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BY -^^— .^_^_ 


VOL, n. 



Jpublietae in ^fDcUfnat; to i^n fSUitett, 



(All right* reaerved.) 



The numbers refer to the 5. 

Book IX. 


I. Jacob Bohme. — 296. Parallel between Mystics and Sec- 

taries. 297. Character and Mission of Mystics. 298. 
Merits of Bohme. 299. Bohme's Influence. 300. Jacob 
Bohme — a poem^ 301. Sketch of. Bohme's Life. 302. 
The Philadelphians. 

II. EsfANUEXi SwEDENBOBG. — 303. Emanucl Swedenborg. 304. 
His Writings and Theories. 305. Rationale of Sweden- 
borg^s Writings. 306. The New Jerusalem. 307. Vari- 
ous Swedenborgian Sects. 308. llluminati of Avignon. 
309. Illuminated Theosophists. 310. Philosophic Scotch 
Rite. 31 1. Rite of the Philalethes. 312. Rite of Sweden- 
borg. 313. Universal Aurora. 

III. Martinism. — 314. Martinez Paschalis. 315. Saint 

vi Analytical Table of Contents. 

Book X. 


Spabtacus and Philo. — 316. Foundation of Order. 317. Orr 
ganization. 318. Progress of Order. 319. Secret Papers 
and Coirespondence. 320. Conclusion. 

Book XL 


I. Chauffeurs ob Bubnebs. — 321. Origin and Organization 
of Society. 322. Religious and Civil Ceremonies. 323- 
The Grand Master. 324. Discovery of the Society. 

n. Gabduna. — 325. Origin of the Society. 326. Organization. 
327. Spirit of the Society. 328. Signs, Legend, &c. 
329. Suppression of the Society. 

Book XII. 


I. Fbench Wobkmen's Unions. — 330. Organization of 
Workmen's Union. 331. Connection with Freemasonry. 
332. Decrees against Workmen's Unions. 333. Traditions. 
334. Branches and D^rees. 335. Yarious Associations. 
336. General Customs. 337. Customs among Charcpal- 
bum^rs and Hewers. 338. Customs in various other 
Trades. 339. Heroes and Martyrs of the Listitution. 

IL Gebman Wob&mbn's Unions. — 340. Huntsmen's Phrase- 
ology. 341. Liitiation. 342. Liitiation of Cooper. 343. 
Curious Works on the Subject. 344. Raison d'etre of the 
Compagnonnage. 345. Guilds. 346. German Students. 
347. Ancient custom of Initiation. 

Analytical Table of Contents. vii 

Book XIII. 


348. History of the Association. 349. Saint Theobald. 350. 
The Yendita or Lodge. 351. Ritual of Initiation. 352. 


First Degree. 353. Second Degree. 354. Degree of 
Grand Elect. 355. Grand Master Grand Elect. 356. 
Signification of Symbols. 357. Other Ceremonies and 
Regulations. 358. Ausonian Republic. 359. Other 
Charter. 360. Carbonarism and Murat. 361. Carbonarism 
and the Bourbons. 362. Carbonarism and the Church. 
363. Carbonarism in Northern Italy. 364. Carbonarism 
in France. 

Book XIV. 

365. Introductory. 366. Establishment of Institution. 367. 
Progress of Institution. 368. Judicial Procedure. 369. 
Tortures. 370. Condemnation and Execution of Prisoners. 
371. History continued. 372. The Fabe Nuncio. 373. 
General History continued. 

Book XV. 

I. Independents. — 374. Insurrectionary Centres in Italy. 

375. Guelphic Knights. 376. Guelphs and Carbonari. 
S77. Independents. 378. Delphic Priesthood. 879. 

II. Napoleonism and Anti-Napoleonism. — 380. The Rays. 
381. Societies in Favour of Napoleon. 382. The Centres. 

viii Analytical Table of Contents, 

III. Southern Provinces. — 383. Various Societies. 384. 
Italian Litterateurs. 385. Societies in Calabria and the 
Abruzzi. 386. Giro Annichiarico. 387. Certificates of 
the Decisi. 388. Vai'ious other Societies. 

IV. The Clerics. — 389. Consistorials. 390. Roman Catholic 
Apostolic Congregation. 391. Sanfedisti. 392. Calderari. 
393. Societies in Favour of Napoleonism. 394. Apostolate 
of Dante. 

V. Central Italy and Lombardt. — 395. American Hunters 
and other Societies. 396. Secret Italian Society in London. 
397. .Secret Italian Societies in Paris. 

VI. Exiles. — 398. Egyptian Lodges. 399. Illuminati. 

Book XVI. 


I. Young Poland. — 400. Polish Patriotism. 401. Various 

Revolutionary Sects. 402. Secret National Grovemment. 

II. Union or Safety. — 403. Historical Sketch of Society. 
404. Nihilists. 

III. Union of Virtue. — 405. G-erman Feeling against Napo- 
leon. 406. Formation and Scope of Tugendbund. 407. 
Divisions among Members of the Society. 408. Activity 
of the Tvgendhund. 409. Hostility of Governments against 

IV. Irish Societies. — 410. The White-boys. 411. Right-boys 
and Oak-boys. 412. Hearts of Steel, Threshers, Break-of- 
Day-Boys, Defenders, United Irishmen, Ribbonmen. 413. 
Saint Patrick Boys. 414. The Orangemen. 

V. Fenians. — 415. Origin and Organization of Fenianism. 
416. Origin of Name. 417. Fenian Litany. 418. Events. 
419. Comic Aspects of Fenianism. 

VI. Communists. — 420. Secret Societies in Spain. 421. Free- 
masonry in Spain. 422. The Conununists. 

Analytical Table of Contents. ix 

VII. International and Commune.— 423, Introductory Re- 
marks. 424. Socialistic Schemes. 425. History of the 
International. 426. Object and Aims of International. 
427. The International on the Continent. 428. How the 
International works. 429. Budget of the International. 
430. The International and the Empire. 431. The In- 
ternational and the War. 432. The International and 
the Revolution. 433. The International and the Com- 
mune. 434. Parisian Communists. 435. Character and 
Doings of the Commune. 436. Kaoul Eigault. 437. 
Courbet. 438. Assassinations of Generals Lecomte and 
Clement Thomas. 439. The Petroleuses. 440. The In- 
ternationales Comment. 441. Vitality of the Socialist 

VIII. Permanent Revolution. — 442. Various Revolutionary 
Societies in France. 

IX. Young Italy. — 443. Revolutionary Societies in Italy. 
444. Various Societies. 445. Italian Insurrections. 446. 
Assassination of Rossi. 

Book XVII. 

447. ABC Friends. 448. Academy of the Ancients. 449. 
Almusseri. 450. Anonymous Society. 451. Anti-Masons. 
452. Apocalypse, Knights of the. 453. Areoiti. 454. 
Avengers, or Vendicatori. 455. Babismo. 456. Belly 
Paaro. 457. Camisards. 458. Charlottenburg, Order of. 
459. Church Masons. 460. Camorra. 461. Cougurde. 
462. Dervishes. 463. Etherists. 464. Fraticelli. 465. 
Goats, The. 466. Hare's Foot, Society of the. 467. 
Huseanawer. 468. Invisibles, The. 469. Jesuits. 470. 
Initiations. 471. Blessing the Dagger. 472. Secret 
Instructions. 473. Jehu, Society of. 474. Know-Nothings. 
475. Ku-Klux Klan. 476. Liberty, Knights of. 477. 

Analytical Table of Contents. 

LioD, Enightg of the. 478. Lion, Tlie Sleeping. 479. 
M^ Order of the. 480. MaMr^as. 481. Nemesis. 
482, 0-Kee-Pft. 483. Pantheiata. 484. Phi-Beta-KftppB. 
485. Pilgrims. 486. Purrah. 4B7. Rebeccaites and 
Hunters. 488. Redemption, Order of, 489. R^ener&tion, 
Society of UniversaL 490, Sikh Fanal^. 491. Tobacoo- 
logical Society. 492. UniTeraatists. 493. Tbtrteen, The. 
494. Thugs. 495. Traditions. 496. Initiation. 497. 
Suppression, 498. Wahabe«s. 499. Yellow Caps, Society 
of the. 

BOOK rs. 

, ** Chorus Mystictis, 

** AUes Vergangliche 
l3t nur ein Gleichniss ; 
Das Unzulanglicfae 
Hier wird*s Ereigniss ; 
Bas TJnbeschreibliche 
Hier ist's gethan ; 
Das Ewig-Weibliche 
Zieht uns hinan." — FavsL 

" The wisest of the pagan world, and their greatest philosophers, 
held Thenrgic Magic in the highest edteem. Theurgy was, according 
to them, a divine art which served only to advance the mind of man 
to the highest perfection, and they who by means of this magic had 
the happiness to arrive at what they called Aiitopsia or Intuition , a 
state wherein they enjoyed intimate intercourse with the gods, 
believed themselves invested with all their power." — Mato. 

^' It was anciently believed in all nations that there were means 
whereby men and women might come to have some acquaintance 
and communication with God."— -^9» Introdvfition to Theoaojphy, 

II. B 


Matter. Saint-Martin, le Fhilosophe inconna, sa Yie, et 
ses Ecrits, son Maitre Martinez et leurs Groupes. 
Paris, 1862. 

Swedenhorg. Works passvm. 

Matter, Emmanuel de Swedenborg : sa Yie, ses Ecrits et 
sa Doctrine. Paris, 1863* 

Bdhme. Works pasavm, 

Gerard de Nerval, Les Illumines. Paris, 1852. 


f^ARALLEL between Mystics ani? 8ec- 
I taries. — All secret aociebiea liave some 
1 comiection with mysticiflm, secret itself, 
' delighting in mystery, as the loving 
soul delights in surronnding the beloved object 
with mystery. Sectaries to some extent are the 
parents of mystica. The silent adoration of the 
Infinite, in which mystics delight, has its counter- 
part in the worship of progress, liberty, and truth, 
to which sectaries devote themselves. Progress, 
liberty, truth, are attributes of the Divine; whoso 
loves these attributes, loves and apprehends God. 
The mystics are the men of thought, the sectaries 
the men of action. However remote the thoughts 
of the former may seem from application to every- 
day life, from political strife, they yet have a 
positive influence on human belief and will. The 

4 Secret Societies. 

mystics behold in paradise that same ideal^ trans- 
figured, enlarged, and perpetuated, which the sec- 
taries pursue on earth. 

297. Character and Mission of Mystics. — ^The 
mystics continue the school of ancient initiations, 
which to many nations were their only philosophy, 
science, and liberty. They are the priests of In- 
finity ; in their tenderness they are the most tole- 
rant of men, pardoning all, even the devil; they 
embrace all, pity all. They are, in a certain sense, 
the rationalists of prayer. By means of syntheses, 
trances, and raptures, they arrive at a pure and 
simple understanding of the supernatural, which 
they adore more with their imagination and affec- 
tion, than with the learned and sophisticated con- 
ceits of theology. Therefore the mystics of all 
creeds resemble each other ; theirs is a region com- 
mon to all religions, the universal home of the soul 
— a height from which the innumerable horizons of 
conscience are seen to meet. 

298. Merits of Bohme. — The prince of mystics 
is without contradiction Jacob Bohme; in fact, 
compared with him, all other mystics sink into utter 
insignificance, as mere visionaries, whose rhapso- 
dies, though sometimes poetical, were always fan- 
tastical and useless to the world, because not 
founded on the truths of Eternal Nature. Bohme 
was a visionary, but a visionary of the stamp of 
Columbus ; to him also it was given to behold with 


Jacob Bohme. • 6 

his mental eye a liidden world, the worjd of the 
Properties of Eternal Nature, and to solve the great 
mystery, not of this earth alone, but of the uni- 
verse. He was emphatically a central philosopher, 
who from his standpoint could survey the whole 
sphere, within and without, and not merely an outer 
segment of its shell. He could therefore see the 
causes of things, and not their effects only. There 
is, I do not deny it, much in the writings of Bohme 
that cannot be maintained or proved, much that 
appears as pure alchymistical and cabaKstic reverie, 
the disease of the age in which he lived. But though 
he may often be wrong in his deductions, he is always 
right in fundamentals. And even after rejecting all 
that is doubtful or absolutely erroneous, there is left 
so much which science and experiment demonstrate 
to be absolutely true, that it is hard to remember 
that all this was enunciated by a man who had no 
learning and never made an experiment in his life, 
and at a time when none of the scientific truths he 
put forth were even dreamt of by scientific men. 
Even if he had made known nothing but the Seven 
Properties of Nature (11) , the key to aU her myste- 
ries, he would for ever rank among the greatest 
lights of science. I confess I am at a perfect loss 
to account for this extraordinary knowledge in an 
untutored shoemaker, such as Bohme was. If 
there were any work extant, or known to have been 
extant before or at his tune^ in which an account of 

6 Secret Societies. 

the Seven Properties was given, I should say^ ho 
must have copied from that, though this theory- 
would still leave the original discoverer unknown ; 
but no trace either actual or traditional of any such 
work, or of the knowledge of these properties — ex- 
cept of such as is implied in the universal venerea 
tion in which the number seven has ever been held 
— is anywhere discoverable. Whence then did 
Bohme derive his knowledge? No one who has 
studied its details can doubt of their truth. No one 
before him has put them forth. Is then intuition 
possible ? Was Bohme endowed with that gift ? 
This is in fact a greater secret than any handed 
down in any secret society, ancient or modern. Of 
course scientific men, as they are called, laugh at 
Bohme, as a mad dreamer, just as the Eoyal Society 
laughed at the electric discoveries of Franklin — he 
was a printer who had actually worked at the press, 
what could he know of electricity ? How could he 
solve a problem that had puzzled the most learned 
of their members? And how can Bohme, the 
despised and illiterate shoemaker, teach the scientists 
of our day anything ? But the fact remains, that in 
the writings of this poor cobbler lie the germs of 
all the discoveries in physical science hitherto, and 
yet to be, made. 

299. Bohm^s Influence. — ^I am well aware that 
this assertion will again meet with the derision 
it has hitherto encountered. Yet the reader who 

Jacob Bohme. 7 


has accompanied me thns far^ ought to panse^ ere 
he joins the laughers* He will have had ample 
proofs that I accept nothing on mere authority^ 
however high it may be considered. I want proof, 
positive proof, of any alleged fact, before I accept 
it as fact. If therefore with this disposition on my 
part, and after the study of Bohme^s works, pur- 
sued for a number of years, with opportunities such 
as few have had — for the hierophant that initiated 
me into the mysteries of the German theosopher is 
undoubtedly the most learned Bohmite in this or 
any other country ; in feet, the only man that un- 
derstands him thoroughly — if under these circum- 
stances I entertain the opinions expressed in the 
foregoing paragraph, they cannot weU be with-- 
out foundation. But whoso is not to be con- 
vinced by Bohme^s demonstration of the Seven 
Properties cannot be convinced by any argument. 
And Bohme^B writings have not been without a 
deep and lasting, though latent, influence on mo- 
dem philosophy and science. Even Newton was 
largely indebted to him. Among Sir Isaac's papers 
there were found large extracts out of Bohme's 
works, written with his own hand ; and he thence 
learnt that attraction is the first and fiindamental 
law of nature. Of course the scientific elaboration 
of the axiom is all Newton's own, and it detracts 
nothing from his glory that he learnt the law from 
Bohme. Newton even went further; he and Dr. 

8 Secret Societies. 

Newton, his relative, feet up furnaces, and were for 
several months hard at work in quest of the tincture 
so largely spoken of by Bohme. But the influence 
of this author is still more strikingly seen in the 
writings of Francis Baader, a German physicist of 
the present day, who has pursued his scientific en- 
quiries by the light — feebly caught, it is true, in 
his mind^s mirror — of Bohme^s revelations. The 
greatest philosopHc thinkers of this and the pre- 
ceding century have drunk at the spring of BohiAe's 
writings ; and the systems of Leibnitz, Laplace, 
Schelling, Hegel, Fichte, and others, are distinctly 
permeated by his spirit — but none sufficiently, and 
hence no one of their systems is satisfactory. Goethe 
was welT versed in Bohme, and many allusions in 
his writings, which the critics can make nothing of, 
may be explained by passages from Bohme. Thus 
the commentators and translators of " Faust^' have 
made the most ridiculous guesses as to the meaning 
to be attached to the " Mothers,'^ to whom Faust 
is to descend in his search for Helen. The 
" Mothers'' are the first three properties of na- 
ture (11), and all the instructions given by Me- 
phistopheles to Faust before his descent ad inferos 
is a highly poetical, and at the same time philo- 
sophical^ description of them. If scientific men, 
instead of laughing at Bohme, would study his 
works, we should have no Darwinism, no theories 
of the sun's refrigeration, and no president of the 

Jacob Bohme. 9 

British Association propounding the monstrous doc- 
trine that life on this earth had its origin in the life 
carried hither on fragments struck oflF other planets 
and celestial bodies and falling on this globe — a 
theory which, even could it for one moment be 
entertained, would still leave the question, '' Whence 
came life ?" unanswered. Nor should we have the 
Huxleys and Tyndalls assuming that life can be put 
into a creature, after its material body is made, 
which is no better than assuming that a circle and 
its roundness are two separate things — that first 
comes the figure and afterwards its roundness. 
Bohme, whom they look upon as a dreamer, would 
show them, the real dreamers, that life makes the 
body to manifest itself; when a growing acorn puts 
forth sprouts, it is the life creeping out, feeling its 
way, and clothing itself in matter as it goes along, 
and in order to go along. Let scientists read that 
magnificent chapter beginning with : ^^ We see that 
all life is essential ; it manifests itself by the germing 
of the essences.'^ What theology might learn from 
Bohme, cannot be comprised in a few words: the 
vexed questions of the origin of evil, predestination, 
Christ's flesh and blood which are to regenerate man, 
their nature and action, are all profoundly and scienti- 
fically expounded in the writings of this author. 
But as he had no academic title, nor even common 
education, they despise him ; and yet some of these 
very men will put faith in equally illiterate swindling 

10 Secret Societies. 

spiritualists^ who delude the world with the most 
childish aud absurd nonsense. Let me close these 
remarks on Bohme with some lines^ composed as a 
tribute to his excelling merits. 
300. Jacob Bohms — A Toem. — 

Emblazoned in a sheen of mystic splendour, 
Crowned with the seer's bright aureola, 

The only true expounder and defender 
Of triune faith and every being's law ; 

A scribe, inspired in mortal words to render 
What he in beatific vision saw : 

Behold the solitary mental freeman, 

The centrally illumined Jacob Behmen. 

Yea, Jacob Behmen. Although but a cobbler. 
With small endowment of scholastic lore. 

And by the outward world believed a gobbler 
Of idle tales, his crazy fancy bore ; 

Of mystic crudities a tedious babbler. 

Inventing words that make the lips right sore 

Of those attempting their pronunciation. 

And mad all brains that try their explanation. 

To him revealed in radiance overpowering 
Were all divine and natural mysteries ; 

Sophia, heavenly Virgin, on him showering 
Her choicest gifts, her boundless love and bliss, 

Endowed his mental eye with vision towering 
As far beyond this earth as heaven is ; 

Enabled him in ecstasy to enter 

The first abysmal Nothing's hidden centre. 

To search into the innermost divinity. " 

The secret working pf the groundless Will ; 

Jacob Bohme. 11 

No self-revealment as a conscious trinity, 
A triune life, and yet one Godhead still ; 

The ever-generating pure Virginity, 
Whence all the essences of life distil. 

And are into that magic Mirror moulded. 

Through which Eternal Nature is unfolded. 

To see in Maja's mirror, more ethereal 

Than in the solar light, man's subtlest thought, 

Creation's first Aurora, dawn empyreal. 
By the divine Imagination wrought. 

Assuming form, becoming the material 
And visible reflection of the thought. 

When it, bent on self-manifesting, sunders 

Its powers, virtues, colours, wonders. 

To watch the festive time of nature's vernal 

And universal palingenesis. 
The bridal of the properties eternal. 

When Light — the last three — ^with a thrilling kiss. 
Doth fill the first three of the life infernal — 

The Darkness — ^with its all-transmuting bliss. 
And in the fourth — ^the Fire — this bride is won. 
Whose mundane nuptial chamber is the Sun. 

But slow and painful is the toil of science. 
Which evermore to outward matter clings ; 

The Life to all research doth bid defiance. 

Unknown to schools remains the Cause of things ; 

But Knowledge freely, and with pleased compliance, 
Into the arms of Intuition springs. 

Hence, all that science ever shall discover. 

Whilom the wise Sophia showed her lover. 

Her lover and her husband — for united 
To him she was by close and loving ties ; 

12 ' Secret Societies. 

Her lustre his dark earthly being lighted — 
In love man's tme transfiguration lies — 

His fiery soul her gentle hght ignited, 
And fire subdued by light is paradise ; 

And thus as his celestial life and leman 

Sophia, Virgin, dwelt in Jacob Behmen. 

301. Sketch of Boh/me^ 8 Life. — Jacob Bohme was 
bom at GorHtz in Upper Lusatia in 1576. In his 
childhood he was engaged in tending cattle. In 
this solitary life and the constant contemplation of 
nature^ he felt himself a poet^ and^ as he imagined, 
destined for great things. He saw an occult meaning 
in all the voices of the country ; and, believing that 
therein he heard the voice of God, he lent his ear to 
a revelation he regarded as coming from God Him- 
self through the medium of nature. At the age of 
fifteen or sixteen he was apprenticed to a shoe- 
maker at Gorlitz. The sedentary occupation in- 
creased his tendency to mysticism. Severe and 
zealous for good manners and morals, and quite 
wrapped up in himself, he was considered proud by 
some, and mad by others. And indeed, having 
received no education whatever, his ideas were 
necessarily confused, obscure, and disconnected. 
In 1594 he married. Though a good husband 
and good father, he did not cease from being a 
visionary; and, driven to it by frequent dreams, 
which he attributed to the influence of the Holy 
Spirit, he finally decided on writing. His first 

Jacob Bohme. 13 

work was the " Aurora/^ the best known, but the 
most imperfect, of all his writings, both as regards 
style and matter. It brought upon him the perse- 
cution of the clergy, at whose instance the magis- 
tracy of Gorlitz prohibited his writing any more — 
an order which he obeyed for a number of years ; 
but eventually the promptings of his spirit were no 
longer to be withstood, and he entirely gave himself 
up to the composition of his numerous writings 
during the last .six years of his life, in which he 
produced among other works the '^ Mysterium 
Magnum,^' the ^' Signatura Eerum,'' the " Three- 
fold Life,'' the '' Six Theosophic Points,'' the '' Di- 
vine Contemplation," the " Supersensual Life," all 
of which contain amidst much that is incongruous, 
whimsical, obscure, and unintelligible, passages of 
such profound knowledge and comprehensive mean- 
ing that no true philosopher dares to despise them, and 
which in fact wiQ yet be recognised as the only solid 
bases of all true science. Now and then we meet in 
his writings with passages of such poetic beauty, such 
lofty views of Deity and nature, as surpass all the 
conceptions of Uie greatest poets of all ages. His . 
works, written in German, during his life-time cir- 
culated only in manuscript; they were afterwards 
translated into Dutch, and &om this language they . 
were rendered into English. The German edition 
of his works, full of errors, did not appear until 
1682. In Prance, St.-Martin, le Philosophe Inconnu, 

14 Secret Societies. 

translated some of them into French. His greatest, 
commentator was Dionysius Andreas Freher, a Ger- 
man who lived many years in this country, and whose 
works, all written in BngUsh — with the exception 
of two, written in German, and translated by the 
present writer — exist only in manuscript, copies of 
some of them being in the British Museum, whilst 
the originals are in. the possession of a private 
gentleman. William Law, the learned English divine, 
who had the use of these MSS., is his greatest 
English commentator; his ''Appeal," ''Way to 
Divine Elnowledge," " Spirit of Prayer," and 
'' Spirit of Love," show how well he had seized 
the leading ideas of Bohme's system. Bohme died 
in 1624, his last words being : " Now I am going 
into paradise." 

302. The Philadelphians, — Bohme himself never 
founded any sect. He was too much wrapt up in 
his glorious visions to think of gathering disciples 
and perpetuating his name by such means ; like the 
sun, he shed his Hght abroad, because it was his 
nature to do so, unheedful whether it fell on rich 
or barren ground, leaving it to fructify according 
to its own inherent qualities. And the fruit is to 
come yet. For the society of the " Philadelphians," 
founded towards the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, by Jane Leadley, whose vain visions un- 
doubtedly were the result of her study oftthe>work 
of Bohme, never led to any results spiritual or 


Jacob Bokme. 15 

scientific. The society in tact only exlBted about 
seven years, and ita members had but vague and 
imperfect notions of the meaning and tendency of 
the writings of their great master. 



who as yet has made much more noise 
in the world, though totally unworthy of 
being compared with Jacob Bohme — for 
this latter has left to the world soKd and positive 
scientific knowledge, founded on an extraordinary 
insight into nature and her operations, whilst the 
former has left it nothing but some poetical ideas 
with a farraigo of nonsensical rubbish, such as 
hundreds of confessed madmen have written — is 
Emanuel Swedenborg. Still he was a man of 
great parts. In him were combined the opposite 
qualities of scientist, poet, and visionary. The 
desire of knowledge made him master the whole 
cycle of the sciences of his age, and when twenty- 
eight years old, he was one of the most learned 
men of his country. In 1716 he visited the Eng- 
lish, Dutch, French, and German universities. In 

Emanuel Swedenhorg. 17 

1718 he transported a number of vessels over land 
from one coast to another. In 1721 he visited the 
mines of Europe, and wrote a description of them 
in his great work Daedalus Hyperhoreus, Then he 
gave hin;self up to theology, and unexpectedly 
turned to mysticism, often the denial of theology. 
He was fifty-five years old when he began to look 
within himself and to discover the wonders of the 
ideal world ; after the mines of the earth, he ex- 
plored the depths of the soul, and in this later explor- 
ation he forgot science. His pretended revelations 
drew upon him the hatred of the clergy; but he 
enjoyed such consideration in his own country that 
they could not injure him. At the Diet of 1751 
Count Hopken declared that the most valuable 
writings on finance proceeded from the pen of 
Swedenborg. A mystical financier was what the 
world had never seen, and perhaps will never see 
again. He died in London. There is an English 
society which prints and circulates his works, filling 
about fifty large volumes ; and he has many followers 
in this country. He moreover made many dis- 
coveries in astronomy, chemistry, and medicine ; and 
was the forerunner of Gall in phrenology. 

304. His Writings and Theories. — Much in his 
writings is no doubt absurd; but still we think a 
sense, not at once apparent, but which turns non- 
sense into sense, may be discovered therein. 
Whoso attentively reads the '^ New Jerusalem," or 

n. c 

18 Secret Societies. 

the '' Journey to the Astral Worlds/' must see 
that there is a hidden meaning in his abstruse lan- 
guage. It cannot be assumed that a man who had 
shown so much vigour of mind in his numerous 
works on poetry, philosophy, mathematics, and 
natural history — a man who constantly spoke of 
^^ correspondences,^' wherein he attributed to the 
least thing a hidden sense — a man whose learning 
was unbounded and acute — that such a man wrote 
without attaching some real meaning to his illusory 
language. The religion he professes is philan- 
thropy, and consequently he gives to the abstract 
idea of the perfect man the name of Man-God, or 
Jesus Christ ; those who aspire to it are angels and 
spirits ; their union becomes heaven, and the oppo- 
site, hell. 

305. Rationale of Swedenborg^ 8 Writings. — From 
the most remote antiquity we meet with institu- 
tions — as the foregoing pages have sufficiently 
shown — ever aiming at political, religious, and 
intellectual reform, but expressing their ideas by 
speaking aUegoricaUy of the other world and the 
life to come, of God and angels, or using archi- 
tectural terms. This practice, which is perma- 
nent and permeates all secret societies, aims at 
morality in conduct, justice in government, general 
happiness and progress, but aims at all these accord- 
ing to certain philosophical ideas, viz., that all men 
^e free and equal ; but understanding that these 

Emanuel Swedenhorg. 19 

ideas^ in the various conditions of actual society, 
in its diflFerent classes, and in the heads of govern- 
ment and worship, would meet with powerful 
opponents, it takes its phraseology f5pom an 
imaginary world successfully to carry out its 
objects. Therefore its external worship resembles 
ours, but by the science of correspondences it 
becomes something diflFerent; which is thus ex- 
pressed by Swedenborg : '^ There is in heaven a 
divine cultus outwardly similar to ours, but inwardly 
different. I was permitted to enter into the celes- 
tial temple (perhaps the lodge) , where are shown 
the harmonized divinity and the deified humanity/^ 
306. The New Jerusalem, — One of the chief con- 
ceptions of Swedenborg, as expounded in the ^' New 
Jerusalem," is the divine in the heart of every man, 
interpreted by humanity, which is one of the articles 
of faith of (true) Masonry. '^ To will and to do right 
without any interested aims, is to restore heaven in 
oneself, to live in the society of angels. The con- 
science of every man is the compendium of heaven ; 
all is 'there, the conception and sanction of all duties 
and all rights." It is thus Swedenborg speaks of 
the mystic or sectarian life : ^' Between the good 
and the evil there is the same difiPerence that there is 
between heaven and hell. Those that dwell in evil 
and error resemble hell, because the love of hell is 
the opposite of that of heaven, and the two loves 
hate and make war upon each other unto death. 

20 Secret Societies. 

Man was created to live with the soul in the spiritual, 
and vitli ^^^ body in the natural, world. In every 
man, then, there are two individualities, the spiritual 
and the natural, the internal and the external. The 
internal man is truly in heaven and enjoys inter- 
course with celestial spirits, even during the earthly 
life, which is not the true, but only a simulated life. 
Man, being twofold, has two thoughts, the superior 
and the inferior, two actions, two languages, two 
loves. Therefore the natural man is hypocritical 
and false, for he is double. The spiritual man is 
necessarily sincere and true, because he is simple and 
one; in him the spirit has exalted and attracted the 
natural ; the external has identified itself with the 
internal. This exaltation was happily attained to 
by the ancients, who in earthly objects pursued their 
celestial correspondences.^' He returns over and 
over again to the science of the correspondences, 
alluding to the initiations of the ancients, the true 
life that succeeds the simulated initiatory death, the 
mystical heaven which to the Egyptians and Greeks 
was nothing but the temple. ^^ The science of the 
correspondences among the ancients was the highest 
science. The Orientals and Egyptians expressed it 
by hieroglyphics ; which, having become unintelligi- 
ble, generated idolatry. The correspondences alone 
can open the eyes of the mind, unveil the spiritual 
world, and make that apprehensible which does not 
come under the cognizance of the senses .'' Again 

Emanuel Swedenborg. 21 

he says : '^ I will show you what faith and charity 
are. Instead of faith and charity think of warmth 
and light, and you will understand all. Faith in 
its substance is truth, i. e, wisdom ; charity in its 
essence is affection, i, e, love. Love and wisdom, 
or charity and faith, the good and the true, form the 
life of God in man." In the description of the 
fields of heaven, the guiding angel — ^perhaps the 
warden of the lodge — says to Swedenborg that the 
things around him are correspondences of the 
angelic science, that all he sees, plants, fruits, 
stones, all is corresponding, just as in masonic lodges. 
As there are three degrees in Kfe, so there are 
three heavens, and the conditions of their respective 
inhabitants correspond with those of the initiated 
of the three masonic degrees. The " New Jerusalem" 
may be considered also as a protest against the 
papal rule, hated by Swedenborg, as by all sectaries. 
He sought its fate in the Apocalypse, as formerly 
did the Albigenses ; and declared that the corrupt 
Roman clergy must make way for a better priest- 
hood, and the decayed and idolatrous church for a 
new temple. To increase the authority of his 
words he adds: "What I tell you, I learned in 
heaven -/' probably the sectarian heaven, into which 
he had been initiated. Extracts might be multi- 
plied, but the above wiU suffice to show the spirit 
that animates the writings of Swedenborg; they 
will suffice to show that to enter into the hidden 

22 Secret Societies. 

thoughts of most emblems, rites, and secret societies, 
it is necessary to consider the twofold and even 
threefold sense of the different figures. Every 
symbol is a mystery ; nothing is done or said in 
secret assemblies that is not worthy of scrutiny — 
names, members, forms, all are indications, hints of 
hidden truths, dangerous truths, and therefore 
covered with double and triple veils. 

307. VarioiLS Swedenborgian Sects. — From these 
writings arose various sects; one of them composed of 
men who await the New Jerusalem, believing in the 
marvellous prophecies, the conversations with angels, 
the seraphic marriages of the elect, and considering 
themselves the true disciples of Christ, because 
Swedenborg called the Sun of Mercy, which spreads 
light and warmth throughout the universe, the 
Saviour of the world. This sect has most followers 
in England. The other sects boast of possessing 
the greatest secrets of their master. Of these sects 
the following may be mentioned. 

308. Uly/minati of Avignon, — Pernetti, a Bene- 
dictine monk, and Gabrianca, a Polish nobleman 
and a mason, were the first to surround with whim- 
sical rites and ceremonies the knowledge and reve- 
ries of the Swedish mystic . In 1 7 60 they established 
at Avignon a society of lUuminati, not to be con- 
founded with the Uluminati of Bavaria (316) . The 
city of the popes became a sectarian stronghold, 
with aflSliated lodges in the chief towns of France. 

Emanuel Swedenborg. 23 

The memberB occupied themselves with philosophy, 
astronomy, and that social chymistry, which then 
subjected to a formidable examination all the ele- 
ments of which political society is composed. 

309. Hlwrmnated Theosophists. — Paris wanted to 
have its own Swedenborgian rite, not satisfied with 
having introduced that of Pemetti. The Free- 
mason Chartanier, who in 1766 was the master 
of the Parisian lodge ^' Socrates,^' modified the rite 
of Avignon, and called the new order the '^ Illumi- 
nated Theosophists,'^ and after an active propaganda 
in France, crossed the Channel and opened a lodge 
in London, where at first he met with much success; 
but the rite was soon abandoned. 

310. Philosophic Scotch Bite. — Another modifi- 
cation of the Avignon rite, was one introduced in 
1770 by the Abbe Pernetti, who was entirely de- 
voted to alchymy. He called the rite the '^ Her- 
metic '^ rite ; but, as its name implies, it was more 
alchymistical than masonic. Boileau, a physician 
of Paris, and zealous follower of Pemetti, re- 
modelled the Hermetic rite, rendered it more 
purely masonic, and gave it the name of the 
"Philosophic Scotch rite.'' The two rites were 
afterwards united into twelve degrees, the last of 
which is the '' Sublime Master of the Luminous 
Eing," which boasted of being derived from Pyth- 
agoras. In 1780 an Academy of the Sublime 
Masters of the Luminous King was established in 

24 Secret Societies. 

France, the initiation into which consisted of the 
presumed philosophic doctrines of the sage of 

31 1 . Rite of the Philalethes. — ^Another rite founded 
on the masonic speculations of Swedenborg was one 
invented in the lodge of the ^' United Friends " in 
Paris. The members, among whom were Condorcet 
and Antoine Court de Gobelin, the author of the 
" Monde Primitif/^ called themselves " Philalethes/' 
or " Searchers after Truth/* and the founder was 
Lavalette de Langes, Keeper of the Eoyal Treasury. 
It was divided into twelve classes or chambers; the 
first six degrees were styled Petty, and the last six 
High Masonry. Like almost all societies founded 
on Masonry, the Philalethes endeavoured to lead man 
to his pristine virtue and liberty; they felt the 
approach of the Eevolution, and kept themselves 
au fait of events and aspirations. The lodge of 
the Amis Reunis, the centre of the system, possessed 
a rich collection of works and MSS. on secret socie- 
ties, a large chymical laboratory, a cabinet of natural 
history, all under the care of de Langes ; but at his 
death, in 1788, the precious collection was dispersed 
and the lodge dissolved. 

A lodge, in imitation of the above, was founded 
at Narbonne in 1780 ; but with considerable modi- 
fications. The brethren called themselves Philadel- 
phians, who are not to be confounded with the Phila- 
delphian Society founded in London about a century 

Emanitel Swedenborg. 25 

before, though they professed to derive their rites 
from England. They were divided into three cate- 
gories or temples, and ten classes or circles. After 
the first three masonic degrees came the ^^ Perfect 
Master/' the " Elect/' and the "Architect/' form- 
ing the fomiih. The fifth comprised the " Sublime 
Scotch;" the sixth the "Knight of the East" and 
the '^Prince of Jerusalem." The four remaining 
degrees were supposed to be the depositories of 
masonic knowledge, philosophical and physical, and 
of mystic science, fit to fortify and exalt the mind 
of man. These four degrees were called the first to 
the fourth chapters of Rose- Croix. 

312. Bite of Swedenborg. — What is properly 
known as the rite of Swedenborg was another 
modification of the order of the lUuminati of Avi- 
gnon (308) , eflFected by the Marquis de Thome, in 
1783, wherein he endeavoured to restore the true 
meaning of the doctrines of the Swedish mystic. 
It was a critical labour of some value, and the rite is 
still practised in several lodges of northern Europe. 
It consists of six degrees : Apprentice, Companion, 
Master Theosophite, Illuminated Theosophite, Blue 
Brother, Red Brother. 

313. Universal Aurora. — In the same year, 1783, 
there was founded in Paris, the Order of the 
" Universal Aurora," whose chief object was the 
support of Mesmerism. Cagliostro took an active 
part in it. 



^ABTINEZ Fasehalia. — The inflaence of 
the writinga of Jacob Bdhme, though 
I perceptible in all mystic degrees founded 
since his day, is most visible in the 
mystic Masonry, called " Martiniam," from its 
founder Martinez ' Paschalis, and its reformer 
the Marquis of St.-Martin, the " Unknown Philo- 
sopher." ■ Martinez Paschalis was a Portuguese 
and a Jew, but having turned Christian after the 
manner of the Gnostics of the first centuries, he 
began in 1754 to assemble disciples in varions 
French cities, chiefly Marseilles, Bordeaux, Toulouse, 
and Lyons, none of whom rose to the degree of 
epopt, or knew the secrets of the master, though 
he inspired all with the greatest respect and devo- 
tion towards himself. His secret doctrine appears 
to have been a confused medley of GuoBticism and 
Christianised Jndaismj not excluding the cabala. 

Martinism. 27 

which in fact is found more or less in all theosophic 
speculations, even in those of Bohme; though his 
followers, as well as his opponents, from ^ot under- 
standing him, have attributed to him many erroneous 
opinions which he never entertained. Paschalis laid 
great stress on the omnipotence of will — this is a 
point constantly insisted on, its truth being demon- 
strated from the deepest ground, by Bohme. With 
this writer he taught that intelligence and will are 
the only active forces of nature, whose phenomena 
man can control by willing energetically ; and that 
man in this manner can rise to the knowledge of the 
supreme Ens. With these principles, Martinez con- 
demned all empires founded on vi9lence, and all 
societies based on convention. He longed for a 
return to the patriarchal times — ^which the more 
enlightened, however, look upon as time^ of rank 
tyranny — and he also formed other conceptions 
which we shall see more fully developed by the 
Bluminati (316). 

The life of Martinez, like his doctrines, is fiill of 
gaps and mysteries. He arrived in a town no one 
knew whence, he departed no one knew whither ; 
all at once he was seen where least expected. From 
1768 to 1778 Paschalis resided either at Paris or 
at Lyons. Then he suddenly crossed the ocean, 
and died at St. Domingo in 1779. These sudden 
appearances and disappearances were perhaps 
needed to maintain his prestige. De Maitre, 

28 Secret Societies. 

who had much intercourse with his disciples, states 
it for certain, that the order founded by him, and 
called the '^ Rite of the elected Cohens or Priests,^^ 
had superior degrees, unknown to the members of the 
lower grades. We know the names of nine degrees, 
though not their rituals ; they were : — Apprentice, 
Fellow- Craft, Master, Grand Elect, Apprentice 
Cohen, Fellow-Craft Cohen, Master Cohen, Grand 
Architect, Knight Commander. The zeal of some 
of the members, among whom we find Holbach, 
Duchamteau, and St. Martin, caused the order to 


prolong its existence some time after the death of 
the founder. 

315. Saint- Martin. — We have seen that St.- 
Martin was a disciple of Pasqhalis ; he was also, for 
his day, a profound expounder of the doctrines of 
Bohme, some of whose works he translated. He 
to some extent reformed the rite of Paschalis, 
dividing it into ten degrees, classed in two temples. 
The first temple comprised the degrees of Appren- 
tice, Fellow-Craft, Master, Ancient Master, Elect, 
Grand Architect, and Master of the Secret. The 
degrees of the second temple were Prince of Jeru- 
salem, Knight of Palestine, and Knight of Kadosh. 
The order, as modified by him, extended from 
Lyons into the principal cities of France, Germany, 
and Russia. It is now extinct. 



" L'erreur et la v^rite se partageaient Tempire de cette 
association, qui ne ponvait prosperer qu'en ces temps de 
demi-elarte, ou les esprits vigourenx et les coeurs ardents 
sentent vivement la honte de Tesclavage religienx et poli- 
tique, et ne trouvent pas de meilleurs moyens pour la 
combattre, que ceux qu'il emploie lui-meme pour s'etablir : 
la violence et la deception. . . . Dans ce nouveau 
tribunal secret des spectres h^deux et mena(;ants apparais- 
saient au recipiendaire, et Texcitaient II la vengeance, au 
meurtre, k la trahison plus inf&me." — ^Eagon. 



Miraheau, Histoire Secrete de la Cour de Berlin. 1789. 

Ltfichet. Essai sur la Secte des Illumines. Paris, 1789. 

Bohison, Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Eeligions 
and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret 
Meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, and Eeading 
Societies. London, 1797. 


FOUNDATION of Order. — Adam Weis- 
, haaptj a Btudent in the Uniyersitj of 
I Ingolatadt, learned and ambitdoua, and 
' attracted by that love of mystery which 
is a prominent cliaract eristic of youth, meditated 
the formation of a philoaophico-political sect. When 
twenty-two years of age he was elected profeaaor of 
Canon Law in the same 0DiTereity, a chair which had 
for twenty years been filled by the Jesuits ; hence 
their rage against and persecntion of Weishaupt, 
which he met boldly, returning hatred with hatred, 
and collecting partisans. The great aversion he 
then conceived for the JesuitB appears in many of 
l^e statutes of the order he founded. Jesuits, he 
often declares, are to be avoided like the plague. 
The sect of the Dluminati was founded in 1776, by 
Weishaupt, who adopted the pseudonym of Sparta- 

32 Spartacus and Philo, 

CU8 ; but it was years before its ritual and consti- 
tution were finally settled. Weishaupt, in order 
the better to succeed, connected himself with the 
Freemasons, by entering the lodge ^^ Theodore of 
Good Counsel/' of Eclectic Masonry, at Munich, 
and attempting to graft Illuminism on Freemasonry. 
Many members of the craft, misled by the con- 
struction of his first degrees, entered the order; 
but when they found that Weishaupt meant real 
work, and not mere play, they hung back. The 
society was instituted for the purpose of lessening 
the evils resulting from the want of information, 
from tyranny, political and ecclesiastical. 

317. Organisation, — The society was by its 
founder divided into classes, each of which was 
again subdivided into degrees, in the following 
manner : — 

f Preparation. 

T^T j Novice. 

Nursery .< -mr- i 

•^ I minerval. 

[ Illuminatus Minor. 

f Apprentice. 

Symbolic < Fellow Crafb. 

y^ \ [ Master Mason. 

] [ Illuminatus Major, or Scotch 


J Novice, 

Illuminatus Dirigens, or Scotch 

f Lesser ^ ^P^P*» ^^ ^^^^^' 
■xr I. ' \ I Pnnce, or Regent. 

Mysteries < ^ ^r -m. -i r. 

1 Greater f ^*^s, or Philosopher. 

^ * I Rex, King, Homme Roi, or 

[ Areopagite. 

Spartacus and PhUo. 33 

In the nursery and masonry degrees^ the candi- 
date was merely tried and prepared for the mystery 
degrees. If he was found unreliable^ he was not 
allowed to go beyond; but if he proved an apt 
scholar^ he was gradually initiated into the latter^ 
where all that he had been taught before was over- 
thrown^ and radical and deistic theories and plans 
were unfolded, into the details of which it would be 
tedious to enter. 

318. Progress of Order. — The most important 
person of the order after Weishaupt was Baron de 
Knigge, who assumed the pseudonym of '^ Philo.^' 
All the leading members equally adopted such pseu- 
donyms. Thus we have seen that Weishaupt took 
the name of Spartacus, who in Pompey's time headed 
the insurrection of slaves; Zwack, a lawyer, was 
known among the initiated as ^' Cato;'' Nicholai, 
bookseller, as ^'Lucian ;^' Professor Westenrieder, as 
'' Pythagoras '/^ Canon Hertel, as " Marius ;^'^ and 
so on. The order made considerable progress, but 
some of its members betrayed its secrets, or as much 
of them as they knew. The Elector of Bavaria, in 
consequence, became alarmed at the political tenets 
taught in the assemblies of the Illuminati, and en- 
tirely suppressed the order in his territories. 

319. Secret Papers and Oorrespondence. — It was 
only after the suppression of the order that the mode 
of initiation into the higher degrees and the true 
doctrines taught therein became known. A coUec- 

II. D 

34 Secret Societies, 

tion of original papers and correspondence was founds 
by searching the house of Zwack, in 1786. In the 
following year, a much larger collection was found 
at the house of Baron Bassus^ a member. From 
these we learn that one of the chief means recom- 
mended by the leaders for the success of the order 
was that of gaining over the women — -not a bad plan. 
^^ There is no way of influencing men so powerfully as 
by means of the women/' says the instructor. ^' These 
should, therefore, be our chief study. We should 
insinuate ourselves into their good opinion, give 
them hints of emancipation from the tyranny of 
public opinion, and of standing up for themselves ; 
it will be an immense relief to their enslaved minds 
to be freed from any one bond of restraint, and it 
will fire them the more, and cause them to work for 
us with zeal,'' etc. Similar views are enunciated in 
a letter found among the correspondence: — "The 
proposal of Hercules' (a member not identified) to 
estabUsh a Minerval school for girls is excellent, 
but requires circumspection We cannot im- 
prove the world without improving the women. . . . 
But how shall we get hold of them? How will 
their mothers, immersed in prejudices, consent that 
others shall influence their education? We must 
begin with grown girls. Hercules proposes the wife 
of Ptolemy Magus. I have no objection; and I 
have four step-daughters, fine girls. The eldest in 
particular is excellent. She is twenty-tour, has 

Spartacus and Philo. 35 

read much, and is above all prejudices. They have 
many acquaintances. ... It may immediately be a 
very pretty Society. . . . No man must be admitted. 
This mil make them become more keen, and they 
will go much farther than if we were present. . . • 
Leave them to the scope of their own fancies, and 
they will soon invent mysteries, which will put us 
to the blush. . . . They will be our great apostles. 
• . . Ptolemy's wife must direct them, and she will 
be instructed by Ptolemy, and my step-daughters 
wiU consult with me. . . . But I am doubtful whe- 
ther the association will be durable — women are 
fickle and impatient. Nothing will please them but 
hurrying from degree to degree . . . which will 
soon lose their novelty and influence. To rest seri- 
ously in one rank, and to be silent when they have 
found out that the whole is a cheat, (!) is a work of 
which they are incapable. . . . Nay, there is a risk 
that they may take it into their heads to give things 
an opposite turn, and then, by the arts in which 
they are adepts by nature, they may turn our order 
upside down.'' And a circumstance aflfecting the 
personal character of the founder, which was brought 
to light by the discovery of the secret correspond- 
ence, has contributed as much as anything else to. 
give the order of the Illuminati a bad name. In 
the handwriting of Zwack were found a description 
of a strong box, which, if forced open, should blow up 
and destroy its contents ; a recipe for sympathetic 

36 Secret Societies. 

ink j how to take off impressions of seals, so as to 
use them afterwards as seals ; a collection of some 
hundreds of such impressions, with a list of their 
owners; a set of portraits of eighty-five ladies in 
Munich, with recommendations of some of them as 
members of a lodge of sisters illummatce; injunctions 
to all superiors to learn to write with both hands, 
and to use more than one cypher ; and other mat- 

320. Oonclusion. — The Society having been es- 
tablished in the small state of Bavaria, and so 
quickly suppressed, never made any lasting impres- 
sion on the affairs of its own time, nor on those of the 
ftiture. AU the terrible effects attributed to its 
doctrines by Eobison and other opponents of the 
order existed more in ^e imagination of the writers 
than in reaUty. If, as EoTiison says, the founders 
only wanted Uberty to indulge their ambition and 
passions, they might, and. Lording to the secret 
correspondence quoted, seem to have done so, with- 
out the cumbrous machinery of a society whose 
members appeared so unmanageable. Weishaupt 
was deprived of his professor^s chair, and banished 
from Bavaria, but with a pension of eight hundred 
florins, which he refased. He first went to Eegens- 
burg, and afterwards entered the service of the 
Duke of Saxe-Gotha. Zwack also was banished, 
and went into the service of the Prince of Salms, 
who soon after had so great a hand in the disturb- 

Spartacus and Philo. 


ances in Holland. Of the Society of the Illuminati 
it may truly be said, that there was great cry and 
little wool ; still it was not without its influence on 
the French Eevolution. 



