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J^urftitp IntitrrBtty 








From the collection of the 

^ m 

o Prelinger 
V Xjibrary 

San Francisco, California 



^urJtxif IntnrrBtly 










September - 1945 





"Learning Unlimited" contains valuable, war- 
proved suggestions for those using or contem- 
plating using movies in teaching. 

It is based not only on study of the use of mov- 
ies in training warworkers and fighters, but 
also on years of study of school applications. 

To get your copy simply pin the coupon to 
your letterhead. No cost, no obligation. 

Remember, too, the success of your motion 
picture program depends on the excellence of 
your projector and films. Filmosound l6mm. 
sound film projectors excel... in performance, 
dependability, coolness, and ease of operation. 
And the lilmosound Library offers thousands 
of films covering a wide range of subjects. 

Bell & Howell Company, Chicago; New 
York; Hollywood; ^^"ashington, D. C; London. 
Established 7907. 

OPTI-ONICS- products combinln( the 
sciences of OPTIcs • electrONics • mechanics 

Filmosounds Now 
Available to Schools 

Filmosounds are now being buil 
for the uses of peace. Accumu 
lated school orders are beinj 
filled rapidly, in sequence of re 
ceipt. To avoid unnecessary de 
lay, anticipate your needs anc, 
order now. Send the coupon fo. 

Keep Buying and Holding 
Victory Bonds 

7184 McCurmick Koad, Chicatro 45 

IMcftnc send, without obliinition: I ) 
"Learning Onlimitrd"; <_► Informa- 
tion on riimosound I'rojectorK; ( ) 
FilmoMound Library Catalog of (educa- 
tional Fitou. 

A'am* . . . 

City. . 


No. 1 




iiblished each month 

f the school year— 

epiember to May in- 

chisive, by 

A Division of 

E. ^r. Hale and 



$3.00 Per Year 

$4.00 in Canada 

U. S. A. 

Copyright 1945 

See and Hear 

Eau Claire, Wis. 



"Coordinated Audio-Visual Aids" 

Kingsley Trenholme ' • 

"Beginning Geography— Foundation for 
International Understanding" 

Raymond C. Gibson Ifi 

"The Documentary Enters the English 

Bertha L. Crilly 21 

"Time to Spare" 

Brooks Hardy 27 

"Before the Word— The Idea" 

Claire Meienburg ?>?> 

"The Teacher Evaluates Films" 

John Hamburg 41 

"Camera Hunt— Profect for Every Classroom" 

O. A. Hankammer 46 

"Survey of Audio-\isual .Mds Used in 
^Visconsin Schools" 

L. Joseph Lins .5.^ 

"Objectives of Dept. of Visual Instruction N.E..\." 

Boyd B. Rahestraw .5<) 

"Films for Adults" (Housing in Scotland) 

John L. Hamilton 63 

"Bibliographically Speaking- 
Films on Intergroup Relations" 

Esther L. Berg 71 

"Bringing the Library Into the Curriculum" 

Ruth A. Hamilton 75 

"Viewing the New in Audio-Visual Education" 

Paul Wendt SI 

"A Filmstrip of Gulliver's Travels" 

A. M. Saunders 87 

"Some .Answers" 

ir. A. Witlirli and J. C Fojflkes 93 


For sale and for rent exclusively through " 



Symphonic Featurette No. 1 I 

By Beetlio\en 

Symphonic Featurette No. 2 


By Schubert 

Symphonic Featurette No. 3— SLAVINKA 

KODACHROME 2-Reelers on Canada 



Write for particulars. 


1st — Our 1946 Educational Catalogue 
2nd — Our 1946 Catalogue Supplement 
3rd — Our Catalogue of Religious Subjects 

Address nearest office 



Ideal Pictures Corp. Ideal Pictures Corp. 

18 So. Third St., Room 1 — Lobby F"loor — Reliance Blcig. 

Memphis 3, Tenn. 926 McGee Street, 

Ideal Pictures Corp. ^^"^^^ City 6, Missouri 

2408 W. 7th St., Ideal Southern Pictures Co. 

Los An^'eles 5, Calif. 440 .Audubon Hldg. 

New Orleans 16, Louisiana 
Ideal Pictures Corp. tj , r, , «. r^ 

2024 Main St., I^^^al Sou thern Pictures Co. 

Dallas 1, Texas 9^36 N . L 2nd Ave., 

Miami 38, Honda 

l^^f 1^,'J'^'f!;*? ^**''P' Weal Pictures Corp. 

yiSS.W. 10th Ave., 714-lSthSt., 

I'ortland 5, Oregon Denver 2, Colorado 

Ideal Pictures Corp. Stevens-Ideal Pictures Corp. 

IV) !•:. Main St., 101 Walton St.. N. \V. 

Richmond 19, Va. Atlanta ?>, Georgia 

Bertram Willoughby Pictures, Inc. 

Suite 000. 1000 Broadway, New York City 19, N. Y. 





IN PRESENTING the first issue of S,ee and Hear your pub- 
lisher looks forward to developing a publication on audio- 
visual learning that will be of outstanding practical value and 
interest to all school administrators and teachers. The tremen- 
dous future possibilities in this comparatively new art of teaching 
are a challenge to our entire school methods, and the release of 
facilities by the cessation of war demands now makes it possible 
for great forward strides to be made by all schools from the 
"little red school house" to our largest universities. It will be the 
cndea\or of See and Hear to be a leader in 
such progress. 

Personally I wish to express my apprecia- 
tion to all those whose efforts have made this 
publication possible. Your comments and 
suggestions will be appreciated. 


E. M. Hale 




THANKS to Victor's World Wide Servu 
new chapters of ^'Maintenance'' haJ 
been written . . . keeping prewar ar 
wartime projectors at the gruelhn 
vital war job of training and entertaij 
ing on the Fighting Fronts. At ho- 
too, Projectors were kept running. 

The various branches of the Servfij 
Schools, Industry and Churches hai 
learned the value and importance ot U! 
outstanding service . . . have learnl 
that the word ''Sold" does not carryj 
finality of interest m the dj 
namic job that Victor Projij 
tors are doing throughout t, 
world. Yes, even 10-year-<l 
Victors are still doing duty d 
to the unusual quality 
Victor's interested service. 

Now, too, look to Victor 
the most comprehens; 
understanding of the wa 




Pog« 4 

O F 

I 6 M M 


/ >^H ome Office and Facfory: Davenport, H 

^"^^ New York (18)— McGrow Hill BM 

330 W. 42nd St. 
Chicago (1)— 188 W. Randolpl 

SINCE 192 

September— SEE and HSi 

Sttm/ S(W*pSi({uim:f 


What IS Audio A'isiial Learnins:? 

I'loiii tlic time \\c fust aAvakeii in the nioinitio ^ve are 
infliicnied hv our ability to learn ^sith oiu' eyes and Avith 
oiu ears. This is the means throiioh which we can effec- 
lively iniderstand our environment. When we apply this 
means of learninsj to oiu" formal classroom situations we 
learn most effecti\'ely, because Tvhen we see and when we 
hear— AS'e kno^^^ 

The current war has siiown to us the possibilities of 
enriching om^ learning situations Avith equipment and 
with materials which will allow us to see more and to 
hear more about oiu" environment ^vhich must be made 
meaningful to oin- children if they are to be educated. 

Todav thinkino; administrators and teachers realize that 
we must do more to make the social and natural environ- 
ment meaningful to the children w^e educate. 

Anything we can do to bring knowledge of that en- 
vironment into the classroom \\\\\ assist in establishing 
more valid understandings. To do this we must investi- 
gate the contribution of the mounted picture, the black- 
board, the bulletin board, the filmstrip, slides, models, 
exploded vie^vs, and the more spectacular visual equip- 
ment Ashich too often Ave alloAv to occupv the center of 
the stage— the modern soimd motion pictiue projector 
and the films it carries. 

It is oiu- aim to investigate the extent to which the 
presently accepted materials of visual instruction can help 
to make more graphic, more easily retained, and more 
interesting those socially desirable learning experiences 
we as teachers wish to bring to the children of America. 

Pupils of the old 
Greek philosophers 
were taught h\ 
means of the Ptole- 
maic map of thf 
ancient countries. 

In the 



the knovsi; 



From the days of the luud maps of Babylonia, man has used map s^ 
boHsms to represent the surface of the earth and matters pertamingi 
location and distribution. Map reading skills and map use were ne. 
so important as today. Modern geography, .vith its complex patt^ 
of natural and cultural factors, requires many map symbols to presi 
Ihc relationships of environments to man. 

Send for new map oatalos 

U> would be pleased to «end you a copy of our ';^;- j;*;;;/;;*:;J"«,„i'. 


. Sclioiil. 




3333 Elston Avenue 
Paga 6 




-I ■All 


September — SEE 

and HI 

We are well past the time when we slioiikl formulate 
plans for audiovisual education in terms of free materials. 
Audio-\isual counnunication via good teaching ecjuijv 
mcut is here. It is here to stay as a working part of our 
classroom environment. 

W^e, therefore, have passed beyond the point of emer- 
gency appropriations. P. T. A. gifts, service club sponsor- 
ship, scrap paper drives and other precarious policies of 
fmanciiig audio-visual education. Now that audio-visual 
materials must become an integral part of teaching tech- 
ni(|ues. more solid budget provision must be made. On'y 
insofar as audio-visual materials enjoy a budgetary status 
comparable to that which other school equipment enjoys 
can the program of audio-visual learning ajjproach full 

Isn't it, then, high time that we also examine the finan- 
cial cost of a well-coordinated program of audio-visual 
education in oin- schools and make necessary budgetary 
provisions for it? 

These are the purposes of SEE and HEAR. 

\\'ai.ter a. W'ittich 

C. J. Anderson 

John Guy Fowi.kes 



Sr Teachers who plan courses with the aid of slid 
films and 2" x 2" color slides arc practically unrestrict. 
as to subject matter. 

Because of the greater convenience of 3S mm. slid 
films and 2"x 2" color slides in visualizing daily Icssoi 
S. V. E. has pioneered the production of this effeai 
teaching material for many years. 


.\r« iJl^logl of projtllioH 
tlitlti an jiaiUblr. Br surt 
to i;>r<//) makt JHtl moJtl «/ 
preirHt rifnipmeHt. 

Uriit Dtfarlmtml 9HS. 


%jgf. A lotlfittt Cerperolien 

100 lAST OHIO STRUT . CHICAGO 11, IIUN, and Oisfribufofi of VISU At A 

Pag* 8 

Saptember — SEE and I II 


ROC.l R AlKRK.lir. Icadiiiin lilm Ciislodi.iiis 

I.KSIKR AXDI'.RSOX, liiixtrsiiv ol Minm-soia 

\'. C. ,\R\SI'I(;rR. FiKV(I()|):K(lia Bri(iiiini< a Films. Inc. 

MRS. FSrHKR lU-.RC;. New York City I'iil)li( Sdiools 

MRS. C.'\MILL,\ REST. New Orleans Pul)lic Schools 

CH \RI.FS ^r. ROFSFF. \rilwaiikfi- Coimirv Dav Sdiool 

JOSFIMI k. 1K)LI/.. C.ooiiliiialor, C:iti/tiislii|> Fclucatioii Sliuly, Dcdoil 

LI . I AMKS \V. BROWN. In Charge. I raining Aids Section. Great Lakes 

MISS MARCARF!" J. CAR IFR. National Film Roanl of Canada 

C. R. (.RAK.FS. Fchuational Consultant. l)c\ ry Corporation 

JOSEI'II F. HICKMAN. Chicago rnblic .Sdiools 

DFAN F. noit.I.ASS. Fdiuational Dcpt.. Radio Corp. of America 

GLEN G. EYE. University of Wisconsin 

LESLIE E. FRYE. Cleveland Public .Schools 

I.OWEI.I. P. GOODRICH. SniKMintciuIcnt. Milwaukee Public Schools 

lOHN L. HAMILION, Film Officer, Uritish Information Services 

MRS. RUTH A. HAMILTON. Omaha Pnblic Schools 

O. A. HANKAMMFR. Kansas State Teachers College 

JOHN R. HEDGES, University of Iowa 

MRGIL E. HERRICK, University of Chicago 

HFNR^' H. HILL. President. George Peabody College for Teachers 

CHARLES HOFF. I'niversity of Omaha 

B. F. HOLLAND. University of Texas 

MRS. WANDA AVHFELFR JOHNS! ON, Knowille Public Schools 

HEROLD L. KOOSFR. Iowa State College 

ABRAHAM KRASKER. Boston University 

L. C. LARSON. Indiana University 

GORDON N. MACKENZIE, Teachers College, Columbia University 

CHARLES P. McINNIS, Columbia (S. C.) Public Schools 

EDGAR L. MORPHET. Department of Education. Florida 

HERBERT OLANDER, University of Pittsburgh 

BOYD B. R.\KESTRA"\V, University of California, Berkeley 

DON C. ROGERS, Chicago Public Schools 

W. V. ROWLAND, Superintendent, Lexington (Ky.) Public Schools 

OSCAR E. SAMS, Jr., Office of Inter American Affairs 

E. E. SECHRIEST. Birminghain Public Schools 

ll.\ROLD SPEARS, New Jersey State Teachers College (Montclair) 

ARTHUR STENIUS, Detroit Public Schools 


R. LEE THOMAS. Department of Education, Tennessee 

ERNEST TIEMANN, Pueblo Junior College 

ORLIN D. TRAPP, W^aukegan High .School 

KINGSLEY FRENHOLME. Portland (Ore.) Public Schools 

MISS LELIA TROLINGER, University of Colorado 

PAUL WENDT, University of Minnesota 

LT. AMO DeBERNARDIS, Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes 

DAVID B. McCULLEY, University of Nebraska 

W. E. ROSENSTENGEL, University of North Carolina 

C. R. REAGAN, Office of War Information 
W. H. HARTLEY, Towson State Teachers College, Md. 

and HEAR— September Patr» 9 

to See and Hear 

•. iiA 




'<y. t* 



The RCA Sound Film Projector Brings i 
the World to Your Classroom 

• llic films ihal picture for >uur »ludriil9 thr H(iiidrr> nf iMinrc ' 
and the pri)grcs> of man deserve the best in sound and pirliirr n |irn. 
diirlion— a projector that is simple to operate and eas\ lo maini.iin 
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Koi detailed information on the new RCA Idnim Sound Film Pro- • 
jector. send for descriptive folder VI rite: tJliicational Depl. W-.ilA, 
KCA N'iclor Division. Radio Corporation of America. (*aniden. \. J, 


Pcf* 10 

Leads the Way 

Septembar— SEE and HEfll| 

Attractive bulletin boards must offer more than pleasing eye appeal. Audio- 
visual materials must always be related to the studies which the children are 
pursuing. Good coordination of maps and of mounted pictures which illustrate 
the activities of the map region is one example of valuable coordination of visual 



Director of Visual Education, Portland Public Schools 

Portland, Oregon 

<HE enduring future of audio- 
visual aids to learning lies in 
close relation to the curricu- 
n of our schools and the more 
ictive training of teachers in 
use of audio-visual materials, 
e premise implicit in the term 
ds" suggests that of themselves 

and HEAR— September 

these materials will not teach. 
They can only aid in teaching. 
The use of audio-visual aids in a 
fashion unrelated to the sequence 
of studies or to the demands of 
the learning process is not help- 
ful. The present tendency to use 
movies, for example, when avail- 

Pa«a 11 

tihir rather than wliiti needed, is 
an ilhistratioii ol this unrchticcl 
use of audiovisual aids and is 
doomed to disapiK-ar as soon as 
thf results ol this iniplanncd and 
unwise use arc subjected to scien- 
tihc evaluation. 

The present interest in audio- 
\isual aids will not continue its 
u|)waMl trenil unless a more coni- 
jjlete iniegiation is elTected be- 
tween the many existint^ audio- 
visual teachint^ materials and the 
"going" classroom program. 
Suidy pictuies. filmstrips, slides. 
records, exhibits and movies must 
be assembled to supplement the 
specilic course ol study job which 
is being done by the teacher at 
exactly the time she is accom- 
plishing it! All of these aids may 
not be available at one time, but 
the effort shoidd be to use a va- 
riety of materials keyed to the 
(onunon end of making more 
graphic and thus more under- 
standable the subject being 
studied. It is a simple yet work- 
able idea, but very dilhcidt of 

The armed services ha\e made 
the best use of coordinated aids. 
Many excellent examples can be 
cited from their programs. An 
army teaching unit on servicing 
W moiois provides one example. 
A special teaching kit was pre- 
pared, rhe kit included models, 
filmstrips. and lilms to illustrate 
\arious phases of the same sub- 
ject. Their correlated use was an 
essential i)art of teaching tech- 
nicpie. liut this is the army. W liat 
ol the schools? 

Pag* 12 

A iiuml)er of civilian agenciej 

are making beginnings in the pre; 

duction of sets of coordinate*' 

\isual aids. 1 he U.S. Office o 

I'.ducation makes fdmstrips to ac 

company its movies. Kncycloj^ae 

dia Britannica bilms is riunoiei 

to l)e considering this same plat 

1 he fdm is used lo present thi 

sid)ject as a secjueiitial and mear 

inglul whole. I hen the frames ar 

chosen which cover the points o 

particular emphasis in the him 

and as a filmstrip can be throw 

on the screen for any length c 

time, it allows ample time lor di^ 

cussion on each point. 

A number of educational a 
\aniagcs are evident in such 
procedure. It has been appare 
particularly in the lower grad 
that movies pass by too rapi 
for the childien to understa^ 
adecpiately the material. Whi! 
the synthesizing value of the mo 
ing jMcture is evident and shoul 
not be discaided, its use as tf. 
complete learning scc]uencc is f: 
from desirable. .\ hlmstrip or 
set of slides (in full color) mac 
from the motion picture an 
studied leisurely and in deta 
woidd overcome much of the dit 
culty which the fast moving ni 
lion picture fdm now preseiii 
For instance, a Kodachrome slic 
of each of the animals seen in tl 
lilm "Conunon Animals of tl 
Woods" woidd enable the teach, 
to organi/e work aroiuid each • 
the animals and then culmina 
the luiit with the film. 

1 he primary grades particula 
jy nved such a simplihcatio 

September — SEE and HE 

A flat diagram, por- 
hculorly in science sub- 
jects, is often insuffi- 
cient to present the 
true perspective of the 
thing being studied. 
Lorge over-all diagram 
:harts compare locations 
vhile on anatomical 
nodel provides oppor- 
tunity for detailed ex- 
omination. Handling a 
model, turning it about 
to examine it from all 
ingles is true object per- 

.Moving pictures are a concen- 
trated teaching aid and need 
considerable preparation for niax- 
iniuiii utility. Excellent prepara- 
tion may be made by first study- 
ing still pictures included in the 
film to be shown. A device for 
•Uowing up the mo\ie or in 
preparation for it is a panel of 
pictures to be put up in the book 
corner for individual study. Pic- 
iines thus become as much a part 
ol regular study as books. 

The fields of science, biology 
[and physiology offer other study 

SEE and HEAR— September 

areas in which still pictures and 
models which accompany movie 
reels would be most beneficially 
used. The student needs a good 
deal of time to handle and study 
the various parts of an electronic 
tube before he is able to under- 
stand the movie on the subject. 
Our schools have found a large 
model of the human heart show- 
ing heart action very usefid when 
used in conjunction with ana- 
tomical wall charts and the film 
Heart and Circulation. The arm- 
ed forces have made similar use of 

Page 13 

mock-up models of guns, planes, 
engineering devices and the like, 
beloie showing the lilm on these 

It is in the social studies that 
the lack of coordinated audio- 
visual aids is no\v most api)arent. 
It is true that gooil sound mo\ ies 
such as Settlers of Early New Eng- 
land, Life in IStli Centwy Wil- 
lia}7isburg, Flatboatman of the 
Ohio, Pioneers of the Plains, Ken- 
tucky Pioneers, Give Me Liberty, 
Song of a Nation, and others can 
present history in a life-like guise. 
What social studies teacher does 
not welcome such films? But too 
few of them exist. Those that do, 
need much teacher help in the 
form of vocabulary study and 
backgiound information to put 
over the underlying concepts 
which give meaning to the facts 
shown in the films. Individual 
pictures, models, and good record- 
ings if directed at the subject are 
helpful. Radio adaj)taiions like 
N o r m a n Corwin's Lonesome 
Train are effective in making his- 
tory human. 

Properly, all the materials used 
in teaching a |)ariicular subject 
should be interrelated. \Vritten 
materials, pictures, models, rec- 
ords, all should aid in enriching 
the students' concepts and imder- 
staiulings of the things he is study- 

A unit on Eskimo Life might 
use dolls to show costumes, mod- 
els of a kayak and house, recortls 
of dances and singing games, still 
pictures in various forms on the 
locale and people, and as a cul- 

Pog* 14 


was born in Alabama, 
received his B.A. de- 
gree from Reed Col- ■ 
lege in 1928 and his | 
M.A. degree from the 
University of Wis- 
consin in 1930. He 
has served education 
in several capacities; 
first as a teacher, os 
a high school vice- 
principal, and as on elementary school I 
principal. Since 1942 he has been director 
of the Bureau of Visual Instruction of the 
Portlond, Oregon, Public Schools. 

Mr. Trenholme is the Oregon 16mm. War 
Loan Movie chairman, and a member of 
the Notional 16mm. War Loan committee. 

His plans for the future ore to manufac- 
ture slide and filmstrip sets on the city of 
Portland, perhaps movies on the some. He 
also plans to manufacture materials on 
primary curriculum in the field of visual 

mination, a color sound movie 
which is realistic and authentic 
rather than a superficial trav- 
elogue. Such a jjattcrn of instruc- 
tional materials would provide 
the teacher with the materials 
necessary to build a good learning 

A number of problems may be 
foreseen in producing such co- 
ordinated materials. The ques- 
tion of cost at once arises and 
nuist be faced. Audio-visual ma- 
terials are expensi\e when dollars 
and cents are considered but very 
inexpensi\e when their contribu- 
tion to effective teaching and 
learning is the basis of judgment. 
School boards must be convinced 

Sepfember— SEE and HEAR 

f their utility and iitucssity. 
loncy nnist be pro\ idcd before 
le program can succeed. Public 
ducation in the United States 
as for too many yeais l^een fi- 
anced at a U\ei not at all (om- 
lensurate and far below its social 
orth to ilu- nation. This nuisi 

Schools neetl more money, and 
hen the I'nited States Clhamber 
f Connncrcc proclaims a na- 
onal program for better educa- 
ional support, we lune a power- 
aI ally. Already much progress 
as been made. Systems such as 
,os Angeles, Detroit, Cleveland, 
)akland, St. Louis, and Portland 
3 name a few are pioneering in 
le attempt to procure coordi- 
ated materials, and the situation 
)oks more hopeful, ^\'hen a de- 
land backed by j)urchasing pow- 
appears, new materials will be 
reduced to satisfy it. 

Two sources of coordinated 
udio-A isual aids are in the offing, 
le commercial producers and the 
:hool committees or departments 
f audio-visual education. The 
Dmmercial producers could in 
lany cases market a variety of 
ids at a reasonable advance over 
he price of one aid. Encyclopae- 

ia Britannica, for instance, could 
ave slides and still pictiu es made 
n conjunction with their movies, 
nd in many cases recordings 
lould be made on location. The 
xpense of the script and location 
vould not be greatly increased by 
uch a procedtue, nor would the 
ost of marketing. Still pictures 
ind recordings cost much less to 

jEE and HEAR— September 

reproihuc ihan movies and ilie 
combined price need not be ex- 

The second jK)ssiljle source of 
(oortlinated mateiials is the au- 
dio-visual aids departments of the 
interested city school systems and 
the teaching materials labora- 
tories of the iuii\ersities. The city 
department, in close touch with 
the teacher antl the curriculum is 
in the best position to organize 
and produce teaching aids in 
many areas. 

Coordinated audio-visual aids 
are nothing new. The idea that a 
\ariety of materials enriches the 
child's experience has always been 
considered soimd. From a teach- 
ing point of view coordinated ma- 
terials provide a multiplicity of 
approaches to the problem being 
studied and offer much more op- 
portunity for student participa- 
tion. Bruce Findlay's (Los An- 
geles Public Schools) pamphlet 
"Audio-Visital 'Tools' that Teach 
for 'Keeps' " emphasizes this im- 
portant point. (Interested people 
should request a copy.) 

Education ought to capitalize 
upon the example of the armed 
service training programs where 
for the first time good teaching 
ideas were allowed full scope 
without the hampering considera- 
tion of budgets. Let us move for- 
ward to get the same support in 
the field of materials that the 
armed forces have had. The post 
war job of education demands the 
best of teachers equipped with 
the best in teaching materials. 

Page 15 

"Here's Nebraska!" How different it looks on the globl| 
or on the flat surface of the wall map! There is no way 
teaching the world's roundness other than by using a glob 

Foundation for 


Pog* 16 

r TOOK, two wars within one 
miaration to convince admin- 
isiiatois and teachers that oui 
knowledge of geography should^ 
extend beyond the narrow con-j 
fines of continental Unitctl States.; 
W'f neglected to teach the geog- 
laphv of the otlier continents. VVi 
failed almost completely to tea 
the geography of North Americ 
In the years innnediately preced? 
ing this war. the typical piiijii 
school (urricuhnn in geograplv 
iiK hided imaginary world tra\cli 
in llu- louith grade, a study of the 

I iiiuil States and North America. 

B^ Raymond Gibson 

Director of Training School 
bU'veus Point State Teachers College 

S«ptemb«r— SEE and HEAS 

the filih, ami a superficial a new tra, and wt- hope, into a 

inipse ol all other continents in new philosophy of the social stud- 

le sixth giade. Nothing that ies as a dynamic interpretation of 

)uld be seriously called the study world-wide citizenship and inter 

geograj)hy was taught in most dependence of all j)eoj)les. In too 

mior ami senior high schools. many instances following the first 

The materials for teaching this 
ctchy geography ciuricidmn 
.iially consisted of a 12-inch 
obe, a map of the United States, 
id a map of the world together 
ith a few sets of over-aged geog- 
iphy textbooks. After Septem- 
n', 1939, some city school systems 

World War. our emphasis in the 
social studies was the then new 
nationalism, and the schools help- 
ed to teach that unlortunate con- 
cept. After W^orld War II. wc 
shall have the ines(apable respon- 
sibility of teaching a freshly con- 
cei\cd internationalism with its 

ccived national recognition by attendant requirements of better 
■ry naively proclaiming that no human relationships and econom- 

aps and globes would be pur- 
lascd until after the war. Rep- 
able map publishers were hard 
t until the Army and Navy start- 
l purchasing more globes than 

;DIT0RS NOTE: Dr. Raymond Gibson draws 
on a splendid teaching experience to discuss the 
lis, particularly maps and globes, which we will 
: in meeting the responsibility that we have to 
ch a better understanding of geography. He be- 
ves that, underlying all of our attempts to under- 
nd our places as world citizens, geography becomes 
J broad base of factual experience and knowledge 
on which much of subsequent thinking and ul- 
uate understanding of world affairs will be built, 
s challenge for beginning early those basic con- 
Jts of geography which lend themselves to pri- 
ry and intermediate work should be seriously 
nsidcred by all of us who teach.) 

uld be manufactured. Soon, we 

scovered that we were a nation 

geographic illiterates. Many of 

recognize now that for the past 

o or three years the school chil- 

ien themselves, by their knowl- 

Ige gained elsewhere, have 

reed a tardy teaching profession 

It of its isolationist lethargy into 

; and HEAR— September 

ic interdependence. 

The teaching of foreign rela- 
tions, world commerce, and the 
need for world cooperation can- 

not wait until the adult 

state of education. These 
problems and concepts 
must be taught to the 
masses; and that places 
the responsibility upon 
the elementary and high 
schools of our country. 
There is no need to fear 
the task, for it is easier 
to teach tolerance, inter- 
dependence and world- 
wide fair play to chil- 
dren than to adults. 
If the reader will think of geog- 
raphy as the interaction of peo- 
ples with their natural resources 
in the formulation of community 
cultures, he will appreciate the 
significance of commerce, trade, 
foreign relations, international 
and community relationships, and 
the development of human re- 

Page 17 


C. Gibson 

Raymond C. Gib- 
son received his A.B. 
and MA. degrees 
from Western Ken- 
tucky State Teochers 
College ond his PhD. 
from the University of Wisconsin with a 
mojor in School Administration and a minor 
in Political Science. 

His wide ronge of teoching experiences 
includes one year in o village grade school, 
six years as grade and high school principal 
in Kentucky, two ond one-half years as 
principal of on elementary school in Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, and two summers as prin- 
cipal of the Elementary Laboratory School 
ot the University of Wisconsin. 

Dr. Gibson is at present Director of 
Teacher Troining and will teach a course 
in Educational Philosophy at Central State 
Teachers College, Stevens Point, Wisconsin. 

.sources as tlic controlling^ factors 
in ge()grajjhi( interpretation. 
riKse arc the concepts which 
must ha\e their beginning in the 
jjriniary grades if we are to be- 
come world citi/ens in fact. 

Dynamic geography is a basic 
part of the kindergarten curricu- 
lum because it is here that chil- 
dren first leave the home. They 
travel out of their own limited 
home en\ironment to come to 
schools to exj)erience organized 
group relationships, a larger con- 
ception of the size of their com- 
nnuiity and what it means to trav- 
el from one j)lace to another. 
Ihey learn the use of streets and 
roads antl varying forms of trans- 


portation. They begin to appre- 
ciate the purposes which moti 
\ate the actions of a group. The. 
schoolroom becomes a small so- 
ciety with hardly enough com- 
mon interests, at first, to hold th. 
group together. They learn to 
inieract with older children in 
the same school and change their 
own habits accordingly. In short 
I hey become members of a d\ 
n.imic society. 

The first grade expands (hi? 
feeling of belonging lo a com 
munity. Here, children learn tci 
read, which makes possible 
much Avider langc of experiences! 
liisl-grade children take naturi 
ally to such projects as gardeningi 
pets and animals of all kindsi 
which lead ine\itably to a stud'j 
of food, clothing, shelter, and sea- 

These experiences should bl| 
continued in the second grade t< 
include connnunity helj)ers sucJ 
as the grocer and where he gel 
the \arious foods, the milkma 
with whom every child is fami 
far, the fire department, the bal 
cry. and the post oflice. Thci 
should l)e many exclusions t 
gain firsthand knowledge of thes 
services which make a comnuniii 
fuiuiion. 1 here need not be ar 
formal gecjgraj)hy class, but uni 
on these topics will lead to 
study of widening phases of tl 
social studies environment, 
trij) to the zoo, for example, leat 
naturally to incpiiries about tl 
native habitat of the various ar 
mals and birds. A natural cons'j 

Pag* 18 

September — SEE and HE I 

lU'iKC is to learn more about llic 
ustoms and environment of 
lany foreign countries. 

There is nothing abstract about 
le metliod of teaching social 
udies in kindergarten and the 
St two grailes, but chikhen at 
is level will have gained the 
any concepts as well as the pur- 
oses necessary to nioti\ate them 
the study of units which do 
ecome abstract, at least to some 
s:tent. Children of the third 
ade must begin the study of 
immunities far removed from 
leir own. The mge to do so, 
Qwe\er, should come from local 
)mnnniity problems whose con- 
quences and solutions are natm- 
ly expanded beyond the con- 
ies of local experience. 

The airplane, radio, and mo- 
on picture have taken most of 
le abstractness out of the study 
remote commimities. New tools 
learning— maps, globes, motion 
ctures, models, radio, and 
larts, — should be employed for 
1 they are worth to make the 
udy of the various sections of 
IT own country, as well as of 
hers, as concrete and real to 
lildren as possible. 

It is in the third grade that the 

cher will need a simplified 

be of the world, for that 

ould be the first and basic way 

introducing the world map to 

iildren. The concept of streets 

d roads which children have 

own since preschool days can 

used to determine directions 

^ and HEfiR— September 

and distances on the globe. In 
fact, a good way to introduce mer- 
idians and parallels is to call them 
"the streets by whicii sailors and 
a\iators determine ho\\' to go 
from one place to another and 
know when they arrive." Simpli- 
fied maps of the United States 
and North .\mcrica should be in 
every third-grade room, and chil- 
tlren shoidd be taught to read 
them just as they arc taught to 
read books. The distortions which 
exist on the flat map should be 
explained fully and clearly. Large 
desk outline maps shoidd be 
available for children to color 
dining art as well as in social 
study classes. 

Children Love Maps 

Children love maps, and if giv- 
en an opportunity, they begin to 
learn from maps at a very early 
age. They love the radio, the air- 
plane, and especially motion pic- 
tures,— yes, classroom motion pic- 
tures. With all of these new tools 
plus the excellent materials that 
are being written about our 
neighbors the world over, it 
should not be half as difficult to 
introduce geography as it was 
even ten years ago. With these ex- 
cellent tools at the teacher's dis- 
posal, she should be ready to push 
back the horizon of children un- 
til it encompasses the whole 
world. 1 hrough the objective 
study of such units as wool, ranch 
life, cotton, rubber, silk, and 
farming, which are world-wide in 
their consequences, gieat interest 
can be developed in the geogia- 

Page 19 

phy ot our world neighbors. 
These factors of environment, 
which arc so important in chil- 
dren's lives, must be brought into 
the classroom, in some cases as 
actual physical objects to be stud- 
ied and in all cases, through mo- 
tion pictures. 

Such a program for the kinder- 
garten and primary grades will 
be in harmony with the best cur- 
rent educational thinking; name- 
ly, the opportunity for children 
to interact with the elements of 
their environment in answering 
their own inquiries rather than 
ha\ing them learn without pur- 
pose the facts of their environ- 

ment. The result should be a 
continuity of experience from 
kindergarten through the entire 
school and adult educational life. 
This is most important if the 
pupil is to build up backgroimds 
of concepts which are so imj^or- 
tant as a basis for the straight 
thinking he will have to do con- 
cerning the myriad problems! 
which he will face as a partici- 
pating member of the commun- 
ity of nations. We shall nol 
only study geography; we shal. 
change and improve it through 
the process of education towarc 
the end of making it a functioni 
ing tool for better social lixinjj 
and understanding. i 

School Boards, Please Note: 

At the last annual spring meeting of 
the Underwood Comnuinity, Nebraska, 
Board of Ediitation, a visual education 
scholarship was granted. Among the 
first of its kind, the scholarship was 
granted to help defray the cost of gradu- 
ate study for an Underwood Community 
teacher, Miss Mary King. 

Following tlie adoption of the pro- 
posal to buy sound motion picture 
equipment, the school board felt it ad- 
visable to adecpiately train one of their 
teachers in the selection and utilization 

of audio-visual materials to l)e brougl 
into the school system during the ne> 
school year. The community club gran, 
ed Miss King the summer scholarship i 
order that she could help defray pa' 
of the expense involved in a summer < 
graduate study in visual education on 
large midwestern campus. 

Miss ^fary King, Assistant Princip; 
Underwood Community Schools, N 
braska, received her visual educatic 
scholarship award from Wavne IMckar 
As a result, slie studied problems of « 
lecting and utilizing visual educali( 
materials as a graduate student durii 
the summer of 1945. 

Wayne Pickard ond Mary King 

Pago 20 

A. J. McClelland, widely known 1 
his work with schools in develop! 
large visual educational programs, 1 
been appointetl director of educatioi 
sales for the \'ictor Animatograph C 
poration, Davenport, Iowa, a ma 
producer of 16 mm. motion picture p 
jectors, cameras, and allied equipme 
it is announced by S. G. Rose, vi 
president of the corporation. Mr. > 
Clelland resigned from his connecti 
with the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
ccntlv to join Victor. 

September — SEE and HI 



Bertha L. Crilly 
Newark, Ohio, Public Schools 

iOnOR'S NOTE: English has been 

le subject area not too well served by 

sual materials. The alternatives arc 

ther to do without or to make such a 

ever application as is suggested in this 

lendidly conceived article by Miss 

illy, an experienced teacher in the 

wark, Ohio, schools. Many English 

chers will find in this suggestion the 

ssibility for adding zest, interest, and 

ality to the written communication 

ea, which too often has been reduced 

the level of repetitious mechanics.) 



AM reporting on my experi- 
ments with the use of aiidio- 
sual materials in the English 
assroom. Fom- of the teachers in 
le English Department of the 
ewark Senior High School asked 
^e to demonstrate the use of a 
ocumentary film as a means of 
lotivating the Language-Arts 
ills of reading, writing, speak- 
[Mg, and listening. 

The Public Library loaned us 
ty or more books and pamph- 

ks on South America for a long 
iriod. Each teacher had a map 

lid a globe in the room. The 

! E and HEfiR— September 


film, THE BRIDGE, was rented 
by the school for a week so that 
each class saw the picture twice. 
The classes comprised industrial 
students; two of the classes were 
all boys. Tenth- and eleventh-year 
groups were chosen for the ex- 
j^eriment. In every class, the day 
before the film was shown the first 
time, volunteer students present- 
ed informal talks on the geo- 
graphic, economic, and political 
situation in South America. After 
the first showing, the class re- 
sponse to a discussion was prac- 
tically a hundred per cent. The 
film was then shown a second 
time. All of the pupils wrote a 
short paper in class on some 
phase of the picture after the sec- 
ond showing. As one teacher ex- 
pressed it, they definitely had 
ideas to write about. Many read 
the books and magazines that had 
been brought into the classroom 
and made written or oral reports 
on these. 

All four of the teachers consid- 

Page 21 

STILLS from 

Above: "In this market, the meat is 
transported and sold in the open 
without refrigeration." THE BRIDGE 
comments on the diet of the Indians, 
for whom only the cheapest foods are 

Left: "Mama needs water . . . there 
is no source of water in the house . . 
the oldest daughter takes a can, goes 
half a mile to the town pump. The 
utensil which the doughtcr carries hos ' 
great advantages ... it is quite un- 
breakable and lacks only a lid. It ill 
the product of on American oil com- 
pony, but this family has no use for 
the oil." 

Soplember— SEE and HEAR 

STILLS from 

Photographs through 
courtesy of Office of 
Inter- American Affoirs 
ond New York Univer- 

Left: "Potatoes, dried corn... 
thot's what is sold, that's what 
is bought. The vitamin content 
is not very great. No green 
vegetobles, no whole grain, no 
milk . . . the baby gets sugar 
and water. In father's plate, 
there will be a portion of black 

"Nine out of ten 
ve like this! Nine out 
f ten hove never 
sen mine or on oil 
eld." Here is o land 
here "nothing changes 
ut the faces on the 
oins." THE BRIDGE 
^lows how the people 
f South America ore 
s capable as others 
nywhere in the world, 
ut because they ore 
D weokened by dis- 
osc and poor nutri- 
ion, the whole conti- 
ent becomes handi- 

trctl ilic U!>c ol bucli audio-\isual 
material an excellent stiniiilus for 
speaking and writing and to a 
lesser degree for reading. All wish 
to do more next year. The ad- 
ministration in Newark is favor- 
able to the use of \ isnal aids in 
the classroom so that I think more 

can be done in another year. The 
trend seems to be definitely in the 
direction of greater use of audio 
\isual aids in the classroom. 

The following outline shows » 
the procedure used in the success 
ful presentation of a film in these ' 
Knglish classes: 

Plan for Using a Documentary Film. THE 

BRlDCiE, as a Teaching Aid wiih an 

Klc\cntli-^'car Class of Industrial Students. 

rime of Showing— 20 minutes. 


1. To promote an understanding of 
an important problem of today; 
i.e., the relations of the United 
States with South America. 

2. To induce reflective thinking 
hased upon factual knowledge. 

3. To promote observation and thus 
give ideas. 

4. To serve as an inspiration for 
reading and writing. 


hos done grodu- 
ofc work at Co- 
lumbia University, 
Northwestern Uni- 
versity, ond the 
University of Wis- 
consin. For many 
years she has been 
teaching English 

in the Senior High School, Newark, Ohio. 
Her interest in audio-visual oids is the 
result of attendance at the University of 
Wisconsin and Workshop on problems in 
secondary schools. She hopes to continue 
using visual aids next yeor especially to 
motivate the work in composition in classes 
comprising students of average ability or 

Pag* 24 


On the day before the showing 
of the picture five- or ten-minute 
oral themes on the following top- 
ics are given and discussed by the 

1. What is meant by Good Neighbor 

2. Position of Argentina in relation 
to the United States. 

3. Raw materials of Chile used in the 
United States. 

4. Geography of .South .\merica. 

Emphasis upon the .\ndes and 
the Amazon and jungle life. 

5. The type of airplanes used for 
freight transportation. 

Second Day. The following 
(| nest ions were placed on the, 
board and read by the class: 

1. What docs the title, THE 
BRIDGE, mean? 

2. How do the peo|)le in remote vil- 
lages live? ' 

3. What is the health situationi 
Causes for it? 

I. What agricultural methods art 
used in South .\merica totlay? 

5. What is shown of the development 
of the rubber tree? 

6. Would you want to go tlicre tcJ 
work? lo live permanently? 

September — SEE and HEf 

7. WIku kind of positions nrc avail 
al)lt' to uliat t\|)c of (rained inii\ 
and women? 

8. Docs the presentation of the hoiuc 
life of the people add interest? 

9. Are there siiffuient natural re- 
sources in South America to make 
the modern standards of living in 
tlie Unitcil States possible there? 

"irst showing of the fihn without 
coiniiicnt by teacher or pupil. 

")is(iission of tlic foregoing (|ues- 
lions and any other ideas that 
arc suggested by the class. 

'upils choose topics that interest 
them for writing. 

iccond showing of film: 
Pupils take notes. 
Teacher may make comments; 
uch as, 
"Notice the nearness of South Ameri- 
ca to Europe, a possible war danger 
if South America is not friendly to 
the United States." 
"Argentina has the same things to 
ell as the United States." 

"^\■inding roads are necessitated by 
he mountains." 

Jlass discussion and writing. 

Plan for writing: 

Length of theme: Three paragrai>hs 
of approximately 150 words each. 

Notes taken during second showing 

.Additional ideas brought out in the 
class discussion. 

Arrangement of the ideas in a short 
outline; such as. 
Importance of the Airplane to South 

I. Geographical and Geological 

II. Capacity and Speed of .Airplanes 
III. Results of the Use of the Air- 

.A. To South America 
B. To the United Stales 
The themes may all be written in class 

*'EE and HEAR— September 

"Corn has dropped to 1^ a 
bushel. . . . Corn is cheap. The 
corn of Argentina is being used as 
fuel." The film, THE BRIDGE, 
shows how the South Americans, 
who need corn vitally, cannot use 
it because of poor transportation 
and communication. 

in ink. The themes are read and dis- 
cussed. Questions about mechanics of 
English may be asked. 

Alternative plan for written com- 

Themes started in class. 
Themes written first in pencil, revised, 
and corrected. 

Themes copied in ink and handed to 

After the themes have been read by the 
teacher, some of them are read in 

These themes are longer and more pol- 
ished prcxluctions with some attention 


given lo si\k- iiiul atciiralc choirc of 

Readings suggcsiccl: 

"Green Mansions"— W. H. Hudson 

An idvllic roinanrc of Soiiili Ameri- 
can outdoor life. 
"Far .Vway and Long Ago"— W. H. 


.\mol)iography of a man who spent 
liis l)oyho<Hl in South America. 
"A B(K)klo\er's Holidays in the Open" 

— 'riiecMJore Roosevelt 

Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7. 

"Inside Latin America"— John Ciun 
Political situation. 

"South .\merican Sketches"— \V. H. 

"Soiuh .\merica and Hemisphere De- 
fense"— J. F. Rippy 

"Meet the South .\mericans '— Carl 

"Transgressor in the 1 ropics '— Farson 

"Land of Tomorrow, a Story of South 

America"— R. \V. Thompson 

Oral Composition: 

Oral themes may be developed from 
ideas suggested by the picture and by 
readings. A panel discussion or a de- 
bate might be arranged. 

"Making packsaddles for mul 
. . . without tools, out of strow . . 
woven with bore hands. Three hu 
dred years ago, saddles were mo 
just like this." 

THIS is tlic sioiy of an idea that became a sound 
lilm, I IMl. TO SPARE. It is the account of a teach- 
iug-nu'lliod |)i()>;rani worked out among and applied to 
the one room stiiools of Mercer County, West \irginia. 
11 ME TO SPARE was produced l)y the Mercer County 
Schools under the (hrection of Miss Bonnie BowWng, 
teacher of Hat Top Scliool; Brooks Hardy, assistant coun- 
ty superintendent; and Ciodfrey Elliott, director of audio- 
\isual aids, liie IGnnn. soinid fdm, 'JO minutes, was 
photographetl during the school year 1910 1911. Incpiiries 
concerning rental or purchase should be addressed to 
the Audio-Visual Aids Service, Mercer County Schools, 
Princeton, West \'irginia. The story of the development 
of the teaching plan and its fdming is a fascinating one. 
The soiuul fdm which resulted is one which every county 
superintendent in .\mcrica will want his rural school 
stalF to sec and hear. 

The Editor 

A S TO the story of the de\el- 
C\ opmcnt of the fihii, TIME 
ro SPARE, this was secondary or 
n aftcrtliought to a planned pro- 
rani of rural school inipro\e- 
nent which started in 1937. Prior 
o this date, our one-teacher 
chools had been using a fairly 
igid grade-placement program 
kith a daily schedule of thirty to 
orty short, assign-recite classes 
.ith class periods ranging from 
ight to not more than fifteen 
linutes in length. This type of 
)rogram naturally held the teach- 
rs and pupils close to the state 
idopted textbooks. 

EE and HEAR— September 




Brooks Hardy 

Assistant Superintendent, Mercer County 
Schools, West Virginia. 

In the fall of 1937, we appoint- 
ed a committee of teachers from 
one-teacher schools to work with 
their assistant superintendent in 
making a study of their problems 
and also to help ^\'ork out a solu- 
tion to their findings. The com- 
mittee's report indicated that 
their first problem was lack of 
time, with many teachers report- 

Page 27 

"A short tcn-minufe planning period begins each doy. . . . Teachers go 
from group to group, ossisting them in making their plans. Having os- 
sured herself that other groups are at work, the teacher is free to give 
individual attention to the younger children." 

ing a lack of materials to do an 
adequate jol). However, a careful 
analysis of these problems reveal- 
ed that the big problem facing 
the teacher in the one-teacher 
school was not one of time nor of 
material but a problem of organ- 
izing time for better use of mate- 
rials at hand. This fact was 
brought out by making a com- 
parison of the teacher load in one- 
teacher schools (average about 
20) with that of teachers in grad- 
ed schools (average about 30) in 
our coimty. This comj)arison 
jx)inted out to the rural teachers 
that they really had more time 
per puj)il than teachers in larger 
schools, and that what was need- 
ed was not necessarily more time 
but a better organization of time. 
An analvsis of tlie program in use 
at the lime alsf) re\caled that there 

Pag* 28 

Brooks Hardy 
Mr. Hardy is a 
native of Mercer 
County, West Vtr- 
ginia, where he re- 
ceived h i s public 
school cducotion. He 
was graduated from 
Concord College, 
Athens, IM c r c e r 
County 1 West Vir- 
ginia, with a B.S. 
degree in physicol 
science and mathe- 
matics. He has done graduate work at Duke 
University and West Virginia University. 

He has finished the requirements for the 
M.A. degree in elementary education at 
West Virginia University except for com- 
pletion of his problem on rural school or- 

He has taught in rural elementary schools, 
junior high schools, and Mr. Hardy wo$ 
Supervising Principal of the Montcalm! 
Public Schools from 1929 to 1935. At pres- 
ent he is Assistant Superintendent of Mer- 
cer County Schools in charge of Elementary' 

September— SEE and HEAR 

eally was no serious shortage of 
natcrials to work with (our 
chools arc fairly well etj nipped) , 
jut the schedule of time consiniied 
jy textbook assignments and reci- 
ations did not give the teacher 
md pupils an opportunity to use 
he libraries and other facilities 
hey had in the building, much 
ess the vast science and social 
tudies resources in the smround- 
n" conuniuiitv. 

After exjjcrimentally trying out 
e\eral types of programs, we fi- 
lally selected a program of grade 
;;rouping and block planning 

with the tool subjects, language 
arts and arithmetic, taught to 
small ability groups as ouilined in 
the schedule shown in the film. 
Individual needs and abilities are 
cared for in the iniits of work 
through differentiated assign- 

The need for the fdm develop- 
ed after we had designated our 
experimental schools as observa- 
tion schools for other teachers 
who had not participated in the 
experimental work. Teachers who 
observed often reported difficulty Tod School 






jr^iip B: Gndrs l-?-3 Group A: Gndcs 4-'^-6 


Assnnblv Period 

All Gndcs 



Planning Period 

Flaaniag .-norning activitios: All Grades 



Skills Period 

1. Language Arts 
(90 Binutos) 

2. Number Work 
(30 minutes) 

(11:30 - play period 
or free activities) 

1. Language Arts 
(90 minutes) 

Including Free 

2. Kunber V/ork 
(60 minutes) 



Planning Period 

Planning afternoon activities: All Grades 




Integrated units of 

(Early dismissal) 

Subjoct-Ficld or 
Integrated units of 
••ork. Social Stvidics, 
Science, Healtli." 


Froo Expression 

Music-Arts-Hobbies and Club Activities 


Recess at 10:30, 12:00, and 2:30 

All time allotncats subject to change as need arises. 

This outline form represents the recommended daily schedule of the 
Flat Top School. Through the planning represented by this schedule, the 
teacher may not only accomplish her educational objectives but find that 
often she has "time to spore." 

SEE and HEAR— September 

Page 29 

in imdcrstanding the general 
|)hilos])liy of the program because 
they could see only a j)art of a 
"long term" plan in action. The 
lilm was developed to fill in this 
gap— to give an "over all" pictine 
of the program before the class- 
rocjin ol>ser\aiion experience. 

We plan to make another film 
on the vocational and health 
phase of rural education. This 
])an of the prcjgiam natinally 
should be centered in the school 
l)ut directed by the sj)ecialists 

"Field trips have a purpose." A well-conducted field trip is the result of planning 
so that the time is put to good use. 

As the result of the field trip, during which the children visited the fire tower ond 
were able to see square miles of their county spread before them, the children re- 
turn to the clossroom and prepare to lay out their own community. "The entire 
group gathers together to give their individuol reports. One student tells how the 
school's position was spotted. Supplementary pupil activities grow out of activities 
such OS these." a 

Iroin our auxiliary a«;c'ncics such 
as the scliool nuisr. county agent. 
l-II clul) Itaclcis, home dciuon- 
stration agents, etc. 

It is not necessary to say that 
the fihn. TIMF TO SPARE, is 
purely an amateur jol). We had 
no outside help. The cost was not 
5roliibiti\e— about S300 for fdm, 
iroccssing ol tiic master negatiyc, 

anators' ser\iees, etc. We feel 
that we ha\e been amply repaid 

or our ellorts antl wish to recom- 
mend the production of moying 
pictures and fdmstrips as a medi- 

um for exchanging ideas on edu- 
cational practices. 

Though it is om- own jol) of 
planning and pioduction, TIME 
TO SPARE, very effectively tells 
a teaching plan. Through picture 
and nanator's (onnncnt, TIME 
EC) SPARE explains one way in 
which the daily schedule of the 
isolatetl one-teacher school can be 
oigani/ed to j)ro\ ide sufficient 
time lor the indi\ iilual and group 
attention that pupils need. A 
typical one-teacher school already 
organized in this fashion is used 


"The reaction of the State 
Cinriculum Workshop group to 
TIME TO SPARE was very fa- 
Norable. ... It should be made 
i\ailable for use by County 
Teachers Institutes." 
—Ciordou Mackenzie, Professor of Ed- 
ucation, Teachers College, Columbia. 

"We were \ery impressed 
)v the Rural Education Film 
HME TO SPARE. \Vhile not a 
mished product technically, it 

deals with its subject matter in an 
tonest and straightforward way. 

Its makers are to be commended. 

I can see many excellent purposes 
or this fdm in a teacher education 
-Professor Edward fCrug, University of 

]\'isconsin School of Education. 

Krtinent place for study not 
Here viewing in a County Normal 

I SEE and HEAR— September 

School. Here is the place for this 
type of training to begin. I want 
to use it." 

—Haiiiey Cornell, Principal, Door-Ke- 
iraunee Xorinal, Algonia, Wis. 

"I think the film TIME 
TO SPARE can serve a very defi- 
nite purpose in in-service work 
with teachers. While I will not 
want my teachers to convert com- 
pletely to the plan shown in the 
film, I am sure that studying the 
film with them woidd help them 
to see many possibilities for im- 
proving their own school day and 
its results through an adaptation 
of this type of program to their 
own situations. I am sure we will 
want to use the film in Eau Claire 
County, if it is made available to 

—Jenny L. Webster, Supervising Teach- 
er, Eau Claire Co. Schools, Wiscotisin. 

Page 31 

to illustrate the iiii)}oit;4iit points 
of the teacliei-piipil phtiining and 
execution of the two major tinie- 
blocks of the school day. The film 
attempts to show in a positive 
way how pupils in the one-teach- 
er school can be organ i/ed on the 
basis of broad ability gioups, 
thereby giNing both teacher and 
pupil much moic time than 
would be foinitl under traditional 
plans of orgjtni/ation. 

The film describes the activity 
that goes on in the school's morn- 
ing SkilK Period and afternoon 
Work-Conference Period as well 
as the preparatory planning pc- 
1 iods. Due to the inability of a 
him of this length to treat the en- 
tire schedule in a comprehensive 
maimer, other lime-blocks of the 
schedule are only mentioned in 

Teachers who use the film are 
urged to consider it as the basis 
for discussion and detailed study. 
We suggest to teachers that any 
fdm. including TIME TO 
SPARE is usefid only to the de- 
gree that it stinudates and assists 
further discussion and study of 
the problems that are (1) already 
in mind, or (2) raised by viewing 
ilie film. 

Chart .\ presents the outline 
form of the daily schedule of the 
Flat Top School, Mercer Comity, 
W. \'a.. in which TIME TO 
Si'. IRE was photographed. This 
is the same schedide shown at the 
ojxning and closing of the film. 

The pui])ose of the one-teacher 
school is the same as that of any 
other type of school; namely, to 
educate boys and girls. What is 

Paga 32 

done in the one-teacher school in 
order to reach this goal will need 
to differ from that done in other 
types of schools only because the 
conditions imder which the pu- 
pils and teacher work are differ- 
ent, and because the experience 
background of the children is dif- 

The teacher in the one-teacher 
school must handle a group of pu- 
pils whose ages range from six to 
sixteen and whose learning spans 
the first to sixth (or eighth) 
grades. The problem of handling 
these small groups of different 
grades in such a way as to organ- 
ize them into an educational 
whole is admittedly not an easy 

We who administer rural edu- 
cation are often accused of talk- 
ing in terms of theories. One way 
to talk in terms of practical ideas 
is actually to demonstrate the 
thing we beliexe can be done 
The rural school can be organized 
to serve its children effectively 
Such an organizaticjn was set up, 
photographed, and e\j)lained in 
an accomj)anying sound track as 
one answer. Yes— one answer that 
can be sent aroimd from school 
to school and actually experienced 
by the teacher who conscientious- 
ly seeks helj) with her problems. 

A total of 889 visual aids have been 
toinplctcd bv the L!. S. Oditc of Fduca- 
tion. t.")? of tlicsc are motion pictures 
and 432 are fiiinstrips. Since Novcml)er 
of 1941. when the first U. S. Office of 
Education training films were released, 
more than 22.000 prints ha\e been sold 
to war plants, \ocational schools, col- 
leges, unisersities, as well as other civil- 
ian users. —Naved 

September— SEE and HEAR 




Mrs. Claire Meienburg 
Teacher, First Grade, Longfellow School, Madison, Wis. 

T 7 HEN is a child ready to 
rV read? Every year, parents 

e asking this question, and 
achers are constantly searching 
»r new ways of discovering the 
iswer. For yoimg children to 
;tach meaning to these "draw- 
igs" that we call "words" is first 

matter of having experienced 
eanings. In my class of eighteen 
re-readers (I call them this be- 
luse their I.Q. range is from 54 
) 82) , getting ready to read is in- 
eed a challenge. In this class, we 
y to lead children through many 
ctivities through which they can 

experience visual auditory and 
tactile concepts. These children 
are waiting patiently to develop 
the functions necessary to begin- 
ning reading: language develop- 
ment, visual memory, auditory 
discrimination. These skills and 
others will enable children to be- 
gin to read successfully, or rather, 
to attach meanings to those ab- 
stract and difficult things called 

Our whole plan is to broaden 
the experiences of the children 
through allowing them to take 

lE and HEAR — September 

Page 33 




Pag. 34 

Large paper, bold oufll 

strokes, bright colors — and I 

outcome is tascinotirtg approach to real ' 

These youngsters ore combining monipulotj 

skills with the formation of concepts and understandings upon whJ 

reading may be built successfully. , 

September — SEE and HI 

Ill in j^aiiK's or otlur iiitciesiing 
iiiiini; situations wliidi will 
i.uliially ii,i\v tluin tlu- hatk- 
! omuls ol meanings Irom whiili 
> .i|)j)i<)acli the reading problem. 
1 making games, we consider es- 
1 ( i lUv the \ isual ajjpcal. We use 
iil;i\ attra(ti\e figures, good pro- 
Mi ion. aiul l)right colors. Each 
time is made as personal to the 
lild as possible. For example, in 
n animal game, the child is ask- 
lI, "Which animal do you choose 
) be?" It is surprising how many 
incepts of understanding chil- 
len learn from each unit of work 
)r which games are planned. 

One of the most interesting 
nits began when we studied ani- 
lals. We went to the zoo to see 
le ditferent animals and observe 
lem so that the children coiUd 
lentify them. W^e learned how 
nimals are housed and what they 
It. We saw how their cages and 
ouses or homes are washed with 
ose and water. We visited Annie, 
he elephant, and the monkeys. 
\'e learned how some animals 

Mrs. Cloire Meien- 
burg is a graduate 
of the Milwaukee 
State Teachers Col- 
lege and has attend- 
ed the University of 
Wiscon sin. Her 
teoching experience 
in Horicon, Wiscon- 
sin, and the Madison 
Public Schools has 
been with Special 
Class children — men- 
jolly handicapped pre-primory group. She 
. i^xpects to teach in the same capacity this 
:oming school year. 

^>EE and HEAR— September 

like (old weather, and others do 
not. It was sur|)rising to me to 
dis(()\(.r that chiklreu could not 
tlistinguish between a lion and a 
tiger, and yet, why should we ex- 
pect them to do so? 

On returning to the school- 
loom, the children decided to 
construct their own Longfellow 
Zoo. Orange crates, lath, colored 
paper, ancl powder paint were 
used in the coinse of de\eloping 
the project. Circus nuisic, stories 
about zoos and animals, oral dis- 
cussions, art work, stories in read- 
ing, games and rhythms were all 
de\ eloped about this theme. 

Among the interesting games 
which were used to pro\ide ex- 
periences out of which vocabulary 
de\elopment grew was the "Make 
the Animal" game. A large paper 
animal w^as prepared and then cut 
up into easily recognized parts— 
the ears, the legs, the neck, the 
body, the tail, the spots, the 
horns, and so on. Through asking 
the children to assemble this ani- 
mal and identify the parts of the 
body, we were able to build \o- 
cabulary and concept imderstand- 
ing which later was to carry o\er 
into the reading situation. What 
follows is a report of the conver- 
sation which took place during 
the teaching of this game. 

Teacher. We have been having so 
much fim playing the animal 
game. Jimmy, what animal did 
we ha\e yesterday? 

Jimmy. The zebra. 

T. Ves. \Vhat did he look like? 

J. He had stripes. 

Page 35 

T. The animal we are going to "play" 
totlay is different. How is he differ- 

Beverly. Because he is big. 

T. Our zebra was i)ig, loo. This animal 
is — 

upil. Long. 

\ We have another word. 

. Tall. 

\ ^cs. and this animal wears what? 


T. Vcs, tiiis animal has spots, and what 
did the other animal have? 

I*. Stripes. 

I . Does anyone know what this animal 

Joan. A giraffe. 

T. Let's read together the story right 
under the giraffe. 

Class: "Make the giraffe." 

T. What do you call this part of the 
giraffe, Joan? 

J. The body. 

T. Jimmy, would you find the heai 
and put it in the right place? (Bo 
puts head in wrong place.) Is tha 
the way the giralfe looks? 

Class. Nol No! 

r. Jimmy, find the neck. (Boy fine 
neck and puts it on body.) 

J. I put the neck on the giraffe. 

T. Fine! What does he need over hen 
(Pointing to end of neck.) (Be 
puts head on neck.) Children, s< 
if we are doing it just right. 

J. I put the head on the giraffe. 

T. Does anybody know what "horni 
are? Can you find the horns, Jin 
my? (Jimmy puts horns on giraffe 

T. How many horns does the giraf 
have, Jimmy? 

J . Two. 

T. How many? 

J. Two horns. I put the horns on il 

r. Jane, will you put the right ear 
place? First, hold your right hat 

"Put the hind legs on the giraffe, Jimmy," and Jimmy proceeds to ide 
tify a vocabulary item, to follow directions, to select a given object, and 
place it in relation to the whole figure — oil valuable experiences Id pi 
reading development. 


up. (Children raise right hands 
with teacher's help. Jane finds the 
giraffe's right ear.) 

This is a big ear, and where does 
it belong? Show me where you 
would put it. What did you do? 

me. I put the right ear on the giraffe. 

What does the giraffe have on this 

The left ear. (Puts left ear on gi- 
raffe.) I put the left ear on the 

Why does the giraffe need 
What does he do with them? 


indra. The giraffe hears. 

'. How about your ears? Could we 
hear music and stories if we didn't 
have ears? 

lass. No. 

'. Can you find the eye, Sandra? 
Where is it? 

iE and HEfiR— September 

"And so far, we hove placed how many 
spots on the giraffe?" "1, 2, 3, 4, 5" re- 
sponds the class. They ore having lots 
of fun, and at the some time, are be- 
ginning to attach significance to an ab- 
stract number system. 

S. I put the eye on the giraffe. 

T. How many eyes does the giraffe 

S. Two. 

T. Just like you and me. Frank, can 
you find the other eye? (Boy puts 
an eye on the other side of head.) 
How about the mouth? He can't 
eat without a mouth. (Frank puts 
the mouth on head.) That is good, 
Frank. What did you do? 

F. I put the mouth on the giraffe. 

T. Now, what does the giraffe need 
over here? 

Class. The nose. 

T. Beverly, will you put it on? (Girl 
puts nose on giraffe.) How could 

Page 37 


"Here's our idea of how o zoo should look!" Once these youngsters begi 
to read stories, they will have little difficulty in recalling the visualize 
tions which abstract words demand. 

this animal get anywhere unless 
he had legs? How many does he 
II. Four. 

T. Will you find the left front one? 
That's jusl fine! Vou know what to 
do, don't you? 

\\. I \i\n the left leg on the giraffe, 
r. \\'ill you put another front leg on 

the girallf. Ilaiiford? CRoy puts right 

front leg on giraffe.) 

Banford. I put a front leg on the giraffe. 

T. Who can find the hind legs or the 
hack legs? f^Joan finds legs.) Now, 
what else docs this giraffe need? 

Class. Spots. 

T. Jimmy, you put one on any place 
you think would be a good place. 
(Boy puts a spot on the giraffe.) 

Poo* 38 

j I put the spot on the giraffe. 

r. Will you put another one on, Joar 
(Joan puts a spot on the neck.) 

T. That's a gmnl place for that spo 
too. \Vhal did you do? 

). I put the spot on the giraffe. 

T. How many spots are right up hei' 

Class. Two. I 

T. Two, that is fine! ^^'ill you put ai 
oilier one on? Two wouldn't 1 
enough for a giraffe. (Joan puts < 
another spot.) What did you do- 

J. I put a spot on the giraffe. 

T. How many spots are on here no\ 

J. Three. 

T. Three, all right. Will you put c 

September — SEE and HEi 

aiiolhcr one. Beverly? (Beverly puis 
a spot on tlie girafTc.) 

I put a spot on the girallc. 

Joe, will you put another on? (Boy 
tlocs so.) 

I put a spot on tlic giraffe. 

Girairc. Say it again. 


How nianv spots do you sec? 
ass. Fi\e. 

Are there any left? 
iss. .\o. 

Where arc they? 
ass. One the giraffe. 

Let's count them together. 1.2.3, 4, 5. 

Just as many as you have on your 
hand. Let's read this story again to 
see if we have done just what it 
asks us to do. 

ass. 'Make the giraffe." 

The opportunities for discov- 
"ing just how successful chil- 
ren are becoming in understand- 
ig vocabulary and meaning is 

MTV easily atcomplishcd thioiigh 
games uhicli tiHoiuage the j)ar- 
titipatioii ol all oi the (hildren. 
Tiiese same games Iiold out oj>- 
jjortiuiity for beginning niuuher 
tomprehension as well by eouni- 
ing spots, by keeping track of the 
number of legs that have been 
phued on the animals, and by 
e(jmparing animals one with an- 
other. In this way, concepts of 
number can be established. 

Other games which \\'cre used 
in connection with the unit on 
animals gave the children an op- 
portunity to follow directions, to 
match like objects and to distin- 
guish betAveen unlike, to assem- 
ble simple puzzles, to formulate 
simple animal stories, to describe 
animals in terms of their likeness- 
es and differences. All of the abil- 
ities just mentioned are very es- 
sential when entering into formal 
reading, which depends on skills 
such as these just enumerated. 
Several of the more successful 
games are described briefly: 

DRESSING MOTHER BEAR /after dramatization of the "Three Bears.") 

Directions: Put the hat on Mother Bear. 

Put the coat on Mother Bear. 

Put the shoes on Mother Bear. 
What did you do? 

Clarification of ideas: I put the red hat on Mother Bear. 

It has a green feather. 

Use pictures of animals. 
Use different heads on animals. 

Children enjoy humorous elements involved here and will tell what 
is wrong. 

ANIMAL CUT-OUTS (in cages) 

Child chooses animal he w^ants to talk about. 

P and HEAR— September 

Page 39 


Itlciuif\— learn names of animals— differences. 

How do tlicv look alike? 

Matching and reading names of animals. 


I see ".\nnie Elephant." 

She is big. 

She has two eyes. 

She has two big floppy ears. 

.She has a trunk. 

.•\nnie likes peanuts. 

.\M.\IA1. (.AMI. 

Make attractive animals to use for game rack. 

Identify— nial(h all tigers, lions, etc. 

Left to right. 

Which arc going in the same direction? 

What animals have spots? 

What animals have stripes? 

What animals are the same color? 

/.KBR.\ G.AME (Also use other animals.) 

Cut animal into parts. 
Make animal as to directions— matching. 
Child tells what he has done. 

Learn lo identify parts and use, if anv. Ears, stripes, mane, eyes, 
tail, nose, mouth, front feet, hind feet. 


Make paper fish and staple on one or more places. Decorate fish with 
various designs, cf)lor easy number concepts, or names of zoo ani- 
mals. Use pole and magnet. When child catches a fish, in order to 
keep this fish, he must describe, read number or name of aniinal. 


Develop number concepts— language development. 

Which cone do you want? 

How many scoops— child describes different kinds of ice cream. 

Read numbers on scoops. 

Filling the rack— matching cone number with number on rack. 

Tell a story about your cone. I 


Zoo animals, birds and domestic animals. 

.Spin the wheel, where spinner stops tell whether he lives at the 
ion. or if not, where does he live? 

Matching of pictures. 
Matching of words. 

Poo* 40 Soptambor — SEE and HEfl 

The Teacher 

John Hamburg 

Assistant Superinterident of Edgerton, Wis., Schools 

Much of the confusion in film selection and use results from 
the fact that the evaluation of tlie film is not done by the per- 
son who uses the film. One way of helping assure that the 
teacher gets the film which exactly serves the subject area and 
the pupil interest is to ask this same teacher to accept the film 
selection responsibility. Mr. Hamburg and his committee have 
demonstrated one wav in ^vhich this can be accomplished. As 
such, their contribution becomes a challenge to all teachers, 
particularly those in other subject areas than the social studies. 
— The Editor. 


OCIAL studies teachers 
should know in advance 
vhat a fihii teaches." That is the 
hought which prompted a new 
ype of study undertaken jointly 
Dy the Wisconsin Council for the 
liocial Studies and the University 
jixtcnsion Division for the pur- 
loose of "sorting" social studies 

' In 1944, Ruth Fuller, a social 
itudies teacher in Manitowoc, 
itVisconsin, ordered some teach- 
ing films. She showed them, in 
Phe course of time, to her stu- 
ilents. The students welcomed 

hat type of instruction. They 
:heered, but learned little be- 
::ause, despite the advertising and 

he undoubted good quality of 
;he films, the films did not fit 

■EE and HEfiR— September 

either the age level or the subject 
then under discussion. To say 
that Miss Fuller was displeased is 
to put it mildly. She found, too, 
that many teachers had expressed 
dissatisfaction over the same 
thing. The Advancement Com- 
mittee of the Wisconsin Council 
for the Social Studies summed up 
the situation as follows: "Social 
studies teachers want to use films. 
Many of them have the equip- 
ment, but they are afraid to order 
films at public expense because 
they aren't sure that the films will 
fit the grade level and the type of 
unit being taught." Other doubts 
included not knowing whether 
the film was designed to "open 
up" and create interest in a sub- 
ject with a general overview or 

Pag* 41 

FIIM SVAWHUOH PROJECT council for SocUl Studl.s and .Jnivar.ity of Wisconsin 
Extsrsion Division. Bureau of Visual Instruction 

Directions, 1. Pl«»«e sho- the filn to your or to l"t«"»*«^ 
°* corriittoes of t«»ch«rs and pupils. Discuss the filn 

with thoE. note their reactions. 

2. please fill in as nuch of the questionnaire as 
possible and return it in the fito can. 

Dane of evaluator_ 

Address of ev»luator_ 
Title of film 

Length in ininute8_ 

Sound Silent_ 

Date published 

IS teaching cuW available7 Ye3_ V.o_ Is it adequate^ Yes_ !,o 

content, (Cive a short description of the film, use only the space 

Do you recorr^nd the film as far as quality, photography, sound track. 
«tc. are concernedt Coonents, . __ 

Utiliiation Data ... . \ 

i. p.,coru-.e nd;rF.rade level and subject, (Check or write in.) 

Prioary SubJoct_ ""it 

Internediate Subject_ ""^^ 

Junior H. S. 
Serlor H. S. 

Sub 1ect 


Page 42 

Actual size — stondord 8Vixl 1-inch sheet 

September— SEE and HEfl: 

2. Does th« nin stimulu'-.e goclully useful discussion? 

If so, 

3. Does it correloto with other r.ood teachinc natoriuls now used in 
your classroom? If so, tell how. 

4. Can you sufpiest any films which do a better job? 
give titles. 

If so. 

5. List favorable or unfavorable pupil reactions. 

6. Does the filn fit in with news; or current events, study? 
If so, how? 

7. Judging fron your reading or travel, would you say the filn is 
authentic, up to^ta, typical? Conments: 

8. ^Thftt attitudes does the fiLii engender in the audience? (For 

example: world brotherhood, courtesy, reform, hone participation, 

9. Does the filn raise problems? 

Offer solutions? 

10. Other comnents or criticisms; 

EE and HEAR— September 

Page 43 

wlicthcr it really taught the spe- 
cific steps in a process. 

The Aclvancement Committee 
of the Wisconsin Council for the 
Social Studies prcjiaretl a list of 
primary, intermediate, jiuiior 
high, senior hii^h. and college 
teachers known to he leaders in 
social studies education. \Vilh 
the help of the Bureau of Visual 
Instruction of the University of 
Wisconsin, letters were sent to 
these pe(;ple explaining the prob- 
lem and asking their assistance. 
They returned cards indicating 
that o\er sixty of them woidd be 
willing to have motion pictures 
sent to them from the Extension 
Division and that they would an- 
swer a cjucstionnaire to determine 
just what was taught by the film. 
The Extension Division did its 
part by reducing the rental rate 
for these films and offering cleri- 
cal assistance. Films were sent 
out, shown to students of all 
grade levels, and returned. In 
each returned film "can" was an 



received his Ph.M. 
^^^flj, jf^t <legree at the Uni- 
^*^r versify of Wisconsin. 
He majored in Polit- 
ical Science under 
Professor John Gous. 
He now is Assistant 
Superintendent at 
Edgerton, Wisconsin, 
but insists on con- 
tinuing in teaching within the social science 
oreo. He is most fascinated with teoching 
ninth grode citizenship and twelfth grode 
problems of democracy. 

Poo* 44 

evaluation cjuestionnaire, a copy 
of which is shown on the jireced- 
ing pages. 

Finally the Bureau had a huge 
stack of returned cjuestionnaires. 
Miss FiUler and I began weeks of 
toil. Each reply was read, placed 
with others concerning the same 
film, and the actual writing of an 
evaluation bidletin was l)egim. 
The cooperating teachers liad 
done their work well. Ihey 
praised and condemned with 
ecpial vigor. The comments fiom 
the people in one part of the 
state or in a large school were 
frequently similar to those from 
a small school in another part of 
the state. For instance, every 
teacher who saw and exhibited 
The River commented on its 
"teachability." Teachers com- 
j)lained about soiuid tracks, 
praised acting, told why a film 
shoidd not be shown to yoiuig 
children, commented when stu- 
dents laughed at outdated auto- 
mobiles in the films, told how to 
prepare students not to expect a 
"plot" when one was hinted at 
but did not develop, warned 
against using some films in the 
wrong part of a luiit, and listed 
grade levels and types of units 
where the students coidd use 
these films best. In short, social 
studies teachers cannot be sold 
any propaganda. They are criti- 
cal, but when it comes to co- 
operating for the betterment of 
teaching, they cooperate beauti 

The study prepared by teachers 
for their fellow teachers is a very 

September — SEE and HERS 

i.utical and usable contribution 

.) the social stucHes classroom. 

riie pamphlet takes up each film 
.11 alphabetical order with a di- 
jfcsted conunent on each. Here is 

I typical one: 

Protecting the Public 

(Sound) 9 minutes 

Jr. H. S.. Sr. H. S. |.50 

Use this film in teaching crime or 
he fudicial or Executi\e Depart- 
neni ol the Federal Government. 
Be prepared for the fact that the 
nap sequence, showing the loca- 
ion of the 21 federal penal in- 
.litutions, is short. The photog- 
raphy is good and the sound ex- 
cellent. It is old (Cummings was 
the Attorney General) but it does 
explain the treatment of prison- 
ers in an effort to get them to 

again take their proper j)laces in 

Some educators have pointed 
out that the study may have the 
effect of encouraging the in- 
creased use of films throughout 
the state. They believe that teach- 
ers have always wanted films and 
that the jiiiblic has been willing 
to pay for film rental, but that the 
teacher has been worried about 
whether he is going to get "a cat 
in a bag" which will just teach 
something, true enough, but not 
the thing being stressed at the 
moment. Such studies, it is also 
pointed out, get teachers to work 
together on their common prob- 
lems and make them conscious of 
the new methods being used in 
the profession. 

New Coronet Slidefilm Series 

A new series of 35 mm. slidefilms or 
Milmstrips to he made from Picture Sto- 
ries appearing in Coronet Magazine has 
been announced by the Society for Vis- 
ual Education, Inc., of Chicago. The 
new series will include eight slidefilms 
to be released one each month from 
October, 1945 through May, 1946. Each 
slidefilm is accompanied by a reprint of 
the Picture Storv in Coronet which serves 
as a teacher's manual. The slidefilms 
become the permanent property of those 
who receive them. 

The October Picture Story is The 
Liberated ... a story of people who 
have been freed all over the world. It 
will be followed in November by The 
Storm ... a documentary story of 
t storms. The C'.ennan is the subject 
J for December. It will be an analytical 

SEE and HEAR— September 

Story of the kind of people the Germans 
were before the war and what we may 
expect of them in postwar. 

These slidefilms of the Coronet Picture 
Stories can be used on any projector 
which accommodates 35 mm. single-frame 
strips. Each will have continuity titles 
on the individual frames, and the re- 
print of the Picture Story in the mag- 
azine will provide additional informa- 
tion for the use of the teacher or other 
person using these for group instruction. 
The slidefilms are primarily intended to 
serve as a basis for the discussion of 
problems of the day, and those released 
during the past two years have been 
used by thousands with all types of 
training groups. The principal users 
have been junior and senior high 
schools, but they have been used by 
many churches and community groups, 
and among hundreds of units of the 
armed forces, at home and overseas. 

Page 45 


O. A. Hankammer 

Professor of Education, Kcmsas State Teachers College 


THE effectiveness of audio-vis- 
ual materials as tools to learn- 
ing has been denionstraied so 
thoroughly that the inobleni now 
is one of pro\iding teachers for 
tlie American public schools who 
are conwrsant with these male- 
rials. With the aim of bringing 
information antl instruction in 
audio-\isual materials to school 
su|)erintendents, jirincipals, and 
leac hers. Kansas .Stale I eac hers 
College ol I'iiisburg iield its sec- 
ond Visual Echuation conference, 
June l.S and II. 191"). I he pro- 
gram (onsisled j>iimarily cf ilem- 
onstrations, discussions, and ex- 

One ol ilu' i)oints of view ex- 
pressed at the (onference was that 
ihe leadiiug film as designed lor 
school use has become a mechan- 
ical oj)portunity to understanil 

Pag* 46 

1)1. O. A. Hank- 
ainnicr. Director 
of the Vocational 
l)i\isi()n of the 
Kansas Slate 

Teaciiers College, 
l'ittsl)iirp;, Kansas, 
lid iiis institution 
lowarii a forward- 
looking position in 
the field of Visual 
Kducation when 
on Jiuje 13-11. 
1*(1.'), he sponsored 
the second annual 
Kansas .State Teachers College Insliluie 
on \ isual Kdiiiation. While formal 
talks higlilighted the program, several 
very practical tiemonstralion situations 
were huiit around the use of visual 
learning materials in the classroom. The 
adount of one of iluse demonstrations 
is hrought hy Dr. Hankammer to the 
attention of all who are interested in 
observing one nietho<l of using the 
soinid film at the intermediate grade 

September— SEE and HEAR 


our cn\ironnicnt so \i\iclly, so 
completely, so pennanently that 
the lessons it teaches will be a 
part of our exj>eriences from that 
day on. With it we overcome the 
barriers of season, climate, locale, 
and time. 

As an illustration of how 
schools today can meet the re- 
sponsibility of knowing more and 
more about oiu- environment, the 
following film presentation is in- 
cluded. Perhaps no better way to 
discuss the utilization possibilities 
of fdms in the classroom can be 
presented than the experience of 
watching a teaching situation 
which brings into use a good class- 
room film. The following demon- 
stration was conducted with a 
group of fourth giade pupils 
from the Horace Mann Labora- 
tory School: 

The lesson was one on nature 

study dealing with birds. The 
(ilni on '////•: liOIiOl.lXK AM) 

111/-: liLUI.I.l) was useil. Ihe 
rapport established i)etween the 
teacher and the children was re- 
maikai)le. Clritic tea( hers, student 
oiiservers, school administrators- 
all praised the demonstiations. 

riie range between grade and sec- 
onchuy levels was sulfic iently gicat 
to demonstrate to all that visual 
materials need to be selected 
sharply with regard to levels. Va- 
rious technicjues used in teaching 
with films were explained. 

So that the reader can follow 
the progress of the presentation of 
the fdm, this stenographic report 
of the demonstration situation is 
here included: 

Using the 

Teacher: The most important part of 
visual education is that which starts in 
the grades. We can spend tfie rest of 
our lives teaching the direct training of 
seeing and hearing to college students. 
It is only by starting this type of in- 
struction at the bottom and continuing 
to do it that we can see it filter and 
spread and influence the whole educa- 
tional system. 

Ihe ciuestion has often been asked, 
"Do films serve the primary grades?" Up 
until a few years ago the answer woidd 
have been "no." During recent years, 
however, some of the most outstanding 
teaching films have been developed for 
the primary and intermediate grades. Of 
chief value to the elementary grades is 
the function which the film ser^■es in 
establishing information about which 
children may write, talk, or read. Films 
then become background or readiness 

' SEE and HEAR— September 

Page 47 

experiences. This afternoon let us turn 
our attention to a nature study film at 
the fourth grade level. 

Teacher: Have you hoys and girls 
studied al)OUt hirds in vour nature 
study classes? 

Pupils: Ves. 

Teacher: This afternoon we're going 
to study a motion picture* ahout hirds. 
We arc going to make helicve that this 
is the same kind of a lesson you might 
read al)Out. We are going to work at 
this picture show. 

The teacher then read the 
first paragraph on the study 
sheet. (See the copy of the pupil 
study sheet used by the children 
as they studied this film.) 

Teacher: Why are birds silent during 
the nesting season? 

Pupil: So no one will find the nest 
and destroy the eggs. 

The teacher read the .second 
and the third paragraphs from 
teaching guide. 

Teacher: Do you see why the hirds 
arc a friend of man? If we got rid of 
all the birds, what would happen to 
these gartlens of ours? 

Pupil: The insects would cat up all 
the gardens. 

The teacher then continued 
reading jrom the study sheet. 

Teacher: We are getting ourselves 
ready to see a film about birds. Before 
we see it let us see if we know the words 
that will be used in the movie. .Some of 
the hartler words arc listed here for us 
to study. What is a beak? 

Pupil: .\ bill, a bird's mouth. 

Teacher: Yes. What docs blooding 
mean? (Only two hands went up.) 

'Bobolink and Bluejay (10 min.). 
16 mm. (Sound) Coronet. 

Pag* 48 

When we don't know the answer we go 
to the dictionary, and if we were in our 
classrcM)m that is just what we woidd 
do. But we have no tlictionary here, so 
1 will tell you this one. The brocxling 
feathers are on the breast of the mother 
l)ird. Now then, who can guess what 
the mother i)ir(l does when she is 

Puj)il: She keeps the eggs warm. 

Teacher: Ves. it's like putting a down 
blanket over the eggs. Do you know 
what is in a "down" blanket? 

Pupil: Down or feathers from ducks 
and geese. 

Teacher: T hat is right. What is the 
bird's crest? 

Pupil: The crown of his head. 

Teacher: Feather track. 

Pupil: Tail feathers. 
Teacher: Wing feathers. 

Pupil: Is it where the feathers slick 
into the bird? 

Teacher: That is a little more like the 
right answer. But not cjuite right. When 
wc can't find it in a dictionary, where 
else might wc go? 

Pupil: To the encyclopedia. 

Teacher: Ves, if wc had an encyclo- 
pedia here, we'd find that feathers grow 
in lines on the wings and back of the 
bird. The feathers overlap like the 
scales on a fish. Those lines of feathers 
growing from the skin of the bird are 
called feather tracks. What dcM?s incu- 
bate mean? 

Pupil: The bird sits on the nest and 
keeps the eggs warm. 

Teacher: Panting. What does a i)ird 
do when it pants? 

Pupil: It breathes hard. 

Teacher: The bird has only one way 
to cool itself, and that is to jjant. What 
does plumage mean? 

Pupil: Structure? 

Pupil: Feathers? 

September — SEE and HEAR 

Teaclicr: Vcs. Diil you know all tliis 
.il)()ul l)ir(ls? (All answered that they 
(lid not.) If wc had not stndieil these 
words first, what might have happened 
when we saw the piitiires? 

I'lipil: We would have j^olien all 
tangled up. 

Teacher: Von are all going to have 
jol)s to do. Before wc look at the fdni 
let us look at what .some of these jobs 
are. Bobby, what is the first job we arc 
;()ing to have as wc learn from the film? 

Pui)il: (Reading first ([ucstion.) Watch 
(arifully so that you will be able to 
ifsrrihc the (oloring of the male and 
female bobolink and the male and fe- 
male bluejay. 

Teacher: Yes. And the second job is 
to find out who feeds the voting bobo- 
links and who feeds the young bluejays. 
Kugcnc, what is the next thing you are 
going to watch for? 

Pupil: (Reading (jucstion four.) In 
what places do the bluejay and the 
bobolink build their nests? 

Teacher: What else are you going to 
watch for, George? 

Pupil: To see what they use to build 
their nests. 

Teacher: Jimmy, read question num 
her five. 

Pupil: Be able to describe the young 
boboUnks and the young bluejays from 
the time they are hatched until the time 
they are ready to leave the nest. 

The teacher then had other 
children review the instructions 
and the pupils then responded 
with such statements as: We will 
; want to watch these young bobo- 
links and bluejays grow from the 
time they hatch out of the eggs 
until they are grown. Do bobo- 
links li\c aroimd here? Yes, they 

Kollowing this the If) mm. 
soiMu! and (oloi film HOIiO- 
I.IXK AM) HLLLJAY was pro- 
jected on the screen, following 
the showing the teacher resumed 
the discussion. 

readier: Did you ever get that close 
to a live bird before— and waiih it so 

Pupil: No. 

Teacher: Win do birds die when they 
arc thrown out of the nest? 

Pu|)il: They can't get any iood by 

Teacher: But you could feed tlicm. 
.Vnd yet, they still often die. Why? 

Pupil: The bird gets cold. 

Pupil: How do they take these pic- 

Teacher: That is a good question. 
They build a "blind," that is a screen 
of grass and bushes, so that the birds 
can't see the people who take the pic- 
tures. The blind can be built very near 

the nest. Or, they can use what is called 
a telescopic lens on the camera. What is 
a telescope? 

Pupil: It makes things look bigger and 

Teacher: That is right. But with a 
telescopic lens if you jiggle the camer<i 

Bird photos by Dr. 0. S. Pettingell Jr., for Coronet Productions. 
' SEE and HEAR— September 

Page 49 

a link- l)it. i( jigKlcs tlie picture a lot. 
S<i lluv UMiallv use blinds. Tlic camera 
mail hides inside the hliiid aiul wails 
very quietly until the birds act just as 
if no «nie was near them. ! hen he 
starts taking i)i( Hires. 

Pupil: There is a r<>t)ins nesi 1)\ my 
window. In tlie morning 1 lan look out 
and see the lillle robins. 

'Feather: We siiould always try to find 
out liow much we iiave learned. We 
learned a great ileal from this film. But 
let's see liow much. 

At this point ilif tjiic'stioiis on 

the second page ot the study sheet 

were studied by the ehilchen. 

riiey were instructed to put a 

This study guide allows the pupil to anticipate his learning 
experience. It gives him the opportunity of studying in ad- 
vonce this vocabulary which may cause him difficulty, and 
most important, provides for the evoluotion which would fol- 
low most text type teaching films. 

FILM STUDY SHEET Number 2 for film "Bobolink and Bluejay" Page 1 

Every day we see birds. We think we know all 
about them Hardly ever, though, do we have a 
chance to get close enough to them to have a good 
look at their plumage, at their bills, or at their nests 
because birds are usually very silent during the nest- 
ing season They want to attract as little attention 
as possible to themselves. 

Whether we realize it or not, birds are good friends 
to man. The two birds, the bobolink and the blue- 
jay, that you wiU see in this picture, catch many 
kinds of insects. Some of these insects are very 
harmful to the crops which man raises. The grass- 
hoppers, which are food for the young birds, are 
gathered from gardens and grain fields where they 
often would do much damage to the crops planted 
by man. 

Young birds are fed many times their own weight 
in insects each day. What would happen do you sup- 
pose, if birds suddenly stopped gathering insects for 
the young birds and for themselves? Farmers' crops 
would be completely eaten by insects. Your food 
supply would be very much smaller. Without the 
•id of the birds, we would have a hard time finding 
enough food for ourselves. 

This it an interesting picture about birds, but, before 
we look at it, lefs become familiar with a few unusual 
words that we shall meet: 


black-eyed Susan 

feather track 

Be porticulorly on the lookout for these important 
things which you will see in the fil.Ti: 

1. Watch carefully so that you will be able to de- 
scribe the coloring of the male and female bobolinks 
and the male and female bluejays. 

2. Who feeds the young bobolinks? Who feeds the 
young bluejays? 

3. How is the male bluejay different from the male 

4. In what places do the bluejay and the bobolink 
build their nests? 

5. Be able to describe the young bobolinks and the 
young bluejays from the time they are hatched until 
the time they are ready to leave the nest. 

Crovm ^-^^ 

HiA£ coverlets 

Secondary wing feathers 

Tail coverlets ^■ 
Tall feathers _ 

Primary wing feathers 

Published by FIIM STUDY COMMITTEE. 131 S. Pinckney St.. Modison, Wis. 

All lieKit l«.rr^ (0 1*41 

Pag* 50 

September— SEE and HEAR 

question mark, in tlu- inar};iii 
wlicicNcr they could not answer 
a (|iKsti()ii to their satislac tion. As 
soon as the youngsters were 
through, they were asked to raise 
their hands whenever the ques- 
tion niinil)er was called for which 
they woukl not know the answer. 
It was very e\i(.Ient that while 
some information was secured 
from the fust showing, much re- 
mained unanswered. 

Icadici: From this \\c can see that 
uc haveiit learned all the answers. 

What can wo <i() alxuit it? (.corgc, have 
yon an idea <»f what we could do? 
Pupil: \Vc conid guess al)()ut thnn. 

Teacher: I don't want you to do that. 
What else (an we do? 

•After a period of blank looks 
and even l)lanker answers, one 
child finally spoke up, rather 

Pupil: We might look at the film 

leachcr: (Over the heads of the 
fourth grade, to the student teachers at 
the back of the auditorium.) A very 
good example of the tradition these 

Page 2 of the film study sheet. 


Now that you have seen the film, test yourself to discover how effectively you hove learned what 
it contained. Underline, circle, or fill in the answers. 

1. The bobolink's nest, made of -- , 14. The young bobolinks are ready to leave the nest 

when they are only days old. 

is deeply hidden among the weeds. 

2. The three eggs in the bobolink's nest are: a. blue 
b. brown c. speckled white. 

3. The most noticeable thing about the young bobo- 
link is its large: a eyes. b. mouth c. wings, d. feet. 

4. The female bobolink looks like a sparrow because 
nature does not want her to be seen easily. 


5 & 6. According to the film, the duties of the female 

bobolink are: (Select 2.) a. building the nest. b. them 

incubating the eggs. c. singing continuously, d feed- 
ing the young birds, e. protecting the meadow from 

15. The bluejay builds its nest high in the trees. 

16. The bluejay builds its nest out of 

17. The newly hatched bluejays are covered with 
soft, fluffy feathers TRUE FALSE 

18. The female bluejay fluffs out her feathers and 
holds herself close to the young birds to 

7. The young bobolinks eat many 

19. On hot days, the female bluejay cools her young 
birds by spreading her over them. 

20. The full-grown male and female birds can cool 
themselves by panting. .TRUE FALSE 

21. Bluejays are close relatives of 

22. Both male and female bluejays share the duty 
of feeding the young birds. 



8. The male bobolink helps feed the young birds just 
as cleverly as the female bobolink does. 


9. The male and the female bobolinks look very 
muchalike TRUE ....FALSE 

10. The chief duty of the male bobolink is to pro- 
tect the nest. TRUE FALSE 

11. Young bobolinks eat three or four grasshoppers 
every: a. minute, b. ten minutes, c hour. d. day. 

12. When the young bobolink is about hungry. .TRUE FALSE 

days old, it is entirely helpless, blind, and deaf. jS. If you were to try to make a pet of either the 

13. When the young bobolink is bobolink or the bluejay. which would you choose? 

days old, it can stand up, see, and hear. 

Now turn to the questions on the other side of this sheet, and test your ability to answer them. 
SEE and HEAR— September p^g^ 51 

23. The young bluejays are not able to leave their 
nest as soon as the young bobolinks can. 


24. According to what you saw in the film, a young 
bird's fear is soon forgotten when he grows very 

children arc acquainted with, looking 
at ail ciiicrtainnient film only once. 

The teacher then used orally 
the check-up test on the reverse 
of the study sheet. 

Teaclier: We would try to individual- 
ize this film, if we had more time. \\c 
would find out, for instance, that George 
likes other birds, l)esides boijolinks and 

The teacher then opened the 
discussion to the teachers. 

Observer: Would the children like to 
see films on oilier birds ami animals? 

All: Yes. 

George: I would like to do this the 
hrst hour of every afternoon. 

Observer: How much of this prelim- 
inary preparation can you go through 
without killing interest? 

Teacher: Let's ask tiie children. Why 
did we do all this work before we look- 
ed at the picture? 

Pupil: We have to know something 
about what we arc going to see. 

Teacher: What do you think about 
going through all these words? Did it 

Pupil: Yes. 

Teacher: Would you rather have just 
come in, looked at the film, and gone 
back to your classrcx)m? 

I'lipils: \(). 

I'upii: That way we wouKl not know 
what kind of iiirds tliey were. 

Teacher: Do you remember the ])art 
of the film where they told al)out 
feather tracks? 

Martha: Yes. 

Teacher: Why do you go to the pic- 
ture show downtown? 

Stanley: For the pleasure of it. 

Teacher: But this kind of film is not 

Pag* 52 

the same as the kind you see down- 
town. It is a study movie, a lesson 

.Audience: What about the retention 
of material learned in this way? 

Teacher: We can definitely develop 
the facility for observing. There have 
been interesting studies conducted on 
ability to observe, in some cases there 
has been an increase of 300 percent in 

OITO .\. H.\NK.\.\IMER, head 
of the Industrial Arts and \ocation- 
al Education Department of Kansas 
State Teachers College of Pittsburg, 
was born in Van Wert, Ohio, in 
1891. Undergraduate work was 
done at Wooster College and Kan- 
sas State Teachers College. The 
M.A. and Ph.D. degrees were re- 
ceived from Ohio Slate I'niversity. 

Before going to Kansas State 
Teachers College, 1922, industrial 
positions were held in drafting 
and commercial art departments. 
In World \Var I he served as Mas- 
ter Signal Electrician in the Signal 
Corps, 37th Division. 

the powers to retain observed informa- 

.Audience: .Should we carry that into 
pictures for entertainment? 

Teacher: I doubt it. 

.Audience: Would \()ii use tlie .same 
general techniiiue with the primary 

Teacher: ^ es. in general, l)Ut orally.] 
Reading wduld l)e a barrier in some] 
cases. Please tlon't feel that Tin trving 
to say this is tiie way. Tin not. This is 
just one suggestion. There are many 
sources pulling out study guides with 
films. I lie leather must aiwa)s l>c the 
one to decide whether the film is one' 
wliidi should be inerelv seen and en- 
joyed or studied intensively. 

September — SEE and HERK 


L. Joseph Lins 
Detroit University 

MR. LIN'S in a very practical way has sought to 
examine the present status of visual instruction 
in the state of Wisconsin. Of even more worth than the 
statistics he has discovered is his fine summary of exist- 
ing needs in the field of visual education and the 
recommendations he sets forth. This study is an at- 
tempt to discover the existence of full or part-time 
directors of visual education, the nature and use of 
audio-visual aids, the equipment owned or rented by 
the schools, the administration of the program and the 
felt needs today. \ very forward look is made in at- 
tempting to discover how a better state-wide plan of 
action for the increased use of visual materials can be 
achieved.— T/(e Editors. 

TO DETERMINE whether or 
not a school or school system 
wished to take part in a state-wide 
survey of audio-visual education 
facilities and practices in Wiscon- 
sin, a letter together with a self- 
addressed reply card was sent to 
508 superintendents or principals. 
With interest evidenced from 
351 schools or systems, a question- 
naire was sent to 351 Wisconsin 
schools or school systems in De- 
cember, 1943. Of the 283 ques- 
tionnaires returned, this summary 
includes 253, the others being 
eliminated due to repetitious re- 

SEE and HEAR— September 

ports or lack of properly submit- 
ted information. A breakdown 
shows that information was re- 
ceived from: 174 primary, 174 in- 
termediate, 198 junior high, and 
231 senior high schools or divi- 
sions of school systems represent- 
ing a combined enrollment of 
156,952 students or a mean of 
620.4 students per system. 

So that use might be compared 
in varied-size schools, the data 
were assembled in four groups: 
schools with enrollments of less 
than 250, with 250-499, with 500- 
999, and with over 1,000 students. 

Page 53 

TABLE 1 — Expenditures for Audio-Visual Aids 


Budget Appropriation 

Total Ex 




AU Agencies 

No of 

Per Pupil 

No. of 

Per Pupil 

No. of 

Per Pupil 























Over 1000 

















Type of Aid 





Percent of 



16 mm. Sound Projectors 




16 mm. Sound Reels Film 




16 mm. Silent Projectors 




16 mm. Silent Reels Film 




Microscopic Slide Projectors 




35 mm. Sound Projectors 




35 mm. Silent Projectors 




Lantern Slide Projectors 




Stillfilm Attachments 




Film Strip Projectors 




Still Films, Film Strips 




Sound-Film-Slide Projector 




Sound-Film Slides 




Opaque Projectors 












Pag* S4 

September — SEE and HEAR 

Siiui- \\ illinniuss lo |);ii ti( i|);iU' 
in iliis siiuK was clctci iniiucl l)c' 
loll' i|iK"sti()iinaircs were sent on I, 
ihc possibility is coiuickd tliat 
this stiulv piisiiits an auili()\is- program lor Wisconsin which 
In sn|)tiior to the o\er-all picture. 

ONLY l(i.59% of the 223 sys- 
tems reported directors or 
part-time directors ol \isual edu- 
cation. Due to this lack ol direc- 
tors, it becomes necessary that in- 
terested persons either directly or 
indirectly connected with the 
school are obliged to select and 
ire(()inniend mateiials they wish 
to use ior tluir own classes or for 
Masses taught by others. 

In 11.70'^'p of the schools repre- 
sented, selection of aids is made 
by the teachers. Selection by joint 
principal-teacher action occurs in 
.Sl.39% of the cases. Joint direc- 
tor-teacher coojjeration is evident 
in nearly 17% of the schools. The 
remaining 10.32% select aids by: 
in rank order— the principal 
alone, teachers in cooperation 
with department heads, director 
alone, jjrincijjal and department 
heads, superintendent and teach- 
ers, P.T.A. and teachers, and stu- 

As the systems progress in en- 
lollment size, there is less selec- 
lion by the principal and teacher 
jointly and more by teachers in- 
dividually. Block booking is used 
in 18.37% of the systems. This 
practice is most prominent in 
schools of less than 500 enroll- 

Though a great deal of interest 

SEE and HEAR— September 

Ikis l)e( n i\id(n(r(l in tlie lickl of 
.uidio\ isual cchuation, it is aj)- 
pauiii ill. It this interest lias not 
1)1111 iiianilislid in the course of 
stud\ lo am glial extent. Onlv 
.S:5.l!)"„ of iIk' schools rejjoit that 
ihe use of complementary aiils in 
the cuiriculuin is specified. This 
is es|)riialh true in svstiins of 
o\er 1,000 enrollment. However, 
as student enrollment increases, 
there is a corresponding increase 
in the audio-xisual in-ser\ ice im- 
pro\ement of teachers with the 
large part of the training being 
done during teachers' meetings 
\\iihin the school. This does not 
imply that large systems have a 
superior program, for only 
JO.SIJ'q report in-service actixnties 
relating to a program of visual in- 

Film learning guides or student 
study guides are used in 07.69% 
of the schools reporting. Greatest 
use was reported by schools en- 
rolling from 250-499 pupils. Be- 
cause of the evident lack of film 
facilities many schools reported 
that they encouraged attendance 
at those theater productions 
which they felt had something to 
offer the classroom learning situa- 
tion. Over 70% of the schools 
encourage attendance at selected 
theater productions. Size of school 
had no appreciable effect on this 
phase of the program. 


ACCORDING to 231 reports 
of expenditures, size of 
school system does not determine 
source of funds alloted to the vis- 

Paga SS 

ual cducition. Among all tin- 
schools reporting, the rcspccii\c 
per cent of funds received from 
\arious sources are as follows: 
budget. 54.11%; student activity 
fimd. 8.G()%; general instruction, 
().93*^!o; general supplies, 4.76'^'^,; 
P.T.A., 1.73%; and 0.43% from 
each: student collections, science 
budget, petty cash, class dona- 
tions, sale of scrap, and Student 
Civic League. 

One luuulred twenty-five re- 
ports of actual amoimts spent on 
au(lio-\ isual aids were recei\ed. 
In terms of per pujiil cost based 
on total enrollment rathci than 
average daily attendance, systems 
with less than 250 students spend 
the most for \isual materials. As 

the si/e of the school increases, per 
pupil cost of the entire program 
decreases as is shown by Table I. 
That the ecpiipment found in 
Wisconsin schools is inadequate 
is shown by Table II. 

Present-day INTEREST in vis- 
ual instruction is not in accoril 
with present USE. An examina- 
tion of present use shows tliai 
greatest usage is made of: first, 
wall maps and globes; second, 
blackboards; third, charts and 
graphs; fourth, lantern slides; and 
then 16 millimeter soinid films; 
j)osters and cartoons; objects, 
s])ecimens, and models; momited 
pictures; 16 millimeter silent 
films; film strips and still films. 

Present interest appears to be 

TABLE 3 — Use of 16 mm. Sound Motion Pictures 

School Type 




) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 



Under 250 
Over 250 





Under 250 
Over 250 



Junior H. S. 



Under 250 
Over 250 

Senior H. S. 


Over 1000 




^^???i Sometimes 

Pao« 56 

CZI Never 
September— SEE and HEAR 

greatest ill the areas of \6 niilli- 
nieter films. Sixteen millimeter 
sound films are reportedly used 
often by 59^^ of the senior higli 
schools Avliile silent pictures of 
the same si/e are usetl often by 
only 27% in contrast to practi- 
cally no use of 35 millimeter. 

The jj^raph (Table No. 3) pre- 
sents the ()\er-all employment of 
I() millimeter sounil films among 
those Wisconsin schools which re- 

Persons responding to the ques- 
tionnaire were asked to specify 
subjects in which 16 millimeter 
films were used most extensiyely. 
Diyiding systems into senior high, 
junior high, intermediate, and 
primary, natural science and so- 
cial science rank first and second 
respectively at all levels, with the 
former being reported nearly 
twice as often as the latter. 

Following these in usage in the 
senior high schools are films deal- 
ing with home economics, agricul- 
ture, history, industrial arts, geog- 
raphy, and English. Geography 
ind history rank third and fourth 
in importance in the junior high 
schools whereas safety, health, and 
conser\ation appear in the inter- 
mediate, with story telling and 
nature study being the subject of 
some films used in the primary. 


R£SPOx\SES from 242 school 
systems indicate the inade- 
quacy of the present program. 
Eighty and seventeen one-hun- 
dreds per cent of the schools re- 

i SEE and HEAR— September 

porting recorded definite feelings 
ol need lor a more comprehensi\e 
program of visual instruction. 

Difliddties which might ac- 
count for lack of extensive use of 
visual materials were listed on 
the questionnaire form together 
with blanks in which additional 
items could be written in. Schools 
were asked to indicate the relative 
imjjortance of the three most difh- 
cult items by placing a (1), (2), 
or (3) respectively before the 
greatest, second greatest, and 
third greatest difficulty. By weigh- 
ing the items by multiplying the 
frec|uency of response on each 
item by its categorical weight of 
one, two, or three as of the above, 
the number one problem was 
felt to be: teachers are insuffi- 
ciently trained in the use of au- 
dio-visual aids; the number two 
problem: lack of understanding 
of the values which well-chosen 
audio-visual materials bring to 
classroom instruction situations. 
In order of importance, other 
problems confronting schools in- 
terested in visual education are: 
insufficient budgetary provisions, 
lack of available aids being made 
available to the classroom when 
most needed, aids not covering 
the course of study adequately, in- 
ability to obtain equipment and 
supplies due to priorities, and 
lack of information on sources of 
desirable materials. 

Suggested Ways 

THIRTEEN suggested ways of 
improving visual education 
service were listed on the ques- 

Pag« 57 

tionnairo. .\i;ain. usins^ the inctli- 
ocl u[ \\xi};lunj' as j)i t\ ioiisly out- 
lined, schools reporting l)clic\c 
the foII<)wiii,n o])j)ortimitic'S must 
he pro\iili(l il \isual education 
services aie to nio\e loiward: 
Demonstration lessons conducted 
by cxjx'i ts shoidd he conducted in 
all school systems: expert evalua- 
tion ol dims ami other aids nuist 
be accomplished: additional mo- 
tion pictmes shoidd Ik- jirodiucd 
to meet insfriu tion:d needs: su- 
jK-rxisoiy conlerences in visual 
education should be conducted by 
teachers; courses in audiovisual 
ediuation shoidd he ofTeied at 
coinenienil) located centers; 
course of studies and lesson plans 
should show how visual materials 
can be better correlated with the 
course of study, and finally, study 
of visual education should be 
made a center point of study at 
local and state teachers' meetings. 

Signs of the Times 

I'irf^inia Legislature Al>l>r()l>ri(iles (h'er 

Million Dollars for Visual Education 

in Public Schools 

The recently adjourned Virginia legis- 
lature appropriated S;] .! 12.000.00 for 
\isual aids in the |)ul)lit s<h<M)ls. Tiic 
appropriation became available |ul\ 1. 
194"), and the monev is aliocaied to 
each school division in liie slate on tiie 
basis of S'J \n\ pupil enrolled fur llic 
preceding year. 

The stor\' l)ehind this huge appropria- 
tion inxoUes two survevs of \irginia's 
public school system, plus the intense 
interest of CJovernor Colgate Harden in 
improving public cducaticm in the state. 

I he deficiencies^ revealed bv the sur- 
vey of the State ClKunber of Commerce, 
aroused the- businessmen and the news- 

papers to demand that something be 
done to improve the situation. This led 
to another survey, aiuhori/ed and paid 
for bv the state legislature. This second 
survev was headed by Dr. neiniy. former 
Chancellor of the L" Diversity of .\la- 
bama. Dr. Denny's committee submitted 
to the legislature recommendations cov- 
ering a 10-year program of imjjroving 
|)id)lic education in the state, including 
increased fuiancial support. The recent 
appropriation of over a million dollars 
for visual aids is oidy one of the pro- 
gressive and aggressive steps taken by 
the last legislature to improve public 
education in the slate. The legislature 
also a|)propriated over four million dol- 
lars to increase teachers' salaries during 
the next twelve months. 

.•\sidc from the projectors, films, mai>s, 
slides, and other visual materials which 
will be purchased, the State Department 
of Kducation is not neglecting the train- 
ing of teachers on how to use these ma- 
terials. I he professional staff of the 
state department is being expanded, and 
courses in audio-visual education are 
now in operation in the various state 
teachers' colleges. ^Vilhout doubt, the 
eyes of the entire nation will watch the 
ex]>ancling visual program in \'irginia 
Willi keen interest. 

The Belgian minister of education, 
.\iiguste Iiuis.seret, in his opening re- 
marks at the first German schcK)l re- 
opened bv the .\llied Military Govern- 
ment, grudginglv paid tribiue to the 
etlec tiveness of .Nazi teaching melhcKls. 
It was pointed out that 8,000 lantern 
slides and 300 movies were circidaied 
irom a cc-ntral exchange in (.ermany 
along \sith other attractive visual aids 
iiH hiding maps. brochures, colored 
(harts, exhibits, etc., which were used 
bv the Nazis in training the Belgian 
voMili. M. Biiisseret has a])plied to the 
I'nited .Nations education commission 
in London for advice in help on re- 
placing Belgium's old svslem of teaching 
with one as elfeciivc as the Nazis' had 


Pag* 58 

September — SEE and HEAR 

of the DEPARTMENT of 

of the N. E. A. ..1945-46 

As expressed by the President 

EDITOR'S NOTE: During the war years the Department of Visual Instruction 
was severely handicapped through loss of personnel. Under the able leodership of 
Camilla Best and Leiia Trolingcr, the Department of Visual Instruction was kept 
alive as a functioning organism during the trials of the war years. Their splendid 
work will be carried on now by the newly elected president, Boyd B. Rakestraw. 
He has been asked to present briefly some of the objectives toword which he be- 
lieves the organization needs to point its future work. 

1. To bring the manifold or- 
ganizations engaged in the field 
of \isual education together at a 
meeting with the object ot find- 
ing out jjrecisely what each is 
doing or planning to do; to look 
over the field of needed activity. 
and to draw up an overall pro- 
gram which will coordinate the 
many activities engaged in by 
these many organizations. 

2. To assist in developing 
strong local organizations to sat- 
isfy local needs, and make pro- 
vision for knitting and coordinat- 
ing these local organizations into 
the national organization of the 
Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion. It is important to keep the 
overall Visual Education Program 
under the immediate direction of 
the people who are doing the 
work in the field. 

3. To convert to the use of edu- 
cation that personnel which has 

SEE and HEflR-— September 

been intensely trained in war 
work in the Armed Forces, indus- 
try, or the general field of audio- 
\isual instruction. 

4. To encourage educators to 
evaluate existing audio-visual aids 
and to recommend for education- 
al purposes the best material 
available for educational use. 

5. To encourage existing peri- 
odicals as a voice for the Division 
of Visual Instruction. 

6. To make arrangements for a 
permanent national headquarters. 

7. To work with producers of 
film and projectors in developing 
those facilities which will further 
educational progress. 

8. The Department of Visual 
Instruction represents the con- 
sumer in the audio-visual field. 
All other factors, valuable as they 
may be in single instances, repre- 
sent service groups which are de- 

Page 59 

Mcumf, tecuUte/U> a^^ee ; 


V ^\J)0, it doesn't make sense ... to buy 

the BEST and then project these costly films 
^^ / on an inferior makeshift screen or even a 

^ / clean sheet! 

Hundreds — even thousands — of dollars 
may be invested in equipment and films, but 
you'll never know the pride that will be yours, 
the amazing improvement in the clarity of 
the pictures, and consequently the greater 
effectiveness of the showings . . . until you 
see these pictures projected on a RADIANT 
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Poa* 60 S«ptembei— SEE and HEAR 

Newly Elected Officers of the Department 
of Visual Instruction-N. E. A. 

• BovD B. Rakestraw 

•L. C. Larson 


VV. A. VVrnicH 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, B.S., University of California. Since 1919 asso- 
ciate director and business manager. University Extension, Univer- 
sity of California. Since 1928 supervises audio-visual instruction 
departments, University Extension. Formerly director and vice- 
president, AsscKiation of School Film Libraries; Audio-Visual Com- 
mittee, California School Supervisors; Audio-Visual Committee, 
National University Extension Association. Past president, Califor- 
nia .\udio- Visual Aids Association, president Zone VH, Department 
of Visual Instruction, president of Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion. N.E.A., 1945-46. 

L. C. Larson, Vice President, is now director of the Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 

W. A. Wittich. Second Vice President, is director of the Bureau 
of \'isual Instruction, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 
and Editor-in-chief of See and Hear. 

signed to serve the consumer; 
therefore, their activities should 
be centered on furthering the 
ideals and acti\ities of the con- 
sumer group. The Department 
of Visual Instruction, therefore, 
must become more articulate. 

9. The Department of Visual 
Instruction believes that educa- 
tion will pay its way, and that the 
ser\ice organizations will be com- 

• Photo by Sidney V. Webb 
SEE and HEAR— September 

pensated in direct relation to 
their effectiveness in carrying out 
the ideals of the educators. We 
believe that visual education does 
not need to depend on undue 
government support. We should 
go forward believing in the edu- 
cational worth of the materials 
and techniques developed in the 
field of visual instruction. 

Page 61 


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Pag* 62 

September— SEE and HEAR 



Before this group of University of Minnesota students in Adult 
Education, Mr. Watson E. Dickerman, Professor of Adult Education, 
led the discussion on the film HOUSING IN SCOTLAND. 


I DITORS NOTE: John Hamilton has 
licen associated with visual educational 
materials many years. Recently he join- 
id the British Information Service be- 
1 ause of his interest in films as a means 
ti>r strengthening international under- 
vianding. He speaks with conviction and 
.aithojity about the place of the docu- 
mentary type film as a medium of com- 
munication between nations and cul- 


As a teaching tool the 16 mm. 
sound motion pictme prom- 
ises much to the field of adult ed- 
ucation. This is a new tool. Like 
any new tool, care and patience 
are required by the craftsman 
who turns the first one from the 
die. To decide that the tool is no 
good because the first one from 

John L. Hamh.ton 

Film Officer 
British Injormation Service 

' SEE and HEAR— September 

Page 63 

the die is imperfect is folly. To 
dismiss films from the field of 
adult fdiuation because they are 
"all of secondary le\el" or "propa- 
ganda" is also sheer folly. If we 
arc to learn how to use films with 
adult groufjs, we will have to be- 
gin by using the tools as they 
stand today. Tomorrow will then 
find us prepared to ask for the 
films we need. 

