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Full text of "Seismicity Of The Earth And Associated Phenomena"

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TENSION ENVELOPE CORP. 



SE1SMICITY OF THE EARTH 



SEISMICITY 
OF THE EARTH 

AND ASSOCIATED PHENOMENA 



By B. GUTENBERG and C. F. RICHTER 

SEISMOLOGICAL LABORATORY, CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



1949 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS 
PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 



COPYRIGHT, 1949, BY PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON: GEOFFREY CUMBERLEGE, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 3 

Materials Used 3 

Methods Used 9 

Classification of Shocks 10 

Maps . 1 1 

Frequency and Energy of Earthquakes 16 

Structure of the Earth 25 

Introduction to Regional Discussion 28 

The Circum-Pacific Belt 30 

General survey 30 

Aleutian arc 30 

Alaska to British Columbia 32 

California and adjacent areas 32 

Mexico and Central America 3 

The Caribbean loop 37 

Andean zone 4 

Southern Antilles 42 

Eastern and Southern Pacific 43 

Indian-Antarctic Swell 43 

Macquarie Island to Stewart Island 43 

New Zealand 45 

The Tonga salient 47 

New Hebrides 4^ 

Solomon Islands to New Guinea 5 

Caroline Islands 5 1 

Marianas Islands 5 1 

Japan and adjacent areas 53 

Kiushiu to Formosa 57 

Philippines 5$ 

Celebes and Moluccas 60 

Banda Sea 62 

Sunda arc 6 * 

The Alpide Belt 64 

General survey 6 4 

Burma arc *H 

Himalayan arc ^5 

Baluchistan 6 7 

Iran 6 7 



CONTENTS 

Caucasus, Crimea 68 

Asia Minor, Levant, Balkans 68 

Rumania 7 

Italy, Sicily 1 

Western Mediterranean to Azores 7 

Non-Alpide Asia: Eastern Zone 7 2 

General survey 7 2 

The Pamir-Baikal active zone 7 2 

The Chinese active area 73 

Oceanic Active Belts 74 

General survey 74 

Arctic belt 74 

Atlantic belt 77 

Indian Ocean 77 

Rift Zones 79 

General survey 79 

East African rifts 79 

Hawaiian Islands 79 

Seismicity Marginal to Stable Masses 80 

General survey 80 

Canadian Shield 81 

Brazilian Shield 81 

Africa 81 

Arabia 8 1 

India 82 

Australia 82 

Other marginal shocks 82 

Minor Seismic Areas 82 

General survey 82 

North America 84 

Northeastern Asia 85 

Central and Western Europe 85 

Australia 87 

South Africa 88 

Minor Seismicity 88 

Stable Masses 89 

General survey 89 

Pacific Basin 89 

Canadian Shield 91 

Brazilian Shield 91 



CONTENTS Vll 

Eurasian stable mass gi 

Africa g i 

Antarctica g^ 

Australia, Arabia^ India gg 

Other and minor stable masses g 

Tsunamis (Seismic Sea Waves) gjf, 

Mechanism gy 

Acknowledgments 102 

Summary 103 

References 104 

Tables 117 

Index 26$ 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

1. Index map of numbered regions 12 

2. Index map of figures 13 

3. World map of shallow earthquakes 14 

4. World map of deep-focus earthquakes 15 

5. Annual number of earthquakes per 1/10 unit of magnitude 17 

6. Profile, northern Japanese region 29 

7. Map, Alaska-British Columbia 31 

8. Map, Western United States 35 

9. Map, Mexico 37 

10. Map, Caribbean region 38 

11. Map, Sou^h America and adjacent Pacific 41 

12. Map, South Pacific 44 

13. Map, Region southwest from New Zealand 45 

14. Map, New Zealand 46 

15. Map, Xonga salient 49 

16. Map, New Guinea-Marianas Islands 52 

17. Map, Japan 55 

18. Map, Kurile Islands-Kamchatka 56 

19. Map, Formosa-Philippines 59 

20. Map, Moluccas 61 

21. Map, Sunda arc 63 

22. Map, Sumatra-Burma 65 

23. Map, Asia 67 

24. Map, Asia Minor and eastern Mediterranean 69 

25. Map, Europe 71 

26. Map, Arctic 75 

27. Map, Atlantic Ocean 76 

28. Map, Indian Ocean 78 

29. Map, Hawaiian Islands 80 

30. Map, Australia 83 

31. Map of epicenters and faults, southern California 88 

32. Structural cross-section, Southern California 89 

33. Map, Pacific stable mass 9 

34. Maps, Continental stable masses 9 2 



SEISMICITY OF THE EARTH 



INTRODUCTION 



THE present work is intended: (i) to evaluate 
the present relative seismicity of various parts 
of the earth, and (2) to discuss the geography 
and the geological character of the zones and 
areas of seismic activity. This includes correla- 
tion with alignments of active volcanoes and 
gravity anomalies, and with oceanic deeps, 
mountain structures, and other topographic 
features. Mechanism is discussed, particularly 
with reference to crustal folding and block 
faulting. 

This book supersedes two earlier publica- 
tions (Gutenberg and Richter, 1941, 1945) 
and incorporates the results of two papers on 
the geography of deep-focus earthquakes (Gu- 
tenberg and Richter, i938a, i939a). There has 
been thorough correction and revision. Much 
new material has been added, including shocks 
of earlier date as well as those which have 
taken place since the previous papers were 
written. Certain technical details, referring 
chiefly to methods used in locating shocks and 
to the accuracy of the results, have not been 
repeated here. This does not imply rejection 
or modification of our previous judgment on 
these points. 

Complete tables of all shocks investigated, 
segregated by regions, will be found in Tables 
17 and 18 in the Appendix. A selection of 
data, appropriate for statistical discussion, is 
presented in Tables 13 to 16. These list large 
shocks in specified ranges of magnitude and 
depth; each list is fairly complete for the world 
in the period it covers. In addition, an attempt 
has been made to include all shocks of magni- 
tude 6.0 to 6.9 from the beginning of 1932 
through June 1935; magnitudes for most of 
these shocks are newly determined. Magni- 
tudes for deep-focus earthquakes are assigned 
for the first time. 

Except in the most recent literature, maps 
purporting to show the geographical distribu- 



tion of earthquakes have been based at least 
in part on historical and macroseismic data. 
Historical data are in general available only 
for land areas, and are much influenced by the 
present and past distribution of culture. Maps 
based uncritically on instrumental data are 
likely to show a concentration of shocks where 
seismological stations are most numerous (as 
in Europe and Japan), and are exposed to 
gross errors of location, including those which 
arise when a deep shock has been taken to be 
shallow. Location and listing have always been 
comparatively incomplete for the southern 
hemisphere. 

While reliable historical and macroseismic 
data have been considered in the textual dis- 
cussion, the maps are based exclusively on re- 
vised instrumental data. Shocks have been dis- 
tinguished carefully according to magnitude 
and focal depth. Where possible, errors in the 
source material have been corrected, and 
doubtful locations have been rejected. 

The study is not geographically homogene- 
ous. In each separate region detailed investi- 
gation of seismicity has been carried as far as 
the data warrant. In certain regions, especially 
where there are a number of good stations, 
this has led to a more complete coverage of 
the minor shocks than elsewhere, particularly 
(as in Europe) where large shocks are infre- 
quent. In regions such as Japan, where the 
seismicity is high, many well-observed and ac- 
curately located smaller earthquakes have 
been omitted from the study, since they add 
nothing to the general information on seis- 
micity and only crowd the maps and tables. 

In the tabulations, times of all shocks are 
given in Greenwich Civil Time (Universal 
time). Where historical shocks are mentioned 
in the regional discussion, the date is usually 
according to local time which may differ by a 
day from the GCT date. 



MATERIALS USED 



FUNDAMENTAL data for instrumental location 
of earthquakes are times recorded at the vari- 
ous stations. The chief source is the Interna- 
tional Seismological Summary (Turner et aL, 
1923-1948) which now (June 1948) covers 
shocks from the beginning of 1918 through 



1936. It is a careful and accurate compilation 
of recorded times (but not amplitudes) from 
the individual bulletins of the stations, also 
including data otherwise unpublished. The 
Summary gives epicenters and origin times for 
each shock whenever the data appear suffi- 



MATERIALS 



cient; these results generally improve in num- 
ber and quality from the earlier to the later 
years. This is due to an increase in the num- 
ber of stations reporting, as well as to more 
accurate time-keeping which followed the es- 
tablishment of radio time signalling. Other- 
wise, improvement reflects the progress of seis- 
mological science, and the effect of accumu- 
lated experience. An important contribution 
was made by Turner (1922, 1930), who discov- 
ered deep-focus earthquakes in the course of 
preparing the International Summary. With 
the year 1930 revised travel-time tables were 
brought into use; from this point the general 
accuracy of the Summary results is higher. 

In the present publication no result has been 
accepted from the International Summary 
without careful examination and revision for 
epicenter, origin time and focal depth. Ampli- 
tudes reported by the stations have been ap- 
plied to distinguish deep from shallow shocks; 
improved technique (Gutenberg, i945a, p. 
127) has developed this into a powerful cri- 
terion, and identification of shocks at inter- 
mediate depth is much more positive than in 
previous studies. However, assignment of nu- 
merical depths still depends on travel-time 
data. A number of small shocks, for which 
there is good evidence of deep focus, have been 
passed over because the time data were not 
adequate. 

Epicenters have in general not been deter- 
mined more closely than the nearest quarter 
degree of latitude and longitude except for 
unusually favorably situated shocks. More ac- 
curate revision would involve considering the 
effect of geocentric latitude, which may 
amount to as much as 0,4 degree in extreme 
cases (Gutenberg and Richter, 1933). The 
method used for revision has been described 
by Gutenberg and Richter (i936b, 1937). 
Travel times here used for P in shallow shocks 
are those given by Gutenberg and Richter 
(1934C, p. 82). 

Origin times for recent shallow shocks given 
in the International Summary have usually 
been decreased by 5 or 6 seconds. Beginning 
with 1930 the Summary compilers have used 
tables (Summary for 1930, p. 10-18) with an 
arbitrary time zero 5 to 6 seconds later than 
the true origin time of the shock, very roughly 
coincident with the arrival of the first wave at 
the surface. This is not the case for deep- 
focus earthquakes. Data from atomic bomb 
tests show that the zero of the travel-time 
curves used for the present paper is accurate 



within the limits of error, estimated at about 
2 seconds (Gutenberg and Richter, 1946). 

Effective registration of distant earthquakes 
began on April 17, 1889, when an instrument 
at Potsdam wrote a record identified as that of 
a shock in Japan (Rebeur-Paschwitz, 1894, p. 
436). The early instruments were very im- 
perfect by present standards, and there were 
few observing stations; for years preceding 
1904, despite the efforts of Milne and others, 
there are not even enough data to ensure rea- 
sonably complete cataloguing of the largest 
earthquakes. Milne (i9i2b, 1913) published 
epicenters for many shocks in the years 1904- 
1910 inclusive. Observed times have been 
taken from other sources. The principal com- 
pilations are by Rosenthal (1907) and Szirtes 
(i9O9a, 1910, 1912, 1913) for 1904-1908 inclu- 
sive with separate lists of small shocks (with- 
out epicentral determinations) and large 
shocks (epicenters and origin times worked 
out). For 1908 only part I, giving the small 
shocks, was published. For 1909 and 1910 Kurt 
Wegener (1912) has given determinations and 
some station data for a number of large 
shocks. 

Epicenters for all the better-recorded shocks 
of 1913 were worked out by Turner (1917). 
For 1913, 1914, 1915, and 1917 he issued epi- 
centers and time data in monthly bulletins of 
the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science. For 1916 Turner (1919) gave epi- 
centers and times for the better-recorded 
shocks and incomplete information for others. 

For all this earlier period, but especially for 
1908-1912, it has been necessary to supplement 
the compiled material by reference to numer- 
ous individual station bulletins (see Table i). 
Further information has been obtained by spe- 
cial correspondence. 

Table i presents a conspectus (with some 
minor omissions) of data from individual sta- 
tion bulletins available at Pasadena for this 
investigation as of December 1947. ^ ne co *" 
umn is assigned to each year, 1904 to 1918. A 
capital letter indicates that the writers have 
had access to the complete data published or 
otherwise furnished by the station for the year; 
a small letter, that there are considerable gaps 
in the available files. A number of stations 
were equipped with small or insensitive instru- 
ments; a capital letter assigned to such a sta- 
tion may mean much less information for the 
year than a small letter for a better-equipped 
station. 

Letters A, a indicate that the amplitudes of 



MATERIALS 



TABLE i 

Tune and amplitude data for 1904-1918 used in the piesent stud). 
(For symbols see text.) 



