
best given by the present Jense of the substitutes. See ch. 2 : 
5, N. V and 1 John 2 : 18, N. e.— Syr., Germ., Fr. S.;-Brightm. 
(' Cometh, or is in coHu'rag-, as if a present-future thing, that I 
may so call it. For that which is coming is not yet present, 
neither yet is it altogether absent. It is therefore far more 
significant than if he had said, he that is about to come, as it is 
commonly translated.' The first edition in English of Brightm.'s 
work was printed at Amsterdam in 1G15, four years later than 
E. v.), Cocc, Beng., Wesl., Herd, (kommt ;-which he illustrates 
by adding ' kommt und kommt — cometh and cometh.' So on 
T. 7 : ' Behold, He cometh ! He cometh ! is the substance of 



the book, its innumerous trumpet-voice.'). Till., Kell., (the com- 
ing one), Mey., Hengst. 

p The Amer. Bible Soc. now prints this word, spirits (with- 
out a capital), not because it was so printed in the original 
edition of 1611, but as the result of the Society's application 
of the following rule: 'The word Spirit . . . everywhere is 
made to begin with a capital when it refers to the Spirit of God 
as a divine agent ; but not when it denotes other spiritual beings 
or the spirit of man' (Report on the History and Recent Col- 
lation <^c., p. 24). My belief that the Society's interpretation 
of the term in the present instance is erroneous, though it 
agrees with Rob.'s (who does not even recognize any other 
meaning as possible than that of ' the seven archangels'), and 
that it weakens and darkens the sublimest formula of benedic- 
tion to be found in Scripture, leads me, in accordance with the 
same rule, to retain the orthography of previous editions. That 
rue tTtta Ttvcvjxdtuv of this verse is a mystical designation of 
the Holy Spirit, has been the prevalent opinion in the Church 
from the beginning, except when the text has been perverted 
to the uses of superstition. Nor, in very many cases, is it an 
indication that a writer did not hold it, that he does not use 
the initial capital. The older verss., e. g. W., T., C, paid little 
or no regard to the above rule, nor is it strictly followed even 
by liviog authors. Thus, Lord has ' spirits.' and his comment 
is: ' The seven spirits are the Holy Spirit.' But in favour of 
the capital, or of the view which justifies it, may also be cited 
from the great cloud of witnesses the following : — G. ;-Dt. Ann. 
(' By these seven Spirits must here be understood the Holy 
Spirit.' See the entire note.). It., Fr. G.,-M. (It is true that 
the Amer. Bible Soc.'s edition of 1852, which is the one that I 
have used, has esprits, as the Romanist De Sacy also has. But 
as it appeared unlikely that JI., who followed the Society's rule 
in the printing of the word, had held the view thus indicated, 
an opportunity has been sought of consulting the original 
Utrecht edition of 169G, and there it is Esprits, with a note 
appended in vindication.), Fr. S. ;-Aug. (' Septenarium numerum 
Sancto Spiritui quodammodo dedicatum commendat Scriptura, 
et novit Ecclesia.'), Bede (' Unum spiritum dicit septiformem, 
quae est perfectio et plenitude.'), Junius, Laun.. Gom., Par. (to 



80 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

5 And from Jesus Christ, ivho 
is the faithful Witness, and the 
First-begotten of the dead, and 
the Prince of the kings of the 
earth. Unto him that loved us, 
and washed us from our sins in 
his own blood. 



6 And hath made us kings and 
priests unto God and his Father; 



GREEK TEXT. 

5 Koi (XTTO Irjaov XpiaTOu, 6 

jJiapTVS 6 TTlCTTOf, 6 TTpCarOTOKOS 

e'/c TU)v v€KpS)v, Kai o ap^cov rSiv 
IBaaLXewv ti]s yrjs' rep ayairrj- 
cravTL i^p-OLS, Kol XovaavTi rjjxas' 
OTTO Tcov apapTLcou rjp.a>i> eV r« 
ai/xaTL avTOv- 

6 KOL i7roiT](T€u rjfjids /SacTiAety 
KOL lepeis Tcp Oeo) kou Trarpl 



REVISED VERSION. 

5 And from Jesus Christ,  the 
faithful Witness, " the 'First-born 
"from the dead, and the Prince 
of the kings of the earth. Unto 
him ""who ^loved us, and washed 
us from our sins in his ^ blood, 



6 And ''he ^ made us ^kings 
and priests unto ""his God and 



 Nothing is supplied in Syr., It. Fr. S. ;-Castal., C'occ, Vitr., 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., Peun, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., 

De W. For the emphatic o . . . o, see 1 John 2 : 7, N. o. 

Syr. (repeats the pronominal substitute for the article, as in 
De D. : ilte testis, ille Jidelis. Murd. : the IF., (/w F.), Fr. S. 
(le temoiii, le Jidcle). A demonstrative pronoun is employed 
by Pagn., Castal., Bez., Brightm., Cocc, Vitr., Wakef., Ros. 

 The conjunction is not supplied in W., R. ;-foreign verss. 
(except Luth., Hengst.) ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Thom., 
Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

' Ilpur 0*0X05 is the Sept. rendering of "1132 (Greenf 's word 

here, as its cognate occurs in the Syr.), which in E. V. is never 
Jirst-begotten. — E. V., in the parallel Col. 1 : 18 and every- 
where else (6 times), except in this instance and Heb. 1 : G ;- 
R. ;-German and French verss., Dt. ;-Zeg. (primus partus), 
Brightm., Engl. Ann. (■ Or, Jirst brought forth''), Hamm., 
Daub., Dodd., Wakef, Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Till., Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. ;-Leigh, Pass., L. and S., Rob., 
Green, Schirl. 

" So E. V. in Col. 1 : 18, and the few verss. that here follow 
this reading. But ix (probably introduced, as Mill and others 
suppose, from Col. 1 : 18) is wanting in ' A. B. C. a 24. /3 6. 
y 10. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Arr.', and is rejected by all the recent 
editors, except Bloomf , who, though he says that there are 
' strong grounds' against it, ' yet inclines to suspect that John 
wrote' it, and so prints it in brackets. I recommend that it be 
omitted, and that tuv mxpuv stand, as in E. V. : of the dead. 

" See Jude 24, N. x, &c. R. ;-Brightm., Dodd., Wakef., 
Woodh., Thorn., Penn, Sharpe, Slu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

" The original edition of E. V. had hath loved, and the same 
tense is still retained in v. 6. But the reading a/yaHCivti, — ('ut 
indicetur perpetua dilectio,' Grot.) — of A. B. C. ' a 22. /3 6. y 10,' 
is adopted by all the recent editors. I recommend that it be 
followed : loveth. 



» See 1 John 3: 12, N. g. E. V., v. 6; &c.;-W., C, R. ;- 
foreign verss. (except that Erasm. and Vat. change the Vulg. 
suo into ipsius) ;-Brightm., Woodh., Thorn., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 

Barn., Murd.. Kenr. For %ovaavti drto, Lachm., Treg., Theile, 

read7ivcjavf/('A. C. 6. 7. 12*. 28. 36. 69. Syr. Slav. MSS.') 
ix (' A. C. 12 28. 36. 38. Er.' Also Beng.). 

y ' A Hebraistic resolution of the participle into the finite 
verb,' says De W. But this change of construction is not a 
mere arbitrary, useless imitation (nor is it, indeed, exclusively 
Hebraistic. See Tittm., pp. 213 — 216.), but serves to render 
more direct and emphatic the solemn announcement to the 
suffering Church of God of her high calling and marvellous 
destiny. See ch. 2 : 20, N. j and 2 John 2, N. f— Sharpe, De 
W., Treg. 

' The entire result of Christ's mediation is viewed as already 
become historical. See ch. 5 : 9, 10, NN. 1, n, p. — E. V., v. 5 
(see there N.w);-W.,T.,C., G.;-Daub., Wakef, Herd., Mey., 
Sharpe, De W. 

' Mill pronounces pamxilav, for j3aai%Hf, the genuina lectio ; 
but, with the exception of Bloomf, who has paai-Kziav \_xa.i], all 
the recent editors give fiatsiXilav instead of ^aaiXtli xai, and 
this reading is supported by ' A. C. a 27. p 4. y 8. Compl. 
(Vulg.) Am. Harl. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' I 
recommend that the version be changed accordingly, thus : a 
kingdom, priests. 

^ Very many follow Grot, in taking xai as exegetical : God 
even his Father ; and this is an allowable translation. 1 prefer 
the other construction as conveying more fully the precious 
truth, that the relations of the Church to God are not only 
established by her Lord and Saviour, but have their ground 
and security in his ow7i relations to God. Comp. ch. 3 : 21 ; 
John 20: 17; 1 Cor. 3: 21-23; &c.— Fr. S.;-Hamm., Beng., 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef, Newc, Goss., Penn, Gerl., Sharpe, Treg., 
Kenr. 



whom De W. errs in attributing the opinion, ' septem virtutes 
providentiae Dei ;' this being a modification which Par. censures 
in another.), Engl. Ann., Durh., Cocc, Owen, Charn., Bp. Bur- 
net, Grell., Pool, Marck, Braun., Budd., Vitr., SchOttg., Wolf, 
Beng., Stapfer, Lowm., Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Gill, Moldenh., 
Woodh., Scott, Crol., Allw., Jones, Pye Smith, Dr. John Dick, 
Bloomf., Penn, Gerl., Ell., De W., Treg.. Words., Hengst., Kell., 



Murd. Others, who do not here recognize the personal Spirit, 
yet avoid the introduction of inferior natures. Thus, Grot. 
(' multiformem Dei providentiam'), Eichh. (' a Jehova, natura 
perfectissima'), Heinr. ('virtutes seu predicata summi numinis'), 
Ew. ('Vim divinam in terra se exserentem'). 

1 See 2 Pet. 2 : 11. N. f 



REVELATION. 



81 



REVISED VERSION. 

to him be glory and dominion for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

7 Behold, he cometh with 
clouds ; and every eye shall see 
him, and they also which pierced 
him : and all kindi-eds of the 
earth shall wail because of him. 
Even so, Amen. 

8 I am Alpha and Omega, the 
beginning and the ending, saith 



GREEK TEXT. 



avTOV avTco rj 



7 8o^a 



Kai TO K par OS 



eis Tovs aicofas rau aLcovwv. a/j.r]u. 



7 'ISov 



ep^erai pera rav ve- 
(peXaii^, Kot oyjreTaL avrov iras 
6(p8aXpos, Kol o'lTLves avrov e£e- 
KevTrjaap- kol KO'^ovrat eV avrov 
irdcrai. al 0i;Aat rijs y^s. vou, 
apL-qv. 

8 -Eyco elpi to A Ka\ ro f2. 



REVISED VERSION. 

Father, "^unto him'' *the glory 
and ^the "jiower ^unto the ages 
of the ages. Amen. 

7 Behold, he cometh with ''the 
clouds, and every eye shall see 
him, and they ' who pierced him ; 
and all J'the ''tribes of the earth 
shall wail because of him : 'Yea, 
amen. 



8 "I am "the Alpha and ""the 
Omega, ° beginning and " end, 



' See Jude 25,^N. b. 

<« See 2 Pet. 3 : 18, N. 1 and Jude 25, X. d. The supplement 
assumes what is far from being certain, that the clause expresses 
merely a wish, and not also an affirmation fcomp. Matt. 6 : 13 ; 
1 Pet. 4 : 11 in the Greek), and it tends rather to obscure the 
antithetical structure of vv. 4-6. ' Grace unto you and peace 
from Jesus Christ : Unto him the glory and the power.' — 
E. v., ch. 7 : 10; &c. ;-Latin verss. (except Bez., Par.), Syr., 
Fr. S. ;-Daub. (' to him belongs. This expression is only affirm- 
ative, as all the rest before and after.'), Moldenh. (kommi zu), 
De W. (t/iOT [ist, gehort]), Greenf., Hengst. (see his Comment.)^ 
Kenr. See also ch. 5 : 13, N. d. 

' See 2 Pet. 3 : 18, N. m. Where the article occurs thus in 
the doxologies of Scripture, it may be regarded as connecting 
these raptures of adoration and J03' with their exciting cause, to 
wit, the processes and issues of God's working in creation and 
providence. Here the Church hastens to lay at the feet of her 
Lord the very crown, which He has just placed on her head. — 
Dt., It., French verss. ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., 
Woodh., Thom. (omits the second article), Greenf., Kist., De 
W., Ilengst. See ch. 7 : 10, N. g and 12, N. n. 

' See Jude 25. N. f. E. V., ch. 5 : 13, and five times else- 
where ;-Dt. (kracht), Fr. G.,-M., (force), Fr. S. (pouvoir) ;- 
Pagn., Bez., Pise, Par., (robur). De D. (potentia), Engl. Ann. 
(■Or, might, or strength''), B. and L. (puissance), Berl. Bib. 
(Starke), Beng. (Kraft), "Wesl. (might), Greenf. (lb), Van 
Ess, De W., (Macht), Sharpe, Bloomf.. Kell., Murd., Barn. 
(' literally strength . . . here the strength, power, or authority 
which is exercised over others.') 

^ See Jude 25. N.j. Here also the original construction is 
preserved by W. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal., who changes in 
secula seculorum to in perpetua secula), Syr., It., French 
verss. ;-Thom., Clarke, Greenf., Sharpe. I recommend, how- 
ever, that for ever and ever, as being nothing more than the 
familiar English equivalent of the Hebrew formula and its 
Greek imitation, be retained throughout the book, while the 
literal version may stand in the margin. 

 E. v., in the five other analogous instances of the use of 
the plural vc^ixat,, even where, as in Mark 13 : 26 ; 1 Thess. 
4 : 17, there is no article in Greek j-E. ;-foreign verss. ;-Daub., 



Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Words., 
Kenr. 

' In the original edition of E. Y. also was not marked as 
supplied ; but nearly all other verss. are satisfied with trans- 
lating xai as copulative, and, or as intensive, even. For who, 

see 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

i E. v., ]Matt. 24 : 30 ;-W., R. ;-It., French verss., Brightm., 
Wells, Daub., and the later English verss. (except Words.). 

>■ E. v., 25 times out of 31 ;-R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.), 
Syr., French verss. ;-Brightm. and later English verss. (except 
Words.), Berl. Bib., Beng., Moldenh.. (Stdmme -j-iov Geschlech- 
ier of the other verss.), Greenf. 

1 B. V. has yea or yes 26 times out of 34 ;-W., R. ;-Latin 
verss. (etiam), other foreign verss. (except Greenf. "BX) ;- 
Dodd., Wesl., Thom. and Murd. (yes). Clarke, Stu., Lord, Kenr.. 
Barn. (' not the expression of a wi.-,h that it may be so. as our 
common translation would seem to implj', but a strong affirm- 
ation that it will be so.'). 

■" The grammatical rule about the emphatic pronominal sub- 
ject (see 1 John 2 : 20, N. p, &c.) is not disregarded in this book, 
nor should it be overlooked by the interpreter. The translator 
has often no other convenient way of indicating it than by a 
change of type — the expedient of Treg. and others. 'Eyii here, 

and in v. 17, is plainly the "isx of Jehovah. Bloomf. : ' The 

articles before A and Q, have, as Dr. Wordsworth observes, a 
restrictive sense, showing that Christ is the only Author and 
Finisher of all things.' They are preserved in all the modern 
foreign verss. (except Greenf. Beng. omits the second) ;-Pears. 
(' With the article so much elsewhere stood upon.' by the So- 
cinians). Daub., Dodd., Wesl., "W'akef, Woodh., Thom., Scott, 
Lord, Treg., Words.. Kenr. 

° Of verss. that admit this clause, Fr. S.. Berl. Bib., Herd., 

have no article. For end, see E. V., ch. 21 : 6; 22: 13; &c. 

(nowhere else has it ending) ;-W., R. ;-Brightm., Daub., Dodd., 

Wakef., Thom., Kenr. But the clause, dp;t)j xai ■tit.oi, is 

wanting in ' A. B. C. a 23. /3 6. y 9. Compl. Aeth. Syr. Arm. 
Slav. MS.'; is marked by Bloomf. as ^ most probably, or cer- 
tainly, an interpolation ;' bracketed by Knapp among the e 
rationibus criticis delenda; and rejected by all other recent 
editors. I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, 
the words beginning and e/id be omitted. 

11 



82 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

the Lord, which is, and which 
was, and which is to come, the 
Almighty. 

9 I John, -vvlio also am your 
brother, and companion in trib- 
ulation, and in the kingdom 
and patience of Jesus Christ, 
was in the isle that is called 
Patmos, for the word of God, 
and for the testimony of Jesus 
Christ. 



10 I was in the Spirit on the 
Lord's day, and heard behind me 
a great voice, as of a trumpet. 



11 Saying, I am Alpha and 
Omega, the first and the last : 
and, "What thou seest, write in 
a book, and send it unto the 



GREEK TEXT. 

a.p)(i] Kcu TeXos, Xeyet 6 Kvpios, 
6 wv Kou 6 i)v Koi 6 ip')(pfxevos, 6 
iravTOKpaToip. 

9 'iiiyco 'Icoaufyg, o kul aSeX- 
(po9 vpcau KCU avyKOLVwvos eV tyj 
Okl'^eL, KCU eV TYj ISaa-iXeia koI 
VTTopovr) Irjaov Xpiarov, eyevo- 
p.T]v eV Trj VTjcrca rfj KaXovpevj) 
ndrpca, 8ia rov Xoyov tov Oeov 
KOLL Blol TTju paprvplav Ir]crov 

XpLCTTOV. 

10 lyevopfjv eV IIvevparL ev 
Tr) KvpiaKYj rjpepa- /cat rjKOVcra 
OTTicrco pov ({)coi'i]v peyaXrju coy 
aaX-Kiyyos; 

11 Xeyovcn]^, Eyc£> dpi to A 
/cat TO f2, 6 TT/Jwro? /cat 6 €<r)(a- 
TOS' KCU, ' O jSAeTretf ypa^ou els 



REVISED VERSION. 

saith the Lord," Pwho is, and 
•"who was, and Pwho fcometh, 
the Almighty. 

9 ■'I John,  your brother ^also, 
and 'fellow-partaker in "the trib- 
ulation, and ^in the kingdom 
and patience of Jesus Christ, 
was in the isle that is called 
Patmos, for the word of God 
and for the testimony of Jesus 
Christ. 



10 I was in the '"Spirit on the 
Lord's day ; and ^I heard behind 
me a "loud voice as of a trumpet, 



11 Saying: 'lam the Alpha 
and the Omega, the first and the 
last ; and : What thou seest, 
write in a book, and send '■ unto 



" The reading xiipws 6 Oio; (not 6 Bco;, as Barn, supposes) is 
sustained by 'A. B. C. a 24 i3 8. y 12. Compl. Vulg. Copt. 
Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MS.', and received by all the recent 
editors and commentators. I recommend its adoption: the 
Lord God. 

p See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

1 See V. 4, N. o, &c. 

 Here the iyjj (see 1 John 2 : 20, N. p, &c.) serves the pur- 
pose of a more solemn identification, like the iix*3"t "'ix of 

Dan. 8 : 15 ; &c. For the omission of who am, see W., T., 

C, R. ;-Vu!g., Syr., German verss. (Luth. and Moldenh., like 
the Syr., express the article), Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Wesl., Wakef., 
Newc, Woodh., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., 
Kenr. Others have it as a supplement. 

» The xai is wanting in A. B. C. 'a 27. J3 5. y 11. Oompl. 
Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.' ; is bracketed 
by Bloomf. ; and rejected by all the other recent editors. In 
accordance with this reading, I recommend the omission of the 
word also. 

> In the three other places where this noun occurs (Rom. 11 : 
17 ; 1 Cor. 9 : 23 ; Phil. 1 : 7) E. V. renders it partakest with, 
partaker with, partakers ;-&. (paj-tafcer) ;-Vulg. (particeps), 
Syr. (= particeps vester), Fr. M. (qui participe), Fr. S. (par- 
ticipant) ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret., (as Vidg.), Cocc, Eiohh., Ew., 
(use consors), Daub., Penn, Kenr., (partner), B. and L. (as 
Fr. M.), Dodd., Thorn., (as R.), "Wakef. (sharer with you). 
Woodh. (fellow-sharer), Goss. (MiUheilnehmer), Stu. (in the 
Comment.), Lord, Treg., Words.. Murd. (partaker with you) ; 



-Wahl ('qui una cum aliis particeps est'), L. and S. (partaking 
jointly), Rob. (joint-partaker, copartner). Green (one who 
partakes jointly, a coparticipant, copartner). Here E. V. 
and others follow Pagn., socius. 

" If ttj Bxl^ii be not construed with 'irjaoi Xptaroti, the 
article would still point to a particular trial, well-known to the 
readers. But see N. v. — Foreign verss. ;-Daub., Wesl., Thom. 
(this) ; and to those must be added all who follow the reading 
referred to in N. v. 

' The words h r J are wanting in ' A. B. C. a 23. /3 6. y 5. 
Compl. Vulg. Copt. Erp.' ; are marked by Bloomf. as 'most 
probably, or certainly, an interpolation ;' and rejected hy all 
other recent editors. I recommend the omission, and that the 
text stand : the tribulation and kingdom. 

" See ch. 17 : 3, N. m. For the repetition of the pronoun 

see W. ;-Dt., French verss. ;-Brightm., Daub., Wakef., Woodh. 
and later English verss. (except Words.), De W. 

' E. v., 13 times in this book, and always elsewhere, when 
connected with voice ;-Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Penn, 
Stu., Lord, Barn. 

y For the article before Alpha and Omega, see v. 8, N. m. 

But the words, 'Eyii ti/ut to A xai to Q, o rtpuroj xai o 

iaxatoi, xai, are cancelled by all the recent editors on the au- 
thority of 'A. B. C. a 24. /3 5. y C. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. 
Syr. Arm. Slav. MSS.' I recommend that this reading be 
adopted, and that the words, / am . . . last ; and, be omitted. 

' W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-AyesI., Wakef., Woodh., Greenf., 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 



REVELATION. 



83 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

seven churches which are in 
Asia ; unto Ephesus, and unto 
Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and 
unto Thj-atira, and unto Sardis, 
and unto Pliiladelphia, and unto 
Laodicea. 



12 And I turned to see the 
voice tliat spake with me. And 
being turned, I saw seven goklen 
candlesticks ; 

13 And in the midst of the 
seven candlesticks one like unto 
the Son of man, clothed with a 
garment down to the foot, and 
girt about the paps with a golden 
girdle. 



GREEK TEXT. 



/3t/3/\/oi', /cat Trifv^ov tols eVra 
iKK\r](r[ai9 rais iv Acria, els 
' J^cPecrov, koI et? Hixvpvav, kol 
el? Uepyafjiov, koll ely Ovareipa, 
Koi els ^dpSeis, kol els ^iAaSeA- 
(jjeLav, Koi els AaoSLKeiau. 

12 Kou eTreo-rpe-^'a fiXeireiv 
rrjv (l)a>vrjv ijTis eXaXrjae jxeT 
e/jLOV- KOL eiria-Tpe-^as eloov tVra 
Xv^vlas xpvcras, 

13 Kol iv fJ-icrcp Tcou eiTTa 

Xv)(ViaU op.0LOV VIW dvdpCOTTOV, 

ev8ehvp.evov TroSrjpi], Kat Trepi- 
e^axjfxevov irpos tols p-aaTols 



REVISED VERSION. 

the seven churches ^which are 
in Asia, unto Ephesus, and unto 
Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and 
unto Th3'atira, and unto Sardis, 
and unto Philadelphia, and unto 
Laodicea. 



12 And I turned to see the 
voice that ''spake with me ; and 
''having turned, I saw seven 
golden "^lamp-stands, 

13 And in the midst of the 
seven "^lamp-stands 'one like '' a 
son of man, clothed with a gar- 
ment down to the ''feet, and girt 
■"around *"at the ^breasts with a 
golden girdle ;'' 



" The words tali iv 'Arsla. are wanting in ' A. 13. C. a 28. 
P 7. y C. Compl. Am. Harl. Tol. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P.', and are 
rejected by all tlie recent editors. (Hengst., indeed, recognizes 
them in his translation, but probabl}' through an oversight ; 
just as in the commentary he censures Ew. for rejecting the 
iTtta of this clause, and yet omits it himself. Bloomf. also in- 
cludes, in the allowable and universally received changes in the 
reading of this verse, the exclusion of the tjfed before ixx%. ; 
but in that he is mistaken.) I recommend that the words, 
wJtidi are in Asia, be omitted. 

*' Bloomf. : ' I am wholly unable to account for Griesbach's 
retaining {■fji'Kyja^, except on the supposition of the same care- 
lessness and inadvertence too observable in his editorial revision 
throughout the Apocalypse.' All the other editors substitute 
e^iKci, on the authority of ' B. C. a 26. /3 4. y G. Compl. ^.aXfi 
A.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and translated : 

was speaking-. For having in the next clause, see Newc. 

Penn, Stu., jMurd., (when J had turned), Lord, Treg. 

' See 2 Pet. 1 : 19, N. s. Avzvia (the form is of the later 
Greek for /v^i'sior or 7.vxvovxoi) is used by the Sept. for the 
ri"ii3'2 (Greenf.'s word here) of the Tabernacle, on which rested 
the seven nins, lamps. Among the Greeks also the lamp, 
' when small and without a foot, was commonly set on a sup- 
porter or lamp-stand, Xuxviov, Xvzi'hov' (Pass., s. v. 7>.vxvo{). So 
Steph. : Basis lychni ; and Areth. : oxriiia. fiovov tov "kvxfov 5s 
iX^'' ''° ^"i- The word may be everywhere rendered as above. 
— Daub, (lamp-sconces), Dodd. (^ lamps on their stands'), 
Clarke, Penn, Home, Ell., Stu., Dav., (lamps), Newc, Till., 
Woodh. and Allw. (lamp-bearers), Hengst. (Lampen), Barn. 
(light-stands, lamp-stands) ;-Bloomf (in his N. T. lexicon), 

L. and S. See ch. 18 : 23, N. y. It is not necessary to mark 

one as supplied, any more than in Matt. 3:3; &c. 

'' The ^into is omitted by Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, 

Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Murd. The resemblance 

asserted is not to ' the man Christ Jesus,' as John had known 



him while on earth, but generally to the human form. 1. The 
former interpretation implies a personal recollection and re- 
cognition, that seems not to accord with the tone of the vision ; 
— 2., we find that, with the exception of John 5 : 27, for the 
peculiarity of which see Midd. in toe. in all the numerous in- 
stances (upwards of 80) in which the Saviour assumes this 
designation, as well as in the single undoubted instance (Acts 
7 : 56) in which it is applied to Him by another, the Greek has 
the article, o 11165 •rov drSpurton ; — and, 3., the case is strictly 
parallel to Dan. 7 : 13. where no personal recognition can be 
meant (comp. ch. 10: 5, 16, 18), although E. T. there also 
adds the Christian comment by its way of printing Son. — E. V., 
Heb. 2 : 6 (the son) ;-Vulg. (fdio ;-in the case of u t'165 roii 
av6. it has Filius), Germ., Dt. marg.. It., Fr. G. (nn honime; 
-and so M., and the marg. of B. and L.), Fr. S. (jhj fits 
d'homme) ;-Yat. (giving the Vulg. as Filio, changes it to Jilio, 
and appends the note, 'i. e. humini.'), Engl. Ann. (' Or, a son of 
man . . . that is, like a man.'), Cocc. (is doubtful), Vitr., AVolf. 
(who also cites Calov and Gata'ker), Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., 
Sym., Campb., Eichh., Wakef. (a man), Thom., Ileinr. (homini; 
-and so Ew., Ros.), Greenf., All., Penn, Stu., Ell. (at ch.l4: 14), 
Lord, De W., Hengst., Barn. ;-Bretsch., Wahl, Rob., Schirl. 

' C, G. ;-Brightm., Guyse, Sym., AVakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Penn, Bloomf., Stu. (in the Comment.), Lord, Kell., 
Murd., Barn. ;-L. and S., Rob., Green. 

f Most verss. neglect either the rtifi or the jtpdj ; yet the two 
are not synonymous (Bloomf; who says that ' rtpoj rot; fiaaioli 
is for xcfsi to, arrfi);.'). Comp. ch. 15 : 6, N. g. — W. (girt at), R. 
(about near to) ;-Latin verss. ([prae-]cinctiim ad), Syr. (= De 
D. ju.Tta), Dt. (omgoord an), It. (a), Fr. G.,-M., (a I'endroit de), 
Fr. S. (pres de) ;-B. and L. (au dessous), Beng. (iimgilrtet bei), 
Wesl., Treg., (about at), jNIoldenh. (oben gegen), Greenf. (is), 
Lord (at), De W. (iimg. an) ;-the grammars and lexicons. 

5 Germ. (Brust), Dt. (borsteri) ;-Berl. Bib., De W., (Briisten), 
Beng., Moldenh., Herd., 3Iey., All.. Hengst., (as Germ.), Wesl., 



84 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VEKSION. 

14 His head and his hairs were 
white like wool, as white as 
snow ; and his eyes u-ere as a 
flame of fire ; 

15 And his feet like unto fine 



GREEK TEXT. 

14: rj 8e K€cf)aXr] avrov koI a'l 
rpi^es XevKoi cocret epiov XevKov, 
CO? ^Lav Kou ol 6(l)daXfiol avrov 
(hs (l)X.o^ TTvpos' 

15 KOU OL TToSes avrov o/xoloi 



REVISED VERSION. 

14 'But his head and J" hair 
we7-e white as ''white wool, as 
snow ; and his eyes ' as a flame 
of fire ; 

15 And his feet like ""bumish- 



' See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r. JMost verss. render Si, but treat it 
as a simple copula, ■whereas it also serves to mark transition 
to the supernatural features of the vision. — Latin verss. {autem), 
Syr. (= De D. auiem), Germ, (after) ;-Moldenh., De W., 
Ilengst., {as Germ.). Daub. 

1 The original edition of E. V. does not mark the pronoun 
.IS supplied. It is omitted by R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., Dt. ;- 
Brightm., Wells, Berl. Bib. {die Haare --so Beng., Moldenh., 

Stolz), Wes!., Wakef., Thorn, {the h.), Lord, Kenr. For the 

translation of al tpix^S bj' a singular noun, may be cited E. Y., 
ch. 9 : 8 bis, and 5 times elsewhere ;-Germ., Syr., Dt. ;-"\Tesl., 
Wakef., Newc, Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Hengst., Murd. ;-Rob., 
Green. 

'' Aivxov is attached to tptoK (comp. Ezek. 27 : 18), so as to 
leave also <jj ;^nJi/ in direct connection with ?.ivxai. by W., T., 
0., G., R. ;-all foreign verss. ;-IIamm., Wells, Wesl., A^akef., 
Woodh., Ne«-c, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Murd., 
Kenr. ;-all the editors. E. Y. seems to have been misled by 
the punctuation of Bez.'s earlier editions : candidi lit lana, 
alba tanquam nix. 

I The supplement is not repeated by W., R. ;-Latin and Ger- 
man verss. (except Moldenh.), Dt. ;-Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Murd. 

'» For the omission of unto, see v. 13, N. d. ^Xa.r.xo^i^a.vov, 

a word which occui-s nowhere else but in this book, has been 
variously interpreted as denoting, 1., some kind of %l^a,voi (Rob. 
and Green err in making this an oxytone.), ;^a7i.xo£t6^s, frank- 
incense of a deep colour. So a Greek writer cited by Salma- 
sius, Hamm. (amber), Ew., L. and S. The same view is given 
as a possible one by Areth., Engl. Ann., Lowm., Green; — 
%, some kind of xa.'t-xoi: (1.), brass like xijiavoi. So Erasm., 
Aret., Pas.. Beng., Moldenh. (from the colour he translates, aes 
album, Prinznietall), Ziill. (who finds in the word a sort of 
enigmatical paraphrase of the Sept. ^xextpot/ of Ezek. 1 : 4, 27 ; 
8:2; that being the name in Greek both of a gum, and of a 
metal said to be compounded of four parts gold and one part 
silver, or, according to Suid., of if'xijj xai, 7.i9im. The latter also 
expressly defines xo-^xot.. as fKoj rfKixtfov tiniuiipov xpvsoi ; 
and to this De W. assents as substantially correct.) ;-(2.), brass 
from AifSai'Of, Lebanon-brass ; a derivation analogous to that 
of orichalcum, mountain-brass, by which, or its equivalent 



Sym., Newc, Thom., Sharpe, Stu., Barn., {breast), Wakef., 
Woodh., Penn, Bloomf., Lord, Treg., Kenr. ;-L. and S. 

"■ The punctuation of the Text is not without its use in con- 
veying an intimation of the rapidity of glance, with which the 



aurichalcum (for the variation probably originated in miscon- 
ception*), the Yulg. and some Latin commentators render our 
word. So Areth. (as another meaning), Syr. (De D.: ' Yidetur 
interpres xO'^xo'Kiliavov sumpsisse pro aere e monte Libano allato, 
vel pro aere candidissimo et nitidissimo, quod fuerit instar men- 
tis Libani, qui circa altis.sima juga media etiam aestate nivibus 
teotus procul spectatur.'), Aeth., Steph., Brightm., Dt. (Ann. ; 
for the vers, has blinkend koper), Daub, (as one derivation), 
Schijttg., Jones -,-{0.), ficid, smelting brass, as if from \ti^u. 
So Schwartz cited by Wolf, (who also leans to the same opin- 
ion), Woodh. ; and akin to this is the derivation from x>.t'/3a:o{ 
(Salmasius, accordingly, writes xO'^xox^t^avov), as if furnace- 
brass ■,-{4.), white ('alboque orichalco,' Yirg. Aen. xii. 87.), 
bright, shining^ brass (which readily suggests the idea of in- 
candescence, uj h xajiLvai riiTivpu/ihoi,), as if the term were a 
hybrid, from 12b, njnb. So Suic, Bochart, Grell., Daub, (as 
another derivation), Eichh., Bretsch.. Hengst. (who pronounces 
this ' the only legitimate derivation.'), Barn, (somewhat inaccu- 
rately : 'probably compounded of ;^aXxos, brass, and -Kiflavos, 
whiteness, from the Hebrew )^'b, to be ichite.'). Heinr., who, 
like Ziill., thinks that John made the word for his own use, 
suggests several of the above sources, and adds : ' vel ab alia re 
nescio qua, quae forte menti obversabatur.' On the whole, 
notwithstanding Hengst.'s confidence, the etymology of j;a!ixo7L. 
must be left as in doubt — a cru.v grammaticorum (Grell.) — 
and for this reason, or to avoid periphrasis, tlie word itself has 
been transferred by Erasm., Yat., Castal., Bez., It., Cocc. (whose 
note is : ' ut aes candens et thus limpidum sive perspicuum'), 
Vitr. ; or translated generally, with little or no attempt at spe- 
cification, as in E. V., by W., R., {latten), T., C, {brass), 
Germ., All., {Messing), B. and L. {I'airain le plus fin), Beng. 
{lauterstes Erz), Stolz, Yan Ess, {Erz), Goss. {edelstes Me- 
tall), &c. !Mean while, all agree that the phrase corresponds to 
the b^J? nan? (Greenf.) of Ezek. 1:7; Dan. 10: C, or to the 



* I find that Trench also ( On the Study of Words ; 'S>iffwr 
York Ed. p. 102) mentions aurichcdcum as an example of false 
orthography resting on a mistaken etymology. Suic, however 
(and see Steph. s. v. tVoiypoj, p. 717 D.), derives both forms 'ex 
obs. aijpdf splendor, ab iIk splendere, et j^axxof ;' and Gerl., 
Stier, and others, with reference perhaps to aurich., here give 
Giildenerz, as Herd., Mey., Kist., had given Silbererz. 



rapt seer realized the several parts of the ' glorious Apparition 
(Milton, P. L. xi. 211). The same thing is further indicated by 



the elliptical and participial construction of vv. 14-16. 
2 Pet. 2: 13. N. u. 



See 



REVELATION. 



85 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

brass, as if they burned in a 
furnace ; and his voice as the 
sovind of many waters. 

16 And he had in his right 
hand seven stars : and out of his 
mouth went a shai-p two-edged 
sword : and his countenance 
was as the sun shineth in his 
strength. 

17 And when I saw him, I 
fell at his feet as dead. And he 
Uiid liis right hand upon me, 
saying unto me. Fear not ; I am 
the first and the last : 



IS I am he that liveth, and 
was dead ; and behold, I am 
alive for evermore. Amen ; and 



GREEK TEXT. 

^aA/coA(/3az/co, wy eV Kafxivcp 7re- 
TTvpcojxei'Of Kai rj (pcdVTj avTOU cos 
(hoivr] vSarcov ttoXXcov' 

1 (3 Koi e^cou iv rfj Se^ia avrov 
X^i-pl aarepas eirra- kcu e/c tov 
aTOfxaros avrov pofKpaitc Siaro- 
p-os o^ela eKiropevop-evrj- /cat i] 
o\\rLs avTOv, w? 6 tjXios (l)aLV€L ev 
TTj 8vvap€L aVTOV. 

1 7 Kai ore ei8ov avrou, eirea-a 
vrpos Tovs TToSas avrov coy v€Kpos' 
Kai eTTeOrjKe rrjv Se^iau avrov 
X^^pc- fTJ"' eV^> X^ycov p-OL, Mrj 
(f)ol3ov. iyco elpu 6 irpwros Kac o 
eo"^aroy, 

18 /cat 6 ^cov, Kou eyevop.i-iv 
veKpos, KCLL l8ov ^q)p clpLL ety rouy 
aXSivas row alcoucov apu^v Kaj, 



REVISED VERSION. 

ed brass, as if they "glowed in a 
furnace ; and his voice as the 
"voice of many waters ;p 

16 And he had in his right 
hand seven stars ; and out of his 
mouth "iproceeded a ■'two-edged 
shai-p sword ; and his coun- 
tenance was as the sun shineth 
in his strength. 



17 And when I saw him, I 
fell at his feet as dead ; and he 
laid his right hand upon me, 
saying ■'unto me : Fear not ; ■'I 
am the first and the last, 



IS 'And 'the living one, and 
I was dead, and, behold, I am 
alive "unto the ages of the ages ; 



" nirtvpafiivoi (not jtvpoTo/j-cvm. 2 Pet. 3 : 12) iv xafiCiqi indi- 
cates one eti'ect of the fire, as Ttsrtvpufiitov ix rtvpd;, ch. 3 : 18, 
does another. — German verss. (use the word gliihen), Dt. (gloei- 
den) ;-Engl. Ann., Thorn., Stu., Treg., (use the word to glow 
[with fire]), Oocc, Vitr., (excand/facti), Woodh. (burned 
brightly). 

° E. v. has in like manner noise for the second bip of Ezek. 
43: 2, but not in Dan. 10: 6. See also Rev. 14: 2; 19: 6; 
Ps. 93 : 3 ;-W., R. ;-Latin verss. (except Cocc), Syr., Dt., Fr. 
S. ;-Brightm., Berl. Bib., Beng., Dodd., Wesl., "Woodh., Greenf., 
Kist., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg. See ch. 18 : 22, N. x. 

p See V. 13, N. h. 

1 E. v., 4 times in this book and 6 times elsewhere ;-R. ;- 
Latin verss. (use exire or prodire), Syr., It. (iiscica), French 
verss. (sortait) ;-Daub., Treg., (proceeding), Wakef., Guyse, 
Stu., Murd., (use to issue), Woodh. (coining forth), Kist., De 
W., (ging hervor). Lord, Words. (• proceedeth, present tense 
. . . The objects described are eternal, and their actions contin- 
uous.' But .John is not discoursing of eternal verities, but nar- 



rating what he saw at that moment. See ch. 9 : 18, X. e). See 

ch. 9 : 17, N. y. The Greek order of the adjectives is retained 

by Dt., It. ;-Vat., Castal., Bez., Cocc, Bierra., Beng., Woodh., 
Greenf., Kist., De W., Hengst. 

' The fiol is wanting in A. B. C. 'o 22. j3 8. y 9. Compl. 
Vulg. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.', is bracketed by Knapp 
among the e rationibus criticis delenda, and rejected by all 
the other recent editors. 1 recommend that this reading be 
adopted, and the words, rmto me, omitted. On nearly the same 
evidence, all (except Bloomf.) substitute iBtjxi for irtie., and 

all reject (except Knapp, who brackets) ;t£ipa. For iyu, see 

v. 8, N. m, &o. ' I, who wear this human form ; I, and none 
else.' 

• I find no reading that warrants the omission of xai. 

' R. (alive) y-YnXg. (viims), Syr. (= Greenf. Tin), German 
verss. (der Lebendige), Dt. marg. (de levende) ;-Erasm., Vat., 
(as Vulg.), Aret. (ille vivens), Jones. Sharpe, Treg., Lord and 
Kenr. (the Living). 

" See V. 6. N. g, &c. 



badn of Ezek. 1 : 4, 27 ; 8:2, the two being identified by most 
though not by Hengst., who admits only the first reference ; 
and who, because bij5 means primarily to be light as opposed 
to heavy, infers that hhp^ in that connection means light as op- 
posed to dark, and here translates, Lichierz. ' Das Lichte,' he 
says, ' stellt sich als leichter dar als das Dunkle, wie das Scharfe 
als leichter als das Stumpfe, Pred. 10 : 10.' While this can 
scarcely be accepted as satisfactoiy, there still remains reason 
enough to believe that ' these allusions are surer guides' — to 
the meaning, if not to the etymology — 'than grammatical con- 



jectures' (Daub.). The true notion appears to be that given 
by Steph. in these words : ' Denique hoc esse creditur quod 
Dan. 10. et Ezech. 1. hhp dicitur, i. e. Refulgens : a consequenti 
tamen, cum proprie Politum ac tersum declaret ;' and in this, 
as regards bbp, agree E. V. (burnished, polished), Gusset., 
Ges. (who explains the ba of baan in the same sense), Nork 
(polirt, glatt, abgerieben j-bailJn, polirtes Erz), Stu., &c. ; and, 
as regards x'>''>^xoxi^avov, Ges. (as if ';j;a^xo>.t'rtapoj' aes splendi- 
dum'), Stu. (polished brass), Rob. ('lit. smooth or buriiished 
brass.'). 



86 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

have the keys of hell and of 
death. 



GREEK TEXT. 



e^co ras kX^ls tov aSov kol tov 
OavaTOV. 



REVISED VERSION. 

^amen ; and "I have the keys of 
''hades and of death. 



' The d,4j}v is wanting in A. B. C. ' 36. 38. Er. Vulg. Copt. 
Aeth. Ar. P.', is bracketed by Bloomf.. and rejected by all the 
other recent editors except Matth., though he too omits it in 
the version. I recommend its omission. 

- W. ;-Brightm., Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh. and later 
English verss. (except Lord). 

' 'The English word Hell\ says Alex, (on Is. 14: 9), 
' . . . corresponds in etymology ' — (being derived by Ges., like 
the German IMle, from Hohle, hollow ; by others, from the 
Anglo-Saxon helan, to cover) — ' and early usage, to the Hebrew 
word ' iixui (here employed by the Syr. and Greenf., and 
derived by Ges. from bx^a = bsv, to hollow out), for which 
the usual Sept. equivalent is nSijj (commonly derived from a 
privative and i&sli) ; and he explains bisa as ' meaning first 
a grave or individual sepulchre, and then the grave as a gene- 
ral receptacle, indiscriminately occupied by all the dead without 
respect to character.' Ca.npb., on the coutrary, asserts and, as 
I think, proves (Diss. G. P. 2.), that ' the word grave, or sep- 
ulchre, never conveys the full import of the Hebrew sheol ' — 
(that signification is not mentioned by Ges. or Nork)— ' or the 
Greek hades, though in some instances ' — (those in which the 
expression, the grave, might be emploj'ed tropically for the state 
of the dead) — 'it may have all the precision necessary for giv- 
ing the import of the sentiment.' Nor, setting aside what may 
be alleged from the English versions of the Bible and the 
Apostles' Creed, am I aware that any evidence has been pro- 
duced, or can be, of the use of hell in either of the senses above 
ascribed to bisui. But, even if the English word had been so 
understood in ancient times, that would not justify its retention, 
when, as Alex, says, and Lightf said the same thing nearly 200 
years ago, it is ' now appropriated to the condition or the place 
of future torments;' any more than the knave of the Lord (to 
use Lightf 's own illustration), of some old translations, is now 
to be preferred to servant of t/ie Lord, although of knave it is 
true, not only, as of hell, that it is a ' strong and homely Saxon 
form,' but also that it was used for servant as late as Dryden. 
Again, it is said by Alex, (on Is. 5 : 14), when speaking of the 
German Holle and the English hell : ' The idea of a place of 
torment, which is included in their present meaning, is derived 
from the peculiar use of oiSijs (the nearest Greek equivalent) in 
the book of Revelation.' And so Hengst. (on ch. C : 8), after 
asserting, in the face of Acts 2 : 27, 31 (not to mention v. 24, 
where, however, D. Syr. Vulg. Erp. Copt. Polycaip, &c., read 
aSov.) and (according to the common reading) 1 Cor. 15 : 55, that 
' the word Hades in the N. T. occurs only in reference to dead 
sinners,' adds: 'This usage' (Hades= the place of torment) 'pre- 
vails especially in the Revelation ; comp. ch. 1 : 18 ; 20 : 13.' To 
present the grounds, on which 1 dissent from these statements, 
would lead farther into the region of interpretation and dogma, 
than might here be proper. Be it only observed, that while, with 



the single exception of 1 Cor. 15 : 55, E. V. always (10 times) 
translates iiSrn by hell, it was judged proper at Rev. 20 : 13 (cited 
by Hengst. as one of the strongest passages in favour of his view), 
and nowhere else, to .set grave in the margin. Nor can it well 
be supposed that in the next verse the word changes its mean- 
ing. Yet to that verse Campb. appeals as ' another clear proof 
from the New Testament, that hades denotes (he intermediate 
state of souls between death and the general resurrection . . . 
Whereas, if we interpret i^&r;;, hell, in the christian sense of the 
word, the whole passage is rendered nonsense. Hell is represent- 
ed as being cast into hell.' So Cam. (on Matt. 16: 18), having 
said : ' Vocem oiSsjj nusquam in Scriptura (unions raodo locus 
excipiatur ' — he refers probably to Luke 16 : 23, which yet is 
no exception ; Ilengst.'s assertion. Die Offenb., I. p. 339, that 
' to be in Hades and to be ia torment appear there as insepar- 
ably connected,' being wholly unfounded. Much the better infer- 
ence from that very passage is, that the two conditions are se- 
parable.) ' infemum. signiflcare', observes that in Rev. 20 : 14 it 
cannot be so taken without absurdity, 'quasi vero infcrnus in in- 
fernum dejiciatur.' And the same objection is urged by others. 
Finally, while vindicating the use of hell at Is. 14 : 9, Alex, re- 
marks : • The modern English versions have discarded the word 
liell as an equivocal expression, requiring explanation in order 
to be rightly understood. But as the Hebrew word Sheol, retained 
by Henderson, and the Greek word Hades, introduced by Lowth 
and Barnes, require explanation also, the strong and homely 
Saxon form will be preferred by every unsophisticated taste, &c.' 
But, 1., it is no small advantage that hades does not at once, 
and inevitably, convey an utterly false meaning. Hell does so ;* 
and this, and not that it is equivocal, is the real objection ; — 
2., the latter word, being thus readily and universally taken in 
one sense, does not even suggest the necessity of explanation ; — 
3., when an explanation of hades is wanted, it can be got in 
Webst.'s English Dictionary : 'Hades. The region of the dead, 
the invisible world, or the grave ' (the last phrase being added 
as synonymous with the other two) ; — and, 4., as a familiar, 
perhaps the prevailing sentiment in theological literature from 
the beginning has been, that frequently, even in the New Testa- 
ment, aS);; does not denote either the grave as the receptacle of 
a dead body, or the place of torment, so not ' the modern 
English versions ' merely, but English writers for more than 



* Accordingly, religious bodies in this country find it neces- 
sary, in printing the Creed, to interpret the article : He descend- 
ed into Hell. Thus, the Prot. Episcopal Church : ' Any 
Churches may omit the words, He descended into Hell, or 
may, instead of them, use the words. He went into the place nf de- 
parted spirits, which are considered as words of the same mean- 
ing in the Creed ;' and the Presbyterian Church : ' That is, he 
continued in the state of the dead, and under the power of 
death, until the third day.' 



REVELATION. 



87 



KING JAMES VEESION. 

19 Write the things which 
thou hast seen, and the things 



GREEK TEXT. 



19 rpay^rou a et'Sey, Kol a 



REVISED VERSION. 

19 Write y the things which 
thou ^sawest, and "the things 



y The oir, here inserted by A. B. C. ' a 25. (3 7. y 9. Compl. 
Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P. Slav.,' is adopted by all the re- 
cent editois. I recommend that this reading be followed : 
Write therefore. Beng. : ' After John is raised up, the com- 
mand to write is with emphasis repeated, and the interrupted 
discourse of the Lord continued.' So De W. : ' Agreeably to the 
above command, v. 11 ;' and Hengst. : ' Thy fear being now re- 
moved, do what I have enjoined.' 

' That is, at the first ; before his senses and spirit were over- 
powered by the glory. — E. V., v. 20 6^s;-He^d., Mey. Most 
English verss. follow E. V. in the rendering of ilSt( in vv. 19, 
20. Of those that do not, Stu., Treg., Kenr., agree with R., 
Germ., Dt., It., French verss., Beng., Moldenh., All., Hengst., 



in giving it in both verses as a perfect ; Dodd. and Woodh., in 
both as a present ; Wakef., sawest in v. 19, seest in v. 20. 

" Hengst. : ' lie is to exhibit the inward condition of the 
seven angels and of the seven churches, as is done in the seven 
epistles.' Others (Laun., Eichh., Heinr., Ew., Stu., De W., 
Barn.) understand by d fist the interpretation of S iCSss, q. d. 
' what thej' signify.' For this, saj'S De W., ' v. 20 and its con- 
nection with V. 19 are decisive ; ' and so the rest. But as still 
more decisive against it may be alleged, 1., the opposition be- 
tween a ftfft and a fiixKii yiviaSai ; — 2., the embarrassment 
thrown into the construction by making a U&is the subject of 
Uai and not of niyKsi,; — 3., the consideration that the principal 
object in the vision, the person of the Saviour, is not referred 



two centuries, or so long as the E. V. has existed, have very 
often in those instances preferred to employ the term hades, 
or some periphrastic substitute, such as th£ invisible world, the 
incisihle slate, the state of separation, the mansion of the dead, 
that, especially, in which the soul exists, while the body is in 
the grave. There is no dispute about this being the ordinary 
classical, or at least post-Homeric, usage ; and that it was also 
the Jewish idea in the days of the Apostles is plain from what 
Josephus says {Bell. 2. 8. 14.) respecting the Sadducees : 
9vx^S tt trjv Siafiovriv, xaC ta; xad' oiSot) tifiuflai xal ■ti/iai 
aKaipoJat, and {Ant. 6. 14. 2.) of Samuel's soul being called 
il ocSou, as well as from his formal discourse on this topic. The 
patristic views may be seen in Pears. Art. 5. ' Neither of these 
terms' (bisu) and aSjjj), says Knapp (Christ. TheoL, trans- 
lated by Woods), ' is used in the scriptures to signify exactly 
the grave, still less the place of the damned ; nor are they used 
in this sense by any of the fathers in the first three centuries.' 
As examples even of a later date, from the Latin and Greek 
churches, may be cited Ambrose : ' "AtSij; significat locum invi- 
sibUem defunctis praeparatum ' ; and Andreas : "AiSiys is rdrtoj 
rjfiiv asiSri!, '/jymjv a^avrif xai ayi'usros, o i'd;4"^<*5 'rj/.i.uv ivtsvdiv 
ixStifioiiaa; bixojxivoi. Of the many English writers, again, 
who employ hades as an English word, for which we have now 
no suitable counterpart of Latin or Saxon origin, may be named 
Hamm. (see note on Matt. 11 : 23), Lightf. (who defines it: 
the place and state of cdl souls departed), Jer. Taylor (' The 
word f i; oiSou ' in the Creed ' signifies indefinitely the state of 
separation, whether blessed or accursed ; it means only the in- 
visible place.'), Howe (see Discourse on our text. ' Hades . . . 
the unseen world . . . we, with a debasing limitation, and, as I 
doubt not will appear, very unreasonably, do render hell.'). 
Daub., Whist, (in his translation of -Josephus), Wesl., Campb., 
Till., Bloomf , Ell., Stu., Treg., Kell., Barn. Very many others, 
who do not retain the word, understand it here in the same 
sense ; as Fr. S. (du lieu invisible) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Bez., Par., 
Vitr., (inferorum ;-for the Vulg. inferni), Castal., Eichh., Heinr., 
Ew., {orci), Grot., Ros., {status post mortem. See also Grot.'s 
note on Luke 16 : 23.), Beng. (does not change Luth.'s Ilolle, 



but explains ' the mild [glimpfliche] Greek word,' for which it 
stands, as denoting 'generally the state of the dead, as to the 
soul, whether they have gone thither in peace or under wrath.'), 
Lowm. (separate state of departed souls), Dodd. (the unseen 
world), Thom. (the inansion of the dead), Scott, Mey. (Schat- 
tenreick), Stolz, Gerl., (Todtenreich), Kist. ( Unterreich), 
De W. (Unter-welt), &c.; while it is rendered the grave, das 
Grab, in the English Ann. (as one meaning), Moldenh., Wakef., 
Newc. (whose marginal note is: ' Gr. Hades, q. d. the invisible 
state.'), Clarke, Jones, Penn, Lord, &c.,-Pas. (orcus,sepidcrum, 
Satanas), Leigh (see his statement), Suie. (locus inferorum, 
inferi, septdcrum, orciis), Schleus. (here and ch. 20 : 13, 14 : 
' orcus, die L'nterwelt, das Schattenreich, das Reich der Tod- 
ten.'), Bretsch. (' orcus. inferna, i. e. locus subterraneus, tene- 
bricosus et tristis in infimis locis terrae positus, in quern ani- 
mae post mortem omnes descendere, ibique inclusae teneri puta- 
bantur, quem vere seriores Judaei in paradisum et geheunam 
[vid. Luc. 16:23.] diviserant.' He excepts Rev. 6: 8, there 
personifying hades into domimis inferorum.), Wahl (in his 
general statement, and on Rev. 6 : 8, agrees with Bretsch., but 
thinks that in Slatt. 11 : 23 the word means infima, and in 
Matt. 16 : 18 and Luke 16 : 23, ' ex metonym. totius pro parte,' 
hell.), Rob. (Mn later Gr. writers put for Pluto's domain, the 
infernal regions. Hades, Orcus, the abode of the dead.' He 
explains the Jewish usage as answering to this, and leaves the 
reader to infer that the same general sense is found also in the 
New Testament, though in that connection he says no more 
than that ' in N. T. q.Sr;f is represented as a dreary prison with 
gates and bars.' He personifies Hades in 1 Cor. 15 : 55 ; Rev. 
6: 8; 20: 13, 14; and considers it 'put in antithesis with 
o ovpavi; for the lowest depths, Matt. 11: 23; Luke 10: 15. 
Once meton. the abyss of Hades, Gehenna, Luke 16: 23.'), 
Schirl. (im N. T. das Todtenreich, der Aufenthalt der Todten 
vor dem jiingsten Gerichte, Ofters das Bild der Vernichtung 

und ZerstOrung.'). The reading toi Savd-tov xai toi aSov, of 

A. B. C. ' a 24. 13 6. yS. Compl. Verss.,' is adopted by all the 
recent editors. I recommend that it be followed : of death and 
of hades. The first is the door, or inlet, to the second. 



88 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

which are, and the things which 
shall be hereafter; 

20 The mystery of the seven 
stars which thou sawest in my 
right hand, and the seven golden 
candlesticks. The seven stars 
are the angels of the seven 
churches : and the seven candle- 
sticks which thou sawest are the 
seven churches. 



CHAP. II. 

Unto the angel of the church 
of Ephesus write : These things 
saith he that holdeth the seven 
stars in his right hand, who walk- 



GKEEK TEXT. 

elai, Kol a /ze'AAet yiviaOaL jxera 
Tavra- 

20 TO ^VCTTllpLOV tS>V iTTTa 

aaTepuiv a>v el8es eVt r^y Be^tas 
fjLOV, Koi ras" eTrra Xvyvias ras 
■^pvaas. ol eVra da-repes, ayyeXoL 
TMV eTTTo. €KKXT]aia>u elcri- Kai al 
eTTTa Xv^vML ks elSes, eirra eK- 
KXrjalai elan. 

CHAP. II. 

Tf2 dyyeXco rrjs; ' Jicjyealirrjs 
iKKXrja-las ypd^ov, TaSe Xeyei 6 
KpaTU)v Tovs eTTTa daTepas ev Trj 



REVISED VERSION. 

which are, and the things which 
shall ''come to pass ''after these ; 

20 The mystery of the seven 
stars ''which thou sawest ''on my 
right hand, and "those seven 
golden lamp-stands. The seven 
stars are the angels of the seven 
churches ; and ?the seven lamp- 
stands which thou sawest are 
■■seven churches. 

CHAP. II. 

Unto the angel of the "Ephe- 
sian church write : These things 
saith he that holdeth the seven 
stars in his right hand, ''he that 



1= See 2 Pet. 1 : 20, N. w, and comp. E. V., ch. 1 : 1. W., R., 
(be done), T., C, (6e fulfilled), G. {come) ;— Vulg. {fieri), 
Germ, verss. {^eschehen), Dt. (geschieden), French verss. {af- 
river) ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, Hoog. ad Vig.. (use fieri), Hamm. 
{as G.), Vitr. {eventura), Gujse, Ell. {happen), Slu., Kenr.. 
{lake place), Treg. 

' E. v., Luke 5 : 27 ; 10 : 1 ; &c. ;-'W". {after these things), 
E. ;-Latin verss., except Castal. and Vitr., {post haec), Syr., 
Dt. {na dezen), Fr. S. {apres cellesci) ;-Hamm., Wells, Ell., 
Kell., {after them) , Wesl. (at ch. 9 : 12 : as W.), Moldenh., 
Herd., Mey., Stolz, Goss., De W., {nach diesein), Woodh., 
Lord, Barn, {as W.). 

•^ For Civ, Beng., Lachm., Treg., Words., read oi'j (' A. C. 8. 12. 

46. 80**. 88. Er.'j John's h tr; hi^tS. ai-roi at v. 16 suggests 

the idea of iti his power, at his absolute disposal, or in the 
shadow of his hand (Is. 51 : 16) ; whereas the Saviour's own 
iTti t^i 6f|ws jtow (for which Laehin. alone substitutes h ty 
Seli^i /iov) = resting on me, upheld by me. In ch. 2 : 1 iv ty 
hi%ia. recurs as more suitable to the x^atCiv, and the authorita- 
tive message. It. {sopra), Fr. S. {sur) ;-Cocc. {super), Clarke, 
Stu., Treg.. Words., Barn., {upon), Sharpe {at), Hengst. 
{auf) ;-WahI {auf), Rob. (' on or in the hollow of &c.). See 
ch. 2 : 17, N. u ; 5 : 1, N. a ; &c. 

' See V. 5, N. r, &c. Brightm. (in the last clause), Vitr. 
{ilia), Wakef. {these ;-having rendered ilSts, seest.). 



' See v. 12, N. c, &c. 

^ Instead of at In-ta. %vxiio.i., ' A. B. C. a 9. /3 4. y 6.' read al 
^.vxPMi, al erttd ; and the words as f JSsj are wanting in ' A. B. C. 
a 21. (3 5. y 6. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Ar. P. Slav. MS.' I re- 
commend that these changes, adopted by all the recent editors, 
be followed in the version, thus : those seven lamp-stands. For 
those see N. e, &c. 

"■ W. ;-Germ. ;-Beng., AVesL, Moldenh., Stu., De W., Words., 
Kell., Hengst. In like manner W. ;-Germ. ;-Beng., Wesl., Stu., 
Words., Hengst., employ no article in rendering ayysxoi, of the 
preceding clause, while Newc. marks the article in both cases 
as supplied, and Herd, and Lord omit it only in the former. 
But, as ' the article can be omitted before a specifying genitive ' 
(De W.), so whatever we understand by the ayyfXot, the super- 
scriptions of tlie epistles show that there was but one to each 
church. 

» Nearly all the Latin verss., that follow this reading, render 
it Ephesinae. But h 'E^f'scj) is sustained by A. B. C. ' a 26. 
/3 7. y 9. Vulg. (Syr. Arr.) ixxX. 'Efiaai Corapl.,' and adopted 
by all the recent editors. I recommend that it be followed : 
church in Ephesus. 

'' E. v., ch. 3 : 7 ;-Latin and German verss. (except Moldenh.) 
give the second o as they do the first ;-Dodd., Woodh., Thom., 
Penn, Stu., Lord, Kenr., {he who . . . who), Wesl., Newc, 
{that), Treg., Murd. 



to, except incidentally, in the explanatory v. 20 ; — 4., nor were | 
the other ' things that John had seen — seven lamp-stands, and 
seven stars in the hand of the Saviour — designed to represent 
the condition of the seven churches . . . things then actually 
existing in the seven churches ' (Barn.), but the churches them- 
selves with their angels ; — and, 5., the fact that the two chap- 
ters (2. 3.), intervening between the description of what had 
been seen (vv. 12-16) and the symbolic future (ch. 4. to the 
end), are occupied with things present. Aret., accordingly, 



whom De W. cites as in favour of his view, hesitates between 
it (' et quae sunt, h. e. typos visionis, et interpretationem prae- 
cipuarum partium.') and the more common reference ('vel, quae 
sunt scilicet ad candelabra, h. e. Ecolesias, scribenda.') De W. 
himself feels the difficulty, but does not solve it by saying, that 
under a dSss *<" « fiff' are included, not only ch. 1 : 12-20, but, 
' in some measare as the sequel thereof,' the two subsequent 
chapters also. It is better to regard the latter half of v. 20 as 
merely the necessary link between the a tZStj and the a ciai.. 



REVELATION. 



89 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

eth in the midst of tlie seven 
golden candlesticks ; 

2 I know thy works, and thy 
labour, and thy patience, and 
how thou canst not bear them 
which are evil ; and thou hast 
tried them which say they are 
apostles, and are not ; and hast 
found them liars : 

3 And hast borne, and hast 
patience, and for my name's 
sake hast laboured, and hast not 
fainted. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Se^ia avTov, 6 TrepnraTcoi^ ev jxeaco 

2 Ol8a TO. 'ipya arov, kou tov 

KOTTOV (TOV, KOU TtJV VTTOfXOl'ljU (TOV, 

Koi OTL ou Svvrj ^aaraaai KaKovs, 
KOU eTreipacro) tov^ (paaKovras 
eivai cavocTToXovs kou ovk elcn, 
Kol evpes avTov? yj/evSeL?, 

3 Koi efiaaTacras kol v7ropoi>i]u 
i'x^i9, KOU Sia TO bvofia pou keko- 
TTiaKaf KOL ov KeKp.rjKa9. 



REVISED VERSION. 



"^the 



walketh in the midst of 
seven golden "=lamp-stands : 

2 I know thy works, and thy 
■"toil, and thy patience, and 'that 
thou canst not bear *^evil men, 
and s hast tried ''those 'who Jpre- 
tend to be apostles, and JJthey 
are not, and hast found them 
liars, 

3 And hast borne, and hast 
patience, and for my name's sake 
hast Hoiled, and hast not 'been 
wearied out."" 



' See 1 John 2 : 7, N. o, &c. ; and, for lamp-stands, ch. 1 : 12, 
N. c, &c. 

'' For xojtoj E. V. has weariness at 2 Cor. 11 : 27 ; for xartovi or 
-ov itafixK'-f, always to trouble j-W. {travail); Syr. (= Greenf. 
i^s), It. (/a^i"ca) ;-Piso., ('laborem cum sensu molestiae cou- 
junctum '), Brightm. ('wearying or toilsome labour'), Par. 
(' sudore et molestiis plenum '), Herd., Mey., Goss., Van Ess 
All., Kist., De W., {Milhe ;-for Luth.'s Arbeit), Eichh. {[Novi, 
quid praestitei-is], quibus sub molestiis), Ew. {laborem defa- 
tigantem)./Ros. {^lahoTam, et quidem gravium'), Stu., Kell., 
Murd., Barn, (trouble) ;-Pas. (labor molestiis), Pass. (Anstreng- 
ung, schwere Arbeit), and the other lexicons. 

' yV., R. ; -foreign verss.;- Brightm., Daub, and the later 
English (except Words.). 

f W., R. ;-Latin verss. (ma/os), Syr., German verss. (die 
Bosen;-T>e W. and Hengst. omit the article.), Dt. (de kwaden), 
It. (i inalvagi), French verss. (les mediants) ;-Brightm., Wesl., 
Wakef. ('the icicked'), Woodh., Clarke, Sharpe, Lord (the 
w. ;-and so Murd., Kenr.). 

5 E. v., V. 3;-T., C, G., R.;-Germ., It.;-r)aub., Beng., 
Moldenh.. Herd., Wakef., Thom., Stu., Hengst. The comma 
also, which in the original edition of E. V. stood at the end of 
the preceding clause, is more favourable to this rapid enumera- 
tion of particulars than the semicolon, or colon (Amer. Bible 

Soc.'s late revision), of subsequent editions. For ijteipdau, 

says Bloomf., srtf I'paoa; has been ' adopted by the recent editors 
on the strongest authority of MSS.' (' A. B. 0. a 26. /3 6. y 8. 
Compl.'). 

"■ See 2 Pet. 1 : 1, N. b. Brightm., Dodd., Wesl., Newc, 
Penn, Stu., Treg., Kenr. 

' See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

) In the other three instances of the occurrence of ^aaxM, 
Acts 24 : 9 ; 25 : 19 ; Rom. 1 : 22 (in E. V., saying, affirmed, 
professing), it is not 'i. q. f-rjiil' (Rob.), but suggests, as often in 
classical Greek, the additional notion of an ostentatious emphasis, 
or else of alleging what is untrue. — Dt. (uitgeven) ;-Ca.stal. 
(proJUentur), Bez. (dictitant), Thom. ;-Pas. (here dictito, jac- 



tito, glorior), Suic. (aio, dictito, jacto me). That the word 

often carries this force, most lexicons allow. But for fdax. 

flrat art., Mey., Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Theile, read -Kiyovtai iav- 
rois art. (-A. B.C. 18.25. Slav.'), to which Beng., Matth., 
Griesb., Knapp, Sch., Bloomf., Words., Tisch., add ilvai, ('a 24. 
)3 8. y 7. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr.'). I recommend 
that this last reading be adopted, and translated : say that they 
are. The word that is inserted after say by W. ;-Daub., Newc, 
Penn, Stu. at ch. 3 : 9, Treg. at v. 9 and ch. 3 : 9. Kenr. 

jj See ch. 1 : 6, N. y, ic. Dt. ;-B. and L., Moldenh., Mey., 
De W., Murd and Kenr. at v. 9. 

K See V. 2, N. d. E. V., Matt. C : 28 ; Luke 5:5; 12 : 27 ;- 
It. (faticato), Brightm. (been oppressed with trouble), Ilamtn. 
(' undergone hard labour, or toiled^), Greenf. (n^B3»). But 
see N. m. 

 E. v., Heb. 12 : 3 (wearied), James 5 : 15 (sick) ;-Germ. 
(made geworden), Dt. moede geicorden), It. (stancato), Fr. 
G.,-M.,-S., (fes lasse) ;-Castal. (indefessus), Bez., Par., Coco., 
Vitr., Wolf., (defatigatus), Engl. Ann. (weary), Barn. (' be- 
come exhausted or wearied out.' In citing Stu., he fails to no- 
tice that the latter followed another reading.) See N. m. 

"> This verse is read thus : xa.1 vriofiovriv ix^'i xai ijidataaai 
6ta fo bvoiid (iov, xai ou xfxorttaxaj., in all the recent editions, 
except that Matth., Griesb., Sch., Tisch., have oix ixortlaaa.;. and 
Lachm. has xcxortiaxi;. (Mill also thinks it certain that the 
ov xixfirjxa; was introduced from a marginal gloss ; Prol. § 1109.) 
The evidence stands thus : 

For vrto/i. IX. X. i^dat., ' A. B. C. a 17. (3 5. y 7. Vulg. Copt. 
Aeth. Arm. Slav. MS.' 

For the omission of xai before Std, ' 17. 18. 25. 26. 27. 49. 88. 
Compl. Arm.' 

For the insertion of xai ou (or orx) after ftou, ' A. (B.) 0. 
a 23. /3 8. y 9. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Slav. MSS.' 

For xsxortiaxas or -xf f, ' A. 0. 16. 37. 38. 69.' : — for ixortia.- 
aas, ' B. a 23. i3 8. 79. Compl.' : — for one or the other, ' Vulg. 
Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav. MSS.' 

I recommend that the above reading be adopted, and trans- 
lated thus : And hast patience, and hast borne for my name^s 

12 



90 



EEVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

4 Nevertheless, I have some- 
u-hat agaiust thee, because thou 
hast left thy first love. 

5 Remember therefore from 
whence thou art fallen, and re- 
pent, and do the first works ; 
or else I will come unto thee 
quickly, and will remove thy 
candlestick out of his place, ex- 
cept thou repent. 

6 But this thou hast, that thou 
hatest the deeds of the Nicolai- 
tanes, which I also hate. 

7 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches ; To him that 



GREEK TEXT. 

4 '^AA e^w Kara aov, qtl 
rrjv ayaTrrju aov ryu irpcoTrju 

5 fJivr]fioveve ovv TVoOev eKireir- 
TcoKa^, KaL fxeTavorjfTov, Kai ra 
Trpoora epya TTOirjaov el Se fx.rj, 
ep^opal (TOL ra^v, /cat Kivrjaca 
TTjv Xv^viav aov Ik tov tottov 
avTTjs, lav prj pLeravorjays. 

6 ^ AXka TOVTo i'x^is, OTi p.iaeis 
TO. epya TUiv NiKoXaCTCov, a Kuya 
piau). 

7 'O e)(a>u 0V9 oiKOvaaTco rl 
TO Ilvevpa Xeyet tols eKKXrjaiais' 



REVISED VERSION. 

4 "But I have " against thee, 
Pthat thou hast ilet go nhy first 
love. 

5 Remember therefore ^from 
whence thou 'hast fallen, and 
repent, and do the first works ; 
"but if not, I " come unto thee 
"quickly, and will remove thy 
"^lamp-stand out of ^its place, 
^unless thou repent. 

6 But this thou hast, that 
thou hatest the ^works of the 
''Nicolaitaus, which I also hate. 

7 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches : To him that. 



 W., R. ;-foreign verss.,-Brightra., Wesl., WaUef., Woodh., 
Thorn., Clarke, Shaipe, Lord, Muid. {yet), Kenr. 

° The object is not anything to be supphed, but the clause, 6Vt 
xtr.. — Vulg., German verss., Dt., Fr. S.;-Erasm., Vat.. Brightm., 
Hamra., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., Was!., Woodh., Clarke, Kenr. Sev- 
eral supply this ; Lord, it. Pagn. introduced aliquid. 

p All the verss. referred to in N. o, and others ;-B.ob., &c. 

1 The word wyaTtriv here denotes not the object of love, 
but the emotion itself. See Matt. 24 : 12. — Aret. (' a^ir^^i idem 
est, quod remitto, indulgeo, laxo.'), Engl. Ann. (Jiast abated 
somewhat &e.), Grot, (^niultuni remisisti). Hamm. (remiited), 
Daub. (' not quite forsaken, but remitted and moderated &c.'), 
B. and L. (eles reldche de), Dodd. (' lust the zeal and fervour of), 
Wakef., Bloomf. ('lit. let go [pai-ted wilhy), Barn, {•remitted, 
or let down') ;-Leigh (to abate of the fervency of &c.), Wahl 
{ich lasse nach, minus intendo [ut chordam, habenas]'). Green 
(to relax, suffer to become less intense). 

' See 1 .John 2 : 7, N. o, &c. The commending grace of the 
Saviour shines (as again in v. C) even in His rebuke. ' That 
signal and by me well remembered first love of thine'; which is 
thus also brought into sliarper contrast with the declension 
that followed. Comp. v. 19, N. c. — Grot., Ros., (' illam adeo 
ferventem'), Bierm. {tuam illam primam). 

' This from might stand for the ix in composition, which 
Bloomf., however, brackets as 'most probably, or certainly, an 
interpolation.' Matth. says that it comes from Andreas. The 
other reading, nirttaxai (A. B. C. 'a 21. /3 6. y 6.'), is marked 
by Beng. as ' inprimis consideratu dignam, aequalera lectioni 



textus ;' is said by Bloomf. to rest ' on very strong external 
authority, confirmed by internal evidence ;' and is adopted by 
all the other recent editors. I recommend that, in accordance 
with this reading, the word from bo omitted. Brightm., Dodd. 
and Thom. (from ichat), Wakef., Newc, AVoodh., Clarke, 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd.. Kenr. 

' W. ;-Brightm., Thorn., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. 

° See 2 Pet. 1: 5, N. r and E. V., John 14: 2;-R. ;-Vu]g. 
(sin autem), Syr., German verss. {wo [aber\ nicht), Dt. (en zoo 
niet). It. (se nan). Fr. S. (si non) ;-Erasm.. Pagn., Vat., Bez., 
Par., Vitr., Eichh., (sin minus), Brightm., Wesl., Wakef., (if 
not), Cocc. (sin vera), Bierm. (si auiemnon), Stu., Lord, Slurd. 
(or if not) ;-Vig. ('communiter verti debet, sin minus.''), &c. 

' See ch. 1 : 4, N. o, &c. W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Cocc., 
Bierm., Vitr., Beng., Wesl., Herd., Wakef. (am coming ;-and 
so Woodh., Treg.). Mey., Van Ess, Kist., Goss., Lord, De W., 

Kenr., Dav. Mey., Lachm., Tisch., cancel the faxv { A. C. 

Vulg. [not Hark] Copt. Aetb.'). 

" See ch. 1 : 12, N. c, &c. — For its, see Hamm. and later 
verss. (except Words.). 

» R. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Stu. and Kenr. (at v. 22), Loid. 

y See 2 John 11, N. i. E. V., 19 times in this book, out of 
22 ;-Brightra., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., Penn, 
Lord; Barn. Most other verss. use the same word as in 
vv. 2, 5. 

' The name is so spelled in the original edition of E. V. ;-'!'., 
C, G. ;-most of the modern verss., and the Amer. Bible Soc.'s 
revised edition. 



sake, and hast not become weary. For this rendering of xixort. 
(ixoTt.) in this reading, I refer to E. V., John 4 : C (being 
wearied) -j-Vnlg. defecisti), Syr. (= Greenf rr^X^J ;-for which 
Murd. h&s fainted; but De D.,fatigatus es.) ;-Brightm. (been \ 



w.), Berl. Bib. (ermattet), Beng., Moldenh., De W., Hengst., 
(milde [ge-'\worden), Woodh. (been w. out), Jley., Van Ess, 
(ermiiden), Sharpe (art ii-eary), Stu. (art w. out), Treg. (hast 
been 10.) ;-iexicons generally. 



REVELATION. 



91 



KINO JAMES VERSION. 

overcometh will I give to eat 
of the tree of life, which is in 
the midst of the paradise of God. 



8 And unto the angel of the 
churcli in Smyrna, write ; These 
things saith the first and the 
last, which was dead, and is 
alive ; 

9 I know thy works, and trib- 
ulation, and poverty, (but thou 
art rich,) and / know the blas- 



GREEK TEXT. 



Tco VLKmvTL Scocrco avrS (payelv 
Ik tov ^vXov T7]S ^^f, o ianv 
ev fxeam tov TrapaSeiaov tov 
Oeov. 

8 Kal TCp ayyeAw ttJ? eVfcA?;- 
(TLa? Sfivpva'imv ypa'^ov, Ta^e 
Xeyei 6 TrpcoTOS Kal 6 ta^aros, by 
eyeveTO veKpos Kol eQf](rev 

9 Oi8a (TOV Ta epya kou ttjv 
OX'o^Lv Kcu rrjv irTco-^eiaf ttXov- 
(Tios 5e er kol ttjv l3Xaa(f)r]iJ.[av 



REVISED VERSION. 

overcometh, ^^to him will I give 
to eat of the tree of life, which 
is in "the midst of the paradise 
of God. 

8 And unto the angel of the 
church "=of the Smynieans write : 
These things saith the first and 
the last, ''who was dead, and 
^lived : 

9 I know 'thy works, and trib- 
ulation, and poverty '' (but thou 
art rich), and s the ''railing 'of 



"■ • And to none otlier.' The advantage, in point of distinct- 
ness and emphasis (Rob.), of this use of aOfof, is sometimos 
preserved by E. X. (v. 26; oh. 1 : 6 ; Matt. 12. 36; &c.) and 
sometime.s, as here, it is lost (Matt. 25: 29, &c.). John 15: 2 
is an example of both methods. In the present instance ai-t^ 
is translated apart from, and after, t^ vix-, by Syr., German and 
French verss., Dt. ;-Cocc., Vitr., Daub., Matth., Woodh. ; and 
so by Stu. at v. 17. 

' In.stead of fitaai tov TtafiaSsiaov, the reading rai TtapaSfiacji 
(' A. B. 0. o 20. p 6. y 6. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Slav. Ms'.') is adopt- 
ed by all the recent editors, except Bloomf., who yet acknowl- 
edges that the authority for it is 'very strong,' and, while he 
mark.s /tt'soj as ' most probabh/, or certainly, an interpoli.tion,' 
is smgular in connecting it with ta rtapaSftooj — an arrangement, 
in favour of which he cites no evidence except what he calls, 
without explaining his meaning, the 'internal.' I recommend 
that the now gcnerall}' received text be followed ; m the par- 
adise. 

^ The addition of fxov after ©eoJ (' B. a 26. /3 5. y 7. Compl. 
Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr Erp. Slav. MS.') is edited by Bcng., 
Matth., Griesb., Mey., Knapp, Sch., Words., Tisch. I recom- 
mend that the words, of my God, be set in the margin as the 
reading of many copies. Comp. ch. 3 : 2, N. g. 

' G. {of the Smyrnians) ;-the Latin verss. that followed this 
reading (Smyrnaeoruni), Brightm. But the reading, iv 'E/ivf^vvj 
([A. iv XiJ.vpv^il B. C. ' a28. (3 7. y 8. Comp). Vulg. Aeth. Syr. 
Arm. Arr. Slav. MS.'), is adopted by all the recent editors. 
I recommend that it be followed : in Smyrna. 

^ See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

' The Speaker, in asserting the fact, intimates also the .spon- 
taneous power, of His own resurrection; Acts 2: 24. Comp. 
Rom. 14 : 9 ; especially according to the reading of nearly all 
the recent editors, artidavB xai i^rjaev. Stu. : ' The shade of 
meaning as well as the expression, in our text, assigns both the 
death and the return to life to the past time.' — Germ, (ist le- 
bendig geieorden), Dt. {\weder\ levend is geieorden), It. (e 
tomato in vita), Fr. G..-M., {est retoume en vie), Fr. S. {a re- 
pris la vie) ;-Vat. {vixit ;-addiug the note : ' vel, vitae redditus 



est, aut revixit.'), Castal., Cocc, Grot., Bierm., {revixit), Par. 
(r(.r)Y;-but errs in supposing it to express a life in death.). 
Daub. ('f^j;5fi/ is put for dvt'f^fffi' ;'-and so Moldcnh., Ros.), 
Beng., Hengst., {as Germ.), Wakef. {came to life again), Newc. 
('/tcerf again'), Stu. {revived), Lord {has rev.); Treg. {hath 
lived). See ch. 13: 14 (E. V. and N. w); 20: 4'; John 11: 
25. Comp. the frequent use of fi;n, as in 1 Kings 17 : 22 ; Job 
14 : 14. The inquiry of .Job in this place (where E. V. supplies 
again) was answered in -John 11 : 25, and the answer is now 
confirmed by the resurrection-life of the Lord himself. 

' Beng., Lachm., Treg.. Ti.sch., cancel the words ■ta. Jpya xaL 
(' A. C. 19. 47. Vulg. Copt. Aeth '), and for rtjiovs. Se all the re- 
cent editors substi tul e atxii. HXova. (' A. B. C. a 28. |3 8. y 9. Compl.'). 

To this verse the Anier. Bible Soc. has applied the rule of 

omitting parentheses not inserted by the Translators, where 
' they only mar the beauty of the page, without adding any thing 
to the perspicuity,' or where ' they have the forte of com- 
mentary ;' the former consideration being that which probably 
governed the decision in this instance. But the exquisite beauty 
of the gracious undertone is thus impaired, if not destroyed. 
Nearly all editions and verss. have the parenthesis. The Soc.'.s 
insertion of a semicolon after rich, in place of the comma of the 
original and many subsequent editions, serves merely to favour 
the superfluous supplement of the next clause. There is not 
even a comma in G. ;-Pagn., Castal., Par., Cocc, Herd., Mey., 
Words., Hengst. ;-or in the Greek text of Hahn, Theilc. 

^ The verb is not repeated in any foreign version, nor by 
Brightm., Daub., Wcsl., Wakef., or any later English version 
(except Penn, Treg.). 

'' Against, not God (Wahl, Rob.) but, the angel ; as is clear 
from the reference and design of the whole verse. See 2 Pet. 
2 : 10, N. e.— E. V., Ephes. 4:31; 1 Tim. 6:4; Jude 9 ;-Pro- 
testant German verss. (Z/as<€n<ng-;-the Vulg. and its followers 
using a verb), Dt. {laslei-ing), Fr. S. {paroles offensantes) ;- 
Hamm. {contumely), Grot., Ros., {maledicta gravissima), Cocc. 
' est calumnia ilia, &c.'), Ramb. {convitia, quibiis proscinderis), 
Wesl. {reviling), Eichh. {malediceniiain et criminationes), 
Thom. {slander), Sharpe {evil speaking). Stu. (in the Comment. : 
' defamatory accusations'), Lord {false accusation), Murd., Kenr. 



92 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

phemy of them which say they 
are Jews, and are not, but arc 
the synagogue of Satan. 

10 Fear none of those things 
which thou slialt suffer. Behold, 
the devil shall cast some of you 
into prison, that ye may be tried ; 
and ye shall have tribulation 
ten days. Be thou faithful unto 
death, and I will give thee a 
crown of life. 

11 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches ; He that over- 
conieth, shall not be hurt of the 
second death. 

12 And to the angel of the 
church in Pergamos write ; These 
things saith he which hath the 
sharp sword with two edges ; 



GREEK TEXT. 

Toiv XtyovTwv lovSaiovs eivai 
iavTOVf, Kol ovK elalu, dXXa 
avvaycoyrj rou Sarava. 

10 Mrjbev (f)oj3ov a fxeXXei^ 
irdcryeLv. l8ov ytie'AAei fiaXeiu i^ 
vfjicov 6 5fa/3oAos" e(? (^vXaK-qv, 'lvol 
7reipaadi)re- Kol e^ere dXLy\nv 
rjfxepau SeKa. yivov iriaTos ccy^pi 
Oavarov, kcu Saxrco aoi tov are- 
(jyavou TrJ9 {w^y. 

11 '0 e^cou oi)? aKOvaarco tl 
TO Jluevfia Xeyei. rais eKKXyaiais' 

O VLKwv ov fJLrj d8iKr]drj Ik tov 

OaVOLTOV TOV 8eVT€pOV. 

12 Kal Tcp dyyeXcp rrj^ eu 
Uepya/JLco eKKXrja-ias ypa\\fov, 
7^d8e Xeyei 6 e^coi/ ttjv pop(f)aiai> 
TTjv 8'L<rTopLOv TTJV o^elav 



REVISED VERSION. 

J'those jwho say Hhat they are 
Jews, and J'they are not, but ^ 
the synagogue of Satan. 

10 Fear 'not at all "the things 
which thou shalt sufier. Behold, 
the devil shall "cast some of you 
into prison, that ye may be tried ; 
and ye shall have "a tribulation 
" of ten days. °Be faithful unto 
death, and I will give thee Pthe 
crown of life. 

