From the Library of
GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON,
Burgh House ^ Hampitead.
Shelf ..^Br^... O O 1907.
The Silver Medal coined by the Cardinal Camerlengo.
DIARY WRITTEN DURING THE CONCLAVE OF 1903,
WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES ON
CORONATION OF PIUS X.
HARTWELL DE LA GARDE GRISSELL, M.A., F.S.A.,
of Brasenose College^ Oxford,
Chamberlain of Honour
to His Holiness.
©jforD an& ILoiiDon:
JAMES PARKER AND CO.
BISHOP OF BIRMINGHAM.
BISHOP OF BIRMINGHAM.
The Author only professes to give to the public
the details of some of the Ceremonies that he wit-
nessed from the death of Pope Leo XIII. to the
Coronation of Pope Pius X., details which he entered
daily in his diary, without at the time any thought
of publication. He was, however, persuaded by friends
that they might prove of interest to the general
public as well as to those who are in communion
with Rome. Having had the privilege for a period
of some thirty-five years of being Chamberlain to
three successive Pontiffs, he has many diaries in
addition, written on other occasions, which may even-
tually be given to the public. These many inter-
esting reminiscences include an CEcumenical Council,
four Jubilees, three Canonizations, two Papal Con-
secrations of Bishops, many Consistories (including
those at which Cardinals Manning, Howard, and
Newman received their hats), a Blessing of the
Golden Rose, and of the Ducal Sword and Cap, an
' Anno Santo,' two Conclaves, and two Coronations,
as well as many pilgrimages and visits of Sovereigns
to His Holiness. He was also present in Rome at
the entry of the Italian Troops in September, 1870,
and was on duty in the Vatican on the historic occa-
sion when King Edward VII. visited the Pontiff —
the first British Sovereign who has done so for many
The Author has been further influenced in pub-
lishing this Diary by the many statements in the
public press which are contrary to fact.
60 High Street, Oxford,
I. The Death of Leo XIII. and arrangements for
the Conclave . . . . . i
11. The Funeral Procession and Burial of Leo XIII. . 12
III. The Novendiali or nine days' Obsequies . -19
IV. The Preparations for the Election of the new
Pope . . . . . .28
V. The Election of the new Pope . . • 4^
VI. The Papal Mass and the Coronation . . 54
The Voting Papers used in the Scrutiny . -77
Frontispiece The Silver Medal coined by the Car-
Plate To face p.
I. The Lying in State in the Throne Room
of the Vatican, July 22, 1903 . . 12
II. The Lying in State in the Chapel of the
Holy Sacrament at St. Peter's, July 23,
24> 25, 1903 .... 14
III. The Catafalque in the Sixtine Chapel on
the occasion of the three solemn Re-
quiems, July 28, 29, 30, 1903
IV. The Sixtine Chapel as prepared for the
Conclave, Aug. i, 1903 .
V. The 'Sfumata' as seen from the Piazza,
Aug. 2, 1903 . . . .
VI. Proclamation by the Cardinal Deacon from
the Loggia of St. Peter's overlooking the
Piazza, Aug. 4, 1903
VII. Pope Pius X. elected Aug. 4, 1903 .
VIII. The Sixtine Chapel, shewing on the left
the Throne occupied by Cardinal Sarto
on his Election, Aug. 4, 1903
IX. The ' Sedia Gestatoria ' used at the Core
nation, Aug. 9, 1903
X. The Sacred Pallium
XI. The Tiara ....
XII. Pope Pius X. in the act of blessing
To face p.
The Prsecordia .....
Facsimile of Voting Papers, fig. i, when open
,, ,, fig- 2, when closed
„ „ fig. 3, the Accessus form
M DCCCC III.
> ^ » ♦ < -
I. THE DEATH OF LEO XHI.
ARRANGEMENTS for the CONCLAVE.
Pope Leo XIIL died the death of the just on the
afternoon of Monday, July 20th, at about 4 o'clock.
His death was owing to an attack of pleuro-pneumonia,
according to the medical certificate, and his illness lasted
about 17 days. He governed the Church 25 years and
5 months, and he died at the advanced age of 93 years,
4 months and 18 days.
At 9.30 on the morning of July 21st, the Camer-
lengo Cardinal Oreglia di Santo Stefano, July 21.
accompanied by the * Sotto Camerlengo ' Mgr. Pas-
serini, the ' Uditore Generale ' Mgr. Pericoli, the Prefect
of Ceremonies Mgr. Riggi, and the different officials
of the Reverenda Camera Apostolica, entered the
death chamber to make the customary recognition
of the corpse. Mgr. Marzolini having removed the
2 SEDE VAC ANTE.
white veil which covered the face of the deceased
Pontiff, the Cardinal Camerlengo and his attendants
knelt in meditation. He then rose and recited the
usual prayers and sprinkled the corpse with holy
water ; Mgr. Nussi, Dean ot the College of Proto-
notaries, read the official document called the ' Rogito.'
The fisherman's ring, which is never worn by the
Pope, but remains in the custody of Mgr. the Maestro
di Camera, should on this occasion have been con-
signed by him to the Cardinal Camerlengo, to be
broken at the Congregation held shortly afterwards
in the Hall of the Consistory. It was, however,
stated that through some accident it was for the time
It may also be here mentioned that no such cere-
mony as striking the dead Pope's forehead with a
silver hammer takes place, and that the exact method
of calling aloud his name is not tied down to any
determinate form, but is left to the discretion of the
Cardinal Camerlengo ^.
The ' Rogito ' having been duly signed in presence
of witnesses by the Camerlengo in the Throne Room,
seals were at once affixed to the back door of the
death chamber by the Maggiordomo's secretary,
Cavaliere Martinucci, and two Noble Guards were
^ In an original MS. diary in my possession written by Domenico
Cappelli of Ascoli, who was Master of Ceremonies to five Popes — Alex-
ander VII., Clement IX., Clement X., Innocent XL, and Alexander
VIII he states that the custom of calling aloud three times the words
' Pater Sancte^ was discontinued on the death of Cieineut X. in 1676.
SEDE VAC ANTE. 3
placed on duty at the principal entrance. The body
of the deceased Pontiflf was now washed by the Peni-
tentiaries of St. Peter's.
The same afternoon, at 5 o'clock, the embalming
01 the corpse took place under the direction July 21.
of Prof. Lapponi, assisted by Drs. Capparoni, Salucci,
Battistini, Masciarelli, Amici, and Guido Lapponi.
At 11.30 the same night the Pope's 'Prsecordia'
were carried in a terracotta jar by two of the Noble
Guard, accompanied by others ot the same corps,
and by Mgr. Maestro di Camera and the Dean of the
Scopatori Segreti, and others carrying lighted torches,
and down the
through the different ante-chambers
4 SEDE VAC ANTE.
great staircase, to the Cortile of San Damaso. Here
the jar was placed in one of the Palace carriages and
taken by Mgr. Angeh', the late Pope's private secretary,
and Mgr, Marzolini, his private chaplain, to the Church
of SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio a Trevi, where for the
night it was deposited in a small Chapel in the
Convent. On the following morning it was placed
within the wall of the Church on the Epistle side
of the Altar, under the jars containing the ' Praecordia'
of Pius VIII., Leo XII., and Gregory XVI. The
'Praecordia' of Pius IX. had in 1878 been placed in
the Crypt of St. Peter's, but will eventually be re-
moved to this Church, a space having been left for
his name over that of Leo XIII. The 'Praecordia'
preserved in this Church include those of all the
Popes from Sixtus V., 1590, and were removed to
this spot (it being the parish Church of the Palazzo
Ouirinale) by Pope Benedict XIV.
This morning, the ist Congregation, composed
1st Con- of twenty Cardinals, was held after the
July 21. ceremony of the recognition of the corpse
at about 10.30 in the Hall of the Consistory,
when the fisherman's ring, according to custom,
should have been broken, but it had, as stated, been
temporarily mislaid. At this Congregation my old
and much respected friend, Monsignor Merry del Val,
Archbishop of Nicea, was unanimously elected Pro-
Secretary of the Sacred College in the place of
Monsignor Volpini lately deceased.
SEDE VAC ANTE. 5
The 2nd Congregation took place on Wednesday,
July 22nd, in the Hall of the Consistory, 2nd con-
in tlie presence oi twenty-seven Cardinals, July 22.
when important business was conducted, consisting of
instructions as to the removal of the Pope's body
from the Throne Room to St. Peter's, and the Prefect
of Ceremonies, Mgr. Riggi, issued his printed instruc-
tions as to the robes to be worn during the ' Sede
Vacante ' by the Cardinals and Prelates.
The 3rd Congregation was held on Thursday morn-
ing, July 23rd, in the Hall of the Con- 3rd con-
. , gregation,
sistory, in the presence of twenty - nine Ju'y 23-
Cardinals, when the names of their Eminences Car-
dinal Casali del Drago, Macchi, and Delia Volpe
were chosen to superintend the structural arrange-
ments of the Conclave ; the boxes containing a large
number of petitions and briefs were delivered up for
safe keeping by Cardinal di Pietro, the ' Pro-Datario,'
and Mgr, Marini, the ' Sostituto ' of the 'Segreteria'
of Briefs ; and the Matrix of the leaden Bull was
handed over to be destroyed by Mgr. Spezza, the
Regent of the Cancelleria.
There was chosen to act as Confessor during the
Conclave the Papal Sacristan, Mgr. Pifferi, Bishop
of Porfirio, but he afterwards resigned in favour of
Father Palmieri, S.J. Drs. Lapponi and Pelagallo
were chosen as Physicians, and Dr. Cagiati as Sur-
geon, and Fra Diodato Camarani, of the Order called
6 SEDE VAC ANTE.
Fate bene Fratelli, was nominated Chemist. It was
also arranged that the burial of the Pope should
take place on the evening of Saturday, July 25th,
in the niche near the Chapel of the Choir in the
Vatican Basilica, and that the corpse of the Pope
should remain there till the monument at St. John
Lateran was completed ; and, moreover, that the
Vatican Chapter should formally agree to consign
the body of the deceased Pontiff to the Commission,
whenever the demand to do so might be made.
This morning I visited the Cardinal Camerlengo
and the Maggiordomo to get instructions as to the
duties during the Sede Vacante of myself and my
five brother Chamberlains di numero. Owing to the
fact that all the Supernumerary Chamberlains, both
ecclesiastical and lay, cease to hold office immediately
after the Pope's burial, I find we shall have much
The 4th Congregation was held in the Hall of the
4th Con- Consistory on Friday, July 24th, in the
gregation, •' _ J ^ J J t »
July 24. presence of thirty-one Cardinals, when, after
important business, it was announced by Mgr. Merry
del Val, the Secretary, that the Pope had graciously
bequeathed a considerable sum of money to the poor
of Rome, Carpineto, and Perugia. I visited Mon-
signor Merry this afternoon. His offices are in the
The 5th Congregation was held in the Hall of
SEDE VAC ANTE. 7
the Consistory on Saturday morning, July 25th, in
the presence of thirty-eight Cardinals, when, 5th con-
after important business, they appointed July 25-
Commendatore Puccinelli, Maestro di Casa, and
one of the six Chamberlains of Honour di nmnero,
as * Provvisioniere ' to the Conclave, and Cavalicre
Sneider and Cavaliere Mannucci as Clerks of the
Works for the Conclave ; also the Conte Capogrossi
Guarna, one of the six Chamberlains of Honour di
numero, and Dean of the Consistorial Advocates, was
appointed * Commissario ' during the Conclave.
At the conclusion of this Congregation were in-
troduced by the Papal Masters of Ceremonies the
entire body of the Ambassadors and Ministers accre-
dited to the Holy See, accompanied by their respec-
tive secretaries and attaches, all in full uniform. They
included those of Portugal, France, Prussia, Russia,
Spain, Austria, Monaco, Brazil, Columbia, the Republic
of Dominica, Bolivia, and the ministers of Belgium,
Bavaria, Argentina, Chili, Costa Rica, Haiti and Peru.
A discourse, written in the French language, was
read by the Portuguese Ambassador, as Dean of the
Corps Diplomatique, expressing their united grief and
sincere condolence at the irreparable loss to Christen-
dom through the death of its Chief Pastor, Leo XHI.,
praising at the same time his wisdom and piety, and
praying that Almighty God would assist the Sacred
College in their choice of a worthy successor, qualified
to maintain the good estate of the Catholic Church,
8 SEDE VAC ANTE.
and to guide her aright in the due maintenance of
peace and tranquillity. The Cardinal Camerlengo
replied in suitable words, thanking the Ambassadors
for their kind and sympathetic address ; after which
they were severally presented, and kissed the hands
of their Enjinences.
The reply of the Cardinal Camerlengo concluded
with words to this effect : " Cest avec ces sentiments
qiCa la veille du pvocJiain Cojiclave, le S acre- College
prend conge dtt Corps Diplomatique,'' &c., &c. These
words gave occasion to some comment in the Press,
and were supposed to imply that any veto on the
part of the Powers would not be tolerated.
The 6th Congregation was held on the morning of
6th Con- Sunday, July 26th, in the Hall of the Con-
July 26th. sistory, when details regarding the Cere-
monial to be observed during the Conclave were dis-
cussed. The ceremonial enjoined by Pope Gregory
XV. was agreed to and accepted, with certain modifica-
tions, such as were adopted at the Conclave of 1878.
Arrangements as to meals were also discussed, and it
was settled that those Cardinals who wished to dine in
their own apartments might do so, if they so wished.
Cardinal Vaszary, Prince Primate of Hungary, on
account of ill health, obtained leave to have his food
brought from the Convent of St. Basilio, where he
had been residing ; and it was prepared by his
private chef, whom he had brought with him from
SEDE VAC ANTE. 9
Hungary. The Conclavists agreed to dine together
with certain exceptions, and the Cardinals' servants
did the same. There were present at this Congrega-
tion as many as forty-five Cardinals. Cardinal Delia
Volpe and others complained of certain scandals in
connection with the burial of the Pope the previous
evening ; and the Cardinal Camerlengo expressed his
intention to inquire into the matter.
The 7th Congregation was held on Monday, July
27th, in the Hall of the Consistory, when 7th con-
there were forty - nine Cardinals present. J"'y 27.