" La conqu^te de la totalite ou d'une partie d'nn pays 
par un pejaple etranger conduit naturellement au bri- 
gandage." — ^Depauconpbbt. 





BI6IN cmd Orgamzation of Society, — 
The Ohcmffeurs or Burners formed a 
secret society formerly existing in 
France, and only extingaished at the 
end of the last century. Its members subsisted by 
rapine and murder. According to the slender 
notices we have of this society, it arose at the time 
of the reKgious wars which devastated Prance 
during the days of Henry III. and IV., and Cathe- 
rine of Medici ; and as the writers who searched 
into its history were Roman Catholics, they chari- 
tably assumed the original Chauffeurs to have been 
the defeated Huguenots, who took to this brigand 
life to avenge themselves on their conquerors. But 
the fact that the religious ceremonies of the society 
included the celebration of a kind of mass, strongly 
militates against this assumption of their origin. 
It is more probable that like similar fraternities 
formed in lawless times, it consisted of men dis- 

42 Secret Societies. 

satisfied with their lot, ordinary criminals and vic- 
tims of want or injustice. 

The Chaufifeurs constituted a compact body, 
governed by a single head. They had their own 
religion, and a code of civil and criminal laws, 
which, though only handed down orally, was none 
the less observed and respected. It received into 
its fraternity all who chose to claim admission, but 
preferred to enrol such as had already distinguished 
themselves by criminal deeds. The members 
were divided into three degrees ; the spies, though 
aflSliated, did not properly form part of the society. 
The initiated were again subdivided into decv/rice, 
each with its guapo or head. 

Though, as we have said, any one could be ini- 
tiated, yet the society, like that of the Jesuits, 
preferred educating and bringing up its members. 
Whole families belonged to the firaternity, and the 
children were early taught how to act as spies, com- 
mit small thefts and similar crimes, which were re- 
warded more or less liberally, as they were exe- 
cuted with more or less daring or adroitness. Want 
of success brought proportionate punishment with 
it, very severe corporeal castigation, which was 
administered not merely aa punishment, but also 
to teach the young members to bear bodily pain 
with fortitude. One would almost be inclined to 
think that those bandits had studied the code of 
Lycurgus I At the age of fourteen or fifteen the 

The Chauffeurs^ or Burners, 43 

boy was initiated into the first degree of the society. 
At a kind of religious consecration he took an oath, 
calling down on his own head the lightning and 
wrath of heaven, if erer he failed in his duty to- 
wards the order. He received the sword he was to 
use in self-defence and in fighting for his brethren. 
The master had almost unbounded authority ; he 
kept the common purse, and distributed the booty 
according to his own discretion. He also awarded 
rewards or promotion, and inflicted punishment. 
Theft from the profane, as outsiders were called, was 
the fundamental law and, indeed, the support of the 
society, but theft from a brother was punished, the 
first time, by a fine three times the amount stolen. 
When repeated, the fine was heavier, and some- 
times the thief was put to death. Each brother 
was bound to come to the assistance of another 
when in danger ; the honour of the wives of mem- 
bers was to be strictly respected, and concubinage 
and prostitution -were prohibited and severely 
punished. Their mode of administering justice 
was rational, L e, summary. The accused person 
was called before the general assembly of the mem- 
bers, informed of the charge against him, con- 
fronted with the witnesses, and if found innocent 
acquitted, if guilty he had either at once to pay the 
fine imposed, receive the number of blows allotted, 
or submit to hanging on the nearest tree, according 
to the tenor of the sentence. 

44 Secret Societies. 

322. Religious and OiviL Oeremonies. — The reli- 
gious worship of the Chauffeurs was a parody on that 
of the church. The sermons of their preachers 
were chiefly directed to instructing them how most 
profitably to pursue their profession^ and how to 
evade the pursuit of the profane. On fSte-days 
the priests celebrated mass^ and especially invoked 
the heavenly blessing on the objects and designs of 
the society. EngUsh navvies seem' to have bor- 
rowed the leading feature of their marriage cere- 
mony from that of the society of Chauffeurs, which 
was as follows: On the wedding-day the bride- 
groom and bride, accompanied by the best man 
and chief bridesmaid, presented themselves before 
the priest, who after having read some ribald non- 
sense from a dirty old book, took a stick, which he 
sprinkled with holy water, and after having placed 
it into the hands of the two chief witnesses, who 
held it up between them, he invited the bridegroom 
to leap over it, while the bride stood on the other 
side awaiting him. She received him in her arms, 
and held him up for a few moments before setting 
him down on the ground. The bride then went in 
front of the stick, and took her leap over it into 
the bridegroom's arms, whose pride it was to hold 
her up in the air as long as possible, before letting 
her down. Auguries were drawn of the future 
felicity and fecundity of the marriage from the 
length of time the bride had been able to hold up 

The Chauffeurs^ or Burners. 45 

her spouse, whilst both seated themselves on the 
stick, and the priest put on the bride's finger the 
wedding-ring. The navvies' ceremony therefore of 
'^ jumping over the broomstick'' is no new inven- 

Divorces were granted not only for proved or 
suspected infidelity, but also on account of incom- 
patibility of temper — ^which proves the Chauffeurs 
to have been, in this respect at least, very sensible 
people — after the priest had tried every means to 
bring about a reconciliation. The divorce was 
pronounced in public, and its principal feature was 
the breaking of the stick on which the pair had 
been married, over the wife's head. After that, 
each was at Kberty to marry again. 

323. The Orcmd Master. — The sect was spread 
over a great part of north-western France; made 
use of a peculiar patois, understood by the initiated 
only, and had its signs, grips and passwords like 
all other secret societies. It comprised many 
thousand members. Its existence and history first 
became publicly known through the judicial pro- 
ceedings taken against it by the courts of Chartres, 
during the last decade of the preceding century. 
Many mysterious robberies, fires and murders were 
then brought home to the Chauffeurs. Its Grand 
Master at the time was Francis the Fair, so called 
on account of his singular personal beauty. Before 
his initiation he had been imprisoned for robbery 

46 Secret Societies. 

with violence, but managed to escape; the order 
sought him out and enrolled him amongst its mem- 
bers, and at the death of their chief, John the Tiler, 
unanimously elected him in his place. Taken 
prisoner at the above-mentioned period, he again 
found means to give his jailors at Chartres the slip- 
probably with their connivance — and was not heard 
of again. A rumour was indeed current at the 
time that he had joined the Ghouan^^emd eventually 
perished, a victim to his debaucheries. Some hun- 
dreds of ChauflFeurs were executed at Chartres; 
but the mass of them made their escape and swelled 
the ranks of the above-named Chouans, 

It was chiefly during the Eeign of Terror that the 
Chauffeurs committed their greatest ravages. At 
night large bands of them invaded isolated houses 
and the castles of the nobility, robbing the rich 
and poor alike. During the day children and old 
women, under various disguises and pretences 
penetrated into the localities, where property worth 
carrying off might be expected to exist, and on 
their reports the society laid its plans. Sometimes, 
disguised as national guards, they demanded and 
obtained admission in the name of the law. If 
they met with resistance they employed violence, if 
not they contented themselves with robbery. But 
sometimes they suspected that the inmates of the 
dwelling they had invaded concealed valuables ; in 
that case they would tie their hands behind their 

The Chauffeurs^ or Burners. Ail 

backs and casting them on the ground apply fire 
to their feet^ — whence the name chauffeurs ^ ^^ bm*- 
ners'' — ^until they revealed the hiding-places of 
their treasures, or died in frightful agony. Such 
as did not die, were generally crippled for life. 

824. Discovery of the Society, — A young man 
who had suffered in this fashion from some of the 
members of the society, determined to be re- 
venged on them, by betraying them into the hands 
of justice. He revealed his plan to the authorities 
of Chartres and then set about its execution. In 
broad dayKght in the market-place of Chartres he 
picked the pocket of a gendarme. The gendarme, 
having his instructions, of course saw nothing, but 
a chauffeur^ some of whom were always prowling 
about, noticed the apparently daring deed, and 
reported it to his fellows and to his chief. That 
so clever and bold a thief should not belong to 
the brotherhood seemed unnatural; very soon 
therefore he was sought out and very advantageous 
offers were made to him if he would join them. At 
first he seemed disinclined to do so, but eventually 
yielded, and then showed all the zeal usual with 
neophytes. He attended all the meetings of the 
society, and speedily made himself acquainted with 
aU their secrets ; their signs, pass- words, modes of 
action, hiding-places, &c. Their safest retreat 
and great depot, where the booty was stored, was 
a wild wood in the neighbourhood of Chartres. 

48 Secret Societies. 

When the false brother had made these discove- 
ries^ and had also ascertained a day when nearly all 
the members of the society would be assembled on 
the spot for planning an expedition^ he managed 
to evade their vigilance^ hastened to Ghartres and 
gave the necessary information to the authorities^ 
who had held a large number of men in readiness 
in the expectation of this chance. These were at 
once dispatched to the locality indicated by the 
guide^ the wood was surrounded^ and the Chauffeurs 
being taken unawares^ either perished fighting or 
were taken prisoners. Some of them managed to 
escape, spread the alarm among members Uving 
in other parts of the country, and the society was 
for ever broken up. 



\RIOINofthe Society.— When thsit super- 
stitious bigot and tyrant Ferdinand, 
king of Spain — who believed himself 
a clever diplomatist, but was aU his 
lifetime but the tool of a rapacious and bloodthirsty 
priesthood, the same who made the Inquisition all- 
powerful in Spain, and caused Columbus to be 
brought home in chains from the world he had dis- 
covered and added to the monster^s dominions — 
when he resolved on the extermination in his king- 
dom of Moors and Jews — the former the most 
civilized and the latter the most industrious of his 
subjects — all the vagabonds and scoundrels of Spain 
were welcome to take part in tie holy war, solely 
begun and carried on to extirpate heresy and 
spread the pure faith — at least such was the pre- 
tence. There had indeed, long before Ferdinand's 
time, been bands of malefactors, who roamed over 
the Spanish territory, and with the secret support 

11 B 

50 Secret Societies. 

of the Roman CathoKc clergy, who shared the 
spoil, committed wholesale burglaries in the houses 
of Moors and Hebrews, occasionally burning a re- 
sisting heretic in the flames of his own house, as a 
sweet-smeUing savour unto Heaven. The Moors 
were enemies to their country though they had 
civilized it, and the Jew belonged to an accursed 
race ; to fight and destroy them was a meritorious 
work which had the full approbation of the Church. 
In Ferdinand's^ time the brigands readily joined 
the crusade against the Moors ; the king's motto 
evidently was : 

** It is the sapiency of fools 

To shrink from handling evil tools ; " 

and brigands may make good soldiers. Brigands 
moreover are generally weU disposed towards the 
Church, and submissive to the priest, and these 
dispositions, so well agreeing with those of Ferdi- 
nand himself, could not but render the brigands 
favourites with him. But when the object of Fer- 
dinand's holy war was attained, and the Moorish 
power destroyed, he left the free-lances to shift for 
themselves, which they did in their fashion, by re- 
turning to their former occupation of brigandage. 
Now, although during the much vaunted reign of 
Ferdinand the Catholic, as lying and servile writers 
have called him, and Isabella, who was too much 
under the influence of a set of demons in priestly 

The Garduna. 51 

garb^ and hence did all she could to increase the 
power of the Inquisition, nearly two millions of 
subjects — Moors and Jews — were driven fipom the 
realm, yet a great many remained who belonged 
to the one or the other race, and had, in order to be 
allowed to stay in their native country, adopted the 
Christian faith. Yet with such contempt were they 
looked upon by the genuine Spaniards, that they 
never spoke of them but as ma/rranosy hogs, though 
many of them were the heads of, or belonged to, 
rich and influential families. The king and his 
Satanic crew of inquisitors were ever anxious to 
convict such persons of having relapsed into heresy, 
in order to burn them at the stake and confiscate 
their property. The brigands, weU aware of this, 
selected the houses of the marranos for the scenes 
of their operations, and as long as a good share of 
the booty passed into the hands of priests, inqui- 
sitors, and the royal exchequer. Justice winked at 
the proceedings. But when the brigands grew 
tired of these heavy exactions, and refused to pay 
tribute. Justice suddenly woke up and resolved on 
exterminating the brigands, who snatched away 
spoil which legitimately belonged to the king and 
Inquisition, as the reward of their virtue in 
rigorously putting down heresy. It was then — when 
gendarmes and soldiers were sent out in all direc- 
tions to catch or disperse the bands of brigands 
that infested the country — that these bands, which 

52 Secret Societies. 

had hitherto acted independently of each other, 
determined for their greater safety to unite and form 
one large secret society. It was thus the Oarduna 
arose, which soon provided itself with the whole 
apparatus of secret signs, passwords, initiatory 
ceremonies, and all other stage ^' property,^' neces- 
sary in such cases. Their connection with the 
Holy Inquisition was not severed thereby, but 
established on a business-like footing, though of 
course it remained secret — a sort of sleeping part- 
nership. With such high protection at Court and 
in the Church, it is not surprising that the associa- 
tion soon counted its thousands of members, who 
actually made Seville their head-quarters, where all 
great laundering, burning, rind murdering expedi- 
tions were planned and prepared. 

326. OrgamzaUon. — The society had nine de- 
grees, arranged in three classes. To the inferior 
classes belonged the novices or Ghivatos (roe -bucks) , 
who performed the menial duties, acted as ex- 
plorers and spies, or carried the booty ; the Oober- 
teras (covers), abandoned women who insinuated 
themselves into private houses to spy out oppor- 
tunities for stealing, or acted as decoy-ducks, by 
alluring men into retired places, where they were 
set upon, robbed, and frequently murdered by the 
brigands. Lastly the Facelles (bellows), or spies, 
chiefly old men of what is called venerable appear- 
ance — whatever that may mean — sanctimonious in 

The Garduna. 53 

carriage^ imctuous in speech, haunting churches, in 
feet, saints. These not only disposed of the booty 
aJready obtained, but by their insinuating manners 
and reputation ifor piety wormed themselves into 
the secrets of families which were afterwards ex- 
ploited for the benefit of the band. In the next 
class were the Floreadores (athletes), men stained 
with every vice, chiefly discharged or escaped con- 
victs from the galleys, or branded by the hand of 
the executioner, whose oflGlce consisted in attacking 
and robbing travellers on the high road. Then 
came the proud Ponteadores (pinkers, i. e, bullies, 
expert swordsmen) , sure to kill their man. Above 
these were the Ouapos (heads, chiefs), also ex- 
perienced duellists, and generally appointed to lead 
some important enterprise. The highest class em- 
braced the Magistri, or priests, who conducted the 
initiations, preserved the laws, usages, and traditions 
of the society. The Oapatazes (commanders) , who 
resided in the difl'erent provinces through which 
the Garduna was spread, represented the Hermcmo 
Mayor or Grand Master, who exercised arbitrary 
and absolute power over the whole society, and 
ruled the members with a rod of iron. Strange 
that men, who will not submit to legitimate autho- 
rity, yet will bow to and be tyrannized over by a 
creature of their own setting up ! The Thugs, 
Assassins, Chauffeurs, and all similar lawless socie- 
ties, surrendered their will to that of one man, in 

54 Secret Societies. 

blind and slavish fear; but perhaps this is the 
only condition on which such societies can exist. 

327. Spirit of the Society. — ^The Thugs or Assassins 
killed to rob, but the Grarduna, having learnt its 
business so to speak in a more diaboUcal school^ 
that of the Holy Inquisition, considered itself bound 
to perform any land of crime that promised a 
chance of gain. The priests had drawn up a re- 
gular tariff, at which any number of members of 
the society could be hired to do any deed of dark- 
ness. Eobbery, murder, mutilation, false evidence, 
falsification of documents, the carrying off of a 
lady, getting your enemy taken on board a ship and 
sold as a slave in a foreign colony — all these could be 
had " to order /' and the members of the Garduna 
were exceedingly conscientious and prompt in 
carrying out such pleasant commissions. One-half 
of the price paid for such services was generally 
paid on giving the order, and the other half on its 
completion. The sums thus earned were divided into 
three parts ; one part went into the general Aind, 
the other was kept in hand for running expenses, 
and the third went to the members who had done 
the work. That for a considerable period the 
affairs of the society were in a very flourishing 
state, is proved by the fact that they were able to 
keep in their pay at the Court of Madrid persons 
holLg high positions to protect and faler the 
interests of the members. They even had their 

The Garduna. 55 

secret affiliates among judges, magistrates, governors 
of prisons and similar officials, whose chief duty 
lay in facilitating or eflfecting the escape of any 
member of the society that might have fallen into 
the hands of justice. 

328. Signs y legend, ^c. — ^It was mentioned above 
that the Grarduna had its signs and passwords of 
recognition. When a Garduno found himself in 
the company of strangers, to ascertain if a brother 
was present, he would as it were accidentally put 
his right thumb to his left nostril ; if a brother was 
present, he would approach him and whisper the 
pass-word, in reply to which another pass-word 
would be given; then, to make quite sure, there 
would be grips and signs, a la Freemason, and the 
two might talk at their ease in a jargon perfectly 
unintelligible to outsiders on their mutual affisiirs 
and interests. Their religious rites — and the Gfard- 
una inaisted much on being- a religious society- 
were those of the Papal Church, and as that Church 
is founded on legends innumerable, so the Garduna 
hsd its legend, which was as follows: — ^' When 
the sons of Beelzebub (the Moors) first invaded 
Spain, the miraculous Madonna of Cordova took re- 
fuge in the midst of the Christian camp. But God, 
to punish the sins of his people, allowed the Moors 
to defeat the orthodox arms, and to erect their 
throne on the broken power of the Christians, who 
retreated into the mountains of Asturia, and there 

56 Secret Societies. 

continued, as well as they conld, their straggle with 
the enemies of God and oppressors of their country. 
The Madonna, daily and hourly implored by the 
faithful, granted some successes to their arms, so 
that they were not entirely destroyed, according to 
Heaven's first decree. And though they could not 
drive the Moors from Spain, they yet amidst the 
mountains preserved their reKgion and liberty. 
There lived at that time in the wilds of Sierra 
Morena an old anchorite, named Apollinare, vulgarly 
called Gal Polinario, a man of austere habits, great 
sanctity, and a devout worshipper of the Virgin. 
To him one morning the Mother of Gk)d appeared 
and spoke thus : — ^^ Thou seest what evil the Moors 
do to thy native country and the reKgion of my 
Son. The sins of the Spanish people are indeed so 
great as to have excited the wrath of the Most 
High, for which reason he has allowed the Moors 
to triumph over you. But while my Son was con- 
templating the earth, I had the happy inspiration 
to point out to him thy many and great virtues, at 
which his brow cleared up ; and I seized the instant 
to beseech him by means of thee to save Spain from 
the many evils that afflict it. He granted my 
prayer. Hear therefore my conmiands and execute 
them. Collect the patriot and the brave, lead 
them in my name against the enemy, assuring 
them that I shall ever be by their side. And as 
they are fighting the good fight of the faith, toll 

The Garduna. 57 

them that even now they shall have their reward, 
and that they may in all justice appropriate to 
themselves the riches of the Moors, in whatever 
manner obtained. In the hands of the enbmies of 
Gk>d wealth may be a means of oppressing religion, 
whilst in those of the faithful it will only be applied 
to its greater glory. Arise, ApolUnare, inspire and 
direct the great crnsade; I invest thee with fiill 
power, anointing thee with celestial oil. Take this 
button, which I myself pulled off the tunic of my 
celestial Son ; it has the property of multiplying 
itself and working miracles without number ; whoso 
wears one on his neck will be safe from Moorish 
arms, the rage of heretics and sudden death.' And 
the Virgin having anointed him and given him the 
button, disappeared, leaving an ambrosial jBavour 
behind.'' Then the anchorite founded the Soly 
Garduna, which thus could claim a right dwine to 
robbery and murder. Hence also no important pre- 
datory expedition was undertaken without a fore- 
going religious ceremony ; and when a discussion 
arose as to how to attack a traveller, or to commit 
some other similar crime, the Bible was ostensibly 
referred to for guidance. 

329. Suppression of the Society. — The laws of the 
society, like those of nearly all secret societies, were 
not written down, but transmitted by oral tradition, 
but the Qarduna kept a kind of chronicle in which 
its acts were briefly recorded. This book, which 

58 Secret Societies. 

now Kes in the archives of the tribunals of Seville, 
and which, with other documents, was seized in the 
house of the Grand Master Francis Cortina in 1821, 
formed the basis of the indictment of the society 
before the courts of justice. From this it appeared 
that the Garduna had its branches in Toledo, Bar- 
celona, Cordova, and many other Spanish towns. 
It also revealed their close connection with the 
Holy Inquisition up to the seventeenth century. 
Of their list of crimes, the carrying oflF of women, 
chiefly at the instigation of the holy fathers of the 
Inquisition, forms about one-third, assassinations 
form another third, whilst robbery, false testimony, 
or denunciation, complete the list. The book fur- 
ther was the means of enabling the authorities to 
arrest many of the members of the society, who were 
tried without delay, and on the 25th November, 
1822, the last Grand Master and sixteen of his chief 
followers expiated their crimes on the scaffold 
erected in the market-place of Seville, and the Gard- 
una only survives in the bands of brigands who are 
yet to be occasionally encountered in the recesses of 
the Spanish mountains. 






Perdigwr Agrieola. I* Livre dn Oomp^nonnage. Puis, 

ifor«aw. Un ]U!ot but le Compognoniutge. Anxene, 1841. 
GtrouJ. S^ezioiis snr le Compagnonnage. Lyon, 1847. 
8cmd. Le Oompagnou du Tour da Fraoce. 
Soianclro. Le Gompagnoimage, ce qa*!! a 4t4, ce qn'il est, 

' etc. UarBsilles, 1850. 
Grimm. Altdeateche WMder. Caseel, 1813. 
Srewtcmo. Arbeiter^den der GegenwarL Leipdo, 1871. 



BGANIZATION of Worhmen's Unions. 
—The origin of corporations of artisans 
dates from the day in which the op- 
pressed workers and neglected burghers 
wished to resist feudal rapine, assure to themselves 
the fruit of their own labour, increase their trade, 
enlarge their profits, and establish friendly relations. 
But whilst these ancient corporations rose up against 
the aristocracy of blood and wealth, they did not 
steer clear of the oligarchic spirit. In the first cen- 
turies of the Middle Ages, the journeyman did not 
separate from his master ; he lived and worked with 
him. There did not then exist that distinction which 
afterwards displayed itself so openly — ^in fact, even 
now, in many German towns the journeymen eat at 
the master^s table. Then the journeyman was to the 
master what the squire was to the knight ; and as the 
squire could be received into the ranks of knighthood. 

62 Secret Societies. 

80 the apprentice^ at the end of his term^ could esta- 
blish himself as master. But by-and-bye it did not 
suffice to possess property or skilly to become a 
master; it became necessary after the apprentice- 
ship to travel for two or three years, the object of 
which was, and still is, to acquire greater skill, and 
a knowledge of the various modes of working in 
different towns, adopted in the particular trade to 
which the journeyman belonged. On his return, he 
had to make his master-piece ; if approved by a 
committee of masters, he was received among them; 
if not, he was rejected, and was not allowed to work 
on his own account. Thus the masters had in their 
turn transformed themselves into an aristocracy hos- 
tile to the majority, speculating on, rather than admi- 
nistering to, the common labour, their interests being 
opposed to those of the workmen. The ostracism 
which thus pursued the great army of labourers, 
and the segregation to which they were condemned, 
necessarily produced a reaction, which, unable to have 
recourse to open revolt, assumed the form of a secret 
sodaKty, with rites and customs peculiar to itself. 
The workman, moreover, unlike the master, was not 
tied to any city or country, but could wander from 
place to place — a life which, in fact, he must prefer 
to staying for ever in one workshop or factory, 
where the experience needed for the mastership 
could not be attained. Hence arose the ancient 
custom of the '^ Tour of Prance " and the multiform 
compagnormagej which, whilst a source of pleasure 

French Workmen's Unions. 63 

to the workmen settled in a town, became a neces- 
sity for the travelling, the persecuted journeyman; 
who thus withdrew himself from under the regular 
legislation, which only protected the manufacturer, 
and joined, as it were, a subterranean association to 
protect himself and his affiKates from the unpunished 
injuries inflicted on them by burghers and masters. 
331. Oormection with Freemasonry. — Freemasonry 
was early mixed up with the compagnormage, and the 
construction of the Temple, which is constantly met 
with in the former, also plays a great part in the 
latter — a myth, undefined, chronologically irrecon- 
cilable, a poetic fiction, like all the events, called 
historical that surround the starting-points of vari- 
ous sects; for sects, existing, as it were, beyond 
the pale of official history, create a history of their 
own, exclusive of, and oppoiaed to, the world of facts, 
like the genius of Shakspeare, that cares little for 
geography or chronology, but whose grand anachron- 
isms belong to a higher truth, a more intrinsic reality 
— -the truth and reality of art. The Solomon of the 
legend, so diflferent from that of the Bible, is one of 
the patriarchs of the compagnormage ; and, like the 
masonic ceremonies, the rites of these journeyman 
associations continually allude to that moral archi- 
tecture, that proposes to erect prisons for vice, and 
temples to virtue. Further, and in the same way, 
the embraces and kisses of the craftsmen remind us 
of the symbolic grips of the Freemasons, and the 
brotherly kiss of ancient knighthood. 

64 Secret Societies. 

332. Decrees agadnstWorhmen' 8 Unions, — ^We are 
often obliged to seek for information concerning 
secret societies in clerical invectives and judicial 
prosecutions ; these are lamps shedding a sinister 
light on associations whose existence was scarcely 
suspected. Thus compagnormage existed before 
Francis I.; for this king, though he protected the 
Carbonari (348-364), and actually introduced the 
Oarbonari term of '^ cousin" into the language of 
Courts, issued an edict against the former, forbidding 
journeymen to bind themselves with oaths ; to elect a 
diief ; to assemble in greater numbers than five in 
front of the workshops, on pain of being imprisoned 
or banished ; to wear swords or sticks in the houses 
of their masters'or the streets of the city ; to attempt 
any seditious movement; or to hold any banquet 
lit the beginning or the end of an apprenticeship. 
A subsequent regulation, a.d. 1723, prohibits any 
community, confraternity, assembly, or cabala of 
workmen; and a parliamentary decree of 1778 re- 
news the prohibition, and enjoins on tavern-keepers 
not to receive into their houses assemblies of more 
than four craftsmen, nor in any way to favour the 
practices of the pretended devoir (duty) . The lan- 
guage of the clergy is equally energetic. A deli- 
beration of the Parisian clergy of 1655 says : '^ This 
pretended devoir consists in three precepts — to hon- 
our God, protect the property of the master, and 
succour the companions. But these companions 

French Workmen^ s Unions. 65 

dishonour God, profane the mysteries of our reli- 
gion, ruin the masters, withdrawing the workmen 
from the workshop, when some of those inscribed in 
the ^cabala' complain of having been injured. 
The impieties and sacrileges they commit vary 
according to the different trades ; but they have this 
in common, that before being received into the 
association, every member is bound to swear on the 
Gospel that he will not reveal either to father or 
mother, wife or son, either to cleric or layman, what 
he is about to do or will see done ; and for this pur- 
pose they choose an inn, which they call the mother, 
wherein they have two rooms, in one of which they 
perform their abominable rites, whilst in the other 
they hold their feasts /^ Even before 1 645, the clergy 
had denounced the tailors and shoemakers to the 
authorities of Paris for dishonest and heterodox 
practices, and the faculty of theology had prohibited 
the pernicious meetings of workmen, under pain of 
the greater excommunication; so that the com- 
panions, to escape ecclesiastical persecution, held 
their meetings in those purlieus of the Temple which 
enjoyed the right of sanctuary. Even thence they 
were removed, however, by the decree of the 11th 
September, 1651. 

333. Traditions, — In assuming the denomination 
of '' duty,^' the companions wished to intimate that 
they imposed on themselves duties and laws. They 
recognised three founders — Solomon, master James, 

n. F 

66 Secret Societies. 

and father Soubise. Solomon built the temple; James 
was said to be the son of a famous architect^ Joachim^ 
bom at St. Romily. James, having gone to Greece, 
heard the summons of Solomon, and went to him ; 
and, having received firom Hiram the order to erect 
two columns, he acquitted himself with such zeal and 
skill, that he was at once made a master and the 
companion of Hiram. The temple being finished, 
he returned again to Gaul with master Soubise, who 
had been his inseparable companion at Jerusalem. 
However, the pupils of master Soubise, jealous of 
James, attempted to assassinate him, and the latter 
threw himself into a marsh, where the reeds sup- 
ported and concealed him, saving his Ufe; but 
eventually he was discovered by the pupils of Sou- 
bise, who was unaware of their nefarious design, 
and slain. Soubise long mourned James ; and 
when his end approached, he taught the compan- 
ions their '^ duties,^' and the mode of life they ought 
to pursue. Among the rites he placed the kiss of 
brotherly i,ffection and the custody of a reed — the 
acacia of the Freemasons — in memory of James. 
A variation of this legend represents Soubise as an 
accomplice of the murder, and a suicide from despera- 
tion. The reader will at once see that this is the 
story of Hiram, nay, of Osiris, and all the great 
deities of antiquity, over again ; in the Legend of 
the Temple (192), Solomon also is an accomplice in 
the murder of his architect. 


French Workmen's Unions. 67 

334. Branches and Degrees, — ^Acknowledging 
three founders, the companions divided themselves 
into three main branches; the sons of Solomon, 
those of master James, and those of father Son- 
bise. The 50ns of Solomon were descended from 
the ancient privileged building corporations, and 
from others not privileged, but employed on public 
works. They assumed different denominations, 
such as "wolves^' (197), and Gavots, which latter 
designation they retained, because coming from 
Judasa to France, they landed on the coast of 
Provence, whose inhabitants are still called Gravots. 
The wolves (197), stonemasons, have two degrees, 
fellow-crafts and youths. The Oavots, carpenters 
and ironsmiths, are divided into three: accepted 
fellow-crafts; advanced fellow-crafts; and initiated 
feUow-crafts. They all commemorate the death of 
master Hiram. 

335. Various Associations. — ^The sons of master 
James called themselves by various names, such as 
Gompagnons Passa/ntSf Bevorants, &c. The sons of 
father Soubise were known as ^^ Jovials, or Com- 
panions of the Foxes,^^ or as Drilles, an ancient 
French word signifying ^' companions,'^ and by that 
scarcely desirable one of " dogs," in commemora- 
tion, it is said, of the dog who discovered the 
body of Hiram. It is more probable, however, that 
this denomination had the same origin as that of 

wolves,'' for which dogs may easily be mistaken; or 



68 Secret Societies. 

that it refers to the star Sirins (210) ^ in which case 
the name Soubise might be a corruption of the 
epithet Sabaziua, given to Bacchus (57). With 
the second of these branches of companionship^ 
comprising at first the three trades of stone-mason, 
locksmith, and joiner, and with the third, com- 
posed entirely of carpenters, were afterwards 
affiliated other trades, such as those of turners, 
glaziers, weavers, shoemakers, smiths, nailmakers, 
hatters, bakers, tanners, plasterers, and others. 
With these the probability and number of schisms 
increased ; and the families of the " Rebels,^' " In- 
dependents,^^ ^^ Foxes of Liberty,^' and others arose 
almost as a natural consequence. 

336. Oeneral Customs. — ^The square and com- 
passes were the symbols of the compagnonnage ; 
the members called each other by the name of their 
country, because every one carried his country with 
him in himself, and found hospitaUty and assistance 
among the brethren to whom he addressed him- 
self. And the woman that entertained them in 
their tour or wanderings through France, was 
called by the endearing name of mother — ^and 
truly the association was to them a mother, that 
succoured them when they wanted bread, and 
enabled them to refuse working for wages below 
the custom of the trade ; that recompensed the in- 
dustrious and punished the worthless, so that 
throughout France they were denounced and met 

French Workmen^ s Unions. 69 

with no fidendly reception. The aspirant for initia- 
tion was obliged to have finished his apprentice- 
ship; he was instructed in the word, signs and 
grips, and attached a ribbon of a particular colour 
to his cap and button-hole ; received a stick of a 
certain length, earrings that represented the square 
and compasses, and a mark on the arm and chest. 
Strange customs prevailed, and still do prevail in 
many parts of the Continent, as the writer knows 
from personal observation, at the setting out of a 
member for his wanderings. He was accompanied 
beyond the town by his friends, one of them carry- 
ing his knapsack, and another singing the parting 
song, in the chorus of which all joined. They also 
carried bottles of beer and cups. Arrived at a certain 
distance from the town, the beer was drunk and the 
bottles and cups were thrown into the neighbour- 
ing fields. In some trades they hung a bottle to a 
tree, to symbolize the death of Saint Stephen, all 
throwing stones at the innocent bottle, except he 
who was about to set out, and who took leave of his 
companions, saying : — ^' Friends, I take leave of you 
as the apostles took leave of Christ, when they set 
out to preach the gospel/' 

337. Customs among Gha/rcoalrbv/mers and Hewers, 
— St. Theobald is the patron of the pharcoal- 
bumers (349), one of the oldest trade corporations. 
There were three degrees, aspirant, master and 
hewer. The aspirant was called guepier. A white 

70 Secret Societies. 

tablecloth was spread on the ground^ and a salt^ 
cellar^ a cup of water^ a lighted taper and a 
crucifix placed on it. The kneeling aspirant swore 
on the salt and water faithfully to keep the secrets 
of the association. He was then taught the words 
by which he could know, and make himself known 
to, his brethren in the forest, as well as the symboUc 
meaning of the objects before him — the tablecloth 
signified the winding-sheet in which every man 
shall be wrapped up ; the taper, the lights burning 
round the death-bed ; the cross, man^s redemption ; 
the salt, the theological virtues. This ritual was 
austere and sad, like the existence of the poor 
charcoal-burners, whose joys are numbered, but 
whose griefs and privations are endless ; it prevailed 
in the Jura, the Alps, and the Bldck Forest. The 
catechism of the hewers contains passages of pathetic 
simplicity. Segregated in the immense forest, they 
fix their eyes on the heaven above and the earth 
beneath ; their religion bears a resemblance to that 
of the pilots of Homer ; earth and heaven, nature 
and God, such is their worship, whence arises a 
moral of tender and passionate fraternity. 

" Q. Whence come ye, cousin of the oak ? 

A. From the forest. 

Q. Where is your father ? 

A* Baise your eyes to heaven. 

Q. Where is your mother ? 

j4. Cast your eyes on the earth. 

Q. What worship do you pay to your father ? 

French Workmen's Unions, 71 

A. Homage and respect. 

Q* Wliat things do you bestow on your mother ? 

A. My care during life> and my body afterwards. 

Q. If I want help, what will you give me ? 

A. I will share with you half my day's earnings 
and my bread of sorrow ; you shall rest in my hut 
and warm yourself at my fire.'' 

How much resignation in this brief dialogue, 
how much warm aflfeotion! Another society of 
hewers, called the society of the ^' Prodigal Son," 
had a still more dismal ritual. Over three doors of 
a symbolic tower was written : — ^^ The past deceives 
me; the present tortures me; the future terrifies 
me." A triangle with the letters S. J. P. re- 
minded them of the wisdom of Solomon, the 
patience of Job, and the repentance of the Prodigal 
Son. On the white apron was represented a heart, 
surrounded with black, over which rolled a red tear, 
a tear of blood and despair. The pangs and 
wretchedness of life depressed the imagination of 
these poor woodmen ; still they had faith in Time 
as the repairer of all, and on one of their symbolic 
objects they wrote : Le temps vient a hout de tout. 
Another society, of which very little is known, 
called itself, Moins diable que noir ; as if to indicate 
that the blackness of their outside did not prevent 
goodness of heart. 

338. Customs in various other Trades, — The sad- 
dlers and shoemakers had their own initiatory prac- 
tices. In the room where the initiation took place. 

72 Secret Societies. 

there arose a rougli altar^ on which were placed a 
crucifix^ tapers^ a missal^ and whatever is necessary 
for the celebration of divine service. This was per- 
formed, many peculiar phrases being intermingled 
therewith j after which the neophyte was made ac- 
quainted with the rites of the devoir, the signs and 
passwords, and the symbolic meaning of the forms 
and jewels. The reception of the hatters in its 
purifications and funereal myth approached still 
nearer to the ancient initiations. A stage or dais 
was erected in a large hall ; on the stage were placed 
a cross, a crown of thorns, a palm branch, and all 
the instruments of the Passion of Christ. Close by 
stood a large basin of water. The aspirant repre- 
sented Christ, and passed through the various epi- 
sodes of the Passion of the Redeemer ; and finally 
knelt down before the basin, when the water, the 
baptism of regeneration, was poured on his head. 
No doubt the original institutors of this rite had 
honest and elevated views; but in course of time the 
whole degenerated into a farce a la Ban- Tan Club. 
In the reception of the tailors the candidate was led 
into a room, in the centre of which stood a table 
covered with a white cloth, whereon were placed a 
loaf of bread, a salt-ceUar overturned, three sugar ^ 
loaves, and three needles. He also passed through 
the various stages of the Passion of Christ. He was 
then conducted to a second room, where a banquet 
was prepared, and, as it is asserted, pictures were 
exhibited of the vie galante of three journeymen^ 

French Worhmen!s Unions. 73 

tailors, pleasmg to the senses ; which may remind us 
of the peculiar worship entering into all the ancient 

339. Heroes and Martyrs of the Institution,--^ 
These initiations gave a certain importance to the 
various trade-unions and their members ; it was their 
common patrimony that kept up the esprit de corps, 
though it was not free from the arrogance and ex- 
olusiveness which multiplied rites, intolerance, 
jealousies and enmities, that periodically ended in 
sanguinary struggles — the tragic episodes of a 
drama, now barbaric, now heroic. Thus the comr- 
pagnonnage, as it had its poets, so it had its 
martyrs, the victims of vulgar prejudices, who 
thought they were sacrificing themselves for the 
glory and power of the devovr, and whose song of 
death, though it breathed an implacable spirit of 
hatred, issued from their lips as the song of a just 
and meritorious war. 

*< Teas ces Gkbvots infUmes 
Iront dans les enfers 
Briiler dedans les flammes 
Comme des Lucifers." 

The disturbances at Lyons, Marseilles, Bordeaux, 
disgraced the compa^nonnage. In the middle of the 
last century the rivalry between the two sections of 
the stone-masons of Lyons ended in the expulsion of 
one of them from that city, and their attempt to 
return led to the most terrible scenes of violence and 



UNTSMAIPS Phraseology. — In the 
woods infested by robbers we meet 
with the first germs of these corpora- 
tions, with rough bat characteristic 
cnstoma. Charcoal-bomers and hunters need means 
to recognise each other, so as not to shake hands 
with an enemy. Grimm has coUected upwards of 
two hundred venatic terms and phrases. The 
(questions and answers of the wandering journeymen 
hare a great resemblance to those of hunters ; the 
intonation is the same, and both make great use of 
the symbolic numbers three and seven. The for^ 
mulse necessarily have reference to the various 
incidents of iie hunter's Ufe. 

" Q. Good huntsman, what have you seen to-day? 
A. A noble stag and a wild boar ; what can one 
desire better ? 

Q. Why do call yourself a master huntsman ? 

German Worhmen^s Unions. 75 

A* A brave huntsman obtains from princes and 
lords the title of master in the seven liberal arts* 
From these sentiments which ennoble the dignity 
of an art or trade there arises often that chivalrous 
love, which renders life gentle, and gives it an aim 
and a reward worthy of it. 

Q. Tell me, good huntsman, where have you left 
the fair and gentle damsel ? 

A. I left her under a majestic tree, and am going 
to rejoin her. Long live the maid dressed in white 
that every morning brings me a day of good fortune. 
Every day I see her again at the same place ; and 
when I am wounded she cures me, and says to me : — 
' I wish the huntsman safety and happiness j may he 
meet with a fine stag ! ^ ^^ 

341. IniUation. — ^Artisans, more closely united 
than huntersj did not admit new members into their 
sodality except after long and solemn trials ; .their 
catechisms breathe throughout a spirit of brotherly 
aflfection and attention to moral and civil duties* 
They were divided into degrees, and it is remarkable 
that the German workmen have long been accus- 
tomed to the word, sign, and grip of the Free- 
masons. The operative masons were divided into 
Wort-Mcmrer (Word Masons) and Schrift-Mavnrer 
(Writing or Diploma Masons) . The former had no 
other proof to give of their having been regularly 
brought up to the trade of builders, but the word 
and signs; the latter had written indentures to show. 

76 Secret Societies. 

There were laws, enjoining master masons to give 
employment to journeymen who had the proper 
word and signs. Some cities in this respect pos- 
sessed more extensive privileges than others. The 
word given at Wetzlar, entitled the possessor to 
work over the whole empire. With the German 
jomneymen also the three years^ travel in search of 
improvement is a-n universal condition, and the 
usual time for setting out is the spring. The Hand- 
werhsbursche is even now a German institution; 
though he is now not so frequently met with on the 
high-road, because railways enable him to travel 
more cheaply than he could on foot. 

342. Initiation of Oooper, — Every trade again 
has its particular mode of initiation ; but as there 
necessarily is a great similarity of ritual and cere- 
monies, their details would become a t^ious repeti- 
tion. , I therefore confine myself to one craft — that 
of the cooper. Permission is first asked to intro- 
duce to the assembly of companions or fellow-crafts 
the youth who is to be made one of them, and who 
is called the '^ Apron of Goatskin/' The com- 
panion who introduces him says : — ^^ Some one, I 
know not who, follows me with a goatskin; a mur- 
derer of staves, a wood-spoiler, a traitor ; he is on 
the threshold, and says he is not guilty ; he enters, 
and promises, after having been 'put into shape' 
{ebauche) by us, to become a good journeyman." 
Leave having been given, the apprentice seats him* 

German Worhmen^s Unions. 77 

self on a stool placed on a table, and the companions 
try to upset him; but his guide keeps him up, 
whereupon he is repeatedly baptized and consecrated 
with beer. The patron then says : — ^^ What do you 
call yourself now ? Choose a name, genteel, short, 
and that pleases the girls. He that has a short 
name pleases every one, and every one drinks a cup 
of wine or beer to his health. . . . And now to pay 
the expenses of the baptism, give what every one 
else has given, and the masters and journeymen 
shall be content with you.^' The candidate also 
receives numerous instructions how to conduct him- 
self on his wanderings. He is not to be deterred by 
the difficulties that encounter him at the outset. 
After having passed through a forest full of dangers, 
lie is supposed to arrive in a pleasant meadow, and 
to behold a pear-tree full of tempting fruit. Is he 
to lie down under it, and wait till the pears fall into 
Lis half-open mouth? Is he to mount the tree? 
No; the farmer or his men would see him, and give 
him a beating. He is to shake the tree, and some 
of the fruit will fall down, with which he is to 
regale himself, leaving some on the ground for some 
companion who may come after him, and perhaps 
not be strong enough to shake the tree. Pursuing his 
way, he comes to a torrent, over which the trunk of 
a large tree serves for a bridge. There he en- 
counters a young girl leading a goat. What shall 
he do ? Push the girl and the goat into the water, 

78 Secret Societies. 

and pass on ? "No ; let him take the goat on his 
shoulder, the girl in his arms, and cross the 
bridge. He may afterwards marry the girl, because 
he needs a wife, and kill the goat for the nuptial 
feast, and the skin will make him a new apron. 
Arriving in a town, he is to go to the inn kept by a 
master ; if ^ his daughter shqws him the way to his 
bedroom, he is to keep a guard over himself; and on 
the next day he is to go about looking out for work. 
Perhaps he will be offered it by three masters — the 
first is rich in wood and hoops; the second has 
three handsome daughters, and regales his workmen 
with plenty of wine and beer ; the third is poor ; 
with which one is he to accept work ? With the 
first he would become a first-rate cooper ; with the 
second he would be happy, having drink in plenty, 
and dancing with the charming girls ; but with the 
third ? He is to be as ready to work for the poor as 
for the rich master. This discourse, of which there 
is much more, being ended, the novice attempts to 
run into the street and cry fire ! The companions 
restrain him, and copiously baptize him with cold 
water; and then, of course, follows a dinner. 

