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Full text of "Secrets of meat curing and sausage making; how to cure hams, shoulders, bacon, corned beef, etc., and how to make all kinds of sausage, etc., to comply with the pure food laws"

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THIRD EDITION 



E 



SECRETS OF 

MEAT CURING 

AN D 

SAUSAGE MAKING 

HOW TO CURE 

HAMS, SHOULDERS, BACON 
CORNED BEEF, ETC 

AND 

HOW TO MAKE ALL 

KINDS OF 

SAUSAGE, ETC. 

TO COMPLY WITH THE 

PURE FOOD LAWS 



PUBLISHED BY 

B. HELLER & CO. 

MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS 

CHICAGO. U.S. A. 

May, 1916 



B.HELL] :fl Seen. 



i^5 
INDEX 

a v 

Age for Killing 173 

Ant-Bane . . .279 

Aseptifume 268 

■ 

B 

Bacon, Advice on Curing 217 

Bacon, Breakfast, How to Pump 63 

Bacon, Failure in Curing, Cause of 234 

Bacon, Heavy Bellies, How to Cure 6, 

Bacon, How to Keep for Six Months 21 * 

Bacon, How to Keep for a Year c 

Bacon, How to Wash Before Smoking f 

Bacon, Light Bellies, How to Cure 6* 

Bacon, Molding, How to Prevent 239 

Bacon, Sugar Cured Breakfast 62 

Barometer, Paper, How to Make 193 

Barrel Packing 112 

Barrel Pork, Description of o c 

Barrel Pork, How to Cure 

Barrel Pork, Need Not Be Overhauled . 

Barrel Pork, Temperature for Curing 9b 

Beef Cheeks, Direction for Dry Salting 120 

Beef Cheeks, How to Cure for Bologna and 

Frankf urts 1 19 

Beef Cheeks, How to Cure for Canning 101 

Beef Hams, How to Cure 69 

Beef Hearts, How to Cure for Bologna 121 

Beef Livers, How to Cure 104 

Beef Tongue, Garlic Flavored 100 * 

Beef Tongue, How to Cure 99 

Beef Trimmings, How to Cure Ill 

Begin Curing Meat in the Pen 32 

Belly Pork, Description 95 

Berliner Style Ham, How to Make 109 

Berliner Style Ham Meat, How to Cure 108 

Blood Sausage 137 

Blood Sausage, Directions for Making. 138 



CHICAGO, U. S.A. 



ockwurst, How to Make 147 

I oiling Bologna, Large 116 

oiling Bologna, Round 116 

boiling Ham 74 

iling the Brine 82 

cgua, Coating to Prevent Mold 219 

g^logna, Drawing Water and Being Dry 202 

i>ol"->gna, How to Make from Fresh Beef 113 

Boiling Thermometers 281 

Bologna Fat, How to Salt 116 

Bologna, Freeze-Em Pickle Used for 248 

Bologna, How to Make Red Without Color 244 

Bologna, How to Boil 116 

Bologna Meat, How to Cure 110 

Bologna Sausage, Formula 114 

Bologna, Taking Water in Cooking 216 

Bologna, Why It Shrivels 216 

Bologna, Why It Draws Water 198 

Bologna, Without Artificial Coloring 244 

Boneless Ham 107 

Boneless Rolled Butt Sausage 107 

Boneless Rolled Shoulder, How to Cure : . . 59 

Boston Shoulders 56 

Brains, How to Keep from Spoiling 148 

Branding Hams 222 

Brine, Absorbs Foreign Odors 91 

Brine, Boiling 228 

Brine, How to Boil 82 

Brine, How Long Should be Used 91 

Brine, Ropy or Stringy, Cause of 81 

Brine, Temperature It Should Be 47 

Brine Testing Hydrometers 283 

Brine Troubles, How to Overcome 210 

Brine, When to Use Twice 74 

Brass Polish 274 and 276 

Braunschweiger Liver Sausage, How to Make.. .135 

Bull Meat, Why It Is Best for Sausage 193 

Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Description of 252 

Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Imitation 203 

Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Imitation 236 

Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Price List 253 

Bursting of Casings, How to Prevent 125 

Butcher Business, How to Start 222 

Butt Pork, Description of 95 

Butt Sausage 107 

Butts, How to Cure in Closed up Tierces 106 

3 




b.he: i-l.e:!^ Sc cd. 



Butts, How to Cure in Open Tierces 105 

Butts, How to Overhaul in Open Packages 106 

Butts, Quantity of Brine Necessary for Curing.. 105 

Butts, Shoulders, How to Cure 104 

Butts, Square Cut, How to Cure 56 

C 

California Hams, How to Cure 56 

Calves' Stomachs or Rennets, How to Handle.. 80 

Casings, Bursting, How to Prevent 125 

Casing Color 260 and 261 

Casings, for Holstein Style Sausage, How to 

Color 143 

Casings, for Polish Style Sausage, How to Color. 146 
Casings, for Swedish Style Metwurst, How to 

Color 144 

Casings, Frankfurts, How to Color 119 

Casings, How to Clean 187 

Casings, How to Color in Government Inspected 

Packing House 117 

Casings, How to Prepare before Stuffing 124 

Casings, How to Remove Fat 226 

Casings, Shrinking, How to Prevent 125 

Cattle and Sheep Dip, Price List 280 

Cervelat Sausage, How to Make 140 

Cheeks, Beef, How to Cure for Canning 101 

Cheese, Head, How to Make 131 

Chemists, Consulting 25 

Chile Powder 256 

Chill Room Temperature 43 

Chilling Meats to be Cured 72 

Chipped Beef, How to Make 69 

Chow Chow 156 

Cleaning Lard Tierces 87 

Cleansing Curing Packages 82 

Clear Back Pork, Description 95 

Clear Bean Pork, Description 95 

Clear Brisket Pork, Description 95 

Cold Storage Thermometers 282 

Cold Storine, Legal to Use 243 

Cold Storine, Description and Price List 267 

Coloring Frankfurt Sausage Casings 119 

Coloring Sausage Casings 117 

Coloring Sausage Meat Artificially Is Illegal. .. .231 
Compound Lard ...,,, 167 

4 



CHIEAQQ U. &.'J>Li 



Compounding Lard with Cottonseed Oil 168 

Condimentine, "A" 264 

Condimentine, "B" 265 

Condition of Meat Before Curing . . 47 

Cooked Corned Beef, How to Make 65 

Cooler, How to Build 215 

Cooler, Temperature for Dry Salting 94 

Coolers, Why They Sweat 242 

Copper Polish 274 and 276 

Corned Beef Brine, How to Make 65 

Corned Beef, Cooked, How to Make. . . . -. . . .,,, 68 

Corned Beef, Garlic Flavored ... .... 67 

Corned Beef, How to Know When Fully Cured. 66 

Corned Beef, How to Pump 67 

Corned Beef, Importance of Making. 64 

Corned Beef, Rolled and Spiced 71 

Corned Beef, Seasoning of 66 

Corned Beef, Tough and Salty 211 

Cotton Seed Oil Lard Compound 168 

Cured Meat, Keeping During Summer 238' 

Curing Dried Salt Meat 93 

Curing Hams 50 

Curing Meat, Cause of Failure. 241 

Curing Meat from Farmer Killed Hogs 240 

Curing Meat, General Hints on Curing 72 

Curing Meats, Quickest Way 209 

Curing Packages, How to Cleanse 82 

Curing Pork the Year Around . 33 

Curing Shoulders . . . . 56 

Curing Vats, Difference in Size 53 

Curing with the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process 48 

Cutting the Hind Shank Bone . . 39 

Cutting Meat, Experience Necessary .224 



D 

Difference Between Bull-Meat-Brand- Flour and 

Potato Flour 201 

Dill Pickles 157 

Disinfectant 269 

Dressing Hogs on the Farm 183 

Dressing Mutton 181 

Dressing Poultry 158 

Dried Beef Ends, How to Utilize 213 

Dried Beef, Fancy, How to Make 69 

5 



B. HE E LLE !R. Sc CZ □. 



MS 



Dried Beef, How to Keep for a Year 90 

Dried Beef, Why It Does Not Thoroughly Dry. 192 

Dried Salt Meat, Wash Before Smoking 90 

Drippings from Refrigerator Pipes 97 

Dry Salt Meats 92 

Dry Salt Curing, Without an Ice Machine 94 

Dry Salt Side Meats, How to Cure 93 

Dry Salt Sides, How Long to Cure 94 

E 

Eggs, How to Preserve 229 

Extra Long Clears, Description 92 

Extra Short Clears, Description 92 

Extra Short Ribs, Description 92 

F 

Facing Hams in a Packing House 40 

Family Pork, Lean, Description 95 

Farmer Killed Hogs, How to Cure 240 

Fat, How to Salt for Bologna 116 

Fat Trimmings, Utilizing 247 

Feet, Pigs, Fresh 148 

Fertilizer, How to Make From Beef Blood 200 

Flavors, Prepared Sausage 254 and 255 

Flour, Bull-Meat-Brand, Price List 252 and 253 

Fly Chaser, Price List 280 

Fly Paper, Sticky, How to Make 159 

Food Laws, Complying with in Curing Meat .... 237 

Frankfurt Casings, How to Color 119 

Frankfurt Casings, Momentary Dipping of 117 

Frankfurts, How to Make Red Without Color... 244 

Frankfurts, How to Make from Fresh Beef 113 

Frankfurts, How to Make Without Artificial 

Color 110 

Frankfurts, How Made to Comply with Pure 

Food Laws 110 

Frankfurt Sausage, How to Make 118 

Frankfurt Sausage Meat, How to Cure. 110 

Freeze-Em 251 

Freeze-Em Pickle, Process 48, 49 

Freeze-Em Pickle for Blood Sausage 137 

Freeze-Em Pickle for Curing Bacon 62 

Barrel Pork 96 

Beef 65 

Beef Trimmings Ill 

6 



CHI CAGQ.'U/B.A, 



Beef Hams and Shoulders 69 

Bologna and Frankfurts from Fresh Beef, How 

to Make 113 

Cheeks i 101 

Dry Salt Meat 93, 120 

Hams 50 

Livers : . . 103 

Meat Without Ice Machine 94 

Pigs' Feet 149 

Shoulders 56 

Tongues 99 

Freeze-Em Pickle for Curing Meat for Bockwurst. 147 

Bologna Sausage 110, 119 

Boneless Hams 107 

Boneless Shoulders 59 

German Style Ham Sausage 123 

Hamburger 127 

Head Cheese 131 

Holstein Style Sausage 142 

Liver Sausage 134 

Metwurst 144 

Polish Style Sausage 145 

Rolled Spiced Beef 71 

Freeze-Em Pickle, Description of 49, 248 

Different from Freeze-Em 209 

Directions for Using 48, 56, 62, 65, 69 

Directions for Pumping 76 

Guaranty 250 

Imitation 225 

Keeps Meat Red 244 

Legal Everywhere 196 

Legal to Use 206 

Price of 249 

Fresh Pigs' Feet, How to Keep from Spoiling. . .148 

Fresh Tripe, How to Keep from Spoiling 148 

Fullers Earth, How Used to Refine Lard 169 

Furniture Polish 275 



Garlic Flavored Corned Beef 67 

Garlic in Powdered Form 258 and 259 

General Hints for Curing Meats 72 

German Silver Polish 274 and 276 

German Style Ham Sausage, How to Make 123 

Golden Shine, Price List 276 



J— 



B.HE LLER. ScCD. 



Guaranty on Casing Mixture 262 

Guaranty on Freeze-Em Pickle 250 

Gutting Hogs in a Packing House 39 

Gutting Hogs on the Farm 186 

Gutting Mutton 182 

H 

Hamburger Sausage, How to Make. . , 127 

Hamburger Seasoning, Price List t . 255 

Hamburger Steak, How to Season 126 

Ham Facing in a Packing House 40 

Ham Sausage, German Style, How to Make 123 

Hams and Superior Hams 84 

Hams, Advice on Curing 217 

Hams, Boneless (Sausage) 107 

Hams, California, How to Cure 56 

Hams, Curing in Molasses and Syrup Barrels. .. 52 

Hams, How Packers Brand 222 

Hams, How to Boil 74 

Hams, How to Cure 50 

Hams, How to Cure in Closed Up Tierces 54 

Hams, How to Cure in Open Barrels 51 

Hams, How to Keep for a Year 90 

Hams, How to Overhaul in Open Packages 53 

Hams, How to Pump 76 

Hams, How to Wash Before Smoking 90 

Hams, Keeping for Six Months 212 

Hams, Molding, How to Prevent 239 

Hams, Picnic, How to Cure 56 

Hams, Quantity of Brine to Use for 100 lbs 52 

Hams, Shape of Vats for Curing 53 

Hams, Sour, Some Causes Why They Sour 83 

Hams, Souring, How to Prevent 196 

Hams, Souring in the Hock, How to Prevent. . . .213 

Hams, Souring in the Smoke House 225 

Hams, Use of Molasses and Syrup Barrels in 

Curing 52 

Head Cheese, How to Make 131 

Head Cheese, How to Make Solid 239 

Head Cheese Meat, How to Cure 131 

Hearts, How to Cure for Sausage 121 

Hides, Green, How to Trim 190 

Hides, How Long to Cure 190 

Hides, How to Handle 187 

8 



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Hides, How to Stack When Salting 189 

Hides, Proper Storage for Same 188 

Hides, Quantity of Salt to Use for Salting 189 

Hides, Salt to Use for Salting 188 

Hog Chill Room Ventilation 42 

Hog Gutting in a Packing House 39 

Hog Hoisting Machines 34 

Hog Livers, How to Cure 103 

Hog Scald, Price List 272 

Hog Scalding in a Packing House 36 

Hog Scraping in a Packing House 38 

Hog Splitting in a Packing House 41 

Hog Sticking 34 

Hog Tongues, How to Cure 101 

Hogs, How to Dress on the Farm 183 

Hogs, How to Gut on the Farm 186 

Hogs, How to Kill on the Farm 183 

Hoisting Hogs in a Large Packing House 33 

Holstein Style Sausage, Directions for Making . . 142 
Holstein Style Sausage, How to Color Casings. 143 

Horns, How to Polish 192 

Horse Radish 154 

Hydrometers, Description and Price 283 

I 

Ice vs. Ice Machines in Small Plants 200 

Ice Water 74 

Italian Style Salami Sausage, How to Make 141 

J 
Jell-Jell 257 

K 

Keeping Sausage in Warm Weather 148 

Killing and Dressing Cattle 175 

Killing Hogs on the Farm 183 

Killing Mutton 181 

Killing on the Farm 173 

Knives, How to Sharpen for Meat Grinding Ma- 
chines 240 

Konservirungs-Salt, White and Red Berliner 
Brand, Price List 266 

9 



b. h e ljle :r. ac cz o. 






Konservirungs-Salt, Legality of 242 

Kraut, Sauer, How to Make 155 

L 

Lard Compound 167 

Lard, Handling in a Settling Tank and Agitator. 165 

Lard, How It Is Refined in Packing Houses 169 

Lard, How to Purify 166 

Lard, How to Refine with Fuller's Earth 169 

Lard, How to Render 160 

Lard, How to Settle in a Settling Tank 162 

Lard, Not Purified 167 

Lard Purifier, Price List 263 

Lard Purifying with Only a Common Kettle. . . .163 

Lard, Rendering in a Jacket Kettle 161 

Lard, Rendering in a Steam Jacket Kettle 207 

Lard, Separating from Water 230 

Lard, Strong from Boars 238 

Lard Tierces, How to Cleanse 87 

Lard, Why It Foams When Using Purifier 202 

Lard, Why Oil Separates From It 218 

Larding Needles, How Used 241 

Leaf Lard Pulling in a Packing House 40 

Lean Backs, Description 92 

Lean End Pork, Description 95 

Liver Sausage 134 

Liver Sausage, Braunsweiger 135 

Liver Sausage, Directions for Making 134 

Liver Sausage, How to Smoke 136 

Liver Sausage Meat, How to Cure 134 

Livers, How to Cure 103 

Livers, How to Cure 104 

Loin Back, Description 92 

Loin Pork, Description 95 

Long Clears, Description 92 

Lunch Ham Meat, How to Cure 108 

M 

Meat, Condition Before Curing 47 

Meat, Curing Failure, Cause of 241 

Meat Curing, Quickest Way 209 

Meat, Cutting, Experience Necessary 224 

Meat, Fresh, Molding in the Cooler 233 

10 



CHICACD U. S.J=L. 



Meat Grinder Knives, How to Sharpen 240 

Meat, How to Chill for Curing 72 

Meat, How to Cure from Farm Killed Hogs 240 

Meat, Rusty, Cause of 227 

Meat Testing Thermometers, Description and 

Price 284 

Mess Pork, Description of 95 

Mess Pork, Short Cut, Description of 95 

Metal Polish, Description and Price List . 274 and 276 

Mince Meat 152 

Mold, How to Prevent on Sausage, Hams and 

Bacons 239 

Mutton, How to Dress 181 

Mutton, How to Gut 182 

Mutton, How to Kill 181 

N 

Neat's Foot Oil 172 

New England Style Ham, How to Make Solid.. 239 
New England Style Pressed Ham, How to Make. 109 
New England Style Pressed Ham Meat, How to 

Cure 108 

New York Shoulder, Description 56 

O 

Oil, Neat's Foot 172 

Overhauling Barreled Pork 97 

Overhauling Hams and Shoulders When Curing. 73 

Overhauling Meats 73 

Ozo Washing Powder, Price List 270 

Ozo Waste Pipe Opener 271 

P 

Packing in Barrels or Tierces 112 

Packer Who Was Deceived 207 

Peppered Beef, How to Make 247 

Piccalilli 156 

Pickle Tester, Description and Price 283 

Pickle Soaked Meats, How to Smoke 86 

Pickled Meats, How to Keep for a Year 90 

Pickled Pigs' Feet 149 

Pickled Pigs' Feet, How to Store 150 

li 



B. 13 E LLER&CD. 



■^rtf 



Pickled Pigs Tongues 154 

Pickled Spare Ribs, How to Cure 98 

Pickled Tripe 150 

Pickles, Dill, How to Make 157 

Picnic Ham, Description 56 

Picnic Ham, Directions for Curing 56 

Pig Pork, Description 95 

Pigs' Feet, Fresh, How to Keep from Spoiling. . .148 

Pigs' Feet, How to Pickle 149 

Pigs' Feet, Pickled, How to Store 150 

Pigs' Tongues, How to Pickle 154 

Polish, Furniture 275 

Polish, Metal 274 and 276 

Polish Style Sausage, How to Make 145 

Polish Style Sausage Casings, How to Color.... 146 

Polish, Silver 274, 276 

Polishing Horns 192 

Pork, Barreled, How to Cure 96 

Pork, Bean, Description 95 

Pork, Belly, Description 95 

Pork, Butts, Description 95 

Pork Cheeks, Directions for Dry Salting 120 

Pork, Clear Back, Description 95 

Pork, Clear Brisket, Description 95 

Pork, Curing the Year Around 33 

Pork, Extra Short Clears, Description 95 

Pork, Hearts, How to Cure for Bologna 121 

Pork, How to Treat When Too Salty 236 

Pork, in Barrels, Temperature for Curing 96 

Pork, Lean Ends, Description 95 

Pork, Lean Family, Description 95 

Pork, Loins, Description 95 

Pork, Mess, Description « 95 

Pork, Pig, Description 95 

Pork, Rib Brisket, Description 95 

Pork Sausage m 129 

Pork Sausage, Great Importance of Using a Good 

Binder 129 

Pork Sausage, Smoked 130 

Pork Sausage, Preventing from Souring in Warm 

Weather 205 

Pork Sausage Seasbning, Price List 255 

Pork, Short Cut, Mess, Description. 95 

Pork Trimmings, How to Cure Ill 

Poultry, How to Dress 158 

Preparing Stock for Slaughter 174 

12 



51 



CZHICACjCI u. s.j=l. 



Pressed Corned Beef 68 

Pressed Ham 108 

Pressing Lard 161 

Pulling Leaf Lard in a Packing House 40 

Pumping Breakfast Bacon. . . . 63 

Pumping Corned Beef 67 

Pumping Hams 76 

Pumping Meats, Directions 76 

Pumping Meats, Hams, Bacon, etc 75 

Pumping Pickle, How to Make 76 

Pumping Shoulders 77 

Pure Food Laws 30 

Pure Food Laws, Complying with in Curing 

Meat 237 

Purifying Lard in a Common Rendering Kettle. .163 
Purifying Tallow 221 

R 

Rat Killer, Description and Price List 277 

Red Color in Bologna, How to Produce Without 

Artificial Color 244 

Refining Lard with Fuller's Earth 169 

Refrigerator Pipe Drippings 97 

Rendering Lard 160 

Rendering Lard and Handling in an Agitator. . .164 

Rendering Lard and Settling It 162 

Rendering Lard, Using a Settling Tank and Agi- 
tator 165 

Rendering Lard Without a Settling Tank 164 

Rennets, How to Handle 80 

Rib Brisket Pork, Description 95 

Roach Powder, Description and Price List 278 

Rolled Boneless Butt Sausage 107 

Rolled Boneless Shoulder, How to Cure 59 

Rolled Spiced Corned Beef 71 

Ropy Brine 228 

Ropy Brine, What Causes It 81 

Ropy Brine, When Using Old Barrels 199 

Royal Metal Polish, Price List 274 

Rusty Meat, Cause of 227 

13 



B. K E LLE I=L Sc CD. 



31 



s 

Salami Sausage, How to Make 141 

Salometers, Description and Price 283 

Salt for Making Brine 228 

Salt Pork, How to Treat 236 

Salting Fat for Bologna 116 

Sanitary Fluid 269 

Sauer Kraut 155 

Sausage, Blood 137 

Sausage, Blood, Directions for Making 138 

Sausage, Bockwurst, How to Make 147 

Sausage, Bologna Formula 114 

Sausage Braunsweiger, Liver, How to Make. . . .135 

Sausage, Butts 107 

Sausage Casings, Bursting, How to Prevent. .. .125 
Sausage Casing Color in Government Inspected 

Packing Houses 117 

Sausage Casing Colors 260, 261 

Sausage Casings, Shrinking, How to Prevent. . . .125 

Sausage, Cervalet, How to Make 140 

Sausage Factory Plan 221 

Sausage Flavors 255 

Sausage, Frankfurts, How to Make 118 

Sausage, German Style, Ham, How to Make. . . .123 

Sausage, Hamburger, Description 127 

Sausage, Hamburger, How to Make 127 

Sausage, Head Cheese, How to Make 131 

Sausage, Holstein Style, Directions for Making. .142 

Sausage, How to Keep in Warm Weather 148 

Sausage, Liver, How to Make 134 

Sausage, Meat Coloring Artificially Is Illegal. . . .231 

Sausage, Molding, How to Prevent 239 

Sausage, Polish Style, How to Make 145 

Sausage, Pork, How to Make 129 

Sausage, Salami, How to Make 141 

Sausage, Seasonings, Price List 255 

Sausage, Shrinking, How to Prevent 125 

Sausage, Summer, How to Make 140 

Sausage, Swedish Style, How to Make 143 

Sausage, Tongue, Blood 137 

Savory Jell-Jell 257 

Scalding Hogs in a Packing House 36 

Scalding Preparation, Price List 272 

Scraping Hogs in a Modern Packing House 38 

14 



'■sre«g 



I, U. S.A. 



Seasoning for Sausage 208 

Seasoning Hamburger Steak 126 

Sewers, How to Open When Stopped Up 271 

Sharpening Knives and Plates of Meat Grinders. 240 

Sheep and Cattle Dip, Price List 280 

Short Clear Backs, Description 92 

Short Clears, Description 92 

Short Fat Backs, Description 92 

Short Ribs, Description 92 

Short Ribs (hard), Description 92 

Shoulder Butts, How to Cure 104 

Shoulder Clots, How to Cure 69 

Shoulder, Boneless, How to Cure 59 

Shoulders, Butts, Description 56 

Shoulders, Directions for Curing 56 

Shoulders, How to Keep for a Year 90 

Shoulders, How to Wash Before Smoking 90 

Shoulders, New York, Description 56 

Shrinking of Sausage, How to Prevent 125 

Silver Polish, Description and Price .... 274 and 276 

Skinning Cattle 176 

Skins, Directions for Tanning 191 

Small Details to be Given Close Attention 47 

Smoke House, How to Construct 204 

Smoke House, Temporary, How to Build 89 

Smoked Pork Sausage 130 

Smoked Sausage Casings, How to Color 117 

Smoking Pickle Soaked Meat 86 

Soap, Making from Rendered Fat 197 

Soap Making from Tallow 219 

Sour Hams, Causes of 83 

Sour Sausage 194 

Souse 153 

Spare Ribs, How to Cure 98 

Spiced Beef, How to Make 195 

Spiced Corned Beef, Rolled 71 

Spices, Use Only Pure 88 

Spices, Zanzibar Brand, Description and Price 

List 254, 255 

Splitting Hogs in a Modern Packing House 41 

Starting a Butcher Business 222 

Sticking Hogs in a Modern Packing House 34 

Sticky Fly Paper, How to Make 159 

Storing Trimmings, Proper Temperature 113 

Stringy Brine, What Causes It 81 

Sugar, Kind to Use, . , , 78 

15 



B.HE L-IiE Ft Sc d □. 



Summer Sausage, How to Make 140 

Swedish Style Metwurst Casings, How to Color. 144 

Swedish Style Sausage, How to Make 143 

Sweet Breads, How to Keep from Spoiling 148 

Sweet Pickled Spare Ribs 98 

Switches, Salting 190 

T 

Tallow Purifier, Price List 263 

Tallow Purifying .221 

Tallow, Rendered Soft and Flaky Like Lard.. . .171 

Tallow, Whitening and Purifying 232 

Tanaline, Description and Price List 273 

Tanning Directions 191 

Tanning Powder, Description of .273 

Tanning Skins 190 

Temperature for Curing Meats 46 

Temperature for Storing Trimmings 113 

Temperature of Chill Room 43 

Temperature of the Brine 47 

Thermometer, Boiling, Description and Price... 281 

Thermometer, Cold Storage, Price List 282 

Thermometer, Meat Testing, Price List 284 

Tierce Packing 112 

Tin Polish, Description and Price 274 and 276 

Tongue Blood Sausage 137 

Tongues, Beef, Garlic Flavored 100 

Tongues, Beef, How to Cure 99 

Tongues, Hog, How to Cure 101 

Tongues, Pig, How to Pickle 154 

Tripe, Fresh, How to Keep from Spoiling. .... . .148 

Tripe, How to Pickle 150 

V 

Vacuum Brand Garlic, Price List 258, 259 

Varn-I-Glo, Price List 275 

Vats 53 

Ventilation in Hog Chill Rooms 42 

Vinegar, How to Test 229 

16 



CHICAGD, U.S.A. 



W 

Washing Powder, Price List 270 

Washing Cured Meat Before Smoking 90 

! Waste Pipe Opener 271 

| Water, Separating from Lard 230 

Wool, How to Remove 246 

I z 

jZanzibar Brand Sausage Seasonings 254 and 255 

| Zanzibar Carbon, By Whom Manufactured 208 

'Zanzibar Carbon Brand Casing Brown Mixture.. 260 
Zanzibar Carbon Brand Casing Yellow Mixture . . 261 



17 



B.HE 



Sc CD. 



PREFACE 







Adolph Heller, the father 
of the members of the firm 
of B. Heller & Co., was a 
scientific and practical 
Butcher and Packer and a 
Practical Sausage Manufac- 
turer. He studied the causes 
of failure in the handling 
of meats, with the aim of 
always producing the best 
and most uniform products 
that could be made. He was 
so successful in his business 
that his products were 
known and recognized as 
the best that could be made. 
His sons were all given 
practical training in all de- 
adolph heller partments of the business, 

from the bottom rung of the ladder to the top. The 
problems of the Packing Industry were kept constantly 
before them in their school and college days and in- 
fluenced them in the investigations and study which 
developed into the present business of B. Heller & Co. 
Under these circumstances, the Science of Chemistry 
naturally claimed the sons of Adolph Heller. Nat- 
urally, too, the Chemistry of the Meat Industry over- 
shadowed all other branches of the fascinating 
profession. With their habits of study and investiga- 
tion, they soon discovered that one of the great causes 
of failure in the curing and handling of meat products 
was the lack of materials which were always uniform, 
pure and dependable. This led to the founding of 
the firm of B. Heller & Co., whose aim has always 
been to furnish to the Butchers, Packers and Sausage 
Makers such materials as could be absolutely depended 
upon for purity and uniformity. They also early 
found that even with good materials to work with, the 
lack of fixed rules and formulas contributed largely to 
the lack of uniformity in the finished goods. This led 
to the publication of ''Secrets of Meat Curing and 



CHICADDU.S.A. 



Sausage Making/' in which definite rules were given 
for handling all kinds of meats and making all kinds 
of sausage. 

The enactment of the National Pure Food Law, the 
National Meat Inspection Law and the various State 
Pure Food Laws has made a great change in the 
Butcher, Packing and Sausage Making Business. The 
use of Chemical Preservatives is now prohibited under 
these various food laws, making it necessary to pre- 
serve meats and manufacture sausage without the use 
of many agents which were in general use. 

The firm of B. Heller & Co. anticipated the enactment 
of the various food laws, and already had completed 
investigations which enabled them to assist packers, 
butchers and sausage makers at once by giving them 
curing agents which were free from the Antiseptic 
Preservatives which these laws prohibited, and yet 
would produce cured meats, sausage, etc, of the high- 
est quality without the use of the Antiseptic Agents. 
The underlying principles for handling meats and mak- 
ing sausage with the antiseptic agents and without 
them are very different, and it became absolutely 
necessary that the firm of B. Heller & Co. should 
furnish their friends and customers such information 
as would enable them to cure their meats and make 
their sausage so as not to incur losses from goods that 
would not keep, and to turn out g oods of fine quality 
and appearance. This book is the result. In its pages 
are formulas and rules for the handling of all kinds 
of meat and the manufacture of all kinds of sausage 
which are the results of many years of experience as 
Packing House Experts and Chemists who have made 
a life-time study of the business in all its phases. 
If the directions and rules are followed, anyone can 
produce the finest of cured meats and sausage, whether 
they have had previous experience or not. Further- 
more, the products made according to these directions 
will comply with the requirements of all the Food 
Laws at present in force in this country. 

Hoping the following pages will be found instructive 
and helpful and thanking the Butcher Trade for their 
support and patronage in the past, we beg to remain, 

Very respectfully, 

B„ HELLER & CO. 



19 




L 



CHICADD, U. S.A. 



PACKING-HOUSE EXPERTS 



ANALYTICAL AND CONSULTING CHEMISTS 




We have been Consulting Chemists for the 
Large Packers for many years. Our advice in the 
handling of meats has saved Packers many thou- 
sands of dollars. We offer our advice free of charge 
to our customers. We make a specialty of both 
Analytic and Synthetic Chemistry. Our large 
clientele will always find us prompt in our services 
as heretofore. 

Analyses Given Careful Attention. 

General Syntheses 

a Specialty 



B. HELLER & CO. 



25 




GENERAL 





\fIEW IN GENERAL OFFICE 




B.HELLERSc CD. 



fflBiiiHiiiiiHSiiiiii 
iiiiiliiiiilliiiiiiiii; 




MJL FWEE FPtQE) l», 



The Board of Food and Drug Inspection of the Agri- 
cultural Department, at Washington, has permitted the 
use of certain Curing Agents, by not objecting to their 
use; but, at the same time, has ruled out, for curing 
purposes, such chemicals as come under the heading of 
Antiseptic Preservatives. As a consequence, certain 
chemical preservatives are prohibited in meats and 
meat food products if they are to be sold in the Terri- 
tories or are to be shipped from one State to another, 
or from any State or Territory into any other State 
or Territory. 

For that reason, we have changed some of our 
former preparations and have also placed on the 
market several preparations that will take the place 
of some of our former products. These new products 
are Freeze-Em-Pickle,"A" Condimentine and"B" Condi- 
mentine. They contain nothing that has been ruled 
out by any of the rulings or regulations under any 
of the Food Laws in this country. 

The Antiseptic Preservatives that have been ruled 
out are: Borax, Boracic Acid, Fluoride of Ammonia, 
Formaldehyde, Benzoic Acid, Sulphurous Acid, Sul- 
phite of Soda, Salicylic Acid, Abrastoi and Beta 
Naphthol. 

30 



CZ H I C A cj o, TU. S. A. 



The use of some of these Preservatives is considered 
by many high authorities of the world to be harmless. 
However, as the majority of the Food Commissioners of 
this country object to their use, and have recommended 
to the State Legislatures and the Congress of the 
United States that the use of these Preservatives be 
prohibited by law, and the State Legislatures and 
United States Congress have passed laws to this effect; 
these laws are now in effect and it is, therefore, the 
duty of every citizen of this country to obey these 
laws, strictly and to the letter. 

In this book we are giving to the Butchers and 
Sausage Manufacturers the results of much study and 
experiment, so as to enable the Butchers and Sausage 
Makers and Packers to produce goods which will 
meet the requirements of the various food laws and 
yet avoid the danger of loss from turning out meat 
food products that might not keep the necessary length 
of time. Our methods are original, and will produce 
most excellent results. 

It must be remembered that meat must be handled 
at the proper temperature and according to certain 
rules, which must be followed to the letter if the 
Butcher desires to turn out products of the best 
quality and of appetizing appearance. No detail men- 
tioned in this book is too small to merit strict atten- 
tion. 

All the materials mentioned for use in these pages 
are in strict accordance with the various food laws. 
Nothing is recommended or suggested that would come 
in conflict with the application of the regulations 
under the existing food laws. 

We invite the correspondence of our customers and 
whenever they are in any doubt it will afford us much 
satisfaction to hear from them and to give them full 
information concerning any feature of their business 
upon which they desire our advice. 



^^U^J^e^A^S^U^L^r. 



31 



ScCQ 




BEGIN CURING OF MEAT IN THE PEN. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Thousands of pounds of Hams, Shoulders and Sides 
are spoiled annually before the hog is killed. Over- 
heated hogs, or hogs that are excited from overdriving, 
should never be killed until they are cooled off or have 
become perfectly quiet. When the temperature of a 
hog is above normal, the meat always becomes feverish. 
This is especially true of large fat hogs, and when 
the meat becomes feverish, it will never cure properly, 
but nine times out of ten will sour. The meat of 
feverish hogs can never be chilled as it should be, and 
unless the meat is properly chilled, it cannot be prop- 
erly cured. Before hogs are killed, they ought to be 
driven into a cool place and if necessary, sprayed 
with cold water until they are thoroughly cooled off. 
This precaution is necessary only in hot weather; ir 
winter, they simply need plenty of rest. 

If it is necessary to hold the hogs for several days 
in the pen before they are killed, they should have 
an abundance of water and also a little feed. This 
prevents shrinkage and will also keep them from get- 
ting nervous from hunger. 



v 



CHICADQU. S.J=L. 



CVPlNGMK^MAftOUND) 




(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Up to a comparatively few years 
ago, all Pork Packing was done in 
the winter. Packing Houses would 
fill their plants during the winter 
months, and in the spring would 
smoke out the meats. In this way, 
most of the meat had to be sold over- 
salted, the shrinkage and loss to the 
Packer was greater and meats, there- 
fore, had to be sold at a much higher 
price, besides, they were of very inferior quality. 

At the present time, due to improved methods, pack- 
ing can be done all the year around, and meat can be 
sold as fast as it is finished. In this way, cured meat 
can be produced at a much lower price, the money in- 
vested in it can be turned over four, five or six times 
a year, and the meat will be much better, taste better 
and more of it can be eaten because of the fact that 
it is more wholesome and more easily digested. 

HOISTING HOGS IN A LARGE PACKING 

HOUSE, WITH A HOG-HOISTING 

MACHINE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Great care should always be exercised when hogs are 
hoisted before sticking. When hogs are hoisted alive 
to be stuck, very often when a very heavy hog is 
jerked from the floor, the hip is dislocated or sprained, 
and blood will be thrown out around the injured joint, 
so the Ham will be spoiled. Great care should also be 
exercised in driving the live hogs, as hogs are the 
heaviest and weakest and easiest injured of all animals. 

Special pens should be provided for them, so they 
are not crowded, and so they have plenty of room when 
they are driven to the killing pen. They should be 
handled very carefully, and piling up and crowding 
should be avoided as much as possible. Many hams 
are injured by overcrowding the hogs in the killing 
pens, for when hogs smell blood they become excited 
and nervous, and unless they have plenty of room, they 
will pile upon each other and bruise themselves so that 

33 




MACHINE USED IN LARGER PACKING 
HOUSES FOR HOISTING HOGS. 

there will be many skin-bruised hams, and the flesh 
will be full of bruises. Men driving hogs should never 
use a whip. The best thing to use in driving hogs is 
a stick about two feet long, to the end of which is fas- 
tened a Diece of canvas three inches wide and two ieet 
long By striking the hogs with this canvas, it makes 
a noise which will do more towards driving them, with- 
out injury, than the whip which will injure and dis- 
color the skin. 

STICKING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING 

HOUSE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Men sticking hogs should be sure to make a good, 
large opening in the neck, three or four inches long, in 
order to give the blood a good, free flow. It is very 
necessary to sever the veins and arteries m the neck, 
so as to get all of the blood out of the hog. The man 
,vho does the sticking must be careful not to stick tne 

34 



CHICADD.U:S.A. 



knife into the shoulder, for if the shoulder is stuck, 
the blood settles there, and the bloody part will have 
to be trimmed out after the hog is cut up. In large 
Packing Houses, there is a report made out every day, 
of the number of shoulder-stuck hogs, and the sticker 
must sign this report before it is sent to the office. 




HOW HOGS ARE STUCK IN A LARGE 
MODERN PACKING HOUSE. 

This shows the sticker the kind of work he is doing 
and makes him more careful. In small houses, most 
butchers stick the hogs on the floor and let them bleed 
there. Those who can possibly do it should hoist the 
hog by the hind leg before it is stuck or immediately 
after it is stuck, as the case may be, so as to allow the 
hog to properly bleed. When the hog is properly 
hoisted by one hind leg, alive, and then stuck while 
hanging, it will kick considerably and the kicking and 
jerking of the hog will help in pumping out all of the 
blood, making a much better bled carcass than if the 
hog is first stunned with a hammer and stuck on the 
floor. The better the hog is bled, the better the meat 
will be for curing. 

35 



B.HE 



^S 



ScCD 



SCALDING HOGS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

It is impossible to give the exact temperature ono 
should use in scalding hogs, as this will vary under 
different circumstances. In winter the hair sticko 
much tighter than in summer and requires more scald- 
ing and more heat than in summer. Hogs raised in 
the South, in a warm climate, will scald much easier 
than those raised in a northern climate. A butcher 
will soon learn which temperature is best adapted to 
his own locality and the kind of hogs he is scalding. 




SCALDING HOGS IN A LARGE MODERN 
PACKING HOUSE. 

In a Packing House where a long scalding tub is 
used, the temperature depends entirely upon how fast 
the hogs are being killed. If the hogs are killed 
slowly, so each hog can remain in the water longer, 
it is not necessary to have the water as hot as when 
they are handled fast and are taken out of the water 
in a shorter time. It is, however, universally acknowl- 
edged that the quicker a hog can be taken out of the 
scalding tub the better it is for the meat. The hog is 
a great conductor of heat, and when kept in the scald- 
ing water too long, it becomes considerably heated and 
bad results have many times been traced to the fact 
that the hog was scalded in water which was not hot 
enough, and was kept in this water too long in order 
to loosen the hair. Overheating the hog in the scald- 
ing water very often causes the meat of fat hogs to 
sour and Packers wonder why it is that the meat has 

36 







£*J-»^«-<- 



. U. S. JFL 



!ili!l !| IIHIMIIIIIII|lll(i||l!lll|IIIIIHIIHIIIIIIi;. : : 



B.HELLER^COS 




spoiled. We therefore wish to caution Packers against 
this, and to advise the use of water as hot as practicable 
for scalding hogs. 

To make the hair easy to remove and to remove dirt 

and impurities from the skin, 
we recommend Hog-Scald. 
This preparation makes 
scalding easy, it removes 
most of the dirt and filth, 
cleanses the hog and whit- 
ens the skin. 

In many localities, where 
the water is hard, Hog-Scald 
will be found of great value, 
as it softens the water and 
makes it nice to work with; 
it cleanses the skin of the 
hogs and improves their 
appearance. It is a great 
labor saver and more than 
pays the cost by the labor 
it saves, as it assists in re- 
moving the hair and leaves the skin more yielding to the 
scraper. 

The skin of all hogs is covered with more or less greasy 
filth, which contains millions of disease germs and these 
extend down into the pores of the skin. If this germ-laden 
filth is not removed, and if it gets into the brine when the 
meat is being cured, it injures both the meat and the brine 
in flavor, and also spoils the flavor of the lard if it gets in- 
to that. Hog-Scald removes most of this filth and cleanses 
the skin, and for these reasons alone, should be used by 
P every Packer and Butcher. Hams and Bacon from hogs 
that have been scalded with Hog-Scald are, therefore, 
cleaner and will be much brighter after they are smoked 
than when the filth of the hog remains in the pores of the 
skin. 

Those selling dressed hogs will find Hog-Scald very val- 
uable, as hogs that have been scalded with it are cleaner 
and look whiter and much more appetizing. 

The use of Hog-Scald is legal everywhere. It does not 
come under the regulations of the Food Laws, as it is 
simply a cleansing agent. Hog-Scald costs very little at 
the price we sell it, and everyone can afford to use it. 
Butchers who once try it will continue its use. 

37 



XZj. Jr-i -tzJ 



^5 



Sc inn. 



SCRAPING HOGS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

As much of the hair as possible should be scraped 
from the hogs, instead of being shaved off with a sharp 
knife, as is often done. If the hog is not properly- 
scalded and scraped and the hair remains in the skin, 
such hair is usually shaved off with a knife before the 
hog is gutted, and sometimes after the meat is chilled 
and cut up. After the meat is cured, the rind shrinks 
and all the stubs of hair that have been shaved off will 
stick out and the rind will be rough like a man's face 
when he has not been shaved for a day or so. Hams 
and Bacon from hogs that have been shaved instead of 
properly scalded and scraped, will look much rougher 
and much more unsightly than if the hogs are properly 
scalded and scraped. Therefore, Packers should give 
close attention that the scalding and scraping is prop- 
erly done. The scraping bench should be provided 
with a hose right above where the hogs are being 
scraped and this should be supplied with hot water, 



- •'■' ■ ■■ ' ' -1 .•--.:. --J.:.& ^M'^r^^^^^^fX^&^^-'^^i 




SCRAPING HOGS IN A PACKING HOUSE. 

if possible, so the hogs can be rinsed off occasionally -\ 
with hot water, while being scraped. The hot water 
can, however, be thrown over the hogs with a bucket. 

After the hog has been gambrelled and hung up, 
either on a gambrel-stick or on rollers, it should be 
gutted. After it is gutted, it should be washed out 

38 



I"-**"-** ™ 



USA 



thoroughly, with plenty of cold, fresh water. As every 
Packer understands how to gut a hog, it is not neces- 
sary to go into details. 

GUTTING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING 

HOUSE. 




CUTTING THE HIND SHANK BONE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

We advise the cutting of the hind shank 
bone after the hog is dressed, so as to ex- 
pose the marrow, as shown in cuts A and 
B. It is the best thing to do, as it helps 
to chill the marrow. The chunk of meat 
that is usually left on the hind foot, above 
and next to the knee, if cut loose around 
the knee, will be drawn to the ham, and 
when chilled, will remain on the ham in- 
stead of being on the hind foot, as shown 
in cut A. After the meat is cut, the bone 
can be sawed, in the same place where the 
hock would be cut from the ham later. See 
cut B. The hog will hang on the sinews 
the same as if the bone had not been 
sawed, except that the cut bone separates 
and exDOses the marrow so it can be prop- 
erly cooled. On heavy hogs this is quite a 
gain, as the chunk that would remain on 
the foot would be of little or no value 
there, but when left on the ham, sells for 
the regular ham prices. 

39 





B.HE 



^E 



ScCD. 




FACING HAMS AND PULLING LEAF LARD 
IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The first two figures in the above cut show two men 
Facing Hams. The first man faces the Ham at his 
right hand side and the second man faces the Ham on 
his left hand side, as the Hogs pass by. 

The advantage of Facing Hams right after the hogs 
are dressed, is this. The knife can be drawn through 
the skin and through the fat close to the meat, and the 
fat will peel right off the fleshy part of the Ham. Be- 
tween the fat and lean meat of the Ham, between the 
legs, there is a fibrous membrane which is very soft 
and pliable. When the knife is run through the skin 
and fat, it will run along the side of this membrane, 
making a clean face for the Ham. That part remain- 
ing on the Ham will shrink to the Ham and will form 
a smooth coating over the lean meat, which closes the 
pores and makes the Ham look smooth and nice when 
it is smoked. It also makes a much smoother cut along 
the skin. The skin when cut warm will dry nicely 
and look smooth when cured, whereas if it is trimmed 
after the meat is chilled, it looks rough and ragged. 
Facing Hams also allows the escape of the animal heat 
more readily. If Hams are not faced until after the 
Hogs have been chilled, this fat must be trimmed off 
and the Hams will not look nearly so smooth as they 
will if this tissue and fat is removed while the hog is 
warm. 

40 



CHICADQU.S.A. 



The second two men in the opposite illustration are 
Pulling Leaf Lard. The Leaf Lard should always be 
pulled out of the hogs in summer, as it gives the hogs, 
as well as the Leaf Lard, a better chance to chill. 
During the winter months it can be pulled loose, but 
can be left hanging loosely in the hog, from the top. 
In this way it will cool nicely, and it will also allow 
the animal heat to get out of the hog. Most of the 
large packing houses pull out the Leaf Lard in the 
winter as well as summer, and hang it on hooks in 
the chill room to chill. Leaf Lard that is properly 
chilled, with the animal heat all taken out of it, makes 
much finer lard than when pulled out of the hog and 
put into the rendering tank with the animal heat in it. 




SPLITTING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING 

HOUSE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Splitting can be done in several different ways. 
Where the back of the hog is to be cut up for pork 
loins, the hog is simply split through the center of 
the backbone, so that one half of the backbone re- 
mains on each loin. Packers who wish to cut the sides 
into Short or Long Clears or Clear Bacon Backs run 
the knife down on both sides of the backbone, as close 
to the backbone as possible, cutting through the skin, 

41 



xz3. x~i _Ej 



^e 



ScCD 



fat and lean meat; then the hog should be split down 
on one side of the backbone. The backbone should re- 
main on the one side until the hog is cut up and it can 
then easily be sawed off with a small saw. By cutting 
or scoring the back in this way for making boneless 
side meat, the sides will be smooth and there will not 
be much waste left on the bone as when the backbone 
is split and half of it left on each side and then is 
peeled out after the meat is chilled and is being cut up. 

VENTILATION IN HOG CHILL ROOM. 




HOG CHILL ROOM IN A MODERN 
PACKING HOUSE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Many chill rooms are not properly built. There 
should be at least from 24 to 36 inches of space be- 
tween the ceiling of the chilling room and the gambrel- 
stick, or more if possible, in order to enable the shanks 
to become thoroughly chilled. The animal heat which 
leaves the carcass naturally rises to the top of the 
cooler, and unless there is space between the ceiling 
and the top of the hog the heat will accumulate in the 
top of the cooler where the temperature will become 
quite warm; this will prevent the marrow in the shank 
and the joints from becoming properly chilled. It is 
this fact that accounts for so much marrow and shank 
sour in hams. 

42 



CHICADD, U.S. A. 



TEMPERATURE OF CHILL ROOM. 

(Copyrighted ; Reprint Forbidden.) 

All Packers whc have a properly built cooler for 
chilling hogs and who are properly equipped with an 
ice machine will find the following rules will give the 
best results. Those who are not properly equipped 
should try to follow these rules as closely as they can 
with their equipment. 

A hog chill room should be down to from 28 to 32 
degrees Fahrenheit when the hogs are run into it. As 
the cooler is filled, the temperature will be raised to 
as high as 45 or 46 degrees F., but enough refrigeration 
must be kept on so the temperature is brought down 
to 36 degrees by the end of 12 hours after the cooler 
is filled, and then the temperature must be gradually 
reduced down as low as 32 degrees by the time the car- 
casses have been in the cooler 48 hours. In other 
words, at the end of 48 hours the cooler must be down 
to 32 degrees. 

All large hog coolers should be partitioned off be- 
tween each section of timbers, into long alleys, so that 
each alley can be kept at its own temperature. 

In the improper chilling of the carcasses lies the 
greatest danger of spoiling the meat. The greatest 
care must be given to the proper chilling, for if the 
carcasses are not properly chilled, it will be very diffi- 
cult to cure the meat, and it will be liable to sour in 
the curing. Meat from improperly chilled carcasses, 
even with the greatest care afterwards, will not cure 
properly. Therefore, one of the first places to look for 
trouble when Hams are turning out sour is to look to 
the chilling of the meat, as it is nine chances out of 
ten that this is where the trouble started from. We 
have found by experience that by deviating only a few 
degrees from these set rules, the percentage of sour 
meat is surprisingly increased. 

It has always been considered an absolute necessity 
to have an open air hanging room to allow the hogs to 
cool off in the open air before they are run into the 
cooler. It has always been considered that this saves 
considerable money in the refrigeration of the hogs. 
However, by the experiments made in some of the 
large Packing Houses, it has been demonstrated that 
this economy is very much over-estimated. There are 
certain conditions which must be closely adhered to for 

43 



B.HE LLE R&CD. 



the safe handling and curing of pork products, and the 
most important of these is the proper temperature. In 
the outside atmosphere the proper temperature rarely 
prevails. Hogs that are left in the open air on the 
hanging floor over night are generally either insuffi- 
ciently chilled or are over-chilled the next morning, 
depending upon the outside temperature of the air. 
We feel that it is of advantage, however, to run the 
hogs into an outside hanging room and to allow them 
to dry for one or two hours before putting them into 
the chilling room. 

Packers who cure large quantities of hogs must see 
to it that their chill rooms are properly constructed 
and have sufficient refrigeration, so the temperature 
can be kept under perfect control at all times. The 
cooler should be partitioned off lengthwise, between 
each line of posts, making long alleys to run the hogs 
into, each one of which can be regulated as to its tem- 
perature separately from the others. The hogs can be 
run into one of these alleys as fast as they are killed 
and should the temperature get up above 50 degrees F., 
the hogs can be run out of this into another. The 
cooler in which hogs are chilled should never go above 
50 degrees Fahrenheit, and a properly constructed 
cooler can be kept below this temperature. 

While the cooler is being filled, the temperature 
should be held at between 45 and 50 degrees Fahren- 
heit, and should be kept at this temperature for about 
two hours after filling. At the end of two hours, all 
of the vapor will have passed away, being taken up 
by and frozen onto the refrigerator pipes, and the hogs 
will begin to dry. When the hogs begin to show signs 
of drying, or in about two hours after the refrigerator 
is filled, more refrigeration should be turned on, and 
the temperature should be gradually brought down, so 
that in twelve hours from the time the cooler is filled, 
the temperature should be brought down to 36 or 37 
degrees temperature Fahrenheit. If the temperature 
is not brought down to 36 or 37 degrees F. in 12 hours 
it means a delay in removing the animal heat, and a 
tendency for decomposition to set in. If the tempera- 
ture is brought down lower than 32 degrees Fahrenheit 
during the first 12 hours, the outside surface of the 
carcasses are too rapidly chilled, which tends to retard 
the escape of the animal heat. It is known, from prac- 
tical experience, that where the meat is chilled through 
rather slowly, the animal heat leaves the meat more 

44 



CHICADD, LJ. S.A. 



uniformly. Too rapid chilling on the outside seems to 
clog up the outside of the meat so that the heat in the 
thick portions doea not readily escape. 

The first 12 hours of the chilling of all kinds of meat 
and the removal of the animal heat during this period 
is the most important part of the chilling. After that 
period, the proper temperature is of much less vital 
importance. 

Hogs that are to be cut up for curing should never 
be cut up sooner than 48 hours after being killed, and 
the temperature of the cooler should be gradually 
brought down to 28 degrees Fahrenheit by the time the 
hogs are taken out of the chill room to be cut up. 
After the hogs have been in the cooler 12 hours the 
temperature should gradually be brought down from 36 
degrees at the end of the first 12 hours, to 28 degrees 
at the end of 48 hours; that is, if the hogs are to be cut 
up 48 hours after they are killed. If they are to be cut 
up 72 hours after being killed, the temperature should 
be brought down gradually from 36 degrees at the end 
of the first 12 hours, to 30 degrees F. at the end of 
72 hours. This would mean that the temperature 
should be brought down from 36 degrees to 30 degrees 
F., if the hogs are to be cut up at the end of 72 hours, 
or a lowering of six degrees in practically 58 hours; or 
a lowering of eight degrees, from 36 to 28 Fahrenheit, 
if the hogs are to be cut up in 48 hours after being 
killed. This means a reduction in temperature of 
about one degree for every eight hours. This does not 
mean that the six or eight degrees should be reduced in 
two hours' time, for if that were done the meat would 
be frozen. 

In a large Packing House, where the cooler is prop- 
erly equipped, and one has a good attendant, these in- 
structions can be carried out in detail. When the fore- 
going instructions are carefully followed, the safe cur- 
ing of the product will be assured. 

While the curing of course requires careful atten- 
tion, yet, if the chilling is not done properly, the cur- 
ing will never be perfect. 

The floors of coolers should always be kept sprinkled 
with clean sawdust, as this will absorb drippings and 
assist in keeping the cooler clean and sweet. If the 
drippings from hogs are allowed to fall on the bare 
floor, the cooler will soon become sour and this will 
affect the meat that hangs over it. 