Of one thing we are certain. 
Whether the films be used tor 
adult audiences today or tomor- 
row, they are of little or no value 
unless they stimulate thinking on 
current lojiics of the day. We are 
also certain that the adult group 

John L. 
_ Hamilton 

L— g,_J5a John L. Hamilton 

.„ _ >T^I ]S\ is Film Officer for 

British Information 
Services for the 
Midwest area with 
headquarters in Chi- 

He was a student 
at the University of 
Wisconsin completing his undergraduate 
work there, continuing with graduate study 
at the University of Iowa and University 
of Minnesota with an MA. from the latter 
institution. During his residence at Minne- 
sota he taught courses in speech, stage 
lighting, pre flight lormyl, speech, and 
motion picture oppreciation. 

Prior to joining the British Information 
Services he held the position of Assistant 
Director of Visual Education at Minnesota. 
The duties in this position involved odvis- 
ing on the use of visual aids within the 
University and the direction of 16 mm. 
sound films produced by the University for 
use in the classroom and in public rela- 

Pag* 64 

who views a film must be allowed 
to discuss the subject matter im- 
der the guidance of a competent 
leader if \isual education at the 
adult education level is to have 
meaning. It is on this point that 
we note an outstanding difference 
between the use of films with 
adidt audiences and with second- 
ary or college level groups. 

Teaching at any level is incom- 
j)lete if the pupil is not allowed to 
express himself on the subject 
brought before the class by the 
film. I do not refer to the typical 
written expression where the pu- 
pil is moti\ated to absorb the film 
content due to an impending 
written test. Teaching at the 
adult level dismisses the test en- 
tirely and places high slakes on a 
competent leader and the orally 
expressed opinions of the group. 
In this way the important points 
of the film are brought to the 
foreground. Here is where the 
film becomes a probing and ex- 
tracting tool in the hands of the 
skillful adult teacher. 

Let us examine a typical in 
stance of the use of a film with an 
adult group. Ihe British film 
Uousiug iti Scotland was shown 
to a group of discussion leaders 
specializing in adult education at 
the University of Minnesota. .\ 
stenograj)hic record of the com- 
ments by the leader and by the 
gKMip was made in order to dem- 
onstrate the methodology and re- 
ac tions to the showing of a typical 
adult film to an achdt grouj). The 
introthuiory remarks anil the 
leadership in the discussion were 

September— SEE and HEAR 

)) W'alboii i'.. DickiiiiKin, 
,or of atluli (.clucalion. 


Mr. Dickirrnutt: llie film you arc 
iboiit l(> sec is one on which we woultl 
ike your reactions. It is called Housing 
n Scotltnul. It is a typical film made 
)y the Britisii government for distri- 
)Ution both at home and abroad. It is 
)rimaril\ a film for adults which should 
linudale interest in the problem of 
lousing now and after the war. Even 
hough the material deals specifically 
sith the housing problem in Kugland, 

l)clie\e it has basic implications for 
uiult groups in this country. 

It was assumed for practical 
purposes that the group had not 
acklod the problem of housing 
jeforc. It therefore seemed mi- 
vise to tonmient at gieat length 
xlore the class saw the film. Here 
s certainly one place where the 
;arridous teacher can curb his 
endcncies to do all the talkins;, 
ememl^ering that he has seen the 
ilm and the class has not. Ver- 
jalization about things visual 
(films particularly) makes for 
lull listening and little learning. 

After the film was shown the 
irst reaction was a negative one. 
This is a typical "first reaction." 

Student: I think maybe it might be 
jveroptimistic. I don't see how they 
:an immediately give these people these 
cood houses. The few having to li\c in 
)re\var houses would be disappointed! 

I belie\c it is typical of an 
^dult group viewing the outline 
)f a suggested change to resist 
hat chanu;e. In Hou.sius; iti Scot- 
'and one solution to the housing 
)rol>lem is presented. Upon first 
glance, the suggestions do seem 
iilmost too good to be true. In 
I'act, adult films that pretend to 

JEE and HEAR— September 

show ilu path lo social progress 
arc liable to i im up against just 
such a challenge as this, and dis- 
cussion leatleis should be pre- 
pared for it. 

In this particular biiuation, an- 
other student \oiced similar feel- 
ings through recognizing another 
factor as follows: 

student: It occurs to me that the Kng- 
lish have given some thought lo the 
housing problem by using these tempo- 
rary houses while more permanent ones 
are being built for others. Some people 
will still have to live in their old 
houses, but I wonder if some of us 
would not be content to do that if we 
could see some of the population being 
taken care of. Some of us would be .sat- 
isfied to do this just to see the program 
moving along. 

A poor leader will lei the dis- 
cussion drift at will; the result 
will be no clear picture of what 
was to be gained from the film. 

A skilled leader will guide the 
discussion into channels that will 
bring out the desired points. This 
means that a leader must have 
some plan before he goes before 
the discussion group. 

Quite obviously the major val- 
ue of using the film Homing in 
Scotland is to see if any of the 
ideas expressed in the film carry 
o\er into the American housing 
problem. Housing in Scotland is 
merely a record of what Scotland 
is doing rather than a model for 
other nations. In order to get the 
class to make a carry-over between 
the Scottish plan and the Ameri- 
can problem, Dickerman plunged 
in as follows, beginning with the 
method shown in the film: 

Page 65 

Shown in the film HOUSING IN SCOTLAND this prefabricated 
steel house combines o living room, two bedrooms, kitchen, both- 
room, and shed. Carefully insulated, this house compares favor- 
ably with what housing experts believe could be made available 
at low cost in the United Stotcs. It is the joint effort of A. W. 
Kenyon, Chairman of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
the Central Advisory Committee of Nation Planning, and Scien- 
tists attached to the government sponsored Building Research 
Station. Houses such as these ore the core of the temporary 
house reconstruction plans mentioned in the film. 

Pictures reproduced by permission of British Information Service. 

Pag* 66 

September — SEE and HEflF 

Dickfiman: Did you get the imprcs- 
on from lliis pictiiio that the gDvcrii 
init was tlt>iiig this prcttv niiicii on 
s own witiioiii tiic people's participa 

Student: Oil. no! Questionnaires were 
sed— filling ihein out gave the people 

chance to express their opinions. 

Student: Rut wt-ren't these on points 
f interior facilities rather than cx- 

rior design? Aside froin the question- 
aire and one or two other things, this 
as pretty much government sponsored 
lid government taking the responsibil- 

Student: And the houses are all alike, 
ull anil drab looking. 

Dickermaii: 1 hey builil a lot with 
ark stone, whereas we tend to brick 
nd limestone. ^Ve get the impression of 
arkncss due to the characteristic build- 
r»g materials. Some of the houses seem 
a blend into the landscape. 

Student: The only way to find out 
low .Americans would feel on such a 
lOusing program is to go out and ask 

icm if thev woidd settle for that kind 

f housing here in .\mcrica. 

Here is the first indication of 
arrvino; over the Scottish sokition 
o tiic -American problem. 

Student: In Fort Riley, Kansas, the 
overnmcnt built homes for federal em- 
>loyees. People pay rent for these and 
^re glad to get them. The houses are 
11 alike. The houses are not what peo- 
)le like, but are all they can get. There 
s a long waiting list of renters. 

Dickerman: For what economic level 
l>f society are the houses built? 

Student: In 1940 in Peoria a whole 
cction of shun area was torn down and 
K series of houses built under FH.\. 
rhey were all occupied and the people 
iveci in better circumstances. 

Student: If we had a slum clearance 
>n Washington .\venuc, building a 
vhole row of new houses, the people 
Aould move back into them, but would 
hat solve anything? The exterior is 
:nore beautiful, but will the lives of 
ihe people be bettered? 

lEE and HEAR— September 

Somctimts (|iiisti()iis iciul to 
end up on philo.stjjihiial points to 
whidi there is no innnediate an- 

Student: It may give them an incen- 
tive to improve their li\ing standards. 
The sanitary (onditions would certain- 
ly be improved. 

DickeniKin: \Vill the difTcrcncc in in- 
come make any dillcrence in the readi- 
ness to accept the housing program? 
Will it appeal to the low income group 

The students cjiiickly applied 
this kind of a plan to the housing 
problem as they themselves know 
it. It is important however, for 
the leader to guide the discussion 
so that it does not get off on petty 
experiences that are unrelated to 
the problem of bringing about 
better housing here. Again the 
skill of the leader comes into play 
in the smooth functioning of a 
forinn discussion. 

The next step in the use of this 
j)articular film is to bring into the 
discussion some of the obstacles 
that may be encountered in bring- 
ing about an improved housing 
program. This was alluded to 
earlier by one of the students who 
mentioned the need for sending 
out a questionnaire to find out 
how Americans woiUd react to 
such housing plans. The discus- 
sion leader rightfully left this 
point for discussion later. There 
are other obstacles to inaugurat- 
ing such a program which must 
be brought in by the leader when 
the time seems right. This part 
of the discussion was recorded as 

Pago 67 

Student: There have been cnougli 
sucli govcriuneiit projects to load us to 
believe they can be successful. 

Student: Then why aren't we getting 

Dickernian: Private enterprise is often 
in conflict. Editorials in the Minnesota 
Daily show thai there is a group of 
property owners in Southeast Minne- 
apolis who are dead set against the Uni- 
versity building any more housing fa- 
cilities. This group even created legisla- 
tive action. Evcr\l)ody at the Iniversity 
has gone <»n record as saying the student 
housing situation is not only deplora- 
ble, but critical, and iniless new build- 
ings are provided we cannot accommo- 

date more students unless we relax ou 
housing restrictions and let the student 
live in the basements and garrets o 
these property owners. 

Student: Apparently there are pres 
sure groups on both sides, the ones wIk 
need the housing and the people win 
already own property. They do no 
want to see it depreciate by the build 
ing of housing projects. 

Dickernian: In talking to a mayor o 
a city in Iowa, he said, "We need 3.00 
more home units in this city. We hav 
done everything we can to get them 
In desperation we have written to Mi 
Henry Kaiser for prefabricated houses 
^Ve don't like the idea, but maybe hi 

HOUSING IN SCOTLAND directs thoughtful attention to the 
great need everywhere for modern, efficient, low-cost dwellings. 
The dwellings in this picture were rebuilt from old unsanitary 
houses and now provide country housing for form workers. The 
British government plans to build many more such houses after 
the war. While the film does not necessarily point to THE answer, 
its wide use in this country would stimulate thinking concerning our 
own housing problems. 

Pag* 68 

Saptember — SEE and HEii 


I ill he able to help us out." Later I 

L.<pcaleil ill is to a business man of llie 

Mnmuniiy. whose comment was "Damn 

Ir. Kaiser." liiis man was a prothuer 

" lumber for the buiUling of homes on 

private basis and lie doesn't want to 

e mass protluttion coming into the 

(turc to jeopardize his continuing to 

lake a living as he has in the past. 

Oiilv portions of tlic complete 
iscusston ha\c l)t'on rccoidcd 
ere lor the purposes of giving 
le reader some idea of how fihus 
an pro\ ide tlie basis for a fonini 
isciission. This discussion like 
11 gix)d sessions, closed with some 
oncrctc suggestions from the 
roup as to what conld be done to 
■npro\c housing conditions here, 
["hesc were drawn out by the 
;ader and did not come forth 
utomatically. This may come as 
shock to those who expect mira- 
les from the film. The film can 
e, however, only as good as the 
»ader who guides the discussion, 
'ew persons are really skilled in 
landling discussion meetings and 
ewer still with using films as a 
tasis for such meetings. It has 
>een the aim of this article to 
how how a film was used success- 
ully with an adult group and to 
)oint out some of the hurdles to 
he ultimate place films will take 
n adult education. Steps toward 
his goal can be taken now if 
hose who plan film forums will, 
imong other considerations, (1) 
elect and preview films carefully, 
(2) let it not be assumed that 
inyone can make a good discus- 
ion leader, (3) try out the films 
hat are now available to see what 
ype makes a real contribution to 
he film forum, and (4) depend 

EE and HEAR — September 

less on chance and nu)rc on good 
solid plaiming before eat h film 

.\duli groups and teachers of 
adult groujxs should sii iously con- 
sider the splendid new tool to 
leaiiiing which the dociunentary 
type film proves itself to be. 


Mutiny on the Bounty 

16 MM. Sound, -H Minutes 

Use: For Literature Classes, 
European History Classes, and 
Auditorium Programs. 

An abridged version of the entertain- 
ment film of Nordhoff and Hall's novel, 
with Charles Laughton and Clark 
Gable. Film skillfully abridged so that 
the narrative in its most dignified form 
is retained. The mood of the times 
and the need for social reform stressed. 
Good photography and sound track. 

Source: Ohio, Wisconsin. 

The Peace Builders 
16 MM. Sound, 10 Minutes 

Use: For everyone interested in 
inaintaining the peace. 

A film well worth being seen by every 
person who is attempting to understand 
the issues involved in the San Francisco 
conference. The film traces the work of 
the Peace Builders, Stalin, Roosevelt, 
and Churchill, from 1941 through the 
Atlantic Charter, the Casablanca and 
Ottawa Conferences, the Moscow Pact, 
the Cairo-Teheran Conference, The 
Dumbarton Oaks meeting, to the con- 
ference at San Francisco. Attention is 
given to the problems which were han- 
dled at the various conferences. (Bran- 

Source: Sunrav. \Visconsin YMC.A. 

Page 69 


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tional News Weekly for '\buth. 
To teachers and school administrators it has 
lonft been a s\mbol of editorial excellence in 
the school publication field. Now, it is des- 
tined to become just os hifihiy respected as 
the hallmark of quality and service in the 
\'isual Hducation field as well. 
Pag«, 70 




33 I. S7th St., New York 23. N. Y. 

Plrasp frnil mr Ihf ninip of my pirluBlrr ilit« (111- 
trUiutor tor Yitunc Ainrrlca Film* ind Kqulpmrnt. 

n Send mr liolh rour I'^llm and your Kqulpmtnt 
('•laloillri for I9«.'.'I94(!. 

r .MemI mr Ihf fnlilfr ••flow To HulW A Sflf- 
Supoorllnc Vltual Ktlurallim Itrparlmrnl." 




Schael Addrtti 

September — SEE and HEHR 




tsiHKR L. BfRG 

Assistant Principal. Junior High Srlinnl, New York City 

Too often we emphasize international 
nderstondings and go far afield in our 
ttempt to understand people of our own 
roup, their customs and cultural contri- 
utions. Of greater importance is our re- 
nsibility to get along happily and com- 
ortobly with those with whom we mingle 
oily. We will call this responsibility of 
nowing each other within our own corn- 
unity the inter-group responsibility. Mrs. 
lerg has mode the study of inter-group 
lotions a personal as well as a profes- 
ional "first." This article brings you her 

THROUGH recent improve- 
ments in transportation and 
oinniunications, the peoples of 
he earth are being made neigh- 
)ors, but there still needs to be 
leveloped an attitude of neigh- 
)orliness. Our conduct toward 
nenibers of other races and na- 
tionalities is often based upon 
gnorance and prejudices. We 
lave been too prone to accept 
tcreotypcs; too often ha\e we 
tressed the aspects of life in other 
ountries that have been different 
rom oius. How then to correct 
hcse distortions? How to learn 
• bout the lives and the living of 
)eoples of other lands? The teach- 
er confronted with these problems 

■ EE and HEAR — September 

readily recognizes the potency of 
the motion picture to bring the 
world into the classroom. 

It is significant that at the San 
Francisco Conference there were 
two motion pictine theaters set 
up— The United Nation's Theater 
and the Conference Theater, in 
each of which the daily programs 
included films of the many coim- 
tries whose delegates had been in- 
\ited to the Conference. Un- 
doubtedly the viewing of "other 
people" helped for a better im- 
derstanding of the "other people" 
and thus films may have, to some 
extent, influenced the thinking at 
San Francisco. 

In the attempt of the teacher to 
change attitudes and correct dis- 
tortions, the film can serve as a 
sj^ringboard for discussion, and 
the plan should be to use existing 
films as a point of departtire for 
the "living together of peoples of 
different countries." The success 
of the film forum depends upon 
the quality of leadership whereby 
the films are effectively coordinat- 
ed with the discussion. In this use 

Page 71 

tlic leachci is iir^rd to cniphasi/f 
the likenesses that exist between 
pcoj)lcs, and to present an inuler- 
standing of their cidtural patterns 
and of their way of life. When- 
ever dillerenccs exist, wouldn't it 
be better perhaps to show how 
the world and we have been en- 
riched by these differences? 

In its broadest application, in- 
ter-group reIationshij)s may be 
interpreted as between nations, 
between races, and between socio- 
economics groups— a very large 
field anil an e\er-expanding one. 
Hence, no attempt could be made 
to list all available films in this 
area, and the films herewith sug- 
gested are but a small sampling. 

The Peace Builders (NFB) 10 


Roosevelt, (Inndiill, Stalin, and 
Cliiaiig Kai-Siiek with military and dij)- 
lomaiic aides at conferences from the 
Atlantic Charter to Yalta. Shows prog- 
ress in international organization 
through military c()0|)craiion and 
I XRRA, Food and Agriculture, Brel- 
lon Woods. Announces I'nitcd Nations 
Conference on International Organiza- 

ChaUeu'^e to Democracy (OVVI) 

(Oolor) 20 minutes 

Odiiial record of nio\ing Japanese- 
Americans from the Pacific Coast to 
guarded inland (amps. 

Amazon Axcakeyis (C.I..\.A.) -10 
l)<|)i(ts ■■C;<iO(l .Neighbor" policy. 

The Negro Soldier (OWI) 4.5 


Irihutc to Ncgro-.Americans in our 
military historv from the Revolution to 
this war. Also in sports, music, art, 
and everyday life. 

Pag* 72 

is at once an admin- 
istrator, an instruc- 
,,1^^^^ tor, a consultant in 
L^ ^W^f curriculum and visual 

-■''^-^- -^^^-'-^W education, a writer, 
editor, and producer 
of visual aids. 

In addition to be- 
ing assistant to the 
principal, Junior 
High School, New 
York City, she serves 
on the Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Boord of Education, in 
an administrative capacity. As an instruc- 
tor, she hos for many years given to teach- 
ers in-Service courses in visual instruction 
ot Hunter College, and has talked to mony 
forums, clubs, and institutes during 1944 
and 1945. 

As a consultant on visual education she 
has been appointed and assigned a member 
on many committees to investigate the pos- 
sibilities of and to evaluate the use of 
films and other visual aids. As co-chair- 
man of a committee she prepared a special 
catalogue, correlated with curriculum oreas, 
of all films used in the Junior High School 
Division of the New York City Schools. 

In numerous periodicals devoted to visual 
instruction, Mrs. Berg contributes articles 
dealing with research, experimentation, 
practices, and techniques of visual educa- 
tion. She prepares a monthly Teachers' 
Visual Aid Supplement to the classroom 
curriculum study of articles in "Coronet" 

Americans All (MOT) 20 min- 

.\nti semitism and violence in .Amer- 
ican communities. 

Weapon of ]Var (U. S. .Army Fihr 

(lomiminitjue No. 12) 

.Animation of me<licinc man tryinj 
to sell race and religious prejudice t( 
a crowd. .Amusing and stimulating. 

Our I\)iem\ the Japariese (OVVI) 
20 minmcs ' 

)apanesc "Unity" under F.mpero;| 

September — SEE and HEfll 

rorshi|> and Sliiiuo. Shows agriculture, 
idustry. education and military train- 
rhr Common Cause (BIS) 

A Chinese and Anieritan airman on 
ne side of the gloi)e and an Knglish 
nd Soviet Naval Olhcer on the other, 
emonstrate very dramatically and cf- 

clively how international iniity ce- 
tiented by the war will continue in 
he peace. 

Vorld We Want to Live in 
Describes the wholesale oppression of 
linoritics by tliclalois abroail. ami evi- 
enccs of racial prejudice in the Unit 
d States. Produced by the National 
'.onference of Christians and Jews. 

'copies of Canada (NFB) 

Families of manv European countries 
nduding the French, English, Dutch, 
rish, Scotch, German, Ukrainian and 
Russian have settled in Canada and 
uilt a democracy through cooperation 
nd mutual respect. 

rhe Story of Dr. Can>er (TFC) 

The story of a Negro slave boy who 
eceived an education and became a 

\ilack Legion (Human Relations 

I Scries) 

I This excerpt deals specifically with 

jhe question of "Americanism." 

'^uiy (Human Relations Series) 

Mob formation in the .south— inelfec- 
ive government officials. 

•Why We Fight" Series (OWI) 

Orientation fdms produced by the 
U'ar Department, U. S. A. 

Battle of China 

Divide and Conquer 

Battle of Britain 

Battle of Russia 

The Changing Face of India 
Impact of western social customs and 
!?cientific advance on Indian life in vil- 
lages and cities. 

Russia's Foreign Policy (NFB) 
j Development of the socialistic plea 

EE and HEAR— September 

for "(ollective security" in the League 
of Nations. 

Peoples of Western China (FBF) 
Reveals the influence of habits and 
customs of past centuries in the scenes 
of present-day China. 

Ilometoxvn—U. S. A. (Bell and 

I lowell) 

I he story of an American community, 
a small town which might be situated 
anywhere in .America, showing its people 
as they are today in war and as they 
hope to be tomorrow in peace. 
* * # 

Discussion guides are available 
on some o£ these films Irom Mo- 
tion Picture Bureau, YMCA, 347 
Madison Avenue, New York 17, 
N. Y. United Nations Film cata- 
logue available, 610 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. 

Initials indicating producers 
of fdms refer to the following: 
BIS— British Information Service 
NFB— National Film Board of Canada 
DFP— Documentary Film Productions 

(see Brandon Filins) 
EBF— Encyclopaedia Britannica Films 
TFC— Teaching Film Custodian 
MOT— March of Time 
OWI-Office of War Information 
CIAA— Coordinator of Inter-American 


NFB makes short trailer (5 min.) 
footage to show discussion in progress. 
It demonstrates the technique to be 
used in film forum discussion. 

According to a recent newspaper article, 
the Russians are losing no time in pre- 
senting their story to the German people. 
Instead of waiting until German sidj- 
titles can be superimposed on movies 
they want the Germans to see, Russian 
officials are sending an interpreter to the 
movie houses where such Nazi-banned 
films as Professor Mamlock are being 
shown, and at appropriate intervals the 
fdm is stopped while an interpreter tells 
the story of what is happening. 

Page 73 


FiHh Edition 

An annotated listing of some 2.500 free films, more 
than 1.500 of which are 16 mm. sound. A brief description 
of each film is given together with information as to the 
source, size (16 or 35 mm.) aiiri whether sound or silent. 
Some 15 pages are devoted to the listings and describing of 

The films are classified under the following headings: 


Aeronautics Agriculture 

Agriculture, Soil Conservation 
("ommercial Education 
Home Economics — Clothing 
Home Economics — Foods 
H<)me Economics — Housing 
Shop Work 


Art and Handwork Music 

First Aid 

Health and Social Hygiene 
Nutrition and Diet 
Recreation Sports 

Biology General Science 

Chemistry Physics 


Cluhs and Scouting 


Consumer Education 

Geography- — Alaska and Canada 

Geography — I -at in America 

(Geography — Other Countries 

(Geography — United States 



Social Prohlems 


\\()rld War Prohlems 

The source-index occupies 25 pages. Some 16 pages are 
devoted to a subject-index while some 13 pages are given 
to a title index. Index pages are in colors and are readily 
separal(Ml from each other and from the white pages on 
which descriptions (»f the films are gi\eii. 1 he (»l IDK was 
revised as of August. 1915. S1.00. Pamphlet entitled "Free 
Films in Schools' by Dr. John (aiv Fowlkes. sent free on 

€bucatorS |3iogiTgs ^crbice 


Pqo» 74 

September — SEE and HEflK 

/'4b W m/OMAduA^\_ 

Mrs. Ruth A. Hamilton 
Druid Hill School, Omaha, Nebraska 

KT THAT can a library teacher 
W in a small school do, in 
iddition to the regular procedure 
)f library science— help in refer- 
ence work, appreciation of litera- 
ure. and recreational reading, to 
•nrich the environment of the 
'our hundred boys and girls 
,vhom she sees only once, twice, 

[or at most three times each week? 

Ij^ith no monograph or course of 
itudy as a guide, this problem 
ivas a challenge to my initiative 
ind resourcefulness. 

Obviously, the first thing to do 
ivas to discover the needs of the 
:hildren. It was felt that the chil- 
dren needed an opportunity for 
(visualization by pictorial repre- 
jcntation, by dramatization of 

^EDITOR'S NOTE: Mrs. Hamilton is a 
large city school librarian who has be- 
-oine interested in making her library 
1 greater source of information to all of 
the children in her school. You will be 
very interested to see how cleverly she 
^las contrived to do this.) 

SEE and HEAR— September 

literary selections, or by iinper- 
sonating the characters they met 
during their reading. The fur- 
ther discovery that there was no 
organized plan for the use of 
projected visual aids, gave me a 
starting point, and fortunately, 
one of gieat interest. Given the 
green light by the administrative 
officer of the school, I began to 

It was my intention to be of as 
much service to the classroom 
teachers as possible in finding 
those materials which take such 
hours of time to unearth. By 
using projected materials to vital- 
ize the subject matter I felt that 
information coiUd be brought to 
the various units of study which 
would add new interest for the 
boys and girls. 

Since the children came to the 
library for such short periods and 
rather infrequently and since this 
material was to supplement the 
units being studiefl, very little 

Pag* 75 

J.k. ci.Bi 

ft...- .. . 


Teaching films stimulate and 
re-awaken interests thot may hove 
been lying dormant. Just look at 
the activities these films inspire. 


■Jb ♦ ' W' 






The film Tl- * 
not show H" 
nicol side <■ 
ing. The " 
through tn 
roseorch ho' • 
vestiQota th 

icparatiDii could be done with 
le children during the library 
jur. The cooperation of each 
assrooni teacher, then, was abso- 
itely necessary to achieve the dc- 
led results. Accordingly, pc- 
odic checks of the luiits imder 
nsitieration gave nie the infor- 
ition needed to select films and 
her visual materials pertaining 
those units. We, that is the 
achers and I, insisted in pre- 
ewing all the films we thought 
L" might want to use. A list of 
aching suggestions was drawn 
) for each fdm. \o attempt was 
lade to fit units to the films 
ailable; rather, we sought out 
ms that fit the units being 
fudied by the various grades, 
iter seeing the film, "The 
ddy Bear's Picnic," kinder- 
ten and first grade teachers 
d it was a "must," and immedi- 
ly worked out a plan for using 
is film in teaching rhythms to 
eir groups. To see those young- 
!^rs imitating the koala bears to 
ie music from this sound film 
is recompense for any effort in- 
' lived. 

.\djustment of the attitude of 
le children from the idea that 
<ch film showing was to be an 
(itertainment, to the idea that it 

is to be a tool for learning, was 
i>t as difficult as many have sup- 

>scd it might be. During the 
(Iscussion period in a third grade 
II lowing the showing of FARM 

\IM.-\LS, one habitue of the 
tincr mo\ie serial, said, "That 
ysn't any good. There wasn't any 
liurder in it." A few months later, 

and HEAR— September 

Mrs. Ruth 
A. Hamilton 

Several years 
ogo when Mrs. 
Hamilton's husband 
entered the non- 
theatrical motion 
picture business, 
her interest in vis- 
ual aids to instruc- 
t i n deepened. 
Then, as a mem- 
ber of the National Film Evaluation Proj- 
ect conducted by the Educational Screen, 
she scored many films, and hoped for the 
day that she could choose films correlated 
with the school curriculum. For the past 
year and a half she has had that oppor- 
tunity as library teacher at Druid Hill 
School, Omaha, Nebraska. 

Her chief interest, in addition to visual 
education, is a very active, air-minded, 
ten-year-old son who helps keep life in- 


was shown to this same group, I 
asked this child what she thought 
of the film. Before she could an- 
swer, a little boy spoke up, "Oh, 
she probably wanted the train to 
run off the track and tip over." 
Thus, the social censure of the 
group helped to make the transi- 
tion to the study-type film an easy 
one. Without much difficulty, we 
found films to serve the needs of 
at least one unit for every grade 
in the building, so that no child 
would feel that he had been for- 
gotten. The interest and grati- 
tude of the children w^as ade- 
quately expressed when they 
often said, "That's our library 
teacher. She's the lady who shows 
us pictures." 

Two projects during the past 
year arc worthy of note. A second 
giade was studying about animals 
that help us, so the film FARM 
ANIMALS seemed very appropri- 
ate. This film was shown after a 
fine preliminary preparation by a 
\ery interested teacher. As a fol- 
low-up. the children in this grade 
pursued their lessons in language 
arts with mimeographed mul- 
tiple-choice tests including such 
cjuestions as: "Cows get up with 
(1) back feet first, (2) front feet 
first; with Nocabulary drill and 
sjxlling assignments all based on 
the film content. In natural 
science, the diildren made illu- 
strated booklets, and as a culmi- 
nating experience, they produced 
an interesting and instructive 
asstnihly j:)rogram to which they 
in\ited their parents. 

The eighth grade was studying 
.\mciican Indians in general and 
their contribution to our society. 
The film, THE NAVAJO IN- 
DIANS, was seemed for two show- 
ings. The film was \ iewed the first 
time before any particular stress 
was given to the study of the Nav- 
ajo tribe. Aftei this showing, inter- 
est in further elementary research 
was keen. The pupils investigated 
the si/.e and location of the 
present Navajo reser\ation. They 
were interested in disco\ering 
why the peoi)le of the Navajo 
tribe live as they tlo. The chil- 
dren were absorbed in reading of 
the tjuaint customs, especially of 
the marriage ceremony and the 
dances. They sought to discover 
the Navajo contribution to oui 

Page 78 

ci\ili/ation. A day or so after the 
first showing, two boys broughi 
a crude handloom made of tree 
Inanches; someone else brough 
models of both the summer anc 
winter hogans, and one boy, whose 
interest in school had been ccjii 
spicuous by his absence had made 
a string of beads! Before the weel 
was o\er, nearly e\eryone in the 
loom had made either a hand 
loom, a string of beads, or hac 
hammered out a bit of jewelry 
Soon the rug-wea\ing fad sj)reae 
to other rooms in the building 
and children coidd be seen weav 
ing whene\er they had a span 
moment. Other Indian souvenir 
were brought in, stimulating dis 
cussion of the arts and crafts oi 
the various tribes. From a genera 
study of Indians, the interesi 
aroused by this j^icture directec 
the attention rather to an intense 
study of the Navajo compared tc 
other tribes. Subtle implication: 
were aroused in the minds ol 
many of the pupils, as was evi 
denced by this connnent from < 
written report from one membei 
of the class, "We shoukl not lool 
down on the Indians because the^ 
get along on so little. They were 
taught by Natiue to get along or 
a little. Iheir small amount! 
meant more to them than out 
large amounts tlo to us. The^ 
always have something to worl 
at." Finally, the organization ol 
tluii material for pid)lic presenta 
licMi was so well done that, aftei 
repeateil assemblies at school 
they were invited to ajjpear be 
loie a church group, which the) 

September — SEE and HEfll 

id u^aciously, making a fine pub- 
c relations contribution. I.ook- 
it;. l.istcnini;. Learning, ami 
Kii Ixst ol ail. perhaps, Sharing, 
^'hat more could ^vc ask? 

11 we were snccesslid in accom- 
lishing in any degree that which 
e set out to do— to enrich the 
n\ironment of the boys and girls 
1 oiu- school through the vicari- 

ous i\|)erience of visual aids— it 
was tlue in large measme to the 
wholehearted, willing coopera- 
tion of the classroom teachers in 
oiu- organization. W^ith this ex- 
perience behind us and the assur- 
ance of our own ecpiipment in 
the near futme, who can tell to 
what extent we will be able to 
enlarge the educational horizons 
of OIU- boys and girls? 

Important Audio-Visual Conference Scheduled 

\ rITH its first Iowa Ncl)iaska Aiidio-\ isiial Institute still a topic of convcrsa- 
tion among liiosc who attended last year, the University of Omaha is com- 
leting final arrangements for an even more valuable program October 4, 5 and 6 
lis vear. More than 600 persons from eight different states attended a year ago 
11(1 officials are predicting an even greater attendance for the conference next 

The institute program is being expanded this year into five separate divisions 
one each for grade-school level, high school, college, and adidt education, with 

nc complete division through all three days dc\otcd to religious education. During 

e thrce-dav period each di\isioii will ha\c one demonstration, with its age or 

itcrest-group participants luider cla.ssroom conditions, of each of the following: 

1) somul film, (2) silent film, (3) radio, (4) maps, globes and charts, (5) slides 

;nd strip film. 

.\mong the speakers present will lie Dr. Walter \Vittich of the University of 

isconsin; Chester Cumming of the Omaha Public Schools: Dr. Stephen Corey 

f the I'niversity of Chicago; Dr. W. H. Ihompson of the University of Omaha 

epartment of Psychology; Dr. \'. C. .\rnspiger, \ ice-president of Encyclopaedia 

ritannica Films. Inc.: Dr. AVarrcn Bailer. University of Nebraska; Dr. Bruce 

lahan. Director of Extension at the University of Iowa; Dr. Floyd Brooker, U. S. 

)ffice of Education; Dr. Frank .Sorenson, University of Nebraska; Ray Mertes of 

iie United .Airlines Education Department; Miss Gertrude Le Petri of the Santa Fe 

Lailway; John Hamilton, British Information Service; Oscar Sams, Office of Inter- 

merican .Affairs; C. R. Reagan. Office of AVar Information; Dr. >rary Palmer, 

isual Education Specialist from Chicago; Joseph Dicknian, Director of Visual 

(lucation for the Chicago Public Schools; Esther Berg, Visual Education Specialist 

Dr New York Public Schools; R. E. Scott, Minneapolis County Superintendent; 

;)orothea Pellett of the 'I'o]K'ka Public .Schools; Miss Elizabeth Girling: Dean E. 

)ouglass. Regional Education Director of RC.\; and Miss Margaret Carter. 

EE and HEAR— September Page 79 





Now Ready 




THIS extensive library of discussional slidefilms covering a wide range of sub- 
jects has been skillfylly prepared and is specially designed for school use 

Discussionar slidefilms will not only help you do a better job in class instruction, 
but will also conserve your time for future planning and other important instruc- 
tion octivities. 
Each film contains clear, carefully planned, graphic illustrations and description 

— arranged to teach. To the individual student they register a clear, visual im- 
pression. For the class as a whole, all can see the large, projected lighted pictures 

— with each picture held on the screen as long as needed, permitting the instructor 
to give special emphasis and to present pertinent supplementary information. 
Write today for detailed catalog information or any other special information 
yoo may be interested in obtaining. 

The Jam Handy Orgoniialion, 2900 East Grand Blvd., Delroif 11, Mich. 

n^JAM KAKDY Okccnijation 





Paul Wendt 

Director uf Bureau of Visual Education, University of Minnesota 

DIRIXG the war there have 
been exciting developments 
II audio-visual education. The 
ISC of training aids in the armed 
orces and in industry have been 
rcat. ^Ve should take notice of 
he trends that are beginning to 
le apparent and which may well 
pply to schools. These trends 
ntl the equipment developed 
imultancously should both be 
valuated for their applicability 

school use. 

Strictly speaking, we cannot say 
liat the new equipment is some- 
hing entirely different from what 

1 was before the war. Ho^v'e\er, 
ome audio-visual aids previously 
ittlc used have been developed 
luring the war to a point where 
hey become effectixe tools. For 

example, the voice reflector or 
wire recorder has been perfected 
to such a stage that it meets the 
requirements of speech and lan- 
guage instruction. This device 
v.hich records voice or music mag- 
netically on fine steel tape at neg- 
ligible expense can take record- 
ings for periods ranging from one 
minute to eight hours. In the 
one-minute form it has proved its 
\\orth as a practice instrument for 
recording students' extemporane- 
ous or prepared short talks and 
then playing them back so that 
the students may hear their own 
\oices and appreciate their own 
mistakes. As soon as the price of 
this instrument is radically re- 
duced, it will find wide use at the 
secondary and college level. 

'DITOR'S NOTE: Mr. ^Vendt has for years made it a business to keep abreast 
'ith new developments in his field as Director of the Audio-Visual Education 
ervice for the University of Minnesota. He stands in a splendid position to keep 
ou posted on the newer instructional devices which are making their appearance 
n this very intriguing field of audio-visual method. 

EE and HEAR— Septerober 

Paga 81 

Tlic unhampered use of train- 
ing aids in the armed forces has 
resulted in some interesting com- 
binations of aids which we h>i- 
nierly used separately. For in- 
stance, charts are combined with 
real materials, motion pictures 
are combined with \\orking mod- 
els, special efTects projectors and 
soimtl tracks. Filmstrips have 
been integrated with teaching 
films by the Ollice of Education. 
No longer will we limit oinsehes 
to a particular device which we 
sliould adopt for school use, l)ut 
now we nuist in\estigale the ef- 
fects of combining and integrat- 
ing various teaching aids. 

Exploded views ha\e become 
very clTectiNe in training indus- 

trial workers in the assembly of 
manufactured articles. Compli- 
cated assemblies ha\c been made 
easily understood with the help of 
an exploded view. The average 
worker can learn an assembly 
process in a fraction of the time it 
formerly lequired. Let us hope 
that soon we can circulate to 
schools particidarly to science, 
home economics, intlustrial arts 
and e\en social studies classes ex- 
ploded \iews of such everyday 
things as an electric light socket, 
a simple motor, a shoe, household 
aj)pliances, etc. 

l^\o of the accompanying il 
lustrations show interesting de\el 
opments in the use of globes at 
the St. Paid Institute imder th(! 

Students at thi 
University o 
Minnesota us 
ing the voici 

// we could hear ourselves as others hear us how surf>rise(l we'd be. 
When sliort extemporaneous talks of one or two minutes are re- 
corded in the "wire" and then played back, the speaker is in a 
position to criticize his or her errors in pronunciation, diction, in- 
flection or expression. 

Pag* 82 

Septombor— SEE and HEfl 

rcttioii of Dr. l>ouis H. l*owcll. 
1 one j)icturc we see a most in- 
nious mounting of a large black- 
)aril globe riccssed in the wdU 

take up a minimum of class- 
om space. Mounted on rollers 
is globe moNcs freely in any di- 
ction. The oilier pic lure shows 
concave spherical map which, 

my opinion, has definite ad- 
ntage o\er ihe sphere in com- 
ehending world relationships 
cause the student can see all 


Mr. Wendt has been 

ive in Audio-X'isual 

ucation for sixteen 

irs. After receiving^l 

; B.A. at Harvard^^ 

liversity, he was on 

: staff of the Uni- 

sity Film Founda- 

n at Harvard. In 1933 he joined the 

ff of the St. Paul Institute's \'isual 

ucation Department which provided 

dio-visual aids for all St. Paul schools. 

1935 he was appointed Production 
d Research Manager of the Visual 
ucation Service, University of Minne- 
a and was on the teaching staff of the 
neral College. He has been Director 

the Audio-Visual Education Service 
ce 1941. He received his M.A. de- 
X in Education at Minnesota in 1942 
d is now completing his Ph.D. In 
J7-38 he studied procluction methods 
• seven months in Hollywood and 
w York on a Rockefeller General 
ucation Board fellowship. He was 
xluction Manager of the Rockefeller 
n production experiment in the Visu- 

Education Service 1938-41. He has 
:n a member of the faculty of the 
liege of Education since 1941, teach- 
l the courses in Visual Education. 

i: and HEAR— Soptombor 

points on a complete hemisphere, 
or both sides, at one lime. 

New on the educator's horizon 
is a self-contained projection sys- 
tem cncasetl in a mo\ablc box. 
Showing a self-contained picture 
j)rojected on a translucent screen, 
this unit projector offers an al- 
iernaii\e teaching device which 
may yet prove itself. The claim 
of clear projection in an imdark- 
cncd room and without benefit 
of a screen is intriguing to educa- 
tors who await experimental trial 
of the newly announced and ad- 
\ertised equipment. Time will 
show whether these ingenious de- 
\ices can compete against the 
standard system of projection. 

Probably the greatest innova- 
tion is promised to school use in 
the form of three-dimensional 
projection. Pupils will be obliged, 
however, to wear polaroid glasses. 
Three-dimensional pictures are 
being used now either as flat pic- 
tures or as projected slides or as 
motion pictures. The use of pol- 
aroid glasses has eliminated the 
need of using the old red and 
green glasses and is a far superior 
device. Three-dimensional pic- 
tures, of all the devices invented 
or perfected during the war, hold 
the greatest promise for adding 
realistic experience into our 
school teaching. Three-dimen- 
sional diagrams will be very effec- 
tive in teaching solid geometry or 
shop subjects such as machine as- 
sembly or design. Three dimen- 
sional motion pictures will proba- 
bly be so much more realistic that 
they may make two-dimensional 

Po«« 83 

Recessed blackboard- 
globe mounted on rollers 
to provide free rotation 
about three axes. De- 
signed at the St. Paul 
Institute under the di- 
rection of Dr. Louis H. 

Photos from Uni- 
versity of Minne- 

notion j)ictures obsolete, especial- 
V in partidilar subjects. To ac- 
oinplish tiucc-diniensional pro- 
ection it will be necessary for 
,chool cliildrcn to become as ac- 
:ustonied to polaroid glasses as a 
rlassroom tool as they have been 
iccustonied to the use of pencil 
nul paper. 

Concave spherical map also pro- 
duced by Dr. Louis H. Powell. Maps 
such OS these give the viewer the 
impression of roundness which mokes 
study on a global mop so valuable. 
The size allows for greater detail as 
well OS visibility — factors sought 
after by teachers of geography and 
the social studies. 

EE and HEAR— September 

In the production of teaching 
materials during the war, the ed- 
ucator and the commercial pro- 
ducer have been thrown together 
A\ith \ery beneficial results. The 
commercial producer has learnetl 
the importance of how to teach 
more effectively. The educator 
has learned to dc\elop teaching 
aids which are li\ely and interest- 
ing. The simple army and navy 
training skill films follow the 
]>rincij)lcs of psychology and 
learning. In most respects these 
training films are so superior as 
teaciiing materials that they can 
haiclly be compared to pre-war 
j)if)duc tions. The makers of arm- 

Page 85 

cd forces oricuiaiioual and nioti- 
\ational films (siuli as could be 
used in social studies) ha\e trans- 
lated into action the piinciple 
that human beings (an often 
learn more throu^Ii iluii emo- 
tions than thnnigli ihtir intel- 
lects. \Vc are leaining how to 
teach the whole lunnan being and 
not just his brain. Ihe circctive 
de\ices that the theatrical motion 
picture producer has known for 
years have appearetl in leathing 
films in a restrained and carefully 
(onirolled use. Color and humor 
have at last found their place in 
the teaching program. 

Still newer is tiie realization 
that courses in audio-\isual edu- 
cation shoidd be taught at all 
teacher-training institutions. This 
should not be a specialty taught 
by a few colleges and iniiversities, 
but as a universal tool that every 
teacher must acquire. E\ery teach- 

er shoukl know as a matter of 
(omse how to riui classroom pro- 
jectors, iiow to get the most out 
of the carefidly selected materials 
by intelligent ( lassroom use. 
Teachers should be able to recoir- 
ni/e gootl materials that meet 
present-day high standanls. 

finally, all this activity in so 
many phases of audio-visual edu- 
cation in the last four years is 
boiuid to residt in a new program 
of research. It will not be re- 
siarch on whether or not visual 
aids in general are useful,— that 
was j)ro\cn more than ten years 
ago by objective research. Rather, 
we need research into the elfecti\e 
uses of particular aids for i)arii{ii- 
lar purposes. \Vc need more fun- 
damental research on how puj)ils 
learn from \isual aids, on how to 
use them more and more ellecti\e- 
ly, and on how to produce these 
better materials that the schools 
will demanil in the future. 

How to Run a Film Library 

-Appreciating the need for a functional 
manual on the mechanics of operating 
a 16 mm. classroom film library, Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica I ilnis, Inc., has 
pul)iishcd "F^o\v to Run a Film Library" 
for use by school film librarians. 

The book is designed to help improve 
procedures so that better and more frc- 
<|uent use of fdms will be possible. 

"How to Run a film Library" is pre- 
pared in four general sections: 

1. Forms for operating procedures. 

2. Film storage. 

3. Care, maintenance and repair of 

4. How to offer more technical help 

to the film user (teacher) . 
The manual is uni(|ue in its format. 
It is designed to be of considerable as- 
sistance to the organizational work for 
the director of visual instruction or 

Pag* 86 

school fdm librarian. 

The extremely simple forms (only 
two in lunnber) are arranged so that 
they will fold right out of the book 
onto a minicoscope for stencilling. The 
entire booking proceilure pops up to 
show the complete ojierating procedure 
physically as well as in worcls. 

The book is a "\isual." Practitallv 
every function of the film library is 
\isuali/eil in pictures, samples, diagrams, 
charts, miniatures, and the like. \ 
"blueprint" in film form of a film rack 
for jMojcction on a blackboard is in- 
cluded, from which a manual training 
department can build tiie racks. 

i'crsonalized, complimentary copies 
have been "ear marked" for visual in- 
struction directors and directors of school 
film lii)raries. Distribution is being 
made through F.ncyclopaedia Britannica 
Films franciiised re|)resenlati\es. Ihc 
manual is priced at 50 cents. 

September— SEE and HEflK 

A. M. Saunders 

Unix'ersity of Oklahoma 
English Department 

Editor's Note: Mr. Saunders 
of the English Department of 
the University of Texas has done 
in an extremely effective man- 
ner a masterpiece of frontier 
thinking. In an area often 
thought to lie outside the realm 
of effective visualization, his in- 
triguing scheme points the way 
for others in the field of the language arts. 
Not only is his description of this one 
treatment very vivid and worth while — 
more important, his further suggestions 
hold challenges for all teachers of English 
and literature who are interested in making 
their studies more fascinating and more 
readily visualized.) 

SEE and HEAR— September " 

WHii.E teaching a course in 
sophomore literature at the 
Uni\ersity of Texas in the fall of 
1944, I felt the need of illustra- 
tions to help my students visual- 
ize characters and scenes in Swift's 
Gulliver's Travels. One of the 

Pao« 87 

main barriers to student interpre- 
tation of Gulliver is the failure to 
get an acic(juate concept of the 
satiric purjx)rt of the hook in 
terms ol c<)stumin<; ;iiul scale, e.g. 
Gulli\er the Giant in the land of 
the Lilliputians and C;ulli\er the 
Pigmv in the land of the Brob- 

One of my colleagues who has 
for some lime been working with 
visual aids used in tea( hing at the 
Ihiiversity suggested that 1 make 
a .'if) mm. filmstrip of Gtdliver. 
Profiling by his generous advice 
and experience in making a simi- 
lar filmstrip,^ I set to work. One 
of the first diffiddties I encoun- 
tered was to find illustrated edi- 
tions of the travels. Most of the 
\arious editions, I found, were 
designed for children, and they 
included only the J'oyngc to IJI- 
liput or the Voyage to Brobding- 
nag. As a result, I had an embar- 
rassing number of pictures to 
illustrate the first two voyages and 
few pictures of the Voyage to 
Laputa and the Voyage to the 
Laud of the Houyhtihjuns. Illus- 
trations outside of children's books 
are virtually non-existent. 

In \iew of these obstacles I was 
tempted to include pictures that 
would illustrate the \ ices and fol- 
lies of mankind, the objectives of 
Swift's corroding satire, and pic- 
tures of contemporaries of Swift 
alluded to throughoiil the book, 
liut, if the filmstrip included pic- 

• See Joseph Jones, "Thoreau: A Home- 
made Filmstrip on a Homemade 
Philosopher," Film and Radio Discus- 
sion Guide, XI. June. 1945, 17-20. 

Paa* 88 

tures to illustrate the narrative 
and the backgiountl material, it 
woidd lack unity. Such an under- 
taking was out of the (juestion. 
Ihe number of frames would 
have exceeded the limits of a sin- 
gle filmstrip. It woukl have neces- 
sitated the expenditure of more 
fuiuls than were a\ailable at the > 
time. It would have in\olved too 
C'xtensi\e a plan of research. It 
woidd ha\e resulted in the use of < 
too much class time, which, be- 
cause of a crowded schedule, 
would have been impracticable. 
Consequently, it was decided to 
use only pictures that would re- 
\ eal the story itself and such other 
illustrations as would best clear 
up points in the narrative that ( 
had not been fully visualized by 
the students. 

The filmstrip consists of a total 
of GG frames, 6 of which are de- 
voted to introductory material, 15 
to Lilliput, 19 to Hrobdingnag, 
1(") to l.aputa, and 10 to the 
Houyhnhnms. The titles of rep- 
resentative frames in the filmstrip 
are as follows: 

(1. 2, 3) F.dilor's acknnwlcdRincnts, 
(4) Portrait of Swift. (.")) I'omail of 
(iulliver, (7) Gulliver couiinR ashore on 
i.iliiput, (8) Map of l.illiput. (9) C.iil- 
liver ticil up by the l.illiputiaus. (II) 
(lullivcr taken to Mildcndo on cart. 
(12) Ciullivcr chained in old palace. 
(\i) (liilliver reviews the emperor^ 
troops, (15) Gulliver kisses the empress 
hands. (1(5) CJulliver eats I)efore tlieii 
majesties. (17) I.illipulian tailors meas 
lire (.iilliver for a new suit. (18) (iul 
liver captures the Blefiiscan Fleet, (!*•) 
(;iilliver informeil of the plot against 
his life, (LM) (iiiiliver shows oil his 
cattle on his return to Kngland, (22) 
Gulliver involuntarily marcwncd on 

Septemb«r— SEE ond HEAS 

irobdingnag. (28) Map of Brol)diiig 
lag, (24) Caillivcr in tlic Bioljdin^ 
lanian (Oinlu-ld, (LT)^ (;ullivcr (apturc' 
» iIr- lirohdinniiagiaii fanner, (2(), 
.ullivti kills a Riant vat on the bed, 
27) How C.idliNci is laiiicd from place 
o place, (30) Tlirec Brohdingnagian 
(holars pronoiinee C.ulliver a freak of 
latiirc, i'M) C;ulli\er attacked hy giant 
\asps, (3")) How Urohdingnagian band 
niisic alfetts Gidlivers ears, (3(i) Gluin- 
lalcliteh plays the harpsichord, (38) 
.ullivcr reads a Brobdingnagian book, 
(39) An eagle (lies away with C.ulliver 
nui liis box, (41) Gulliver east adrift 
)y the Dutch and Japanese pirates, 
;42) Map of Laputa and adjoining 
slands. (43) Laputa or the Flying 
Island, (45) Laputians accompanied by 
heir flappers, (46) King of Laputa and 
lis court, (48) Lodestone that causes 
[.apiua to rise and fall, (49) Map show- 
ing how the Flying Island is conveyed 
lo different places, (50) How pigs are 
used for plowing in the Academy of 
Projectors, (52) The book-making ma- 
:iiine, (53) How to talk without using 
words, (54) Governor of Cdubbdubdrib 
raises spirits of Caesar and Brutus, (55) 
Struldbrugs, (57) Gulliver shanghaied 
by mutineers, (58) Map of the Land 
of the Houyhnhnms, (59) Gulliver's 
first meeting with Yahoos, (60) Gulliver 
compared with a Yahoo, (61) Gulliver 
taught to read by the sorrel nag, (63) 
Gulliver's encounter with infant Ya- 
hoo, (64) A Houyhnhnm milking a 
cow, (65) Yahoos at labor, (66) Gul- 
liver learns to trot like a horse. 

Student Reaction to the Filmstrip 

AFTER the students had finished 
J\. their reading of Gulliver, 
they were shown the filmstrip. At 
the end of the class period they 
were given a sheet of mimeo- 
graphed questions to answer and 
turn in at the next class meeting. 
In order to evaluate student 
response to these questions it was 
necessary to decide upon some 
"frame of reference" that ^s•Oldd 
reveal the particular merits and 

SEE and HEAR— September 

dcmci its of the fihnstrip and what 
use would be made in the future 
of a filmstrip of this type as an 
aid in the effect ive teaching of 
literal ure. A serious liandicaj) in 
such an evaluation was the fact 
that few students ha\e had the 
ti aining to analyze effectively their 
own thoughts and emotions. Fur- 
thermore, their taste has become 
vitiated by seeing too many fun- 
nies, too many picture magazines, 
too many movies. With these real- 
ities in mind, it was decided to 
evaluate the answers to the ques- 
tions as follows: Are the answers 
sincere? Does the student try to 
answer in terms of what he really 
thinks? The questions and com- 
jjosite ansAvcrs are discussed be- 

(1) ]Vliat does the filmstrip 
help you to remember from the 

Answers to this cjuestion chiefly took 
tlie form of the size and relative heights 
of the figures of Lilliputians and Brob- 
dingnagians and that of Gulliver, the 
similarity or dissimilarity between Ya- 
hoos and human beings One student 
remarked: "The projects of the Acad- 
emy of Projectors ^vere not so vivid to 
nie before I saw the filmstrip." Another 
wrote, "It helped me to remember the 
important events that took place during 
each voyage." 

(2) What parts of the book is 
this filmstrip not able to inter- 

Most of the answers to this question 
were to the effect that the filmstrip 
could not express the thoughts and 
words of the characters or interpret the 

(3) How do you account for 

Pag* 89 

the discrepancies between Gulli- 
ver's age as represented in certain 
of the frames and his real age in 
the book? 

Most of ihc class ihoiiglit that llic 
ililfcrent ages of Gulliver in the various 
frames was due to the diflcrcnt imagi- 
native concepts of the illustrators. One 
iliought tiiat "the artists hail not read 
the book"; another surmised that the 
illustrators had been careless in their 
reading. One ingenious student declared: 
"It is almost a ride of literature that 
heroes should be young and handsome; 
a Gulliver forty years old woidd not 
coincide with the popular conception." 
A few students reasoned that the illus- 
trators drew their pictures for children 
rather than for grownups. As one ex- 
pressed it, "Some of the pictures were 
probably made as illustrations for chil- 
dren's books and showed Gtdliver as a 
young man in order to make the story 
more interesting to children." 

(4) Does the filmstrip help you 
to visualize better the characters, 
incidents, scenes, etc.? 

Most answers were couched in gen- 
eral terms: "It produced a clearer dc 
scription of scenery, styles, dress, physi- 
cal characteristics"; "It made some char- 
acters seem real"; "Pictures have a more 
lasting and comprehensive impression 
on the mind than do words"; "It more 
or less molded together my mental pic- 
tures of scenes and characters"; "Until 
I saw the pictures the whole thing was 
more or less ha/y in my mind." A few 
students mentioned particidar scenes 
and particular characters iliat the film- 
strip had helped to clarify. 

(5) Did the filmstrip give you 
a different concept from your 
reading of the book? Or in what 
respect did the filmstrip differ 
from your concept of the book? 

Failure to inulersiand the meaning 
ol concept resulted in hazy answers to 
this cpiestion. Almost without exception, 

Pag* 90 

howcNcr. most students agrcctl that the 
pictures tiiey had got of the Yahoos in ' 
the book were erroneous. Some said that < 
ihc strip as a whole did not diller from 
ihcir coiKCjitions but that it intensified 
;mi<1 made clearer their thoughts aboiu 
liu- book. 

(6) List briefly any other com- 
ments you ivould like to make \ 
concerning the eQectiveness or the \ 
ineffectiveness of the filmstrip. 

One student wrote: ".Seeing the mis- | 
takes illustrators make gives me an ^ 
awareness of the necessity of clear read- 
ing"; another said that "It scr\ed as a 
Mimulus to look uj) certain details about 
incidents and scenes." Many reiterated 
tiie statement made in answer to the i 
second c|uestion that the satire was not I 
illustrated. Others thought the fdmstrip 
loo brief. .\ single student shrcwilly ] 
slated that "there are limitations to 
this techni(|ue. The important thing , 
about Swift's satire is not physical char- ] 
acteristics but actions and beliefs. In- i 
stead, the strip's usefulness is its ability j 
to make clearer the pictures of dress i 
and physical description." Others com- | 
mented on the confusion resulting from ( 
seeing dillerent Gidlivers by different I 
illustrators and of the necessity of show- j 
iiig the film while the book is being ' 
siudicd and not afterwards. Slight dis- ' 
(repaiuies due to defective photography i 
and the order of the pictures also 
brought forth slightly adverse comment. 

How the Filmstrip Can Be Used 

Efjcctively in the Teaching 

of Literature 

It cannot be claimed by even the most j 
enthusiastic that the filmstrip will ulti- 
mately serve as a substitute for other i 
leaching devices now being used. // ( 
judiciously and inlellii^ently used, it ' 
tan assist the teacher of literature in ' 
many ways. It shoidd serve only as an ] 
:ui\iliary device and not as a substitute I 
lor regular teaching techniques: it can \ 
make a\ailai)lc material that is inacccs- i 
sible or material that is not focused in . 
a form convenient to the stuilent. For ! 
instance, for a student studying any of ji 

Saptember— SEE and HEAK 

Alexander M. Saunders 

\Ic\;m(lcr Saiiiulors received his B.S. 
.l'.ll"J) ami M.S. (I9'2:f) from tlu- 
lahaina I'olvtcchiiic Iiistitulc. Auburn, 
lal)ama; MA. (1«»'J8) from tlic LJiii- 
?rsitv of Illinois: Ph.D. (1910) from 
ic Johns Ho|)kins University. 

He lias laiiglit at the .Mal)ama Toly- 
rthnic Institute, Mississippi State Col- 
'ge. L'liixcrsitv of Illinois. rni\ersity of 
altimore, Johns Hopkins I'niversity, A. 
r»(l M. College of Texas, and the Uni- 
ETsity of Texas. 

.\t the present time he is assistant pro- 
?ssor of English at the University of 

(Mr. Saunders' photograph has not been 
KTcived in time to be included in this issue. 
t will be printed in the October issue. — The 

tie literary masterpieces of the 18th 
pnturv by Pope. Swift, or Johnson, a 
Imstrip of Hogarth's satiric caricatures 
f London life (his Rogue's and Har- 
jt's Progress series) ^vould be very 
timulating. A filmstrip of picturesque 
lliistrations in 18lh ccnturv travel books 
.'oidd be illuminating for a class of 
raduate students of 18th century cul- 
urai patterns. Other parallels, even on 
he secondarv school level, readilv come 
o mind. A fdmstri]> of Longfellow's 
'.vangeline could include, in addition 
o frames concerning the main narra- 
ive, backgroimd material concerning 
he genesis of Longfellow's ideas; the 
lometown of tlie real-life Evangeline in 
it. Martinville, Louisiana, along the 
janks of Bayou Teche; and other useful 
)icturcs that would clarify and illumine 
he original poem. Stephen Vincent 
tenet's John Brn-wn's Body would lend 
tsclf to the creation of a most fascinal- 
ng filmstrip showing "battles and lead- 
rs," politicians and poltroons. It would 
iiake the period live and glow and 
hrow light on the poet's craft. I-ee's 
>eing likened to a "blank verse statue" 
ivould then not be a puzzling phrase 
luit a fusion of poetry and sculpture. 
U'iili a picture of the reclining statue 
uf Lee by \'alentine before the student's 
eves, the teacher could easily affect the 
N\nthesis. In addition to the above type 
of filmstrips, certain other adjunct-types 
would be especially useful. For instance, 

SEE and HEAR —September 

the modern student's total innocence of 
an\ tiling connecteil witii classical and 
nonclassical mythology would be greatly 
aideil by filmstrijxs illustrating the gods 
and goddesses and their immortal stories 
and legends. The utili/alion of tlie fdm- 
slrip in the classroom is in its infancy, 
I>ut in the hands of a good teacher it 
(an be made to .serve ;ls a valuable ad- 
jund to conventional pedagogy. 

A Salute! 

During the war years one of the 
ilivisions of school experience called 
upon repeatedly was the area of visual 
education. It was during these same 
vcars that those of us who "stayed at 
iiome" most appreciated the splendid 
work done by retiring Department of 
\'isual Instruction President Camilla 
Best, and retiritig Department of Visual 
Instruction Secretary-Treasurer Lelia 

Everyone interested in the field of 
visual education, therefore, salutes Miss 
Best and Miss Trolinger for the untir- 
ing service that they have been willing 
to bring to the Department of Visual 
Instruction in guiding its work and 
planning through the most difficult 
vears of its existence. 

Omaha World Herald Under- 
writes Visual Material Project 

When the Omaha Public Schools open 
this fall they will have added to their 
teaching materials $12,000 worth of 
visual instructional materials. Early in 
the summer of 1945 the Omaha World 
Herald purchased and presented to the 
Omaha Public Schools and the Uni- 
\crsity of Omaha slides and motion 
picture films to the amount of SI 2,000. 
Duplicate sets of the film and slide 
teaching materials are being presented 
bv the World Herald to the Public 
Schools and the University. Each set 
contains the fifteen complete teaching 
films included in the 47-reel Yale Chron- 
icles of American History series and 
1 ,000 glass slides portraying the his- 
torical march of events in the history 
of the United States. 

Pago 91 

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September— SEE and HEAR i 

'here are numerous basic questions re- 

arding Audio-Visual learning that fre- 

uently puzzle newcomers in this field 

... so the editors of See and Hear offer 

\V. A. WiTTicH AND John Guy Fowi.kes 

Tcaclicis and adfuinislrators are irwited to sub- 
mit questions relative to evaluation of materials, 
source of materials, and methods of maintaiyiing 
and using equipment . . . address— The Editors, 
SEE and HEAR. 

\ DO MOST schools equipped 
- • lor sound-film projection 
msport the machine to the 
^eral classrooms, or does the 
iss move to the room ^vhere the 
achine can be used? 

I II)K.\I.L\, the classroom would 
*-o be cc| (lipped with a motioii- 
tiue projector, a slide projector, and 
hlmstrip projector just as today it is 
nipped with maps, a globe, and many 
icr visual materials. However, most ad- 
nistrators agree that, until such a day 
ri\es. it is wisest to set up one cen- 
il projection room. In such a room 
is then possible to assemble one set 
the necessarv visual projection ccpiip- 
Mit, including all the wav from a 
od screen to blackout curtains, accus- 
al treatment, and good ventilation, 
le central, well-equipped projection 
oni typifies practice in most schools 

J and HEAR— September 

where successful programs of visual in- 
struction are provided. 

OWHAT would be the ap- 
• proximate cost of equip- 
ment for establishing a visual 
education program for an ele- 
mentary school? 

AREG.ARDLE.SS of the size of the 
• elementary school, the equip- 
ment necessary and the materials neces- 
sary for bringing a complete program 
of supplementary visual information to 
the units of work that are set up in 
the primary, intermediate, and upper 

Page 93 

grades are quite uniform. A complete 
program will provide for the purchase 
of such equipincMt as wall charts, maps, 
globes, models, a slide j>rojcctor, a film- 
strip projector, and motion-picture pro- 
jector. While any amount up to tlie 
maximum may be spent, the mechani- 
cal apparatus useful in the elcniantary 
school situation will cost approxi- 
mately as follows: sound motion-picture 
projector, $450; beaded glass screen 
(200 audience size) , $3'); dual purpose 
2" X 2" slide and fdmstrip projector, 
$65; 3" x4" slide projector, SfiO; opacpie 
projector, $100; charts, ma|)s, and 
globes, $200 up. Since most (ilms arc 
secured under a rental basis, it is esti- 
mated that $25 to S30 per grade per 
year must be spent in rentals in order 
to secure the best films available. 

OHOW nuich training is 
• necessary for the teacher to 
become able to run her own 
sound projector? 

A DURING a recent summer ses- 
• sion course, it was possible to 

demonstrate and to teach the majority 
of a class how to operate a sound pro- 
jector during two class periods. Demon- 
stration of threading and operating the 
machine was first given, and then cadi 
member of the class attempted to thread 
and operate the machine. After two or 
three tries, most of the students, who 
were teachers and administrators, were 
alile to master the operation of the ma- 
chine. This, together with leisure-time 
study of the well-prepared manuals 
which accompany projection equipment, 
put the majority of the students in a' 
position to operate the machine with| 
confidence and effectiveness. ' 

Mechanical aptitude varies greatly; 
among teachers. Some pick up the skill, 
very readily, and others find that it is 
a great chore. Many school adniinistra-| 
tors report that, even at the elementary, 
level, it is not at all difficult to locate, 
(hildrcn, particularly boys, who have a. 
iiigh natural aptitude for machinery and 
thus for operating projection equipment. 
In many schools, a projectionist club 
stands ready to handle as many screen-; 
ings as will not interfere with its rcg 
ular school work. Frequently, these bov 
become as proficient, and in some casc^ 
more so than many adults. They him 
often proved their ability to handle 
ctTcctively sound motion-picture equip 

These sixth-grade boys 
hove Icorned to operate 
all the projection equip- 
ment used in their cle- 
mcnfory school. They 
ore as dcpendobic and 
reliable about operating 
the 16mm sound pro- 
jector OS anyone could 
osk. Needless to soy, 
they hove become of 
great assistance to 
tcochers in assisting 
with the problem of 
sound-film projection. 

Pago 94 

September — SEE and HEfll 

"\ HOW can I dcierniinc the 
c • \aluc ot specific movies in 
le particular subject fields that 
e taught in my school? 

k THE question of evaluating films 
*-• for course of study use at definite 
ade levels is one which can be accom- 
ishcd only through preview. \V^hile 
any evaluations of films do exist, 
achcrs frecjuently report that they are 
)t in a position to really know of what 
line a film may be to the unit of work 
ring contemplated until they have ac- 
ally seen the film. During their years 

experience, teachers have gradually 
lilt up an acquaintance with good 
xtbooks and good supplementary ma- 
rials. They must approach the study 

classroom films with the same atti- 
ide with which they attack the evalua- 
on of books and other teaching mate- 
als. We are suddenly becoming con- 
ious that films can play a part in our 
assroom teaching, and we are searching 
T a short-cut evaluation technique 
hich does not exist. Only through pre- 
ew, particularly preview which in- 
udes the students who are using the 
m, can the teacher validly evaluate the 
)ntribution of that film. If records can 
i kept of good films, the teacher will 
on build for herself an index of sub- 
cts in which she may have confidence 
id which she knows will contribute 
> the subject area she teaches. 

^ SOME of my pupils are very 

'^^ disappointed in the films 

have begun to use this year. 

EE and HEAR— September 

1 hey expect U) be ciiuiiained 
when they see mo\ies and are 
(|iiiic disappointed when I expect 
ilum to use the motion pictmc 
iinilcr study conditi(jns. I low 
can I change this attitude? 

AWV. MUST remember that the 
• sciiool children we deal with to- 
day represent a generation brought up 
in continuing contact with the Holly- 
wood entertainment feature. I hey have 
a "Hollywood heritage." In many cases, 
the teacher is also under the spell. It 
isn't strange, then, when we consider 
the youngster's background of experi- 
ence in connection willi films, that he 
feels a little let down when, instead of 
a thriller, he is confronted with a text- 
film. It is possible to point out to chil- 
dren that the film teaches just as a book 
teaches, and that many of their geog- 
raphy book chapters, which they may 
spend a week or ten days in studying, 
arvi presented in film form in as little 
as ten minutes. Many films in the social 
studies area present interestingly, au- 
thentically, and graphically the same 
material that textbooks and supple- 
mentary readers deal with through ab- 
straction, or at best, through still pic- 
tures. Teachers have reported that, when 
children are given the alternative of 
studying social studies materials from 
textbooks or from films, and applying 
to both the same valuable and the same 
traditional procedures that have been 
worked with over the course of years, 
the children without question choose 
the film as the learning tool. The re- 
sponsibility for removing the entertain- 
ment attitude lies with the teacher. 
Teachers should not be disturbed at all 
by this initial attitude. If they hold to 
the realization that the educational 
sound film is the avenue to a more 
complete understanding of the social 
areas of our environment that lie be- 
yond our ready grasp as far as tradi- 
tional materials are concerned, the stu- 
dents with whom they work will auto- 
matically become imbued with the same 
attitude. First reactions are not neces- 

Page 95 

sarily sound reactions. Inevitably, chil- 
dren rccogni/c the worth of the ediua 
tional sound film as a teaching tool and 
invariably they agree (hat it isn't to be 
compared willi the Saturday matinee. 

0\\ I, -VRK very intcrcstctl in 
• \isiial education in om 
school, but the board won't buy 
us a projector. Is there anylhintf 
we can tlo to get a program start- 
ed wliile we are waiting? 

A.V PROGRAM of visual instruc 
• tion is much broader than teach 
ing with sound fdms. \ isual instruction 
includes using the blacki)oard cleverly; 
it includes accumulating a personal file 
of mounted pictures which have been 
taken from travel magazines and from 
slick paper periodicals; it includes build- 
ing a bulletin board which is so atlrac 
live that it will draw pupils' attention 
and motivate enthusiasm; it includes 
taking the map out of its resting place 
in the corner and using it in connection 
with current events reports or with so- 
<ial studies lessons; it challenges the 
teacher to interest her pupils in con 
strucling models of the things they are 
studying, of making ground-glass slides 
which portray reading experiences in 
science or in the social studies. There 
arc many things such as these that teach- 
ers may do to develop ways of learning 
through "seeing." A visual program 
should first include all of the above as 
well as the use of the filmstri]) and the 
silcnt and sound motion-picture fdm. 
By first doing what we can do with the 
limited resources at hand, tan we best 
infliieiKc the administration, if not tlie 
sihool board, to .see that visual mate 
rials are so fundamental in teaching that 
we warrant having all of the nu-dian 
iral devices that are available to lis. 

Pag* 96 

OLS I HKRE any rule to fo 
• low concerning seating c 
(liildrcn before the screen? 

AM A r painted screens will alio 
• stiidenls to sit at a greater angl 
from ihc screen than will beaded gla 
.screens. The principle of the beadc 
glass screen is such that light is reflccte 
toward its source. The best place froi 
whidi to view a film projected on 
beaded glass screen is from the imm 
diate vicinity of the projector. All oi 
has to do is to walk from one side « 
the room to the other, as a pictiii 
is being projected, in order to get a vci 
good idea of how far awav from tl 
center of the room children may sit ar 
still be able to view a clear, well i 
liiminatcd image. A convenient rule i 
follow recommends that no child sliou 
sit outside of a 'l,')-degree angle draw 
to the perpendicular of the screen. 

W'llKRE can we secure co; 
• ies ol the pupil stiu 
sheets which I am told are avai 
able with some classroom films? i 

AM.VNY film producers and oth 
• agencies arc preparing film stiii 
sJKcis which may be used by the ])iii 
before and after they view the fil:' 
Among the sources of these study shct 

are: | 


Kncyclopaedia Rritannica Films, 20 ( 
Wacker l)ri%e, Chicago 6 I 

Film .Studv Committee, 121 S. Tim! 
nt\ Street, Madison .S, \\isconsin ' 

National .\iiclio-\'isual Council, 160 \ 
I.aSalle Street, Chicago 1 

Scholastic Bookshop. 220 East 42 ^ 
Street. New York 17 

I'. S. Office of Kducation, Washingtcl 
1). C. 

I hesc agencies will send lists of tj 
Idins for which they ha\e jireparj 

study materials. \ 

September — SEE and HE 



Reg. U. S. Pat. Otlice. 
Published each month of the school year— September to May inclusive 
-by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, a division of E. M. HALE 
and Company. 

Earl M. Hale, President and Publisher. 

Walter A. Wittich, John Guy Fowlkes and C. J. Anderson, Editors. 

H. Mac McGrath, Business Manager; Tom Bartingale, Circulation Director. 

Sold by subscription only. $3.00 per year (9 issues) in the U.S. 

Sl.OO in Canada and foreign countries. 

i/OL. 1 OCTOBER - 1945 NO. 2 




New Horizons for Primary Tots— Ellen Millman 10 

Releasing Creative Imaginations— Josephine S. Miller 16 

Canada Comes to the Canadians— Margaref /. Carter 21 

Scanning the Nation's Visual Education Programs— A Graph 

Story— Alvin B. Roberts 30 

Save, Serve, Learn, Share— Some Victory Loan Ideas 40 

American History Films— David B. McCulley 43 

Vernon G. Dameron Appointment Announced by N.E.A 47 

Postwar Geography for the Intermediate Grades— Raymond 

C. Gibson 50 

Free and Inexpensive Instructional Materials— Joseph Park.... 56 
Portable Observation Cases for Specimens and Products— 

William M. Gregory 59 

Selecting Globes, Maps, and Charts— John Guy Fowlkes 64 

What About Television?— Dr. Miller McClintock 67 

The Motion Picture in Remedial Reading— H. W. Embry 72 

"Seeing" Contemporary Afiairs— Ralph A. Fritz and Esther 

A. Park 82 

Picture Story "Letter to Grandmother" 90 

Questions and Answers— Wittich and Fowlkes 93 

» Ciopyright 1945 by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, W^is. Printed in U.S.A. • 

Members of the Editorial Advisory Board 
of SEE and HEAR 

ROGER ALBRIGHT. Teaching Film Ciutodiaiu 
LESTER ANDERSON. University of Minnetota 
V. C. ARNSPIGER, Encyclopaedia Britannica Filnw. Inc. 
LESTER F. BECK. University of Oregon (on leave) 
MRS. ESTHER BERG. New Vorlc City Public Schools 
MRS. CAMILLA BEST. New Orleans Public Schools 
CHARLES M. BOESEL. Milwaukee Country Day School 
JOSEPH K. BOLTZ. Coordinator, Citizenship Education Study. Detroit 
LT. JAMES W. BROWN. Officer in Charge. Training Aids Section, Great Lakes 
MISS MARGARET J. CARTER. National Film Board of Canada 
C. R. CRAKES, Educational Consultant. DeVry Corporation 
LT. AMO DeBERNARDIS, Training Aids Officer, Recruit Training Command. Great Lakes 
JOSEPH E. DICKMAN. Chicago Public Schools 
DEAN E. DOUGLASS. Educational Department, Radio Corporation of America 
GLEN G. EYE, University of Wisconsin 
LESLIE FRYE, Cleveland Public Schools 
LOWELL P. GOODRICH, Superintendent, Miln^aukee Public Schools 
WILLIAM M. GREGORY, Western Reserve University 
JOHN L. HAMILTON, Film Officer, British Information Services 
MRS. RUTH A. HAMILTON, Omaha Public Schools 
O. A. HANKAMMER. Kansas State Teachers College 
W. H. HARTLEY. Towson State Teachers College. Md. 
JOHN R. HEDGES. University of Iowa 
VIRGIL E. HERRICK, University of Chicago 
HENRY H. HILL, President. George Peabody College for Teachers 
CHARLES HOFF, University of Omaha 
B. F. HOLLAND, University of Texas 
MRS. WANDA WHEELER JOHNSTON. Knoxville Public Schools 
HEROLD L. KOOSER, Iowa State College 
ABRAHAM KRASKER, Boston University 
L. C. LARSON, Indiana University 
GORDON N. MACKENZIE, Teachers College, Columbia University 
DAVID B. McCULLEY, University of Nebraska 
CHARLES P. McINNIS, Columbia (S. C.) Public Schools 
EDGAR L. MORPHET, Department of Education. Florida 
HERBERT OLANDER, University of Pittsburgh 
C. R. REAGAN. Office of War Information 
DON C. ROGERS. Chicago Public Schools 
W. E. ROSENSTENGEL. University of North Carolina 
W. T. ROWLAND. Superintendent, Lexington (Ky.) Public Schools 
OSCAR E. SAMS, Jr., University of Tennessee (on leave) 
E. E. SECHRIEST, Birmingham Public Schools 
HAROLD SPEARS. New Jersey State Teachers College (Montclait) 


R. LEE THOMAS, Department of Education. Tennessee 

ERNEST TIEMANN. Pueblo Junior College 

ORLIN D. TRAPP. Waukegan High School 

KINGSLEY TRENHOLME. Portland (Ore.) Public Schools 

MISS LELIA TROLINGER. University of Colorado 

PAUL WENDT, University of Minnesota 

Pag, 2 October— SEE and HI 


e magic power of motion pictures as a vicarious living experience and its 

value in the field of education is well known, 
lost of feature and short subject length 16 MM sound films, selected from 

the best produced in the world of motion pictures, is described in the new 
HCXDL LIST CATALOG. Here is a wealth of material especially chosen 

for suitability and curriculum enrichment. 

your Visual Education Dealer or write 
your school list today. 

Ims incorporated 

W. 42ncl St., New York (18); 101 Mariefia Sf., 

nfo (3); 64 E. Lake Sf., Chicago (1); 1709 W. 8lh 

Lot Angeles (14); 109 N. Akard St., Dallas (1); 
S. W. 9th Ave., Portland (5). 

and HEAR— October 

Please send your SCHOOL LIST Catalog of 
16 MM Alms. No obligation, of course. 




City ond Stote 

Page 3 


"Seeing is believing" is an old adage, but the dif- 
ference between looking and seeing should be recog- 
nized by all concerned with visual education. There is 
a real danQ:er that the use of visual materials will be 
a matter of "looking" rather than "seeing." 

Indeed, this is likely to be true unless the specific 
functions of visual materials have been established, 
validated, and accepted as an effective means of pro- 
viding a desired experience. After the valid choice of 
visual materials, a carefully evolved plan for their use 
must be made if seeing and not merely looking is to 
take place. 

Learners must be made aware of what they may ex- 
pect to learn from visual materials. Any technical or 
special vocabulary difTicultics should be considered and 
removed before visual materials are used. Sjjccific cues 
and "tips" of what the learner should be on the lookout 
for should be given to him. Specific evaluation in terms 
of knowledge, understandings, appreciations, and inter- 
pretive ability should be made after the use of visual 
aids just as is done when other text materials are used. 

The basic function of visual materials is to make each 
j)upil see. 

The Editors. 

Page 4 October— SEE and 

The RCA Sound Film Projector Brings 
the World to Your Classroom 

• The films ihal picture for your students the wonders of nature 
and the progress of man deserve the best in sound and picture repro- 
duction—a projector that is simple to operate and easv to maintain 
— a projector made for you by the same expert RCA engineering skill 
that produces superlative theitre equipment for America's great 
molion-piclure houses the precision-built RCA ]6mm projector. 
For detailed information on the new RCA 16mm Sound Film Pro- 
jector. send for descriptive folder W rile: Educational Dept. 4.3-31A, 
RCA Victor Division, Radio Corporation of America, Camden, N. J. 



and HEAR— October 

the Way 

Page 5 

i^5^ ^ -fKo/^ / 

New Film Catalog 

Two "now-itcan-bcloUl" films of war- 
time achievement are listed for the first 
time in the new 1<)J5 catalogue of 16 
mm. sound films just published by the 
Film Division of the British Information 
Services. They are Operation Pluto, 
telling of the highly secret method by 
which gasoline was supplied to the Al- 
lied front through pliable steel pipelines 
laid across the English Channel, and 
Dale With A Tank, a graphic story of 
the building of a gun to beat the Nazi 
Tiger Tanks. 

Unlike previous catalogues, this issue 
for the first time includes with the gen- 
eral list, titles of highly specialized sub- 
jects such as Chest Surgery, Psychiatry 
in Action, and Malaria. 

The new catalogue lists 156 titles and 
in addition to films of farm and garden, 
fighters on the home and war fronts, 
there is a new scries entitled Marfronl 
British, comprising items such as Ny- 
lon, Fiber Glass, Paper Tanks and Fac- 
toiy to Farm and Back. 

Vivid glimpses of the final stages of 
the European war are afforded by a spe- 
cial group and other titles cover recon- 
sirudion, rehabilitation and Britain's 
cllorls toward social betterment. 

All 10 mm. pictures released by the 
British Information Services are dis- 
tributed out of six key U. S. cities and 
stale Bureaus. There is a nominal serv- 
ice (harge. 

Octohrr Sec and Hear is HERE'. 

"It was the best of times, it was the 
worst of limes."— Dickens. 

Ill is October issue is a true accomp- 
lishment. In the face of strikes in the 
Chicago area which have completely 
lied up all «'ngraviiig and priming 
eiiianaliug from lliis source, \ou slill 
have your copy of SEE and HEAR. 

In the face of a paper shortage more 
slringrni than anytiiing experienced 

Pag* 6 

during the war years, you still receiv 
your copy of SEE and HE.\R. 

^ Oil have received it now. Vou \. 
continue to receive it— each copy bet 
than the last— each copy filled with 
fectivc teaching reports, survey ma 
rials, and ecpiipment information.—'! 

Surplus Properties??? 

When the movie films and project 
used by the .Army, Navv, and other g 
ernment agencies are no longer necc 
for war service, they will be made av 
able at very low cost to schools una 
to afford them at retail prices but h 
ing facilities and personnel to use th 
effectively, the Surplus Property Bo 
announced September 8, 1945. No t 
tribution of movie e(|uipment to cdc 
tional institutions whose finan' 
resources would permit them to I 
from regular suppliers is contcinplai 
SIMl said. 

This program is in accordance ^^ 
the Surplus Property Act, which autl 
izcd dislribution of surplus goods 
health and educational use on the b 
of community need and public bem 
The Initcd States Office of Educati 
Federal Security Agency, is the age 
responsil)lc for determining what c< 
munitics have greatest need and I 
plans for use of surplus visual educal 

How maiiv films and projectors ] 
exentually become surplus is not kno| 
Approximately 10,000 16 mm. sor 
projectors have been ordered by the n 
lary services so far— 11,000 by the N: 
9.000 by Army .Air Forces and ah 
17.000 by .Army ('.round Forces- 
only a rather small percentage of tl 
is ever expected to become surp 
Many have been lost in action, capti 
by the enemy, damaged in use 
transit. Others will be needed for 
habilitation of veterans and post 
military training. Many of the projec 

October — SEE anci H 


First l6mm School Sound-Films To Be Released 

As Part of Young America Films' 

Complete Visual Instruction Service* 

We, the Peoples: (Adocumcntaofilm) 

thoughtful exposition of the strugj^le of nun for peace 
I in cxpUnjtion of the UnileJ Nations Charter and the 
anKJtion which it forms. The film discussed the chief 
nh of the Charter and the functions of the various com* 
tecs and administrative offices. 

Our Shrinking World: (Adt>cumentao^im) 

haltcnging discussion of how time and distance have been 
lunvenled through modern methods of transportation and 



Here they are! First releases of 108 productions for the 
school year 1945-46. . . on subjects that nation-wide 
surveys proved teachers want most . . . productions 
thoroughly representative of the high quality you can 
expect from Young America Films. 

Check the list now. Decide which films you would 
like to see. Then circle the numbers in the coupon 
below and mail. Our distributor in your state will 
show you these new curriculum films. 

*For full details of Young America Filmi' complete new Visual 
Instruction Service, see the October issue of this magazine. 

hnny's Day: (Prinury GraJ«) 
wi jn jvcrjgc American boy throujth 
il diy s jclivity, showing when he 
nf he dresses himself, eats his break- 
follows his Jjily routine until he goes 
Designed to help orient the primary 
hild to his childhood environment. 

deral Government: (junior 

-Analyses the ihrce branches of our 
I giwcrnmenl and shows how they 
I separately and as an integrated unit. 

Bte Government: (junior 

-Describes the component jarts of 
te government and explains their 
unctions and operations. 

chniques of Typing: (junior 

-A beginning him which shows the 
how the proper approach and basic 
jcs will help achieve speed and ac- 
i> typing. 

7. Typing Techriiques: (Senior 

High) — An advanced (ilm to demonstrate 
to students how they may achieve maximum 
efficiency in the use of the typewriter. 

8. Map Study: (Elementary Grades) 
Prepared to help the Elementary school 
student understand what a map is and what 
meanings are behind the conventional sym- 
bols he must learn to understand. 

9. Everyday Health Habits: 

(Primar>' Grades) — Demonstrates and dis- 
cusses the fundamental principles of personal 
hygiene and the fun of following health rules. 

10. what Numbers Mean: 

(Primary Grades) — A film which develops 
the concept and meaning of a number, using 
actual experiences, concrete objects and re- 
lationships shown by animation. 

1 1 . Keeping Fit: For Boys (Senior 
High) — A demonstration of simple exercises 

and sports that will develop and maintain 
proper physique and good health. 

12. Keeping Fit: For Girls (Senior 
High) — Demonstrates and explains recrea- 
tional exercises and sports which develop 
posture and poise as aids to good health. 

13. Safety at School: (Primary 

Grades) — A film that shows the actual safety 
experiences of a primary grade child on his 
way to and from school. Primarily designed 
for the purpose of teaching street safety. 

14. Safety at Home: (Elementary 

Grades) — Points out the fun of living safely 
by showing how safe living in the home is 
a matter for all members of the family. 

1 5. Safety at Play: (PrimaryGrades) 
— Designed to promote safe conduct of play 
activity and demonstratingthe necessity of safe 
conduct among children in group activities. 



".1 Complete Sen'ice in Visual Iiistriic/ion Films and f.qtiipment" 


E. 57th St., New York 22, N. Y. 

ivt circled the numbers of the new 
luctions of Young America Films I 
Id mcHt like to see as s<x>n as possible. 

Please send me also your complete 
1 and Equipment Catalogues for 1943- 

5<nd me the folder: "How To Build 
clf-Supporting Visual Education 






TYPING TECHNIQUES (Junior High) 11. 

TYPING TECHNIQUES (Senior High) 1]. 








School Addrets- 


onci HEAR— October 

Page 7 

that are declared surplus will require 
servicing and repairs. 

The number of film prints to he 
turned over for civilian use is another 
factor that could be determined now 
only by taking a cumbersome and costly 
world-wide inventory, SPB said. Several 
thousand films, and many prints of each, 
have been protlutcd for war use, on sub- 
jects ranging from wing assembly of 
planes to war activities of American 
towns, but many have been worn out in 
showings to servicemen all over the 
world. Others have been damaged by 
enemy action, unfavorable weather con- 
ditions and similar factors. 

Roth projectors and fdm prints will 
undoubtedly be declared surplus in 
small, continuous dribbles rather than 
in large lots, SPB said. Some films are 
held now by the Office of Surplus Prop- 
erty of the Department of Commerce, 
disposal agency for all film equipment, 
but cannot be distributed until legal re- 
strictions, such as copyright releases, are 
cleared. No 16 mm. projectors are held 
by the Department of Commerce at this 
time although some models are expected 

SPB urged education officials and 
community leaders wishing to obtain 
visual education equipment to outline 
programs for the effective utilization of 
such equipment. Educational institu- 
tions will be requested in the near fu- 
ture to submit these plans to the proper 
state and federal educational authorities. 
Those communities which can show, for 
example, that films and projectors will 
be circulated among schools, hospitals 
and cultural institutions in an area will 
have better chance to obtain their needs 
than a single school that can make no 
commitment to share with neighbors. 

New Visual Aids to Music 

Instruments of the Orchestra, one of 
the newest productions in the field of 
educational sound slidefilms, has been 
added to the film library of the .Society 
for Visual Education. It is designed to 
leach recognition of various instruments 
of the orchestra by picturing each in- 
strument in proper position for playing 

Pag* 8 

while its sound is reproduced from 
recording. This unusual teaching aii 
was produced in the Los Angeles CitI 
Schools by the Visual Education Sectio) 
in collaboration with the Music Sectioc 
The instrumentalists who assisted in th 
recording were instructors and student 
from the Los Angeles Junior and Senia 
High Schools. 

Instruments of the Orchestra is 
sound slidefilm in four parts. There ar 
two double-faced, 16-inch, 331/5 r.p.u 
recordings and one side of each dis 
provides the sound for one slidefiln 
Part 1—The Strings illustrates the vie 
lin, viola, violoncello, and double ba* 
Part II— The Woodwinds shows tb 
flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, clar 
net, bass clarinet, and the bassooi 
Part HI— The Brass takes up tb 
trumpet, trombone, the French hen 
and the tuba. Part IV—The Perot, 
sion, presents the tympani, bass driii 
snare drum, tambourine, gong, cymbal 
triangle, castanets, and the orchesti 

Accompanying the sound slidefilm 
an instructor's manual which includ( 
a list of additional recordings to illu 
trate the orchestral use of the varioi 

Geometry Series 

Knowledge Builders Classroom Filn 
are releasing a scries of geometry tead 
ing films in 16 mm. sound, under tb 
title of Practical Geometry. The fin 
subject in the series, now available, i 

Lines and /I rjg/ej— designed to aid tb 
student in his understanding of tt 
mathematical applications of bast 

Other subjects in the series are i 
production and will be released in tfc 
very near future. They are: 

Angles— n film whicli will help tl 
student luidcrstand all the various ^yp^ 
of angles and their relationship to eac 

Congruent fi\|Tur« — illustrating tl" 
geometric principles of "equal sides an 
c(|ual angles." 

Locus— m which a difficult topic ft 
many geometry students is clearly vUi 

October— SEE and HBI 

Industry and 

combine to make available an 
audio-visual library of text and 
recreational films and slide films 
through the 




Fiffh Edifion August, 1945 

Complete, up-to-date, organized information on over 2,500 free 
films and slide films, more than 1,500 of which are 16 mm. sound. 

Data includes titles, sizes, types, number of reels, running 
times, color or black on white, dates of release, brief descrip- 
tive annotations, terms and conditions of loans, names and 
addresses of distributors. 

Better than 25 per cent of the titles are new in this edition. 
All new titles are starred in the Title index. 

Title index of 13 pages, subject index of 16 pages, source in- 
dex of 23 pages, all in colors readily separated from each other 
and from classified listings of films; 15 pages of slide films, an- 
notated, sound and silent. All in one book of 262 pages. $4.00. 

Pamphlet entitled "Free Films in Schools," by Dr. John Guy Fowlkes, 
sent free on request. 




( ) Please send, on approval, copy of 1945 edition 


I At the end of 30 days, I will return it or ap- 

I prove payment of $4.00. 

I ( ) Please send without charge copy of your free 

I pamphlet, "Free Films in Schools," by Dr. John 

I Guy Fowlkes. 

1 Name 

^ School 











The animals had a council and suggested ways each onimal might he 
boys and girls be happy and enjoy playing together. If children we 
happy, then they wouldn't quarrel and have fights. Some of the animc 
song songs, some said poems, some did tricks, and all of them su 
gested ways to help boys and girls be happy. 

Ellen Millman 
Trochcr, liellexnie Sclinol, Clayton, Missouri 

CHILDREN will always agree 
that seeing a movie is fun. 
And we want children to have 
fun— wc want them to enjoy their 
school work. Hut more and more 
we are departing from the idea 

that seeing a movie is fun and r 
more than that. 

During the last year I ha 
had the opj)ortiniity to lo( 
through many ol the new fih 
which ha\e been made for p; 

niary children. I was most agrcc- 
ibly surprised by what 1 loinul. 
True, these younger children's 
motion pictine films were inter- 
:sting and in many cases do^vn- 
iijht lascinatiiiii. But more than 
hat, they were filled with infor- 
nation which brought new ideas 
to the children in an intriguing 

Not long ago I had the oppor- 
[unity to try out some of these 
filnis with a group of second-grade 
hildren. Alter beginning con- 
icrcnces with the children, it was 
.lecided that the theme of our 
itudy should be how farm animals 
(lelp Uncle Sam. Together we 
discovered that we knew a little 
3it about many animals, but not 
too much about any one. Each 
±ild decided that he was most in- 
:erested in one particular farm 
inimal and felt that he wanted to 
learn more about that one. 

We decided to read farm stories 
in books, ask people about farm 
mimals, talk to children who had 
spent some of their time on the 
[arm, to go on a trip to the farm 
if we coidd, and even to see 
movies about farm animals if we 
could find such. 

After they had decided on this 
unit of work, I secured the film 
Teen Age Farm Hand. And then, 

one morning we saw it. We didn't 
just walk in to sec the film, lu^w- 
ever. There were several things 
we did before that. We talked 
about farm hands, we discussed the 
meaning of tiic title of the film, 
we guessed how old the boy might 
be, and we thought we might look 
to see all the things he would 
have to do if he were a good farm 
hand. After this discussion, the 
group planned to look for three 
things as they watched the movie: 

1. How old the boy might be? 

2. Was he a good farm hand? 

3. What chores did he do on 
the farm? 

After returning to the class- 
room, the children dictated a 

Teen Age Farm Hand 
Kin lived on a farm. He was a boy 

As soon as the teacher becomes aware 
that the child is curious about environ- 
ments farther removed than those he 
can walk to or observe directly, her 
problem becomes one of finding mate- 
rials which are realistic and at the same 
time of social worth. Among the newest 
materials which can bring more remote 
experiences to young children are those 
which are being provided in the form of 
well-photographed, logically-organized, 
and correct teaching films. Miss Millman 
explains some of her interesting experi- 
ences with them.— T/ie Editor. 

Imj lotA 

about 13, 11, or 15 years old. Wc saw 
the farm where Kin lived. We saw four 
cows that gave milk for children. Ducks 
were swiuuuing in a pond. Hens were 
laying eggs in the chicken house. Kin 
milked a cow but not as fast as his fa- 
ther. The pigs were eating tomatoes. 
The horses pulled a hay rake in the field. 
Rosemary had a baby calf. The calf's 
legs weren't strong enough for it to 
stand up. The pony walked up behind 
mother and Kin. Brownie had five baby 
kittens. Kin uas a good farm liand. He 
liked his life on the farm. 

Another day Gretchen brought 
a snapping turtle for us to see. 
After we had examined it care- 
fully and talked about it, I ar- 
ranged for liic children to see the 
film Snapping Turtle. Taking a 
cue from the experience we have 
had in seeing Teen Age Farm 
Hand, wc decided that each child 
should think of all the things he 
would want to learn about snap- 
ping turtles before he saw the 
nio\ic-. \Ve weren't at all sure 
that we would find all our an- 
swers, and we discovered that 
we didn't. Here are some of the 
questions the children listed be- 
fore wc went to see the motion 
picture, Snapping Turtle. 

1. Is the turtle big or little? 

2. Does she hide in a shell? 

3. What does she eat? 

4. Where does she live? 

5. What does she do? 

6. Can she close her eyes when 
she sleeps? 

After talking and answering the 
(jucstions, a committee dictated 
this story: 

Pag* 12 



Miss Millman is 
a native of the Mis- , 
souri Ozarks. After \ 
high school in '. 
Eminence, Missou* 
ri, and undergradu- 
ate work at Spring- 
field Teachers 
College, Miss Millman received her 
master's degree from Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York. 

Miss Millman has taught in the 
primary grades in Missouri schools am 
in the laboratory schools of the state 
universities of Wisconsin and Ohio. At 
the present time she is teaching fourth 
grade in Bellevue School, Clayton, Mis- 

A Snapping Turtle 

The snapping turtle lives in the water 
part of the time. She eats fish, water 
insects, plants and crawfish. She crawlec 
upon the ground and laid 37 eggs. Then 
she covered the eggs with sand, then 
left them. The warm sun would hatch 
the eggs. The baby turtles knew enough 
to go to water to find food. In the win- 
ter the turtles hibernate at the bottom 
of the pond. They dig their way out in 
the spring. 

Not always did the children 
talk or write about the things they 
had actually seen in the picture. 
Frequently the experience ol 
\ iewing the film became a founda- 
tion upon which creative worl 
could be built. Two of the girU 
decided that they woidd write 
their own stories about the snap 
ping tiuilc. Here they are: 

Once upon a time there was a snappi 

October— SEE and HEAI 

[urtlc. She ate fish, insects, and water 
slants. She almost ate a crawfish. She 
;ot one leg off, but the crawfish didn't 
.are as another leg would grow. The 
inapping turtle crawled upon the earth 
Hul dug a hole. Then she laid her eggs. 
»hc went away and didn't have to do 
inything more for her babies. The yun 
ivould hatch them. Turtles eat their 
)abics sometimes. They don't know 
;heir babies. A dog saved the turtle's 
:?ggs. In the winter the turtle slept in 
:he mud. In the spring she came out. 
She was one year older. 

The snapping turtle has two homes. 
Qne home is in the water and another 
is on land. She eats fish, waterplants, 
ind insects. She laid 37 eggs in the sand 
inil covered them. A skunk found the 
jggs. A dog found the skunk eating the 
^s; the dog barked at the skunk, and 
the skunk ran away. Three months later 

the baby turtles hatched. It took a wliile 
before they got to the water. When they 
got there they swam into the water. 

Another morning the children 
went to the auditorium to see a 
movie about farm animals. They 
discussed farm animals and plan- 
ned to see how each animal 
helped Uncle Sam. Following the 
viewing of the movie there was a 
discussion. Some of the par- 
ticipants asked questions which 
the children answered. Since two 
questions were unanswered, it was 
decided to read in books for the 
answers. The questions were: 

1. Does a horse stand up all the 

A second grader explains all about elephants. This is an example of 
how art work was correlated with the summer school work which used 
films extensively as a source of interesting and understandable informa- 
tion about animals. 

SEE and HEAR— October 

Page 13 


The children enjoy reading the second-grade newspaper which was o 
direct outgrowth of seeing the films THE SNAPPING TURTLE, POULTRY 
was decided o weekly newspoper wos a good way to record our experi- 
ences in the laboratory school. Each Friday the children organized the 
happenings of the week for the newspaper — such as stories of movies, 
the most interesting news, science experiences, trips, and individual 
stories about the farm animals that help Uncle Sam. 

2. Does a cow and a horse get 
up the same way? 

Vhe information gained from 
this mo\ic was used later in writ- 
ing incli\ichial stories about farm 
animals that help Uncle Sam. 

As more and more information 
was gained about how animals 
help Uncle Sam, the children 
were led from one source of in- 
formation to another. After see- 
ing films, they read books, or they 
asked one another about experi- 
ences that they might have had 
with animals. It was not difficult 

Pag* 14 

to seek more information in addi- 
tional films. So it was (juiie logi- 
cal, because some of the children 
sought information about turkeys, 
hens, and ducks, to secure and 
look at the film Poultiy on the 
Fa rtn . 

Again, before seeing this film 
the children discussed all the 
things they hoped to learn about 
poultry. They listed all of their 
questions, and then each child 
chose one which he would investi-. 
gate and about which he would 
bring the answer to the whole 

October— SEE and HEAR 


oup. Some of the second grad- 
s questions were: 

1. What is a baby duck called? 

2. How old are ducks before they can 

3. Why can a duck swim and not a 

4. What is a mother turkey called? 

5. What is a father goose called? 

6. A goose says . 

7. A rooster wakes the farmer 
by . 

8. A baby goose is a . 

y. Ducks have feet. 

Several very tangible results 
ere apparent. The children 
»oked forward to viewing mov- 
s. The non-readers in the group 
lowed increasing interest 
irough their discussions of the 
lovies, and they, as well as the 
ther children, showed that in- 
)rmation had been gained. We 
)on found ourselves doing some- 
ling that hadn't occurred to us 
t the beginning— to settle argu- 
lents and to look for further 
iformation. The children them- 
:lves asked to be allowed to see 
nd study the same movie a sec- 
nd time. W^e soon found our- 
!lves doing this regularly. 

In my judgment, excellent 
caching films exist which may be 
sed effectively in second grade. 

hey are excellent because they 
iclude a commentary which is 
nderstandable to the children 
nd they proceed leisurely enough 
3 that even second graders can 
eep up. For the purpose of over- 
oming the difficulty of explain- 
ig to young children things that 
re far away or hard to witness 
rst-hand, it would be hard to 

find a good substitute for a 
primary grade film. 

Films suitable for second grad- 
ers are: 

Airplane Trip. 

Animals of the Zoo. 

Care of Pets. 

Dairy Farm. 


Gray Squirrel. 

Our Foster Mother, the Cow. 

Shep, the Farm Dog. 

Three Little Kittens. 



Robin Redbreast. 

Baby Beavers. 

Common Animals of the Woods. 


From Wheat to Bread. 

Good Foods: Milk. 

Honey Bee. 

Passenger Train. 

Some Friendly Birds. 

It may be on film— but! 

During the war, the Japanese Army 
made a propaganda film at an Allied 
prisoner-of-war camp in Siam. The film 
unit was set up outside the prisoners' 
canteen. Allied men filed past the cam- 
era receiving fruit, eggs. Red Cross par- 
cels, and mail. Japanese guards took 
these from the prisoners at the end of 
each performance and re-issued them 
for further shots. 

Other scenes were photographed show- 
ing men reading letters. They were 
Japanese Army correspondence lent for 
the occasion. There was also a back- 
ground of Red Cross boxes. All were 
empty. Canteen scenes showed the men 
sitting at the tables piled high with 
fruit, eggs, meat, and vegetables. At the 
word "go" the men were ordered to 
start eating. The camera recorded for 
two or three minutes, then the Allied 
prisoners were told to stop eating and 
were marched from the canteen. Japa- 
nese officers took their places at the 

Allied Land Forces of South East Asia 


EE and HEAR— October 

Page 15 

How to 
use puppets 
in a simple 
and prac- 
tical way 


Josephine S. Miller 

Principal, Jefferson School 

LaCrosse, Wisconsin 

a splendid means of making co 
Crete the creative imaginativene 
with which children are endowe 
Through puppetry they give co 
creteness to their artistic talents ai 
to their language facility. M: 
Miller, who has long been fascinati 
with this medium of expression, h 
in a very practical way overcon 
many of the mechanical difTiculti 
of puppetry through pcrfectii 
means which arc described in \.\ 


EING in someone else's 
boots" is the aim and ambi- 
tion of everyone at one time or 
another. Puppetry makes this aim 
come very near true for the school 
child. There is nothing more ex- 
citing than being "Cinderella" 
via the puppet string or "jack" 
in "Jack and the Beanstalk." 

Being able to become tempo- 
Page 16 

rarily the person one interprei 
offers the child an excellent o 
j)ortimity for understanding d 
whys and wherefores of anothei 
conduct. Not only in a fable bi 
in studying history or geograpl 
is this feat possible. 

I am speaking now not of 
studied and stilted puppetry pla 

October — SEE and HE 

opportunity for in- 
dividual artistic ex- 
pression is evi- 
denced as this little 
girl colors the face 
of her puppet "just 
the way she 
imagines is should 

Simplicity in oper- 
ating a puppet is 
one of the first es- 
sentials. Notice that 
only two sets of 
strings need be 
grasped by the 

but one in which the children 
themselves make up the lines and 
situations. Creative dramatics 
must lie back of the puppetry 
presentation in order that the 
greatest benefit to the child may 

It wasn't long ago that educa- 
tors learned that children's hands 
should be educated, and voca- 
tional training was the talk of 
teachers' institutes. Very recently 
a few of the leaders began to won- 
der what could be done about the 
child's emotions. They opened 
the way for many kinds of cre- 
ative activities recognizing that 
the creative is the richest life for 
the individual as well as for so- 

Self-consciousness makes life 
miserable for many a boy and 
girl, especially in the adolescent 
period. Being able to take the 
place of another temporarily and 
speak for another tends to allevi- 
ate this difficulty by means of a 
delightful and profitable pro- 

A too-crowded program keeps 
many schools from recognizing 
puppetry as an educating and so- 
cializing force. However, as more 
schools realize that this art can fit 
easily into any literature or social 
studies unit, we shall see this very 
fascinating and worth-while ex- 
perience used regularly. 

The construction of puppets is 
not at all difficult. The following 
procedure has been used effective- 
ly in our school. First, clay is used 

Pago 18 

to form an egg-shaped head. Eye 

may be formed by pressing a fin 

ger gently into the clay. The) 

press down where the nose end 

and with a slight upward pressur 

hump up some clay for the now 

Later, when the rest of the face i 

being painted, you can paint 

mouth. Get three metal paper fa 

tencrs or three small hairpins an 

press them into the clay head, ori 

at each ear and one at the necl' 

The neck clip will be used latt 

to attach the head onto the bod 

Press each clip into the clay e: 

cept the last one-fourth incl 

The strings to control the hc^ 

will be tied to the clips pla. 

at the ears. Plan to let the hc;i 

dry for several days while v 

make the body and clothes. 

The body can be made of pin 
peach-colored, white, or unbleac 
ed cloth. The material must 1 
new enough to be strong, but 
should not be stiff. Make rectan 
ular pieces for the trunk, legs ar; 
arms. Make the foot and leg ! 
one piece and the hand and ar 
also in one piece. Just round tl 
cloth off like the main part of 
mitten for the hands and fecj 
Then you can bend the foot fc 
ward and sew it in position 

See illustrations on 
preceding page. 

Cut the pieces the followi' 
sizes, then fold each piece ai 
sew it aroinid the edges on t 
sewing machine: Body, 5" x 5i/< 
each leg, 21/2" x 7"; each ar 
214" X 61/2". Put a double siri 
inside each part before you s- 

October— SEE and HI 

e edges. Later the strings \vill 
! of assistante in turning tlie 
ft inside out. 

Use the following procedure in 
ing an arm. First, fdl the hand 
th dry sand and sew it. Then 
ive J^" without sand and sew 
tin. Fill in more sand to the 
)ow and sew across, leave ]/^" 
thout sand, and sew again. 

rials so they can move easily. 

Young children or beginners 
should not be expected to handle 
wooden controls. One ad\antage 
of this method of construction is 
that only head strings and hand 
strings need be operated by the 
child. This simple construction 
allows the child to give most of 
his attention to creating his im- 

With a little work, some 
care, and a surprising amount 
of interest and enthusiasm, 
see what happens. You are 
correct, unless you had seen 
it, you wouldn't believe it. 

Then put in about two inches 
sand, sew it, leaving the rest 
'thout sand to lap over the body 
'the shoulder. This will leave a 
ice at the shoulder without 
iid to allow the arm to hang 
np. Make the legs like the arms 
id then bend each foot forward 
id sew in place across the heel 
' that the foot will stay in the 
u'ht position. Fill the trunk 
|th cotton or rags so it will not 
; heavy. 

Dress puppets with soft mate- 

^. and HEAR — October 

And here's the whole family— mamma, 
papa and the little girl, Ah Ling. 
This is iL'hat children can do when 
assisted through the basic steps but 
alloived to give free rein as far as cos- 
tume, art work and modeling are 

pressions of what his puppet char- 
acter should say and do. 

After the head is thoroughly 
dry, it is ready to paint. Orange 
and white make a good color for 
skin. Any flat paint will work 
well, even wall paints. Look at 
dolls or pictures and real eyes be- 
fore you paint eyes, eyelashes and 

Page 19 

eyebrows. It is better to keep 
them as simple as possible. Make 
a small mouth. Put some rouge 
or red powder paint ujion the tip 
of a finger and put on rosy cheeks. 

Hair may be made of yarn, 
string ravelled out, real hair, or 
anything else that you might wish 
to try. 1 he hair for male puppets 
should be painted on the head. 
Duco, Tcstor's cement (not the 
airplane cement) , or glue will 
hold the hair on. 

History, geography, literature, 
and scenes from books may all 
come to life on the puppetry 

The puppet play might be a 
folk tale of a country or a demon- 
stration of some of the national 
customs. Following the play chil- 
dren use other mediums to learn 
about the places studied. Maps, 
books, pictures, and teaching 
films are all essential parts of the 
whole learning experience. 

A puppetry story can easily be 

built up about an historic episo( 
being studied. You will find th 
if a child becomes the pupp 
character and speaks for him, 1 
will not soon forget the far 
underlying a history assignmei] 
The whole study becomes brig 
and alive with reality. Caesii 
Robespierre, Columbus, or Fl( 
cnce Nightingale come to life 
the minds of the young pi 

Dramatization of an imagii 
tive story from literature is fi 
cinating and productive. The 
nations appeal to the child aj 
the truths of the story 1| 
through visual and auditory intj 

It is not only fun to mal 
puppet, but it is fun to be a 
of a creati\e scheme of things, 
be able to make a puppet a< 
then to speak and live and 
for it offers a great appeal to a 
"child" whether he be five • 

IF YOU need a good audio-visual handbook, write to Boyd F. 
Baldwin, University of Montana, Missoula, for a copy of a Tenta- 
tive Guide for Montana High Schools, The Audiovisual Aids Hand- 
book, Curriculum Bulletin No. 3. The bulletin is organized under 
four headings: 1. Why take advantage of audio-visual materials? 2. 
What procedures are effective? 3. \Vhat aids are actually available? 
4. Where may schools obtain cfiuipnicnl. materials, repairs, informa- 
tion? The format and organization of this brief yet inclusive 18-page 
mimeographed bulletin may well serve as a model for others who plan 
to compile similar information for their own schools or communities. 

THK booklet "Simplicity in Visual Education" will be sent it 
response to in<|uiries about Sono-Vision's IG mm. motion picluri 
sound projector. 

Ihis b<M>klet outlines the manv operational advantages of rear 
projcdion. It is claimed that the Sono-X'ision cabinet unit can b< 
used in any classroom wiihoiu prior room conditioning, without dark 
ening windows, and without disrupting classes or classroom seating 

-SEE aiU 1 'S 

Pog* 20 


J. Margaret Carter 

National Film Board of Canada 

PRIL skies frown menacingly scending gloom. The schoolyard 
. on a bleak little district is a happy jumble of farm trucks, 

•ol in the rural settlement of 
(leton, Ontario. It has never 
eared more dismal nor unin- 
ed. And yet a strong under- 
' of excitement seems almost 
each out tiny hands to push 
V the heavy clouds of tran- 

cars, and bicycles which have 
transported the radiant-faced 
Canadian school children from 
the seven schools in the district. 
Down the road a little band of 
children with their teacher enter 
the last lap of the three-mile walk 

Courtesy Foreinn Policy Association and "Canada, Our Northern Neighbor," Merrill Denison. 

nd HEAR— October 

Page 21 

he Story the Pictures Tell 


IHcrc one of over 100 skilled operators and experienced discussion lead- 
ers unloails his C(iiiipniciU al a Canadian rural school. Traveling in 
■full dress," Rural Circuits' projectionist liill Ritchie arrives at a small 
Canadian town complete with projector, sound-box, films, and screen. 
In the school, etiuipment will he set up. School cliildren of the dis- 
trict will see the program in the afternoon; in the evening the adult 
audience will arrive for their showing. Programs generally last for 1 1/^ 
hours, arc followctl by forum discussions on questions raised in the pic- 
tures screened. 

2 Streaming into the school, these children have come from miles around 
tlic district for their afternoon fdm showing. National Film Board projec- 
tionist greets them at the door. In the evening, the same hall will be 
filled with adults gathered for their Rural Circuits program. 

3rrom seven dilTerent schools, the children come for their fdm showing 
at .Vppleton, Ontario. Some arrive on foot, some by bicycle, others in 
cars or farm trucks. Children look forward to these Rural Circuits show- 
ings eagerly, flood the projectionist with questions relevant to the pic- 
tures presented. Often essays are submitted by students on the films they 
have seen. 

4 1 he fdm forums affect the whole community wherever people gather. 
1 hey may read the announcements or discuss the listed visit of the cir- 
cuit truck. At the general store in a Canadian town, the National Film 
Board poster announces the next Rural Circuits program. Showing will 
be held in town hall, school auditorium, church basement, or whichever 
happens to be the largest place in town. Rural inhabitants for miles 
around gather for their regular monthly film showing, consider it an 
important community event. Rural Circuits audiences across Canada 
now total 400.000 people. 

5 Together, the discussion leader and pupils from the school discuss the 
announcement of the fdm they will see that day. Depending on the 
predominant language spoken, films are prepared with appropriate com- 
mentary. In those sections of Canada where the French language pre- 
dominates. National Film Board programs on the Rural Circuits are 
presented complete with French commentaries. Bringing regular month- 
ly film showings to some 250,000 Canadians living in the towns and 
villages of the Dominion, the Rural Circuits, as well as presenting eve- 
ning showings for the adult population, offer afternoon programs for 
school children. Above, a National Film Board poster in French an- 
nounces the time and place of the next showing. 

6 An appreciative Rural Circuits audience comes to the school at night, 
after the day's chores are done. They will see documentary pictures, 
comedies, films dealing with themes of direct interest to rural inhabitants, 
singsongs. Most encouraging development of these showings are the film 
forums which follow each program. Men and women engage in stimu- 
lating discussion on films seen, exchange ideas on various questions the 
films raise. 