Station 


1904 05 06 


07 08 09 


IO 11 12 


13 14 15 


16 17 18 


Summaries 


T T T 


T t 




T T T 


t T T 


Alger 








C 


C C 


Apia 


A 


A A A 


A A A 


A t t 


t t t 


Athens 






B 


B B B 


B 


Baku 






c 


c c 




Balboa Heights 




X 


X X X 


x C 


C C C 


Barcelona 








d D 


D D D 


Batavia 




C 


C c c 


c 


c c c 


Belgrade 






a 


a 




Berkeley 






c C C 


C C C 


C C C 


Budapest 


C 


C C C 


C C C 


C c 




Cartuja 




c C 


c c c 


C A A 


a 


Catania 




C C 


c c 






Cheltenham 




c 


c c c 


c C 


C C 


De Bilt 


t 


a A 


A A A 


A C C 


C C C 


Ekaterinburg 








c c 




Eskdalemuir 








c 


c 


Florence (Xim.) 


B b 


c c 


c c c 


c c 




Frankfurt 








c c 




Georgetown 








C 


C C C 


German Stations 






t 






Gottingen 


A A A 


A A A 


A A A 


A a 




Graz 








a a 


A 


Hamburg 


C C C 


C B B 


B B B 


C C c 




Hohenheim 








A 


A A A 


Honolulu 








c C 


C C C 


Irkutsk 






t c 


C c 




Italian Stations 






C 






Jena 


a A 


A A A 


A A A 






Jugenheim 






a 






Ksara 








D D 




La Paz 








a A A 


A A A 


Laibach 




t T t 








Lick 






c C 


C C C 


C C C 


Manila 




C C 


C C C 


c c c 


c c c 


Mileto 




c 


c c 






Mizusawa 




t 


t t 






North American Stations 








c C 


c c c 


Osaka 


C C C 


c c c 


C C C 


C C C 


c c c 


Ottawa 




a c 


c c d 


d d T 


T T T 


Paris 






C B B 


C C C 


C C 


Pilar 


XXX 


X X X 


X X X 






Pulkovo 




c C 


C C c 


C c 




Riverview 




a 


A A A 


A A A 


a A A 


San Fernando 


X X 


X X X 


X X X 


X X C 


C C C 


Sitka 


T 


c 


c c c 


C 


C C C 


St. Louis 






C C C 


C C C 


C C C 


Stonyhurst 






x X 


XXX 


X X x 


Strassburg 


x A A 


A A A 


A A A 


A A A 


a 


Tacubaya 




B 


C C C 






Tiflis 


C C C 


C C C 




C C C 


c 


Tucson 






c c 


c C 


a c 


TTpsala 


a a a 


A A A 


A A A 


B B B 


B B B 


Vieques 




c 


c c c 


c 


C C 


Wien 




A 


A A A 






Zikawei 


C 


C C C 


C C C 


C C C 


C C C 



MATERIALS 



maxima are regularly reported, and those of 
P, S 3 etc., are given for most of the shocks; B, b 
that the amplitudes of maxima are usually 
given* with an occasional amplitude for P, S, 
etc*; C, c that amplitudes are frequently re- 
ported for maxima but not for other phases; 
D, d that an occasional amplitude is given; 
T, t that only time data are reported but that 
these are detailed and generally accurate; X, x 
that time data are approximate or very scant. 

Collected data for * 'North American Sta- 
tions" (Table i) were published in the 
Monthly Weather Review, beginning with De- 
cember 1914. Data for Tacubaya and auxiliary 
stations in Mexico are taken from successive 
issues of Parergones del Instituto Geologico de 
Mexico, Vols. 3-5 (1909-1913). Data for Italian 
stations for 1912 are from Cavasino (1934); 
those for German stations during the first 
quarter of 1912 are from Gerlands Beitrage 
zur Geophysik, Vol. 13, Kleine Mitteilungen, 
pp. 81-90 (1914). 

Results for 1904 and 1905 depend heavily 
on the reports for Gottingen. These are ex- 
tremely detailed, including not merely times 
and amplitudes but notes on the appearance 
of the seismograms which have been very valu- 
able in identifying deep-focus earthquakes and 
in correcting misinterpretations in the work 
of compilers. A similarly detailed and useful 
report was that for Upsala, available from Oc- 
tober 1904 to May 1905. These two stations 
supply practically the only data for magni- 
tudes of deep shocks in 1904. 

For nearly ten years the most useful station 
in South America was that first established at 
C6rdoba, and moved in January 1905 to Pilar. 
This was equipped with a simple Milne instru- 
ment without damping, and rather insensitive; 
but the times are reliable. 

Reports from Tiflis in the earlier years are 
of special value; amplitudes are usually given, 
and the data of the auxiliary stations Achal- 
kalaki, Baturn, Borshom, and Schemacha are 
occasionally helpful. 

In 1931 the station Osaka published a bul- 
letin covering the whole period from 1882 to 
1929. Amplitudes are given regularly begin- 
ning with June 1901. The time is reliable be- 
ginning about 1905. The amplitude data are 
dependable, and very useful in assigning mag- 
nitudes to shallow shocks, although care in 
interpretation is demanded. Not rarely the 
amplitudes of S for deep shocks are given as 
those of maxima; these are then valuable for 
determining magnitudes. 



For 1904, the times at all stations and the 
results derived from them are distinctly less 
dependable than those for 1905 and following 
years. 

Bulletins from Upsala were resumed in July 
1906, with considerable improvement in de- 
tail, and are among the most useful for subse- 
quent periods. Reports from Apia are avail- 
able beginning with 1906; this was the first 
good station (by later standards) in the south- 
ern hemisphere. During the following years 
there were improvements at Zikawei, Batavia, 
and Manila which are of much importance in 
studying shocks in the most active part of the 
world. 

The Jena reports include, beginning with 
August 30, 1906, data from an exceptional ver- 
tical-component instrument (period about 6 
sec., magnification about 2000) constructed by 
R. Straubel (Eppenstein, 1908). This provided 
records of a type not duplicated elsewhere for 
many years, and especially valuable for iden- 
tifying and studying deep-focus earthquakes. 
The reports are very careful and detailed. 

Data for the southern hemisphere were 
much improved by the establishment of the 
station at Riverview (near Sydney, Australia), 
beginning March 18, 1909. Father D. O'Con- 
nell has recently revised the readings, with 
special reference to deep-focus earthquakes 
(MS, and O'Connell, 1946). 

A further improvement followed the instal- 
lation at La Paz (Bolivia), with reports begin- 
ning May i, 1913. La Paz at once became, and 
still remains, the most important single seis- 
mological station of the world. This is a con- 
sequence of its isolated location, the sensitive 
instruments, and the great care with which 
records were interpreted and reports issued 
under the direction of Father Descotes. 

The first World War resulted in the dis- 
continuing of some stations and the temporary 
suspension of others. During the later years of 
the war there was a notable falling off in the 
detail of reports. Reported times for these 
years are covered by the International Sum- 
mary, which commences with 1918, and its 
predecessors. Data for amplitudes are com- 
paratively scanty. For 1919 amplitudes of P 
and S are available regularly from Riverview; 
for 1919-1921 from La Paz, with less complete 
data from Zikawei, Berkeley and other Amer- 
ican stations, Manila and Osaka. Amplitudes 
of maxima were published by a number of 
other stations. Beginning about 1922 there is 
a notable improvement in data for both times 



MATERIALS 



and amplitudes. Amplitudes of maxima are 
plentiful from 1922 to 1939. 

The following Is a partial list of other sta- 
tions regularly reporting amplitudes of P and 
S: Cartuja, 1922-1924, 1929-1935; Toledo and 
other Spanish stations, 1924-1929; Sucre, 1926- 
1928; Tashkent, 1926-1927; La Plata, 1927- 
1935, *94 Q > *945- date ; J ena > ^928-1939; Got- 
tingen, 1929-1937; various Japanese stations, 
1930-1939; Perth, i932-date; Belgrade, 1934- 



t 

Beginning with 1937, data for times have 
had to be collected from various sources. The 
largest collections of times with preliminary 
epicentral determinations, are (i) the Bulletin 
of the Union Geodesique et Geophysique In- 
ternationale, currently issued from the Bureau 
Central Sismologique at Strasbourg (tempo- 
rarily at Clermont-Ferrand during the Ger- 
man occupation), (2) the preliminary bulletin 
of the Jesuit Seismological Association, cur- 
rently issued from St. Louis, (3) the Seismolog- 
ical Bulletin of the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, issued from Washington 

(available through 1944; preliminary epicen- 
ter determinations, and manuscript data by 
special arrangement, current) giving readings 
for many stations in the United States as well 
as College and Sitka in Alaska, Honolulu, Ber- 
muda, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Montezuma 
(Chile), Huancayo (Peru), and a few others. 
Other collections including amplitudes of 
maxima are: (4) the bulletin of the first-class 
stations of the Soviet Union (received up to 
August 1939; a preliminary bulletin was re- 
ceived for part of 1941 and a new series also 
including data for stations of the second class 
from June 1946 through July 1947); .(5) the 
Indian stations, published by the India 
Weather Bureau (partly in MS), through 1946. 
There are several other important smaller 
groups of stations with current reports giving 
times and epicentral determinations, but not 
amplitudes, such as: (6) the New Zealand sta- 
tions, issued from Wellington; (7) the Cana- 
dian stations, from Ottawa; (8) the northern 
California group, from Berkeley (to 1941; 
preliminary data current); (9) the Lake Mead 
stations, together with Grand Coulee Dam and 
Shasta Dam, from Boulder City; and (10) the 
Swiss stations, from Zurich. Much use has been 
made of the station bulletin from De Bilt 

(Netherlands); the readings are carefully ed- 
ited, and until 1940 data from other stations 
were reproduced with determinations of epi- 
centers and origin times. 



Most of the North American stations con- 
tinued active through the second World War 
with very few interruptions or changes; cur- 
rent reports are generally available. For South 
America, current reports are received only 
from Bogota, La Plata, and La Paz. Readings 
for Rio de Janeiro are available through 1944. 
Huancayo reports important readings by tele- 
graph to Washington. For Information on 
Latin American stations see U.S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey (1947). 

Many gaps in data from Europe have been 
filled by receipt of delayed bulletins covering 
the war period. Fairly complete files, being ex- 
tended by current reports, are at hand for the 
Spanish stations, Colmbra, Lisbon, the French 
stations, Stuttgart, Trieste, Bucharest, Istan- 
bul, Uccle, and Upsala. Several European sta- 
tions resumed with 1946. Tlflis Is available 
through September 1939. Ksara (Lebanon) 
and Tananarive (Madagascar) continue to re- 
port regularly. Helwan (Egypt) is available 
through 1944. 

From. 1940 to 1946 no data were received 
from Far Eastern stations. The station at 
Hong Kong was closed in 1940. The station at 
Manila and its records were destroyed in 1945. 
The instruments at Amboina and Medan were 
also destroyed, but those at Batavia continued 
to operate. Bulletins for 1941 containing data 
for the last three were issued in 1947. Data 
for many Japanese stations down to 1946 for 
shocks in and near Japan are now available at 
Pasadena in manuscript, in the Japanese lan- 
guage Journal of Seismology (Vols. 1-13) and 
in the Seismological Bulletin of the Central 
Meteorological Observatory for 1938; monthly 
bulletins have been received beginning with 
May 1947. 

Current bulletins continue from Apia, Bris- 
bane, Perth, Riverview, and Wellington. Read- 
ings for a few important shocks have been sup- 
plied on request from Melbourne. 

For determinations of epicenter, origin time, 
and magnitude, full use has been made of the 
original seismograms for Pasadena (with its 
auxiliary stations), and Huancayo (records 
filed at Pasadena). Original seismograms of 
the Tucson short-period vertical-component 
instrument have also been highly useful; these 
are regularly available at Pasadena by ar- 
rangement with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. 

Up to the end of 1938 there are sufficient 
data for all the purposes of this study. For 
1939, especially the later months, some impor- 



8 



MATERIALS 



tant information is lacking. For the following 
years data rapidly become scantier. For the 
whole period amplitudes of P and 5 are avail- 
able for the larger shocks as recorded at Perth 
(Australia), at La Paz through 1947 and for 
most shocks 1940-1945 at Riverview. Further 
valuable data have been provided by the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey; for April 1943 to March 
1944 amplitudes at Bermuda and Honolulu 
have been included in the published bulletins. 
Amplitudes of maxima are available for Hel- 
wan through 1944, Upsala to June 1946, Syd- 
ney through 1944, and Spanish stations to 
date. The U.S.S.R. reports include amplitudes 
of maxima; recent reports from De Bilt and 
La Plata include amplitudes for P, S and max- 
ima. It is to be hoped that in the future an in- 
creasing number of stations will report ampli- 
tudes (with corresponding periods) for P, S, 
and PP. 