11 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what tlie Spirit saith 
unto the churches : He that over- 
cometh, shall ''not be hurt "iby the 
second death. 

12 And "'unto the angel of 
the church in Pergamos write : 
These things saith he *who hath 
'the "two-edged sharj) sword : 



' For those, see v. 2, N. h, &c. ; — for who, see 2 Pet. 2: 11, 
N. f ; — for the insertion of that, see v. 2, N. j ; — for the inser- 
tion of they, see v. 2, N. j j. 

i" Syr. ;-Castal.. Bez., Par., Cocc, Biertn., Yitr., Beng., Wesl., 
Stu., Lord, De W., Words. 

1 For firibiv, Lachm.. Trcg., Words., Hfngsl:., read ^^ (' A. B. C. 
8. 49. Aeth.'). The former, if retained, is to be construed ad- 
verbially, as often both in classical Greek and the N. T. E. V., 
the older verss., and some others, follow the nihil horum of the 
Vulg. — Fr. S. {ne . . . nuUement) ;-Wakef., Stu. Castal., Cocc, 
Bierra., Vitr., Daub., B. and L., Beng., Herd., Thorn., Mey., 
Penn, Sharpe, Lord, treat ij.r,hiv as an adv. 

" Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Castal., Cocc, Bierm.. Vitr., {quae), 
Daub., Wakef , Thorn., Lord, {what), Beng., De W., Hengst., 
{was), Dodd, Greenf. (lirs-nx), Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Treg., Murd. 

° For fiaXilv, Sch., Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch., read ^dxKfiv 
{'A. C. a 8. )3 2. y 3.'). The Greek genitive is not used in- 
dependently to express duration. Dt., It. (has no article), Fr. 
G.,-M.,-S. ;-Erasm. and subsequent Latin verss. (change die- 
bus of the Vulg. to dieruin). More {the affliction of), Daub. 
{affliction of), Bcrl. Bib., Wakef. (a distress of) ;-Schleus., 

Bretsch., Wahl, Rob. The reading ^;U£'pas (' B. a 17. /3 5. y 5.') 

is edited by Beng., Matth., Wordi. 



° Though no change is here required in the translation of the 
imperative, this is not to be considered an exception to the gen- 
eral use of yivonai, (see 2 Pet. 1 : 20, N. w). It is rather one 
of its best illustrations. This angel had been, and was, faithful ; 
but he had not become, or shown himself {Cocc. praesta te), faith- 
ful unto death. See ch. 3 : 2, N. c. For the omission of thou, 

see T., C, G. ;-foreign verss.;-Daub.. AVakef., Stu., Lord, Murd., 
Kenr. '«t^ 

p E. v., .James 1 : 12 ;-G., u.;-foreign verss. ;-More. Daub., 
Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom.. Till., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Words., Murd., Kenr. 

1 For oi iin, see ch. 3 : 12, N. j ;— for hy, see 2 Pet. 2 : 19, 
N. 1. 

 E. v., in five out of the seven superscriptions ;-Treg. W., 
R., Dodd. and the later verss., have to throughout. In 
the present instance of minute variation, E. V. follows T., 
C, G. 

 So the original edition of E. V. ; and see 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

' See 1 John 2 : 7, N. o. Bez., Par., Vitr., {ilium ancipitem, 
acutum ilium). 

" For the order, see ch. 1 : 10, N. q. 



{art slandered). Barn. (' reproaches ; harsh and bitter revil- 
ings') ;-SchOttg., Bretsch. 

' The reading ix tuv Xiyortav (' A. B. C. a 21. /3 5. y 6. 
Vulg. Copt. Syr. Arm. Slav. MSS.') is adopted by all the recent 
editors, Bloomf. excepted, though he too now says of it, that it 
' rests on very strong external authority, confirmed by internal 
evidence. It is a peculiarly Hellenistic idiom for dn;6, on the 



part of I recommend that this reading be followed, and that 
ix be rendered as by Bloomf. Let it also be observed, that 
this reading favours the construction of ■nji' jlXas^. with ooC {the 
railing against tliee ; and hence the periphrasis of the Vulg.i 
blasphemaris ab), and confirms what has been said above of 
the propriety of the parenthesis, and the impropriety of the 
supplement. 



REVELATION. 



93 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

13 I know thy works, and 
where thon dwellest, even where 
Satan's seat is : and thou holdest 
fast my name, and hast not de- 
nied my faith, even in those days 
wherein Antipas was my faithful 
martyr, who was slain among 
you, where Satan dwelleth. 



14 But I have a few things 
against thee, because thou hast 
there them that hold the doctrine 



GREEK TEXT. 

13 Ol8a Ta kpya aov kou ttov 
KaroLKeis, ottov 6 dpovos tov ^a- 
Tava, KCLL Kparets to bvojxa fiov, 
Kou ovK rjpi'ijaco ttjv iricTTLV fiov 
Koi ev TOLS i]fj.epaLS ev ais AvriTraf 
6 jxaprvs p-ov 6 inaTos, b? aireK- 
Tavdrj Trap vpitv, ottov KaroiKcl 6 
Sarava^. 

14 ^AA e^^w Kara crov oXlya, 
OTt ^x^'^ ^'^^^ Kparovvras ttjv 



REVISED VERSION. 

13 I know ^thy works, and 
where thou dwellest, " where "is 
"the "throne of Satan ; and thou 
"holdest ray name, and "didst not 
deny my faith even in ^the days 
wherein ^was Antipas Hhat faith- 
ful ""witness of mine, who was 
■"killed among you, where Satan 
dwelleth. 

14 But I have '' against thee 
a few things ; 'that thou hast 
there •'some that hold the doc- 



' Beng., Mey., Lachm., Treg., Tisch., cancel the words to I'pya 
ijoD xai, on the authority of A. C. 38. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Slav 

MSS.' Comp. V. 9, N. f. For the omission oi even, see W.. 

R.;-Yulg., Syr., German vcrss. (except Mey.). Fr. S. ;-Erasm., 
Vat., Castal., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., Wcsl., Wakef., Sharpe, Lord, 
Kenr. In the same clause, the verb is introduced as above by 
It., French verss. ;-Cooe., Vitr., Penn, Kenr. : and the Greek or- 
der of the substantives is retained by W., R.;-Latin vcr.ss. (ex- 
cept Castal.), Syr., Dt., It., French verss. ;-Daub., Beng.. Dodd. 
and later English verss. (except Sharpe, Stu., Words.), Greenf.. 

All., De W. For throne, comp. John 12: 31; 14: 30; 

16 : II ; Eph. 2: 2; 6: 12; &c. ("High on a throne of royal state 
. . . Satan exalted sat.' Milton, P. L. ii. I, 5.) E. V. 54 times 
out of 61 ;-G. (the other verss. of this class follow the Vulg. 
sedes) ;-Syr. (= Greenf. N&s), Dt., Fr. S. ;-Pagn. and later 
Latin verss. (Castal. solium). Brightm., Engl. Ann. ('or, 
thr.'), Hamm., Daub, and later Enghsh verss. (except Words.), 
B. and L., Beng. and later German verss. (except Hengst.). See 
ch. 4 : 4, N. m. 

" E. v., frequently ; see especially vv. 1, 14, 15 ; Mark 7: 3, 
4,8; Col. 2: 19; 2 Thess. 2: 15 ;-W., R. ;-Latin verss. (use 
tenere ; except that Bez. at last substituted retinere). German 
verss., except Moldenh. and Mey., {haltst [anj), Dt. (hotidf.);- 
Sharpe and Kenr. (at ch. 3 : II), Lord. 

^ W. (deniedsl) ;- Wakef., Newc, Penn, Lord {wouklst not 
deny), De W. (verleugnetest). 

y The demonstrative is not in Vulg. Am., German and French 
verss., Dt., It. ;-Aret., Cocc, Bierm.. We.sl., Mattli., Woodh., 
Thorn., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg. (marks those as supplied). 
See N. z. 

^ The omission of ijK (Moldenh. would supply iixaptvptjsi or 
ovx jjpvjjffaro. The latter supplement is suggested also by Eichh.; 
whose notion, however, about the ellipsis betraying intense grief 
[gravissimi doloris]. the uttei-ance of the Speaker being inter- 
rupted by a deep-drawn sigh [suspijiuni ex iino pectore diic- 
tum], is utterly unsuitable and profane.), the form 6 fidptvi i^ov 
TtiStoi, and the main purpose of the address, which is to de- 
termine the character, not of Antipas, but of the angel, favour 
the construction by apposition, q. d. ' in the days of Ant.. 
my &c.' And such is the construction of the Vulg., Ant. tpstis 



mms fidelis (as explained by W., R. ;-All., Kist., Kenr.). and 
other foreign verss. ;- Grot., Wakef., Woodh., Treg. Of these 
verss. a few follow the reading adopted by Mey., Lachm., Treg., 
which omits the words Iv 0I5, on the authority of ' A. C. Vulg. 
MS. Am. Harl. Copt.;' very many disregard the 65, so making 
'Avt. the immediate .subject of drtExTaxSi;; Cocc, Bierm., Hengst., 
following the received text, supply no verb to 'Ave. 

" The Speaker, as it were, lingers on the recollection. See 
V. 4, N. r and I John 2 : 7, N. o,.ic.— T., C, {af. w. of mine) ;- 
Syr. (following the reading, o rciatoi fim, of "A. C. 14. 92.', now 
preferred by Treg., = De D. itle testis mens, ille Jidelis mens, 
though compressed by Murd. into, myf. w.);-Pa2n., Bez., Par., 
{martyr ille metis fd.), Castal. {fidus ille t.meus). Vitr. {t. ille 
meusjid.) 

>> In 3 instances (Acts 22: 20; Rev. 2: 13; 17: 6), out of 
34, E. V. has martyr; Bez. having sought to justify the change 
of testis (Vulg., Erasm., Vat., Castal.) to martyr (Pagn., Par.) 
on the ground of an alleged ' communis usus, ut Martyres pe- 
culiariter dicantur, qui non oris modo confessione, sed etiara suo 
sanguine Christi doctrinam sanciverunt.' But this usage belongs 
to a later time than the N. T., where it may be doubted whether 
in a single case ftapruj be equivalent to Blutzeuge — the eccle- 
siastical naptvf. Subsequent Latin verss., accordingly, here 
restore testis, as Wesl., Wakef, Newc, AVoodh., Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Bloomf., Lord, Treg.. JIurd., Kenr., do the witness of 
W., T., C, R. Syr. (as in Matt. 26 : 60), German verss. (Zeuge), 
Dt. (getuige). It. (testimonio), Fr. S. {temoin);-Ti. and L. {as 
Fr. S.), Greenf. (is). 

' E. v., 55 times out of 75, and in (his book 11 times out of 
15 ;-Lord (put to death), Treg, See ch. 9 ; 15, N. m. 

■i The Greek order is retained by W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., 
Fr. S. ;- Woodh., Herd., Mey., All., De W. 

' See V. 4, N. p. Here the 6ti, bracketed by Treg., is can- 
celled by Lachm. and Tisch. (' C. Am. Tol. Harl.* Copt. Syr.'). 
 f Not tavi xfa-eoxiveai. The diffei'ence is variously provided 
for, in W. {men holding) ;-Latin and German verss. (All. Ei- 
nige), Syr., Dt., It. {di quelli), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (en as Id) ;- 
B. and L. (des gens), Wakef., Newc, (such as), Bloomf., Stu., 
Words. 



94 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

of Balaam, who taught Balak to 
cast a stumbling-block before the 
children of Israel, to eat things 
sacrificed mito idols, and to com- 
mit fornication. 

15 So hast thou also them 
that hold the doctrine of the 
Nicolaitanes, which thing I hate. 

16 Eepent ; or else I will 
come unto thee quickly, and will 
fight against them with tlie sword 
of my mouth. 

17 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches : To him that 
overcometh will I give to eat 
of the hidden manna, and will 



GREEK TEXT. 

diSa^rju SaXaa/uL, by iSiSaa-Keu 
Tco JBaXaK (SaXelu aKavhaXov 
ivamiov rav v'lwv lapayjX, ^ayeiv 
elScoXoOvra kol iropvevaai. 

15 ourcoy f'x^'? i^ou o-v Kpa- 
Tovvras ryv 8LSa)(rjV rav Niko- 
XaLTcov b fJiLcrS). 

16 Meravo-qcrov ei he /xr], 
ep^op-di croL Ta^v, kou TToXeprjam 
fxer avTWV iu rfj pop(f)aia tov 
(TToparo^ pov. 

17 O ()(cop ov? aKovaaTca tl 
TO Hvevpa Xeyei. Tois iKKXTjo-iaif' 
TS) VLKOiVTL 8ma-co avTcp (^ayelv 
airo TOV pavva tov KeKpvppevov, 



REVISED VERSION. 

trine of Balaam, who taught ^for 
Balak to cast a stumbling-block 
before the children of Israel, to 
eat ''idol-sacrifices and ' commit 
fornication. 

15 So Jthou also hast ■'some 
that hold the doctrine of 'the 
'Nicolaitans, "which thing I hate. 

16 Eepent ° ; "but if not, I 
Pcome mito thee quickly, and 
will fight iwith tliem with the 
sword of my mouth. 

17 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches : To him that 
overcometh, ■'to him will I give 
*to eat of 'that hidden manna, 



^ E. V. answers to the reading of the Received Text as usually 
given, tbv Ba'K., for which the reading of our Text has been sub- 
stituted by all the recent editors, except Matth., on the authority 
of ' A. C. 11.' Erasm. and Mill had h ta Bax. (' 18. 02**.'), 
in the matter or history of B. (T., C: in B.). Against the 
common understanding of t^ Box. as a Hebraism (Hcinr., De 
AV., &c.) for tov BaTL. it may be objected, 1., that this construc- 
tion is exceptional also in Hebrew, though Deut. 33 : 10 and 
Hos. 10: 12 show that Hengst. errs in cslling Job 21: 22 the 
'only exception'; — 2., that it is without example elsewhere, in 
the Sept. or the N. T. ; .John himself connecting hihaaxui with 
the accusative Of the person taught in v. 20 of this chaptei', 
thrice in his 1st epistle (ch. 2 : 27). and 5 times in the gcspel ; — 
3., that the Jlosaic narrative does not intimate that this counsel 
of Balaam was addressed per.=onally to Balak, but implies, as 
Hengst. thinks, the contrary ; see jNTumb. 24 : 25 ; 31 : 16 ; — and. 
4., that the dativus commodi is of peculiarly fi'equent occurrence 
in the original story ; see Numb. 22 : C ; &c. Accordingly, the 
tci Ba%. here has been .so taken by Grot, ('docuit Madianitas in 
usum et ad preces Balaci regis.'), Beng. (dem Bal. zu lieh). 
Moldenh. {dem Bal. zu gut), Storr {in gratiam Bal.), Van Ess 
{zu Guiisten Bal.), Hengst. {filr den B.). Stu. allows that this 
•makes a good sense,' and 'is not a strained exegesis.' Mod- 
ern verss. gcuerallv, and the Amer. Bible Soc, have restored 
the 0. T. form of the name. See ch. 7 : 6, N. o. 

I" German verss. (der Gotzen Opfer, or more frequently, 
Gotzenopfer), Dt. {afgodeimffer) ;-Bierm. (idolothyta), ATakef., 
Greenf. (n'^V^^X "^n?!)' Penn, Lord {offerings to idols), Murd. 
{the sacrifices of idols) ;-Rob. 

' R. ;-\Vakef., Penn, Lord. 

1 See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. ' Thou, as well as the Church in 
Ephesus' — like Caesar's tu quoque! — Of English verss., the 
above order is found in Wesl., Penn, Stu., Treg., Words. Lord, 
Murd., {also thou hast). 



" See V. 14, N. f. 

1 See V. 6, N. z. The tiov is cancelled by Mey., Lachm., 

Treg., Words., Tiscli., Theile, on the authority of A. B. C. 
■aVi.p 6. y 2.' 

'" Instead of 5 fttcfw, the reading ofiolu; (A. B. C. 'a 27. p 7. 
y 8. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Slav. MS.') is adopted by all 
the recent editors. (For Beng., see the Gnomon and the German 
vers. ; — though in both he connects bfioMi with nceaaiirjnov of 
V. 10 : ' Similiter resipicere . . . ut Ephesius.' But this assumes 
that the one angel should be aware of what had been written 
to the other.) I recommend that it be followed, and trans- 
lated : in like manner. 

° After ni-tav. all the recent editors add ow (.A. B. C. "a 23. 
/3 5. y 8. Aeth. Arm. Arr. Slav. MS.'). I recommend that this 
reading be followed : therefore. 

" See V. 5, N. u, &c. 

p See V. 5, N. v, &c. 

•J The fictd here answers to the Hebrew DS in a similar con- 
nection, and implies reciprocal action, as in v. 22 ; &c. ' They 
will then have to contend with me, and not merely with my 
truth and my servants.' — W.;-Latin and German verss., Syr., 
It. ;-Brightm., Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. ;-Win., Wahl, Rob., 
Schirl. 

 See V. 7, N. zz. 

' The words ^ayilv drto are by all the recent editors rejected 
on the authority of 'A. B. C. a 18. /3 4. y 4. Vulg. Copt. Aeth.' 
I recommend that they be omitted, and that the version stand : 
■will I give of. 

' See ch. 1 : 5, N. r, &c. T., C, G., {m. that is hid) ;-Syr. 
(= De D. illo ahscondito), Dt. {het M., dat verborgen is), Ft. G.,- 
M., {la ni. qui est cachee) ;-Pagn., Be?,., Par., Vitr.. Wakef. {the 
m. thai is laid up), Thom. {the m. which was laid up), Greenf. 
(repeats the ai-ticle), Lord {the m. which is hidden), De W. 
{vom M. dem verborgenen). 



EEVELATION. 



9o 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

give him a white stone, and in 
the stone a new name written, 
which no man knoweth, saving 
he that receiveth it. 

18 And unto the angel of the 
church in Thjratira write ; These 
things saith the Son of God, 
who hath his eyes like unto a 
flame of fire, and his feet are lilie 
fine brass ; 



19 I know thy works, and 
charity, and service, and faith, 
and thy patience, and thy works ; 
and the last to be more than the 
first : 

20 Notwithstanding, I have a 
few things against thee, because 
thou suflerest that woman Jeze- 



GREEK TEXT. 



/cat SoxTCD avTw ■yj/r](f)ou XevKrjv, 
Kai. eiTL rrjv ■^r](j)ov ovofxa KaLvov 
yeypa/x/xeuou, o ovSels eyvco el fxi] 
6 Xafifiaucov. 

18 KAI TU) ayyeXco rrj^ iv 
OvarelpOLs eKKXy^aias ypdy^ov, 
TaSe Xeyei 6 fto? rod Oeov, 6 
e^cou Tovs 6(f)daX/Ji.ov¥ avrov o)? 
(j)Xoya TTvpos, kolI o'l 7roSe9 avrov 
b/xotot yaXKoXi^avco- 

19 Oi8a (Tov ra epya kou rrjv 
ayaTn-jv kcu tt]v SiaKoulav, kou 
Trjv TTLaTiv Kai rrjv vrrop.ovi]u crov, 
Koi ra ipya. crov, koI ra ka^aTa 
TrXeiofa twv irpwrcou. 

20 ^AA k')(a) Kara aov oXlya, 
oTt eay rrju yvvaxKa, 'le^a^rjX, 



REVISED VERSION. 

and will give him a white stone, 
and "upon the stone a new name 
written, which no "one knoweth, 
"but he that receiveth.^ 

IS And unto the angel of the 
church in Thj-atira write : These 
things saith the Son of God, ^he 
that hath his eyes ^as a flame of 
fire, and his feet are like "burn- 
ished brass : 



19 I know thy works and »love 
and ''service and faith, and thy 
patience, and "=thy works, and 
the last to he more than the 
first. 

20 ■'But I have ^ against thee 
% few things ; 'that thou ^sufter- 
est Hlie woman, 'Jezabel, 'who 



" See ch. 1 : 20, N. d, &c. and 7: 3, N. g. Sjr. (= Greenf. 
bs), Dt., It. {in su), French verss. ;-Hamm., Wells, Daub., 
Beng. and later German verss., Wesl. (on ;-and so Newc, Thorn., 
Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Words., Kenr.j, Wakef., Woodh., 
Stu., Murd. 

' See 1 John 4 : 12, N. y, &c. For tyva, all the recent 

editors (except Bloomf.) substitute ol&iv (' A. B. C. a 28. J3 7. y 7. 
Compl.'). 

" E. v., ch. 9 : 4, &c. ;-W., R. ;- Wells, Daub., Dodd. and 
Stu. (ea-cept), Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Penn, 
Sharpe, Lord, Treg. (save), Murd., Kenr. (unless), 

' W.;-Latin verss., Sjr. ;-Greenf., Van Ess (der Empfang-er), 
De W. (der Empfangende), Kenr. 

)• See v. 1, N. b. 

'■ E. v., ch. 1 : 14 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except 
Castal.) ;-Dodd., Wesl., Ne^^c., Woodh., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Kenr. 

' For bunL^see ch. 1 : 15, N. m ; and for love, 2 Pet. 1 : 7, N. a. 

'' The reading, xai triv 7ti,a-e. xal irjv imx. (A. B. C. [except 
that C. omits the rTj'v before rttsr.] ' a 17. /3 7. y 9. Compl. Vulg. 
MS. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.'), is adopted by 
all the recent editors, except Bloomf. I recommend that it be 
followed : faith and service. 

' The reading, ti, Jpya crov ta lax- (A. B. C. 'a 21. /3 7. y 7. 
Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav. MS.') is adopted 
by all the recent editors. I recommend that it be followed, and 
translated: thy last works. Comp. v. 4, N. r &c. 

■^ See V. 4, N. n. The Amer. Bib. Soc. would have done better 
to retain the comma, of its own previous editions and of the 



original edition, after notwithstanding, as it has done in Matt. 
11 : 11 ; Luke 10: 11, 20 (though in the last place the original 
edition wants it) ; Phil. 4 : 14. The same punctuation was to 
be preferred also in 1 Tim. 2: 15 ; 2 Tim. 4 : 17. 

« See V. 14, N. d. 

f All the recent editors reject d?i,i,'ya on the authority of ' A. 
B. C. a 27. |8 5. y 8. Compl. Harl. Tol. &c. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Arr. Slav. MSS.' I recommend the omission, and that the text 
stand thus : against thee, that. For that, see v. 4, N. p. 

^ All the recent editors (except Matth. : a^irii) give a^h^ for 
laj, ou the authority of 'A. B. C. a 22. /3 6. y 8. Compl.' The 
variation, however, requires no change in the vei'sion. Comp. 
E. v.. Matt. 3:15; Mark 5 : 19 ; &c. 

^ W., R. ;-Latin verss., Germ., Dt., It., Pr. G. and -M. (mark 
cette as supplied), Fr. S.;-Beng., Moldenh., Greenf, Treg., 
De W. (n-ho latterly approved of Treg. 's rejection of the read- 
ing yvvaixa. ffov, adopted by all the recent editors, except Beng., 
on the authority of A. B. 'a 22. /3 5. y 5. Compl. Syr. Slav. 
MS.'), Kenr. 

' 'ififa^Sf^ (as all the recent editors, except Bloomf., print the 
word, from 'A. B. C. a 17. /3 3. y 6. Er. Compl.') is the Sept. 
for i3"/'X, which in E. V. is always Jezebel. The latter form 
is, accordingly, introduced by E. V. in this the only place where 
the name occurs in the N. T., instead of the Sept. and Vulg. 
orthography, adopted by the previous English verss. I recom- 
mend that the example of E. V. be followed. See ch. 7: 6, 

N. o. For who, see 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. The reading ^ ^i- 

yovaa ('A. C) is adopted by all the recent editors, except 
Matth. and Words., who prefer ^ xiyn (' B. a. 26. /3 G. y 5. Compl.'). 
Neither change would afi'ept the version. 



96 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

bel, which calleth herself a pro- 
phetess, to teach and to seduce 
my servants to commit fornica- 
tion, and to eat things sacrificed 
unto idols. 

21 And I gave her space to 
repent of her fornication, and 
she rejjented not. 

22 Behold, I will cast her into 
a bed, and them that commit 
adultery with her into great trib- 
ulation, except they repent of 
their deeds. 



GREEK TEXT. 

TTju Xeyovaav eavTrji> 7rpo(j)rJTii', 
8i8aarK€Li' /cat TrXavaaOaL i/xov^ 
SovXovf, TTopvevaai koI el8coX6- 
dvra ^ayelv. 

21 isTat eScoKa avrfj -^ovov 
Iva fJi€Tavoi^crri e'/c tyjs iropveias 
avTTjS, Kcu 01) /xerevoTjcrev. 

22 Idov iyco /QaAAo) avrrjv els 
KXl.vr]v, Kou Tovs fJiOi^evovras fx^T 
airr/y ety QX'c^lv fJLeyaXrjv, iav 
1X1) ixeTavorjcrcacnv e'/c twv epytav 



REVISED VERSION. 

calleth herself a prophetess, -"to 
teach and Jdeceive my servants 
to commit fornication and '' eat 
'idol-sacrifices. 

21 And I gave her "time "that 
she might repent °of her forni- 
cation, and she Prepented not. 

22 Behold, il  cast her into 
a bed, and ^tliose ^who commit 
adultery with her into great trib- 
ulation, 'unless they repent "of 
"their ''works ;™ 



1 All the recent editors adopt the reading, xai hi&aaxii. xai. 
TfKavS. toii (' A. B. C. a 27. j3 8. y 8. Compl. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Arr.') I recommend that it be followed; and treated as similar 
cases of resolution of the participial construction (see ch. 1 : 6, 
N. y, &c.) : and she teacheth and deceiceth. The subject of 
hibaaxu is thus expressed by Beng., Sharpe, Treg., Words., 
Hengst. For deceiveth (which verb is employed elsewhere 
[7 times] in this book), see 1 John 2: 20, N. n;-W., T., C, G.;- 
Hamm., Treg. 

' See V. 14, N. i. Newc, Penn, Lord. 

1 See V. 14, N. h. 

" E. V. renders j^pwoj, space, only here and in Acts 15 : 33 ;- 
W. R. (a time) ;-Brightm., Woodh., (as R.), Daub., Dodd., 
Wesl., Sym., Wakef., Newc, Thom., Jones, Penu, Sharpe, Stu., 
Lord, Murd. (a season), Kenr. ;-Eob. 

° Such was the gracious purpose for which time was allowed ; 
Kom. 2 : 4. — The telio force of the i'ua is brought out by means 
of a conjunction and subjective mood in "W., R. ;-foreign verss. 
(except It., Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Greenf.) ;- Woodh., Stu., Lord. 

° iMarginal note : ' Gr. /rom.' Repent of, it is true, does not 
adequately express iji,ita,voiiv ix, a construclio praegnans found 
only, but repeatedly, in this book, and similar to that in Acts 
8 : 22 ; Heb. 6:1. I prefer, however, the marginal expedient 
here suggested to the circumlocutory repetit [and tiirii] from 
(Beng. bussfertig ablassen von; De W. sich bessern [und ab- 
lassen'] von), or to any phrase, as Campb.'s reform (adopted in 
this place by Thom. and Lord, reform from. Dt. zich bekeeren 
van ; Castal. recedere ab ; Herd, umkehren von ; Mey., Van Ess, 
All., Goss., sich bekehren von), that sinks the ground-meaning 

of the Greek verb {change of mind, Sinnesdnderung). But 

the reading, which omits ix trj Hofvilat airiji from this clause, 
is sustained by ' A. B. C. a 27. p 8. y 8. Compl. Vulg. Copt. 
Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav. MSS.,' and adopted by all the recent 
editors, except Bloomf , who acknowledges that ' the strongest 
external authority', including ' nearly all the ancient versions', 
is 'against the authenticity' of the words in question ; but, be- 
cause he thinks that ' internal evidence is rather in their favour, 



since they may have been cancelled for the purpose of removing 
a tautology,' he is satisfied with marking them ' as most prob- 
ably, or certainly, an interpolation.' I recommend that the 
change of reading be followed in the version : repent, and. 

P I recommend that the reading, ou 6i'Ki(. fiitavoijaai, ix t^t 
Ttopviia; avrr;;, sustained (except that A. has jjSt'^jjdEj') by the 
authorities cited in N. o, and adopted by all the recent editors, 
be followed, and translated thus : ^D^U not repent of her forni- 
cation. So ov eixti (Vulg. 7ion rutt) is rendered by R. and all 
the modern English verss. that follow this reading, except Lord 
(chooses not), Treg. (willeih not), Kenr. {is not willing). JIurd. 
{is not disposed), For repetit of, see N. o. 

1 The emphatic iyu (see ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c.), which, though 
not without significance as it here stands, cannot well be given 
in English, except by the tone in pronunciation, is omitted by 
all the recent editors, on the authority of A. B. C. ' a 27. (3 6. 
y 8. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Slav. MSS.' The Sixtine 
Vulg. has ego. 

■• See ch. 1 : 4, N. o, &c. The Elzevir text of 1G24 has /3a?.u ; 
but j3o>.5iw (Vulg. Am., mitto) is translated as a present by W.;- 
Syr., Germ., Dt., It., Fr. G. {vais la reduire). Fr. JI. (with a 
still greater feebleness and inaccuracy of periphrasis : vais la 
reduire d garder), Fr. S. {jette);-ETasm., Vat., Aret., Cocc, 
Bierm., Grell., Vitr., B. and L. (?«'e« vai^ la red ), Herd., 
Matth., Wakef. {am going to throw), Woodh., Thom. {am 
about to cast), Mey., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., De 
W., Hengst., Dav. 

' For those, see v. 2, N. h, &c. ; — for who, see ch. 1 : 5, 
N. V, &c. 

' See V. 5, N. x. 

" See V. 21, N. o. 

' All the recent editors adopt the reading, aOr^j (' B. C. a 27. 
(3 7. y 6. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Tol. Harl.* Aeth. Syr. MS. 

Erp. Slav. MS.'). I recommend that it be followed : her. 

For works, see v. 6, N. y, &c. 

" The continuity of the threatening ought not to be broken 
up, as in B. V. Comp. v. 27, N. w. 



REVELATION. 



97 



KING JAMES VERSIOX. 

23 And I will kill her chil- 
dren with death ; and all the 
churches shall know that I am 
he which searcheth the reins 
and hearts : and I will give unto 
every one of you according to 
your works. 

24 But unto you I say, and 
unto the rest in Thyatira, As 
many as have not this doctrine, 
and which have not known the 
depths of Satan, as they speak ; 
I will put upon you none other 
burden : 

25 But that which ye have 
alreadij, hold fast till I come. 

26 And he that overcometh, 



GREEK TEXT. 



23 Kcu Ta TiKva avrrjs olttok- 
Teva> iv davarcp- kcu yvaxrovraL 
Trdarai at eKKX-qaiaL on iyco elfxi 
6 Ipevvwv ve(ppovs kcu Kap8ia^- 
KCU Bataoi V/J.IU eKaarco Kara ra 
kpya v/xcof. 

24 'Y/xIu Se Xeyco kol XoittoIs 
Toly eV Ovareipoif, ocroi ovk 
ey(OvaL rrjv ^i^ay^i-jv Tavrrju, kol 
OLTives OVK tyvcuaau ra fiaOrj rod 
Saraua, coy Xeyovaii^, Ov /3aA« 
i(j) vpas aXXo (Sapos- 

25 irXrjV o e^ere KpaTrjcrare, 
oiyjiis ov kv rj^ct). 

26 Kai 6 VLKWV kol 6 rrjpuiu 



REVISED VERSION. 

23 And ''her children I will 
kill ^with death ; and all the 
churches shall know that ^I am 
he ""who searcheth * reins and 
hearts ; and I will give unto 
you, "every one, accoi'ding to 
your works. 

24 But unto you I say, ""and 
unto the rest in Thyatira, "^as 
many as have not this doctrine, 
''and ''who have not known the 
depths of Satan, as they 'say : 
I Bwill ^cast upon you ""no other 
burden : 

25 But, 'what ye have J , Maold 
till I come. 

26 And he that overcometh. 



» The Greek order is preserved by R. ;-foreign verss. (except 
It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.);-Woodh., Murd. 

y Newc.'s by the pestilence and Stu.'s by deadly disease not 
only weaken, but unwarrantably restrict, the Hebraism, which 
rather includes whatever is deadly. See ch. 6 : 8, N. o. 



' ' I, whom so many in them despise and dishonour.' 
ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. For who. see 2 Pet. 2: 11. N. f. 



See 



' The universality of the prerogative is strengthened by the 
omission of the article ; q. d. ' even hearts, all hearts.' W. ;- 
Syr.;-Beng., Herd., Thorn., Mey., Grcenf., All., Stier, De W., 
Murd. AVakef. and Newc. use the article before each noun (as 
do also It, French verss., Stu.), but in both cases as a supple- 
ment. ' For vjxiuv ixaatcji^ says Bloomf. ; and so most others. 

But the one dative conveys the idea of a general retribution ; the 
other (forming a distributive apposition with the first), that of 
an individual application. E. V., ch. 20: 13; &c.;-Syr., Dt.. 
Fr. S. (at the same time employing for the vfiCiv following a pos- 
sessive pronoun of the third person singular = av-tov, which is 
read in ' B. 38. Vulg. ed. [.4;». vestra]') ;-Casta]., Greenf., De 
W., (as Fr. S.), Aret., Cocc, Daub, {you every man), Beng., 
Wesl., Jloldenh., Sharpe {you each), Stu. {to you . . . to each 
one) ;-Win. (§ 47. 1. a.) on John 16: 32: 'exaato; for greater 
precision is put after ;' and he refers also to Acts 2 : 6 ; II : 29 ; 
Rev. 20 : 13). See ch. 6:11, N. b. 

*> Instead of xai Koiriol;. all the recent editors adopt the read- 
ing, roii xoiTtoU (A. B. C. 'a 22. /3 7. y 7. Compl. Vulg. MS. 
Am. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr.'). I recommend that it be followed, 
and translated thus, in connection with the second ■rots : unto 
the rest that are. E. V., ch. 1 : 4, II, &c. 

° This being not the commencement of what was to be 
said, but a further determination of the ijilv, the Amer. Bible 



Soc. has properly restored the small letter of the original 
edition. 

'' This xai is cancelled by all the recent editors, on the au- 
thority of ' A. C. o 26. )3 7. y 8. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Harl. 



Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
omitted. 



Arm. Slav. MS.' I recommend that and be 



• See 2 Pet. 2 : II, N. f. 

' W., T., C, R. ;-Latin verss. (diciint or aiunt), Syr. (uses 
the same verb as in the first clause, but, according to the text 
of De D. and Greenf., in the I pors. phir. of the pret. ; while 
that of P. and Lee =: Murd. they say.), German verss., except 
Herd, and Mey., (use sagen), Dt. {zeggen), Fr. S. (disent) ;- 
Brightm., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Words., Kenr.. Barn. 

E The reading /SdjiAu (' A. C. a 20. )3 6. y 8.' Comp. v. 22) 
is adopted by all the recent editors, except Beng. and Griesb. 
(both of whom, however, mark it as of equal authority. Theile 
even cites Gnesb. as having adopted it.) and Bloomf., who 
thinks that jia7.ui ' may be the true reading.' I recommend that 
fiiixxu be followed: I cast. E. V., vv. 10, 14, 22, and gen- 
erally elsewhere, renders fiaXKa, to cast. Comp. Ps. 55 : 22 ;- 
W. {shall send), R. ;-VuIg. (mittam), Germ, (werfen), Fr. S. 
(jetterai) ;-Erasm., Vat., (as Vulg.), Moldenh., Herd., Mey., 
Hengst., {as Germ.). ' 

" Brightm., Wells, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

' Castal., Cocc, Vitr., {quod;-foT Vulg. id, quod), Wells 
Dodd., Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Newc, Thom., Mey., Greenf., 
Sharpe, Stu. (at ch. 3 : II), Lord, De W., Murd. 

' No foreign vers, has any supplement, and, of English verss. 
besides E. V., only T., C, G. ;-IIamm., A\'ells, Words. 

!■ See V. 13, N. w. 

13 



9S 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and keepeth my works unto the 
end, to him will I give power 
over the nations : 

27 (And he shall rule them 
with a rod of iron ; as the vessels 
of a potter shall they be broken 
to shivers :) even as I received 
of my Father. 

28 And I will give him the 
morning-star. 

29 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 

CHAP. III. 

And unto the angel of the 
church in Sardis WTite ; These 
things saith he that hath the 



GREEK TEXT. 

a^pi re'Aouy ra epya p.ov, Scocrco 



^^' 



dvav 



27 Koi TTOLfxavei avTOVs eV 
pafiSo) aiSr]pa' w? ra aKevrj ra 
KepapiKa avvrpifieraL, wy Kayca 
elXrjcpa irapa tov TTarpos p-ov 

28 Kol Scocrco avTw tov darepa 
\ .• f 

TOV TrpCOLVOV. 

29 O e^cov 0V9 oLKovcraTco tl 
TO Jlvevfia Aeyei tols eKKATjaiacs. 

CHAP. III. 

Kal Tm ayyeXca ttjs iv Sdp- 
Seaiv iKKXr]aias ypa^ov, TdSe 



REVISED VERSION. 

'even "he that keepeth " imto 
the end my works, " I will give 
him Pauthoi-ity over the nations ; 

27 1 And he shall ■'tend them 
with 'an iron rod, as the vessels 
of 'the potter "are shivered ; ^as 
I also ^have received of my 
Father f 

28 And I will give him the 
morning star. 

29 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
mito the churches. 

CHAP. III. 

And unto the angel of the 
church in Sardis write : These 
things saith he that hath the 



1 There being but one and the same party in question, the 
repetition of the article shows that xal is not copulative, but 
epexegetical. To keep Christ's works unto the end is equivalent 
to victorj. Comp. 1 John 5 : 4, 5. 

■° See V. 1, N. b. 

° The opposition of ipyat (im to spyur avT^j of v. 22 is sug- 
gested by the Greek order, which is preserved by W. ;-Latin 
verss. (except Castal.), Syr., It., Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Woodh., 
Stu. 

"> The avf9 is retained in its place by R. ;-Latin verss. (ex- 
cept Castal.), Syr. ;-Brightm., Dodd., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

P ' As a rightful king.' See Jude 25, N. g.— Latin verss. 
{potestatem), Syr., It. (podesid), Fr. S. (autorite i-foT puis- 
sance of previous verss.) ;-Berl. Bib., DeyV., (Geiealt), "Wakef., 
Newc. marg., Greenf. (ni'ii^?]), Penn, Stu., Treg., Murd. 

1 'And, in the exercise of that i^ovaia, &c.' The Amer. 
Bible Soc. has properly abolished the parenthesis. 

' In this way, among others, shall these jtoifiivif xaur be 
employed under the Chief Shepherd. Comp. Ps. 149 : 5-9 ; 
&c.— For itotfiaii'o, see ch. 7 : 17, N. 1 ; 12 : 5, N. w ; Jude 12, 
N. r. ' Significat non simpliciter regere, sed pascere, et regere 
quomodo pastor gregem' (Jansen, cited by Leigh). And on 
Ps. 2:9, to which the reference here is obvious, and where 
Messiah receives of the Father the promise, which He now ex- 
tends to His saints, Alex, remarks : ' By a slight change of 
pointing in the Hebrew, it may be made to mean, thoic shall 
feed them (as a shepherd) with a rod of iron, which is the 
sense expressed in several of the ancient versions, and to which 
there may be an ironical allusion, as the figure is a common 
one to represent the exercise of regal power. (See for example 
2 Sam. 7 : 7, and Micah 7 : 14.)' Syr. (same word as in Jude 
12; which here also De D. renders, pascet), Germ, (weiden), 
Dt. (hoeden), Fr. S. (paiira) ;-Calv. (Matt. 2 : 6, pascet), Vat. 



('reget, \e\, pascet, vel, instar pastoris reget.'), Castal, Cocc, 
Vitr., (u.^e pascere), Engl. Ann., Hamm., Scott, (feed), Berl. 
Bib. (als ein Hirl regieren), Beng., Moldenh., De W.. Hengst., 
{as Germ.), Wakef., Greenf. (oyi^). Brown (1 Pet. 5: 2, act 
as shepherds). (Jlilton, P. L. xi! 489, 490 : 

' Despair 
' Tended the sick, busiest from couch to couch.') 

' The adjective is retained by W. ;-Latin and German verss., 
Dt.;-Newc. (at ch. 9 : 9), Stu., Lord, Kenr. 

' Daub, (the potter's vessels). 

° E. V. follows the reading, owfptiS^fftf <u, for which there is 
very large authority of MSS. and ancient verss. (B. 'a 24. (3 6. 
y 8. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav, ed.'), 
though of recent editors Matth. alone (not, as Bloomf. says, 
' Lachm., Tisch.' [in his last edition], 'and Words w.'), adopts it. 
According to our Text, axevr; is the subject of the verb, and the 
sentence becomes brachylogical == (he shall tend them (and 

shiver them), as &c. 2v^f pi'/3u is a common Sept. term for 

laa. In the parallel Ps. 2: 9, Alex, substitutes shiver for dash 
in pieces, on the ground that the latter ' weakens the expression 
by multiplying words.' Sharpe (shattered) ;-Green. 

' W. (as also I), R.;-Latm verss., Syr., Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,- 
S. (which also exhibits the emphasis of the tyii by moi je-. as 
the Latin verss. do by an expressed ego, and Greenf. by a final 
1JX. See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c.) ;-Hamm., Beng., Dodd. (as I have 
also), Wesl., Moldenh., AVakef., Greenf., All., Penn, Treg., 
Stier, De W., Hengst., Murd., Kenr. See ch. 3 : 21, N. h and 

6 : 11, N. g. For have, see £. V., ch. 3 : 3 ; 11 : 17 ; Matt. 

25 : 24 ; Acts 16 : 24 ; 1 Cor. 10 : 13 ;-R.;-foreign verss. (except 
Herd., Mey.) ;-Brightm., Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., 
Thorn., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. 

'" See V. 22, N. w. The same objection lies against the colon 
of V. 26, especially when the parenthesis of v. 27 is removed. 



REVELATION. 



99 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

seven Spirits of God, and the 
seven stars ; I know thy works, 
that thou hast a name that thou 
livest, and art dead. 

2 Be watchful, and strengthen 
the things which remain, that 
ai'e ready to die : for I have not 
found thy works perfect before 
God. 

3 Remember therefore how 
thou hast i-eceived and heard, 
and hold fast, and repent. If 
therefore thou shalt not watch, 
I will come on thee as a thief, 
and thou shalt not know what 
hour I will come upon thee. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Aeyei 6 k^cov ra iirra Trvevfxara 
Tov Oeov Kol rovf eVra da-repaf 
OlSa (TOV Ta (pya, on to ovofxa 
e'^^ei? or£ ^17?, kol veKpos el. 

2 rluov ypr]yopu)v, kol arrjpL- 
^ov TO. XoiTTOL a /xe'AAet caroOavilv 
ov yap fvprjKa crov ra ipya 7re- 
7rk7)pcop.eua iucoTriou tov Oeov. 

3 fivrjixoveve ovv Trays eiXr)(j)as 1 
Kal TjKovaas, kcll TTqpei, kou p.eTa- 
vorjaov. 'Eav ovv firj yp-qyopi]- 
(Trjs, rj^co eirl ae coy KAevrr?;? , koI 
ov fXT] yvws TToiav copau rj^co eVt 
o-e. 



REVISED VERSION. 

seven ^Spirits of God, and the 
seven stars : I know thy works, 



that thou hast ""the name 
thou livest, and art dead. 



that 



2 "^Be watchful, and strengthen 
the things ''remaining that "are 
ready to die : for I have not 
found thy works ^fulfilled before 
s God. 

3 Remember, therefore, how 
thou hast received and heard, 
and '■keep, and repent. If, there- 
fore, thou 'dost not watch, I will 
come J'upon thee as a thief and 
thou shalt Jnot know what hour 
I will come upon thee. 



' Here also the Amer. Bible Soc. interprets and prints as in 
ch. 1 : 4 (see N. p), and, in doing so, again departs from the 
general sense of the Church. 

b On the authority of A. B. C. 'a 19. /3 7. y 6. Compl.', the 
to is cancelled by all the recent editors, except Bloomf., who 
brackets it as being ' considered, with some probability, an in- 
terpolation.' In the Stcpp. also, he says that the other reading 
rests 'on very strong external authority,' but adds: 'yet in- 
ternal evidence is in favour of the word, and the use here of the 
article would be very suitable, considering that tivofia here de- 
notes, not name, i. e. appellation, but attribute, what is ascribed 
to a person or thing as a quality. And such is the sense of the 
t.erm in Herodot. iii. 8 [80], oiiojua ttdrcuv xaXKiatov ix^h iooi'O" 
^I'lji'.' Evidently, however, in Herodot. the 7iame is used for 
the thing, which is, therefore, put in apposition with it; 
whereas it is not the attribute or quality, to wit, life, that is 
ascribed to the angel, but the name of it, and this concession is 
instantly followed by a denial that he had aught beyond the 
name, that is, the credit, reputation ; or a personal name (such 
as Zosimus, Vitalis, &c.) that might ' be derived from life' 
(Beng.) ; or the name of Christ, the Prince of life (Gerl.), or 
the 'significant ofBcial name' (Hengst.), either of which carried 
with it a presumption, that whosoever bore it must be ' alive 
unto God.' There being thus no internal evidence whatever to 
oppose to the external, I recommend that the version stand as 
E. V. : o name. 

' See ch. 2: 10, N. o, &c. Castal. (praesta te), Cocc. (e.Tnste), 
Beng., Gerl., De W., Hengst., (werde), Scott (become). The 
Syr., Grell., Ew., Greenf., and several of the Germ, verss., as 
Moldenh., Herd., Mey., (De W. in 1839), &c., translate by the 
imperative of the main verb ; = axoake. 

^ Woodh., Lord. The circumlocution by means of a relative 
and finite verb is avoided by "\T., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Hamm., 
Wakef., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Kenr. 



° Except Beng. [iji.A'Kiv), and Matth. (JftiXKii drto/SaXXtiv. B. 
and many cursive MSS. The Compl. has tiic7.ei.), all the recent 
editors give Xijuvkm (' A. C. 12. 28. 34. 35. 36. 38. Vulg. Copt. 
Syr. Erp.' I recommend that this reading be followed : were 
ready ; that is, ' when I interposed.' 

< See 1 John 1 : 4, N. q. E. V., Matt. 3 : 15 ; Acts 14 : 26 ; 
2 Cor. 10 : 6 ;-W., E., {full) -.-Latin verss., except Castal., 
(plena), Dt. (roZj-marg. vervull), Fr. S. (accomplies) ■,-QaTnm., 
Beng. (erfilllet), Dodd., Clarke, (filed vp), Sharpe, Lord (per- 
fectly performed), Kell. (filed), Kenr. (as IF.). 

^ All the recent editors add fiov after ®ioi, on the authority 
of A. B.C. 'a 27. /3 7. y3. Compl. Tulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Erp.' I recommend that this reading be followed: my God. 
Comp. ch. 2 : 7, N. b. 

 See Jude 1, N. g. While in this book the word occurs 
11 times, and, except in this instance, is always in E. V. to keep, 
nowhere else is it, as here, to hold fast ;-AV., R. ;-Latin verss. 
(lob-]serva), Syr. (as in Matt. 19 : 17), Dt. (bewaar). It. (serva), 
French verss. (use garder) ;-Beng., AH., De W., Hengst., (be- 
wahre), Wakef., Newc, Treg. (observe i-smd so Murd., Kenr.), 
Words. Of these and other verss. many follow Bez. in render- 
ing the preceding rtcij by a compound relative (quae) and here 
supplying a demonstrative (ilia). 

' The present is employed by E. V. for the aor. subj. with 
iav fi^. ch. 2 : 5, 22 ; &c. ; and here by W., R. ;-Dt., It., French 
verss. ;-Guyse. Dodd., Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Mey., All., Penn, 
De W., Kenr. 

i E. v., last clause ;-Dodd., Woodh. Most others have the 
same form of the preposition in both cases. See ch. 10: 2, 
N. g. This first irti ai is bracketed by Knapp, Treg., and 
cancelled by Lachm., Tisch., on the authority of ' A. C. 12. 28. 
Vulg. MS. Harl.* Tol. Copt. Arm. Slav. MSS.' For the em- 
phatic ov ftij, see V. 12, N. j. 



100 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

4 Thou hast a few names even 
in Sardis which have not defiled 
their garments ; and they shall 
walk with me in white : for they 
are worthy. 

5 He that overcometh, the 
same shall be clothed in white 
raiment ; and I will not blot out 
his name out of the book of life, 
but I will confess his name be- 
fore my Father, and before his 
angels. 



G He that hath an ear, let him 
hear what the Spirit saith unto 
the churches. 

7 And to the angel of the 
church in Philadelphia write ; 
These things saith he that is 
holy, he that is true, he that hath 
the key of Dand, he that open- 
eth, and no man shutteth ; and 
shutteth, and no man openeth : 

8 I know thy works : behold, 
I have set before thee an open 
door, and no man can shut it : 
for thou hast a little strength. 



GREEK TEXT. 

4 " E\eLS oXlya ovofxara koI eu 
HapbecTLV, a ovk i/xoXvvav ra 
IfidrLa avTcov Koi Trepuwarrjaova-L 

IX€T e/JLOV iu XeVKOLS, OTL a^LOL 

5 viKCov, ovTos irepi^aXei- 
Tai iv ifxaTiois Aeu/coty /cat ou 
pi] i^aXel'^a) to bvopa avrov f'/c 
rj/f /3(/3Aoi; rrj? C^'??, Koi i^op,o- 1 
XoyrjcropaL to ovopa avTov iuco- 
TTiov Tov iraTpos p-ov Kat tvwiriov 
tS)V ayy^Xviv avTov. 

6 O €)(cov oi)y aKOva-aTO) t'i 
TO Uuevp-a Xeyei tols iKKXrjalais. 

■7 Kal Tw ayyeXw ttj? iv 0i- 
XaSeX(f)eLa eKKXyjaias ypa^|rov, 
Ta8e Xeyei 6 ayios, 6 aX-rjOiPos, 
6 e')(U)V TTjV KXeiSa tov AajSlS, 6 
avolyoov kol ovSeis KXeUi, koI 
kXcUl Kol ovSeh avoiyer 

8 OiSa crou Ta epya- ISov 8e- 
8coKa Ivairiov aov Ovpav aveco- 
yp.evr]v, kcll ovbtis BvvaTai KXeicrai 
avTTjv OTL p.LKpav '^X'^ts 8vvap.Lv, 



REVISED VERSION. 

4 '' Thou hast a few names 
■even in Sardis, which have not 
defiled their garments ; and they 
shall walk with me in white : for 
they are worthy. 

5 He that overcometh, "the 
same shall be clothed in white 
"'garments ; and I will ""not blot 
out his name "from the book of 
life, "and "I will confess his name 
before my Father, and before his 
angels. 



6 He that hath an ear, let him 
hear what the Spirit saith unto 
the churches. 

7 And "unto the angel of the 
church in Philadelphia write : 
These things saith he that is 
holy, he that is true, he that hath 
the "key of David, he that open- 
eth and no Pone shutteth, and ^he 
shutteth and no Pone openeth : 

8 I know thy works : behold, 
I have "■jj-iven before thee an 
'opened door, 'and no 'one can 
shut it ; for thou hast a little 



^ All the recent editors commence the verse witli aXK (Tisch. 
axxa), on the authority of A. B. C. 'a 28. /3 5. Compl. Vu!g. 
Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav. BISS.' I recommend that this read- 
ing be adopted : But. 

1 All the recent editors omit xal, on the authority of A. B. C. 
' o 28. /3 0. y 4. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr.' I recom- 
mend that this reading be followed : names in S. 

" For of-roj, Lachm. and Treg. read oiVuj ('A. C. a 15. j3 2. 

Vulg. Copt. Syr. Arm. Ar. P.'). For garments, see E. V., 

V. 4, and 29 times elsewhere ;-R.;-Penn, Sharpe, Stu. (vestments), 

Lord. Treg. Several have clothes or robes. For ov fir;, see 

v.l2,N.j. 

" For from, see W. ;-Dodd., Wakef. and Lord (who also omit 
the first out), Newc, "VYoodh., Penn, Stu., Murd., Kenr. R. ;- 

More, Wesl., Sym., Thom.. Sharpe, Kell., omit the first out. 

For and, see 1 John 2 : 20, N. j, &c. For i^ofio%oyr,aonai., all the 

recent editors have oixoxoyt-aa (A. B. 0. 'o 2G. /3 7. y 3. Compl.'). 

" See ch. 2 : 12, N. r. For xXf iSa, all the recent editors 

have xXilv (A. B. C. ' a 25. p 3. Compl.'). 

p ' No hand whatever, of man or angel.' See ch. 5 : 3, N. e and 1 
John 4 : 12, N. y. — Foreign verss. generally ;-Howe, Wesl., Newc, 
Thom., Scholef. at v. 8, {none), Wells, Wakef., Woodh., Penn (no 



one . . . none), Sharpe. Stu., Lord, Treg. Among the other va- 
rieties in the reading of this verse, on which MSS. and editions 
are divided, A. B. C. and 38 cursive MSS., for the first xT-tUi, have 
xwdati (Matth., Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch.) ; B. and 30 cur- 
sive JISS., for amiyu, have avoliii, (Matth., Words., Tisch.). 

■! See ch. 1 : 6, N. y, &c. 

 A word rather of grace, than of power; the latter being 
specially implied in a.ricjr/iiivr,i: — W. (gave), R. ;-Vulg., Sjt., 
Germ., Dt.;-Erasm., Vat., Aret., Hamm., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., 
Daub., Beng., Wesl., Greenf., Lord, De W., Hengst., Kenr. 
(Pagn. introduced propositi ; T., .set.). 

' 'Opened in the exercise of my oificial prerogative' (v. 7). 
Comp. Acts 7: 50. I recommend that aviayjj.. be always rend- 
ered as a participle. — The participial form is preserved by W., R., 
(adoor opened) -j-Dt. ;-Bcrl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., Woodh., Greenf.. 
Kist, Lord and Words, (as W.), De W. Others (Fr. G.,-M.j 
Heinr., All.) make BsSaxa avecfyji. = I have opened. 

' All the recent editors have r-v instead ofxai, on the authority 
of A. B. C. ' a 28. i3 8. y 4. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. 
Arr.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and in con- 
nection with the Hebraistic addition, avtr-v, translated: which. 
For one, see v. 7, N. p, &c. 



REVELATION. 



101 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and hast kept my word, and hast 
not denied my name. 

9 Behold, I will make them 
of the synagogue of Satan, which 
say they ai-e Jews, and are not, 
but do lie ; behold, I will make 
them to come and worship before 



GREEK TEXT. 

KoX iTrjpT](raf jxov rov Xoyov, Kai 
ovK -qpvrjaco to ovofxa /j-ov. 

9 l8ov 8l8q}ij.l e/c r?;? crwayco- 
yrJ9 Tov Sarava rwv Xeyovrcov 
eavTovs ' Iov8aiov? elvai, kol ovk 



elcriv, aXXa ■^evdovrar l8ov 
thy feet, and to know that I have TroLrjau) avTovi iva tj^oxtl kol 
loved thee. TrpoaKwrjacocriv Ivwitlov Ta>v tto- 

8a>v aov, Kol yvSycTLv on iyco 

T]ya7rrjcra ere. 
10 Because thou hast kept the 10 "Otl err^prja-as rov Xoyov 
word of my patience, I also will ^^^^ {nropovrjs p.ov, Kuyco ae ttj- 
keep thee from the hour of / , „ r/ „ ^ 

, ^ , , . , . 1 111 pricrco €K rrif copa? rov ireipacraov 

temptation, which shall coxae y^ i ', ' „ , v - 

upon all the world, to try them ^V^ p.eXXovar)s epx^o-Oat €7rc r?;? 

olKOvpeviqs oXi-jS, Treipaaat rovs 

KaroLKOvvras iin ttjs y^s. 



that dwell upon the earth. 



REVISED VERSION. 

strength, and hast kept my word, 
and hast not denied my name. 

9 Behold, I "give out of the 
synagogue of Satan, ''those ''who 
say '"that they are Jews, and 
^they are not, but do lie ; behold, 
I will make them to come and 
ydo homage before thy feet, and 
^ know that ^I have loved thee. 



10 Because thou hast kept the 
word of my patience, I also will 
keep thee irom ''that hour of 
"^trial, which shall come ''on the 
whole world, to try '^those 'who 
dwell ''on the earth. 



" The Saviour withholds no good thing from His faithful str- 
vant, but opens the riches of His liberality, to him that hath 
still giving (comp. ch. 11: 3, N. i), grace before, now glory ; even 
the necks of his enemies (comp. Josh. 10: 24; Ps. 18: 40; 
Is. 45: 14; GO: 14.). 'The very synagogue of Satan, whence 
issues nothing but contempt and threatenings, I give to be. and 
will yet make, a source' (ex. Comp. the "-a of .ludg. 14: 14) 
' of triumph.' It is questionable, whether the promise regards 
the conversion of some of these deceivers (according to the com- 
mon understanding, on which mainly rests the partitive con- 
struction of Ix rijs aw. . . . ■tCav %iy-), and not rather simply 
the humiliation of them all. — W. (shall give to thee of), R. 
(will give of) ;-Vulg. (dabo de), Syr. (= De D. do ex), Germ. 
(werde geben aus), Dt. (geef [?« eenlgeii] uit), Ft. S. ([i'eii] 
donne rfe) ;-Erasm., Vat., Bierm., (as Vidg.), Pagn., Bez., Par., 
(praebebo eos qui sunt ex), Aret. (do eos qui sunt), Brightm. 
(give out of), Cocc. (do quosdam ex), Vitr. (do e.v), Berl. Bib., 
Beng., Jloldenh., (gebe aus . . . etliche), B. and L. (m^en vais vous 
donner quelques uns de), Guyse ('will give you victory over'), 
Dodd. (vill give those [icho are] of), Wakef. (am giving [thee 
some] of), A7oodh. (give [unto thee] those of), Thom. (give 
thee some of). Greenf. {h )r]X [nxt] = this will 1 give to, or in 
respect to, the synagogue &c.), All. (will dir etliche geben). 
Penn (will give [to thee] them, of). Lord (give of). Hengst. 
(gebe aus), Murd. (will give them of), Kenr. (as i?.). Barn. 
(give). A present tense is used for 6i6u^t by others (as Herd., 
Mey.). 

' Here tuv xiy. stands in apposition with r^j aw. See 
ch. 2 : 1, N. b. For who, see 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

" See ch. 2 : 2, N. j. 

» Seech. 2: 2, N.jj, &e. 

' For ij^uai, rtpoaxuvjjuMjH'j Lachm., Treg., Tisch., have rj^ovai, 



rtpocrxvi'jJffoiiffH' (A. 0. and a few cursive jNISS.). Our word 

wo?-ship, by which E. V. uniformly renders Ttpoaxmia, is not 
now in common use to express maiks of respect (particularly 
the oriental ninnirn [Greenf.], bowing down, prostration, mak- 
ing or doing obeisance. Wherever this last phrase occurs in 
E. v., the Sept. has Ttfionxwia.) paid to our fellow-men. — Syr. 
(= Murd. do obeisance), It. (s'inchineranno), Fr. G.,-M., (se 
prosterner) ;-Castal. (veneratum), Berl Bib. (fussfallig ehren), 
B. and L. (se jetter), Moldenh., Herd., Mey., (nitderfallen), 
Campb., Alf., &c., (at Matt. 2 : 2), Wakef. (pay homage), Bos. 
(prosiemi). All., De W., (fallen), Stu., Lord (fall), Barn. 
( fall prostrate) ;-Bretsoh., Wahl, Rob. The adorent of the 
Latin versions answers well to jtposx. 

' Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Thorn., Stu., Treg.; of whom all 
except Stu. and Treg. omit also the previous to. 

* 'I; although, and all the time that, they have hated thee.' 
See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. 

'' Gr. the hour of the trial. But the dependence of tf,i /iix- 
f.ov<!t;s on upas is in English more strongly indicated, and the 
loss of the second article at the same time compensated, by 
means of the demonstrative. So Wakef. All the modern for- 
eign verss. express the second article. 

■= E. v., 1 Pet. 4: 12;-Wells, Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., 
Penn, Sharpe, Lord. Most other verss. use a word cognate 
with the subsequent verb ; e. g. W., T., C, R., Hamm., (tempt- 
ation . . . tempt). 

^ For on, in one or the other or both instances, see R. ;-N'ewc., 
Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. See ch. 5. 7, 

N. a. For tlie whole, see E. V., ch. 12 : 9 ; 16 : 14 ; &c. ;-R. ;- 

German verss. (der [dera] ganzen), Dt. (de geheele);-'Vt'es\., 
Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

' See ch. 2 : 22, N. s, &c. 



102 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

11 Behold, I come quickly: 
hold that fast which thou hast, 
that no man take thy crown. 

12 Him that overcometh, will 
I make a pillar in the temple of 
my God, and he shall go no more 
out : and I will write upon him 
the name of my God, and the 
name of the city of my God, xchich 
is new Jerusalem, which cometh 
down out of heaven from my 
God: and I will write vjion him my 
new name. 

13 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 

14 And unto the angel of the 
church of the Laodiceans write ; 
These things saith the Amen, the 
faithful and true Witness, the 
beginning of the creation of God; 



GREEK TEXT. 

11 I8ov ip^ofiai Ta-)(y Kparei 
e'x^^^J '^" firjSels XajSrj tov (TTe- 
(j)avov (TOV. 

12 O viKcou, Troirjao) avTov 
arvXov ev rco i>a(o tov Oeov /lov, 
Koi e^co ov ixrj i^eXOrj^ 'in, koli 
ypayJACo eV avrov to buo/jia tov 
Oeov fjiov, Kou to bvofxa ttjs tto- 
Xecos TOV Oeov jxov, tyjs Kacurj^ 
lepovcraXrjfi, rj KaTafiaivovaa Ik 
TOV ovpavov airo tov Oeov p.ov, 
Koi TO bvopa /jlov to Kaivov. 

13 e)((ov oi)y aKOvaaTco tI 
to Uvevpa XeyeL Tois eKKXTjaiaiy. 

14 Kou Tcp d-yyeXa> tt]9 eKKXr)- 
crias AaoSiKecov ypa'^oi', Ta8e 
Xeyei 6 'Api]v, 6 papTvs b ttkttos 
Koi aXrjOLvos, rj OLPXV "^V^ KTLaecos 
TOv Oeov- 



REVISED VERSION. 

11 'Behold, I come quickly: 
^hold ^what thou hast, that no 
•■one take thy crown. 

12 'He that overcometh, I will 
make 'him a pillar in the temple 
of my God, and he shall Jnever 
go out more ; and I will write 
upon him the name of my God, 
and the name of the city of my 
God, ''of Hhe new Jerusalem, 
which ■'''descendeth out of heaven 
from my God, and ' my new 
name. 

13 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 

14 And unto the angel of the 
church ""of the Laodiceans write : 
These things saith the Amen, 
°tlie faithful and true Witness, 
the Beginning of the creation of 
God: 



' The iSov is cancelled by all the recent editors, on the au- 
thority of A. B. C. 'a 20. fi 6. Compl. Vulg. JIS. Am. Tol. 
Copt. Syr. Erp. Slav. MS.' I recommend that Behold be 
omitted. 

^ For hold, see ch. 2 : 13, N. w :— for what, see ch. 2 : 25, N. i. 

>" See V. 7, N. p, &c. 

' Comp. ch. 2 : 7, N. zz. ' Per ilium hiatum constructionis, 
lectori quasi expendendum relinquitur. quanti a Deo aestimetur 
animus masculus, et hostibus spiritualibus superandis intentus' 
(Ramb.). ' By the construction : He that overcometh. to him., 
the overcoming, being set free from immediate connection with 
what follows, stands prominently out, and appears as the indis- 
pensable condition of participation in the promise' (Hengst. at 
ch. 2 : 7). Comp. E. V., Prov. 19 : 21 ; 20 : 10, 12; &c.— The 
force of the absolute nominative is preserved.and the personal 
pronoun retained in the second clause, by E. V., ch. 2 : 26 ;-R. ; 
-foreign verss. ;-Brightm., Wesl., Woodh., Stu. 

' "W. (no more go out), R. {go out no more) ;-It. {non iiscird 
mai piu fuori), Fr. S. (ji^en sortira plus jamais) ;-Brightm. 
(iieither shall he go forth any more), Daub., Dodd., Wesl., 
Newc, Thom., (as R.), B. and L. (n^en sortira jamais), 
Wakef. (go thence no more), Woodh. (out of it he sfiall never 
more depart), Clarke (go no more out for ever), Penn (not go 
out from [it] any more), Stu. (as fV.), Lord, Treg., (iiever 
more go out), Kenr. (not go out any more). But no version 
combines the terseness and the energy of the Greek emphasis, 
which carries with it an absolute negation (w) of the idea, first 



suggested as it were independently in the I'Sw. that in any pos- 
sible contingency (^ij) Christ's conqueror should go out ever- 
more (tti). Comp. ch. 18 : 7, N. g and 14, N. e. 

^ Nothing is supplied by W., T., C, R. ;-Latin verss. (except 
Pagn., Bez., Par. : id est), Syr., Germ, verss., It., Fr. S. ;-B. and 
L., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Lee, Kenr. — The article is expressed 
by W., G. ;-Brightm., Daub, and later English verss., as well 
as all the foreign ; — the case also, by W. ;-foreign verss. (except 
Fr. G.,-M.) ;-Newc., Woodh., Stu., Murd. 

" E. v., ch. 21: 10; &c.;-R.;-Lord (descends), Treg., 
Murd. See ch. 10 : 1, N. a. The reading ^ xata^alvovaa is 
substituted by Mill and all the recent editors for ^ xatajSalt'ii, 
of the textus receptus. 

I Nothing is supplied by W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except B. 
and L.) ;-Daub., Wesl., Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., 

Lord, Murd., Kenr. The main emphasis is not on the ^oij 

(Thom., Van Ess, Penn : mine own), but on to xaiviv. See 
1 John 2 : 7, N. o. Syr. (= De D. nomen meum illud novum ;- 
not, as Murd. : my own new Jiame), German verss. (meinen 
Namen, den neuen). 

■» All the recent editors adopt the reading, iv AooScxtio, re- 
ferred to in the margin of E. V., and sustained by A. B. C. 
'a 28, )3 9. y 2. Compl. Tulg. Aeth. Syr. Arr.' I recommend 
that it be followed : in Laodicea. 

' See ch. 1 : 5, N. r, &c. 



REVELATION. 



103 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

15 I know thy works, that 
thou art neither cold nor hot : 
I would thou wert cold or hot. 

16 So then, because thou art- 
lukewarm, and neither cold nor 
hot, I will spue thee out of my 
mouth : 

17 Because thou sayest, I am 
rich, and increased with goods, 
and have need of nothing ; and 
kuowest not that thou art 
wretched, and miserable, and 
poor, and blind, and naked : 

18 I counsel thee to buy of 
me gold tried in the fire, that 



GREEK TEXT. 



16 Oi8a crov to. kpya, otl 
ovre \j/v)(fi09 ei, ovre ^earos' 
o(p€Xou y^v^os ilyjf, rj ^ecrrof 

16 ovTcos oTi •)(XLapos el, kol 
ovre yj/V)(^po9 ovre ^earoy, fieWco 
ae epeauL e'/c tov (rTO/xaTOf /xov. 

17 OTL Aeyetf, Otl nXovaLOf 
(l/XL, Koi TrerrXouTTjKa, kol ov8e- 
V09 ■)(j)€Lau ix^y '^"' ^^'^ oiSa^ otl 
(TV el 6 TaXaiTTCopos kol e'Aeeti'os', 

KoX TTTCO^^OS KOL TV(l)XoS KOU yVjJLVOS. 

18 (Tvp-ISovXevco (tol ayopaaai 
Trap' ep.ov ■)(fivaLov TreTrvpw/xevov 



REVISED VERSION. 

15 I know thy works, that 
thou art neither cold nor hot : 
I would thou "wert cold or hot. 

16 "So, because thou art luke- 
warm, and neither cold nor hot, 
I Pam about to Pvomit thee out 
of my mouth.'! 

17 Because thou sayest : I am 
rich, and ''have become rich, and 
have need of nothing ; and know- 
est not that ^thou art 'the 
wretched and "pitiable one, and 
poor, and blind, and naked ; 

18 I counsel thee to buy of 
me gold ^purified ''by fire, that 



° For lir;!, all the recent editors have rjs (' C. a 23. (3 7. y 2. 
Compl.'). Nowhere else does E. V., in rendering oiruj, in- 
troduce then (comp. Rom. 1 : 15 ; Heb. C: 15) ;-nor is there 
anything for this addition in Syr., It., Fr. S. ;-Cocc., Beng., 
Wesl., Greenf., Sharpe, Lord, De W., Treg. {thus), Murd. Many 
follow Vulg. Sed quia. Newc. marks then as supplied. 

p For am about, see E. V., ch. 10: 4 (comp. ch. 3:2); Acts 
3:3; 18 : 14; 20: 3; Heb. 8: 5 ;-S7r., Fr. S. (vais) ;-Pagn., 
Bez., Par., Cocc, Vitr., (futunim est, ut), Brightm. {it will 
come to pass that), Wakef. (am going), Newc. (will soon), 
Woodh., Thom., Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Murd. The Vulg. has 

incipiam.^ For vomit see R. ;-Latin verss. (use the verb, 

evomo), It. (vomitero), French verss. (use the verb, vomir) ;- 
Stu., Murd., Kenr. Comp. Mdton ( Of Reformation in Eng- 
land) : ' That queazy temper of lukewarmness, that gives a 
vomit to God himself.' Others quite unnecessarily soften the 
expression into cast (W. ;-Dodd., Newc, Lord), nauseate 
(Woodh.), spit (Sharpe). 

■! This punctuation, lately adopted by the Amer. Bible Soc, 
sets off V. 17 as the protasis to v. 18. Hengst.'s objections, that 
' so long a sentence does not suit the excitement proper to the 
discourse here. And this sort of periodical diction is in general 
little adapted to the Hebraistic style of the Apocalypse,' are not 
valid. The structure of Prov. 1 : 24-31 (vv. 29, 30 being sim- 
ilarly connected with v. 31.) is a sufficient answer to both. On 
the other hand, the construction which Hengst. adopts, and 
which makes v. 17 the ground of the charge in v. 15, is too in- 
tricate, while it also breaks up a parallelism of equal solemnity 
and force. 

 He prides himself, not only in his present prosperous con- 
dition, but also in the course of conduct that has so resulted. 
That the second clause is nothing more than a Hebraistic repe- 
tition of the first for the sake of emphasis (Daub., Stu., Hengst., 
Barn.) is not proved by Hos. 12 : 9 (8), to which Hengst. ap- 
peals as decisive. For, even though iniilir be taken as equi- 
valent to the Sept. 7tin7.Qvtri»<x (E. V, / am become rich ; 



Hengst. ich bin reich geworden ; &c.), and not to 7O.0va1.0i sifn, 
(Luth. ich bin reich; &c.), it is still true, that what immediately 
follows : ■^i "jis irxS'!: (E.V. / fiave found me out substance), 
has special reference to the personal skill, by which Ephraim 
claims to have secured these advantages. Comp. Ezefc. 28 : 
4, 5. — R. (enriched) ;-Vulg. (locupletatns), Syr. (= De D. 
ditatus sum). Dt. (verrijkt geworden), It. (so7io arrichito), 
Fr. S. (mes richesses se sont accrues) ;-Erasm. and subsequent 
Latin verss. (as De D.), Daub., Woodh., Newc, Penn, ([am] 
grown wealthy), Berl. Bib.. Gerl., (bin reich geworden), Beng., 
De W., Hengst., (habe mich bereichert), Dodd., Wesl., (have 
enr. myself). Wakef., Thom., ([am] become wealthy), Stu. 
(have become w.), Lord, Barn., (am enr.), Treg. (have become 

enr.), Kenr. (hare grown w.) For oihcvoi in the next clause, 

Lachm., Treg., Tisch., have oiUv ('A. C. 12.'). 

• 'Thou, the boaster; thou thyself, and not that neighbour 
whom thou dost secretly despise.' See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. — 
Latin verss., using a finite verb, express the pronominal subject; 
Beng. and Treg. indicate the emphasis by the way in which 
they print the pronoun ; Stolz (selbst). 

' ' All the distinction thou hast among thy brethren, lies in 
quite the opposite direction.' — It. (quel) ;-Grot. (' idque in summo 
gradu, quod indicat appositus articulus.'). Daub., Berl. Bib., 
Beng., Herd., Goss., Mey., Bloomf., De W., Hengst., Treg., 

Words. All the recent editors, except Matth. and Bloomf., 

insert 6 also before ixtuvif (A. B. 'a 17. (3 3. Compl.'), and 
Beng., Stolz, Treg., De "W., Words., translate accordingly. 
I recommend that this reading be adopted : the pitiable. 

" ' A fit object of pity ; not, as thou dost vainly fancy, of ad- 
miration and envy.' — Brightm., Daub., (pitiful), Haram. (pit- 
eous). Grot., Ros., ('ut omnium misericordiam commovere de- 
beas.'), Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Lord, Bloomf., Barn. 

» See ch. 1: 15, N. n. Germ, (durchldutert). It. (affinato);- 
Hamm., Treg., (refined), B. and L. (purifie), Beng., Hengst., 



104 



REVELATION. 



ItlNG JAMES VERSION. 

thou mayest be rich ; and white 
raiment, that thou mayest be 
clothed, and that the shame of 
thy nakedness do not appear; 
and anoint thine eyes with eye- 
salve, that thou mayest see. 

19 As many as I love, I re- 
buke and chasten : be zealous 
therefore, and repent. 

MO Behold, I stand at the door, 
and knock : If any man hear my 
voice, and open the door, I will 
come in to him, and will sup with 
him, and he with me. 



21 To him that overcometh 
will I grant to sit with me in my 
throne, even as I also overcame, 



GREEK TEXT. 

e'/c TTvpos, iva TrXovrrjcrr]?, koI 
Ifiaria XevKa, 'iva TrepifiaArj, kol 
/XT] (f)ai>€pcodfj rj alcT'^vvr] rrjs yv/x- 
voTrjTOS (Tov Kol KoXXovpiov ey- 
')(jpLaov Tovs o(j)6aXp.ov$ aov, Iva 
^Xeirr)^. 

19 e'yo) haovs iav (fyiXa, iXey 
■)(a) KOL irai^evcd- ^rjXuxrov ovv 
Kou p-eravorjcrov . 

20 'I8ov ecTTrjKa eVt rrju dvpav 
KOU Kpovco- lav Ti9 CLKOVcry rrjf 
(^covrji p.ov, Kal avol^rj ttjv dvpav, 
elaeXevcropaL irpos avTov, Kal Sei- 
TrvTjcrco p.€T avTOv, Kal avros peer 
ep.ov. 

21 VLKcav, hcoaco avToi Ka- 
dlcrai p.€T ipLOv iv to dpovco /xov, 
wf Kayco ivLKTjaa, Kal eKaOiaa 



REVISED VERSION. 

thou mayest be rich ; and white 
"garments, that thou mayest 
5'clothe tliyself, and ^ the shame 
of thy nakedness "not be mani- 
fested ; and ^anoint thine eyes 
with eye-salve, that tliou mayest 
see. 

19 ''I, as many as I love, I 
rebuke and chasten : ''be zealous, 
therefore, and repent. 

20 Behold, I stand at the door, 
and knock : if any "^one hear my 
voice, and open the door, I will 
come in to him, and will sup 
with him, and he with me. 



21 ""He that overcometh, I will 
"give unto him to sit ^own with 
me ^in my throne, '' as I also 



» See V. 5, N. m. 

' IIfpt)3o7.jj is translated as a middle verb by all the German 
verss. (except Moldenh.), B. andL., Wakef., Greenf. (da^n), Stu. 

' Nothing is supplied by Syr., German verss., Dt., It. ;-Cocc., 
Vitr., Wesl., Wakef., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Kenr. 

' ' In the day of manifestation.' Comp. Mark 4 : 22 ; 1 Cor. 
4: 5; &c. ; and see 1 John 2: 28, N. y, &c. — Germ, {nkhl of- 
fenbar werde), Dt. (niet geopenbaard worde), Ft. S. (ne soil 
pas manifeslee) ;-Bez. (changed appareat of previous verss. 
and of his own previous editions to manifestafiat ;-and so Cocc, 
Vitr.), Beng., Gerl., Hengst., {n. offenbaret werde), Moldenh., 
Mey., All., De W., {as Germ.), Penn {not be made manifest), 

Treg. {may not be manifested). For iyxjMsov in the next 

clause, all the recent editors read iy;^p(,'3at or -laai (A. C. and 
6 cursive MSS.), except Matth. and Bloomf, who give iVa 
'V^P''*B (1^ cursive MSS. B. has i'va iyxp^aii-). 

^ See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. ' Such is my way of dealing with 
those / love;' so different from the Laodicean self-flattery. 
Thus graciously also does the Lord seek to save His servant 
from misinterpreting the severity of the previous address, as 
well as to enkindle the zeal of reformation. The emphasis of 
the tyii belongs to the statement as a whole, not, as Treg. marks 
it, exclusively to the latter clause. For fjjTiuiroj., Matth., 



Mey., Lachm., Bloomf., Treg., Tisch., Theile, read Sr;%cv£ (A. B. C. 
• a 17. 3 4 y i.'). 

' See 1 John 2 : 1, N. b, &c. 

■i See V. 12, N. i, &c. 

' E. v., ch. 2: 7, 17, 26, 28 ; Matt. 20: 23, &c. (in this book 
alone Siiufii is found 57 times, and only here and ch. 19 : 8 is 
it in E. Y. to grant) ;-W., R. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Woodh., Stu., 
Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

f E. v., in the last clause ; and often elsewhere ;-Dodd. 

^ The German, French, and modern English veri^s. (except 
Treg. and Words.), translate h ti^ flpwij) as if it were tTti tov 
9f>6vov. But the mvariable occurrence of the latter phrase in the 
same connection elsewhere (13 times in this book. In Matt. 
19 : 28, E. V. renders it once improperly, in the throne.) is sufficient 
reason, besides the h /ieaai tov 6p6vov of ch. 4 : 6 ; 5 : 6, for pre- 
serving the present peculiarity. Nor, even according to English 
idiom, is the expression of E. V. ' a strange kind of language,' 
as Sym. alleges, but may be regarded as more strongly indi- 
cative of rest, security, and fulness of possession. (Comp. 
Shakspere, 3 Henry VI. i. 1 : ' Shall I stand, and thou sit in my 
throne V and iv. 3 : ' See him seated in the regal throne ;' &c.) 

!■ See ch. 2 : 27, N. v, &c. 



{as Germ..), Wesl., Herd, {getaiitert ;-and so Mey., All., De W.), 
Newc, Woodh., Greenf. (r]>i-isj, Penn, Lord, Kenr. 

" Or, out of. ' That ix never stands for h is certain' (Win.). 
Here it is taken to denote the meatis, by Germ. It. French 



verss. ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Aret., Brightm., Par., Hamm., 
Grot., Vitr., Wolf, Beng., Wakef., Ew., Penn, Stu., Lord, De W. 
(though he allows the other sense), Hengst., Kenr. ;-Bretsch., 
Wahl, Rob. :— the source, by Syr. (= De D. e.r), Dt. ;-Erasm., 
Vat, Cocc, Bierm., {ex), Treg. {from). 



REVELATION. 



105 



REVISED VERSION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. GREEK TEXT. 

and am set down vrith my Fa- ! jicto. tov irarpos jxov eV ra Opovw overcame, and 'sat down with 
ther in liis throne. avTou. '"" ^'^"^^"" "'" '"~ ^^ " 

22 O k')(cov ovs aKOvcraTco tl 
TO Uuevfia Aeyec rals eKKXr}<TiaLS. 



22 He that hath an ear, let 
him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 



CHAP. IV. 



After this I looked, and be- 
hold, a door vas opened in 
heaven : and the iirst voice whicl 



CHAP. IV. 



META ravra elSov, 
Ovpa jjuecpYfievrj 



Kai 



ISov 



€v Tco ovpavco, 

1 heard, was as it were oi a trum- 1 ' \ . 1 ' 

coy aaXTTiyyos AaAovarjf jxeT 



my Father ^in his throne. 

22 He that hath an ear, let 
hira hear what the Spirit saith 



unto the churches. 



CHAP. IV. 



After "these things I ''saw, 
and behold a door "^ set open in 
heaven, and ''that first voice, 
which I heard "^ as of a trumpet 



i E. v., Matt. 13 : 48 ; Luke 4 : 20 ; &c. ;-W. {sat), T., C, R., 
(have sitten) ;-Erasm., Vat., Casta!., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., (con- 
sedi ;-for the Vulg. sedi), Wesl. (in connection with, have over- 
come). Lord (ok (F.), Treg. {have taken my seat), Murd. G.;- 
Pagn.. Bcz., Par., Wakef., Nen-c, Thorn., use the present : sit, 
sedeo, am sitting. Woodh., Sharpe, Stu., have am seated. 



' All that he had seen and heard, up to this point. — E. V., 
oh. 7 : 1 ; 18 : 1 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Dt., It., Fr. G., -M., 
-S. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Par., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Newc, 
Woodh., Till., Allw., Stu., Lord (omitting things), Treg., Kenr., 
Barn. 

' 'More lit.,' says StM., ' I perceived ; ^xi^tu more appro- 
priately means to look. Yet the sense here seems evidently 
to require an expression, which indicates the action of looking 
in order to perceive.' It may rather be said, that this idea of 
active, inquisitive curiosity is excluded, and that less by the 
word used than by the whole spirit of the occasion. The thing 
asserted is, the continued exercise of the power of ecstatic vision, 
as in the Hebrew ,i:ni ''n''3>"i (Greenf.'s phrase here). — W. ;- 
Latin verss. {vidi ;-except Castal.. who also omits xai ihov : ani- 
madverti), German verss. (sahe ;-except Moldenh., halte ein 
Gesicht), Dt. {zag). It. {vidi) ;-Hamra., Daub. ('John uses it 
[fJSor] upon a fresh sight of some matter somewhat different 
from the former, as a mere transition.'), B. and L. (but omitting 
xai iSov : vis), Dodd., Wesl., Treg., Barn. 

' The construction is the same as that of fisn with an absolute 
noun, the noun being sometimes, as here, accompanied by a par- 
ticiple (so Greenf. here), and merely points, as it were, directly 
at the object in question. Comp. ch. 6 : 2, 5, 8 ; &c.— The sub- 
stantive verb is not supplied by R. ;-Vulg., Syr., It., Fr. S. ;- 
Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Daub., Beng., Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Till., 
Mey., Stu., Lord, Treg., Words. ; and of these the following also 
translate ^viifiyti. (Beng., Matth., Griesb., Sch., Lachm., Bloomf., 
Words.: aviaiyij..) not as an adjective (T., C, G., R. ;-Newt., 
Herd., Wakef, Mey., Bloomf, Ell.), but as a participle, suggest- 
ing that the door, instead of being accidentally open, or always 
open, had now been opened for a special purpose : Daub., Beng.. 



Wesl., Till, {set o^en;-which obviates the ambiguity in, a door 
opened.). Stu., Lord, Treg.. Words. See ch. 10: 2, N. d. 