Pictures courtesy National Film Board of Canada. 

EE and HEAR— October Page 23 

from a neighboring school. 

In the doorway the representa- 
tive of Canada's National Film 
Board welcomes the audience to 
the monthly program of docu- 
mentary films where they will 
learn about their neighbors on 
the rocky shores of eastern Canada 
and those who earn their liveli- 
hood in the wheat lands of Sas- 
katdicwan. Other types of films 
included on the programs are 
those dealing with Canadian art, 
music, and social living in Can- 
ada. Hundreds of practical school- 
learning projects have been the 
residt of cooperation between 
teacher, pupil, and operator. 

Admittedly not the most effi- 
cient possible utilization of the 

Editor's Note: Nowhere has a project 
been begun which may affect adult 
awareness of current social problems 
and vocational opportunity comparable 
to that effect which will be wrought 
upon Canadian thinking through the 
National Film Forum program. No ham- 
let is too remote, no provincial frontier 
loo inaccessible to feel the impact of 
this great program of public enlighten- 
ment. It is a story of one man's dream 
come true— one man's dream of telling 
the farmer of Alberta about the fisher- 
men of Halifax, of bringing the music 
of the Indian Potlatch to the ears of 
Montreal listeners, and of allowing 
every child to thrill to the adventures 
of the C-anadian "voyageur" and the 
Indian trapper. 

motion picture for educational 
purposes, never-the-less this by- 
product use of the National Film 
Board Riual Circuit jjrograms 
does make an inestimable con- 

Paga 24 

tribution to the rural schools of 
Canada. It does bring the film 
into schools where, otherwise, 
learning through visual materials, 
the factual film, would not likely 
be experienced for years to come. 

In Canada there is no equiva- 
lent to the United States Office ol 
Education. In July, 1867, with 
the passage of the British North 
America Act, Canada became a 
united nation fusing together th( 
two widely differing racial ele 
ments, the English and th( 
French. In the process, emphasi: 
was placed on the retention o 
certain basic provincial rights 
chief among which was educa 
tion. The distribution of lilnv 
within each province depend 
upon obtaining the cooperatioi 
and good will of the provincia 
Department of Education. 

The Rural Circuits were dc 
signed primarily for adult audi 
ences. When the progiam wa 
initiated early in 1942, only 30 o 
these traveling theater units wer 
utilized in carrying out the pre 
gram. But the venture was rt 
ceived with such enthusiasm tha 
it soon became apparent that e> 
pansion was in order. Now 10 
circuits bring monthly program 
to approximately 250,000 rura 
folks in every province of Canads 
from British Columbia to Nov 
Scotia. The technique for staj 
ing the programs follows an ider 
tical pattern in each provino 
On a designated day, set well i 
advance, the traveling projectioi 
ist arrives in the village. Dmin 

Oclobar— SEE and HE; 

afternoon he presents the pro- 
ni to the local school. If there 

no other facilities, the school 
isecl again in the evening for 
adult audience. In some 
!S, however, the adult audience 
hers in the community hall, 
irch, or other public meeting 
ce. In some isolated regions 
se film circuits have brought 
se individuals their first film 
•ericnce. Many of them come 
m miles around in sub-zero 
ither to see the film showing. 

lach showing provides them 

with a balanced program of films, 
including pictures pertaining to 
definite agricultural problems of 
specific interest to farming com- 
munities—films of people and 
e\ents in other provinces which 
set the perspective of their lives 
against the national and the in- 
ternational scene, purposeful car- 
toons and lively singsongs to 
serve as icebreakers. Many of the 
film programs are prepared with 
a view of acquainting peoples of 
varying racial and occupational 
interests with the life and pur- 

Film showings and discussion meetings usually held in town halls, 
churches, or in school buildings sometimes find their way into 
remoter sections. Here's a group assembled in one of the buildings 
of a far northern lumber camp shown just after they have com- 
pleted the viewing of that month's circuit program of pictures 
which brought them news from the rest of Canada. 






J. Margaret 

Miss Carter ina 
jorccl in Englisli 
and was graduated 
^ from the Iniversity 

^tf^ of Iowa with a 
-^L Jr^ 15 -^- degree and a 
^L Jp teacher's certificate. 

\/ Through her later 

work with Rand McNaily and the Uni- 
versity of Chicago I'rcss, she l)ecanie en 
thusiastically interested in the primary 
tools for learning. 

She was among the lirst far-sighted 
persons who spoke above the protesta- 
tions to the teaching film being a fad 
and frill. More recently she has con- 
ducted fdm utilization surveys and has 
conducted courses in visual education 
for teachers at the University of Florida 
and Southern Methodist University. 

Since January 1, 1943, she has been 
director of non theatrical distribution in 
liie United States for the National Film 
Board of Canada. 

suits of their fellow Canadians. 

Back in Appleton, Ontario, the 
farmers of the district have Qn- 
ishcd their chores for the day and 
have gathered at the school to en- 
joy the monthly film program. 
Here they see a documentary film 
of Pierre, the fisherman, whose 
life is regulated by the rise and 
fall of the tide. These farmers 
see how Pierre's life in his simple 
fishing village is very different 
from that of the farmer in On- 
tario, for here the land is poor 
while the sea is rich. They see 
how Pierre sells his catch to a co- 
operative which assures him top 
market prices. The farmers watch 

Paa* 26 

the cooperative meetings wher; 
the fishermen gather to studj 
problems and decide how 
business is to be managed. The 
see the fishing people builj 
democracy or share responsibility 
into their way of life. 

Later the farmers ask the waj 
in which this cooperative theoi! 
could be applied to a rural corJ 
munity through the formation i| 
credit unions. This is describe] 
to them in the documentary filrj 
The People's Bank. This pictuj 
shows the growth and purpose 
credit unions which have gro\ 
up in fishing and mining co? 
muniiies, in the farming and il 
dustrial settlements all ov| 
Canada. Filmed in Quebec, NtJ 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, M« 
toba, and Saskatchewan, 
Canadian farm and town famill 
participating in the story, t| 
credit union film points out h^ 
rural communities have put «|l 
operative finance into practice. 

The spontaneous discussij 
which takes place among U 
farmers of Appleton. immediat 
following the showing, is a 
cal reaction on the rural circu] 
For this reason, the field rej 
sentatives are carefully selcc' 
for their ability to lead a disc; 
sion as well as operate a project 
The field representative musti 
able to lead forum groups ara< 
the farm audiences and to ansij 
questions on film content. 

A series of Citizen's Foritt 
has developed out of these f> 

October — SEE and H »R 

jrains. Sonictiiiics, these forums 
ire given in conjunction witli 
uch organizations as the Ca- 
ladian Hroadcasting Corporation, 
he ('.aiuulian Association for 
\diih Education, and the Coun- 
il for tchication and Citizenship, 
during the past two years more 
han 1,000 of these forums ha\e 
)een initiated and the influence 
)f the grass roots on the composi- 
ion of Fihii Board programs, 
hrough the medium of the Rural 
Circuits, has been beyond calcu- 

So successful ^vere the Rural 
Circuits, that the Film Board 
nitiated an Industrial Service in 
943, ^\•hich at the present time 
caches over 250,000 Canadian 
vorkers each month in 1,200 in- 
histrial plants across the Domin- 
on. Labor and manajjement 
ooperate in putting on these film 
)rograms in the plant on com- 
)any time. There is no charge 
or the showings. The projection- 
st who is to serve the particular 
)lant consults with management 
oncerning the most practical lo- 
ation for setting up the projector, 
ind the workers gather around to 
ee a half-hour program made up 
)f films concerned with problems 
)f both national and internation- 
il significance, cartoons with defi- 
lite objectives, and development 
>f labor-management committees 
n other countries. 

Of special interest, because of 
ts particular adaptability to 
idult educational work, is the 
Frades Union Circuit on which 

■EE and HEAR— October 

the Film Board presents a month- 
ly film program to approximately 
40,000 'Frades Unionists. To 
meet the needs of this interested, 
yet critical audience, a number of 
special discussion trailers of from 
three to fi\e minutes have been 
prepared, particularly in connec- 
tion with films on industrial rela- 
tions and the rehabilitation of 
returning veterans. 

At the conclusion of each film 
presenting a problem which em- 
bodies some current controversial 
issue, the film trailer introduces 
on the screen a study group simi- 
lar to the assembled audience. 
Under the expert guidance of a 
chairman, the screen audience 
points out the various issues 
raised in the film. The chairman 
then sums up the major issues 
which they have raised and we 
see a close-up on the screen as he 
turns to the real audience and in- 
vites their participation. 

Following the example of this 
trailer, the audience engages in a 
lively discussion. This new tech- 
nique has resulted in advancing 
the use of the film as an aid to 
discussion. The value of these 
discussions can be measured di- 
rectly by the thousands of groups 
throughout the Dominion who 
have been stimulated to study the 
fundamental problems of our day. 
Under the guidance of expert 
leaders, almost any film about in- 
ternational, political, or economic 
issues can be adapted to discus- 
sions on citizenship. 

Page 27 

- • ' ^ - 

As a counterpart of the Rural Circuits are the Industrial programs. 
In this machine shop in Montreal, work was stopped while the 
operator set up his equipment right in the center of their work 
environment. Incentive films were shown to interested workers 
who used the very tools upon which they worked as resting places. 


In addition to the regidar 
Rural and Industrial Service 
Circuits, the Film Board has co- 
operated with many local 
(organizations to expand the non- 
theatrical distribution of govern- 
ment fdms. Kivvanis International 
.md Jimior Boards of Trade have 
put on thousands of shows 
iluougii their Volunteer Projec- 
tion Services. Many regional film 
libraries, fountl in colleges, uni- 
versities, public libraries, provin- 

Pag* 28 

cial departments of education 
normal schools, Y.M.C.A.'s, art 
regularly serviced by the Filir 
Board and are responsible foi 
providing films to many rural anc 
urban communities throughou' 
the Dominion. 

In Canada the importance o; 
the documentary film as an edu 
cational and informational me 
dium has been firmly established 
as evidenced by the thousands o 
Canadians who regularly attenc 

October— SEE and HEA 

he monthly programs sponsored 
)y the National Film Board. The 
locmncntary encompasses many 
ypes of films, from the straight 
actual to the more intricate film 
>f information concerned with 
ocial implications. In the latter 
atcgory the range is limitless— 
rom the exploration of the basic 
nterests of the citizen to the in- 
erpretation of complex interna- 
ional affairs. And so the 
locimicntary film treats such so- 
ial problems as housing, child 
velfare, public health, nutrition, 
igricultural instruction, and rural 
ociology, labor-management re- 
ations, and the reconversion of 
ndustry, regional planning, and 
nd us trial research for full em- 

The significant difference be- 
ween the documental y and the 
eature film familiar to theater- 
joers, lies in the fact that the 
locumentary follows the dramatic 
jattern in the actual, while the 
eature seeks the dramatic pattern 
n the fictional. The essence of 
he documentary film is reality, 
rhe lives of ordinary men and 
vomen are re-enacted in the fa- 
niliar settings of their everyday 
ives— the farm, the factory, the 
hip, the lumber camp, the mill, 
he school, the church, the village 
itory. No mere newsreel, the 
locumentary is built around a 
pattern of thought interpreting 
:he events of the day in terms of 
ievelopments in the past, and, in 
:urn, relating past and present to 
:he future that lies ahead. The 
iocumcntary film-maker is con- 

)EE and HEAR— October 

fronted with the problem of pre- 
senting a record of actuality 
within a span of 20 minutes or 
less. To achie\e this end, it is 
necessary to compress the essen- 
tial facts into a logical secjuence 
without violating reality. 

Thus, the documentary film 
becomes one of the newer supple- 
ments through which remote in- 
formation can be "captured" and 
made fluid in the ability to which 
it can present its story far and 
wide. It does this as often as is 
necessary for the audience to in- 
terpret it and under conditions of 
time, place, and use which will 
make it of utmost value to the 
groups that are seeking to influ- 
ence their funds of information 
and social thinking and future 
plans of action as a result of par- 
ticipating in this newest type of 
adult information— that which is 
brought to them through the 
realistic and valuable docu- 

The second part of Miss Carter's 
• Canadian story will appear in • 
the November issue. 


A Fish Is Born 

(Sound) 10 minutes. Use: Natural 
Science I; Conservation, General Science 
J; Biology S, C; Clubs A. 

THIS fine film shows the method of 
extracting the eggs and milt from 
male and female fish, the steps in 
the fertilization and development of the 
embryo fish in the egg through the fry, 
fiiigerling, and final adult stages. Ex- 
cellent time-lapse photography and 
microphotography are included. Bell & 
Howell. At your nearest film library. 

Page 29 




Alvin B. Roberts 
Principal, Gilson, Illinois High School 

Mr. Roberts has 
very ably complet- 
eci one of the most 
ambitious siineys 
of some 4,000 
scliools or school 
systems throughout 
the United States. 
While his returns 
represent a sam- 
pling, the trends 
they show must be 
(onsidcrcd valid because they so ac- 
curately represent the cross section of 
thinking that exists today. Mr. Roberts 
has prepared the following digest of 
thumb-nail chart descriptions. 

The Editors 

THE publicity given to the mil- 
itary training program has 
created trcnicndous interest in the 
use of audio-visual materials as a 
part of our educational program. 
As a result of this wave of inter- 
est, many are predicting a rapid 
expansion in the use of these ma- 
terials in our schools in the post- 
war period. However, while 
interest is paramount in the de- 
velopment of this program, it is 
by no means the only factor. Con- 
sctjucntly, one may ask if the cir- 

Pag* 30 

cumstances which have always 
had a tendency to check the fur- 
ther use of audio-visual materials 
have been altered by the military 
training program? 

Here are the basic factors that, 
in the past, have had a tendency 
to retard the audio-visual pro- 
gram in oiu- schools. 

1. Teacher training. The ulti- 
mate success of the audio-visual 
program must be measured in 
terms of the contribution of these 
aids to the educational objectives. 
This in turn depends upon the 
teacher's knowledge of the func- 
tion of these aids. 

2. The attitude of the admin- 
istrator. In all too many cases the 
principal or superintendent fails 
to see the audio-visual program in 
its true relationship to the cur- 

3. Distribution of materials. 
These materials must be in the 
school at the time needed by the 
teacher. Consequently, materials 
must be booked at considerable 
time in advance of the date need 

October— SEE and HEAI 

id. This requires detailed plan- 
ling and the nicest cooperation 
)Ctw'ecn the instructors and the 

irector of the audio-visual pro- 


4. Production. This involves a 
ong series of problems, but pos- 
ibly the most important one is 
loser cooperation between the 
jroducer and the ultimate con- 
umer, the classroom teacher. 

5. The board of education con- 
rols the purse strings. For the 
L)oard of education to be aware 
')f the need of projectors is one 
hing, for it to realize the essen- 
ial importance of an adequate 
Audiovisual program is of much 
liiore consequence. 


The success of the audio-visual 
urogram in the schools of tomor- 
]ow depends upon the degree to 
ivhich the different groups will 
!:ooperate with one another in an 
'•ffort to further this whole move- 

How can the classroom teacher, 
he administrator, the director of 
he audio-visual program, the dis- 
1 ibutor, the producer, and boards 
t education all work together to 
idvance and enrich the educa- 
ional program through the use 
t audio-visual materials? In an 
ittempt to answer this question 
he author has made an extensive 
Uudy of the audio-visual move- 
nent on a nation-wide basis. If 
Jill schools are to use these ma- 
terials, then it is well to know 
how those that are carrying on 
bn audio-visual program are do- 

pEE and HEAR— October 

ing it, what their problems are, 
and how they are planning to 
meet them. 

To get an overview of the prob- 
lems of the schools the author 
mailed 4,125 questionnaires to 
schools or school systems. They 
were mailed according to the fol- 
lowing enrollments. In Illinois 
200 to each group with enroll- 
ments as follows: Group A— en- 
rollment of over 500, Group B— 
enrollment of 150 to 499, and 
Group C— enrollment under 149. 
In the remaining 47 states 75 
questionnaires were mailed, 25 to 
each group as listed above omit- 
ting schools in cities with the 
population of over 100,000. In all, 
3,515 were sent to the 47 states 
and 600 to the schools of Illinois. 

To check still further on trends, 
other than those indicated by the 
school people, and to get a better 
perspective of the problems of 
the distributor, 195 question- 
naires were sent to large rental 
libraries or other distributors of 
audio-visual materials. 

In addition to the above, the 
author has discussed postwar de- 
velopment with most of the lead- 
ing producers of audio-visual 
equipment and materials. 

The ideas and suggestions ad- 
vanced in this paper are based 
upon the above sources, and 20 
years' experience in the audio- 
visual field. 

The number of questionnaires 
returned was very satisfactory 
when one considers the extra bur- 

Pag« 31 


Cameras and Screens 















Does your school own a movie comero? 

60 254 

15 215 

6 30 

81 499 

Hove you made any films which you 
have used? 

102 203 

30 192 

2 29 

134 424 

Does your school hove access to cam- 
eros for 2x2 slides? 

100 204 

40 196 

4 30 

144 430 

Do you believe school-mode movies will 
have a part in audio-visual program 
of the future? 

270 38 

200 23 

30 4 

500 65 

Do you believe 2x2 slides will have a 
part in program of the future? 

235 29 

293 21 

33 3 

561 53 






















The outlook for school production from the number of schools that 
own their own cameras that have made their own films is for a postwar 
period in which well-ec]uipped schools will do much local production of 
visual materials. Not only does the ownership of equipment point in this 
direction, but the attitude which school people have expressed in answering 
the question, "Do you believe that school-made movies will have a part in 
the audio-visual program of the future?" indicates an overwhelming affirma- 
tive answer. Perhaps the greatest production will be in the area of 2 x 2 

den placed upon school people 
by war. Of the GOO sent to the 
schools of Illinois 195 were re- 
turned. Of this nimiber 165 were 
tabulated. For the three groups 
this is 271/2% return. 

The total returns from the 
other states was much smaller, 955 
in all. However, 341 reported no 
audio-visual program or returned 

Pag* 32 

the questionnaire without at 
comments, leaving a total of 61 
171/4% suitable for tabulatio 
The greatest number of blai 
returns were from the small 

Approximately 50% of the 
mailed to film libraries or d 
tributors were returned. Of ti 

October— SEE and HE 


Equipment Plans for the Future 











35 mm. Sound 





35 mm. Silent 





16 mm. Sound 





16 mm. Silent 





Stondord 3' 4 x4 Slide 





2x2 Slide 





35 mm. Stripfilm 





Tripurpose Projector 





Opaque Projector 





Motion Picture Camera 





2x2 Slide Camera 





It needs no study to point out that most schools anticipate the pur- 
chase of a 16 ram. sound projector as a number one "must" now that the 
war is over. The tripurpose, the opaque, the 35 mm. filmstrip, and the 
2x2 projector are listed next in order of the plans which school people 
are making for their purchase. Are we heading for a greatly expanded 
school use of visual education materials? The answer most decidedly is "yes." 
Learning by seeing and hearing will invade more and more of our schools. 

amber only 57 were tabulated, 
hose not tabulated dealt with a 
•ccial film or were too restricted 
' be of value. 

The total return suitable for 
bulation was slightly over 17%. 
hroughout this paper the per- 
•ntage of replies is based upon 
le total number of replies to 
tch question or item, and not 
1 the total return. 

The returns are distributed as 
,'llows: Group A— 55%; Group 
r41%; and Group C-57p. In 
ilinois the returns were: Group 

|E and HEAR— October 

A-28%; Group B-48%,; and 
Group C-24%. New York and 
Michigan hold first place in the 
greatest nimiber of returns. These 
two including Colorado and In- 
diana had better than a 30% 
return. Wisconsin, Washington, 
Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and 
Montana had over a 25% return. 
While the six states— Florida, 
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, and West Virginia 
had less than a 10% return. 

Regardless of the number of 
returns per state the items or 

Page 33 


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No. 1— C 
No. 2—7 
No. 3— L 















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e 1 f" C 

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cj -T f 
= O C 
o ;r 

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IS (U ^ 



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C w t« 

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J. o o 
O "3 :t 
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Pag* 34 

October— SEE and HI 

How Is Visual Education Administered Today? 











you hove o Director of Visual 











no director, who is 
















students help in handling 











students operote 











students check and oil 











you have a program of train- 
ing for students? 











teachers know how to operate 











/ould simplified uniform forms 
be helpful in the administra- 
tion of your program? 











f your curriculum were studied 
and films suggested for use 
] with various units, do you feel 
j riiis would be a valuable serv- 
1 ke in the administration of 
your audio-visual program? 











nterested in such a service if 
provided at small cost? 











ntercsted in such a service if 






provided ot no expense? 






juestions checked are in approxi- 
iiately the same ratio. The 614 
ihools reporting owned a total 
I 2,016 projectors of all types. 

j Much remains to be done in 
lie field of administration. Less 
iJan 17% of the schools reporting 
ave a director of visual instruc- 
.on. In the schools having no 
irector this work is carried on 

N and HEAR— October 

by the superintendent, principal, 
or the teacher, or by a combina- 
tion of the three. In most cases 
the principal or superintendent 
is too busy to give the necessary 
time required to develop a well- 
balanced audio-visual program. 
This is also true of the classroom 
teacher who is assigned to this 
position, and in all too many 

Page 35 

(ascs the auclio-\isual director is 
not gi\en suflicicnt time for tlie 
work required. 

Many schools arc encouraging 
students to liclp with the pro- 
gram by jjroNiding reguhn- train- 
ing periods for tliem. This train- 
ing will be of considerable \alue 
to those entering the teaching 

What then are the greatest 
needs in the field of adniinistra- 
tion as reflected by this survey? 

The following refers to 

The majority of teachers are 
attempting to correlate the film 
with a specific topic. However, 
many reported the film not on 
hand when needed. This does not 
mean the film was not delivered 
when scheduled, but the schedule 
was prepared so far in ad\ance 
that exact timing is difficult. If 
one waits luitil the film is needed 
then it is probably booked by 
some other school. 

Of the 525 schools reporting, 
38G feel their teachers are not get- 
ting the maximum value from 
the films. By way of explanation. 
.S7 report "the teachers just show 
the films," 10 report "they let the 
director show the film and lead 
the discussions," 29 say "their 
teachers arc not interested," while 
14 indicate that "their teachers 
do not imderstand the function 
of the film as a teaching aid." 

Do the teachers use the plans 
sent out with the film? Approxi- 
mately 50% do. However, only 
17 central libraries report that 

Pag* 36 

0\cr 92*^^ indicate they wouh 
like help in correlating the film 
with the cinricuhuii. This pei 
centage is about the same regard 
less of the enrollment of th 
school. The fact that such a larg 
nimibcr of the schools are e\ci 
willing to pay for this ser\ice I 
indicative of the demand. A\ 
proximately 63% feel that a chai 
that will simplify the work of th 
teacher and the director in settin 
up the audio-visual program wii 
enhance this movement. 

Chart V on next page. 

teachers are using these material 
while 27 say they are not. 

Only 46% of the teachers ai 
pre\iewing films before usin 
them. However, many qualific 
their answers by saying that moi 
teachers Avould if projectors wei 
available and more convenient. 

Judging from the prefereiK 
indicated, the sound films rar 
first at all grade levels. In schoo 
that are using both silent an 
sound, more teachers prefer tl 
silent film for use in the first foi 
grades. Three of the seven libr 
ries reporting stated there is 
definite need for good silent filr 
on the lower grade level. 

The large majority of schoc 
are depending on rental librari 
or other centralized sources f 
their films. Consequently, the fil 
is not in possession of the teach 
long enough for her to use it 
she would like in developing, 
given unit of work. 

Over 60% feel that short sirt 

October— SEE and HE 

c:n ART V 

Hen's What Teachers Think About the Way 

Visual Materials 

They Use 











Are films selected to correlate 

with a specific mottcr topic? 











Are the majority of films in your 
school presented to? 











Projectors used? 











How many times is film presented 
to the some group? 





















On overage, films are used to? 

A — Introduce 





B— Present 





C — Summorize 





Short strips of films would help 
round out, or in follow-up work? 











If yes, do you think the value in 
moteriols would justify the 











Is student preporotion required 
' before the films ore shown? 











Is sufficient follow-up work 











1 Do teachers get the maximum 
' value from films? 











Do teachers preview each film 






before using? 






Do teachers use plans accom- 
panying the film? 











' Films preferred for use 













































Hove industrial films eliminated 
objectionable odvertisina' 











SEE and HEAR — October 

Page 37 


How May Teachers Be Trained to Know About I'isual 
Materials and Their Use? 










Do you believe teachers' 
lock of troining hinders 






development of your 






If troining is to be pro- 
vided for teachers, which 

Formol courses in the univer- 
sity and teachers colleges? 





type of instruction do 
you believe will be more 

Formol extension courses provid- 
ing the teacher on opportunity 
to experiment with visuol ma- 
teriols in her own classroom? 





Short, informal courses conduct- 
ed by well-qualified person 
at a low expense? 





Would you be interested 
in promoting such courses 






offer the war? 






of 35 mm. film presenting 20 to 
50 or more scenes from the film 
would be helpful in preparing 
the student to \iew the film. 

Teacher training is still the ma- 
jor factor that will tletermine the 
expansion of the audio-xisual pro- 
gram in our schools of tomorrow. 
Of those reporting 94% feel that 
the teachers' lack of training hin- 
ders the development of their 

How shall this training be pro- 

Poge 38 

vided? The preference is as fol- 
lows: First choice. 62% favor the 
short informal course conducted 
in their own school. 1 his type of 
course is best suited for training 
of teachers in service. 

Second choice, 26% favor the 
formal extension course. An au- 
dio-visual instruction course can 
be handled exceptionally well by> 
extension. It provides the teacher 
with ample opportunity to ex- 
jx'riment with these aids in her 
own classroom. 

Ocfobei— SEE and HEAR 


By What Mrom May Schools Be Snpf)licd With Visual 

Materials Service? 











you believe that, depending 
upon the large rental libraries 
for material, you can develop 
an audio-visual program that 

Yes 148 




will meet the needs of your 

No 142 




you believe small libraries 
servicing from eight to fifteen 
schools would more adequately 
meet your needs? 

Yes 146 




No 116 




IS anything been done in your 
section of the state in setting 
no small libraries? 

Yes 144 




No 121 




> you expect to build up a li- 

Yes 131 




brary of films in your school? 

No 144 




Third choice, 12% favor the 
rmal course as offered by iini- 
rsities or teacher training insti- 

From what source or sources 
11 the schools of tomorrow get 
eir audio-visual materials? As 
arly as one can interpret, prob- 
ly 40% of the schools in groups 

and B will own at least the 
icleus of their own library, 
unding out their program with 
ms from the larger ones. Still 

larger number of schools in 
oups A and B might meet their 
eds more adequately, and also 
Ip meet the needs of some of 
e smaller schools by serving as 
center of a co-operative library 
rvicing a restricted number of 

! and HEAR— October 

The Nassau Instructional Film 
Center may serve as a pattern: 

"In 1938 the Nassau Instruc- 
tional Film Center was organized 
to serve the schools of Nassau 
County. This is a non-profit co- 
operative venture. At the present 
time we have approximately 175 
films and about 80,000 standard 
slides which were formerly dis- 
tributed by the state department. 
As far as I know this was one of 
the first, if not the first, co-opera- 
tive library in the United States 
working out of a public school 
for service to other public schools 
in other school systems. The small 
library cannot meet the entire 
needs of member schools but it 
can help them and give them 
more for their money than the 
larger commercial libraries." 

Page 39 



More than ever the Treasury 
imist look to the schools for steady 
support in the campaign of thrift 
education and personal savings. 
Unlike the war plants, the schools 
will be in a position to carry on 
in the task of explaining the rea- 
sons for continued savings and of 
selling Victory Bonds to the com- 

During the past school year, 
September, 1944, through ^Iav, 
1945, War Bond and Stamp sales 
credited to the schools amounted 
to the following percentages ol 
total E Bond sales for that period 
in leading states: 

'Alabama 31 % 

Georgia 24 % 

New Jersey 19.6% 

l.oiiisiana _ 19 % 

Oklahoma 18.2% 

Maine 18 % 

North Carolina 17.2% 

Hawaii 17.1% 

Mississippi 14 % 

Florida IS.5% 

Soulhcrn California IS.5% 

New Hampshire 12.3% 

Delaware 11-5% 

Illinois 11 % ' 

Missouri 10.8% i 

Pennsylvania 10.8% 

\'irginia 10.2% 

Utah . 10 % ' 

>ERVE . . . LEARN . . . SHARE 

To the School Teachers 
of America: 

The nations eternal gratitude is dtie our schools, 
our teachers, and our children for the magnificent 
work they ha\e done to speed victory and build 
toward postwar prosperity and peace. I know that 
the nation can count on you to keep saving, serv- 
ing, and sharing until our last man is free and 
home again." 

FRED M. VINSON Secretary of the Treasury 

During this Victory Loan there 
ire many things your schools and 
lasses can do. Here are some 
ested classroom projects: 

lesigned by high school art stu- 
lents in \Vilmington, Delaware, 
o give suggestions and working 
nodels to local retailers for the 
Jeventh W^ar Loan. 

CARTOONS by elementary 
chool art students in Winchester, 
Virginia, gave the reasons for sav- 
ng in a school display before the 
3rive and in a letter home during 
he first week. 

HADIO are frequently an out- 
growth of English classes on the 

lookout for good composition ma- 
terial and feature ideas for spot 
radio announcement. 

DISCUSSION may develop from 
classroom discussion of such top- 
ics as postwar government financ- 
ing, the threat of inflation, and 
the relation of savings to price 

Drive assignment of business edu- 
cation classes at Bay View High 
School, Milwaukee. Expert typ- 
ists make out the Bonds while 
honor bookkeeping students keep 
the records. 


might pit the youngsters from 

FHE PICTURES (Opposite Page) TOP — Social studies bring out the fine points of post- 
war government finoncing since all nations look to us and we to them for future trade 
ind cultural relotionships. CENTER — Posters from school and college art classes are 
jffective for the community. BOTTOM — News from student journolists mokes good 
)ublicity for school and city press. 

lEE and JiEAR— October Pag» 41 

Arithmetic dosses ot the University of 
Missouri Laboratory School teach thrift and 
occurocy as these pupils tally the day's 
soles in stomps. 

high school against the oldsters 
from the City Council, for cxani- 
])lc, to pro\e the need for con- 
tinued post^^'ar saving. 

on tour from Kansas State Teach- 
ers College, at Emporia, after 
basic training in speech classes. 
College speakers were assigned to 
elementary and high school as- 
sembly programs, to civic clubs, 
and to industrial groups. 

from the art classes will often at- 
tract more attention than the 
pi in ted \ariety in downtown shop 
windows and on deli\ery trucks. 

.\II\DERS in every home are 
sure to develop as a by-product 

Pag* 42 

of a live-wire organization for the 
school's weekly Stamp Day. 

CR.XPHS to show progress toward 
the \'ictory Loan goal can be 
made as part of the arithmetic 

The peace for the youth of to- 
day—they must participate in its 
making, its financing, and the re- 
alization. Help them to serve! 

A small gold sticker designed to in 
crease interest in the 16 millimeter in 
diislry by capitalizing on the gcx)d will 
of ex-servicemen, but otherwise non- 
commercial in character, is being sup 
l>lied to distributors and dealers bv the 
Victor .Animatograph Corporation, Dav-I 
enport, Iowa. 

In one corner of the sticker is a pic- 
ture of the honorable discharge butter 
and the text reads. "Ask the man whc 
wears this what 16 mm. sountl lilnw 
have meant to him in teaching, train 
ing, and entertaining." 

The slicker is intended for use or 
letterheads, monthly statements, in 
voices, literature, envelopes, |)ackages 
and in such other ways as will helf' 
reach large nundjers of people. 

V'ictor will supply the stickers on n 
(picst and witiioui cost. 

.\lbert J. Rosenberg has joined th> 
stalf of the McCJrawHill Book Compan 
as \ isual Aids Kdilor. His main j<)l 
will be to coordinate training films aiK 
other audio-visual material with M( 
Craw-Hill textbooks. 

Mr. Rosenberg came from the U. *• 
OfTice of Education where for the p;i 
two years he was Aviation Technii 
Specialist, responsible for the productid 
of over (").") manufacturing and mainl< 
nance sound motion pictures and a lil^ 
nmnber of filmsirips and coordinati 
instructors' manuals. 

October— SEE and HEA 


David B. McCulley 

Srrrchny. Bureau of Audio-Visual Instru( liou , 
University of Nebraska 

F.ditor's Note: ^Vhcn we study things 
whith happened before "any of us were 
there," we rini into trouble l)oth from 
the standpoint of teaching this material 
and assimilating it. But now through 
the medium of the motion picture fdm. 
it is possible to bring together the tal- 
ents of the expert photographer, the 
museum curator, and the specialist in 
history. Oiu of this combination has de- 
veloped the history teaching film 
through which it is possible to turn 
back the clock and to relive episodes in 
our past culture as vividly as if we had 
been there" ourselves. 


I RING the war the youth of 
our land has thrilled to the 
lieroism of our gallant armed 
forces. Through newsreels, photo- 
giaphs, radio, newspaper, and 
magazine, the recent history of 
our country and all other coun- 
tries has been \i\idly taught to 

Now that hostilities have 
ceased, it is important that Ameri- 
can history continue to j:)lay an 
important role in the education 
of American boys and girls. 

SEE and HEAR— October 

I believe that when "GI joe" 
returns from the armed forces, he 
will want to forget as soon as pos- 
sible I wo Jima, Corregidor, The 
Battle of the Bulge, and other 
high points of the recent war. He 
is going to be more interested in 
what is being taught in the 
schools which will make meaning- 
ful our democratic heritage. He 
realizes to a greater degree than 
we on the home front do, that in 
the classrooms of America, France, 
Germany, Russia, England, and 
the other nations, the real strug- 
gle is just beginning— the fight to 
win the right to a democratic way 
of life in the further realization of 
"liberty and the pursuit of happi- 

It is my opinion that we need 
to give more consideration to the 
basic structure of our own gov- 
ernment—to those ideals for 
which men have lived and have 
been willing to die. 

Page 43 

There is a wide variety of films 
available that, properly used and 
interpreted, will do much to 
bring about a more complete and 
lasting recognition of acts of 
bravery and ways of life that have 
given our country its characteris- 
tics, its color, and its way of life. 

American historical films avail- 
able through many university 
film libraries and which are brief- 
ly descriljcd below are illustraii\e 
of episodes and periods of Ameri- 
ca of an earlier day: 

Discoxiery and Exploration. 
Use: Soc. St. I, J; U. S. Hist. S. 
(Sound) 11 minutes. 

A one-reel film describing with ani- 
mation the North American territory 
involved during the period of discovery 
and exploration from 1492 to 1700. 
Paths taken by explorers from Europe 
in seeking new routes east; the Spanish 
conquests; early northeast trade routes; 
mid-continent developments. (EBF) 

Westward Movement. Use: Soc. 

St. I, J; U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) 11 minutes. 
In this one-reel film, by means of ani- 
mated drawings, the story of the west- 
ward movement from 1790 to 1890 is 
told. Some topics included are: terri- 
torial expansion, routes of migration, and distribution of population, 
extension of settlement, admission of 
states to the Union, and mining and 
cattle frontiers. (i.HF) 

Early Settlers of New England 
(Solrm 1626-1629). Use: Soc. St. /, 
J; U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) 11 minutes. 

1 ids one-reel film re-enacts the life of 
Salem's hardy pioneers of about 1626. 

Page 44 

Types of people; proximity of their bar! 
wigAvams and dugouts to the seashore 
their dependence upon sea food an< 
corn; need for mutual assistance; divi 
sion of labor; care of the sick; problem 
of crop cultivation; relationships witl 
England; beginnings of .\mericai 
democracy. (EBF) 

Colonial Expansion. Use: Sot 
St. I, J; U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) 10 minutes. 
Development in American coloni( 
from the point of view of the influem 
of each of the great powcrs-Spaii 
France, and England. Treats in deta 
tlie struggle for control which final 
ended with England's supremacy. An 
mated drawings and interpolation seen 
are used effectively. The development ( 
industries, inter-colonial and forcij 
trade are also traced. (EBF) 

Colonial Children. Use: Rea 

ing Read. P; Soc. St. I. 

(Sound) 10 minutes. 
Depicts in an authentic setting tl 
self-sufficient home life of colonial tinv 
Shows in detail the furnishings, clot 
ing. customs, and events in a coloni 
family's day from the morning ciioi 
to the reading of Scriptures by the fii 
side in the evening. (EBF) 

A Planter in Colonial Virgin 

(1740-1765). Use: Soc. St. I, 

U. S. Plist. S. 

(Sound) 11 minutes. 
A one-reel film in which the atm 
phere and functions of an 18th centi 
Virginia tobacco plantation are indie 
ed. The significance of Williamslnirg 
the political and social center of I 
colony; the roles of the slave, indentui 
servant and artisan are clearly shoi 
Methods of manufacture and means 
transportation; political and econoi 
factors; practices in medicine and 
nology; costumes, architecture, so< 
customs and music of the period. (Ei 

October— SEE and HI 

htnlucky Pioneers. Use: Soc. 

f. /. J. 

(Sound) 11 minutes. 

Aspects of early pioneering movement 
to the Kentucky territory in tlic 1780"s. 
ravel along the \Vililcrness Road; role 
the frontier forts; settler's establish- 
ent of new homes. \Vca\ing: soa]> 
aking; cooking; cantlle nioUling; car- 
Mitrv; cabin construction; schooling; 
h\ sciuarc dancing. (EliF) 

Flatboatman of the Frontier. 

rse: Soc. St. I. J; U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) 11 minutes. 

Reveals how the early settlers of the 
hio N'allcy were required to be "farm- 
• Iwatmcn" through their dependence 
\ the soil for livelihood and on the 
vers for transportation. X'alley agricul- 
iral economy; frontier homes and 
omcstic activities; flatboat building and 
>ading; and the trip down river to mar- 
st. Frontier personalities, speech and 
msic throughout. (EBF) 

Life in Old Louisiana (1S30- 

850). Use: Soc. St. I, J; U. S. 

list. S. 

(Sound) II minutes. 

Representative aspects of Louisiana 
nd its key City, New Orleans, during 
tie years of the Creole dominance. His- 
orical and regional factors, including 
clta country, cotton and cane planta- 
ions, slavery, education, religion, archi- 
ecture, music, the code duello, Creole 
ustoms, manners and attitudes, 
>rcvalence of I rench speech. (EBF) 

Pioneers of the Plains. Use: 
^oc. St. I, J; U. S. Hist. S. 
(Sound) 10 minutes. 
Traces the experiences of a pioneer 

I);ivid B. 

David B. MrC.ul 
ley, .Secretary of the 
Bureau of Audio 
Visual Instruction 
of the University of 
Nebraska, was 
graduated from 
Simpson College, 
Indianola, Iowa. He is also a gradu- 
ate of the American Institute of 
Business, Des Moines, Iowa, and has 
taken graduate courses at Drake Uni- 
versity, Columbia University and Iowa 
Universitv, from which latter institution 
he holds the M.A. degree. 

Mr. McCuUey has served as a teacher 
of commercial subjects, a superintendent 
of schools, and as fmancial secretary of 
a state teachers' college. 

He was, for a period of two years, 
state chairman of the Iowa High School 
Program Association and at present is 
executive secretary of the Midwest As- 
sociation of Directors of University 
Film Libraries. 

family from Illinois to a homestead on 
the midwestern plains. Sequences in- 
clude relationship with other settlers 
and cattlemen, building and decorating 
a sod house, plowing, collecting fuel, 
and contacts with a circuit riding min- 
ister. Conversations and music of the 
time lend reality to the film. (EBF) 

Other films portraying person- 
alities, incidents, and places in 
American history are described 
in the following list: 

Abbreviations— EBF— Encyclopaedia Britannica Films. TFC— Teaching Film Custodian. 
iEE and HEAR— October Paa« 45 

Bostou Tea I'dvly. I'sc: Sm . St. 
/; r. S. Hist. S. 

(Suiiiiil) II initiulfs. 

Ihc statues and places commemorated 
in American history between 177.5 and 
1807: \ irginia House of liurgesscs. the 
I.iherlv Bell, Conconl Bridge, the vil- 
lage green at Lexington, Fort Ticonder- 
oga. IMiKjuc of Putnam, Bunker Hill 
Mdiiunient. .Statue of William Hale, 
monumeiUs (ommemoraliug battles of 
Trenton and Saratoga, Independence 
Hall, house of Betsy Ross. (TFC) 

l>n\ ]]'ho Saved a Nation. Use: 
Sor. S!. I; U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) II iiiiiiiites. 

Manpiis dc Lafayette is forced to flee 
from France because of his wish to join 
the American colonists in their war with 
Kngland, He goes to Philadelphia and 
receives a commission as Brigadier Gen- 
eral under Washington. At Valley Forge 
he does much to encourage the soldiers. 
His courage carried him through fifty 
turbulent years of laboring for liberty 
ill France. As an old man he recpicsts 
that he be buried in France in soil 
brought from the bloodstained sides of 
Bunker Hill. (TFC) 

Life in IStli Century ]\'il- 

lianishiDi^. J'a.. Part I. Use: Soc. 

SI. /. /; U. S. Hist. S: Clubs: A. 

(Sound) (Color) 20 minutes. 

An excellently photographed, well- 
narrated, authentic reconstruction of a 
period in the history of our country. 
.Stress placed on a description of home 
life— relationships between slaves anil 
owners, a detailed description of how 
food was secured and prepared for the 
tabic, the general rousing of the house- 
hold in the slave tpiarters in the master's 
house, breakfast being served and the 
master and his son preparing to leave 
lor work. (Eastvtan) 

Page 46 

Nor Long Remember. Usi 

Soc. St. I, J; U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) 20 ininulcs. 

.\ two-reel dramatic presentation ( 
the Gettysburg .\d<lress. The scene is 
small town general store several dal 
after Presitlent I.iiKolns dclivcrv of th 
(icttvsburg .Address. The settings, coi 
tumes, and dialogue are historical! 
accurate and provide a fresh and rw 
basis for understanding the life of ih 
time. A splendid film that will fmd wit 
appeal. (Join Handy) 

Give Me Liberty. Use: Sor. S 
I.J: U. S. Hist. S. 

(Sound) (Color) 22 minutes. 

A two-reel color film with scene laf 
in \ irginia in 17r).'), just after the king 1 
lax proclamation has been read anil tl ' 
legislature is in an uproar. Knsuii 
events lead to a protest meeting heU! 
patriots at Richmond, at which Pati 
Henry delivers his "Give Me Liberty 
Give Me Death" speech. Wild acclai 
follows, in spite of the fact that the it 
coats enter. The story is lictionized, li 
the speech is delivered authentically ai 
in full. (TFC) 

Life in ISth Centttiy II 
liamsburg, Va., Part //. Use: S( 
St. /. /; U. S. Hist. S; Clubs; 

(Soutid) (Color) 20 minutes. 

An excellently photographed, wi 
narrated film showing many of the ( 
tails of life as it existed during i 
18th century in Williamsburg, (arcl 
attention given to the explanation 
the master and apprenticeship systi 
modes of transportation, costume, di 
ardiiici tuic, and familv life. Splen^ 
reconstruction of past hisloiii cpisoil 

Oihei lilms (oiuiibuiing to i 
Ini inatioii on lii.siorical cvci 
and (liaraclcij) will be lound 
consulting the "Biography" a 
"History" sections ot imivcrs 
nil II catalogs. 

October— SEE and HI 



\NK\V Division ol the Nation- 
al Ktlucation Ass(^( iation 
IS been crcatrtl to promote the 
pansion anil cle\elopnient of 
ulio \isnal instruction on a na- 
)n-wiilc basis. Hie program 
ill be \ery compreliensive, tlcal- 
g with all of the many types of 
ds to learning, including radio 
id television, and in\ol\ing all 
vcls of education. 

Vernon G. Dameron was ap- 
ointed recently as the first direc- 
)r of this newly established Divi- 
on of Audio-Visual Instructional 
-Tvice and executive secretary of 
le Department of Visual Instruc- 
on of the N.E.A. 

Mr. Dameron brings many fine 
ualifications to his post. He 

•S. and HEAR— October 

majoic'd in ph)sic<il scicniis .ind 
so( ial sluilies at Marshall (iollege, 
education and social studies at 
West \'irginia l'ni\(rsi(y. and 
.tudio-N isual instrudion at Ilar- 
\ard University. He has had five 
years of experience in public 
school work, incliiding audio- 
\ isual instruction, lie has also 
had extensive experience in still 
and motion picture photography, 
recording, radio conmuuiication. 
and music. For the j)ast thice 
years, he served as director of the 
Planning Department and a co- 
ordinator of the AAF Training 
Film Preparation Unit (recently 
designated the AAF Filmstrip 
Preparation Department) , locat- 
ed at Chanute Field, Illinois. 

The working program of the 
di\ision will be based upon a sur- 
\ey of the present status of audio- 
visual instruction. Problems 
which probably will be scheduled 
for early consideration are: 

1. Means by which audio-visual 
instruction can be made more eco- 
nomically available. One of the 
first activities in this area will be 
to help procure for the schools 
much of the surplus audio-visual 
equipment and materials from 
the armed services. 

2. Methods for coordinated 
and accelerated distribution. 

3. Provisions for closer collabo- 
ration between educators and pro- 

4. Criteria for better selection, 
evalution, utilization, and inte- 
gration in the curricula. 

5. Research. 

Page 47 

5^ 0*1 -f+tO/v J 


Nnu Series on American Pointers 

To bring a cross-section of much of 
the best work by American painters of 
tlie 20ih century into classrooms and 
lecture halls throughout the United 
States, Encyclopaedia Britannica Films 
will distribute a series of kodachrome 
slides reproducing 116 canvasses from 
the Britannica collection of contempo- 
rary American painting. 

The slides will be contained in a 
fimctional and easily portable case 
which will also hold a portfolio of lec- 
ture materials and suggestions and a 
copy of "Contemporary American Paint- 
ing," a book on the Britannica collec- 
tion written by Grace Pagano and 
published by Duell, Sloan & Pearce. 

These complete units of materials 
;Me expected to be produced in a quan- 
tity sufficient for widespread distribution 
this year, E. H. Powell, president of 
Britannica and its affiliated film com- 
pany, announced. 

The slides themselves will be standard 
size, two by two inclics, and will repro- 
duce in full color representative paint- 
ings from the collection. Most of the 
best-known painters who have lived and 


Here's his picture 
as promised in ilir 
September issue. It 
was omitted from 
his article. — ".\ 
Filmstrip of Gulli- 
ver's Travels. 

Pacre 48 

worked in this country since the tu:| 
of the century are included. Amo 
them are George Bellows, John Sic 
Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wc 
John Steuart Curry, Charles Burchficll 
William Glackens, Rockwell Keil 
Cieorge Grosz, Doris Lee, Salvador Daj 
Georgia O'KeefTe, and Dale Nichols. 

Establish Midwest Assnciatiom 
The state imiversities of Iowa, Kansil 
Missouri, Colorado, Wyoming, Soul 
Dakota, and Nebraska have cstablishj 
the Midwest Association of UniversJ 
Film Libraries. David B. McCulley, nl 
retary of the Bureau of Audio-Visil 
Instruction of the University of NebrI 
ka was elected executive secretary of l] 
organization. Their purpose is to im" 
to discuss problems of mutual inter 
in the administration of and the edii';! 
lional services extended by film librarii 

Because the motion picture was U5| 
in the theater long before it entered t 
classroom, it has been difficult to dispt 
entirely of the idea once held U 
audio-visual education meant entir 
showing pictures now anil then. 1 
films should be as integral a part of I 
learning process as the teacher or I 

The place of the lilm is just as d'j 
nite and clear cut and its proper 
rc(|uircs just as mucli skill. Becaj 
I his is the case, Mr. McCulley 
much of his time last year, and he vj 
spend much time this year, too, meet! 
with teachers all over the state to <f 
cuss and to demonstrate the proper 
of audio-visual aids. Hi is he will 
in constant cooperation with the T« 
trs College so that audio-visual edi 
lion will be looked upon always al 
phase of professional education. 

October — SEE and Hll 


puilt like a fine watch — powered by a 
'^ smooth-running motor and mech- 

; that purrs through reel after reel 
.vhout a flutter or a jump — so simple, 
itudent can operate it — that's the new 
lA'RY 16mm. sound-on-film projector. 
|he ultimate of sound, whether it be crisp. 
:}fx, intell.gible conversation, or the full 
ii;-esty of symphonic mus c . . . clear defi- 
of image . . . uniformity of illumina- 

'.er the screen's entire surface . . . soft. 

.1 brill. ance that assures viewing com- 

^-ause it is kind to the eyes. 


Model 16-1966 



The new DeVRY is a 3-purpose unit that 
(1) SAFELY proiects both sound and silent 
films; (2) that shows BOTH black-and-white 
and color film without extra equipment; and 
(3) whose separately housed 25-watt ampli- 
fier and sturdy 12-inch electro-dynamic 
speaker afford portable Public Address facil- 
ities — indoors and out. 

Make DeVRY your source of 16mm. 
sound and silent Classroom Teaching 
Films for SALE OR RENT. DeVRY 
CORPORATION. 1111 Armitage Ave. 
Chicago 14. Illinois. 


)nly 5-TIME WINNER of Army-Navy "E" for the 
reduction of mofion picture sound equipment 


1111 ArmitaBa Avanua, Chlcace 14, llllneto 

Please mail me catalog of Audio- Visual Teaching 
Equipment. Also your new 1946 Film Catalog. 



I at7- 


ff and HEAR— October 


Pago 49 


Second Geosraphy Discussion 



LAST May an excited fourth- 
grade teacher came to my of- 
fice to tell me that a certain par- 
ent ^vas planning to take his son 
from her room to go to the north 
\voods of Wisconsin on Memori- 
al Day and that the boy's father 
wanted him excused from the last 
six days of the school term so he 
might stav in northern Wisconsin. 
Even though the boy had been a 
very good stuilent the teacher 
thought it \vould be very serious 
for him to miss the last six days of 
school, because the class had just 
started the study of India, and 
George would miss all of India! 
The teacher was commended for 
her loyalty to the attendance de- 
partment and India, but asked il 
she didn't think George \vould 
learn more geography in thi- 

•k"J}eginnitii^ Geography" in the Septem- 
ber issue of SEE and HEAR outlined 
the new ideas of introducing geography 
to second and third grade children. 

Pog* 50 

iioi th woods of \Visconsin than h( 
would studying about India. 

George's fourth-grade class wa: 
just completing its formal geogra 
phy experience which had indud 
ed a study of Malaya. Greenland 
Norway. Kirghiz Steppe, the (ion 
go. South America, Eg>'pt, Chma; 
and India in that order. Such ;, 
course of study is usually referret 
to as "World Travels" or "\isit 
in Other Lands." What it actt, 
ally amounts to is a survey cours| 
in geography at a grade levt 
where children cannot possibl 
have any conception of the inipl| 
cations of such a study. The wri 
cr has yet to see a survey course i 
anything that justifies its exis 
cnce as a basis for introducin 
children to a new area of lean 
ing. Yet we have these courses i 
mathematics. English, geograph 
history, etc., at the high scho< 
and college levels and even at tl 

October — SEE and HEj] 

Visualizing information 
end orienting it to the 
orea where it is typical 
is a very important step 
in establishing under- 
stondings. Too often the 
span between abstract 
interpretation and under- 
Stonding makes it diffi- 
cult for children to un- 
derstand the reasons for 
people doing things and 
living as they do. 

cincntary lc\cl in the case of 

Textbooks cannot be the core 
1 a geography program that 
ows out of children's experi- 
ices and is committed to an un- 
.Tstanding of the cultmes of the 
orld which represent the devel- 
Muent of many resources, includ- 
ig human resources. Textbooks 
e important supplements to 
ich a study just as maps, globes, 

pictures, charts, libraries, field 
trips and motion pictures are im- 
portant supplements. But no one 
of these is the core. The child is 
the core. ^Ve should start with a 
gi'oup of children and their inter- 
ests, needs, and experiences in- 
stead of Malaya or the Congo. 
These children are living and 
working in a social situation 
which should open up more com- 
plicated community, national and 

Very desirable is the 
practice of explaining the 
some type of information 
using many medio as pos- 
sible. A mountain range 
is described in a reoder, 
located on a flot map, 
and finally shown in re- 
lation to adjacent topog- 
raphy, oceans, rivers, or 

international social problems. If 
the teacher fails to socialize the 
small group of children in her 
room, she cannot hope to teach 
membcrshi]) in the larger com- 
munity. And if the children's in- 
terests and curiosities under the 
stinudation and guidance of a 
competent teacher do not nat- 
urally lead to a study of the 
Congo in the fourth grade, then 
the Congo should not be studied. 

Why should children start with 
"World Travels" when they have 
not studied their own country? Is 
it logical or psychologically cor- 
rect to introduce world geography 
in the fourth grade as a basis for 
the next year's detailed study of 
the United States which children 
will meet in the fifth grade? Is a 
survey course in geography desir- 
able or possible at the fourth 
grade level? If the conventional 
viewpoint is not accepted, where 
shall we begin to study as a fourth 
grade interested in geography and 
where will it lead us? Will it lead 
to a study of the whole world? 

Geography must begin at home, 
through a study of the develop- 
ment of community resoiuces and 
activities in which children have 
a personal interest and with 
which they have had experiences. 
The study of commimity helpers 
in the primary grades expands 
children's interests beyond the lo- 
cal community. The study of food, 
clothing, pets or animals leads us 
(juite naturally toward a study of 
other and more remote conmiuni- 

Page S2 

tics. The solutions of many 
the everyday problems we nie 
in the study of our immedia 
cn\ ironment depend upon our i 
lationship to other and more i 
mote communities. .\ study ol 1 
cal people and their activities so( 
and quite automatically expan 
to a statewide, national and fin; 
ly international problem if : 
the possibilities are investigate 

There is not a state among tl 
forty-eight that is not full of c< 
orful folklore and geographic at 
historical interests for its citize 
and children if the instruction 
resources immediately at hand a 
fully utilized. Yet there are ve 
few schools that have done a ere 
itable job of teaching state histo 
and geography. Perhaps this m 
lect of the state's place is due 
the fact that there are few sta 
geography textbooks. Textbo( 
publishers would not find it pn 
itable to print forty-eight difft 
cnt texts for the fourth grades 
the United States. It is not tht 
responsibility. It is the respon 
bility of the teaching professic 
to produce these materials, and 
is a cardinal responsibility 
boards of education and admin 
trators to provide teachers wi 
tiie time and pay necessary to i 
creditable cinricular studies 
this area of learning. In the mea 
time it is necessary for teachers 
teach state social studies witho 
organized courses of study. 

Why not investigate the re 
tionship between geography ai 
history? It is not at all unique j 
find children in a given gra^ 

October— SEE and Hi) 


Children should hove repeated opportunities to work with all the explanatory 
means through which geographical regions, locations, and inter-relationships can 
be mode meoningful to them. There is more than one woy of establishing under- 
standings. All of these ways — models, maps, globes, and good textbooks end sup- 
plementary readers are necessary to make the study of geography a living 

[dying the history of one coun- 
I and the geography of another 
separate activities pursued dur- 
f the same school day. Geogia- 
y includes a study of people, 
:ir activities, resources and cul- 
es and their relationships. Such 
itudy must inevitably include 
tory. Geography and history 
: often one and should be so 
ight. Elementary science too 
quently becomes a part of the 
(ial studies at this level. Chil- 
ian infrequently analyze the en- 
lonments of their communities 
>.hGut becoming involved in 



(Vlusic, art, games and rhythms, 
i|d dramatics are naturally cor- 
iated with the social studies to 

i and HEAR— October 

make the peoples and cultures as 
real to children as possible. An 
intermediate grade unit on "Old 
W^orld Wisconsin" de\eloped in- 
terest in and study of the music, 
art, history and literature which 
the nationalities represented in a 
fourth-grade class had at one 
time brought to the state. Music, 
art, dramatics, games and 
rhythms, history, geography and 
language were woven inseparably 
into that unit as a result of pupil- 
teacher planning in an area of 
learning that was vital to every- 
one concerned. Such a unit, prop- 
erly adapted, could be used in any 
state. Children will want to make 
\arious maps of their communi- 

Page 53 

tics and state on ^vhich they may 
record their findings. A state 
study of this kind naturally leads 
to the desire to learn more about 
the different nationalties in oilier 
parts of the United Slates and 
finally in foreign countries from 
which the jKoplc came. This 
l)i()ader de\eloj)inent then pro- 
\ ides the conlent lor the fifth year 
of study. 

The children's interests stimu- 
lated by the approach described 
abo\e can logically lead to a 
study of the historical, geogiaphi- 
cal, industrial, political and eco- 
nomic development of the United 

But what about the physical 
study en\ironmcnt to be provid- 
ed for these children? Their class- 
room should be equipped with 
maps, charts and other visual ma- 
terials to illustrate graphically the 
\arious content areas they \\ill in- 
vestigate. Natural regions, rain- 
fall, vegetation, population, relief, 
climate, railroads and highways 
should be illustrated by appropri- 
ate wall maps. A sixteen-inch 
globe and maps of the world and 
of all continents shoidd be incliul- 
ed to teach the relationship of the 
United States to the rest of the 
world. Many excellent classroom 
motion pictures have been de\cl- 
oped on all phases of the social 
studies for the United States. 
These materials should be care- 
fully selected to correlate with 
classroom topics. Field trips 
should be made to gain labora- 
tory experience in community 
problems and resources. 

Pag* S4 

Such an approach relieves 
social studies of the abstracti 
so characteristic of a purely t( 
book study of the subject. The 
cial studies thus become a sti 
oi comnumity problems projec 
for their solution into all part! 
the world. 

Mexico and Canada quite i 
urally may be studied in com 
lion with the United Stales, 
studying Mexico the child 
should learn as much of its i 
lure as possible through exp 
ences in art, music, dancing, ; 
tlramatics. Examples of the cr 
so characteristic of Mex 
movies depicting real peoj:)lc ; 
their customs in Mexico, and n 
and globe study supplement e 

Not all the geography of 
United States can be taught 
one year because pupils can 
know our geography with 
knowing that of the rest of 
world— they arc insepara 
When one teaches the intc 
pendence of nations with rcs) 
to natural resources, standard 
living, and maintenance of W( 
peace, he teaches the basic «, 
cej)ts for economic and j)olil 
cooperation on a world-wide 

I'he continents and region 
the world cannot be inxentoi,' 
classified and the material j 
sen ted to pupils when the scl 
decides; continents are not < 
ties, they form a world geogra 
a whole whose parts are inc 
plete when isolated from 
whole, riiis is a concept w 

October— SEE and . 

schools will li;i\i' lo k-.ti II 
)n today on. W'f sliouUl no 

ger j)lan tlic geography pro- 
im on thf basis of teaching cor- 

1 contiiK-nts in each grade. 

\t the sixth grade lc\el there 

il uld be a liirilier pursuit ol the 

ji krstanding ol local problems 

b terms of this relationship to 

h rest of the world. This will 

t\ to a further study of our own 

[.ntry and to a more significant 

fclysis of local problems as they 

1 or mav be alTected by the 

fid, other peoples, resources, 

jl cultural contributions. 

The materials used in the fifth 
i|de will be needed in the sixth. 

|c teacher should make use of 
[^ny kinds of outline maps upon 
^lich children feel free to record 
ijir ideas in writing or in graph- 
ctorm. As a correlative activity 
>i' sixth-grade group of children 
Iiided to end their study of all 
tl nations of the world with a 
Dject during which they made 
'' 'x and dressed them in cos- 
s representing the \arious 
Diions. Close cooperation be- 
II the homeroom teachers and 
11^ .at teacher made this activity 
Wsible. The result was the most 
itt:nsive social science research 
wich one can imagine at the 
silh-grade level. The children 
n'de the dolls and their costumes 
a<ording to the best descriptions 
a^ilable in wide readings of 
lets and library books. In doing 
tlij for many nations they learn- 
e< amazing amounts of interest- 
ir and useful information about 
ti customs and contributions of 

S«and;HEAR— October 

tluii uiighbors all omi the uoikl. 
i hey carricil out the activity lie- 
cause they wanted to— not because 
it was in their geography text- 
book, for it was not there. 

It is perfectly obvious that the 
social stuilies start with local in- 
terests and experiences. A study 
of local geography as an end 
within itself, however, would be 
without real purpose. On the 
other hand, when children are 
introduced to geography through 
the abstract study of arbitrary se- 
cjuences of foreign countries, the 
resiUt is too often confusion and 
frustration. Local community ac- 
tivities and problems lead natu- 
rally to a study of the whole world 
if socially usefid meanings antl 
concepts are developed. 


Children of the City 

(Soutid) 30 minutes. Use: Psy- 
chology, Sociology C; Clubs A. 

THE problem of juvenile delin- 
quency and how it is handled in 
Scotland is shown. It demonstrates 
not the sensational approach, but the 
real life situation of three boys and how 
their mischief turns to crime. Botii ciiild 
and parents are brought together with 
the authorities at the juvenile court to 
discuss what is happening. The three 
boys are dealt with separately because 
of the differences in their backgrounds 
and their probable futures. It shows 
how Scotland handles problems of child 
care and guidance which are common to 
communities, both rural and urban, in 
the United States. This excellent story, 
well photographed, is narrated with the 
traditional English accent, which, to the 
uninitiated, is somewhat difficult to un- 
derstand. British Information Services. 
At your nearest film library. 

Pag* SS 


JosF.PH Park 
Director of the Curriculum LaboraU 
Northivesiern University 

No. 793 To every small child studying China, this conies 
closest to traditionally-taught ideas— the tea house where news 
is exchanged and gossip bantered by men of the town as they 
dress in storybook costumes. 

Today we hear and read much concerning intergroup 
and international relations. Today we as teachers are 
always on the lookout for free and inexpensive instructional 
materials. Freqticntly, as director of a large ciuriculuni 
laboratory, excellent visual teaching materials come to mv 
attention. Ihe better of these should be noted. 

Just recently an inexpensive packet of instructional ma- 
terials was received from the East and West Association, lo- 
cated at 40 East 49th Street, New York City 17. Among the 
packets of materials that tiiey issue is one entitled "Life of 
a Family in China." 

This is one of three portfolios which is designed to pre- 

Page S6 October— SEE and 



icnt d pictorial bioi) ol a Cihincsc family. Ilu- portfolio is 
available for a charge of fifty cents. 

The sets of pictures are well done and tell a (onsccutive 
story. Although producers maintain that the captions have 
been carelully ^sritten and checked, the vocabulary aj)pears 
to be rather ad\ anced. The pictures may be used for class- 
room or group study, bulletin boards, and library exhibits. 

IS During the 
i of war in re- 
China, even 
accounts and 
ewspaper can't 
to us an ap- 
uion of the 
tation that has 
lened. The 
boy waits at 
ruins of his 
sure that his 
y will return 


No. 1734 But a 
new China is 
emerging— a China 
in which coopera- 
tion is the keynote, 
as with this coni- 
|iosite wing of Chi- 
nese and American 
aviators alerted on 
one of the airfields. 

and HEAR— October 

Page 57 


\'o. 774 However 
far away it may be. 
our tastes are very 
similar. With slight 
changes this could 
he any favorite can 
(ly store just around 
the corner in home 
town, U. S. A. 

.V t» . 2 I 67 
other e\iden{ 
it are app 
Here in a ch 
(ry lab uidik 
own. studcni 
Nanking Iniv 
a re invcsti) 
prcsont-day " 
and more ho 
Iv, what it c 
for China. 

(PliotoKrnflis from the circulating exhib 
the Host and West Association ) 


Moulci'ideo Family 

(Sound) 20 tninutes. Use: Social 
S; Cliih.s J, A. 

THIS is a "grass roots" discussion of 
life as it is lived in the capital city of 
I'ruguay, Montevideo, by a middle- 
class family standing at the 90th percen- 

Pag* 58 

liif of income. 1 he routine of the 
in the home, at school, with rc.spc< 
work and recreation is tlone in a 
pletely imderstandable and inirig 
way. The family could well be oi 
our neighbors. It is excellent for enl 
ing intergroup understanding. Offi< 
Inter- Avierican Affairs. At your iiCj 
film lil)rary. i 

October — SEE and 



W. M. Gregory 

IVcsloti licseme University, Cleveland 

Editors Note: Too often we are 
erncd because we can't get ma- 
Is. Wc must fill out priorities or 
ire blocked wbcn confronting long- 
budget policies. Rut enterprising 
5ns will ask themselves what can be 
! right now to put visual materials 
ther, to assendjle them in perma- 
form so that they can be used over 
over again. Mr. Gregory suggests 
ly in which every teacher can start 
t in collecting specimens or models 
;h will help visualize their subject 
lend concreteness to it so that valid 
jrstandings can be gained. Mr. 
;or\ shows what a little knowledge 
andicraft, within the grasp of every 
ol, some patience and ingenuity can 
inplish in the way of building rath- 
crmanent visual materials. What he 
incs, every teacher can start doing 


EACHERS %vho use fragile 
materials for obserxatiou in 
s or laboratory instruction find 
ir organization and preserva- 
1 a problem. The collecting, 
ing, and preser\ation is only 
t of the problem because, 

and HEAR— October 

when the material is used in the 
class, there is always considerable 
loss and damage. 

Pasteboard boxes that are used 
for storage are easily damaged and 
deteriorate rapidly. Glass jars and 
bottles are broken and, unless 
tightly sealed, the contents are 
soon scattered. Glass containers 
do not facilitate the bringing to- 
gether of the label, the specimen, 
and the picture at the opportune 
time. Wooden boxes with glass 
tops are good, but these tops are 
too frequently broken. Tin cans 
and pasteboard mounts are also 

The following suggestions re- 
late to portable cases which are 
cheap and practical for many 
kinds of fragile specimens and 
valuable materials whose study 
involves much handling. The 
cases can be used for class ob- 

Pago 59 

Interesting exhibits of what children do, specimens they have brought in, 
ideos they hove contributed to visualize the things they study are so 
often lost. In this form any teacher can accumulate gradually a collec- 
tion of materials which will serve year after year to suggest additional 

projects to children. 

servation as well as for storage. 
The material can be quickly as- 
sembled for class use and stored 
in a small space. 

These plyAvood specimen cases 
arc of two sizes of which the larg- 
er fne or a smaller ten fit into the 
carrying and storage box. The 
cases are constructed of quarter 
inch, three-ply fir-wood, selected 
and seasoned. The larger case is 
81/2" X 1 1/2" X ISs/g". The smallcr 
case is one-half the size of the 
larger one. The cases can be 
made with one or two open faces. 
The open face on one sitlc only is 
for the larger and heavier speci- 
mens which require more room. 

NOTK: Clear polished lumarith (1/32") is 
obtained from the Celluloid Corporation, 290 
I'erry St., Newark, New Jersey. 

Pag* 60 

The open face is closed wj 
heavy polished transparent lui' 
rith (1/32"). This materialj 
used ratlicr than glass as it is : 
breakable. The specimens 
clearly labeled and laid or moil 
ed on stiff cotton batting (mc< 
proofed) so that they will be hi 
firmly in place when the lumail 
cover is in place. 


On the back of the single 
faced case is placed a picture :(( 
ilirections for observation of j 
sjjccimens. In the cases with 
open faces, a sliding panel is 
serted so that it may be pu 
out, and on it are directions 

All specimens are mi 
proofed, India ink is used 

October — SEE and 1 

•liii«;, and all loose samples or 
(leieil protlucts are wraj)j)cil 
Liniarith and scaled. When all 
inicns antl labels are in place, 
luiuarith co\cr is pcrmancnt- 
itlached \\ith scre\vs. Screw 
:s arc closed with plastic wood. 
I cases are stained a light 
,vn to bring out the natural 
n, and a label is attached to 

he cost of such specimen 
s varies and almost any indus- 
l arts department or school 
D can produce the large case 
40 cents and the smaller one 
20 cents. The chief cost is the 
larith which is about 15 cents 
each opening. This material 
tough, flexible, non-inflam- 
)le, and does not become brit- 

or yellow with age. In 
:imen cases that have been in 
for over fi\e years, the luma- 
is in excellent condition, 
ivever, when the lumarith is 
I, it is apt to become brittle 

crack under pressure. 

'he carrying box for the speci- 
1 cases has the following di- 

Wh.ijam M. 

Mr. Gregory is 
the founder and 
former director of 
t h e Educational 
Museum of the 
(.leveland schools, 
now the Division of 
Visual Aids. He 
has long been not- 
ed for insisting on 
the integration of 
audiovisual aids 
into the subject matter of instruction. 

He was instrumental in the introduc- 
tion of visual aids into definite radio 
broadcast lessons. His published articles 
in the field of visual aids and geography 
are well known. At present his courses 
in visual instruction are given for teach- 
ers in Cleveland College. 

mensions: S%" x 934" x Mi^". 
Each carrying box is made of 
three-ply fir-wood and the bottom 
is one-half inch material. The 
cover is fastened to the box by 
hinges and a strong clasp. A car- 
rying handle is attached to the 
top and a label holder is placed 
on the end. A carrying box costs 
about 95 cents for materials. 

3nd HEAR— October 

Page 61 


In a form such as this, the models of the horse chestnut, its $i 
leaves, blossom, and bark can be assembled along with other matei 
in a letter file to be used year after year. 

Page 62 

October — SEE and H 

These cases will kct'|) fragile 
)ccinK'ns of many kinds in a 
can bright condition and can he 
Lsilv obscr\cd by students with 
Imost no damage. The stabili(\ 
f these mounts is a|)j)arent as 
ell as their conM-nieiKc for class 
se or trans{)ortati()n from class 
) class. This is a cheap and sim- 
le organization that saves time 
[id brings order to a cluttered 

It will ret) u ire time for the 
reparation of sufficient material 
>r the elementary science classes 
r high school biology groups, 
ut, if the empty cases are pre- 
arcd in quantity as an industrial 
rts project, they can be pro\ ided 
^r classes to make their own 
iounts. The resulting cases can 
1 time become the basis of a 
orth-while school collection. 

isual Education Fellowship 

Protestant churches of the United 
ates and Canada are l)econiing incrcas- 
gly aware of the power of visual ma- 
rials and methods. The International 
)uncil of Religious Kducation is the 
ganization througli whicli 42 denoiui- 
itions, 90 per cent of Protestantism co- 
»erate in the educational field. Its 
apartment of Visual Education is now 

LLOWSHIP which will bind together 
id render a variety of services to 

urch workers in local, regional and 
itional positions of leadership. 

This fellowship was announced by Dr. 
ary Leigh Palmer, Director of the In- 
rnational Workshop in Visual Educa- 
')n during its sessions August 13-18 at 
'mfercnce Point Camp, ^Villiams Bay, 
tisconsin. This workshop which was 
•tended by over 250 church leaders 
om all parts of the United States and 

E and HEAR — October 

Canada was the second to be held by 
the Internal ionnl Council. The Interna 
lional worksho]) cvcniualed in a drniand 
for the types of service the fellowship 
will render. Persons who have attended 
ilic first and second International work- 
sliops have stimulated and led confer 
ences, schools, classes and instilwlcs on 
visual method in tlic church at various 
points throughout the country. These 
local and regional groups have also 
called for the lu'lp ollcred through the 

Any person interested in the use of 
\ isual materials in church work may 
join the fellowship. Experiences will be 
exchanged, information shared, leaders 
who can serve within their denomina- 
tions and through state and city councils 
will he discovered and used, develop- 
ments in the visual field will be kept 
before the members. A newsletter will 
be sent to all members five times a year. 
In addition, the "regular" members will 
receive all of the mimeographed and 
printed guidance materials that the In- 
ternational Council's Department of 
Visual Education issues and other help- 
ful materials collected from various 
agencies from time to time. These and 
other services will be rendered increas- 
ingly as they are made possible by 
"sponsoring" members. 

.\n attractive folder giving complete 
information about the fellowship and 
the various types of membership is 
a\ailable upon rec|uest from Dr. Sfary 
Leigh Palmer, International Council of 
Religious Education, 20,S North Wabash 
.\venue, Chicago 1, Illinois. 


Work of the Stock Exchange 

(Sound) 15 minutes. Use: Matlie- 
tnatics J; Commercial J, S; Social Studies 
S, C; Clubs A. 

THE operation of the stock exchange 
is told in a very clever and under- 
standable story, and the reasons for 
its existence. One complete transaction 
is made of taking out a membership in 
the exchange, and a second transaction 
in which a security is bought and sold. 
Coronet. At your nearest film library. 

Page 63 


John Guy Fowlkes 

LEARNING at its best is a 
J process of discovery; teaching 
at its best is the stimulation and 
direction of learning. Effecti\e 
learning demands doing, seeing, 
and hearing. These component 
actixitics of learning are possible 
only when necessary materials arc 
available. This is true especially 
in the field of social studies, par- 
ticularly with respect to visual 

All good teachers of social 
studies recognize the importance 
of visual materials in their field. 
Among the important basic visual 
learning materials of the social 
studies are globes, maps, and 
charts. These essential visual ma- 
terials are considered as "musts" 
throughout the nation in all types 
of schools and at all levels of 
learning. It is, therefore, essen- 
tial that discriminating care char- 
acterize the selection of these 
visual materials. 

Criteria for Selection 

The wise selection of globes, 
maps, and charts demands the ap- 
plication of criteria and standards 
which rellect sound principles of 
learning and clearly established 
curricular objectives. There are 
seven basic questions that may 

Page 64 

well be raised in the selection an 
purchase of globes, maps, an 
charts, namely: 

1. Do the materials meet tl 
curricular objectives of the schoi 
in which they are to be used— ai 
they functional? 

2. Are the materials authcnti. 

3. Do the various materia 
complement each other? 

4. Are the materials suitab 
for both indi\idual pupil ar 
group use? 

5. Are the materials adapted 
the learning capacities of the ch 
dren who will use them. 

6. Are the materials attracli"; 
in color and arrangement? 

7. Are the materials good m 

Functional l 

The basic requirement f' 
globes, maps, and charts is th 
they implement effectively t 
cinriculum and program | 
studies of the given local scho 
system in which they are to j 
used. Materials that are chos'j 
on a general hit or miss basis w! 
prove ineffective in the develc; 
ment of concepts, appreciatioi^ 
and attitudes, in the acquisitiij 
of basic factual material and 
the interpretation of such fact; 

October— SEE and Ir. 

aterial. Specific functions that 
e to be rendered by globes, 
aps. and charts should be estab- 
ihed before such materials are 
losen and only materials which 
n meet the established demands 
ould be selected and purchased. 

The essentials of authenticity 
globes, maps, and charts scarce- 
need any comment. Unless the 
xtual materials of such devices 
painstakingly accurate, their 
e will pro\e to be a handicap- 
ng and confusing, rather than a 
ofi table and clarifying ex- 

Are the Materials 

The old practice of expecting 
)ys and girls to learn to read 

from one textbook has long been 
known to be highly unsound. At 
present in all good schools, many 
reading textbooks are made avail- 
able at all levels, but especially 
during the beginning years of 

Similarly, no one globe, map, 
or chart can serve all needs of 
visual aids to learning in the so- 
cial studies. Physical, political, 
economic, and social concepts de- 
mand corresponding special ma- 
terials. Series of globes, maps, and 
charts are essential for effective 
learning. Also, individual items 
should have a definite relation to 
other items, thus being mutually 

Individual and Group Use 
Learning is an individual ex- 





Implicit to the problem of map selection ore many factors other 
than what the surface of the visual material appears to be. Fre- 
quently under the guise of "penny economy" the school person does 
himself an injustice. Rather than this, every attention should be 
given to the possibility of securing mechanical equipment which will 
exhibit the visual material ottractively, permanently, and in con- 
tinuing good condition. Here are several factors which you should 
insist upon having in the maps you purchase. 

E and HEAR— October Pago 63 

perience. Learning is a personal 
matter. But learning in school, 
while being individual and per- 
sonal, often takes place when the 
individual is a member of a 
group. Therefore, globes, maps, 
and charts must be easily usable 
by groups of children as well as 
by individuals. Good teachers of 
the social studies not only use 
maps themselves, but also teach 
their pupils to use them. The 
possibility of committee and 
gioup work with globes, maps, 
and charts is one of their greatest 

Adapted to Learning Capacities 

As is true of all text materials 
and learning devices, it is essen- 
tial that globes, maps, and charts 
be well within the learning ca- 
pacities of the children who are 
to use them. Too much text ma- 
terial on globes, maps, and charts 
will increase the difficulty of 
learning to the point that interest 
may be killed. Overcrowded text 
material prevents effective pupil 
learning and interpretation. 

The symbolic use of color with- 
in a series of maps is particularly 
important. Within a given series 
of maps, the same color shoidd 
have the same meaning from map 
to map, thus making interpreta- 
tion easy and avoiding confusion 
to the pupils. 

Attractiveness and Arrangemerw 
It is a well-established fact tha 
child interest in any learning d( 
vice is determined in part by th 
attractiveness of the material. Th 
aesthetics of globes, maps, an 
charts make or break pupil inn 
est. Lights and shadows, higl 
lighting, contrast, compositioi 
and prominent color tone shoul 
be given serious consideration i 
the selection of these visual aid 

The importance of the qualii 
of materials and the mechanic: 
aspects of these visual aids cannr^ 
be overstressed. Mountings, glil 
ing, sewing, and taping should l! 
examined with the closest scrur 
ny. Inferior materials and shodc 
workmanship will make appa 
ently low-priced articles really e| 
cessively expensive. As is true 
the purchase of all school equi 
ment, value per dollar spent 
well as how many dollars are b 
ing spent should be considered. 

The effective teacher or admi 
istrator will undoubtedly ma 
additions to the criteria suggest' 
abo\e for the selection of ma) 
globes, and charts. The importa 
thing to be kept in mind is tli 
"selection" implies the use 
valid criteria. 

Paga 66 

October— SEE and HI 




Dr. Miller McClintock 

Consultant in Education 

Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Inc. 

Editor's Note: How many times the question has been asked: "What's 
ahead in television?" In order to get a fair answer to this, we must 
consult the people who know, who hove had experience, and who see the 
educational possibilities and limitations of this newest mode of communi- 
cation. Here is an understandable statement. 

^HE full development of tele- 
vision will undoubtedly be 
3 of the most significant ad- 
ices in the field of communica- 
n in the postwar world. Its 
plications with respect to the 
ication of the masses as well as 
school people in this country 
[i abroad are great. It is im- 
iisible to anticipate accurately 
\ rapidity with which these 
!ues will be available. 

jTelevision is, however, not a 
|x)thetical or academic activ- 
i It is in actual operation in a 
jiTiber of our larger cities on 
uilar daily schedules. Its qual- 
i as well as its technique of pre- 
hation is being refined rapidly. 

This does not lead to a conclu- 
in that in a very short period of 
Lie after the war television will 
'i available to any substantial 
•pt of our total population, in- 
"ding the majority of American 
tools. Television is costly with 

%3nd HEAR— October 

respect to studios and transmit- 
ters, with respect to methods of 
transmitting programs over long 
distances, and particularly costly 
with respect to the actual produc- 
ing of "shows." These develop- 
mental costs are being borne at 
the present time by the larger 
broadcasting companies. Even- 
tually, it is assumed that they will 
be borne by commercial advertis- 
ers, as are the costs of regular 
radio today. 

These facts lead to some sig- 
nificant guiding conclusions with 
respect to the availability of tele- 
vision and the character of its 
programs. Since the unit cost of 
reaching one thousand individu- 
als is relatively high by television 
as compared with radio, the first 
development of television will be 
in the larger centers of popula- 
tion such as New York, Philadel- 
phia, Boston, Chicago, Los 
Angeles, and in other major cities. 

Page 67 

In the second place, television 
waves are relatively restricted in 
the territories covered, as com- 
pared with radio waves. Thus, 
the most powerful television sta- 
tion in the city of Chicago would 

broadcasting today. The a 
elusion may be modified soi 
what by the trend, perhaps ( 
ored a little by wishful thinkii 
that advertisers are becoini 
wiser in the type of program 

Picture courtesy CBS Tele, i 

During the television show HUNGER TAKES NO HOLIDAY, w h 
was recently telecast over EBF-CBS, the adaptation of the mc n 
picture film as a supporting part of a telecast program was den 
strafed following the discussion led by V. C. Arnspiger (center) 

provide only a fraction of the cov- 
erage which a 50,000-watt radio 
station in Chicago provides today. 
It is to be questioned, therefore, 
if the great majority of our school 
systems will in the relatively near 
future be in the zone of reception 
of a television station. 

Supported by commercial ad- 
vertisers, there is no reason to be- 
lieve that television with respect 
to the educational content of its 
programming will differ material- 
ly from that found upon standard 

Pag* 68 

terial which will be used. 1 i^ 
scarcely to be anticipated, li 
ever, that any substantial parol 
the daily television programir i; 
in any area will be devoted f 
cifically to subjects of defi ic 
value in teaching progi; s 
Twenty-five years of stanc il 
radio under similar condit i> 
have not produced such din i^ 
useful materials in any voluni 

There is another condi ^ii 
affecting program content wl li 
is inherent in mass programn li^ 

October — SEE and 'v* 

L, tcle\ision, as it is over radio, 
"ichinjj; progiams acceptable 

iler inininuim standards for 
isroom use are not essentially 
I se which arc understood or ap- 
ijciated by the general public, 
evision as well as radio pro- 

inniing must be designed pri- 
lily for mass consumption and 
for the special requirements 

3 Miller 

r. Miller Mc- 

itock has his 

. from Stanford, 
$, and his A.M. 
Ph.D. from 
iKard. 1924. He 
(Is an honorary 
from Tufts, 
^. He has been 
lident of the Mutual Broadcasting 
vem since January, 1943. He is 
nor of various books on traffic and 
lisport, advertising and marketing 
iSects. He has served as instructor in 
L^lish at Stanford, professor of munici- 
)J government at the University of 
^ifornia, director of Bureau of Mu- 
1 pal Research at both Harvard and 
I'e. He is a member of the Federal 
\lio Education Commission. 

)l schools. Radio and television 
3()adcasters should not be criti- 
:pd necessarily for this situation, 
liis one which is created by the 
-jPnce of their business as it ex- 
h today. 

There is one field of television 
wich promises to make a unique 
ajJ special contribution to school 
sjations. It is a contribution 
v.ich is strictly within the scope 

^ and HEAR— October 

of general mass programming, 
riiis is the field of ciurent events 
of significance as they are actually 
happening. Thus, for example, 
great public events such as the in- 
auguration of a president, a sig- 
nificant debate in the Senate, or 
the launching of an important 
ship, are types of programs which 
television would naturally carry 
for the mass audience and which 
would have significance for school 

Beyond this, television has 
many peripheral values and po- 
tentialities, but there are natural 
limitations to their full utiliza- 
tion. In addition to those which 
have been mentioned, it would be 
difficult for a public television 
broadcaster to adjust his educa- 
tional programs so that they are 
accurately coordinated with 
courses of study. Any program 
requires careful preparation, re- 
hearsal, and split-second schedul- 
ing. It would only be by accident 
that a particular program hap- 
pened to come at an appropriate 
time in the classes of several 
schools in the same territory. The 
actual scholarly research for close 
coordination could be developed 
if there were an incentive for 
commercial television operators to 
provide it. There seems to be lit- 
tle possibility for such an incen- 
tive to exist, however. 

In its essence, television is a 
sound motion picture. It is not 
the real action. It delivers no 
visual or auditory impression 
which is different from one which 

Pag* 68 

can be obtained from any sound press great enthusiasm for t 

motion picture. educational possibilities of te 

_, , , , , ., vision. All, or practically all, 

Educators who today are fail- ^j^^ advantages of television i 

ing to utilize the tremendous as- available today for the impro 

sets of audio-visual education ment of teaching proces 

must find ihemsehes in an am- through the intelligent use 

biguous position when they ex- educational films. 

®{)e tKen Commanbmentsi 
jFor ^ounb jFilm Wi^txi 

Prof. W. H. Hartley 

Teachers College, Columbia University 

1. Thou shall not make of the motion picture machine a god of cogs and 
wheels, with soul of celluloid, to he howed down to and used to the 
exclusion of other worthy teaching devices. 

2. Thou shall not use sound motion pictures when sound and motion are 
not essential to the concepts to he taught. 

3. Sit not thy pupils down to a mess of visual hash totally unrelated to 
thy course of study, calling it visual instruction, thus profaning a good 
name and dragging educational ideals through the dust. 

4. Tiiou shall not present to that mixture of innocent habes and potential 
and actual devils known as thy class, motion pictures which thou hast 
not carefully previewed and the use of which thou hast not carefully 

5. Leave not the fdm to tell its own story unaided by thee and thy maps, 
slides, still pictures and other aids. Prepare thou thy children for each 
showing and follow up with live, entluisiastic activities. 

6. Be not taken in by the honeyed words, stirring music, flag-waving and 
other highly emotionalized aspects of the propaganda films which knock 
daily at thy classroom door. View all such material with the eye of the 
skeptic and teach thy children to do likewise. Ask always, "Is this material 
worthy of time and place in a public, tax-supported school?" 

7. Blast not thy neighbor's eardrums nor cause his walls to vibrate from 
the loud and raucous noises emanating from an improperly tuned sound 

8. Thou shall never, never attempt to run a sound film on a silent machine. 
The renters will not hold thee guiltless for the ruination of film. 

9. Covet not thy neighbor's time for the use of the projector, but avoid 
confusion by ordering thy films well in advance and posting thy schedule 
with the powers-that-be in the central office. 

10. Fear not the sound projector, but make it serve thee. Experiment with 
it, trying new and better ways of teaching; at all times being guided by 
sound, common sense. 

Reprinted from The Educational Screen. 

Page 70 October— SEE and HI 



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EE and HEAR— October 

Pofle 71 

Motion Pictures 



H. W. Embry 
Director, Visual Education, Dallas Public Sclwols 




CAN we use motion pictures in 
remedial reading classes? 
This was the question facing the 
teachers who took part in a read- 
ing clinic and who were to have 
the responsibility of some sixty 
pupils ranging in giade levels 
from three to seven and in read- 
ing levels from non-readers to 3.9. 

In general, the mental ages of 
these children were normal. On 
the whole, these pupils did not 
like school at any time, much less 
during the vacation months dur- 
ing which time this clinic was 

Editor's Note: A problem thot is con- 
stantly with us is — whot to do with the 
child who is not making the school progress 
that his apparent ability should allow him 
to moke. More than a problem of subject 
achievement, it often becomes one of otti- 
tude toward responsibility, namely, the 
school room tasks that are his. Mr. Embry 
relates his experiences from a very prac- 
tical point of view as he has observed the 
modern teaching film being used with 
"hord-to-motivate" children. 

Pag* 72 

operated. Their attitudes toward 
school were negativistic due most- 
ly, no doubt, to their inability to 
work successfully in their former 
classroom situations. Thus, one 
of the big problems of the clinic 
was to get the children to like 




It was decided that, during the 
six weeks, the children of the 
reading clinic were to see 
films. Some questions confronted 
the teachers: "How can wc best 
capitalize on the possibilities 
which these motion pictures may 
hold for poor readers?" The 
teachers selected the films to be 
shown and determined the ordei 
and time of the showings. To do 
this they selected from a film 
catalog a list of films they thought 
would interest their pupils and fit 
in with their plan of work. 
Fifteen of these were pre\icwed 
during two teacher meetings. Thej 
teachers viewed and selected th 

October— SEE and HEAS 


ms. Boat Trip, Children of 
lina, Airplane Trip, Adx'en- 
rcs of Bunny Rabbit, Bobolink 
d Blue jay, Nairn jo Cliildren, 
exican Children, Arts and 
afts of Mexico, Sawdust Side- 
hls, and African Fauna. 

African Fauna was selected be- 
usc of its many beautiful and 
tercsting scenes even though the 
mmcntary was indistinct and 
2 vocabulary was felt to be too 

Each teacher took notes at 
previews and made her own 
lins for the utilization of the 
ms. The showings "\vere sched- 
r?d for Tuesday and Thursday 
ieach week. AH the pupils saw 
same films at the same time 
under the same projection 
m conditions in the audi- 
<ium, which was considered bet- 
ij than any of the regular class- 

For the purpose of analyzing 
y. use made of the films and the 
3Jpil reactions discovered, the 
iding classes will be considered 
i three groups: group 1 was at 
lout the third grade level in 
4ool, group 2 at the fourth and 
ijh-grade levels, and group 3 was 
){ or above the sixth-grade level, 
tte following discussion concerns 
it methods used to introduce the 
Bin to the pupils, the vocabulary 

!"sons used, the follow-up activ- 
pS, the correlation procedures, 
ad lastly, the pupil reactions. 

t)ne of the principal tasks of 
l^ reading clinic teachers was to 

Wand HEAR— October 

enrich the pupil's auditory, sight, 
and writing vocabularies. In in- 
troducing the fdm and, later, in 
the follow-up of the showing, the 
teacher took advantage of the 
many words and phrases used by 
the pupils in their preliminary 
and follow-up discussions. Teach- 
ers employed these vocabularies 
in word games and drills in order 
to make the words a part of the 
child's own vocabulary. Oral 
stories inspired by the film show- 
ings were typed or printed on the 
board and read aloud by the 
pupils. Older pupils were asked 
to write stories or paragraphs 
about the film subjects. From 
these stories their spelling needs 
were analyzed. The words and 
phrases studied were selected 
from the pupils' oral discussion. 
The words used for spelling les- 
sons were taken from analyses of 
their written expression. They 
scarcely realized that they were 
being "taught reading and spell- 

The variation in the vocabu- 
laries used at different grade 
levels is illustrated by the follow- 
ing that were developed from the 
film, Navajo Children: 

Group 1: Children, sheep, 
goats, yarn, necklace, planting, 
wagon, shearing, weaving, dances, 
rugs, winter home, summer home, 
stirrup, squash, target, corn, cor- 
ral, arrow, range, desert, shoot, 
melons, loom, and monument. 

Group 2: In addition to the 
words above, the following were 
needed: Navajo, festival, Indians, 

Pag* 73 

silversmith, and silver belt. 

Grouj} 3: Flock of sheep, tender 
young glass, cradle board, through 
the desert, shear wool from sheep, 
weave yarn into rugs, trading 
post, to pasture. 

In the first group tlic words 
were nouns and not very long. In 
the upper groups phrases were 
added which included more diffi- 
cult words. 

In connection with the use of 
the film, Boat Trip, consider the 
vocabulary Avhich grew out of the 
study of boats. I'he film experi- 
ence enabled the children to de- 
velop this list of words recalled 
from the experience and they be- 
came the basis of reading and 

ling study: 













freight boat 

life boat 

ice cutler 

p-t boat 

speed boat 

steering wheel 















lug boat 

ocean liner 


ferry boat 



motor boat 




aircraft carrier 

house boat 


police boat 

fire boat 

battle ship 

Not every teacher used vocabu- 
lary lessons with each film. At 

Pag* 74 

H.\V. Embrv 

Born in Mid 
lothian, Texas, Or 
tober 16, 190'), Mt 
Embry graduatei 
from Sweeiwaic 
High Schoo 
Sweetwater, Texa. 
He received hi 
B.A. and MA. d< 
gree at Souther 
Methodist University. 

Mr. Eml)rv began leaching in a run 
school in New Mexico in 1927. H 
taught science in the high schools ( 
Iconard, Carrolion, Wilmcr-Hulclun 
and Dallas, Texas, from 1928 to Ma 
1915, when he was appointed direct' 
of audio-visual education for the Dall 
Public Schools. 

least one teacher of the tlm 
working in each grade level <U 
use such a vocabulary lesson wH 
each film, however. 

Methods of introducing tl 
film to the children differed wn 
different films, with diffcrc 
teachers, and at different gr; 
levels. A frequency tabulation 
the methods used is shown 
Table 1. As only ten films we: ^ 
used, and as the methods of i' ( 
troduction varied from 13 to 1 
it will be obser\cd that usual 
more than one method was c 
ployed with a given group for: 
single film. 

The methods used to follow • 
a film showing and to corrclait 
with tlie classroom work ; 
shown in Table 2. A frequei. 
of five would mean that the pr 
lie ular follow-up method was e 

October— SEE and H K 




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ployed in five different fdms. It 
is seen that more reliance is 
placed on oral discussion in the 
larlier grades than later, that the 
more mature pupils write more 
original stories about the film, 
and that the reading of related 
stories resulted with almost half 
the films, there being only ten 
fdms and a frequency possibility 
of ten. Teachers report that the 
stories written about fdm subjects 
were usually longer than those 
written about other subjects. 
They report, also, that when 
pupils are asked to write about a 
topic of their choice they usually 
choose film subjects. From lower 
grade groups came reports of 
more cases of reading related 
stories following the fdm showing 
than from other groups. 

The follow-up of the showings 
did not end with the immediate 
discussions, but were carried on 
into the subsequent weeks of 
study, both as incidental and 
planned teaching. Pupils often 
referred to films weeks following 
their showing. In most cases, 
where pupils had seen a film in 
their previous school experiences, 
they showed no diminution of in- 
terest in the classroom showing or 

One or two anecdotal records 
will illustrate how the showing of 
films was converted into the ac- 
tivity of basic responsibility dur 
ing the reading clinic: 

Adventures of Bunny Rabbit 
Children wrote stories answer- 

Paga 76 

ing these questions: What did 
Mother Rabbit say to Bunny? 
What did Runny say to Mother? 

The children told about pet 
rabbits and wild rabbits. They 
then read a book named, Story of 
n Rabbit. 

In another group "children 
looked for similar library books." 

In still another "a discussion 
arose as to two of the habits of the 
bunnies that necessitated using 
library books to find the answer." 

"Children wrote rather long 
stories enumerating the rabbit's 
adventures in search of lettuce." 

Three pupils wrote stories of 
the ending explaining Avhat tlu 
bunny told his mother. Three 
others wrote about original ex- 
periences with rabbits. 

Children of China 

"Two children had seen the 
jjicture and were anxious to tell 
about the Chinese schools. We 
decided to watch to see how the 
schools of China were similar to 
or different from our schools." 

"Youngsters told stories learned 
from class work and previous 
reading. We checked to see if all 
the things expected were seen in 
the movie. We added others. Thi 
talks gradually led to war in 

"Some saw it before but liked it 

"We revised the word list. 
wrote stories about phases of 

October — SEE and HEAR 







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as to subject matter. 

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S. V. E. has pioneered the production of this effective 
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EE and HEAR— October 

Pago 77 

Chinese life which appealed to 
the children, and these were 
typed. Each child read his own 
story aloud to the gioup the next 

"The children learned to spell 
the words in their compositions 
which they wanted to use, but 
which they did not know. The 
kinesthetic method was used. One 
boy decided to read a book on 

African Fauna 

Between the t^vo showings of 
African Fauna, groups met and 
discussed the animals' character- 
istics, habits, etc. 

Before the showing one group 
"discussed what animals they 
might see, looked at a map of 
Africa, and located the district to 
be shown." 

After the showing "children en- 
tered into discussion enthusi- 
astically, described each animal, 
where it lived, what it ate, and 
wrote sentences about the 
animals. Then they looked at a 
book entitled Zoo. 

A teacher commented, "After 
all, science and social studies are 
a part of reading. I think terms 
and phraseology are a cause of 
difficulties in these subjects." 

During the second showing, 
"children looked for information 
which they had missed in the first 
one, and these answers were dis- 
cussed afterward." 

After the showings "the pupils 

Pag* 78 

wrote about the animal they liked 
best, furnishing material for tht 
use of the Fernold method. We 
compiled all stories written in in- 
dividual booklets and read their' 

"They (children) like it, bui' 
parts of the narrative they coulc. 
not understand." > 

Now, let us consider what con' 
tributions the pictures made t( 
the reading clinic and to the soluj 
tion of its problems. 

1. The use of films varied thi 
program of learning for the chil' 
dren. Films added interest anc 
made the children's participatioi 
in the clinic a happier one. Th« 
use of films improved the child', 
attitude toward school. 

2. The use of films enriched th 
child's experiences and concepu 
In the future when he reads o; 
Mexico, China, Indians, bird? 
circuses, or wild animals, he wil 
have a better understanding o 
the things he reads. Because c 
his experiencing he will be bette 
able to comprehend those simila 
experiences he meets during hi 

3. Film use enriched the vocal 
ularies of the pupils. Many wore 
and phrases were added to tb 
vocabulary games and drills th: 
they otherwise would not ha\ 
included. The words and phrasi 
studied came directly from tl: 
suggestions of the pupils and gre 
out of their own experiences an 
needs. Thus, vocabulary lessoi 

October— SEE and HE/ 



ccamc more moaiiingful and in- 
resting to the children. 

4. Fihn use stimulated oral and 
ritten expression. Most of the 
cries ^vhich the children wrote 
ere about fdm subjects. The 
ories based on fdm viewing ex- 
crience were generally longer 
lan those written on other sub- 
•cts. The classes participated 

artily in oral discussions con- 
■rning each fdm. 

5. Experiences gained through 
Im use contributed to the de- 
.'lopment of interest in securing 
irther information from books 
jout tlie materials covered in 
le fdnis. The desire to read for 
^formation was stimulated. In- 
^rest was promoted in reading 
ories found in books in the class- 
i)om and in the library. 

The work of the reading clinic 
ith films in the teaching of read- 
Vg was only a beginning. Most 
:. the teachers were unfamiliar 
ith the use of films in the class- 
)om, and they developed their 

methods of using fdms as they 
j)r<)gressed. Some suggestions of 
changes that they believe would 
imj)rove the use of the fdm in the 
clinic situation are: 

1. Training of each teacher in 
the operation of the motion pic- 
ture projector and making it 
available to her for use as she 
needs it in her particular class- 
room situation. 

2. Urging the teacher to re- 
quest films that correlate more 
closely with her particular class- 
room work, and to show them 
when the time appears most op- 

3. Having the films shown to 
individual class groups instead of 
to all the groups at the same time. 

There is no one best way of 
getting children ready to see a 
film. Perhaps the best suggestion 
is to use tested and traditional 
teaching techniques in introduc- 
ing the film viewing situation to 
children. Table No. 1 shows that 

TABLE 1 — Methods Used for Introducing Films 

(Method) (Group 1) (Group 2) (Group 3) 

Discussion of things to look for in the film 6 8 9 

Story telling 2 

Discussion of pupil experiences with subjects to be 

expected 2 5 3 

Writing story on board 1 

Telling about film by those who had previously seen it 2 

Mop study 3 1 

Discussing still pictures relating to film subject 1 

Discussion of related books previously read in class 1 

Visit to on exhibit 1 

TOTALS 18 13 14 

jE and HEAR— October Page 79 

the teachers used the assignment 
method most frequently. The 
other less widely used techniques 
for introducing the film are listed 
in Table No. 1. 

Typical of the assignment made 
before viewing the film, Bobolink 
and Bluejay are these questions 
which one teacher wanted her 
children to be particularly on the 
lookout for: 

1. Describe coloring of the 
male and female bobolinks and 

2. Who feeds the young bobo- 
links? Young bluejays? 

3. How is the male bluejay dif- 
ferent from the male bobolink? 

4. In what places do the two 
build their nests? 

5. Describe the two from the 
time they are hatched until they 
are ready to leave the nest. 

Seeing a film is not sufficient- 
it must be correlated with the 
subject being studied and follow- 
up learning opportunities provid- 
ed. The most frequent follow-up 

activity used in the clinic was tt 
vocabulary lesson based on tt 
content of the film. A typical vi 
cabulary game growing out of tt 
experience of seeing the film o 
the Airplane Trip is here e: 

First, the children were aske 
to recall interesting words whic 
they had heard used in the filr 
The words one group of childre 
recalled are these: 













































The children 

played a 

TABLE 2 — Methods Used to Follow Up and Correlate Films 

(Method) (Group 1) (Group 2) (Group 3) 

Discussion of questions about the film 8 6 3 

Discussion of subjects outside the film but related to it 4 1 2 

Reading of books on film subjects 6 4 3 

Writing of original stories or paragraphs 4 8 9 

Vocabulary lessons 10 10 9 

Trip to museum, exhibits, etc 3 

Collection of pictures and objects related to film 2 1 1 

TOTALS 37 30 27 

Page 80 October— SEE and HJ 

TABLE 3 — Reaction of Pupils to Film Showings 

(Film) (Group 1) (Group 2) (Group 3) 

Boot Trip excellent excellent excellent 

Airplane Trip excellent excellent excellent 

African Fauna good good good 

Children of Chino excellent excellent excellent 

Adventures of Bunny Robbit excellent foir good 

Bobolink and Bluejay fair good excellent 

Navajo Children excellent excellent excellent 

Mexican Children excellent good excellent 

Arts and Crafts of Mexico good excellent no report 

Sawdust Sidelights excellent good excellent 

nth these words, which went 
Miiething like this: The Airplane 
•anie. The words were put on 
iliall cards. Each child became a 
jlot. \\^hcn his turn came, he 
cew a ^\ord card from the pile, 
lad the A\ord, which if correct, 
.flowed him to fly to the height 
q 1.000 feet. The child who 

could gain the highest altitude in 
the shortest time won the game. 

Free reading in the library or 
in classroom books was another 
popular follow-up activity, which 
interestingly enough correlated 
well when we compare books se- 
lected to film subjects seen. 

"A-V" Is International 

(During the past months. Dr. Julio 
\ Jahn, Director de la Escuela Indus- 
t:al de Lecheria, Colonia Suiza, Uru- 
pay, has been working with the state 
(oartment in attempting to set up a 
In program through which an under- 
snding of the dairy industry and agri- 
dture can be developed as a course of 
Sidy experience in the schools of Uru- 
Riy. This is just another example of 
ti- attention being paid to the facility 
t)| the well-executed 16 mm. teaching 
fin to convey correct impressions of 
r'lote environmental experiences to 

I o o o 

' [We are entering upon a new era, a 
p iod in which we propose internation- 
a,understanding instead of world con- 
flit; discussion and mutual cooperation 
iitead of war as a part of the social 
picess. \Ve propose to maintain peace 
ii the world by friendly intercourse, 

Bj and HEAR— October 

with no superior races, but with the 
recognition of the dignity of man and 
the sacredness of human personality. 
This achievement cannot just happen of 
itself, it is only through education that 
such an end can be accomplished. The 
World Friendship Hour observed in all 
the United Nations is world cooperation 
in its most perfect form. It can insure 
peace in the world." 

—Dr. E. George Payne, Dean 
School of Education 
New York University 

"I learned from the Commissar of 
Education in Moscow that the motion 
picture was the chief agency in chang- 
ing Russians from 90 per cent illiterate 
to 90 per cent literate in 25 years." 
—Herbert S. Houston, Chairman 
World Education Service Council 
for a World Friendship Hour 

Pag* 81 


Dr. Ralph A. Fritz 

Director of Library Education, Kutztown, Pa. Teachers College 


Esther A. Park 

Reference Librarian, Pittsburg, Kansas State Teachers College 

□ Editor's note: Dr. Fritz and Miss Park believe that a library is more □ 
than a place in which books are housed. They believe that the library 
in any school, large or small, can be made a dynamic medium of 
communication through the use of free traveling rented or purchased 
exhibits concerning contemporary affairs. Their illustrations are so 
practical that they will inspire readers to develop or assemble their 
own displays to supplement and enrich other curricular materials. 

Why and What 
to Display 

IS A LIBRARY a place only for 
reading? Should it not also be 
a place for seeing? For each of 
us the world is so large these days 
that one almost discourages of 
learning even a little about all 
parts of it. But we believe that 
librarians can help people learn 
by displaying charts, pictures, and 
other materials telling about 
places, jiersons, events and things. 

Materials that help to inform 
about a place which is currently 

Pag* 82 

in the news are especially gw! 
When our fighting men wen. 
Africa, we all learned abc . 
Africa; when they moved 
Sicily, our interests moved ilu 
and when they were in Italy, £| 
were mentally set to learn 
things Italian. Teachers and 
brarians must keep on their t! 
if they make the greatest possi ^ 
use of current happenings 
educational ends. 

Can we maintain a working ;| 
ganization for world peace? li 
chances for doing so are good 0( 
if enough persons in each natij 

October— SEE and H 

HERE are three posters from the United Nations Office poster 
kit. A small charge is made for these materials which are 
obtained from the United Nations Information Office, 610 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City 20. As can be seen, the information 
presented on Australia, the American republics and France offers 
thought-provoking material which stimulates students to further 
reading or inquiry. 

Display tip — Reading materials are displayed at either side of 
the exhibit to show passers-by where they can find related and 
concise information dramatized in the posters. 

TRAVELING exhibits are available to everv school. The one 
shown in this case is available from the British Information 
Service, New York City. Dr. Fritz says, "You and I may not 
like everything British, but world circumstances have wedded 
the United States to their neighbors. We must prevent incom- 
patibilities from leading us toward internationl divorces." The 
panels shown above are taken from the exhibit entitled "Young 

kJ hear— October 

Paga 83 


understand the other nations of 
the world well enough to get 
along with them. Understanding 
other nations, coupled with a de- 
termined effort to get along with 
them may contribute to help keep 
the peace, whereas military pre- 
paredness has always failed to do 
so and likely will continue to fail 

Materials to help us understand 
the nations of the world are at 
hand. Let us examine closely one 
example of such material w^hich 
presents much of its information 
in very graphic ways. In the form 

of an inexpensive kit of mater 
current valuable informa )n 
about the United Nations cai 
secured by any teacher, libra 
or school administrator. Thi' 
includes 23 poster charts; 
copies of a bulletin enti 
United Nations: Today and 
morrow; 15 copies of a bull 
The United Nations: Peoples 
Countries; and a study gi 
Each poster consists of facts t 
ly given and photographs of 
in that nation. 

We first used these materia 'inj 

Pag* 84 

THE use of book jackets and large poster display cal 
attention to interesting reading for those who wai 
to "Know China." 

Display tip — Observe the harmony of shapes placed ti 
gether, divided space and wide margins. Good horizo 
layouts sliould include the principle of side margins cqu; 
and the bottom margin wider than that at the top. 

October— SEE on iEA« 

i of the classes of the college 
\,\ school. 1 he bulletins were 
^ked out to members of the 
:s and each pupil was asked to 
rpare himself about a specified 
ion. When that nation was 
jussed by the whole class, the 
Kially-prepared pupil posted 
li chart for the nation, spoke 
lly about it, and supplcnient- 
Ihis remarks with other ma- 
uls or information he may 
^j discovered. Later, all of the 
jers were strung around the 
by of the college library where 
li interested persons could stop 
I examine them leisurely and 
ijfully. They were used a sec- 
1 time after the student person- 
had largely changed with the 

opening of the sununcr session at 
the college. 

Many months ago we arranged 
with the British Embassy office to 
recei\e at regular intervals boxes 
of mounted photographs of vari- 
ous phases of life in Great Britain 
during the war. Each set consist- 
ed of 15 to 50 pictures. We hung 
some of them about the library 
walls and others we set on tables 
where the individual captions 
could be read and the pictures 
studied leisurely. 

Shortly before Christmas our 
library secured a catalog of ma- 
terials for sale by the Russian 
War Relief. An order was filled 
for some books, a Petinka ker- 

Dr. Ralph A. Fritz 

Dr. Fritz (Ph.D. University of Iowa, and B.S. in L.S. Geolrge 
Peabody College) was formerly librarian at Kansas State 
Teachers College, Pittsburg, Kansas. On September 1, Dr. Fritz 
became director of Library Education, State Teachers College, 
Kutztown, Pa. He was a Captain of Infantry in World War I; 
has taught in high schools in Wyoming, Colorado, and Iowa: 
and for the past 17 years has been professor of education and 
then librarian at Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg. 
In 1937-38 he spent nine months traveling in 15 nations of 
Europe, an experience which assists him in formulating the 
valuable suggestions about which he writes. 

siER A. Park 

!■ Park (A.M. University of Illinois Library School) is 
nee librarian at Kansas State Teachers College. She was 
lent of the junior division of the Kansas Library Asso- 
»)n. 1938-1939. 

I 1940 she participated in the Local Indexes Project of the 
nr members of the American Library Association. Member 
nierican Library Association, Kansas Library Association, 
trican Association of University Women, and Delta Kappa 
JTia. Her individual problem, presented in partial fulfill- 
C' for the masters degree in library science in 1941, is en- 
tt "Mural Painters in America, 1800-1940: A Biographical 
MGeographical Index." 

,nd HEAR— October 


Paga 85 


HE Pacific area is high in terms of public attention. This display 
of books about war on Japan is l)uilt around a Pacific area map 
mounted on Celotex wall board. Note how the map is suspended from 
the molding by a combination of pig rings and pull rings from dis- 
carded pamphlet boxes. 





IN DIFFERENT dress these people could be fount! in any of our 
American communities or rural districts. Yet. how valuable it is 
to offer opportunities of "seeing" our neighbors. This exhibit of 
Russian types was secured through Russian War Relief. 
Display tip — The pictures are hung at eve level. The grouping 
of these |)iciurcs focuses the ()l)scrver's eye within the group. See 
the direction of the general lines from right and left and how 
they lead toward the center. 

Pag* 86 October— SEE aij 

icf in gt)Itl color, four sheets of 
[t wrajiping paper, a folio of 
;ht rejjrocluciioiis of Soviet 
isteis, and photograplis of 
ehe different types of Russian 
ople. \\'itli tliesc, used at dif- 
'cnt times and in \arioiis coni- 
nations, \\c have eniphasi/ed 
me facts about Russia, esj^ecial 
when that coimtry was much in 
e news. 

VVc think that charts, pictures 
d maps are of great value in 
csenting important facts on 

THIS display features reading 
materials on "charm." At the 
time of this exhibit available 
library materials were displayed 
which lied in with lectures being 
conducted by a visiting stylist. 
Posters were supplied by the art 
department in the form of en- 
larged book jackets. 

THIS illustrates the utilization 
of materials at hand to store 
posters for future displays. A 
discarded mop handle is cut the 
length to fit across a closet which 
is under a stairway off the main 
corridor. Prewar coat hangers 
are cut and hooks turned at 
eidier side of the twisted stem 
so that they hang from the pole 
as shown. Spring clips (two 
sizes: li^" and 2i4") from the 
dime store are hung at each side 
of the revamped hanger. Posters, 
sorted as to size, subject, etc., are 
inserted in the clips and left 
hanging like clothes from a rack. 
Poster papers of various sizes, 
weights and colors are then 
stored on the shelf above the 

Page 87 


topics of the day and in calling 
attention to books which give ad- 
ditional facts. Every librarian 
and teacher should be on the 
lookout for such display materials 
and should save them, for fre- 
quently an item can be used 
again in a new combination, or 
altered slightly to serve in a new 

Hoiu to Display 

ONCE good materials have 
been secured, the next con- 
cern is to display them attractive- 
Sow rcf5 

ly. The best single suggestion 
to "accentuate the positive" I 
combining materials pertinent 
the topic. In the foregoing par 
graphs we have pointed out i) 
importance of challenging the 
tention by means of placing m 
terials on the "eye level," in go. 
light, and having the directic 
lines lead to the center of intereii 
We have illustrated the desirabj 
ity of keeping harmony of spaci 
shapes, and margins. In additio 
we ha\e shown how to utilize mi 

terials at hand. 


Offices of the British Consulate, Kansas City 6, Missouri; British Information Service, 
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20. N. Y. ; >few8 Map of the Week, Inc., 1512 Orleans 
Street. Chicago, 111.: Russian War Relief Inc., 5 Cedar Street, New York 15, N. Y.; 
United Air Lines, Room 305, Palmer House, Chicago 3, 111.; United China Relief, 
1790 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. ; United Nations Information Office, 610 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 20, N. Y. 

Note: Additional sources may be found in Standard Catalog for High School Libraries. 
4th Ed New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1942, pp. 849-871, "Sources for 


Grassy Shires 

(Sound) U minutes. Use: Social 
Studies I, J; Geography S; Clubs A. 

THE grassy shires are the farmlands 
of Leicestershire— a fertile dairy, 
fattening, and grain area. The 
mode of hfe on these shires is well por- 
trayed. It describes briefly what changes 
have been brought about on the shires 
during World War II. British Informa- 
tion Services. At your nearest film li- 



(Sound) 24 minutes. Use: Social 
Studies I, J; Agriculture S, A. 