45 



B.HE 



SE 



&CQ 



TEMPERATURE FOR CURING MEAT. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

An even temperature of 38 degrees Fahrenheit is 
the best temperature for curing meats. Most butchers, 
however, have no ice machine, and, therefore, are not 
able to reach such a low temperature in their coolers; 
nevertheless, they should try to get their coolers as low 
in temperature as possible, and should at all times be 
careful to keep the doors closed, and not leave them 
open longer than is necessary at any time. The tem- 
perature of 37 to 39 degrees Fahrenheit is what should 
govern all packers who use ice machines; those who 
are fortunate enough to have ice machinery should 
never allow the cooler to get below 37 degrees, nor 
above 40 degrees. Many packers let the temperature in 
their coolers get too cold, and in winter during the very 
cold weather, the windows are sometimes left open, 
which allows the temperature to get too low. This 
should always be avoided, as meat will not cure in any 
brine, or take salt when dry salted, if stored in a room 
that is below 36 degrees Fahrenheit. If meat is packed 
even in the strongest kind of brine, and put into a 
cooler, which is kept at 32 to 33 degrees of tempera- 
ture, and thus left at this degree of cold for three 
months, it will come out of the brine only partly cured. 
The reason for this is the fact that meat will not 
cure and take on salt at such a low temperature, and 
as the temperature herein given is above freezing 
point, which is 32 degrees, the meat will only keep for 
a short time, and then it starts to decompose when 
taken into a higher temperature. Anyone, who is 
unaware of this fact, will see how necessary it is to 
have accurate thermometers in a cooler, to examine 
them frequently, and to closely watch the temperature 
of the room. See illustration of our Standard Cold 
Storage Thermometer on page 282. 

The first essential point to watch before putting 
meat into brine, is to be absolutely certain that it is 
properly chilled through to the bone. Those who are 
not equipped with ice machinery for properly chilling 
meat in hot weather must spread the meat on the floor 
after it is cut ready for packing, and place crushed 
ice over it for 24 hours, to thoroughly chill it before it 
is packed in the salt. This will get the temperature of 
the meat as low as 36 to 38 degrees Fahrenheit before 

46 



CHICADQU.S.A. 



putting it in the brine. It is necessary that small 
butchers, who have no ice machines, and rely upon the 
ice box for a cooler, should use the greatest care to 
see that the meat is well and thoroughly chilled. 

Thousands of pounds of meat are spoiled yearly sim- 
ply for the one reason that the temperature of the 
meat is not brought down low enough before the meat 
is salted. In the summer, hams and heavy pieces of 
pork should never be packed by persons having no ice 
machine, unless the meat is first put on the floor for at 
least twelve hours with broken ice to thoroughly cover 
it. If our directions are carefully followed and Freeze- 
Em-Pickle is used, such a thing as spoiled meat will be 
unknown. 

CONDITION OF MEAT BEFORE CURING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

When cured meat turns out bad, it is not always the 
fault of the man who has charge of the curing so much 
a» it is the condition the meat was in when put into 
tne brine to cure. Good results should not be expected 
from a man who has charge of the curing unless the 
meat is delivered to him in proper condition. Hogs 
should never be killed the same day of purchase at 
the Stock Yards or from the farmer. They ought to 
remain in the packing house pen for at least 24 hours 
before killing. If different lots of hogs are mixed to- 
gether, they will sometimes fight, which greatly excites 
them. "Whenever they show this fighting disposition, 
they should be separated. 

THE TEMPERATURE OF BRINE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Make all Pickle in the cooler, and have the water or 
brine of as low a temperature as the cooler when it is 
put on the meat. Try to have the temperature of the 
brine not over 38 degrees Fahrenheit when putting it 
over the meat. A great deal of meat is spoiled in cur- 
ing by having the brine too warm when the meat is 
put into it. 

GIVE CLOSE ATTENTION TO DETAILS. 

Be careful to do everything right as you go along, 
for if you spoil the meat you will hardly become aware 
o*' it until it is too late to remedy your error. 

47 




.fczJ. x~i. Jzii 



Sc CO. 




WITH THE FREEZE-EM-PICKLE PROCESS AND 

"A" AND "B" CONDIMENTINE ANYONE CAN 

CURE MEAT AND MAKE GOOD SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Bacterial action causes great annoyance and loss to 
CureTS of Meats and Sausage Manufacturers, and, 
since the enactment of Pure Food Laws prohibiting 
the use of antiseptic preservatives, the proper hand- 
ling of meats has become a matter of the greatest 
importance if good sausage and well-cured meats are 
to be produced. 

We have acted as Consulting Experts for the large 
Packers and Sausage Manufacturers for many years, 
and have formulated and systematized methods for 
the curing of all kinds of meat and the making of 
all kinds of sausage. We have crystallized the re- 
sults of our large experience into a plan for the proper 
curing of meats and the making of all kinds of saus- 
age, which, if followed, will always give satisfactory results. 
For curing meat we have combined the necessary 
curing agents for this Process into a combination 
which is always uniform and which is known as 
Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

Freeze-Em-Pickle furnishes to the Packer, Butcher 
and Sausage Maker the proper materials, scientificially 



48 



CHICADD T-T. S.-FL. 



and accurately compounded, and by using it according to 
the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, which is set forth in this 
book, any man, whether he is experienced or not, can get 
as good results as the most expert packer in the business. 

If the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is followed, and Freeze- 
Em-Pickle is used according to the directions given in 
this book, the meats and sausage will be uniform and of 
fine quality. They will have an appetizing color, a deli- 
cious flavor and they will comply with the requirements of 

the Pure Food Laws. 

# 

By curing meat by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, the 
albumen in the meat is so congealed that only a small 
percentage of it will be drawn out of the meat into the 
brine, and the natural flavor of the meat is retained, mak- 
ing it far more palatable. 

When Freeze-Em-Pickle is dissolved in water with the 
proper quantity of sugar and salt, the brine will be decid- 
edly sweet and of the proper specific gravity to properly 
cure Hams, Bacon, Shoulders, Corned Beef, Dried Beef, 
etc., with a Delicious Flavor, without loss from spoiling. 
The meat will not be too Salty, but will have that Peculiar 
Sugar-Cured Flavor which is so much liked. By the use 
of the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process anyone can make fine 
cured meats, whether or not they have ever had any pre- 
vious experience in the curing or handling of meats. 

Packers, Butchers and Curers have many difficulties in 
turning out good, sweet-pickle cured meat, owing to their 
inability to compound the proper proportions of curing in- 
gredients. Besides, their methods of curing are frequently 
incorrect and unscientific. 

By adopting the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, the proper 
ingredients are used and the meat is handled in the right 
way. That is why the finished products made by the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process are superior to what they are 
when made in other ways. 

In making Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage, if the sau- 
sage meat is cured for a few days with Freeze-Em-Pickle 
and handled according to the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process 
of curing Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage Meat it will pro- 
duce Finer Sausage, in both taste and appearance, and 
will have an appetizing color and will not spoil in hot 
weather, within a reasonable length of time, and the sau= 
sage will comply with the Pure Food Laws. 

49 



B.HE 



ScCQ 




Use for 100 lbs 
Small Hams. 



DIRECTIONS FOR CURING HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Use the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Piekle, 
Salt, Sugar and Water to obtain the best results in 
curing Hams: 

Small Hams, 8 to 14 Lbs. Average. 
{ 1 lbs. of Common Salt. 
| 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
\ 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
I 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
I Cure in this brine 50 to 60 days. 

Medium Hams, 14 to 18 Lbs. Average. 

f 8 lbs. of Common Salt. 

tt * -. ™ ix- I 1 lt»- of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
Use for 100 lbs. ! g lbg of Grarmlated Sugar . 

Medium Hams. 1 g galg of Cold Water 

[ Cure in this brine 60 to 70 days. 

Heavy Hams, 18 to 24 Lbs. Average, 
f 9 lbs. of Common Salt. 
tt * inn iv- 1 lb. Of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
Use for 100 lbs. j Granulated Sugar. 

Heavy Hams. ] 5 ga]g of Cold Water> * 

L Cure in this brine 75 to 80 days. 

First: — Sort the Hams, separating the Small, Me- 
dium and L^rge. 

Second: — -Take enough of any one size of the as- 
sorted Hams to fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs.; 
then thoroughly mix together in a large pail or box 
the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granu- 
lated Sugar and Salt: 

50 



CHICADD. TU. S.A. 



More than 285 lbs. of Hams can be packed in a tierce, 
but this never should be done, as it requires a certain 
amount of brine to a certain amount of meat, and by plac- 
ing 285 lbs. of fresh Hams in a standard tierce, the tierce 
will hold 14 to 15 gallons of brine, which is the proper 
quantity of brine for this amount of Hams. If too much 
meat is put into the tierce, it will not hold enough brine to 
properly cure the meat. 

The Sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow 
or Brown Sugar must not be used. 

Use, for 285 lbs. of Small Hams, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and 2 1 lbs. of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Medium Hams, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and 24 lbs. of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Hams, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and 27 lbs. of Salt. 

How To Cure Hams in Open Barrels 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
When the tierces or barrels in which these Hams are 
cured are not to be headed up, but are left open, use half 
of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt dry 
by rubbing it over the hams in the following manner: 

First:— After mixing all of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granu- 
lated Sugar and Salt together, sprinkle some of the dry 
mixture over the bottom of a perfectly clean tierce. 

The Sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow 
or Brown Sugar must not be used. When adulterated 
sugar is used, the brine becomes thick in two weeks; but 
when Pure Granulated Sugar is used it will last quite a 
while, depending upon the conditions under which the 
brine is kept. 

Second: — Rub each Ham well with some of the mixture 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt and pack 
them nicely in the tierce. Put clean boards over the tops 
of the hams and weight or fasten these boards down so as 
to keep them under the brine. 

Third:— Take all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
Granulated Sugar and Salt that is left after the rub- 
bing and use it in making the brine; it will require 
14 to 15 gallons of brine, as tierces vary some, for 

51 



b. H.E lleir. ScCD. 



m 

each standard size tierce of Hams. Make the brine by 
dissolving in about 14 gallons of cold water all of the 
mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt 
that is left after the rubbing. Stir well for a minute, 
until it is dissolved, then pour this brine over the meat. 
As tierces vary so much in size, it is always best to dis- 
solve the Freeze-Em-Pickle in a little less quantity of 
water, say about 14 gallons for a tierce. After this 
brine is added to the meat, should the tierce hold more, 
simply add cold water until the tierce is full. The 
right amount of Salt, etc., has already been added; 
now simply add sufficient water to well cover the meat. 
When curing a less quantity than a full tierce of 
Hams, cut down the amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
Granulated Sugar and Salt and the quantity of water, 
according to the quantity of Hams to be cured, using all 
materials in the proportions given on page 50. 

QUANTITY OF BRINE TO USE FOR CUR- 
ING 100 LBS. OF HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Five gallons by measure, or forty-two pounds by 
weight, is the approximate amount of water to use 
for every 100 lbs. of Hams. 

A tierce, after being packed with 285 lbs. of meat, 
will hold about 14 to 15 gallons of water. When curing 
Hams in vats, or open barrels, whether in small or large 
quantity, always use no less than five gallons of brine 
to every 100 pounds of meat, as this makes the proper 
strength and a sufficient brine to cover the meat 
nicely. 

THE USE OF MOLASSES AND SYRUP BAR^ 
RELS IN CURING HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Never use old molasses barrels, or syrup barrels for cur- 
ing meat, unless they have been first thoroughly scoured 
and steamed, and cleansed with our Ozo Washing Com- 
pound. It is best to use oak tierces, and always be sure 
that they are perfectly clean and sweet before putting the 
meat into them to cure. 

PUMPING HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

We strongly recommend the pumping of Hams, full 
directions for which are given on page 76. 

52 



U.S. A. 



SHAPE OF VATS IN CURING HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Sometimes, vats of certain shapes require more brine 
to cover the meat than others, and in such cases, a 
proportionate amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and 
and Salt, should be added to the necessary amount of 
water to make sufficient brine to cover the meat. 

HOW TO OVERHAUL HAMS WHEN CUR- 
ING IN OPEN PACKAGES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 



HOW TO OVERHAUL 
HAMS 

WHEN CURING IN OPEN 
PACKAGES 



On the fifth day 
after packing each 
lot of Hams, it is nec- 
essary t h at they 
should be overhauled. 
This must be repeat- 
ed seven days later; 
again in ten days; 
and a final overhaul- 
ing should be given 
ten days later. Over- 
hauling four times 
while curing, and at 
the proper time in 
each instance, is very 
important and must 
never be forgotten, 
especially when cur- 
ing with this mild, 
sweet cure. Overhaul- 
ing means to take the 
Hams out of the brine 
and to repack them 
in the same brine. 
The proper way to 
overhaul is to take a perfectly clean tierce, set it next 
to the tierce of Hams to be overhauled, pack the meat 
into the empty tierce, and then pour the same brine 
over the meat. 




53 



B.HELLERSC CD 



HOW TO CURE HAMS IN CLOSED UP 
TIERCES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Large packers, who employ coopers, should always 
cure Hams in closed up tierces, as this is the best 
method known. 

First: — Mix the 
proper proportions of 
Freeze - Em - Pickle, 
Sugar and Salt for 
the different size 
Hams to be cured. 
These proportions are 
given in the table 
on page 50, under the 
heading, " Small 
Hams, Medium Hams, 
Heavy Hams. ' ' If 
the tierces are to be 
headed up, use half 
of the Freeze-Em-Pic- 
kle, Sugar and Salt 
for rubbing the Hams, 



HOW TO CURE HAMS 

INCL05EDUPTIERCE5 




FIRST. 



and the half that is 
left over, after the 
Hams are rubbed, 
should be dissolved in 
the water which is to 
be used to fill the 
tierces. Rub each 
Ham well before 
packing; put only 285 
lbs. of meat in each 
tierce, and then head 
them up. 

Second: — Lay the 
tierces on their sides 
and fill them through 
the bunghole with 
water in which the 
half of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt left over 
after rubbing, has been dissolved. 




SECOND/ 



54 



CHIGADD, U.S. A 



Third: — Insert the 
bung and roll the 
tierces. This will mix 
and dissolve the 
Freeze - Em - Pickle, 
Sugar and Salt 
rubbed on the meat. 
Where the pieces of 
meat press tightly 
against each other or 
against the tierce, the 
brine does not act on 
the meats; but if the 
meats are properly 
rubbed with the mix- 
ture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt before being 
packed in the tierce, such surfaces will be acted upon 
by the undissolved mixture, so that curing will be 
uniform, and no portion of the piece will be left in- 
sufficiently cured even if the brine does not come in 
contact with it. For this reason, it is important that 
each piece should be carefully rubbed with the mix- 
ture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt before being 
packed in the tierce. 




THIRD.— 



OVERHAUL 

FIVE DAYS AFTER 

PACKING 



Fourth: — Overhaul 
five days after pack- 
ing; again seven days 
later; again in ten 
days, and once more 
ten days thereafter. 
At each overhauling, 
examine each tierce 
for leaks; if any of 
the Pickle has leaked 
out, knock the bung 
in and refill. Eemem- 
ber to overhaul four 
times during the pe- 
riod of the first thir- 
ty-two days. 

Fifth: — Overhaul 
the Hams in closed 

up tierces, simply by rolling the tierces from one end 

of the cooler to the other. They ought to be rolled 

at least 100 feet. 

Sixth: — See paragraph on temperature for curing 

meat, page 46. 



FOURTH 



55 



JtzJ. JrtL I i 



ScCQ 



SHDUL3ER5 AND 
PICNIC HAMS 







DIRECTIONS FOR CURING SHOULDERS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

New York Shoulders: — Have shank cut off above 
knee, trimmed close and smooth, and square at the 
butt. 

California or Picnic Hams are made from Medium 
and Heavy Shoulders, well-rounded at the butt, and 
trimmed as near to the shape of a Ham as possible. 

Boston Shoulders are made from Light Shoulders, 
well-rounded at the butt, similar to California Hams. 

California and Picnic Hams and Square Cut Butts, 
are cured in the same way, and with the same brine, 
the only change being in the strength of the brine 
and the time of curing, which must be made to suit 
the size of the Shoulder. 

Small Shoulders. 



TTseforlOOlbs. 
Small Shoulders. 



7 lbs. of Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
5 gals, of Cold Water. 

Cure in this brine 50 to 60 days. 



56 



CHICADD. U. S.A. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Medium-Shoulders. 



Medium Shoulders. 

f 8 lbs. of Common Salt. 
| 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
•{ 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
I 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
L Cure in this brine 60 to 70 days. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Heavy Shoulders. 



Heavy Shoulders. 



- 9 lbs. of Common Salt. 
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
. 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
| 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
L Cure in this brine 75 to 80 days. 



The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow 
or brown sugar must not be used. 

First. — Sort the Shoulders, separating the Small, 
Medium and Large. 

Second. — Take enough of any one size of the assorted 
Shoulders to fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs.; then 
thoroughly mix together in a large pail, or box, the 
following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and 
Salt: 

Use for 285 lbs. of Small Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best pure Granulated Sugar, and 
21 lbs. of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Medium Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and 24 lbs. 
of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Shoulders, 3 lbs. of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, 6 lbs of best Granulated Sugar, and 27 lbs. 
of Salt. . 



Curing Shoulders in Open Packages. 

When it is desired to cure Shoulders in Open Pack- 
ages, use the foregoing proportions and in every way 
handle the Shoulders as directed for Hams, on page 51. 

57 



B.HELLER Sc d O. 



Quantity of Brine for Curing 100 Los. of Shoulders. 

The same quantity of brine should be used for cur- 
ing Shoulders as directed for Curing Hams, full direc- 
tions for which will be found on page 52. 

Quantity of Shoulders to Cure in Each Tierce. 

The same quantity of* Shoulders and the same amount 
of brine should be used as directed for Curing Hams, 
on page 52. The same remarks with regard to the varia- 
tion in the amount of brine for each tierce, and how 
to be sure to have the proper amount of the right 
strength of brine, apply in curing Shoulders, the same 
as for Hams, (see page 52). Likewise do not use Syrup 
and Molasses barrels for Curing Shoulders. 

How to Overhaul Shoulders When Curing in 
Open Packages. 

It is important to follow the same directions for 
Overhauling Shoulders that are given for Overhauling 
Hams. (See page 53.) 

How to Cure Shoulders in Closed Up Tierces. 

Follow the same directions for Curing Shoulders as 
given for Curing Hams in Closed Up Tiercefi, on page 
54. 

How to Overhaul Shoulders When Cured in Closed 
Up Tierces. 

Follow exactly the same instructions as are given for 
Overhauling Hams when cured in Closed Up Tierces, on 
page 55. 

Pumping Shoulders. 

Pump Shoulders as directed on page 76. 

58 



CHIGACD.U.S.A. 



BONELESS ROLLED SHOULDERS 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Boneless Boiled 
Shoulders should be 
made in the following 
manner: Take the 
Shoulders from hogs 
that have been prop- 
erly chilled and bone them. If the meat has been 
thoroughly chilled, so it is perfectly solid and chilled 
throughout, the Shoulders are ready to cure; but if the 
meat is not perfectly solid and firm on the inside, 
where the bone has been removed, the Shoulders should 
be spread out in the cooler on racks for 24 hours, until 
the meat is thoroughly chilled and firm. 

Small Boneless Boiled Shoulders. 




Use for 100 lbs. 
Small Boned 
Shoulders. 



7 lbs. of Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar. 
| 5 gallons of Cold Water. 

[ Cure in this brine 30 to 40 days. 



Medium Boneless Boiled Shoulders. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Medium Boned 
Shoulders. 



8 lbs. of Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar. 
| 5 gallons of Cold Water. 

L Cure in this brine 40 to 50 days. 



Large Boneless Rolled Shoulders. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Large Boned 
Shoulders. 



9 lbs. of Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar. 
5 gallons of Cold Water. 

, Cure in this brine 50 to 60 days. 



The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow 
or brown sugar must not be used. 

First : — Sort the Boneless Shoulders, separating the 
Small, Medium and Large, as the different sizes 
should be cured in separate barrels. 

Second: — Take enough of any one size of the Boned 
Shoulders to fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs. Then 
thoroughly mix together, in a large pail or box, the 
following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and 
Salt: 



59 



B. H E LLE RScCQ 



Use for 285 lbs. of Small Boneless Shoulders, 3 lbs. 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar 
and 21 lbs. of Salt. 

Use for 285 lbs. of Medium Boneless Shoulders, 3 lbs. 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar 
and 24 lbs. of Salt. 

Use for 285 lbs. of Large Boneless Shoulders, 3 lbs. 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar 
and 27 lbs. of Salt. 

Third: — After the Shoulders have been weighed, 
take for example that one has 285 lbs. of Medium 
Boneless Shoulders, averaging, boned, about 10 lbs., 
which would make 28 pieces for a tierce of 285 lbs. 
Now, take the 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of 
Granulated Sugar and 24 lbs. of Salt to be used for 
the tierce of Medium Shoulders, and mix together 
thoroughly in a box or tub. 

Fourth: — Eub about % lb. of this mixture in each 
Shoulder where the bone has been removed, then roll 
it and tie it in the regular way. After it is rolled 
and tied, rub about % lb. of the mixture all over the 
outside, and pack the Shoulders into the tierce. After 
the 28 Boneless Shoulders have been packed nicely 
into the tierce, put clean boards over the top of the 
meat and weight or fasten down these boards, so as 
to keep them under the brine. 

The sugar must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or 
brown sugar must not be used. When adulterated sugar 
is used the brine becomes thick in two weeks, but when 
Pure Granulated Sugar is used it will last quite a while, 
depending upon the conditions under which the brine is 
kept. 

Fifth: — Take all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
Granulated Sugar and Salt that is left after rubbing 
the meat, and use it in making the brine. It will 
require between 14 and 15 gallons of brine, as tierces 
vary somewhat in size, for each standard size tierce of 
Boneless Shoulders. Make the brine by dissolving in 
about 14 gallons of water all of the mixed Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt that is left after 
rubbing. As tierces vary so in size, it is always best 
to dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt in a 
less quantity of water, say about 14 gallons for a 
tierce. After this brine is added to the meat, should 
the tierce hold more, simply add cold water until the 
tierce is filled. The right amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 

60 



C H I CAC3- a. U. S. -PL. 



Sugar and Salt has already been added, now simply 
add sufficient water to well cover the meat. 

In curing a less quantity than a full tierce of Bone- 
less Rolled Shoulders, cut down the amount of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt and the quan- 
tity of water, according to the quantity of Boneless 
Shoulders to be cured. 

Quantity of Brine for Curing Less Than 100 Lbs. of 
Boneless Boiled Shoulders. 

The same directions should be followed in curing less 
than 100 lbs. of Boneless Eolled Shoulders as are given 
for Hams, on page 52. 

The Use of Molasses and Syrup Barrels in Curing 
Boneless Boiled Shoulders. 

The remarks concerning the use of these barrels in 
curing Hams apply with equal force to the curing of 
Boneless Eolled Shoulders, and we refer to page 52. 

Shape of Vats for Curing Boneless Boiled Shoulders. 

See page 53 concerning the Shape of Vats for curing 
Hams, as the same remarks apply in curing Boneless 
Eolled Shoulders. 

How to Overhaul Boneless Rolled Shoulders When 
Cured in Open Packages. 

See page 53 and follow the same instructions for 

overhauling as are given for overhauling Hams when 

curing in open packages. 

Pumping Boneless Rolled Shoulders. 

This should not be neglected. See page 76 and fol- 
low the directions closely. The Pumping of Boneless 
Eolled Shoulders is very important, because when they 
are Boned and Eolled, most of the outside surface is 
covered with Eind, which prevents the Brine from get- 
ting through to the meat. However, by rubbing the 
inside of the Shoulder with the Curing Mixture and 
then Pumping them before Curing, good results will 
always be assured. 

61 



-tzJ. HE ±zj !L_i JL_, 


ERScCD.ll 


/ 






Wflljjj- 








in 


*1 i if ;£*Wa11 ^^ 


L«*ti 






IB 






^B B 


WA 




1 H®] 


s 




11, 


i^fij 






DIRECTIONS FOR MAK- 
ING SUGAR CURED 
BREAKFAST BACON. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Light Bellies. 

Use for 100 lbs. Light Bellies. 
5 lbs. of Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
5 gallons of Cold Water. 
Cure in this brine 20 to 25 days. 

Heavy Bellies. 

Use for 100 lbs. Medium or Heavy 

Bellies. 
7 ' lbs. Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. Granulated Sugar. 
5 gals. Cold Water. 
Cure in this brine 25 to 40 days, 

according to size. 
First: — Mix together the proper proportions of 
Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt, as stated above for 
every 100 lbs. of Bellies. 

Second: — Take a perfectly clean tierce, tub or vat, and 
sprinkle a little of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated 
Sugar and Salt on the bottom. The sugar used must be 
Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must not 
be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine be- 
comes thick in two weeks; but when Pure Granulated 
Sugar is used, it will last quite a while, depending upon 
the condition in which the brine is kept. 

Third: — Take half of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
Granulated Sugar and Salt and rub each piece of Belly 



62 



CZKE I G AGO, O. S.-H. 



•with tlie mixture and then pack as loosely as possible. 

Fourth: — Put clean boards over the top of the 
Bellies and fasten or weight the boards down so as to 
keep them covered with the brine. 

Fifth: — All of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granu- 
lated Sugar and Salt that is left after rubbing the 
meat should be used for making the brine. 

Sixth: — For each 100 lbs. of Bellies packed in the 
tierce, tub or vat, add not less than 5 gallons of brine, 
and pour it over the meat. Five gallons of water by 
measure or forty-two pounds by weight, will make suf- 
ficient brine to cover, and is the proper amount for 
each 100 lbs. of Bellies. 

Seventh: — Before putting the water over the Bellies, 
dissolve in it the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and 
Salt left after rubbing; stir it for a few minutes until 
it is thoroughly dissolved, and then pour this brine 
over the Bellies. 

Eighth: — Bellies must be overhauled three times 
while curing — once on the fifth day; again seven days 
later, and again in ten days more. Overhauling must 
never be neglected, if good results are desired. 

Overhauling means to take the meat out of the brine 
and repack it in the same brine. The proper way to 
overhaul is to take a perfectly clean tierce or vat, set 
it next to the tierce or vat of Bellies to be over- 
hauled, pack the meat into the ; empty package and 
then pour the same brine over the meat. 

PUMPING BREAKFAST BACON. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Many Packers pump Breakfast Bacon when it is put 
into the brine, and we can heartily recommend this, 
as Bacon that is properly pumped will be cured in 
one half the time and it will have a uniform cure and 
color throughout and will be as well cured on the in- 
side as the outside. Great care, however, should be 
exercised in making the pumping pickle. It must be 
made according to the formula given on page 76, 
just the same as for Pumping Hams. The pieces of 
Bacon should be pumped in from three to five places, 
according to the size of the piece. Very large pieces, 
especially if the rib is left in them, can be pumped 
several times more. 

63 



B.I-I 



StCD. 



CORNED-BEEF 



CORNED- BEEF SPECIAL 
TO-DAY 




FEW BUTCHERSIREALIZE 

(Copyrighted ; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Few Butchers realize the importance of building up 
a reputation on good Corned Beef. A good trade on 
Corned Beef enables the dealer to get higher prices 
for Plates, Kumps, Briskets and other cuts which other- 
wise would have to be sold at a sacrifice. Corned 
Beef cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will have 
a Delicious Corned Beef Flavor, a Fine, Eed, Cured- 
Meat Color, will not be too Salty. 

To obtain the best results in curing Corned Beef, it 
is always advisable to first soak the meat for a few 
hours in a tub of fresh cold water to which a few 
handfuls of salt have been added. This will draw out 
the blood which would otherwise get into the brine. 
The membrane on the inside of the Plates and Flanks 
should be removed and the Strip of Gristle cut off the 
edge of the Belly Side. 

If any part is tainted, mouldy, discolored or slimy, 
it must be trimmed off, so no slimy or tainted parts 
will get into the brine. If Plates or Briskets are to be 
rolled, a small amount of mixed Zanzibar Brand Corned 
Beef Seasoning, Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt 
must be sprinkled on the inside before rolling them. 
This will give the meat a Delicious Flavor and results in a 
Nice Red Color and will cure it more uniformly and quickly. 

64 




Use for 100 lbs. 
Plates, Rumps, 
Briskets, etc. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FINE CORNED 

BEEF. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

|" 5 lbs. of Common Salt. 

| 1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

J 2 lbs. of Granulated Cane Sugar. 

j 6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Corned 

5 Beef Seasoning. 

[ 5 gals, of Cold Water. 

Cure the meat in this brine 15 to 30 days, according 
to weight and thickness of the piece. 

Eetail Butchers who cure Corned Beef in small quan- 
tities, and who from day to day take out pieces from 
the brine and add others, should make the brine and 
handle the Corned Beef as follows: 

To every five gallons of water add five pounds of 
common salt, one pound of Freeze-Em-Pickle and two 
pounds of granulated sugar. In summer, if the temper- 
ature of the curing room or cooler cannot be kept 
down as low as 40 degrees, then use one pound of sugar 
for five gallons of water. If the cooler is kept below 
40 degrees, use two pounds of sugar. In winter the 
curing can always be done in a temperature of 36 to 
38 degrees, and then two pounds of sugar to five gal- 
lons of water should always be used. The sugar must 
be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow or Brown Sugar must 
not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine 
becomes thick in two weeks, but when pure granulated 
sugar is used it will last quite a while, depending largely 
upon the conditions under which the brine is kept. 



65 



B. I-iE LLER. ScCD. 



THE SEASONING OF CORNED BEEF. 

It is simple enough to add Seasoning to the corned 
beef, but the ability to deeide what proportion of 
just what spices, etc., will produce the most desirable 
flavor requires ripe judgment and long experience. 
There are many butchers today who could greatly 
improve their corned beef if they but knew more 
about the proper seasoning and the proportions to use. 
We have worked out this problem for him in our spe- 
cial Corned Beef Flavor. It is a splendid combination 
of just those spices, etc., most suited for seasoning 
corned beef, and imparts a most zestful and appetiz- 
ing flavor. This flavor should be added by tying it 
up in a piece of cheese cloth and allowing it to lay in 
the brine which contains the corned beef. This will 
flavor the brine and thus the corned beef becomes 
uniformly and thoroughly seasoned without any par- 
ticles of the seasoning adhering to the meat. 

HOW TO KNOW WHEN CORNED BEEF IS 
NOT FULLY CURED. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
If a piece of Corned Beef is cut, before or after it is 
cooked, and the inside is not a nice red color, it is be- 
cause the meat is not cured through. It is often sold 
in this condition, but it should not be, as it does not 
have the proper flavor unless it has been cured all the 
way through, which requires two or three weeks in a 
mild brine, depending upon the size of the piece of 
meat. Corned Beef pickled for four or five days in a 
strong brine, with an excessive amount of saltpetre in 
it, as some butchers cure it, is not good Corned Beef 
and does not have the proper flavor, although it may 
be red through to the center, the color being due to the 
large amount of saltpetre used in the brine. 

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing gives the 
meat a different and better flavor. 



66 



H-tiH-M^tS 



. U.S. A. 



PUMPING CORNED BEEF. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

We recommend Pumping Corned Beef with a Pickle 
Pump, before it is put into the brine. In this way 
the meat is cured in about half the time and it will 
be cured from the inside just the same as from the out- 
side, and will be more uniform in color throughout than 
if cured without pumping. If Corned Beef is pumped, 
it should be pumped with the same pickle as for pump- 
ing Hams, formula for which is given on page 76. 
Tlus pieces of Corned Beef should be pumped in from 
two to four places, according to the size of the piece 
of meat. One will soon become accustomed to it, after 
pumping a few pieces. Pumping can of course be over- 
done, and too much brine must not be pumped into the 
meat; otherwise it will puff out too much and become 
tpongy. 



GARLIC FLAVORED CORNED BEEF. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Many people like Garlic Flavor in Corned Beef, and 
butchers who want to please their customers should 
keep a supply of Corned Beef both with and without 

the Garlic Flavor. We 
make a special prepara- 
tion, known as Vacuum 
Brand Garlic Compound, 
with which butchers are 
able to give a Garlic 
Flavor to any kind of 
meat, without having 
any of the objectionable 
features that result from 
the use of fresh Garlic. 

Vacuum Brand Garlic 
Compound is a powder 
which we manufacture 
from Selected Garlic. The 
flavor given by it is deli- 
cious, and the advantages 
gained by it will be thor- 
oughly appreciated by all 
be thoroughly appreciated by wno use **• 




5ome People 

PREFER 



67 



13. i~3. Jul 



StCD. 



HOME-MADE PRE55ED 
COOKED CORNED BEEF 



DIRECTION FOR MAKING COOKED 
CORNED BEEF. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take fully cured Corned Beef and cut it up into 
different sizes, and pack it nicely into a cooked corned 
beef press, sprinkling a little Zanzibar Brand Corned 
Beef Seasoning between each layer of meat so as to 
give it a delicious flavor. All Butchers' Supply 
Houses sell presses made especially for this purpose. 
After packing the pieces of Meat into the press, screw 
it up tight; then put the press which has been filled, 
into hot water, of a temperature of 180 F., and leave 
it there for one and a half hours, then reduce the tem- 
perature to 170 degrees and leave it there for one hour 
longer. A very large press might require three hours 
cooking before the meat would be cooked through. 
After the meat is thoroughly cooked, place the press 
in the cooler and let it remain there over night. The 
following morning the Corned Beef will be thoroughly 
chilled and can be taken out of the press. 

In the summer it is a good plan to dip the cake of 
Cooked Corned Beef, jfter it is removed from the 
press, into Hot Lard for a second, or even Hot Tallow. 
This will coat it so it will not become mouldy, and it 
will keep much better than without dipping it. 

Pressed Cooked Corned Beef is an elegant article, is 
a good seller and very often women would be only too 
pleased to be able to buy this from the butcher and 
would be willing to pay good prices for it if they 
could only obtain it. Butehers should give more atten- 
tion to preparations of this kind, as they would help 
greatly in developing business. 

68 



CHICADD. U. S.A. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FANCY DRIED 

BEEF. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 




How to Cure Beef Hams and Shoulder Clots. 
SMALL PIECES. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Small Beef Hams 
and Shoulder Clots. 



f 6 lbs. of Common Salt. 
] 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

J 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
] 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
I Cure in this brine 50 to 60 
[ davs. 



MEDIUM PIECES. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Medium Beef Hams 
pjid Shoulder Clots. 



C 7 lbs. of Common Salt. 
j 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
j 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
] 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
| Cure in this brine 60 to 70 
I davs. 



HEAVY PIECES. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Heavy Beef Hams 
and Shoulder Clots. 



- 8 lbs. of Common Salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 
j 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
| Cure in this brine 75 to 80 
[ days. 

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow 
or brown sugar must not be used. 

First. — Sort the Beef Hams and Clots, separating the 
Small, Medium and Large. 



69 



B.HE LLE F2. Sc CZ O. 



Second. — Take enough of any one size of the as- 
sorted Beef Hams and Clots to fill a tierce which will 
be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large 
pail or box, the following proportions of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, Sugar and Salt: 

Use for 285 lbs. of Small Beef Hams and Small Clots, 
3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 6 lbs. of best Granulated 
Sugar and 18 lbs. of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Medium Beef Hams and Medium 
Clots, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated 
Sugar and 21 lbs. of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Beef Hams and Heavy Clots, 
3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 6 lbs. of best Granulated 
Sugar and 24 lbs. of Salt. 

Curing Beef Hams and Clots in Open Barrels. 

Follow exactly the same instructions as given for 
curing Hams in Open Packages, page 51. 

Quantity of Brine for Curing 100 Lbs. of Beef Hams 

and Clots. 

Use the same quantity of Brine and the same amount 
of Beef Hams and Clots as directed for curing Hams, 
on page 52. The same remarks apply as to variations 
in the size and shape of vats, and in the general hand- 
ling, as given for Hams. 

How to Overhaul Beef Hams and Clots When Curing 
in Open Packages. 

Overhaul and handle exactly as directed for Hams, 
on page 53. 

How to Cure Beef Hams and Clots in Closed Up Tierces. 

Follow the same directions in every way as given for 
curing Hams in Closed Up Tierces, page 54. 

How to Overhaul Beef Hams and Clots When Cured in 
Closed Up Tierces. 

Follow exactly the directions for overhauling Hams 
when cured in Closed Up Tierces, given on page 55. 

Pumping Beef Hams and Clots. 

Follow the general directions for Pumping, which 
will be found on page 76. 

70 



GHICACtO, u. s. a 




(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Take 100 lbs. of boneless Beef Plates and cure them 

in brine made as follows: 
5 gallons of cold water. 
5 lbs. of common salt. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 

2 lbs. of granulated sugar. 

Cure the Plates in this brine 10 to 30 days in a 
cooler. The temperature should not be higher than 
42 to 44 degrees Fahrenheit, but 38 to 40 degrees tem- 
perature is always the best for curing purposes. 

The 5 gallons of brine should be flavored by placing 
in it about 6 to 8 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Corned 
Beef Seasoning. After the meat has been fully cured 
in accordance with the above directions, sprinkle some 
Corned Beef Seasoning on the meat; then roll the meat 
and tie it tight with a heavy string. The meat should 
then be boiled slowly. 

Boiled Spiced Beef should be boiled the same as 
hams, in water that is 155 degrees Fahrenheit. 

This Kolled Spiced Beef is sold to customers raw as 
well as boiled. Many prefer to buy it raw and boil it 
at home. This style of Corned Beef makes a beautiful 
display on the counter and butchers will find this a 
profitable way of working off fat plates. Meat worked 
up in this way brings a good price and is a ready 
seller. Those liking Garlic Flavor can also add a 
smaii quantity of Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment. 

71 



B.I-IE 



ScCD 



GENERAL HINTS FOR CURING MEATS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Curers of meat, who are well acquainted with us know 
that we have been in a position to acquire more than 
the average knowledge in the curing and handling of 
meats. As is well known, we have been consulting chem- 
ists and packing house experts for many years; therefore, 
the general information which we offer for curing meats 
are suggested by the results of many years of practical 
experience. 

CHILLING MEATS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 



CHILLING MEAT5 



Hams, Shoulders, Bel- 
lies and other cuts must 
be thoroughly chilled be 
fore they are put into 
pickle. From one to 
two days before beiijg 
packed, depending upon 
the temperature, they 
should be hung up or 
laid on a rack in the 
cooler, in order to draw 
out all the animal heat 
that is in them and to 
make them firm and 
ready for packing. Pack- 
ers, using ice machinery 
for cooling, can bring 
the temperature low 
enough during the warm 
weather to properly chill 
the meat; however, it 
must not be frozen. If 
the cooler in which 
meats are chilled is not cold enougli to make the Hams. 
Shoulders, Bellies, etc., firm and solid in 48 hours, it 
is advisable to lay the meat on the floor over night and 
place crushed ice over it; this will harden the meat. 




72 



CHICAGO. U.S. A 



CHILLING MEATS 




Those using a common 
ice house can employ 
the crushed ice method, 
which is to spread the 
meat on the floor and 
throw cracked ice over 
the meat, allowing it to 
remain over night. It 
should always be remem- 
bered that if meat is 
put into brine soft and 
spongy, it will become 
pickle-soaked and in 
such condition will never 
cure properly. It will 
come out of the brine 
soft and spongy, and 
will often sour when in 
the smoke house. A great 
deal of meat spoils in 
curing only for the rea- 
son that the animal heat 
has not been removed 
before the meat is packed and placed in brine. When 
the animal heat is all out of the meat, the meat will 
be firm and solid all the way through. In order to get 
the best results, the inside temperature of Hams and 
Shoulders when packed, should not be over 36 to 38 
degrees Fahrenheit. The meat should be tested with 
a thermometer made for this purpose before it is 
packed. Every curer of meat should have one. An 
illustration of same will be found on page 284. 

OVERHAULING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

When curing Hams, Shoulders, and all kinds of 
sweet-pickled meats in open vats, overhauling is a 
very important feature; it must be done at least four 
times during the curing period. When curing in closed 
up tierces, the tierces must be rolled at least four times 
during the curing period. Bellies must be overhauled 
at least three times while curing in open vats, and if 
cured in closed up tierces, they must be rolled at least 
three times during the curing period. This overhauling 
is very necessary because it mixes the brine and 
changes the position of the meat in such a way that 
the brine gets to all parts of it. 



73 



.fczJ. !E~x 



ScCQ 



HOW TO BOIL HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Heat the water to 155 degrees Fahrenheit. Then 
place the hams in the hot water and keep them in it 
from eight to nine hours, according to the size of 
Hams. Try to keep the water as near to 155 degrees 
as possible. By cooking Hams in a temperature of 155 
degrees, very little of the fat will cook out of them 
and float on top of the water, and the Hams will shrink 
very little. When Hams or large pieces of meat are 
boiled for slicing cold, allow them to remain in the 
water until it is nearly cold, for by so doing the meat 
re-absorbs much of the nutriment which has been 
drawn out during the cooking process. Then put them 
in a cooler over night, so that they will become thor- 
oughly chilled before slicing. Hams should never be 
cooked in boiling water, which is 212 degrees Fahren- 
heit, as this is so hot that most of the fat will melt 
and run out of them. 



USING BRINE TWICE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The Pickle, in which Hams have 
been cured, but which is still sweet 
and not stringy or ropy, is the best 
brine in which to cure light bellies. 
Nothing need be added to it. It 
should be used just as it comes from 
the Hams. While brine in which 
Hams have been cured can be used 
once more for curing Breakfast Ba- 
con, it should be remembered that it 
must not be used a second time for 
curing Hams or Shoul- 
ders. 

ICE WATER. 

Never use the drip 
water of melted ice from 
a cooler for making 
Pickle, as it contains 
many impurities, and 
therefore should never 
be used. 




74 



| «-*±*J-»^ gjg 



. T_I. S. A. 




PUMPING MEATS 




PUMPING MEATS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

We highly recom- 
mend pumping Hams, 
Shoulders and other 
kinds of Cured Meat*. 
It is a safeguard in 
Hams and Shoulders 
against shank and 
body souring, should 
they, through some 
carelessness, be insuf- 
ficiently chilled all 
the way to the bone, 
and is a protection 
against sour joint, 
and insures a uniform 
cure. It is also of 
great advantage to 
pump Breakfast Ba- 
con, Corned Beef, 
Dried Beef, Dry Salt 
Meats, etc. Packers and curers, who do not use a 
pump and the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, are suffering 
losses from sour meats, which during a year's business 
would mean a large profit to them. 

There is a mistaken idea among many butchers and 
packers that pumping Hams and Shoulders is injurious 
to the meat. The facts do not warrant such a belief, 
as the best cured and the best flavored meats are those 
that have been pumped. When Hams and Shoulders 
are not pumped, it requires weeks for the pickle to 
penetrate through to the bone, which is the vital spot 
of a Ham or Shoulder. If the joints, tissues and meat 
around the bone are not wholly and thoroughly cured, 
the entire Ham or Shoulder is inferior and no good; 
because it furnishes a favorable seat for the develop- 
ment of the germs of putrefaction, whieh render the 
meat unfit for human food. 

In order to always have a mild cure, sweet flavor at 
the joints, and uniform color, they should be pumped. 
Pumping with the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is a safe- 
guard against shank and body souring; it gives the in- 
side of a Ham or Shoulder a delicious flavor, a good 
color, and insures a uniform cure; it cures the joints 

75 



B.I-I E LLE "R Sc CD. 



and the meat around the bone thoroughly, and greatly 
reduces the period of curing. The secret and principal 
feature in pumping Hams and Shoulders, is to have the 
right kind of pumping brine. When common brine, or 
ordinary sweet-pickle is used for pumping, the Hams 
or Shoulders usually become pickle-soaked, and if the 
Refrigerator under such conditions is not the very best, 
or if the Hams or Shoulders are not thoroughly chilled, 
the smallest degree of animal heat which may be re- 
maining in them will start fermentation, causing the 
meat to sour next to the joints. It is, therefore, plain 
to be seen that pumping, under such conditions, in- 
stead, of doing good, will in reality result in injury, and 
this is the reason why so many who have tried pump- 
ing meats have failed. On the other hand, when the 
pumping brine is made as shown herein, all of these 
objections are overcome, and the meat will not be 
pickle-soaked, nor will it become soft and flabby. The 
brine will be absorbed by the meat around the bone 
and joints so thoroughly as to leave no trace of it 
after the Ham is cured; it also gives the inside meat 
a fine red color, and a delicious flavor. Hams that have 
been pumped with Freeze-Em-Pickle and cured by the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, will not dry up and become 
hard when fried or cooked; when sliced cold they will 
not crumble, but will slice nicely and have a delicate 
and pleasing flavor. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PUMPING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

One gallon of pumping brine is sufficient for pump- 
ing one tierce, or 285 lbs. of meat. Make the pumping 
brine as follows: 

V 2 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

1 lb of Pure Granulated Sugar. 

2 lbs. of Salt. 

1 gal. of Water. 
The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yel- 
low or brown sugar must not be used. When adul- 
terated sugar is used, the brine becomes thick and 
would spoil the meat in two weeks. Stir the above 
thoroughly before using. As this will make a thick 
brine which is more than saturated, it will precipitate 
when left standing, therefore, when mixed in large 
quantities, it should be stirred occasionally. Meats 

76 



U. S.A. 



should never be pumped with anything but a solution 
that is thoroughly saturated. 

Pump the Hams or Shoulders just before they are 
packed, and if it is desired to rush the cure, pump them 
every time that the meat is overhauled. The pumping 
solution must be cold when pumped into the meat. 
Ordinarily, three insertions of the needle in the Hams 
are sufficient; once at the shank to the hock joint as 
shown at A, once to the thigh and along the bone, 
Fig. B., and once from the butt 
end to the joint under the hip 
bone and into the fleshy part. 
Fig. C. Solid lines show needle 
up to point of insertion and 
dotted line shows direction taken 
by needle after insertion. In a 
very heavy Ham - as many as six 
insertions should be made, and the 
same with very heavy Shoulders. 
Three insertions of the needle in- 
to a medium size Shoulder are 
sufficient; one at Fig. D, 
one to the shoulder joint 
at Fig. E, and one under 
the blade from the end, or diagon- 
ally from the back of the shoul- 
der toward the end at Fig. F. 

More insertions may be made without 
injury to the meat, but the above are 
all that are required for good results. 
One cubic inch of solution is enough 
for each insertion, and after withdraw- 
ing the needle, the hole must be 
squeezed shut with the thumb to pre- 
vent the solution from oozing out. Stir 
the solution well before starting to 
pump. The Pumper must be careful 
not to pump air into the meat. Never 
allow the Pickle to go below the end 
of sucker of pump. 




HAMS 




77 



B. I-I E LLE F?. 3c C O. 



USE ONLY PURE SUGAR 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

It will be noted that, in all of our directions for the sweet 
pickling of meat, we lay great stress upon the importance 
of using only pure sugar, free from adulterations. The very 
best and purest of granulated sugar should always be used, 
if the best results are expected. Sugar, as is well known 
is a great nutrient and, as a food, possesses practically the 
same value as starch; it is however, much more readily 
digested. Therefore the use of pure sugar assists in mak- 
ing meat food products more digestible. In preparing a 
sweet brine, the one great object sought to be attained is 
that the brine shall have the highest possible penetrative 
quality. Any adulterant in the sugar tends to prevent the 
penetration of the sweet pickled brine and lessens its effi- 
ciency in proportion as adulterants are contained in the 
sugar. It is only by the use of pure granulated sugar that 
a well-keeping brine can be produced. Many adulterants, 
even though they are natural adulterants, resulting from 
lack of proper refining of the sugar, tend to create fermen- 
tation in the brine producing a slimy and ropy condition. 
As is well known to those best experienced in the sweet 
pickling of meat, ropy and slimy brine is almost always 
sure to cause meat to sour. 

Impurities in sugar used for producing sweet pickle will 
prevent the proper coagulation of the albumen in the meat 
uices. Coagulation does and should take place in all well 
cured meat. The impurities and adulterants, in other 
words, positively counteract the effect of the curing agents 
in the brine. Therefore use only the best pure granulated 
sugar in making all sweet pickle. The general conditions 
for obtaining pure granulated sugar at the present day are 
very much improved over those of a number of years ago, 
prior to the passage of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. 
For instance, you can form a good idea of the purity of 
your sugar by dissolving a quantity in water to make a 
fairly thick syrup, but not using more than the water will 

78 



CHIGAGD, U. S:-PL. 



take up. Cork this tightly and place in a dark room over 
night. We have seen tests made in this way, which in 
twenty-four hours would show a deposit of blue coloring 
at the bottom of the bottle, and also a considerable quan- 
tity of insoluble salts. This comes from what is known as 
"bluing" the sugar, but where you purchase one of the 
well known manufacturers products marked, "pure granu- 
lated sugar", these difficulties are seldom met with at the 
present time. There was a time also when sugar was fre- 
quently adulterated with crystalized glucose or as is com- 
monly known "grape sugar." This was a very serious 
adulterant from the view point of the sweet pickle curing 
of meat, as glucose tends to ferment in brine very quickly 
and consequently the brine would become ropy and slimy 
within a very short time. This resulted in sour and soggy 
hams, bacon, etc., so that the purchase of cheap sugar con- 
taining impurities was never a saving, but proved very 
costly to the manufacturer who was persuaded to purchase 
low grade sugar. 

It has been a common practice with some butchers in 
preparing sweet pickle to use molasses or syrup. This 
method we strongly urge our friends not to adopt. The 
saving will be many times lost by meat which will have 
to be thrown away because of ropy, fermented and sour 
pickle. "We cannot urge upon our friends too strongly 
that they use only pure granulated sugar. Not only from 
the standpoint of keeping sweet pickle brine in good, clean 
condition, but from the view point of flavor and thorough 
cure, the use of pure granulated sugar is absolutely neces- 
sary for producing the proper kind of finished meat food 
products. 

Sugar is considered as a natural preservative, but it must 
be borne in mind that sugar is used in the sweet pickle 
method of curing meat, not only as a preservative, but also 
as a flavor. Pure sugar has the property of combining 
with the other curing agents and by its penetrative prop^ 
erty carries the other curing agents into the cells of the 

79 



B.I-IE LLER 8c d □. 



meat tissue more thoroughly. This results in the uniform 
action of the curing agent, producing even flavored meat 
as a result of the cure. Another peculiar property of pure 
sugar is that by its combination with the salt used in the 
brine it has a great tendency to prevent fermentation, thus 
keeping a clean, clear, sweet, penetrative brine, which will 
do the largest amount of work with the smallest amount of 
material, in producing evenly cured meat. To sum up, we 
will state that pure granulated sugar should take the place 
of molasses, syrup or any other form of sweetener because 
it imparts a better flavor and assists in making the brine 
more penetrative, thus producing best results. 



HANDLING CALVES' STOMACHS 
OR RENNETS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The calf s stomach is divided into four compartments. 
The first one is known as the paunch; the second as the 
honeycomb stomach; the third is called the many-plies 
stomach and the fourth is known as the rennet bag. 

The proper way to handle the rennet bag is to remove 
it from the balance of the stomach, turn it inside out, and 
clean with fresh water so as to remove the adhering con- 
tents. Great care must be taken not to scrape off or in any 
way remove the mucous membrane (by this is meant the 
many folds of thin skin) as this is the part of the stomach 
which has a market value. Of course the stomach must be 
gently and carefully washed to remove the undigested 
portions of food which may be contained therein, as other- 
wise it would very quickly decompose and become putrid. 
It would then be of no value whatever for any purpose. 
After cleansing them, dust the rennet bags all over with 
finely ground salt, and blow them up after having turned 
them inside out. Then hang them in a dry place in a 
current of air so that they will dry as quickly as possible. 

80 




CHICADD, O. S.A 



ROPY OR STRINGY BRINE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 



Occasionally brine that has 
been made with sugar will be- 
come ropy and thick like jelly, 
but yet will be somewhat 
stringy. This is called "Ropy 
Brine," and can always be 
traced to either the use of un- 
suitable sugar or improper 
temperature of the curing room. 

Yellow cr brown sugar and 
glucose sugar will never do for 
curing meat. It must be Pure 
Sugar, and the Refined, Granu- 
lated Sugar is the best, because 
the impurities have been taken 
out. 

j^yi^l |jR|Nl However, even if Pure Gran- 
ulated Sugar is used and the 
temperature of the Curing Room is too high, the brine is 
liable to turn "Ropy" anyway. It is, therefore, absolutely 
necessary for anyone who intends to cure meat in sweet 
brine not only to use the proper kind of sugar but also to 
cur3 in the proper temperature. Otherwise, the results 
will not be satisfactory, no matter what kind of a curing 
agent is used. 

In buying sugar for curing purposes, it is advisable to 
order it from the wholesale grocers or from the manufac- 
turer, and have it guaranteed to be Pure Granulated Sugar 
put up Especially for Preserving Purposes. This grade of 
sugar is on the market and is used for preserving fruits, 
and is the best kind of sugar to use for curing meats. 

If brine has become ropy in a curing package and it 
is desired to use that package again, it is absolutely nec- 
essary to thoroughly scald out such package, and it is 
well to use Ozo Washing Powder for that purpose 
so as to prevent the possibility of fermentation. Other- 
wise, the unclean package will cause the fresh brine to 
turn "Ropy" even though it is made with the right kind of 
sugar and kept in the proper temperature. 

81 



B. H E LLE R&CQ 



BOILING THE BRINE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 



BOILING 
BRINE 




Boiling the brine im- 
proves it some, but not 
enough to pay for the 
extra trouble it makes. 
We recommend boiling 
the water, if one has the 
time, as it purifies it. 
"When there is reason to 
believe that the water is 
impure, or when it is 
known to be tainted with 
vegetable matter, the 
brine should always be boiled, and the impurities will 
then float on the surface, and can be skimmed off. 



CLEANSING CURING PACKAGES 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

All curing packages should be taken out of the cooler 
after the meat has been cured in them, and scalded and 
washed thoroughly clean with hot water and Ozo. Soda 
or Soda-ash may also be used, but we strongly recommend 
Ozo, which is a thoroughly reliable Washing Powder. 
When packages have been thoroughly cleaned, they should 
be put out in the sun and allowed to remain there for a 
day or two. The sun will thoroughly dry them and the 
fresh air will sweeten them. 

W 



CHICADD. U.S. A. 



SOME CAUSES FOR SOUR HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Sour Hams are sometimes caused by hanging warm 
meat in the same room in which the meat is cured. 
This should never be done. The warm carcasses raise 
the temperature of the curing room, thus causing the 
brine to get too warm. Under such conditions the 
meat is liable to sour in the brine. Furthermore, the 
brine is liable to absorb the odors from the warm car- 
casses, which of course is very objectionable. 

Many suppose that Hams sour from getting too 
much smoke, but such is never the cause, as Hams will 
not sour from over-smoke. Smoke aids to preserve 
Hams and cannot cause them to sour. "When Hams 
sour in the Smoke House the cause must be traced to 
the fact that they are not properly and fully cured 
before going into the Smoke House, and the portion 
that has not been thoroughly cured, which is generally 
close to the bone, has not been reached by the brine. 
In many cases, souring comes from imperfect chilling 
of meat before putting it into the brine; then again, 
the meat may not have been overhauled at the proper 
time and with the frequency which good curing re- 
quires. 