Macroseismic data have been used to supple- 
ment instrumental results in the regional dis- 
cussion. An important source is the catalogue 
by Milne (i9i2a). Sieberg (193^, with many 
references) has been consulted throughout. 
Much valuable information with references 
has been taken from Montessus de Ballore 
(1906, 1907, 1924). The international sum- 
maries published from Strassburg (Oddone, 
1907; Christensen and Ziemendorff, 1909; 
Scheu, 1911; Scheu and Lais, 1912; Sieberg, 
1917) have been used. Data for 1944-1945 are 
given by Rothe (1946). Numerous papers and 
short notes in the Bulletin of the Seismological 
Society of America have been consulted; only 
the most important of these are referred to in 
the bibliography. Press clippings have been 
used when the information seemed reliable; 
large collections of press reports have been 
issued from the station at Georgetown, printed 
and mimeographed under the title "Seismo- 
logical Despatches." Notes and remarks in the 
various station bulletins have often been very 
helpful. This is particularly true for shocks in 
the region of the station itself. Other more re- 
gionally limited sources of macroseismic data 
will be referred to separately at the appropri- 
ate points. Only those consulted frequently are 
cited. 

The checklist of active volcanoes given in 
the Appendix (Table 19) has been compiled 
from many sources by Mr. J. M. Nordquist. 
The principal source of general information 
has been the work of von Wolff (1929; 1930). 
Comparison has been made with the catalogue 
and map given by Kennedy and Richey (1947). 



Other sources, most of them applying to lim- 
ited regions or to recent years only, include 
Anderson (1908), Briiggen (1947), Cloos 

(1936; 1942), De la Rile (1937). Fisher (1939, 
1940), Fujiwhara (1927), Jaggar (1945). Kri ~ 
janovsky (1934), Milne (1884; 1886), Nielsen 

(1937), Neumayr (1920), Reck (1929-1936; 
1935), Reck and Hantke (1935), Rittmann 

(1944), Rudolph (1887; 1895; 1898), Russell 

(1897), Sanchez (1944), Stehn (1927), and 
Tanakadate (1931-1939; 1937J 194)- The 
American Museum of Natural History pro- 
vided a list of volcanoes active within the pre- 
vious century which was formerly regularly 
reprinted in the World Almanac. This became 
obsolete and inaccurate; the writers are in- 
debted to Dr. F. H. Pough for revised infor- 
mation. 

Scattered notes from scientific and popular 
publications have been employed; these are 
too numerous to be cited individually. Files 
of the Geographical Journal have been 
searched thoroughly. Information from the 
press has been used only when it seemed un- 
usually reliable or could be verified elsewhere; 
as on the most important details press notices 
are often wholly misleading. Thus in 1932 it 
was generally reported that a whole group of 
South American volcanoes were in simultane- 
ous eruption, while in fact there was eruption 
of only a single volcano, Quizapu (Bobillier, 

'932)- 

Many references and some first-hand infor- 
mation have been obtained by correspondence; 
these are noticed under Acknowledgments. 

General data on gravity are taken from 
Meinesz et al. (1934), Meinesz (1933; 1939), 
Heiskanen (1936; i939a; i939b), and Wool- 
lard (1949). References to papers covering in- 
dividual regions will be introduced in the 
course of discussion. Whenever possible, iso- 
statically reduced gravity anomalies have been 
used. These are considered large when ap- 
proaching 100 milligals. Evans and Crompton 
(1946) have pointed out the importance of 
considering the geology in reducing gravity 
observations. 

The principal sources for submarine con- 
tours are Vaughn et al. (1940), charts issued by 
the U.S. Hydrographic Office, and maps by the 
American Geographical Society. 

Seismological data on crustal structure have 
been summarized by Gutenberg (1943^. 

The bibliography listing works to which 
reference is made is as complete as time, space, 



METHODS 



and library facilities permit. Many papers 
have been omitted as principally hypothetical 



or containing only minor items related to the 
present work. 



METHODS USED 



FOR all shocks epicenter, origin time, and 
depth were determined as previously described 
(Gutenberg and Richter, ig$6b; 1937), using 
times at widely separated stations. Large 
shocks may be located fairly well with only a 
few stations in different azimuths; but most 
earthquakes require a better distribution of 
data. For example, the normal minimum re- 
quirement for locating a shock in South Amer- 
ica is about five stations, including Pasadena, 
Berkeley, or Tucson, one good station in South 
America itself, one in eastern North America 
or the West Indies, and one in Europe. The 
greatest difficulty has always been experienced 
with locating shocks in far southern latitudes. 

There are various causes of discrepancy be- 
tween apparent epicenters found from macro- 
seismic data and those determined instrumen- 
tally. Gross errors have occurred when con- 
centration of population or works of construc- 
tion in a small part of the shaken region has 
given an erroneous idea of the distribution of 
seismic intensity. Often the effect of ground is 
insufficiently considered; thus higher intensity 
in an alluviated valley may lead to a false epi- 
center. The distribution of intensity in deep 
focus shocks usually shows abnormal patterns 
not simply related to the location of the epi- 
center. On the other hand, even microseismic 
data from a number of stations are often not 
sufficient for an accurate location. Conse- 
quently, great caution is required, especially 
in regions where there are few local stations, 
in attempting detailed correlations between 
microseismic epicenters and geological struc- 
tures. 

Identification of deep shocks is sometimes 
difficult when the data are incomplete; but for 
well-observed shocks no such difficulty exists. 
The occurrence of shocks at all levels down 
to about 700 kilometers below the surface is 
established beyond reasonable doubt by con- 
current lines of evidence. Any arguments to 
the contrary may be dismissed as special plead- 
ing. 

Signs of great focal depth which present 
themselves in searching through catalogues 
and station bulletins are (i) difficulty in lo- 
cating the shock and determining its origin 



time, supposing that it is shallow; (2) epicen- 
ter in an unusual region, or in a region where 
deep shocks are common; (3) surface waves 
reported as small at all stations (frequently 5 
or SS is reported as the maximum of the seis- 
mogram); (4) an abundance of additional and 
usually unidentified readings, often accom- 
panied by the suggestion that two or more 
shocks are superposed; (5) a distant earth- 
quake mistaken for a local shock near the re- 
porting station. 

Accurate assignment of focal depth demands 
identifiable time observations of the reflected 
wave pP, or of such waves as P' and SKS which 
have passed through the core of the earth and 
consequently arrive as much as one minute 
earlier in deep shocks than in shallow shocks 
(Turner, 1922; Gutenberg and Richter, i934a; 
i934b; i936b; 1937; Banerji, 1925; Berlage* 
1924; Blake, 1937; 1 94 1 J Brunner, 1935; B Y- 
erly, 1925; Hayes, i936a; Jeffreys, 1928; Miya- 
moto, 1933; Scrase, 1931; Stechschulte, 1932; 
Stoneley, 1931; Visser, 1936; Wadati, 1926- 
1928; 1931). Focal depth in the range 40 to 
100 km. is often difficult to determine; in such 
cases extended use has been made of the rela- 
tive amplitudes of surface and body waves, or 
more directly of the magnitudes determined 
from these (Gutenberg, i945a, p. 127). In 
Tables 13, 14, and 17 omission of any remark 
as to depth does not exclude the possibility 
of a depth as much as 60 km. 

The magnitude of an earthquake was origi- 
nally defined (Richter, 1935), ^ or shallow 
shocks in southern California, as the logarithm 
of the maximum trace amplitude expressed in 
thousandths of a millimeter with which the 
standard short-period torsion seismometer 
(period 0.8 sec., magnification 2800, damping 
nearly critical) would register that earthquake 
at an epicentral distance of 100 kilometers. 
Gutenberg and Richter (i936a) extended the 
scale to apply to shallow earthquakes occur- 
ring elsewhere and recorded on other types of 
instruments. The physical meaning of the scale 
was discussed, improvements were introduced, 
and a nomogram for its application (drafted 
by Mr. J. M. Nordquist) was presented by 
Gutenberg and Richter (1942). Revised tabu- 



1O 



CLASSIFICATION OF SHOCKS 



lations, with the addition of local corrections 
for the individual stations of the world, were 
given by Gutenberg (1945^. Magnitudes of 
shallow earthquakes were then correlated with 
amplitudes and periods of P, PP, and S 9 mak- 
ing these available for magnitude determina- 
tion (Gutenberg, 1945$). 

Surface waves, such as were used for estab- 
lishing magnitudes of shallow earthquakes, 
are small or nearly absent in deep shocks. The 
magnitude must be based on amplitudes of P, 
PP, and S. A further definition is required; a 
deep shock is taken to have the same magni- 
tude as a shallow shock releasing the same 
energy in elastic waves. The determination of 
energy requires calculation from the observed 
amplitudes and periods, Involving assumptions 
as to the propagation of seismic energy in the 
interior of the earth. This leads to tabulations 
and charts (Gutenberg, 1945 a) connecting 
amplitudes, periods, and focal depth with 
magnitude. These tabulations and charts con- 
stitute the practical definition of magnitude 
for deep-focus earthquakes. 

Magnitudes for well-observed shocks are as- 
signed to the tenth of a unit, with an error 
ordinarily not exceeding two tenths. For the 
majority of shocks magnitude is assigned to 
the nearest quarter unit. Some of the largest 
shallow shocks present exceptional difficulty, 
since the surface waves are so large at many 
stations that the maxima are lost off the edge 
of the seismogram, or by the seismograph's 
striking against its stops; while determination 
of magnitude from P or PP requires an im- 
perfectly known correction which increases 
with magnitude. 



The relation of magnitude and energy was 
considered tentatively in the first publication 
on magnitudes (Richter, 1935) but was signifi- 
cantly revised In later discussion (Gutenberg 
and Richter, 1942), which yielded the equation 

(1) logEnn 11.3 + i.8M 

where M is the magnitude and E Is the en- 
ergy of the shock in ergs. This equation may 
require modification for both theoretical and 
empirical reasons. The constant term is espe- 
cially difficult to fix, but this does not affect 
the determination of magnitudes for deep 
shocks, nor the relative proportion of energy 
released in different shocks or in different 
years. It merely multiplies all calculated ener- 
gies by a constant. 

In deriving equation (i) the energy E was 
calculated as the mean kinetic energy of a pro- 
gressing spherical elastic wave. An equal term 
representing its mean potential energy should 
be added to this; there is also the effect of the 
free surface (Gane et aL, 1946). Moreover, 
there appears to be approximately equal par- 
tition of energy between longitudinal and 
transverse waves, so that energy calculated for 
either alone should be doubled. This does not 
touch on the further question of what frac- 
tion of energy liberated in the earthquake is 
radiated In the form of elastic waves; see Fu 
(1945). For present purposes we have assumed 
for radiated energy the partly empirical equa- 
tion 

(2) log E = 12 -f- i.8M 

The resulting value of log E may be in error 
by one unit or even more. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SHOCKS 



SHOCKS are here classed as shallow when the 
depth does not exceed 60 km.; intermediate 
when the depth is from 70 to 300 km.; deep 
when it exceeds 300 km. 

Symbols for classification by magnitude 
are: 

Class a b c 

Magnitude 7 s A'^ l /2. 7.0-7.7 6.0-6.9 

Class d e 

Magnitude 5-3'5-9 below 5.3 

In general it is found that shocks of classes 
a and b are recorded at all stations; class c is 
well recorded up to a distance of 90 of arc 



(10,000 km. over the surface of the earth); 
class d up to about 45; class e not beyond 10. 
As a result of applying data for the ampli- 
tudes of P, S, etc., and allowing for the effect of 
depth (especially for shocks 40-60 km. deep), 
previously estimated magnitudes for many 
shocks have been increased. This has occa- 
sionally raised a shock from class c to class b, 
or from class b to class a. Instances where the 
estimated magnitude has been decreased are 
much fewer. Numerical magnitudes are given 
to the nearest quarter or tenth of a magnitude 
for all shocks of classes a, b, c. Shocks have fre- 
quently been referred to class d on the basis of 



MAPS 



11 



the extent and quality of instrumental record- 
ings; for these, no numerical magnitudes are 
given. This is partly due to the fact that P and 
S amplitudes at distances less than 15 usually 
cannot be used to determine magnitudes. 

For deep shocks the quality of determina- 
tion is indicated in Table 18 by three capital 
letters referring in order to accuracy of epicen- 
ter, origin time, and depth, as follows: 

Probable limits of error 

origin 

epicenter time depth 

A, very accurate i 5 sec. 30 km. 

B, good 28 50 

C, fair 3 12 So 

D, poor 

In general no shocks where the epicenter 



seems uncertain by more than 3 are included 
except in far southern latitudes, where the 
difficulty of location is increased. 

Since latitudes and longitudes of epicenters 
are usually assigned to the nearest degree, half, 
or quarter, the maps frequently show spurious 
definite alignment along particular meridians 
or parallels. 

Epicenters later than 1936 should be con- 
sidered preliminary, pending publication of 
the International Summary. Epicenters later 
than 1945 are not included in the regional 
lists. 

Serial numbers have been assigned to the 
shocks within each numbered geographical 
region; detailed explanation will be found in 
the introduction to the regional discussion. 



MAPS 



ALL maps and figures have been drafted by 
Mr. J. M. Nordquist. Figure i is an index map 
showing the boundaries of the numbered geo- 
graphical regions. Figure 2 is an index map 
showing boundaries of the separate areas 
mapped. Figures 3 and 4 are world maps, the 
former showing large shallow shocks, the lat- 
ter large intermediate and deep shocks. These 
are the only figures which can be used directly 
for statistical purposes; they correspond to the 
tables of large shocks for limited periods 
(Tables 13-16). 

