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Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada in the year 
1883, by The Canada Publishing Company (Limited), in the Office 
of the Minister of Agriculture. 


This is primarily a Reading Book, and the lessons have been prepared 
and selected with the object of assisting the children in the second 
classes of our Canadian schools to become intelligent and expressive 
readers ; but, while this purpose has never been lost sight of, the 
Editors have endeavored to select lessens that shall also serve the pur- 
pose of inculcating love to God and admiration for the works of nature ; 
of nurturing lilial affection and other kindred virtues, and of creating 
an interest in the animal world. 

It is hoped, therefore, that as the book is read, the pUpils may become 
not only good readers and fond of reading, but that good principles 
and pure tastes may be instilled into their minds. 

It is intended that the words at the head of the lessons, in the syllabi- 
cation and accentuation of which Worcester's Dictionary has been the 
authority, should be pronounced in the most distinct manner possible, 
first by the teacher, and then by the members of the class, in concert 
and individually, before.any attempt is made to read the lesson. This 
is necessary, in order that the pupil, when attempting to read, may 
give his full attention to bringing out the true expression. Too little 
consideration is usually given to this, the most important part of the 
work of teaching reading. In many of our schools reading classes are 
frequently classes in pronunciation only. No effort should be spared 
to correct this serious fault. The pupils ought to be thoroughly 
familiar with all the words of the lesson before attempting to read it. 

Pupils should be taught to readjust as they talk. "They should be 
trained to express the sentences of the author as if they were sentences 
of their own. To read so that others may understand, the pupils must 
first coinpi'thotd the language and sentiments themselves." To aid 
them in doing this, the more difficult words and phrases have been 
explained at the end of each lesson. The meanings given are not mere 


dictionary definitions, but are such as may be used in the reading 
lesson in place of the expressions defined. Before allowing,the pupils 
to read the lesson, the teacher will do well to see that" it is understood, 
giving such explanations as are necessary. He should also previously 
give an example of how the lesson should be read. 

Only so much of a lesson should be taken up as can be thoroughly 
mastered. It is better to have the pupils read one sentence properly 
than to permit them to read ten sentences improperly. 

The questions and exercises appended to most of the lessons are not 
intended to be exhaustive. In many cases they can, with advantage, 
be multiplied by the teacher. Such as are here given, it is hoped, will 
prove of value in testing the intelligence of the scholars, in enlarging 
their vocabularies, and in affording instruction and practice in oral and 
written composition. 

Teachers are urged to devote much attention to the teaching of com- 
position. Pupils should be encouraged to give oral and written repro- 
ductions of the tales, etc., which they have read, andto answer questions 
in complete sentences. All inaccuracies, whether oral or written, 
should be pointed out by the teacher, and the correction of every error 
insisted upon. 

The extracts in script appended to many of the lessons ought to be 
committed to memory, and should be used as writing exercises by the 
pupils. The poetical selections throughout the book should also, in 
many cases, be committed to memory. 

Spelling is most successfully learned by the careful transcription of 
portions of the reading lessons. These transcription exercises must., 
however, be closely examined by the teacher, and every error marked 
by him should be corrected by the pupil. The dictation of sentences, 
phrases, or words, should be employed for testing progress in spelling. 

Toronto, November, 1882. 



I. The Story of the Leaf 

II. Tom's Jaunt 

III. Pussy's Class 

IV. How to Write a Letter 

V. Our Trip to the Country 

VI. Nell and her Bird ^^ 

VII. Mary's Visit . . ' ^^ 

VIII. The Disobedient Boy ^7 

IX. Which Loved Best? ^^ 

^ ■ . . 20 

X. Spring 

XL On Board Ship ^^ 

XII. Mosses and Ferns ..•••■• ^5 

XIII. My Good.f or- Nothing 

XIV. The Golden Robins ..-..•• 3° 
XV. To a Robin ^^ 




• 38 

. 46 


XVI. The Rain-drop 

XVII. A Picture Lesson 

XVIII. A Merry Christmas 

XIX. Mud Pies 

XX. Henry's Letter 

XXI. Set the Birds Free 

XXII. A Song for Little May ^^ 

XXIII. Do it Well ^^ 

XXIV. The Little Bird ^ 

XXV. What makes Time Fly ? 

XXVI. Fresh Air .•■■•• ■ 




XXVII. An Evil Habit 66 

XXVIII. If I zvere a Sunbeam ....... 68 

XXIX. The Two Negroes ........ 70 

XXX. I can Do what I Like with My Own ... 73 

XXXI. Somebody's Mother ........ 75 

XXXII. How to Read 78 

XXXIII. Cleanliness 82 

XXXIV. The Water-MUl .85 

XXXV. Spiders 88 

XXXVI. Spiders (Concluded) ....... 91 

XXXVII. The Brown Thrush ....... 97 

XXXVIII. The Crow and the Fox 98 


I. Frogs .... 
II. Little Things 

III. Charlie and Rob 

IV. God Cares for All 
V. Perseverance . 

VI. Make your own Sunshine 
VII. To Whom shall zee give Tha 
VIII. I was in Liquor then 
IX. Mice .... 

X. The Wood-Mouse 
XL Good Advice for Children 
XII. Speedy and Steady 

XIII. The Boy who had Presence 

XIV. Grandpapa . 
XV. Speak the Truth 

XVI. Andy Moore 
XVII. Only Beginning the Journey 
XVIII. Early Days of Ontario 
XIX. Taming Giants 
XX. Wishing 
XXI. Taming Giants {Concluded) 

of :Mind 





XXII. Willie Worth i6i 

XXIII. The Poor Match-Sellers 163 

XXIV. The Boy Lost in the Bush 165 

XXV. The Root 170 

XXVI. The Leaf 173 

XXVII. Beautiful Grandtnanwia ....... 177 

XXVIII. The Flower 180 

XXIX. The Flower (Concluded) 184 

XXX. Little White Lily 187 

XXXI. The Fruit 189 

XXXII. The Seed . 193 

XXXIII. Seven Times One ........ 197 




Pronounce distinctly : — 




ti' ny 

au' tumn 


blan' kets 

be lieve' 

pret' ty 

1. I am only a leaf. 
My home is one of the 
great trees that grow near 
the school-house. All the 
winter I was wrapped up 
in a tiny warm blanket, 
tucked in a little brown 
cradle, and rocked by the 
winds as they blew. Do 
you not believe it, little 
reader ? 

2. Next autumn, just 
- '^' ' ' ^ " I ' break a branch off a tree, 


and see if you cannot 
find a leaf-bud. It will 
look like a little brown 

I. What word means Uic oppo- 
site of great? 


knot. Break it open, and inside you will see 
some soft, white down ; that is the blanket. The 
brown shell that you break is the cradle. 

3. Well, I was rocked all the winter in my 
cradle on the branch. When the warm days 
came, and the soft rains fell, then I grew very 
fast indeed. I soon pushed myself out of my 
cradle, dropped my blanket, and showed my pretty 
green dress to all who came by. 

4. Oh, how glad everyone was to see me ! 
And here I am, so happy, with my little brothers 
and sisters about me. Every morning the birds 
come and sing to us, the great sun shines upon us, 
and the wind fans us. We dance with the winds, 
we smile back at the bright sun, and make a pleas- 
ant shade for the dear birds. Every day, happy, 
laughing school-children pass under our tree. 

5. We are always glad to see you, boys and 
girls, — glad to see your bright eyes, and to hear 
you say, " How beautiful the leaves are ! " 

^ji/e-a^^rJ /irr-t^e /Aef-l -/f^joa-e -^ /rr/C/^ 

2. For what does it stand ? What is down ? 

3. What season is spoken of in the second sentence of the 
paragraph ? Name all the seasons. 

4. Give words tliat mean the opposite of glad, happy, 
and pleasant. 

Say something about a leaf, trees, a blanket, a knot, 
autumn, rain, and the shade. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

au and ea liki; a in far. 





saun' ter 


laun' dry 

haunt' ing" 
flaunt' ing 
laugh' ter 
heart' y 
heark' en 

sHght' ly 
ail' ing 
peb' bles 
Do min' ion 
de serve' 
si' lence 

bow (ow as in cow) 

1. My aunt and I took a little saunter in 
the park. She had been slightly ailing, but she 
is getting quite hearty now. 

2. The birds were sino^inf^- in the branches, the 
lambs sporting on the grass, and the bright fish 
playing in the l)rook, which runs with a soft sound 
over the pebbles. A large and beautiful Dominion 
flag was flaunting from the top of the flag-staff. 

3. A poor man with a gaunt face met us. It 
went to my heart to see him so feeble and lonely, 
haunting the paths to beg for bread. But my 
aunt is a staunch helper of all who deserve aid, 
and she told him to call at the laundry, and tell 

1. What is meant by saunter, park, and slightly ailing? 

2. What is the Dominion? What is meant by flag-staff? 

3. Write the paragraph, using instead of gaunt, feeble, 
haunting, paths, staunch, aid, maid, and hearken, othei; 
words having the same meanings. 


the maid, in her name, to give him somt; food. 
We should alvva)s hearken to the cry of tlie poor. 

4. My jaunt here has been very ple^isant. 
There was a launch on the bay at Toronto last 
v/eek, to which I went. Miss Wood broke a 
bottle of wine over the bow, and gave the ship 
its name. It slid off the stocks very smoothly, 
and ran into the bay safely. All was laughter 
and jo)' on board. 

5. After this long letter you cannot taunt me 
with silence. Give my kind wishes to all around 
your hearth. 

e^/r/< '/^ia 

/el rJ- /Ae r/} r Ji/t'- ^e^l --r/^.-e^ 

J-c^/ 'tua/ty^ /iiyide rt^PiTC ''^4^-e7yA / rr j/r/ /)er / 

4. Whatsis the end of tlic ship opposite to the bow called ? 

jaunt ; pleasure trip. staunch ; firm. 
flaunting ; waving. a launch ; the sliding of a new- 
stocks ; frame or timbers on vessel into the water. 

which a ship rests while it is taunt me with silence ; 

being built. blame me for not writing. 

Say something about the park, the branches, a brook, 
pebbles, a flag-staff, a hearth, a bottle of -wine. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

chil' dren 
said {scd) 
at ten' tion 

per' fume 
an' s"wer 
e nough' 

■weap' ons (i^'c-pp) 

pshaw (shaw) 

id' i ots 

r. " Now, children,'" said puss, as she shook her 
" It is time your morning lesson was said." 
So her kittens drew near with footsteps slow, 
And sat down before her, all in a row. 

2. " Attention, class ! " said the cat mamma, 
" And tell me, quick, where your noses are." 

What is meant by " Attention, class,"? 


At this all the kittens sniffed the air, 

As though it were filled with a perfume rare. 

3. " Now what do you say when you want a 

drink ? " 
The kittens waited a moment to think, 
And then came the answer clear and loud,— 
You ought to have .heard how these kittens 

meow'd ! 

4. " Very well. 'Tis the same, with a sharper tone, 
When you want a fish or a bit of a bone. 

Now what do you say when children are 

good ? " 
And the kittens purred as soft as they could. 

5. " And what do you do when children are bad, 
When they tease and pull ? " Each kitten 

looked sad. 
" Pooh ! " said their mother, " that isn't enough ; 
You must use your claws when children are 

rough ! " 

6. "And where are your claws? No, no, my 

dear" — 
As she took up a paw — " See ! they're hidden 
here ! " 

3. What letter luis been left uut of meow'd? 

4. Fur what words does 'tis stand ? 

5. For what words does isn't stand ? 


Then all the kittens crowded about 

To see their sharp little claws brought out. 

7. They felt quite sure they never should need 
To use such weapons — oh no, indeed ! 

But their wise mamma gave a pussy's " pshaw ! " 
And boxed their ears with her softest paw. 

8. " Now, sptiss ! as hard as you can ! " she said : 
But every kitten hung down its head. 

" Sptiss ! I say," cried the mother cat ; 

But they said, " O mamma, we can't do that ! " 

9. " Then go and play," said the fond mamma ; 
" What sweet little idiots kittens are ! 

Ah, well, I was once the same, I suppose." 
And she looked very wise, and rubbed her nose. 

perfume rare ; very sweet or weapons ; things for fighting 

unconunon scent. with. 

idiots ; foohsh creatures. 

All children know what is meant by the words tu tell and to 
say. Now, to state has the same meaning as to say and to tell. 
When you are asked to state something about a cat, you are only 
asked to say something about it. 

State something about Puss, your morning- lesson, foot- 
steps, a row, the air, the perfume, fish, and mamma. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

Brace' bridge Clar' a Hen' ry 

Col' ling" "wood won' der ful e nough' 

1. Mrs. Miller, of Bnicebriclge, sat at her table 
writing a letter to her eldest son, who was away 
at school in Collingwood. Her daughter, Clara, 
a little girl between five and six years old, was 
sitting by the Avindow, playing with her pet kitten. 

2. At last, tired of play, she came and stood 
by her mother's side, watching the pen go over 
the paper, and thinking, "What a wonderful thing 
it is to write a letter ! '' 

3. By-and-bye, her mother said to hen " Clara, 
would you not like to send a letter to your brother 

"Yes, mamma, I would, very much." 
"Why don't you write, then ? " 
" I cannot write, mamma." 

4. " I will write for you, if you wish." 

" Oh, please do ! that will be very nice ! " 

5. " Now remember, this is to be your letter, 
little daughter — not mine. I will lend you the 
use of my hand, but you must tell me what to say. 
What shall I write ? " 

3. What is meant by by-and-bye ? 


6. " I don't know." 

" You don't know — though you love your 
brother so well ! Shall I find something- for you ? " 
"Oh, yes — please ! " 

7. "Well, then, let me see :" 

" Oh, no, mamma, — don't say tliat ! " 

"Why not?" 

" Because it is not true." 

S. "You know, then, that you must not write 
what is not true. I am glad you have learned 
so much. Remember that as long as you live. 
Never write what is not true. But you must 
think of something that is true." 

9. "I can't, mamma." 

" W^ell, how would this do.'* — 

'o^-c-a4. J^r^^-y 

10. " Oh, don't write that ! " 


" Why not, dauL;-hter ? It is true ; I have seen 
that myself." 

" But it is so silly! Henry does not want to 
know anything about the kitten and its tail." 

II. " Why, my dear, I see that you know a g'reat 
deal about letter-writing". It is not enough that a 
thing should be true ; it must be worth writing 
about. Do tell me, now, something to say." 

" I can't think of anything." 

*' Shall I write this ? — 

12. "Oh, yes, mamma — write that! Henry 
loves George dearly, and will be very glad to 
know that he is better. That is just the thing to 
write ! " 

" You see, Clara, that you know what to put 
into a letter, and the reason you cannot write one 
is because you do not know how to make the 
words. As soon as you learn how to do that, 
you will be able to write letters," 

12. What different iiieauiiiL's has the word letters? 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

ou, aw, and au, like a in fall. 



saw' yer 


taw' dry- 

law' yer 


sprawl' ing 

daugh' ter 


brawn' y 



haw' thorii 

sau' sa ges 


awk' ward 

pic' nic 

1. The hawthorn was in full bloom, and the 
sunlight was flashing on the swift waters of the 
Grand River, when we went on our jaunt to the 
country last week. 

2. We brought a basket of food with us, and 
having spread a cloth on the grass, we had a 
pleasant picnic. The lawyer's daughter was with 
us, and brought some sausages she had bought. 
She is a thoughtful girl, not tawdry, but neat in 
her dress, and with no foolish airs. We ought to 
like her, 

3. Some brawny wood-choppers were cutting 
oak logs for the sawyer, but we did not mind them. 
John was very lazy, and lay sprawling on the grass 
all the afternoon. 

1. What is the common Canadian name for the hawi;horn ? 
Find words having the same meanings as hlosso)ii, sparkling, and trip. 

2. What is meant by picnic, sausages, and airs? 

3. What word means having his arms and legs sbrcad carelessly uut ? 



4. Long ago the Indians camped, and perhaps 
fought, on the broad meadow. We thought of all 
the brawl and bloodshed they had made. Now, 
no quieter spot could be sought. 

5. I had to sing a song, and felt very awk- 
ward ; but if I did not sing well, it was not jiiy 
fault, for I did my best. 

fA-a-ii- -tTylca-T 4c€'/i-cd. 

tawdry ; vulgarly showy in brawl ; noisy quarrel, 
dress. brawny ; stout and strong. 

State something about the hawthorn, the sunlight, a 
river, a picnic, Indians. 

Write the names of two places (towns, villages, or cities). 
Make the, first letter of each name a capital. 

SS^ The statements made by the pupils should be written 
correctly by the teacher on the blackboard, and then copied by 
the children on their slates. 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

sing' ing- 
mer' ry 
gar' den 

wound' ed 
beau' ti ful 

re' al ly 
wher ev' er 
chir' rup ing 

1. Good-bye, little birdie! 

Fly to the sky, 
Singing and singing 
A merry good-bye. 

2. Tell all the birdies 

buying above, 
Nell, in the garden, 
Sends them her love. 

3. Tell how I found you, 

Hurt, in a tree; 
Then, when they're 

They'll come right to 

4. I'd like to go with you, 
If I could fly; 

3. What two words have the same meaning in this stanza ? 
For what does They'll stand ? 

4, Name the words for wliicli I'd stands. 




\i^s,' ^i 



It must be so beautiful, 
Up In the sky. 

5. Why, Httle birdie — 

Wliy don't you go ? 
You sit on my finger. 

And shake your head, "No !" 

6. He's off! Oh, how quickly 

And gladly he rose ! 
I know he will Love me 
Wherever he goes. 

7. I know — for he really 

Seemed trying to say, 
" My dear little Nelly, 
I can't go away." 

8. But just then some birdies 

Came Hying along, 
And sang, as they neared us, 
A chirruping song ; 

9. And he felt just as I do. 

When girls come and shout, 
Rioht under the window, 
"Come, Nelly — come out!" 

, I 5, 6. Name the words for which don't, 

and He's stand. 

time ? 

8. What words mean tlic same as truly appeared, and at that 


lo. It's wrong to be sorry; 
I ought to be glad; 
But he's the best l:)h-die 
That ever I had. 


State somcthins< al)out the garden, the sky, your flng'er, 
the window. 

^S?^The statements made by the pupils should be written on 
the blackboard by the teacher, and then copied by the class. 

Write very carefully the names of all the things you see in 
the pictures. 


Pronounce distinctly: — 

ea, ei, ay, ai, like a in mate. 



bears {ca like a in care) 


rein' deer 

pears [ca like a in care) 


stay' ing 

heir' ess {ei as a in care) 



Chat' ham (A silent) 


sail' or 

niece [ncccc) 



Dun das' 

I. I have been staying at Chatham, twenty- 
eight miles from home. The country is very flat 
near the town, and the soil is rich, bearino- o-reat 

I. What words have the same meanings as stopping and level? 


2. I bought a veil aiul some cloth in a shop. 
They were sold to me by the shop-keeper's niece, 
who is an heiress. 

3. The pears in some of the gardens here are 
splendid ; they are of great weight. 

4. A son of the friend whom I am visitinQ- is 
a sailor. He told me he had seen reindeer draw- 
ing sleighs in Lapland. I would not like to live 
in such a land, where frost reimis. There are 
great bears there, which often kill the stray rein- 
deer. They like a steak for breakfast, I suppose. 

5. The roads in the country about here are 
quite straight. Some of those near Dundas, 
where my aunt lives, are not straight, because the 
land is very hilly. 

4. Write this paragraph, using pulling, rules, and large, for 
words that have the same meanings as these words. 

We speak of several children playing together as a group of 
children. A number of men standing together is a group of men. 
Words spoken or written one after the other may be called 
a group of words. 

A statement is a group of tjords tltat states sometliing. 

Make statements about a town, the soil, the heiress, the 

Make statements each of which shall contain one of the fol- 
lowing words: eight, ait'/ son, sun; reigns, rains; steak., stake. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

Byre (^^''r) tru' ant par' ents it"''"') 

Guelph val' ley No' va Sco' ti a 

wir ful clay' ey knocked 

o bey' clothes be come' 

1. A boy of the name of Eyre, who lived in 
Guelph, was very wilful and would not obey his 
father or mother. At school he was just as bad, 
and would not obey his master. He would not 
heed his lessons, and was always at the foot of 
his class. At last the teacher told his father that 
he could not let such a lazy, bad boy stay at school 
to spoil the rest of the scholars. 

2. He would often play truant, and say to his 
mother that he had been at school, when he had 
been off to the hill beyond the valley to play. 
But his mother saw where he had been by the 
red clayey mud on his clothes when he came 
home, and she wept to think that her son should 
have told her a lie, 

3. When he becam.e a man, he had the sanie 

1. Write on your slates the words in the lesson that ha^•e the 
same meanings as stubborn, give attention to, and remain. 

2. Write the paragraph, using for often play truant, off, 
valley, and wept, other words having the same meanings as 


bad and idlt^ habits, and his parents had to send 
him away. 

4. A long time after this, when I was Hving in 
a town in Nova Scotia, a man knocked at my door. 
I opened it and looked at him. He was in rags. 
" Do you know me .^ " he said. I did not. " I am 
Ricliard Eyre, who v\'as at school with you. I 
come to l^eg some food ; I have had only a crust 
ot brt-ad since morninp." 


5. I took him in and ga\'e him something to 
eat, and then he told me he had never done any 
good. " I did not obey my father and mother," he 
said ; "• ( xod left me to myself, I grew worse and 
worse, and now I am be^'ofinof and in raofs, with 
my good name long since gone." 

Make statements about cla^ycy mud, his clothes, 
Nova Scotia. 

What is the lesson taiiglit by this story ? 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

for g-et' ting- re joiced' help' ful 

teased ti' died re' al ly 

1 . " I 1ove you. mother," said little John ; 
Then, forgetting his work, his cap went on ; 
And he was off to the garden swing. 

And left her wood and water to bring. 

2. " I love you, mother,' said rosy Nell ; 

" I love you better than tong-ue can tell." 
Then she teased and pouted full half the day. 
Till her mother rejoiced when she went to play. 

3. " I love you. mother," said little Fan ; 
" To-day I'll help you all I can ; 

How glad I am there's no school to-day, 
I'd rather rock baby than go to play." 

4. l^hen. baby asleep, she fetched the broom. 
And swept the floor, and tidied tlie room ; 

1. What word means the opposite oi remembering? 

2. What is meant by rosy Nell, full half the day, and 
rejoiced ? 

3. For what words do 1 11, there's, and I'd stand ? 

4. What is meant hy fetched, tidied, and helpful? What 
words mean the opposite of idle, and sad? 


Busy and happy all clay was she, 
Helpful and happy as child could be. 