343. Guriou8 Works on the Subject. — ^There exist 
in Germany numerous works on the rites and cus- 
toms of various traders ; the following are some of 
them — "The Millers' Crown of Honour, or a 
Complete Description of the True Nature of the 
Circles of the Company of Millers. By a Miller's 

German WorhmerCs Unions. 79 

Apprentice, George Bohnnann/' We here get into 
masonic symbolism. One woodcut represents a 
circle with mystic sentences, and the explanation 
says that everything was created from or by the 
circle. Then there follows the history of bakers 
according to the Scriptures ; then a poetically 
described journey, with particulars of the most 
celebrated mills of Lusatia, Silesia, Moravia, Hun- 
gary, Bohemia, &c. The names of the three most 
famous millers that, according to the author, ever 
existed, are placed in the form of a triangle ; and the 
book concludes with an invocation to the Architect 
of the Universe. A work of a similar nature is en- 
titled, ^^ Customs of the Worshipful Trade of Bakers ; 
how every one is to conduct himself at the inn 
and at work. Printed for the use of those about 
to travel.'^ Another is called, ^^ Origin, Antiquity, 
and Glory of the Worshipful Company of Furriers ; 
an accurate Description of all the Formalities ob- 
served from time immemorial in the Initiations of 
Masters, and the manner of examining the Journey^ 
men. The whole faithfully described by Jacob 
Wahrmund (True Mouth) .^^ All the companies 
boast of their ancient descent, but none more than 
that of the Furriers, who claim that God Himself was 
at first one of their fellow-workers, seeing that the 
Bible says that God made aprons of skins for Adam 
and Eve — ^an honour shared by no other company. 
344. Rcdson d/ei/re of the Gompagnonnage. — The 

80 Secret Societies. 

compagnonnage may be called an operative knighi?- 
hood. Its rites, Bymbols, and traditions are only 
its tangible form. The necessity for workmen to 
find, on their arrival in a new town, a nucleus of 
friends, a rendezvous, a mother, in the midst of the 
exclusion into which the constituted trades corpora- 
tions would have thrown them, was the raison d'etre 
of these associations. The possibility of struggling 
by means of associative force and the passive re- • 
sistance of numbers against the oppression of manu- 
facturers, and of equalizing forces otherwise dispro- 
portionate, was a further cause of these sodalities. 
In the Middle Ages, in which the central power was 
barely sufficient to oppress, but did not avail to pro- 
tect, and when the individual was exposed to arbi- 
trary treatment, and deprived of all means of defence, 
secret associations on behalf of justice necessarily 
arose in many countries. Holy Vehms providing for 
public security, 

345. Gmlds. — The Guilds had the same origin, 
but can scarcely be reckoned among secret socie- 
ties, though their influence was often secretly exer- 
cised ; and kings frequently turned them to account 
in their opposition to the aristocracy, as, for in- 
stance, Louis the Fat, who was himself the founder 
of an association called the ^' Popular Community/' 
intended to put a stop to the brigandage of the 
feudal lords, whose castles were in many instances 
but dens of thieves. In England, the first guilds 

German WorkmerCs Unions. 81 

of which clear records have been preserved, were 
established in the eleventh century. By the laws 
of guilds, no person could work at a trade who had 
not served a seven years' apprenticeship to it. But 
witib the introduction of machinery, this custom 
gradually fell into disuse, as the small or retail 
manufacturers of olden times became less and less, 
and the relations between employers and their 
workmen were changed — relations such as may 
even yet be found to exist in some places in Ger- 
many and Switzerland, where one master keeps an 
apprentice and from two to four workmen. This style 
of industry might be found not many years ago in 
Yorkshire among the small cloth-manufacturers. 
This quiet industry was broken up by the rapid in- 
troduction of machinery. The small men, indeed, 
sought to defend themselves by insisting on old 
trade regulations, but without success; for in 1814 
every vestige of the old trade regulations had dis- 
appeared from the EngUsh statute-books. The 
Coalition Act of 1800, not repealed till 1824, often 
compelled the workmen who thus combined to assume 
thecharacter of members of Friendly Societies. Their 
main objects were to prevent the employment of 
women and children in the immense factories every- 
where springing up, and to enforce the old law of 
apprenticeship. Failing in these objects, they next 
resorted to strikes, with the nature, operation, and 
effects of which every one is famiUar. 
n. o 

82 Secret Societies. 

346. Oerman Students. — A fellowship of a very 
different kind^ but still a compagnonnage, is that of 
the students at German Universities, to which a 
few lines may therefore be devoted. The student 
or Bursch looks upon the inhabitants of the town, 
whose university he honours with his presence, as 
" Philistines ;'^ and town and gown rows are as 
usual in Germany as in this country. All non- 
students are Philistines, whether they be kings, 
princes, nobles, or belong to the canaille. The 
students form two grand associations, the Burschen- 
schaften, consisting of students &om any state ; and 
Lcmdsmannschaften, composed of students of the 
same state only. Each has its own laws, regulations, 
and officers, ruling according to a charter ; but all 
members of the universities acknowledge moreover 
a general code, called the ^^ Commentary.''. Such 
as refuse to belong to one of these associations are 
held in very sUght estimation, and are called by aU 
kinds of opprobrious names, such as Kameele (camels) , 
Mnken (fitches), and others more offensive. The 
collegiate students (sizars), called Frosche (frogs), 
cannot take part in the meetings of the Burschen, 
The freshman is a Fuchs (fox), or also a Ooldfuchs 
(golden fox) , because he has still a few gold coins ; 
after six months he is a Brandfuchs (burnt fox) , and 1 

his arrival at that state is celebrated with ridiculous 
ceremonies. In the second year the Brandfuchs rises 
to the dignity of Jungbursch (young Bursch) ; in the 

German Students^ Unions. 83 

third he becomes an AUbursch (old Bursch), altes 
Hau8 (old house) , or bemoostes Saupt (mossy head) . 
Students who are natives of the university town 
are called Gurds, because their mothers can send 
them, if they please, a dish of that article of food for 
their suppers. To rise from one degree to another 
the Fuchs has to go through a series of probations, 
especially putting to the test his powers of drinking 
and smoking. On his first visit to the Oormnershcms ^ 
commerce house, as the tavern which the students 
patronize is called, he is unfailingly made drunk, 
at his own expense, and while at the same time 
enteA'taining all the ^^ old houses .^^ The next morning 
he awakes with the Katzenjammer (cat^s lamentation) . 
He dresses in a fantastic style, wearing a Polish 
jacket, jack-boots with spurs, and a cap of the colour 
of the society to which he belongs ; to his buttonhole 
is attached an enormous tobacco pouch ; in his mouth 
he carries a long pipe, and an ironshod stick in his 
hand. He endeavours above all things to become 
a flotter Bursch^ a student de pur sang, and is proud 
. if an ^^old house ^^ makes him his Ldbfuchs (favourite 
fox). The Philistine who offends the students is 
condemned to the Verruf (outlawed) j and frequently 
the students have turned out against the citizens, 
forming with their Stiefelvdchser (bootcleaners, or 
gyps), an array not to be despised by the military. 
The cry of Burschen Waus! students turn out!- 
would send terror through the small peaceable 

84 Secret Societies. 

towns of Germany. Sometimes they would pmusli 
the town by leaving it in a body, and only return 
on their terms being agreed to. Such emigrations 
took place at Grottingen in 1823 ; at Halle in 1827 ; 
and at Heidelberg in 1830. A few details of these 
'^emigrations" may be amusing. On the last- 
named occasion the students, who had again secretly 
formed a Burschenschaft, put under the ban the 
Museum of that town, because the rules for its 
management displeased many of them. For this 
the ringleaders were seized and brought to trial. 
But on the cry of Bwrschen Wans ! all the students, 
hastily snatching up what articles they most needed, 
threw them into chaises, on horses, on the backs 
of the shoe-blacks, and marched out of the town to 
Schwelzingen ; and it was only when their demands 
with regard to the Museum were conceded, that 
they returned to Heidelberg. Another marching 
forth had occurred many years before. A student, 
as he went past the watch-house, forgot to take the 
pipe from his mouth. Thereupon arose a contention 
between him and the soldier on guard; the latter 
called an officer, by whom the student was grossly 
insulted. This gave occasion to an '^ emigration," 
which however proceeded no further than to a place 
about a mile from the city, whence the students at 
once returned, all their demands being conceded ; 
which were that a full amnesty should be granted for 
all that had passed and the soldiers removed. More- 

German Students' Unions. 85 

over the military were obKged to post themselves on 
the bridge, the officers at their head, and to present 
arms, while the students marched past in triumph, 
with music playing before them. But though the Ger- 
man student would thus seem to think of nothing 
but smoking his pipe, to which he gives the elegant 
name of Stmktopfy drinking unlimited quantities of 
wine, beer and punch, entertaining the daughters 
of the cits, which daughters he gallantly calls Geier 
(vultures), whilst grisettes are B*esen (brooma), run- 
ning into debt, fighting duels — to be called dummer 
Junge (stupid youngster), is an insult which ne- 
cessitates a challenge — and generally ruining his 
health, yet when he buckles to work he will accom- 
plish mental feats that would astonish many an 
Oxford first-class man, or Cambridge wrangler. 
Out of aU this fermentation and froth there comes 
at last good wine, and all the intellectual greatness 
of Germany, and much of its political progress, are 
due to the roistering BurscheUy of whom I cannot 
speak but with a kind of sneaking kindness, re- 
taining many pleasant personal recollections of 

347. Ancient cv^tom of InitiaUon. — In the fol- 
lowing passage, taken fromi the "History of the 
High School of Konigsberg,'^ by Arnold, the reader 
may detect many customs analogous to those prac- 
tised in the initiations to the ancient mysteries, as 
prevailing so late bs the first half of the seventeenth 


86 Secret Societies. 

century at tte matriculations of German students. 
'^ In the university where the deposition was cus- 
tomary, the newly- arrived student, the so-called 
^Brane' or Bacchant, announced himself to the 
dean of the philosophical faculty, and prayed that 
he might through the deposition be received among 
the students. When the Branen amounted to a 
certain number the dean appointed a day on which 
to celebrate the deposition ; and summoned, besides 
the Branen, the depositor with his instruments, and 
an amanuensis. They appeared on the appointed 
day before the dean ; the depositor in the first place 
put on a harlequin^ s dress, caused the Branen ta 
attire themselves in the same style, and put on 
them other ludicrous articles of dress, especially 
hats and caps vdth horns, and distributed amongst 
them the instruments with which the deposition 
should be executed — coarse wooden combs, shears^ 
axes, hatchets, planes, saws, razors, looking-glasses, 
stools, and so on. The depositor then marshalled 
the Branen in rank and file, placed himself at their 
head, and conducted them to the hall, where the 
deposition should be performed, and there addressed 
a speech to the dean and the spectators, who con- 
sisted of students. The depositor commenced the 
deposition by striking the Branen with a bag filled 
with sand or bran, and compelling them to scamper 
about with aU manner of laughable gestures and 
duckings in order to escape the strokes of the 

German Students* Unions. 87 

sand-bag. He then propounded to them certain 
questions or riddles, and they who did not answer 
them quickly received so many strokes with the 
sand-bag, that the tears often started from their 
eyes. The Branen then gave up the instruments 
which they had held in their hands, and laid down 
on the ground, so that their heads nearly touched 
each other. The depositor thpn planed their shoul- 
ders, filed their nails, pretended to bore through 
and saw off their feet, hewed every limb of their 
bodies into shape, knocked off their goat^s horns 
and tore out of their mouths with a pair of great 
tongs this satyr^s teeth stuck in on purpose. The 
Branen were then caused each to sit on a stool with 
only one leg. The depositor then put on them a dirty 
napkin, soaped them with brick-dust, or with shoe 
blacking, and shaved them so sharply with a wooden 
razor that the tears often started from their eyes. 
The combing with the wooden combs was equally 
rough, and after the combing their hair was 
sprinkled with shavings. After all these opera- 
tions the depositor with his sand-bag drove them 
out of the hall, took off his grotesque attire, put on 
his proper costume and commanded the Branen to 
do the same. He then reconducted them to the 
hall and commended them in a short Latin speech 
to the dean, who replied also in Latin, explaining 
the custom of deposition and adding much good 
advice. Finally, he gave to each of them, as a 



88 Secret Societies. 

Bjmbol of wisdom^ a few grains of salt to taste^ 
scattered in sign of joy some drops of wine over 
their heads^ and handed to them the certificate of 
the accomplished deposition. 

It is scarcely necessary to point out the ana* 
logies between the above initiation into student 
life and that into the ancient mysteries and modem 
Freemasonry; the disguises^ trials^ addresses^ and 
whole ceremonial^ are all on the model of the secret 

Hoffinann^s Lebens-Ansichten dee Eaters Murr, — 
^' Opinions of the Tom-cat Murr,^' or, as we might 
say more briefly, Tom Murr, is a capital satire on 
German student life. The German scholar — ^there 
is, as far as I know, no English translation of the 
work — may there see how '^ Tommy'' becomes a 
Flotter Katzbursch. 




Ma toa pianta radice non pone 
Ohe su* i)ezzi d' infrante corone ; 
l^e si pasce di fresche ruggiade, 
Ma di sangue di membra di re. 

{Motto of Constitution of the Eastern Lucaman BepuhUc.) 

Translation, — Thy plant shall strike its roots only amidst 
the fragments of shattered crowns ; no fresh dews shall 
nourish thee, but only the blood of regal limbs. 



Memoirs of the Secret Societies of the South of Italy, par- 
ticularly the Carbonari. London, 1821. 

Samt-Edme, Constitution des Carbonari. Paris, 1821. 

De Witt, Les Soci^tes secretes de France et d^Italie. 
Paris, 1830. 

Orloff, Memoires sur le royaume de Naples. 

Colletta. Storia del reame di Napoli. 

Le Blanc, L'Histoire de Dix Ans. 

Gro8, De Bidier et autres conspirateurs sous la Eestau- 
ration. Paris, 1841. 



^ISTORY of the AssooiaUon.—Like all 
• other associations, the Carbonari lay 
I claim to a very liigli antiquity. Some of 
' the lesa instructed have even professed 
a descent from Philip of Macedon, the father of 
Alexander the Great, and have attempted to form a • 
high degree founded on this imaginary origin. Others 
go back only 3o far as the pontificate of Alexander 
III.j when Germany, to secure herself against rapa- 
cious barons, founded guilds and societies for mutual 
protection, and the charcoal-burners in the vast 
forests of that country united themaelves against 
robbers and enemies. By words and signs only 
known to themselves, they afforded each other 
assistance. The criminal enterprise of Conrad de 
£anlhngen, to carry off the Saxon princes, failed 
through the intervention of the charcoal-bumerB. 
And at a period much more recent, the Duke TJlrich 

92 Secret Societies. 

of Wiittemberg was compelled by them, under threat 
of death, to abolish certain forest laws, considered 
as oppressive. Similar societies arose in many 
mountainous countries, and they surrounded them- 
selves with that mysticism of which we have seen 
so many examples. Their fidelity to each other 
and to the society was so great, that it became in 
Italy a proverbial expression to say, ^' On the faith 
of a Carbonaro.^^ But the most probable origin 
of the order is to be found in that of the Hewers 
{Fendeurs), which from very ancient times ex- 
isted in the French department of the Jura, 
where it was called le hon cousinage (the good 
cousinship), and had rites similar to those of the 
more modem Carbonari. The sect evidently spread 
into Italy, where it acquired greater power and a 
more perfect organization, and its members assumed 
the new name of Carbonari. At the feasts of the 
Carbonari, the Grand Master drinks to the health 
of Francis I., King of France, the pretended 
founder of the order, according to the following 
tradition -.—During the troubles in Scotland in Queen 
IsabelWs time — this Isabella is purely mythical — 
many illustrious persons, having escaped from the 
yoke of tyranny, took refuge in the woods. In 
order to avoid all suspicion of criminal association, 
they employed themselves in cutting wood and 
making charcoal. Under pretence of carrying it 
for sale, they introduced themselves into the vil- 

The Carbonari. 93 

lages, and bearing the name of real Carbonari 
(colliers), they easily met their partisans, and 
mutually conununicated their diflferent plans. They 
recognized each other by signs, by touch and by 
words, and as there were no habitations in the 
forest, they constructed huts of an oblong form, 
with branches of trees. Their lodges {vendite) 
were subdivided into a number of baracche, each 
erected by a Good Cousin of some distinction. 
There dwelt in the forest a hermit of the name of 
Theobald (349) ; he joined them and favoured their 
enterprise. He was proclaimed protector of the 
Carbonari. Now it happened that Francis I., King 
of France, hunting on the frontiers of his kingdom 
next- to Scotland (sic), or following a wild beast, 
was parted from his courtiers. He lost himself in 
the forest, but stumbling on one of the baracche, 
he was hospitably entertained, and eventually made 
acquainted with their secret and initiated into the 
order. On his return to France he declared him- 
self its protector. The origin of this story is 
probably to be found in the protection granted by 
Louis XII. and continued by Francis I. to the 
Waldenses, who had taken reftige in Dauphin^. 
But neither the Hewers nor the Carbonari ever rose 
to any importance, or acted any conspicuous part 
among the secret societies of Europe till the period 
of the Eevolution. As to their influence in and 
after that event, we shall return to it anon. 

94 Secret Societies. 

349. St. Theobald. — The Theobald alluded to in 
the foregoing tradition, is said to have been 
descended from the first Counts of Brie and Cham- 
pagne. Possessed of rank and wealth, his fondness 
for solitude led him to leave his father's house, and 
retire with his friend Grautier to a forest in Suabia, 
where they lived as hermits, working at any chance 
occupation by which they could maintain them- 
selves, but chiefly by preparing charcoal for the 
forges. They afterwards made several pilgrimages 
to holy shrines, and finally settled near Vicenza, 
where Grautier died. Theobald died in 1066, and 
was canonized by Pope Alexander III. Prom his 
occupation, St. Theobald was adopted as the patron 
saint of the Carbonari, and is invoked by the Good 
Cousins in their hymns ; and a picture, representing 
him seated in &ont of his hut, is usually hung up 
in the lodge. 

350. The Vendita or Lodge. — From the ^^ Code 
of Carbonarism '^ we derive the following particu- 
lars respecting the lodge. It is a room of wood in 
the shape of a barn. The pavement must be of 
brick, the interior furnished with seats without 
backs. At the end there must be a block sup- 
ported by three legs, on which sits the Grand 
Master ; at the two sides there must be two other 
blocks of the same size, on which sit the orator and 
secretary respectively. On the block of the Grand 
Master there must be the following symbols: a 

The Carbonari. 95 

linen cloth, water, salt, a cross, leaves, sticks, fire, 
earth, a crown of white thoma, a ladder, a ball of 
thread, and three ribbons, one blue, one red, and one 
black. There must be an illuminated triangle with 
the initial letters of the pass-word of the second 
rank in the middle. On the left hand there must 
be a triangle, with the arms of the Vendita painted. 
On the right three transparent triangles, each with 
the initial letters of the sacred words of the first 
rank. The Grand Master, and first and second 
assistants, who also sit each before a large wooden 
block, hold hatchets in their hands. The masters 
sit along the wall of one side of the lodge, the 
apprentices opposite. 

351. Ritual of Initiation, — The ritual of Car- 
bonarism, as it was reconstituted at the beginning 
of the present century, was as follows. In the 
Initiation : — 

'^The Grand Master having opened the lodge, 
says. First Assistant, where is the first degree 
conferred ? 

A, In the hut of a Good Cousin, in the lodge of' 
the Carbonari. 

O. M. How is the first degree conferred ? 

A. A cloth is stretched over a block of wood, 
on which are arranged the bases, firstly, the cloth 
itself, water, fire, salt, the crucifix, a dry sprig, a 
green sprig. At least three Good Cousins must 
be present for an initiation ; the introducer, always 

96 Secret Societies. 

^„p»i«. b, . «„„., WE, »^ c««, the 

place where are the bases and the Good Cousins. 
The master who accompanies the introducer, 
strikes three times with his foot and cries : ^ Masters, 
Good Cousins, I need succour/ The Good Cousins 
stand around the block of wood, against which they 
strike the cords they wear round the waist and 
make the sign, carrying the right hand from the 
left shoulder to the right side, and one of them 
exclaims, ^ I have heard the voice of a Good 
Cousin who needs help, perhaps he brings wood to 
feed the furnaces/ The introducer is then brought 
in. Here the Assistant is silent, and the Grand 
Master begins again, addressing the new comer : — 
' My Good Cousin, whence come you ? 

I, From the wood. 

O. M. Whither go you ? 

J. Into the Chamber of Honour, to conquer my 
passions, submit my will, and be instructed in 

G, M. What have you brought from the wood ? 

J. Wood, leaves, earth. 

0. M. Do you bring anything else ? 

1. Yes ; faith, hope, and charity. 

O. M. Who is he whom you bring hither ? 

J. A man lost in the wood. 

G. M. What does he seek? 
J. To enter our order. 
G. M. Introduce him.^ 

The Carbonari. 97 

The neophyte is then brought in. The Grand 
Master puts several questions to him regarding his 
morals and religion, and then bids him kneel, holding 
the crucifix, and pronounce the oath : — ^I promise 
and bind myself on my honour not to reveal the 
secrets of the Good Cousins ; not to attack the virtue 
of their wives or daughters, and to afford all the help 
in my power to every Good Cousin needing it. So 
help me God P^' 

352. First Degree, — After some preKminary ques- 
tioning the Grand Master addresses the novice thus : 
^^ What means the block of wood ? 

JV. Heaven and the roundness of the earth. 

(?. M. What means the cloth ? 

N. That which hides itself on being bom. 

O. M. The water ? 

N, That which serves to wash and purify from 
original sin. 

O. M. The fire ? 

JiV". To show us our highest duties. 

O. M. The salt ? 

N. That we are Christians. 

O. M. The crucifix ? 

N. It reminds us of our redemption. 

G. M. What does the thread commemorate f 

N. The Mother of God that spun it. 

O. M. What means the crown of white thorns ? 

N. The troubles and struggles of Good Cousins. 

O. M. What is the furnace ? 

II. ' H 

98 Secret Societies. 

N. The school of Good Cousins. 

G. M. What means the tree with its roots up in 
the air ? 

N. If all the trees were like that, the work of the 
Good Cousins would not be needed/^* 

The catechism is much longer, but I have given 
only so much as will suffice to show the kind of 
instruction imparted in the first degree. Without 
any explanations following, one would think one was 
reading the catechism of one of those religions im- 
provised on American soil, which seek by the singu- 
larity of form to stir up the imagination. But as 
in other societies, as that of the Illuminati, the 
object was not at the first onset to alarm the aMiated; 
his disposition had first to be tested before the real 
meaning of the ritual was revealed to him. Still 


some of the figures betray themselves, though stu- 
diously concealed. The furnace is the collective 
work at which the Carbonari labour ; the sacred fire 
they keep alive, is the flame of liberty, with which 
they desire to illumine the world. They did not 
without design choose coal for their symbol; for 
coal is the fountain of light and warmth, that purifies 
the air. The forest represents Italy, the wild wood 
of Dante, infested with wild beasts, that is, foreign 
oppressors. The tree with the roots in the air is 
a figure of kingdoms destroyed and thrones over- 
thrown. Catholic mysticism constantly re-appears, 
the highest honours are given to Christ, who was 

The Carbonari. 99 

indeed the Good Cousin of all men. Carbonarism 
did not openly assail religious belief, but made 
use of it, endeavouring to simpKfy and reduce it to 
first principles, as Freemasonry does. The candi- 
date, as in the last-named order, was supposed to per- 
form journeys through the forest and through fire, 
to each of which a symbolical meaning was attached ; 
though the true meaning was not told in this degree. 
In fact, to all who wished to gain an insight into the 
real objects of Carbonarism, this degree could not 
suffice. It was necessary to proceed. 

353. The Second Degree. — The martyrdom of 
Christ occupies nearly the whole of the second 
degree, imparting to the catechism a sad character, 
calculated to surprise and terrify the candidate. 
The preceding figures were here invested with new 
and unexpected meanings, relating to the minutest 
particulars of the crucifixion * of the Good Cousin 
Jesus ; which more and more led the initiated to 
believe that the unusual and whimsical forms with 
stupendous artifice served to confound the ideas and 
suspicions of their enemies, and cause them to lose 
the traces of the fundamental idea. In the constant 
recurrence to the martyrdom of Christ we may 
discern two aims — the one essentially educational, 
to familiarize the Cousin with the idea of sacrifice, 
even, if necessary, of that of life ; the other, chiefly 
political^ intended to gain proselytes among the 
superstitious, the mystics, the souls loving Christi- 

100 Seci^et Societies. 

anity, fundamentally good, however prejudiced, be- 
cause loving, and who constituted the greater num- 
ber* in a Eoman Catholic country Kke Italy — then 
even more than now. The catechism^ as already ob- 
served, has reference to the Crucifixion, and the 
symbols are aU explained as representing something 
pertaining thereto. Thus the furnace signifies the 
Holy Sepulchre ; the rustling of the leaves symbo- 
lizes the flagellation of the Good Cousin the Grand 
Master of the universe; and so on. The candidate 
for initiation into this degree has to undergo further 
trials. He represents Christ, whilst the Grand Master 
takes the name of Pilate, the first councillor that 
of Caiaphas, the second that of Herod ; the Good 
Cousins generally are called the people. The candi- 
date is led bound from one officer to the other, and 
finally condemned to be crucified; but he is pardoned 
on taking a second oath, more binding than the first, 
consenting to have his body cut in pieces and burnt, 
as in the former degree. But stiU the true secret of 
the order is not revealed. 

354. The Degree of Grand Elect* — This degree is 
only to be conferred with the greatest precautions, 
secretly, and to Carbonari known for their prudence, 
zeal, courage, and devotion to the order. Besides, 
the candidates, who shall be introduced into a grotto 
of reception, must be true friends of the liberty of 
the people and ready to fight against tyrannical 
governments, who are the abhorred rulers of ancient 

The Carbonari. 101 

and beautiful Ausonia. The admission of the can- 
didate takes place by voting, and three black balls 
are sufficient for his rejection. He must be thirty- 
three years and three months old, the age of Christ 
on the day of his death. But the reKgious drama 
is now followed by one political. The lodge is held 
in a remote and secret place, only known to the 
Grand Masters already received into the degree of 
Grand Elect. The lodge is triangular, truncated at 
the eastern end. The Grand Master Grand Elect is 
seated upon a throne. Two guards, from the shape 
of their swords called flames, are placed at the 
entrance. The assistants take the names of Sun 
and Moon respectively. Three lamps, in the shape 
of sun, moon, and stars are suspended at the three 
angles of the grotto or lodge. The catechism here 
reveals to the candidate that the object of the asso- 
ciation is political, and aims at the overthrow of all 
tyrants, and the establishment of universal liberty, 
the time for which has arrived. To each prominent 
member his station and duties in the coming conflict 
are assigned, and the ceremony is concluded by all 
present kneeling down and pointing their swords to 
ijheir breasts, whilst the Grand Elect pronounces the 
following formula : — ^^ I, a free citizen of Ausonia, 
swear before the Grand Master of the Universe, and 
the Grand Elect Good Cousin, to devote my whole 
life to the triumph of the principles of liberty, 
equality, and progress, which are the soul of all the 

102 Secret Societies. 

secret and public acts of Carbonarism. I promise 
that, if it be impossible to restore the reign of liberty 
without a struggle, I will fight to the death. I con- 
sent, should I prove false to my oath, to be slain by 
my Good Cousins Grand Elects ; to be fastened to 
the cross in a lodge, naked, crowned with thorns j 
to have my belly torn open, the entrails and heart 
taken out and scattered to the winds. Such are 
our conditions ; swear I '' The Good Cousins reply : 
'^ We swear.'' There was something theatrical in all 
this ; but the organizers no doubt looked to the 
effect it had on the minds of the initiated. If on 
this ground it could not be defended, then there is 
little excuse for judicial wigs and clerical gowns, 
episoopalgaiters and shovel-hats, lord mayors' shows, 
parliamentary proceedings and royal pageants. 

355. Degree of Orand Master Grand Elect. — 
This, the highest degree of Carbonarism, is only 
accessible to those who have given proofs of great 
intelligence and resolution. The Good Cousins 
being assembled in the lodge, the candidate is 
introduced blindfolded ; two members, representing 
the two thieves, carry a cross, which is firmly 
planted in the ground. One of the two pretended 
thieves is then addressed as a traitor to the cause, 
and condemned to die on the cross. He resigns him- 
self to his fate, as fully deserved, and is tied to the 
cross with silken cords ; and, to delude the candidate^ 
whose eyes are still bandaged, he utters loud groans. 

The Carbonari. 103 

The Grand Master pronounces the same doom on 
the other robber, but he, representing the non- 
repentant one, exclaims : — " I shall undergo my fate, 
cursing you, and consoling myself with the thought 
that I shall be avenged, and that strangers shall 
exterminate you to the last Carbonaro. Know that 
I have pointed out your retreat to the chiefs of the 
hostile army, and that within a short time you shall 
fall into their hands. Do yout worst/^ The Grand 
Elect then turns to the candidate, and, alluding to 
the punishment awarded to traitors as done on the 
present occasion, informs him that he also must be 
fastened to the cross, if he persists in his intention 
to proceed, and there receive on his body the 
sacred marks, whereby the Grand Masters Grand 
Elects of all the lodges are known to each other, 
and must also pronounce the oath, whereupon the 
bandage will be removed, he will descend from the 
cross, and be clothed with the insignia of the Grand 
Master Grand Elect. He is then firmly tied to the 
cross, and pricked three times on the right arm, 
seven times on the left, and three times under the 
left breast. The cross being erected in the middle 
of the cave, that the members may see the marks 
on the body, on a given sign, the bandage being 
removed, the Cousins stand around the candidate, 
pointing their swords and daggers at his breast, 
and threatening him with even a worse deatjj, 
should he turn traitor. They also watch his de- 

104 Secret Societies. 

meanour, and whether he betrays any fear. Seven 
toasts in his honour are then dmnk^ and the Grand 
Elect explains the real meaning of the symbols, 
which may not be printed, but ia only to be 
written down, and zealously guarded, the owner 
promising to bum or swallow it, rather than let it 
fall into other hands. The Grand Master concludes 
by speaking in praise of the revolution already 
initiated, announcing its triumph not only in the 
peninsula, but everywhere where Italian is spoken, 
and exclaims : — ^^ Very soon the nations weary 
of tyranny shall celebrate their victory over the 
tyrants; very soon'' . . . Here the wicked thief 
exclaims : — ^' Very soon all ye shall perish \" Imme* 
diately there is heard outside the grotto the noise 
of weapons and fighting. One of the doorkeepers 
announces that the door is on the point of being 
broken open, and an assault on it is heard directly 
after. The Good Cousins rush to the door placed 
behind the crosses, and therefore unseen by the 
candidate ; the noise becomes louder, and there are 
heard the cries of Austrian soldiers ; the Cousins 
return in great disorder, as if overpowered by 
superior numbers, say a few words of encourage- 
ment to the candidate fastened to the cross, and 
disappear through the floor, which opens beneath 
them. Cousins, dressed in the hated imiform of 
the foreigner, enter and marvel at the disappearance 
of the Carbonari. Perceiving the persons on the 

The Carbonari. 105 

crosses, they, on finding them still alive, propose to 
kill them at once; they charge and prepare to 
shoot them, when suddenly a number of balls fly 
into the cave, the soldiers fair down as if struck, 
and the Cousins re-enter through many openings, 
which at once close behind them, and shout : — 
^^ Victory ! Death * to tyranny ! Long live the 
republic of Ausonia ! Long live liberty ! Long Kve 
the government established by the brave Carbo- 
nari ! '' In an instant the apparently dead soldiers 
and the two thieves are carried out of the cave ; and 
the candidate having been helped down from the 
cross, is proclaimed by the Grand Master, who 
strikes seven blows with his axe, a Grand Master 
Grand Elect. 

356. Signification of the Symbols. — Not to in- 
terrupt the narrative, the explanation of the mean- 
ing of the symbols, given in this last degree, was 
omitted in the former paragraph, but follows here. 
It will be seen that it was not without reason that 
it was prohibited to print it. The cross serves to 
crucify the tyrant that persecutes us. The crown 
of thorns is to pierce his head. The thread 
denotes the cord to lead him to the gibbet, the 
ladder will aid him to moimt. The leaves are nails 
to pierce his hands and feet. The pickaxe will 
penetrate his breast, and shed his impure blood. 
The axe will separate his head from his body. The 
salt will prevent the corruption of his head, that it 

106 Secret Societies. 

may last as a monument of the eternal infamy of 
despots.' The pole will serve to put his head upon. 
The furnace will bum his body. The shovel will 
scatter his ashes to the wind. The baracca will 
serve to prepare new tortures for the tyrant, before 
he is slain. The water will purify us from the vile 
blood we shall have shed. The linen will wipe 
away our stains. The forest is the place where the 
Good Cousins labour to attain so important a 
result. These details are extracted from the 
minutes of the legal proceedings against the con- 
spiracy of the Carbonari. 

357. Other Ceremonies and Regulations. — The 
candidate having been received into the highest 
degree, other Good Cousins entered the cave, pro- 
claiming the victory of the Carbonari and the esta- 
blishment of the Ausonian republic ; whereupon the 
lodge was closed. The members all bore pseudo- 
nyms, by which they were known in the order. 
These pseudonyms were entered in one book, whilst 
another contained their real names ; and the two 
books were always kept concealed in separate 
.places, so that the poHce, should they find one, 
should not be able to identify the conspirator. 
Officers of great importance were the Insinuators, 
Censors, Scrutators, and Coverers, whose appella- 
tions designate their duties. The higher officers 
were called Great Lights. Some of the affiliated, 
reserved for the most dangerous enterprises, were 

The Carbonari. 107 

styled the Forlorn Hope; others Stabene, or the 
'' Sedentary,^^ who w^re not advanced beyond the 
first degree, on account of want of intelligence or 
courage. Like the Freemasons, the Carbonari had 
their own almanacs, dating their era from Francis I. 
The ritual and the ceremonies, as partly detailed 
above, were probably strictly followed on particu- 
larly important occasions only ; as to their origin, 
little is known concerning it — most likely they were 
invented among the Neapolitans. Nor were they 
always and at all places alike, but the spirit that 
breathed in them was permanent and universal; 
and that it was the spirit of liberty a6d justice can 
scarcely be denied, especially after the events of the 
last decade. The following summary of a manifesto 
proceeding from the Society of the Carbonari will 
show this very clearly. 

358. The Ausonian Republic. — The epoch of the 
following document, of which, however, an abstract 
only is here given, is unknown. The open pro- 
ceedings of Carbonarism give us no clue, because in 
many respects they deviate from the programme of 
this sectarian charter; sectarian, inasmuch as the 
document has all the fulness of a social pact. But 
to whatever time these statutes belong, they cannot 
be read without the liveliest interest. 

Italy, to which new times shall give a new name, 
sonorous and pure, Ausonia (the ancient Latin name) , 
must be free from its .threefold sea to the highest 

108 Secret Societies. 

Bummit of the Alps. The territory of the republic 
shall be divided into twenty-one provinces, each of 
which shall send a representative to the National 
Assembly. Every province shall have its local 
assembly ; all citizens, rich or poor, may aspire to 
all public charges ; the mode of electing judges 
is strictly laid down ; two kings, severally elected 
for twenty-one years, one of whom is to be called 
the king of the land, the other of the sea, shall be 
chosen by the sovereign assembly; all Ausonian 
citizens are soldiers ; all fortresses not required to 
protect the country against foreigners shall be razed 
to the ground ; new ports are to be constructed 
along the coasts, and the navy enlarged; Chris- 
tianity shall be the State religion, but every other 
creed shall be tolerated ; the college of cardinals 
may reside in the republic during the life of the 
pope reigning at the time of the promulgation of 
this charter — ^after his death, the college of cardinals 
will be abolished ; hereditary titles and feudal rights 
are abolished ; hospitals, charitable institutions, col- 
leges, lyceums, primary and secondary schools, shall 
be largely increased, and properly allocated ; pun- 
ishment of death is inflicted on murderers only, 
transportation to one of the islands of the republic 
being substituted for all other punishments ; mon- 
astic institutions are preserved, but no man can be- 
come a monk before the age of forty-five, and no 
woman a nun before that of forty, and even after 

The Carbonaru 109 

having pronounced their vows, they may re-enter 
their own families. Mendicity is not allowed ; the 
country finds work for able paupers, and succour for 
invalids. The tombs of great men are placed along 
the highways ; the honour of a statue is awarded 
by the sovereign assembly. The constitutional pact 
may be revised every twenty-one years. 

369. Other Charter. — A charter or project, said 
to have been proposed by the Carbonari to the Eng- 
lish Government in 1813, when the star of Napoleon 
was fast declining, is to the following effect : — Italy 
shall be free and independent. Its boundaries shall 
be the three seas and the Alps. Corsica, Sardinia, 
.Sicily, the seven islands, and the islands along the 
coasts of the Mediterranean, Adriatic, and Ionian 
Seas shall form an integral portion of the Roman 
empire. Rome shall be the capital of the empire . . . 
As soon as the French shall have evacuated the 
peninsula, the new emperor shall be elected from 
among the reigning families of Naples, Piedmont, 
or England. Illyria shall form a kingdom of itself, 
and be given to the King of Naples as an indemnity 
for Sicily. This project in some respects widely 
differs from the one preceding it, and there is great 
doubt whether it ever emanated from the Carbonari. 

360. Carhonarism and Murat. — The excessive 
number of the affiliated soon disquieted rulers, and 
especially Murat, King of Naples whose fears were 
increased by a letter from Dandolo, Councillor 

110 Secret Societies. 

of Stete, saying :_« Sire, Carbonarisnx is spreading 
in Italy ; free your kingdom from it, if possible, be- 


cause the sect is opposed to thrones/^ Maghella, a 
native of Genoa, who became Minister of Police 
under Murat, advised that king, on the other hand, 
to declare openly against Napoleon, and to proclaim 
the independence of Italy, and for that purpose to 
favour the Carbonari ; but Murat was too irresolute 
to follow the course thus pointed out, and declared 
against the Carbonari. The measures taken by 
him, however, only increased the activity of the 
sect and the hopes of the banished Bourbons, who 
in the neighbouring . Sicily watched every turn of 
affiiirs that might promise their restoration. Murat 
proscribed the sect, which induced it to seek the 
assistance of England, as we have already seen (359) . 
It also grew into favour with the Bourbons and 
Lord William Bentinck. The emissaries sent to 
Palermo, to come to terms with the exiled royal 
family, returned to Naples with a plan fully ar- 
ranged, the results of which were soon seen in 
Calabria and the Abruzzi. The promise of a con- 
stitution was the lure with which England — whose 
chief object, however, was the overthrow of Napo- 
leon — attracted the sectaries; the Bourbons, con- 
strained by England, promised the Neapolitans a 
liberal constitution on their being restored to the 
throne. The Prince of Molitemo suggested to 
England that the only means of defeating France 

The Carbonari. Ill 

wias to favour Italian unity ; and the idea was soon 
widely promulgated and advocated throughout the 
country. Murat sent General Manhes against the 
Carbonari, with orders to exterminate them. Many 
of the leaders were captured and executed, but the 
sect nevertheless succeeded in eflfecting a partial 
and temporary revolution in favour of the Bourbons ; 
which, however, was soon quelled by the energetic 
measures of Queen Caroline Murat, who was regent 
during her husband^s then absence. About this 
time, also, dissensions arose among the members of 
the sect ; its leaders, seeing the diflSculty of direct- 
ing the movements of so great a confederacy, con- 
ceived the plan of a reform, and executed it with 
secrecy and promptitude. The members who were 
retained continued to bear the name of Carbonari, 
while those who were expeUed, according to some 
accounts, took that of Calderari (Braziers), and 
an implacable hatred arose between the rival sects. 
Murat wavered for some time between the two par- 
ties, and at last^determined on supporting the Car- 
bonari, who were most numerous. But it was too 
late. They had no confidence in him ; and they also 
knew his desperate circumstances. Murat fell. 

361. OcMrbonarism and the Bourbons, — The fall of 
Joachim pleased the Carbonari, as that of Napoleon 
was grateful to the Freemasons ; but the latter did 
not suffer by the restoration, though the former did. 
King Ferdinand secretly disliked the sect, and only 

112 Secret Societies. 

thought of kicking down the ladder by which he 
had reascended the throne. He refused to keep 
the promises he had made^ and forbade the holding 
of Carbonari meetings. The Prince of Canova, who 
became Minister of Police in 1819, determined to 
exterminate them. For this purpose he formed the 
Brigands, who had played a part in the sanguinary 
scenes of 1799, into a new society, of which he him- 
self became the head, inviting all the old Calderari 
to join him, on account of their enmity to the Car- 
bonari. He required them to take the following 
oath : — ^' I, A. B ., promise and swear upon the Trinity, 
upon this cross and upon this steel, the avenging 
instrument of the perjured, to live and die in the 
Roman Catholic and Apostolic faith, and to defend 
with my blood this religion and the society of True 
Friendship, the Calderari. I swear never to oflfend, 
in honour, life, or property, the children of True 
Friendship, &c. I swear eternal hatred to all 
Masonry, and its atrocious protectors, as well as 
to all Jansenists, Materialists (Molinists ?) , Econo- 
mists, and Illuminati. I swear, that if through 
wickedness or levity I suffer myself to be perjured, 
I submit to the loss of life, and then to be burnt, &g" 
But the king having learnt what his minister had 
been attempting without his knowledge, deprived 
him of his office and banished him ; and thus his 
efforts came to nothing. In 1819 took place the 
rising at Cadiz, by which the King of Spain, Fer- 

The Carbonari. 113 

dinand VII., was compelled to give Spain consti- 
tutional privileges. This again stirred up the Car- 
bonari; but there was no unanimity in their counsels, 
and their intrigues only led to many being impri- 
soned and others banished. An attempt made in 
1820 extorted a constitution; the leader was the 
Abb^ Menichini. The influence of the Carbonari 
increased; lodges were established everywhere. 
Even the women now began to become connected 
with the sect; and female lodges with the title of 
*' the Garden Women ^^ {le Oiardiniere) were formed, 
each sister taking the name of a flower. The se- 
crets of Carbonarism, its signs, words, and symbols 
were openly proclaimed, and blessed in the churches. 
But the triumph of Carbonarism did not last long. 
Austrian influence, the disloyalty of the king, 
-and treason in the sect itself, put an end to it in 

362. Oarbonarism and the Church. — The Car- 
bonari in the Roman States aimed at the overthrow 
of the papal power, and chose the moment when 
the pope was expected to die to carry out their 
scheme. They had collected large forces and pro- 
visions at Macerata ; but the sudden recovery of the 
pope put a stop to the enterprise. The leaders Were 
betrayed into the hands of the government, and 
some of them condemned to death and others to 
perpetual imprisonment; though the pope after- 
wards commuted the sentences. The sect of the 

II. I 

114 Secret Societies. 

Sa/nfedisti (391) was founded to counteract the 
efforts of the Carbonari. 

363. Ca/rbonarism in Northern Italy. — In Lom- 
bardy and Venetia also the Carbonari had their 
lodges^ and their object was the expulsion of the 
foreigner, the Austrian. But here also they failed ; 
and among the victims of the failure were Silvio 
Pellico, Confalonieri, Castiglia, Torelli, Maroncelli, 
and many others, who, aft^r having been exposed 
on the pillory at Milan and other places, were sent 
to Spielberg and other Grerman fortresses. 

364, Oarhonarism in France, — Carbonarism was 
introduced into France by Joubert and Dugier, 
who had taken part in revolutionary movements in 
their own country in 1820, and after having for 
some time taken refuge in Italy, where they had 
joined the Carbonari, brought their principles to 
France, on their return from their expatriation. The 
sect made rapid progress among the French; all 
the students at the different universities became 
members. Lafayette was chosen its chief. Lodges 
existed, at La RocheUe, Poitiers, Niort, Bordeaux^ 
Colmar, Neuf-Brisach, and Belfort, where in 1821 
an unsuccessful attempt was made against the 
government. Risings in other places equally failed ; 
and though the society still continued to exist, and 
had a share in the events of the revolution of 1830, 
still, considering the number of its members and the resources and influence it consequently pos- 

The Carbonari. 


sessed, it cannot be said to have produced any ade- 
quate results. It marks, however, a transition period 
in the history of secret societies. From secret 
societies occupied with religion, philosophy, and 
poUtics in the abstract, it leads us to the seoret 
societies whose objects are more immediately and 
practically political. And thus in France, Italy, 
and other states, it gave rise to numerous and 
various sects, wherein we find the men of thought 
and those of action combining for one common 
object— the progress, as they understood it, of 
human society. Carbonarism, in fact, was revived 
about the year 1825, and some ten years after com- 
bined, or rather coalesced, with the society known 
as Young Italy, whose aims were identical mth 
those of the Carbonari — the expulsion of the 
foreigner from Italian soil, and the unification of 
Italy, The Carbonari succeeded, in 1831, in driving 
the Duchess of Parma, Maria Louisa, into exile. 
One of her most trusted councillors was a Carbo- 
naro, who, when she entered her carriage, coolly 
wished her a happy journey, to which she replied 
by saying to the lady of honour that accompanied 
her, ^^ What a Judas ! " The triumph of the Car- 
bonari however lasted only twenty-eight days ; the 
duchess at the end of that period re-entered her 
capital, Austria having by force of arms effected 
her restoration. 

^^^w^-m^ m 'J JLw^- -J ■!■ - I ..m-j,~ jj M ^ .-» ^.. - > ^ ■ ■■» sjTfcr- g-.^=, 




P^— «i*aii>ij 


.NTBODUOTOBY. — The earth in the 
Colosseum at Rome is said to be soaked 
with the blood of Christian martyrs. 
Some pope — ^I fprget which — to con- 
vince a heretic, is reported to have taken up a 
handful of the earth, squeezed it, and caused drops 
of blood to fall from it. Supposing, for argument's 
sake, the legend, and the assertion on which it is 
founded, to be true, the Christian Church has well 
avenged her martyrs. To accomplish her ends, 
the Romish Church established the Inquisition. 

366. Establishment of Institution, — ^Innocent III. 
established it in 1208 in Languedoc. Peter of 
Castelnau having been sent to preach against the 
heretics, he was slain by the -Albigenses. As soon 
as his death became known he was canonized, and 
the fourth Council of the Lateran, at the instigation 
of the pope, sanctioned and organized the Inquisi-, 

120 Secret Societies. 

tion, the original idea of which was due to Domi- 
nique de Guzman, who also founded the order of 
Dominican friars. The Council, or rather the 
pope, decreed that aU heretics should be deli- 
vered over to the secular arm, and their pro- 
perty confiscated. Sovereigns were called upon 
to drive all heretics from their states ; in case of 
non-obedience, the pope would oflfer their territory 
to whosoever could conquer them. Persons who 
had favoured heretics, or received them into their 
houses, were to be excommunicated and declared 
infamous, incapable of inheriting property, and not 
entitled to Christian burial. Guzman, rightly con- 
sidering that the foul band of preaching friars, whom 
he had associated with himself, were not the sort 
of people to further his views — for those men were 
too fanatical, not to be violent, which would have 
been injurious to the new institution, farther or- 
ganized his '^ Militia of Christ,'^ a religious police, 
composed of bigoted men and women, belonging to 
all classes of society, even to the highest ; of crimi- 
nals, as we have seen in the account of the '^ Gard- 
una;*' of fools and knaves. This invisible troop 
of spies and denouncers, these familiars of the In- 
quisition, as they afterwards called themselves, 
formed the secret portion of the Inquisition, and 
were none the less formidable on that account. From 
1233, when the Inquisition was established in Spain, 
to the beginning of the next century, it made rapid 

The Inquisition* 121 

progress, spreading into Italy and Germany. In 
1808 the Inquisition persecuted the Templars a 
outrance ; autos-da-fe, '' acts of faith,'' as the burn- 
ing of heretics was called, shed their lurid Kght 
over many a Spanish city, at which the royal family 
frequently were present. 

867. Progress of Institution. — Until the joint 
reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Inquisition 
in Spain had been confined to the kingdom of Ara- 
gon. But about 1481 the queen established it in 
CastiUe, and the king gradually extended its juris- 
diction over all his states. Like James of Scotland, 
the King of Spain always wanted ^'siller;'' the 
Inquisition offered him a third of all the property it 
confiscated, and promised him a large share of the 
riches of the thousands of Jews then living in Spain ; 
the nobles of Aragon and Castille were always con- 
spiring against him, the Inquisition would quietly 
and secretly get hold of their persons, gud thus rid 
him of these enemies ; heaven was to be gained by 
putting down heresy; here surely were reasons 
enough for protecting the Inquisition and investing 
it with full powers. The queen also — alas, tiiat it 
has to be said of her ! — was greatly in favour of it, 
and even requested the pope to declare the sen- 
tences pronounced in Spain to be final and without 
appeal to Rome. She complained at the same time 
that the people accused her of having no other view 
in establishing the Inquisition than that of sharing 

122 Secret Societies. 

with its oflScers the property of those condemned 
by them. The pope, Sixtus IV., granted every- 
thing, and appeased her conscientious scruples ajs 
to confiscations. A bull, dated 1483, named father 
Thomas de Torquemada, an atrocious fanatic. Grand 
Inquisitor of Spain. For eighteen years he held 
the office, condemning on the average ten thousand 
victims annually to death by fire, starvation, torture. 
In the first six montlis of his sanguinary rale 298 
marranos — Moors or Jeivs, that had been converted 
to Christianity-were burnt at ttie stake in Sevilk 
alone, and 70 condemned to imprisonment for life. 
During the same space of time, 2,000 marranos 
were burnt aUve in various other places ; a greater 
number, who had been fortunate enough to make 
their escape before they were seized — for when 
once in the power of the terrible tribunal there was 
little chance of evasion — were burnt in effigy ; and 
about 17,000 persons, accused on the charge of 
heresy, underwent various other punishments. 
Upwards of 20,000 victims in half a year ! Tor- 
quemada was so abhorred that he never stirred 
abroad without being surrounded by 250 familiars, 
and on his table always lay a horn of the unicorn, 
which was supposed to possess the virtue of dis- 
covering and nullifying the force of poison. His 
cruelties excited so many complaints that the pope 
himself was startled, and three timies Torquemada 
was obliged to justify his conduct. 

The Inquisition. 123 

368. Judicial Procedure of the Inquisition^ — 
Before proceeding with- our historical details, let 
us briefly state the mode of procedure adopted by 
the execrable tribunal of the Inquisition. 

A denunciation, verbal or ^i writing, and it little 
mattered from what impure source it proceeded, 
formed the starting point. Every year, on the 
third Sunday in Lent, the ^' Edict of Denunciation" 
was read in the churches, enjoining every person, 
on pain of major excommunication, to reveal within 
six days to the Holy Office, as the Inquisition was 
now styled, facts opposed to the purity of faith, that 
might have come to their notice. The most trifling 
acts exposed persons to the charge of heresy; to 
put a clean cloth on the table on a Saturday, the 
Jewish Sabbath, smelled of Judaism; to put on 
clean Unen on a Friday, the Mahometan Sunday, 
betrayed Mahometanism. The opinions of Luther, 
casting horoscopes, eating with Jews, dining or 
supping with friends on the eve of a journey, as the 
Jews do, these and a hundred other things equally 
innocent, might lead to the stake ! 