THIS fdm is a photographic experi- 
cnic in living with the farmers in 
the Highlands of Scotland. The 
crofters are small farmers, shown as 
they pursue their self-sufficient way of 

Pag* 88 

living. Peat cutting, communal she) 
herding, gathering in the crops, al 
fishing are all accomplished by hal 
methods. The traveling store, the ml 
car, and the village telephone are \>/ 
interestingly compared with our f.n i 
ways. British Information Services. < 
your nearest film library. 


Home, Safe Home 

(Sound) 10 minutes. Use: Sa 
I, J, S; Home Economics J, S; Cluh 

THIS film is built around the in 
mation that each year over Sn 
people die because of accidcj 
and shows common causes of home a i- 
dents. It is constructive in its appro ll 
rather than alarming. It shows e 
correct uses and incorrect uses of e 
kitchen range, electrical appliances, j ■ 
cautions to be exercised on stair w( <, 
etc. It is an exceedingly worth-wie 
film. National Safety Council. At y f 
nearest film library. 

October — SEE and H# 


Ma*uf> teaolteAA. a^Aee, : 

c/\j)0, it doesn't make sense ... to buy 
the BEST and then project these costly fihns 
on an inferior makeshift screen or even a 
clean sheet! 

Hundreds — even thousands — of dollars 
may be invested in equipment and films, but 
you'll never know the pride that will be yours, 
the amazing improvement in the clarity of 
the pictures, and consequently the greater 
effectiveness of the showings . . . until you 
see these pictures projected on a RADIANT 
Screen ! 





PROJECTION SCREENS ,,75 w. Sup«no, street 

Z' ' / / I \\^\ Chieogo 22, Illinois 

Wease send FREE copy of "Secrets of Good Projection." 





and HEAR— October 

Page 89 



to Grand77iother stimulates 
language facilities and is ideal in 
creating reading backgrounds. 
The iihn is an outstanding ex- 
ample of the progress being made 
in preparing authentic, interest- 
ing and challenging films for the 

Page 90 


Coronet 22 Min. Black and White. Sour 

primary and intermediate grad'. 
Here is an example of how a C(.- 
tinuing. logically organized, ;--* 
gogically correct learning expe 
cnce, heretofore barred to r 
lower grade children, can nov; 
brought into every classroom 
the country. 

A Letter to Grandmother tr'i 
sccnds the barriers of time a 
distance, gets behind offif 
screens and sees through a hig 
complex process of governmi 
service in such a clear-cut nan- 
tive manner that it is undcrsta I- 
able to a child studying tns- 
portation and comnuinication. 

October — SEE o' 


rhe Pictures— 

. Mary is writing a letter to 
her gramlmotlicr who 
lives on a farm. "Will you 
please send my dog's ball 
and blanket which we left 
at your house? Chips begs 
me every day to play ball 
with him." 

. Mary slips her letter to 
grandmother in the corner 
mail box. 

. "Do you come for the 
mail every day?" she asks 
the mailman as he un- 
locks the box. "Yes," he 
answers, "I pick up the 
mail twice a day on week 
days and once a day on 
Sundays and holidays. Ask 
your mother to bring you 
down to the post office 
and I will show you what 
happens to your letter to 
your grandmother." 

[. Mary and her mother 
have gone to the post 
office for a visit. They are 
on the rear platform. "I 
bring the mail to the post 
office from all over the 
city in these satchels," says 
the mailman. 

'). Mary and her mother 
watch the letter to grand- 
mother being sorted into 
a bundle with other let- 
ters which are to leave on 
a northbound train at 

I. Grandmother has received 
Mary's letter and has 
wrapped the dog blanket 
and ball and sent it to 
Nfary's town. Here the 
package is being put in 
the proper bag for parcel 
post delivery. 

'. The driver of the parcel 
post truck delivers grand- 
mother's package to 
Mary's house. 

SEE and HEAR— October 

Page 91 







•*' now »-»••• 



ill ' 


THANKS to Victor's World Wide Servir, 
new chapters of "Maintenance'' hte 
been written . . . keeping prewar ad 
wartime projectors at the gruellii;, 
vital war job of training and entertai 
ing on the Fighting Fronts. At hor2, 
too, Projectors were kept running. 

The various branches of the Servii, 
Schools, Industry and Churches h;'( 
learned the value and importance of tii 
outstanding service . . . have leanx 
that the word "Sold" does not carr i 
finality of interest in the 1/ 
namic job that Victor Proj:^ 
tors are doing throughout it 
world. Yes, even 10-year- Id 
Victors are still doing duty <ic 
to the unusual qualitybf 
Victor's interested service, r ' 

Now, too, look to Victor ar 
the most comprehens/e 
understanding of the wed. 



Pag* 92 


I 6 M 


^^Home Office and Faeiory: Davenport, I '• 

New York (18)— McGrow Hill 11.. 
330 W. 42nd St. 
Chicago (D— 188 W. Randelp 


October— SEE and HE 

Many questions on Audio-Visual 
Learning come in your editor's 
mailbag - - - here are — 

W. A. WiTTicH AND John Guy Fowlkes 

^ WHAT is the best method 
^* of accomplishing an in- 
ervice training program for 
eachers with respect to organ- 
dng and utilizing a program of 
isual materials in the classroom? 

\TOO often the attempt is made 
• to organize a complete program 
f visual materials and then to dump it 
nannounced onto the staff of a school 
t the opening of school in the fall. Any 
rogram which affects the teaching 
lethods of the teachers should be their 
rogram. The teachers should have the 
pportunity of determining the needs; 
liey should have an opportunity of dis- 
overing the materials to be used— the 
1ms, the maps, the charts, the film- 
trips, the mounted pictures, etc. Every 
ttempt should be made to begin the 
isual materials program as a coopera- 
ive teacher-administrator study. Several 
chool systems which today are success- 
uUy using visual materials have done 
through an inservice training pro- 
Tara. Very briefly, the steps they went 
hrough are listed here: (1) Extensive 
cading in books and magazines in an 
ttempt to discover how the needs of 
he local school can be served through 
isual materials. (2) A period in which 
he materials were examined and eval- 
uated in terms of their usefulness in the 
lassroom. The examination period in- 

EE and HEAR— October 

eluded opportunity to isee available 
films, filmstrips, maps, globes, etc. (3) 
A period during which those materials 
which made a new or outstanding con- 
tribution to classroom method were se- 
lected and budgeted. (4) Almost a year 
later, the final period during which the 
materials were purchased or rented and 
brought into classroom use as an inte- 
gral part of the learning experience. 

RECENTLY I have heard 
• of a process for photo- 
graphing on black and white film 
which will project in color. Is 
this true? 

A THE process of photographing 
• on black and white and pro- 
jecting in color is not a new discovery. 
The process is accomplished by record- 
ing photographic images simultaneously 
on the quadrants of a normal motion 
picture frame by receiving the photo- 
graphic image through four parallel 
lenses and through four variable color 
filters. By means of this very interest- 
Page 93 

ing optical arrangement, the images are 
photographed simultaneously as they 
pass through the four filters and are so 
recorded on hlack and white film nega- 
tive. Later, when this is projected 
througli a similar four-lens arrangement 
on the motion picture projector, the col- 
ors projected through the filters are cast 
upon the screen. Far from complete and 
still in laboratory stages, this develop- 
ment may promise something for class- 
room use. since it allows high speed 
photography, which could not be ac- 
complished on present color stock. 

OHOW much is it? Much 
• has been said about the 
school's ability to pay for good 
visual materials. How much does 
it really cost to produce a teach- 
ing film? 

A THE schools can and will pay 
• their way in underwriting the 
making of outstanding educational 
films. However, there is no direct an- 
swer to the question of how much films 
cost. The type of film, the conditions 
under which it is produced, make the 
costs variable. Ariluir Rarr, producer, 
reports that his production costs run 
about S500 per reel. The United States 
Office of Education films are reported to 
have averaged about $6,700 per reel. On 
the other hand. Rev. James K. Friedrich, 
prcxluccr of Cathedral Films, reports 
that at tlie present time the religious 
film subjects that he authorizes are be- 
ing produced at approximately $16,000 
per film and are paying for themselves. 

From this it can be said that films do 
f05/— that schools must expect to in- 
crease budgets. The films produced un- 

Pag* 94 

der government subsidy have not asked 
schools to pay the complete cost ofij 
liciuidating the production budget. 

Since subsidized arrangements will, no 
doubt, be discontinued, school systems,' 
if they want to take advantage of the 
benefits of visual education, must plan 
for materially increased budget provi- 

Teachers and adiiiitiiilralurs are 
invited to submit questions relative 
to evaluation of materials, source 
of materials, and methods of main- 
taitiitij^ and using eijuifiment . . . 
address— The Editors, SEE and 

OTHE acoustics in our audi 
• torium are bad. It is ver 
difficult to hear the sound tracl; 
Is there anything we can do aboii 


MANY of the school rooms I 
which sound motion-picture pre 
jection is being conducted today wei 
not built for that purpose. In many si 
uations, the acoustics are bad. The shaf 
of the room is unfortunate in that tc 
many pupils have to sit at too wide a 
angle from the screen as they watch ll 
picture. Fortunately, acoustic material 
one of the unrationed items which ca 
be secured from any nearby lumb* 
yard. These materials can be applit 
very easily to ceilings and walls. Tl 
expense of this treatment is surprising 
small. The speaker of the project' 
should be placed so that the soui 
waves traveling from it strike first tl 
ears of the listeners. Too often, t) 
speaker is placed directly on the sta 
floor or against one wall in such a ma 
ner that the floor or wall surface a« 
as sound reflecting surfaces which rai 
liply the reverberations which reach t' 
listeners' ears, producing confused au 

October— SEE and 


I images. Suspending the speaker 
Iway between iloor and ceiling, and 
jing it so that the face is perpendic- 
r to a Une drawn from the auilience 
itly improves the situation. 


AS a school librarian, we 
arc interested in what we 
1 do about establishing a pro- 
im of visual materials for our 
Idren and for interested adults. 
!iat assistance can you gi\e me? 

WE have addressed your inquiry 
L* to a Ubrarian who has very sue- 
fully carried on film forums. This 
arian. Martha B. Merrell, has been 
d enough to write a report of her 
vitics which are herein given. Her 
ort xvill go a long way to answer 
r question. 

M5-46 will be the third season we 
e shown educational films for adults 
i-monthly in our Main Library. We 
this is definitely out of the experi- 
ital stage but there is still much 
m for improvement in the method 

coated in an old Carnegie building 
1 no auditorium and every corner 
d with books, twice a month, Oc- 
;r to May, we push back tables and 
.s in a second floor room occupied by 
City Extension Department. We can 
vd about 75 folding chairs (borrow- 
From the Park Department) into the 
ra; when the crowd reached 175 as 
id for Eighteenth Century Williams- 
g, 35 children sat on the floor and 
some adults sat and stood on chairs 
red through the hall and in a stock- 
m on the far side. (That is not 
)mmended for comfort, but did not 
n to affect the enthusiasm.) At every 
ular film the chairs have extended 
5ugh large double doors (which we 
expected to close to keep the sound 
n the rest of the building) into the 

"ravel films have naturally been the 
it popular. Eighteenth Century 

and HEAR— October 

Williainsburg was by faf the most suc- 
cessful if judged by numbers attending, 
hut South America (Americans All and 
Roads South), Alaska (Alaska— Reservoir 
of Resources and Alaska's Silver Mil- 
lions), Great Lakes (Lake Carrier, Great 
Lakes, and A Fish Is Born which was 
a last minute filler l)ut good) , China 
(Here is China and China—First to 
Fight), Horses (Horse in North America 
and The American Horse), and Astrono- 
my (World We Live In, Solar Family, 
Mooti, and Exploring the Universe) all 
taxed the seating capacity of our room 
and hall. Judged by what the library 
wished to achieve— adult education— we 
consider the forums on Television and 
Child Guidance among our most suc- 
cessful. For those, we secured the at- 
tendance of specialists, not 'to conduct 
the forums, but to contribute to the 
discussion and answer questions. A 
word of warning about advertising 
films: since they are free, it is a temp- 
tation for libraries (with notoriously 
low budgets) to use them. Some are 
very good, but in some the advertising 
is so dominant that the desired effect 
of the forum is completely nullified. 

At no time have we had an oppor- 
timity to preview the films before the 
morning of the showing, and conse- 
quently could not change, even if we 
were disappointed. With no projector 
of our own, we have depended on the 
generosity of library friends and have 
usually held our preview before a Vo- 
cational School class the morning of the 
forum (to be held at 8 o'clock at the 
Library) . This has a second disad- 
vantage even greater than the one just 
noted: \Ve are very little more familiar 
with the film content than our audience. 
All of our selection is made from re- 
views. The H. W. Wilson Educational 
Film Catalog is our Bible for all but 
the most recent films. Our book lists 
prepared by the Adult Department for 
each meeting must be prepared with 
only the information from reviews, and 
newspaper publicity uses the same re- 
views. An opportunity to view the films 
at the time of selection would be highly 

Pago 95 

desirable. I still think a public library 
should add films to the books, pictures, 
records, slides, etc. now accepted as 
part of its stock in trade, but 1 have 
been unable to secure the necessary sup- 
port for this "revolutionary" idea. 

We start our forums promptly at 
eight, show about 40 minutes of film, 
and close the discussion by 9:30. Some 
films naturally provoke much more dis- 
cussion than others, but I feel weak 
discussion is usually the fault of the 
leader. Since I have conducted most of 
ours to date, and the better forums were 
lead by staff members who spent more 
time in background preparation, I feel 
free to express this opinion. Thorough 
preparation is essential to the leading 
of lively discussion. My only excuse is 
that what we have been able to ac- 
complish with a crowded schedule is 
better than nothing and we are striving 
toward an important contribution to 
adult education. Our library forums 
are planned for adults (children are 
allowed but must sit on parents' laps 
or on the floor if the room is too full) 
who finished school before visual aids 
were a common tool of instruction. The 
entertainment value is purely incidental. 

The total cost for 20 Film Forums: 

Rental of Films $ 58.65 

Printing (9,500 flyers) 52.25 

Projection (operator with 

his own equipment) 100.00 

Film Insurance 4.00 

Express Charges on Films 21.02 


If a library must judge the value of 
its services by circulation results. I can- 
not be very sanguine about the dollar 
and cents value of such forums. We 
have been able to trace some circulation 
of books directly to the forums. We 
circulate pertinent material (books, 
pamphlets, periodicals^ at each forum 
and distribute recommended lists, which 
are also available later at the lil)rary. 
But we feel the value to the library 
and to the people of our community is 
far in excess of that indicated by circu- 
lation statistics. Each forum brings 
new faces to the library, and why isn't 
information or inspiration gained from 

Page 96 

a film just as important as that gaii| 
from the printed word? 

WHICH is best to use 
• the classroom: The sili| 
fihii, the sound film, or the fill-| 

A THIS question is often asked d 
• represents one that should bf 
even exist in the mind of teachers or1 
ministrators. It is never a questioi jf 
which teaching material is best; ij 
rather a question of what do the te 
ing materials accomplish in the c 
room? What values can be attache<ti 
them? Under what circumstances le 
they most effectively used? If this p- 
proach is used, all groundless arguniiO 
will disappear in favor of a more A 
uable contemplation of visual mateui 
as they contribute to our classr^il 
method. It is senseless to argue the .m 
parative merits of the filmstnp v«^ 
the motion picture. Rather it shoul 
recognized that the filmslrip lends i 
very admirably to situations whid 
volve detailed study. The filmstrip 
plains well when the explanation 
not have to depend upon motion to 
complete understanding. The stud 
architectural forms or of plant s 
tiires can be accomplished ver>- cU 
through the filmstrip, if motion not 
an integral part of the objective i be 
attained. However, the processes in- 
volved in preparing the lumber i be 
used in building, or in making th pi- 
per upon which we write, or in cm 
ining the operations involved n «n 
internal combustion motor as it 
ning— all depend on motion, if cc; 
understanding is to be gained 
rather investigate visual matcn 
terms of what they will do and <'•■ 
they will not do instead of atte 
to seek one technique which will a 
all problems. No one visual ma] 
will serve under all circurastan 
leaching. There is always a questi 
selecting that visual material whir 
fulfill ilie needs of the learning 

October— SEE and! 


fke^ouAAtal cm 

r Reg. U. S. Pat. Office. 

Published each month of the school year— September to May inclusive 
-by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, a division of E. M. HALE 
I and Company. 

Earl M. Hale, President and Publisher. 

Walter A. Wittich, John Guy Fowlkes and C. J. Anderson, Editors. 

I H. Mac McCrath, Business Manager; Tom Bartingale, Circulation Director. 

Sold by subscription only. $3.00 per year (9 issues) in the U.S. 

$4.00 in Canada and foreign countries. 

MO\..\ NOVEMBER - 1945 no. 3 



Editorial 4 

To See and Hear 8 

A Challenge for Tomorrow— /4/ Perkins and Marie Seton 12 

Memo to You— Boyd B. Rakestraw 19 

Realities of Current History— O. A. Hankammer 20 

Seven-County Co-op. Film Library— A^enng</i F. Bartels 29 

For Want of a Nail— /acA Amacher 34 

Book Review— /oe Park 35 

Canada Comes io the U. S.— Margaret Carter 38 

What's E¥LA-Elizabeth Flory 49 

An Instructional Materials Center for Teacher's Colleges— ZJ. James 
Brown and Lt. Robert Abbott 52 

The Motion Picture in Health Education— T-Varren Sovthioorth 60 

Eyes and Ears South— O^car E. Sams, Jr 63 

Where Do We Go From Here— Dr. Arthur Stenius 74 

Navy Films Pay Off-L/. Charles F. Schuller 78 

Watchtower Over Tomorrow— l^a/<er T. Brown 87 

Some .Answers— I^J'. A. Wittich and John Guy Fowlkes 94 

• Copyright 1945 by SEE and HEAR. Eau Claire. Wis. Printed in U.S.A. • 

Members of the Editorial Advisory Board 
of SEE and HEAR 

ROGER ALBRIGHT. Teaching Film Cu»todians 
LESTER ANDERSON. University of Minneiota 
V. C. ARNSPICER. Encyclopaedia Britannica Filnw, Inc. 
LESTER F. BECK. University of OreRon (on leave) 
MRS. ESTHER BERG. New York City Public Schools 
MRS. CAMILLA BEST. New Orleans Public Schools 
CHARLES M. BOESEL. Milwaukee Country Day Schoo 
JOSEPH K. BOLTZ. Coordinator. Citisenship Education Study. Detroit 
LT. JAMES W. BROWN, Officer in Charge. Training Aids Section, Great Lakes 
MISS MARGARET J. CARTER. Nation.4l Film Board of Canada 
C. R. CRAKES. Educational Consultant. DeVry Corporation 
LT. AMO DeBERNARDIS, Training Aids Officer. Recruit Training Command. Great Lake •= 
JOSEPH E. DICKMAN. Chicago Public Schools 
DEAN E. DOUGLASS. Educational Department. Radio Corporation of America 
GLEN G. EYE. University of Wisconsin 
LESLIE FRYE. Cleveland Public Schools 
LOWELL P. GOODRICH. Superintendent. Milwaukee Public Schools 
WILLIAM M. GREGORY. Western Reserve University 
JOHN L. HAMILTON. Film Officer. British Information Services 
MRS. RUTH A. HAMILTON. Omaha Public Schools 
O. A. HANKAMMER. Kansas State Teachers College 
W. H. HARTLEY. Towson State Teachers College, Md. 
JOHN R. HEDGES, University of Iowa 
VIRGIL E. HERRICK. University of Chicago 
HENRY H. HILL, President. George Peabody College for Teachers 
CHARLES HOFF. University of Omaha 
B. F. HOLLAND. University of Texas 
MRS. WANDA WHEELER JOHNSTON. Knoxville Public Schools 
HEROLD L. KOOSER. Iowa State College 
ABRAHAM KRASKER. Boston University 
L. C. LARSON. Indiana University 
GORDON N. MACKENZIE. Teachers College. Columbia University 
DAVID B. McCULLEY. University of Nebraska 
CHARLES P. McINNlS. Columbia (S. C.) Public Schools 
EDGAR L. MORPHET. Department of Education. Florida 
HERBERT OLANDER. University of Pittsburgh 
C. R. REAGAN. Office of War Information 
DON C. ROGERS. Chicago Public Schools 
W. E. ROSENSTENGEL. University of North Carolina 
W. T. ROWLAND, Superintendent, Lexington (Ky.) Public Schools 
OSCAR E. SAMS, Jr.. University of Tennessee (on leave) 
E. E. SECHRIEST. Birmingham Public Schools 
HAROLD SPEARS. New Jersey State Teachers College (MontcUir) 


R. LEE THOMAS. Department of Education. Tennessee 

ERNEST TIEMANN. Pueblo Junior College 

ORLIN D. TRAPP, Waukcgan High School 

KINGSLEY TRENHOLME. Portland (Ore.) Public Schools 

MISS LELIA TROLINGER, University of Colorado 

PAUL WENDT, University of Minnesota 

Page 2 November — SEE and I 

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1109 East ISth St. 

Kansas City 


TS VISUAL education always going to continue to be in the 
-'■ hands of 48 state film libraries? This is a constantly re- 
curring question. It has been estimated that 75 per cent of 
the films used in public education are distributed through 
state university or state department of education film library 

But more about the (juestion. Leadership certainly has 
been necessary. And the ageiicy which teachers and school 
administrators will expect to assume this leadership, particu- 
larly dining the early days of unprofitable budget conditions 
has rightly been some large educational institution or the 
state department of public instruction. 

From everywhere reports come to these leaders indicating 
astounding increases in circulation and use of visual education 
materials. Rightly so, then, the question may be asked, "Is 
the future of visual education to be determined by such cen- 
tralized organizations?" 

Certainly, the fimction of the central educational libraries 
will be to exert continuing leadership and to pioneer in ex- 
jjloring and distributing this educational tool. On the basis 
of past experience and meritorious service, the growth of 
central libraries is understandable. ( 

Among administrators and supervisors, there is increased 
interest in examining the possibility of assiuning the responsi- ^ 
bility locally to collect good audio-visual materials and to ' 

Page 4 November — SEE and h^ 

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It a flutter or a jump— so simple, 

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The new De\'RY is a 3-purpose unit that 
(1) SAFELY projects both sound and silent 
films; (2) that shows BOTH black-and-white 
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(3) whose separately housed 25-watt ampli- 
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speaker afford portable Public Address facil- 
ities — indoors and out. 

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sound and silent Classroom Teaching 
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Please mail me catalog; of Audio- Visual Teaching 
Kqaipment. Also your new 1946 Film Catalog. 

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reduction of motion picture sound equipment 





p.emd HEAR— November 

Page 5 

Continued from page four 

own and distribute them in order to provide more effective 
utilization. True, witli increased interest is boinid to come 
greater budget appropriation and de-cenlrali/aiion in the 
ownership of the materials with which programs of \ isual 
echuation can be effectively conducted. 

Another trend which is already making itself felt is the 
tlecrease in cost of materials. For years fdms have sold for a 
standaid price of fifty dollars. Now, good films of comparable 
(]ualiiy and of equal length arc appearing at the price of forty 
dollars and in some cases less. Administrator after adminis- 
trator has reported the belief that that school system whith 
((in. should embark on its own jirogram of visual material 
purdiase comparal)lc' to that which has cvohcil fiom fifty 
yeais of practice in the sup]jlementary text and book field. 
From isolated points across the land come indications that 
visual education budgets are large and in some cases ajjproach 
or ecpial textbook expenditines. Fhis is as it should and 
will be. 

\\'ith increased demands will come the necessity for in- 
creased local budget appropriation to meet the cost both of 
text antl visual instructional materials. The great central 
libraries will continue their leadership but will be freed, as 
larger school systems become independent, to extend their 
service to smaller communities which cannot and perhaps 
never should be asked to underwrite a complete program of 
visual material jomchase. 

When all interests in the field of visual education atlopt a 
long-term program wisely conceived and move ahead cour- 
ageously, the field of visual education will become a ped- 
agogically sound program whidi deserves continued financial 
and educational support. 

—The Editors 

Paga 6 

November — SEE and 1 

Keep It SIMPLE! 


... a good rule to follow in visualizing 
the daily lessons. 

Teachers who observe this 
axiom depend on S. V. E. pro- 
jectors and visual material 
to help them do the job . . . 
S'.V. E. film strips and 2"x2" 
color slides for authentic 
teaching material . . . S.V.E. 
projectors for convenience 
and efficient projection. 

Write today for catalogs and 





A Business Corporation 

Dept. 1 1SH, 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 11, Illinois 

T'jl2" slides and film STRIPS 



26 Years of Leadership in Producing Visual Aids 

ix and HEAR — November Pajje 7 

^5^ ajl -Htfi^ i 


The group of sixth-grade youngsters 
on the cover ilhistrates a very practical 
way of studying the solar system and 
its relationship to the sun. Often it is 
very difficult for youngsters to under- 
stand the effect of the sun's rays on the 
earth's surface as the axis of the earth, 
represented bv the position of the north 
pole, is tipped toward or away from the 
sun. These students were working under 
the direction of Miss Helen Simon, 
sixth -grade teacher. Picture courtesy of 
Madison Public Schools. 

Akron Library Film Program 

The Akron Public Library, in April, 
1943, conducted a series of three film 
forums under the leadership of Miss Ida 
Goshkin, Director of Group Service. A 
series of six forums held at the Y.M.C.A. 
in the spring of 1945 was planned with 
the active assistance of the library, which 
also helped furnish discussion leaders 
and made discussion outlines. A series 
of four forums, in cooperation with the 
League of Women Voters of Akron, is 
in progress now. Several other single 
forums have been planned and promot- 
ed by the Library in cooperation with 
other groups. 

A major purpose in these programs is 
to demonstrate the method, and this has 
been done with such success that these 
and other groups are proceeding to plan 
and conduct their own meetings. Since 
a major problem in this connection is 
availability of films, the library has gone 
forward with its plans to set up a film 
lending library. 

A deposit of 70 films was secured from 
ihf OWI in August and 39 more from 
OIA.V. Letters were sent to a selected 
group of corporations and other organ- 
izations resulting in the receipt of 23 
lilms for deposit. We have purchased 
eight titles to date. Thus, in two months' 

Pa«« 8 

time, we were able to assemble a toij 
of 140 lilins with little expense. 

Since the main purpose of the Groj 
Service Department is that of assistij 
local groups in planning tiicir prograiJ 
it is possible to suggest not only fir 
titles for their use but the forms of pi 
gram and the ways in which ihey fl 
be used. For this reasem and also l| 
< ause film lending can easily be 
tegrated into traditional lending servU! 
it is believed that public libraries (I 
and should play an increasingly imp>j 
tant part in the distribiUion of ediij 
lional films. 

— R. Russell Munn. Lihiariat^f 
Akron Public Library 

Movie-Mile Appoints 
W. B. Bennell 

William G. Wilson, General Mans 

of . the Movie-Mite Corporation, 
nounces the appointment of W. 
Bennett as Sales Manager. Movie-I 
manufactures a small, compact, 
light-weight sound on-film projector 
industrial, educational, and home il 
Mr. Bennett, formerlv Industrial &] 
Manager with Bell & Howell and 
recently of Swain-Xelson Company, i 
plan Movie-Mite's postwar sales (| 

Color Slides on the Other 
American Republics 
The American Council on Educatl 
tlirough the cooperation of the Offiol 
liuer-Amcrican Affairs has rcccntlycj 
|)lcted assembling 33 teaching unit 
2" X 2" color slides dealing with 
other American republics. Ihe pro| 
was directed by Florence Arquin. 

riie assembling of these units 

made possible by the interest and i i- 

(Turn to page ten) w 

November — SEE and IW 

s of the old 

Ir. pliilosophrrs 

I .1 u;* lu li y 

- i.f the Ptdlf- 

inap of tlir 

ijiit countrk'r-. 

' 'a?^ 


In the time o f 
Columbus apprentice 
seamen learned 
navigation from the 
Portiilan thart of 
the kmiwti world. 

Today, pupils are 
taught to interpret 
many kinds of maps 
in the study of man's 
relation to his en- 




Ku the days of the mud maps of Babylonia, man has used map sym- 
jsras to represent the surface of the earth and matters pertaining to 
ition and distribution. Map reading skills and map use were never 
•Important as today. Modern geography, with its complex patterns 
jiatural and cultural factors, requires many map symbols to [)resent 
I relationships of environments to man. 

Send for new map catalog 

nouH be pleased to send you a copy of our new C'45 ojitaloc It 

- (in colors) and describes visual aiils for the teachinjr of Reoii- 

?tory, health and biology. Sign and mail tliis coupon for your 







J Elslon Avenue CHICAGO 18, ILLESOIS 

|E and HEAR— November 

Page 9 

croiis c<K)pcratioii of the Brooklyn Mil 
scum, Chicago Miiscimi of Naliiral His 
tory, Press Division of tlic Office of 
Inter-American Affairs, Muscinn of 
Modern Art, Art Department of the 
University of Texas, Pan American Air 
ways, Taca Airways, anil leading jiho 
tographers indnding Florence Arquin 
and Julien Bryan. 

Complete files of the 33 units to- 
gether with teachers' notes have been 
placed on deposit for loan distribution 
with the following institutions: 

The Southern California Council of 
Inter-American Affairs, 707 Auditorium 
Building, Fifth and Olive Streets, Los 
Angeles 13, California 

The Rocky Mountain Council on In- 
ter-American Affairs, 1425 Cleveland 
Place, Denver, Colorado 

Division of Inter-American Educa- 
tional Relations, U. S. Office of F.duca- 
tion, Washington 23, D. C. 

Pan American Union, Washington 6, 
D. C. 

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago 3, 

Extension Division, The State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Hic I'an Aiiuruaii Society of Mav 
cluisetts and .Northern Xew F.nglat 
I IK.. 75 Newbury Street, Boston Ifi. M, 

The Southern Council on Intcri 
tional Relations, Box 1050, Chapel H 
North Ciarolina 

Portland Extension Center, On 
State System of Higher Educatii 
Portland, Oregon 

Division of Education, Philadclpl 
Museum of Art, Parkway at 2(ith Sti 
Philadelphia .^0, Pciuisvlvania 

Institute of Latin .American Studi 
1 he University of Texas, .Austin 

For comjilele information concernil 
a\ailabilit) and service charges, 
directly to the nearest dejjository. 

Send for It! 

SEE and HE.VR ail vert isers oiler bol 
lets and catalogs that are valual)lc a] 
source of dependafile information 
\isuat aiils. ^ Ou are invited to send i 
the ones you desire. 

BRUCE A. FINDLAY, Instructional Aids and Services Branch of the 
Board of Education of the city of Los .Angeles, has recently accepted 
in addition to his regular work the supervisory respoiisil)ilities in the 
audio-visual field, the lif)rary and textbook fields, antl the coiniscling 
and guidance work. 

Tlic loivo-Nrhraska Institute 

THE second Iowa-Nebraska Institute on .Aiulio-Visual Education rang 
down the curtains at the University of Omaha after the total regis- 
trations had reached 1.028. Eighty-two cities and towns were represented 
from 13 states, 45 Nebraska towns and 30 out-of-state towns. Exhibit 
booths showing the latest in all t\pcs of new equipment numbered 28. 

This vear's institute was separated into live divisions. These divisions 
were specifically for elemental \. .setoiulary, and (ollege teachers, religious 
education leaders, and adult education groups. 

'The same intense iiileusl in (kinoiislrations of leaching methods at 
the various school and (olUge kvels was shown as was evidenced last 
year. The reaction to the adult and religious education divisions has been 
particularly encouraging though surprising. As a direct result of the 
inspiration received at the film forum demonstration contlucted by Mar- 
garet Carter and John Ilamillon. one Omaha group which has been stiidv- 
iiig juvenile deliii(|iKii( \ for inaiiv immtfis has now set up a film-forum 
as a permanent monthly program. 

Page 10 

November — SEE ond ; '\f 

The Cadmus Program 
ties into visual learning 

e Approved Complementary Reading Plan 
...from Kindergarten to High School 

|(t's rapidly growing in national popularity for it 
the one pract cal way of fulfilling a definite teach 
;. nceJ plus solving several perplexing classroom 
i)blems without disturbing curriculum or present 
Iss methods. 

— stretch your book dollars 
— save the teacher's time 
— outwear ordinary books 



Average Price Only 87c each ! 

Send for the CADMUS Booklet — describ-'ng the 
tire Cadmus Plan.... the unique READING 
'JIDE....and a complete list of titles, grouped 
grades from kindergarten to high school. It's 
^E, of course, and interestingly informative ! 
jst write — "Cadmus Booklet" and your address 
• a post card and send 

99c Q 











^.tAiAO^ .se-'ti 

E. M. HALE and Company 



d HEAR— November 

Page 11 

1. i Ilis is tlic appioath 
Hometown." It might ' 
the approach to any small 
community in the I 'nil' 

Like any community, it's 
|)hKC where fatlicr starts c 
early in the morning just 
his father did before hii 
Most of the men have prci 
good jobs right now, i) 
many of them are wondcrii 
what's going to happen ad 



.lis a town that needs a new high 
|school, where the educational system 
lis considered good because most every- 
jone is pretty well educated, but 
'where, nevertheless, there is lots of 
nM)m tor planning and improvement. 

■• Here many of the people sit in their 
cozy homes enjoying one another's 

' comradeship. Many families, like 
this one, enjoy good housing, warmth, 

Pictures by "Look" Magazine 
iE and HEAR — November 

adequate diet and the common lux- 
uries of good living. 
5. But like many of the small communi- 
ties, it does have places of which it 
is not proud. Some of its citizens 
don't have decent clothes to wear, 
good food to eat, or even minimum 
dwellings. Ugly, makeshift houses, 
poverty, unhappiness, or squalor have 
no place in any hometown in the 
United States. Plans should be made 
to rout out conditions such as this. 

Page 13 


Albert R. Perkins 
Film and Radio Director, LOOK Matrazinr 

With Evaluation by Marie Seton 
Film Director, Abraliam Lincoln School 


Editor's Note: The fighting is over and 
our eyes turn toward the home front. 
Many new problems confront our com- 
munity social living— problems whidi 
had i)een met temporarily during the 
war, l)ut which now need some definite 
constructive consideration. What ha\c 
we been fighting for? What of our tradi- 
tions have we sought to preserve? What 
new standards of living, of recreation, 
of public health and of connnunity serv- 
ice do we hope to achieve? Honietoifti 
U. S. A., which Mr. Perkins so ably dc 
scribes and which Miss Seton so realisti- 
cally evaluates, can well l)e a measuring 
stick for many similar home towns 
throughout our land. School adminis- 
trators and specific groups should give 
serious attention to the stimulation to 
community planning which the seeing 
of this film may begin. 

TWO years ago, when the n 
lion's thinking was ccntcn 
on the grim business of war. oi 
editors reasoned that it might I 
well to look into the future ar 
j)ieture in ad\ance some of tJ 
problems likely to arise in d 
United States after the war hi 
been won. 

At a series of conferences, 
was decided to approach the pa 
war era through a survey of da 
to-day life in a typical Americ; 
connnunity, not only as it u 
during war but as it might be 

Next step was the selection 

the specific communi 

to be studied. The ar 

liad to be large enoui 

to comprise a cro 

"Hometown" has iicgun 
guard the health of 
voungstcrs. It started 
the moment they were bo 
I he bustling well-ha 
( linic is always full 
iiioihcrs and children. T 
should be a "must" in e\< 

I a 

ion ol most American rom- 
"litics, yet sinall enough to 
esent small-town rather than 
an life. It must also be in a 
rcsentati\e section of the 
ntry, ami contain an a\erage 
varied range of homes, indus 
s, chinches, civic organiza- 
is, natmal resources, and 

kfter a nationwide search, the 
iniunity of Glens Falls, New 
k, on the Hudson River in 
5er \ew ^'ol k state, was select- 
ior the experiment. Ecjuidis- 
l from New York, Boston, and 
ntreal, this historic trading- 
ter was foinid to contain in 
rocosm most of the assets and 
)ilities of any American town. 

Vn office was opened in "Home- 
m" early last year, and a staff 
writers, researchers, city-plan- 
s, and photographers from the 
gazine took over. Their find- 
is were reported some months 
er in a series of factual picture- 
ries publisfied under the 
ometown" title. These articles 
istituted the most intensive 
;t and jjicture survey of a single 
iim unity in American publish- 
; history. 

tncouraged by public response 
its account of what one group 
Americans were doing about 
sir postwar problems, the in- 
stigation was carried one step 
rther to make a documentary 
:)tion picture on the subject, 
rcordingly, in the fall of 1944, 
m director Albert R. Perkins 
jveled to "Hometown" together 
itii staffwriter George Koetler, 

E and HEAR — November 

Albert R. Perkins 

After working on ncwsiiapcrs and 
magazines, Mr. Tcrkins began liis lilm 
career ten years ago as writer-director 
with "The March of Time." Subsc- 
(|nently lie went to Hollywood, where 
he was scenarist with thiiversal Pictnres, 
and story editor for Walt Disney Pro- 

Mr. Perkins is now film and radio di 
rector for Look magazine. Before join- 
ing this staff, he served as script 
director for the Columbia Broadcasting 
System. For Look, in addition to the 
Hometoum, U. S. A. film, he has pro- 
duced 15 one-reel documentaries under 
the series-title, "World Spotlight." Four 
of these, Challenge to Crime, America 
Prays, Kings of Sport, and Luckiest Peu- 
f)le on lunlli. arc currently being used 
in 16 njin. form by educators. 

Marie Seton 

Miss Seton first became interested in 
films as a theater critic for the digest 
magazine Review of Reviews. Since that 
lime she has been film correspondent 
for Manchester Guardian, Theatre Arts 
Monthly, World Film News, Sight and 
Sound, as well as a lecturer and writer 
in the field of the documentary film. 

Her broad experience allows her to 
interpret the film as a model of social 

photographer Harold Rhoden- 
baugh, and a crew of technicians. 

Ihe story was filmed in 16 mm. 
Kodachrome with the active co- 
operation of the community's 
19,000 inhabitants, who enthusi- 
astically participated as actors 
and ultimately adopted the name 
"Hometown U. S. A." for their 

Note: The film Hometown U. S. A. was 
produced by Look magazine as one of their 
World Spotlight series of films dealing with 
American living. This 16 mm. film is avail- 
able in color or black-and-white from uni- 
versity film libraries and through the motion 
picture bureaus of the Young Men's Christian 

Page 15 

Some f)f the fellows here 
have found the traditional 
old swimming hole. Actiiallv 
and too often it's just stag- 
nant water in an abandoned 
stone quarry and out of 
hounds. But with no public 
pool or community beach, 
the kids will hunt out a 
place like this— no lifeguards, 
likely pollution, no super- 

.\s the youngsters grow it 
young men and women, ma 
of them find good clean f 
wherever they can locate 
Looking for them, they arc i 
very far away from uatu. 
Pleasant winding roads \i\ 
away to woods and for*, 
where they can hike or pi 
or go exploring the way yc 
people like to do. 

In "Hometown" most of the 
dance spots and places that 
have juke boxes are closed 
to kids of school age. That's 
why the youngsters sometimes 
flrift into whatever they can 
find along the streets and 
alleys after dark. And when 
they do, then it's too late 
to talk about recreation 
centers. And maybe the 
grown-ups in "Hometown" 
are more to blame than the 
youngsters themselves. 

Paga 16 

nuuinily, erecting signs to thai 
set on the outskirts of town. 
The film made no attempt to 
:ture "Hometown" as the per- 
t phice in which to H\e: nor 
i it seek to gloss o\er the com- 
uiity's weak points. Lack of 

which has been fomid useful by 
social science classes, (lunches, 
(onnnuniiy clubs, and other civic 
groups which are seeking to 
stimulate thoughtful considera- 
tion of current local problems. 
Alice V. Keliher, visual education 

)rtunatcly for all. 

JonietouMs" inayoi 

id councilnien, its 

blicspiritetl m c n 

id women, its husi 

i:ss leaders, are not 

lily talking about the 

turc— they're rcorA- 

Ig at it. Their plan- 

Ing boards have al- 
ady started postwar 
pojects— new streets- 
finer airport — more 
aygrounds— a l)etter 
ty hall— a swimming 
X)l— a place where 
le young people can 
dance at night. 

jcational facilities, especiallv 
■ young people; need for new 
lools and hospitals; danger ol 
dcspread unemployment unless 
istwar plans became deeds 
thcr than words— all were pic- 
icd realistically and imcom- 
oniisingly— together with the 
;mv achanta^es of the com- 
imity— its ideal geographic loca- 
m. the spirit of its people, its 
irdy pioneer background. 
As a result, the completed film 
iierged as a frank discussion-film 

; and HEAR— NovemLier 

authority of New York University, 
described Hoineloivn U. S. A. as 
a timely film to be "seen and 
studied bv e\erv comnuinitv club 
and good-citizenship organization 
in America. Its concern for youth 
welfare and for the returning \et- 
eran brings forward issues that 
confront all of us." 

Let us sur\ey some of the possi 
l)ilities ^vhich the film Homelmmi 
U. S. A. holds for stimulating; 
thinking and constructi\c action. 

Here is a twenty-minute pictmc 

Page 17 

which presents a general survey of 
a small New York town of 19,000 
people. A narrator notes the 
town's assets and its deficits- 
slums, children insufficiently 
clothed, lack of recreation for 
youth, and a fear and danger of 
juvenile crime due to the lack of 
constructive ways of carrying off 
excess energy. 

While we are given too little 
direct contact with the people of 
the community, we are told about 
them, warned of their problems. 

Ihis is a picture applicable to 
any "smallish" town. It can be 
used as a means of stimulating 
discussion in conununities as to 
their own specific problems. Such 
a film can be used by community 
groups to promote the idea that 
postwar prosperity and the ad- 
justment of veterans, and even 
displaced war workers, depends in 
large measure upon the building 

of confidence and respect among 
all groups. Respect and confi 
dcnce are greatly enhanced by al 
groups knowing and recognizint 
the needs of the community. Foi 
example, bad housing, whid 
while confined to one section o 
the community, may breed a re 
scntment which will affect al 
community relationships and ac 
as a severe hurdle to any attcmp 
at general community planning; I 

Hojnetoicn U. S. A. also deal 
with the question of recreation a j 
a cure to juvenile crime. | 

This picture, aiming to mal 
no deep analysis of comnumii 
problems, certainly presents a cor 
slructive social viewpoint by sui 
gesting that the bad features of 
community require "tackling" i 
order to prevent degeneration c 
community relationships. 

And all of this is with 
one objective— to hiiiUl 
a city, a town, a ham 
let for our citi/cns of 
tomorrow. It is our 
planning today which 
must be for them. 
That's why we have 
good schools. That's 
why we care about 
health and housing 
and recreation and all 
the other tlescriptions 
that we can use in 
telling about a stand 
ard of living for the 
democracy we are 

Pag* 18 


ARRANGEMENTS ha\e been concluded for the tiansfer- 
oncc of the secretary-treasurer's Department of Visual 
Instruction records to the National Education Association 
1 headquarters in W^ishington, D. C. This change should allow 
inipro\cd scr\ice to D.\M. members. 

Great credit shoidd be given Miss Lelia Trolinger for her 
work as secretary-trcasiucr during the war years. Her work 
was done as a professional contribution to the association. We 
all share the highest regard for Miss lYolinger's service to the 
Department of Visual Instruction. 

Miss Trolinger, in her sunmiarizing report, points oiu 
the impotency of the zonal organization. If a zone organiza- 
tion renders service to the active units imder it, then it has 
value. This has been the case in only a few of the D.V.I, zones. 
[ I believe this represents a problem of professional organiza- 
tion which requires further thought and study. 

We need to examine, as Miss Trolinger clearly points out, 

the method of selecting officers. As our organization grows, 

we should be more than ever alert to see that all educational 

groups are properly represented in the officers selected. I 

! believe it is impossible to represent each group in the form 

I of an officer either on the executive committee or in the line 

1 officers. Officers, however, should be selected on the basis of 

i their breadth of interest in the field. 

We need to convene at an annual meeting. It is my hope 
that the American Association for School Administrators will 
nu'ct again in February of 1946. We must plan to gather there 
and discuss oiu mutual problems. The field of visual educa- 
tion is entering a new era of service to American education. 
Only through effective organization and clear-cut purpose 
tan we serve. 

(Suggestions or reactions should be addressed to Oircctor Hoyd B. Rakestraw 
I care of SEE AND HEAR Editorial Offices, 1204 West Johnson Street, Madison 
, Wisconsin.) 

Jnd HEAR— November Page 19 


After the first World War. many German (ifluers, seeing no possihiliiv 
other than complete economic and social dissolntion, took this way out. 




Dr. (). A. Hankammicr 
Professor of Educalion, Kansas Stair Teachers Collrgi 


WK HEAR M) nuuii about 
the ability of the film to 
iLs.sist us in our study of social 
pioblcnis and current history. 
Films which rccoicl current events. 
Iilms which can take iis to wit- 
ness episodes in the past, or films 

Page 20 

wiiidi can intioduce us to cxj i ■ 
cntcs which arc far rcmo\eti<M 
luilikely to be imderstood nv 
often bring us clear-cut infoua- 

Rather than write extcnsih 
abf)ut what it may do, I w(:ld 

November — SEE and 


lint in other in- 
stances, more 
resohiie officers, 
a in o n g them 
Knil Haushofcr, 
returned to 
university teach- 
ing, there to 
write, to clarify 
his thinking, 
and to lay the 
groinidwork of 
his new geopo- 
litical doctrine. 

ile to submit a report of what 
|)pencd at one of our demon- 
ruion meetings at our recent 
eifcrence on visual education. 
\ group of high school students 
uJ agreed to come in to one of 
\ meetings at which a recently 
jsased film, Geopnlitic—s:iid to 

be useful in the study of events 
leading up to World War II, was 
to be shown. Together with the 
teacher and in the presence of a 
large audience of spectators, 
Avhich at its best we know is not 
conducive to good classroom 
atmosphere, the seeing of the film 

jOt content 
Sth theorizing 
lid a i) s t r a c t 
I inking, Ru- 
)lf Hess, for- 
ier a i d e - d e- 
liinp to Haiis- 
-)fer, pleads 
'ith him to 
|ek the assist- 
•^ce of a man 
of act ion. 



w iih the accompanying discussion 
took place. Rather than say any 
more, I give you a report of what 

Teacher (To the pupils) — ^Vc are 
going to watch a fihn which will tell 
you some unusual things about the 
subject you are studying. What you 
learn as you sec it may have some bear- 
ing on the kind of life you arc going 
to lead here in Pittsburg after the war. 
It concerns things just around the cor- 
ner—peaceful relations with other na- 
tions. Vou are accustomed to reading 
assignments. This afternoon you are 

Class— (Affirmative response.) 

Teacher— hill have any of you hca : 
of Karl Haushofer? 

(.\fter some silence, one stu- 
dent replied that Karl Haus- 
hofer was a teacher.) 

J'ea^hcr— This fdm will bring us i| 
formation showing how Karl Haushot^ 
was able to influence Hitler to laun 
into the events that led up to W'w 
War H. On tlie sheets I have given \t 
you will find interesting informati 
about the political and economic thii 
ing that was being done by Europe; 
before World War H. Read it as 1 rt 
it aloud. 


And the stage- 
setting is begun. 
In Landsburg 
prison, the first 
of a series of 
many meetings is 
brought about be- 
tween the author 
of Mein Kampj 
and "Herr Pro- 
fessor D o k t o r" 

going to have a film assignment. It will 
be work, but no more work than a read- 
ing assignment. It will be a regular 
classroom job. It may be in a new area 
—that of current world affairs. How 
many of you have heard of Hitler? 

"\ears ago, an English geograU 
named Sir Halford MacKindcr waif 
liis government of the danger of a 
si.'iU German .Mliaiuc. He l)clieved 
iherc existed a so-called pivoial 
which was the center of the great E|l 

r~| Editor's Note: Too often we ore concerned only with passing along 

our heritoge from the post. Often we arouse great enthusiosm in mobilii- 
ing our resources and our thinking to meet the emergencies of a conflict 
such as World War II. But oftener than not, we give no thought to analysis 
of the lessons which current history teaches, and to their use in the cradico- 
tion of a social evil. The demonstration which Dr. Honkammcr refers to, 
uses the film GEOPOLITIK, to focus attention on on object lesson in 
history. May 't never happen again. 

Page 22 

SEE and HEAR— Nov«t 

. M l.iiul mass lit- l)clit'veil lliat ulio 
( Diiliolkil lliis area would some 
nhcril tlic earth. 

MacKindcr explained that, because 
|ople living in this pivotal area could 
iiintnin interior lines of coiiimunica- 
im safe from outside interference, they 

■ ! grow to be the most powerful 
f on the earth, etc., etc., etc." 

jc/jer— Another thing you should 
I, before you see this fdm is to acquaint 
nirselves with some of the unusual 
|)rds you will hear as the film con- 
^)ucs. Let's study them one by one. 
|)ok at the first word. "Auslander" 
^reau. What does it mean? 

Pup//— It means something about 
reign office. 

7"eac/»er— That's right. It would be 
inparable to our state department, 
t's look at the next one. Diplomatic 

tnunity. Who can tell us about that? 
Pii/W/— A diplomat is one who works 

a foreign office or in a state depart- 

Teacher— And immunity? 

Class— (No response) . 

Teacher— li we were back in our class- 
mis, what would the logical thing be 
do about this? If we are stuck on 
is meaning now, we certainly wouldn't 

of the Industrial Arts and Vocation- 
al Education Department of Kansas 
jState Teachers College of Pittsburg, 
I was born in Van Wert, Ohio, in 
1 1891. Undergraduate work was 
I done at Wooster College and Kan- 
isas State Teachers College. The 
'M.A. and Ph.D. ilegrees were re- 
ceived from Ohio State University. 
! Before going to Kansas State 
•Teachers College, 1922, industrial 
positions were held in drafting 
and commercial art departments. 
I In World War I he served as Mas- 
ter Signal Electrician in the Signal 
Corps, 37th Division. 

|E and HEAR— November 

understand it when it lamc up in lite 

Pupils— Look it up in the dictionary. 

Teachcr—\'cs, and if we did, we would 
find out that, if we are immune to 
something, we are protected against it. 
So, diplomatic immunity would mean— 

Pupil— Some protection that diplomats 

Teacher— Then l)C sure to be on the 
lookout when you hear this word used 
in the fdm. You will be able to get its 
meaning then from its use. 

(Note: During the demonstration, all 
of the words were carefully studied for 
their meanings. After the vocabulary 
study, the class was asked to note care- 
fully their responsibilities during the 
showing of the film. These responsi- 
bilities are shown on the film study 
sheet under questions 1-8, page 1. After 
page I was studied, the film Geopolitik 
was shown.) 

Teacher— Do you think that you 
would have obtained as vivid a picture 
of this story if you had read the story 
when it first appeared in Fortune maga- 

Pupils— (Negative answers) . 

Teacher— y^ow, we kno\v that today 
the Allied armies are occupying Ger- 
many. What is happening in Germany? 

Ruth— Peop\e are turning against 
their leaders. The government has had 
to be reorganized. 

Teacher— What would have happened 
in America if we had been defeated and 
our enemy's armies were occupying our 

Pupil— We would be the ones who 
are starving. 

Pupil— The conquerors would take 
all the gold and upset our banking sys- 

Teacher— What about the money you 
have in the bank or in war bonds? 

Pupil— It would be gone. 

Teacher— Do you begin to see why 
people are so anxious to follow a new 

Page 23 


leader;-' Ihis same iliiiig llial you saw 
happening lo tlie people of Germany 
after \Vorld War I might just as well 
happen here, should conditions some 
day he in reverse. Is the war over when 
we (ire the last shot? 


I etuher— When we begin studying 
the causes of World War II, are you 
going to be able to unilersiand those 
(.luses better? 

Pupil— Yes. This has been very easy 
lo follow, and interesting. 

7fa<//er— Why do we study history? 

Jttilh— To prepare us for the future. 

Teacher— W'hai can you do about this 
world political situation, five years from 
now? Here we are, just a little group 
of people way off in Pittsburg. What 
tan we do about this peace plan called 
Dumbarton Oaks? 

Pi//;j7— We must understand it and wc 
must make our wishes known through 
our representatives. Thai's what they're 

Teacher— We have tried to show this 
afternoon that it is necessary to get 
ready lo study a film just as you get 
ready to study a text. 

The meeting was then thrown 
open to discussion. 

Teacher (To the audience) —From 
primary to high school lc\el, as we get 
into lilm areas of greater difriculty, it 
iiecomcs increasingly important to use 
the fdm in this way— vocabulary, assign- 
ment, film experience, then self-evalua 
tion. We can greatly increase the value 
lo be received from each sliowing of the 

Q(/<'s7/V>ri— \Vhat is the reaction of the 
I lass to the study sheet? 

leaiher-How ai)Out that, class? 
What do you think about this study 
sheet business -doesn't it spoil the show? 

Teacher— Why} 

Hitpil-il is brief and to (he point. 
Pupil— Xl does not use a lot «>f words 
I (loii'l understand. 

I'iipil—\i gm'dfs our thinking. 

Page 24 






Teachet— 1 here is no reason why eadl 
of us as teachers cannot prepare thrj 
type of presentation every time we nl 
(civc a film. There are many agencit 
tlistributing teaching films. Fortunateh 
wc will find that the film is accompaiilB iln 
by a teaching guide in increasing n^ jiiil 
bers of cases. 

Qi/«/ion— Is it intended to standardu 
the thinking? 

Teacher— Ho you teachers feel stull 
fied by teaching guides being thru 
upon you? 

ro/'re— That depends on the ind ^ 

Voice— \o\.\ must adjust teaching 
meet the needs of the pupils. 

Tt'ar/j er— That is right. So. use wh 
is good and throw away the rest. 

Foifc— Wouldn't this help the teac 
ers complete the routine materials mo 
rapidly so that they can get on with tl 
new material more quickly? 

Teacher— Yes, I believe it will ser 
that purpose. j 

Voice— ll would speed the got)d use iftjuu 
films by teachers who are a little uiT 
certain of the techniques of using thejj 

Voice— Wovihl the class rather haJ| 
the teacher read the study slieet 
them, or would they prefer to havejl 
c<py of the sheet in each pupil's han«l| 

Fnpil—li we have the sheets, wc li, 
to look them over and get the in:| 

Pupil— I would like to keep the sluJ 
sheet for my notebook anil for revilj 

Teaclter (To the audience) — 

There is no one best method 
using a teaching fihii in the claj- 
loom. I othiy there are well o\ 
50 techniijucs for teaching youi;j 
people how lo read. Soon ilub 
may be as many describable ineM 
Otis in the field ol iitili/ing leav- 
ing films in ihe classroom. 

When we consider using tea 
iiig film in the classroom, often c 
iK'iM' expected too much of ts 




November — SF.K uikI H 



1 I 

loiirtesy of 

ilier. the in- 

(■ of m'opolitirs 

iiilitnilcd funds 

III .11 its disposal. 

here that Gcr- 

only secret 

. ;i was atcumu- 

iiifonnation. In- 

<n was gath- 

. v.n so vast a scale 

i it staggers the 

iinatioii — data on 

all in Poland and 

the activities of 

iersive groups in 
' nation of tiie 
1 — on everything 
linahle was gath- 
sin anticipation of 
' xrar. 

the man with 

"funny" little 

che wasn't funny 

more. For he 

tl Haushofer in a 

on where he 

tp indoctrinate the 

al stafl with his 

ies of geopolitics. 

march into Fo- 
ils unlooked-for 
iilevnstating defeat 
re the pan/er di- 
ijus of Germany 

1 for serious and 

iliy speculation hy 

Allied general 

The conflict had 
com|)iciely out 

ontrol. AVhat 
ii\ the outcome 
j Thus, the evi- 
'e leading >ip to 
II transpiring to- 
J. the opening 
les of World War 
! portra\cd in the 
1 Cenf)olitik, the 
lb for IVsiruciion. 

iiisiiunicnt. We have let the fihii 
do the whole job. It slioukln't 
be expected to! Teaching films 
cannot be made to do the teach- 
er's work. We cannot continue to 
use teaching films in and of them- 
selves. When using such a film in 
the classroom, the teacher must 
assume the same basic teaching 
and guiding responsibility as 
when introducing other tradi- 
tional units of work. The re- 
sponsibility for "whipping up in- 

terest" is still the responsibility 
the teacher. 

Every teacher must accept , 
sponsibility for the teaching j 
that specific vocabulary whicM 
nccessaiy for an undcrstandini 
any definite area of study. . 
must prepare the pupil for tl] 
vocabulary before the film 

Other important responsib'. 
tics appear when we ask this qii 


Tlicse were the study sheets that were used during 
process of the demonstration. 

FILM STUDY SHEET Number 3 for film "Geopolitik" Po.. __ 

Years ago, an English geographer named Sir Hal- 
ford MacKinder warned his government of the dan- 
ger of a Russion-German Alliance. He believed that 
there existed a so-called pivotal area which was the 
center of the great Eurasian land mass. He believed 
that whoever controlled this area would some day 
inherit the earth. 

MacKinder explained that, because people living 
in this pivot land could maintain interior lines of 
communication safe from outside interference, they 
could grow to be the most powerful people of the 
earth, since within this attack-proof "heart area" 
lay all of the important resources necessary for man 
to ma'intain peace or to wage war. From this secure 
fortress, its holders coula reach out to gain the rest 
of the world through conquest. 

After the close of the first World War, a former 
German army ofliccr and holder of the chair of mili- 
tary science of Munich, Karl Haushofer, became so 
interested in this plan, which he called "Geopoli- 
tiks", that he decided to bring it to the attention of 
his country — Germany. Long a believer of land 
power over sea power, he saw a chance through this 
plan of cancelling out England's control of the sea 
and of leading his own country to a place of world 
domination. With the of air power, he was sure 
that his adopted plan would work. 

The film that you are about to see explains how 
Karl Haushofer, the former World War I army offi- 
cer, developed his plan of geopolitics and brought it 
to the attention of Adolph Hitler. 

Here are some words and phrases which shov' 
studied in order that you can get the most out <' 

"Auslander" bureau ■ 
diplomatic immunity 
geopolitical state 
Karl Haushofer 
League of Nations 

"Mein Kampf" 
power of blockade 
Prussian militarism 
Rudolf Hess 
World Court 

As you watch this film, try to learn the answers I 
questions as these: 

1. After the first World War, what opinion d 
common man in Germany have of the m 

2. To what group of people did Karl Haushol 
tempt to explain his plan? 

3. What part did Rudolf Hess have in a.ssistinj] 
Haushofer in making his plans grow toward it, 

4. Be able to explain what geopolitics is l)aso< 
and how Karl Haushofer believed it would I 

5. What was the "secret weapon" that the G« 
sought to develop and by what means did 
to develop it? 

6. What great mistake were you able to de 
one of the main reasons for the downfall of 
complishment of the plan for world dominai 

7. What effect would fulfillment of the geop 
plan have had upon this country? 

8. What was Japan's part to be in llau.'ici 
plans? ' 





Pa9« 26 

November— SEE ancj] 

i i: How can I find out what is 
[I at; on in your minds during 
\ showing of the fdm? 

I his question brings out a fur- 
h responsibility— that of evahi- 
I'u. This responsibility of 
'hi.ition can be satisfied in sev- 
il ways. We can conduct an 

1 discussion. In this, all may 

' ti(ipate. Or, we can prepare 

of questions with which the 

ipil may test himself. The 

il>il must be challenged to dis- 

cover what he has learned and 
what he has overlooked. If im- 
portant jioinis are missed, the 
cjucstion confronting each pupil 
becomes "How can I fdl in those 
gaps? What I did not learn be- 
comes my next job to do." 

If this piqiil, who has arrived 
at the conclusion just stated, is 
given the opportunity to see the 
film a second time, he will seek to 
fulfill his individual needs. Too 
often the same teachers who insist 


Answer all of these questions in terms of what you saw in the film. Underline, circle, 
>l in the answers. 

itT World War I. German economics and gov- 

.tally collapsed. TRUE FALSE 

.Vorld War I, the attitude of the people in 

lany toward their military leaders was one of: 

indifference. b. defiance. c. loyalty. 

iny of the German war leaders retired to civil- 

fe to lay plans for further aggression. 


cm what you saw in the film, the Peace of Ver- 
s gave Germany a. greater "Lebensraum". 
ditional seuports. c. restricted land areas, 
uality with other world powers, 
irl Haushofer felt that the Peace of Versailles 
usly limited Germany's possible expansion. 


I?. Man-made boundaries mean nothing, 
national strength depends upon who controls 

iwo basic elements of geography: 

aushofer believed in the domination of air 

-T over sea power. TRUE FALSE 

aushofer's students were taught that Germany 

i rule the world, but first she must 

rlaushofer believed that conquest landwise could 
eve German domination of the greatest "land 
id of the world TRUE ' FALSE 

.■\ccording to Haushofer, whoever ruled the pivo- 
irea — Europe, Asia, and Africa — could rule the 

The first people to whom Haushofer explained 

plans were his - . . 

Rudolph Hess introduced Haushofer to 

Haushofer was able to put his thories into effect 
n be became director of the Institute of 

15. & 16. Among the thousand employees who 
worked under Haushofer were members of the 


17. The only "secret weapon" that Germany ever 

had was . 

18. Among the groups organized in foreign lands to 
assist German expansion were the _ 

19. Hitler's conquest of Europe began when German 
troops marched unopposed through the Rhineland 

in the year . 

20. Hitler invaded Poland on the basis of the 
weather forecast which stated: 

21. & 22. Surprise and the "key" to defense systems 
helped overwhelm the countries of - -. 


23. Propaganda was used to convince people that 

resistance was too late. TRUE FALSE 

24. Germany's quicl^ victories resulted in great prof- 
its in stores of materials and supplies. 


25. The tide of Hitler's world conquest changed with 
the invasion of _ - ._- _. 

26. Hitler revealed his plan for world conquest by 
forming an alliance with . 

27. & 28. Hitler's plans nearly succeeded but for 
two factors: (Select 2.) a. man's love for freedom 
and for the ground on which he was born. b. shrink- 
ing reserves of natural resources. 3. the inability to 
control permanently the conquered territories, d. 
overestimating Italy's strength, e. the sudden rise 
of Allied air power. 

low turn to the questions on the other side of this sheet, and test your ability to answer them. 

and HEAR— November 

Page 27 

that the pupil read and re-read 
the text will show a film to them 
only once, and expect them to 
"siet" all of it. 

Use of the fdm today is in the 
same stage of development as was 
the use of books 23 or 30 years 
ago. It is yet handled too much as 
a gadget or as a special event. We 
will now discuss the classroom use 
of that fdm which serves as direct 
supplementary information to 
sonic specific luiit of study. This 

is not an entertainment film, it i 
a text film. 

Dr. lliwkamiuir 

There is e\ery indication iha 
pupils prefer to make a systcmati 
j>reparation prior to using th 
film as another type of "textboo 
assignment." This demonsiratio 
shoidd serve as a model, not cona 
plete, but rather as a point froi 
.which you can begin in writin;^ 
your own classroom practices. Ij 

New Film Association Formed 

MIDWEST Association Forum. The state universities of Iowa, 
Kansas, Missouri, ("olorado. Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nf- 
hraska have cstahhslied the Midwest Association of University Fihn 
Libraries. David B. McCulley, secretary of the Bureau of Audio-Visual 
Instruction of the University of Nebraska, was elected executive secrc 
tary of the organization. 1 heir purpose is to meet to discuss problems 
of mutual interest in the administration of and the educational services 
extended by film libraries. 

Because the motion picture was used in the theater long before 
it entered the classroom, it has been difficult to dispose entirclv 
of the idea once held that audio-visual education meant merely show 
ing pictures now and then. The films should be as integral a part 
of the learning process as the teacher or the textbook. 

The place of the film is just as definite and clear cut and its propier 
use requires just as much skill. Because this is the case, Mr. McCuUev 
spent much of his time last year, and he will spend much time this 
\ear, too, meeting with teachers all over the stale lo discuss and to 
demonstrate the proper use of audiovisual aids. This he will do in 
constant cooperation with the Teachers College so that audio-visual 
education will be looked upon always as a phase of professional 
(mUk alion. 

ADE\'ICr. I've used to inciiivate children's interest as they approach 
the study of birds is described below. 1 hold in my hand several 
wing feathers, tail feathers, and breast feathers. Holding these up one 
at a time. I ask the students to write their guess on a piece of paper 
Irom what part of the bird the first feather romcs, the second and 
succeeding feathers. Then I cpiicklv give them the answers and let 
them grade themselves. This is followed bv exhibiting specimen 
wings of birds, (crow, hawk, etc.) and asking the children to identifv 
I hem. After that, the class is vealU readv to go. 

— Norman I.. Wiiikop 




November — SEE and H 



Ki NNpnii 

r)iii(il)al oj Hancock, 

DITOR'S NOTE: As visual materials in- 
se in availability, many communit-ics 
no longer going to be content with the 
sitory provisions made through film 
ol ogencies. Film rental agencies will 
oinly continue, but in a capacity similar 
large central libraries of books. This 
crship exercised by Mr. Bartels ond his 
ciotes is a "feather in the wind." Mass 
luction of films and decrease in price 
see countless others following this plon. 
Mr. Barte's says, "We'll hove every 
gymon, milk route driver, mail carrier, 
itincront citiien driving our films 
ind. Do you think the community will 
IV what's hoppening?" 

'HE organization of the Seven 
C Film Coopcrati\c composed 
Almond, Plainficld. Hancock, 
lutonia. Wcstfield, Montello 
I Oxford public schools lo- 
rd in central Wisconsin marks 
new \entiire for the smaller 
ools in the field of visual edu- 

rhcre are few similar programs 
our country which have been 
up to adminisirate a fdm o^vn- 
hip program among several 
ools. The only possible excep- 
n to this statement can be 
md in the city systems where 
•ir \isual education {)roblems 

ond HEAR— November 

V. Bartii.s 

Wiscoyisin High School 

arc some\vhat difTercnt from the 
small school problems. The fol- 
lowing obiecti\es were in the 
minds of the organizers as stimuli 
for the formation of a film co- 

(a) We desired a more prac- 
tical approach which would cre- 
ate a more sound and logical basis 
to justify the financial outlay in 
terms of utilization and benefit to 
the pupil in bringing to him con- 
cepts of widening horizons here- 
tofore imre\ealed. 

(b) Such an oiganization stim- 
idates curricidiuii rc\ icw and re- 
search which too often is stymied 
in traditional practices among 
smaller school systems. 

(c) It pro\ ides for better inter- 
school relations in a constructive 
field other than the competitive 
relationships already established 
in athletics, forensics, dramatics 
and nuisic. This is an important 
factor due to the fact that in the 
very near future schools of the 
size and type found in oiu- organi- 
zation are facing delinitc reorgan- 
ization in both administrative 

Page 29 

and attendance areas. Such inter- 
school relations should tend to 
break down the existing barriers 
to future progress. 

(d) We assumed that the pride 
of ownership would negotiate a 
higher standard in the mechanics 
of our visual education program. 

(e) By inaugurating a pro- 
gram of film evaluation, adminis- 
trators and instructors will be- 
come cognizant of the possibilities 
and residts of the visual educa- 
tion program. Through a con- 
structively critical and analytical 
approach to film utilization, the 
staffs of the participating schools 
automatically keep up to date. 

With these objectives in mind 
principals and representatives of 
schools in a close geogiaphical 
area met and discussed the terms 
of the lease plan of purchase. 
This lease offered 63 films which 
comprised a basic luiit of teaching 
films. A representative sample of 
the films offered were Adventures 
of Binuiy Rabbit, Flowers at 
\Vork, ElcctrocJicmistry, The Brass 
Choir, Children of Mexico, 
Jumps and Pole Vaults and Dr- 
x'elopment of Transportation.The 
financial obligation incurred by 
each of the seven schools was stip- 
ulated in a lease arrangement. 

At the first meeting of the seven 
cooperating schools these regula- 
tions were legislated: 

1. llamotk High School Board of 
Kducalion wouUl act as a clearing house 
for the lease. 

2. Seven schools would he the liniii 

Page 30 

numerically. This is to prevent the out 
growth of the organization beyond th 
geographical area and beyond the tii 
of efficient service to its members. 

3. Each school will be the permancn 
owner of nine films. This was consic 
cred for two reasons: that boards of edi 
cation would be more likely to acccp 
the plan if they had something tangibi 
as a result of their investment and tha 
each scliool faculty would become a: juiirilo 
integral part of the organization ai 
would be more apt to receive the 
tual benefits. 

- for 

-101, he 



4. That meetings would be hel{ 
whenever necessary to facilitate thj 
manipulation of the project. 

Administration of the 

Establishing a pioneer pro^ 
presented many obstacles to 
overcome so that our previousl 
stated objectives might be rr-' 
ized. It was decided that the b; 
for administrational proced 
would be topical units in the varij 
ous study areas of the curricula 
Following is a statement of pi 
cedures in setting up the plan: 

1. Procedure one included the listini 
of the typical units under tlic stud 
areas of social studies; physical scienct 
including physics, general science aik 
biology; athletics and music. 

2. After this was completed each filr 
was previewed and assigned symbols dc 
noting the grade level of utilization; fo 
ixamplc: primary — p, elementary— e 
junior high scliool — jh, senior hig 
school- sh, college — c, and adult. 

,"?. Each film that we owned wa 
placed but once under a correlated iut 
jftt unit in the proper column. It it 
noted that the utiliz.ation of these film 
in related units would be left to th 
discretion of the teachers depending up ' 
on their objectives and motivations i 
;iiiv specific direction. In other word; 

Novombar — SEE and HEAl 


tip sol 
I Da Ik 



n iliat 
•■w ( 







Kknnkth F. Bartels 

r. Hartcls" tcacliing career is diar- 
ized by his broad interest and en- 
asm for evei^tliing that makes 
i! fascinating to youngsters. Formcr- 
Iwnd leader, a classroom teadier, a 
Scout leader, and now a school ad- 
strator, he is able to bring the re- 
of his experience to a forward- 
ng program of which many a 
nunity would be proud. 

s administrative responsibilities 
today do not stand in the way of HANCOCK 
teadiing mathematics, science, and 

/ere making no attempt to earmark 
Dne of the fdms to one specific unit 
istruction but merely eliminating 
ble film assigning conflicts if it 
placed in all the probable units 
e it could be used. 

The member high schools were 
I in order of geographical proximity 
ihat commuting between villages 
fi help solve transportation difficul- 
jThis list was placed after the first 
on the list. In case of the second 
the position of the members on 
ist was rotated in particular pat- 
so that distribution would be 
ted among the schools and so that 
equence of planning would not be 

Flexibility of teadier planning to 

seasonable subjects may be met 

The sample page in this article 

e table of subject units, fdms and 

locations will be in each of the 

Is. They can immediately spot the 

on of any film at any time during 

ear, notify the schcjol of their need 

he film, make arrangements with 

chool having the film that period, 

le film and return it to its planned 

ary. The many industrial, social 

)usiness contacts among the villages 

'ify such flexibility greatly. 

In the right-hand column of the 

nistration guide we have previewed 

which have been placed on the 

ementary film list. This list is by 

id HEAR — November 

no means complete or above revision. 
We suggest that the teachers include in 
their evaluation of this projea any film 
which they think should be justly added. 

7. In fields where there are no films 

Marquette L Countij 


Truly a compact area, though 
it cuts across county lines, tiie 
seven communities are well lo- 
cated with reference to highway 
transportation and communica- 
tion. It is the plan of these 
seven administrators to enlist 
the services of a traveling min- 
ister, a theater manager, county 
officials, milk route drivers, a 
merchant, an itinerant teacher, 
a local bowling team, and other 
routine travelers in overcoming 
the distance handicap. The ob- 
vious public interest which will 
be aroused by such a courier 
system is significant. 

Page 31 


I Suinplr Pdj^i- Irorn Admitiislrntion Guide 


Seven C Films 



Supplementary Fil 

Animals with 

Frog <the' 



Spinoi Cords 

el jh sh c 









Wild Fowl Conservot 

jh sh 
Wild Flowers 



el jh sh 

How Orgonisms 


Meet Food Problems 

el jh sh c 










Digestion of Foods 



jh sh c adult 








Circulation and 

Heart ond Circulaf 


jh sh c 


Mechonics of BreotI 

jh sh c 

Excretion and 

Work of Kidneys 



jh sh c 

Control of Body 

Endocrine Glands 


by Glonds 









Ik-ii- IS .1 jil.iii \\iii(ii iii;i\ l)c an aiiswiT lo how the small 
svsicins laii provide ilicMiMhcs uiih ilic latest and inosi clfe 
iiiaU'iialN. Willi s( iiool tnif)iliiunis \arvinc; from 110 ic 
pupils, uith Icadicr sialfs of from 8 to 15. and in romn 
of from 408 to 1200 population, the seven administrators 
ihroiij»h a cooperative plan brought a modern program of vj 
insinution to their children. 

Poga 32 

Novemi/er — SEE onii 

Number of 

School Sysfcm 









Frank Wcix 





Howard Chase 





Kenneth Bartels 





Horold Geyer 





Walter Ploetz 





L. A. Kigcr 





Lewis Walters 

I ilic lilii;n\ llieic is :in <ip|)(>rlimit\ 
)r iMf teachers interesicd in tiiesc siih 
■rts lo |ircpnrc n topical outline, prc- 
iew and retoniinend films. Here will 
c found the opportunity for fiiliirc 

8. The siirtess of the entire program 
cpends upon the individuals in each 
hool and their ability to evaluate, ex- 
lore and to place into practice wortli- 
hile contributions for the mutual ben 
tit of all. 

The filiiLs will be distributed 

tiring the last week in August to 

|he schools assigned to that par- 

icular film. In the cover of each 

Int box there will be a distribu- 

ion card for the ready reference 

is to the film's location. There 

'.ill be a teacher's manual in each 

Im box plus some carcfullv 

Manned utilization suggestions. A 

ineeting has been planned for all 

iculty members of the group at 

lancock early in September 

."hich will include actual demon- 

trations of the techniques of util- 

I'ation by some well-experienced 

ducator, utilization and evalua- 

ion discussions and a social 


Mimeographed material on 
Valuation, utilization procedure, 

he care of the films, evaluation 
•heets and study guide material 
iiave been carefully compiled and 

vill be sent to each of the schools. 

It is gratifying to note the alei i 
cognizance to current trends in 
l)ehalf of the pupil's educational 
de\elopment in each of the 
schools by their respectixc boards 
of education. The entry of each 
school depended entirely upon 
the approval and signature of the 
board of education to the five- 
year lease-to-purchase contract. 
Their recognition of a definitely 
planned and organized program 
in visual education sets a prece- 
dent in meeting the needs of the 
individuals and extending the 
educational opportunities of rural 
youth with no unjust financial 


Problems of Hoviing 

(Sound) II minutes. Use: Sorinl 
Sludies I, J; Home Economics J, S: 
hiduslrial Arts S. 

WE CANNOT all live in dream 
houses, but this picture shows us 
what wc can do to improve the 
house in which we live. It answers very 
practicailv the problems of keeping out 
the weather, Of supplying adet]uate 
light, of maintaining safety, of striving 
for beauty, and of providing , freedom 
frcjm intruders in such terms that the 
school child can grasp the significance 
of the wiiole housing problem and the 
standards to be sought. Encyclopaedia 
llritanniia Films. At your nearest film 

!nd HEAR — November 

P- '" 13 

''For Want of a Nail!'' 

THE icatlicr has spent hours evaluating films, the budget has been 
set up to allow rentals, the children have done their preliminary 
work, tiic film has been received — all is in readiness — and then — the 
projector lamp burns out or the projector belt snaps. There is a scurr>' 
for replacements that can't l)e found. Visual education stops right tlien 
antl there. 

Of course, that can't happen in your school. 

Or wait a moment! May we suggest you verify that statement for 
your own .satisfaction. Should you find everything in order, you will prove 
to yourself tliat you are an efficient administrator. 

Check your equipment for: 

□ Extra supply of projector lamps 
□ Sufficient supply of fuses 

□ Fresh supply of cleaning tissues, □ cloths, □ brushes 
□ Projector (sewing machine) oil 
□ Ejcciter lamps 
□ Projector belt 

The oil is important because your projector needs occasional lubri- 
lation the same as any piece of madiincrv. It is usc<l for such 
short periods that the tendency is to oil it only spasmodically. However, 
the manufacturer has set definite time limits when it should be oiled. 
(More projectors need repair because this precaution was not taken than 
for any two other reasons.) 

Until the manufacturer installs a "speedometer" as an integral part 
of the equipment, you will have to keep this factual record yoarsclf — 
a notebook or card in the speaker case will do the trick, but see that it 
is kept. Such a record may also keep you posted concerning the life of 
your lamps — another good technical practice. 

As simple as these suggestions may seem, an inspection by you will 
be worili while. Without them, visual education bogs down, your teach- 
ing schedule is interru|)led, and you've lost a rental diarge on an unuse<i 
portion of a film. Even in this atomic age, a "horseshoe nail" is important. 

—Jack Amacker, Ampro representative 

Arithmetic Becomes More Graphic 

IN THE teaching of eighth-grade arithmetic, take, for instance, the sub- 
ject of taxes. Bring in tax bills, both properly and income tax, state 
an(i federal. Use the dclinea.scopc to show the tax fonn and the tax 
breakdown; the city tax, county tax, asscs.sed valuation, and the total 
amount. From the city tax as.sessor*s office, you can get statistics, bulletins, 
charts, and booklets that can be projected on a screen. Abstract subjects 
can be made completely fascinating when we visualize them. The delinea- 
scope is an ideal tool for projecting tax forms, tax computations, and 
totals sf) that ail may see uniformly the often detailed arithmetic process 
you e\jjlain. 

— Norman L. Wittkop 

Pog* 34 

November — SEE and HEJ 


I \ II' if a 1(1 by 

Joseph Park 

Curriculum Laboratory 
Northivestern University 

lU Can Make It is very read- 
ible and appears to be en- 
y usable. The book has been 
:en on tlie assumption that 

— PSS'D'OOas 

everyone likes to make things 
with his own hands. The projects 
suggested vary in difficulty. Some 
are very easy; others call for much 
skill, time and effort. Almost all 
of the projects arc constructed 
from paper. 

The authors have divided the 
projects into ri\e groups. The 

From "You Can Make It." 

I .c. I 

nd HEAR— November 

Page 35 


. ,1 

first group is "Personal Adorn- 
ments." Under this heading are 
included such items as beads, 
belts, pins, masks, crowns, fans, 
woven hats and enlarging pat- 
terns and designs. The second 
s^ioup includes "toys and games." 
Listed and described under this 
heading are bird wands, spinners, 
floaters, jumping jacks, rocket 
toys, doll houses, papier-mache 
animals and numerous others. 

The third category is called 
"Gifts and Decorations for Holi- 
days and Special Occasions." Un- 
der this division are to be found 
references to such things as greet- 
ing cards, blotters, baskets, birds, 
banks, silver trees, snowflakes, 
festoons and Easter eggs. The 
fourth division is "Projects and 
Decorations for School and 
Home" and includes stickers, flash 
cards, plaques, tea tiles, sewing 
cards, ornamental fruits, sign 
hangers, banners, wall decora- 
tions, etc. 

The last gioup is designated as 
"Projects for the Library and 
Study." Here the authors describe 
accordion booklets, looseleaf 
booklets, envelojKS, boxes for 
l)r)oks, book jackets, desk blotters, 
portfolio, easel stands, and waste- 

The descriptions of methods of 
making these items are of value to 
student and teacher, but the draw- 
ings which accompany each proj- 
ect make the book unique and in- 
crease its utility immeasurably. In 
most cases illustrations appeiU" on 
the same page as the description 

Pagm 36 

of tlie project or on the oppoit 
page. Thus the reader can rit 
the printed word and study i« 
illustrations without tun 
pages. V\ 

The final chapter of the bl 
is devoted to needed niaterf 
tools and processes. This is a 
illustrated book which can be 
onunended for use in the s( 
the church and the home. 

Lewis V. Ncwkirk and La Vada ZuB 
Vou Can Make It—Thinzs to 
With Scissors and Paste. New Yo 
Silver Burtlctte Company, 1944, 


Integrated Handwork for 
inentary Schools has been wr" 
to cause teachers to recognize 
handwork is an integral par 
all elementary subjects, and 
it is not to be considered a i\ 
rate school subject; and to C 
nate the bewilderment on the 
of teachers concerning hand 
techniques used and the v 
of hand tools and constru 
materials that arc available 

The book is divided into| 
parts. The first section is 
cerned with a definition of I 
work; the relationship cxij 
between handwork and indi 
arts, fine arts, social studies, 
lish, science, arithmetic and :|j 
ing; integiated liandwork 

teaching procedure; and <^ 

ment and proper school facinSj 

November— SEE or 

a well-ioimdcil handwork pro- 

fart two is devoted to a discus- 
n of types of handwork and 
hnicjues of construction. All 
>es and techniques discussed in 
rt two have been tried out in 
ious classrooms and are illus- 
ted by pictures and drawings, 
ne of the types of handwork 
cussed include marionettes, 
itern slides, book and paper 
king, children-size projects, 
[ten constructed by kindergar- 
1 children and include such 
DJects as playhouses, doll houses, 
ins, etc.) , hand-loom and reed 
aving, toys, models, musical in- 
uments, maps and charts, di- 
imas and panoramas, linoleum- 
)ck printing and blueprinting, 
ip carving and soap making, 
■talworking and electroplating, 
iple pottery, leathercraft, sew- 
,' and textiles, and cooking and 
)ds. A list of science equipment 
d apparatus is given in the final 

The book undoubtedly has val- 
ior the teacher who is search- 
5 for information on handwork 
lich she may use to find sug- 
jted activities for her various 
isses. However, the author's de- 
e to cover so many subjects has 
i to an inadequate treatment of 
tain items, e.g., cooking and 

U*is V. Newkirk, Integrated Hand- 
ti'ort for Elementary Schools — Teach- 
er's Guide in Use and Techniques, 
New York: Silver-Burdette Company, 
1940. pp. 342. 

'■ and HEAR— November 

jusi Three Weeks Unlil- 

Willi the Christmas season upmi tis. 
the search for V'lilctide plays begins. 
Good suggestions are lounci in tlie 19-t6 
catalog "Plays for Children." Address 
your inquiry to Row, Peterson & Com- 
pany, 11)11 Ridge Avenue, Evanston, 

Recently the Dundee, Nebraska. 
P.T.A. sponsored a carnival to raise 
funds for the purchase of a complete set 
of audio-visual equipment for the ex- 
clusive use of their school. Gross income 
was over $1,600. Both this year and last, 
Dundee School has sent children who 
participated in demonstrations at the 
Omaha University Visual Education In- 
stitute. Both years mothers relieved 
teachers in the Dundee School in order 
that those teachers could attend the In- 

The American Museum of Natural 
History, Central Park West, New York 
City, is establishing an Audio-Visual 
Aids Center as one of its special services 
provided for teachers and students 
throughout the United States. In this 
center there will be samples of equip- 
ment, catalogs, descriptive brochures, 
maps, specimens, pictorial materials in- 
cluding slides, posters, charts, graphs, 
photographs, motion pictuies, slidefilms, 
dioramas, also recordings, radio pro 
grams and all other types of audio-visual 
aids for school use at all grade levels. 

These materials will be placed in a 
large display room on the second floor 
of the education section of the museum. 
Here teachers and students may come 
to view new types of equipment, project 
fdms and slides, listen to recordings, 
make selections from catalogs of ma- 
terials for school purchases or loans, and 
do research in audio-visual aids for 
ilefinite curriculum areas. This center 
will thus provide teachers with a source 
to which they may come to examine 
materials and equipment, and secure 
practical information and assistance in 
the fickl of audiovisual instruction. 

Page 37 


.. wij 


Arts and Crafts of Canada. Tlie rolling slopes that dip into 
waters of the St. Lawrence have been the cradle of French ^'' 
dian life. Here a father and son use a reversible plough 0» 
hills above Baie St. Paul, tilling the same soil that was 
broken some 200 years ago by their forefathers. 

IT HAS often l)een said that sfhool children of the United States have 
a better opportunity to see other lands through the medium of the 
motion picture than tliey have of interpreting the states, the regions, 
the industries, or the culture of their own country. If this is the case, 
then possibly all of us can take a cue from the systematic approach which 
our neighbor to the north has made in introducing all of Canada to 
her peo|)lc. Rcmoiclv separated, inadcfpiatelv served bv transportation 
anfl communication, (anadas need is great for interpretive films. Many 
of these films are now available for school use in the United States. 
Through them we can learn. The bibliography which Miss Carter includes 
is available ihrougli Film Roard offices and from many rental hbraries. 

The Editors 

Pogc 38 

November — SEE and 1 

.omes to the U.S. A 

J. Margaret Carter 
National Film Board of Canada 

Seiiuel to "Canada Comes to the Canadians"' 
in the October issue of SEE and HEAR 

All pictures courtesy of National Film Honrd of Canadn. 

EFORE the war, the goveni- 
nicnts every\vhere were exper- 
?nting with the idea of reporting 
ir stewardship through the mc- 
im of the sound and silent nio- 
II picture fihii. Fihii reports 
m Finland on their culture, on 
ir Ling system of physical edu- 
ion, on the scenic beauty of the 
intry— Great Britain's reports 
socialized medicine and on the 
ivities of the postal department 
fnited States films on conser\a- 
n, industrial processes, and the 
ivities of the Treasury Depart- 
nt, the Surgeon General, and 
Department of the Interior- 
re activities explained and en- 
iced by the advent of World 

t was about this time that 
riada began to consider her 
ticipation in the production of 
tis which would catalog and 
onicle the resources, the cul- 

les like this from Tomorrow's Tim- 
can do more to help children grasp 
significance of the large scale lumber 
rations of Canada than anything we 
can read to them or tell them. 

turcs, and the social mo\cmcnts 
of her population and land. 

Canada's participation in the 
dociuiientary film mo^■cmcnt ex- 
tends back over a period of almost 
•50 years when, in the first days 
after the first World ^\^ar, Robert 




A A' 


The sound motion pictures such as Business of Farming, New Plans for the Lai, 
and Iceland on the Prairie bring us new and valid insight into the Canadi 
West. . . . Below, the film Great Lakes becomes an experience of great value wh 
we attempt to teach youngsters, particularly inlanders, what transportation opei 
lions arc like on the water barrier wliich lies between the I'nitcd States and Canac 


i l.iheitN l)L'gim his wojk on the 

»i world-famous Nanook of the 

J til. At this time the Canadian 

^cmment, fully cognizant of the 

tribution that films could 

tc in the promotion of trade 

tions, formed the Canadian 

'cmment Motion Picture 

eau. Functioning under tlie 

>artment of Trade and Com- 

ce, this organization issued 

larly over a period of 20 

s a small number of films 

ing with the natural resoiu-ces 

^Canada. During the thirties, 

Clever, the go\ernment of Can- 

D sensed the grooving impor- 

ijce of putting the film medium 

>i more weighty use by stating 

laaila's case to her friends 

fjoatl and explaining the Do- 

nion to its own people. 

uccordingly, in 1938, the Ca- 

!ian government invited John 
erson. Britain's pioneer docn- 
itar) film-maker, to visit Can 
i with the idea of making a 
uey to determine the possibili- 
i for expanding its film pro- 
iiu. His recommendations 
nlied in the foimation of the 
k :ional Film Board which was 
I up under the authority of the 
Uional Film Act in 1939. In 
! I it absorbed the Canadian 
'^crnmcnt Motion Picture Ru- 
<ii. The Board was composed 
• wo ministers, three senior civil 
(ants, and three members of 
1 public selected for their inter- 
"■ in the film as an instrument 
« creative national policy. 

irierson, who became Canada's 

1 Jnd HEAR— November 

In Si liiin lonnnissioucr, served as 
executive officer of the board. All 
government film j)roduction and 
distribution was centralized in the 
board and all departments of the 
government were required by 
statute to use it as their medium 
of production and distribution. 

The Canadian Film Board re- 
leases one film each month for 
two major theatrical series— T/2<' 
World in Action and Canada Car 
ries On. The general public is 
best acquainted with the work of 
the National Film Board through 
these theatrical releases. The 
films circulate internationally on 
a regular commercial basis. Can- 
ada Carries On plays to over 800 
theaters across the Dominion once 
each month and is now^ in its fifth 
consecuti\e year. World in Ac- 
tion, the international coiniter- 
part of Canada Carries On, 
showing Canada in relation to 

J. Margaret Carter 

Miss Carter majored in English ami 
\\as graduated from the University of 
Iowa with a B.A. degree and a teacher's 
certificate. Through her later work with 
Rand McNally and the University ol 
Chicago Press, she became cnthusiasti 
tally interested in the primary tools for 

She was among the first farsightcd 
persons who spoke above the protesta 
tions to the teaching film being a fad 
and frill. More recently she has conduct- 
ed film utilization surveys and has con 
ducted courses in visual education for 
teachers at the University of Florida and 
Southern Methodist University. 

Since January 1, 1943, she has been 
director of nonthcatrical distribution in 
the United States for the National Film 
Board of Canada. 

Page 41 

^ r. 



The stories of tlic western coast Indians of Canada, indil 
accounts of their craftsinansliip, their customs, their intisic.l 
I heir lionic life :iie beautifully jiortrayed in the dim Propl^ 

the Pntiatch (co\or) . 

the iiiici ii;iiional scone, plays in 
()\cr 600 theaters in Canada, in 
'j.OOO in ihe United States, and in 
approximately 1,000 in Britain 
once each month. The films i)r()- 
duced for these two scries become 
available ior non-theatrical dis- 
tribution following their rini in 
I he theaters. 

Out of the several Inindred 
films prodtired by the Canadian 
lilm lioaicl each year, a liniitod 

Page 42 

number is selected for dist 
lion in the United States. In I 
eral, these film subjects are ai 
able on a purchase basis ihrc 
national commercial distribul 

These Canadian documc 
films, interpreting the reso* 
of the Dominion both humai 
natural, and offering the mea 
a better imdcistanding 
I lie peoples of the western 
j)here. are widely used by sc 

November — SEE and' 

Id adult education groups 
[loughout the United States. 

iiintainhead for information 
Iteming sources for olxaining 
nadian films, and the terms un- 
' which lliey are available, is 
[> Chicago office of the National 
m Roaril at 81 East Randolph 
eet. Periodically, this office re- 
uses bulletins listing new films 
thev are selected for distrii)u- 

\ bilateral Committee on Edu- 
tion, made up of Canadian and 

S. educators and established in 
44 recommended an exchange 

information in the 
;as of study: 


The first task of a far-sighted pro- 
in for Canadian-United States rela- 
ns is that of widespread study of the 
lipcnous cultures and characteristic 
alities and problems and trends of 
h nation. The geography and re- 
irccs of the land, the composition and 
iribuiion of the population, modes of 
ing, industries, agriculture, school 
.terns and religious foundations, agen- 
|s of communication, transportation 
ilities, trade cultural traditions, social 
engths, and tensions— these are legiti- 
iie areas of study for friendly but in- 
ipendent neighbors. From this study 
■ the citizens of the two countries 
Juld come knowledge, understanding, 
id mutual respect. At the same time 

ice the construction of the Alcan 
'ghway, we have taken increasing in- 
iCst in the great Northwest. The film 
|0A to tlie North shows the work of 
^ great force of American soldiers as 
'.y cut through Canada's wilderness to 
aska. \ chronicle of the bushland, 
e muskeg, and the rivers of the North 
l«ke the seeing of this film a very dif- 
ferent and unusual experience. 

each nation would |)rorit by (he social 
cxporiciKC of tlie other." 

The following is a partial list of 
the Canadian films now circidat- 
ing in the United States which 
have been chosen with these of)- 
jectives in view. 


Business of Farming 
(2 reel) 
lly means of charts the film shows the 

relation of f.irm costs In farm iiicoine in 
Canada in ilic years from 1926 to the 
present. A complex organization of 
workers in grain elevators, factories, 
trains, ships, offices, and shops is neces- 
sary to bring the farmer's produce to 
the factory worker, and manufactured 
goods to the farmer. The Business of 
Farming shows how the price of these 
manufactured products is determined by 
operating expenses, rent, taxes, wages, 
and the cost of raw materials, plus the 
profit added by manufacturer and re- 
tailer. The farmer, on the other hand, 
cannot set his own price to cover both 
costs and living expenses. His income 
is determined by the current market for 
food products— not by the amount he 
needs to run his farm and keep his 

Fur Country 

(2 reel) (color) 
Each year the Canadian trapper packs 
his lines and makes ready for the far 
north. He must live in the of)en through 
days and nights of bitter cold while he 
sets his traps and collects the valuable 
pelts which are an historic source of 
Canada's wealth. The cameraman, de- 
lighting in the colors of a Canadian win- 
ter, follows the trapper on his journey 
and returns with him to the outpost in 
lime for Christmas festivities. 

Great Lakes 

(2 reel) (color) 
The main stream of shipping down 
the Lakes and an outline of the great 
industries along the sliore provide the 
theme for this color subject. It is tic- 
signed to convey an idea of the Lakes as 
one of the greatest industrial regions of 
the earth, with an immense amount of 
diversified cargoes flowing along the 
shipping routes between two countries. 
The ship[)ing theme links together short 
secjuences on steel production, pidp 
manufacture, ship building, grain stor- 
age, and the workings uf the great locks 
and canal system!>. 

tiiglnoays North 

(2 reel) 
A (oniprehrnsivc picture of wartime 

Pag* 44 

development in .Alaska and the N'ortI ! 
west siiowing how the vast problemj 
communication and transport 
solved. A chain of flying fields has 
established from Edmonton to til 
^'ukon and, six months after the .Annil 
tice, the Alaska Highway is due to b,| 
come Canadian. Thus, a great 
head of civilization has been 
through territory wiiich, only ycste 
was still a vast unknown. 

Land for Pioneers 

(2 reel) 

Exploration and the fur trade tc 
er opened up Canada's northwest 
lories, a land for pioneers. The 
of gold once lured thousands int 
Yukon, but greater riches lie east of 

, Bliil 
■il 1 








Klondike, imbedded in the rocks aifjtn 
tundra of Canada's Great Shield. T! 
day these are being skillfully exploit 
along with the farm areas, the fisheri 
the forests, and the rivers with thi 
promise of wealth. The .\laska Hlg 
way now opens up potential grain ficli 
and air routes form a close link with t! 
i)usy centers of the South. :, 

Look to the North 

(2 reel) 

This is a film dealing with the 
development of the Canadian nortbl 
for strategic and postwar pur|)oses. T^ 
immense project of the Alaska Highi*; 
regions is only one cause of wartii I 
|)rospcrity in these northern regioU 
liiis land is now being conquered aiU 
before long, it will pro%'e the short 
air route from the western hemisph-V 
of Europe and Asia— a mainstream ' 
continental traffic over territory no lui; 
cr untouchcil bv man. 

me SI 




■'. i i 





New Phais for the Land 
(2 reel) 

This film estimates the changes wh« J*''i 
war has brought to Canadian farms al 
shows how the resulting problems " 
being met. New lucthotls of culiivat i 
and increased use of the cooperat • 
s>siem bring relief to the ovcn()urdci i 
farmer, (.raplis illusirale ihe influr 

November — SEE and HJ^l 



farm |)ii(cs upon the economic life 
the country. 

iagarn Frontier 

(1 reel) 

A traditional tourist's paradise, ihc 
iagara Peninsula, also occupies a 
ratcgic position of iinportaiuc. Here 
1 an orchard land of the first order, 
ith peaches and apples growing in 
i»undance. The Great Lakes are ideal 
i.hing grounds and the peninsula's 
ant transformer stations are arsenals 
i hydro-electric power. At the cross- 
tads of inter continental shipping 
,ncs, tlie Niagara Peninsula has become 
port of call for ocean-going steamers, 
hile train traffic from all places in the 
cstem hemisphere converges to cross 
!/er the six international bridges. 

all from the Earth 
j (1 reel) 

'The camera tours Canada's great salt 
line at Malagash, N. S., where there is 
large enough deposit to supply the 
hole world for 500 years. We are 
lown how the salt is mined by scoop 
lovel or an evaporation process, and a 
Mvey of the manifold uses to which 
anada puis this native product con- 
udes the fdm. 

^iviber Front 

(2 reel) 

The film gives an account of the im- 
ortance of Canada's forests in the na- 
onal war ellort, and stresses also the 
ital part which they will play in the 
•constructive social planning which will 
>llow. The reckless exploitation of for- 
iis in bygone days is contrasted with 
le care and foresight devoted to the 
ooillamls today. 

tomorrow's Timber 
(2 reel) 

Canada has always been a forest land. 

hrec million tons of timber are ex- 
orted annually. Latest scientific devel- 
pments show iiow tinii)cr makes rayons 
nd plastits, how it i)uiUls planes and 
ouses, how it means wages. Forests, 

EE and HEAR — November 

with their rivers and streams, give 
health to local agriculture and provide 
hydro-electric power system. 


Alexis Trcniblay: Ilnbilanl 

(4 reel) (color) 

Life for Alexis Tremblay and his fam- 
ily is dedicated to the soil, following 
the tradition of ancestors who (amc 
from France to settle along the shores 
of the St. Lawrence over 300 years ago. 
In this simple existence tiie church 
plays an important part, the blessing of 
the seed each spring being a sacred 
ritual passed on from one generation to 
another. AVe follow this Frencii-Cana- 
dian family through the busy autumn 
days as it brings in the harvest and 
helps with bread baking and soap mak- 
ing. Winter sees the children revelling 
in outiloor sports while the women arc 
busy with their weaving: and wiiii the 
coming of spring, young ami old alike, 
repair to the fields once more to plough 
the earth in preparation for another 
season of varied crops. 

Gaspe Cod Fishermen 

(1 reel) 

Two hundred years ago, Ireiuh set- 
tlers came to the small village of Grande 
Riviere, and today it boasts seven hun- 
dred inhabitants. Fresh and salted cod 
form the staple diet of Gaspe fisherfolk 
and the plentiful surplus is prepared for 
export. At cooperative meetings the 
lishermen of Grande Riviere have dc 
vised a form of trading beneficial to all 
members of their small community. 

Grand Manan 

(1 reel) 

'Fhe heroes of this fdm are the her- 
ring fishermen of New Brunswick's most 
southerly outpost in the Bay of Fundy. 
Two hundred years after Champlain 
first set foot here, British Empire Loyal- 
ists settled on the island, where, if Llie 
soil is poor, the sea is rich. Each fisher- 
man builds and thatches his own weir; 
special boats collect the catch; the men 

Page 45 


Tr r^wrw'W^ 

While of primary interest to the fisherinan of the eastern islands, wc. loo, 
interested in seeing how Canada harvests vast crops of wheal in the upper R« 

River valley. 

salt the herring, and transport them to 
I he cannery— three hours distant on the 
iiiainlnnd shore. On Manan- itself the 
herring fishermen make their home, a 
place of (|uiet harbors and of luiidy 

Habitant Arts and Crafts 
(1 reel) (color) 

Alter emigrating from France, the 
habitant preserved both his mother coun- 
try's traditions and made himself profi 
( ient in old Indian crafts such as snow 
^lloe making, shipbuilding, and wooil 
carving. Raking in outdoor ovens, 
growing flax, and spinning are all 
.luiong liie accomplisiimenls of these 
ihrifty folk. 

Iceland on the Prairies 
(2 reel) (color) 
This is an interesting sociological 

Pag* 46 

study of an immigrant comnuinity. 
is over 70 years since the first pion( 
jjraved the journey from Iceland to th< 
Canadian west, where the majoritv o 
I heir descendants today carry on iho 
traditional Icelandic occupations oj 
farming and fishing. The Canadiati 
!i danders typifv the fusion of two cul< 
tures. Many of them play a prominen 
part in academic, medical, and civii 
life. Their children go to Canadiai 
schools but learn also the sagas ant 
Icgentls of their Icelandic forefathers. 

Lessons in Lix'ing 

(2 reel) '. 

This film shows how a school projeci 
revitalized a community by giving th' 
children a part in community life. Tli< 
community of Lantzvillc, British Coluni 
bia, is a cross-section of nationalitic 

November — SEE and HEAi 


iiiduslrial groups— farmers, fislicr- 

lumhemicn, and railroad workers 

ill a dispiriteil public sdiool. The 

ol and coinnuinity cliangcd and the 

is the story of tiicir transformation 

V Scotland 

reel) (color and black-and-white) 

lilders of the famous bluenose 
oners, the people of Nova Scotia 
k Gaelic amongst themselves. 
g on the well-known Scottish tradi- 
s of etlucation, schooling for the 
Ircn is a primary concern, while in- 
rial activity is apparent in the Cape 
on coal mines and iron ore smelters. 

cc River 

(2 reel) (color) 

•read across northern Alberta and 
ish Columbia is the Peace River 
itry, a huge block of farming land 
ounded by mountains and wooded 
. This is the most recently settled 
1 country in Canada, peopled by 
esteaders and in many ways still a 
tier territory. The film outlines the 
ement and activity of the Peace Riv- 
lisirict and points to the contrast 
k-een pioneer settlement and the 
em development of the region to- 

^ple of Blue Rocks 
(1 reel) (color) 

hese fishermen of Dutch and Ger- 
|i origin live on the proceeds of their 
jh and inhabit villages built along 

blue slate rocks of Nova Scotia. 

irs is a closely knit community life, 

the village store as social center. 

witness an auction held for the 
^t of the local church fund. 

iples of Canada 

(2 reel) 

•t a time when half the world is 
! in racial hatred. Peoples of 
' carries a stirring message of 
Dance. The film tells how men of 
ny races have crossed from the Old 
••id to the New— from France, Eng- 

pnd HEAR— November 

land, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, (icr- 
many, and Uic Ukraine; but whatever 
their race, they have laid the foundation 
of a true democracy through their co- 
operation and their respect for other 
men's beliefs. 

Peoples of the Pot latch 

(2 reel) (color) 

Despite the development of mo<Iern 
intlusiry, these Indians of northern 
British Columbia still preserve their old 
hunting and fisliing traditions. Their 
line painting and wood carving are fa- 
mous, and lumbering provides a further 
source of income. Many of the Potlatch 
Indians lead a nomadic life, hunting 
and trading with the Hudson's Bav 
Company. We ^^'atch them during their 
sports and recreations and the film ends 
with scenes of the Potlatch, a native 
tribal feast where some of the andent 
songs and dances are still remembered 
by the older folk. 


(2 reel) (color) 

Canada as the land of waterways and 
rapids is seen in this film. Her fresh 
Avater streams and rivers were replaced 
as the regular highu'ays of commerce 
only by the coming of the motorcar and 
railway. The fur trade which drew early 
settlers to the New World depended on 
these routes, and in turn on the light 
swift canoe, that alone could navigate 
them. Portage gives an idea of the im- 
portance of the fur trade to Canadian 
history, and shows in detail the building 
of a birch bark canoe by Indian crafts- 
men. The film concludes with scenes of 
the canoe in action, carrying the load 
down the foaming inland waterways to 

Prince Edward Island 
(1 reel) 

Abegweit, age-old Indian name for 
Prince Edward Island, is largely agricul- 
tural, farms being devoted to the island's 
main crop, potatoes. The fresh fine 
climate is ideal for growing all types of 
cereals and fruit. However, there is also 

Page 47 

some sheep brcciling, liog and cattle 
raising, and fur breeding, along with 
fisliing for lobster, herring and mackerel. 
I he people of the island, descended 
from Scottish. English and French set- 
tlers, are ardent readers and are serv 
iced by traveling libraries. The film 
ends with a panorama of Chariot ictown. 
the capital. 

I 'l;)(iini(ni Clnisltfuis 

(2 reel) (color) 

(hrisimas is celebrated in a Ikraini.m 
comnuinitv near ^Vinnipcg, where an 
cient songs, traditional dances, and bril- 
liant costumes make gay the home 
festivities. These lighthearted scenes are 
brouglii into striking contrast with the 
solcitinitv of the Christmas ceremonies 

in the Greek OrlhcKlox Church. 

Vhrainian Dance 

(2 reel) (color) 

Colorfid music and dances are pi 
formed by the Ukrainian Canadians 
Manitolia! largest Slavonic group 
Canada. Ukrainians brought with the 
their native arcliitcclurc. their thatch 
roofs. lUvantinc domes, and symba 
cMubroiderv designs. Here we glimp 
traditional jjageaniry, costumes, ai 
dancing, as preserved and rc\i\ed 
lioth men and women. 

.\11 titles may be obtained for pren 
prior to ]inrchase from National Film 
offices in ChicaKO. New York. Washingt^ 
Los AnRclcs. Also, all titles are available 
rental tbrongli three commercial film librmr 
in New York. Chicago, and Dallas. 

"Red Feather" Training 


chest budgets can be grapiiically shoi 
during workers" training meetings ai 
later to employee groups of prospeeti 

Here Mr. Co/ad is shown teaching© 
of the comuuinity chest workers. M 
F.arl Sage, also of Omaha, how to thrr 
the projector in anticipation of h 
meeting one of her assignments as n\ 
rcsentati\e of the community chij 
speakers' bureau. ' 



"Wear it jiroudly" is the advice to 
those of us who have supported the 
conununity chest idea. But few of us 
realize the great training problem in- 
volved before the campaign. In planning 
future couimunilv drives, we can take a 
cue from .\Ir. Walter F. Co/ad, wlio pre- 
pared a If) nun. silent film as a training 

The film is an effective instrument in 
training communitv chest workers be 
cause through its medium. e\amj)les of 
work accomplished under communit\ 

Pag* 48 


Iitinl'oint Safely iiotnr 

(Sound) n tninulcs. I'se: N"l' 
/. /, S; Clubs A. 

Tms film is aimed at remedying I 
existing situation: each year o\ 
30.000 deaths and over .').000.()00 
capacitating accidents occur in the hor 
I he ireatnicnt is dignified— it shows t 
error and, more important, the me?' 
of overcoming it. The four-jioint saf< 
program is organized around prof 
maintenance, good housekeeping, s\ 
cial protection for children, and forn 
tion of safe habits. \eui York Sti 
linaifl of Health. At your nearest fi 

November — SEE and HE 


i Ii is 






X hat can I secure for this unit of study? 

\1iere can I get these films? 

low good are they? 

]an we make it ourselves? 

low do other people run their film libraries? 

^at does Education want in the way of audio-visual aids? 

ncidentally, what is EFLA? 

LET'S take that last question 
r first. 

EFLA stands for the Educa- 
ional Film Library Association, 
nc. It is a professional associa- 
ion of film libraries and their 
cpresentati\es from all kinds of 
ducational institutions and agen- 
ies across the country. 

Since all users, distributors and 
roducers of audio-visual materi- 
Is arc dependent one on the 
thcr, EFLA is geared to meet the 
eeds of this whole field. 

There's the matter, though, of 
aking first things first. The 16 
im. motion picture has seemed 
need more attention than 
ther media for the time being, 
rhus most of EFLA's activities 
lave been pointed in this direc- 

Mrs._ Klory is the Executive Seceretary of 
le Kducatlonal Film Library Association. 

EE and HEAR— November 

tion. Questions such as those list- 
ed above have been pouring into 
the EFLA office ever since it was 
established early in 1943. As 
needs are made known, EFLA will 
continue to endeavor to meet 

All thiough EFLA's two and 
a half years of existence there has 
appeared a dominant factor. This 
has been the growth of a kind of 
o\er-all united front, so to speak, 
for audio-visual educators, a dis- 
co\ery of a common bond, com- 
mon needs and the resultant 
inter-membership cooperation in 

Of course, now that the first, 
war-stimulated impetus has pass- 
ed, EFLA, in tune with the times, 
is going through a reconversion 
period. All of us are certain that, 
much as we all have progiessed 

Pago 49 


Mr. I. C. BoERLiN 

Chairman, Board of Directors, EFLA 

In Charge, Audio-Visual Aids 

The Pennsylvania State College 

in this audio-visual area during 
the past few years, the "bud has 
barely begun to bloom." 

With constructive plans, not 
headily ambitious, the new EFLA 
Board of Directors looks forward 
to productive months ahead, a 
few activities terminated, others 
expanded, new ones initiated— all 
a part of KFLA's sizing itself up 
in terms of the needs of the fu- 
ture as best we may predict. 

The work of the original Edu- 
cational Film Lending Library 
Conmiittcc, in aiding the govern- 
ment in its efforts to meet Educa- 
tion's needs in wartime informa- 
tion, has been continued and de- 
veloped by EFLA. EFLA has 

Paga 50 

Dr. Edgar Dale ^ , 

Vice-Chairman, Board of Directors. 


Bureau of Educational Researcii 

The Ohio State University 

been called upon to act on the 
National 16 mm. Advisory Com- 
mittee, on the War Loan Drives, 
in the progiam for distribution 
of surplus property, in advising 
on establishment of a national < 
film library at the Library of 
Congress, and in ad\isory com- 
mittees for the Quebec Food and i 
Agriculture Conference, and the j 
Educational and Cultural Organ- i 
ization of the United Nations. 1 

Many EFLA members who ' 
have been serving in the govern- . 
ment and in the armed forces 
training programs are going to 
lia\e many "success stories" we'll 
;ill want to hear and read. 

All of us want to know more 
of methods and actual examples 

November— SEE and HEAK j 

Elizabeth Harding Flory 

(Mrs. John Flory) 
Executive Secretary, EFLA 

Mrs. Patricia O. Blair 

Secretary, Board of Directors, EFLA 

Curator of Films 

Cleveland Public Library 

successful utilization of all 
)es of audio-visual materials for 
ucation— for adults as well as 

Many of us are thinking more 
d more of taking a part in the 
Dduction of these materials, 
her actually making them our- 
ves or serving as subject-mat- 
specialists at least. 

With so many new aids-libra- 
■s mushrooming up, these new 
lits need the benefit of the ex- 
rience of older hands to assist 
their healthy development. 

•Ml of us need to examine close- 

: and HEAR— November 

ly, and set up higher and more 
clear-cut standards for these mul- 
titudinous audio-visual aids. We 
should ascertain what is best, 
from the utilization as well as the 
production point of view, and 
then be satisfied with no less 

EFLA stands ready to help in 
all these details as well as broad 
aspects of the field, through its 
clearing house of information, 
distribution of educationally pro- 
duced films, its varied publica- 
tions and, best of all, its facilities 
for cooperation in a united front! 

Pago 51 



I.T. James W. Brown A^fD Lt. Robert B. Abbott 

Training Aids Section 

Ninth Naval District Headquarters, Great Lakes, Illinois 

rn Editor's Note: Lt. James Brown and Lt. Abbott, 
U.S.N.R., are former scliool people long experienced 
in visual educational materials and methods as they 
apply to instruction. Lt. Brown, on the basis of ex- 
perience in setting up training aid sections in Eng- 
land, on the west coast and now at Great Lakes, 
shares with Lt. Abbott in bringing to school people 
suggestions which they have observed to be highly 
functional in the Navy training progiani and which 
they believe can carry over into civilian school work. 

(The ol>inions or assertions contained in this article are tlir 
private ones of the writers and are not to be construed as of- 
ficial or rePecling the views of the Navy Department or the 
Naval seivice at large.) 


THE war years have witnessed 
a remarkable increase in the 
production and utilization of a 
variety of newer instructional aids 
to learning, particularly in the 
armed forces and in industry. The 
general increase in emphasis in 

Page 52 

this field has caused presiden' 
and deans of many teacher trai 
ing institutions to explore t) 
possibilities of making wider u 
of newer instructional maierir 
in both professional educatic 
and content courses. Sayings su«, 

November — SEE and HEl.l 



I About the Authors— 

)AMKS \V. UROWN was. l)cfoic entering tlie U. S. Navy in 1U41.'. 
!l.*|)crvisor of Aiidio-\isual Fxlucation witli tlic State Department of 
lliication, Richmond, Virginia, wliere he was responsible for organiz- 
i; a state-wide audiovisual instructional materials program in co- 
inTation with teacher training institutions. His previous experience 
di hided public school teaching in ^Vashington State and a General 
|j iication Board study fellowship with the Motion Picture Project of 
jiL- American Council on Education. At the present time he is in 
^.iii^e of the I raining Aids Section, Ninth Naval District, (^rcat 

Jlk.s. III. 

