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Pleasants, J.H. 

The second hospital in the 






LAND, 1698. 

By J. Hall Pleasants, M. D. 
Assistant in Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. 
















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Presented To 

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Mrs. Kitty Coad Dallam 


Date A l>ril 1964 




[From The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 151, 

January, 1901 1 

LAND, 1698.* 

By J. Hall Pleasants, M. D. 
Assistant in Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. 


*% ^\ Maryland may claim the distinction of having been the first [te] 
\ Tof the colonies to agitate the question of establishing a hos- 

pital within its boundaries, for as early as 1638 we find the 
well-known pioneer priest Andrew White urging upon Lord ^ 
Baltimore the necessity of such an institution. Nothing was 
actually accomplished, however, until the close of the cen- 
tury, when, in 1698, a hospital was established at the " Coole 
Springs of St. Maries." During this interval the Dutch East 
India Company, in 1658, had built at New Amsterdam, an "" 
f almshouse and hospital, known as the "Old Hospital," or 

J" Five Houses," of which the present Bellevue claims to be 
a direct outgrowth. 1 The " Five Houses " is probably the 
oldest hospital in the colonies, the Cool Springs dating 
second in the order of establishment. The statement fre- 
- quently made that the Pennsylvania Hospital, founded in 
1 1751, is the oldest hospital in the colonies, is thus not borne 
4^=aut by facts. 

^ We shall first refer briefly to the early suggestion to found 
,^r- a hospital in Maryland, and shall then trace the history of the 
^ Cool Springs. 

In the recently recovered Calvert papers there is a letter 
^ from Father White to Lord Baltimore, dated from Maryland, 


f>^ * Read before the Johns Hopkins Hospital Historical Club, 
^ October 19, 1903. 

1 R. J. Carlile: An Account of Bellevue Hospital, 1893, p. 1. 

•5 i 


[is] Fob. 20, 1638. 2 This letter, written four years after the 
founding of the province, refers in no uncertain way to the 
sickness among the settlers. He is inclined to attribute much 
of this to the " eating of flesh and drinking salt waters and 
wine by advice of our Chirurgian rather (than) by any great 
malice of their feuers, for they who keep our diett and abstei- 
nence generally recovered." Father White's opinion of the 
surgeon is evidently not of the highest. He then goes on to 
add that such excesses " begett feuers troublesome enough 
where wee want physick, yet not dangerous at all if the people 
willbe ruled in their diett, which is hard for the vvlgar 

* vnless wee had a hospital! here to care (for) them and keep 
them to rule perforce wh ch some worthy persons of this place 

' doe think upon." There is nothing to show that Father 
White's suggestion was acted upon, or that a hospital of any 
kind was founded in Maryland until the establishment of the J 
Cool Springs sixty years later. 

In the ;< Coole Springs of St. Maries," Maryland may lay j 
claim to more than a mere hospital, however, and its estab- 
lishment in 1G98 really marks the foundation of what was f 
probably also the first sanatorium in the colonies. That this * 
once famous resort should have fallen into oblivion and its 
very name be almost forgotten, is not surprising when we 
recall the history of old St. Mary's, and when we learn upon 
what a slight basis the popularity of these springs actually 
rested. The current histories of Maryland scarcely even 2 
refer to its existence. Yet at the close of the seventeenth 
century this same " Coole Springs " was the cause of much 
legislative discussion, and of even more religious ill-feeling 
The perusal of the Archives of the province gives us some 
idea of the important place which these " springs of healing 
waters " occupied in the minds of the early settlers. 

In the winter of 1G97-98 the southern counties were visited 
by a severe pestilence of some kind. Neither an examination 
of our own records nor those of the neighboring colonies 
throws any light whatever upon the nature of this pestilence. 

2 Fund Publication of the Maryland Historical Society, No. 28, 
p. 202. 


Smallpox naturally suggests itself to us, as its terrible ravages [ts] 
among the early colonists are only too well known. Yet it 
is scarcely probable that convalescents from this disease would 
seek spa treatment, for it will be seen that the " Springs " 
came into prominence during the decline of the epidemic. 
Whatever its character, the pestilence was especially preva- 
lent and its ravages most severe in Charles County. 