It was principally concerned with the assignment of
the cells. Cardinal Cavagnis, as last of the Cardinal
Deacons, drew lots for the dififerent Cardinals. There
were two ballot-boxes, in which were placed balls with
the names of each Cardinal written on them, and other
balls with numbers corresponding to the cells. It was
agreed that Cardinals Mocenni, Rampolla, and the
Camerlengo should be permitted to retain their apart-
ments. The Cardinal Camerlengo announced that the
late Secretary of State, Cardinal Rampolla, desired to
read the late Pontiff's will, of which he. Cardinal
Mocenni, and Cardinal Cretoni were the executors.
The Avvocato Carlo Patriarca, the late Pope's private
lawyer and counsellor in the administration of the
property of the Holy See, was present. The Pope's
nephews, Ludovico, Camillo, and Riccardo Pecci, as well
as the two nieces, Anna and Maria, with their husbands
10 SEDE VAC ANTE.
Conte Moroni and the Marchese Canali di Rieti, were
also invited ; but from feelings of delicacy were not
present. The Avvocato Patriarca at once read the will,
which did not amount to more than a few lines. It
bore date July 8th, 1900, and was signed '' Gioacchino
Pecci, Leone P.P. XIII." He left everything to the
Holy See. His nephews had been already provided for
at different times during his life, and he therefore had
declared that none of his family were to have any
further bequests. In a separate envelope he left 50,000
lire to the poor of Rome, 20,000 lire to the poor of
Perugia, and 10,000 lire to the poor of Carpineto, his
birthplace. Monsignor Nussi, the Dean of the College
of Protonotaries, then drew up a ' processo verbale,'
which was duly signed by himself, the Avvocato
Patriarca, Monsignor Merry del Val, Secretary to the
Sacred College, and the executors.
The 8th Congregation was held in the Hall of the
8th Con- Consistory, after the first Requiem in the
July 28. Sixtine Chapel, on Tuesday, July 28th, when
fifty-three Cardinals were present. The plans and tele-
graphic arrangements of the Conclave were distributed
to each Cardinal.
The 9th Congregation, consisting of fifty-eight Car-
9th Con- dinals, was held in the Hall of the Consis-
July 29. tory, after the second Requiem in the Six-
tine Chapel, on Wednesday, July 29th, when a commis-
SEDE VAC ANTE. ii
sion was appointed to superintend the sanitary con-
ditions of the Palace during the Conclave. It consisted
of Cardinals Cavicchioni, Boschi, and Tripcpi. Another
commission was also appointed for the approval of the
names of the Cardinals Conclavists, consisting of Car-
dinals Respighi and Cassetta. Prelates and members
of the Papal Household were not eligible ; with the
exception of a few of the candidates, the list was
The loth Congregation was held in the Hall of the
Consistory, after the third Requiem in the loth Con-
Sixtine Chapel, on Thursday, July 30th, J">y 30th.
when all the Cardinals, with the exception of six, were
present. The Cardinal Camerlengo distributed to the
Sacred College the silver medal of the ' Sede Vacante,'
which he had had specially struck for the occasion, and
proposed a protest against the continued usurpation and
spoliation of the Church's patrimony, which was unani-
mously agreed to.
II. FUNERAL PROCESSION AND
BURIAL OF LEO XIII.
AT St. Peter's.
On the morning of Wednesday, July 22nd, the body
July 22. of the Pope, which had been embalmed at
5 o'clock the previous evening, was placed on a bier
covered with red velvet under the Canopy in the
Throne Room, where it lay in state. During the day
it was visited by those who had obtained special per-
mission to do so, and they knelt and prayed for the
repose of the Pope's Soul, and afterwards kissed the
feet. The body was guarded by Chamberlains and
the Noble Guard, who took their turn every half-
hour; the Penitentiaries of St. Peter's meanwhile
recited the usual prayers. The body was vested
in a white Cassock, with Sash, Rochet, white Zuc-
chetto, red Mozzetta and Camauro^, white stockings
and red shoes embroidered with a cross ; the hands
in white mittens were clasping a rosary and crucifix,
and there was an amethyst ring on the finger.
Later in the afternoon the body was vested pon-
tifically, and at 7 o'clock it was placed on a
bier by members of the Noble Guard, to be car-
^ The Camauro is a cap of red satin, or velvet, trimmed with ermine.
On Holy Saturday and throughout Easter week it is white, as are also
the Mozzetta, the Stole, and the Shoes.
SEDE VACANT E. 13
ried to St. Peter's. The bier was supported by 12
Sediari, and preceded by others carrying h'ghted
torches. The procession passed through the different
ante-chambers, the Sala Clementina, Scala Nobile,
Loggie, Sala Ducale, and Sala Regia, and down the
Scala Regia into St. Peter's. It was escorted all the
way by the Noble and Swiss Guards and followed by
the College of Cardinals, many Bishops and Prelates,
the whole of the Corps Diplomatique, Knights of
Malta, the Prince Colonna, assistant at the Papal
Throne, and the Prince Chigi, Hereditary Marshal
of the Conclave, together with the great officers of
State and members of the Household. The bier on
which the body was carried was covered with a rich
Pall of crimson velvet and lama.
The vestments in which the body of the Pope
was now robed were of red lama, in the follow-
ing order : — White Zucchetto, white Cassock, Sash,
^iooJUt^ Falda^ red Buskins and Sandals, -Rochet, Amice,
Alb, Girdle, with the Succintorio° attached to it.
Pectoral Cross, Fanone ^, red Stole, Tunicle, Dalmatic,
^ The Falda is a skirt of very tliin white silk with a train, and is
worn round the waist over the Cassock.
'^ The Succintorio is in shape like a Maniple, with a lamb em-
broidered on it, and is fastened to the Pope's girdle and hangs on
his left side. It formerly served to hold a purse for giving alms.
^ The Fanone is a double tippet made of silk with coloured stripes
of four colours, having a cross embroidered on the breast. It is worn
over the alb and under the stole and tunicle. The upper tippet rests
on the Pope's head while the vestments are being put on, after which
it is adjusted over the Chasuble.
14 SEDE VAC ANTE.
Gloves, and Chasuble, Pallium with its three jewelled
pins, placed over the outer tippet of the Fanone, gold
Mitre, amethyst Ring, and red Maniple. In the hands
were placed the same crucifix and rosary as before.
There were numbers of devout people who had obtained
special permission, kneeling on either side, and in the
Sala Ducale, as the procession passed, and saying
prayers for the repose of the Soul of His Holiness.
At the entrance of the Basilica Monsignor Pericoli
gave the first absolution. The body was then car-
ried up the Basilica and placed for a few moments
in front of the High Altar, when another absolution
was given by Monsignor Ceppetelli, the Latin Patri-
arch of Constantinople. It was then carried into
the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, where the
body was placed on a catafalque covered with a
pall of red velvet and lama trimmed with gold lace,
where it was exposed to public veneration till the
evening of Saturday, July 25th, surrounded by 18
large torches in standard candlesticks, and guarded
by the Noble and Palatine Guard. On either side
of this catafalque was attached a red velvet ' Cappel-
lone ® ' in sign of the Pope's twofold jurisdiction. The
feet of the Pope were not put through the iron gates
of the Chapel to be kissed, owing to certain scandals
which occurred in 1878 when the body of Pius IX.
lay in state. Thousands each da}' visited the Basilica.
^ Tlie Cappellone is a large red velvet hat.
SEDE VAC ANTE. 15
On Saturday evening at 7 o'clock, preceded by the
Chapter of St. Peter's and the Seminary, juiy 25.
and escorted by the Noble Guard and members of
the Household, the body was carried from the Chapel
of the Blessed Sacrament by the ' Mansionari ' of St.
Peter's into the Chapel of the Choir, Tlie appearance
of the dead Pope was considerably changed since
the embalming, being somewhat ghastly. In the
Choir Stalls was standing, according to seniority
and precedence, the College of Cardinals, while the
Corps Diplomatique was in the side gallery, and
the nephews and nieces of the deceased Pontiff were
in the Choir Gallery on the right. There were also
reserved places in the Chapel for the Roman nobility
and for the families of the Ambassadors. In front of
the Chapel space was kept for the Bishops, Prelates,
and members of the Household.
There were three coffins, one within the other,
placed on the Gospel side of the Altar ; that in
which the corpse was to be placed being lined with
red satin. The prescribed prayers and psalms having
been sung, preparations were made for enclosing the
corpse, and it was lifted from the bier and placed within
the inner coffin. Monsignor CeppetelH then sprinkled
it with holy water, and incensed it. The Maggior-
domo, Mgr. Cagiano, covered the face, and the Maestro
di Camera, Mgr. Bisleti, the hands of the Pope with
a white silk veil edged with gold lace, and then, with
the assistance of the Masters of Ceremonies, the whole
1 6 SEDE VAC ANTE.
body was wrapt with a covering of red silk edged
also with gold lace. Monsignor Cagiano then placed
at the feet of the corpse a bag of crimson velvet,
containing three smaller bags, inside which were 25
medals of gold, 25 of silver, and 25 of bronze, corre-
sponding to the 25 years of the Pope's Pontificate.
There was also placed within the innermost coffin
a metal tube containing an illuminated MS. giving
an account of the principal events of his Pontificate,
written by Padre de Angelis, SJ., and illuminated
by Signor Camilli.
Signor Filiberto Pomponi, Notary and Chancellor
of the Vatican Chapter, read a Funeral Oration as
well as the ' Rogito,' relating to the transfer for the
time being of the corpse to the care of the Canons
of the Basilica. The Maggiordomo^ the Maestro di
Camera and the four ' Camerieri Segreti Partecipanti,'
Monsignor Marzolini, the Master of Ceremonies, Mon-
signor Merry del Val, Secretary of the Sacred College,
Prince Rospigliosi, Commander of the Noble Guard,
and the Pope's nephew. Count Camillo Pecci, and
a few others, then approached reverently and kissed
the coffin. The outer wooden coffin measured in
length 7 feet, at the head 2 ft. 9 in., and at the feet
I ft. 10 in. On this coffin was the following inscrip-
tion : —
SEDE VAC ANTE. 1 7
LEONIS XIII. P.M.
QVI VIXIT. AN. XCIII.M.IV. D. XVIII.
ECCLES. VNIVER. PRAEFVIT
AN, XXV. M.V.
OBIIT. DIE XX JVLII. AN. MCMIII.
The coffin was then bound with purple tape in the form
of a cross ; on the four corners of which were placed
the following seals : two of the Cardinal Camerlengo,
two of Mgr. Maggiordomo, and in the centre that of
Cardinal Rampolla, the Arch-priest of the Basilica,
and that of the Vatican Chapter. On the inner
leaden coffin were also placed in the same order the
The coffin was then placed on a small bier and
wheeled by members of the Confraternity of the
Holy Sacrament and certain officials of the Floreria,
from the Choir Chapel into the Basilica, to the
spot on the left of the Chapel and in front of the
niche into which it was to be raised and deposited.
Owing to the Basilica being now lighted by electricity,
and not by torches (as I remember was the case at
the funeral of Pius IX.), the solemnity and impressive-
ness of the function were greatly diminished, and it
is hoped that on a future occasion this portion of the
ceremony may take place in the crypt.
The procession was composed of the Chapter, Mon-
signor Ceppetelli, in a black Cope and white Mitre,
i8 SEDE VAC ANTE.
the Cardinal Arch-priest Rampolla in a Cappa Magna,
and the College of Cardinals vested in black Cassocks
and purple Ferraiuoli. In front of the empty niche
was placed what is called a ' Castello ' or high scaffold,
to which were attached pulleys to raise the coffin. The
Choir sang the " Benedictus " during the long interval,
which lasted about 40 minutes. The whole ceremony
lasted two hours and a half, and did not terminate
till 9.30. The corpse of Leo XIII. will remain in this
niche till the death of his successor, or until his tomb
at St. John Lateran is completed.
III. THE NOVENDIALI,
OR NINE DAYS' OBSEQUIES.
The nine days commenced on Thursday, July 23rd,
at 10 a.m. A solemn Pontifical High Mass July 23.
of Requiem was sung in the Choir Chapel at St.
Peter's each morning. The three solemn Requiems,
at which all the Sacred College and Corps Diplo-
matique assisted, were sung in the Sixtine Chapel,
on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, July 28th,
As the writer of this diary had to be on service
at each of these Requiems, a carriage from July 28.
the Vatican arrived each morning at 8.15 at his resi-
dence to fetch him. His brother Chamberlains who
were on duty with him were the Prince Antici Mattel,
Baron Roth Schonberg (who was in attendance on
the young Prince Sixtus de Bourbon), Baron del
Marmol, Commendatore Folchi-Vici, Comm. Rossi
de Gasperis, and Comm. Franchi de' Cavalieri. On
passing through the Piazza we observed that the
windows of the Vatican were being fitted with the
' Gelosie,' or shutters used during a Conclave, and
that the different ' Cortili,' as we passed through
the Palace, were full of furniture of every description
for the Cardinals' cells. We also observed the large
20 SEDE VAC ANTE.
* Ruote,' or wheels, to be fitted in the walls for the
delivery of correspondence, and general communica-
tions. Formerly they were also used by the
* Dapiferi ' who came daily with the Cardinals' meals
and other provisions.
On arrival at the Sixtine Chapel I was informed
that only about 200 tickets had been issued for
the Roman nobility, Corps Diplomatique, and other
privileged persons. The Knights of Malta were also
represented, and there were several deputations, among
them one from Perugia, and another from the Irish
party of our House of Commons, who sent as their
representative Sir Thomas Esmonde. Prince Chigi,
Perpetual Marshal of the Conclave, who was accom-
panied by his son, the Prince of Campagnano, and
escorted by the Swiss Guard, was also present. A
front seat in the tribune on the left was reserved for the
wife of Baron del Marmol, my fellow Chamberlain on
service. The Roman nobles had places reserved for
them between the screen and the seats of the Cardinals.
The foreign Ambassadors and Ministers, all in full
uniform, were placed immediately behind them on
the left, while on the right hand on the other side
were reserved places for the wives and families of the
nobility. Immediately behind the Corps Diplomatique,
and slightly raised, was a tribune for the Knights of
Malta, and for the young Prince Sixtus de Bourbon,
the tenth son of the Duke of Parma ; and immediately
on the right and left as one entered the Chapel were
SEDE VAC ANTE. 21
high tribunes for those who were privileged to have
tickets of admission. The Swiss Guard, to the number
of thirty, shortly afterwards arrived, and for a few
minutes were drawn up in the Chapel, when, having
received their orders, they were marched back to
the Sala Regia.