'. ROBERT B. ABBOTT has been engaged in school work in Cali- 

fornia for many years. He was formerly principal of the Heaton 
Demonstration School (asscKiated with Fresno State Teachers College) , 
research consultant with the Oakland Public Schools, and vice- 
principal of tiie Oakland High School. He has in addition taught 
courses at Fresno, San Francisco, and Chico State Teachers Colleges 
and Washington State College, Pullman. A past president of the 
California Elementary Schools Principals' Association, Mr. Abbott is 
on leave of absence to the U. S. Navy and is at present engaged in 
training aids utilization work in the Ninth Naval District. 

Teachers teach as they are making available in one location 
ught" or "We learn by doing" materials which can be used in 
,ve particular application to the college content courses, educa- 
roblem of acquainting teachers tional methods courses, and prac- 
ly in their careers with the na- tice teaching courses. (2) Insofar 
ire of audio-visual instructional as possible the College Instruc- 
tional Materials Center slioiild 
bring its instructional materials 

aterials, the techniques most 
nerally accepted for obtaining 
aximum benefits from their 
'itili/ation, and the equipment 
ith which thev are to be used. 


It is the purpose of this article 
) present in brief outline form 
lime suggestions having to do 
I'ith the organisation of and rec- 
mmended facilities for a central- 
ced "instructional materials cen- 
pr" for institutions engaged pri- 
jiarily in the training of teachers. 

I Stated simply, the teachers col- 
:ge instructional materials center 
iroposed here will have as its 
>rincipal function: (I) To serve 
ihe needs of college instruction by 

(EE and HEAR— November 

to the attention of ptiblic schools 
in the teachers college service 
area. The outline below indicates 
in brief some of the services to be 
rendered by the center and some 
of the principles to be followetl 
in its organization. 


A faculty committee for setting up the 
policies for the instructional materials 
center is advisable. 


OLICY-making committee 
composed of faculty mem- 
bers is suggested since its recom- 
mendations will afford a general 

Pag« 53 

MODEL ASSEMBLY showing the layout for storing and handling, i^ 
materiols in a Navy supply hut. All sections are colored and re- 
movable for flexibility of use. 

policy for the instructional mate- 
rials program based on the needs 
of the college as a whole. This 
committee should have in its 
membership interested and quali- 
fied faculty members. It should 
not assume executive responsibili- 

The teachers college should maintoin a 
special department for coordinating newer 
instructional materials and for stimulating 
good utilization in college classes and in 
the field. This department should be in 
charge of on instructional materials spe- 

An instructional materials spe- 
cialist shoidd be hired to carry 
out the program as approved by 
the faculty committee. Office, film 
library, photographic laboratory, 
and jirojection room space should 

Pictures ore from Official U 

Page S4 

be assigned, sufficient to allow 
center to carry out the functioi 
assigned to it. All facilities shoul' 
be centralized in one locatio! 
easily accessible to faculty me; 
bers and students. During 
early development of the cen 
the specialist in charge might 
started on a half-time basis. 

It is considered advisable f' 
I lie center to maintain custody ■ 
all jjiojcction machines on tli 
campus. Although they may 1 
loaned to \ arious departments f< 
a term or a year they should 1' 
available at all times to the cc 
ter and called in for overhaul 
least once a year. An accural 
record of use for each machine, i 
kept by the college departmeU' 

S. Navy Photographs. 

November— SEE and HEA 

will provide data liom which the 
Kilter can tlcteniiinc whether 
»hort or long term loans are need- 
?d to satisfy requirements. 

The instructional materials cen- 
ter will not only buy or rent (de- 
pending on the si/c of the school) 
!ilnis, lilmsirips, slides, recordings, 
models, and other teaching aids, 
but it will make arrangements for 
ibtaining them on a loan or rent- 
d basis from larger libraries 
throughout the country. It is pos- 
sible for the local system to be 
onductcd almost entirely with 
sorrowed or rented materials. 
Purchases should be made only 
nhen it is shown that sufficient 
use will be made of the materials 
to warrant the expenditures. It is 
essential in providing instruction- 
il materials that an aid be pro- 
vided the instructor at the time 
md the place it will be most effec- 
tive. This principle is basic in de- 
termining purchases. 

Many teachers colleges now 
liave cameras and other photo- 

MINIATURE OR 3'/4" by 4" qIoss slides ore 
m importont contribution of tne college in- 
itructionol materials center. The same nega- 
'ives may also be used for making 35mm. 
'ingle and double frame filmstrips. Cost of 
naterials is low. 

>EE and HEAR — November 

A COPYING CAMERA need not be as large 
as this one to make possible detailed repro- 
ductions of smaller hand-drawn diagrams and 
sketches or photographic copy from textbooks 
or other sources. Negatives can be used for 
2" by 2" or 3 ','4" by 4" slides, contoct prints, 
or photographic blowups suitable for use in 
direct teaching to an entire class at one time. 

graj)hic equipment which may be 
in the hands of various college de- 
partments. It would be well to 
concentrate this equipment in the 
instructional materials center and 
to assign to the center the respon- 
sibility for using it as required. 
The center can make a significant 
contribution to instruction in the 
college through the use of its fa- 
cilities for making 2" by 2" and 
3i/^" by 4" slides, still pictures, 
and photographic blowups. 

Such an insfructional materials center 
should provide: 

(A) Projection mochines as needed 

(B) Educational films, slides, recordings, 
filmstrips, and other aids in stock 
(owned locally) 

(C) Centralized service for renting or 
borrowing instructional materials from 
other sources as needed 

(D) Repair facilities for equipment and 

(E) Clerical assistance and projectionist 

(F) Minimum photographic facilities 
(slides, still pictures) 

(G) Chart and poster making facilities 
(H) Expert advice on the selection and 

utilization of materials 

Page 55 

(II Courses for teochers on the use of 
newer instructional materials 

The instructional materials cen- 
ter should be able to assist all col- 
lege departments in selecting ap- 
[)ropriate teaching aids of all 
t\'])es. The center should not only 
give such advice when it is re- 
quested, but it should assume ac- 

will be ol ;l^si^lance to them. Reg 
ular pre\iews of new educations 
films, filmstrips, and slide coll 
tions to which interested faculty] 
members are in\ited will help iril 
this connection. Another sirail 
service will be the systematic < 
lection of catalogs of all ty 
Avhich will be available for tacul 
reference. It is feasible to raaki 

tive responsibility for informing the department responsible foJ 
instructors of teaching aids which the maps and charts of the collegd 

BELOW— Left— PROJECTOR MAINTENANCE and repoir is on important 
function of the instructlonol materials center. Right— PHOTOGRAPHIC 
BLOWUPS are being mode by projection. Enlorgcmcnts up to 40" by 60" ore 
common. Colored charts can be produced easily by printing in reverse 
(white lines on a block background) ond coloring the white lines with onlline 
dyes on cotton swabs. Large charts con be colored in this monner in o few 

■1 *^?W 


.. ' .1 


:* P 

^^ In' 

Pago bb 

ABOVE— Left— SILK SCREEN PRODUCTION mokes use of relatively In 
expensive equipment, for the production of charts ond diogroms hovinq i 
professional quolity. Scporotc screens allow printing in many colors. Right— 
WOOD AND METAL WORKING EQUIPMENT enables the production of model 
ond mockups for um in college classes. 

November— SEE and HEAI' 

oviiliiij; lor their disiribiilioii, 
r annual repair, for storage, aiul 
r standardization. 

It is evident that teachers col- 
ics must assume responsibility 
r ilie training of teachers in the 
e of the newer instructional 
ds. The center with facilities 
id materials in one location 
liich assumes the responsibility 
r making them available to stu- 
nt teachers during their period 
practice teaching will aid in 
Iving the problem. Offers of the 
an of materials should be ac- 
mpanied, however, by sound 
Ivice on proper utilization tech- 
ques and instruction in the op- 
ation of basic equipment. Spe- 
al courses, offered during the 
gular term as well as during the 
mmer session (and required of 
1 teacher trainees) should pro- 
de practical training in the se- 
ction and classroom utilization 
' instructional aids and equip- 
ent. Above all, the center should 
jcome the natural place to 
hich student teachers would 
irn during their period of train- 
ig whenever the need for instruc- 
onal materials arises. 

In fime, the department should also pro- 
U Shop focilities (for models, exhibits, 

special training devices) 
') Silk screen facilities 
'.) Facilities for making simple filmstrips 
)) Facilities for making simple 16mm. 

silent films 
:1 Facilities for making photographic 

■) Facilities for making recordings 
j) Mimeographic facilities (especially for 

student teachers) 
H) Multilithing facilities (including plate 


iZand HEAR— Novprnljer 

In time, many additional lacili- 
lies should be offered by an in- 
structional materials center. If a 
sejiarate shop is not practicable, 
facilities of the college shops 
shoidd be made available to the 
center for the construction of 
models, exhibits, and educational 
devices of various types. Silk 
screen facilities will be found use- 
ful and an inexpensive means of 
producing schematic diagrams, 
simple maps, and charts for im- 
mediate college needs and for 
some circulation to other schools 
in the service area. Mimeograph- 
ing and other reproducing facili- 
ties might well be centralized in 
the instructional materials cen- 
ter, particularly because of the op- 
portunity for training teachers in 
the operation of this equipment. 
If pictures, diagrams, or line 
drawings are to be used in illus- 
trating mimeographed or multi- 
lithed materials, the center will 
be able to provide the service. 
Most colleges now have facilities 
for making recordings, but im- 
provements made during the war 
will make it advisable to invest in 
new equipment when it is avail- 
able. Such equipment might well 
Ije placed under the supervision 
of the instructional materials cen- 
ter for use in its recording studio 
and for loan to other depart- 
ments as required. 

Extensions of the instructional materials 
service could include: (A) public relations 
and promotional services (multilithed 
pamphlets, photographic service for the en- 
tire college, promotional motion pictures, 
etc.) for the college. 

l*rovision of instructional ma- 

Page 57 


CHART AND POSTER PRODUCTION con be conducted on o small seal 
with minimum of equipment, contributing much to the improvement < 
instructional materials. 

tcrials scr\ircs for public schools 
in the college scr\ice area is here 
suggested. Such a project should 
be of considerable appeal to the 
teachers college since in this way 
it could extend service to its stu- 
dents beyond graduation and 
bring about a closer relationship 
with the communities near at 
hand. Too often "visual educa- 
tion" services have grown up 
serving this purpose alone, with 
little or no efTort expended to 
stimulate adecpiate luili/.ation 
and instruction within the college 
itself which is where the major 
emphasis should be. Little need 
be said about the possible use of 
the facilities of the instructional 
materials center for public rela- 
tions and general promotional 
purposes. Rather, it should be 

Page S8 

emphasized that a brake be plac 
on tliis use of the center. 

Emphosis of the instructional moteri 
center should be the STIMULATION of g.ll 
utilization of materials, as well as « 
selection, and not simply that of ou^j 
matically servicing departmental requeil 
In teachers colleges in particular the tf 
phasis should be placed on instructing s^ 
dents in the principles of good utilizati^ 

The fatuliy j)()licy conunit 
should entlea\or constantly 
make the instructional materi; 
center serve the requirements 
the college. College instructo. 
like instructors everywhere, ne.l 
information concerning what ni- 
tcrials are available in their ficl« 
and how and when to use thu 
most appropriately. This is esj 
cially true in the teachers colle- 
where the example set by the o 
lege instructor will help to inti- 

November- SEE and Hfij 

ce prospective teachers to the 
asons for ami methods of using 
er instructional materials in 
ir own classes. The instruc- 

mal materials specialist who is 
icouraged by policies set up for 
jerating his center will be en- 
)led to do much towaril encour- 
jing good classroom utilization. 
e shoidd be expected to be ac- 
ve in serving the needs of the 
)llege rather than passively to 
xept and fill routine requests. 

The deportment should be financed in 
ch a way that its work is not handicap- 
•d by chorges to college departments for 
iowings or rentals. 

Many colleges have established 
isual education departments as 
I part of the extension service, 
hich practice has usually meant 
lat not only ^vere the major ac- 
ivities of the service outside the 
)llege but that the basis for fi- 
ancial support was largely non- 
:>llcge. Instructional materials 
Tvices rendered in such instances 
Ire usually charged to various de- 
lartments, a practice which too 
iften results in a great deal of ac- 
i^unting and clerical work and, 
|i the end, a perfunctory service 
3 the college. A far better plan 
i to allot the instructional mate- 
lals center sufficient funds to 
arve all college departments with- 
ut charges for specific services, 
tnprovement of instruction 
tiould be a college-wide aim 
(hich is in no way hindered by 
nter-departmental service fees. 

Services to the community, to 

'he schools in the service area, 

nd to various clubs are impor- 

:E and HEAR— November 

tant aspects of the program in 
which the instructional materials 
(enter could contribute to public 

Now is an appropriate time for 
teachers colleges to make definite 
plans for expanding and improv- 
inj; their instructional materials 
services. Centralization of respon- 
sibility for coordinating the pro- 
curement and utilization of 
educational films, recordings, film- 
strips, slides, charts, maps, models, 
special devices, and similar mate- 
rials will insure wiser selection 
and more widespread utilization 
throughout the college as a whole. 
Prospccti\e teachers who com- 
plete college content courses in 
which such appropriate instruc- 
tional materials are wisely and 
effectively used will benefit great- 
ly by an improved understanding 
of the subject itself and by an in- 
sight into the extent to which 
the materials contribute to such 
understanding. When such ex- 
perience is coupled with an op- 
portunity to draw from the center 
instructional materials to be used 
under supervision in their own 
practice teaching classes, prospec- 
tive teachers are well on their 
way toward proficiency in this 
phase of their profession. 

The teachers college, through 
its off-campus instructional mate- 
rials service, is given an opportu- 
nity to maintain liaison with some 
of its former students and to as- 
sist them in improving their 
teaching by influencing the na- 
ture of the materials selected for 
their teaching problems. 

Page 59 


VVarren H. Southworth 
flealtli Coordinator, Wisconsin Cooperative School Health Pro{rra\ 

Editor's Note: Recently Dr. Southworth spent nearly a day previewing 
teaching films in the subject of health ond health education. His interest 
led him to write this very worth-while article describing what he believes the 
place of the teaching film may be in the pursuit of health habits. A list of 
sound and silent films on health, available to schools follows at the end of 
this article. 

THE .sound motion picture is 
one ol the most efficient me- 
diums through which we can de- 
\elop desirable understandings, 
attitudes, interests, and behavior 
rclati\c to health. When skillfully 
used, it is one way of bridging 
the wide gap between "knowing" 
and "doing" — of stimulating the 
application of certain hygienic 
principles toward more effective 
daily living. 

1 he classroom films in the field 
of health may be divided into 
three gioups: physiology, saniia- 
tion, and hygiene. Physiology 
films deal with such subjects as 
nervous reflexes, digestion, circu- 
lation, breathing, skin, and mus- 
cles. Sanitation films j)rescnt some 
asf>ects of bacteria, water supply, 
and sewage disj>osal. Hygiene 
films arc concerned with subjects 
like cleanlin<ss, iiuiiiiion. pos- 

Pag* 60 

ture, care of the teeth, first ai^ 
home nursing, and preventir 
disease. In all these films, motivj 
tion of health behavior is accoi 
plished by showing how and wl 
things should be done rather tl 
by sliowing what happens to 
sons who do or do not follol 
hygienic practices. 

Motion pictures ha\e ma 
unique ways of teaching physic 
ogy, sanitation, and hygiene 
that maximiun results gtow oi 
of the lessons. First of all, the pi 
lines and the accompanyin 
sound, when properly preparec 
always know their subject. Tht 
ne\er tire or forget. Teachc 
sometimes do. Further, the piij' 
lures show action — everythii 
from the wiggling swimming 
bacteria to the peristaltic actio[ 

Reprint from IVi^cottsin Journal of EducaHti 
\liifih. 104''. 1 

November- SEF. and HB^H 

>[ iIr' .ilinuiiiaiy tract. The cam- 
jra, through slow motion photog- 
«>hy, can analyze very rapid 
Tiovcmcnt like that of the cilia 
vhich line sonic parts of the res- 
>iratory tract, and ii can also 
peed iij) acti\ity, like the growth 
if bacteria which is too slow to 
vatcli through the niicroscojic. 

Motion pictures bring the field 
rip into the classroom and show 
he things the pupil should see, 
rojj^vithout the confusing elements of 
niiinjjortant details. A trip into 
lie field, whether it be to a water 
)urification plant, sewage treat- 
iicnt j)lant, milk j)lant, or abat- 
.oir will be meatlv enriched when 
'the processes and principles in 
aperation at the plant are pre- 
viewed or reviewed through a mo- 
tion picture fdm. Here the "eye" 
3f the camera is always at the 
most desirable place, and the pu- 
pil's attention can be directed 
toward important points with un- 
obstructed \ision. Likewise, com- 
Iplica ted laboratory demonstrations 
'Iiai are too difficult to arrange 
I or class use and observation are 
asily seen through the camera's 
"eye," and when the picture is 
projected, the whole class sees the 
(Iciiionsiration from a "close-up" 
\ icw. 

1 he animated diagram is an- 
'ther special feature of the mo- 
ion picture. It shows activity that 
the class cannot readily obser\e 
otherwise, such as the mo\ement 
>f the diaphragm and stomach 
lontractions. Diagrammatic fdms 
may even show processes that arc 
not visible, as the exchange of 

lEE and HEAR — November 


Dr. Soiuliwortli received his B.S. from 
Massachusetts Slate College, his M.A. in 
medical sciences from Boston University, 
and his Doctor of Public Health degree 
from the Massachusetts Institute of 
lechnology. His experience includes 
iiigh school teaching, research work in 
ihe Massachusetts Department of IMiiiiic 
Health, a professorship at Pan/er Col- 
kge, and service with the American .So- 
cial Hygiene .Association in the Army 
Sixth Service Command. 

At present he is on loan to the Wis- 
consin Slate Board of Health and the 
Stale Department of Public Instruction 
in the capacity of health coordinator for 
the Wisconsin Cooperative School Healtli 

gases or dissohed substances be- 
tween the blood and tissues. Heie 
it can truly be said that a single 
picture is worth 10,000 words. 
Ves, all that! 

Some classes and lessons in 
health education are as dry as a 
handful of desert sand, and just 
about as useful, because the teach- 
er siinply talks, assigns homework, 
and lists new terms. On the other 
hand, those teachers who use all 
available teaching tools, including 
educational sound films of high 
I. O. (instructional cjuotient), 
make health and safety a living 
subject and a vital part of each 
pupil's life. 

The films to which Dr. Souili- 
worth refers and which are a\ ail- 
able to schools through your near- 
est film libraries ate as follows: 




Soinid JO uiiu. EBF 

Page 61 


CIO IHING .Sound 10 min. EBF 
I IRl-: Sound 10 mill. EBF 
DICES r ION OF FOODS Sound 10 min. 

ENDOCRINE GLANDS Sound 10 viin. 

inin. EBF 

I IRSr AID Sound 10 min. EBF 

min. EBF 

CROWTH OF CITIES Sound 10 min. 

Id min. EBF 

llEREDIl V .Sound 10 min. EBF 

HOME NURSING Sound 10 min. EBF 


Sound 10 min. EBF 

NERVOUS SYSTEM Sound 10 min. 

tnin. EBF 

MALS Sound 10 min. EBF 


min. EBF 

BACTERIA Silent 15 min. EBF 

BLOOD Silent 15 min. EBF 

BODY FRAMEWORK Silent 15 min. 

I'.REATHING Silent 15 min. EBF 

IAN F Silent 15 min. EBF 


I ANT Silent 15 min. EBF 

CIRCULATION Silent 15 min. EBF 

min. EBF 

min. EBF 

lent 7 min. EBF 

HANDS Silent 7 min. EBF 

Poga 62 

CLEAN Silent 7 min. EBF 

BRYO Silent 15 min. EBF 

DIGESTION Silent 15 min. EBF 

DIPHTHERIA Silent 15 min. EBF 

FVES Silent 15 min. EBF 

FEEF Silent 15 min. EBF 


FIRE SAFETY Silent 15 min. EBF 


WOUNDS Silent 5 min. EBF 


JURED Silent 5 min. EBF 


ING Silent 15 min. EBF 

SUSCITATION Silent 15 min. EBF 

FOOD AND GROWTH Silent 15 min. 

Silent 15 min. EBF 

min. EBF 

HOUSE FLY Silent 15 min. EBF 
Silent 15 min. EBF 
LIVING CELL Silent 15 min. EBF 
MUSCLES Silent 15 min. EBF 
lOZA Silent 15 min. EBF 

SKIN Silent 15 min. EBF 

Under arrangements including an ex- 
panded format and increased content, 
tilm News has appeared as the niaga- 
-ine of the Educational Film Library 
\ssociation. Mrs. Esther L. Berg, New 
^<lrk. City, has been appoinlcil to serve 
;;s the EFLA Film News editor. 

1 he American Council on Education 
I .IS available a series of 33 fihnstripsj 
(i.j "Life in the United States." More: 
(ban 10.000 strips have been sold in the, 
list year. If you are not familiar with; 
iliese materials, write for a catalog, ad- 1 
dressing the American Council on Edu- 
( ill ion, 744 Jackson Place, Washington 
(■). D.C. 

November— SEE and HEAR 



Editor's Note: Before World Wor II the traditional geography se- 
quer>ce had little or nothing to soy obout South America. With the 
completion of World War II, we shall probably experience a great 
awakening in the organization of geography classes everywhere. New 
cultures, new people, and accounts of both have occupied prominent 
positions in news magazines, in current literature, and in newspopers. 
Schools everywhere ore squeezing in a unit on South America. The 
production of teaching materials in the traditional sense has lagged 
greatly, so that we find more and more people inquiring where thoy 
may get authentic information concerning South America. One promi- 
nent source has been mode available through the outstanding work of 
the Office of Inter-American Affairs. The purpose of these films, the 
means through which they are distributed, and the current status are 
very ably described by Oscar E. Sams, Jr. 

Oscar E. Sams, Jr. 

erim Office of International Information of the U. S. Department 

of State 

/1HARLES LAMB once said to 

'-^ a friend, "Don't introduce 

II to that man over there. I hate 

iin, and I want to continue to 

'' c him. When you introduce 

to him, then I shall learn to 

^ ^w him and shall stop hating; 

1." The triuh in Lamb's state- 

nt is just as obvious today as 

^vas in the 19th century. Dis- 

ind HEAR— November 

like for our neighbors usually 
stems from the fact that we do not 
know them and consequently fail 
to understand them. A conscious 
effort to study their personalities, 
their habits, their work, and their 
home life usually develops a sym- 
j)athetic imderstanding and close 

As commimications shrink the 

Page 63 

Tlie child viewing the film Belo Horizonte would Ijc impressed by the 
siiniiaiitv which exists bciwccii this citv and most up-to-date American 
tommuniiies. Care should alwa\s he taken to use many visual ma 
lerials when approaching the study of South American nations, for 
no one film tells all liie story. Isuallv the emphasis is on the old 
or the ni:w, and a balance of experience must be met. 

world, Avc find ouisehcs pililully 
lacking in an understanding oi 
people wlio ha\c suddenly be 
come our neighbors. Futureworld 
security may depend on llo^\• well 
we "get along" with those neigh- 
bors, and we know that getting 
along with them depends alto- 
gether on our developing a sym- 
pathetic understanding through a 
concentrated program of self-edu- 

An example of such a program 
is that carried on bv the Office of 
Inter-American Affairs. ^ In Au 
gust, 1910, the Nazi war machine 
was rolling with apparent ease 

Pag* 64 

down the liighioad to \ictory 
Europe. It seemed then that 
onlv a matter of weeks ail Kuro 
incliiding Britain, would be cop 
pletely subdued, and wc in l 
United States knew that Hit 
did not i>lan to sioj) when t 
was done. Wc had already he 
about Germany's propaga: 
drive in Latin America, and 
knew that this campaign was 
ginning to succeed in m 

1 Formerly known as tlie Office of the 
ordinator of Inter- American Affairs. 
inally established as the Office of t 
t'oordiiiator of Coniniercial & Cultural 
l.Tficins bctwrrn the American Republ ■ 
Now oporafinir witliin the Interim Offic* I 
International Information under the Un > 
Stales Department of State. 

Novamber —SEE and . 


hotos by 

en I^ryan 

<)1 A \. 

ODAY teachers are using splendidly prepared films distributed by the Office of 
Inter-American Affairs. Entirely realistic, exemplifying technological status, and 
utting across home life, customs, education, ond vocation, films about the United 
llations ore now available to all schools. 

"OP riC.l URE— Tliis scene from Bolivia allows us to experience the mode of 
ving in remote market places of the local focal point for all communication of 
«ELO\\— Comparison sharpens any child's appreciation of the standarcLs he enjoys. 

he opportunity to all but live with in the classrooms in Colombia helps him 
nderstand his neighbors and to critically evaluate his own educational oppor- 

places. Sonieihing had to be done. 
The peoples in the other Ameri- 
cas had to be alerted to this for- 
eign danger. 

Consequently, that same Au- 
gust, 1910, The Office of the Co- 
ordinator of Commercial and 
Cultural Relations between the 
American Republics was estab- 
lished as an agency of the United 
States government to implement 
and give exjiression to the Good 
Neighbor Policy. Among the sev- 
eral branches of the new office was 
a division devoted to the produc- 
tion, adaptation, and distribution 
of motion pictures. 

The sound film proved an 
effective means for bringing 
about quick results in the pro- 
gram. Through the Press Divi- 
sion, newspapers did a tremen- 
dous job, and radio stations all 
over the Americas carried the 
message of understanding and 
friendship from this country. 
Sound films implemented and 
completed an informational cam- 
paign the likes of which had 
never materialized before. For 
there are many thousands who 
cannot read newspapers, and 
there are more thousands who 
have no access to radios. But 
those thousands can gather in 
schools, autliioriums, and in town 
s(juares to sec and hear soiuul mo- 
tion pictiues. 

As planned and carrietl out. the 
film progriuu was defmitely a 
two-way street. Motion pictures 
showing our way of life, our war 
effort, and our resources were sent 

Pag* 66 

to Latin America; while fill 
showing how the peoples of th 
other American republics live' 
work, worship, and play werj 
shown in the United States. i 

Here was a new expenmeni 
For ages men had girded therrjj 
selves with swords and guns fc 
war; here men were girding thenli 
selves with information aboi[ 
each other so that a better undei 
standing and sympathy could 
developed among themselvel 
Here men were girding thei 
selves for peace. 

And 16 nun. mo\ie films wei' 
playing an important part in tl 
whole program. For it is the 1 
mm., not the 35 mm., that is be 
suited for the program, becau; 
many of the film subjects we 
not the type wanted for theatricjj 
use. The program needed moi 
of the atmosphere of the sch( 
room and the auditorium tha 
that of the theater. Sixteen 
meter projectors lent ihemselvJ 
to easier portability than 35 
machines did, and portabilii 
was an important factor, espeda 
ly in the other Americas wh« 
film showings were plainied f(J 
remote sections that had nev«f 
seen motion pictures before. 

Our primary objective here 
to describe the operation, iinpi 
cations, and objectives of the fil 
program about the other Aiiun: 
cas used in the United States. Btl 
since this project was considcrcj 
bv OIAA to some degree as sc 
ondary to that in Latin Amcric; 
let us consider briefly the Lati: 

November — SEE and HEi 


Oscar E. Sams, Jr. 

)scar E. Sams, Jr., is chief of Do- 

lic nistributioii. Motion Picture 

ision of the former Office of liitcr- 

irican Atfairs, now functioning as 

part of the Interim Office of Interna- 

lal Information of the V. S. Depart 

^nl of State. 

^Ir. Sams, who has held this position 
October. 1943, has had charge of 
ition and distribution of the 80 
subjects released by the office. 

*reviously with the Division of Uni- 
ity Extension of the University of 
inessee, Mr. Sams organized the edu- 
iional film library, directed its activi- 
p, directed all university radio pro- 
jms, and taught all university visual 
ts classes for four years. 

'reviously he was instructor in En- 

[ih and speech at Knoxville, Tennes- 

High School. He holds bachelor's 

es from Carson Newman College 

Columbia University, and a master's 

ree from the University of Tennessee. 

lerican operation, in order to 
juire a better understanding of 
whole project. 

jThe production of some new 
about the United States 

buld be necessary for the pro- 

Vm in Latin America, but 
realized that much ideal 

kterial was already in existence 
could be used with few, if 
f, changes. The Hollywood in- 

Jstf)', \arious commercial con- 
ns, independent producers of 
icational films, and other gov- 
imcnt agencies, had already 
de hundreds of film subjects 
It would fit the program. Of 
irse, in most instances the 
inish and Portuguese soiuid 
cks had to be prepared by the 

'fice, and in some cases the ex- 

ind HEAR— November 

isting lilnis had to be changed and 
re-edited. Through its combined 
organization, the Motion Picture 
Producers and Distributors of 
.\merica, the Hollywood industry 
gave OIAA the 16 mm. rights for 
Latin America on practically all 
of its short subjects, and for many 
of these films the Spanish and 
Portuguese theater versions were 
already in existence. Many com- 
mercial and industrial concerns 
such as General Motors, RCA, 
Greyhound Bus, and others grant- 
ed OL\A the use of their educa- 
tional film material. For such 
films, however, the Office has been 
obliged to steer clear of advertis- 
ing sequences, and some re-edit- 
ing was necessary. Besides, 
\aluable material was made 
available from other government 
agencies such as the Office of War 
Information, the Public Health 
Service, and the Bureau of Mines. 
Classroom teaching films pro- 
duced by such organizations as 
Encyclopaedia Britannica Films 
were bought outright much more 
cheaply than it would have cost to 
produce the same subjects. 

Consequently, the Office of In- 
ter-American Aflairs has not had 
to produce all the films for its 
jjrogram in the other Americas. 
\Vhere certain film subjects were 
needed and not available from 

other sources, the Office has not 
hesitated to go into actual pro- 
duction. A competent staff for 
this purpose alone has been kept 
busy constantly. 

Besides the IG mm. newsreel 

Poflo 67 


chincry is hi 
i n g accorap 
(ion in Colom 

A child really 
understands the 
story of rubber 
when he watclies it 
being laboriously 
tapped from scat- 
tered rubber trees 
in the forests of 
Bolivia to being 
gathered at. a cen- 
tral shipping point. 

'It) iiiulcrsiiw 

a people, its ^ 

^»<rT*'- toins nuist l)c \ 

fc^Jf,,* pcricnccd. Sipji| 

*^ ♦ mate is as ii( 

1 social nicet 

^ •- ^ I'arnjTuay, as : 

' •"-(»"" diiituT co(Tc(' 

' , . ^ ' K. lis. 


ich goes to the other Americas 
h week, the Office has released 
nost 300 different motion pic- 
e subjects, except in Haiti 
lere French is spoken. A num- 
• of special releases have been 
de in French for Haiti. Impor- 
»t in the program have been 
:r 60 technical, medical, and 
ntal films acquired from the 
nerican CoFlcge of Surgeons 
d the American Dental Asso- 

In each capital of the 20 south- 
1 republics, the Office of Inter- 
lerican Affairs is represented 

a Coordination Committee 

uposed of patriotic American 

idents. A paid secretary and an 

ce staff attend to the business 

the Office in each country. 

t quotas of each film release 
.' shipped to these offices, and 

committees themselves pro- 

te the distribution and utiliza- 

n of them in the respective 

as. Over 350 sound projectors 

ve been placed with the various 

|<^mittees for use throughout 

?tin America. The services of 
id projectionists are used for 
Me actual showings. Gasoline 
: nierators are necessary, for many 
< the exhibitions are held in re 
ote sections where electricity is 
t a\-ailable. 


That the motion picture pro- 
m in the other Americas has 
' n successful can be attested to 
me extent by the fact that an 
erage audience of over three 
illion persons monthly see 
lA.A films. In many cases the 

and HEAR— November 

film showings have become a 
regular part of the daily lives of 
the people. This is especially true 
in remote areas where theatrical 
films have never been used. Space 
does not permit recalling here the 
multitude of instances which 
have proved that through this 
project the peoples of Latin 
America are coming to realize 
that we in the United States want 
them as friends and that through 
this friendship our hemispheric 
security can endure. 

The general aspects of'OIAA's 
domestic motion picture program 
are already known by most users 
of 16 mm. educational films in 
this country. This fact can be 
presupposed when we realize that 
in the past five years the films 
have been shown to a conserva- 
tively estimated total of over 45 
million people in the United 
States. Over 330 thousand pro- 
grams of 16 mm. motion pictures 
have included, in whole or in 
part, films released by the Office 
of Inter-American Affairs. Over 
14 thousand prints of 80 film sub- 
jects have been disuibuted by 
more than 200 depositories, one 
or more in every state. Fifty-five 
of these have been located in col- 
leges and universities where one 
or more prmts of each release 
have been automatically allocated 
as they have become ready for use. 
Thirty-six commercial distribu- 
tors of 16 mm. films have made 
complete sets of OIAA films avail- 
able in all sections of the country. 
Twelve Inter-American Centers in 
metropolitan areas have supple- 

Page 69 

To know our 
neighbors is to 
understand how 
they are edu- 
cated, how they 
earn their liv- 
ings and how 
they worship. 

inciitccl their activities by becom- 
ing distributors of the films. 
Other non-profit organizations 
such as the Pan-American Union, 
tlie Bureau of Prisons, and the 
\arious state war film organiza- 
tions ha\c affected easy access to 
the motion jiicturcs by those who 
needed them. A large group of 
city and county school systems, 
pulilic libraries, and other ediua- 
lional instituiicms ha\e distril)ut- 
ed OIAA films on a limiteil ba.iis. 

Films about Latin Amciica 
have been acquired from \arious 
sources. The first release, Amrri- 
cans All, was secured from Julicn 
Bryan, well-known traveler, lec- 
turer, and cincmatographcr, and 
even after five years it is still near 
the top of the list in pojndariiy. 
Since Americans All, 24 other 
Jidien Bryan productions have 

Pago 70 

been added to the list. Aino^ 
these are Roads South, Schools': 
the South, Montevideo Famil 
Housing in Chile, and You% 

Early in the project the Nati(j 
al Geographic Society agreed 
allow the Office of Inter-Ameri 
Affairs to distribute seven fi 
subjects already prepared by tj 
Society. This group included sd 
titles as Brazil, Venezuela, a] 
Colo7nbia. At the same timi 
series on ^^exiran fiestas and 1[ 
was accjuircd from Ralph G: 
famous for his expeditions ii 
Mexico and Middle America 

In 1941 the Office sent \V t 
Disney to the other Americas > 
gather material for a scries i 
films to be made by his organ) 
tion for use both in Latin Amu- 
ca and the United States. A' 

November — SEE and 

suit ol ihis contract a gioup of 
ipular lilins have been released 
eluding South of tlic Border 
ith Disney, The Amazon Awah- 
•, Winged Scourge, The Grain 
hat Built a Hemisphere, Water: 
riend or Enemy, and Defense 
gainst Invasion. At this time 
lere is about to be released the 
ew "Health Awareness Series," 
set of ten ten-minute films in 
;)lor done in true Disney ani- 
lated style including such sub- 
lets as The Human Body, Infant 
Mre, Nutrition, and Insects as 
arriers of Disease. Most of the 
alt Disney films have been pro- 
uced primarily for the program 
the other Americas, but they 
ave proved so effective in the 
'nited States that English tracks 
ave been prepared also. 

With the cooperation of the 
)ffice of Strategic Services, OIAA 

other film subjects making a total 
of 80 in all released to date. Nor 
is it possible to name approxi- 
mately 15 new subjects in various 
stages of production for relc-^se 

It is estimated that about 75 
per cent of the showings of OIAA 
domestic film releases occur in 
schools. This fact is true mostly 
because the majority of 16 mm. 
sound projectors are school- 
owned, and because schools are 
constantly searching for material 
similar to that made available by 
OIAA. On the other hand the 
Office makes no claim that the 
films have been edited necessarily 
according to any accepted class- 
room film technique or to fit any 
established curriculum. Rather, a 
strong attempt has been made to 
edit them so that they w^ould have 
a broad, general appeal both in 

Previous to the war, few children indeed could re- 
call any valid concepts or understandings con- 
cerning the South American nations. Too often 
their impressions were limited to marimba bands, 
rumbas, exotic, technicolor, star-filled impressions 
from the entertainment theater and that was all. 

las recently made available a new 
[roup of films on Brazil. Sao 
^aulo. Southern Brazil, Wings 
Over Brazil, and Belo Horizonte 
omplete this series produced un- 
ler the expert craftsmanship of 
Hfollywood-traincd Sam Engel 
ind Gregg Toland. Space does 
lot permit the mention here of 

-E and HEAR— November 

and outside the classroom. The 
style in some of the subjects has 
been predominately document- 
ary; in others the travelogue 
effect has been gained. The fact 
that over half the films have been 
in color and that all of them have 
carried musical background for 
the narration is proof enough 

Page 71 

thai an aiiciupL has been made 
to make them entertaining as well 
as instructional. In spite of this 
tliere has been an overwhelming 
acceptance of the films in schools 
all over the nation. To the 
knowledge of those in charge of 
distribution, only one school sys- 
tem in the United States has, 
while knowing of the availability 
of OIAA films, made little or no 
attempt to use them for instruc- 
tional purposes. On the other 
hand, over 50 school systems in 
eluding those of New York City, 
Los Angeles, Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, Newark, and Denver regu- 
larly use either complete sets of 
the films or selections of them in 
their classrooms. 

Claims have been made vari- 
ously that some of the OIAA 
films about the other Americas 
should not be used for formal 
classroom work because they 

"l^aint UK) rosy a pictiue of cor 
tlitions in Latin America." or tha 
"they present one-sided vievi 
points and half-truths." or tha; 
"they are not designed to fit thi 
curriculum." Such opinions. C| 
course, ha\e been relatively fevj 
and OIAA feels that for such corj 
tentions the best answer is the faci 
that an increasing number c\ 
teachers each year are finding th) 
films valuable and effective ; 
teaching aids. The major prol^ 
km has always been that of suf( 
plying the great demand for thj 
films with the limited niunfjcr f 
prints available. 

Some time ago the domestij 

film releases of the Office of Iii 
ter-American Affairs were mad| 
available for piuchasc at labor, 
tory cost by organizations and ii 
dividuals interested in ownin; 
copies outright. The Office, as i 
government agency, docs not i! 

W li i 1 e many 
i)Outli .American 
11 r b a 11 (lt"\clo|j- 
iiieiits closely 
parallel local 
scenes in ilie 
touted Stales, re- 
moter disiric is 
^«tlll practice the 
customs ol an- 
in|uiiy. This na- 
ifve of Paraguay 
(aiches his Tish as 
did his f o r e- 
I at hers during 
hundreds of yean 
of existence he- 
lore him. 

sell ilic films, but it does au- 
'tc such purchases when 
lers arc made payable to desij^- 
laboratories and first sub- 
[ted to the Office for proper 
)rization. Many film libra- 
are taking advantage of the 
-ilege of owning OIAA films 
fright, ami the number of ac- 
Jl orders is increasing by the 

uring the ^arious stages of 

rid War II leading up to the 

id victory and the organizing of 

United Nations for Peace, we 

he Motion Picture Division of 

Office of Inter-American 

irs have experienced a groAv- 

consciousness of the import of 

task. In a very significant 

it has been an experiment 

ill the actual waging of peace in- 
stead of war. In it we have di- 
icdcd (he acti\ities incumbent to 
the facilitating of friendship 
among neighbor nations that can 
ne\er again li\e peacefully while 
isolated from each other. 

True, the project has involved 
the relationship between nations 
of only half the world. Mistakes 
have been made; lessons have 
been learned; and results have 
been far short of perfection. But 
out of the experience has come a 
pattern which perhaps will be 
effective in the years ahead when 
the same project will be promoted 
not only for the solidarity of tlie 
W^estern Hemisphere but for the 
security of all nations and peoples 
of the world. 

I am confident that it would be fruitful to 
experiment with making filmstrips "on a shoe- 
string." The help of science teachers and cam- 
era clubs might be enlisted here. If you are 
fairly good at taking pictures, or, at least, can 
choose pictures with skill (and can get them 
free or almost free) , and if you omit art work 
on them . . . well, there are real possibilities. A 
low-cost filmstrip might be a group project for 
a social studies or science class or for various 
kinds of civic and social organizations. Not 
only would its production interest people of 
varied talents, but it would be good education 
lor them, because they would have to wrestle 
hoih with technical problems and with subject 

—William FI. C.iry, Jr. 

lond HEAR— Novembf'r 

Paga 73 





Dr. Arthur Stfnius 

Conrdinnlor of Visual, Radio, 
and Safety Education, 
Detroit Public Schools 

THE war years have kept school 
audio-visual programs from 
normal development. In spite of 
iiureascd interest in the use of 
leaching aids, needs of the Armed 
I'oi CCS ha\e left few projectors for 
civilian programs. Such has been 
Detroit's experience. 

As Detroit looks to the future, 
ihcreforc, there is more of a 
"building from scratch" nature to 
present plans than would have 
i)ecn the case if normal develop 
nicnt could have been maintained 
(luiing the past four years. These 
plans have been placed on a fi\c 
year basis. In such a period, a 
truly adequate and functioning 
program should be a reality. 

Page 74 





The words "adequate" 
"functioning" do not connote > 
fection nor completeness. I ^, 
terms are used in light of ceri 
practical demands arising fii 
conditions applicable to 
Detroit Public Schools. Pre: 
equipment and materials, adr 
istrati\e organization, total bi iA< 
etary needs, and like circ 
stances make the plans fcas liii 
for Detroit. They may be in; 
(|uate, overbalanced in s( 
|)hases, or unsuitable if an 
tempt is made to translate tl 
in terms of another city's si 
tion. The basis, methods, 
standards used in the plann 
however, may be usefid to oi 
for comparative study, and 
presented here for that pur 

The plans outlined in thi 
tide are concerned with proje^ 
visuals only. At the present tij 
Detroit's e(|uipment inventCj 
in this field provide an a 
age of one opaque projec 
one stereopticon, and one 
mm. motion jiicturc projectorj 
each school building. -Ml 1 
schools are provided with si 
fdm projectors. 1 he motion 
lure fdm liliraries list 1, '525 si 
films dealing with 220 sub} 
and 661 sound fdms with 419 
ferent titles. The .Si4"x4" s 
lil)rary lists 1.740 sets compr, 
of 31,038 separate slides, and 
reels of slidefilms. 

The j)rogram of the futui 
lo be based primarily on thd 
mm. motion picture, the slidefUi 
and the 2" x 2" slide. Only W 
different types of projectors fi 

November — SEE and 

Editor's Note: Whot's ahead in visual education? All of us ore raising 
that question. Arthur Stenius has approached this problem and out of it has 
grown a five-year program of planning which takes into account budget, 
mechanical distribution, supervision, and in-service training. It is a high point 
of critical estimate. It revcols many guideposts for others who are ottempting 
to make plans for the future. 

needed. It i,s bclicxcd that 
Ises which will accrue from such 
Indardization will be more than 

;t by the advantages gained, 
^ndardization permits quantity 
lying with its discount benefits, 
a policy also has value in 
[lining teachers in operation 
rhniques, permits the carrying 

a smaller parts in\entory, fa- 
jitates work for repairmen, and 
iplifies inventory procedures. 

In working toward a basis for 

amount of equipment that 

111 be needed, several sources of 

commendation were investigat- 

j. Although the American Coun- 

on Education's recommenda- 

^ns reported by Seaton may in 

le be fitting, it was believed 

It five years will not see De- 

lj)it's program sufficiently devel- 

?d to justify such a low pupil- 

jr-projector ratio. But Scaton's* 

m was followed in part in that 

commended purchases of equip- 

;nt were placed on a per- 

ident rather than a per-school 

^ndard. Sound motion picture 

[ejectors are to be furnished on 

jasis of one for each 500 pupils; 

Idefilm projectors on the basis of 

lie for each 300 students. All 

lools, of course, are to have at 

»st one projector before any 

Seaton, Helen Ilardt, A Measure for 
'-fto-Fijiia/ Programs in Schools, American 
ncil on Education Studies, X'oliime VIII, 
)ber, 1944. Washington, D. C. 

and HEAR — November 

school receives a second one. It 
is further recommended that all 
schools be equipped with at least 
one soinid motion picture pro- 
jector by 1948. 

Present plans call for the con- 
tinuation of a centralized library 
of motion pictine films, but basic 
libraries of slidefilms and 2" x 2" 
slides will be established in indi- 
\idual schools. A central library 
of the last two types of \isuals 
will supplement those in the 
schools. At the present time, ex- 
perimentation is being made in 
two high schools to determine the 
advisability of individual school 
libraries of motion picture films. 
It may be that utilization values 
are so greatly increased imder 
such a system that there will be 
justification for placing such li- 
braries in all large schools. In 
considering the feasibility of this 
action, of course, the increased 
costs of many individual libraries 
over circulated films from a cen- 
tral sotirce must be balanced 
against increased benefits. 

No more difficult problem pre- 
sented itself in working out pro- 
posed expenditines for the next 
fixe years than that of determin- 
ing the relationship of the in- 
creased equipment purchases with 
new films. Even intangibles such 
as teacher acceptance of visuals 
were weighed in making decisions 

Page 75 

on ihis point. A larger library 
than use will justify is not wise; 
a smaller one than needed would 
be even Avorse. 

On this }>oint not nuich help 
was iecei\ed from outside sources. 
Personal contacts brought little; 
published materials even less. As 
>,et, there seems to be no basis 
for the number of films per pro- 
jector that are needed for a func- 
tioning visual progiam. Admitted, 
there would be poor philosophy 
behintl any program which at- 
tempted to prescribe one or more 
\isual aids per unit of teaching; 
yet there is in all probability a 
practical minimum and maxi- 
numi to library needs for a gi\en 
number of projectors. 

To determine the e.Ktent of li- 
brary materials, a few assump- 
tions had to be made. One of 
these concerned the period of 
time within which every teacher 
had a right to expect use of an 
ordered film. A semester, obvious- 
ly, was too long. A film can hardly 
be considered an instructional 
tool if one receives it when teach- 
ing a luiit f)f work in no way con- 
nected with the jiicture. On the 
other hand, it is not practical to 
build a library so large that a 
leacher can always get a film on 
the day he would most prefer it. 

Half way between the latitude 
of an entire term and a single ilay 
was not a suitable compromise. 
.1 teacher should be able to get 
a film witliiJi ihe period of lime 
given oi'er to the unit of work to 
which the picture applies. Upon 

Pog* 76 

this assumption, Detroit's niii- i^ 
brary is planned. Enough pr 
of all subjects will be purcha 
lo assure teachers who will <i 
using the film that they can 
a print within the period usu; 
gi\en o\er to the area of w 
concerned. In most cases, this^' 
mean a readiness to furnish a fi 
to a teacher within two we 
cither way of any specified d 

Although delivery of filmsj 
sc hools has been on a basis of fi\ 
times a week during the past thf^ 
years because of war tianspoj 
tion restrictions, the near futj 
will again bring materials 
schools daily. Such a deli\| 
schedule and the employment 
a night-time inspector-ship^ 
will assure maximum availabii 
of all films. 

The existing library of so 
films is adecjuate to service mi 
more projectors than are in 
schools at present. For this 
son, as well as the fact that m; 
nuim use of films will not 
gained imtil much teacher 
ing work is done, the amoun 
be allocated for films will 
nuich greater during the last 
years of the period encom 
by present plans. In roiuul figii 
3700 sound films should he ow 
by the Board of Education 
1950. This library should be a| 
mented with many other films! 
j)osited by conmiercial con 
and goxernmental agencies. 

Each individual school lil 
will consist of at least 50 fihnsj; 
and 50 2" x 2" slide sets. T\ 

November — SEE and fi 

llicsc ilcms ;irf lo \)V <;i\cii v:\i li 
'II lo llu' schools wiili suitable.' 


Ur. Slciiiiis ir(ci\c«l his lijiclielor's tlc- 
p from ihc I niscrsily of Notre n;niK\ 
lasters ticgicc from the I'niversiiy of 
roit. and a doitor of pliilosopliy de- 
e from Ohio State Liiivcrsity. 
n 103*i Or. Siciiius spent nine months 
oad stiidvins? audio visual programs 
ten Kiiropean (ouiilrics. He lias i)ccn 
netted with the Detroit I'uhlic 
ools since 1!(2S and has served as a 
h sdiool teacher, secondarv school 
liiini^lralor. and prcsenilv is conrdi- 
or of \isnal. radio, and safely cduca- 
I. Since 1040 he lias hccn a faridty 
iiihev of Wayne University, as well. 

iuipnicni. Dc\eIopnicnt of these 
Taries, of course, will depend 
on the availability of suitable 

The expansion of any audio- 

ual program is much more 

n an increase of equipment 

materials. Personnel must be 

ed to care for increased ship- 

g, inspection, repair, and su- 

visioM. During the first two 

rs of development, there will 

more "reconversion" than cx- 

ision. Increased personnel is 

t planned until the third year. 

Only one more item is siiffi- 

'ntly important to justify men- 

>n at this time. Attention has 

en given to the values accruing 

'in an enlarged production staff. 

iiere are many classroom needs 

■^tirely local in nature. Every 

iial education director knows 

w easy it is to buy films con- 

incd with tlic bushmcn of Aus- 


^. and HEAR— November 

li.ili.i c)i llie He ibeis of Ahi(n. but 
how dillKidi it is to gel materials 
dealing with the locality's civic 
agencies and industries. 1 jic 
school system's production unit 
promises to be the most effecti\e 
means of meeting such needs. 

Plans, to be true, are cheap; 
realization of a program as pre- 
\ iously outlined costs money. Just 
what cuts in projector and film 
costs can be expected five years 
from now is anyone's guess, but 
it is thought that the five-vear 
program as planned will cost in 
the" neighborhood of $250,000 for 
ecjui]jment and materials. $41,000 
is to be spent the first year. At 
the present time, 81 sound motion 
picture projectors are on order. 

Planning material and e(]uip- 
ment accessions is in no way the 
greater part of a visual director's 
responsibilities, to be sure; but it 
is a vital job, nevertheless. Espe- 
cially so, in these days when the 
rush to instructional aids is on. 
A program which is Avrongly bi- 
ased now may result in the ex- 
penditiue of much money with 
little return in increased teachin<> 
effectiveness. Also, little can be 
done on many other problems in 
the field until equipment is se- 
cured, or unless there is some 
a.ssurance of the way that this 
phase of the program will ex- 
|)and. Significant steps, therefore, 
have been taken in planning De- 
troit's future visual program. At 
least, when asked, "Where do we 
go from here?" the answer is a 
ready and definite one. 

Page 77 

Charles F. 

Lieutenant, USNR. Training Aids Officer 

NOTE: The opinions and assertions contained in 
this article are those of the author and are not to l)e 
construed as official or reflecting the views of the 
Navy Department or the naval service at large. 
(Signed) Charles F. Schuller, Lt., USNR. 

Editor's Note: A good teacher can do 
a splendid job of using visual materials 
as supplementary or complementary in- 
formation to the subject being studied. 
A poor teacher can render the best vis- 
ual material |)ractically useless through 
careless presciUalion. This, in brief, is 
the theme of Lieutenant Schuller's re- 
port. Like so many former educators 
now in the service, he seeks to winnow 
the valual)le residues for learning from 
the vast training aids experience which 
has been his during his call to tiie 
armed forces. 

TRAINING films have caused 
many officers and men of the 
U. .S. Navy to agree with Con- 
ItKJtis that "One j)i(lnre is worth 
a thousand words." Had Con- 

Page 78 

fuciiis been able to foresee the d 
velopment of the motion pictui' 
the slide film, and the carto< 
technique apjilicd to posters ai 
charts, he wouki imdoubted 
have enlarged his statement. 1 
several thousand words. 


(iood teachers have alwa 
made use of visualization to til 
niaxinuim permitted by facilitil 
and their own ingenuity. T' 
armed services were faced \\ i 
the tremendous problem of takii 
thousands of men, largely witho 
teaching experience, and makii 

November — SEE and HF' 

qiave learned by doing. In this telephone talker training class- .▲. 

sound power phones for each student are hooked into a 
Jal circuit. The instructor can listen to any one or a com- 
lion of phones by means of a switchboard. Wire recorders are 
to give each man a reprodurtion of his own voice over the 
phones as a source of correction and improvement. 

Hardly ever do we read or just talk about how it works. Rather, 
we say, "Here it is! Look at itl Handle it!" Then we can at- 
tempt to understand it or stop and investigate further. A class 
•^ being taught the inner workings of one type of suction pump. 









# " 

^ood insiiiKiors out ol them. 
' Iraining wins baitlcs" was the 
keynote of the toughest training 
job the world has e\er seen;— 13,- 
000,000 men and women had to 
be converted from average ci\il- 
ians in all walks of life to the 
most elTcctive, technical, and 
deadly fighting team of all time. 
Many millions more had to be 
trained for the production and 
distribution lines so that our fight- 
ing men would have a sufficient 
number of planes, ships, guns, 
ammunition, food, and the count- 
less other supplies essential to 
modern warfare— enough and on 


As one means of attack on this 
gigantic problem, the Xavy, Army. 
Coast Guard, Marine Corps, antl 
other g(j\crnment agencies em- 
barked upon a \ast j)rogram of 
J raining Aitls dexeloj^mcnt early 
in the war. Films, filmstrips, charts 
and posters, pamj)hlcts. models, 
mockups and s\nihciic de\ ices 
were turned out (Jii thousands of 
subjects. For example, Traijiing 
Aids were produced to train men 
to fire and maintain e\ery tyjie of 
gun fiom a ..38 cal. re\ol\er to the 
giant 16-inch rifles on our great 
battleships; to land and li\e in 
the jungle, the aictic, oi" in desert 
country; to operate semaj)hore, 
blinker, and radio conmumica- 
tions; to understand and manipu- 
late the intricate mechanisms of 
fire contiol and radar; to j)aiiu 
ships and boats; to identify air- 
(lafi, aiul to man\ other acti\i- 

Pago 80 

i\o detail was too small, no a 
too vast to be covered. Films i 
other aids were made on such s > 
jects as how to tie a square ki 
the formats for Xavy correspo 
ence, the care of office machi 
specific vacuimi tubes, a sir 
propellor adjustment, how to 
a sea bag, etc. On the other hi 
such topics as a complete shi 
shore operation. Rules of 
Road, convoy manemering, n 
gaiion, the construction and 
eration of all types of marine 
gincs, radio operator train 
radio and technician train 
pilot and technician training 
every major type of aircraft, 
were covered both extensively 
intensively by specially plan 
groups of films antl other aids 

.\t the outset it was necessai 
anticipate training needs and 
(luce aids caltulatid to sal 
I hem. Later, as training progr;] 

l.r. Charles, USI 

l.i. Scliullcr was for I.T years a j 
lie school teacher and administr 
1 lien he was commissioned in 
I niied Stales .\avv, and. followii 
period of ofliccr indoctrination, w; 
signed as a Iiaining Aids Ofliccr ii 
Iliglith Naval District. 

From there he went to the Eu: 
liieater of operations in a grouj 
eight oflicers handling the Navy 
ing Aids program preparatory to 
invasion of Normandy. He is tods 
charge of the Branch Training Aic 
I'uget Sonnil Navy Yard, Bremc 

progressetl. films and other 
were jiroduced primarily 
answer lo specific requests. 

Novemljer- SEE and 

ivities, further, supplied a tech- 

1 director to assure getting 

at was desired in the fihn. Eac h 

ject had to be passed on by a 

d of review in Washington 

ere it was approved, adjusted, 

disapproxed in terms of its 

•id, its applicability to other 

lilar training curriculums, and 



Vot infrequently, the rapid de- 
opments of wartime rendered 
fais obsolete. Various films on 
rcraft Recognition, Communi- 
ions, Ordnance, Chemical W ar- 
te and others became out of 
i te and were withdrawn from 
;culation. Each month for ex- 
uple, recognition training offi- 
s received revised lists of Class 
Und Class B planes to be taught 
the several theaters of opera- 

tion. Slides, films, and models of 
other planes were immediately 
withdrawn from use. Similarly, 
after the second Battle of the 
Philippines, lookouts no longer 
needed to be trained to recogni/e 
numerous Jap warships which had 
suddenly ceased to exist. 


It was recognized early in the 
war that good visual aids in them- 
selves would never be enough. Lt. 
Comdr. Francis W. Noel, then in 
charge of the Utilization and 
Evaluation section of the Train- 
ing Aids Division in the Bureau 
of Naval Personnel, set about pro- 
curing a corps of specialists whose 

This mockup of a CVE and refuel- 
ing ship makes possible effective 
refueling on the high seas. No ad- 
venture—but an often-rehearsed 
and thoroughly understood duty. 


HEAR— November 

Page 81 

Damage Control Tiaincr. 1 ypical ship's coinpartmenls witli wai 
tiglit (ioors, electrical installations, pipes, etc. In these train 
it is possible to simulate conditions of damage or fire at sea 

job it would be to assist training 
oflicns and instnictors in tlu- 
|)M)pci niili/ation ol training aids. 
These officers, largely former 
tea( hers and supervisors with par- 
tic iiiai experience in visual edu- 
cation weie assigned to each 
\a\al District under (he directoi 
of training after a period of spe- 
cial training in the Bureau. Many 
were later sent o\eiseas to ad- 
vance bases in Knghincl, Africa, 
Austialia and the islands of the 
Pacific wlure they could work 
with training close to the scene 
of actual operations. Ofhces and 
(dm lil)iaries were fretpiently set 
up in a cpionsef hut though anv 

Paga 82 

kind of space available was usi 
One library in England use " 
lent, another was set uj) aboarti 
permanently moored ^esseI aloJ 
side an old dock. Regardless] 
location these c:)flicers and thp 
specially trained staffs of 
listed men worked toward cl 
end— the promotion of Navy trcjj 
ing thiough the use of \isual 
l)oth in shore schools and abol 

(;()()n USE! 

Once the idea of using au« 
\isiial materials to train men 

November — SEE and il 

Wlien a seemingly 
' iinsinkable s h i p" 
(onics in, there may 
l)e many a reason for 
it. Many practices like 
this make damage 
com vol a routine ex- 
perience ratiur tlian 
a (lisorgani/etl mishap. 
A mockup allows real 
experience in slioring 
up a bulkhead inside 
the Damage Control 

lie efficiency had been "sold," 

le was little difficulty in get- 

j; these materials into use. It 

> apparent from the beginning, 

sever, that the simple fact of 

was not enough. With inex- 

ienced or vmtrained instruc- 

, particidarly, the tendency to 

the film do the teaching had 

stantly to be counteracted. 

is never-ending problem was 

uked Ironi several angles— 

namely, (a) indoctrination of 
commanding officers and super- 
\isors, (b) demonstrations and 
conferences with instructors both 
indi\idually and in groups, and 
(c) through provision of instruc- 
tor aids to good utilization. 

The fundamental facts that a 
training aid is an aid and no 
more; that its careless or unin- 
telligent use can produce confu- 
sion and actually imjxde learn- 

(BlU Ijo handling can 
ally be practiced 
part." School is 
place to make mis- 
s—it costs no lives. 
by the time the 
ice hits the deck, 
!«; tnust know the 
feel of it, come 
id or high water. 


ing; that training film showings 
are not an oppoi lunity loi the in- 
structor to sit back indifferently 
or step out for a cigarette; that 
such films apj)endecl to entertain- 
ment programs arc usually worse 
than useless from a teaching stand- 
point; that aids must be chosen 

Paq* 84 

\'isiial luaiiTials arc no iniratlc 
\isual inaifiials don't do iht' 
job— tliey do make good tcadi 
ing. better teachinp. There 
many a good way to teach will 
visual instruction materials 
Here's one way the Navy ha 
developed. Schools, attenii"i 

November— SEE and 1 j^' 


fit llir luid ui iIrv ate belter 
t ust'd at all— tlicsc and other 
idaincntals had to be cmpha- 
•d again and again. 

n demonstrations and confer- 
;es the following procedure was 
onuuended for film use: 

Preparation by instructor 


Selection of film to fit need. If it 
doesn't fit, don't use it. Lesson 
plan on film selected. Ise training 
aids guides for suggestions. 

Preparation of class 

IntrcKluce the film. .\ rouse interest. 

tell uhy it is being shown, what 

will be seen, 
•oint up specific Points to Look For 

so that attention is immediately 

focused. This cannot be neglected. 

Show the film 

Details should be cared for in ad- 
vance in-so-far as possible; pro- 
jector threaded and ready to switch 
on; room conditions— temperature, 
ventilation, darkening — adjusted; 
nothing to detract from the fdm 

Review and discussion 

nstructor to review main points cov- 
ered, encoiuage questions, clear up 


Brief test of some type is essential. 
In no other way can instructor 
know what has or has not been 
learned. Rcteaching may be neces- 
sary on some points, including re- 
showing of the film, if needed. 


Practical application at once is the 
best possible follow-up. If this is 
not practicable, planned activities 
10 be performed by the students 

>nd HEAR— November 

MUKst l)c given to /;\ newly ac- 
quired knowledge and to put it to 
work as soon as possible. 

These are simple, almost self- 
evident principles. They apply 
as readily in a sixth-graclc geog- 
raphy class as in a class on the 
20 millimeter gun or on the Mark 
III Gas Mask, because they are 
based on the way in which the 
mind functions in learning. The 
chief difference in the two situa- 
tions lies in the fact that careless 
training in the public schoolroom 
may hide behind the skirts of 
time, its results less apparent un- 
til it is too late to remedy them. 
In training for war, inefficiency 
can be measured more sharply in 
the lives of men and ships. 

To assist the instructor in 
achieving good results with films, 
Training Aids Guides were pre- 
pared for many key films, by the 
Bureau Training Aids Division, 
suggesting ideas for effective in- 
troduction and follow-up activ- 
ities in addition to a test, and a 
survey of content and key il- 
lustrations from the film. A basic 
manual entitled "More Learnino 
in Less Time" was placed in the 
hands of Navy instructors to aid 
them in efficient use of films, film- 
strips, slides, charts, models, mock- 
ups, still pictures, and the black- 
board. A monthly magazine 
called the "Training Bulletin" 
kept all training personnel up 
to date on what was being done 
in training all over the Navy, un- 
usual methods employed and new- 
aids available. The Curriculum 
and Instructor Training Sections 

Page 85 

ol tlic Training Division Bureau 
published also various aids to ef- 
fective instruction. Those men- 
tioned above are but samples of 
the type of assistance given 
through publications. 


The tragic costs of war cannot 
be measured in terms of blood, 
lives, and money alone. Educa- 
tion in the United States has suf- 
fered serious setbacks in the loss 
of thousands of teachers and low- 
ered standards of selection neces- 
sitated by the gieat war we have 
just come through. This cost will 
be paid primarily by our children 
of this generation, at least, for the 
rest of their lives. It is particular- 
ly encouraging, therefore, to 
recognize that the war has also 
brought forth a rapid develop- 
ment of the visual eclucation field 
which cannot help but benefit 
succeeding generations of yoinig 
Americans. American teadiers 
and schools for vears have maile 
use of visual aids. They have 
Ixen hand Ira j)]>cd ])iimarily by a 
lack of apj>r()])riatc materials and 
siiffuicnt lunds to experiment and 
develoj) the visual field. The 
aimed services during this war 
have been able to carry forward 
that dcM'lopmcnt. Hoards of edu- 
cation, administrators, and teach- 
ers of oiu youth are now squarely 
faced with ihc lesponsibility of 
taking lull advantage of the 
lessons learned at such great price. 

Page 86 


Death Valley National AIonume\\ 

(Sound) (Color) 10 minutes. L't\ 
Natural Science I: General Science 
Geography S; Geology C; Clubs A. 

film, it shows geological foriifi 
tions, the nature of llie borax <i| 
posits, the lowest points below sea lev 
ilie surrounding heights, the volca] 
upheavals, and the rocky stratilicat^ 
tliat typify Death Valley NatiotJ 
Monument. This is an excellent, all- 
elusive document of this very intere 
formation. Drliy. \l your n« 
film library. 

Magic Bullets 

(Sound) 30 minutes. Use: Ph^ 
ulogy J, D; Nursing C; Clubs A. 

THLS is a condensation of the feat 
film starring Edward G. Robins') 
based on the life of Dr. Paul Ej^ 
lich, famed scientist who discovered 
()()G cure for syphilis. It opens with Ej- 
lich's difTiculties with the budget «■ 
iiiiitee in whose hands lies the fatc.'l 
his experimental laboratory, and shU 
the beginning of his work with 
.scnicals. Ehrlich's struggle to 
fluids is portrayed when the bu<i 
committee cuts his appropriation 
the film carries on through the 
drcds of experiments up to the 
which provetl successful. Office of 
Ihjormation. At your nearest filmj 


(Sound) 11 minutes. I sc. 
I ml Sticuce J; Physics, Industrial Art^ 
Aeronautics C. 

HM)RAl)LICS shows through sii 
experiments tlic basic principle 
the hydraulics of liquids. 
iHi|)(>rtani, it shows some of the varij 
juadical ap|)lications of hydrauli 
automobile l)rakcs, airplane lane 
(laps, landing gears, bomb-bays, 
heavy presses. British Information Si 
lies. ,\t vour nearest film library. 

November — SEE and 


W^^LTER r. Brown 
War Aclix'ities Committee of the Motion Picture Industry 

*01)AV wc aic in tlano;cr ol 

being so close to a great social 
jvement — the loiniation and 
option of a -world constitution 
jhat we may not realize it is 

)pening. It may be the old 

story of being so close to the trees 
that we can't see the forest. All of 
us nuist assume the responsibility 
of [jreventing this from happen- 
ing. Certainly the educational 
group of the nation must have an 

ally, it sliould have been done long ago," says one bus rider to another in 
menting on plans for an effective international security organization, based on 
Moscow, Dumbarton Oaks, and Crimea Conferences, and explained in the film 

Watch tower Over Tomorrow. 

ires by courtesy of the War Activities Committee of the Motion Picture Industry 


important part in preventing this. 
During the past year, wc have 
seen the developing framework 
and at hist the crystallized first 
plan for world peace. Dumbarton 
Oaks and all the previous con- 

Here and there we come acre' 
the fatalistic longings for rctiii 
to normal, a return to prc\v 
days, a return to nationalisi 
thinking. There can be no ii 
turning, for today conununi 

ferences leading up to it has tions and the complete intcrc 

survived a meeting of the minds jk ndeiue ol nun as illustrated 

at San Francisco. It is a man- the last conllict has complef 

made plan and characteristically , uled out such a possibility. 1 

fraught with all the hazards of Dumbarton Oaks plan exists 

human planning. But a plan it ,.,ct. u is the challenge for 

IS, more forward-looking, more 
hopeful, more idealistic than any 
that man has heretofore agieetl 
upon. It is a plan made by adults, 
a plan unknown in its details by 
too many people— by too many 
youth— by too many children. 

morrow and is the responsil)ilif 
of exerv one of us. 

But what can you and I as 
di\iduals tlor \V'e certainly cl 
have no direct part in its ope| 
tion. Alone, we cannot change 

In the proposed liuci national Court of |usticc'. the rights and !j 
legal responsii)ililies of all nations, large and small, will he in 
terpreted and enforced. 

Po0* 88 

Novombor — SEE and HS 

As a guardian of the future peace is this proposed General As- 
sembly of all the nations of the world. It is an international 
"mind and conscience." Representatives of every nation are 
dedicated to the preservation of peace and are charged with 
the. job of preventing a third world war. 

tor's Note: Many of us have been 

ling valiantly through the media 

e local newspaper, the weekly 

ine and the radio commentator to 

tand the practical workings of the 

plans so effectively worked out 

finally adopted at San Francisco. 

film Watchtower Over Tomorrow, 

ough presenting a hypothetical 

liUon, demonstrates the workings of 

great international plan for peace 

Jearly and vividly that you and I 

understand it. Watchtower Over 

orrow is a film which should l>e 

n by civics classes, students in 

lems of democracy, government 

es, and by all of us as adults. 

y copies are available to schools 

ghout the United States. 

and HEAR— November 

or strengthen it. But as a collec- 
tion of individuals, we can fulfill 
one basic responsibility, namely, 
we can understand it. 

After understanding it, we 
must be completely willing to 
applaud and commend operations 
within the plan which we believe 
are sound. .\nd on the other 
hand, we must be just as vocifer- 
ous in our willingness to express 
ourselves to our representatives 
concerning misdirection, unwise 
appointments, or poor decisions. 
It has been said that the price of 
liberty is eternal vigilance. The 

Page 89 

FILM STUDY SHEET Number 7 for film "Watchtowar Over Tomorrow" 


Aniwcr all of lh*M quMtioni in l*rmt of what you (aw in th« film 

1. The first plan (or world peace which Theodore 
Roosevelt attempted to set up is today known as 

the --- - PUn 

2-3. The two Americans most responsible for the 
establishment of the League of Nations and 
its accompanying World Court were 

and --. -. 

4 World War I resulted in attempts at world peace 
which were rendered ineffective because: 
a. Woodrow Wilson died. b. People were not 
interested. c. Depression struck Europe, 
d. Congress would not accept it 

5-9. In making plans for lasting peace following 
World War II, list the following events in 
the order in which they occurred by placing 
the numbers "1," "2," "3" in the blanks be- 
fore them: 

Hot Springs, Va., Food and Agriculture 


... Crimea Conference 

Atlantic Charter 

Monetary Stabilization at Breton Woods 

Connally Resolution 

10-11. All of the piece-meal plans for world peace 
were united at the final conference held at 

the city of 

and appeared under the name of the 


The plan just recently accepted by the allied 
nations at San Francisco includes several coun- 
cils and assemblies In the blanks after the name 
of the group in Column A. insert the letters of 
the statements in Column B which explain the 
(unctions or descriptions of these groups 

Underline, circle, or fill in the 

Column A 
12-14. General Assembly .. . 

15. Economic and Social Council 

16 International Court of Justice 

17-20 Security Council 

Column B 
a Includes five permanent members: 
China, Russia, United States, Great Britain 
two temporary members elected by smaller 

b. Settles minor disputes between rutions ev 
their legal rights. 

c. Discusses and recommends the removal of da 
gerous monopolies which infringe upon aOt', 
people's freedom. 

d. Responsible for actively removini; any thnl 
to world peace. ( 

e. Does everything in its power to bring ebcj 
peaceful settlement between nations seemin{; 
headed toward war 

Representatives of peace-loving nations inti 
ested m discussing and improving social *| 
economic conditions. ' 

Discusses and formulates general policies oij 
for world peace. 

h. Responsible for work on problems of labor, fo' 
and agriculture, education, communication, ct 
rency stabilization, international trade, and • 
recommending changes, 
i. May call out armed force to suppress threett' 
peace. f 

21-22. Describe briefly what two things can hapcj 
to a future "Hitler" under the provisions 
the Dumbarton Oaks Plan 



. ; 

Now turn to the quettioni on the other tide of this sheet, and test your ability to answer them. 

Seeing a film is not enough. Discussion, analysis, and sup| 
mcntary reading must grow out of film use if it is to becomcil 
effective teadiiug iiisirumcnt. Iliis sliuiv guide (2 pages 
shown here) , prepared for use with the Idm Walclitower C 
Tomorrow, is typical of what any good teacher could do 
make the presentation of a film more effective. 

same applies to peace. As admin- 
istrators, super\isors, teachers, or 
I*. r.A. members, we tan be vigi- 
lant—we can be informed— we tan 
express our views. In our dass- 
looms we tan study tlie plans. In 
our jniblic meetings in the com- 

Page 90 


munity, we can do likewise. 

Mudi has been written ab* 
it. anil recently the j^lan has b< 
presented in visual and v 
giaphit lorm in the film Wat 
lower O^'cr Tomonou'. Ihroi 
the film and in a hypothet: 

November— SEE and h 

STUDY SHEET Nombr 7 for film "Wotchtower Ov«f Tomorrow" Pog« 3 


c o o o o o L 


o o o o o o o o " o 




e o o o o o 










-Q -Q-QQ-O 



* AOlNCNl 



if I?? 



Recently the film Watchtower Over 

>morrow was shown at the Omaha 

ual education meeting. It was used 

a group of college students study- 

k social problems. You will be in- 

I ested in the reactions of one of the 

iidents, who says: 

■M 'I believe two things were accom- 
^r^hed by the showing of Watchtower 
er Tomorrow. First, it gave us a 
iple, basic understanding of the or- 
lization and structure of the United 
itions' plan for peace. Second, it 

outlined the operation of this organ- 
ization under specified conditions. I 
think that the film did an excellent 

"I believe, however, that the film 
must be followed by careful discussion. 
Not only will discussion further under- 
standing, but it will also stimulate a 
desire for further knowledge of the 
background and future of plans for 

—Robert Neujahr, Student 

Municipal University of Omaha. 

ind HEAR— November 

Page 91 

When disaster threatens, when the fateful moment comes, when all fails 
a recalcitrant representative "walks out." it becomes the responsibility of 
proposed Security Council to take those drastic measures which can parajH 
the social and economic life of the aggressor nation and make it impossilj 

for him to wage war. i 

The United Notions ot Son Froncisco drew up a program for world peace. 
The plan is shown in WATCHTOWER OVER TOMORROW. When former 
secretory of stote Stettinius expressed the wish that a film could be made to 
show how peace could be preserved, the Motion Picture Industry volunteered to 
try. Ben Hecht wrote the original script. Two days after Mr. Hecht's tolk 
with the secretory, the plot was on paper. 

The film, itself a powerful appeal for cooperative action among nations, 
.wos approved by the Office of War Information for notional distribution. Dis- 
tribution of the film was carried out by the War Activities Committee and 
the subject wos shown on more than 14,000 motion picture screens through 
the United States. Various world peace organizations obtained copies for 
showing to porticulor groups that they influenced. Sixteen millimeter versions 
of WATCHTOWER OVER TOMORROW were distributed and shown in mony 
schools and colleges. Today the film is available to schools through film 
libraries everywhere or directly from its source, the Teaching Film Custo 
dions, Inc., 25 West 43rd St., New York 18, New York. 

Paff« 92 

Novemboi— SEE and If^ 

Walter T. Brown 

Salter T. Brown is Associate Co- 
nator and Director of Publicity, 
Activities Committee of the Nfotion 
urc Imiustry. As a Captain in tlie 
. Army Reserve, he served from 19J2 
944 when he was wounded in the 
y campaign. 

twecn the years 1936 and 1942 he 
lecretary to Governor Lehman, New 
He is a graduate of the University 
issouri School of Journalism and 
t journalism at Northwestern Uni- 


was a staff writer for the Asso- 
Press from 1928 to 1931 and Chief 

e Bureau, Associated Press, Albany, 

York, from 1931 to 1936. 


ation, the plan is not only ex- 
ined in its component parts, 

is shown in simulated opera- 
The interplays of economic 
blems, problems of health, of 

rights of smaller groups are 
n as they are being handled 

the International Court of 

'£e. More important disputes 
ond the domain of the general 

assembly or the coiut arc shown 
as they are being handled by the 
Security Council. 

While the film presents the 
plan as an idealistic if not abso- 
lute solution, no thinking person 
can leave it as such. Every teach- 
er's responsibility will be to evalu- 
ate its strong points, to point out 
its weaknesses. Only through 
awareness of the charter, only 
through thought of it, discussion 
about it, evaluation of it, only by 
keeping it foremost in our think- 
ing can we help to make it live 
and exist as the free and demo- 
cratic potential for accomplishing 
world peace that it must become. 

The film described in this ar- 
ticle and the pupil's comments 
concerning his reactions to it in- 
dicate its possible use and value 
in helping to accomplish what is 
our democratic prerogative— con- 
tinued vigilance, the right to ap- 
praise, and the responsibility to 

New Audio-Visual Aids Center 

e American Museum of Natural 
>ry, Central Park West, New York 
, is establishing an Audio-Visual 
Center as one of its special services 
ided for teachers and students 
ighout the United States. In this 
there will be samples of cquip- 
t, catalogs, descriptive brochures, 
s, specimens, pictorial materials in- 
li ing slides, posters, charts, graphs, 
tOgraphs, motion pictures, slide films, 
mas, also recordings, radio pro- 
a and all other types of audio- 
aids for school use at all grade 

nd HEAR— November 

These materials will be placed in a 
large display room on the second floor 
of the education section of the museum. 
Here teachers and students may come 
to view new types of equipment, project 
films and slides, listen to recordings, 
make selections from catalogs of ma- 
terials for school purchases or loans, 
and do research in audio-visual aids for 
definite curriculum areas. This center 
will thus provide teachers with a source 
to which they may come to examine 
materials and equipment, and secure 
practical information and assistance in 
the field of audio-visual instruction. 

Page 93 

Your Editor's mail bag brings 
many quiries on the hows, whys 
and whats of visual learning 
here are 

W. A. WrnicH and John Cuv Fowi kf.s 

OWliat type of pidurcs and 
{)thci\<^raj)hi( inalcrialslioiikl 
be iiuluclcd in tiic flliusuip? 

A Show people doiiio; lliijis^s. I. and 
• forms mean liitlc except as view- 
ed in relation to human activities. A 
map or two is valuable in the filmstrip 
if these maps are especially made to 
show si/e, relationships, or other strikinp; 
spacial concepts. Detailed map work can 
he carried oa before or after the fdm- 
strip showing, with classroom maps. 
Picture maps and maps emplo\inp; pic- 
torial syndjols to depict data of import- 
ance are especially a])propriate. Use 
praphs, certainly, if they help to com- 
plete the storv, and make them picto- 
graphs whenever possible. 

Questions siuh as llic abo\c 
kept popjjinj; up throughout the 
course of production. The an- 
swers were given in the light of 
the best practices which we knew 
about. Consianth, we were re- 
iniiuled of the need for fiuther 
research and experimentation in 
the field of filmstrip production 
and utilization. VVc are not sure 

Page 94 

that oin- answers are the best 
terms of present practice. We 
sure that they are not final a 
that filmstrips will improve 
better answers are given. 

The .\udio-Visual Aids Co 
mittcc of the National Clouiii 
for the Social Studies is seeki 
new wavs of c()oi)erating with p 
dming groups. J he comiuit 
members are conxinced that cl; 
room materials will improve o 
when educator and producer wi 
hand in hand, each cognizant 
the otlu'i "s problems, needs J 

WHO should select 
films we use in our s( 

Aril.M .selection should alway 
• done, wherever possible, o 
preview basis by the teacher who is 
iiiR to use the fdm. It is very desi 
lo preview the film in the preseiK 
the students who will be asked to V 

November — SEE and hi 

the film. Main times our adult 
iiUs lose sight ot the chiiils re- 
F.xpciieiiteci teachers often lose 
I of values very greatly appreciateil 
children. In short, preview and sc- 
ion is hest actomplishcjl when the 
nation includes the class group as 
|i as the teacher. Doing this over the 
irse of years of teaching e\|)erien(e 
find the teacher ec] nipped with a 
iography of (dms much as she now 
ips herself with a hiidiography of 
i text and supplementary ijooks in 
field of her interest and stndv. 

Where can I get Briuv Fiml- 

* lay's pamphlet, ".Vudio-Vis- 
Tools That Teach lor 

?ps"? ALso, what books do you 
mmend to inform me on au- 
visuul aids? 

Address Rruce Findlay at 1 he 

• Board of Kducation, 1205 \Vest 
Boulevard. Los Angeles 15, Cali- 

a. There are many Korth -while 
on audio-visual materials. The 
wing are strongly recommended: 
s on Learning, .Motion Pictures in 
School, by Charles F. Hoban, Jr., 
'can Council on Education, and 
her studies issued by the American 
idl on Education Committee on 
on Pictures in Education. These 
be secured by addressing The 
ican Council on Education, Wash- 
n, D. C. 

In addition to teaching, I 

have a Sunday School class. 

Id you direct me to sources of 

s which would be suitable to 

t to Sunday School chil- 

I One source is the Cathedral 
• Films, 6404 Sunset Boulevard, 
vwood 28, California. Their fdms 
made by professional actors and 
rate Bible subjects as authentically 
possible. Names and addresses of 

Ind HEAR — November 

distributors can l)e learned bv writing 
(liredlv to Rev. James K. Friedrich at 
the above address. 

.Vn interesting cxccri)t from a recent 
letter ex|>lains the methods inider which 
these films are made. 

"Practically all denominations are us- 
ing our fdms. .Many of them are used 
as part of the worship service. However, 
it is our plan to encourage (hurchcs to 
use them primarily as teaching films in 
the .Suiulay School. Then they will ac- 
complish the purpose for which they 
were produced. 

"We use the regular facilities avail 
able to any producer here in Hollywood. 
We rent stages for interior scenes from 
the major studios and travel about ;^0 
miles to Chatsworth for our exteriors. 
.Ml actors are professionals and we arc 
governed by union regulations in all 
phases of production. It is our policy 
to make films available to the churches 
using a standard of production com- 
parable to that of the theater and we 
feel this has been accomplished in what 
we have done so far. 

"Very few projectors, until now, have 
been availal)le to or owned by churches. 
With the war over, the whole situation 
is changing rapidly. Churches every- 
where are buying projectors anci equip- 
ping themselves with- visual aids, both 
sound and .still pictures." 

"HAVE you heard anything 
• definite about the 77,000 
motion picture projectors which 
the government is to sell to 

A "TO the best of our knowledge, 
• there won't be more than 5,000 
of the 77,000 motion picture projectors 
iti condition for use after the armed 
forces are through with them. The 
present plan is that the Office of Edu- 
cation is going to distribute these to 
the state departments of public instruc- 
tion of the 48 states. Thereafter, each 
slate department will be given the re- 
sponsibility of distributing their quota 

Page 95 

to school districts on the basis of finan 
cial effort and need. 

■ Ihe figure you quote, 77,000, is the 
direct result of some of the announce- 
ments which have been going the 
rounds l)ut in which. I belie\e, there is 
lilllc material sul)stance. 

"For those schools planning to pur- 
chase etiuipmciit, the best advice now 
is-purchase etjuipmcnt that you know 
can be delivered within a reasonable 
time. On the basis of our own ex- 
perience with machines that have been 
used by the armed forces, the sugges- 
tion is a strong one when we say, buy 
a new machine. It will be yours to care 
for and to maintain properly." 

cniment subsidy has encouraged i 
proiluction of subject films by coll 
and university departments, in which 
partmcnts scientifice discoveries, ind 
trial or technical processes, or social 
search have been so developed as 
make their reporting a real contribut 
to the general social good. In a I 
spots, notably the University of Min 
sota and New York University, beg, 
nings are being made in this country 

OIT HAS been my feeling 
• that not many good teach- 
ing films exist at the college level. 
Is it that I am not fully enough 
acquainted with the field of visual 
materials that are available, or is 
it that they don't exist in any 
great number? 

A THE development of teaching 
• films has been largely around the 
high school subjects. Very fortunately, 
of course, more recently produced films 
are being developed for tlie elementary 
grades and for the college level. The 
science films produced by the Brittanica 
Film Corporation, several science films 
by Coronet, and others by British In- 
formation Services may certainly be used 
at the college level. Even then there 
is wide room for more films which deal 
with subject matter in a searching and 
more complete manner. 

We in this country might well take 
;i tip from foreign coiiiilrics where gov- 

Teachers and administrators are 
im'ilrd to sitbtriit questions relative 
to evaluation of materials, source 
of materials, and methods of main- 
taininfr and usinf^ equipment . . ■ 
address-The Editors, SEE and 

Pag* 96 

OWHY don't you stress gc 
• blackboard and good b 
letin-board use more than ) 
have in your first two issues? T 
is something that everybody 
urging us to stress, and yet I h; 
combed magazine after magaz 
and no one ever mentions it. 

A GOOD blackboard and bulle 
• board use is something that al 
us can improve. You are correct, 
arc having some difficulty in loca 
people who will write up their d« 
utilization of this "grass roots" met 
of making visual teaching more effet 
in their everyday classroom tead 
plans. Our plans include articles 
good blackboard and bulletin-board 
In the meantime we urge all of 
to assist us in bringing clever and e 
live blackboard, bulletin-board, 
model utilization to the attention 01 
readers. If you are doing somet 
which you believe is effective (and 
not be modest about it) , please fil 
and clip off the attached informai 
coupon. Paste it to a post card or 
it in a letter. Mail it to the Editd 
Office of SEE AND HEAR. 1204 
Johnson Street. Madison 6, Wisco» 
We will tell you how to proceed 
I would like to report on cffe 

teadiing use of blacklx 

bulletin-board raa^ 


Please send me information as to;*' 
to proceed. Write your name, ad-fi 
and position on the margin below |j 
and send. . . . 


Reg. U. S. Pal. Otiice. 
Published each month of the school year— September to May inclusive 
|-by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, a division of E. M. HALE 
ind Company. 

Earl M. Hale, President and Publisher. 

Walter A. Wittich, John Guy Fowlkes and C. J. Anderson, Editors. 

H. Mac McG rath. Business Manager; Tom Bartingale, Circulation Director. 

Sold by subscription only. $3.00 per year (9 issues) in the U.S. 

$4.00 in Canada and foreign countries. 

OL. 1 

DECEMBER - 1945 

NO. 4 




ireshokl to Learning— T/ie Editors 4 

See and Hear 6 

E and HE.A.R Film Previews 9 

ce .Again — The Christmas Story — 

Mrs. Gwenylh Hochradel and Mrs. Marion Smith 12 

istmas Carols Film Study — Boyd F. Baldwin 17 

m the Children — Hen ?■)' /. Qiieen 22 

ough the Looking Glass — Carl Gernetzky 26 

•moting Better Fibn Utilization — L^ W. H. Durr 31 

wn the Three Lane Highway — Velda M. Williams 34 

opean Odyssey — Dr. Arthur Stenius 46 

ree Books for Little Folks — /oe Park 50 

ignment: Tomorrow— PI'' i7 /a rrf E. Givens 53 

e Surplus Properties Board and the Schools 58 

aws in the Wind — C. R. Crakes 60 

lizing Business Letter Writing — Norman L. Wittkop 62 

th Looks to the Future — Dr. E. G. Williamson 66 

ard Understanding Our Allies — 

William H. Hartley and William H. Cary, Jr 72 

uahzing the Annual School Report — Kingsley Trenholme 82 

nging the World to the Community — Dr. Leslie E. Brown 87 

e Answers— W. A. Wittich and John Guy Fowlkes 93 

jCopyright 1945 by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, Wis. Printed in U.S.A. • 

Members of the Editorial Advisory Board 
of SEE and HEAR 

RCX3ER ALBRIGHT. Teaching Film CiMtodUn* 
LESTER ANDERSON. University of Minnesota 
V. C. ARNSPIGER. Encyclopaedia Britannica Film*. Inc. 
LESTER F. BECK. University of Oregon (on leave) 
MRS. ESTHER BERG. New York City Public Schools 
MRS. CAMILLA BEST. New Orleans Public Schools 
CHARLES M. BOESEL, Milwaukee Country Day School 
JOSEPH K. BOLTZ, Coordinator. Citizenship Education Study, Detroit 
LT. JAMES W. BROWN, Officer in Charge, Training Aids Section, Great Ukes 
MISS MARGARET J. CARTER. National Film Board of Canada 
C. R. CRAKES, Educational Consultant. DeVry Corporation 
LT. AMO DeBERNARDlS, Training Aids Officer. Recruit Training Command. Great Lakes 
JOSEPH E. DICKMAN. Chicago Public Schools 
DEAN E. DOUGLASS, Educational Department, Radio Corporation of America 
GLEN G. EYE, University of Wisconsin 
LESLIE FRYE, Cleveland Public Schools 
LOWELL P. GOODRICH, Superintendent. Milwaukee Public Schools 
WILLIAM M. GREGORY. Western Reserve University 
JOHN L. HAMILTON. Film Officer. British Information Services 
MRS. RUTH A. HAMILTON. Omaha Public Schools 
O. A. HANKAMMER, Kansas State Teachers College 
W. H. HARTLEY, Towson State Teachers College, Md. 
JOHN R. HEDGES, University of Iowa 
VIRGIL E. HERRICK, University of Chicago 
HENRY H. HILL, President, George Peabody College for Teachers 
CHARLES HOFF. University of Omaha 
B. F. HOLLAND. University of Texas 
HEROLD L. KOOSER. Iowa Sute College 
ABRAHAM KRASKER. Boston University 
L. C. LARSON. Indiana University 
GORDON N. MACKENZIE. Teachers College. Columbia University 
DAVID B. McCULLEY. University of Nebraska 
CHARLES P. McINNIS. Columbia (S. C.) Public Schools 
EDGAR L. MORPHET, Department of Education, Florida 
HERBERT OLANDER, University of Pittsburgh 
C. R. REAGAN, O&ce of War Information 
DON C. ROGERS, Chicago Public Schools 
W. E. ROSENSTENGEL, University of North Carolina 
W. T. ROWLAND. Superintendent, Lexington (Ky.) Public Schools 
OSCAR E. SAMS, Jr., University of Tennessee (on leave) 

E. E. SECHRIEST, Birmingham Public Schools 
HAROLD SPEARS. New Jersey State Teachers College (Montclait) 
R. LEE THOMAS. Department of Education. Tennessee 
ERNEST TIEMANN. Pueblo Junior College 
ORLIN D. TRAPP. Waukegan High School 
KINGSLEY TRENHOLME, Portland (Ore.) Public Schools 
MISS LELIA TROLINGER, University of Colorado 
PAUL WENDT, University of Minnesota 
Page 2 December — SEE an 

muidual Ci^SS Room Projector 


pn BLE— Weighs only 27 Vz 

tiB:ase contains: Movie-Mile 

iB.sound projector, desk top 

»«t-?peaker. cords, take-up reel 

'd still has ample space for 

' mps, etc. 

'♦O'y compact; only slightly 

J«rhan a portable typewriter; 

>:o aately 8x12x15 inches in 
»al Jor small group show- 
rger size standard screens 

t k used ior larger groups. 

Available at Low Cost . . . with 16MM Sound-on-Film Movie-Mite 

STANDARD FEATURES— Plainly marked film path makes 
threading easy. Only one moving part need be operated it 
entire threading. Show can be on screen in less than three 

One electric plug completes all connections to projector 
Cords, permanently wired to speaker, carmot be lost. 

Reel capacity 2000 ft. Reel arms slip into accurate sockets 
. . . fast power rewind . . . adjustable tilt . . . quickly 
adjusted framing device . . . utilizes a single, inexpensive 
standard projection lamp for both picture and sound pro- 
jection. No separate exciter lamp necessary . . . case oi 
durable plywood . . . leatherette covered . . . universal 
A.C. or D.C. 105-120 volt operation ... no converter neces- 
sary. Mechanism cushioned on live rubber mounts foi 
smooth, quiet operation . . . entire unit made of best quality 
materials and precision machined parts. 


Write for interesting folder, "It Makes Sense." See your favorite Photographic 
or Visual Aid Dealer for Demonstration and Delivery Information. 


'JC^fP YaUR FVfS AND FAJfS i3N 3^0Vi£'J^IT4 


1109 East 15th St. 

Kansas City 6, Mo. 


to Learning 


Hack in 1922 a magazine o[ national circulation printed an article 
entitled "Exit the Teacher, Enter the Eilm." Since that time other 
unfortunate interpretations of the role of the classroom film have been 

Comments like this: "What do we want to do— make learning so 
easy for children that they will no longer have a teacher— that thcv 
will no longer have to have books— that they will no longer do any 
studying?" have added to the complications of those who are involved 
in the presentation of a going and a valid program of the utilization 
of visual materials. 

Far from these facetious statements lies the truth of the value «if 
visualizing in making more graphic those backgrounds of informatio 
which (hildren must have before they enter the realm of the print( 
word. It is a long established learning tenet tliat in order that tli 
pupil be able to attach meaning to verbalisms or to the printed won! 
experience backgrounds must first become a part of his consciousness 

C^onsidcr the beginning reader. \\'e carefully plan his cxperienc 
so that he observes firsthand the pets, the conmiunity helpers, tl 
things in nature that he later reads about. Consider, also, the need < 
the fourth-grade child. First he must have had some experience in oli 
serving the costumes, in listening to the language, in participating ii 
the work-a-day routine of the people of distant lands; before he h;i 
hope of attaching significance to the social studies reading that he 
asked to do. 

V^isual education and books certainly go hand in hand. They con 
pienieiU each other. \'alid experimental evidence illustrates this agai 
and again through such things as increased interest in free library reac, 
ing, greatly enhanced reading comprehension. Always before the wore 
we nuist have the idea. 

How are we to bring these ideas to children? Certainly, throt 
first-hand ej^perience. When those are impossible, then they should 
i)rought through good techniques of presenting information visual 
through maps, pictures, slides, filmstrips, and the sound teaching filB 

The Editors. 

Pago 4 December — SEE and 







Model 16-1966 



t like a fine watch — powered by a 

smooth-running motor and mech- 

that purrs through reel after reel 

Jut a flutter or a jump — so simple, 

ient can operate it — that's the new 

16mm. sound-on-film projector. 

Ij! ultimate of sound, whether it be crisp, 

intelligible conversation, or the full 

ty of symphonic muse . . . clear defi- 

of image . . . uniformity of illumina- 

^yer the screen's entire surface . . . soft. 

brilliance that assures viewing com- 

tijrause it is kind to the eyes. 

The new DeVRY is a 3-purpose unit that 
(1) SAFELY projects both sound and silent 
films; (2) that shows BOTH black-and-white 
and color film without extra equipment; and 
(3) whose separately housed 2S-watt ampli- 
fier and sturdy 12-inch electro-dynamic 
speaker afford portable Public Address facil- 
ities — indoors and out. 

Make DeVRY your source of 16mm. 
sound and silent Classroom Teaching 
Films for SALE OR RENT. DeVRY 
CORPORATION. 1111 Armitage Ave. 
Chicago 14. Illinois. 


11111 ArniHaK* Avanu*, Chlcaca 14, llllnel* 
Please mail me catalog of Audio-VisD«lTei^hing 
Eqaipment. Also your new Film Catalog. 


h S-TIME WINNER of Army-Navy "E" for the 
liuction of Tnotion pidure sound equipment 




ind HEAR— December 

Paga 5 

^lo^^ ojl iho^ ! 

A \\i\\ 2~-\Hnt\\d readily portable 
souiiti inoduii piclurc projector has Itecn 
annouiucd recently by the Movie-Mite 
Corporation, Kansas City 6, Missouri. 
I he manufacturer claims that this 
model 63-L can be coinj>letely unpacked, 
set up, threaded, and put in operation 
in less than tiiree miniUes. 

The plainly marked film path makes 
threading easy. Only one movable part 
need be operated in tiic entire threail- 
ing operation. One electrical plug com- 
l>letcs all connections to the projector; 
cords are permanently wired to the 
speaker and cannot be lost. Reel arms 
of 2,000' capacity slip into accurate sock- 
its. Universal ,\.C.-I).C. operation for 
both projector and amplifier eliminates 
need of a converter. If you are interest- 
c<l send for descriptive literature. 

A series of classical music films in 
which the music is interpreted by the 
leading artists of the day is offered by 
Official Films. Inc., 625 Madison .Avenue, 
New ^Ork City 22. These films, orig- 
inally proiluced in France, present the 
music of outstanding pianists, violinists, 
cellists, singers, dancers, and opera. Re- 
(|uests for preview opportunities shoidd 
be addressed to Official Films. 

Mr. Kenneili li. 1 hwrston, who taught 
social studies in Illinois before coming 
to Indiana liii\ersity with the opening 
of the I Diversity School in 1<(38, has 
been ai)pointed Assistant in Utilization 
on the stair of the Bureau of Audio- 
\'isual Aids. In addition to this new 
responsii)ilitv, .Mr. 1 hurston \xill con- 
tinue as instructor and critic teacher in 
social studies and supervisor of audio- 
\isual aids in the Uni\crsity School. 

I he .Auit'iitan (.oiuiid on l;ducation 
lias available a .series of 33 filmstrips 

Page 6 

on "Life in the United States." Mi 
than 10,000 strips ha\e been sold in t 
last year. If you arc not familiar w 
these materials, write for a catalog. ; 
dressing the American Ciouncil on Ec 
cation, 744 Jackson Place. Washingi 
(5, D. C. 

Nf.w Loan Packets on Inter-A.merh 

Subjects Announced by U. S. Offk i 

OF Education 

ANEW scries of 18 loan packets 
Inter-.Ameritan subjects avail.i 
for the use of teachers, elementary 
secondary schools, college students, 
adults was announced today bv tli( 
S. Odice of Education, Federal Sen 

The individual packets of the 
series contain bii)liographies. source 
magazines, jjictures. maps, imits 
courses of study, program outlines, ^ 
games, music, descriptive booklets, 
feience reports, reprint of arii 
])amphlels. and other materials, 
material is suitable for use from the 
menlary le\el through lollege. T( 
ers, school administrators, librarians, 
others will find many timely suggc.<;t 
easily adaptai)le to as teaching 
in each packet. 

Publishers and distributors of the 
ions packet items are indicated to I 
ilale ordering bv those interested in 
taining file co|)ies for use after the 
period has expired. 

Packets are available oi\ loan I' 
weeks without cliaigc except that r< 
postage is to be paid by the borri 
vvhich will vary according to p' 

The titles and nund)ers of the pai 
arc as follows: 

Teachers' Materials: 

1. Sources of Instructional Maicrij 

See page 
December— SEE and ll 



V . '^1 







The 4nimafophone 

Moiferpiece of 16mm 



Perfect 16mm 
Sound Pictures 


Brighter projection is achieved on the Animato- 
phone by Victor's direct optical system. All 
elements permanently aligned at the 
factory . . . nothing to get out of order. 

Spira-draft Lamp House means longer 
lamp life . . . means brighter image 
for a longer time . . . means fewer lamp 
.^,__^ ^^ replacements. Standard, pre-focused lamps 
^^^^^ obtainable anywhere, at no extra cost. 

Other exclusive features — ^^^ for brighter 
illumination — are: Coated Sv^ ^''ojection 
Lens, Conza Condenser Lens, ^^^ Special 
Shutter design and Instant Accessibility to entire 
optical system for cleaning. 

Can you afford to use other than this, the 
Snest of l6mm equipment.'' 



nd HEAR— December 

I 6 M M 


Home Office and Factory: Dovenport. /owo 
New York MSI MeGrawHUI BIdg.. 330 W. 42nd Street 
Ch/cogo lU 188 W. Randolph 


E Q U I P M E N 

19 2 3 
Page 7 


Continued from page si.\ 

2. Educalion «)f Spanish-speaking 

Materials for Elementary and Secondary 

3. Hi)^3ani( Countries and Cities. 
J. Brazil. 
5. Social Studies, 
f). Music. 

7. Art. 

8. Literature. 

9. Spanish for the Elementary School. 

10. Beginning Spanish (Secondary) . 

11. Intermediate Spanish. 

12. Plays, Pageants and Programs. 

13. Pan American Club Organization. 

14. Pan- American Club Activities. 

Materials for College Students 
and Adults: 

15. Economic Problems. 

16. Current Political and Social Prob 


17. Development of Pan Americanism. 

18. Education in Latin America. 
Requests for the packets should be ad- 
dressed to: 

U. S. Office of Education, American 
Republic Section, Division of Interna- 
tional Relations, Washington 25. D. C. 

We believe that curriculum films can 
be a very real experience to the stu- 
dents, and that such films make their 
greatest educational contributions when 
the teacher uses them as a basic learn- 
inu cxiKriencc, not as a "supplementary 
aid" Curriculum films do not merely 
add a little more of the same thing to 
what is taught in other ways and with 
other materials. Curriculum films lay a 
foundation of sensory experience in the 
student's mind which is basic to the de- 
velopment of meaning, lar from merely 
"supplementing" books, curriculum films 
lay a foundation for heller learnmg 
from books, maps, grafihics, and other 
curriculum materials. They develop a 
"readiness" for reading, expression, con- 
duct, skills, and other activities in the 

— Young America Films. Inc. 

Paga 8 

"1 feel that the fundamental machir 
for the small school is the opaque pti 
jector. That should be the startir 
point. Information in picture form froi 
books, from free publications, from Ic 
tcrs may be projected with this machir 
very effectively. Upon this basis a mo 
ambitious program certainly shall 

— Mrs. Lili Heimers 
Sew Jersey State Teachers Colte, 
Montclair, New Jersey 

In keeping with the publishers poli 
on advertising in SEE and HEAR, tJ 
editors are approving only such pa 
advertisements as they feel are oflen 
materials or equipment of true val 
from tlic school's viewpoint. You, • 
reader, are invited to send to SEE 
HEAR, or direct to the advertiser,^ 
any information desired. If you 
the advertiser be sure to mention 
and HEAR. 

Many fine comments are coming 
SEE and HEAR from readers. On U 
our fourth (monthlyl) birthday 
cannot resist quoting a few of them 

"The articles are interesting as H 
as informative, and we have found I 
pul)lication as a whole a most hdp 
reference. . ." 

-Mildred M. Roblee, Editor of B« 
Science Research Associates. 

"SEE and HEAR is far more thari 1 1 
anticipated for any new inaga/ine. 
siiKcrely congratulate the editon 
being ai)lc to compile so much valua 
and inspirational material for tlie H 

issue. . ." , c 

-Wanda Wheeler Johnston, b»\ 
visor Art Education, Knoxvillc ' 
•\V(> have noted the advent of \ ' 
publication with interest and wish ' 
every success. I note that it is 1 
iient, current, and a valuable ad' 
to the field." 

-Charles F. Parsons. Coordn 
Visual Education. Placer C< 
Schools. Auburn. California. 

December— SEE ami 




-primary S— senior liigh school 

J I— inierinediate 

( J— junior high school 

Gallup Poll 
(Sound) 10 minutes. Use: Civics 
U. S. History S; Mathematics S, C; 
lehology, Sociology C. 
HIS film shows how Dr. Gallup 
builds up his sampling technique 
in probing public opinion. His 
ipling is explained and illustrated, 
c events of AVorld War II years are 
estigated. Here is a valuable experi- 
e in observing American public opin- 
as it occurs. Teaching Film Custo- 
ms, Inc. .\t your nearest film library. 

Higliivays North 
(Sound) 22 minutes. Use: Social 
\dies I, J; Geography S; Clubs J, A. 

HIS is one of the best existing films 

on the .\lcan Highway and the 

Canol oil project. The photog- 

y is good, the sound track satisfac- 

It gives a valuable impression of 

terrain and the type of land of 

western Canada— a worth-while ex- 

ence. National Film Board of 

ada. At your nearest film library. 

Peace Builders 
(Sound) 10 minutes. Use: Civics 
p. S. History S, C; Clubs A. 

HE work of the peace builders, Sta- 
lin, Roosevelt, and Churchill is 
traced from 1941: Atlantic Charter, 
blanca, Ottawa Conference, Moscow 
[t, Cairo-Teheran Conferences, Dum- 
on Oaks. Attention is given to the 
lems which were handled at the 
|Ous meetings. National Film Board 
"ariada. At your nearest film library. 

and HEAR — December 

C— college 
A— adult 


(Sound) 20 minutes. Use: Social 
Studies I, J; Geography S; Clubs A. 

THE desert coastal area, the rocky up- 
land plateaus and mountainous ter- 
rain, the oases along the rivers, and 
the jungles of the upper Amazon are 
viewed. A good cross-section of the activ- 
ities of the people (mining 10%; agricul- 
ture 90%) is shown. This supplements 
the Britannica film Peru, Indians of the 
Mountains. Office of Inter-American Af- 
fairs. At your nearest film library. 

Yellowstone Wild Life 

(Sound) (Color) 11 minutes. Use: 
Natural Science I; General Science J; 
Geography S. 

THIS film is concerned largely with 
the wild life to be found in Yel- 
lowstone National Park. It opens 
with good photography and descriptions 
of the grebe, the blackbird, the pelican, 
and the osprey, as they live in their 
natural environment. It shows Old 
Faithful in action, the Morning Glory 
Pool, some of the cascades, and the 
upper and lower falls of the Yellowstone 
River. The photography is good of such 
big game animals as the antelope, the 
buffalo, the moose, and the bear. It is 
valuable chiefly because of its color pho- 
tography. The sound track is somewhat 
below average. Bell and Howell. At your 
nearest film library. 

Pag« 9 

i'sitig J'isual Aids in Training 

(Sound) ]f minutes. I'se: Psy- 
(hology, Teaching C. 

THIS film is very valuable in in- 
scn ice teacher training. It is geared 
specifically to the application of 
(ilmstrip, models, and motion-picture 
film in shop work, inu is fine regardless 
ot specific subject application. It is 
splendid for use during faculty meet- 
ings. The ccmcepts of preview, siiowing, 
and follow-up are well explained and 
illustrated. U. S. Office of Education. 
.At your nearest film library. 


(Sound) 20 minute.'!. Use: Social 
Studies I. J: Geography S; Clubs A. 

THF. smallest country of South .Amer- 
ica. I ruguay is similar to Ohio. 
Montevideo is excellently photo- 
graphed. The film illustrates the exist- 
ence of universal free education; the 
"Frigorificoes"; legal and compulsory 
vacation plans; state-owned ancl ojjer- 
ated casinos, ho.spitals, banks, insurance 
companies, and industries: their opera- 
tion luuler the direction of the Senate; 
the government, which parallels our 
own cicmocralic state very clo.sely. Uru- 
guay is held to be the jnost literate 
country of .South .America and the most 
democratic, with a great middle 
being served by many state controlled 
and owned service agencies. Office of 
Inter- American Affairs. At your nearest 
film library. 

I'rtnishy and Bahin, Production 
No. I 

(Sound) 10 minutes. Use: Musii 
I. ./. S. A. 

TWV. X'ronsky and Ilal)in piano team 
plays the following two selections: 
Walt/, Opus 39 by Brahms, and 
Flight of the Bumble Bee. The well 
photographed close-up views emphasize 
technic|ue, and a very faithfully-record- 
ed sound track accomplishes the ellect 

of the piano duel sufficiently to inai 
it a valuable experience in appreciatic 
as well as technique. It is to be high 
recommended, i.ducational Film I 
brai-y Association. .At your nearest fil 

Sighlsccing al Home 

(Soutid) JS minutes. Use: Si 
Studies I, J; General Science }; Ge< 
f>hy, Physics S; Cluhs J, A. 

tion is made of how tele\ i 
actually operates. It is com|i; 
from the scientific .standpoint, and 
easily understorxl through animal 
example, and clear-cut photogr;i; 
General Electric. At your nearest 

Soullicrn Brazil 

(Sound) 20 minutes. Use: Sot 
Studies I, J; Geography S; Clubs A. 

THE activities of the three southe 
most stales of Brazil are shoi 
Recent developments are the new 
cut harbors, the Brazilian railroad T\ 
ning up the 3,000-foot escar|)nient inh 
from the coast, and the modern ti 
toward go\ernment control. The ind 
tries revolve about cattle, grain, 
meat. Office of Inter.-imerican Afft 
.At vour nearest film library. 

I'cojjlc of the Potlatch 
(Sound) (Color) 22 minutes. > 

Social Studies I, J; Geography S; So( 

"CV (': Clubs J, A. 

HERE are well-|)hotogTaphed, C( 
c'd sec]ucnccs of how the West ( 
Indians li\e. It shows dramatic 
and vividly their costumes, their ( 
monial ol)sei\ances. their feasts, dai 
nuisic. and totems. .A Potlatch celi 
lion is included, which is their wi 
festival celebrated by feasting, dani 
and ceremony. National Film lioan 
Canada. .At voiu" nearest film lihrai 

Page 10 

December — SEE and 1 

'HI-. l*u>cc■l•tlill!4^ 1)1 tlir 

)UCATi()\ ixsrn u IE of 
[E I'Mxi Rsnv OF WIS- 

)NSI.\ is now a\ailabl(.'. I liis 
jocccdiiigs answers two iinpor- 
it t|iicstions; What materials 

iiuhulcil in a loinplcte pro- 
ini ol \isual education? What 

some ol the reconmiended 
kys ot using fihns and other 
KUal etUuation materials in the 
lissroom"- Extremely practical in 
suggestions, the Proceedings 
bounts seven demonstration and 
^russion situations as \erbatim 
counts ol classroom luilization 
ifilnistrips: slides; maps, globes. 

charts; silent and sound mo- 
tn pictures. 

[le Proceedings also includes 
nationally recognized teach- 
administrators, supervisors, 
leaders in the field ot audio- 
Hual education think about the 
questions mentioned. Among 
speakers represented in the 
pceedings are: L. H. Adolfson. 
L-r A 1 blight. V. C. Arnspiger. 
Esther Herg. }ames W. 
)wn, Leslie E. Brown. J. Mar- 
Carter, C. R. Crakes, Josej)h 
:knian. John Guy Fowlkes, 
Criiison, C;harles Holf, 
jC. Larson, Don Rogers, Robert 

limited number of Proceed- 
have been printed and are 
[ilable at SI. .50 each. Retpiests 
md be addressed to W. A. 
jttich, Edit.)r; 12(H West John- 
Street. Madison (>, Wisconsin. 

and HEAR— December 

liobitison C) ii.soe in liin^ian 

"The Soviet dim industry is prepar- 
ing a special proiluction of Robinson 
(tiisoc,' to l)c exhiliitcd on a new stereo- 
scopic strcen tiesigncd to give ronndetl 
lliree (liinensionai images. 

'Senicon l'a\ lo\ icli hanoff, the in- 
\entor, said today that the screen creates 
an illusion so perfect that people uncon- 
sciously doilge when pictures of birds 
or airplanes are shown. lie believed 
the screen surpasses anyiliing Hollywood 
has done to achieve realism. His effects 
are achieved by the projecting of a 
spcciallv designed film with a double 
row of images side by side onto a 
screen made of 2.000 exactly cut and 
matched pieces of mirror glass. 

' Robinson Crusoe' is being filmed in 
the Caucasus under the direction of 
Alexander Xikolacvich Andrivevski." 

From Xew York Times, j-. 95, October 
22. 1045. f). 15. 

Another J'isual Aid Sendee 
Realizing the need for inexpensive, 
yet worth-while facilities for visual edu- 
cation, Coronet has established a Visual 
.Aid Service for Schools, in addition to 
the special pictnre sections in the maga- 
zine adaptable for classroom use. 

In cooperation with the Society for 
X'isual Kducation, Inc.. Coronet offers 
the teacher an annual series of eight 
slidelilms. Kadi film presents cme of 
the Coronet Picture Stories on film that 
may be u.sed in a 3.") mm. single-frame 
sliilefilm projector. The sidjject mat- 
ter usually has direct relationship to 
world e\ents, or presents some signifi 
cant personality, or a social or scientific 
problem in an intenselv interesting 

Write to Lee Ridiardson. 
l-.ducation l)e|)artmeni. '.)1') 
Michigan .Avenue. Chicago 11. 
for further information. 




I ell vour school friends about SKK 
and HKAR . . . they. loo. will want to 
"keep in touch" with the new audio- 
\isual progress. 

Page II 



Mrs. Gwenyth Hochradel 


Mrs. Marion Smith 

"Now when Jesus was born in 
Bethlehem of Judea in the days 
of Herod the king, behold, there 
came wise men from the East 
to Jerusalem saying, where is 
He that is born King of the 
Jews? for we have seen His star 
in the East, and are come to 
worship Him." 

Courtesy of 



1 o illiislralc ilic reading of tlie following, lliis scene is shown: "Anil siulili 
(here was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising Ciod, . 
saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towanl nu 

VISUAL education has not 
only adxanccd with raj)id 
strides in the school systems ol our 
(oiuitry, but has also taken a gieat 
place in religious education incur 
( lunches. 

1 he most joyous season ol all 
the year is nc^t lar away. With 
its coming we fintl oursehes, 
teachers, clergy, and laity, busy 
getting ready lor the many tnid 
most elaborate programs ol the 
Work lot liacher"! to Inul aj>- 
propriate pieces! 

Work lot iiKtihers to make tos- 
iinnes at a time of added respon- 
sibilities in tin- home! 

Pag* 14 

Heartaches for "Mary" \\ 
thinks she shoidd ha\e had ; 
j)art "Helen" has! 