In order to prevent souring of Hams the various 
stages of curing must be carried out with the utmost 
care. In the first place, hogs should not be killed when 
overheated or excited, and after they have been scalded 
and scraped, they must be dressed as quickly as pos- 
sible, washed out thoroughly with clean water and then 
split and allowed to hang in a well ventilated room 
until partly cooled off. They should then be run into 
a cooler or chill room as quickly as possible and the 
temperature should be reduced to 32 to 34 degrees 
Fahrenheit. They should be allowed to thus chill for 
48 hours. When hogs are properly chilled after cur- 
ing, the temperature of the inside of the Ham or 
Shoulder will not be more than several degrees higher 
than the cooler. After being thoroughly chilled, the 
Hams must undergo the various processes which will 
be found in other pages of this book which give direc- 
tions for the curing of Hams and Shoulders. "When 
these directions are closely followed, there will never 
be trouble from sour Hams. 

83 



Jbzj. rl JtzJ 



HI 



Sc CZ O. 




HAMS AND SUPERIOR HAMS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

There seems to exist some doubt 
in the minds of butchers as to 
whether one Ham can be cured to 
better advantage than another, 
basing their opinion upon the fact 
that all packers have two grades 
of Hams, one of which is called 
of superior quality. Doubt has 
been expressed as to whether one 
piece of meat taken from the hog 
will make any better pork than 
that taken from another. This 
doubt should not obtain and 
could hardly exist in the minds of 
anyone who has carefully inves- 
tigated the modern methods of 
packing. If such a person were 
to stand by the side of a Ham trimmer in a packing 
house and examine each Ham as it comes from the 
trimmer, he would be at once convinced as to the error 
of his opinion. There would be noticed a vast differ- 
ence in the quality of Hams, even in their fresh state. 
Many Hams are of very coarse grain, especially those 
that come from boars, stags and old sows, while many 
other Hams are large and too fat. Those that come 
from poor, scrawny hogs are too small and thin, and 
this differentiation exists regardless of the grade or 
the experience in buying different lots of hogs. Per- 
haps there is no animal which varies so much in qual- 
ity and condition of meat as the hog, and he fully 
represents or reflects the quality of the food from 
which he is made, or the results of wise or unwise 
feeding. Furthermore, Hams will vary in quality even 
after they have been graded; some medium size Hams, 
which is the size usually picked for the finest cure, are 
of much better quality than others. This will be readily 
admitted when it is remembered that a Ham may be of 
proper weight, but it can also be too fat for its weight, 
it can be too lean, it can have a coarse thick skin, 
the meat can be coarse in grain or it may be properly 
graded as to size, but come from an old, worn-out 
sow. Under such circumstances, it is not only neces- 
sary to cull the Hams, but to recull them, until the 
different grades are divided as to quality. 

84 



U. S.-H.. 



A fourteen to sixteen pound Ham from a young bar- 
row with a fine, thin, white skin which is not too fat 
or not too lean, and possessing a nice, fine grained meat 
is fully up to grade and is taken for the superior qual- 
ity of Hams. Therefore, a Ham of this description is 
superior in quality even before it goes into the brine 
for curing, and it is very easy to understand that when 
such a quality of Ham is carefully cured, for just the 
proper length of time, it will be far better than the 
ordinary run of Hams. Furthermore, the quality of the 
Hams may be deteriorated in many ways. For in- 
stance, the fourteen to sixteen pound Ham is fully 
cured in from sixty to seventy days, but if a packer 
has put up a large quantity of better grade Hams 
which gives him a surplus, he will hold them in the 
brine from ten to twenty days longer after they have 
been fully cured, and if they are thus kept in the 
brine for this additional period, they may become too 
salty and their fine flavor is lost. Under such cir- 
cumstances the Hams must be taken out of the brine 
and smoked, or must be stored in a low temperature 
for ten or twenty days longer, but the moment they 
are kept beyond the full curing time they are not as 
good as when taken out of the cure at the moment 
they are fully cured. Furthermore, if a large quan- 
tity of the superior quality of Hams have been smoked 
and they are not disposed of rapidly enough, they 
begin to lose in appearance, and must again be culled 
and sold with the cheaper grade of Hams. If they 
are kept in brine longer than is necessary, they must 
also go into the cheaper quality. 

It is, therefore, plain to be seen that what is known 
as the superior quality is the best Ham that the packer 
can turn out. As stated, the Hams are superior before 
they are cured. They are properly kept all through 
the process of curing, and the moment they are fully 
cured they are taken out, smoked and sold. It is only 
by handling Hams in this manner that it is possible to 
maintain a grade of superior quality. All Hams can- 
not be handled in this way, owing to the fluctuation of 
supply and demand, but the packer aims to keep them 
fully up to superior grade by a frequent and dis- 
criminating culling. This should convince anyone in 
doubt upon this question that they are erroneous in 
supposing that all hams are alike, and that all hog 
meat is high grade pork, when, in fact, it has various 
grades of quality. 

85 



B.HELL] ^ScCu. 



HOW TO SMOKE PICKLE-SOAKED MEAT. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

It sometimes happens that butchers leave their Hams 
in brine too long and they become pickle-soaked. Once 
in this pickle-soaked condition, it is well known that it 
is a very difficult matter to smoke the Hams, because, 
even though they are sweet when they go into the 
Smoke House, they will come out sour. Hams should 
not be left in brine over ninety days, and at the very 
outside not more than one hundred days, unless they 
are put into a freezer and kept at a temperature of 
28 degrees, at which they can be kept as long as de- 
sired. But it is frequently the case that they are left 
in pickle five or six months in an ordinary cooler. 
Hams thus over-pickled cannot fail to cause trouble in 
the Smoke House, and we would advise that all Hams 
that have been left in the brine for such a long time 
should be washed off in warm water after first letting 
them soak in cold water 2 to 4 hours. They should 
then be hung up to dry and kept in a well ventilated 
room where the temperature is not too high. A room 
in which the circulation of air is good and which can 
be well ventilated by opening the windows and doors, 
and which does not rise in temperature above 60 to 
70 degrees, would answer the purpose for drying out. 
It will do no harm to let the Hams hang two or three 
weeks before smoking. They can then be put in the 
Smoke House and smoked gently, using as little heat 
as possible. For the purpose of this light smoking, 
it is best to use sawdust instead of wood, or mostly 
sawdust, and a small amount of wood, in order to 
reduce the heat. The Smoke House should also be 
constructed in such a way that it can be sufficiently 
ventilated to let cool air into it and thus make sure 
of a cool smoke. If Hams are smoked under such 
conditions, they should come out of the Smoke House 
without souring. m 

The souring of pickle-soaked Hams is due to the 
brine fermenting in the Hams when they are placed 
in the warm Smoke House. Hence the advisability of 
drying out the Hams well before placing them in the 
Smoke House, and of smoking them in a cool smoke. 
When Meat has been in brine a very long time and 
has become pickle-soaked, and is afterward soaked in 
cold water, the greatest of care must be taken not to 

86 



CHICADQUaA. 



keep it in eold fresh water too long, otherwise the 
meat will absorb more moisture. It is also a good plan 
to soak Meat that has been in brine 60, 70 or 80 days 
in cold water. When Hams are fully cured, the strength 
of the brine may be reduced somewhat, after which 
the Hams may be permitted to remain in the brine 
about 30 days longer. Hams are fully cured in ?0 
days, and may be allowed to remain in a weaker brine 
30 days longer, but no longer. After 30 days they must 
be taken out of this reduced brine, and, if it is so 
desired, they may be kept in a low temperature two 
or three weeks longer before smoking, but at the end 
of that time they must be smoked. 

CLEANING LARD TIERCES FOR CURING 
PURPOSES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

As is well known, 
Butchers experience a 
great deal of trouble 
when they use second- 
hand lard tierces for 
curing meats, owing to 
the fact that the lard 
soaks into the pores of 
the wood, where it be- 
comes tainted and ran- 
cid. No amount of wash- 
ing or scalding will thor- 
oughly cleanse such 
tierces or make them as 
good as new. The lard 
is run into the tierces 
while it "is hot and the 
fat naturally soaks very deeply into the wood. After 
these tierces are emptied and are used for curing pur- 
poses, the old lard remains in the pores and becomes 
rancid and contaminates the brine and also the meat. 

It is a fact that many Butchers use old lard tierces 
for curing' purposes and neglect to thoroughly clean 
them; and even if they have been well cleaned, it is 
well known that, notwithstanding every precaution 
taken, there is still left in the tierces a taint which 
affects the flavor of the meat. 




87 



B.HE LLER.Sc C □. 



USE ONLY PURE SPICES 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

We strongly recommend our friends to use only Pure 
Spices for three very good and sufficient reasons. First, for 
flavor; second, for uniformity, which will insure your sau- 
sage always being the same in flavor; third, for economy, 
as pure spices are cheapest in the final analysis. 

Then again, the Pure Food Laws should not be over- 
looked. In States where the use of cereal in sausage is 
forbidden, the one safe-guard against prosecution is to use 
absolutely Pure Spices and avoid so-called sausage sea- 
sonings which contain cereals as an adulterant. In our 
laboratory we have repeatedly found cases where as much 
as 50% bread crumbs were mixed into spice to cheapen 
it. The bread crumbs mixed with the seasoning into the 
sausage meat would be detected by the chemists and mi- 
croscopists of the various State Pure Food Departments, 
making the butcher who used such seasonings liable to 
prosecution for adding adulterants to his sausage. 

If you will bear in mind that spices are of value only 
to the extent that they contain the flavoring principle of 
the particular Spice, you will readily understand that buy- 
ing adulterated Spices is just throwing so much money 
away. For instance, in the case of White Pepper, there is 
an Oil of Pepper and certain resins. Presuming that you 
do pay the legitimate wholesale price for the sausage sea- 
soning which contains only the best Singapore White 
Pepper and do have to pay a few cents a pound more than 
for one which is diluted down with 50% bread crumbs, the 
pure and unadulterated Spice is by far the cheapest in the 
end. You are also assured of always obtaining a uniform 
flavor in the finished sausage meat. 

There is probably no other material in use by the 
butcher that is as liable to adulteration as Spice. To the 
average user the adulteration is very difficult to detect, 
because the aroma of the Spice is there and the adulterant 
is so cunningly ground and mixed in with the Pure Spice 
that, to the naked eye, it looks like the genuine article. But 
once the chemist or the microscopist secures a sample of 
these adulterated goods one glance through the microscope 
and a simple test for starch, which comes from the added 
cereal present, is sufficient. These adulterations not only 
occur in the largest used Spice like Pepper, but many of 
the other higher priced Spices like Cinnamon, Nutmeg, 
Cloves, Mace, Allspice, Ginger, etc., are equally the sub- 
ject of adulteration at the hands of unscrupulous manu- 
facturers and jobbers whose only object is to undersell the 
legitimate importer and grinder of real 100% Spice. 

88 



I. T_J. S.A. 




A CHEAP TEMPORARY SMOKE HOUSE. 

(Copyrighted ; Reprint Forbidden.) 

This illustration will give 
some idea of how a tempo- 
rary smoke house can be 
rigged up with very little 
trouble, which will answer 
the purpose nicely. 

Very often it becomes 
necessary for a butcher to 
re-smoke some bologna that 
has been shipped to him 
from a packer, and it is 
sometimes necessary to re- 
smoke Hams and Bacon. 
Also, a butcher will often 
want to cure a small quan- 
tity of meat and would like 
to smoke it. 

When butchers who are 
not equipped with a smoke 
house have to do this, they 
may be at a loss to know what to do. 

Take a clean sugar barrel and knock out the bot- 
tom; then set the barrel on top of a box about four 
feet long, one or two feet high and as wide as the 
barrel. If a box of this shape cannot be obtained, a 
large dry goods box will answer. Bore auger holes 
through the box under the barrel, to let the smoke 
through. Get a large piece of tin, galvanized iron or 
sheet iron, about one foot wide and 2 feet long and 
bend it into the shape of a pan, or take an old roast- 
ing pan. Dig a hole in the ground at the front end of 
the box, so fire can be put onto this pieee of tin, sheet 
iron or pan and then placed under the box with the fire 
on it. After the fire is placed under the box, place a board 
over the hole. All crevices must be banked with dirt 
around the box, to keep the smoke in. 

The meats to be smoked should be hung on sticks 
with long strings on them, so as to let them down to 
about the middle of the barrel. Cover the barrel up 
with a gunny sack, so as to let a draft pass through 
and still retain the smoke in the barrel. 

This makes a first class temporary smoke house with 
very little trouble and expense. 



89 



B.HE 



^S 



ScCQ 



HOW TO KEEP HAMS, SHOULDERS, BA- 
CON, DRIED BEEF, AND ALL KINDS OF 
PICKLED MEATS IN BRINE FOR A 
YEAR OR LONGER. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

All kinds of pickled meat after it is fully 
cured, if stored in a cooler in which the temperature is 
kept down to 28 degrees can be kept in this cooler for 
a year, or even longer, and when removed will come out 
similar to fresh cured meat. During the time when 
Hams and other meats are low in price, they can be 
stored in a freezer, and kept there until such a time as 
they are in greatest demand and will sell at the high- 
est price. This enables the packer to reap a larger 
profit. At a temperature of 28 degrees, the meat will 
not freeze after it is cured, and the brine of course 
does not freeze, as salt water will not freeze, at that 
temperature. When meat is taken out of such coli 
storage to be smoked, it should first be soaked for 
three to five hours in fresh water, then washed in 
boiling hot water and smoked the same as regular fresh 
cured meat. 

WASHING CURED MEAT BEFORE 
SMOKING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Hams, Shoulders, Ba- 
con and all cured meats 
whether dry salted or 
cured in brine, should 
be washed in hot water 
and scrubbed with a 
brush before being put 
into the smoke house. 
This is very important, 
as the meat thus 
scrubbed will come out 
of the smoke looking 
much better. The water 

should be as hot as the i irrnnr riiniSII 
men can work with The HtrUHt bMuKlNl! 
hotter the water, the 
better the meat will look after being smoked. 




90 



CHICADQU.S.A. 



BRINE ABSORBS FOREIGN ODORS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Warm carcasses of meat should never be put into a 
cooler where meat is being cured in open vats, as the cold 
pickle will absorb the impure animal heat, and odors which 
these carcasses give off. Never allow sour pickle of any 
kind to remain in the curing room, as cold brine or water 
will absorb all foreign odors. To demonstrate this, take a 
glass of cold water, set it on a table next to a glass of taint- 
ed brine, and cover both with a bucket or pan; allow them 
to remain over night, and the next morning the cold water 
will have the same odor as the tainted brine. This will 
easily prove how meat can be tainted when curing in open 
tierces or vats, if anything sour or spoiled is in the cooler; 
therefore, curing rooms must be kept as clean as possible. 



HOW LONG BRINE SHOULD BE USED 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The length of time that brine should be used depends 
entirely upon the quantity of brine that you have in the 
barrel and the amount of meat that you put in each week. 
When the meat is packed solid it takes about 5 gallons of 
brine to each 100 pounds of meat. On the other hand if 
you put 25 gallons of brine in a tierce in which you place 
but a few pieces of corned beef from time to time as the 
meat accumulates your brine would be sufficient to cure 
500 pounds of meat; if the barrel was nice and clean, the 
meat in good condition when put in the brine, and gener- 
ally speaking conditions are favorable it will cure a great 
deal more than 500 pounds. 

The brine may be used until it begins to get thick and 
show foam on the top; then of course it is advisable to 
make a new brine, at the same time washing the tierce 
out thoroughly. 

91 




B. Pi E LLE IR. Be CZ CD. 



DRY SALT MEATS. 

Short Ribs (Kegular) are made from the sides of 
the hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, having the 
loin and ribs in, and backbone removed. 

Extra Short Ribs are made from the sides of the 
hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, with loin taken 
out, but belly ribs left in. 

Short Ribs (Hard) are made from the sides of the 
hog, between the Ham and Shoulder, having the loin, 
ribs and backbone in. 

Short Clears are made from the sides of the hog, 
between the Ham and Shoulder, having the loin in, 
and ribs and backbone removed. 

Extra Short Clears are made from the sides of the 
hog, between the Ham and Shoulder with loin and 
all bones taken out. 

Long Clears are made from sides, Ham being cut 
off, but Shoulders left in, back bone and ribs removed, 
shoulder blade and leg bone taken out, and leg cut 
off close to the breast. 

Extra Long Clears are made from sides, Ham being 
cut off, back bone, loin and ribs removed. Shoulder 
blade and leg bone taken out and leg cut off close 
to the breast. 

Short Clear Backs are made from the backs of hogs 
with the loin left in, but ribs and backbone re- 
moved; also known as Lean Backs and Loin Backs. 

Short Fat Backs are made from the fat backs of 
prime hogs, being free from lean and bone, and prop- 
erly squared on all edges. 

Dry Salt Bellies are made from medium size hogs, 
cut square and well trimmed on all edges, with ribs 
left in. 

Dry Salt Clear Bellies are made from medium size 
hogs, cut square and well trimmed on all edges, with 
ribs taken out. 

92 



CHICADD. TLT. S.A. 



HOW TO CURE DRY SALT SIDE MEATS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First — Thoroughly chill the hogs so they are firm 
and solid. This will require letting them hang in the 
cooler after they are killed about 48 hours. Should 
the sides not be perfectly solid and thoroughly chilled, 
when cut up, spread them on the floor of a dry cooler 
for 24 hours, which ought to be long enough in a 
fair cooler to thoroughly chill them. 

Second: — Make a tub of brine, using 15 lbs. of salt 
and 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle to each 5 gallons of 
brine. 

Third: — Take a pickle pump, and pump some of the 
above brine into the sides along the backbone, being 
careful to get it all through the thick part. 

Fourth: — Dip the sides into the tub of brine, and 
then lay them on a table or trough and rub thor- 
oughly with dry salt. They must be dipped in brine, 
bo that the Freeze-Em-Pickle will get all over the 
meat, and so the salt will adhere to the meat. 

Fifth: — Clean the floor in the cooler or curing room 
with Ozo Washing Powder; sprinkle the floor lightly 
with salt; and then pile the sides one on top of the other 
with the meat side always up. Between each side spread 
a layer of salt, and see that all parts of the meat are 
covered with the salt. The more salt put on it the 
better. 

Sixth: — Five days after salting the sides, shake 
off the salt, and pump them again in the same man- 
ner as when first salting; dip into the vat of brine, 
and dry salt again; then stack up the same as in 
the first instance, putting salt between each layer, 
and repeating this overhauling every ten days until 
the sides are cured. 



93 



B. HELLER ScCD 



m 

HOW LONG TO CURE DEY SALT SIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Light sides will fully Cure in from 30 to 35 days, 
and should be resalted three times, which with the 
first salting received by them, will give them four 
saltings during the curing period. These saltings are 
given on the first day, the fifth day, the fifteenth day, 
and the twenty-fifth day. 

HOW LONG TO CURE HEAVY DRY SALT 

SIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Heavy sides will be fully cured in from 50 to 60 
days, according to size, and should be resalted five 
times during the curing, as follows: The first day, 
the fifth day, and then every ten days. After 45 
days, the meat need not be rehandled, and can then 
remain in the cooler piled up, as long as one wishes 
to keep it. It should not be taken out of the cooler, 
however, until it has been in salt 50 to 60 days, 
according to the season of the year. 

TEMPERATURE OF COOLER FOR DRY 
SALTING. 

Full information as to the temperature of the 
cooler for dry salting will be found on page 46 under 
the head "Temperature." 

DRY SALT CURING BY BUTCHERS WHO 
HAVE NO ICE MACHINE. 

Small butchers, who have no ice machines, and 
simply use an ice box for a cooler, must use the 
greatest care to see that the meat is well chilled be- 
fore salting, and they must also use plenty of salt. 
For the special benefit of small butchers, we will say 
that we fully realize the conditions which surround 
them, and we are well aware that they cannot get 
the temperature in an ice box as low as with an 
ice macnine; but nevertheless, they can always cure 
meat with the Freeze-Em-Pickle procesSj and get bet- 
ter results. 



94 



CHICAGO U.S.A. 



DESCRIPTION OF BARRELED PORK. 

Mess Pork is made from the sides of well-fattened 
hogs, split through the backbone, and cut in strips 
about six inches wide. 

Mess Pork Short Cut is made from the backs of 

prime hogs, split through the backbone, backbone 

left in, and bellies taken off; cut into pieces six 
inches square. 

Clear Back Pork is made from the fat part of 
the backs of prime hogs, being free from lean and 
bone, even in thickness, and cut into pieces about six 
inches square. 

Family Pork Lean is made from the top of shoulders, 
when cut into California Hams. It has one-half 
of the blade bone in, and is about two-thirds fat, 
and one-third lean. 

Clear Bean or Butt Pork is made from the fat 
cheek or jowl, cut square. 

Clear Brisket Pork is made from the Briskets of 
prime medium weight hogs, ribs removed and pieces 
cut about five inches wide. 

Rib Brisket Pork is made from the Briskets of 
prime medium hogs, ribs left in, and cut into pieces 
about five inches wide. 

Loin Pork is made from the end of the back next 
to the Ham, with both lean and fat, and has a portion 
of the tail bone in. 

Pig Pork: Light selected boneless Bellies cut into 
five inch pieces, trimmed square. 

Belly Pork: Selected heavy weight Bellies, cut into 
five inch pieces, with ribs left in. 

Extra Short Clear Pork is made from the sides of 
hogs, with the loin and backbone removed, and the 
Belly ribs left in, cut into strips five inches wide, 
squared at each end. 

Lean End Pork is made from selected medium weight 
Rib Bellies, cut into strips five inches wide. 

95 



B.HE L.LE R&CD. 



MS 



DIRECTIONS FOR CURING BARRELED 
PORK. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Never pack more than 190 lbs. of pork in an 
ordinary pork barrel. 

First: — If it can possibly be obtained, it is always 
best to use coarse rock salt, or coarse evaporated 
salt, which is made especially for this purpose; but if 
coarse salt cannot be obtained, any salt will answer the 
purpose. In packing it is necessary to use 35 lbs. of 
salt for each barrel, over and above the salt used in the 
brine. 

Second: — Take a perfectly clean pork barrel, and 
throw three handfuls of salt on the bottom of the 
barrel. 

Third: — Put in a layer of pork; throw three hand- 
fuls of salt over this layer. 

Fourth: — Keep packing layer after layer, until the 
190 lbs. of pork are packed in the barrel, and while 
packing put three handfuls of salt over each layer 
of the pork. 

Fifth: — The following are the proper proportions 
for brine for 190 lbs. of pork: Put 10 gallons of 
cold water in a keg or tub; dissolve in this water 2 
lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 30 lbs. of salt. Stir 
this well until it is all dissolved, and then pour the 
brine over the pork which has been packed as above 
directed. 

Sixth: — If • the barrels are to be headed up, head up 
first, and then put in the brine through the bung 
hole. 

TEMPERATURE FOR BARRELED PORK. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

It Is necessary that the greatest care should be 
exercised not to let the pork freeze while curing. 
Brine for barreled pork will not freeze at the freez- 
ing point of water, but the meat in the brine will 
freeze, and will not cure if the temperature is lower 
than the freezing point for any length of time. See 
instructions as to Temperature to be found on page 46 

96 



CHICADQUS.A. 



BARRELED PORK NEED NOT BE 
OVERHAULED. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Barreled Pork when packed in accordance with these 
directions with Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt, and then 
stored in a cooler, will not spoil, but will cure with a deli- 
cious flavor. It is not necessary that barreled pork should 
be overhauled; overhauling is required only for dry-salt 
and sweet-pickled meats. After the pork is fully cured, 
which will vary according to the size of the pieces, from 
40 to 60 days, the pork can be shipped anywhere, into 
any hot climate and will remain in perfect condition 
without spoiling. 

Extreme care must be exercised to thoroughly chill 
the pork before it is packed; if animal heat is left 
in the pork, it will not cure properly, any more than 
will hams when they are put into brine, with the 
animal heat left in them. Good results when curing 
barreled pork, cannot be expected if the meat is not 
in proper condition when packed. 

DRIPPINGS FROM REFRIGERATING 
PIPES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 



DRIPPINGS 
FROM PIPES 




Never allow the drip- 
pings from refrigerating 
pipes along the ceiling, 
or from ice chambers, to 
drip into open vats con- 
taining meats while cur- 
ing, as they will reduce 
the strength of the brine 
and make no end of 
trouble. 

Keep the cooler as 
dry and as clean as it 
possibly can be kept. A 
damp, dirty cooler breeds 
millions of germs. These 
germs affect the brine 
and the curing of the 
meat. 



97 



Q.HE 



»S 



ScCD. 



SWEET PICKLED SPARE RIBS 




RECIPE FOR CURING SPARE RIBS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

For each 100 pounds of spare ribs make the brine 
as follows: 5 pounds of common salt, 1 pound of 
Freeze-Em-Pickle, 2 pounds of best granulated sugar 
and 5 gallons of cold water. 

Cure in this brine from 10 to 12 days. The tem- 
perature of the cooler in which the spare ribs are 
cured can be anywhere from 36 to 43 degrees, but 
it should not vary from this range of temperature. 
It is best to leave the spare ribs in the cure from 
10 to 12 days, though they will be cured sufficiently 
in 7 to 8 days. 

If the above method is carefully carried out, the 
result will be a fine, mild, sweet cure and not too 
salty. 

Before placing the spare ribs in the brine they 
should be handled in the same manner as hams and 
shoulders. In other words, they should be rubbed 
in half of the above quantity of salt, Freeze-Em- 
Pickle and sugar, and the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
sugar and salt that is left after rubbing should be 
used for making the brine. 

98 



BEEF TONGUES « 




HOW TO CURE BEEF TONGUES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — Cut the tongues out of the heads as soon 
as possible, and with warm water scrub off all the 
slime and dirt, with a stiff brush; hang up in a cooler 
on a hook at the gullet, to make the tongues thick in- 
stead of long and thin. 

Second:— Let them hang for at least 24 hours in a 
cooler. 

Third: — When the tongues are thoroughly ehilled and 
firm, cut off the surplus fat and square the tongues 
at the gullet by trimming off all ragged pieces. 

Fourth: — Put them into a strong common salt brine 
to beach them, and leave them in ' this brine from 
10 to 20 hours. 

Fifth: — Take them out of this brine and rub the 
slime off the tongues and out of the gullet, and also 
rub the gullet with dry salt. 

Sixth: — Tf only a few tongues are to be cured make 
a barrel of pickle, as follows, and simply throw the 
tongues into it: For every 5 gallons of water, add 
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 2 lbs. of Pure Granulated 
Sugar, and 7 lbs. of Common Salt. 

99 



B.HELL.ER 8c CO. 



5F=3 



Seventh: — Where large packers wish to pack tongues 
in tierces, the tongues should be handled as follows: 
Weigh out 285 lbs.; then mix together in a box or tub 
the following: 



3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
6 lbs. of Best Granulateu Sugar. 
21 lbs. of Salt. 






Eighth: — Rub each tongue with some of this mix- 
ture and pack as loosely as possible in the tierce, 
using about one-half of the mixture of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle. Sugar and Salt for rubbing, and the other 
half for making the brine. It will require between 
14 to 15 gallons of brine to fill the tierces, some 
tierces vary in size, therefore dissolve the balance 
of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt in 
about 14 gallons of water, and pour over the tongues, 
should the tierce hold more simply add enough cold 
water to cover all the meat as the right amount of salt 
has already been added. 

Ninth: — If the tierces are to be headed up, the 
heads should be put in, and the brine should be poured 
into the tierce through the bung hole. The overhaul- 
ing of tongues is just as important, as is the over- 
hauling of hams and shoulders. They should be over- 
hauled in the same manner, and the same number of 
times. By reference to directions for curing hams 
and shoulders, which will be found on previous pages, 
all the necessary instructions can be followed. To give 
the tongues a proper flavor, they ought to cure from 
50 to 60 days. 

GARLIC FLAVORED BEEF TONGUES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Many like Garlic Flavored Tongues, and this desire 
can be fully satisfied by adding about two tablespoon- 
fuls of Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound to each tierce 
of tongues; add it to the brine before it is poured, 
over the tongues. This will give them a delicious 
flavor which will be relished even by people who do not 
like fresh Garlic. 

100 



CHICADQU.S.A 



J HOG c 

IDNBUES 





HOW TO CURE HOG TONGUES. 

Hog Tongues should be handled and cured in ex- 
actly the same manner as beef tongues. The brine 
should be made of the same strength and in the 
same manner, and when so made, it will cure the 
hog tongues in about 30 days. The directions for 
curing Beef Tongues can be used for curing Hog 
Tongues in every particular. 

CURING BEEF CHEEKS FOR CANNING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — The cheeks should be cut out of the head 
immediately after the beef is killed, all the fat should 
be trimmed off, and then the cheeks should be twice 
cut, lengthwise, through the outside muscles. 

Second: — They should be then thrown into ice water 
to which has been added some salt, and they should 
be allowed to remain there for an hour or two. This 
will draw out all the slime and blood. 

Third: — The cheeks should then be put on a coarse 
wire screen, or perforated galvanized iron pan 
placed in a cooler and spread out as thinly as possi- 
ble, so as to give them a chance to thoroughly chill. 
A thorough chilling in a cold cooler will require 24 
hours. 

Fourth: — The cheeks should then be salted, and 
packed into tierces; 285 lbs. should be put into each 
tierce. 



101 



b.he lle :rl Sc cz a. 



Fifth: — Handle the cheeks as follows: For each 
285 lbs., mix in a box or tub, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 15 lbs. of 
Common Salt. 

Sixth:— Then put 285 lbs. of eheeks on a table and 
take half of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granu- 
lated Sugar and Salt and mix it with the cheeks thor- 
oughly; then shovel into tierces. 

Seventh: — If the tierces are to be headed up, put 
the heads in and take the balance of the mixture of 
Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt and dissolve it in 
15 gallons of cold water, which pour into the tierces 
through the bung hole. Insert the bung, and roll 
the tierces. This will mix and dissolve the Freeze- 
Em-Pickle. Sugar and Salt. Overhaul in closed up 
tierces simply by rolling them from one end of the 
cooler to the other. They ought to be rolled at least 
.100 feet. 

Eighth: — If the tierces are to remain open, take 15 
gallons of water in which dissolve the remaining mix- 
ture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt, and pour 
this brine over the cheeks; put boards over the top 
to keep the meat from floating or from coming out 
of the top of the barrel. At the end of five days 
after salting, the cheeks must be overhauled and re- 
handled by transferring them to another tierce with 
a large fork made for such purpose; this should be re- 
peated every five days, viz., on the fifth day, on 
the tenth day and on the fifteenth day. After each 
overhauling, the same brine is always used to pour over 
the meat. If the cheeks are to be kept for any length 
of time, they should have another overhauling 25 
to 30 days from the day they were packed. Cheek 
meat slime considerably, making it difiicult to cure. 
When the cheeks are overhauled, if the pickle is 
thick and ropy, new brine of the same strength as 
the original brine will have to be made and poured over 
them, instead of the old brine. The cheek meat must 
be thoroughly washed in cold water before being put 
into fresh brine. 

102 



L U. S. A. 



blVERs 




CURING HOG LIVERS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Cut off plucks and chill livers thoroughly; then 
pump them in three or four places with a long slender 
open nozzle, about 3/16 to % inch in diameter, using 
a pumping pickle made as follows. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
12 lbs. of Common Salt. 
5 gal. of Water. 

Stick the nozzle of the brine pump into the dif- 
ferent veins on the lower side of the livers and pump 
them until they swell up from the pressure of the 
brine; then lay them out on a rack for 24 hours in a 
cooler and allow the blood to ooze out of them. 

On the next day after the livers have been pumped, 
pack them in a 60 deg. common salt brine; nothing 
else need be added. Those not having a Hydrometer 
for testing brine can make the brine by dissolving 
15 lbs. of salt in 85 lbs. of water, this makes a 60 
degree brine. In this way, the livers can be kept for 
a long time. When pickling livers, it is absolutely 
necessary that all animal heat should be extracted 
from them, and that they should be properly chilled 
and cooled, otherwise, they will not keep. 

103 



B.HE 



BcCD 



CURING BEEP LIVERS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Cut off plucks and chill livers thoroughly. Pump 
the curing brine into them in three of four places by 
using a long slender open nozzle about 3/16 to ^4 
inch in diameter, which insert into the different veins 
on the lower side of the livers. The brine should be 
forced into them until the pressure swells them up; 
after pumping them, lay them out on a rack for 
24 hours in a cooler and allow the blood to ooze out 
of them. The pumping brine for beef livers is made 
the same as the brine for hog livers as follows: 
lib. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
12 lbs. of Common Salt. 
5 gal. of Water. 

The day after the livers have been pumped, they 
should be packed in a 60 deg. common salt brine, 
which is made by dissolving 15 lbs. of salt in 85 lbs. 
of water; nothing else need be added. All animal 
heat must be thoroughly extracted, and the livers must 
be properly chilled and cooled. 

DIRECTIONS FOR CURING LEAN 
SHOULDER BUTTS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
LIGHT WEIGHT BUTTS. 

5 lbs. of Common Salt, 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 

2 lbs. Granulated Sugar, 
j 5 gals, of Cold Water. 
' Cure in this brine 20 to 30 
I days. 

HEAVY WEIGHT BUTTS. 

' 6 lbs. of Common Salt, 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 

2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar, 
, 5 gals, of Cold Water. 

Cure in this brine from 30 to 40 days according to size. 

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow 
or brown sugar must not be used. 

First: — Sort the Butts, separating the Light Weight 
Butts and the Heavy Weight Butts. 

Second: — Take eaough of any one size of the assorted , 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Light Weight Butts. 



Use for 100 lbs. 
Heavy Weight Butts. 



104 



CHICADD, T_J. S.-FL. 



Butts to fill a tierce which will be 285 lbs.; then thor- 
oughly mix together in a large pail or box the follow- 
ing proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, the very best 
and purest Granulated Sugar and Salt. 

Use for 285 lbs. of Light Weight Butts, 3 lbs. of 
Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 15 
lbs. of Salt. 

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Weight Butts, 3 lbs. of 
Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 18 
lbs. of Salt. 

HOW TO CURE BUTTS IN OPEN TIERCES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

When the tierces or barrels in which these Butts 
are cured, are not to be headed up, but are left open, 
use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt for 
rubbing as follows: 

First: — Eub each Butt well with some of the mix- 
ture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt. Sprinkle 
*a little of the mixture in the bottom of the tierce. 

Second: — Pack the Butts in a perfectly clean tierce. 
The mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar "and Salt that is 
left after rubbing should be used for making the brine. 
It will require 14 to 15 gallons of brine for each 
tierce of Butts. Make the brine by dissolving in 
cold water all the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and 
Salt that is left after the Butts are rubbed. Stir 
well for a minute until it is dissolved, and then pour 
this brine over the meat. When curing only a small 
quantity of Butts, cut down the proportions of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt, also the quantity of water, 
according to the quantity of Butts to be cured. 

QUANTITY OP BRINE TO USE FOR CUR- 
ING 100 LBS. OF BUTTS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Five gallons by measure, or 42 lbs. by weight, is 
she approximate amount of water to use for every 100 
bs. of meat. 

Tierces, after being packed with 285 lbs. of meat, 
mil hold about 15 gallons of water. When curing 
Butts in vats or open barrels, whether in small or large 
quantities, always use not less than 5 gallons of brine 
;o 100 lbs. of meat, as this makes the proper strength 
ind a sufficient brine to cover the meat. 

105 



B.HELLER ScCD. 



HOW TO OVERHAUL BUTTS WHEN CUR- 
ING IN OPEN PACKAGES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

On the fifth day after packing each lot of Butts, 
it is necessary that they should be overhauled. This 
must be repeated seven days later; again in ten days, 
and a final overhauling should be given ten days later. 
Overhauling Light Butts three times, and Heavy Butts 
four times while curing, and at the proper time in each 
instance, is very important, and must never be for- 
gotten-, especially when curing with this mild, sweet 
cure. Overhauling means, to take the Butts out of 
I the brine and to repack them in the same brine. The 
proper way to overhaul is to take a perfectly clean 
tierce, set it next to the tierce of Butts to be over- 
hauled, pack the meat into the empty tierce, and then 
put this same brine over the meat. 

HOW TO CURE BUTTS IN CLOSED UP 
TIERCES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Large packers who employ coopers, should always 
cure Butts in closed up tierces, as this is the best 
method known. 

First: — Mix the proper poportions of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, Sugar and Salt, for the different size Butts 
to be cured. These proportions are given in the fore- 
going table, under the heading, "Light Weight Butts, 
and Heavy Weight Butts." If the tierces are to be 
headed up, use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and 
Salt, for rubbing the Butts, and the half that is left 
over after the Butts are rubbed, should be dissolved 
in the water which is to be used to fill the tierce. 
Rub each Butt well before packing; put only 285 lbs. 
of meat in each tierce, and then head them up. 

Second: — Lay the tierces on their sides and fill them 
through the bung hole, with water in which the half 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt left over after 
rubbing, has been dissolved. 

Third: — Insert the bung and roll the tierces. This 
will mix and dissolve the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar 
and Salt rubbed on the meat. Where the pieces of 
meat press tightly against each other, or against the 
tierce, the brine does not act on the meat; but if the 

106 



CHICADD, U.S.A. 



(pieces of meat are rubbed properly with the mix- 
ture of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Sugar and Salt before be- 
ing packed in the tierce, such surfaces will be acted 
upon by the undissolved mixture, so that the cur- 
ing will be uniform and no portion of the pieces 
(will be left insufficiently cured, even if the brine does 
not come in contact with it. For this reason, it is 
important that each piece of meat should be carefully 
I rubbed with the mixture before being packed in the 
tierce. 

Fourth: — Overhaul five days after packing; again 
jneven days later, again in ten days, and once more 
Mben days thereafter. At each overhauling, examine 
'Bach tierce for leaks; if any of the Pickle has leaked 

out, knock the bung in and refill. Remember to 
i overhaul Light Butts three times, and Heavy Butts 

four times. 

Fifth: — Overhaul Butts in closed-up tierces, simply 
I by rolling the tierces from one end of the cooler to 
J the other. They ought to be rolled at least 100 feet. 

ROLLED BONELESS BUTTS OR BUTT 
SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

After the Butts are 
thoroughly cured, they 
should be stuffed in beef 
bungs; if they are large 
only one should be 
stuffed in each casing; 
if they are small, two 
can be stuffed together 
side by side. The cas- 
ings should be tied off 
at each end, and then 
wound with a heavy 
string, which should be 
wrapped as tightly as possible. Perforate the cas- 
ings with a fork so as to let out any air that may be 
in them; then smoke them over night in a cool 
smoke; in the morning boil them. If they are to 
be sold uncooked, dip them in boiling water for five 
minutes, and then in cold water so as to shrink the 
casings. Our new Improved Zanzibar Carbon can be 
used on the casings to give them an appetizing color. See 
directions for dipping on page 117. 




-tz5. I*~[ ]E 



ScCD. 



NEW ENGLAND STYLE 
PRESSED HAM 



HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR LUNCH HAM 

OR NEW ENGLAND STYLE 

PRESSED HAM 

(ALSO CALLED BERLINER STYLE HAM) 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is especially adapted for 
curing Ham trimmings which are used for Berliner Style 
Hams, Lunch Hams, Boneless Hams, New England Style 
Pressed Hams, etc. It will cure and preserve Ham trimmings 
perfectly, and will give them a rich, delicate sugar-cured 
ham flavor. It does not draw the albumen out of the meat, 
but the natural binding qualities are retained, and the meat 
has a rich, red, cured-meat color. Trimmings cured with the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle Proc- 
ess can be kept in cold 
storage for a year with- 
out getting too salty or 
becoming short and los- 
ing their nice flavor and 
binding qualities. 

The following direc- 
tions must be carefully 
followed to get the re- 
sults desired: 

First: — The trimmings 
should not be larger than 
an e SS> an( l should be 
as uniform in size as possible. 

Second: — Do not run the trimmings through an En- 
terprise Grinder to cut them up before packing them, 
as it has a tendency to heat the meat. 

Third: — Trimmings that are to be held for any 
great length of time must be fresh as possible; if they 
should be somewhat slimy, they should be washed 
thoroughly in cold common salt brine and allowed 
to drain until quite dry. Never mix or salt trim- 
mings that become slimy, with fresh ones; always 
pack them separately. 

Fourth: — It is absolutely necessary that the meat 
should be thoroughly chilled, and that the packing 
should be done in the cooler so that the temperature 
of the meat will not get above the temperaturfe in 
which it is to be cured. 

Fifth: — For each 100 lbs. of trimmings, take 1 lb. 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 1 lb. of best Granulated Sugar 
and 2 lbs. of Common Salt, and mix these thoroughly 

108 




CHICADD, US. A. 



with the meat. Mixing thoroughly is very important; 
it should be carefully done so as to insure a uniform 
cure. 

Sixth: — Have the tierces or barrels perfectly clean and 
sweet; then sprinkle a little salt on the bottom, and fill the 
barrel or tierce about one-quarter full of salted meat, and 
pound it down hard with a tamper. Do the same when 
the barrel is half full and continue in this manner until 
the barrel is filled. This tamping is done to expel the air 
between the pieces of meat, and it is an important factor 
to insure a uniform cure and color. If the trimmings are 
to be kept any length of time, it will be necessary that the 
tierces or barrels should be headed up, and they should 
always be filled with meat as much as possible. When 
trimmings are to be used as soon as cured, it is not nec- 
essary to head them up, simply put a top on them and 
weight them down, or cover them with a clean cloth and 
put a layer of salt about one inch thick, over the top of 
the cloth. This will keep out the air and will give good 
results. The trimmings will be cured in from two to three 
weeks, and are then in a perfect condition to be made into 
New England Style Pressed Hams, etc. They need not 
be soaked in water, nor need any salt be added as they 
are ready for instant use just as they are and will have a 
delicious sugar-cured ham flavor. 

See paragraph on Temperature for Curing Meats on 
page 46. 

HOW TO MAKE NEW ENGLAND STYLE 
PRESSED HAMS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
After the meat is cured, it should be stuffed in beef 
bungs, and should be smoked about three hours, but this 
depends upon the smoke house and whether wood or saw- 
dust is used. It may be necessary to smoke the Pressed 
Ham still longer. Boil them in a temperature of 180 de- 
grees Fahrenheit for 1)4, hours, then reduce the tempera- 
ture to 170 degrees Fahrenheit and remove them at the 
expiration of one hour. After they are boiled for 2 % hours, 
they should be laid out on a table in the cooler, and then 
boards should be placed on top of them weighted down 
with heavy stones, and should remain there over night 
before being removed. 

The casings may be given an appetizing smoke color by 
momentary dipping in a solution of Zanzibar-Carbon. 
Brand Casing Brown Mixture (see page 117 for directions) 

109 



B.HE 



^ 



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HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR 

MAKING FINE BOLOGNA AND 

FRANKFURT SAUSAGE AND 

COMPLY WITH PURE FOOD 

LAWS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

In following the old method of making Bologna and 
Frankfurt Sausage, a large percentage of the albumen is 
drawn out of the Meat, thus losing much of the richness, 
flavor and color which should be retained in the Sausage. 

B. Heller & Co. have made an important improvement 
in the process of curing trimmings, and Sausage Makers 
will find it greatly to their advantage to make an immediate 
trial of this process. A single batch of Sausage made after 
this method will convince any Sausage Maker of the mis- 
take of following the old ideas of making Bologna and 
Frankfurt Sausages. 

When Bologna and Frankfurts are made from fresh Meats, 
they have a gray color and are very difficult to keep in good 
condition, especially during the warm weather. However, 
when Bologna and Frankfurts are made by the Freeze-Em- 
Pickle Process, they will have a fine red color and they 
will comply with the Pure Food Laws, because Freeze-Em- 
Pickle contains no ingredients which have been prohibited 
by any of the food laws. They will also keep much better 
than when made in the old way, and will stand shipment 
during the warm weather with better results. 

no 



GHICAG-O, U. S. A- 



HOW TO CURE BEEF OR PORK TRIM- 
MINGS WITH FREEZE-EM-PICKLE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Trimmings that are to be stored away for a few days to 
two weeks, should be packed with the following propor- 
tions of Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt. 

To every 100 lbs. of Trimmings use the following: 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

1 lb. of Salt. 

For Trimmings that are to be stored away for two weeks 
to three months, the following proportions of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle and Salt should be used: 

IX lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 

1 lb. of Salt to each 

100 lbs. of Trimmings. 

For Trimmings that are to be stored away for three 
months to six months, the following proportions of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and Salt should be used: 

\ l /z lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 

1 lb. of Salt to each 

100 lbs. of Trimmings. 

First:— Weigh the Trimmings and then spread them on 
a table. 

Second:— Weigh out the proper proportions of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and Salt, mix them together thoroughly, and 
then sprinkle over the meat. 

Third:— Mix the Trimmings well so that the Salt and 
Freeze-Em-Pickle get to all parts of the meat. 

Fourth:— Run the Trimmings through the grinder, using 
what is called the lard plate, a plate that has holes in it 
from 1 to \% inches in diameter. By first mixing the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt with the meat and then putting 
it through the grinder, the Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt 
become better mixed with the meat. 

Another way is to run the Trimmings through the 
grinder first, using the lard plate with 1 to \% inch holes 
in it; then put this meat in the mixer and while mixing 
add the Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt, which have first been 
thoroughly mixed. Let the mixer run until the Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and Salt are thoroughly mixed with the meat, 
which only takes a few minutes. 

If a plate with large holes in it is not available, cut the 
Trimmings up small by hand and then mix the Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and Salt with the meat. 

ill 



B.HEi L_] IT^Bc'CC 



^ 

HOW TO PACK IN BARRELS OR TIERCES 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
First:— Take barrels or tierces that are perfectly clean 
and sweet; this is very important. Then sprinkle a hand- 
ful of Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt which have first been 
thoroughly mixed, over the bottom of the tierce. 

Second:— Fill tierce. about one-quarter full of the meat 
that has been mixed with Freeze-Em-Pickle and Salt, and 
then with a tamper, tamp it down as tight as can be. The 
lighter the meat is packed, the better. Then place more 
of the meat into the tierce and tamp it, and keep on doing 
this until the tierce is full. 

Third:— If the tierce is not to be headed up, don't fill it 
quite to the top, and after tamping the meat tight, sprinkle 
a couple of handfuls of the mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle 
and Salt over the top. Then lay a piece of parchment 
paper over the meat, and on top of this place a piece of 
cheese cloth about a yard square. 

Fourth:— On top of the cheese cloth put about two or 
three inches of dry Salt, spread so it reaches to all the 
edges of the barrel, so as to exclude the air from the meat, 
and then turn the ends of the cloth over the top, and allow 
this meat to stay in the cooler until you are ready to make 
Bologna, Frankfurts, or any similar sausage out of it. 

This meat is now ready in four or five days to be made 
into Bologna, Frankfurts, or any similar sausage, but can 
also remain in a cooler as long as six months or even long- 
er without being disturbed. This meat will not become 
too salty no matter how long it stands, and whenever you 
wish to make Bologna, Frankfurts, or any similar sausage, 
the meat is ready to be used. 

This is known as the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, and 
by curing the meat in this way no brine or albumen will 
be found at the bottom of the tierce when the meat is 
taken out. The meat when taken from the barrel will be 
found sticky, and to possess good binding quality and a 
nice cured flavor. It will make delicious Bologna, Frank-' 
furts, or any similar sausage. The meat will have a nice 
sweet cure and a fine color which will be imparted to the 
Bologna, Frankfurts or any similar sausage made from it. 
On account of the meat being cured, the Bologna, Frank- 
furts and other sausage will not spoil so easily as they 
would if made from fresh meat. 

Beef or pork trimmings should be handled in the same 
way, and no fresh meat used at all in making the Bologna 
or Frankfurts. 

If the trimmings are to be kept for any length of time, it 
is advisable to head them up. When tierces are to be 

112 



C2.H.X G AG CD. XX S. A. 



headed up, fill them as full as possible, sprinkle two hand- 
fuls of Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt, which have first been 
thoroughly mixed, over the top and then put on the head. 
When making this Freeze-Em-Pickle cured meat into 
smoked sausages, more salt of course must be added, as 
the meat is not sufficiently salty, so when adding the Sea- 
soning add sufficient salt to give it the proper taste, and 
add x /z lb. of sugar to every 100 lbs. of meat in addition to 
the spice, as it gives the meat a delicious flavor. 

PROPER TEMPERATURE FOR STORING 
TRIMMINGS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
If the trimmings are to be used up in two or three weeks, 
any ordinary cooler that is kept around 40 degrees will be 
sufficient, but if trimmings are to be kept three to six 
months, they should be kept in a cooler at a temperature 
of 35 to 36 degrees to get the best results. Never let the 
temperature get down below freezing if it can be helped, 
and do not let it get any higher than 38 degrees, if possible. 

HOW TO MAKE BOLOGNA AND FRANK- 

FURTS FROM FRESH BEEF AND PORK 

WITH FREEZE-EM-PICKLE WITHOUT 

FIRST CURING THE MEAT 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Run the desired quantity of beef and pork through a 
grinder, first using a coarse plate, then through a fine one; 
then finish in a silent chopper. While cutting it in the 
silent cutter, -add to each 100 lbs. of meat 1 lb. of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, % lb. of "B" Condimentine, 1 to 1}4 lbs. of 
salt and % lb. of sugar, according to taste. Chop this up 
as usual, adding pure artificial ice to keep it cool. First 
put the beef in the silent cutter and when it is about 
three-fourths fine add the necessary pork, which has first 
been run through the % mcn plate of a grinder. If a mixer 
is not used, add the Seasonings and flour to the meat in 
the silent cutter. When all are thoroughly mixed put into 
a tub, cover well over with parchment or wax paper to 
exclude the air and put away until ready to use. The meat 
can then be taken direct from the tub in 24 to 36 hours, 
placed into the stuffer, and stuffed into the casings. 

The meat should be kept in a temperature of 45 to 46 
degrees. This is a fairly high temperature which gives the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle a chance to do its work quicker, and by 
standing 24 to 36 hours after it is chopped and seasoned, 
it develops its full binding qualities and saves handling 
the meat two or three times, which should appeal to every 
sausage maker. 
113 



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FORMULA FOR BOLOGNA SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden. J 

The following formula makes very fine Bologna sau- 
sage: 

75 lbs. beef trimmings cured by Freeze-Em-Pickle 
Process. 

15 lbs. pork trimmings cured by Fr«eze-Em-Pickle 
Process. 

10 lbs. pork speck (back fat). 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in the percentage amount al- 
lowed by your State Food Law, but not over five pounds 
to the hundred. 

8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Bologna Sausage Flavor. 

% lb. "B" Condimentine 

Sufficient cracked ice for cooling. 



First: — Salt the pork and beef trimmings according to 
the directions on foregoing pages. 

Second: — When making the Bologna (or Frankfurts), take 
the beef that has been cured with Freeze-Em-Pickle and 
run through the grinder, using % or Y% inch plate. (Some 
sausage makers prefer to run this meat through the grinder 
again, using the smallest plate they have, but this in our 
opinion takes up unnecessary time and labor. Once running 
through a % or % inch plate is sufficient). 

Then place this beef in the silent chopper. As soon as 
this has made one or two revolutions, put in sufficient 
cracked ice to prevent the beef from becoming heated. Then 
add about one pound of salt; adding ice if necessary. Then 
add the pork to the beef, which should have already been 
run through the grinder, and at the same time add the 
pork speck. 

Third: — Then for seasoning add 8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar- 
Brand Bologna Flavor, and also about % of a pound of 
"B" Condimentine. This Condimental preparation is per- 
missible in all Government inspected houses and complies 
with the Pure Food Laws. "B" Condimentine is used to pre- 
vent shrinkage and help keep the sausage, and so the color 
inside will not fade or turn gray, but retain its bright, rich 
color for ten days if kept under proper conditions. This is a 

114 



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T_J. S.A 



great advantage, especially to large packers who do 
shipping. After the Spices and Condimentine are worked 
in, then add salt to taste. Sausage made with "B" Con- 
dimentine does not have to be labeled that a preservative 
is used. 

Fourth:— Then while the meat is being cut in the silent 
chopper add the legal amount of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour 
to each 100 pounds of meat. Or, if a mixer is used, add 
the flour in the mixer. When properly mixed and seasoned 
with spices and "B" Condimentine, and flour has been 
added, it i* all ready for the stuffer, or if desired, this meat 
already chopped can be kept in tubs in a cooler of a tem- 
perature of 38 to 40 degrees for 24 to 36 hours until 
required. 

Notice:— See our instructions on page 113 for handling 
beef that has been cured with Freeze-Em-Pickle and 
stored away from two to six months or longer. 

Note:— Since the Pure Food Laws have been enacted, 
all Antiseptic Preservatives have been ruled out and can- 
not be used in sausage, so sausage makers must be careful 
what kind of a Sausage Binder they use in their sausage. 
Many of the binders on the market start fermentation soon 
after moisture is added to them. When it is noticed that 
Bologna does not keep as well as it should, the first thing 
to be looked to is the binder used, as invariably a binder 
which is not free from the germs of fermentation will cause 
trouble, and the losses a butcher has from using such 
binders will amount to more than the saving in the cost of 
the binder. Many cheap binders can be bought for less 
money than Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, as they cost less to 
manufacture. We are not trying to see how cheap a binder 
we can manufacture, but our sole aim in selling Bull-Meat- 
Brand Flour is to offer the very Finest Binder that we 
know how to make, which will help the sausage instead of 
souring it, and, even if our price is a trifle higher, Bull- 
Meat- Brand Flour is much cheaper to use and the results 
are always satisfactory. 

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B.HE LLE RScCD. 



Notice:— If a Garlic flavor is desired, add one or two 

tablespoonfuls of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound while 
the meat is being chopped. Vacuum-Brand Garlic Com- 
pound is recommended as it does not sour in the sausage 
and it does not leave any after-taste nor taint the breath, 
because it is so finely divided that it is thoroughly incor- 
porated in the meats and is thoroughly digested and ab- 
sorbed. In States where Cereal is not permitted, use Gar- 
lic Condiment instead of Garlic Compound. 

Fifth — After the meat is chopped to the proper 
fineness, stuff it into beef rounds or beef middles. 
Place the sausage in the smoke house and smoke. 

BOILING BOLOGNA. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

After it is smoked, boil Bound Bologna 30 minutes 
in water 160 degrees Fahrenheit and Long Bologna 
for 45 to 60 minutes in 160 degrees water, according 
to thickness. 



After they are boiled place them on a table, oi 
hang them up and pour boiling water over them to 
wash off the grease. Then pour cold water over them 
to shrink the casings. After that allow them to cool in 
the open air or a well ventilated room, before placing 
in the cooler or ice box. This will prevent sweating, 
which causes mouldy and slimy casings. 