After having drawn up a lying act of accusation, 
based on the statements of a vile or revengeful in- 
former, the intended victim was pounced upon by 
the alguazils of the Santa Hermandad, or holy 
brotherhood. His property was put under seques- 
tration, and the claw of the Holy Office was one that 
seldom released its prey. He was then carried to 

124 Secret Societies. 

a special dungeon^ called the casa somta, generally 
underground, that the cries of the prisoners might 
not be heard — a dark and noisome cell, which, when 
the Holy Office had many victims, he had to share 
with other prisoners, with no accommodation for 
decency or necessity, full of poisonous effluvia, with 
nothing to lie upon but putrid straw ; this became 
his abode, to which no one ever gained access, ex- 
cept his jailors. Sometimes he was left to die of 
starvation, or kept for years in this prison, whilst 
no one dared raise a voice in his behalf. People 
disappeared, and their relations and friends only 
surmised, and cautiously whispered among them- 
selves their suspicions that they were languishing, 
or had perhaps already died, in the dungeons of the 
Inquisition. Carlyle has somewhere said : ^^ There 
are twenty-eight millions of inhabitants in England, 
mostly fools;'' but does not this apply with much 
greater force to a people that could for centuries 
subniit to such tyranny as the Spaniards and other 
nations did ? When the prisoner was at last 
brought before his judges, he was exhorted to con- 
fess his crime, but he was not informed of the 
charge against him ; and if he did not know what to 
confess, or if his confession did not agree with the 
secret information against him, he was taken to the 
torture chamber to extort what was wanted. As 
the inquisitors were profoundly religious men,(!) 
regulating their conduct by the teaching of Christ, 

The Inquisition. 125 

which forbids the shedding of blood, they had with 
hellish ingenuity contrived their instruments of tor- 
ture, so that they should avoid that result, and yet 
inflict the greatest sufifering the human body can 
possibly bear, without having the vital spark extin- 
guished in it. It is true that the pendulum torture 
— which certainly was applied — as the instrument 
was discovered as late as the year 1820, in the 
prison of the Inquisition at Seville — ^proved that 
the rule was broken through; but the modem 
Inquisitors, it appears, were not so conscientious as 
the ancient I 

369. Tortures. — There were three modes of tor- 
ture chiefly in use. The first was that of the cord. 
The prisoner's arms were tied behind him with one 
end of a long rope, which passed over a pulley fixed 
in the vault of the chamber ; he was then raised 
from the ground to a considerable height, which, by 
twisting his arms backward and above his head, was 
sufficient to dislocate the shoulder joints ; the rope 
was then suddenly slackened, so that he fell to 
within a foot or so from the ground, by which his 
arms were nearly torn out of their sockets, and his 
whole body sustained a fearful concussion. In 
some cases the back of the victim, in being drawn up, 
was made to press against a roller, set round with 
sharp spikes, causing of course fearful laceration. 
Another mode of applying the cord torture was by 
fastening the victim down on a sort of wooden bed, 

126 Secret Societies. 

and encircling his arms and legs in different places 
with thin cord, which by means of winches could 
be so tightened as to cut deep into the flesh. If 
these tortures found the prisoner firm, and extorted 
no confession, it was generally in the above position 
that he was subjected to the torture by water. His 
mouth and nostrils were covered with a thick cloth, 
and one of the Satanic brood of Dominican friars 
would sit by him, and through a funnel pour water 
on the cloth, which speedily became soaked, and 
then more water being poured on, the latter would 
enter the mouth of the unfortunate wretch lying 
there in fearful agony, undergoing all the pangs of 
slow suffocation, while his brow was covered with the 
cold sweat of death, and the blood started from his 
eyes and nostrils ; and all the time the fiend by his 
side exhorted him, "for the love of Him who 
died on the Cross,'' to confess. The third mode 
of torture was by fire. The victim was stretched 
and fastened on the ground ; the soles of his feet 
were exposed and rubbed with oil or lard, or any 
other easily inflammable matter, and then a portable 
fire was placed against them; the intense torture 
the burning of the greasy matter spread on the soles 
caused to the unfortunate prisoner, may be imagined. 
When, in consequence of it, the prisoner declared 
himself ready to confess, a screen was interposed 
between his feet and the fire ; on its withdrawal, if 
the confession was not satisfactory, the pain was 

The Inquisition. 127 

even more frightful than before. The wretches who, 
at the Inquisitor's command, executed all these ter- 
rible operations on their fellow-creatures, wore long 
black gowns with hoods, covering their heads, hav- 
ing holes for mouth, nostrils, and eyes. 

Another diabolical device of the Inquisitors con- 
sisted in this, that* while they asserted that the 
torture or being put to the question could only be 
applied once, they declared the torture suspended y 
when it was found that by continuing it at the time 
the victim would die under their hands, and thus 
deprive them of the further gratification of their 
thirst for cruelty. The torture was begun, but not 
finished, and the unfortunate wretch could thus be 
put to the question as often as they pleased, the 
torture was only being continued ! The Inquisitors 
further were the first to put women to the torture ; 
neither the weakness nor the modesty of the sex 
had any influence on them. The Dominican fiiars 
would flog naked women in the corridors of the 
Inquisition building, after having first violated 
them, for some slight breach of discipline ! Even 
after this lapse of time, it makes one's blood boil 
with indignation when thinking of those horrors ! 

370. Condemnation and Execution of Prisoners, — 
Out of every two thousand persons accused, per- 
haps one escaped condemnation to death or life-long 
imprisonment. , The most fortunate — those that 
were reconciled — had to appear, bareheaded, with a 

128 Secret Societies. 

cord round their neck, clothed in the san benitOy an 
ngly garment, something like a sack, with black 
and yellow or white stripes, and carrying a green 
wax taper in their hands, in the haU of the tribunal, 
or sometimes openly in a church, where, on their 
knees, they abjured the heresies laid to their charge. 
They were then condemned to wear the ignomini- 
ous garment for some considerable time. Several 
other degrading and troublesome conditions were 
imposed on them, and the greater portion or whole 
of their property was confiscated j this was a role 
the holy fathers never departed from. The rela^xed, 
or those condemned to death, dressed in an even 
more hideous garb than the '' reconciled,^' having 
the portrait of the victim immersed in flames, and 
devils dancing rotind about it painted thereon, were 
led out to the place of execution, attended by 
monks and friars, and burnt at the stake, the court, 
Grand Inquisitor, his oflScers, and the people wit- 
nessing the agonies of the dying, and inhaling the 
flavour of their burning flesh with intense satisfac*^ 
tion. One trait of mercy the monkish demons 
showed consisted in first strangling those that died 
penitent before burning them, whilst those who 
maintained their innocence to the last were burnt 
aUve. These bloody recreations at last became so 
fashionable, that in Spain and Portugal the acces- 
sion of a king, a royal marriage, or the birth of a 
prince, were celebrated by a grand auto-da-fe, for 

The Inquisition. 129 

which as many victima were reserved or procured 
as possible. 


371. History continued, — The monster Torque- 
mada was still Inquisitor-General. ThQ, people of 
Aragon, who had from the first violently opposed 
the establishment of the Inquisition in their terri- 
tory, were exasperated when autos-da-fe began to 
be celebrated among them, and in order to intimi- 
date their butchers slew the most violent of their 
oppressors, one Peter Arbu^s of Epila, at the altar. 
The church immediately placed him among her 
martyrs. Queen Isabella erected a statue to him; 
his body wrought miracles, and the present pope, 
Pius IX., has canonized him. The just death 
of the Inquisitor of course led to increased cruelty 
and persecution on the part of the Holy OflSce; 
the men who slew Arbu^s unfortunately were cap- 
tured ; they had their hands cut oflf before being 
hanged, and their bodies were cut up in pieces, 
which were exposed on the highways. Torque- 
mada next urged on the king and queen to expel 
the Jews from their states, as enemies of the Chris- 
' tian religion. The Jews, informed of their dan- 
ger, offered the king thirty thousand ducats to- 
wards the expenses of the war with Granada, on 
condition that they were allowed to stay. Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella were on the point of acceding to 
this proposal, when Torquemada, a crucifix in his 
hand, presented himself to the sovereigns, and thus 

II. E 

130 Secret Societies. 

addressed them : '' Judas was the first to sell hid 
master for thirty pieces of silver. Tour highnesses 
intend selling him a second time for thirty thousand 
pieces of gold. Here he is, take him, and speedily 
conclude the sale V^ Of course the proud king 
and equally haughty queen cringed before the inso- 
lent friar, and the decree went forth on the 31st 
March, 1492, that by the 31st July of the same 
year all Jews must have quitted the states of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, on pain of death and con- 
fiscation of all their property. Some 800,000 Jews 
emigrated, momentarily saving their Uves, but 
scarcely any property, since the time was too short 
for realising it at its value. Thousands of men, 
women, and children, perished by the way, so that 
the Jews compared their sufiTerings to those their 
forefathers underwent at the time of Titus. When, 
shortly after this expulsion of the Jews, the king- 
dom of Granada was conquered by the Spanish 
arms, the conquest was considered as heaven's 
special approval and reward; and Ferdinand, to show 
his reUgious zeal, committed every kind of cruelty 
his soul could invent. After the capture of Malaga, 
twelve Jews, who had taken refuge there, under- 
went by his direct orders the terrible death by 
pointed reeds, a slow but fatal torture, like being 
stabbed. to death with pins. 

Torquemada died in 1498 ; his successor, the 
Dominican Deza, introduced the Inquisition into 


The Inquisition. 131 

the newly conquered kingdom of Granada ; 80,000 
Moors, preferring exile to baptism, left the country. 
He also introduced the terrible tribunal into Naples 
and Sicily, and though the Sicilians at first rose 
against it, and expelled the Inquisitors, they had 
afterwards, overcome by Charles V., to submit to 
its re-establishment. Deza, during his short reign 
of nine years, caused 2,592 individuals to be burnt 
alive and 829 in effigy, and condemned upwards of 
32,000 to imprisonment and the galleys, with total 
confiscation of property. He was succeeded by the 
mild Ximenes, after whom came Adrien Boeijens, 
who was as cruel a persecutor as Torquemada ; the 
Lutheran doctrines, now gaining ground, gave him 
and his successors plenty of occupation, and the 
bonfires of the Inquisition blazed not only in Spain, 
but at Naples, Malta, Venice, in Sardinia and 
Flanders ; and in the Spanish colonies in America 
the poor Indians perished in hecatombs, for either 
refusing to be baptized, or being suspected of having 
relajjJsed into their former idolatry, after having 
adopted and professed the mild and gentle creed of 

372. The False Nuncio. — The Inquisition was 
introduced into Portugal in a manner worthy of 
that tribunal. In 1539 there appeared at Lisbon 
a papal legate, who declared to have come to 
Portugal, there to re-establish the* Inquisition. 
He brought the king letters from Pope Paul III,, 

132 Secret Societies. 

and produced the most ample credentials for 
nominating a Grand Inquisitor and all other officers 
of the sacred tribunal. This man was a clever 
swindler, called John Peres, of Saavedra, who was 
an adept at imitating all kinds of writing and forg- 
ing signatures and seals. He was attended by a 
magnificent train of more than a hundred servants, 
and to defray his expenses had borrowed at Seville 
enormous sums in the name of the Apostolic 
Chamber at Rome. The king was at first surprised 
and angry that the pope should send an envoy of 
this description without previous notice ; but Per^s 
haughtily replied that in so urgent a matter as the 
establishment of the Inquisition and the suppression 
of heresy the Holy Father could not stand on 
points, and that the king was highly honoured by 
the fact that the first messenger who brought him 
the news was the legate himself. The king dared 
complain no more; and the false nuncio the same 
day nominated a Grand Inquisitor, set up the Holy 
Office, and collected money for its working ex- 
penses ; before news could come from Rome, the 
rogue had already pocketed upwards of two hundred 
thousand ducats. But he could not make his escape 
before the swindle was discovered, and Per^s was 
condemned to be whipped and sent to the galleys 
for ten years. But the best of the joke was that 
the pope confirmed all the swindler had done; in 
the plentitude of his divine power, Paul III. declared 

The Inquisition. 133 

tJie slight irregularities that attended the establish- 
ment of the Portuguese Inquisition not to afifect its 
jurisdiction or moral character, and that now it was 
established, it should remain so. 

373. General History of Institution continued, — 
We need not go through the list of Grand In- 
quisitors seriatim. Let us only give particular 
facts, indicative of the spirit that continued to guide 
them. Under the generalate of Vald^s, the eighth 
Inquisitor-General, an old lady, Marie de Bour- 
gogne, immensely rich, was denounced by a 
servant as having said : ^^ Christians respect neither 
faith nor law.'' She was thereupon cast into one 
of the dungeons of the Holy OflSce, where she 
remained for five years, for want of proof. At the 
end of that time she was put to the torture, to 
extort an avowal, and she was so unmercifully 
racked, that she died under the butchers' hands. 
She was then ninety years of age. But her trial 
was continued after her death, and ended in her 
remains being condemned to be burnt, and the total 
confiscation of her property; her children, besides 
being disinherited, also being declared infaipous 
for ever. 

Philip II. extended the jurisdiction of the Inqui- 
sition throughout the Netherlands, and in spite 
of the resistance of the inhabitants, met with 
such success, that his noble executioner, the Duke 
of Alba, could boast of having within five years 

134 Secret Societies. 

sent to the stake and gallows eighteen thousand 
persons for the crime of heresy. But the oppres- 
sion at last became so great^ that the ^Netherlands 
revolted again, and this time successfully ; they for 
ever threw oS the Spanish yoke. It was during 
this Dutch w of liberation that ii.e mysterio^ 
catastrophe of Don Carlos, Philip^s son by his first 
wife, occurred. Eomance asserts that the tragedy 
had its origin in the love passages said to have 
taken place between Don Carlos and Philip^s 
second wife, EHzabeth of France, who before 
becoming his step-mother, had been his affianced 
bride. But history explains the facts in this way : 
Don Carlos conspired against his father, a gloomy 
tyrant, who deprived him of every scrap of power 
and influence, keeping him in the perfect subjection 
of a child ; the prince thought of assassinating the 
king, or flying to the Netherlands, which he hoped 
to erect into an independent kingdom for himself. 
While he was hesitating, the Inquisition discovered 
both incipient schemes, revealed them to the king, 
and pronounced either deserving of death. Don 
Carlos was seized, imprisoned, and kiUed by poison. 
It is difficult to imagine a moral monster such as 
Philip II. was. He caused the works of V^sale, 
his own physician, who first taught the true facts 
and principles of anatomy, with their illustrations 
by Titian, to be publicly burnt, and the doctor 
himself was compelled to make an involuntary 

The Inquisition. 135 

pilgrimage to Jerusalem to expiate his impious 
attempt of prying into the secrets of nature. This, 
we may say, was simply absurd on the part of the 
king; what follows is atrocious. In 1559 he learnt 
that an auto-da-fe had taken place in a distant 
locality, where thirty persons had perished at the 
stake. He besought the Inquisitors to be allowed 
to witness a similar spectacle; the Dominican 
devils, to encourage and reward such holy zeal on 
the part of heaven^s a^ointed, sent out their archers, 
who searched with such diligence for victims, that 
on the 6th October of the same year, the king was 
able to preside at Valladolid at the burning of forty 
of his subjects, which gave him the most lively 
satisfaction. One of the condemned, a person of 
distinction, implored the royal mercy, as he was 
being led to the stake. '' No,^' replied the 
jp rowned hyepa , '' if it were my own son I would 
surrender him to the flames, if he persisted in his 

In 1566 the Grand Inquisitor Espinosa began 
his crusade against the Moors that still remained 
in Spain. For a long time the persecuted race 
confined themselves to remonstrances, but when it 
was decreed that their children must thenceforth be 
brought up in the Christian faith, a vast conspiracy 
was formed, which for nine months was kept se- 
cret, and would have been successful, had not the 
Moors of the mountainous districts broken out into 

136 Secret Societies. 

open rebellion before those of the conntry and 
towns were prepared to support them. The 
Christians scattered among the Moorish population 
of course were the first victims of the long pent-up 
rage of the Mussulmans. Three thousand perished 
at the first outset ; all the monks of a monastery 
were cast into boiling oil. One of the insurgents, 
the intimate friend of a Christian, knew of no 
greater proof of affection he could show him, 
than transfixing him with bis lance, lest others 
should treat him worse. The Marquis of Mon- 
dejar, captain-general of Andalusia, was appointed 
to put down the insurrection. As he was too 
humane, his reprisals not being severe enough, the 
Marquis de Los Velez, called by the Moors the 
" Demon with the Iron Head,^' was associated with 
him in the command, and he carried on war in the 
most ferocious manner. At the battle of Ohanez, 
blood was shed in such quantities, that the thirsty 
Spaniards could not find one unpolluted spring. 
One thousand six hundred Moors were subjected to 
a treatment worse than death, and immediately 
after Los Velez and his band of butchers celebrated 
the feast of the Purification of the Virgin ! And 
in the end the superior number of the Christians 
triumphed over Moorish bravery, and the Inquisi- 
tors were busy for weeks holding autos-da-fe to 
celebrate the victory of the true faith. 

Under the long reign of Philip II., called the 

The Inquisition. 137 


Demon of the South/^ six Grand Inquisitors 
carried on their bloody orgies. The reformed 
creed of course supplied the greatest numbers of 
victims ; at Seville on one occasion eight hundred 
were arrested all at once. At the first auto-da-fe 
of Valladolid, on 12th May, 1559, fourteen members 
of one family were burnt. The Inquisition was 
established in the island of Sardinia, at Lima, 
Mexico, Cartagena, in the fleet, army, and even 
among custom-house oflScers. 

Philip III. of Spain was early taught the power 
of the Inquisition. For when, at the beginning 
of his reign, he was obliged to be present at an 
auto-da-fe, and could not restrain his tears at 
seeing two young women, one Jewish and the other 
Moorish, burnt at the stake, for no other fault than 
that of having been brought up in the dififerent 
creeds of their fathers, the Inquisitors imputed to 
him Ms compassion as a crime, which could only 
be expiated by blood ; tile king had to submit to 
being bled and seeing his blood burnt by the execu- 

Philip IV. inaugurated his reign by an auto- 
da-fe. The Inquisitor-General gave to the show of 
the auto-da-fe, whose interest began to decline, a 
new zest by causing the sentence of death against 
ten marranos to be read to them, while each of 
them had one hand nailed to a wooden cross. 

The marriage of Charles II. with the niece of 

138 Secret Societies. 


Louis XrV. (1680) was celebrated with an auto-da- 
fe at Madrid, at which figured 118 victims, most of 
whom were burnt. Is it possible to realize the 
horrors of this transaction — ^a man brought up in 
the principles of chiralry and a woman of royal 
birth, whom one would suppose to be not only 
noble but also gentle, witnessing, on their wed- 
ding-day, when one would imagine their hearts 
to be full of joy and therefore full of good-will 
towards all men, and especially their subjects, so 
cruel a spectacle as the burning alive of human 
beings, burnt, so to say, in their honour? But 
here we see the effects of evil church government 
and J)riestly influence. When the mania of burning 
every old woman who had a black cat, as a witch, 
arose, the Inquisition found a new field of labour; 
and whatever might be the density of mental dark- 
ness with which priests and monks covered Europe, 
they took care there should be plenty of material 
light, and hence the funeral pyres of human reason 
and liberty were always blazing. Some of the 
Molinists, who, under pretext of '^ Perfect Contem- 
plation,^^ encouraged the most scandalous sexual 
excesses, were also burnt, not on account of their 
immoral practices, but because of some so-called 
heretical notions they propounded. 

Under the succeeding kings of Spain general 
enlightenment and civilization had made too much 
progress to allow the Inquisitors to indulge as for- 

The Inquisition. 139 

merly their frantic rage and fanatical cruelty. 
During the reign of Ferdinand VI., Charles III., 
and Charles IV., they obtained only 245 condemna- 
tions, of which fourteen were to death. Freemasons 
and Janseniats were the principal victims. 

On the 4th December, 1808, Napoleon sup- 
pressed the Inquisition, and its papers and docu- 
ments were joyfully burnt at a last but liberating 
cmto-da-fe. But Ferdinand VII., on his restoration 
in 1814, re-established the Inquisition, and ap- 
pointed Francis Mi^ry Campilla, Bishop of Almeria, 
its forty-fifth and last Inquisitor-General. Imme- 
diately the prisons, galleys, and penal colonies were 
filled with prisoners. In 1820, however, all the 
Spanish provinces combined in a general insurrec- 
tion, broke the bonds of absolutism, definitively 
crushed the Inquisition and its famiKars, set free 
its prisoners, demolished its palaces, and prisons, 
and burnt its instruments of torture. In the same 
way it was abolished in Portugal, and in the Bast 
and West Indies. It exists now only at Rome, • 
having been restored by Pius VIH., but is reduced 
to a tribunal of clerical discipline. Its palace is 
stiU standing, but its dungeons are empty, and its 
upper rooms turned into ba^acks, excT^t a few 
yet inhabited by some priests. 



" MepJmtopheles (loq.) — Away 1 Do not trouble me with 
these feuds of tyranny and slavery. I am weary of them, 
for when they are scarcely settled, they begin afresh ; and 
none discern that it is only Asmodeus mocking them. 
They contend, they say, for rights of liberty ; but closely 
examined, it's slaves against slaves." — Faust, 


Carte segrete e atti nfficiali della polizia anstriaca in Italia 
dal 4 Giugno 1814, al 22 Marzo 1848. Gapolago; 

Documenti della Guerra Santa d' Italia. 1850. 

Storia delle Societii Secrete. Di Perini. Milano, 1863. 

L'ltalie Rouge. Par le V** D'Arlinoourt. Paris, 1850. 

Delia Difesa di Yenezia. Di F. Carrano. Geneva, 1850. 

Histoire des Etats Italiens. Par le Y** de Beaomont- 
Yassy. Bruxelles, 1851. 

Lionello, o delle Society Secrete. Napoli, 1863. 

Le Society Secrete. Di Y. Gioberti. Napoli, 1852. 





J MSnBBEOTIONAET Oentresmlialy.— 

V In that vast net of conspiraciea whicli 

4 once covered all Italy, it 13 difficnlt 

• always to discern chief threads from 

secondary ones, or the connection between thorn. 

Thooghthe elements of comparison abound, we miss 

those minute notices that MstoricaJly establish the 

bonds between the various centres of activity. And 

the story of Italian movements is that of provincial 

risings, which only in course of time were fused 

into one single mass. The insnrrections since 1848 

were signs of the maturity of the time. 

37o. GuelpMc Knights. — One of the moat import- 
ant societies that issued from the midst of the 
Carbonari was that of the Guelphic Knights, who 
were very powerful in all parts of Italy. A report 
of the Austrian police says : — " This society is the 

144 Secret Societies. 

most dangerous, on account of its origin and diffu- 
sion, and the profound mystery which surrounds it. 
It is said that this society derives its origin from 
England or Germany." Its origin, nevertheless, 
was purely Italian. The councils consisted of six 
members, who, however, did not know each other, 
but intercommunicated by means of one person, 
called the ''Visible,^^ because he alone was visible. 
Every council also had one youth of undoubted 
faith, called the '' Clerk," to communicate with 
students of universities, and a youth called a 
'^Friend," to influence the people; but neither the 
Clerk nor the Friend were initiated into tie mysteries 
of the order. Every council assumed a particular 
name, such as ^^ Virtue," ^^ Honour," ^^ Loyalty," and 
met, as if for amusement only, without apparatus 
or writing of any kind. A supreme council sat at 
Bologna ; there were councils at Florence, Venice, 
Milan, Naples,^ etc. They endeavoured to gain 
adherents, who should be ignorant of the existence of 
the society, and should yet further its ends. Lucien 
Bonaparte is said to have been a ^^ great light" 
among them. Their object was the independence 
of Italy, to be effected by means of all the secret 
societies of the country united under the leadership 
of the Guelphs. 

376. Quelphs and Carbonari. — The Guelphs found 
powerful helpers in the Carbonari ; we might indeed 
call the former a high vendita or lodge of the latter. 

Independents. 145 

And the chiefs of the Carbonari were also chiefs 
amoBig the Guelphs j but only those that had distinct 
offices among the Carbonari could be admitted 
among the Guelphs. There can be no doubt that 
the Carbonari, when the sect had become very- 
numerous, partly sheltered themselves under the 
designation of Guelphs and Adelphi or Independents, 
by affiliating themselves to these societies. 

377. The Independents. — Though these also aimed 
at the independence of Italy, yet it appears that 
they were not disinclined to effect it by means of 
foreign assistance. The report at that time was 
that they actually once intended to offer the crown 
of Italy to the Duke of Wellington ; but this is 
highly improbable, since our Iron Duke was not at 
all popular in Italy. But it is highly probable that 
they sought the co-operation of Eussia, which, since 
1815, maintained many agents in Italy — with what 
purpose is not exactly known ; jbhe collection of 
statistical and economical information was the osten- 
sible object, but Austria looked on them with a very 
suspicious eye, and watched them narrowly. The 
Independents had close relations with these Eussian 
agents, probably, as it is surmised, with a view of 
turning Eussian influence to account in any out- 
break against Austria. 

378. The Delphic Priesthood. — This was another 
secret society, having the same political object as 
the foregoing. The Delphic priest, the patriotic 

II. L 

146 Secret Societies. 

priest, the priest militant, spoke thus: — "My 
mother has the sea for her mantle, high mountains for 
her sceptre ;" and when asked who his mother was, 
replied : — " The lady with the dark tresses, whose 
gifts are beauty, wisdom, and formerly strength ; 
whose dowry is a flourishing garden, full of fragrant 
flowers, where bloom the olive and the vine ; 
and who now groans, stabbed to the heart/' The 
Delphics entertained singular hopes, and would in- 
voke the ^' remfedy of the ocean'' (American auxili- 
aries), and the epoch of " cure" (a general European 
war) . They called the partisans of France " pagans," 
and those of Austria, '^ monsters ;" the Germans 
they styled "savages." Their place of meeting 
they designated as the " ship," to foreshadow the 
future maritime greatness of Italy, and the help 
they expected from over the sea ; their chief was 
the " pilot." 

879. The LaUni. — This sect existed about 1817. 
Only those initiated into the higher degrees of Car- 
bonarism could become members. In their oath 
they declared : — " I swear to employ every means 
in my power to further the happiness of Italy. I 
swear religiously to keep the secret and fulfil the 
duties of this society, and never to do aught that 
could compromise its safety ; and that I will only 
act in obedience to its decisions. If ever I violate 
this oath, I will submit to whatever punishment the 
society may inflict, even to death." 



HE Bays, — During the powerof Napoleon, 
he was opposed by secret societies in 
Italy, as well as in France. But his 
fall, which to many seemed a revival of 
liberty, to others appeared as the ruin of Italy ; 
hence they sought to re-establish his rule, or at 
least to save Italian nationality from the wreck. 
The " Rays^' were an Anti-Napoleonic society, com- 
posed of officials from all parts, brougljit together by 
common dangers and the adventures of the field. 
They had lodges at Milan and Bologna. 

381. Societies in Favour of Napoleon.- — Many 
societies in fevour of the restoration of Napoleon 
were formed, such as the *' Black Needle," the 
'' Knights of the Sun,'' *' Universal Eegeneration,'' 
etc. They were generally composed of the soldiers 
of the great captain^ who were condemned to inacti- 

148 Secret Societies. 

vity, and looked upon the glory of their chief as 
something in which they had a personal interest. 
Their aim was to place ]!7apoleon at the head of 
confederated Italy, under the title of " Emperor of 
Eome, by the will of the people and the grace of 
God/' The proposal reached him early in the year 
1815. Napoleon accepted it like a man who on 
being shipwrecked perceives a piece of wood that 
may save him, and which he will cast into the fire 
when he has reached the land. The effects of these 
plots are known — ^Napoleon's escape from Elba, and 
the reign of a hundred days. 

382. The Centres. — An offshoot of Carbonarism 
was the society formed in Lombardy, under the de- 
signation of the '* Centres/' Nothing was to be 
written ; and conversation on the affairs of the order 
was only to take place between two members at a 
time, who recognised each other by the words, 
" Succour to the unfortunate," and by raising the 
hand three times to the forehead, in sign of grief. 
The Centres once more revived the hopes of Murat. 
A rising was to take place under his auspices against 
the detested Austrians ; the ringing of the bells of 
Milan was to be the signal for the outbreak; and it 
is said that '^Vespers" had been arranged, from 
which no Austrian was to escape alive. But on the 
appointed day fear or horror held the hand that was 
to have given the signal, that of General FontaneUi. 
Hence, fatal delay and the discovery of the secret. 

Napoleonism and Anti-Napoleonism. 149 

For Bellegarde or Talleyrand sent a certain Via- 
coimt Saint- Aignan among the conspirators, wlio 
after having discovered all their plana, betrayed them 
to Anatria, and was never heard of again. Austria 
seized the ringleaders and institnted proceedings 
against them, which lasted about three years, and 
were finally closed by deKvering — it is not known 
why — very mild sentences against the conspirators. 



\ARI0TJ8 Societies. — Sicily did not escape 
the general influence. In 1827 there 
was formed a secret society in favour 
of the Greek revolution, the "Friends 
of Greece,^' who, however, also occupied themselves 
with the affairs of Italy. There was also the 
'' Secret Society of the Five,'* founded ten years 
before the above, which prepared the insurrection of 
the Greeks. In Messina was formed the lodge of 
the "Patriotic Eeformers,^' founded on Carbonarism, 
which corresponded with lodges at Florence, Milan, 
and Turin, by means of musical notes. 

384. Italian I/itterafen/rs. — This sect, introduced 
into Palermo in 1823, had neither signs nor dis- 
tinctive marks. In every town there was a dele- 
gate, called the '^ Eadical,*' who could affiliate unto 
himself ten others or more, acquiring the name of 
"decurion,^' or" centurion.'^ The initiated were 

Southern Provinces. 151 

called " sons/^ who in their turn could affiliate unto 
themselves ten others^ and these could do the same 
in their turn ; so that thus a mighty association was 
formed. The initiated were called '' Brethren 
Barabbas,'' Christ representing the tyrant, and 
Barabbas the people — a singular confusion of ideas, 
by which the victim slain on the cross for the 
redemption of human conscience and thought was 
considered as an example and upholder of tyranny. 
But it was a symbolism which concealed juster ideas 
and more conformable with truth. They recognised 
each other by means of a ring, and attested their 
letters by the well-known initials I. N. R. I. The 
Society was much feared and jealously watched, and 
helped to fill the prisons. It only ceased when 
other circumstances called forth other societies. 

385. Societies in Calahria and- the Abruzzi, — These 
districts, by their natural features and the disposition 
of their inhabitants, were at all times the favourite 
resorts of conspirators. We there find the sects of 
the ''European Patriots or White Pilgrims,^^ the 
'' Philadelphians,'' and the '' Decisi,^* who thence 
spread into other Italian provinces, with military 
organization, arms, and commanders. The first two 
partly came firom France; nor were their operations, 
as the names intimate, confined to the peninsula. 
The lodges of the '' Decisi" (Decided) were called 
''Decisions,'' as the assemblies of the Patriots 
were called " Squadrons,'' each from forty to sixty 

152 Secret Societies. 

strong, and those of the Philadelphians, '^ Camps/' 
The Decisi, whose numbers amounted perhaps to 
forty thousand, held their meetings at night, care- 
fully guarded by sentinels ; and their military exer- 
cises took place in solitary houses, or suppressed 
convents. Their object was to fall upon Naples and 
proclaim a republic; but circumstances were not 
propitious. Their leader. Giro Annichiarico, a 
priest, was a man of great resources and vast influ- 
ence, so that it was necessary to despatch against 
him General Church, who captured him and had him 
shot. As Ciro was rather a remarkable person- 
age, a brief account of him may not be unin- 

386. Ciro Anmchicmco. — This priest was driven 
from society by his crimes. He was accused of • 
murder, committed in a fit of jealousy, and sentenced 
to fifteen years of exile, although there is strong 
reason to believe that he was innocent and was made 
the victim of party-spirit. Instead of being per- 
mitted, according to the sentence, to leave the 
country, he was for four years kept in prison, 
whence at last he made his escape — took refuge 
in the mountain forests, and placed himself at the 
head of a band of outlaws, and, as his enemies de- 
clare, committed all kinds of enormities. At Mar- 
tano, they say, he penetrated into one of the first 
houses of the place, and, after having offered violence 
to its mistress, massacred her with all her people. 

Southern Provinces. 153 

and carried off 96,000 ducats. He was in corres- 
pondence with all the brigands; and whoever wished 
to get rid of an enemy, had only to address him- 
self to Giro. On being asked, after his capture, 
how many persons he had killed with his own hand, 
he carelessly answered : — ^^ Who can remember ? 
Perhaps sixty or seventy/' His activity, artifice, 
and intrepidity were astonishing. He was a first- 
rate shot and rider; his singular good fortune in 
extricating himself from the most imminent dangers 
acquired for him the reputation of a necromancer 
upon whom ordinary means of attack had no power. 
Though a priest himself, and exercising the functions 
of one when he thought it expedient, he was rather 
a libertine, and declared his clerical colleagues to be 
impostors without any faith. He published a paper 
against the missionaries, who, according to him, 
disseminated ^ illiberal opinions among the people, 
and forbade them on pain of death to preach in the 
villages, ^^ because, instead of the true principles 
of the Gospel they taught nothing but fables and 
impostures." Probably Giro was pretty correct in 
his estimate of their performances. He could be 
generous on occasions. One day he surprised 
General d'Octavio, a Gorsican, in the service of 
Murat — who pursued him for a long time with a 
thousand men — walking alone in a garden. Giro 
discovered himself, remarking, that the life of the 
general, who was unarmed, was in his hands; '' but,'* 

154 Secret Societies. 

said he, '' I will pardon you this time, although I 
shall no longer be so indulgent if you continue t6 
hunt me about." So saying, he leaped over the 
wall and disappeared. His physiognomy was rather 
agreeable ; he was of middle stature, well made and 
very strong. He had a verbose eloquence. Extremely 
addicted to pleasure, he had mistresses, at the period 
of his power, in all the towns of the province over 
which he was continually ranging. When Eang 
Ferdinand returned to his states on this side the 
Taro, he recalled such as had been exiled for politi- 
cal opinions^ Giro attempted to pass for one of 
these, but a new order of arrest was issued against 
him. It was then that he placed himself at the 
head of the Decisi. Many excesses are laid to their 
charge. A horde of twenty or thirty of them over- 
ran the country in disguise, masked as punchinellos. 
In places where open force could not be employed, 
the most daring were sent to watch for the moment 
to execute the sentences of secret death pronounced 
by the society. It was thus that the justice of the 
peace of Luogo Rotondo and his wife were killed in 
their own garden; and that the sectary, Perone, 
plunged his knife into the bowels of an old man of 
Beventy, and afterwards massacred Ms wife and 
servant, having introduced himself into their house 
under pretence of delivering a letter. As has 
already been intimated, it was finally found necessary 
to send an armed force, under the command of 

Southern Provinces. 155 


General Church, against this band of ruffians. Many 
of them having been taken, and the rest dispersed, 
Giro, with only three companions, took refuge in 
one of the fortified farm-houses near Prancavilla, 
but after a vigorous defence was obliged to sur- 
render. The Council of War, by which he was 
tried, condemned him to be shot. A missionary 
oflFered him the consolations of religion. Ciro 
answered him with a smile : — " Let us leave alone 
this prating; we are of the same profession; don^t* 
let us laugh at one another .^^ On his arrival at the 
place of execution, Ciro wished to remain standing ; 
he was told to kneel, and did so, presenting his 
breast. He was then informed that malefactors 
like himself were shot with their backs to the 
soldiers ; he submitted, at the same, time advising 
a priest, who persisted in remaining near him, to 
■withdraw, so as not to expose himself. Twenty-one 
balls took eflFect, four in the head, yet- he still 
breathed and muttered in his throat ; the twenty- 
second put an end to him. This fact was confirmed 
by all the officers and soldiers present at his death. 
^'As soon as we perceived,'^ said a soldier very 
gravely, ^' that he was enchanted, we loaded his own 
musket with a silver ball, and this destroyed the 
spell.^^ After the death of the leader, some two 
hundred and thirty persons were brought to trial ; 
nearly half of them, having been guilty of murder 
and robbery with violence, were condemned to capital 

156 Secret Societies. 

piinisliment^ and their heads exposed near the places 
of their residence^ or in the scene of their crimes. 

387. Certificates of the Decisi. — To render the 
account of the Decisi as complete as it need be, I 
subjoin a copy of one of their Ptitents or Certi- 
ficates !— 

Tristezsa. Jtforte. 

Death's ^ S^ Death's 

"^- S(alentina). ©(ecisione). ^ ^ ^^^ 


N" V, Grandi Muratori. 

L. D. B. G. T.—E. D. T. D. U. > 

II Jfortale Gaetano Caffieri h an F, D. ^nmero Quinto, 
appartenente alia D* del Tonante Glove, sparsa Bulla 
superficie della S'erra, per la sua D* avuto il piaoere di 
far parte in questa B. 8, D. Noi dunque invitiamo 
tutte le /Society JFUantropiche a prestar il lore braccio 
forte al medesimo ed a soccorerlo ne* suoi bisogni, 
essendo egli giunto alia JD' di acquistare la Liberia o 
Morbe. Oggi H 29 Ottobre 1817. 

Pietro Gargaro. H Q. M. D. N^. 1. 

• . . • 

Y». de Serio 2^ Dedso 

Gaetano Caffieri /'^ ^\ 
Cross bones. Begistratore de' Morti. f Seal. J ^^ ^^^^ 
Terror. \^_^^ Struggle. 

* That is : La Decisione di Giove Tonante— Ester- 
minatore dei Tiranni delP Universo. 

Southern Provinces. 157 


The Salentine Decision. 

Health I 

No. 5, Grand Masons. 

The Decision of Jupiter Tonans (the name of the lodge) 
hopes to make war against the tyrants of the universe, &g. 

The mortal Gaetano Caffieri is a Brother Decided, No. 5, 
belonging to the Decision of Jupiter the Thunderer, spread 
over the face of the earth, has had the pleasure to belong 
to this Salentine Republican Decision. We invite, there- 
fore, all Philanthropic Societies to lend their strong arm 
to the same, and to assist him in his wants, he having 
come to the decision to obtain liberty or death. Dated 
this day, the 29th October, 1817. 

Pietro G^rgaro, the Decided Grand Master, No. 1. 
Vito de Serio, Second Decided. 
Gaetano Caffieri, Registrar of the Dead. 

The letters in italics in the original were written 
in blood. The upper seal represents fasces planted 
upon a death^s head, surmounted by the Phrygian 
cap and flanked by hatchets ; the lower, thunderbolts 
casting down royal and imperial crowns and the tiara. 
The person in whose favour the certificate is issued, 
figures himself among the signatures with the title 
of Registrar of the Dead, that is of those they 
immolated to their vengeance, of whom they kept 
a register apart. The four points observable after 
the signature of Pietro Gargaro indicate his power 
of passing sentence of death. When the Decisi 
wrote to any one to extort contributions, if they 
added these four points, it was. known that the 

158 Secret Societies. 

person they addressed was condemned to death 
in case of disobedience. If the points were not 
added he was threatened with milder punishment. 
Their colours, yellow, red, and blije, surrounded 
the patent. 

388. Various other Societies — ^The society of the 
'' Shirtless,'^ founded by a Frenchman of the name 
of Manuel, who invoked Samson, as the symbol of 
strength, had but a very short existence. That of 
the '^ Spectres meeting in a Tomb,^' which existed 
in 1822, and whose object was the overthrow of the 
Bourbons, also came to a speedy end. The '^ New 
Eeform of France,'^ and the '' Provinces,'* which 
were probably founded in 1820, only admitted mem- 
bers already initiated into Carbonarism, Free- 
masonry, the European Patriots, or the Greeks in 
Solitude. A mixture of many sects, they condensed 
the hatred of many ages and many orders against 
tyranny, and prescribed the following oath: — ^^ I. M. 
N., promise and swear to be the eternal enemyof 
tyrants, to entertain undying hatred against them, 
and, when opportunity oflFers, to slay them.*' In their 
succinct catechism were the following passages : — 
f' Who art thou ?'' '' Thy friend.*' '' How knowest 
thou me ?" '' By the weight pressing on thy brow, 
on which I read written in letters of blood. To con- 
quer or die.*' '^ What wilt thou ?" ^' Destroy the 
thrones and raise up gibbets." ^'By what right ?" 
'^By that of nature." ^^ For what purpose ?" ^'To 

Southern Provinces. 159 

acquire the glorious name of citizen.^' '' And wilt 
thou risk thy life V^ ^' I value life less than Uberty/* 
Another sect was that of the '^New French 
Liberals,^^ which existed but sL short time. It was 
composed of but few members, but they were men 
of some standing, chiefly such as had occupied high 
positions under Napoleon. They also looked to 
America for assistance. They wore a small black 
ribbon attached to their watches, with a gold seal, a 
piece of coral, and an iron or steel ring. The ribbon 
symboUzed the eternal hatred of the free for oppres- 
sors ; the coral, their American hopes ; the ring, the 
weapon to destroy their enemies ; and the gold seal, 
abundance of money as a means of success. 



'HZ7 Gonsiatorials. — But the conspirators 
against thrones and the Church were 
not to have it all their own Way; 
clerical associations were formed to 
counteract their eflforts. The sect of the ^' Con- 
sistorials^^ aimed at the preservation of feudal and 
theocratic dominion. The rich and ambitious 
patricians of Borne and other Italian states belonged 
to it; Tabot, an ex- Jesuit and Confessor to the 
Holy Father, was the ruling spirit. It is said that 
this society proposed to give to the Pope, Tuscany ; 
the island of Elba and the Marches, to the King of 
Naples ; Parma, Piacenza, and a portion of Lorn- 
bardy, with the title of King, to the Duke of Modena ; 
the rest of Lombardy, Massa Carrara, and Lucca, 
to the King of Sardinia ; and to Russia, which, from 
jealousy of Austria, favoured these secret designs. 

The Clerics. 161 

either Ancona, or Genoa, or Civita Vecchia, to turn 
it into their Gibraltar. From doonments found in 
the office of the Austrian governor at Milan, it 
appears that the Duke of Modena, in 1818, presided 
at a general meeting of the Consistorials, and that 
Austria was aware of the existence and intentions 
of the society. 

390. The Roman OathoUc Apostolic Oongrega^ 
Uon. — It was formed at the period of the imprison- 
ment of Pius VII. The members recognized each 
other by a yellow silk ribbon with five knots ; the 
initiated into the lower degrees heard of nothing but 
acts^f piety and charity; the secrets of the society, 
known to the higher ranks, could only be discussed 
between two; the lodges were composed of five 
members, the pass- word was ^' Eleutheria, " i. e^ 
Liberty; and the secret word ^' Ode,^^ i. e. Independ- 
ence. This sect arose in France, among the Neo- 
catholics, led by Lammenais, who already, in the 
treatise on ^'Eeligious Indiflference," had shown 
that fervour which afterwards was to carry him so 
far. Thence it passed into Lombardy, but met 
with but little success, and the Austrians succeeded 
in obtaining the patents which were given to the 
initiated, and their statutes and signs of recognition. 
Though devoted to the independence of Italy, the 
Congregation was not factious ; for it bound the des- 
tinies of nations to the full triumph of the Eoman 
Catholic religion. Narrow in scope, and restricted 

n. M 

162 Secret Societies. 

in numbers, it neither possessed, nor perhaps 
claimed, powers to subvert the political system. 

391. Sanfedisti. — This society was founded at 
the epoch of the suppression of the Jesuits. There 
existed long before then in the Papal States a 
society called the ''Pacific^' or ''Holy Union,'' 
which was established to defend religion, the pri- 
vileges and jurisdiction of Eome, and the temporal 
power of the popes. Now from this society they 
derived the appellation of the Society of the Holy 
Faith, or SanfedisU. They conspired against Napo- 
leon, who sent about twenty of them to prison at 
Modena, whence they were released by Francis IV. 
The supposed chiefs, after 1815, were the Duke of 
Modena and Cardinal Consalvi. The first had fre- 
quent secret interviews with the cardinals, and even 
the King of Sardinia was said to be in the plot. 
Large sums also are said to have been contributed 
by the chiefs to carry on the war against Austria, 
which however is doubtful. Some attribute to this 
society the project of dividing Italy into three 
kingdoms, expelling the Austrians jand the King of 
Naples; others, the intention of dividing it into five, 
viz., Sardinia, Modena, Lucca, Eome, and Naples ; 
and yet others — and these latter probably are most 
in the right — the determination to perpetuate the 
status quo, or to re-establish servitude in its most 
odious forms. They also intrigued with Russia, 
though at certain times they would not have objected 

The Clerics. 163 

to subject all Italy politically to the Austrian eagle, 
and clerically to the keys of St. Peter. Their 
machinations at home led to much internal dissension 
and bloodshed; their chief opponents were the 
Carbonari. At Faenza the two parties fought 
against one another under the names of '^ Cats^' and 
'^ Dogs/' They caused quite as much mischief and 
bloodshed as any of the bands of brigands that 
infested the country, and their code was quite as 
sanguinary as that of any more secular society. 
They swore with terrible oaths to pursue and slay 
the impious liberals, even to their children, without 
showing pity for age or sex. Under the pretence 
of defending the faith, they indulged in the grossest 
licentiousness and most revolting atrocity. In the 
Piapal States they were under the direction of the 
inquisitors and bishops ; in the kingdom of Naples 
under the immediate orders of the police. 

392. The Oalderari. — ^This Society, alluded to 
before (360), is of uncertain origin. Count OrloflF, in 
his work, ^' Memoirs on the Kingdom of Naples,^' 
says they arose in 1813, when the reform of Carbo- 
narism took place. Canosa, on the other hand, in a 
pamphlet published at Dublin, and entitled, ^^ The 
Mountain Pipes,'' says they arose at Palermo, and 
not at Naples. In the former of these towns, 
there existed different trade companies, which had 
eiyoyed great privileges, until they lost them by 
the constitution of Lord William Bentinck, The 

164 Secret Societies. 

numerous company of braziers (ccdderari) felt the 
loss most keenly ; and they sent a deputation to the 
Queen of Naples, assuring her that they were ready 
to rise in her defence. The flames of the insurrection 
were communicated to the tanners and other com- 
panies, and all the Neapolitan emigrants in Sicily. 
Lord William Bentinck put the emigrants on board 
ship and sent them under a neutral flag to Naples, 
where Murat received them very kindly. But they 
were not grateful. Immediately on their arrival they 
entered into the secret societies then conspiring 
against the French government, and their original 
name of Calderari was communicated by them to the 
conspirators, before then called ^' Trinitarii.'^ We 
have seen that on the return of Ferdiuand, Prince 
Canova favoured the Calderari. He styled them the 
Qalderari of the Counterpoise, because they were 
to serve as such to Carbonarism. The fate of 
Canova and that of the Calderari has already been 
mentioned (360, 361). 

393. Societies in Favour of Napoleonism. — In the 
unsettled state of political aflGsdrs, every party found 
its adherents. According to secret documents 
lately discovered, the machinations of the Bona- 
partists continued even in 1842, the leaders being 
Peter Bonaparte, Lady Christina Stuart, the 
daughter of Lucien Bonaparte, the Marchioness 
Pepoli, the daughter of the Countess Lipona 
(Caroline Murat), and Count Basponi. Then 


The Clerics. 165 

appeared the sect of the '^Italian Confederates/' 
which in 1842 extended into Spain. Another sect, 
the '^ lUuminati, Vindicators or Avengers of the 
People/' arose in the Papal States ; also those of 
'' Eegeneration/' of ^^ Italian Independence/' of the 
'^ Communists/' the ^^ Exterminators/' &c. Tuscany 
also had its secret societies — that of the '^ Thirty- 
one/' the ^' National Knights/' the " Eevolutionary 
Club/' &c. A. " Communistic Society" was formed 
at Milan; but none of these sects did more than 
excite a little curiosity for a time. Scarcely any- 
thing of their ritual is known. 

394. Apostolate of Dante. — One of the most 
recent societies of the Eomagna was that of the 
'' Apostolate of Dante/' which sought, in the name 
of that poet, to spread national ideas. The leading 
spirit was Tamburini, a weU-known patriot; and 
many men of note in politics and letters joined the 
society, which was founded in 1855. But ia 
December, 1856, Tamburini and all his companions 
were arrested. The legal proceedings against them 
lasted thirty-three months, and ended by the con- 
demnation of Tamburini and another to twenty 
years' incarceration, and to ten years' of the others. 
Pius IX., though entreated by the; judges them- 
selves, refused to mitigate the punishment. But in 
1859 the five youngest were set free, and Tamburini 
was released by the people in 1860. 



MEBICAN Hunters. — The Society of 
the ''American Hunters" was founded at 
Ravenna, shortly after the prosecutions 
of Macerata (362), and the measures 
taken by the Austrian government, in 1818, against 
the Carbonari. Lord Byron is said to have been at 
its head, having imbibed his love for Italy through 
the influence of an Italian beauty, the Countess 
Guiccioli, whose brother had been exiled a few 
years before. Its ceremonies assimilated it ix> 
the '' Comuneros*' of Spain (422), and it seems to 
have had the same aims as the Delphic Priesthood 
(378). The saviour was to come from America, and 
it is asserted that Joseph Bonaparte, the ex- King of 
Spain, was a member of the society. It is not im- 
probable that the partizans of Napoleon gathered 
new hopes after the events of 1815. A sonnet, of 
which the first quatrain is here given, was at that 

Central Italy and Lomhardy. 167 

time very popular in Central Italy, and shows the 
direction of the political wind :— * 

" Scandalized by groaning under kings so fell, 
Filling Europe with dismay in ev'ry part, 
We are driven tc solicit Bonaparte 
To return from Saint Helena or from hell." 