The remaining maps show selected regions 
on a larger scale. Statistical completeness of 
mapping (years covered, fraction of the num- 
ber of shocks occurring which are mapped) 
differs greatly between the different maps, and 
even to some extent between different areas 
shown on the same map. 

The regional maps (Figs. 7r3o) show all epi- 
centers catalogued (Tables 13-18), except 
where crowding of plotted points has necessi- 
tated omitting small shocks. Within its area, 
each regional map shows the following (dates 
are inclusive): 

(1) All known class a shocks, 1904-1947 

(Table 13). 

(2) All identified class b shocks, 1918- 
1946 (Table 14). 

(3) All identified class c shocks, 1932- 
June 1935. 



(4) All intermediate and deep shocks, 
1904-1945, which can be located with 
the requisite accuracy including de- 
termination of depth, and those of 
magnitude 7 or over for 1946. 

(5) Other shocks (class d or larger) which 
have been located because their epi- 
centers contribute to seismogeo- 
graphic information. 

In certain limited areas, especially where seis- 
micity is low, this includes every shock for 
which a reliable epicenter could be deter- 
mined. These areas are specified in the discus- 
sion of individual regions. In the absence o 
such remarks, the general description applies. 
A few shocks in 1946 and 1947 are mentioned 
in the text and entered on the maps, but do 
not appear in the tables. 

Aftershocks have been frequently omitted 
from the tables and maps; except when re- 
quired for the statistics of shocks of given mag- 
nitudes under items (i), (2), and (3). After- 
shocks within a few minutes have generally 
been disregarded. Magnitude determinations, 
in such circumstances refer to the largest shock 
of the group, which may not be the first (to 
which the tabulated origin time refers). 

Figures 33 and 34 are outline maps show- 
ing the relation of the stable masses to the 
seismic belts. 




tt 

,0 





l6 FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 

FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



THIS section for the first time Includes statis- 
tical results for deep-focus shocks on the same 
basis as for shallow shocks. However, cata- 
loguing is unavoidably less complete for inter- 
mediate and deep shocks. Small deep-focus 
shocks are not always easy to identify, and 
cataloguing depends largely on number and 
equipment of stations in the region. The large 
number of local stations in Japan increases the 
number of catalogued shocks in the vicinity of 
Honshu. The European stations increase the 
catalogue for the Mediterranean area. Many 
intermediate Mediterranean shocks are - newly 
identified. They were missed previously chiefly 
because most of the European stations are at 
distances such that the P and S waves, as well 
as the surface waves, are abnormally small. In 
South America much has always depended on 
readings at La Paz; but in recent years, avail- 
ability at Pasadena of original seismograms 
from Huancayo has added many small inter- 
mediate shocks to the list. 

There is particular difficulty in assigning 
magnitude to shocks in the region of the New 
Hebrides. Many of these are near the border 
line between shallow and intermediate shocks. 
The amplitudes of surface waves accordingly 
give too small magnitudes; frequently the am- 
plitudes of P and S at Riverview are the only 
available data. Moreover, many of these shocks 
have magnitude near 7.0, the lower limit of 
class b. 

Statistics for shocks at all depths may be 
considered complete for the whole world dur- 
ing intervals the length of which varies with 



the magnitude. Shallow shocks of class a are 
listed for 1904-1947 inclusive (Table 13; none 
occurred in 1947, the next being on January 
24, 1948) and shocks of class b for 1918-1946 
inclusive (Table 14). Both tables are prac- 
tically complete. Shocks of class c are given 
only in the regional tabulation (Table 17); 
the listing for this magnitude is complete from 
1932 to June 1935, inclusive, except that a 
small number of shocks in remote regions and 
near the lower limit (6.0) may have been 
missed. Intermediate and deep shocks of mag- 
nitude 7 or more are listed in Tables 15 and 
16 respectively. These are not complete for the 
earlier years, but probably almost complete 
for 1918-1946. These lists would be appreci- 
ably lengthened if critical cases near magni- 
tude 7 were included, especially in the south- 
west Pacific. Additions and changes in loca- 
tions or magnitude made after July 1946 are 
not considered in Tables 2 to 11 of this sec- 
tion, which was completed before receiving 
the International Seismological Summary for 
July-September 1935. 

For investigating the distribution of earth- 
quakes in depth, we may use the complete list 
of identified deep shocks. This has the advan- 
tage of dealing with as large numbers as pos- 
sible, although the process of identification 
may be slightly selective with respect to depth. 
The result appears in Table 2. The numbers 
decrease to a minimum at about 450 kilome- 
ters; there is a clear increase to a minor maxi- 
mum at a depth of 600 kilometers, beyond 
which the numbers fall off very rapidly to the 



TABLE 2 
Total number of sRocks listed at various depths. Depth in km. (range 25 km.) 



Region 

Aleutian Is., Alaska 

Mexico, Central America 

Caribbean, Venezuela 

Andes 

Southern Antilles 

Southeast Pacific 

New Zealand-Samoa 

New Hebrides-New Guinea 

Sunda Arc 

Celebes to Mindanao 

Luzon to Kiushiu 

Japanese Is.-Manchuria 

Burma, except Hindtikush 

Hindukush 

Rumania 

East Mediterranean 

Total 



1OO 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


4OO 


450 


17 


2 














4 1 


1O 


3 


i 


1 








10 


2 














83 


39 


25 


12 


3 








i 


4 


















1 












18 


8 


10 


6 


3 


5 


8 


2 


59 


31 


13 


6 


2 


4 


3 


2 


36 


15 


12 


2 




2 


3 




16 


11 


14 


2 


4 




i 




16 


8 


8 


2 










66 


32 


15 


13 


12 


30 


30 


16 


16 


5 


i 












3 




33 


32 










3 


7 














27 


13 


2 


2 


1 








412 


i8 7 


*37 


7 8 


26 


41 


45 


2O 



500 550 600 650 700 



17 24 



2 
2 

17 



12 

3 



35 39 



57 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



deepest shocks known just below 700 kilome- 
ters. These general results are confirmed by 
the use of the smaller aggregate numbers in 
the range of times and magnitudes considered 

statistically valid: 



mediate and deep shocks are evidently incom- 
plete. The numbers per quarter magnitude 
have been divided by 2.5 to make them ap- 
proximately comparable with those per tenth 
magnitude in Table ga. Combined annual 



Depth (km.) shallow 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 
Number Soodz 139 56 38 15 8 11 12 4 7 8 12 7 3 



Table 3 a shows the mean annual number 
of shallow, intermediate, and deep shocks 
within each tenth of a unit of the magnitude 
scale down to 6.9. For magnitudes 734 to 8.6, 
the data used are complete for 1904-1945 in- 
clusive (shallow shocks), or 1905-1945 inclusive 
(intermediate and deep shocks). For magni- 
tudes 7.0 to 7.7, the period is 1918-1945; for 
6 to 6.9, 1932-June 1935. Where magnitudes 
were determined only to the nearest quarter, 
the numbers have been divided among the two 
or three nearest tenths. 

For magnitudes between 6 and 6.9, the mean 
annual numbers have been determined for 
each quarter magnitude (Table 3b). The sta- 
tistical period is 1932-June 1935. For the lower 
half of this magnitude range, data on inter- 



numbers in each class are given in Table 3c. 
For actual numbers of shocks refer to Table 7. 
The data in Tables 3a and 3b are plotted 
in Figure 5. They have been used for linear 
least-square solutions in the form. 
(3) log N = a + b (8 M ) 

where N is the annual frequency and M is the 
magnitude. Taking N as referred to M in steps 
of o.i, the following values of a and b are 
found; 

(4) 



Shallow shocks: 
a 0.48 HH 0.02 

(5) Intermediate shocks: 

a = 1.2 0.2 

(6) Deep shocks: 

Q 0.2 



b = 0.90 0.02 
b 1.2 zb 0.2 
b = 1.2 zb 0.2 




MEAN ANNUAL NUMBER 

OF EARTHQUAKES 
PER 1/10 UNIT OF M 

SHALLOW INTERMEDIATE DEEP 

X V V 

h 0-60 70-300 >300 KM 




\ 



FIGURE 5. Mean annual number of earthquakes per 1/10 unit of magnitude. 



i8 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



These results imply that for shallow shocks 
a decrease of one unit in magnitude corre- 
sponds to an approximately eight-fold increase 
in frequency. For intermediate and deep 
shocks the corresponding factor is about 15 
in place of 8. 



Class 



TABLE 3 

Mean annual numbers of shocks. 

Magnitude Shallow Intermediate 
(a) Magnitude > 6.9 (1/10 units of M) 

8.6 0.02 

8.5 0.05 

84 0.05 

8.3 0.21 

8.2 0.14 0.02 

8.1 0.21 0.05 

8.0 0.26 0.03 

7.9 046 0.05 

7.8 0.60 0.17 



Deep 



7.7 
7.6 
7.5 
74 
7.3 
7.2 
7.1 
7.0 



0.75 
0.75 
0.86 
0.93 
146 
2.14 
2.14 
3.00 



0.19 
0.04 
0.29 
0.25 
046 
0.50 
0.71 
1.64 



0.02 
o.oo 
0.03 

0.09 
0.07 
0.00 
0.04 
0.14 
0.14 
0.18 
0.36 



c 6.9 3.1 2.6 0.57 

(b) Magnitude 6 to 6s/ C 1 / 10 units of M) 

634 4.7 1.2 043 

6}/2 6.9 2.9 0.79 

C 614 12.2 

6 16.5 

(c) Annual numbers In classes a to c 

a 734-8.6 2.2 04 o.i 

b 7.0-7.7 11.9 4.0 0.9 

&H- 7.0-7.9 13.1 4.3 i.o 
c 6.0-6.9 lo8 

Reliable statistics for magnitude less than 6 
can be set up only for limited regions. The 
following are mean annual numbers of shocks 
for two selected areas. 



and part of the South Island, is bounded by 
the parallels of 38 and 42 S, and the merid- 
ians of 172 and 178 E, including about 225,- 
ooo square kilometers. 

The annual averages for Southern Cali- 
fornia are based on shocks from January 1934 
to May 1943, inclusive. Those for New Zea- 
land are taken from the bulletins issued from 
Wellington for the period October 1940 to 
January 1944, inclusive; they are based on 
torsion seismometers of the same type as those 
in Southern California, using the same meth- 
ods of determining magnitudes. 

The method of least squares was again ap- 
plied to represent the dependence of the an- 
nual numbers N on the magnitudes M (in 
steps of half a magnitude unit) in the form 
log N = a + b (8 M). For Southern Cali- 
fornia 

(7) a = 2.04 0.09 b r=z -)-o.88 0.03 
and for New Zealand 

(8) a = 1.88 0.05 b = +0.87 0.04 

In both areas the logarithmic law applies at 
least as far down as magnitude 4. Note that 
the values of a in (7) and (8) cannot be com- 
pared directly with those in (4). 

Extrapolation of equations (3) and (4) to 
lower magnitudes leads to the following esti- 
mated annual numbers of shocks for the whole 
earth: 

5.0-5.9 800 

4.0-4.9 6,200 

3.0-3.9 49> 000 

2.5-2.9 100,000 

Since shocks of magnitude 2.5 are usually 
reported felt in settled districts, perceptible 
shocks number at least 150,000 annually, not 
counting aftershocks and swarms of small 



S. California 
New Zealand 



o 
0.02 



Magnitude (range 14 unit) 

1 1 A 7 &A 6 51/2 5 41/2 4 

o 0.09 0.2 0.5 14 34 11.5 33 

0.04 0.09 0.0 0.6 1.8 6.0 16.2 46 



That referred to as "Southern California," 
which includes a small part of Mexico, is 
bounded by the parallel of 32 N, the meridian 
of ii5W, the California-Nevada State line, 
the parallel of 38 N, the meridian of i2OW, 
the parallel of 36 and the continental margin. 
This includes about 300,000 square kilometers, 
or about 0.06 per cent of the earth's surface. 
That indicated as "New Zealand" which in- 
cludes the most active area of the North Island 



shocks. The total number of true earthquakes 
may well be of the order of a million each 
year. The frequency cannot go on increasing 
indefinitely with decreasing magnitude, since 
a certain minimum stress must exist to pro- 
duce an earthquake. 

Above magnitude 814 the number of ob- 
served shallow shocks falls off more rapidly 
than the simple formulas indicate. Thus we 
have for 42 years: 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



Magnitude Calculated Observed Deficit 

39 28 11 



B.i- 8.5 



8.6- 9.0 14 i (Af=8.6) 13 

9.1-10.0 70 7 

This is also to be expected, since there should 
be an upper limit to the strain which can be 
supported by rock before fracture. From iso- 
static data, Tsuboi (1940) calculated the maxi- 
mum energy of an earthquake as 5.6 X l 24 
ergs. This, however, is appreciably less than 
the largest energies calculated from the revised 
equation (2) for observed earthquakes since 
1904, which appear to reach io 27 ergs. 