We first hear of " the pestilence " in connection with the 
religious ill-feeling aroused by the activity of the Koman 
Catholic priests among the sick. The following message, 
sent by the Lower House to Governor Nicholson, March 29, 
169S, 3 calling his attention to the matter, gives us an idea 
of the intolerance of the times: 

May itt please yor Exncy 

" Vpon reading a certaine Letter from a Reverend Minister 
of the Church of Engid which yor Exncy was pleased to comuni- 
cate to us Complaining to yo>' Ex^cy how that the Popish Priests 
in Charles County do of theire own Accord in this violent & 
rageing Mortality in that County make itt theire business to 
goe up and (down) the County to psons houses when dying & 
frantick and endeavour to Seduce and make prosellites of them 
& in such Condition boldly presume to admnistr the Sacrement 
to them. Wee have put it to the Vote in the house, if a Law 
should be made to restrayne such theire prsumption or not and 
have concluded not to make such Law att prsent, but humbly to 
Intreat yo r Ex c ? that you would be pleased to Issue your procla- 
mation to Restrayne and prohibite such theire Extravagante and 
prsumptious behaviour. 

Signed p Ordr W. Bladen, Clk: house Delegates." 

This shows well the intense religious bigotry of the times, 
for it should be remembered that in matters of religion, 
Maryland was really among the most liberal of the colonies. 
For several years the Catholics numerically had formed only 
a small proportion of the population, but in the years imme- [191 
diately following the revolution in England, which deposed 
James II. and placed a Protestant prince, William of Orange, 
on the throne, the feeling against the Catholics in all Eng- 
lish-speaking countries was especially strong. In Maryland, 
Lord Baltimore, who was a Catholic, was deprived of his gov- 

3 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXII, p. 22. 


[19] eminent, and in 1G92 the province became for a time a royal 
colony with the Church of England as the established relig- 
ion. Eumors of plots on the part of the adherents of Lord 
Baltimore to regain control of affairs had made the govern- 
ment unusually suspicious of any activity on the part of the 

We can infer that the success of the priests in spiritual 
matters was probably the reward of their labors in the actual 
care of the sick and dying during the epidemic, and we shall 
presently see the steps taken by the established church to 
counteract this influence. 

The early summer found the pestilence on the wane and 
militia drills, which had been suspended on account of the 
epidemic, were resumed July 1 by order of the Council.* 

The " Coole Springs " first comes to our notice in a letter 
from the owner of the springs and the adjoining lands to 
the Assembly, dated April 1, 1G98. 5 The contents of this let- 
ter have not been preserved, but the brief entry upon the 
record made at the time of its receipt is most expressive: 
"As to Captn. Dents Lr. about the Coole Springs it is looked 
upon as an Idle Letter not worth an answer." If this indi- 
cated skepticism as to the worth of the springs, we shall see 
how that feeling was soon to give way to a very different one, 

At a meeting of the Governor's Council held June 4, steps 
were taken to care for the spiritual welfare of those who 
were already flocking to the springs in search of health. We 
see now an adroit move on the part of the government to 
counteract the influence which the Catholic priests had al- 
ready gained among thr sick. The following quaint entry 
upon the Council proceedings seems worth quoting in full : ' 

" Mr. Philip Lynes appearing at the Board and giving an Acct 
of some Extraordinary Cures lately wrought at the cool springs 
in St. Mary's County & that several poor people flocked thither to 
recover their health and limbs. His Excellency the Governor is 

'Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, July 1, 1698. Md. 
Hist. Soc. MSS. 

5 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXII, p. 61. 

Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, June 4, 1698. Md. 
Hist. Soc. MSS. 


to send & give to those Poor People at the said springs ten Bibles (jgj 
these to remain for the use of the poor people that Comes thither. 

" His Excellency also Orders that Capt. James Keech and Mr. 
Philip Lynes do provide some Sober person to read prayers there 
twice a day to whom he will give 12 8/d Day & is pleased to lend 
the person that reads prayers there a book of Homolyes two 
Books of family Devotions & a Book of reformed Devotions writ- 
ten by Dr. Theophilus Dorrington out of which Books he is to 
read to them on Sundays. 

" Further Ordered that the said captain Keech & Mr. Lines ac- 
quaint Captain John Dent who is the Owner of the said House 
and Land that if he be willing his Excellency would have a read- 
ing desk & some Benches made in the New house there for the 
readers to read prayers & the people to sit on which by the Leave 
of the said Captain Dent, Captain Keich & Mr. Lynes are Ordered 
to get made & his Excellency will pay them for them. 