BOILING LARGE BOLOGNA. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

If Large Bologna are desired, stuff the meat into 
beef bungs and smoke until they are nicely smoked^ 
then boil them from l 1 /^ to 1% hours in water 155 
degrees Fahrenheit. Vary the time of boiling accord- 
ing to the thickness of the Bologna. 

SALTING FAT FOR BOLOGNA. i 

The Pork Brck Fat or Pork Speck will be muc I 
better for use -in Bologna and Frankforts if it » 
dry salted with Freeze-Em-Pickle for a few wee! 
before it is used. 



Jl 



CHI C ACS-CD U. S..FL 



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS OF 

SMOKED SAUSAGE WITH 

ZANZIBAR-CARBON BRAND CASING 

BROWN MIXTURE 




COLORING BOLOGNA CASINGS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Hang the bologna in the smoke house just long enough 

to dry the skin well, or hang it in front of a hot fire, or in 

the sun, any way to get the excess moisture dried out of 

the casing; then proceed according to the following method: 

METHOD OF COLORING THE CASINGS 

OF SAUSAGE IN GOVERNMENT 

INSPECTED PACKING HOUSES 

In all Packing Houses having U. S. Government inspec- 
tion, the coloring of casings are allowed only by what is 
termed "Momentary Dipping". We advise butchers to use 
this method in preference to any other way whether they 
have Government inspection or not. 

Directions for Momentarily Dipping Smoked Sausage 
such as Bologna, Frankfurt, etc. 

After Sausage has been smoked and cooked, dip it into 
a solution made up in the proportion of 1 ounce of Zanzibar- 
Carbon-Brand Casing Brown Mixture to every 20 gallons 
of water. Always dissolve it first in some hot water (not 
boiling) in the proportion of one-half gallon water for every 
ounce used and then pour this solution into the balance of 
the water to make up the dipping solution. 

The water used for dipping should be about the same 
temperature as that in which the Sausage is cooked. After 

117 



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dipping, the Sausage must be rinsed off with hot water 
and thereafter with cold water, then hung up in the usual 
manner to drip off and dry. When Sausage is smoked 
through and is not cooked, it must be well sprayed with, 
or dipped into, boiling hot water to remove the grease from 
the casing before being put into the colored dipping solution. 



kFRANKFORTS 






FRANKFORT SAUSAGE; HOW TO MAKE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Frankfort Sausage is made in most cases in exactly the 
same manner as Bologna with the exception that it is 
chopped very fine and Zanzibar-Brand Frankfort Sausage 
Seasoning is used. To make fine Frankfort Sausage use 
two parts of Beef and one part of Pork. 

If Veal is used in Frankfort Sausage, it improves it con- 
siderably, but the price of Veal is so high that it is very 
seldom used. Stuff in sheep casings and smoke lightly, 
then dip them in Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Casing Brown 
Mixture by the method prescribed on the preceding page. 

Dipping them in hot water and then in cold takes out all 
the wrinkles. After they have been dipped, pour a pail of 
hot water over them to wash off all adhering grease; then 
dip them for a minute or two in ice water to cool. This will 
make them contract so rapidly that they will not wrinkle; 
then put in a cooler to hang up and cool through to the 
center. 

118 



CHICADD T.J. S..FL. 



COLORING FRANKFURT SAUSAGE 
CASINGS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.} 

Follow the directions given on page 117 for momentary 
dipping. 

If a deep color is desired, slightly increase the amount 
of Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Mixture. You must use your 
own judgment in producing the right color desired, as the 
drier the casing the less Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Mixture 
it takes and the better the color will be. 

Always be particular not to smoke with too much heat 
in the smoke house, so that the grease does not melt in 
the sausage and come through the casing. 



CURING BEEF CHEEKS FOR BOLOGNA 
AND FRANKFURTS 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — The Cheek Meat should be cut out of the heads 
as soon as possible after the beef is killed, and the gristle 
should be cut through lengthwise, two or three times. All 
the fat can also be trimmed off or left on, just as desired; 
in a large slaughtering establishment, the fat is worth more 
in the tank than in the sausage. 

Second: — The Cheeks should then be thrown into ice 
water and allowed to remain there for an hour or two. 
This will draw out all the slime and blood. 

Third: — The Cheeks should then be spread out thinly on 
coarse wire screens, or on perforated galvanized iron pans, 
in a cooler. They should be spread out as thinly as possi- 
ble so as to thoroughly drain and chill. 

Fourth: — After they are thoroughly chilled, which will 
take 24 hours, they should be salted as follows: 

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B. H E LLE FL Sc C □. 



DIRECTIONS FOR DRY SALTING BEEF 
AND PORK CHEEK MEAT 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Beef and Pork Cheek Meat that is to be stored away for 
a few days to two weeks, should be packed with the fol- 
lowing proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt. 

To every 100 lbs. of Beef and Pork Cheek Meat use the 
following: 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
1 lb. of Salt. 

For Beef and Pork Cheek Meat that is to be stored away 
for two weeks to three months, the following proportions 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt should be used: 

\% lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 

1 'lb. of Salt to each 

100 lbs. of Beef and Pork Cheek Meat. 

For Beef and Pork Cheek Meat that is to be stored away 
for three months to six months, the following proportions 
of Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt should be used: 

\% lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle and 

1 lb. of Salt to each 

100 lbs. of Beef and Pork Cheek Meat. 

First: — Weigh the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat and then 
spread it on a table. 

Second: — Weigh out the proper proportions of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and salt, mix them together thoroughly, and 
then sprinkle over the meat. 

Third: — Mix the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat well so that 
the salt and Freeze-Em-Pickle get to all parts of the meat. 

Fourth:— Run the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat through 
the grinder, using what is called the lard plate, a plate 
that has holes in it from 1 to \% inches in diameter. By 
first mixing the Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt with the meat 
and then putting it through the grinder, the Freeze-Em- 
Pickle and salt become better mixed with the meat. 

Another way is to run the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat 
through the grinder first, using the lard plate with 1 to \% 
inch holes in it; then put this meat in the mixer and while 
mixing add the Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt, which have 
first been thoroughly mixed. Let the mixer run until the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt become thoroughly mixed with 
the meat, which only takes a few minutes. 

If a plate with large holes in it is not available, cut the 
Beef and Pork Cheek Meat up small by hand and then 
mix the Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt with the meat. 

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CHICADQUSA. 



Fifth: — If the tierces are to remain open, they can 
be covered with a clean cloth and a layer about 
two or three inches thick of dry salt should be put 
over the top of the cloth. This will exclude the air 
and keep the top meat from getting dry and dark. 

Sixth: — Cheek Meat that has been properly chilled 
and packed in this manner can be kept for any length 
of time and need not be overhauled. It can be kept for 
a year or longer and whenever it is taken out of the 
barrel and used, it will make fine Bologna and Frank- 
forts with a fine color and a delicious flavor. Dry 
salted Cheek Meat makes much better Bologna than the 
pickled Cheek Meat. Sometimes Cheeks are very low 
in price, and they can be packed and stored as above 
directed and kept until the market advances; by this 
method quite a sum of money can be made each year. 

Seventh: — See paragraph on Temperature for Curing 
Meats on page 46. 

CURING BEEF AND PORK HEARTS FOR 
BOLOGNA AND OTHER SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — As soon as the beef or hog is slaughtered, 
the hearts should be cut open; the pork hearts should 
be cut into four squares, and the beef hearts into six 
or eight pieces, being sure to cut them so that all the 
crevices are open and exposed. They should then be 
placed in ice water in which they should be allowed 
to remain for two to three hours. 

Second: — Spread the hearts on trays or racks in a 
cooler as thinly as possible, and allow them to drain and 
chill for 24 hours; they must be thoroughly chilled so that 
all animal heat leaves them. 

Use for 100 lbs. of f 1% lbs. Freeze -Em -Pickle. 
Beef or Pork Hearts.\ 1 lb. of Common Salt. 

Third: — Bun hearts through an Enterprise grinder, 
using a lard plate with 1%-inch holes; then place in a 
mixer and gradually add the mixture of Freeze -Em- 
Pickle and salt. Be sure it is evenly divided and 
thoroughly mixed. 

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B.HE LX-E RScCD. 



Fourth: — Take a perfectly clean tierce, and sprinkle 
a handful of salt, and a little Freeze - Em - Pickle on 
the bottom; put the salted hearts into the tierce and 
tamp them down with a tamper as hard as possible. 

The object in tamping with a tamper is to get all 
the air out and to close up all the cavities in the 
barrel. The less air cells in the barrel, the better the 
hearts will cure and keep. 

Fifth: — If the tierces are to be headed up, sprinkle 
a handful of salt on top of the tierces, cover nieely with 
a piece of parchment paper and put in the heads, be- 
ing careful that the tierces are as full as they possibly 
can be before the heads are put in, and also that the 
tierces are perfectly sweet before packing. 

Sixth: — If the tierces are to remain open, they can 
be covered with a cloth and about two or three inches 
of dry salt should be put over the top of the cloth. 
This will exclude the air, and will keep the top meat 
from getting dry and dark. 

Seventh: — Hearts that have been properly chilled and 
packed in this manner can be kept for any length of 
time and need not be overhauled. They can be kept 
for a year or longer, and whenever taken out of the 
tierces to use, they will make fine bologna and such 
sausage as hearts can be used for. Quite a quantity 
of properly cured hearts can be used in the manufacture 
of sausage with very good results. They will have a 
fine color and a delicious flavor. Hearts should never 
be pickled for Bologna, but should always be dry 
salted as above directed. It is very often the case 
that hearts can be bought at a small cost when the 
market is low, and if so purchased and packed and 
stored as herein directed until the market advances and 
meat is high, they can be made into . bologna with a 
very handsome profit. 

Eighth: — See paragraph on Temperature for Curing 
Meats on page 46. , 

122 



lit? 



. T_J. S. A. 




GERMAN STYLE HAM SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller &• Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

German Style Ham Sau- 
sage is made very much 
like Bologna, except that 
the meat should be 
chopped finer. For every 
100 lbs. of Ham Sausage, 
take the following: 

50 lbs. of Pork Trim- 
mings. 

40 lbs. of Beef Trim- 
mings. 

5 lbs. of Pork Speck (Back Fat). 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in the percentage proportion al- 
lowed by your State Food Law. 

3^ lb. "B" Condimentine. 
2 lbs. of Salt. 

6 to 8 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Frankfort Flavor. 

First:— Salt the Pork and Beef Trimmings four or five 
days ahead, using to each 100 lbs. of meat 1 lb. of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle, as directed on page 111. No salt or anything 
in addition to the Freeze-Em-Pickle should be added when 
the meat is put down to cure. The salt is added when the 
Sausage is made. 

Second:— When making Ham Sausage, use the Pork and 
Beef in the proportions as stated above and when about 
half chopped add the Speck or Back Fat. 

Third:— After adding the Fat, add sufficient salt so as to 
have 2 lbs. to each 100 lbs. of finished Ham Sausage. Also 
add 6 to 8 ounces Frankfort Flavor. 

Fourth:— Now proceed to chop or grind the meat ac- 
cording to directions given on page 114, using cracked ice 
to keep the meat cool. 

123 



Fifth:— When the meat is chopped, stuff it into Beef 
Bung Casings. After the Sausage is stuffed, it is well to 
wrap string around it tight, so the Sausage will be firm 
when cooked and will not drop in the smoke house. 

Sixth: — Smoke this sausage carefully over a medium 
warm fire. 

Seventh:— Cook the Sausage from \% to 1>£ hours, in 
water 155 degrees hot. Vary the time according to the 
thickness of the Sausage. See directions on page 117 for 
coloring Bologna casings and color the casings of this Sau- 
sage the same way. 

Eighth: — After Sausage of any kind has been cooked, 
it should be handled as follows: Pour boiling water 
over it to wash off the surplus grease that adheres to 
the casings and then pour cold water over it to shrink 
and close the pores of the casings. This is very im- 
portant and it should be closely observed by all packers 
and sausage makers who wish to have their Sausage 
look nice and fresh in appearance. 

HOW TO PREPARE CASINGS BEFORE 
STUFFING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Before casings are stuffed, they should always be 
soaked in warm water, so as to make them pliable, so 
they will stretch to their utmost limit when being 
stuffed. If they are properly soaked, they will stretch 
considerably and will not burst as easy as they will if 
they are not properly soaked. The casings should be 
soaked in water about 90 degrees temperature Fahren- 
heit, from one to two hours, depending upon how old 
and dry they are. If the casings are very old and dry, 
they will have to be soaked until they are perfectly 
soft and pliable. When casings are soaked in water 
that is too hot, the casings are scalded and become ten- 
der and will burst when being stuffed, and the heavy 
Sausage will tear loose in the smoke house. 

124 



GH I CAGD. TU. S.JFL. 



Show to prevent bursting and 
shrinking of sausage. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Many undergo a great deal of trouble from the burst- 
ing and shrinking of Sausage and it is a trouble which 
Jean be easily avoided, as it is entirely owing to the 
manner of boiling the Sausage. Ordinary round or long 
(Bologna should be kept in water at 160 to 170 degrees 
Fahrenheit for about 30 minutes, and thick large 
Bologna should be kept in water from 155 to 160 
| degrees Fahrenheit from three-quarters of an hour to 
one hour, according to the size. If the Sausage is very 
'large, it will take from one and one-quarter to one 
and one-half hours to cook them thoroughly. "When 
Sausage is boiled in water that is too hot the particles 
of meat will crumble and separate. The Sausage will 
taste dry, although water will be in the crevices be- 
tween the small pieces of meat. The Sausage will look 
rough on the outside and will also lose more weight 
than when boiled as above directed. Many of them 
will burst when the water is too hot. After Sau- 
sage of any kind has been cooked, it should be 
handled as follows: Pour boiling water over it to 
wash off all the surplus grease that adheres to the 
casing and then pour cold water over it to shrink and 
close the pores of the casing. This is very important 
and should be closely observed by all packers and 
sausage makers who wish to have their Sausage look 
nice and keep its fresh appearance. 

125 



H.HE 



ScC D. 



HAMBURGER STEAK 



JH! '•"''-* 



\." •* -<■-:- .••-.:." J Vv.v.-..-V:'o» 



&*£ 



HOW TO SEASON HAMBURGER SO AS TO 

MAKE IT MORE PALATABLE AND 

PLEASING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 




A very successful way of increasing trade on Ham- 
burger is to season it with one ounce of Zanzibar- 
Brand Hamburger Seasoning to every 25 pounds of 
meat. This gives the meat a Delicious Flavor, makes 
it more Palatable and Pleasing to the Taste and much 
more Appetizing and Satisfactory to the Customer. 
Sometimes Hamburger when made without Seasoning 
has a peculiar flavor and meat odor which many cus- 
tomers object to. 

All this trouble is overcome by Seasoning all Ham- 
burger with our Zanzibar Brand Hamburger Season- 
ing, as it gives the meat a Delicious Flavor and Aroma. 

This is something that will increase the sale on 
Hamburger wherever it is used. 



126 



CHICADD, TJ. S. A. 




I HAMBURGER SAUSAGE I 

Below we give the re- 
cipe for a New Sausage 
that is well liked where- 
ever it is being tried, 
and we advise every 
butcher to make use of 
it. This Sausage is a 
success, takes well with 
the trade when made up 
right and is very easy to 
make. It is a nice eat- 
ing Sausage and cus- 
tomers are always 
pleased to get hold of 
something new for a 
change. Making Ham- 
burger Sausage gives the butcher an opportunity for 
selling all the small pieces of beef and a large per- 
centage of beef fat at a good profit, which is very often 
not easily sold otherwise. 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HAMBURGER 
SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

; Take— 

70 lbs. Beef Trimmings. 
I 20 lbs. Beef Fat. 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in the percentage proportion al- 
lowed by your State Pure Food Law. 

20 lbs. Water. 
6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Hamburger Seasoning. 

1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 or 3 large size Onions. 
2 lbs. Salt. 

First:— Take the 70 lbs. of Beef Trimmings and trim 
out all the sinew and cut them into small pieces. 

Second: — Spread the meat on a table and sprinkle 
over it 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle to 70 lbs. meat. Mix 
it thoroughly so that the Freeze-Em-Pickle gets to all 
parts of the meat and then run the meat through a 
sausage grinder, through a medium fine plate, so as to 

1 



b . h: e 



as 



&CQ 



cut the meat into small pieces, so that the Freeee-Em- 
Pickle is thoroughly mixed with the meat. Then place 
it in the cooler in tubs or boxes not deeper than six 
inches and allow it to remain there from one to two 
days to cure. It is better to allow the meat to cure 
for two days or longer. 

Third: — After the Beef is cured take 20 lbs. of 
Suet or Beef Fat, from the Brisket is the best, cut it 
up with 2 or 3 large Onions and run the Beef Fat 
and Onions through the meat grinder and grind it very 
fine, then mix the ground Beef Fat with the 70 lbs. of 
Cured Beef. 

Fourth: — Put Legal amount of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, 
6 to 8 ounces of Zanzibar-Brand Hamburger Seasoning and 
2 lbs. of Salt in a pail and add 20 lbs. of cold water. 
After mixing add this to the ground Beef and Suet. 
Fifth:— Mix the Beef, Suet, Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, 
Seasoning, Salt and water together as well as possible 
and then run it through the meat grinder again. 

Notice: — Hamburger Sausage can also be made with- 
out curing the meat in advance if one prefers. 

Simply mix the Beef, Fat, Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, 
Hamburger Seasoning, Finely Cut-Up Onions, Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and Salt all together, run it through a 
Grinder and add the water while grinding and mixing, 
and when ground it is ready for sale. This sausage 
will, however, have a different flavor than when made 
of cured meat as above. 

Sixth: — After the Sausage is ground, spread it out 
on a platter, decorate it nicely with parsley, a few 
pieces of sliced lemon or orange, which adds to its 
attractiveness. 

With each can of Hamburger 
Seasoning we furnish some of these 
cards free. Take a beef skewer, 
split the end of it so the card 
can be put into the slit and then 
stick this skewer into the plat- 
ter of Hamburger Sausage. This 
little card will nelp the sale 
and you will be surprised at the 
many compliments you will receive 
on this new Sausage. We will 
gladly furnish as many as are de- 
sired of these cards free of charge 
to any butcher who is using our 
Hamburger Seasoning. 



HOME MADE 

HAMBURGER 

SAUSAGE 

15* PER LB. 
.2 LBS.F0R25*. 



128 




DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING 
FRESH PORK SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take 100 lbs. of Fresh Pork Trimmings and 
while chopping add 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in the percentage pro- 
portion allowed by your State Pure Food Law. 
% to 1 lb. "A" Condimentine. 
1 lb. Salt. 
8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Pork Flavor. 

Use sufficient cracked ice to keep the mixture cold. This 
will make a most delicious pork sausage. 

When this is properly mixed it is ready for the stuffer. 
Pork Sausage should be stuffed into hog casings, or it may 
be simply put up in bulk. 

Note:— By using the above quantity of "A" Condi- 
mentine to each 100 lbs. of trimmings, it will prevent fresh 
pork sausage from turning sour or gray for several days, if 
kept under proper conditions and at a low temperature. It 
keeps the pork sausage in a firm, fresh condition. "A" 
Condimentine does not alter or affect the color of the sau- 
sage meat, but simply enables the meat to retain its own 
natural color. The use of this harmless condimental prep- 
aration is a great advantage to all packers and sausage 
manufacturers, especially when the sausage is shipped 
distances or is delivered from wagons to the small retailers. 
"A" Condimentine is guaranteed to comply with the Pure 
Food Laws and the Federal Meat Inspection Law. Its 
use is permitted in all U. S. Government Inspected 
Packing Houses. Sausage does not have to be labeled 



129 



B. PI E r^I^E K. Sc CD. 



HI 

to show the presence of a preservative when "A" 
Condimentine is used. 

There are many kinds of Flours and Binders on the 
market, but the Sausage Maker will find Bull-Meat-Brand 
Flour to be thoroughly reliable, especially for Pork Sau- 
sage, as it does not so easily sour or ferment and it makes 
an emulsion of the fat and water, and when the Sausage 
is fried the grease and meat juices will not fry out of it 
readily, but will remain in the Sausage. Pork Sausage 
made with Bull-Meat-Brand Flour is much more easily 
digested than when made without it, because the fat goes 
into the stomach in the form of an emulsion when the 
Sausage is eaten, and in this way is more easily digested 
and absorbed. In using a Binder for Sausage, if it is the 
Butcher's desire to turn out a Fine- Flavored Sausage and 
one that is juicy when eaten, it is very important that he 
be very careful what kind of a Binder he uses. There are 
many Binders on the market, sold simply for the pur- 
pose of making money, which are utterly worthless. 
They make the Sausage dry and instead of improv- 
ing the quality of the Sausage, they are a great detri- 
ment to it. If the Butcher takes a pride in his goods 
and wants to make Sausage that his trade will like, 
he should not buy these Binders, as he is simply 
throwing his money away and spoiling his goods by 
using them. Therefore, it is always advisable when 
buying from jobbers to insist upon getting the Genu- 
ine B. Heller & Co.'s Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, as you 
will then know exactly what you are getting, as our 
guaranty is on every package, 

SMOKED PORK SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Pork Sausage not sold the day it is made may be 
smoked the following day and sold for Smoked Pork 
Sausage. Pork Sausage smoked the day after it is 
made will keep much better than when they are 
smoked as soon as made, because Sausage that have 
been kept in a cooler for 24 hours after being made 
are thoroughly cured, so they will stand the heat of 
the smoke house, and will have an entirely different 
flavor than if they are subjected to the heat when the 
meat is fresh and is not fully cured. 

130 



CHICADD, TU. S.A 




HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR HEAD CHEESE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The proper way to make Head Cheese is to make 
it from Cured Meat only, and all the Heads and Meat 
used for it should be cured for 10 to 14 days in a 
brine made as follows: 

1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

7 lbs. of Salt. 

5 gals. Water. 

Head Cheese made from Meat cured by this process will 
have a fine red color and will keep well under proper con 
ditions in warm weather. Always add Bull-Meat-Brand 
Flour to Head Cheese, as it makes it firm and combines with 
the fats and juices of the meat, so as to keep the 
Head Cheese from drying out and thereby losing its 
flavor. 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HEAD 
CHEESE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The proper meat to use for making Head Cheese is 
that which has been cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle 
Process, as above described, but it can also be made 
from fresh meat if desired. It will, however, be much 
better and will keep for a longer time if made from 
meat cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process. 

First: — Boil the Heads slowly, and long enough so 
that the meat can be easily stripped from the bone. 



131 



B.HE LLE R. ScCD. 



Hi 

Second: — Boil the Hog Binds and the Hog Pat in 
nets at the same time as when boiling the heads. When 
the Binds are almost cooked through, remove them 
from the kettle and chop or grind them fine. The Fat 
when cooked, should be cut up into 1%, to 1% inch 
square blocks. 

Third: — Also boil about 15 lbs. of Cured Hog 
Tongues, and when they are cooked, cut them in strips. 

Fourth: — The proper proportions for making good 
Head Cheese are as follows, but, the quantity of the 
different kinds of meat can be varied according to the 
stock on hand: 

10 lbs. of Fresh Hog Back Fat. 

15 lbs. of Cured Hog Tongues. 

25 lbs. of Hog Binds. 

60 lbs. Cured Hog Head Meat (after removal from bone). 

Ball-Meat-Brand Flour in proportion as allowed by your 
State Pure Food Law, but not over 5 lbs. 

1 lb. of "A" Condimentine. 

1 lb. of White Berliner Brand Konservirung Salt. 

If any salt is needed add sufficient to suit the taste. 
If the meat is fully cured, no salt need be added. 

Fifth:— The 60 lbs. of Head Meat must be cut into 
small pieces % to % inch in size, either by hand or by 
machine. 

Sixth: — The Binds must be cut fine; the finer the 

better. 

Seventh: — The Tongues must be cut into strips. The 
more Tongues used, the better will be the Head Cheese. 

Eighth: — Mix thoroughly together the Tongues, 
Binds, Head Meat, Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, the Pre- 
pared Head Cheese Seasoning and 1 lb. "A" Con- 
dimentine. At the same time mix into the Meat 
as much of the Water in which the meat was 
boiled as the Meat will absorb while being mixed. This 
water, in which the Heads have been cooked, con- 

132 



CHICAB O. U. S. A. 



tains Gelatine which has been drawn out of the meat 
while boiling, and this water congeals like Jelly when 
it becomes cold. The more of this water put into Head 
Cheese the better it will be, therefore add all of it that 
the meat will absorb. Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, in the 
proportion given in the above formula, will make a 
very different Head Cheese from what can be made 
with some of the other Binders on the market. It 
will pay sausage makers to use B. Heller & Co. 's 
Genuine Bull-Meat-Brand Flour instead of any of the 
imitations now on the market. None of the other 
Binders that we have tested in our laboratory will 
prove as satisfactory as Bull-Meat-Brand Flour. If the 
Butcher uses the best of ingredients and follows the 
proper methods, he is bound to make the best prod- 
ucts; but the most careful sausage maker cannot make 
fine products unless he uses good material. 

Ninth: — After the Head Cheese Meat, Bull-Meat- 
Brand Flour and water in which the Heads have been 
boiled are mixed as above directed, stuff in Beef 
Bungs or Hog Stomachs and boil in water 155 degrees 
hot until they are cooked through. This will require 
from one to one and one-half hours, depending upon 
the thickness. 



Tenth: — When cooked, remove from the kettle and 
place in cold water until they are partly cooled; then 
lay them on boards and press them down by putting 
boards over the Head Cheese with weights on them. 
Head Cheese is sometimes smoked after it is pressed. 

Eleventh: — If they are not smoked, rub them with White 
Berliner Brand Konservirung Salt in order to prevent them 
from getting slimy. 



133 



B.K.E 



Sc cza. 




CURING MEATS FOR LIVER SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Good Liver Sausage should always contain a certain 
amount of Meat and Fat in addition to the Liver. This 
Fat and Meat should be cured for a week or two, before 
making the Sausage, in a brine made as follows: 
1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
7 lbs. Salt. 
5 gals, of Water. 

Liver Sausage made from Meat which has been cured 
in this manner will keep much better after it is made. 
Where it is necessary to ship Liver Sausage any great 
distance, or to keep it on hand any length of time after 
it has been made, the Livers should also be cured in 
the above brine for two weeks before making the Sau- 
sage. The best way to cure the Livers for this purpose 
is to cut them into strips after they have been chilled 
for 24 hours and then put them into the brine to cure. 
Packers who must ship Liver Sausage during the sum- 
mer months will find the above directions in making 
Liver Sausage very valuable. 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING LIVER SAU- 
SAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take 70 lbs. of Hog Livers, 25 lbs. of Pork Necks; 
the entire Boned Head can be used instead of the 
Necks, or the trimmings which are cut from Bellies 
will work into Liver Sausage very nicely. 

First: — Scald the Livers by pouring boiling hot 
water over them or dip them into boiling water until 
they are scalded through to the center. Then throw 
them into the ice water or put them into a tub of cold 
water and allow the water to run into the tub until the 
Livers are cooled through to the center, otherwise, 
they might sour in a short time. 



134 



CZ KE I C A C3- CD, U. S. A. 



Second: — Cook the Hog Necks, Heads or Bellies and 
remove all the meat from the bone. 

Third: — Chop the meat as fine as possible. When an 
Enterprise Grinder is used, grind the meat as fine as it 
can be ground through a fine plate; then add the 
Livers, which have also been ground as fine as it is 
possible to get them. The finer and better the Livers 
and Fat are ground, the finer and better will be the 
Liver Sausage. 

Fourth: — When grinding, add to 100 lbs. of Sausage: 

3 large size Onions. 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in percentage proportion as al- 
lowed by your State Pure Food Law. 

6 to 8 ozs. of Zanzibar-Brand Liver Sausage Seasoning. 
1 lb. "A" Condimentine, 

All of these should then be well mixed, and as much 
of the Water in which the Meat was boiled should 
be added to the mixture as the Meat will absorb. 

Fifth: — Stuff very loosely into Hog Bungs or Beef 
Casings, and boil very slowly, otherwise, they will 
burst; never have the water hotter than 155 degrees. 
The length of time to boil is % to 1 hour, which will 
depend entirely upon the thickness of the Sausage. 

Sixth: — After they are boiled, place in ice water, in 
which they should be kept until they have been chilled 
through to the center; then remove them from the 
water and place in the cooler. After the Sausages are 
chilled rub the casings with some White Berliner 
Brand Konservirung Salt, to prevent the Sausage from 
getting slimy. 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BRAUN- 
SOHWEIGER LIVER SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Braunschweiger Liver Sausage is made of neck 
pieees from Lean Hogs, Hog Livers, Gut Fat, Trim- 
mings from Bellies and Back Fat, all of which must be 
steamed before being chopped. For 150 lbs., or less 
amounts in the same proportion, take: 

10 lbs. Gut Fat. 

30 lbs. of Belly Trimmings. 

20 lbs. of Back Fat. 

40 lbs. of Neck Pieces. 

50 lbs. of Hog Livers. 
First: — Take the above quantities, put them into a 
kettle and steam them at about 180 degrees or 190 
degrees until the meat is tender. Care must be taken 

135 



B.HE LLERSc CZ O. 



that the water does not boil. It should not be hotter 
than 190 degrees or just enough heated to make it 
simmer. 

Second: — Separate the Livers from the other Meat 
that has been steamed and chop it or grind it fine. 

Third: — Take all of the other Meat out of the ket- 
tle, strip it from the bones and rinds, put it in a chop- 
per or grinder, and chop, rock or grind fine. The finer 
the better. While chopping add: 

5 large size Onions. 

The Bull-Meat-Brand Flour 

10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Liver Sausage Sea- 
soning. 

1 lb. "A" Condimentine, and as much of the Soup in 
which the Meat was steamed as the Meat will absorb. 

Fourth: — Then put all of the chopped Meat, includ- 
ing the Livers, into a trough and mix all the Meat 
thoroughly, adding as much more of the Soup while 
mixing, as the mixture will absorb. 

Fifth: — Stuff loosely into Hog Middles or Hog 
Bungs, and boil very slowly, otherwise, they will 
burst; boil them until they are filled and swell out. 
Never have the water hotter than 155 degrees. The 
length of time to boil is % to 1% hours, which will 
depend entirely upon the thickness of the Sausage. 

Sixth: — After they are boiled, place in cold water — 
ice water is the best — in which they should be kept 
until they have been chilled through to the center, 
but while chilling the Sausages must be turned fre- 
quently to keep the grease from congealing to one side; 
then remove from the water, and place in a cooler. 
After the Sausages are chilled, rub the casings with 
some White Berliner Brand Konservirung Salt, to pre- 
vent the Sausage from getting slimy. 

Seventh: — If it is desired to smoke the Braunschwei- 
ger Liver Sausage it can be smoked the following day. 

SMOKED COLORED LIVER SAUSAGE 

Color the casings in a solution of our Zanzibar-Carbon 
Brand Mixture by momentary dipping before watering, 
cutting and tying them. This will give Liver Sausage the 
desired smoke shade color. 



136 



CHI C-fLO □, U. S. J=L. 



BLOOD 

5AU5AGE 





BLOOD SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Blood Sausage is always made from partially Cured 
Meat. This Meat should be cured for 10 to 14 days 
in a brine made as follows: 

1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
7 lbs. Salt. 
5 gals. Water. 
Blood Sausage made from Meat which has been cured 
by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will have a delicious 
flavor and will keep well in any climate. 

Use Bull-Meat-Brand Flour (in percentage proportion as 
allowed by your State Pure Food Law) in making Blood 
Sausage, as it tends to absorb fat and meat juices, prevent- 
ing the Sausage from drying out so readily and becoming 
unpalatable. 

TONGUE BLOOD SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co., Reprint Forbidden.) 

Tongue Blood Sausage is made the same as 
either Formula No. 1 or Formula No. 2, with the 
exception that Cured Hog Tongues are added to it. 
The more Tongues used, the better will be the 
sausage. Always use Tongues that have been thor- 
oughly cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process as 
they will have a nice red appearance in the Sausage. 
Boil the Tongues until they are done and then cut 
into strips and mix into the sausage at the same 
time as the blood is added. 



137 



B.HE 



^E 



ScCD. 




DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BLOOD 
SAUSAGE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

To make 100 lbs. of Blood Sau- 
the following proportions 
which we will call Formula No. 1: 
20 lbs. of Cheek Meat, either fresh 
or salted. 

15 lbs. of Hearts, 
either fresh or 
salted. 

15 lbs. of 
Pork Rinds, 
either fresh or 
salted. 

20 lbs. of Pork Speck (back fat), either fresh or salted. 
25 lbs. (3 gallons) of Hog or Beef Blood. 
Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in percentage proportion as al- 
lowed by your State Pure Food Law. 
6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Blood Sausage Flavor. 
V 2 lb. "B" Condimentine 
2 lbs. of Salt, to suit taste. 
y 2 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

Salted Meat is preferable in making Blood Sausage 
but fresh Meat can be used if desired. 

First: — Take 25 lbs. of Fresh Hog or Beef Blood, and 
stir until the blood remains thin and will not congeal. 
Second: — Put the Pork Rinds in a pudding net and 
boil until about three-quarters done. Care must be 
taken not to boil them too long, otherwise they will 
become too pulpy when boiled the second time in the 
Sausage. 

Third: — Boil the Cheek Meat and Hearts until done. 
The Cheek Meat and Hearts should be boiled as slowly 
as possible. The slower the boiling the better will be 
the Sausage. 

Fourth: — After they are cooked, put the Pork Rinds 
In a chopper or meat grinder and cut them as fine 
as possible. The finer the better. After the Cheek 
Meat and Hearts have been cooked, they should be cut 
up coarse by hand, or chopped coarse in a chopper. 

Fifth: — The Pork Back Fat must be scalded by pour- 
ing boiling water over it for a few minutes. It should 
then be cut into small squares or cubes by hand or 
with a pork back fat cutting machine. 

138 



CHICADD. U.S. A. 



Sixth: — After the Meat and Fat are all cut, add 
to it: 

25 lbs. of Beef Blood 

The legal amount of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour. 

6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Blood Sausage Seasoning. 

Salt to suit taste. 

Seventh: — Mix these thoroughly and stuff into Beef 
Bungs, Beef Middles or Eounds. Fill the casings only- 
three-quarters full. 

Eighth: — Blood Sausage should be boiled very slowly, 
the water should not be hotter than 155 degrees. The 
length of time for boiling depends entirely upon the 
thickness of the Sausage. When done, the Sausage 
will float on top of the water and will be firm and 
plump. It will be necessary to prick the Casings when 
boiling to let out the air. 

Ninth: — When the Sausage is cooked through, re- 
move it from the kettle and place it in cold water; 
ice water is the best. Allow it to remain in this 
cold water until it is thoroughly cooled. Then, place 
on a board in a cooler and allow it to remain there 
24 hours before cutting. 

Tenth: — It is always advisable to use pickled or 
dry-salt cured Cheek Meat and Hearts for Blood 
Sausage instead of fresh ones. To cure them es- 
pecially for Blood Sausage, they should be cured in 
brine made with Freeze-Em-Pickle according to di- 
rections in first paragraph of this article, for two 
weeks before being made into Sausage. Some pre- 
fer to grind the Hearts fine, and leave the Cheeks 
coarse, and if this is preferred, the Hearts can be 
ground with the Pork Rinds. 

Formula No. 2, for making 100 lbs. of Blood 
Sausage: 

30 lbs. of Pork Speck (back fat). 

35 lbs. of Pork Snouts or Ears. 

30 lbs. of Hog or Beef Blood. 

Bull -Meat-Brand-Flour in the percentage proportion as 
allowed by your State Pure Food Law. 

6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Blood Sausage Flavor 

y 2 lb. "B" Condimentine. 

V 2 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. Salt. 

Cook and handle Formula No. 2 the same as Formula 
No. 1, with the exception of leaving out the Hearts 
and Cheek Meat. 

-. 139 



Ej. x~x £1 



e^s 



ScGQ 



fcf«^a» i ^.-iw.f.-,M^-.-^A>-.,..>- T ^^,»^.i,>i..-.^ — <--. 



SUMMER SAUSAGE 

• •CERVELAT**, 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SUMMER 
SAUSAGE (CERVELAT) 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Use 70 lbs. of Pork Trimmings, 20 lbs. of Lean Beef, 10 
lbs. of Pork Back Fat. 

First: — Before being made into Sausage, the Back Fat 
must first be dry salted for two weeks in order to get it 
properly cured and firm. 

Second: — After the Pork Back Fat has been dry salt 
cured, it should be cut up into small pieces of about one- 
half inch square. 

Third: — The Beef should be first finely chopped; then 
the Pork Trimmings should be added and then the Pork 
Back Fat. The meat should be chopped until fine and 
while it is being chopped add: 

2 lbs. of Salt. 
yi lb. "B" Condimentine. 
8 ozs. Best Granulated Sugar. 

10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Summer Sausage Seasoning. 
Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in percentage proportion as al- 
lowed by your State Pure Food Law. 

Fourth: — When the Meat is chopped, it should be packed 
tightly in pans or boxes which should be placed in a cooler 
having a temperature of about 40 degrees; these pans or 
boxes should hold about 50 lbs. and should be shallow, not 
over six to eight inches deep, so that the Meat can be thor- 
oughly chilled through. The Meat in these pans or boxes 
should remain in the cooler from four to six days before it 
will be ready to stuff into the Casings. 

Fifth: — Stuff the Sausage into Hog Bung Casings or Beef 
Middle Casings and hang them in a dry room in a temper- 
ature of about 45 to 50 degrees for two or three weeks. 

Sixth: — They can then be smoked and are ready for the 
market. 

140 



JTALIAH 



STYLE 



s*« 



1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

3/ lb. of "B" Condimentine. 



CHI C ACJCD. U. S.A. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING ITALIAN 
STYLE SALAMI SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take 60 lbs. of Pork 
Trimmings. 

20 lbs. of Lean Beef. 
20 lbs. of Pork Back 
Fat. 

Bull-Meat- Brand 
Flour in percentage 
proportion as allowed 
by your State Pure 
Food Law. 
8 ozs. of Granulated Sugar. 
2 lbs. of Salt. 
10 to 12 ozs. of Zanzibar-Brand Summer Sausage Flavor. 
2 to 3 ozs. of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound or Gar- 
lic Condiment. 

First:— Before being made into sausage, the Back Fat 
must first be dry salted for two weeks to get it properly 
cured and firm. 

Second:—: Chop the Pork Trimmings and the Beef quite 
coarse, coarser than for Summer Sausage. While chopping 
add the Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, Freeze-Em-Pickle, Salt, 
Sugar, Seasoning, "B" Condimentine and Garlic Compound 
or Garlic Condiment, and when it is partly chopped add 
the Back Fat which has previously been cut in cubes 
about one-half inch square. By adding the Back Fat last 
it will still be in quite large pieces when the Meat is suffi- 
ciently chopped. The Fat should show quite prominently 
in Salami, as it must be fatter than Summer Sausage. Two 
or three ounces of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound or 
Garlic Condiment should be added while being chopped to 
give it a delicious Garlic flavor. See pages 258 and 259. The 
quantity may be varied according to the demands of the trade. 
Third:— When the Meat is chopped, it should be packed 
tightly in pans or boxes, which should be placed in a cooler 
having a temperature of about 40 degrees. These pans or 
boxes should hold about 50 lbs. and should be shallow, 
not over six to eight inches deep, so that the Meat can be 
thoroughly chilled through. The Meat in these pans should 
remain in the cooler from four to six days before it will be 
ready to stuff into Casings. 

Fourth:— Stuff the Sausage into Hog Bung Cas- 
ings or Beef Middle Casings and hang them in a 
dry room in a temperature of about 45 to 50 degrees 

141 



B. I-I 



ScCD 





HOLSTE1N 

STYLE 
SAUSAGE 



for two or three days, then wrap twine around them 
nicely as shown in cut and again hang up to dry for 
two to three weeks. 

Fifth: — They can then be smoked with cool smoke 
made with hardwood sawdust only. Wood makes to© 
much heat. Then they are ready for the market. 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HOLSTEIN 
STYLE SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take 50 lbs. of 
Pork Trimmings. 

40 lbs. of Beef 
Trimmings. 

10 lbs. of Pork 
Back Fat. 

First: — Before be 
ing made into Sau- 
sage, the Back Pat 
must first be dry- 
salted for two weeks in order to get it properly 
cured and firm. 

Second: — Put the Beef into the chopping machine 
aitd while chopping it add: 

2 lbs. of Salt. 

% lb. "B" Condimentine 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

8 oz. of Best Granulated Sugar. 

10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Summer Sausage Seasoning. 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in proportion as allowed by 
your State Pure Food Law. 

1 small teaspoonful of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound 
or Garlic Condiment. 

Let the Beef chop until ab6ut one-half done before 
adding the Pork; then chop the Pork and Beef some 
before adding the square cut pieces of Pork Back Fat, 

Third: — After the Meat is chopped and spiced put 
it in shallow boxes or pans not over eight inches 
thick, and put it in a good cooler. Keep the Meat 
in a cooler for from 4 to 6 days so it is thoroughly 
cured before it is stuffed. 

Fourth: — Stuff in Beef Round Casings and let the 
Sausage hang in a dry room at 45 to 50 degrees of 
temperature for a week. 

Fifth: — Then give them a good smoke and they are 
ready for the market. Cool smoke is produced with 
hickory, hard maple or oak saw dust only. Wood 



r\-pf -^/\r\ 



n»Ti Ti j 



CHICADD, U.S. A. 



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS FOR 
HOLSTEIN STYLE SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. This 
method can be used equally well on the empty casings. 
After the casings have a light orange color take them out 
of the solution and wash them well in hot water, cut and 
tie them, then stuff the casings and hang the sausage up 
to dry. 

After the sausage has hung a week or two and is 
dry, hang it in the smoke house for a few days to 
give it a smoke flavor and it is ready for shipment. 
This will save a large shrinkage and the sausage will 
have a better appearance. Sausage that has had the 
casing colored before being stuffed need not become 
rancid, as it is not exposed to the heat in a smoke 
house, which heat always causes the stearin and oil in the 
fat to separate, and as soon as this change takes place the 
sausage begins to become rancid. 



SWEDISH STYLE 

METWUR5T 



SWEDISH STYLE SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take 60 lbs. of Beef. 
(Boneless Chucks, Bris- 
kets and Shank Meat 
can be used.) 

30 lbs. of Pork Ham 
Trimmings. 

10 lbs. of Back Fat. 

First: — Before being 
made into Sausage, the 
Back Fat must first be 
dry-salted for two weeks 
in order to get it prop- 
erly cured and firm. 

Second: — Cut up the 
Pork Back Fat into 
square half-inch cubes 
by hand or with a Pork 
Back Fat Cutting Ma- 
chine. 

Third:— Put the Beef 
and Pork on the block 




143 



B.'H E L-JL.EI-1^. 8c CZ □. 



and when partly or coarsely chopped add the cubes of 
Back Fat, and when the Beef and Pork are cut fine, the 
Pork Back Fat should show prominently through the 
meat. 

While it is being chopped add: 

2 lbs. of Salt. 

}£ lb. "B" Condimentine. 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in percentage proportion as al 
lowed by your State Pure Food Law. 

1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

8 ozs. Best Granulated Sugar. 

10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Swedish Style Sausage 
Seasoning. 

Fourth: — After chopping fine, put the Meat in a trough 
and knead it with the Bull-Meat-Brand Flour until it is 
tight and hard. 

Fifth: — Pack the Meat tightly in 50 lb. pans or boxes 
which place in a cooler having a temperature of about 40 
degrees; these pans or boxes should be shallow, not over 
6 to 8 inches deep, so that the Meat can be thoroughly 
chilled through. The Meat in these pans or boxes should 
remain in the cooler 4 to 6 days before it will be ready to 
stuff into the Casings. 

Sixth: — Stuff the Sausage into Beef Middles and hang 
them in a dry room in a temperature of about 45 to 50 
degrees for two or three weeks. 

Seventh: — They can then be smoked with cool smoke 
made with sawdust and are ready for the market. 

HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS FOR 
SWEDISH STYLE METWURST 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller &. Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. This 
method can be used equally well on the empty casings. 
After the casings have a light orange color take them out 
of the solution and wash them well in hot water, cut and 
tie *hem. 

After the Sausage has hung a week or two and is dry, 
hang it in the smoke house for a few days to give it a 
smoke flavor and it is ready for shipment. This will save 
a large shrinkage and the Sausage will have a better 
appearance. 

144 






CHIGAGD U. S.-H.. 



Sausage that has had the easing colored before be- 
ing stuffed need not become rancid, as it is not ex- 
posed to the heat in a smoke house, which heat often 
causes the stearin and oil in the fat to separate, 
and as soon as this change takes place the sausage be- 
gins to become rancid. 




DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING POLISH 
STYLE SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Take: 50 lbs of Pork Trimmings. 
40 lbs. of Beef Trimmings. 
10 lbs. of Pork Back Fat. 
Before being used in the Sausage, the Pork Back 
Fat should be dry-salt cured for at least two weeks or 
it can be cut from dry salt sides. 

First:— Cut up the Pork Back Fat into square 
half inch cubes by hand or with a Pork Back Fat 
Cutting Machine. 

Second: — Chop the Pork Trimmings, Beef Trimmings 
and Pork Back Fat quite coarse, and while being 
chopped add: 
2 lbs. Salt. 
^ lbs. "B" Condimentine. 

1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Polish Style Sausage Seasoning 
8 ozs. of Granulated Sugar. 

2 to 3 ozs. Vacuum Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment. 
Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in percentage proportion as 

allowed by your State Pure Food Law. • 

Third: — After the Pork Trimminsrs and Pork Back 
Fat have been chopped, and mixed with the salt, 
"B" Condimentine, Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and Vacuum Brand Garlic, stuff into 
beef round casings. 

Fourth: — After the sausage has been stuffed in- 
to casings place them in the smoke house and thor- 
oughly smoke with wood. This Polish Style Sausage 
should not be boiled when made. It is boiled when eaten. 

145 



B.I-IE 



ScCD. 



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS FOR 
POLISH STYLE SAUSAGE 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. 
This method will work equally well on the empty casings. 
After the casings have a light orange color take them out 
of the solution and wash them well in hot water, cut and 
tie them. 

After the Polish Style Sausage is stuffed, hang it in the 
smoke house for a few hours, using wood so as to have a 
hot smoke. This drys it and gives it a smoke flavor. Then 
it is ready for shipment. This will save a large shrinkage 
and the sausage will have a better appearance. Polish 
Style Sausage that has had the casing colored before be- 
ing stuffed need not become rancid, as it is not exposed to 
so much heat in a smoke house, which heat always causes 
the stearin and oil in the fat to separate, and as soon as 
this change takes place the sausage begins to become ran- 
cid. 



THERE 15 NO HIGHER ART 
THANTHAT WHICH TEND5 

TOWARDS THE IMPROVEMENT 

OF HUMAN FOOD 




HENRY WARD BEECHER 




145 



B0CKWUR5TI 



cu* i c a g o, XJ. s. -a 



HOW TO MAKE FINE QUALITY 
BOCKWURST 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — Take 45 pounds 
Beef, 20 pounds Veal, 20 
pounds Lean Pork, 5 
pounds Pork Back Fat 
(Speck). 

Second: — The Meat 
should all be chopped very- 
fine except the Speck, 
which should first be cut 
into small cub°s and then 
added to the rest of the 
Meat when it is partly- 
chopped so that small 
cubes of fat will show in 
the Sausage. 




Third: — "While chopping, add the following: 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in percentage proportion allowed 
by your State Pure Food Law. 

}z lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

}i lb. "B" Condimentine. 

1% to 2 lbs. of Salt. 

8 to 10 ozs. of Zanzibar-Brand Frankfurt Sausage Sea- 
soning. 

3 tablespoonfuls of very finely cut Chives. 

6 heaping tablespoonfuls of finely chopped Parsley. 

Sufficient artificial ice to keep the meat cool while grind- 
ing, added a little at a time. 

Fourth:— When the meat is all cut up fine and properly 
mixed with the spice, it should be stuffed in Narrow Sheep 
Casings and turned off in links about 2]i inches long. 

Fifth:— As a rule Bockwurst is sold without smoking, 
but it can be given a light smoke if desired. 

Sixth:— To prepare Bockwurst for the table, it should be 
steamed five or six minutes in hot water. 



147 



B. K E I_L-E R Sc CD 



'KEEPING SAUSAGE 
INJWARM WEATHER 



Pork Sausage, Bolog- 
na, Frankforts, Head 
Cheese, Liver Sausage, 
etc., can be kept in a 
good condition, by 
simply putting them, 
solution of 1 lb. of Cold- 
in three gallons of water. 

In 



'every night, in a 
Storine dissolved 

iThis solution should be kept in the Cooler 
I the morning remove the Sausage from the solu- 
tion, hang it up and expose it for sale, and 
what remains unsold in the evening, simply put back 
in the brine for the night. 

In this way Sausage can be kept fresh and nice 
appearing for some time, and it will not shrink and 
dry up. This enables the dealer to keep a large, at- 
tractive display on hand in his shop without any dan- 
ger of the goods spoiling. 

By keeping the Sausage in this way, it does not dry 
out, nor become slimy or moldy as it would if hung up 
in the cooler. Sausage can also be shipped a reason- 
able distance in a Cold-Storine solution to better ad- 
vantage than if shipped in any other way. 

On arrival it should be removed from the solution, 
hung up and allowed to drain and dry. In the even- 
ing it should be replaced in the same solution for keep- 
ing over night. 

Never put Smoked Sausage and Fresh Sausage in 
the same solution. Each kind of Sausage should be 
kept in a separate solution. 

FRESH TRIPE AND PIGS FEET. 

Fresh Tripe and Fresh Pig 's Feet turn dark and spoil 
very easily, but by placing them every evening in a 
Cold-Storine solution made of one pound of Cold- 
Storine dissolved in three gallons of water, they can 
be kept in a good condition for a number of days. 
Every morning they may be taken out of the solu- 
tion, and those not sold during the day should be put 
back into the Cold-Storine solution overnight. The so- 
lution for Tripe and Pig's Feet should not be used for 
storing anything else in it. 

SWEET BREADS AND BRAINS. 

Sweet Breads and Brains can also be kept in the 
same way as Tripe and Pig's Feet. 



148 



CHIGADail S. A. 



■:■;■ ..". ' ' . ' . 




C"P- 



X, 



EE§ 



(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — Clean the Feet as carefully as possible and 
then cure them in brine made as follows: 
6 lbs. of Salt. 
1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 
5 gals, of Water. 

The Feet should be cured in this brine from four to 
five days. This brine can be used over and over again 
for curing Pickled Pigs Feet, until it becomes thick 
from the substances drawn out of the Feet. 

Second: — After the Feet have been cured for four 
or five days, cook them as follows: Heat a kettle of 
water boiling hot; then throw the Pigs Feet into it and 
keep the heat on until the water begins to boil; then 
check the fire or steam, and simply let the water sim- 
mer just as slowly as possible until the Feet are nicely 
cooked. The slower they cook, the better, and they 
ought to remain in the hot water for about four hours, 
when cooked at a low temperature. 

Third: — When they are cooked through, turn on cold 
water and let the water overflow until all the heat is 
out of them, and nothing but cold water overflows, 
and then let the Feet cool well. 

Fourth: — Split the Feet through the center and pack 
them. If they are to be packed in tierces and kept on 
hand for any length of time, the vinegar that is put 
over them should be 60 grains strong, but when they 
are packed in small packages for immediate use 40 
grains is strong enough. 

Fifth: — When packing the Feet add to every 100 lbs. 
8 to 10 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Pickled Tongue 
Seasoning. 



149 



i— \ Ir-T l— " 



^3 



&CQ 



STORING PICKLED PIGS FEET. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

There are certain seasons of the year when Pickled 
Pigs Feet are in great demand, while there are other 
seasons when they are a slow sale. We, therefore, give 
here a formula for keeping Pickled Pigs Feet in vine- 
gar so they can be kept for one year if necessary in 
a perfect condition. Salt, cure and boil the Pigs Feet 
the same as above, but instead of boiling them all done, 
boil them only about half done; then split them and 
put them in tierces and fill the tierces with 60-grain 
vinegar and store in cold storage. The 60-grain vine- 
gar has a tendency to soften the meat. After they 
have been in this strength of vinegar for some length 
of time, they will become soft just as if they were 
thoroughly cooked, but if it is necessary to use them 
before they are soft, roll them into the engine room 
or in a place where it is very warm, and turn the 
tierces on their end. Keep the top of the barrel cov- 
ered with water — we mean on the top of the head — so 
that the head will not dry. The bottom of the barrel 
will not shrink and dry because the vinegar on the 
inside keeps it moistened, but if the top is not kept 
wet the barrel will shrink and begin to leak. By 
allowing the Pigs Feet, which are packed in strong 
vinegar, to remain in a very warm place for a week 
or so, they will become nice and tender; they are then 
to be repacked with 40-grain vinegar in small packages 
for the market. 



PICKLING TRIPE. 



(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Select Tripe that is 
fresh and has not been 
lying around long 
enough to attract the 
bacteria ever present in 
the air. 

Tripe should be pre- 
pared b y thoroughly 
cleaning and washing the paunch in at least three or 
four changes of water. After that, a tub of cold water 



HOME- MADE 
P/CKL£D 
T/f/ffE 




150 



l«-*±*J-»^f gjg 



. LJ. S. A. 



should be prepared and a lump of unslaked lime, the 
size of an English Walnut, should be added to about 
50 gallons of water. Allow the lime to dissolve and 
then stir the water to thoroughly mix it. In this 
solution place the washed Tripe and allow it to soak 
for five or six hours. The water should be kept cold. 
A small piece of ice may be put in the water if 
necessary. Before the Tripe is put into the last soak- 
ing water, the inside should be scraped with a hog- 
scraper so as to remove the inside skin. The outside 
film or skin should also be scraped off. The boiling 
vessel should be thoroughly washed before the Tripe 
is placed in it for cooking. If there is any foreign 
substance whatever in the kettle, it will diseolor the 
Tripe. On the other hand, it may be turned out per- 
fectly white if the boiling vessel is in proper condition. 
Two ounces of B. Heller & Co.'s Lard Purifier mixed 
in 50 gallons of boiling water will assist to keep the 
Tripe White. 

Scald the Tripe thoroughly and scrape both sides 
well with a hog-scraper. The Tripe is then ready to 
be cooked. 