The restored sect made itself the centre of many 
minor sects, among which were the " Sons of Mars," 
so caUed because composed chiefly of miUtary men ; 
of the '^ Artist Brethren ; ^^ *' the Defenders of the 
Country ; " the " Friends of Duty ; '' and others, 
having the simpler and less compromising forms of 
Carbonarism. In the sect of the '^ Sons of Mars,'^ 
the old Carbonari vendita was called '^ bivouac ; *^ 
the apprentice, 'Volunteer ;^' the good cousin, 
'' corporal '" the master, '' sergeant /' the grand 
master, '^ commander ;'^ and the chief dignitaries of 
Carbonarism still governed, from above and unseen, 
the thoughts of the sect. Many other sects existed 
of which scarcely more than the names are known, 
the recapitulation of which would only weary the 

396. Secret Italian Society in London, — London 
was a great centre of the sectaries. In 1822, a society 
for liberating Italy from the Austrian yoke was 
formed in that city, counting among its members 
many distinguished Italian patriots. Austria took 
the alarm, and sent spies to discover their plans. 
These spies represented the operations of the society 

168 Secret Societies. 

as very extensive and imminent. An expedition was 
to sail from the English coE^ts for Spain^ to take on 
board a large number of adherents^ land them on 
the Italian shores and spread insurrection every- 
where. The English general, Eobert Wilson, was 
said to be at the head of the expedition ; of which, 
however, nothing was ever heard, and the Austrian 
government escaped with the mere fright. 

397. Secret Italian Societies in Pa/ris. — A society 
of Italians was formed in Paris, in 1829 ; and in 
1*830, French Liberals formed a society under the 
title of '^ Cosmopolitans,*' whose object was to 
revolutionize aU the peoples of the Latin race, and 
form them into one grand confederacy. La Fayette 
was at its head. But where are the results ? 



pTPTIAN Lodges. — Immediately after 
the downfall of Napoleon, societies were 
formed 'also in foreign conntries to pro- 
mote Italian independence. The pro- 
moters of these were chiefly exiles. Distant Egypt 
even became the centre of such a propaganda ; and 
under the auspices of Mehemet Ali, who aspired to 
render himself independent of the Sublime Porte, 
there was established theEgjrptian riteof Cagliostro 
with many variations, and under the title of the 
" Secret Egyptian Society." Under masonic forms, 
the Pacha hoped to farther his own views; and 
especially, to produce political changes in the Ionian 
Islands and in Italy, he scattered his agents all 
over the Mediterranean coasts. Being masonic, the 
society excluded no religion ; it retained the two 
annual festivals, and added a third in memory of 
Napoleon, whose portrait was honoured in the lodge. 

170 Secret Societies. 

The rites were chiefly those of the ancient and 
accepted Scotch. Women were admitted, Turks 
excluded ; and in the lodges of Alexandria and 
Cairo, the Greek and Arab women amounted to more 
than three hundred. The emissaries, spread over 
many parts of Europe, corresponded in cypher; 
but of the operations of the society nothing was 
ever positively known. 

399. The Hlwminati. — This society, not to be 
confounded with an earlier one of the same name 
(316 etaeq.), was founded in France, but meeting 
with too many obstacles in that-country, it spread all 
over Italy. Its object was to restore the Napoleon 
fiamily to the French throne, by making Marie-Louise 
regent, until the King of Eome could be set on the 
throne, and by bringing Napoleon himself from St. 
Helena, to command the army. The society entered 
into correspondence with Las Casas, who was to 
come to Bologna, the chief lodge, and arrange plans; 
but the scheme, as need scarcely be mentioned, 
never came to anything. 



There were days, when my heart was volcanic, 

As the scoriae rivers that roll. 

As the lavas, that restlessly roll 
Their sulphurous currents down Yanik, 

In the clime of the boreal pole ; 
That groan aB they roll down mount Yanik, 

In the clime of the ultimate pole. 

E. A. PoE. 



Contemporary journalism of varioas coontries. 

Mazziwi. Scritti editi e inediti. Milan, 1861-3. 

Histoire de I'Intemationale. Far Jacques Fopulus. 

Paris, 1871. 
La Fin du Bonapartisme. Far E. de Fompery. Fans, 1872. 
La Gomune di Farigi nel 1871. Fer J. Gantii. Mi-' 

lano, 1873. 
Histoire de Tlntemationale. Far E. Yilletard. Fans, 1872. 
Secret History of the International. By Onslow Torko. 

London, 1872. 



0LI8H Patriotism. — It is the fashion to 
express great sympathy with the Poles 
and a corresponding degree of indig- 
nation against Bussia; the Poles are 
looked upon as a patriotic race^ oppressed by their 
more powerfol neighbonr. But aU this rests on mere 
misapprehension and ignorance of facts. The Polish 
people under their native rulers were abject serfe. 
The aristocracy were everything, and possessed 
everything ; the people possessed nothing, not even 
political or civil rights, when these clashed with the 
whims or interests of the nobles. It is these last 
whose power has been overthrown — ^it is they wh6 
make war on and conspire against Bussia, to recover 
their ancient privileges over their own countrymen, 
who blindly, like most nations, allow themselves to be 
slaughtered for the benefit of those who only seek 
again to rivet on the limbs of their dupes the chains 

174 Secret Societies. 

whicli Bnssia has broken. It is like the French 
and Spaniards and Neapolitans fighting against their 
deliverer Napoleon, to bring back the Bourbon 
tyrants, and with them the people^s political nullity, 
clerical intolerance, lettres de cachet, and the Inqui- 
sition. How John Bull has been gulled by these 
Polish patriots ! Many of them were criminals of 
all kinds, who succeeded in breaking out of prison, 
or escaping before they could be captured; and, 
managing to come over to this country, have here 
called themselves political fugitives, victims of Ens- 
sian persecution, and have lived luxuriously on the 
credulity of Englishmen I 

401. Various Revolutionary Sects. — One of the 
first societies formed in Poland to organize the 
revolutionary forces of the country was that of the 
^' True Poles ; " but, consisting of few persons only, 
it did not last long. In 1818 another sect arose, 
that of ^' National Freemasonry,^' which borrowed 
the rites, degrees, and language of Freemasonry, but 
aimed at national independence. The society was 
open to persons of all classes, but sought chiefly to 
enlist soldiers and officials, so as to turn their 
technical knowledge to account in the day of the 
struggle. But though numerous, the society lasted 
only a few years; for disunion arose among the 
members, and it escaped total dissolution only by 
transformation. It altered its rites and ceremonies, 
and henceforth called itself the '^ Scythers,"' in 

Young i'oland. 175 

remembrance of the revolution 'Of 1794, in which 
whole regimenta, armed with scythes, had gone into 

, battle. They met in 1821 at Warsaw, and drew up 
a new revolutionary scheme, adopting at the same 
time the new denomination of " Patriotic Society." 
In the meanwhile the atudenta of the nniversity of 
Wilna had formed themselves into a secret society; 
which, however, was discovered by the Russian 
government and dissolved. In 1822 the Patriotic 
Society combined with the masonic rite of "Modem 

; Templars," founded in Poland by Captain Maiewski; 
to the three rites of symbolical masonry was added 
a fourth, in which the initiated swore to do all in his 
power towards the Liberation of hia country. These 

\ combined societies brought about the iaaurrection of 

] 1830. In 1834 was established the society of 
" Toimg Poland ;" one of its most distinguished 
members and chiefs being Simon Konarski, who had 
already distinguished himself in the insurrection of 
1830. He then made his escape, and in order better 
to conceal himself learnt the art of watchmaking. 
Having returned to Poland and joined " Young 

■ Poland," he was discovered in 1838, and subjected 
to the torture to extort from him the names of his 
accomplices. But no revelations could be obtained 
. from him, and he bore his sufferings with such 
courage that the military governor of Wilna ex- 
claimed : — " This is a man of iron ! " A Russian 

I officer offered to assist him in escaping, and being 

176 Secret Societies. 

detected, was sent to the Caucasian army for life. 
Konarsld was executed in 1839, the people tearing 
his clothes to pieces to possess a relic of him. The 
chains he had been loaded with were formed into 
rings and worn by his admirers. Men like these 
redeem the sins of many so-called ^' Polish patriots.'* 
402. Secret national government. — Some time 
before the outbreak of the Crimean war a secret 
national government was formed in Poland, of 
course with the object of organizing an insurrection 
against Bussia. Little was known for a long time 
about their proceedings. Strange stories were cir- 
culated of midnight meetings in subterranean pass- 
ages ; of traitors condemned by courts composed of 
masked and hooded judges, from whose sentence 
there was no appeal and no escape ; of domiciliary 
visits from which neither the palace nor the hovel 
was exempt ; and of corpses found nightly in the 
most crowded streets of the city, or on the loneliest 
wastes of the open country, the dagger which had 
killed the victim bearing a label stamped with the 
well-known device of the insurrectionary committee. 
So perfectly was the secret of the modem Vehm- 
gericht kept that the Russian police were completely 
baffled in their attempts* to discover its members. 
At that period the Poles were divided into two 
parties : — the ^' whites" and the '^ reds ;" the former 
representing the aristocratic, the latter the demo- 
cratic element of the nation. Each had its own 

Young Poland. 177 

organization. The whites were mostly in fistvour 
of strictly constitutional resistance j the reds were 
for open rebellion and an immediate appeal to arms. 
But a union was brought about between the two 
parties in consequence of the conscription intro- 
duced by Eussia into Poland in 1863, which set fire 
to the train of rebellion that had so long been 
preparing. But Langiewicz, the Polish leader. 
Laving been defeated, the movements of the insur- 
gents in the open field were arrested ; though the 
rebellion was prolonged in other ways, chiefly with a 
view of inducing the Western Powers to interfere in 
behalf of Poland. But these naturally thought that 
as the Polish people, the peasantry, had taken very 
little share in the insurrection, and as Alexander II. 
had really introduced a series of reforms which 
tnaterially improved the position of his Polish sub- 
jects, there was no justification for the outbreak ; 
and therefore allowed justice to take its course. 

II. N 



^ISTOBIOAL SUtch of Society. — Russia 
has ever been a hot-bed of secret socie- 
ties, but to within very recent times such 
societies were purely local : the Russian 
people might revolt againsi some local oppression, or 
some subaltern tyrant, but they never rose against 
the emperor, they never took up arms for a political 
question. Whatever secret associations were formed 
in that country, moreover, were formed by the aris- 
tocracy, and many of them were of the most inno- 
cent nature ; it was at one time almost fashionable 
to belong to such a society, as there are people now 
who fancy it an honour to be a Freemason. But 
after the wars of Napoleon, the sectarian spirit 
spread into Russia. Some of the officers of the 

The Union of Safety. 179 

Russian army, after their campaigns in Central 
Europe, on their return to their native country, felt 
their own degradation and the oppression under 
which they existed ; and conceived the desire'to free 
themselves from the same. In 1822 the then 
government of Russia issued a decree, prohibiting 
the formation of a new, or the continuance of old 
secret societies. The decree embraced the ma- 
sonic lodges. Every employ^ of the state was 
obliged to declare on oath that he belonged to 
no secret society within or without the empire; 
or, if he did, had immediately to break off all 
connection with them, on pain of dismissal. The 
decree was executed with great rigour j the furni- 
ture of the masonic lodges was sold in the open 
streets, so as to expose the mysteries of masonry to 
ridicule. When the state began to prohibit secret 
societies, it was time to form some in right earnest. 
Alexander Mouravief founded the Union of Safety, 
whose rites and ceremonies were chiefly masonic, 
frightful oaths, daggers and poison figuring largely 
therein. It was composed of three classes — 
Brethren, Men, and Boyards. The chiefs were 
taken from the last class. The denomination ot 
the last degree shows how much the aristocratic 
element predominated in the association, which led 
in fact to the formation of a society still more 
aristocratic, that of the " Russian Ejiights,^' which 

180 Secret Societies. 

aimed at obtainmg for the Birasian people a cob- 
Btitutional charter^ and connteractiiig the secret 
societies of Poland, whose object was to restore 
Poland to its ancient state, that is to say, absolutism 
on the part of the nobles, and abject slaTery on the 
part of the people. The two societies eventually 
coalesced into one under the denomination of the 
"Union of the Public Good;'* but, divided in its 
counsels, it was dissolved in 1821, and a new society 
formed under the title of the " Union of the Boyards/' 
The programme of this union at first was to redud^ 
the imperial power to a level with that of the president 
of the United States, and to form the empire into a 
federation of provinces. But gradually their views 
became more advanced ; a republic was proposed, and 
the emperor was to be put to death. The more 
moderate and respectable members withdrew from 
the society, a;nd after a short time it was dissolved, 
and its papers and documents carefully burnt. The 
revolutions of Spain, Naples, and Upper Italy led 
Postal, a man who had been a member of all the 
former secret societies, to form a new one, with the 
vietv of turning Bussia into a republic ; tiie death 
of Alexander again formed part of the scheme. But 
circumstances were not favourable to the conspira- 
tors, and the project fell to the ground. Another 
society, called the North, sprang into existence, of 
which Postal again was the leading spirit. In 1824, 

The Union of Safety. 181 

the ^' Union of Boyards '^ heard of the existence of 
the Polish Patriotic Society, It wag determined to 
invite their co-operation. The terms were speedily 
arranged. The Boyards bound themselves to acknow- 
ledge the independence of Poland; and the Poles 
promised to entertain or amuse the arch-duke Con- 
stantino at Warsaw whilst the revolution was being 
accomplished in Russia, Both countries were to 
adopt the republican form of government. This latter 
condition, however, made by the Poles, displeased 
the Boyards, who, themselves lusting after power, 
did not see in a republic the opportunity of achiev- 
ing it. The Boyards therefore united themselves 
with another society, that of the ^' United Slavo- 
nians,^^ founded in 1823, by a lieutenant of artillery, 
named Borissoff, small in numbers, but daring. As the 
name implied, it proposed a Slavonian confedera- 
tion. The insurrection was on the point of break- 
ing out ; but was deijounced by Captain Mayboroda. 
The Russian government had its first victim. Postal, 
and the scheme was put off until a more favourable 
opportunity. The death of Alexander found the con- 
spirators unprepared. Reorganized, tliey formed new 
plots; and on the 14th of December, 1825, several 
regiments issued from their barracks to attack the 
legitimate power. But they were beaten and deci- 
mated ; five of the conspirators were executed, and 
thousands sent to Siberia. Still secret societies 


182 . Secret Societies. 

continued to exist. One was discovered at Moscow, 
in 1838, a remnant of that which was broken up in 
1825. Its members consisted of some of the 
highest nobles of the empire, who were scattered in 
the army as private soldiers. 

404. Nihilists. — This secret revolutionary society, 
lately discovered in Bussia, and many members of 
which were seized and condemned to various punish- 
ments, very slight in comparison with the offences 
charged against them, had for its object the over- 
throw of the constitution, and the establishment of 
universal Communism. The following articles, 
taken from a document produced at the trial, and 
containing the programme of what these Socialist 
reformers intended, will show that they belonged to 
the most advanced school of revolutionism : — 

'^ 1. The Revolutionist is a man condemned. He 
can have no interests, nor business, nor feelings, 
nor attachments, nor property, nor even a name. 
Everything in him is absorbed in one sole and ex- 
clusive interest, in one single idea, in one solitary 
passion — the Revolution. 

^^2. In his own mind he has broken, not alone in 
' words but in fact, every bond with civil order and 
with the whole civilized world, with all laws, all 
customs and conventions, and all the moral rules of 
the world. He is towards that world a pitiless 
enemy, and if he continues to live in it it is only 
that he may the more certainly destroy it. 

The Union of Safety. 183 

" 3. The Revolntionist despises all doctrines, and 
lias renounced all science of this world, ■which he 
leaves to future generations. He knows but one 
science, that of destruction." 

" 5. The Revolutiomst is a condenmed man, de- 
void of pity towards the state and the enlightened 
classes of society, neither does he expect any mercy 
fromthem. Between themandhimselfthereiawaged 
a death struggle, open or concealed, but continuous 
and implacable. He must learn to sufTer tortures. 

" 6. Severe towards himself, he must be severe 
towards others. All tender and effeminate feelings 
of family, friendship, love, gratitude, and even of 
honour, must often be stiSed in his breast by the 
one cold passion of Revolution. For hitn there is 
but one repose, but one consolation, bnt one recom- 
pense, but one satisfaction, the success of the Revo* 
liition. By day and by night he must have but one ■. 
thought, but one single object— destmction without 

" 8. The BevolutioniBt can have no friend, and 
cannot regard any but men who have applied them- 
selves to the Revolutionary work like himself. The 
degree of friendship, of devotion, and of other 
obligations towards a like companion is determined 
solely by the degree of nsefulnesa for the work of 
practical Revolution, destructive of everything." 

" 10. Each companion should have at his disposal 
a nnmber of Revolutionists of the second or third 

184 Secret Societies. 

class — that is to say, not completely initiated. He 
most look upon them as part of the Revolationary 
capital placed at Hs disposal. 

"11. When a companion fitUs into miafortane, and 
it becomeB a qoeation whether or not he shall be 
saved, the Rerolutionist mnst consolt not his per- 
sonal feelings, bat only the interest of the Kevoln- 
tionary caose. He most^ therefore, balance the 
amount of osefalness represented by soch companion 
against the loss of the Bevolntionary force necessary 
to sare him^ and should decide according to Treight 
and value." 

The society embraced men of every TSnik of life, 
the leading spirit being Netchaiev, who escaped. 
Dolgow, the next in importAnce, was the son of a 
coonsellor, and these two succeeded in tainting with 
their opinions the views of many of the students at 
the Petrovsky UnivOTsity. They were seconded in 
their efforts by Bippona, the son of a military officer, 
and Prince Cherk^sofiF, who on several occasions 
supplied the funds required. Their plans were se- 
cretly made known to the &iends of the movement 
by means of a paper entitled, " From the United 
*" the Isolated," which called on the Russians to 
olt E^ainst the government. In spite of this, 
sentences on the prisoners, who were all fonnd 
Ity, as above stated, were exceedingly mild, the 
Brest being that on Prince Cherk^aoff, who was 
irived of his rights and privileges, and ordered 

The Union of Safety. 185 

to take up hia abode in the province of Towst for 
the space of five years. The other conspirators 
were condemned to perioda of imprisonment, vary- 
ing from a year and a half to tliree weeks. 



ERMAN Feeling against Napoleon. — 
Napoleon, whilst he could in Germany 
form a court composed of kings and 
princes obedient to his slightest nod, 
also found implacable and incorruptible individuali- 
ties, who swore undying hatred to him who ruled 
half the world. Still, those who opposed the French 
emperor had no determined plan, and were misled 
by fallacious hopes ; and the leaders, always clever in 
taking advantage of the popular forces, threw the 
more daring ones in front like a vanguard, whose de- 
struction is pre-determined, in order to fill up the 
chasm that separates the main body from victory. 

406. Formation and Scope of Tugendbund. — ^Two 
of the men who were the first, or amongst the first, 
to meditate the downfal of the conqueror before 
whom all German governments had fallen prostrate, 
were Count Stadion, the soul of Austrian politics. 

The Union of Virtue. 187 

and Baron Stein, a native of Nassau, who possessed 
great influence at the Prussian Court. The latter, 
devoted to monarchical institutions, but also to the 
independence of his country, groaned when he saw 
the. Prussian government degraded in the eyes of 
Europe, and undertook to avenge its humiliation by 
founding, in 1812, the secret society of the '' Unioa 
of Virtue ^^ (Tugendbund), whose first domiciles were 
at Konigsberg and Breslau. Napoleon^s police dis- 
covered the plot ; . and Prussia, to satisfy France, had 
to banish Stein and two other noblemen, the Prince 
de Wittgenstein and Count Hardenberg, who had 
joined him in it. But the Union was not dissolved; 
it only concealed itself more strictly than before in the 
masonic brotherhood. During Stein's banishment 
also the cause was taken up by Jahn, Professor at 
the Berlin College, who, knowing the beneficial in- 
fluence of bodily exercise, in 1811 founded a gym- 
nasium, the first of the kind in Germany, which was 
frequented by the flower of the youth of Berlin, and 
the members of which were known as Tv/rnery an ap- 
peUation which is now familiar even to Englishmen. 
These Turner seemed naturally called upon to enter 
into the Union of Virtue ; and Jahn thought the 
moment fast approaching, when the rising against the 
oppressor was to take place. Among his coadjutors 
were the poet Arndt, the enthusiastic Sohill, who 
with 400 hussars expected in 1809 to rouse West- 
phalia and overthrow Jerome Bonaparte; Doremberg, 

188 Secret Societies. 


the Larochejacquelin of Germany, and several 
others. Stein, in the meanwhile, continued at the 
court of St. Petersburg the work on account of 
which he had been exiled. The Bussian Court 
made much of Stein, as a man who might be useful 
on certain occasions. He was especially protected 
by the mother of the emperor, in whom he had en- 
kindled the same hatred he himself entertained 
against France, He kept up his ftiendship with the 
Berlin patricians, and had his agents in the court oC 
Prussia, who procured him and Jahn adherents of 
note, such as General Bliicher. Still there was at 
the Prussian Court a party opposed to the Tugend^ 
hund, whose chiefs were General Bulow and Schuck- 
mann, who preferred peace to the dignity of their 
country— who, though no friends to Napoleon, were 
indifferent to the public welfare., A party quite 
favourable to the Union of Virtue was that headed 
by Baron Nostitz, who formed the society of the 
" Knights of the Queen of Prussia,^' to defend and 
avenge that princess, who considered herself to have 
been calumniated by Napoleon. This party was 
anxious to wipe away the disgrace of the battle of 
Jenaj go injurious to the fate, and still more to the 
honour, of Prussia; and therefore it naturally made 
common cause vrith the Tugendbund, which aimed 
at the same object, the expulsion of the French, 

407. jyivisions among Members of Tugendbund,-^ 
The bases of the organization of the Tugendbund 

The Union of Virtue. 189 

had been laid in 1807, at the assembly at Konigs- 
berg, where some of the most noted patriots were 
present — Stein, Stadion, Bliicher, Jahn. The asso- 
ciation deliberated on the means of reviving the 
energy and courage of the people, arranging the 
insurrectionary scheme, and succouring the citizens 
injured by foreign occupation. A man who ac- 
quired great influence at the time was Justus 
Griiner. StiU there was not sufficient unanimity in 
the counsels of the assQciation, and an Austrian 
party began to be formed, which proposed the re- 
establishment of the German empire, with the Arch- 
Duke Charles at its head ; but the opposition to this 
Bcheme came from the side &om which it was least 
to be expected, from the Arch- Duke himself. Some 
proposed a northern and a southern state ; but the 
many small courts and provincial interests strongly 
opposed this proposal. Others wanted a republic, 
which, however, met with very little favour. 

408. Activity of the Tugendbund. — One of the 
first acts of the Union of Virtue was to send 
Brusdliary corps to assist i^e Russians in the cam- 
paign of 1813. Prussia taving, by the course of 
events, been compelled to abandon its temporizing 
poUcy, Greisenau, Scharnhorst, and Grollmann em- 
braced the military plan of the Tugendbund. A 
levy en masse was ordered. The conduct of these 
patriots is matter of history. But, like other na- 
tions, they fought against Napoleon to impose on 

190 . Secret Societies. 

their country a more tyrannical government than 
that of the foreigner had ever been. They fought 
as men only fight for a great cause^ and those who 
died fancied they saw the dawn of German freedom. 
But those who survived saw how much they were 
deceived. The Tii^endbundy betrayed in its expec- 
tations^ was dissolved; but its members increase^ 
the ranks of other societies already existing^ or 
about to be formed. The '^ Black Knights," headed 
by Jahn, continued to exist after the war, as did 
^' The Ejiights of the Queen of Prussia." Dr. Lang 
placed himself at the head of the " Concordists," 
a sect founded in imitation of similar societies al- 
ready existing in the German nniversitiea. A more 
important association was that of the ^'German 
Union" {Deutscher Bund), founded in 1810, whose 
object was the promotion of representative institu- 
tions in the various German States. The West- 
phaUan government was the first to discover the 
existence of this society. Its seal was a lion re- 
posing beside the tree of liberty, surmounted by the 
Phrygian cap. All these societies were in correr 
spondence with each other, and peacefully divided 
the territory among themselves ; whilst the German 
Union, true to its name, knew no other limits than 
those of the German confederation. Dr. Jahn was 
active in Prussia, Dr, L^ng in the north, and Baron 
Nostitz in the south. This latter, by means of a 
famous actress of Prague, Madame Brode^ won over 


The Union of Virtue. 191 

a Hessian prince^ who did not disdain the office of 
grand master. 

409. Hostility of Oovemments agodnst Tug end- 
bvmd, — After the downfal of Napoleon the German 
governments, though not venturing openly to at- 
tack the Tugendbund, yet sought to suppress it. 
They assailed it in pampUets ^tten by men se- 
eretly in the pay of Prussia. One of these. Coun- 
cillor Schmalz, so libelled it as to draw forth indig- 
nant replies from Niebuhr and Schleiermacher. What 
the Germans could least forgive was the scurrilous 
manner in which Schmalz had calumniated Arndt, 
the '^ holy.^^ Schmalz had to fight several duels, 
and even the favour of the Court of Prussia could 
not protect him from personal outrages. The king 
then thought it fit to interfere. He published an or- 
dinance in which he commanded the dispute to 
cease ; admitted that he had favoured the ^' literary ^' 
society known as the Tugendbund during the days 
when the country had need of its assistance, but de- 
clared that in times of peace secret societies could 
not be beneficial, but might do a great deal of harm, 
and therefore forbade their continuance. The ac^- 
tion of the government, however, did not suppress 
the secret societies, though it compelled them to 
change their names. The Tugendbund was revived in 
the Bv/rschenschafty or associations of students of the 
universities, where they introduced gymnastics and 
martial exercises. Their central committee was in 

192 Secret Societies. 

Prussia; and sub-committees existed at Halle^ Leip- 
sic, Jena, Grottingen, Erlangen, Wiirzburg, Heidel- 
berg, Tubingen,and Freiburg. Germany was divided 
into ten circles, and there were two kinds of assem- 
blies, preparatory and secret. The liberation and 
independence of Gtermany was the subject discussed 
in the latter ; and, Ihissia being considered as the 
greatest opponent of their palaiotic aspirations, the 
members directed tiieir operations especially against 
Bussian influences. It was the hatred against 
Bussia that pnt tiie dagger into the hand of Charles 
Louis Sand, the student of Jena, who stabbed 
Kotzebue, who had written against the German so- 
cieties, of which there was a considerable number. 
This murder led to a stricter surreillanoe of the 
universities on the part of governments, and secret 
societies were rigorously prohibited under severe 
penalties; the Prussian government, especially^ 
being most severe, and prosecuting some of the 
most distinguished professors for their political 
opinions* The JBurschenschafi was broken up, .and 
its objects frustrated, to be revived between 1830-33, 
to end with a similar failure. Strange, that Prussia, 
which opposed itself most to the society and its aims, 
should have reaped all the benefit of these early 
efforts I 



E White-hoys. — Ireland, lielpleas against 
misery and auperstition, misled bj ha- 
tred, formed sects to fight not ho much 
ihe evil as the supposed authors of the 
evil. She would have succeeded better, had she 
demanded of her sects the Strength of economy and 
the virtae of providence. The firat secret society 
of Ireland, recorded in public documents, dates 
from 1761, in which year the situation of the pea- 
sants, always bad, had become unbearable. They 
were deprived of the right of free pasture, and the 
proprietors began t9 enclose the commons. Fiscal 
oppreasioa also became very great. Reduced to de- 
spair, the conspirators had recourse to reprisals, and 
to make these with more security, formed the secret 
society of the " White-boys," so called, because in 
the hope of disguising themselves, they wore over 
their clothes a white shirt, like the Oamisards of the 

194 Secret Societies. 


Cevennes. They also called themselves '' Levellers,^ 
because their object was .to level to the ground the 
fencesofthedetested enclosures. InNovember,1761, 
they spread through Munster, committing all kinds 
of excesses during the next four and twenty years, 

411. Righir-boys and Oak-boys. — In 1787 the above 
society disappeared to make room for the *' Eight- 
boys/' who by legal means aimed at obtaining the 
reduction of imposts ; higher wages, the abolition of ^ 
degrading personal services, and the erection of a ' 
Boman Catholic church for every Protestant church 
in the island. Though the society was guilty of 
some reprehensible acts against Protestant pastors, 
it yet, as a rule, remained within the limits of legal 
opposition. The vicious administration introduced 
into Ireland after the rising of 1788, the burden 
of which was chiefly felt by the Roman Catholics, 
could not but prove injurious to the Protestants 
also. The inhabitants, whether Catholic or Pro- 
testant, were subject to objectionable personal ser- 
vice — hence petitions rejected by the haughty rulers, 
tumults quenched in blood, whole populations con- 
quered by fear, but not subdued, and ready to break 
forth into insurrection when it was least expected. 
Therefore the Protestants also formed societies for 
their security, taking for their emblem the oak-leaf, 
whence they were known as the '' Oak-boys.^' Their 
chief object was to lessen the power and imposts 
of the clergy. Established in 1764, the society made 

Irish Societies. 195 

rapid progress, especially in the province of Ulster, 
where it had been founded. Unable to obtain 
legally what it aimed at, it had recourse to arms, 
but was defeated by the royal troops of England, 
and dissolved. 

412. HeartS'of' Steel, Threshers, BreaJc-of-Day^ 
Boys, Defenders, United Irishmen, Ribbonmen, — 
Many tenants of the Marquis of Donegal having 
about eight years after been ejected from their 
farms, .they formed themselves into a society called 
^'Hearts-of-Steel,^^ thereby to indicate the perse- 
verance with which they intended to pursue their 
revenge against those who had succeeded them on 
the land, by murdering them, burning their farms, 
and destroying their harvests. They were not sup- 
pressed till 1773, when thousands of the affiliated 
fled to America, where they entered the ranks of 
the revolted colonists. Thie legislative union of 
Ireland with England in 1800 did not at first benefit 
the former country much. New secret societies 
• were formed, the most important of which was that 
of the " Threshers,^' whose primary object was the 
reduction of the exorbitant dues claimed by the 
clergy of both persuasions. The government again 
was obliged to interfere, but without much success ; 
time did more to heal the wounds inflicted by these 
€»dless important disturbances. Political and re- 
ligious animosities were further sources of con- 
spiracy. Two societies of almost the same nature 

196 Secret Societies. 

were formed about 1785. The first was composed 
of ProtestantB, the " Break-of-day-boya," who at 
dawn comtnitted all sorts of excesses against Qie 
wretched Roman Catholics, bmning their hats, and 
destroying their agricoltoral implements and pro- 
duce. The Roman Catholics in return formed 
themBelveg into a society of " Defenders," and from 
defence, as was natural, proceeded to a^^ession. 
During the revolt of 1798 the Defenders com- 
bined with the " United Irishmen," who had 
initiated the morement. The United Irish were 
defeated, but the society was nevertheless not dis- 
persed. Its members still continued to hold se- 
cret meetings, and to re-appear in the political arena 
under the denomination of " Ribbonmen," so named 
because they recognized each other by certain 

413, 8cdnt Patrick Boys. — These seem' to hare 

issued from the ranks of the Ribbonmen. Their 

stertutes were discovered and pnblished in 1833, 

Their oath was : — " I swear to have my right hand 

cut off, or to be nailed to the door of the priaon at 

Armagh, rather than deceive or betray a brother ; to 

svere in the cause to which I deliberately devote 

slf ; to pardon neither sex nor age, should it be 

le way of my vengeance against the Orange- 

." The brethren recognized each other by 

iguea. " Here is a fine day ! " — " A finer one 

come."' — " The road is very bad."- — ■" It shall 

^^^^^^F"^^^^^^^^^T^^'^''^TT"^TT^^y^T ■ ,. . - ' ^"?^^?'S **^T? T^S tT^^ ■ 

Irish Societies. 197 

be repaired/'—^' What with V'—'' With the bones 
of Protestants/^ — What is your profession of faith, ? " 
— ^' The discomfiture of the Philistines/' — " How 
long is your stick ?" — ^^ Long enough to reach my 
enemies/' — ^' To what trunk does the wood be- 
long?'' — ^* To a French trunk, that blooms in 
America, and whose leaves shall shelter the sons 
of Erin/' Their aim was chiefly the redress of 
agrarian and social grievances. 

414. The Orangemen. — This society, against 
which the St. Patrick Boys swore such terrible 
vengeance, was a Protestant Society. Many farms, 
taken from Roman Catholics, having fallen into the 
hands of Protestants, these latter were, as we have 
seen (411), exposed to the attacks of the former. 
The Protestants in self-defence formed themselves 
into a society, taking the name of ^^ Orangemen," to 
indicate their Protestant character and principles. 
Their first regular meeting was held on the 21st 
September, 1795, at the obscure village of Lough- 
gall, which was attended by deputies of the Break- 
of-Day Boys (412), and constituted into a grand 
lodge, authorized to found minor lodges. At first 
the lodges were composed entirely of men from the 
lower ranks ; but soon the higher classes began to 
seek initiation, and the society spread over the 
whole island, and also into England, and especially 
into the manufacturing districts. A grand lodge was 
established at Manchester, which was afterwards 

198 Secret Societies. 

transferred to London^ and its grand master was no 
less a person than the Duke of York. At the death 
of that prince, which occurred in 1821, the Duke of 
Cumberland, afberwarda King of Hanover, suc- 
ceeded him — both of them men to have the interests 
of religion confided to them ! In 1835 the Irish 
statutes, having been revised, were made public- 
The society bound its members over to defend the 
royal family, so long as it remained faithful to Pro- 
testant principles. In the former statutes there 
were obligations also to abjure the supremacy of the 
Court of Bome and the dogma of transubstantiation ; 
and although in the modem statutes these were 
omitted; others of the same tendency were substituted, 
the society declaring that its object was the preserva- 
tion of the religion established by law, the Protestant 
succession of the crown, and the protection of the 
lives and property of the ajQSliated. To concede 
something to the spirit of the age it proclaimed 
itself theoretically the friend of religious toleration ; 
but facts have shown this, as in most similar cases, io 
be a mere illusion. From England the sect spread 
into Scotland, the colonies. Upper and Lower 
Canada, where it reckoned 12,000 members; and 
into the army, with some fifty lodges. In the United 
States the society has latterly been showing its to- 
leration I Its political action is well known; it 
endeavours to influence parliamentary elections, 
supporting the Whigs. The efforts of the British 

Irish Societies. 199 

House of Commons to suppress it have hitherto 
been ineffectoal. 

Other Irish aocieties, having for their chief ob- 
ject the redresa of agrarian and religions grievances, 
were the " Cordera," in Eaat and West Meath ; the 
" Shanaveats" and " Caravata " in Tipperary, Kil- 
kenny, Cork, and Limerick. 



\BIOIN and Organization of Fenianism. — 
The founders of Fenianism were two of 
the Irish exiles of 1848, Colonel John 
O^Mahoney and Michael Doheny, the 
latter one of the most talented and dangerous mem- 
bers of tiie Young Ireland party, and a fervent ad- 
mirer of John Mitchell. O'Mahoney belonged to one 
of the oldest families in Munster, but becoming im- 
plicated in Smith O'Brien^s machinations and failure, 
he made his escape to France, and thence to America, 
where in conjunction with Doheny and General 
Corcoran he set the Fenian Brotherhood afloat. It 
was at first a semi-secret association ; its meetings 
were secret, and though its cHef officers were pub- 
licly known as such, the operations of the Brother- 
hood were hidden from the public view. It rapidly 
increased in numbers, spreading through every 
state of the American Union, through Canada and 

Fenians. 201 

the British Provinces. But in November, 1863, 
the Fenian organization assumed a new character. 
A grand national convention of delegates met at 
Chicago, and avowed the object of the Brotherhood, 
namely, the separation of Ireland from England, and 
the establishment of an Irish republic, the same 
dianges.being first to be eflfected in Canada. An- 
other grand convention was held in 1864 at Cin- 
cinnati, the delegates at which represented some 
250,000 members, each of which members wafi called 
upon for a contribution of five dollars, and this call, 
it is said, was promptly responded to. Indeed, 
the reader will presently see that the leaders of the 
movement were never short of money, whatever the 
dupes were. One of the resolutions passed at Cin- 
cinnati was that ^* the next convention should be 
held on Irish soil.'^ About the same time a Fenian 
Sisterhood was established, and the ladies were not 
inactive ; for in two months from their associating 
they returned upwards of £200,000 sterling to the 
Fenian exchequer for the purpose of purchasing 
arms and other war material. At that period the 
Fenians confidently relied on the assistance of the 
American Government. The New York press 
rather favoured this notion. In Ireland the Bro- 
therhood never attained to the dimensions it reached 
in the United States, and without the assistance of 
the latter could do nothing. Still the Irish, as well 
as the American Fenian association, had its chiefs. 

• 202 Secret Societies. 

officers both civil and military^ its common fond 
and financial agencies, its secret oaths, pass-words, 
and emblems, its laws and penalties, its concealed 
stores of arms, its nightly drills, its correspondents 
and agents, its journals, and even its popular songs 
and ballads. But traitors soon set to work to de- 
stroy the organization from within. Thus the Head 
Centre O' Mahoney, who was in receipt of an official 
salary of 2,000 dollars, is thus spoken of in the 
Official Beport of the Investigating Conunittee of 
the Fenian Brotherhood of America (1866) : — 

^' After a careful examination of the affairs of tha 
Brotherhood your Committee finds in almost every 
instance. the cause of Ireland made subservient to 
individual gain; men who were lauded as patriots 
sought every opportunity to plunder the treasury 
of the Brotherhood, but legalized their attacks by 
securing the endorsement of John O'Mahoney • . . • 
In John O^Mahoney's integrity the confidence of the 
Brotherhood was boundless, and the betrayal of that 
confidence, whether through incapacity or premedi- 
tation, is not a question for us to determine 

Sufficient that he has proved recreant to the trust. 
.... Never in the history of the Irish people did 
they repose so much confidence in their leaders ; 
never before were they so basely deceived and 
treacherously dealt with. In fact, the Moffat man- 
sion (the head-quarters of the American Fenians)^ 
was not only an almslioiise for pauper offidala and 

Fenians. 203 

hungry adventurers, but a general telegraph office 
for the Canadian authorities, and Sir Frederick 
Bruce, the British minister at Washington. These 
paid patriots and professional martyrs, not satisfied 
with emptying our treasury, connived at posting 
the English authorities in advance of our move- 

From this Report it farther appears that in 
1866 there was in the Fenian Treasury in the States 
a sum of 185,000 dollars ; that the expenses of the 
Moffat mansion and the parasites who flocked 
thither in three months amounted to 104,000 dol- 
lars j and that Stephens, the Irish Head Centre in 
the same space of time received from America, in 
money sent to Paris, the sum of upwards of 106,000 
dollars, though John O^Mahoney in many of his 
letters expressed the greatest mistrust of Stephens. 
He no doubt looked upon the latter as the more 
ciever and daring rogue, who materiaUy diminished 
his own share of the spoil. Stephens' career in 
Ireland is sufficiently well known, and there is 
scarcely any doubt that whilst he was leading his 
miserable associates to their ruin, he acted as spy 
upon them, and that there existed some under- 
standing between him and the English authorities. 
How else can we explain his living for nearly two 
months in the neighbourhood of Dublin, in a house 
magnificently furnished, whilst he took no pre^ 
cautions to conceal himself, and yet escaped the 

204 Secret Societies. 

vigilance of the police for so long a time ? His 
conduct when at last apprehended, his bravado in 
the police-court and final escape from prison, all 
point to the same conclusion. The only other per- 
son of note among the Fenians was John Mitchell, 
who had been implicated in the troubles of 1848, 
was transported, escaped, and made his way to the 
United States. During the civil war which raged 
in that country he was a supporter of the Southern 
cause, was taken prisoner by the North, but 
liberated by the President at the request of the 
Fenians in America. 

The Fenian agitation also spread into England. 
Meetings were held in various towns, especially at 
Liverpool, where men of considerable means were 
found to support the Fenian objects and organiza- 
tion; and on one occasion as much as £200 was 
collected in a few minutes in the room where a 
meeting was held. But disputes about the money 
thus collected were ever arising. The man who 
acted as treasurer to the Liverpool Centre, when 
accused of plundering his brethren, snapped his 
fingers at them, and declared that if they bothered 
him about the money, he would give evidence 
against them and have the whole lot hanged. The 
Fenians, to raise money, issued bonds to be redeemed 
by the future Irish Eepublic, of one of which the 
following is a facsimile : — 





Goddess of Liberty. 



Ninety days after the establishment of 

Eedeemable by 

I Be 
I Fi 

Board of 

Sunburst. . 

416. Origin of Name, — Irish tradition says that 
the Fenians were an ancient militia employed on home 
service for protecting the coasts from invasion. 
Each of the four provinces had its band, that of 
Leinster, to which Fionn and his family belonged, 
being at the head of the others. This Fionn is 
the Fingal of MacPherson, and the leaders of the 
movement no doubt saw an advantage in connect- 
ing their party with the historical and traditionary 
glories of Ireland. But the Fenians were not con- 
fined to Erin. 

In the ancient poem on the battle of Gabhra we 
read of ^' the bards of the Fians of Alban/' Alban 
being the old name of Scotland ; and also that ^^ the 
Fians of Lochlan were powerful.*^ Now Lochlan 
was an ancient name for Germany north of the 
Rhine, but when the Norwegian and Danish pirates 
appeared in the ninth century, they were called 
Lochlanaels, and the name of Lochlan was trans- 
ferred to Norway and Denmark. Hence it has 
been argued that the Fenians were not a militia 


Secret Societies. 

of Oaels^ but that they were a distinct Celtic 

417. Feman Litany. — From the Patriotic Litany 
of Saint Lawrence O^Toole, published for the use of 
the Fenian Brotherhood, the following extracts may 
suffice : — 


Call to thine aid, most liberty-loving O'Toole, 
those Christian auxiliaries of power and glory — the 
soul-inspiring cannon, the meek and faithful musket, 
the pious rifle, and the conscience-examining pike, 
which, tempered by a martyr's faith, a Fenian's hope, 
and a rebel's charity, will triumph over the devil, 
and restore to us our own in our own land for ever. 

O'Toole hear us. 

From EngHsh civiHzation, 
From British law and order. 
From Anglo-Saxon cant and 

From the hest of the English 

From Rule Britannia, 
From the cloven hoof. 
From the necessity of annual 

From billeted soldiery. 
From a pious church establish- 


) (y Toole deliver us ! 





> (y Toole deliver us ! 

From the slavery of praying ^ 

fof crowned heads. 
From royal anniversaries, 
From mock trials. 
From all other things purely 


Fenianism the salvation of our race ! 

Record it above, 0' Toole. 

Fenianism to be stamped out like the cattle 
plague ! 

We will prove them false prophets, (y Toole, 
Ireland reduced to obedience, 
Ireland loyal to the crown, 
Ireland pacified with conces- 
Ireland to recruit the British 

Ireland not united in eflTort, 

Ireland never again to be dragged at the tail of 
any other nation I 

Proclaim it on high, 0^ Toole, 

418. Events, — In speaking of Stephens it was 
mentioned that he was a spy on the Fenians, but he 
was not the only informer that betrayed his confede- 
rates to the English Government ; which latter, in 
consequence of ^^ information thus received,^^ made 
its first descent on the Brotherhood in 1865, at the 
office of the Irish People, and captured some of the 
leading Fenians. Shortly after, it seized Stephens, 

It is a 



208 Secret Societies. 

who, however, was allowed to make his escape from 
Richmond Prison, where he had been confined in 
the night of November 24 of the above year. 
Further arrests took place in other parts of Ireland, 
and also at Liverpool, Manchester, and other English 
towns. The prisoners were indicted for treason- 
felony, and sentenced to various degrees of punish- 
ment. Various raids into Canada, and the attempt 
on Chester Castle, all ending in failure, next showed 
that Fenianism was still aUve. But it was more pro- 
minently again brought before the public by the at- 
tack at Manchester, in September, 1867, on the police 
van conveying two leaders of the Fenian conspiracy, 
Kelly and Deasey, to the city prison, who were 
enabled to make their escape, whilst Serjeant Brett 
was shot dead by WiUiaifi O'Meara Allen, who was 
hanged for the deed. A still more atrocious and 
fatal Fenian attempt was that made on the Clerken- 
well House of Detention, with a view of liberating 
two Fenian prisoners, Burke and Casey, when a 
j^eat length of the outer wall of the prison was 
blown up by gunpowder, which also destroyed a 
whole row of houses opposite, killed several persons, 
and wounded and maimed a great number. On 
that occasion again government had received infor- 
mation of the intended attempt by traitors in the 
camp, but strangely enough failed to take proper 
precautionary measures. On December 24, 1867, 
the Fenians made an attack on the Martello Tower 


Fenians. 209 

at Fota, near Queenstown, co. Cork, and carried 
off a quantity of arms and ammunition; and their 
latest exploit was another Canadian raid, when they 
crossed the border at Pembina, and seized the 
Canadian Custom House and Hudson^s Bay post. 
They were, however, attacked and dispersed by 
American troops, and General O^Neil was made 
prisoner. This raid was carried out totally indepen- 
dently of the new Irish Fenian confederation, of 
which O^Donovan Eossa was the moving spirit ; and 
the Irish papers therefore poohpoohed the account of 
this fiasco altogether, or merely gave the telegrams, 
denying that the enterprise had any connection with 
Fenianism. There is, in fact, scarcely any doubt, 
that the Fenian Brotherhood is breaking upj 
O^ Donovan Eossa has retired from the ^^ Directory '' 
of the confederation and gone into the wine trade. 
The Fenians themselves have denounced the notor- 
ious Stephens, who reappeared in America, as a 
^' traitor'^ and government informer; and though 
the acquittal of Kelly for the murder of head-con- 
stable Talbot would seem to point to a strong 
sympathy still surviving amongst the Irish people 
with Fenianism, the jury perhaps could give no 
other verdict than the one they arrived at, the 
prosecution having been altogether mismanaged by 
the government. 

419. Comic Aspects of Fenianism. — The account of 
the Fenian movement is necessarily dull j the reader 

II. P 

210 Secret Societies. 

may therefore be pleased to see one or two extracts 
from a comic history of it, taken from an American 
work, entitled, '^ The New Gospel of Peace accord- 
ing to St. Benjamin'' (1867) . The author writes : 
— '' About those days there arose certain men, Pad- 
hees, calling themselves Phainyans, who conspired 
together to wrest the isle of Ouldairin from the 
queen of the land of Jonbool. Now it was jfrom 
the isle of Ouldairin that the Padhees came into the 
land of Unculpsalm. , . , Although the Padhees 
never had established government or administered 
laws in Ouldairin, they diligently sought instead 
thereof to have shyndees therein, first with the meA 
who sought to establish a government for them; 
but if not with them, then with each other. . , , 
Now the Padhees in the land of Unculpsalm said 
one to another. Are we not in the land of Uncul- 
psalm, where the power of Jonbool cannot touch us, 
and we are many and receive money ; let us there- 
fore conspire to make, a great shyndee in the isle 
of Ouldairin. . . . And they took a large upper 
room and they placed men at the outside of the 
outer door, clad in raiment of green and gold, and 
having drawn swords in their hands. For they 
said. How shall men know that we are conspiring 
secretly, unless we set a guard over ourselves? 
And they chose a chief man to rule them, and they 
called him the Hid-Sinter,which, being interpreted, is 
the top-middle ; for, in the tongue of the Padhees, 

Fenians. 211 

hid is top, and sinter is middle. . . . And it came 
to pass that after many days the Hid- Sinter sent 
out tax-gatherers, and they went among the Pad- 
hees, and chiefly among the Bihdees throughout 
the city of Gotham, and the other cities in the land 
of Unculpsalm, and they gathered tribute, . . . and 
the sum thereof was great, even hundreds of thou- 
sands of pieces of silver. Then the Hid- Sinter and 
his chief officers took unto themselves a great house 
and spacious in the city of Gotham . . . and fared 
suiliptuously therein, and poured out drink-offerings 
night and day unto the isle of Ouldairin. And 
they set up a government therein, which they called 
the government of Ouldairin, and chose unto them- 
selves certain lawgivers, which they called the Sinnit. 
. . • Now it came to pass when certain of the Pad- 
hees, Phainyans, saw that the Hid- Sinter and his 
chief officers . . . fared sumptuously every day . . . 
and lived as if all their kinsfolk were dying day by 
day, and there was a ouaic without end, that their 
souls were moved with envy, and they said each 
within his own heart. Why should I not live in a 
great house and fare sumptuously ? But unto eacfh 
other and unto the world they said : — Behold^ the 
Hid- Sinter and his officers do not govern Ouldairin 
righteously, and they waste the substance of the 
people. Let us therefore declare their govern-? 
ment to be at an end^ and let us set up a new 
government, with a new Hid-Sinter, and a new 

212 Secret Societies. 

Sinnit^ even ourselves. And thej did so. And 
they declared that the first Hid- Sinter was no 
longer Hid- Sinter, but that their Hid- Sinter was 
the real Hid- Sinter, . . . and moreover they espe- 
cially declared that tribute money should no more 
be paid to the first Hid-Sinter, but unto theirs. 
But the first Hid-Sinter and his officers would not 
be set at nought. . . . and so it came to pass that 
there were three governments for the isle of Ould- 
airin ; one in the land of Jonbool, and two in the 
city of Gotham in the land of Unculpsalm. But 
when the Phainyans gathered unto themselves men, 
Padhees, in the island of Ouldairin, who went about 
there in the night-time, with swords and with spears 
and with staves, the governors sent there by the 
queen of Jonbool took those men and cast some 
of them into prison, and banished others into a far 
country,^^ &c. 