No shock has been assigned magnitude over 
8.6. None of the greater shocks for which we 
have reliable accounts appear to have been of 
much higher magnitude, although a shock of 
magnitude gi/% would release about forty 
times the energy of the largest catalogued 
shock, and ought to occupy an exceptional 
place in the historical record. The great In- 
dian earthquake of 1897 apparently did not 
much exceed magnitude 8^; the seismograms 
of the Alaskan shocks of September 1899 
(Milne, 1900; Tarr and Martin, 1912) indicate 
magnitude between 814 and 8i/ 2 . A more seri- 
ous question relates to the magnitude of the 
Lisbon earthquake of 1755, since the phe- 
nomena of swinging of suspended objects, and 
of seiches indicate that the surface waves were 
very large over the whole of western Europe 
(Reid, 1914). This, combined with the enor- 
mous area perceptibly shaken, (regardless of 
the probability that shocks occurred with sev- 
eral different epicenters) suggests a magnitude 
between 8^4 an d 9- A shock of magnitude over 
10 should theoretically be perceptible in scat- 
tered areas over the whole earth; alleged his- 
torical accounts of such events probably rest 
on a confusion of different shocks occurring 
near the same time. In recent years such state- 
ments may refer to instrumental recordings. 

For shocks at intermediate depth the falling 
off in frequency with increasing magnitude 
becomes rapid at a lower magnitude level 
(7.8) than for shallow shocks (Fig. 5). The en- 
tire distribution is shifted toward lower mag- 
nitudes. This may be attributed to smaller 
breaking strength at depth, making the ac- 
cumulation of large strains less probable, or 
to greater plasticity, or to both. It is not likely 
that there is any sufficiently large systematic 
error in determining magnitudes for interme- 
diate shocks. For magnitudes 7.9 and over, 
extrapolation of equations (3) and (5) calls 



19 

for 14 shocks in 42 years, while actually only 
6 were observed (none over magnitude 8.2). 

Deep shocks show a still larger displacement 
of the distribution curve, but the numbers are 
so small that conclusions are less positive. 
Since 1904 there should have been three deep 
shocks with magnitude over 7.8; only one such 
shock (depth only 340 km.) has been observed 
(1906). 

Table 4 includes the largest identified shocks 
in each group (1904-1947). Combining (2) 

log E= 12 + 1.8 M 
with (3) 

log N = a + b (8 Af) 
we find 

(9) log NE = c + k M 

NE is the energy annually released within a 
range of o.i magnitude centered at the given 
M. This can be integrated, with the result 

(10) log * = c ~f 0.64 log k 4- kM 
which is sufficiently close (for shallow shocks) 
when M ranges from 4 to 8, but should not be 
applied beyond those limits. E* is then the an- 
nual energy in ergs released in all shocks up to 
magnitude M. 

Using (4), (5) and (6) the following values 
for c and k result: 

c k 

Shallow shocks 18.7 0.9 

Intermediate 20.4 0.6 

Deep 19.7 0.6 

This gives for 

(11) shallow shocks: log E* = 19.4 -f- 0.9 M 

(12) intermediate: log E* = 21.2 -j- 0.6 M 

(13) deep: log JE* = 20.5 -j- 0.6 M 

Values for E* in units of io 26 ergs calculated 
from these equations are given in Table 5. 
Equations (12) and (13) are probably not 
valid below magnitude 6i/ 2 . 

The ratios of energies released up to succes- 
sive levels are well determined. Absolute val- 
ues of E and E* are less certain, because of 
difficulty in fixing the zero of the empirical 
magnitude scale in terms of absolute units. 

Table 5 supports the conclusion that smaller 
shocks almost never are sufficiently frequent 
to approximate the energy released in larger 
shocks. This means that great shocks are es- 
sentially independent events, uninfluenced by 
the occurrence of smaller earthquakes, which 
are at most symptomatic of the regional strains 
released in major shocks. Data for southern 
California show that this relationship extends 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



TABLE 4 
Largest shallow, intermediate and deep shocks, 1904 to 1947. 



Date 



Region 



M 



References 



(a) Shallow shocks, magnitude near 8.5: 



1906 Jan. 31 


Colombia 


8.6 


1906 Aug. 17 


Chile 


8.4 




1911 Jan. 3 


Tien Shan 


8.4 


See Table 13 


1920 Dec. 16 


Kansu 


8.5 




1933 Mar. 2 


Japan 


84 





(b) Intermediate shocks, magnitude near 8: 



1910 June 16 


Loyalty Is. 


100 


8.1 




1911 June 15 


Ryukyu Is. 


160 


8.2 


O'Connell (1946) gives M = 8.4 


1914 Nov. 24 


Marianas 


110 


8.1 




1926 June 26 


Rhodes 


1OO 


7-9 


Sieberg (19320, pp. 163-173) 


1939 Dec. 21 


Celebes 


150 


8.0 





(c) Deep shocks, magnitude 734 and over: 



1906 Jan. 21 Japan 

1932 May 26 Tonga 

1937 Apr. 16 Tonga 



340 
600 
400 



8.0 



Szirtes (19090) 
Brunner (1938) 
Westland (1938) 



TABLE 5 
Annual energy release in units of lo 2 ^ ergs, calculated from equation (2). 



Energy release 


Energy release 




E* up to magnitude 


in interval 




6 


7 


8 


5-6 6-7 


7-8 


Shallow shocks 0.06 


0.5 


4 


0.05 0.4 


3-5 


Intermediate shocks ? 


0.3 


i 


? 0.24 


0.7 


Deep shocks ? 


0.05 


o.s 


? 0.04 


0.15 



down to the lowest magnitude levels (Richter, 



It follows that the larger strains accumulate 
with little reference to release of energy in 
minor shocks or along minor structures. In 
general it cannot be asserted that minor shocks 
function as a "safety valve" to delay a great 
earthquake. Rather, minor shocks on minor 
structures are evidence of a regional strain, 
only a small part of which is being transferred 
away from the major structures along which 
it will eventually find release in major earth- 
quakes, 

Table 6 shows energy released in units of 
io 28 ergs for each of the years 1904-1945, sepa- 
rating data for shallow and deep shocks; the 
lower lines of the table assemble the data for 
selected ten-year periods. Energy for the larger 
shocks has been calculated from equation (2), 
log JE = 12 -f- 1.8 M, which gives the following 
results (with a large factor of uncertainty): 



Below magnitude 7 the second column of 
Table 5 has been used. 

The rate of energy release is extremely irreg- 
ular. The single year 1906 accounts for about 
one-eighth of the total, so that the average 
annual release 1907-1945 is only 8.7 units 
while the average 1906-1945 is 10.2. 1906 was 
followed by low activity (note the average 
6.06 for 1907-1916). 

Intermediate shocks show an energy maxi- 
mum in 1910-11, owing to two large earth- 
quakes in those years. Most striking is the 
notable falling off in activity in the interme- 
diate depth range following 1922; except for 
one large shock in 1926, this activity did not 
again increase until 1939. 

There are shorter intervals when activity is 
abnormally high, and others when it is un- 
usually low. For a period of weeks significant 
activity may be concentrated in a limited re- 
gion. These effects apparently are within the 



Magnitude 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 
E (io 2C ergs) .04 .06 .10 .13 .20 .32 .50 .79 i.o 



7-9 
1.6 



8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 
2.5 4.0 6.3 7.9 13 20 25 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



TABLE 6 

Annual energy release In 10^6 ergs, 
equation (2). 



calculated from 



Year 


Shallow 


Intermed. 


Deep 


Ail 


1904 


13-9 


O.2 


04 


14.5 


05 


20.5 


24 


O.2 


23.1 


06 


56.2 


0.9 


2.6 


59-7 


07 


9.6 


0.7 


0.5 


10.8 


08 


2.2 


1.2 


O.I 


3-5 


09 


3-i 


3-o 


04 


6.5 


10 


2.2 


7.1 


0.5 


9-8 


1911 


19-5 


7.8 


04 


27.7 


12 


5 .6 


0.8 


04 


6.8 


13 


4-7 


1.6 


0.1 


64 


14 


4.0 


5-i 


O.I 


9-2 


15 


5-6 


i-9 


0.3 


7.8 


1916 


4.1 


1.2 


o-4 


5-7 


1? 


13.6 


1.1 


04 


15.1 


18 


17.8 


2.0 


l.O 


20.8 


19 


11.1 


1.8 


O.2 


13.1 


20 


26.5 


0.2 


O.I 


26.8 


1921 


1.4 


i-5 


0.6 


3-5 


22 


9-6 


0.8 


0.6 


11.O 


23 


18.3 


0.2 


O.I 


18.6 


24 


1O.2 


0.6 


0.3 


1 1.1 


25 


24 


0.2 


0.1 


2.7 


1926 


2.5 


2.2 


O.I 


4.8 


27 


3-6 


0.4 


0.1 


4.1 


28 


6.6 


0.2 


O.I 


6.9 


29 


7-i 


i-3 


O.2 


8.6 


1930 


1.2 


0.2 


0.1 


1.5 


31 


9.2 


0.5 


0.3 


10.0 


32 


8.6 


O.2 


1.1 


9-9 


33 


21.8 


0.2 


0.1 


22.1 


34 


17.0 


0.4 


0.2 


17-6 


1935 


5-5 


04 


0.2 


6.1 


36 


2.4 


0.3 


O.I 


2.8 


37 


2.8 


1.0 


1.1 


4-9 


38 


19-3 


0.6 


0.1 


20.O 


39 


7-9 


34 


0.1 


114 


1940 


3-6 


2.0 


O.2 


58 


41 


14.7 


0.7 


O.I 


15-5 


42 


9-6 


0.8 


O.I 


10-5 


43 


10.1 


1.6 


O.I 


11.8 


44 


5.0 


i-3 


O.I 


64 


45 


9-2 


04 


0.1 


9-7 


Average 


10.23 


144 


0.34 


12.01 


1946 


15.8 


0.7 


O.2 


16.7 


1904-1913 


13-75 


2-57 


0.56 


16.88 


1907-1916 


6.06 


3.04 


0.32 


942 


1914-1923 


11.20 


1.58 


0.38 


13.16 


1924-1933 


7.32 


0.60 


0.25 


8.17 


1927-193 6 


8.30 


041 


O.25 


8.96 


1934-1943 


9-29 


1.12 


0.23 


10.64 


1936-1945 


8.46 


1.21 


O.21 


9.88 



limits of normal statistical fluctuation but may 
exceed them in certain regions (see Wanner, 
1937). These highly irregular variations bear 
no evident relation to the minor periodicities 
which have sometimes been claimed. These 
periodicities, superposed on the large general 
fluciuation, are somewhat controversial; the 



reader should compare the findings of Tarns 
(1931, pp. 419-433), Conrad (1952), and Davi- 
son (1938), and for deep-focus earthquakes 
those of Stetson (1935, 1937) and McMurry 
(1941). 

Mean energy ratios among the groups for 
the whole earth are: shallow/intermediate, 
7.2; shallow/deep, 30.0; intermediate/deep, 
4.2. The equivalent percentages are: shallow, 
85, intermediate, 12, deep, 3. These propor- 
tions are less significant than those for the 
separate regions (Table 8). 

The calculated energy release of 12 X lo26 
ergs annually is comparable with the annual 
flow of heat from the interior to the surface of 
the earth, which is 66 X 1C)28 er g s correspond- 
ing to io~ 6 calories per second per square 
centimeter (Bullard, 1945). Both seismic en- 
ergy release and rate of heat flow decrease with 
depth. 

The energy released by an atomic bomb is 
officially stated as equivalent to that in the 
detonation of 20,000 tons of TNT, hence of the 
order of io 21 ergs. This corresponds to a mag- 
nitude about 5, which agrees roughly with the 
fact that the seismic waves from the New 
Mexico test were barely registered at the dis- 
tance of Pasadena. The magnitude derived 
from P waves from the Baker Bay test at 
Bikini was about 1/2 (Gutenberg and Rich- 
ter, 1946); for energy calculations, it must be 
considered that there were no S waves. 

Other artificial explosions are of much less 
consequence. Major quarry blasts rarely reach 
magnitude 21/2 when their seismograms are 
interpreted on the scale for earthquake mag- 
nitudes. 

Volcanic explosions do not give rise to 
earthquakes of consequence; this is to be ex- 
pected, as even in the most spectacular cases, 
such as Krakatoa and Katmai, the greater part 
of the energy was released into the atmosphere. 
Rough computation suggests that even for 
these the total energy was less than in great 
earthquakes. 

Table 7 exhibits the regional distribution of 
shocks in the statistical study, divided into 
magnitude classes a, b, c. The time limits for 
class a are 1904-1945. Those for class b are in 
general 1922-1945, and for c shocks 1932-June 
1935; but in regions where an unusually small 
number of b and c shocks occurred during the 
period studied, while more were listed in ear- 
lier years, the statistical periods were extended 
in computing the annual average. These ex- 
tended annual frequencies are placed in pa- 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 



TABLE 7 
Numbers and energy of shocks in various regions. (For periods used see text.) 