"■ See eh. 1: 5, N. r, &c. E. V. assumes that the voice is 
called the first, in reference to other voices that followed ; and 
this interpretation Barn, defends as ' the most obvious and 
probable,' while he allows that 'it is certainly possible that the 
Greek would admit of the construction indicated above. But, 
1., John had as yet no reason to expect that other voices were 
to follow ; — 2., that some unknown voice sounded like a trumpet, 
is something by no means so suitable to form the main thought, 
as that the person, by whom John was now to be introduced 
to the heavenly region, was none other than He, on whose glory 
he had already gazed, and whose names of majesty and power 
had been proclaimed in his hearing-. The trumpet-voice (ch. 1 : 
10) was the means of this identification ; — 3., the easiest and 
most natural, and therefore, in connection with the preceding 
remarks, the only admissible construction is that, which, dis- 
pensing with the necessity of supplying the copula, brings 
r] ^lAvrj . . . xiyavaa, by means of xai, into the same dependence, 
in which dvfa rivECj,yfiivrj stands, on the i&ov. Comp. ch. C: 2, 
and Matt. 3 : 17. — This reference of ^ rtpuii-}; appears distinctly 
(often by translating ^'xovcro as a pluperfect,) in Syr. (= vox 
prima ilia), German verss. (except All.), Dt., It. {ancora 
quella), Fr. G.,-M. ;-Castal. (vo.vqiie ilia pr.), Bez., Par., Engl. 
Ann. (' Or, and the former voice'), Grot, Cocc, Ros., (ilia), 
Wells, Vitr., Daub., B. and L., Dodd., Wes!., Eichh., Wakef., 
Woodh., Thom., Till., Allw., Bloomf., Ell., Stu., Lord, Kell. 

The copula is not supplied before ij, by G. ;-foreign verss.;- 

Wells, Daub., AVesI., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Sharpe, 

Bloomf, Stu., Lord. Nothing is supplied before xeyovaa (or, 

according to A. B. 'a 20. j3 4.' and all the recent editors, %iyav) 
by G., R. ;-Latin verss., Dt., It., Fr. G. and -M. {[me] dit), Fr. 
S. ;-Wells, Daub., B. and L, {as Fr. (?.), Beng. and later German 
verss. (except Hengst.), Wesl., Wakef., Newc. and Words, (have 
and as a supplement), Woodh., Thom., Allw., Greenf., Penn, 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. : and, of these, R. ;-Vulg., It., 
Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, Daub., Newc, Woodh., Allw., 

Lord, Treg., Words., Kenr., also retain the participial form. 

For as, see ch. 2 : 18, N. z. E. V., ch. 1:10; &c. ;-W. ;-Dodd., 
Wesl., Woodh., Till., Allw., Penn fas thaV), Sharpe, Bloomf., 
Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. See ch. 6 : 1, N. d. 

14 



106 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

pet talking with me ; which said, 
Come up hither, and I will shew 
thee things which must be here- 
after. 

2 And immediately I was in 
the Spirit : and behold, a throne 
was set in heaven, and one sat 
on the throne. 

3 And he that sat was to look 
upon like a jasper and a sardine 
stone : and there was a rainbow 
round about the throne in sight 
like unto an emerald. 

4 And round about the throne 
were four and twenty seats ; and 
upon the seats I saw four and 



GREEK TEXT. 

€fiov, Xeyovaa, 'AvajSa coBe, koI 
Sei^co aoL a Bel yevecrOai fiera 
Tavra. 

2 Kal evdeco? iyevofx,r)v iv 
-TruevfiaTr kol l8ov dpovo9 eKeiro 
iv rw ovpavcp, kcu eVi tov Opovov 
Ka9rjp.ev09' 

3 KCU 6 KaOrjixevos r\v opLOiOs 
opaaei XiOta lacnrLdt kol aapdn'co' 

KOL ipLS KVKXoOeV TOV OpOVOV 
» ' ' J,/ 

op.oios opacrei crfiapayoLvoo. 

4 Kol KVKXoOev TOV dpovov 
OpovoL elKoac kol Tecraapes' kolI 
€7ri Tovs Opovovi elSov tovs e'lKoai 



REVISED VERSION. 

"speaking with me, ""sajang : 
Come up hither, and I vsdll shew 
thee things which must be 'after 
these. 

2 And immediately I was sin 
the Spiiit : and, behold, a throne 
shad been set in heaven ; and 
•■on the throne 'one Jsat ; 



3 And he that sat was '' 
pearance like a jasper 



m ap- 
and a 
sardine stone ; and thej-e was a 
rainbow round about the throne, 
Mn appearance like ' an emerald. 
4 And round about the throne 
were ""four and twenty "thrones ; 
and upon the "thrones °I saw 



' E. v., ch. 1 : 12 and generally elsewhere ;-W., R. ;-foreign 
verss. (as in ch. 1 : 12) ;-Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., 
Till., Penn, Bloomf., Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. See ch. 17 : 1. 
N. c. (Comp. Shakspere, Macbeth, v. 6 : ' Make all our trump- 
ets speak]' and Milton, Hymn on the Nativity: 'The trumpet 
spake not to the armed throng.') 

f See ch. 1 : 19, N. c. 

^ For the expression in the Spirit, see ch. 17 : 3, N. m. 

' Besides its simple signification, this verb [xcljiai,. Hie] must also 
be regarded as a Perfect Passive of tierjiit,' (Buttm.) ; and in 
this view ixflnr,v becomes a pluperfect. Comp. John 2:6; 
19: 29 ; 20 : 12 (E. Y. had tern).— Latin verss., except Castal., 
(use the plup. pass, of pono), Dt. (er was een troon gezet) ;- 
Castal., B. and L., Till., Greenf., Lord, Words., (render Xxato 
by a perf. part, pass.), Brightm. {tliere was a throne set), Mol- 
denh., Herd., Mey., Van Ess., All., Goss., De W., {stand), 
Hengst. (?aD-, --the word denoting, he thinks, that the throne 
rested on the Cherubim). 

 This order is retained by the Latin and German verss., 

Syr.. It., Fr. S.;-Daub., Woodh., Sharpe, Treg., Kenr. 

Beng., Matth., Lachm., Treg., Tisch., read ittt, tov epwov (A. B. 
'a20. /3 5.'). 

' See ch. 1 : 13, N. c. 

) The participial form is retained by very many ; but often 
at the expense of the resonance in v. 3. 

' Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Sym., Wakef. {appeared . . . with 
[the] appearance), Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Penn {to 
sight . . . in sight), Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. {like the app.), 
Kenr. {in sight). Barn. ;-Rob., Green {appearance, aspect).— 
The preceding ^v is cancelled by all the recent editors (except 
Mey., Knapp, Hahn, Theile), on the authority of A. B. and 
7 cursive MSS. ; and for the subsequent sapSiv^, all (except 
Bloomf.) read sapai'^j (A. B. 'a 26. /3 6. y 3. Compl.' Some of 
these have aapSii<f.). 



' E. v., in the first clause ; and see ch. 1 : 13, N. d. 

■^ Excepting Matth. and Bloomf, all the recent editors cancel 
the xai before tiaa. {bis) on the authority of A. B. 'a 12. J3 5 
Compl. xB.' Er. (and several MSS.).' Bloomf. inconsistently 
brackets only the first xai, as being ' absent from most of the 
best MSS. and probably from the margin.' The evidence is the 
same in both cases. I recommend that the now generally re- 
ceived reading be adopted, and that in both cases ilx. tiaa. be 
translated: twenty-four. Beng., Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Hahn, 
Theile, write the two numbers in one : ilxoeiiian. Lachm. fol- 
lows A. : ^pdvotjj tlxooi tsaaapa^' xai frtt tov^ ^Ixoac •? iffffapaj 
^f)6pms rtpfffj3. x*^. See ch. 5 : 8, N. e. 

° See ch. 2: 13, N. v. The injurious variation in rendering 
Opovos in this verse began with some of the old verss., as Vulg. 
{sedis . . . sedilia . . . thronos ;-W., R. : seat . . . [snail] seats 
. . . thrones) and Syr. But the spirit, which may have led 
to it, (avowed apparently by Vat. :  diversa voce usi sumus 
propter evidentiam.') of cautious limitation in describing the 
'eternal glory' of the redeemed, is quite foreign to Scripture. 
In the promises and disclosures of this book especially, they are 
even set forth as the a-iivB fovoi 0£oi. — Thronus or a derivative 
is employed throughout by Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Bez., Brightm., Par., 
Hamm. and later English verss. (except Words.), Cocc, Vitr., 
B. and L., Beng., Moldenh.. Herd., Mey., Gerl., De W. ; and 
many others at least observe uniformity. 

" All the recent editors reject il&ov on the authority of A. B. 
' a 20. (3 3. Er. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.' 
I recommend that this reading be followed, but, in order to 
mark the change of construction, would leave I saw in italics, 
as a supplement, extracted from the iSov of v. 2. See Win. 

§ 64. 3. 1. The fovs following is also cancelled by all the 

recent editors, except Matth. and Bloomf., on the authority of 
'A. a 11. Er.' and the ancient verss. already cited in this note. 
I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the word 
the be omitted. 



REVELATION. 



107 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

twenty elders sitting, clotlied in 
white raiment ; and they liad on 
their heads crowns of gold. 



5 And out of the throne pro- 
ceeded lightnings, and thunder- 
ings, and voices. And there were 
seven lamps of fire burning be- 
fore the throne, which are the 
seven Spirits of God. 

6 And before the throne there 
was a sea of glass like unto 
crystal : And in the midst of the 
throne, and round about the 



GREEK TEXT. 



Koi rea-aapas irpeafivTepovi Ka- 
Oi-jpievovs, 7repifiel3Xi]pei'ov? Iv 
LfxaTiOLS XevKot^- Kol ka-^ov eirl 
Tas K€(j)a\af avrau arecpaj/ovs 

)(^pV(TOVS. 

5 Kal e'/c rod dpouov eKiro- 
pevovraL aa-rpairou kclL ^povrou 
Kol (pcoval- KCil eirra Xa/xTraSe? ttv- 
pos KULopevai ivcoivLov tov Opovov, 
at elai ra eVra Tn'evp.ara rod 
Oeov- 

6 Kfxl iuCOTTlOU TOV Opovov 6a- 
Xaacra vaXlvrj, op.OLa KpvaraXXco. 
Kai ev peacp rod dpovov kou kv- 
kXo) tov dpovov reaaapa ^coaye- 



REVISED VERSION. 

"the four and twenty elders sit- 
ting, clothed in white ^garments ; 
and ithey had ''upon their heads 
■■golden crowns. 



5 And out of the throne 'pro- 
ceed lightnings and 'thunders and 
voices ; and there "are seven lamps 
of fire burning before the throne, 
which are the seven "Spirits of 
God ;- 



6 And before the throne '^ a 
^glassy sea like ^ crystal ; and in 
the midst of the throne, and 
^around the throne, "' four "living 



p See oh. 3 : 5, N. m. 

1 All the recent editors cancel the laxov, on the authority of 
' A. a 28. /3 8. Compl. Er. Viilg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. 
MSS..' except Bloomf., who marks it as ' most probably, or cer- 
tainty, an interpolation,' adding in the Supp. that • internal evi- 
dence is quite against it, though external authority is not strong.' 
I recommend that it be omitted, and that atifdvov; be construed 
as 7(p£5)3vrf pons, without, however, repeating the supplement: 
and upon tfieir heads c^-c. Nothing is supplied by any of the 
verss. that follow this reading, except Penn and Kenr. {having), 
Sharpe and Murd. {were). For upon, see eh. 3 : 3, N. j, &c. 

 W. ;-Latin and German verss., Dt. ;-Brightm., Daub., Dodd., 
Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Kenr. 

 The present tense remains in Vulg. Cod. Am., Syr., Fr. S.;- 
Cocc, Daub., Beng., Wesl., Herd., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Stu., 
De W., Treg., Words., Hengst. 

1 All the recent editors give ^uvtu, xai ^fwta,!, (A. B. 'a 23. 
i3 6. y 2. Compl.'-to which might have been added, of the old 
verss., at least the Vulg., Syr. = De D. vox toiiitnmm, and Ar.), 
except Bloomf, who says that, while the change rests on ' strong 
external authority . . . internal evidence seems rather in favour 
of the other order. But this needs explanation, which is not 
given. See ch. 11 : 19. I recommend that the transposition 

be made : voices and thunders. For thunders, see E. V., 

6 times out of 10 in this book ;-R. ;-Brightm., Daub., Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef , Thom., Scott, Stu. (voices of thunder), Lord, 
Murd., Kenr., Barn. ;-Rob., Green. 

" Here, as in vv. 3, 4, the time of the verbal supplement is 
best determined by that of the finite verb immediately pre- 
ceding.— All the Latin verss. (except Par., stabant), Syr., Fr. 
S. ;-nerd., Woodh., Greenf., Words., supply nothing. Berl. 
Bib., Wesl., De W., Hengst., translate xamiavai, as a present 
finite verb. Comp. v. 7, N. b. 



' Here also the Amer. Bible Soc. has removed the capital let- 
ter. Comp. ch. 3 : 1, N. a, &c. 

" The semicolon at the end of v. 5 preserves the continuity of 
what pertains especially to ' the throne,' and saves the necessity 
of multiplj'ing supplements in v. G. — These supplements are 
avoided by W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, 
Daub., Herd., Woodh., Greenf., Treg., Words., Hengst. Jlany 

others have only the first; Stu. and Murd., only the second. 

All the recent editors insert uj before Bokaaaa., on the authority 
of A. B. ' 28. (3 6. y 2. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Erp.,' except 
Bloomf, who, while acknowledging that it ' is probably gen- 
uine,' adds as usual, that ' internal evidence is rather against it.' 
But see ch. 15 : 2. If Bloomf meant to sugge.st that the word 
might have been introduced here from the latter text, the ob- 
jection is of no force against the admitted preponderance of ex- 
ternal authority, joined to the fact, that a plentiful use of this 
particle is one of the most marked characteristics of the book. 
I recommend that the reading be adopted, and that the words, 
as it were, be inserted after throne. 

" The adjective is retained here by Latin and German verss., 
Dt. ;-Wakef , Woodh., Thom., Ell., Lord ; and at ch. 15 : 2, also 
by W., T., C, G. ;-Brightm. (who has it here in the Comment.). 
(Comp. Hor., Carm. iv. 2 : ' Vitreo . . . ponto ;' and Milton, P. L. 
vii. 619 : ' The clear hyaline, the glassy sea.') 

y See ch. 1 : 13, N. d. 

'■ Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe (round), Stu. (at ch. 5 : 7), 
Treg., Murd. 

" Syr. (= Greenf. ni''n), Fr. S. (i}lres vivants) ;-Engl. Ann. 
(■■ or, living wights'), Hamm., Wells, Daub, (weights), Berl. Bib. 
(lebendige Dingen), Lowm., Gujse, Dodd., Wesl.. Gill, Newt., 
Moldenh. (leh. Personen), Herd., Stolz, Van Ess, Kist., Mey., 
(Lebendige), Sym., Wakef, Newc, Thom. (animate beings), 
Clarke, Scott, AUw., All. (lebende Wesen), Jones, Penn, Sharpe, 
Bloomf, Ell., Stu., Lord, De W. (' Thiere oder lebendige We- 
sen'), Treg., Words., Lee, Scholef, Kell., Barn, (living beings). 



lOS 



EEVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

throue, ivere four beasts full of 
eyes before and behind. 

7 And the first beast ivas like 
a lion, and the second beast like 
a calf, and the third beast had 
a face as a man, and the fourth 
beast was like a flying eagle. 



8 And the four beasts had 
each of them six i^dngs about 
Mm; and they were full of eyes 
within : and they rest not day 



GREEK TEXT. 



fxovra o(p9aXfJL(av efnrpoadei' Kou 
binaOev. 

7 /cat TO ^S)OV TO TrpCOTOV OfXOlOV 

XeovTi, KOL TO SevTepov ^a>ou op-OL- 

OV p6a')((p, Koi TO TpLTOV ^u>ov 

e^^oj^ TO TrpoacoTTOu a>? avOpwiros, 
Koi TO TerapTOu ^coov opoiov deTco 
TreTcopei'a). 

8 Kol Tecraapa ^coa, ev Kaff 
eavTO, ei^ou ava TTTepvyas c^ 
KVKXoOev, KOU eacodev yepovTa 
6(f)6aXpcov, Kol avairavaiv ovk 



REVISED VERSION. 

creatures full of eyes before and 
behind. 

7 And the first ''living creature 
^is like a lion, and the second 
''living creature like a calf, and 
the third ''living creature ''hath 
■^the face as a man, and the fourth 
''living creature ^is like an eagle 
flying. 

8 And ' four '^living creatures, 
^each one by itseli', shad six 
wings ;'' round about and within 
Hheij ivere full of eyes ; and they 



•^ For living creature, see v. 6, N. a. For the present 

tenses, see v. 5, N. u. Syr. (though De D. has habebat for 
= est iUi; and Murd., the preterit throughout.) ;-BL'rl. Bib. 
(isl), Wesl. (is, 3 times . . . hath). Nothing is supphed, and 
cX"' is rendered by a particip'e, by W., R. ;-Vulg., Fr. S. ;- 
Erasm., Vat., Cocc, "Woodh., Words. 

' Tlie article limits the resemblance to that part. — Dt., It., 
French verss. ;-Beng., Woodh. (the aspect), Allw., Treg., Kenr., 
(the face as of a man ; according to the reading, ij dfSpiorfou, of 
' A. 11. 13. 36. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Arr.,' and edited by Lachm., 
Hahn, Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile.), Jones, Pcnn, Sharpe, {the 
face of a man ; according to the reading. a.v6^<Jinov, of B. and 
'a 15. /3 5.' and edited by Matth., Griesb., Mey., Sch.), De W. 
(=Treg.). Bloomf. ('would now edit [us] di'SpuTtov ;' thus 
leaving of recent editors only Beng. and Knapp for wSfuTto;. 

■' Tlitunipcj, (or, as all the recent editors read, here and else- 
where, Tiitoji..) is not merely 'epith. ornans, quod aquila volatu 
eminet' (Eichh. ; and so Barn.), but indicates that the wings 
were ' outspread,' as in the act of flying, in accordance with the 
cherubic posture in the tabernacle and temple (Ex. 37: 9; 
Is. 6: 2. Comp. Ezek. 1 : 9, 11, &c.).— W., K. ;-Latin verss., Syr. 
(^ aquilae qui volat j-Mmd. an eagle when flying). Fr. M. 
{un aigle qui vole), Fr. S. (un aig. qui etend les ailes) ;-B. and 
L. (u)u aig. qui v.), Greenf., Lord, Kenr. 

• All the recent editors, except Bloomf., insert fa, on the au- 
thority of  A. 9. /3 5. Syr.' I recommend that this reading be 
followed : the. 

' See V. 6, N. a. 

^ For the order, see R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.), Syr. ;- 

Daub., Herd., Mey., Stu., De W., Treg., Words. For by itself, 

see Dt. (voor zich zeloen), Fr. G. {d part) ; Pagn., Bez., Par., 
Grell., (per se), Cocc, Vitr., (pro se), Berl. Bib. {filr sich 
selbst). But the reading 'iv avtuv (' A. B. a 10. j3 3. y 2. Compl. 
Vulg.- Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav, ed.') is substituted for 
avti by all the recent editors, except Matth. (he has simply 



iv ' a 15. /3 5.,' and, according to Words., B.) and Bloomf. Also 
the reading tx°v (Treg. and Tisch. give £';kuv, on the authority 
of A. and 6 cursive MSS.), instead oi -dxov; is sustained by 
' B. a 15. /3 2. y 2. Comp'.,' and adopted by all the recent editors, 
except Bloomf. I recommend that the readings, tv wituv and 
txov or 'ix'^" be followed, and, in connection with the distributive 
and, translated : each one of them having. For each one, see 
T., C, G., R. ;-Stu. : — for translating 'ixov by a participle, see 
Fr. S.;-Woodh., Stu.. De W., Words. This last 'change, in 
connection with that recommended in N. i, requires a comma 
after wings. 

^ For this reference of xvx7M6iv, it may be said, 1., that, as- 
suming f;i;ov or 'ix^v and yi/xovaiv (N. i) to be the true readings, 
the structure of the whole verse is simplified ; — 2., that the 
other arrangement does not harmonize with the cherubic ap- 
pearances before referred to, v. 7, N. d ; — 3., and might have pre- 
cluded the Seer's minute observation of the other features 
(vv. 6, 7), which first caught his eye; — while. 4., the construc- 
tion proposed is apparently required by the t^rtpoaSf r xai brttaBiv 
of V. 6 ; — and, 5., is that adopted by Vulg. (according to the text, 
senas, et in circnitu, followed by W., All., Kenr. ;-R. having 
prefeiTcd the reading, senas in circuitu, et, which appears also 
in the Sixtine edition of 1590), Fr. S.;-Grot. ('Alae enim sex 
. . . non possunt esse in circuitu.'), Hamm., Beng. and the later 
editors, except Matth. (though he follows it in his version), Sch., 
Words. Even if xvx'^.. were construed as in E. V., it would be 
well to omit the supplemental him, and so leave room for 
Areth.'s understanding of the word, as describing the position, 
not of the wings, but of the living creatures themselves (oi rHv 

rtf Epiiyior, d>,to iuv tsaadjiav atdai-v). For round about, see 

E. v., vv. 3, 4; 5: 11 ;-W. (all about), R. ;-Hamm., Daub., 
Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Treg., Kenr. 

' I recommend that the reading yijx.ovai.v, adopted by all the 
recent editors on the authority of ' A. B. a 20. /3 7. y 4. Compl.,' 
be followed, and translated : they are full ; but, if the changes 
recommended in NN. g and h be made, then that the version 
stand thus : are round about and within fidl of eyes. 



REVELATION. 



109 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and night, saying, Holy, holy, 
holy, Lord God Almighty, which 
was, and is, and is to come. 



9 And when those beasts give 
glory, and honour, and thanks to 
him that sat on the throne, who 
liveth for ever and ever, 

10 The four and twenty elders 
fall down before him that sat on 
the throne, and worship him that 
liveth for ever and ever, and cast 
their crowns before the throne, 
saying, 



11 Thou art worthy, Lord, 



GREEK TEXT. 

e'xovo-iu rjfjLepaf Koi vvktos, Ae- 
yovra, AyLO?, ayios, aycos Kv- 
pios o Oeos 6 TTavTOKparcop, 6 rju 
Kou 6 av Kou 6 ip^Ofxevos. 

9 Kou orav Scoaovo-i ra ^wa 
Sogau Koi TLfxi]v Koi ev^apLarlav 
Tcp Kadrip.evai eVt tov dpovov, tco 
^covTt ei? Tovf aloivas rwv alcoucou, 

10 TreaovvraL ol e'lKoai kou 
Tecrcrapes TrpecrfivTepoi IvcaTTLOv 
TOV KaOrjjxevov iirl tov Opovov, 
KOU TTpoaKwovcrc Tw ^avTL et? 
Tovs alavas Tmv alwvayv, kou /3aA- 
Aoi;o"£ TOVS aTe(pai'ovs avTcav iva- 

TTLOV TOV Opovov, XiyOVT^S, 

11 ' A^ios el, KvpLe, Xafielv 



REVISED VERSION. 

Jhave no rest day and night, -"say- 
ing : JHoly, holy, holy, ''the Lord 
God ''the Almighty, 'who was, 
and 'who is, and 'who ™cometh. 

9 And when "the living crea- 
tures "shall give glory, and 
honour, and thanks to him that 
I'sitteth on the throne, who liveth 
•"unto the ages of the ages, 

10 The 'four and twenty elders 
■"shall fall down before him that 
'sitteth on the throne, and ''shall 
worship him that liveth 'unto 
the ages of the ages, and "they 
cast their crowns before the 
throne, saying : 



11 Thou art worthy, ''0 Lord, 



1 This work of praise being itself their sabbatism. — E. V. 
marg. ; ch. 14 ; 11. Here also the Greek construction by means 
of a verb and an accusative is retained by W., T., C, R. ;-VuIg.. 
German verss. (except Moldenh.), Dt., Fr. G. ;-Erasm., Vat., 
Aret., Engl. Ann., Cocc, Daub., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., 

Murd. ;-Rob. For Xfyofra all recent editors (except Bloomf.) 

read 7.iyoveii (A. B. 'a 21. /3 5. y 2. Er.'). The oiytoj is re- 
peated 9 times in ' B. a 17. /3 3. Compl. Arm.' 

'' Syr. (= De D. Domiims Deus iUe Omnipotens), Germ. 
(Gott, der Herr, der Allmdchlige). Dt. (de Heer God, de Al- 
magtige), It. (il S ignore Iddio, I'Oninipotente), Fr. G.,-M., 
(le Seigneur Dieu tout-puissant), Fr. S. (/e Seigneur Dieu, le 
Tout-Puissant) -j-Bcz., Grell., Titr., (as De D.), Hamm. (L. 
G. the ruler of all things), Daub., Thom., Treg., Words.. Kenr., 
(L. G. the Aim.), Beng., Moldenh.. (der H., G., der Allm.). 
Wesl., Herd. (G. der H., der Allbeherrscher •-a.-ai. so Mey., ex- 
cept that he inserts a comma also after Gott), Wakef. (marking 
the first article as supplied). Woodh., All. (as Germ. ;-and so 
De W., Hengst.), Lord (L. the G. Aim.). 

1 See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. For the double repetition of the 

relative, see E. V., ch. 1 : 4, 8 ■,-^V., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., German 
and French verss.. Dt., It. ;-Erasm., Vat., Castal., Grell., Daub., 
Wesl., Wakef.. Woodh., Thorn., AIlw., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

" See ch. 1 : 4, N. o, &c. 

" The ilia of the Vulg. has been followed by the Syr. ; the 
old English verss. ; the Latin verss. (except Ca.stal., Cocc.) ; 
and in later times, excepting Roman Catholic verss., only by 

Wells (these), Daub., Newo. For living creatures, see v. 6, 

N. a. 

° The finite verbs of vv. 9, 10 are commonly explained as in 
the Hebraistic future of customary action, and translated into 
the past or present time; which is better than Win.'s reference 
of them to the subsequent visions. But the future form is to 



be retained, as further intimating, that this accordant and simul- 
taneous worship is the blessed and unchangeable law of the 
eternal sanctuary. Thus it ' ever shall be.' — Syr., Fr. S. ;- 
Hamm. (shall give), B. and L. marg., Thom. (are to prostraie 
themselves ... and to worship). Daub., Greenf. (ii^Qi), Sharpe 
(shall give . . . will fall down . . . will worship), De W., Dav. ;- 
Win. 

P R.;-Syr., Fr. S. ;-Daub., Beng., Dodd. and Lord (sits), 
Wesl., Herd, and later German verss., Wakef., AVoodh., Thom. 
(is seated), AUvr., Penn, Sharpe, • Stu., Treg., Words., Murd. 
E. V. follows Pagn., Bez., &c. (insidehat). 

1 See ch. 1 : 6, N. g, &c. 

' Here also (comp. v. 4, N. m) all the recent editors, except 
Matth. and Bloomf, cancel the xot after dx., on the authority 
of A. B. 'a 8. /3 4. Compl. x6.' Er.' I recommend that, in 
accordance with this reading, the word and be omitted, and 

that eIx. tsaa. be translated : twenty-four. For shall, see 

V. 9, N. o. 

 See V. 9, N. p. 

' See ch. 1 : 6, N. g, &c. 

" Other C'litions of the received text, and all the recent editors, 
have j3a%ov(si. I recommend that this be adopted : shall cast. 

' For Kuptf (Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch.), Beng. has KiJpie 
o ^£05 sj^w (' a 5. 3 3. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Arm. Erp. Slav. MSS.'), 
and Matth., Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile, have 
o KiJpto{ xai 6 ®f6{ ijfiuv ' A. B. a 23. /3 5. y 4. Compl. Am. 
Syr. Ar. P.'). Bloomf. also now thinks that the authority for 
the common text is ' too slender to be relied on.' If, however 
neither of tl;e variations is adopted, I should still recommend 
that the margin contain this note : ' Or, as many copies read : 
oiir Lord and God.' It deserves to be noticed, that ' a 24. 
p 5. y 4. Con pi. Syr. Ar. P.' add o iytoj, and for this Words, 
cites also B. 



no 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

to receive glory, and honour, aud 
power : for thou hast created all 
things, aud for thy pleasure they 
are and were created. 



CHAP. V. 

And I saw in the right hand 
of him that sat on the throne a 
book written within and on the 
back side, sealed with seven 
seals. 



2 And I saw a strong angel 
proclaiming with a loud voice, 
Who is worthy to open the book, 
and to loose the seals thereof? 

3 And no man in heaven, nor 
in earth, neither under the earth, 



GREEK TEXT. 



8vvafJLLV OTL av kKTiaas to. iravra, 
kolI 8ia TO deXrjfia aov elai kol 
iKTicrOyjaav. 



CHAP. V. 



KAI el8ov iiil rrjv Se^iau tov 
Kadr]fiei>ov eVt tov Opovov ^l^Xlov 
yeypafifjievov eacodeu kou ottl- 
adeu, KaTeaCppayLO-fJLeuou cr([)pa- 
yZcTLV (.ITT a. 

2 Kai eiSou ayyeXou LO~)(Vpov 
Kr]pvcrcrovTa (pcovrj peyaXr), Tis 
icTTiv a^LOS duol^aL to ^l^Xlov, 
Koi Xvaac tols a(f)payt8a9 avTov ; 

3 KOU ovO€is rjSuuaTO iv tw 
ovpavu), ov8e eVt ttj^ yrjs, ovSe 



REVISED VERSION. 

to receive "the glory, and "the 
honour, and "the power : for 
"thou ^didst create all things, 
and ^because of thy ^will they 
^are, and were created. 

CHAP. V. 

And I saw "upon the right 
hand of him that sat on the 
throne a book written within and 
on the ""back, sealed ""up with 
seven seals. 

2 And I saw a ''mighty angel 
proclaiming ''with a loud voice : 
Who is worthy to open the book, 
and to loose the seals thereof'? 

3 And no "^one %as able in 
heaven,'' nor ^on ""the earth, 'nor 



™ For the articles, see ch. 1 : 6, N. e, &c. ' Thou, the Crea- 
tor ; Thou, and none else.' See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. 
• '^ The temporal reference of ixnaas and ixtiaSriaav is the 
same, and both have been often translated by the perfect. But 
it is better to preserve the historical force, as E. V. does in the 
latter instance.— E. V., ch. 10 : 6 ; Mark 13 : 19 ; &c. ;-W. 
(^madest) ;-Pr. S. (creas) ;-Sharpe (createdsi), Lord. 

>■ ' The sole ground of the existence of the universe is the 
existence of a divine volition.' This is commonl}', but unneces- 
sarily, regarded as one of the exceptional cases, in which Sid 
with the accusative denotes the means. — E. V., Matt. 13 : 21 ; 
&c. ;-T., C, G., (for thy wiWs sake) ;-Vulg. (propter), Syr. ;- 
Erasra., Pagn., Par., Cocc, Ros., (as Vulg. ;-Daub. censuring 
those who, as Bez. and Vitr., changed this into per), Beng. (oow 
deines Willcns wegen), Treg., Murd. ;-AVin. (' On closer in- 
spection on account of [um . . . willeii] suits quite well.'). 

' E. v., always so elsewhere (63 times), except Eph. 2 : 3, 
where the plural is, desires ;-W., T., C, G., R. ;-foreign verss.;- 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Scott, AUw., 
Penn, Stu., Lord, Kenr., Barn. 

' All the recent editors have ^eav ('A. B. a 17. ^ 4. y i. 
Vulg. Copt. Arr. Slav. MS. Georg.'). I recommend that it be 
adopted: were. 'God willed, and the universe was; was, as 
a creature? For ix'tic6f;isai> does not denote continuance in 
being (Beng., Wesl.), nor is it synonymous with r^aav (Eichh.), 
but ' explains and renders more intensive the affirmation' (Stu.). 

" Beng. : ' He presented it openly, to give it to whosoever 
should be worthy.' Comp. ch. 1 : 20, N. d, &c.— Syr. ;-Pagn., 
Casta!., Bez., Aret, Grot., (arf;-but see v. 7, ix), Brightm. 
(' at or upon'). Daub, (on), Beng. (auf), Wakef., Sharpe, 
JIurd., (at), Stu., De W. (' iai may here and 20 : 1 be taken 



strictly'-o!*/"), Hengst. ('Properly: toward the right hand. 
Comp. the ini in like manner in ch. 3 : 20 ; 15 : 2 ; 20 : 1 ; 
JMatt. 27 : 29, where the other reading h> ty ht^ia, is merely ex- 
planatory.') ;-Wahl (-cm, bey, zu, Lat. ad'), Rob. {'upon, 
i. e. in'). 

^ W., R., (without) ;-Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., 
Penn, Kenr., (as W.), Wakef., Thorn., Scott and Allw. (on the 
outside), Sharpe, Stu., Lord ;-Rob. 

' German verss. (versiegelt), Dt. (verzegeld) ;-Pagn. and 
later Latin verss. (ohsignalum ;-for the A^ulg. signatum), 
Woodh., Bloomf. {sealed down), Treg. {firmly sealed), Words.;- 
L. and S., Rob., Green. Of these, it is true, the foreign verss. 
and Woodh. make no distinction between the compound verb 
here and the simple one at ch. 10 : 4. 

'' E. v., 5 times out of 7 in this book ;-Hamm., Wells 
Daub., Dodd., Wakef, Woodh., Thom., Allw., Jones, Penn, 

Stu., Lord, Treg. Before fur^. all the recent editors insert 

h (A. B. ' a 20. 3 5. 7 2.'). 

« Grot. : ' Nulla res vivens.' See ch. 3 : 7, N. p ; &c. W. ;- 
foreign verss. generally ;-and modern English, from Daub, 
down ;-here avoid the restriction of E. V. 

•■ The verb is translated before iv *9 oif. by R. ;-Latin verss. 
("except Castal.), Syr., Fr. G.,-M.,-S.;-Beng., Moldenh., Woodh., 

Greenf, Treg., DeAV^., Words. After ovpoi'^, Matth., Knapp, 

Mey., Sch., Words., add S.vu (B. ' a 18. (3 5. Copt. Syr. Ar. P.'). 

^ Syr., German and French verss., Dt., It. ;-Brightm., Daub. 
(upon ;-and so Dodd., Wakef., Woodh.), Newc, Thom. and the 
later English verss. 

^ Dt., It, French verss. ;-Daub., Beng., Moldenh., Wakef., 
Newc, Thom., AUw., Greenf., Penn, Lord, Treg., De W., Murd. 

' R. ;-Daub., Wakef , Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe. Stu., 
Lord, Murd. (or), Kenr. 



REVELATION. 



Ill 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

was able to open the book, 
neither to look thereon. 

4 And I wept much, because 
no man was i'ound worthy to 
open, and to read the book, 
neither to look thereon. 

5 And one of the elders saith 
unto me. Weep not : behold, the 
Lion of tlie tribe of Juda, the 
Root of David, hath prevailed 
to open the book, and to loose 
the seven seals thereof. 



6 And I beheld, and lo, in the 
midst of the throne, and of the 
four beasts, and in the midst of 
the elders, stood a Lamb as it 
had been slain, having seven 
horns, and seven eyes, which are 



GREEK TEXT. 

vTTOKarco r^r yv^j avol^ai to fSc- 
^Xlov, ouSe ^XiireLv avro. 

4 Kou iyw €KXaiov ttoAAk, 
OTL ovo€i9 a^L09 evpeoTj auoi^ai 
Kol avayvSyvai to (Sl^Xlov, ovt€ 
/SAeTreif avTo. 

5 Koi el? eK tS)v Trpea-fivTtpGiv 
Aeyet (jlol, Mr] KXaie- \8ov evi- 
Krj(rev 6 Xecou 6 6)u €k rj^f (pvXrj^ 
'lovSa, rj pi^a. Aafi\8, avol^at to 
(Sl^Xlov, Kol Xvcrai. Tas kiTTa 
cr(ppayL8as avTOV. 

G A'at elSof, Koi l8ov ev pecrco 
Tou Opovov Kai tS)v Teaaapoov 
^cocou, /cat iu p.^(rco twv TTpeajSv- 
Tepcou, apvLOV eaTiqKos a3S eacpa- 
ypevov, k^ov KepaTa eVra koi 
6(j)daXp.ov^ eTTTU, ol elaL ra eVra 



REVISED VERSION. 

under the earih, to open the 
book, neither to look thereon. 

4 And J'l, I wept much, be- 
cause no ''one was found worthy 
to open 'and read the book, 
neither to look thereon. 

5 And one of the elders saith 
unto me : Weep not : behold, 
the Lion ""that is "from the tribe 
of °Judah, the Root of David, 
hath prevailed to open the book, 
and Pto loose the seven seals 
thereof. 

6 And I %aw, and ''behold, in 
tlie midst of the throne * and 
of the four 'living creatures, and 
in the midst of the elders, "a 
"Lamb "'standing ^as if it had 
been slain, having seven horns, " 
and seven eyes, which are the 



J ' As for me.' See ch. 1 : 8, N. m, &c. — Latin verss. {ego), 
Fr. S. (moije) ;-Treg. (marks the pronoun as emphatic). 

!■ See V. 3, N. e, &c. 

1 All the recent editors cancel the words, xai avayvilivai, on 
the authority of • B. a 23. /3 6. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr.' 
I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the words 
and read be omitted. 

» E. v., John 18 : 37 ; &c. ;-T. (being) ;-Syr^(= De D. ille 
qui [est]), Germ., Dt., It. (marking the verb as supplied), Fr. G., 
-M.,-S. ;-Pagn. {ille ;-and so Bez., Par.), Vat., Castal., Brightm. 
{(hat), Cocc, Vitr., (ille, qui est), Beng., Dodd. (u-ho is ;-and 
so Woodh., Thom., Allw., Lord), Moldenh., Greenf, Treg., 
De W., Hengst. Of these many follow the reading adopted by 
all the recent editors, which cancels the Civ, on the authority 
of A. B. 'o 28. ^ 7. V 3. Compl. Vulg.' 

■" Comp. John 7 : 41 ; &c. Syr. (= Greenf. -a), Dt. (uil) ;- 
Pagn., Castal. and later Latin verss., (e.r;-for the Vulg. de), 
Beng., Moldenh., Gerl., Stier, De W., (aus ;-for Luth.'s von). 

" E. V.'s Greek genitive has been exchanged for the Hebrew 
name by Guyse, Dodd. and the later English verss. (except 
Treg., Words.), and the Amer. Bible Soc. See ch. 7 : 6, N. o. 

P All the recent editors cancel the xioat, on the authority of 
' A. B. a 27. /3 8. y 3. Compl. Verss. exo. Vulg. ed. and Slav. 
MS.' I recommend that this reading be followed, and that the 
version stand thus : book and the &c. 

1 Seech. 4: 1, N. b. 

' E. v., 25 times, out of 30, in this book ;-R. ;-Wakef , 
Thom., Kenr.;-and so, at ch. 6: 5, Dodd.. TVesl., Newc, Penn, 



Sharpe, Stu. But Bloomf. brackets, and all * the other recent 
editors cancel, the words xai. iSov, on the authority of B. ' a 26. 
/3 8. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.' I recommend 
that this reading be followed, and that the words, and behold, 
be omitted. 

' The comma has been removed by the Amer. Bible Soc. 

' See ch. 4 : 6, N. a. 

" The Greek order is retained by W., R. ;-Latin verss. (except 
Castal.), Syr., Dt., It., French verss. ;-Brightni., Daub., Beng., 
Wesl., Moldenh., Sym., Newc., Woodh., Mey., Greenf., Jones, 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Words., Hengst.. Kenr. 

" Berl. Bib., Beng., Herd., Mey., (Lammlein), Wakef. (little 
lamb). But this etymological strictness is not favoured by 
ch. 13 : 11, and the Sept. Jer. 11 : 19 (for on?). 

" The participle is retained by W., R.;-Latin verss., Syr., 
Dt. ;-Brightm., Daub., Beng., Wesl., Jloldenh., Newc, Woodh., 
Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Hengst., 
Kenr. 

^ For as if, see Buttm. § 144, n. 14; Kuhn. } 312. 6; Rob. 
s. V. (ij, 2. a ; &c. T., C, G., (as though) ;-Latin verss., except 
Cocc. and Vitr., (tanquam) ;-Brightm., Sharpe, (as T.), Wesl., 
Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, Bloomf., Stier 
(;wie wenn), Murd., Kenr. 

J This comma, which the Amer. Bible Soc. has removed, is 
justified by the gender of the subsequent relative, without even 
insisting on the more common interpretation, which restricts 
the relative clause to the 6<f9aXix.ovi. 



* In the 2d ed. of his Translation, Treg. adopts the reading 
of A., which, omitting xai diov, gives xai Hov xai. 



112 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

the seven Spirits of God sent 
forth into all the earth. 

7 And he came and took the 
book out of the right hand of 
Mm that sat upon the throne. 

8 And when he had taken the 
book, the four beasts, and four 
and twenty elders fell down be- 
fore the Lamb, having every one 
of them hai-ps, and golden vials 
full of odours, which are the 
prayers of saints. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Tov Oeov TTvevfJiaTa ra ccTreaTaX- 
fieva ely Trdaav ttqv yrji^. 

7 KcLL TjXOe, Koi €t\r](j)e to 
fii^Xlov e'/c TYjs Se^ia9 tov Kadrj- 
fievov eVt TOV Opovov. 

8 Kcti 0T€ eXafie to ^l^Xlov, 
Ta Tecraapa (^(oa Kai ol eiKOcri- 
Teaaape^ 7rpe(r/3vT€poL eTvecrov 
evwTTLOv TOV apvlov, k^ovTes eKa- 
cTos KiOapas, Kai (fjcaXaf •^vaas 
ye/jLOvaa? 6vfxiap.aTCdv, a'i ela-iv 
ai Trpocrev^aL twv ayioiv 



REVISED VERSION. 

seven "^Spirits of God sent forth 
into all the earth. 



7 And he came and ^took 'the 
book out of the right hand of 
him that sat "on the throne. 



8 And when he ''took the book, 
the four ""living creatures and 
■•the '^twenty-four elders fell down 
before the Lamb, ha\ang every 
one ' hai'ps, and golden ^bowls 
full of ''incense, 'which are the 
prayers of Jthe saints. 



* Here also the Amer. Bible Soc. now interprets and prints 
as in ch. 3 : 1 (see there N. a, &c.). 

' This ft7.)j$f is mentioned by Win. (§ 41. 4) as the only example 
in the N. T. of a perfect used precisely as the narrative aorist. 

But see ch. 7: 14; 8: 5. Bloomf brackets, and Matth., Mey., 

Lachm., Treg., Tisch., Theile, cancel, the words to j3(.j3f.iov, on 
the authority of 'A. a 24. /3 C. y 2. Had* Am* Aeth. Arm.' 

For on, see ch. 3 : 10, N. d. E. V., ch. 4 : 2 ; &c. ;-Brightra., 

Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Words., Murd., Kenr. 

'' The same tense as in v. 7 appears in Syr.. Germ. ;-Castal., 
Beng., Dodd.. AVesl., Herd., Thom., Mey., All., Sharpe, Stu., 
Lord, Treg., Words., Hengst., Murd. 

' See ch. 4 : 6, N. a. 

■i E. v., ch. 4 : 10 ; &c. ;-R. ;-foreign verss. ;- Wells and later 
English verss. (except Sharpe). The E. V. is somewhat relieved 
in the revised edition of the Am. Bible Soc. by the removal of 
the comma after beasts (so Ilamm., Kenr.). 

' See ch. 4 : 4, N. m. T., C, (xxiiii.) ;-Daub., Dodd., Newc, 
Woodh., Sharpe, Stu., Treg., Words., Kenr. 

<■ E. v., ch. 20 : 13 ;-G., R. ;-foreign verss., except Syr. and 
Greenf. ;-Dodd., Wes!., Wakef. (eac7t;-and so Sharpe, Stu., 

Treg.), Lord, Kenr. For xiddpa;, Bong., Matth., Lachm., 

Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile have xi,edt>av (A. B. 'a 19. /3 5. y 2. 
Aeth. Syr. Arm. Erp.'). 

^ In classical Greek ^idxt; is ' a broad, flat, shallow cup or 
bowl, esp., a drinking bowl or bowl for libations, the Lat. 
patera'' (L. and S.). In the Sept. it commonly stands for p^n 
(Greenf.'s term here), which is defined b}' Ges., Fiirst, &c., ' vas 
unde spargitur (sanguis victimarum), phiala s. patera sacri- 
fl,ca' (Rob. : a sacrificial bowl, basin). ' . . . De cratere vini 
Am. 6 : 6' (Rob. : a wine-bowl) ; and is always in E. V. rendered, 
bowl (Num. 7: 13, &c.) or basin (Ex. 27 : 3 ; &o.). To this 
usage our English vial (.Johns., Rich. : ' a small bottle') does 
not answer. — Latin verss. (phi al as j-the ph. being described by 
Facciolati and Forcellini as ' poculi genus in superior! parte 
latius : et fere ex auro, aut alia pretiosa materia.' Grot. : ' Hie 
autem intelliguntur paterae' [the word used also by Ew., Ros.], 
' in quibus erat thus et suffimenta alia.' Aret. thuribula), Syr. 



(transfers the Greek word, and Murd. renders it, ciips ;-which 
is objectionable only as suggesting the ideas of smallness, and 
a shape 'more deep than wide' [-Johns., Webst.]), German 
verss. (Schalen), It. (coppe) ;-Engl. Ann. (■ an allusion to the 
censers of perfuming pots used in the tabernacle and temple.'), 
Daub., B. and L. (coupes), Lowra. (has censers and cups ;-and 
so Guyse, Dodd., Scott), Newc. Thom. {cups), Jones (' a kind 
of goblet or basin'), Bloomf. (' Not vials, but cups, pateras, 
something like our dishes'), Stu. ('bowls or goblets, having 
uore breadth than depth.' He has boicls in the version.), Treg., 
Kell. (• cups, or basi7is'), Bonar, Comment, on Leviticiis, (' bowls 
of the altar, or the like'). Barn. (' The idea is always that of a 
bowl or goblet.') ;-Rob. ('o bowl, goblet, broad and shallow, 
Lat. patera''), Green (a bowl, shallow cup, patera), &c. 

'■ ©v/ti'a^a, by which the Sept. habitually render the n"iap 
(Greenf.'s word here, and this in E. Y. is always incetise ; except 
in three instances, perfume) of the 0. T.. and which, in the 
N. T., occurs four times in the plur. in this book, and twice in 
the sing, elsewhere (Luke 1: 10. 11), is always, except here 
and ch. 18: 13, translated in E. V. by incense. The plural 
(more common also in classical Greek) may in this case, and in 
the parallel ch. 8 : 3, 4, correspond to the variety of spices (Qiaft, 
Ex. 30 : 34 ; &c. Comp. 1 Tim. 2 : 1), that entered li; trjv avv- 
etaiv toil evfiidfia-tos (Sept. Ex. 25 : 6). In number and etymo- 
logy, profumi (It.), parfums (French verss.), perfumes (Dodd.), 
answer well ; but, like odours (Vulg. odoramentorum), they 
do not so readily suggest a religious use, and the re-appear- 
ance in the heavenly sanctuary of the Levitical symbol (Ps. 
141: 2; Mai. 1: 11; Acts 10: 4). So Areth. (hinks that 9i,^io- 
fiata, not aput^ar'a, is used as i^atfj-i^ovta to Lafia tr^^ xad' rjfidv 
Sixai'aj tov 6ioi opyijs. — E. V. marg. ;-Gerraan verss. (Rauch- 
werk) ;-Beng. (mancherlei jR.), Dt. (reukwerks) ;-Pagn., Bez.. 
Par., (sufiituum.), Castal., Cocc., Vitr., (use siiffimenta), Lowm., 
Wesl., Wakef., Newc. marg., Woodh., Thom., Ew. (thuribus), 
AUw., Jones, Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg. ;-Rob. 

' The antecedent is the ^tci^aj, as John saw them, yi/jLovaai 
Sv/judfiatav, and so representing the prayers of the saints, not 
only as abundant, but as united. This reference is adopted by 



REVELATION. 



113 



KING JAMES' VERSION. 

9 And they sung a new song, 
saying, Thou art worthy to take 
the book, and to open the seals 
thereof: for thou wast slain, and 
hast redeemed us to God by thy 
blood out of every kindred, and 
tongue, and people, and nation ; 



10 And hast made us unto 
our Grod kings and priests : and 
we shall reign on the earth. 

11 And I beheld, and I heard 
the voice of many angels round 
about the throne, and the beasts, 
and the elders : and the number 
of them was ten thousand times 



GREEK TEXT. 



9 Kca a8ovaLv (pdrjv KaLvr]V, 
XiyovTes, ' A^ios el Xafieiv to /3f- 
fiXiov, Kcu duoL^aL rag a(^payl8as 
avTOV' on icrcpayrjs, kcu -qyopa- 
aas TW Oecp rj/nds' iv rm aifxarl 
<Tov, Ik ■JTaar]s (f)uXfjs /cat yXaxr- 
<Tr]s Kou Xaov kcu eOvovs, 

10 KCU eiroLrja'as rjjjids tco Oea 
rjfiwv fiaaiXels Koi Upeis' kou 
l3aaLX€V(T0fi€v eVi rijy yrjs. 

11 Kal eiSou, koi -qKOvaa (l)co' 
vr]v dyyeXwv ttoXXwv KVKXodeu 
rov dpovov Kol TCOU ^cocov Kol Tcav 



REVISED VERSION. 

9 And they ''sing a new song, 
saying : Thou art worthy to take 
the book, and to open the seals 
thereof; for thou wast slain, and 
'didst redeem us to God by thy 
blood out of every "tribe, and 
tongue, and people, and nation ; 



10 And "thou "didst make "us 
unto our God Pkings and priests, 
and Pwe shall reign PPover the 
earth. 

11 And I isaw, and I heard 'a 
voice of many angels 'round 
about the throne ' and the "living 



I" Vulg. Am., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret., Wells, Daub., 
Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Woodh., Allw., Sharpej 
Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Words., Hengst. The old English 
verss. follow the common text of the Vulg. 

' ' In dying.' See ch. 1 : 6, N. z ; and comp. 2 Pet. 2 : 1. 
W. {again boughtesl) ;-Herd., Kist., Mey., De W. Others, as 
Wakef., Thorn., Treg., and many foreign verss., make the change 
on the previous verb : thou hast been slain, and hast &c. 

■" See ch. 1 : 7, N. k. 

° Not only deliverance, but glory. Comp. ch. 1 : 6, N. y. The 
pronoun is repeated by Dt., French verss. ;- Wakef., Newc, 
Treg., Murd., Kenr. For didst make, see v. 9, N. 1, &c. 

° All the recent editors have avtovf for ^/taj, on the authority 
of 'A. B. a 27. /3 8. y 5. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Copt. Aeth. 
Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MS.' I recommend that this reading be 
followed: them. 'The intentional change,' remarks Hengst., 
' is to intimate, that the elders come into view, not as individuals, 
but merely as representatives of the church.' Perhaps it may 
even be said, that, reverting to the scene of the redemption, 
and looking out thence over the ruined earth, they lose, as it 
were, the sense of their own personality in the wide and effi- 
cacious purpose of the Saviour. Comp. Jude 24, N. y. 

P For ^aaCKili, Lacbm. and Tisch. have ^aaiXiiav (• A. Vulg. 

Copt.'). Comp. ch. 1 : G, N. a. The reading jSaaatuao^Er 

is given up by all the recent editors, of whom Matth., Lachm., 
Bloomf., Treg., Words., Tisch., adopt fiaai-Kiiovaiv, on the author- 
ity of A. B. ' a 9. |3 4. y 2. Compl. Syr. Copt. Ar. P. Slav. MS.;'— 
Beng., Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch., Hahn, Theile, fiaaVKt<>ama>.v, 



on the authority of 'a 12. j3 4. y 2. Am. HarV The internal 
evidence, as well as the external, being in favour of the prophetic 
present, as the more difficult reading, and as a natural explana- 
tion of iTioirjaai aitov; (SoaAftf, I recommend that ^aaiXtvovaiv 
be followed in the text : they reign ; and that the words : ' Or, 
according to some copies, they shall reign,'' be set in the margin. 

pp So, after words of authority and rule, iTti always may, 
and often must, be rendered.— E. V., ch. 2: 26; 9 : 11 ; 11 : 6 ; 
14: 18; 16: 9; 17: 18; &c. ;-Vulg. (super tovajft) ;-Erasm., 
Pagn., Vat., Bez., Aret., Par., {as Vulg. ;-changed by Castal., 
Cocc, Vitr., into «i terra), Beng., Van Ess, Hengst., {Uber ;- 
and so De W., Win., &c., at Matt. 2 : 22 ; &c.), Wesl., Stu., 
KeU. ;-Rob. (at Matt. 2: 22; &c.). See the grammars and 
lexicons generally on irti in this relation. 

1 Seech. 4: 1, N. b. 

 German verss. (except that Herd, and Mey. have no ar- 
ticle), Dt., Fr. S. ;-Wesl., Wakef. 

 All the recent editors read xiixji^ (A. B. ' a 24. (3 9. y 4. 
Compl.'). I recommend that this reading be followed, and 
translated : around. See ch. 4 : 6, N. z. 

' The genitives, tuv ^laav xal iuv jtp£ff/3., are under the 
government, not of ^avr,v (W., R. ;-Castal., Dodd., Bloomf., 
Stu., Kenr. ; of whom W., R., Kenr., probably misapprehend 
the Vulg.), but of xvx\(f. In vv. 9, 10 we have the song of the 
redeemed; here, the angelic antiphony ; followed, v. 13, by the 
general chorus. — The commas are removed by Wakef., Woodh., 
Thom., Sharpe, Treg., Words. 

« See ch. 4 : 6, N. a. 



Aret., Par., Wells, De W., Kell., Hengst. ; but the last errs in 
asserting for it a grammatical necessity, against the familiar 
rule of both the Greek and the Latin grammar, that the relative 



may be drawn into the gender and number of the explanatory 
substantive in its own clause; e. g. Mark 12: 42; Gal. 3: 16. 
' Foreign verss. ;-Brightm., Daub, and the later English. 

15 



114 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

ten thousand, and thousands of 
thousands ; 

12 Saying with a loud voice, 
"Worthy is the Lamb that was 
slain to receive power, and riches, 
and wisdom, and strength, and 
honour, and glorj', and blessing. 

13 And every creature which 
is in heaven, and on the earth, 
and under the earth, and such 
as are in the sea, and all that are 
in them, heard I saying, Bless- 
ing, and honour, and gloiy, and 
power, he unto him that sitteth 
upon the throne, and unto the 
Lamb, for ever and ever. 



14 And the four beasts said, 
Amen. And the four and twen- 
ty elders fell down and wor- 



GREEK TEXT. 



mv. 



12 Xeyovre? (l)0)vrj /xeyaXr], 
A^iov iari to apviov to i(T(f)a- 
Yjievov Xa^elv ttjv Bwufxiu kou 
ttXovtov kou cro^iav kou l(r)(yu 
KOLL TLfxrjv Koi Bo^au /cat evXoylav. 

13 ICai TTOLV KTicTfxa h iaTLv iv 
Tw ovpavcc, Koi iu tyj yrj, kou 

VTTOKaTCO TTjS y^?j KOU eVi TTji 

OaXaacrrjs a iaTi, kou to. eV avTols 
TvavTa, TjKOvaa XeyovTU?, Tm 
KaOrjpeuco iwl tov Opovov kou tco 
apvLoy 7] evXoyia kou rj tl/xtj kou 
rj So^a Kol TO KpaTos fir tovs 
alaivas twv aloyvoav. 

14 Kal TO. Teacrapa ^a>a eAe- 
yov, A/xr]v KOL OL eLKOcnTecraa- 
pes TrpeajBvTepoi eTrecrav, kol 



REVISED VERSION. 

creatures * and the elders, " and 
thousands of thousands, 

12 Saying with a loud voice : 
Worthy is the Lamb that "hath 
been slain to receive ''the power, 
and riches, and wisdom, and 
strength, and honour, and glory, 
and blessing. 

13 And every creature ^that 
^is in heaven, and ^in the earth, 
and under the earth, and such as 
are ^on the sea, and all ^things 
that are in them, heard I sapng: 
''Unto him that sitteth ""on the 
throne, and unto the Lamb,"* *the 
blessing, and *the honour, and 
^the glory, and ^the power, Imto 
the ages of the ages. 

14 And the four ^living crea- 
tures said : Amen. And the 
■"twenty-four elders fell down, 



" I recommend that the reading of the Elzevir text, and of 
all the recent editors, which here inserts the words, xtU ijv 6 
aptdfibi avtiLv /ivfiidSis [ivpidSav, he followed, and that the ver- 
sion stand thus: elders; and the number of them was myriads 
of myriads, and thousands of thousands ; . For myriads, see 
oh. 9 : 16, N. s, &c. 

" It., French verss. ;-Beng. (das sich hat schlachlen lassen), 

Moldenh., AH., Treg., De W. For the, see v. 13, Is. e and 

eh. 1 : 6, N. e, &c. ;-Dt., It. and Fr. S. (have the article before 
each noun), Daub., B. and L. (as Fr. S.), Beng., Wesl., 
Woodh., Allw., Words., Hengst. 

* After every, E. V. commonly has that ;-W. (each creature 

that), R. The itstlv is cancelled by Matth., Lachm., Bloomf., 

Treg., "Words., Tisch., on the authority of A. B. 'a 18. |3 5. 
Vulg. MS. Tol. Copt. Arr.' 

y All the recent editors read itd •tijs yiji, on the authority of 
A. B. 'a 27. p 7. Compl. Vulg.' I recommend that this read- 
ing be adopted : on the earth. 

' E. v., eh. 7 : 1 ; 10 : 2 ; &c. ;-Fr. S. ;-Wesl., Moldenh., Newc, 
Woodh., All., Treg., Stier, De W. ('The sea-creatures are 
thought of, that live more on the surface than in the deep ;'- 
a better suggestion than that of Rob. after Wahl : ' on the bottom 
of the sea, in the deep.'). But neither is it necessary to exclude, 
as De W. intimates, those sailing on the sea ; especially as the 
following clause, xai ra iv cwrotj ndvta, makes up what had 
been left deficient by the double iTti Hengst. supposes that 
clause to have been added for the purpose of including, in this 



choir of the universe, the smaller along with the greater parts 
of creation. 

' The gender of rtdvta is expressed by Germ., Dt., It., French 
verss. ;-Erasm. and later Latin verss., Brightm.. Dodd., Moldenh., 
Herd., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Allw., Sharpe, De W., Treg., 
Words. The reading ndvta; ('a 16. j3 3. Compl.' — to which 
may be added the Vulg.) is edited by Beng., Matth., Knapp, 
Mey., Tisch. ; while that of B., rtdvta xai jtdvra;, appears only 
in Words. 

'' The Greek order is retained by E. V., ch. 1 : 5, 6 ; Jude 
24, 25 ; &c., and here by W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Dodd. and the 
later English, except Newc. and Penn. 

' See V. 7, N. a, &c. 

^ See ch. 1 : 6, N. d, &c R. ;-Latin verss. (except Vitr.), 
Fr. S. ;-B. and L. (appartient), Wesl. (is), Moldenh. (kommt 
zu), Greenf., Lord, De W. ('sei, oder ist, gebuhrt'), Kenr. 

' See V. 12, N. w, &c. Dt, It., Fr. S.;-B. and L., Berl. 
Bib., Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Greenf., 
Allw., De W., Words. 

f Seech. 1:6, N.g,&c. 

^ Seech. 4: 6, N. a. 

•■ See V. 8, N. e, &c. But Knapp brackets, and all the other 
recent editors cancel, lixomriaaapit, on the authority of 'A. B. 
a 28. ^ 8. y 3. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Tol. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Ar. P. Slav. MS.' I recommend that this reading be followed, 
and twenty four omitted. 



REVELATION. 



115 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

shipped him that liveth for ever 
and ever. 



CHAP. VI. 

And I saw when the Lamb 
opened one of the seals, and I 
heai'd, as it were the noise of 
thunder, one of the four beasts, 
saying. Come and see. 

2 And I saw, and behold, a 
white horse : and he that sat on 
him had a bowj and a crown 
was given unto him : and he 
went forth conquering, and to 
conquer. 

3 And when he had opened the 
second seal, I heard the second 
beast say, Come and see. 



4 And there went out another 



GREEK TEXT. 

irpoaeKwrjaav Cjmvtl eLS tov9 aico- 
vas Tcav ala>ucoi>. 

CHAP. VI. 

KAI el8ov ore rjvoi^e to 
apvLOv fJLLav e/c tcov a<ppayiScoi', 
Koi rjKovcra evos (k rau reaaapcov 
^wcou XiyovTOs, U)i (pavrjs ^pov- 

TrjS, .Epxpv Kol fiXeTTE. 

2 Kai eiSou, kol iSov "nnros 
\evK09, Kcu 6 Ka6rip.evo9 eV avrco 
e)(cou To^ov KOL iSoBrj avrco are- 
(pavo9, KOL i^rjXde vlkcov, kcu Iva 
VLKTrjcrrj. 

3 KoU, 0T€ ■^VOL^e T1]V 8evT€- 

pav (r(ppayi8a, TjKOV(Ta tov Seure- 
pov ^coov Xeyovros, ' Ep^ov kou 
fiXeire. 

4 Kai i^rjXBev aAAo? 'iTnros 



REVISED VERSION. 

and worshipped 'him that liveth 
'unto the ages of the ages. 

CHAP. VI. 

And I saw when the Lamb 
opened one of the " seals, and I 
heard ''one of the four ""living 
creatures saying, ""as the ^voice 
of thunder : "Come and see. 

2 And I saw, and behold a 
white horse, and he that sat 
•"upon him "^having a bow : and 
sthere was given unto him a 
crown : and he w^ent forth con- 
quering, and ''that he might con- 
quer. 

3 And when he ' opened the 
second seal, I heard the second 
Jliving creature ''saying : 'Come 
and see. 

4 And there went ""forth ano- 



' See ch. 1 : 6, N. g, &c. But here also Knapp brackets, and 
all the other recent editors cancel, the words ^dvn ttj tovs 
aiuva; tuv cuiirur, On the authority of ' A. B. C. a 27. j3 8. y 3. 
Compl. Vulg. MS. A7n. Tol. Harl* Copt. Syr. (Arm.) Ar. P. 
Slav. MS.' I recommend that this reading be followed, the 
verse ending thus : and worshipped. 

' All the recent editors insert irtta, on the authority of 'A. B. 
C. a 25. j3 3. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P. Slav.' I recom- 
mend that this reading be followed : seven seals. 

^ The order, ijxovBa hoi, is retained by all other verss., except 
Newc. 



" See ch. 4 : 
^ See ch. 4 : 



6, N. a. 
1, N. d, &c. 



W. ;-Hamm., Wells, Daub., Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef , Newc. (marks it were as supplied), Woodh., 
Thom., AUw., Stu. (like), Lord, Kenr. 

• See ch. 1 : 15, N. o, &c. For ^avijs, all the recent editors 
read ^wvij (except Treg. ^wiij, who cites ' A. C. a 25. /3 7. Compl. 

[Syr. Arr.].' Words., for fuvr,, cites A. B. C). For pxerte, 

Beng. (who also omits xal), Matth., Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch., 
Bloomf., Words., edit ISb (B. ' o 17. (3 7.'), while Lachm., Hahn, 
Treg., Tisch., Theile, add nothing after "Efizov, on the authority 
of ' A. C. a 9. /3 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Erp.' 

f E. v., ch. 19 : 14; &c. ;-R. ;-Daub., Guyse, Woodh., Allw., 
Stu., Kenr. For irt ait^, here and in w. 4, 5, all the recent 
editors (except Bloomf. at v. 4) and the Compl. have ivt avtov 



(A. B. C. and from 26 to 34 cursive MSS.). For having, see 

ch. 4:1, N. c. 

^ E. v., V. 4 ; &c. The Greek order is followed closely by 
Vulg., Syr., It. (gli fu data &c.), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., (i7 ltd fut 
donne &c.);-Pagn., Bez., Aret., Par., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., Dodd., 
Greenf., Stu. and Treg. (at v. 8) ; — and with different degrees 
of approximation by many others. 

^ The form of the original is preserved by W., R. ;-foreign 
verss. (except B. and L., Herd., Mey., Greenf., AH., De W.) ;- 
Scott, Allw., Stu., Lord, Words., Kenr. The E. V. might be 
taken to mean simply, that he was about to conquer ; whereas 
he went forth for that purpose. See ch. 8 : 6, N. p, &c. 

' E. v., V. 1 ;-Syr., German verss. (except Moldenh.), Fr. S. ;- 
Castal., Cocc, Daub., Dodd., Wes!., Wakef., Newc, Thom., 
Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Lord, Treg., Words. 

) Seech. 4: 6, N. a. 

t E. v., V. 1 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-Daub., Dodd., 
Wesl., Newc, Woodh.. AUw., Greenf., Treg., Kenr. 

1 The words, xcU p^-sttc, are bracketed by Bloomf, and omitted 
by all the other recent editors, on the authority of ' A. B. C. 
a 25. |3 7. y 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Syr. Arm. (Erp.).' 
I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the verse 
end with. Come. 

"■ E. v., V. 2; &c. ;-R. ;-Brightm., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, 
Woodh., Thom., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 



116 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

horse that ivas red ; and power was 
given to him that sat thereon to 
take peace from the earth, and 
that they shoukl kill one another : 
and there was given unto him 
a great sword. 

5 And when he had opened the 
third seal, I heard the third heast 
say, Come and see. And I beheld, 
and lo, a black horse ; and he that 
sat on him had a pair of balances 
in his hand. 



6 And I heard a voice in the 
midst of the four beasts say, A 
measure of wheat for a penny, 



GREEK TEXT. 

TTvppos' Koi TW KadrjfJLevcp eV 
avTm iSoOrj avr^ XafSelv Tqv el- 
prjvrjv diro rrjy yrjS, kcu \va aXXr]- 
Xovs a(j)d^cocri' kou idodrj avTco 
fia^aipa /xeyaXr]. 

5 -STai ore rjvoi^e rrjv Tpirrjv 
a(Ppa-yi8a, rjKOvaa rod rpirov 
^coov XiyovTos, ' jEp\ov kcu /SAeVe. 
KcCl eiSov, Koi l8ov Imros jxiXas, 
Kol 6 KaOrjfievos eV avra ey(U)v 
^vyov Iv ry x^'P' avrov. 

6 /cat TjKOvaa (f)copi]U iu /J-ecrcp 
tS>v Teaadpcov ^cocov Xeyovcrav, 



REVISED VERSION. 

ther, ° a red horse ; and "to him 
that sat Pujjon him. Ho him "Jit 
was given to take peace ifrom 
the earth, and that they should 
■■slay one another ; and there was 
given unto hhu a great sword. 

5 And when he ^ opened the 
third seal, I heard the third 'liv- 
ing creature "saying : "Come and 
see. And I ''saw, and ^"behold 
a black horse, and he that sat 
^upon hun ^having a ^balance in 
his hand. 

6 And I heard a voice in the 
midst of the four living crea- 
tures, ^saying: A ''choenix of 



° Nothing is supplied by W. (^another red horse), R. (another 
horse, red) ;-Latin verss., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Brightm. and Kenr. 
(as W.), Herd., Wakef.. Thorn., Jley., Greenf., All., Sharpe 
(as /?.), Lord, Treg., De W., Murd. 

" The participle is kept first by R. ;-foreign verss. (except 
Fr. G. and M.) ;-Daub., Wesl., Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

P For upon him, see v. 2, N. f. For expressing the air^, 

see ch. 2 : 7, N. zz. R. (he that sat thereon, to him) ;-Syr. ;- 
Erasm., Vat. in the SchoL, Cocc, Bierm., (sedenti . . . ei), 
Beng., Woodh., Allw., Stu. 

1 Nothing is supplied by W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., German 
verss. (except Herd., Mey.), It., Fr. S. ;-Wells, Daub., Dodd., 
"Wesl., Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Greenf., Sharpe, Stu., Lord. 

Treg.. Words., JIurd., Kenr. For ano, Matth., Griesb., Knapp, 

Sch., Lachm., Hahn, Bloomf., Treg., Words., Tisch., have ix 
(B. C. 'a 26. (3 6. Compl.'); while Beng., Mey., Theile, admit 
neither preposition (A. and 4 cursive MSS.). 

' E. v., always (9 times) elsewhere, except ch. 1-3 : 3 ;-W.;- 
Dodd., Wakef., Woodh.. Thorn., Penn, Stu., Treg., Kenr. Lachm., 
Treg., Tisch., read a^dimaiv (' A. C). 

• See v. 3, N. i. 

' Seech. 4: 6, N. a. 

° See V. 3, N. k. For ^xitti (which Bloomf. alone of recent 

editors retains), Matth., Griesb., Sch., Words., have Ihi (B. ' o 15. 
/3 6.' Matth. also omits the subsequent xtd ilSov, on the au- 
thority of B. 23 cursive 3ISS. [the same, with two exceptions, as 
those which read i&i.] Vulg. Aeth. Slav. MSS.) ; while Beng., 
Knapp, Mey.. Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Tisch., Theile, have simply 
"Epzov (' A. G. a 11. (3 2. [& 80.] Compl. Copt. Arm. Arr. 
Slav. MSS.'). 

' See ch. 4 : 1, N. b. 

» See ch. 5 : 6, N. r. 
 ' See V. 2, N. f. 



y See ch. 4 : 1, N. c. 

' E. V. often uses this word so in the 0. T., as in Job 
31 : 6 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-Brightm., Hamm., Stu. and others, (in 
their notes), Wakef., Woodh. (yoke ;-and so Crol., Jones), 
Thorn., Allw., Penn, Lord, Murd. ;-L. and S., Rob., Green. 

» For living- creatures, see ch. 4 : C, N. a ; — for saying-, see 
v. 3, N. k. 

'' ' Into the common version of the Old Testament, several 
oriental and other foreign names' of weights, measures and 
coins 'have been admitted, which are explained in the margin. 
Hence we have shekel, ephah, bath, homer, cor, and some others. 
This, however, (for what reason I know not.) has not been 
attempted in the New Testament' (Campb.). And on our pre- 
sent passage he remarks : ' It is evidently the intention of the 
writer to inform us of the rate of this necessary article, as a 
characteristic of the time whereof he is speaking. But our ver- 
sion not only gives no information on that head, but has not even 
the appearance of giving any, which the word choenix would 
have had, even to those who did not understand it. But to say 
a measure, without saying what measure, is to say just nothing 
at all. The word penny here is also exceptionable, being used 
indefinitely, insomuch that the amount of the declaration is, 
a certain quantity of wheat for a certain quantity of money. 
This suggests no idea of either dearth or plenty ; and can be 
charaoteristical of no time, as it holds equally of every time. In 
this case, the original term, notwithstanding its harshness, ought 
to be retained in the text, and explained in the margin.' With 
regard to the penny, however, Dodd.'s remark is the juster, but 
it only strengthens the case against the common version : ' This 
may seem, to an English reader, a description of great plenty ; 
but it certainly intends the contrary' — the chcenix being a 
man's daily allowance of food, and the dmarius his day's wages 
(Matt. 20 : 2). I recommend that the explanations be given 
in the margin thus : ' A chceni.r is about one quart ; a denarius, 
about fifteen cents.' — Both terms are transferred by Syr. ; and 
so It., Fr. G.,-S., (though it is true that danajo, and denier 



REVELATION. 



117 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and three measures of barley for 
a penny ; and see thou hurt not 
the oil and the wine. 

7 And when he had opened 
the fourth seal, I heard the voice 
of the fourth beast say, Come 
and see. 

S And I looked, and behold, 
a pale horse : and his name that 
sat on him was Death, and hell 
followed with him. And power 
was given unto them over the 
fourth part of the earth, to kill 



GREEK TEXT. 

Xdtvi^ CTLTOV Srjvaplov, kou rpets 

■^OlULKEf KpLOrjS 8T]Vap[oV KOU TO 

eAaLOv Kol rou oivov p,r] dBiK-qcrrj^. 

7 Kai ore rjvoL^e T-qv cr(f)pa- 
yiSa TTjv TerapTijp, rjKOva-a (^wvrjv 
Tov TirapTOV Q£)OV Xeyovaav, 
' Ep\ov KOU /3Ae7r€. 

8 KoH eiSoi', KOU ISoV iTTTTOy 

X^oopos, KOL 6 KaOrjpievos eiravoi 
avTov, ovojjia avrcp 6 Oavaroy, 
KOL 6 "ASrjs oLKoXovOa. /xeT avTOv- 
Koi iSoOrj avTols i^ovaia airoKTel- 



REVISED VERSION. 

wheat for a ''denarius, and three 
''choenixes of ""barley for a ''dena- 
rius ; and ""the oil and the wine * 
hurt thou not. 

7 And when he ^ opened the 
fourth seal, I heard ''the voice of 
the fourth Hiving creature ""say- 
ing : sCome and see. 

S And I ""saw, and behold a 
pale horse, and 'he that sat Jupon 
him, 'his name ' Death, and ''Ha- 
des 'followeth with him. And 
■"there was given unto ""them 
power "to kill over the fourth 



' The Greek order is retained by T., C, G., R.;-Latin and 
German verss., Syr. ;-Daub., Woodh., AUw., Stu., Lord, 'Words. 

•1 Nothing is supplied by W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Daub. (Jliou 
shalt not hurt), Wesl., Thom., Sharpe, Kcnr., (huTt not), 
Wakef. {hurt not thou), Newc, Woodh. and Lord {Ihou mayest 
not injure), AUvr. {shalt thou not injure), Penn {harm not), 
Stu. {thou must not injure). Words. 

• See V. 3, N. i. 

' For living' creature, see ch. 4 : 6, N. a. For saying; see 

V. 3, N. k. Instead of ■Kiyavaav, all the recent editors read 
jLf'yotro; (A. B. C. 'a 20. ,3 6. y 3. Compl. Yulg. Copt. Syr. 
Arr. Slav. MSS.'), and Beng., Matth., Griesb., Tisch., at the 
same time cancel, as Treg. also now brackets, favriv, on the 
authority of B. C. ' a 20. |3 4. Copt. Syr. Arr. Slav. MSS.' 

' For ISxixs (which Bloomf. alone of recent editors retains), 
Matth., Griesb., Sch., Words., have lie (B. 'a 18. j3 4.' Matth. 
also omits the xai slSov of v. 8, on the authority of B. 21 
cursive MSS. ["the same, with 3 exceptions, as those which here 
read ISe.] Vulg.) ; while Beng., Knapp, Mey., Lachm., Hahn, 
Treg., Tisch., Theile, have simply "Kpa;ou (' A. C. a 8. (3 4. Compl. 
Am. Brp.'). 

" See ch. 4 : 1, N. b. 

' See ch. 4:1, N. c, and ch. 3: 12, N. i. The two clauses, 
o xa$. xt%. and ov. avt. xfK., are kept distinct, and in the Greek 
order, by R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., Dt. ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, 
Jlor., Bierm., Vitr., Dodd.. Wesl., Woodh., Allw., Greenf., 
Lord, De W., Hengst. ; — and, of these, Vulg., Syr. ;-Erasm.. 
Vat., Cocc, Mor., Bierm., Vitr., Greenf., supplj' no copula be- 



fore o &av. The very abruptness of the construction may not 
be without significance. (Milton, P. L. ii. 787-789 : 
' I fled, and cry'd out Death ; 
' Hell trembled at the hideous name, and sigh'd 
'From all her caves, aud back resounded Death.') 

1 R.;-Daub., Woodh., AUw., Stu., Kenr. 

t See ch. 1 : 18, N. x. 

1 The reading f^xoXmOii, ('B. C. a 20. /3 7. y 2. Vulg. Aeth. 
Arr. Slav.') is edited by Matth., Griesb., Knapp, Mey, Sch., 
Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Words., Theile. But a.xo-Kov6il is retained 
(on the authority of 'the larger part of the MSS. [including the 
Alexandrian], confirmed by the Pesch. Syr. Version,' says 
Bloomf. ; who speaks everywhere of the Peschito as includ- 
ing this book, the Second Epistle of Peter, and Jude.) by 
Beng., Bloomf., Tisch. ; and it is translated as an historic present 
by Erasm., Vat., Castal., Aret., Hamm., Cocc, Daub., Beng., 
AVesl., Newc, Allw. There may even be a farther propriety 
in the use of it here, where the relation symbolized is Bot inci- 
dental, but one existing by an unchangeable divine appoint- 
ment, like that in Hebrew 9 : 27 : oirtal aitoSavclv, fit-ra 61 •tovto 
xpt'ffi;. I recommend, however, that the following note appear 
in the margin : ' Or, as many copies read, foUotoed.' 

■» For the order, see v. 2, N. g. For avtois, Beng., Matth., 

Griesb., Knapp, Me}"-., Sch., Bloomf., Tisch., read avt^ (' B. a 2.5. 
J3 6. y 3. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav.'). 

" All the recent editors read, ijti *. ret. t. y^f drtoxr'., on the 
authority of  A. B. C. a 28. (3 8. y 3. Compl.' I recommend 
that this order be observed in the version : over the fourth part 
of the earth to kill. 



[which last is employed also by M., B. and L.], like the Denar 
of Berl. Bib., Herd., Stolz, Kist., Goss., Mej'., Van Ess, Win., 
De W., Hengst., are living words, and, as such, not strictly 
equivalent to their original, denarius) ;-Erasm. and later Latin 
verss. (use ch. along with the Vulg. den.), Moldenh., Woodh. 
and Lord (with chanices for the plural), Thom. {deniar), Ell., 
Iilurd. ;-Rob., Green, and the other lexicons. Clianix is trans- 



ferred also by More ; — denarius, also by Newc, Greenf., Sharpe, 
Kenr. ; — while the former is variously rendered by W., bilibre ; 
R., tioo ■pounds ; Kenr., two measures ; after the Vulg. bilibris ;- 
Hamm. {quart), Berl. Bib. {Masschen), Beng. ( Vierling), 
Newc. {small measure), De W. {Metze) : and the latter, by 

Beng. and All. {Zehner). For xpiS^j, Lachm., Treg., Tisch., 

Theile, have KptSuv ('A. C. 12. Syr.'). 



lis 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

with sword, and with hunger, 
and with death, and with the 
beasts of the earth. 



9 And when he had opened 
the fifth seal, I saw under the 
altar the souls of them that were 
slain for the word of G-od, and 
for the testimony which they 
held: 

10 And they cried with a loud 
voice, sajnng. How long, Lord, 
holy and true, dost thou not 
judge and avenge our blood on 
them that dwell on the earth ? 



11 And white robes were giv- 



GREEK TEXT. 

vaL eVt TO rerapTov ttjs yrjs eV 
f)op.^aia. Koi ev Xi/xo) koL eu 6a- 
varco, Kca viro rav drjoloiv ttjs 

9 Kai ore rjvoL^e rrjv iriyLirnqv 
(TCppaylSa, eiSov viroKUTCo tov dv- 
(TiacrTrjpiov ras •^\rv)(as tmv ia(f)a- 
y/xeucov 8ia tov Xoyou tov Oeov, 
Koi 8ia TTju pxipTvpiav ijf ^Ixov, 

10 /cat eKpa^ov (pcovrj fieyaXj], 
XeyovTes, Eoa^ Trore, 6 oecnroTrjs 
6 ayLOs Kcu 6 olXtjOluos, ov Kpiveis 
Kou iK8iK€L9 TO al/xa rijxav airo 
tS)v KaTOiKOvvTOiv IttI Trj9 yrjS ; 

11 kcCl e8o6r}(Tav eKaaTOis crro- 



REVISED VERSION. 

part of the earth with sword, 
and with hunger, and with "death, 
and Pby the iwild beasts of the 
earth. 

9 And when he ' opened the 
fifth seal, I saw under the altar 
the souls of ^those ' slain for the 
word of God, and for the testi- 
mony which they "had. 

10 And they ^cried with a loud 
voice, saying : ^Until when, O 
'^Lord ^the holy and ^the true, 
dost thou not judge and avenge 
our blood ^on ^those that dwell 
on the earth ? 

11 And ^there 'were given 



" Many (Wakef., Newc, Woodh.. Thorn.. Herd., Mey., Allw., 
AH., Bloomf., Ell., Stu., Kell.. Rob., &c.) render edparoi here, 
pestilence. Pest. But see ch. 2: 23, N. y, and Hengst. iii loc. 

p E. v., ch. 9: IS; &c. The change of preposition i.s ob- 
served by Syr., Germ., Dt., It. ;-Erasm. and later Latin verss. 
(except Castal.), Hamm., Beng., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh. and 
A\\w. (under), Thora., Sharpe, Bloomf. (by the means or in- 
strumentality of), Stu., Lord. Treg., De W., Word.s. (by means 
of), Hengst. 

1 The specific sense of ej-pi'ov (comp. Sept. Deut. 28 : 26 ; Ps. 
79: 2; Is. 18: 6; Jer. 7: 33; &c.) is given by Syr., Dt, It., 
Fr. G.,-M. ;-Pagn., Castal. and later Latin verss., B. and L., 
Dodd., Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef., Newc, Thom., Mey., Allw., 
All., Penn, Ell., Stu., Lord, De W. (in the note), Murd., Barn. 

' See v. 3, N. i. 

 See ch. 2 : 2, N. h, &c. 

« The participial form is retained by W. (men slain) ;-Vulg., 
Syr. (with a relative prefix), It. (degli uomini uccisi) ;-Erasm., 
Vat., Castal., Aret., Cocc, Bierm., Herd, and Mey. (der Ge- 
schlachteten), Greenf. Other verss. variously determine the 
relation of time : were, have been, had been, slain. 

" The testimony was Christ's (ch. 1 : 2, 5, &c. ; John 3 : 32, 
&c.) ; they had it in trust (1 Cor. 9 : 17 ; Gal. 2 : 7 ; 1 Thess, 
2:4; &c.). There is even large authority. ' B. a 24. |3 6. y 2, 
Compl. SjT. At. P.,' for the reading fnaptvpiav tov ayviov. 
followed by It. ;-Andr., Areth.. Matth. and Words. — E. V., ch 
12 : 17 ; 19 : 10 ; &c. ; 1 John 5 ': 10 ;-W., T., C, R. ;-Vulg., Syr 
(= testimonium Agni quod illis erat ; not, as Murd., testimony 
to the Lamb which was with them). Germ., Dt., It.. Fr. S. ;- 
Erasm., Vat., Castal., Aret., Hamm. (had had), Cocc, Bierm., 



Vitr., Beng. (gehabt hatten), Greenf. (cnb ill'X), De W., 
Hengst. The tuebantur of Pagn., Bez., Par., (G. maintained) 
seems to have given currency to the other view, which is, in- 
deed, held by some, as Vitr., who do not allow it to modify the 
version. 

' For tzpa^'oc, all the recent editors read ixpa^av (' A. B. C 

a 25. p 5. Compl.'). The iuj 7(6i£ = njx—is of Ps. 13 ; &c. ; 

and is here answered by the juj of v. 11. Latin verss. (usque- 
quo or quousque ;-except Castal.'s Ciceronian quousque tandem), 
Syr. (= Greenf. Ttt'lS = De D. usque quando), Dt. marg. 
(tot wanneer toe), It. (infino a quando), French verss. (jusques 
d quand) ;-Lord, Kell. 

" See 2 Pet. 2 : 1, N. g. 

^ Syr., It. ;-Wells, Thom., Allw. But all the recent editors 
reject (except that Bloomf. merely brackets, as ' most probably, 
or certainly, an interpolation') the o before d>.)jS., on the au- 
thority of A. B. C. 'a 17. J3 6. Compl.' I recommend that this 
reading be followed : and true. Daub., Woodh., Penn, Lord, 
Treg., Words., express the first article ; and the want of it, or 
of both, is in the German verss. and Murd. compensated by 
means of the personal pronoun (du — thou), and in Fr. G.,-M. ;- 
Pagn., Vat., Bez. and later Latin verss., Brightm., B. and L., 
by a relative construction (qui es, which art). 



y For alio, Matth., Mey, 
Tisch., read ix (A. B. C 
see ch. 2 : 2, N. h, &c. 



Lachm., Bloomf., Treg., Words., 
a 26. fi 4. Compl.'). For those. 



' For the order, see v. 2, N. g. 

' For tSoSjjdav . . atoTjai ■kivxai, all the recent editors read 
iSdSij . . a-coXri ■Kivxi] ('A. B. C. a 28. /3 7. [(3 8. for uroT-jj -Ktvxri] 
y 3. Compl. Syr. Arm. Erp.'). I recommend that this reading 
be followed: viai given ... a white robe. 