^EOBET SodeUea in Spain. — ^Even before 
the French Rerolation there existed in 
Spain secret societies, some averse to 
monarchical gOT6rmnent,other8in&vonr 
if clerocracy. Among the latter may be mentioned 
the " Concessionists," who carried their zeal for 
Ferdinand VII. and their tenderness for the Church 
to snch a degree aa to desire the retmm of the 
blessed times of the Holy Inquisition. They also 
sought to get hold of the management of public 
affairs to turn them to their own profit; and the 
dismal administration of the Bourbons shows that 
aiey partly sncceeded. Probably from this associa- 
tion arose that of the " Defenders of the Faith," 
Jesuits in disguise, who in 1820 spread themselves 
over Spain, taking care of the throne and altar, and 
still more of themselves. During the reign of 
Ferdinand VII. also arose the " Bealists," who, to 

214 Secret Societies. 

benefit themselves, encouraged the king in his re- 
actionarj policy. 

421. Freemasonry in Spcdn. — After the French 
invasion of 1809, Freemasonry was restored in the 
Peninsula, and a Grand Orient established at Madrid ; 
but it confined itself to works of popular education 
and charity, entirely eschewing politics. The Ml 
of Joseph and the restoration again put an end 
to these well-meant efibrts. In 1816, some of the 
officers and soldiers, returned from French prisons, 
joined and formed independent lodges, establishing 
a Grand Orient at Madrid, very secret, and in corre- 
spondence with the few French lodges that meddled 
with politics. Among the latter is remembered the 
lodge of the '' Sectaries of Zoroaster/^ which initiated 
several Spanish officers residing in Paris, among 
others Captain Quezada, who afterwards favoured 
the escape of the patriot Mina. The revolution of 
the island of Leon was the work of restored Spanish 
Masonry, which had long prepared for it under the 
direction of Quiroga, Eiego, and five members of 
the Cortes. 

422. The Communists. — ^After the brief victory, 
badly concealed jealousies broke forth; many of the 
brethren seceded and formed a new society, the 
*' Confederation of the Communists'' {Oomuneros), 
which name was derived from that memorable 
epoch of Spanish history when Charles V. attempted 
to destroy the ancient liberties, and thus provoked 

The Communists. 215 

the revolution of the Commons in 1520, which was 
headed by John Padilla, and afterwards by his 
heroic wife, Maria Pacheco. In the battle of Villa- 
lar the Communists were defeated and scattered, 
and the revolution was doomed. The new Com- 
munists, reviving these memories, declared their 
intentions, \ifhich could not but be agreeable to 
Young Spain ; nearly sixty thousand members 
joined the Society. Their meetings were called 


torres (towers), and presided over by a ^' Grand 
Castellan.^' The scope of the society was to pro- 
mote by all means in its power the freedom of 
mankind ; to defend in every way the rights of the 
Spanish people against the abuses and encroach- 
ments of royal and priestly power ; and to succour 
the needy, especially those belonging to the society. 
On being initiated the candidate was first led into 
the " hall of arms,^' where he was told of the obli- 
gations and duties he was about to undertake. His 
eyes having been bandaged he was conducted to 
another room, where, after he had declared that he 
wished to be admitted into the confederation, a 
member acting as sentinel exclaimed: — ^'Let ViiTn 
advance, I will escort him to the guard-house of the 
castle.^^ Then there was imitated with great noise 
the lowering of a drawbridge, and the raising of a 
portcullis ) the candidate was then led into the 
guard-room, unbandaged, and left alone. The walls 
were covered -with arms and trophies, and with 

216 Secret Societies. 

patriotic and martial inscriptions. Being at last 
admitted into the presence of the governor, the can- 
didate was thus addressed : — ^' You stand now under 
the shield of our chief Padilla ; repeat with all the 
fervour you are capable of the oath I am about to 
dictate to you/^ By this oath, the candidate bound 
himself to fight for constitutional liberty, and to 
avenge every wrong done to his country. The new 
knight then covered himself with the shield of Pa- 
dilla, the knights present pointed their swords at it, 
and the governor continued : — '^ The shield of our 
chief Padilla will cover you from every danger, will 
save your life and honour ; but if you violate your 
oath this shield shall be removed, and these swords 
buried in your breast.'' Both the Masons and 
Communists sought to gain possession of superior 
political influence. The former, having more ex- 
perience, prevailed in the elections and formed the 
ministry. Hence a contest that agitated the 
country and injured the cause of liberty. In 1832, 
the Communists endeavoured to overthrow the. 
Freemasons, but unsuccessfully. Still Masons and 
Communists combined to oppose the reactionary 
party. They also succeeded in suppressing Car- 
bonarism, which had been introduced into Spain by 
some refugee Italians. These societies, in fact, 
though professing patriotic views, were nothing 
but egotistical cliques, bent on their own aggran- 
disement. How little they were guided by fixed 


The Communists. 217 

principles is shown by their conduct in Spanish 
America. In Brazil they placed on the throne Don 
Pedro, and in Mexico they established a republican 
form of government, just as it best suited their own 
private interests. But such is the practice of most 



NTBODUOTOBY Remarks. — There 
exists an association of working — or 
rather, talking — ^men, pretending to have 
for its object the uniting in one jfratemal 
bond the workers of all countries, and the advocating 
of the interests of labour, and those only. Though 
it protests against being a secret society, it yet in- 
dulges in such underhand dealings, insidiously endea- 
vouring to work mischief between employers arid 
employed, and aiming at the subversion of the 
existing order of things, that it deserves to be 
denounced with all the societies professedly secret. 
In this country its influence is scarcely felt, because 
the English workmen that join it are numerically 
few — according to the statement of the Secretary 
of the International himself, the society counts only 
about 8,000 English members — and these, with here 
and there an exception, belong to the most worth- 

International and Commune. 219 

less portion of the working classes. It is chiefly the 
idle and dissipated or unskilled artizan that thinks 
his position is to be improved by others and not by 
himself. To hear the interested demagogues and 
paid agitators of the ^^ Intematiohal/^ the working 
classes would seem to be exceptionally oppressed, 
and to labour under disadvantages greater than 
any that weigh upon other sections of the com- 
munity. Yet no other class is so much protected by 
the legislature, and none, except the paupers, pay 
less towards the general expenses of the country in 
direct or indirect taxation. The wages a skilled 
artizan can earn are higher than the remuneration 
obtainable by thousands of men who have enjoyed 
an university education, or sunk money in some 
professional apprenticeship ; whilst he is free from 
the burden incident to maintaining a certain social 
status. His hours of labour are such as to leave 
him plenty of leisure for enjoyment, especially in 
this country ; and as regards extra holidays, he is 
on the whole pretty liberally dealt with, especially 
by the large employers of labour, the capitalists, 
against whom the street-spouters, who for their 
own advantage get up public demonstrations, are 
always inveighing in a manner which would be 
simply ridiculous were it not mischievous. But 
then if they did not constantly attempt to render 
the workman dissatisfied with his lot, their occupa- 
tion would be gone. And so, as the doctors, who. 

220 Secret Societies. 

for want of patients, get up hospitals for the cure 
of particular diseases, try to persuade every man 
they come in contact with, that he is suflFering from 
some such disease ; so these agitators endeavour to 
talk the workman into the delusion that he is the most 
unfortunate and most oppressed individual under 
the sun. To wish to act for oneself and work out 
one^s own salvation is no doubt very praiseworthy; 
but workmen ought to bear in mind that they may 
be the tools of ambitious men in their own class, 
who look upon and use them as such for their own 
purposes, men who want to be generals commanding 
soldiers. But the soldiers of the International are 
not worth much. Those workmen who are not satis- 
fied with adhering to the statutes of the society in 
order to get rid of troublesome appeals, and to avoid 
being molested by their comrades, but who fervently 
embrace its principles and count upon their sue- 
cess, usually are the most idle, the least saving, the 
least sober. The fanatics of the society, those who 
ought to form its principal strength, are formed, 
not by the elitey but by the scum of the working 
dasses. The chiefs are not much better. The 
more intelligent and honest founders of the society 
have gradually withdrawn from it in disgust. As 
to their successors, they have constantly shown 
themselves incapable and dishonest. They inspire 
no feeling but that of contempt. And even those 
endowed with a little intelligence, on purpose to 

International and Commune. 221 

maintain themselves at the head of the incongruous 
mass they direct, have frequently been compelled 
to submit to its influence — hence many of the egre- 
gious blunders committed by them both before, 
and still more after, March 18, 1871. In the party 
of demagogues the head is most frequently led by 
the tail. The saying, ^'You know I must follow 
them, since I am their leader,^^ may with great 
appropriateness be used by the leaders of the In- 
ternational. A socialistic school recognised the 
necessity of the concurrence of three elements in 
every enterprise — work, capital and talent. The 
International recruits its members among workers 
that dislike work ; it declares capital infamous and 
proscribes it; as to talent it has shown that its 
chiefs are altogether destitute of it. It may per- 
haps engage us in a few more sanguinary conflicts, 1 
but we may be quite sure that never in any part of 
the world will it win a decisive and lasting victory. 
It is certain that the majority of French, English, 
German, Italian, Spanish, and Russian workmen 
look upo^i the principles of the International as 
false, unjust, immoral, and, what is much more to 
the purpose, impracticable. 

424. Socialistic Schemes. — Schemes for the re- 
generation of mankind have been hatched in every 
age, from Plato and his Eepublic down to Louis 
Blanc^s Orgcmisation du Travail, and the Interna- 
tional. Many communistic movements took place 




H', , .w«- .;. .,. V ' «-^ 

1 -i w». 

222 Secret Societies. 

in the sixteenth century, and the brief history of the 
Anabaptist kingdom of Munster presents striking 
resemblances with that of the recent Commune of 
Paris. Babeuf and the Conspiracy of the Equals 
remind us of the demagogues who lately filled Paris 
with blood and fire. The collegia opificum of 
Rome, the guilds of France and Germany, the 
trades- corporations, the compagnonnage — all these 
were the fore-runners of modern trade-unions and 
the International, The systems of Saint- Simon, 
Fourier, Cabet, Louis Blanc, and Owen, also 
had their day. That of Louis Blanc seemed 
the most feasible, but what has been its suc- 
cess? Of the 180 workmen^s associations formed 
according to his system there were, in 1867, only 
ten still in existence ; and their gains during the 
years of their activity bear no comparison to the 
wages earned during the same period by workmen 
giving their time to capitalists. Co-operative so- 
cieties formed by artisans never did and never can 
pay. When an association is formed for the manu- 
facture and sale of certain products, it not only 
wants hands to work, but a head to direct — a 
manager, who, being necessarily a man of superior 
parts, is also entitled to superior rank and superior 
pay. But when workmen, striving after an equality 
which is unattainable, assign the post of manager to 
a man who possesses none of the superior qualifica- 
tions, the affairs of the association soon go wrong ; 

International and Commune. 223 

if he be a man of greater capacity, lie soon contrives 
to acquire an influence which renders him the 
virtual master pf his fellow-labourers. It has also 
frequently happened that an incapable or dishonest 
manager has all at once disappeared with the strong 
box of the association. Sometimes he, as by a 
coup d^etaty seizes the sovereign power. Thus the 
association of arm-chair makers of Paris, founded in 
1848 with 400 members, and re-constructed in 1849 
with only twenty associates, underwent many other 
vicissitudes, until the manager, M. Antoine, made 
himself absolute master of it. ^^ Well,^^ he said to 
M. Huber, a German, who travelled through France 
and England to study the subject of co-operation, — 
'^ well, yes; I too have achieved my small coup d^etat. 
And why should I not have done it, since coups 
d^etat answer so well V^ This manager, however, 
disappeared a few years after, under circumstances 
which caused the association to draw very long faces 
indeed. There is, in fact, no authenticated record 
of any co-operative association of workmen whose 
guccess has been such as to encourage imitation. 
But coalitions of workmen have been more success- 
ful. Whilst co-operation means peace and produc- 
tion, coaKtipn means war and destruction. Where- 
fore in some countries, and especially in France, 
very stringent laws have at various times been 
enacted against workmen forming coalitions, either 
ou the part of workmen to refuse the work offered 

224 Secret Societies. 

by the capitalist^ or on the part of employers to 
lower the workmen^s wages. The employers, how- 
ever, easily evaded the law; and numerous work- 
men's coalitions formed in France in spite of it, 
gave constant occupation to the tribunals. In this 
country no law has been passed against trade-unions, 
and therefore they flourish here, and have led 
to deplorable events, such as the Sheffield outrages, 
which, for diabolical fiiry, deserve to be placed side 
by side with the doings of the Commune. The 
reader will probably remember the fact that men 
who had belonged to the Sheffield trade-unions, but 
withdrew from them, were assassinated, their houses 
blown up, and every imaginable kind of tyranny 
and persecution practised upon them for the space 
of some fifteen years. StiU, as the majority of the 
Parisian workmen were innocent of the crimes of 
the Commune, so the trade-unions were not answer- 
able for the doings of a restricted number of their 
members. But these trade-unions are still to be 
condemned, because they are the instigators and 
upholders of strikes, the greatest curse, not on the 
hated capitalist, but on the poor workman. Now 
the International is a combination of trade-unions, 
with the additional poison of Communism diffused 
throughout its system. 

425. History of the International. — The first 
attempt at an international society was made by a 
small number of German workmen in London, who 

International and Commune. 226 

had been expelled from France in 1839 for taking 
part in the enieute in Paris. Its members consisted 
of Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Danes, and Swedes. 
Of the few English members Ernest Jones was one. 
The society was on friendly terms with the English 
Socialists, the Chartists, and the London French 
Democratic Society. Out of that friendship sprang 
the Society of the Fraternal Democrats, who were 
in correspondence with a number of democratic 
societies in Belgium. In November, 1847, a Ger- 
man Communist Conference was held in London, 
at which Dr. Karl Marx was present. In the mani- 
festo then put forth it was declared that the aim 
of the Communists was the overthrow of the rule 
of the capitalists by the acquisition of political 
power. The practical measures by which this was 
to be effected were the aboKtion of private property 
in land; the centralization of credit in the hands 
of the State — the leading agitators of course to 
be the chiefs of the State — ^by means of a national 
bank ; the centralization of the means of transport in 
the hands of the State ; national workshops ; the 
reclamation and improvement of land; and the 
gratuitous education of all the children. But all 
these fine schemes of amelioration, or rather spolia- 
tion, in consequence of the Eevolution of February, 
1848, ended in smoke; and it was not till the year 
1859, when the London builders^ dispute arose, that 
new alliances among the working men were formed. 

II. Q 

226 Secret Societies. 

In I860, a Trade Unionist, Manhood SuflBrage, and 
Vote by Ballot Association was established, of which 
G. Odger, a shoemaker, was chairman. As if it 
had not enough of what might be called legitimate 
work to do, the association also undertook to agitate 
in favour of Poland, for which purpose it co-operated 
with the National League for the Independence of 
Poland. The London International Exhibition of 
1862 induced the French government to assist many 
French workmen with means to visit that exhi- 
bition ; " a visit,*' said the French press, ^^ which 
will enable our workmen to study the great works 
of art and industry, remove the leaven of inter- 
national discord, and replace national jealousies by 
fraternal emulation.*' It is impossible to say how far 
these French workmen studied the works of art and 
industry exhibited in 1862 ; but it is quite certain 
that the old leaven of international discord, which 
up to that time had not been very formidable, was 
speedily replaced by a new leaven of social discord, 
not so virulent at first, it is true, as it subsequently 
became in the after-days of the International. Many 
of the original members of this association in fact 
eventually withdrew from it ; as they refused to be 
identified with its excesses, which had not been 
planned or foreseen by its founders. On the 5th of 
August, all the delegates met at a dinner given to 
them by their English colleagues at Freemasons* 
Hall, when an address was read which formed, as 

M"'*J, L 

International and Commune. 227 

it were, the foundation-stone of the International. 
The Imperial Commission that had enabled the 
French workmen to visit the London Exhibition 
had no doubt furnished them with return tickets. 
But several of the artizans made no use of their 
second halves, since profitable employment in Lon- 
don was found for them by their English brethren, 
so that they might form connecting links between 
the worknien of the two countries. The next year 
a new meeting was found necessary. There was no 
longer an Exhibition, nor subsidies from the Im- 
perial government to pay travelling expenses. The 
pretext, however, was found in a demonstration just 
then made in favour of Poland. Six French dele- 
gates, having mulcted their mates in contributions 
towards the pleasant trip, came over, and the demo- 
crats of London and Parig were invited to co-operate 
in the liberation of Poland, and to form an inter- 
national working men's alliance. Various meetings 
were held and all the stale twaddle concerning 
Poland and the emancipation of the working classes 
talked over again. A central committee of working 
men of different countries to have its seat in London 
— ^truly England is the political and social dunghill 
of Europe ! — was appointed, and a collection of 
course followed, which at the most important 
meeting realized three guineas. A paltry sum 
after so much talk ! The members of the com- 
mittee, holding its powers by the resolution of the 


228 Secret Societies. 

public meeting held on Sept. 28, 1864, at St. Mar- 
tinis Hall, then declared the International Working 
Men's Association to be established ; and congresses 
were appointed to be held at different times and 
places, to decide on the measures to be taken to 
found the working men's Eldorado. Many societies 
at first were aflSliated, but dissensions soon broke 
out among them, and many, such as the Italian 
Workiiig Men's Society, withdrew again. At a 
meeting held in London, in 1865, the '^ re-establish- 
ment of Poland entire and independent" was again 
one of the questions discussed. The Paris delegates 
were for avoiding political questions ; but Mr. Odger 
reminded them that Poland had furnished the occa- 
sion for the establishment of the association, .and 
that the Conference must stand by the Polish cause* 
The infatuation of Mr. Odger's dupes is something 
astounding ! To gratify the vanity of a political 
agitator, who, knowing very well that his Inter- 
national is a mere bogey, a turnip with a rushlight 
inside, endeavours to surround it with the halo of a 
great political scheme and martial glory — it is for 
this that English workmen, who neither know, nor in 
fact care for, the affairs of Poland, are to give their 
money — so little, and according to Mr. Odger him- 
self, earned with such difficulty — robbing their wives 
and children, that some day it may be trumpeted to 
the world how Mr, Odger stood forth the champion 
of Poland ! Would not this be '' squandering the 


International and Commune. 229 

people's blood and treasure,^' my worthy shoe- 
maker ? Well, in 1866, a meeting or congress was 
held at Geneva, where it was decided that an 
inquiry into the condition of the working classes 
of all conntries should be made respecting rate of 
wages, honrs of labour, &o. This inquiry has not 
been made as yet ; of course not, though the English 
government has gathered by means of its consular 
agents, and published by means of blue books, an 
immense amount of information on the subject. 
But then it does not talk so grandly about the 
emancipation of the working classes as Mr. Odger 
and his partners ! And this inquiry on the part 
of the International was to be a preUminary to 
practical measures — ^nO wonder that the association 
has as yet produced nothing practical. At this 
Geneva Congress a great number of other resolu- 
tions were passed, which remain resolutions still. 
Thus co-operation was to be encouraged ; but, as the 
individual " wages-slaves ^^ could never elaborate it, 
general social changes were to be efiFected; the 
state power was to be transferred from capitalists 
and landlords to the producers themselves. Be- 
solutions were also passed in favour of transferring 
railways and other means of locomotion to the 
people, and of destroying the monopoly of the 
great companies ^^ that subject the working classes 
to arbitrary laws, assailing both the dignity of 
man and individual liberty." What with parUa- 

230 Secret Societies. 

mentary trams and cbeap fares, the working classes 
CO Jc^y complain ofL.g L,^y op^aed. 

Perhaps they think their dignity would be enhanced 
by their riding in first-class carriages at third-class 
fares. Eesolntions were also passed in favour of 
direct taxatio6. How this suggestion would be 
received by the working man has very pleasantly 
been pointed out by '^ Punch " or some other comic 
paper: — ^^Mrs. Brown (loq,) — ^Well, Mrs. Jones, 
my husband says that if they tax him, he will take it 
out in parish relief.^'' The abolition of standing 
armies and the independence of Poland — Poland 
agai^ — were also decided on. Both these points are 
still decided on, and will probably remain at the 
same interesting stage of progress a little longer ! 

426. Objects cmd Aims of International . — To sum 
up what has been proposed at the later congresses : — 
Quarries, codl and other mines, as weU as railways, 
shall belong to the social collectivity, represented 
by the state ; but by the state regenerated, that will 
concede them, not, as now, to capitalists, but to as- 
sociations of workmen. The soil shall be granted 
to agricultural associations; canals, roads, tele- 
graphs, and forests, shall belong collectively to 
society. Contracts of lease, or letting^ shall be 
converted into contracts of sale ; that is to say, 
capital shall no longer be entitled to claim interest. 
If I borrow £1,000 I shall have paid oflP the debt in 
twenty years by an annual payment of £50. Such 

International and Commune. 231 

are the doctrines of this society, whose motto is, 
La proprietoy c'esi le vol. All these, however, are 
clothed in very fine words — ^' economic evolntion,^^ 
*' social collectivity ,'' '' scientific and rational exploi- 
tation," ^^ social liquidation,^' &c., though now and 
then one of the members uses less flowery language. 
Thus, at the Congress of Bale, held in 1869, 
Bakounine, a. Russian Nihilist, spoke thus without 
reserve : — " By social liquidation I mean expropria- 
tion of all existing proprietors, by the abolition of 
the political and legal state, which is the sanction 
and only guarantee of all property as now existing, 
and of all that is called legal right ; and the expro- 
priation, in fact, everywhere, and as much and as 
quickly as possible, by the force of events and cir- 
cumstances/' There is no reticence here ! No 
Congress met in 1870, in consequence of the war ; 
but the programme that was to have formed the 
subject of discussion has been published. The first 
question was : — On the necessity of abolishing the 
public debt. The third : — Concerning practical 
means for converting landed and funded property 
into social property. The fifth: — Conditions of 
co-operative production on a national scale. The 
Belgian Committee proposed as an additional ques- 
tion : — Concerning the practical means for constitu- 
ting agricultural sections in the International. Thus 
private property was to be abolished, private enter- 
prise destroyed, and the poison of Communism, with 

232 Secret Societies. 

which large towns are now infected, to be diffused 
throughout the country. What would these men 
have done, could they, according to their intention, 
have met in Paris in 1870 ? The pertinacity with 
which the cause of Poland is sought to be identified 
with the objects of the International has already 
been alluded to. Poland seems a mine that can 
never be exhausted. Thousands of rogues and 
vagabonds of all countries have fattened, are fatten- 
ing, and will yet fatten on this carcase, as bumt- 
out tradesmen have been known to flourish on the 
fire by which they lost everything ! The Interna- 
tional, moreover, in declaring war to all tyrants, of 
course sanctifies their destruction; the attempt of 
the Pole, Berezowski, to shoot the Emperor of 
Russia, while on a visit to the Emperor Napoleon, 
on June 6, 1867, was one of the results of the 
teaching of the International. 

427. The International on the Continent. — ^In this 
country, as we have seen, the International has as 
yet only had a limited success. It has indeed held 
public meetings and demonstrations, and led to 
some insignificant riots, for the occurrence of which 
our government of course is very much to blame ; 
though no surprise can be felt at its supineness, 
considering the weakness and pusillanimity it has 
shown when opposed to, or rather by, the Fenians. 
There are, indeed, alarmists, who are led astray by 
the " bounce" of the International, and who thus 


International and Commune. 233 

invest it with greater importance than intnUsically 
attaches to it. Thus a Paris paper some time ago 
contained a letter jfrom a London correspondent which 
gave an awful picture of the danger threatening this 
country from the spread of socialistic doctrines. 
The writer said : — " The whole of this vast empire is 
permeated by secret societies. The International 
here holds its meetings «.lmost publicly. It is said 
that the greater number of the dispossessed princes 
of India, a good number of officers belonging to the 
army and navy, as well as members of parliament, 
and even ministers, are affiliated to it (!). The 
government is aware of the infernal plan by which, 
at a given moment, the public buildings of London 
are to be exposed to the fate which befel so many 
in Paris. Boats are already waiting on the Thames 
to receive the treasures of the Bank of England — 
an easy prey, say the conspirators — as soon as the 
main artery of the Strand shall have been burnt, and 
the public buildings, the barracks especially, shall 
have been blown up, as was three years ago the 
Clerkenwell prison.^' If this is not sensational 
writing, what is ? But perhaps the writer was only 
joking; and if I thought the leaders of the Interna- 
tional possessed any Machiavellian talent, I should 
say they themselves caused the letter to be written 
to give the world an exaggerated idea of their power 
—therein imitating the president of the London 
Bepublican Club, who boasts of his power of pulling 

234 Secret Societies. 

down the monarchy, as that would be the readiest 
means of attracting fresh members ; for the idea of 
belonging to a powerful and universally diffused 
brotherhood exercises a great fascination over the 
minds of only partially educated men, such as form 
the bulk of the working classes. But the most 
nervous old gentleman, residing in one of the quiet 
by-streets off the Strand, may as yet sleep in peace ; 
the International will not burn that thoroughfare, 
nor set the Thames on fire. 

Abroad, however, its action has been much more 
marked. It has fomented serious riots in HoUand, 
Belgium, and France ; and in the last-named country 
it has especially stimulated Communism, and sup- 
ported the Paris Commune in all its atrocities, of 
which it speaks in the most laudatory terms in its 
recently published pamphlet, " The Civil War in 
France^^ (Truelove, 1871)* But even conti- 
nental workmen have ere this discovered the hol- 
lowness of the International. The working en- 
gineers of Brussels, instead of receiving during a 
recent strike 15 francs weekly, as promised, were 
paid only 6 francs ; and having imposed upon the 
masters an augmentation of 50 per cent, on overtime, 
the masters, in order to avoid this ruinous tariff, 
had no work performed after the regular hours. 
The men, finding themselves losers by this rule, en- 
forced on them by the International, sent in their 
resignations as members of the society, which thiey 

International and Commune. 235 

described as the ^^ Leprosy of Europe/' and the 
^' Company of Millionnaires .... on paper.'' At a 
conference held in London the Russian delegate 
urged that his country especially ojBferedan excellent 
field for the spread of socialist doctrines, and that 
the students were quite ripe for revolution. Where- 
fore it was decided that a special appeal should be 
addressed to the Russian students and workmen. 
Truly, Russia has a right to complain of the laxity 
of the English government, which allows a set of 
wretches openly to conspire in the capital of England 
against the peace and security of a friendly state. 
Nor are these machinations without result. Among 


their fruits may be reckoned the Nihilists, and 
another secret society, disguising its Commu- 
nistic aims under the cloak of religious reformation. 
The founder of this sect, who recently made his ap- 
pearance in the neighbourhood of Tekatarinosloff, 
scorned to speak in prose, but delivered his doctrines 
in a kind of doggrel, preaching polygamy, the abroga- 
tion of all denominational creeds, and utter religious 
license, and proclaiming himself the Saviour. But 
the Russian police can no doubt by this time give a 
Very good account of the impostor aiid his dnp^s. 

428. How the International Works, — What pre- 
cedes has sufficiently shown with what ardour the 
International supports strikes, and the importance 
it attaches to their success. The complete history 
of the coalitions to which it has given its aid, would 

236 Secret Societies. 

almost form the subject of European history during 
the last seven or eight years. But the documents 
for such an account are not yet accessible; still 
enough is known to prove what has been mentioned 
on several occasions — ^that the International seeks to 
render workmen dissatisfied with their condition, to 
make them feel as patients whom the International 
alone can cure. To give an instance. On April 2, 
1869, a strike occurred among the puddlers at the 
ironworks of Cockerill and Co., at Seraing. 'After 
some discussion the difficulty was arranged by 
mutual concessions, and no disturbances took place. 
On the day of the strike the International received 
250 new adherents, whom it accepted on condition 
that they abstained from all violent manifestations, 
represented their grievances with moderation, and 
demanded nothing but what was just. We shaU see 
presently what the International meant by moder- 
ation. The men had returned to their work. '^ For 
four days,'' says the Internatioiiale of April 18, ^'the 
most perfect calm reigned in the 'workshops, for the 
proprietors had taken care to remove a detested man- 
ager. But on the fifth day he was re-introduced by 
one of the directors; and immediately aU the puddlera 
struck again, and with them all the other hands.'' 
By this account, taken from the official journal of the 
association, it appears clearly enough what in reality 
had taken place. The International wanted a strike 
of the puddlers, but did not at first succeed. The 

International and Commune. 237 

workmen came to an agreement with their masters 
too soon; but the International had its revenge. 
The return of the detested manager was only a pre- 
text; for in the account published in the Reveil 
of Seraing, between the first resumption of work 
and its second interruption, all the grievances of the 
workmen are fully enumerated, but there is not the 
least mention of any detested manager. This time 
however the International succeeded to . the whole 
extent of its wishes. It had in all probability de- 
sired and fomented a partial strike, for its interest 
of course is to have as few mouths to feed as possible. 
When once the concessions demanded by the hands 
on strike are extorted from the masters, they are as 
a rule easily imposed on all the chiefs of the same 
industry. These tactics are well understood, and 
are those usually pursued by the association. But 
in this instance the strike of the puddlers also 
dragged into its vortex other workmen but little 
versed in industrial strategy. And so the rest of 
the hands also went on strike, in spite of the prudent 
advice of the members of the International, who 
endeavoured to show them the inconvenience of this 
measure. Other strikes followed in the same 
neighbourhood; and the result was that serious riots 
ensued, the military had to be called in, and two 
workmen were kiUed. Out of this circumstance the 
International of course made capital, declaring the 
soldiers to be the hired cut- throats of the capitalists. 

238 Secret Societies. 

though all they then wanted was to protect their pro- 
perty ; forthey well remembered the events of Roubaix 
in 1867^ when a mob of workmen destroyed not only 
the looms and material in seven factories, but also 
sacked the private houses of two manufacturers, 
throwing the furniture,. beds, and all other property 
into the street. A more recent instance of the under- 
hand working of the International is detailed in the 
following letter from Brussels, published in the 
JSaincmlt of 'Mons. The writer states that a re- 
spectable manufacturer of Brussels met a short time 
since one of the well-known leaders of the Inter- 
national, who asked him if he had seen the Liberie, 
and informed him that it gave a letter to him from 
his workmen, containing their ultimatum preliminary 
to a strike. He told him that the letter would reach 
him next day at the latest. The manufacturer pro- 
cured a copy of the paper, and to his astonishment 
read a letter full of exaggerations and misstate- 
ments. On reflection he was convinced that his 
workpeople could never have sought an ad.vance of 
wages on such absurd and mendacious pretences; 
and further he esteemed it not an insignificant fact 
that the letter had appeared in a journal before he 
had heard anything of it. However, he determined 
to wait for the letter, which reached him the next 
day ; and he found to his surprise that the names of 
all his workmen were appended to it. Having read 
it carefully, he repaired to his fiactory, when he 

International and, Commune. 239 

assembled all the hands and said — "My friends, you 
have sent me a letter this morning ? ^' 

^^ Yes/^ replied the men. 

'^ Well/' continued he, " your letter is not fair — 
it is not true ; and I think that before writing to me 
you have not reflected carefully upon all that you 
have written. Do you know what is in this letter ? '^ 

" No/' replied the workmen. 

'* How is this ? " said the employer. " Have 
you already forgotten what you wrote to me the day 
before yesterday ? " 

'^ Oh, it was not we that wrote it,'' replied one of 
the foremen. '^ Stop, this was the way of it. A 
gentleman, well dressed, wearing a hat, alighted 
from a carriage a few days ago at the moment of our 
leaving the factory, and presented himself to us. 
' Are you satisfied with your employer, gentlemen ?' 
he asked us. / Thank God/ we replied, ' things are 
pretty well so far as concerns that matter.' ^ So,' 
said he, with a contemptuous air, ^ you would not 
desire that your miserable wages should be increased, 
nor your long hours of labour shortened?' 'Yes, 
parbleu ! we should wish that.' ' All right,' said the 
gentleman in the hat ; ' come then this evening to 
the Grande Place, to the rooms of the International j 
we will examine into your grievances against your 
employer, and before you strike we will send him a 
well-written letter, which will have its eJBfect, I'll 
answer for it.' In the evening we went to ' La 

240 Secret Societies. 

Louve/ and while we were drinking a cup or so, 
there were two or three gentlemen writing at a desk. 
Afterwards, just as we were about to leave, they 
cried ^ Silence ! silence !^ and a gentleman who had 
got upon a table read something which nobody 
heard. I heard it said that it was a letter addressed 
to you in order that you might ameliorate the 
position of the working man.'' 

" So then,'' interrupted the employer, " no one 
knows what was written ? " This remark produced 
death-like silence and a general shrugging of 

''Nevertheless," continued the employer trium- 
phantly, '' you have nearly all signed this letter. I 
have here in my hand eighty of your signatures ! " 

'' How ! how ! Our signatures I " cried the men 
indignantly, ''not a single man among us signed 
the letter." 

" See," said the employer, " here are all your 

"Our names as you will," was the reply; "but 
by all the saints in paradise it was not we that wrote 
them ; we are ready to swear this." 

^' Listen," said the employer ; " I see that the 
person who wrote the letter has written also a great 
number of signatures; but beside them are little 
crosses, such as are always made by those who do 
not write." 

The workmen cried in chorus, " We have written 

International and Commune. 241 

nothing. We have not even made a single cross. 
"We have not held a pen in our, hands. We will 
swear it/' 

After a little time the employer read the letter to 
the men, who admitted that it was both uiyust and 
false, and they promised not to be so taken-in in 
future. The employer thought the autographs too 
curious to remain in private hands, and gave them 
into the charge of the Procureur du Eoi. 

429. Budget of the International. — One portion 
of the organization of the International, and that 
the most important — for the chiefs of course ! — its 
budget, remains to be noticed. It is scarcely 
necessary to say that there is a total absence of 
official accounts ; but the following details, referring 
to France and Belgium, will give some idea as to 
the way in which funds are raised and applied. 
Every member on his admission pays a fee of 50 
centimes, for which he receives his adn>ission card, 
which is renewed annually and gratuitously. He 
has also to pay a minimum annual tax of 10 centimes, 
to go towards the general expenses of the associa- 
tion. Then each federation imposes a special tax 
for its own expenses. At Lyons and Paris this 
amounts to 10 centimes per month. Thus it appears 
that the annual tax is very light, amounting only to 
1 franc 30 cents, which is not paying too dear for 
the honour of belonging to a society that aspires 
to the government of the world, and commences by 

II. B 

242 Secret Societies. 

burning it. But this honour may be had at a still 
cheaper rate; for the Swiss branch charges its 
members only 10 centimes a year. Yet even these 
small sums seem difficult to be got in^ and the statutes 
are very severe upon defaulters. But there are taxes 
to pay to the sections^ which raise the yearly contribu- 
tions to 7 or 8 francs. Not is this all. In the various 
legal prosecutions the society has had to undergo 
there is frequent reference to the caisse federative du 
80Uy though the expression is nowhere exactly 
defined. So far as has been ascertained it alludes to 
a voluntary weekly subscription of 5 centimes^ 
collected in workshops and factories, from workmen 
who did not belong to the association, but intended 
to join it, or to support it without joining it,- La 
the statutes of the Parisian branch, art. 9 further 
eays that the council may, if necessary, vote larger 
sums than the general budget would justify, and 
proportionately increase the amount of contributions 
payable by the members. But the most powerful 
arm of the association, when any particular object 
is to be attained, such for instance as the success of 
a strike> is subscription. Thus the successful 
termination of the strike in the building trade of 
Geneva in 1868, was thought of such importance as 
to call forth unusual exertions. But the delegate 
who was sent to London to collect subscriptions 
from the English workmen met with but slight 
success; not because these were niggardly, but 

International and Commune. 243 

because, in spite of their avowed hatred of state 
forms and aristocratic deliberation, they yet so 
closely imitate both, that the Genevese workmen 
might have been starved into submission before the 
English workmen had resolved to succour them, had 
not the Parisian workmen at once subscribed ten 
thousand francs. What these annual subscriptions 
may amount to, it is impossible to tell. No doubt 
the total is very great, considering the large num- 
ber of members; and yet it is insufficient, in conse- 
quence of the strikes that are constantly taking 
place at all places and times. The journals are full 
of the fine phrases used by the chiefs of the Inter- 
national concerning the sufferings of the workmen 
reduced by infamous capitalists to the point of for- 
saking their work and of leaving the workshops where 
their misery is turned to account. A confidential 
letter of Varlin, one of the chiefs of the Paris federa- 
tion, which was brought into court at the trial of the 
International on June 22, 1870, at Paris, however, 
shows that the chiefs do not speak quite so feel- 
ingly of these sufferings, when they are not ex- 
pected to be heard by their dupes : — " This strike 
which we declared closed ten days ago, leaves four 
hundred workmen on our hands. The day before 
yesterday they wanted to destroy their former 
workshops and drive away the mogs that had taken 
their places. Fortunately we restrained them, but 
we are greatly bothered by this affair {nous sommea 

244 Secret Societies. 

lien embetes par cette affaire) " Poor misled work- 
men^ leave, at the first order of your leaders, the 
shop where by honest labour you earn bread for 
yourselves and families ! When the subscriptiona 
which your fellow-workmen have raised are ex- 
hausted, pray do not trouble the chiefs who com- 
ntianded you to leave your work, for you might 
bother (rnvbeter) them ! 

430. The International cmd the Empire, — ^At the 
time when the International was founded, the French 
Empire was as yet in all its strength. None of the 
parties that secretly strove against it seemed to have 
any chance of success ; nor from their political and 
social characteristics could these parties, though all 
bent on the overthrow of the empire, coalesce and act 
as one combined force. The International refused to 
ally itself to any of them or to meddle with politics, 
but declared social questions paramount to all 
political considerations; and to the position thus 
assumed by the association it was due that the 
Imperial government did not molest it, but that the 
ministers allowed it to develop itself, hoping at the 
convenient moment to win it over to their interests. 
These ministers considered themselves very pro- 
found politicians, when they had fomented a quarrel 
between Prussia and Austria ; trusting, when these 
two powers should mutually have exhausted each 
other, to seize the Ehenish provinces. They looked 
upon themselves as small Machiavellis when they 

' -i-s*t.. ■B-M^y gBBB^wajB—iiBgw^— Blgggggw«gBiegggBg"B!ggHB 

International and Commune. 245 

permitted the International to grow in order some 
day to use it against a mutinous bourgeoisie. The 
Emperor had an opportunity on September 2, at 
Sedan, and the Empress on September 4, at Paris, 
to judge of the value of such poKcy. However, 
the scheme of the association having been settled 
in London in 1864, the organizers opened at Paris 
a bureau de correspondance^ which was neither^ for- 
mally interdicted nor regularly authorized by the 
Prefect and the Minister. But the constantly 
growing power of the International shown by the 
strikes of Roubaix, Amiens, Paris, Geneva, etc., 
after a time compelled the government either to 
direct or to destroy it. The Parisian manifesto read at 
Geneva was stopped at the French frontier ; but M. 
Eouher agreed to admit it into France, if the 
association would insert some pai^sages thanking the 
Emperor for what he had done for the working 
classes — a suggestion which was received with 
derision by the members. In the meantime the old 
revolutionary party, of which Mazzini, Garibaldi, 
Blanqui, and Ledru-Rollin were the oracles, looked 
with suspicion on the foundation of the International ; 
for, as this last declared that it would not meddle with 
politics, the others called out. Treason ! and thus the 
two parties were soon in a condition of violent oppo- 
sition. In 1867, the Congress of Lausanne voted 
against war, but at the same moment the other 
fraction of the demagogues, assembled at Geneva^ 

246 Secret Societies. 

under pretence of forming a congress of pecLce, 
declared war to all tyrants and oppressors of the 
people. However, the two parties, the bourgeois 
demagogues and the workmen demagogues, eyentu- 
ally united; and thus it came to pass that by virtue 
of this pact the Intematidlial took part in two 
revolutionary manifestations which occurred about 
siK weeks after — the one at the tomb of Manin in 
the cemetery of Montmartre, and the other on the 
following day on the Boulevard Montmartre, to 
protest against the French occupation of Borne. 
The International having thus been carried away to 
declare war against the government, the latter 
determined, to prosecute it. The association was 
declared to be dissolved, and fifteen of the leaders 
were each fined 100 francs. The International tak- 
ing no notice of the decree of dissolution, a second 
prosecution was instituted, and nine of the accused 
were condemned to imprisonment for three months. 
The International now hid itself amidst the multi- 
tude of working men's societies of all descriptions 
that were either authorized or at least tolerated, 
and made enormous progress, so that its chiefs at 
last declared themselves able to do without any 
extraneous support. The International, said one of 
the speakers at the B&le Congress (1869) ^ is and 
must be a state within states ; let these go on as 
suits them, until our state is the strongest. Then, 
on the ruins of these, we shall erect our own fully 

International and Commune. 247 

prepared, such as it exists in every section. The 
Volhsstimmey the Austrian organ of the society, gays: 
— ^^ To us the red flag is the symbol of universal 
love of mankind. Let our enemies beware, lest 
they transform it against themselves into a flag of 
terror.'^ To have an organ of its own the Inter- 
national founded the Marseillaise^ with Eochefort for 
its chief, his association therewith haviujg induced 
certain capitalists to find the necessary funds. 
Another personage with whom it became connected, 
and who afterwards became infamous, was the soi- 
disant General Clusei'et, who had been expelled 
from the French army for dishonourable acts. He 
afterwards held a military command in the Fenian 
society, and devised in 1866, as a part of an Irish 
insurrection, the diversion of burning Downing 
Street and the principal public buildings of London. 
But the government were forewarned; and some 
of the members of the Irish Committee objected 
to the scheme. Cluseret, as an adventurer, always 
on the look-out for what might turn up, saw 
the power such an association as the Interna- 
tional might command, and the latter found in him 
a willing tool. From a letter he addressed from 
New York to Varlin, on February 17, 1870, it also 
appears that all the crimes of which he has since 
then been guilty, were premeditated, and that he had 
from the first resolved not to perish without involv- 
ing Paris in his fall. ^^ On that day ^' (of the down- 

248 Secret Societies. 

fall of Louis Napoleon), he says, ^' on that day, we 
or nothing. On that day Paris must be ours or 
Paris must cease to exist/^ That this feeling was 
shared by other members of the association may be 
inferred from the fact that, at the house of one of 
the affiliated was found a dictionary which formed 
the key of their secret correspondence. Now, 
besides the usual words, we find such as nitro- 
glycerine and picrate of potash; if the word petroleum 
does not occur in it, it is because the Prussians had 
not yet then taught these noble citizens the readiest 
means of burning down towns. At the house of 
another, recipes were discovered for the manufacture 
of nitro-glycerine, and of various other explosive com- 
pounds. Some of the recipes were followed by 
such directions as these : — ^^ To be thrown in at 
windows,^^ '^ to be thrown into gutter s,^^ etc. The 
attempted plebiscite in support of the reforms voted 
by the Senate, in January, 1870, was violently op- 
posed by the International, who declared in favour 
of a republic. On the occasion of the plot of the 
Orsini shells, the society, in defending itself against 
the charge of having had any share in it, declared that 
it did not war against individual perpetrators oicowps 
d'etaiy but that it was a permanent conspiracy of all 
the oppressed, which shall exist until all capitalists, 
priests, and political adventurers shall have disap- 
peared. Such a declaration of war against all men 
that had any interest in the maintenance of public 

International and Commune. 249 

order, and especially against many men forming the 
then Imperial government, naturally induced a third 

Thirty-eight members were indicted, many of 
whom we meet again as active members of the 
Commune. Some were acquitted, others condemned 
to one year's imprisonment. No one suspected 
that the names of these obscure workmen, condemned 
as members of a secret society, would soon be con- 
nected with the most horrible disasters of Paris; and 
that these meo, sentenced to such alight punishments, 
would at the end of a year re-appear before a 
military tribunal, after having for two months and 
a half filled terrified Paris with pillage, murder, and 
incendiary fires. 

431. The International and the Wwr. — The 
International condemns all war except war against 
bourgeois, capitalists, monopolists, parasites — that is 
-to say, the classes that live not by manual labour, 
but by intellectual work, or the savings of any kind 
of labour. It abolishes national wars, to replace 
them by social war. For this reason it so perti- 
naciously insists on the abolition of all standing 
armies, which ^re of course great obstacles to its 
own plans. It therefore protested against the 
Franco- Prussian war, but as this opposition ended 
in mere talk, it need not further be dilated on. 
Its only results were to consign some of the most 
violent opponents to prison ; and there is no proof 

260 Secret Societies. 

that one single soldier of the regular Prussian army, 
or even of the Landwehr, deserted or refused to 
fight, in order to remain faithful to the theories of 
the society. In France the affiliated of the Inter* 
national were only brave in civil war. 

432. The International and the Revolution. — It is 
impossible in this section to be as precise and com- 
plete as could be desired ; the events referred to 
are too recent, and the documents to be depended on 
are as yet in the hands of military tribunals and 
state prosecutors. The following, however, will be 
found to give a general outline of the events after 
the fall of the Napoleonic dynasty. 

The demagogues were most noisy in demanding 
iurms to defend the country, but they had no inten- 
tion of turning flxem against the foreigner. Their 
sinister projects were sufficiently indicated by the 
murder of the pompiers of La Villette. Let it not be 
forgotten that on that day, close to the place where 
the crime was committed, a meeting of the Inter- 
national was to have taken place, which was for- 
bidden at the last moment, and that its members 
were thronging the street at the very time the post 
of the pompiers was attacked. Let it also be borne 
in mind that one of the assassins, Eudes, condemned 
to death for his participation in the crime, and set 
free a few days after, became, after March 18, one 
of the generals of the Commune. 

On September 3, the disaster of Sedan became 

International and Commune. 251 

known at Paris. On the next day Lyons, Mar- 
seilles, Toulouse, and Paris proclaimed the Kepublic. 
This simultaneous movement was the result of an 
understanding existing between the leading mem- 
bers of the International in the various parts of 
France; but that the ''Jules Favres and Gam- 
bettas,'' that vermme bourgeoise, as the International 
called them, should obtain any share of power, was 
very galling to the demagogues. At Lyons and 
Marseilles, however, the supreme power- fell into the 
hands of the lowest wretches. The Commune in- 
stalled at Lyons began its work by raising the red 
flag — that of the International. At Paris the asso- 
ciation pretended at first to be most anxious to fight 
the Prussians. When the battalions were sent to the 
front, however, it was found that those comprising 
most Internationals were the most ready "to fall back 
in good order,^^ or even to fly in great disorder at 
the first alarm ; and General Clement Thomas pointed 
out this instructive fact to the readers of the Jov/rnal 
OffideL But when a few Prussian iregiments en- 
tered Paris, the International, through its central 
committee, announced that the moment for action 
was come ; and so the members seized the cannons 
scattered in various parts of the city, and then began 
that series of excesses, for which the Commune will 
always enjoy an infamous notoriety. Its first san- 
guinary act was the assassination of Generals Lecomte 
and Clement Thomas.^ Some additional details on 

252 Secret Societies. 

the Communists will be found in succeeding para- 

433. The International and' the Commune. — One 
would have supposed that the International would 
disavow the Communists; but, on the contrary, it 
approved of their proceedings. Flames were still 
ascending from the Hotel de Ville, when already 
numerous sections of the International throughout 
•Europe expressed their admiration of the conduct of 
the Parisian outcasts. 