Shortly before 10 o'clock, the Cardinals began to
arrive two and two, in procession from the ' Sala
dei Paramenti,' which is at the further end of the
Sala Ducale. They were escorted by Noble and Swiss
Guards, and each was attended by his train-bearer and
private Chaplain. With the exception of those who
belonged to religious orders (and who therefore used
their own colour), they wore a ' Cappa Magna' of purple
stuff over their Rochets, which, after the Requiem, they
changed for a purple Mozzetta without Rochet, when
they attended the Congregations held in the Hall of
the Consistory. Cardinal Gotti, the Carmelite, and
Prefect of the Propaganda, was the first to arrive, and
he came alone, escorted by Noble and Swiss Guards.
Cardinal Rampolla, with Cardinal di Pietro on his
right, also came alone. Most of the Cardinals came,
however, together in procession. Cardinal Serafino
Vannutelli, who was to sing the Requiem, and the
Cardinal Camerlengo, escorted by Noble and Swiss
Guards, came also alone. He was walking with diffi-
culty, and used a stick, which he gave to his Secretary
before entering the Chapel. Last of all, and by him-
self, came the very youthful and distinguished Cardinal
22 SEDE VACANTE.
de Skrbensky, Prince Archbishop of Prague. The Re-
quiem was sung by Cardinal Serafino VannutelH (Grand
Penitentiary), and at its conclusion the five absolu-
tions were given by their Eminences Cardinal Agliardi
(Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church), Cardinal
Vincenzo Vannutelli, Cardinal Richard (the aged Arch-
bishop of Paris), Cardinal Satolli, and the Cardinal
Celebrant. The four Cardinals sat at the four corners
of the Catafalque vested in black and gold copes and
white mitres. The Papal Throne had of course been
removed, and the temporary Altar placed in front of
the High Altar was duly vested in black, and had
thereon six silver candlesticks with the name of Leo
Xn. engraved on them. The Celebrant's vestments
were laid out on the Altar. The carpet of the Chapel,
as well as the four seats at the corners of the Cata-
falque, were of green cloth, and the benches for the use
of the Sacred College were covered with most beauti-
ful tapestry, on which were worked the arms of Pope
Pius VII. Over the Altar was placed a tapestry repre-
senting the raising of Lazarus. The Catafalque was
covered with a red Pall and two red velvet cushions
surmounted by the Tiara. It had four inscriptions
in Latin on its base, composed by Monsignor Vincenzo
Sardi. They are as follows : —
ARBITER HOMINVM ET SERVATOR CHRISTE
LEON I XIII. PONT. MAX.
CVIVS VITAE SANCTIMONIA
SEDE VAC ANTE. 23
SVAVISSIMA IN AGENDO DEXTERITATE
PONTIFICII NOMINIS MAIESTAS
AEVI SEMPITERNI BEATITATEM
BONIS PRAECANTIVM PRAECIBVS
TVENDAE PROPAGANDAEQVE FIDEI STVDIO
NVLLI DECESSORVM SECVNDVS
AD CONIVNCTIONEM CVM PETRI CATHEDRA
AD VETEREM SPLENDOREM REVOCANDIS
KLERI AC RELIGIOSARVM FAMILIARVM SECVRITATI
VIRES OMNES IMPERTIIT.
VIRGO MATER SANCTISSIMA
SI TE LEO ADAMAVIT VNICE
SI TIBI HONORES AVXIT
SI MARIALIS ROSARII
RELIGIONE VBIQVE GENTIVM PROLATA
FIDERE TVO NOMINE VOLVIT
TV ILLVM MORTALITATI EREPTVM
VICEM REPENDENS BONA
24 SEDE VAC ANTE.
REI PVBLICAE VTILITATI PROSPICIENS
STATVENDAE TEMPERANDAEQ. CIVITATIS
POPVLARES CVPIDITATES AD LICENTIAM PROIECTAS
OPIFICVM CONDITIONEM IN MELIVS PROVEXIT
MATRIMONII DIGNITATEM VINDICAVIT
BONARVM ARTIVM STVDIA
Four Noble Guards in scarlet stood with drawn
swords throughout at the four corners. They were
Conti Antamoro and Miccinelli, Marchese Barbi, and
Marchese Stampa. The latter, owing to fatigue and the
great heat, fainted, and had to be carried out. The
Choir, under the direction of the Maestro Perosi, sang the
Requiem and Kyrie of Anerio, the Tratto of Viadana,
and a " Dies Irae," newly composed by Perosi; Offer-
tory, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, of Anerio, The " Libera
me Domine " was followed by another new composition
by Perosi, which was especially beautiful, and had been
composed in the short period of four days. The
" Dies Irae " was much shorter than usual, and only
took eleven minutes.
I may here mention that on my arrival in the
Sixtine I observed a gentleman sitting quite alone,
and reading, evidently the first who had arrived.
SEDE VAC ANTE. 25
On getting into conversation with him I discovered
that he was the well-known and distinguished Pro-
fessor Steinmann, the President of the special com-
mission lately appointed by Leo XIII. to consider the
advisability of a thorough restoration and repair of this
world-wide famous Chapel. He told me that they had
found the frescoes on the ceiling considerably damaged,
and that if it had not been for the death of the Pope, the
scaffolding would have been already erected, for the
necessary repairs, which he feared would probably take
some years to complete. The late Pope had also
approved of the plan for refilling all the windows with
new glass, in exact reproduction of a fifteenth-century
window represented in fresco on the end wall as you
enter the Chapel. The present glass is not older than
1826, and dates from the Pontificate of Leo XII. The
Requiem was over about mid-day, and I was tired but
greatly interested in all I had witnessed.
Wednesday, July 29th, a carriage from the Vatican
came for me at 8.15, as I had again to be juiy 29.
on service for the second Requiem. On the way I
called at the Palazzo Mattei, to pick up Prince Antici
Mattel, who was also on service with me ; and we
afterwards called for Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri, the other
* Cameriere di mi7)iero! The Palace ' Cortili ' were
still full of furniture of all kinds, and several more stair-
cases and ' loggie ' had been walled up since yesterday.
The Mass was sung by Cardinal Kopp, Prince Bishop
26 SEDE VAC ANTE.
of Breslau, and the Absolutions at the end were
given by Cardinals Goossens (Archbishop of Malines),
Gruscha (Prince Archbishop of Vienna), Cardinal di
Pietro, Cardinal Perraud (Bishop of Autun), and
the Cardinal Celebrant.
The same ceremonial was observed as yesterday,
and the Corps Diplomatique in full uniform, and the
Knights of Malta and Roman Nobility were also
present. The Pope's nieces and their children were
also present, but had to sit behind the Nobles, who
are always so jealous of their precedence. There was
also a small deputation from Carpineto, the Pope's
birthplace, consisting of the Syndic and Town Council.
Two ladies came in low dresses, evidently strangers, and
we had accordingly to refuse them admission. The
beautiful marble pavement in the Loggia of Giovanni
da Udine, through which we passed on our way to the
Sixtine Chapel, was still dreadfully stained and spotted
with the wax which had dropped from the torches on
the occasion of the funeral procession on last Wednes-
day night. The music of the Requiem to-day was that
of Casciolini, with Perosi's " Dies Irae " and " Libera me
Thursday, July 30th, the Vatican carriage arrived
July 30. for me at 8.15, to take me to the third
solemn Requiem in the Sixtine. The attendance
was larger than at the other Requiems. There
was a deputation from Perugia. The young Prince
SEDE VAC ANTE. 27
Sixtus of Parma was unable to come, owing to a slight
attack of fever. The Mass was sung by Cardinal Vi-
cenzo Vannutelli, the music being the same as at the
first Requiem, with an offertory by Palestrina. The Ab-
solutions were given by Cardinal Svampa (Archbishop
of Bologna), Cardinal Manara (Bishop of Ancona),
Cardinal Gotti (Prefect of Propaganda), Cardinal de
Herrera (Archbishop of Compostella), and the Cardinal
Celebrant. Between the Mass and the Absolutions
was read by Monsignor Galli the Latin oration " Pro
Pontifice defuncto." It only lasted 15 minutes. I
observed that Cardinals Gotti and Pierotti, the two
Friars, came in together, and that my friend the
Master of Ceremonies, Monsignor Marzolini, was in
close conversation with Cardinal Gctti, on returning
from the Chapel.
IV. THE PREPARATIONS FOR THE
ELECTION OF THE NEW POPE.
This morning, at lo o'clock, the solemn Mass of
July 31. the Holy Ghost was sung by Cardinal
Serafino Vannutelli, Sub-Dean of the Sacred College,
and Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina, in the
Pauline Chapel, in the presence of fifty-seven Car-
After the Mass Monsignor Sardi pronounced the
oration "de Pontifice EHgendo." The Cardinals' train-
bearers and chaplains left the Chapel after the discourse,
and the Cardinal Camerlengo read the Apostolic Con-
stitutions to be observed during the Conclave, after
which Monsignor Riggi, the Prefect of Ceremonies,
read the formula of the oath, which each Cardinal
took, placing his hand at the same time on the Holy
Gospel, kissing it and saying "SzV me Dens adjuvet, et
haec Sancta Dei Evangeliay The Swiss and Palatine
Guards were drawn up in the Sala Regia, where
were also waiting for the termination of the ceremony
most of the Cardinals' chaplains and train-bearers.
Previous to the Mass and the taking of the oath, I
made a tour of inspection through the Palace. I first
paid a visit to the Dean of the Palafrenieri, Signer
Silli, who told me all the servants and others had orders
to leave the Palace early in the afternoon. I then saw
SEDE VAC ANTE. 29
the custodian of the Hall of the Consistory, where
all the Congregations have been held, and he shewed
me all the arrangements.
The seats for the sixty-two Cardinals were arranged
round the Hall according to their rank and prece-
dence, the six Cardinal Bishops sitting facing the
Secretary, Monsignor Merry del Val, whose table was
in the centre.
Each Cardinal had also a table, with writing material
and a saucer containing four or five small white ballot-
balls, to be used when questions of detail are brought
before the Congregations, but not of course for the
election of the Pope. The ballot-box was double, and
had two covers to it, and on it were painted the letters
5 and N, corresponding to the words Si and No. It
was painted red, and on it were represented two shields
with Cross Keys, over which a Hat with four tassels.
I also saw the official silver medal coined by the
Camerlengo, of which there were several on his table '\
I then visited the different cells of the Cardinals,
which had been given them by lot. The partition
system, or dividing the halls into a number of cells, has
been entirely abandoned. The custom of decorating
^ These medals should serve as tokens of admittance to the ' Ruote.'
They were up to 1846 coined also by the Maggiordomo, the Governor
of Rome, the Uditore Generale, and the Treasurer and Conservator!, but
are now only struck by the Camerlengo and Marshal. Leo XIII., when
he was Camerlengo in 1878, substituted for them a small piece of un-
polished wood called a ' Bastoncello, ' three inches long, on which was
pasted a label stamped with his Coat of Arms.
30 SEDE VAC ANTE.
them with the Cardinals' armorial bearings, or with
green and purple hangings, is no longer observed.
Each had a large card over the door, on which
was printed its number as well as the name of its
occupant. Cardinal Rampolla's suite of rooms which
he occupied as Secretary of State was divided
among six Cardinals, who, according to the regula-
tions of the Conclave, are each allowed a chaplain
and servant. The first room on entering had been
allotted to Cardinal Delia Volpe, for so many years
Maestro di Camera, and afterwards Maggiordomo to the
late Pope. There was a screen which had been placed
to separate his bed from those of his chaplain and ser-
J. vant, whom, as far as I could see, were accommodated
in the same^apartment. Next to Cardinal Delia Volpe
was that of Cardinal Herrero y Espinosa, Archbishop
of Valencia, and beyond his came that of Cardinal
Sarto, the Patriarch of Venice. This room is that
where the Secretary of State receives Sovereigns and
Royalties, and where he entertains on special occasions
at dinner the Corps Diplomatique.
So much had been written in the Liberal Press
with regard to the lavish expenditure connected
with the Conclave, that it was really very edifying
to see how simple and even common all the furniture
was. The Patriarch's bedstead, like all the rest,
was a small iron one of the commonest description,
and when I examined the mattress, which I did out
of mere curiosity, I found it was chiefly made of
straw. Cardinal Rampolla's room came next, and
SEDE VAC ANTE. 31
between his and that of the Cardinal Patriarch was
a small room fitted up as an oratory, on the altar
of which had been placed a small basin of fresh
flowers. Cardinals Agliardi and Portanova had cells
also in the same suite of apartments. I then went
to see my old friend Pio Centra's rooms. He had
been for many years the late Pope's faithful valet.
His rooms had been allotted to Cardinal Casali del
Drago, and to Cardinal Laboure, Archbishop of
Rennes. The private staircase leading from this
apartment to that of the late Pope had, I observed,
been very solidly walled up. I then went to the Hall
of the Chiaroscuri, near to that of Constantine. The
doors between them had been walled up. Six altars
had been prepared for the convenience of those Car-
dinals whose cells were in the vicinity. There were
no altars placed in the Sala Ducale as was done in
1878, but there were eight additional ones placed, four
on either side, in the Pauline Chapel ; each altar
being furnished with a crucifix and four candlesticks.
I also inspected the arrangements in the Sixtine
Chapel, where the Conclave was to be held.
As Cardinal Moran, Archbishop of Sydney, could
not arrive in time, and as Cardinal Celesia, Arch-
bishop of Palermo, was prevented by ill health from
attending, there were only sixty-two thrones erected in
the Chapel. They were covered with violet cloth, and
all had canopies, that of the Cardinal Camerlengo
Oreglia being, however, of green cloth, as he happens to
be the only Cardinal who was not created by Leo XHI.
32 SEDE VAC ANTE.
There were twenty-seven on each side, and four on
either side facing the Altar. Each throne had its
table covered with violet or green cloth, with a candle-
stick and writing materials. The marble screen in the
Chapel was hidden by the dossals of the thrones.
There was a temporary altar (placed in front of the
High Altar) with a red antependium and a large tap-
estry as a dossal, representing the day of Pentecost.