" His Exiy is pleased likewise to give & Allow to the said Poor 
people every Sunday a Mutton & as much Indian Corn as will 
Amount to Thirteen Shillings pr Week & orders Mr. Lynes to 
Consult Capt. Keech in Order to procure the same & his Excell- 
ency will pay them for it. 

" Ordered that the person that reads prayers at the cool springs 
take an acct. of what persons Come thither who are cured & of 
what Distempers — paper (for this) being sent by the said Mr. 

Prayers twice daily, books of " Homilies " and " family 
devotions " as well as good Theophilus Dorrington's " re- 
formed devotions " would seem indeed to meet spiritual needs, 
but a suspicion cannot help entering the mind that the bodily 
comforts of the visitors were probably less well provided for. 
There is no mention of provision being made for medical 
attendance or for nursing the sick. Whether a record of the 
cases treated as ordered was ever actually made, cannot be 
learned. It has certainly not been preserved. 

By September 6th the pestilence had entirely disappeared, 
for the Council recommends to the Governor that he appoint 
a day of thanksgiving for the return of health through the 
great benefit of the Cool Springs and for the promise of 
bountiful crops. The following proclamation issued Oct. 22 
shows the esteem in which the springs were now held : T 

7 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXII, p. 157. 


d9l "And what in a more peculier and nearer manner affected 
this his Majestyes Province in God Allmightyes withdrawing hi'3 
Afflicting hand of sickness from us and restoreing health to us 
wth severall beneficiall and healing springs of water called the 
Coole Springs which by his blessing haue wrought many Wondor- 
full and Signall Cures amongst Severall distemprf>d and Impotent 
psons ******* he had appoynted Tuesday next being the 
25 Instant to be sett apart for a day of publick thanksgiveing and 
rejoyceing therefore to be kept and observed by the Gen 11 Assem- 
bly and others att the Towne and Port of Annapolis and the 22<3 
of November next Ann arundell County and all other Countyes 
within this Province." 

The reputation of the Cool Springs was not confined 
to the province of Maryland, for on the same day that the 
Governor issued his thanksgiving proclamation, he submits 
the following message to the Upper House, showing that 
its fame had extended at least as far as New York. His 
recommendation that the province should establish suitable 
buildings for the care of the sick was acted upon soon after- 
wards by the General Assembly. 8 His own offer to con- 
tribute twenty-five pounds toward the building of a hospital 
was a notable act of charity for the times, and is probably the 
first donation to a hospital in the colonies: 

" The printed news lately by his Ex c J received from New 
Yorke Delivers severall representations to him relateing to the 
Coole Springs in saint Marys County and (he) proposes that if 
the house doe Consent to have some small Tenemts built there in 
[20] the nature of an Hospitall he will giue twenty flue pounds sterl- 
ing towards the building thereof." 

After some little discussion the following act was passed, 
Oct. 20, 1698, for the purchase of the Springs with the ad- 
joining land and for the erection thereon of suitable buildings 
for the care of the sick : " 

" Whereas by the favour of Allmighty God there hath been of 
Late a discovery made of fountains of healing Waters Called the 
Cool Springs in St Marys County whose healing quality has been 
Experienced by many Impotent and diseased persons to their 

8 Idem., p. 158. 

•Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXII, p. 279. 


great help and Comfort and for that so great blessing, benefitt [201 
and gifts of Allmighty God may not be neglected but a right use 
thereof made it is most fitting and Convenient that a particular 
Care should be first had of all such poor Impotent persons as re- 
paire thither for Care and for tht purpose or other such Charitable 
or pious uses a small Tract or parcell of Land near adjoyning may 
be purchased thereon to build and erect houses for the Entertain- 
ment of the said poor, and fuell for fireing and other such neees- 
sarys for their reliefe the Delegates of this present Generall As- 
sembly Therefore pray it may be Enacted that the 

persons hereafter named may and are hereby Appointed Trus- 
tees to buy & purchase in the name of our Sovereign 

Lord the King for pious and Charitable uses fifty Acres 

of Land adjoyning to and in which the said fountains shall be 
included. And be it Enacted by the Authority aforesaid That Col 
John Courts Thomas Brooks Esqr Capt James Keech, Capt Jacob 
Morland of St Mary's County and Cap' Philip Hoskins Capt John 
Bayne and Mr Benjamin Hall of Charles County or any three 
of them be & are hereby Impowered Authorized and appointed 
Trustees " 