REVELATION. 



119 



KIXG 



VERSION. 



en unto every one of them ; and 
it was said unto them, that they 
should rest yet for a little season, 
until their fellow-ser^^ants also 
and their brethren, that should 
be killed as they were, should be 
fulfilled. 

12 And I beheld when he had 



GREEK TEXT. 

Aat XevKol, Koi eppeOrj airrois iva 
avairavaoiVTCu eri ■)(povov fUKpov, 
eo)? ov TrXijpcocrovTaL Kai ol crvv- 
BovXoi avrdu Koi ol a8eX<poi av- 
Ta)v, o't fieXXovres aTTOKreiv^a-dou 
coy Kou aiTOL. j 

12 jSTai elSov ore rjuoi^e Tr]v\ 



REVISED VERSION. 

unto ''every one of them "white 
robes, and it was said unto them 
that they should rest yet "= a little 
•^time, until their fellow-servants 
also and then" brethren ^shall ful- 
fil )>, ^who 'shall Hoe killed as they 
?also '•themselves.' 

12 And I Jsaw when he ^ 



' The reading liooroij is rejected by all the recent editors, 
of whom Matth.. Griesb., Sch., Bloomf. . Tisch., give ovrois ("B. 
a 14. ,3 3. [& SI] Compl. Arm.") : Beng.. Knapp, Mey., Lachm., 
Hahn, Treg.. AVords.. Thcile, axnois ixdsr^ C" A. C. a 11. .3 4. y 3. 
[Vulg.]'). I recommend that the latter reading be followed, and 
translated: them every one. Comp. ch. 5 : 8. and see ch. 2: 23, 
N. a ;-W. (for each soul . . .to them) ;-German verss. (except 
Herd.). French verss. ;-Castal., Wesl. (to them, to every one). 
Treg. (them seterally). 

« For the omission of for, see E. T.. ch. 20: 3 ; &c. --W., R. ;- 
Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 

Kenr. The ft«pd»'. rejected by the other recent editors (' B. 

a 25. 3 6. y 2. Compl. Ar. P.'), is retained by Lachm., Hahn, 
Treg. 

■i E. v., John 5:6; Ac. :~Vr., K ;-Brightm., Daub., Wesl., 
Newc, Woodh., AUw., Penn, Lord. 

• Greek writers, it is true, often employ the future middle, 
especially of pure rerbs, in a passive sense. But whether this 
usage is found in the X. T. (Acts 15 : 22 ; 1 Cor. 10 : 2 ; Gal. 5 : 
12) is doubtful. Here it is not necessary. • The martyrs should 
rest yet a little time, until their brethren also, still left on the 
field of conflict, shall fulfil it for themselves — in their own ap- 
pointed way — not resting, but sufiering.' And. accordingly. 
Luth. (roUends dazu kame/i), Cocc. (plene accedajil -j-^iid in 
the Comment., ' implerent, nempe suum agonem, vel, se plene 
associarent^), Stu.. Rob. (■ jt>.ijp«ffoirai so. rov xaipdv v. ;^pdio»''). 
retain the active or the middle force. This reading, however, 
is almost destitute of manuscript support, and has been rejected 
by all the recent editors, of whom Beng., Knapp, !Mey., Hahn. 
Lachm., Bloomf, Treg., Words., Theile, give rtX;rpuS.ifft ('A. C. 
29. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr.') ; Matth.. Griesb. (to whom 
Rob. errs in assigning jtxijpuswrot, as he does in citing ajjjpu- 
$^01 as the Rec.), Sch., Tisch., TOj-^pJm^ai (' B. o 28. ;3 5. Erp.'). 
The former is with reason objected to by Hengst., as scarcely 
yielding a satisfactory sense ; the common explanation both of 
tliis reading and of ttxr^fx^aovrat. until the completion of their 
number (Steph., Engl. Ann., Grot., Grell., Daub., B. and L., 
Wolf., Beng., &c.). and that of Vitr., — of their afflictions, being 
hairsh and unexampled. De TV.'s note is : ' rtxr^foisScu either 
simply rita deftms-i, comp. fjXftovj9at Wisd. 4: 12 (13), or 
with the additional sense of a moral perfecting, comp. Heb. 11 : 
40 ; 12 : 23 ;' and, while the place referred to in TVisd. gives no 
countenance whatever to the first of these interpretations, the 
second is suggested also by Areth.. after Andr. : fwuepoevfwir 



ojirp' *rj tuy aSiXfCJr tcXiu^Btus xtXsvovfai, iiiE ft^ Z<^S ai-rutv 
TfXfuaSwBt, xara Tov 6iioy 'ArtouroXoi- (in allusion to Heb. 11 : 
39; 40). But. besides the substitution here of jfXfioj for 
rfXrpoj. the place just cited, taken strictly, shows, not that 
departed saints are to rest till the living are perfected, but that 
they themselves do not attain their TfXfi«5cj apart fiom the 
latter, but, as the apostle speaks. ric<; versa, in 1 Thess. 4 : 17, 
o/m aiiv avtoii. On the other ha:id, Bloomf 's objection to 
jOjrptijuirt. (to which he allows 'very strong external authority,') 
that  one may justly require some proof that such an idiom as 
this use of the active jixrp. in a passive sense ever existed,' is 
readily obviated by ta'sing the word in its own active sense, 
as Matth. thinks may be done (' Quid, si post .-oujpuBuaw ex 
superioribus intelligatur ov*6r. ifyow tor xpo'''"' ''o'' y-^xfov, ut 
sit usque dum conservi eonim compleant tempus illud parvunu 
Nee enim hoc adeo absurdum videtur.'). and as is done by 
Bretsch. (' intellige toy Sfofiot; vel toi- jfpdior.'), Wahl (• abest 
Toi' xotpoi' aifui'.'), De W. ('ihren Lauf vollendet htiben ic&r- 
rfeji'), Hengst, (• we are to supply : their course or their work.'). 
But the ellipsis assumed by De W. and Hengst, is abrupt and 
without example, whereas the xai subjoined to AXi^p. (the verb 
being necessarily changed.) sufiiciently justifies the supplement 
proposed above. I recommend, therefore, that the rc.iding 
rc\);f>J>Bu,ai be adopted, and translated thus : ' should fulfil it ;' 
and that the margin bejir the following note : • Or. as other 
copies read, should be fulfilled,' This change would require, 
should be killed, in the nest clause. — The verb rtJujp. is tiuns- 
lated in connection with its subjects by W., R,;-nearly all 
foreign verss. ;-Daub., Wesl., Woodh., AUw., Stu, 

f For who, see Dodd., "Wesl., Wakef , Xewc, Woodh., Thorn,, 

Allw.. Penn, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. Excepting Beng., 

Matth., Bloomf., all the recent editors have ajtoxritnaeat. 

^ For tins idiomatic repetition of the xai, see Win, § 57. 4, 
and ch. 2 : 27, X. v, &c. W. ;-Latin verss.. Sjt. ;-Engl. Ann. 
('Or, as iliemselves also were'), Beng., Herd., Mey., Lord, 
IVeg!, De W. 

" See IJohn 1: 7, X. x. ic. Pagn., Castal., Bez.. Par., 
Cocc,. Bierm., Vitr,, (ipsii-iov the Vulg. illi). Engl. Ann. (see 
X. g), Wakef., Tr^. (marks they as emphatic), De W. 

' Xothing is supplied by W.. R.;- foreign verss. ;-Daub., 
Wakef, Thom., Penn, Lord, Kenr. 
1 Seech. 4:1, X.b. 
k See v. 3, X. i. 



120 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

opened the sixth seal, and lo, 
there was a great eaithquake; 
and the sun became black as 
sackcloth of haii-, and the moon 
became as blood : 

13 And the stars of heaven 
fell unto the earth, even as a fig- 
tree casteth her untimely figs, 
when she is shaken of a mighty 
wind. 

14 And the heaven departed 
as a scroll when it is rolled to- 
gether ; and everj^ mountain and 
island were moved out of their 
places. 

15 And the kings of the earth, 
and the great men, and the rich 
men, and the chief captains, and 



GREEK TEXT. 

(T^paylha tttjv (KTtjv koi l8ov 
a€ia-fxo9 fxeya? iyevero, kou 6 
■r]\i09 iyeuero fxeXas co? aaKKOs 
Tpl-^LVos, KOU rj aeXrjUT) iyeuero 
coy aifia, 

13 Kol ol acTTepes tov ovpavov 
eirea-au els tjjv yrjv, co? avKrj 
fidXXeL TOVi oXvudovs avTrjs, vtto 
p.eyaXov avefxov a-eiop-evr]- 

14 KOL 6 ovpavos airey^cop 10-07] 
<w? fiifiXiov elXLo-ao/xeuou, kol ttolv 
bpof KOL vrjaos en Tcav tottcov 
avTciv eKLvrj6T}crav 

15 KOL OL jSacnXels ttjs yrjs, 
KOL 01 fxeyLCTTaves, kou ol ttXov- 
(TioL, KOL ol yiXiapyoi, Kat ol 8v- 



REVISED VERSION. 

opened the sixth seal, and, 'be- 
hold, there was a great earth- 
quake, and the sun became black 
as sackcloth of hair, and the '° 
moon became as blood, 

13 And the stars of heaven 
fell unto the earth, " as a fig-tree 
casteth her "untimely figs, Pbeing 
shaken "iby a 'great vdnd ; 

14 And the heaven 'was part- 
ed as a scroll 'rolling up ; and 
every mountain and island were 
moved out of their places ; 

15 And the kings of the earth, 
and the great men, and the "rich, 
'' and the chief captains, and the 



> See ch. 5 : 6, N. r. But all recent editors cancel L&ov, on 
the authority of B. C. ' o 26. /S 8. y 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. 
Tul. Haii* Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav. MS.'— = very strong 
authority,' says Bloomf., who thinks the word ' was probably 
introduced from the parallel passages.' I recommend that it be 
omitted : and there was. 

° The reading, which inserts 6%ti after }j aiXr^vti. is marked 
by Beng. as one ' quae per codices firmior sit lectione textusj 
nee tamen plane certa,' but all subsequent editors have adopted 
it, on the authority of ' A. B. C. a 17. /3 8. y 2. Vulg. Copt. 
Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MS.' I recommend that it be 
followed, and translated : whole moon. 

° W., R. ;-Syr., Dt., It, French verss. ;-Cocc. {ut ;-for sicut 
of others), Daub, and later English verss. (except Allw., Treg.. 
Words.), Beng. and later German verss. (wJe;-for Luth.'s 
gleichwie, and De W.'s sowie). 

" Or, winter-jigs. See the lexicons, in voc. ; also Rob., s. v. 
avxT). The Sept. have the word in Cant. 2 : 13 for disb. 

p Dodd. The participial construction is retained also by It.. 
French verss. ;-Oocc., Bierm., Vitr., Herd., Wakef., AYoodh., 
Mey., Van Ess, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Hengst. 

•! See2Pet. 2:19, N.I. 

 E. v., John 6 : 18, and generally elsewhere ; always in this 
book, except in connection with sepavyjj or ^ukj ;-W., R. ;- 
Daub., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Kenr. 

" Not necessarily d?t' o^eus (Schleus. and Ros. after Grot.). 
Bretsch.'s explanation also, paries discissae et convolutae hie 
describunlur (and so Bloomf. : ' the heaven . . . was parted off, 
or separated in the midst, and the part removed ;', and Rob. : 



' the heavens parted asunder . . . i. e. the heavens were rent 
and the parts rolled away') is needlessly specific, and possibly 
erroneous; the word expressing nothing more than that the 
heavenly expanse was sundered (in old English it might have 
been, with the same meaning, was departed) from — perhaps 
its fastenings, like a tent (comp. Job 9 : 8 ; Ps. 104 : 2 ; Is. 40 : 
22; 42: 5 ; 44: 24). or as when an outstretched scroll is let go. 
— Vulg. {recessit). Syr. {= De D. separati sunt), German 
verss. generally (entwich --All. wich zuriick), Dt. {is weg ge- 
weken), It. {si ritiro), French verss. {se retira) ;-Erasm., Pagn., 
Vat., Castal., Steph., Aret., {as Vulg. ;-which is better than 
Bez. and Par. abscessit, or Cocc. and Bierm. amoiiim est), 
Wakef. {ran up), Thom. {recoiled), Treg. {was separated from 
its place), Murd. {separated). Comp. N. t. 

' The comparison is not. as it has been frequently explained, 
to the disappearance, either of the contents of a scroll that has 
been rolled up, or of the scroll itself, but to the process of 
rolling. Comp. N. s. — Dt. {dat toegerold wcn-dt), Fr. G.,-M., 
-S.. {que Von [^u'ow] roide) ;-Erasm., Vat., {qui circumvolvi- 
tur ;-for the Vulg. involutus), Pagn., Steph., Bez., Par., Cocc., 
Grell, Vitr., {qui convolvitur), Castal. {convolvatur), Berl. Bib. 
{zusammen gerollt wird;-foT Luth.'s eingewickeltes), Beng. 
{das vian zus. wickell), All. {das man zusammenrollt), Treg. 
{when it rolleth itself together), De W. {die zvsammenge- 
wickelt wird;-in 18Z9, zusammengerolltes). 

" Instead of jtJtoiJaiot xai ol ;t'^-, all the recent editors have, 
%a. X. oi TiX. (A. B. C. 'a 22. ;3 7. Compl. Vulg Copt. Aeth. 
SjT. Arm. Arr. Slav. MS.'). I recommend that this order be 
followed: chief captains, and the rich. 



W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Stu., Lord, 



Kenr. 



REVELATION. 



121 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

the mighty men, and every bond- 
man, and every free-man, hid 
themselves in tlie dens and in 
the rocks of the mountains ; 

16 And said to the mountains 
and rocks. Fall on us, and hide 
us from the face of him that 
sitteth on the throne, and from 
the wratli of the Lamb : 

17 For the great day of his 
wrath is come ; and who shall 
be able to stand ? 

CHAP. VII. 

And after these things I saw 
four angels standing on the four 
corners of the earth, holding tlie 
four winds of the earth, that 
the vdud should not blow on the 
earth, nor on the sea, nor on any 
tree. 



GREEK TEXT. 

varoL, K€u iras BovXos kol ttols 
iAevdepo! kKpv^^av eavrovs els ra 
(nrrjX.aia kul els ras Trerpas T(i>v 

6p€(x)V, 

16 Kol Xeyovai Tois opeai koI 
Tois Trerpais, Ueaere €0' rjp.as, 
KUL Kpuyj/are r/p-ds airo TrpocrcoTrov 
Tov KaBrjpeuov eVi tov dpouov, 
KOL avro r?^? opyrjs tov dpvtov 

17 OTL rjXdev ?; r]p.epa tj pie- 
yaXrj Trjs opyrjs avrov, kcCl t'ls 
8vvaTaL o-TaOrjvaL ; 

CHAP. VII. 

KAI p-era ravra elBov reaaa- 
pas dyyeXovs iarcoTas eVt ras 
reacrapas ywvlas rrjs yrjs, Kpa- 
Tovvras rovs recraapas dvip.ovs 
TTjs yrjS, iva p.i] Trverj dvepos eVt 
TTjs yris, p-^T€ eVi Trjs daXaaarjs, 
pLTjre €7ri wdv SevSpuu. 



REVISED VERSION. 

"'mighty, " and every bond man, 
and ^every li-ee man, hid them- 
selves in the 'caves and in the 
rocks of the mountains ; 

16 And Hhey say to the mount- 
ains and Ho '■the rocks : Fall 
''upon us, and hide us from the 
face of him that sitteth on the 
throne, and from the wrath of 
the Lamb : 

17 For "^that great day of his 
wrath is come, and who ''is able 
to stand? 

CHAP. VII. 

"And after 'these things I saw 
four angels standing ^aipon the 
four corners of the earth, holding 
the four winds of the earth, that 
"no wind should blow on the 
earth, nor on the sea, nor ''upon 
''•'any tree. 



" The reading iaxvpoi (A. B. C. 'a 27. /3 7. Compl.') is 
adopted by all the recent editors in the place of bvnatoi but 
requires no change in the version. 

» The authority of A. B. C. 'a 19. /3 7. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. 
Arr. Slav. MS.' is against this second naj, which, however, is 
retained by Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch.. and Bloomf. (though 
he thinks it may be an interpolation). 

y Dodd., Wesl., Woodh., Thoin., Allw.. Penn, Shaipe.. Stu., 
Lord, Treg., Murd. 

'■ The present tense is retained by W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Fr. 
S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret, Cocc, Bierm., Daub., Berl. Bib., Wakef. 
and Xewc. (say), Alhv., Sharpe, Stu.. Treg., De W., Words., 
Hengst., Kenr. Comp. ch. 7 : 10, N. f. Here the past time 
was introduced by Pagn., and adopted by Bez., &c. 

' The sign of the dative is repeated by W. ;-Syr., Dt., It., 
French verss. ;-Daub., Beng., Dodd., AVesl., Moldenh., Herd., 
Woodh., Mey., Allw., Greenf., Penn, Stu., Lord, Hengst., Murd. 

^ The article is repeated by R. ;-Dt., It., French verss. ;- 
Daub., Beng., Dodd.. Wesl., Moldenh., Herd., Woodh., Thorn., 
Mey., Allw., Greenf., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Hengst., Murd., 

Kenr. For upon, see ch. 3 : 3, N. j^ &c. R. ;-Dodd., Wakef., 

Thom. 

' ' Dies irae, dies ilia ; the issue and consummation of all 
preceding days of vengeance ; the day, of which we were so often 
warned.' See 1 John 2: 7, N. o, &c.— Syr. ;-Pagn., Bez., 
Brightm., Par., Grell., Vitr., Wakef. 



^ Sjr., Germ., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Vat., Castal., Cocc, Vitr., Daub., 
Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Moldenh., Herd., Wakef, Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Mey., Allw.', AH.. Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., 
Words., Hengst., Murd. E. V. and others follow the Vulg. 

' The Kai is cancelled by Lachm. and Treg., on the authority 
of ' A. C. Vulg. Copt.;' and toito (A. B. C. 'a 22. ^ G. y 2. 
Compl.') is substituted for -taita by Matth., Sch., Lachm., 

Treg., Words., Tisch. For no wind (= ' not a blast,' Milton, 

Lycidas, 97). see 1 John 1 : 8, N. z. Protestant German verss., 
Dt., It. (non . . vento), Fr. G,,-M.,-S., (aucun venl ne) ;-Daub., 
Wakef., Woodh. {not a wind), Thom., Allw. (a wi7id . . nol), 
Penn, Sharpe, Lord (wind . . neither). Words. 

'' See ch. 6 : IG, N. b, &c. In the last clause, as an indication 
of a change in the construction, Vulg. substitutes in with the 
ace. for the previous super (and by this R. is led into the va- 
riation, icfon . . . on) ; Dt. changes op to ieg-en ; Fr. S., sur to 
centre ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat.. Bez., Par., (as Vulg-.). Cocc, Vitr., 
(change in with the abl. to in with the ace), Beng. (makes 
the same change with iiber). Comp. ch. 13 : 1, N. dd. 

'''' Literally: '•Every tree; — as would at once bo the case, 
but for the angelic restraint.' Comp. ch. 9 : 4; Is. 2 : 13 ; Joel 
1: 12, 19;-namm., Cocc, Greenf., Ziill., Heng.st. ('eig. a/Ze?i 
Baum'). But in English the literal expression might occasion 
ambiguity. There is also another reading, ti, SevSpov (B. C. 
■o 22. p 6. Vulg. Ar. Copt.'), adopted by Wetst, Matth., 
Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch. 

16 



122 



REVELATION. 



KING JAilES VERSION. 

2 Aud I saw another angel 
ascending from the east, having 
the seal of the living God : aud 
he cried with a loud voice to 
the four angels, to whom it was 
given to hui-t the earth and the 
sea, 



3 Saying, Hurt not the earth, 
neither the sea, nor the trees, 
till we have sealed the sei-vants 
of our God in their foreheads. 



4 And I heard the number of 
them which were sealed : and 
there were sealed an hundred and 
forty and four thousand of all 
the tribes of the children of Is- 
rael. 

5 Of the tribe of Juda were 



GREEK TEXT. 



2 KaL elSou aWou ayyeXov 
dvajSai^ra airo dvaToXrjs rjklov, 
k-^ovra acppay^Sa Oeov ^covtos' 
Kol eKpa^e (jjcovrj fxeyccArj rols 
recraapaiv ayyeXois, ol? iSoOr] 
avTOLS dScKT]arat, Tr)v yrju kcll tyjv 
daXacrcrav, 

3 Xeycov, Mr] dSiKrjarjre ttjv 
yrjv, fjir]Te ttjv OaXaaaav, jJirjTe 
Ta Sevdpa, axpi9 ov a(j)payl^cop.eu 

TOVS BovXoVS TOV OeOV rjfJLU)!^ fVt 

Tcoi' percoircov avTcav. 

4 Kal rJKOvaa rov api6p.ov 
Tcov icr(f)payi(rp.eu(oi'' pp.o )(^LXid.- 
5ey i(T(f)payt(rp.€i>oi e'/c iraarji (j)v- 
XtJs v'lcou I(Tpai]X' 

5 e'/c (fjvXrjs 'lovSa, i(B -x^iXtd- 



REVISED VERSION. 

2 And I saw another angel 
'ascend from the ''sunrising, hav- 
ing the seal of the living God : 
and he cried vnth a loud voice 
to the four angels, to whom it 
was given to hurt the earth and 
the sea, 



3 Saying : Hurt not the earth, 
•nor the sea, nor the trees, till 
we 'seal the sen^ants of our God 
^on their foreheads. 



4 And I heard the number of 
•■the sealed : 'a hundred 'and 
forty - four thousand ' sealed, of 
''eveiy tribe of the children of 
Israel ; 

i5 Of the tribe of "Judah, 



' T., C, G. ;-Geim., Dt., It. (che saliva). French verss. (qui 
montait) -j-Gocc. (following this reading, changes ascewtZewiewi 
of the other Latin verss. into qtd ascendebat. But I recommend 
that the reading of all the recent editors, ava^aivovta. (A. B. C. 
' o 27. |3 7. Compl.'), be followed, and translated : ascending. 

^ The periphrasis of the text is preserved by W., T., C, G.. 
R. ;-the Latin and German verss., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Daub., B. and 
L., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., Clarke, Greenf., 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Kell., Murd., Kenr. 

• E. v., V. 1 ;-Dodd., Wesl. (neither . . . neither), Wakef. 
{or . . . or), Newc, Thom., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Treg. Foreign verss. generally render the jxriti of both clauses 
by the same word. 

' The present tense is used by W., R. ;-Vulg., Germ. ;-Erasm., 
Pagn., Vat., Castal., Aret., Cocc, Beng., Herd., Thom., Mey., 
Kenr. But of these several read, as do all the recent editors, 
B^fiaylaoifisv. For the present of our Text Treg. cites no au- 
thority but Erasm. I recommend that o^poyttr. be adopted, 
and translated : have sealed. 

e See ch. 1 : 20, N. d, &c. Syr. (= Greenf. is), German 
verss. (an), Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Daub., Wakef., Woodh., 
AUw., Stu., Treg., Murd., (upon), Wesl., Newc, Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Ell. (at ch. 9 : 4), Lord, Kenr. 

>■ Latin verss., It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Berl. Bib. and later German 
verss. generally, Wakef., Woodh., Greenf., Lord, Treg. 

' Vv. 4-8 are not so much a historical statement of what 
John saw, or even of what took place, as an echo of wliat he 
heard. And this, together with the blessedness and the solem- 
nity of the act, is best brought out by the construction and ar- 



rangement of the original ; which are, accordingly, adopted by 
W., R. (except that it turns the Vulg. signati of v. 4 into a 
finite verb) ;-Vulg., Syr., Germ, (nearly as R.), It. (except 
that it supplies ch'era di after the first clause of v. 4), Fr. G., 
-M., (nearly as Germ.), Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Pagn. (except that 
he supplies erant to obsignata in v. 4 ;-and so Bez., Par., B. 
and L.), Cocc, GrelL, Vitr., Beng., Woodh. (as R.), Greenf. 
(except that he reverses the order in vv. 5-8), May., All., De 
W., (treating the participle throughout as a noun), Treg., 

Hengst. (as Germ.). For the form of the indefinite article 

in V. 4, see 2 Pet. 2: 14, N. f. 

1 It is not necessary, in rendering the numeral sign of the 
Text (which all recent editors, except Matth. and Bloomf., ex- 
change for numeral words) into our most common verbal ex- 
pression, to mark and as supplied. (Treg., indeed, adopts the 
reading of 'C. a 7. Compl.,' which inserts xai after ixatov.). — 
R., Wells, Daub., Wesl., Lord, (omit and in both cases), Dodd., 
Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Sharpe, Treg., Kenr. Comp. 
ch. 4 : 4, N. m and 14 : 1, N. g. 

' The singular is retained by W. (every lineage), R. ;-Vulg., 
Syr., Fr. S.;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, Vitr., Daub., Dodd., Wakef., 
Stu., Lord (tlie whole race), Treg., De W., Words., Murd., 
Kenr. 

1 See V. 4, N. i. In vv. 5-8 ig^fioyiafiivoi is cancelled, in 

every instance except the first and last, by Matth., Lachm., 
Treg., Words., Tisch., on the authority of A. B. C. ' a 22. 6. 
y 3. Compl. Vulg. BIS. Harl.* Copt. Aeth. Syr. Erp. ;' and in 
the two exceptional cases Matth, has ia^fiayiafiiK).!, (B. 'o 12. 
3 4.' and in v. 5 'y 2.'). 

" See ch. 5 : 5, N. o, &c. 



REVELATION. 



123 



KtJfG JAJrES VERSIOX. 

sealed twelve thousand. Of the 
tiibe of Reuben iccre sealed 
twelve thousand. Of the tribe 
of Gad were sealed twelve thou- 
sand. 

6 Of the tribe of Aser u-crc 
sealed twelve thousand. Of the 
tribe of Xephthalim u-cre sealed 
twelve thousand. Of the tribe 
of ilanasses were sealed twelve 
thousand. 

7 Of the tribe of Simeon were 
sealed twelve thousand. Of the 
ti-ibe of Levi were sealed twelve 
thousand. Of the ti-ibe of Is- 
sachar icerc sealed twelve thou- 
sand. 

S Of the tribe of Zabulon irerc 
sealed twelve thousand. Of the 
tribe of Joseph were sealed 
twelve thousand. Of the tribe 
of Benjamin were sealed twelve 
thousand. 

9 After this I beheld, and lo, 
a great multitude, which no man 



GREEK TEXT. 



8(9 €o-(f)payi(rixei^of (k 0i'A?;f 
Pov^i]v, i/3 y(iXLa8es €a-(ppayL- 
cTfievor eK (f)v\rJ9 PaS, ifi ^Lkid- 
Sey eo-ippayKT/xevor 

6 eK (pvXrJ9 Aai]p, i/3 •)(i.Xia- 
Se? la-cppayicrpevoL' (k ^uAJjy 
jS^e(p6a\ei/x, ip ■^(^iXia.Ses i(T(Ppa- 
yiapfi'Of iK (pvX7]s 3Tavaa(rfj, 
lI3 ^iXiaSef ia(l>payiapevoL' 

7 €K (PvXrj9 ^vfiecoi', i(3 )^tXid- 
Se? iacppayia-p-euor €k (pvXijs 
Aevi, ijB ^iAfaSes" io-cfypayia/xe- 
VOL' €K ({)vXi]9 'laa-^ap, //3 y(i- 
XidSes ia({)payi(Tp.evor 

8 €Ac (^uAJ;? Za^ovXav, i0 ^i- 
XiaSef e(r(f)payia-peiJor e'/c (f)vXrj9 
Ia)cn](f), i^ ■)(iXia8es iacppayL- 
(TfJLtvor (K (j)vXrJ9 BevLapuv, 10 
•^iXidBei ia-(ppayio-p.€uoi. 

9 JIjEIA Tavra elSou, koL 
ISov o^Ao? TToAuy, ov dpiOfirjaai ' 



REVISED VERSIOX. 

twelve thousand sealed ; of the 
tribe of Reuben, twelve thousand 
sealed; of the tribe of Gad, 
twelve thousand sealed ; 

"6 Of the tribe of ^Aser, twelve 
thousand sealed ; of the tribe of 
pXephthalim, twelve thousand 
sealed ; of the tribe of "^ilauas- 
ses, twelve thousand sealed ; 

'7 Of the tribe of 'Symeon, 
twelve thousand sealed ; of the 
tribe of Levi, twelve thousand 
sealed ; of the tribe of 'Isachar, 
twelve thousand sealed ; 

-S Of the tribe of "Zabulon, 
twelve thousand sealed ; of the 
tribe of Joseph, twelve thousand 
sealed ; of the tribe of Benjamin, 
twelve thousand sealed. 

9 After "these things, I ^saw, 
and -^behold a great multitude. 



° See V. 4, N. i and v. 5. N. 1. 

" ' It is to be regretted,' remark the Amer. Bible Soc's Com- 
mittee on Versions, in their Report on the )ate Revision, ' that, 
in respect to persons atreatly knoicn in the Old Teslament, 
the translators did not retain their names in the form in which 
they had thus become familiar. Instead of this, thej have often 
introduced the personages of ancient Jevrish history imder 
names modified, and sometimes disguised, by transmission 
through the Greek tongue. . . The principle adopted in such 
cases has been the following : "VThen such names occur singly 
in the narrative, and there would arise no marked difference in 
the pronunciation, the form in the Old Testament has been 
restored,' In the spirit of this rule, and as irx became 'Aa>;p 
by necessity, there being no Greek representative of v. sh. I re- 
commend that here and at Luke 2 : 36 the Hebrew form be 
restored : Asfier. — T,, Daub,, Moldenh,, Gerl., Lord, Hengst., 
(Asser), Guyse, Dodd,, WesL, Campb. (in Luke), Newc. 
Woodh., JIurd. {Ashur) ;-Rob. 

p See N. o. Ne$9a>.£t^ (Gen. 35 : 25) being but one of sev- 
eral Sept, forms {'Si^SaAii Gen, 30 : 8 ; Xf^SoXt Gen, 46 : 24 ; 
Nf^^aXijtt 1 Kings 4: 15) for •'ipiSJ, I recommend that the 0. T, 
name be restored here and Matt. 4: 13, 15: AhphlaJi. — Dodd,, 
Wesl,, Campb, (in Matt,), Newc, Lord, Murd. German verss., 
Guyse, Woodh,, Penn, (Naphthali). 

1 See N. 0. The Sept. uses two forms of the nominative, 
Mavaua^ (Gen. 48: 5) and Mwasa^s (2 Kings 20: 21) for 



nis_5«. Here, though not at Matt, 1 : 10, the Amer, Bible Soc. 
has restored Manasseh- I recommend that it be done in both 
places, — W,, Daub,, {^fallasse). Dodd,, 'Wesl., Campb, (in 
Matt,), "Wakef,. Newc, AVoodh.. Penn, Lord, Murd. 

' See v. 4, N, i and v, 5, X, !, 

• See 2 Pet. 1: 1, N. a, &c. W,, T., C,;-Fr, S,;-Erasm., 
Cooc., Mey. All others, including E, V., apply tlie principle 
cited inv. 6, N. o; which I also recommend to be done: Simeon. 

< See V. 6, N. o. This name is given with one s by 'W.. T., 
C, ;-Erasm,, Bez, (in some edd,), "Whist., AVells, Beng,, Lowm,, 
Wakef., AUw,, Gcrl,:— Germ,, Dt.. Cocc, Moldenh,, Mey,. De 
W„ Hengst,, follow the Chethibh (Issaschar or Isaschai-): — 
all others, including E, V. here and in the 0, T,, take the Kcri, 
which I also recommend : Issachar. 

" See V. 4, N. i and v. 5, N, 1. 

' Both here, and at Matt. 4: 13, 15, the Amer. Bible Soc. 
has restored Zebuhin, in accordance with the principle of v, 6, 
N, o. I recommend that the change be adopted in both places, — 
G., Lowm., Guyse, Wesl., Newc. Lord, Trog.. (Zebulon), Dodd,, 
Campb. (in Matt), De W. and Hengst. {Sebulon). 

" Seech. 4: 1, N. a. 

» Seech. 4: 1, N. b. 

r See eh. 5 : 6, N. r. 



124 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

could nuiiiber, of all nations, 
and kindreds, and people, and 
tongues, stood before the throne, 
and before the Lamb, clothed 
with white robes, and palms in 
their hands ; 

10 And cried with a loud 
voice, sapng, Salvation to our 
God which sitteth upon the 
throne, and unto the Lamb. 

11 And all the angels stood 
round about the throne, and 
about the elders and the four 
beasts, and fell before the throne 
on their faces, and worshipped 
God, 



12 Saying, Araen : Blessing, 
and glory, and wisdom, and 
thanksgiving, and honour, and 



GREEK TEXT. 

avTOV owSeiS" rj^vvaro, Ik TravTos 
eOvovs Kca (pvXav kcu Xacov kou 
yXaaaSyv, eartoTes Ivwiriov tov 

OpOVOV KCU ipCOTTlOP TOV apVLOV, 

TrepilBe^XTj/jLevot aroXaf XevKUf, 

Kol (hoLVLKeS iv TOLS ^epolv OLVTOiV 

10 /cat Kpa^ovTE^ (f)cour) fxe- 
yaXrj, XeyovT^s, H ao)T7]pia t<S 
KaOrjjJievca eVi tov Opovov tov 
Oeoi) Tjp.an', kol tw apviw. 

11 Kou TTavTes OL ayyeXoL 
earrjKeaav kvkXco tov Opovov kol 
tSu TTpecT^VTepatv kol tcou Tecraa- 
pcov ^(oav, Kcd eirecrov evairiov 
TOV Opovov eVt TrpoacoTrov avTwv, 
KCU irpoaeKWiqaav t<3 0€(S, 

12 XeyovTey, A/xrjv rj evXo- 
yia Kcd rj So^a kol rj (ro(f)ia kol 
Tj ev-^apiaTia kcu tj TLp.r] kcu r/ 



REVISED VERSION. 

which no "one "could number, 
of 'every nation, and 'tribes, and 
■'peoples, and tongues, "standing 
before the throne, and before 
the Lamb, "-clothed with white 
robes, and palms in their hands ; 

10 And fcrying with a loud 
voice, saying : ^The salvation 
'■unto him ''who sitteth on the 
throne of our God, and unto the 
Lamb. 

11 And all the angels stood 
'around the throne ' and ' the 
elders and the four ''living crea- 
tures, and 'they fell before the 
throne "'upon their ""face, and 
worsliipped God, 

12 Saying: Amen. "The bless- 
ing, and "the glory, and "the 
wisdom, and "the thanksgiving. 



' See ch. 3 : 7. N. p, etc. 

» For ^Svv., Beng., Matth.. Lachtn., Treg., Words., Tisch., 
read i&vv. (A. B. C. 'a 10. p 4. Compl.'). 

^ The variation in the number oViOvovs and ^vxHn. in which 
Ben,?, and Ilongst. find something worthy of note, is observed 
also by Syr., Dt, Fr. S. ;-IIamm., Cocc, Vitr., Thom., Stu., 
Lord, Treg. Others, as B. and L., Dodd., Wakef., Words., 
make all the four nouns singular. The rest follow the Vulg. 

= See ch. 1 : 7, N. k. 

■i E. v., ch. 10: 11; 17: 15. Elsewhere, by disregarding the 
nuiflber, B. V. sometimes hides or obscures the meaning. Thus, 
comp. Luke 2: 10 (Ttat-el, t^ ^ap, to all the people = Israel) with 
V. 31 (rtdvtuv tuv %aZ,v, of all the peoples, i. e. on earth, includ- 
ing the two divisions specified in v. 32) ; Acts 4 : 25 {tmoL, peoples), 
27 (jiaots 'icrpa^^,, peoples of Israel = the tribes gathered to- 
gether at the Passover) ; &c. An oversight of kindred influence 
pervades the common English version of the 0. T. — W., R. ;- 
foreign verss. (except B. and L.) ;-Daub., Thom., Allw., Sharpe, 
Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

" See ch. 4: 1, N. c. &c. W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., Dt. ;- 
Erasm., Vat., Cocc, Vitr., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, 
Woodh., Thom., Allw., Greenf., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., 
Hengst., Kenr. Matth. and Words, edit lorura; (B. 'a 14. 

(3 4.'). Bloomf. marks 7t£fii,^sj5XfifihM as ' a reading thought 

to need alteration,' and all the other recent editors do alter it 
to ?f£pt(3£^^»2i""'ovs, on the authority of A. B.C. 'a 21. /3 5.' 
The case would then depend on the lUov. See Win. § 35. 3, 
andch. 14: 14, N. o. 

"■ Castal., Cocc, Dodd. But all the recent editors, except 



Mey., read xpd^ovai,, on the authority of A. B. 0. ' a 27. |3 7. y 4. 
Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Arm. Arr. Slav.' I recommend that this 
reading be followed : ihey cry. See ch. 6 : 16, N. z. 

^ ' That which has been wrought for us.' See ch. 5 : 13, N. e, 
&c. — Dt., It., French verss. ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Wakef. (thi^;- 
and so Thom., Penn), Newc. (our), Wciodh., Allw., Stolz, Ell., 
Lord, De W., Kell., Ilengst. 

'' E. v., in the next clause ; &c. But, instead of this Erasmian 
reading (comp. v. 3, X. f ), the Elzevir text and all the recent 
editors have, t^ @!^ ijjj.uiv i^ xa6r]iA.iv<f irti *. 6. I recommend 
that this be adopted, and translated : unto our God who sitteth 
on the throne. For v:ho, see 2 Pet. 2: 11. N. f. — For ore, see 
ch. 3 : 10, N. d, &c. 

I See ch. 4 : 6, N. z. 

' The xvx-Kcji is not repeated in W., T.. C, G., R. ;-Latin and 
French verss. (except B. and L.), It. ;-Beng., Dodd.. Wesl., 
Herd., Wakef, Thom., Mey., Sharpe, Stu., De W., Kenr. In 
English it is sufficient, with Thom. and Stu., to remove the 
comma after throne. 

^ See ch. 4 : 6, N. a. 

1 W., R. ;-Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Herd., Mey., Penn, 
Stu., Treg., Murd. 

"> For upon, see ch. 6: 16, N. b, &c. For to itfoa. all the 

recent editors give fa rtpodurta (A. B. C. 'a 27. |3 7. y 2. Compl. 
Vulg. Syr. Arm. Arr.'). I recommend that this reading be 
followed: faces.' 

° See V. 10, N. g, &c. To the English authorities, cited in 
the various notes referred to, may here be added Dodd. 



EEVELATION. 



125 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

power, and might, he unto our 
God for ever and ever. Amen. 



13 And one of the elders an- 
swered, sa3ang unto me. What 
are these which are arrayed in 
white robes ? and whence came 
they? 

14 And I said unto him, Sir, 
thou knowest. And he said to 
me. These are tlie}^ which came 
out of great tribulation, and have 
washed their robes, and made 
them white in the blood of the 
Lamb. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Svvafiif KCLL -I] la^vs tc3 Oec3 
rjfjLa)V eis rovs alwvas twv alcofoiv. 
afxrjv. 

13 Kai mreKplOr] ely e'/c tS)v 
irpecr^vTepcou, Xeycov /jloi, Ovtol 
ol ir€pL^€^Xrjix€V0L ras (rroXas 
Ta9 Aeu/cay, rife? elor)., kol iTodev 
TjXdov ; 

14 Koi e\pr]Ka avrco, Kvpie, 
(TV ol8as. Kai eiire /xoi, OvToi 
el(TLV OL ip\op.evoL (k rrjs dXlyjrecos 
Trjs peyaXrjs, kol kirXwav ra? 
aroXa^ avrav, koI iXevKavav crro- 
Aa? avTwv iu rep alparc rod ap- 

VLOV. 



REVISED VERSION. 

and "the honour, and -the power, 
and "the -strength, p unto our 
God lunto the ages of the ages. 
Amen. 

13 And one of the elders an- 
swered, saying unto me : "-These 
"tliat are 'clothed »with "the 
white robes "who are they, and 
whence came they ? 

14 And I said unto him : 'Sir, 
>thou knowest. And he said 
ninto me : These are they "who 
"come out of 'the great tribula- 
tion, and "^they = washed their 
robes aud made "^ their robes white 
in the blood of the Lamb. 



° See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. g. E. V., oh. 5: 12, &c.;-W., R. ;- 
Germ. (Starke), Dt. (sterkte), It. (forza), French verss. 
(force) ;-Ca.sta!. (vires), Pagn., Bez., Par., Cocc, Vitr., (robur), 
Bang., Moldcnh., Herd.. Mej., De W., Ilensst., (as Germ.), 
Doiid., Wesl., Kenr. Grot., Hcngst., and others, note how 
nearly identical the nouns here are with those in the doxology 
of ch. 5 : 12. The only change is the substitution of cixapiatia 
for rtJ-oifoj, and this was done, Hengst. thinks, for the sake of 
independence ('zur Bewahrung der Selbststandigkett'). Or it 
may be, that the effect is here put for the cause, the riches 
of the divine liberality being answered by the thanksgivings of 
the creature. 

p See ch. 1 : 6, N. d, &c. 

1 See ch. 1 : G, N. g, &c. The final a/.tr,v is bracketed by 

Knapp, Treg., and cancelled by Mey., Lachm.. Tisch., Theilc, 
on the authority of ' 0. 28. 36.' 

 The Greek order is preserved by R. ;-Latin and French 
verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Daub., Beng., Dodd., Herd., Woodh., Stolz, 
Goss., Mey., AUw., AH., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Murd. 

• See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. W., R. ;-Brightm. (wAoj-and so 
Dodd., Thom., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr.) Wells, Daub., 
Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Penn, Treg. 

« E. v., V. 9, and 9 times in this book, out of 12;-W., R. ;- 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom. (dad), AUw., 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Blurd., Kenr. 

" E. v., V. 9 ; &c. ;-W. ;-Dodd., Stu., Kenr. See ch. 11 : 3. 
N. k. 

' 'Those that are thus distinguishable.'— R. ;-Syr. (= De D. 
hisce), Dt, ;-Vitr. (illis), Daub., Beng,, Wakef. (those), AUw,, 
Greenf, De W. 

" E. v., Matth. 12 : 48 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Wells 
and later English verss,. except Sharpe and Treg. 

» Excepting Bloomf. and Theile, all the recent editors insert 



(Lachm., in brackets) ftoi after Kvptf, on the authority of B. C. 
 o 26, p 6. y 2. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' 
I recommend that this reading be adopted, and translated : My 
lord. In this address Beng. sees a step to the unlawful worship 
of ch. 19: 10 and 22: 8. But it is not necessary, with Hengst., 
to regard it as equivalent to the divine name, "iJ^ix, in which 
sense the use of it, if so understood, would have been checked 
by the elder. Greenf.'s ijnx is sufficient, and the like discrim- 
ination nppears in the Syr. 

y ' Thou, who askest these questions ; thou, not I.' See ch. 1 : 
8, N. m, &c. 

' E. v., in the first clause; &c. ;-T. ;-Woodh., Allw. 

" See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

>" Syr., Dt., Fr. S.;-Castal., Aret., Coco., B. and L,, Beng., 
Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef. (are coining), Greenf., Ell. (are to 
come), Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Words., Kell., Hengst. E V. 
and others follow the Vulg. 

' See 1 John 2: 7, N. o, &c. Dt., It., French verss. ;-Steph., 
Aret., Vitr,, (ilia), Berl. Bib.. Daub., Beng,, Moldenh., Herd., 
Wakef (that), Woodh,, Scott, Mey., Allw,, Penn, Sharpe, Ell., 
Lord, Treg. (though with a hesitancy, which is not justified by 
the reference to ' iTto/twri and all similar words.' Comp. the 
anarthrous use. Matt. 24: 21; Mark 13: 19; &c.), De W. 
Words, (who also cites TertuUian's 'es ilia pressura magna.') 
Scholef., Kell., Hengst. 

^ See ch. 1: 6, N. y, &c. Dt., Fr. S. ;-Brightm., Beng., 
Wesl., Penn, Ell., Murd. 

= ' Before entering into it.' — The aorist form is observed by 
W., T., C, G. ;-Brightm., Herd., Mey., Sharpe, EU., Lord;-all- 
of them, however, except the last two, turning ipxofiivoi into 
the same tense. E. V. follows R. 

<■ The words, atoXas avtuv (ta; si!, aim. B., according to 
Treg.) are cancelled by all the recent editors, except that 
Bloomf. would merely bracket them. In their place, Beng., 



126 



EEVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

15 Therefore are they before 
the throne of God, and serve him 
day and night in his temple : 
and he that sitteth on the throne 
shall dwell among them. 



16 They shall hunger no more, 
neither thirst any more ; neither 
shall the sun light on them, nor 
any heat. 

17 For the Lamb which is in 
the midst of the throne shall 
feed them, and shall lead them 



GREEK TEXT. 

15 dia TOVTO elcriv evcoTnov 

TOU OpOVOV TOV 0€OU, KOI Att" 

Tpevov(TLv avTm 7]p.epa? kol vvktos 
eu tS vaw avTov' /cat o Ka$7]/j,e- 
vos inl TOV dpovov (TK-qvaxreL eV 
avTOVS. 

IG ov ireLvaaovaiv en, ovSe 
SL-^TjaovcTLU en, ov8e pi] Trecrrj 
eV avTOVS 6 7]Xlos, ovSe irav 
KaupLW 

17 hn TO apvLov to avap.e<TOv 
TOV dpovov TroLp,avel avTOuy, koll 
oBijyrjcrei avTOVs eiri ^coaas; Trrjyas 



REVISED VERSION. 

15 Therefore are they before 
the throne of Clod, and sei-ve 
him day and night in his temple : 
and he that sitteth on the throne 
shall ^tabernacle 'over them. 



16 They shall hunger no more, 
neither thirst anj'^ more ; 'neither 
shall the sun 'fall on them, nor 
any heat ; 

17 For the Lamb ''that is in 
the midst of the throne shall 
'tend them, and shall lead them 



^ Sscjjj'ou (from irxjjr^, which in E. V. is always in this book, 
ch. 13 : 6 ; 15 : 5 ; 21 : 3. rendered labemacle ; and so elsewhere, 
17 times, except Luke 16: 9.) is, 1., to pitch a tent; and, 2., to 
dwell in a tent, or, as in a tent. The Jirst sense is here, and 
nowhere else (except in Fr. S., which uses the phrase, dresser la 
tente, throughout), adopted by It., Fr. S. ;-Engl. Ann. (as one 
meaning), Dodd., Thom., Goss., Sharpe, Stu. But this use is 
unexampled in the Sept. Qaxrji'aaiv iv XoSo/xoi,; in Gen. 13 : 12. 
to which Schlcus., Bretsch., and Rob., appeal, not being equi- 
valent to nnp-n? inx;^. The attoaxr^v^ga; of V. 18 would be 
a better, though an indirect, reference.), and, as is generally 
agreed, elsewhere in the N. T. ; whereas in the second sense 
oi dwelling &c. it is found in Sept. Judg. 8: 11, in the other old 
Greek veiss. (Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion) of Ex. 24: 16 ; 
25: 8; Job 11: 14; 38: 19, and, according to general consent, 
wherever else it occurs in the N. T. (.John 1:14; Rev. 12 : 12 ; 
13 : 6 ; 21 : 3). The Dt. overschaduwm {marg. : ' Of, hywonen, 
Gr. ene hut, of, tabernakel over hen zijn, of, maken.') ; Aret. 
ohumhrabit ; Engl. Ann. (as one meaning) overshadow, Grot. 
erit vice Taberiiacidi, proteget ; Vitr. ■u.mbraculo suo proteget ; 
B. and L. couvrira comme un Pavilion ; Herd., Mey., Hiltte 
sein; Van Ess ist das Zelt; Treg. be a covert (which he con- 
siders the only 'admissible' rendering); are inferences, not 
translations. The word tabernacle is proposed not only as 
being more literal, but also as suggesting the idea of the fulfil- 
ment of the O. T. type ; Ex. 25 : 8, 9 ; 29 : 43, 45 ; 40 : 34 ; &c. 
Comp. 1 Kings 6:13; 8 : 27 ; Ps. 68 : 18 ; Ezek. 37 : 27 ; &c. 
— Wesl. Qiave his tent), Kist. {in seinem Heiligthum wohnen). 
Lord {dwell in a lent, Kell., Ilengst. {zelten), Barn. ('The 
meaning here is, that God would dwell among them as in a 
tent, or would have his abode with them.') ;-Rob. (' In N. T., 
to dwell as in tents, to tabernacle'). 

i" ' For shelter and defense' — the tTtl here answering to the 



Matth., Griesb. (according to Theile), Knapp, Mey., Tisch., 
Theile, Bloomf. (in case at. ait. were rejected), insert nothing, 
on the authority of B. (according to Words.) 'a 19. (3 6. Aeth. 
Arm. Erp. ;' — Griesb. (according to my ed.), Hahn, Sch., 



Heb. h-J after ■;5'j, ■jjs, &c. Comp. Ex. 40: 35, 36, 38; Deut. 
33 : 12;" Is. 4 : 5" 6 ; 25 : 4, 5 ; Ezek. 37, 27 ; &c. ; also 2 Cor. 12 : 
9; 1 Pet. 4: 14.— W. (on) ; R.;-Vulg. {super), Syr. (= fe ■jS'^. 
Here also De D.'s proteget, and Murd.'s protect, are merely 
inferential. The verb is the same as in John 1 : 14, where 
Murd. renders it, tabernacled.), German verss. {ilber), It. {so- 
pra), Fr. S. (sur) ;-Era3m., Vat., Cocc, (as Vidg.), Daub., 
Dodd. {upon), Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Heinr. 
(•pro fiff' avtCiv c. 21, 3. fortius h. 1. dicitur in' aitoii.''), 
Sharpe, Stu., De W. {^ over them, as the sublime object of their 
worship, and as their mighty guardian'), Treg., Kell., Kenr.;- 
Wahl (ire vel super''), Rob. {as Dodd.). 

' For the force of ovhi iiri, see ch. 3: 12, N. j. 

i W., R.;-Vulg. {cadet), Syr., German verss., Dt., It., Fr. S.;- 
Erasm., Vat., Aret., Cocc, Vitr.. {as Vidg.), Pagn., Bez., Par., 
Grell., {incidet), Daub., Dodd., Penn, Stu.. Kell., Murd., Kenr., 
Barn.;-Wahl, Rob. The n?:^ of Ps. 121: 6; Is. 49: 10, has 
here been imitated by Fr. G.,-M., {frappera) ;-Castal. {feriet), 
Wakef., Newc, AVoodh., Allw., Sharpe, Lord, {strike), Greenf. 

>■ E. v., ch. 5: 12;-W.; Brightm., Dodd., Wesl., Thom., 

Stu., Lord., Kenr., {who), Newc, Sharpe, Treg. For amiisaop, 

all the recent editors have dvi /lieov. 

1 See ch. 2: 27, N. r, &c. W. {govern), R. (rM?e) ;-Vulg. 
{reget), German verss. and Dt. (wei'den) ;-Erasm. (with the 
note: 'sive reget more pastor um^) and Vat. (with the note: 
'vel, instar pastoris, diriget'), {as Vidg.), Hamm. {'rule them., 
or be their shepherd''), B. and L. {sera leur Pasteur), Berl. 
Bib. {als ein Hirt weiden), Wakef. {tend them like sheep), 
Newc marg., Treg., {be their shepherd), Woodh. {rule them 
like a shepherd), Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu. {lead ;-translating 
the next verb, guide). Lord {guide). Kenr. {as R.), Barn. 
{e.vercise over them the office of a shepherd). 

Lachm., Treg., Words., insert aitai, on the authority of ' A. 
10. 12. 19. 37. 46. 49. 91. Oompl. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Ar. P. 
Slav. MS.' I recommend that this last reading be adopted : 
them. 



REVELATION. 



127 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

unto living fountains of waters : 
and Grod shall wipe away all 
tears from their eyes. 

CHAP. VIII. 

And when he had opened the 
seventh seal, there was silence 
in heaven about the space of 
half an hour. 

2 And I saw the seven angels 
which stood before God ; and to 
them were given seven trumpets. 



3 And another angel came 
and stood at the altar, having 
a golden censer ; and there was 
given unto him much incense, 
that he should ofler it with the 



GREEK TEXT. 

vSaTcov, /cat e^aXev^ei 6 0eo9 
irav SaKpvou airo rmv 6(f)6aXfx.coi' 
avT(ov. 

CHAP. VIII. 

KAI ore rjuoL^e ttjv ai^payl^a 

ovpava o)? yfxicopLOV. 

2 Kal eiSou tovs eirra dyye- 
Xovf, Oi ivaiTLOv rod Oeov earr]- 
Kaai, Kol i860i]aav avrols kivTo. 
craXTTiyyef. 

3 /cat a'AAoy ayyeXos rjXde, /cat 
io-rddi] eVt TO dvcnaarrjpLou, 
e^cov XijiavoiTov 'xpvaovi'- /cat 
e8odi] avTcS dvp-iafiara iroXXa, 
Iva Saxrrj rals Trpoaev^ais rcav 



REVISED VERSION. 

unto "living fountains of waters, 
and God shall wipe away "every 
tear "from their eyes. 

CHAP. VIII. 

And when he ' opened the 
seventh seal, there was silence 
in heaven '•about half an hour. 

2 And I saw the seven angels 
'who ''stand before God, and 
'there were given funto them 
seven trumpets. 

3 And another angel came, 
and stood at the altar, having 
a golden censer, and there was 
given unto him much incense, 
that he should ^give it ^-to the 



" With the exception of Matth., all the recent editors read 
ifu^;, on the authority of A. B. 'a 25. /3 7. y 2. Corapl. Vulg. 
Aeth. Arm. Erp.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, 
and, with nrjyas vSdt<^p, translated : fuunla'ms of waters of 
life. Comp. ch. 21 : 6 ; 22 : 1, 17. 

" The singular is retained by W. ;-Latin verss.. Syr., It., Fr. 
S. ;-B. and L., Dodd., Herd., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Mcy., 
Allw., Greenf, Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Murd., Kenr. 

For drto, all the recent editors (except Matth.) read ix 

(A. B. 0. ' a 14. ^ 5.'). 

« See ch. 6 : 3, N. i. 

^ This u; is in W., as ; in R., Woodh., Lord, Treg., as it 
were; in Daub., WesL, Penn, Stu., Barn., about; in Bodd., 
Wakef., Thom., Scott, Sharpe, for about. 

' See 2 Pet. 2:11, N. f. 

d E. v., ch. 3 : 20 ; &c. ;-(W., T., C, G., R., follow the Vulg. 
villi . . . stantes) ;-French verss. ;-Pagn., Vat., Bez., Par., Oocc, 
Grell., Vitr., Beng., Moldenh., Newc, Mey, Stu., Treg., De W., 
Words., Hengst. ;-the grammars and lexicons on the use of 
tflT'jjxa and iatrixiiv as an intransitive present and imperfect. 
See Dan. 10 : 13 ; Luke 1 : 19 (Greek and E. V.) ; &c., and 
comp. Tobit 12 : 15. 

' See ch. 6 : 2, N. g. Here the main point is, the giving 
of the trumpets to these angels ; not, the distinction thereby 
conferred on them. Comp. ch. 19 : 8, N. j. 

' E. v., ch. 6 : 8 ; &c. ;-Treg. 

' E. v., in the previous clause ;-W., R. ;-VuIg., Syr., Germ., 
It. ;-Erasm., Vat, Hamm., Cocc, Vitr., Daub., Beng., Moldenh., 
Herd., Mey., Bloomf , Stier., Treg., Hengst., Barn. The E. V. 
variation is after Pagn., Bez., (offerret), T., C, G. 



^ 1., The dative of companionship with avv omitted, here 
assumed by E. V. and many others after Pagn. and Bez., is 
found more readily in the classics (especially in military nar- 
ratives, with such words as aifiat^, vavtsi. &c. ; or when accom- 
panied by avioi in the same case), than in the N. T. An 
instance in connection with a verb of giving has not been 
produced from any quarter. 2., The dative of manner (Stu., 
Rob.) or circumstances (Stu.) cannot here be anything differ- 
ent from the dative of companionship. 3., The dative of ad- 
vantage is applied by Vitr. (■ in gratlam precum sanctorum . . . 
ut orationibus sanctorum bonum conciliaret odorem et fragran- 
tiam'). Wolf., Wakef. (/or ;-and so Thom., Treg.), Ew. (in 
commodum precum), Mey., De W., (filr). Hengst. objects, 
(1.), that, according to ch. 5:8,' the incense is the prayers.' But 
it is not said, that the Svindfiafa of ch. 5 : 8 is the same 
thing as the evfLidfiata rioVKa, here given to the angel, and the 
absence of the article rather implies the contrary ; — (2.), that 
'the juxtaposition of the incense and the prayers is suitable to 
the earth! jr, not the heavenly, sanctuary.' To this the answer 
is, that the description of the latter rests on the arrangements 
of the former ; Luke 1 : 10 ; — (3.), that it is ' unscriptural to re- 
present the pra3'ers of the saints as needing the recommenda- 
tion of angels.' But this assumes, what is very questionable, 
and is not at all required by the construction, that the angel 
does not act representatively, or that he represents angels 
(Hengst. himself understands the angel of ch. 7 : 2 to be 
Christ; and so at ch. 10: 1; 14: 17; 18: 1 ; 20: 1.), and that 
the much incense given to him is the incense of ch. 5 : 8. or 
denotes angelic intercession. — A better objection than any of 
these would be, that, in the present connection, this ex- 
planation is somewhat forced and artificial. 4., Hengst.'s 
own assertion, that, but for the necessities of the vision, tdf 



123 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

prayers of all saints upon the 
golden altar which was before 
the throne. 

4 And the smoke of the 
incense, which came with the 
prayers of the saints, ascend- 
ed up before God out of the 
angel's hand. 

5 And the angel took the 
censer, and filled it with fire of 
the altar, and cast it into the 
earth : and there were voices, 
and thunderings, and lightnings, 
and an earthquake. 

6 And the seven angels which 
had the seven trimipets prepared 
themselves to sound. 



GREEK TEXT. 

ky'uov Travrcav IttI to Ovaiaarr)- 

ptOV TO ■^pVaOVV TO iVCOTTLOU TOV 

dpovov. 

4 Kcu avelSrj 6 kuttuos twv 6v- 
jJLiafiaTCov Tois 'irpoaev)(als tcov 
aylcov, £/c )(^eipo9 tov dyyeXov, 
evcoTTLOv TOV Oeov. 

5 /cat elXy](l)ev 6 ayyeXos to 
Xt.j3avcoTou, Koi iyefitaeu avTo e'/c 
TOV TTVpOS TOV 6vaLa(TTr]pLov, Koi 
i^aXeu els Tijv yrjv kou lyevovTO 
(pcoval Kol ^pouTcu Koi aaTpaTTcd 
KOU ceto'/xo?. 

6 Koi ol eiTTa ayyeXoi ky^ov 
re? Tai eiTTa (raXinyyas, i/TOipa- 
(Ttxv iavTOVs tva craXTrlo-axri. 



REVISED VERSION. 

prayers of all 'the saints upon 
the golden altar which 'is before 
the throne. 

4 And the smoke of the in- 
cense i<for the prayers of the 
saints ascended ' out of the an- 
gel's hand ""before God. 

5 And the angel took the cen- 
ser, and filled it "from "the fire 
of the altar, and cast p unto the 
earth : and there were voices, 
and ''thunders, and lightnings, 
and an earthquake. 



6 And the seven angels 'hav- 
ing the seven trumpets prepared 
themselves, 'that they 
sound. 



might 



' It., French verss. ;-Dodd., WesL, Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thorn., Allw., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf., Ell.,, Stu., Lord, 
Treg., De W., Murd., Kenr. 

i This is not so much information respecting what was now 
seen, as an additional specification of the altar, and rests on 
Lev. 16 : 12, 13 ; &c.— B. V., ch. 9 : 13 ;-W., G., R. ;-Latin and 
French verss., Dt. ;-Brightm,, De D., Beng., WesL, Moldenh. 
(stehet), Thorn., All., Kenr. E. V. follows T., C. 

!■ ' Incense belonging to, designed for ;'-the case here answer- 
ing to p with the latter of two nouns in construction. Hengst. 
refers to Gen. 9 : 5. But neither the preposition there, nor the 
dative here, is intended, as he thinks, to express or imply iden- 
tity. In the present instance Win. and Rob. find a dative of 
advantage. See v. 3, N. h. — No such supplement as that of 
E. v. is found in W., R. ;-foreign ve-rss. (except that It. has 
dati out of V. 3) ;-Daub. and the later English. 

1 R. ;-Brightm., Dodd. and the later English verss. genei-ally, 
either have no iip, or use went in connection with it. 

"■ This is put last by W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Dodd., Wakef.. 
Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg. 

" It is true that verbs of filling are sometimes followed by ix 
and the genitive of the thing with which = -,3 x^a. But that 
is not the common construction in either language, and is not 
elsewhere employed by John after yf/tifw (ch. 15 : 8 ; John 
2 : 7 ; 6 : 13) or y£>o,.-W., R., (of) ;-Vulg. (de), Syr. (= •)» ;- 



De D. ex) ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret., Zeg.. Cocc, {as Vidg.), Bez., 
Vitr., (e.r), Brightm. (out of), Engl. Ann. (' Gr. of. Or, out 
ff), Haniui., Daub., Woodh., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Treg. 

" W., R. ;-Dt., It., French verss. ;-Brightm., Engl. Ann., 
Hamni., Daub., Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., JVIoldenh., Herd., 
Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Allw., All., Kist, Penn, Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Kenr. 

P The grammatical ambiguity is not relieved by it, and Stu., 
accordingly, supplies tlie fire. But no supplement is needed, 
and none appears in W. ;-Latin veiss., Syr. ;-Woodh., Lord, 

Kenr. See ch. 14 : 19, N. j. For unto, see E. V., ch. 1:11; 

6 : 13 ; 12 : 13 ; &c. ;-R. (on) ;-German verss. (ai(/;-except 
Kist., zu . . . hin), Dt. (op), French verss. (s!(r);-Castal. (ad), 
Ilamm., Wells, Daub., Dodd.. Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Thom., 
Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Ell., Murd., Kenr., (on or upon), Woodh., 
Penn, Lord, (to), Greenf. (is). See ch. 18 : 13, N. i. 

1 See ch. 4 : 5, N. t. 

 Cocc, Allw. But, instead of the Erasmian reading of our 
text, all the recent editors have ol tx°>'*ii- ^ recommend that 
this reading be followed, and translated : who had. For who, 
see 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

 See ch. 6 : 2, N. h and 9 : 15, N. 1. The form of the original 
is here preserved by W. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-Beng., Dodd., 
Allw., Stu., Lord. 



Tifioatvzds might have stood for tcu; jtfioasvxius, is altogether 
arbitrary. 5., By far the most obvious and natural translation 
is that of E. V. inarg. (to) ;-Germ. (zu), Dt. (marg. '■den ge- 
beden.' The text has met, but as a supplement.), It. ;-Cocc., 



Hamm., Daub., Bloomf., Words., Moldenh. (as Germ.), Allw. 
(as the literal rendering). Herd., Stolz, (den Gebeten ;-and so 
Hengst. in his version), Penn (that he should incense the 
prayers). 



REVELATION. 



129 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

7 The first angel sounded, 
and there followed hail and fire 
mingled with blood, and they 
were cast upon the earth : and 
the third part of trees was burnt 
up, and all green grass was 
burnt up. 

S And the second angel sound- 
ed, and as it were a great mount- 
ain burning with fire was cast 
into the sea : and the third part 
of the sea became blood ; 

9 And the third part of the 
creatures which were in the sea, 
and had life, died ; and the third 
part of the ships were destroyed. 

10 And the third angel sound- 
ed, and there fell a great star 
from heaven, burning as it were 
a lamp, and it fell upon the third 
jjart of the rivers, and upon the 
tountains of waters ; 

11 And the name of the star 
is called Wormwood : and the 



GREEK TEXT. 

7 Kai o irpoiTOs ayyeXos ecraX- 
TTicre, Koi eyev^ro ^dXa^a koll irvp 
fie/xiy/xeva al/j-ari, kol i^X-t-jO-r] els 
TTju yrjv KOL TO TpiTOu Ttav 8ev- 
Bpcov KareKarj, Koi iras -)(opTOs 
•)(Xcopos KareKur}. 

8 Kai 6 Sevrepos ayyeXos 
ia-aX-JTiae, kol w? opos p.eya rrvpl 
Katopevov ifiXrjOrj eh rrju OaXacr- 
crav KOL eyevero to rpiTOv rrjs 
OaXaararjS alp.a. 

Koi airedave to TpiTov tS)v 
KTLapaTCov tu)v ev Trj OaXacrcrrj, 
to. e-)(0VTa "^v^as, kolL to Tpirov \ 
TViv ■kXq'lwv 8ie(f)0ap7]. 

10 Kai 6 TpLTOs ayyeXos 
icraXTTiae, kol eireaev e'/c tov ov- 
pavov dcTTrjp peyas Kaiopevos d)s 
Xapiras, kol eiveaev eirl to TpiTOu 
TCOU TTOTapcou, Kol eiTL Tas TTTjyas 
Twv vhaTOiv, 

11 Kcu TO bvopa TOV daTepos 
XeyeTai ' Ayf/ivdos' kol yipeTai to 



REVISED VERSION. 

7 'And the first "angel sound- 
ed, and there 'was hail, »" and 
fire, " mingled >^with blood, and 
''they were cast ^unto the earth : 
' and the third 2>art of "the trees 
was burnt up, and all green grass 
was burnt up. 

8 And the second angel sound- 
ed, and as it were a great mount- 
ain burning with fire was cast 
into the sea : and the third part 
of the sea became blood ; 

9 And the third part of the 
creatures which were in the sea, 
and had life, died ; and the third 
part of the ships "was destroyed. 

10 And the third angel sound- 
ed, and there fell 'from heaven 
a great star, burning as '^ a lamp, 
and it fell upon the third part of 
the rivers, and upon the fountains 
of 'the waters : 



11 And the name of the star 
is called 'Wormwood : and the 



' I find ijo otliei- Text that omits the copaia. E. V. follows 
T., C. 

" All the recent editors cancel (except that Kcapp merely 
brackets) this ayye^oi. on tlie authority of A. B. 'a 27. /3 5. 
Compl. Vulg. MS. Harl* Tol. Syr. Ar. P.' I recommend 
that, in accordance with this reading, the word angel be 
omitted. 

' E. v., vv. 1, 5 ; &c. ;-Fr. S. ((7 y eul) ;-Hamm., Daub., B. 
and L. {as Fr. S.), Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh. (were --und 
so AUw., Lord, Treg.), Thorn., Penn. Stu., JIurd., Kenr. For- 
eign verss. retain the singular. 

" This punctuation, which is that of It.;- Vat., Bierm., 
Moldenh., JIurd., serves on the one hand to justify the pre- 
ceding was as singular by position, and, on the other, to indi- 
cate the reference of the participle to both nouns. 

» All the recent editors insert h before ai>. The number 

of i^-Krfiri answers to the subject in the neuter plural form sug- 
gested by /isixi^fiem. Or : ' It, the horrid mixture, was cast.' 

y See V. 5, N. p, &c. 

• Here all the recent editors insert the words, xal to ipitov 
tV 7>75 xa.tixa.7i (A. B. 'a 26. ;3 7. y 5. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. 
Syr. Arm. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.'). I recommend that this read- 



ing be adopted, and translated : and the third part of the earth 
was burnt up , . 

* In the apocalyptic earth. See v. 10. N. e. — Foreign verss. ;- 
Brightm., Hamm., Daub, and the later English verss. 

" E. v., V. 7, &c. The singular is used also in Vulg., Dt., 
It., French verss. ;-Erasm., Vat., Casta!., Cocc, Bierm.. Vitr., 
Daub., Beng., Herd., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Greenf., 
Stolz, Kist., Goss., All., Van Ess, Gerl., Ell., De W. The other 
reading, St.ef0dp7jaa.v ('A. a 5. (5 2. Compl.'), is approved b}' 
Mill, and edited by Beng., Knajip, Mey., Hahn, Lachra., Treg., 
Tisch., Theile. But E. V. probably followed T., C, G. 

' The Greek ordiT is retained by Latin verss., It., Fr. G., 
-M.,-S. ;-Daub., Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Woodh., Thom., Mey., 
Allw., Stu., Treg., De W., Words., Murd. 

1 Seech. 4: 1, N. d, &c. 

« See v. 7, N. a. Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-B. and L. 7narg., 
Thom., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Words. The article is 
omitted by Erasm., Mill, Treg. 

f Before "A^,. the article i (A. B. 'a 23. (3 4. y 3. Compl.') is 
inserted by all the recent editors, except Bloomf., though he 

also thinks it ' probably genuine.' The Elzevir Text and all 

the recent editors insert tCiv vBdtuv after to tfltov. I recom- 
mend that the reading be followed : of the waters. 

17 



130 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

third part of the waters became 
wormwood ; and many men died 
of the waters, because they were 
made bitter. 

12 And the fourth angel sound- 
ed, and the third part of the sun 
was smitten, and the third part 
of the moon, and the third part 
of the stars ; so as the third 
part of them was darkened, and 
the day shone not for a third 
part of it, and the night like- 
wise. 

13 And I beheld, and heard an 
angel flying through the midst 
of heaven, saying with a loud 
voice. Wo, wo, wo, to the inhab- 
iters of the earth, by reason of 
the other voices of the trumpet 
of the three angels, which are 
yet to sound ! 



GREEK TEXT. 



rpiTov els a\\nvdov, koll ttoXXoL 
avOpanrav aireOavov eK tS)v v8a- 
Tcov, oTt eTTLKpavdrjaav. 

12 Kca 6 TerapTOs ayyeXos 
eaaXTTiac, Koi iTrXrjyr] to Tpirou 
Tov rjXiov Kol TO rpiTov Trjs ere- 
Xrjvrjs Kca to TpiTOv Totv aaTepav, 

Iva (TKOTLO-dfj TO TpLTOV aVTCOV, 

KOL 7] rj/xepa fxrj (f)aivr) to Tphov 
avTTjS, Koi 7] vv^ opolcos. 

id A.aL eLoov, Kat ijKOvaa evos 
dyyeXov TreTCopevov iu pecrovpa- 
vrjpaTL, XeyovTOs (j)coufj peyaXy, 
Oval) ovai, oval tois KaToiKOvaiu 
inl Tr]9 yrJ9, Ik Tcav Xoittcov (pco- 
vwv TYjs aaXinyyos tcuv TpLUiv 
ayyiXav tcov peXXovTCov aaX- 
TTL^eiv. 



REVISED VERSION. 

third part' ^becomes wormwood, 
and many '' men died of the 
waters, because they were made 
bitter. 

12 And the fourth angel sound- 
ed, and the third part of the sun 
was smitten, and the third part 
of the moon, and the third part 
of the stars, 'that the third part 
of them 'might be darkened, and 
the day 'should not shine for 
'the third part of it, and the 
night likevdse. 

13 And I ""saw, and 'I heard 
an "'angel "flying °in "mid-heav- 
en, saying with a loud voice : 
pWoe, Pwoe, Pwoe, to "those who 
dwell on the earth, '^from the 
■remaining voices of the trumpet 
of the three angels <who "are 
about to sound. 



^ The present tense is employed by Fr. S. ;-Vat., Newc. 
•marg-., Woodh., Allw., Stu. The other reading-, iyhito (A. B- 
' a 26. )3 6. y 2. Compl.'), is edited by Bang., Matth., Lachm., 
Treg., Words, (though probably through oversight, as he has 
the present in his note, and in his version.), Tisch. 

i" All the recent editors insert tuv before a.v6p., on the au- 
thority of A. B. ' a 19. /3 6. Compl.' I recommend that this 
reading be followed, and translated : of the. See v. 7, N. a, &c. 
It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Beng., Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Penn, Lord, 
DeW. 

' The proper telle force of the if a is presented by Dt. (opdat 
. . . zou . . . zou), Fr. S. {ajin que) ;-Daub. (that . . . might . . . 
might), Woodh. (so that . . . should . . . might), Allw., Words., 
(so that . . . should . . . shoidd), Penn (that . . . might . . . shone), 
Stu., Treg., (in order that . . . might . . . might). Lord (that . . . 
shoidd ... shoidd), De W. ('damit [Zweck des Schlagens; 
nicht so doss, Vitr.] es verjiiistert wuide . . . der Tag nicht 
scheinef). The reading ^avy {fdvrj) is edited by Matth., 
Bloomf, Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch., on the authority of 
A. B. ' a 20. |3 4. y 4.' 

1 E. v., 4 times in this verse; &c.;-W., T., C, G., R. ;- 
Germ., Dt, It., French verss. ;-Hamm., Daub., Wesl., Moldenh., 
Herd., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn.. Kist., Mey., Allw., Lord, Treg., 
De W., Hengst., Murd., Kenr. 

K See ch. 4 : 1, N. b. 

I E. v., ch. 5 : 11 ;-Dt. ;-Daub., Woodh., Allw., Stu., Lord. 

■» For dyyf'^ov, all the recent editors have dfroi (of which 
Mill also approved), on the authority of 'A. B. a 23. J3 3. Compl. 
Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. ed. in m.' I recommend that this 



reading be adopted, and translated : eagle, and that the follow- 
ing note appear in the margin : ' Or, as a few copies read, 
angel.' See ch. 4: 7, N. d. 

" E. v., ch. 14, 6;-Dt., It.;-Engl. Ann., Cocc, Bcrl. Bib., 
Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Allw., 
Greenf., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words. 

° Berl. Bib. {Mittel-Himmel), Wakef., Stu., (mid-air), Newc, 
Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Bloomf. and Treg. (the m.), Ell., Lord, 
Words. ;-L. and S., Green, (mid heaven, mid-air). 

p See Jude 11, N. a. 

1 Elsewhere in this book (10 times) the participle xar'otx. 
with its article, and in connection with ijtl or iv, is in E. V. 
rendered : them (they) that (which) dwell. ;-W. (men that 
dwell) ;-Dodd., Allw., (those that d.), Woodh., Stu., Lord 
(those dwelling), Treg., Kem\ 

 Syr. (= Greenf. •ja ;-De D. a), Dt. (raw) ;-Erasm., Vat., 
(e;-for the Vulg. de), Pagn. and later Latin verss. (a), Engl. 
Ann. ('Or, from'), Hamm., Woodh., Penn, Lord, De W. ('eig. 
her von'). 

' Comp. E. v., ch. 3 : 2 ;-Dt. (overige) ;-Pagn., Castal. and 
later Latin verss., (reliqtiis -j-foT the Vulg. ceteris), Ilamm., 
Treg., Kenr., (rest), Beng., Moldenh., Herd., Mej., AH., Stier, 
De W., (iibri gen --for Luth.'s andem), Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., 
Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord, Words. 

' See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

° For are about, see ch. 3 : 16, N. p and 10 : 7, N. 
Vulg. (uses the fut. participle), Syr. (= Greenf. Qilins.'), 
(fonZ) ;-Erasm., Vat., (as Vulg.), Hamm. (ready), Newc, 
Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Treg. 



. y, &c 
Fr. S. 



REVELATION. 



131 



KING JAMES VERSION. 
CHAP. IX. 

And the fifth angel sounded, 
and I saw a star fall from heaven 
unto the earth : and to him was 
given the key of the bottomless 
pit. 

2 And he opened the bottom- 
less pit ; and there arose a smoke 
out of the pit, as the smoke of a 
great furnace ; and the sun and 
tlie air were darkened by reason 
of the smoke of the pit. 

3 And there came out of the 
smoke locusts upon the earth : 
and unto them was given power, 
as the scorpions of the earth have 
power. 

4 And it was commanded them 
that they should not hurt the 
grass of the earth, neither any 
green thing, neither any tree ; 
but only those men which have 



GREEK TEXT. 
CHAP. IX. 

KAI oTrefXTTTOs ayyeXos ecraA- 
TTtcre, Kcu ei8ov darepa e'/c rod 
ovpavov TreTTTCOKora els rrjv yrjv, 
Kot iSodrj avT<a rj KXeis tov (ppea- 
Tos TTjS a^va-crov, 

2 Ktti rji/OL^e TO (ppeap rrjs 
djSvtraov. kcu dvefi^-j Kairvos e'/c 
TOV (Ppearos cos Kmrvos Kapnuov 
IJ.eydXi]9, Koi iaKOTicrO-q 6 rjXiof 
Koi 6 drjp e'/c tov Kairvov tov 
(f)peaTOs. 

3 Kal eK tov Kairvov i^jjXdou 
oLKpiSes €19 TTjv yrjv, K(U iSodt] 
avToIs i^ovala, m? e^ovaiv i^ov- 
crlav 01 (TKopiTLOL TTjs yrjS' 

4 Kou eppedrj avTols lua pn] 
d8cKr]<TCoai tov ■)(opTOV ttjs y'rjS, 
ovSe Trdu ^copop, ov8e irdv 8ev- 
Spou, el p,r] Tovs dvOpayirovs /xo- 
vovs o'lTLues ovK e^ovai tt]U a<j)pa- 



REVISED VERSION. 
CHAP. IX. 

And the fifth angel sounded, 
and I saw a star "fallen from 
heaven unto the earth : and 
■■there was given '^unto him the 
key of the ^ pit of the i-abyss. 

2 And he opened the ' pit of 
the ^abyss : and there ""ascended 
' smoke out of the pit, as the 
smoke of a great furnace, and 
the sun 'was darkened, and the 
air, ''by the smoke of the pit. 

3 And 1 out of the smoke there 
came "forth locusts '-unto the 
earth, and "there was given unto 
them power, as the scorpions of 
the earth have power. 

4 And it was °said unto them, 
that they should not hurt the 
grass of the earth, pnor "any 
green thing, pnor "any tree, but 
■■the men ^only 'who have not 



» Not : while ' falling' (Wesl.). The force of rtiTttux. is more 
or less clearly expressed, sometimes by means of a finite plu- 
perfect, in W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Greenf., All.) ;-Engl. 
Ann., Hamm., Daub.. Lowm., Guyse, Dodd., Newt., Wakef., 
Thom., Scott, Allw., Bloomf., Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., 
Kell. E. V. follows T., C, G. 

I' See ch. 8 : 2, N. e, &c. 

' See ch. 8, 2, N. f. 

'' The Greek order and construction are preserved by W., 
R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Hamm., Daub., Newc, Woodh., Thom., 
Scott, AUw., Ell., Lord, Treg., Kell., Murd. 

' Latin verss. (a6j/ssi ;-except Castal., iartari), It. (abisso), 
French verss. (abime) ;-Hamm., Newc. marg., Campb. and 
Alf. (at Luke 8: 31; Rom. 10:7), Scott, Allw., Ell., Lord, 
Treg., Kell., :Murd. ;-Rob. (explains a.^. to mean : ' the abyss, 
the place of the dead. . . Spec. Tartarus^). I recommend that 
the word be everywhere rendered as above. 

' See V. 1, N. d. 

^ See V. 1, N. e. 

" E. v., ch. 8: 4; 14: 11; &c.;-R.;-Dodd., Wesl., Thom., 
Lord. See ch. 13 : 1, N. d. 

' Dt. ;-Herd., Woodh., Mey., All., Lord, De W. 

1 The verb is retained in the singular, and in immediate con- 
nection with 'ij'K., by W., R. ;-AVakef., AYoodh., Allw., Stu., 
Lord, Kenr. Foreign verss. (except the French, Herd., All.) 
have a singular verb. 



^ W. (of), R. (with) ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh. 
Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg. (from), Murd., Kenr. 
(as R.). 

1 The (X Tiov xaTivov retains its place in R. ;-foreign verss. 
(except B. and L.) ;-Brightm., Dodd. and later English verss. 
(except Words.). 

■" See ch. 6:4, N. ra. R.;-Wesl., Woodh., Thom., Allw., 

Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Keni-. {out ; the other ix, from). 

For wito, see ch. 8 : 5, N. p, &c. 

" See ch. 8 : 2, N. e, &c. 

° Syr., Protestant German verss. (others, with the old Eng- 
lish verss., &c., following the Vulg. praeceptum est), Dt., It., 
Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Bez., Aret., Par., Hamm., Cocc, Grell., Bierm., 
Wells, Vitr., Daub., Beng., Dodd., Greenf., Stu., Lord, Treg. 

P R. ;-Brightm., Dodd., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., 
Allw.. Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

1 See ch. 7:1. N. bb; and comp. Ex. 10: 5, 12, 15; Deut. 
28: 42. 

 The demonstrative is not used in W., R. ;-any foreign ver- 
sion, except Cocc. and Vitr. ;-Brightm., Dodd., Wesl., Woodh., 
Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Murd. E. V. 
follows T., C, G. 

' All the recent editors cancel fidj-ovs, on the authority of 
A. B. ' a 24 (3 6. Er. Copt. Syr. Arr.' I recommend that this 
reading be followed, and that otdy be omitted after men. 

' See2Pet. 2:11, N. f. 



132 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

not the seal of God in their 
foreheads. 

5 And to them it was given 
that they should not kill them, 
but that they should be tor- 
mented five months: and their 
torment ivas as the torment of 
a scorpion, when he striketh a 
man. 

6 And in those days shall men 
seek death, and shall not find it ; 
and shall desire to die, and death 
shall flee from them. 



7 And the shapes of the locusts 
were like unto horses prepared 
unto battle ; and on their heads 
were as it were crowns like gold, 
and their faces u-ere as the faces 
of men. 

8 And they had hair as the 
hair of women, and their teeth 
were as the teeth of lions. 

9 And they had breast-plates, 
as it were breast-plates of iron ; 



GREEK TEXT. 

ylSa rod Oeov eVt Ta>v fieTQyjrcov 
avTcoi'. 

5 Kol iSodr] avTcus iva firj 
aTTOKreivwaLv avrovf, aXX 'iva 
^acravLaOuxTL fxrjvas Trevre* /cat 
o I3acravicrfji09 avTwv ws ^aaavia- 
fxos aKopiTLOV, orav Tralarj av- 
Opom-ov. 

G KOil kv Tois rjfxepais eKeii^ais 
(^rjTrjaovaLV o'i apOpcoTTOi rov 6a- 
vaTOv, Kol Oi^x evprjaovcrii' avrov 
KOL iiVLOvpirjaovaLV ajroOaveiv, Kai 
(^ev^eTai 6 davaros air avToav. 

7 Kai Ta ofxouo^iaTa twv OLKpi- 
8cou ofxoia tTTTTot? r]Toipa.apevo>s 
el? TToXepov, koI eVt ras KecpaXa^ 
avTCou coy are^avoi ofioioi )(pv(rcp, 
KOL Ta TrpoacoTra avTcov as Tvpoa- 
oiira auOpcoTTCov' 

8 Kai ei)(ov rpl^as i>s rpt^as 
yvvaLKOiv kcu ol oSovres avrcov 
QiS XeovTcov r\(Tav 

9 Koi i.h)(Ov OcopaKas coy Ocopa- 
Kas (TL^iqpovs' Kai rj (pcovrj tS>v 



REVISED VERSION. 

the seal of God "on their fore- 
heads. 

5 And ' it was given "unto 
them that they should not kill 
them, but that "'they should be 
tormented five months : and their 
torment was as the torment of 
a scorpion, when "it striketh a 
man. 

6 And in those days shall >the 
men seek death, and shall 'not 
find it ; and »they shall 'long to 
die, and death '■shall flee from 
them. 

7 And the "^likenesses of the 
locusts were like ^ horses prepar- 
ed unto battle ; and "iupon their 
heads, ' as it were crowns 'like 
gold ; and their faces, = as the 
faces of men ; 

8 And they had hair as the 
hair of women ; and their teeth 
were as ' of lions ; 

9 And they had breastplates 
^as •'iron breastplates; and the 



" See ch. 7 : 3, N. g, &c. 
• ' See ch. 8 : 2, N. e, &c. 