The stove for burning the voting papers was placed in
the same spot as on the occasion of the last Conclave
in 1878, in the left corner on entering the Chapel, and
there was attached to it a long pipe for the ' Sfumata,'
the top of which was clearly visible from the Piazza.
There were other tables in the centre of the Chapel, for
the use of the Cardinals' ' Scrutatores ' and ' Recog-
I returned home at i o'clock with the Marchese Ser-
lupi Crescenzi, the Papal Master of the Horse, but
before leaving the Vatican was invited by Monsignor
Cagiano, the Governor and Maggiordomo, and by Mon-
signor Riggi, the Prefect of Ceremonies, to assist at the
solemn entry of the Cardinals from the Pauline to the
Sixtine Chapel, which was to take place that evening,
July 31st, at 5 p.m., when the Marshal of the Conclave,
Prince Chigi, and the different officials were to take the
customary oaths. I reached the Vatican at 4 o'clock,
in time to receive the Cardinals as they arrived in their
carriages from their respective residences. They each
of them had with them their private chaplain and man-
servant, and brought with them their luggage of all
SEDE VAC ANTE. 33
shapes and descriptions. I was able to kiss the hand
of the venerable Archbishop of Paris, Cardinal Richard,
and to offer also my compliments to many others,
among them to Cardinal Nocella, Cardinal Cavagnis,
and Cardinal de Skrbensky, the youthful Archbishop of
Prague, also to the two Pro-Nuncios of Austria and
Portugal, Cardinals Taliani and Ajuti. The former had
become so very stout since he was last in Rome that
several of his friends at first failed to recognize him. I
also knelt and kissed the hand of Cardinal Gotti the
Carmelite, and offered him my ' buon' augurii.' An
accident nearly occurred, which might have been serious.
As Cardinal Gotti was on the point of alighting, one
of his horses became restive, and kicked violently the
carriage in which was seated another Cardinal, who on
getting out appeared, very naturally, much alarmed.
At 5 o'clock I made my way to the Sala Regia,
and saw the Cardinals enter the Pauline Chapel for
the ceremony I have already mentioned. They after-
wards, attended by their chaplains and train-bearers,
and preceded by the Sixtine Choir singing the " Veni
Creator Spirittis" walked in procession to the Sixtine
Chapel. They were vested in purple Cassock and
Mozzetta ^ The Cardinal Camerlengo walked first,
'1 The ' Croccia ' was not worn by the Cardinals either at this or at
the last Conclave. It is in tlie form of a mantle, made of silk or stuff
according to the season, and worn over the ' Mozzetta.' The colour
is purple for those who are not regulars, and for those who are it should
be of the colour of their Mozzetta.
34 SEDE VAC ANTE.
preceded by the Cross Bearer, who carried the
Crucifix turned towards him in symbol of his juris-
diction. The Noble and Palatine Guards were on duty.
After the Cardinals had taken their seats in the
Sixtine Chapel, and the oath had been taken by the
Prelates, Monsignor Merry del Val, the Secretary of
the Sacred College, accompanied the Conclavists to
the Pauline Chapel, to take their respective oaths.
Previous to this there had been a very interesting
spectacle, viz., the arrival of the Hereditary Marshal
of the Conclave, Prince Chigi. He was preceded to
the Sixtine Chapel by a servant carrying a large
sky-blue damask cushion, on which he was to kneel
when taking his oath.
Immediately in front of the Prince walked four
servants dressed in scarlet liveries, and carrying lighted
torches. On either side were the Ceremonieri, fol-
lowed by the members of his Court, wearing special
uniforms for the occasion, of black cloth with gold
buttons, with the arms of the Gonfalone and crossed
keys embroidered on their collars. Prince Chigi him-
self, as Marshal of the Conclave, was dressed in the
costume of a Roman Noble, in black silk with white lace
lappets and sword. He was accompanied by a detach-
ment of the Swiss Guard. After he had taken the
oath, and had kissed the hand of the Cardinal Camer-
lengo, he returned in the same order to his apartment,
which is that lately occupied by Monsignor Bisleti, the
late Pope's Maestro di Camera. Swiss Guards remained
SEDE VAC ANTE. 35
on duty, throughout the Conclave, at the entrance of
his apartment, as they also did at that of Monsignor
Cagiano, the Governor.
At about 6 o'clock all the Cardinals left the Sixtine
Chapel to retire to their respective cells ; and as
each of them came out, a Noble Guard, specially
appointed to attend him, presented arms, and with
drawn sword walked by his side as an escort. There
were altogether sixty-two, corresponding to the num-
ber of Cardinals, and they were drawn up in line
across the Sala Regia, as far as the entrance to the
Sala Ducalc. As each Cardinal came from the Chapel
according to his relative dignity and precedence, and as
each Noble Guard knew by sight the Cardinal whom he
had to escort, there was accordingly no confusion. I
observed that the Cardinal Camerlengo had two Guards
in attendance on him. The Cardinals who are con-
sidered * Papabili,' and whose portraits are being sold in
the streets, are as follows : Gotti, Agliardi, Rampolla,
Serafino Vannutelli, Svampa, Sarto, Capecelatro and di
Pietro. Those who had the good fortune of being
placed in attendance on a Cardinal who was considered
as * Papabile ' were naturally enough the objects of envy
and congratulation, so I was interested in finding that
several friends of mine had got such appointments.
Alfonso Serlupi was in attendance on Cardinal Sera-
fino Vannutelli ; Franchi de' Cavalieri was in waiting
on Cardinal Gotti ; and Muccioli, who had been in the
suite of Monsignor Sambucetti, the Pope's Envoy at
36 SEDE VAC ANTE.
Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1897, was in attendance
on Cardinal Sarto.
At about 7 o'clock I accompanied my friend Don
Reginald© de Raymond, one of the Canons of St.
Peter's, to make the usual complimentary visit to
some of the Cardinals. We first of all called to
pay our respects on Cardinal Logue, the Arch-
bishop of Armagh. We found he had drawn by lot
No. 62, the room lately inhabited by poor Monsignor
Volpini, who died there only a fortnight before, and
who had been chosen a few days before his death as
the Secretary to the Consistory, the post now occu-
pied by Monsignor Merry del Val. It had been con-
sidered advisable to conceal his sudden death from the
Pope, owing to the dangerous condition of the latter.
These rooms were at the very top of the Palace, and
I had to ascend some two hundred and eighty steps
before getting there. The good Cardinal told us that
when he arrived at the Vatican that afternoon he found
that no preparations had been made, and that his
chaplain's and servant's rooms were literally without
any furniture. He had been late on arriving, and the
Cardinals had already entered the Sixtine Chapel
some time before he arrived there. He told us also
that he knew very few of the Cardinals, even by sight,
and was probably the first Irish Cardinal who had
attended a Conclave.
We visited Cardinal Cassetta, to whom had been
allotted the rooms of my friend Silli. Cardinal Cassetta
SEDE VAC ANTE. 37
is a great favourite among the poor of Rome, as being
a man of considerable private fortune he has done
much for them in the way of benevolence and charity.
He had formerly held the office of High Almoner to
Leo Xni., and afterwards that of Vice-gerent to the
Cardinal Vicar. He asked me who was likely to suc-
ceed Cardinal Vaughan as Archbishop of Westminster,
and seemed also very much interested in what I told
him of the Education question in England, and of
Oxford in particular.
It was now nearly 8 p.m., and the bells, as well as
the cry of ^^ Extra omnes" from the Masters of Cere-
monies, told us that the most important ceremony of
the closing the Conclave, or in other words the en-
closing the Cardinals and Conclavists within the walls
of the Vatican, was at hand. It amounted to little
short of imprisonment, for the wooden shutters are
intended to prevent them seeing out of their windows,
and the locked gates, as well as the walled up stair-
cases and Loggie, prevent their leaving its very
precincts. It was also the eve or vigil of the Feast
of St. Peter's Chains, and many of them in jest
spoke of the coincidence.
But by far the most impressive scene was yet to
come, at least that which I must confess appealed
very vividly to my own imagination, and which
seemed to recall a ceremonial of the middle ages ;
for one might almost imagine oneself in a Mediaeval
castle in a state of siege. As soon as it was dark,
38 SEDE VAC ANTE.
a procession started from the apartment of the
Marshal of the Conclave. It consisted of Prince
Chigi, accompanied by his Court, and the Governor
of the Conclave, Monsignor Cagiano de Azevedo.
They were preceded by footmen in scarlet liveries
carrying large flaming torches, and escorted by the
Swiss Guard in their picturesque uniforms, with their
white plumes waving in the still breeze of a moon-
h'ght night. The procession also consisted of the
' Commissario ' of the Conclave, who happened to be
my brother Chamberlain di niimero, the aged Conte
Baldassarre Capogrossi Guarna, myself, the architect
Cavaliere Sneider, the engineer Cavaliere Mannucci, and
Cavaliere Martinucci, the Secretary of the Maggiordomo,
Prince Massimo, and a few others. It was the tour
of inspection previous to the closing and locking the
different gates of the Palace.
We first ascended the staircase called that of the
Maresciallo, leading from the Cortile del Maresciallo
to the Sala Regia, where we were met by three
Cardinals vested in purple cassock and mozzetta,
and wearing the red biretta.^ They were the three
* Capi d'ordine,' as they are called, Cardinal Serafino
Vannutelli, representing the Camerlengo, who is
first Cardinal Bishop ; Cardinal Netto, Patriarch of
Lisbon, first Cardinal Priest ; and Cardinal Macchi,
first Cardinal Deacon. They were also escorted by
Swiss Guards, and by four of the ' Palafrenieri,' dressed
in costume of red damask, and each of them carrying
SEDE VAC ANTE. 39
a lighted torcli. After a few words of greeting between
the Cardinals and Prince Chigi, we all of us descended
the staircase in the same order, turned to the left, and
entered the Cortile of the Pappagalli, passing into the
Cortile of San Damaso. Here were two gates (the
inner one containing two 'Ruote'), about twenty feet
apart, connecting by an archway these two courtyards.
The procession then entered the Cortile of San Damaso,
and slowly wended its way to the two ' Ruote ' on
the other side of the Cortile, which were duly opened
by the Architects, turned round, examined, and found
to be in order.
The Cardinals and Marshal then went and ex-
amined the wall which had been built across the
staircase leading to the Governor's apartments ; then
back across tlie courtyard to examine a wall built
across a staircase on the other side, leading to the
Museums and Library. Then back again to the
glass door of the staircase of the Floreria, behind
which had also been constructed a wall to prevent
access to the offices of the Secretary of State's de-
partment. The procession then returned to the gate
of the Cortile of the ' Pappagalli, and the Cardinals
duly commissioned the Governor of the Conclave to
guard it and the ' Ruote,' and consigned to him the
keys. The Cardinals thereupon entered, and duly
locked the inner gate.
We then all retraced our steps, and once again
ascended the staircase of the Maresciallo, where,
40 SEDE VAC ANTE.
standing outside the gate leading to the Sala Regia,
we awaited for fully half an hour the arrival of
the three Cardinals, who had in the meanwhile
been making a visit of inspection of the different
* loggie ' and staircases within the Palace. On their
arrival these two gates were duly locked, the
inner one by the Cardinals, and the outer one by
the Marshal, and we all returned once again to the
gates of the Pappagalli, which Monsignor Cagiano,
the Governor, unlocked, and entered to inspect the
' Ruote ' and the inner gate, which had been locked
nearly an hour previously by the Cardinals. Every-
thing being in order, the outer gate was once again
locked by the Governor, and the keys being all tied
together with a cord of green and gold silk, were
placed in a crimson velvet bag, which the Marshal
takes charge of till the end of the Conclave.
The procession then returned to the apartment of
the Marshal, it being now nearly 9.30, and the acts
were duly signed and sealed in the presence of Mon-
signor Nussi, the Dean of the College of Protonotaries.
Eight of the Swiss Guard remained on duty outside
the apartment. I had been in the Palace ever since
V. THE ELECTION OF THE
This morning commenced the solemn exposition
of the Holy Sacrament in the different August i.
Churches, for prayer that the Cardinals might wisely
make choice of a fit person to rule God's Holy
Church. In the Sixtine Chapel also was said a Votive
Mass of the Holy Ghost by the Cardinal Camerlengo,
and a general Communion of the Cardinals followed,
a Master of Ceremonies handing to each Cardinal a
stole as he communicated. The first 'Sfumata' took
place about 11.15 and lasted five or six minutes, and
that in the afternoon occurred at about 6 o'clock. No
election took place. I went to the Palace at 5 p.m. to
see some of the Prelates in service at the 'Ruote.' The
two ' Ruote ' in the Cortile of San Damaso, close by
the Marshal's apartments at the top of the staircase
leading from the Porta di Bronzo, are served by the
'Chierici della Camera,' and by Apostolic Protonotaries.
The ' Ruote ' in the Cortile of the Pappagalli are
served by the ' Votanti ' and 'Referendari di Seg-
natura,' and by the ' Abbreviatori del Parco Maggiore,'
who are officials connected with the Chancery. The
' Ruote ' of the first Loggia are called those of the
Secretary of the Sacred College, being near to his
offices ; and are served by Bishops assistant at the
Throne, and by Auditors of the Rota.
Besides these different Colleges of Prelates, the
Captains who are attached to the Court of the
Marshal of the Conclave also assist.
As I was standing in the Piazza of St. Peter's this
afternoon I was somewhat scandalized to see two
figures looking over the wooden shutters of two of
the windows immediately over the apartments of the
late Secretary of State. There was no doubt in my
mind that these were the rooms lately inhabited by
poor Monsignor Volpini, and now assigned (No. 62)
to His Eminence Cardinal Logue, the Archbishop of
Armagh. It was my duty to report the same to
Monsignor Cagiano, the Governor of the Conclave,
whom I immediately visited, and I told him what
was occurring. He asked me if I knew of any other
cases. I gave him the names of the following wit-
nesses who were with me at the time. They were
Dr. Fortini, Don Felice Valerga, Minor Canon of
St. Peter's, Don Nazareno Patrizi, Canon of SS.
Celso and Giuliano, Canon Danesi, of St. Maria in
Cosmedin, and Dr. Prior, the Vice-Rector of the
Collegio-Beda. Monsignor the Governor thanked me
for the information, and at once ordered an investiga-
tion. It turned out that during the absence of the
Cardinal and his Chaplain the servants of some other
Cardinals had visited the room and had stood on
THE ELECTION. 43
chairs to see the crowd in the Piazza. I was told
the same thing had occurred in the room occupied by
Cardinal Puzyna, Bishop of Cracow.