In cooking, allow the water to come to the boiling 
point. It should then be reduced to a simmer until 
the Tripe is thoroughly cooked. When cooked, cold 
water should be turned on and allowed to overflow 
until the Tripe has thoroughly cooled. After it is 
thoroughly cooled, pack in tierces with vinegar that 
is 60 degrees strong. Always use White Wine Vinegar. 
If it is desired to ship Tripe after it has been vinegar- 
cured, it should be repacked in vinegar 40 degrees 
strong. 

To give the Tripe a nice flavor, add to every 100 
lbs. of Tripe 8 to 10 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Pickled 
Tongue Seasoning. 

Many have trouble through their inability to cook 
Tripe tender. This, in most cases, is owing to the 
fact that the Tripe is boiled too much in water that 
is too hot. Water in which Tripe is being cooked 
should be allowed to come to a boil, after that, it 
should be put on a slow fire where it will cook the Tripe 
by simmering. A simmer is water that is hot, but not 
boiling, or 155 to 160 degrees. Boiling water will 
always shrink and toughen Tripe. It will take longer 
to cook some Tripe than others, depending upon the 
age of the animal from which it is taken. Tripe should 
be allowed to simmer until it is cooked tender. 



151 



5< Jri ]E] 



^s 



ScCQ 




HOME-MADE' 
c^MINCE MEAT 



MINCE MEAT. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The following directions 
will make a delicious 
Mince Meat: 

Take 4 lbs. of lean 
Beef, boil it until it is 
fairly well cooked and 
then chop or grind it 
very fine. 

Add 8 lbs. of Hard 
Green Apples, cut into 
small cubes. 

1 lb. of very finely 
chopped suet. 

3 lbs. of seeded Eaisins. 

2 lbs. of Picked Cur- 
rants, carefully washed 
and dried. 

2 to 5 lbs. of Citron, 
cut up into small pieces. 

1 lb. of Brown Sugar. 

1 pint Cooking Molasses (pure New Orleans Molasses 
is the best, and it must be free from Glucose). 

1 quart of Sweet Cider. 

1 Tablespoonful of Salt. 

1 Teaspoonful of Ground Black Pepper. 

1 Teaspoonful of Mace. 

1 Teaspoonful of Allspice. 

y% Teaspoonful of Cinnamon. 

A little grated Nutmeg. 

A pinch of Cloves. 

Mix the above thoroughly, then heat slowly on the 
stove and boil for half an hour. 

If the Mince Meat is to be put in jars and sealed 
up tight, the hot Mince Meat should be put into pint 
and quart jars, the jars should be filled up to the brim 
and the tops screwed down tight immediately. 

If the Minee Meat is to be kept in bulk and not 
sealed up in jars, add y<± pint of good Brandy after the 
Mince Meat has been cooked and allowed to become 
nearly cold, stirring the Brandy into the Mince Meat 
thoroughly and then pack into stone crocks, cover 
tightly and keep in a very cool place where the Mince 
Meat will not freeze. This Mince Meat will keep all 
winter. 

152 



C H I GJ5.GD, U. S. A. 



The above quantities can be increased or decreased 
proportionately, according to the total amount of 
Mince Meat desired at one time. 

Dry or concentrated Mince Meat is made same as 
above, except that dried apples are used instead of 
fresh apples, and no liquids are added. Wet Mince 
Meat is better than the dry and will give better satis- 
faction. 




DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUSE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — Take nicely cleaned Pigs Feet, Pigs Snouts, 
Hocks, Tails or Ears, and put them in a kettle on a 
stove, or fire or in a steam jacket kettle. 

Second: — Add just enough cold water to entirely 
cover them. 

Third: — Boil until the Meat can be removed from 
the bones. 

Fourth: — Eemove the Meat from the bones, and put 
it back into the water in which it was boiled; then 
add to this water enough White Wine Vinegar to 
give it a nice sour taste. The quantity of vinegar 
will depend upon its strength. 

Fifth: — Add the following proportions of spice, 
which can be changed to suit the amount of Souse 
you are making. For 100 lbs. Souse use: 

2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar. 

8 to 10 oz. Zanzibar-Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning. 

Sixth: — Mix the spice with the Meat, and boil about 
15 minutes; then remove from the fire. Put the Souse 
into square tin pans, and allow it to set 24 hours be- 
fore removal. If desired, a lemon and 2 or 3 good 
sized Onions may be cut into small pieces, and mixed in 
the Souse before it is boiled; some like this, and some 
prefer it without Onion or Lemon. Do not use too 
much Lemon as it will make the Souse taste bitter. 

153 



-Ed. x-i jE 



ScCD. 



VINEGAR PICKLED PIGS TONGUES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 



PICKLED 




Take salted Pigs 
Tongues that have been 
cured for 30 days and 
scald them in hot water; 
then remove the skin 
and gullet. Boil slowly 
for three hours, the 
same as boiling Pigs 
Feet; the slower they are boiled the better; then cool 
the Tongues, in the same manner as directed for 
cooling Pigs Feet. 

Another way is to take them out of the Brine and 
cook them, and then take off the skin and gullet 
after they are cooked. When handling large quan- 
tities, this latter method will not work as well as the 
first method, because after the Tongues are boiled, 
they must be cooled in the same vat, and after they 
are cooled, the skin does not remove so easily. That 
is why it is better to scald them in boiling water 
first and then remove the skin and gullet, then boil 
them. 

Split the tongues through the center and pack in 
Vinegar the same as Pigs Feet and add to every 100 
lbs. of Tongues 8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Pickled 
Tongue Seasoning. 

HORSERADISH. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Home-made horseradish is a relish that every house- 
hold demands. It is impracticable to put grated horse- 
radish upon the market except when bottled, as ex- 
posure to the air discolors it and dries it out. An ex- 
cellent bottled article which will prove a good keeper 
as well as a good seller can be made as follows: To 
ten parts of grated horseradish add one part of granu- 
lated sugar and one part of pure vinegar. In prepar- 
ing horseradish none but white wine vinegar should be 
used. One of the best means of getting new trade is 
for a Butcher to sell home-made grated horseradish. 



154 



CHIC AG C TJ^S>A. 



SAUER KRAUT. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 



HOME-MADE 
5AUER KRAUT- 




j Select sound cabbages 

land peel off the first or 
damaged leaves, then 

! slice or shave with a 

! cabbage cutter as fine as 

| possible. The object de- [ 
sired in making first- 
class Sauer Kraut is to 
obtain a perfect fermen- 
tation under pressure 
with the aid of salt 
alone. The brine, there- 
fore, results from the 
water contained in the 
salt and cabbage, no 
water being added. First 
secure a good strong 

cask, which should be » - 

well scalded and cleaned. Sprinkle on the bottom of 
this cask a small quantity of salt, then put in a layer 
of cabbage and while adding the cabbage sprinkle 
some salt through it, so that the salt is as much di- 
vided as possible and then tamp well with a wooden 
tamper, so as to pack it as tight and solid as possible. 
Continue putting in layer of cabbage and tamping this 
way until the barrel is full. The salt to be used 
should always be of the best grade and one pound 
of salt to one hundred pounds of cabbage should be 
used but may be varied according to the taste. Some 
prefer it saltier than others. After tne cask is filled or 
as full as desired, the cabbage should be covered with 
a clean cloth on which should be laid hardwood boards. 
Use the boards taken out of the head of a whiskey 
barrel or tierce as this makes the best cover, as they 
fit in the barrel and are made of hardwood and will 
not give the cabbage a taste. Carefully weight the 
boards down with heavy stones, always remembering 
that the fermentation should be accomplished under 
pressure. Once a week take off the stone, board and 
cloth from the cabbage and wash them clean and re- 
place the cloth and boards and stones on top ot tne 
barrel after they have been washed. By repeating 
the washing of the boards and cloth and stones every 

155 



B.I-i E ;L-X-!E:E3.Bc CZC 



^F^ 



week, the top of the cabbage will be kept perfectly 
sweet and the foam which comes to the top is re- 
moved, so that the top of the Sauer Kraut will be as 
good as that in the bottom of the barrel. The Kraut 
should be left to ripen for about four weeks in a warm 
temperature. It is always best not to offer it for 
sale until it has sufficiently ripened and is tender and 
juicy and that it has the proper flavor. This can only 
occur after perfect fermentation has taken place. 

PICCALILLI. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

This sauce is easily prepared and is in considerable 
demand by some trades. Select good, firm, green to- 
matoes, wash them thoroughly and cut away all de- 
fective portions of the tomatoes. They should then 
be sliced or quartered and placed in a salt brine made 
with one pound of salt to each gallon of water with 
a supply of green peppers. Let them cure in this 
brine for two weeks. They may then be taken out 
and chopped very fine, about y 8 to % inch in diam- 
eter. They are then ready for the vinegar, which 
should be pure in quality, the white wine vinegar be- 
ing preferred. The vinegar should be first prepared 
or sweetened and spiced with pure granulated cane 
sugar, cloves, cinnamon, mustard seed and a small 
quantity of celery seed. This can be poured over the 
chopped tomatoes and peppers, either hot or cold. Pic- 
calilli should be sold nearly or quite strained of its 
vinegar. 

CHOW CHOW. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Chow Chow is a popular sauce that. can be readily 
prepared. It is strictly a Chinese innovation which 
was introduced to the American palate during the 
first immigration of Chinamen. It is merely the cu- 
cumber pickle cut up into small pieces with the addi- 
tion of cauliflower, onions, etc., over which is poured 
a preparation of mustard, vinegar and various con- 
diments which taste may demand. Chow Chow is a 
good keeper and a good seller, but in order to retain 
its flavor and color, it should be carefully covered and 
kept from exposure to the air. 

156 



iigaa 



. U.S.-H. 



'///IJIIIIIIIIIHIIIIHI 



HOME-MADE 

DILLPICKLE5 



DILL PICKLES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

All butchers should 
put up home made 
pickles of all kinds and 
such relishes as horse- 
radish and sauer kraut. 
Dill pickles are very- 
popular and they are 
always salable in the 
butcher shop. They may 
be made as follows: Se- 
lect large pickles of as 
near an even size as pos- 
sible and soak in water 
over night; then wash - 

them thoroughly. Next, 

take a barrel and put a layer of dill about one inch 
thick on the bottom of it, upon which place the 
pickles three layers deep. Over these pickles place 
another layer of dill and repeat the layer of pickles 
as in the first instance. Continue this operation of 
the layer of dill and then pickles until the barrel is 
as full as desired, leaving sufficient space for the 
brine. The brine should be made of the best quality 
of salt, using y z lb. to each gallon of water.- Brine 
thus made will make the natural soft home-cured Ger- 
man Style dill pickles. After the brine has been placed 
over the pickles place them in a cooler and let them 
ripen for about four weeks. The ripening process may 
be quickened about two weeks by leaving the pickles 
in a room of moderate temperature. Some people 
prefer dill pickles hard and for such taste it is neces- 
sary to put a little alum in the brine. Pickles treated with 
alum must be labeled to show this. A piece about as big as 
an egg for a full barrel of pickles is the proper amount. Dis- 
solve this in the brine. This will keep the pickles firm and 
hard. It will be found, however, that most tastes prefer the 
natural brine without the alum, as the soft pickle seems to 
have a more appetizing flavor. There is no appetizer more 
appreciated than the dill pickle and it comes nearer ap- 
pealing to the general trade than most any relish that can 
be offered. 

157 



B.HE 



ScCD. 



DRE55 POULTRY IMMEDIATELY 
It AFTER KILLING i 



i -I; 



■ ID: 



p* 



HOW TO DRESS POULTRY. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The Butcher who will make a specialty of dressed 
poultry will make a hit with his customers and good 
profit on sales if he will be careful to get his Chick- 
ens dressed decently, and to educate his customers to 
pay prices that will be commensurate with the quality 
of the meat offered. Very often it is almost an im- 
possibility for the consumer to secure sweet, untainted 
Poultry Meat. Much of this trouble is owing to the 
fact that large shippers kill the Chickens, dry pick 
them or scald them, and the food that remains in 
the intestines ferments and taints the meat, with the 
result that the Chicken, when cooked, has an abomin- 
able taste. 

When a Butcher is so situated that he can dress his 
own Chickens, and he would be fully justified in 
making all preparations in that direction, he ought 
to open, draw and wash out thoroughly every chicken 
as fast as it is killed, just as he would wash out Hogs, 
Calves or Sheep. Chickens that have been nicely 
drawn and washed immediately upon killing are always 
sweet in flavor, and the Butcher who will take the 
pains to offer such goods and to acquaint his customers 
of their quality can not only establish a large trade 

158 



CHICADD, O. S.A. 



and a great reputation, but "he can offer the public an 
article that is pure and sweet, and difficult to obtain. 
No doubt he could command the Chicken trade of any 
neighborhood by this means, down all competition, 
and obtain good prices for his Meat, as people would 
be willing to pay for the original weight of the chicken 
before drawing, and at the same time would be much 
better satisfied with what they get. If desired, the 
Butcher could weigh the chickens after they are 
dressed, tag and draw them, and then could say to 
his customers: "This Chicken weighed so much be- 
fore it was drawn, but in order to retain the sweet- 
ness of the meat, we draw it as it ought to be drawn, 
wash it out, and sell it to you for just what it is 
worth.' ' A Butcher's statement upon these points 
would not be doubted. Furthermore, the Butcher would 
not lose anything by this method, as Chickens shrink 
after they are dressed and kept two or three days be- 
fore sold. The loss from this shrinkage is consider- 
able. Therefore, the trouble and expense of drawing 
Chickens and handling them in the manner described 
would be fully repaid. 

STICKY FLY PAPER. 



5TICKY 



Every Butcher can 
make his own Sticky 
Fly Paper with very 
little trouble. It is 
made as follows: 

1 lb. Eosin. 

ZV2 oz. Molasses. 

3% oz. Boiled Linseed 
Oil. 

Boil the three together 
until they get thick 
enough and then spread 
on heavy Manilla paper. 
The proper and quickest way is to take a sheet of 
heavy Manilla paper and spread the mixture on half 
of the surface of it, then double the paper over; the 
mixture put on the half will be quite sufficient to 
coat the face of the other half that is doubled over 
on it. The cost of making this sticky fly paper is 
very small and in an hour any Butcher can make 
enough Sticky Fly Paper to last the entire summer. 




159 



h-k H! IE 



ScCQ 




~$i)^-*., A ("Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
One of the things much neg- 
iF% -fleeted in many butcher shops is 
ilfe ,.)Mthe making of Lard. Butchers 
who do not cut up enough hogs 
to have fat for making Lard each 
day, allow the fat to accumulate 
until they have sufficient so as 
to make it worth their while to 
render it. Many butchers do not 
keep this fat in the ice box, but 
let it stand anywhere, because 
Sthey imagine that it does not 
spoil; then, when they make Lard 
out of it, they wonder why the 
Lard is not better. 
Lard should always be made as soon as possible, and 
the fat trimmings should be kept in the cooler and 
not allowed to remain standing around in a warm 
place. To make high grade Kettle-Eendered Lard, al- 
ways cut the rinds off of the fat. The rinds can be 
put into pickle and stored until a quantity has ac- 
cumulated and then they can be cooked and utilized 
in Liver Sausage, Head Cheese or Blood Sausage. When 
the rind is cooked with the lard, it always causes 
more or less detriment to the lard. 

Before rendering, if one has the machinery, the fat 
should be run through a regular fat hasher or a 
Meat Grinder, and it should be ground up into 
small pieces. The smaller it is ground the better, for 
if the fatty tissues are thoroughly mangled and dis- 
integrated, the oil will separate more readily when 
the heat is applied. Those butchers not having a ma- 
chine in which they ean cut up the fat should cut it 
into small pieces by hand. 

For making Kettle-Eendered Lard a steam jacket 
kettle is the best, but if one does not have steam, a 
common caldron will answer, but great care must be 
taken not to scorch the lard or allow it to become 
too hot when a caldron is used. 

160 



CHICADaU.'S.A 



RENDERING LARD IN JACKET KETTLE 
OR CALDRON. 

(Copyrighted ; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Before putting the fat into the kettle, put in a gal- 
lon of water for every 100 lbs. of fat, as the water pre- 
vents the lard from scorching. Then put in all the 
fat to be rendered and start the fire or slowly turn 
on the steam, as the case may be. 

In rendering Lard the heat should be brought up 
gradually, so that quite a little of the fat is melted 
before the full heat is applied. If the heat is brought 
up too rapidly, it will cause the Lard to be darker in 
color than when it is gradually heated. 

Lard should be boiled about i% hours after the en- 
tire mass is boiling. 

Those butchers who wish to render their Lard scien- 
tifically, with the aid of a thermometer, can do so 
by hanging a thermometer in the Lard and bringing 
the temperature gradually up 
to 255 to 260 degrees Fahren- 
heit, and then turn off the 
steam or check the fire, as 
the ease may be, and allow 
the Lard to cook slowly until 
it is finished. 

A butcher can always tell 
when the Lard has cooked 
sufficiently by the way the 
cracklings press out. 

After the Lard has all been 
tried out, skim out all the 
cracklings, put them into a 
press and press out all the 
Lard, adding what is pressed 
out to that in the kettle. 

Now the Lard is ready to 
be strained through a piece 
of cheese cloth. lard press 




161 



B.KE 



Sc CD. 




IF ONE HAS A LARD SETTLING TANK, AS 

HERE ILLUSTRATED, HANDLE 

THE LARD AS FOLLOWS: 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

After treating the 
Lard as directed, with 
Lard Purifier and water, 
and after the Lard has 
been treated enough to 
make it foam, and the 
foam has been skimmed 
off, dip the Lard and 
water out of the kettle, 
run it through a piece 
of cheese cloth into the 
settling tank. A settling 
tank is simply a galvan- 
ized iron tank with a 
large faucet at the bot- 
tom. The bottom can be 

made to taper to the center and the faucet placed in 
the center, so all the water can be drained off, or the 
bottom can be made flat with the faucet close to the 
bottom, and the tank can be set slanting, so the water 
or Lard will all drain out. 

After the Lard is in the settling tank, let it settle 
for one or two hours, according to the size of the 
tank and quantity of Lard in it. Then drain off 
all the water and the impurities which have settled 
to the bottom. After these are drawn off, the Lard 
is ready to be run into buckets, which should be 
placed in the ice box to cool. 

A better way is to let the Lard settle in the settling 
tank and, after the water is drawn off, stir the Lard 
with a large paddle until it is thick and creamy, 
and then it should be put into buckets. By letting 
it cool in the settling tank and stirring it until it 
is thick and creamy, Lard will have a much better 
appearance when cold than Lard that is run into 
buckets hot. 



SETTLING TANK 



162 



CHICAGD. O. S.A. 



HOW TO PURIFY LARD WITH ONLY A 
COMMON RENDERING KETTLE. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

After the Lard has been rendered as above, treat 
as follows: The kettle must not be too full of Lard; 
it should not be more than three-fourths full when be- 
ing treated with the Purifier. 

Put a thermometer into the Lard to test the tem- 
perature. If the temperature of the Lard is below 
200 degrees Fahrenheit, add to every 100 lbs. of Lard 
3 ounces of B. Heller & Co. 's Lard Purifier, dissolved 
in one quart of water. For example, if the kettle 
contains 400 lbs. of rendered Lard, add 12 ounces of 
Lard Purifier dissolved in one gallon of water. 

Should the temperature of the Lard be over 200 
degrees F., do not add the Lard Purifier and water, 
but let the Lard stand for half an hour or so, until 
the temperature comes below 200 degrees. 

If the Lard Purifier and water are added to the 
Lard when it is as high as 212 degrees F., the water 
will at once be converted into steam as soon as it gets 
into the Lard, because water is converted into steam 
at that temperature. When the Lara Purifier and 
water are added to Lard that is too hot, the Lard 
will foam up and boil over; but, when the Lard is 
below 200 degrees F. and the Lard Purifier and water 
are added, it will not boil up. 

After adding the Lard Purifier and water, take a 
paddle and stir the Lard thoroughly, so the Lard 
Purifier is mixed thoroughly with every part of the 
Lard; then turn on the steam or build up the fire 
slowly, as the case may be, and heat the Lard up to 
212 degrees F. The minute 212 degrees is reached the 
Lard will begin to foam. When the Lard gets to this 
point, it should not be left for a moment, because 
if it gets too hot it will boil over the top of the 
kettle; but if one stays right with it when it be- 
gins to foam, and checks the fire, it will not boil over 
but will foam a little and most of the impurities 
will rise to the top of the Lard. Now stop the 
fire and skim off all the impurities on the top of 
the Lard and allow the Lard to settle for about two 
hours, when all the water and the smaller impurities 
that did not rise to the top will have separated from 
the Lard and will be at the bottom, and one will be 

163 



B.HELLER &CD 



surprised at th.e amount of impurities that will thus 
be separated from the Lard. 

If the kettle has a faucet at the bottom, draw off 
the water and the impurities which have settled and 
then run off the Lard. Should the kettle not have 
an opening at the bottom, dip out the Lard from the 
top, being careful not to dip out any of the water 
which will be at the bottom. When most of the 
Lard has been taken out, that remaining, which is near 
the water, can be dipped out together with the water, 
and put in a bucket or tub and allowed to harden. 

The lard will float on the top and when hard can 
easily be taken off from the top of the water, and 
should be kept until the next Lard is rendered, when 
it should be re-melted with the next batch of Lard. 

Before running the Lard into buckets, it is always 
well to run it through a piece of cheese cloth, so as 
to remove any small pieces of detached cracklings, 
it is advisable to put the Lard into the ice box as soon 
as it is run into buckets, so as to set it, which will 
prevent the separation of the oil from the Stearin . 

IF ONE HAS NO SETTLING TANK, BUT 
SIMPLY HAS A RENDERING KETTLE 
AND AN AGITATOR, HANDLE 
LARD AS FOLLOWS: 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — Bender the Lard in the Kendering Kettle, and 
treat it with B. Heller & Co. 's Lard Purifier, the same 
as directed in the foregoing. After it is treated, run 
the Lard through two or three thicknesses of cheese 
cloth, into the Agitator. Allow it to settle in the Agi- 
tator for two hours, then run off all the water from 
the bottom, and start the Agitator. The Lard should 
be agitated until it is thick like cream, then it is 
ready to run off. We, however, recommend that Lard 
should be taken from the Kendering Kettle and put 
into the Settling Tank and allowed to settle, and then 
the Lard should be run from the Settling Tank through 
the faucet about an inch above the bottom, into the 
Lard Cooler, and while in the Cooler it should be agi- 
tated until it becomes thick. There are always small 
particles of charred tissue which will settle to the l 
bottom of the Settling Tank, which cannot be gotten 
out in any other way, and the Lard will be whiter and \ 
purer if allowed to settle in the Settling Tank and 
then drawn off into the Cooler. 

164 



CHICAGO I_T. S.A. 



IF ONE HAS A LARD SETTLING TANK 

AND AN AGITATOR, HANDLE 

THE LARD AS FOLLOWS: 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

A Packer or Butcher 
who makes any quantity 
at all of Kettle Rendered 
Lard, should have a Ren- 
dering Kettle in which 
the Lard is rendered, a 
Settling Tank in which 
the Lard is settled, and 
a Lard Cooler with an 
Agitator in it. The Lard 
Cooler and Agitator 
should be double- jacket- 
ed, so that cold water 
can be run into the 
jacket to cool the Lard. 

When equipping a 
plant with a Settling 
Tank and Cooler, we 
advise that the Settling cooler and agitator 
Tank have two faucets in it; one at the extreme bot- 
tom and the other about one inch from the bottom. 
Then, when the water is drawn off of the Settling Tank, 
it should be drawn off from the lowest faucet, and 
nrhen the Lard is "drawn off into the Agitator, it 
should be run off through the faucet which is an inch 
from the bottom. In this way, small particles which 
may be in the Lard will remain in the bottom of the 
Settling Tank, in the one inch layer of Lard which re- 
mains in the bottom of the Settling Tank. After all 
llie Lard is run off through the upper faucet, what 
remains between the upper faucet and the bottom of 
tho Settling Tank should be drawn off through the 
mwer faucet and should be kept until the next time 
Lard is rendered, and then should be re-rendered with 
the next batch. 

After the Lard has been rendered and has been 
Ireated in the Rendering Kettle, with the Lard Puri- 
fier, strain it through a cheese eloth into the Settling 
Tank, allow it to settle for two hours, then draw off 
all the water from the bottom faucet. After the water 
has been drawn off, draw off the Lard from the top 
faucet and again run it through cheese cloth, into the 




165 



B.HELLER StCD. 



Cooler and Agitator. Start the Agitator and allow 
it to run until the Lard is thick and white, like cream, 
and then run it off into buckets or tubs. 

A good way to set up the Settling Tank and the 
Cooler and Agitator, is to have the Settling Tank high 
enough up, on a bench above the Agitator, so that the 
Lard can be run out of the Settling Tank into the 
Agitator. The Cooler and Agitator should also be high 
enough from the floor so the Lard can be run from it 
into buckets or tubs. 

It costs very little to properly equip oneself with the 
proper apparatus, and if properly rigged up it is a 
pleasure to make the Lard and requires very little 
work. 

HOW TO PURIFY RENDERED 
LARD. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

First: — Put 100 lbs. of water into the lard kettle and 
add to it one-quarter to one-half pound of B. Heller 
& Co.'s Lard Purifier; then on top of the water put 
100 lbs. of the rendered Lard. 

Second: — If a steam kettle is used, turn on the 
steam; and if the kettle is heated by fire, start the 
fire; the heat should be applied slowly and must be 
closely watched, so that the Lard does not get too hot 
and boil over. In no case should more Lard and water 
be put into the kettle than to fill it one-half full. By 
thus having the kettle only half full it leaves plenty 
of room for the Lard to boil and foam and prevents 
it from boiling over the top of the kettle. 

Third: — While the Lard is being heated stay right 
with it at the kettle to watch it and continually stir it. 

Fourth: — When the Lard begins to boil check the fire 
and let it simmer from 10 to 15 minutes, then put out 
the fire or turn off the steam and let the Lard settle 
for about three hours; all the impurities that come to 
the top skim off carefully. 

Fifth: — After the Lard has settled for three hours 
all the water will be at the bottom. If the kettle is 
provided with a faucet at the bottom so the water 
can be let off, let the water run out slowly until it is 
all drained out; if the kettle has no opening in the 
bottom, skim the Lard off from the top of the water j 
and place the Lard in a Lard Cooler. If you have a 

166 



CHICADauaA. 



Lard Cooler with an Agitator, start the Agitator and 
keep it running until the Lard gets thick like cream; 
it is then ready to run off into buckets. If you have 
no regular Agitator, it is necessary to stir the Lard by 
hand occasionally until it gets thick and creamy; 
stir it as much as possible until it gets thick, and then 
run it into buckets. 

LARD NOT PURIFIED. 

If Lard is made without taking out the impurities 
with water and our Lard Purifier, the Lard will be- 
come rancid if it is to be kept during the hot weather, 
and it will not be so sweet in flavor nor as clean 
and white as it is when treated with our Purifier 
according to the preceding directions. Our Lard Puri- 
fier neutralizes the free fatty acids in the Lard, thus 
to a considerable extent preventing rancidity and helps 
keep the Lard Sweet and Pure. 

Lard made with our Lard Purifier according to the 
foregoing directions will comply with the regulations 
under the various Pure Food Laws- 

COMPOUND LARD. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

In the Southern States, where the climate is warm, 
It is necessary to add either Tallow or Tallow Stearin 
or Lard Stearin to Lard, so as to stiffen it in order 
*hat it can be handled at all. 

To make Compound Lard, first render the Lard and 
press out the cracklings as directed; then add from 10 
to 20 per cent of either Tallow, Tallow Stearin or 
Lard Stearin and stir until it is all melted and thor- 
oughly mixed with the Lard. The quantity of Tallow 
or Stearin to add depends upon the climate and season 
of the year, and also the price of the different ma- 
terials. 

After adding the above, purify the mixture, the 
same as directed for handling Pure Lard. However, 
Compound Lard must always be agitated until it is 
thick and cream-like before it is run into buckets. If 
one hps no Lard Agitator, it must be stirred by hand 
until it is stiff and cool. 

It is perfectly legal to add Tallow, Tallow Stearin 
or Lard Stearin to Lard for this purpose, but such 

167 



B.JH E ULEIR. ScCD. 



MI 

Lard must be sold as Compound Lard. It cannot be 
sold as "Pure Lard" when these ingredients are added 
to it. 

COTTON SEED OIL-LARD COMPOUNDS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

For certain purposes Cotton Seed Oil added to Lard 
is preferred to straight Lard, and the Cotton Seed Oil 
is added after the Lard has been purified and is ready- 
to put in the Agitator. 

To make a really good Compound Lard, a Cooler with 
an Agitator is absolutely necessary, but if one hasn't 
a cooler with Agitator, it can be done by stirring by 
hand continuously, so the Lard and Oil do not separate 
while cooling. 

When Cotton Seed Oil is used, it must be Eefined 
Cotton Seed Oil, and the more it is refined the better 
the compound will be. Lard should always be run 
through cheese cloth before putting it in the Lard 
Cooler, so as to take out any small particles of de- 
tached cracklings which may remain in the Lard. 

The formula for making Compound Lard with Cot- 
ton Seed Oil varies according to the relative values 
of the ingredients and the quality of Compound de- 
sired. The usual Compounds found on the market, as 
sold at the present time under trade names, and which 
contain no Lard at all, are made of 80 per cent Cotton 
Seed Oil and 20 per cent Tallow Stearin . (Tallow 
SteariD is Tallow with the oil pressed out of it.) A 
small* butcher can make this Compound by using 80 
per cent Cotton Seed Oil and 20 per cent Rendered 
Tallow, which has previously been purified with B. 
Heller & Co. 's Lard Purifier. 

If it is desired to make a better quality of Com- 
pound, use less Cotton Seed Oil and add sufficient Lard 
to bring the cost and quality to the desired degree. 

All such Compounds must be sold as "Compound 
Lard" when Lard is added; but when no Lard is added, 
they must be sold as "Lard Substitutes." These 
preparations are perfectly legal, and comply with the 
Pure Food Laws provided they are labeled and sold 
for what they are, but no one should make a Lard 
Compound or Imitation Lard and sell it for Pure Lard. 

168 



CHICADD, TU. S.JSL. 



REFINING LARD WITH FULLER'S EARTH. 

THE METHOD USED FOR REFINING LARD 
IN LARGE PACKING HOUSES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The large packers all refine Lard and Tallow with 
the Fuller's Earth process, and for the benefit of the 
! small packers, who would like to know how it is done, 
we will give the full directions, although a small pack- 
I ing house can hardly afford to put in a plant for the 
i process, as it requires a man who is experienced to 
refine Lard and Tallow in this manner. If a packing 
house does not make enough Lard and Tallow to afford 
, to keep a man especially for this purpose, it will not 
I pay to put in a refinery, which consists of the follow- 
j ing machinery: A Eeceiving Kettle, which is a large 
open tank with steam coils in it to dry the Lard or 
a large Jacket Kettle will do. A Clay Kettle, which 
is a tank with steam coils in it for heating the Lard 
and an air pipe at the bottom of it connected to an 
air compressor. A Lard Cooler with Agitator to cool 
and stir the Lard while it sets so as to have it thor- 
oughly mixed. A Pump, Air Compressor and Filter 
Press. An ordinary size outfit will cost from $2,000 
to $3,000. 

First, the Lard, Tallow or Cotton Seed Oil, which 
is termed stock, is placed in the Clay Kettle. The 
Clay Kettle is simply an iron jacket with a coil in the 
bottom of it through which air is pumped. In this 
kettle, the Fuller's Earth is added. To each and every 
100 lbs. of stock, there is added from one to two lbs. of 
Fuller's Earth; the quantity depending upon the grade 
of stock. Before the stock is treated a small test is 
made as follows. A small quantity is heated; in a part 
of it one per cent of elay is put, in another part iy 2 
per cent, and in another two per cent. Mix each lot 
thoroughly, put them into a funnel over filter paper 
and allow them to filter. By examining these samples, 
one can tell how much earth to use to the stock in the 
kettle. This must be done when the stock varies. Of 
course^ when the Lard, Tallow, or Oil are running uni- 

169 



B.HE LL'ER. ScCD. 



form, it is not necessary to make the test, but where 
the stoek changes, it is always advisable to test before 
treating, for the reason that too much Fuller's Earth 
put into the stock will give the Lard an objectionable 
flavor. Before stock of any kind can be treated with 
Fuller's Earth, all the moisture must be out of it; 
Lard usually contains two to three per cent of moisture, 
and very often considerably more, so it must be heated 
in a Jacket Kettle until all the water is evaporated. 
If there is any water in the Lard, the Fuller's Earth 
attacks the water first, and the Lard is not affected, 
because wet Fuller's Earth has absolutely no effect 
upon Lard. When the Fuller's Earth is added to Lard, 
it must be 155 degrees hot; Tallow must be 185 de- 
grees hot, and Cotton Seed Oil 140 degrees hot. After 
the desired heat is obtained, regulate the steam so the 
temperature will remain stationary, turn on the air, 
and when it is blowing hard, put in the Fuller's Earth 
and blow for about 20 minutes; then start the force 
pump and pump the stock through the Filter Press. 
If the stock is of fine quality and only a small percent- 
age of Fuller 's Earth is used, it can be pumped directly 
into the Eeceiving Kettle, but if a large percentage of 
Fuller's Earth is used, it is advisable to let the Lard 
run back into the Clay Kettle, and keep on letting it 
run through the filter and pumping it round until it is 
thoroughly clarified; then allow it to run into the Re- 
ceiving Kettle. 

If inferior stock is used, sometimes as much as four 
and five per eent of Fuller's Earth is used to refine it, 
but it is not advisable to use that large amount as the 
clay gives off an odor which the stock sometimes ab- 
sorbs. Always use the least amount of clay that good 
judgment indicates will do the work, and after pump- 
ing through the filter, if it is not as it should be add 
more clay and refilter it. 

To make Compound Lard, treat the different stocks 
separately, run them in different tanks, and then mix 
them. After they have been put into the receiving 
tank or the mixing tank, it is advisable to mix them by 
blowing air into *he bottom of the kettle in which are 

170 



CHI G A G O, U. S. J=L. 



Lard, Tallow and Oil; this will mix even better than 
any process or method that we know of. The amount 
or kind of stock to be used depends upon the season 
of the year, and the kind and quantity of goods you 
wish to make. Equal parts of Tallow, Lard and Oil 
make a very good Compound. All the cloths for the 
Filter Press should be washed every day after using 
them as they must be kept perfectly clean; the cleaner 
the better. 

After the Compound Lard has been thoroughly mixed 
it must be put into an Agitator and agitated until it 
is thick like cream l|efore it is run off into buckets. 

HOW TO RENDER TALLOW WHITE, 

ODORLESS, FLAKY AND SOFT, 

LIKE LARD IN TEXTURE 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

It is an easy matter to render Tallow so it will have 
a very light color, in fact, will be almost white and 
at the same time flaky and soft like Lard, if the in- 
structions which follow are carried out. When so ren- 
dered, the Tallow will sell at a good price, as it will 
be entirely free from a tallowy odor, and is an excel- 
lent thing for baking purposes. Tallow rendered ac- 
cording to these instructions can be mixed with Lard 
and it will even improve the Lard. But it must be sold 
for what it is. 

Take Beef Suet and all the Beef Fat trimmed from steaks 
and other cuts, and run it through a Chopper, chopping it 
very fine. It will thus become soft and sticky so it can be 
rolled in small balls about one and one-half to two inches 
in diameter. While this is being done, fill Rendering Kettle 
half full of water, dissolving in the water about two ounces 
of Lard Purifier to every 100 lbs. of Tallow to be ren- 
dered, and start it to boil. While the water is boiling 
the small balls of Tallow should be placed on top of the 
water until a sufficient number of balls have been thus 
put into the water to make a layer three or four inches 
deep, but not deeper. After the Tallow is rendered out 
of the balls, the heat should be turned off and the Tal- 
low should be permitted to cool. Just as soon as the 
boiling has ceased, all the cracklings that are on the 
surface should be skimmed off, put into a press and 

171 



B.HE LLER Sc C □. 



HI 

pressed out. The Tallow that is on the surface should 
be skimmed off and put into buckets. Care should be 
taken that no water is taken out with the hot Tallow. 
The tallow which remains on the water can be left 
there until it is hard, when it can be taken off and 
melted if desired, and then run into buckets. The ad- 
vantage in rendering Tallow in this manner is to pre- 
vent the Tallow from becoming too hot, and thus to 
keep it from turning dark; besides, the water and 
Lard Purifier purifies the Tallow and also draws out 
( the tallowy odor. 

! Any butcher can build up a large trade on home- 
rendered tallow when it is prepared in this manner. 
In fact, his trade will like the Tallow so well that he 
will not be able to supply the demand. As a rule, the 
butcher sells his Tallow unrendered at a low price, but 
if he will render it himself and follow the above in- 
structions carefully, he can sell the Tallow for at least 
10 to 12 cents per pound, owing to the fact that Tallow 
rendered in this manner produces a very fine fat for cooking 
purposes. We believe it is much better than Lard. 

NEAT'S FOOT OIL. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Neat's Foot Oil is made by simply boiling the feet 
of cattle in a water bath, in an open kettle. The oil 
will come out of the feet and float on the top of the 
water. After the oil has been cooked out of the feet, 
they should be skimmed out of the kettle. The oil 
should then be treated with our Lard Purifier, the 
same way as directed for treating Lard. Simply let 
the water and fat cool down to 200 degrees Fahren- 
heit or below, and to every 100 lbs. of oil add about 
four ounces of our Lard Purifier dissolved in a quart 
of water. Stir the water, Lard Purifier and Neat 's 
Foot Oil thoroughly, and then start up the fire and 
bring it to a boil. Skim off any foam and impurities 
that may come to the surface and then stop the fire 
and allow it to settle about two hours; then skim the 
oil off of the top of the water and you will have genuine, 
sweet and refined Neat's Foot Oil. 



1~2 



■ 



CHICADD. U.S..A. 



KILUNGJNTHEJAI 




KILLING ON THE FARM. 

Very often butchers in the smaller towns find it 
convenient to slaughter live stock in the country 
where it is purchased. In order to meet such cases 
we submit the following directions for slaughtering 
cattle, hogs and sheep, and no doubt they will be found 
useful and suggestive. 

It is absolutely necessary that only healthy animals 
shall be slaughtered for food. It is not so important 
that stock should be fat, although no one can expect 
the best results from lean animals, but as there is a 
demand for all grades of meat, condition is not so ex- 
acting as health. 

In the case of injured animals, crushed ribs, broken 
limbs, etc., the flesh is not good, for food unless the 
stock has been slaughtered immediately upon receiv- 
ing the injuries. 

AGE FOR KILLING. 

It is a well known fact that the meat of old animals 
is tougher than that of young ones. The flesh of 
young animals frequently lacks flavor and is not solid. 
An old animal in proper condition and good health 
is preferable as food to a younger one in poorer con- 
dition. 

Cattle if properly fed are fit for beef at 12 to 24 
months, although the meat from these animals often 
lacks flavor, especially if they have not been well 
fed. The best meat is from aged steers 30 to 40 
months old. A calf should not be slaughtered under 
four weeks and is not at its best until about eight 
weeks of age. There is a law in many States con- 
fiscating veal offered on the market under six weeks 
of age. 

173 



B. TrL E LLE RScCD. 



Pigs may be used after six weeks but the most 
profitable age at which to slaughter hogs is between 
eight months and one year. 

Sheep may be used at from 3 to 4 months of age; 
but are at their best from eight to twelve months. 

PREPARING FOR SLAUGHTER. 

Experience dictates that an animal intended for 
slaughter should be kept from eating for twenty-four 
to thirty-six hours before killing. If kept on full feed 
the system is gorged and the blood, loaded with as- 
similated nutrients, is pumped to the extremities of 
the capillaries. It is impossible to thoroughly drain 
the blood from the veins when the animal is bled, 
and the result will be a reddish-colored, unattractive 
carcass. Again, food in the stomach decomposes very 
rapidly after the animal is slaughtered. Where the 
dressing is slow, as it must be on the farm, the gases 
generated from the stomach often- flavor the meat. It 
is well to give water freely up to the time of slaughter 
as it aids in • keeping the temperature normal and 
helps in cleaning out the system, resulting in a nicer 
colored carcass. 

It is but natural that the condition of animals prior 
to slaughter should have a positive effect on the keep- 
ing qualities of the meat. There should be no excite- 
ment sufficient to raise the temperature of the body. 
Excitement creates fever, prevents proper drainage of 
the blood vessels, and, if intense, will cause souring 
of the meat very soon after dressing. No animal 
should be killed after a long drive or rapid run about 
the pasture. It is always better in such cases to per- 
mit the animal to rest over night rather than to risk 
spoiling the meat. The flesh of an animal that has 
been overheated and then killed is usually of a dark 
color and frequently develops a sour odor within a few 
hours after dressing. Bruises cause blood to settle in 
the affected portions of the body, often causing loss 
of a considerable part of the carcass. A 24-hour fast, 
ample water, careful handling and rest are necessary 
in order that the meat may be in the best condition 
for immediate use or curing. 

174 



CHICADD, U. S.A. 



KILLING AND DRESSING CATTLE. 

The first step in killing is to secure the animal 
so that, in no emergency, it can eseape. Use a rope 
one inch in diameter, r'ut a slip noose in one end 
with a knot just far enough from the noose to prevent 
choking when drawn tight, but it should at the same 
time allow the noose to draw tight enough so that 
there is no danger of escape, in the event of the rope 
becoming slack. If the animal has horns, pass the 
noose over the head, back of the ear and horn on the 
right side, but in front of the horn on the left side 
of the head. This operation leaves the full face of the 
animal bare and does not tighten on the throat. When 
a dehorned or polled animal is to be slaughtered it 

will of course be neces- 
sary to put the noose 
around the neck. At- 
tach an ordinary pulley 
to a post or tree close 
to the ground, to the barn 
floor or sill, pass the 
rope through it and draw 
the animal's head down 
as close to the pulley as 
possible. 

Administer a heavy 

blow in the center of 

the forehead at a point 

where lines from the 

base of the horns to the 

eyes would cross. Shoot- Fig. 2— Beef : Illustrating method 

of securing to stun. Intersection of 
dotted lines show place to strike. 

ing has the same effect as stunning and may be resorted 

to. Frequently where an animal can not be brought 

to the pulley it is necessary to shoot. In shooting 

use only a rifle of good caliber. 

Bleed the animal immediately by sticking just in 
front of the breast bone as shown in Fig. 3. Stand 
in front of the animal with back toward the body 
after the manner of a horseshoer. Beaching down be- 
tween the front feet, lay open the skin from breast- 
bone toward the chin for a distance of 10 to 12 inches, 
using the ordinary skinning knife. Insert the knife 




175 



B.HE 



^S 



BcCQ 



with the back against the breastbone and the tip 
pointing to the spinal column at the top of the should- 
ers, eutting just under the windpipe and about 5 to 
6 inches in depth at the junction of the jugular vein 
near the collar bone; at this point if the vein is severed 
the blood will run out rapidly. If stuck too deep, the 
pleura will be punctured and blood will flow in the 
chest cavity, causing a bloody carcass. It requires 
practice to become expert in the sticking of beef. Not 
so much skill is required to simply cut the animal's 
throat back of the jaws but the time required for 
bleeding is very much longer and the bleeding less 
thorough. 



SKINNING AND CUTTING. 

Begin skinning at once while the carcass is lying on 
its side by splitting the skin through the face from the 
head to the nose as shown in Fig. 4. Skin the face 
back over the eyes on both sides and down over the 
cheeks, cutting around the base of the horns so 
as to leave the ears on the hide. Split the skin 
down the throat to meet the cut made in bleed- 
ing. Start the skin in 
slightly on the sides of the 
neck and down to the jaws. 
Now remove the head by 
cutting just back of the 
jaws toward the depression 
back of the head as shown 
in Fig. 5. The atlas joint 
will be found at this point 
'and may be easily un- 
jointed with the knife. 
At this point the carcass 
Fig. 3-Beef : Place to stick and should be rolled on its 
manner of sticking. back and held in position 

by a small, strong stick, 
say 18 inches long, with a 
sharp spike in both ends. Insert one end in the bris- 
ket and the other in the floor or ground. This will 
hold the carcass in position. Then split the skin over 
the back of the four legs from between the dew-claws 
to a point three or four inches above the knees. Skin 
around the shin and knee, unjointing the knee at the 
lowest joint as seen in Fig. 6 and skin clear down to 
the hoof. 




176 



iigaHi 



. TU. S. A. 




The brisket and fore- 
arms should not be 
skinned until after the 
carcass is hung up. Now 
cut across the cord over 
the hind shin, splitting 
the skin from the dew- 
claws to the hock up 
over the rear part of the 

thigh to a point from 
j} j. • • i r, i F ■£• 4— Beef : Skinning- the face 

four to six inches back illustrating manner of starting 
of the cod or udder. Skin the hock and shin, remov- 
ing the leg as shown in Fig. 7. In splitting the skin 
over the thigh turn the knife down flat with the edge 
upward to avoid the cutting of flesh. While the hind 
leg is stretched ahead it is skinned down over the 

rear of the lower thigh 
but do not skin the out- 
side of the thigh until 
the hind-quarters are 
raised. After the legs 
are skinned split the 
skin of the carcass over 
the midline from the 
breast to the rectum. 

Now begin at the flanks 
Fig. 5— Beef : Removing the head, and skin along the mid- 
line until the side is nicely started. With a sharp knife 
held flat against the 
surface have the hide 
stretched tightly and re- 
move the skin down over 
the sides with steady 
down - strokes of the 
knife, as shown in Fig. 
8. But it is neces- 
sary that the hide should 
be stretched tightly and 
without wrinkles. Care 
should be taken to leave 
a covering of muscles 

over the abdomen of the Fig. 6— Beef : Showing manner of 
carcass as it keeps it unjoining fore leg and skinning 

better. In siding the shank " 

beef, it is usual to go down nearly to the back bone, 

177 





Jul. rr JzLi 



ScCQ 




leaving the skin attached at thighs and shoulders; skin 

over the buttock and as far down on the rump as 

possible, always avoiding cutting the flesh or tearing 

the membrane over it. A coarse cloth and a pail of 

hot water should be at hand while skinning and blood 

spots wiped quickly from 

the surface, but the cloth 

should be nearly dry, as 

the less water used the 

better. Open the carcass 

at the belly and pull the 

small intestines out at 

one side. Use a saw or 

sharp ax in opening the 

brisket and pelvis. After 

raising the windpipe and 

belly and cutting loose 

the pleura and diaphragm 

along the lower part of 

the cavity, the carcass 

will be ready to raise. 

Fig. 9 shows the car- 
cass ready for raising, 
and Fig. 11 shows the block and tackle rigging attached 
to the carcass about to be raised. 

When the carcass is raised te a convenient height, 
skin the hide over the thigh, rump and hips. While 
in this position, it is well to loosen the rectum and 
small intestines and allow them to drop down over the 

paunch. The fat lin- 
ing, the pelvis and 
the kidney fat should 
not be disturbed nor 
mutilated. The intes- 
tines may be separat- 
ed from the liver to 
which they are at- 
tached by the use of 
a knife. The paunch 
is attached to the 
back at the left side 
and may be torn 
loose. Let it roll on 

Fig. 8— Beef: Siding: down;" .-.^ ___,,„ j „„j „„* 

knife held flat against the tightly the ground and cut 

stretched skin. off or draw off the 



Fig. 7— Beef: Unjointing 
the hind leg. 




178 



CHI CACrCD. XJ. S. A. 



gullet. The carcass at this point is shown in Fig. 11. 
Now raise the carcass a little higher and take out the 
liver, having first removed the gall bladder. Now re- 
move the diaphragm, lungs, the heart, and finish skin- 
ning over the shoulders, forearms and neck, as shown 
in Fig. 12. Sponge all the dirt and blood off with a 
cloth, split the car- 
cass in halves, using 
a saw, cleaver or 
sharp ax, wash out 
the inside of the 
chest cavity and wipe 
it dry. 

Trim off all bloody 
veins and scraggy 
pieces of the neck and leave the beef to cool before 
quartering. 




Fig. 9— Beef: Ready to raise : 
Breast, forearms and neck, left 
covered to protect the meat 
until the carcass is raised. 




Fig. 11— Beef : Removing paunch and intestines. 
179 



B. H E LLE R. Sc CZ □. 




Fig-. 12— Beef: Skinning 
shoulders and forearms. 




13. — Beef raised out of the 
way of animals to cool. 



Fig. 13 shows the finished carcass hanging high up 
and cooling. 



180 



CHICADD. LJ. S.^L. 




Fig. 14— Manner of Sticking a 
Sheep. 



KILLING AND DRESSING MUTTON. 

If the sheep is an old one, it should be stunned. If 
a young one, dislocating the neck after cutting the 
throat serves the 
same purpose. This is 
accomplished by plac- 
ing one hand on top 
of the head, the other 
under the chin, and 
twisting sharply up- 
ward. Lay the sheep 
on its side on a plat- 
form, with its head 
hanging over the end. 
Grasp the chin in the 
left hand and stick 
the knife through the 
neck back of the jaw, 
turning the cutting 

edge of the knife toward the spinal column and cut the 
flesh to the bone. By so doing it is impossible to cut 
the windpipe. (See Fig. 14.) 

Split the skin over the back of the front leg from 
the dewclaws a little above the knee. (See Fig. 15.) 
Open the skin over the windpipe from breast to chin, 

starting in slightly 

on the sides of the 

neck. Split the skin 

over the back of the 

hind leg through the 

middle line and skin 

the buttock. Eaise 

the skin over the 

udder or cod and 

flanks. Skin around 

the hocks and down 

to the hoofs, cutting 

off the feet at the toe 

joints. Kun the knife 

Fig is— 'Xegging out" a sheep. between the eord and 

bone on back of the chin and tie the legs together just 

above the pastern joint. Do not skin the legs above 

the hock until the carcass is hung up. 




181 



B.HE 






ScCQ 




Fig. 16— Fisting off 
the Pelt. 



Hang the sheep up by the hind legs, split the skin 
over the middle line; start at the brisket and "fist 
off" the skin. This is done by grasping the edge of the 
pelt firmly in one hand, pulling it up 
tight and working the other with the 
fist closed between the pelt and the 
body, over the fore-quarters down- 
ward and upward and backward 
over the hind-quarters and legs. It 
is unwise to work down on the skin 
over the hind legs, as it would 
rupture the membrane. The wool 
should always be held away from 
the flesh as a matter of cleanliness, 
and the skin on the legs should be 
pulled away from the carcass rather 
than toward it. When the pelt has 
been loosened over sides and back, 
it should be stripped down over the 
neck and cut off close to the ears. 
Eemove the head without skinning by cutting through 
the atlas joint. 

GUTTING. 

Eemove the entrails by cutting around the rectum 
and allowing it to drop down inside, but do not split 
the pelvis. Open down the belly line from cod or 
udder to breast bone; 
take out the paunch 
and intestines, leav- 
ing the liver attached 
to the diaphragm. It 
is not best to split 
the breast. Eeach up 
in the pelvis and pull 
out the bladder. Wipe 
all blood and dirt 
from the carcass with 
a coarse eloth wrung 
dry from hot water. 
Double up the front 
legs and slip the little 
cord found by cutting 
into the fleshy part of 
the forearms into the 
ankle joints. 




Fig 17.— Removing the intestines 
of sheep. 



182 



1 B^* ^ JijJ!j K rT lg l M ] 



U. S.J=L. 



KILLING AND DRESSING HOGS. 

A good sticking knife, hog hook, scrapers, a barrel 
or a trough for scalding, and a convenient place for 
working are the important necessities. Set the barrel 
at the proper slant with the open end against a table 
or platform of the proper height, with the bottom 
securely fastened; a 
strong tackle built 
for the purpose is de- 
sirable, but not nec- 
essary. Hogs should 
not be excited or 
heated, and in catch- 
ing and throwing 
them bruising must be 
avoided. However, it 
is not necessary to 
stun hogs before 
sticking them. At 
slaughter houses they 
are usually hung up 
by one hind *eg. If 

there is no hoisting appliances, lay tne 
hog on its back and hold it there until 
stuck. Two men can handle a hog if 
they will but work with intelligence. 
By reaching under the animal, one at 
the fore leg and the other at the hind 
leg, they can turn a heavy hog on its 
back easily. One man, standing astride 
the bodv, with his feet close against the 
side and holding its front feet, can con- 
trol it while the other does the sticking. 




Fig. 18.— Manner of holding and 
sticking a hog. 




Fig, 19.— Scalding a hog. Note 
arrangement. 



183 



B.HELLER,Sc CO. 



The knife should be eight inches long, straight bladed 
and narrow, and stuck into the hog's throat just in 
front of the breast bone, the point directed toward the 
root of the tail and held in line with the back bone. 
This is necessary to prevent cutting between the ribs 
and the shoulders, which would cause the blood to 
settle there with waste in trimming of the shoulder. 
When the knife has been stuck in six or eight inches, 
according to the size of the hog, turn the knife quickly 
to one side and withdraw it. The arteries that are to 
be cut run close together just inside of the breast 
bone and both are cut when the knife is turned, pro- 
viding the edges are sharp at the point. 

The water for scalding when heated in the house 
should be boiling when removed from the stove. If put 
into a cold barrel it will be about the right temperature 
when the hog is ready for scalding. During the scald- 
ing process the water should be about 185 to 195 de- 
grees, if the scalding tub holds only enough water to 
scald one hog. Water at 150 degrees will^ scald a hog, 
but, of course, more time is required. In large packing 
houses where a large tub is used and steam is con- 
tinually blowing into the water, the water is kept at 
150 degrees. Too hot water is likely to cause more 
trouble than too cold, and for this reason it is always 
best to have a thermometer at hand. Of course, the 
temperature may be reduced by putting in a little cold 
water. A hog should not be scalded before it is dead 
©r the blood in the small blood vessels near the surface 
of the skin will cook and give a reddish tinge to the 
carcass. 

To make the hair easy to remove and to cleanse the 
skin of the hog and free it from all the greasy filth which 
forms a scurf on the skin of all hogs, our Bog-Scald 
should always be used. Hogs scalded with the aid of 
Hog-Scald do not require so much heat to loosen the 
hair, it requires much less labor to clean them, and 

184 



DHICADaU.S.A. 



the dressed hogs will look much nicer and the rinds 
will cure and smoke nicer than when it is not used. 
No Farmer or Butcher will dress his hogs without Hog- 
Scald after giving it a trial. For description and 
price list on Hog-Scald, see page 272. 