Is the true meain'ng of Chi 
mas not lost in all this tiinii' 
\'es, but tcxlav wc ha\( 
sol m ion — \ isual education. / 
CInislnias Slory* on the sen 
l,c-t us look lor a moment at v\ i 
these 2xL' slides ol Tlir Clnisd 
Sloyy will mean (o oiu' (ihristi 

1-irsi. Iiom the standpoint 
the program itself; there will 
no need lor many j)ractices, s 
the program will tell the en? 

•C.ithctlial Films, St. I.ouis and HolIy«« 
I'iftiircs hy permission. 

December — SEE and HI 


Iry more completely. If some 
pees arc still dcsiretl, they can 
chosen to fit in with the slides 
inteispcisetl. 1 he words to 
hymns will dispense with pass- 
out hynni books or mimeo- 
iphini^ song sheets. 

?cond, we look at the artis- 
value of these slides. I'he 
[iety ol scenes and the beautilid 
[tuming could never be portray- 
in the axerage urban or rural 
rch. With the exception of 
Baby Jesus in the manger 
les. which do not carry the 
iitional look and halo around 
child, the scenic pictures make 
story seem real. 

["hird. from the educational 
;le, children and adults Avill 
lerstand the story as they hear 
read it. and see the pictures 
ore them. The pictures of the 
pherds are much more real, 
do not bring sheep or the 
ed lamb into the church for 

shepherd scene. \'et, they 
here on the screen. Again, to 
the wisemen coming on camels 

a distance will linger longer 
he minds of most. Should the 

hynuis not be familiar, other 
hynui slides coidd be procured in 

ad\an(c to be used. 

Lastly, we look at the whole 
story from the religious point of 
\iew. Clan there be a more per- 
fect, a truer story of Christmas 
than the one given to us by God 
in His Holy Book? These slides 
bring, true to the ^Vord of God, 
through the eye and ear gate, 
completely and clearly the true 
meaning of Christmas. The pro- 
jected liymns give the audience 
an opportunity for expression, for 
response, and for an affirmation 
of their faith in the Prince of 
Peace Avho is born anew again 
through these scenes of our 
Christ's Nativity. The Christmas 
Story will be a real Christmas pro- 
gram. It may also be used in 
schools as a basis for a Christmas 
jirogiam for the children and 
their parents. 

\\^hile several carols are includ- 
ed in the slide set, such as Silent 
Night, Holy Night; Aiuay in the 
Manger; Hark, the Herald Angels 
Sing; Oh, Come All Ye Faithful; 
As "with Gladness Men of Old; 



Kditor's Note: At Christinas time, every teacher's attention turns 
to thoughts of ohservances which in sonic measure will convey 
the spirit of the occasion. To learn how a newly released set of 
slides on the picture story of Christmas might be used in schools, 
both public and parochial, Mrs. Gwenyth Hochradel, wife of 
Karl Hochradel. pastor at Hazcn. North Dakota, was asked to 
preview the set of slides entitled Tlie Cltrislina.i Storv with 
some of her children. Likewise, Mrs. Marion Smith of the Fair- 
mount School, Duluth, Minnesota, and chairman of the Com- 
mittee on \'isual Education for that city, because of her interest 
in visual materials, brought her judgment to the set of slides. 

H EAR — December 

Page 15 


And the wise men brought their gitis. "And when they were come into the hoi; 
they saw the young Child with Mary His mother . . . ; they presented unto 11 

gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh." 

We Three Kings of Orient Are; 
Let Us All With Gladsome Voice, 
other songs certainly may be se- 
lected to vary the program in any 
way that the teacher sees fit. These 
might be suggested: // Cmue 
Upon a Midnight Clear; The 
First Noel; and Joy to the World. 
As it is now, the program which 
is built around the showing of the 
slides will extend dining about a 
hall-hour, not beyond this. The 
teacher may add to or alter the 
setjuence of the slides so as to 
allow variations in the number of 
children who participate or in the 
umiiber of songs in( hided. 

Children's reactions to ihe two 
pit tines of the Christ Child alone 

Pag 16 

in the crib are intercstii 
Through the study of many paii 
ings, we have built up the tr;i 
tional idea of how the Chi 
Child looks. Children, trying ' 
explain their reactions, said, "1 
baby looks so modern!" Of coui 
it is. It is a good photogiapli 
a child. 

In showing any colored sli' 
the room should be dark as nn 
of the beauty is lost with ci^ 
peting sunlight. 

Any school planning to 
these slides should get the gii 
beforehand so children may 
given practice in reading or 
citing the commentary acc( 
panying each slide. 

December — SEE and H 



•^ W -: X •- 'i- 


Boyd F. Bai dwin 
Unix'ersity of Monlayia 

liter's Note: \'isual materials are 

g produced which will assist us in 

ng our plans for the Christmas sea- 

Aniong the newer ones in this 

» is Christmas Songs. In order to 

n evaluation of it, Mr. Baldwin ar- 

ed to try this out with children 

nting several grade levels. 

IS is about three Christmas 
oh— Jingle Bells, O Little 
vn of Bethlehem, and Silent 
ht. The picture reveals mod- 
figures, and silhouettes in rel- 

1 HEAR— December 

ative motion, photographed in 
technicolor. The sound is both 
instrumental and vocaL using 
standard arrangements of the car- 

Mr. Barry was adept at intro- 
ductory remarks made before the 
fdm showings, and at leading the 
children in their discussions with- 
out undue suggestion on his own 
part. Teacher reactions indicated 
that the spontaneity of pupil re- 

Pago 17 

iiuiiks iollowing film viewing was 
one of the outstanding virtues of 
the film. 

In general, we have concluded 
that the film stimulates the finest 
pupil responses; that it leaves an 
accrual of understanding, and mo- 
ti\ates the interest of pupils in 
traditional music. Music teachers 
can use it to illustrate many tech- 

The writer wishes to express his 
llinnks to the schools of Missoula 
and Ircnclitoiini, both in Montana, 
for cooperation in this experience. 
Suf}erintendent C. S. Porter of the 
Missoula system assigned Kenneth 
Barry, tniisic and art teacher of the 
school system, to carry out the ac- 
tual uork. The writer supewised 
the experiment in both the Mis- 
soula and Frenchtown schools. Ap- 
proxitnately 500 children rnnf^ing 
through grades 1-12 participated. 

nii^ucs in \ocal and instrumental 
production. Pupils were stimu- 
lated to artistic discriminations of 
high type. 

In making more concrete com- 
ments on judgments and reactions 
of teachers and pupils, we have 
set them up grade-by-gradc. Typ- 
ical reactions \ary with age, but 
not in well-delinetl grade areas, of 
course. Technical conmients on 
photography and somid reproduc- 
tion follow the grade-by-grade dis- 
( ussioii. 

1 he (dm was shown to groups 
averaging from 3;") to 10 eacli. In 
the presentation, Mr. Barry in- 
variably made a statement telling 
why we were showing a Christmas 
(dm out of season. He asked the 

Page 18 

puj>ils to be at ease, and to n 
spond in any way they desire( 
There was an attempt to renio\ 
the ordinary classroom limiiatioi 
on expressions of the childrei 
Where quotes are used, the writ(, 
is borrowing an expression froi 
one of the many reactions writtc 
l)y pupils after seeing the filr 
In most cases there were V\ 
showings of the film to ea(| 

First atid Second Grades 

Soon after the orchestral mus 
of Jingle Bells began, seatten 
\oices followed the music spo 
taneously. They wanted to sii 
and they did, but being uiial 
to read the legend at this giv 
level, they lapsed into huinm 
or repetition of words alrc;i' 
familiar. Particularly on Jin 
Bells these grades were unal)li 
keep the tempo. They had 
tendency to drag. Teachers 
the Jingle Bells tempo is too i 
for lower grades; temj>o is ri 
in O Little Touni of Bethlel 
and Silent Night. 

Other spontaneous activities 
eluded laughter, cla])i)ing 
hands. (ian( ing, \ocal express! 
of delight, attitudes of pieasi 
and re\erence in O Little Tt 
of BetJilehem and Silent Nii. 
Primary children took delighi 
original actions matching wo: 
and thus a rhythmic and j)hysi 
impression was adtled to the ai 

Ill their oral expressions i 
commented on views of the "U 

ttecember— SEE andH 



SiK'iit nijilit, Holy iii{;lit! 

All is calm, all is bright. 
|'Rouii(i yon Virgin Mother and Child 
JHoly infant so tender and mild, 
I Sleep in heavenly peace, — 

Sleep in heavenly peace! 

Silent night. Holy night! 
Shepherds quake at the sight! 
Glories stream from heaven afar. 
Heav'nly hosts sing Alleluia; 
Christ the Saviour is born, — 
Christ the Saviour is born! 

Silent night. Holy night! 
Son of God, loves pure light. 
Radiant beams from Thy holy face. 
With the dawn of redeeming grace, 
Jesus, Lord, at Thy birth, — 
Jesus, Lord, at Thy birth. 

the "descending angel." 
were jubilant over the 
,vman," "windmill," and the 
ng snow." I'hcy were able 
ecognize male voices, and 
leaving the projection room, 
ildren hummed and sang all 
ray down the hall. Teachers 
ne they wanted to hum, sing, 
iance at intervals all the rest 
|ie day! They kept recalling 
ay many things of interest. 
al children seemed to think 
gures themselves were doing 
nging. One went home with 
w determination to study 
> and "ring bells like in 
li? Bells"; others thought of 
onnection between the fdm 

HEAR — December 

and church, home, the Bible. A 
teacher thought her pupils were 
motivated to complete their Jun- 
ior Red Cross Christmas boxes at 
an accelerated pace. 

Third and Fourth Grades 

At this level there was immedi- 
ate use of the singing activity on 
the part of a few pupils, but the 
activity was not general until the 
teacher removed traditional class- 
room barriers to freedom of ex- 
pression. The legend was under- 
stood at this level, but moved a 
bit too fast for the third grade 
pupils, who made noticeable gains 
o\er the younger group in ability 
to maintain tempo. On one run, 

Page 19 

tests were made with high-and- 
low-level volume. We found that, 
if the tempo of the class is to be 
synchronized with the film, a fair- 
ly high-level volume should be 

There was no lagging of inter- 
est—rather, rapt attention and 
facial expressions of pleasure were 
noted throughout. 

The teacher found that the art 
and music were equally enjoyed. 
These pupils had studied part 
singing, it was natural that some 
discussed the "bass and tenor," 
and commented on the balance of 
arrangement. The teacher passed 
out the chorus books and since 
the arrangements were the same, 
the pupils found pleasure in sing- 
ing with the quartet, using so- 
prano, alto, tenor, and bass. Mr. 
Barry stated definitely that such 
films would provide examples 
worthy of emulation, and would 
enhance his four part singing pro- 

BovD F. Baij)Win 

Mr. Baldwin organized tlic hui 
and use of the first collegiate radio i: 
mitter in the stale of Montana in H 
He recei\ed his master's degree at 
University of Washington and since tl 
has directed the activities of the M 
tana Council on Civic Broadcasting, 
is affiliated with the University of M 
tana during the suinmer sessions 
during the winter months superintc 
a suburban school system where 
University does some of its demons^ 
tion work and teacher training. 

gram. The film stimulates 
jHi]:)il to creatixe acti\ity in 
and iiuisic. Teachers commen 
favorably on the symbolism j 

Hidi School Students 

High school students likev 
enjoyed it, particularly bccaus 
so well illustrates blend, enur 
tion, intonation, tempo varia 
and use of sustained tonal efl 
Students at this grade level 

— Pupil Covitnents— ~ 

I enjoyed the picture very much. It had i)cauliful scenery and llic 
colors all blended together very well. The words and the singing 
helped to explain the story and made it more interesting. (Grade 7) 

I liked the figures because they looked holy and solemn. The snow 
fell so gracefully and looked clean and while. 1 liked the picture of 
Christ in the little cradle. (Grade 5) 

I like the film because it had lots of color and the singing was 
smooth and sweet. The scenery was placed very beautifully and the 
color was gorgeous. (Grade 4) 

I was on the sleigh ride too. I felt cold. It also made mc think 
of going to church. (Grade 3) 

Pag* 20 

December — SEE and i 

[icularly interested in these course, be the creative part of a 

ic showing ot this fihn slioulcl 

Ibe substituted for actual pu- 

)articipation in a Christmas 

ram. Cliildren should, of 

program to make it worth-while 
to them. However, this film is a 
fine touch to add to any school 
entertainment at holiday time be- 
cause of the inspiration it offers 
both artistically and musically. 


le town of Bethlehem, How still we see thee lie, 
re thy deep and dreamless sleep the silent stars go by; 
^n thy dark streets shineth the everlasting light, 

lopes and fears of all the years are met in thee tonight. 

!Ihrist is born of Mary, and gathered all above, 
|e mortals sleep, the angels keep their Avatch of wond'ring love. 

)rning stars together, proclaim the holy birth, 
[praises sing to God the King, and peace to men on earth. 

silently, how silently, the wondrous gift is given; 

od imparts to human hearts the blessings of His heaven. 

ar may hear his coming, but in this world of sin, 

e meek souls will receive Him still, the dear Christ enters in. 

y Child of Bethlehem, descend to us we pray, 
^^out our sin, and enter in, Be born in us today. 

ear the Christmas angels, the great glad tidings tell; 
e to us, abide with us, our Lord Emmanuel. 

d HEAR— December 

Page 21 


Henry J. Queen 

Montauk Junior High School, Brooklyn 

Editor's Note: The problem of evaluation will always be with us. 
Many and varied are the proposals indicating how the evaluotion of teach- 
ing materials should be accomplished. In this instance, a film on a very 
much discussed topic, PEACE ON EARTH, was chosen. This film shows in 
animation and color a situation in which man, through his continual war- 
fare, succeeds in exterminating himself. The follies of man's actions are 
then discussed around the fireplace on Christmas eve among a family of 
squirrels. Old grandfather squirrel reminisces and repeats the story of 
mon's extermination to the rest of the family. 

It was used by Henry J. Queen of the Montauk Junior High School 
in Brooklyn with a group of junior high school children. After they viewed 
the film, they discussed its contents for one-half hour. When they returned 
to school after the week-end, during which time they hod a chance to 
organize their thoughts on the subject, they wrote the very candid com- 
ments which follow. 

After reading this report, I believe many of us will say, "We should 
conduct our evaluation in a regular classroom situation so thot teachers 
and pupils may bring their thoughts together and, through the interoction 
of their ideas, make a more volid estimate." 

FOR those of us who have been 
involved in the evahiation of 
textbooks and similar materials 
for classroom use, the idea of 
evaluating fdms presents scxeral 
problems. In evaluating text- 
l)ooks, we have learned about the 
j)rintcd materials in our field 
jUiaduailv and (onlinuouslv dur- 

Page 22 

ing the (oiuse of our lead 
careers. Today, however, we 
becoming increasingly inten 
in visual materials. ^Vhen im 
gating them, we are confroi 
by a great number of films fo" 
j)urposes and of many oi 
with which wc ha\e had shoi 
quain!ance; intleed, how toj 

December— SEE an*| 

luc l)ciui aajuaintccl with them 
imains ihc (|uc.sti()n. 

. lUnHkt textbooks or sets of 
lips, (ihns cannot be skimnied 
iroii,t;h. Fihns do not permit 
luiubing througli tables of con- 
tits or o])ening sentences. In 
sort, there is no substitute for 
S'ing through the entire length 
n the film. 

A question that arises is the 

■ rrnner of seeing the film for the 

fst time. Should wc preview 

tose materials in teacher com- 

•jiUtees after school, or should we 

pempt to bring them right in 

itj classroom situation where we 

iiy talk them over with the chil- 

pn? We certainly should not al- 

V the students to influence se- 

i tion by every whim that strikes 

1 in, but rather we should heed 

• sincere and solid opinions 

It some youngsters are capable 


he statements ^vhich follow 
e the written reactions of 12 
[lividual junior high school stu- 

ts to the film Peace On Earth. 

ause of Hoard of Education 
lations prohibiting the use of 
pil names in connection with 
Jorts emanating from the Mon- 

k school, these pupil reactions 
1 ha\e to remain anonymous. 

"I think that the picture was very 
utiful and had a fine musical Ijack- 
nd. It was smart to start the pic- 
on Christmas Eve. It gave a feeling 
,ce and contentment." 

At the introduction, the contrast 
een the weapons of war and the 
'Py people is very good. The quick- 

and HEAR — December 

iRss ol ihc disasters of war are filmed 
well. At the end the rel)ui!ding of the 
weapons of war into means of peace is 
a mcss;ige to every American. I he ctlect 
at the end leaves a lump in your throat 
and the hope that there will never be 
aiiotlur war." 

3. "I think that Peace On Earth was 
a very worth-while picture to show in 
the classroom. It is meant to show how 
lucky the human race is that it has re- 
alized in time how futile war is. It 
shows that if the human race could be- 
come extinct, there would be no more 
war. It is worth-while to show Peace On 
Earth to children because they should 
know what is going on in the world." 

4. "This picture should not only be 
shown to civics classes, but to students 
of all ages. The Bible, I thought, was 
brought in very cleverly. A great prophet 
once said that all our tools of war 
should be converted to tools of farming. 
Our parents have already taken steps to 
prevent future wars. But we, the future 
citizens cannot carry out these plans in- 
telligently if we don't fully realize the 
value of peace. If we have many films 
of this sort teaching the young genera- 
tion how much peace means to them, we 
may at last have peace on earth." 

5. "This is one of the best short films 
I have ever seen in school. It is in tech- 
nicolor and with sound, which is not an 
ordinary occurrence in school. I think 
it portrays vividly what will finally hap- 
pen to the human race if wars continue. 
It is a picture easy to understand by 
everybody; and in my opinion it is very 
profitable to show it." 

(). "This fdm, which ^vas shown to our 
class on Friday, should not be shown 
to civics classes in school. The moral of 
this film is that if we all work together 
we will have j^eace on earth. Through- 
out this war most people have been 
working shoulder to shoulder to attain 
and keep peace. Therefore, I think this 
picture is outdated, and shouldn't be 
shown to civics students." 

7. "I didn't think this was a worth- 
while picture. I don't like the idea of 
including Christmas with war. Christmas 

Page 23 

is supposed to be peaceful and war is 
anything ')ut that. 1 don't think it 
stressed its point very well and I didn't 
like how the war was brought in. Ihey 
didn't show cnougli horrors of war to 
have an effect on anyone. I thought the 
part where the people rebuilt the city 
was worth-while as it tics up with us in 
the present time. I also like the color 
and how it started off." 

8. "The rdni is made so that the story 
remains in your memory. I think it is 
an excellent way to teach tolerance and 
a way to enforce the 'code.' If the rules 
were made into fdms like this one, 1 
think we would be enforcing the 'code.' 
Children of all ages will secure readily 
any information given throiigh such en- 
joyable channels." 

9. "The discovery of the atomic bomb 
makes this picture very realistic because 
the bomb is capable of wiping out 
humanity as the picture shows. Al- 
though the characters may have been 
childish, the thought behind the picture 
was not. Instead of making iiouses out 
of helmets, we will rebuild Europe." 

10. "Its something out of the ordinary 
because a first-rate movie company 
made the film for school consumption. 
Peace On Ilnrlh is really wonderful. It 
should be translated into different lan- 
guages. It is ciucriaining, yet education- 
al and a gooil clean film whicli stresses 
all good things on earth. More films like 
iliis sliould l)e made." 

11. "As far as I can sec. the average 
9B student will (jonfuse the issue and 
too many luiplcasant trains of thought 
will l)e opened for the pupil. We will 
be the future citizens of ilie world and 
I think it is wise to get us to believe 
that man will be the cause of his own 
ilownfali if wars continue. A jjicturc ex- 
plaining this simply and not too harshly 
without leaving room for wrong con- 
clusions to l)e reached, will serve the 
purpose well." 

12. "I think that this film Peace On 
luirth is very worth-while and loft in my 
mind the thought that there must never 

Page 24 


Mr. Queen has taught mathcmatic 
and gerTeral science in the New Yor! 
city schools. At present he is chainnai 
of the visual aids department of Mon! 
tank junior High School and is ajJ 
engaged as an instructor of physicsi 
Cooper Union evening school of eug 
nccring. He is very much interested! 
ilcveloping administrative procedure 
that will insure maximum cfficienqr 
\isual instruction. 

be another war, and that there shoul 
be an everlasting peace. This film, 
though a cartoon, is not childish, i 
I think .shoulil be shown in schools 
present this thought to school children 

The evaluation of Pence 
Earth was acconii)lishetl in a typ; 
cal classroom situation. Yon ha\ 
read the pnpil rtat tions. In g( ; 
cral, the teacher consensus (tin 
teachers observed the class discii, 
sion) was that this picture v 
technically well done - its col, 
its general arrangement made i 
entertaining. The primary obi 
live of tliis film seems to be tl. 
of moti\ati()n if not just eiii' 
tainment. Us use in the ci\i 
classroom could be justified on, 
on the basis of anti-war prop 
ganda which the film inchul< 
In this respect the film con 
do some good. ■ 

In general, the teachers did n| 
agree with the impression whi^' 
ihc film gives that the hinuan i i 
will be wiped out as the re^ 
of continuous warfare. Likevi 
they thought that the film ten 
to over-simi)lify the catises of w: 
It minimi/es the evils of politu 
machinations and completely 

December— SEE and 



nr s liic possibility of idealism 
•fA. ing a role. 

inallv, our reactions to all 
should be examined. Do we 
it films to accomplish the 
ling job, or are we going to 
)t them as supplements to 
ing situations? This film may 
!j;ood motivation to the study 

of the possibility of man obtain- 
ing political plans and organiza- 
tions which Avill lead to peace. 
The fdm cannot be thought of 
as containing one bit of informa- 
tion other than that which raises 
the question of what man's re- 
sponsibility must be in attempt- 
ing to solve the problems of war 
and peace. 

To the reader: You have been a bystander to the evaluation of the 
film Peace On Earth. A brief description of the film was given you, 
or perhaps you have seen the film. How would you evaluate this 
I ; film now that you have heard from the children and the teacher? 
i Please let us have your reactions. If you are interested to the extent 
' of securing the film's use, please indicate your wish to the editors 
and we will attempt to secure a copy for you. 

" Delinacopy"—An Interesting Map Project 

A YEAR ago in a junior high school, we undertook an experiment 
in the making of maps in the geography classes. It was an op- 
i ponunity to see if enough interest and activity could be aroused so 
that geography classes would be more than formal reading and recita- 
! tion. 

I chose an 8-A geography class because it was comprised of a 
heterogeneous group— pupils of low and high I.Q.'s. The question of 
map making was put up to the pupils with the remark that 99 per cent 
of the work would necessarily have to be done after school, before 
school, and during the noon hour. The response was highly grati- 
fying. There were many more volunteers than we could use at any 
: one time. 

Paint brushes were ordered, shovsxard paints were obtained, and I 
had a plentiful supply of cardboard 21"x27". A delineascope was 
used to project the maps chosen for enlargement. Following the guide, 
the outlines were traced on the cardboard, rivers were roughed in, 
and later when time permitted, the details were added. 

It was interesting to note that pupils who were lax in classroom 
discussion were among the first to volunteer to participate. As a result 
of their participation in map making, these same pupils noticeably 
took a more active part in class discussion. 

—Norman L. Wittkop 

SEE and HEAR is the journal for both administrators and class- 
room teachers ... a visualization of what is being done in audio- 
visual education in schools all over the country ... a month by 
month magazine of ideas and inspiration. Big things are ahead 
for 1946 issues. Don't miss them. 

HEAR— December 

Page 25 

Editor's Note: During the 
and particularly since its closc*i 
hove been poying increasing o n- 
tion to our neighbors to the 
and to the south. Mrs. Bl 
Corey and Mr. Cor! GernetI^ 
port on the opportunity to brin •■ 
formation about Canadion chi w 
to children in Council Bluffs th ^ 
the medium of a well-prepared * 

Carl Gl•RNF.T/K^ 

Principal, Bloomer School, Couficil Blujjs, Iowa 

EVERY DAY wc add new cxi- 
dcncc in supjjoi t of learning 
by seeing and hearing. We are so 
convinced that such learning is 
(■fTcrti\c, that today we inxcsiigatc 
cxcry opportunity lor bringing in- 
to our classrooms every means 
which Avill bring into active play 

Page 26 

the visual and auditory scr>r 
mechanism of the child. 

Unless we inehulc in they«il 
c li i 1 d ' s experience cveryt ii| 
available in learning dex i' 
further good learning ( xp 
we are falling slujri of oui 
sibility. Passing on, yen 

December — SEE'onc 



Films are val- 
uable learning 
(1 c \ i c e s. B II I 
guidance, en- 
c: o u r a g e m e n t , 
a n (1 leadership 
still remain the 
res|)onsi!)iliiy of 
tiie teacher. 

1, the accumulated informa- 
1 of the past is not enough. We 
St present and interpret the 
lurcs of all nationalities to our 

There is a popular notion that 
n we bring moving pictures 
• the classroom, they become a 
lime or a fun-time. This must 
be the case. We must use the 
I as any other supplementary 
e of teaching equipment. We 
iild apply to the use of the 
1 the same tested teaching 
iniques that ue have used in 
other day-to-day classroom 
ik. W^e ha\e discovered that, 

I HEAR— December 

in using the film, only seeing it 
is not sufficient. We have to antic- 
ipate, we have to set the "stage," 
and we can do that in numerous 
ways which will result in an im- 
proved learning experience. Let 
us follow the technique of one 
teacher in presenting a classroom 
film, French-Canadian Children* 

The teacher had asked for this 
film, along with many others last 
spring, so that it could be coor- 
dinated with the film rental pro- 
gram for the ensuing year. The 
film was previewed before it was 
to be used. At this preview the 
film study sheet, which had been 

Page 27 

ordered with this film, was also 
used. Had there been time, the 
teacher could have arranged her 
own vocabulary list, questions, 
and discussion outline to follow 
in presenting the lesson. Even 
when study sheets are available, as 
they are for many films, the teach- 
er should still preview the pic- 

When the class met the follow- 
ing morning, the regular program 
was followed. The actual teaching 
procedure follows: 

Teacher: We have studied French- 
Canadian children, and how they live. 
We have seen some pictures about how 
they dress and what they do. It would 
be nice if we could take a trip to visit 
these children so that we could actually 
see and hear them. We can't do that, 
but we can do the next best thing and 
that is to see a motion picture of a 
French-Canadian family. But first there's 
a job we must do. Look at your study 
sheets. Be sure that page 1 is up. That 
is the side we want to look at first. Let 
us read the column on the left. 

"Canada is one of our closest neigh- 
bors, and yet we know so little about it. 
Very few of us know that Canada is 
much larger in size than the United 
States. It is larger by more than half a 
million square miles. As we travel 
northward, we come to the imaginary 
line, the 49th degree of latitude, which 
extends all the way from the Pacific 
Ocean to Minnesota. From here, this 

Getting ready to see a film is just ^ 
as essential as introducing the next 
chapter in the study unit. To sec a 
film without first anticipating its 
showing would be a great error. 

line follows the Great Lakes eastward 
This imaginary line is the border be- 
tween Canada and the United States. 

"Not as many people live in Cana^ 
as in the United States. For every 1 
persons in the United States, there i 
only one person in Canada. This meat' 
that the total population of Canada 
a little more than eleven million. Mi 
of the people of Canada live within 
four-hundred-mile strip along the south 
cm border. In the eastern part of thi 
strip live the French-Canadians. 

"The French-Canadians, three milli 
of them, or about as many people 
live in the state of Wisconsin, are 
"island" of French-speaking people 
an English-speaking world. The f 
Frenchman came to this area of Quel 
four hundred years ago. In that vt 
the land along the St. Lawrence Ri 
was claimed by Jacques Carticr for 
own country, France. He found that i 
shores of the St. Lawrence were covci 

* French-Canadian Children, 
sound, black and white. 
Britannica Films. 

Page 28 

11 minutes. 


•1 h great forests in wliich fur-bearing 

a inals lived and that the St. Lawrence 
mers abouiulcd with fish. 

'Many French people came to this 
Iv land. They became traders and 
)pers and farmers. Ihey came to 
I, settle the land, clear the forests, 
I, and build cities. The descendants 
Ithese people call themselves French- 
ladians. The fdm you will see is 
^ut one of these French -Canadians." 

Teacher then refers to a map of 
\\\'orth America to orient the chil- 
'Ken in the location of Canada and 
VJie position of the border. 

eacher: Now let us study some of 
new words we will meet in the film. 
V, what do you think a box stove 
ss like? 

idy: It looks like a box. It keeps the 
ise warm— they bake in it too. 

[j'faf/icr; We'll watch and see. Cyn- 
j, what do you think a spile is? 

No answer.) 

Teacher: Let's look in our diction 
aries. . . . 

(The entire list of about ten words, 
box stove, ecolc, hooked rugs, maple 
sugar, Province of Quel)ec, St. Law- 
rence River, snowshoes, spile, and zero 
cold, is discussed for meaning pro 
nounced, and spelled. Then:) 

Teacher: We should be on the look- 
out for the following important things 
that we will see in the picture. Joe, 
read the first question. 

Joe (reading): Where do these French - 
Canadian people live? In what ways are 
they very much the same as we are? 
How are they different from us? 

(The children note six other things 
to look for in the film, which in- 

1. Compare the homes of the French- 
Canadian children with your home. 
Compare the kitchens. 

2. Are your school experiences like those 
of the children you saw in the film? 

3. How is maple syrup made? Tell all 

Assignment, too, is an essential responsibility preceding a 
film showing. In fairness to the children in their eagerness 
to learn, they must be given the opportunity to know what 
their responsiliilities are. 

and HEAR— December 

Paga 29 

First-hand experience and experiences through par- 
ticipating in film jonrneys to other lands, build valuable 
backgrounds of understo7iding and information. Both 
give childrc7i the opportunity to express their ideas, their 
x'ieiopoints. Both allow valid attitudes to be developed. 


Carl Gcrnetzky is principal of Bloom- 
er Junior High School, Council BlufTs, 
Iowa. He is a graduate of Stout Insti- 
tute, receiving his M.A. in 1940. Twelve 
years prior to coming to Bloomer School, 
lie taught printing at Thomas Jefferson 
High School in Council Bluffs and at 
the junior high school in Chippewa 
Falls, Wisconsin. 

He has been quite active in amateur 
photography ancl has made 2x2 slides, 
both in black and white and in koda- 
chrome. In 1940 he directed the first 
Visual Education Clinic in Southwest 

the different steps in making syrup. 

4. Is it snowy, cold and winter-like all 
during the whole year where these chil- 
dren live? How does the climate there 
compare with the climate where voii 

f). Would these French-Canadian chil- 
dren make good neighbors? 

f). Compare the way your parents get 
food and clothing with the way Laur- 
cllc's parciUs get theirs. Wli;ii dilferciue 
docs this make? 

Tcactier: Now, if you boys will draw 
the shades, we will take our trip to visit 
a French-Canadian family. 

The fdm I'nurtiCauadian Children 
is shown. At the end of the fdm the 
children relax for a minute or so. 
Teacher: Now, let's sec how well we 
remember what we saw in the picture. 

Evaluation is a Acry necessary 
part of any teaching cxpcTicncc. 
It may be accomplished through 
discussion or through formal or 
informal testing situations, but 
unless e\aluation is made, there is 

Pag* 30 

no possibility of checking tlu 
learning accomplished. Througl 
discussion of the questions t( 
which the children initially se 
out to discover solutions, it is pos' 
sible to evaluate the extent u 
which each child formed impri 
sions— either correct or incorrct. 

A film is similar to any oiln 
learning material. If evaluatior 
proves the need for further study 
the film should be used again. I 
the need for re-showing is n 
present, then lesson plans shouiv 
be made accordingly. Wisely uso<' 
films bring our world to us. Wii 
good films our environment i 
placed before us— through tli 
looking glass— quite the reverse < 
Carroll's heroine, but much luoi 


World We Want to Live In 

(Sound) 10 minutes. Use: Son 
Studies I; Civics J: U. S. Histoty 
Clubs J, A. 

AVFRY tiignified plea is made f 
undt-rstandiiig and tolerance 
llic other fellows viewpoint. Tl 
excellent film can be usctl in situatio 
where inicrgroup relationships are Ixrii 
studied and di.scu.sscd. It shows i! 
viewpoints of the I'rotestant, the Cat 
olic, and the Jew, as well as the vie 
points of heretofore conflicting natior 
groups being l)rought together on t 
basis of mutual understanding. Nation 
Conference nf Christians and Jews. ^ 
your nearest film library. 

December — SEE and ] 


^ I 1 1 / n / i/. 


Lt. W. H. Durr 

Office r-in-Chnrge, Training Aids Section, NTS, 
Norfolk, Virginia 

Editor's Note: The impetus given to learning by seeing and hearing 
through the use of visual and auditory materials by the armed forces has 
i contributed more to public education than we realize. So often we take 
for granted that everyone will use these materials efficiently, that fre- 
quently we overlook the responsibility of mentioning the steps involved in 
the presentation of a visuol learning situation. We can take a cue from 
Lt. Durr's very simple device, perhaps even to the extent of making copies 
of our own for use in our classrooms. 


ORDER to direct more at- 

cntion to the "before" and 

?r" phases of instruction with 

d films and fihiistrips, the 

or developed the chart, 


OUR WISELY. Originally, 

art was dexeloped for the 

f Trainino; -Aids Officers in 

asi/ing for Xa\y instructors 

ct that any period of instruc- 

involving the use of training 

'; should include three phases: 

aration. Presentation, and 

>w-up. The concept of the 

I element, indicated by the 

of a clock, underscores the 

' for apportioning to each 

i nd HEAR— December 

j)hasc an adccpiate amount of in- 
structional time. 

Obviously the chart neither pic- 
tures the teacher preparation (se- 
lection, procurement, previewing, 
lesson planning, arranging seat- 
ing, preparing equipment and 
room conditions) that precedes 
the instructional hour, nor the 
teacher acti\itv that follows the 
instructional hoin\ Also, it nuist 
not be assumed from the chart 
that the three phases should cover 
approximately ecjual periods of 
lime. The amount of time al- 
lowed for preparation, for exam- 
ple, would depend upon such fac- 

Page 31 





The chart has been used successfully with many groups of Navy 
instructors, it has resulted in better understanding of the three 
phases of using instructional materials: PREPARATION, PRESENTA- 
TION, and FOLLOW-UP. Actuolly, its lesson is not limited to train- 
ing films, but has application to all situations in which instructional 
materials ore used. Good teachers recognize thot, to increase the 
effectiveness of instructional materials, it is necessary to "Plan Your 
Instructional Hour Wisely." 

tors as the purpose for the show- who then were urged to obi 
ing, the student background and the following guides. 
j)ievious training, and the diffi- 
culty of niaiciial to be covered. 

The chart was actually used as 
a visual reminder to the teachers 

Paga 32 


The students must be prof 
"prepared" if they are to or 
maximum value from the si 

December— SEE and tA* 

» of training or educational 
US. A student once told the au- 
)r that the third time he saw 
Oarticular training fdni was the 
U time he "got anything out 
lit": and it was brouglit out in 
thcr questioning that just prior 
<the third showing was the first 
lie that an instructor had told 
111 the purpose for seeing the 
\(i and exactly what he was to 
dk for. 

nstructors may indicate the 

^nts of information to look for. 

jcse may be either in the form 

simple statements or questions, 

both. These assigned learning 

bs" should be consistent with 

objectives for showing the 

a. Only important points 

luld be indicated and their 

nber should be kept relatively 

"ill for any one showing. Teach- 

n guides developed for use with 

E'^.y training films usually list 
r to six points to look for with 
i^lve being the outside maxi- 

I 'he practice of giving a pretest 
)re using training films tends 
>[ocus attention further on es- 
siial points to be covered in the 
ll showing. 

istructors should give prelim- 
■y instruction on vocabulary, 
holism, or other difTicuhies 

Bmay be encountered in the 
, in order to insure better un- 
^landing of the material. 


he actual showing of a film 
nds on the objectives of the 

HEAR— December 

lesson. If used to introduce a top- 
ic, it is good policy to run the 
whole film without interruption. 
When the film will be used dur- 
ing the study of the topic, it may 
be effective to run only those sec- 
tions of the film which are need- 
ed. Stop the film to give projected 
stills, or turn off the sound to per- 
mit instructor or student com- 
mentary, if this will emphasize or 
make clear the important facts or 
operations to be learned. 

Satisfactory presentation de- 
mands good ventilation and prop- 
er room temperature. Seating 
must allow all to have a clear 
view of the screen. During the 
presentation, the operator should 
control the volume of the speaker 
so that it is loud enough for all 
to hear. 


The "after" phase of using in- 
structional materials is the "fol- 
low-up." This is the period which 
serves to "clinch" the learnings 
acquired from the film. The "fol- 
low-up" may include discussion of 
the points to look for as brought 
out in the presentation, clarifica- 
tion of any misunderstandings 
from the presentation, summari- 
zation by instructor or students, a 
test over material coxered in the 
film, drill on actual equipment, 
etc. While certain phases of the 
follow-up must come immediately 
after the showing of the film and 
xvithin the same instructional 
hour, the long time follow-up, 
such as drill and review, may ex- 
tend over into the days to follow. 
Lt. IF. H. Durr. 

Pago 33 

Velda M. VV^illiams 

Horace Mann Laboraloiy School 

Pittsburg, Kansas State Teachers College 

Editor's Note: Miss Velda Williams describes the many interesting 
ways in which she helps her children understand their immediote environ- 
ment. This, of course, is one of the first responsibilities which teachers 
have to children as they enter their formal school experience. Only upon 
wide backgrounds of experience does facility in language expression and in 
reading develop. 

TIIK three L's arc the threc- 
hine modern higlnvay to the 
tliree R's, and when om- six-year- 
olds start the jouiniy in the fnst 
f^rade lA the lloiacf Mann 
oratory Seliool at Kansas State 
IVachers College in Pittsburg, 
Kansas, they are eiuonraged to 
look — to listen — to \i\v. This 
represents the philoso|)hy under- 
lying the daily acti\ities and ex- 
jK-rieiKcs whidi take phuc at 
s( hool. 

-Adhering to the premises ihai 
the (hild karns best through ex- 
ploring and experiencing, through 
seeing and hearing, and from di- 
rect (ontact with his social and 

Page 34 

natural environment, the te;i 
stresses the use of visual and a li 
tory^ aids. In so far as pos- 
real life situations are prox 
both inside and outsitle the > 

The children are taken oi 
cmsions to secure firsthand i 
maiion. They are incouragi i« 
bring specimens anil ol)jects "« 
the classroom for close obs 
tion antl study. Extensive u i 
made f)f bulletin boards. l> 
i)oards, books, charts, pici 
slides and stereoscopic view 
Keystone lantern and a Bal)ti 
(on are a\ailable. These i^ 
jjossible the use of a wealth o 

December — SEE ^i"' 




\Vc looked aboui 
IIS aiul saw a rain- 
how. What was it? 
^\'c didn't know! 
But we were very 
curious. So, we 
found out from 
stories, from books, 
from pictures, and 
even from a flower 

I ble and timely materials such 
pictures from magazines, news- 
[)ers, textbooks, and post cards, 

•iich are projected upon a 



jIThe program is centered around 
inherent interests and prob- 
of the children, taking ad- 
itage of the events and inci- 
its as they occur spontaneously 
|1 naturally day by day. The 
jldren's curiosity concerning 
)ple, plants, animals, rocks, 
ither, airplanes, and such 
igs becomes the area of inter- 
the basis of units of study, 
the core of the curriculum. 


id J 

jVlthough such a program is ini- 
fted incidentally, it is by no 
fjans developed accidentally or 
a haphazard fashion. The 
ler acts as interpreter and co- 
mator as well as guide and 
Knselor. Her function primarily 

1 HEAR— December 

is one of "helping the child to 
help himself." She has in mind 
definite and specific goals of 
achievement. She emphasizes those 
points of interest which are most 
worth while and valuable in 
extending and enriching the ex- 
periences and concepts of the 
child. She endeavors to direct the 
thinking and the doing so that 
these goals may be accomplished 
pleasantly and successfully. 

Some of the inost vital, desired 
pupil achievements are: 

1. Cultivation of an acquisitive interest 
in people and things. 

2. A comprehensive background of in- 
formation, concepts, and understandings 
which enable the child to interpret, ap- 
preciate, and function efTectively in his 
social and natural environment. 

3. Habits of alert and accurate observa- 
tion and listening. 

4. Good speech habits— to speak distinct- 
ly and interestingly with ease and free- 
dom before a group. 

Page 35 

5. Freedom and ability to ask good 
questions as well as to answer intelli- 

6. Self-responsibility in finding the an- 
swers and the solutions to his own ques- 
tions and problems— emphasis being 
placed upon evaluation— the use of crit- 
ical judgment, the securing of true facts, 
and sequential organization of ideas. 

7. A broad background of experience 
which enables the child to react readily 
and efficiently. 

8. An extensive meaning and speaking 
vocabulary. A good basic reading vocab- 

9. Intelligent self-control and self-direc- 
tion emphasizing social and emotional 

In Older to broaden the scope 
of interest, experience, and under- 
standing and to facilitate the 
learning, the room is equipped 
and arranged according to "Cen- 
ters of Interest." These inchide 
the Library, Question and Answer 
Corner, Science Center, Health 
and Safety Unit, Daily News 
Bulletin, Weather Observations, 
Around the World Exhibit, Mov- 
ing Picture Show, Radio Broad- 
casting Station, Games Center, 
and the Art and Workshop Units. 

The "Library" features books 
of the infoiniational tyj)e, partic- 
ularly related to social and natu- 
ral science such as: Home and 
family, community helpers, health 
and safety, farm life, city life, peo- 
ple of other countries, animals, 
plants, birds, insects, food, cloth- 
ing, travel, and transportation. 
They are largely big picture books 
and easy realistic story material 
presented on the primary level of 
difficulty. Many opportunities are 
provitied each day for free use of 

Pao* 36 

the library. The children are c 
couraged to browse through tj 
books in search of interesting n*' 
tcrials, sometimes solely for reel- 
ation and at other times for inf«ii 
mation to help them answer Sj| 
cific questions such as: Wljj 
makes the rainbow? What mal, 
the leaves turn red and yello 
How do the bees make hon>i 
The teacher leads the children 
realize and appreciate the va | 
of good books as a source of > 
formation. The following disc i 
sion is a typical example of st 
guidance. I 

Teacher: I have a report today. It ii 
about something very beautiful whic 
saw as I came to school this mornin) 
shall print my report on the blackbo 1 
I should like to have you read this It 
die and see if you can guess what I : 

They were white. 
They were up in the sky 
They looked like little white sh 
What did I see? 

Pupils: Clouds. 

Teacher: Yes, I saw lovely clou 
over the sky. Tliey looked like a 
flock of sheep on a blue hill. They 
me think of this poem whicii I le; 
wlicn 1 was a little girl. (Refers loj 
jjoem printed on a chart and post 
the bulletin Ijoard.) 

White sheep, white sh 
On a blue hill. 
When the wind stops 
You all stand still. 
AVhen the wind blows, 
You walk away slow, « 
White sheep, white sh 
Where do you gof' 

Teacher: Can you answer the 
child's question? Where do the 

Pupil: They keep on moving until ley 
get out of sight. 

Teacher: What makes the clOuds n 

Pupil: The wind blows them alonp 

Docombor — SEE ond 



wet 1 



< hrr: What are the clouds? 

■i; They arc smoke. 
I think they arc hig piles of snow 

in the sky. 

'her: .Arc you sure? We don't want 
iiess. We might guess wrong. How 
we find out what the clouds really 

n: I will ask my daddy. 

1/y; My brother is a pilot. He goes 
ugh the clouds sometimes when he 

icher: That will be a very good way 
find out about the clouds. But we 
e something in our room that can 
us now. 

'>i7; Maybe we can find it in a book. 

\tr: Yes, books help to answer our 
itions. What kinds of books tell 
ut clouds? 

■n: I have a Book of Knowledge at 
iiiie. I will bring it to school. 
: I have a book that tells everything. 
s a big book. It is called a 'cyclo- 
ia. I think my mother will let me 
i^g it to school. 

cher: Those are good books. Jim, 

r book is called an e-ncyclopedia. It 

j answer many of our questions. We 

1 be glad if you will share your 

ivs with us. Today I placed some 

[ice books on our "Look and Learn" 

John, Margaret, Don, and Carol, 

se look through them and see if you 

find some stories about clouds. Put 

vinarks in the right places and lay 

books on the "Report Table." I will 

them to you at story hour. Now 

all give you some paper. Draw a 

ly picture showing the white clouds 

iie blue sky. ^Ve shall select one to 

e on our chart to illustrate the 


yhen a child finds something 
[•resting in the library, he may 
to show and explain the pic- 
I'S, or he may ask the teacher 
a^ead it to the class. When he 
S^iops sufficient reading matu- 
li he is encouraged to read or 
^ill the story to the group. As 

nd HEAR— December 

the pupils ad\aiue in ability and 
interests, new materials are added 
to the library to fit the exer-ex- 
panding needs. 

The "Question and Answer 
Corner" is a unit often called our 
"Look and Learn" table. It con- 
sists of a large table and a bidle- 
tin board. Books, pictures, new's 
clippings, and stereoscopic views 
are displayed which relate to a 
subject of special and timely in- 
terest to the group. Questions 
which have been asked by the 
children are printed on charts and 
placed on the bulletin board, or 
they may be written on cardboard 
strips and put in our question 
box. The children investigate and 
locate the desired information. 
Bright colored bookmarks are 
available. When a child finds the 
information, he inserts a book- 
mark and places the book on the 
"Report Table" in readiness for 
the "Reporting Class" or "Story 
Hour." He locates the material 
largely from picture clues until 
he is sufficiently advanced to read 
the content independently. Some- 
times the information is printed 
on cards and put in our answer 
box to provide supplementary 
reading materials. It may be 
printed on charts or in a class 

The "Science Center" includes 
a large glass exhibit case (a dis- 
carded show case secured from a 
store) which is our museum, an 
exhibit table where the children 
place their specimens and objects 
for display and study, and an 
aquariimi. Pictures and charts 

Page 37 

(oncerning natural science are ar- 
ranged on the bulletin board 
above the table. The wonders o[ 
the outside world are brought in- 
to the classroom, therefore this 
center is designated as our "Won- 
ilcrland." It is most stimulating, 
challenging and extremely fasci- 
nating. Many new things are con- 
tributed each day. These offer a 
constant source of experience as 
well as academic achievement. 

In the "Health and Safety Cen- 
ter" -we ha\e pictmes, charts, 
jjostcrs, books, news clippings, 
and objects relating to health and 
safety. The teacher takes advan- 
tage of real situations to stress the 
actual application of health and 
safety information. Exhibits such 
as "A Good Breakfast" or "Foods 
That Help to Make Good Teeth" 
are displayed. Charts and posters 
such as "Ways to Play Safe at 

Home, At School, and on 
Street" are presented on the bu 
tin board. A mirror, a nail 
and a box of Kleenex are pro\ 
ed to encourage personal cleai 
ness, sanitation, and glooming, 
first-aid kit is also available 
children are taught simple aspt 
of first aid. 

For a "Daily News Bulle 
some significant events of the jl 
vious day are printed on 1'' 
sheets of news print. Since 
news bidletin is read each ni< i 
ing, we call it "The Mornij 
Sun." It may be a record of S' »> 
individual or group experi 
which occurred either insidi 
outside the classroom. Chili 
arc cncoinaged to bring in ii 
esting and worth-while lur 
interest stories, news clippi 
and pictures from magazines n 
newspapers. These are jjrintciir 


What happens today— 
that's news. And when 
it happens so we can 
sec it, we can talk 
about it— so, we un- 
destand it. 

Pag* 38 

Here's our own 
in o V i e. VVc 
made it. It tells 
about the birds 
\\c liave seen. 




r news bulletin, pasted in a 

apbook, or displayed on the 

Iletin board. This offers an ex- 

sive and attracti\e medium for 

dental reading experiences. 

casionally, the children take 

me a mimeographed reproduc- 

n of the "Morning Sun" to 

id to their parents. This is an 

cellent means of informing the 

rents concerning school activi- 

This miniature newspaper 

:Iudes items of special interest 

ut each child as well as reports 

group experiences. It is com- 

ed and organized by the pupils 

th the teacher acting as printer 

■ editor. 

The "Weather Observations 
i Cnter" is particularly attractive 
t the children. The changes in 
father and seasons are a signifi- 
icit part of the child's environ- 
4rnt. He is curious about the 
n, snow, fog, wind, and sun. 
Ve teacher takes advantage of 
first rainy, snowy, foggy, or 
idy day to emphasize the caus- 
ed residts of such phenomena. 

land.HEAR— December 

Weather changes are observed 
and recorded on the calendar or 
weather chart. Experiments are 
performed, such as observing the 
evaporation of water from a wet 
cloth, watching ice melt, and see- 
ing water form on the outside of 
a glass of ice water. The ther- 
mometers (indoors and outdoors) 
are read at the opening and clos- 
ing of each school day, and the 
temperatures arc recorded on the 
weather chart. 

An "Around the World Ex- 
hibit" is popular. The war, the 
airplane, the radio, and the mov- 
ies ha\e greatly enhanced the 
child's horizon. The six-year-old 
of today is a world-conscious in- 
dividual. His span of interest en- 
circles the globe. In many cases, 
the child's father, relatives, or 
friends have been engaged in over- 
seas service. He is curious to know 
about the people and places his 
relatives and friends have visited. 
Countless numbers of articles and 
pictures are brought to school and 
shared with the group. They are 

Page 39 

displayed on a tabic and a bulle- 
tin board which constitute our 
"Around the World Exhibit." 
The children show and explain 
iluir contributions at the report- 
ing class time. A globe is an in- 
triguing part of this unit. Maps 
are also displayed and referred to. 
Objectives pertaining to the sig- 
nificance and appreciation of 
maps as well as a few simple ele- 
ments of map interpretation are 
accomplished during the year. 

One of the most delightful of 
all the classroom activities is the 
making and showing of their own 
"Mo\ing Picture Show." The 
making of the film is a group 
project which invohes very valu- 
able and happy experiences. It 
includes training in selecting, 
evaluating, organizing, planning, 
discussing, setpiential thinking, 
continuity* of ideas; drawing, col- 
oring, painting, oral comjiosition, 
oral expression, and measuring, 
as well as socialization. Some of 
the films are portrayals of favorite 
stories read by the children or 
teacher. The story is divided into 
incidents, each incident constitut- 
ing a shift of scene or action. An 
individual or committee is ap- 
pointed to make each picture. 
The memljeis of the class plan the 
content of the pictures so that 
there will be continuity and se- 
(juence of ideas, colors, sizes, and 
other details. Some films inxolve 
reading as well as pictiues. 

Many represent the culmina- 
tion of a unit of study such as the 
one shown in the picture present- 
ing "Oui l*ii(l rri( luls." Ihe first 

Pag* 40 

part of this film is printed 
formation relating to "How i 
Birds Help Us"; the latter ] 
|)resents twelve pictures of 
most common birtls. \Vhen a : 
is shown, children present i 
sound effects, the speaking p;ii 
and the interpretation of 
story. The mo\ie machine i 
simple cabinet about 46 ini 
high, 30 inches wide, and 10 in 
cs deep. It has an opening at 
top wliich is .24 inches long . 
18 inches wide. The film is li I 
in place by thiunbtacks insci I 
through the [)aj)er and into 
\ertical rods. Ihe rods are lui 
by means of a handle attachci 
each of them. 

Another favorite acti\ity - 
broadcasting o\er our make 
lie\e "Radio Broadcasting 
tion," H.M.L.S. (Horace M 
Laboratory School) . This com 
utes greatly to the training of 
ter speech habits and gooil :i 
ence situations. Incidini. 
much is accomplished in enc 
aging good selection of r. 
programs. Announcing, rcac 
s(ri|)ts, storytelling, news rc] 
ing, weather reporting, sin^ 
music appreciation through 
use of records, and "Inforniai 
Please" programs pro\ ide a v 
\ ariety of experience for pcrfoM* 
ers and listeners. 

The "Games Center" is a f;i 
ite spot dining the free acti 
jicriods. Many games of the i 
cative type are available sud 
puzzles, ring-toss, dominoes, bii 
j)cg boards, colored beads, p. 
dolls, building blocks, tinker I 

December — SEE andl 



< nd bean-bag games. They offer 
my opportunities for number 

Jtpericnces such as counting. 
LXjping scores, reading and writ- 
^g numbers; lor learning the 
eanings of numerical terms, and 
r developing \ isual discrimina- 
an with regard to colors, sizes, 
\d shapes. They also encourage 
cvelopment of manipulation, 
dgnient, self-control, creati\e 
jwession, and social adjustment. 

The "Art Center" is equipped 

th an easel, various sizes of 

wsprint paper, paints, clay, col- 

ied paper, paste, and other es- 

ntial materials. Most of the 

ork evolves from and is integrat- 

W'ith all other classroom activi- 

s. Creative expression is empha- 

ed. Materials are easily accessi- 

:; at all times. Free use of this 

liter is encouraged. The "Work- 

)p" is a part of the art center. 

is the place Avhere the construc- 

n and the building activities 

Giving the use of wood are 

iducted. These also coordinate 

I h all the other classroom activ- 

i!S and units of work. 

The daily program starts with a 
12 activity period at which time 

h child works or plays at some 
livity of his own choice. Also 
ithis time individuals and small 
:<nmittces assume their responsi- 
ilies for locating and preparing 

Iterials for special reports and 

iWties. Children are encourag- 

to use this time to investigate 
find the answers to their 

istions. Although the teacher 
as supervisor and counselor, 

stresses pupil self-reliance and 

nd HEAR— December 


self-responsibility. If the child has 
something to present to the re- 
porting class, he talks it over with 
the teacher. This assures readiness 
both of the teacher and pupil. 
Worth-while selection and proper 
preparedness are emphasized as 
an important part of the child's 

When school is resumed at nine 
o'clock, the children take their 
places ready for the "Reporting" 
class. Each child is given an op- 
portunity to present his contribu- 
tion to the group. The teacher en- 
deavors to emphasize something 
of edticative significance from 
each report such as good social 
attitudes and ideals, health, safe- 
ty, good diction, clear enuncia- 
tion, correct pronunciation, good 
listening habits, free oral expres- 
sion, extension of meaning and 
speaking vocabulary, word recog 
nition, number concepts, reading 
and WTiting numbers, composi- 
tion of story charts and news re- 
ports, and the increase of scientific 
knowledge and general informa- 
tion. The children are always 
eager and enthusiastically respon- 
sive concerning the reports, be- 
cause of the fact that they are 
presenting something of their own 
choice and special interest. 

Real specimens, concrete ob- 
jects, and firsthand experiences 
are used extensively throughout 
the whole program. They are the 
most reliable mediums for devel- 
oping correct concepts and clear 
imderstandings, as well as estab- 
lishing readiness and promoting 

Page 41 

satisfactory progress in all phases 
of the curricuhim. 

The following activities present 
a few typical examples illustrat- 
ing the use of visual aids. These 
arc experiences which ha\e taken 
jjlace during the first six weeks of 
this school year. 

On the first day of school the 
children were taken to the street 

corner to learn to observe f! 
street lights and to cross the su 
safely. Throughout the year, 
take walks to re-eniphasize the < 
servance of safety on the street. 

On the first day of school j 
made a tour of our school bu i 
ing to become acquainted ^ ' 
our en\ironmcnt. We discoxi 
many safety devices such as ( 

How to get to 
school safely? 
That's the ques- 
tion. We went out 
and looked, and 
after we looked, 
we understood 
when it was safe 
to cross the street. 

^ ^ 





Klinguishcrs. fuc-alarni box, and 
re escapes. \Vc emphasi/cd the 
npoitaiue of "Safety First" in 
ie school building. This initiated 
special unit of study concerning 
iifety at school, at home and on 
le street. VVe displayed posters 
id charts showing ways of play- 
ig safe. 

One afternoon a rainbow ap- 

•ared in the sky. The next morn- 

g a child wanted to give a 

rt about it. The teacher sug- 

ted that he make up a riddle 

>out the rainbow to present to 

e class. This was printed on a 

; art: 

/ smu something pretty. 

It was red. 

It u'as blue. 

ft wasyelloiu. - ■ 

It was orange. 

It was violet. 

It xuas green. 

What did I see? 

The question arose, "What 
makes the rainbow?" The chil- 
dren looked through science 
books to find the answer. The 
teacher read the information to 
the class. Later when the children 
were taken for a walk to look for 
rainbow colors, they found them 
in flo^v'er beds, trees, grass, and 
sky. Four weeks later they went 
back to the same places and ob- 
served the changes. This brought 

Here's where the weather man gets his "news." We've often 

wondered about what was inside those funny boxes. We went 

to see— and now we know! 


Here's our Science Exhibit Table and Museum Case. We c 
it t)ur "W'oiKlerful r.xliibit." \Vc found many of ihc thir 
that you sec— i)ird nesls, caterpillars, flowers, and leaves. 

up the question, "What causes We went to the windows ai 
the changes of colors in the flower watched the rain. .\n intcrcsti 
beds, the trees and the glass?" discussion developed which 
Then the children brought spools volved these questions: 
to school and blew soap bubbles. 
Thev foiuid out what made the 
rainbow colors in their bubbles. 

On the first rainy day there was 
nujch excitement because we had 
not had rain for several weeks. 


Velda M. Williams is assistant pro- 
fe.ssor of education and first-grade super- 
visor in tbc laboratory school at Kansas 
State Teachers College at Pittsburg. 
She has taught in the elementary schools 
in Kansas and has been a grade school 
principal in Girard, Kansas. Her work, 
both as teacher and professor, has been 
particularly in the field of primary read- 

Pag* 44 

What is rain? 
Where does it come from* 
Where does the water go? 
How does the rain help us? 
What makes the lightning? 
What makes the thunder? 

These were printed on a cli 
and placed on the "Question ;i 
.Answer" bulletin board. Childi 
foiuid stories about the rain ;i 
I he teacher read them to the cl. 
Si\eral experiments were j 
formed, such as: Observing 
evaporation of watcj" from a si 
low jian, from a wet cloth oi 
rainy day, from a wet cloth oi 

Docembor— SEE and 1^1 


iny day. W'c ^vcnt on an cxcur- 
m to the weather instrument 
^clter to see how the daily 
lather reports are determined. 
|e watched a college class get the 
(cords from the thermometers 
lid rain gauge. 

A demonstration of the safe 
m proper ways to manipulate 
umbrella was presented by a 
[ild who had brought his to 


One day a bee was brought in 
th a bouquet of sunflowers. The 
ildren observed the bee as it 
Ithered nectar and pollen. This 
used an intense interest in the 
dy about bees. The children 
nd stories and pictures in the 
ence books. One child brought 
Tie excellent material which he 
nd in a magazine. The pie- 
ces in the magazine were pro- 
ted on the screen through the 
que projector. Slides were also 
)wn. We went on a trip to visit 
: flower beds on the campus and 
tched the bees at work. Soon 
uer, another child brought a 
erpillar to school. We watched 
nakes its cocoon. This was put 

in our museum. Next spring we 
hope to see a butterfly emerge 
from the cocoon. 

Scores of specimens have been 
brought in for observation and 
study, such as: A kitten, a puppy, 
turtles, a toad, crayfish, goldfish, 
butterflies, cocoons, caterpillars, 
bees, crickets, wasps and wasp 
nests, wild flowers, cultivated 
flowers, grasses, milkweeds, cat- 
tails, leaves, seeds, and nuts. 

In our discussions we particu- 
larly emphasize the social utility 
values of the specimens and a de- 
sire to want to know true facts 
about them. We also stress the 
importance of training the child 
to find the answers to his ques- 
tions independently. We want 
him to realize that, if he ob- 
serves closely, listens carefully, and 
thinks intelligently, he will learn 
to understand and enjoy the won- 
ders of the world in which he 

We have been learning about 
our environment. We have been 
traveling down the three-lane 
highway with the three L's— look- 
ing, listening, and living. 

USING THE CLASSROOM FILM" is a new teacher training sound 
motion picture photographed in cooperation with the Laboratory 
■chool of the University of Chicago. The film was produced and is being 
tistributed by Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Inc. 

The new Westinghouse Stratovision system — mounting transmitters 
and antennas in airplanes flying 30,000 feet above the earth — 
brings television and FM radio reception within the reach of everyone. 
Stratovision overcomes line-of-sight limitation of ground stations by 
blanketing an area 18 times larger than is possible from a standard 
ground transmitter. 

ind HEAR— December 

Page 45 


Dr. Arthur Stenius 

Coordinator of Visual, Radio, and Safety Education, 
Detroit Public Schools 

THERE are few who will not 
admit that the educational 
methods of prewar Germany were 
tremendously effective in terms of 
the objectives set up by the Nazis. 
What was taught was well taught, 
wrong as the controlling princi- 
ples miglu ha\e been. It is inter- 
esting to note, therefore, that 
probably no country in the world 
had developed the use of audio- 
visual instru( lional tools as far as 
had Germany in ID:}*). 

No one has c\er charged the 
German schools with minimizing 
the value of "hard" methods of 
learning. The teacher's demand 
has always been look<>(l upon as 
sufTicient stinudaiiou l(jr pujjil ac- 
tivity. The lecture and drill have 
long been keystones of instruc- 
tion. The ac(C})tancc and de\el- 
opment of audio-xisual instruc- 

Pav* 46 

tional dc\ices by the schools 
Germany, therefore, should assiy 
the most academic-minded teaq- 
er and administrator in this con- 
try that bringing pictines ail 
radio programs into the classroc) 
need not be looked upon as ent-- 
tainment for the students. 

The purely auditory portion! 
Germany's instructional aids p 
gram was limited almost cniii< 
to radio. Motion pictures con- 
tuted the major part of the visil 
phases. I'hough teacher use I 
radio programs and instructioi I 
motion pictures was optional 
all except a few instances, accc 
ance of both types of teachi.; 
tools was broatl, with visuals i: 
more widely used. Films a I 
broadcasts sponsored by edii 
tional authorities ne\er carric(ii 
demand for use in the classroc- 

December— SEE and H >■ 

|ionic' .spt-)ii!>oic(.l by ilic piopa- 
|*anda ministry, however, were 
'must" items. Ihc latter were few 
In number, probably not more 
Ihan ten or iwel\c broadcasts and 
iilms each vear. 

Visual- aids were considered so 
mportant to German education 
hat each school child in the na- 
iion was assessed a fe^v pfennigs a 
lonth to pro\ide a fund for the 
laking of motion pictures and 
he manufacture of projection 
quipmcnt. Each university stu- 
ent also was forced to make pay- 
lents for this purpose, the assess- 
lent in his case being higher 
lan that for school children. By 
iw all money so collected was to 
e spent for production of mate- 

als and equipment, yet the fund 

IS at all times sufficientlv larsije 
) permit all administrative costs 
: the program to be met from 
le interest paid by banks on the 

oney deposited. 

Schools had projectors and films 
ade a\ailable to them without 
•St. In June, 1939, there was 
I'Ughly one projector for each 
o schools in the country. This 
ct does not mean that almost 

iilf of the schools had no oppor- 
mity to use films. Rotation of 
fojectors gave every school an 
iportunity to use motion pic- 
rcs at certain times. Fewer 
ools were equipped with radio 
ivers than with projectors. 


jFilms were circulated from dis- 

fct libraries. In urban sections, 

course, such district libraries 

;^ed a comparatively small geo- 

and HEAR— December 

lulitor's Noic: During 1939 Arihiir 
Steiiius himself finaiited iiis trip through 
Europe. W'iicn lie Ijcgan, he planned to 
\isit cle\cn countries. Soon after ('vccho- 
Slovakia lost its status as a nation, and 
Dr. Sicnius foinid he was not permitted 
lo visit I'rague as he had planned. He 
went on, however, to visit ten countries, 
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, The Nether- 
lands, IJelgium, France, Switzerland, 
Italy, Germany, and England. 

While he was interested hoth in visual 
and auditory education, his primary 
purpose was to study radio education. 
In each coinitry, Dr, Stenius visited 
schools, the National Education Depart- 
ments, and broadcasting organizations. 
Tlirough personal interviews, analysis of 
material, and classroom observation, he 
gathered the material which will be re- 
ported in a series of articles to appear 
in SEE and HEAR. 

graphical area; in rural sections 
the areas served were often quite 
extensive. E\en schools located 
away from electric power were 
able to use classroom films be- 
cause a special projector contain- 
ing a small generator powered by 
gasoline had been developed to 
meet this need. 

Neither films nor radio pro- 
grams intended for school use 
were produced by agencies within 
the Ministry of Education. The 
Reichsrundfunk, the go\crnmen- 
tally controlled company holding 
a monopoly on broadcasting priv- 
ilege, was in complete direction of 
radio broadcasts. A separate bu- 
reau, supported as previously out- 
lined, was charged w'ith responsi- 
bility for the production of films. 

This independence from the 
educational system did not result 

Page 47 


in ihc products being any less val- 
uable to the schools. The reverse 
was true. School radio was "good" 
radio, and school films were some 
of the best that the writer has 
ever had the opportunity to see. 
Of special interest was the tech- 
nique of using miniature sets and 
three-dimensional characters in 
presenting content which is usii- 
ally handled by animation in this 
(ountry. The care taken in pro- 
ducing these stringless puppet 
presentations was extreme and re- 
sulted in smoother action than 
present-day Hollywood shorts of 
the same nature. Another out- 
standing motion picture film seen 
by the writer was one concerned 
with joints of the body which 
pictured in X-ray the mo\ement 
of the bones as the arms were rais- 
ed and the legs bent. All films 
seen by the writer were silents. 

The monthly "visual education 
fees" paid by the university stu- 
dents were allocated to the mak- 
ing of special films suitable for 
use in institutions of higher learn- 
ing. Although these films were 
produced in much the sarne man- 
ner as other school films, in most 
instances they were produced un- 
der the direction and upon the 
request of professors of the vari- 
ous universities. Any professor 
could have a film made to picture 
some study of his own. When the 
writer asked it such a riding did 
not result in an overwhelming 
number of such requests and the 
production of a niuiibcr of fihiis 
of (jucstionablc worth, he was as- 
sured iliat the contrary was the 

Pag* 48 

Dr. Sieniiis received his bachelor's de 
gree from the University of Notre Dame 
a master's degree from the University o 
Detroit, and a doctor of philosophy de' 
gvee from Ohio State University. , 

In 1939 Dr. Stenius spent nine month i 
abroad studying audio-visual program, 
in ten European countries. He has l)eci- 
connected with the Detroit Publi' 
Schools since 1928 and has served as 
high school teacher, secondary schocj 
administrator, and presently is coordi, 
nator of visual, radio, and safety educa 
tion. Since 1940 he has been a facult 
member of Wayne University, as well. 

case. Any film so produced w, 
considered as being made uik1< 
the requesting professor's dire 
tion. Acknowledgment of this f:i 
was always given in the opcnii 
title. Academic prestige was . 
stake, therefore, in the making . 
the film. This possibility of ha 
ing one's name connected witli 
film of doubtful value was an t 
tirely adequate check. 

Two half-hour programs dai 
constituted the school radio schi 
ule in Germany in 1939. Th. 
were broadcast each morning 1 
tween ten and ten-thirty, one pi 
gram from the Deutschlands. 
der, or national transmitter, ai 
another from the various region 
stations. These school broaden 
were presented on three lev( 

the first for children five to i 
years of age, the second for tlv 

between ten and fourteen, ; 

the third aimed at students fi 

fourteen to eigiucen years of . 

Each of these age levels was gi 

the same amount of progi 


December — SEE and H'K 

here was no attempt to tie in 
lool broadcasts with any course 
study. The progianis were in- 
ded to offer the tcnclier supplc- 
ntary material in his teaching 
ith special stress upon language 

social studies. Dramatic pres- 
ations constituted approxi- 
tely 60 per cent of all school 
lio offerings. Musical programs 
de up the greatest portion of 

remaining part of the sched- 

\lthough the regional stations 
Germany were more or less 
:onomous in making up their 
^ am offerings, this autonomy 
not apply to school programs, 
ladcasts intended for use in the 
ooms were completely ad- 
istered, wTitten and produced 
a single department within the 
lichsrundfunk in Berlin. This 
le office was responsible for the 
ler Youth and general chil- 
n's programs. The expressed 
lis for this arrangement was the 
essity of guarding against over- 
ing. Obviously, programs in- 
ed for the schools and for 
of-school listening by children 
bid find the same audience. 

he past six years have made 
ent the aims and perverted 
ciples of the Nazis. In their 
Is, the Germans have been 
;ed to be wrong. There is a 
ency to let such a judgment 
ly to all their methods as well. 

is apt to be misconstrued in 
roving a means because of the 

for which it was used. 

ut if German objectives may 

nd HEAR— December 

be set aside, the prewar audio- 
visual program of that country 
may be labeled "good." There 
was a recognition of the fact that 
visual and auditory aids were in- 
structional tools of great value. 
There was further acceptance that 
this value could come only when 
equipment and materials were 
furnished to schools in adequate 
cjuality and quantity. School films 
and radio programs were not con- 
sidered to be of secondary impor- 
tance and, therefore, to need* only 
second-rate treatment. As a result 
of these accepted principles, many 
phases of our audio-visual pro- 
gram are only now approaching 
the standards which existed in 
Germany six years ago. 

The Teaching Films Survey 


A group of publishers is undertaking 
a survey of educational motion pictures 
and other visual aids to education. This 
survey, known as the Teaching Films 
Survey, is sponsored by the following 

Harcourt, Brace & Company. 
Harper & Brothers. 
Henry Holt & Company. 
Houghton Mifflin Company. 
The Macraillan Company. 
Scholastic Magazines, Inc. 
Scott, Foresman & Company. 

The purpose of the survey is to evalu- 
ate the effectiveness of the visual aids 
now available and to explore more fully 
the possibilities of correlation between 
(ilm production and textbook publica- 

The survey will deal with many 
questions of fundamental importance in 
education. It is being conducted for 
the benefit of the schools of America 
and is being sponsored by the above 
mentioned publishers. 

Page 49 

Tvl^ical illustrations from "Daticing Cloud" 

joi Park 
Nortlnix'stern University 

Dancing Cloud, The Navajo 
Hoy, by Mary Marsh Buff. 

New York: The Viking Press, 1937 
pp 8U. niiis special edilioii lias 
been published by Cadmus Hooks. 
E. M. Hale and Company, Fan 
Claire. \Vis(<insin. after special ar- 
rangements with the pid)lislier of 
the regular edition.) 

Dnucing Clnud, Ihc Navajo 
/}o)' is one of the most dcli,t;h(riil 
books lor wliirh :in clcinciiiaiN 
school child coiiici wish. The 

Page 50 

Story is \vo\cii ;ii)oiii two Nav( 
children, Dancing Cloud and f 
sister, Lost Tooth. 

1 he author presents in a ^" 
readable manner a descrii)tio 
how the liogan or log and i 
home o[ the Navajo Indiai 
made. Then a backward gl 
is made to the very early ana 
of these people who are ref( 
ic) as "The Dawn People." ' 
;iccc)uiu is followed by a narrai i 
on the "Dineh" or the "Pco] 

December— SEE and 1^' 

s the liuliaiKs lall ihciiischts. li 
f made clear in the story that the 
ame Navajo is the name gi\en 
) these peoj)le by the Spaniards. 

Farther on in tlie book Dancing 

Joud's nncle tells him a very 

ripping story— how the Navajo 

omen were taught to weave fine 

ankets, ho^v horses were seemed 

oni the .Sj);uiisli. and how, in the 

ist, bad days fell upon the 

oj)le when the Mexicans and 

ic AjKiches made war upon 

icm. The uncle continues by 

lling how Kit Carson, known to 

ic Indians as Rope 1 hrower, 

eated them. The uncle relates, 

lope Thrower led his men into 

e canyon. The white men had 

ms. They had cannons that spit 

e. They burned our fields. 

hey drove away our sheep and 

|trses. They burned oiu- peach 

irecs and our hogans. VV^e had no 
wood to keep us warm. We ate 
the bodies of our dead horses. 
We starved. At last they captined 
us. . . Fi\e years we li\ed in New 
Mexico. . . But the Great White 
Father at Washington wished to 
sentl us to Oklahoma. . . We long- 
ed only lor the country of our 

This interesting bit of Indian 
history is followed by others con- 
cerning wild horses, Dancing 
Cloud's mother, catching a rabbit, 
planting corn, the spring shearing 
of the sheep, and others. 

Certainly, every Indian loving 
boy and girl will wish to read this 
story presented in a fine book, il- 
lustrated by eight colored and 
nine black and white full page 

p, by Wesley Dennis. 

'lewYork: The Viking Press, 1941, 
I 10 pagination. (This book has 
I cen published l)y Cadmus Rooks. 

and HEAR— December 

Some of the many drauin^s in "I-'iip" 

E. M. Hale and Company. Eau 
Claire, AVisconsin, after special ar- 
rangements with the publisher of 
the regular edition.) 

The story of Flip is ideal for 

Page 51 

children who love horses. It flows 
along in an unusually smooth 
manner and will stimulate the im- 
agination of any who read it or 
hear it read aloud. As you Avill 
find when you read the book, Flip 
was born on a large farm in Ken- 
tucky. On this farm were miles 
and miles of rail fences and a 
most enchanting stream which 
wound in and out among the 
green fields. It was along the 
banks of this stream that the colt 
loved to play and where the 
events related in the book took 

Flip's mother, so the story goes, 
would jump over the brook to es- 
cape Flip's playfulness and to en- 
joy a few minutes of quiet graz- 
ing. Since Flip cannot jump the 
stream, and it never occurs to him 
to wade or swim across, he spends 
hours in practicing jumping. But 
he never succeeds in jumping the 
stream. One day, after much 
practice, he is o\'ercome with fa- 
tigue and nestles himself on the 
grass near the banks of the stream 
and falls asleep. While asleep, he 
dreams that he has developed a 
beautiful pair of silvery wings. In 
his dream, with these marvelous 
wings, he jumps over fences, hay- 
stacks, and the barn. As you can 
imagine, the sight of Flip's ma- 
neuvers frightens a mother hen, 
who is known as Old Scratch and 
Cackle, and Willy the Goat. Upon 
being bothered by a fly at which 
he snaps, Flip gets up from his 
nap, and being convinced of his 
jumping ability as a result of his 

Paoi» 82 

dream "he cleared the brook wit 
plenty of room to spare." 

Tlie ABC Bunny, by Wand 

CowarcI-McCann, Inc., 1933, no 
pagination. (Published by Cadmus 
Books, E. M. Hale and Company, 
Kau Claire, AVistonsin, after special 
arrangement with the publisher of 
the regular edition) . 

The ABC Bunny is a book ( 
the letters of the alphabet. Illi 
trated in black and white, tl 
book has been read, looked at ai ' 
enjoyed by untold children ai 
mothers; just a series of rhynK 

A for Apple, big and retl 
B for Bimny, sung-a-bed 
C for Crash! 
D for Dash! 

E for Elsewhere im 

etc., etc ii 


Salt From I lie Earth 

(Sound) 9 minutes. Use: 
Studies I, J; General Science J; Hc 
Economics J, S, C; Chemistry S, I 
Clubs A. 

IN A large east coast salt mine, 
is extracted by two predomini 
methods. The first method is a 
ing process similar to that used fori 
trading coal— a gravity system wfl 
out by cutting sloping excavations 
the salt deposit— an intriguing one- 
second method is dissolution. By 
nieans water is sprayed at the tc 
the underground deposit by mul^ 
spraying systems, the water falls, th« 
dissolving the salt from the rock, 
brine is pumped to the surface 
evaporalea. National Film Board 
Canada. At your nearest film libnrfl 

December — SEE and Ff 




Execiitwe Secretary 
National Education Association of the United States 

HE National Education Asso- 
ciation is noAv distributing to 
state education associations a 
w docinnentary film on the 
ce and importance ot the 
cher in American life, entitled 
ignrnent: Tomorroxc. This film 
26 minutes is followed im- 
diately by a trailer film of 7 
utes which describes the rela- 
[nship of the local, state, and 
tional professional organiza- 
s and presents the program of 

"eachers should see this film; it 
[Ids pride in the teaching pro- 

igh school students shoidd see 
film as part of their prepara- 
for selecting a career; it will 
ourage capable young people 
nsider teaching as a career. 

tudents in teacher education 
itutions should sec it; it will 
ire these teachers of tomor- 
with a new zeal in the pro- 
ion for which they are pre- 

nd HEAR— December 

Every layman interested in the 
education of American youth 
should see this picture; it will im- 
press him with the significance of 
education in our nation's life. 

Assignment: Tomorrow is the 
story of the more than 800,000 
teachers in this country. It is the 
first national documentary film 
that has been made dealing with 
the American teacher. It presents 
the significance of the work of 
teachers as individuals and in or- 
ganized groups. The cast of char- 
acters consists of real teachers 
working on the job of education 
for a better America. The film 
brings home the fact that the 
teacher has many responsibilities 
and performs many duties beyond 
the four walls of the classroom. It 
show^s how through organization 
the teacher becomes part of an ef- 
fective group wherever action is 
needed in behalf of better educa- 
tion and better teaching condi- 

Address booking requests to 
your state education association. 

Pago 53 

I lie war is over. 1 here is pkiiu ut time for thiiikiiig, and \ 
<an bet it's not about military strategy— it's about the futi 
To see some conditions, it makes a fellow wonder if he n 
did "fMiish the job." There is much to be done here at ho 
The dreams of a man in a fox hole were of yoimgsters \ 
are a fine crop of good citizens, who will learn to choose p' 
leaders, who will become self-supporting citizens, who 
healrhv :ind happy, will produce art and culture, ami who \ 
soon want a chance to use their skills. 

The National Kcliication Associa- 
tion is making prints available to 
state associations on a free loan 
basis. Almost all state associa- 
tions ^vill have a clistril)iiiion 
plan arranged. There will be no 
charge to you other than a nomi- 
nal booking and service fee in 
some states. If arrangements arc 
not made by your slate associa- 
tion, yoiu- request will be for- 
warded either to the \KA or t(j 
an authorized distributor in your 
area. Send your request now to 
yoin- state association if you Avisli 
lo gel an carlv liooking. 

Pag* S4 

Suggested Questions for D j 
cussion After Showings | 

for Discussion by Teachers 

1. How can we strengthen U 
teaching profession? 

2. How (an teachers have an 
ti\e part in legislative activl 
when they arc so busy teal 

.'{. Is the answer to be foun(ln| 
strong professional org)- 
izaiions which can and 
represent them? 

December — SEE and tl 

4. How can wc make tlie public 
realize the significance of edu- 
cation to the solution of such 
problems as employment, in- 
tercultural relations, and 
capable citizenship? 

5. How effecti\e is our local 
teachers' association? 

6. What is the program of the 
state education association? 
How does it touch and help 
the local situation? Docs the 
program lielp both teachers 
and laymen to broaden the 
scope of their educational in- 

7. How does the program of the 
National Education Associa- 
tion constructi\elv aid in lo- 

cal, state, and national prob- 

H. What can indi\idual teachers 
do, through their local and 
state organizations, to 
strengthen national activities? 

9. What can we do to make all 
our professional associations 
more effective? 

10. Do teachers realize the full 
significance of their work? 

For Discussion by Laymen 

1. \\^hat can education do to help 
solve postwar social and eco- 
nomic problems such as full 
employment, high income, sav- 
ing national resources, improv- 

'ho is going to cultivate this crop of American youth? First 

is the parents. But second, the teachers of the nation, the 

p€r\isors, the principals and superintendent— from hill coun- 

y and big city— they are the' public servants who breathe life 

Into the coinnuinitv— thev will brine in this harvest. 

and HEAR — December 

Page 55 

At 400 in most schools the day is 
over Cliildrcn relax and play, in- 
culcated xsilh ideals tliey have been 
exposed to in a good school. 

But at 4:00, a teacher's day is just 
beginning. She attends depart- 
mental conferences, does post- 
graduate work, or takes in-service 
Vraining courses. She works in the 
librarv, or makes a visit to a home 
to inriuence a parent to send on to 
school his son who is gifted and 
shows promise of succeeding as an 

And during many an cv 
ning, while the pupils ; 
home, a teacher may be i 
principal speaker at a mc 
ing of town officials ai 
community leaders. She si 
forth why good schools a 
important. Teachers bcco 
part of an effective gr. 
wherever action is needed 
behalf of better cducai 
and better teaching con 
tions-in behalf of deni. 
racy. The teaching prof' 
sion is a way of life in itsc 
We all are a part of it. ^ 
all believe in it! 

December— SEE and HE 

Pag* 56 

riic rich flood of 
lalenl that is stored in 
today's yoiitli is in- 
cstitnahlc. Here is 
Marv Pearson. Nobel 
I'ri/c winner in 1985. 
Here is Jciniie Blair, 
whose son will gradu- 
ate from medical 
school it. 1983. 

ing health, promoting intci- 
group and world goodwill? 

Can just anyone teach school? 
What arc the certification stan- 
dards in our state? Are 
parents sufficiently concerned 
about the character and pro- 
fessional skill of the typical 

Are competent well trained 
persons encouraged to enter 
and to remain in teaching? Are 
salaries high enough to main- 
ain a decent level of living? 

4KVhat types of educational op- 
portunities are available to 
children and youth? How 
jiiany drop out of school? 
iWhere must they go for spe- 
rialized or advanced prepara- 

■ iVhat can education do to 
)vercomc differences between 

ind HEAR— December 

conflicting groups in American 

6. Do citizens generally recognize 
the significance of education? 

7. What plans have been made 
for the improvement of the 
educational program? Have 
the citizens generally partici- 
pated in these discussions? 

8. What is education's role in in- 
ternational affairs? 


Trees for Tomorrow 
(Sound) 18 minutes. Use: Natural 
Science I; General Science J; Biology, 
Agriculture S; Clubs A. 

THIS film is a thrilling account of 
man's management of America's 
great forest resources. It shows the 
many uses to which wood is put. It 
demonstrates forest management through 
planting, selective logging, and seed- 
tree duties. It is a well-photographed 
and narrated film. American Forest 
Products Industries. At your nearest 
film library. 

Page 57 

Left to right, Captain Robert VVckion, U. S. Army Air Forces; 
Professor \V. Fred Farrar, University of Omaha, who has directed 
(he planning and organizing of the Technical Institute; and Cap- 
tain jack Norris, chief training liaison officer for the AAF area 7. 

The Surplus Properties 
Board and the Schools 

The Army Air Forces want schools 
and colleges to know of the nse that has 
been made of mock-ups and other visual 
aids in its suctcssful war training pro- 
gram. With this in mind, the AAF piu 
together a complete set of technical 
training mock-up materials— new etiuip- 
Micnt iimuutcd on poiialilc panels— load 
cd ihcm into a (aia\au of army trucks, 
and spent eight months exhibiting and 
demonstrating the unit in high schools 
and colleges throughout the stales of 
North and South Dakota, Minnesota, 
Nebraska, Montana, and Wyoming. 

The University of Omaha was invited 


to cooperate in this '"demonstration 
the early part of the program last spi 
Ik'ing interested in sue h teaching 
the university did cooperate, d' 
everything possible to get the c<luc;i 
of this territory to inspect this fine 

The AAF training officers were ^^ 
pressed by the interest in audio-vil 
aids shown by Omaha University's p!<' 
dent, Rowland Haynes, and by his ;• I 
tude that a municipal university shc^ 
be a place where the students can "\*f^ 
to live a cultured life and learn to •* 

Oecember — SEE and 1 

living, not as two processes hut as 

These officers were also extremely in- 
rested in the new technical institntc 
;ing developed at Omaha "V." as a 
:acttime continuance of the type of 
rogram carried on as the ESMVVT dur- 
iff the war under the U. S. Office of 
mcation. This institute will provide 
|l types of technical training for post- 
gh school and adult groups. 

One of the features of this program 
the installation of a fully accredited 
5 TRAINING .SCHOOL, where grad- 
ites may obtain "A and E" licenses. 

At the end of the tour, AAF officers 
imed to see what progress was being 
ide with this Technical Institute, 
asses were already under way. The 
jiversity of Omaha had enrolled near- 
100 veterans in various departments 
the school. Many were showing in- 
fest in technical institute courses and 
en G. I.'s had enrolled in the A and E 
iss. Officials of the university, who 


Army Air Forces finish 
unloading $60,000 
worth of aviation edu- 
cation equipment at 
the University of 
Omaha. One panel of 
this mock-up shows 
the intricacies of the 
external lighting 
system of an airplane. 

had already recjuested such equipment 
from surplus disposal agencies, were ap- 
proached to see if they would be willing 
to make the eciuipment available for ex- 
hil)it to any and all educator groups 
coming to Omaha, if it were left with 
the university on a permanent exhibit 
basis for use by the technical institute 

The plan was quickly worked out, 
approved by "Washington," and $60,000 
worth of the world's most modern visual 
aids equipment (containing among 
other things a cut-away 160 HP Kinner 
engine, with moving parts covered by 
Plexiglass windows; automatic adjust- 
able propellers, mock-up panels showing 
complete electrical wiring unit, oil sys- 
tems, carburetion, heating facilities, etc. 
Yes, even a 16 mm. movie projector, a 
stripfilm projector, screens, training film, 
and two day-lite view boxes) was moved 
into the University of Omaha's aero- 
nautics annex shop. The equipment is 
now in use daily by boys from five dif- 
ferent states who have already enrolled 
in this one course. 

and HEAR— December 

Page 59 

C. R. Crakes 
Educational Consultant for DeVry Corporation 

EDITOR'S NOTE: \'ery few of us ran hoard sticamlincrs or air transports ai 
in the space of a year carry on interviews with cchicators, teachers, anil childn 
of schools in 3') slates. We can't do this, we haven't the time, liitt it is a part 
Charles R. Crakes' everyday joh as his conimitincnts make demands upon him 
an educational consultant. His impression of what educators and teachers are thin 
ing has been condensed to these truly— straws in the wind. 

PIONEER leaders in the field 
of audio-\isual teaching aids 
are becoming keenly interested in 
the basic reasons for the tremen- 
dous forces behind the Audio- 
Visual Teaching Aids Movement. 

"Why." they ask, "this sudden 
interest in teaching de\ ices ^vhich 
we ha\c been using for the past 
twenty years?" "Why so much ex- 
citement?" "Why so many news- 
paper and magazine comments?" 

They are also vitally interested 
in just what cfTcct this movement 
will have on the future of Ameri- 
can education. The writer has en- 
deavored to find answers to some 
of these questions and briefly 
mentions seven powerful drives or 
forces behind the movement. 

1 . The returning veteran has 
already exercised considerable in- 

Page 60 

liuence in educational circles. F 
has successfully used audio-visu 
teaching aids in the milital 
training program. He likes tl ' 
tcchni(]ues used. He has becoi 
an interested learner. He wai 
to know why the same mcthi 
cannot be used in the typii 
classroom. All leading educat 
consulted proj)hcsied that as m< 
of these veterans return to ci\ili 
life their demands will incre. 
for more and better use of i 
type of training tcchnicjues whi 
lune converted them into si 
cessful and victorious fighters. 

2. Almost overnight, we, 
Americans, find ourselves citizi 
of the most powerful nation 
the world— whether we dcSirt 
or not we are the leaders and i 

December — SEE and Wl 

hole world is looking to us for 
adcrsliip as well as financial 
Hp. lluis, we must become 
Ijoroughly familiar with inter- 
iitional problems and interna- 
mal relationships. 

There is a very definite feeling 
t;it we do not have the time to 
liin our adult and youth popu- 
lion to accept and become fa- 
liar with this new global view- 
int, through the use of word 
nbols. Thus, the motion pic- 
re will be used as a device to 
in Americans cjuickly and ef- 
:tively to take their place in the 
ily of nations. As the last 
th-bound generation, it be- 
nes our duty and privilege to 
in our youth for the world in 
ich rapid transportation makes 
neighbors of all the peoples of 

Industry has learned how to 
n personnel through the use 
udio-visual training materials. 

, industry will exert a tre- 

dous pressure upon public 

cation to do a better job of 

ational training through the 

of many of those tools of 
Tiihg which industry has 
through its recent experi- 

can do an effective training 

. Adult education will become 
ality when audio-visual mate- 
i» become the first teaching de- 
i in such a program. 

ind HEAR— December 

5. Leaders in the guidance 
movement realize that to carry 
on a successful \ocational guid- 
ance program they must present 
to their students simulated experi- 
ences which only a motion picture 
can bring to the classroom. Stu- 
dents will be introduced to voca- 
tional opportunities through it. 

D. Educators interested in giv- 
ing greater recognition to individ- 
ual differences are seeing in au- 
dio-visual aids a tremendous tool 
to assist them in elevating the in- 
tellectual level of the retarded pu- 
pil and to enrich the educational 
opportunities of the accelerated 

7. Last but not least, American 
education faces a golden age in- 
sofar as financial support is con- 
cerned. The American citizenry 
has come to a renewed realization 
of the value of a good educational 
system. Along with this greater 
interest on the part of the public 
is coming a demand on our teach- 
ers to do a better job of actually 
teaching our youth to take their 
place in the world of the future. 
Such a change of emphasis in our 
educational system will demand 
keen, sharp teaching tools. Audio- 
\isual teaching materials consti- 
tute such tools. Thus, we see a 
very definite trend toward a more 
widespread acceptance and utili- 
zation of all forms of teaching ma- 
terials and techniques which are 
now commonly called audio-vis- 
ual teaching materials. 

Page 61 






j^ ^ 




Norman L. Wittkop 

Vice-Principal, McKinley School, Mihuauhce 

EDITOR'S NOTE: The study of written composition, particularly in con- 
nection with a business letter involves many details of style, grammar, 
form, and arrangement. Often abstract in its meaning to students, the 
study of business letter writing can be enhanced vividly through application 
such as Mr. Wittkop suggests. 

^USINESS letter writing in the 

9-B junior business training 

is usually a routine, formal, 

and dried episode that must 

endured by student and teach- 


ifter ha\ing analyzed my own 
ler-writing experience, I re- 
ked that during the time of my 
experience in letter writing, 
k'as inllucnced very directly by 
letters I had read in the 
of my work. Yes, I had 
led by imitation. So, too, can 
;inning students learn by im- 

o arouse interest, and before 
class knew what constituted a 
letter, they were allowed to 
mine some business letters and 
ive their opinions about each 
in question. Was it inter- 
g? Did it urge them to read 
ler? Some of the sample let- 

nd HEAR— December 

ters were chosen because they 
were "terrible" specimens. And 
others were excellent. Among the 
poorer letters, margins were un- 
balanced, punctuation was incor- 
rect, abbreviations were used to 
excess, opening sentences were 
strung on or lengthy, and para- 
graphing was poor. Ordinary 
English usage was abused to a 
noticeable degree in some letters, 
while others were excellent ex- 
amples. The students were not 
entirely sure! 

Having injected the element of 
curiosity, the next step was to 
capitalize on it. This was done by 
suggesting to the class that each 
member would actually write to 
business concerns, public office 
holders, school executives and 

Were they interested? After 
three classroom periods of inten- 

Page 63 

sive study of the qualifications of 
a good business letter, we were 
ready to start on our venture of 
actually writing real business let- 
ters. Each student brought three 
stamped envelopes and se^eral 
sheets of business-size paper. Ad- 
dresses of people and concerns 
had been procured beforehand. 
Interest and enthusiasm was more 

How Would You Do It? 

NO SUBJECT is devoid of values 
which can fire the imagination of 
siiulcnts. For example, we once studied 
the subject of water. I placed a drop 
of stale water beneath a microscope. 
The students walked by and one at a 
time they looked through the micro- 
scope at the small, living, moving or- 
ganisms within. 

The comments of the first student 
who looks through tlic microscope is 
really the firing of the imagination and 
interest of the other students. Each 
succeeding student tries to sec more tlian 
the preceding one. If he was a good 
observer he did see more. They were 
rcaily to attack the subject. 

TRY this the next time you introduce 
the study of our forests. Place two 
pieces of wood about a foot square on 
ihc table. Ask a girl or boy to hold 
tliese up before tiie class. Tlie idea is 
not primarily to see tiie wood, but to 
have the student express his surprise bc- 
cuusc of the fact that one piece of wood 
is light, soft wood and tlic other very 
hard. The dillcrence in weight is defi- 
nitely noticcal)le and this is the first 
thing to be spoken of— that some wood 
is harder and heavier than others. 

An inspection of the grain of the 
wood follows, and then tlie reason whv 
one piece is heavier than the other is 
evident. Ihc class is then asked wliat 
they wouUl like to find out about 
families" of trees and types of forest 
crops. I he unit is lainiched. 

—Norman L. Wittkop 

Pag* 64 

Norman L. Whtkop 

Mr. Wittkop has had an unusu 
background in business and teaching c 
periencc. He has served with utiliti' 
and with business firms producing pr 
jeciion equipment. After gradualit 
from Marquette University, he has spei 
thirteen years in tlie teaching professu 
which has allowed him to do pionceril 
and experimenting in the field of audi 
visual learning. At present Mr. Wiltkc 
is vice-principal of McKinley School 

than evident. 

During several classroom pe 

ods, the pupils* letters we 

worked and reworked. No letl 

was considered eligible to 

mailed out unless it was in i 

ceptable form with respect 

English, punctuation and contei 

Then the letters were mailc 

Within two or three days repli 

began to come in. Each mornii 

the class would gather around 

long table and look over all I 

mail. Both iiiicrest and a critic 

eye were developed by having t 

entire class examine the lelte 

Then the letters were passed o 

to the individual students 

v.hom they were addressed. 

AH letters were opened befc 
the class, read and discussed 
the basis of what a good biisir- 
letter should be. Margin, lu 
iiig, inside address, saluiaii' 
complimentary closing, contcn 
letter, good English, good oj)cni; 
and closing sentences were (j 
cussed and the decisions learnl 
by everyone. Expectation alwJ 

December— SEE and » 

ept enthusiasm ami curiosity at 
high level. 

; The result of any effort in any 
jirection is the measure of its 
lorth. Was this business letter- 
jriting innovation really worth- 
hile? Out of nearly 200 letters 

ailed out, nearly as many replies 
ere received. Punctuation and 

ammar were learned easily be- 

cause they were vital parts of 
making our whole plan operate. 
The students now know the im- 
portance of clear thinking, correct 
spelling, courtesy, conciseness and 
legible writing. They received 
letters that were fine examples of 
the very things we teach them. 
They received good models which 
they could use as challenges. 

"TO A 275,000,000 AUDIENCE" 

Little did anyone anticipate at the beginning of World 
War II that the 16 mm. motion picture film would become 
the instrument of public information that it has. If figures 
are impressive, examine the Office of War Information film 
distribution record during the Treasury Department's War 
Loan film showing program for the three years just ending 
but not including the Victory War Loan: 

OWI (excluding Treasury War Loan Showings) 


July, 1942-March, 1943, 

9 mos. @ 4-million average 144,000 36,000,000 

April, 1943-August, 1945, 

23 mos. @ 71/2-million average.... 691,000 172,500,000 

Total (exclusive of Treasury) 835,000 208,500,000 

Fifth War Loan 29,297 10,420,916 

Sixth War Loan , 86,913 23,500,000 

Seventh War Loan 141,615 33,402,950 

Total for Treasury only 257,825 67,323,866 

Plus regular OWI Showings.. . 835,000 208,500,000 

GRAND TOTAL 1,092,825 275,823,866 

Total of 177 titles, 77,387 prints released through 324 dis- 
tributors in the 48 states. 

This is truly a preview of things to come— a preview of the 
educative power of the 16 mm. film. 

ind HEAR— December Page 65 


Dr. E. G. Williamson 

Uninrrsity of Mi^utrsoln 

('iiidaiice directors arc 
(|ii;ilili(<l U) givr torn 
prtlicnsivc lists wliirli 
sciciuifically measure 
tlie amount and kiiul 
of a[)liiudes )(>>>ng 
people have. 

Pago 66 

Counselors, teachers, am 
parents are ready to hclj 
young people in choosin; 
ihc right occupation f< 
their particular apt 
tudes. Aptitudes arc vai 
icd, but can be classifici 
into six headings, nu 
chanical, social, clcrica 
musical, artistic, a n 
scholastic. The amoun'' 
in which indi\iduals ptv 
sess these can be inea 

ITOR'S NOTE: In one way or 
ler practically everything we do in 
Is helps prepare the student for 
lace in society. Too often we allow 
Id to follow the subject empha- 
experiences he has in school, only 
d that we have done too little to 
in directing him into the life ex- 
in which he is apt to find 
returns for the efforts that he 

md toward achieving good voca- 


• G. AVilliamson describes an at- 

create an intelligent attitude 

e part of the student toward an 

-tanding of the specific aptitudes 

"esses and their relationship to the 

ments of a broad vocational area. 

ilm Aptitudes and Occupations, 

has been developed under the 
on of Drs. E. G. \Villiamson and 
Hahn of the University of Minne- 

HEAR — December 

sota, is described in this article. Guid- 
ance people e\erywhere Avill welcome 
this as an additional tool with which 
to attack a stubborn and continuing 
problem— life guidance. 

ONE of the most important de- 
cisions with which a young 
man or woman finds himself con- 
fronted at the high school or col- 
lege level is that of making a 
vocational choice. Surveys among 
the adults of today reveal a wide 
variety of trial and error Aocation- 
al experiences that have been en- 
gaged in before settling down to 
one long-term career. 

Frequently adults say, "I wish 
someone could have guided me or 

Page 67 

advised me." More frcquciuly 
tliey sav, "I knocked about 
through' half a dozen different 
jobs before finally hittitig upon 
the one I am in now." The im- 
], lie at ion that today ^ve can ap- 
proach more scientifically the 
pioblem of selecting the wide 
vocational area within which the 
young man or woman will prob- 
ably 'find success nuist be (juali- 
fied. But even among the qualifi- 
cations, there is much that can be 

It has been discovered during 
recent years and through wide ex- 
jjcrience in counseling pupils, 
that wiser vocational choices can 
be made today than in the past. 

Page 68 

It has been determined quite l 
erally that pupils may be 
quainted with three sets of 
formation about various j 
First, they may be given infoi 
lion about what is actually d c 
in the job, that is, the nature jl 
ihe work, the type of dcm ' 
that the job will make on th< 
di\idual. Second, the student 
be given information conccn 
the kind of aptitude requircil 
completing a given job success 
ly. And "third, through tc^ 
instruments available today, ^i 
student can be given an op r 
tunity to disco\er whether " 
possesses those qualification 
character and aptitude which 

December— SEE and >\ 

is seems to require m a given 

iince it is possible to bring 
an analysis to young people 
io are seeking sincerely to in- 
Itigate the job area in which 
ly may find greatest chance of 
ijcess, this responsibility repre- 
its the least that any school or 
it any guidance department 
|uld be expected to bring to its 

\'hen it is considered that to- 
hundreds of ^ocational op- 
tunities exist which did not 
t ten, fifteen, or twenty years 
, the school must be expected 
ccept increasingly the respon- 
ity for evaluating its students 
terms of their qualifications 
their opportunities to make 
vocational adjustment. 

choosing an occupation, it 
mportant for the pupil to 
erstand what kind of work he 
be doing if he enters that 
pation. He will want to know 
ther he will work with his 
, his head, with people, or 
tools. His interests in vari- 
occupations are determined 
he kind of work he will de- 
to do when he becomes an 
t. But interest in work is 
one of the important factors 
enter into success on a job. 
must have aptitude for that 
of work in addition to in- 
t, and this is the point at 
h many pupils are confused. 

!f)W does one learn whether 
possesses aptitude? Studies 
been made to show that in- 

d HEAR— December 

terest alone is not always directly 
related to aptitude. Sometimes 
one is interested in work for 
which he has insufficient aptitude. 
In other cases of under-achieve- 
ment, a young person may have 
sufficient aptitude but no interest 
in using it in a particular type of 
work. For this reason, it is neces- 
sary to show students not only 
what types of activities go on in 
various jobs and what kinds of 
aptitudes are required, but also 
how he can find out whether he 
possesses the required aptitude; 
hence the emphasis on testing 
methods, both in terms of practi- 
cal job experiences, part-time and 
summer, and also in the modern 
psychological tests of aptitude. 

It is believed that, if pupils un- 
derstand more thoroughly the psy- 
chology of people in relationship 
to occupational success and the 
choosing of an occupational goal, 
then the choices made by them 
will be sound. Occupational coun- 
seling, to a very large extent, is an 
integial part of education. Pupils 
are assisted by occupational coun- 
selors and teachers of classes of 
occupations in understanding 
themselves in relationship to vari- 
ous jobs. This self-understanding 
prepares one to make more intel- 
ligent choices than would be pos- 
sible if the choices were made by 
chance, by relatives, or by teach- 
ers. The pupil participates in 
making a choice on the basis of 
a more valid understanding of 
himself in relationship to the re- 
quirements of the \arious occupa- 

Page 69 

It is to help more of us accom- tratcs not only an attitude tow.' I 
plish the aims just outlined that the problem of vocat.onal coi 
the fdm Aptitudes otuI Occupa- seling, but specifically ^clcn 

liotis was first organized, written, 
and then produced. The film is 
\alual)le largely in that it illus- 

Page 70 

strates the existence of m 
human aptitudes. 1 he film < 
tinues to illustrate the relati 

December— SEE and HI 

lip between the basic human 
[ptitudcs and the need which cx- 
sts for these aptitudes in several 

Dr. E. G. Williamson 

Dr. Williamson is Dean of Students 
id Professor of Psychology at the Uni- 
■rsity of Minnesota. His work in the 
Id of guidance places him among the 

-ranking national authorities. 
Besides making contributions to maga- 
|nes on the sul)jects of psychology and 
idance, he is author of the book 
udenls and Occiil>ations and Hoiv to 
tinsel Students, and joint author of 
ent Personnel ]Vork and Student 

idanre Teclmiqucs. 

ell-known occupations. The film 

;presents an opportunity to cre- 

e an intelligent attitude through 

le possession of ^\•hich young 

ople may attack more objective- 

ihe problem of vocational se- 

tion. The motivation that a 

m of this nature will bring is 

It an opening step in the whole 

jjiocess of vocational counseling. 
It sets the stage, so to speak, and 
sets it very effectively. It opens 
the way for continued coimscling 
to be accomplished by the student 
and the guidance officer. More 
than this, it becomes a splendid 
\ehicle of information through 
which those of us interested in 
counseling believe we can carry 
on a continuing advisement serv- 
ice which will direct students 
away from hit-and-miss romanti- 
cally conceived ideas concerning 
vocational choice and help them 
to approach the problem more 

Scholastic ability is the apti- 
tude to learn easily from books. 
It is necessary for successful 
work in schools and in the pro- 
fessions of law and medicine. 
School grades in academic sub- 
jects over a period of time are 
a good indication of future 
scholastic abilitv. 

ures from 

litudes and 



and HEAR— December 

Page 71 

At Yaha, the Big Three said: 

•Only with the continuing and growing 
cooperation ond underetonding omong 
oor three countries and among oil. the 
peace-loving nations can the highest 
ospirotion of humonity be reolized- 
o secure and losting peace.' 



US S.R. in the family of nations 

In the for north is the tundra, or 
frozen marshland. South of it, a great 
forest belt. Then, the open steppe. 



HE National Council for tl 
Social Studies, through i 
Committee on Audio-Visual Aic 
is actively interested in cncouraj 
ing the production ol iiKjrc an 
better material especially designc 
for the classroom. Certainly oi 
of the areas badly in need 
good, stinuilating, honest, visu 
material is the Union of Sovi' 
Socialist Republics. We were d 
lighted, therefore, when Willia 
and Dorothea Cary of tlie Pub) 
.\ffairs Film Company request( 
our cooperation. 

Just how could a national t 
gani/ation such as ours help tl 
Carys to jiroduce a worth-whi 


Pictures 1 through 6: 
Up to ihc present, we have kno' 
less about our ally, U. S. S. R., than 
have about minor nations who h; 
contributed little to the winning of I 
war. Our ability to get along with th' 
in the future will be in direct rclati 
to our ability to know and undcrsta 
ilicin as neighbors, powerful and efl 
live in the world of tomorrow. 

William H. Hartley 

Mmyland State Teachers 
College, Towson 


William H. Gary, Jr. 

New York City 

notes to assure accuracy of infor- 
mation and balance in presenta- 
tion. Mr. Richard W. Burkhardt 
of Harvard University represent- 
ed the Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations. 

At the first conference with the 
producers, the Committee on 
Audio-Visual Aids represented by 
the writer, took up fundamental 
matters of the most desirable form 
for the filmstrip. Here are some 
of the problems which were dis- 
cussed and the answers which 

strip? There seemed to be two 
lable contributions which we 
d make. First of all, the mem- 
of the National Council's 
io-Visual Committee, because 
peir knowledge of classroom 
Is and their interest in visual 
iiods of presentation, could 
se as to the form which the 
itrip should take. They could 
er judgments on such vital 
lers as type of organization, 
h of the strip, suitability of 
re material, technical meth- 
>f presenting ^v•ords and pic- 
< the teacher's manual and 
Te titles. The second service 
the National Council ren- 
through its Connuittee on 
'[national Relations was to 
'" the material in the filmstrip 
die accompanying speech 

' HEAR — December 

EDITOR'S NOTE: There are many 
who beheve that the hope for peace lies 
in understanding our neighbors. Thus 
It IS our responsibihty to examine every 
opponunity of making clearly under- 
stood information, particularly about 
our allies, a part of the learning ex- 
periences of our children and youth. 

The filmstrip occupies a place of 
great importance as we attempt to ex- 
amine opportunities for bringing graph- 
ic impressions to our students. It is 
encouraging that men of Mr. Gary's cal- 
il)cr and experience should give their 
efiorts to the creation of the filmstrip 
i .S.S.R. The Land and the People. In- 
terestingly enough, this is among the 
first of the filmstrips planned in co- 
oi)eration with the representative of the 
National Council for the Social Studies 
Dr. ^ViIliam H. Hartley, chairman of 
the Committee of Visual Aids of thai 
association. Dr. Hartley and Mr. Rich- 
ard Burkhardt worked closely with Mr. 
Cary in making suggestions dealing 
with subject matter and technique. 

Dr. Hartley's statement is a very sig- 
nificant one. It points the way to future 
plans of cooperation between producing 
agencies and the classroom teaclier. Most 
interesting are the questions and an- 
swers which indicate the very practical 
nature of Dr. Hartley's approach to the 
problems involved in filmstrip utiliza- 
tion in the classroom. 

Page 73 

were arrived at after consultau' 
with other members of the co 

r^ How long shoiikl such 
^-^ ' fihiistrip rim with full scrij 

A Keep it to a half-hour maximt; 
• This will allow lime for b- 
introduction, follow-up disru^ion 
nuilation of problems needing fu 
research, and assignment of pre; 
stimulated by the iilmslrip. 


Shoukl it be a sound or 
• lent strip? 

6 A colleclive farm family of Torkmenia, 

eo»l of »f^e Cospion Sw Tf>e Soviet people 

are of mony notional origin*. They speok 

125 different languoge*. 

A Silent. The inimber of sell 
• CHjuipped witli soundfilm pit 
lion apparatus is so limited as lo ii 
ardi/c the successful distribution d 
sound strip. Besides, most of the < 
inittec felt there is something dc 
mechanical about the canned voice 
the audible signal for changing 
one strip to the next. 

/^ Should the strip consist T 
^^ * tirely of pictures, or shot 
titles and reader frames be i 

A On this, the expression of I 
• C'onimiiiie was quite def 
riain picture strips are a trial and ti 
lation to the classroom teacher. (: 
necessitates reference to notes durinjl 
projection and tioes not make l^ 
smooth presentation, (b) The nou 
lost, worn, dog eared and are jui' 

Pictures 7 through 10: 
lis millions of people vary from 
who miglit easily walk along the 81 
of our great cities to those wiio *" 
of their dress and backgrounds * 
tirely foreign to us but arc not ii 
world of today. 

Pliotographs from the filmstrip (/•• 
riie Land and The l^coplc supplied t 
:hc courtesy of Brandon rilms, IncJ 


Dr. Hartley is at present professor of 
iiistory at the Maryland State Teachers 
lollcge at Towson. During tJie summer 
,e conducts courses in audio-visual in- 
:ruction at Johns Hopkins University 
m\ at Teachers College. Columbia Uni- 

I He is the author of Selected Films for 
merican History and Problems. He 
mtributed articles on audio-visual aids 
)r the Encyclopedia of Modern Educa- 
on. Each month he edits a department 
I Social Education, the official publica- 
on of the National Council for the 
xial Studies, called "Sight and Sound 
I the Social Studies." He has served as 
lairman of the N.C.S.S. Audio- Visual 
ids Committee for the past five years. 

ore item for the teacher to handle. 

) The filmstrip should be a unified 

aching tool, largely self-e.xplanatory 

im which the students may gain valu- 

le information. The teacher should 

ready and able to elaborate upon 

e information it presents. To assist the 

ucher to find material, well organized 

|id interestingly presented, a manual to 

rompany the filmstrip was suggested. 

What should be included in 
• a teacher's manual to accom- 
ny the filmstrip? 

Practical suggestions concerning 

audience preparation, smooth pres- 

lUon, and possible follow-up ac- 

ties should be given. Don't just sug- 

t a pretest, but give an actual test 

ich can be used in the classroom and 

T the answers. Then give additional 

Serial on the topics covered by each 

ture. Present it briefly so that the 

'her can make quick use of it with- 

plowing through a lot of non-essen- 

|p. The teachers of the social studies, 

most teachers, are much too busy to 

all the reading they should. They 

good summary statements and 

illustrations which they can use 

their students. 


sports and 


flourish, foo. 


.i :■ C 

16. Forests mainly evergreen, cover more 
(B than half the USSR. 

18 The desert: too dry for crops, 
too barren for grozing. Only the 
cornel could endure these hot sands. 

,/ Th.s, too, wp, a desert. The PeoP'?^^9 
irrigation wnals, ond now much of W 
Middle Asia is prosperous cotton country. 

QWhat type of pictures anc 
• other graphic materia 
should be included in the film 

A.S7(oif people doing things. Lane 
• forms mean little except as view 
c'd in relation to human activities. / 
map or two is valuable in the iilmstri[ 
if these maps are especially made t< 
show size, relationships or other strikini 
spacial concepts. Detailed map work cai 
he carried on before or after the film 
strip showing, with classroom map: 
Picture maps and mai)s em|>loying pi( 
torial symbols to depict data of impoi 
tance are especially appropriate. Ul 
graphs, certainly, if they help to coB 
plcte the story, and make them picU 
graphs whenever possible. 

Questions such as the abo> 
kept popping up throughout tl 
course ol production. The ai 
severs were given in the light < 
the best practices which we kne 
about. Constantly, we were r 
minded of the need for fiirtl 
research and c\i)crimentation 
the field of filmstrip producti' 
and utili/alion. We are not sii 
that our answers are the best 
terms t)f piesent j^ractice. \Ve ;i 
sure that (hey are not final ai 
that filmsliips will improve 
)etter ansAvers are given. 

The Audio-Visual Aids Cf>i 
tiiittee of the National Coiiin 
or the Social Studies is sceki; 
new ways of cooperating with f)i 
ducing groups. The commiti 
members are convinced that claj 

Pictures 11 through 15: 
Their coiniirv extends from the arc!* 
to the sub-tropics and activity is 
varied as any place on earth. But 1 
potentials are beyond the realm of 

40 Moscow Rivw-port of the MoscowVolgo 
Conol. Beyond it is the Kremlin. . 

[pom materials will improve only 
[fhen cilucaior and producer work 
Kand in hand, each cognizant of 
l|ie other's problems, needs and 

[ontinuing "Toward 
'nderstanding Our Allies" 
Wii.i.iAM H. Gary, Jr. 

HAVE nothing against talking 
as a method of teaching— ex- 
pt that it doesn't work very 
II. Let's confess, fellow educa- 
irs, that talking is indeed one of 
pleasantcst indoor sports. It 
es us the comfortable feeling 
being on our toes— even though 
often gives the students the 
fortable feeling of being in a 
;e. But if telling alone is not 
>ugh, then the problem be- 
es one of opening and putting 
better use that amazing instru- 
nt of sensory perception, the 

! us consider the filmstrip. 
t why a filmstrip instead of 
e other teaching device? Be- 
ise it is so manageable: you can 
it at any position— at a pic- 
e or map or chart— for ques- 
ts or discussion. You can turn 
ack to a previous frame. You 
vary the pace and edit the 
ch notes of a silent strip to 
the interests of the group. A 
hstrip is valuable with a rather 
;e audience; it is perhaps even 
er with a small group: people 
more ready to "grow" when 
meet new ideas in the friend- 

nd HEAR— December 

William H. Gary, Jr. 