* See ch. 8: 2, N. f. For poffancrSwdt. Lachm., Treg., 

Words., Tisch., read ^a.rsi3.vi,aQrflovca.i, ('A. 12. 30. 38.'). 

» Dodd., Wakef. and the later English verss. (except Stu., 
Treg.). 

y 'Thus tormented.' Here, and throughout the rest of this 
ch., the article before axd. refers to those specified in v. 4, and 
should therefore be allowed to retain its definite force. — E. V., 
at V. 20;-modern foreign verss., except Greenf ;-Wesl., Woodh., 
Thorn., AUw., Ell., Lord, Murd. (at v. 18) ;-Rob. Comp. ch. 
16 : 8, N. 0. 

' All the recent editors, on the authorit}' of A. B. ' a 26. |3 6. 
Compl.', substitute for avx the emphatic negative oi ^»J ^ hy 

no possible memis. See ch. 3: 12, N. j, &c. For fipijaoDSu', 

Beng., Lachm., Habn, Treg., Words., Tisch., read fiipuow (A. 
and 8 cursive MSS.). 

• W., R. ;-Dt., French verss. ;-Dodd., Jloldonh., Thorn.. All., 
Penn, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

^ 'Set their mind on it, as their only refuge.' — German 
verss., except De W., (begehren), Dt. {hegeeren) ;-Castal., 
Vitr., {cupient ;-for the Vulg. desiderabunt). Cocc. (concupis- 



cent), Thorn, {earnestly desire), Stu., Murd. For ^sv^itai,, 

Lachm., Treg., Tisch., read ^siiyn (A. and 4 cursive MSS.). 

» Jlilton, P. L. i. 673 : ' The likeness of a kingly crown.' 
I recommend that ofiotujua be so rendered at Rom. 1 : 23 ; 5 : 14. 
— E. v., Rom. 6: 5; 8:3; Phil. 2: 7;-W. (KAereess) ;-Dodd. 
(as W.), Penn, Treg. Other verss. have form, forms, figures, 
appearances, thus dropping the etymological relation (pre- 
served in Vulg., Syr., Erasm., Vat.. Bierm.) between the noun 
and the following adjective. 

^ For the omission of unto, see E. V., in the next clause ; 
and ch. 1: 13, N. d. For upon, see ch. 6 : 16, N. b, &c. 

• W., R.;-Vulg., Syr., Germ. ;-Erasm., Vat., Pagn. (wants 
the second copula ;-and so Bez., Par., Lord); Hanim., Wakef., 
(want the first), Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., Beng.. Herd., Woodh., 

Mey., Greenf., Stu., De W., Hengst., Kenr. For 6/toiot j;pDff9, 

Matth. reads 6>. ;^pvffot; Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch., Words., 
simply xfveol (B. ' 25. /3 5. y 3. Oompl. Ar. P. Slav. MS.'). 

f R. ;-Syr., Germ. ;-Erasm. and later Latin verss., Brightm., 
Daub., Beng., Woodh.. Greenf.. Lord, Hengst. Others (Fr. S., 
Penn, Stu., De W., Murd.) supply a demonstrative pronoun; 
while others, as E. V., follow the Vulg. 

^ E. v., in the next clause; and see ch. 4: 1, N. d, &c. 

!■ See ch. 2 : 27, N. s. 



REVELATION. 



133 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and the sound of their wings 
was as the sound of chariots of 
many horses running to battle. 

10 And they had tails like 
unto scorpions, and there were 
stings in their tails : and their 
power ivas to hurt men five 
months. 

11 And they had a king over 
them, which is the angel of the 
bottomless pit, whose name in 
the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, 
but in the Greek tongue hath 
his name Apollyon. 



GREEK TEXT. 

TTTepvycov avrau «? (pcovr] ap/ia- 
Toiv livjrcoi' iToXXiav Tpe')(ovT(ov et? 
TToXeixov. 

10 Kcu e^ovcrtv ovpas ofioias 
(TKopinoLS, Kal icevrpa rjv eV tol? 
ovpais avTcov koI rj i^ovala 
avTcou a^LKYjaaL rovs duOpanrovf 
firivas Trevre. 

11 Kai k-)(ov(TLV i(f) avrcov 
fiaaiXea tov ayyeXou rrjs dfiva- 
(Tov bvopa avTW EfipdiaTL 
'Al3addcov, koL kv ry SJXXrjviKrj 
bvofxa ey(€L AiroXXvatv. 



REVISED VERSION. 

sound of their wings was as the 
sound of chariots of many horses 
running to battle ; 



10 And they 'have tails like J 
scorpions, and •■stings were in 
their tails ; and their power was 
to hurt 'the men five months. 



11 "And they "have "over 
them °a king, ■= the angel of the 
"abyss ; ■'his name 'in Hebrew, <■ 
Abaddon ; "and in the Greek' 
^'he hath ''the name Apollj'on. 



' Syr.. Fr. S. ;-Erasin., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., Daub., Beng;.. 
Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Newc. marg., Woodh., Tliora., Jley., 
Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu.. Sticr, Lord (at v. 11), Treg., De W. 
Words., Ilengst. E. V. and others follow the Vulg. 

1 See ch. 1 : 13, N. d. 

' Of the verss. which follow this reading, the Greek order is 
observed by the Vulg. and its translators, Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., 
Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., Beng. (though he omits ^k, and supplies 
sind), Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., Allw., Stu., Lord. Pagn. 

introduced erantqiie actdei. But, for the reading of our 

Te.xt, xai xcvtpa . . . aSixijaai,, Matth. has xai xevtpa. xai h tali 
oifali avtCiv txovsiv i^ovaiav roi d5. ; Sch., Laclim.. Treg., 
Words., Tisch., Theile, have xai xivtfia- (xii'tpa,) xai iv tali 
ovpali airi^v ij i^ovaia avtuiv (Sch. ■tov) aS. Treg. presents the 
evidence thus : ' xai in place of ^r, and the following xai omitted, 
A. 17. Vulg. MS. Syr. Erp. {xai a 4. (3 2.) xn:- xai h t. oip. oAi. 
i%oveiav f;(;oi"" (tov) B. a 21. /3 5. Compl.' I recommend that 
the margin contain this note: ' Or, as many read, and slings \ 
and in their tails [is] their power &c.' 

1 See V. G, N. y, &c. 

'" The xai, is bracketed by Bloomf, and cancelled by all the 
other recent editors (except Beng.), on the authority of A. B. 
' a 2.3. p 7. y 2. Compl. Copt. Ar. Slav. MS.' I recommend 
that, in accordance with this reading, the word and be omitted. 

For £;^ovffK'. Matth., Mey., Sch., Tisch., read ix°vaai, (B. 

'a 21. 3 3. Compl.' For have, see v. 10, N. i. 

 The Gieek order is found in W., R. ;-Latin and German 
verss., Dt. ;-WesI., Woodh., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

For if' ait., Beng., Matth., Treg., Words., Tisch., read 

irt' ait. (A. B. 'a 16. /3 4. Er. Compl.'). 

° Many (Dt., &c., Fr. S.. Hengst.) translate this as = for a 
king, as king ; and the only objection to this is that, according 
to Prov. 30 : 27, the presence of a king in the case would rather 
be mentioned as another peculiarity, than as .something that 
might be taken for granted. 

p There is no supplement in W.. R. ;^any foreign version ;- 



Wells, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Penn, 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

1 See V. 1, N. e. 

•■ The relative construction, introduced by the Vulg., is 
avoided in Dt., Fr. S. ;-Cocc., Beng., Wesl., Herd., Woodh., 
Mey., Allw., Greenf., Sharpe, Stu., De W. 

• E. v., John 19 : 20. In the same chapter E. V. has twice, 
in the Hebrew ; elsewhere, in the H. tongue ;-W. (by H.). R. ;- 
Latin verss. and Syr. (use an adverb), Germ, (auf ebraisch), 
Dt. (in het H.), It., French verss. ;-Beng., Herd., Mey., Greenf., 
AH., (use an adverb), Wesl. (in the H.), Jloldenh., De W., 
Hengst., {as Germ.), Woodh., Thorn., Pi-nn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Murd. ;-Rob., Green. 

' There is no copula in the Latin verss. (except Casfal. and 
Vitr.), Syr. ;-Greenf., De \^. 

" See'lJohn2: 20. N. o, &c 

' Of the verss., that do not translate h ty 'E?.^. by an ad- 
verb, the following do not supply the omitted noun, though 
several neglect the article : W., G., R. ;-Syr., Germ., It., French 
verss. ;-Cocc., Daub., Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., 
Thom., Mey., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Stier, Lord, Treg., Hengst., 
Murd., Kenr. 

™ The solecistical construction of E. V. is found nowhere 
else, and may have been at first but an error of the press, 
though it is still retained by the Amer. Bible Society. 

" The possessive pronoun is not found in the older English 
or in the foreign verss. (except Greenf.) ;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., 

Newc, Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord. In the 

Vulg. this verse is enlarged by the addition of the words, laline 
habens nomen E.vterminans; to which W. again adds as a 
supplement the English explanation, that is a destroyer. C, 
omitting, of course, the Latin clause, imitates it (that is to say: 
a destroyer) ; as do also, though commonly by way of marked 
supplement, Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Bez., Par., Herd., Newc, 
De W. Instead of thus appending the interpretation, Lord 
substitutes it for the Greek name. I recommend that it be 
given in the margin : ' That is, Destroyer.' 



134 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

- 12 One wo is past ; and be- 
hold, there come two woes more 
hereafter. 



13 



And the sixth angel sound- 



ed, and I heard a voice from the 
four horns of the golden altar 
which is before Gfod, 



14 Sajdng to the sixth ange], 
which had the trumpet, Loose 
the four angels which are bound 
in the great river Euphrates. 



15 And the four angels were 
loosed, which were prepared for 
an hour, and a day, and a month, 
and a year, for to slay the third 
part of men. 



GREEK TEXT. 

12 'H oval T] /j.la dirrjXOev 
ISov ep^ourat ert 8vo oval fiera 
Tavra. 

13 KAI 6 eKTOs ayyeXos 
iaaXiriae, kcu rjKovaa ^covrjv 
jxiav tK TU)V Tecraapcou Keparcou 
Tov Bvcriaa-TripLOv tov )(pvaov tov 
ivwTTLOv tov Oeou, 

14 Aeyova-aiJ rep eKTCo dyyeXco 
Of ei^e TT]V aaXnnyya, A-vaov 
T0V9 Teaa-apaf ayye'Aow tov9 Se- 
Se/xeuovf eVi Tq> TroTa/xco rm fie- 
yaXco jEiXJyparrj. 

15 Kal iXvOrjaav ol riaarapes 
ayyeXoL ol rjTOLpaapevoL els tt]v 
(opav Kal Tjpepau Kal prjva Kal 
evLavTov, tva aTroKTeivcoai to Tpl- 

TOU t5)V dvOpOOTTCOV. 



REVISED VERSION. 

12 >The first ^woe is past: ' 
behold, there 'come "yet two 
woes 'after these things. 

13 And the sixth angel sound- 
ed, and I heard a voice from the 
four horns of the golden altar 
which is before God, 



14 Saying to the sixth angel 
'who had the trumpet : Loose 
the four angels "that 'have been 
bound ^by ^that great river Eu- 
phrates. 

15 And the four angels were 
loosed, '■that 'had been prepared 
for 'the hour, and ' day, and " 
month, and • year, 'that they 
should "kill the third part of 
"the men. 



^ For this Hebraistic use of t J; as an ordinal (corap. ch. 11 : 
14), see E. V., Matt. 28 : 1 ; &c. ;-It., Fr. S. ;-Hamm., Wells, 
Daub., B. and L., Berl. Bib., Moldenh., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., 
Allw., Penu. Stu., Lord, "Words. For woe, see Jude 11, N. a. 

' The conjunction (introduced by the Vulg.) does not appear 
in the Syr., German verss., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Castal., Cocc, 
Wells, Vitr., Daub., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., 
Allw., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., 

Murd. For £p;fo»'fot. is substituted cp;^ffat ('A. a, 16. p 5. 

Oompl. Copt.') by Matlh., Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch. ; not, 
as Bloonif. says, 'by all the recent editors.' 

" E. v.. Matt. 12: 46; &c. ;-W., C, R. ;-foreign verss. (ex- 
cept B. and L.) ;-Daub., Dodd. {yet oiAer), «Wesl., Wakef. {two 
more are yet}, Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord, Murd., 
Kenr. {still). 

^ See ch. 1 : 19, N. c. Words, reads, 6vo oiai- xai ncta 

T'atiT'a 6 ixto; xfK. (B.). 

' See 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. For 05 slx^ all the recent editors 

read ''ix<^v ('A. B. a 27. |3 6. y 3. Compl.'). But, instead of 
construing this as a vocative, Thou that hast (Words.), we 
should class it with the other, and kindred grammatical ano- 
malies of this book, and still translate as above. 

■» See ch. 7 : 13, N. s, &c. 

= Ell., Lord, Treg., Words. Comp. v. 15, N. i. 

"■ Drus. : ' Hie ini valet ^s super, i. e. juxta, secus, prope.' 
E. v., John 5: 2;-Syr. (= Greenf. is), German verss. {an;- 
except Moldenh., hei), Dt. {bij), It. {in su), French verss. {sur), 
Pagn., Castal., Bez., Aret., Par., Cocc, Grell., Vitr., {ad;-ioT 



the Vulg. in), Hamm., More, Daub., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Words., Kell., Murd., 
(at), Dodd., Ell., Lee {upon), Stu. 

^ Gen, 15: 18; Deut. 1:7; Josh. 1: 4. See 1 John 2: 7, 
N. o. E. v., ch. 14: 8 ; 17 : 18, &c. ;-Dt. {de groote rivier den 
Eufraat), Fr. S. {le grand fieuve de P Euph.) •,-'Bez., Par., 
(ilhid), Brightm., B, and L. (as Fr. S.), Words. 

" See ch. 7 : 13, N. s, &c. 

' Comp. V. 14, N. e. Here the participle is translated as a 
pluperfect by Vulg. ;-Erasm., Vat., Castal., Cocc, Grell., Vitr., 
Moldenh., Lord, Treg., Words. 

i ' The precise period set.' — Dt., It. {quell' ora), French 
verss. ;-EngI. Ann. (' Or, at the time appointed by God'), Beng., 
Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef., Crol., Allw., Greenf., Gerl., Sharpe, 
Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Words., Lee, Kell., Hengst., 
Kenr. 

'' The repetition of the article before each noun (French 
verss., Moldenh., Greenf., Gerl., Stier), is grammatically allow- 
able, but in English unnecessary. 

1 See ch. 8 : 6, N. s, &c Cocc, Eichh., Heinr., connect this 
clause with cYiSfljjcrcw; Aret., Wells, Ew., Ell., Stu.. De W., with 
rj'toijjio.aiA.ivoi, which I prefer ; Allw., with wpav. — R. {that they 
might) ;-Dt. (opdat zij . . . zouden) ;-Bez., Par., {ut occidant;- 
for ut occiderent of Vulg., &c.), Dodd., Thom., Allw., Lord, (as 
R.), Stu. {are prepared . . . that they may), Treg. 

" See ch. 2: 13, N. c R.;-Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Treg., 
Kenr. 

» See V. 6, N. y, &c. 



REVELATION. 



135 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

16 And the number of the 
army of the horsemen ivere two 
hundred thousand thousand : and 
I heard the number of them. 

17 And thus I saw the horses 
in the vision, and them tliat sat 
on them, having breast-plates of 
fire, and of jacinth, and brim- 
stone : and the heads of the 
horses were as the heads of 
lions ; and out of their mouths 
issued fire, and smoke, and brim- 
stone. 

18 By these three was the 



GREEK TEXT. 

16 Kol 6 dpi.d/ji09 crrparev^a- 

TCOV TOV LTTITLKOV 8vO /jLVpiaSeS 

fjLvpiaScov Koi rjKOvaa rov dpiO- 
p,ov avTwv. 

17 Kou ovTcos eiSov tov9 tir- 
TTOVS iv TTj opacrec, kou tovs KaOrj- 
/xevovs eV avrcou, ey^ovras Ocopa- 
Ka9 TTVpiVOVS KOU vaKivOivovs Kai 
deicoSeiS' KOU al Ke(j)aXai rau 
'lttttcou CO? Ke(paXa'i XeovTcou, Kol 
iK Tcou aroparcou avTcov eKTTo- 
peverat. irvp kol Kairvos kol Oelov. 

18 VTTO tSjv Tpiu)v TOVTCov dire- 



REVISED VERSION. 

16 And the number of "the 
parmies of the "cavalry 'was two 
'myriads of myriads : 'and I 
heard the number of them. 

17 And thus I saw the horses 
in the vision, and "those "who 
sat on them, having breastplates 
'fiery, and "hyacinthine, and 
"like brimstone : and the heads 
of the horses were as the heads 
M lions, and out of their mouths 

yproceedeth fire, and smoke, and 
brimstone. 

IS 'By these three "were '■kill- 



" Before arpar ., all the recent editors insert tCiv (A. B. ' o 23. 
)3 6. Compl.')- 

p Dt., It., Fr. S.;-Aret., Oocc, Vitr., Daub., Berl. Bib., 
Beng., Wakef., Newc, "Woodh. (troops), Thom., Allw. (forces). 
Greenf., Ell., Stu., Lord, De W. (Schaaren), Treg. E. V. and 
others follow the Vulg. 

1 Dt. (ruilerij), It. (cavalleria), Fr. S. (cavalerie) ;-Daub., 
Penn. (horse), Herd., Mey., De W., (Reiterei), Woodh., Thorn., 
Allw., Lord. 

 W., R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Daub. and the later English. 

• See Jude 14, N. m, &c. Syr. (= Greenf. nias"! tiinni), 
Fr. S. ;-Cocc., More, Daub., Dodd., Newt., Herd., Newc. marg., 
Woodh., Thorn., Clarke, Mey., eIi., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., 
Words., Barn., Murd., Kenr. Comp. Ps. 68 : 17, in the Heb. 

For &V0 fivp; Matth. reads fivp. (B. 'a 25. (3 4. y 2. Corapl. 

Ar. P. Slav. MSS.') ; Lachm., Treg., Tisch., read Si,a-(Sva-) 
l^vprnSs; (' A. 11. 12. 36.'). 

t All the recent editors cancel this xai, on the authority of 
A. B. ' a 25. )3 4 Oomp!.' I recommend that, in accordance 
with this reading, and be omitted. (' / ifie number heard.' 
Milton, P. L., vi. 769.) 

" For Ihose, see ch. 2: 2, N. h, &c. ; — for who, see ch. 1 : 5, 
N. V, &c. 

' IXupiVous is translated by an adjective in W., T., C, G. ;- 
Latin and German verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Brightm., Hamm., Wakef 
and Barn, (red), Ell. (of Jire-colour, Jire-like), Bloomf. (Jlain- 
ing, flashing fire, radiant), Stu., Lord;-Rob. (fiery, flam- 
ing, glittering), Green (shining, glittering). 

■" ' taxivBivma is translated by an adjective in the Latin and 
German verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Brightm. (of purple colour), Hamm., 
Wakef., (blue), Stu. (dark-red). Lord, Barn. ;-the lexicons 
(all of which explain it as an adj. of colour). (Milton, P. L. 
iv. 301 : ' hyacinthin locks'). 



* As the other two epithets, so esuiSst;, compounded of Stiov 
(always in B. V., brimstone) and JSoj, desciibes, not the ma- 
terial of the breastplates (Rob. made of sulphur), but their 
appearance. AVoodli., accordingly, renders, of the colour of 
fire, (f hyacinth, of brimstone. And so Fr. M. : de coideur 
de feu, ^c. — T. (brimstony; — the word used also by Ben 
Jonson, in a passage formed on the above description, and cited 
by Rich., s. v.: 

' his habergions 
Brimstony, blue, and fiery;' — 
habergions being the phrase here for Siipaxaj, of the older 
English verss.) ;-Germ. (schwefelichte), Dt. (sidferverwige) ;- 
Brightm. (cf brimstone colour), Beng., Moldenh., Hengst., 
(as Germ.), Herd., Mey., All., (schwefelfarb), Hamm., Wakef. 
and Stu. (yellow), Van Ess (schwefelfarbige), Stolz, De W., 
(schwefelgelbe). Ell. (sidphur-Uke), Stu. (of a sulphureous 
hue), Treg. (like unto brimstone) ;-L. and S. (brimstone-like). 

y For the verb, see ch. 1 : 16, N. q, and E. V., ch. 11 : 5 ; — 
in which last place the present tense is retained by E. V., as it 
is here by W., Kj^Vulg., Syr., Fr. S. ;-Oocc., Vi^ Beng., 
Wesl., Herd., Newc. marg., Woodh., Thom., Mey., Allsv., Penn, 
Bloomf, De W., Treg., Words., Hengst., Kenr. ^omp. v. 18, 
N. e. 

^ For vHo, all the recent editors read ani (A. Bt,G. 'o27. 

;3 6. y 3. Compl.'). After rptui/ they all insert jtTDjywi' 

(A. B. C. ' a 22. /3 7. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Erp. Arm. 
Slav.'). I recommend that this reading be adopted, and trans- 
lated : plagues. 

' A plural verb is given in connection with the word part, by 
E. v.. Acts 23 : 6 ; 1 Cor. 15:6; and is here retained with the 
same, or a similar, collective noun in the singular, by Syr. ;- 
Cocc, Lowm.. Wesl., Woodh., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord, De W., 
Murd. 

'' For this order, see R. ;-foreign verss. generally ;- Woodh., 
Allw., Stu. 



136 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

tliird part of men killed, by the 
fire, and by the smoke, and by 
the brimstone, which issued out 
of their mouths. 



19 For their power is in their 
mouth, and in their tails : for 
their tails ivere like unto serpents, 
and had heads, and with them 
they do hurt. 

20 And the rest of the men 
which were not killed by these 
plagues j'et repented not of the 
works of their hands, that they 
should not worship devils, and 



GREEK TEXT. 

KTcivdrjaau to rplrou tS>v avOpw 
TTUiv, Ik tov irvpos kol e'/c tov 
Kairvov KOL ck tov deiov, tov 
eKTTopevofJievov e'/c tcov (rTop,aTU>v 
avTwv. 

19 a.1 yap i^ovaiai avTcov ev 
TM aTop-aTi avTwv elcrr al yap 
ovpai avTCOv ofxoiaL 6(j)€a-Li>, e^ou- 
aai K€(j)aXas, /cat eV avTois dSi- 
Kovai. 

20 Kcu OL XoiTTol Ta)v avOpco- 
TTCov ol ovK oareKTavdrjcrav iv tols 
irXi-jyah tuvtul^, ovte /xeTei'orjo-av 
e'/c T(2iu epycov twv )(^eipcoi^ avrcau, 
Iva fxrj TTpoaKVvi^acoaL Ta Sai/xo- 



REVISED VERSION. 

ed the third part of 'the men, 
by the fire, and ''by the smoke, 
and ''by the brimstone, which 
'proceeded out of their mouths. 



19 For 'their 'powers ^are in 
their mouth^ : for their tails ^are 
like '■ sei-pents, and ""have heads, 
and with these ""do they hurt. 



20 And the rest of the men, 
'who were not killed by these 
plagues,' yet repented not '■of 
the works of their hands, 'that 
they 'should not worship ■"the 



&c. 



' See V. 6, N. j. 

^ All the recent editors, except Bloomf., cancel the second 
and third ix, on the authority of A. B. (C. wants the third) 
' a 25. /3 7. Compl.' I recommend that, in accordance with this 
reading, by be omitted in both instances. 

' For the verb, see ch. 1 : 16, N. q, &c. Words., with 

Bloomf.'s approbation, uses the present issueth, as being 'much 
more expressive here and in ver. 17, as shewing the perpetual 
agency and the divine power of Holy Scripture.' But this is to 
subject the version, not to the grammatical construction, but to 
an unusual (and, as I suppose, a strangely erroneous) inter- 
pretation. The ixTtofscvitav of v. 17 is simply the historical 
present, and for that reason, and no other, should be so rendered. 
But the relation of ■tov ixxofuvofiivov to arttxtavSriaav requires, 
that the participle be allowed, what it so often carries in it, the 
simultaneous force of the imperfect. Comp ch. 1 : 16, N. q. 

' Vatij Cocc, Zeg., Vitr., (potestates i-though the last three 
reject this reading), Dodd., Thom., Scott, Allw. But for 
at . i^ovaiai'aitioii, all the recent editors, (except that Bloomf., 
apparently through oversight, retains avtuv,) read ;; . i^ovaia 
tuv irtrtuv, on the authority of • (ioTtuv A.) B. C. o 27. /3 7. 
Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav.' I recommend that 
this reading bo followed, and translated: the power of the 
horses. 

° For (itii,{v), all the recent editors read ian. xai iv tcui 
oifal; avruv (' the MSS. &c. just cited [exc. 2.]'. See N. f.). 
I recommend that this reading be adopted, and that the version 
stand thus : is in their mouth, and in their tails. 

^ The finite present precedes and follows are and have. 
W., K.;-Syr., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Pagn., Bez., Par., Vitr., B. and L., 
Beng., Dodd.. Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Mey., 
Alhv., All., Penn. Sharpe, Stu., Lord, De W., Words., Hengst.. 



Kenr. Many of these, indeed, give a participial rendering of 
i;Kou(jot ; but this in English makes the reference doubtful, un- 
less we at the same time adopt Thom.'s transposition : tlieir 
tails having- heads are like serpents; which, again, might seem 
to limit the resemblance, more strongly than the original does, 

to the fact of the tails being headed. For the omission of 

unto, see ch. 1 : 13, N. d. For do they hurt, see W. {they noien), 

G., R., (they hurt) ;-Brightm., Newc, Penn, Kenr., (as (?.), 
Dodd., Woodh., Lord, (they injure), Wakef., Thom., (they do 
[the] mischief), Allw. (do they inj.), Stu. (they do harm). 

' See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

1 The original edition of E. V. has a comma here ; and so 
have other verss., that yet follow the reading oiiti (for which 
Matth., Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch., Laohm., Treg., Words., 
Tisch., read ov (' C. a 20. /3 4. Compl.'). The omission of the 
comma tends to prolong the relative construction, and to intro- 
duce an anacolouthon at v. 2L Lee, indeed, regards ol xomoi as 
a nominative absolute. But for ova followed by xaL see Mark 
5:3, 4; John 4: 11; 3 John 10. 

k Seeob. 2: 21, N. o. 

1 'Whatever effect these plagues had on them (see v. 6), it 
was not such as to involve a change of practice.' On the other 
hand. Win. and De W., and perhaps Dodd. and Stu. (tliat they 
might not ^c), regard the Iva as telic, not ecbatic; as express- 
ing the design, not the result, of the fi.ita,vodv. 

'" All the recent editors repeat the article before dSa-Ka, on 
the authority of A. B. C. 'a 18. /3 5. Compl. Er.', and in both 
instances it is expressed by Dt., It., French verss. ;-Beng., 
Moldenh., Woodh., Thom., Greenf., All., Gerl., Bloomf., Lord, 
Treg., De W., Words, (their), Hengst. ;— in the first instance, 
by Germ., Herd., Mey., Allw. 



REVELATION. 



137 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

idols of gold, and silver, and 
brass, and stone, and of wood : 
which neither can see, nor hear, 
nor walk : 



21 Neither repented they of 
their murders, nor of their sor- 
ceries, nor of their fornication, 
nor of their thefts. 



CHAP. X. 

And I saw another mighty 
angel come down from heaven, 
clothed with a cloud : and a rain- 
bow was upon his head, and his 
face was as it were the sun, and 
his feet as pillars of fire : 



2 And he had in his hand a 
little book open : and he set his 



GREEK TEXT. 

via, Kol e'lSwXa ra -)(pvaa /cat ra 
apyvpa kol ra ^aA/ca kou ra XiOiva 
KOL TO, ^vXiva, a ovre ^Xeireiv 
Bvvarai, ovre aKoveiu, ovre irepi- 
Trartiv 

21 /cat ov ixerevorjcrav e'/c tcov 
(povcov avrcdv, ovre e'/c tcoi> (^appa- 
KeLcou avTU)v, ovre e'/c Trjs iropveLas 
avTU)v, ovre e'/c riov KXefxparcov 
avTU)v. 

CHAP. X. 

KAI elSou aXkov ayyekov 
layypov KaTa^cLLvovra Ik tov 
ovpavov, irepifiefiXripevov ve(^e- 
Xr]v, KOU ipLS ijrl rrjs K€(pa\rjf, 
/cat TO Trpoacoirov avTOV &>$• 6 
TjXiof, /cat ol TTodes aurov co9 (ttu- 
Aot TTvpos' 

2 /cat €t>(ei' iu tyj ^eipl avrov 
fii/SXaplSLOv avewypievov /cat eOrj- 
/ce TOV TToSa avrov rov Se^iou im 



REVISED VERSION. 

"demons, and "the idols of gold, 
and "of silver, and "of brass, and 
"of stone, and °of wood, which 
pcan neither see, nor hear, nor 
walk; 

21 Neither repented they "of 
their murders, nor ''of their sor- 
ceries, nor lof their fornication, 
nor 'of their thefts. 



CHAP. X. 

And I saw another mighty 
angel "descending from heaven, 
clothed with a cloud, and *'a rain- 
bow ivas i-on his head, and his 
face ims as ■= the sun, and his feet 
as pillars of fire : 



2 And ""he had in his hand 
a little book ""opened : and he 
set his right foot 'ujjon the 



" The plural of 6io,3o^o; is not found in the N.T. in connection 
■with the article, or as synonymous with SaijA-oma. See Mede's 
Apostasy of the Latter Times (Birks' edition, London, 1845) ; 
More's Mystery of Godliness, B. iii. 17, 18, and Synopsis Prophe- 
tica, B. ii. 10, 11 ; Campb.'s Diss. vi. P. 1 ; Ell.'s Horae Apoc, 
vol. 2, Appendix; Kitto's Cyclopaedia, s. v.; also Schleus., 
Bretsch., Wahl, Green (a demon, evil spirit). — Latin verss., 
Syr., It., Fr. M.,-S. ;-Daub.. E. and L., Beng., Dodd., Newt., 
Moldenh. (Geisler), Herd., Campb., Wakef., Xewc, Woodh., 
Thorn., Orol. {'demons or dead men^), Stolz, Mey., AUw., Van 
Ess, Penn {false gods), Sharpe, Bloomf. {spirits, i. e. those of 
departed heroes or benefactors'), Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W. 
{bO.Kn Geister), Hongst.. Murd. 

° The repetition, if not required in order to prevent ambi- 
guity, is the most convenient compensation for the omission of 
the article.— It., French verss. ;-Daub., Newc, Woodh.. Murd. 
(before Silver). Many foreign verss. use adjectives, and be^ 
fore each of them Beng. repeats the article. 

p Daub, and the later English verss., except Words. 

Matth., Lachm., Words., Tisch., read hivarcai, (Words.: 'A. C. 
JiJra'fai. ex corr. B. sed ut videtur a p. m.' For the plural, 
which Bloomf. is -disposed to receive,' Treg. cites also 'a ".'). 

1 Seech. 2: 21. N. o. 

' For the verb, see ch. 3 : 12, N. kk ;-R. ;-Dodd., Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Murd. For the participial form, see E. V., ch. 7 : 2 ; 



21: 10; Ac. ;-W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Daub. and the 
later English verss. (except Penn, Kenr.), Greinf. See v. 5, 
N. r. 

i" Before Jpt; all the recent editors insert ij ('A. B. C. o 22. 
(3 4. y 2. Comp!.'). I recommend that the leadin;; be adopted: 
the rainbow — whether defined as the natural object, or as that 
previously mentioned, ch. 4: 3. W., T., C, G. ;-It.. Fr. G., 
-M.;-Beng., Ilrd., Stolz, Mey., AIL, Sharpe, Bloomf., Ell., Lord, 

Treg., De W., Words., Lee, Hengst. For on, see ch. 5: 7, 

N. a, &c. For r^; xi^., Lachm., Treg., Words.. Tisch., read 
triv xi^. (' A. C. 8. 9. 12.') ; and, excejiting Bloomf., all the re- 
cent editors add aitoi (' A. B. C. a 27. /3 G. y 2. Compl. Tulg. 
Copt. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav.'). 

' E. v., in the next clause; and see ch. 4: 1, N. d, &c. 

'^ For 4x1"^ ^'1 the recent editors (except Beng.) read ixuv 

('A. B. C. a 16. /3 5.'). For opened, see ch. 4: 1, N. c. W., 

R. ;-Germ., Dt. {dat geopend uy/s) ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., 
Herd., AVoodh., Scott {having been op.), Allvv., Kist., Ell., 
Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Words, {that had been op.), Lee, 
Kell., Hengst. 

' For iipon {ini governing the r.ccusative), see ch. 6: 16, 
N. b, &c. ; and here E. V. in the first instance. But, for triv 
dd7.aaaav . . . Trji> yr^v. all the recent editors read 7^5 SaT-daar^i . . . 
rrj{ yr;s ('A. B. C. a 28. j3 7. y 4. Compl.'). I recommend that 
this reading be adopted, and that in each instance irtC be trans- 
lated : on. See ch. 3 : 10, N. d, &c. 

18 



138 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

right foot upon the sea, and his 
left foot on the earth, 

3 And cried with a loud voice, 
as when a lion roareth : and when 
he had cried, seven thunders ut- 
tered their voices. 

4 And when the seven thun- 
ders had uttered their voices, I 
was about to write : and I heard 
a voice from heaven saying unto 
me. Seal up those things which 
the seven thunders uttered, and 
write them not. 

5 And the angel which I saw 
stand upon the sea and upon 
the earth, lifted up his hand to 
heaven, 

' 6 And sware by him that liv- 
eth for ever and ever, who creat- 



GREEK TEXT. 

TTjv OaXaaaav, tov Be ivwvvfxov 
eVt TTjv yrjv, 

3 Kttt eKpa^e (J)covt] /xeydXr) 
wairep Xeav /JLVKarar kcu ore 
eKpa^ev, iXaXr^aav at eVra fipov- 
Toi TO? iavTav (pcouas' 

4 /cat ore eXaXrjaav al eirra 
fipovTou Tas (pcova^ iavrcou, e/xeX- 
Xov ypd^eiv kcu rJKOvaa (f)(ovr}u 
€/c TOV ovpavov, Xeyovaav /xoi, 
S(j)payi(rou d eXaXrjaav at eirra 
^povTol, Kol p.!] Tavra ypa^lrrj^. 

5 Kal 6 ayyeXos, ov elSou 
earcira eVt rrj^ OaXaaarjf, kol 
iwl TTji yr}9, Tjpe TTjv x^^P^ avrov 
els TOV ovpavov, 

6 KCU a>p.oaev ev tco ^iovti. eh 
Tovs alcovaf tcov alcovcov, by eKTiae 



REVISED VERSION. 



'upon 



the 



sea, and '^the left^ 
earth, 

3 And cried with a loud voice, 
'"even as ' a lion roareth : and 
when he had cried, Jthe seven 
thunders i-spake with their voices. 

4 And when the seven thun- 
ders had 'spoken with their 
voices, I was about to write : 
and I heard a voice from heaven, 
saying ">unto me : Seal ° "the 
things which the seven thunders 
pspake, and wiite pfhem not. 

5 And the angel, ''whom I saw 
'standing 'on the sea and ■'on the 
earth, lifted up his = hand to 
heaven, 

6 And sware by him that liv- 
eth 'unto the ages of the ages. 



' The pronoun is not repeated by W. ;-any foreign version 
(except Greenf.) ;-Dodd.. Wakef., Treg., Kenr. 

^ The noun is not repeated by R. ;-any foreign version (ex- 
cept B. and L.);-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Thorn., Penn, Sharpe, 
EU.. Stu., Lord, Treg., INIurd., Kenr. 

" E. v.. Matt. 5 : 48 ; 20 : 28 ;-Dt. {gelijkerucijs), It. {nella 
maniera che) ;-Treg., De "W. (so wie). 

' The supplement in E. V. came from the Vulg. (quemad- 
modum cum). There is nothing for it in Syr., German verss., 
Dt., It, Fr. S. ;-Pagu., Castal., Bez., Aret, Par., Cocc, Grell., 
Vitr.. Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Thom., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, 
Ell., Stu., Lord, Words. 

1 All the recent editors, as well as our Text, have the article 
<u. which is wanting, here and in v. 4, only in Erasm. and three 
cursive MSS. 

^ This verb occurs very often in the N. T., and is generally 
rendered in E. V., to speak ; never, to utter, except in these two 
verses; and that the thunder-voices were articulate, is plain 
from V. 4. The construction is that of a verb with a cognate 
accusative. Oomp. Matt. 2 : 10 ; Mark 3 : 28, in the Greek and 
in E. V. — W., T., C, G., R., (spake their voices) ;-Latin verss. 
(locuta sunt . . . voces suas), Syr. (^= Latin verss.), Germ. 
(redeten . . . ihre Stimmen), Dt. (spraken . . . hunne stemmen ;)- 
B. and L. (use parler), Beng., Moldenh., De W., Hengst., (as 
Germ.), Herd., Mey., All., (sprachen . . . ihre St.), Sharpe (as 
W.), Words. 

1 See V. 3, N. k. But all the recent editors cancel, except 
that Knapp merely brackets, the words ■tas 4>uwi5 lavtuv, on 
the authority of 'A. B. C. o 28. jS 5. y 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. 



Am.. Tot. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.'— evidence, 
Bloomf. acknowledges, 'so strong' as to obviate the suspicion, 
which he would otherwise ' be inclined' to entertain, ' that the 
words were cancelled for the sake of removing a tautology.' 
I recommend that this reading be adopted, and that the words, 
with their voices, be omitted. 

" All the recent editors cancel fioi, on the authority of 
'A. B. C. o 23. |8 6. y 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Harl. Tol. 
Aeth. Syr. Arm. Ar. P. Slav. ^MSS.' I recommend that, in ac- 
cordance with this reading, the words, unto me, be omitted. 

■> Comp. ch. 5 : 1, N. c. E. V., ch. 22 : 10, and 21 times else- 
where ;-Wakef., Lord, (though they do not distinguish the 
compound verb at ch. 5:1), Words. 

° E. v., ch. 1: 19, &c. ;-W. (what things), R.;-Latin verss. 
(quae), German verss. (was). It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Dodd., 
Sharpe, Lord, (what), Wesl., Wakef. (as W.), Penn (tJie [words} 
which), Ell., Murd., Kenr. 

P See V. 3, N. k. For foifa, Matth., Knapp, Mey., Lachm., 

Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile, read aitd (A. B. C. 'a 20. /3 5.'). 

See2Pet. 2:11, N. f. 

 See V. 1, N. a. E. V.. ch. 7 : 1 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-Latin verss., 
Syr., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Brightm., Engl. Ann., Daub, and the later 

English verss. (except Words), B. and L., Greenf. For on, 

see ch. 5 : 7, N. a, &c. 

" All the recent editors insert trjv hi^Mv after airoJ, on the 
authority of 'B. C. a 27. |3 6. y 3. Compl. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.' 1 recommend that the reading be 
adopted, and that the word right be introduced before hand. 

t See ch. 1 : 6, N. g, &c. 



REVELATION. 



139 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

ed heaven, and the things that 
therein are, and tlie eai-tli, and 
the things that therein are, and 
the sea, and the things which 
are therein, that there should be 
time no longer : 

7 But in the days of the voice 
of the seventh angel, when he 
shall begin to sound, the mystery 



GREEK TEXT. 

Tov ovpavov KOL ra ev avTco, Kai 
T-qv yrju kol ra iu avrrj, kou tjji' 
daXaaaav kou ra Iv OLVTy, On 
-^ovos ouK ecrraL err 

7 dkXa if TOLS rj/xepaif TrJ9 
(hcovrjs rod ijBSofiov dyyeXov, orav 
/te'AAjj aakiri^eLv, /cat reXeadr] 



REVISED VERSION. 

who created "the heaven and the 
things " in it, and the earth and 
the things " in it, and the sea 
and the things " in it, that "the 
time shall not be yet, 

7 But in the days of the voice 
of the seventh angel, when he 
"should >be about to sound, "and 



" E. v., ch. 20 : 11 ; &e. ;-Dodd., Wesl., Thorn., Allw., Sharpe 
(the heavens). Ell., Stu., Treg. 

' The relative supplement (that are) of E. V. is after the 
Vulg. (quae sunt), &c. There is nothing for it in Wakef., 

Woodh., Thom., Sharpe, Lord, Murd. For in it, see W., R.;- 

Dodd., Penn and Lord (in the second instance: upon [^on^ it), 
Murd., Kenr. (in the second instance). 

" Xpovo; here has been understood to mean, 1., time as op- 
posed to eternity (Areth., Ribera, JLarck, &c.). But nowhere 
else, in sacred or profane authors, does the woi'd carry this idea, 
nor does it accord with the subsequent representations of the 
prophecy (ch. 11: 15; 20: 7): — 2., a mystical period nf 
1111 ( % ) years (Beng., WesL), or of 360 (Bickersteth, Birks), 
or of the full ' 1260 days,' ' time, and times, and half a time,' or 
' forty-two months,' of ch. 11 : 3 ; 12 : 6, 14 ; 13 : 5 ; Dan. 12 : 7 
(Gill). But this also is entirely without precedent, and does 
not rest securely on the analogous use of xatpoj (ch. 12: 14; 
Sept. Dan. 7 : 25 ; 12: 7) : — 3., = 6 z?"""!! *°d ^^^''^ «*' must be 
rendered yet, as yet, (Fr. S.;-Daub., Lowm., Newt., Newc, 
Scott [as one meaning] , Crol., Ell. [who explains the omission 
of the article by Midd.'s rule, P. 1. ch. 3. ^ 3., respecting cases 
of construction with the substantive verb] , Lord, Barn.) ; the 
time, whose approach is proclaimed, or assumed, throughout 
this book and by the whole strain of prophecy from the 
beginning, and for which all creatures wait with earnest 
expectation: — 4., delay (Brightm.. Par., Grot., Hamm., Coco., 
Vitr., B. and L., Gill [as allowable], Moldenh., Herd., Eichh., 
"Wakef, Thom., Clarke, Heinr., Ew., Mey., Allw., Ros., Jones, 
Gerl., Scholef., Bloomf, Stu., Treg., De W., Words., Kell., 
Hengst.). The third interpretation is favoured by the readings 
of our Text, according to which t'eJ.eoS^ in v. 7 most naturally 
depends, with fiiM-y, on iitav. But all the recent editors have 
here oixiii saiai, (A. B. C. 'a 24. (3 7. y 3. Oompl.') and, in the 
next verse, itiTAaSri ('A. C. a 22. /3 5.'). I recommend that 
these readings be followed, in which case the fourth interpreta- 
tion oi xfovoi, (though rather implied in the whole clause in its 
connection with other parts of the book, such as ch. 2 : 10, 21 ; 
6: 10, 11 ; 9: 5, 12, 15, than immediately expressed by the noun 
itself,) is to be preferred, as furnishing a sense more suitable to 
the splendour and majesty of the scene, as well as illustrative 
of the gracious condescension of the Lord toward the weakness 
of His suffering servants. The version might then stand thus : 
time there shall no longer be; But in the days of the voice of 



the seventh angel, when he should be about to sound, is also 

finished the mystery of God, &c. The xai may be considered 

Hebraistically redundant (comp. Luke 2: 15 ; James 4: 15) or 
conversive, and so xai, tA. or xal iti%. =^ ti\io8r,att:ai, (the 
reading of Areth.) or tote ■rsXsaSriattai (Pise, Grot., Vitr., 
Moldenh., Eichh., Midd., Heinr., Ew., Ros., Bloomf, Ell., 
Hengst.) ; or, as indicated in the version proposed, xai may 
retain its familiar emphatic sense, q. d. ' Whensoever the long- 
deferred, long-looked for, blast of the seventh angel is just 
about to complete the series of trumpets, then also is completed 
c&c. ;' and the aorist will be used, also in accordance with Greek 
idiom, for prophetic time, the more strikingly to mark, not only 
the certainty of the event (comp. ch. 15:1; 16 : 17 ; 21 : 6 ; &c.), 
but, in this case, the truth of the previous negation. The xai 
is recognized by T., C, G.. {even) ;-Syr. (according to De D. 
and the London edd., = l), Germ, (so), Dt. (zoo), Fr. S. (et);- 
Castal. {-que). Par. (in the Comment. : etiam). Coco, (et), 
Daub , Newc, Woodh., Crol., Allw., Lord, Murd., (and), Beng., 
Hengst., {as Germ.), Wakef., Ell., Stu., {then), Gerl. {so ist 

auch), De W. (' dann aucK) ;-Win. {dann). For is in the 

rendering of iii^iaSr;, see E. V., ch. 15:1; &c. ;-Syr. (uses the 
preterit, according to De D. and "the London edd.);-Newc., 
Treg., {hath been), Woodh. {was), Gerl., Win., De W., Hengst., 
(ist), Stu. 

" The subjunctive mood is indicated by the It. ;-B. and L., 
Moldenh., Ew., Ell., Lord, Treg. The Erasmian jA-iXKii. is found 
only in 2 cursive MSS. 

y See ch. 8 : 13, N. u, &c. It has already been remarked 
(2 Pet. 2 : 6, N. h), that nix%o>, construed with the infinitive of 
another verb, is in E. V. often merged in the simple future of 
that verb. On a careful examination, however, of all the pas- 
sages, it will appear that in this m.atter N. T. usage corresponds 
quite closely with the classical. The latter is thus explained 
by Buttm., § 137, N. 11 : ' As a periphrase for the Future, we 
find fiiVKiiv with the Infinitive; yet with this difference, that 
the Fut. form places the action in the future indefinitely, while 
the periphrase at once marks the point of time from or after 
which the action is regarded as a future. Thus 7tonjcfu simply 
I will do; fiiM.a ttoinv lam (now) about to do; ejx^xxov Ttouiv 
1 was (then) about to do. — This verb marks elsewhere also the 
idea of intention, might, could, should; as 5 ijfitVKov ttdaxH'V, 
" what I shoidd suffer," what it was intended I should suffer.' 
Similar is Herm.'s statement, ad Vig. p. 753, though his lang- 



140 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

of Grod should be finished, as he 
hath dechired to his servants the 
prophets. 

8 And the voice which I heard 
from heaven spake unto me 
again, and said, Go, and take 
the little book which is open in 
the hand of the angel which 
standeth upon the sea and upon 
the earth. 

9 And I went unto the angel, 
and said unto him. Give me the 



GREEK TEXT. 



TO fivarrjpioi' rod 0eov, coy 
evrjyyeXta-e tols eavrov 8ovXoi9 
Tols 7rpo(j)r)Tais. 

8 Kal rj (pcoi^T] rjv rjKOvaa c'k 
Tov ovpavov, iraXiv XaXovcra jxeT 
i/jLOV, /cat Xeyovcra, Ywaye Aa/3e 
TO ^L^Xapi^Lov TO rjvecoypevov eV 
Tr) X'^'-P'' ^yy^^ov TOV iaTCOTOf 
eVi Trjs 0aXaacn]s Kai eiTL Trjs yrjf. 

9 Kal a.TTrjXOoi' rrpos tov ayy€- 
Xov, Xiyoav avrm, Aos p-oi to ^l- 



REVISED VERSION. 

the mystery of God should be 
finished, as he '■ declared ^the 
glad tidings "to his servants the 
prophets. 

8 And the voice, which I heard 
from heaven, "again spake '■with 
me, and said : Go, ' take the 
■'little booli which is ''opened in 
the hand of "the angel, 'who 
standeth =on the sea and 'on the 
earth. 

9 And I went unto the angel, 
f saying unto him : ^Give me the 



' Historical time (as if it were added : ' when He gave the 
prophets their message.') appears in W., T., C, G. ;-Herd., 

Thorn., Crol., Jley., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Words., Murd. 

The etymological force of iva^yiXt^a, which it nowhere loses 
(see Camp., Diss. Yl. 5. 14), is here admitted, and variously 
expressed, by R. ;-Yulg., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Engl. Ann.. 
Berl. Bib., Beng., Lowm., Dodd., Newt., Moldenh., Herd., 
Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Heinr., Scott, Crol., Mey., 
Penn, Ell., Lord, Treg., De W., Words. ;-tlie lexicons. E. V. 
and others follow Pagn., Bez., {annimtiavit) and 6. {doclared). 

For ■foil I. 6oiJj.oij tols TtpofTiTfais, Beng. mentions as per 

codices firmior nee tamen plane certa, and all the other recent 
editors adopt, the reading -tov; I. 6ov7.oi; r oij Hfio^tjtdf (' A. B. C. 
14. 17. 36. 38. 92. roij 5. aitoi tov; itpo(f . a 23. j3 5. Compl.' 
The latter form Words, assigns to B.). 

' The adverb is retained in its place by W., R. ;-Latin verss., 

Syr. ;- Wakef., All., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Kenr. For 

JioJioticTa . . . 'Kiyovaa, Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch., read TMXoiaav 
. . . %iyovaav (A. B. C. 4 cursive MSS. and Vulg.), which Treg. 
would make dependent on ^xovaa understood. 

^ E. v., oh. 4:1; &c. ;-W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except the 
French, Moldenh., Greenf. ;-Wes!., Sharpe, Stu., Treg. 

' E. v.. Matt. 8:4; John 4 : 16 ; &c. ;-Syr., Germ., Dt., It., Fr. 



S. ;-Yat., Castal., Oocc, Wells, Daub., B. and L., Beng., Dodd., 
Wesl., Herd., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., Mey., Allw., Greenf., 
Penn, Sharpe, Ell., Stu., Lord, De W., Treg., Hengst., Murd. 
E. Y. and others follow the Yulg. 

■" For (3i/35i(»pi.Sto>' (Matth. and Tisch.: /3t/3>.t5opioK B. 'a 25. 
3 5. Compl.'), Lachm., Treg., Words.. Theile. read /3i/37ic,w ('A. C. 
14. 92.'). For opened, see v. 2, N. d, &c. 

' Before dyy. all the recent editors insert tov (A. B. C. ' a 18. 

3 3. Compl.'). For who, see 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f ; — for on, see 

V. 2, N. e, &c. 

' The participle is retained by R. ;-Latin verss. (except 
Castal.), Syr., Dt., It, Fr. S. ;-Daub., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., 
AUw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

^ For 5ds, all the recent editors have Sowat (A. B. C. 'a 20. 
j3 4. Yulg. Syr. Slav. MSS.'). I recommend that this reading 
be followed, and, in connection with \iyav ait^, translated thus : 
saying unto him that he should give : — a construction (comp. 
Matt. 5: 39; Acts 21: 21) which is adopted by the Yulg. (lit 
daret) and such as follow it, Fr. S. ;-Grot., Eichh., Newc, 
Woodh., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, De W., Heng.st., Murd.;- Win. 
This is not a case (see Win. § 45. 7) in which it is best to regard 
the infinitive as standing for the imperative (Beng., Moldenh., 
Mejf., Treg., Words.). 



uage is stronger : ' Yerbura ^liMM non servit periphrasi futuri, 
sed a futuro diversissimum est. Nam rtowjuw, ut faciam, fu- 
turum est aoristum, i. e. indeflnitum, ea indicans, quae ali- 
quando, quandocunque id sit, eventura sint. MixTM rtoiilv 
autem, facturus sum, futurum est praesens, significans nunc 
aliquem in eo esse, ut quid facturus sit.' He also refers to cases 
where ' (j-iiAew banc fere vim liabet, quae apud nos verbis, 
icerden, sollen, miissen exprimi potest.' (Corap. Campb.'s notes 
on Matt. 3 : 7 and 17 : 22.) These distinctions there is no dif- 
ficulty in carrying through the N. T., and generally with 
marked advantage to the sense ; e. g. Matt. 2:13,' Arise and 
flee; for Herod is about to seek &c.;' 16: 27, the certainty and 
imminence of the coming judgment are presented in /ieXTui yap 
as, in like manner, the ground of the previous challenge ; Rom. 
4 : 24, ' But for us also, to whom, according to the divine pur- 



pose and constitution, it is to be &c. ;' &c.* — Syr. (= Greenf. 
Iinsn), Fr. S. (devra) ;-Hamm., Lord, (be ready), Cocc (buc- 
cinaturus est), Dodd. (was about quickly), Wakef. (is going), 
Woodh., Sharpe, Murd. marg., (is about), Ew. (canturus sit), 
Penn (shall be about), Ell. (for hermeneutical reasons, would 
put this clause in a parenthesis, and translate: whensoever he 
may be about to sound), Treg. The Yulg. cum coeperit 
(followed by E. V. and the older English and French verss., 
Erasm., Pagn., Yat., Wells, Gill, Scott, Jones, Words., Kell., 
Barn.) cannot be justified. See ch. 12 : 4, N. p. 



* For the passages affected by the above view, but in which 
it has in the previous pages been overlooked, see the table of 
Errata. 



REVELATION. 



141 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

little book. And he said unto 
me, Take it, and eat it up ; and 
it shall make thy belly bitter, 
but it sliall be in thy mouth 
sweet as honey. 

10 And I took the little book 
out of the angel's hand, and ate 
it up ; and it was in my mouth 
sweet as honey : and as soon 
as I had eaten it my belly was 
bitter. 

11 And he said unto me, 
Thou must prophesy again be- 
fore many peoples, and nations, 
and tongues, and kings. 

CHAP. XI. 

And there was given me a 
reed like unto a rod : and the 
angel stood, saying. Rise, and 



GREEK TEXT. 

^Xapi&LGv. KaL Aeyet /xoi, yla/3e 
Koi Karaipaye avro' Koi TTiKpavel 
crov Trjv KoiXiav, aAA eV rw 
(TTO/xarl aov ecrrai yXvKV 0)9 /xeXi. 

10 Is^al eXa^ov to ^ifiXapi^Lov 
e/c TTjs )(ei.po9 Tov dyyeXov, Kai 
Kare(f)ayoi> avro- Kol i)v iu rm 
(jTopaTL fxov coy /xeAt, yXvKV koi 
ore ((payou avro, eTriKpavBi] -q 
KoiXia fiov. 

11 Kai Xeyei p.oi, Ael ere ira- 
Xlv TvpocprjTevaai. iirl Aaot? KaL 
eOvetTL Kou yXaxraais Kal fiacre- 
XevcTL TToAAoif . 



CHAP. XI. 



iTai iSodi] fioL KaXafiof opiOLOs 
pajSScp, Xeycou, Eyeipai, /cat yu,e- 
Tp-qaov TOV vaov tov Oeov, kcu 



REVISED VERSION. 

little book. And he "saith unto 
me : Take, ' and eat it up ; and 
it shall make Jbitter thy belly, 
but ''in thy mouth it shall be 
sweet as honey. 

10 And I took the little book 
out of the 'hand of the angel, 
and ate it up ; and it was in my 
mouth sweet as honey ; and, 
"■when I had eaten it, my belly 
was "made bitter. 

11 And he "saith unto me: 
Thou must pagain prophesy 'of 
many peoples, and nations, and 
tongues, and kings. 

CHAP. XI. 

And there was given me a 
reed like ^ rod, ^lie sajdng : Rise, 
and measure the temple of God, 



'> Vat., Castal., Cocc, Beng., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Ell., Stu., Treg., De W., Words. E. V. 
and others follow the Vulg. 

' E. v.. Matt. 26 : 26 ; &c. ;-Syr., Germ. ;-Pagn., Cast.al., Bcz., 
Par.', Cocc, Grell., Wells, Vitr., Beng., Wesl., Herd., Wakef., 
Woodh., Mey.. Allw., Greenf., Sharpe, Ell., Lord, De W., Hengst.. 
Murd. 

J The Greek order is kept by Latin verss. (except Castal.), 
Syr., It, Fr. G. ;-B. and L., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Greenf., 
Lord, De W., Kenr. 

^ The Greek order is kept by W., K. ;-foreign verss. (except 
Fr. G.,-M., Herd.) ;-Daub., Dodd., Woodh., Thorn., Allw.. 
Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Jlurd,, Kenr. 

1 R. ;-Danb., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Penn, 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

" W., R, ;-foreign verss, ;-Dodd. and the later English (ex- 
cept Newc, Words.). Nowhere else does E. V. render 6tt as 
soon as, except Luke 15 : 30. 

" The verb is translated as such (^ was made or became 
bitter, was imbittered, &c.) bj' E. V., v. 9; ch. 8 : 11 ;-R. ;-Latin 
verss., Syr., Germ., Dt, It., Fr. M.,-S. ;-Daub., Beng., Herd., 
Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Mey., Allw., Greenf., Stu.. Lord, Treg,, 
De W., Words., Hengst., Kenr., Barn. 

See V. 9, N. h. For ^.iyci, Matth., Lachm., Treg., Tisch., 

read jiiyovfft (A. B. 'a 18. /3 4. Am. Ha.rl''). 

P The Tia.%iv is given before the verb by W., R. ;-foreign verss. 



(except Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Castal., Greenf.) ;-Dodd., Newc, Lord, 
Jlurd. 

1 The sense of apud, with, among (not coram, as Pagn., 
Bez., followed by E. V. and others), might rest upon Acts 
28: 14. But it is more obvious, and has a larger usage to 
sustain it, to regard the clause as indicating the ohject, the wide 
range, of the prophecy itself. Comp. John 12: 16; Heb. 
11: 4; the Hebrew construction, 1 Kings 22: 8, 18, hs N3_5!-ri 
(to which the Syr. and Greenf. here correspond) ; Is. 37 : 
22; &c So here Fr. S. (s!<r) ;- Castal., Ilomb., (super), Grot., 
Ew., Ros., (de), Hamm. (of), Wells, Wesl., Wakef., (concerning), 
Beng., Moldenh., Herd., Mey., Stier, De W., Hengst., (iXber), 
Stu. (respecting), Murd. {upon) ;-Wahl, Win., Rob., Schirl. 

=> See ch. 1 : 13, N. d. 

■i 'The giver.' The reading, xal clair,xei b ayyt^-oj (B. [xal 
la-i. o ciyy.] 'oT. [and 14.] Compl. Syr. Arm.'), followed by 
E. V. and others, is rejected by Mill and all the recent editors, 
and was perhaps introduced from Sept. Zech. 2 : 3 ; 3 : 6 (5). 
Areth. construes xiyuv with xd^a/io;. But the participial usage 
of the book justifies us in treating it as a nominative absolute, — 
W., T,, C, R,, and others, follow the Vulg. ei dictum est mihi 
(though the Cod. Am. has dicens), Germ, (und sprach) ;^Vat. 
(a dicente mihi), Wells, Wesl., Sharpe, (and he said). Beng., 
Hengst., (as Germ.), Moldenh., Mey., (mit d n Worten), Herd. 
(die Slimme sprach), Newc. ([the angel] saying), Woodh., 
Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg,, Words., (saying), Ew. (fiisce cum ver- 
bis), Stolz (mit dem Befehl), Ell. (and the angel said), Stier 
(sprechend), De W. (indem man sagte), Ebr. (und gesagt). 



142 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

measure the temple of God, and 
the altar, and them that worship 
therein. 

2 But the court which is with- 
out the temple, leave out, and 
measure it not ; for it is given 
unto the Gentiles : and the holy 
city shall they tread under foot 
forty and two months. 

3 And I will give power unto 
my two vntnesses, and they shall 
prophesy a thousand two hund- 
red a)id threescore days, clothed 
in sackcloth. 

4 These are the two olive- 
ti'ees, and the two candlesticks 
standing before the God of the 
earth. 



GREEK TEXT. 

TO OvaLacTTrjpiov, kolL tovs irpocr- 
Kvvovvras eV avTco- 

2 Koi TTjv avXrjv rrjv eacoOev 
Tov vaov eK^aXe e^co, kcu firj 
avT-qv fi€Tpr]crrj9, otl eSodrj rols 
edvecrr koI rrjv ttoXlv Trjv ayiav 
Trarrjcrovai. ptrivas recraapaKOVTa 
8vo. 

3 Kal dcocrco tols Svctl fiap- 
Tvai p-ov, Kol ■?rpo(f)T]Tev(Tov(nu 
■qp.epas yiXlas SiaKOcria^ e^rjKOU- 
ra, TrepLJSejSXrjp.ei'oi aaKKOVS. 

4 OvroL elcnv al 8vo iXaiai, 
KCU 8vo Xv^viat al iucoTTiov rou 
Oeov TTji yrjs kcrrSicrai. 



REVISED VERSION. 

and the altar, and 'those 'who 
worship therein : 

2 ''And the court which is 
'within the temple 'cast out, and 
measure it not ; for it is given 
unto the Gentiles : and the holy 
city shall they ^tread forty - two 
months. 



3 And I will give ' unto my 
two witnesses, and they shall 
prophesy a thousand two hund- 
red and, Jgixty days, clothed '■with 
sackcloth. 

4 These are the two olive- 
trees and • two "lamp-stands, 
"which 'stand before the 'God of 
the earth. 



' For those, see ch. 2: 2, N. h, &c. ; — for who, see ch. 1: 5, 
N. T, &c. 

^ SeelJohn2:20, N. o, &c. 

' I recommend that the reading t'lueEv, which the Elzevir 
Text and all the recent editors substitute for the Erasmian 
"taaOiv. be adopted, and translated : without. 

f 'As profane.' Comp. the ^>irn of Dan. 8: 11.— This full 
force of the word appears in E. V. mar^., and often elsewhere ;- 
W., T., C, G., R. ;-Vulg. (ejice), Syr. (using the same word as 
in Matt. 8 : 16), Germ., Dt. marg., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Par., 
Heinr., (as Vulg. ;-one of the rare occasions on which Par. dif- 
fers from Bez., who had here adopted Castal.'s exclude), 
Brightm., Engl. Ann., Hamm., Cocc. and Yitr. (prnjice), Wells, 
Daub.. Beng.. Dodd. (throw), Wesl., Moldenh., Herd., Woodh., 
Crol., £w., Greenf , Goss., All., Ell., Stu., Treg., Words., KelL, 
Hengst., Kenr., Barn., Ebr. 

^ 'Both as occupants and oppressors.' Comp. the Sept. 
Is. 1: 12; 16: 10; 26: 6.— Latin verss. (calcabunt i-except 
Castal., conculcahunt). It. (cakheranno) ;-Wesl., Eichh. (pro- 
fanis pedibits permearunt), Campb. (at Luke 21 : 24), Woodh., 
Ew. (■ rtariiv, D'al, de gressu festuoso et strepente sanctitatem 
loci baud curantium.'). Greenf. (uses the verb San of Is. 1 : 12), 
Lord, De W. (treten ;-for the zertreten of other German verss.), 
Words, 

>> See ch. 5 : 8, N. e. Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Sharpe, Lord, Kenr. Before Svo Lachm. and Tisch. 
insert xai' (A. B. ' a 10. p 3.'). 

' Not power merely, as in v. 6, but all that is needed for the 
efficient discharge of their perilous office. Whatever they are 
called to spend for their Lord, their Lord will i3rst supply ; and, 
in consequence of that, and on the strength of that, they shall 
prophesy. The streams of grace shall be ever flowing in on 
them from the divine fountains, and, out of the abundance of 



the heart, they shall speak. Comp. ch. 3 : 9, N. u. Many, in- 
deed, (Castal., Grot., Vitr., &o., Ebr.) suppose that we have here 
a simple Hebraism = Iwill give, command, cause them to pro- 
phesy. But the form of the original is preserved by W., R. ;- 
Vulg., Syr. (though the sign of the dative serves also for the 
accusative, that is no reason for supposing, vcith De D. and 
Murd. [dabo duos testes meos; I-will give my two witnesses; 
so Luth., ich will ineirie zween Zeugen geben], that the inter- 
preter meant to change the Greek construction.), It. (supplies 
di profetizzare) ;-Erasra., Vat., Aret. (' Dabo non atrium, nee 
templum, sed officium docendi, &c.'), Brightm., Cocc, Vitr. 
(to whom Ebr. errs'in assigning the supplement, civitatem. 
That is Bez.'s interpretation [dabo illam']. which Vitr. rejects 
as not to be endured— ^erenda non est.), Beng., Herd., Woodh., 
Thom., Greenf.. Gerl., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Stier, Treg. (with 
endow for Surnu), Hengst., Kenr. 

1 W., T. and C. (Ix.), R. ;-Daub., Guyse, Dodd., Wesl., 
Newc, Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., 
Kenr. E. V. follows G. 

I-' See ch. 7: 13, N. u. W., R. ;-Latin verss. (the ablative 
without a preposition), German verss., Dt., It. (di), French 
verss. (de). 

' Before 5vo all the recent editors insert at (A. B. C. 'a 19. 
ji 6. Compl.'). For iatusai, they all (-perhaps rightly,' says 
Bloomf) have Jsriifcs (A. B. C. 'ol9. j3 4.'), and all change 
®fo; to xvfim (A. B. C. 'a 27. /3 5. y 2. Compl. Vulg. Copt. 
Syr. Arr.'). The second of these variations presents a con- 
structio ad sensum, that does not affect the version. The other 
two I recommend for adoption : the . . . Lord. 

" Sec ch. 1 : 12, N. c, &c. 

° The at refers both to Jxiuat and f.vxfiai,, not exclusively to 
the latter, as E. V. may seem to intimate : but the original 



REVELATION. 



143 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

5 And if any man will liurt 
them, fire proceedetli out of tlieir 
mouth, and devoureth their ene- 
mies : and if any man will hurt 
them, he must in this manner be 
killed. 



6 These have power to shut 
heaven, that it rain not in the 
days of their prophecy : and 
have power over waters to turn 
them to blood, and to smite the 
earth with all plagues, as often 
as they will. 



7 And when they shall have 
finished their testimony, the 



GREEK TEXT. 

5 Kai el rt? avrovs OeXrj aSi- 
KTjaai, TTvp iKTropeverai (k tov 
(TTOfjiaTos avTwv, Kol Karea-QieL 
Tovs i)(6pov9 avTcov Koi el riy 
avrovs OeXrj ddcKrjaai, ovtco 8ei 
avTov aTTOKTavdrjvai. 

6 OvTOi e^ovcrtv i^ovaiav 
KXelarai rov ovpavov, Iva p-rj /3/je- 
^rj veros eV rjfiepais avrcov rrjS 
7rpo(j)r]Tetas' koI l^ovaiav e^ov- 
(TLV eVt Toiv vSarau, aTp€(f>eLv 
avTO. €Ls alfj-a, Koi Trara^ai ttjv 
yrjv Traarj TrXrjyr], baaKLS eav 6e- 
Xrjcrcoa-L. 

7 Kou orav TeXecrwcn rrjv fxap- 
Tvplav avTwv, to d-r]piov to ava- 



RE VISED VERSION. 

6 And if any "one "will hurt 
them, fire proceedeth out of their 
mouth, and devoureth their ene- 
mies ; and if any "one °will phurt 
them, 'thus 'must he be killed. 



6 These have power to shut 
heaven, that =no rain fall 'in the 
daj's of their -prophesying ; and 
"they have power over "the 
waters to turn them to blood, 
and to smite the earth with 
'every plague, as often as they 
will. 



7 And when they shall have 
finished their testimony, the 



° See 1 John 2 : 1. N. b, &o. For Ae^ij, all the recent edi- 
tors (except Mey.) read ei'Kit. ([A. in the first instance] B.C. 
more than 20 cursive MSS. Compl.). 

p De W. pronounces this an ' intolerable (imertraglicK) re- 
petition,' and at once substitutes Beng.'s ajtox-e iXvai. But as 
this reading is almost utterly destitute of authority, so it really 
subverts the structure and meaning of the whole verse, intro- 
ducing (and that only in one contingency-) an application of the 
lex talionis, in place of the stern justification, by means simply 
of an emphatic reiteration, of the severity by which the Lord 
would shield the inviolable sanctity of His witnesses (1 Chron. 
16: 22; Zech. 2: 8), and of which they themselves had just 
been, and are now again (oiVu), represented as the instruments. 

1 See 2 Pet. 3 : 4, N. g. E. V., ch. 9 : 17 ; 18:21; &c. ;-W., 
R. (so) ;-Latin verss. {sic or ita), Syr., Germ, (also), Dt. (alzoo), 
French verss. (ainsi) ;-Beng., De W., Hengst, (as Germ.), 
Dodd., Lord, (as R.), Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., Penn, Sharpe, 
Treg., Murd. The adverb is kept in its place by W., T., C, 
G., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-Dodd., Woodh., Thorn., AIlw., Stu., 
Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

' The Greek order is preserved by W., T., C, G., R. ;-Latin 
verss., Syr. ;-Dodd., Woodh., Mey., Allw., All., Treg., De W., 
Murd., Ebr. 

• See ch. 7 : 1, N. a, &c. All the recent editors read ;ti^ itros 
Pfiixv C -^^ B. C. a 20. j3 6. Compl.'). Dt. (geen regen regent) ;- 
Berl. Bib. (kern Regen regiie), Beng. (es keinen R. gebe), Dodd. 
(no rain shall be showered down), Wakef. (no r. shall come 



down), Stolz (k. R.fallt), De W. (k. R.falle). In addition to 
these, the following translate inoi fipixv by a noun and per- 
sonal verb : Syr. (= pluvia pluat) ;-Castal. (pluat imber), Cocc. 
(pluat pluvia), Vitr. (riget (erram pluvia ;-and, bating the 
supplement, this is closest to the Greek), Woodh. (rain may 
not fall), Penn (r. fall not), Sharpe (the r. rain not), Stu., 
Murd., (the r. shall not fall), Ebr. (nicht R. sich ergiesse). 
E. V. and others follow the Vulg. 

< For iv riiiipais all the recent editors substitute T'a; ijiiijia; 
(' A. B. C. a 25. /3 5. y 2. Compl.'). I recommend that this read- 
ing be adopted, and translated: during the days. So for 

airiov trjs rtpo^. all, except Bloomf., read trj xpof. aituiv 
('A.B.C. al5. /3 5. Compl.'). 

" E. v., 1 Cor. 14 : C, 22 ; 1 Thess. 5 : 20 ;-Dt. (profetering) ; 
Castal., Cocc, (vaticinationis), Wesl., Wakef. (teaching), Thorn., 
Scott, Greenf. (tixini, the word in Ezra 6: 14, and there 
rendered by the Sept., jtpo^jjrfi.'a, and by E. V.. prophesying) ;- 
Bretsch., Wahl, Bob. 

' W., R. ;-Syr., Dt., French verss. ;-Brightm., Dodd., Herd., 
Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Mey., Allw., Penn, Stu., Treg., 
De W., Murd., Kcnr., Ebr. E. V. follows T., C, G. 

" R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Brightm., Hamm., Daub, and later 
English verss. (except Lord). See ch. 14: 18, N. a. 

' A singular form is employed by W., R. ;-foreign verss., 
except Moldenh. and Gerl. ;-Dodd., Wakef, Newc, Woodh., 

Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. Before TtdoYj 

all the recent editors insert h (' A. C. a 21. /3 6. y 2. Compl. Er.'). 



edition has a comma after candlesticks, as well as after trees. — 
The definite participial construction is here (as generally else- 
where in E. V.) replaced by the relative, in R. ;-Dt., It., French 



verss. ;-Cocc., Daub., Beng., Dodd., Moldenh., Wakef, Woodh., 
Thorn., Allw., All., Penn, Gerl., Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., 
Hengst., Murd., Kenr., Ebr. 



144 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMEs' VERSION. 

beast that ascendeth out of the 
bottomless pit shall make war 
against them, and shall overcome 
them, and kill them. 

8 And their dead bodies shall 
lie in the street of the great city, 
which spiritually is called Sodom 
and Egypt, where also our Lord 
was crucified. 

9 And they of the people, and 
kindreds, and tongues, and na- 
tions, shall see their dead bodies 
three days and an half, and shall 



GREEK TEXT. 

fialvov Ik TTJ^ afivcrcrov Troirjaei 
TToXefiov fj-er avTcoi', kcu VLKrjaei 
avTOVS, Koi cciroKTevel avrous. 

8 Koi ra TrTco/jiara avTcov ewL 
rrjs irXareias TroAeo)? tyjs fxeyaX-qs, 
rjTLS KaXeiTUL irvevfxaTLKfas So- 
8ofxa Koi A'lyvTrrog, ottov koi 6 
KvpLOS rjfjiaiu iaravpcoOr]. 

9 Koi ^Xl'^ovcTLv e'fc TOiv Xau>v 
kolI (bvXcou Kol yXayaacov kul 
lOvwv TO. TTTCofJ-aTa avTcou rjfxepa? 
rpels /cat jjixiav, koI ra TTTCo/j-ara 



REVISED VERSION. 

J^beast that ascendeth out of the 
•abyss shall make war "with 
them, and shall overcome them, 
and '^^shall kill them. 

S And their 'remains shall '^be 
'on the 'broad place of 'the great 
city, which is ^called spiritually 
Sodom and EgA'pt, where also 
"our Lord was crucified. 

9 And 'men of the 'peoples 
and ''tribes and tongues and na- 
tions 'shall see their "'remains 
three days and -a half, and "shall 



y Here, and throughout the remainder of the book, 6tipiov 
answers to the min of Dan. 7. (Sept. Sjiplov). As neither term 
always bears the specific sense which the former retains in 
eh. C : 8, so, in the case of the apocalyptic ejjpi'a, the name seems 
to intima.e tlieir general bestial appearance, rather than their 
ferocity. Comp. Tit. 1:12; and Heb. 12 : 20 with Ex. 19:13. 

= See ch. 9 : 1, N. e. 

» See ch. 2 : 16 : N. q. 

t W.;-Germ., Dt.;-Beng., Ell., Lord and Murd. (will), 
Hengst. Many express the auxiliary only in the case of 

' In the N. T. ttiwixa occurs only in this context, JIatt. 
24: 28 (E. V. carcase), and Mark 6: 29 (E. V. corpse). Its 
radical meaning, that which is fallen, ruin, wreck, explains the 
reading t'o !tt:,na (A. B. C. a 19 [21, at v. 9]. jS 5. Copt. [Slav., 
here]), which has been adopted here, and in the first instance 
of V. 9, by all recent editors. This reading Lord and Words, 
render, dead body, which, however, the English idiom does not 
allow ; whereas the term proposed above, while it comes nearer 
the etymological idea, suits equally well the singular and the 
plural forms. It is employed by Woodh. 

•^ Fr. S. ;-Grot., Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl. ('perhaps hanging 
on a cross'), Woodh., Thorn., Stu., Ebr. (ist). E. V. and many 
others follow the Vulg., jacebunt. 

« Syr., German verss., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-B. and L. 

' Always, except in this book, riXatiia is in the N. T. found 
in the plural, and means streets. But here where the singular 
is used (not, as Vulg. &c., in plateis), with the definite article, 
and that in connection with a great city, it is equivalent to the 
Sini (Greenf.'s word here, and for which TfKattta often stands 
in the Sept.) of Neh. 8 : 1 ; Job 29 : 7 ; Is. 59 : 14 ; &c., the forum 
or open place of public resort. — Syr. (= De D. vicum latum, 
except that vicum is supplied. The Syr. term is a form of that 
used in Matth. 7: 13 for wide.). Dt. marg. (rui'm7e;-and see 
the note). It. (piazza). Fr. S. (grande place) ;-Casta]., Cocc. 
(foro), Daub, (great place), B. .and L. (place), Beng. (Platz). 
AVoodh., Alhv., Sharpe (open square). Ell., Lord (at ch. 21 : 21 ; 
22 : 2), Words, (broad-way). The lexicons commonly define 



the word by via latior, to which Schleus. adds latum spatimn. 

Rob. 'a broad way, wide street in a city.' Before rto^suj, 

Beng., Matth., Lachm., Bloomf., Treg., Words.. Tisch., insert 
t^sCA. C. ol9. /3 6. Compl.'). 

^ The Greek order is retained by W., R. ;-Latin (except 
Vitr.) and French verss., Syr., Germ. ;-Wesl., Wakef , Newc, 
Woodh., Greenf., Trcg., Hengst., Kenr. 

'' For iifnuv, all the recent editors (except Bloomf.) substitute 
aituv, 'A. B. 0. a 24. /3 G. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. 
Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' — evidence much larger than what Bloomf 
very often, and twice already in this verse, deems sufficient. 
I recommend that the change be adopted : their. In death, as 
in life, the witnesses arc conformed to their Lord. Matt. 10 : 25. 
Comp. V. 12, N. f 

' The E. V. they may have come from the Erasmian ol before 
ix tuv iev^v. — W. (some) ;-Vu1g. and Syr. (supply nothing), 
Germ, (etliche), Dt. (de menschen), It. (gli uomini), Fr. S. 
(il y en aura . . . qui) ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., Par., Vitr., homi- 
lies), Engl. Ann. (' Or, some ... for all could not come to see 
them ; see ch. 5 : 9 and 7 : 9.' This supplement of rivis is 
adopted also by Grot., Cocc, Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef, 
Thorn., AH., Sharpe, Bloomf, Treg., Murd. marg.), Dodd. (per- 
sons). Herd., Jley., De W., (viele), Greenf, Lord, Kenr., Ebr., 
(as Vulg.). 

J See ch. 7 : 9, N. d. 

k See ch. 1 : 7, N. k. 

1 All the recent editors read ^•Kirtoveiv (A. B. C. 'a 26. (3 6. 
Compl.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and that 
the word, shall, be omitted. 

" See V. 8, N. c. 

- See 2 Pet. 2: 14, N. f. 

» Lachm., Treg., Words., read a^iovai, (Tisch. a^iovaiv) on 
the authority of A. C. and 3 cursive MSS. But the change of 
tense might imply tliat, as the refusal of the rites of burial was 
intended to put yet more dishonour on the Lord's 'slaughtered 
saints,' so it sprang also from the satisfaction felt by their 
enemies in gazing on their remains. 



EEVELATIOX. 



145 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

not suffer their dead bodies to 
be put in graves. 

10 And they that dwell upon 
the eiir-tli shall rejoice over them, 
and make merry, and shall send 
gifts one to another ; because 
these two prophets tormented 
tliern that dwelt on the eartli. 



11 And after three days and 
an half the Spirit of life from 
God entered into them, and they 
stood upon their feet ; and great 
fear fell upon them which saw 
them. 



12 And they heard a great 
voice from heaven, saying unto 



GREEK TEXT. 

avTOiv ovK a(l)y]aov(ri T^Orjvai et? 

10 Kou o'l KaroiKovuTes iTn. rrjs 
yiis xapovaLU eV avroi^, Koi ev- 
(PpavOi^aovTar kol Saipa irefx\j/ou- 
(TLV aXXrjXoLS, OTi ovtol ol 8vo 
7rpo(priTai i^aaavL(rav roi;? kutol- 
Kovvra? irrl Tr]9 y^S". 

1 1 Kal pera ra^ rpeh i]pepas 
KOL 7]ptav, TTi'evp.a ^corj^ €/c tov 
Oeov eicrrjXOiv eV avTovs, kou 
eaTTjaau eVl rouy noSas avTwv, 
Koi (f)o(3of peyas eTrecrei' cttI tov^ 
Oecopovvras avTOVs. 

12 /cat T]Kovaav (pcavrjv peya- 
Xrjv (K TOV ovpavov, Xeyovcrav 



REVISED VERSION. 

not suffer their ^remains to be 
put 'into ■'sepulchres. 

10 And they that dwell -on 
the earth 'shall rejoice over 
them, and "shall make merry, 
and shall send gifts "to one an- 
other ; because these two pro- 
phets tormented "those that 
dwelt on the earth. 

11 And after 'the three da3's 
and 'a half the 'spirit of life 
from God entered -into them, 
and thej' stood upon their feet ; 
and great fear 4'ell upon Hhose 
who 'beheld them. 



13 And they heard a ''loud 
voice from heaven, saying unto 



p Here, again, the chanj^e of number suggests the di-ccnt 
respect to be paid in buiial to the individual bodies, which, in 
that relation, are no longer thouglit of as a promiscuous tttufia- 

1 Daub., Newc. Alhv.. Sharpe, Treg. 

 For fivr^iMta all the recent editors substitute ^vr.ixa (' A. B. 
o 20. (3 5. Compl. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav, ixvr^/^iiov C. 30.' 
Words, cites ihe uncials thus: • fipfifui, 1>. in A. lacuna est inter 
■Cfdrimi et xai octo fere literaruni. fn'rifiiov C). I recommend 
that this reading be adopted, and translated : a sefulchre. E. V. 
uses grave for fii/fif^a only tliis once out of 7 times, and for 
jxpiiixiiov 8 times out of 42 ; in the other instances, tomb or 
sepulchre -j-li. (^iiwimments) -j-llAmm. (tombs, monuments), 
Daub, (the sepulchre), Wakef. (tombs), Newc. Penn, Sharpe. 
(a tomb), Woodh., Stu., Lord, Treg., Words, (a monument). 

• See ch. 5 : 7, N. a, &c. 

' All the recent editors give ^aipovai-v ("A. B. C. a 25. /S 7. 
Compl.') I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, 
the word, shall, be omitted. 

" See V. 7, N. b. Lachm., Hahn, Blooraf., Treg., Words., 

Tisch., read li^paivoptai, ("A. C. 12. 28. 36. ci^pavoivtai. 14. Er.'). 
But comp. Phil. 1 : 18. Here as in v. 9, the change of tense 
intimates that the second thing mentioned is the result of the 
one preceding. The making merry and sending gifts to one 
another are the ways, in which the}' shall proceed to manifest 
their joy. 

' Dodd., Wakef., Stu., (each other), Daub., Wesl., Thorn., 
Lord, Treg., Murd. 

» Sec ch. 2 : 2, N. li, &c. 

' Syr. (= De D. has), Dt., Fr. G. and -M. (ces). Fr. S. ;- 
Engl. Ann. (' Or, those'), Coco, (iltus), Wells, Beng., Wesl., 



Herd., Wakef, and Murd. (these), Newc. Woodh., Thorn.. Mej'., 
AUw., Penn, Geil., Sharpe, Ell,, Treg., Stier, De VV^, Hengst,, 
ICenr., Ebr. 

y See 2 Pet. 2: 14, N. f. 

' See -Jude 19, N. 1. Tliat ifsv^ia fu^s is here = n"i''n Plill, 
Gen. 0: 17; 7: 15; (.so S>'pt. in both places, and Greenf. here) 
&c., appears from the effect that followed. That it di;es not 
designate the Holy Spirit, is the view of the Latin verss. (at 
least Vitr. alone gives Spin'tus, with a capital S. Castal. vitali, 
spirilu), Syr. (= Greenf), Dt. (een geest), Fr. S. (nn esprit) ;- 
Engl. Ann., Beng. (ein Lebensodem), Moldenh. (der Atliem), 
Herd., Jley., De W., (Lehensgeist), Wakef., Treg., (Ihe breath), 
Woodh. (a sp.), Thorn, (a breath), Heinr., Crol., Alln-., Penn, 
Gerl. and Ebr. (ein G.), Ell., Stu., KcU., Murd,, Barn., the 
Amor. Bible Soc. ;-the lexicons. 

» The reading ift avtoiis is rejected by all the recent editors, 
of whom Beng., Treg., give aOroij (C. and 4 cursive MSS.) ; 
Matth., li; avT'oij; (' B. a 17. /3 4.') ; Giiesb., Knapp, Mej'., Sch., 
Lachm., Hahn, Bloomf., Words., Tisch., Theile, iv aitois (A. and 
2 cursive MSS.). 

■> For tjteaev, all the recent editors (except Matth., Griesb., 
Knapp, Mey., Sch.) read ('perhaps rightly,' .says Bloomf) 

iniiiiaiv (' A. C. a 12. [& 13.] Compl.'). For those who, see 

ch. 2: 2, N. h, &c and 2 Pet. 2 11, N. f 

' E. v., V. 12 ; &c. ;-Dt. (aanschouwden) ;-Pagn., Castal., Bez., 
Par., Cocc, Vitr., (use speclare;-(oi- the Vulg. ridcre). Berl. 
Bib. (anschauelen), Beng. (at v. 12, schaueten), Dodd. (looked 
upon), Wakef (the beholders), Woodh., Lord, (those beholding), 
Thorn., Allw., Ell., Stu.;-the lexicons. 