While being scalded 
the carcass should be 
kept moving constantly 
to avoid cooking the 
skin. While scalding, the 
hog should occasionally 
be drawn out of the 
water for air, when the 
hair may be tried. When 
both hair and scurf slip 
easily from the skin, 
scalding is completed. 
Remove the carcass from 
the water and begin 
scraping. The head and 
feet should be cleaned 
first, as they do not 
clean easily when cold. 
Use a ' ' candlestick ' ' 
scraper on the head. Use 
the hands and a knife if 
you haven't this tool. 
The feet and legs are 
easily cleaned by grasp- 
ing them firmly with the 

hands and twisting them around and back; pull the 
little bristles of the body by hand and remove the 
scurf and fine hair with the scraper, long corn knife 
or other tool. Wash the entire carcass with hot water 
and shave it with a sharp knife. Insert a stick under 
the gambrel cords and hang up the hog. 

Wash down with hot water, shave patches and rinse 
with cold water. Occasionally the hog is too large to 
scald in a barrel. Cover it thickly with blankets or 
sacks containing a little bran, pour hot water over it 
and the hair will be readily loosened. 




Fig. 20.— A convenient way of 
hanging up a hog. 



185 



_tzj. x~i Jozl 



ScCQ 



GUTTING HOGS. 

Split the hog between the hind legs, separating the 
bones with a knife. Run the knife down over the 
belly line, guiding it with the right hand and shielding 
the point with the fingers of the left hand and thus 
avoid the danger of cutting the intestines. Split the 
breast-bone with a knife or an ax and cut down 
through the sticking place to the chin. Cut around 
the rectum and pull down until the kidneys are 
reached, using a knife whenever necessary to sever 
the cords attached to the back. Do not disturb the 
kidneys or the fat covering them, excepting in warm 

weather, when the leaf 
may be removed to allow 
quicker and more thor- 
ough cooling. Remove 
the paunch and the in- 
testines. The gall blad- 
der lies in plain sight 
on the liver, and it lies 
attached to the dia- 
phragm and h y p a t i c 
vein. It should be 
stripped off after start- 
ing the upper end with a 
knife. Avoid spilling 
the contents on the 
meat. Insert the fingers 
under the liver and strip 
it out. Cut across the 
artery, running down the 
backbone, and cut 
around the diaphragm, 
removing them with the 
pluck, that is, heart, 
lungs, liver and gullet. 
Open the jaw and insert 
a small block to allow free drainage. Wash out all 
blood with cold water, and dry with a coarse cloth. 
In hot weather the backbone should be split to facili- 
tate cooling. The fat should be removed from the in- 
testines before they get cold. It is strong in flavor 
and should not be mixed with the leaf lard in render- 
ing. 




Gutting the Hog 



186 



CHICAGO U. S.A 



CLEANING CASINGS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 



CLEANIN 
CASINGS 



Those who undertake 
to clean casings have 
great trouble in getting 
them white and many re- 
sort to lime and other 
methods for both bleach- 
ing them and freeing 
them of fat. Notwith- 
standing all such efforts, 
the casings remain dark 
and unattractive. The 
reason for much of this 
difficulty lies in the fact 
that the casings are not 
properly washed and 
cleaned in the fir^t op- 
eration. Casings should 
be washed thoroughly in three different changes of 
water. The fat should then be scraped off from the 
outside. Water must also be run through the casings 
and they should be turned inside out so that they 
may become thoroughly washed and cleaned. After 
casings have been perfectly washed and scraped in 
this manner, they should be dry-salted by packing 
them in a liberal quantity of salt. Casings thus cured 
will remain sweet and white. 




HANDLING HIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The proper handling of the hides of slaughtered ani- 
mals, so as to obtain the best possible prices for them 
and avoiding excessive shrinkage before they are mar- 
keted, is a very important matter and should have the 
Butcher's careful attention. 

In the first place, it should be borne in mind that it 
is an easy matter to badly damage the hide of an 
animal before killing by prodding it with a pole. This 
of course should always be avoided. 

The killing floor should be kept as clean as possible. 
If there is blood on the floor and this gets on the hair 
and remains there, when the hides are stacked up thia 



187 



B. HE E LLE RScCD. 



blood comes in contact with the fleshy side of the hide 
next to it and will make a spot which gives the hide 
a very bad appearance. By keeping the hides entirely 
free from blood, they make a better appearance and 
bring a better price. 

The greatest care should be~ given to the removal of 
the hide, so they are not scored, as this greatly reduces 
the value of the hides to the tanner. A good, careful 
skinner is worth several dollars a week more to the 
Butcher who kills many animals than a skinner who is 
careless in his work. (The hide should be so nicely 
removed from the animal that when it comes to the 
taDner it should look like it had been planed from the 
'animal, it should be so so free from cuts or scores.) 

PROPER STORAGE OF HIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

This is a point of very great importance. If many 
hides are kept on hand for any length of time before 
shipment, the difference in shrinkage between hides 
which are properly kept and those which are not so 
stored is very great. The careful storing and handling 
of hides will always repay the time and trouble neces- 
sary, not only in the weight of the hides, but in the 
condition in which they are marketed. 

Hides should be kept in as cool a room as possible 
and all windows and doors should be kept closed, so as 
to have no circulation of air. 

SALT TO USE IN SALTING HIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

The best salt to use for this purpose is Crushed 
Eock Salt. Large lumps of salt are objectionable, en 
account of leaving indentations in the hides where 
they are pressed together, which injures their appear- 
ance in the eyes of the buyer. 

One part of Fine Salt to three parts of Crushed Eock 
Salt makes a fine mixture for salting hides, as the fine 
salt quickly dissolves and makes a moisture on the 
hide, which the hide absorbs. 

When re-using old salt for salting hides, always add 
about one-third of new salt to it, as this gives much 
better results. About one-third of the salt used is con- 
sumed in salting hides, so by adding one-third addi- 

188 



CHICAGD. TU. S.A. 



tional of fresh salt each time, the supply of salt is 
kept the same. Always keep the salt as clean as 
possible. If there is much dirt or manure in it these 
will discolor the hides and they will not make as good 
a showing to the buyer. 

QUANTITY OF SALT TO USE ON HIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
In large Packing Houses about 35 lbs. of salt is used 
for each hide. The Packers find that by using this 
quantity they get better results than if a smaller quan- 
tity is used. Very few Butchers in the country use as 
much salt as this on their hides, but they would find 
it greatly to their advantage to use about 100 lbs. of 
salt to every three hides, and if the proper quantity of 
salt is used, as described in the foregoing, it can be 
used over and over again with a loss of about one- 
third for each time used. It is much better for the 
Butcher to invest more money in salt and give the 
hides a proper amount, as he will thus save on the 
excessive shrinkage of the hides, which would amount 
to more than the cost of the salt. 

HOW TO STACK HIDES WHEN SALTING. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 
One of the most important features in salting hides 
is the way they are stacked when salted. The hides 
must be so piled that they are perfectly level and the 
salt must be distributed over every part of the hide. 
The flesh side should be up, and the salt should be 
rubbed over them evenly. The hides can be piled 
about two feet high. The legs of the hide should be 
kept straight and flat, so the salt gets into all crevices. | 
The edges of the stack of hides should be kept a trifle 
higher all around than the center of the stack, so the 
natural moisture that comes out of the hide and the 
dry salt will remain on them. If the hides are salted 
on a slanting floor, or if the hides are piled up care- 
lessly so the hides lie slanting, the brine composed of 
moisture of the green hide and the salt will run off 
and then the percentage of loss from shrinkage will be 
large. 



B.HELLER Be CO. 



HOW LONG TO CURE HIDES. 

Sides should 1 1 < ^ in fclie pack and suit for 25 vo 30 
days, so as to be fully cured and ready for shipment: 



be 



TRIMMING OF GREEN HIDES. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Before the hides arc salted the switches should 
cut off of the tail and all loose, ends of the hide should 
be cut off. The butt of the ears should also bo split; 
if the hides go into the pack without attention to this 
point, if makes the pack very uneven on account of 
the thickness of the ear, and the salt does not have 
a chance to properly penetrate the ears, and they are 
Liable to spoil. Loose pieces of meat that are eare- 
Lessly Left on the hides and all excessive fat should be 

trimmed off. Hides must, not be salted until five hours 
or longer after the animal is killed, and they must not 
be piled closely, as this would prevent the animal beat 
from escaping, If hides are sailed with the animal 
heat in them, very often the hair will slip, which will 

make No. 2 hides. 

SALTING SWITCHES. 

Switches should bo spread out on the floor so they 
will thoroughly cool off. After they are thoroughly 
cool, they can be piled into a heap and salt applied so 
they are entirely covered. The more salt put over 

them the better, :is they spoil very easily. 

TANNING SKINS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Butchers can easily 
tan the skins of Sheep, 

(louts, Cattle and Calves 
with Tanaline, and they 
can often pick up fine 
skins of wild animals, 
which can also be easily 
tunned. By tanning the 
fancy skins that the 
C~ Butcher frequently can 
~ get, he can sell them for 

190 




CHIC AC-CD. u. 



m 



three or lour times as much as ho would realize when 
sold to the Hide Duycr. 

DIRECTIONS FOR TANNING SKINS. 

First: — After vv o i ; * 1 1 i 1 1 ; * the skins, soak them in plain 
cold water; fresh or Halted skins for 2A hours, and air dried 
skins for at least AH hours. Then serapo off all the fat 
with a dull instrument, such as a putty knife or sharp 
oieoe of hard wood. Then wash thoroughly, with cold 
water, hoth sides of the skin. 

Second:— Use, for every 30 pounds of skins, a 2 pound 
package of Tanaline and A pounds of salt. Dissolve; 2 
pounds of Tanaline and A pounds of salt in f> to (J gallons 
Of cold water, and when thoroughly dissolved, place the 
skins into it. Have sufficient water so thai all I he skins 
arc entirely covered. Tan small, thin skins in this solu- 
tion for 24 hours, (ioat, sheep, calf and elog skins should 
he allowed to fan from two to throe days, according to 
their thickness. Cattle or horse skins, or skins of a simi- 
lar nature, require one week in this solution to properly 
Ian them. During the tanning process remove; the skins 
and replace I hem in tin; same solution twice a day, so I hat 
the solution gels over all parts of the skins uniformly. 
After tanning, drain off all Iho solution that can easily he 
drained off, and spread the skins out with the flesh side 
up, away from tin; sun. 

Third: Make a heavy flour paste;; thin enough to spread 
easily. Now cover the entire; fle:sh siele; e>f the; skin with a 
thin layer Cahoul one e;ighth inch) of this paste:. Let the 
skins and flour paste; dry for two le> four elays, aceordin; 1 , 
to the weather. The paste; will ahsorh the; moisture out of 
the; skins and softem them. 

fourth: When the: skins he;e;ome dry, we>rk them se> thai 
the paste is shaken off. If the: skins have heen alle)we:el 
to dry too long, Ihey will he; too hard to we>rk, and lhe:y 
should he: softeaiod hy sprinkling some; elampe;ne:el Hawelust 
Over the skins and leaving it e>n them e>ve;r night. The 
skins should next he: Moftcncd and we>rke;el hy pulling them 
over the: e:elge, of a tahle or he)x, until soft and plinhle;. 

101 



B. H E LLERSc CZ O. 



POLISHING HORNS. 

(Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden.) 

If the horns are rough, 
first take a file and file 
through the rough horn, 
down to the solid horn, 
and file the horn into 
proper shape, smoothing 
the tip and shaping the 
large end to suit the 
fancy. After they have 
been filed, take sand 
paper and rub the horn 
with the sand paper un- 
til it is nice and smooth, 
then finish the rubbing 
with very fine sand pa- 
per, so as to take out all 
the scratches. After it 
has been sand papered, 
take a piece of glass and 
scrape it until very 
smooth. Polish by rub- 
bing with powdered rot- 
ten stone and machine 
oil. The polishing must 
be done with the palm of the hand, and the horn 
should be rubbed until beautifully polished. 




WHY DRIED BEEF DOES NOT THOR- 
OUGHLY DRY. 

Query. — R. B. writes: "We are having trouble with our 
Dried Beef. It doesn't seem to dry out. We have it 
hanging in the cooler." 

Ans. — Your beef doesn 't dry out because you keep 

it in the cooler. In order to dry beef, it is necessary 

to hang it in a dry room. You can hang it right out 

in the market for that matter and there it will dry 

rapidly, in fact, it will dry too quickly so that it will 

become hard. Drief Beef will dry some in the smoke 

house, but not sufficiently. We send you a copy of our 

book, "Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making," 

which will give you full particulars in reference to this 

entire subject. 



192 



CHICACD, TU. S.A. 



BULL-MEAT PREFERABLE FOR SAUSAGE. 

Query. — Z. & R. write: There is a prevailing notion 
among local butchers that bull meat possesses qualities 
which make it superior to first-class steer or cow meat for 
making bologna and weiners. Is this not an erroneous 
idea? How can bologna and weiners be prevented from 
turning dark and shrinking within a few days after mak- 
ing if exposed to the air? 

Ans: — The opinion of your local butcher is correct as 
far as it concerns bull meat as the best meat for bologna 
and wienerwurst. The reason for this is that bull meat 
contains a great deal of gelatine in various forms and far 
more than even the meat of either steer or cow. If you 
take the bull meat and chop it up, you will find that it is 
sticky and binds together, while if you take meat from an 
aged cow and chop it up it will not bind together, is 
mushy and soft to the touch, and when cooked frequently 
crumbles and falls apart. 

In answering your next question, we can say that the 
probable cause in most cases why sausage dries up, shriv- 
els up, shrinks or turns dark within a short time after be- 
ing made is because it was not properly handled. It is 
also possible that these effects of which you complain were 
due to causes produced by the way you salted your meat 
or what you salted it with. If you will follow our instruc- 
tions on Bologna making given in our book "Secrets of 
Meat Curing and Sausage Making," you should have no 
further trouble. The book is sent free. 

HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BAROMETER 

Question . — J. K. writes: Can you tell me how a Barom- 
eter can he, made with paper that tells what the weather 
is going to be? 

Answer. — Paper barometers are made by impreg- 
nating white blotting paper in the following liquid, 
and then hanging up to dry: 

Cobalt Chloride 1 oz. 

Sodium Chloride V2 oz. 

Acacia Vt oz. 

Calcium Chloride 75 gr. 

Water 3 fl. oz. 

The amount of moisture in the atmosphere is indi- 
cated by the following colors: 

Rose Red Rain 

Pale Red Very Moist 

Bluish Red Moist 

Lavender Blue Nearly Dry 

Blue Very Dry 

193 



B.HELLERSt CO. 



^S 



SOUR SAUSAGE 

Question. — B. d W. write: We have been using your 
Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour through all of last winter, and * t 
found it satisfactory in every way. We have been using 
also your Freeze-Em Pickle. Since hot weather began our 
sausage has soured. We have lost over 100 lbs. of sausage 
through its souring. Can you tell us what is the probable 
cause of our sausage becoming sourt 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Answer. — We will say that the cause of your sau- * 
sage souring may be due to several things. Either 
your grinder has become dull, causing the meat you 
run through it to heat in the grinding, or it may be 
due to the fact that the meat was not cold enough 
to prevent it from heating while being ground. 

Another cause for trouble of this kind is in the 
mixing machine. In mixing meat too much, a con- 
siderable quantity of air is forced into the meat, 
which will often cause it to sour during the warm 
seasons of the year. During hot weather it is ad- 
visable to grind a small quantity of ice with the 
meat to keep it cold. 

We also advise the use of our "A" Condimentine 
preparation. This is a very useful product for keep- 
ing in condition all fresh sausage. It is entirely 
harmless, containing no substances injurious to health. 
Complies with all pure food laws. 

We are quite positive that you are souring your 
meat in the grinding, or in the mixing. Please let 
us know if you have a mixing machine, or whether 
you mix your meat by hand. If you have no mixing 
machine you are souring your meat while grinding it. 
You should mix ice with your meat before grinding it. 
Grind the meat and the ice together, and use "A" 
Condimentine. Your troubles will then disappear. 

194 



CHICAGO, U. S.JFL. 



SPICED BEEF 

Question. — W. C. K. writes: I was very much inter- 
ested in your magazine "Success With Meat," and wish 
you would send me a formula for the making and curing 
of Hyiced Rounds of Fresh Beef. In our city we have a 
great demand for spiced beef and I want the very best 
formula obtainable, which I know you can furnish me. 
I have used Freeze-Em-Pickle for a good many years and 
always get splendid results from its use. 

Answer. — We are very glad that you like "Success 
With Meat," and are pleased to learn you have ob- 
t.ai/ied such uniformly good results with Freeze- 
Em-Pickle. 

To make rolled spiced beef take 100 lbs. of bone- 
less beef plates and cure them in brine made as 
follows : 

5 gallons of cold water. 

5 lbs. of common salt. 

1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

2 lbs. of granulated cane sugar. 

6 to 8 ounces Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Season- 
ing. 

Cure the plates in this brine 10 to 20 days in a 
cooler. The temperature should not be higher than 
42 to 44 degrees Fahr., but a temperature of 38 to 
40 degrees is better for curing purposes. 

The Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning gives 
a delightful flavor to the brine. After the meat has 
been fully cured in accordance with the above form- 
ula sprinkle some Corned Beef Seasoning on the 
meat; then roll the mea* and tie it tight with a 
heavy string. Some people also like a garlic flavor 
and if desired a small quantity of Vacuum Brand 
Garlic may be added to the brine or sprinkled over 
the meat before it is rolled. Where you want to 
cure rumps or rounds of beef that weigh from 12 
to 25 lbs. each, we advise that you pump them 
just the same as a ham would be pumped with a 
pumping brine made as follows: 

V 2 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle. 

1 lb. of pure granulated sugar. 

2 lbs. of salt. 

1 gallon of water. 

By following the above suggestions carefully you 
should have no trouble in turning out delicious corned 
beef. 

195 



B. I-I E LLE: RScCD. 



SOUR HAMS— HOW TO PREVENT. 






Query. — F. B. writes: "Have you any chemical com- 
pounds that will help us to take care of some sour hamsf 
We have some hams that are just a little sour and thought 
perhaps you would help us in the matter." 

Ans. — We do not prepare anything which would help 
you in the least. The trouble arises from imperfect 
curing and the only time that we could have been of 
help to you would have been when you commenced to 
put the hams in the pickle; we could have then given 
you full instructions for pickling the hams in such a 
way that they could not have soured. In nearly x all 
cases the souring is around the bone. In your case 
it is best to cut out the bone and trim away the sour 
meat. After being thus carefully trimmed, they can 
be rolled, tied and sold for boned hams. You can 
always avoid the danger of sour hams by exercising 
extreme care in properly chilling the meat before cur- 
ing. Most all souring arises from the fact that the 
meat is not chilled through to the bone. If all the 
animal heat is thoroughly removed before curing, the 
hams will come out of the pickle cured all the way 
through. 

If you will follow closely the directions contained 
in our book, '"' Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage 
Making," you will never have trouble with your hams. 
We take great pleasure in sending you a copy of this 
book free of charge. 

FREEZE-EM-PICKLE LEGAL EVERY- 
WHERE. 

Query.— S. O. Co.: You will please send us a 500-lb. barrel of 
Freeze-Em PiekU, if you canlguarantee it to comply with the 
Pure Food Laws. 

Ans. — Shipment of 500 lbs. Freeze-Em-Pickle, which 
you ordered by mail, went forward today. We beg 
to inform you that this product complies with re- 
quirements of all Pure Food Laws and is perfectly 
legal to use everywhere. We know that you will be 
highly pleased with Freeze-Em-Pickle. The Freeze- 
Em-Pickle process of curing meat gives it a uniform 
bright red color and a sweet sugar cured flavor and 
enables it to retain all of its albumen. It also pre- 
vents the meat from drying up and hardening when 
fried or cooked, or from crumbling when sliced up 
after being cooked. It may be used in the brine, or 
it can be sprinkled dry over the meat before it is 
packed for storage. See our directions for using it, 

196 



CHICADD.U.S.A. 



MAKING SOAP FROM RENDERED FAT 

Question. — C. J. B. writes: Can you give me a formula 
for making soap? I have a surplus stock of rendered fat 
that I would like to convert into soap. 

(Copyrighted t>y B. Heller d Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Answer. — We will give a very good formula for 
making soft soap and hard soap. 

To 20 pounds of clear grease or tallow take 17 
pounds of pure white potash. Buy the potash in as 
fine lumps as it can be procured and place it in the 
bottom of the soap barrel, which must be water- 
tight and strongly hooped. Boil the grease and pour 
it boiling hot upon the potash then add two large 
pailfuls of boiling hot water; dissolve 1 pound of 
borax in 2 quarts of boiling hot water and stir all 
together thoroughly. Next morning add 2 pailfuls of 
cold water and stir for half an hour; continue this 
process until a barrel containing 36 gallons is filled. 
Tn a week, or even in less time, it will be ready for 
use. The borax, and also one pound of rosin, can be 
turned into the grease while the grease is boiling. 

Soap made in this manner is a first-rate article, 
and has a good body. The grease must be tried out, 
free from scraps, ham rinds, bones, or any other 
similar kind of matter; then the soap will be as thick 
as jelly, and almost as clear. To make soft soap 
hard put into a kettle four pailfuls of soft soap, 
and stir in it by degrees about one quart of common 
salt. Boil until all the water is separated from the 
curd, remove the kettle from the fire and draw off the 
water with a siphon (a yard or so of rubber hose 
will answer) ; then pour the soap into a wooden form 
in which muslin has been placed. For this purpose 
a wooden box sufficiently large and tight, may be 
employed. When the soap is firm turn out to dry, 
cut into bars with a brass wire and let it harden. 
A little powdered rosin will assist the soap to harden 
and give it a yellow color. This must be added in 
the kettle when the soap is boiled. If the soft soap 
is very tbin, more salt should be added. 

197 



■tt 



B.HELLEFl Sc CD. 



WHY BOLOGNA DRAWS WATER WHEN 
IT IS BOILED 

Question. — J. B. writes: I again write you for informa- 
tion. When I boiled my bologna the meat drew water. I 
added the water the second time I ground the meat. Why 
did the meat draw water while the sausage was being 
boiled? 

I am glad to say that your advice in reply to my last 
letter enabled me to completely overcome the trouble I had 
with my corned beef. I am now using the galvanized iron 
tank as you recommended, and have discarded my old 
corned beef barrel. I will further say that since I began 
using your products, that I am selling three times as much 
sausage as I formerly did. I am greatly pleased with all 
the goods that I have bought from you. 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Answer. — There are three principal reasons for 
meat drawing water while the bologna is heing boiled. 
The first is that you probably "killed" the meat in 
the grinding of it, by your knife not being sharp 
enough, or that your meat soured in the grinding of 
it by the meat not being cold enough. If you desire 
to work in some water while grinding the meat, use 
chipped ice instead of water. The ice will keep the 
meat cool and stiff, and the meat will not quash, or 
mash down. The use of ice will prevent the meat 
from getting warm. 

Another cause for bologna drawing water while be- 
ing boiled is that you have heated the bologna too 
hot while it was in the smokehouse, or you are 
boiling bologna at too high a temperature. Boiling 
bologna at 160 degrees Fahrenheit would hardly spoil 
it, but we recommend boiling bologna at 155 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Possibly you boil the bologna too long. When you 
take your bologna out of the cooking water do you 
pour cold water over them? This also has a bearing 
on the case. Watch carefully all of the above points 
and you will not have any more trouble. Refer to 
our book. 

198 



GHICADQU.S.A. 



OLD BARRELS INFECTED WITH GERMS 
WILL CAUSE ROPY BRINE 

Question. — W. & Sons write: Can you advise us about 
cur corned beef pickle? We made it according to direc- 
tions given in your book, "Secrets of Meat Curing and 
Sausage Making." But our brine gets "ropy" as you call 
I it. We use pure cane sugar. We keep our cooler at 38 to 
! Jfi degrees Fahr., and are at a loss to know what is the 
! cause of our trouble. Please advise us in this matter. 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 
Answer. — Ropy brine can come about even when 

j pure cane sugar is used in curing. This condition 
is caused by germs which develop in the brine and 
cause the brine to thicken. You will find that the 
barrels which contain your brine are infected with 

1 germs. The best way to get rid of these germs is to 
first empty the barrels; then put the barrels into a 
vat and boil them. Also scrub the barrels inside and 
outside. For this purpose they should be rinsed with 
boiling water to which has been added Preeze^Em, 4 
ounces to each gallon, and afterwards a last rinsing 
with our Ozo washing powder, or soda, in the water 
that you use for washing the barrels. After the bar- 
rels are thoroughly washed and rinsed with cold 
water, they should then be put out of doors where 
the sun can shine upon them and in them for several 
days before they are again used and placed in the 
cooler. 

Barrels in which corned beef is cured should be 
made of hardwood. If you are using a syrup barrel 
or a molasses barrel, you will find that the pores of 
the wood have become filled with syrup or molasses, 
which causes the brine to become thick. We think 
this is the cause of your trouble. 

The best barrels to use are tierces that are made 
of oak, such as lard is shipped in by the packers. 
The wood of these tierces becomes saturated or filled 
with lard, and the lard prevents the brine from pene- 
trating or soaking into the wood. Be sure that 
whatever barrels you use are made of hardwood, 
and not of white wood or other soft wood, of which 
many kinds of barrels are made. 

1Q9 



EL-H E LL-E !R. ScCD. 



HOW TO MAKE FERTILIZER FROM 
BEEF BLOOD 

Question. — J. E. P. ivrites: Please tell me how to 
utilize and handle beef blood so as to make fertilizer out 
of it. I am killing from ten to fifteen head of cattle each 
week, and thus have quite a quantity of blood. 
. Answer. — Blood in a packing house is handled as 
follows: It is first drained from the killing floor 
into- vats and when the vats are filled, live steam is 
turned on and the hlood is boiled until congealed. 
It is then put in large powerful presses and all the 
water pressed out, the congealed hlood remaining in 
the press cloth! From the presses it is put through 
a fertilizer dryer and then is known as dried blood. 

Where you only kill 10 to 15 head of cattle a week, 
it would not pay you to dry the blood in this way. A 
very fine fertilizer, however, can be made from the 
blood either for your own use or to sell by boiling 
the blood in a kettle over a fire or else putting it into 
a tank and blowing live steam in it; then separate 
from the water as best you can and mix with black 
earth, spreading it out thin in the sun to dry. The 
boiled blood should be mixed with about its own 
weight in black earth. This makes a wonderful 
fertilizer and ought to bring you many extra dollars. 

ICE VS. ICE MACHINE IN SMALL PLANTS 

Query. — F. S. writes: "I would like to know if an ice 
machine can be had small enough for a retail meat mar- 
ket and would it be profitable to take the place of an ice 
box? If you can do so, please give me this information 
and where I can get the ice machine. Ice here for a 
summer's use will cost about $75." 

Ans. — You state that the cost of ice for the summei 
season in your market would be about $75.00; there- 
fore, it will not pay you to put in an ice machine, as 
the cost of operating such a machine for an ice-box 
would be a great deal more than $75.00 for the season. 
For instance, if you could obtain electric power or a 
gas engine for operating the ice machine, you could 
figure on using at least $7.50 to $10.00 a month for 
power alone. In addition to this, you would have the 
expense of repairs and the wear and tear on the ma- 
chinery, also the cost of ammonia and the interest on 
your investment. For a small plant, it is always cheaper 
to use ice for an ice-box, when it is possible to secure 
the ice at a reasonable figure. 

200 



CHI CA.CO. XJ. S.A. 



WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 
POTATO FLOUR AND BULL-MEAT- 
BRAND FLOUR? 

Query. — C. Pk. Co.: Will you kindly write us what is 
the difference between your Bull-Meat Flour and Potato 
Flour, as we have received several circulars from, you on 
Bull-Meat Flour, and have always been using potato 
flour heretofore, and if you will explain to us the differ- 
ence and if your Bull- Meat Flour is better for us, we will 
be glad to use it. 

Ans.— The difference between Bull-Meat-Brand Flour 
and Potato Flour is this, potato flour is made from pota- 
toes and the absorbing properties of a pound of potato 
flour or potato starch are much less than you would 
imagine. If you will take a gallon of water and put into 
this water one pound of potato flour and let it stand for 
one hour all the Potato Flour will have settled to the 
bottom and you can pour off the gallon of water and then 
weigh the pound of potato flour and you will be surprised 
that it will weigh less than two pounds, it will have taken 
up less than one pound of water. Also make a test by 
putting one pound of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour in a gallon 
of water and you will find that the pound of Bull-Meat- 
Brand Flour will almost have absorbed the entire gallon 
of water. You can easily see by making this test the 
difference in the action of the flours when used in different 
kind of sausage. When Bull-Meat-Brand Flour is used 
it helps to hold the fat and then when the sausage is fried 
it looks different and tastes different than sausage made 
with potato flour. Bull-Meat-Brand Flour absorbs fat 
and juice in the meat and tends to hold it in the meat and 
it does not fry out so readily. If you will try the Bull- 
Meat-Brand Flour and make a test you will prefer it tc 
potato flour. 



201 



Q. H e lle R Sc CD. 



^s 



CAUSE OF BOLOGNA DRAWING WATER 
AND BEING SHORT GRAINED. 

Query. — J. L. B. writes: "Will you kindly answer 
the following questions: First, What is the cause of 
bologna drawing water while being cooked? Second, What 
is the cause of short grain bologna?" 

Ans. — We do not exactly understand your first ques- 
tion and cannot tell whether you mean that moisture 
draws out of the Bologna or whether water draws into 
the Bologna. As a rule, when the Bologna is cooked, 
especially in water that is too hot, it will shrink very 
much, become dry and crumble and break up. This 
effectually answers your second question also. The 
trouble you are experiencing is due to your method of 
making Bologna, which is not exactly right. In the 
first place good Bologna cannot be made without the 
use of a binder like our Bull-Meat-Brand Flour. A 
binder and absorbent of this kind causes the meat to 
hold together. It also makes the juices of the meat 
remain in the Bologna. When Bologna does not prop- 
erly bind, it shrinks up and gets watery inside. This 
is owing to the fact that the meat does not hold 
together properly and the water instead of being ab- 
sorbed right into the meat as it should be, gets be- 
tween the small particles of meat and separates 
inside. This is owing to the fact that the meat does 
not hold together properly and the water, instead of 
being absorbed right into the meat as it should be, 
gets between the small particles of meat and separates 
them. If you will use our Bull-Meat -Brand Flour and 
follow the methods set forth in our book, "Secrets of 
Meat Curing and Sausage Making," you will never 
have any trouble from your Bologna breaking up or 
getting crumbly or watery as you call it. 

CAUSE OF LARD FOAMING WHEN USING 
LARD PURIFIER. 

Query. — W. & Son write: "Will you kindly tell us what, 
in your opinion, accounts for our lard foaming after 
treating it with your B. Heller d Co.'s Lard Purifier when 
placed in the frying pan? Our customers are complaining 
about this feature, although the lard is nice and satisfies 
them in every other respect." 

Ans. — The complaint which your customers make con- 
cerning the foaming and spluttering of the lard is in 
all probability due to the fact that all the water was 
not separated from the lard after treating the laxd, 

202 



CHICADD. T_J. S.J=L. 



"Whenever lard is treated with our Lard Purifier, it 
must be heated hot enough and allowed to stand long 
enough so that all the water separates and settles out 
to the bottom. If this is always done, the lard will not 
splutter when used in the frying pan. 

IMITATION BULL-MEAT-BRAND FLOUR. 

Query. — G. U. writes: "I find that I have been imposed 
upon by a salesman with a binder which is claimed to be 
Bull-Meat Flour. Owing to the fact that I have not been 
able to get satisfactory results from the use of it, I have 
examined the package closely, and find that the labels are 
not the same as yours. I enclose a rough drawing of what 
this label is like and would like to know if the goods 
are of your manufacture. It doesn't act' like your Bull- 
Meat Flour and I have had very poor success with it; in 
fact, so very poor that I have sent it back to the jobbers 
and told them that I could not use it." 

Ans. — You most certainly received an imitation of Bull- 
Meat-Brand Flour. The very fact that the preparation 
you received failed to give satisfaction was, in itself, suffi- 
cient to convince you that you had been imposed upon, as 
Bull-Meat-Brand Flour always produces excellent results. 
Your idea of examining the label is the proper one. Bull- 
Meat-Brand Flour is a Binder and an Absorbent. It has 
its Flavoring Qualities as well as its tendency to Bind 
and Blend the Juices of the Meat, thus absorbing those 
constituents that enables Bull-Meat-Brand Flour to give 
sausage such a Delicious and Superior Flavor. When 
purchasing our goods in the future, we would ask you to 
kindly examine them closely upon their receipt to see that 
you are receiving the Genuine and nothing but the Genu- 
ine. In this way it will not be necessary for you to spoil 
a lot of Sausage in order to find out that you have been 
imposed upon by irresponsible imitators who try to pirate 
our goods. Never use any goods shipped you until you 
have examined them closely to see that the name of 
B. Heller & Co. and no other is upon the label, 



203 



B.HE L3L.E:F2. Sc CO. 



HOW TO CONSTRUCT A MODERN SMOKE 

HOUSE. 

Query. — The S. P. Co. asks: "Would you kindly tell 
us, and we will gladly pay you for the information, how 
to construct a modern, up-to-date smokehouse?" 

Ans. — We will be very glad indeed to tell you all 
about this subject without charging you any fee. We 
are always glad to tell customers or prospective cus- 
tomers how they can profitably conduct their busi- 
ness and make money. As you are located in Cali- 
fornia, where the weather is always warm, the building 
of a smoke house becomes simple, because the smoke 
house will not sweat like it does in a climate where 
the weather gets cold in winter. Here in the Middle 
West, or farther East, it is more difficult to get a good 
color on meats smoked in a smoke house in winter. One 
of the principal points to be considered in laying out 
your plans is to get the proper height, and the higher 
you build your house and the less floor space it occu- 
pies, the better will be your results. An 8x10 or an 
8x12 foot house gives the best results. In this you 
could put an arch about nine or ten feet from the 
ground, and under the arch smoke your fresh sausage 
and above it smoke the meat. In this way the heat 
and smoke used for the sausage would also be utilized 
for smoking the bacon and hams and none would be 
wasted. If you build the way we have indicated be 
sure and put ventilators right above the arch so that 
cold air can be let into the smoke house during the real 
hot weather. If your fire gets too hot, you can feed 
cold air to the interior chamber, and if your smoke 
house is tall you can create a good draught and will 
soon get up a circulation which will cool the air so that 
the meat will not shrink too much. A smoke house 
built for simply two tiers of meat, that is, two rows, is 
better than one built wider. The walls of your smoke 
house can be built either of brick or wood, whichever 
you prefer, brick being the safer of the two. If you 
do not intend to smoke fresh sausage but only bacon 
and hams, it is unnecessary to put in an arch. In that 
case simply construct some iron bars about eight feet 
above the fire and on top of these put a heavy iron 
screen, so in case any hams should fall that they do 
not fall into the fire. Of course, you know that many 
smoke houses catch on fire and burn up, due to not 
having an iron screen above the fire and by meat fall- 
ing directly into the fire. 

204 



, TU. S, A 



PREVENTING PORK SAUSAGE FROM 
SOURING IN WARM WEATHER 

Question. — C. B. A. writes: I make my own sausage, 
using your Bull-Meat-Brand Flour and your Sausage Sea- 
soning. My sausage is good when it is fresh-made, but it 
soon becomes sour in warm weather. What can I do to 
prevent this trouble? 

(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Answer. — The best and easiest way to overcome the 
difficulty you report about your fresh pork sausage 
souring in warm weather is to use our "A" Condi- 
mentine. In making your sausage, for each 100 
pounds of meat add % to 1 pound of Heller's "A" 
Condimentine. This will prevent fresh pork sausage 
from turning gray and souring for from eight to ten 
days, according to the temperature in which the 
sausage is kept. 

"A" Condimentine will keep pork sausage in con- 
dition, so that it may be shipped, if necessary, for a 
considerable distance and still retain its own natural 
color. Your sausage maker will find this method of 
keeping fresh pork sausage from souring for a rea- 
sonable length of time in warm weather of great 
advantage and save you from severe losses. "A" Con- 
dimentine is legal to be used under the National and 
all State Pure Pood Laws. The sausage does not 
have to be labeled to show the presence of "A" Con- 
dimentine. We will be pleased to have you try out. 
our recommendation for retarding fresh pork sausage 
from souring and report to us your success at an 
early date. 

205 



B.HE L.LER. Sc CD. 



IS FREEZE-EM PICKLE LEGAL 
TO USE? 

Query. — W. K. I am a 'butcher and sausage maker, and also 
cure a great many hams and bacon. I have used a good bit of 
ymir Freeze-Em Pickle and am well pleased with it, and I wisli 
to ask if it can be used with safety under the new pure food laws. 
That is, the new state food law. The man I have been getting 
Freeze-Em Pickle from says "Yes" and the State's Attorney says 
''JVo," so I write you and would like to have you explain the 
situation and oblige. 

Ans. — Replying to your recent favor it affords us 
pleasure to advise you that Freeze-Em-Pickle does com- 
ply with, the requirements of your new state food 
law, and that you need have no fears in continuing its 
use. In fact, Freeze-Em-Pickle complies with the re- 
quirements of all the state food laws, as well as with 
the regulations under the National Pure Food Law, and 
it is being used all over the U. S. It is evident that 
the State's Attorney confuses Freeze-Em-Pickle with 
the preservatives which are prohibited under your new 
state law. All antiseptic preservatives, for the pur- 
pose of keeping fresh meat fresh and meat food prod- 
ucts in a fresh condition, are positively prohibited un- 
der your new state food law. Freeze-Em-Pickle does 
not come in this class. The ingredients of which 
Freeze-Em-Pickle is composed have not been ruled 
against by any of the pure food laws. We are pleased 
to hear your praise of Freeze-Em-Pickle, although this 
is the universal report we get when it is properly used. 
We enclose a circular concerning its use, which you 
may not have seen, and this will give you further 
information concerning the manufacture of Bologna 
and Frankfort Sausage, Corned Beef, etc. We also 
enclose circular concerning our Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, 
which is unquestionably the best flour now on the mar- 
ket. This also complies with the pure food law. So 
does our Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound and our Pre- 
pared Sausage Seasoning, and Eed and White Kon- 
servirungs-Salt. We will be pleased to hear from you 
whenever we can be of further service to you. 

206 



C'HIDAQ O, U. S. A. 



ADVICE TO A PACKER WHO WAS 
DECEIVED. 

A r . & W. complain that a firm to whom they gave an 
order for 25 pounds of Freeze-Em Pickle and a barrel of 
Bull-Meat Flour sent them 25 pounds of an inferior sub- 
stitute and a barrel of flour which was an imitation of 
Bull-Meat Flour. The firm states that they did no+ know 
very much about how the label of Freeze-Em Vickie 
looked and, therefore, did not notice the fraud until after 
they had used some of the imitation. They ask what they 
should do about it. 

Arts. — Eeturn the goods to your jobber, even though 

you have used half of them ; inform him that you will 

not pay for the goods on the ground that you did not 

order them, but had ordered B. Heller & Co.'s goods, 

and that you will in future buy your goods from such 

fiims as will send you what you want and order. This 

is a simple remedy for the trouble which you have. 

ADVANTAGES OF STEAM-JACKET 
KETTLE IN RENDERING LARD. 

Query. — C. W. F. asks: Is there any advantage in ren- 
dering lard in a steam-jacket kettle? 

Ans. — There is. Both a caldron and a steam-jacket 
kettle work well. The best lard is made in one or the 
other. A steam tank in which the fat is put, and the 
steam turned right into it, will not produce as good 
lard as either the caldron or the steam-jacket kettle. 
The steam mixes right with the lard and the latter 
therefore contains a large amount of moisture and the 
lard does not keep well. Another disadvantage is that 
water used in the boiler is not always pure. If the 
boiler is not cleaned once a week the water will have 
a bad smell. Steam made from this water and turned 
into lard can not be expected to improve its flavor, 
even though it should not actually harm it. Those 
who kill large numbers of hogs usually have a steam 
tank for making steam rendered lard and a steam- 
jacket kettle for making their finer brands of kettle 
rendered lard. 

207 



B.HE LL-E RScCQ 



SEASONING FOR SAUSAGES. 

Query. — T. 77.: Will you please send me a copy of your 
book, "Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making." I 
have always used the following seasonings in my sausage: 
Pepper, summer savory and sage, and would like to know 
if you can recommend anything to me which will give the 
sausage a better flavor than these spices will. Any in- 
formation you can give me in the seasoning of sausage 
will be very much appreciated. 

Ans. — The Seasonings which you have been using 
are being used by a good many Sausage Makers, but 
a real fine flavored Sausage cannot be made with them. 
If you wish to increase your Sausage trade right along, 
and want to make Sausage that your trade will relish 
and enjoy, you must use the very finest Seasonings ob- 
tainable, as the Seasoning really is the life of the Sau- 
sage. We are manufacturing the Zanzibar Brand Sau- 
sage Seasonings, which we make for all kinds of 
Sausage. These Seasonings are made after secret for- 
mulas which have been in our family for a good many 
years. The flavor that these Seasonings impart to the 
Sausage is something very fine; it must be tasted to 
be appreciated, as we cannot describe in a letter what 
the flavor really is. It is a peculiar combination which 
everyone likes and it is something that will soon in- 
crease your Sausage trade. Zanzibar Brand Sausage 
Seasonings are manufactured from only high grade 
Spices and we guarantee them to be absolutely free 
from any adulteration. We are sending you our cir- 
cular and price list and would be pleased to receive 
your order for any quantity that you may desire, and 
we will say in advance that when you once use them 
you will never again want to make Sausage without 
these Seasonings. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF ZANZIBAR 
CARBON. 



Query. — C. & K. write: "Are you the sole manufacturers 
of Zanzibar Carbon?" 

Ans. — Yes, and we were the first to put a prepara- 
tion of this kind upon the market. 

208 



iHHM-i-1 



u.s. -a. 



QUICKEST WAY TO CURE MEATS. 

Query. — W. & B. write: Our capacity for curing meats 
is limited for the want of room. Can you give us a 
formula or a recipe that will give a good cure in the 
shortest possible time? We would like something that is 
reliable. 

Ans. — Our Book, fC Secrets of Meat Curing and Sau- 
sage Making," will give you all the information in 
reference to curing meats which you may desire. The 
curing period can be greatly shortened by pumping the 
meat. It will also give you a better article. Our book, 
which is mailed to anyone requesting it, free of charge, 
will give you full directions for pumping, and also the 
formula for making the pumping brine. By following 
the instructions which this book contains, you will be 
able to turn out the finest kind of mild cured and sweet 
pickled meats, which will have a delicious flavor and 
a fine color. It will be necessary, however, for you to 
fully carry out our directions in reference to chilling meats 
and overhauling them, also the temperature to be main- 
tained during the curing period. 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FREEZE-EM AND 
FREEZE-EM-PICKLE. 

Query. — L. B.: We have been using some of your 
goods and notice that you speak of Freeze-Em-Pickle for 
curing meats. Is this product the same as Freeze-Em? 
We have been getting our goods from our jobbers, and in 
their catalogue they also speak of Freeze-Em-Pickle. We 
would like one of your books on the secrets of meat cur- 
ing and methods of smoking and curing, as we are young 
in the curing of meats yet and would like all the informa- 
tion possible. 

Ans. — Your letter received and we are pleased 
to note that you have been using some of our goods 
and find them very satisfactory. You say you have 
read of our Freeze-Eni and also our Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, and you would like to know whether they 
are both the same. They are not the same. Before 
the various pure food laws went into effect, we sold 
Freeze-Em as a preservative, also as a disinfectant. 
As so many of the pure food laws objected to the 
use of preservatives, we discontinued selling Freeze- 
Em as a preservative, and now sell and recommend 
it for disinfecting purposes only. 

209 



B.HE LLE F?. Be CZ CD. 



Freeze-Em-Pickle is an entirely different preparation. 
This was placed on the market with a special view to 
supply the butcher with a preparation that will com- 
ply with all food regulations under all food laws. 
Freeze-Em-Pickle is to be used for curing all kinds 
of meat, such as hams, bacon, corned beef, bologna 
trimmings, pork sausage trimmings, and meats of all 
kinds, and it is also excellent for use in chopped beef, 
to keep it in a fresh condition. Freeze-Em-Pickle is not a 
Chemical Preservative. 

DIFFICULTIES WITH CURING BRINE AND 
HOW TO OVERCOME THEM. 

Query. — W. 8. & Co.: We are so situated that we have 
to toil all the water that we use in our brine. After boil- 
ing it we run it into a cooling tank and let it cool. We 
have made some experiments with your Freeze-Em Pickle 
and like it to cure very well, and have decided to adopt 
its use in the curing of all of our meats. Now, what we 
want to know is, can we dissolve the Freeze-Em Pickle 
in the boiling hot water and then cool it and run it 
through coils the same as we do now with the water? 
Would the heat affect the Freeze-Em Pickle? Our vats 
when full hold 6,900 lbs. of medium sized hams. According 
to the size of the kettle and the amount of water to boil at 
one time, it would require 58 pounds of Freeze-Em Pickle. 
What we want to do is this: we do not want to weigh 
the Freeze-Em Pickle for each vat, but simply want to 
make a large quantity of brine and then run the prepared 
brine' on to our hams. We have been using saltpetre and 
tnolasses for our brine and we are having trouble with it 
getting ropy and stringy. Will syrup answer the same as 
molasses or sugar, and is New Orleans molasses the best, 
or should granulated sugar be used entirely? Kindly let 
us know what you consider the best for hams. 

Ans. — First of all, we advise that after the water is 
boiled, that it is allowed to settle and precipitate so 
that all the solids will settle to the bottom of the 
settling tank. It should settle at least 24 hours before 
the solids will have separated and gone to the bot- 
tom. Then the water should be drawn off, but not 
from the bottom of the tank, but at least a foot from 
the bottom. The water that will come off from above 
will be nice and clear. This water should then be run 
into another tank, called the mixing tank, in which the 
sugar, salt and Freeze-Em-Pickle should be dissolved j 

210 



EHICADD. U. S. A. 



this will make the stock brine which can be run down 
into the cellar over cooling pipes, so as to chill it 
properly before it is put on the meat. The reason the 
brine that you are making becomes ropy is that you 
are using the wrong sugar. If you will use absolutely pure 
granulated sugar or absolutely pure syrup made from 
granulated sugar you will have no trouble from ropy 
brine. We strongly advise the use of nothing but absolutely 
pure granulated sugar. We find that it gives the best re- 
sults. It costs a little more than the unrefined product but 
you get less vegetable substance in your brine, and the 
brine will therefore keep much longer. The brine in which 
hams have been cured can be used a second time for cur- 
ing breakfast bacon, and the breakfast bacon will be even 
better than if put into fresh brine. As your vats are large, 
the meat will pack very tight on the bottom, and we wish 
to caution you to be sure and overhaul your meat prompt- 
ly five days after it is packed and continue overhauling as 
per directions in our book on curing meats and making 
sausage. If you follow these directions you will not have 
any ropy brine or any spoiled meat, but all your meat will 
come out uniform and will have the proper flavor. 

TOUGH AND SALTY CORNED BEEF. 

Query. — E. W. G. writes: I have had complaints from 
several large institutions I serve that my corned beef is 
tough and too salty. I would like to know about what 
proportions of salt and saltpetre to use. It is only re- 
cently that I have had these complaints, in fact, I have 
been in the retail business for about ten years and have 
been very successful with my corned beef. 

Ans. — If you will use the following in curing plates, 
rumps, briskets, etc., for corned beef, you will have no 
trouble. Use for 100 lbs. of meat: 

Five pounds of common salt, 1 lb. of Freeze-Em- 
Pickle, 2 lbs. of best granulated sugar, 5 gallons of 
cold water. 

Cure the meat in this brine fifteen to thirty days, 
according to weight and thickness of the pieces. If 
you are taking pieces out of the brine from day to 
day and adding others, you should keep up the strength 

211 



B.HE LLE RStCQ 



^E 



of the pickle to sixty degrees by adding a small quan- 
tity of Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt from time to time 
as you withdraw and replace the meat. One of the 
first essentials to producing first-class corned beef is 
to be careful about the temperature during the curing 
period. An even temperature of 38 degrees Fahrenheit 
is always the best for coolers and for curing meat. If 
maintained at this degree, there will be no trouble from 
taking on too much salt, provided, of course, the meat 
has been properly chilled through before placing it in 
the brine for curing. In order to produce a good cure, 
all the animal heat must be extracted from the meat 
before it is packed, otherwise it will become soft and 
spongy in the brine, and pickle-soaked. 

KEEPING HAMS AND BACON SIX 
MONTHS. 

Query. — A. J. M. writes: I would like to know how to 
keep hams and bacon in first class shape for the next 
six months without their getting mouldy and with the 
least possible shrinkage. 

Ans. — There is no practical method for keeping hams 
and bacon for so long a time after they are smoked 
without their getting mouldy. There is a method for 
keeping them in sweet pickle for any length of time, 
provided you have cold storage facilities. All kinds of 
pickled meat if stored in a cooler in which the tem- 
perature is kept down to 28 degrees can be kept in this 
cooler for a year or even longer, and when removed 
will come out like fresh cured meat. Hams and other 
meats are often purchased when the market is low and 
stored in a freezer and kept here until such a time that 
they are in greatest demand and will sell at the high- 
est price. At a temperature of 28 degrees the meat 
will not freeze after it is cured, and the brine, of 
course, does not freeze at that temperature. When 
meat is taken out of such cold storage to be smoked, it 
should be first soaked from three to five hours in fresh 
water, and then washed and smoked the same as regu- 
lar fresh cured meat. Farmers often bury their smoked 
meats in their oat bins, and are enabled to keep them 
in good condition for some time, but this is a method 
which, perhaps, does not suit your purpose. It is best 
to keep the meat in sweet pickle until you are ready 
to smoke it, as this will insure a much better article. 

212 



C H IDADQ U. S. A. 



USES FOR DRIED BEEF ENDS. 

Query. — C. E. C. writes: "Can you inform me the best 
and most profitable way for disposing of my Dried Beef 
ends? I am in the sliced Dried Beef business and have 
no way of using up my ends. Thanking you in advance." 

Ans. — There are three ways for disposing of beef 
ends to advantage and profit. They may be ground up 
in an Enterprise Chopper and sold to hotels and res- 
taurants for use as Minced Dried Beef to be prepared 
and served in cream. They can also be sold to con- 
cerns engaged in the baked bean business, where the 
ends can be cut up and baked with pork in the beans. 
Eestaurants can also use dried beef ends to excellent 
advantage by putting them in soup. They will give 
a delicious flavor to all kinds of soups, if boiled at 
the same time with other soup meats. * 

HOW TO PREVENT HAMS FROM SOUR- 
ING IN THE HOCK. 



Query. — C. F. G. Co. write: "We have a lot of hams 
that we put down in dry salt to cure about six or seven 
weeks ago, and we have discovered that they have become 
tainted in the hock, while the balance of the piece of meat 
is all right. Can you tell us any way to rehandle or 
overhaul these hams to save them? The front or butt end 
of the ham is sound and all right and sweet; the bad part 
is in and around the hock end or leg end. Could this 
taint and odor be removed and the meat made sweet by 
putting these hams down now in a strong salt brine and 
punching holes in the hock end of the pieces so that the 
brine could quickly get into the tainted part? Would salt 
brine save them now? We will thank you for any advice 
or plan of action that will help to save us from loss." 

Ans. — It is more difficult to cure hams by the dry 
salt process than it is by the brine process. If these 
hams had been pumped before packing them in the salt, 
there would not have been so much danger of shank 
sour. Hams being very thick, it takes a long time for 
the salt to draw through them; therefore, if they are 
first pumped and packed in dry salt, you ean readily 
see that the salt draws through quicker and thus gives 
them a chance to cure from the inside as quickly as 
they would cure from the outside. On v under one con- 
dition can you pump these hams, make them sweet and 
save them. For instance, if the hams are taken from 

213 



B. H E LLE RScCD. 



the salt and upon trying them with a ham trier they 
are found to be sweet but turn sour when they are 
placed in the smoke house, then you can save them. 
Such a condition would show that the hams are not 
fully cured around the bone and around the shank 
joints. In that event, they can be pumped with pickle 
and fully cured around the bone so that they will not 
sour when placed in the smoke house. It is necessary 
to explain that meat is frequently perfectly sweet when 
it comes out of cure, but it is not fully cured. In such 
a condition when it is placed in a warm smoke house, 
it will sour in the smoke house. This, of course, can 
be avoided by fully curing the hams. If, on the other 
hand, the hams are already sour and tainted when they 
come out of the cure, whether it be dry salt or sweet 
pickle, then nothing can be done with them to make 
them sweet. «Meat once spoiled, remains spoiled. If 
the hams are sour when they come out of the cure, but 
sour only in the shank, then the proper thing to do is 
to cut off the shank; in other words, cut off all the 
sour or tainted meat and use the butt ends for boiled 
hams. You can boil and slice them and sell them in 
your store. You must be careful to cut off all the 
tainted parts because any of the tainted meat which 
is left will taint all the rest of the meat when the butt 
is boiled. You, of course, understand that during the 
process of boiling, the good meat will absorb the taint 
from the bad meat. We regret that you did not write 
us for advice before you began curing the hams, as we 
would have advised you to cure in brine. We will send 
you by mail, free of charge, our book, entitled ' ' Secrets 
of Meat Curing and Sausage Making," which covers 
every point that its title indicates. The advice given 
in this book as to the handling of meats, you will find 
very valuable and covers the whole ground, from the 
condition of the animal before killing to the handling 
of the meat through the chill room and through the 
entire curing process. We call your special attention 
to the various articles for curing meats, which will 
give you the temperature for curing, how to overhaul 
the meat, how to pump the meat and how to make the 
brine for pumping. Full directions for curing the hams 
you will find carefully indexed. By following the ad- 
vice given in tuese pages, you will have no loss from 
the souring of meats, but on the contrary, will be en- 
abled to turn out meat of the highest quality possible. 

214 



CHI C ADO, T-J. S. JV 



BUILDING A COOLER. 