At Zurich, at a meeting of the members of tho 
International, it was declared that '' the struggle 
maintained by the Commune of Paris was just and 
worthy, and that all thinking men ought to join in 
the contest." 

At Brussels the Belgian section of the Interna- 
tional protested against the prosecution of the male- 
factors of Paris. At Geneva, two days before the 
entrance of the Yersaillais into Paris, an address to 
the Commune was voted, declaring that it (the 
Commune) represented ^^the economic aspirations 
of the working classes." The German International- 
ists were no less positive in their praise of the Com- 
munists: — "We are ready to defend the acts of 
the Commune at all times, and against all comers,^' 
says a socialistic paper published at Leipsic. The 
Italians sent an address to the Commune, ending 
thus: — ^^To capital which said. Ye shall starve, 
they replied : We will live by our labour. To des- 

International and Commune. 253 

potism they replied : "We are free ! To the can- 
nons and chassepots of the reactionnaires they op- 
posed their naked breasts. They fell, but fell as 
heroes I Now the reaction calls them bandits. 
Shall we permit it ? No ! Let us invite our 
brethren to our homes, and protect them. The 
principles of the Commune are ours ; we accept the 
respon^bility of their acts/' The English Interna- 
tionalists were too few to prove their approbation of 
the Commune by any public demonstration ; but 
in private they did so very energetically. One of 
the members even declared that the good time 
'^ was really coming/' ^^ Soon/' said he, ^^ we 
shall be able to dethrone the Queen of England, 
turn Buckingham Palace into a workshop, and pull 
down the York column, as the noble French people 
has pulled down the Venddme column." (Be it 
observed here, that as this column chiefly comme- 
morated French victories over the Germans, this 
act of vandalism has by some authorities b6en attri- 
buted to the influence of Prussian gold liberally 
distributed to certain patriotic members of the 
Commune.) But the London section of the Inter- 
national has clearly put forth its views on the con- 
duct of the Cgmmune. The pamphlet, " The Civil 
War in France," published for the council by True- 
love, 256, High Holbom, the office of the Interna- 
tional, is a continuous panegyric on the Commune, 
and was at first signed by all the members of the 

254 Secret Societies. 

council ; bnt two of them^ Lncraft and Odger, Iiave 
since then had their names withdrawn^ stating that 
they had^ in the first instance^ been appended with- 
out their knowledge — which appeared to be the fact. 
Oaght government to allow a society^ proclaiming 
such principles^ to exist and extend its pernicious 
influence ? 

434. Parisian GommMinists. — ^A few days before 
the entrance of the Versailles troops into Paris^ 
about 200 men and 100 women were assembled^ 
drinking and smoking^ in a large room in the Bue 
Menilmontant^ at Paris. The men wore the uniform 
of the national guard; the women either common 
female apparel^ or uniforms of a nondescript kind. 
All these persons^ whose repulsive and vicious phy- 
siognomies were visible by the pale Kght of a dozen 
petroleum lamps, when not engaged with their 
glasses or pipes, were either singing patriotic songs 
or indulging in noisy conversation. It was about 
half-past eight, when a man wearing a captain's 
uniform entered the room. All f£w;es at once 
turned towards him, and he was received with an 
universal shout of satisfaction. The new-comer was 
about twenty-eight years of age, tall and well made, 
and in his whole personal appearance and manner 
superior to the rabble around him. 

'^At lastr* exclaimed a woman; '^here is the 
president; we scarcely expected him any more to- 

rs~ t 

International and Commune. 255 

" Citizens !^^ cried the captain^ "I beg your 
pardon for having kept you waiting; but I was 
delayed by an order from the Commune/' Having 
aacended a kind of platform on which there was an 
arm-chair, he continued : — " Citizens, I have a se- 
cret communication to make to you. Are you quite 
certain that no stranger has got in amongst you ? '^ 

'^ Yes, yes I '^ cried several voices ; " you may 
speak without fear." 

The orator continued : — " It is well. My brave 
comrades, I trust your opinions have undergone 
no change ; you are always true republicans, ready 
to sacrifice your existence for the Commune ! '^ A 
somewhat ominous silence followed this appeal, 
which was succeeded by an almost universal ex- 
pression of want of confidence in the leaders of the 
Commune, to which the captain repHed by extolling 
the men now at the head of affairs. 

''This is all very welV exclaimed a sergeant, 
'' but the fact is, in spite of the bulletins of victory 
with which the walls of Paris are placarded every 
day, we are daily losing ground. '^ 

'' That's true ! that's true ! " howled the rest. 

'' The fort of Issy is no longer ours . . . this loss 
has been a great blow to us." 

" Well, my children," continued the captain, '' I 
am to some extent of your opinion . . . and I have 
another piece of bad news to announce ... we have 
lost the fort of Vanves." 

256 Secret Societies. 

These words were followed by cries of rage, 
threats, and horrible oaths. 

'' Then let us surrender,'' cried a young woman ; 
" aU is lost/' 

"Yes! No!" 

" All this is dreadful, I know," said the captain ; 
" but men like us must not give in. Do you want 
to know my opinion ?" 

" Yes, yes ! " 

'' Well, before a week is over, the royalists will 
have made several other breaches in our walls ; 
they will enter Paris by three diflFerent gates. This 
is only what we could have expected all along. 
But do you think that this will insure the victory 
of the Versaillais ? By no means. Have we not 
terrible barricades, behind which we shall place the 
cannons and mitrailleuses to sweep down the enenly ? 
Is not every house a fortress ? We fire from win- 
dows, roofs, and coping-stones. It will be a hand- 
to-hand fight; and you will see that the troops will 
fraternize with us." 

" But what about the Prussians ? " observed a 
young man. 

'' What ! do you think that when they see us 
win, they will fight us ? No ; they will find it to 
their interest to side with the victorious party, 
whichever it may be." 

" That's true, that's true ! " 

The same sergeant, who had once before inter- 
rupted the speaker, now arose again, saying : — 

International and Commune. 257 

'^ Citizens, I agree with our chief. The street- 
war can only benefit us. However, we must be 
prepared for everything ; should we be beaten, what 
is to be done ? Shall we surrender, like the traitors 
of Sedan ? Never ! If we become the victims of 
the drama about to be played, we demand a terrible 
vengeance; and if, unable to defend Paris, we 
surrender it, let us surrender it in ashes ! Yes, let 
them not have the benefit of the beauty of Paris ; 
let us bum down the monuments and houses, let us 
bury our enemies under its ruins. Our blood will 
flow, it is true, but let the Seine be red with theirs. 
If we must give up this city, let the conqueror die 
by the side of the conquered, in the same flames 
and under the same ruins ! ^' 

^* Yes," continued the captain, ^' the Commune 
has provided for all ; everything is prepared as if 
for a fairy spectacle. In all the monuments we 
have placed barrels of powder and petroleum ; men 
will be stationed ready to set fire to them at the first 
signal. . . • Citizens, in the name of the Commune, 
I declare to you, that if we die we shall have a 
splendid funeral, and that Paris shall die with us." 

^^ Bravo ! " cried the maddened assembly. '^ Yes, 
death and fire everywhere. This shall be our ven- 
geance — a true republican vengeance." 

And the glasses were re-filled and fresh pipes 
were lighted. 

435. Character and Doings of the Commune, — 

II. s 

258 Secret Societies. 


The Yersaillais have entered Paris^ but different 
portions of the city are still held by the Communists. 
A party of them enter the house of the restaurateur 
Bonceray : — '* Give up your house/' says a captain ; 
^' we shall here hide our men to fire on the troops/' 

*' Take what you like/' was the reply of the pro- 
prietor^ who with his waiters was about to make his 
escape. The Communists stopped them. ^' What 
more do you want?" he exclaimed. ''You have 
my house^ keep it, but let me and my people go." 

'' No, you must join us." 

" What ! J fire on Frenchmen ? — never I " 

They wanted to force arms upon him and the 
waiters ; all refused to receive them. 

" Shoot the traitors ! " cried the captain. 

Fifteen shots told upon the restaurateur and his 
waiters, whose bodies were thrown out of the win- 
dows and remained all day on the pavement. 
* * * * 

Another set entered the Theatre of the Porte- Saint- 
Martin with a pail full of petroleum and a brush. 
These men went on the stage and coated the walls 
and scenery with that horrible oil, and then set fire 
to it ; in less than two hours the theatre was burnt 

A third set knocked at the door of the Theatre of 
the Delassements-Comiques, which was closed. M. 
Goetchy, the manager, was sent for. ^^ Open ! " 
cried the Communists. At first he refused, but had 

International and Commune. 259 

to yield in the end. Some of the men rushed into 
the building, carrying with them two bottles of 
petroleum ; the keeper of the refreshment bar had 
to furnish matches, and the theatre was quickly set 
on fire. M. Goetchy^s partner, M. de Jallais, and 
his wife, had concealed themselves in the cellars ; 
fortunately for them the passers-by in the street 
succeeded in rescuing them. This theatre had been 
condemned beforehand by Raoul Rigault, who, as 
the lover of a woman who acted on that stage, had 
examined the building with a view to its wanton 

^ * * ^ 

When the Communists saw the necessity of 
giving up some particular position, they detached 
from their ranks a hundred men who, by fives, went 
into the houses ^to be destroyed, and addressed the 
concierges, saying: — '^In ten minutes we shall set 
your house on fire ; let your lodgers know, that they 
may escape.^' Any appeal was vain; their invari- 
able -answer was : — '^ The Commune wills it.^' And 
in the midst of cannon balls and bullets flying about 
in all directions, old men, women, and children, 
uttering cries of horror, endeavoured to make their 
escape. As to the young men found concealed, they 
were dragged to the barricade, and if they refused 
to fire on their feUow-countrymen they were shot 
without mercy. Thanks to petroleum, the houses 
burnt quickly. Many families that had sought 

260 Secret Societies. 

refiige from shells in the cellars of their houses were 
buried under the ruins. Piles of corpses were found 
in many a cellar. 

436. Rdoul Bigault, — This worthless fellow during 
the empire meddled with conspiracy, and Kved on 
the money he received from the republican com- 
mittee. He Uved at Belleville, was the constant 
companion of unfortunates, and spent his evenings 
at cabarets and casinos. That such a ruffian was 
elected a member of the Commune by more than 
two thousand votes sufficiently shows the charac- 
ter of the whole body. Like all the wretches 
who formed an integral portion of that criminal 
Commune, Rigault had no political convictions ; he 
was a republican from interest. During the two 
months that he was in power, he squandered money 
most lavishly ; and as a proof that he stole a great 
deal, Marie Dupuis, his mistress, always had her hands 
full of banknotes. He and his secretary, Dacosta, 
were in the habit of spending about seventy francs 
on their daily breakfasts. A search made at the 
lodgings of his mistress led to the discovery of a 
curious document, the will of Rigault, in which he 
makes her universal legatee. The Commune was 
profitable to Rigault; a few months before, he existed 
on loans exacted from or swindled out of his ac- 
quaintances. It was he who caused the hostages 
imprisoned in La Roquette to be shot. He was 
himself executed next day in the garden of the 

International and Commune. 261 

437 . Oourbet. — This person was, as a painteir, pos- 
sessed of some talent, but, as a man, was altogether 
worthless ; jealous of his confreres, he would fain hjive 
crushed them all. His artistic reputation did not 
satisfy him. Like Eochefort, he dreamt of red laurels, 
even should he be compelled to gather them in the 
blood of his friends — of people who in his evil days 
had stretched out a helping hand to him. He was 
arrested in his own house, where he had concealed 
himself in a cupboard. It is alleged that on being 
caught he exclaimed : — ^^ Well, all right ! I was 
nearly stifled.^' 

438. Assassination of Oenerals Lecomte and Cle- 
ment Thomas. — This double murder was the d^but 
of the InternationaFs interferenqe in the war. It 
occurred on March 18, the first day of the revolution. 
Lecomte met the insurgents almost as a friend ; he 
had given his men no orders to fire. Clement 
Thomas, in civilian's clothes, was wandering about 
in the flieighbourhood of Belleville, looking out for 
some chefs de bataillon he wished to consult. A 
company of the national guard arrested these two 
generals, tied their hands behind their backs, and 
led them into an isolated garden ; there a captain, 
drunk with brandy, interrogated them, but they did 
not condescend to answer him. Immediately a 
council of war, composed of the said captain, a 
lieutenant, and some privates, was constituted ; and 
the generals were condemned to be shot. They were 

262 Secret Societies. 

immediately dragged before a wall, and ten men 
were invited to become their executioners. There 
was a perfect dispute among the soldiers as to who 
should perform the criminal task, they were all so 
eager for it. At last the ten men took their places. 
'' Have you anything to say before you die ? " 
asked a lieutenant. *' Yes/' replied General Thomas^ 
'^ I have to tell you that you are cowards and 
assassins ! '' '' Fire ! '* commanded the captain. The 
generals fell. Thomas died at once, Lecomte breathed 
a few minutes longer. Some of the privates took 
up the corpses, and carried them through some of 
the streets of Montmartre, exclaiming, '^ Let the 
people's justice, pass!" A band of women and 
children followed the cortege^ singing the Mar- 
seillaise. The bodies were left all night in a small 
house ; but, of course, the watches, rings, and purses 
of the two generals had before then found their way 
into the pockets of some honest Communists, both 
male and female. * 

439. The Fet/roleuses. — ^These wretches werfe not 
so numerous as has been asserted. Their number 
amounted to about two hundred, and they had been 
discharged from Saint-Lazare by the Commune, on 
condition of setting Paris on fire. On the entrance 
of the Versaillais a great number of them were shot 
down at once. 

A wounded officer had fallen down in the Rue 
d'Angoul6me, and asked for a drink of water. One 

International and Commune. 263 

of these women heard him, and going up to him as 
if to succour him, stuck her dagger into his heart. 
Fortunately she was at once arrested and shot on 
the spot. 

A fire had broken out near the Bastille, but the 
inhabitants made efforts to extinguish it by forming 
a chain of buckets. They had nearly succeeded, 
when suddenly three women crept in among the 
workers, and threw on a still burning spot three 
bucketfuls of petroleum. The flames broke forth 
again, but the three women were seized and thrown 
into their midst, where they were quickly con- 

440. The IntemationaVs Comment. — Of this 
Commune, the International, in its pamphlet, '^ The 
Civil War in France,'' says : — ^^ The self-sacrificing 
heroism with which the population of Paris, men, 
women, and children, fought for eight days after 
the entrance of the Versaillais, reflects as much the 
grandeur of their cause, as the infernal deeds of the 
soldiery reflect the innate spirit of that civiKzation 
of which they are the mercenary vindicators.'' 
And again: — "In their stead, the real women of 
Paris showed again at the surface, heroic, noble, 
and devoted, like the women of antiquity. Work- 
ing, thinking, fighting, bleeding Paris — almost for- 
getfiil, in its incubation of a new society, of the 
cannibal at its gates — ^radiant in the enthusiasm of 
its historic initiative ! — ^working men's Paris, with 

264 Secret Societies. 

its Commune, will be for ever celebrated as the 
glorious harbinger of a new society. Its martyrs 
are enshrined in the great heart of the working 
classes ! " And this of people of whom one of their 
own countrymen says : — ^^ The Communists fight 
very bravely, it is true, but they get drunk to be 
courageous, which renders their wounds mortal. . . . 
The Commune has its police, yea, even its movr 
chords. . . . All these members of the Commune 
have their pockets full of gold, yet among them I 
recognize many that a year ago were needy vaga- 
bonds, living by borrowing, and wearing worn-out 
shoes. But none of these parasites, these rogues, 
were afraid to apply to the Commune and to ask for 
the best appointments. And the Commune had no 
choice. Besides, it well understood that to have 
faithful servants, it needed people without a spark 
of honour, that would not recoil from theft or any 
other infamy.^' The majority, in fact, of the 
members of the Commune were the scum of 
society. The International reproaches Thiers with 
having suppressed the repubUcan journals, but 
does not mention that the Commune prohibited the 
publication of Le Bien Public, U Opinion Nationale, 
La Cloche, Le Soir, La Liberie, Le Oaulois, and 
Figaro, and when some of them continued to appear 
in spite of the prohibition, sent ruffians to snatch the 
papers out of the hands of persons reading them. 
Again, the International says : — " The Commune 

International and Commune. 265 

admitted all foreigners to the honour of dying for 
an immortal cause. . . . The Commune honoured 
the heroic sons of Poland by placing them at the 
head of the defenders of Paris/' Here Dom- 
browski is evidently alluded to; but the Inter- 
national does not at the same time mention that this 
Dombrowski was accused of having forged Eussian 
banknotes, and that before accepting the command 
oflfered to him by the Commune, he stipulated for 
the immediate payment to him of 100,000 francs, 
which were forwarded to him without delay. How 
little the great body of English working men 
sympathise with the International is shown by the 
fact that they made large preparations for a demon- 
stration with regard to the expected arrival of Jules 
Favre in London ; though this same Jules Favre 
was denounced by the International as a scoundrel 
living in concubinage with the wife of a drunkard 
resident in Algiers, and as having by a most daring 
concoction of forgeries, spread over many years, 
contrived to grasp, in the name of the children of 
his adultery, a large succession, which made him a 
rich man — aU which was proved by a series of 
authentic legal documents, published by M. 
Milli^re, who was shot by order of Jules Favre ! 

441 . Vitality of the Socialist Fallacy. — Every one 
who has had occasion to look through the specifica- 
tions of mechanical inventions at any patent office, 
must have been struck with the constant recurrence of 

266 Secret Societies. 

the same exploded fallacies for producing perpetual 
motion. Each fresh patentee puts forth his scheme^ 
the counterpart of which has been put forth a 
hundred times before him, and proved to be im- 
practicable, as if it were something entirely origi- 
nal; he seems to be totally unconscious that the 
same plan has been tried over and over again, and 
has failed in every instance. So with social re- 
formers. Communism is only cabbage warmed up, 
and therefore not very savoury. To go no further 
back than Comte, Saint- Simon, and Enfantin, we 
find that organized combinations of workmen, 
trades unions, co-operative societies, the abolition 
of laws favouring the accumulation of property, of 
standing armies and war, were to be the means . of 
regenerating mankind. The converts then gained for 
these doctrines included civil engineers, barristers, 
officers in the army, men of position and fortune. 
The movement was regarded by Lacordaire as the 
most important since that of Luther. Yet it died 
out, because it is opposed to the influence of human 
passions, which after all rule the world. It died 
out, although some of the men that advocated these 
principles were perfectly honest in their aims, as 
Saint- Simon, for instance, of whom Beranger 

wrote — 

J^ai vu Sain t« Simon, le proph^te, 

Riohe d'abord, puis endette, 
Qui des fondements jasqu'au faite 
BeMiait la society. 

International and Commune. 267 

Plein de son ceuvre commencee, 
Yieux, poar elle il tendait la main, 

Sur qu^il embrassait la pensee 
Qui doit sauver le genre humain. 

Look at the subject of war. What can be more 
senseless and barbarous than fighting ? We ridicule 
duellists, and yet what are two nations going to war 
but duellists multiplied ? A government declares 
war against another, and immediately both coun- 
tries are thrown into a ferment and fever of san- 
guinary excitement, though but very few of the 
natives of either state know anything of the justice 
or injustice of the quarrel. But most are ready to 
be led to slaughter, or to pay in purse for the mad 
trial of strength. And the working classes, who 
through their socialistic agitators express the 
greatest horrqr of war, are the most enthusiastic 
fo;r it ; but this is easily explained — ^animal instincts 
predominate in them. The poet wrote long ago : — 

" The time is past when sword subdued : 

But the heart and the mind, 

And the voice of mankind, 

Shall arise in communion ; 

And who shall resist that proud union?*' 

And at the time of the first London Exhibition in 
1851, a Quaker proposed that no weapons or engines 
of war should be displayed in the world^s show, as it 
was to be the beginning of the era of peace ; trusting 
that reason and universal goodwill would thenceforth 

268 Secret Societies. 

govern the mutual dealings of men ; and a great 
deal more of such ignorant, though well-meant 
twaddle. Yet only a very few years after came that 
Russian war for which none cried out more madly 
than the working classes. The fact is, no civiliza- 
tion will ever put an end to war. As Napoleon said 
of the Russian, ^' Scratch, and you will find the 
Tartar underneath ;" so it may, with greater truth, 
be said of every man of every country, '^ Scratch, 
and you will find the devil underneath.*' The human 
heart will ever be the same, and necessarily so, since 
the seven properties of nature (11) work in and 
rule through it eternally. Wherever there is light 
there is darkness also, and the more intense the light 
the more dense the darkness ; wherefore it happens 
that the most civilized nations have invented the most 
murderous weapons of war. And as Communism 
will not abolish war, so will it not alter one single 
feature of social life. If all capitalists were anni- 
hikted to-day, and their possessions distributed 
among millions of paupers, we should in a few years 
have capitalists and ^^ wages-slaves'* again; for very 
few would have either the skill or the self-command 
profitably to invest and apply their newly-acquired 
wealth. The story is as old as the hills, and yet 
pushing demagogues and selfish agitators constantly 
find fresh dupes to believe in the coming millennium 
of labour, and contribute their pence to the gilding 
of their self-elected idol. But workmen that have 

International and Commune. 269 

money in the Bavings-bank do not worsMp it, nor 
help to adorn it. Hence Commnniam will never be 
anything but a scare-crow, even if ib co-operate with 
the Ul tramontanes, as it is doing in Belginm, form- 
ing a double-bodied monster of Black and Red 


V(ABIOJTS RevoluUona/ry Societiet in 
J France. — France, like Italy, has always 
J been a centre of secret societies. One 
» revolntion ia scarcely ended, before se- 
cret SBSOciatioas begin to prepare for another. 
Immediately after the July revolution, the students 
of the Quartier Latin of Paris formed the " Society 
of Ordered Progress," each student being provided 
with a rifle and fifty cartridges, as the most orderly 
method of furthering progress. Another saso- 
ciation, called the " Society of Schools," advocated 
the abolition of the universities and the throwing 
open of all instruction to ,the public gratuitously. 
The " Constitutional Society," directed by a man 
who had powerfully supported the candidature of 
the Duke of Orleans, Csuchois-Lemaire, insisted on 
the suppression of monopolies, the more equal levy 
of taxes, electoral reform, and the abolition of the 
dignity of the peerage. The " Friends of the 
People " was another political society, one section of 

Permanent Revolution. 271 

which, called the *' Rights of Man,^' adopted for its 
text-book the ^' Declaration of the Rights of Man '' 
by Robespierre, and dreW to itself many minor so- 
cieties, too numerous, and in most cases too unim- 
portant, to be mentioned. Their efiForts ended in 
the useless insurrection of Lyons, on the 13th and 
14th April, 1834. The Communist societies of the 
Travailleurs Egalitaires and Oommumstes Bsvolu- 
tionnaires introduced some of their members into 
the provisional government that preceded the acces- 
sion of Louis Napoleon; and their influence even 
to the present day is too notorious to need specifica- 
tion here. The '^ Mountaineers," or '' Reds of the 
Mountain,^' was one of the societies that brought 
about the events of 1848. They swore on a dagger, 
" I swear by this steel, the symbol of honour, to 
combat and destroy aU poHtical, religious, ai^ social 
tyrannies." And that they meant it is proved by 
various documents which were discovered, wherein 
different rulers are on paper condemned to death ; 
sometimes the same sentence is found recorded 
against a traitor in their own ranks. In one in- 
stance a certain Benjamin Richer, age twenty-six, 
killed his mother by stabbing her nine times, for 
having been, as he declared in court, '' treacherous 
and a coward," in preventing him from going out 
fighting with his brethren, the Reds of the Moun- 
tain. Louis Napoleon made severe laws against all 
secret societies, and sent some of the most pro- 
minent members to Cayenne. 




&EVOLVTIONABT Socteties in Italy. — 

% Joseph Mazzini, who forty yeara ago 

ft was a prisoner in Fort Savona for revo- 

• Intioiiary speeches and writings, may be 

looked upon &s the chief iiistigator c^ modem secret 

societies in Italy having revolutionary tendencies. 

The independence and nnity of their country, with 

Rome for its capital, of course were the objects of 

Young Italy. 

Here are some of the articles of the " Organiza- 
tion of Tonng Italy :" — I. The society is fonnded 
for the indispensable destruction of all the govern- 
ments of the Peuinanla, in order to form one single 
state with the republican government. 2. FuUy 
awsxe of the horrible evils of absolute power, and 
the even worse results of constitutional monarchies, 
we must wtn at establisliiQg a republic, one and 
indivisible. "SO. Those who refuse obedience to the 

Young Italy. 273 

orders of this secret society, or reveal its mysteries, 
die by the dagger without mercy. 31. The secret 
tribunal pronounces sentence and appoints one or 
t^vo affliated members for its execution. 32. Who 
so refuses to perform such duty assigned to him, 
dies on the spot. 33. If the victim escapes, he 
shall be pursued, until struck by the avenging 
hand, were he on the bosom of his mother or in the 
temple of Christ. 34. Every secret tribunal is 
competent not only to judge guilty adepts, but to 
put to death any one it finds it necessary to con- 
demn.— (Sig.) Mazzini. 

Committees were established in all parts of the 
Peninsula; the presses, not only of Italy, but 
also of Marseilles, London, and Switzerland were 
largely employed to disseminate the views of the 
conspirators ; and the police, though they considered 
themselves well informed, were always at fault. 
Thus Livio Zambeccari, a leading member, went 
from Bologna to Naples, thence into Sicily, held 
interviews with the conspirators, called meetings, 
and returned to Bologna, whilst the police of 
ISTaples and Sicily knew nothing at all about it. 
General Antonini, under a feigned name, went to 
Sicily, passed himself off for a daguerreotypist, and 
lived in great intimacy with many of the officials 
without being suspected. A Piedmontese officer, 
who had fought in the Spanish and Portuguese re- 
volutionary wars, arrived at Messina under a Spanish 

n. T 

274 Secret Societies. 

name, with letters of introduction from a Neapolitan 
general, which enabled him to visit and closely in- 
spect the citadels, this being the object of his 
journey. Letters from Malta, addressed to the 
conspirators, were intercepted by the poUce, but re- 
covered from them before they had read them, by 
the address and daring of the members of Young 
Italy. A thousand copies of a revolutionary pro- 
gramme, printed at Marseilles, were smuggled into 
Italy in a despatch addressed to the minister Del- 
caretto. A revolutionary correspondence was car- 
ried on by means of the official letters addressed to 
the minister Santangelo, at Palermo. A w^- 
known Spanish general, who was one of the con- 
spirators, whose departure and object had been pub- 
licly announced in the French papers, went from 
Marseilles to Naples, and the police were unable to 
catch him. 

444. Various Societies. — Such men were the 
emissaries of the various secret societies formed 
throughout Italy. Thus at Padua a society ex- 
isted whose members called themselves Selvaggi, 
^^ Savages,'^ because the German democrat, Mar^ 
had said, that man must return to the savage state 
to accomplish something great. The menibers of 
the Umta ItaUana, discovered at Naples in 1850, 
recognized each other by a gentle rubbing of noses. 
They swore on a dagger with a triangular blade, 
with the inscription, ^^ Fraternity — Death to Traitors 

Young Italy. 


— Death to Tyrants/' faithfully to observe all the 
laws of the society, on pain, in case of want of faith, 
to have their hearts pierced with the dagger. 
Those who executed the vengeance of the society 
called themselves the Committee of Execution. In 
1849 the grand council of the sect established a 
'^Committee of Stabbers,'' condtato de' pugnalatori. 
The heads of the society were particular as to whom 
they admitted into it; the statutes say, ^^no ex- 
Jesuits, thieves, coiners, and other infamous persons 
are to be initiated/' The ex- Jesuits are placed in 
good company truly ! ' 

In 1849 a society was discovered at Ancona 
calling itself the ^^ Company of Death,'' and many 
assassinations, many of them committed in broad 
daylight in the streets of the town, were traced to 
its members. The ^^ Society of Slayers," Ammaz- 
zatoriy at Leghorn; the ^'Infernal Society," at 
Sinigaglia ; the ^' Company of Assassins," Sicarii, 
at Faenza; the ^^Terrorists'' of Bologna, were 
associations of the same stamp. The " Barbers of 
Mazzini," at Rome, made it their business to ^^ re- 
move" priests who had rendered themselves par- 
ticularly obnoxious. Another Bolognese society 
was that of the " Italian Conspiracy of the Sons of 
Death," whose object was the liberation of Italy 
from foreign sway. 

A secret society of assassins has recently been 
discovered, and many of its members brought to 

276 Secret Societies. 

trialj at Rayenna. Its existence had long been 
surmised^ but the executive did not dare to inter- 
fere ; some private persons^ indeed, tried to bring 
the assassins to justice, but wherever they succeeded 
a speedy vengeance was sure to follow. To one 
shopkeeper who had been particularly active a 
notice was sent that his Ufe was forfeited, and the 
same night a placard was posted up upon the shutters 
of his shop, announcing that the establishment was 
to be sold, as the proprietor was going away. In 
many cases there were witnesses to the crimes, and 
yet they dared not interfere nor give evidence. 
One of the gang at last turned traitor ; he gave the 
explanation of several '^ mysterious disappearances,'* 
and the names of the murderers. The gang had 
become too numerous, and amongst the number 
there were members whose fidelity was suspected. 
It was resolved to sacrifice them. They were 
watched, set upon and murdered by their fellow- 
accomplices. This society was known as the 
Accoltellatoriy literally ^'knifers*' — cut-throats. It 
originally consisted of twelve members only, who 
used to meet in the caf(6 Mazzavillani — ^a very appro- 
priate name ; mazza means a club or bludgeon, and 
villano, villanous — ^at Bavenna, where the fate of 
their victims was decided. The trial is still pro- 
ceeding (Nov. 1874). 

445. Italian Insurrections. — Gregory XVI. died 
on the 1st of June, 1846. Mazzini thought this 

Young Italy. 277 

the favourable moment for general action, and the 
revolutions of Rome, Naples, Palermo, Florence, 
Milan, Parma, Modena and Venice followed in 
quick succession. They are matter of current 
history ; the war, begun by Mazzini and brought to 
a successfal issue chiefly through Graribaldi, ended 
in the establishment of the Kingdom .of United 
Italy, and the overthrow — for ever, it is to be 
hoped — of the pope's temporal powers. The name 
of Graribaldi has as much of magic power in it in 
Italy, as that of Napoleon still has in France ; and 
Mazzini now has his marble statue in the Palazzo del 
Municipio at Genoa. 

446. Assassination of Rossi. — ^But as we are 
more concerned with the secret action of secret 
societies than with their open deeds, this brief 
notice of Young Italy may fitly be closed with a 
short account of the assassination of Count Rossi, 
planned and executed by the Mazzinists. Jlossi 
was bom at Carrara, and began his public career as 
member of the provisional government of Bologna, 
when Murat attempted the conquest of Italy. At 
his master's defeat, he fled into Switzerland, where 
the Diet entrusted him with the revision of the pact 
of 1815 ; in the changes he proposed, radicalism 
was carried to its utmost limits, and aimed at the 
overthrow of the Federal Government. With such 
antecedents, it was but natural that Rossi became a 
member of Young Italy; though Mazzini placed no 

278 Secret Societies. 

faith in him, for he knew that the ci-devant Car- 
bonaro had no fixed political convictions. For this 
once violent demagogne, having in the July revolu- 
tion of 1830 assisted Louis-Philippe to ascend the 
French throne, accepted from him the title of count 
and peer of France, and was sent as ambassador to 
Homo. Though he had once belonged to the 
secret societies of Italy, and by Gregory XVI. 
been designated as the political renegade, he even- 
tually accepted office under Pius IX., who in 1848, 
a short time before his flight from Bome, had no 
one to appeal to, to form a new ministry, but this 
very adventurer, who did so by keeping three of 
the portfolios in his own hands, viz. those of 
Finances, Interior and Police, whilst the other 
ministers mutually detested each other ; a fact &om 
which Eossi expected to derive additional ad- 
vantages. His political programme, which excluded 
all national participation or popular influence, filled 
Young Italy with rage. At a meeting of young 
Italy, held at the hdtel Feder at Turin the verdict 
went forth : Death to the false Carbonaro ! By a 
pre-arranged scheme the lot to kill Rossi feU on 
Canino, a leading man of the association, not 
that it was expected that he would do the deed 
himself, but his position and wealth were assumed 
to give him the most ready means of commanding 
daggers. A Mazzinian society assembled twice 
a week at the Roman theatre, Capranica. At a 

Young Italy. 279 

meeting of one hundred and sixteen members, it 
was decided, a;t the suggestion of Mazzini, that 
forty should be chosen by lot to protect the 
assassin. Three others were elected by the same 
process, they were called /era^on; one of them was 
to slay the minister. 

The 15th of November, the day fixed upon for 
the opening of the Boman Chambers, was also that 
of Rossi's death. He received several warnings, 
but ridiculed them. Even in going to the Chan- 
ceUerie,lie was addressed by a priest, who wMs- 
pered to him : '^ Do not go out, you will be 
assassinated.'' '^ They cannot terrify me," he 
repUed, " the cause of the Pope is the cause of 
God," which is thought by some to have been a 
very noble answer, but which was simply ridiculous, 
because not true ; and was, moreover, vile hypocrisy 
on the part of a man with his antecedents. When 
Rossi arrived at the Chancellerie, the conspirators 
were already awaiting him there. One of them, as 
the minister ascended the staircase, struck him on 
the side with the hilt of a dagger, and as Rossi 
turned round to look at his assailant, another 
assassin plunged his dagger into Rossi's throat. 
The minister soon after expired in the apartments 
of Cardinal Gozzoli, to which he had been carried. 
At that very instant one of the chiefs of Young 
Italy at Bologna, looking at his watch, said : ^' A 
great deed has just been accomplished; we no 

280 Secret Societies. 

longer need fear Rossi/' The estimation in which 
Bossi was held by the Chamber cannot have been 
great, for the deputies received the news of his 
death with considerable sang-froid ; and at night a 
torch-light procession paraded the streets of Rome, 
carrying aloft the dagger which had done the deed, 
whilst thousands of voices exclaimed : '' Blessed be 
the hand that struck Rossi ! Blessed be the dagger 
that struck him ! " A pamphlet published at Rome 
in 1850 contains a letter from Mazzini, in which 
occur the words, " The assassination of Rossi wasf 
necessary and just/' 

P.S. — Since writing the above I have met with, 
documents which induce me to suspend my judg- 
ment as to who were the real authors of Rossi's 
assassination. From what I have since learnt it 
would seem that the clerical party, and not the Car- 
bonari, planned and executed the deed. Persons 
accused of being implicated in the murder were 
kept in prison for more than two years without 
being brought to trial, and then quietly got away. 
Rossi, shortly before his death, had levied contribu- 
tions to the extent of four million scudi on clerical 
property, and was known to plan further schemes 
to reduce the influence of the Church. But the 
materials for writing the history of those times are 
not yet accessible. 

V • 





Les Jesuites. Par Michelet et Quinet. Paris. 
Destruction des Jesuites en France. Par D'Alembert. 

Les Jesuites. Par A. Andrei Paris. 
Secreta Monita Societatis Jesu. 
Histoire Intime de la Eussie. Par J. H. Schnitzler. 

Bruxelles, 1847. 



jJEB ABC Friends. — ^A society whose 
avowed scope was the education of chil- 
dren ; its real object the liberty of man, 
They called themselves members of the 
ABC, letters which in French are pronounced 
cAaisse ; but the abased that were to be raised were 
lit© people. The members were few but select. 
They had two lodges in Paris during the Restora- 
tion. Victor Hugo has introduced the society in 
Lee MiserableSy part iii. book iv. 

448. Academy of the Ancie7it8. — ^It was founded 
at Warsaw by Colonel Toux de Salverte, in imita- 
tion of a similar society and with the same name, 
founded in Rome towards the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. The object of its secret meetings 
was the cultivation of the occult sciences. 

449. Almusseri. — This is an association similar 
to that of " Belly Paaro ^' (456), found among the 
Jiegroes of Senegambia, and other parts of the 

284 Secret Societies. 

African continent. The rites of initiation bear some 
resemblance to the Orphic and Cabiric rituals. In ^ 
the heart of an extensive forest there rises a temple, 
access to which is forbidden to the profane. The 
receptions take place once a year. The candidate 
Jeigns to die. At the appointed hour the initiated 
surround the aspirant and chant funereal song^s; 
whereupon he is carried to the temple, placed on a 
moderately hot plate of copper, and anointed with 
the oil of the palm — a tree which the Egyptians dedi- 
cated to the sun, as they ascribed to it three hundred 
and sixty-five properties. In this position he re- 
mains forty days — this number, too, constantly recurs 
in antiquity — his relations visiting him to renew the 
anointing ; after which period he is greeted with 
joyful songs, and conducted home. He is supposed 
to have received a new soul, and enjoys great con- 
sideration and authority among his tribe. 

450. Anonymous Society. — This society also, 
which existed for some time in Germany, with a 
Grand Master resident in Spain, occupied itself with 

451. Anti- Masons. — This was a society founded 
in Ireland, in County Down, in 1811, and composed 
of Roman Catholics, whose object was the expulsion 
of all Freemasons, of whatever creed they might be. 

452. Apocalypse, Knights of the. — This secret 
society was formed in Italy in 1693, to defend the 
Church against the expected Antichrist. Augustine 

Miscellaneous Societies. 285 

Gabrino, the son of a merchant of Brescia, was its 
founder. On Palm- Sunday, when the choir in Saint 
Peter^s was intoning the words, Quia est iste Rex 
Olorice? Grabrino, carrying a sword in his hand, 
rushed among the choristers, exclaiming. Ego sum Bex 
OloricB, He did the same in the church of San Sal- 
vatore, whereupon he was shut up in a mad-house. 
The society, however, continued to flourish, until a 
wood-carver, who had been initiated, denounced it 
to the Inquisition, which imprisoned the knights. 
Most of them, though only traders and operatives, 
always carried a sword, even when at work, and 
wore on the breast a star with seven rays and an ap- 
pendage, symbolizing the sword seen by St. John 
in the Apocalypse. The society was accused of 
having political aims. It is a fact that the founder 
called himself Monarch of the Holy Trinity, which 
is not extraordinary in a madman ; and wanted to 
introduce polygamy, for which he ought to be a 
favourite with the Mormons. 

453. AreoiU. — This is a society of Tahitian ori- 
gin, and has members throughout that archipelago. 
They have their own genealogy, hierarchy, and tradi- 
tions. They call themselves the descendants of the 
god Oro-Tetifa, and are divided into seven degrees, 
distinguished by the degrees of tattooing allowed to 
them. The society forms an institution similar to 
that of the Egyptian priests ; but laymen also may 
be admitted. The chiefs at once attain to the high- 

286 Secret Societies. 

est degrees, but the common people must obtain 
their initiation through many trials. Members 
enjoy great consideration and many privileges. They 
are considered as the depositaries of knowledge, and 
as mediators between god and man ; and are feared as 
the ministers of the taboo, a kind of excommunication 
they can pronounce, like the ancient hierophants of 
Greece or the court of Eome. Though the cere- 
monies are disgusting and immoral there is a founda- 
tion of noble ideas concealed under them ; so that we 
may assume the present rites to be corruptions of a 
formerly purer ceremonial. The meaning that un- 
derlies the dogmas of the initiation is the generative 
power of nature. The legend of the solar god 
also here plays an important part and regulates the 
festivals ; and a funereal ceremony, reminding us of 
that of the mysteries of antiquity, is perfoi*med at 
the winter solstice. Throughout Polynesia, moreover, 
there exists a belief in a supreme deity, Taaroa or 
Tanga/roa, of whom a cosmogonic hymn, known to 
the initiated, says : — " He was ; he was called Taaroa; 
he called, but no one answered ; he, the only ens, 
transformedhimself into the universe ; he is the light, 
the germ, the foundation ; he, the incorruptible ; he 
is great, who created the universe,the great universe.'* 
454. Avengers y or Vendicatori. — A secret society 
formed, about 1186, in Sicily, to avenge public 
wrongs, on the principles of the Vehm (166) and Beati 
PaoU (173). At length Adiorolphus of Ponte Corvo, 

Miscellaneous Societies. 287 

Grand Master of the sect, was lianged by order of 
King William II. the Norman, and many of the 
sectaries were branded with a hot iron. 

455. Bahismo* — This religious sect, tinctured 
with political tendencies, exists among the Persians ; 
and is connected with Freemasonry, introduced from 

456. Belly Paaro. — Among the negroes of 
Guinea there are mysteries called '* Belly Paaro,'' 
which are celebrated several times in the course of a 
century. The aspirant, having laid aside all cloth- 
ing, and every precious metal, is led into a large 
wood, where the old men that preside at the initia- 
tion, give hinji a new name, whilst he recites verses 
in honour of the god. Belly, joins in lively dances, 
and receives much theological and mystical instruc- 
tion. The neophyte passes five years in absolute 
isolation, and woe to any woman that dares to ap- 
proach the sacred wood ! After this noviciate the 
aspirant has a cabin assigned to him, and is initiate^ 
into the most secret doctrines of the sect. Issuing 
thence, he dresses differently from the others, his 
body being adorned with feathers, and his neck 
showing the scars of the initiatory incisions. 

457. Oamisards. — Protestant peafants of the 
Cevennes, who rose up against Louis XIV. on his 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, at the instigation 
of the Jesuits. They wore shirts over their 
clothes, hence the name. Between 1702 and 1704, 

288 Secret Societies. 

30^000 C^yenols are said to have perished in war^ 
or in less lawful massacre^ or on the scaffold. A 
greater number still of the king's troops were de- 
stroyed ; and some of the greatest captains in France 
earned only £sdlure and disgrace when opposed to 
simple mountaineer leaders like Boland^ or the 
shepherd boy, Cavalier. 

458. Ghcbrlottenburg, Order of, — This was one of 
the numerous branches grafted on the trunk of the 
Union of Virtue. 

459. Church Masons. — ^This is a Masonic rite, 
founded in this country during this century, with 
the scarcely credible object of re-establishing the 
ancient Masonic trade-unions. 

460. Gamiorra. — This Italian society possessed, 
up to recent times, great political influence, now 
a rival of, now co-operating with the Carbo- 
nari, and Ciro Annichiarico (386) was more of a 
Camorrist than a Carbonaro. Under the late 
Bourbon government of Naples, the Camorra was 
at the zenith of its power, and when Francis II. in 
September, 1860, left his capital exposed to the 
horrors and dangers of a social conflagration, and 
whilst the magistrates, deprived of all authority 
and power, felt themselves unable to cope with the 
anarchy reigning around, the Camorrist chiefs had 
influence enough to avert the danger. They pro- 
mised that public order should not be disturbed ; 
and from the moment of the king's departure to 

Miscellaneous Societies. 289 

the arrival of Garibaldi, not the least disturbance 
occurred. The society still exists in a degenerate 
state, being now composed of criminals only. On 
the 3rd September, 1873, the Neapolitan poUce 
surprised the committee of the Camorra, assembled 
at an osteria or inn in the Strada Floria, and sixteen 
individuals, all well armed, and almost all of them 
implicated in various crimes, were arrested. At 
Naples and in its neighbourhood every unexplained 
murder is now attributed to this society. 

P.S. — Since the above was written, the Camor- 
risti have been brought prominently before the 
world by the wholesale arrests of members of the 
gang recently made at Naples. As stated in the 
text, the society has lost all political aims or signifi- 
cance, consisting of criminals only, some of them, 
however, belonging to classes above the rabble. Its 
chief pursuit now is extortion. Trades-people, fly- 
men, hotel-keepers, and other persons engaged in 
business are put under contribution to this society, 
'^in the name of the people, and to maintain the 
rights and independence of the people.^^ The fear 
the Camorra inspires is so great that it is difficult, 
nay, sometimes impossible, to obtain witnesses 
against any of its members. An occasional corres- 
pondent of the ^^ Times '^ at Naples reports a case 
where a chief Camorristo named Del Giudice mur- 
dered a companion one night outside a theatre. 
There could be no doubt, for several witnesses were 

II. u 

290 Secret Societies. 

present. The murderer was arrested, and brought 
up for trial in August last ; but on the da>j appointed 
the court was thronged with well-known Camorristi; 
the Procureur-G^n^ral had received a threatening 
letter, so had the jury and the -witnesses. The 
latter gave their evidence in such a manner as to be 
of no value, and the assassin could not be convicted, 
the jury returning a verdict of non constat^ '^not 
proven/' It is to be hoped that the Italian govern- 
ment will persevere in the vigorous course it has 
now initiated against the lawless associations still 
existing, such as Camorristi and brigands. 

461 . Cougurde, — One of the many forms assumed 
by the Liberal party in France, during the Bourbon 
restoration. From the town of Aix it spread through 

462. Dervishes. — Also called Fakirs, and a mo- 
nastic order of Islamism. Mahomet prohibited the 
introduction of monks into his religious system; 
but thirty years after the death of the Prophet, 
monks made their appearance, and it is supposed 
that there are now seventy-two orders of them. 
But twelve of them are undoubtedly older than 
Islamism. Some of them practise jugglers' tricks, 
such as swallowing daggers, eating fire, etc. The 
latter may remind us of the Etruscan priests of 
Phoebus. The most important of these orders is 
that of Mewlewi, on account of its poetic mysti- 
cism, and its doctrine that light is the first-bom of 

Miscellaneous Societies. 291 

God. The Dervishes are England^s great enemies 
in India^ ever striving to inspire the Mahomedan 
population with a hatred of British rule ; and the 
belief is widely spread that the Freemasons are in 
secret connection with them. The Freemasons in 
^connection with the Dervishes ! Who ever heard 
that the Dervishes brew good beer ? A short time 
ago, the Assistant Secretary to the Municipality of 
Lahore, Mr. Bull, was struck down by a fakir, a 
religious mendicant of on^ of the most dangerous 
fanatical sects in India. Whenever mischief is astir 
among the Mussulman populations, these men are 
at the bottom of it. The attack upon Mr. Bull was 
regarded at the time as indicative of a connection 
between the Hindoo Sikhs and the Mussulman popu- 
lation of the Punjaub. 

463. Etherists. — This was a Greek society founded 
at the end of the last or the beginning of the pre- 
sent century, to render their country independent. 
The first idea of it is ascribed to the poet Riga, 
who was by Austria betrayed into the power of 
Turkey, where he was executed in a barbarous 
manner in 1798. Even during the Venetian rule 
many Greeks attended the Italian universities, and 
these students formed an Btheria to reconstruct the 
Greek empire. Led on by the promises of Napo- 
leon, the Btherists prepared to make a descent on 
Greece from the Ionian Islands ; but the fall of the 
emperor frustrated the scheme. It was revived at 

292 Secret Societies, 

Vienna in 1815, and the Count Capo d'Istria ob- 
tained a promise of assistance &om the Emperor of 
Russia. The Etherists now called themselyes 
'' Friends of the Muses/^ and seemed to form a 
society for the investigation of the literary and 
archasological antiquities of Greece, though their 
aspirations were very different. Their chief seat 
was at Munich. The sect gradually grew more in- 
fluential, and began to show its political tendencies. 
It introduced itself into the Morea, and prepared 
the Greeks for a great national event. They, how- 
ever, in 1819, sent an agent to St. Petersburg to 
ascertain the disposition of that court in case of a 
Greek risiag ; but, obtaining nothing beyond vague 
promises, the Etherists elected for their chief Alex- 
ander Ypsilanti, and made the necessary preparations 
for the movement which took place in the following 

464. Fraticelli. — A sect who were said to have 
practised the custom of self-restraint under the 
most trying circumstances of disciplinary carnal 
temptation. They were found chiefly in Lom- 
bardy ; and Pope Clement V. preached a crusade 
against them, and had them extirpated by fire and 
sword, hunger and cold. But they were guilty 
of a much higher crime than the one for which 
they were ostensibly persecuted ; they had de- 
nounced the tyranny of the popes, and the abuses 
of priestly power and wealth, which of course de- 

Miscellaneous Societies. 293 

served nothing less than extermination by fire and 
sword ! 