" See ch. 1 : 10, N. x. 



19 



146 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

them, Come up hither. Aud 
they ascended up to heaven in a 
cloud ; and their enemies beheld 
them. 

13 And the same hour was 
there a great earthquake, and 
the tenth part of the city fell, 
and in the earthquake were slain 
of men seven thousand : and the 
remnant were affrighted, and 
gave glory to the God of heaven. 



14 The second wo is past ; 



GREEK TEXT. 



avTOLS, AuajSrjre code. Kal avi- 
I3i](rav els tov ovpavov ev rfj ve- 
(peXrj, Kol iOewprjaav avrovs ol 
i)^0pol avrap. 

io Jlat eu eKeivrj tyj cjpa eye- 
vero aeiapos fieyas, kol to 8eKa- 
Tov TrjS TToXecos eireae, ical arre- 
KTav6r]<rav iv tco aeicrfia ovopara 
avOpaiToyv ^iXiaSes eTTTo.' icai ol 
AoiTTOi ep(poj3oi eyevovTO, koI eda>- 
Kav Bo^au T(S Oea tov ovpavov. 

14 H oval T] SevTepa dirrjX- 



RE VISED VERSION. 

them : 'Come up hither. And 
they 'went up to heaven in 'the 
cloud ; and their enemies beheld 
them. 

13 And ^in that hour was 
there a great earthquake, and 
the tenth part of the city fell, 
and •'there were 'killed in the 
earthquake Jnames of men seven 
thousand : and the 'rest 'became 
"'afraid, and gave glory to the 
God of heaven. 

14 The second "woe is past ; ' 



• The verb is the same in both cases ; but our idiom scarcely 
allows, Ascend hilher [here]. And they ascended (Woodh., 
Lord). Still it is desirable to retain something of the resonance 
of the original, the ascent itself being the exact and instanta- 
neous response, as it were the echo of the voice. — R, ;-foreign 
verss. use the same word, except Dt. (komt herwaarts op. En 

zij voeren op) ;-Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Penn, Kenr. For 

avdjir^ri. Lachm., Bloomf., Treg., Words., Tisch., read awipart 
('A. C. 26. 36. 42.'). 

' As before (v. 8, N. h) in their life and death, so no-.v in their 
glorification, the witnesses are as their Lord, Acts 1 : 9. For 
them He sends His own chariot. Or, if the reference, which 
Midd. required, must be found in this book, it will be ch. 10: 1. 
— Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Daub., Berl. Bib., Herd., Wakcf , AVoodh., 
Thom., Moy., Allw., Greenf, Ell., Lord, Treg., De W., Words., 
Hengst., Ebr. 

^ For that, see W., R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.), Syr., 
It., Fr. S.;-Dodd., Wesl., Herd., Wakef. {that very), Newc, 
Thom., Greenf., Penn, Treg., AVords., Kenr., Ebr. Most of 
these also express the h. 

^ The verb is kept in its place by R. ;-Latin verss., Germ., 
Fr. G.,-S. ;-Beng., Wesl., AA'oodh., AUw., Greenf., Stu., De W., 
Hengst,, Ebr. 

' See ch. 2 : 13, N. c, &c. 

) AVhether names of men be here equivalent to heads of men, 
persons of men, men (Castal., Bez., Drus., Daub., AYolf., Beng., 
De W., Ebr., &c. ;-Schottg., Schlcus., Bretsch., Rob.) ; or to men 
of name (Grell., Wells, Vitr. [who also cites Mede and Laun.], 
Newt., Allw., Lord, &c.) ; or to titles, orders, of men (Goodwin, 
More, &c.) ; or whether ' it is a very significant manner of speak- 
ing, teaching us that God doth not strike men after the manner 
of those that play with swords winking, but that He doth set 
them down certainly .ind by name, whom He will have beaten 
with His rods' ( Brightm. — and there is probably an emphasis 
analogous to this in ch. 3 : 4, where the pure in Sardis are re- 
ferred to as ovojiara, even their names being well-known and 
very dear to the Saviour. Ex. 28 : 9, 21 ; Ps. 147 : 4 ; Is. 40 : 26 ; 
John 10 : 3.) ; or whether there bo in it, as connected with 



jjatoSfj tTitd, some other, and more recondite, meaning (see 
Cocc. and Ell.) ; are questions for the expositor, r.ither than 
the translator. The latter must consider himself only the more 
bound, by reason of this very diversity, to exhibit the precise 
peculiarity of a phraseology and construction, which are not 
more unusual in English than in Greek. — The word oro/taro is 
literally rendered, and that either as the nominative to the verb, 
or in apposition with ;tt!t. as the nominative, by E. V. marg.;- 
W., T., C, G., R.;-A'ulg., Syr., Germ., Dt., Fr. S.;-Erasm., 
Pagn., \^at., Engl. Ann., Cocc, More, Vitr., Daub., Beng.. Newc. 
marg., AToodh., Thom., Allw., Greenf., A'an Ess, Penn, Sharpe, 
Ell., Treg., Kell., Hengst., Kmr., Ebr. 

t R. ;-Brightm., Dodd., AVesl., Sym., Wakef., Newc, Thom., 
Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

" Dt.;-Berl. Bib., Woodh., Allw., Kist., Stu., Lord, De AT., 
Kenr., Ebr. 

" Neither bj- composition, nor by usage (comp. Sir. 19 : 
24 [20] with Sept. Deut. 9 : 19 : and Luke 24 : 5 ; Acts 10 : 4 ; 
22 : 9 ; 24 : 25 [not, trembled, but, becoming afraid] with Mark 
9:0; Heb. 12 : 21), is £ju$0|3oj quite as strong a word as tie(}>of3oj, 
nor is it (as commonly explained) a panic frenzy that is here 
described, but a religious awe and salutary dread, leading to 
repentance. E. V., therefore, errs, not only in changing the 
Greek construction to a passive verb, but in making more in- 
tense the renderings of the older verss. — AV. (icere sent into 
dread), T., C, G., (^were feared), R. (were cast into a fear) ;- 
A^ulg. (in timorem sunt missi), Syr. (:= De D. timidi facti 
sunt), Fr. S. (fureni saisis de crainte;-ior furent epouvantes 
of Fr. G. and M., and effraye of B. and L.) ;-Berl. Bib., De AV., 
Ebr., (voll Furchl;-hr Luth.'s ■wurden . . . erschraken), Beng. 
{kamen in Fitrcht), Dodd., AA''esl., Thom., Penn, Stu., {terrified), 
Herd., Mi-y., (fiirchteten sich), Woodh., Greenf. (IN"!);), Kist. 
(bange). Lord (fearful), Murd., Kenr. 

" For woe, see Judu 11, N. a. E. V. and the older verss. 

follow the Vulg. in supplying the conjunction, which is omitted 
by Syr., Protestant German verss.. Dt., Fr. S. ;-Castal., Cocc, 
WelLs, Daub., B. and L., AVesl.. Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Allw. 
and the later English verss., Grcent 



REVELATION. 



147 



KIXG JAMES VERSION. 

and behold, the third wo Cometh 
quickly. 

15 And the seventh angel 
sounded ; and there were great 
voices in heaven, saying, The 
kingdoms of this world are be- 
come the kingdoms of our Lord, 
and of his Christ ; and he shall 
reign for ever and ever. 



16 And the four and twenty 
elders, which sat before God on 
their seats, fell upon their faces, 
and worshipped God, 



17 Saying, We give thee 
thanks, Lord God Almighty, 
which art, and wast, and art to 
come ; because thou hast taken 
to thee thy great power, and 



hast reigned. 



GREEK TEXT. 

dei^- ISov Tj oval rj rplrT] €p)(^ETat 

15 KAI 6 e^Sofios ayyeXos 
ecraXTTLcye, kou lyivovro ^covou 
fieya\ai iv rco ovpavco, Xeyovaai, 

EyevovTO a\ ^acriAelai tov ko- 

(TflOV, TOV KvploV rjpCOV, Koi TOV 

XpLCTTOV avTov, Kui jBaaiXivcFei 
els Tovs alavas tcov alcovcov. 

16 Kai. OL eiKocri kou Teaaa- 
pes irpecrlBvTepoL ol ivcoTnop tov 
Oeov Kadrjfievoi eVi tovs dpovovs 
avTwv, kirecrav iTU Ta wpoacoTra 
avTcov, Kol Trpoo-eKvvrjaau tco 
Oeco, 

1 7 XeyovTef, J^v^apio-TOv/xev 
aoi, Kvpie 6 Oeoi 6 iravTOKpa- 

TCOp, 6 COU Kol 6 TjV KCU 6 €p)(OfJi€- 

V09, OTL e'LXi](j)a9 ttju bvvajxiv aov 
TTjv p.eyaXrjv, koi i^acnXevaas. 



REVISED VERSION. 

behold, the third "woe cometh 
quickly. 

15 And the seventh angel 
sounded ; and there were "loud 
voices in heaven, °saying : pThe 
kingdoms of ithe world i-are be- 
come ' our Lord's and his Christ's, 
and he shall reign 'unto the ages 
of the ages. 



16 And the 'four and twenty 
eldei's, "who 'sit before God 
"upon their 'thrones, fell upon 
their faces, and worshipped God, 



17 Saying : We give thee 
thanks, 6 Lord God >the Al- 
mighty, ^who art, and 'who wast, 
"and 'who 'comest ; because thou 
hast taken '' thy gi-eat power, 



and 



reigned. 



» See ch. 1 : 10, N. x. For %iyovaa.i., all the recent editors 

(except Matth.) read xiyovtis (• A. B. a 12. J3 2.'). 

P For iylfovTo al ^aai^dai, all the recent editors read cyiirro 
i) fiaaCKiia. (' A. B. C. a 27. /3 6. Compl. Yerss.'). I recommend 
that this reading be adopted, and translated : the kingdom . . . 
is become. 

■J See 1 John 3: 17. N. ii. E. V. and the older verss. follow 
the Vulg. hvjus, which is unsuitable for voices in heaven, and 
is not imitated by Syr., Protestant German verss., Dt., It., Fr. 
G.,-M.,-S. ;-Pagn., Castal. and later Latin verss., Brightm., 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh.. Thorn., Allw., Grecnf., Penn. 
Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Murd. 

 The noun is not repeated by any of the older English 
verss. ;-any foreign version (except B. and L., Fr. S.) ;-Brightm.. 
Hamra. and Daub, (adopt the form above from the older verss.), 
Woodh. {Anointed' s), Lord (Messiah's), Kenr. 

• See ch. 1 : G, N. g, &c. 

' The xai before titsa. is omitted by all the recent editors, 
except Matth., ou the authority of A. B. C. ' o 10. /3 5. Compl. 
Er.' I recommend that this reading be followed : twenty-fuur. 
See ch. 5 : 8, N. e, &c. 

" See2Pet. 2:11, N. f. 

' Comp. ch. 8: 2, N. d. T., 0., G., R.;-Latin verss. (except 
Cocc.), Syr., Dt., French verss. ;-Daub., Berl. Bib. and later 
German verss., Treg., '^^ords., JIurd., Kenr. For xae-fi^nvoi, 



Matth. and Treg. read xdSr^vtai (B. C. aud more than 20 cursive 
MSS. Arm.). 

" E. v., next clause. See ch. C : 16, N. b, &c. 

* See ch. 4 : 4. N .n, &c. 

' Seech. 4: 8, N. k. 

' For who, see 2 Pot. 2: 11, N. f; — for the repetition of the 
relative, see ch. 4 : 8, N. 1 ; — for comest, see ch. 1 : 4, N. o, &c. 

" All the recent editors cancel the words xai i ipxo^iivos, on 
the authority of A. B. C. (except that C. has xal) ' o 23. ;3 5. 
Compl. Vulg. MSS. Am. Harl. Tol. Aeth. Syr. Ann. ed. Yen. 
Ar. P.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and that 
the words, and who comest, be omitted. "' Ncquaquara sub- 
jungunt, ut solcbant, et qui ventiirus es ; praesentem jam de- 
monstrant' (Ansbert; cited, with others, by Beng.). Comp. 
ch. 16: 5, N. z. 

*" Our idiom does not require either the E. V. addition of to 
tliee, or the equivalent for it, which many provide in rendering 
(I'Kritpa.i, accepisti (Vulg., &o.), adeptus (Castal., &c.), received 
(T., &c.), assumed (Thom., &c.), resumed (Stu.). The word 
simply declares, that the Lord God had now laid hold of the 
rod of Ilis strength, which He has ever by Him. Comp. Deut. 
32: 41. (Milton, Animadcersions upon the Remonstrant's De- 
fense against Sineciymnims, Sect. iv. : ' Take up that unlimited 
sceptre, which thy Almighty Father hath bequeathed thee.') — 
W. ;-Tt. (presa in mano), Fr. G. (pris), Fr. S. (pris en main) ;- 
B. and L. marg. (as Fr. G.). Bcng., Moldenh., Herd.. Stolz, 
Kist,, Van Ess, Mej-., (ergriffen)-ioT Luth.'s nngenommen), 



148 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

IS And the nations were an- 
gry, and thy wrath is come, and 
the time of the dead, that they 
should be judged, and that thou 
shouhlest give reward unto thj' 
servants the prophets, and to 
the saints, and them that fear 
thy name, small and great ; and 
shouldest destroy them wiiich 
destroy the earth. 

19 And the temple of God 
was opened in heaven, and there 
was seen in his temple the ark 
of his testament ; and there were 
lightnings, and voices, and thun- 
deringf^ and an earthquake, and 
great hail. 






GREEK TEXT. 

18 Kou Ta kOvi-j aypyiaOrjCTav, 
Kcu rjXOdv 1] opyr] <rov, Kai 6 Kai- 

poS TWV VeKpoiv, Kpl6?]Vai, KCU 

Sovvai TOV pL(j6ov Toiis SovXoLS 
aov Tois 7rpo(l)i]Tai9, kol rois 
dyioi9 Kol Tols (Po^ovpevoi? to 
ovopa aov, T0I9 piKpols kcu rolf 
peyakoLS, kou SiacftdeLpai rovs 
8ia(l)6eipovTas T-qv yrjv. 

] 9 KAI rjvoiyr) 6 vaos tov 
Oeov iv rep ovpavm, kou cocpOi] 7; 

KlficOTOi T1]S 8La67]Kl]S avTov iv 

T(S vaw avTov- kol iyevovTO 
aaTpairai koI (^covai Kai ^povrai 
KCU aiLcrpos koll ^dXa^a peydXr]. 



REVISED VERSION. 

IS And the nations were 
''wroth, and thy wrath 'came, 
and the time of the dead that 
they should be judged, and ^to 
gi\'e °the reward unto thy serv- 
ants, " the prophets '■ and '■ the 
saints, and '■unto 'those 'who 
fear thy name, Jfhe small and 
Jthe great, and 'to destroy 'those 
'who destroy the earth. 

19 And the temple of God 
was opened in heaven, and there 
was seen ^ the ark of 'his 'cov- 
enant in ''his temple : and there 
were lightnings, and voices, and 
'"thunders, and an earthquake, 
and great hail. 



■^ The verb, indeed, is strictly passive = were angered (not 
softened and subdued. Thorn., Stii., trere enraged; Treg.,/iai-e 
been angered; &c.; see ch. 12: 17, N. p.) by the tokens, ever 
multiplying and growing ever darker, of the divine intervention 
and control and judgment to come. But, wralh being the word 
for opyjj in the next clause, the passive form has been yielded 
for the sake of preserving the marked opposition between the 
wrath of the nations and the wrath of God. — W. ;-Latin and 
German verss. (except Herd, and De \V.), Syr., Dt., It., Fr. S.;- 
Dodd., Wesl., Nenc. and Murd. (angry . . . anger). Woodh., 
AUw., Penn, (wrnt/iful), Ell., Greenf. 

• ' No more heralds and precursors.' Comp. Jude 14, N. k. — 
The aorist form is retained by W. ;-IIamm., Dodd., Thorn., 
Kist., Van Ess, Stu., De \V. 

' W.. R.;-Vulg., Syr., Germ., Dt., Fr. G.,-M,;-Beng., Wesl., 
Herd., Woodh., All., Stu. (in the last instance), Lord, Treg.. 
De W., Hengst., Kenr., Ebr. Many of these retain the infini- 
tive in the case of xftiSrjpai also. But this in English gives rise 
to an ambiguity, which is not perfectly remedied by (R., Treg.) 
a comma after dead. 

^ ' Their reward, promised of old, and in the hope of which 
they toiled and suflered ' — Germ., Dt,, It,, French verss. ;- 
Daub., Beng,, Lowm,, Moldenh. {ihren), Wakef., Woodh,, Thom., 
AUw., All,, Ptnn, Lord, Treg., De W., Words, (their), Hengst., 
Ebr. 

^ I punctuate according to the view, which regards rotj 
Jov^otf and toij fo^ov^lipo•,s as two general designations, each 
comprising the two classes appended to it. — The sign of the 
dative is omitted before rotj ay., by T., C, G., R. ;-Wesl., 



Stu., Murd.: and repeated before rotj fo^., by T,, C, G., R. ;- 
Wells, Daub., Dodd., Wcsl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., 
Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Ell., Stu., Murd. 

' For those, see ch. 2: 2. N. h, &c.; — for trho, see ch. 1: 5, 
N. V, &c. and 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

' Germ, (omitting the second article ;-and so Herd., All., 
De W.), Dt., Fr. S. ;-Daub,, Beng., Moldenh., Wakef, Woodh., 
Mey., AUw., Greenf., Treg., Hengst., Murd., Kenr., Ebr. See 
ch. 1.3 : 16, N, b. 

^ In the repetition, t^ foci, (which B. and L. seem to have 
reckoned an inelegance, as they at once exchange it for y ) 
there is an emphasis, which both the position and the airoi 
.strengthen. 'In God's innermost sanctuary, where He himself 
abides, there is laid up the ark of His covenant.' — r^ roy is kept 
in its place by W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr., Dt., It., Fr. G..-M., 
-S. ;-Beng., Dodd., Moldenh., Heid., Newc, Woodh., Mey., 
AUw., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg,, De W.. Murd., 
Kenr., Ebr. 

1 For covenant, see G. ;-Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-almost all the 
verss. and commentaries belonging to this division of the au- 
thorities, together with the lexicon.^. Of the English verss. 
Words, alone retains testament ; and Hengst., while he adopts 

the same word from Luth., vindicates the sense of Bund. 

For the avroi after Sto9., Matth., Griesb., Sch., read toi xupi'ov, 
which, or simply xvpiov, is sustained by B. ' a 26. /3 5. Compl. 
Aeth. perhaps.' 

'" For thunders, see ch. 4: 5, N. t. The words xai ecta/iof 

are cancelled by Tisch., on the authority of • B. a 20. j3 4. CompL 
Arr,' 



Dodd, (adding to thyself us a supplement), Wesl., Wakef. (for 
taking), Sharpe, Treg., Kenr., Ebr. (genommen). 

• 'Shown Thyself as King, begun to reign.' See ch. 19: 6. 



N. d; and comp. Ps. 93: 1; 96: 10; 97: 1; 99: 1, in all of 
which places the Heb. has 'nia ; and the Sept., ijiaai^tvae. — 
Stu. and Lord do not repeat the hast. 



REVELATION. 



149 



KING JAMES \-ERSION. 
CHAP. XII. 

And there appeared a great 
wonder in heaven ; a woman 
clothed with the sun, and the 
moon under her feet, and upon 
her liead a crown of twelve stars : 

2 And she, being with child, 
cried, travailing in birth, and 
pained to be delivered. 

3 And there appeared another 
wonder in heaven ; and behold, 
a great red dragon, having seven 
heads and ten horns, and seven 
crowns upon his heads. 

4 And his tail drew the third 
part of the stars of heaven, and 
did cast them to the earth : and 



GREEK TEXT. 



CHAP. XII. 

Kai (rrj/xeLOv fxeya uxpdi] ev rw 
ovpavw, yvw] Trepi^e^Xij/xevij tou 
rjAiou, Koi rj creXiivr] VTroKarco tu)v 
TToScoi' avrrj'i, kou (ttI ttj? KecfyaAij^ 
avrr^S arli^avos aarepcov SaySeKa- 

J, Kai if yacTTpL i^ovaa, Kpa- 
^iL (JoSivovaa, kol fiaaavL^ofievrj 

3 Kai a)(p0r] aXAo a-rj/xeioi' Iv 
T(o ovpavu), KOL l8ov 8paK(ou fjie- 
ya's TTvppos, k^ci)u K€(f)aXa9 iirra 
Koi Kepara BeKa- koi eVt ra? /c«- 
(jyaXas' avTOv SiaSrj/xaTa eVra" 

4 KOL rj ovpa auTOV avpei to 
Tpirov Tav aarepuiv rov ovpavov, 
KOU efiaXeu avrovf els Trjv yrju. 



REVISED VERSION. 



CHAP. XII. 



And • a great "sign 'was seen 
in heaven ; a woman clothed with 
the sun, and the moon under her 
feet, and 'on her head a crown 
of twelve stars ; 



2 And '' being with child she 
'crieth, 'travailing, and pained 
to ^bring forth. 

-3 And there "-was seen an- 
other 'sign in heaven; and be- 
hold a great red dragon, having 
seven heads and ten horns, and J 
upon his heads seven *diadems ; 

4 And his tail 'drags the tliird 
part ot" the stars of heaven, and 
■"it " cast them ninto the earth. 



• The Greek order is kept by W., R. ;-Vu1g.. Syr., Fr. G., 
-M.,-S. ;-Erasm., Vat., Hamm., Cocc, Vitr., Daub., Wesl., 
Herd., Wakef., Newc, AVoodh., Thotn., Mey., Penn, Sharpe. 
Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Murd., Kenr., Ebr. 

'' E. V. marg.; ch. 15: 1; and generally ;-AV., R. ;-foreign 
yerss. (except Castal., B. and L. In the margin the latter have 
signe.) ;-Brightra., Ilamm., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Woodh.. 
Thorn., Scott, All(v. marg.. Sharpe, Ell., Lord, Trench (see 
Notes on the Miracles, pp. 10-13.), JIurd., Kenr. 

' For was seen, see E. V., ch. 11 : 19 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 5-8 ;-Dt. ;- 
Hamm., Daub., Beng., Wesl., Woodh., Thorn., AlUv., Sharpe, 
Lord, Treg., Murd., Ebr. For on, see ch. 5 : 7, N. a, &c. 

■' Of those who retain the participle, the subject is put next 
to its verb by R. ;-WesI., Woodh., Thorn., Penn, Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Murd.. Kenr., Ebr. 

' The present tense is employed by W. ;-Fi-. S. ;-Erasm., 
Tat., Brightm., Beng., Wesl., Matth., Woodh. {cries out). 
Thom., Treg., (crielh out), Sharpe, Lord (cries), Words., Ebr. 
Matth., Sell., Lachm., read tVpaf f r (■ txpa^iv B. a 7. ;3 2. Ixpaiftf 
C. a 20. 13 3. Coinpl. Vulg. ed.' [Am. has : et damans . . . cru- 
ciatiir.] 'Syr. Aeth.'). Lachm. also prefixes xai, ('A. C). 

"■ For travailing, without in birth, see R. ;-Brightm., Hamm. 

and Dodd. (in travail). Xewe. (being in t.), Sharpe, Treg., 
Murd. (and travailed). 

' E. v., vv. 5, 13; &c. ;-Brightm., Newc, Wood., Lord (de- 
liver), Murd. (bringing f.) ;-Rob. 

'' See V. 1, N. c. 

' See V. 1, N. b. 



J The Greek order is retained by W., R.;-foreign vers.s. ;- 
Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh.. Thorn., Alhv., Penn, Sharpe, 
Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

'' The distinction, which some regard as of symbolical signi- 
ficance, between 6ia8);f<a and orsfaioj, is here observed in trans- 
lation by W., R. ;-Latin and French verss., Syr., Dt.. It. ;-Daub., 
Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., Jloldenh., Herd., Wakef., Woodh., 
Mey., Stolz, Van Ess, Ell., Lord, Treg., De W., Murd., Kenr.;- 
the lexicons. 

1 On Acts 14: 19 Valckcnaer has this note: '■'it.xii.v est Quo- 
raodocunque trahere, avftiv vero ^laiMj h.xuv.'' And Tittm., 
p. 58: 'Simplex ovprir raris.sime reperitur apud scriptores grae- 
co.s, nisi ubi notio violcntiae in trahendo adjuncta sit.' E. V. 
retains the proper force of the word in John 21:8; Acts 8:3; 
and should have done so also in Acts 14 : 19 ; 17 : 6. — It. [slras- 
cinaca), Fr. M. (enlrainait);-^. and L. (entraina), Berl. Bib., 
Beng., (use schleppen), Wakef., Thom., (dragged), Woodh. 
(draweth along), Penn (swept away), Stu., Murd., (drew 
along), De W. (raffte), Words, (siveeps). Barn. (' the main 
idea here is undoubtedly that of power.'), Ebr. (rafft). The 
present tense is retained by Syr., Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Vat.. Daub., 
Beng., Wesl., Newc. marg., Woodh., Treg., Words., Hengst., 
Ebr. 

° The pronominal nominative is inserted by Fr. S. ;-Woodh. 
(he), Kenr. 

" The auxiliary did is not found in W., T., C, G., R. ;-Dodd., 
Wesl. (casteth), Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

» For untn, see ch. 8 : 5, N. p, &c. ;— for who. see 2 Pet. 2:11, 
N. f. 



150 



REVELATION. 



KINO JAMES VERSION. 

the dragon stood before the wo- 
man which was ready to be de- 
livered, for to devour her child 
as soon as it was bom. 

5 And she brought forth a 
man-child, who was to rule all 
nations with a rod of iron : and 
her child was caught up unto 
God, and to his throne. 

6 And the woman fled into 
the wilderness, where she hath 
a place prepared of God, that 



GREEK TEXT. 
KciL O BpOLKCOV e(TTr)K€V ivCOTTlOU 

Trjf yvvouKos Trjs fii\Xovcn)f T€- 

Kilv, iva OTaV TiKY], TO TiKVOV 

avTTjf Karcifpayrj. 

•5 /cat tTiKev v'lou clppeva, os 
fieXXei woinalveiv iravra ra kdirq 
€v pa^?xo cTit-qpfj.' kcil rjpTrafTdr) 
TO TtKvov avTrji Trpos TOV Otov 
KfU TOV dpovop avTov. 

6 KCIL T) yvin) iCpuyiu (Is ttjv 

iprjpiOV, (fiTOV f-XiL TOrjTOV rjTOL- 

p/i(Tp^vov uiro TOV Oeov, Ivrx (Kel 



REVISED VERSION. 

And the dragon stood before the 
woman "who was fabout to 
ibring forth, 'that, -when 'she 
''brought forth, 'he might devour 
her child. 

5 And she brought forth a 
'male child, who 'is to 'tend all 
'the nations with J-an iron rod : 
and her child was caught 'away 
"to God and " his throne. 

6 And the woman fled into 
the wilderness, 'where she hath 
a place prepared ■'by God, that 



i> See ch. 10: 7, N. y, &.C. Dwld,, Wakef. (going), Newc, 
Woodh., ADw.. Penn, Ell , Sto., I»rd, Treg., Murd. 

1 See T. 2, X. g. 

' The Grck constmction is retained by Vi ., R. ;-Latin and 
German rerss. (except All.), Syr., Dt.. It.. Fr. S. ;--Daa>.., Dodd.. 
WeHl.. Wakef., Newc. W'cxjdh., Thom.. All'^r., Penn, Stu., Lord, 
MurJ., Kcnr. 

• The Grcfk order is retained hy W., P». ;-T>atin and German 
yerss". (except All.), Syr., It., Fr. S. ;-Daub., Dodd., We.sl., 
"VVakef., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Allvr., Penn, Stu., Lord, Murd., 
Ke,,,.. — Por wlien. sec W., R. ;-forcign verss. ;-TJodd. and the 
later English (except Sharpc, Words.). Nowhere else does 
E. V. render iytav (i» sorm (US. except John 16; 21. Comp. 
ch. 10: 10, N. m. There, as here, E. V. follows T., C, G. 

« The stiVjstitiition of a passive verb for rixs, in whicli E. V. 
follows T., C, O., appears nowhere else, except in Hamm., 
Wells, Sharpe, Word.i. 

" Lit. a ttoti. a male. Comp.. in the Hebrew, Is. C6: 7 and 
Jer. 20 : 15. Tne -isT ',2 of the latter place i« here followed by 
the Syr. and Greenf.— I.Alin Terss. (^/t'ttOT itmmcm/wot ;-cxcept 
CaHfal., Cocc, V'itr. f. margin), (jKTTa. {einen Sohn, ein 
Kri/thUin). l)l.(maitm(ijken zorni), \i.{figliwil maschvi). Fr. G. 
{mfanl m&le), Fr. M. (//«), Fr. S. (/.. m&U) ■,-!&. and L. (as 
Fr. G.), Ijeng. (m&nnlichen Sohn), Moldenh., De W., (H.), 
Herd., Mey., (S., den Knaben), Wakef. (sm), Newc, Woodh., 
Thom. (masctdine son), Stolz (S., da» m&nnliche Kind), 
Kis'. (K., einen S.). Goss. (m&nnl. K.), All. (.»., ein M&nn- 
lein). Penn, Lord, Ileng.Kt. (as Germ,), Mard., Kenr., Ehr. 
(in his Comment, follows the text. rec. ; but in the ver.sion, 
einen S., ein Msmnliches, he adopts Lachm.'s reading, wm ifnitv 
['A. C.'i);-Rob. 

» The present tense of fii'txii h retained by It., Fr. 0.,-M., 
-S. ;-Daub., Benj., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Lord, Treg., De W., 
Kell., Ebr. 

• See ch. 2 : 27, N. r, &c. Uerigit. : ' Instead of the bruising 



the geer, after the LXX,, has tending. Not at all throagh 
mistake or caprice. In the original passage itself alltwion is 
made to the tending, the word which signifies: Thoti icilt 
bruise, differing not in the cbn.sonants, but only in the pronnn- 
ciation, from: Tluni will tend. By means of this significant 
allasion. as if it were. Thou will tend to pieces (zer-ueiden), it 
is intimatef] that the profxrr office of the Anointed is to tend 
(Pf. 78; 71, 72). but that upon their smful ffiid pro quo, 
refractoriness inatcail of joyful obedience, there ensues a right- 
eous quill pro fpio on the part of tlie Anointed. The twofold 
expression could in Greek be rendered only as a single one, and 
the tenrling, i;.sed with a certain irony, is in the main quite 
suitable.' 

' Syr., Dt., It., French 7ersg. ^Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, 
Woodh., Thom., Allw., Greenf., Penn, E!!., Stu., Treg., Kcnr. 

y See ch. 2: 27, N. s. 

• On 2 Cor. 12: 2 Campb. properly remarks, that ofndl^u ia 
'expressive more of the suddenness of the event, and of his 
(the apostle's) own passivenes.s, than of the direction of the 
motion.' Nor is the word so rendered as to indicate direction 
in E. v.. Matt. 13: 10 ; Acts 8 : 3f) ; &c. ;-W. ;-any foreign rer- 
sion, except perhaps the French, whose ambiguous enleri is, 
howerer, exchanged by the Fr. S. for rati ;- Wakef,, Thom. }- 
the lexicons. 

• W.. R. ^Brightm., Dodd. and later rerss. (except Allw,_ 
Sharpe, Words.) 

*> Before tin 9fov., all the recent erlitors insert jtpoj (.\. B. C. 
'a 24. 3 3. Cornpl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. 
MSS.'). I recommond that this reading be adopted : to. 

' After txti, all the recent editors (except Lachm.) insert 
(Treg. in bracket*) the word ixtl (A. B. 'a 25. 3 5. Compl- 
Slav. MSS.'), thus forming a Ilebrai.stic pleonasm similar to 
that in v. 14 ; ch. 3 : 8 (N. t) ; 7 : 2, 9 ; 17 : 9 ; 4c. 

'» Sec 2 Pet. 2: 19, N. 1. 



REVELATION. 



151 



GRBEIx TEXT. 



REVISED VERSIOX. 



KING JAMES VERSIOX. I 

thov sliould tlwi her there a Tpffjxoatv airrijv ijfif'pas X'^'*'"' 't''*"'"'^ '''»T should 'nourish her 
thousjxnil two hundred <7«</ three- ^,<jjjO(;./„j. ('C,J^.o,T-a a ihousjind two hundred and 



score day 

7 And there was war in heav- 



^sixty days. 

7 And there was war in heav- 
en : " Mieliael and his angels 
'fought against the dragon, ' 
and the drasou fouffht and his 



7 Kai eytVero TroAf juof eV r^ 
en: Miehael and his angels fought ovpaixo- 6 .l/ivo»;A Kai o't ayy«Aot 
asrainst the drasjou ; and the , ~', . / ' v ~ ^ ' 

,- X- 1 "J 1 • 1 avTov (TroAfiiriiTav Kara tov opa- 

drasou tousrht and his angels, , " ' , , , ^ 

" I KOjTOf , Kai opCLKCoi' i7roA(pi)iT€, augels. 

/ j Koi 01 ayyeAot avrov, 

S And prevailed not : neither S Kat ovk itrxucrar, oure t6~os \ ^ And nhey prevailed not, 
was their place touud any more fiW^„ a{rr^i> (ti (v rm ovpaici. ■*u<^"l>'^'»- ^\«^\ their place found 
in heaven. v r i j^j^^. ,,^j^,.j, „, jjoavon. 

9 And the great dragon was koi e,dAv^>; 6 ^ipoKwi' o fxi- "i> And 'that great dragon was 

c-Ksr our tli-ir ol.l sernent c-»lled ' *" jk • " - ' „\,' 'cast, that old serpent, "'wilich is 

castour.ui.il oiu m ipini. i.tiuu y^^, ^ ^y0^^ ^ ap\aiof, o kclAov- ,, . , , •, i o i 

the Devil, and Satan, which d,- '^ , ^ , , ^-k- - called the .Wil. and ^atan. -who 

ceiveth the whole world: he was ff^^o,^ -^tjtpoXo',, Kat o^aravaf, decciveth the whole world, he 

\ o irXavaiv -njv otKOvixeinjv oAj;i', 



• The adverb is kept In-ibrv tho wrl> by K. ;-L*tin and Oor- 
ra»n Tcrss., Syr., Dt., Fr. S, ;-W<XHlh. (/*<•« should Iheiv) 
Sliarpo, Stu. (thty miifhi thfirX Lord. Trejr. Otliers, n-ndorins 
r,M^v'ir by a jvv<sivi< onistruotion. inUvdiice tho adverb be- 
tween the auxiliary und the main verb. 

' E. v.. V. U : Acts 12 : iW ; .lames 5 : 5 ^-tAerman verss. (use 
eriiAhrfii). It. (,<i<i nudritii). Fivnch vorss, (u-:e HOi/rnV) ;- 
Castal.. Bei.. Drus., Grot , Kos.. (use ij.Vif for tlie Vulg. p<jiVii\ 
Coco.. Vitr., (use mitriir). DixU., AVakof. (/o bt supported). 
WovMih., Thoui., Stu., Lonl, Treg., .Miir»I,. Rirn. 

« Stiech. 11: 3, N.j. 

» Exoeiit Matth., who has nAiuisat ("B. ail. (S5. .\cth. 
Syr. -Vrr.'). all tlie nwnt editors, for iH<i>.ini;3ar. give toC 
ff<A(,u^tia<- on tho auiliovity of A. C, nine cursive MSS., and 
Coiiipl. ; and this latter rtadini; 1 rocviinmend for adoption. 
E«\ and Zull. tind in it an imitation ol" a Hebrew use of the 
inliuitivo with 5 prctLxeil to denote apftMiitnitDi. oblig-iition 
= p:ig-iutndiii)i erat; and with this Stu. agrees; his own alter- 
native (to supply u^*^ from vt. 1, 2) yielding no light. Bong, 
and Ilcinr. supply ifuai- = onuifs ft toti iiUmti erant in pu^- 
nam; Lacke, iyircrto (out of i-^Utro) = a/ipeitrwi, came. 
AViii. thinks it prvilwWe, De W. cortain, tliat tho tejit is cor- 
rupt; tlie former. indec<l. suggestinsr. th.it Michafl <i:u{ his 
(Ut^ls might possibly be rvgnixlol as intrvviuci\l parenlhotioally, 
and iy»nTo HoXiuoi as then t:iki>n up again in tlie fonn toi «ox. 
Assnming the corrx.vtness of the text, I prefer to construe u M. 
xai « o')-7'. derov as absolute nominatives, with the jwrtieiplo of 
the substantive verb iniderstoiul ; .Michael and his a»irels 
belonging- to. beintr on thg'side oj'. roC .tox. xrX. = Michail 
and his aiisels lighting-. &c.. which 1 projuwe for tho version: 
and in that c.ise 1 recommend that tho pune(u»tion W i-h;inge»l 
to a i-omm-v ador hearen and a semicolon after tho lirsl 
dragon. — Syr. (has tho llcb. construction, to which Ew. n^ 
fers) ;-Bcng. (halten zii stiviten), Wiwdh. (for to Jight). 
Sharpe, Lord, (jii'A/ui^), Trcg. {to irar). 



' Exceptutg Bloomf.. all the rectnit etlitors, for xoroi hare 
utra (• .\. B. C. o 26. .3 5. Oomp!.'). 1 rtcommend ihat this 
reading be adopteil. and iranslatetl: vilh. Si-e ch. 2: U>, N. q. 

1 The change of number is ni.wkerl in \V„ R,;-I^lin verss. 
(oxivpt Castal.). Germ.. Dt„ Fr, S. ^Brightm., Engl. Ann., 
B. and L.. Do<id., llonl.. Newc, Givcnf.. All., ronn. Kenr., 
Ebr. The rojiding i.-<xv3!<r (' A. a 22. ,a 3. Compl. Copt. Acth. 
Erp.') is adopter! by all tho recent eililors, escv>pt BIoomfT 

L,«lira., Tisoh. Fi\r ovr». all the recent editors give oiii 

(A. B.C. -a IS. .3 5. Compl.'). 

» See 1 John 2: 7. X, o. Ac. E. V., next clause j-W., R,;- 
Utin verss., Syr. ;-\Vakef., All. (jentr). Kenr. 

I Exivpt in (his verse, E, V, nowhere adds out to tho proper 
me.iniiig of .3axx..i. Si-e v. IS; .'ic. ;-Syr. (as in ch. 19: 20; 
Malt, 17:27). Dt,. It., Fr, S. ;-U.imm., l\xv, (coi)Jfi-tus;-toT 
ptvjixtus of tlie other verss,), Berl. BiK, Bong., Kist., De AV., 
llengst., (ivifoiyiii ;-for Luth.'s aj/.'t.cciror/cii), Xowc, (marks 
out as supplioil), Ebr, (I'l-jf/ilr:*) )-Rol»'! *«• Comp, ch, IS: 
21, X. >i. Hero tho lirst «3>j;«r does not of itself form a com- 
plete statement, tho announoument of the direction in wh-ch tho 
dragon was c;vst being su<pendod, \inlil his j>erson:>!ity is dotcr- 
mint-<l. and the idea of coming peril (V. 12) enh:U>cotl, by refer- 
onco to his namo.s, and former history, and present working 
among men, llengst,, indee>l, cites v. 10 as evidence of tho 
completeness ami indeiKUideniV of tho first clausiN assuming 
that tho true n-ading there is i,3>j;r>r (• .\. B, C. a 22. )3 (J,") J 
which, however, h.vs not been received by tJriesb. or Sch. 

■" The relative c\'»nstruolion is adopted by E. V. in the next 
clause; ,'tc. :-\V., U. :-foreign verss. (except Fr. G..-M.,-S., 
Bong.. Greenf.);-\Vesl., Woodh., Tliora., .\llw., Penn. Stu., 
Lorxl. Treg., Muni,, Kenr. 

 Sec 2 Tot, 2: 11, X. f. 



152 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

cast out into the earth, and his 
angels were cast out with him. 

10 And I heard a loud voice 
saying in heaven, Now is come 
salvation, and strength, and the 
kingdom of our God, and the 
power of his Christ : for the ac- 
cuser of our brethren is cast 
down which accused them before 
our God day and night. 



11 And they overcame him 
by the blood of the Lamb, and 
by the word of their testimony ; 
and they loved not their lives 
unto the death. 



12 Therefore rejoice, ijc heav- 



GREEK TEXT. 

ifiXi^Orj et? TTjv yrju, kol o'l ayye- 
A.OL avTov /xer avTov ifiXi]6rjaav. 

10 Kcu TjKovaa (f)covr]v fieya- 
Xrjv Xiyovaav iv tco ovpavw, 
'Apri iyevero r] (rcoTrjpia kou 
Tj Suva/jLif KOL rj l3aa-iXeLa rod 
Oeov rifxcov, kcu i) e^ovaia rov 
Xpiarov avTOv- on Kare^Xijdi] 
6 Karrjyopos toov a5eA(^wi' i)p,wv, 
6 KaTrjyopu)v avTwu ivcoTTLOv rov 
Oeov i]pu)v y fie pas Koi vvktos- 

11 KOL avTol evLKrjcrav avTov 
8ia TO aipa tov apviov, kcu Sia 
Tov Xoyov TYjs p.apTvpias avTcov, 
Kol ovK r^yairrjcrav ti]v y^V)(r]v av- 
tS)v a^pt^ Oavarov. 

12 8ia. TOVTO ev^ppaivecrBe o'l 



REVISED VERSION. 

was 'cast "unto the earth, and 
his angels were 'cast with him. 

10 And I heard a loud voice 
I'saying in heaven : Now is come 
■"the salvation, and ^the '■power, 
and the kingdom 'of our God, 
and the 'authority »of his Christ : 
for tiie 'accuser of our brethren 
'is cast down, 'who accused them 
before our God day and night. 



11 "They, "too, overcame him, 
""because of the blood of the 
Lamb, and ""because of the word 
of their testimony ; and they 
loved not their 'life unto " death. 



12 Therefore rejoice, »ye heav- 



» E. v., V. 13; &c. See ch. 8: 5, N. p^ Sic. 

p All the recent editors have iv r^ oip. xiy. (A. B. C. 'a 17. 
(3 6. Compl. Verss.'). I recoumioml tliat this reading be 
followed : in heaven saying-: . 

"> Foreign verss. ;-Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., 
Thorn, and Murd. (have only the second article), AUw., Penn. 
Sharpe and Stu. (have only the first), Ell., Lord, Treg., Words. 

 See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. h. E. V. generally, and always else- 
Tvhere in doxologies;-Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh,, Penn, 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. 

 Or the genitives tov &iov and rov 'Kpi.atoi may be con- 
strued with iyt'i/ffo, as in ch. 11: 15. For aulkorily, see 

ch. 2: 26, X. p, &c. Latin vers?., except Castal., (poiesias). 
Syr. (= De D. potestas = Greenf. n'sd'S'a); It. (^podcstd), 
Ft. S. (^autorite) ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Moldcnh., Stolz, Van Ess, 
Kist., Mey., De W., Ebr., (GewaU;-ror Luth.'s jl/ac7iO, Dodd., 
Wakef., Woodh. (rule), Thorn., Penn, Ell., Stu. and Muid. 
{dominion). Lord, Treg. 

' The form xa-r»;yup (" A.'), which Beng. marks as plane 
genuina, is adopted by other recent editors, except Jlatth., 

Bloomf , Words. For xatifir-rfirj, see v. 9, N. 1. For who, 

see 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

n 'Even they, whom Satan accused, were themselves made 
partakers of the divine triumph.' See 2 Pet. 1 : 14, N. z, ifcc, 
and 1 John 1 : 7, N. x, &c. — Vulg. {et ipsi), Syr. (= et iUi), 
It. {ma essi) ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret., Cocc. Vitr., {as f'ulg.), 
Pagn., Bez.. Par., Eichh., {sed ipsi), Castal. {illi), Brightm., 
Wakef., Newc, {but ihey), Herd., Mey., {Sie selbst), Treg. 
{and they). 



"° E. v., Matt. 13 : 21 ; 17 : 20 ; &c. ; and in this book comp. 
all the places, in which Sid is followed by the accusative (as 
ch. 1: 9; 2: 3; 4: 11; 6: 9; &p.). except the present text, and 
ch. 13: 14;-W. (/or) ;-Vulg. {propter), Syr., Fr. G..-M..-S., 
(d cause rfe) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Drus., Par., Giot., Cocc, 
Giell., Ros., (as Viilg.). Engl. Ann. ( Or, fur'). Daub, (in the 
Comment.), Beng. (von wegen;-to which Hengst. assents as 
more exact than durch, and also cites Beng.'s note : ' This blood 
purified the brethren from all sin, and so the accus^er could in 
nothing more gain an advantage over them . . . The word they 
believed, and, because they believed, they also spoke and gave 
testimony to it and suffered all for it ; 2 Cor. 4: 13.'), Treg. ;- 
Win. § 53. c, Rob. See ch. 13 : 14, X. n. Here E. V. follows 
T., C. G., R. ;-Bez. {per). 

' The singular is found in Vulg. Cod. Am., Syr., German 
verss., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Era.sm. and later Latin verss. ;-Daub., 
B. and L., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., AUw., Bloomf., Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Jlurd. 

" ' To the last extremity, death, the love of the disciple and 
the fidelitj' of the witness overcame the love of life, and of all 
its interests.' — Wells, Daub., Wakef., Xewc, Woodh., Thorn., 
Midd., AUw., Penn, Sliarpe, Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg.. Murd., 
Kenr. ' Unto the death,' may no doubt be defended against 
Midd. as an English idiom (Bloomfy) ; but it is not required as 
a translation of o;^pt Bavdrmi. 

* The ye ought not to be marked as supplied, it being no 
more than an equivalent for the idiomatic article. Only Matth. 
and Treg. omit this first ol, on the authority of B. C. ' a 15. /3 4.' 
— E. v., next clause ; &c. ;-German verss., Dt. ;-modern English 
verss., except Penn and Words. Comp. ch. 15 : 3, X. o. 



REVELATION. 



153 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

ens, and ye that dwell in them. 
Wo to the inliabiters of the 
earth, and of the sea ! for the 
devil is come down unto you, 
having great wrath, because he 
knoweth that he hath but a short 
time. 

13 And when the dragon saw 
that he was cast unto the earth, 
he persecuted the woman which 
brought forth the man-c/iikh 

14 And to the woman were 
given two wings of a great eagle, 
that she might fly into the wild- 
erness, into her place, where 
she is nourished for a time, and 
times, and half a time, from the 
face of the serpent. 



15 And the serpent cast out 
of his mouth water as a flood, 



GREEK TEXT. 



OVpaVOL KUL OL tV aVTOLS (TKrjVOVV- 

res. ovai tol^ KaroiKovcri ttji' yr]v 
Kou. TTju OaXaacrav, on Kare^rj 6 
8iaj3oXof irpos v/jlo.^ e-^cov Ovfxov 



€\8u)S 



on 



bXiyov 



Kaipov 



fieyav, 

13 Kou 0T€ eiSeu 6 SpaKcov on 
i^XrjOr] els ttju yr]v, eStcw^e nqv 
yvvaxKa r]ns ercKe tov appeva. 

14 KaL eSodr/aav rfj yvvaiKL 
8vo TTTepvyes tov aerov tov fie- 
ydXov, Iva TTiTrjTUL et? T7]u eprj/xou 
ety Tou TOirov avTrjs, oirov Tpecpe- 
TUL €Kei Kaipov, KaL Kaipov9, Kai 
rifiLcrv Kaipov, airo Trpoa-coirov tov 

6060)$" :•. 

15 Kal elSaXeu 6 t>0iy ottictco 
TTjS yvvaLKOi e/c tov CTToJiaros 



REVISED VERSION. 

ens, and ye >\vho 'tabernacle 
"therein. 'Woe to "those "who 
"inhabit the earth and the sea ! 
for the devil is 'gone down unto 
you, having great wrath, "know- 
ing that he hath • little time. 



13 And when the dragon saw 
that he was cast unto the earth, 
he persecuted the woman 'that 
brought forth the ^male chihl. 

14 ^nd '•there were given to 
the woman ' two wings of "the 
great eagle, that she 'should fly 
into the wilderness, into her 
place, where she is nourished for 
a time, and times, and half a 
time, from the face of the ser- 
pent. 

15 And the serpent cast ^ after 
the woman out of his mouth 



y Dodd., Thorn., Stu., Lord, Kenr. 

' See cli. 7 : 15, N. g, and 13 : G, N. a. Fr. S. (dressez vos 
tentes) ;-Engl. Ann. {dwell as in a tent). Cocc. [tabertiaculmn 
incolitis), Berl. Bib. (Hiitten habt), Ew. ('verbum libro huic 
peculiare de iis qui securo in coelo commorantur ; in coelo enim 
dci numen praesens tugnrii instar est ipsos in tuguriis niino- 
ribus habitantcs tegentis et muuientis.'). Kell., Heng.st. ('eig. 
Zelten^), Ebr. (Hiitten haben). Others, as Brightm., advert 
in like manner to the etymological meaning. 

' E. v., ch. 13: 12; &c. ;-R. ;-Germ., Dt., Fr. G. (j/:-and so 
M., S.);-Berl. Bib., Herd., Woodh., May., All., Sharpe, Stu.. 
De W., Hengst., Murd. {there). For woe, see Jude 11, N. a. 

" See ch. 8: 13, N. q, &c., and 17: 2, N. k. But all the re- 
cent editors cancel the words, toli xatoixovai, on the authority 
of A. B. C. ' Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.,' 
and (except Treg. and Lachm.) change trjv yr^v xal trjp ed7.aaaav 
into f^ yjj xai ty 6a\aaarj (' B. a 22. j3 G. y 3. Compl.'). I re- 
commend that the words, those who inhabit, be omitted, and 
that the sign of the dative be repeated before the sea. 

■= The voice was in heaven. Comp. E. V., ch. 4: 1; 11: 12. 

— ^.{descended) ;-Latin verss. (descendit), Syr., It. {disceso), 

, French verss. {descendxi) ;-Wakef., Thorn., Van Ess and Kist. 

{hinab fiihr), Mey., De W., {hinabgestiegen), Greenf. (I'l"'): 

Lord. 

^ The participle is retained by W., R. ;-Vu!g., Dt., It., French 
verss. ;-Erasm., Vat., Castal., Cocc, Daub., Wakef., Newc, 
Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr., Ebr. 



' There is nothing for but in W., R. ;-foreign verss. generally ;- 
Hamm., Daub., Newc. and Alhv. (mark it as supplied), Woodh., 
Stu., Murd. ; — nor is the indefinite article found in W. ;-German 

and French verss., It. For i/«/e, seeE.T., Janies4; 14; &c.;- 

W., R. ;-foreign verss., except Castal. ;-namra.. Daub., Wesl., 
Thorn., Penn. Also, at ch. 17 : 10, Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., 
Stu. 

' See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

^ See V. 5, N. u. 

■^ See ch. 8 : 2, Jf . e, &c. Here the Greek order is retained 
by R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.), Syr., It. ;-B. and L., Dodd., 

Wesl., Greenf, Treg., Ebr. Others put first the subject of the 
verb. 

' Before ivo, Beng., Lachm., Treg., Bloomf , Words., Tisch., 
insert ai ('A. C. 12. 27*. 28. 36.'). I recommend the following 

marginal note: 'Or, as some read, the two wings.' For the 

definite article before great eagle, see Syr., It., Fr. S. ;-Cocc. 
{itlius), Daub., Berl. Bib., Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., Wakef., 
Woodh., Thorn., Midd., Clarke, Stolz, Penn, Bloomf., Ell., Stu., 
Lord, Treg., De W., Words., Hengst., JIurd., Kenr., Ebr. 



) W. ;-Dt. ;-Pagn., Par., Grell., (volet; 
other verss.), Lord, Words, (may). 



-for rolaret of the 



If Bloomf. marks the reading here as needing alteration, and 
all other recent editors do change the order to ix tov aio^. avt. 
ore. trji yvv. (A. B. C. 'a 20. /J 7. Compl. Verss.'). I recom- 
mend that this reading be followed : out of his mouth after the 
woman. 

20 



154 



REVELATIO^T. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

after the woman, that he might 
cause her to be carried away of 
the flood. 

16 And the earth helped the 
woman ; and the earth opened 
her mouth, and swallowed up 
the flood which the dragon cast 
out of his mouth. 



17 And the dragon was wroth 
with the woman, and went to 
make war with the remnant of 
her seed, which keep the 'com- 
mandments of God, and have the 
testimony of Jesus Christ. 



CHAP. xin. 
And I stood upon the sand 



GREEK TEXT. 

avTOv v8a>p a>9 TroTafiov, 'lua rav- 

TT]V TTOTa/XOCJjoprjTOl' TVOLIfCrrj. 

16 Kcu ejBorjOrjaev i) yij rfj 
yvvaLKi, KCU rjvoL^ev rj yrj to 
a-TO/xa avrrjs, kcu KareTTie rou iro- 
Tafxov 'ov e^aXev 6 SpaKcav Ik tou 
(TTOIXaTOS avTov. 

17 Kcu copylcrdr] 6 SpaKcov eiri 
rfj yvvaLKL, kcu aTrrjXOe TroirjcraL 
iroXep-ov fiera twv XomcLv tov 
airepparos avTrjf, rcov Tiipovvrcxiv 
Tas ivToXas tov Oeou, kcu l^ov- 
Tcou Trjv p-apTvpiav tov lyaov 
XpcaTOv. 

18 Kcu icrTaOrjv iirl ttjv ap,- 
p.ov T-Qs '^aXacrarjs. 

CHAP. XIII. 

Kal elSov €/c r^y OaXacrcn'js 



REVISED VERSION. 

water as a 'river, that he might 
cause "her to be carried away 
"by the -river. 

16 And the earth helped the 
woman, and the earth opened 
her mouth, and swallowed up 
the "river which the dragon cast 
out of his mouth. 



17 And the dragon was fen- 
raged "iabout the woman, and 
went 'away to make war with 
the 'rest of her seed, -who keep 
the commandments of God, and 
have the testimony "of Jesus 
Christ. 



'18 And 'I "was set upon the 
sand of the sea. 

CHAP. XIII. 

'And '■I saw a 'beast ■'ascend- 



" E. v., 6 times in this book out of 8 ;-T., C, G. ;-fore!gn 
verss. ;-Hamm., Daub.. Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Sharpe, Stu., 
Lord, Words., Murd., Kenr. (in the last clause, and in the next 

VBTSe). 

" For tavtriv, all the recent editors (except Bloomf.) read 

aiiiiv (-A. B. C. a 25. (3 5. Compl.'). For by, see 2 Pet. 

2:19, N.I. 

° See N. ]. Many here unnecessarily change the word. 

• See V. 15, N. 1. 

P See ch. 11 : 18, N. d. Fr. G.,-M., {irrite) ;-Daub. ^angered), 
Dodd., Newc, Woodh., Thorn., Jley. (firg-rimmie;-and so 
Kist., De W.), Penn, Stu., Murd. 

1 The inl (wanting in C.) presents the woman as the ground 
and occasion, not as the immediate object, of the dragon's 
wrath. Comp. Matth. 18 : 13 ; Mark 3: 5 ; &c. ; and see Win. 
\ 52. c. — Syr. (= ^s), German verss. (liier ;-except Moldenh., 
auf), Dt. (op) ;-Wakef., Thom. and Stu. {at). 

' See Jude 7, N. c. Foreign verss. (except Castal., who 
changes ahiit to m«) ;-Dodd., Wesl. and Sharpe {forth). 
Wakef. {back), Newc. {departed), Woodh., Allw., Penn {away 
from [Aer]), Stu., Lord {on), Words., Kenr., Ebr. (unneces- 
sarily changes hin of the other verss. into fort). 

• See ch. 11 : 13, N. k. 

t See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

° All the recent editors cancel the words ■rou and Xpiutov, 
on the authority of A. B. C. ' o 25. 3 6. y 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. 



.4m. Copt. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MS.' I recommend that this read- 
ing be adopted : of Jesus. 

' The arrangement of this verso, as an independent statement 
belonging to ch. 12., arose from the readin.:; intdSij. approved 
by Mill, and edited by Lachm., Trcg., Words., Theile, on the 
authority of 'A. C. 92. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Ar. P.' The 
other editors retaining iatdStjv, which is approved also by Ew., 
De W., Hengst., Ebr., I recommend that the words be attached 
to the first verse of the next chapter, as in E. V. 

" Germ, {trat), It. {mi fermai), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., {me tins);- 
Engl. Ann. (• Or, / was set'). Coco, {constituiiis sum), B. and 
L. {m'ai-retai), Berl. Bib. {wurde geslellet), Beng., De W., 
{as Germ.), Eichh. ('Joannes in littore maris collocatur.'), 
Wakef., Thom., {was placed), Woodh., Allw., Stu. in the 
commentary, {was stationed). All. {stellle sich), Hengst. {ward 
gesiellt), Ebr. {stellte mich). Comp. ch. 17: 3; 21: 10. 



' Seech. 12:18, N.v. 

' Of English verss. that read iatderjv, the following repeat 
the pronoun : T., C, G. ;- Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw.. Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord. 

' See ch. 11 : 7, N. y. 

^ See ch. 9:2, N. h. E. V., ch. 17 : 8 ; &c. ;-Latin verss. ;- 
Daub, {ascending up), Dodd., Lord. For the participial form, 
see ch. 10 : 1, N. a, &c. 



REVELATION. 



166 



KIXG JAMES VERSION. 

of the sea, and saw a beast rise 
up out of the sea, having seven 
heads and ten horns, and upon 
his horns ten ci'owns, and upon 
his heads the name of blasphemy. 

2 And the beast vrhich I saw 
was like unto a leopard, and his 
feet were as the fret of a bear, 
and his mouth as the mouth of 
a lion : and the dragon gave him 
his power, and his seat, and 
great authority. 



3 And I saw one of his heads 
as it were wounded ,to death ; 
and his deadly wound was heal- 



GREEK TEXT. 

BrjpLOV a.va(3aLP0u, e';)(oi' /ce^aAa? 
eirra koI Kepara 5e/ca- kou eVt 
Tcou Keparoiv avrov 8eKa StaSr]- 
fxara, Koi evrl Tas KeipaXas avrov 
6vo/xa l3Xa(T(l)T]/J.[a^. 

2 Kol TO Otjp'lov b eiSov rjv 
hpLOLOv TrapSaXei, Kai ol iroSe^ 
avTOu ft)? apKTOV, Kai to aro/xa 
avTOV coy (TTo/xa Aeoz^roy. kol 
eScoKiv avra 6 SpaKCou Trjv bvva- 
fiip avTOv, KCLi Tov Opovov aVTOV, 
Kca i^ovaiau fxeyaXrjV 

3 Kol eiSou jxlav Tav K€(j)a\cou 
avrov d)s iacfyayp^evrju el? 6ava- 
TOV Kai 7] rrXrjyq rod Oavarov 



REVISED VERSION. 

ing out of the sea, having '"'seven 
heads and ten horns, and ■'■'on 
his horns ten 'diadems, and upon 
his heads ^a name of blasphemy. 



2 And the beast which I saw 
was like ^ a leopard, and his 
feet ■• as ' of a bear, and his 
mouth as the mouth of a lion : 
and the dragon gave him his 
power, and his 'throne, and great 
authority. 



3 And il saw one '■of his heads 
'as if it "'had been "slain to death ; 
and "the stroke of his death was 



'•'' All the recent editors (except Bloomf.) read, xifiata hixo, 
xai xt^aXas iTttd (A. B. C. 'o20. p 7. Compl. Ilarl.* Copt. 
Aeth. Syr. Arr. Slav. MSS.'). I recommend that this reading 
be fullowed : ten horns and seven heads. The horns appear 

first. For 07i see ch. 3 : 10, N. d, &c., and comp. cb. 7 : 1, 

N. b, &c. 

• Seech. 12:3, N.k. 

' Dt., It., French verss. ;-BerI. Bib., Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., 
Wakef., Thom., Scott, Clarke. Most follow the reading ovd^iara 
(A. B. 'a 2G. (3 6. Compl. Vulg. Syr. Ar. P. Slav.'), which is 
received by all the recent editors except Beng. Hcinr. also 
mentions it as the superior reading. But Ew., Ziill., De W., 
disapprove of it, (the last considering it an accommodation to 
ch. 17 : 3.) and llengst. regards the question as one of difficult 
decision. I recommend that the marg. note of E. V. be re- 
tained : ' Or, names.'' 

« See ch. 1 : 13, N. d. 

i" The copula is not supplied by W., R. ;-Latin and German 
verss. (except Moldenh.), Syr., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Daub., Woodh., 
Thorn., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

' See ch. 9 : 8, N. f.— The form opxov (A. B. C. 'o 15. ^ 3. y 2.') 
is adopted by all the recent editors. 

) Seech. 4:4, N.n,&c. 

k All the recent editors omit lUov, on the authority of A. B. C. 
' o 23. /3 7. y 2. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Tol. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Arm. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' I recommend that the words, I saw. 

be printed in Italics, as a supplement. All the recent editors 

insert ix before tuv, (except Bloomf. ; though he now thinks 
that he 'ought perhaps' to have done so.) on the authority of 
A. C. et B. ex s. m. 'a 26. /3 5. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. 
Slav.' 

' For as if, see ch. 5 ; 6, N. x. The uj does not, as Bloomf. 
supposes, qualify edvatov, nor does it imply here, any more 



than in ch. 5 : 6, that death had not actually ensued. Rather, 
in both cases, it expresses, in connection with the pluperfect 
participle, the seer's inference from the still visible ' marks of 
recent slaughter' (Hall) to the /ac< itself. 

"• John did not see the wounding, as E. V. might be under- 
stood to intimate. See N. 1. — E. V., ch. 5 : 6 j-Woodh. {having 
been), Penn, Ell. 

° It is merely an arbitrary device for taming down an un- 
usual expression, for Schleusn. and the later N. T. lexicons to 
teach, that o^afu is here used by hyperbole for ivoiivding, 
a sense which it certainly bears nowhere else; Bloomf. erro- 
neously appealing to Eurip. Iph. Aid. 1515-17, and Sept. 1 Kings 
15 : 33, for proof that ' even the strong term hf^ar/. . . . does 
not always denote death.'' Just as well might it be said that 
in the analogous phrase, a-Tioxtiivziv iv Bavatcf, the verb means 
to wound, instead of adopting the other expedient (see ch. 2: 
23, N. y, &c.) of reducing the force of the noun. Corap. NN. 1, 
m, 0. — E. v., always elsewhere (9 times), slay, or kill ;-'\V., 
R. ;-Vulg. (occismn), Syr., Dt. marg: {' Gr. geslacht'). Fr. S. 
(egorgee) ;-Erasm., Vat., (as Vidg.), Engl. Ann., Cocc. and Ew. 
mactatum), Beng.. De W., Hengst., Ebr., (geschlachtet), Wakef. 
(slaughtered), Treg., Kenr. ;-Pas., Leigh, Suic, Schottg. ; and 
the general lexicons. 

° ' The stroke of his death,' says Hengst., ' can only be the 
stroke, which resulted in his death. The assumption, that the 
stroke of his death stands Ilcbraistically for his deadly stroke, 
is without certain analogy in the N. T.' He refers also to 
V. 14; ch. 17: 8, 11; and adds in a note: 'rtXijyjj, which occurs 
so often in the Apocalypse, means always stroke, plague, never 
wound. The simple rtXiiyij here answers to the nT-r^y^ r^j 
naxalfias in v. 14.' Comp. Is. 30 : 2G. E. V.. except in this ch. 
and Luke 10: 30, has always (17 times) stripe or plague ;- 
W., R.j (wound of his death) -j-X nig. (pla^a mortis ejus), Syr, 



156 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

ed : and all the world wondered 
after the beast. 

4 And they worshipped the 
dragon which gave power unto 
the beast : and they worshipped 
the beast, saying, Who is like 
unto the beast ? who is able to 
make war with him ? 

5 And there was given unto 
him a mouth speaking great 
things and blasphemies ; and 
power was given unto him to 
continue forty and two months. 



GEEEK TEXT. 

avTOV idepaTrevdrj, koX (.davfxaaOr] 
ev oArj TTJ yfj oiricrov tov drjpiov. 

4 Kou TrpoaeKVUTjcrav tov Spa 
Kovra 

plco, Kol irpoaeKvvrjaau to Orjplov, 
XeyovTes, T'ls ojJiOLOi t(S OTjpiw; 
Tis SvvaTaL TToXefxrjaaL /xer' avTOv; 

5 KOL eBodr] avTca cTTO/xa Xa- 
Xovv fieyaXa kol l3Xacr(pr)fx[a9' 
Koi ISoOtj avTcp i^ovaia TTOirjcraL 
fxrjvas TecTcrapaKOUTa Svo- 



REVISED VERSION. 



healed ; and pthere was a won- 
dering in pthe whole dearth after 
the beast. 

4 And they worshipped 'the 

&9 edcoKev l^ovaiav to (^t?- d^gon 'which gave " authority 
' unto the beast, and they wor- 

shipped ithe beast, saying : Who 
is like ' the beast ? ° who is able 
to make war with him ? 

5 And there was given unto 
him a mouth speaking great 
things and 'blasphemies ; and 
'there was given unto him power 
to "do forty - two months. 



p Eiasm., Vat., {admiratio fait in imiversa terra). But 
for our Erasraian text only 3 cursive MSS. are cited, and, 
aceordinj:!}', all the recent editors have, oT.-/] rj yri ('A. C). and, 
alon? with that, ieav^aasp of B. and the Elzevir (except Lachm. 
and Treg., ieavjiasOri A. C. tSav/aautue)?). I recommend that 
these readings be adopted, and that the version stand thus: 
the whole earth wondered. For the whole, see E. V., ch. 12: 9; 
16: 14; &c.;-Yulg. (wirversa), German verss., Dt. ;-Castal., 
Aret., Cocc, Vitr., (use tolus -j-the rest, as Vulg.), Hamm., 
Dodd., WesL, Wakef, Woodh., Thoin;, AIlw., Penn, Bloomf., 

Stu., Lord For earth, see all verss., English and foreign 

(except T., C, G. ;-Brightm., Wells, Newc, Words. Hamm. 
and Stu. land). 

1 All the recent editors have r^ hpaxovti. (' A. B. 0. a 26. (3 6. 
y 3. Compl.'), and all, except Beng., ti^ etjficf, (B. C. 'a 26. ^ 6. 
Compl.'). Comp. v. 8, N. h. 

' For i>i, all the recent editors (except Matlh., who gives 
t<^ ScSuxort, on the authority of ' B. a 25. ;3 3. Compl.') have 
bti (' A. C. 12. 34. 35. 36. 46. Vulg. MS. Am. Aeth. Syr. Arm. 
Erp. Slav. MSS.'). I recommend that this reading be adopted: 

because he gave. 

• All the recent editors insert the article, triv (' A. B. C. a 24. 

/3 6. Compl.'). I recommend its adoption: the. For au- 

thorily, see E. V., v. 2; &c., and ch. 12: 10, N. s, &c. 

' See ch. 1 : 13, N. d. 

" All the recent editors, except IMatth. and Bloomf., here in- 
sert x<u. (A. B. C. 'a 11. ^ 3. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. 
Erp. Slav.'). I recommend the adoption of this reading: And 
who. 

" For li'KaB^rifiiai, Beng., Matth., Tisch., read ji%a<sfr;ij.lai> 
(B. 'a 20. 3 6. Compl. Vulg. MS.') ; Lachm., Treg., ji\da^t;iia 

(= Vulg.), Dt. marg. ('Gr. de slag of wonde van zynen 
dood') ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc. (as Vulg.), Brightm. {his deadly 
blow). Berl. Bib. {todll. Schlag), Herd., Stolz, ICist., Mey., 



(• A. 12. 28. 34. 47.'). For the order in the next clause, see 

E. v., in the first clause ; &c., and ch. 8 : 2, X. e, &c. 

" ' As he spake' Verse 6 explains the speaking ; v. 7, the 
doing. This elliptical use of rtoiiu, where the object is to be 
supplied from the context, Hengst. (and so Cocc. and others) 
compares to that of nas in Ps. 22: 31 ; 37 : 5 ; 52 : 9 ; Dan. 8 : 
12, 24; 11: 7, 30, to which passages of Dan. he thinks there is 
here an allusion. Comp. also 2 Cor. 8: 10, 11; Eph. 3: 20.— 
W., T., C, G., R. (u'orfc) ;-Vulg. {facere), Syr. (= lasb), 
Dt. {om {zulksl te rfoen) ;-Erasm., Vat, Cocc, Vitr., ( fa- 
ciendi), Pagn., Castal., Bez., Par., Grell., {agendi), Brightm. 
(' So much of the honour of the beast ; now of his power of 
blaspheming and doing. Of both which it is first said that 
there was power given him, and then followeth the execution 
thereof in blaspheming at the sixth verse, and in doing at 
the seventh.'), Moldenh. (• [solches] zu thun [oder, es zu trei- 
ben]'). Eichh. (supplies toito), Woodh. (bracketing noiijaai,, 
renders it, to continue in action), Scott (practise), Stolz, Mey., 
{wirken), Kist. (schalten), Goss., Van Ess, (sein Wesen zu 
treiben), Allw. (translates as fVoodh.), All. {so zu thun), Penn, 
Ell., Treg., Kenr., {act), Sharpe, Stu. {do [his own will]), Lord 
(do [it]), De W. ('sein Wesen zu treiben, oder zu handeln 
iiberhaupt'), Hengst. {thun ;-and this, he thinks, stands opposed 
to the -KaXoiv), Murd. (r/pem/e) ;-Bretsch. (-potestas agendi ; 
licuit t^ er;picj> efficaci esse.'), Wahl (who cites also Matt. 8:9; 
Luke 7 : 8), Rob. (regards the word as used intransitively, ' i. q. 
to be active, to work,' and cites also Matt. 20 : 12). The E. V. 
construction of rtoiijaai with fitjras, in the sense of spending 
time (see Acts 15 : 33 ; 18 : 23 ; 2 Cor. 11: 25 ; James 4:13; 
Sept. Prov. 13 : 23), has been adopted by Germ, {dass es mit 
ihm wahrete). It. (durar), Fr. G.,-M., {accomplir) ;-Hamm., 
Wells, Ew., Ebr. The difficulty of the expression led in some 
MSS. to the omission of rtoiijaai ; in others, to the insertion of 
ndXEfiov (B. Elzevir. Matth.). 

- See ch. 11 : 2, N. h, &c. 



De W., Ebr., {[die] seine Todeswunde), Wakef. {that deadly 
stroke), Newc. {his deadly stroke), Greenf (risn nsp). Lord, 
Kenr., {his death-wound), Hengst. {der Schlag seines Todes). 



REVELATION. 



157 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

6 And he opened his mouth 
in blasphemy against God, to 
blaspheme his name, and his 
tabernacle, and them that dwell 
in heaven. 

7 And it was given unto him 
to make war with the saints, and 
to overcome them : and power 
was given him over all kiudi'eds, 
and tongues, and nations. 

8 And all that dwell upon the 
earth shall worship him, whose 
names are not written in tlie 
book of life of the Lamb slain 
from the foundation of the woi'ld. 



GREEK TEXT. 

G Kol rjvoi^e TO arofxa avrov 
€£? ^Xaa(j)7]/xiav irpos rov Oeoi', 
l3\a(r(j}ijfj.Tiaat to bvofxa avTOv, 
KOL TTju (TK-qv-qv aVTOV, Kol TOVS 
eu tS ovpavw cricrjvovi'Tas. 

7 Kal eSodt-i avTcp iroXefxov 
TvoLTjaaL /xera twv ayimv, kol vl- 
KrjcraL avTOVf- Kal iSodrj avTW 
e^ovaia eVt ivaaav (pvXrjv kcu 
■yXaxraav koll edvof. 

8 ICal TTpoaKwrjaovo-LV avTco 
iravTes ol KaTOLKovvres eVt Trji 
yrjf, wv ou yeypaTTTai tu ovojxaTa 
iv Trj (S/jQAft) r?;? ^corjs tou dp- 
VLOV €a(l)aypeuov, diro KaTa^oXrjs 
Koap-ov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

6 And he opened his mouth 
yfor ^blasjihemy against God, to 
blaspheme his name, and his tab- 
ernacle, and 'those »who "tab- 
ernacle in heaven. 

7 "And it was given unto him 
to make war with the saints, and 
to overcome them ; and 'there 
was given «unto him "authority 
over 'every ftribe, ^ and tongue, 
and nation. 

8 And all >■ that dwell 'on the 
earth shall worship "-him, whose 
''names 'have not been written,' 
in J'tlie book of life of tlie Lamb 
Jslain, ' from the foundation of 
the world. 



' W. {into). T., C, G., R., (unto) ;-Latin verss. {in, with the 
ace. ;-except Pagn., Bez., Par., ad), Syr. (= De D. ad), German 
verss. {zu), Dt. {tot) ;-Brightm. {as 7'.). B. and L. {pour 
blasphemer), Dodd. {to niter bl.), Wakef., Woodh., Thom., 
Alhv., Stu. 

» Lachm., Bloomf., Treg., Words., Tisch., read ^■Kaaftni.iai 

(' A. C. 18. 34. 35. Vulg. ed.'). For those who, see ch. 2 : 2, 

N. h, &c., and 1 : 5, N. v, &c. 

' See ch. 12: 12, N. z, &c. There E. V. renders axriv^, ta- 
bernacle. (Spenser, Epithalamion, 421, 422, of those who 
should mount up to high heavens' haughty paloces : 
'And, for the guerdon of their glorious merit, 
' May heavenly tabernacles there inherit.') 

' The words, Kot IS. . . . vix'^atu ainloii', are cancelled by 
Lachm. after 'A. 0. 12. 14. 92.' 

' For the order see ch. 6 : 2, N. g. For unto, see B. Y., 

first clause, &c. ;-W. {to) ;-Daub., Dodd., "VVoodh., Penn, Lord, 
{as W.), Ell., Treg. 

<■ See ch. 12 : 10, N. s, &c. 
' See ch. 7 : 4, N. k. 
' See ch. 1 : 7, N. k. 

^ All the recent editors here insert xai \a6v (' A. B. o 23. 
|3 5. y 2. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MSS. [C. xal xaoiJs]'). 
I recommend that this reading be adopted: and people. 

 For ra ord/tara, all the recent editors have to iivofia ('A. 
B. C. a 20. /3 4. y 2. Compl. Copt. Syr. Arr.'). I recommend 
that this reading be adopted, and that, in order to prevent am- 
biguity, the version stand thus : shall worship him that dwell 



on the earth, whose name hiilh &.c. Of those who thus render 
moina, by a noun singular, Penn translates npoaxw. air. at the 
end of the verse; Woodh. and Sharpe interpose they before 
whose ; Lord has the order here proposed ; Treg., now adopting 
the reading of C, ov ov yly., edited also by Lachm. and Ti.=ch., 

supplies he before whose. For aitiji. all the recent editors 

read ait6v (A. B. 0. 'a 18. (3 5.'). Coinp. v. 4, N. q. After 

6>'o/ja, Lachm. and Tisch. add avrov ('A. C). 

' For on, see ch. 5 : 7, N. a, &c. For hare {hath) been, 

see B. and L., Wakef. at ch. 17 : 8, Treg. The construction 

by hyperbaton of artb xatajSo'Krji xotsixov with ytypartTat, is fa- 
voured by a comparison of ch. 5 : 12 with 17 : 8, and such texts 
as Eph. 1 : 4, and is adopted by Syr. (according to the punctua- 
tion of all the editions), Dt. (according to the punctuation. 
The note mentions both references, without deciding between 
them.), Fr. S. marg. ;-Areth., Castal., Zeg., Est., Grot., Haram., 
Morus, Vitr., Daub., B. and L., Beng., Dodd., Wesl. (in the 
note), Moldenh., Wakef, Newc, Thorn., Scott, Heinr., Ew., 
Ros., Jones, Gerl., Bloomf., Ell., Stu., Treg., De W., Kell., 
llengst., Ebr., the Amer. Bible Soc. Others, as Engl. Ann., 
Cocc, Wolf, (whose note mentions other names on either side), 
follow the example of the Dt. Ann. 

J For trj |3i/37.9, all the recent editors read toi fii.p%la, Q A. B. 

o 16. (3 2. Compl. jSiji-Kitf C). Before hfaryix. all the recent 

editors insert (Bloomf, in brackets) roi (A. B. C. 'o 25. /3 5. 
y 2. Compl.'). I recommend that this reading be adopted, and 
translated : that hath been slain. See ch. 5 : 12, N. w. Here 
the participle is rendered by a finite verb by Vulg., Germ., Dt., 
It. ;-Erasm., Vat., Hamm., Daub., B. and L., Beng., Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Scott, AUw., AIL, Penn, 
Ell., Stu., Lord, Hengst., Kenr. 



16S 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

9 If any man have an ear, let 
him hear. 

10 He that leadeth mto cap- 
tivity shall go into captivity : 
he that killeth with the sword, 
must be killed with the sword. 
Here is the patience and the 
faith of the saints. 

11 And I beheld another beast 
coming up out of the earth, and 
he had two horns like a lamb, 
and he spake as a dragon. 

12 And he exerciseth all the 



GREEK TEXT. 

9 Et TLS e3(ei oils, aKovaarco. 

10 El TL9 al')(iJLaXcoo-iai' crvva- 
yei, €is aiy^ixaAcocnav virayer ei 
TLS fV fjLa')(aipa airoKTivel, 8ei av 
TOP eV fxa^alpa mroKTavOrjvav 
(bSe iariv tj VTTOjxovr] kul ij TTiaTLS 
Ta>i> ayicov. 

11 Kai elSov aXXo drjpLOv 
ava^alvov e'/c rfjs yrjf, Kol et^e 
Kepara Suo op.oia apvLop, kul eAa- 
Aei w? SpaKCOv. 

12 /cat Trju i^ovcrlau rou Trpco- 



REVISED VERSION. 

9 If any ''one 'hath an ear, let 
him hear. 

10 ""If any °one »gathereth "a 
captivity, pinto captivity he 
■Jgoeth : "if any "one 'shall kill 
with the sword, "with the sword 
'must he be killed. Here is the 
patience and the faith of the 
saints. 

11 And I "saw another 'beast 
"ascending out of the earth, and 
he had two horns like a lamb, 
and he spake as a dragon. 

12 And 'all the ^authority of 



k See 1 John 2 : 1, N. b, &c. 

I W. ;-foreign verss. (except Vitr.) ;-Wclls, Daub.. Dodd., 
Thorn., Penn, Stu., Lord. Treg., Murd. See cTi. 14 : 9, N. t. 

" The Greek construition is retained by E. Y., v. 9 ; &c. ;- 
Syr., Protestant German verss., Dt., It., Fr. G. -M.-S. ;-Pagn. 
and later Latin verss., Brightm., Hamm., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., 
Newc., Woodh., Thorn., Ew., AUw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Murd. E. V. and others follow the Vulg. (Qui in cap- 
tivilatem). 

" See 1 John 2 : 1, N. b, &c. 

' The verb amdya occurs 62 times in the N. T., and, except 
in 12 instances, is alvrays in E. V. rendered, gather, gather 
together, assemble, assemble together. The noun aixua.T.aai.a 
is found only here and Eph. 4 : 8, in which last place the ex- 
pression, 5;^ftaXu>f£vtTE>' alxiM'Kuaiav, is taken from the Sept. 
translation of Ps. 68: 19 (18), 130 r^^~^, where, again, as 
commonly explained, -laa (E. V. captivity) is used collectively 
for a body of captives. • Thou hast captured a captivity, i. e. 
taken captive a multitude of enemies' (Alex.). In the same 
concrete sense, "la'd, like nVl5 and ^:lB^. is of frequent occurrence 
in the Hebrew Scriptures,. and in the Sept. ot;^^"''-"'"-'''! ^^ their 
Greek equivalent ; e. g. Numb. 21 : 1 ; Is. 20 : 4, in both of 
which places E. Y. has prisoners in the text, but captivity in 
the margin of the second. Comp. also E. V. Jer. 29 : 22, and 
especially Hab. 1 : 9 they shall gather the captivity = tpi<^^ 
12B = Sept. ffuKJjft aixti(Au:aiav. — Dt. Ann. (' Gr. leads to- 
gether the captivity, i. e. a multitude of captives') ;-Erasm. 
(note : captivitatem contrahit), Yat. {capiivitatem contraxerit), 
Castal. (captivos abigit), Steph. ('Adver. Captivitatem con- 
gregal: i. e. quos ducat captives'), Hamm. {gather together a 
captivity), Cocc. {captivitatem colligit). Daub, {gathers into 
c), Berl. Bib. {Gefangene zusammentreibt), Beng.. Hengst., 
{Gefangene zusammenbringt), Wakef. {gathereth prisoners 
together to enslave them), Newc. marg., Bloomf., {collect a 
number of captives), Thom. {gathereth [prisoners'] for c), 
Heinr. {' Aixi^a^^alav prius pro ot;j;/taXwrovs, qui , ovvciyovrat, 



congregantur, coguntur in carcerem. ut uno die ad suppliciura 
duci possint.'), Ew. ('caplivorum turbam [hoc cnim est aixfta- 
7.u5i'a ex hebraismo, quera nonnuUi cvitaturi ft; inseruerunt ante 
aixfi-] cogit.'), Pvos. {• Alxi^- hie dicuntur captivi. ut Tttptro^^ 
circiimcisos significat.'), Stu. (• Literally, leads or conducts 
away an assemblage of exiles.'), De W. (• tig. zusammen- 
treibt) ;-the lexicons. For aixii'>'^.<^aiav amdyii, it; aixi'a.'K'^- 

eiav vTiayii, Matth. reads t;^Ei aixti-, ire. ('a 17. (3 3. Compl. 
Slav. MS.') ; Lachm., Treg., Tisch., read lif aix/i-, lii a-ixi^- i'f- 
(' A. Slav. MS. di aix- it. B. 28. 38.'). There are many other 
variations. Bloomf.: 'The true text can only be obtained by 
a more careful collation of MSS. Meanwhile, I think it will 
turn out to be what is found in a few cursive MSS., confirmed 
by the Pesch.' (?) ' Syr. and Vulg. Yersions, as also Irenaeus 
and Primasius, Ei' rt; f ij ai;t/"»^"<"'<i'' ajtiiyf ', f'S o'^irf'- itdyti.' 

p The Greek order is retained by Latin verss., Syr. ;-Woodh., 
Thom., Greenf., Bloomf, Lord. 

1 The present tense is retained by R. (Vulg. Am. has vadit) ;- 
Dt, Fr. S.;-Erasm. and later Latin verss. (except Pagn., Par.), 
Hamm., Daub., Beng., ^Tes!., Woodh., Thom., Ew., Allw., 
Bloomf., Lord, Treg., De W., Words., Hengst., Ebr. E. V. and 
others follow the Vulg. ed. {vadet). 

' The future tense is retained by R. ;-Latin verss. (except 
Cocc), Dt.;-Daub., B. and L., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Allw., 

Treg., Kenr. JIatth. and Tisch. cancel arloxtini (' o 10. j3 4. 

Slav. MS.'). Lachm. reads aHoxtalvzi. 

' ' ATioxtavQr^vai. is translated last by the Latin and German 
verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Thom., Lord, Treg. 

t See ch. 11 : 5, N. r. 

» Seech. 4: 1, N. b. 

' Seech. 11: 7, N. y. 

" Seech. 13:1, N. d, &c 

* The Greek order is retained by R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;- 
Stu., De W., Ebr. 

' See v. 4, N. s, &c. 



REVELATION. 



159 



KING JAJIES VERSION. 



GREEK TEXT. 



REVISED VERSION. 



power of the first beast before tov Orjplov Tracrav TTOiel ivcairiov \ the first beast he exerciseth be- 



him, and causeth the earth and 
them which dwell therein to 
worship the first beast, whose 
deadly wound was healed. 