Query. — W. G. H. writes: I have about completed a 
cooler except the floor and am undecided whether t» 
make it of plank or cement. I thought you could give 
me the desired advice. One room is 16 feet square inside; 
7 feet to joist with 7 feet of solid ice above, or about 50 
tons capacity. The walls are 2 feet thick; 8 inches saw- 
dust, 4 inches dead air space, 8 inches sawdust, with four 
thicknesses of one-inch boards, thus making the 2 feet. 
The building has these walls on all sides and partitions. 
I expect to use the drip from the above to cool another 
room, 8 feet by 16 feet inside, and will have the water run 
around this room in gutters (sheet iron) fastened to the 
wall. I want this as dry and as free from mould and 
dampness as possible and, therefore, am not sure as to 
whether a cement floor will be what is needed, though it 
was my intention to use cement. There is a 2-foot stone 
wall under the cooler which sets on sand — this sand hav- 
ing been washed up at times past by the lake. There 
are now fifty tons of ice over the cooler and back of this 
is an ice house, 16 feet square, inside filled with ice Ik 
feet high. This makes the building 20 feet wide by -}8 
feet long, by 20 feet studding. For ventilation a four-inch 
square flue will run from the bottom in one corner and 
from the top in the opposite corner of the cooler to the 
top of the roof, and above it, acting as chimneys. I want 
to use these coolers for fresh meats, packing hams and 
bacon, storing eggs and most anything that there is any 
money in, which requires to be kept in good condition. 
Your advice will be appreciated. 

Ans. — You are building your cooler on very good 
plans. However, we would advise the use of cement 
for the floors. It will be found much better than 
wood, much purer and cleaner, and withal much drier. 
You speak about putting two ventilators in your 
cooler, which is all right, but you should be sure to 
provide these ventilators with slides, so you can shut 
them off and regulate the ventilation according to your 
wishes. Of course, you understand that it is not well 
to have the ventilators open all the time, as it would 
result in quite a loss of ice. The ventilators should be 
open only when the room needs ventilation, which will 
be at well-defined periods, or varying according to the 
amount of material in storage. Your plan of using the 
drip water of the ice and running it in pans will work 
all right. "We have seen this method applied, and it 
was always satisfactory. Be sure to use galvanized 
iron gutters for the pans, not sheet iron, as it will 
rust easily. 

215 



BHE LLEF?. BcCQ 



WHY BOLOGNA "TAKES WATER" IN 
COOKING. 

Query. — H. P. torites: "Sometimes I have bother with 
my bologna taking water when cooking them. Can you 
tell me what to do to prevent this trouble?" 

Ans. — The difficulty you mention is caused by the 
sausage not being properly boiled. Ordinary round or 
long Bologna should be boiled in water of 160 to 170 
degrees Fahrenheit for about thirty to forty minutes, 
and thick, large Bologna should be boiled in water of 
155 to 160 degrees for from three-quarters to one 
hour, according to the size. If the sausages are very 
large, it will take from one and one-quarter to one 
and one-half hours to cook them properly. After sau- 
sage of any kind have been cooked, they should be 
handled as follows: Pour boiling water over them to 
wash off all the surplus grease that adheres to the 
casings, and then pour cold water over them to shrink 
and close the pores of the casings. This is very im- 
portant and should be closely observed by all packers 
and sausage makers who wish to have their sausage 
look nice and keep their fresh appearance. The shrink- 
age and quality of cooked Bologna depends consider- 
ably upon the temperature in which they have been 
boiled. It is very necessary for every man who cooks 
sausage to use a thermometer. 

WHY BOLOGNA SHRIVELS. 

Query. — T. B.: Can you tell me the reason bologna 
shrivels when it is taken from the hot water? It looks 
fine until it gets cold. 

Ans. — There are several reasons why your bologna 
might shrivel when taken out of the boiling water. 
First, it might be that you do not cure your meat right 
before the bologna is made, and second, you probably 
do not use the right kind of a binder, and third, you 
probably boil the bologna in too hot water. If when the 
meat is cured properly and you do use the right kind 
of a binder, the bologna shrivels when taken out of 
the boiling water, it is because you are boiling it at 
too high a temperature. Before making bologna you 
should sprinkle Freeze-Em-Pickle over the meat and 
leave it for a few days. We refer to our instructions 
for preparing bologna trimmings, which will be found 
in our book, " Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage 
Making. ' ' 

216 



CHICADQ U. S.A. 



ADVICE ON CURING HAMS AND BACON. 

Query. — E. A. S. & Co. write: I have taken a barrel 
of meat, hams and shoulders, which I cured in my ice box 
after your instructions, and I wish to say that it is as 
fine as was ever produced by anyone. My ice box holds 
well, standing at from 38 to 39 degrees, but it is small and 
only has room for one barrel in it. I have made arrange- 
ments to try packing in the house this winter. I have a 
closet made of brick on both sides and by proper ventila- 
tion in cold weather so as to keep it from 35 to W degrees, 
I think I can save hams all O. K. in tierces. I have about 
ten oak tierces for the purpose. (Is that all right?) I 
have an old ice box in the rear 8x8 feet with a good roof 
on it, walls filled with sawdust. I would like to know if 
I can fill this with hams and shoulders when the weather 
gets cold and just dry salt them. Can I save them by just 
letting them stay there all winter until next spring? I can 
put in a layer of hams and cover them with salt, then put 
in another layer and cover with salt, and so on until I fill 
it. I would like your opinion and advice as to these 
methods. I kept side meat this way last winter just leav- 
ing it in salt. 

Ans. — If you keep the temperature of the small room 
which you mention at from 35 to 40 degrees it will 
answer the purpose « for curing. The oak tierces for 
curing are all right provided they are new. We advise 
that you wash them out with scalding hot water, so as 
to get rid of the oak taste. If the tierces are not new, 
then you must make doubly sure that they are scalded 
out thoroughly and at the same time you should use 
our Ozo for cleansing them. 

The old ice-box which you mention can be used for 
dry salting hams and shoulders when the weather gets 
cold, provided you do not let the meat freeze. You 
must not let the temperature get below 35 degrees, be- 
cause at a lower temperature, meat will not take on 
salt. Hams can be dry salt cured just the same as side 
meats, but when hams are very thick, we would advise 
that you pump them. Our book, ' ' Secrets of Meat Cur- 
ing and Sausage Making," will give you full informa- 
tion as to the pumping process and. a formula for 
making the pumping brine. Hams are very seldom dry 
salt cured; they are nearly always sweet-pickle cured. 
A sweet piekle or sugar cured ham has a much finer 
flavor than the dry salt cured ham. 

If you pack side meat properly and overhaul it 
regularly until it is fully cured, and if you keep the 
temperature of the curing room at about 38 degrees, 
you will have no trouble in keeping dry salt meat 
in salt all winter. Of course if you keep it in salt 

217 



B. I-I E LLE R. Sc CZ D. 



^3 

too long, it will get very salty. Our book on curing 
meats will give you full directions for dry salt curing. 
Hams, after they are fully cured in brine, can be 
rubbed with salt and kept in a cooler for several 
months, and if desired, all winter, but the shrinkage 
will be great and they will take on salt and might be- 
come too salty for your trade. 

WHY OIL SEPARATES FROM LARD. 

Query. — E. & W.: We are having trouble with our 
lard; the oil separates from the lard during the warm, 
weather so part of the lard is really oil, and we cannot 
use it in that condition. Our business is too small to 
justify us in employing a practical man to take charge of 
our lard. We ask you for your advice. 

Ans. — To keep the oil from separating from the 
lard, you should carry out the following directions: 
First, you should provide yourself with a lard cooler 
with an agitator attached, as the lard after it is ren- 
dered and when it begins to cool should be agitated 
until it becomes thick like cream, before it is run 
into the buckets. If lard is not agitated, when it is 
cooled the stearin crystallizes and the oil separates 
from the steariD , but by chilling the lard and by agi- 
tating it while it cools, the stearin does not get a 
chance to crystallize and the oil will not separate and 
the lard will keep better in this condition. Lard that 
is put up in winter for summer use is much improved 
by adding about ten per cent of tallow, but when this 
lard is sold, it should be sold as lard with ten per cent 
of tallow added. If you wish to treat the lard that 
you have on hand, we advise you to treat it as fol- 
lows: For every 100 lbs. of lard, put 100 lbs. of water 
in your lard kettle; add to it four ounces of our Lard 
Purifier, and throw 100 lbs. of lard into this water. 
Start the fire and gradually heat it until the lard is 
melted and is as hot as it will stand without boiling 
over. Keep on stirring the lard until it begins to 
melt, so as to thoroughly wash it. After the lard is 
thoroughly washed, you will find a certain amount of 
scum will come to the top, skim this off and then 
allow the lard to settle for about two hours, so that 
all the water will separate from the lard and settle 
down at the bottom. Skim the lard off the top of the 
water and then let it eool, but keep on agitating it or 
stirring it while it is cooling, until it is thick like 
cream. 

218 



CHICADD. U.S.-?*.. 



COATING BOLOGNA SAUSAGE NOT 
NECESSARY TO PREVENT MOULD. 

'Query. — E. D. writes: I would like to ask you if you 
have anything to coat bologna with after making? I 
think it is called Gloss or Lustre; have seen it used, but 
have not been able to find out where to get it. 

Ans. — What you refer to is Bologna Varnish. The 
use of such a preparation has been practically discon- 
tinued as it does not conform to pure food laws; it is 
not proper that a varnish should be put on the outside 
of food of any kind. Bologna Varnish is made from 
shellac, and shellac is used in all kinds of furniture 
varnish, so you can readily see that it is not the 
proper thing to use on Bologna. In former years, the 
use of varnish was quite general, but it was finally 
discontinued, and is now practically a thing of the past. 
If you want to prevent your Bologna from getting 
mouldy, you should make them as follows: First, cure 
the meat with Freeze-Em-Pickle as directed in our 
book, " Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making," 
and add Bull-Meat-Brand Flour to the meat, as this 
absorbs the moisture. Bologna made by the Freeze- 
Em-Pickle Process keeps fine and will not mold for 
a reasonable length of time. 

MAKING SOAP FROM TALLOW. 

Query. — F. B. writes: We have a little meat business 
and quite often have on- hand a surplus of tallow. Now 
we have been thinking probably we could put this into a 
soap, something cheap that would not cost us too much to 
put on the market. Can you kindly give us any informa- 
tion in the matter, and if the idea is a practical one for 
a small shop like ours? 

Ans. — It would not pay you to undertake to make a 
hard soap in a small way, as it would be necessary for 
you to compete with other soaps on the market, and you 
are aware that laundry soap sells at a very low price 
and is put upon the market upon a very small margin 
of profit. You would also find it quite a task to make 
hard soap, and the time required would hardly justify 
you to undertake it on a small scale. If you can dis- 
pose of soft soap in your locality, we would advise you 
to use your surplus tallow in that way, but, of course, 
this suggestion from a financial point of view would 
depend entirely upon whether there is a sufficient de- 

219 



B. Jri E T_I_E R. Sc C D. 



33 

mand for such an article in your vicinity. Possibly 
you could work up a trade among private families and 
sen it to them for scrubbing purposes, also to hotels, 
stores and restaurants, but as your town is small, you 
might have difficulty in disposing of a sufficient quan- 
tity to make it pay you. On the other hand, it would 
not cost you much to make the experiment. You are 
surrounded by a good hog-feeding country, and it is 
possible that you could dispose of quite a quantity of 
soft soap to the farmers, as it is a very fine thing for 
hogs, and the truth of the matter is, their hogs would 
be much better off if they would feed it frequently. 
You might be benefited more by this suggestion than 
by sales from other sources. 

The following is a recipe for making soft soap with 
potash: To 20 pounds of clear grease or tallow take 
17 pounds of pure white potash. Buy the potash in as 
fine lumps as it can be procured, and place it in the 
bottom of the soap barrel, which must be water-tight 
and strongly hooped. Boil the grease and pour it boil- 
ing hot upon the potash; then add two large pailfuls 
of boiling hot water; dissolve 1 pound of borax in 2 
quarts of boiling hot water and stir all together thor- 
oughly. Next morning add 2 pails of cold water ana 
stir for half an hour; continue this process until a bar- 
rel containing thirty-six gallons is filled up. In a 
week or even less, it will be ready for use. The borax 
can be turned into grease while boiling, and also 1 
pound of rosin. Soap made in this manner always 
comes, and is a first-rate article, and will last twice 
as long as that bought at a soap factory. The grease 
must be tried out, free from scraps, ham rinds, bones, 
or any other debris; then the soap will be as thick as 
jelly, and almost as clear. To make soft soap hard 
put into a kettle four pailfuls of soft soap, and stir 
in it by degrees about one quart of common salt. Boil 
until all the water is separated from the curd, remove 
the fire from the kettle and draw off the water with 
a siphon (a yard or so of rubber hose will answer) ; 
then pour the soap into a wooden form in which muslin 
has been placed. For this purpose a wooden box, suffi- 
ciently large and tight, may be employed. When the 
soap is firm turn out to dry, cut into bars with a brass 
wire and let it harden. A little powdered rosin will 
assist the soap to harden and give it a yellow color. 
If the soft soap is very thin, more salt should be added 

220 



CHICAGO. U.S.A. 



PLANS FOR SAUSAGE FACTORY. 

Query. — 0. C. L. writes: I am now in business again 
on my own hook, so please send me your book on Meat 
Curing and Sausage Making. I will, in the near future, 
equip my market with an up-to-date sausage factory. I 
have the following machinery: 1 six-horse power gasoline 
engine, silent cutter, Enterprise machine, 1 bone cutter, 1 
steam boiler for rendering lard, cooking sausage, etc. The 
room I intend to place this machinery in is 15x25 feet; 
would like to hear some of your suggestions, and plans in 
placing the machinery; would appreciate this very much. 
Has the freezing of pork sausage any detrimental effect 
on the flavor of the sausage? Accept my well wishes. 

Ans. — The machinery you enumerate will give you a 
sausage plant that is quite complete. We think, how- 
ever, that your room is a little bit small in which to 
place so much machinery. If you could put the boilei 
and rendering kettle in another room, away from the 
sausage factory, it would be better. You would prob- 
ably be able to make such an addition as would answer 
your purpose at a very small cost. This arrangement 
would make it much more convenient because the boiler 
and the rendering tank in your sausage factory will 
make it very hot. The arrangement or disposal of the 
machinery will not make material difference in a room 
of the size mentioned. You can arrange it most any 
way to best suit your convenience. 

The freezing of pork sausage certainly has a most 
detrimental effect on the flavor. Freezing meat always 
tends, to some extent, to spoil the flavor of the meat. 
When the albumen of the meat is frozen, and is after- 
wards thawed out, the albumen leaves the cells of the 
meat and- in that way the flavor is lost and the meat 
becomes insipid. 

PURIFYING TALLOW. 

Query. — T. W. C. writes: "I am tanking mutton and 
beef tallow together at 40 pounds pressure, and would like 
to know the best way to use your tallow purifier so I can 
use my tallow with cottonseed oil to make a lard com- 
pound." 

Ans. — It would not be practicable to use our Lard 
and Tallow Purifier in the tank. It can be used to 
greatest advantage in an open jacket kettle. You can 
treat the tallow in the jacket kettle after it is ren- 
dered and comes from the steam tank. 

221 



li=Hi» 



ILLER &CD 



HOW PACKERS BRAND THEIR HAMS 

Question. — W. Z. writes: How do packers brand their 
harms. 

Answer. — Packers brand their hams with Ink made 
from the following formula: 

Glucose 2*4 lbs. 

Lampblack %, to V2 lb. 

Water iy 2 lbs. 

Grain Alcohol y 2 pint 

Place the Glucose and water in a dish and heat on 
stove until it becomes thin. Now take the Lamp- 
black, put it in a separate dish and add enough of 
the water and Glucose so as to make a thick paste; 
work this paste up until all of the lumps are dis- 
solved. Then take the Lampblack paste and grad- 
ually mix it into the water and Glucose until the 
desired shade of color is secured. , After mixing 
thoroughly remove from fire and set aside to cool. 
When cool add the y 2 pint of Grain Alcohol, mixing 
thoroughly. Keep in a corked bottle or can. 

Spread a small quantity of the Ink thus made 
over a pad which is easily made by taking 10 thick- 
nesses of cheese cloth and tacking them on top of 
a flat board. The branding itself is done with an 
iron brand containing such letters or other marking 
as you wish to appear on the hams. The branding 
should be done before the hams are put into the 
smoke house. 

STARTING A BUTCHER BUSINESS 

Query. — M. E. A. writes: Will you please forward me 
another copy of your desirable book, "How to Cure Meat 
and Make Sausage" ? And if it is not too much trouble, 
I would like to have you advise how it is best to start in 
the butcher and pork packing business in a small way. 
I have about $700 capital and wish to ask how is the best 
way to fit up a retail store without too much expense and 
yet to have it look good, and also to fit up a sausage 
kitchen and have everything that a man needs to run the 
business successfully. I may as well state that I have had 
lots of experience, but after reading your book and the 
advice that it gives I am sure that even experienced men 
can learn a lot by reading it. 

Ans. — With such a limited amount of capital, it 
would be advisable to buy second-handed fixtures. 
These can always be obtained much cheaper than new 
ones, and you can get good fixtures which will answer 
the purpose, but they must be neat, clean and in good 
repair. If you intend to do your own butchering, our 
advice is that you make arrangements with some 
butcher who has a slaughter house, and where you can 

222 



CHIGADD U.S.A. 



do your butchering, and pay him a certain amount for 
each animal slaughtered. A very important point that 
we advise you to follow is to sell everything for cash 
only, as your capital is not sufficient to give credit to 
anyone. Were you to give credit and make a lot of 
book accounts, you would soon run out of money and 
would not be able to buy large stock and supplies for 
your market. We also advise that you induce your cus- 
tomers to take their meat home with them, and thus 
relieve yourself of the necessity of keeping a horse 
and wagon for delivery purposes. This would save 
quite an outlay in capital, and a great deal of expense 
and time. You can then announce with a small adver- 
tisement in the daily paper that you sell for cash only, 
and that you can afford to be more liberal with your 
customers than you could if you carried accounts, and 
because you do not incur the expense of delivery. 
Such an advertisement with placards in your store, no 
doubt, would result favorably. You must remember at 
all times that your eapital is limited and that you must 
"trim your sails" accordingly. It is the over-reaching 
the limits of the possibilities of capital that make the 
most failures among tradesmen. We would not advise 
you to advertise meat at a cut price because you sell 
for cash; people do not want stuff that is cheap, for if 
you sell stuff at a low price, they imagine there is 
something wrong with it. Charge the 'same price that 
all the other butchers do, and in that way, keep their 
friendship. If a woman gets something that she doesn ; t 
like and brings it back, tell her that you are very 
glad she brought it back, if it did not suit her, because 
you never want any of your customers to keep any- 
thing that does not please them. 

A sausage room can be rigged up very cheap; all you 
need to start with is a small Enterprise grinder, so 
that you can grind up your trimmings and work them 
into sausage, and by working the meat trimmings up 
into the different formulas that we give in our book, 
"Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making," 
you will not have any loss, as all of your trimmings 
can be worked up to good advantage. You also should 
make a great display of your own cured corned beef 
and turn out fine corned beef, so that when your cus- 
tomers buy it, they are well pleased. The main thing 
in the success of running a retail market is that the 
butcher understands how to buy his live stock so that 

223 



B. H E LLE RScCD. 



us 

he gets the right quality of beef and gets it at the 
right price. If you have good meats to sell you will 
have no trouble in selling them, but if you have poor 
goods to sell, you may sell them to a customer once 
or twice, but the third time the customer will not come 
near you. The same thing holds good with you; if you 
were buying some of your supplies from the jobber and 
the jobber did not send you good goods, you may try 
him once more and if he again sends you poor goods, 
the third time you certainly will not buy from him, 
but you will go to some other jobber who will give you 
the best goods for your money. Your customers are 
just as smart and as sensitive as you are, and want the 
same kind of treatment that you like, so if you will 
always treat your customers as you would like to be 
treated yourself if you were buying meat at a market, 
you are bound to meet with success. 

CUTTING UP MEATS— NECESSARY FOR 
EXPERIENCE. 

Query. — J. J. writes: I have decided to go into the 
meat business and would like to know if you can advise 
me of some booklet or pamphlet on cutting up meat; also 
let me know the price of your book, and if you know of 
a good firm handling butcher supplies and refrigerators. 

Ans. — We judge »from your inquiry that you are in- 
experienced in the meat business, and if such is the 
case, we would advise that you go to work for 
some good buteher for a while before going into the 
business for yourself. You could there learn the prac- 
tical side of the business, and provided you do not now 
understand how to cut up meat to the greatest profit, 
you could acquire knowledge upon these points which 
would be of more value to you than volumes that could 
be written upon the subject. We most emphatically 
advise you to learn the business thoroughly before em- 
barking into it on your own account. We take great 
pleasure in sending you our booklet, " Secrets of Meat 
Curing and Sausage Making, " which you will find of 
great value to you in teaching you to eure meat and 
make sausage. 

?24 



CHICAGO, TU. S.A. 



IMITATION FREEZE-EM PICKLE. 

Query. — L. M. writes: "M & , from whom 

I buy most of my butcher supplies, handle an imitation of 
your Freeze-Em Pickle which they claim is the same as 
your preparation. I do not want it and will not have it.' 
They tried to convince me that what they had is what I 
want, but I have used Freeze-Em Pickle for years and, 
knowing from your advertisements that there are imita- 
tions of it, I want to steer clear of them. Will you please 
send me the name of a jobber handling Freeze-Em Pickle 
near me?" 

Ans. — This is a clear ease of an attempt for a sub- 
stitution of spurious goods for those of our manu- 
facture. These dealers can not help knowing that our 
customers want Freeze-Em-Pickle, and nothing else, 
but for the sake of reaping an illegitimate profit, they 
misrepresent imitation goods as being the same as ours. 
We wish to state that there is only one Freeze-Em-Pickle, 
and all claims to the contrary are absolutely false. They 
are merely the tricks of illegitimate dealers to pirate the 
good reputation made by our preparations. In order to be 
convinced of the superiority of Freeze-Em-Pickle, it is 
only necessary to test it with any preparation purporting 
to be the same or similar to it and selling under similar 
names, which are calculated to deceive. 

SOURING OF HAM IN SMOKE HOUSE. 

Query. — M. P. M. writes: "I am having trouble with 
my hams souring in the smokehouse. They seem to get too 
much smoke. What can you suggest that will help me 
to avoid this trouble and to keep my hams sweet?" 

Ans. — You are mistaken in supposing that your 
hams sour from getting too much smoke; that is not 
the trouble. Hams will not sour from such cause. 
Your trouble is owing entirely to the fact, that the 
hams are not properly and fully cured before going 
into the smoke house. Smoke aids to preserve hams 
and will not cause them to sour. They sour because 
the portion that has not been thoroughly cured, which 
is generally close to the bone, has not been reached 
by the brine. In many cases souring comes from im- 
perfect chilling of meat before putting it into the 
brine; then again you may not have overhauled the 
meat at the proper time and with the frequency which 

225 



B.HELLER ScCD. 



wm 

good curing requires. In the first place, the hog should 
not be killed when overheated or excited. Second, 
after they have been scalded and scraped, they must 
be dressed as quickly as possible, washed out thor- 
oughly with clean water, then split and allowed to 
hang in a well ventilated room until partly cooled off. 
They should then be run into a cooler or chilling 
room as quickly as possible, where the temperature 
should be reduced to 32 to 34 degrees Fahrenheit. They 
should be allowed to thus chill for 24 hours for medium 
size hogs. When hogs are properly chilled, the tem- 
perature of the inside of the ham or shoulder will 
not be more than one to one and one-half degrees 
higher than the cooler. Those without ice machinery 
for curing, who are using common ice houses, can em- 
ploy the crushed ice method for chilling the meat. By 
this is meant to put the meat on the floor and throw 
cracked ice over it, and thus allow it to remain over 
night. After being thoroughly chilled, the hams must 
undergo the various processes which you will find set 
forth in our book, "Secrets of Meat Curing and Sau- 
sage Making/' which we take pleasure in sending to 
you free of charge. If you will follow the directions 
contained in this book you will never have trouble with 
soured hams from imperfect curing or other causes. 

CLEANING CASINGS. 

Query. — S. d H. write: "I would like to know if you 
have any preparations for cleaning casings. We clean all 
the casings we get and would like to get some chemicals 
to take the tallow and lard off of them." 

Ans. — There is no preparation that will free the lard 
from casings. If you use something that is strong 
enough to take off the fat, it will eat up the casings as 
well. The only thing practicable that can be done is 
to wash the casings thoroughly and change the water a 
number of times. In the last washing water it would 
be advisable to put in some washing soda as that will 
soften the water and assist in cleaning the casings. The 
fat you will have to remove by hand. There are ma- 
chines made for removing the fat from casings, but it 
will not pay you to go to the expense of making such 
a purchase unless you clean a very large amount of 
casings per day. 

226 



CHICADD, T_J. S.A. 



CAUSE OF "RUSTY'' MEAT. 

Query. — R. J. B. writes: "We keep our meat in an ice 
box 35 degrees cold and the barrels we used in curing it 
were galvanized, and we have used them for five years. 
We use the regular pickling salt. Our meat comes out 
rusty. What can you suggest?" 

Ans. — If your cooler is kept at 35 degrees, you must 
have an ice machine instead of the regular ice box or 
cooler, and 35 degrees is too cold for curing purposes. 
An even temperature of 38 degrees is the proper one 
for curing meat, and all packers who use ice machines 
should endeavor to keep their coolers at a temperature 
not varying from 37 to 39 degrees, and they never 
should be allowed to get above 40 degrees. Meat will 
not cure in any brine or take on enough salt when dry 
salted if stored in a room that is below 36 degrees. If 
meat is packed even in the strongest kind of brine 
and put into a cooler which is kept at 32 to 33 degrees 
and thus left at this degree of cold for three months, 
it will come out of the brine only partly cured; it will, 
therefore, only keep for a short time and will start to 
decompose when taken into a higher temperature. If 
you have used galvanized iron tanks for five years, it 
is possible that the zinc or the galvanizing is worn off 
on the inside of the vats so as to expose the iron. 
Brine will rapidly rust iron and that will cause your 
meat to become rusty. Galvanized iron tanks for cur- 
ing are all right until the galvanizing is worn off and 
the moment this happens, the tanks are useless for 
curing purposes. Salt that is rusted or salt that is 
shoveled with a rusty shovel will also cause rusty meat. 
It is absolutely necessary that the salt be pure and free 
from rust. If live stock is driven for some distance 
and slaughtered while it is overheated, the meat will 
not cure properly and will also turn out rusty. Stock 
that has been driven should always be allowed to re- 
main in the pens over night. We send you our book, 
"Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making, 7 ' which 
you will find full of valuable information in reference 
to curing of meat. If you will follow the directions 
contained therein closely, you will always have good 
results. 

227 



B.HE LLER ScCD. 



SALT FOR BRINE— BOILING BRINE- 
ROPY BRINE. 

Query. — W. M. writes: "Is common barrel salt or rock 
salt the best and cheapest to use for making brine? I 
have been using rock salt and I think it is sweet, but in 
using rock salt I have to boil it in order to dissolve the 
salt. Is it necessary to boil the water if it is pure? I am 
having trouble with my brine. It becomes jelly-like in 
summer and in winter. What is the cause of this?" 

Ans. — Evaporated salt, or what is known as the or- 
dinary barrel salt of a good quality, is generally ap- 
proved by butchers for making brine. Eoek salt is 
much used by the large packers, as it is a stronger 
salt, but their facilities for curing meat are altogether 
different from those of the butcher and the ordinary 
curer. 

It is not necessary to boil the water for brine if you 
know it to be perfectly pure. If its purity is doubted, 
it should always be boiled and the impurities which 
rise to the top should be thoroughly skimmed off, or if 
they precipitate the water should be carefully drawn 
off. When brine becomes jelly-like, you mean that it 
gets ropy. This condition is owing to a great many 
causes; sometimes it is due to the sugar which may 
be of low grade or unrefined, or where molasses and 
syrup are used, it quite often results. The best grade 
of granulated sugar should always be used for brine. 
Sometimes the ropiness of brine is due to the pack- 
ages in which the meat is cured. This is especially true 
when syrup barrels are used. One of the most common 
causes of ropy brine is owing to the fact that the meat 
is cured in too warm a temperature. If the curing tem- 
perature is kept from 38 to 40 degrees, the brine will 
remain thin and not get ropy, but there is always risk 
in a temperature higher than we have given. If the 
meat has not been properly chilled before putting it in 
pickle, ropiness will also result. Great care should 
always be given to meat before putting it in the brine, 
as it will beeome soft and spongy if not chilled 
through to the bone. When in this condition it be- 
comes pickle-soaked and contaminates the brine. 

228 



CHICACD, U.S. JR.. 



PACKING EGGS. 

Query. — D. B. writes: "I have teen using your goods 
for some time back and they give the best of satisfaction. 
Can you give me a good recipe for packing eggs?" 

Ans. — You will find the following very efficient for 
preserving eggs: To each pailful of water add two 
pints of fresh slaked lime, one pint of salt and one 
ounce of White Berliner Konservirungs-Salze; mix well 
and then fill a barrel half full of this fluid, put the 
eggs into it and they will keep for a long time. The 
eggs, of course, should be stored in a cool room. A 
cool cellar will answer, but the temperature should 
never be allowed to get too low — never lower than 38 
degrees. 

HOW TO TEST VINEGAR. 

Query. — G. G. writes: "Do you sell a thermometer or 
gauge for testing vinegar? How am I to know the degree 
of strength of the vinegar without a gauge?" 

Ans. — Vinegar is tested with a special apparatus 
called a Twitchel Tester. Unless you use large quan- 
tities of vinegar^ it would hardly pay you to go to the 
expense of buying such an apparatus as they are 
rather expensive and cost about $15 each. If you buy 
the vinegar by the barrel from the wholesale grocers 
and specify the degree of strength, they will give you 
the article desired. If you have any doubts as to the 
purity of vinegar there are various ways to test its 
purity. The adulterant of vinegar is sulphuric acid, 
which increases its indicated strength. Sulphuric acid 
can be detected by placing some of the vinegar to 
be tested in a saucer. Put some white sugar in the 
vinegar and evaporate to dryness by placing the 
saucer on top of a boiling water kettle. After the 
water has evaporated if the sugar turns black, the 
vinegar contains an adulterating acid. In lieu of a 
saucer, a teacup can be used in which the vinegar and 
sugar can be placed. The cup can then be placed in 
a basin of hot water in which it can be allowed to float 
until the vinegar in the cup is evaporated. If the 
vinegar contains free sulphuric acid the dry sugar will 
be found to be blackened. These are simple methods 
and are claimed to be more accurate as a test than the 

229 



B.HE LLERSc CO. 



use of the Barium Chloride Test. The Barium Chloride 
Test is as follows: Mix one ounce of Chloride of 
Barium with ten ounces of water. A little of this mix- 
ture dropped in vinegar will quickly test its purity. 
If the vinegar contains sulphuric acid, this mixture 
will make it turn flaky at once, but if it remains clear 
and shows no change, the vinegar is free from sul- 
phuric acid adulteration. Sulphuric acid makes vine- 
gar show a very high test when, as a matter of fact, 
it is of very poor real vinegar strength. 

SEPARATING WATER FROM LARD. 

Query. — C. W. writes: "I have my lard in such a shape 
that I don't know what to do with it. It seems that the 
water will not separate from the lard and the mixture 
stays about the thickness of cream and about as white. 
Can you give me any instructions or advice? 

Ans. — To overcome your difficulty, we would advise 
you to remelt the lard and heat it quite hot, even up to 
190 to 200 degrees, but do not let it come to a boil. 
Then let the lard settle. The water and impurities 
will settle to the bottom. The lard will rise to the top. 
If you heat the lard to the boiling point of water, that 
is, 212 degrees, it would do no harm except that the 
lard will then foam and you will have to be careful 
so that it does not foam over the top of the kettle. 
When it foams, it will bring the impurities to the sur- 
face, besides much of the moisture will evaporate. 
Either of these methods will remove your difficulty. 
You can dry the lard by heating it sufficiently or you 
can melt the lard and have it hot enough so that the 
water will settle to the bottom. After the lard is 
melted, dip it from the kettle, or if you have a lard 
cooler, run it into the lard cooler; be careful, though, 
that all water which may be at the bottom of the kettle 
is drawn off first if your intend to run the lard into a 
lard cooler. You will have to get rid of the water that 
is in the lard, so do not stir the lard while the water 
is still in the kettle. If you dip the lard out of the 
top of the kettle and place it in a lard tierce, when the 
lard begins to cool, you can stir it and keep on stirring 
it until it is thick like cream; it should then be run i 
into buckets. You can readily understand that if there 
is a large per cent of water in the lard, it will keep 
the lard soft, rrhich is the trouble you are now having. 

230 



CHICADD, U. S.A. 



COLORING SAUSAGE MEAT ARTIFI- 
CIALLY IS ILLEGAL. 

Query. — J. R. B.: Will you send me a guarantee that 

i your Rosaline for coloring sausage, etc., will stand the 

\Pure Food Law? Also state particulars of Potato Flour, 

and whether it is guaranteed or not to be pure. I want 

to use the goods, and the house I deal with won't guar- 

I antee them to me. 

i 

I Ans. — In reply to your inquiry we beg to say that 
Eosaline for coloring bologna or other sausage would 
| not be legal under your state law. However, you can 
j produce even a better sausage, both in appearance and 
taste, by using Freeze-Em-Pickle according to the di- 
rections given in the enclosed circular, "A New Way 
1 to Make Bologna and Frankfort Sausage. ' ' Freeze- 
! Em-Pickle is legal in your state as well as all other 
! states, as it does not contain any ingredient that has 
been ruled against under any of the food laws. We 
| would urge you to adopt this method of making your 
sausage, not only because it complies with your law, 
but because you will make better sausage and will 
save yourself from loss of the meat juices which would 
be lost if you made your sausage in the old way. As 
regards potato flour, we do not handle this product and 
are not interested in it. Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, our 
cereal sausage binder, is far superior to potato flour 
for this purpose, and it is legal in your state if used in 
the proportion of not to exceed 5 per cent, which will 
bind your sausage very nicely, and be greatly to your 
advantage. Bull-Meat-Brand Flour is a pure and whole- 
some article of food in itself; it tends to absorb the juices 
and fats of the meat and helps retain them in the sausage 
when it is cooked, thus making a more palatable and 
pleasing sausage than where no binder is used. When- 
ever a sausage in which a binder has been used is shipped 
out of the state, it is necessary to label the container to 
show that a binder was used, in order to comply with the 
National Meat Inspection Law, which controls the inter- 
state shipment of all meat food products. Freeze-Em- 
Pickle and Bull-Meat Flour are guaranteed by us under 
the Pure Food Laws and every package of these preparations 
which leave our factory carry a label to this effect. Unless 
these preparations complied with the Pure Food Laws, 

231 



Q. HE L-LEIR. Sc CD. 



^E 



we could not afford to put our guarantee on the pack- 
age. You will find Freeze-Em-Pickle a very valuable 
aid to you for other purposes than for making your 
Bologna, Frankfort and other sausage. By its use you 
can make very fine hams, breakfast bacon, shoulders, 
corned beef, etc. If there are any other questions you 
would like to ask, we shall be pleased to have you 
write us, and we hope you will order a case of Freeze- 
Em-Pickle and a barrel of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, as 
their use will quickly convince you that you cannot 
afford to do business without them. 

WHITENING AND PURIFYING TALLOW. 

Query. — Messrs. S. B. write: "We render our tallow 
•and other slaughter house offal all together in the regular 
tanks, and we would like to inquire whether you have any- 
thing that will whiten it after it is rendered." 

Ans. — You can treat the tallow and whiten and 
purify it after you have rendered it in the regular 
manner in your tank if you are willing to go to the 
additional labor of treating it in your open jacket 
kettle. The proper way to do is to fill your open 
jacket kettle or caldron, whichever you may use, 
about one-third full of hot water; dissolve in this a 
one-pound package of our Lard and Tallow Purifier, 
then on top of this put the tallow after you have ren- 
dered it. It will make no difference whether the tallow 
is hot or whether it is cold. Get the water boiling hot; 
stir the water and the tallow frequently, about two 
minutes each time. This stirring should be at inter- 
vals of about five minutes for from fifteen to twenty 
minutes; then turn off the heat and permit the tal- 
low to settle; next skim off the tallow from the top. 
More tallow can be treated in the same solution in 
"the same manner; in fact, you can use the same solu- 
tion in the jacket kettle two or three times. It 
should then be renewed with a fresh solution because 
the water will become impure, as the impurities of the 
tallow remain in the water and contaminate it; while 
in this condition the Tallow and Lard Purifier will 
•exhaust its strength. Of course, more Lard and Tal- 
low Purifier could be added to the same solution, but 
it is advisable to change the water occasionally as it 
will aid materially in purifying the tallow. 

232 



CHICAGQUS.A. 



MEAT MOULDING IN A COOLER. 

Query. — M. & S. Co.: Please forward to us one of your 
brine tester hydrometers. Ought fresh beef to mould in 
a cooler where the temperature is 36 degrees, after being 
in there ten to fourteen days? We have lost meat this way 
in a cooler with three coats of white lead throughout and 
the temperature maintained by ice. Not only has meat 
moulded, but it has had a pine taste. 

Ans. — As requested, we have sent you a hydrometer 
by express. You wish to know if fresh beef stored in 
a cooler ten or twelve days should begin to become 
mouldy. You say that your cooler is cooled by ice and 
that its temperature is 36 degrees. We are inclined 
to believe that your thermometer is not accurate. It 
would be very difficult to get the temperature of a 
cooler down to 36 degrees with ice. If an ice box is 
kept closed from Saturday night until Monday morn- 
ing the temperature runs down to 36 or 37 degrees, 
but where it is in constant use, and opened from time 
tc time throughout the day it is almost impossible 
tc reduce the temperature to 36 degrees, unless the 
ccoler is a very small one and ,a large amount of ice 
is packed in the ice chamber above. Try another 
thermometer. It is important to have one that is right. 
Do not buy a cheap thermometer for a cold storage 
tester. If your cooler is constructed properly it should 
be perfectly dry and all the drip water drained with- 
out entering the storage chambers. A cooler, even 
when cooled with ice, should be so dry on the inside 
that a match might be struck on the sides. If the 
cooler is moist, there is no need to search further for 
the cause of your meat moulding. If the cooler is 
perfectly dry then the beef will keep about two weeks 
without moulding, then it is liable to mould slightly, 
but not enough to do any harm. It is frequently 
stored three weeks before it is consumed, and when 
kept that long it is tender and juicy — in other words, 
it is "ripe." You say that your meat tastes of pine. 
You did not state whether or not your cooler was a 
new one or not. If it is a new one and has been 
properly constructed it should not give meat a taste; 
if it has been made from boards not thoroughly dry 
it will cause meat to taste of pine and it might even 
be responsible for some mould. Then again the walls 

233 



B. HE E LLERBc CO. 



may have been stuffed with green pine sawdust, and 
this will cause trouble. It may be that your cooler 
is a home-made one, not properly constructed; perhaps 
the circulation is not right. You merely state that 
the meat moulds and tastes of pine, whereas you 
should have given full details. If you will send us a 
drawing of your cooler and full details we will be 
able to give you the cause of your trouble and the 
remedy as well. 

CAUSE OF FAILURE IN CURING BACON. 

Query. — T. K. writes: "We have teen having trouble 
with our bacon. We put it down in second-hand lard 
tierces which we got from the large bakers here. We 
thoroughly cleansed them with boiling water before using 
them, and have been careful to weigh everything and 
measure the water we made the brine out of. We used 
brown sugar, the same as we have always used previous 
to this time. Our bacon was thoroughly cooled out before 
it was salted, and was never frozen*. After being put in, 
the pickle, we let it stand in the back part of the shop, 
where the temperature was often below freezing, but never 
cold enough to freeze the meat in the brine. We repacked 
it by moving from one tierce to another, always putting 
the same brine on the meat. We usually let our bacon 
in the brine for six weeks, unless it is very heavy, then we 
let it in a longer time. We usually keep four tierces full, 
and by moving from one to another always have the last 
one ready to take out and smoke. We used just the com- 
mon barrel salt and have always had good results until 
now; in fact, this time the meat is perfectly sweet, but 
the fat of it is very dark colored, while heretofore it has 
always been nice and white. We do all our own killing. 
If you can tell us what we have done wrong, we would 
like to know, as we are always trying to improve when- 
ever we can." 

Ans. — You have been very fortunate indeed to have 
escaped trouble if you have always cured your bacon 
as you explain. There are many things which you 
have done while curing which are likely to cause you 
serious trouble, and which should never be done in the 
future. You are lucky that some of the meat did not 
spoil completely. It is never advisable to use lard 
tierces for curing, as the the lard is run into the tierces 
while hot, and the fat naturally soaks into the wood. 
This fat in time becomes rancid, and is likely to con- 
taminate the brine and also the meat, even though you 
scald out the tierces, you do not get the grease 

234 



CHICADQU.S.A. 



i out of the pores of the wood. It is always best and 
safest to use new tierces for curing purposes; in fact, 
there is great risk in using anything else. You should 
never use brown sugar for sweet pickle, but the very 
best grade of granulated sugar. Brown sugar is always 
more likely to contain foreign substances detrimental 
to the brine, and in most cases causes the brine to turn 
ropy, sometimes even causing it to ferment. The purest 
j of sugar should always be used for sweet pickle. You 
have deviated from one of the greatest essentials to 
successful curing by not observing the most important 
of all requirements and that is an even temperature 
of about 38 degrees during the entire period of curing. 
You state that your meat was sometimes in a tem- 
perature below freezing point, but never cold enough 
to freeze the meat in the brine. Such a degree of 
temperature is enough to ruin your meat, as the curing 
room should never be allowed to go below 36 degrees. 
The moment you get the temperature below 36 degrees, 
the meat ceases to, take on salt and will not cure; 
besides, it is likely to spoil in the brine. It is all 
right to cure heavy Breakfast Bacon six weeks, but 
bacon from light or small hogs will cure perfectly in 
- twenty to twenty-five days. The meat, however, at a 
temperature below freezing point would not cure in six 
weeks or even in a much longer time. We, of course, 
understand that the temperature in your curing room 
, was not always below the freezing point, but it should 
never be that cold. 

We are going to send you free of charge our book, 
* ' Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making, ' ' and 
we will ask you to read carefully all we have to say on 
"General Hints for Curing Meats," which covers the 
entire process, including chilling, overhauling, pump- 
ing, packing, temperature, etc. You will also note that 
we advise against the use of molasses and syrup bar- 
it rels, as they are liable to cause ropiness of the brine. 
Also note what we have to say in regard to the hand- 
ling of meat in curing, the chilling room, the condition 
of the meat, and the proper time to slaughter. If you 
will read carefully all we have to say in reference to 
curing in this book and will follow our methods and in- 
structions, you cannot fail to turn out the finest kind 
of mild cured sweet pickled meat, having a most de- 
licious flavor and a beautiful appearance. We ask you 
to make the trial and report results. 

235 



b. heller &cd. 



HOW TO TREAT PORK WHICH IS TOO 

SALTY. 

Query. — F. B. writes: "We have about twenty barrels 
of pork that have become very salty in the brine. What 
would you do and how can we get the brine out?" 

Ans. — Salt pork is usually put down in very strong 
brine, therefore it is perfectly proper that pickled 
pork should be very salty. If it is desired to store the 
pork for a long time, it should be left in the strong 
brine and in order to freshen it so that it will not 
be so salty, the pork should be washed in fresh water. 
It is best to handle one barrel at a time as it is to be 
sold or used in the market. The water in which the 
pork is soaked should be as cold as possible; in fact, 
it would do no harm to put a little ice in it. By allow- 
ing the pickled pork to soak in the fresh water, a great 
deal of the salt will be drawn from the meat. The 
meat should be soaked twenty-four hours altogether, 
and during the daytime the water should be changed 
every six hours. After the meat has been soaked, it 
can be placed in a mild brine, which should not be 
over 40 degrees strength, but if the meat can be dis- 
posed of in a few days, it is not necessary to keep it 
in the brine at alL It will be sufficient to place it on 
a shelf in the ice box; at the end of three or four days, 
it might be necessary to wash it off with fresh water. 

IMITATION BULL-MEAT-BRAND FLOUR. 

Query. — J. A. S. writes: We recently ordered from a 
jobber 50 lbs. of Freeze-Em Pickle and 100 lbs. of Bull-Meat 
Flour. The Freeze-Em Pickle was not shipped but we 
received a barrel of what is claimed to be Bull-Meat Flour. 
We notice that the Bull-Meat Flour is not put up in the 
Tegular way. It is in a plain keg without any of your 
labels upon it. We are suspicious about its genuineness. 
Do you ever ship Bull-Meat Flour in this way? As yet 
we have not opened the package to test it. 

Ans. — You can rest assured that you have not re- 
ceived our goods and you should return them at once. 
"We never pack goods of ours of any description except 
in our well known packages with labels on the outside 
and circulars inside. We never sell Bull-Meat-Brand 
Flour in any other manner than in red drums, which 
are familiar to you and the trade generally. These 
•drums vary only in size, otherwise they are identical 
tin every particular. They have our large label on the 

236 



iigag 



. T_J. S. A. 



head and our long label on the side, just as you see 
them illustrated in the cuts which you will find in our 
circulars and advertisements. You have received some 
substituted article which the shipper has sought to im- 
pose upon you with the hope that you would not ques- 
tion its genuineness. We leave to your own ideas of 
fairness as to just how such a firm should be regarded. 
Our goods are the first and genuine of their kind and 
have won great prestige among butchers all over the 
United States. Unscrupulous parties in trade seek to 
reap some advantage from our great reputation by 
substituting worthless preparations upon which they 
make a big profit. You should always be careful in 
ordering your goods to specify the article wanted and 
insist that the name of B. Heller & Co. shall be upon 
the package and that you will accept no other. Upon 
receiving the goods, you should always inspect the 
labels and see that they are ours. Do not be misled by 
similar names or packages resembling ours. 

COMPLYING WITH POOD LAWS IN CUR- 
IN6 MEATS. 

Query. — F. K. writes: "We should like to have you 
inform us what we can use in our state for curing meat 
and at the same time keep within the restrictions of the 
law. They have prosecuted butchers all over the state of 
Pennsylvania for using preservatives of some kinds, and 
it leaves everyone in the meat business at a loss to know 
what to do. We can't keep meat or cure it without using 
preservatives of some kind. What would you advise us 
to do?" 

Ans. — We manufacture a preparation known as 
Freeze-Em-Pickle, which can be used for curing pur- 
poses and fully keep within the requirements of all 
food laws, both state and National, as well as laws 
of foreign countries. This article can be used in 
all kinds of sausage, fresh or dried. We guarantee 
that the use of this article will not in any manner con- 
flict with the pure food laws of your state, and you are 
perfectly safe in using it. Its uses are so various 
that it would be impossible for us to give full direc- 
tions for using it within the limits of these columns, 
but we take pleasure in sending you a booklet which 
will give you all necessary instructions and much 
other valuable information. 

237 



B. H E LLE RScCD. 



^E 



KEEPING CURED MEATS IN CELLARS 
DURING SUMMER. 

Qwery. — We have not enough cooler room to cure meat 
during the summer time, and we want to know if there is 
any way we can keep cured meat in our cellar during 
June weather without it becoming too salty. 

Ans. — Even if you cure the meat in the winter and 
keep the cooler at a proper temperature and then leave 
the meat in the brine during the summer, the brine 
will turn sour, or become ropy, or thick, and will 
spoil the meat. To store meat in brine, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to keep it at a very low temperature. 
In fact, it is necessary to have an ice machine to 
keep the temperature in the cooler or storage room 
as low as 30 degrees. You could get it as low as 
28 degrees. The meat would not freeze, but by hav- 
ing the temperature so low, the meat would not take 
on any more salt. You seem to be of the opinion that 
if the pickle on the meat were reduced you could 
keep the meat in the brine and keep it in a warm tem- 
perature. That would be impossible. Of course, hav- 
ing the brine weaker, it would not cause the meat 
to become so salty, but nevertheless, the brine would 
spoil, and it would then spoil the meat. To store 
meat in brine it is absolutely necessary to have the 
proper facilities and that means an ice machine. Our 
advice is that you cure enough meat during the winter 
according to the Freeze-Em-Pickle process to carry 
you until the middle or end of May, and then about 
the first of May begin curing some more meat in 
your regular cooler where the temperature is low 
enough so that the meat will cure properly. 

STRONG LARD FROM BOARS. 

Query. — J. A. S. writes: "I have rendered 100 lbs. of 
lard made as follows; 15 lbs. from fat barrows, 25 lbs. 
from fat boars. I find that the lard is strong. Can you 
give me the cause of it?" 

Ans. — The odor from boar fat is so strong that such 
fat should not be used in first grade lard. Boar fat 
will only make a second grade of lard. We advise that 
you always keep it separate and sell it at a discount 
as a second grade of lard to bakers. The strong boar 
odor cannot be removed from the lard and the only 
thing that can be done is to whiten and purify it. In 
future render your barrow fat and boar fat separately. 

238 



C H I C A C3 □ U.S.-FL. 



TO MAKE HEAD CHEESE AND NEW 
ENGLAND STYLE HAM SOLID 



Ans. — To make Head Cheese sticky and solid without 
putting hog rinds in it, use Bull-Meat-Brand Flour, putting 
from ten to twelve pounds of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour into 
100 pounds of meat. The quantity used must be governed 
by the percentage proportion amount allowed by your State 
Pure Food Law. This will make a firm, solid Head Cheese, 
filling all the holes with a jelly-like mass. Bull-Meat-Brand 
Flou,~ is an excellent binder for Head Cheese and other 
sausage products. 

If you desire your New England Style Ham to be more 
sticky, you must take your pork trimmings and cut them 
about the size of an egg and mix with every 100 pounds of 
meat 1 pound of our Freeze-Em-Pickle, but do not put any 
salt with them whatsoever. Let the meat stand in the cooler 
for a week and you will find that the juices in the meat will 
have been thickened like glue and be sticky. Then take the 
meat out of the cooler; add 1% pounds of salt to 100 lbs. 
of meat and season with Zanzibar-Brand Seasoning. Take 
a small quantity of this meat and grind it very fine and then 
mix the fine with the coarse pieces and stuff it. Cook it 
very carefully with slow heat, then put it in the cooler in a 
press or put boards on it and press it down with stones. 
Your New England Style Pressed Ham is then finished. 
Of course, you can use some Zanzibar-Carbon to color the 
casings. See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. 

HOW TO PREVENT MOULD ON SAUSAGE, 
HAMS AND BACON. 

Query. — L. B. writes: "Will you please let me know if 
there is anything to prevent the moulding of summer sau- 
sage, hams and bacon?" 

Ans. — It is first necessary that you hang the sausage 
and meat in a dry, cool room. If you keep it in a room 
where the air is moist, it will mould rapidly. If lard 
is rubbed on the sausage and also the meat, it will aid 
materially in preventing moulding. When so used, it 
should be applied with a cloth and rubbed on both the 
meat and the skin side. If your meat has already be- 
gun to mould, it should first be washed with warm 
water and then permitted to dry for a few hours. 
When dry apply a little of the lard with a cloth. 

239 



B. H E LLER Sc CZ O. 



SHARPENING KNIVES AND PLATES OF 
MEAT GRINDERS. 

Query. — F. W. F. Co. asks how to sharpen knives and 
plates of meat grinders. 

Ans. — If the plates are grooved and rough, it will 
be necessary to have them turned off in a lathe. Then 
the knives should be sharpened on the cutting-edge just 
like a scissors. We do not mean the flat side which runs 
against the plate. But if the knife is also rough on 
the flat side, then the flat side should be smoothed off 
a little on a grindstone, and after the plate is turned 
down the knife should be ground with emery and oil 
right on the plate to make a tight fit. If you have no 
lathe, it will have to be done in a machine shop, and 
in that event we would advise you to get into touch 
with some of the large concerns which supply butchers' 
cutlery, etc. We would be pleased to give you the 
names of some very good firms if you desire. 

HOW TO CURE MEAT FROM FARM-KILLED 

HOGS. 

Query. — C. A. J.^writes: I have more or less trouble 
in curing hams from farmer killed hogs. The trouble I 
have is in the marrow. Would you please tell me the 
best way for farmers to kill and chill hogs and how is 
best to cure such meat? 

Ans. — We take pleasure in sending you by mail 
under separate cover, our book, "Secrets of Meat 
Curing and Sausage Making. ' ' This book will give you 
all needed information with reference to meat curing 
and sausage making. You should study this carefully 
because it gives you the needed information for hand- 
ling the meat before it is put in brine and during 
the time it is in the brine. It tells you how to pump 
the meats; how to make the brine for pumping; when 
to overhaul the meat; the temperature to eure in, etc. 
If you will follow all information given in these ar- 
ticles you will overcome the trouble you have had. 
You should also use Freeze-Em-Pickle for curing be- 
cause by its use you will be able to turn out the 
finest mild-cured sweet pickled meats having a most 
delicious flavor, of good appearance. Moreover you 
would have a uniform cure and no loss from sour 
meats. You say that you have had trouble from hams 
souring at the marrow. Read carefully our article 
relating to the pumping of meats. By pumping you 
will overcome the souring at the marrow. 

240 



CHICADD, U.S. A. 



CAUSE OF FAILURE IN CURING MEATS. 

Query. — H. B. writes: I have been trying to cure corned 
beef, but it has a very funny taste. If you can tell me 
what is the trouble and how to avoid it I will be greatly 
obliged. I boil the water for making it into brine and 
use refrigerated meats. I thoroughly cleaned the barrel 
with scalding hot water. I did not cure the meat in a 
cooler, but in a room where the temperature runs from 
sixty to sixty-five degrees. The brine was seventy degrees 
strength, according to the pickle-tester. I did not use either 
sugar or molasses in the brine. The curing is a failure. 
Will you please give me all the information you can? 

Ans. — Your questions are their own answers. It is 
impossible to cure Corned Beef or any other kind of 
meat in a room where the temperature is as high as 
60 degrees. It should not be higher than 45 degrees, 
and 40 degrees will be much better. 

We refer you to our directions for curing Corned 
Beef in our book, "Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage 
Making. ' ' 

The directions contained therein should always be 
followed to the letter, if good results are desired, and 
when they are followed you will turn out the very finest 
Corned Beef; it will be in perfect condition and have 
the sweet taste so much desired. The brine for 100 
pounds of meat should be made as follows: 8 pounds 
of common salt, 1 pound of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 2 pounds 
of granulated sugar and 5 gallons of cold water. The 
meat should be cured in this brine ten to fifteen days, 
according to the weight and thickness of the pieces. 
Use only fresh meats that have been thoroughly chilled. 

LARDING NEEDLES— HOW USED. 

Query. — F. P. C. writes: What are larding needles used 
for? I would like to receive a copy of your book. 

Ans. — A larding needle is used for drawing fine or 
thin strips of bacon through beef tenderloins and other 
kinds of meat. Frequently small strips of dry salt 
pork are drawn through beef tenderloins, also through 
meat to be roasted. This makes the meat nice and 
juicy and also imparts to it a fine flavor. The strips 
which are to be drawn through the meat are cut very 
thin and usually square. They are about y s to 3-32 
of an inch in thickness. 