5. "■ I love you, mother," again they said — 
Three little children going to bed. 
How do you think that mother guessed 
Which of them really loved her best ? 

(Zy/%)<^-'jA t^^ef^'^ rcj/r/ JirJCcf- 

5, What io meant by really lovcd? \V 

'liicli loved best ? 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

weath' er heav' y 

dif fer encc 

stead' y treas' ures 


mead' ows dead 

gov' ered 

in stead' earth 

tlue (long u) 

threat' en read' y 

bean' ty 

I. spring is the sweetest time we have. The 
weather is not so steady as in summer ; but the 
difference between the cold of winter and the 
warmth of April and May is very great. 

I. What is meant by sweetest and by steady? 


2. Tlie buds swell on the Ijranches, and soon 
the green leaves burst forth. The streams run 
brieht in the sun. The flowers come back. The 
meadows are covered with grass, instead of with 
snow, as in winter. 

3. If clouds gather and threaten, they pass 
quickly by, and the heavens shine out in the soft- 
est blue, before we have time to be sad. The 
JMrds. the cattle, the very flies and bees, seem joy- 

4. We cannot be dull or heavy. Winter is 
dead and gone. Summer is coming with all her 
beauty, and autumn with all her treasures. Every- 
thing on the earth seems ready to sing for joy. 

■icrf-r/// Arr:iir/ , 

2. Fiom what do the green leaves burst forth ? 
Name two words that haVa the same mcanin.y; as streams. 

3. What is meant by seem joyful ? 

4. Name some of the beauties of summer and the treasures nf 

threaten; show the appear- treasures; thinj,'s very much 
ance of some coming storm. vahicd. 

Make statements about April, May, green leaves, flies, 
and meadows. Write tlie names of ei'dit colors. 



Pronounce distlnctlv ; — 


tight' ly 

rig' ging 


bow'-hnes (o^v as in 

crmc) ca' bles 


bir lows 



for lows 

car' ried 


hoi' low 

Que bee' 

migh' ty 

fur' row 


I. Have you ever been on board a great 
ship ? How tall and straig-ht the masts are. 
Then, there is the riesrine, and what is called the 

I. Wliat words ineau the same as largt:, and higJi 1^ 


crows nest, and the boats with their oars, and the 
sails and yards, and bow-hnes and cables, and the 
1;anned and brawny sailors, 

2. I should not like to be out amonq- the great 
billows when the winds blow. But sailors know 
how to steer the ship, and they are pleased when 
the w4nd fills the hollow sails and follows fast after 
the ship, as *it glides along, cutting a great furrow 
in the blue sea. 

3. We once spent a part of the summer in 
Quebec; all day long- fleets of ships, like flights 
of white birds, were in sight. We bathed daily 
when the weather was fair. One day I got a 
fright. There was a slight breeze which I did not 
mind. Tom and I were playing in the water, when 
a wave came with mighty force, and carried me 
back with it ; Tom swam out and caught me 
tightly, and helped me ashore. How very kind 
he was ! 

Of what are masts, rigging, oars, sails, yards, bow-lines, 
and cables made ? What is tlie crow's nest? 

2. Write the paragraph, using large reaves, guide, and moves 
smoothly and siciftly, instead of words which have the same 
meanings as these. 

To what is the ship compared in the last part of the second 
sentence ? 

3. Read this paragraph, using instead of fleets of ships, 
flights, daily, fair, slight breeze, wave, and mighty force, 

woids ha\ing the same meanings. 



glides; moves smoothly and flights of -white birds; 

swiftly. crowds of white birds flying 

fleets of ships; numbers of a slight breeze ; a little wind, 
ships in company. mighty force ; great strength. 

Point out in the picture, and name {with the aid of the teacher) 
all the parts of a ship mentioned in the lesson. Make state- 
ments about these. 

z^e ^iz-i^-tp^'j'?' dAr<?it:J- ^^Iny// 

(V/S /c-^'e fue dM/Ae 

yj<i^'^r' A/rfjA^ , 'i^^-^i^ />■ /u. 

.^(^ AAi^e rArAAA^d 2r'r yr, 

'V'l//^ hfde 

A //, 

f drrft^e rr-^rrfj^y 

f^- -?j^rrA/'r rr AufcA 
(4/y'^- AAe -crea/A d ArrrAr' , 

^yA y ^ rA A^ An- i/ /f'/AA/ A/ /d A?rir7i?/ yj/rrj^f. 

lea; meadow. surge ; wave. 

Explain bark, stag, bounds, strife, depths, and hoary 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

fair' ies 
bow' er 

moss' as trunks 

brooks pret' ty 

no' tice vel' vet 

threads feath' ers 

I. "John, do you think 
there are any fairies ? " 
" I am sure I don't 
y-!£ know : I never saw any." 

I. Name, and write, the words which have the same meanings 
as suppose, ccvtain, sttp, and hcautifitJ, 


"Nor I, but I never tread on this lovely moss 
but I think of fairies," 

2. "I don't love moss as well as I do ferns.'* 

" Oh, I do ! Just think what a soft, green car- 
pet the fairies would have to trip on if they lived 

"Yes, but the ferns would make them a pretty 

3. "If the fairies love mosses, they must like to 
be near brooks, for I always notice that there is 
more moss near water than there is far awav from 

" Yes, and on the trunks of old trees.'' 

" Rut. John, there is not such pretty green 
moss on old trunks if they are in a dry place. ' 

zL " That is true. The moss is gray if it is 
not near any water." 

" Did you ever see any little tips of red on 
moss, John } " 

' Yes, I have seen them on gray moss, I 

"Well, so have I. Look, John! this moss, so 
like green velvet, has little stems growing out of 
it that seem just like threads." 

2. What word means step lightly ? 

3. What is meant by brooks, notice, trunks? On wliat 
does moss grow ? On which side of a tree does it grow most 
thickly ? Why ? 


5. " They do loo]-: liko threads, I wonder if 
these httle things on the te^p ol the stems are the 
flowers ? ' 

" I think they must be. They are not so pretty 
as the tiny red tips on the gray moss." 

No, they are not. Oh, see ! Kate, here are 
little ferns growing out of this green moss." 

6. " No, John, these are not ferns. Ferns grow 
up quite tall, but these little things are no bigger 
than the nail on your thumb." 

" They look like ferns, I am sure." 

" Yes, they do ; only real ferns hav^e a long, 
smooth leaf. This feels like moss." 

" Perhaps, Kate, it is what mother calls fern- 

"Oh, yes, perhaps it is. Wc will take .some 
home and ask mother about it." 

" I mean to pick some ferns for her, too." 

" Yes, do, John." 

7. " See how pretty those ferns look, growing 
by the side of the brook. The wind waves them to 
and fro, and makes them look like green feathers." 

" Yes, they do look like feathers. Let us go 
now ; and do you get the moss while I get the 

6. What words mean tlie opposite of loic and unt true .^ 

7. What is meant 1)\' to and fro? 


" I tell you, Kate, what we can do. We can 
;e a 

make a hanging-basket of mosses and ferns for 


'/■e r/ctyr/'' -rJ- //ic ■i^rny^f/z-e'l -(^f '''' m 

r/r tyeorr. 

fairies ; very small creatures, bower ; a sheltered or covered 

in human shape. They were place made with branches of 

long ago supposed to live on trees or plants bent or twined 

the earth. together. 

Point to the commas and full stops. 

The first Idler of a statcimnt sliould he a capital. A full stop 
should he placed at the end of a statement. 

Write statements about fairies, moss, ferns, a bower, 
brooks, and feathers. 


Pronounce; cHstinctly : — 

an' swer con triv' ing frol' ic 

ques' tion mis' chief lasii' es 

ring' lets nod' die press' ing- 

bus' y pon' der em brace' 

I. "What are you good for, my brave little man ? 
Answer that question for me, if you can, — 
You, with your fingers as white as a nun, 
You, with your ringlets as bright as th(t sun ; 


All the clay long with your busy contriving, 
Into all mischief and fun you are driving; 
See if your wise little noddle can tell 
What you are good for. Now ponder it well." 

2. Over the carpet the dear little feet 

Came with a patter to climb on my seat ; 
Two nierry eyes, full of frolic and glee, 
Under their lashes looked up unto me ; 
Two little hands pressing soft on my face 
Drew me down close in a loving embrace ; 
Two rosy lips gave the answer so true, 
"Good to love you, mamma, good to love you." 

contriving'; planning. frolic and glee; play and joy. 

ponder ; think about. embrace ; hug. 

This pretty lesson was written by a lady whose name is Emily 
Huntington Miller. The first letters iuv initials) of her name are 
E. H. M.- What are your initials ? 

Every initial should be a capital, and be followed by a full stop. 
\otice also that each word, which is a part of the name of a person, 
must begin with a capital. 

Write, in full, the names of tlic people in your house. 

Write the initials of each. 

Write statements about a question, mischief, frolic, a 
loving embrace. 




Pronounce distinctly: — 
pret' ti er 

re meni' ber 

fin' ish 

po lite' ness 

I. "Oh, John, 
the Golden Robins have 
come back !" 

"Yes, I heard them three days ago." 

I. The Golden Robin is also called the Baltimore Oriole and 


"They arc going to build a nest close to my 

2. " What makes you think so ? " 

" This morning when I first got up I heard 
very sweet music. I looked out, and there on 
the elm tree were two dear little robins, sinofinir 
away with all their might." 

"Yes, but that does not prove that they will 
build a nest there." 

3. "Look, John! There they go now, right 
to the old elm. tree." 

" They are not just alike, are they ? " 
" No, the male bird is much prettier than the 
female. His breast and winp's are of a bri"-ht 
gold color. The female bird is almost brown." 

4. " I wonder why they arc not alike." 

" I could not think of the reason, so I asked 
mother. She said that the female bird has to sit 
a long time on her eggs, and if her color was very 
l)right she could be easily seen, and perhaps driven 
from her nest." 

5. " I think they a?^e going to build their nest 
there; they have some bits of string in their bills." 

" Yes, that is what made me feel sure they were 
Qfoinof to build their nest. I got a bunch of white 

3. Write the mimes of the different kinds of trees uhich you 
can think of. 


threads and put it on a bush where the robins could 
see it." 

" Did they find it out ?" 

6. " They did. One robin went to it first ; then 
he llew away and told his mate, and they both went 
and pulled out the threads." 

"What made you think of threads .^ I should 
have f^ot some straw." 

" Don't you remember, John, how they built a 
nest last year on this same tree ? It hung from a 
high limb like a little pocket." 

7. "Yes! And father told us that Golden 
Robins always have hanging nests." 

" That nest blew down in the lall, and 1 saw it. 
The outside was made of string's, but the inside 
was soft as down." 

8. "I mean to get some wool and little feathers, 
and put them on the bush close to the threads. I 
know they will be glad of them, and we will watch 
tliem while they finish the nest." 

/Ac '/c'iJ/r/cJ I ^^crr 21. 

6. What words in the paragraph have the same nieanings as 
companion and branch? 

Let each pupil write in full the names of his (or her) father 
and mother. 



Pronounce distinctly :- 

wel' come 
weath' er 

or' phans 



use' ful 
heav' en 


Welcome, little Robin, 

With the scarlet breast, 
In this winter weather 

Cold must be your nest. 
Hopping o'er the carpet, 

Picking up the crumbs, 
Robin knows the children 

Love him when he 

2. Is the story true, Robin, 

That vou were so sjood 
To the little orphans 

Sleeping In the wood ? 
That you saw them lying 

Pale, and cold, and still ; 
And strewed leaves about them, 

With your lltde bill ? 

1. The robin spoken of in this lesson is the British robin: it 
is tamer than the Canadian thrush, which we usually call the robin. 

2. What story is spoken of in this verse ? Can you tell it ? 
What is meant by strewed ? 



3. Whether true or not. Robin 
We are glad to sec 
How you trust the children, 
Hopping in so free. 
Hopping o'er the carpet, 

Picking up the crumbs, 
Robin knows the children 
Lo\'e him when he comes. 

4. Though the little Robin 
Has no gifts of speech, 
He can useful lessons 

To the children teach, — 
Still to trust that blessinof 

Will be richly given, 
When they ask their Father 
For their bread from 

4. What is meant by gifts of speech, blessing, and richly 
given '? 

What useful lessons may children learn from the robin ? 
Which of these lessons is spoken of in tlie poem ? 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

with' er 


er' rand 


re solved' 

ri' pened 

de pend' 


nio' merits 

sup port' 

show' er 

flow' er 

1. There was once a farmer who had a large 
field of grain. He felt very sad to see it begin to 
wither and droop for want of rain. 

2. This field was all he had to depend upon for 
the support of his family. He used to go out every 
day to look at his grain, and to see if there was 
any hope of rain. 

3. One day as he stood in his field looking up 
at the sky, two little rain-drops up in the clouds 
over his head saw him. One of them said to the 
other, " Look at that poor farmer ! I feel sorry for 
him. He has taken such pains with his field of 
wheat, and now it is drying up. I wish I could 
do him some eood." 

4. "Yes," said the other, "but you are only a 
little rain-drop. What can you do?" "Well," 
said the first. " I cannot do much, it is true ; but, 

1. What is meant by to wither and droop? Write the 
names of five kinds of grain. 

2. What is the meaning of the support of his family ? 


at any rate, I can cheer the farmer. I am resolved 
to do my best. I will try. I will go down to the 
field to show my good-will, if I can do no more. 
So here I go." 

5. And down went the rain-drop and came pat 
on the farmer's nose, and then fell on a stalk of 
wheat. " Dear me," said the farmer, putting his 
hand to his nose, "what is that? — a rain-drop? 
Where did that drop come from ? I do believe we 
shall have a shower." 

6. The first rain-drop had no sooner started for 
the field than the second one said, "Well, if you 
go, I will go too ; so here I come ;" and down fell 
that rain-drop on another stalk. 

7. By this time a great many rain-drops had 
come together to hear what their friends were talk- 
ing about. When they heard them, and saw them 
going to cheer the farmer, and to water the wheat, 
one of them said : "If you are going on such a 
good errand I will go too." " And I," said another ; 
"and I," "and I," "and I," and so on till a whole 
shower of them came. 

8. In this way the grain was all watered, and it 

4. Name the word that has the same meaning as liave made 
up my mind. What is meant by good-will? 

5. Give the meaning of came pat. 

7. What is meant by a good errand? 



grew and ripened — all because the first little rain- 
drop said it would try to do what it could. 

jyryf/^/e r/crr/d r^ ^a^^^ rmrr /r-^'t 

^j'-(PfZ-/r^e rr. /i-g-^iite ifc-4^ -^/.-c^r-r. rrw--■^^r' 

8. What is meant by Little deeds of faith and love ? 
to depend upon ; to trust to. to cheer ; to make glad. 

What does the whole lesson teach us ? 

If 3'ou examme the lesson you have just read, j-ou will notice 
that " / " is always a capital ichcn it is used instead of tlie name of a 

Write the names, in full, of five of j-our grown-up friends. 

Write the same names, using initials for their Christian 

Using " I" as the fii\st word, tell, in short statements, o)ie thing 
that you saw tiiis morning : one thing iliat you did on Saturday ; and 
iC'Iiere you were yesterday. 

Write these statements. 





this picture, may raise 


your hands. That is good. I am glad to know 
that you are ah ready. Ann may speak first. 

2. Anil. — I see two girls, one sitting on a 
laro-e, flat stone. 

Ellen. — I see a pretty stream of water. 

Kate. — I see a beautiful tree, and a small house 
in the distance. 

y ane. — I see some flowers, some rocks, and a 
great many trees. 

3. Teacher. — John may tell what the girls are 

John. — The girl who is standing is pulling a 
little basket away from the one who is sitting; and 
the things in the basket are falling out. 

4. Teacher. — George may tell about the stone 
on which the ofirl is sittinsf. 

Georpc. — It is a laro^e, flat stone ; and I think 
it is nearly square. It has six faces. I can see 
five edges and one corner, 

5. Teacher — What do you wish to say, Mary ? 
Jl/ary. — The stone looks like the cube we had 

a lesson about on Tuesday ; and it had six faces, 
twelve eclfjes, and eioht corners. 

6. Teacher. — It has the same number of faces, 
edcfes, and corners as the cube had ; but we can 
see only three faces, five edges, and one corner in 
the picture. 


Who will tell me something about this pretty 
stream of water? John may tell all he knows 
about it. 

yohn. — The stream is on the left hand side of 
the picture. It comes rushing down over the 
rocks. Near the tree it is very narrow. Farther 
off, beyond the tree, it is broader, and very smooth. 

7. Teacher. — W^hat do you call that part of the 
stream which comes rushing down over the rocks ? 

John. — A rapid ; and I see a little island just 
above it. 

8. Teacher. — Jane may tell us something about 
the flowers, and this beautiful tree. 

Jane. — The tree has a large trunk, and long, 
graceful branches. I see flowers on the ground, 
at the foot of the tree. 

9. Teacher. — \\^e have no time now to talk 
about the house, and the other objects. You may 
go to your seats, and write down on your slates the 
names of all the things you can see in the picture. 

7. ^\'hat is a stream, a,n island, a rapid? 

8. What is meant by graceful? 


Write statements about a trunk, a stream, a rapid, 
Tuesday, and a rock. 

Write your name, and the name of the place in which you 
live (using the comma and the full-stop properly j, thus : — 

l-S^ Tlie teacher is recommended to use otlier pictures for 
lessons similar to the above. Such exercises aid in the develop- 
ment of habits of observation, and, in addition, afford practice 
in oral and written composition. 

Pronounce distinctly : — 

San' ta Claus Sav' iour Can' a da 

shone [o as in oii) chim' ney bal' sani (ii as mfall) 

Beth' le hem an' gel al lowed' 

re peat' ed tid' ings pres' ents 

car' ol hnn' dreds lo co mo' tive 

I. Willie " and Elsie Black had no mother. 
With papa, baby, and the nurse, they spent 
Christmas in Fergus, at Uncle George Lane's. 
They went there the day before in the cars. 
Uncle George had three children, and they were 
all to have a oood time. 

2. "Do you suppose Santa Claus will find us 
here, papa?" asked Willie, as they were going 
from the train to Uncle George's house. " I think 
he will," said papa, laughing. ''He knows the 
way all over the world." 


3. When they reached the house, Uncle 
George, JNIamma Lane, and the Httle ones were 
very glad to see them. But they were tired and 
went to bed early. Elsie slept with Rosa Lane. 
When they went into their room they looked out 
of the window. The sky was clear and the weather 
was cold. The new moon was shining, and they 
saw a great many bright stars. One star shone 
brighter than any of the rest. 

4. "I wonder if that is the Star of Bethle- 
hem," said Rosa. Elsie did not know, for she 
had no mamma to tell her about such things. 
Just then Mrs. Lane came into the room, and 
Rosa asked her mother about the star. 

5. '' Do you know what Christmas means, 
Elsie ? " asked Rosa's mother. Elsie did not 

"I know, mamma!" shouted Rosa; and she 
repeated these lines from a very old Christmas 
carol : — 

" God rest you, merry gentlemen, 
Let nothing 3'ou dismay ; 
Remember Christ our Saviour 
Was born on Christmas Day." 

" Christmas is the birthday of Jesus Christ," 
added Mrs. Lane. " The Star of Bethlehem led 
the wise men to the place where Jesus was. He 
was born in a stable, and the shepherds wenu 


there to see Him. But go to sleep now, and I will 
tell you all about it to-morrow." 

6. They went to sleep thinking of the infant 
Jesus, of the star, and of the shepherds. Elsie had 
heard how Santa Claus rode over the roofs of the 
houses in a sleigh drawn by eight reindeer. She 
slept so soundly that she did not hear the tramp 
of the deer. She did not know when Santa Claus 
came down the chimney. 

7. But in the morning the stockings w^ere full 
and Santa Claus ;/i2(s^ have come. Elsie was the 
first to jump out of bed. She heard Willie laugh- 
ing in the next room. Santa Claus had found his 

"Merry Christmas!" shouted the children all 
over the house. 

"Why do you wish me a Merry Christmas 
Willie?" asked Uncle George. 

" I don't know — for fun ! " laughed Willie. 

8. " I'll tell you," said his uncle, as they sat 
down to breakfast. " The birth of Christ was a 
happy thing for the world. The angel said to 
the shepherds, when Jesus was born : ' I bring 
you good tidings of great joy.' For hundreds of 
years Christian people have kept the day as a 

6. Are reindeer found in cold or warm countries ? Name 
one countr}' in which they are \-ery usefuL 


happy time. In England and now in Canada, 
they make merry. It is a day of feasting as well 
as of praise to God. In England, they used to 
bring into the feast a boar's head on a great 
platter. The servant who carried it was followed 
by more servants with other dishes. It was a 
joyful time, and we still wish our friends 'A Merry 
Christmas.' " 

9. They talked about the good times of old 
till the meal was over.. Then they all went to 
church. Uncle George and others had dressed 
the church with cedar, balsani, and pine. It looked 
very pretty. 

At dinner the children ate turkey, goose, plum- 
pudding, and mince-pie, till Mamma Lane thought 
they would be sick. 

10. None of the little ones were allowed to go 
into the back parlor during the day, but at five 
o'clock, the large doors were thrown wide open. 
The children screamed with deliofht. There was 
a Christmas tree, hung all over with the presents 
Santa Claus had brouQfht. 

11. After they had looked at the tree for a 
time. Uncle George took the pretty things from it 
and gave them to the children. W^illie got a 
locomotive like the one that had drawn the train. 
He was happy then. So were all the little ones. 


They played as much as they could till seven 
o'clock. Then they were tired enough to go to bed. 
12. The next day Elsie and Willie went home. 
The locomotive made many trips every day after 
that. Elsie's doll never said a word, but it always 
had a smile on its face. 

(jQ^^ne '/^i-'^eT- i^c^if cz /^c^-r/iey cz^-^t^ l/z-uT cu^ 
(Z^J a. -t^e^iyif ^c-c^a 4i-i-^, aJ- ^/lu/^-^^^ 


T^(y^■^e^^■U' ci-de^e-&€JJ' M^i/^ct^ ■a-icj^^eriyii' . ■ 

^^ '^'e^€>4.'/^ ■tc^'/ie^/^e axcct- ^iu(yi/3y a^ri^rc 


Santa Claus ; the name given platter ; large, flat dish, for 

to St. Nicholas. holding provisions. 