I saw the 'Sfumata' at 11. 15 a.m. I also observed
that a white curtain had been placed behind August 2
the shutters of Cardinal Logue's window. "" ^^*
In the evening the ' Sfumata ' occurred at 6.40. The
Piazza, owing to its being a Festa, was densely packed
with spectators, more than I can remember to have
seen since the " Urbi et Orbi " Benedictions previous
to 1870. The crowd extended all the way from the
Piazza Rusticucci to the very doors of the Basilica,
and must have amounted to over 20,000 people. In
the evening papers, such as the " Giornah d'ltalial^
allusion was made to the scandal which I had to
report on Saturday evening, and it also mentioned
(what I have reason to believe is not true) that the
same scandal occurred also to-day: " Anche oggi, dalle
piccole finestre sotto il cornicione, e precisamente dell'
appartamento che abitava il defunto Monsignor Volpini
si sono visti affacciare delle persone." I myself saw no
such thing, and the second window had the glass
drawn down behind the shutters, evidently the result
of the complaint which had been made. During this
morning the Austrian Ambassador and the Minister
Plenipotentiary of the French Embassy, came to
the ' Ruote ' to deliver their despatches to the
Sacred College, which were duly consigned to the
44 THE ELECTION.
Cardinal Camerlengo by Mgr. Merry del Val, the
On Monday, August 3rd, I saw the ' Sfumata ' at
Augusta. 11.20 a.m. There was much dark smoke,
which shewed that damp straw had been mixed
with the burnt voting papers, a sign that no elec-
tion had taken place. The evening * Sfumata ' took
place at 6.25, and no election was declared. I
was told that Cardinal Herrero y Espinosa, Arch-
bishop of Valencia, was so ill that he had received
the Viaticum, and that Cardinal Lecot, Archbishop of
Bordeaux, and Cardinal Langenieux of Rheims, were
also ill, and unable to attend the Scrutiny. Cardinal
Herrero obtained leave from the Camerlengo to
allow his Vicar General, P. Moren, who is staying
at the Spanish College in Palazzo Altemps, to visit
him for religious consolation. The Marshal, Prince
Chigi, accordingly opened the gate on the outside,
while Monsignor Merry del Val, assisted by the
Ceremoneri, Monsignori Riggi and Marzolini (on be-
half of the Cardinal Camerlengo), opened the gate
from the interior. The * Rogito ' or Act was then
signed and sealed by Monsignor Nussi, Dean of the
August 4th. Tuesday. I reached the Piazza about
August 4. 10.45 ^•^' There was a large crowd. At
11.40 there had been so little 'Sfumata' that it had
To face p. 45.
Photo., Lncchcsi, Roma.
Proclamation by the Cardinal Deacon from the Loggia of
S. Peter's overlooking the Piazza, August 4, 1903.
THE ELECTION. 45
passed almost unobserved. Shortly before mid-day,
however, the glass windows of the balcony in front
of St. Peter's, behind which is the great Hall of the
Beatifications, were opened, and a large ' Portiera,'
with the arms of Pius IX. embroidered on it, was hung
therefrom. In a very few minutes we saw the proces-
sional cross, and the first Cardinal Deacon, Macchi,
appeared, attended by a number of officials. He was
vested in purple and wore a red Biretta. There was
very great excitement in the Piazza, many shout-
ing and waving their handkerchiefs. The crowd at
once rushed towards the Basilica, and the Italian
troops, who were within the porticoes, at once drew
up in front of the Church, and presented arms to
the Cardinal, who forthwith intoned, in a strong and
clear voice, the proclamation^: "Annvncio VOBIS
GAVDIVM MAGNVM, HABEMVS PAPAM EMINENTISSI-
MVM ET REVERENDISSIMVM DOMINVM JOSEPHVM
SARTO . . . QVI SIBI NOMEN IMPOSVIT PIVS DECIMVS."
^ Owing to the impatience and the general enthusiasm of the crowd,
the Cardinal used the above shortened formula. The complete text is
as follows: — " annvncio vobis gavdivm magnvm, papam habemvs
EMINENTISSIMVM ET REVERENDISSIMVM DOMINVM JOSEPHVM TITVLI
S. BERNARDI AD THERMAS, SANCTAE ROMANAE ECCLESIAE PRESEY-
TERVM CARDINALEM SARTO, QVI SIBI NOMEN IMPOSVIT PIVS DECIMVS."
On the last occasion, in 1878, Cardinal Caterini, whose duty it was
to proclaim Leo XIII., being an old man of eighty-three years, entirely
broke down, having said " Annuncio Vobis," and the proclamation was
made by a young Conclavist v^rho was standing near, Don Bartolomeo
Grassi Landi, now a Minor Canon of St. Peter's, who called aloud to
the people, " II Cardinale Pecci col nomc di Leone XIII."
46 THE ELECTION.
The crowd shouted loudly "Evviva!" and the Car-
dinal was obliged to pause ere he could continue the
formula, and declare the regnant name of the new Pope.
Some, however^ of the bystanders seem to have heard
this as * Pium Decimum/ but the nominative is the
ordinary form in use. Grammatically, nominative, geni-
tive, dative, or accusative are all possible. Singularly
enough I found myself standing next the Cardinal's
own brother, Conte Vincenzo Macchi, who seemed very
much overcome when he heard His Eminence's voice —
so much so that tears came to his eyes. I charged him
to kiss his brother's hand for me, and to offer him my
respectful congratulations on the honour which had
fallen to his lot in proclaiming the new Pope. He
had certainly performed his duty most successfully.
I then entered the Basilica with the crowd, and we
saw immediately that the window of the balcony inside
the Church had been thrown open, and that prepara-
tions were being made for the new Pope, who very
shortly afterwards appeared, vested in white Cassock,
red Mozzetta and Stole, and white Zucchetto, and
accompanied by several Cardinals and conclavists. In
the midst of the wildest enthusiasm, the people loudly
shouted " Viva Papa Pio X.," " Viva Papa Sarto," and
some Americans who were near me, unfolded some
American flags and waved them. His Holiness now
in the midst of breathless silence gave the Apostolic
Blessing. Many shed tears of emotion, among them
the Spanish Ambassador to the Quirinal, who was
THE ELECTION. 47
standing near me in the company of my friend the
Conde de Villalonga, a Spanish Senator. Amid the
waving of handkerchiefs and the shouts of the people,
the Pope then withdrew. He shewed much tact in so
soon giving the Blessing, as by so doing, the danger of
the crush from the crowd coming in and going out,
owing to the uncertainty as to whether the Benediction
would be given from within or without (as was the case
at the last Conclave in 1878), was avoided.
I made my way to the Palace, where 1 met a number
of my old friends, among them the late Maestro di
Camera, Mgr. Bisleti, and the four Ecclesiastical
Camericri Partecipanti, all desirous of knowing wdiether
the Pope intended to confirm them in their office. The
Maggiordomo, Mgr. Cagiano (who had been all through
the Conclave acting as Governor), on the other hand,
holds a permanent office like myself. He told me that
I should receive my ' intimo ' to be on service at once
on Pius X. The Marshal, Prince Chigi, together with
the Governor, about 6 o'clock arrived to open the differ-
ent gates and to break the enclosure, using much the
same ceremonial and formality as they did when closing
the Conclave, except that on this occasion the secretary,
Mgr. Merry del Val, assisted by the two Ceremonieri,
Mgr. Riggi and Mgr. Marzolini, opened the gates from
the inside. Prince Chigi had as witnesses Prince Lan-
cellotti, Conte Servanzi Collio, who also performed the
same office at the last Conclave in 1878, and Don
Ludovico Chigi, Prince of Campagnano.
48 THE ELECTION.
Little is as yet known, owing to the secrecy observed
by the Sacred College, as to the numbers of votes which
the Cardinals received, but it is generally reported that
Cardinal Rampolla had the largest number of votes,
amounting to between twenty and thirty, and that the
Prefect of Propaganda, Cardinal Gotti, had about ten
less than the late Secretary of State, but that Austria
had vetoed Cardinal Rampolla's election. It has
been suggested, I know not with what truth, that
pressure was brought to bear on Austria by one
or both of the other states united with her in the
triple alliance, owing to Cardinal Rampolla's very
pronounced opposition to it.
Cardinal Puzyna, Bishop of Cracow, had the un-
pleasant task of stating his Government's intentions
to the Cardinals ; and Cardinal Rampolla, although
protesting, together with the whole Sacred College,
against this unwarrantable interference, seeing grave
consequences did Austria carry out the threats inti-
mated in the Veto, at once expressed his disinclina-
tion to resist it, and prayed those who intended to vote
for him, or who had already done so, to transfer their
votes to some other candidate. I may here state
briefly what took place after the election of Cardinal
Sarto. The Cardinal Camerlengo, on finding that
Cardinal Sarto had more than two-thirds of the votes,
asked Cardinal Cavagnis, the Junior Deacon, to
summon Mgr. Merry del Val, Mgr. Sagrista, the
Pope's Conclavists, and Mgr. Riggi, the Prefect of
To face f. 49.
Pope Pius X.
Elected August 4, 1903.
Photo-, Ft'lki, Roma.
THE ELECTION. 49
Ceremonies, who, with some other Masters of Cere-
monies, at once entered the Chapel and stood ready
to lower the Baldacchini, or Canopies, of all the
Cardinals, with the exception of that of the newly
His throne was the 21st, counting from the Altar, on
the left-hand side. The three ' Capi d'ordine ' Cardi-
nals at once approached Cardinal Sarto, and the Camer-
lengo addressed him in these words : " Acceptasne
clectionem de te canonice factam in Summum Ponti-
ficem ? " Having replied in the affirmative, all the
canopies except that of the Pope were at once lowered.
The Camerlengo now asked him "Quomodo vis vocari?"
and the Pope replied, '' Pius Decimus," in memory of
Pius IX. of holy memory. Then Mgr. Riggi at once
prepared the official ' Rogito,' which was signed by
Mgr. Secretary to the Sacred College, and by Mgr.
Marzolini and Mgr. Ciocci, both Masters of Cere-
monies. The three Cardinals ' Capi d'ordine ' then
retired, and Mgr. Riggi summoned two of the Car-
dinal Deacons (Macchi and Steinhuber) to conduct
the Pope to the Sacristy, where were prepared three
sets of papal vestments of different sizes, consisting
of a white cassock, sash, rochet, red satin mozzetta,
red stole, red shoes embroidered with a cross, white
stockings, and a white collar and zucchetto. Thus
vested he returned to the Chapel, accompanied by
the two Cardinal Deacons, giving his blessing to all
as he entered. He then (sitting on a chair which
50 THE ELECTION.
had been put on the Predella of the Altar) received
all the Cardinals, who came according to their rank
and precedence, and kissed his hand and received
a double embrace. The Cardinal Camerlengo then
placed the ring on his finger, which was at once re-
moved, and given to the Prefect of Ceremonies to have
the figure of St. Peter in the Bark engraved on it,
from which it gets the name of the Fisherman's Ring.
Having given his blessing from the Loggia, the Pope
retired to his apartment, but returned about 5 o'clock
to receive what is called the second adoration. He was
now vested in red Stole and Manto (a long trained
cope) and gold mitre, and instead of sitting on the
Altar as was once the custom, sat on a chair placed
on the predella, and received the homage of each Car-
dinal, who kissed his foot and his hand, and received
a double embrace. Afterwards the Marshal of the
Conclave, accompanied by his Court, and by Mgr.
the Governor and other officials, kissed the Pope's
foot and made their allegiance. He gave his bless-
ing to all assembled, and, escorted again by the
Noble and Swiss Guard, returned to his apartment.
The Conclave having been opened, the Cardinals all
returned to their residences.
August 5th. Wednesday. I arrived at the Vatican
August 5. soon after 10 a.m., and found the Sacred
College already assembled in the Sixtine Chapel.
They had on the scarlet ' Cappa,' with the excep-
THE ELECTION. 51
tion of Cardinals Gotti, Vivez, Martinelli and Pi'crotti,
who wore a * Cappa ' of the colour of their re-
ligious Order. The Baldacchini or Canopies were
all lowered, with the exception of No. 21 on the left
side from the Altar, which was that of the newly-
elected Pope. Outside the enclosure were a number
of Archbishops, Bishops and Prelates and Con-
clavists. At 10.30 the procession entered; the Holy
Father was on foot, and was accompanied by the Mag-
giordomo. Maestro di Camera, four Camerieri Parteci-
panti, and other officials, who had in the meanwhile
been confirmed in their respective offices. He was
escorted by the Noble Guard, and was vested in white
Cassock, Rochet and red satin Mozzetta, &c., and at
once retired to the Sacristy, from which he shortly
returned, vested in red Stole, Manto, and gold Mitre.
After praying for some time at the Faldstool, he as-
cended the predella of the Altar, on which had been
placed a chair of crimson velvet, on which he sat, and
each Cardinal, commencing with the Cardinal Dean, all
according to seniority, came to him, knelt and kissed
his foot, his hand, and received a double embrace.
This is called the third adoration, and should have
taken place in St. Peter's, the Pope sitting on the
High Altar ^ During this ceremony, which lasted a
considerable time, owing to the large number of Car-
b Benedict XIII. (Oisini) in 1724 slightly changed the order of cere-
monial, and sat on a cushion on the Gospel side of the Altar, instead
of in the centre.
52 THE ELECTION.
dinals, the " Te Deum " was solemnly sung. At its con-
clusion the Cardinal Dean intoned some prayers at the
Altar, and the Pope gave his solemn blessing, and re-
turned on foot to his apartments. The Sacred College
afterwards left the Chapel, and took off their * Cappe '
in the Hall of the Paramenti, and returned at once to
their respective residences. It was rumoured that the
Pope, owing to the extreme heat, had decided to post-
pone his Coronation till the 8th December, but on its
being pointed out to him that there were certain techni-
cal difficulties in the way, such as the signing of Bulls
and holding Consistories, which should take place
after the Coronation, His Holiness at once decided to
have the Coronation ceremony on the following
Sunday, August 9th.
August 6th, Thursday. The Pope this morning
August 6. received the Corps Diplomatique, who
offered their congratulations and kissed his foot.