Total numbers 












Number 


in % 


of all 








used 


Annual number 




shocks of 


given 


column 


Energy in % 




Shall. Int. D. 




Shallow 


Int. 


Deep 




Shallow 




Int. Deep 


Shall. 


Int. Deep 


Region and No. 


a b a, b a, b 


a 


b 


c a, b 


a,b 


a 


b 


c 


a, b a, b 






Aleutian, W, Alaska, i 


6 15 5 o 


0.14 


o-54 


9.1 0.16 


0.00 


6.5 


4-5 


84 


3.6 o 


44 


2.8 


E. Alaska, Brit. Col., 2 


0300 


O.OO 


0.11 


(0.6) 0.00 


0.00 


0.0 


0.9 


0.5 


0.0 


0.1 


O.O 


Calif., Nevada, 3 


25 o o 


0.05 


0.18 


2.0 0.00 


0.00 


2.3 


1.5 


1.8 


0.0 


2.1 


O.O 


Gulf of Mexico, 4 


O I 00 


0.00 


0.04 


1 .1 0.00 


0.00 


0.0 


0.3 


1.0 


0.0 


0.1 


0.0 


Mexico S. of 28, 5 


7 12 40 


0.17 


0.43 


6.0 0.12 


0,00 


7.8 


3-6 


5-5 


2.7 o 


4.2 


4-3 


Central America, 6 


2810 


0.05 


0.29 


34 0.04 


o.oo 


2.3 


24 


3-i 


0.9 o 


1.0 


0.7 


Caribbean, 7 


1200 


O.02 


0.07 


1.1 (0.12) 


o.oo 


0.9 


0.6 


1.0 


2.7 o 


0.3 


0.7 


S. Amer. N. of 37, 8 


11 14 21 12 


0.26 


0.50 


2.6 0.75 


0.07 


12.0 


4-2 


2.4 


16.8 6 


*4-9 


7-8 19 


S. Amer. S, of 37, 9 


0510 


O.OO 


0.18 


0.6 0.04 


0.00 


0.0 


1.5 


0.6 


0.9 o 


0.2 


0.7 


S. Antilles, 10 


1 10 O 


0.02 


0.36 


14 0.11 


0.00 


0.9 


3-o 


i-3 


2.5 o 


0.6 


0.7 


Galapagos, n 


O O O 


O.OO 


O.OO 


0,9 o.oo 


0.00 


0.0 


0.0 


0.8 


0.0 


0.1 




Easter I. Ridge, 12 


02 00 


0.00 


0.07 


2.9 0.00 


0.00 


0.0 


0.6 


2.7 


0.0 


0.1 




S. of Macquarie I., 45 


O 1 00 


0.00 


0.04 


(1.1) O.OO 


0.00 


0.0 


0.3 


1.0 


0.0 


0.1 




Macquarie-N. Zeal., 11 


3 10 oo 


0.07 


0.36 


1.1 (0.02) 


O.OO 


3-2 


3.0 


1.0 


04 o 


14 




Kermadec-Tonga, 12 


3 6 8 13 


0.07 


0.21 


3.7 0.13 


044 


3-2 


1.8 


34 


2-9 41 


44 


5-o 25 


Samoa-Fiji, 13 


01 00 


0.00 


0.04 


0.9 0.00 


O.OO 


0.0 


0.3 


0.8 


0.0 


0.1 




New Hebrides, 14 


2 19 23 


0.05 


0.68 


6.6 0.78 


0.00 


2.3 


5-7 


6.1 


174 o 


3-2 


16.3 


Solomon Is., 15 


6 27 41 


0.14 


0.96 


6.0 0.14 


0.04 


6.5 


8.0 


5-5 


3.1 4 


3-7 


M 3 


New Guinea, 16 


4 15 20 


0.10 


0.54 


3.7 0.07 


0.00 


4.6 


4-5 


34 


1.6 o 


3-o 


0.7 


Palau-Guam, 17 


1400 


0.02 


0.14 


0.6 0.00 


o.oo 


0.9 


1.2 


0.6 


0.0 


0.5 




Marianas, 18 


1582 


0.02 


0.18 


2.3 0.27 


0.07 


0.9 


*-5 


2.1 


6.0 6 


0,7 


8-5 3 


Japan- Kamchatka, 19 


12 46 l6 11 


0.28 


1.64 


12.3 0.57 


0.38 


13-0 


13-7 


11.3 


12.8 35 


16.6 


8.5 44 


S.W. Japan, Kiushiu, 
























Formosa, 20, 21 


3 22 50 


0.07 


o-79 


3-7 0-14 


o.oo 


3.2 


6.6 


34 


3.1 o 


2.7 


14.2 


Philippine Is., 22 


4 19 41 


0.10 


0.68 


5.1 0.14 


0.04 


4.6 


5-7 


4-7 


3.1 4 


5-5 


14 3 


Celebes, 23 


2 16 40 


0.05 


o-57 


2.6 0.12 


o.oo 


2.3 


4.8 


2.4 


2.7 o 


2.0 


7- 1 


Sunda Is., 24 


3 16 11 i 


0.07 


0.57 


4-9 -S6 


0.04 


3-2 


4.8 


4-5 


8.1 4 


3.6 


8-5 3 


S. Burma, 25 


1600 


0.02 


0.21 


0.9 o.oo 


0.00 


0.9 


1.8 


0.8 


0.0 


1.0 




Himalaya, 26 


28 20 


0.05 


0.29 


2.0 O.07 


o.oo 


2.3 


24 


1,8 


1.6 


3.0 


0.7 


Kansu to Pamir, 27 


25 oo 


0.05 


O.l8 


0.6 0.00 


0.00 


2.3 


i-5 


0.6 


0.0 


5-7 




Baikal to Pamir, 28 


52 oo 


0.12 


0.07 


0.9 o.oo 




5-5 


0.6 


0.8 


o.o 


74 




Hindu Kush (in 48) 


oo 70 


0.00 


0.00 


(o.o) 0.23 




0.0 


0.0 


o.o 


5-i 


o.o 


5-7 


Baluchistan, Iran, 29, 
























47> 48 


3300 


0.07 


0.11 


2.9 o.oo 




3-2 


o-9 


2.7 


o.o 


2.7 




Asia Minor to Italy, 
























3, 3*> 51 


2530 


0,05 


0.18 


2.9 0.09 




2.3 


1.5 


2.7 


2.0 


1.2 


4-3 


West. Mediterr,, 31 


0000 


0.00 


0.00 


(0.1) 0.00 




0.0 


o.o 


0.1 


0.0 


O.I 




Spain to Azores, 31 


11 00 


0.02 


0.04 


(0.1) 0.00 




0.9 


0.3 


0.1 


0.0 


2.0 




Arctic, 40 


0000 


0.00 


(0.02) 


(0.5) 0.00 




0.0 


0.2 


0.5 


0.0 


0.1 




Atlantic, 32 


0700 


0.00 


0.25 


5-8 




0.0 


2.1 


5-3 




04 




Indian Ocean, 33 


1800 


0.02 


0.25 


3.1 




0.9 


2.1 


2.8 




0.8 




Africa, 37 


01 00 


0.00 


0.04 


(0.6) 




o.o 


0.3 


0.6 




0.1 




Cent., East. North 
























Amer., Baffin Bay, 
























34, 42 


03 oo 


0.00 


0,11 


0.9 




0.0 


0.9 


0.8 




0.1 




Australia, 38 


1 O 


0.02 


0.00 


(0.2) 




0.9 


0.0 


0.2 




0.2 




Others 35, 36, 39, 41, 
























49 50 


01 00 


0.00 


0.04 


0.09 o.oo 


o.oo 


0.0 


0.3 


0.8 


0.0 


0.1 




Circum-Pacific Belt 


74 284 120 31 


i-75 


10.14 


86 4.08 


1.08 


80.6 


85.0 


79-3 


91.3 100 


754 


89 100 


Transasiatic Belt 


16 30 12 


0.38 


1.07 


10 0.39 


0.00 


174 


9-o 


9-6 


8.7 o.o 


22.9 


11 O 


Others 


2 20 00 


0.04 


0.74 


12 0,00 


0.00 


1.8 


6.2 


11.0 


0.0 0.0 


1.8 





All Shocks 


Q.2 334 132 3i 


2.2 


11.9 


108 4.47 


1.08 


99* 


100.2 


99-9 


100.0 10O 


100 


100 10O 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 

TABLE 8 
Annual energv release E* in units of 10-* ergs, calculated from equatioa (2). 



Region and Xo. 


Energy * 

Shallow Int. Deep 


Int./Sh 


Energy ratio 
Deep/Sh. Deep/ Int. 


Aleutian Is., i 


45 


4 


0.09 




Mexico, 5 


42 


6 


0.14 




Central America, 6 


10 


i 


O.I 




Caribbean, 7 


3 


(0 


(o-3) 




South America (north), 8 


151 


ii 6 


0.07 


0.04 0.5 


South America (south), 9 


2 


Y4 


(0.1) 




S. Antilles, 10 


6 


1 


0.2 




Easter Island Ridge, 43 


i 








Macquarie-N. Zealand, 11 


14 


( 1 A) 


(0.2) 




Kermadec, 12 


45 


7 8 


O.l6 


0.18 1.1 


New Hebrides, 14 


32 


23 


0-7 




Solomon Islands, 15 


38 


2 1 


0.05 


0.02 (0.5) 


New Guinea, 16 


30 


1 


0.03 




Marianne Islands, 18 


7 


12 1 


1.7 


0.1 0.1 


Japan-Kamchatka, 19, 46 


168 


12 14 


0.07 


0.08 1.1 


Kiushiu-Formosa, 20, 21 


27 


2O 


0.7 




Philippine Is., 22 


56 


2 1 


0.04 


0.02 (0.5) 


Celebes, 23 


20 


10 l/ 2 


0.5 


O.02 (O.i) 


Sunda Is., 24 


37 


12 1 


0-3 


0.03 o.i 


Burma, 25 


10 


!/2 


(0-05) 




Himalaya, 26 


30 


1 


0.03 




Hindu Kush, (in 48) 




8 


large 




Iran, 29 


27 


V* 


(o.oi) 




Asia Minor ) 










Mediterranean j 3 ' 3 1 ' 5 1 


12 


6 


0.5 





rentheses in the table, and consequently do 
not correspond to the corresponding entries 
(often zero) in the columns showing total 
numbers o shocks in the statistical period. 
Table 8 gives the annual energy released in 



shallow, intermediate and deep shocks in units 
of io 24 ergs in the various regions, 

Table 9 shows the constants a and b of 
equation (3) as found for various regions, cor- 
responding to quarter units of magnitude 



TABLE 9 
Constants a and b in equation (3) for selected regions giving annual frequency corresponding to \/ units of M. 



Region 


No. 


a 


b 




(a) Shallow 


Shocks 




Alaska 


1,2 


1.5 0.1 


1.1 O.l 


So. California 





? 


0.88 0.03 


Mexico, Central ) 








America j 


5>6 


1.1 0.1 


0.9 0.1 


So. America ] 
(h<ioo) j 


. 8 


1.1 0.1 


0.45 0.1 


New Zealand 





? 


0.87 0.04 


Kermadec Is. 


12 


2.3 0.1 


1.3 0.2 


Solomon Is. 


15 


1.2 3 0.06 


1.01 0.07 


Japan 


19 


0.90 0.08 


0.80 0,08 


Sunda Is. 


24 


1.5 0.1 


0.9 O.l 


Pamir to Eastern) 
Asia j 


26,28 


1.7 0.1 


o.6o.i4 


Turkey 


3 


2.1 0.1 


0.9 0.1 


Atlantic 


32 


2 .4 O.2 


1.4 0.2 


Indian Ocean 


33 


2 .4 0.2 


1.3 0.1 



Region 



No. 



(b) Intermediate shocks 



Marianne Is.-Japan- 

Kamchatka 18,19 1.6 0.1 

Loyalty Is.-New 

Guinea 14,15,16 1.7 0.1 

Western Asia, Medi- 
terranean without 29, 30, 31, 

Hindu Kush 47,48,51 2.1 0.2 

Hindu Kush (in 48) 1.6 0.1 

So. America, 
5S-*5 S 



1.2 0.1 

i.4o.i 



1.2 O.2 

0.6 0.1 
1.5 0.1 i.ozho.1 



(c) Deep shocks 



Marianne Is.- 

Japan-Kam- 

chatka 18,19 

Kermaclec and Fiji 12,13 2 .3 0.4 



1.5 0.4 



FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES 

TABLE 10 
Yearly peiiod, number of earthquakes of magnitude 7 or more. 