God rest you ; may God give the train ; a number of cars 

you rest. joined together. 

carol ; song of joy. allowed to go ; let go. 

dismay ; frighten. locomotive ; railway engine. 

tidings; news. 

Using "I" as the first word, write short statements telling 
one thing that you did last Christinas ; zolicrc you were on that day ; 
and hozi^ you enjoyed yourself. 

Write statements about Santa Claus, Fergus, the cars, 
the locomotive, Bethlehem, and cedar. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

house' wives shin' gle (shing g!) wea' ry 

Hen' ry squir' rel toil' ing 

ov' en bush' y dim' pie-deep 

Clar' a twirl dough 

1. Tell me, little housewives, 

Playing in the sun, 
How many minutes 

Till the cooking's done.'^ 

2. Henry builds the oven, 

Lucy rolls the crust, 
Clara buys the flour. 
All of golden dust. 


. Pat it here, and pat it there; 
What a dainty size! 
Bake it on a shingle — 
Nice mud pies! 

4. Don't you hear the bluebird 
High up in the air? 
" Good morning, little ones, 
Are you busy there?" 

I. Explain the meaning of housewives. 
3. Wliat is meant by pat it ? 


4 7 

5. Pretty Mister Squirrel 

Bounces down the rail, 
Takes a seat and watches, 
Curls his bushy tail. 

6. Twirl it so, and mark it so 

(Looking very wise); 
All the plums are pebbles- 
Rich mud pies! 

7. Arms that never weary, 

Toiling dimple-deep; 
Shut the oven door, now, 
Soon we'll take a peep. 

8. Wish we had a shower — 

Think we need it so — 

7 W b \t IS meant b\ Toiling 
_J]_sy_j cluuple-deep '^ 



That would make the roadside 
Such a heap of dough! 

9. Turn them in, and turn them out; 
How the morning tlies! 
Ring the bell for dinner — 
Hot mud pies! 

^■f-J^l-gjJ- ^j/^ er/ie. 

^-i^^j- -/ 

e JMeerc^jJi- '^l^l /^ ceaJ^e -^o- ^/f^e^y 

C^i^ , 

dainty ; little and neat, 
fleet ; move I'apidly. 

twirl it ; turn it round. 

Make statements, each containing, at least, one of the follow- 
ing words: — ^o\xv,flowcY; there, their; buy, by; here, hear. 

In making a statement about yourself and some one else, mention 
yourself last, thus : George and I will go. 

Write a statement about yourself and a playmate, yourself and 
your mother. 



Pronounce distinctly: — 


Ma' bel 

Co' bourg 


a gain' (agen) 

break' fast 


af ter wards 


■4^^, (^^t/., C^^A^r'/di^/, /S(?2. 

^^•^y- ^r^l HS'/z-rrA^J^ 

What does Ont. stand for ? W'h}- is a full-stop placed after it ? 
What mark is put at the end of e\-ery sentence ? How many 
sentences are there in Henrv's letter ? 


^-n.e ^e-'H-. 

<CX (7-0- Ib^ ■^(■c/. 

f^i'C /ta^e (jt^t^eddee^ -"l^cif/ 

Q^^^^-^ '^Aa.^i^'U.d Ofe'^^^/ 

Where did the writer of the letter live ? To whom was the 
letter sent ? In what town was his home ? 





Pronounce dis- 
tinctly : — 

Que bee' 
pur' chase 
con fined' 
sniil' ing" 
won' dered 
con' duct 
dun g-eon 
re mained' 

I. One day a 
sailor was walk- 
ing through the 
streets of Que- 
bec. On turn- 
ing a corner, he 
came upon a man 
with a caofe full 
of birds. The 

I. What is Quebec ? Where is it ? 


man had Qrone into the bush and had caiiQ^ht the 
birds, and he was now selHng them to any per- 
son who would purchase them. 

2. The sailor stood and looked at the poor 
little birds hopping about in the cage, and his heart 
was filled with pity to see them confined in such 
a small space. He thought of the time when they 
were free to fly about as they liked, 

3. After looking at them a while, he asked 
the man what he would take for the birds. On 
hearing the price, the sailor at once paid it. 

4. He then opened the door of the cage and 
took out one bird, which he allowed to fly away 
into the blue sky. The sailor looked after it with a 
happy, smiling face, and then he took out another, 
and set it free also. He went on in this way until 
he had set all free. 

5. The man who was selling the birds won- 
dered at his conduct, but the sailor said : "Ah ! if 
you had been as long in a dungeon as I have been, 
you would know how sweet it is to be free, and 
would have pity on the birds." 

6. The sailor had been on board a ship which 

1. What word means the opposite oi purchasing ? 

2. What do you understand by space? 

4. ^^'hat is meant by eJlowed? 

5. V\'hat words have the same meaning as ti'as surj-rhcd at his 
heliavior ? 


had been taken In the wars. He had been thrown 
into a dungeon, where he remained for ten years, 
until peace came, and he was set free, 

J2/U'J-1(Z ic'C'laJ^ ale ^^e -/^/cJJc-^j^jzJ-^ 
J2/li-'f^(^/ aeetr/j ■a--le ^^^e ^Uu/j . 

6. What word has the same meaning as stayed / What are 
wars ? What is the meaning of the verse ? 

purchase ; huy. dungeon ; prison. 

confined ; shut up. his conduct ; what he had done. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

wir lows breeze drow' sy 

break' ing bios' somed niu' sic 

woo' ing or' chard lov' eth 

I. Have you heard the waters sinoino', 
Litde May, 
Where the willows o^reen are bendino- 
O'er their way ? 


Do you know how low and sweet, 
O'er the pebbles at their feet, 
Are the words the waves repeat 
Night and day ? 

2. Have you heard the robins singing, 

Little one, 
When the rosy dawn is breaking. 

When 'tis done ? 
Have you heard the wooing breeze 
In the blossomed orchard trees, 
And the drowsy hum of bees 

In the sun ? 

3. All the earth is full of music, 

Little May, 
Bird and bee, and water singing 

On its ^vay. 
Let their silver voices fall 
On thy heart with happy call : 
" Praise the Lord, who loveth all 
Night and day. 

Little May." 

3. What is said to be the song sung by the water, by the 
birds, bv the breeze, by the bees, and by all the eai^th? 
Explain with happy call, and Praise the Lord. 

when 'tis done ; when the drowsy hum ; sleepy noise. 
breaking of the dawn is silver voices ; clear, sweet 
finished. voices. 

Make statements containing the following words : — pebbles, 
rosy dawn, hum, their voices. 



Pronounce distinctly: — 

•worth shone Ham' il ton 

qui' et pol' ished pro mo' ted 

star' tied prov' erb clerk {dark) 

hu' mor {)i silent) gen' tie man re quired' 

1. " There, that will do," said Harry, throwing 
down the shoe-brush. " My boots don't look very 
bright. No matter ; who cares ? " 

"What is worth doing at all, is worth doing 
well," said a quiet but pleasant voice. 

2. Harry was startled, and turned round to 
see who had spoken. It was his father. Harry 
blushed. His father said : " Harry, my boy, 
your boots look very dirty. Take the brush and 
make them shine. \\^hen they are well done 
bring them to me." 

3. "Yes, father," replied Harry. He then 
took up the brush in no very good humor, and 
brushed the boots until they shone nicely. 

4. When the boots were polished he went to 
his father, who said : " My son, I want to tell you 
a short story, I once knew a poor boy whose 

2. \\'hat is meant by Harrywas startled, and by blushed ? 


mother taught him the proverb, 'Whatever is 
Vv'orth doing at all, is worth doing well.' 

5. '* That boy went to be a ser\^ant in a geii- s fam.ily in the city of Hamilton. He took 
pains to do everything well, no matter how small 
it seemed. His master was pleased, and took him 
into his shop. He did his work well there. 

6. "When he went to sweep out the shop, he 
did that well When he was sent on an errand 
he went quickly, and did what he was sent to 
do properly. When he was told to make out a 
bill, he did that well. 

7. "This so pleased his master that he pro- 
moted him step by step, until he became the head 
clerk. He worked so well as clerk, that he was 
made a partner. He is now a rich man, and wishes 
that his son Harry should learn to carry out the 
rule which m.ade him prosper, and get on so well 
in the world." 

S. " Why, father, w^ere you a poor boy once ? " 
" Yes, my son, so poor that I had to be a ser- 
vant in a famJly and blacken boots, and do other 
things of the same kind for a living. By doing 
these well, I v/as soon put to work which required 

5 and 6. Explain took pains, an errand, and a bill. 

7. Write the paragraph using for promoted, step by step, 
"was made a partner, and prosper, words having the same 
meanings as these. 



more c^ire and thought. By obeying the proverb, 
I became a rich man." 

9. Harry never forgot what his father had told 
him. Ever afterwards, the remembrance of the 
story of his father's hfe drove from his mind any 
unwilhngness to do his work well. 


■a- /aj/3 'ed c-riee -^ecre^c^^i^ 


■^%^e ■/^iw?4- i^'leal -c^^l J^y/ta-^^c'^ 

humor; temper. proverb ;^ wise saying, 

promoted him ; put him for- a partner; one who has a 
ward. share in the business. 

Write statements about a pleasant voice, good humor, 
an errand, a partner, the rule, care and thought. 






Pronounce distinctly : — 

n iJ 

mel' o dy 
mod' est 
un no' ticed 


1. A little bird, with 

feathers brown. 
Sat singing on a 
tree ; 
The song M-as very- 
soft and low, 
But sweet as it 
could be. 

2. And all the people 

passing by 
Looked up to see 
the bird, 
That made the 
sweetest mel- 
That ever they 
had heard. 

3. But all the bright 

eyes looked in 
For birdie was 
so small, 


And with a modest dark-brown coat 
He made no show at all. 

4. " Papa, dear," little Gracie said, 

" Where can this birdie be ? 
If I could sing a song like that 
I'd sit where folks could see." 

5. "I hope my little girl will learn 

A lesson from that bird, 
And try to do what good she can — 
Not to be seen or heard. 

6. " This birdie is content to sit 

Unnoticed by the way. 
And sweetly sing his Maker's praise 
From dawn to close of day. 

7. "So live, my child, all through your life 

That, be it short or long, 
Though others may forget your looks, 
They'll not forget your song." 

6. Explain content, and unnoticed. 

melody; music. modest; plain, not showy. 

What is the difference between made and maid; see and 
%ca; "way and iccigh ; praise and prays; close and clothes/ 
Write statements each containing;, at least, one of these words. 
Repeat the lesson taught by the bird. 

6g royal CANADIAN series. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

ex act' ly {cgz) prom' ised skein (&kanc) 

sew' ing {so) gap' ing {a as in gay) en tan' gled 

as sure' ex cept' "wound (on, as in houmf) 

lis'tened diss' mi) -wind (i as in find) dare' say 

1. "Are you very busy, mother?" said Ellen; 
"would you be so good as to look at your watch 
once more, and tell me what o'clock it is ?" 

" My dear Ellen, I have looked at my watch 
for you four times within this hour. It is now 
exactly twelve o'clock." 

"Only twelve, mother! why, it seems a great 
deal more than an hour since you told me it was 
exactly eleven o'clock. It has been a very long, 
long hour. Don't you think so, Lucy ?" 

2. "No, indeed!" said her sister Lucy, looking 
up from what she was doing; " I thought it w^as a 
very short hour. I was quite surprised when 
mother said that it was twelve o'clock." 

"Ah, that is only because you were so busy 
sewing! I assure you, Lucy, that I, who have 

1. Point out the full stops and commas in the first six sen- 
tences. What is meant by exactly? 

2. Write the paragraph, using other words for quite sur- 
prised, assure, and remember. 


listened to the ticking of the clock in the shop all 
the time, must know best ; it has been the longest 
hour I can remember." 

" The hour, in itself, has been the same to you 
and to Lucy," said her mother. " How comes it 
that one has thouoht it lona:, and the other short ?" 

3. "I have been waiting and wishing all the 
time for it to be one o'clock, that I might go to my 
brothers, and see the soap-bubbles they promised 
to show me. Father said that they were not to 
begin till the clock strikes one. Oh, I have another 
long hour to wait," said Ellen, stretching herself 
and gaping; "another long hour, mother." 

4. "Why should it be a long hour, Ellen ? It 
may be long or short, just as you please." 

" Well, mother, what can I do .'^ I cannot make 
your watch nor the clock down-stairs go faster." 

"And is there nothing you can do to make 
the hour go faster?" said her mother. "Why, 
you told us just now the reason for Lucy's thinking 
the last hour shorter than you did." 

5. " Oh, because she was so busy, I said." 
"Well, Ellen, and if ji't*// were busy!" 

" But, mother, how can I be busy about sewing 
as Lucy is ? You know I am not old enough yet ; 
I have never learned to sew." 

" And is there nothing that people can be busy 


about except sewing ? I am not sewing, and yet 
I am busy." 

"Suppose, mother, I were to wind that skein 
of blue silk now, Avhich you wished me to wind 
before night; perhaps that would make the hour 

"You had better try it, my dear, and then you 
will know," said her mother. 

6. Ellen took the reel and began to wind the 
silk. It happened to be a skein difficult to wind: 
it was often entangled, and Ellen's attention was 
fully employed in trying to get it right. "There, 
mother," she said, laying the reel of silk on the 
table after she had wound the whole skein, "I have 
broken it only five times ; and I have not been 
long winding it, have I, mother?" 

" Not very long, my dear; only half an hour." 
" Half an hour ! Dear me, it surely cannot be 
half an hour since I spoke last ?'' 

7. Her mother showed Ellen her watch, and 
the little girl was surprised to see that it was half- 
past twelve. "This has been a very short half- 
hour indeed, mother. You were right : having 
something to do makes the time seem to go fast. 
Now, I don't like winding silk ; and I dare say 

6. What is meant by "wind, happened, skein, difficult, 
fully employed, ai:id wound ? 



that if I had been doing something I Hked better, 
the hah-hour would have seemed shorter still." 

I assure you ; I tell you posi- 

employed ; used. 

entangled ; twisted so as not 

to be easily unravelled. 
attention; thought. 
reel ; frame upon which thread 
gaping; yawning. is wound. 

Write statements each containing, at least, one of the follow- 
ing words: — our, hour; great, grate; so, se"w; dear, iav; hole, 
whole; wait, weight; reel, real. 


Pronounce distinctly 

sur round' ed 
wheth' er 
gar' ret 

whole' some 
Ire' land 

Scot' land 
con' stant 
re moved' 

1. We cannot live without air. We require 
food two or three times a clay, water every few^ 
hours, but air we need every second. For this 
reason, we are at all times surrounded by air. 

2. Whether we stand or sit ; whether we dwell 
in a plain or on the hills ; whether we go Into 
the cellar under our house, or into the garret at 

1. What words have the same meanings as need and alzi'ays P 

2. What is meant by a plain, hills, garret, wholesome 
air, receive it freely ? 



the top of it, air is 
ever about us. God, 
who made it a law 
t h a t m a n s h o u 1 d 
breathe to hve, also 
ofave him air that 
he might obey that 
law. All that we 
have to do is not to 
shut out the pure 
and wholesome air 
(jiven to us, but to 
receive it freely. 

3. ^ hen we 
draw air into our 
luno^s, it becomes 
impure, and if we 
breathe the same 
air for some time 
we feel hot and sick. 
If we were shut up 
in a close room 
without fresh air, we should soon die. 

4. One stormy night, a ship was crossing from 
Ireland to Scotland. There were a great many 
people on board, and the captain put them all 
down into the hold of the ship, and shut the hatch, 


or covering. No fresh air could get in, and when 
the hatch was removed in the morning, it was 
found that a great many had died, and those who 
were ahve were very ill. 

5. So constant is our need of air, that if we 
had to raise it to our mouths, as we do water when 
we drink, it would be the sole work of our lives — 
we could do nothing else. For this reason, God 
has sent the air to us, and has not forced us to 
seek it. The great mistake which many of us 
make is, that we shut out the air which God gives 
us, and so bring on ourselves much sickness from 
which we might be free. 

6. We should try to have always about us, in 
our dwellings, in our bed-rooms, and in our school- 
houses, as much fresh air as we can. 

4. What is meant by the hold of the ship, the hatch, and 
removed ? What words mean the opposite of calm, few, opened, 
dead, and 7cell ? 

impure ; not pure, mixed with constant ; unchangini,% fixed, 
other substances. sole ; onlj-. 

Make statements each containin.i;-, at least, one of the follow- 
ing words or phrases : a garret, breathe, obey, removed, 
impure air, our lungs. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

bran' dy po lice' man (h-ccc) drunk' ard 

diz' zy ed u ca' tion li' quor 

1. Do you see that poor man trying to make 
his way along the street? He cannot walk 
straight, but he reels every now and then as if he 
would fall. Now he has fallen, and a cro-wd of 
rude boys stand around him, and mock and make 
fun of him. 

What is the matter with him? Is he sick, or 
lame, or weak? 

2. No, none of these, but he is drunk. He 
has been drinking beer and brandy, and every 
glass he has taken has made him more dizzy, until 
he has become unable to take care of himself 
Soon a policeman will come and take him to the 
lock-up, where he will have to remain all night 

How sad it is that men will drink what takes 
away their reason and strength, and makes them 
such objects of scorn and pity. 

3. Once that nian was a pretty, bright little 

I. What is the difference in meaning between reel and the 
?anie word in Lesson XXV. ? 


boy. His mother loved him, and liis father was 
proud of him. They sent him to school and gave 
him a good education. 

But when he became a young man he went to 
the tavern and learned to drink. He soon lost hi;: 
friends, his health, and his hope; now he is a poor 
drunkard, with no home, no friends, and no hopes. 

4. How cruel it is to sell liquor which so 
injures health and destroys happiness, and hov; 
foolish to buy and drink it. 

The best way is for boys and girls to say that 
no drop of strong drink shall ever cross their lips 


Ov: rr-/^/^ /y/^-^ ^^.^lyf-f^ rr^i^r/ ■^■^-^ffj/i-n/ 

reels ; staggers. objects of scorn ; things to 
rude ; rough, unmanncrl}-. be looked down on and de- 
reason ; sense. spised. 
sway ; power used in governing, injures; hurts. 

Malve statements each containing one or more of the follow- 
ing words: — would, icnod ; weak, t^'cck ; none, nun: buy, hy. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

whit' est grace' ful hov' els [o as in ahtwd) 

lil' ies droop' ing ra' di ance 

wood' lands low' li est di vine' 

1. If I were a sunbeam, 

I know what I would do ; 
I'd seek the whitest lilies 

The rainy woodlands through ; 
Stealing in among them, 

The softest light I'd shed, 
Until each graceful lily 

Raised its drooping head. 

2. If I were a sunbeam, 

I know where I would go ; 
Into the lowliest hovels, 

All dark with want and woe ; 
Until sad hearts looked upward 

I there would stay and shine ; 
Then they would think of heaven, 

Their sweet home and mine. 

1. Write the stanza, nsing for I'd seek, rainy woodlands, 
stealing in among them, shed, raised, and drooping, 

other words which will not change the sense. 

2. What words have the same meanings as lo u^liat place, sor- 
r07i'fiil, in that place, and remain ? 


3. Art thou not a sunbeam, 

O child, whose life is glad, 
With still an inner radiance 
That sunshine never had ? 



As the Lord hath blest thee, 
Oh, scatter rays divine, 

For there can be no sunbeam 
But must die or shine. 

3. What is meant by inner radiance ? 

shed ; scatter, spread about. "woe ; sorrow. 
graceful ; beautiful. radiance ; brightness. 

loTvliest hovels ; poorest huts, rays divine ; heavenly light. 

Ask questions about lilies, woodlands, heads, hovels. 
IS^ The teacher should train the pupils to ask these ques- 
tions with proper inllection. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

schoon' er low' ered at ten' tion 

tow' ards im pos' si bio cap sized' 

cli' mates direct' pre' cious (/niZ/Hs) 

voy' age de cid' ed whis' pered 

leaped ne' groes ad dress' ing 

1. The scliooner " Six Sisters" was sailing to- 
wards the Isle of France. It was one of those 
pleasant nights which are so delightful in warm 
climates. The passengers were all counting on 
having a good voyage. 

2. All at once a flame leaped up in the darkness. 
A terrible cry of " Fire, fire," was heard ; and in 
a moment it was clear that the schooner was on 
fire, and that the fire was spreading very fast. 

3. A boat was lowered. All the crew and pas- 
sengers crowded into it, until they were so heaped 
together that it was in danger of sinking. Being 
so full, it was impossible to direct its course. The 
danger increased at every moment. It seemed as 
though the boat must go down. 

4. At length, it was decided that two persons 
should be cast into the sea, in order that the 
others might be saved. But upon whom should 
the choice fall } 


5. At the l)ottoni of the boat, two negroes were 
paying the most careful attention to their mistress, 
who was weeping and holding out her arms to 
her little child. Every eye was fixed on these 
negroes. It was soon settled that they shoiiUl die. 

But they were men of great strength. Before they 
could be cast into the sea, they would struggle 
fiercely, and the boat would, perhaps, be capsized. 
And yet the moments were very precious. Each 
wave of the sea seemed as thous^h it would en£2fulf 
the boat. 

6. The captain, who must have been a great 
coward, said in his despair to the sailors : " Throw 

What woi'd in the fourth paragraph has the same meaninfj as 
settled, in tlie fifth ? 


the lady and her baby overl^oard." One of the 
negroes heard this. He whispered a few words to 
his comj)anion, and then said to the lady, "He and 
I will take the place of you and your child." 

7. Then, addressing the captain, he said, " Pro- 
mise us to save them, and we will at once jump 
into the sea." 

" I promise you," said the captain. 

8. " Poor little darling, give me one kiss," said 
the negro as he placed his dark lips against the 
white cheeks of the child. " Good-bye, little 
master. Good-bye, mistress." 

9. The other negro having also kissed the child, 
they lifted up their hands to heaven, jumped over- 
board, and disappeared in the midst of the waves. 

'-<?/5^ fc '/^e ri^ -^^^^^^ 

schooner; two-masted vessel, to direct its course ; to stecr 

Isle of France ; usually called it. 

Mauiitius, an island in the capsized ; upset. 

Indian Ocean. very precious ; uf great worth. 

delightful; veiy pleasing. engulf; swallow up. 

climates ; countries. despair ; hopelessness, 

voyage ; journey by water. addressing; speaking to. 