The Address was read by their Dean, who is Ambas-
sador of Portugal. The Pope replied in suitable
terms, and afterwards gave audience to several Car-
dinals ; among them were the Archbishops of Turin
and Ferrara, also the Pro-Nuncio at Vienna, Cardinal
Taliani, and the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon, and
others. In the afternoon His Holiness went for a
drive in the Vatican Gardens. Zanardelli's Circular
to the Prefects of the different provinces not to allow
any officials to take part in services of thanks-
THE ELECTION. 53
giving for the election of the Pope has given general
surprise, and has been severely criticised, even in the
Liberal Press. I was talking this afternoon to one of
the Secretaries of the Italian Foreign Office on the
subject, who warmly expressed his indignation at
Zanardelli's inconsistent excuse in assigning as the
reason for his impolitic action the fact that the
Vatican had not sent him any official notice of the
Pope's election. As my friend remarked, no official
notice had been sent by the Vatican on the occasion
of the death of Leo XIII., and yet orders had been
issued by Zanardelli that the Government officials
were to attend the Requiems,
August 7th. Friday. This morning the Holy Father
received in separate and private audience August 7.
the following Cardinals : — Kopp, Prince Bishop of
Breslau, Fischer, Archbishop of Cologne, de Skrben-
sky, Prince Archbishop of Prague, Gruscha, Prince
Archbishop of Vienna, Puzyna, Bishop of Cracow,
also Cardinal Svampa, Archbishop of Bologna, and
Cardinal Manara, Bishop of Ancona. He has ap-
pointed Monsignor Sardi Secretary of Briefs to
Princes, and Monsignor Galli Secretary of Latin
Letters, and Monsignor Bressan, who was his Con-
clavist, his private Chaplain.
VI. THE PAPAL MASS
August 9th. Sunday. I received yesterday after-
August g. noon an order from the Maestro di Camera
appointing me to be one of the two Chamberlains ot
Honour in waiting on the Pope, on the occasion of
The Vatican carriage arrived for me at 7 o'clock
this morning, as my duties in the Ante-chamber were
to commence at 8. The two ecclesiastical Chamberlains
who also accompanied me were Mgr. PiccoH Noel,
Canon of St. Maria in Trastevere, and Mgr. Grazioli,
and my fellow Chamberlain was Signor Adriano Aloisi
Masella, nephew of the deceased Cardinal Pro-Datario.
We arrived at the Vatican shortly after 8 o'clock.
The large suite of apartments for so long occupied
by the Cardinal Secretary of State is now the apart-
ment in which Pius X. has taken up his residence,
until the rooms lately occupied by the deceased
Pontiff have been unsealed, and made ready for him.
The ante-chambers allotted to the different officials
are in the same order and arrangement as were those
occupied by Leo XIIT. All the great officers of State
were present. The Throne Room of honour in which
I do duty had its Throne duly erected, and appeared
to be immediately over the bedroom of Leo XIII.
The Holy Father shortly before 8.30 came out of his
THE CORONATION. 55
private apartment, and 1 at once hastened forward to
meet him, and having knelt and kissed his hand,
asked him for his blessing for myself and our con-
gregation at St. Aloysius', Oxford, w^hich he graciously
granted. I told him that I felt sure it would in-
terest His Holiness to know that to-day, the 9th of
August, his own Coronation day, was also that of
my own King, Edward VH., and that on this very
day a year ago, in the Abbey of Westminster, I had
the honour of being on duty, and in the service of
my own Sovereign, as Gold Staff Officer. This seemed
to greatly interest him, and I can boast that probably
I am the only man in the world who has had this
unique honour of serving both his temporal and his
spiritual Sovereigns on the occasion of their Corona-
tions, on the very same day two years in succession.
We accompanied the Pope to St. Peter's through
the different ante-chambers, down the great staircase
and Loggie to the Sala dei Paramenti, where the
Cardinals were awaiting him, vested in their scarlet
* Cappe.' The Pope walked the whole way to St.
Peter's wearing his red satin Mozzetta and Stole, and
was escorted by the Household and by the Noble and
Swiss Guards. He was preceded by the different
officials and Prelates, and by about 50 Archbishops
and Bishops, and as many Cardinals, all of whom
had their Chaplains and train-bearers. The procession
passed through the Sala Ducale, the Sala Regia, and
down the great Scala Regia. At the bottom of this
staircase there was prepared a small room immediately
56 THE CORONATION.
under Bernini's great statue of the Emperor Con-
stantine, and in this room the Pope was vested with
a white Manto and Stole, and precious Mitre, and took
his seat on the Sedia Gestatoria % the very same which
Leo XIII. used for the first and only time, on the
occasion of his Jubilee on the 3rd of last March, and
which was presented to him as an offering by myself
and his other lay Chamberlains. He then, escorted
by Noble and vSwiss Guards, was carried into the
Portico of the Basilica with flabelli carried on either
side by Chamberlains.
Here a Throne had been erected for him, next the
Porta Santa, and round about were placed seats for
the Sacred College. On taking his seat on the Throne
the Arch-priest of the Basilica, Cardinal Rampolla,
approached His Holiness and read an address of
welcome on the part of himself and the Chapter.
The Pope replied in suitable terms, and the Cardinal
having kissed the Pope's foot and hand, and received
an embrace, the Chapter one by one knelt and kissed
the Pope's foot. He then allowed the Seminarists
of St. Peter's to do the same. He then ascended the
Sedia Gestatoria, and wearing the Manto and precious
Mitre with flabelli of ostrich feathers carried on either
side, entered the Basilica, which must have con-
^ The Sedia Gestatoria is borne on the shoulders of twelve footmen
called ^ Sediari,' under the superintendence of the 'Foriere Maggiore,'
the Marchese Sacchetti. It is supported by two long poles covered
with red velvet, which are placed through gilt metal sockets attached
to its base.
To face p. 56.
.\^N" XXV F,
Photo., Dancsi, Roma.
The ' Sedia Gestatona ' used at the Coronation, August 9, 1903.
THE COROMATION. 57
tained at least 40,000 spectators. There were Tri-
bunes near the High Altar for the Corps Diplo-
matique, Knights of Malta, and Nobility ; and the
Papal Gendarmes and Palatine Guard, en grande
tenue, were drawn up in line all down the Nave,
the pilasters of which were hung with red damask.
He was surrounded by all the great officers of State
and escorted by the Noble and Swiss Guard, and the
Choir sang the " Tu es Petrus " as he entered. The
procession was a very long one, and consisted of the
different Colleges of Prelates and others who belong
to the Cappella Papale. The Bishops and Cardinals
walked immediately in front of the Sedia Gesta-
toria. On his arrival at the Chapel of the Blessed
Sacrament the Pope descended and prayed for a
while before the Santissimo, which was solemnly ex-
posed. He then ascended the Sedia, and was carried
down the Church to the Chapel of St. Gregory, where
a throne without a canopy had been erected in front
of the monument of Pius VH., as well as benches for
the Sacred College. On the Altar of St. Gregory
had been arranged his vestments for the Mass, as
well as two mitres and tiaras, and there was also
a credence, on which had been placed the seven golden
candlesticks which were to be carried in the procession
by the Prelates called * Votanti di Segnatura^ and to
be held by them during the singing of the Gospel,
Although the Pope had issued strict orders that no
demonstration such as cheering was to be allowed,
it was found very difficult to prevent it, and every
58 THE CORONATION.
now and then the people in their enthusiasm were
unable to control themselves.
During the procession the Pope on several occasions
paused while he was blessing the crowd right and left,
and putting his fingers to his lips enjoined silence.
On reaching the Chapel of St. Gregory the Pope
descended and prayed for some time at the faldstool.
He then went to the throne. The Cardinals ascended
the steps of the throne and one by one made their
' ubbidienza ' by kissing his right hand, which he ex-
tended to them covered by the orphrey of his Manto,
and the Patriarchs, Archbishops and Bishops kissed
The Pope having given the Blessing 'more solito'
the Cardinals now vested themselves in full Pontificalia,
the six Suburban Bishops in copes fastened by a morse
decorated with three pine cones, the Cardinal Priests
in chasubles, and the Deacons in dalmatics. They
all wore silver lama vestments embroidered in gold,
and white damask mitres. The Patriarchs, Arch-
bishops and Bishops wore white copes and linen
Terce was sung, and meanwhile Cardinal Segna, as
Deacon of the Mass, and Cardinals Macchi and Pierotti,
as assistant Deacons, vested themselves in dalmatics.
By mistake Mgr. Ciocci, the Master of Ceremonies,
vested Cardinal Segna with the stole over his right
shoulder instead of over his left. It would have passed
unnoticed, had I not called his attention to it. The
Pope had now his Mitre, Manto and Stole removed
THE CORONATION. 59
and assumed the vestments for Mass. Having on him
the white silk Falda, the Cardinal Deacons vested him
in full ' Pontificalia,' which were carried to the throne
by Prelates called ^Votanti di Segnatura' and 'Abbre-
viatori del Parco Maggiore! In addition to these, he
was vested as Pope, with the Succintorio and the
Fanone. He ascended the Sedia Gestatoria, which
was supported by the Sediari, who wore their crimson
damask liveries, and the senior Cardinal Deacon hold-
ing in his hand the Ferula or Staff, intoned the
" Procedamus in Pace," an(i the Choir responded, " In
nomine Christi. Amen."
The procession in solemn state advanced to the
High Altar. The Pope was carried under a rich
canopy of silver lama, which was supported by eight
Prelates, called Rcferendari di Segnatura, vested in
Rochets, the flabelli of ostrich feathers being borne
on either side of him by Chamberlains. In the pro-
cession were carried also seven golden candlesticks
and the mitres and tiaras.
As the long procession wended its way to the High
Altar, it paused three times, while Monsignor Men-
ghini, a Papal Master of Ceremonies, holding aloft a
silver brazier containing tow, set light to the flax,
and making a genuflection towards the Pope, cried
aloud thrice, each time with a higher pitch of the
voice, these solemn words : " Pater Sancte ! Sic transit
gloria mundi." The tow, however, could not be
quenched, and it got brighter and brighter as the
procession advanced, so that at last the Master of
6o THE CORONATION.
Ceremonies was obliged to throw the whole of the
burning stuff on the ground, just under one of the
bronze columns of the Papal Altar. One could not
(standing so near to it as I did) help recalling the
prophecy falsely attributed to St. Malachi, which as-
signs the motto " Ignis Ardens " to the present reigning
Pontiff. Some on the other hand see its fulfilment
in the fact that Pius X. was elected on the Feast
of St. Dominic, whose arms are represented as a dog
holding a burning torch in its mouth. Others think
they see its fulfilment in the fact that the Pope had
been Cardinal Titular of the Church of St. Bernard
" ad thermas," which was connected with the ' Cali-
daria' or hot baths built by the Emperor Diocletian.
Pius IX. of holy memory is said to have used the
following words in allusion to those who believe in
such superstitions, " Stultoruni infiniius est ttumerus"
and they are quite applicable now. The Mass com-
menced about 10.30, and was sung by the Pope at
the High Altar. The last Coronation Mass that was
celebrated here was that of Pius IX., on June 21st,
1846. The Altar to-day looked magnificent. In front
of it were placed two standard candlesticks designed by
Pollaiuolo. On it were arranged the seven candlesticks
designed by Gentili and Spagna, two statues of SS.
Peter and Paul on either side the Cross, and two mitres
and tiaras, the former on the Gospel side and the latter
on that of the Epistle. The antependia of the Altar
were those presented by Pope Clement XIII., of the
family of Rezzonico of Venice (1758-69), and whose
THE CORONATION. 6l
coat of arms I recognised as embroidered on them.
On reaching the High Altar the Pope received" ad
osculum oris" the three junior Cardinal Priests, and
immediately began the Mass.
The Kyrie, Gloria, and SancUts and Agnus Dei were
by Palestrina, " Sine nomine]' for four voices. The
Credo was from the Mass of Pope Marcellus, the
Offertory that of " Clemens non Papa," the Motett
" Orenius pro Pontifice nostro Pio" for eight voices,
was by Perosi, and the Communio was by Palestrina.
After the Pope had said the Confiteor and received the
maniple, he took his seat on the Sedia Gestatoria, and
the three senior Cardinal Bishops then intoned the
special prayers on his behalf. He then descended, and
standing below the Altar steps, Cardinal Macchi, the
Senior Deacon, invested him with the Pallium ^ reciting
^ The Pallium is made from the wool shorn from the two lambs
which are blessed on the Feast of St. Agnes after the Pontifical Mass
in her Church on the Via Nomentana. The Iambs are then taken to
the Pope who consigns them to the care of the Nuns at St. Cecilia
in the Trastevere. The Pallia are solemnly blessed by the Pope after
the Vespers on the Vigil of SS. Peter and Paul, and are granted
to Patriarchs, Primates and Metropolitans, and by special favour to
some Bishops. Pope St. Mark in the year 337 specially granted it to
the Bishop of Ostia and his successors, as he has the right of conse-
crating the Pope should the latter not have received episcopal orders
when elected. An Arclibishop cannot exercise full jurisdiction till he
has received the Pallium, unless by special permission from the Holy
See. The Pallia are kept in a casket given by Benedict XIV.,
which is placed over the Fenestrella at the shrine of St. Peter, and
hence are called ^de Corpore S. Petri.'' When a Metropolitan is translated
from one See to another, he must 'postulate' for a new Pallium, in which
he is vested when buried, the old one being placed beneath his head.
The Pallium is worn over the Chasuble, and to the three crosses orj
62 TJI£ CORONATION.
the following prayer: '' Accipe Pallium Sanctum, pleni-
tndinem Pontificalis officii ad Jwnorem Omiiipotentis
Dei, gloriosissimcE Virginis Maries Ejus Matris, beato-
riLvi Apostolorum Petri, et Pauli, et Sancics RomancB
EcclesicB^'' after which the two Cardinal Deacons at-
tached three jewelled pins to the crosses. Having in-
censed the Altar ' nicrre solito,' and been incensed
himself by Cardinal Segna the Deacon, he went to
the Throne, which was placed at the extreme end of
the Sanctuary and in front of the Altar of the Sedia,
breast, left shoulder and back respectively, are attached three jewelled
pins passing through little loops of black silk. It is used when the
Metropolitan solemnly pontificates on those occasions which are specified
in the ' Cceremoniale Episcoporum.' The Pallium has attached to it two
leaden weights covered with black silk, examples of which were found
a few years since in the tomb of Archbishop Hubert Walter (a.d. 1193) in
Canterbury Cathedral. The writer was allowed to examine them, and
they appeared to be in every way identical with those used at the present
day. The length of the Pallium since the Pontificate of Sixtus IV., 1471,
has been much curtailed, otherwise its form remains substantially the
same. Till the middle of the Xlllth century its crosses were probably
red, as may be seen in the old mosaics dating from the Vlth and Vllth
centuries in many of the old churches in Rome and elsewhere.