241 



ScCD 



WHY COOLER " SWEATS/ ' 

Query. F. B. writes: "I would like a little information 

«n regard to my cooler. In sultry weather it sweats terri- 
bly, almost changing its natural finish to v:hite and the 
sweat rolls down from it. If you can give me any informa- 
tion as to how I can stop it, I will be very thankful to 
you. The inside of the cooler is perfectly dry; in fact, 
I could strike a match in it anywhere. Kindly let me 
know if there is any way of preventing this trouble." 

Ans. — The trouble with your cooler is no doubt due 
to the moisture of the atmosphere and to some imper- 
fection in insulation. The defect can be remedied by 
the manufacturers. You say the cooler is perfectly dry 
inside, therefore, its construction must be very good, 
but the outside insulation is not just right, so the out- 
side becomes too cool and the moist air coming in con- 
tact with the cold surface readily condenses. If the 
cooler can be insulated in such a way that the outside 
will not become so cold, we have no doubt your trouble 
can be overcome. 

LEGALITY OF WHITE BERLINER BRAND 
KONSERVIRUNGS-SALZE. 

Query. O. B. writes: "We notice in the Scientific Meat 

Industry that you claim White Berliner Konservirangs- 
Salze can be used as a preservative for meats and keep 
within the requirements of the food laws of Pennsylvania. 
We wish to inquire whether one is perfectly safe in using 
this preparation as a preservative in Pennsylvania. Of 
course it is well understood that butchers must use a 
preservative of some kind, but they are interpreting the 
law in this state very strictly. Please let us hear from 
you fully in regard to this." 

Ans. — White Berliner Konservirungs-Salze, when 
used in the proportion of four to eight ounces to each 
100 lbs. of meat, complies with the pure food laws of 
Pennsylvania. No one need hesitate to use it for all 
the purposes for which we have recommended it in 
these columns, as there would be no grounds for action 
against anyone for its use. It is perfectly harmless and 
is everywhere recognized as such. No objection has been 
made against its use. We advise all butchers in Penn- 
sylvania to make use of this preparation, as it will 
fully meet their requirements and absolve them from 
prosecution for the use of a meat perservative. 

242 



CHICAGO, TU. S.A. 



COLD-STORINE IS NOW LEGAL. 

Query. — L. B. S.: We notice that you have put 
Cold-Storine on the market again. Is this product 
now legal to use? 

Ans. — In reply to your favor of the 10th inst. we 
are pleased to inform you that Cold-Storine is now 
made under a new improved formula and contains no 
ingredients that have been ruled out under the Na- 
tional Pure Food Law or the Federal Meat Inspection 
Law. It is therefore now legal to use everywhere. 

As you undoubtedly know, Cold-Storine is used to 
keep sausage, tripe, tongue, poultry, etc., in a good 
condition, and it does this work most satisfactorily. 
Simply by storing the sausage, tripe and other meats 
in a solution of Cold-Storine, each night, they can be 
displayed on the counters during the entire day, and 
yet keep in a good condition for a week or longer. 
This preparation can save you considerable money by 
preventing losses from spoiled goods. 

You undoubtedly have your greatest difficulty in 
keeping link pork sausage in a good salable condition 
after it has been exposed on the counter for several 
days. This difficulty is entirely overcome by storing 
them in a solution of Cold-Storine over night. It will 
prevent them from becoming slimy and enable them 
to retain their full weight and fresh appearance until 
sold. 

You are of course anxious to cut down your per- 
centage of losses from spoiled goods, as nothing else 
eats so large a hole into your profits as this. So we 
expect you will be glad to hear that you can again 
use Cold-Storine. Like all progressive meat dealers, 
you undoubtedly look upon the use of Cold-Storine, 
not as an item of expense, but as a big money-making 
proposition. We enclose herewith our folder entitled, 
"Put a Dollar Into Cold-Storine and Take Out Ten," 
which will give you further information on this pro- 
duct. 

243* 



33. H E L-LE R. Sc CZ O. 



HOW TO GIVE A BRIGHT, RED COLOR TO 

BOLOGNA AND FRANKFORT SAUSAGE 

WITHOUT ARTIFICIAL COLORING. 

Query. — / am trying to make Bologna and Frankfort 
sausage, and make it all right except the color of the meat. 
I cannot get a nice pink color. . I have tried Freeze-Em 
Pickle; it is all right, but it is too slow a process. I want 
to make my sausage out of fresh meat and smoke it in a 
smoke-house, but cannot get a nice pink color on the meat. 
It has a gray color and does not look right. I have a 
color on hand, but it don't give satisfaction. It makes 
the meat too red and does not look good. 

Now, if you have anything that will overcome my 
trouble and will give my sausage a nice pink color, not 
red, and will comply with the National Pure Food Law, 
send it right along. I will remit on arrival. I would send 
the money now, but do not know the value of it. I make 
about twenty-five pounds of sausage at a batch. 

Ans. — Your letter of recent date received. You say 

you are trying to make bologna and that you make 

it all right, but that the color of the meat is not a 

nice pink color. You say you tried the Freeze-Em- 

Pickle and that it worked an right, but that it is too 

slow a process. You further say you want to make your 

bologna out of fresh meat, but that you do not get 

a nice pink color when it is made that way. You 

say the meat is gray. 

In all of that you are correct, and you will always 
have a gray sausage unless you make it with Freeze- 
Em-Pickle according to the directions in our cir- 
cular. If you make bologna sausage out of fresh meat, 
it, of course, will be gray. If you roast a piece of 
beef, it will be gray. If you cook a piece of beef, it 
will be gray. It is the same with bologna. When bo- 
logna is made with fresh meat, it will be gray, just 
as though you take a piece of fresh meat and boil 
it. It is impossible to make bologna with a pink 
color and make it out of fresh meat. For that reason, 
we recommend you to use Freeze-Em-Pickle and pre- 
pare your bologna meat with Freeze-Em-Pickle before- 
hand. You can do that in about two or three days. 
It is better, however, to let the meat cure for a week. 

All you have to do is to trim out the beef and 
pork trimmings with which you intend to make the 
bologna, cut the pieces up about the size of an English 
walnut and sprinkle on Freeze-Em-Pickle in the pro- 
portion of one pound Freeze-Em-Pickle to every 100 
pounds of meat. Mix the meat thoroughly and then 

244 



CHIGADD.U.S.A. 



pack it tightly in a tierce or a box, in fact a shal- 
low box where the meat is not very thick is better, 
but pack it in tightly, and then put it in the cooler 
and let it remain there for at least four or five days, 
or a week, if possible. Then when you make bologna, 
the bologna will be better in flavor, will be juicier, 
will have a fine red appearance, and will be perfect 
in all respects. This we positively guarantee. 

If you want to make bologna and frankfort sau- 
sage properly and have it right in all respects, you 
must take the necessary time and prepare the meat 
accordingly. 

Formerly when artificial colors could be used in bo- 
logna and frankfort sausage, then it was all right to 
make it out of fresh meat and use an artificial inside 
color, but now, however, the food laws are such that 
you cannot use an inside color and therefore it is neces- 
sary to make it according to the Freeze-Em-Pickle 
process and with our Freeze-Em-Pickle. Then you 
will have a nice pink color on the inside of your 
bologna and frankfort sausage. You say you have a 
color on hand but it does not give satisfaction. It 
is a good thing that it does not give satisfaction, be- 
cause if you were to use it, you could be arrested and 
fined and it would cause you a great deal of trouble; 
in fact, your reputation might be ruined if your 
name got in the papers stating that you used coloring 
on the inside of your bologna and frankfort sausage, 
because the food laws prohibit that. 

By using the Freeze-Em-Pickle process you will make 
sausage that will in every way comply with your 
state food law arfd will at the same time, have a fine 
inside color, and excellent flavor and splendid keeping 
qualities. This will overcome all the troubles you men- 
tion, and all that is necessary is for you to prepare 
your meats a few days before hand. In fact, you can 
prepare a quantity of the meat before hand and keep 
it and use it along as you need it, making up 25 pounds 
at a time whenever you wish to do so, and leave the 
balance until a later occasion. Meat will keep this 
way in a good cooler indefinitely. This is the only 
way we can recommend your making sausage that 
will comply with your law and at the same time have 
the color you desire. Of course, it is a little more 
trouble, but it is trouble that will well repay you, be- 
cause your sausage will really be of better quality and 
it will make a much better appearance. 

245 



B.HELLER Sc CZ O. 



HOW TO REMOVE WOOL FROM GREEN 
AND DRY SHEEP PELTS 

Question. — K. M. Co. writes : Can you give us a method 
for pulling the wool from green hides and also from dry 
hides? We get the dead carcasses from the feed and 
transit yards — a good many hundred pelts during a year. 
Lots of these pelts are torn. If we can pull the wool we 
will be able to realize more money out of handling these 
pelts. 
{Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden.) 

Answer. — As a general rule, wool is pulled from 
pelts by concerns that make this work a business. 
The method used is sweating and steaming the pelts. 
The pelts are hung on racks in a room into which 
live steam is turned. The pelts are kept hot for a 
number of days and the heat loosens the wool. It 
can then be easily pulled from the skin. The wool is 
then dried and baled. 

You could not adopt this method profitably on a 
small scale, but we will give you a method that you 
can use which will prove a satisfactory way for small 
handdlers of pelts who desire to pull the wool. 

Make a pile of your pelts, wetting the pelts as you 
pile them. Cover the pelts with blankets or gunny 
sacks and allow the pile of pelts to sweat. The wet 
pelts being covered up tight, will become hot and 
sweat. This will loosen the wool and it can be readily 
pulled off. 

Another way of removing the wool from pelts is to 
spread the pelts upon the floor, with the wool down 
next to the floor. On the skin side of the pelts place 
crushed fresh lime and dampen the lime. This wet- 
ting of the lime will cause it to slake and soak into 
the skin. The wool will be loosened by this treat- 
ment of the pelts and it can be easily pulled. This 
method, however, will spoil the skins and render 
them of no value. 

The simpler method of handling the green hides 
by a butcher or other dealer who has only a small 
business equipment is to use the sweating process. 
By this method both the wool and the skins can be 
saved and sold. Ordinarily, by the sweating method 
the pelts are piled one on top of the other, some water 
sprinkled on each pelt, and the piles made from two 
feet to three feet high, and allowed to sweat. Great 
care must be taken not to let the pelts sweat too much, 
otherwise the hide will decay and in pulling the wool 

246 



CHIGADD, TU. S.A. 



the hide will tear. As soon as the wool is sufficiently 
loosened from the pelt it should be pulled. The skins 
can then be salted and cured, or the skins can be put 
into a brine and curedt After the skins are thor- 
oughly cured they are ready to be shipped to the 
tannery. 



HOW TO MAKE PEPPERED BEEF 

Question. — G. E. O'F. writess—Can you furnish me with 
a recipe for making (Postromer) Peppered Beef? I am 
a user of your goods and will be under obligations to you 
for this information. 
(Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden) 

Answer. — We do not clearly understand your 
question. If you mean cured Briskets that are cov- 
ered with red pepper, or Paprika Compound, and then 
smoked, you can proceed as follows: 

Cure your boneless briskets in corned beef brine 
with garlic in it. You will find a formula for this 
in our book, "Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage 
Making," a copy of which we are sending you. After 
the meat is cured, and before you place it in the 
smoke-house, rub our Chile Powder all over the out- 
side of it, and then smoke it. Or, you can smoke it 
and cook it, and then rub the Chile Powder over it 
after it is cooked. In this way, you will use less Chile 
Powder. 

If this does not fully answer your question write 
us again giving us more complete statement of what 
is desired. 



UTILIZING FAT TRIMMINGS 

Question. — H. A. writes: Please send me information as 
to how to use up my fat trimmings. 

Answer. — The best way to make use of your fat 
trimmings is to work them up into Pork Sausage, 
using plenty of Bull Meat Brand Flour to absorb the 
fat. When plenty of Bull Meat Flour is used the fat 
stays in the sausage when fried instead of frying out. 
This keeps the meat from shrinking. 

247 



IfcsaSfcaft^^ai-J 



Sc CD. 




f*S||E% 



w 

A PREPARED PICKLE FOR CURIH6 
MAMS. BACON .SHOULDERS 



For Curing Hams, Bacon, Shoulders, Corned 

Beef, and for Curing Beef and Pork 

for making all kinds of Sausage 

Freeze-Em-Pickle is a preparation for Curing 
Hams, Shoulders, Bacon, Corned Beef, Dry Salt 
Meat, Pickled Pork and Meat for Making Bolo- 
gna and all other kinds of sausage, etc. The 
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process retards fermentation 
and souring of brine when used according to our 
directions. It gives a delicious, mild flavor, cur- 
ing the meat more uniformly and with a fine 
color. By its use curing is made easier, and 
anyone, without being experienced, can cure 
meats successfully. 

Trimmings and sausage meats treated with 
dry Freeze-Em-Pickle can be stored away for 
six months, or even longer, and will then make 
better sausage than will fresh meats. Dry cur- 
ing meats for sausage by the Freeze-Em-Pickle 

248 



|B»*iH»»Jra^ 



.U.S. A. 



Process congeals the albumen in the meat, so 
that it and the juices do not draw out in the form 
of brine. It thus keeps more of the nutriment 
and flavor in the meat and sausage, making it 
more juicy and better when fried or otherwise 
cooked. 

Those using the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process 
have an absolute guaranty in its use and can 
always depend upon getting good results when 
our directions are followed. It possesses the 
advantage which the curer of meat has been 
seeking for years, and it also fully complies with 
all State, National and Foreign Laws. 

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing 
meats gives a mild, delicious flavored cure. 
Meats cured by it will not be too salty, but 
will have that sugar-cured flavor which is so 
much liked. 

MAKING BOLOGNA AND FRANKFURT 
SAUSAGE 

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is highly 
recommended for preparing meat for Bologna, 
Frankfurts, etc. When the meat for Bologna 
and Frankfurt Sausage is prepared by this Proc- 
ess, the sausage made will be juicy and delicious. 

g — -o 

So 2? ~ S w c 

.£■ g "» = > >>'a. 

prices ijesb 5a!f °!!i 

PER LB. PER LB. PER LB. 

X Case, 25-1 lb. cartons. .$0.16 $0.17 $0.18 

%. Case, 50-1 lb. cartons. . .15 16 17 

1 Case, 100-1 lb. cartons. .14 15 16 

y 2 Barrel, 250 lbs 10>£ 11^ 12,^ 

1 Barrel, 500 lbs 10 ..... .11 12 

5 Barrels, 2500 lbs 09}£ 10^ 11/2 

10 Barrels, 5000 lbs 09 10 11 

249 



B 



mm 



IS 




We guarantee that Freeze-Em-Pickle 
does not contain any ingredient that has 
been ruled out by any food law and we 
further guarantee that the Freeze-Em- 
Pickle Process of curing meats is in 
accordance with the requirements of the 
Federal Meat Inspection Law. We also 
guarantee that meats cured by the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will have a 
fine flavor and a mild, sweet cure when 
our directions are followed in every detail. 
We guarantee that meats treated by the 
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will not spoil 
nor sour if kept under proper conditions. 
Freeze-Em-Pickle is being used by many 
United States Government In- 
spected Packing Houses 
throughout the country. 



m** 





waai 



TU. S.-HL. 





FOR ICE BOXES:— After 

thoroughly washing every part of 
the interior with hot water and 
soap or a reliable washing powder 
(we strongly recommend Ozo 
Washing Powder) prepare a rins- 
ing solution by dissolving four 
ounces of Freeze-Em to each gal- 
lon of Hot Water required, and 
thoroughly rinse every corner and 
crevice with this rinsing solution. 
We recommend this same strength rinsing 
solution for rinsing Blocks, Pails, Tubs and all 
Butchers and Sausage Makers Tools and Ma- 
chinery. 

When cleaning old barrels used for Curing, 
use the same strength solution on both the inside 
and outside of all barrels before putting in new 
brine, always using fresh boiling hot water for 

the final rinse. 

PRICES 

1 lb. bottles $0.75 

5 lb. bottles, per lb 50 

30 lbs., (K dozen 5 lb. bottles) per lb 48 

60 lbs., ( 1 dozen 5 lb. bottles) per lb 46 

120 lbs., ( 2 dozen 5 lb. bottles) per lb 44 

240 lbs., ( l A gross 5 lb. bottles) per lb .42 

360 lbs., (Vi gross 5 lb. bottles) per lb 41 

720 lbs., ( 1 gross 5 lb. bottles) per lb 40 

251 



B.HE 



MS 



ScGD 



■rf 




Bull -Meat -Brand Flour 

Highly Recommended as a 
Sausage Binder and Meat Juice Absorbent 

Sausage Makers who have made a test of 
Bull-Meat-Brand Flour say that it is a most 
satisfactory Blender, Binder and Absorbent for 
Bologna, Frankfurts, Pork Sausage, etc. 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour is a Pure Cereal 
Product, and contains no adulterants of any kind. 
It is made from grain and possesses those ab- 
sorbing and binding qualities which make it 
especially adapted for use in sausage making. It 
adds to the nutritive qualities of the sausage 
through its tendency to absorb and retain the 
meat juices and fats. This makes the sausage 
more juicy and more appetizing. 

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour does not dry out nor 
become lumpy, but blends with the meat and fat 
when used according to our directions. 

252 



CHICADD, U. S.A. 



BULL-MEAT 

rBRAND 

FLOUR 




Bull-Meat-Brand Flour complies with the 
requirements of the Pure Food Laws. Being a 
wholesome and nutritious article of food in itself, 
it improves the sausage in flavor by holding the 
juices in the sausage. Our Guaranty is attached 
to every package of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour leav- 
ing our factory. 

F. 0. B. Chicago F. 0. B. F. 0. B. Jobbers 

Pp | f p Q and all Jobbing Jobbers West of Rockies 

**■ I v* H D Points East of in Texas and all Pacific 

Colorado and Colorado Coast Points 

1 Case (10-5 lb. pkgs.) per lb. $0.06^ . . $0.07 % . . .$0.08^ 

1 Case (20-5 lb. pkgs.) per lb . .06 . . .07 ... .08 

1 Drum (50 lbs.) per lb 06 .. .07 ... .08 

1 Drum (100 lbs.) per lb 05^ . . .06^ . . . .07^ 

1 Barrel (275 lbs.) per lb 04 K • -05^ . . .06^ 

6 Barrel lots, per lb 04^ . . .05 X • • • 06^ 

12 Barrel lots, per lb 04 . . .05 ... .06 

25 Barrel lots, per lb 03^ . . .04%: . . . .05^ 

100 Barrels (10 at a time) per lb. .03^.. .04^ ... .05 % 

100 Barrels (l shipment) per lb. .03}^.. .04>£ . . . .05^ 

On 6 barrel contracts, flour must be taken 2 barrels at a time. 
On 12 barrel contracts, it must be taken 3 barrels at a time. On 25 
barrel contracts, it must be taken 5 barrels at a time. On 100 barrel 
contracts, it must be taken 10 barrels at a time. 

253 



Jzzj. HE jEj 



!MS 



ScCD 



Don't Envy the Successful 
Sausage Maker 

But Make Your Sausage Equal Any In Flavor 

PREPARED Y $AUSAGE° SEASONINGS 

Be A Successful Sausage Maker Yourself 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 




In order to make Fine Sausage the Sausage Maker 
must use Fine Seasonings. It pays to use the very best 
Seasonings that can be obtained. 

Zanzibar-Brand Prepared Sausage Seasonings are 
made from carefully tested and selected spices and herbs. 
Their use gives to Sausage a delicious and appetizing fla- 
vor. The pleasing aroma arising from cooked sausage 
containing these Seasonings adds zest to the appetite. 
Zanzibar-Brand Sausage Seasonings are 100% Spices and 
Herbs. 

There are so called sausage seasonings on the market 
which contain 40% to 50% bread crumbs. Buy the all sea- 
soning kind (Zanzibar-Brand) and be safe. 

Our Zanzibar-Brand Sausage Seasonings cost a little 
more than the ordinary kind, but they are Positively Guar- 
anteed to be All Spice and Free from all Adulteration. 

The Formulas from which the Zanzibar-Brand Sausage 
Seasonings are made are old Secret Formulas the property 

254 



CHICACj-O. U. S. A. 



of B. Heller & Co. These Formulas have been used in 
past generations in the Heller Family, and also by Mr. 
Adolph Heller, while in the Packing and Sausage Business. 
The added Perfection of these Formulas has been brought 
about through the twenty years of B. Heller & Co's experi- 
ence as Experts and Consulting Packing House Chemists. 

Zanzibar-Brand Prepared Sausage Seasonings impart 
a Fine Flavor as well as a Delicious Aroma to all kinds of 
Sausage. The ingredients used in the Zanzibar-Brand 
Seasonings are Pure, and of High Quality. The combina- 
tions impart to Sausage a Zestful and Pipuant Flavor en- 
tirely their own, which is very Delicious and Appetizing 
and one which is exceedingly pleasing. Zanzibar-Brand 
Seasonings will help increase anyone's Sausage Trade 
wherever used, because the Sausage Flavored with these 
Seasonings will have such a Fine Flavor as well as an 
Appetizing Aroma. 

Owing to the Zanzibar-Brand Seasonings being Free 
from Adulterations, and of High Quality, it is necessary to 
use only one-half as much of the Zanzibar-Brand Season- 
ings as of diluted and adulterated prepared Seasonings or 
Spices. It, therefore, can be seen that our Zanzibar-Brand 
Seasonings are Positively Cheaper owing to the small 
amount required to give the Sausage the Desired Flavor. 
Any Sausage Maker who will try these Seasonings will 
always use them, not only because they give such a Deli- 
cious Flavor to the Sausage, but also owing to the economy 
in their use. 



PRICE LIST 



Pork Sausage Seasoning \ 

(German Style) J 

Pork Sausage Seasoning I 
(with Sage) J * ' 

Bologna and Smoked \ t 

Sausage Seasoning J 

Frankfurt and Weiner \ ^ 

Sausage Seasoning / 

Liver Sausage, Blood Sausage ) 

and Head Cheese Seasoning )'"' 

Swedish Sausage Seasoning 

Polish Sausage Seasoning 

Summer Sausage Seasoning 

Pickled Tongue and Pigs I t 

Feet Seasoning J *" * 

Corned Beef Seasoning 

Hamburger Seasoning 

Chile Powder, Zanzibar Brand 



250 
lb. 

bbls. 


100 

lb. 

cans 


50 

lb. 

cans 


25 

lb. 

cans 


10 

lb. 

cans 


.30 


.31 


32 


.33 


.35 


.45 


.46 


.47 


.48 


.50 


30 


.31 


.32 


.33 


35 


.30 


.31 


.32 


.33 


35 


.30 


.31 


.32 


.33 


35 


.30 
.30 
.30 


.31 
.31 
.31 


.32 

.32 
.32 


.33 
.33 
.33 


.35 
.35 
.35 


.30 


31 


.32 


.33 


35 


.30 
.30 
.47 


.31 
.31 
.49 


.32 
.32 
.51 


.33 
.33 
.53 


35 
.35 
35 



May 1916; prices subject to change without notice. 

255 



H.HE 



'^ff^ 



ScGQ 



B. HELLER & CO'S 
ZANZIBAR-BRAND 

CHILE POWDER 

Keep Up Quality and Get the Business 
by Using Our Chile Powder 

A Flavor for Spanish Style Dishes 



A Fine Flavoring for 
Chile Con Came, 
Chile Loaves, 
Tamales, Salads, 
Chorizos, etc. 



Zanzibar-Brand Chile Powder is different 
from the general run of Chile Powders. It is 
especially prepared for the flavoring or seasoning 
of Mexican or Spanish Style Food Dishes, such 
as Chile Con Carne, Tamales, Enchiladas, Chile 
Loaves, Chorizos, Gravies, Salads and many 
other dishes. 

When you feel a longing for something good 
to eat, and cannot express your desire in words, 
something that will sharpen appetite and gratify 
an unsatisfied craving, try our Chile Powder in 
one of the dishes above named, and you will find 
satisfaction and content. 

PRICES 

5 pound Cans, per pound $0.60 

10 pound Cans, per pound .55 

25 pound Cans, per pound ^53 

50 pound Cans, per pound [[[ jl 

100 pound Cans, per pound 49 

250 pound Barrels, per pound ..., ,47 




256 



C H I C ACS CD. TU. S. JV 




B. HELLER & CO'S 
ZANZIBAR-BRAND 

SAVORY JELL-JELL 



Produces a Delicious 

Jell for Filling in 

Meat Preparations 



For use in Meat 
Pies, Meat Loaves, 
Head Cheese, 
Souse, Jellied Pigs 
Feet or any Meat Food Products where it is de- 
sired to have a nice Jellied appearance when cold. 

The flavors of the spices and aromatics used 
to produce Savory Jell-Jell are so thoroughly 
combined during our process of manufacture 
that no particular flavor is predominant. The 
flavors are evenly balanced and blended. 

Use Savory Jell-Jell to fill Meat Pies, mix in 
with Meat Loaves before baking and as a Jell 
Binder and Flavoring in Head Cheese. 

PRICES 

5 pound Cans, per pound $0.70 

10 pound Cans, per pound 68 

25 pound Cans, per pound 67 

50 pound Cans, per pound 66 

100 pound Cans, per pound 65 

The Flavor of Savory Jell-Jell can Not be produced 
by a mixture of Spices 

257 



Jzzl. !Ej[ JzlI 



ScCD 



B. HELLER & CO'S 

VACUUM. BRAND 

GARLIC COMPOUND 

(GARLIC AND CEREAL) 

An Appetizing Flavor for High Grade Foods 

Vacuum-Brand 
Garlic Compound 
is a powder made 
from Selected 
Fresh Garlic. The 
Fresh Garlic is 
Dried, Evaporated, 
Powdered and 
Combined with 
Cereal to retain the 
essential flavoring 
principle by a 
Special Process of our own. Our method of 
preparing Vacuum -Brand Garlic Compound 
holds the Delicious Flavoring Properties of the 
Fresh Garlic in a manner that permits their be- 
ing easily and thoroughly mingled with the foods 
to be flavored. Vacuum-Brand Garlic Com- 
pound is Excellent as a Flavoring for Bologna 
and Frankfurt Sausage, Corned Beef, Chile Sauce, 

etc. 

PRICES 

1 pound Cans $0.45 

5 pound Cans, per pound 40 

10 pound Cans, per pound 39 

25 pound Cans, per pound , 38 

50 pound Cans, per pound 37 

100 pound Cans, per pound 36 

Barrels (250 pounds) per pound 35 

258 




\Um*±*&-¥^-1~ 



, U.S.-FL 



Use This Seasoning and Gain a Reputation 
for Selling High Grade Goods 



B. HELLER & CO'S 

GARLIC CONDIMENT 

(POWDER) 

Excellent for Flavoring Sausage of all kinds, 

Dill Pickles, Tamales, etc. 

Vacuum-Brand 
Garlic Condiment 
is a Seasoning 
made from Select- 
ed Fresh Garlic 
combined with 
Spice. The Spice 
is used as a means 
to absorb and carry 
the Flavor of the 
Garlic. 

Garlic Condiment is absolutely free from 
Cereal. This fact makes it usable in such States 
and manufacturing establishments where pro- 
ducts containing Cereals may not be used. Gar- 
lic Condiment complies with the National and all 
State Pure Food Laws. 

PRICES 

1 pound Cans $0.55 

5 pound Cans, per pound 50 

10 pound Cans, per pound 49 

25 pound Cans, per pound 48 

50 pound Cans, per pound 47 

100 pound Cans, per pound 46 

Barrels (250 pounds) per pound 45 

259 




B.HE L JL-E RScCD. 




ZANZIBAR-CARBON 

CERTIFIED 

CASING 

BROWN 

COLOR 

Zanzibar-Carbon 
Certified Casing Brown 
Color gives Sausage 
Casings an Appetizing 
Smoke Shade Color. 

Zanzibar- Carbon- Brand Certified Casing 
Brown Color is a Harmless Color. The colors 
contained therein have been tested and passed 
as permissible and as harmless by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, and are there- 
fore legal to use under the rulings of the Federal 
Meat Inspection Law and may be used under 
the Government rules in Packing Houses and 
Sausage Factories having United States Govern- 
ment Inspection. (See guarantee on page 262.) 

This Color gives the Sausage Casings an 
Appetizing, Attractive Appearance. It should be 
used by all sausage manufacturers because it is 
a Harmless Color, and perfectly safe to use. It 
is Guaranteed to give satisfaction when our 
directions are followed. b. HELLER & CO. 

Prices on application 

260 



CHICADQU.S.A. 



B, HELLER & CO'S 

Color for Liver Sausage Casings 




ZANZIBAR-CARBON-BRAND CASING YELLOW 

MIXTURE GIVES TO LIVER SAUSAGE CASINGS 

THAT APPETIZING YELLOW COLOR 

Zanzibar-Carbon-Brand Casing Yellow Mix- 
ture is used for the purpose of giving Liver Sau- 
sage Casings an Attractive Light Smoke Shade 
Color; an appearance that is so greatly desired 
by makers of Smoked Liver Sausage. 

Casing Yellow Mixture should be used by 
all progressive Sausage Makers as a great help 
in building business. 

Zanzibar- Carbon-Brand Casing Yellow Mix- 
ture is a Harmless, Yellow Smoke Shade Color. 
The Colors contained therein have been tested 
and passed as permissible by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. It is legal to use 
under the Federal Meat Inspection Law, and may 
be used in Packing Houses and Sausage Factories 
having United States Government Inspection 
when used according to the rulings. 

Prices on application 

261 



B.HE 



8c CO. 



OUR GUARANTY 

We hereby Guarantee that Zanzibar-Carbon-Brand 
Colors are Harmless, as the only Coloring Matters used 
are Certified Colors, which are permitted to be used by 
the United States Government. By this we mean that a 
sample of each of the Colors used in Zanzibar-Carbon- 
Brand Casing Mixtures has first been submitted to the 
United States Government at Washington, D. C. to be 
tested and be passed on as permissible before any of it 
is used by us in preparing Color for shipment. The 
Government gives us a certificate number for each color. 
The numbers and our Guaranty are on each can. It is 
therefore legal to use these Colors under the Govern* 
ment rulings in United States Government Inspected 
Packing Houses for Coloring Sausage Casings. 




REGISTERED 
TRADE 

MARK 

B.-HELLER&CD 

CHEMISTS 

CHICAGO .U.S.A 



The genuine ZANZIBAR-CARBON-BRAND CASING BROWN 
and Casing YELLOW mixtures are sold in cans only, and not in 
bulk. Every can is sealed with a lead seal. The following is a 
facsimile of the seal we use for sealing all these cans. 





Showing one side of 
lead seal 



showing other side of 
lead seal 



262 



CHICADD, U.S.A 



You Can Obtain Top Prices for 
Your Lard if It Grades High 

Use B. HELLER & CO'S 

LARD AND TALLOW PURIFIER 

Our Lard and 
Tallow Purifier 
will be found an 
excellent medium 
for Purifying Lard 
and Tallow. By its 
use Lard and Tal- 
low are improved. 

Our Lard and 
Tallow Purifier is 
permitted to be 
used in Government Inspected Packing Houses 
and is guaranteed to comply with the require- 
ments. 

PRICES 

15-1 lb. Cartons, in case, per lb .$0.33 

X Case, ( 25-1 lb. cartons in case) per lb. .33 

%, Case, (50-1 lb. cartons in case) per lb. .32j£ 

1 Case, (10 0-1 lb. cartons in case) per lb. .32 

3 Cases, ( 50-1 lb. cartons in case) per lb. .31 

5 Cases, (100-1 lb. cartons in case) per lb. .30 

263 




B.PiE LLER Sc CO. 



The Secret of Making Money in Meat Products 
Lies in the Prevention of Losses 

Save Money by Preventing the Losses 
Due to Spoiled Meat 

Use B. HELLER & CO'S 

"A" CONDIMENTINE 

"A" Condimentine 
is a Condimental Prep- 
aration for Keeping in 
a Fresh Condition for 
a reasonable time 
Fresh Sausage such as 
Pork Sausage, Liver 
Sausage, Head Cheese, 
etc. Does not alter the 
Natural Color of the 
meat. 

"A" Condimentine complies with Pure Food 
Laws, National and State. It can be used every- 
where. Its use is permitted in Government In- 
spected Packing Houses. 

PRICES 

X Case, 25 1 lb. cartons, per lb $0.25 

Yz Case, 50 1 lb. cartons, per lb 24 

1 Case, 100 1 lb. cartons, per lb 23 

% Barrel, 250 lbs., per lb 1\% 

1 Barrel, 500 lbs., per lb 20 

6 BbL contracts, 2 bbL deliveries, per lb. .19 

264 




CHICAGJDU.S.A. 



B. HELLER & CO'S 

"B" CONDIMENTINE 

For Use in Smoked Sausage, 
Meat Loaves, etc c 

KEEPS YOUR SAUSAGE 

IN GOOD CONDITION 

FOR A REASONABLE 

TIME 

"B" Condimentine 
is a preparation for 
assisting in keeping 
Smoked Sausage, 
such as Bologna, 
Frankfurts, Ham- 
Bologna, Summer 
Sausage, Meat Loaves, etc, in marketable con- 
dition. 

Smoked Sausage can be kept in good condi- 
tion for a reasonable time by using "B" Condi- 
mentine, and may be Shipped to a Distance with 
Safety. The Sausage will remain in firm con- 
dition for a reasonable length of time. The meat 
will also retain a Red Color. 

PRICES 

X A Case, 25 1 lb. cartons, per lb $0.25 

Vz Case, 50 1 lb. cartons, per lb 24 

1 Case, 100 1 lb. cartons, per lb 23 

H Barrel, 250 lbs., per lb. 21^ 

1 Barrel, 500 lbs., per lb 20 

6 Bbl. contracts, 2 bbl. deliveries, per lb. .19 

265 




B.I-iE 



ScCD. 



BERLINER BRAND 

KONSERVIRUNGS SALT 

(CONSERVING SALT) (WHITE) 
USED FOR 

FRESH MEATS 

VEAL, MUTTON, GAME, ETC. 

For Salting and as an aid in Keep- 
ing in Good Condition Pork and Liver 
Sausage, Head Cheese, etc., also used 
for the temporary keeping of Fresh 
Meats such as Veal, Mutton, Game, 

etc. It does not contain any ingredients prohibited under 

National or State Pure Food Laws. 

PRICES 

25 1 lb. packages, in case, per lb. $0.27 

50 1 lb. packages, in case, per lb 27 

100 1 lb. packages, in case, per lb 27 

150 to 500 lb. lots, per lb 24 

500 lb. barrels, per lb 24 




BERLINER BRAND 

KONSERVIRUNGS SALT 

(CONSERVING SALT) (RED CURE) 

USED FOR 

CURING 

HAMS, BACON, TONGUE, DRIED 

BEEF, PICKLED PORK, MEAT, 

PIGS FEET, HEAD CHEESE, ETC. 

For Curing Hams, Bacon, Tongues, 
Dried Beef, Pickled Pork, Pigs Feet, 
Head Cheese, Meat, etc., and for Salting Trimmings for 
Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage. It does not contain any 
ingredients prohibited under the National or State Pure 
Food Laws. 

PRICES 

25 1 lb. packages, in case, per lb $0.27 

50 1 lb. packages, in case, per lb 27 

100 1 lb. packages, in case, per lb 27 

150 to 500 lb. lots, per lb 24 

500 lb. barrels, per ib 24 

266 




C H ICAGD, U. S. A. 



Keep Your Sausage, Sweetbreads, 

Pigs Feet, etc., in Better 

Condition by Using 




*^^'#^^C trademark RECJSTERED^ '^'*k&* *N&^£ 

REDUCES LOSSES 

FROM SPOILED GOODS 

By simply stor- 
ing your Sausage, 
Sweet Breads, 
Pigs Feet, Tripe, 
etc., in a solution 
of Cold Storine 
over night, you 
will increase your 
profits by reducing 
losses from the 
spoiling of these 
products. 

Losses due to spoiled meats cut down profits 
greatly, and the butcher should be interested in 
an article that reduces such losses. Use Cold 
Storine and you will reduce your losses from 
spoilage. 

PRICES 

25 lb. Cases, containing 25-1 lb. cartons, per lb $0.20 

50 lb. Cases, containing 50-1 lb. cartons, per lb 19 

100 lb. Cases, containing 100-1 lb. cartons, per lb 18 

250 lb. Half-Barrels, per lb 17 

500 lb. Barrels, per lb. . . . 16 

267 




H.HE 



Your Customers are Interested 

in the Sanitary Condition of 

Your Place of Business 



BY USING 




** IN COOURS.REWO'"' 8 F 
"KHRDOMS.ITC- 
■i. - P'MCTIONS 

B : " : ''' : -.:?" ;V '/' :i 'v:"A'' : 'I'' : ' 



You will Secure their Confi- 
dence and make Sure of their 
Continued Patronage because 
your place will be Clean. 

, Aseptifume is used for Puri- 

S§g*|=2^ fying the Air and Destroying Ob- 
noxious Odors in Hide Rooms, 
Rendering Rooms, Slaughter 
Houses and many other places. 

It can be used in Refrigerators, 
Fruit and Vegetable Cellars, etc., 
by Removing all Food Products 
and then Burning Aseptifume in them. 

This method of Using Aseptifume will put 
Food-Storage Places in a better and more 
Wholesome Condition. 

PRICES 

5 lb. Bottle, per lb $0.50 

y 2 dozen 5 lb. Bottles, in case, per lb 48 

1 dozen 5 lb. Bottles, in case, per lb 46 

2 dozen (l dozen 5 lb. Bottles in case) per lb 44 

x /s gross (l dozen 5 lb. Bottles in case) per lb 42 

^ gross (1 dozen 5 lb. Bottles in case) per lb 41 

1 gross (1 dozen 5 lb. Bottles in case) per lb 40 

268 



CHICADD, U. S.A, 



Health Depends Much Upon 
Sanitary Conditions. 

To Insure Cleanliness Use 
I B. HELLER & CO'S 

SANITARY FLUID 

(TRADE-MARK REGISTERED) 

A LIQUID DISINFECTANT 

DISINFECTS-DEODOR1ZES— 
PURIFIES 



Heller's Sanitary Fluid is 
put up in liquid form. Sprayed 
upon floors it will be found to be 
an effective Disinfectant. It may 
be used to advantage by mixing 
it in scrubbing water. It is well 
to use it in spittoons, urinals, 
closets, refuse and garbage cans. 
It is an economical preparation 
as one gallon of Sanitary Fluid 
makes 20 gallons of disinfecting 
solution. 



PRICES 

1 gallon Bottles $1.50 

6-1 gallon Bottles, per gallon 1.40 

269 




B.HE 



Sc co. 



CLEANLINESS IS HEALTH INSURANCE 



B. HELLER & CO'S 



TRADE-MARK 




REGISTERED 



WASHING POWDER 




A Valuable 
Preparation for 
Cleansing, Wash- 
ing and Scrub- 
bing. Especially 
recommended for 
use around Pack- 
ing Houses, Meat 
Markets, Slaugh- 
ter Houses, Sau- 
sage Kitchens, etc. 
It is a very satis - 
— factory Cleansing 
Agent. 



Every place where Food Products are to 
be stored should be carefully and thoroughly 
cleansed. Packers, Sausage Makers, Butchers, 
Grocery men and all others interested in a reli- 
able cleansing material will find Ozo a superior 
preparation. 



PRICES 

Yz Case, (1}4 doz. 3 lb. pkgs.) per lb 
1 Case, (3 doz. 3 lb. pkgs.) per lb 
1 Barrel, 300 lbs., per lb. 

270 









t— ° 



$0.08 $0.10 
.07^ .09^ 
.07 .09 



vt co 

23= «• 

■" O K3 (/> 

$0.1034: 

.10X 

.0934: 



CHIGADDU.S.A 



Something to Think About! 
Saving in Plumbers Bills! 

THE USE OF 

ozo 

WASTE PIPE OPENER 

IS A REAL ECONOMY 

Useful Wherever There Are Waste Pipes 

Ozo Waste Pipe 
Opener dissolves scum 
and grease in stopped 
up Sinks, Ice Box Pipes, 
Sewers, Water Closets, 
Etc. Its use will open 
up a drain pipe in a few 
minutes. In districts 
where the water is hard 
or places where the 
pipes clog up easily all 
the pipes should be 
flushed regularly once a month with Ozo 
Waste Pipe Opener. It will not affect any of 
the metalT or enamel ware used in plumbing. 

PRICES 

1-10 lb. Can $1.50 

l A Case, j4 dozen 10 lb. cans, in case 7.50 

1 Case, 1 dozen 10 lb. cans, in case 14.00 

271 




_E3. H Jni 



^E 



3k: 



Sc :c a. 




HELPS REMOVE THE DIRT AND THERE- 

FORE WHITENS THE SKIN 

OF THE HOGS 

Hog-Scald softens the scalding water and 
aids in loosening and removing the hair; it also 
helps to remove the dirt and cleanse the skin of 
the hog. 

Hog- Scald is a time and money saver. The 
small quantity required and its moderate cost is 
so little compared with the advantages obtained 
that every one slaughtering hogs should use it. 

PRICES 

10 lb. Cans, per lb $0.15 

60 lb. Cases ( l A doz. 10 lb. cans) per lb.. .12 
120 lb. Cases ( 1 doz. 10 lb. cans) per lb.. .11 
240 lb. Cases ( 2 doz. 10 lb. cans) per lb.. AOH 
360 lb. Cases (3 doz. 10 lb. cans) per lb. . .10 

272 



GHICAGD, T_J. S.JS. 



B. HELLER & CO'S 

TANALINE 

A POWDER FOP 

TANNING SKINS INTO FURS 




<0MJN£ 




ICHICAGCMJ-S.-BJ 



MAKE EASY MONEY 
TANNING SKINS 
INTO VALUABLE 
FURS AND RUGS 



Tanaline is a product for Tanning Skins of 
all kinds of animals. The man that desires to 
tan a few skins at a time, will find Tanaline con- 
venient and dependable. Each package of Tana- 
line contains enough of this Tanaline Powder 
for tanning thirty pounds of skins. 

The method of using Tanaline is simple. 

Anyone can do satisfactory work "with it. Soft, 

Pliable Furs and Rugs can be made from the 

skins of all kinds of animals with a small amount 

of work. 

PRICES 

1 dozen 2-lb. cartons, in case, per dozen $6.00 

}i gross 2-lb. cartons, in case, per dozen 5.75 

A. gross 2-lb. cartons, packed 6 dozen 

cartons in case, per dozen 5.50 

1 gross 2-lb. cartons, packed 12 dozen 

cartons in case, per dozen 5.25 x 

273 



ROYAL 

METAL POLISH 

(TRADE-MARK REGISTERED) 
(A POWDER) 

Makes Metal Polishing Easy 



This Polish is especial- 
ly prepared for use on Brass, 
Copper, German Silver, 
Zinc, Tin, etc. It is easy to 
use and quickly removes 
dirt, tarnish, etc. In Hotels, 
Restaurants and other 
places where a powder is 
frequently preferred and a 
large quantity of metal 
must be kept looking bright, 
it is especially suitable. A single trial 
will convince any one that it is a very 
superior powdered polish. 




PRICES 

Put up in 1-lb. Cans, each. . . 
1 doz. 1-lb. Cans, per dozen.. 

274 



$0.25 
2.50 



CHI CAGO. U.S.'iA. 



Here is Something All Butchers Need 

Has the '0. K." of Successful 

Dealers Everywhere 



B. HELLER & CO'S 

VARN-I-GLO 

(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.) 

A LUSTROUS POLISH FOR ALL KINDS OF 

FINISHED SURFACES 

VARN-I-GLO gives a 
Brilliant and Lustrous Polish 
to all Varnished and Lacquered 
Surfaces. It also Cleans these 
surfaces very thoroughly, re- 
moving Grease, Dirt and Ugly 
Spots that mar the Beauty of 
Fine Furniture. 

VARN-I-GLO Burnishes 
up Old Furniture, Ice Boxes, 
•Counters, etc., in fact, all 
Varnished and Lacquered Sur- 
faces. One of the many strong points of VARN- 
I-GLO is that it gives a high polish to Finished 
Surfaces without leaving a greasy or cloudy 
after-effect. 

PRICE: Gallon Cans, each $2.00 

275 




3l: 



B. HELLER & CO'S 

GOLDEN SHINE 

(TRADE-MARK) 

AN EXCELLENT METAL POLISH FOR BRASS, 
COPPER, STEEL, NICKEL, ALUMINUM, ETC. 

Golden Shine 
gives a fine 
shine to brass, 
copper, steel, 
aluminu m, 
nickel, etc. It is 
easily applied 
and works 
quickly — use 
one cloth to apply and another to rub off. 

Automobile owners and others who have 
much metal work to be cleaned and polished will 
be delighted with Golden Shine. The work of 
cleaning and polishing aluminum and other cook- 
ing utensils is quickly and satisfactorily done, thus 
lightening the work of the housewife. Golden 
Shine makes polishing a pleasure. Free from 
acids. Guaranteed to give satisfaction. In liquid 
form. 

PRICES 

1 pint Cans, 3 doz. to Case, per doz $3.00 

1 quart Cans, 2 doz. to Case, per doz 6.00 

Vz gallon Cans, 1 doz. to Case, per doz 9.00 

1 gallon Cans, 1 doz. to Case, per doz 15.00 

276 




HI 



, TU. S.A 



$1000.00 GUARANTEED 
RAT AND MICE KILLER 

(IN PASTE FORM) 



♦MOft!* guaranteed 

Rathmice 

JtlLLEF. 




Rats and Mice 
are the most de- 
structive of all pests, 
and when once a 
building has become 
infested with them 
it is a hard task to 
get rid of them. 
They are not only 
destroyers of food and property, but are 
known carriers of disease. 

$1000.00 Guaranteed Rat and Mice 
Killer is prepared expressly to assist in 
removing Rats, Mice and other Rodents 
from butcher shops, packing houses, etc. 

PRICES 

Single Cans (about 1 lb) $1.00 

Yz dozen Cans (about 1 lb. each) 5.00 

1 dozen Cans (about 1 lb. each) ...... 9.50 

PREPARED BY 

The Chicago Insecticide Laboratory 

B. HELLER & CO., PROPS. 

CHICAGO, - U. S. A. 

277 



. JTjL XZji 



Sc ca. 



Too Can Surely Rid Premises of Roaches 
By Using 

$1000.00 Guaranteed 

ROACH KILLER 

$1000.00 Guaranteed Roach 
Killer is absolutely guaranteed to 
rid any building of Roaches and 
Water-Bugs when properly ap- 
plied. This preparation is the result 
of thorough research to produce 
the most effective remedy against 
Roaches and Water-Bugs. 

It is prepared so that Roaches 
will like it, which insures their eat- 
ing it. It is absolutely sure to kill 
the Roaches that eat it, yet it acts 
so slowly that the poisoned Roaches linger on 
for several days before dying, during which time 
they carry to their nests and to their young such 
Powder as may adhere to their bodies. 

This preparation is made perfectly clean, 
from clean materials, and can be used in Butcher 
Shops, Grocery Stores, Restaurants and in the 
Kitchen, etc. 

PRICES 

1 pound Cans $0.50 

Yz dozen 1 pound Cans, in case 2.75 

1 dozen 1 pound Cans, in case 5.00 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Chicago Insecticide Laboratory 

B. HELLER & CO., PROPS. 

CHICAGO, - U. S. A. 

278 




CHICAGD. U.S. JS.. 



$ 1 000.00 
GUARANTEED 

ANT-BANE 



(A 




im^^I* SUSW.NOTOV^ 6 '- 
1Mp imiTIES NOT OVER 4 * 



POWDER) 

Of all the insect pests 
to which a household is 
subject, none are more 
troublesome or more dif- 
ficult to get rid of than 
Ants. When once they 
have invaded the prem- 
ises it is almost impossible 
to get rid of them by 
ordinary methods. 

$1000.00 Guaranteed 
Ant-Bane is prepared es- 
pecially for getting rid of 
Ants. 



PRICES 

12 ounce Cans $0.50 

6-12 ounce Cans 2.75 

1 dozen 12 ounce Cans 5.00 

PREPARED BY 

The Chicago Insecticide Laboratory 

B. HELLER & CO., PROPS. 

CHICAGO, - U. S. A. 

279 




xE3. Irl JtzJ 



3c GO. 



FOR DIPPING CATTLE AND SHEEP 

USE ZANZIBAR-BRAND 

CATTLE AND SHEEP DIP 

PRICES 

1 quart Cans $0.50 

1 quart Cans (2 dozen 
in case, per dozen... 4.00 

% gallon Cans 75 

Yz gallon Cans (1 doz. 

in case) per dozen. . . 6.00 

1 gallon Cans 1.35 

1 gallon Cans (l doz. 
fin case) per doz 10.20 




B. HELLER & CO'S 
ZANZIBAR-BRAND 

FLY CHASER 

ASSISTS IN PROTECTING 

ANIMALS FROM FLIES. 

TICKS AND OTHER 

INSECTS 

Zanzibar Fly Chaser is 
a preparation for the Pro- 
tection of Animals from 
Annoyance by Flies, Ticks 
and other Insects. Used 
on Milk Cows it helps to keep Flies Away from them, en- 
abling the Cows to Graze in Comfort, insuring a Larger 
Quantity and a Better Quality of Milk. 

PRICES 

1 quart Cans $0.50 

1 quart Cans (2 dozen in case) per dozen 4.00 

Yz gallon Cans 75 

Yt gallon Cans (l dozen in case) per dozen 6.00 

1 gallon Cans 1*35 

1 gallon Cans (l dozen in case) per dozen 10.20 

280 




G H I CAGQ, TJT. S. A. 



A STEADY, UNIFORM DEGREE OF TEMPERATURE 

IS VITALLY NECESSARY IN GETTING GOOD 

RESULTS IN BOILING MEATS 

Eliminate All Guesswork By Using Our 

COOKING 
THERMOMETERS 



n 

BJiturntoi 

CHEMISTS 
CHKACO.UVI 

A 



(D 



FOR MEAT PACKERS, SAUSAGE 
MAKERS AND BUTCHERS 

This Cooking Thermometer is one 
especially designed and adapted for use 
when cooking Bologna, Frankfurts, Hams, 
etc. It is well protected and the scale is 
in large, plain figures easy to read. It is 
18 inches long. 

To produce perfect results an accu^ 
rate Cooking Thermometer is necessary 
so that the temperature can be kept at 
the proper degree when cooking Bolo- 
gna, Hams, etc. A card accompanies 
each one of these Thermometers, giving 
full instructions for cooking meats and 
sausage of all kinds. 

PRICES 

1 only, each $1.00 

X dozen to box, per box 2.75 

% dozen to box, per box 5.25 

1 dozen to box, per box 10.00 

281 



|»=»*fe=,*IWH»=*-J 



3c CO. 



PERFECT CURING OF MEAT DEPENDS MUCH 
UPON A CORRECT TEMPERATURE 

BE SURE THE TEMPERATURE IS RIGHT BY USING 
B. HELLER & CO'S 

COLD STORAGE THERMOMETERS 



10 



80 
TO 
60 

i 

50 

■ • 

40 



20 



10 



These Thermometers are de- 
signed especially for Refrigerators, 
Cooling Rooms and Packing House 
Cellars. The tube has an angle 
protection. The scale is made of 
extra heavy brass, mounted on a 
solid piece of oak. Both the scale 
and figures have been made extra 
plain, heavy and large, so that the 
degrees of temperature can be 
plainly seen. 

The glass tube is made from 
heavy glass with a magnifying front, 
to enlarge the mercury, making 
this a desirable Thermometer to 
read. It is 12 inches long and grad- 
uated from 20 degrees below zero 
to 80 degrees above. It is a strong 
instrument that will stand the hard 
usage required of it in a Cold Stor- 
age Plant, or in a Refrigerating 
Plant. 

PRICES 

1 only, each $1.40 

% dozen to box, per box.. . * . . 4.00 

% dozen to box, per box 7.75 

1 dozen to box, per box 15.00 



282 



czHioACsa, u.s.A. 



B. HELLER & CO'S 
STANDARD 100° 

HYDROMETERS 



1 



io 

50 



/ 



For Testing the Strength of Brine 

The accurate way to determine the strength 
of brine is by the use of a reliable Hydrometer. 
The "Heller" Hydrometer has certain features that 
makes it especially desirable for this 
purpose. It is extremely convenient 
to use, as it contains a special scale 
printed right alongside the degree 
scale, which shows the proper 
strength of brine for curing each 
kind, or piece, of meat. This is a 
special feature in the "Heller" 
Hydrometer and the scale has been 
registered by B. Heller & Co. 



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Another valuable feature of the 
"Heller" Hydrometer is its accuracy. 
These Hydrometers are all carefully 
tested in our Laboratories before 
being shipped out, and our certifi- 
cate of correctness is affixed to each 
instrument. It is as important to 
know that the Hydrometer is cor- 
rect as it is to have one at all, 
therefore, the curer of meats should 
be sure that he uses only Hydro- 
meters that are accurate. 

Price each 50c 

283 




10 



20 



30 



40 



/corned 

\BEEF 

{bacon 

SMALL 
[HAMS 
/HEAVY 
IBELLIES 

) 14 LB. 
1HAMS 

1 16 LB. 
\HAMS 

20 LB. 
V HAM5 

ZZ LB. 
[HAMS 



60 



PICKLED 
) PORK 

W»0l IMU.S.H 



50 



70E 



80 



90 



100- 



B. I-I E 



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ScCQ 



MEAT TESTING THERMOMETERS 

FOR PACKERS AND MEAT CURERS 



This Meat Testing Thermome- 
ter is especially designed and made 
for the use of meat curers who 
will find it advisable to test the 
temperature of the inner portions 
of Hams, Shoulders, etc., to see 
that they are perfectly chilled be- 
fore curing, otherwise the meat 
may sour around the bone. 

Very often a chill room is cold 
but the test will show that the 
meat has not been chilled to the 
center. 

This Thermometer is 6 inches 
long and has a plain easily read 
scale, graduated from 10 degrees 
below zero to 110 degrees above 
zero. It is encased in a nickel plat- 
ed shell with a sharp metal tip and 
chain attached, as illustrated. 

PRICES 

1 only, each $1.25 

X dozen to box, per box 3.65 

Yz dozen to box, per box 7.25 

1 dozen to box, per box 14.00 

284 



H 



CHICAGO, O. S.-PL. 




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IN NAME™PACKAGE 





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