13 And he doeth great won- 
ders, so that he maketb fire come 
down from heaven on the earth 
in the sight of men, 

14 And deceiveth them that 
dwell on the earth by the means 
of those miracles which he had 
power to do in the sight of the 
beast ; saying to them that dwell 
on the earth, that they should 
make an image to the beast, 



avTov Kai TTOtec rrjv yrjv kul tovs 
KaroiKOvvras eV avrfj iva Trpoa- 
Kuvija-axTL TO Otjp'lov to 7rpu)T0V, 
ov idepaTrevdi] -q irXijyr] tov da- 
vaTOv avTou- 

13 Koi TTOiel cnjfieLa /jieyaXa, 
iva. KCLL TTvp TTOirj KaTa^aiueiu e/c 
TOV ovpavov els Tr/u yrjv ivcoiriov 
T<X)U avOpairaiv. 

14 KCLL TrXava tovs KaTotKovv- 
Sia 



fore him; and 4ie Mnaketh the 
earth and ''those "who dwell 
therein to worship the first beast, 
whose 'stroke of death was 
healed. 



13 And he doeth great ''signs, 
''so that 'even ''fire ''he niaketh 
°to "descend from heaven 'unto 
the earth Jbefore men.'' 



14 And 'he deceivetli "those 
■"who dwell on the earth, "be- 
cause of "the psigns which ■sit 
„ , , „ „ ( was given unto him to do 'before 

TOV drjpLOV, Xeyav tols KaToiKov- \ the beast, saying to "those -who 
(TLV iwl TTjS yyjS, TTOirjarat elKQva dwell on the earth, that they 

I should make an image to the 



Tas eTTL T7]s yr]S, Oia Ta arj/xeia 
a iSoOr] avTW TroiTjaai ivunriov 



' The pronoun is repeated by W., T., C, G., R. ;-Gerra., Dt., 
Fr. S. ;-Brightm., B. and L., Dodd., AVesl.. Herd., Wakef., 
Mey., Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

 E. v., ch. 3:9; &c. ;-W., R., (made) ;-Dodd. (makes), 
Stu. 

•■ For those who, see ch. 2 : 2, N. h, &c., and 2 Pet. 2 : 11, N. f. 

' See T. 3, N. o. 

^ See ch. 12: 1, N. b. For iVa xai rtup, Matth., Griesb., 

Sch., Words., Bloomf., read xai, nip lia (B. 'a 21. /3 3. y 2. 
Compl.' Bloomf. errs in calling this ' the te.xt. reo.'). 

• W., R., (aZso) ;-Latin verss. (eZia?« ;-except Cocc, Vitr., 
et), Syr. (= Do D. etiam). Germ, (aitch). Dt. (onk). It. (an- 
cora), Fr. G.,-M., ( wenie) ;-Beng., Moldenh., Herd., Mey., 
Hengst., Ebr.. (as Germ.), Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., AH. (so- 
g-ar ;-and so Tan Ess, Kist), Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., 
Kenr. (as R.). 

' The word nvp is translated in its place before the governing 

verb, by the Latin verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Beng., All., Ebr. For 

Ttoiy . . . oi;pa^ov, Matth., Sch., Words., Bloomf., read ix tov 
ovp. xata.?a,ivrj (B. [-ft] 'a24. ^4. Compl. Vulg.' This ref- 
erence to the Vulg., however, is erroneous ; as Bloomf. also 
errs in calling this reading 'the text, rec.') ; Griesb. reads ix tov 
oip. xa-tafiyj ; Knapp, Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Tisch., Thcile, read 
rtotij ix tov oup. xatafiaiviiv ("A. C. 28. 34. 35. 38.'). 

' E. v., ch. 3: 9; &c.;-W., R. ;-Brightm., Daub., Wesl., 
Newc, Woodh., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

I- See ch. 10 : 1, N. a, &c. 

' See ch. 8: 5, N. p. W. (into), R. ;-Latin verss. (in with 
the ace. ;-except Castal., ad), Fr. G. (en) ;-Dodd., Wesl., 
Wakef., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, (to). The reading ijti (B. ' o 18. /3 4. 
Compl.') is adopted only by Matth. 



) E. v., 32 times out of 36 in this book ;-Gcrm. (ror), Dt. 
(voor), Fr. G.,-M..-S.. (demnl) ■,-Cocc.,\\iT., (com;» ;-instead 
of the Vulg., in conspeclu), Beng., Herd., Mey., Hengst., Ebr., 
(as Germ.), Dodd., Woodh., Lord, Murd. 

I" According to the punctuation of our Test, and that of all 
the recent editors, except Theile, the construction with iVa 
cannot extend into the next verse. The verss. also in general 
restrict it to ttoif/. 

I See V. 13, N. k. 

■» Seech. 2:2, N.h,&c., 



and 1 

W. 

(um . 



5, N. V, &c. 



(/o?-);-Latin verss., except 
. . willen), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., 



» See ch. 12: 11, N. uu. 
Castal., (propter). Germ. 

(a cause de) ;-Daub. (by reason of), Bong., Hengst., (as Germ.), 
Treg. (in consequence of), De W. (wegen). 

The demonstrative is not found in W., R.;-any foreign 
version ;-Dodd., Wesl., Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

p Seech. 12:1, N.b. 

1 E. v., V. 7, &c. To the Church of God it is no small con- 
solation to be thus frequently reminded, that the power of her 
mightiest enemies to deceive and to destroy is precisely — neither 
more nor less than — that which is allowed them by her own 
Almighty Friend, and that, like the waves of the sea, they live 
and move under the strong control of that divine word: Thus 
far, and no farther. Comp. 1 Kings 22 : 22 ; Job 1 : 12 • 2 : C • 

Luke 4:6; John 19 : 11. — The common sense of 6i5u/it is given 
here by W., R. ;-all foreign verss. (except Moldenh., B. and L.) ;- 
Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., Greenf., Penn (are granted), 
Sharpe, Ell., Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

■• See v. 13, N.j. For 6, Lachm.. Words., Tisch., read 6; 

(A.B. 0. '28. 34 35. [36?]92.'). 



160 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

which had the wound hy a sword, 
and did live. 

15 And he had power to give 
life unto the image of the beast, 
that the image of the beast 
should both speak, and cause 
that as many as would not wor- 
ship the image of the beast 
should be killed. 

16 And he causeth all, both 
small and great, rich and poor, 
free and bond, to receive a raai'k 
in their right hand, or in their 
foreheads ; 



GREEK TEXT. 

rw drjpicp b e^ei rr]u 7r\r]yi]V rrj^ 
jxayaipas kou e^rjcre. 

15 Kai iSodr] avTcp Sovvai 
TTvevfia rrj (Ikoui. tov dijpiov, tva 
/cat XaXrjarj rj elKcoi> tov Oiipiov, 
Kat TroLTjcrr), oaoi av pi] TrpoaKV- 
vrjcraxTi tt]i> eiKova tov drjpLOV, 
Iva airoKTavOaxTi. 

16 Kai TTOLei TTavTas, tovs 
pLKpovs Kol tov? peyaXovs, kcCI 
Tovs irXova-LOVs kcu- tovs tttco-^ovs, 
Kcu T0V9 eXevdepovs koI tov? 
SovXovf, Iva Scocrrj avTolf ^(apay- 
pa eVt T^y ^eipos avT(x>v Trjs 5e- 
^ids, 7] iirl Tu>u p€Tmr(ov avTcov, 



REVISED VERSION. 

beast, 'which -hath the 'stroke 
°of 'the sword, and "lived. 

15 And 'it was given unto 
him to give ^breath unto the 
image of the beast, that the im- 
age of the beast should both 
speak, and cause 'that as many 
as 'should not worship) 'the im- 
mage of the beast 'should be 
killed. 

16 And he "causeth all, ^ the 
small and '•the great, 'and Hhe 
rich and 'the poor, 'and ''the free 
and Hhe bond, ■'that ''he should 
give them a mark 'on their right 
hand or ''on their 'foreheads, 



• 'The scar still remaining.' See v. 3, N. m. — W., R.;-Vulg., 
Syr., Fr. S. ;-Erasni., Vat., Beng., Woodh., Sharpe, Lord {has), 
Treg., De W., Words., Hengst., Kenr., Ebr. The reading dxs 
(B. 'a 25. (3 5. y 2. Compl.') is, among the recent editors, adopted 
only by Beng. and Matth. 

I See V. 3, N. o. 

" W., T., C, G., R. ;-VuIg., Syr., It, French verss.j-Erasm., 
Vat., Cocc, Vitr., Dodd., Woodh., Thom., Mey., Allw., Stu., 
Lord, Kenr., Ebr. 

» E. v., V. 10; &c. Hengst. thinks that there is even a 
special reference to ch. 12 : 7 — ' the sword of Jlichael' (Milton, 
P. L. vi. 250). R. ;-foreign verss. (except B. and L.) ;-Daub., 
Dodd., Wes!., Wakef., Woodh., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Words., Kell., Kenr. 

" See ch. 2: 8, N. e. W.;-Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, 
Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Stu. {revived), Lord. 

» See V. 14, N. q. 

J E. V. ?)!arg-. ;-Vulg. {spiritum), Syr. (= Greenf. ni^). 
Germ, {den Geist), Dt. (eenen geest), It. {spirito), Ft. G.,-M., 
{line ame), Fr. S {un esprit) ;-Erasm., Vat., Castal., Cocc, Vitr., 
(use spiritus) ;-Engl. Ann., Hamra., Daub., Beng. {einen Odem), 
Dodd., Wesl., Gill (' Or, breath'), Moldenh. {Atheni), Wakef., 
Thom!, All., Stier, (einwi G.), Ger!., De W., Hengst., Ebr., {G.), 
Penn, Sharpe, Ell., Stu. {vital spirit), Lord, Treg. 

» The Iva. is cancelled before anoxt. (A. B. 'a 12. (3 7. y 2. 
Vulg. Syr. Arr. Slav .ed.'), and inserted before ocrot ('A. 11. 
26. 36. Vulg. Syr. Ar. P. Slav, ed.'), by Beng., Lachm., Treg. ; 

while by Matth. and Tisch. it is omitted in both places. For 

should worship, see R. {shall) ;-foreign verss. (of which no one 

has the force of would) ;- Woodh. For irjii six-, Matth., 

Griesb., Knapp, Sch., Words., read ry lixovi. (B. 'o 24. /3 6. y 2. 
Compl.'). 

» Hengst.: 'He makes all, is the same as : He brings all into 
such a position, so far works upon all (comp. v. 12) — a He- 
braistic use of noitlv ; comp. Gesenius on nos.' Hence Castal. : 



eo adigebat; Brightm.: 'he driveth every one to this;' 
Moldenh. : brachte . . . dahin ; &c. 

^ There is nothing for both in W., R. ;-any foreign version ;- 
Wakef, Allw., Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. E. V. follows 

T., C, G. For the articles, see ch. 11 : 18, N. j. Here they 

are retained, some or all of them, by Germ. ;-Beng., Moldenh., 
Wakef., Woodh., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Hengst., 
Kenr., Ebr. 

' The conjunctions are retained by W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., Dt. ;- 
Erasm., Vat., Cocc, Wes!., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw., 
Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Hengst., Kenr., Ebr. E. V. follows 
T., C, G. 

■i For that, see N. a ; E. V.. vv. 15, 17 ; &c. ; and below. 

Excepting Matth. (Suffovow), all the recent editors, for i^aYjf 
have Swffiv (A. B. C. ' o 8. j3 3. Compl. Si^aaaiv a, 14. /3 3.'). 
I recommend that this reading be adopted, and translated : they 
should give them ; = qii'on leur donne. E. V. marg. (' Gr. to 
give'') ;-Germ. {dass es . . . gab), Dt. {dat het . . . geve) ;-Vat. 
(note: ut det), Brightm. {that he giveth), Engl. Ann., Hamm., 
{tliat he may give), Cocc. {ut daret), Beng. {dass man . . . 
gebe), Moldenh. {dass sie . . . geben liessen), Newc. marg. 
{that men shoidd give), Woodh., Allw. marg. {that he should 
give), Stier {dass es . . . gibt), Ebr. {dass man . . . giebt). 
Others, retaining the common sense of SJSu/ii, adopt a passive 
construction = id detur (Syr., Fr. S. ;-Mey., Greenf., Hengst.), 
or a reflexive = give themselvesJ_D&uh., Sharpe, Lord, Words.). 
E. v., T., C, G., &c., follow Erasm. (accipere) ; W., R., &c., 
the Vulg. {habere). The grammatical ambiguity, however, in 
the proposed literal version is not greater than in the Greek. 

' See ch. 7 : 3, N. g, &c. 

' For on, see ch. 7 : 3, N. g, &c. But for irti twv /itruTtov, 
all the recent editors have ini to y.iturtop ('A. a 19. j3 5. Copt. 
Arm. [foj fitti^rtov C). I recommend that this reading be 
adopted : upon their forehead. See ch. 7 : 1, N. b, &c., and 
comp. ch. 14 : 9. 



REVELATION. 



161 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

17 And tliat no man might 
buy or sell, save he that had the 
mark, or the name of the beast, 
or the number of his name. 



18 Here is v^dsdom. Let him 
that hath understanding count 
the number of the beast : for it 
is the number of a man ; and his 
number is Six hundred three- 
score a?id six. 

CHAP. XIV. 

And I looked, and lo, a Lamb 
stood on the mount Sion, and 
with him an hundred forty and 
four thousand, having his Fa- 
ther's name written in their fore- 
heads. 



GREEK TEXT. 

17 Kot tW ixrjTLS Swyrai. ayo- 
paaai rj TTCoXrjaai, el /.u] 6 e^cou 
TO ^apayi^a, rj to buofia tou Or}- 

piov, rj TOV dpid/JLOU TOV OVOfXaTOS 

avTov. 

18 'fiSe ■)] aocpia eaTLv. 6 €)(cov 
TOV vovv, "^(pKraTco tou apiOp-ov 
TOV drjpiov dpidfxoy yap dvOpca- 
TTOV €o-t], Kol 6 dpiOpos avTov 

CHAP. XIV. 

KAI elBov, Kcu Ihov dpvLOv 
ecTTTiKos iiri to bpos Sluiv, kou 
/xer avTOv eKaTov reaaapaKOUTa- 
Tecraapes ^iXiaSes, e-)(ovcraL to 
ovopa TOV Trarpos" avTOv yeypapr 
p.evov eVt TU)V neTcoTTCou avTcov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

17 And that no ^one '■should 
be able to buy or sell, 'but he 
that -"hath the mark, i-or the 
name of the beast, or the num- 
ber of his name. 

18 Here is wisdom. Let him 
that hath 'the understanding 
count the number of the beast : 
for it is ""a man's number ; and 
his number is "666. 



CHAP. XIV. 

And I 'saw, and '■behold 'a 
Lamb ""standing 'upon the mount 
'Sion, and with him 'a hundred 
^and forty - four thousand, having 
"■the name of his Father written 
'on their foreheads. 



' See 1 John 2 : 1, N. b, &c. 

'' Latin verss. (possit or posset ;-except Castal.), Sjt., Ger- 
man verss. (kann or /conw* ;-except Moldenh.), It. (potesse), 
Ft. G.,-M., (pouvait), Fr. S. (puisse) ;-Brightni., Kenr., (can). 
B. and L. (put), DodJ.. "NVakef. and Words, (may be able), 
Newc, Woodh., AUvr., Stu., Murd., (anight be able), Lord, 
Treg. (6e a6/e.) See ch. 14: 3, N. o. 

i Seech. 2: 17, N. w. 

1 The time is that of noul in t. 16. W., R. ;-Latin verss. 
(except Casta!, and Cocc, who in the previous verse had intro- 
duced the imperfect), Syr., German verss., Dt., Fr. S. ;-Brightm., 
Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., 
Lord, Treg., Words., Kenr. 

^ This rj is marked by Bloomf. as ^most probably, or cer- 
tainly, an interpolation,' and cancelled by all the other recent 
editors, on the authority of A. B. C. ' a 25. ^ 6. y 2. A7n. Tol. 
Syr. Ar. P. Slav. 5IS.' I recommend that this reading be 

followed, and the word or omitted. Laclim. also, for to ov., 

reads toi ovoftatoi (' 0. Vulg. MS. Tol. Syr.'). 

1 The Tor, bracketed by Bloomf., is rejected by all the 
other recent editors, on the authority of A. B. C. 'a 20. (3 5. 
Compl.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and the 
omitted. 

" Germ, (eines Menschen Zahl), Dt. (een getal eens -men- 
schen), It. (numero d'ziomo), French verss. (im nomhre 
d7iO?n??ie) ;-Beng., Moldenh., All., Hengst., {as Germ-), Herd. 
(Menschenzahl), Woodh., Crol., Allw., Lord, (a number of a 
man), Stu., De W. (eine Menschen- Zahl), Ebr. {eine Zahl 
eines Menschen). 

° Treg. : ' We know from Irenaeus that this number was 



expressed in Greek letters, xii' •'' Hengst. : ' It appears also 
from this, that, where the number is written out, the gender 
of the numerals is given differently, sometimes l^axotriot, some- 
times ilaxiaia.^ (C. tfaxofftat hixa. it [xh]-) The letters are 
given in B., and in the editions of Griesb., Mey., Bloomf., Hahn, 
Tisch. ; and this is imitated, as above, by Fr. S. ;-Cocc., Vitr., 
Herd. {• xi,';' [660]'), Woodh., Thom., Greenf. (in Hebrew let- 
ters), Ell., Stu., Treg., De W., Lee. 

• Seech. 4:1, N.b. 

" See ch. 5 : 6, N. r. 

' All the recent editors insert t-o (A. B. C. ' a 19. /3. 4. Copt. 
Syr. Arr.' I recommend that this reading be adopted : the. 

■".See ch. 5: 6, N. w. For ta-cr^xoi, Beng., Treg., Tisch., 

read sanij (7 cursive MSS.) ; Lachm.. Words., Bloomf., Esrdj 
('A.C. Er.'). 

' For upoyi, see ch. 3: 3, N. j, &c. 1 recommend that the 

Hebrew form of this name be adopted throughout. See ch. 7 : 6, 
N. 0.— Germ. ;-Engl. Ann., Moldenh., Mey., Ell., Stu., Lord, 
De W., Hengst., Murd., Amer. Bible Soc, Ebr. 

f See 2 Pet. 2: 14, N. f. 

^ See ch. 7 : 4, N. j, &c. Here the and is inserted as above, 
by T., C. ;-Daub., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Scott, Allw., 
Penn, Sharpe, Kenr. 

^ Brightm., Dodd., Wakef., Thom. But all the recent edi- 
tors for to ovojxa, have to oro^ua avtov xai To ofo^a ('A. B. C. 
o 20. (3 7. y 4. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Ar. P. 
Slav. MSS.'). I recommend that this reading be followed, and 
translated: his name and the name. Comp. ch. 3 : 12 ; 22 : 4. 

' Seech. 7: 3, N. g, &c. 

21 



162 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

2 And I heard a voice from 
heaven, as the voice of many 
waters, and as the voice of a 
great thunder : and I heard the 
voice of hai"pers harping with 
their harps : 

3 And they sung as it were a 
new song before the throne, and 
before the four beasts, and the 
elders : and no man coukl learn 
that song but the hundred and 
forty and four thousand, which 
were redeemed from the earth. 



4 These are they which were 
not defiled with women ; for 
they are virgins. These are they 
which follow the Lamb whither- 
soever he goeth. These were 
redeemed from among men, heing 
the first-fruits unto God and to 
the Lamb. 



GREEK TEXT. 



2 /cat rjKovaa (^xavrju e'/c rov 
ovpauov CO? (f)covr]u vSaTcou ttoA- 
AcSt", Koi o)? (pcoi'Tjii ^povTrjs fJLe- 
ya\7]f Kol (jycovTji' rjKovcra KiOa- 
pcpdioi' Ki6apL(^ovT(ov iv tols Kida- 

pULS aVT(x)V. 

3 Kou a8ovaiv cos coSrju Kaivrjv 
evunrioif tov Opovov, ko.l evcomov 
Ta>v Tecrcrdpcou ^(ocov koL tcov irpe- 
tT^vrepcov koI ovSeis ySwaro 
piaOeiv TTjv cobrjv, el prj al eKarov 
TeaaapaKOVTaTicraapes ^tAtaSef, 
ol rj-yopaa/xeuoi oltto Trjs yT]S' 

4 OvTOL elaiv oi fieTO, yvuai- 
Ku>v ovK ipoXwOrjcrav irapOivoi 
yap elaLV. ovtol elaiv ol olkoXov- 
dovvres tco apvia ottov au virayrj. 
OVTOL Tjyopaadrjcrai' mro Tcav av- 
dpmirwv, uTrap)^!] rw OeS Kai rcS 
apviai- 



REVISED VERSION. 

2 And I heard a voice from 
heaven, as the voice of many 
waters, and as the voice of ■> 
great thunder : and ^& voice I 
heard of liarpers harping with 
their harps : 

3 And they 'sing 'as it were a 
new song before the throne, and 
before the four "diving creatures, 
and the elders : and no "one 'was 
able to learn pfhe song, but the 
hundred and forty - four thou- 
sand, nvho "had been redeemed 
from the earth. 

4 These are they iwho were 
not defiled with women ; for 
they are "virgin. These 'are 
tliey 'who follow the Lamb, 
whithersoever he goeth. These 
were redeemed from among men, 
" a firstfiTiit unto God and " the 
Lamb. 



) E. v., ch. 6 : 1 ;-R. ;-It., Fr. S. ;-Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., 
Thorn., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg.. Hengst., Murd., Kenr., Ebr. 

k For a, see E. V., first clause ;-Dt., Fr. G.,-M. ;-B. and L., 
Wakef. But, instead of ^uviiv rjxovaa. all the recent editors have 
ij $uK)j )jv rjxovaa, uj (A. B. C. 'a 28. /3 6. y 2. Conapl. Vulg. 
Copt. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.'). I recommend that this 
reading be adopted, and translated : the voice which I heard 
[was] as. 

' See ch. 5 : 9, N. k. The lif, bracketed by Bloomf., is 

cancelled by Beng., Matth., Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch., Words., 
Tisch., on the authority of B. 'a 24. /3 4. Compl. Copt. Aeth. 
Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.' 

"> See ch. 4 : C, N. a. 

" ' No angel even.' See ch. 5 : 3, N. e, &c. 

" See ch. 13 : 17, N. h. Wakef., Woodh., AUw., Penn, Lord, 
Treg., Murd. 

p AV., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., German verss. (except Moldenh., 
dieses), It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Erasm., Vat, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., 
Woodh., Thorn., AUiv., Greenf., Sharpe. Stu., Lord, Treg., 
Kenr. 

1 See ch. 7: 4, N. j, &o. 

' See2Pet. 2:11, N. f. 

 ' According to a previous vision.' See ch. 7 : 4. — It. {sono 
staXi), Fr. G.,-M.,-S., {ont ete) ;-Cocc., Moldenh., Thom., All. 
{^warden sind), Stu., Treg. {hare been). 

I See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

" Neither in the N. T. nor. in the Sept., but only in the late 



and ecclesiastical usage, does itafOivoi occur as a noun mascu- 
line ; and, therefore, Bretsch. (yirgineus), Wahl {castus, iin- 
maculatus), Rob. (though in translating he retains the phrase 
of E. v., and merely appends as explanation: 'i. e. chaste, 
■pure'), Green (chaste), Schirl. (jungfraidich), regard it here 
as (what it often is in classical Greek) an adjective, = map- 
eirtof. A similar latitude obtains in the case of the Latin 
virg-o, the Italian rergi7ie, and the French vierge — the words 
here employed by the verss. But as E. V. virgins cannot be 
an adjective, so the old English use of the term as a noun mas- 
culine is now quite obsolete. Syr. (here forms the plural with 
a masculine termination, instead of the more usual feminine ; 
= ■'^'ina instead of nibina. Ew., indeed, asserts that ' vel a 
n^^ra serins masculinum bins Judaeis Syrisque formatum 
est.') ;-Beng. (junge GeseZ/en),' Wakef., Thorn., (pure as vir- 
gins), Mey., Kist., De W., Ebr., (as Schirl.), Sharpe (have 
never been married). Lord (pure). 

' The liaiv before oi ax. is cancelled by Beng., Lachm., 
Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile, on the authority of ' A. C. Br. 

Vulg., Arm., Slav.' None of the foreign verss. and few of 

the English supply a participle at drtapa;^. The following 
supply nothing : W., R. ;-Latin verss., Syr. ;-Wakef., Woodh., 
Thorn., Allw., Greenf., Stu., Lord, Treg., Words., Murd., Kenr. 

'AMfxri is translated by a singular noun with the in- 

detinite article by Hamm., Daub., Berl. Bib., Beng., AYakef. 
(a firstfruils), "Woodh., Penn, Lord (a first offering), Treg. 

" R. ;-Dt. ;-Daub., Wesl., Wakef., Thorn., Allw., Stu., Murd., 
Kenr. 



REVELATION. 



163 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

5 And in their mouth was 
found no guile : foi" they are 
without fault before the throne 
of God. 

6 And I saw another angel 
fly in the midst of heaven, hav- 
ing the everlasting gospel to 
preach unto them that dwell on 
the earth, and to every nation, 
and kindred, and tongue, and 
peojjle, 



GREEK TEXT. 



5 /cat ei^ Tcp (TTOfxaTi avTwv 
ov^ evpe$7] 5oAof a/j-conoi yap 
elcriu ivcoTTLOv rov Opovov tov 
Oeov. 

G KAI elSov aXXov ayyeXov 
TreT(ap.€vov iu iJieaovpavi]p.aTL, 
tyovra evayyiXiov alcouioi', euay- 
yeXia-ai tovs KaTOLKOvvras iir\ rrjs 
yr]f, Koi irav edvos koI (f)vXT}u koX 
yXaxTcrav Kai Xaov, 



REVISED VERSION. 



5 And 
found no 

'iaultless 
God. 



in their mouth was 
'guile ; 'for they are 
'before the throne of 



6 And I saw another angel 
"flying in ''mid-heaven, having 
'ail everlasting gospel, to ■'declare 
the glad tidings ''unto "^those 
'wlio 'dwell on the earth, and 
funto every nation, and ^tribe, 
and tongue, and people. 



• For 80^05, all the recent editors have 4jii5o5 (A. B. C. ' a 28. 
jS 7. y 4. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr.')- I le- 

commend that this reading be adopted, and translateil : lie. 

The yap is cancelled by Lachm., Treg., Words., Theile, on the 
authority of ' A. C. 12. 17. Vulg. MS. HarV . 

y E. v., Jude 24;-Daub., Dodd., Penn, Sharps, Stu., (blame- 
less), Newc, Woodh., Lord, (spotless). Most foreign verss. 
use an adjective. 

» All the recent editors cancel the words, ivJiTttov foi 9f>6vov 
tov @iov, on the authority of 'A. B. C. a 27. /3 7. y 2. Compl. 
Vulg. MS. Harl. Tol. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' I re- 
commend that this reading be adopted, and that the words, 
before the throne of God. be omitted. 

* See ch. 4: 7, N. d. For the participial form, see ch. 10: 1, 

N. a, &c. 

" Seech. 8; 13, N. 0. 

" The gospel, namely, recited in v. 7. That there is an hour 
of judgment appointed, and that 'God,' the Creator, 'is Judge 
himself (Ps. 50: 6), this, accompanied as it has ever been with 
the call to repentance, and the provisions of grace, is good 
news; has been proclaimed as such from the beginning (.Jude 14; 
Gen. 18: 25; 1 Sam. 2: 10; Ps. 75 : 7; 94: 2; 90: 10-13; 
98: 7-9 ; Eccl. 3:17; Joel 3 : 12 ; Matt. 25 : 31, &c. ; John 5 : 22; 
Acts 17: 31 ; Rom. 2: 10 'the day when God shall judge . . . 
according to my gospel ;' James 5 : 7-9 ; &c.) ; and pervades, 
with its issues and influences, the ages to come. It may well 
be called, therefore, tiayyiMov atuvtoi/. — W.. T., G. ;-German 
verss. (except Herd.) ;-Wesl., Campb. ('What the angel had 
to promulgate is not called to liayy.. as the word is almost 
uniformly used when referring to the Christian dispensation, 
but simply tvayy. ; not the gospel, the institution of Christ — 
not that which is emphatically styled the good news, but barely 
good news. It is styled aiuviof everlasting, with the same 
propriety, and in the same latitude, as things of long duration, 
or of permanent consequences, are often in Scripture so deno- 
minated.'), Wakef., Woodh., Thom. (everl. glad tidings), 
Midd., AUw., Greenf., Blooraf. (though his translation of oiiiiHor, 
universal, is peculiar to himself, and finds no warrant in the 
more common mistake respecting aiuv. See Jude 25, N. j.), 



Ell., Ebr. (understands tiayy. <o mean the general gospel of 
salvation, and explains the indeflniteness on the ground that 
this gospel was now for the first time preached to these heathen 
nations.). 

^ See ch. 10: 7, N. z. After fOayy. (not, as Bloomf. says, 

'before'), the preposition ircl is inserted by Lachm., Hahn, 
Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile, on the authority of A. B. C. 34. 

' For those who, see ch. 2 : 2, N. h, &c., and 1 : 5, N. v, &c. 

For xaioix., Mill approves, and all the other recent editors 

(except Hahn) read xae-ijiiivovi (B. C. ' a 20. 3 4. Compl. Vulg. 
Slav. MSS. t. xaStj. t. xatoix. Er.'). I recommend that this 
reading be adopted: sit. Comp. Matt. 4: 16. Here also the 
expression, Daub, thinks, ' shews the present state of the idola- 
trous nations. To sit upon the earth, is to be in a state of 
great affliction.' Ebr. 'The expression xatoixowtif fiji' yrjp is 
avoided.' 

f B. v., previous clause ;-Newc., Treg. But all the recent 
editors (except Bloomf.) here insert irtC (A. B. C. 'a 27. /3 5. 
Compl. Vulg. Syr. Slav. MSS.'). Assuming the correctness 
of this reading, De W. considers that the principle of uniformity 
requires the same preposition before tovs xaStjfi. ; and on no 
other principle, it would appear, Bloomf. remarks: 'I should 
prefer to receive it either in both cases, or, as I have heretofore 
done, in neither.' But, 1., the evidence is far stronger for the 
second f rti than for the first ; stronger even than for xaBr^fiivmi, 
of which Bloomf., however, approves ; — and, 2., in this book 
uniformity of construction seems to be rather shunned than 
sought; comp. w. 9, 11 with ch. 20: 4. See also v. 19, N. k; 
ch. 13 : 16, according to the reading recommended in N. f ; 
14: 9; 18: 12, N. o; &c. Bloomf. adds, but without explana- 
tion : ' And, indeed, internal evidence is strongly against each 
insertion.' It is true that nowhere else is fvayyf>.t'fu construed 
with frti, but always with the simple dative or accusative of 
the person to vhom. Twice (Gal. 1: 16; Eph. 3: 8) it is 
followed by £i', among ; twice (2 Cor. 10 : 16 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 25 ; — 
as sometimes also xj-piJtfdw) by tij, marking e-rtent, or local 
direction. If, therefore, the ijtl, before nav be genuine, (and 
I recommend that it be adopted as such,) it is not to be 
regarded as redundant, but as denoting the local relation of tho 
angel, and the downward direction of his proclamation. It may 



164 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

7 Saying with a loud voice, 
Fear God, and give glory to him ; 
for the hour of his judgment 
is come : and worsliip him that 
made heaven, and earth, and 
the sea, and the fountains of 
waters. 



8 And there followed another 
angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, 
is iallen, that great city, because 
she made all nations drink of 
the wine of the wrath of her 
fornication. 

9 And the third angel fol- 



GREEK TEXT. 

7 Xiyovra eV ^wvr^ fjLeyaXr], 
$ol3i']di]Te Tov Oeou, /cat Sore 
avTcp So^au, on rjXOev ?} u>pa Trj9 
Kplcrecof auTov- Koi irpoaKVUi]- 
aare tco iroLrjcravTi tov ovpavov 
Koi Trjv yrju Kol daXaaaav Koi 
Trrjyas vSarcop. 

8 Kal aAAo? ayyeXof rjKoXov- 
drjcre, Xeycov, JEireaev kir^ae Ba- 
fivXcou ?} TToAi? rj p-eydXr]' on e'/c 
TOV o\vov TOV Ovjxov Trjs TTopveias 
avTijs TreTTOTLKe TrdvTa eOirrj. 

9 Kai Tp'iTO? a'yyeAo? -qKoXov- 



REVISED VERSION. 

7 '■Saying with a loud voice : 
Fear God, and give ''him glory ; 
for the hour of his judgment is 
come : and worship him that 
made 'the heaven, and 'the earth, 
and J sea, and J fountains of 
waters. 



8 And " another angel follow- 
ed, saying : 'Fallen, fallen is Ba- 
bylon, "^that great city ; "for °of 
the wine of the wrath of her 
fornication, she phath ''given all 
I nations to drink. 

9 And ' a third angel followed 



^ For •kiyovta, all the recent editors read %iyav (A. B. C. 

'a 25. (3 6. y 4. Compl. Tulg. Copt. Slav. MSS.'). In the 

next clause the Greek order is retained by W., R. ;-foreign 
verss. generally ;-Daub., AVakef., Woodh., Lord. Kcnr. 

' E. v., ch. 6: 14; 20: 11; &c.;-Dt., It., and French verss. ;- 
Beng. and later German verss. (except Herd.), Wcsl., Woodh., 
Thorn., AUw., Greenf., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg. 

' T., C, (have only the first article) ;-Germ. (only the 
second) ;-Daub., Beng., Wesl., Ilengst., (as T.). Dodd. (as 
Germ.), Wakef., Lord, Treg., Ebr. Beng. and the later editors 
(except Lachm., Ilahn) have ■r^v before ddiaaaav, on the 
authority of A. B. -a 21. /3 7. Compl.' 

'' The Greek order of the verb and its subject is followed by 
"W., R. ;-Latin, German (except Moldcnh.), and French verss.. 
Syr. ;-Brightm., Daub, and later English verss. (except Words.). 

The word Sfii-z-fpo; is inserted before, or after, ayyAos, by 

all the recent editors (except Griesb., Sch., Bloomf ) on the 
following authority : ' A. B. o 17. j3 5. Syr.' have it before wyy. ; 
' C. a 8. /3 2. Compl. Copt. Arm.' have it after. I recommend 
that the margin bear this note : ' Or, as many read, another, 
a second angel.' Comp. v. 9, N. r. 

1 The verbs (or verb :-JIatth. and Treg. omitting the second 
(H., on the authority of ' B. C. a 18. (3 6. y 2. Copt. Aeth. 
Ar. P. Slav. MSS.') are translated before Ba/3., by G. (It is f., 
it is f.), R. ;-foreign verss. (of which the It., De W., Ebr., have 
the form proposed above : Caduta. caduta £ ; Gef alien, gef alien 
ist. Herd, and Mey. : gefallen ! gefallen .') ;-Hamm., Daub., (She 
>.?/, she isf.). Dodd. (as G.), Woodh. (She isf. ! B., the great 
[B.], isf. !), Thorn. (It isf. !—B. isf. .'), Lord (She hasf, great 
B. hasf), Treg., Words., Murd. Comp. the Ileb. Is. 21 : 9. 

" All the recent editors reject (except that Bloomf. merely 
brackets) the words jj jtdj.ts, on the authority of ' A. B. C. a 25. 
pl.yo. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Arm. Arr. Slav. MSS.' I re- 
commend that this reading be followed, and that the version 
stand : Babylon the great. See ch. 16 : 19, N. 1. 



" "Ori. is in E. V. treated 51 times in this book as a causal 
conjunction, and in 39 of these it is rendered by for. In 
other cases, as where bti, introduces the protasis (ch. 3: 10, 16, 
17; lie), our /or will not answer; nor should I here adopt it, 
except for the sake of avoiding an ambiguity that otherwise 
arises out of the subsequent transposition (N. o). — T., C, G.;- 
Woodh., Stu. Beng. and Matth. cancel the oVt (B. 'a 15. /3 6. 
y 3. Compl. Arm. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.'), and, instead of it, 
Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Word.s., Ti.sch., Theile, read ij ('■ A. C. 26. 
33. 34. 35. 38. 50**. Vulg. Aeth. Syr.'). 

" The.se genitives are translated before rtfrtdr., by R. ;-Latin 
verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Brightm., Beng. and later German verss., 
Woodh., AUw., Stu. 

P The Greek time is retained by the foreign verss. (except 
De W.) ;-Wesl., Woodh., AWw., Penn, Stu. 

1 Eight times out of 15 this verb is in E. V., to give drink 
or give to drink, and only in 1 Cor. 12: 13 is it rendered as 
here ;-W. (gave d. to) ;-Vu1g. (potavit), Syr. (as in JMatt. 25 : 
35), German verss. (g-efroHAreJ ;-except Moldenh. and De W., 
who use the phrase, geben zu trinken), Dt. (gedrenkl). It. 
(dato here), Fr. S. (doiine a boire) ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret.. (use 
potare), Pagn., Bez.. Par., (potandum praebuil), Vitr. (potan- 
dum dedit), Kenr. (gave . . to dr.). The idea of compulsory 

drinking does not belong to the word. See the lexicons. 

Excepting Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch., all the recent editors 
insert to, before iev?; (A. B. C. 'a 16. p 3. y 2. Compl.'). 

 For ■ypttoj oiyyfXos, all the recent editors have axxo? ayy£7.oj 
*ptVo5 (A. B. C. ' o 24. |3 6. y 3. Compl. Vulg. MS. Tot. Copt. 
Syr. Arm. Ar. P. Slav. MS.'). I recommend that this reading 
be adopted, and translated: another, a third angel. Comp. 
V. 8, N. k. — For a, see Dt., It., French verss. ;-Daub., Wells, 
Xewc, Stu., (another third), Beng. and later German verss., 
Wesl. and the later English. 



be translated, over. — B. V., ch. 13; 7 ;-W. (on), R. (upon) ;- 
Vulg. (super), Syr. ( hv) ;-Herd., Mey., Hengst., (uber. 
Ilengst. cites Job 36: 33 as analogous.), Ew. (as Vulg.): 



Kist., Van Ess, (unter). Stu. (a>Mon£-) ;-Wahl (per, unter), 
Rob. (upon, over, towards). 
' See ch. 1 : 7. N. k. 



REVELATION. 



165 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

lowed them, saying witli a loud 
voice, If any man worship the 
beast and his image, and receive 
his mark in his I'orehead, or in 
his hand, 

10 The same shall drink of 
the wine of the wrath of God, 
which is poured out without 
mixture into the cup of his in- 
dignation ; and he shall be tor- 
mented vdth fire and brimstone 



GREEK TEXT. 

drjaev avrol?, Xeycoi' ev ^covfj 
/xeyaXr], El tl9 to drjplov irpocr- 
Kvvel Kol rrjv elKova avrov, koI 
Xafi^avei -^apayfia iiii rov ix^tco- 
TTOV avrov, i] eVi ryu X^^P'^ avrov, 
10 Kal avros Trierat eK rod 
o'ivov rov 6v/jLov rov 0eov, 
KeKepao'/j.ei'ov aKparov Iv 
TTor-qpLW r-qs opyrjs avrov, 



REVISED VERSION. 

them, saying with a loud voice : 
If any 'one 'worshippeth the 
beast and his image, and 'receiv- 
eth °a mark ^on his forehead, or 
'upon his hand, 



10 ^^Even he shall drink of 

Tov j the wine of the wrath of God, 

.•; ! which »hath been s-mixed un- 

! mixed 'in the cup of his indigna- 

'^f ^ j tion, and he shall be tormented 



rw 



^aaavia-O-i^a-eraL Iv Trvpl Kal deicp >, with fire and brimstone 'before 



• See 1 John 2 : 1, N. b, &c. 

• See ch. 13 : 9, N. 1. Here applies the common rule re- 
specting ft with the indicative in the protasis, followed also by 
an indicative in the conclusion ; e.g. Matt. 19: 10, where the 
disciples do not formally express any sceptical doubt, but, 
taking for granted (since such is the case) the truth of their 
Lord's doctrine, venture on a practical inference. So here ; not : 
In case he should, but: As sure as he does. \V. (taketh);- 
German verss., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Castal., Cooc, B. and L., Treg. 

For T'. Or^f. Tifoax., all the recent editors read rtpocjx. t. 6rjf. 

(A.B.O. 'ol9. |3 8. Compl.'). 

" ' However slight or secret ;' or simply : ' one of the many.' — 
W., R., (use the definite article) ;-Latin verss. (supply nothing 
to the noun). Germ., Dt., {as W.) ; Fr. S. ;-Beng., Dodd. {as 
fr.;-and so Mey., Greenf, All., De W., Ebr.). Woodh., Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Hengst. 

' See oh. 13 : 16, NN. c, f, &c. 

' The xaL does not belong to riUtai, he shall also, or even 
drink (so at least it is transposed in the Dt., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;- 
Brightm., Beng., Wesl., Lord, Ebr.); nor to ix ■toi otVoti, of 
this wine as teell as of that, v. 8 (Par., Moldenh. The former, 
after Pagn. and Bez., transposes thus : Bibet hie quoqite, and 
remarks : ' Biberunt vinum illud : bibent etiam vinum hoc' But, 
though the antanaclasis is evident, it is not effected by the xai.) ; 
nor yet, in the proper connection with aOrd; (see 2 Pet. 1 : 14, 
N. z, &c.), does it imply, he as iiiell as others (Wells, as well as 
the Romish idolaters; B. and L., anssi-bien que la Bete; Ew., 
non minus quain Roma; De W., wie Babel und die Volker). 
It is used, as the Hebrew ^ often is, to introduce a certain 
result of the protasis, and it strengthens the already emphatic 
aitoi (see 1 John 1 : 7, N". x, etc.) ; q. d. ' In the very person of 
each particular transgressor shall this sin meet its inevitable 
doom.'— Vulg. (et hie), Syr. (= De D. etiam ille), It. (anch^ 
eg-Zi) ;-Erasm., Vat., (as Vtdg.), Aret., Ew., (et ipse), Cocc, 
Vitr., (etiam ipse), Daub, (and the same), Herd., Mey., AH., 
(auch er [rfe?-] wird trinken), Wakef. (tiien shall he), Dodd., 
Treg., Words., Murd., Kenr., (he also ;-Tieg. maiking the pro- 
noun as emphatic), Woodh., Allw., Greenf. (sin C3 Nin), Stu. 
(•the very same, xai adverbial and intensive.'). Ell. (he too). 

• 'God's judgments, like the portion of His children, are 



already prepared' (Matt. 25 : 34, 41 ; Ps. 7 : 12, 13 ; &c.). See 
ch. 5 : 12, N. w and 2 Pet. 2 : 17, N. a. 

■' 'Judgment without mercy; mixed with all wrathful 
ingredients for the sake of increasing — unmixed with aught 
that might reduce — its strength ;'— an allusion (which, together 
with the oxymoron, is lost in E. V.) to the two ancient methods 
of treating wine. The description rests on Ps. 75 : 8, as the 
peculiarity of the phraseology does on the Sept. version : "Oft 
Ttotrfiiov iv ajEipi Kupiou, oivou axfidrm rtX^psj xipdafiatos. The 
senses given in E. V. to xipavvvfn, here and ch. 18: G, the only 
places where it occurs in the N. T., find no warrant in the 
Sept. (see Prov. 9 : 2, 5 ; Is. 5 : 22 ; 19 : 14), and very little, if 
any, in classical usage (see Steph., Scap., Pass., L. and S.). 
SchOttg., therefore, in defining by misceo alone, is more ac- 
curate than the later N. T. lexicons.— W., E,., (mingled with 
clear [pwre] iriwe) ;-Vulg. (mistum . mere), Syr. (= De D. 
mixtum . merum), Dt. marg. (ongemengd ingemengd). It. 
(mesciuto tutto puro) ;-Erasm., Vat., (as Vulg.), Casta!, (mi.r- 
tum, merumque), Aret. (merum mi.vium). Grot. ('Hie potest 
proprie sumi, ut intelligatur merum mixtum herbis veneni- 
feris.'), Hamm., Wells (unmi.ved [with water and] mived 
with [gall]). Daub, (mixed s/rong- ;-adding in the Comment: 
'literally mixed U7imixed'), Dodd. ('tempered with various 
ingredients of wrath, without any mi.vture of mercy'). Gill 
Newc. marg., Kell., (mi.ved without mixture), Newt., Wakef. 
(pure wine tempered with drugs), AVoodh. (the imbittered 
powerful wine), Thorn, (mixed up unadulterated), Greenf. 
(-0^ xia Tjioan), All. (stark geniischt), Ell., De W. ('unge- 
mischt . . . eingeschenkt ist, eig. gemischt'), Words, (mixed 
without water), Hengst. (gemischt unvermischt. In a note 
he says: 'Even if mix could really stand for pour out this 
would still be improper here on account of the axpatov follow- 
ing. For the mi.ved and unmixed evidently form an enig- 
matical contrast. Finally, in the parallel 18: G, the signi- 
fication to pour out is not suitable.'), Kenr. (mingled with pure 

wine), Ebr. (ungemischt gemischt). For in, see nearly all 

the same authorities. 

' For before, see ch. 13: 13, N. j. For rZv iy. dyy.. 

Lachm. and Treg. read dyy. dy. (' C. 38.'), and Tisch. reads niv 
dyy. (' A. 26. Vulg. MS. Copt.'). 



166 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

in the presence of the holy an- 
gels, and in the presence of the 
Lamb : 

11 And the smoke of tlieir 
torment ascendeth up for ever 
and ever : and they have no rest 
day nor night, who worship the 
beast and his image, and whoso- 
ever receiveth the mark of his 
name. 



12 Here is the patience of tlie 
saints : here are they that keep 
the commandments of God, and 
the faith of Jesus. 

13 And I heard a voice from 
heaven, saying unto me. Write, 
Blessed are the dead which die 
in the Lord from henceforth : 
Yea, saith the Spirit, that they 
may rest from their labours ; and 
their works do follow them. 



GREEK TEXT. 

ivcaiTLOv Twv ayiwv dyyeXcou, kol 
evoDTTiov Tov apviov 

11 Kcu 6 KaiTvos TOV ^aaa- 
VKTjxov avTU)V dvaj3aLi>€i eh alcova^ 
almvoyv kcu ovk e^ovaiu dvavav- 
(TLV rj/xepaf kol vvktos o'l Trpoar- 
KVvoiivTes TO 6r]piov kcu tjjv elKova 
avTov, Kal el Tif Xa/j.^avei to 
y^apayp-a tov ovopaTos avrov. 

12 ' f28e vTTopiovi] Tcov dyloiv 
ecTTiv dSe o'l TrjpovvTes Tas ev- 
ToXas TOV Oeov koI TTjU TTlCrTLU 
Irjo-ov. 

13 Kal TjKovaa (fycovrjf Ik tov 
ovpavov, Xeyovarjs p-OL, Tpa^^ov, 
3IaKapiot ol veKpol ol ev Kvpiu) 
diroOvrjaKOVTes dirapTi. Nou, 
XeyeL to lJvevp,a' \va avairav- 
(TwvTai e'/c Tcav kottcov avTcov ra 
8e epya avTwv uKoXovdel p.eT 
avTcav. 



REVISED VERSION. 

the holy angels and 'before the 
Lamb ; 

11 And the smoke of their 
torment "ascendeth " unto ages 
of ages ; and they have no rest 
day ^and night, who worship 
the beast and his image, and 'if 
any one receiveth the mark of 
his name. 



12 Here is "ithe jjatience of 
the saints; "^here, they 'who keep 
the commandments of God, and 
the faith of Jesus. 

13 And I heard a voice from 
heaven, saying funto me : Write : 
Blessed are the dead ^who die 
in the Lord ^ henceforth. Yea, 
saith the Spirit, that 'they may 
rest from their 'toils, Jbut their 
works ^ follow 'with them. 



» For dva^. E15 aiuii'ttj aiuvav, all the recent editors (except 
Bloomf.) read lif ai. al. ava^. ('A. C. a 10. (3 6. y 2. Compl.' 

fi5 aiuia aiui'oj a. C). For the omission of up^ see ch. 8: 4, 

N. 1. For unto ages of ages, see ch. 1 : 6, N. g, &c. 

i" E. v., ch. 4: 8 ;-R. ;-Vulg., Syr., German verss., Dt. ;- 
Erasm., Yat., Aret., Cocc, Vitr., Daub. (or;-and so Wesl., 
Wakef., Newc, Thorn., Allvr., Sharpe, Murd.), Stu., Lord, 
Treg., Kenr. E. V. follows Pagn., Bez., &c. 

' The form of the original is preserved by E. V., v. 9; &c. ;- 
W., R. ;-Latin yerss., Germ., Dt. ;-Beng., Moldenh. {wenn 
einer), Newc, Woodh., Stu., De W., Hengst. 

^ Before rrto^., Beng., Matth., Lachm., Treg., "Words., Tisch., 

insert ri (A. B. C. 'a 21. j3 2.'). The second uSi is rejected 

by all the recent editors on the authority of 'A. B. C. a 20. 
/3 C. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Erp. Slav, ed.' I recommend 
that, in accordance with this reading, the word here be omitted. 
Of those who follow the common text, the substantive verb is 
not supplied by Fr. S. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat., Bez., Par., Cocc, 
Vitr., Thom., AUw. 

' Dodd., Wesl., Newc. and later verss. 

' All the recent editors cancel the noC, on the authority of 
' A. B. C. a 20. (3 5. Vulg. MS. Am. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr.' 
I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the words, 
unto me, be omitted. 

« See2Pet. 2:11, N. f. 



"■ T., C, G., (hereafter) i-Dodd., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Sharpe, Lord (as T.), Kell., ]Murd., Kenr. ;-Rob. {from, 
now on ;-Iike the von nun an of the German verss.). 

' For arartavauriai, Lachm. and Tisch. read drajtaijaorfat 
('A. C Bloomf. regards this as 'evidently a mere .slip of the 
pen.'); Treg. and Words., avartavaovtai (B. '16. 28. 30. 32. 36. 
50. Er.' This, Bloomf. thinks, is 'not improbably the true' 

reading.). For toils, see ch. 2: 2, N. d. On Hesych.'s 'ex 

xoriuv. IX ruv dStxtcoi',' Ernesti's note is: 'cf. Apoc 14: 13 et 
Mai. 2 : 13. Eodem modo glossae MS. in 12 proph.' 

' 'Their toil (1 Cor. 15 : 58, xoTtoi) has not been in vain in the 
Lord, though nothing now remains of it but its results (rd, spya) 
and reward.' See 2 Pet. 1 : 5, N. r.— T., C. ;-Erasm., Vat., 
Cocc, Moldenh., Woodh., Ew., Allw., Stu. (moreover), De W. 
For 6£, Lachm., Treg., Words., have ydp 'A. C. 18. 26. 38. 
Vulg. Syr.'). 

k W., T. (shall), C, G., R. ;-Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., 
Newc, Woodh., Thom., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Kenr. 

I ' As an attendant train ; so speedy is their recognition and 
reward.' (Comp. Milton's xiv. Sonnet: — 

' Thy works, and alms, and all thy good endeavour, 
'Stay'd not behind, nor in the grave were trod,' 
[or, as it originally stood in MS., 

' Straight follow'd thee the path that saints have trod,'] 
' But, as Faith pointed with her golden rod, 
' Follow'd thee up to joy and bliss for ever.') 



REVELATION. 



167 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

14 And I looked, and behold, 
a white cloud, and upon the 
cloud one sat like unto the Son 
of man, ha\ang on his head a 
golden crown, and in his hand a 
sharp sickle. 

15 And another angel came 
out of the temple, crying with 
a loud voice to him that sat on 
the cloud. Thrust in thy sickle, 
and reap : for the time is come 
for thee, to reap ; for the harvest 
of the earth is ripe. 



16 And he that sat on the 



GREEK TEXT. 

14 KaX el8ov, kolI l8ov u€(j)€Xr] 
XevKrj, Koi eVt Tr]u vecpeArju KaOi]- 
fxevos ofJiOLOs v'lw avOpMirov, e^wv 
eTTL Trjs Ke(f)a\i]s avTOV <Tre(j)auoi> 
'^pvaovv, Kol Iv rf] X^'P' clvtov 
Speiravov o^v. 

15 /cat a'AAo? ayyeXos e^rjXdev 
e'/c Tov vaov, KpaQav iv peyaXrj 
(f)(oi>fj T(S KaOrj/jLevcp iirl rrjs uecpi- 
Xr]^, Uefx^ou to Bptiravov crov, 
KOLL OepLaov, OTL rjXde croL rj copa 
TOV Beplaai, otl e^rjpavdr] 6 6e- 
piajxos Trji yrjs. 

IG Kou e^aXeu 6 KaOi-jpLevos 



REVISED VERSION. 

14 And I "saw, and behold a 
white cloud, and upon the cloud 
"one °sat like p a son of man, 
having on his phead a golden 
crown, and in his hand a sharp 
sickle. 



15 And another angel came 
"iforth out of the temple, crying 
with a loud voice to him that 
sat on the cloud : 'Send thy 
sickle, and reap ; for the 'hour 
•of the reaping is 'for thee come : 
for the harvest of the earth it 
"dried. 

16 And he that sat ^upon the 



■o See ch. 4: 1, N. b. 

" Seech. 1: 13, N. c. 

» See ch. 4 : 2, N. j. All the recent editors have xaBrni-tvov 

ofioiov (A. B. C. 'a 19. /3 7.'), except Bloomf. ; though in his 
Supp. he says, that the change is made ' perhaps rightly, since 
internal evidence' (in addition to 'many MSS., Versions, and 
Fathers,') ' is rather in its favour.' Even this reading Win. is 
inclined to take for a nominative neuter = somethiilg like a 
man. But it is much better to class it with the other mixed 
constructions of this book. See ch. 7 : 9, N. e. 

p See ch. 1 : 13, N. d. For r^s xiq^axris, Lachm., Treg., 

Tisch., read r^v xs^a^rii^ (' A. o 6. [& 28. 29.]'). 

' For forth, see ch. 9 : 3, N. m, &c. The verb, iti/ntu, 

occurs 81 times in the N. T., and, except here and in v. 18, is 
always in E. V. rendered, to send, just as the parallel Mark 
4: 29 is the only instance, out of 133, in which djtoo-f £>.>,« is 
rendered otherwise than by send, send out, forlli, away. In 
the exceptional cases it was supposed necessary to assume, that 
in the action described the immediate object was still retained 
in the hand. But the assumption is not necessary, and greatly 
injures the sense. As the rod in Ps. 110 : 2, and the sword in 
Matt. 10 : 34 ; Jer. 9 : IC ; &,c., so here the sickle is conceived of 
as a missile, a messenger, executing a commission (Ps. 148: 8; 
Is. 55 : 11. Comp. also Matth. 24: 31 with Joel 3 : 13).— W. ;- 
Latin verss. (vni'Mej-Castal. and Ew. immitte), Syr. (lacks the 
address of the angel in this verse, but in v. 18 uses the same 
word as in Matt. 10: 16), Dt. (zend), Fr. G.,-M., (jette), Fr. S. 
(eyivoie) ■,-'B. and L. marg. {envoyez). Daub., Allw., {send in), 
Berl. Bib., Mey., Ilengst., Ebr., (sende), Beng. (Schick), Woodh. 
(send forth), Greenf (nVa. the word in Joel), Ell. ;-the lexi- 
cons generally' (Rob. explains the word here by to send forth, 
though he adds: 'i. q. to thrust in'). 



 See 1 John 2: 18, N. b, and comp. Matt. 24: 36. 

" It. (del miefere) ;-Castal., Bez., Aret., Cocc, Vitr., (me- 
tendi). Daub., Wakef , (<f reaping), Dodd., Woodh., (nf thy 

reaping; including the aoi), Sharpe. Matth., Griesb., Sch., 

Bloomf., retain the -tov, which the other editors, on the author- 
ity of A. B. C. ' a 9. ,3 5. Er.,' omit. 

' The trot belongs as a dativus commodi exclusively to ^■k9s, 
and is so construed by Dt., Fr. S. ;-Erasm. and the later Latin 
verss., De W. (in 1839). But the pronoun is marked by 
Bloomf as ' most probably, or certainly, an interpolation,' and 
by all the other recent editors it is cancelled, on the authority 
of A. B.C. 'a 24. (3 5. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Arm. Arr. 
Slav.' I recommend that this reading be followed, and the 
words, for thee, omitted. 

" The verb, |j;poi,Vu, occurs 16 times, and in E. V. is trans- 
lated in ch. 16: 12; Mark 5: 29; 11: 20, to dry up; elsewhere, 
except in this instance, to pine away, wither, wither away. 
Comp. Luke 23 : 31, and, in the Sept. and E. V., Job 18: 16; 
.Jer. 23 : 10; Ezek. 20 : 47 ; Hos. 9 : IG ; Nah. 1:10; Luke 23 : 31. 
Ebr. here renders by gereift ist, but acknowledges that the 
word nowhere else bears that sense. — E. V. marg. ;-R. (dry) ;- 
Latin verss. (aruiV ;-except Cocc, .sjccato). Germ, (dilrre ge- 
worden), Dt. marg. (dor, droog geworden), It. (secca) ;-Engl. 
Ann. ('Or, dried; or, withered'), Ilamm., B. and L. marg. 
(seche), Beng. (as Gerin.;-a.nd so De W., Ilengst.), Herd., 
Mey., All., Goss., (diirr), Newc. marg., Stu., Kenr., (as R.), 
Ell. The idea of ripeness is an inference, and is not expressed 
in any lexicon, except Schleus., Bretsch., Rob., Green. 

' E. v., V. 14; &c., and see ch. 7: 1, N. b, &c. For tijv v., 

Lachm., Treg., Words., read rijs •'fft'J.Jjs (' A. 16*. 36. 47.' ry 
vt^i'^yj B.). 



— Syr. (= adhaerent cum. The verb is that used in Acts 
8: 29, Join thyself; Rom. 12: 9, Cleave; &c.), Dt. ;-Castal., 
Cocc„ (eos comitantur), Hamm., Daub., B. and L. ('accom- 



pagnenl. Gr. sidvenl avec eux'), Wakef, Woodh., Thorn, and 
jMurd. (accompany), Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, Words., 
Hengst., Ebr. E. V. and others follow the Vulg. 



168 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

cloud thrust in his sickle on the 
earth ; and the earth was reaped. 

17 And another angel came 
out of the temple which is in 
heaven, he also having a sharp 
sickle. 

18 And another angel came 
out from the altar, which had 
power over fire ; and cried with 
a loud cry to him that had the 
sharp sickle, saying. Thrust in 
thy sharp sickle, and gather the 
clusters of the vine of the earth ; 
for her grapes are fully ripe. 



19 And the angel thrust in 
his sickle into the earth, and 
gathered the vine of the earth. 



GREEK TEXT. 

eVi rrju ve(j)eXr)u to ^piiravov 
avTOV eVt Tr]u yrjv, Koi ideplad^] 

V yv- 

17 Kal ccAAo? ayyeAof eg>?A- 
Oeu e'/c Tov vaov rov iv t<S ovpavw, 
e-^oiv kcCl avTos Spenravov ogv. 

18 Koi a\Xo9 ayyeXos i^rjXdev 
e'fc TOV 6v(TiaaT7]pLOV, e^cou i^ov- 
crlav iirl tov 7rvp09, kcu icprnvrjo-e 
Kpavyfj jxeyaXrj t(S e-^ovTL to 8pe- 
iravov TO o^v, Xeycou, He/jAJrou 
(TOV TO Spewapof to o^v, koI Tpv- 
yrjcrov tovs jioTpvas r^? yi??, otl 
■qKjJiaaav al (rTa(j)vXal avTrjs. 

1 9 Koil efiaXev 6 ayyeXos to 
opeiravov avTov ei9 Trjv yr]v, kcll 
iTpvyijae ttju a/xireXov tyjs yris, 



REVISED VERSION. 

cloud "cast his sickle 'upon the 
earth, and the earth was reaped. 

17 And another angel came 
'•forth out of the temple which 
is in heaven, he also having a 
sharp sickle. 

IS And another angel came 
^forth 'out of the altar, "having 
power over "the fire, and ""he 
'called with a loud 'cry to him 
that had '^t\ie sharp sickle, say- 
ing : 'Send ■'thy sharp sickle, 
and gather the clusters of ' the 
earth ; for 'her grapes are fully 
ripe. 

19 And the angel ^cast his 
sickle ""unto the earth, and gath- 
ered 'the fruit of the vine of the 



" In contrast with the 7ii^4.or, t/JaXtv marks the ready and 
strong assent of the Angel-reaper to the call and representations 
of V. 15. Comp. V. 15, N. q and ch. 2 : 24, N. g— W. {sent) ;- 
Latin verss. (misit ;-except Castal., immisit ; CocC;, conjecit), 
Syr. (same word as in ch. 19 : 20), Dt. (zund), Ft. G.,-M. -S., 
(jeta);-Daub. (cast in), Woodh., Ell. {threw). 

» See N. V, &c. Daub., Wesl., Woodh., Allw., Stu. 

J See ch. 9 : 3. N. m, &c. 

 For forth, see ch. 9: 3, N. m, &c. For out nf, see E. V., 
vv. 15, 17, 20; ch. 16: 7; &c. The same phrase is used as in 
T. 15, by R. {forth from), Vulg. {exivit de), Syr.. Germ. 
{atis), It. {usci fuor del) Fr. G.,-M. -S., {sortit de) ;-Erasm., 
Vat., {exivit de), Castal. {ex), Brightra. (censures Bez.'s ab 
[which Bez., as usual, adopted from Pagn.], and explains out of 
by ch. 6:9), Moldenh., Wakef. (here only has, out of), Woodh. 
{as R.), Penn {out from), Ell. ('observe ix, not drtd'), Hengst. 
(•ascending from the base, where, according to ch. 6., lie the 
souls of the martyrs. . . . Vain is Ewald's attempt to substi- 
tute von [from\ for aus {out o/"].'). E. V. follows W., T., 
C, G. 

' For haring, see E. V., vv. 14, 17 ; &c. ;-Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Bez., 
Par., Cocc, Vitr., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord, Murd. E. V. and others follow the Vulg. The 
reading o tx^v (A. C.) is adopted only by Lachm. and Tisch. 

For the article before ^ire (whether the iire of the altar, 

ch. 8 : 5, N. o ; or the element of fire, comp. ch. 11:6, N. w), 
see R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Brightm., Daub, and later English 
ver.^s. (except Wesl., Newc, Treg.). 

>■ W., R. ;-Genn., Dt., French verss. ;-Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., 



Thom., Mey., Allw., All., Penn, Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Murd., 
Kenr. 

' When ^avta has the accusative after it, it is always in 
E. V. to call, or call for. The present is the only instance of 

its being followed by the dative of the immediate object. 

Protestant German verss. {rief), Fr. S. (paWa) ;-Daub., Dodd. 
{called out ■,~a.n^ so Woodh., Allw.), Newc, Stu. JIany others 
avoid using a cognate verb and noun for j^uik. xpauyjj. In 
having the same verb for fcfiii'jjBt here and xfdi^uv in v. 15, 

E. V. and the older verss. follow the Vulg. For xpavyrj, 

Lachm. and Treg. read ^avrj ('A. B. 38. Vulg. Aeth. Arm. 
Ar.'). 

^ See 1 John 2: 7, N. o, &c. 
' See V. 15, N. q. 

f The Elzevir Text and all the recent editors insert the 
words, trii anTti'Kov, before I'^j y^j. I recommend that this 

reading be adopted: of the vine. For av-f^s, Tisch. reads tru 

y^s (B. 'a 17. (3 7. Aeth. Syr.'). Bloomf. also is 'now in- 
clined to receive' this reading ; but he errs in attributing it to 
Lachm. 

^ See V. 16, N. w, &c. 

" See ch. 8 : 5, N. p, &e. 

' This is not a supplement, but is involved in the Greek 
verb, the specific sense of which is given in the Latin verss. by 
vindemiavit ; It., vendemmio ; French verss., vendangea ; Daub., 
reaped; Stu. (including the noun), harvested the vineyard- 
fruit; De W. and Ebr., herbstete.—W. {grapes of), T., C, G., 
{the gr. o/");-Dt. {de druiven ;-ma.Tkmg this as supplied) ;- 
Dodd., Wakef, Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, {as T. ;-Dodd. 
and Penn marking as supplied), Moldenh. {die Trauben). 



REVELATION. 



169 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and cast it into the great wine- 
press of the wrath of God. 

20 And the wine-press was 
trodden without the city, and 
blood came out of the wine-press, 
even unto the horse-bridles, by 
the space of a thousand a?id six 
hundred furlongs. 

CHAP. XV. 

And I saw another sign in 
heaven, great and marvellous, 
seven angels having the seven 
last plagues ; for in them is filled 
up the wrath of God. 

2 And I saw as it were a sea 
of glass mingled with fire : and 
them that had gotten the victory 



GREEK TEXT. 

Koi e^aXev et? tt]!/ Xiqvov tov 
Ovjxov TOV Oeov Tr]v jxeyaX-qv. 

20 Kou iTraTrjdr) rj Xr)vos e^co 
rri^ TroAewf, /cat ii^rjXOev a'lfxa Ik 
Trjs Xrjvov ol^l tuiv yaXivSiv tcoi> 
tinrcou, OLTTO aradlcoi' -^lXlcou i^a- 
Koalcou. 

CHAP. XV. 

KAI el8oi> aXXo (nqfielov iv 
Tco ovpavu) jieya kol Oav^aarou, 
ayyeXovf eirra, k-)(OVTas TrXrjyay 
eTTTo. ray ea^ras, on iv avrals 
ireXecrdT] 6 6vfxo9 tov Oeov. 

2 Kol el8ov 6)s OaXacraav 
vaXLvrjv fxe/xLyixeinju irvpi, kou 

TOVS VLKWVTaS e'/C TOV OrjpLOV KOU 



REVISED VERSION. 

earth, and cast ' into '■the great 
winepress of the wrath of God. 

20 And the winepress was 
trodden 'without the city, and 
'there came "forth blood out of 
the winepress " unto the "bridles 
of the horses, p a thousand "> six 
hundred furlongs pofi". 

CHAP. XV. 

And I saw another sign in 
heaven, great and "wonderful, 
seven angels having the seven 
last plagues ; for in them '■was 
'finished the wrath of God. 

2 And I saw as it were a 
■■glassy sea mingled with fire, 
and '■those 'who 'were victorious 



' Not the vine, but the tfvyt). Comp. cb. 8 : 5, N. p. No- 
thing is here supplied by W. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal.) 
Syr. ;-Greenf., Sharpe, Lord, Hengst., Ebr. 

It See 1 John 2 : 7, N. o, &c. For tiiv ^iiyaxr^v, all the recent 
editors read tov fiiyav (A. B. C. 'o 20. p 5. Compl.'). See v. C, 
N. f. 

' For £?u, all the recent editors read tfuSfi- (A. B. C. 'a 24. 

3 8. Compl.'). In the next clause, the Greek order of the 

verb and its subject is retained by the Latin and French verss., 
It. ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Moldenh., Woodh., AUvr., Greenf., Stu., 
De W., Hengst., Ebr. 

"• See ch. 9 : 3, N. m, &c. 

" E. v., ch. 2 : 10 ; &c. ;-W. (till to), R. (up to) ;-Brightm. (to), 
Sym., Wakef., Newc, Thom.. Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr., 
(as R. ;-and so Words., who also retains even. But the direc- 
tion is determined, not by the preposition, but by the nouns 
following.). 

° W. {the br. of h.) ;-Brightm., Daub, (horses bridles), 
Dodd., Wesl. (horses' bridles ;-and so Sharpe, Lord, Murd., 
the Amer. Bible Soc, Kenr.), Sym., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Words. 

P The drtd in this construction marks distance from. Comp. 
John 11 : 18; 21 : 8, and see Win. 5 65. 4. and the lexicon.'?.— 
R- (for) ;-Beng., Herd, and later German verss., (tausend 
sechshundert Stadien weit), Dodd., Stu., (at tlie distance), 
Wakef., Thom., Lord, Murd., Kenr., (as R.), Newc, Woodh., 
Allw., Words., (for the space), Penn (to the distance). 

' R.;-foreign verss. (except Syr., Moldenh., Greenf ) ;- 



Brightm., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Woodh., Sharpe, Lord, Words., 
Kenr. 



« W. ;-Brightm. (admirable), Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., 
Newc, Woodh., Thom., Lord, Barn., Jlurd., Kenr. 

^ Syr. ;-Hamm., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Mey., 
Kist., Sharpe. Treg. (hath been), De W. 

' E. Y., ch. 10: 7; 11: 7; 20: 5; John 19: 30; &c;-W. 
(ended), T., C, G., (fulfilled), R. (consummate) ;-Haram. 
('or, finished'), Daub., Dodd. (completed -j-und so Woodh., 
Allw., Treg.), AVesI. (as T.), AVakef., Thom., Penn, Stu. (ac- 
complished). Lord, Murd. and Kenr. (consummated). 

J Seech. 4: 6, N. x. 

' See ch. 2 : 2, N. h, &c., and 1 : 5, N. v, &c. 

'' As often used, nxij = I am a victor = I have conquered. 
But vixuvtai here is not t}ie participle of the present (Par. ' vic- 
toriam reportant ;' Hengst. ' den Sieg behalten.' The latter 
adds: 'It is the conquering, not such as have conquered, that 
are spoken of, with reference to the present of the Seer, when 
the victory is still in progress ;'-and so Ebr.), but of the imper- 
fect, with reference to il&ov. Grammatically, therefore, E. V, 
can be defended. But it is better to come closer to the form 
of the original— W., R., (overcame) -j-Dt. (de overwinning 
hadden), Fr. S. (etaient vainqueurs) ;-Bez., Cocc, Vitr., (toc- 
toriam reportabant), Beng. (siegeten), Dodd., Kenr., (as IV.), 
Wesl. (gained the victory), Wakef. (escaped unconquered), 
Thom., Stu. (came nff conquerors), Bloomf. (came off victors), 
Lord. Castal., Mey., Win., Sharpe, De W., &c., treat Toij »ix, 
as a substantive, without regard to time. 

22 



170 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

over the beast, and over his 
image, and over his mark, and 
over the number of his name, 
stand on tlie sea of glass, having 
the harps of God. 

3 And they sing the song of 
Moses the se.vaut of God, and 
the song of the Lamb, saying. 
Great and marvellous are thy 
works, Lord God Almighty ; just 
and true arc thy ways, thou 
King of saints. 



4 "Who shall not fear thee, O 
Lord, and glorify thy name '? for 
thou only art holy : for all nations 



GREEK TEXT. 



e/c rrjf etKouos avTou Kat e/c rov . 
-^apayixaros avTov, e'/c tov apiB/jLov 
Tov bvoixaros avrov, iaTwras ^ttL 
TTjv OaXaacav rrjv vaXivrjv, e^ou- 
ras KiOdpas rov Oeov. 

3 /cat aSovcri rrjv w8r)v JHco- 
aems SovXov tov Oeov, kou rrjv 
d)8rju TOV apviov, Xeyovre?, J/e- 
yaXa kcu Oavfiao'Ta tu epya aov, 
Kvpte 6 Oeos 6 TTavTOKpaTap- 
SiKatai Kol dXrjdii'ai ai 68oi crov, 
6 fiaaiXevf Tmv kyiwv. 

4 TLS ov p-y] (po^Tjdfj ere, Kvpie, 
Koi So^acrr] to bvopia aov ; oti 
pibuos bcnos' otl iravTa Ta iOvr] 



REVISED VERSION. 

'from the beast, and ^from his 
image, and ''from his mark, "from 
the number of his name, 'stand- 
ing Jby the '^glassy sea, having 
|<harps of God. 

3 And they sing the song of 
Moses 'the servant of God, and 
the song of the Lamb, saying : 
Great and 'wonderful are thy 
works, "0 Lord God "the Al- 
mighty; "righteous and true are 
thy ways, "thou King of pthe 
''saints. 

4 Who shall not fear 'thee, 
Lord, and glorify thy name? 
for tho:i only art holy : for all 



^ The construction vixu ix. unexampled elsewhere, is com- 
pared by Grot, to Victor ab Atirorae popidis ; by Wahl and 
■\Vin. to the common victoriam ferre ex. But it is better 
taken for a Hebraistic construciio prae^nans. including de- 
liverance and victorious separation from ; and hence several 
of the translations in N. f. — Syr. (= -ja), Dt. (ra?i) ;-Erasm., 
Yat., Cocc, Vitr., (<fe), Pagn.. Castal., Bcz., Par., (e.r), Newt. 
([had escaped victors] from) Ew. ([sujieriores recedunt]a). 
Stu., Lord, De AV. and Ebr. (von), Bloomf., Treg., Hengst. 
(• strictlj- : out of the beast. This construction, quite unusual 
elsewhere, points to tiie circumstance that, before the victor3', 
they were in the beast's power, and is explained by ch. 11 : 7.' 
He also cites Ps. 22 : 22 [21].) ;-Rob. 

'' Bloomf. brackets, and all the other recent editors cancel, 
the words ix roD j;apay^aT'os avtoi, on the authority of ' A. B. 0. 
a 24. p 4. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Arr.' I recommend 
that this reading be adopted, lind the words, from his mark, 
omitted. 



\ Seech. 10: 5, N. r, &c. 

1 Whether the historical parallel is 'the molten sea' of the 
temple (Mede, Cuninghame. &g.) or, as is more commonly and, 
I think, correctly supposed, the triumph at the Red Sea, 
Ex. 15., frti must here be used as at ch. 3: 20; 8: 3; &c. — 
G. (at) ;-Ar. (= prope). Germ, (an ;-not avf as Moldenh., 
Goss., AH., after the Vulg. super), Dt. (aan ;-not op) ;-Pagn., 
Bez.. Par., (apud), Brightm., Engl. Ann. and Scott (Or, af), 
Grot, ('sicut monies stant circa mare'), Daub., Beng. (as 
Genre. ;-and so Mey., De W., Hengst., Ebr.), Dodd., Wesl. (as 
G.;-and so Wakef., Thorn.), Gill and Ell. ('or rather, bf), 
Newc, Bloomf., Scholef. ;-SchOttg. (apud, prope ;-and so 
Schleus., a.ddingjuxta), Bretsch. (ad), Wahl (an, bei). Others 
(Stu., &c.) explain the sea as denoting the pavement or floor, 
on which, they think, rested ' the throne itself of God,' together 



with the surrounding worshippers. And, the case being a 
doubful one, T recommend that the words : • Or, 7ipon,' be set in 
the margin. 

" Pr. S. ;-Brightm., B. and L., Jloldenh., Wakef., Newc. 
(marks the as supplied), Woodh., All., Sharpe, Stu., Ell., Stier, 
Lord, De W., Words., Kenr. 

1 Before SavXov. all the recent editors (except Jlatth., Griesb., 

Sch., Bloomf., TischO insert toi (-A. a 8. [& 12.] Compl.'). 

For wonderful, see v. 1, N. a. 

" E. v., ch. 11 : 17; &c.;-lt., Fr. G.-M.;-B. and L., Daub., 
Dodd., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Lord, Treg., Words., Kenr. 

° For tlie, see ch. 4 : 8, N. k. For righteous, see 2 Pet. 

2: 7, N. j, &.C. E. V. elsewhere (4 thnes) in this book ;-Dodd., 
Wesl., Newc, Treg. 

» An allowable compensation for the Greek idiom, = 5; tl 
5 ?a.a. See ch. 12 : 12, N. x. 

p See ch. 5 : 9, N. j and 12 : 5, N. x. 

1 For dytuv, all the recent editors (except Theile) read iBviliv 
('A. B. a 27. /3 9. y 3. Compl. Copt. Aeth. Arm. Ar. P. Slav. 
MSS.' Theile errs in citing this as the text. rec). Matth., 
indeed, has dyi'u^, but evidently by an oversight, as in his note 
he concurs in Beng.'s strong condemnation of that reading, 
which arose, Matth. also thinks, from the scholium of Andr. : 
■tCiv • • . offt'ws rto^itivaaiiivav. I recommend that the reading 
iSvuv be followed, and translated : nations. Still another read- 
ing, which Mill regarded as omnino genuinam, is aMvuv 
(' C. 18. Vulg. Syr. Arm. ed. in m. Erp.'). 

' The Of is cancelled by Lachm., Hahn, Mey., Treg., Tisch., 
Theile, on the authority of ' A. B. C. 12. 14. 36. 47. 92. Er. Vulg. 
MS. Am. Tol. Aeth. Arm.' 



REVELATION. 



171 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

shall come and worship before 
thee ; for thy judgments are 
made manifest. 

5 And after that I looked, 
and behold, the temple of the 
tabernacle of the testimony in 
heaven was opened : 

6 And the seven angels came 
out of the temple, having the 
seven jjlagues, clothed in pure 
and white linen, and having 
their breasts girded with golden 
girdles. 

7 And one of the four beasts 
gave unto the seven angels seven 
golden vials lull of the wrath of 



GREEK TEXT. 

■^^ovcrt, Koi irpo(TKVvrjaov(TLV iuco- 
TTiov crov on ra SLKaicop.ara crov 
icpavepaBrjaau. 

5 JKai iiera ravra eloov, koll 
ISov rjvoiyrj 6 vaos rrjs cTKrivrjs 
rod [xapTvpiov Iv r« ovpavm- 

6 Kcu e^rjXOov ol eirra ayyeXot 
i-^ovTei Ta9 eTTTa irXrjya^, Ik tov 
vaou, ivSeSvp-evoi Xlvov Kadapov 
KCU Xap.irpov, koi irepieC^axrp.euoi 
irepl TO. a-TTjOr] ^cavas ■)(pv(Ta9. 

7 KCU. 'kv eK TUiv recrcrapcov ^(ocop 
eScoKe Tois eivra ayyeXots eVra 
(pLaXas ^vaas, yepiovaas tov 



REVISED VERSION. 

■the nations shall come and wor- 
ship before thee ; 'because thy 
"judgments "were "manifested. 

5 And after 'these things I 
^saw, and, 'behold, the temple 
of the tabernacle of the testi- 
mony in heaven was opened : 

6 And the seven angels 'hav- 
ing the seven plagues came 
'■forth 'out of the temple, clothed 
in ""linen pure "and "^bright, and 
fgirt ^round ^about '■the breasts 
with golden girdles. 

7 And one of the four 'living 
creatures gave imto the seven 
angels seven golden -"bowls, full 



 For oaioj. Matth. reads ayiof (• B. a 26. (3 7. y 2. Compl.') ; 
and, for Ttdvta ■ro iOvij. he reads rtoi'ffs ('B. a 21. j3 7. Ar. P.'). 
For the article, sec ch. 12 : 5, N. x. 

' This clause seems to present the manifestation of God's 
judgments as the occasion and cause of the universal worship 
(comp. Is. 26 : 9 ; itc). rather than of the confident anticipation 
regarding it just expressed; whereas what God is in himself, 
ftoKoj offioj, is the immediate ground of the interrogative chal- 
lenge in the beginning of the verse. — Castal. {quod ;-instead of 
nam, which he uses in the two previous clauses ; and the reason 
of the change is still more clearly determined by his changing 
also the indicative mood of other Latin verss. into the sub- 
junctive, palefacta sint.), Moldenh., De W., (arei7;-for the 
deiin of the other clauses), Stu. (also rendering the second oti. 
truly), Lord, Murd. (since ;-in the previous clauses, because), 
Kenr., Ebr. (renders the triple 6ri,, denn . . . also d^ss . . . well). 

° ' Judicial acts' = DiaQlTia, Is. 26 : 9. 

' See N. t. 

" Seech. 3: 18, N. a. &c. 

» See ch. 4 : 1, N. a. 

y Seech. 4: 1, N. b. 

' All the recent editors cancel i&tn, on the authority of 
' A. B. C. a 27. (3 9. Compl. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Slav. MSS.' I 
recommend that this reading be aiiopted, and that the version 
stand thus : and the temple. 

* The participial clause identifies the angels ; which is yet 
more clear in the reading, ot ixoptei (' A. C. a 2. ^ 8. Compl.'), 
adopted by all the recent editors. I recommend that this read- 
ing be followed, and translated : who had. — The participle is 
kept in immediate connection with its noun, by W., R. ;-foreign 
verss. ;-Dodd. and the later English (e.\cept Words.). 

" See ch. 9 : 3, N. m. &c. 

» Matth. and Tisch. cancel the words ix tov taoii, on the 



authority of ' B. a 19. j3 4. ;' Matth. also inserting the words ol 
risav, on the authority of ' B. o 17. S 7. y 2. Compl.' 

" The Greek order is observed by W. ;-Latin verss. (except 
Castal.), Syr., It., French verss. ;-Daub., Greenf. But all the 
recent editors cancel the xai before Xa^rfpdr, on the authority of 
• A. B. C. a IC. p 7. Er. Vulg. JIS. 4m. Tol. Copt. Syr. Arr. 
Slav. MS.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and 

that the version stand thus : pure, bright linen. For -kCvov, 

Lachm. reads %leov (' A. C. 38**. 48. 90. Vulg. MS. Am. Slav. 
MSS.'). Comp. Ezek. 28: 13; and Milton: -Zeal, whose sub- 
stance is ethereal, arming in complete diamond, ascends his 
fiery chariot.' (Apol.for Smect. sect. I.). And again in P. L. 
vi. 109, 110 : 

•' Satan, with vast and haughty strides advanc'd, 
' Came towr'ing, arm'd in adamant and gold.' 

« E. v., ch. 22 : 16 ; Acts 10 : 30. This idea of lustre is given 
by T., C, G.;-Syr. (see Michaelis ad CastelL), Protestant 
German verss. (the Vulg. having candido) except Herd., Dt., 
It., Fr. S.;-Casta!., Brightm., Bez., Grot., Cocc, Vitr., B. and 
L., Daub., Dodd., Woodh., Sharpe. Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. 

f The participle is kept in its place, and translated as de- 
pendent on ayyfXot, by ^V., R. ;-foreign verss. generally ;-Daub., 
Dodd., Newc, Woodh., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., 
Murd., Kenr. For the form of the participle, see E. V.. ch. 
1 : 13 ;-Daub., Wesl., Woodh., Stu., Kenr. 

^ Comp. ch. 1 : 13. AH the verss. referred to in the first 
half of N. f express one of the Greek prepositions ; only the Dt. 
(omgord om), Moldenh., Mey., De W., Ebr., (umgilriei icvi), 
express both. 

^ E. v., ch. 1 : 13 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;^Latin verss., Dt., It, Fr. S. ;- 
Daub., Berl. Bib., Moldenh., Herd., Mey., Allw., All., Stolz, 
Kist., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, De W., Kenr., Ebr. 

' See ch. 4 : 6, N. a. 

1 Seech. 5: 8, N. g. 



17i 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

God, who livetli for ever and 
ever. 

8 And the temple vpas filled \ 
with smoke from the glory of 
God, and from his power ; and , 
no man was able to enter into ; 
the temple, till the seven plagues 
of the seven angels were ful- 
filled. 

CHAP XVI. 

And I heard a great voice out 
of the temple, saying to the 
seven angels, Go your ways, and 
pour out the vials of the wrath 
God of upon the earth. 



2 And the first went, and 
poured out his vial upon the 
earth ; and there fell a noisome 
and grievous sore upon the men 
which had the mark of the beast, 
and uiwn them which worship- 
ped his image. 



GREEK TEXT. 

Ovfiov rod Oeov tov ^auTOs els 
rovf alwvas twv alavcov. 

8 /cat iyef^Lcrdr] 6 vaos Kairvov 
e'/c rrjs do^rjs tov Oeov, kcll eK 
r^f dwa/jLems avrov- kcu ovSelf 
rjSvuaTO elaeXdeiu ety tov paov, 
a)(pL TeXecrdcocTLV al eVra TrXrjyal 
T&v eVra ayyiXcav. 



CHAP. XVI. 



KAI rjKovaa (f)coi>rJ9 fj.€ya\r]9 
€K TOV vaov, Xeyova-qs roi? eiTTa 
dyyeXoLf, YirayeTi, /cat tKyeaTt 
TOLS ^(.aXas TOV Ovfxov tov Oeov 
els Trjv yy]v. 