As the commission was given to St. Peter to feed the sheep and the
lambs, so his successors, the Roman Pontiffs, as ' Pastores Ovium,' send
the Pallium, ' de Corpore S. Petri,' to Prelates in union with the Holy
See. The Pallium in the arms of the Sees of Canterbury and York
still bears testimony to the relations which so long uhited England and
Rome. Thirteen centuries ago St. Augustine of Canterbury received
the Pallium from Pope St. Gregory, together with the authorization to
constitute the other English Sees. Later on our own Archbishops have
frequently gone in person to Rome to receive the Pallium. It was given
to Lanfranc in 1061 by Pope Alexander II., and the two first Arch-
bishops of the restored Scottish Hierarchy went to Rome in 1878 to
receive it from the late Pontiff", as will the new Archbishop of West-
minster very shortly journey thither to receive it from Pius X.
To face p. 62.
The Sacred Pallium.
THE CORONATION. 63
and there received the 'ubbidienza' of the Cardinals,
who kissed first his foot and then his hand, and re-
ceived the double embrace. The Patriarchs, Arch-
bishops and Bishops kissed his foot and his knee,
while the Mitred Abbots and Penitentiaries of St.
Peter's kissed his foot only.
After he had said the Introit and Kyrie, and in-
toned the " Gloria in Excelsis " and the Collect, Car-
dinal Macchi as First Cardinal Deacon, holding a
Ferula or Staff in his hand and accompanied by Mace-
bearers, Auditors of the Rota, Masters of Ceremonies
and Consistorial advocates (who on this occasion wear
Copes not open in front but at the side), descended
into the Confession, near which is the shrine of St.
Peter, and there sung the special ' Laudes ' on behalf
of the Pope.
-■ — H— « — H — ■ — H — H— I
Ex-au-di, Clui - ste. R/' Sanctis - si - mo Do - mi - no, no-st
-B— H-n-— a ■ — ■ B a ■ B — H— ■— H— B-i-l
PI - O, a De - o cle - ere - to Suramo Pon - li - fi - ci
M Et dicitur tet:
at u - ni - ver - sa - li Pa - pae vi - ta.
Sal - va - tor mun - di, I^ Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sancta Ma - ri - a, I^ Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - te Mi - cha - el, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - te Ga - bri - el, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - te Ra - pha - el, Rj Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sancte loannes Bap - ti - sta, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - te Pe - tre, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - te Pau - le, R/ Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sanc-te An - dre - a, R? Tu il - lum ad - iu - va,
-■5 ^* 1 *— " — ft — *— *— ■
Sane - te Ste - pha - ne, R7 Tu il - lum ad - in - va.
Sancte Le - o, R/ Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sancte Gre - go - ri, E/' Tu il - lum ad - iu - va
Sancte Be - ne - die - te, R/' Tu il - lum ad - iu • va.
Sancte Ba - si - li, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - te Sab - ba, R/ Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sancte Do - mi - ni-ce, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - ta Ag - nes, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sancta Cae - ci - li - a, R7 Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
Sane - ta Lu - ci - a, R/' Tu il - lum ad - iu - va.
66 THE CORONATION.
r,p:3lz"z"zgz!!zBzgB=^ ^zgzgzg z"ziai-|
Ky - li - e, e - le - i - son, R? Ky - ri - e, e - le - i - son,
-g — ■—■—■—■— a - B^ — ff — B— a— H— H— B— ^ — T —
Christe, e - le - i - son, R7 Christe, e - le - i - son,
Ky - ri - e, e - - le - i - son.
The Epistle was then sung by Mgr. Magno, Auditor
of the Rota and Apostolic Sub-Deacon, in Latin, after
which it was sung in Greek by Don Giorgio Xenopolis
of Athens, who afterwards both together went and
kissed the Pope's foot. Cardinal Segna then placed
the book of the Gospels on the Altar and went to
kiss the hand of the Pope, who was seated on the
Throne, while Mgr. Sambucetti, the Archbishop as-
sistant, presented the incense to be blessed by His
Holiness. The Cardinal Deacon having returned to
the Altar and said the " Munda Cor meum," took the
book from the Altar, and, accompanied by the Sub-
Deacon and by seven ' Votanti di Segnatiira^ holding
golden candlesticks, together with the thurifer, went
to the Throne to obtain the Pope's blessing. He now
returned with his assistants, and sung the Gospel in
Latin from a lectern, the seven Prelates standing
round him with their golden candlesticks.
THE CORONATION. 67
When the Gospel was ended, the Greek Deacon
carried his Gospel book to the Altar and placed it
thereon. He then went to kiss the Pope's foot, returned
to the Altar, and said in Greek the prayer correspond-
ing to the " Munda Cor." Then rising, he took the
book of the Gospels, and, accompanied by the Greek
Sub-Deacon, he returned to the Throne for the Pope's
blessing, asking for it in Greek. The Pope replied in
Latin. He then returned to the Altar and sang the
Gospel in Greek, in which language the Sub-Deacon
answered at the beginning and the end. The two Sub-
Deacons then carried the books of the Gospel to be
kissed by the Pope, whom the assistant Cardinal Bishop
incensed. The Pope now intoned the Credo. After
the Choir had sung the " Incarnatus," the Cardinal
Deacon and the Sub- Deacon went from the Altar
to the credence of the Cardinal Deacon, where they
washed their hands. Then returning, they spread over
the Altar the cloth with gold fringe, called the ' Sopra-
tovaglia.' The Sub-Deacon then went to the Credence
of the Papal Sacristan, Mgr. Pifferi, and, putting on
a humeral veil, he carried the burse with the corporal,
two purificators and the canister of wafers to the
Cardinal Deacon, who, placing the canister on the
Altar, took the corporal from the burse and spread
it on the Altar, putting on one side of it the two
purificators. Mgr. Pifferi, the Sacristan, having left
the Pope's Throne, went to his credence, where the
humeral veil was put over his shoulders : with it he
68 THE coronation:
carried the chalice, paten, golden spoon, and two
purificators, and accompanied by a ' Votante di Seg-
natura ' acting as acolyte, who carried a cup and two
empty cruets, he went to the Pope's credence on
the Gospel side of the Altar °. They placed on the
credence what they carried, and one of the Pope's
servants (Mgr. Sagrista having purified the paten,
chalice and cruets) then tasted the wine and water.
The Sacristan then washed with the wine the chalice,
paten, spoon, cruets and cup, and filled the cruets
with wine and water, pouring a little of each into
a small cup that the servant might taste them.
He then carried them to the Altar. The Cardinal
Deacon then placed three wafers on the Paten. He
took one of them, touched it' with the other two, and
gave it to the Sacristan ; he then took another and
touched it with the paten and chalice inside and outside,
and gave it to the Sacristan, who eat the two wafers.
The third was kept for consecration. The Cardinal
Deacon then took the cruets, and poured from them
some wine and water into the cup held by the Sacris-
tan, who drank from it. This ceremony is called the
* Praegustatio ' or ' Proba.'
The Pope meanwhile had said the offertory, and the
Lavabo was given him by Prince Orsini, the Prince
Assistant at the Throne, the Pope wiping his hands
c The credence of the Cardinal Deacon as also that of Mgr. Sagrista
are on the Epistle side.
THE CORONATION. 69
with a towel given him by Mgr. Cagiano the Maggior-
domo. He descended from the Throne and went to the
Altar to continue the Mass " more solito." Having
offered the bread and wine and censed the elements
and had been himself censed, he washed his hands with
the usual formality. At the Sanctus eight torches were
brought in by the ' Votanti di Segnatura' At the
Elevation, the Pope first raised the Sacred Host in
the centre, then on the right, and then on the left,
that it might be seen by all. He did the same at
the Elevation of the Chalice. At the same time the
silver trumpets pealed forth a beautiful and solemn
melody composed by the late Count Silveri, an officer
of the Noble Guard. The Pope continued the Mass
as usual, but before saying the ' Pater Noster ' Mgr.
Sagrista went to his Credence with the ' Votante di
Segnat7ira ' who acts as acolyte. The Prelate carried
the cruets and a small gold cup ; while the Sacristan,
in a humeral veil, carried the golden Fistola^ in his
right hand, and the Chalice for the Pope's ablution
in his left hand, to the Pope's Credence, accompanied
as usual by the Mace-bearers. A servant now poured
the remaining wine and water out of the cruets. The
cruets, cup, fistola and chalice were then washed by
the Sacristan with wine and water after these had
^ The Fistola is the tube through which the Pope receives the Sacred
Blood. It is composed of three pipes which pass through a small bowl
in the upper part ; the centre pipe is longer than the others. The bowl
is to protect the Sacred Blood from any accident through effusion.
70 THE CORONATION.
been tasted by the servant : with them the Sacristan
filled the cruets.
The ' Votante di Segnatiira' then carried the cruets
and the cup, and the Sacristan the Fistola and the
Chalice with the two purificators to the Throne, where
they stationed themselves on the right-hand side.
The Pope having said the " Agnus Dei " and the
usual prayer, kissed the Altar and gave the kiss of
peace to the assistant Cardinal Bishop and the two
assistant Cardinal Deacons. He however did not give
it to the Cardinal Deacon and the Sub-Deacon of the
Mass, because he does so after he has given them
Communion. The Pope now returned to the Throne
for his Communion. The Cardinal Deacon standing
on the Epistle side of the Altar now turned to the
Altar, and having genuflected, covered the Blessed
Sacrament which was on the Paten with an Asterisk^
or star of gold having twelve points ; he then took
the Paten, and elevating it, shewed it to the people and
to the Pope, describing two half-circles that it might be
seen by all. He then gave it to the Sub-Deacon, who
kneeling, received it in his hands covered with the
humeral veil. The Sub-Deacon then carried it to the
Throne, but without either canopy or torches preceding
it, and as he approached, the Pope knelt in adoration.
e The Asterisk is a gold star of twelve rays, on each of which is
inscribed the name of an apostle. It is placed over the Host to pre-
serve it from accidents.
THE CORONATION. 71
The Sub-Deacon then stationed himself at the left hand
of the Pope. The Cardinal Deacon Segna now took
the Chalice, and shewed it also to the Pope and people,
as he had shewn the Host He then carried the Chalice
covered with a palla to the Throne, but without either
canopy or torches preceding it, and as he approached,
the Pope knelt in adoration as before. The Cardinal
Deacon then stationed himself on the right hand of the
Pope. The Pope now read the prayers before Com-
munion. After a Master of Ceremonies had taken the
golden star from off the Blessed Sacrament, His
Holiness took the Sacred Host into his left hand. He
then, still standing^, communicated himself with one of
the two portions of the Host, leaving the other on
the Paten for the Communion of the Cardinal Deacon
and the Sub-Deacon.
The former now handed the Chalice to the Pope.
Mgr. Sagrista gave the Fistola to the assistant Cardinal
Bishop, who presented it to the Pope. His Holiness
placed within the Chalice the Fistola, and standing,
received through it a part of the Sacred Blood. Having
communicated, he divided the Host into two parts,
^ Many suppose that the Pope communicates himself sitting. This
is, however, quite contrary to fact. According to the Ceremonial of the
Papal Chapel the Pope is at liberty to communicate the Cardinal Deacons
and others sitting, but it has rarely been done. In a letter in my
possession written by Benedict XIV. to his Master of Ceremonies, and
referring to this matter, he adds, " il che da Noi mai e stato fatto,
avendo sempre comunicato i predetti stando in piedi."
72 THE CORONATION.
and gave one part to the Cardinal Deacon, who
stood to receive it, and the other part to the Sub-
Deacon, who knelt, and who both of them first
kissed his hand. They were both kissed by him
after their Communion, and then returned to the Altar,
the Cardinal Deacon carrying the Chalice with the
Fistola, and the Sub-Deacon the Paten. From this
the latter removed into the Chalice any fragments
which happened to remain of the Sacred Host. The
Cardinal Deacon received with the Fistola a part of
the Precious Blood, and the Sub-Deacon received the
remainder immediately from the Chalice, which as well
as the Fistola he afterwards purified. In the meantime
the Pope received the ablution, which was presented to
him in a Chalice by the assistant Cardinal Bishop.
Prince Orsini, as assistant at the Throne, then went to
the Credence to fetch the ewer and basin for washing
the Pope's hands, and His Holiness in the meanwhile
purified his fingers with wine presented by the first
Cardinal Priest, and wiped them with a purificator held
by the assistant Cardinal Bishop. Having washed his
hands in the basin presented by Prince Orsini, he
returned to the Altar to finish the Mass and give the
Blessing, an Auditor of the Rota kneeling and holding
aloft before him the Papal cross. The Pope having
given the Blessing and said the last Gospel, left his
maniple on the Altar and took his seat on the Sedia
Gestatoria. Still wearing the vestments of the Mass, he
now assumed the mitre, gloves and ring, and received
THE CORONATION. 73
from Cardinal Rampolla, the Arch-priest of the
BasiHca, accompanied by two Canons, a white silk
purse embroidered in gold, containing 25 Giulii in
ancient coin, called the " Presbiterio," the Cardinal
offering it with these words :
"Beatissivie Pater, Capituluni et Canonici Jiitjiis Sacro-
sanctce Basiliccs, Sanciitati Vestr(B consuctmn offenint
presbyteriiim pro Missa bene cantata^
The Pope's hand was then kissed by the Cardinal
Arch-priest, and his foot by the two Canons, and he
delivered the purse to the Cardinal Deacon Segna, who
sung the Gospel, who in his turn gave it to his train-
bearer, who after the ceremony obtained from the
chief Sacristan of St, Peter's in exchange for it the
sum of 25 lire. The Holy Father then left the
Sanctuary, preceded by the Bishops and Cardinals,
and sitting on the Sedia Gestatoria with the flabelli
of ostrich feathers carried on either side of him by
two Chamberlains, was borne to a raised platform
placed in front of the High Altar near the Bronze
Statue of St. Peter to be crowned.