Total 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Api. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Shallow north of 20 N 


158 


8 


14 


10 


10 


14 


11 


12 


M 


1 1 


10 


24 


20 


Shallow south of i5S 


78 


7 


6 


11 


4 


4 


8 


2 


10 


10 


5 


8 


3 


Intermed.| north of 2OS 


81 


7 


7 


5 


8 


4 


10 


9 


3 


6 


10 


8 


4 


and deep j south of 15$ 


84 


4 


4 


7 


7 


10 


6 


6 


10 


8 


9 


9 


4 


All shallow 


421 


34 


32 


37 


29 


33 


36 


28 


37 


37 


32 


47 


39 


All intermediate and deep 


253 


21 


17 


18 


22 


20 


22 


22 


18 


26 


27 


26 


14 


All shocks 


674 


55 


49 


55 


55 


53 


58 


50 


55 


63 


59 


73 


53 



(not tenth units). For shallow shocks magni- 
tudes 6 to 8 are used, except for eastern and 
central Asia, where 8y% was included. For 
intermediate and deep shocks magnitudes 
were used from 614 to S, except for intei medi- 
ate shocks in the Loyalty Islands-New Heb- 
rides area and deep shocks in the Tonga sali- 
ent, where data for 614 were clearly incom- 
plete and were not used, and for South Amer- 
ica and the Hindu Kush, where magnitude 6 
was included. 

Attention is particularly called to the last 
lines of Table 7, showing that the circum- 
Pacific belt accounts for eighty per cent or 
more of every type of activity. The Japan- 
Kamchatka region is that showing the highest 
general level of seism icity. In South America, 
with about the same geographical extent, the 
release of energy is comparable, but this is due 
primarily to the larger shocks of class a; the 
Japanese area is much more frequently subject 
to class b shocks. The largest release of energy 
at intermediate depth occurs in the New Heb- 
rides. Deep shocks are most frequent in the 
Kermadec-Tonga region. In the Marianne Is- 
lands more energy is released in intermediate 
than in shallow shocks. 

The increase in frequency of shocks with de- 
creasing magnitudes is approximately the 
same in all regions, with the following excep- 
tions. In South America and in the region of 
central and east Asia the number of very large 
shocks is disproportionately large, while in the 



Atlantic and Indian Oceans the larger shocks 
are disproportionately rare. Among the Hindu 
Kush earthquakes at intermediate depth the 
larger shocks are abnormally frequent; the 
number of identified shocks increases with de- 
ci easing magnitude with exceptional slowness. 

The shallow activity of the California-Ne- 
vada area appears from the tables as slightly 
exceeding two per cent of that of the world. 
The corresponding figure for the selected area 
in Southern California is not far from i/% per 
cent. The California- Nevada activity is about 
90 per cent of that of the continental United 
States excluding Alaska. 

The data can be used to investigate an- 
nual and daily periodicities. Of the shallow 
shocks, only the statistically listed class a and 
b shocks have been used, 420 in number. Of 
intermediate and deep shocks, all those of 
magnitude 7 and over have been used, with 
dates 1904-45. This gives 200 intermediate 
shocks and 53 deep shocks. Some minor 
changes were made during the calculations. 

Table 10 shows distribution by months of 
the year for all these larger shocks. Separate 
lines show data for the northern and southern 
hemispheres, and for the various groups indi- 
vidually and in combination. There is a clear 
majority in the second half of the year (July- 
December) for both hemispheres. The data 
have been subjected to harmonic analysis. The 
results are: 



Shallow north of 20N. N -. 

Shallow south of i5S. N : 

Intermediate and deep N. N : 

Intermediate and deep S. N -. 

All shallow. N : 

All intermediate and deep. N : 

All shocks. N : 



: 13.2 + 1.6 sin (x 4- 149) 4- 2.9 sin (zx -f o) 
: 6.5 4- 0.5 sin (x 4- 200) + 2.1 sin (2% -f 140) 
: 6.8 -f- 0.4 sin (x 4~ 239) -f- 0.8 sin (2^ -f- 19) 
: 7.0 4- 1.4 sin (x 4- 241) -]~ 1.9 sin (zx -f- 77) 
: 35.1 + 3.7 sin (x 4- 149) 4- 1.8 sin (2% + 18) 
: 21.1 4- 2.8 sin (x 4- 216) 4- 2.0 sin (%x -f 77) 
: 56.2 4- 5.3 sin (x + 178) 4- 2.9 sin (zx + 44) 



STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 



TABLE 1 1 
Daih period, number of shocks of magnitude 7 or more. 







Intermediate 






Intermediate 




Hour 


Shallow 


and deep 


All 


Hour 


Shallow 


and deep 


All 





18 


11 


29 


12 


19 


9 


28 


i 


15 


7 


22 


13 


*5 


6 


21 


2 


*9 


17 


36 


14 


*3 


15 


28 


3 


23 


7 


30 


15 


15 


15 


30 


4 


19 


H 


33 


16 


19 


8 


27 


5 


i 


19 


38 


l l 


23 


11 


34 


6 


*7 


ii 


28 


18 


18 


11 


29 


7 


26 


11 


37 


19 


10 


11 


21 


8 


*7 


8 


25 


20 


20 


5 


25 


9 


16 


6 


22 


21 


15 


11 


26 


10 


18 


14 


32 


22 


12 


9 


21 


11 


18 


8 


26 


23 


16 


9 


25 










Total 


420 


253 


673 



The data scatter considerably and tests for 
significance are not favorable; however, the 
annual terms in the various groups agree fairly 
well when taken individually. They do not 
agree with findings of Conrad (1933), Lands- 
berg (1933), and Visser (ig^Ga), which dis- 
agree among themselves (see also Davison, 
1938; Conrad, 1932). 

In an earlier paper (Gutenberg and Rich- 
ter, i938a) it was noted that 41 of 58 listed 
deep-focus earthquakes in the region Mari- 
anne Is.-Japan-Kamchatka had occurred in the 
first half of the year, and only 17 in the sec- 
ond half. The ratio is much smaller now, with 
76 shocks in the first half and 54 in the second 
half; the figures for shocks of magnitude 7 and 
over are 13 and 6 respectively. 

For the daily period, the hours of the same 
shocks have been reduced to local times at 
their epicenters, with the results shown in 
Table 1 1 . Harmonic analysis has been carried 
out separately for shallow, intermediate and 
deep shocks, and for all together. The results 
are: 



All show a maximum at about 6h local time. 
However, again the significance tests are not 
favorable. The period of 1/3 day, indicated in 
a previous paper, has not reappeared in this 
later study. Lunar periodicities in the present 
material have not been investigated. 

The distribution over the years has been ex- 
amined in relation to the sunspot period. Al- 
though the very seismic year 1906 corresponds 
to a sunspot maximum, other sunspot maxima 
do not show a clear correlation. In particular, 
the maximum of 1928 corresponds to rather 
low seismicity. 

Correlation between earthquakes and me- 
teorological phenomena has been investigated 
by Conrad (1932, 1946). 

Leet (1938, p. 76) has pointed out a number 
of instances of deep-focus shocks in the same 
region at about the same day of the year. Such 
coincidences also occur in shallow shocks; sta- 
tistical investigations (Nordquist and Geldart, 
1948) indicate that they are due to chance. 
This, and many other detailed statistical in- 
vestigations suggested by the data here pre- 
sented, are outside the immediate scope of 
this book. 



Shallow. 

Intermediate and deep. 
All. 



N = 17.5 + 1.8 sin (x 4) + 1.9 sin (a* 48) + i.o sin (3* + 16) 
N= 10.5 + 0.9 sin (x + 15) + i.o sin (** 62) + 0.7 sin (3* + 68) 
N = 28.0 + 3.0 sin (x +2) + 3.6 sin (2% 41) + 0.4 sin (3% 9) 



STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 



THE interior core of the earth is separated 
from the exterior portion, or mantle, by a 
sharp discontinuity about 2900 kilometers be- 



low the surface. Earthquakes originate only in 
the mantle, from near the surface to depths 
not much exceeding 700 kilometers. Neither 



STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 



the wave velocities nor other seismic data indi- 
cate a discontinuity near the latter depth, al- 
though at about 1000 kilometers there is a 
rapid change in the rate at which velocity in- 
creases with depth. 

At a depth o roughly So to 100 kilometers 
the velocity decreases slightly with depth, pro- 
ducing a shadow zone for seismic waves 
(Gutenberg and Richter, *939b; Gutenberg, 
ig45b, 1948). This seriously hampers the work 
of locating and assigning magnitudes to shocks 
when using stations at distances less than 15. 
It has been tentatively suggested that this cor- 
responds to a transition from the crystalline 
to the glassy state. Widely divergent discus- 
sions of the temperature relative to the melt- 
ing point and the depth are given by v. Wolff 
(1930, p. 44), Rittmann (1945), Kennedy and 
Anderson (1938), Daly (1946). 

Isostasy and post-glacial uplift indicate that 
the strength (resistance to plastic flow) below 
8o: kilometers is less than 1/100 of that near 
the surface. There is no great change near this 
depth in the coefficient of viscosity which con- 
trols the speed of plastic flow. 

Above the 8o-kiiometer level the structure 
is differentiated geographically. In general, 
there are no major discontinuities in the re- 
gion of the Pacific basin between this level and 
the surface. There are relatively thin surface 
layers, chiefly sedimentary; and the large vol- 
canic structures, such as those of the Hawaiian 
Islands, may have roots extending to consider- 
able depth. Wave velocities in these layers and 
structures may be as low as those in conti- 
nental rocks. Under the continents as well as 
in the areas of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, 
there is a continental crustal structure sepa- 
rated from the underlying mantle by the sharp 
Mohorovic'ic discontinuity. 

The surface features of the earth exhibit a 
corresponding division into two regions of 
different structure, the Pacific and Atlantic 
structures of Suess. These are associated with 
two correspondingly different types of erup- 
tive rocks. This petrographic distinction has 
been used to draw the boundary which sepa- 
rates the Pacific basin proper from the partially 
submerged continental areas west and south- 
west of it (Marshall, 1912); this boundary is 
known as the andesite line or Marshall line 
(Fig. 33; Born, 1933, p. 759 and Fig. 306; 
Chubb, 1934; Bryan, 1944; Macdonald, 1945; 
Stearns, i94#a, b). 

The andesite line, where well marked, is the 
most decisive criterion for locating the bound- 



ary of the Pacific basin. Unfortunately, in 
many sectors the appropriate data are lacking, 
incomplete, or susceptible of opposite inter- 
pretation. Moreover, the underlying structure 
may be obscured locally by superficial layers 
of coral, oceanic sediments, or volcanic prod- 
ucts. It is thus necessary to call upon other 
and less direct means of detecting it. The first 
of these is the velocity of seismic surface waves 
with periods of 20 seconds or less; the mean 
velocity of such waves on paths crossing the 
Pacific basin is over 20 per cent higher than 
on exclusively continental paths. (Corre- 
sponding velocities across the Atlantic and In- 
dian Oceans are intermediate in value.) With 
increasing period and wave length this differ- 
ence becomes comparatively insignificant, con- 
sistently with the hypothesis, in regular use in 
seismology, that there are no major horizontal 
differences below the 8o-kilometer depth level. 

Further, surface waves show considerable 
loss of energy in crossing the Pacific boundary. 
Normally it is not possible to tell at what 
point in the path this takes place; but it is 
possible to compare waves traveling along ad- 
jacent paths. Surface waves traveling for appre- 
ciable distances near the boundary are greatly 
decreased in amplitude (Gutenberg, 1945). 

Reflected longitudinal waves (PP) show de- 
creased amplitudes when reflection takes place 
in the Pacific area. This is explained as due to 
high velocities near the surface (Gutenberg 
and Richter, 1935; 1939C, p. 8i6ff.). Lastly, in- 
ferences may sometimes be drawn from the 
nature of the submarine topography, when 
soundings are sufficient in number. Foredeeps, 
however, are no evidence for the Pacific 
boundary, since they occur also where arcuate 
structures front on non-Pacific areas. 

All these criteria have also been applied by 
dejersey (1946) to the limited data available 
in the Australian region. 

The methods indicate continental structure 
in certain areas covered by the waters of the 
Pacific Ocean but outside the principal Pacific 
basin, such as the Philippine Sea and the area 
between the Easter Island Ridge and the 
American coast. Noting such exclusions, the 
boundary of the Pacific area is as follows (Fig. 

38)- 

From New Zealand round the margin of the 
Tonga salient the boundary is the andesite 
line, practically as drawn by Marshall. The 
line certainly passes the Caroline Islands; the 
topography and structure suggest drawing it 
round by way of Halmahera and Yap to Guam. 



STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 



From here north to Kamchatka the Pacific 
boundary must pass east of the Island arcs with 
their andesitic volcanoes; evidence from sur- 
face waves and PP confirms this decision at 
various points. Similarly, it must pass south of 
the Aleutian arc. 

Evidence from amplitudes of surface waves 
and PP, especially at Pasadena, combines with 
the character of the submarine topography to 
draw the Pacific boundary across the Gulf of 
Alaska, leaving a large submarine continental 
area on the northeastern side. 

Off the Pacific coast of the United States and 
Mexico data are Insufficient to draw the exact 
boundary, which must pass west of the islands 
off the California coast. Southwest from Mex- 
ico the boundary must be close to the Easter 
Island Ridge. Evidence from surface waves, 
and especially clearly from PP recorded at 
Huancayo (Peru), establishes continental 
structure In part of this area, which may pos- 
sibly include isolated areas of Pacific structure. 
The Easter Island Ridge continues nearly to 
New Zealand, so that the boundary can be 
closed westward in that direction. 