Write tlie first tlircc 2")aragraphs, using for schooner, to- 
wards, delightful, passengers, counting on, voyage, 


leaped, terrible, moment, clear, lowered, crew, impossi- 
ble, to direct its course, increased, and go down, other 
words having the same meanings as these. 

Ask questions about a schooner, fire, the crew, negroes, 
and waves. 

3-^^ Sec note to Lesson XXVIII. 


Pronounce distinctly :— 

re proved' sav' age in ter fered' 

Lon' don grieved lis' ten (/ silent) 

gen' tie man cru' el ly at tached' 

1. One day a gentleman saw a boy beating a 
dog, and when he reproved him for it the boy said, 
"It is my own dog ; I can do what I like with my 
own." "O no, you cannot," said the gentleman; 
"you have no right to use a dog badly. Let me 
tell you a story." 

2. "A judge was once passing over a common 
near London, England, when he saw a man beat- 
ing his horse in a very cruel way. He begged the 
man not to be so cruel to his beast, but the more 
he pleaded the more savage the man became. 
'It is my own,' said he, 'and I shall do 
what I like with my own.' 

2. What is meant by a common, bj- criiel, and by savage? 


3. " The judge was greatly grieved, because 
the horse had been more cruelly beaten than it 
would have been if he had not interfered. He 
saw that words were of no use, and that the man 
would not listen to reason, so he took his walking- 
stick and laid it about the fellow's shoulders. 

4. " The man was a great coward, as most cruel 
people are, and, instead of returning the blows, he 
said to the judge, ' Whi.t right have you to hit me 
with that stick }' 'I have the ri":ht to hit 
you as you have to hit that horse,* said the judge. 

' The stick is my own, and if you can use your 
horse as you like, because it is your own, I can use 
my stick as I like, because the stick is my own.'" 

5. By the time the gentleman had fmished 
telling this story, the boy felt ashamed of his 
cruelty, and he promised him not to beat his dog 

6. We have no right to do anything wrong 
even with what is our own. We have nothing 
but what God has given us, and to every one 
of His gifts there is some duty attached. Thus, 
if He gives us money, we must use it wisely; if 

3 and 4. Wi'ite the paragraphs, using other words for greatly 
grieved, interfered, of no use, most, instead of, rettirn- 
ing, and hit. 

6. Write the names of twelve dumb animals. Why are the 
first letters of His and He capitals ? Name some of God's 
frifts and the duties attached to them. 


He ofives us learninuf, we must use it for the crood 
of our fellow-men ; if He gives us power over poor 
dumlj animals, we must use it for their benefit as 
well as for our own. 

reproved ; found fault with. there is some duty at 
greatly grieved ; nmch vexed ; tached. (This can best be 

very sorry. cxphiiiicd by the teacher.) 

interfered ; meddled. their benefit ; their good. 

Write statements, each containing one or more of these 
words: — right, England, like, pleaded, beat, judged, and 
poor dumb animals. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

re' cent laugh' ter group 

a' ged hast' ened {t silent) guid' ed 

anx' ious slip' per y bowed {uw as in cok) 

1. The woman was old, and ragged, and gray. 
And bent with the chill of the winter's day ; 

The street was wet with a recent snow, 
And the woman's feet were acred and slow. 

2. She stood at the crossing, and waited long, 
Alone, uncared for, amid the throng 

Of human beings who passed her by. 
Nor heeded the glance of her anxious eye. 


3. Down the street, with laughter and shout, 
Glad In the freedom of ''school let out," 

Came the boys, like a flock of sheep, 
Hailing the snow, piled white and deep. 

4. Past the woman so old and gray 
Hastened the children on their way, 

Nor offered a helping hand to her, 
So meek, so timid, afraid to stir 

5. Lest the carriage wheels or the horses' feet 
Should knock her down in the slippery street. 

At last came one of the merry troop — 
The gayest laddie of all the group ; 

6. He paused beside her and whispered low, 
" I'll help you across If you wish to go." 

Her aged hand on his strong, young arm 
She placed, and so, without hurt or harm, 

7. He guided the trembling feet along. 
Proud that his own were firm and strong. 

Then back to his friends again he went, 
His young heart happy and well content. 

5. What two words licre have the same meaning ? 

6 and 7. What words have the same meanings as stopped, nc:n\ 
aid, old, laid, and in this way? Why was his young heart 
happy ? 



8. "She's somebody's mother, boys, you know, 
For all she's aged, and poor, and slow; 

"And I hope some fellow will lend a hand 
To help my mother, you understand, 

9. "If ever she's poor, and old, and gray, 
When her own dear boy is far away," 

And "somebody's mother" bowed low her head 
In her home that night, and the prayer she said 

10. Was, "God, be kind to the noble boy, 

W^ho is somebody's son, and pride, and joy." 

recent ; new. 

throng ; crowd. hailing ; welcoming. 

Name words that occur in the first sixteen hnes which ha\'e 
the same meanings as culd, look, hityvicd, easily friglitcncd, and 

Write the last fourteen lines, using instead of guided the 
trembling feet, firm, friends, content, away, words luuing 
the same meanings as these. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

neph' e"ws {nev) Can a' di an shrill 

niec' es ech' oed dis tinct' ly 

prim' er {priiinu) heed' ing in tel' li gent ly 

1. One day Uncle Fred, who was sitting in his 
arm-chair, called his little nephews and nieces 
about him. I think there were five in all. Let 
me see — George, James, Jennie, Grace, and Eva. 

2. "Well, children," said Uncle Fred, "do 
you know how to read?" 

"Why, what a question!" said George. "Of 
course we do. We have all been to school three 

3. ''Yes," said Grace; "and I have been 
through the ' Primer ' and the ' First Royal Cana- 
dian Reading Book,' and a good part of the 
'Second Reading Book.'" 

"So have I!" said James. "And I! and I!" 
echoed the others. "And grandma says I can 
read the hard words in her big Bible almost as 
well as she can," added Jennie. 

4. " W' hy, what a wonderful lot of nephews 

I. What are nephews and nieces? Write the names of 
Uncle Fred's nieces. 
3. What is an echo ? 


and nicxcs I have!" said Uncle Fred. "How- 
wise all of you must be ! Here, James, read this 
verse for me as well as you can." 

5. So James took the book which his Uncle 
Fred handed him, and read the verse very rapidly, 
without heeding the stops. 

6. "You may read the next verse, Jennie." 
Jennie obeyed, and read in a high, shrill tone, 

very unlike the charming tone in which she always 

7. " Here, George," said Uncle Fred, " read 
the next verse." 

George tried to do his best, and shouted so 
loud that Uncle Fred pretended to shut out the 
noise by putting a finger in each ear. 

8. " Now, it is your turn, Grace." 

Grace read the next verse in what is called a 
sino--sonQ; manner : 

And then he ran to her and laid 

His head upon her arm , 
As if he said, I'm not afraid, 

Yoii"ll keep me from all luwui. 

9. " }\vi have not read, Eva. You wen; not 
so sure: that you knew how to read, but you may 

Eva took the book and read her verse in a very 

6. What is meant hy shrill tone, and charming'? 


pleasant tone, as if she were talking or telling a 
pretty story. 

10. "Now, children," said Uncle Fred, "I think 
one of you knows how to read. Can you tell me 
which it is ? " 

"If you mean the one who reads best, I know," 
said Grace. " I think Eva does." 

11. " IVhy does she read best ? '" 

" Because she didn't read too fast," said James. 
"And I think it is because she spoke so 
plainly," said George. 

12. "What Ao yoit say, Jennie?" asked Uncle 

" I think it is because she understood what she 
read," said Jennie. 

"And / think she enjoyed reading it," added 

13. "Right, children!" said Uncle Fred. "You 
have all given me good answers, which shows 
that you are learning to think, if you are not 
learning to read well. If you will all remember 
what each one has just said, you will be good 
readers one of these days. 

14. " Read sloivly, distinctly, intelligently, and 
as if yon enjoyed it, and you will all be as good 
readers as Eva." 

15. "A great deal better, I hope," said Eva. 


8 1 

" 1 waiu to be as gocxl a reiidcr as ir.y teacher. 
The half-hour given to the reading-lesson in 
school always passes pleasantly. Slic talks i^ulli 
us about the lessons, and luliat they mean, bejore we 
read them to her I' 

J 6. "She must be a cfood teacher," said I'ncle 
Fred, patting Eva on the head. " Now you may 
all go and have a good game at ' hide and seek.' 

/fj/e^r/^/rfeed rcAe /Art/ /// rf A -^rr rrf. ' 
? A r? A J c/ re- fiAadr/yr/ j/irlrt ///eie y 

{/ 0' y / 

Cj^/ ^r/^.a/A4d A'/Z/r rA r/rrlA ci /ru4. 

^j^ad r/^^e AAea^ /A a/ rA'- 

yece^d ^c'/irc/^- ale ^Ji(}^€'^/r , f/fo^a, a-j^r/ /ure 

\ '^/ycid'?/ -^/v/yy. 

/vv^ A r/</ rAfO 

/ /c frr/// 

echoed ; repeated, 
distinctly; plainly, 

intelligently ; understandingly. 
enjoyed it ; was pleased with it. 

Vv'rite statements, cacli containins^ at least one of these 
words : — verse, heeding, Bible, learning. 



4 \ '--J» '^■' , 


Pronounce distinctly: — 

ini por' tant mois' ture ne gleet' 

at tend' ing dis eas' es tow' el 

hun' dreds clean' li ness [cUnn) thor' ough ly [thnr) 

per spire' un whole' some cleanse {dcnuz) 

I. I have often seen ciiildren whose hands 
and faces were so dirty that you would think 
they had not been well washed for a week. 

I and 2. "Well and can have more than one meaning: give 
these meanings. What is the difference between week and 
weak ; no and know ? 


2. N'ow, every child ought to learn how very 
important it is to keep not only the face, but the 
whole body clean. No one can long have good 
health without attending to this. I will tell you 

3. The skin, which covers the body, is full 
of very tiny holes — so small, indeed, that many 
hundreds of them can be covered with a five-cent 
piece. Through these holes— or /(?r<r^, as they are 
called — we perspire, that is, our bodies give out a 
moisture. We notice this most during hot weather, 
but the fact is, we are always perspiring, more or 
less, even during the coldest day of winter. 

4. Now, if this moisture be allowed to remain 
on the skin, it becomes mixed with dust, and soon 
forms into a crust of dirt which closes up the pores, 
and thus causes many diseases. 

5. Most diseases of the skin arise from a want of 
cleanliness. These diseases will not remain lonor 
among people of cleanly habits. 

6. Nearly all fevers first show themselves among 
people who live in close, dirty houses, breathe bad 
air, use unwholesome food, and wear dirty clothes. 

3 and 4. Write the paragraphs, using for the body, very 
tiny, perspire, moisture, notice, fact, perspiring, allo-wed 
to reinain, closes up, and diseases, words having the same 
meanings as these words and phrases. 

6. What meaning has close when it is pronounced like cloze/ 


No filth of any kind should be allowed to lie in the 
streets. The towns which are the cleanest are 
always the most healthy. 

7. The very brutes set us an example of cleanli- 
ness. Most of them seem uneasy, and do not thrive 
well, if they are not kept clean. A horse which is 
kept clean will grow fat on less food than one that 
is not well attended to. You may have seen the 
delight with which a little bird in a cage takes its 
bath. How it splutters, and shakes its feathers, 
and then when it has dressed itself, how gaily it 

8. Surely, then, all children should be careful 
not to neglect the use of fresh water, soap, and a 
rouo:h towel. Thev should bathe and thorouy-hly 
cleanse their bodies every day. 

9. Some boys are such cowards that they are 
afraid of a drop of cold water. A brave boy would 
no more think of neglecting to wash himself because 
the water was cold, than he would think of running 
away from his friends when they were in danger. 

aitending to this ; looking diseases ; sicknesses. 

after this. •unwholesome ; unhealthy, 

fact ; truth. neglect ; be careless a-bout. 

allowed to remain ; let sta}-. thoroughly ; fully. 

7. Name words that mean diimh uniiuuh, prosper, cared fur, joy , 

8. Write the paragraph, using for surely, neglect, and 
thoroughly cleanse, other words which wil make sense. 




Pronounce distinctly :— 

mer' ri ly 
wag' gon 

noi' si ly 
"wliir' ring" 

pet' ti coats 
•whirl' ing" 

1. "Any grist for the mill ?" 

How merrily it goes ! 
Flap, flap, flap, flap. 

While the water flows. 
Round about and round about, 

The heavy mill-stones grind. 
And the dust flies all about the mill, 

And makes the miller blind. 

2. "Any grist for the mill .-*" 

The jolly farmer packs 
His waggon with a heavy load 
Of very heavy sacks. 

I and 2. What words have the same meanings as happily, play- 
ful, filh, hai(s, and around? What is meant by grist? 


Noisily, O noisily, 

The mill-stones turn about; 

You cannot make the miller hear, 
Unless you scream and shout. 

3. " Any grist for the mill ? " 

How quickly it goes round, 
Splash, splash, splash, splash. 

With a whirring sound. 
Farmers, bring your wheat to-day. 

And bakers, take your iiour ; 
Dusty millers, work away, 

While it's in your power. 

4. " Any grist for the mill ? " 

Alas ! it will not go ; 
The river, too, is standing still; 

The Q:round is white with snow. 
And when the frosty weather comes, 

And freezes up the streams. 
The 'iniller only hears the mill, 

And grinds the grain, in dre:ims. 

5. Living close beside the mill, 

The miller's girls and boys 

Always play at make-believe, 

Because they have no toys. 

3. Explain "While it's in your power. 

5. What IS muant b^- piay tiu iiiake-oelieve, and tiie little 
petticoats ? 


"Any grist for the mill ?" 

The elder brothers shout, 
While all the little petticoats 

Go whirling round about. 

6. The miller's little boys and girls 

Rejoice to see the snow ; 
"Good father, play with us to-day; 

You cannot work you know. 
We will be the mill-stones, 

And you shall be the wheel; 
We'll pelt each other with the snow, 

And it shall be the meal." 

7. Oh, heartily the miller's wife 

Is laughing at the door; 
She never saw the mill worked 

So merrily before. 
" Bravely done, my little lads. 

Rouse up the lazy wheel ! 
For money comes but slowly in 

When snow-flakes are the meal." 

6. What is meant by rejoice and pelt? Why cannot the 
miller work ? What kinds of meal may be ground at a mill ? 

a whirring sound; a humming noise, like that made by part- 
ridges when flying from the ground. 

Write neatly the full names of the scholars in your class. 
Write their initials. 




Pronounce distinctly :- — 

spi' der 
mi' cro scope 
sev' er al 
del' i cate 

gauz' y 
in vades' 
un wa' ry {:vay) 
seiz' es 
vie' tim 

motll (//' as in thin) 
moths (//' as in this) 

■wind' ing- 
e las' tic 
strug-' gling 

1. Look 'At this spider's web; it stretches right 
across the rose trees ! I wonder where Mr. 
Spider is. I have been looking for him every- 
where ; he must have got lost among the bushes. 

2. No ! he is hanging here, head downwards, 
under the middle of his net, watching for any little 
careless fly that may come headlong into his toils, 
(jLiite ready, no doubt, to carry it to his home, and 
eat it for his breakfast. 

1. What is the ineanins; of right across ? 

2. What words mean tlie opposite of iipieuirds and tlu'iit^Jiffiil ? 
Wliat word lias the same meanin,<; as net? 



3. If yoii look ;it this 
spider, you will see that he 
has eight legs, and if yon 
observe one of his legs 
through a microscope, you 
will notice that it has several joint;-, and that at 
the end of the last joint there are hooks very 
much like the claws of a cat. 

Most spiders have eight eyes, but some have 
six, and a small number have only two. 

4. But how do spiders make such delicate 
gauzy webs, so fine and yet so strong } 

The body of each spinning 
spider is provided with a num- 
ber of little bags, full of a kind 
of pfum. Each bas: is full of 
little holes, through which very 
fine threads are drawn ; these 

stick together, and form a thread strong enough 

to bear the weight of the spider. 

5. So long as the bags contain gummy matter, 
the spider can go on spinning ; but when they are 
empty, he must wait until more gum is formed. 

4. Write this part of the lesson, using for provided, kind, 
form, and bear, other words having tlie same meanings as 
these words. What little word can be used for is provided 


6. There are many kinds of spiders. The house 
spider and the garden spider are best known. 

7. Of these, the first is not often allowed to 
spin in peace. The housemaid, with a broom, in- 
vades the sly corner where he sets his net to catch 
unwary flies and moths. 

S. When the spider is left alone, he soon spins 
a web, and then goes into a corner to watch for 
his victims. If a poor fly touches the web, it is 
usually caught. Its feet are not, like the spiders, 
made to walk on the web, and Mr. Spider rushes 
down from his corner, seizes the fly, and kills it. 

9. If a large moth or a bluebottle is caught, 
the spider seizes it, and kicks it round and round, 
at the same time winding a strong elastic web 
about it. When the wings of the insect are fas- 
tened down, the spider goes away, and leaves it 
to tire itself out by struggling. 

7. What is meant by allowed and sets? Explain sly 

8. What is meant by seizes the fly? 
<j. What is meant by struggling ? 


headlong; without thouj,'ht, provided; fiunislica. 

carelessly. invades the cornex' ; ;,.-. 
microscope; glass that makes into the corner as au encni . 

small objects appear large. unwary; heedless. 

several ; more than two. his victims ; the creatures he 
dehcate ; fine. intends to destroy. 

gauzy; hght. elastic; springy. 

Make statements, each containing, at least, one of the follow- 
ing words or phrases: spiders, headlong, a microscope, 
moths, the web. 



Pronoiinct' distinctly: — 

cun' ning- pris' on er ex act' ly {(t~) 

hast' ens (silent /) loos' ened pal' ace 

ob serv' ing- prey fa' vor ite ('0 

plunged var' nish man' sion 

re paired' liq' uid hinge 

1. But mark the cunning of the spider. If a 
wasp or a bee gets caught in his web, he either 
hastens to set it free by cutting the web, or, if lie 
feels himself strong enough, binds his victim wi'.'.i 
threads ; always taking care to keep out of the 
way of its sting, 

2. " I was gardening one morning," writes a 

1. What words have the same meanings as notice, slyness, liiii- 
rics, and lics.^ What is the meaning of victim? 

2. For what word may noticiii:; or uiarkiiii^ be used ? 


gentleman who was fond of observing insects, 
"when a wasp came buzzing near my ears. I 
struck it away with my hand, and it fell into a 

3. " In this bush a garden spider had spun her 
web. The wasp fell right into the middle of it, 
and every leg was fast except one. With this leg 
the wasp began to kick and struggle. It plunged, 
and shook the web till it got a second leg loose ; 
then with these, it fought for several minutes till 
three legs were free. 

4. "I began to think that if it were left alone, 
it would fight its way out of the web. But the 
spider came out to see what was the matter. She 
ran round and round the wasp, taking care to 
keep away from its sting. As fast as the web was 
broken, she repaired it. 

5. "As long as her prisoner did not seem likely 
to get out, she was satisfied with mending the web, 
but as soon as three legs had been loosened she 
took another way to secure the prey. Fastening 
a thread to one side of the web, she threw it over 
the wasp, ran round to the other side, and drew 

3. For what word may hut be used ? What is the meaning of 

was fast ? 

4. What word in paragraph 7 has the same meaning as re- 
paired ? 


the thrcatl tight, just as you have seen a man 
fasten a rope over a load of hay. She then threw 
the thread over several times, and drew it tight 
each time. 

6. "In a few minutes, the wasp was tied up in 
the web, and there was no chance of its getting 
out. It was then killed by the spider, which 
stripped it of its wings and fine feathers. She 
carried away its legs and its whole body. 

7. "She then mended every broken thread, 
and left the web as neat as it was before the wasp 
fell into it." 

8. The little field-spiders spin their nets over 
the ground, and on the bushes, to catch their prey. 
In autumn, when the dew is on their webs, the 
fields look as if the fairies had been washinQf, and 
had hung out their delicate robes to dry. 

9. The water-spider lives entirely under water. 
He certainly would not be able to keep a dry roof 
over his head if he did not make for himself a 
little house into which the water cannot enter. 

10. He spins loose threads to the leaves of 
plants under the water, and over these threads 
he spreads a kind of varnish like liquid glass, so 

8. What is meant by delicate robes ? 
10. How can his house be made large or small as he wishes .-' 




r'^\ 'riiiiri»"nii7wiiifi w^ 




! i 

ekisiic that he can make his house large or small 
as he pleases 

11. He then coats 
liimself with a little of 
the varnish, to make a 
sort of waterproof cloak, 
and comes to the top of 
the \vater to ""et some 

12. It is not exactly 
known how this spicier 
J raws a bubble of air 
under his waterproof; 
but he does so, and car- 
ries it to his house, and 
returns again ten or 
twelve times for more 
air-bubbles. When he 
has enough air, he takes 
up his abode in his palace 
under the water. 

13. There are many kinds of spiders which 

II. What word means covers ? 

13. What words in the second and third sentences have the 
same meaning ? 

12 and 13. Write the paragraphs, nsing for draws, carries, 
returns, enough, abode, favorite hiding-place, and un- 
"Wary, other words having the same meanings. 



do not spin webs, but which get their hving in 
all sorts of artful ways. A rolled-up leaf is the 
favorite hiding-place of one kind, and from this he 

darts upon any insect 
^^''' that may chance to pass. 

MLaii, * ^'T Others choose the inside 

Pf ' - f fl u 1 • .u 

\™ ' > oi a rlower, a hole m the 

^ _^. wall, or the bark of a tree. 

14. The mason-spi- 
der makes for himself a 
comfortable home in the 
ground. . He bores in a 
bank a hole about as 
large as a man's finger, 
and lines this hole with 
silky down to keep out 
the damp. The most 
wonderful part of this 
spider's mansion is the 
"trap" door. 

14. Tell what ground, bank, and down mean here, and 
give other meanings for the same words. 

insects ; creatures, such as liquid glass ; melted glass. 

flies, bees, and moths. palace ; grand house. 

secure ; make safe. artful ; sly. 

Write statements, each containing one of the following words 
or phrases: comfortable home, man's finger, most 'won- 
derful, mansion, and hinge. 