The trustees appointed under this act met at All Saints 
Parish, St. Mary's County, November 24 to complete the pur- 
chase of the springs and land for 25 pounds sterling,' but 
there was apparently some hitch in the sale, as we later find 
the Assembly taking steps to condemn the springs and ad- 
joining land. 11 The erection of small cottages seems to have 
been later determined upon instead of the large house which 
was first planned. For some reason the erection of buildings 
by the government was delayed until several months later, 
for July 3, 1699, we find the Assembly and Council still dis- 
cussing the erection of buildings :" 

" Forasmuch as by our Iournall of the last Sessions we find that 
there was one hundred pounds sterl allotted for the use of the 
Cool Springs towards the purchase of fifty Acres of Land and for 
the building of small tenem ts for the good and benefitt of such 
poor Impotent and lame persons as shall resorte thither and we 
find the Trustees appointed by Act of Assembly to purchase the s<i 
Land have agreed for and purchased the same for Twenty five p da 

10 Vestry Records of All Faith Parish, St. Mary's Co., Nov. 24, 
1G98. (Transcript in the Md. Hist. Soc.) 

11 Archives of Maryland. Vol. XXII, pp. 418 and 419. 

12 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXII, p. 298. 


[20] sterl so that there is yet seaventy five pounds Sterl remaining 
towards the building of such Tenements. 

" We humbly pray that your Excy will be pleased to appoint two 
of his Matys honMe Councill to Joine into a Committee wUi three 
of the members of the house to Consider of the Erecting such 
Tenem ts Signed p Order 

Chr-. Gregory CI house Del. 

" The Honble Col. Henry Iowles and Thomas Brook Esqr Ap- 
pointed to Joine with the Members of the house upon that Com- 

A few days before this the former owner of the Springs, 
Capt. John Dent, had petitioned the Assembly for the sole 
privilege of keeping an inn or " ordinary " at the Springs, 
which shows that although the pestilence had passed away 
more than a year before, its popularity had not yet waned. 
We have every reason to believe that the seventy-five pounds 
remaining after the purchase of the land was devoted to the 
construction of buildings, for there is nothing to show that 
the money was turned back into the treasury, or used for other 
purposes than that for which it was appropriated. 

The Cool Springs now disappears as suddenly from view 
as two years before it had sprung into prominence. I can 
find no reference to it in the colonial records of the first half 
of the eighteenth century. With the passing of the great 
pestilence, its popularity must have waned, although we have 
no means of judging when this occurred. 

With a view of tracing the subsequent history of the Cool 
Springs I have recently made a thorough inquiry among 
those familiar with the local traditions of Southern Mary- 
land to discover, if possible, its later history. 

The location of the springs is in St. Mary's County where 
the village of Charlotte Hall now stands. The place is said 
to have been renamed in honor of Queen Charlotte, wife of 
George III. The name " Saint Maries " recalls all that is 
romantic in the early history of the colony. The island of 
St. Clements, where the first landing was made by Leonard 
Calvert in 163-1, and the city of St. Maries, the first seat of 
government, are both situated in this, the oldest county of the 
province. The history of Catholic Maryland was largely the 

13 Archives of Maryland, Vol. XXII, p. 383. 


history of St. Mary's. With the ascendency of Protestant in- [20] 
flucnce in the colony and in England, the seat of government 
was removed by Governor Nicholson in 1G94-95 from the city 
of St. Mary's to Annapolis. St. Mary's never recovered from 
this shock. Her importance rapidly dwindled. Even the 
former city of St. Mary's has almost disappeared from the 
map, being now represented by a church, a school and a few 
scattered buildings. Other once important towns in St. 
Mary's comity are now as desolate as our own Joppa. The 
Cool Springs was destined to suffer a similar fate to that 
which befell St. Mary's City, for in the first three-quarters 
of the eighteenth century it passes entirely from our view. 
until in 1774, by an act of the Legislature, the now well- 
known Charlotte Hall School was established there, although 
the outbreak of the Eevolution delayed the actual opening of 
the school for several years. It is probable that the site was 
selected largely on account of its healthfulness and the abund- 
ance of pure water. 

The springs are situated at the head of a swamp, the water 
gushing out at several points from a bank of sand and stone. 
There are three springs, all within thirty yards of each other. 121] 
The water from the principal spring is now supplied to the 
school buildings. A recent analysis of the water from the 
two principal springs illustrates only too well what we see so 
frequently in this day and generation, and for which we need 
not go back two hundred years for an example: the water 
possesses two wonderful curative properties — purity and 
abundance. From mineral constituents it is remarkably 
free, as the following analysis shows: 

Analysis of Water from Charlotte Hall, Made Januaky, 1889. 
Parts 100,000. Spring No. 1. Spring No. 2. 