465. QoatSy The, — About the year 1770 the terri- 
tory of Limburg was the theatre of strange proceed- 
ings. Churches were sacked, castles burnt down, 
and robberies were committed everywhere. The 
country-people were trying to shake off the yoke 
feudalism had imposed on them. During the night, 
and in the solitude of the landes, the most daring 
assembled and marched forth to perpetrate these 
devastations. Then terror spread everywhere, and 
the cry was heard, ^' The Goats are coming ! " They 
were thus called because they wore masks in imita- 
tion of goats^ faces over their own. On such nights 
the slave became the master, and abandoned himself 
with fierce delight to avenging the wrongs he had 
suffered during the day. In the morning all dis- 
appeared, returning to their daily labour, whilst the 
castles and mansions set on fire in the night were 
sending their lurid flames up to the sky. The 
greater the number of malcontents, the greater the 
number of Goats, who at last became so numerous 
that they would undertake simultaneous expeditions 
in different directions in one night. They were 
said to be in league with the devil, who, in the form 
of a goat, was believed to transport them from one 
place to another. The initiation into this sect was 
performed in the following manner: — In a small 
chapel situate in a dense wood, a lamp was lighted 

294 Secret Societies. 

during a dark and stormy night. The candidate 
was introdued into the chapel by two godfathers, 
and had to run round the interior of the building 
three times on all-fours. After having plentifully 
drunk of a strong fermented liquor, he was put 
astride on a wooden goat hung on pivots. The 
goat was then swung round, faster and faster, so 
that the man, by the strong drink and the motion, 
soon became giddy, and sometimes almost raving 
mad ; when at last he was taken*down, he was easily 
induced to believe that he had been riding through 
space on the devil's crupper. From that moment 
he was sold, body and soul, to the society of Goats, 
which, for nearly twenty years, filled Limburg with 
terror. In vain the authorities arrested a number 
of suspected persons ; in vain, in all the communes, 
in all the villages, gibbet and cord were in constant 
request. From 1772-74 alone the tribunal of 
Foquemont had condemned four hundred Goats to 
be hanged or. quartered. The society was not ex- 
terminated till about the year 1720. 

466. Harems Foot, Society of the, — ^This was a 
society formed in Canada against the English 

467. Hvseanawer. — The natives of Virginia gave 
this name to the initiation they conferred on their 
own priests, and to the noviciate those not belonging 
to the priesthood had to pass through. The can- 
didate's body was anointed with fat, and he was led 

Miscellaneous Societies. 295 

before the assembly of priests, who held in their 
hands green twigs. Sacred dances and funereal 
shouts alternated. Five youths led the aspirant 
through a double file of men armed with canes to 
the foot of a certain tree, covering his person with 
their bodies and receiving in his stead the blows 
aimed at him. In the meantime the mother pre- 
pared a funeral pyre for the simulated sacrifice, and 
wept her son as dead. Then the tree was cut 
down, and its boughs lopped off and formed into a 
crown for the brows of the candidate, who during a 
protracted retirement, and by means of a powerful 
narcotic called visoeean, was thrown into a state 
of somnambulism. Thence he issued among his 
tribe again and was looked upon as a new man, 
possessing higher powers and higher knowledge 
than the non-initiated. 

468. Invisibles, The. — ^We know not how much 
or how little of truth there is in the accounts, very 
meagre indeed, of this society, supposed to have 
existed in Italy in the last century, and to have 
advocated, in nocturnal assemblies, atheism and 

469. Jesuits, — The Jesuits can scarcely be called 
a secret society. Still their influence on secret 
societies has often been great, and in all parts of 
the world they have always had a vast number of 
affiliates, who, though not openly belonging to the 
order, were bound to propagate its principles and 

296 Secret Societies. 

protect its interests — such m^n as in France are 
called Jesmtes de robe cov/rte. There is considerable 
analogy and similitude between Masonic and Jesuitic 
degrees j the Jesuits tread down the shoe and bare 
the knee^ because Ignatius Loyola thus presented 
himself at Rome and asked for the confirmation of 
the order. The initials of the Masonic pass-words 
correspond exactly with those of the Jesuit officers: 
Temporcdis (Tubalcain) ; Scholasticus (Shibboleth) ; 
Coadjutor (Ch (g) iblum) ; Noster (Notuma). Many 
other analogies might be established. Not satisfied 
with confession, preaching, and instruction, whereby 
they had acquired unexampled influence, they 
formed in Italy and France, in 1563, several ^* Con- 
gregations,^' i. e,y clandestine meetings held in sub- 
terranean chapels and other secret places. The con- 
gregationists had a sectarian organization, with 
appropriate catechisms and manuals, which had to 
be given up before death, wherefore very few copies 
remain. In the library of the. Rue Richelieu at 
Paris there is a MS. entitled, Histoire des congre- 
gaUons et sodaUtes jesuitiqvss depuis 1563 jusqu'au 
temps present (1709). 

470. Initiations. -^^From this, as well as other 
works, we gather some of the ceremonies with which 
aspirants were initiated into the Order. Having in 
nearly all Roman Catholic countries succeeded in 
becoming the educators of the young, they were 
able to mould the youthful mind according to their 

Miscellaneous Societies, 297 

secret aims. If then, after a number of years, they 
detected in the pupil a blind and fanatic faith, con- 
joined with exalted pietism and indomitable courage, 
they proceeded to initiate him ; in the opposite case, 
they excluded him. The proofs lasted twenty-four 
hours, for which the candidate was prepared by long 
and severe fasting, which, by prostrating his bodily 
strength, inflamed his fancy, and just before the 
trial a powerful drink was administered to him. 
Then the mystic scene began — diabolical appari* 
tions, evocation of the dead, representations of the 
flames of hell, skeletons, moving skulls, artificial 
thunder and lightning, in fact, the whole parapher- 
nalia and apparatus of the ancient mysteries. If the 
neophyte, who was closely watched, showed fear or 
terror, he remained for ever iji the inferior degree ; 
but if he bore the proof well, he was advanced to a 
higher grade. There were four degrees. The first 
consisted of the Goadjutores TemporabeSy who per- 
formed the manual labour and merely servile duties 
of the Order ; the second embraced the Scholastici, 
from among whom the teachers of youth were 
chosen ; the third was composed of the Goadjutores 
SpiritualeSy which title was given to the members 
when they took the three vows of the Society. The 
Profesd formed the fourth and highest grade ; they 
alone were initiated into all the secrets of the Order. 
At the initiation into the second degree, the same 
proofs, but on a grander scale, had to be undergone. 

298 Secret Societies. 

The candidate, again prepared for them by long 
fastings, was led with his eyes bandaged into a large 
cavern, resounding with wildhowlings and roarings, 
which he had to traverse, reciting at the same time 
prayers specially appointed for that occasion. At 
the end of the cave he had to crawl through a nar- 
row opening, and while doing this, the bandage was 
taken from his eyes by an unseen hand, and he found 
himself in a square dungeon, whose floor was covered 
with a mortuary cloth, on which stood three lamps, 
shedding a feeble light on the skulls and skeletons 
ranged around. This was th0 Cave of Evocation, 
the Black Chamber, so famous in the annals of the 
Fathers. Here giving himself up to prayer, the 
neophyte passed some time, during which the priests 
could, without his being aware of it, watch his every 
movement and gesture. If his behaviour was satis- 
factory, all at once two brethren, representing arch- 
angels, presented themselves before him, without 
his being able to tell whence they had so suddenly 
started up, — a good deal can be done with properly 
fitted and oiled trap-doors,— and observing perfect 
silence, bound his forehead with a white band soaked 
with blood, and covered with hieroglyphics ; they 
then hung a small crucifix round his neck, and a 
small satchel containing relics, or what did duty for 
them. Finally, they took oflf all his clothing, which 
they cast on a pyre in one corner of the cave, and 
marked his body with numerous crosses, drawn with 

Miscellaneous Societies. 299 

blood. At this point, the hierophant with his 
assistants entered, and, haying bound a red cloth 
round the middle of the candidate's body, the bre- 
thren, clothed in blood-stained garments, placed 
themselves beside him, and drawing their daggers, 
formed the steel arch over his head. Jl carpet being 
then spread on the floor, all knelt down and prayed 
for about an hour, after which the pyre was secretly 
set on fire ; the further wall of the cave opened, the 
air resounded with strains, now gay, now lugubri- 
ous, and a long procession of spectres, phantoms, 
angels, and demons defiled past the neophyte like 
the " supers '' in a pantomime. Whilst this farce 
was going on, the candidate took the following 
oath : — ^^ In the name of Christ crucified, I swear to 
burst the bonds that yet unite me to father, mother, 
brothers, sisters, relations, friends; to the king, 
magistrates, and any other authority, to which I 
may ever have sworn fealty, obedience, gratitude, 
or service. I renounce . • . . the place of my 
birth, henceforth to exist in another sphere. I 
swed>r to reveal to my new superior, whom I desire 
to know, what I have done, thought, read, learnt, 
or discovered, and to observe and watch all that 
comes under my notice. I swear to yield myself 
up to my superior, as if I were a corpse, deprived 
of life and will. I finally swear to flee temptation, 
and to reveal all I succeed in discovering, well 
^ware that lightning is not more rapid and ready 

300 Secret Societies. 


than iihe dagger to reach me wherever I may be. 
The new member having taken this oath, was then 
introduced into a neighbouring cell, where he took 
a bath^ and was clothed in garments of new and 
white linen. He finally repaired with the other 
brethren to a banquet, where he could with choice 
food and wine compensate himself for his long ab- 
stinence, and the horrors and fatigues he had passed 

471. Blessing the Badger. — Blessing the dagger 
was a ceremony performed when the society thought 
it necessary for their interests to assassinate some 
king, prince, or other important personage. By 
the side of the Dark Chamber there usually was a 
small cell, called the '^ Cell of Meditation.^' In its 
centre arose a small altar, on which was placed a 
painting covered with a veil, and surrounded by 
torches and lamps, all of a scarlet colour. Here 
the brother whojn the Order wished to prepare for 
the deed of blood, received his instructions. On a 
table stood a casket, covered with strange hiero- 
glyphics and bearing on its lid the representation 
of the Lamb. On its being opened, it was found 
to contain a dagger, wrapped up in a linen cloth, 
which one of the officers of the society took out and 
presented to the hierophant ; who, after kissing and 
sprinkling it with holy water, handed it to one of 
the deacons, who attached it like a cross to a rosary, 
and hanging it round the neck of the alumnus. 

Miscellaneous Societies. 301 

informed him that he was the Elect of God, and 
told him what victim to strike. A prayer was then 
oflTered up in favom* of the success of the enterprise, 
in the following words: — ''And Thou, invincible 
and terrible God, who didst resolve to inspire our 
Elect and Thy servant with the project of exterminat- 
ing N. N., a tyrant and heretic, strengthen him, and 
render the consecration of our brother perfect by 
the successful execution of the great Work. In- 
crease, God, his strength a hundred-fold, so that 
he may accomplish the noble undertaking, and pro- 
tect him with the powerful and divine armour of 
thine Elect and Saints. Pour on his head the 
daring courage which despises aU fear, and fortify 
his body in danger and in the face of death itself.^' 
After this prayer the veil was withdrawn jfrom the 
picture on the altar, and the elect beheld the por- 
trait of the Dominican James Clement, surrounded 
by a host of angels, carrying him on their wings to 
celestial glory. And the deacon placing on the 
head of the chosen brother a crown symbolic of the 
celestial crown, added : — *' Deign, Lord of hosts, 
to bestow a propitious glance on the servant Thou 
hast chosen as Thine arm, and for the execution of 
the high decrees of Thine eternal justice. Amen.'^ 
Then there were fresh dissolving views of ghosts, 
spectres, skeletons, phantoms, angels and demons, 
and the farce, to be followed by a tragedy, was 
played out. 

302 Secret Societies. 

472. Secret Instructions, — It will suffice to give 
the headings of the chapters forming the Book of 
Secret Instructions of the Society of Jesus. The 
Preface specially warns superiors not to allow it to 
fall into the hands of strangers^ as it might give 
them a bad opinion of the Order. The Chapters 
are headed as follows : — I. How the Society is to 
proceed in founding a new establishment. — II. How 
the Brethren of the Society may acquire and pre- 
serve the friendship of Princes and other dis- 
tinguished Personages. — III. How the Society is 
to conduct itself towards those who possess great 
influence in a state ; and who^ though they are not 
rich, may yeUbe of service to others. — IV. Hints to 
Preachers and Confessors of Kings an^ great 
personages. — ^V. What conduct to observe towards 
the clergy and other religious orders. VI. How to 
win over rich widows. — ^VII. How to hold fast 
widows and dispose of their property. — ^VIII. 
How to induce the children of widows to adopt a 
life of religious seclusion. — IX. Of the increase of 
College revenues. — ^X. Of the private rigour of 
discipline to be observed by the society. — XI. How 
^^ Ours^' shall conduct themselves towards those 
that have been dismissed from the society. — ^XII. 
Whom to keep and make much of in the society. — 

XIII. How to select young people for admission 
into the society, and how to keep them there. — 

XIV. Of reserved cases, and reasons for dismissing 

Miscellaneous Societies. 303 

from the society. — XV. How to behave towards 
nuns and derout women. — XVI. How to pretend 
contempt for riches. — ^XVII. General means for 
advancing the interests of the society. 

The intermeddling of this society in the affairs, 
political, ecclesiastical, and civil, of many countries, 
is related in numerous works, and repeatedly pro- 
duced the suppression and expulsion of the order, 
though it constantly reappeared with new names . In 
1716 the French army was infested with Jesuitical 
and anti-Jesuitical societies. The Parliament of 
Paris suppressed them in 1762, and this example 
was followed by other legislators; but still they are 
to be fouQd everywhere, and they hold considerable 
property in this country. A modem writer justly 
calls them the " Black International.^' 

473. JehUy Society of, — This society was formed 
in France during the revolution, to avenge its 
excesses by still greater violence. It was first 
established at Lyons. It took its name from that 
king who was consecrated by Elijah to punish the 
sins of the house of Ahab, and to slay all the 
priests of Baal. The liberals represented the 
priests. The people, not understanding this, called 
the society the ^^ Company of Jesus," a very un- 
suitable name, since the members spread terror and 
bloodshed throughout France. It was a realistic 
faction that, under the cloak of politics, concealed its 
evil passions, and rendered Lyons, Aix, Marseilles, 

304 Secret Societies. 

Bordeaux^ and other cities^ the theatres of scm- 
guinary tragedies. The faction, however, which 
seemed for ever destroyed on Napoleon^s accession 
to the throne, re-appeared after his downfall, taking 
in 1814 the title of " Knights of Maria Theresa,'^ 
and by them Bordeaux was betrayed into the hands 
of the EngUsh, and the blood of many honoured 
citizens shed at Nimes, Montpellier, and other 

474. Know-Nothings. — This was an anti-foreign 
and no-popery party, formed in the United States 
of America, and acting chiefly through secret 
societies, in order to decide the presidential elec- 
tion. It lasted from 1852 to 1856. 

475. Ku-KliLX'Klan. — A secret organization 
under this name spread with amazing rapidity over 
the Southern States of the American Union soon after 
the close of the war. The white people of the South 
were alarmed, not so much by the threatened confis- 
cation of their property by the Federal government, 
as by the smaller but more present dangers of life and 
property, virtue and honour, arising from the social 
anarchy around them. The negroes, after the Con- 
federate surrender, were disorderly. Many of them 
would not settle down to labour on any terms, but 
roamed about with arms in their hands and hunger 
in their bellies, whilst the governing power was 
only thinking of every device of suffrage and recon- 
struction by which the freedmen might be strength- 

Miscellaneous Societies. 305 

ened, and made, under Northern dictation, the ruling 
power in the country. Agitators came down among 
the towns and plantations ; and, organizing a Union 
league, held midnight meetings with the negroes in 
the woods, and went about uttering sentiments 
which were anti-social and destructive. Crimes and 
outrages increased ; the law was all but powerless, 
and the new governments in the South, supposing 
them to have been most willing, were certainly un- 
able to repress disorder. A real terror reigned for 
a time among the white people ; and under these cir- 
cumstances the Ku-Klux started into existence, and 
executed the Lynch-law, which alone seems effective 
in disordered states of society. The members wore 
a dress made of black calico, and called a ^^ shroud.^^ 
The stuff was sent round to private houses, with a 
request that it should be made into a garment j and 
fair fingers sewed it up, and had it ready for the 
secret messenger when he returned and gave his 
pre-concerted tap at the door. The women and 
young girls had faith in the honour of the ^^ Klan,'' 
and on its will and ability to protect them. The 
Ku-Klux, when out on their missions, also wore a 
high tapering hat, with a black veil over the face. 
The secret of the membership was kept with re- 
markable fidelity ) and in no instance, it is said, has 
a member of the Ku-Klux been successfully ar- 
raigned and punished, though the Federal govern- 
ment passed a special Act against the society, and 

IT. X 

306 Secret Societies. 

two proclamations were issued under this Act by 
President Grant, as late as October, 1871, and the 
habeas corpus Act suspended in nine counties of 
South Carolina. When the members had a long 
ride at night, they made requisitions at farm-houses 
for horses, which were generally returned on a night 
following without injury. If a company of Federal 
soldiers, stationed in a small town, talked loudly as 
to what they would do with the Ku-Klux, the men 
in shrouds paraded in the evening before the guard- 
house in numbers so overwhehning as at once re- 
duced the little garrison to silence. The overt acts 
of the Ku-Klux consisted for the most part in dis- 
arming dangerous negroes, inflicting Lynch-law on 
notorious oflfenders, and above all in creating one 
feeling of terror as a counterpoise to another. The 
thefts of the negroes were a subject of prevailing 
complaint in many parts of the South. A band of 
men in the Ku-Klux costume one night came to the 
door of Allan Creich, a grocer of Williamson's 
Creek, seized and dragged him some distance, when 
they despatched and threw him into the Creek, 
where his body was found. The assassins then 
proceeded to the house of Allan's brother, but not 
finding him at home, they elicited from his little 
child where he was staying. Hereupon they imme- 
diately proceeded to the house named ; and, having 
encountered the man they sought, they dealt with 
him as they had dealt with his brother Allan. It 

Miscellaneoics Societies. 307 

appears that Allan had long been blamed for buying 
goods and produce stolen by the negroes, and had 
often been warned to desist, but without avail. The ^ 
institution, like all of a similar nature, though the 
necessity for its existence has* ceased to a great ex- 
tent, yet survives in a more degenerate form, having 
passed into the hands of utter scoundrels, with no 
good motive, and with foul passions of revenge or 
plunder, or lust of dread and mysterious power , 
alone in their hearts. Hence the recent proclama- 
tions against it. 

476. Liberty, Knights of. — A sect formed in 
1820 in France against the Government of the 
Bourbons. Its independent existence was brief, as 
it was soon merged in that of the Carbonari. 

477. Lion, Knights of the, — This was one of the 
transformations assumed in Germany in the last 
century by Masonic Templars. 

478. Lion, The Sleeping, — This was a society 
formed in Paris in 1816, with the object of restor- 
ing Napoleon to the throne of France. The existing 
government suppressed it. 

479. Magi, Order of the. — Is supposed to have 
existed in Italy in the last century, as a modifica- 
tion of the Eosicrucians. Its members are said 
to have worn the costume of Inquisitors. 

480. Maharajas. — This is an Indian sect of 
priests. It appears abundantly from the works of 
recognized authority written by Mahdrajas, and from 

308 Secret Societies. 

existing popular belief in the Vallabhacharya sect, 
that Vallabhacharya is believed to have been an in- 
carnation of the god Krishna, and that the Mah&- 
r&jas, as descendants of Vallabhacharya, have claimed 
and received from their followers the like character 
of incarnations of that god by hereditary succession. 
The ceremonies of the worship paid to Krishna 
through these priests are all of the most licentious 
character. The love and subserviency due to a Su- 
preme Being are here materialized and transferred 
to those who claim to be the living incarnations of 
the god. Hence the priests exercise an unlimited 
influence over their female votaries, who consider it 
a great honour to acquire the temporary regard of 
the voluptuous Mahdr&jas, the belief in whose preten- 
sions is allowed to interfere, almost vitally, with the 
domestic relations of husband and wife. The Mahd- 
r&ja libel case, tried in 1862 in the Supreme Court 
of Bombay, proved that the wealthiest and largest 
of the Hindoo mercantile communities of Central 
and Western India worshipped as a god a depraved 
priest, compared with whom an ancient satyr was 
an angeL Indeed, on becoming followers of that 
god, they make to his priest the oflfering of tan, man, 
and dhan, or body, mind, and property ; and so far 
does their folly extend that they will greedily drink 
the water in which he has bathed. There are about 
seventy or eighty of the Mahdrajas in diflferent parts 
of India. J'hey have a mark on the forehead, con- 

Miscellaneous Societies. 309 

sisting of two red perpendicular lines, meeting in 
a semi-circle at the root of the nose, and having a 
roimd - spot of red between them. Though not 
a secret society, strictly speaking, still, as its 
doings were to some extent kept secret, and their 
worst features, though proved by legal evidence, 
denied by the persons implicated, I have thought it 
right to give it a place here. 

481. Nemesis. — A society formed in 1842 at 
Paris, which, the better to intimate its intentions, 
also called itself the [^ Eevolutionary Tribunal, One 
and Indivisible/' When discovered by govern- 
ment, it counted twenty-two members. 

482. O'Kee-Pa. — A religious rite, commemora- 
tive of the flood, which was practised by the Man- 
dans, a now extinct tribe of Red Indians. The 
celebration was annual, and its object threefold,- 
viz. : — (1) to keep in remembrance the subsiding of 
the waters ; (2) to dance the bull-dance, to insure 
a plentiful supply of buffaloes (though the reader 
will see in it an allusion to the bull of the zodiac, 
the vernal equinox); and (3) to test the courage 
and power of endurance of the young men who, 
during the past year, had arrived at the age of man- 
hood, by great bodily privations and tortures. Part 
of the latter were inflicted in the secresy of the 
'^ Medicine-hut,^' outside of which stood the Big 
Canoe, or Mandan Ark, which only the ^^ Mystery- 
Men'' were allowed to touch or look into. The 

310 Secret Societies. 

tortures, as witnessed by Catlin, consisted in forcing 
sticks of wood under the dorsal or pectoral mus- 
cles of the victim, and then suspending him by 
these sticks from the top of the hut, and turning 
him round until he fainted, when he was taken 
down and allowed to recover consciousness ; where- 
upon he was driven forth among the multitude 
assembled without, who chased him round the 
village, treading on the cords attached to the bits 
of wood sticking in his flesh, until these latter fell 
out by tearing the flesh to pieces. Like the an- 
cient mysteries, the 0-Kee-Pa ended with drunken 
and vicious orgies. 

483. Pantheists. — A German society in which the 
maxims contained in Toland's '^ Pantheisticon^' were 

484. Phi^Betor^i^a. — The Bavarian Illuminati, 
according to some accounts, spread to America, 
where they adopted the above grotesque title. 

485. Pilgrims. — ^A society, whose existence was 
discovered at Lyons in 1825, through the arrest 
of one of the brethren, a Prussian shoemaker, on 
whom was found the printed catechism of the 
society. Though the Pilgrims aimed above all at 
religious reform, yet their catechism was modelled 
on that of the Freemasons. 

486. The Purrah. — Between the river of Sierra 
Leone and Cape Monte, there exist five nations of 
Foulahs-Sousous, who form among themselves a 

Miscellaneous Societies. 311 

kind of federative republic. Each colony has its 
particular magistrates and local government; but 
they are subject to an institution which they call 
Purrah. It is an association of warriors, which 
from its effects is very similar to the secret tribunal 
formerly existing in Germany and known by the 
name of the Holy Vehm (166) ; and on account 
of its rites and mysteries closely resembles the 
ancient initiations. Bach of the five colonies has 
its own peculiar Purrah, consisting of twenty-five 
members; and from each of these particular tribunals 
are taken five persons, who form the Grand Purrah 
or supreme tribunal. 

To be admitted to a district Purrah the candi- 
date must be at least thirty years of age; to be a 
member of the Grand Purrah, he must be fifty years 
old. All his relations belonging to the Purrah be- 
come security for the candidate's conduct, and bind 
themselves by oath to sacrifice him, if he flinch dur- 
ing the ceremony, or if, after having been admitted, 
he betray the mysteries and tenets of the association. 

In each district comprised in the institution of the 
Purrah there is a sacred wood whither the candidate 
is conducted, and where he is confined for several 
months in a solitary and contracted habitation, and 
neither speaks nor quits the dwelling assigned 
to him. If he attempt to penetrate into the 
forest which surrounds him, he is instantly slain. 
After several months' preparation the candidate is 

312 Secret Societies. 

admitted to the trials the last proofs of which are said 
to be terrible. All the elements are employed to 
ascertain !his resolution and courage; lions and 
leopards^ in some degree chained^ are made use of; 
daring the time of the proof the sacred woods 
resound with dreadful bowlings; conflagrations 
appear in the nighty seeming to indicate general 
destruction; while at other times fire is seen to 
pervade these mysterious woods in all directions. 
Every one whose curiosity excites him to profane 
these sacred parts, is sacrificed without mercy. 
When the candidate has undergone all the degrees 
of probation, he is permitted to be initiated, an oath 
being previously exacted firom him that he will 
keep all the secrets, and execute without demur all 
the decrees of the Purrah of his tribe or of the Grand 
and Sovereign Purrah. 

Any member turning traitor or rebel is devoted 
to death, and sometimes assassinated in the midst of 
his family. At a moment when a guilty person least 
expects it, a warrior appears before him, masked 
and armed, who says : — " The Sovereign Purrah de- 
crees thy death/' On these words every person 
present shrinks back, no one makes the least resist- 
ance, and the victim is killed. The common Purrah of 
a tribe takes cognizance of the crimes committed 
within its jurisdiction, tries the criminals, and exe- 
cutes their sentences ; and also appeases the quarrels 
that arise among powerful families. 

Miscellaneous Societies, 313 

It is only on extraordinary occasions that the 
Grand Purrah assembles for the trial of those who 
betray the mysteries and secrets of the order, or 
rebel against its dictates; and it is this assembly 
which generally puts an end to the wars that some- 
times break out between two or more tribes. Prom 
the moment when the Grand Purrah has assembled 
for the purpose of terminating a war, till it has 
decided on the subject, every warrior of the belli- 
gerent parties is forbidden to shed a drop of blood 
under pain of death. The deliberations of the 
Purrah generally last a month, after which the guilty 
tribe is condemned to be pillaged during four days. 
The warriors who execute the sentence are taken 
from the neutral cantons ; and they disguise them- 
selves with frightful masks, are armed with poniards, 
and carry lighted torches. They arrive at the doomed 
villages before break of day, kill all the inhabitants 
that cannot make their escape, and carry off what- 
ever property of value they can find. The plunder 
is divided into two parts ; one part being allotted to 
the tribe against which the aggression had been 
committed, whilst the other part goes to the Grand 
Purrah, which distributes it among the warriors who 
executed the sentence. 

When any family of the tribes under the com- 
mand of the Purrah becomes too powerful and ex- 
cites alarm, the Grand Purrah assembles to delibe- 
rate on the subject, and almost always condemns it 

314 Secret Societies. 

to sadden and unexpected pillage; which is executed 
by night, and always by warriors masked and 

The terror and alarm which this confederation 
excites amongst the inhabitants of the countries 
where it is established, and even in the neighbour- 
ing territories, are very great. The negroes of the 
Bay of Sierra Leone never speak of it without 
reserve and apprehension ; for they believe that all 
the members of the confederation are sorcerers, and 
that they have communication with the devil. The 
Purrah has an interest in propagating these pre- 
judices, by means of which it exercises an authority 
that no person dares to dispute. The number of 
members is supposed to be about 6,000, and they 
recognize each other by certain words and signs. 

487. The Bebecccdtes. — The Hunters. — The first 
was a society formed in Wales, for the abolition of 
toll-bars. Like) the Irish Whiteboys, the members 
dressed in white, and went about at night pulling 
down the toll-gates. Grovemment suppressed them. 
In 1837, after the first Canadian insurrection, a 
society of malcontents was formed under the title 
of " Hunters,^^ whose object was to bring about a 
second insurrection. But the society lasted only for 
two years, and ended in smoke. 

488. Redemption, Order of, — A secret and 
chivalrous society, which in its organization copied 
the order of the Knights of Malta. Its scope is 

Miscellaneom Societies. 315 

scarcely known, and it never went beyond the walls 
of Marseilles, where it was founded by a Sicilian 

489. Regenerationy Society of Universal. — It was 
composed of the patriots of various countries, who 
had taken refuge in. Switzerland between 1815 and 
1820. But though their aims were very compre- 
hensive, they ended in talk, of which professed 
patriots always have a Kberal supply on hand. 

490. Sikh Fanatics. — The new phase of Sikh 
fanaticism, which recently revealed its existence by 
the Kooka murders, may be traced to the following 
sources : — ^The movement was started a good many 
years since by one Ram Singh, a Sikh, whose head- 
quarters were fixed at the village of Bainee in the 
Loodhiana district. His teaching is said to have 
aimed at reforming the ritual rather than the creed 
of his countrymen. His followers, moreover, seem 
to have borrowed a hint or two from the dancing 
dervishes of Islam. At their meetings they worked 
themselves into a sort of religious frenzy, which 
relieved itself by unearthly bowlings, and hence 
they were generally known as the '^ Shouters.^' Men 
and women of the new sect joined together in a-sort 
of wild war-dance, yelling out certain forms of words, 
and stripping off all their clothing, as they whirled 
more and more rapidly round. Eam Singh himself 
had served in the old Sikh army, and one of his first 
moves was to get a number of his emissaries enlisted 

316 Secret Societies. 

into the army of the Maharajah of Cashmere. That 
ruler, it is said, would have taken a whole regiment 
of Kookas into his pay ; but for some reason or an- 
other this scheme fell to the ground. Possibly he 
took fright at the political influence which his new 
recruits might come in time to wield against him or 
his English allies. Ram Singh^s followers, however, 
multiplied apace ; and out of their number he chose 
his Keutenaints, whose preaching in time swelled the 
total of converts to something Uke 100,000. Of 
these aouhahsy or lieutenants, some twenty were dis- 
tributed about the Punjaub. The great bulk of 
their converts consisted of artisans and people of yet 
lower caste, who, having nothing to lose, indulged in 
wild dreams of future gain. Their leader^s power over 
them appears to have been very great. They obeyed 
his orders as cheerfully as the Assassins of yore obeyed 
the Old Man of the Mountain. If he had a message 
to send to one of his lieutenants, however far away, 
a letter was intrusted to one of his disciples, who ran 
full speed to the next station, and handed it to an- 
other, who forthwith left his own work, and 
hastened in like manner to deliver the letter to a 
third. In order to clinch his power over his fol- 
lowers. Ram Singh contrived to interpolate his 
own name in a passage of the' '' Grunth'^ — the Sikh 
Bible — which foretels the advent of another Ov/rUy 
prophet or teacher. But, whatever the teachings of 
this new religious leader, there is reason to think 

Miscellaneous Societies. 317 


that his ultimate aim was to restore the Sikhs to 
their old supremacy in the Punjaub by means of a 
religious revival. Secret murder and savage inti- 
midation appear to have been the weapons most 
frequently used to that end. Ram Singh^s name 
was connected with a brutal murder which happened 
in 1868; and his complicity with the recent out- 
rages of Umritsur and Raekote seems to have been 
placed beyond question by the appeal which one of 
his disciples made to him in open court. On his 
denial of the charge, his deluded follower replied, 
that he had always been taught to tell the truth, and 
now his own teacher lied. For the present, at any 
rate, a heavy blow appears to have been dealt at 
this movement by the promptitude with which pun- 
ishment followed crime. No new disciples are com- 
ing forward, and many are said to be falling away. 
Still a body nearly 100,000 strong, bound together 
by a common fanaticism, and impatient of foreign 
rule, will need very careful watching on our part. 

491. Tobaccological Society, — One of the most 
bizarre of Masonic variations with four degrees, 
that professed to teach the doctrines of Pythagoras, 
and which arose during the middle of the last cen- 
tury. The tobacco plant, its culture and manu- 
facture, were the subjects of symbolical instructions, 
the catechisms of which are still eitant. 

492. Universalists. — A Masonic society of one 
degree, established at Paris in 1841. 

318 Secret Societies. 

493. Thirteen, The. — A society that exercised an 
occult influence in Paris daring the First Empire. 
Balzac has founded on it one of his most charming' 

494. Thugs. — This association^ after having ex- 
isted in India for centuries, was only discovered in 
1810. The names by which the members were 
known to each other, and also to others, was Fun- 
siegeer, that is, '' men of the noose .'^ The name 
Thug is said to be derived from thaga, to deceive, 
because the Thugs get hold of their victims by 
luring them into false security. One common mode 
of decoying young men having valuables upon them 
is to place a young and handsome woman by the 
wayside, and apparently in great grief, who, by 
some pretended tale of misfortune, draws him, into 
the jungle, where the gang are lying in ambush, 
and on his appearance strangle him. The gang 
consists of from ten to fifty members ; and they will 
follow or accompany the marked-out victim for days, 
nor attempt his murder untU an opportunity, offer- 
ing every chance of success, presents itself. After 
every murder they perform a reUgious ceremony, 
called jagmi ; and the division of the spoil is regu- 
lated by old-established laws — the man that threw 
the handkerchief gets the largest share, the man 
that held the hands the next largest proportion, and 
so on. In some gangs their property is held in 
common. Their crimes are committed in honour of 

Miscellaneous Societies. 319 

Kali^ who hates our race, and to whom the death of 
man is a pleasing sacrifice. 

Kali, or Bhowany, for she is equally well known 
by both names, was, according to the Indian legend, 
bom of the burning eye which Shiva, one of the 
persons of the Brahmin trinity, has on his forehead, 
whence she issued, Kke the Greek Minerva out of 
the skull of Jupiter, a perfect and full-grown being. 
She represents the Evil Spirit, delights in human 
blood, presides over plague and pestilence, and 
directs the storm and hurricane, and ever aims at 
destruction. She is represented under the most 
frightful Q&gj the Indian mind pould conceive; 
her face is azure, streaked with yellow ; her glance 
is ferocious ; she wears her dishevelled and bristly 
hair displayed like the peacock^s tail and braided 
with green serpents. Her purple Ups seem stream- 
ing with blood ; her tusk-like teeth descend over 
her lower lip; she has eight or ten arms, each 
hand holding some murderous weapon, and some- 
times a human head dripping with gore. With 
one foot she stands on a human corpse. She has 
her temples, in which the people sacrifice cocks 
and bullocks to her ; but her priests are the Thugs, 
the ^^ Sons of Death," who quench the never-ending 
thirst of this divine vampyre. 

495. Traditions, — Like all similar societies, the 
Thugs have their traditions. According to them. 
Kali in the beginning determined to destroy the 

320 Secret Societies. 

whole huxDan race, with the exception, however,' of 
her faithful adorers and followers. These, taught 
by her,, slew all men that fell into their power. The 
victims at first were killed by the sword, and so 
great was the destruction her worshippers wrought, 
that the whole human race would have been extin- 
guished, had not Vishnu, the Preserver, interfered, 
by causing the blood thus shed to bring forth new 
living teings, so that the destructive action of 
Kali was counteracted. It was then this goddess, 
to nullify the good intention of Vishnu, forbade her 
followers to kill any more with the sword, but com- 
manded them to resort to strangulation. With her 
own hands she made a human figure of clay, and 
animated it with her breath. She then taught her 
worshippers how to kill without shedding blood. 
She also promised them that she would always 
bury the bodies of their victims, and destroy all 
traces of them. She further endowed her chosen 
disciples with superior courage and cunning, so as 
always to ensure them the victory over those they 
should attack. And she kept her promise. But 
in the course of time corrupt manners crept in even 
among the Thugs, and one of them, being curious 
to see what K&li did with the dead bodies, watched 
her, as she was about to remove the corpse of a 
traveller he had slain. Goddesses, however, cannot 
thus be watched on the sly. Bhowany saw the 
peeper, and stepping forth, thus addressed him :— 

Miscellaneous Societies. 321 

^' Thou hast now beheld the awful countenance of a 
goddess, which none can behold and Uve. But I 
shall spare thy days, though as a punishment of 
thy crime, I shall not protect thee as I have done 
hitherto, and the punishment will extend to all 
thy brethren. The corpses of those you kill will 
no longer be buried or concealed by me ; you your- 
selves will be obHged to take the necessary measures 
for that purpose, nor will you always be successful ; 
sometimes you will fall under the profane laws of 
the world, which will be your eternal punishment. 
Nothing will remain to you but the superior intelli- 
gence and skiU I have given you, and henceforth I 
shall direct you by auguries only, which you must 
diligently consult/' Hence their superstitious 
belief in omens. They study divination by birds 
and jackals, and by throwing the hatchet, and as it 
falls so they take their route. Any animal crossing 
the road from left to right, on their first setting 
out, is considered a bad omen, and the expedition 
consequently is given up for that day. 

Strange that in the corrupted traditions of 
Thugs, murderers and thieves, we should encounter 
first the ancient idea of the spontaneous birth of 
knowledge, both of good and evil; further, the 
prototype of the beautiful fable of Cupid and 
Psyche, and the Mosaic account of the fall of man ; 
and thirdly, the enunciation of the impossibility of 

II. Y 

322 Secret Societies. 

comprehending — for '' seeing ^^ here has this mean- 
ing — the Universal Intelligence. 

496. Initiation. — ^To be admitted into this horrible 
sect required a long and severe novitiate, during 
which the aspirant had to give the most convincing 
proofs of his fitness for admission. This having 
once been decided on, he was conducted by his 
sponsor to the mystical baptism, and clothed in 
white garments and his brow crowned with flowers. 
The preparatory rite being performed, the sponsor 
presented him to the gurhA, or spiritual head of the 
sect, who, in his turn, introduced him into a room 
set apart for such ceremonies, where the Hye- 
mader, or chiefs of the various gangs, awaited him. 
Being asked whether they will receive the candidate 
into the order, and having answered in the affirma- 
tive, he and the gurhii are led out into the open 
air, where the chiefs place themselves in a circle 
around the two, and kneel down to pray. Then 
the gurhii rises, and lifting up his hands to heaven, 
says : — " Bhowany ! Mother of the world ! " (this 
appellation seems very inappropriate, since she is a 
destroyer,) ^^ whose worshippers we are, receive this 
Thy new servant ; grant him Thy protection, and 
to us an omen, which assures us of Thy consent.'^ 
They remain in this position, until a passing bird, 
quadruped, or even mere cloud, has given them 
this assurance; whereupon they return to the 
chamber, where the neophyte is invited to partake 

Miscellaneous Societies. 323 

of a banquet spread out for the occasion, after which ' 
the ceremony is over. The newly admitted member 
then takes the appellation of Sahib-Zada, He 
commences his infamous career as luglmhy or grave- , 
digger^ or as belhaly or explorer of the spots most 
convenient for executing a projected assassination, 
or bhil. In this condition he remains for several 
years, until he has given abundant proof of his 
ability and good will. He is then raised to the 
degree of bhuttotah, or strangler, which advance- 
ment, however, is preceded by new formalities and 
ceremonies. On the day appointed for the cere- 
mony, the candidate is conducted by his gurhii into 
a circle, formed in the sands and surrounded by 
mysterious hieroglyphics, where prayers are offered 
up to their deity. The ceremony lasts four days, 
during which the candidate is allowed no other 
food but milk. He occupies himself in practising 
the immolation of victims fastened to a cross 
erected in the ground. On the fifth day the 
priest gives him the fatal noose, washed in holy 
water and anointed with oil, and after more reli- 
gious ceremonies, he is pronounced a perfect bhut- 
totah. He binds himself by fearful oaths to maintain 
the most perfect silence on all that concerns the 
society, and to labour without ceasing towards the 
destruction of the human race. He is the rex 
BCbcrijiculus) and the person he encounters, and 
Bhowany places in his way, the victim. Certain 

324 Secret Societies. 

persons, however, are excepted from the attacks of 
the Thugs. The hierophant, on initiating the 
candidate, says to him : — '^ Thou hast chosen, my 
son, the most ancient profession, the most accept- 
able to the deity. Thou hast sworn to put to death 
every human being fate throws into thy hand; 
there are, however, some that are exempt from our 
laws, and whose death would not be grateful to our 
deity .^' These belong to some particular . tribes 
and castes, which he enumerates; persons who 
squint, are lame, or otherwise deformed, are also 
exempt ; so are washerwomen, for some cause not 
clearly ascertained ; and as K41i was supposed to co- 
operate with the murderers, women also were safe 
from them, but only when travelling alone, without 
male protector ; and orthodox Thugs date the de- 
terioration of Thuggism from the first murder of a 
woman by some members of the society, after 
which the practice became common. 
' The Thugs had their saints and martyrs, Thora 
and Kudull being two of the most famous, who are 
invoked by the followers of Bhowany. Worshippers 
of a deity delighting in blood, those whom the 
English Government condemned to death, oflFered 
her their own lives with the same readiness with 
which they had taken those of others. They met 
death with indifference, nay, with enthusiasm, 
firmly believing that they should at once enter 
paradise. The only favour they asked, was to be 

Miscellaneous Societies. 326 

strangled or hanged ; they have an intense horror 
of the sword and the shedding of blood, as they 
killed by the cord, so they wished to die by it. 

497. Suppression. — When the existence of the 
society was first discovered, many would not believe 
in it ; yet in course of time the proofs became so 
convincing that it could no longer be ignored, and 
the British Government took decided measures to 
suppress the Thugs. The crimes some of them 
had committed, indeed, almost exceed belief. One 
Thug, who was hanged at Lucknow in 1825, was 
legally convicted of having strangled six hundred 
persons. Another, an octogenarian, confessed to 
nine hundred and ninety-nine murders, and de- 
clared that respect for the profession alone had 
prevented him from making it a full thousand, be- 
cause a round number was considered among them 
rather vulgar. But in spite of vigorous measures 
on the part of Great Britain, the sect could not be 
entirely destroyed ; it is a religious order, and as 
such has a vitality greater than that of political or 
merely criminal associations. It was still in exist- 
ence but a few years ago, and no doubt has its 
adherents even now. It always had protectors in 
some of the native princes, who shared their booty, 
and such may now be the case. The society has a 
temple at Mirzapore, on the Granges. 

A Thug, who during the Indian rebellion turned 
informer, confessed to having strangled three women. 

326 Secret Societies. 

besides, perhaps, one hundred men. Yet this fellow 
was most pleasing and amiable in appearance and 
manners ; but, when relating his deeds of blood, he 
would speak of them with all the enthusiasm of an 
old warrior remembering heroic feats, and all the 
instincts of the tiger seemed to re-awaken in him. In 
spite of this, however, he caused some two hundred 
of his old companions to be apprehended by our 

498. Wahahees, — This sect, the members of 
which lately attracted considerable attention on ac- 
count of their suspected connection with the murder 
of Chief Justice Norman at Calcutta, has the following 
origin : — ^About 1740, a Mahommedan reformer ap- 
peared in Nejd, named Abdu^l Wahdb, and conquered 
great part of Arabia from the Turks. He died in 1787, 
having founded a sect known as the Wahabees, who 
took Mecca and Medina, and almost expelled the 
Turk from the Land of the Prophet. But in 1818, 
the power of these fierce reformers waned in Arabia, 
only to re-appear in India, under a new leader, one 
Saiyid Ahmad, who had been a godless trooper in 
the plundering bands of Amir Khan, the first Nawab 
of Tonk. But in 1816 he went to Delhi to study 
law, and his fervid imagination drank in greedily the 
new subject. He became absorbed in meditation, 
which degenerated into epileptic trances, in which 
he saw visions. In three years he left Delhi as a 
new prophet; and, journeying to Patna'and Oal- 

Miscellaneous Societies. 327 

cutta, was surrounded by admiring crowds, who 
hung upon his accents, and received with ecstasy 
the divine lesson to slay the infidel, and drive the 
armies of the foreigner from India. In 1823, he 
passed through Bombay to Rohilkhand, and having 
there raised an army of the faithful, he crossed the 
land of the Five Rivers, and settled like a thunder- 
cloud on the mountains to the north-east of Pesha- 
wur. Since then the rebel camp thus founded has 
been fed from the head centre at Patna with bands 
of fanatics and money raised by taxing the faithful. 
Twenty sanguinary campaigns against this rebel 
host, aided by the surrounding Afghan tribes, have 
failed to dislodge them ; and they remain to encour- 
age any invader of India, any enemy of the English, 
to whom they would undoubtedly aflford immense 
assistance ('^Athenaeum,'^ 26th Aug, 1871). Though 
the general impression in England and India seems 
to be that the murder of Mr. Norman is not to be 
attributed to a Wahdbee plot ; yet so little is known 
of the constitution, numerical strength, and aims of 
the secret societies of India, that an overweening 
confidence in the loyalty of the alien masses — as 
the '^ Times " curiously enough terms them, I sup- 
pose in imitation of Mrs. Ramsbottom, who was so 
very indignant, when living in Prance, at being 
called 2i, foreigner — on the part of the English resi- 
dents in India, is greatly to be condemned. ^' This 
dreadful murder,^^ says the ^' Telegraph,^^ ^^ is a rea- 

328 Secret Societies. 

son for intelligent and unremitting vigilance among 
the chiefs of the police, for public and unyielding 
defiance of danger among all our English officials, 
and for sharp watchfulness by the Government of 
that nest of Wahabee fanatics on the northern fron- 

499. Yellow Gaps, Society of the, — A society 
said to have been founded in China, under the reign 
of Sing-Ti, in the second century of our era, nmn- 
bering among its members the flower of Chinese 
litterateurs, who aimed at political power. 




VOL. I. 

Page 8, line 5 from bottom, for '' appositions'* read " apparitions." 

P. 31, 1. 8 from top, for " How " read « Now.'* 

P. 31 , 1. 9 from top, for " How " read " Now." 

P. 31, 1. 9 from bottom, for " Ihot " read « Thot." 

P. 54, 1. 11 from top, after " Legend of the Temple," insert 

P. 61, 1. 2 from top, for '^labulon" read " Jabulon." 

P. 78, 1. 5 from top. Cadmus is not to be understood to signify a 
man. The Phenician word " cadm" means '* the East," hence the 
meaning of the passage is, that the mysteries and learning came 
from that quarter. 

P. 90, 1. 12 from bottom, for " from " read " with." 

P. 97, 1. 2 from top, after « hereafter" insert " (78)." 

P. 117, 1. 1 from top, for " shameful" read " changeftd." 

P. 118. To list of authorities, add, '<Molitor's Philosophic der 

P. 139, last line. '^ Cathari " means the ^' pure." 

P. 149, 1. 3 from top, ^^ Langue d'Ozl,"* more correctly " Lang^ 

P. 150, 1. 3 from bottom, after {which see) place (272-277). 

P. 158. A green glass vase, said to be the original San Graal, is 
preserved in the cathedral of Genoa, and considered so valuable 
that it requires a special permission from the municipality to see it. 

P. 194, § 163. To the derivation of the term " Baphomet" sug- 
gested in the text, may be added that from the Provencal bqfa, a 

P. 196, 1. 9 from top, for " Moulay " read « Molay." 

P. 204, 1. 10 from top, for ** him " read «« them." 

P. 227, 1. 6 from top, for « X " read « + " 

P. 238. To list of Masonic authorities, add, " Origine de la Mag<m' 
nerie Adonhiramite, Helyopolis, 1787." 

P. 259, 1. 6 from top, after " ^ ** insert " or tl." 

P. 280, 1. 1 from bottom, for " 210 " read " 212." 

P. 290, L 4 from bottom, for « Jebunah " read " Tebunah." 

Corrections and Additions. 

p. 331, L 4 from bottom, between ^* masons'* and '^ turned** insert 

*• it is averred.*' 

P. 345, 1. 3 from bottom, for "Abatement ** read *< Abasement." 

P. 358, L 3 from bottom, for "poM^r** read ^fourrer!" 

P. 384. Add at end of chapter, " According to the Almanacco . 

del Libera MunUore for 1873, there are now in existence 89 Grand 

Lodges and 11,678 Lodges, with rather more than, two millions of 


VOL. n. 

p. 10, 1. 11 from bottom, for "explanation." read '* explanation — ** 
P. 10, 1. 8 from bottom, for " Sophia, heavenly Virgin," read "The 

heav'nly Virgin Sophia.** 
P. 10, L 3 from bottom, for ^' abysmal** read ** abyssal** 
P. 11, L 1 from top, for « No** read "Its.** 
P. 1 1, 1. 8 from top, for " in** read " is.*' 
P. 11, L 12 from top, for " thought*' read " Nought." 
P. 11, L 13 from top, for ''bent on self-manifesting " read "in 

P. 11, L 3 frt)m bottom, for " Whilom the wise Sophia showed" 

read " was whilom shown by Sophia to." 
P. 12, L 6 from top, for "Sophia, Virgin,** read "The Virgin 

Sophia*' (Sophia, in theosophy, is pronounced as shown, with ckissi- 

cal accentuation on the first syllable, the i being short). 
P. 14, 1. 3 from bottom, for « Leadley ** read " Lead." 
P. 82, 1. 9 from bottom, for " fitches " read " finches."