'I . /*>.^ 




Pronounce distinctly : — 
thrush med' die touch ju' ni per 

1. There's a merry brown thrush sitting up in a 

tree ; 
"He's singing to me ! he's singing to me !" 
And what does he say, httle girl, Httle boy ? 
"Oh, the world's running over with joy ! 
Don't you hear ? don't you see ? 
Hush! Look! In my tree, 
I'm as happy as happy can be." 

2. And the brown thrush keeps singing, "A nest, 

do you see, 
And live eggs, hid by me in the juniper tree ? 
Don't meddle! don't touch! little girl, little boy, 
Or the world will lose some of its joy ! 
Now I'm glad! now I'm free! 
And I always shall be. 
If you never bring sorrow to me." 

3. So the merry brown thrush sings away in the 

To you and to me, to you and to me ; 

2. What word has the same meaning as interfere ? (See par. 
3, Lesson XXX., page 74.) 


And he sings all the day, little girl, little boy, 
" Oh, the world's running over with joy ! 
But lono- it won't be. 
Don't you know ? don't you see ? 
Unless we are as good as can be." 

Write statements, each containing, at least, one of the fol- 
lo\\ing words or phrases : a brown thrush, lose, none, 
juniper tree. 

Write questions about a boy, tiic world, your home, and your 
lessons for to-nwrroK'. 

SS^ All statements and questions are sentences. After this, 
when you are asked to write sentences, you may write either 
statements or questions. 

Do not forget that every sentence sJionhi begin 7,'iili a capital : 
that every statement should end witli a full '.top ; and that every ques- 
tion should end icith a question-mark. 

Pronounce distinctly : — 

flew {civ like n in (-,'/;v) el' 6 gant stu' pid (long ;/) 

de vour' fig' ure (long ?/) ecli' oes 

flown si' died chuck' le 

I. A crow one day stole a bit of cheese and 
flew away with it to the branch of a tree, where 
he could devour it in peace. A fox saw him, and 
made up his mind to get the cheese from him. 

I. What other meaning has saw? Write a word that is 
pronounced like peace. 



But he could not climb the tree, and, even if he 
could, the crow would have flown away long before 
the fox could have got near him. 

2. Being unable to get the 
cheese by force, he thought 
he would try a trick. 

So he stole up quietly to 
the foot of the tree, sat down 
there, gave his tail an elegant 
twist, looked up, opened his 
wicked mouth, and began to 
talk to the crow. 

3. "What a lovely bird you 
are," he said. " I never saw such 
a glossy jet black ; and then your 

back and neck have such brio-ht 


blue tints. Your wings are beau- 
tifully formed, and your 
whole figure is grace itself. 
No bird in the sky, no bird, 
on tree or rock or bush, can 
be compared with you." 

4. The crow, delighted 
with these words, sidled 
about with pleasure, and 
thought what a nice, good 
gentleman the fox was. 


5. The fox went on: "You are all I have said, 
and more ; but, do you know, I never heard you 
sing ? If your voice is equal to your lovely color 
and elegant shape, you are matchless — you are the 
wonder of the world. Will you not favor me with 
a little song ?" 

6. The crow at once opened his bill and uttered 
a loud caw. Down fell the cheese to the ground ; 
up jumped the fox, sprang upon the cheese, and 
ate it up. And, as the fox disappeared into the 
wood, the stupid crow heard the echoes of a 
chuckle that told him what a fool he had been. 

5. What is meant by Will you not favor me ? 

6. Write the paragraph, using for uttered, disappeared, 
and echoes, words that have the same meanings. 

devour it ; eat it greedily. tints ; colors, 

elegant ; beautiful. sidled ; moved sideways. 

glossy ; smooth and shining. matchless ; without an equal, 

isgraceitself; is as beautiful chuckle; short, half-smoth- 

as it can be. ered laugh. 

compared with you; said to flattery ; false praise. 

be like you. 

Write on your slate, and pronounce to your teacher, blue, 

hlcii', flew, cure, tunc, new, stew^ dew, and newspaper. 




Pronounce distinctlv : — 

tad' pole 
per' feet 
dis' tance 

grad' u al ly 
g-ills {g as in get) 
ap prove' 

al thoug-h' 
cu' ri ous 

length (not laiih) 

I. Have you ever seen a tadpole ? If you 
have, perhaps you did not 
know that the funny-look- 
ing thing with a long tail 
and without legs would some day become a per- 
fect frog. 


2. The hsh-like tadpole goes through many 
changes before it becomes a grown-up frog. First 
of all, you may see in a ditch or pond patches of 
something looking very much like bunches of 
beads made of jelly. These are the eggs. They 
float on the surface of the water, and, at a distance, 
look like froth or air bubbles. After a few days, 
from each there is hatched a tiny tadpole which 
has a \or\Q-, fish-like tail, bv means of which it 
swims about, but at first it has no leQfs. Soon the 
hind legs begin to grow, and these are followed 
by the two fore ones ; then the tail gradually 
becomes less and less, until it quite disappears. 

3. While living under the water, the tadpole 
breathed like a fish through gills; but now that 
it has become a frog its lungs have grown, and 
it breathes the air chiefly through its mouth, but 
partly through its skin. 

4. Behold him now a bright-eyed frog hopping 
on dry land. How he does puff, as if he did not 
at all approve of being a frog ! 

5. Why does he puff and pant in this way } 
He is only breathing, and he cannot help making 
all that fuss about it; because, although he has 

2. Write the paragraph, using for becomes, pond, surface, 
at a distance, titiy, by means of "which, begin and fore, 

other words having the same meanings. 


lungs, he has no ribs, and, for that reason, cannot 
breathe easily. 

6. Another curious thing- about the froe is, 
that although he has a row of teeth in his upper 
jaw, he never bites, and indeed never uses his 

7. Frogs feed on Hies, aiits, spiders, worms, 
beetles, and even snails. By means of their long 
tongues they catch their prey very quickly, and 
swallow it whole and alive. 

8. Everybody knows that a frog can leap; but 
how far, do you think ? ' About ten or twelve times 
its own length at one jump. At the same rate, 
how many feet would you be able to leap ? 

6. What is the meanmg of curioiis? Give two different 
meanings for row. 

7. What is meant by prey ? 

perfect; full grown, complete, approve of ; like. 
gradually ; step by step, slowly, behold; look at. 
disappears ; goes out of sight. 

The words lungs, gills and ribs can best be explained 
by the teacher. 

Write at least ten words in which g is hard, that is, has the 
same sound as in frog and goes. 

Write sentences, each of which will contain one of these 
words: tail, tale; knew, neii; ; through, thvciv ; whole, hole. 



Pronounce distinctly: — 

calm an' guish ' -wound {-cvoond) 

un guard' ed thrill re spect' 

1. Little things, ay, little things 
Make up the sum of life; 

A word, a look, a sino^le tone, 
May help to calm a strife. 

2. A word may part the dearest friends — 
One little, unkind w^ord, 

Wliich in some light, unguarded hour, 
The heart with ano-er stirred. 

3. A look will sometimes send a pang 
Of anguish to the heart : 

A tone will often cause the tear 
In sorrow's eye to start. 

4. One little act of kindness done — 
One little kind word spoken — 
Hath power to make a thrill of joy, 
E'en in a heart that's broken. 

2. \Vhat is meant by a light, unguarded hour? 

3. What is here meant by A tone and cause? 

4. For what does E'en stand ? 


5. Then let us watch these " h'ttle things," 
And so respect each other, 
That not a word, a look, or tone 
Shall wound a friend or brother. 

5. What is the meaning of respect each other, tone, 
and "wound ? What meaning has wound when it rh\-mes \\\X\\ 
ground ? 

ay ; yes. pang of anguish ; sharp feel- 

to calm a strife; to quiet a i"g of great sorrow. 

quarreh Sorrow's eye ; the eye of a 

unguarded ; careless. sorrowful or sad person. 

a thrill ; a tingling feeling. 

Write sentences, each containing one or more of the following 
words or phrases : sum, some, a strife, dearest friends, 
unkind word. 

-io- ^/i-ct^y/i^tt^a^ , 'lyj-t -^-^-^^f^-f/. ■iy^^ -tz-^fe^^- -ff--^^ 

c^/i- -fa-i^^l €^c r^^i€4 -ny^^^ /ii^i^^^ /c- /Ae 



— V 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

hin' dei' 
kind' ling 

pre tend' 

con' quer (congkcr) 

ac counts' 

o"wn er 
hu' nior 
as sist' ing 

I. "Don't you hate splitting wood?" asked 
Charlie, as he sat down on a log to hinder Rob 
for a while. 

I. Explain hinder for a while. 


" No, [ rather like it. When I fjet hold of a 
tough old log, I say, ' Look here, now, you think 
you're stronger than I am, and are going to beat 
me; so I'll split you up into kindling wood.' " 

2. "Pshaw!" said Charlie, lauQfhinQ;; "audit's 
only a stick of wood." 

"Yes; but you see I pretend it's a lesson, or 
a tough job of any kind, and I like to get the 
better of it." 

" I don't want to conquer such things; I don't 
care what becomes of them. I wish I were a rich 

3. "Well, Charlie, if you live long enough, 
you'll be a man, without wishing for it; and as for 
being rich, I mean to be that myself." 

"You do? How do you expect to get your 
money ? By sawing wood ?" 

" May be — some of it; that's as good a way as 
any, as long as it lasts; I don't care how I get 
rich, if it's in an honest and useful way." 

4. "I'd like to sleep for the next ten years, 
then wake up to find myself a young man with a 
great deal of learning and plenty of money." 

" W^ell, I'm not sleepy — a night at a time is 
enough for me. I hope to work for the next ten 

2. What is meant by pretend, and toiigh.? 
4. Explain these are things. 


years. You see that these are things which you 
have to Ti'o?'/c out — you can't s/cc/) them out." 

5. " I hate to work," said Charhe; "that is, I 
hate such work as sawing and sphtting wood, and 
doing chores. I'd hke to do some great work. I 
want to be a clerk in a bank, or something of that 

"Wood has to be sawed and split befoVe it can 
be burned," said Rob. " I intend to own a large 
farm some time. I am preparing myself for it 
now. Besides cutting the wood, I am attending to 
the horse and cow, and keeping father's accounts. " 

6. How Charlie laughed ! "I think doing 
these things is a long way from being the owner 
of a farm. I suppose your father sells two tables 
and six chairs some days, does he not ?" 

" Sometimes more than that, and sometimes 
not so much," said Rob, in perfect good humor. 
" I didn't say I was a farmer; I said I was work- 
ing to be one. Am I not nearer to it when I am 
assisting my father than I should be if I w^as doing 
nothing ?" 

7. " Not a whit," said Charlie, as he went 

5 and 6. ^Vnte these parts of the lesson, using for chores, 
intend, preparing, attending to, suppose, and perfect 
g'ood humor, words or phrases which have the same meanings, 
\\'hat was Rob's father ? 

7 What is meant by ^whit, and tramp? 


Now, which of these boys do you think grew 
to be a rich and useful man, and which of them 
became a tramp before he was thirty years old ? 

conquer ; get the better of. eys received and paid, and 

expect; hope. of what he owed and what 

preparing ; getting ready. was owing to him. 

accounts; statements of mon- assisting; helping. 

Write sentences about splitting wood, conquer, money, 
learning, a farmer, a useful man, and a tramp. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 
shin' ing (long /) co' sy heav' en 

1. Do you know how many stars 

There are shining in the sky ? 
Do you know how many clouds 

Every day go floating by ? 
God the Lord has counted all : 
He would miss one, should it fall. 

2. Do you know how many flies 

Play about in the warm sun } 

I. What are the silent letters in you, know, there, day, 
and floating ? 


How many fishes in the water? 

God has counted every one. 
Every one He called by name, 
When into the world it came. 

Do you know how many children 
Go to little beds at night — 

Sleeping there so warm and cosy 
Till they wake with morning light ? 

God in heaven each name can tell, 

Knows yo2c too, and loves you well. 

2. Name the marks at the end of the lines m the verse. Why 
is He spelled with a capital H ? 

Write the following statements, placing in the blanks or 
spaces Avords that will make sense : 

The sun 

in the 

in the and 

j'ou where the rises ? 

it ri=e in the or in the ? 

the shine by or does it at 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

sliov' el 
dif fi ciilt 
niuf fler 

trou' sers 
ear' nest ly 
loung' ing 

en cour' ag ing 
sneer' ing 
shrink' ing 

I. It was a bitter cold day 

There had been 
a great snow-storm, 
and the sky had a 
black and angry 

" Dear me," said 
]\Irs. Wilson, as she 
looked out of the 
window : " see how 
the snow has drift- 
ed into the yard. Ann cannot 
get out to the v/ood-house for 
her kindling-wood. The poor 

^^" " ~ hens, too, haye not been fed 

since yesterday morning. What shall we do, 
without anybody to dig a path ?" 

2. "I can shoyel a path, grandmother," said 
Johnny, a bright boy about eight years old. 

"The task will be too difficult for you, I fear," 

2. What word means the opposite of easy ? \Miat is meant 
bv went to work with a will ? 


said Mrs. Wilson, "' and besides, we have nothing 

but this fire-shovel to work with." 

" No matter," said Johnny, " I can try." 

So Johnny put on his hat, tied his muffler 

round his neck, turned up his trousers, and went 

to work with a will. 

3. He was digging away very earnestly, when 
a man came lounging along with his hands in his 
pockets. Instead of giving Johnny a helping 
hand, or saying an encouraging word to him, he 
called out in a sneering tone : " Boy, how do you 
expect to get through that snow-drift ?" 

4. '' By keeping at it — that's how!" answered 
Johnny, as he tossed the snow out of his little 

Then, without v/asting any more time in 
talking, he turned to his work again. It was hard 
work. He was soon very tired, and his hands 
were cold, but he kept at it bravely until he had 
dug a good path. 

5. Now, boys and girls, we shall all have paths 
to dip;, of one kind or another, as we gfo through 
life. Many snow-drifts will lie in our way, but if 

3. What is meant by lounging, helping hand, and expect? 

4. What word ah^eady used in the lesson has the same 
meaning as hard ? 

5. What is meant here by snow-drifts ? 


we work with a stout heart we shall be sure to 
succeed in the end. 

6. Bear this in mind, and when you find your- 
selves shrinking from any good and useful task, 
and asking. "How shall I ever do this?" or, 
"How am I to do that?" be ready with Johnny 
Wilson's answer: ''By keeping at it — that's how ! " 


6. What words or phrases have the same meanings as rciiian- 
hcr, and n'ovk ? 

bitter; sharp, biting. shrinking; drawing back 

very earnestly ; with all his through fear. 

might. sighing ; sorrowing. 

an encouraging word ; a waiting the tide waiting 

woi^d that gives hope. for a better chance, 

sneering ; mocking. prevail ; win, conquer. 

Write sentences about a snoTV-storm, a. sneering tone, 
his work, and a fire-shovel. 




Pronounce distinctly : — ■ 

Jen' nie fac' to ry a muse' ment 

wretch' ed news' pa per dreamed 

sand' wich es ['^^•idj) fam' i ly cheer' ful 


i I. "Oh, clear, it always docs rain when I want 

to go anywhere," cried Jennie Moore. " It's too 
bad. Now I must stay in-doors, and I know I 
shall have a wretched day." 

"Perhaps so," said Uncle Jack; "but you 
need not have an unpleasant day unless you 

2. " How can I help it ^ I wanted to go to 
the park and hear the band, and take Fido and 
play on the grass, and pull wild flowers and eat 
sandwiches under the trees. But now there isn't 
going to be any sunshine, and I'll have to stand 
here and see it rain all day." 

3. "Well, let us make a little sunshine," said 
Uncle Jack. 

"Make sunshine!" said Jennie; "why, how 
can we make it ? " — and she smiled through her 
tears. "You haven't a sunshine factory, have 
you ?" 

1. What word means miserable? 

2. Give another meaning for band. 

3. What other meaning has tears? Tell what a factory is. 


4. "Well, I'm going to start one now, if you'll 
be my partner," replied Uncle Jack. " First, let 
me give you these rules for making sunshine : 
Doiit tJiink luhat might have been, if the day had 
been better; sec how many pleasant things there 
are left to enjoy; do ail you can to make other 
people happy.'' 

5. "Well, I'll try the last thing first;" and 
Jennie went to work to amuse her little brother 
Willie, who v/as crying. In a short time she had 
him riding upon a chair and laughing, and she 
was laughing herself. 

"Well," said Uncle Jack. "I see you are a 
good sunshine-maker, for you've nearly all you or 
Willie can need just now. Let us try what we 
can do with the second rule." 

6. " But I haven't anything to enjoy; my dolls 
are all old and my picture-books all torn, and — " 

"Hold!" said Uncle Jack; "here's an old 
newspaper. Now. let us get some fun out of it." 

" Fun out of a newspaper ! Why, how can we 
get fun out of it ? " 

7. But Uncle Jack showed her how to make 
out of paper, a mask, a whole family of dolls, and 
a lot of pretty things for Willie. 

In this way Jennie found many a pleasant 
amusement, and when bed-time came she kissed 



Uncle Jack and said, " Good-night, dear Uncle 

8. Jennie dreamed that night that Uncle Jack 
had built a great house, and had put a sign-board 
over the door which read : 

She made Uncle Jack laugh when she told 
him her dream ; but she never forgot — what you 
must remember — that "a cheerful heart makes its 
own sunshine." 

7. What is meant by amusement ? 

What two words in the script Hnes mean the same thing ? 

partner ; sharer in the busi- mask ; a cover for the face, a 

ness. false face. 

to enjoy; to take pleasure in. cheerful ; joyful. 
amuse ; please. 

Write questions, each containing one or more of these words : 
Jennie Moore, sandwiches, sunshine, picture-books. 

Write words that are pronounced like rain, hear, see, 
through, some, and great. 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

sought quenched ac' cents 

spark' ling- ac cept' ne'er 

ea' ger gen' er ous o' cean 

draught {draft) bowed (ow as in cow) sub dued' 

1. A little boy had sought the Pump 
From which the sparkling water burst, 
And drank with eager joy the draught 
That kindly quenched his raging thirst ; 
Then gracefully he touched his cap — ■ 

" I thank you, Mr. Pump," he said, 

*' For this nice drink you've given me ! " 

(This little boy had been well-bred.) 

2. Then said the Pump : " My little man, 
You're welcome to what I have done ; 
But I am not the one to thank — 

I only help the water run." 
"Oh, then," the litde fellow said, 
(Polite he always meant to be), 
"Cold Water, please accept my thanks, 
You have been very kind to me." 

1. For what words can briglifly shining, poured out, fierce, and 
brought up be used ? 

2. For what word can nuinnerlv be used ? 



3. "Ah," said Cold Water, 

"don't thank me; 
Far up the hill-side lives 

the Spring 
That sends me forth 

with generous hand 
To gladden every living 

"I'll thank the Spring, 

then," said the boy, 
And gracefully he 

bowed his head. 
"Oh, don't thank me, 


my litde man." 
ife?- The Spring with pleas- 
ant accents said. 


4. " Oh, don't thank me, for what I 
Without the Dew and Summer Rain? 
Without their aid I ne'er could quench 
Your thirst, my Httle boy, again." 
"Oh, well, then," said the little boy, 

" I'll gladly thank the Rain and Dew." 
" Pray, don't thank us — without the Sun 
We could not fill one cup for you." 

5. " Then, Mr. Sun, ten thousand thanks 
For all that you have done for me." 
"Stop!" said the Sun, with blushing face; 
" My little fellow, don't thank me; 
'Twas from the Ocean's mighty stores 

I drew the draught I gave to thee." 
"Oh, Ocean, thanks!" then said the boy. 
It echoed back, " Not unto me — 

6. "Not unto me, but unto Him 

Who formed the depths in which I lie ; 
Go, give thy thanks, my little boy. 
To Him who will thy wants supply." 
The boy took off his cap and said. 
In tones so gentle and subdued, 

5. What words can be used instead of blushing and 
echoed? By what means does the water get from the ocean to 
the pump? What is meant by the Ocean's mighty stores? 

6. Why are the first letters of Him and Thee capitals ? Ex- 
plain supply. Why did the boy take off his cap ? 



"Oh, God, I thank Thee for this gift; 
Thou art the Giver of all Good!" 

generous; not stingy, boun- 
accents; words or language, 
satis- supply ; fill, satisfy. 
subdued ; softened. 

Make statements each containing one or more of the following 
words or phrases: a draught, gracefully, you're, accept, 
the dew, the sun, Ocean's mighty stores, the Giver of all 

sought ; looked after, 
draught; drink. 
gracefully; mannerly. 
quenched his thirst 
fied his thirst. 



Pronounce distinctly: — 

due al low' m tox' i cat ing 

dro-wned con sent' liq' uor 

1. A little mouse was once playing near a vat 
full of beer, and not taking due care fell into the 
liquor. A cat which chanced to be near by heard 
the splash and came and looked over the edge of 
the vat. 

2. "Will you please help me out of this vat.-^" 
asked the mouse, "I am nearly drowned." 

"Yes," said the cat; "if you will allow me to 
eat you when you get dr\-, I will help )'ou out." 

"Well," replied the mouse, "I will drown if I 
stav here, and I can but die if I p-et out, so I will 
consent to what you ask." 

3. The cat put down her paw and hfiiped the 
mouse out of the vat. The mouse sat very quietly 
for a time until it was nearly dry and then quickly 
popped into a hole close at hand. 

4. After a while the cat arose and began to lick 
her jaws and said to the mouse, "Now you are 
dry, come out of your hole and let me eat you." 

"I will not go out and let you eat me," said 
the mouse. 



"But," answered the cat, "when you were in 
the vat and about to drown you promised that you 

"True," said the mouse, "I did promise, but 
/ zuas in liquor theny 

5. Many a rash promise is made when a man 
is in liquor which he does not escape from so 
easily as did the mouse. 

If boys and men never have anything to do 
with intoxicating liquors they will never be led 
into danofer bv them. 

due ; proper. intoxicating liquors ; 

consent ; agree. drinks that will make one 

rash promise ; promise made drunk, 
hastily and without thought. 

Make sentences from the following groups of words : 

"We, careful, never, be, promises, should, rash, to, 

Many, health, character, in, liquors, and, by, intoxi- 
cating, ruined, thousands, are, property. 

Write a statement about yourself and your teacher, and 
another about yourself and your playmate. 

SEClW'D readjxg i>ook\ 



Pronounce distinctly : — 

tim' id 

cup' boards (citbboi-ds) 

mows (oiv as in coic) 

di rec' tioa 
yel' low ish 
whit' ish 

plait' ed 
en' trance 
wind' ing 

I. Bovs and oirls all know what mice are. 
They are timid, but pretty little creatures. 

The common mouse — that is, the one that 
lives in our houses, and gets into our cupboards 
and cellars, and nibbles our bread and cheese and 
cakes — is found in all parts of the world. 