Total Solids at 1000 C 4.70 2.55 

Silica 38 .35 

Iron and Alumina 15 .08 

Lime (Ca. O.) Co .30 

Magnesia (Mg. O.) 24 .03 

Sulphuric Acid, Soz 43 .26 

Correct: Signed, Harry J. Patterson, Chemist. 

App'd Henry E. Alvord, Director. 

Note — In both cases, the Lime and Magnesia exist principally 
in the form of Carbonates. 


[81] Agricultural College, P. 0., Md., Feb. 25, 1S89. 

Prof. R. W. Silvester, Charlotte Hall, St. Mary's Co., Md. 

Dear Sir. — After your second letter, we were able to identify 
the two samples of water. Both have been analyzed, and the 
characteristic of each is special purity. It is not only free from 
organic matter, but contains a very low percentage of mineral 
matter. I enclose the two analyses. Authorities agree in the 
statement, that very good drinking water may carry six hundred 
parts per million, total solids of the character of those found in 
your samples. These two samples contain respectively but 251/2 
and 47 parts per million of total solids. It is seldom that spring 
water is found with less. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Henry E. Alvord, Director. 

What advantages our ancestors of two centuries ago pos- 
sessed ! With scarcely other facilities for analysis than those 
afforded by the senses, how easy it was to discover at their 
very door marvellous, healing properties in some abundant 
fountain of pure water, while we of this twentieth century 
must cross oceans or continents to sip our morning glass of 
water, in which our finer chemical methods are able to detect 
one or two grains of lithia or iron to the gallon. Do the 
seekers with Ponce de Leon, the early Marylanders crowding 
to the Cool Springs and the throngs at a modern European 
spa differ from one another in kind or in degree? Were the 
cures at the Cool Springs less real than many made to-day at 
Carlsbad ? 

The popularity of the Cool Springs was from the first 
doomed to be of brief duration. Neither the taste nor the 
smell of the waters was sufficiently bad to ensure them an 
enduring reputation. Had that enterprising inn keeper, 
Captain John Dent, but discovered the wonderful properties 
of a bath in the mud of the neighboring swamp, perhaps his 
descendants, instead of the rapacious hotel keepers of Marien- 
bad or Franzenbad, might be reaping a harvest of American 
dollars at the mud baths of " Ye Coole Springs of St. Maries." 

Instead of this, even the name Cool Springs is now almost 
forgotten. There is nothing to show that its waters were 
used to any extent medicinally except for a few years follow- 
ing the pestilence of 1697. Among the oldest inhabitants 


there is now no tradition which gives us the least clue of the [31] 
subsequent history.of this ancient health resort until the estab- 
lishment there of Charlotte Hall School. By some it is even 
doubted whether special buildings for the care of the sick 
were ever actually erected by the State. For reasons which 
have already been given it seems almost certain that such 
buildings were erected. We know, however, that there were 
buildings and provision of some kind there for the care of 
the sick, from what we have already gleaned from the old 

Among the people of the neighborhood the water is now 
supposed to be of some slight benefit in diseases of the kid- 
neys, but even locally it has a very limited reputation. 

I have told you all that I have been able to learn of 
this once famous Maryland health resort. That the Cool 
Springs should have had but a brief popularity must not 
lessen our appreciation of the efforts of Governor Nicholson 
and the Assembly to establish in this colony one of the first 
hospitals and sanatoriums in the provinces. A few years ago 
the Colonial Dames of America erected a tablet in the McCoy 
Building of the Johns Hopkins University, in memory of 
Governor Nicholson, in recognition of his efforts in behalf of 
education in Maryland — 















It seems unfortunate that some recognition could not have 
been made at the same time of his early attempt to establish 








[21] a hospital for the care of the sick and suffering of the prov- 
ince and his own liberal contribution for the purpose. It seems 
especially appropriate to bring this early attempt to your 
attention at a time when an earnest effort is being made to 
establish a sanitarium for the care of the consumptives of 
our community. Shall we allow it to be said that our ances- 
m tors upwards of two hundred years ago were more zealous in 
the care of the sufferers from the unknown pestilence than 
are we of the victims of the great white plague? 







Pleasants, J.H. 

The second hospital in 

the colonies 



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The second hospital In the colonies ; th 
Pleasants. J. Hall. CMDC _ 


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