Mr. Gary, native of New York, served 
in World War I as a telegraph operator. 
After his return, he served as an editor, 
traveled, taught at a private boys' school, 
was on the staff of Bowdoin College and 
Harvard College, and more recently was 
matriculated in Russian studies at 
Cornell University. 

During the summer of 1945 he fin- 
ished the filmstrip U.S.S.R. The Land 
and Uie People. Other filmstrips upon 
which he has worked include those for 
the Council Against Intolerance in 
America and for the U.S. Housing Au- 

ly gi\'e-and-take of a small in- 
formal group, where no one is 
put on the spot or shy about ask- 
ing "dumb" questions. 

The opportunity to develop a 
filmstrip on the U.S.S.R. aroused 
in me a great enthusiasm. Per- 
haps it was because, if we are to 
achieve lasting peace and pros- 
perity and prevent a World War 
III, the United Nations— and es- 
pecially the two most powerful of 
them, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. 
—must learn how to get along to- 
gether in one world. To get along 
better, we need to know each 
other better. 

Hence, the general background 
filmstrip U.S.S.R. The Land and 
The People. Hence its five main 
sections: varied people, their 
country, the development of natu- 
ral and human resources, and 
finally the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. 
as allies in war and in peace. 

In developing this filmstrip, the 
usual steps were followed; that is, 

Page 77 


But how to 
troniport whof 
they produced? 
Moscow is now 

the port of 
3 seat. 

TaS^ _j 

wc tlccidcd first what were the 
most important subjects to be in 
chidcd; then we made a workii 
outline indicating the topic li 
each frame and describing tli 
kind of picture we would try r 
find to illustrate that topic. ^\ 
selected the pictures and th( 
wrote the legends and the spee( 
notes. Of course, it was not ea 
to hold so big a suljject within tl 
running time we had dccidtv 
upon— 30 minutes. 

As for the technical side, vn 
had 7"x9i/2" glossy prints mad 
of the pictures. A printer o 
movie titles printed the legem 
for the photographs in white in 
on black paper. These were the: 
pasted in place. Reader frame 
were printed in white on mottle 
grey cards: first, to avoid th 
somewhat funereal eflect of a 
all-black background, and secoiK 
ly, to give a note of variety when 
a new main topic or statement c 
special importance is introduce! 

As soon as we had a trial priri 
of the strip, we tried it on a grou 
of about one hiuulrcd high scho< 
students. A pretest based on tl" 
filmstrip was given to these sU 
dents just before projecting t^ 
strip in their study hall. Tl 
purpose was not to test them, bi 
to get them on their "mcnt i 

We started the film with Mi i] 

Pictures 16 through 19: i 

Cicalcst storclioiisc of resources in i I 

world, Russia begins to uiili/c it in li. t 

111 its, on licr rivers, among her youi i 




Mark X in the space xuhich indicates the correct answer 
(or, in the case of Qiiestion 1 , your oion attitude) for each 
of the folloiuing 16 questions: 

The sun takes 7 ( ) 11 ( ) hours to pass over the U.S.S.R. 

The shortest route from Moscow to San Francisco passes approximately ovei 
Nfanchukuo ( ) the North Pole ( ) . 

I The Ob, Yenisei, and Lena Rivers flow into the Caspian Sea, Arctic Ocean, 
and Pacific Ocean, respectively ( ) all flow into the Arctic Ocean ( ) . 

To grow wheat 10,000 feet above sea level is impossible ( ) possible ( ) . 

The people of the U.S.S.R. speak about 9 ( ) at least 125 ( ) difl"erent 

The people of the U.S.S.R. are fond of music and dancing, but tliey are 
not ( ) they are also ( ) fond of athletics, sports, and hobbies such as 
Americans enjoy. 

I feel that the people of the Soviet Union are fundamentally difl^erent from 
.\mericans, and my natural inclination is to be suspicious of them rather than 
to trust them. ( ) I feel that the people of the Soviet Union are funda- 
mentally like Americans, and I think they and we could easily become 
friends ( ) . 

In the U.S.S.R. a large proportion ( ) comparatively few ( ) of the people 
ire illiterate. 

The private ownership of a dwelling house is ( ) is not ( ) allowed in the 

ealth services in the U.S.S.R. arc charged for according to the patient's in- 
.ome ( ) are supplied free to all ( ) . 

Vonien in the Soviet Union have ( ) do not have ( ) much opportunity 
or cultural and professional development. 

The city of Magnitogorsk (a center of industry in the Ural Mountains; popu- 
tion 145,000 in 1939) is almost as old as Kiev ( ) did not exist in 1930 ( ) . 

L "collective farm" is ( ) is not ( ) the same as a "State farm." 

~he people of the national minorities take part ( ) do not take part ( ) 
1 the government of the Soviet Union. 

"he Soviet Union tried for some years before the war to persuade other peace- 
Jving nations to work with her for the collective security of all against 
isdsm. Yes ( ) No ( ) . 

1 their report on the Yalta Conference, representatives of the United States, 
Tie Soviet Union, and Great Britain stressed ( ) did not mention ( ) 
le need for cooperation and understanding among all the peace-loving nation.*- 

d HEAR— December 

Page 79 


46 Todoy a network of oirlmM hes 

together neoHy oil the importont cihe* 

m the Soviet Union. 


A5. In the Moscow subwoy. 


Cary at the projector and I i 
Iront near the screen reading t 
notes. All of a sudden at t 
frame of a map of the world, 
burst of subdued talk and laug 
ter smote my ears. \Vhat \v 
wrong? I glanced at the scree 
Nothing but the map, and a 
parently in good focus. \Vha 
funny about a map? Then 
dawned on me: the speech noi 
for that frame, which bega 
"The sun takes 1 1 hours to p; 
over the Union of Soviet Social 
Republics," were answering qu 
tion number one of the pre-te 
and the students were utteri 
low groans or cheers and co 
paring notes on whether they h 
put an "X" in the right or t 
wrong place on the pretest. 

My approach to filmstrips is r 
as a photographer or technicia 
I am interested in internatior 
relations and in social proble 
on the home front. There's a t 
mendous need for good fdmstri 
in this field. We need more hi 
strips and I'd like to make mc 
on the U.S.S.R. such as: Eve 
day Life in the Soviet Unic 
History, Government and PI: 
ning, Science in Soviet Life, a 
Education and the Arts in t 
Soviet Union. 

I believe that so-called "c( 
troversial subjects" may be de 

Pictures 20 through 24: 
Developing iians|joialion on a scale si 
ilar to that of any other country in 
world, Russia bids for leadership 
every front— in the air, under grou 
on the land, and on the rivers 

43. Thii 'expreM glider' on the Block Sw 

corrie* UO possenflerv ond con do 

50 mile* per hour. 

iih in filinstrips. Many siu h 
iil)jc((s luid urgently the liglu 
I toi tluiirht discussion in schools, 
hurches. civic groups, hihor or- 
ani/alions, etc. Fihnstrips on 
{oil' Pafxr Is Made and Scenes of 
)ld Holland, for example, will 

A special course might well be set up 
) train people to make filmstrips who 
lrca«lv have some competence in tlic 
elii of social studies. Just filmstrips. 
ach student niiglit be reciuircd to pro- 
uce as his "thesis" or final test, a film- 
rip for which he or she had written 
(le text and chosen the pictures. In 
ny such class of from 12 to 20 persons, 
here would be probably several who 
new quite a bit about taking pictures 
nd about doing art work and labora- 
>ry work: they could perhaps do certain 
arts of the job for other members of 
he class, who in turn could help them 
1 other ways. In the last days of the 
ourse. each member could project his 
trip for the others to criticize. Some 
trips might be only rough diamonds, 
ut others might be practically ready to 
e put into production and be distrib- 
ted throughout the country.— William 
I. Gary, Jr. 

lot help prepare Americans to de- 
end democracy against its en- 
mies, who have by no means dis- 
ippeared with the coming of mil- 
iary victory. They will not show 
IS how to establish a lasting peace. 
Vnd if we educators don't help 
)eopIe to find their way through 
:ontroversial subjects, we may 
ind ourselves with plenty of time 
o reflect about education— behind 
)arbed wires. 

We used the pre-test largely to 
)uild enthusiasm. Most of the 
questions were factual. However, 

(EE and HEAR — December 

one or two attitude (juestions were 
i'.uluded. Although we could not 
chaw sweeping conclusions from 
this sample, we find five students 
among the 9G who indicated that 
their inclination was to be highly 
suspicious of the Soviet people. A 
week later, the same test was giv- 
en after the showing, and after 
the filmstrip had been studied. 
Their scores jumped up marked- 
ly and several attitudes were 

"If I were either an administrator or 
a teacher, I would make the reading of 
this magazine a 'must' for myself, and 
urge it upon others as well. If I were 
a parent, I certainly would be interest- 
ed in promoting teaching, as set forth 
in these articles, in the schools my child 

"The articles, which are well written, 
show how, what were abstract concepts 
in teaching, and therefore dry and not 
too meaningful, can be concretely re- 
lated to actual and real life as the chil- 
dren experience it. 

"I like the fact that articles are con- 
tinuous until completed, and not 'con- 
tinued on page so and so.' The brief 
qualifying characterization of the au- 
thors is a splendid idea, as it gives the 
reader a basis for confidence in his 
or her authority to write on the sub- 

—John I. Felsher, Simon Bros. Co., Inc. 

"May I say that I am most enthu- 
siastic concerning SEE and HEAR. 
Your stated purposes point toward the 
bringing out and exchange of tangible 
and functional training ideas among all 
of us interested in the improvement of 
instructions; something which is of great 
need at this time. 

-Lt. R. E. Denno. USNR Officer-in- 
Charge, Training Aids Section San 
Diego, California. 

Page 81 

/ / 



Supen'isor of Audio-Visual Education, Portland Public Schools 

AS A part of tlic oppoi tiinity 
to establish school aiul com- 
munity relationships, the annual 
report occupies a position ol ma- 
jor importance. 7"oo often it is 
just a printed chronicle of what 
may often be termed the school's 
"\ ital statistics." 

In contrast to this, consider the 
opportunity which we ha\e for 
interpreting to parents informa- 
tion concerning the conditions 

Editor's Note: All times are the times 
to start gathering pictures for next 
year's report, .\nyone who has heen 
through the experience of visualizing 
ihe annual report knows the value of a 
large supply of j)ictures taken whenever 
the opportunity presents itself. There's 
noiliing worse than waiting initil the 
last moment and then trying to provide 
artificial pictorial settings. 

Ihe author makes very practical sug 
gestions which will go a long way in 
creating hetter school-community rela- 
ships and understandings. 

Page 82 

inider which their own childre 
live for the major part of eac 
day during the school year. I,oi 
ago we recognized the opporti 
nity of reporting in \isual lai 
guage. The ready acceptance 
visual materials by the public h: 
been demonstrated in manvschoc 
systems. Others should be encou 
aged to turn to the pictorial r 
port as a means of expressir 
graphically and interestingly tl 
condition imder which the scho< 
system houses its children, pr 
vidcs educational service, olTe 
co-cinricidar acti\ ities, and final 
spends its budget. 

The ciurent annual school i 
port cited here is a project whic 
is under the innnediate directic 
of Mr. }. W. Edwards antl whi< 
was produced by the staff of tl 
Portland, Oregon, sclujols. We c; 
report that the public reactic 
has been most favorable. One d 

December — SEE and HE 

ifrom I J ear to I J ear 



929 1934 i9j9 :9JJ 





Stalislics concerning the expenditure of Iniciget ami the sources of budget 
;irc an essential |)art of anv wood report. Too often thev are presented 
in the traditional "hone (h"\" form. Achninisiraiors should he interested 
in ilir procedure used here to make this section of the announcement 
more altracli\c to the coniniunitv. 

lE and HEAR — -December 

Page 83 

As is ihe environment, so, too, are the ideals, the standards, and the hopes 
which children build within themselves. In this democracy our purpose 
is to create a Ijcttcr society. This cannot he done by educating children 
under one standard and expecting that they will Iniild for themselves 
another as soon as they become adults. Two pictures from the annual 
report are here reproduced which contrast playground facilities m the 
same city system. Parents making the comparison will have little doubt 
as to their desires for their children. 

As a parent being asked the question, "Which 
school do you want your child to attend" or 
"Are you in favor of a l)uilding program to 
replace barrack schools" would there be any 
doubt about the way you would vote? 

id HEAR— December 

Page 85 

line live liaiiiic ol this icpoi ( is 
I he tetlinitjiie ol pieseniini; Ijoth 
the good and the batl s( hool situ- 
ations as they exist vvithin oiii 
own (oniniunitx . Ik-injn (()ni]jlete- 
ly realistic, \\e tlici not hesitate to 
portray conditions as wc know 
they should exist in contrast to 
those conditions whi(h we know 
need correction. 

Oiu" community has an exten- 
sive jx)siwar ])lan lor building 
and plant improvement. This 
plan will include the proposed 
expendituie ol some five nn'llion 
dollais. This photographic report 
is one of the first stejjs in report- 
ing to the public the present con- 
dition of their schools and the 
needs which nuist be fulfilled il 
every child in our comnuuiity is 
to have an o])portunity to be led 
through his expei ieiices in educa- 
tion under coiuliiions which are 
conducive to hajjjjiness, recrea- 
tion, and pleasant study enviion- 

We arc now jjlanning to visual- 
ize our regidai bulletins more 
extensively anil to (irculate the 
periodical among a large ninnbcr 
of citizens. Previously, the bidle- 
tin was (onfined to the stafT, but 
the interest disj)layed by the pub- 
lic has suggested jjlans for a more 
extensive ilistribution. A bright, 
well-illustrated, and interesting 
magazine shoidd do nuuh to 
promote j>iiblic appreciation of 
<>m sc hools. 

One hoped-for outcome is thai 
.schciols everywhere will seize upon 
the opportuuitv of visualizing 


\v;is 1)1)111 ill .\lal)ani;i. rt'cci\C(l liis 15.. 
(IcRicc irom Rie»i Collc^r in 1928 an 
his M.A. (Itjiicf from the I ni\crsit\ < 
Wisconsin in \9W. He has served edi 
ration in several tapacities; first as 
leather, as a liiRli sdiool vice-principa 
and as an ekiiuniar) sdiool ])rinci|)a 
Since H)12 he has heiii diretlor of tl 
lUireaii of \'isiial Inst nut ion of tl 
I'ortland, Oregon, l'iil)lic Schools. 

Mr. Trenholnie is tlie Oregon Ki niii 
War I.oan Mf)vie chaiinian, and a men 
her of the National 1() mm. War Loa 

His plans for the future are lo niani 
facliire slide and fdmstrip sets on il 
city of Portland, perhaps mo\ies on tl 
same. He also j)lans to nianufactin 
materials on primary curriculum in tl 
(ield of \isiial education. 

their rejjorts to parents and cit 
zens in order to create a moi 
active jiariicipation in bringin 
the best school environment, tli 
best school staff, and the bci 
coinses of study to our childre 
who nuist assmne the burden c 
tomonow's social responsibilitie 


Star and the Sand 
{Sound} 20 minutes. I'st': I 
History S; World History S, C: Si>' 
ctiy C; Clubs f. A. 

FOLLOW l.\(. the Na/i iinasion < 
Vugoslayia, a group of ahout .S.Ofi 
evacuees uas taken to Italy and the 
lo an Kgypiian desert (amp Ity ill 
I NRR.\. This oulstanding do( inner 
shows how these peo|)le. lorn a\va\ froi 
i.'uir native environment of green mour 
lain y alleys, reconsinu ted their morali 
their (iilliire. and their (oiniiuinil\ ]i> 
iiig in the haireniuss of a desert cami 
and how, pro\ ided with basic assistant 
l>y ihc IINRR.\, ihey buill from ther 
lo restore ama/ingly llieir national ciil 
luie. ()(ficc uf War lufnrtnntiou. /\ 
\oiir nearest film library. 

Page 86 

December — SEE and HEA 

M \aIAL 

Dr. Leslie E. Brown 
Former Director of Adult Edu- 
cation, Sl>ringfield, Illiuois. 

Mml^ 4pl^^% /^^^^ 

DXE great value of the sound 
film in adult education is its 
reat adaptability to a variety of 
tuations and to \arious methods 
f use. There is no "one method" 
[ using films with adult study 
oups. The methods to be used 
ise from the purpose to be 
rvcd and the situation to be 
let. The use of the excellent doc- 
mentary film, HERE IS CHINA, 
1 three different situations, illus- 
ates the point, emphasizing 
jain that the film is a tool for 
arning— useful, flexible, power- 

The first situation in which the 
Im, HERE IS CHINA, was used 
as an open meeting of the Lan- 

E and HEAR — December 

caster ^Vomen's Club. But, let's 
begin at the beginning: 

In ihc spring of 1944, a group 
of the members of the Lancaster 
Women's Club chose "China" as 
its topic for special study during 
the following winter. Carefully 
they planned their series of week- 
ly meetings, to culminate in a 
presentation of a summation of 
their study before the entire club 
and guests. 

Each ^seek, t\\o or three mem- 
bers were assigned the major re- 
sponsibility for assembling and 
presenting the facts on the topic 
of the week. Members not "on the 
progiam" were responsible for 

Pago 87 

KDITORS XOIK: Bringing ihc 
world to even the more remote commu- 
nities of onr country is fast becoming a 
reality. For many years, community for- 
ums, service clubs, and women's clubs 
depended upon the medium of the ra- 
dio, the printed and spoken word as 
their means of becoming aware of events 
in far-off places. Today, to this already 
very effective list can be added the 
sound motion picture fdm. Hundreds of 
well-planned and beautifully photo 
graphed pictures of living conditions 
and social problems as they exist in the 
lands of our allies are now being pro- 
duced on 16mm. sound film. Here and 
there throughout the country, we are 
f)eginning to get reports on how these 
excellent, current-event teaching devices 
are being successfully utilized among 
interested groups of adults. What fol- 
lows here is an account of how Dr. 
Rrown, former Director of Adult Educa- 
tion, Springfield, Illinois, planned and 
conducted a film forum before a wom- 
en's club gathering in one rural com- 
munity, before a mixed urban group, 
and before a group of professional 
women; and how he literally brought 
the world to the groups by means of the 
superb ability of the sound film to re- 
cord and convey its impressions realis- 
tically, vividly, and interestingly. 

general reading in the field. The 
chairman of the group presided 
at eacli meeting. After the leaders 
for the evening had presented 
facts and points of view, general 
discussion followed, during which 
the leaders were challenged con- 
cerning the facts they presented 
and particularly on their inter- 
jjretation of them. Each successive 
week, two or more other members 
became the leaders on another 
aspect of Chinese life, and the 
same (jucstioning and challenging 
couuncnt from the group fol- 

Pag* 88 

I attended the next to the last 
meeting of the series in response 
to a request for "someone who 
can help us with discussion meth- 
od." Six members participated 
that evening as a panel. Each 
came armed with pamphlets, pe- 
riodicals, books, maps and charts, 
and their own compilations ol 
notes gleaned from arduous studs 
of materials of their own, periodi 
cals from the public library, pam 
phlets from their imiversity exten 
sion di\ision, and books from th< 
state library commission. For near 
ly two hours, the discussion alter 
nately waxed furiously and lullcc 
to frequent pauses for contempla 
tion and new approaches. At it 
conclusion, we planned togethei 
the final meeting two weeks away 

Nearly one hundred townspeo 
pie came to the final meeting. / 
six-member panel talked on threi 
major points— the economic stress 
cs and strains in China, the di 
vided opinion as to the conduc 
of war by Generalissimo Chianj 
Kai-shek, and the future of China 
For an hour and a quarter ij 
li\cly, informed, reasoned manne 
there j^ourcd forth a flow of fac 
and interpretation which rousetL 
the audience to immediate qticiH 
lion and comment. And finally, a\ 
a climax we showed the filit, 
HERE IS CHINA. There, befor^ 
our very eyes, with our minds full 
attuned to many of the needs, th 
problems, and the riches of Ch 
nese life, were unrolled for twenf; 
fi\e minutes the beauty, the mi; 
ery, the waste, the poverty, an, 
the hopeful steps forward bein 

December — SEE and HE/ 




"China is a land of rivers, great and small. One of the important staple foods 
is fish. . . The cormorant, the bird which is o slave to its tremendous appetite, 
is token advantage of by the fishermen who need neither pole nor line to take 
their catch from the river." 

Photos from United China Relief, Inc. 

ide by the Chinese. More giaph- 
than words alone were the 
mpscs of China's vast unhar- 
»sed rivers; her teeming millions 
people— frugal, poverty-stricken, 
ergetic, competent; her primi- 
e agriculture, her lack of trans- 
rtation, her initial efforts at 
)dernization, her great chain of 
operatives, her great potential 
world neighbor. It was truly a 
max, for here was verification; 
re were widely selected actual 
t home" pictures of these Chi- 
5e, giving vivid point to the 
cussion which had preceded, 
mping indelibly through vi- 
n and sound the facts and basic 
editions which our panel had 
ably presented to the ear alone. 

and HEAR — December 

Two final questions were asked, 
and we adjourned. As the crowd 
moved homeward, I overheard, 
"Gosh, how that picture empha- 
sized what they saidi Seeing is 
sure believing." 

In a second community, an en- 
tirely different situation gave rise 
to a different procedure. It was a 
single meeting of a mixed group- 
townspeople, college faculty, and 
a few students represented di- 
verse groups, interests, and back- 
grounds. Six community leaders- 
three men and three women— had 
been invited to serve as a discus- 
sion panel. They had neither seen 
the film, HERE IS CHINA, nor 
made any intensive preparation 

Page 89 

lor fifteen minutes ininiediately 
hclorc the nicotinic, at whidi time 
1 asked each to name a major 
problem in C-hinese life, incliul- 
ing China's relation to the worlil 
scene. Quicklv, there were pre 
sen ted a number ol broad aspects, 
some of which we at once broke 
down into smaller subtoj)ics. Eadi 
peison made a note of one or 
more points whidi he was to state 
briefly in the general meeting. 

We then mo\ed into the audi- 
torium, and the members of the 
jjanel were seated aroimd a table 
down in front (not uj) on thf 
stage) . After brief iniiotluctions. 
I explained to the audience that 
first the panel would state briefly, 
l)ut not discuss, some major as- 
pects of Chinese life which the) 
considered essential in under- 

after which the film would !)( 
shown, and tliscussion and inter- 
pniation b\ all woukl then fol- 

We had prepared for all a mini-, 
eographed JJage of the following 
((uestions to guide the discussion 
in a general wav. Adequate space 
was left lor making notes. This 
\ery brief yet very flexible discus 
sion guide is included: 

Film Forum 

I. Before viewing fibn— 
What seems to you to be ir 
portant facts or problems whic 
we need to consider in a study 
of China? 

B. After film shoxuing— 

l.What feeling or attitude to- 

Far from recreation as we know it, these Chinese formers line the bonks of the 
pond in which massive woter buffalo are pitted one against the other. 

. a 

wind (Ihina docs the film rrciitc 
in you? 

2. What sfcni to you the pi iu- 
(ipal facts which the fihii pre- 
sents? IIo^\• much can we j^i n 
crali/e about China fiom these 

.'?. What are tlie needs of China 
as presented by the (ihn? What 
steps were taken to meet some 
of those needs? 

4. What inijjortant problems 
are not included in the fdm? 

3. \Vhat implications does the 
fihn make ior United States 
jjolicy in China? for us as citi- 

Kach panel member briefly pre- 
nted his point or points. Some 
lestions were exchanged among 
e panel for the purpose of darl- 
ing or defining a problem. This 
eliminary discussion served to 
t forth some facts, to get the 
oup thinking process focused, 
id to create a "readiness" for, 
id alertness to, the scenes of 
hinese life to follow. 

After the film was shown, the 
uiel resumed their places at the 
ble. A few minutes w^ere de- 
)ted to the discussion of the film 
self— Did it give a true picture? 
id it have a purpose? If so, was 
a legitimate purpose? The 
inel then picked up their initial 
Dints, elaborating upon them in 
le light of the film information, 
'awing out certain interpreta- 
ons. Question and counter-ques- 
on sharpened issues, clarified 

E and HEAR — December 

l.i.M.ii. I'.. Ukowx 
Dr. Brown (B.A., I'nivcrsity of Wis- 
consin, and M.A., Tcadicrs CloUcgc, Co- 
liinihia I'nivcrsily) lias been a ictturcr 
ill cdiKatioii at tiic I'nivcrsily of Wis- 
consin, a liigli school principal and 
snpcrinlcndcnt of schools in Minnesota, 
director of Windward School, White 
riains. New \'ork. and director of Coni- 
iiiiinilv School for Adults, Springfield, 

facts. The audience joined in 
with comment, challenge, and 
question,— related first to the film 
and then to matters not touched 
by the film, for no single film can 
tell the whole story of China. 

Finally, we turned to the mean- 
ings that these facts held for our 
government and for us as indi- 
viduals, to the values that would 
accrue from adequate understand- 
ings. W^c agreed that those actual 
scenes from the real lives of 
Chinese people were forceful evi- 
dence of the essential sameness of 
peoples, of the potential for peace 
that lay in the mutual under- 
standings of peoples. As Confu- 
cius said "A picture is worth a 
thousand w'ords." 

Now, let's consider the third 
circumstance under which the 
film, HERE IS CHINA was used. 
Somewhat similar was a use 
with a women's professional edu- 
cation sorority at a university. 
Their programs for the year had 
centered about various aspects of 
\vorld affairs. It was a cohesive 
group, the members well ac- 

Pago 91 

cjuaintcd and used to discussion 
together. Here again, we used 
the question sheet referred to 
above. However, preceding the 
showing of the film, I, as discus- 
sion leader, elicited from the 
group a broad range of problems, 
facts, issues, and some opinions- 
all concerning China and our re- 
lation to her. We viewed the film, 
and in the light of its portrayal, 
analyzed and interpreted as many 
of its facts as time permitted. We 
called attention to significant 
writings about China, both brief 
articles and more comprehensive 
works. We argued the biases of 
writers, of the press, of ourselves. 
A common comment was, "Well, 
I'm certainly going to look that 
up further. That makes me re- 
vise my thinking." 

In each of these situations, a re- 
showing of the film would have 
been helpful. In each case, brief 
reading lists might have capital- 
ized upon the interest created by 
the film, by making further study 
more easily undertaken. In the 
last two cases, a second meeting 
would have been very valuable. 
Continuity of interest is stimu- 
lated and directed by the impres- 
sions gained from the film. The 
panorama of Chinese life made 
possible by the film may have 
presented even deeper under- 
standings than the limited \iew 
possible by brief travel in an un- 
familiar land. 

HERE IS CHINA is a good 
documentary film. As yet, the doc- 
umentary film has not reached 

Pag* 92 

perfection. Each film has limiia 
lions and requires adaptation o 
method to purpose and situation 
Important phases of life have no 
yet received the attention of th( 
film makers, yet there exis 
enough good documentary film 
on current problems, and mon 
are regularly appearing, to pro 
\ ide bases for scries of related dis 
cussions. Where possible, a serie 
of related topics will produo 
greater returns in understanding 
and in the skills of discussion it 

Not all the peoples of the worl< 
can personally experience the cul 
tures of the rest of the world 
Sound films, particularly th( 
documentary, can and do providi 
one effective channel for the in 
terflow of essential understand 
ings, which alone can assist ir 
establishing a basis upon which s 
structure for peace may rest. Pro 
giam chairmen and teachers neec 
not be fearful of using films. Ski! 
in their use comes by using thciu 
by recognizing both their short 
comings and their strengths, anc 
by boldly and carefully building 
discussions around them. 

It is a commonplace saying thai 
the world is shrinking. Nothing 
could be farther from the truth 
The world has not shrunk and 
will not. If the world seetm 
smaller, it is because man ha; 
grown in vision and in under 
standing. To these visions and tc 
these understandings, the docu 
mentary sound film has great con 
tributions to make. 

December— SEE and HEAS 

Many questions on Audio -Visual 
Learning come in your editor's 
mailbag here are — 

W. A. WiTTicH AND John Guy Fovvlkes 

"^ How much money per child 
c • should a school board spend 
n the visual education program? 

i This is a very difficult question 
A. • to answer, because a certain basic 
nount needs to be spent for the pur- 
lase of equipment, screens, black-out 
aterial, film rental, or film purchase 
:fore any program can even begin. 

If the school system is small, this 
eans a high per capita expenditure, 
the school system is a large one, the 
st per capita appears smaller. Once 
e initial cost of equipment has been 
et, a basic program of filmstrip pur-, 
lase and film rental is at present cost- 
g many small school systems between 
iOO and .S500 a year. This may mean 
veral dollars per pupil. In general, it 
ay be said that many school systems 
e today spending as much on a pro- 
am of visual instruction, which pro- 
des for map and filmstrip purchases, 
ctures, slides, and motion picture 
ntals, as they are spending on text- 

■^ We have just begun a pro- 
c • gram of visual education 
hich includes films. Our first at- 
;mpts in getting and scheduling 
[ms haven't been too successful. 

E and HEAR — December 

Can you refer us to anyone who 
has had experience and who 
might send us some advice? 

A This problem of scheduling, se- 
• curing, and using films varies 
from school to school. Just recently, Mr. 
Michael F. Serene, Assistant Principal 
of The Ambridge Junior-Senior High 
School, Ambridge, Pennsylvania, wrote 
to us about the very practical way in 
which he is meeting this problem. A 
good answer will be found in the tech- 
nique they have set up. Mr. Serene ex- 
plains it to you. 

"In Ambridge High School we feel we 
have worked out a plan which avoids 
many problems. Too often confusion oc- 
curs when films are ordered from out- 
side agencies. When only two projectors 
are available in a large building, sched- 
uling becomes a mechanical problem. 
Getting films so that they arrive exactly 
on the days scheduled is another con- 
cern. Teachers want them not too early, 
not too late, but on time. These and 
other problems are often not discovered 
until too late. The results are detri- 
mental to school morale, costly, and un- 

"But now about our plan. Early in the 
school year, faculty members and depart- 
ments are asked to present their requests 
for films to the assistant principal. This 
is done early so that all films requested 

Page 93 

may l)c booked on the days selected. A 
list of available dates when films mav 
be shown is drawn up. A date or dates 
for the showing of each film is selected. 
A mimeographed sheet is printed which 
shows the title of the film, number of 
reels, teacher or department receiving 
the film, and dates on whidi the film 
is to be shown. A suflicient number of 
copies of this mimeographed sheet arc 
run off so that every faculty member 
may have one. 

"In ordering films from the various 
sources, the mimeographed sheet or 
schedule is cut with a pair of shears 
into strips. These strips or horizontal 
cuts list the title of the film, reels, teach- 
er or department, company or agency, 
and the date of showing. These strips 

are placed in an envelope with a notei 
asking that the films be sent on the days} 
listed. i 

" I hcsc mimeogra|)hed schedules oi 
sheets serve three purposes: (1) Teach 
ers or departments are notified whet 
films are to be expected. (2) All other 
teachers on the stalf are notified also o 
films expected. .Sometimes the film topi 
is such that other faculty members ask 
to !)ring their siudcnls in to see tlie film 
(3) The schedule furnishes a stimulus 
towards more efficient use of visual e<lu- 
cation equipinent. Quite often other! 
facidty members, who previously havj 
not used films, ask for the schedulini 
of films for their use." 

A sample of the schedide is showi 

hi I 






1. Rome, No. X9074 

Bell & Howell 
1801 Lorchmont 
Chicago, III. 

Gundermon February 27 

2. How Not to Conduct o 

General Motors Corp. 
Dept. Public Relations 
1775 Broadway 
New York 19, N. Y. 

Gundermon January 14 

3. Molecular Theory of 
Matter, No. 541.2 

Motion Picture Dept. 
Pcnn. State College 
State College, Penn. 


Jonuary S 



4. Principle of Current 
Electricity, No. 537 

5. Chemistry of Com- 

6. Sand and Flame 

Motion Picture Dept. 
Penn. State College 
State College, Penn. 

Mottuch March 26-27 

Motion Picture Dept. 
Penn. State College 
State College, Penn. 

General Motors Corp. 
Dept. Public Relations 
1775 Broadway 
New York 19, N. Y. 

Rosenberger February 7-8 

Rosenberger January 7-8 

7. Nesting of the Ruby 
Throated Humming 
Bird 1 

Fish Commission 
Penn. Dept. of Com, 
Harrisburg, Penn. 

Rice May 13-14 

8. Foods and Nutrition 1 

Health and the Cycle 
of Water 1 

Paga 94 

Deportment of Health 
Horrisburg, Penn. 

Mottuch January 9 

December— SEE and HEAR 


)II()\v lai in ;icl\.iiuc should 
• the \isual proi^ram be out- 
ictl? 1 1 is <;rtting to be very 
Ihdih to get the hlnis we order 
iliss we hook a year in advance. 

k III order ilial ilic teacher and 
V» ilic |iii|)il Ik- lu'st served, the 
cal situation woulil l)e for fdms to l)c 
ailable at any time for exactly the 
te on \vlii(h tlic teacher wished to use 
e (dm will) her pupils. I'ufortunaiely, 
is is not always the case. The best 
actice has cpiite generally fa\ored ad- 
nce bookings of a year, and in some 
ses, more. All we need do. however, is 

consiiler how often class ]>lanning 
cs awrv, and we know that under 
[ig-tinie ailvance bookings there is very 
tie likelihood for the teacher actually 
time her work so as to be at the place 
e anticipated at the time the fdm 
lich she ordered arrives. Several large 
ite bureaus have announced "spot" 
lokings, which practically guarantees 

the teacher a fdm service with as 
tie as a week's notice. Ultimately, 
is shoidd be our goal. It is impossible 

plan a year's program in advance. 
)idemics of illness, the appearance of 
luable new films, unexpected increases 

the rate with whidi children attack 
eir work— all throw the l)cst made 
iching plans into chaos. Teachers 
ould insist on being able to order and 
reive films on short notice. 


\ Should I 
c • school board to set 
idget appropriations for 
irchase of films? 


^ This is a matter which each 
\.» locality must decide for itself. It 
«i is a problem in simple arithmetic, 
aially, when film rental costs begin to 
sunt higli enough so that additional 
idget witii provision for outright pur- 
ase must be made, that local com- 
Linity should embark on local film 

Of great interest is the announcement 

bv ^■()ung .America Films, Inc., of lOO 
fool subjects retailing at lif) dollars a 
print. This is just one half of the cost 
price of the i)est available film subjects 
at present. This may be the beginning 
of the economies wiiidi can be brought 
about through larger editicms in film 

OOur church religious educa- 
• lion dej^artment is starling 
on a project of emphasizing ways 
so even the smallest church gioup 
can use visual materials. Can you 
gi\e me some assistance? 

A Many excellent sets of slides, 
• hymns on sound film and sound 
motion pictures particularly developed 
for church use are available today. Such 
sources as Cathedral Films (Bible stories 
photographed in color) at 3441 Olive 
Street, St. Louis 3, Missouri, and at 6404 
Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood 28, Cali- 
fornia; and Hvmnalogues, Post Pictures 
Corporation, 723 Seventh Avenue, New 
^'ork 19, N. Y., should certainly be in- 

\'ery interesting films also have been 
developed in the field of nature study 
and in the field of international under- 
standing. Any interest group need but 
write to their nearest film library to 
.secure lists of these films, many of which 
are particidarly adapted to the smaller 
children in Sunday School groups. 

For films which emphasize inter-group 
relationships, we refer you to the bibli- 
ography in the September issue of SEE 
and HEAR, or write directly to Mrs. 
Esther Berg, 25 Central Park ^Vest, New 
^ ork City. 

Teachers and adtninislrators are 
invited to submit questions relative 
to evaluation of materials, source 
of materials, arid methods of main- 
taining and using equipment . . . 
address— The Editors, SEE and 

E and HEAR — Etecember 

Page 9S 

1s it necessary to dark out 
• the room entirely when 
showing films? Where can we get 
some information on the possi- 
bility of projecting materials in 
rooms equipped with translucent 

A A great deal has been said 
• about the ability of the daylight 
screen or beaded screen to make pos- 
sible the projection of visual materials 
in classrooms which are not completely 
darked out. Anyone who has had any 
experience in projecting material knows 

ao«wtt*tkl Macf 

Himioi) ASS1 


dilferent problem. An example of what 
the armed forces have developed is de- 
scribed briefly but with detail enough 
so that anyone with reasonable ability 
in woodworking can duplicate it. 
Roughly, the problem is one of project- 
ing the image down a tunnel long 
enough that when the image is cut by 
the ground glass screen, the same will 
be large enough to be seen by audiences 
up to 200, even in rooms which are only 
partly darkened. 

To overcome the mechanical difficulty 
of the distance between projector and 
scieen, the device which is described on 
the accompanying drawing cuts this 
necessary distance in half through a sim- 

rftAMfMOMl 0' tOl tl 
COwfTNUCTCO Off urtcl 



that efficiency is materially cut down 
whenever any amount of light is ad- 
mitted. Usually, some of the disad- 
vantage can be overcome by moving the 
projector close enough to the screen so 
tliat light will I)c concentrated in a 
small image which is still large enough, 
however, for the children to see ade- 

To project to larger groups poses a 

Pag* 96 

pic reflection system. This projection 
icchniijuc has demonstrated its clfcctivc- 
ncss and may be of interest to admin- 

The question always remains, which 
is the easier— to arrange for darkening 
ihc room or to go to the trouble ot 
handling the complicated mechanism, 
which may be the harder of the two 
alternatives? ^ 

December — SEE and HEAR' 









Keg. U. S. Pal. Uilici; 
Publuhed each month of the school year— September to May inchisive 
-by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, a division of E. M. HALE 
and Company. 

Earl M. Hale, President and Publisher. 

Walter A. Wittich, John Guy Fowlkes and C. J. Anderson, Editors. 

H. Mac McCrath, Business Manager; Tom Bartingale, Circulation Director. 

Sold by subscription only. $3.00 per year (9 issues) in the U.S. 

$4.00 in Canada and foreign countries. 

^OL. 1 JANUARY -1946 no. 5 




Here . . . and There 2 

Editorial _ 4 

Editorial Advisory Board of SEE and HEAR 6 

See and Hear 8 

Tips From Topcka— Do ?oi/iea Pellett 12 

$l.0O0.0O0-A Stake in Democracy-Jo/m T. Omernik 16 

First Experiences With the Visual Educational Program— Henry /. Queen 17 
For Community Thinking— Afarie Seton 23 

Financing a Program of .Audio-Visual .\ids. Committee Report— 

Leslie E. Frye 30 

While We Wait for the Millennium— AT. Evelyn Davis .^ 34 

Teaching the Basic Seven— Loi^ie Holston 40 

Releasing the Genie— Bea/rice Bergh 45 

N.E-A. and Audio- Visual Education— Fernon D. Dameron 50 

European Odyssey— .4 r</iur Stenius 53 

Books, A Review— 7oe Park _ 58 

For Inter-regional Understandings— Afr5. Christine Cash 61 

Utilizing the Potential Power of the Reading and Study Film— 

Lt. Donald A. Eldrige and Leonie M. Brandon 65 

Report of Indiana Committee on A-V Materials 70 

Bibliographically Sp>eaking— Music— Leroy Klose 71 

MultJ-Sen«ory Aids in the Teaching of Mathematics— Donoi/an A. Johnson 73 

A Film in the Lesson— Pau/ F. Brandivein 77 

Teaching the "Hush-Hush" Subjects— L. Warren Nelson 84 

Son^thing to Reflect-C. P. Peterson, L. A. Emans and Holland Nock 90 

Qucstiotis and .\nsy.ers— Wittich and Fowlkes 94 

> Copyright 1946 by SEE and HEAR, Eau Claire, Wis. Printed in U.S.A. • 

Jii^ . . . y^ihAM^ 

American -made motion pictures will 
be welcomed in the reeducation of free 
Europe and in Belgium in particular, 
according to a group of Belgian journal- 
ists who recently discussed reconstruc- 
tion in their war-torn country. 

Said Valere d'Archambeau of Liege, 
"Our Minister of Education is a great 
believer in the cinema as an educational 
tool. Our children have been badly 
handicapped in all educational facilities 
under the German occupation. We are 
primarily interested in pictures depicting 
manual training, for we have a tremen- 
dous rehabilitation problem. Motion 
pictures can encourage our people to 
desire greater knowledge of the subjects 
they see on the screen." 

The extent of audio-visual instruction 
in one state only is indicated by a recent 
report by the Virginia Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. During the school 
year ending last summer there were 
39,158 showings of educational motion 
pictures in classrooms and auditoriums 
in 498 public schools. Because of lack of 
electricity, 2,100 schools could not show 
motion picturr^s. ♦\rrangements have 
been made to install electricity immedi- 
ately in 800 of these. 


ONE advantage of 3i4x4 slides is the 
ability to project them in a par- 
tially lighted room. This fact is well 
known, but less well known is the fact 
that such slides can be projected directly 
upon the blackboard in a semi darkened 
room. This would certainly ajjpcar to 
be an anomaly amidst the talk of head- 
ed and brilliant screens. Such screens 
are necessary for the 2x2 slides and for 
16 mm. motion pictures. However, tlia- 
grams, charts, circuits, and geometric 
figures rendered boldly in white lines on 
the 31/4x4 slides can be projected satis- 

Pag* 2 

factorily on a blackboard. If the boarc 
has been used and is slightly coverec 
with chalk dust, the brilliance of tli< 
tliagram is enhanced. 

The value of being able to project! 
diagrams directly upon a blackboard is 
this. The instructor may use white or 
colored chalk to explain the construction 
of the figure, to trace the circuit of an 
electrical diagram, or to make additions, 
to the figures. This method is pariicu-j 
larly helpful in explaining construction; 
in geometrical optics and in radio aiu 
electronic circuits. 

—Edward T. Myers, Documentar 
Film Group, University of Chicago. 

The San Diego Visual Instructioi 
Center has a staff of 13 employees serv 
ing G6 city schools and approximate! 
.50,000 students and teachers. A librar>j 
of 2,000 reels of film is somewhat in- 
dicative of the size of the department. 

Government Man Gets New Post 

Lincoln \'. Bur"- 
rows, former chief 
of the Photograph- 
ic Section of the 
W a r Production 
Board, has been 
nanictl director of 
distribution of the 
Victor AnimaKi- 
graphic Corpora- 
t i o n, Davenport, 

"SEE and HE.VR has made a splendid 
start. . . . Teachers will welcome it ix- . . . the policy of making it a d.i- 
room instrument of the entire field 
visual is a worthy one." 

— Joseph K. Bolts, High School Coordiun: 
Detroit Public Schools. 

January— SEE and HEA« 

idividual CikSS ROOfA Projector 

/ Available at Low Cost . . . with 16MM Sound-on-Film Movie-Mite 

ABLE — Weighs only 27 Vi 

case contains: Movie-Mite 

sound projector, desk top 

I. speaker, cords, take-up reel 

ind still has ample space ior 

lamps, etc. 

aely compact; only slightly 
than a portable typewriter; 
ximately 8x12x15 inches in 
Ideal ior small group sho-w- 
Larger size standard screens 
>e used ior larger groups. 

STANDARD FEATURES— Plainly marked iilm path makes 
threading easy. Only one moving part need be operated in 
entire threading. Show can be on screen in less than three 

One electric plug completes all connections to projector. 
Cords, permanently wired to speaker, cannot be lost. 

Reel capacity 2000 ft. Reel arms slip into accurate sockets 
. . . fast power, rewind . . . adjustable tilt . . . quickly 
adjusted framing device . . . utilizes a single, inexpensive 
standard projection lamp for both picture and sound pro- 
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durable plywood . . . leatherette covered . . . universal 
A.C. or D.C. 105-120 volt operation ... no converter neces- 
sary. Mechanism cushioned on live rubber mounts for 
smooth, quiet operation . . . entire unit made of best quality 
materials and precision machined parts. 

Write for interesting folder, "It Makes Sense." See your favorite Photographic 
or Visual Aid Dealer for Demonstration and Delivery Information. 


WHAT disposition will be made of many of the Army and 
Navy films which may be of use to public education in 
the United States? There has been a great deal of discus- 
sion concerning these training films. So far no definite course of 
action has evolved. There must be a number of films which 
might be very useful in the achievement of existing school cur- 
riculum plans. 

To be specific, the Army produced a series of films which were 
used to develop understandings of the background of World War 
II. Wouldn't these films fill'a much needed place in high school 
and college social studies to help students get a better under- 
standing of the events preceding and causing World War II? 
Other films on first aid, mathematics, mechanics, electricity, etc., 
might also well be used in schools. 

Many educators were connected with armed forces training 
film programs. Now many have returned to school posts and 
should be in a position to give us clues concerning the films of 
value for schools. These men might well head up committees 
to preview and evaluate Army and Navy films and make recom- 
mendations on the questions raised above. 

The schools do want films, but not just because there is an 
opportunity to get them free. They do want films which will 
help to bring about a more effective learning situation. Any 
Army and Navy films which will help to accomplish this objec- 
tive should be made available. 

Rightly we look to the Department of Visual Instruction of 
the National Education Association and the United States Oflice 
of Education to take an active part in this important matter. 

The Editors. 

p^g, 4 January — SEB and HEAI 

ilt like a fine watch — powered by a 
y smooth-running motor and mech- 
1 that purrs through reel after reel 
)ut a flutter or a jump — so simple, 
dent can operate it — that's the new 
RY 16mm. sound -on-film projector, 
e ultimate of sound, whether it be crisp. 
inteUigible conversation, or the full 
ity of symphonic music . . clear defi- 
i of image . . . uniformity of illumina- 
)ver the screen's entire surface . . . soft, 
al brilliance that assures viewing com- 
ecause it is kind to the eyes. 

Mo<lel 16-1966 



The new DeVRY is a 3-purpose umit that 
(1) SAFELY projects both sound and silent 
films; (2) that shows BOTH black-and-white 
and color film without extra equipment; and 
(3) whose separately housed 25-watt ampli- 
fier and sturdy 12-inch electro-dynamic 
speaker afford portable Public Address facil- 
ities — indoors and out. 

Make DeVRY your source of 16mm. 
sound and silent Classroom Teaching 
Films for SALE OR RENT. DeVRY 
CORPORATION. 1111 Armitage Ave. 
Chicago 14. Illinois. 


1111 ArmHaK* Avanu*, Chleace 14, linnote 

Please mail me catalog of Audio- Visnal Teaching 
E^jnlpment. Also yoat new Film Catalog'. 



y 5-TIME WINNER of Army-Novy ' E ' (or the 
docfion of moHon picture sound equipmenf 


I City. 

.1.— . 


and HEAR — January 

Pa«« 8 

Members of the Editorial Advisory Board 
of SEE and HEAR 

ROGER ALBRIGHT. Teaching Film Custodians 

LESTER ANDERSON. University of Minnesota 

V. C. ARNSPIGER. Encyclopaedia Britanniea Films. Inc. 

LESTER F. BECK. University of Oregon (on leave) 

MRS. ESTHER BERG. New York City Public Schools 

MRS. CAMILLA BEST, New Orleans Public Schools 

CHARLES M. BOESEL. Milwaukee Country Day School 

JOSEPH K. BOLTZ. Coordin-nor, Citizenship Education Study. Detroit 

LT. JAMES W. BROWN. Officer in Charge. Training Aids Section. Great Ukes 

ROBERT H. BURGET. San Diego City Schools 

MISS MARGARET J. CARTER. National Film Board of Canada 

C. R. CRAKES, Educational Consultant, DeVry Corporation 

LT. AMO DeBERNARDlS. Training Aids Officer, Recruit Training Command. Great Lakes 

JOSEPH E. DICKMAN, Chicago Public Schools 

DEAN E. DOUGLASS, Educatioail Department. Radio Corporation of America 

GLEN G. EYE, University of Wisconsin 

LESLIE FRYE, Cleveland Public Schools 

LOWELL P. GOODRICH. Superintendent, Milwaukee Public Schools 

WILLIAM M. GREGORY, Western Reserve University 

JOHN L. HAMILTON, Film Officer, British Information Services 

MRS. RUTH A. HAMILTON, Omaha Public Schools 

O. A. HANKAMMER, Kansas State Teachers College 

W. H. HARTLEY, Towson State Teachers College. Md. 

JOHN R. HEDGES, University of Iowa 

VIRGIL E. HERRICK, University of Chicago 

HENRY H. HILL. President, George Peabody College for Teachers 

CHARLES HOFF, University of Omaha 

B. F. HOLLAND, University of Texas 


HEROLD L. KOOSER, Iowa State College 

ABRAHAM KRASKER, Boston University 

L. C. LARSON, Indiana University 

GORDON N. MACKENZIE, Teachers College. Columbia University 

DAVID B. McCULLEY. University of Nebraska 

CHARLES P. McINNIS. Columbia (S. C.) Public Schools 

EDGAR L. MORPHET, Department of Education. Florida 

HERBERT OLANDER. University of Pittsburgh 

C. R. REAGAN, Office of War Information 

DON C. ROGERS, Chicago Public Schools 

W. E. ROSENSTENGEL, University of North Carolina 

W. T. ROWLAND, Superintendent. Lsxington (Ky.) Public Schools 

OSCAR E. SAMS. Jr.. University of Tennessee (on leave) 

E. E. SECHRIEST, Birmingham Public Schools 

HAROLD SPEARS. New Jersey State Teachers College (Montclair 


R. LEE THOMAS, Depirtment of Education, Tennessee 

ERNEST TIEMANN, Pueblo Junior College 

ORLIN D. TRAPP, Waukegan High School 

KINGSLEY TRENHOLME. Portland (Ore.) Public Schools 

MISS LELIA TROLINGER, University of Colorado 

PAUL WENDT, University of Minnesou 


Pag* 6 January — SEE and HEJ 

\nlmafophone — 

Sound Projector — 
In the Field 

with Victor's exclusive 
Spira-draft lamp house 

During projection, lamps get hot . . . very hot. 
But only in the Animatophone this condition is 
anticipated and alleviated with Victor's exclusive 
Spira-draft lamp house. Only on the Animatophone 
is the cooled air forced in a spiraiized, all-over, 
fast-moving stream through a multiple wall to dissi- 
pate heat more efficiently. 

Result . . . longer lamp life, clearer pictures. And 
remember, on the VICTOR, the lamp has a standard 
base, obtainable anywhere, at no extra cost 

Here's another outstanding feature that gives (he 
Victor Animatophone its leading position in the 
I6inm industry. 

Home Office and Factory: Davenport, Iowa 

New York (18) McGrav^-Hill BIdg., 330 W. 42nd Street 

Chicago (1) 188 W. Randolph 


and HEAS — January 

Page 7 

^kji qmX -jrho^ ! 

Educational Films in Sports 

A selected list of films consisting of 
(a) Instructional motion picture films 
(including content and appraisal of 
each) , (b) Instructional films in process 
of production, and (c) Promotional 
films, has been prepared by the Chair- 
man of the Visual Aids Committee, 
National Section on Women's Athletics, 
and published by the American Film 
Center, Rockefeller Plaza, New York. 
The Educational Film Library Associa- 
tion of New York is cooperating in this 
project. To order this catalogue, write 
either to E. F. L. A., 45 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York 20, N. Y., or to N. S. W. A., 
1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washing- 
ton 6, D. C. Fifty cents will include the 
new catalogue and supplements for the 
next five years. 

The Japajiese Question 

Of great interest to those concerned 
with the problem of intcrgroup rela- 
tionships will be the newly released re- 
source unit for secondary schools ]>rc- 
pared for the Workshop on Intercultural 
Education at Portland, Oregon. It is 
called FREE AND EQUAL? and bears 
the subtitle, "The Japanese-Americans 
in Oregon." It is by Beatrice Stevens, 
High School of Commerce, Portland, 

This unit of work includes among its 
objectives the purpose of imderstancling 
contributions made by Japanese-Amer- 
icans to the citizenship and culture of 
Oregon. This primary objective is sought 
through an understanding of the causes 
of prejudice against Japanese-Americans, 
through appreciation of the part that 
the Nisei pUiyed in the past war, through 
understanding the upheaval wrought to 
Japanese-Americans during the mass 
evacuation of 1942, and through a more 
sympathetic understanding of the prob- 
lems facing the Nisei in Oregon. 

Pa«* 8 

Inquiries should be directed to D 
\ernon Anderson, Director of Curricu 
lum, Portland Public Schools, 631 North 
east Clackamas Street, Portland 8, Ore 
gon, or to the National Conference o 
Christians and Jews, Oregon .'Vrca, Bedel 
Building, Portland 4, Oregon. 

For Community Use 

New Tools for Learning, 280 Madisoi 
Avenue, New York City 16, announo 
a series of easy-to-use autlio visual di 
cussion kits for commuiiitv groups. Tl 
initial series of kits includes five timel 
subjects: Foreign Trade, Full Emploj 
ment. Inflation, Technological Unei 
ployment, and Sound Investment vers' 
Idle Savings. 

Available on a purciiase or rent 
l)asis at minimum cost, the kits a 
planned to enable connnunitv groups 
all sizes, from neighborhood "block" dis ' 
cussions to town-wide civic forums, ici 
arrange provocative and informative pr 
grams with no exjicrt present in persoi 
Mcxlcrn see and hear mctlia. widely ai 
effectively used in wartime training p 
grams, display and talk the facts. 

Each kit contains visual materia 
graphs, charts, pictures— to clarifv tht 
subject. Identical visual materials 
a\ailablc in four styles— filmstrip, 2< 
or 3i,^x4 lantern slides, or inclividua 
pictorial pamphlets. Choice of visua 
material is according to the equipment* 
budget or preference of the group. Pro* 
fcssionally produced conunentary on i» 
phonograph record— easily regulated 
provide for adequate discussion of c; 
point— explains the visual material, pi 
(|uestions for discussion, presents answi 
for evaluation. Each style of kit inchidd 
a discussion guide which repeats 
commentary of the record, plus e;« 
to follow directions on use of the au' 
visual materials. If the leader prcfcn 
he can present the commentary orallj 

Turn to page Vt 

January — SEE and HBI 




Timely I 



'ngfu I ! 



iie group of twelve new Encyclopaedia Britan- 
Classroom Films (sound) just released, major 
hasis has been given to the examination of man's 
il, political and economic structures. In "De- 
racy" and "Despotism" teachers w ill find authen- 
iefinition and description of these conflicting 
3 of life. In the new series on Foods, authentic 
;rial is presented to show the fundamental im- 
ance of foodstuffs in the world's economy. 

ncyclopaedia Britannica Classroom Films are 
essionally created for teachers to use as an in- 
al part of the regular school curriculum. That's 

teachers and educators acclaim them as the 
most collection of teaching films anywhere. To- 

thanks to such plans as the Cooperative Film 
ary, our "Lease- to- O'^'N" and others, even 
e schools with small audio -visual education 
gets can use these important tools to aid in the 
on ignorance and misunderstanding. For com- 
B information, write Encyclopaedia Britannica 
IS, Inc., Dept. 24 -A, 20 North \^'acker Drive, 
:ago 6, Illinois. 

TEACHER'S HANDBOOK wif/i every fl/m 

NG THE CLASSROOM FILM"- a text film on teaching 
films is now available. Shows the six steps in typical 
zation of a classroom film. Write for details. 


Co//obofO(or: HAROLD D. LASSWELL, Ph.D., 

Yale University, and others 


Co;/obofo>or: HAROLD D. LASSWELL, Ph.D., 
Yale University, and others 


Collaborator H. F, ALDERFER, Ph.D., 
Pennsylvania Slate College 


Co//oboralor: J. FREDERIC DEWHURST, Ph.D., 
The Twentieth Century Fund 


Col/aborofor. O. E. BAKER, Ph.D., 
University of Maryland 


Co//oboro(or. O. E. BAKER, Ph.D., 
University of Maryland 


Co//obofolof. O. E. BAKER, Ph.D., 
University of Maryland 


Co//obora(of: K. G. WECKEL, Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin 



Principal, the Tenocre School, Wellesley, Moss. 


Co/Zobofo/or: PAUL R. HANNA, Ph.D., 

Stanford University 


Co//oborator B. E. PROCTOR, Ph.D., 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 


CoZ/abofotof: LAURENCE E. BRIGGS, M. S., 
Mossachusetts Stote College 


E and HEAR — January 

Pag* 8 

From page eight 

tclligent preparation, can take over 
Rroiip leadership with assurance of a 
lively, worth-while session. For further 
information, write to New Tools for 
Learning at the address given. 

Helping Teachers to Help 

Lists produced by the Teaching Aids 

Service of the New Jersey State Teachers 

College, Upper Montclair. 

Since the Army and the Navy brought 
to the attention of the public their tech- 
niques of teaching the G.I.'s, schools 
have been forced to consider the neces- 
sity of using the same methods. As a 
matter of fact, only the educational film, 
the filmslide, the opaque projector, and 
the recording machine and play back are 
comparatively new techniques. Inspired 
teachers have for many years employed 
the same props as the military, namely: 
the field trip, slides, models, all types of 
illustrations, pamphlets, and even the 
sand table. 

With today's increased output of all 
forms of teaching aids by educational 
institutions, commercial agencies, and 
various other organizations, it becomes 
necessary to collect the materials them- 
selves in order to analyze and evaluate 
their use. 

Such research has been carried on for 
the past seven years by the Teaching 
Aids Service of the Library at New Jer- 
sey State Teachers College. Upper Mont- 
clair. The research was intended orig- 
inally only for the graduates of the 
school, but the annotated lists were 
found so useful that in 1940 they were 
first copyrighted. Since then they have 
l)ecomc increasingly popular with in- 
dividual teachers, curriculum laborato- 
ries and boards of education throughout 
the country. 

The bibliographies sell for from 25 
cents to a dollar each. By means of 
them, teachers are able to find inexpen- 
sive or free charts, graphs and maps, 
pictures and posters, 16 mm. rental and 

Paf7« 10 

free films, slides and filmslides, record- 
ings and radio programs, commercial ex- 
hibits, illustrated pamphlets, and much 
else that fits into the curriailum of th< 
junior and senior high school and tli 
junior college. In many instances tli 
materials listed also interest the graiU 

Each of the 16 publications now avail 
able is fully indexed and cross-indexc 
by the librarian, and since the teachinjj 
helps are grouped under separate ui 
headings, it is easy for anyone to fill 
what he needs at a glance. 

• —Lilt Heitners, N. J., 

State Teachers Collet 
Montclair, N. Y. 

"We are on the threshold of the gre: 
est period of growth. Though the 
is over and armed forces no longer u;;t 
sound films for training on the s.ini' 
scale as they did during the hostilities 
this is offset by the demand frt 
schools, churches, business firms, honi 
and other sources." 

—Mr. Rose, 
Victor Animatograph.liii 


Send for Them! 

SEE and HEAR advertisers offer 1: 
lets and catalogs that are valuable 
source of dependable information djn 
visual aids. Vou arc invited to send 
the ones you desire. 






Code abbreviations used in SHE 
other pages of this issue are as 
follows: — 

F— primary 

I— intermediate 

J— junior high school 

S— senior high school 

C— college 




'. in 

January — SEE and HIJ *' 


Films from Britain 

for Teachers 


25 Min. 

he development of the famous 
isecticide from its discovery in 
170 to large scale production 
aring World War II. Its adapta- 
lity from clearing large areas, 
eeing foxholes to delousing hu- 
ans and the spectacular success 
iring a typhus epidemic is 


r3 Min. 

A local problem in East Africa of 
international concern is shown 
being solved in this film. The de- 
struction of crop-eating locusts 
before they migrate is accom- 
plished by radio, aircraft, and the 
cooperation of tribal chieftains. 


45 Min. 

[ade by the British Army Film Unit and shown to British servicemen 
id women to teach them something about the United States of America, 
kaleidoscope of her past, her present, her future. This film portrays 
le battle of the U. S. A. against nature, her struggle for freedom, her 
aditions rooted in rugged individualism, her daily life, her likes and 
islikes. A complete picture of a huge country finding integration in its 
rogress from the days of the pioneers to modern living. 


21 Min. 

measure of self-government in 
primitive African tribal society 

the subject of this film. Taxes, 
ansportation, policing, and edu- 
ition are all problems to be 
orked out for the good of all. 
3r social study classes. 


78 Min. 

The county of Cornwall in the 
southwest of England with its tin 
mines, slate and granite quarries 
and farming communities is 
shown in detail. Of value in ge- 
ography and social science classes. 


British Information Services 

An Agency of the British Government 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y. 

360 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 1, 111. 

1336 New York Ave. N. W., Washington 5, D. C. 

1680 N. Vine St., Hollywood 28, Calif. 

391 Sutter St., San Francisco 8, Calif. 

and from British Consulates at Boston, Detroit, Houston and Seattle 

E and HEAR — January Pas* 11 




xp |MM.']0|lfi?c(^ 

Dorothea Pelleit 
Director, Department of Visual Education, Topeka Public Schools 

Editor's Note: Topeka, Kansas, has a totol school enrollment of 10,972. 
Three years ogo, it began to recognize the increasing importance of visual 
educotion by establishing one of the few full-time visual education depart- 
ments in the Middle West. This article docs two things. It briefly sum- 
marizes the octivities of this department. It shows how the traditional 
onnuol report can be mode attractive reading for the general public. 

T ET'S look at the experience of usual annual school report. If 
■'— ' Mr. Citizen, who rallies suf- gets past the cover, there's a tussle 
ficient courage to pick up the to keep the book open. He strug- 

January — SEE and HEAK 

Pag* 12 

In addition to furnishing films, slides, dioramas, pictures, and objects of all 
kinds, the deportment arranges bus trips to many points. This latter service 
is usually carried on in conjunction with the elementary school social studies 
program which "takes the walls of the schooihousc down," and transports 
children to view the things they hove studied. Such tours include trips to 
department stores, railroad stations, airport, industrial plants, court house, 
state house, post office, forms, and other places covered in the various 

units of school work. 

▼ The visual education center correlates museum-type materials with regular 
curriculum experiences, features student participation, and displays loon 
exhibitions as well as its permoneat collection of dioramas, objects, models, 

pictures, and realia. 



A Maps and globes in the visual education center display new developments 
in these materials of instruction. Modern teachers realize the air age ha 
annihilated space and streamlined geography. 

gles down the first paragraph— it's 
a long one. He turns pages— solid 
print clear out to the margin. 
Statistics! More words. More 
pages. Now he tells his civic-mind- 
ed conscience that another day 
he'll look into this business of 
what the schools are doing. And 
he finds it easy to forget that an- 
nual school report with its sincere, 
factual, but inadequately told 

But suppose that report had 
been made directly for Mr. Citi- 

Pa0« 14 

zcn, keeping in mind, what It 
looks at and reads becaiise h^ 
can't help it. 

Dr. Kenneth McFarlaml, supcrJP 
intcndent of the public schools oij, 
Topeka, Kansas, decided this jobfj 
called for something new in thci 
technicjue of reporting. He setj 
about to make his report a boo' 
as readable, as attractive, and 
luiderstandable as possible. 

Nothing discouraging and foP^ 
midable would do; the keynot 



January — SEE and HEAK} 



Diirothca Pellctt directs the depart- 
u-nl of visual ctlucation for the public 
hools of lopcka. 

She formerly directed prcxluction of 
isual materials for Kansas museums 
nd schools, had taught in Topeka 
rhools and had written magazine arti- 
les for children. Her 7-year-old son, 
x)king at the first copy of SEE and 
lEAR. said, "I think the schools would 
e more educational if they showed 
lore movies." 

k'ould be simplicity. Technical 
n d professional terminology 
k'ould be avoided. Stacks of statis- 
ics? No, but many much needed 
japhic figures would be present- 
d visually with comparisons that 
eally told a story. 

Plenty of white space was in- 
licated so that the reader could 
ook at a page as long as he liked 
nd not feel crowded out or bur- 
ied. Toward this same idea there 
^'ould be "story-a-page" continu- 

ity, with no break-overs. The few 
pages of solid printing would be 
short paragraphed, varied in type, 
and carry bleed-off top and bot- 
tom in red to match a spiral bind- 
ing that opens flat. 

Taking the cue from visual ed- 
ucation, the completed book pre- 
sents its information through 106 
pictures on its 55 pages, eleven of 
them full page. Close-up human 
interest photographs show stu- 
dents taking part in representa- 
tive school activities making a 
first-hand record of "Topeka 
Schools in War and Peace." 

The Topeka report is graphic- 
visual— clearly presented. It's a 
"picture book." Look at the 
"shots" which tell the story of the 
visual education department 
which today is about to begin its 
fourth year of service to the 
schools of Topeka, Kansas. This 
is a story in itself. This is a chal- 
lenge to "reporting" methods. 

The use of teaching films and other audio-visual materials 
during the past year showed an increase of up to 103% over 
the previous year. A total of 2,949 requests were handled with 
5,607 showings and a pupil attendance of 288,029. On the av- 
erage, every Dearborn pupil learned from more than 18 class- 
room films. 

William G. Hart, Director, 
Department of Audio-Visual Instruction, 
Dearborn, Michigan, Public Schools 

"The publication impresses me as something decidedly differ- 
ent. It is not only novel in make-up but the contents should be 
decidedly practical and helpful not only for teachers in the 
audio-visual field, but to enlist the professional interests of all 
teachers ..." 

O. H. Plenzke, Executive Secretary, 
Wiscon.sin Education Association 

EE and HEAR — January 

Page 15 

THIS is the story of a small 
township whose outstanding 
cooperation in helping to pay for 
World War II has made it the 
example and the inspiration for 
the entire federal rural war loan 
solicitation program. 

It is the story of a community 
of people, all of German descent, 
making the finest single record of 
war bond purchases of any com- 
munity of its size in the United 
States in World War 11. 

Above all, it is the persuasive 
story of the power of the motion 
picture to bring about such an 
accomplishment. Here it is: 

The Township of Addison in 
Wisconsin covers six square miles 
and is made up of 231 farms. The 
village has a population of 231 
souls. In World War II these peo- 
ple set for themselves the goal of 
one million dollars in Ixjnds from 
the 231 farms and the 231 persons 
residing in the village— nn^/ they 
have topped it! The farm people 
nlo7ie have bought over one mil- 
lion dollars worth of war bonds! 
Furthermore, none of the money 
represents corporate investments; 
all of it comes from individuals. 

Pag* 16 


A Stake i?i 
Demon acy 

Success is due to two things: 
The first is the ability to assemble 
the farmers to meetings at which 
bonds can be sold. How are they 
motivated to meet? By showing 
war stories on 16 mm. film. Mo- 
tion pictures brought the war to 
their community and made them 
feel a part of the war effort. 

The second factor contributing 
to this amazing success is the fact 
that these people planned their 
own solicitation, which turned out 
to be so effective and so remark- 
able that it was made the model 
lor the entire national rural farm 
solicitation program. 

The plan is to encourage people 
to sell bonds to themselves. In this 
Township of Addison, bond lead- 
ers selected 22 farm people to so- 
licit their neighbors. Each calls on 
ten others. Each solicitor tells his 
neighbor this story: The govern- 
ment needs your money to help 
pay for the war. 1 he 33 mm. war 
pictures have shown the necessity. 

On the occasion that the people 
of .Addison reached and went over 
the one million dollar goal, they 
were invited to broadcast their 
remarkable story over CBS. 

—John T. O.mkrmk 

Manager, Agricultural Diviaion 
Wiccontin War Finance Committee 

January— SEE and HEAP 


Henry J. Queen 

Monlnuk Junior High School, Brooklyn 

iter's Note: Inquiries in general indi- 

concern over the steps to take in or- 

zing a program of visual education. 

helpful are reports which come in 

school systems where, after many cir- 

us beginnings, a program characteriz- 

y smoothness of operation evolves. This 

3cen the case at Montauk Junior High 

of. Mr. Queen outlines his procedures 

the hope that others may profit by his 

rience and do directly some of the 

IS which he has found to be effective. 

ETTIXG the materials to the 
teachers— this is the first con- 
1 of anyone who tliinks of at- 
pting to bring the benefits of 
iching by seeing" to many de- 
Lmcnts of any school. For two 
:s we lia\e been assembling a 

of information on visual in- 
ctional material. Today it is 
iprchensixe, but far from com- 

iood films seem to come from 
ti\ ely fe^v• firms and these very 
gingly offer their products on 
/iew basis. Filmstrips, while 

ind_ HEAR — ^January 

not yet available in any orderly 
fashion, are being produced as 
teaching supplements in areas 
never touched as recently as two 
years ago. At the beginning we 
attempted to cover only the field 
of science and social science, but 
soon branched out into art, music, 
home economics, w'oodworking, 
printing, sheet metal working, 
Latin, English, and French. 

One teacher at each grade level 
for each subject field just men- 
tioned agreed to supply informa- 
tion concerning the units of work 
she had scheduled for discussion 
and the type of visual materials 
she would like to secure. This in- 
formation each teacher agreed to 
supply to us on the form illustrat- 
ed in Figure 1. It became our re- 
sponsibility to locate suitable in- 
formation as that was presented 
through the mediiuii of the film 
or the slide. Miss Jones of the sci- 

Page 17 

Submitted by_ 


Subject Department. 


Week of 

Topic Scheduled for Discussion 

Type Aid Suggested 
(Films, Slides, Etc. ) 

Figure 1 

cncc department was in search of 
visually presented information for 
a unit on magnetism. As we locat- 
ed what we believed was the type 
of material which would be suit- 
able, we entered this information 
on a chart which was kept in the 
office for the purpose of acquaint- 
ing all the teachers concerned 
with teaching aids of this type. 

Figme 2 presents our attempt 
to inform the teaching staff of the 
status of their requests. 

After the master chart for the 
term was completed and teachers 
signified their satisfaction with it. 
the indi\idual requisitions for 
materials were made out, sent to 
the distributor, library, or source 
of the filmslidc, film. f)r other ma- 
terial. When confirmaiion was re- 
ceived, which was the case in 
about 95 per cent of the re(juisi- 
tions. a green cir( le was j^hucd 
aiounil the (oi lesjjonding notice 
on the chart. J his allowetl the 
(eadier to know that she could 
plan definitely on the material as 
a pari ol Ik i tcadiing unit. 

Page 18 

As we began our school-wi 
j>rogram. oiu" in\eniories inclu 
ed one silent motion jiictme pr 
jector, one soiuid motion pictu 
projector, three standard gl; 
slide pif)jectors e(]ui])]X'd wi 
adapters for using filmslides, a 
one opaijue {projector. None 
these machines had been used ti 
lull caj)acity during the precedin) 
terms. By the end of October d 
the semester during which the \ 
ual teaching material service w 
inaugurated, the motion j)i(tu 
piojec tor Avas in use in .'{5 of t 
a\ailal)le 10 periods each week 
Each ol the other projectors wa 
utili/ctl at least ont-half ol ^h 
pti iods available. 

Ihis led to diffitulties and ir 
lle\ii)ilitv. To ease this c(|ui])iuen 
shortage, more j)rojectiou itjuij 
ment was secured. Two additioi 
al silent j)ro)ectors were obtaine< 
additional ])ortal)le screens, extel 
sion KMils, and replacement bu 
were secured. This increased 
ol e(|ui|)ment created a probl 
in seduiug the j)ersoiniel req 
ccl to operate the e<piipment i 

January — SEE and 

viu tly the liiiK" the teacher wish- 
I the use of the te;uhin_<; mate- 

In set tint; up a prou;rani of \ is- 
;il instinttion, the ojHialion of 
u mechanical machinery is look- 
1 upon as an insurmoinitahle 
Ijstaclc by many teaclu is. W'e be- 
une of service when at the begin- 
ing of the cinrent term, we or- 
ini/ed a s(|uad of l)oys who were 
iterested in operating j)rojection 

i(|iu'pment and who had pi()\ed 
their intiiest by demonstrating 
theii ability to handle all the 
types of e(iuipment owned by the 

We were able to organize this 
s(juad without infringing on their 
attendaiKe at sche(hik-d c;lasses. 
Our plan of operation was this: 
Kach class at iMontauk is pro- 
grammed for one library period a 
week. One boy in each class is 

; OF 


S C I E N C 









. 18 

How Animals 



Wolfe & 


Get Air 




(South America) 





. 25 

How We 

Know Your 

How We 















How Seeds 

Carbon Cycle 


Eve of 











(Walt Disney) 


Coal Mining 













Friends & 

















Sound Film 

C Color Film 

15 running time 


Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 


Silent Film 

B Black and white 


Brooklyn Museum 



# Catalog Number 


Bureau of Mines 


Glass slide 

M With Manuscript 


Bell & Howell 




Castle Films 





General Electric 
Museum of C. N.Y. 
N.Y.U. Films 
Princeton Films 
District Library 

Figure 2 

IE and HEAR — ^January 

Page 19 

selected on the basis of interest 
and ability as the class operator 
and reports to the visual instruc- 
tion office diirinj,^ his weekly li- 
brary period. After a boy has 
proven his proficiency in operat- 
ing equiiMiient and has been ac- 
cepted as a member of the pro- 
jectionist group, an organization 
which has'a regular club meeting 
once a \\eek and is presided o\er 
by an officer panel of older mem- 
bers, he is given an identification 
card such as indicated in Figure 

Boys receive continuous instruc- 
tion in handling equipment, in 
chilling not only methods of oper 
at ion Init care of the e(iuipment 
1 hey are cautioned to conduc 
liicir service in such a Avay as t 
cause little or no disturbance t 
the j)upils and teacher. They be- 
come familiar with the many 
types of material which are being 
used in the se\eral classes, and are 
encouraged to ofTer suggestions to 
their own subject teachers. 

Fretpiently these club members 
act as operators -within the sam 

This is to certify that 



For the term ending. 





Lib. Teacher — This pupil is to take library 
in room 212 (initial) 

Club Adniin. — Please assign this pupil to 
visual aids in room 213 (initial) 

Official Teacher — The possession of this 

card entitles the holder to 5 points service 

credit on second third mark. 

HENRV |. (^ItEN 

Mr. Qjiocn has taught mathematics 
ul general science in tlie New York 
ly S(h(H)ls. At present he is cliairman 
the \isual aids (le|)artnuiit ol Mon 
Ilk Junior Higli Sdiool and is also 
igaged as an instructor of physics at 
x)per I'nion c\cning school of engi- 
rering. He is very nnicli interested in 
■veloping athninistrative procedures 
at will insure maximmn efficiency of 
sua! instruction. 

asses of which they are members, 
heir itlcntification cards give 
icni a certain status. They con- 
ibiite their time ancl effort to 
ic welfare of the school. It offers 
icm a certain freedom ^vhich is 
3t to be abused in the comse of 
leir services as operators. Not 
ily is there a boy scheduled for 
ich class meeting, but there is a 
jalified operator in the office 
ery periotl during the day to act 
, an alternate in case of absence, 

■ to handle last minute lequests 

■ repairs. 

Thus far. the emphasis has 
}en entirely on bringing existing 
sual instruction materials to the 
tention of teachers who, hereto- 
re. ha\e not used them as in- 
nsi\ely as they might. It has 
len a beginning, but we recog- 
ize many limitations. However, 
lerc is a credit side to the ledger, 
luing departmental conferences, 
mionstrations of good visual in- 
ruction techniques have been 
\en. Teachers ha\e been refer- 
•d to outstanding books on vis- 
il instruction methods. An effort 
IS been made to evaluate mate- 
als used in the current term so 

E and HEAR — January 

that, (hiring subscfpient terms, 
teachers can refer to these esti- 
mates of materials and base their 
ie(|uests upon those materials 
\\Iiich th(.\ louiul to be satisfac- 
loiy. In this way we will gradually 
eliminate poor materials. 

There is much ^vork to be done, 
howe\er. Ideally, all of the mate- 
rial should be previewed by the 
teacher prior to classroom use. 
\Vc hope to attain this. At pres- 
ent, we can only send the teacher 
the abstract of the material given 
in the directory, the catalog, or 
through a description. Evaluation 
of films must proceed in a more 
orderly and continuing way. Over 
the course of years, teachers will 
grow to know the "literature" in 
the field of visual education as 
they today are acquainted with 
the textbook and allied study ma- 
terials with which they work. 

The cost of our progiani has 
been small. It has been accom- 
plished for approximately 50 dol- 
lars a term, which is spent ex- 
clusively for transportation and 
maintenance of ecjuipment. We 
know now that we will need in- 
creasing appropriations far above 
this as we become acquainted 
with newly produced materials. 

For our work in this field we 
have been granted five teacher 
periods per Aveek, which is entire- 
ly inadequate if leadership is to 
be maintained and the program 
is to grow in usefulness. Ultimate- 
ly in an ideal situation, there 
shoidd be no need for a visual in- 
struction department in a school. 

Page 21 

Every classroom shoukl he ecjiii]) 
ped with suitable jMojedion 
rcjiiipnient and every school li- 
brary shoukl include a basic col- 
lection of films, slides, filmstrips, 
charts, recordings, dioramas, and 
collections. These should be avail- 
able to any classroom at any time 
and handled in the same manner 
as the book collection. K\ery 
school should ha\e one shop de- 
voted to the maintenance ol the 
school's cle( trical jirojection 

((|uipment. Major repairs should! 
be handled through the regidar' 
board ol education contract chan- 
nels. Every school should ha\e u 
least one shop or art class devoti d 
to the production of \isual aiiK 
material such as lilmslides, gla^s 
slides, ilioramas, charts, motlc U. 
and specimens. 

In this way one may acquire] 
the fullest benefits from the use! 
of visual aids. 

UNTIL receniK the ihoiights of men have been coin iminica led 1)\ 
tlic written word. In tlie future, the thoughts of men will be 
communicated in greater volume, more fully and accurately to the 
then immediate present and to the then future by sound motion 

—.Miss Elizabeth, 

Slate Superintendent of Public Instruction, Montana. 

Grant Permits Study of ]Vnrlime Educational Technique 

What can civilian schools and colleges learn from Army- 
Navy war lime educational technique is the $160,000 ques- 
tion, the answer to which the Ainerican Coinicil on Edu- 
cation hojK's to find in a three-year in\estigation to be 
started soon. 

The grant was matle by the Ciarnegie Ciorporation of 
New York and the General Education lioard lor this work 
which is to be carried on inuler the direction of Dr. Alonzo 
G. Gray, on lea\e of absente from his jX)sition as Gonnnis- 
sioner of luliuation of Gonnec ticut. 

Erom a W'ashingloii lKad(|u;n tci s. ;i {omiiu'tlcc of edu- 
cators working with Dr. Ciray will \isii miliiary installations 
o\er the (f)imtry to ol).serve training ])rograms in operation. 

Various subjects ha\c been selected for stud) and one oi 
these is the use of visual teaching materials. 


Page 22 

January — SEE and HEAR, 


ective Security describes the method 
uhich the American Armed Forces 
mpted to convince Okinauans that 
; American way" is worth-while. What 
we at iiome attemjJting to do to re- 
icate ourselves to the belief that the 
t we can do is little enough if we are 
to preserve our democracy? 

Marie Seton 
Fihn Consultant 

and HEAR — January 

THE greatest difficulty con- 
fronting both the develop- 
ment and the use of documentary 
films in the commiuiity is the 
Hollywood movie which has ex- 
erted an enormous influence upon 
the conununity standard of ap- 
preciation. Hollywood films, 
whether of the highest or lowest 
(|uality, stand for drama with a 
capital D. Very different in nature 
are the best documentary films 
which, even when dramatic in 

Page 23 


"By their works ye shall know them," is as good advice today asl 
was ahnost 2.000 years ago. The rc'ijoii ol ilic C;i\il .\IIairs tcai 
(>|>crating in Okinawa gives one a thrilling experience in seeing h(j 
"the American way" was applied to protect homeless civilians, 
clothe them, shelter. and feed them, and to win their confidence! 
our way. Here Okinawans are awaiting the distribution of Aiiuric 
supplies. (Objective Security, (). \V. 1.) 

subject, stress the opporliiniiy to 
present their story icalistically. 

It may be said that the tlocti- 
nientary film stresses the rational 
rather than the liighly colored 
emotional point of view. Hence, 
people conditioned to Hollywood 
pictures re(|iiire some readjust- 
ment of attittide towards the mo- 
lion pictine mediimi of expres- 
sion for the ftdl appreciation of 

Pag* 24 

(lociinicniary dims. In short, tlicn 
is the same difference between th(| 
dramatic film and the documon 
t.'irv as there is lietwccn a nove' 
on the life of Leonardo da Vine 
and a study of da Vinci's owrj 

Ill the development of ilocuj 
mentary films, partitidarly Am< 
i(an ones, there has been a gre 
ilial of conftjsion concerning 

January — SEE and 1 

ylc of prcscntalion of ^;llu;ll)I(• 
1(1 important iilras. Tliis has 
:cn causcil mainly by the a^vc in 
Iiith Hollywood's style and in- 
U'licc has l)tcn hckl. ami the in- 
lia which binds pioiluceis to 
le belief that ideas e^ni be pre- 
nted to tile jiublic only in sngai- 
tated j)ills. The result of the 
•niiision and inertia has been 
lat many non-fiction films are 
tually imitations of fiction 
o\ ies, aiul. being presented in 
form which corresponds neitlier 
fiction nor fact, they create a 
arkcdly hybrid impression. 

It is vitally important that pic- 
res attempting to deal with liv- 
g problems and designed to be 
ed in commmiities attack the 
oblems raised in a convincino; 
id. above all, a sincere manner, 
such films are merely imitati\c 
melodiamatic story films with 
moral tacked on or present the 
OS and cons of a given problem 
rough the trite sayings of stock 
taracters, the effect left is that 
a lecture about something 
liich no one has any real inten- 
3n of remedying. 

Thus far, I have presented the 
'gative aspect of an existing situ- 
ion. What about the more posi- 
/e aspects? And, on the positive 
ie, what kind of films are there 
ith which to carry on commu- 
ty work at present and in the 
:ar future? 

The immediate problem is that, 
!ace having come unexpectedly 
St, there are relatively few films 
dich pose the postwar needs of 

E ond HEAR — January 

the a\erage community adequate- 
ly. We ha\e a situation in which 
most oT the best documentaries 
lia\e been j)ioduced in ff)reign 
(oiuitries and, theiifore, deal with 
local community problems f)nly 
by inference or chance siuu'laritv. 

The most serious film studies of 
such universal postwar problems 
as rehaijilitation, employment, 
food xlistribution and planning, 
as well as ju\enile crime are for- 
eign made; for example. Back to 
Normal (B.I.S.) , Psychiatry in 
Action (B.I.S.) , A Maji and His 
Job (X.F.B.C.) , World of Plenty 
(B.I.S.) , Children of the City 
(B.I.S.) , Second Freedom 
(B.I.S.) . A Start in Life (B.I.S.) , 
and Highland Doctor (B.I.S.). 

It is unfortunate, at the present 
time, that there are not more up- 
to-the-moment American pictures 
on these vital contemporary sub- 
jects. There are ob\ ious disadAan- 
tages in always referring to the 
foreign way or the foreign exam- 
ple. Even so, these films are of 
great value to those interested in 
community planning. 

Probably the most A'itally im- 
portant issues for community dis- 
cussion at the present time center 
around gaining a deeper under- 
standing of other countries and 
cultures, the community obliga- 
tion in building postwar Amer- 
ica, and problems concerning race 

In the realm of race relations 
there are seAeral useful films. The 
most clear and concise is the short 
cartoon Weapon for War 

Page 25 

To appreciate completely the standard of living \\c now enjoy, i 
slioiild be the oxpcriciKC of higli school social studies (lasses, a' 
well as atlult groups, to see the long chain of deinocraiic nulestonc 
tlirough which we have passed. Slill far from perfection, the demo 
cratic way is one which is i)eing souglit after— never reached, hut w 
liope more nearly approaclied. (Milestones of Democracy, Bell 


(O.W.I.) , which was incluckd in 
War Ojniimtnique No. 12. This 
is a j)ictiire which e\ery j)arcni 
and child in the coninumiiy 
should .see. Another good discus- 
sion film is Americans All 

(M.O. r.) . which is accompanied 
by an excellent discussicjn guide. 

Imohi the })oint of view of in- 
ternational iindeislanding. se\eial 
of the pictures released through 
the Coordinator of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs are good; loi example. 
llu- liridgf (O.I..\.A.), which sm- 
veys the economic striic tmc of ihc 

Pag* 26 

Latin-American countries, anc 
Housing in Chile (O.I.A.A.) 
which, if shown together wit 
rhe City (I.T.r.),' brings th 

identical housing problems 
.\merica and Clhile within th 
giasj) of the comnumitv. Vo 
study of the cidtme jjaticrns o 
Latin America and Asia there i 
High Plains (O.I.A.A.), whic 
deals \viih an Indian tribe in lie 
li\ia but is also rcNcaliiig of th 
whole Latin - American - Indian 
Spanish lelaiionship. All of thes 
picltncs a|)|)roach liic j)roblcm c 
lorcign countries irom the insid 

January — SEE nnd HE 

Editor's Note: How much leadership should schools exert in helping to guide 
community offoirs? The answer might well be, "Much more than in the post." 
But immediately teachers and odministrotors wonder just how to attack this very 
complicated problem in school-community relationships. Current problems ore 
more than just something to be used as a basis of making pronouncements. They 
are problems which demand background information which will determine policy 
ond action. Often background informotion, which is the crux, can be presented 
through film information available in the form of currently developed docu- 
mentaries. Miss Seton very ably describes the present status of the documentary, 
suggests worth while titles, but at the same time warns thot we should exercise 
caution. Her suggestions ore entirely procticoi. 

It ami not liom the tourist or 
nsational point of view. 

For our own postwar scene, let 
consider the ciurent and new 
lies of nine Victory Loan fihns. 
irticuhirly to be reconiniended 
The Diary of a Sergeant 
).\V.I.) , a real life story of the 
habilitation of a handlcss vet- 
in; Objectwe Security (OAVM.) , 
lich traces what may be called 
c democratizing of the thinking 
Okina\vans: and the Treasury 
apartment discussion film Peace 
jmes to America (O.W.I.) . All 
these films can be secured from 
\\\ nearest film library or di- 
ctly from the Treasury Depart- 
ent in \Vashington, D. C. 

Motion jiictures can help the 
iiununity by showing ways of 
King problems. For example, 
oljlem of technological uneni- 
ovment can be lessened, I be- 
;ve, by the retraining of men as 
own in the picture ]' alley 
own (X.Y.U.) . Pictures of this 
pe are valuable because they 
nphasize civic responsibility, 
id. if the pid:)lic feels that coni- 
uniiy leaders are honestly con- 
med and will frankly discuss 

E and HEAR — January 

the (oniinunity needs, the public, 
instead of being apathetic or even 
hostile, will cooj)erate more readi- 
ly in connnunity projects. 

Today, there is a particular 
need for luulerstanding the world 
in which we live, both in national 
and international terms, in order 
that we do not return to a state 
of apathy and ignorance. It is 
imj)ortant, for examjjle, for so- 
cially backward communities to 
re(ci\e stimulus from more active 
conmuuiities — to be given the 
know-how of dealing with their 
problems. Again it is increasingly 
necessary for communities to un- 
derstand the world beyond the 
United States, in order that each 
citizen will be better equipped 
to comprehend the position of 
.America in the postwar world. 

Many times I have been inter- 
ested to note how commimity 
groups have responded to visual 
explanation of the foreign scene; 
for example, A Start in Life 
(B.I.S.) or The Second Freedom 
(B.I.S.) , both of which explain 
what the conmion man in Britain 
is able to do today about better- 
ing his lot in life — his standard 

Page 27 

of living. It appears that srrivo; 
makes it easier lor people to un- 
derstand the signifiran(e of news. 
There is little doubt that such 
\isual instruction on j)ublic issues 
can be very effective in helping 
people to understand the prob- 
lems of peace. I beliexe, lor in- 
stance, that no one today can 
luiderstand national policy with- 
out knowing the problems facing 
American Army officials in the 
task of occupying Germany and 

From my experience, I woidd 
say that the most effecti\ e method 
of presenting docinnentary films 
is to use them as the basis of dis- 
cussion. In this way all the sig- 
nificant points made in a film can 
be explored and the audience 
drawn into actixe participation. 
I think that people are better pre- 
pared to discuss the ramifications 

Marif. Seton 
Miss Scion first became interested i 
films as a theater critic for the digej 
magn/ine Review of Reviews. Since tha 
time she has been film corresponden 
for Manchester Guardian, Theatre Ar 
Monthly, World Film \ews, Si^ht an 
Sound, as well as a lecturer and writt 
in the field of the documentar)' film 

Her broad experience allows her t 
interpret the film as a model of soci; 

of a picture if they know in at 
\ance that the picture is going t 
be discussed and that they ca 
j)articipate. After the picture hi 
been shown, one person, or i 
the case of a forum, se\eral pet 
pie can rexiew the various poin 
raised gi\ing perhaps their rea 
tions antl criticisms. From there 
is usually possible to get animate 
discussion from the Moor, i)artici 
larly if analogy is drawn betwee 
what has been shown on t 

From "Mile- 
stones of De- 
m o c r a c y" 
(Bell& Howell) 

Page 28 

lanunry — SEE and HE/J 

O-ccn and what exists in "our" 

Because visual education is 
atlicr new to adidt groups, they 
a\c a tendency to react in a sonie- 
liat passi\e manner unless the 
icture is presented to ihem by 
jnieone who has studied the 
hn and has a clear mulerstand- 
ig ol the liuiction ol the motion 
icture as a means ol information 
nd clarification. 

It is, howe\er, decidedly grati- 
^ing to find that people respond 
ery cjuickly to the idea of learn- 
ig through seeing if they are 
i\en the opportiuiity to examine 
1 discussion what they have just 
?en on the screen. ^Iy students 
ill me that under such condi- 
ions they find that their "movie- 
oing" becomes decidedly more 

intellectually stimulating. They 
have learned to lool< for the ideas 
contained in the film. W^hereas 
formerly the attraction of films 
was mainly emotional, they now 
enjoy themselves intellectually. I 
have also been told on several oc- 
casions by peoj)le who ha\e been 
American through for generations, 
that they had ne\er realized the 
full importance of the Mississippi 
to America imtil they saw the pic- 
ture The Rix'cr (U.S.D.A.) and 
that this film has made America, 
the land of their birth, nmch 
clearer to them. 

Producers: j 

li.I.S., British Information Services; 
I.^r.T., International Theater and Television; 
M.O.T., March of Time; N.F.B.C, National 
I'ilm Board of Canada; N.Y.U., New York 
University; O.I. A. A., Office of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs; O.W.I., Office of War Informa- 
tion; U.S.D.A., United States Department of 

A new S.V.E. PICTUROL C.\TALOG announces several new and 
revised educational filinstrips which should be of great interest to 
primary and intermediate teachers. The filmstrips Little Black Sambo 
and Little Black Bear are designed for use in the lower grades. The 
filmstrips Carlsbad Cax'erns, Grand Canyon Xational Park, Rocky 
Mountain Xational Park, and Sequoia— Kings Canyon National Park, 
wiiich have been made in cooperation with the Xational Park Service 
and the United States Department of Interior, will be of interest to 
intermediate grade teachers. The new catalog may be secured from 
the Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 
1 1 , Illinois. 

"Hie documentary film, properly and naturally made, offers the 
most effective medium for acquainting the peoples of the world with 
each other. Through this we can make one of the basic and the most 
important steps toward lasting Avorld peace, ^\■hen the peoples of the 
world really know each other and understand their common problems, 
they will not be so easily misled by politicians, militarists, and dic- 

—Julien Bryan 

5E and HEAR — lanuary 

Page 29 



Lesi.if. E. Frye 

Director, Division of Visual Education 
Cleveland Public Schools 

Editor's Note: Recently, at the request of the Educationol Film Library 
Associotion, a committee of four was appointed to investigate existing budget 
practices covering the financing of a program of audio-visual educotion. On 
this committee were Marion N. Rowley, director of curricular materials, 
Glendale, Coiifornio; D. W. McCavick, director of visual instruction, Uni- 
versity of Texas; R. Russell Munn, librarian, Akron Public Library, ond 
Leslie E. Frye, director of visual instruction, Cleveland, Ohio. The report 
which wos presented to the association follows. 

Dl'RIXG recent years, so nuich 
thinking lias been done con- 
cerning the place of \ isiial in 
struciion in schools and in the 
connnunities of our country, to 
ihe |)roduction of films, and to 
matters of distribution that the 
underlying foimdation on which 
any sound program of \isual in- 
stiiK tion nuisi lie — budget — has 
been almost entirely lost sight ol. 
Up to this point, the rather kalei- 
doscopic j)ioblems (onfronting 
those inteiested in \isual instiiu- 
liou have been all but oxeiwhelui- 
ing. The time is already long past 
when we must systematically 
probe specific areas tlnough oi- 
dei ly research in\estigations 
which will throw light on the fu- 
luic- and remove our j)lanning 
froui the subjectixc. 

Pag* 30 

In response to the cpiestioi 
naire. "Expenditures for Rent: 
or Purchase of Instructional Kiln 
During the School Year. 11)44-45. 
the following replies were recei^ 

^"^'' No. of Ropli. 

Cily School SyslL-ms 14 

(.oimty School Systems 2 

Slate Depts. of Kiliicalion 1 

I'lihlic Libraries S: Museums., l 
Colleges & I'niversitics 7 

This is a very sketchy samplin 
and must be inteipieted as on 
which includes those most iiue 
ested in making the ellort of r< 
porting. Insofar as this is the case 
this rei)ort may be iineipreted i 
ie\ealing the more o|)iimistic siti 
ations as they existed in Jul; 
\\)\'). InterjMeted as such, we i 
\isual education liavc "a lonj 
tough row to hoe," because ih 

January — SEE and HE/ 


.'lo. of Teacl.ers 

Amoujnt Spent -pe 

r Teacher 


$2 - $5 

25 - $10 

no - nb 

over $15 

1 - U9 
50 - 09 

100 - 200 
2'0O - 500 
^,00 - 1000 
1600 - 5000 
over '^OOO 









Table A 

pidiiic is iiol good. I'lcciiKiilly. 
iiuh rcsjjonscs as tlicsc ■wcrcniaclc: 
'We have 780 teachers; about 200 
oi thcni use fihiis," or "Out ot 
1 .".()()() teachers. I hojie tliat 8.000 
jre iisinu lihus." In smaller school 
ivstenis. the response that out ol 
filteen teachers only four were 
Lisin;; films is jirohably more real- 

One of the most revealing, if 
not sorry, pictures is seen in the 
amount of money spent per teach- 
er. Table A shows that the 
:mu)unt spent per teacher varies 
from S2.00 to .$18.75. If we break 
this down to a per-pupil basis and 
use the figure "30" as the average 
enrollment, we know that then 
the annual expenditure varies 
from <)i/2C to fiOc. Those of us who 
have been confronted by opera- 
tional l)udgeis which include ])in- 
cliases and maintenance know 
that OOc per pupil is a niggardly 

liom Table A, ncj trend can be 

SEE and HEAR — January 

distinguished. The small school 
may spend little or much. The 
largest school system reporting, 
which is commonly heralded as 
ha\ing one of the most liberal 
budgets in the coimtry, spends 
slightly over .1^500 per teacher. 

An interesting analysis can be 
made of rental and purchase prac- 
tices. It is not necessary to con- 
duct a survey of this nature to 
learn what we already know; 
namely, that the small school does 
not piuchase, but rents films. It 
is of \alue, howexer. to know that 
this statement, which all of us 
ha\e believed, is established. 
Quite a definite trend in piuchase 
practice exists. Table K indicates 
that the small school does not 
j:)urchase audio-visual aids, but 
when one reaches the school sys- 
tem of the 100-teacher class, pur- 
chase budget amoiuits are set 
aside \\hich greatly exceed the 
rental ])ro\isi()ns. Note s])ecifical- 
ly that, in the . 100-200 teacher 
school, amounts up to ."iJS.OOO were 

Page 31 


Size of School 

Ar.oant Si?ont tier Teacher 

No. of Teac^.ers 

For Filn Ber 


"or Film Purchase 

to $200 

to $-jOO 

to 11000 


to $'00 

to $^00 

to $1000 























over 5OOD 


a $3030. $13^1 

■b 13975. $iioc 

c $2550. $1200 
d $65,000 

Table B 

liiulgcted for purchase of audio- 
visual aids. As purchase budget 
j)ro\isions increase, rental budget 
pro\isions decrease. Among the 
schools reporting, practically no 
rental budgets existed for schools 
abo\ e 500 teachers. 

Table C reports the jK-rceniages 
of sound and silent films used. If 
we can assign an axerage to the 
averages, which is a convenient 

but not a statistically \alid tech- 
nique, we find that, in the small 
school of 100 teachers or less. 11 
per cent of the films used were 
silent and 89 per cent, sound; in 
the 100-500 group, S6 per cent 
were silent, (il per cent, soinul; in 
the 500 or more teachers group. 
25 per cent were silent, 75 per 
cent, sound. 

Two county schools reporting 


Size of School 


Silent Files 

" 10^ 

.. - J T"! 

1 _ 

No. of Teachers 

to 25 

:o 50 

to r- 

to I'.O 


to ?5 

to 50 

to 75 

to 100 









100 - 500 









over 500 









Tiible C 

Paga 32 

January — SEE and HEAR 

STATUS OK FILM Bj::a;-i' PiJkNs ans use 



"ilrr. feiital 

Filr. Purchase 

!:o. Seeing Filrr. | 

Eiln^ I 













1 3 


...2 . 













US 1-500 





ov^r 300 



relow one] ion 


to ten 











Table D 

iital budgets ot :?535 and $600 
ire included. One county school 
ported no money for piu'chase 
audio-visual aids while the 
her reported §2,100. Four hun- 
cd teachers were employed in 
le county, and 550 in the other. 

One state department of educa- 
)n reported the follo^ving: $20 
r rental, .^lOO for purchase of 
idi(v\isual aids, serving an esti- 
ated 500 students. 

Four libraries reported spend- 
g $130 or less on rental, and 
lOU or less on purchase of audio- 
Bual aids. The audiences served 
ere mainly in the 5,000 to 10,000 

From a wide background of practical 
experience, including mechanical draw- 
ing instruction, superintendent of shop 
suljjects, and administrative positions, 
Leslie Frve now serves as director of the 
Division of Visual Education in the 
Cleveland Public Schools. 

area population. One library re- 
ported serving 1,064 audiences. 

The last table to be submitted 
carries its own story of the service 
and budget in the seven colleges 
and uni\ersities reporting. It 
emphasizes lack of uniformity in 
.service and budget but the sam- 
pling is somewhat small to draw 
\alid conclusions. 

B and HEAR — January 

Poga 33 


for \^^'^'°' _The t«J'*°'^- 


TIIK j)i()riisi()n ol mcthaiiical 
and other audio-xisual aids 
c(|ual to those used in the United 
States Army and i\a\y training 
bases during the war is seldom 
loinid in the modern high scliool. 
Neverilieless, most schools have 

N. Evelyn Davis 


Auclio-J'isual Depart inctit, 

Long Beach Public Schools 

miuh audio-visual material 
use. It may be said salelv tli 
many a school system which mo 
estly admits. "We wish we lu 
an audiovisual program in o' 
school," lias a nmuber of teachc 
who are carrying on sinprising 
good programs. These teaclu 
aic making their work ali\e ai 
graphic to their pupils by niea 
of real objects, charts, maps, ai 
some simple j>rojected materia 

Displays of stiulcnl work 
and displays to annouiuc 
coniiiig events arc cHet- 
tivc means of conveying 
ideas. \Vliile some schools 
arc forlunale enough lo 
have hiiill-in display, 
ingenuity tan provide 
ihem in any school situa- 





/ AI 12 


y 1 


January — SI 

•E and HE 

Caul \vc he more orderly about tlie use of i!ie blackboard? Frequeutly 
uc, as teachers, understand our subjects so well that we expect any 
"doodling" to sullice. Here a pupil uses a carefully worked out black- 
l)oanI diagiam to explain to his classmates a concept fundamental to 
tiie understanding of the formation of comj)ounds. 

\ithoiit their world realizing that 
hey ha\e a real audio-visual pro- 
;r;mi in their classrooms. 

The highly mechanized equip- 
nent may be absent froin these 
eaching situations, but even in 
he military centers one finds 
jreat reliance placed upon the 
impler tools ot learning as well 
IS upon the more complex. This 
loes not mean that sound motion 
iidure projectors, recording ma- 
il ines. flash meters, mechanized 
nodels, and even television are 
lot needed in our schools. They 
ire needed, but while teachers al- 
Tiost breathlessly await their ar- 
rival in sufficiently large quanti- 
ties so that all classrooms may 

JEE and HEAR — January 

possess an amjjie supj)ly, it may 
be well to emj)hasize the possil^ili- 
ties of good teaching through the 
medium of the simpler tools. In 
order to be specific, a walk 
through some high school class- 
rooms in one medium-sized city 
may l)e iieljjful. 

All classrooms in this city, as 
in most cities, have blackboards. 
Sometimes, they are used merely 
as a suitable place for writing the 
next assignment in the textbook. 
Often, as in the case of a teacher 
of radio at Polytechnic High 
School, diagrams are drawn by 
the instructor as he exj)lains some 
intricate piece of mechanism to 
his class. A teacher who finds it 

Page 3S 



Miss Da\is s|)ciu llic early years of 
her life on a farm in northern Minne- 
sota. Since getting degrees from the I'ni- 
versity of California and Stanford I'ni- 
vcrsity, she has taught in elementary 
and secondary schools of Southern Cali- 
fornia, served as elementary school jirin- 
cipal, and during the past nine years 
has heen supervisor of audiovisual edu- 
cation in Beach, California. 

clillKiilt lo iliaw and talk at the 
same time should place his dia- 
grams on the board before the 

Another science teacher uses 
her blackboard for review lessons 
Avith her pupils. The students 
place diagiams on the black- 
board and explain them to the 
class which in turn criticizes their 

In more of our classrooms, 
some part of the space usually 
given o\er to blackboards has 
been covered with cork or com- 
position board into which pins 
may be easily stuck. This bulletin 
board often occupies one com- 
plete classroom wall. In some 
cases mimeographed notices seem 
to be the only materials which 
luul their way to the bulletin 
boards. But more usually, charts, 
clippings, mounted pictures, or 
other materials closely related to 
classroom interests have been 
j)laced there by teachers or pupils. 
When only small bulletin boards 
are pro\idcd, j)ictures and charts 
often crowd o\er on to the black- 
board space in order to find suf- 
ficient room to present theii 
graphic message. 

Page 36 

One temporary classroom is en- 
lixened with a well-arranged dis- 
play of mounted pictures of an- 
cient and modern Egypt, chal- 
lenging the student to the study 
of Avorld history. One teacher 
remarks, "I haven't time to ar- 
range exhibits, but a little time 
spent in discussing gootl arrange- 
ment sets the puj^ils on the light 
track and after that thev assume 
lull responsibility." 

.Ml high schools in Long Beach 
ha\e display cupboards in the 
school libraries^ and in the halls 
One display window opening fac 
ing tin? stfeia^ serves to tell pass 
eis-bv of "the Avork of this tech 
nical school. These displays were 
especially appreciated during wai 
limes when the school carried on 
an extensive ^var training pro 
gram. Boys and ghls in all the 
schools often use the display cabi 
nets to create interest in extra 
(iirricular acti\ities or to exhibi 
their hobbies. Exhibits of art worV 
or handicrafts, as well as hobbies 
with a discreet use of the nauK 
of the yoimg person responsible 
for the exhibit arc occasionalh 
used as guidance tools by the 
teaching staff. 

.\ series of exhibits caiiec 
"These .\re Americans" is beinj 
iisetl in one junior high schoo 
because for the first time in it 
history darker-skinnetl ])upils ii 
large numbeis are attending it 
classes. Boys and girls, with tin 
librarian's help, choose a ])hotn 
gi aph of a person or gioup of per 
sons with examples of their cow 

January — SEE and HEA. 

rihutioiis to socictv and .inanj^c 
luin ill \hc CISC. 

Many tcadins havt' tia\rlcil 
ixtcnsivdv anti lia\c collected 
^ciy excellent exhibits of social 
itnclics. forci«;n langna^e, aiid sci- 
Muc materials. Om- I'lc ndi (tadi- 
:r has he;iutiiul photographs and 
:olored motion pictures ol Fiance. 
A'ith her room arranged for {|nick 
laikening aiul Avith her own prel- 
ector, she can present alinosi any 
jhase of prewar French life at a 
iionient's notice. 

(lass is makin;.; ils 

.\ scieiK ( 
own (()lle<ti()n of lossil shells 
loniul in the oil-bearing Signal 
Hill distri(l. llu- ncai cases often 
(onlain fossils not nuiitir)ned in 
the printetl literatme on the sub- 
ject. A biology student in this 
snnc (lass is regulating the tem- 
jKiaiure of an atpiaiiuin so that 
lie may make a display of troj)ical 

A home arts teacher has the 
school photographer take from 50 
to 100 feet of motion pictures of 

The axiom, "Sliow me. for wlicn I see. I know." has liccn uttered 
again an«l again amonw educators. Here is an cxamijle of how the 
concrete object is in c\ iclcnce as a theoretical exphniation is conducted. 
Can't we do more to accompany our ideas with concrete iUustrations? 

5EE nnd HEAR — lanuary 


fiuli ol her classes each semester. 
I luse pictures arc projected and 
studied as the girls attempt to 
iuij)ro\e their postiue and theii 
jjersoiialiiies as expressed in their 
i)odily movements. Still pictures 
may be used for a similar study. 
Voice stuily is carried on Irom 
recordings in these and other 

Glass slide projectors — both 
standard size and two-inch — are 
in common use in science depart- 

autlio-visual tools. One of thest 
teachers, however, says, as we talk 
with him, "Courses of study are 
(hanging more rapidly now. It is 
liaril to procure adecjuate \isual 
materials when frequent changes 
are made." Because courses do 
change rapidly, and because there 
are always teachers who need 
help, the curriculum department 
in Beach is now listing these 
simpler audio-visual tools anc 
their soiuces, as well as motion 
pictines and radio programs in 

Tlic mailer of space tie 
(jiicntly ilocs not allow ; 
permanently set up pro 
jection situation. Here i; 
an answer. 1 he relleito 
scope is set up hehintl ; 
translucent screen. It i 
ready for but take 
up little or no space. 

ments and in- one of the mathe- 
matics drpaitments. A Junior 
High S( hool remedial reading 
(lass is helped through the use of 

'I'he j)ariiciilar teachers whose 
wot k has been described above 
probably do not need much helj) 
from the administrative and su- 
jH'r\ isory staffs to aid and encout- 
age their tisc of the moic rommon 

Pag* 38 

each new resource unit that i 
wiitten. This department sug 
gests, also. efTective ways of usin^ 
these materials in class work. The 
audio-\isual depaitment pio\ide 
materials for teachers who haven' 
entirely aclec|uate collections o 
their own and contititially cattie 
on a program to encourage ihei 

School systems which are iio 

SEE and HEAR— lanuar 

\\>v viuniiih to li;i\i' ihcsc special 
r\i(is (ail aiul do maki- illc'(ii\c' 
It ol llusc Icadiiiij; tools. It is 
)ti<.val)lc' ill Loii<» licadi llial 
)vs ami j^irls arc tspct iaily aii\- 
iis to lulp in a j^rograiii wlicic 
a|)liic iiiatciials arc used. Ihcy 
( ( ilucatcd not only by the use 
tiiosc materials that ha\c been 
ilkticil. but c'\cn more i)y eol- 
cting and arranging the nia- 

1 he two problems in this field 
ie, first, to inspire all teachers 
I rccojrni/e and to make intelli- 

gent use of siuh "fice for the ask- 
ini;" andio-\isual teaching ma- 
terials as are available about 
ilu 111, and second, to .secure newly 
de\elo|)ed worth while commer- 
cially prepared audio-\isuai ma- 
terials and etjuipment for all of 
the schools at the earliest moment 
they become available. 

But, while we're wailing, let's 
do what we can with what we 
have. Let's do a better job by 
using every opportimity to make 
our classroom teaching alive with 
graphic experiences. 

Last year marked the fiftieth anniversary of the projected motion 
picture. Few people remember the early days of motion [)ittnres. 
In 1891 Edison patented the kinetoscope in which his films could 
be viewed bv I)ut one person. This marked the beginning, even 
llioMgli Edison regarded motion pictures as a mere curiosity. 

liut in 189.5, fifty years ago, one Mr. Latham exhibited motion 
pictures projected onto a screen in New York in April, 1895. Then 
came ihe earliest movie .houses— the nickelodeons — with their 
nickel admissions. Memories of these early theaters will be mostly 
of robust comedies. The Museum of Science and Industry in Chi- 
cago has included such a theater in its exhibit of an old-time 
Main Street of years gone by. These nickelodeons showed several 
short films with interruptions for a change of reels. 

In 1900. sound accompanied films at the Paris Exposition. The 
complications of synchronizing the mechanical phonograph of that 
date to the film were far too great for real success. Experimentation 
continued. Success was achie\ecl in 1927 when sound synciironi/ed 
with film became a reality. 

Motion pictures had been put to considerable educational use 
in the early 1920's. Unfortunately, the ecpiipment of that date 
was cumbersome; the film was not neces.sarily the noninnammable 
safetv type; and the subject matter was not usually suitai)le for 

Not until sound film in the convenient and safe 16 mm. size 
became available did the educational advantages of motion pictures 
a])pcar. World \\ar II, with its great training problems, focused 
attention cm the value of tcacliing through the use of visual educa- 
tional media and especially through the use of the sound motion 
picture. I oday the student may see the subject of the lesson and 
lieny the e\|ilanations regarding it— a long step from Latham's first 
"moving pictures." 

— Edward T. Mvers 

IE and HEAR — January 

Page 39 

"?a>^ J ^x^eavj 


Snow Hill, Mmyland, Elerneritoij School 

Kdilor's Note: Miss Louie I. Holsioii, 
a sixth graiie teacher at tlie Snou Hill 
F.lciiu-ntary School. Snow Hill. Mary- 
land, wrote recently, "In a few weeks 
my groi'P of children will be studying 
a unit on health— how to care for the 
body, the value of food, rest, etc. I am 
searching for films to use to illustrate 
graphically attitudes and facts of infor- 
mation on the suljject of health and 

Shortlv tliereafter, Miss Holston was 
able to secure a copy of the newly re- 
leased I'nited States Department of Ag- 
riculture film entitled Sumclliiiig You 
Didn't l-Ml. Her reactions to this film 
as leaching material follow: 

W1-: lE.ACHER.S ol .Snow 
Hill arc agreed that pioh- 
ably no other niean.s is quite as 
;.',()ocl as the motion |)i(tiire tech- 
ni(|ne when it (omes to j)resent- 
ing inlorniation that traditionally 
has been a little hard to ni.ike un- 
dcrstandai)le to childnn. In the 
case ol health le.s.sons. when we 
consider the length of time ncccs- 

Pag* 40 

sary to show a film such as Soin 
thing You Didn't Eat, inform; 
tion^ is probably learned moi 
rapidiv and more lastingly ih:i 
it would have been through an 
traditional materials. 

Wc showed the film Somrthiu 
Yon Didn't Eat to the fourtl 
Idth, and sixth grade pupils. W 

Jh /Vea^.tiX some food 
from each group ...every day! 

/M ADOmON TO TMC BAS/C 7. . . 

January — SEE and HE/ 

Scurvy, that niystcri- 
oiis iiKiladv, lias stnuk 
a<faiii. I>i I.iiid, tlic 
sliip's surgeon, is puz- 
zled. He feels sure 
there is some (onnec- 
tion between scurvy 
and the food the men 
eat. But what can it 
be? Meat— broth— bis- 
cuits — men slioiild 
thrive on this. 

ivncn't at all sure at what lc\cl 
the content would be iiiulerstand- 
ible. Very interestingly, fourth 
^lade pupils were able to under- 
stand most of the information 
ivhich ^\■as presented. "With the 
Fifth anil sixth grade pupils, the 
experience of seeing the film led 

to enthusiastic description and 
into many in\estigations which 
the youngsters became curious 

In the sixth grade, discussions 
centered around the causes of 
scurvy and how that nutritional 

He tries an experi- 
ment. Each day two of 
these men have two 
aranj^cs and a lemon 
added to their diet. 
But before six days 
fiave passed, these men 
tiave recovered. In the 
ivords of Dr. Lind. 
'The most sudden and 
I'isible good effects 
were perceived." 