2. Besides visitino- our houses, these mice 
sometimes take up their abode in a barn. Here 
they do a great deal of mischief. They hve 
in the mows, throuQ-h which thev make runs in 
every direction, and they multiply so fast that 
hundreds of mice have been taken from one Ioq; 

3. The Long-tailed Field-m.ouse^sometimes 
called the Wood-mouse — is a pretty little animal, 
somewhat laro^er than the mouse we see in our 
houses. It measures about four inches in length, 
and its tail is about as long as its body. Its color 
it yellowish-brown on the back, and whitish be- 

4. One of the smallest of the mouse family, 
and at the same time the prettiest, is the 
Harvest-mouse found in Britain. The head and 
body of this little animal are not more than two 
and a half Inches long, and its tail is about the 
same length. 

5. The Harvest-mouse ma.kes its nest of grass 

I and 2. Write, in a column, the following words, and opposite 
to each of them wi-ite one or more other words which can be 
used instead of it: timid, houses, nibbles, abode, amount, 
mischief, fast, direction. 

3. What difference in meaning is there between four and 
fore ? 

4. What is Britain ? Of \\hat countries is it composed ? 



and leaves twisted together, and forms it into the 
shape of a ball, a little smaller than a cricket-ball. 

This nest, 
so warm and 
soft, is hung 
among the 
stalks of the 
grain some | .^'^\| \' 
fourteen ,\,;^ f ,- „^7 !^^ 
mchesabov^e rSt^K'g'^i 

the ground. 

6. One 
nest which 
eio-ht little 
mice ^v a s 

plaited so closely that it could, without losing its 
shape, be rolled along the table. 

7. The mother can climb to the nest with 
great ease, and she gets to the ground by winding 
her tail around a straw, and sliding down. 

6 and 7. What is meant by contained and plaited? 

mows ; heaps of straw or hay multiply ; become plentiful, 

in a barn. the entrance ; the way in. 

runs ; roads. winding ; twisting. 

Form a sentence out of each of the following groups of words : 
Boys, timid, are, and, sometimes, girls. 
The, John, nibble, a, sa.c, mouse, /zV. 

Men, the, thn-iliing, utcrc, wlio, mice, the grain, many, found, 
a, great. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

chest' nut (t silent) in' no cent a' corns 

Ob' e ron mush' room re gard' ed 

1. Do you know the little Wood-mouse, 

That pretty little thing, 
That sits amono- the forest leaves 
Beside the forest spring ? 

2. Its fur is red as the chestnut, 

And it is small and slim; 
It leads a life most innocent 
Within the forest dim. 

3. I saw a little Wood-mouse once, 

Like Oberon in his hall, 
With the orreen moss beneath his feet, 
Sit under a mushroom tall. 

4. I saw him sit, and h^s dinner eat, 

All under the forest tree — 
His dinner of acorns ripe and red. 
And he ate it heartily. 

2. What is meant by It leads a life most innocent, and 
the forest dim ? 


5. I v/ish you could have seen him there; 

It did my spirit good 
To see the small thinor God had made 


Thus eating in the wood. 

6. 1 saw that He regarded them — 

Those creatures weak and small ; 
Their table, in the wild is spread 
By Him who cares for all. 

5. What is meant by It did my spirit good? 

6. Explain Their table in the wild is spread. 

Oberon ; the king of the fairies; heartily ; with sharp appetite, 
(see page 28). regarded; took notice of. 

Write statements teUing what j-ou see in the pictmx. 


Pronounce distinctly: — 

re la' ting in vent' fu' ture 

ex act' ly jest pre vent' 

al' ter pro fane' ob serve' 

I. Never tell an untruth. When you are 

relating anything that you have seen or heard, 

tell it exactly as it happened or as it was told to 

I. Write the paragraph, using for tell, untruth, relating, 
exactly, think, and have forgotten, other words whicla will 
make sense. 


you. Do not alter or invent any part, to make, 
as you may think, a prettier story. If you have 
forgotten any part, say that you have forgotten it. 
Persons who love the truth never tell a lie even 
in jest. 

2. Consider well before you make a promise. 
If you say you will do a thing, and you do not do 
it, you tell a lie; and who will then trust or believe 
you ? 

3. Never allow yourself to use bad language. 
Avoid listening to profane and filthy words ; or, 
if you hear them, try to forget them. And if 
you cannot forget them (for they are very hard 
to forget), at least never let them cross your lips. 

4. When you have done wrong, do not deny 
it, even if you are afraid you will be punished for 
it. If you are sorry for what you have done, and 
try to behave better in future, people will seldom 
be angry with you, or punish you. They will love 
you for speaking the truth ; they will think that 
they may always believe what you say, because 
they know that you will not tell a lie, even to 
hide a fault, or to prevent yourself from being 

5. Never amuse yourself with giving pain to 
anybody or to anything, not even to dumb crea- 


If wisdom's ways you wisely seek, 
Five thinsfs observe with care : 

To whom you speak, of whom you speak, 
And how, and when, and where. 

relating; telling. consider; think. 

alter; change. avoid; shun, keep away from. 

invent ; make up. profane ; unholy. 

jest ; joke or fun. observe ; notice. 

Write statements about an untruth, a promise, a jest, 
filthy "words, dumb creatures. 

Write questions about an untruth, a pretty story, a pro- 
mise, dumb creatures. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

nap' kin plod' ding tor' toise {tiz) 

sighed pict' ure pert 

thread' ed sew' ing vir' tue 

I. "Well, Amy, how are you getting on with 
your napkin ?" cried Lizzie, whose swift fingers 
seemed to fly over her work. 

" Not very fast," replied quiet little Amy, 
without raising her eyes ; "I have almost fin- 
ished one side." 

I. Write this part of the story using other words which will 
make sense for swift, seemed, replied, and finished. 


2. "One side!" said. Lizzie, with a laugh 
which was neither pleasant nor kind; "why, we 
both began hemming our napkins at the same 
time, and I'm now at the fonrtJi side of mine!" 

" I know that I am slow," sighed Amy. 

"You may well say that!" cried Lizzie. 

" But ni try to be steady and do my best," 
said the little girl, as she threaded her tiny needle, 
and went on with her work. 

3. "As I sew very fast," cried Lizzie, " I 
am sure I shall have finished my napkin long 
before the bell rings for dinner. I'll just run for 
a minute to the garden to see if the roses ar(? 
out." So, tossing down her work on a chair, 
Lizzie flew oft. 

4. Amy longed for the fresh air and the 
flowers, but her work niust be done first. Steadily 
she laid down her broad hem, and had completed 
the second side of her napkin before her sister 
came back. 

"Ah! you plodding little thing," cried Lizzie; 
"you will never get up to me. I'll have time to 
go to my room and put up my new picture on the 

2. What is meant by to be steady? Before each of the 
words pleasant, kind, and steady, put a syllable to make the 
meaning of the word the opposite of what it now is. 


5. Off went g-ay little hizz'ie. Amy went on 
with her work. Before her sister aq-ain entered the 
room, the third side of her napkin was hemmed. 

"Had you not better finish your sewing?" 
said Amy. " It must be near dinner-time now. ' 

" Oh ! I can get it done in two minutes ; only 
I want to look at that story, which Tom told us 
was so amusing," 

" But if you are late ?" 

"No fear of that!" cried Lizzie; "no one is 
so likely to be late as a slow little creature like 
you !" 

6. Poor Amy made no reply ; stitch after 
stitch, stitch after stitch, quietly she worked on. 
Lizzie was soon so much taken up with her story 
that she forgot all about her work, till she was 
startled by the sound of the bell. 

"Can it be dinner-time?" she cried. "Oh 
dear, and my napkin is not hemmed ! And 
yours — " 

" It is just finished," said Amy, as she quietly 
folded it up. 

7. "'Tis just like 'the Hare and the Tor- 
toise,'" thought Lizzie, who, though pert and 
vai::, had sense enough to take a lesson. 

7. What is meant by "the Hare and the Tortoiso"? 


Quickness may have the start, but the quiet, 
steady worker does mo:-.t in the end. 

<4i?-^^ ^^'f'-/^ (7i^ec/ /•rr^^- ci^e-i- 4fJr. 

completed; finished. reply; answer. 

Xolodding; slowly but steadily pert; saucy, 
workuig. virtue ; goodness. 

Write all the sentences in the lesson in which finish or 
finished, or words with the same meaning as these, are used. 


Pronounce distinctly: — ■ 

wick pres' ence tri' fles 

cur' tain val' u a ble thith' er 

con tents' ex am' pie un u' su al 

sub dued' cul' ti vate op' po site 

I. Willie Hinton carried a lighted candle to 
his bedroom one night, and set it upon the table 
near his bed. After saying his prayers and un- 
dressing, he blew out the candle, jumped into bed, 
and soon went to sleep. 

2. In putting out the candle, Willie did not 


notice that he blew a spark from the wick into the 
folds of the window-curtain. The spark did not 
(TO out, but sinking into the stuff of which the cur- 
lain was made slowly set it on fire. The smoke 
tilled the room, and awoke the boy from his first 
nap. Starting from his pillow, he saw the flames 
creeping up the side of the window. 

3. What did he do? Most boys of his age 
would have rushed screaming from the room. 
What did Willie Hinton do? 

4. He leaped from his bed, ran to the door, 
and shouted, " Father ! father !" Then closing the 
door, he took the water-jug from his wash-stand, 
and, stepping upon the table, poured its contents 
steadily upon the flames. 

When his father and mother entered the room 
a few moments later, the fire was so far subdued 
that it was easily put out. Willie had saved the 
house from being burnt up. He had presence of 
mind; that is, he thought clearly and acted wisely 
in a moment of danger. 

5. This quality of mind is very valuable. 
Children should cultivate it in little things, by not 

2 and 3. Write the paragraphs, using for notice, slowly, 
starting, rushed, and screaming, other words which will 
make sense. 

4. What is presence of mind? What word in paragraph 
I has the same meaning as leaped ? 



allowing themselves to be frightened at trilles. 
Some little folk, for example, act wildly if they see 
a cow or a dog near them ; if, in crossing a street, 
a horse is coming towards them, they run wildly 
hither and thither; if they hear an unusual sound 
in or near the house at night, they become greatly 
alarmed. Such conduct shows want of clear 
thought and wise action. It is the opposite of 
presence of mind. Those easily-frightened chil- 
dren should try very hard to think clearly and act 
wisely whenever they see anything that alarms 

5. V^hat is the meaning of allowing, trifles, little folk, 
hither and thither, alarmed, and conduct? 

nap ; short sleep. 

its contents ; what it held. 

subdued; mastered, brought 

under control. 
valuable; of great worth. 

cultivate it; help on its 

unusual; strange. 
action ; doing. 

Write the following words, marking each silent letter: cul- 
tivate, frightened, folk, near, towards, and greatly. 

Make a statement out of the following words Willie, fire, 
had, the, father, subdued, before, his, came, help, to 



Pronounce distinctly: — 

gi'and' pa pa 
hon' est [h silent) 

hon' or {h silent) 
cour' age 

wear' ing 

I. Grandpapa's hair is very white, 
And grandpapa walks but slow ; 


He likes to sit still in his easy-chair, 

While the children come and go. 
" Hush! play quietly," says mamma; 
" Let nobody trouble dear grandpapa." 

2. Grandpapa's hand is thin and weak, 

It has worked hard all his days, — 
A strong right hand, and an honest hand, 

That has won all good men's praise. 
" Kiss it tenderly," says mamma; 
" Let every one honor grandpapa." 

3. Grandpapa's eyes are growing dim, 

They have looked on sorrow and death, 
But the love-light never went out of them, 

Nor the courage and the faith. 
"You, children, all of you," says mamma, 
" Have need to look up to dear grandpapa." 

4. Grandpapa's years are wearing few. 

But he leaves a blessing behind; 
A good life lived, and a good fight fought. 

True heart, and equal mind. 
" Remember, my children," says mamma, 
"You bear the name of your grandpapa." 

I. What is the meanmg of hush? What is the name of the 
mark after hush ? 

3. What is meant by to look up to dear grandpapa? 

4. Explain wearing few, a good fight fought? and 
true heart. 


honor; respect highly. faith; trust. 

love-hght ; loving look. equal mind ; evenness of tem- 

courage; ])ravery. per. 

4. Why should the children remember that they bear the 
name of their grandpapa ? 

Before true, equal, likes, honest, and honor, place sylla- 
bles which will make these words mean the opposite of what 
they now do. 


Pronounce distinctly: — 

in duced' (not doust) mag' ic in con sis' tent 

urg-' ing- Ian' tern ex treme' ly 

1. "O mother, I am tired to death! It's so 
long a walk from the school-house to our home ! " 

'* Tired to death, Jane ? " 

"Yes, mother, I am — almost, I mean." 

*' No, my daughter, not even almost." 

2. "Well, at any rate, mother, I would not 
walk from our house to school again for anything 
in the world ! " 

"O yes, you would, my dear!" 
"No, mother, I am sure I would not ; I am 
sure nothing would tempt me." 

3. " But I am nearly certain you could be in- 
duced to go without any urging." 

2. Name the stops or pauses in this part of the lesson. 


" Well, mother, try me, and see if anything 
could make me willing to go." 

" What if I should offer to take you to see the 
maofic-lantern this eveninfj. I am ijoincr to see it." 

4. "Are you, mother? May I go .'^ You 
promised to take me when you were going." 

" I did intend to lake you; but the place where 
it is to be shown is a very long way beyond your 

5. " But I am quite rested now, dear mother ; 
I would not miss going for all the world ! Why 
do you smile, mother ? " 

" To see what an inconsistent little daufjhter I 

" What do you mean by inconsistent, mother.-^" 

6. "Why, when a little girl says one minute 
that she would not walk a certain distance 'for any- 
thing in the world,' and in the next moment says 
she 'would not miss' walking still farther for 'all 
the world,' she is not only inconsistent, but foolish. 
It is a very bad habit to talk in such a way." 

7. "But I don't often talk so — do I, mother? I 
do not mean to be foolish." 

"Yesterday, when you came from school, you 
said you were almost frightened out of your life. 
When I asked the cause of your alarm, you replied 

4. Instead of what words can mean and farther than be used ? 


that you had met as many as a thousand cross 
dogs on your way home from school," 

8. "O mother! did I say a thousand? I'm 
sure I saw our dog and two other dogs." 

" Now, my daughter, I wish you to break 
yourself of this bad habit. When you are tired 
or hungry or alarmed, use only the words that 
express your meaning. You may be tired or 
extremely tired, or you may be frightened or 
greatly frightened. Will you try to bear in mind 
what I have been saying, and from this time let 
your lips speak the simple truth?" 

9. ''Yes, mother, I will try. I know my way 
of speaking is wrong, and I feel ashamed of it." 

"Well, my dear, I am glad you are ashamed 
of your fault. I hope my little daughter will be a 
truthful child. And now you may get ready to 
Qfo with me to see the mao-ic-lantern." 

^^^d^^n-^^-t:/ -f.d -^/./Be /Ae -^^/^Z i?^ ■O' da^4^e/ 

8. What is meant by extremely tired, g'reatly frightened, 
unci simple truth ? 



it ot another time, or who 

says one thing and does the 

express; tell, explain. 
sabre ; kind of sword. 
scar; mark left after a wound 

is healed. 

tempt; induce, 
induced; coaxed, 
urging ; pressing. 
magic-lantern ; this can best 

be explained by the teacher. 
an inconsistent person is 

one who says one thing at 

one time and the opposite of 

JS^Before the pupils attempt the following exercises, the 
teacher should write on the blackboard examples of similar 
questions and answers. 

Write answers, each of which must be a complete sentence, 
to these questions : — 

Why did Jane find the walk to school so tiresome ? 

Why did Jane's mother say she was inconsistent ? 

What is a magic-lantern ; a wound ; a scar? 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

freck' led 
par tic' u lar 
pro tect' ed 
fash' ions 

rail' way 
en' gine (./'««) 
screech' ing 
pass' en gers 

col' lege 
ex pens' c J 
ser' vice 
g-rat' i tudo 

short, freckled, little coun- 
try boy, as tough as a pine knot. Sometimes he 
wore a cap, and sometimes he did not — he was 
not particular about that ; his shaggy hair, h.v. 
thought, protected his head well enough. His 

I. What is meant liy was not particular about that? 


home was in the country — and a very wild, rocky 
country it was. 

2, He knew much more about rattlesnakes 
and birds' nests than he did about the fashions. 
He liked to sit rocking on the top of a tall tree, or 
to climb to the summit of a high hill, where the 
wind almost took him off his feet. Andy's house 
was a rough shanty on the side of a hill. There 
was nothing very pleasant there. 

3, Near the road was a railway track. Andy 
often watched the engine as it ran past, puffing 
out clouds of steam and smoke, and screeching 
through the valleys and under the hills in a fearful 
way. Although it went by his hut every day, he 
never wished to ride on it. He would rather lie 
on the sand-bank and watch it, until it disappeared 
in the distance. 

4, One day, as Andy was walking across the 
track, he saw that there was somethincj wronQ' 
about it. He did not know much about such 
things, because he was as yet quite a little lad; but 
the rails seemed to be wrong, in some way; and 
Andy had heard of cars being thrown off the track 

2. What is the meaning of the fashions ? What words in 
the paragraph have the same meanings as top and high ? 

3. Write the paragraph, using for near, railway track, 
engine {see Part I., Lesson XVIII.), puflBng, valleys, fearful, 
hut, and "wished, other words having the same meanings as these. 


because there was something out of place about 
the rails. 

5. Just then he heard a low, distant noise, — 
the cars were coming. He was only a little boy, 
but perhaps he could stop them in some way ; at 
any rate, there was nobody else there to do it. 
Andy never thought that he might be killed, so he 
stood in the middle of the track, and stretched out 
his little arms as far as he could. 

6. On, on came the cars, and the noise they 
made became louder and louder. The driver saw 
the boy on the track, and whistled for him to get 
out of the way. Andy took as little notice of the 
noise as if he had been made of stone. 

7. Then the driver had, of course, to stop the 
train, saying something to Andy, in a passion, as 
he did so. But when Andy pointed to the track, 
and he saw that the brave little fellow had not 
only saved Jiis life, but the lives of the passengers, 
his angry words changed to blessings. 

8. All the passengers rushed out to see what 
was the matter. Had the cars not stopped, they 
would have been thrown headlong down the steep 
bank into the river. Ladies kissed Andy's rough, 

6. Explain the driver whistled. 

7 and 8. What is meant by the train, passion, passen- 
gers, headlong, and steep. 



freckled face, and cried over him; and the men, as 
they looked at their wives and children, said, "God 
bless the boy!" 

9. Now, that boy had presence of mind. Do 
you wish to know where he is now? He is at 
college ; and the people whose lives he saved pay 
his expenses. They know they can never repay 
him for the service he did them, but they wish 
to show their Q-ratitude. 

protected; covered, guarded, 
summit ; highest part. 
disappeared ; went out of 

took as little notice of; 

thought as Uttle about, gave 

as Uttle attention to. 

presence of mind (sec Les- 
son XIII., Part II.) 

his expenses ; the cost of his 
li\ ing and education. 

repay ; pay back. 

service; good turn. 

gratitude ; thankfulness. 

Write statements, each containing one or more of these words 
and phrases : — particular, protected, fashions, there, very- 
rocky, disappeared, became. 

By phicing a syllable before each of the words well and 
pleasant, make their meanings the opposite of what they now 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

jour' ney 
Ian' guage 

tot' ter ing 
out' stretched 

tread' ing 

1. Only beginring the journey; 

Many a mile to go: 
Little feet, how they patter, 
Wandering to and fro ! 

2. Trying again so bravely; 

Laughing in baby glee; 

Hiding its face in mother's lap, 

Proud as a babe can be 1 

3. Talking the oddest language 

Ever before was heard ! 
But mother (you'd hardly think so) 
Understands every word. 

4. Tottering now and falling ; 

Eyes are going to cry ; 
Kisses and plenty of love-words ; 
Willing again to try ! 

I. What is meant by the journey, Many a mile to go, 
tLiid to and fro ? 

Z- Name the stops or pauses in the verse. 


5. Standing on feet unsteady; 

Working with all his strength ! 
He reaches the mother's outstretched hands, 
And rests in her arms at length. 

6. h^ither of all ! oh, guide them, 

The pattering little feet, 
While they are treading the uphill road, 
Braving the dust and heat! 

7. Aid them ever when weary; 

Keep them in pathways blest; 
And when the journey is ended. 
Father, oh, give them rest ! 

6 and 7. Give the meaning of guide, pattering little feet, 
and treading. What do you understand by the uphill road, 
weary, and pathways blest ? 

patter ; made a sound hke glee ; joy. 

that made by pats or hght braving; meeting boldl}-. 

blows rejieated often and the dust and heat ; the 

quickly. things in life that vex and 

tottering; shaking as if about tire us. 

to fall. the journey ; their life. 

Make statements out of the following groups of words : — 
Just, journey, the, is, of, life, baby, the, beginning. 
Kisses, his, mamma, him, love-words, gives, of, plenty, and. 
Make, again, willing, him, these, to try. 




Pronounce distinctly 

ccn' tu ry 
On ta' ri o 
wii' der ness 
fron' tier 

cuf fi' cient 
con strnct' ed 
hoi' lo-wed 
ma chines' (zhccnz 

mow ers 
sic' kles 
thresh' ing- 
win' no wed 

1. At the beginning of this century, what is 
now called the Province of Ontario, and what was 
then called Upper Canada, was almost a wilderness. 
The settlers were very few, and lived, for the 
most part, along the shores of the lakes and 

I. Use words that will not change the sense in place of be- 
ginning', called, almost, few, lived, shores, often, forest, 
and taking notice of. What century is this ? 


rivers on the frontier. There were few roads, 
and these were very l^ad. Often the only road 
was a "blazed" path through the forest — that 
is, a path marked by chopj^ing pieces out ot 
the; trunks of trees, that the traveller, takinq- 
notice of these, mio-ht not o-et lost in the woods. 
2. The houses were mostly built of logs. 
When the settler wished to build a house, he went 
into the woods, chopped down a sufficient number 
of trees, trimmed off their boucrhs with his axe, 
and cut the trunks into logs of the proper length. 
These logs were then hauled to the spot chosen 
for the site. Next, they were placed one upon 
another, so as to form the four walls of the house; 
and, in order to make the walls firm and the 
openings between the logs narrow, the ends were 
overlapped and notched into each other. The 
wall which lormed the; back of the shanty was 
built a loof or tv/o lovvcr than the front wall, and 
the roof was constructed of basswood troughs, 
reaching from the front to the back. A layer 
of troughs was first placed side by side on the 
house, with the hollow face upwards, and then 

2. Write the paragraph, using for proper, hauled, chosen, 
placed, firm, constructed, and chinks, ethor words iiaving 
tlie same meanings. Exphiin overlapped, notched, and 


Other troughs were laid on these with the hollow- 
side downwards in such a way that the hollowed 
part fitted over the openings between the troughs 
which were first placed on the walls. The chinks 
in the walls and roof were then filled with thin 
pieces of wood, packed tightly with moss and clay. 