2 Kai airrjXOev 6 TrpaiTOs, /cat 
e^e^ee Trjv (piaXr]u avTov cVt Trjv 
yrjv KCU eyeveTO eXKOs KaKov kou 
TTOvqpov et? Tovs avBpwjrovs tovs 
e^ovTas TO ^apayfxa tov Orjpiov, 
/cat T0V9 TT) eLKOUL avTov irpoa- 

KWOVVTaS. 



REVISED VERSION. 

of the wrath of God who liveth 
'unto the ages of the ages. 

S And tiie temple was filled 
with smoke from the glory of 
God, and from his power ; and 
no 'one was able to enter into 
the temple, till the seven plagues 
of the seven angels "'should be 
"finished. 

CHAP. XVI. 

And I heard a "loud voice "out 
of the temple, saying to the 
seven angels : "Go, and pour out 
the ' bowls of the wrath of God 
•'into the earth. 

2 And the first went *away, 
and poured out his ''bowl 'upon 
the earth ; and there ^came an 
"■evil and grievous sore 'upon the 
men 'who had the mark of the 
beast, and ' who worshipped his 



k See ch. 1 : 6, N. g, &c. 
1 See ch. 5 : 3, N. e, &c. 

" It. (fossero). French verss. (fiissent) ;-Hamm., Beng. and 
•De "W. (waren), Woodh., Allw,, Lord. 
° See V. 1, N. c. 

' See ch. 1 : 10, N. x. JIatth. and Tisch. cancel the words 

Ix rov voMv, on the authority of ' B. a 18. /3 5. Syr. (in some 
copies). Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' 

•> Except in this instance, irtdyu is always (5 times) in this 
book, and generally elsewhere, rendered in E. V., to go ;-W. 
((to ye), R. ;-Latin verss. (Ite), It. (Andate), French verss. 
(Allez) ;-Daub. (g-o on), Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thom., Penn (as W.), Sharpe, Stu.. Lord, Treg. and Murd. (g-o 
forth), Kenr. 

' Before ^lojiaj, all the recent editors (though Bloomf. thinks 
that ' internal evidence is rather against it') insert Ertf a ' A. B. C. 
o 20. p 7. Vulg. Syr. Arm. Arr.' I recommend that this read- 
ing be adopted : seven. For bowls, see ch. 5 : 8, N. g. 

■1 Comp. ch. 13 : 13, N. i, &c., and v. 3, N. 1. W. ;-Latin 
verss. (_in, with the accusative), Syr. (^ Greenf. a). It. (7ie);- 
Sharpe {on to). Treg. 

' Seech. 12: 17, N. r, &c. 

f See ch. 5 : 8, N. g. For luC, Matth., Sch., Lachm., Hahn, 

Treg., Words., Tisch., read Us (A. B. C. ' o 19. |3 7. Vulg. Syr. 



Ar. P.'). I recommend that the words: 'Or, as many read, 
into,' appear in the margin. 

^ Comp. 2 Pet. 1 : 20, N. w. E. V. rather excludes the idea 
of an eruption from within. — W., E., {was made) ;-Latin verss. 
{factum est ;-except Castal., affecti sunt homines), Syr. 
(= Greenf. in^). Germ, {ward), Dt. {werd), Fr. G. {fut faite), 
Fr. S. {y eut) j-Daub., Words., {became), Berl. Bib., Beng., 
Van Ess, Goss., {kam), Dodd., Stu., Treg., Murd., {was), 
Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., Mey. {as G'er7re.;-and so All., 
Hengst.), Ew. {ortum est, venit). Ell. {broke out). Lord, De W. 
and Ebr. {enlstand), Kell. {ensued), Kenr. {as R.). 

^ E. v., generally; never, as here;-Syr., Protestant German 
verss. (use 66se;-except Ebr., schlimmer), Dt. {kwaad), Fr. G., 
-S., {mauvaise) ;-Erasm. and later Latin verss., except Castal., 
{malum. ;-for the Vulg. saevum), Engl. Ann., Wakef. and Newc. 
{bad), Woodh., Lord, Barn, (evil, bad). 

' Here the more suitable proposition is Erti (A. B. C. "a 21. 
(3 C. Syr. Arm. Arr.'). adopted by Beng., Matth.. Sch., Lachm., 
Hahn, Treg., Words., Tisch. For who, see 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

) The worshippers of the image are not a distinct class from 
those who bear the mark ; ch. 13 : 15-17; 14 : 9. — Neither the pre- 
position nor the demonstrative is repeated by the German verss., 
Dt. ;-B. and L., Daub., Wesl.. Stu., Lord, Murd. Castal., Cocc, 
Vitr., retain the participial construction in both clauses; Bez., 
Par., Bierm., Dodd., Matth., omit only the preposition. E. V. 
and others follow the Vulg. For who, see 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 



REVELATION. 



173 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

3 And the second angel pour- 
ed out his vial upon the sea; 
and it became as the blood of a 
dead man ; and every living soul 
died in the sea. 



4 And the third angel poured 
out his vial upon the rivers and 
fountains of waters: and they 
became blood. 

5 And I heard the angel of 
the waters say, Thou art righ- 
teous, O Lord, which art, and 
wast, and slialt be, because thou 
hast judged thus. 



GREEK TEXT. 

3 KcLL 6 SevTepos ayyeXos 
e^e)(€^ T^]v (j)ia^r)v avrov ei? rrji^ 
OaXaa-aav kcu lyevero aijxa co? 
ueKpov, Kol Trdaa "^v^ ^aaa 
aireOaveu iv rfj daXaararj. 

4 Kal 6 rpLTos ayyeXos f ^f'x^^ 
Tr]v ^idXyjv avrov els rovs Trora- 
fiovs Kol els TOLS Tri]yas rav v8a- 
Tcov KOL iyevero alfxa. 

5 Kal rJKOvaa tov dyyeXov 
Tcav vbdroov XeyovTOs, AiKaios, 
Kvpte, el, 6 cbv Kal 6 r/v Kal 6 
ocrios, OTL ravra eKpivas' 



REVISED VERSION. 

3 And the second "angel pour- 
ed out his "bowl 'into the sea ; 
and it became " blood as of °one 
dead ; and every "living soul 
died  in the sea. 



4 And the third "angel poured 
out his pbowl 'iinto the rivers 
and 'into 'the fountains of 'the 
waters ; and 'they became blood. 

5 And I heard the angel of 
the waters "saying: ''Righteous, 
"O Lord, art thou, ^who art, and 
^who wast, 'even 'the Holy One, 
because thou "didst adjudge 
■■tliese things. 



" Knapp brackets, and Beng., Mey., Lachm., Treg., Words., 
Tisch., cancel, the word ayyfTio;, on the authority of 'A. C. 18. 
Vulg. MS. Am. Tol. Aeth.' For boui, see oh. 5 : 8, N. g. 

1 See V. 1, N. d, &c. W. ;-Latin verss. (in, with the ac- 
cusative), Syr. (= Greenf.'s a), Germ., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Daub., 
Beng., Moldenh., Herd., Mey., Stu., Treg., Hengst. 

"' Not" in appearance merely. — The uj is kept in its own 
place, and aXjio. translated without an article, by W., R. ;-Latin 
verss. (except Pagn., Bez., Par.), Syr., German verss. (except 
All.), Dt, It, Fr. S. ;-Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh.. 
AUw., Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Kell., Murd., Kenr. 

° For om, see ch. 1: 13, N. c. E. V., Mark 9: 26;-R.;- 
German verss., Dt, Fr. S. ;-Thom., Penn (marking it as sup- 
plied). Lord. For fiiao (which Sch. cancels, according to 

' a 19. (3 4. Slav. MSS.'), Grie.sb., Knapp. Mey., Lachm., Hahn, 

Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile, read W^i ('A. C. Syr.') After 

drtt'9., Lachm., Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile, insert to, (' A. C. 
Syr. Slav. MS.'). 

" Kn. brackets, and all the other recent editors cancel, the 
word oyyfXof, on the authority of A. B. C. 'a 18. (3 6. Vulg. 
Aeth. Ar. P.' I recommend that, in accordance with this read- 
ing, the word angel be omitted. 

P See ch. 5 : 8, N. g. 

1 See V. 3, N. 1, &c. Lachm., Treg., Words., cancel the 

second tij, on the authority of 'A. C. 10. 43. 49. 91. Compl. 
Copt.' 

' E. v., ch. 8 : 10 ; &c. ;-W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Herd., 
Mey.) ;-Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Sharpe, 
Lord, Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

• Seech. 8: 10. N. e, &c. 

t Notwithstanding De W.'s negative, a comparison of vv. 3, 4 
with ch. 8:8-11 demands this construction. The singular 
iyiviio is no objection, it being quite common, both in Greek 



and Latin, for the verb to take the number of a predicative 
substantive. The reading lyivovto ('A. 36.') is edited by 
Lachm. 

" See ch. 6 : 3, N. k. 

" The adjective retains its emphatic position in W. ;-Latin 
verss., Syr. ;-Daub., Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Herd., Woodh., 
Thom., Mey., Allw., Greenf., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., 
Words., Murd., Ebr. 

" The word KiJpts is marked by Bloomf. as ' most probably, 
or certainly, an interpolation,' and caacelled by all the other 
recent editors, on the authority of A. B.C. 'a 25. )3 6. y 3. 
Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Tol. Copt. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. MSS.' 
I recommend that this reading be adopted, and that the version 
stand thus : Righteous art thou. 

- See2Pet2:ll, N. f. 

y Allw. But all the recent editors cancel the xal, on the 
authority of ' A. B. C. a 25. |3 7. y 3. Compl. Vulg. Arm. Slav. 
MS.' I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the 
word even be omitted. 

' Of Bez.'s reading, o {do/tfi'oj, followed in E. V., Words. 
says: 'In nuUo quod ,?ciam Codice invenitur o f ff., quam lec- 
tionem' [quae lectio T\ ' e.x Bezae recensione in Versionem 

Anglicanam immigravit.' Comp. ch, 11: 17, N. a. The 

o before ooioj is bracketed by Bloomf, and cancelled by Matth., 
Lachm., Hahn, Treg., Words., Tisch., (not, as Bloomf. says, 
'by all the recent editors;') on the authority of 'A. B.C. 
a 19. /3 5. Syr. Arm.' 

" Moldenh. (gerichtlich beschlossen hast), Penn, Lord, (hast 
adjudged), Sharpe (judgedst), Ebr. (Urtheil gesprocheii 
AasO;-Wahl, Schirl., {\decerno'], beschliessen, verordnen), 
Rob. (to determine on, to decree), Green (to resolve on, to 
decree). 

" Seech. 4: 1, N. a. 



174 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

6 For they have shed the 
blood of saints and prophets, 
and thou hast given them blood 
to drink ; for thej' are worthy. 

7 And I heard another out of 
the altar say, Even so. Lord God 
Almighty, true and righteous 
are thy judgments. 



8 And the fourth angel pour- 
ed out his vial upon the sun; 
and power was given unto him 
to scorch men witli fire. 

9 And men were scorched 
■with great heat, and blasphe- 
med the name of God, which 
hath power over these plagues : 



GREEK TEXT. 

6 oTt ai/xa aylcdv koll 7rpo(j)T]- 
rav e'^e^eaj', kcll a'lixa avTois 
e'BcoKas TTieiv a^ioi yap elai. 

Y Kal rjKOvaa aWov iic rod 
OvcnaaTrjpiov, XeyovTO?, Nai, 
Kvpie 6 Geo? o TrapTOKparcop, 
aXr}6t.vai ical BiKaiai al KpLaeL^ 
crov. 

8 Kal 6 rirapros ayyeXos 
i^e^ee ttjv (^LaXr]v avrov eVt tov 
fjXiov Kcu iSodr] avTm KavjxaTia-aL 

TOVS dvdpCOTTOVS iv TTVpi' 

9 KOL f.Kavp.aTL(r6rjaav o'l av- 
OpcaTTOi Kavp-a p-^yct, Koi e^Xaar- 
(j)rjp.-)](Tav TO ovofia rov Oeou 
Tov eyjiVTO? e^ovalau eVt ra^ 



REVISED VERSION. 

6 For they 'poured out the 
blood of saints and prophets, 
and thou ''gavest them blood to 
drink ; =for they are worthy. 

7 And I heard 'another out of 
the altar ^saying: '■Yea, 'O Lord 
God 'the Almighty, true and 
righteous are thy judgments. 



S And the fourth "angel pour- 
ed out his 'bowl upon the sun ; 
and "it was given unto °him 
to scorch "the men with fire. 

9 Aud fthe men were "scorch- 
ed with great 'scorching, and 
'they blasphemed the name of 
God, 'who 'had " power over 



' Comp. E. v., Jcr. 18 : 21 ; Zeph. 1:17. ' Their sin furnished 
the type of its own punishment.' Comp. ch. 18 : 6; Gen. 9 : 6; 
Is. 49 : 26; Ezek. 35 : 6 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 10. This affinity between 
the offence and the retribution is vividly suggested in the Greek 
by the use of the same verb in describing both, as well as by 
the correspondent position of either alfia. And thus, through- 
out the ch., W. employs the phrase, to shed out (so T., C, in 
vv. 3, 4, 6) ;-Latin verss., effundere (except Matth., who has 
here the s\mi>\e fuderunt), Syr., = Chald. ai'ti; Fr. S., verser;- 
Dodd., Woodh., to pour forth or out; Thom., Sharpe, to pour 
out. German verss. change giesseii or ausgiessen to vergies- 

sen ; and similarly the Dt. The historical time is retained 

by W., T., C, G.;-Brightm., Wakef., Thom., Sharpe. See 
ch. 17:2, 17, NN.j, w. 

'' Sharpe, Ebr. Lachm., Treg., Words., read iiSaxa; 

('A. C). 

' All the recent editors cancel the ycip, on the authority of 
A. B. C. 'a 25. ^ 8. 7 3. Compl. ToL Copt. Slav. MS.' I re- 
commend that, in accordance with this reading, the word for 
be omitted. 

<■ All the recent editors cancel the words, aX7.ou ix, on the 
authority of ' A. B.' (Words, says that B. has ix, not aXKmi) 
' C. a 26. )3 7. 7 2. (Compl. ix). Vulg. MS. Copt. Syr. Ar. P. 
Slav. MSS.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and 
the words, another out of, omitted. The altar itself is then 
personified, as a spectator stirred with sympathy in the joy 
and adoration of its own avenged martyrs. 

s See ch. 6 : 3^ N. k. 

'' See ch. 1 : 7. N. 1. 

' Seech. 15: 3, N. m. 

1 Seech. 4: 8, N. k. 

' All the recent editors cancel the word oyytjioj, on the au- 



thority of A. B. C. 'a 12. 13 3. Vulg. MS. Tol. Aeth. Syr. 
Ar. P.' I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, 
the word angel be omitted. 

1 See ch. 5 : 8, N. g. 

■" See ch. 6 : 4, N. q. There E. V. marks power as supplied. 

" Dt. ;-Hamm., Cocg., Marck, Vitr., Daub,, Dodd., Moldenh., 
Thom., CroL, Lord, Treg., De W., Barn., Ebr., refer ait^ to 
jjTiioi' ; Beng. objecting, that iSoBtj is more appropriate to the 
angel, and Hengst. appealing to ch. 7 : 2 and 4 (6) : 8, as still 
more decisive. But the point is a doubtful one, and I recom- 
mend that the note : ' Or, it,' be set in the margin. 

" Comp. ch. 9: 6, N. y. Here the reference is to those de- 
scribed in V. 2. — Foreign verss. ;-i Wells, Wesl., Woodh., Thom. 
(at V. 9), AIlw., Penn. Ell., Lord. 

p See V. 8, N. o, &c. 

1 A noun cognate to the preceding verb is employed by Latin 
verss. (except Castal.), Syr., Dt., It. ;-Hamm. (scorched 
greatly or a great scorch'), Berl. Bib., Herd., Stolz, Mey., 
Sharpe (scorched with a great scorch), Treg. (as above), 
De W., Ebr. 

 French verss. ;-Beng., Moldenh., Wakef., Thom., Sharpe, 

Stu., Ell., Lord, Kenr. After il3}.aa<f., Matth., Sch., Tisch., 

repeat ot a,v8purtoi, (' B. a 22. /3 6. Compl. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. 
MS.'). 

• See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

' The participle here does not state a general truth didacti- 
cally, but assigns the historical reason of the blasphemies. The 
men were conscious that God was the Author of their suffer- 
ings. Comp. Is. 8: 21. Hence Castal.'s qui haberet. — T. ;- 
Beng., Dodd., Wesl., Newc, Woodh., All., BU., Kenr. 

" Before i^ovaiav, the Compl., Beng., Lachm., Treg., Words., 
Tisch., insert tr-jV (A. and 6 cursive MSS.). 



REVELATION. 



175 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

and they repented not to give 
him glory. 

10 And the fifth angel poured 
out his vial upon the seat of the 
beast ; and his kingdom was full 
of darkness ; and they gnawed 
their tongues for pain, 



11 And blasphemed the God 
of heaven, because of their pains 
and their sores, and repented not 
of their deeds. 



12 And the sixth angel poured 
out his vial upon the great river 
Euphrates ; and the v/ater there- 
of was dried up, that the way of 
the kings of the east might be 
prepared. 

13 And I saw three unclean 



GREEK TEXT. 

irXrjyas ravTas, kcu ov jxenvor]- 
aav Sovvai avrto 8o^av. 

10 KoLi 6 Tre/xTTTO? ayyeXos 
i^e)^e€ rr]v <pLaXr]v avrov eVi rov 
dpovov Tov diiplov Kcd iyepero 
Tj ^aaiXeia avrov ia-KOTCoixevq- 
Kol ejxaaaSiVTO ras yXuxraas av- 

TWV Ik tov ITOVOV, 

11 KOL ij3Xaa(j)rifir]o-au rov 
Oeov TOV ovpavov e'/c twv irovwv 
avTu>v Kol e/c Totv eXKOiv avra>i', 
Kol ov fx^Tevorjo-av eK toju epycov 



avT&v. 



1 2 Kai 6 eKTOs ayyeXos e^e'x^^ 
TrjV ^LaXt^v avTov eVt tou iroTa- 
pov TOV p.iyav tov Ev^paTTjV 
Kai k^TipavQrj to vScop avTov, Iva 
iT0ip.aa6fj 1] 68o9 Tav ^acnXeav 
TU)V UTTO avaToXotv i]Xiov. 

13 Kai elBov e'/c tov crropiaTos 



REVISED VERSION. 

these plagues, and they repented 
not to give him glory. 

10 And the fifth 'angel poured 
out his "bowl upon the ^throne 
of the beast ; and his kingdom 
^became ^darkened; and they 
'gnawed their tongues for "the 
pain, 



11 And blasphemed the God 
of heaven because of their pains 
and ''because of their sores, and 
repented not 'of tlieir ''works. 



12 And the sixth 'angel pour- 
ed out his fbowl upon ^that great 
river, ""the Euphrates ; and the 
water thereof was dried up, that 
the way of the kings 'who are 
jfrom the "rising of the smi might 
be prepared. 

13 And I saw, ' out of the 



' All the recent editors cancel the word oiyyt^os, on the au- 
thority of A. B. C. ' a 18. i3 C. \u\g. JIS. Am. Aeth. Syr. 
Ar. P.' I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, 
the word cmgel be omitted. 

" See ch. 5 : 8, N. g. 

» See ch. 2: 13, N. v, &c., and comp. P.s. 94 : 20. 

' W., R., (loas made dark), T., C, G., (waxed dark) ;- 
Vulg. (factum est tenebrosum), Syr. (= Vulg.), German 
Ter.ss. (xeard [wijrrfe] verfinstert), Dt. (is verdiiisierd gewor- 
den), It. (divenne tenebroso), French verss. (devint [B. and L., 
tout\ lenebreux) --CsiSlSil., Titr., (obscuratum esi;-other Latin 
verss., as Vidg., except that Cocc. has tenebricosum), Daub., 
Newt., (became full of d.), Dodd., AYes!., "VYakef., Thom., 
Sharpe, Stu., Ell., Lord, Treg., (was darkened). Newc, Woodh., 
Allw., Penn, Words, (was filled with d.), JIurd. (became 
darkness), Kenr. (became dark). 

' The imperfect (kept gnawing) is expressed by Syr.. It., 
French verss. ;-Pagn., Bez., Par., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr.. Wakef. 

(kept biting). For e/iasa., Beng., Lachm., Words., Tisch., 

Bloomf., read tfiaaivro ('A. C. a 7. p 2. Er.'). 

• It., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Beng._. Woodh., Allw., Penn, Ell., De W., 
Words. 

^ The second ix is expressed by Syr., Germ., Dt., It.;- Vat., 
Cocc, Daub., Beng., Wesl., Moldenh., AYoodh., Thorn., Allw., 
All., Lord, De AY., Hengst., Ebr. 

' See ch. 2: 21, N. o. 
■^ Seech. 2: 6, N. y, &c. 



' All the recent editors cancel the word (iy7£>.05 on the au- 
thority of A. B. C. ' a 19. p 4. Er. Vulg. MS. Am. Tol. Aeth. 
Syr. Ar. P.' I recommend that, in accordance with this read- 
ing, the word angel bo oniiUed. 

f See ch. 5 : 8, N. g. 

5 See ch. 9: 14, N. g, &c AY. (that ilk), R. ;-Latin verss. 
(except Castal.), Syr. ;-Wakef., Words., Kenr. 

>■ Dt., Fr. S. ;-B. and L., AYakef., Treg., De W., Ebr. 

This tov is wanting in B. and is cancelled by Beng., Matth., 
Griesb., Knapp, Mey., Sch. 

' Dt. (die [komen zullen]), It. (che [vengonc]), Fr. S. 
(tenant) ;-Castal. (qui essent), Pagn., Bez., Par., (adventan- 
tium), Hamm. (which are), Daub, (which come), Berl. Bib., 
Beng., (die . . . sind), Allw., Lord, Treg., AYords. (wlio come), 
Ebr. (die [kommen']). 

1 W., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Fr. M., B. and L.) ;-Hamm., 
Daub, and the later English verss., except Sharpe. 

k See ch. 7: 2, N. d. Matth., Mey., Treg., Words., edit 

avaiox^i, On the authority of B. C. 'a 22. /3 C This reading 
is approved by De AY., but condemned by Hengst., who also 
imitates in his version the received text : Aufgdngen. 

1 According to the Erasmian reading of our Text, (xrtopiviaeai, 
(recently edited only by Beng. and Mey., though approved by 
Ew. as unice veruin). the construction must proceed as indicated 
above : ilSov ytvi-ii^uata ixttopivtsSat ix tov ufo^aroj, and the 
clause slai yap . . ar^/iua is a parenthetical explanation or jugti- 



176 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

spirits like frogs come out of tiie 
mouth of the dragon, and out 
of the mouth of the beast, and 
out of the mouth of the false 
prophet. 

14 For they are the spirits of 
devils, vForking miracles, which 
go forth unto the kings of the 
earth, and of the whole vs^orld, 
to gather them to the battle of 
that great day of God Almighty. 



15 Behold, I come as a thief. 
Blessed is he that watcheth, and 
keepeth his garments, lest he 
walk naked, and they see his 
shame. 



GREEK TEXT. 
TOV 8paKOVT09, Koi e'/C TOU (TTO- 

jxaTos TOV drjpiov, /cat e'/c tov 
(TTOfxaTos TOV \j/ev8o7rpo(f>vTOV, 
TrvevjxaTa Tpia aKaOapTa bfxoia 
fiaTpdyoLS' 

14 elcri yap 7ru€v/xaTa dai/xo- 
pcou TTOLOvi'Ta arjpela eKiropev- 
eaOaL eVt tovs fiaa-LXels ttjs yrjs 
Kcu Trjs olKOvp-evris hXrjf, avva- 
yayelv avTOVs 'els TroXejxov ttjs 
rj/xepaf iKeLvrjs ttj? p.eyaXr]s tov 
Oeov TOV TravTOKpaTopos. 

15 I8ov kp')(op.aL as KXeivTrjs. 
jxaKapios o yprjyopwv, kol Trjpiiop 
Ta LpaTia avTOu, Lva fxrj yvp.vos 
TrepLTraTrj, koI ^Xeircocn ttjv d(r)(r]- 
jxoavvTjv avTov. 



REVISED VERSION. 

mouth of the dragon, and out of 
the mouth of the beast, and out 
of the mouth of the false pro- 
phet, three unclean spirits ""like 
frogs,' 

14 '(For they are ° spirits of 
"demons, ''doing psigns,) ' go forth 
unto the kings 'of the earth and 
of the whole world, to gather 
them ^together to «the battle of 
'that great day of God, 'the Al- 
mighty. 



15 '(Behold, I come as a thief ; 
"blessed is he that watcheth, and 
keepeth his garments, 'that he 
walk "not naked, and they see 
his shame.) 



"' All the recent editors have i>s ^dtpaxoi (' A. B. a 25. (3 7. 
y 2. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Arm. Ar. P. Slav.'). I recommend 
that this reading be followed, and translated : as frogs. 

° W. ;-foreign verss. ;-Brightm., Daub., Wesl., Wakef., 
"Woodh., Thorn., Sharpe, Stu., Ell.. Lord, Treg., Words., Kenr. 

" See ch. 9: 20, N. n. All the recent editors, except 

Beng. and Bloomf., read Saifioviav (A. B.  a 17. |3 6.'). 

p For signs, see ch. 12 : 1, N. b. E. V., John 20 : 30, &c. ;- 
W. (making sigyis), R. {working s.) ;-Vulg. (facienles signa). 
Germ, verss. (use Zeichen than ;-esccpt Herd., IVunder ih. ; 
and De W., Z. verrichten), Dt. {en zij doen teekenen), It. 
(i quail f anno segni). French verss. {mbfaire des prodiges;- 
except Fr. S., qui font des signes) ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, (as 
Vulg.), Pagn., Bez., Par., Vitr., (use edere s.). Daub., Sharpe, 
{as R.), "N^akef. {shewing s.), Woodh., Lord, {working won- 
ders), Thom. {as W.;-m ch. 19: 20, did s.), Murd. {who work 
'prodigies), Kenr. {doing wonders). 

1 The words, fjjs. 7^5, xal, bracketed by Bloomf., are can- 
celled by the other recent editors, on -the authority of ' A. B. 
a 28. /3 8. y 2. Compl. Vulg. (Copt.) Aeth. Syr. (Arm. Erp.) 



Slav.' I recommend that this reading be adopted, and the 
words, of the earth and, omitted. 

 See ch. 13: 10, N. 0. E. V., v. 16, and elsewhere in this 
book, except ch. 13 : 10 ;-Brightm., Dodd. {[bring'] together), 
Wakef, Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Ell. 

' Before n6%., all the recent editors insert tot (A. B. 'a 18. 

/3 6. Compl.') Mey., Lachm. (who adopts the reading of A.. 

■r^j fjLtyaxrii jjfif'pas), and Treg., cancel ixtlvr^i. on the authority 

of ' A. 14. 38. 92. Vulg. Copt. Aeth. Arm. Erp.' For the 

before Aim., see ch. 4 : 8, N. k. 

• This verse is inclosed in a parenthesis by It. ;-Bez., Engl. 
Ann., Grot., Wells, B. and L., Beng., Wesl., Moldcnh., Newc, 
Griesb., Woodh., Thom., Lachm., Murd., Theile. Its interjec- 
tional character is otherwise indicated by Mey. and Hahn. 

" ' Blessed in his relations to my coming ;' — the proclamation 
of which, therefore, it is better not to separate by a full period ; 
nor is it so separated by R. ;-It., Fr. G. ;-Cocc., Dodd., Woodh., 
Thom., Sharpe, Ell. ;-or in the editions of Beng., Griesb., Sch., 
Bloomf, Treg., Words., Tisch., Theile. 

' W., R. ;-Syr., German verss., Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Daub., Dodd., 
Woodh., Thom., Allw., Stu., Ell., Lord, {that he may not), 
Wakef, Penn. 



fication of the immediately preceding dxd9ap-ra ofi. /3aT'p. This 
closeness of connection between the two verses is favoured by 
the fact, that ixrtopfvo^ai, is always (8 times) elsewhere in this 
book construed with ix, and in 6 of these instances ix is 
followed by a-tofia. Some, accordingly, (as Stu., Hengst.) who 
prefer the reading S ixrtopivctai, (which rests, indeed, on much 
larger authority of MS.S., and is adopted by the Elzevir and all 
the other recent editors; except that Bloomf and Lachm. omit 
the a. B. and 3 cursive MSS. have a ixnoficvovtai., while in 



2 copies ix7(of>ivdivta is found in v. 13 after /Sarp.), yet, regard- 
ing that as substantially {der Sache iiach; Hengst.) supple- 
mental to ix tov etajx., punctuate as above. And this is done 
also by Wesl. (who, however, translates ixTiofiiitsSai before 
the parenthesis), and is thus tempted to overlook the yap) 
Heinr. (except that he has no comma after the parenthesis), 
Mey. and Bloomf (except that they have not even a comma at 
the end of v. l.'J). The parenthesis is employed by Griesb. 
Ebr., reading a ixn., construes it with eial yap rtvev^. 



REVELATION. 



177 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

16 And he gathered them to- 
gether into a place called in the 
Hebrew tongue Annageddon. 

17 And the seventh angel 
poured out his vial into the air ; 
and there came a great voice 
out of the temple of heaven, 
from the throne, saying. It is 
done. 

18 And there were voices, and 
thunders, and lightnings ; and 
there was a great earthquake, 
such as was not sitice men were 
upon the earth, so mighty an 
earthquake, and so great. 



GREEK TEXT. 

16 KoiX avvr]yayev avrov^ ety 
Tou TOTTOu Tov KaXovfxevov ' Efipai- 
OTL Ap/jLayyeSSai'. 

1 i Kcd 6 e/35o/^o? ayyeAoy 
i^e^ee ttjv (j)idXrjv avrov els tov 
depa- Kol i^rjXde (J)ci)vi] fxeydXr] 
diro TOV vaov tov ovpavov, diro 
TOV Opovov, \eyov(ra, Teyove. 

18 Kou lyevovTO (j)couai kol 
fipovToi KOU daTpairou, kou aeia- 
pos eyeveTO p,eyas, olos ovk iye- 
veTO a0 ov ol dvOpooiroL eyevovTO 
eVi TYjs y'Tji, TrjXLKOVTOs aeicrpos 
ovTco peyas. 



REVISED VERSION. 

16 And "they gathered them 
together into "the place ywhich 
is called in ^ Hebrew «Armag- 
geddon. 

17 And the seventh 'angel 
poured out his 'bowl ""into the 
air ; and there came "forth a 
'loud voice ^from the temple ^of 
heaven, from the throne, saying : 
It is done. 

IS And there were '•voices, 
and thunders, and lightnings, and 
tiiere was a great earthquake, 
such as was not since ''men were 
'■on the earth, 'such an earth- 
quake, J so great. 



•^ To wit, the rcvivnata. of v. 14, who there went forth for 
the purpose which they here accomphsh. Only in the interval, 
while they are plying their arts, and hastening the crisis, the 
gracious Lord interposes his sudden, short word of warning 
and cheer, and again withdraws. — Syr., Dt., It. ;-Pagn., Par., 
Engl. Ann. (as one construction), Grot., Hamm., Vitr., B. and 
L., Daub., Wesl., Gill, Newt., Moldenh., Sym., AVakef., Newc, 
Woodh., Ew., Stu., Ell., Lord, De W., Words., Kell., Barn, 
('perhaps better'). The note, ' Or, Ae,' might, however, be set 
in the margin, the reference then being to God the Almighty 
(v. 14). This construction Hengst. and Ebr. prefer, and the 
former would justify by Joel 3:2; Ezek. 38 : 4, 16 ; 39 : 2, and 
by the plural slai (v. 14) ; though the last point should be 
allowed very little weight by one, who follows, as Ilengst. 
does, the reading di ixrtoptvffat. 

' 'The place already famous in history and in prophecy.' 
(Judg. 5: 19; 2 Kings 23: 29; Zech. 12: 11.)— Dt., Fr. G.. 
-M.,-S. ;-Cocc., Bicrm., (ilium), Beng. and the later German 
verss., Guyse (' that famous place'), Wesl., Woodh., Thom., 
Greenf., Penn, Stu., Lord, Trcg., Kenr. 

' This relative construction, which E. V. often employs in 
similar cases, is here adopted by the Latin and German verss., 
Syr., Dt., Fr. G.,-M. ;-Daub., Wesl., Woodh., Thom., Allw., 
Stu., Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

• Seech. 9: 11, N. s. 

' This name is written by Matth., apfiayiSSuv ; Lachm., 
Tisch., 'Ap/taysSiii' ; the other recent editors, 'Apjioyi&iiv ('A. 
a 11. 13 3. Compl. Eras. MoycSwi- B. a 14. j3 3. Vulg. MS. 
Slav. MSS.'). The double y I find in no other edition, nor in 
any lexicon except Wahl, who also aspirates the A, though in 
Latin he renders the word, Armageddon ; which form (whether, 
as commonly explained, = i'Tijij [Zech. 12: 11, "i'thSt:] "in, 
whence the aspirate; or, as Ebr. suggests, i'n5a-"iy) I recom- 
mend for adoption. 



^ All the recent editors cancel the word oyyfXos, on the au- 
thority of A. B. 'a 19. 13 C. Vulg. MS. Am. Tul. Syr.' I re- 
commend that, in accordance with this reading, the word angel 
be omitted. 

' See ch. 5 : 8, N, g. 

^ For fij, all the recent editors road Irtl (A. B. 'a 22. ;3 5.'). 
1 recommend that this reading be adopted, and translated : 

upon. 

' See ch. 9 : 3, N. m, &c. 

' Seech. 1:10, N.x. 

^ Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Sharpe, Stu., Ell., 

Lord, Stier, Murd. For drto, Beng., Lachm., Treg., read ix 

('A. 12. 18. 36. 38. 46. Er.'). The words roi oip., bracketed 

by Knapp and Hahn, are cancelled by Mey., Lachm., Treg., 
Tisch., on the authority of ' A. 10. 14. 92. Vulg. Copt. Syr. 
Erp. Slav. MS.' 

'' For Renvoi xai ppovtcd xai aatpaTtai, Matth. reads aat. xai 
|3p. xai 41. ('a 16. fi 5. Compl.'); all the other recent editors, 
dff-r. xai $. xai j3p. (A. and 9 cursive MSS. B. has aa-i. xai ^., 
omitting xai /3p,). I recommend that the latter reading be 

adopted: lightnings, and voices, and thunders.'' For ol av$. 

ky., Lachm., Treg., Tisch., have ('perhaps rightly,' says 
Bloomf.) ivBfattoi iyivtto (' A. 38. Copt. Arm.') ; Words. 

omits the article from the common reading (B.). For on, 

see ch. 5 : 7, N. a, &c. 

' W., R. ;-Vulg. (talis), German verss. (except Herd., 
Mey.), Dt. ;-Erasm., Vat, Bierm., (as Vulg.), Hamm., Dodd., 
Wesl., Woodh., Allw., Stu., Ell., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

) W., R. ;-Vulg., Syr., German verss. ;-Erasm., Vat., Hamm., 
Cocc, Bierm., Wesl., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Ell., 
Lord, Kenr. 

83 



178 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

19 And the great city was di- 
vided into three parts, and the 
cities of the nations fell : and 
great Babylon came in remem- 
brance before God, to give unto 
her the cup of the wine of the 
fierceness of his wrath. 



20 And every island fled away, 
and the mountains were not 
found. 

21 And there fell upon men a 
great hail out of heaven, every 
stone about the weight of a tal- 
ent : and men blasphemed God 
because of the plague of the 
hail ; for the plague thereof was 
exceeding great. 



CHAP. XVII. 

And there came one of the 
seven angels which had the seven 



GREEK TEXT. 

19 KOil iyevero rj TroAty i] fxe- 
yaXr] eh Tpia ^uprj, koI al TroAei? 
Twi' iOvwv eireaov kou BafivXav 
rj jxeyaXij ejivrjo-Or] ivwniov rov 
Oeov, SoviiaL avrrj to iTOTrjpLov 
Tov OLVov Tov dv/J-ov Trjs opyrjs 
avTOv. 

20 Koi iraa-a vrjao9 e(f)vye, koI 
opt] on^ evpedrjcrau. 

21 KOL -^aXa^a peyaXrj wy Ta- 
XavTLala KarafialveL e«: tov ov- 
pavov eTTi Tovs dudpcoirov^' Koi 
ilBXa(r(j)rjpir]aav ol avdpcoTTOi tov 
Oeov, e'/c TTj^ irXiiyrj^ Tr]9 )(aXa^r]9' 
OTL fxeyaXy ecTTiv ?} TrXijyi] avrrjs 
(7(f)68pa. 

CHAP. XVII. 

KAI rjXdev els eK t5>v eirra 
ayyeXav tSjv i^ovTcov Tas eiTTU 



REVISED VERSION. 

19 And the great city 'be- 
came three parts, and the cities 
of the nations fell ; and 'Baby- 
lon the great '"was remembered 
before God, to give unto her the 
cup of the wine of the fierceness 
of his wrath. 



20 And every island "fled, and 
"> mountains were not found. 

21 And p great hail las of a 
talent's weight '•descendeth out 
of heaven upon 'the men ; and 
=the men blasphemed God be- 
cause of the plague of the hail ; 
for 'great "is the plague thereof 
'exceedingly. 



CHAP. XVII. 

And there came one of the 
seven angels "who had the seven 



i- E. v., ch. 8: 11 ; Matt. 21: 42; &c.;-W., R., {uas made 
into) ■-Ya]^- {facta est in), Syr. (= b nn^n), Germ, (changes 
the construction of the clause : aiis tier grossen Sladt wiirden 
drei Theile), It. (marks divisa as supplied ;-and so Fr. S. with 
partagee) ;-Erasm., Vat., Aret., Cocc, Bierm., (as Vulg.), 
Engl. Ann. (' Gr. made. Or, became'), Ber). Bib. (isi geuor- 
den), Beng. {ward zii), Wesl. {uas \fplit\ into), Moldenh., 
Hengst., (as Germ.), Woodh., Allw., {became divided into), 
Penn {was [reduced^ to), Stu. (in the Comment.), Treg. {was 
[divided] into), De W. {wurde in), Murd., Kenr. {as i?.), Ebr. 
{wurde zzi). Comp. Gen. 2 : 10. Here E. V. follows T., C, G. 

' E. v., ch. IT : 5 ; 18 : 2. The article is here expressed by 
all the foreign verss. (Bez., Cocc, Bierm., Vitr., use ille i-axid 
so Brightm., that) ;-Hamm., Daub, and the later English verss., 
except Lord. 

™ The passive form is preserved by Syr., German verss. 
(except Herd., Mey.), Dt., Fr. S. ;-Wesl., Wakef., Newc, 
Woodh., AWw., Sharpe, Blooraf., Stu., Ell., Lord, Treg., Murd., 
Kenr. E. V. and the older verss. follow the Vulg., venit in 
memoriam. 

" *fijyu occurs .31 times in the N. T., and is only here and 
in ch. 20: 11 translated in E. Y. Jlee away; in three instances, 
escape; in all the rest, ^ee ;-R. ;-Latin verss. (use the simple 
fiigere). Dt. {is gerloden), It. ;-Berl. Bib. and later German 
verss. (use fliehen ;-liir Luth.'s entfliehen), Thom., Sharpe, 
Stu., Lord. 

» = ' No mountains were found.' See 1 John 1 : 8, N. z. 
The clause is given in this form by Germ.;-'\Vakef. {no m. 



could be discovered). Hengst. The article is not introduced 
by W., R. ;-Fr. S. (/'ora ne Irouva plus de montagnes) ;-B. and 
L. ((7 ne se trouva plus de ?».), Beng., Moldenh., Herd., 
Woodh., Thom., Mey., Lord, De W., Ebr. 

p The indefinite article is not introduced by TV., R. ;-Thom., 
Mey., Allw., Stu., Ell., Lord, Kenr. The Greek order is re- 
tained by W., R.-Latin and German verss. (except Moldenh.), 
Syr., Dt., Fr. S.;-Hamm., Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Woodh. and 
the later English. 

1 The uj rax. is thus rendered by Sharpe, Stu. There is 
nothing for the E. V. supplement, every stone, in any preceding 
version, or in any subsequent one, except Dt. ;- Wells, Daub., 
Wesl., Words. 

■• For the verb, see ch. 10 : 1, N. a, &c. The present time is 
given by Hamm., Beng., Wesl., Newc. marg., Woodh., Thom., 
Allw., Ell., De W., Ebr.' 

 See V. 8, N. o, &c. 

' The Greek order of this clause is retained by Vulg. (omit- 
ting, however, i; jtxijyrj tmtrjf. The ait^i is wanting in B.), 
Syr. ;-Erasm., Vat., Bez. and Bierm. (only transposing plaga 
ejus), Cocc, Daub., Woodh. (except that he translates ofdSpa 
immediately after jufyo>.>j), De W., Ebr., {as Bez.). 

" Germ., Fr. S.;-Daub., Beng., "Wesl., Wakef, Woodh., 
Allw., Penn, Treg., De W., Words., Hengst., Ebr. 

' Daub., AToodh., Allw., Stu., Treg. 

« See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 



REVELATION. 



179 



KING JAJIES VERSION. 

vials, and talked with me, sapiig 
unto me. Come hither; I vs'ill 
shew unto thee the judgment of 
the great whore that sitteth upon 
many waters : 

2 With whom the kings of 
the earth have committed forni- 
cation, and the inhabitants of 
the earth have been made drunk 
with the wine of her fornication. 

3 So he carried me away in 
the spirit into the wilderness : 
and I saw a woman sit upon 
a scarlet -coloured beast, full 
of names of blasphemy, having 
seven heads and ten horns. 



4 And the woman, was array- 



GREEK TEXT. 

0iaAa?, Koi iXaXrjcre fxer ifxov, 
Aeycov jjlol, Aevpo, Sel^co croi to 
KpifXa TTjS TTOpVTjS TTji ix€ya\r]s, 
Trjs KaOr]ju.ei^i]f eVt rcSf vSarcop 
TCOl> TToXXmr 

2 ixeO rjs ^TTopvevaav o'l /3a- 
CTiAetf TTj^ yv^i '^«' efiedvaOijaai' 
€K Tov oluov Trj9 TTopueias' avTrjs 
o'l KaroLKOvvref ti]u yrji'. 

3 JCai aTTrjveyKe /xe et? (prj/xov 
eV TTfev/xaTr Koi ei8ov yvvaiKa 
KaOj^fxivrjv liii drjpiou kokklvov, 
ye/jioi> ovopaTccv ^\a(r(p7]fj.ias, 
k^ov KecpaXas eirra kol Kepara 
8€Ka. 

4 Kol rj yvvrj rj TrepL/SelSXrjfxei'r) 



REVISED VERSION. 

■■bowls, and 'spake with me, say- 
ing ''unto me : «Come, I will 
shew f thee the judgment of the 
great ^harlot, that sitteth '■on 
'the many waters ; 

2 With whom the kings of the 
earth •* committed fornication, 
and 'they who inhabit the eai-th 
Jwere made drunk with the wine 
of her fornication. 

3 'And he carried me away in 
the '"Spirit into "a wilderness ; 
and I saw a woman "sitting upon 
a ''scarlet "beast, '^full of names 
of blasphemj', having seven heads 
and ten horns. 



4 And the woman, -who was 



" See ch. 5 : 8, N. g. 

• See ch. 4 : 1, N. e. W., R. ;-Daub., Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., 
Shai'pe, Stu., Kenr. 

'' All the recent editors omit the fioi, on the authority of 
A. B. 'a 26. /3 6. Compl. Vulg. Copt. Syr. Ann. Arr. Slav. 
MSS.' I recommend that this reading be followed, and the 
words, uiilo me, omitted. 

• E. v., 6 times out of 9 ;-TV. (come thou), T., C, G., R. ;- 
Vulg. (veni), S3 r., German yerss. (except Moldenh., Ebr.), It., 
French verss. ;-Erasm., Vat., Cocc, Vitr., (as Vulg-.), Castal. 
{ades), Pagn., Bez., Par., {heus tu), Dodd., Thom., AUw., 
Greenf. (nSh), Sharpe, Stu., Lord. Barn, (here), Murd., Kenr. 

f E. v., ch. 4 : 1 ; 21 : 9 ; &c. ;-T., C, G., R. ;-Daub., Dodd., 
"Wesl., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., Thom., Penn, Stu., Lord, Murd., 
Kenr. 

» E. v., 8 times out of 12 ; and see v. 5 ;-R. ;-Dodd., Wakef. 
and the later yerss. (except Stu., Words.) ;-Rob. 

■" See ch. 5 : 7, N. a, &c. 

' Fr. S. ;-B. and L., Wakef. (those), Woodli., Thom., Scott, 

Penn, Sharpe, Ell, Lord, De W., Words., Hengst., Ebr. 

Treg. brackets, and Beng. and Lachm. cancel, both the articles, 
on the authoritj' of A. 5 cursive 5ISS. Er. But the angel, 
speaking according to his own knowledge, might properly use 
them, as in the previous clause, tijt it. tr^i fi. 

1 See V. 17, N. w, &c. Herd., Mey., Sharpe, Lord and Words, 
(in the first instance), De W., Ebr. (in the second instance). 

k For this rendering of oi xat., see ch. 8 : 13, N. q and 12 : 12, 
N. b. W. (they that dwell in), R. (they which inh.) ;-Stu., 

Lord (theij who dwell on), Kenr. For Ik tov oiVov x*!i., all 

the recent editors read ot xat. trjv y^v ix tov oiV. *. rt. avt. 
(A. B. 'ol7. /3 7. Compl.'). 



' W., T., C, G., R. ;-Latin verss. (except Castal., Bez., Par.), 
Syr., German verss. (except Moldenh.), Dt., It., Fr. S.;-Daub. 
and the later English verss. (except Newc). 

" The h Ki'ivfiati, here, and throughout this book (ch. 1 : 10 ; 
4: 2; 21: 10), is not etiuivalent to the ixto; toi owjuaToj of 
2 Cor. 12: 2, but denotes the spiritual, supernatural, prophetic 
state, produced by the immediate operation of the Holy Spirit ; 
and this in our idiom is best indicated, as above, b}' a re- 
ference to the cause. E. V., ch. 1 : 10 ; 4 : 2 ; and here also, 

in the original edition ;-Castal. (divinu adjlatn), Pagn., Bez., 
Par., (per spiritum), Hamm., Daub., Wesl., AVoodh.. Lord 
(in Sp.). 

" Comp. E. v., ch. 21 : 10. Dt., It, French verss. ;-Brightm., 
Beng. and later German verss. (except Ebr.), Wesl., Wakef., 
Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Ell.. Lord, Barn. 

■> Seech. 10: 1, N. a, &c. 

p E. v., 4 times out of 6;-W. (red) ;-Dodd., Wesl., Newc, 
Thom., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. (as W.). See v. 4, 
N. V. 

1 Seech. 11: 7, N. y. 

 For yifiov, Lachm. reads yc/iovta (A.) For ovojidtav, 

JIatth., Lachm., Treg., Words., Ti.'^ch., edit the Hebraistic accu- 
sative 6v6fia.ta (A. B. and 24 cursive MSS. Comp. v. 4, N. y), 
to which Treg., Words., Tiscli., also pref5i td  A. 7. 8. 9. 13.'). 

• According to our Text, £;toiioa must be used, as the par- 
ticiple often is in this book (ch. 1:10; <tc.), for the finite verb ; 
and so the It. construes : quella donna, ch' era vesiita . . . 
avea. But all the recent editors have rjv for ^, on the author- 
ity of ' A. B. a 20. p 3. Compl. Vulg. Aeth. Syr. Arm. Arr. 
Slav.' I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the 
word who, together with the preceding comma, be emitted, and 
that had be changed into having. 



ISO 



EEVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 



eel in purple and scarlet-colour, 
anil decked with gold and pre- 
cious stones and pearls, having 
a golden cup in her hand full of 
ahominations and filthiness of 
her fornication : 

5 And upon her forehead ivos 
a name written, MYSTERY, 
BABYLON THE GREAT, THE 
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND 



GREEK TEXT. 

7rop(l)vpa. Koi kokklvcd, koI Ke\pv-. 
crw/xeV?; ^vaco kol XlOco tljx'lw 
Kcu fxapyapLTais, e^ovtra \pvaovv 
7rori']piov Iv rrj X^'P' avrrjs, yepov 
fiheXvyparcov kcu ocKadapTyros 
TTopvela? avTTj^, 

5 Kal iirl TO piTCOTTOV aVTYjS 

ovopa yeypappevov, Mvcrr-ijpiov, 
Saj3vXcou 7] ptyaXi-j, -q prjrrjp rav 



REVISED VERSION. 

'clothed "with j)urple and 'scar- 
let, and "gilded with gold, and 
precious 'stone, and pearls, 'had 
'a golden cup in her hand, full 
of abominations and ^uncleanness 
of her fornication, 



5 And upon her forehead ' a 
name written : " Mystery, Babylon 
the great, the mother of "the 4iar- 



• Ste ch. 7: 13, N. t. 

" Comp. ch. 7 : 13, N. u. &.Q. For nof^v^ci. xai xoxxiv<^, all 

the recent eilitors read jiof^vfovv xai xdxxi^oc (' A. B. a 20. ^ 6. 
jtop^upai' xai xoxxi^oi" al. jio. y2. Compl.'). 

' See V. 3, X. p. W. (red). G. (crimson). R. ;-Erightm., 
Daub, and later English verss. (except Words.). 

" E. v., marg. ;-W. (overgilt), G., R. (gilted) ;-Latin verss. 
(inaurata;-Ca.its\. deaurala). Syr., Geim. (iibergoldet), Dt. 
marg. at ch. 18 : IG (• Gr. rergoudl, of, vergidi') ;-Engl. Ann., 
Beng. (as Germ. ;-and so Herd., i\Iey., De W., Ilengst.), 
Sharpe, Murd., Ebr. (vergoldet). See Rob. and the other 
lexicons. (Shaksperc, Merch. of Veil. ii. G: 

 I will . . . gild myself 

' With some more ducats.') For X9'"<'9. ^'1 'ho 

recent editors read xpvsia ('A. B. a IG. fi 5.'). 

^ W., T., C, R. ;-Vulg. ;-Erasm., Vat., Gocc, Woodh., Allw., 

Lord, De "W., Ebr. For zpva. itot., Beng., Matth., Lachm., 

Sch., Hahn, Treg., Words., Tisch., read not. xe^a. (A. B. ' a 17. 
P 5.'). 

y E. V. renders dxa'Sapro; by unclean, 28 times out of 30; 
and axaeapffi'a, which occurs everywhere else as the noun, 
always (10 times) hy uncleanness -j-W . But for dxafla'pt'jyT'oj 
(a form found only in this instance), all the recent editors read 
to. axdOapta i^s (" A. B. o 26. (3 8. y 3. Compl.'), thus com- 
bining (see ch. 14, 6, N. f) the Hebrew construction (v. 3, 
N. r) with the Greek. Wolf., indeed, would govern va axde. 
by t;t™5» immediately ; Stu., through an apposition with 
rtoT^pior ; while Words, would supply ilSov. I recommend 
that the reading be adopted, and that to. axd9apta be trans- 
lated: tli£ uncleannesses — a plural which occurs in E. V., Ezek. 
36: 29. It. {deW immondizie) ;-Beng.. Van Ess, Goss., De W., 
([den] Unreinigkeiten), "Woodh., Stu., Lord, (the impurities), 
Penn (the fllhinesses), Gerl., Hengst., Ebr., ([den] Unsauber- 
keiten). 

• This construction, which connects ro oc. with the ixovtsa of 
V. 4, appears (or, at least, nothing is supplied) in W., R. ;-Latin 
verss., Syr., Germ., Fr. S.;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Moldenh., Newc, 
■Woodh., Greenf., Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Words., Ilengst., Ebr. 



" Many, as Fr. G.;-Areth., Vat. (in the version). Arct., 
Brightm., B. and L., Eichh., Woodh., Heinr., Bloomf.. Treg., 
De W., Barn., Ebr., put Mvatr^pwp in apposition with ovofia, 
= a mysterious name. This is much better than Stu.'s con- 
nection of it as an adverbial accusative with yiypajiiiivov, 
= mysteriously written (though Bam. allows that also). But, 
1., while the Apocalypse is full of ^nDsr^pia, in no other instance 
does the narrator h^'rald one as such : — 2., supposing the in- 
scription to have included Mvatrjpwv, an explanation was thus 
formally' invited, which is furnished in v. 7 ; and the interpret- 
ing angel is then to be considered as taking up the very word, 
and as personally (tyci) confronting the difficulty which it an- 
nounced : — 3., as the angel u^es it, the term is attached not to 
the name, but to the woman herself and her equipment : — 
4., in that reference it might yery well characterize her origin, 
nature, history, and destination. Graciously to know the evil — 
'the depths of Satan' (ch. 2: 24) — 'the mystery of iniquity' 
(2 Thess. 2: 7) — this, not less than the knowledge of good, 
requires heavenly teaching, and ' an unction from the Holy 
One' (1 John 2 : 20) : — and, 5., even if not intended to be thus 
itself descriptive of the woman, Mufffifpiof might yet stand in 
the inscription as a sort of prelude or index to her name ; some- 
what like 'n&i ij ao^ia, ia-tiv in ch. 13: 18. The capital letters 
of E. V. here, and in ch. 19 : 16 ; Matth. 27 : 37 ; Mark 15 : 26 ; 
Luke 23 : 38 ; John 19 : 19, were adopted, Barn, thinks, by our 
Translators ' for the sole purpose of denoting that it was an 
inscription or title.' But they may have meant also to re- 
present to the eye the probable uncial form of the original. No 
such imitation, however, is found here in any edition of the 
Greek text ;-the older English verss. ;-foreign verss. (except 
B. and L.) ;-Brightm.. Ilamm., Daub., AVesl., Wakef., Sharpe, 
Ell.. Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

•i R. ;-foreign verss. ;-Daub., Wakef, Thom., Allw., Penn, 
Sharpe, Treg., Words. 

' The marginal variation of E. V., fornications, rests on the 
Vulg.j Ar., and the text of Areth. (xoftviii^v), but is of no 
manuscript authority. What Sch., again, mentions as the 
Constantinopolitan reading, rtopi'uf, fornicators, has been re- 
ceived by Matth. alone of the recent editors, and followed by 
Daub, and Fr. S. 



REVELATION. 



181 



KING JAMES VERSION. 



ABOMINATIONS 
EARTH. 



OF THE 



6 And I saw the woman 
drunken with the blood of the 
saints, and with the blood of the 
martjTs of Jesus : and when I 
saw her, I wondered with great 
admiration. 

7 And the angel said unto me. 
Wherefore didst thou marvel ? I 
will tell thee the mystery of the 
woman, and of the beast that 
carrieth her, which hath the 
seven heads and ten horns. 

8 The beast that thou sawest, 
was, and is not ; and shall as- 
cend out of the bottomless pit, 
and go into perdition : and they 
that dwell on the earth shall 
wonder, (whose names were not 
written in the book of life Irom 
the foundation of the world,) 



GREEK TEXT. 



REVISED VERSION. 



iTopvwv Koi Tcov j3Se\vyfjiaT(oi^ r^y lots and ■'of 

of the earth. 



6 Kai eiSov ttjv yvvaiKa fxe- 
dvovaav e/c tov ai/j-aTo^ T(av 
ayicav, Kou €k tov ai/xaTos rail' 
fxapTvpmv ' Irjaov- kcll idaufxacra, 
iScau avTTjv, Bavfxa jxeya. 

7 Kou etVe' fxoL 6 ayyeXos, 
Aiari idau/xaaaf ; iyco aoL epco 
TO nvaTrjpiou tyjs yvvaLKOS, Kai 
TOV drjpLOV TOV iSacTTa^ovTog av- 
Ty]v, TOV i^ovTos Tas iiTTa Kecpa- 
Aay /cat ra SeKa KepaTa. 

8 Orjpiou etSef, rji/, Kai ovk 
€(TTi, KOU fieXXet avafiaiveiv e/c 
TTjs dlBvcrcrov, /cat et? aTrcoXeiau 
V7rayeii>- kou davfiaaovTac ol /ca- 
TOLKOvuTe^ iiri tyjs yr/^t <iv ov 
yeypaiTTai ra 6vop.aTa lin to /8t- 
^X'lov TYji ^»?? o.iro KaTa^oXrjf 



'the abominations 



6 And I saw the woman 

drunken with the blood of the 

saints, and with the blood of the 

I 'witnesses of Jesus ; and ^ I 

i wondered, when I saw her, with 

i great '■wonder. 

' 7 And the angel said unto me : 
Wherefore didst thou 'wonder? 
JI will tell thee the mysteiy of 
the woman, and of the beast 
that i-beareth her, which hath 
the seven heads and 'the ten 
horns. 

8 "'The beast "which thou 
sawest, was, and is not, and 
"is to ascend out of the "abyss, 

1 and go into perdition : and 
they that dwell on the earth, 
I'wliose "inanies ""have not been 
written ■'in the book of life from 
the foundation of the world, 

j I'shall wonder, 'seeing the beast, 



^ W. ;-Xewc., Woodh., Allw., Penn, Stu., Murd., Kenr. 

• R. ;-Dt., It., French verss. ;-Beng., Wakef., Newc, Woodh., 
Thorn., Allw., All., Penn, Sharpe, Tieg., De W., "Words., 
Ilengst., Murd., Kenr. 

' Seech. 2: 13, N. b. 

' The idav/i. is kept first by R. ;-Latin (except Castal.) and 
German verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Dodd., Wakef., Woodh., Greenf., 
Lord, Treg., Keni'. 

i" A noun cogn.ite to the preceding verb is employed by W. ;- 
such Latin and German verss. as do not use an adverb, Syr., 
Dt., It., Fr. S. ;-Ne\vc., Greenf., Sharpe, Lord, Treg., Kenr. 

' E. v., vv. 6, 8; eh. 13: 3 ;-W. ;-Wells, Daub., Dodd., 
Wesl., Newc, Woodh., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., 
Murd., Kenr. 

) See 1 John 2 : 20, N. p, &c. The pronominal subject is 
expressed in the Latin verss., Syr., Greenf., and marked as em- 
phatic by Treg. For what the emphasis involves, see v. 5, 
N. a. 

k E. v., 23 times out of 27 ;-W., T., C., G. ;-Stu., Lord 
(bears). Murd. 

1 R.;-Syr. (= De D. ilia), Dt., It, Fr. S. ;-Beng., Dodd., 
Wesl., Moldenh., Newc, Woodh., Allw., Treg., Hengst., Murd., 
Ebr. 

■" All the recent editors prefi.-? to (A. B. 'a 24. (3 7. Compl.'). 

° W., R. ;-Brightm., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., AV.ikcf., Newc, 
Woodh., Thorn., Allw., Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr. 

" For is to, see ch. 10: 7, N. y, &c, and 12: 5, N. v. For 

abyss, see ch. 9 : 1, N. e. 



P This order is followed in R.;-It., French verss. ;-Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef.. Newc, Thorn., Penn, Lord, Murd., Kenr. The 
parenthesis, by which E. V. (after T., C, G.), and most of the 
English verss. that follow the same order, seek to avoid a slight 
imbiguity thence arising, has been removed by the Amer. Bible 
Soc Most of the foreign verss. are able to adopt the Greek 
inversion, and in that way bring the antecedent and relative 

clauses together. For Oaviidaoytai. Lachm. and Tisch. read 

9avfiaa6riaoiit(u ('A.'). 

"i For ra ovofiata, Matth., Lachm., Sch., Treg., Words., 
Tisch., re:id tb bmfia ('A. B. a 15. )3 5. Copt. Syr. Brp. Slav. 

MS.'). Comp. ch. 13 : 8, N. h. For have been, see ch. 13 : 8, 

N. i. Lachm. has oix iyiyftaitto (A. ovx lyiypajtiat). 

' This ypdfiiv ini (=i5" ana Is. 8: 1. &c) is imitated by 
Syr. ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Ebr. 

 For the change of verb see E. V., 13 times in this book out 
of 16 ;-^7., R. ;-foreign verss. (except Bez., who at first had the 
Vulg. videntes, but afterward changed it into cernentes) ;- 
Brightm., Dodd., Wakef, Thom., Allw., Penn, Stu., Lord, 
Murd., Kenr. For the participial form, see W., R. ;-Latin and 
French verss., Syr., Dt. ;-Brightm., Dodd., Wakef (at seeing), 
Woodh. (beholding), Lord, Kenr. But all the recent editors 
have ff7.i7(6i'Tuv ('A. B. a 21. 13 7. y 3.') — a genitive, not de- 
pendent, as Win. suggests, on the previous uv, but (which he 
also allows) absolute, as in Matt. 1:18; Luke 8 : 20). I re- 
commend that this reading be adopted, and translated : when 
Ihey see. 



182 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

when they hehold the beast that 
was, and is not, and yet is. 

9 And here is the mind which 
hath wisdom. The seven heads 
are seven mountains, on which 
the woman sitteth. 

10 And there are seven kings : 
five are fallen, and one is, and 
the other is not yet come ; and 
when he cometh, he must con- 
tinue a short space. 



GREEK TEXT. 

KocrfJLOv, /SAeTTOi'res' to Brjpiou on 
i]v, ical ovK e(TTi, Kalivep icTTLV. 

9 tt)5e 6 vovs 6 e^cov aocf)^^. 
al ewra KecpaXai, opy elcrlv kirra, 
oiTQV T) yvvT] Ka6r}Tai tV avrav. 

10 Kou ^acnXels eirra elaiv 
o\ irevre kirea-av, kol 6 et? iariu, 
6 aAAoy ovirco ■>)\de- kol hrav 
(Xdr), oXiyov avTou del fxeivai. 



REVISED VERSION. 

'that he was, and is not, "though 
he is. 

9 ' Here is the "mind "that 
hath wisdom. The seven heads 
are ^seven mountains, ^on which 
the woman sitteth ; 

10 And 'they are seven kings ; 
"the five are fallen, "and "the one 
is, ' the other is not yet come ; 
and, when he ''is come, he must 
continue a kittle 'while. 



• E. v., the older verss. generally, and a few of the modern, 
follow tlie Vulg. in treating on as a pronoun ; but, of recent 
editors. Bloomf. alone prints it as such, 6, n. It is translated 
as above, that is, as a demonstrative conjunction, by Germ. ;- 
Beng., Wesl., Sloldenh., 'Woodh., Stu., Lord, Hengst., Ebr.;- 
AVahl, Rob. : — as a cau.i^al conjunction, by Vulg. Am. (^qida) ■- 
Fr. S. (parce que) ;-Thom., Treg., (becaitse). 'B. a 18. /3 6.' 
have 6rt ^i- to Sr^piov (edited by Matth.), and to this correspond 
the verss. of Castal. {vidmies helluam fuisse). Wakef. {that 
the beast uas), De W. {dass das Thier war.). 

' E. V. so renders xairttp everywhere else;-6erm., Dt., 
Fr. G.,-S. ;-Castal., Aret., Hamm. (although it be), Cocc, 
B. and L., Dodd., Eichh. (would so render this reading ;-and 
so Woodh!, Ew.), Thorn, {although indeed it is) ;-the lexi- 
cons. But all the recent editors (except Theile) read xai 
naptatai (' A. B. a 24. |3 6. y 2. Oompl.' 6 cursive MSS. have 
xa.1 ndftetiv) \ and it is also true, that, except in this instance, 
xruTiff is always construed with a participle, expressed or im- 
plied. Moreover, in this repetition in one verse of the history 
of the beast, xai Ttdpistai seems to be the necessary counter- 
part of the fiiM-ii, ava^aivitv. The reappearance of the beast 
was a simple futurity, at the time of the vision ; at the time of 
the wondering, it would be a present fact ; — a change of rela- 
tion, which .some verss., that follow this reading, fail to express. 
I recommend that the reading be adopted, and tran.slated : and 
shall be present. Beng. {und zugegen sein wird), Woodh. 
(would so render this readin<r), Ew. {'ad^irit, adveniet'). 
Bloomf. {and yet he vHl be at hand). Treg., De W. {und da 
seyn wird ;-and so Stier, Ebr.), Hengst. {und wieder da seyn 
wird). 

m 

' E. V. and a few of the older verss. follow the Vulg. in pre- 
fixing the copulative, for which there is no warrant in any 
edition of the Greek text. 

' The interpretation given of this clause by Rob. and others : 
' Here is the deep or hidden sense,' takes voif in a sense un- 
exampled in the N. T. or Sept., and t;^wy ao^iav in a sense for 
which there is no example anywhere. The meaning rather is, 
as in ch. 13: 18: 'Here is a problem for wisdom, the spiritual 
intelligence.' Some would even attach to the liSs its occasional 
force of hither, q. d. ' Let the wise mind attend to this.' 



» T., C. G., R. ;-Moro, Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Allw., Penn, 
Sharpe, Lord. 

y For opj; dsiv tTttd, 'the recent editors,' says Bloomf., 'on 
strong grounds' (A. B. 'a 16. 3 5- Compl.'), 'read irtta. opij 

iid'{v). In the next clause, Woodh., All., Lord, translate 

verbally: where . . . upon [o7i] them. But see ch. 12: 6, 
N. c, (ic. 

' That this clause furnishes another explanation of the irtti, 
x£f. (rather than, as Hengst. would say. an epexegesis of opij 
Irctd), and is therefore to be closely connected with v. 9, is the 
view of nearly all verss. and commentators. The pronominal 
subject is expressed by T., C, G., R. ;-Fr. S. ;-Brightm., Engl. 
Ann. (as one rendering), Hamm., AVells, Daub., Wesl., Gill, 
Wakef., Newc, Thora., Scholef., Words.;— and omitted, the 
clause being then preceded by a comma or a semi-colon, in the 
German verss. (Herd, and Mey. omit also the verbal copula.), 
Woodh., Allw., Lord, Kenr. Often, indeed, the clause forms 
part of V. 9, which then ends with a period. 

' ' The first five ; the one after them ; and the other, that 
completes the number.' — Syr. (employs the demonstrative ar- 
ticle). Dt., It., Fr. G.,-M.,-S. ;-Berl. Bib., Beng., Moldenh. 
{Fiinfe derselben . . . der eine). Woodh. {fire of them . . . one 
of them), Sharpe, Treg., De W., Words., Hengst., Kenr., Ebr. 

^ Bloomf. brackets, and all the other recent editors cancel, 
the xM, on the authority of A. B. ' a 26. /3 6. Compl. Vulg. ed. 
Syr.' I recommend that, in accordance with this reading, the 
word and be omitted. 

' Syr., Dt., Fr. S.;-Vat., Castal., Cocc, Vitr., B. and L., 
Daub., Beng., AVesl., Herd., Matth., Wakef, Woodh., Mey., 
Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., De W., Hengst., Ebr. 

■i E. v., previous clause ;-W., R., {shall come) ;-Latin verss. 
{veneril), Dt. {zol gekomen zijn), It. {sara venuto), Fr. G., 
-M.,-S., {sera venu) •,-Woodh., Thorn, and Lord {hath [has\ 
c), All. {gekommen). Treg. (shall have c), De W. (wird gek. 
sein). Hengst., Ebr., (gek. ist), Kenr. 

• Seech. 12: 12, N. e. 

f W., R., (time) ;-Brightm., Dodd. (as W. ;-and so Newc, 
Allw., Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Murd., Kenr.), Wakef., Penn, (mark 
while as supplied), Thom. 



REVELATION. 



183 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

11 And the beast that was, 
and is not, even he is the eighth, 
and is of the seven, and goeth 
into perdition. 

12 And the ten horns which 
thou sawest are ten kings, which 
have received no kingdom as j^et ; 
but receive power as kings one 
hour with the beast. 



GREEK TEXT. 



13 

shall 
strength 



These have one mind, and 
give their power and 



unto the beast. 



14 These shall make war with 
the Lamb, and the Lamb shall 
overcome them : for he is Lord 
of lords, and King of kings ; and 
they that are with him arc called, 
and chosen, and faithful. 



11 /cat TO Orjplov b rjv, kou ovk 
ecTTi, Koi avTOs byboos icrri, Kai 
(K Tcov eVra iari, /cat et? oarw- 
Xeiav v-irayei. 

il J\.aLTa oe/ca Kepara a eioe^, 
8eKa /SacriAety elanv, oiTives (Saa-i- 
Xelav ovTTQ} eXajSou, aAA' i^ova-iav 
o)? iSaa-iXelf p.Lav copav Aa/x/Sa- 
vovdL jJLiTa Tov drjpiov. 

13 ovTOi fiiav yvcofjir]!/ e)(OV(n, 
Koi TTjv 8vvap.iv /cat Triv l^ovaiav 
iavTuiv Tcp drjplcp SLadiSaxrovcnv. 

1-4 OVTOL p.€Ta TOV (XpvloV TTO" 

Xep.i^aovai, kcu to dpvlov viKrjaeL 
avTOvs, OTi Kvpios Kvplcov i(TT\ 
KOU BaaiXevs ^aaiXecov /cat ol 
p.tT avTov, KXrjTo), /cat e'/cAe/crot 

/cat TTiaTOL. 



REVISED VERSION. 

11 And the beast that was, 
and is not, even he is *an eighth, 
and is of the seven, and goeth 
into perdition. 

12 And the ten horns which 
thou sawest are ten kings, ""who 
have 'not yet received 'a king- 
dom ; but Jthey receive 'author- 
ity as kings 'one hour with the 
beast. 

13 These have one "counsel, 
and "shall give over their power 
and "authority unto the beast. 

14 These shall make war with 
the Lamb, and the Lamb shall 
overcome them : for he is Lord 
of lords and King of kings : pand 
they that ai-e with him, ^ called, 
and chosen, and faithful. 



» It., Fr. G. -M.-S. ;-Wakef., Stu., Lord, Hergst., Ebr. 

" See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

' For not yet. see W., G., {yet . . . not), R. ;-foreign verss. 
(except Beng., nicht. He and Lachm. follow Erasm. in read- 
ing, for oiirtu, the simple ov* ['A. Vulg. MS. Erp. Slar.']);- 
Brightm., Dodd. and the later English (except Wesl. [who 

follows Beng.], Sharpe, Words.). The indefinite article is 

employed, in rendering jSaai^., by Brightm., Wakef., Newc, 
Thorn., Penn, Lord, De "W., Treg., Ebr. 

' W. ;-German verss. (except Moklenh.), Fi-. G.-M. ;-B. and 
L., Dodd., Stu., Treg., Murd., Kenr. 

k See ch. 13 : 4, N. s, &c. 

1 ' For one hour' — ' for one and the same hour' — 'at one and 
the same hour.' Grammatically, and in the present connec- 
tion, jui'av lupav will bear any one of these three senses (the 
second combining the other two), which are found to divide 
verss. and commentators, rather according to the view enter- 
tained of the subject-matter of the prophecy. The phrase 
is translated, or explained, as an answer to the question, 
How long, by Syr. (probably = Murd. for one hour), At., 
Germ, (erne Zeit), Fr. S. ;-Areth., Zeg., Brightm., Grot, 
Hamm., B. and L., Berl. Bib., Beng., Dodd., Wash, Herd., 
Eichh., Wakef., Woodh., Thorn., Heinr., Scott, Ew., Allw., 
Ros., Penn, Sharpe, Stu., De "W., Lee, Stier, Hengst., Kenr., 
Barn., Ebr. ;-Bretsch., Wahl, Rob., Schirl. :— as an answer to 
the question, Wheyi, by T., C., G.;-Vulg. {una hora), Dt., It., 
Fr. G.-M. ;-Erasm., Pagn., Tat., {as Vulg.), Castal., Par., 
Cocc, Mede, More, Vitr., Daub., Lowm., Guyse, Moldcnb.. 
Newc, Clarke, Crol., Jones, Ell. (who also refers to ' nearly all 
the patristic expositors' as adopting this view). Lord, Treg., 
Words. Others (as Engl. Ann., Gill, &c.), and also some of 



those just named (as De W.), allow either answer as possible. 
The expression in E. V. partakes of the ambiguity of the 
original, and is for that reason retained. 

" W., R. ;-Vulg. {consilium), Syr. (= De D. voluntatem), 
German verss. {Meinung •,-exce'pt All., Absicht; and Ebr., 
Willmsmeinung), Dt. (meening). It. {cotisigliu), French verss. 
(rfessein) ;-Erasm., Pagn., Vat, Par., {as Vulg.), Bez., Cocc, 
Vitr., (use sententia), Wakef. {pzir-pose), Woodh. See v. 17, 
NN. a, b. 

" R. {shall deliver) ;-Latin verss. {tradent), Dt. {zullen 
overgeven) ;-Berl. Bib., Stolz, {[werden} ilhergeben), Dodd. 
{as R.), Wakef. {share), Thom. {icill transfer), Penn {will 
contribute) ;-Rob., Schirl. But all the recent editors have 
iih6a.at,v (A. B. 'a 21. 3 G. 7 2. Compl.'). I recommend that 
this reading be adopted, and translated : give. 

' See ch. 13 : 4, N. s, &c. 

p The punctuation of T., G., Sec, and lately adopted by the 
Amer. Bible Soc. See N. q. 

1 E. V. supplies the copula out of the previous iati, and the 
clause then assigns another ground of the Lamb's vigtory 
(Daub., Stu.). A better construction furnishes ol jut avtov 
with a predicate out of vixrfiii aitovi. The Lamb conquers in 
the strength of His own supremacy. His people share in His 
victory, because they are with Him, and by virtue of the calling 
and character that belong to them as His attendants (ch. 2 : 26, 
27; 12: 11; 15: 2; 19: 14, 19, 20).— No copula is supplied by 
G., R. ;-Latin verss. (see the notes of Aret., Par., Grot., Vitr., 
Eichh., Heinr., Ros.), Syr., Germ., Dt (which also puts the 
clause oft Kvpioj . . . ^aaCKiav into a parenthesis), Brightm., 
Wells {as Dt. ;-and so Woodh., Gerl., Ell., Ebr.), All., De W., 
HenirPt. 



1S4 



REVELATION. 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

15 And he saith unto me, The 
waters which thou sawest, where 
the whore sitteth, are peoples, 
and multitudes, and nations, and 
tongues. 

16 And the ten horns which 
thou sawest upon the beast, these 
shall hate the whore, and shall 
make her desolate and naked, 
and shall eat her flesh, and burn 
her with fire. 

17 For God hath put in their 
heai'ts to fulfil his will, and to 
agree, and give their kingdom 



GREEK TEXT. 

15 KoiX Ae'yet jjlol, Ta uSara 
a etSe?, ov rj iropvT] KaOyrai, Aaot 
Kal oi(Aoi elcrl, koL kOvrj Kai 
yXaxrarat. 

1 G Kal Ta 8eKa Kepara a etSey 
eVt TO Oiipiov, ovTOL pLarjaovaL 
T-qv TTOpvrjv, Kca rjpr]p.copevr]u ttol- 
rjcrova-LV avTr/v Kal yvp-vrju, Kal 
Tas adpKas avTrj^ (f)ayovTai, Kal 
avTr]i> KaTaKavarova-iv eu Trvpi* 

17 yap Oeos eScoKeu et? Tas 
KapSlas avTcou iroirjaaL ttju yuco- 
p.r]v avTOv, Kal Troirjaai p.iav yvco- 
p.T]u, Kal Sovuai ttjv (Bao-iXelau 



REVISED VERSION. 

15 And he saith unto me : 
The waters which thou sawest, 
where the ■'harlot sitteth, are 
peoples, and multitudes, and na- 
tions, and tongues. 

16 And the ten horns which 
thou sawest 'upon the beast, 
these shall hate the 'harlot, and 
shall make her desolate and 
naked, and shall eat her flesh, 
and "shall 'utterly burn her with 
fire. 

17 For God "gave »?/ 'into 
their hearts to "perform his 'coun- 
sel, and to '■perform one "counsel, 
and 'to give their kingdom unto 



' See V. 1, N. g. 

• For irtt, all the recent editors read xai (' A. B. a 27. 
3 C. Compl. Vulg. MS. Am. Copt. Aeth. Syr. Ar. P. Slav. 
MSS.'). I recommend that this reading be adopted : and. 

' See V. 1, N. g. 

" W., R.;-Germ., Dt. ;-Dodd., Allw., Penn (will), Words., 
Ilengst., Kenr., Ebr. 

' E. v., ch. 18 : 8 ; in ch. 8 : 7, Matt. 3 : 12, and 2 Pet. 3 : 10, 
to burn up;-Vu\g. {conrremabunt), German verss. (verbren- 
nen), Dt. (verbranden), Fr. S. (consitnieront) ;-Erasra., Vat., 
Grell., {as Vulg.), Pagn., Bez., Aret., Par., {exurent), Castal., 
Grot., Cocc, (comburenf). Brightm., AVakef., {burn [her] up), 
Daub., Woodh. {burn [her] utterly;-a.iid so Allw., Words.). 
For the Erasmian reading, xavsovstr, only 2 cursive JISS. are 
cited. 

" The common sense of 6(,'6u;itt is here retained by W., R. ;- 
Latin and German verss. (exc;-pt Castal.), Syr., Dt. ;-Dodd., 
Greenf. For the time, see ch. 16: 0, N. c, &c. W. ;-Wakef. 
The ten kings had not appeared at the time of the vision, v. 12. 
But the speaker, after prophetically tracing their career, looks 
back, and historically accounts for it. 

» German verss. (except Ebr.) ;-Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Thom., 
Stu. 

7 W., R. ;-Brightm., Daub., Dodd., Wesl., Woodh,, Thom., 
Penn, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, Treg., Murd. 

« W., R., {do) ;-Vulg. {faciant), German verss. (thun)^ Dt. 
(doen). It. {eseguire), Fr. G.,-M., {/aire), Fr. S. {e.recuter) ;- 
Erasm., Pagn., Vat., {as Vulg.), Castal., Bez., Par., Vitr., Ew., 
{exseqwantur), Hamm., Daub., Newc, Sharpe, Stu., Lord, 
Murd., Kenr., {as W.), Cocc. {facere), B. and L. {as Fr. S.), 
Dodd., Wesl., Wakef., Thom., {execute), Woodh., Alhv., Penn. 
See N. b. 



' The same noun as in v. 13 (.see N. m) is used twice in this 
verse by Syr., Germ., Dt. (but with this note: 'Or, counsel 
[raad^ as above, v. 13, and here in the next clause.'), Fr. S. ;- 
Cocc, Beng., Wakef., Woodh., Treg. {mind), Hengst. The 
first ■yrw/niyj/ here is in W., that that is pleasant to him ; R., 
that which pleaselh him (after the Vulg. quod placilum est 
illi ;-and so Erasm., Pagn., Vat. This was changed into quod 
ipsi visum est by Bez., Par., Vitr.) ;-Hamm., Daub., Murd., 
pleasure ; B. and L., desseins ; Guyse, Penn, purpose ; Dodd., 
Wesl., Thom., sentence; Scott, counsel, purpose, mind -.—Ihe 
second is in It., consiglio i-fr. G. and -M., dessem ;-Erasm., 
Vat., valuntatem ; Hamm., decree or edict ; Dodd., Murd., pur- 
pose ; Thom., Penn, design; Allw., Lord, coimsel. See N. b. 

" See N. z. In this instance Daub., Dodd., Woodh., Allw., 
have perform. In rendering the clause, xai rtoi^oat fiCav yvui^Tjv 
(which, though strongly suspected by Mill of having been 
transferred from v. 13, and though now bracketed by Treg., 
Lachm. alone of recent editors omits, on the authority of 'A. 
Vulg.'), E. V. and some other verss. follow Pagn. and Bez., ut 
consentiant. But, according to the use of rtoirjaai, in the pre- 
ceding clause, it is rather the acting out of the agreement 
formed previously (v. 13), that is here meant; and the very 
baldness of the repetition, at which many stumble, only the 
more vividly teaches, that in the self-willed confederacies of the 
wicked there sits paramount the will of yet another Ally, un 
seen, unoonsulted, but • higher than they' (Eccl. 5:8; Ps. 82 : 1, 
Acts 2: 23; 4: 27, 28; &c.). For the reference of aitoi to to 
9r;piov (Zeg., Beng.) is certainly erroneous. De W., indeed, 
asks whether one can properly speak of God's yrii/tjj, especially 
in immediate connection with that of man. But the Sept. Ezra 
6 : 14 is a clear case in point. 

' T., C, G., {for to) ;-foreign verss. generally ;-Daub., Dodd., 
Wesl., Wakef., Woodh., Thom., Allw., Penn, Sharpe, Lord, 
Treg., Murd., Kenr. 



REVELATION. 



185 



KING JAMES VERSION. 

unto the beast, until the words 
of God shall be fulfilled. 

IS And the woman which 
thou sawest is that great city, 
which reigneth over the kings 
of the earth. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

And after these things I saw 
another angel come down from 
heaven, having great power ; and 
the earth was lightened with his 
glory. 

2 And he cried mightily with 
a strong voice, saying, Babylon 
the great is fallen, is fallen, and 
is become the habitation of dev- 
ils, and the hold of every foul 
spirit, and a cage of every un- 
clean and hateful bird. 



GREEK TEXT. 

avTav TcS drjp'im, a^pi TcXeadfj 
ra pijfiara rov Oeov. 

18 K(u T] yvvT] i]u et'Sey, eariv 
rj TToXis T) fieyaXr], rj e^ovcra j3a- 
criXeiav eTrl rav fiaaLXemv rrjs 

CHAP. XVIII. 

KAI fiera ravra eiSou ayye- 
Xov Karafiaivovra e'/c tou ovpavov, 
'^ypvra i^ovalau jxeyaXrjv kou t) 
yrj i(j)Q)T[(rdr] e'/c tt/? So^rjs avrov. 

2 Kcu eKpa^ev ev 1(t^'l, (j)a)i>rj 
jxeyaXr), Xeycov, ' Eirecrev eirea-e 
BafivXcov 7] fxeyaXr], kou eyevero 

KaTOLKl]TripLOV Sai'U.Ol'CLlV, Kol (f)v- 

XaKTj iravTos TTvevparos UKadap- 
Tov, KOL (jyvXaKi] Tvavros opveov 
aKudaprov kol /xefiicrrjfieuov 



REVISED VERSION. 

the beast, until ""the words of 
God = be finished. 

IS And the woman 'whom 
thou sawest is that great city, 
which ^hath kingship over the 
kings of the earth. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

'And after these .things I saw 
•an angel "descending from heav- 
en, having great 'authority ; and 
the earth was lightened with his 
glory. 

2 And he cried ■•mightily with 
a 'loud voice, saying : fFallen, 
fallen, is Babylon the great, and 
is become ^a habitation of ''de- 
mons, and °a hold of every 'un- 
clean spirit, and a J'hold of every 
unclean and ^hated bird. 



^ For to. /jjjfiara, all the recent editors read ot >.dyot (• A. C 
o26. /3 7. Compl.'). 

• For the change of verb, see oh. 15 : 1, N. c. For the change 
of tense, see W., T., C, G., R. ;-Latin verss., German verss. 
(except Beng., Moldenh.), It., Fr. G.,-M..-S.;-B. and L. 
(fussent), Daub., Thorn., (are), Dodd., Wakef., Sharpe, Kenr. 
But all the recent editors read teXiaeraovT^ai (■ A. a 8. y 2. 
Compl. ;'-except Matth., who has ■tf-KcaSCjai.i' ' B. o 18. ^l.y 2.'). 
I recommend that this reading be adopted, and translated: 
shall be finished. 

' See 2 Pet. 2: 11, N. f. 

• W., R., (hath kingdom) ■-Xu]g. (habeC regnum), S3'r. 
(= [ciff] est regnum), Germ, (das Reich hat), Dt. (het 
koningrijk heeft), It. (ha il regno), Fr. G.,-M.. (a son regne), 
Fr. S. (a le royaume) ;-Erasra., Pagn., Vat., Bez., Par., Coco., 
(as Vulg.), Castal. (regnum . . . oblinens), Hamm., Daub., 
(hath the kingdom), Viti-., Ros., (habet imperium), Beng. (das 
KOnigreich hal). Moldenh. (konlgliche Herrschaft hat), 
"VVakef. (hath ri