5EE and HEAR — January 

Page 41 

While iiucstigaling 
(lie tropical disease, 
beriberi. Dr. Kijk- 
niann made an aston- 
ishing dis(<)\try. \a 
lives who li\c-<i on a 
diet of polished rice 
weakened and died. 
We know today thai 
he had discovered vi- 
tamin B' foinul in iiii- 
polished rice and in 
all grains and in their 

tliscasc roiilcl he prevented. It was 
c)l)ser\c(l that tliis disease is ])rac- 
tieally unknown in our o^\•n coni- 
nuinity, and tlie diildien tlecided 
it must be due to the vitamin C 
that they took into their bodies 
in the loiin of the citrus fruits. 
They spoke of the disease, beri- 
beri, liovv the whole giain cereals, 
jjarticularly rice and wheat, could 
j)re\ent this and how indudin^ 
any whole grains in our diet were 
real health insurance. 

Naturally enoui;h, after the 
children learned about the seven 
basic foods necessary to gooil 
health, they decided to investigate 
the lundieon menus in the school 
(afettiia. Ihis they did and com 
jKired what they found with the 
recjuirements known as the basic 
seven, as well as with the neces- 

Distributcd through the United States De- 
partincnf of ARriciilturc, the film Soinctliiiin 
Vou Didn't Eat can be smirc] from your 
nearest film library. 

Page 42 

I () 1 1 11 IIOI.SIO.N 
.Miss Lottie Holston describes hersel 
as "just a plain teacher of many years 
standing." ^'oll will agree that her aj) 
praisal of her ai)ility is an understate 
Mienl after you read the very practica 
suggestions she brings to you. 


saiy food i^ioupings thev nat 
about in their hygiene text. 

We have agreed that this film i; 
an effective way to make \ivid t( 
children the importance of select 
ing a (omplete diet. Some writtei 
c\])it"ssions from the sixth giadi 
pupils will be of interest. 

Bonnie Cnhlcr: "Seeing the pic 
tine bi ought me many good iileas 
Mrs. Jones didn't know she couU 
ha\c sa\i.'d her tomplexion aiu 
Ml. Jones didn't know that hi 
poor posture was all because the' 
didn't ral llu' right foods to ge 
I lit liiilii vitamins. I know hov 

January — SEE and HEAJ 

It here's the irony <»f 
Hfic wc arc, in llu- 
rattst fcuxl piodiu 
g nation in the 
5rld— and yet. out of 
cry ten people in 
is country, sn'en 
ive weak links in 
cir diet— because of 
uincthing they didn't 
t." Children are 
own examples of 
meals which 
the basic sev- 
so necessary to 
alth and thus to 


icy coiiltl ha\c avoided tliis bv 
iting the light foods!" 

lx>a Mar Hinmnn: "Eacli of its 
lalized \vc should cat a gieat 
any tilings we ha\en't eaten, 
[any of us children thought that 
lything we ate helped our bodies 
I grow. That isn't true. \Ve 
list eat some of the basic foods 
ich day. They are green and 
;11()W \egetables; citrus fruits; 
3tatoes and other vegetables and 
uits; milk or milk products; 
eat, poultry, fish, and eggs; ce- 
cals and bread; fats and butter, 
enjoyed the film \ery much." 

iLeah Riley: "I found I should 
It the seven basic foods daily. I 
y to eat three or four of them at 
reakfast. At noon three or four 
lore, and also at supper. I 
arncd what the seven basic foods 
re and I can remember them." 

Shirley Holston: "Seeing some- 

£ and HEAR — January 

thing you didn't cat brought to 
my mind incidents when 1 have 
been tempted to go without the 
right foods. I know much better 

Betty Marie Gibson: "The film 
brought me many ideas. I have 
learned that there are right foods. 
I have learned about the many 
foods which I can select to get the 
basic seven. \Vhen we know what 
we are putting into our stomachs, 
we can help build better bodies." 


The opening of a l)ranch office of 
International Theatrical and Television 
Corporation in Toronto. Canada, was 
announced today by George A. Hirli- 
man. president of that company. This 
office will be the first of a group of 
such offices to be opened luider the 
name of ITTCO of Canada, to better 
service that country with the best avail- 
a!)le films in Ifi mm. 

Page 43 

Pag* 44 

January — SEE and HEi 

lil.AlRICi: lilRGlI 

Eiiit juniu) High School, Sioux Cil\. louui 

Editor's N'olc: Recently, Miss Ueairicc 
Jergh used a good (ilmstrip witii her 
cstiuli grade pupils. Her account, 
ifhich is a descriptive evaluation, iudi- 
airs its uniiiue advantages for classroom 
iv( I he (duisirip Hie Forest Ranger is 
me of the newly released "Life in tiie 
Jniled States" series available through 
he American Education Council. 

"piIE pioblem of bringing back- 
•*• grounds of information into 
he classroom is one ^vhich must be 
net and solved. In an attempt to 
lo this, I lia\e used the filmstrip 

The Forest Ranger with a group 
of children of the seventh grade. 
I ha\e long believed that one 
doesn't just shtiw a (ilmstrip. One 
studies it. Ihe best way to de- 
sdibe how we studied this collec- 
tion of several do/ens of good 
l)ackground pictures is to report 
just what went on during the 
time it was used in the classroom. 

First, we discovered what the 
jnipils' needs for information 
were. We examined their piesent 

Many boys know and love the \\oods. For them there is a career ojjcii with a 
% strong appeal. They have their personal hero: the protector of a great public 
possession, the guardian of the National Forests — the Forest Ranger. 
Two Boy Scouts want some cpiestions answered. They visit the Ranger, who 
sketches a rough map of the I'nited States on a flat rock. "It's a big country, 
boys," he tells them. "There are now 160 National Forests in 35 different states. 

There should be more." 

lorcst Rangers try to prevent destruction and help forests return to what they 
should be. Millions of acres of land have been ruined by overcutting or burned 

bare by forest fires. 

The Ranger continues, "It's my job to take account of the damage and decide 

what's to be done. When the right kinds of trees cannot grow back naturally, 

new trees must be planted so that the forest can recover ciuickly." 

"This instrument, called an increment borer, tells you how old the tree is 

without injuring the tree. It lakes out a slim core and you can count the rings 

yourself. One ring is formed each year of life." 

'Beavers can help in flood control. They can be very useful if they build their 

dams in the riglit places. AVe see to this by fishing them out of the place where 

we don't want them, put them in a truck, and drive them to a place where a 

dam is needed. 'I hen we tell them to get busy!" 

>EE and HEAR — January 

Pag* 45 

imiiicssions tlirou,i>h a discussion. 
Next, we saw the [ilinstii|). I luii 
wc sjxnt more time in distussion. 
and again, as wc leisurely re- 
viewed this learning tool, we 
clarified our understandings. 

Belorf the (hiidren saw ilu pic- 
tures, the teacher asketl tin in to 
answer some ol the lolhnving 
{juestions. She did this to discover 
their currrni understandings. 

1. Wliiit is incaiu by forest service? 

2. How do rangers lell liow old the 
I ices arc? 

3. In preparation for a timber sale, 
how do Inmhermen know which trees 
lo cut? 

4. How can forest lires he located in 
vast forest areas? 

.'). How important are trees in con- 
trolling the behavior of soil? 

The responses ol the children 
to these questions were very inter- 
esting because they gave the 
teacher an idea how much the 
pupils knew about the topic, but 
fiuthcr. what they didn't know. 

The discussion of these (juestions 
motivated them to search for ad- 
ditional information. They want- 
ed to learn. Some of the responses 
which indicated what they needed 
lo learn thiough an obser\ation 
of the pictures are given below. 

I hey are numbered to corresjKjnd 
to the cjuestions which ajipear 

1. "1 think forest service means when 
some men oder lo cut and jnepare Inni- 
l)er for sale." "I think forest ser\i(e 
means showing people tlironf^h forcsi 

Pag* 46 

Miss Rergh taught four years in the 
grade schools of Sioux City. Iowa, afie' 
which she t(x)k a post as critic leache: 
at the Normal school of that cilv. Fo; 
iwo years she did vocational guidaiu< 
work in the ninth grade at Fast Jiinio' 
High ScluH>l and is now supervising the 
student teachers who come from .Morn 
ing Side Clollege to do practice teachin} 
in the fields of geography and literal iirc 



2. "Forest rangers tell the age of :l 
tree by the number of limbs and th«| 
layers of bark the tree has." " Fhey puj 
a stick up at the side of the tree an< 
see how many inches it grows eaclj 

3. "Forest rangers pick oul all tiie old! 
rotted trees lo sell." They sell only thij 
trees with smooth, line bark. They strij 
the bark and if the inside has evci| 
grain, tiiey mark it for sale." 

4. "Forest rangers locale forest fires m 

lookout towers. Fhey locate foresj 

fires by sending inspectors around t«^ 
hunt for fires." 

.'). "Trees soak iij) water from ihi 

ground and prevent flocxls. Free 

make soil fertile by shedding leaves oi 
the ground." 

Their needs arc of two tyjx-s 
First, they lack information. .\nt 
second, and even moie challeng 
ing, much of the information the' 
have now is incorrect. So. twc 
things have to be accomjilished - 
unlearning and new learning. 

.Mter this disc ussion, we showet 
I he filmstrii). Pupils were asked tc 
keep their own responses in mine 
and to compaic- them with u ha 
they learned - what the\ saw 
Ihey were asked to coriect air 
erroneous responses that they hai 

January — SEE and HEA 



iiKuli'. I Iir sli()\\iii|i; was (omliut- 
ctl very slowlv so iliat ilu- pupils 
could ask. ([Ufstions. 

It was soon tliscovt'iril iliai iio 
(IMC Irarning cxpcritiuf ^\<>llUl 
|)i()\iili' answiTs to all ol llu- <|ucs 
lioMs. Souic ol the (jucstious about 
\v hi(h the puj)ils weic curious hut 
iMueerniuf' which linthei inloi- 
nialioii lioui hooks was necessaiy, 
weic these: 

1. How soon after a die can ihcy 
, plant new trccs? 

2. How many men are employed in 

i' the forest service? 
3. lo whom is the Inmbcr in the 
forests sold? 

1. What insects are injnrious lo trees? 
'. \\'hy don't all slates lia\e national 


Kaeh jjupil was then askeil lo 
list the iiiloriiiatiou that he had 
obtained Ironi seeing the ])i(tme 
strip. The items of inlorniation 

1. The age of a tree is found by the 
use of an increment borer which docs 
not injure the tree. 

-. ^ oung trees are planted lo take the 
place of those burned out by fire. 

'. Caring for young wild life in for- 
I est areas. 

I. A serious residl of erosion is the 
, decrease of irec growth. 

''. Signs arc placed on trees to indi- 
(,iic which shall be cut for lumber sale. 

'"). The use of the alidade in locating 
ilu' exact position of a forest fire. 

7. I he use of a short wa\e radio set 
and HEAR — lanuary 

in broadt .is( jii^ ilu- hxatinn of a lorcst 

S. I se of airplanes and paraduites in 
I he forestry service. 

<l. I he amoiuil .ind kind of knowl- 
edge needed by a foiest ranger. 

1(1. ( arifid reiords are kcpi <luiing a 
lumi)er sale. 

11. "I'lanling" beavers to ai<l in for- 
est rv 

\2. The great responsibility of the 
forest rangers. 

One ol the great adxaniages ol 
the picture strip is that questions 
may be asked and answered as 
the ])ietiiie progresses. .\ny pic- 
ture may be obser\ed as long as 
desired. \ picture may be turned 
backward or forward, allowing 
c:om|)arisons of information to be 
made. The class resjjonded \ery 
well to tile picture strij) The For- 
est Rnnirrr, and much was learned 
\\hi(h will not be forgotten soon. 
1 he Iilmsuiji moti\ated further 
study of the lumber industry. 

This fact bears rejjcating. The 
filmstrip is a \aluable source of 
learning. But it must be studied 
just as intensively as other ma- 
terials which we ha\e been using 
in our classrooms for years and 

■■(;ongratidali(jns on a Inie job. \ou 
were smart lo ado|>t the pojjidar 'di- 
gest' si/e. I predict liiat SKI-, and HKAR 
will "calcii on' promptly and will be a 
real factor in the development of audio- 
\ isual cducalion." 

— Bruce E. Maliaii. Director, Extension 
Dirision, State University of loiva. 

Pago 47 

ir Ydu Aw A 

SchiKil ExiTulive... 

ANEW problem faces those who are responsible for the 
nianagcment of schools. It is the question of how to 
most effectively utilize modern audio-\isual teaching tech- 
niques imder existing conditions, correlate them with cur- 
ricuhnns, create the necessary initiati\e and enthusiasm of 
the teaching staff and make the many decisions required in 
regard to the purchase and allocation of equipment and 

Schools that do not accept and utilize every possible 
application of audio-visual methods will soon be lagging 
far behind in their job of teaching. 1 he millions of re- 
tiuned members of America's army antl navy, trained to 
their ser\ice jobs by Audio-Visual methods, plus the ever- 
increasing acc|uainiaiKe of other fathers and mothers with 
this newer way of teaching forecast an insistent public de- 
mand iliat cannot be overlooked by school executives. 

The editors of this publication, SEE and IIICAR, and 
their associates, have for several years, been devising ways 
and means of getting the iniunnerable \isual aids that 
schools can so easily actjuire into actual classroom use. How 
to use such materials and get fidl \alue from ihem as teach- 
ing tools, is by far the most imiKjriani (juestion facing 
school executives and teachers today. It was to provide 
needed answers and suggestions, as well as carefidly con- 
sidered exaluations on methods, materials and results ihat 
SEE antl IIE.\R was established. 

E\ery teacher in the country needs SEE and HE.AR, 
needs it for the definite information it gives on how to 
make the learning acquired by his or her pupils easier, 
faster, broader and more useful. This applies to teachers in 
every graile from kindergarten up, and as nnuh to those 
who have only the most simple \\()rking ecjuipment, as to 

Pago 48 January — SEE and HEAR 

those with all modern devices, for SEE and HEAR is NOT 
just a "nu)\ie" publication. 

The |nil)iisheis of SEE and HEAR believe that it is a 
ileHnite part of tlie duty of every sc hool board, su[)erintcnd- 
ent, principal or administrator that has the autliority to 
do so, to make this journal on audio-visual learning avail- 
al)lc to evci-y teacher. To confine it to a library where it 
may be seen, or to a \ isual training specialist, is not utiliz- 
ing its possibilities as an in-service help and inspiration. 
SEE and HEAR cannot or docs not even hope to be able to 
cover "everything" in the audio-\isual category, but it does 
provide nuich of the helpful, dependable and pedagogically 
correct information now urgently needed and now un- 
obtainable from any other source. 

Consider SEE and HEAR as an investment in teaching 
eciuipment, or any other classification you like— a minor 
expense of a few cents per month per teacher— and order it 
with the assurance that it will be one purchase that will 
pay great dixidends to you, your school and the children 
you teach. Send a "Group" order, direct it to SEE and 
HEAR at Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for the lower five-or-more 

The Publisher 
of SEE and HEAR 

The subscription price of SEE and HEAR is Three 
Dollars per year for single suljscriptions within 
the United States. Group orders of five or more 
subscriptions sent in at one time (to be sent to 
the same or separate addresses as desired) accepted 
at S2.50 each per year. Canadian subscriptions- 
Single, $4.00; Group, .$3.50. 

SEE and HE.VR is issued nine times a year- 
September to May, inclusive. 

EE and HEAR— January Page 49 

The N. E. A. and 

Audio-Visual Education 

X'iK.NON 1). DaMIRON, I)i)C(ln) 

i\(ili()H(il i.diicatum Associalinn 

Tlll-.RK arc great cxpcc (atioiis 
lor audiovisual instrutiion 
in the ]:)ostwar period, and the 
National Education Association is 
interested in taking an arti\e |)art 
in its expansion and (le\elo[>inent 
in tlie schools ol the nation. 

1 he program of the new NEA 
Division ot Audio- Visual Instruc- 
tional Service will deal Avith all 
ol the many types ol audicj-visual 
aids, including radio and tele\i- 
sion, on all levels (^1 eihuation. 
Details ot the program will be 
based on a sui\ey ol the present 
status and trends. I he lollowing 
general aspects ol the liekl ini- 
clouljtedly will receive nuich con- 

Means by xvliidi (ludio-visudl 
instruction can he nuidc less 

Financial limitations constitute 
a gical impcilimeiu to exj)ansion 
and (JeNclopment. Ihere is prob- 
ably more diversity in educational 
oppoituintv in this field than in 
any ollui. 

Intensive elloits are now i)eing 
excited to c-liec t the release ol 
siM|>his ((|ni|>inent and materials 
li oni I lu :n mkc! joi ( ( s lor disti i 

Paga 50 

bulion to the public schools <> 
the basis ol need and linan( i, 

Schools— especially those whic 
have photography or art course 
or camera clid)s— and tcxtbop 
publisheis will be encouraged t 
j)i()cluce tvpes ol audio-v isual aid 

Criteria for more ejfectivc sele 
tion and evaluation of audit 
x'isual aids 

As the cpiantitv and cpialitv c 
such aids inciease. ciiteria nui 
become more exacting because c 
the wider lange ol selection. 11 
most serious obstacle to the lo 
nudatic^n ol criteiia is the lack c 
objective, definite, detailed pu 
poses of the units of stuciv in tl 
vai ions couises. 

Methods and techniques ft 
more effectix'e intcirration i 
the curric uluni and utiliz 
tion ol (ludio-xnsual tiids 

.Much needs lo be done in r 
<;aicl lo integration, because < 
llu c \()lv ing concej)t (1) that tl 
tunc lion of audio-visual instru 
lion is now considered too suppl 
mentaiv in natuic, just an "aid 
as is definitely implied by tl 

January — SEE and HEi 



clcsi^naiioii. "iiiulio-N isual did." 
ami (2) that it shoukl Uv con- 
sidered lUDic basic—an integral 
part c)i the "core" of the educa- 
tion process. 

■ Also, there is the jnobabiliiy 
that a very comprehensive and in- 
tinsi\e progiani may extend iJie 
hoi i/ons ol the various c(juise;i of 
study by making it possible to 
show material now slighted or 
omitted because of the diihculty 
ol ellecti\e verbal treatment. 

Frtwision for closer collabora- 
tion between educators and 
producers of audio-xnsual ma- 

\ The needs of the student must 
be recognized as the basic deter- 
minant of the content and treat- 
ment of auclio-\isual materials. 
This all-important goal cannot 
be attained imlcss educators and 
jjroduceis work closely together. 
The need for closer collaboration 
is clearly indicated by the large 
niunber of a\ailable audio-visual 
materials not adapted for integra- 
tion into any con\entional unit 
of study. 

Methods for a better co-ordi- 
nated and expedient distri- 
bution of audio-visual tna- 

An ideal program of instruction 
Would in\ol\e little distribution 
from a center outside the school 
system. The problem of obtain- 
ing the best materials for the ])ar- 
ticular jjurpose on a definite date 
is of considerable consequence, 
especially in the case of a small 

SEE and HEAR — January 

school which depends almost en- 
tirely upon rentals fiom a distant 
or inadecjualely stocked distribut- 
ing center. 

Encouragement oj ividespread 
adoption of audio-visual in- 

The vast majority of schools 
ha\e no organized audio-\isual 
programs. It is scjmetimes due to 
lack of sufficient interest on the 
part of school officials who do not 
request adecpiate appropriations 
and sometimes it is due to failure 
of teachers to realize the signifi- 
cance and advantages of such in- 

Promotion of audio-visual in- 
struction for instilling desir- 
able attitudes and apprecia- 

The more dynamic types of 
auclio-\isual materials provide for 
emotionally derived learning 
which may be the most effective 
means of inculcating hard-to- 
teacli but nevertheless extremely 
impcirtant concepts, such as tol- 
erance, ethical conduct, demo- 
cratic ideals, and international 


Much remains to be learned 
about this relatively new instruc- 
tional mediiun. The entire field 
is permeated with hazy criteria 
and arijitrary standards. The Di- 
^ision of X'isual Instruction will 
encourage research programs and 
cooperate with colleges and imi- 
versities and other professional 
research agencies. 

Page SI 




NAMICS.* shows vividly 
through animated diagrams how 
ahernating currents are generated 
by a simple dynamo and how the 
current increases its alternation as 
the speed of the armature increas- 
es. 1 he film animation continues 
to de\cl<)i) lealistically how tlic 
current is then picked up by the 
brushes and passes on through 
resistances in the external circuit. 

In the opening scenes, the film 
presents these princij)les in a \ery 
elementary lashion, then proceeds 
to increase the complexity of elec- 
trical devices in a manner that 
makes the material very real and 
\cry c()Mij>reliensible to the stu- 
dents. The pupils' approach to 
the study of a film can be made 
nnich more effective if the teacher 
sets I lie stage for the shoAving of 
the film l)y discussing interesting 
background material which leads 
logically into the film (ontent. 

' !lncycliii>acdia Ilritannica I'ilius. 
Poga 52 

After films in 
the field of physics 
have been shown 
and discussed, one or more re- 
showings are usually necessary in 
Older to allow the students to ab- 
sorb every use of the graphically 
presented materials which good 
leaching films contain in such 
numijers. Later, the students of 
their own accord paralleled their 
text and classroom discussion Avith 
supplementary readings liom 
other texts and magazines. 

Any instructor of physics will 
fully recall the difficulty of teach- 
ing the unit pertaining to elec- 
tricity and the difficulties stand- 
ing in the way of successfully im- 
derstanding the theory. \V'ith the 
aid of this film, this phase of 
j^h^sncs was co\ered very thor- 
oughly in but a fraction of the 
time we formerly used. Not only 
was time saved but achievement 
was increased. Achievement un- 
der traditional methods was less 
than when the film was used. 
— Vila Rastnusscji. 

January — SEE and HEAK 



I In this typical classroom situation, a class of Danish sludcnls arc listening 
to a broadcast, planning and pnidiiclion ol uliicli is in the hands of edu- 
cational authorities. 


Dr. Arthur Stenids 

Coordinator, Visual, Radio, and Safely Education, 

Detroit Public Scliools 

NORWAY and Sweden had way's was also effective. Denmark's 

somewhat similar patterns of school radio program was one of 

school broadcasting in 1939. That the poorest in Europe, 

of Denmark can better be con- yj^j^ j.^j^j^ j^ effectiveness be- 

trasted than compared with those comes more interesting when one 

of the other two countries. Of the learns that, of the three coimtries, 

three, Sweden's program was by only Denmark places responsibil- 

far the most advanced, but Nor- ity for school broadcasting in the 

SEE and HEAR— January Page 53 

Editor's Note: These are doys when we 
hear the pros and cons on the value of 
radio in general education. Without doubt, 
the pros ore vastly in the mojority. But we 
are still at the stage where communities 
differ greatly in their evaluations of the 
place radio should have in the classroom. 
We ore certainly still in the plonning period 
and, becouse we are, there con be much 
value to us in examining what has happen- 
ed in other countries. Mr. Stenius's account 
of his observations of radio education meth- 
ods in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are 
brought to us because of the value their 
experiences may hold for us. 

hands of ccliuational authoiitics. 
In tlic other two countries, the 
broadcasting organizations. Ra- 
dio tjnnst in Sweden and the Norsk 
Rikshringhnsting in Norway, are 
completely responsible for the 
production of all school programs. 
The implication in\ol\ed was 
borne out in other Emopcan 
coimtries as well. Educators are 
less able in producing usable 
school radio j^rograms than are 
broadcasting officials. 

I'lie lack of radio "know-how" 
on the part of educators was not 
the only cause for ineffective pro- 
grams * when responsibility for 
school broadcasts was in theii 
hands. They lacked interest in 
developing radio as an instruc- 
tional tool. In all of the Scandi- 
navian countries, the attitude of 
educational officials was moie one 
of tolerance and passivity than 
one of active interest in making 
useful broadcasts availaijje to ihc 

The Dauisli broach asiing sys- 
tem pr()\iclecl time, transmission 
lacifities. and financial suj^poit 

Page 54 

for all school broadcasts, but the 
national Board of Education held 
entire responsibility for the plan- 
ning, writing, production, and 
evaluation of the programs. The 
l)asis for such a policy was simple . 
The broadcasting system did not 
wish to encroach upon the offer- 
ings of formal educational agcn 
cies. Fiuther, school officials 
slujuld be in the best jiosition to 
determine jjolicies in regard to 
broadcasts intended for classroom 
use, and such policies woiUd stand 
to be accepted more readily bv 
teachers if j^rogram direction was 
in the hands of educational spe- 
cialists rather than ofTered by an 
outside agency. As good as this 
reasoning may be, the fact re- 
mains that school broadcasting in 
Denmark was j)oorly planned and 
execiUed, ineflecti\e as a teaching 
aid, little used, and evaluated by 
the personal judgment of a single 

In both Norway and Sweden, 
school radio was initiated by the 
brc^adcasting org;tni/ations. In 
neither country did educators see 
the medium as a potential ^aluc 
in classroom instruction. Admin- 
istration of educational broadcast- 
ing in Norway was carried by the 
Director of Talks, a title suggest- 
ing that all school j)rograms were 
merely broadcast lectures. The 
implication was not \alid. School 
broadcasts varied in natme. Mu- 
sic, diama. reportage, and inter- 
view tcchnic|ues were all used to 
make school jirograms eflective. 
Ihe only help which the broad- 
casting organization received from 

January — SEE and HEAR 





the schools ill makiiii; uj) ))ro- 
!»rams loi dassrooin use was thai 
i\hi(h caiiu' lioin nK-mhcrs ol an 
inh)iiiial advisory connnitttc' 
made up ol li-adicrs and adminis- 

In Sweden, sdiool broadcasting 
ivas the result ol collaboration be- 
tween radio officials anil the Min- 
istry of Education, but the joint 
cHort was more a matter of theory 
than practice. A broad outline of 
programs for the school year was 
(Norked out at a conference of rcp- 
resentati\es of Rndiotjnnst and 
educational authorities. Programs 
v\ere then planned as to scope and 
st\le of presentation, and submit- 
ted to the■^^inistry of Education 
for aj)pro\al. All remaining work 
was comj)letely in the hands of 
the Educational Director of Ra- 
diol jayisi. 

In all three Scandinavian coun- 
tries, both time allotments and 
financial support given school 
broadcasting were entirely ade- 
quate. Only Denmark had set a 
definite time allotment of 200 
hoins per school vcar. Norway 
and Sweden jilaced time given for 
school programs on a need basis. 
If tentative plans called for more 
or less broadcasts than was the 
case during the preceding term, 
transmission periods put aside for 
S( hool programs varied according- 

As a result of these policies, 
both Sweden and Norway broad- 
cast fewer school programs than 
did Denmark in 19.H9. Danish 
school piograms, however, were 

SEE and HEAR — January 

MiU( h less ellecli\c' and seemed to 
show that those directing the 
work felt more an obligation to 
fill broadcasting time allotted 
than to meet school needs. In 
Sweden there was a steady de- 
crease in the ninnber of school 
broadcasts from 1935 to 1939, a 
(ircumstance Avhich was dwc to 
the belief that schools had been 
"fed" too nuich radio, or at least 
more than they could use effec- 
ti\ely. The budget for school 
broadcasting had not been cut 
during this same period, so the 
reason given for the decrease of 
j)rogram time seems verified. 

This phase of school broadcast- 
ing in the Scandina\ ian coimtries 
has important implications for 
educational radio in this country. 
\\^ith many school systems plan- 
ning to ha\e FM broadcasting 
stations of their own, the air is 
apt to be filled with programs in- 
tended more to fill time allot- 
ments than to meet real classroom 
needs. FCC regulations requiring 
stations to be on the air for at 
least a certain minimum time will 
tend to stimulate just such a con- 
diticjn. Educational radio must 
learn to build its own policies, 
not fit itself into the conventions 
of connnercial broadcasting. A 
school broadcast that needs 22 
minutes should be given that 
amoimt of time— there should be 
no need to cut the heart out for a 
15-minute period nor to pad it so 
that it fills a half-hour spot. 

In bcnh Norwav and Sweden, 
radio nuist contend with a lan- 
guage difficulty. The former coim- 

Page 53 

try is bilingual in spite of the fact 
that the country has a homogene- 
ous jK'oi:)lc with no sliong section- 
al liilferences. Swedish broadcast- 
ing is troubled to a lesser degree 
with a \arian(e between the spo- 
ken and written language. Radio 
promises to do more in bringing 
about a single mode of expression 
in both of these countries than 
any other mediiun. 

Through years of Danish rule, 
the old language of Norway was 
changed to a Dano-Xorwegian 
tongue which became the oflicial 
language. It is referred to as Rik- 
smal or Bokmnl and is the lan- 
guage of governmental documents 
and of most literatiue. After Nor- 
way's freedom from Denmark in 
1814, a wave of nationalistic spir- 
it lesidted in the establishment of 
Laruls?nal or Nyjiorsh, a language 
worked out from a group of west 
coast dialects. 

In the past, political parties 
have championed the cause of 
Nyvorsh in an attempt to gain 
added support from riual sec- 
tions. Laws were passed to make 
the two languages of c(|ual imj)or- 
tance. Local school boards were 
j)ermitted to choose the language 
children were to be taught. 

In 193!> Dr. Stt-niiis sptiit nine months 
aI)roa<l .stiul\inp; niidio-visiial programs 
in ten European coiinirics. Ho has l)c<'n 
connected with the Detroit Piil)lic 
Schools since 1028 and has served as a 
high school teacher, secondary school 
administrator, and prescnlly is coordi- 
nator of \isnal, radio, and safety educa- 
tion. Since 1010 he has heen a facidty 
nicmhcr of Wayne University, as well. 

Paga 36 

y\s a result of this language sit-i 
nation, sdiool broadcasts, as well nt 
as those ior the general jniblic, s 
are given in both tongues. During an 
the school year 1938-39, 21 per 
cent of all broadcasting to the 
schools was in Nyuorsh. Alihouiih 
the two languages are still slightly 
sepaiated in many respects, tin \ 
are gradually reaching a com- 
promise ground whereon lies the 
greatest possibilities for a com 
mon tongue. Radio has done ami 
will continue to do nuich to a(- 
comjilish this end. 

In Sweden, many word forms 
are used in writing that are not 
used in speaking, the difference 
being much more than merely a 
choice of expressions. Practically 
all languages ha\e a moreconserv 
ative written language. English is 
no exception, but in no case does 
our own tongue approach the 
complete change of words, differ 
ence in endings, and demanded 
omissions or inclusions that is to 
be found in Swedish. Kor this rea 
son, radio broadcasting in Sweden 
offers a problem of demanding 
writers who can write as one- 

The effect thai ladio will ha\e 
on the future of the two phases ol 
the Swedish language is impor 
tan I. Just as broadcasting in Xoi- 
way is bringing togethei that na- 
tion's two languages, in the same 
way radio promises to level the 
differences between sjioken and 
wi iitcn S\\edish. The cost of such 
a compromise will, as is aheady 
obvious, be paid by the written 

January — SEE and HEAR 



Ill :ill three S( ;iiuliiia\ i;m (oim 
II iis, ilu' ;itliilt eiliKiition pioi^iam 
is highly di\ clopeil. Radio has 
carried its share in this program, 
listening gionps ha\e been \\ide- 
Iv organ i/eil. and carry through 
inii"nsi\e j)r(.paralory and loihiw- 
np activities lor all broadcasts in- 
tended for their study jnirposes. 
The broadcasting svstcnis do 
much in the ^\•ay of jjublishing 
!matcrials to further such a study 

Sweden, Norway, and Denmark 
have long sjionsored lecture series 
lor studv groups. It was natural 
th;it all thought of the possibility 
of having radio talks replace per- 
sonal appearances of speakers to 
carry on this activity. Grants gi\- 
cn to sponsor traveling lecturers 
were canceled, and the radio or- 
ganizations were asked to take 
over the activity. Broadcasting 
did meet the need, and during the 
years 19'^0-.13, the widesj)read lec- 
turing program decreased sharply. 

Hut when the novelty ol railio 
woii' off and the ci ies lorecoiuiiiiy 
(ame within bounds again, it was 
seen that the loudspeaker was not 
a full substitute for the lecturer. 
In lO.Sl). the lecture series had re- 
gainetl their former importance as 
well as their state subsidies, but at 
no loss to radio's listeners. The 
two have been seen to supplement 
each other, each filling a certain 
need, neither able to offer a com- 
plete service. 

In stimulating the adult educa- 
tion program, school authorities 
look Uttle j)art in the past. Tlie 
educational broadcasts for the 
general public were even more an 
activity of the radio systems than 
were school programs. The fact 
was obvious— professional educa- 
tors had not realized the potenti- 
alities of radio as an instructional 
medium. But this circumstance 
should not cause wonderment. 
What was true in Scandinavia in 
19-^9 is too often the case in this 
country today. 

AC.LA.SSROO\f lilm is used as a teaching tooi. It enriches ant! illus- 
irates ahnost any subject taught from kinciersiarlcn tliroiigh llie 
nni\trsitv. It makes places and texts lliat for the pupil seem pro- 
saic, take on life and become interesting and far more assimilable. 

— Miss ELI/ABFTM iRFl.ANn. 

State Sulxrintendiiit of Public Itistntction, Montana. 

TUF.RE are at present in the United States about 16,000 schools 
c(|uippcd with 16 mm. projection ecjuipment. Kr]uipnient manu- 
facturers ha\e thousands of unfilled orders for 16 mm. projectors from 
farsighted school boards and superintendents. Some indication of the 
\ast held opening up here may be had from statistics indicating that 
there are in the United States 148,000 electrically ecpiipped schools, 
of which 28.000 are high schools. 

SEE and HEAR — January 

Page 57 

The Real Mother Goose. 

Chicago: Rand McNally & Com- 
pany, I<)ir> pp 128. (Renewal of 
Copyiigiu, 1944. This .special edi- 
tion of tlie l)ook has been pid)lishcd 
by K. M. Hale and Company, Kan 
Claire, Wisconsin, after arrangement 
with the pnblishcrs of ilie regular 

77/r Real Mother Coose is a 
rolk'dioii ol all the Moiliii 
rhyiius from Little Bo-Peep to 
When the Snoiv is on the (iroinul. 
— 2H() in mtniljti. 1 he l)Ook in- 
( liidc's a ol all the rlivmcs and 
an alphalu'tical list ol Inst lines. 

Pag* 58 

Joe Park 

Assistant Professor of Education, 
Northivestern University. 

This book is very well illustrated 
with 115 pictures in full color. 

rwenty-seven of these are full 
pa,t;c 7''.sxlOl^-inch pictures, illus- 
trating such rhvines as "Rain." 
"Pat-A-Cake," "To Market, 1 o 
Market, To Buy a Fat Pig," and 
"Goosey. Goosey (iander. ' An 
outstanding Mother Goose book. 

Pablo's Pipe, by Frances Eliot. 

New York: E. P. Dntton &: Co., Inc.. 
1936 pp 48. (This .special edition 
is piil)lislu'd after arrangement with 
the publisliers of the regular edi- 
tion, l)y E. M. Hale and Company, 
Kan Claire, Wisconsin.) 

PAIU.O'S PIPE is the stoiy of a 
little Mexican boy, who makes 
gooil with his bamboo pipe on 

Halftone rcproduction.s from the full-color 
illnslrations in "The Kcal Motlicr Goose." 

SEE and HEAR — January 


iN'hicli he could play quite a num- 
ber of seemingly delightful times, 
riicre Averc three others in his 
family: his father, Jose; his moth- 
er, Amelia; his sister, Nita. 

One Satinday. as the family was 
prej)aring for its Aveekly trip to 
the market, a terrific wind swept 
down upon the region. Now the 
uind was so strong that "it blew 
off Pablo's hat. The mangoes that 
were almost ripe fell from their 
branches and blew away down the 
hill. The wind blew and blew 
and blew. It blew the blossoms 
from the vine by the door, and it 
blew the red peppers from the 
plants in the garden." Eventually 
it blew away e\erything that the 
family had made ready for the 
market. Since the materials for 
the market had been lost, it seem- 
ed that the family might be doom- 
ed to a temporary state of poverty, 

SEE and HEAR — January 

However, the reader nnist not 
iiiuiii tstin\atc the ability of Pab- 
lo. He hits upon the ingenious 
idea of going to the market to 
help Miguel, a kind old man who 
looked allii- the donkeys which 
people from far away rode to the 
town. With his father's consent, 
his bamboo pipe, and a list of 
things he was to purchase with 
the money it was supposed he 
might earn, our friend sets out for 

Since it was a long way to town 
and the weather was warm, Pablo 
sat down to rest. .\s he rested, he 
jjlayed a little tune on his pipe. 
At that \ery moment three min- 
strels, a woman, one thin man, 
and a little fat man came along. 
The three persuaded Pablo to 
join them. 

All that needs to be said con- 
cerning the success of the adven- 

Pa0« sd 

tuic is that Pablo made cnou,i;Ii 
money to buy two new hats, two 
firmly wo\cn wicker baskets, one 
of which he filled with ripe man- 
goes, antl the other he filled with 
corn meal, a bunch of reeds, an 
earthenware pot with his name 
on it, and a boiupiet of beautilul 
(lowers. Not bad for a bit of pip- 
ing. Espi'cially when the three 
adults of the group must have 
taken their share of the income. 
Pcrliaps it should be added that 
the three minstrels thought so 
well of Pablo that they agreed to 
come for him to join them when 
he had grown up. 

A very interesting book is Pab- 
lo's Pipe. It is of special value for 
introducing children to certain 
aspects of Mexican culture. It ap- 
pears unfortunate, though, that 
the illustrations, which are in col- 
or, are not more exact. For ex- 
ample, in se\eral places reference 
is made to mangoes. The illustra- 
tions at best, indicate that man 
goes grow on trees. From the 
leading, the child can learn that 
mangoes are eaten, but he cannot 
gain any concept of the si/e of the 
mango, the color of the fruit, etc. 
In fact, the illustrations are about 
as valuable as the dictionary defi- 
nition, which contains such words 
as "Anacardiaceous tree (Mangi- 
fera Indica) ." 

It seems to this re\iewer that 
(hildreii's books which attempt to 
present factual information, of 
one sort or another, should be \ iv- 
idly and accurately illustrated. 

—Joe Park. 

Page 60 

Xavy Men Slarl New 
Film Company ] 

A new ])ro<liution roinpany, National 
Educational Films, Inc., to fulfill tliC' 
tuiriculuni needs of public cdutation, 
was aniiounceil this month Ijy Lt. Com- 
mander W. Irentli (iiliiens, president 
of the new corporation, upon his return 
to the motion picture lieUl after three 
years' active service in the U. S. .\a\v. 

I,t. Comdr. Grant Leenhouts, formerly 
in charge of planning and jiroduciion 
for tlie Training Film and Motion Pic- 
ture Hranch, U.S.N., and special assist- 
ant to the War Finance Division of the 
I'. S. Treasury in its War Bond and 
Victory Loan fdm programs, has been 
named general manager of the new 

Specialists, brought into the Navv 
program in 1942 because of their previ- 
ous extensi\e ci\ ilian experience in visual 
instruction and motion picture |)rodnc- 
lion will join the new organization upon 
their release from active duty. Thev 
are: Ft. Comdr. HaroUl R. Roberts, 
formerly of Stanford Iniversitv and the 
College of Idaho; Ft. Comdr. Herbert R. 
|ensen. formerly of the lni\ersitv of 
Minnesota \isnal F.dutaiion Service; 
Miss Dorothy Dinglcv. formerlv of the 
Fong Reach, California Public Schools 


Regional directors for National Fdu 
cational Films, Inc., so far named are: 
Ft. (omdr. Don Ci. Williams. formerlyfcr\e( 
of Stanford I'nivcrsitv and director ol j^dj. 
\ isual education in the Rerkelcy, Cali- 
fornia sihool svstein; Ft. Jack \V. Evans 
formerlv director of visual education 
N'irginia rid)lic Schools; Lt. Cusiav 
Revel, formerly director of visual edu- 
cation, California Schools; and Ft. De 
I'orcst S. Mamilton. formerly of Fresnc 
State College. I'niversitv of California 
and supervisor of audiovisual aids 
Sonoma County. California Schools. 

Key writers and directors, also ol 
Navy motion picture activities, will be 
come associated with the new firm upor 
their release from the Navy. 

January — SEE and HEAS > ^ 





Mrs. Christine Cash 
Superintendent, Center Point School, Pittsburg, Texas 

Kdiior's Note: The ability of the 
eacher to lead her pupils through ex- 
•crienccs which will allow them actually 
"know" physical surroundings, the 
liinatc. and the mood of other localities 
5 a constant concern. Mrs. ("ash explains 
he use to which she has put good 
caching material in bringing experi- 
tices from far away into her own class- 

D ECENTLY we had the oppor- 
^^ tunity of viewing the fihn 
^lay in the Snoic. The staff and 
he childicn of the Center Point 
kliool all participated. It was ob- 
erved that the pupils of the inter- 
ncdiatc grades were enthusiastic 
nul jubilant during the showing 
)f the scenes from the fdm, par- 
:icularlv those in which the chil- 
hen A\ere engaged in coasting. 
Following what we had learned 
irotn this first showing, a second 
iliowing was arranged for pupils 
af grades three to six. 

After an intioductory discus- 
sion, the children were told to 
ivatih for situations in which the 
rhildren of the film observed safe 

3EE and HEAR — January 

behavior and precautions con- 
cerning health and comfort. After 
the showing, several questions 
were asked. 

(luestion: Can >ou tell about some of 
the play situations that you saw in the 

Tliird Grade liny: I saw the children 
playing snowball, building a snow man, 
playing the game of fox and geese, coast- 
ing and skiing on the hillside. 

First Grade Boy: I watched them 
snowballing, coasting, and skiing. 

Question: ^Vhat health precautions 
did you see the children take? 

First answer: The children put on 
warm sweaters when they went out to 

Second answer: Before they got cold, 
they stopped playing and ^vent home. 

Question: Did you see the children 
take any safety precautions as they play- 

Ansxi'er: I watched a boy make sure 
there were no coasters in the way when 
he was ready to coast down the hill. 

As the result of their discussion, 
the children were very eager for 
a second showing. Again after this 
showing, they were eager to talk 

Page 61 

Pag* 62 

;iboui wh;il ihcy saw in ilu pic- 
lurc. They Noluntccrccl to wiitc 
iiboiit the cxjxiiciuc's they saw 
and biinjf their (oinjjositions to 
school ihc' next clay. Without 
(|iKslion. we ol the stall of the 
(Center Point School heliexe that 
the film may be used \ery achaii- 
taj;eously in tirades lour to six. It 
may even be ol inurest at IiIl^Ii 
school levels. 

It suppK mints best the work of 
the chilchtn in health and |)h\s- 
ical eduiation. It is an opi)oituni- 
ly for them to witness sports with 
which thcv are not familiar here 

T<>j> -lVi\l and Nell aiul C.liarlc\ 
arc Koiiig; lo make a snow iiiaii. He 
will staiiil wlicrc the l)ig{!;csi roll of 
snow .stops. Another hii^e snowhall 
makes his chest, and another iii^ 
head. He will look realistic cnoMi;li 
to .say, "How <lo yoiil 

S('( Olid — Let's piny "Fo\ and 
(iecsc"! lo |)lav it. \on hrst ii.imp 
down a hif; rin^;. and tluii lUl it 
as yon cut a pie. Ihen tramp tlowii 
the trails. Ciiit the i>ic hito two 
jiieces less than tlie iunnl)cr of chil 
dren pla\ing. The children on the 
ontcr rinj> are the geese. 1 he fo\ 
is in tile center. The extra cliild is 

the goose without a nest. 
riiitil — Vhc fox tries to catdi the 
goose withont a nest. 1 hey tan onh 
nni on the healin trails. Kver\onc 
keeps iiio\ing so no one is the fox 

/{o//o;;/ - It's a line day for coast 
ing — crisp, clear, and (old. I he 
hill is marked with flags to prevent 
accidents. The children coast clown 
one side of tile Hags and walk ii|) 
llie other. Hill waits until (he coast 
IS clear hefore he starts down. ^Oii 
don't even need a sled! Coasting is 
good on an old dishpan. a shovel, 
or a ho\. 

January — SEE and HEAR 

Mrs. now locil su|KMiiiU'n(l«iii 
«>l Ihf (tiilir Point School. I'illslinrn. 
I i-\;is. lias had i\|>ii iiiui- as a liadici 
in onr ro«)n» iniai sihooU. <<)uni\ snni 
incr noiinal.s. sunnncr scs.sion.s of ^\'iil\ 
anil larvi.s Colleges and as a higli sdioo', 

She has done nunh experinu lUation 
with hehavior prohleni (iiiidren and 
those of snhaverage al)ility and oppor 
tnnitv. She has evahiaied many ednca 
iional hinis. 

ill the .Soutii. Ill soutlurii ;ircas 
tluTC is .sckloiu siifhciciu snow to 
make it possible lor chikireii to 
|).ii ticijiate in such play as the 
iihn shows. Thus, this fihu Avill 
pro\ icie \icarious expeiiciues 
whicli. otherwise, they probably 
would not ha\e. 

.Se\eral obiecti\es are a({()iii- 
plishecl— a con.sciousness on the 
part ol the children re^ardiii'; 
|)roper wearing apparel to be 

To/; — Its fiui to eoast together, 

Charley on top of Bill. Down thev 


Serourf — Skiing is one of the most 
thrilling wavs to enjoy tiie clear 
cold days of winter. First, ski hind- 
ings are hrmiv fastened — no loose 
skis to spoil the fmil Remember to 
keep skis straight when walking 
straight. Herringbone fashion is 
best on a slope, sidestepping for a 
steep hill. 

T/i/)f/ — .Ski jiim])ing on the school 

slide is great fini. Boys and girls 

learn to make graceful leaps. Hying 

throngh the air like birds. 

/{o//om —Tired. Bill. Nell and 
Charley trndge home throngh win- 
ter's wonderland. 

I'lctures CDiirtfsy KncyiI<)|iatMli;i riritaiiiiic.'i 
lilms. Inc. 

SEE and HEAR — January 

V ^ 

Page 63 

worn during various seasons of 
ilic year, a consciousness of the in- 
dividual's responsibility for ob- 
serving good safety behavior dur- 
ing group play, and the healthy 
emotional attitude which results 
from observing children who arc 
engaged in playing congenially. 

The fdm is a valuable experi- 
ence in that it encourages chil- 
dren to express themselves easily 
and enthusiastically. The children 
were \ery interested in writing 
short descriptions of the scenes 
which they saw and the impres- 
sions which they received from 
the film. 


Th rcc-Dimension Projection 
I (Iras Arc Incrcosiyifn, 

I Ik- .S()\itt lilin indusliy lias acliic\C(l 
ihicc (linicrisional images in llic invcn- 
lioii of Scmeon Ivanov. This method is 
a variation of tlic grid process by which 
iwo images are projected on the screen 
sinudtancously and are broken up into 
( losely spacctl i)ands by a grid or grating 
near liie screen. This grating also serves 
as the selective viewing means. 

Three other stereoscopic systems are 
now being developed. The Anaglyph 
method employs complementary colors 
with individual viewers. The Polarised 
Light method involves the use of polar- 
izing viewers in which the axis of |)olar 
i/ing of one eyepiece is crossed with the 
axis of the other. 

A balaiucd lens optical system, using 
single-image |)hoiographv and standard 
projection e(|uipment. has been develoi)- 
ed by .Stephen E. Garutso. With prac- 
tically unlimited focal dei>lh, from lO 
indus to infinity, this optical bahum- 
gives the illusion of third dimension. 

Pago 64 



Curing Fork Country Style 
(Sound) Black and White, and 
Color, 20 minutes. Lit: Ilonu- Ec. J, S, 
C; Agric. S; Clubs A. 

THI.S is an excellent sound-film de 
scription of how to cure pork coun 
try style. Organized around three 
basic rules to be followed, the dry and 
brine methods of curing, the construc- 
tion of a smoke house, and the steps 
taken in smoking the cured pork and of 
|)rcscr\ing the pork after smoking, are 
elfectively and interestingly portrayed. 
Vnited States Defiartrnent of Agricul- 
ture. At your nearest film library. 

Second Freedom 
(Sound) 17 niiiiutcs. Use: Home 
Ec. S, C; U.S. Hist. S, C; Socio. C; Clubs 
A: Nursing A. 

THE emphasis in this film is on social 
planning during the sdiool years 
of the child in Englantl and 
through his vocational or professional 
training years. It explains in detail the 
social sccuritv measures available to 
22.000.000 workers in England. Socialis- 
ed health security, emplovmenl securii\. 
housing, old age retirement and sccuritv 
arc dealt with extremely realistically. A 
valuable model for the I'nited .States to 
contemplate. British Itilornuition Scnf- 
ices. At your nearest fdm library. 

A Start in Life 
(Sound) 22 minutes. Use: Home 
Ec. S, C: U. S. Hist. S, C; Socio. C; Clubs 
A: Nursing A. 

THIS is a complete story of the so- 
cial responsibility which England 
feels for every child regardless of 
social situation or circmuslance. Organ- 
ized prenatal care is being extended to 
all its citizens, (.omplete heallli ser\i(C 
from the time the child is born until he 
reaches the age of five is explained dear- 
Iv, interestingly, and without pretence. 
It olfers a model that we might well 
(((iisider in this (onntrv. British Injur- 
iiuition Strvi((s. At your neaiesi him 

January— SEE and HEAR 


The connected story of the territorial annexations to the 

original 13 states of 1783 is told graphically through such 

maps as these. 

Lt. Donald A. Ei.dridge 
Assistant President, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 

(on leave) 
Leonie Brandon 
irector Audio-Visual Educalion, Neio Haven, Conn., Public Schools 

T 7HAT \vc describe here is 
A/rcally an application of a 
rnnila for the use of training 
nis which has proved so success- 
il in the wartime navy training 
■ogram and which is the basis 

E and HEAR — January 

of the training aids guides pre- 
pared for use with many navy 
films. Careful ad\ance prepara- 
tion by both student and instruc- 
tor, effective showing of the film 
in terms of specific purpose, and 

Pago 65 

Editor's Note: With the oddition of coch 
new teaching tool, the necessity of coordi- 
noting them efficiently increases the re- 
sponsibility of the tcochcr. How con the 
study film be mode a port of the Icorning 
situation? Todoy, on Lt. Donold A. Eld- 
ridge's return from service in the navy, he 
reaffirms old beliefs and describes a typi- 
cal classroom technique for coordinating 
film ond printed motcriais in history. Some 
time ago he and Miss Brandon developed 
this technique as a study guide for the film 

imiiictliatc aiul caiflully |jlaniK(l 
lollow-up in the loiin ol discus- 
sion, testing. (Icnionstration. and 
application — this is navy way. 

This study technique lias been 
and is being applied now to a 
|)opular and efTectixe history film 
called Tcrriloriul Expansion of 
the United States. It is built 
around animated map study 
which shows the se(|uential ex- 
pansion of territorial actjuisition 
against a backdrop of representa- 
tive flashbacks, such as. the wagon 
trails acioss the j)lains, early rail- 
road di\el<)pment, and treks 
through the Kentucky wilderness. 
The advantage of the film lies 
chiefly in its ability to j)resent an 
overview of well-related evidence 
which describes the push to liu 
West from 178-i to IRf^.H. 

lis ])()lc-ntial jjower can be real- 
ized luliy only by thorough and 
extentled study in the classroom. 
Learninir exercises should Ix plan 
ned with exlended sliuly ()j)|)or- 
tunities in mind. Discussion of 

'The film and ihr sliuly tn.lterials iJpscribcH 
ill this artii-lc arc tnoiliiccd by IntiTiiatiunal 
(jcf>Kr.Tl>liic ricturcs. New York, iiiulcr tin- 
title Tcrriloriul li.\t>iinsion of tin- Unitcil 
States from 17H3 to 1S53. ThotoKraphs by 

Pag* 66 


wril-ananged iaciual ijucstious 
olien clarifies anil emj)hasi/es tho 
basic facts dramatized in a history 
picture. Studv cxeicises desiniud 
to bring loiih time and place 
backgrounds will make tluni 
"stick." Map exercise can be va- 
ried and thus be made challeng- 
ing and vvcji th while. 

A time line of real sociallv im- 
poitant events helps the student 
tcj establish relationships which 
enable him to relate the stoiv ol 
each new territorial accpiisition i< 
the other imj)ortant historicai 
events of the time. .Student 
shciuld read widely ihcjse bio 
graphical stories ol the men aiu 
women associated with the factua 
l^hases of historv. Poitraits or ac 
tion drawings ol the people con 
cerned. if available, help v isualizc 
the individuals and fix their asso 
c iations to historical events. 

Every suggestion ])i()])osed fo: 
incorpoiation in a (din stud' 
situation can be tried first in air 
classroom under normal teachin) 
conditions with .m experiencci 
teacher and tyjMcal students. Vh 
finished technicpie. which is th 
result of selecting those ajjjjroacli 
es and activities which provec 
most ellective under actual condi 
lions, can and should be j)assct istru 
along to other teachers. This iWs 
what has been clone- with the filr oi 
pie.sentaticju of Tciiiloyial E> 
f)(insion in the United Slates. 

Some ol the melhods which a 
included in the studv manual fc} 
this film are woilhv ol nunlioi 


lioih a teacher's and a sti, 
d( Ill's version of a study me 

January — SEE and H! 







I lie .story of disputed 
1 laims uliich is told i)y 
(lie narrator is visual- 
ized hy accompanying 
animated map studies 
such ns thi!!. 


In review the whole- 
story of territorial ex- 
pansion is built up step 
by step for the student, 
resulting in this final 

id booklet were drawn up. Jn 
ffect, the former is a nianiial of 
nstruction containing the answers 
nd a special introduction ad- 
Iressed to the instructor, while 
he latter is a student's workbook. 

^ Loose-leaf binding, with pages 
-• unnumbered, permit rear- 
angement and insertion of illus- 
rations, written reports, and 
ther materials which the indi- 
idual student collects. The stu- 

dent is expected ultimately to 
luunber his pages and prepare a 
table of contents. The teacher, 
likewise, can incorporate her own 
notes into her copy. 

q Biief short-answer tests are 
^' included as a part of each 
student's copy. These probe film 
content and challenge the student 
to pursue reading. 

A Actual materials provided 
'• studeiU actixitv include t 


EE and HEAR — January 

Page 67 



rrccjuent Hash- 
backs show models 
of transportation 
used by the settlers 
as they pushed in- 
to the newly an- 
nexed territories. 
1 he co\ered wagon 
train, the early 
coach, railroads, 
and niany otiier 
llaslibacks help stu- 
dents identify 
events with social 









of ill 


he 1 




line, cutout maps and an outline 
map. These maps correlate spe- 
cifically with the maps in the film, 
thereby helping to "carry over" 
and fix the continuity from the 

p "Biograjihies" of famous peo- 
-*• j)lc living during the period 
co\crcd bv the film are included 
with spaces provided for the stu- 
dent to add information obtainetl 
tliroiigh wide reading. 

The entire unit of work — the 
sc(]iience of territorial exjjansion 
between 1783 and I8.')-{ — can be 
lead in history books and corre- 
lated with the film content. After 
\iewing the film antl doing basic 
reading, the pupil is ready for the 
f)}()l>lrni.s joy (in llirr study. 1 lerc 
the boy or girl who learns cjuickly 
can find suggestions for many 
worth-while additional activities 
of i)road scope, and the class pe- 

Pag* 68 


Miss Brandon has used visual aids in 
her teadiing assignments in the New 
lla\cii I'liljlir Schools for many years. 
.Slie participated in tiie original experi- 
ments conducted by Knowlton and Til- 
ton with the Chronicles of America. She 
succeeded Lt. Eldridge as Director of 
Auilio-Visual Education at New Haven 
when he left four years ago to assume 
the position of .Assistant to the President 
of AVesleyan University, Middletown, 
Connecticut, from which position he is 
now on lca\e while serving as OfFicer- 
in-Chargc of tiie Training .Aids Section, 
Potomac River Naval Command, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

While in New Haven. Lt. Eldridge 
also served as Executive Director of the 
Connecticut Educational Film Library 
.Association, a cooperative him lil)rary 
operated for some thirty school systems 
in the state. This was discontinued when 
the I'niversity of Coiuiecticut set up a 
librarv. Me was at one time president 
of the Connecticut .VudioXisual Educa- 
tion As.socialion. 

Miss Brandon is now conducting spe- 
cial courses on audifivisual aids at the 
New Haven State Teachers C"ollege, in 
addition to her regidar duties with the 
New Haven Schools. 



January — SEE and HE, 


ioil c;in he iisctl for stuckiit and 
oinniittcc reports on these acti\i- 
ies and the prohlcnis tlu-y un- 
ovcr. Interesting reports ha\c 
)ccn presented on divergent top- 
es such as songs anti music popu- 
ar (hning the expansion period, 
lulicatini' the inlhience of histoi i- 
al events on the trend of music 
)f this perioil and the importance 
mil methods of conservation of 
he natiual resources of the tcrri- 

Kor end-of-the-year review, the 
ombined use of guide and fihii 
las been found extremely effec- 
ive. The students — particuhirly. 
shen they have taken advantage 
>f the loose-leaf structure of the 
;uide to include supplementary 

material — have a concise, inter- 
est ing. and often (olorful simi- 
mary of the e\ents of the period. 
When studied prior to the class 
rt\ iew of this jieriod, this ex- 
panded guide pro\ ides excellent 
j)reparaii()u for a Hnal sur\ey of 
I In- film. 

In brief, the study guide has 
helped to cooidinatc student- 
motixated research with the text- 
book and with the film. By so 
doing, it has helped teachers to 
stiuudate students to become ac- 
tive participants in, rather than 
mere passive observers of, the his- 
tory as im folded on the screen. 
This is the essence of good use of 
teaching films. 

THE enduring future of audio-visual aids to learning lies in its 
close relation to the curriculum of our schools and the more 
effective training of teachers in the use of audio-visual materials. The 
premise implicit in the term "aids" suggests that of themselves these 
materials will not teach. They can only aid in teaching. The use 
of audio-visual aids in a fashion unrelated to the sequence of studies 
or to the demands of the learning process is not helpful. The present 
tendency to use movies, for example, wheii available rather than 
when needed, is an illustration of this unrelated use of audio-visual 
aids and is doomed to disappear as soon as the results of this un- 
planned and unwise use are subjected to scientific evaluation. 

Study pictures, filmstrips, slides, records, exhibits and movies must be 
asscml)led to supplement the specific course of study job which is being 
done by the teacher at exactly the time she is accomplishing it! All 
of these aids may not be available al one time, but the eflort should 
be to use a variety of materials keyed to the common end of making 
more graphic and thus more understandable the subject being studied. 
It is a simple yet workable idea, but sometimes difficult of achievement. 

Kingsley Trenliolme 

lEE and HEAR — January 

Pago 69 

Report of Indiand Coiin/iillcc on .1-1 Materials 

A statewide committee on audio- 
\isual materials for Indiana, which was 
recently appointed i)\ Dr. Cllcnieni T. 
\lalan. State SiiiKTintendent of Public 
Instruction, held its (irst meeting in In 
dianapolis at the Slate House on No 
vemhcr Ki. Dr. .Malan ]iointcd out that 
the Committee was appointed to help 
work out a program and to make iccom- 
mendations relative to the optimum use 
of audio-\isual materials in the |)id)lic 
schools of Indiana. 

Among the problems discussed was 
the need for an elementary handbook 
which would include: (1) a description 
of all types of audiovisual materials and 
e(|(iipment with emphasis on the educa- 
tional motion picture; (2) siJccific sug- 
gestions on organizing and administer- 
ing an adccpiate program of auclio-\isual 
materials; (3) effective ways of using 
materials; (4) bases for evaluating a 
program of audio-visual materials; and 
(5) sources of materials and etjinpnicnt. 

Members of the Committee recognized 
that the successful completion of this 
assignment would necessitate the evolve- 
ment of a nund)er of guiding principles 
which would serve as a basis for the 
selection and treatment of content in 
the handbook, as well as for reports 
from the Connnittec to Dr. Maian. .Some 
of the more important ])rojects which 
will be undertaken bv the general com 
mittee and sub-committees are: 

1. Principles iniderlying the organiza- 
tion and administration of a service of 
audicj \ isual materials. 

2. Most effective methods for using 
each type of material. 

3. Pre service and in-service training 
programs for teachers including confer- 
ences, clinics, institutes, workshojis, and 
undergraduate and graduate credit 
cciurses in the field of audio visual mate- 
rials, and suggested c|ua1ifications with 
respect to experience and training of the 
director of audio visual maieri:ds who is 
expected to coordinate a school |)rogram 
on either an extra c hi ii< ular, ])art-time 
or full lime basis. 

Page 70 

4. Survey of sources of audio-visual 
materials available for use in Indiana 

'). Study of the ai)ility of teacher- 
training institutions with their present 
libraries of audio-visual materials to 
meet the rapidly increasing demand for 
audio visual materials from smaller 
schools and community groups. 

6. Desirable teacher-matcrial-and- 
etpiipment ratios. 

7. Suggestions on ways by which pres 
cut classrooms can be adapted in an 
economical fashion and new buildings 
can be planned for a most effective use 
of audio-visual materials. 

8. Basis for financing a program of 
audio-visual materials including recom- 
mendations inider which state-aid 
schools coidd i)urchase cc|uipment and 
purchase or obtain leaching materials 
on a .service-charge basis from an educa- 
tional library of audio-visual materials. 

9. Plans which will enable Indiana 
schools to take full advantage of avail- 
able sinplus cc|iM'pment and materials in 
the field of audio-visual materi;ds. 

10. The need for, and functions of, a 
state su|)crvisor of audio-visual materials 
in the State Department of Education. 

Members of the Committee are: L. C. 
Larson, .Assistant Prcjfessor of Audio- 
\ isual Kducation, Indiana rniversity, 
liloomingion. Chairman; Miss Evelvn 
Hoke, Director. Teaching Materials 
Service. Hall State Teachers College, 
Muncie; Lowell Hojikins, Director of 
Auclio-\isual Kducation, Evansville ('ity 
■Schools, Evansville; Mrs. Daisy Mae 
(ones. Supervisor of Intermediate 
(iracles, Muncie City .Schools. Minicie; 
Richard H. C.emmecke. Teadier of .So- 
cial Studies, T.lkiiart Senior High Schocil, 
Elkhart; \V. O. Puckett, Superintendent, 
Princeton City Schools. Princeton; Eiovd 
T. Walker, Principal, Lapel High 
Sdiool. Lapel; Max Norris. Principal, 
lUiill Avc'inic School. Indianapolis; Otto 
j. Newman, Superinieiuktii, St. Joseph 
County .Schools. South Hend. 

January— SEE and HFAR 





Leroy Klose 

Director of Music, Madison Public Schools 

EDITORS NO IE: Mr. klosc "lias I)ccn llicic. " Starling as a teacher 
he arcumulatcd invaliialile experience which he now brings to his 
supervisory rcsponsiI)ililies. Years ago he i)ecanie interested in the 
possibility of introducing visual instructional materials into his work. 
He today believes that work in instrMnieiital music and in music appre- 
ciation becomes very effective when it is built on not only the mider- 
standing of the instruments involved, but in a cognizance of the 
physical finidamentals of sound and acoustics. Music teachers will enjoy 
his comments and his short bibliography of very excellent films. 

A LI. of us who appreciate 
r\ good music and outstand- 
iig techniques of execution be- 
onie actively interested in pass- 
rjg along our enthusiasm to those 
^e teach. If we stop to examine 
ur own interest in music, we find 
hat it has been built up in the 
ace of many obstacles, long hours 
f practice, financial and other 
acrifices in attending the per- 
nrmances of skilled artists and 
iiiisical organizations, and other 
larriers over which others might 
asily have become discouraged, 
'et today A\e have an instrument 
or fostering appreciation of fine 
nusic and fine techniques which 
leretofore has been used only 
ketchily and inadequately— the 
ound teaching or textfilm which 
leals with solo or group perform- 

EE and HEAR — January 

ances of musical accomplishment. 

How many of us, regardless of 
how often we hn\e listened to the 
Minneapolis Symphony Orches- 
tra, the Pro Arte Quartet, or the 
Chicago Opera Comjiany, ha\e 
wished that we could have a clos- 
er look, a more leisurely oppor- 
tunity for examination and eval- 
uation, a chance to see again and 
analyze those performances which 
we particularly admire and which 
have won our respect. This last 
opportunity is available to those 
teachers and pupils who Avish to 
begin to use some of the best of 
the sound films which have be- 
come available in the field of the 
symphony orchestra and in the 
area of detailed examination of 
indi\idual instrumental tech- 

Page 71 

niques, or who wish to witness the 
finished performances of many of 
the outstanding artists such as: 
Jose Iturbi, Emanuel Feuermann, 
and the Cooiidge String Knsem- 

For the use of those teachers 
and directors interested in having 
their ])upils witness the finiction 
of each of the instruments inchid- 
cd in the orchestra, the qualities 
of these instruments, and the 
place of their voice in the indi- 
vidual choirs and in the over-all 
organization of the orchestra, 
films such as the following are 
recommended without reserve: 

THE STRING CHOIR-Shows the im- 
portant functions of the stringed instru- 
ments in orchestral music. Types of 
bowing and pizzicato and the finger 
tcchni(|ues of vioUn, viola, cello, and 
contrabass are illustrated. Compositions 
are interpreted. Brittanica. 

strates the individual lone quality of 
the various woodwind instruments and 
illustrates playing techniques. Composi- 
tions include excerpts from famous sym- 
phonies bv Rrahms, Mendelssohn. Ros- 
sini, \'on Weber, licethoven and Schu- 
mann. Brittanica. 


stratcs. witii full orchestral accompani- 
ment the playing technicpies of the 
tympani. tom-tom, snare drum, bass 
drum, tambourine, cymbals, chimes, 
gong, castanets, triangle, bells, xylo- 
phone, and celesta. Brittanica. 

THE RRASS CHOIR-Revcals the func- 
tion of the brass choir in a full orches- 
tral setting. Shows each brass instru- 
ment in solo passage, with ample oppor- 
tunities to study tone qualities, con- 
struction, and techniques of playing. 

Pag* 72 

lineatcs the relation of composer and 
conductor to symphonic music and elab- 
orates tiie various choirs that make up 
the orchestra together with the func- 
tions of each, lechniqucs of the coq^ 
ductor are treated in detail. Brittania 


.Splendid materials upon which 
to Iniild music appreciation are 
films such as the following which 
dramatically, vividly, and authen- 
tically reveal the technicpies. ef- 
fects, and artistry of the iorcmost 
of our American musical perj 
formers: ; 

JOSE ITUKhl-Sevilla by Albeniz and 
I'aiitasia Impromptu by Chopin arfl 
plaved by this popular concert musiciani 

Rnmlo, Opus 29 by Anton Dvorak and 
Spintiitip, Sonjr by Popper are played by 
the world's premier cellist, Emanuel 
Feuermann. Gutlohn. 

semble— The Andante movement from 
Carl von Dittersdorf's Quartet in F. Flat 
Major and the Fugue from Beethoven'} 
Quartet in C Major are interpreted b) 
tiiis top-ranking siring cjuartct. Cutlohn 





Music teachers are also more and ?™ 
more realizing the necessity for es 
tablishing understandings in th( 
physics of sound. They feel that 
throtigh establishing understand 
ings of how sounds are producec 
and what their physical qualitie- 
include, better musicianship anc 
tcchnitiue can ultimately be at 
tained through the heightenec 
understanding and appreciatior 
which can be developed with \is 
ual and sound aids. 

January — SEE and HEAl 



llir Coinmitlcc an Multi-sensory Aids National Council of 

Teachers of Mathematics, Bureau of Publication, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New 

York, N. Y. 1945 $2.00 455 pages 

EVliN as this yearbook claims 
to acUl a new ^\•old, "niulti- 
scnsoi y." to ihc vocabulary of cd- 
iicaiion, so this book suggests a 
pattern lor reports on teaching 
aids in other helds of secondary 
education. This book is the eight- 
eenth of a scries of yearbooks by 
the National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics de\oted to im- 
pioving instruction in mathemat- 
ics. It is a welcome addition to 
the literature on audio-visual aids 
particularly in the field of mathe- 
matics which traditionally treats 
abstract subject matter in a formal 
manner. Perhaps no field of sec- 
ondary education is in gieater 
need of using teaching aids in 
developing meaningful concepts 
rather than rote memorization of 
rides and skills. 

This yearbook consists of a 
number of articles which survey 
the work in mtdti-sensory aids 
carried on by mathematics teach- 
ers throughout the country. It 
was prepared by a committee of 
ten assisted by 136 additional in- 

SEE and HEAR — January 

ili\ iduals listed as contributing to 
its preparation. 

This report does not claim to 
be an exhausti\e study of all the 
aids which mathematics teachers 
ha\e used and can use to good 
ad\antage. The individual ar- 
ticles describe a laree nimiber of 
dilTerent kinds of aids and some 
of the experiences which their au- 
thors have met in using them. 
ihc types of multi-sensory aids 
described include the foUoAving: 
exhibits, demonstrations, models, 
linkages, pictvues, designs, graphs, 
paper folding, experiments, in- 
struments, charts, construction 
materials, films, slides, historical 
materials on models, three-dimen- 
sional projections and other 
teaching devices. 

In addition there are articles on 
the preparation and proper util- 
ization of visual equipment, mo- 
tion pictures, slides, stereograms, 
models and instruments. The ap- 
pendix includes short descriptions 
of individual models and devices 

Pago 73 

How intriguing il can he lo visualize some of the mathematical theories 
and ahstractions whicii we too often apply in terms of verbalisms alone. 
Think of how meaningful tlie laws regarding a\crage tendencies he- 
come wlien we demonstrate again and again the probabilities of 
samplings which can be worked out in a matter of seconds with the 
use of the demonstration board (No. 9) above. 

The yearbook Multi-sensoiy Aids in the Tearltitig of Mathematics 
stresses the values of such visualizations as: (1) and (2) plastic curve 
portrayals, (3) rectangular solids to demonstrate (.-\ — B) ', (5) coni- 
cal surface, (fi) cones showing intersections of plane and conical sur- 
faces, (7) ellipsoid, (8) left— hyperboloid of one slieet showing its 
generating lines, right— a surface generated by straight lines, (9) ar- 
rangement illustrating normal proi)ability curve, (10) three-dimen- 
sional column diagram. 


Pag« 74 

January — SEE and HEAR 

D()N()\.\\ A. JOHNSDN 

Aliir scvci;il yrars ;is ;i n;u Iut of 
iiiuc and mathematics in Minnesota 
ul Wisconsin, Mr. Johnson is now com- 
Ictiiig liis work for his I'h.I). at the 
iii\irsit\ of MiniKsota wlierc iiis (hs 
rtatioii will l)e an i'\|)ii imenlai stiuU 
I visual aids in maiiiematics teaciiinji. 
!e has l)ccn a menil)cr of the staff of 
'gional institutes on aiulio-\isnal aids 
loiisured l)V the I iii\ersit\ of Minne 
rta; is a meml)er of an educational film 
•\i<-win}i; committee: antl is sponsoi of 
u .iudio-\ isual operators' did) at the 
nnersitv High Stiiool. He is now 
ead of the mathematics department at 
le University of Minnesota. 

eNcloiK'cl by niatheiiiatics teach- 
rs ami an extensi\e bibliography 
I" lorty-six i)a,s»cs on such aids as 
lie slick- rule, calculating instrii 
lents, surveying instruments, 
harts, sun dials, homemade in- 
truments, linkages, telescopes, ex- 
erinients, paper folding, con- 
Lructions. the mathematics 
iboratory and library, contests, 
xhibits, plays, recreations, games, 
rt, architecture, dynamic sym 
letry, history of mathematics, 
caching mathematics and books, 
ince tlie source and the cost of 
ids such as films, filmstrips, and 
nstruments are listed, this report 
hould be an excellent source 
ook for mathematics teachers 
r'ho wish to use visual aids. It 
i illustrated appropriately by pic- 
ures and drawings. As a whole, 
his book will meet the needs of 
nathematics teachers in the field 
if multi-sensory aids in that it 
i\es specific and detailed instruc- 
ions on how to obtain, construct, 
nd use mathematical aids. 

EE and HEAR — January 

I lowever. this book contains 
material that, in the mind of the 
re\ i( '^\■('r, could well ha\(.' been 
omitted. i*"or examjjle, the com- 
plete plans for constructing a lan- 
tern slide projector or the descrip- 
tion of cameras and j)hotographic 
materials with j)rices listed that 
are already outdated do not seem 
woi thy of iiK lusion. 

1 he authors of articles in this 
yearbook ha\e seemingly suc- 
citmbed to the ease of preparing 
and using \ isual aids in geometry, 
wheieas other fields of mathemat- 
ics also need concrete materials. 
It is apparent that geometry of- 
fers greater opportunity for visual 
material than other fields of math- 
ematics but the reviewer feels that 
much could be done in arithmetic 
and algebra. I'o illustrate, a mo- 
tion picture could be produced 
showing the application of formu- 
las in science and industry or a 
filmstrip prepared dealing with 
consumer problems or laboratory 
equipment other than measuring 
instruments used in the develop- 
ment of formulas. 

Although the committee points 
out that the report is not an ex- 
hausti\e catalog of all available 
aids, there does not seem to be 
any explanation for the omis- 
sion of a sound film such as The 
Earili in Motion or a silent film 
as Snoiv and Dezufall or of a book 
such as The Education of T. C. 
Mits. Has this report omitted 
other materials that are of a math- 
ematical nature and contribute 
much to a mathematics class just 

Page 75 

because ihcir titles do not indi- 
cate mathematical subject matter? 

In conclusion, it can be em- 
phasized that this book %\ill un- 
doubtedly have a stimulating 
inllucncc on the teaching ol math- 

ematics. It will certainly be wel- 
comed by teachers who desin 
means for a departure from th< 
traditional method of teaching 
mathematics. It is a book thai 
should be in the library of evei| 
mathematics teacher 


Head, Dejiartnicnt of Mathematics 
University High Scliool 
University of Minnesota 

World War II has shown us the possibilities of enriching 
our learning situations with equipment and materials 
which allow us to see more and to hear more about our 
environment and our activities. 

Today thinking administrators and teachers realize that 
we must do more to make our social and natural environ- 
ment meaningful to the children we educate. 

Anything we can do to bring knowledge of that environ- 
ment into the classroom will assist in establishing more 
valid understandings. To do this we must investigate the 
contribution of the mounted picture, the i)lackboard, the 
bulletin board, the filmstrip, slides, models, exploded views, 
and the more spectacidar \ isual ecjuipmcnt which too often 
we allow to occupy the center of the stage— the modern 
sound motion picture projector and the fdms it carries. 

Pav* 76 

January — SEE and HEAl 







Dr. Paul F. Brandwein 
lead, Science Department, Forest Hills High School, New York City 

rUL ]Moduccr of classroom 
films could increase his al- 
eady wide influence on the learn- 
ng situation if, in providing ma- 
crials of instruction, he enabled 
he teacher to fit the film to the 
esson rather than forcing the les- 
on to fit the film. Perhaps this 
nomalous situation exists be- 
ause the producer of films is 
isually forced to think in terms 
»f subject matter rather than pu- 
)ils. \Vhatever the reason for pro- 
iding materials which are fitted 
o a certain footage and not to 
essons which are limited to sub- 
ect levels and often not to pupil 
evels, the producer of films may 
leed to check his scenario and his 
inishcd product, in the classroom 

so as to determine whether the 
film serves the teacher's objectives. 

In science this is particularly 
necessary. Producers of films have 
often failed to realize that science 
is at least three inseparable enti- 
ties — a body of information, a 
body of technological devices, and 
a method of attacking problems. 
The teacher of science is concern- 
ed with all three and places con- 
siderable emphasis on the last. In 
general, the producer of films, to 
date, has placed emphasis on the 
first two and has neglected the 

Films can be used to stimulate 
students to obser\e carefully, 
think rellectively, make judgments 

Editor's Note: Visual materials have a ivide scope both 
in form and availability. Their effective uses are as broad as 
man's ingenuity. An example of creative imagination and 
challenging teaching is brought to you in Dr. Brandxuein's 
account of a film lesson which combines all of the aspects of 
good teaching procedure. 

EE and HEAR — January 

Page 77 

and prc'ilictions on the basis of 
the facts ol)scr\c(l. A film lesson 
on the Finicdoti of White Blood 
Cells with siu h objectives in mind 
is discussed below. 

The film used was diliircni in 
many aspects Irom those which 
are ordinarily j)iotiucetl. It had 
no titles oi- sound track. Instead 
of titles, blank trailer (fi\e sec- 
onds duration) was interspersed 
between scenes. These blanks be- 
tween scenes were to give me, as 

Dix>isi()ti, Milosis, Ferlilizalion 
Peristalsis, White Blood Cells 
Pollen Tube Formation. '<uu\ Bud 
ding of Yeast. 

When the teacher wishes U 
lia\e a lesson on cell di\ision, hf 
need not use 20 miniues of ht 
jjeriod in showing a reel on cell 
in which scenes on cell divisiof 
are dispersetl thioughout the lilin 
The 50 feet on tell tlivision whicl 
we ha\e can be used at whate\ei 
j)oint in the lesson they are need 

a teacher, the opportunity to shut ed and whene\er the (juestions o 

off the projector at intervals with- 
out losing any of the film content. 

The entire film, scenes and 
trailers, was about 150 feet in 
length. It was jjrepared in the 
Laboratory of Celhdar Physiolo- 
gy, New York University by Mr. 
C. G. Grand and the writer. After 
testing in the classroom, some 
scenes were re\ised, new scenes 
were added, and certain sequences 

Our department film library at 
Forest Hills High School has 
many short films of this sort. They 
vary in length from 25 feet to 150 
feet. Some of the subjects are Cell 

jjupiis requne the film activity 
Titles do not gi\e the puj)ils th( 
ideas which can be his througl 
accinate obser\ation and rellec 
ti\e thinking. Also, the teachei 
may show the scene o\er and ovei 
again imtil his stutlents are satis fcfkap 
fied that they ha\e made the ex Kirik 
perience theirs 

Mir va 
ret the 
\i\t sol 

jfjiT: V 
I proble 

live a 1 

lifn.' 1 

^' llOll' 

*. I 


m: r 

Probably a better itlea of thi; 
method of using films ^\ill be ob 
tainetl from the lesson which fol 

riie pui pose of the lesson, as i' 
is gi\en here, is to indicate 
somewhat tlilicreut use of lilii 

The Lesson 

Topie —Wh'WQ Blood Cells — Defenses Against Racteria and 

Foreign Bodies. 
Aim —To fiunish students with some experience which would 

help ihrm understand the finiction of the white blood 

cells in the body. 

Previous Lesson —'I'hv fiuuiion ol c|)illulial structures as the 
first line of defense auainst bacteria 

uul foiiign bodies. 

ill rigl 

id IV 




t was 





lit all 

*Tra<lu-i: If niivonr liiid (old me (l):it 
students would want tu conic to school 

Pag* 78 

on Sntuidav, I slioidd have been ver; 
inutli surprised. Hut here you are. (Gen 

January— SEE and HEA^E 


n;il la ugh tor.) How many of you woiilcl 

"avor a six-ilay scliool week? 

itudfnt: Would vacation come earlier? 

(Laughter iu audience.) 

Tiiichtr: I sujiposc so. You wouldn't be 

ntercstcil in learning more and taking 

,<)iir vacation as usual, would you? 

S'orma. wiiat do you think? 

\orma: I 11 have to think it over. 

Ttachcr: (iood. Right now let us think 

3\er the problem which Jerry seems to 

tia\c solved. 

}cri\: Who? Me? I didn't know I had 

1 problem to solve. (Laughter in class.) 

Tcaclier: Oh, yes, you have. I notice you 
have a large band-aid on your forehead. 
]try\: I got some skin rubbed olf when 
t fell olf my sled yesterday. But I don't 
see how I sohed any problem. 

Phil: I tliink I know. Jerry solved the 
prolilem of keeping bacteria from enter- 
ing tluough his broken epithelium. 

Tiacher: Good. 

Joan: I've had skin rubbed off and noth- 
ing happened to me. I just got a scab. 

Martha: But isn't it best not to take 
chances? A broken epithelium can let 
ditferent kinds of bacteria in — especial- 
ly the ones that become full of pus. 
Teacher: Martha seemed to imply that 
the bacteria become full of pus. Is there 
anyone who will improve her statement? 
.\li right. Martha, do it yourself. 

Martfta: \Vhat I meant was that the part 
the bacteria are in may become full of 
pus. The pus. I think, is the dead tissue. 

Ldicard: Oh, no. The pus is made up of 
dead white blood cells. 

Teacher: I see puz/led looks. Ed, can 
you explain your statement? 

Edward: W^ell, I was reading — I think 
it was in the textbook — but I'm not 
sure — that pus is made up of white 
blood cells. That's why pus is white. 
Uliitc blood cells are like amoebas. 
Teaclier: Good, Ed. Somehow, Jerry's 
band -a id. his broken epithelium, and 
Edward's story of the white blood cells 
are all ccmnected. As a matter of fact, 
some .scientists have called the white 

■ The first few interchanges between teacli- 
er and pupils were merely designed to ease 
the tension. 

SEE and HEAR — January 

A portion of a (ilm is made by pho- 
tographing white blood cells on a 
glass slide as seen through a micro- 
scope. Here white cells move about 
under 140x magnification. "They 
looked like small amoeba," said 
Peter. " Ihey seem to move by 
sending out thin portions of them- 
selves . . . that is, pseudopods." 

blood cells our second line of defense. 
^Vhat is our first line? 
Roberta: An unbroken epithelium. 
Teacher: Yesterday, we studied the epi- 
thelium as the first line of defense. It 
is only logical that we understand what 
happens if this first line of defense is 
broken. \\\, I see many hands up. Joan. 
Joan: .As Edward said — if bacteria get 
past the skin, or the inner endothelium, 
the white blood cells take over. 
Teacher: We've been talking about 
white blood cells. Who has seen one 
alive? Ralph. 

Ralph: Well, they're small and like 
amoebas, but I haven't seen them alive. 
I saw a picture in the textbook. There's 
one thing I don't understand. I once 
got a long splinter in my hand and the 
whole splinter became full of pus. How 
could the whole sj)linter become pussy? 

Teacher: Well, perhaps we can answer 
this (juestion and learn something of 
the function of the white blood cells if 
wc .see them in action. How many would 
like that? (Class raises hands.) 

Page 79 

Teacher: I have a film here made by 
photographing white blood cells on a 
glass slide as seen through a microscope. 
Suppose we examine them. Lights ofT, 
please. (Shows five seconds of a scene 
showing wliite cells moving about under 
440 X magnification. There's an "Oh" 
from class. Light is snapped on at teach- 
er's recjuest.) 

Teacher: On the basis of what you have 
seen, who can describe a white blood 

Peter: It looked to me like a small 
amoelja. It seems to move by sending 

A foreign body, such as a starch 
grain, is quickly surrounded by 
white blood cells on ail sides. Some- 
thing in the starch grain must have 
attracted them. But (lie bacteria 
also attracted them. The attraction 
of while blood cells to foreign 
bodies is called cliemoiropisni. 

out thin portions of itself — wait— I 
know — pseudo — pseudopods, that is. 

Jiulh: I thought they were cells. I didn't 
see a nucleus. 

Tcnchrr: Look again. (Shows five sec- 
onds more.) 

Page 80 

Ruth: If they've a nucleus like other 
cells, I didn't see any. All I saw were 
sort of small dark spots — like granules. 

Teacher: You're right. A nucleus can't] 
be seen while the white blood cell is[ 
alive. It can be seen when the cell is« 
stained. If you want to, we can stain our' 
own blood on Monday or at another^ 
lime. (Students nod heads.) But we still' 
haven't described the cell fully. What is 
its size? Look again. (Shows five seconds 
more.) George. 

George: On the screen they look as if 
they were almost six inches. But we 
know that's magnified — so we can't 
know the exact size. 

Teacher: Suppose I told you that the 
round object in the left corner of the 
film is 100/25,000 of an inch or a 100 
microns. (Writes figures on board.) 
Look again. (Shows five seconds more.) 
I see many of you can estimate its size. 

Faith: A white blood cell is about one- 
half the size of the round object. So it 
must be about 50/12r),000 of an inch, 
or about 50 microns. 

Elleti: I noticed some were large and 
some were small. 

Teacher: Good for you. Tomorrow, that 
is, Monday, we will learn more about 
the different sizes in wiiite cells, since 
awhile ago you indicated your desire to 
study the cells in your own Iilood. Right 
now, let us continue witii our study of 
these white l)lood cells. Rutli mentioned 
some small dark spots in the white 
blood cell — like granules, she said. 
What might these i)e? 

John: Could they be bacteria? 

Teacher: Let's see. I'm going to show 
you white l)lood cells on a slide wliich 
contains round colonics of bacteria. 
These colonies will be on the lower 
right hand of the film. (Shows low 
power and high power .shot of white 
blood cells and colonics of bacteria. 1 he 
cells swarm over the colonies, disrupting 
iliein and engulfing bacteria.) Who can 
descril)e what happened? (Many hands 
are up.) Irene. 

Irene: Well, the white cells made a bee- 
line straiglit for the bacteria and began 
pushing into the round colonies. 

Junuory— SEE and HEAB 


Or. Brandwein, after tcarhing biology 
n New York University, enteretl high 
Khool teaching. His interest in research 
das been in this field for the last eight 
years. Over 60 piii)lished papers and 
)ooks attest to his productivity. Today 
le iicads the science department at For- 
est Hills, New York City, where he is 
ilso president of the Federation of 
kicnce Teacher Associations. 

■ihi: There was more than that. You 
roiild actually see some white cells sort 
)1 (lowing around the bacteria, like an 
irnocba does. And after the whole thing, 
ho cells were full of those spots which 
Ruth saw in the first white cells we saw. 
^iith: .And some white cells attacked the 
irst colonies. Others went past to attack 
he others. 

Teacher: Does anyone want to add to or 
m|)rove upon these statements? Max. 
Max: No, not that. But I want to know 
low the white blood cells knew the bac- 
cria were there. They made straight for 

Ibc: They can't know. They're single 
:ells and haven't a brain. Isn't it like 
he amoeba swallowing another proto- 

Teacher: Swallowing? 

ibe: I mean engulfing. 

Teacher: I was prepared for that ques- 
:ion, but I don't know how to answer 
I exactly except by showing you the 
reaction of white blood cells to a foreign 
5odv, like a starch grain. On the basis 
)f this evidence, we may be able to sug- 
gest an answer. (Shows a scene wherein a 
itarch grain is quickly surrounded by 
ts'hite blood cells on all sides. As light 
is snapped on, almost whole class has 
tiands up.) Marilyn. 

Marilyn: ^Vhy, white blood cells swarm- 
id from all corners and went straight 
For the starch grain. All I can say is 
that something in the starch grain must 
have attracted them. 

Teacher: But we also saw that bacteria 
attracted them. 

fim: Well, could it be that anything 

5EE and HEAR — January 

which the white cell* — that is — any- 
thing which isn't utually in the body — 
attracts them? 

Teacher: Could it? 

Jim: Well, on the basis of what we saw, 
that's all I can say. 

Phil: Could it be something like a 
tropism? Like a moth attracted to light? 

Teacher: Could it? (Class laughs.) 

Phil: I'll say it is a tropism. 

Teacher: That's good thinking. Scien- 
tists, at present, think that white blood 
cells are attraaed by the chemicals 
which are produced by foreign bodies 
which get into the blood. They call the 
attraction of the cells to foreign bodies 
a chemo-tropism. (Writes word on 
board.) But wc don't know yet what 
kinds of chemicals attract them. 
Mary: Look, now, I was just thinking 
— no, never mind. 

Teacher: Let us hear what you have to 
say, Mary. 

Mary.- I think I figured it out. I wanted 
to ask what happens to white blood cells 
after they are full of bacteria. I guess 
they just die. 

Teacher: What you have said is impor- 
tant, Mary. Do you know what we call 
a mass of living and dead white blood 

Mary: (Shakes her head.) No. 
Teacher: John. 
John: I'll take a guess. 
Teacher: Y'ou don't really know? Tlicn 
don't guess. Perhaps this will help you. 
The next shot I have on this film con- 
sists of a piece of glass tubing. Imagine 
that by accident a piece of glass like it 
got into your skin. What would happen? 
Perhaps something like this. (Shows a 
piece of glass tubing, shortly white blood 
cells begin to fill the tube and surround 
the glass.) (Class has hands up.) 

Teacher: Ellen, we haven't heard from 

Ellen: If the same thing happened in 
the skin, the glass would soon be cov- 
ered by white blood cells. 

Teacher: Has that ever happened to 

mien: No. 

Page 81 

s - — 

T »• - 

Imagine that by accident a piece of glass tiil)ing got into your skin. 

^Vhal would happen? White blood cells would begin to fdl the lidie 

and surround the glass. I'us would form. 

Ralph: But if that's the same as a wood 
splinter, I know what happens. The 
white cells attack and I guess — no — I 
mean they form pus. Is that what dead 
white cells are, Dr. Brandwein? 
Teacher: What do you think, Betty? 
Betty: Well, the only way we could 
really know, is if we examined pus un- 
der the microscope. 

Teacher: Good for you. We have some 
stained slides of pus in the laboratory. 
.Suppose when we examine our own 
blood, we also look at those slides. Will 
that satisfy you, Betty? 
Betty: Yes. 

Teacher: Well, now, what have we 
learned today? 

Students begin to summarize orally 
the activity of the lesson. One stu- 
dent adds to another student's state- 
ment, until the lesson is summarized. 
Seven students speak. In so doing, 
the students give good evidence of 
their ability to observe and think 

Teacher: Very good. And I want to 
leave with you something to think and 
read about. Because you have given so 
much of your time to come here, I won't 
ask you to do written homework, but. 
perhaps, some of you will want to write 
.some thoughts on these ciuestions. (Sev- 
eral students raise hands.) 

Teacher: All right, .Sue, Judy, Helen, 
Joe. \VilI you make a special effort to 
look these up for us? If the four of you 
will come up after class, I have some 
l>ooks here which you may borrow to 

Pag* 82 

help you with the report. 

I know all of you will want to take 
these questions down in writing. I'm 
going to present a scene of a medical 
technician in a hospital making a count 
of white blood cells. I'll point out the 
white blood cells. Here are the ques 
tions. (Here an alarm clock rings, sig 
naling two more minutes to the end ol 
the lesson.) What is the importance ol 
a white cell count to a doctor? ^Vhal 
may a low or high count mean? (Show? 
scene, and points out white cells, rec 
blood cells.) There are normally 5,00{ 
to 7,000 white blood cells in every cubii 
millimeter of blood. (Class continue 
observing scene of count, as teachei 
points out white blood cells.) 

One last point need be made 
There is no evidence •\vhatsoe\ci 
that the sequence of the lesson - 
from motivation through methoc 
to summary — is imix)rtant oi 
necessarily excellent, poor or bad 
It is not intended here to indicate 
that the types of (juestions, type, 
of pupil responses, or aciivit* 
which may be apparent in th< 
lesson are superior to other types 
It is the writer's contention tha 
siipcr\isors have very little evi 
ilcMcc on which to evaluate les 
sons as excellent, good, or bad 
It is imfortunate, indeed, that ii 
the field of education, traditioi 

January — SEE and HEA 


iiiul aiilliority. not scientific meth- 
ikI or any counterpart of it, guide 
tlu" sMjH'r\isor. 

In sunniiary, let me suggest tliai 
ronsitleration be gi\en to the 
place ol the short teacliing fihn 
material that may become an in- 
tegial part (^f the teaching ex- 

planation and the classroom dis- 
cussion. There seems to me little 
or no reason lor having all films 
either 100, 800, 1,200, or 1,600 
leet in length. Rather, let the film 
meet the needs of the teaching 
situation. Let it be long or short, 
silent or sound, as the purposes 

No, Bob isn't running the projector, but he does know how to shut it off 
and on. Well-chosen classroom motion pictures are projected at times by 
upper grade student operators. Good teaching films interpret the school 
curriculum from kindergarten through the senior high school in the Topeka 
City Schools where this picture was taken. Student operators begin in 
elementary schools, receive refresher training in junior high schools, and 
in senior high gain final recognition of this service through the award of 

the coveted "Honor T." 

>EE and HEAR — January 

Page 83 

Bin is out with a giH he 
picked up at a bar. He's 
had too many drinks to 
think straight. 

L. Warren Nelson 


Elk Mound, Wisconsin 

Public Schools 

Phot* court«>y American 
Social Hygiene Assn. 

Page 84 

(EDITORS NOTE: Warren Nelson 
ciares to tread upon shunned ground. It 
is an area which neetls attention, an area 
in which the content ncetis to be dragged 
out into the light of day where it can 
be examined critically and in a straight- 
forward manner by the very people who 
too often fall prey to ignorance of the 
subject. Possibly the impersonal nature 
of the film approach holds the key to 
the opportunity of presenting the in- 
formation and untlcrstandings of social 
diseases. Here is one answer to the prob- 
lem of introducing social hygiene ma- 
terial into the classroom.) 

January — SEE and HEAR 



"TT 7HEN you can truthfully 
Vv say it cleared your mind 
or helped you, I think it can be 
callitl valuable." This student's 
couunent is typical of young peo- 
ple's reaction to a health Him en- 
lightening them on the greatest 
killer among communicable dis- 

Teachers might well ask them- 
sehes why they do not give pupils 
more opportiuiity for such help. 
In the field of science, one of our 
first objectives is training in the 
scientific method. Yet in health 
units taught in biology or general 
science, how many teachers follow 
this precept when teaching a unit 
on contagious disease? 

Contagious diseases are recog- 
nized as a major health problem, 
tvery biology text has units on 

make it possible and easy to teach 
in this "hush-hijsh" area without 
danger of repercussions or ill ef- 
fects on e\en those who feel 
strong "taboos" on the subject. 
The first requirement is for a 
healthy, unemotional approach 
to the problem by the teacher, 
who must recognize these diseases 
as a part of the whole contagious 
disease problem. Literature from 
the state health department, or 
the reading of such a book as Sur- 
geon-General Thomas Parran's 
Shadow on the Land will help 
the teacher obtain the proper per- 
spective for subsequent discus- 

To introduce the subject of 
venereal disease naturally, it is 
suggested that the teacher treat it 
as just one among all of the com- 
municable diseases. To do so 
helps develop the 
proper attitude of 
*# both the teacher 
and the student 
toward the prob- 
lem and results 

infectious disease. In the United 
States, syphilis and gonorrhea 
take a greater toll of health than 
tuberculosis, smallpox, diphther- 
ia, or any of the commonly dis- 
:ussed communicable diseases. 
Yet, how many biology classes 
mention these two most prevalent 
Df diseases? 

Excellent films now available 

5EE and HEAR — January 

in the feeling that this, as many 
other problems, can be raised 
from "street corner gossip" to 
the level of scientific inquiry and 
free discussion. Treated in a 

Pace 85 

calm manner, as a part of the 
whole problem of disease, the sub- 
ject of venereal diseases will not 
be magnified out of its proper im- 
jxjjiancc or threaten to give the 
student an luihealihy mental at- 
titude. This first step is most im- 
|)oriant. Discussed as openly as 
otlier diseases, the atmosphere is 
not emotionally charged by giv- 


Animated diagrams enable the doctor to explain t-he dan- 
gers of untreated gonorrhea and the value of eoHy treat- 
ment. He also describes the case of an expectant mother 
with syphilis. 

ing the students the notion that 
the field is "taboo" or question- 
able for class discussion. Intro- 
duced and handled in this fasli- 
ion, the student feels free to dis- 
cuss venereal disease problems. 
Unhealthy mental attitudes from 
"gutter" education can be cleared 

to point out that discussion of 
numerous diseases has be«n "ta- 
boo" at various times in past his- 
tory, but now it is part of our 
tducational experience. Both tu- 
berculosis and cancer have had to 
overcome this handicap. The pres- 
ent-day enlight-cned attitude 
toward these diseases is an indica- 
tion that peopk are pushing 
scientific inquiry 
into more and 
more fields, — fields 
where fear and ig- 
norance have for- 
merly held sway. 

Student response 
can best be illus- 
trated by com- 
ments made when 
the students were 
asked to recom- 
mend films for 
next year's work. 
A seventeen-year- 
old girl comment- 

"The two most 
valuable fikns in 
m y estimation 
were the one on 
syphilis and the 
one on tuberculosis. First of all, 
seeing syphilis take such a great 
toll of lives every year mad€ me 
feel that something ought to be 
done to wipe it out and to cure 
people who already have contract- 
ed this dreadful disease. I think 
all who saw this film will agiee 

up. It may be well for the teacher with me that it helped clear our 

Pag* 86 Januanr — SEE and HEAR 

minds ami made us feel free to ask 
more questions and not be bash- 
ful in speaking of this disease. If 
pupils who saw the fdm would 
spread their knowledge, it may 
prove of help to all." 

A sixteen-year-old boy wrote: 
". . . Too little is known about 
syphilis in comparison with the 
seriousness and widespread and 
numerous occurrences of this dis- 
ease that threatens our civiliza- 
tion. Showing this film would 
erase the foolish taboo surround- 
ing all venereal disease and make 
life worth living for thousands of 
young people." 

Growth of desirable attitudes is 
shown by other student com- 
ments. Doctors urge periodic 
checkups to catch disease before 
it gains a foothold. Recognition 
of the importance of this is re- 
vealed in the following responses: 

". . . It (cancer film) is good be- 
cause it would make people go 
for needed checkups." 

"... I liked the film on cancer 
because so many people have it 
and don't know the symptoms, 
and this film would help a lot of 
people realize they should see a 
doctor rather than rely too much 
on pain to tell them when some- 
tiiing is wrong." 

The relation between biology, 
physical science, and social legis- 
lation was recognized by the stu- 
dent who wrote in part: 

"The film on our water supply 
and piping system (OMINOUS 

SEE and HEAR — January 

an important one. Back-siphon- 
age menaces every home with wa- 
ter systems that are outdated, and 
diseases such as amoebic dysentery 
are spread as a result. Seeing this 
film would make people take 
more interest in their health laws 
and health codes." 

The health unit on communi- 
cable diseases was taught using a 
standard biology textbook for ba- 
sic material. We supplemented 
the text with current magazine ar- 
ticles and a list of films secured 
from state bureaus of visual in- 
struction and state boards of 
health. The following films on 
communicable diseases were ob- 
tained from our state board of 

MAGIC BULLETS (Sound) 30 min- 
utes. The story of Dr. Ehrlich's discov- 
ery, after 606 laboratory trials, of the 
first cure for syphilis. Out of this great 
contribution to the science of chemo- 
therapy have also come the more recent 
penicillin and sulfa drugs. An excellent 
film for the introduction of the study of 
communicable diseases in the high 
school science class or other group. 
Many scenes of bacteria under the mi- 
croscope. Excellent music and beautiful 


(Sound) 10 minutes. 16mm. Shows suc- 
cess of diphtheria immunization pro- 
grams and the importance of immuni- 
zation as the only safe assurance of 
protection against the disease. Excellent 
for discussion of all diseases controlla- 
ble by immunization. 

WINGED SCOURGE (Sound) (Color) 
12 minutes. I6mm. A technicolor Disney 
cartoon on malaria control. Exception- 
al in portrayal of spread of malaria 
and of the social and economic effects 
on the victims. Control of malaria ex- 
plained by the Seven Dwarfs who spray 

Paga 87 

ponds, etc.. to tunc of "Off to Work We 

CLOUD IN THE SKY (Sound) 20 min- 
utes. 16nini. Shows diagnosis and treat- 
ment of tuberculosis. Stor)- is laid in 
Spanish -speaking Southwest. Excellent 
musk and beautiful photography. Use- 
ful in giving to pupils a piaure of vary- 
ing conditions in the United States 
and of the need of understanding vary- 
ing social conditions as a part of the 
conquest over disease. 

STATES (Sound) 20 minutes. 16mm. 
[ean Hersholt, the film star, appeals for 
a more enlightened public attitude on 
syphilis in this film produced by Holly- 
wood for the U. S. Public Health Serv- 
ice. An outstanding film. Exceptionally 
good for introducing the problem in 
mixed high school groups. 

10 minutes. 16mm. And WITH THESE 
WEAPONS (Sound) 13 minutes. 16mm. 
Two short films showing the natural 
history of syphilis and gonorrhea, their 
cost to the public, and recommended 
public programs. Usetl together, these 
films round out the story started in 
STATES. Both films are perfectly suit- 
able for showing to any mixed group. 

(Editor's Note: The Wisconsin State 
Board of Health has just added a new 
film entitled OUR JOB TO KNOW 
(Sound) 30 minutes. Ihis new film 
was crcatetl especially for women audi- 
ences and has been widely used in in- 
dustry. Tells the story of a young girl 
who comes to a city to work in war 
industry, and is infected with gonorrhea. 
The scenes in which the doctor explains 
about die venereal diseases arc among 
the best contributions to film education- 
al materials. Diagrams of female repro- 
ductive organs. Suitable for either male 
or female audiences, i)Ut recommended 
for separate showings.) 

With films taking such a large 
proportion of class time, it is es- 
sential that the teaclier do the 
most effective job of presenting 

Paga 88 

L. Warren Nelson 

Mr. Nelson is principal of the Elk 
Mound High School, demonstration 
school for Eau Claire State Teachers 
College. He uses films effectively in 
study clubs, forums and educational 
programs of community organizations. 
Before entering the field of secondary' 
etlucation, he scr^•ed as state secretary 
of the Wisconsin Farmers Union and 
as rural secretary of the National Fel- 
lowship of Reconciliation. 

and following up the film show- 
ing. Each film should be given an 
introduction, telling the student 
of the prevalence and seriousness 
of the disease in everyday life. 
Students should always be direct- 
ed toward what to look for in the 

Discussion always was encour- 
aged following the showing of 
each film. Slips of paper were dis- 
tributed before the films w^re 
shown. Immediately after the 
showing, the students were asked 
to record their own questions. 
These questions were used to 
start discussion which soon led to 
a very spontaneous participation. 
1 his method enables the teacher 
to select those questions with 
which he would prefer to start 
the disctission. More important, 
more retiring students may feel 
free to ask questions in this man- 

Social action by citizens which 
might reduce the incidence of dis- 
ease and the cost to the individual 
ami society were thoroughly dis- 
cussed during the course of the 
iniit. Needed legislation was con- 
sidered as well as the steps by 

January — SEE and HEAR 

vhich such good k\i;islation might 
)e actoinplislicd. l-.ach student 
iKulc his recommendations for 
mj)iovcd public health service, 
kience was related to social prob- 
cms. The need for the individual 
o cooperate with others through 
;o\ernment for the greater good 
)i all was emphasized. 

Health is a victory. Only as we 

discuss all phases of the problem 
openly can we hope to produce a 
generation healthy in both mind 
and body. Let's no longer shy 
away from the "hush-hush" areas. 
Let's face the truth about all 
health circumstances. If some are 
unpleasant, let's drag them into 
the open light of free discussion 
and examination. Ihen only can 
the problems be met! 

Annoimcing the New 
International Film Foundation 

The International Film Foundation, a new, non-profit organization 
dedicated to the building of world understanding through the pro- 
duction and distribution of documentary films has been announced. 
It aims 

". . . to promote better understanding between 
peoples of different nations, races and religions . . . 
to present and interpret other nations and people 
to the American people and to present and in- 
terpret the American people to other nations and 
peoples . . . through the production and distribu- 
tion of motion pictures . . . and also by means of 
television . . ." {—From the certificate of incorpora- 

Julien Bryan, lecturer and producer of documentary films, is execu- 
tive director of the new foundation, whose operations will be world- 
wide in scope. Ten sound films are already in production while two 
expeditions, one to Europe and another to the Far East, are slated 
for 1946. 

The Davella Mills Foundation of Montclair, N. J., has made an 
initial grant to the Film Foundation of 5150,000 a year for two years. 

The International Film Foundation has announced that a new series 
of films on Russia are in progress and have been promised for qnite 
immediate release. These films are U.S.S.R. Primer, Siberia, Schools 
in Russia, and North China, and are aimed at filling an existing gap- 
better understanding of our Soviet allies. 

SEE and HEAK — January 

Page 89 

C. p. Peterson, Superintendent of Mosinee Public Schools 

L. A. Emans, Principal of Lakewood School 

RoLLAND Nock, Principal of Appleton Grade School 

Editor's Note: "What is better, the 
flat painted screen or the beaded glass 
screen?" All of us have definite opinions 
about this question, but they are mostly 
just opinions. In an attempt to seek an 
objertive answer, Mr. Peterson, Mr. 
Emans and Mr. Nock have applied a 
simple yet effective testing technique 
which reveals not only tha< drfferences 
do appear, but states the degree as well. 

IN AN attempt to objectively 
compare the reflecting effi- 
ciency of the screens most used in 
classrooms, the use of a highly 
sensitive light meter was secured. 
One was located which was sensi- 
li^■c to the one-himdredth candle 
[X)wer. From there, other ma- 
terials were gathered: a 300-watt 
SVE projector— Model AAA with 
five-inch lens, a glas6 beaded 
screen, an aluminum painted Hat 
screen, protractor and measuring 

And then late one evening the 
experiment was conducted in a 
completely blacked-out classroom. 
The 300-watt projector was set up 

Pa9« 80 

at a fixed distance of 18 feet; first 
the aluminum screen and then the 
beaded screen was placed in the 
path of the projected beam of 
light. From the identical distance 
and from the same angle, the re- 
flected light from first the alumi- 
num screen and then from the 
beaded glass screen was measured 
by the light meter. This proce- 
dure was followed at predeter- 
mined angles away from the 
perpendicular to the screen and 
always at the same distance. 

As a precautionary measure, 
the reflected light was measured 
at a constant height from the flooj- 
and two observers took readings. 
By having two observers taking 
the readings, we were able to pro- 
vide for repeat readings in case of 
disagreement, which in several 
cases it was necessary to do. 

Thus it was possible under con- 
stant conditicwis to measure the 
variable factors, namely, the re- 

January — SEE and HEAR 








\VRONG— Do not have an aide in the middle of the 

seating area. 







RIGHT — Use all the space near the perpendicular to 
the screen for seating area. 

EE and HEAR— January 

Pag* 91 

lationship between reflected light 
and the angle at which light was 
reflected, and secondly, the rela- 
tionship of reflected light to the 
type of screen being used. 

Very briefly, these conclusions 
were reached: 

1. Light reflected from a glass 
beaded screen is approximately 


o cL 

? TS 

o c 
a. I* 

^ *> 

-a c 
c o 

o ^ 


•s g 

C " 

a >- 

c ^ 

- .2 














0" 10° 2 0" 30" 40" 50" 60" 

Degrees away from the perpendicular to the screen 

The block line represents candle power of light reflected at a distonce 
of six feet from on aluminum pointed flat screen by the SVE 300-watt AAA 
slidefilm projector operating at a distance of 18 feet. 

The broken line represents the candle power of light reflected at o dis- 
tance of six feet from a glass beaded screen by the SVE 300-watt AAA 
slidefilm projector operating at a distance of 18 feet. 

Examination of the graph will show that children seated as for away as 
50* from the perpendicular to a glass beaded screen will receive as much 
reflected light os children seated 30° owoy from the perpendicular to o flat 
painted aluminum screen. 

Pag* 92 

January — SEE and HEAR 

About the Authors— 

Auihort Peterson, Enians, and Nock 
'pr««ent a general trend in the down- 
i-earlh inquititivcness which adniin- 
Lntors are bringing to the field of 
sual education. Mr. Peterson, formerly 
►perviiing principal at Potosi and 
lair, is at present superintendent at 
[osiiice. Rolland Nock is investigating, 
; the present time, the possibilities of 
tling up a well-coordinated fdni pro- 
■ara to assist in enriching the course of 
udy areas in the Appleton grade 
hool, of which he is principal. Lester 
mans, long active in the Elementary 
rincipals' Association of ^Visconsin, 
irmerly superintendent of schools at 
ancaster, today is setting up an out- 
anding organization as principal of the 
akewood School in suburban Nfadison, 

y^ times the intensity of light re- 
acted from an akmiinum paint- 
d flat screen at a given point 
erpendiciilar to the surface of 
le screen. 

2. Light diminishes at a quite 
;gular rate when reflected by an 
luminum painted flat screen over 
le entire range from degree to 
degrees from the projector 

3. Light diminishes at irregu- 
ir rates when reflected from a 
lass beaded screen over the 
inge from degree from the 
rejection axis to 60 degrees. 

4. In order to receive light at 
s maximum intensity, students 
lould be seated at the smallest 
ossible angle from the perpen- 
iculars to both types of screens. 

5. Interestingly enough, chil- 

X and HEAR — January 

dren arc often seated in chairs 
arranged in two rectangles with 
an aisle between. This aisle, 
which is used only to provide free 
way for the speaker cord, is actu- 
ally the best area from which to 
view the film. Too often it is "re- 
served" for no use but aisle space. 
A projector table high enough to 
cast its light above the heads of 
the children should be used. 


Petroleum and Its Uses 

(Sound) 35 minutes. Use: Natural 
Science I; Social Studies I, J; Home Eco- 
nomics J, S, C; Chemistry , Geography S; 
Clubs J, A. 

PETROLEUM and its by-products as 
they are used in everyday living is 
presented. A family situation is used, 
giving illustrations of the myriad uses of 
petroleum. How the products are de- 
rived and used in their commercial as- 
pects is seen through actual trips to 
dozens of industrial plants where the 
detailed processes are explained. It is an 
excellent overview of the consumer uses 
of petroleum. United States Bureau of 
Mines. At your nearest film library. 



(Sound) (Color) 22 minutes. Use: 
Social Studies I, J; Geography S; So- 
ciology C; Clubs J, A. 

HOW the remote Canadian trapper 
lives his lonely life in the forests 
to the north is excellently por- 
trayed; also how he maintains himself; 
how he constructs his trapx, snares his 
catch; how he turns in his furs at Hud- 
son Bay late in the spring. The voy- 
ageurs are shown descending the foam- 
ing white rivers of Canada, finally to 
transport North Canadian furs to To- 
ronto. Here is a beautifid technicolor 
film. National Film Board of Cantdc. 
At your nearest film library. 

Pag* 93 

to the many questions 
on Audio -Visual Learning 
that come to our editors 

W. A. WiTTicH AND John Guy Fowlkes 

1 have been told that some 
• teachers are afraid that using 
films will make learning too easy 
and that their use, also, will de- 
tract from the reading the chil- 
dren do. What information can 
you refer me to concerning this 
question? •• 

A This is not the rase. Films well 
• used encourage wider reading 
and better accomplishment. Miss Marion 
Humble, director of the Rutland Free 
Library at Rutland, Vermont, offers this 
very interesting report: 

"During the past year in Rutland we 
conducted our first experiment in show- 
ing fdms in the library. We showed 
films at six evening meetings and to 
eight Saturday morning groups ranging 
in number from ten to 300. Films 
used were those which attempted to 
promote better understanding among 
races and nations, including films on 
China, on Africa, and on the American 

"Each film showing in the library has 
brouglit newcomers; one Saturday morn- 
ing, about 50 children, who had never 
had library cards, applied for them. 
Ka(h film showing has stimulated read- 
ing of books on the subject of the pic- 

Pag« 94 

ture. I am convinced that documentary 
films are a more clfccti\c means of at- 
tracting people— including children— to 
ilic iilirary than tlic Story Hour. A 
hhn interests persons of a wiilcr range 
of ages than most stories. We have had 
children of four, grownups of 60 years 
old, ami all ages between, attentive at 
these m()\ies in the same audience." 

1 have recently been dis 
• charged from the .Army 
where I have had several years o 
experience with visual education 
My degrees include a B.A. and an| 
M.A. Can you give me informa 
tion about organizations that pro-| 
duce visual aids commercially? I 
am interested in finding employ-l 
ment in this field. 

A This is the type of letter we have 
• been receiving in almost every 
mail, and it is a very fortunate situatior 
that able men are considering this fielr 
as being pe