3. The fioor, door, benches, tables, and bed- 
steads were very often made out of boards hewn 
out of logs with a broad-axe. Locks and bars 
w^ere never used. Every one trusted his neighbor. 
In some of the new settlements in Ontario, houses 
and barns of the kind we have described are still 
to be seen. 

4. In those days, there were no comfortable 
carriages such as we now have, and if there had 
been, they would soon have been knocked to 
pieces on the rough roads. Our grandfathers 
and grandmothers rode to church and market in 
strong waggons without springs. Long journeys 
were often made by canoes in summer, and on 
snow-shoes in winter. 

There were very few horses in the country, 
and oxen were used in tilling the soil and in draw- 
ing heavy loads. 

5. Such machines as seed-drills, mowers, and 

5. What are seed-drills, mowers, and reapers ? What is 
a stack? 


reapers were unknown. All the grain was sown 
by hand, and was cut with sickles or scythes. For 
threshing it a flail was used. This simple instru- 
ment was made of two hard-wood sticks fastened 
together at one end by a leather thong. Grasping 
the longer stick in his hands, the thresher swung 
the shorter one over his head and brought it down 
again and again with great force upon the loosened 
sheaves of grain on the barn floor ; or when there 
was no barn, on boards laid on the ground near 
the stack. The grain was then winnowed by 
beinof thrown into the air, so that the wind blew 
the chaff away. 

Flour-mills were at first unknown, so the grain 
was generally pounded in a hollow made in the 
top. of a block of very hard wood. 

5. Most of the clothes worn were made by the 
farmers' wives and daughters from the wool of 
their own sheep. The people had abundance of 
good and cheap food. The soil was rich, and 
produced splendid crops. The rivers were full of 
fish. Deer roamed through the forest, and wild- 
fowl swarmed in the lakes and marshes. Some- 
times a bear would carry a pig from the pen, and 
get shot for his boldness. Wolves, too. often 
killed sheep ; but as the clearings became larger 
and the settlers more numerous, wild animals 


century; period of one hun- site; place where the house 

dred yeais. was to be buih. 

■wilderness; wild, nnculti- tilling; preparing the laud 

vated countr}'. for seed. 

the frontier; the parts of the instrument; tool. 

country nearest to the United sheaves ; bundles of grain. 

States. -winnowed; separated from 

suflBcient; enough. the chaff. 

trimmed off ; cut (jff neatly. roamed; wandered. 

Write six statements abnut things sjxikeu of in the lesson. 


ProiioLince distinctly : — 

gi' ants pris' on -wa' ges 

prop' er ty noth' ing clothes 

1. Jack the Giant-Killer was a strange little 
man. He went about seekinor areat mants, to kill 
them. But there are some giants that he could 
not kill, for they cannot die. I think it is better 
to tame such gfiants, and make them do orood in the 
world, than to let them live and work mischief. 

2. I know a great giant whose home is in 
every part of the world. He takes up more room 
than all the people, and covers three-fourths of the 
earth. We could not live without him as our ser- 
vant, and we could not live with him as our master. 


3. He once broke out of his prison, and Hew 
over men's heads, and under their feet, and round 
about them on every side. He filled the valleys 
and covered the mountains, and killed all the 
people in the world except eight men and women, 
who knew he was coming". It took many months 
to get him back again into his prison, and even 
now he runs out sometimes and takes men's lives 
and robs them of their property. 

4. But when he stays in his prison and attends 
to his work, he is a good servant. He eats noth- 
ing, asks for no wages, needs no clothes, and never 
sleeps. He works night and day, and never stops 
to rest, for you cannot tire him. 

5. One man builds a mill to erind his crmin. 
He brincjs the "-iant and ofc^ts him to turn the o-reat 
wheel that drives all the other wheels. When 
this work is done, the giant goes on his way. 

6. Another man has a great load to carry. 
F'ifty horses could not move it. He places it on 
the great broad back of the giant, who bears it 
away. This giant will carry the man and many 
others on the top of the load, and by the help of 

3. What is here meant by prison? What event is referred 
to ? What eight persons were saved ? How did they know the 
giant was coming ? 

5. In what way is it that He brings the giant? 

6. What are the big brothers spoken of? 


one or two bio^ brothers, will bear them round the 

7. Sometimes he is angry and has a fight with 
one of these giants. But his anger never lasts 
long. He seldom remains still, for he loves to 
roam about and see the world. He lives in the 
sea, in rivers, lakes, and clouds. 

Now, what is his name ? 

7. What is the giant with whom he has a fight? 

Write the names of the stops or pauses in paragraph 7. 
Write answers in the form of sentences to the questions 
on paragr.iph 3, asked at the foot of the preceding page. 


Pronounce distinctly : — 

prim' rose house {honz) ruf fle 

I. I wish I were a primrose, 
A bright, yellow primrose, blooming in the 
spring ! 
The drooping boughs above me. 
The wandering bee to love me. 
The fern and moss to creep across. 
And the elm-tree for our king ! 



2. Nay — stay! I wish I were an elm 
tree — 
A great, lofty elm tree, with green 

leaves gay! -^-^ 

The winds would set them 

dancino-, ^ 

The sun and moon would 


glance m, 
the boughs, 

The birds would house among 



3. O — no ! I Vvash I were a. robin — 

A robin, or a little wren, everywhere to go, — 

Throup'h forest, field, or L^'arden, 

And ask no leave or pardon. 
Till winter comes, with icy thumbs, 

To ruflle up our wing ! 

4. But — say ! where should I Oy to ? 

Where go to sleep in the dark wood or dell ? 

Before a day was over, 

Home comes the rover. 
For mother's kiss — sweeter this 

Than any other thing. 

3. Explain Till winter conies, with icy tlranibs. 

house ; get shelter. To rufHe up our wing ; to 

dell ; small, but deeji, narrow disturb the feathers, and in 

\'alley. this way give the wing a 

rover ; traveller. rough appearance. 

Tell, m two written sentences, what yon notice in tlie picture : 
at least ten objects can be seen. 




Pronounce distinctly : — 

ba' con con sumed' soft' ens (< silent) 

spir' its wor' shipped sau' cers 

de vours' met' als mould' ed 

1. There is another ^iant who will only live 
where there is plenty to eat. He can eat butter, 
bacon, wood, paper, hay, and coal. He will drink 
oil and spirits, but he does not like water. 

2. Sometimes he gets out of prison and devours 
trees and forests, ships and houses, and leaves 
nothing behind. He has consumed towns and 
cities, killed the people, and robbed them of all 
they had. He can travel very fast, if he meets 
with food that he likes ; but he is very lazy, if he 
dislikes the food that is given to him. 

3. Long ago, some nations worshipped this 
giant, and feared him very much. They did not 
know how to carry him about from place to place. 
Sometimes he kept out of the way when he was 

3. What is here meant by prison ? Explain the meaning of 
the last sentence of the paragraph. Recite all the words that 
ax"e names of things. 

3. What do you understand by the second sentence in this 
paragraph ? In what form would he ar)pear suddenly? 


really needed, and at other times he would appear 
suddenly and eat many of the people up. 

4. But since men have become better acquainted 
with his nature, he has been tamed, and made to 
work. He can be a good servant to those who 
know how to manage him. He is very greedy, 
and cannot live without a constant supply of food. 

5. He is a good cook. He can roast beef, fry 
ham, bake bread, and boil eggs. But he must be 
watched, or he will spoil everything which he is 
asked to cook. He is a great friend to those who 
work in metals. He can make iron so soft that it 
may be bent to any shape. He can melt lead, and 
make it run like water. He has the same strange 
power over gold and silver. 

6. But while he softens metals, he hardens 
some other substances. Our cups, saucers, and 
plates are made of soft clay, which he has made 
firm and strong. If a piece of clay be moulded 
into the form of a brick, he can make it almost as 
hard as a stone. 

7. He is a crood servant, but a bad master. If 
carefully watched and properly fed, he will serve 
you well. But if you give him too much to eat 

5. Write the names of seven metals. 

6. What is meant by moulded? 

7. Write the paragraph, using for -watched, serve, allow, 
freedom, perhaps and foe, other words that will make sense. 



and allow him too much freedom, he will rob you 
of all that you have, and, perhaps, take away your 
life. His greatest foe is water. 
Now, what is his name ? 

spirits; such liquids as whis- appear; come in sight. 

key and brandy. manage ; rule. 

devours ; eats greedily. constant supply; unfailing 
consumed; eaten up. store. 

worshipped; honored as God- foe; enemy. 

Write sentences containing the following words: — spirits, 
dislikes, acquainted, manage, power, freedom, foe. 

Combine the words in the following groups into sentences : — 
Burnt, struck, the, it, barn, up, and, lightning, the. 
Carried, place, by means of, can be, from, about, to, place, 
fire, matches. 


Pronounce distinctly : — ■ 
in' va lid {Iced) sneaked 

1. The landlord was standing behind the bar 
of the village tavern as little Willie Worth came 
in one winter night to sell his papers. 

" Have a glass of beer," said the landlord. " It 
will make you warm this cold night." 

2. But Willie went on selling his papers to the 
half-tipsy men who nearly filled the room, and 
only shook his head in reply. 

"Why not?" said the landlord more loudly 
than before, " Beer won't hurt you. It never hurt 
me ; come, you must take a glass." 

3. Willie grasped his papers firmly in one 
hand, and facing the landlord, with a pale face and 
Hashing eye, said : — 

" Beer won't hurt me ! What's the reason I 
have no father to take care of me as other boys 
have } Why haven't I a happy home and plenty 
in it like other folks ? Why do I have to sell 
papers, and sometimes beg for work ? W^hy am I 
forced to go half clad and without shoes when I 
am at work ? 

3. Write this part of the lesson, using for grasped, firmly, 
flashing, folks, and forced, other words that will not change 
the meaning. 


4. " My father became a drunkard, and died a 
drunkard, and you sold him beer. 

"He used to spend his days here, and at night 
he woukl come home and beat mother and me. 
Often he turned us out on the street on cold 
winter nights. At last, he was found one morning 
frozen to death, after drinking your beer. 

5. " My mother is sick, and we are very poor. 
All I can earn hardly keeps us from hunger and 
cold. All these terrible troubles came from your 
beer, which you say will not hurt me. 

" It has hurt me. It does hurt me. I hate 
your beer. I will never touch it." 

6. The landlord sneaked off from the curses 
and jeers of the half-drunken men, who were not, 
however, too tipsy to miss the force of Willie's 
sad but truthful reply. 

6. What is the meaning of curses, jeers, force, sad, and 
reply? Wi'ite all the words in the paragraph that are names 
of things. 

landlord ; tavern-keeper as ff he was ashamed to be 

clad; clothed. seen, 

sneaked off ; stole away slyly, jeers; mockings. 

Read carefully the following statements : — 

My mother is sick. We are poor. Willie is selling 

papers. Willie and John arc selling papers. Toronto is in 

Ontario. Toronto and Kingston arc in Ontario. Kingston 

is in Ontario. The book is in my desk. The books are in 

my desk. 



Learn from these sentences that when a statement is maae 
about one person, or place, or thing, is may be used ; but arc 
should be used when the statement is made about more than one 
person, place or thing. 

Fill in the blanks in these sentences with is or are: — 

Gold heavy and yellow. Those apples ripe. 

The landlord standing behind the bar. The half-tipsy 

men mocking him. London and Guelph cities. 

Strathroy a busy town. You and I studying our lessons. 


Pronounce distinctly: — 

kin' dling- re' al fare al though' 

I. Are all your matches sold yet, Tom } 
Are all your matches done ? 
Then let us to the open square 

And warm us in the sun ; 
To warm us in the sweet, bright sun, 

To feel his kindling glow ; 
For his kind looks are the only looks 
Of friendship that we know. 
O Tom, don't you cry,- 

Although the cold winds blow ; 
For the sun is shining bright and warm 
In the great square down below. 


2. We'll call the sun our father, Tom, 

We'll call the sun our mother ; 
We'll call each pleasant little beam 

A sister or a brother : 
He thinks no shame to kiss us, Tom, 

Although we ragged go ; 
For his kind looks are the only looks 

Of friendship that we know. 

3. But oh, there's One above him, Tom, 

Who loves us more than he ; 
Who made the great bright sun to shine 

With beams so warm and free ; 
He is our real Father, Tom, 

Although, while here below. 
The sun's kind looks are the only looks . 

Of friendship that we know. 

4. We'll tell Him all our sorrows, Tom, 

We'll tell Him all our care ; 
We'll tell Him where we sleep at night, 

We'll tell Him how we fare : 
And then, oh then, to cheer us, Tom, 

He'll send His sun to glow ; 
For His kind looks are the only looks 

Of friendship that we know. 

3 and 4. Why are capitals used as the initial, or first letters, 
of One, Father, Him, His, and Tom? 



O Tom, don't you cry, 

Although the cold winds blow ; 

For the sun is shining bright and warm 
In the great square down below. 

glow; shining heat. cheer; gladden. 

all our sorrows; all that square; an open space of 

gives us trouhle or pain. ground with houses liuilt 

fare; are treated or fed. around it. 



Pronounce distinctly: — 

wan' dered 
sur prised' 
for' est 
in clined' 
ex act' 
di rec' tion 

in creased' 
cau' tious ly 

nu' mer ous 
prog' ress 
plod' ded 


en' er gies 
in qui' ring 
de ter' mined 
ob' sta cles 

I. Far away in the backwoods of Ontario, in 
an old log-shanty, with his father and mother, 
there lived a young lad, named Willie Wilson. 
Mr. and Mrs. W^ilson w^ere very poor, and had 
hard work on their rough bush farm to make both 
ends meet. 

1. Of what, and how, is a log-shanty built ? What is meant 
l)y saying that tliey had hard work to make both ends 

meet ? 


2. Willie often went into the woods with his 
father, and while his father was at work, Willie 
would pick berries or go fishing in the stream. 
One day, however, Willie had wandered away, 
not thinking of what he was doing, until it began 
to grow dark, and he thought it was time to go 
home. He shouted to his father, but was sur- 
prised at not hearing any reply. Louder and 
louder he called, until he could cry no more, but 
in the deep, thick woods he heard no answering 
voice. Poor Willie was lost — lost in the pathless 

3. He was not a big boy, but he had a brave 
heart. He was hungry, and tried to eat some of 
the berries he had picked, but he could scarcely 
swallow them, for he felt as if he had a big lump 
in his throat. He felt inclined to cry, but, thought 
he, "it's no use crying; I must try and find my 
way out." 

4. Poor fellow ! he wandered on and on, and 
still the woods looked the same, and still no one 
answered his cries. It now became so dark that 
he could see no longer, and as he was quite worn 
out he laid himself down under a tree, and cried 
himself to sleep. 

3. Explain the meaning of he felt as if he had a big lump 
in his throat, and inclined to cry. 


5. Next morning he awoke refreshed, but had 
to rub his eyes a long time before he could 
remember where he was. He sat up and looked 
around, ate a few of his berries, and tried to 
think of what his father would do if he were 
there. As he sat, he thought he heard the mur- 
muringf of a stream in the distance. He listened 
carefully to know the exact direction of the stream; 
then looking straight towards it, off he set to try 
and reach it. 

6. He had seen his father guide himself by 
always keeping three trees in the same line, and 
Willie did so now, and found, to his great delight, 
that the sound of the water increased. Cautiously 
looking forward from one tree in front to one still 
further on, so as not to go either to the right or 
left out of the straight line, he soon reached the 
banks of the stream. 

7. He knew now that by keeping along the edge 
of the stream he would in time come to some clear- 
ing. But the wood was dense, the fallen trees 
numerous, and the brushwood so thick that he had 

6. What is meant by keeping three trees in the same 
line? Wi-ite the paragraph, replacing guide, dehght, in- 
creased, and reached, by other words having the same 

7. Name words in the paragraph which have the same mean- 
ings as plentiful, icalkcdon slomily but steadily, and tired. 


hard work to make any progress. Little by little 
the berries went, and still the brave little fellow 
plodded on, until the second night. Weary and 
footsore he again lay down to rest, and again cried 
himself to sleep, after praying to God to help him 
and to bring him to his parents once more. 

8. Next morning he was very hungry. No 
berries were to be found, but his brave spirit 
kept him up, and still he pushed on down the 
bank of the stream. At last, when almost worn 
out, his clothes all torn, and himself cut and 
bruised, he spied a little clearing. Gathering all 
his energies together he managed to reach it, and 
soon came to a small log-shanty, where he was 
taken care of. 

9. Upon inquiring, it was found that he was 
now twenty miles from his home, but the kind 
people who had taken him in sent word to his 
father, who joyfully came and took him home. 
His mother, when she saw him, cried for joy, 
after having wept and mourned for her poor lost 
boy, whom she never expected to see again. Nor, 
Indeed, would Willie have ever reached home If 
he had not been brave and determined, in spite of 
all obstacles. 

8. What is meant by spied, managed to reach it, and 
gathering all his energies together? 



was surprised; was astonish- 
ed, was struck with wondei\ 

pathless forest; bush with- 
out a path. 

refreshed ; with new hfe. 

murmuring; low confused 

direction of the stream; 

way it was from where he 

dense ; thick. 
progress; moving forward. 
energies ; strength. 
obstacles: hindrances. 

Write a sentence about yourself and one of your friends. 

Use the following words with z's or arc correctly in sentences: 
the woods, the banks of the stream, the brushwood, 
Willie "Wilson and his mother, we, he, you. 

Tell the story of Willie Wilson in your own words. Write it. 




Pronounce distinctly :- 

root' lets 
hur' ri cane 

tor na' do (long a) 
ab sorb' 

cu' ri ous 
va ri' e ty 

1. A plant is not like an animal that can move 
about. It grows and stays in one place. What 
keeps it in that place .'^ Its roots. These grow 
down into the ground, and there hold fast, so that 
any wind that comes along may not blow the plant 

2. Some plants, such as the 
carrot, have just one large root 
in the ground. Above ground 
the carrot is not high; it has 
no stem, and its few leaves grow 
out of the top of the root. From 
this root, however, many fine 
hair-like roots grow out singly 
at the lower end. But most large 
plants, such as trees, and even 
small ones, such as tiny herbs, 
have branching roots. That is, 
the large root spreads out into 
rootlets as the stem spreads out into branches. 

2. Write the names of six common plants that, like the 
carrot, have a single root. What is the stem of a j^lant ? 



3. Look at this picture 
of stems and roots. Do they 
not all look very much like 
the legs and feet of a bird ? 
But a bird has only three 
or, at most, four toes on each 
foot, while the plant has in 
ih^ foot so many that they 
cannot be counted. With 
such a host of toes, and far- 
reaching claws, all closely 
packed into the ground, the 
plant can cling firmly to the earth, 

4. If a gale blows, it will not easily tear up the 
plant. A hurricane or a tornado will sometimes 
tear big trees out of the ground ; but that does not 
often happen. One of the uses of the root, then, 
is to hold the plant firmly in its place. 

5. But that is not all — it has more Important 
work than that to do. By means of the roots the 
plant gets a large part of its food from the ground. 
They absorb the water from the soil, and with this 
water they get other substances which the plant 

6. There Is something very curious about the 

6. Write the paragraph, replacing curious, act, seem, 
needs, kind, absorb, and what, by words or phrases having 
the same meanings as these words. 


way in which the roots act. They seem to know 
what the plant needs. The roots of one kind of 
pkint will suck out of the earth just what that 
variety needs, and the roots of another kind of 
plant will absorb just what // needs. 

7. The roots of all plants know what to take 
out of the ground besides water, of which they all 
take a great deal. And if a plant should be 
placed in a soil that has not the food it needs, 
what can the poor roots do.'^ They do not find 
their proper food, and so the plant grows sickly 
and dies. 

8, How do roots get so deep into the earth, 
and grow all over and around big rocks and little? 
It is in this way. W^hen the tips of the rootlets 
are sucking up food for the plant, they are also 
growing longer. As the young roots are very- 
fine, they can pick their way easily enough, for 
they have nothing to do but to lie still and let 
more root grow on to their ends; and of course 
these little ends will go whichever way they like 
or can. 

hurricane or tornado ; \ io- absorb ; snck u]), draw in. 
lent storms of wind. variety; kind. 

Use /s or are correctly in sentences containing,' the following 
words and phrases: a plant, some animals, hurricanes, 
tiny herbs, the soil. 




Pronounce distinctly:- 

scar loped {skuliipt) 


en a' bled 

o' val 

as' ters 


chest' nut {chrss) 

tu' Up 

as par' a gus 

1. We think of a leaf as something thin and 
broad, ot its edges as smoothly rounded, prettily 
scalloped, or nicely toothed, and of its color 

as of a pleasing green. Many 
plants have leaves shaped 
somewhat like the apple leaf 
— which is nearly oval. On 
some plants these oval leaves 
are smooth on the edge ; on 
others the edges are toothed, 
like those of the chestnut-oak 

2. The leaves of some plants are coarsely 
toothed; on other plants, the teeth are very fine. 
Many herbs, such as the asters and golden-rods 
of our woods, and the wild sunflowers, have not 
only leaves with both coarse and fine teeth, but 
have many small leaves with smooth edges, all 
on the same plant. A leaf may be very long 
and oval, or very short and broad, and some 
leaves are almost round. 



3. Then, again, there are heart-shaped leaves. 
Some morning-glory plants have such 
leaves. Many plants have scalloped 
leaves. Nearly all oaks have leaves 
of this kind. The live-oak and the 
willow-oak, which are not found in 
Canada, have smooth oval leaves. 