According to ancient custom this ceremony should
take place " coram populo " in the Loggia over the
Portico in front of the great Piazza. Having arrived
at the platform, the Sedia Gestatoria was placed on
it, and the two senior Cardinal Deacons ascended and
stood on either side of His Holiness, while the Cardinals,
Bishops, and others who formed the procession were
grouped round the platform. The Cardinal Dean of
74 THE CORONATION.
the Sacred College now ascended the platform, and
recited the prescribed prayers, standing in front of
the Holy Father. The Choir having sung Baini's
'•'■ Coro7ia aurea super Caput Ejus" Cardinal Pierotti
removed the Holy Father's mitre, and the senior
Cardinal Deacon Macchi placed the Tiara on the
Pope's head, saying at the same time these words :
"■ Accipe Thiaraniy tribus coronis ornatam, et scias fe
esse Patrem Principum, et Regum, Rectorem orbis, in
terra Vicarium Salvatoris Nostri, Cui est honor, et
gloria in Scucula Scsculoruni s."
The two assistant Archbishops, Monsignor Sambucetti
and Monsignor Costantini the High Almoner, now held
before His Holiness, one the book, and the other the
candle, for him to pronounce the solemn Benediction.
The Holy Father still sitting and wearing the Tiara
intoned the following prayers : — " Sancti Apostoli Petrus
et Paulus de quorum potestate et auctoritate conjidimus,
ipsi intercedant pro nobis ad Doiniimm," at the end
of which the Cantors answered Amen. He then con-
tinued : " Precibus, et meritis Beatce Maries semper
Virginis, beati Michaelis Arcangeli, beati loJiannis Bap-
tistce et Sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli et
omnium Sanctorum misereatur Vestri Omnipotens Deus
et, dimissis gmnibus peccatis vestris, perducat vos Jesus
Christus ad vitam ceteniajn," and the Cantors answered
g This is the correct formula and punctuation which I have copied
from the " Ritus Servandus" in use in the Papal Chapel. As will be
seen, it slightly differs from that generally printed in the Manuals.
PLA'I E XI.
To face p. 74.
Photo., Felici, Roma.
The three crowns are decorated with ^2 ruhics, ly emeralds, 11 sapphires,
529 (hamonds, aiul 252 1 earls.
THE CORONATION. 75
Amen. He then continued : '' Iiididgentiani, absolu-
tioncni et remissionem omnium pcccatorum vestrorum,
spatmm verce et fructiiosce poenitentice, cor semper pceni-
tens et emendationem vit(E, gratiam et consolationem
Sancti Spirittis ct finalem perseverantiavi in bonis
operibus tribnat vobis o)nnipotens et miseincors Dominns"
and again the Cantors answered Amen.
The Pope now rose from the Sedia Gestatoria, and
extending his arms and raising his eyes heavenward,
in a louder and more solemn tone gave the Apostolic
Blessing, " Et benedictio Dei omnipotentis, Patris >^, et
Filii f^, et Spiritus Sancti y^, dcscendat super vos et
maneat semper^' at the end of which the Cantors
answered Amen. The two Cardinal Deacons having
read aloud the Plenary Indulgence in Latin and Italian
threw the formulas (or should have done so) towards
the people, who commenced shouting " Viva Pio X.,"
and waving their handkerchiefs. The enthusiasm was
indescribable. The Pope having sat down, once again
rose for a moment and blessed the people. He was
now carried down the Basilica, wearing the Tiara, on
the Sedia Gestatoria under the processional canopy,
with the flabelli held on either side, and giving his
blessing right and left to the assembled congregation. ^
He retired to the Chapel of the Pieta, where he was
unvested of his Pontificalia, and the Cardinals unvested
in the Chapel of St. Sebastian.
The Pope then got into the " Portantina," and
wearing his Rochet and Mozzetta and Camauro, was
76 THE CORONATION.
carded through the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament
by his Sediari, up the great staircase, and through
the Sala Regia and Sala Ducale, to the first Loggia,
where he alighted, and together with the Maggior-
domo and Maestro di Camera, he returned in the lift
to his private apartments. We all reached the ante-
chamber before he did, and on his passing through
the Throne Room I knelt and obtained his blessing
for my relations, and for the Chaplain and the
Catholic undergraduates of Oxford. The last words
the Holy Father said to me were these : " Benedico
Tiiiti"—''l bless them all."
This great Ceremony lasted five hours, from 8.30
till 1.30, and I feel I may, with gratitude to the
Author and Giver of all good things, truly say to
myself, " Many Prophets and Kings have desired to
see the things which you see, and have not seen
them, and to hear the things which you hear, and
have not heard them."
To face p. 76.
Photo., Fclici, Roma.
Pope Pius X. in the act of blessing.
These details are taken from the Constitution of Gregory XV., 1621-22,
given in the Careinoiiiale continens ritus electionis Romani Pontificis :
Although the Pope may be elected either by
what is called acclamation, or by compromise, the
usual method is by scrutiny, and then voting papers
are used. As will be seen by the accompanying
slightly reduced illustrations, they are oblong, the
breadth being less than the height. They are about
5| inches high by 5 inches broad.
When open, as in illustration I., at the top are two
words only, EGO Cardinalis, to be filled up with
the name of the Cardinal who votes, and a little
below are two circles, upon which the seals are to
be put. Below, and in the middle of the voting
paper, are the words, " Eligo IN SVMMVM PONTIFICEM
Reverendissimvm Dominvm mevm Dominvm Car-
DINALEM," to which he adds the name of the Cardinal
for whom he votes.
Then at the bottom of the voting paper there are
also two circles for the seals, as above, and a space
for the Cardinal's number and motto. The Cardinal
fills up the voting paper in a disguised hand and
places seals with red wax, sufficiently large to cover
the places marked, using not his own arms, but a
Eligo in Summnm Pontificem II "D.
meuiB D. Card.
seal with three numbers, or three letters, or some
conventional design, such as an animal or bird, &c.
The seals can be seen by the three Cardinal scrutators,
but without breaking the seals, the scrutators cannot
read the name or motto of the Cardinal voting. Every-
thing is done to insure the strictest secrecy. First,
both top and bottom are folded over, so that the name
I Nomen. |
Eligo in Summum Pontificem R."D.
meum D. Card.
«fi«.'^ ©@-c«^@®®^©^ ©
and motto of the ^ Cardinal are hidden, and only the
ornamental designs or ' fregi ' appear on the back,
as is shewn in illustration No, II. These 'fregi'
are printed on the back to hinder the writing on the
front, the name and signa, from showing through,
for extraordinary pains are taken to prevent the
name of the voter becoming known to the scrutators.
Then the paper is folded again so as to reduce
the voting paper to the length of a man's thumb.
Then it is folded once more between the two lines of
latin printed in the middle of the paper, and the
voting paper is then ready to be carried to the Altar,
where after kneeling in prayer and taking the oath
the Cardinal places it on a paten, from which it is
dropped into a large chalice.
The words of the oath are : " Testor Christum
Dominum, qui me judicaturus est, me eligere, quem
secundum Deum judico eligi debere, et quod idem
in accessiL praestabo ^."
All the Cardinals having voted, the chalice is
shaken while it is covered with the paten ; and the
votes are then taken out and counted. If they do not
correspond with the number of the Cardinals, the
whole of the papers are burnt and a fresh balloting
takes place. If they correspond, the Scrutineers take
out the voting papers^ shew the seals intact, and read
aloud the names voted for, so that the Cardinals may
^ The ' Accessus ' was practised by the Roman Senate, and when
there was no difference of opinion a member would rise from his seat,
but not leaving it, would say in a high voice, " Accedo ad idem," but
in the Papal elections it was commenced in 1455, at the election of
APPENDIX. 8 1
hear and note on their tabular hsts, on which are
printed the names of all in Conclave, the numbers
given to each candidate. The votes being counted,
the voting papers are run on a file through the
printed word * eligo ' and put aside.
The first act of what is called the * post-scrutinio '
is the Accessus. The Accessus is used when it is
declared that the largest number of votes for any one
Cardinal does not amount to two-thirds of the whole,
and no election by Scrutiny has been concluded.
It consists in a Cardinal transferring his vote to
another candidate who, according to the tabular lists,
has a larger number of votes.
It takes place immediately after the Scrutiny,
and the Cardinals use the same seals, numbers and
mottoes that they used in the Scrutiny. When open
the voting paper is similar to illustration No. I., ex-
cepting the words " ACCEDO," &c., in the centre.
When closed it is similar to illustration No. III.
The Cardinal who votes fills up the paper exactly
as in the former case, adding his seal and motto,
and after the words " AccEDO Reverendissimo
Domino meo Domino Cardinali," again adds the
name of the candidate for whom he now votes.
In the Accessus the Cardinal does not take the
oath, because he has already taken it at the Scrutiny
when he placed his voting paper in the chalice.
The ' Accessus,^ is a repetition of the voting in
the Scrutiny, but with different voting papers. The
voting papers of the Scrutiny and the Accessus are
then compared, the numbers and mottoes at the
lower part of the voting papers being examined and
found to correspond. The upper part, however, with
Accedo Reverendiss. D. meo
the names of the Cardinals, as yet preserves the
seals unbroken. Then the votes are counted. If
one name do not obtain two-thirds of the votes,
whether in the Scrutiny alone, or in the Scrutiny and
Accessus combined, no Pope is elected. But if one
name have two-thirds of the votes and no more, then
they open the upper part of the voting paper of the
Cardinal with that name, where the Cardinal has
written his own name ; and if it appears that he voted
for another, the election is good ; but if he voted
for himself, Null, on account of the lack of one vote ;
not however, if there be more than two-thirds voting
for him. The voting papers, whether there had been
an election or not, are next examined by three Car-
dinals called ' Recognitores,' who see if the votes
be really as given out by the Scrutineers.
If a Cardinal does not wish to give his vote
in the Accessus, he adds to his voting paper the
word ' Nemini ' in the place of Rev"^° D. Meo D.
Card. A Cardinal is not allowed to give his vote
in the Accessus to one who had no vote in the Scru-
tiny, or to the same Cardinal for whom he voted
in the Scrutiny, for otherwise he would thus get two
votes. Last of all the entire set of voting papers
The three Cardinals called ' Infirmarii ' ought to
take to any sick Cardinal, who is confined by ill-
ness to his cell, the voting papers (as well as the
large sheet on which are marked the votes given to
each) for him to sign and seal. Having taken the
oath he places his voting paper in the box in which
it had been brought, and having locked it, the ' In-
firmarii' bring it back to the Chapel, and give it to the
scrutineers, who place the voting papers in the chalice.
If; :.')i)iHrR'jRr(,in';Ai likr/
1 1 is a curious list, that of the English cardinals.
One had to be a conspicuous man indeed in old days
before Rome lent an ear to Ultima Thuk, and the
brief list is full of notable names. Theobaldiis
Stampensis, Nicholas Bieakspeare— whom the Abbot
of St. Albans deemed of too common birth to be
admitted, but whose stirrup was at last held bj- the
Emperor — Stephen Langton, who wrote " Magna
Carta"; Somercote, whose influence was so great
that he was poisoned in Rome, "ne Papa esset'';
Langham, the pluralist; Adam Easton, who was put
to the rack in Rome by the very Pope who had
appointed him, until Edward III., making the voice
of England heard abroad for the first time, sent
peremptory orders, and he was released, while his
Italian confreres still suffered ; Beaufort, '" Cardinal
of England," whose arms and hat are still one
of the chief ornaments of Southwark Cathe-
AA 000 632 63
p. 13, line 19, read Rochet, Falda, red Buskins and Sandals, Amice.
, 25, ,, 16, for 1820 read 1823.
, 30. ,, 14, ,, whom ,, who.
. Si> ■• '. !. Vivez ,, Vives.
, 68, lines 15 & IT, for touched it with rtW touched with it.
. 75, line 25, for Pieta i-ead Pieta.
'm.^3 UUC71C} tr, iiO'iui
jr a u.ai±n: uu \aj place
beside Manning's for importance. Even Wolsey
failed to effect the change in the polity of the Church
at which he aimed ; even Breakspeare can hardly have
said to have been brilliantly successful when he
solemnly made over Ireland to be England's for
ever. Manning rarely failed in his wider aims, and
those aims were wide indeed. If it is proposed to set
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It io a curious list, that of the English cardina's.
One had to be a conspicuous man indeed in old days
before Rome lent an ear to Ultima Thule, and the
brief list is full of notable names. Theobaldtis
Stampensis, Nicholas Breakspeare — whom the Abbot
of St. Albans deemed of too common birth to be
admitted, but whose stirrup was at last held by the
Emperor — Stephen Langton, who wrote " Magna
Carta"; Somercote, whose influence was so great
that he was poisoned in Rome, " ne Papa esset '' ;
Langham, the pluralist; Adam Easton, who was put
to the rack in Rome by the very Pope who had
appointed him, until Edward III., making the voice
of England heard abroad for the first time, sent
peremptory orders, and he was released, while his
Italian confreres still suffered ; Beaufort, '" Cardinal
of England," whose arms and hat are still one
of the chief ornaments of Southwark Cathe-
dral; Bourchier, Morton, Bambridge, whose
enamelled snuffers are in the Museum, and
whose poisoned body lies in Rome ; Wolsey —
" non humili tantum sed vili genere male
Reipublicae Christianae natus," as an unfriendly
commentator notes, but the greatest man in Europe
of his day and the heraJd of modem times, through
his discovery of the " balance of power " ; and
Reginald Pole. The latter's was an amazing
career. Dean of Exeter, while still a layman and a
young man, he lived to have 3 to 1 betted upon his h—i
chance of election as Pope in 1549— it is curious to ■'.•:i
hear of these early odds upon the result of a conclave
—and he had the extreme good fortune to die in the
evening of the same day as that on which Queen Mary
breathed her last. Such are some of the names in the
list of the English cardinals. Excepting Wolsey and
Breakspeare there is hardly a name fit to place
beside Manning's for importance. Even Wolsey
failed to effect the change in the polity of the Church
at which h-e a,imed ; even Breakspeare can hardly have
said to have been brilUantly successful when he
solemnly made over Ireland to be England's for
ever. Manning rareily failed in his wider aims, and
those aims were wide indeed. If it is proposed to set
AA 000 632 631