4. Here is a leaf of a very curious shape, 
and a pretty leaf it is. It 
grows on very large and tall 
trees, called tulip trees, so 
named because they have 
large flowers shaped some- 
what like a tulip. These 
splendid trees grow in the 
forests in some parts of Can- 
ada and the United States. 

5. These are only a few 
of the countless varieties of leaves to be met with 
in the forests of the world. Their shapes are so 
many and so different that a large book would not 
hold pictures of them all. 

6. Leaves are for the most part thin and broad. 
Being thin they are light, and a tree with its many 

4, 5, 6. Write the paragraphs, using for curious, shape, tall, 
splendid, forests, countless, different, for the most part, 
and branches, other words or phrases which will not change 
the meaning. 


little branches can hold thousands of them and 
not break down. Being broad, they are enabled 
to come into contact with a good deal of air ; 
and that is just what the plant wants them to do 
— to take in from the air all the food they can. 

7. And how do the leaves do this.'^ By a kind 
of breathing. A leaf has a skin on each of its 
sides, and the skin on the lower side has thousands 
of fine holes, through which the air gets inside the 
leaf There a part of the air joins the sap or juice 
that has come up from the roots, and the two 
together make the food upon which the whole 
plant feeds. 

8. When the wind blows, the leaves bend and 
flutter about, but they hold fast to the branches by 
their tough little stalks ; and if a few of the weaker 
ones do blow off, it does not matter much, for the 
plant has plenty more left. The firm, round trunk 
hardly moves, and the strong round branches bend 
over, but do not break ; while the roots in the 
ground below hold everything fast. 

9. There are plants, however, that have very 
slender, needle-like leaves. The different varieties 
of pines have such leaves, which generally hang 
from the trees in bunches. The asparagus plant, 

g. What word in the paragraph has the same meaning ag 
bunches ? 



the young shoots of which we eat, has thread-Hke 
leaves that come out on the stems in round clus- 
ters. There are many other plants with leaves 
not thicker than pins; and some plants have very 
short and thick leaves. 

scalloped ; marked along the enabled ; made able. 

edge with round notches. come into contact "with; 

oval; shaped like an egg. touch. 

Write words which are pronounced like air, whole, their, 
weak, some, our, and flower. Write sentences containing 
these words. 

Write sentence-answers to the following questions: — Why 
are leaves thin ? Why are they broad ? What do they do for 
the plant ? Throi ' ' ' " \'\ • ' i a plant get its food ? 




Pronounce distinctly: — 


a' pron 


rip' pie 

rib' bons 


■win' some 

ha' zel 

his' to ry 

I. Grandmamma sits in her quaint arm-chair; 
Never was lady so sweet and fair; 
Her gray locks ripple like silver shells. 
And her own brow it'^ story tells 



Of a gentle life and peaceful even, 
A trust in God, and a hope in heaven. 

2. Little girl May sits rocking away 

In her own low seat, like some winsome fay; 
Two doll babies her kisses share, 
And another one lies by the side of her chair; 
May is as fair as the morning dew. 
Cheeks of roses, and ribbons of blue. 

3. "Say, grandmamma," says the pretty elf, 
"Tell me a story about yourself 

When you were little, what did you play? 
Were you good or naughty the whole long day .f^ 
Was it hundreds and hundreds of years ago? 
And what makes your soft hair as white as snow ? 

4. Did you have a mamma to hug and kiss. 
And a dolly like this, and this, and this? 
Did you have a pussy like my little Kate? 
Did you go to bed when the clock struck eight? 
Did you have long curls, and beads like mine? 
And a new silk apron with ribbons fine?" 

5. Grandmamma smiled at the little maid, 
And laying aside her knitting, she said: 
"Go to my desk, and a red box you'll see; 
Carefully lift it and bring it to me." 

I. Clearly explain the meaning of ripple like silver shells, 
and peaceful even. 

4 and 5. Write and give the meanings of words pronounced 
like eight, maid, and see. 


So May put her dollies away, and ran, 
Saying, "I'll be careful as ever I can." 

6. The grandmamma opened the box, and lo! 
A beautiful child with throat like snow, 
Lip just tinted like pink shells rare, 

Eyes of hazel, and golden hair. 

Hand all dimpled, and teeth like pearls, — 

Fairest and sweetest of little girls. 

7. "Oh! who is it?" cried winsome May, 
"How I wish she were here to-day! 
Wouldn't I love her like everything; 
Wouldn't I with her frolic and sing! 

Say, dear grandmamma, who can she be?" 
"Darling," said grandmamma, "I was she." 

8. May looked long at the dimpled grace. 
And then at the saint-like, fair old face: 

" How funny!" she cried, with a smile and a kiss, 
"To have such a dear little grandma as this! 
Still," she added, with smiling zest, 
"I think, dear grandma, I \\Vq. yoii best." 

9. So May climbed on the silken knee, 
And grandmamma told her history : 
What plays she played, what toys she had, 
How at times she was naughty, or good, or sad! 

6. What is meant by pink shells rare ? 
8. What is meant by dimpled grace? 



"But the best thing you did," said May, "don't 

you see? 
Was to grow a beautiful grandma for me." 

tinted; slightly colored. 
hazel; light brown, 
saint ; holy person, 
zest; enjoyment. 

quaint; odd-looking. 

ripple; wave, aie wavy. 

winsome; merry. 

fay or elf; fairy. 

her history ; stoiy of her life. 

Make a sentence out of each of the following groups of Avords : 
Pair, there, was, and, sweet, so, a, lady, never. 
Girl, a. May, little, winsome, was, you, parents, re- 
pay, never, your, can, their care, for, of, you. 


Pronounce distinctly: — 

o' dors edg' es sta' men 

gen' er al ly us^ u al ly knobs 

pet' als yel' low pis' tils 

I. Why do most people 

like flowers so much? It 

is because of their pretty 

^ shapes and lovely colors; 

while the sweet odors 

which many of them give 

out make them agreeable 

and very pleasant. 

2. Flowers have a great many shapes. There 

are as many forms to flowers as there are to leaves. 



But you can generally tell a flower from a leaf by 
its form alone, even if you do not know its color. 

3. Here 
is a picture 
of a leaf, and 
^ 'fj^M 2i\so one of a 
\y^/ flower. Now, 
you can eas- 
ily tell which 
is the leaf 

and which is the flower, although you see no 
color. How is this } You see that the leaf 
is made of only one blade, but that the flower 
has several blades, all growing from the same 

4. A vast number of plants have flowers like 
the lily. Some have only three blades, some have 
four, some five, some six, some seven, eight, nine, 
ten, or a great many more. 

5. These little blades are called 

petals. Flowers with five petals, as 

in the picture, are very plentiful. 

Now, you see, the petals set in a 

circle make the flower somewhat 

3. What word means the opposite of with difficulty ? 

5. What word means the opposite oi scarce, and what one has 
the same meaning as arranged ? 



round m form. Indeed, there is something round 
about ahiiost every flower. 

6. Sometimes the petals do not stand apart, 
but are joined by their edges, form- 
ing a httle bag or tube somewhat 
Hke a quill; or, they may be joined 
so as to make the flower hollow like 
a cup or a bell, as in the morning- 
glory and the harebell. There are also leaves 
that are quite round; but then they are not 
hollow or cup-shaped like a flower. They are flat. 

7. Look at some flowers and you will see little 
thread-like things, usually of a yellow color, and 
growing from the same centre as the petals. On 

the end of each is 
^viifl ,-, _ ^ little case, or hol- 

low body, about as 
big as a pin-head, 
or larger. These 
little sacks are 
mostly narrow and 

long— that is, oval. This tiiread with the case is 

called a stanien. 

8. If you will look into some other flowers 
you will not see these stamens, but, instead, you 

7. Name a word in paragraph 2 that has the same meaning 
as usually in this paragraph. 



will see, standing in the centre of the tlower, one 
or more little stalks, with knobs on top of them 
very like a small bead in shape. They often look 
somewhat like stamens, but they are generally 
much thicker, and not so yellow. These stalks 
with the knobs are called pistils. The morning- 
glory has only one pistil, but the rose and butter- 
cup have a great many. Some pistils have two, 
three, four, or five knobs. 

odors; smells, scents. centre; middle. 

fS^ These lessons will be very useful and interesting if the 
pupils are taught to distinguish petals, stamens, pistils, etc., on 
real flowers. 

Was and were, like is and are, are often improperly used by 

boys and girls. Notice the following statements and questions: 

The morning -gloi-y was\ „, . , , , 

Ihe mornnig-glory and the 

growmg \ . '^ * ^ 

„, . rose were, growing, 

ihe rose ivas gi^owmg ) 

The flower was plucked. . . . The flowers were plucked. 

Was the lily watei^ed ? Were the lilies watered ? 

From these we learn the following rules;— 

When we make a statement, or ask a question, about one 
person, place, or thing, we should use was, but were should be 
used when the statement or question is about more than one 
person, place, or thing. 

Write statements (using was or icere) about a violet, a sun- 
flower, daisies, and dandelions. 

In each statement, draw a line underneath the words which 
show what the statement is made about, and two lines under- 
neath the words which show what is stated. 

Write questions (using zcas or were) about stamens, petals, 
John and Mary, some flowers, and the picture. 

1 84 




Pronounce distinctly:^ 

a dorns' " with' ers 

per' fume 

pump' kins pol' len 

rus' set 

1. Now, it is in the bottom of the pistil that 
the young seed grows. Already, while the lovely 
flower adorns the beautiful day, the young seed, 
so small that it cannot be seen, is beginning to 
grow at the bottom of the pistil. And after the 
petals of the flowers drop off or wilt, the seed con- 
tinues to grow until it gets ripe, while the bottom 
of the flower, usually green and hard, grows 
round the seed, and makes the fruit. 

2. Look at the 
large yellow, bell- 
shaped flower of the 
squash or pumpkin- 
vine. There it is, 
at first, with its pis- 
tils of three knobs, 
gladdening the day- 
liofht with its beau- 
tiful color, and ants, 

I and 2- Write these paragraphs, using fur lovely, begin- 
ning, continues, gets, usually, gladdening, and withers, 

other words wliich will not change the sense. 


bees, wasps, and butterflies go in to suck its 
sweets ; while all the time the young fruit is grow- 
ing at the bottom. By-and-by the flower withers 
and drops ofl^ and where it was, there now grows 
and ripens the big squash or still bigger pumpkin. 

3. But there are other flowers on the pump- 
kin-vine. They, too, are large, yellow, bell-shaped 
and beautiful ; but when fkey drop off, no fruit 
takes their place. Then what are they for } Ah ! 
that is the question ! Look into those flowers 
and you will see stamens, but no pistils. Slich 
flowers cannot bear fruit. No seed grows in a 

4. Then what are stamens for '^ In the hol- 
low bodies or cases on the ends of the stamens 
there grows a fine dust. That dust, when it is 
ripe, w^orks out of the cases, and when wasps, 
butterflies, or other little creai^ures go into the 
flower, they rub against the cases, and the dust 
sticks to them. Presently they go into other 
pumpkin-flowers, perhaps into one that has a 
pistil. Of course, they are very likely to rub 
against that too. Then the fine dust- — called 
pollen — which the insect brought from the stamen 
in the first flower, rubs off on to one of the cases 
of the pistil. 

4. Write the names of five kinds of insects. 


5. Then it is, and not till then, that the hidden 
seed begins to grow in the bottom of the pistil. 
The pollen had to come from the stamen, or no 
seed would have grown in the pistil. So you see, 
stamens ha^«e work to do. From their knobs they 
yield the pollen, and that pollen must in some way 
get to the pistils, or no fruit will grow. 

6. Many plants have both pistils and stamens 
in the same flower. In such flowers the pistil is 
in the middle, and the stamens usually grow 
around it. Did you ever see an apple blossom? 
That has the pistil with the stamens set round 
it. The pollen from the stamens gets on to the 
pistil, and only then does the fruit begin to 

7. After sweetening the air with their perfume 
for a few days, the little rosy blades or petals of 
the flower drop off, the young apple not as big as 
a pin-head grows bigger and bigger, and by the 
time the autumn comes round there hangs on the 
tree a fine russet. Remember, stamens and pistils 
made that apple grow. 

adorns ; makes beautiful. gladdening ; making bright, 

wilt ; begin to wither. perfume ; scent, sweet smell. 

Use the following words in written sentences: — pistil, gro-W, 
until, off, ant, aunt, rub, too, one, won, yield, middle, 
no, know, a few days, apple. 




Pronounce distinctly: — 
shone crown' ed 


1. Little white Lily 

Sat by a stone, 
Drooping and waiting 

Till the sun shone. 
Little white Lily 

Sunshine has fed; 
Little white Lily 

Is lifting her head. 

2. Little white Lily 

Said 'Tt is good; 
Little white Lily's 

Clothing and food." 
Little white Lily 

Dressed like a bride ! 
Shinin"' with white- 

And crowned beside ! 

3. Little white Lily 

Droopeth with pain. 
Waiting and waiting 

For the wet rain. 
Little white Lily 

Holdeth her cup; 
Rain is fast falling 

And filling it up. 

4. Little white Lily 

Said "Good again, 
When I am thirsty 

To have fresh rain. 
Now I am stronger 

Now I am cool; 
Heat cannot burn me, 

My veins are so full." 

1. What is meant by drooping? 

2. What is the clothing of the hly ? With what is she 
crowned ? 

3. What caused her to droop with pain? What is her 

4. Of what are her veins full? 



5, Little white Lily 
.Smells very sweet ;^ 
On her.head sunshine, 
Rain at her feet. 

Thanks to the sunshine, 
Thanks to the rain, 

Little white Lily 
Is happy again! 

Write sentence-answers to the, questions on this lesson. 



Pronounce distinctly: — 

tough or' an ges buck' le ber ries 

"wheth' er lem' ons "wal' nuts 

tu' bers (long tt) mel' ons hick' o ry 

to ma' to cu' cum bers (A( a) pump' kin 

pears cur' rants a' corn 

peach' es cran' ber ries purs' lane 

1. If you cut open an apple, you will find, in- 
side, the seeds. These seeds, as we learned in 
the lesson on the flower, first began to grow at the 
bottom of the pistils of the flower. The little pink 
petals, and the little threads of stamens, dropped 
off; and after that the young seeds still went on to 
grow, and around them also grew larger and thicker 
the green and harder part of the flower, which was 
below and outside of the little colored petals. 

2. As the young seeds went on growing, and 
the lower part of the flower went on growing too, 
the big round apple began at last to ripen, and 
the seeds inside of it also ripened. Now, of what 
use was all that part of the apple around the seed.'* 
You will say: " O, it grew there for us to eat." 

3. But it did not grow there merely for us to 
eat. The apple, when it was getting ripe, w^as a 
kind of house for the seeds. It kept them safe 
from the weather, and no doubt kept off many a 


bug and fly. And when the tender Httle seeds at 
last got ripe, and had a good tough skin around 
them, they could begin to take pretty good care of 

4. This house for the seeds we call the fruit. 
Whether it is eaten or not, it is still the fruit of the 
plant. There are thousands of plants which bear 
fruit which nobody ever eats. 

5. We must not make a mistake and call things 
fruits that are not fruits. Common potatoes are 
not fruits. They are tubers, which are thickened 
parts of the underground stems of certain plants. 
When you cut open a potato you find no seeds. 
But the potato-plant /las seeds. It has flowers, 
fruit, and seed, all above ground; but the plant 
is usually cut away before the fruit and seed can 
ripen. It is only those large round lumps which 
we call potatoes that the gardener cares about, 
and they are the only thing about the potato-plant 
that is fit for eating. 

6. It is different with tomato-plants. They 
have no tubers, but they bear those beautiful fruits 
which we call tomatoes. When you cut open a 
tomato, what do you see ? A large number of 
seeds. That shows you it is a fruit. Now, a 

4. Name plants the fruit of which i?. not good for food. 


potato-plant and a tomato-plant are very much 
alike. They are like sisters in the same family. 
But of the one plant we eat the fruit, and of the 
other we eat — not the root, but a tuber that grows 

7. Remember, then, it is not always the fruit 
of a plant which we eat ; but the fruit is that which 
holds the seed. A bean-pod is the fruit of a 
bean-plant; and when the pod gets ripe and dry it 
splits open, and there, inside, are the ripe seeds, the 
beans, ready to drop out. Just so is it with peas. 
The peas are the seeds of the pea-plant, and they 
grow inside of the pea-pod, which is the fruit, 

8. Fruits have many shapes ; but almost every 
fruit is somewhat round in form. You can 
think of apples, pears, cherries, plums, peaches, 
oranges, lemons, grapes, watermelons, pumpkins, 
cucumbers, currants, Q^ooseberries, cranberries, 
huckleberries, walnuts, and hickory-nuts, with their 
coatings or coverings. 

9. But then there are fruits not f?\ y<\ 
so round as these. Maple trees \.f/^^ (^^1 
have fruits shaped like the one 
shown in this picture. They are 
called keys. The two seeds inside 
are close together, and near the 
stalk; and from each thick round part where the 


seed is there grows a thin blade or wing. After 
the fruit is ripe it falls off the trees and away 
goes the key sailing through the air. 

lo. An acorn is a fruit with a cup. Some 
plants have fruit like a little box. The lid opens 
when the fruit is ripe, and the 
seeds drop out. The common 
purslane, in almost every gar- 
den, has such a fruit. In this 
picture you see the seeds piled 
up inside, and the lid about to 
fall off This gives the seeds a chance to reach 
the ground, take root there, and in due time bring 
forth others of their kind. But this you will hear 
of in the next lesson. 



Write sentence- answers to the following questions : — 

How can the fruit of a plant always be known ? 

What is the chief use of the fruits? 

What are tubers ? 

What is the fruit of the maple called ? 



Pronounce distinctly : — 
clothe plumes («< as in times) sprout 

1. A young seed is like a little child, and the 
plant on which it grows is its mother. The plant 
takes care of the young seed. It feeds it, and gives 
it a little house to grow in. That house is the 
fruit. The seed and the fruit cannot feed them- 
selves. This is done by the mother plant, which, 
through its roots, takes food from the ground, and 
by its leaves takes other food from the air. 

2. A tiny young plant will grow out of the 
seed if the ground into which it drops is good, and 
if the weather is favorable. This plant will take 
root in the earth, send up stem and branches into 
the air, and clothe itself with beautiful leaves. 
Thus the little seed, which once clung to its mother, 
as it was growing in its little house, becomes in its 
turn a pretty plant. 

3. It grows larger and stronger, and at last it is 
ready to put forth tiowers. Then, if all its flowers 
have stamens only, and no pistils, it can have no 
fruit. But if some or all of its flowers have pistils, 
it can have fruit. The seeds will grow where the 
pistils were, and with the seeds will come the fruit. 



4. And SO it goes on. One plant will grow up 
and have flowers, fruit, and seed. From that seed 
a like plant will grow. The seed of an apple will 
grow into an apple tree. An orange seed will 
grow into an orange tree, The seed of a rose 
will grow to be a rose-bush. A grain of wheat will 
grow up to be a fine large grass. That grass is 
the noble wheat-plant. And so it is with all plants. 
Each plant has its own kind of seed; and this 
seed will grow to be a plant like itself. 

5. Seeds, as well as flowers and fruits, are of 
many shapes ; but, like flower and fruit, every kind 
of seed is round-like in form. Very many seeds 
are round, like the pea. A great many grasses 
and other plants have very small round seeds, 
some not larger than grains of sand. 

6. Then there are oval seeds, like beans, and 
thin and flat seeds, such as you find in a water- 
melon or in a pumpkin. Some seeds have silken 
plumes, and when they drop off the plant, go 
sailing far and wide through the air like those of 
thistles and dandelions. 

7. No matter how small or how large the seed 
is, or what its shape, inside of its snug covering 
lies a little plant, asleep. It may be very small, 
still it is there. When it falls into good ground, 
and rain and heat and light come to it, the seed 


will sprout ; and this sprout is the little plant that 
was asleep inside of it, now growing out into root, 
stem, branch, and leaf. 

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Fill the blanks in the following sentences with is or arc, as 
required by the sense : — 

The fruit a house for the seed. Seeds of many 

shapes. The wheat-plant, the oat-plant, and the barlej'-plant 
grasses. The seeds of beans oval. Roots, 

stem, leaves, flowers, and seeds parts of a plant. 

Use was or ivcrc in the following : — 

The orange seed dropped on the ground. He and I 

in London. The watermelons stolen. The 

sheep's foot hurt. The sheep asleep in 

their fold. A flock of pigeons seen above the houses. 



Pronounce distinctly :— 

dai' sies yel' low cuck' oo-pint 

pow' dered col' um bine toll 

marsh ma' ry wrap' per lin' net 

1. There's no ciew left on the daisies and clover, 

There's no rain left in heaven : 
I've said my "Seven Times" over and over; 
Seven times one are seven. 

2. I am old, so old I can write a letter; 

My birthday lessons are done; 
The lambs play alv/ays, they know no better; 
They are only one times one. 

3. O Moon ! in the night I have seen you sailing 

And shining so round and low; 
You were bright ! ah, bright ! but your light is 
failinof ; 
You are nothing now but a bow, 

4. You Moon ! have you done something wrong 

in heaven, 
That God has hidden your face ? 
I hope, if you have, you will be forgiven, 
And shine again in your place. 

2. What different meanings has letter? Write sentences 
containing the woi'ds write and riglit. 

3. Name the silent letters in night, sailing', low, bright, 
failing", and bow. Bow has several meanings : mention three 
of them. 

IqS royal CANADIAN series. 

5. O velvet bee, you're a dusty fellow, 

You've powdered your legs with gold ! 
O brave marshmary buds, rich and yellow, 
Give me your money to hold ! 

6. O columbine, open your folded wrapper 

Where two twin turtle-doves dwell ! 

cuckoo-pint, toll me the 2:)urple clapper 
That hangs in your clear green bell! 

7. And show me your nest with the young ones 

in it; 
I will not steal them away; 

1 am old ! you may trust me, linnet, linnet ! 

I am seven times one to-day. 

5 and 6. Marshmary (marsh-marigold), columbine, and 
cuckoo-pint are the names of flowermg plants. What is here 
meant by money? What do you understand by toll, and 
clapper ? 

Has, like is and was., may be used to make a statement, or ask 
a question, about one person, place, or thing. When we make a 
statement, or ask a question, about more than one person, place, 
or thing, we should use have. 

Use has or have to make statements or ask questions about 
no rain, a letter, the lambs, my birthday lessons, your 
money, and two twin turtle-doves. 


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