Outlying areas of Pacific structure probably 
include the interiors of the Caribbean and 
South Antillean loops, and the deep Arctic 
basin north of Alaska. The first and last of 
these are indicated by amplitudes of PP. If 
any such areas exist In the Alpide belt, they 
must be very limited and consequently have 
escaped detection. 

The continental crustal structures have sev- 
eral internal divisions (cf. Fig. 32). The princi- 
pal subdivision is into a lower group of several 
layers, supposed to be basaltic in character, 
and an upper granitic or granitoid layer, on 
which the sedimentary rocks are superposed. 
The number and thicknesses of these crustal 
layers, as well as the overall thickness of the 
whole crust, vary considerably in different re- 
gions. Local differences in wave velocities of 
the deeper layers suggest variations in ma- 
terial. The total thickness of the crust is 
notably less in the areas covered by the Atlan- 
tic and Indian Oceans than in the surrounding 
continental areas, but the transition appears 
to be gradual (Ewing et aL, 1937)- As expected 
from the phenomenon of isostasy, the crustal 
structures extend to deeper levels under the 
great mountains (Gutenberg, i94$b). Under 
the Alps it is the granitic layer which is thick- 
ened; under the Sierra Nevada (Figure 32) it 
is one of the intermediate layers of presumably 
basaltic type. For regional variations in wave 



velocities and elastic constants see Gutenberg 



Wherever detailed Investigation Is possible, 
the majority of normal shallow earthquakes 
are found to originate at or near the base of 
the granitic layer. Consequently, this active 
level varies in depth from region to region. In 
the writers' Investigation of wave velocities 
and times of propagation for the whole earth, 
the mean depth of shallow shocks has been as- 
sumed to be 25 kilometers; this is a partly arbi- 
trary assumption. In many active regions small 
shocks are found originating at shallower 
depths, even within the sedimentary layers; in 
great earthquakes faulting occasionally ex- 
tends to and ruptures the surface, so that 
aftershocks may originate considerably nearer 
the surface than the main disturbance. Also in 
most regions some shocks originate in the 
lower crustal layers, and even below the Mo- 
horovicic discontinuity, where they grade into 
the group of earthquakes at Intermediate 
depth. 

Shocks at depths of 60 kilometers or less are 
listed as shallow, those at 70 kilometers as in- 
termediate. This boundary does not corre- 
spond to any discontinuity, and should be re- 
defined when more information on structures 
is available. 

The surface structures of the earth exhibit 
a number of distinct types, different In their 
geological history, and each associated with a 
characteristic pattern of seismicity. The most 
active of these are the Pacific structural arcs. 
These are folds developed about the margin of 
the Pacific basin, and elsewhere where regions 
of different crustal structure are in contact. 
Where most clearly defined, these arcs are still 
active with earthquakes at all depths, and fold- 
ing is still in progress. The similar arcs of the 
Alpide group are less active and show fewer 
of the characteristic features. 

In limited sectors about the Pacific, as 
well as in other areas, there are conditions 
such that shearing and strike-slip faulting pre- 
dominate. Long fault zones develop; displace- 
ment frequently ruptures the surface. Beep 
shocks are few or absent. 

The geological history of the earth identi- 
fies a limited number of stable masses, which 
have undergone little deformation in the later 
geological periods. The largest of these is the 
basin of the central and northern Pacific 
Ocean; the others are the continental shields 
or nuclei-7-the Canadian Shield, the Brazilian 
Shield, the Baltic Shield, the Angara Shield in 



INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL DISCUSSION 



north central Asia, the African stable mass, 
the stable region of central and western Aus- 
tralia, and the stable masses of Arabia and 



southern India, with other smaller units. 

For detailed discussion of many of the points 

touched in this section see Gutenberg 



INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL DISCUSSION 



FIGURES 3 and 4 together present the state of 
our knowledge of the geographical distribu- 
tion of seismicity, so far as it is exhibited by 
the larger shocks. The regional maps give 
further detail. The principal geographical 
divisions are: 

(1) The circum-Pacific belt, with many 
branches and subdivisions. This includes a 
large majority of shallow shocks, a still larger 
fraction of intermediate shocks, and all the 
deep shocks in the restricted sense. 

(2) The Mediterranean and trans- Asia tic 
zone, with the Alpide belt. This accounts for 
most of the remaining shallow shocks, includ- 
ing nearly all those of class a outside the Pa- 
cific belt; the Alpide belt contains all the re- 
maining intermediate shocks. 

(3) Other narrow belts, including only shal- 
low shocks. One of these extends through the 
Arctic and Atlantic Oceans; another, with sev- 
eral imperfectly known branches, through the 
Indian Ocean. 

(4) Rift zones internal to the stable masses. 
The greatest and most seismic of these is that 
of East Africa, with which some authors have 
associated that of Palestine. The Hawaiian 
Islands mark an active rift zone interior to the 
Pacific mass. 

(5) Active areas marginal to the continental 
stable masses. These are usually near seacoasts; 
but some are inland, as in central India. 

(6) Minor seismic areas. These are extensive 
regions, mostly characterized by older orog- 
enies, lying between the stable continental 
nuclei and the active belts of the first three 
groups. 

(7) Stable masses. These include the conti- 
nental nuclei of old rocks; but the great area 
of the north and central Pacific also belongs 
here. Very small shocks occur even in these 
regions, and indeed seem to take place occa- 
sionally almost anywhere. 

In the following discussion, the active areas 
of the globe have been divided into the num- 
bered regions shown on Figure i. The number- 
ing first makes the circuit about the Pacific, 
then covers the trans-Asiatic zone, and follows 
with the remaining active belts and regions of 



minor seismicity. Regions numbers 46 (Man- 
churia) and 51 (Rumania) are limited to 
deep and intermediate shocks. 

Within each numbered region serial num- 
bers have been assigned to the individual 
earthquakes (separately for shallow, inter- 
mediate, and deep shocks). The complete des- 
ignation for each shock consists of the regional 
number, a letter N, I or D indicating "normal" 
shallow depth, intermediate depth, or deep 
focus below 300 kilometers, and a serial num- 
ber in geographical order within the region. 
Thus 24137 indicates region 24, shock 37 of 
intermediate series. In most series numbers 
have been assigned at spaced intervals from i 
to 999, thus providing for later additions. In 
the regional tabulation (Tables 17, 18) only 
the serial numbers for the shocks are given, 
the regions and depth being shown as sub- 
heads. For intermediate and deep shocks the 
new numbers supersede those used in previous 
papers. Shocks later than 1945 are not in- 
cluded in Tables 17 and 18. 

The highest seismicity is reached in asso- 
ciation with arcuate structures of Pacific type. 
Moderate and occasionally high seismicity is 
found associated with structures which are not 
arcuate. These are most notable in the north- 
ern part of the trans-Asiatic zone, in the Arc- 
tic-Atlantic and Indian Ocean belts, and in 
the various rift zones. However, the Pacific 
belt includes several sectors in which the struc- 
tures are not arcuate and the displacements 
are primarily by shearing instead of folding, 
as in California, New Zealand, and Sumatra. 

The Pacific arcuate structures typically dis- 
play a unilateral ordering of structures and 
attendant phenomena, which have been de- 
scribed previously (Gutenberg and Richter, 
1945; for gravity anomalies and volcanoes see 
also Meinesz, 1939) and assigned the following 
letters, beginning on the convex side of the 
arc: 

(A) An oceanic trench, trough, or foredeep. 

(B) Shallow earthquakes and negative grav- 
ity anomalies, occurring in a narrow belt on 
the concave side of the submarine trough. Fre- 
quently the ocean bottom here rises in a ridge, 



INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL DISCUSSION 



which may emerge Into small non-volcanic 
Islands. 

(C) Maximum of positive gravity anomalies. 
Earthquakes at depths near 60 km., frequently 
large. 

(D) The principal structural arc, of Late 
Cretaceous or of Tertiary age, with active or 
recently extinct volcanoes. Shocks at depths of 
the order of 100 km. Gravity anomalies de- 
creasing. 

() A second structural arc. Volcanism older 
and usually In a late stage. Shocks at depths of 
200-300 km. 

(F) A belt of shocks at depths of 300-700 
km. 

Figure 6 shows these features in a typical 
cross section. The details vary widely from re- 
gion to region; often one or more features are 
poorly represented or unknown. 

These features are unequally and unevenly 
represented on the maps of the present paper. 
Those involving seismicity are as clearly shown 
as available data permit. Near the main islands 
of Japan more shocks are located than can 
conveniently be mapped, while in the region 
of the Southern Antilles the epicenters are 



often so uncertain as to obscure the relation 
of the seismicity to the structural arc. 

Only those volcanoes are mapped which 
have erupted within the last few centuries, as 
shown by historical records or by Indirect dat- 
ing from evidence on the ground. Volcanoes 
now In a late or solfataric stage, or those of 
whose eruption there Is only doubtful tradi- 
tion, are omitted. The intention Is to provide 
an indication of volcanic lines for correlation 
with other features; the maps and the corre- 
sponding list (Table 19) are not offered as 
documents in volcanology. 

Omission of recently extinct volcanoes re- 
moves some of the evidence for feature E from 
the maps. This is unfortunately necessary, 
since extensive mapping of this kind raises nu- 
merous problems which must be left for expert 
volcanologists. 

Submarine contours are fairly well known 
near most of the active arcs. Gravity anomalies, 
on the other hand, are very incompletely 
known, most of the data being from the sub- 
marine expeditions of Meinesz and others; 
several important arcs have not been investi- 
gated at all. 



PROFILE, VERTICAL SCALE EQUAL TO HORIZONTAL SCALE 
A 



ISO STATIC ANOMALY 



PROFILE, VERTICAL SCALE 10 TIMES HORIZONTAL SCALE 




O O 







SHOCKS SHOWN IN PROFILE 

SHALLOW X DEEPV 

INTERMEDIATE V 



FIGURE 6. Profile, northern Japanese region, showing earthquake hypocenters, relief, and isostatic gravity anomalies. 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



General survey 

The order of description is clockwise around 
the Pacific in the main active belt, beginning 
with the Aleutian Islands. On the American 
side this includes two active loops extending 
eastward the Caribbean or Antillean loop, 
and the South Antillean loop through South 
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. 
There Is also an active branch including the 
Galapagos Islands and the Easter Island 
Ridge. 

On the western side there are two branches. 
One begins south of New Zealand and follows 
the andesite line by way of the Tonga and 
Melanesian island groups to a point west of 
New Guinea, where it turns sharply north- 
eastward through Halmahera, the Caroline 
Islands, and the Marianas Islands to Japan, 
the Kurile Islands, and Kamchatka. 

The other western branch separates in cen- 
tral Japan, passing south through Kiushiu, 
Formosa, and the Philippines, and by way of 
Celebes round the Banda Sea and along the 
arc of the lesser and greater Sunda Islands to 
the Nicobar and Andaman groups. The Sunda 
arc, though remote from the Pacific Basin, ex- 
hibits all the characteristics of the Pacific type. 
The earthquakes of Burma are discussed with 
the trans-Asiatic zone. 

South of New Zealand an active belt extends 
westward to connect with those of the Indian 
Ocean; there is a less well indicated connec- 
tion between the South Antillean loop and 
the southern end of the Atlantic belt. 

Deep shocks occur in belts which locally di- 
verge widely from those characterized by shal- 
low and intermediate shocks. 

Aleutian arc 

The Aleutian arc (region i, Fig. 7) extends 
from the Commander (Komandorski) Islands 
into central Alaska. The submarine topog- 
raphy, including the Aleutian Trench, has 
been discussed by Murray (1945). 

This is a typical Pacific active arc, although 
some of the characteristic features are not well 
shown. Volcanic activity is high; data have 
been taken from various sources, and revised 
in accordance with data from Coats (1946) and 
Robinson et aL (1947). The most eastern 
known active vent is Mount Wrangell. There 



are no data for crustal structure, and gravity 
observations are few. 

The nearest seismological station is College 
(near Fairbanks, Alaska). Location is usually 
good for the larger shocks. The area is sur- 
rounded to the east, north, and west by sta- 
tions at favorable distances in America, Europe 
and Asia; at larger distances to the south there 
are several good stations. However, it is some- 
times difficult to determine the depth of focus 
precisely, since many of these earthquakes are 
near the boundary between shallow and inter- 
mediate shocks. 

East of i55W (and outside the main active 
belt west of 155 W) every shock which could 
be located has been tabulated and mapped. 
West of i55W in the main active belt the 
mapping corresponds to the general descrip- 
tion. 

In general, seismicity at shallow depth fol- 
lows the northern concave side of the Aleutian 
Trench. Activity is lower in the area of the 
Commander Islands. Near the east end of the 
arc there is higher activity in the vicinity of 
Kenai Peninsula (near i5oW). The arc as a 
whole is one of the more active sectors of the 
Pacific belt, although its seismicity is exceeded 
by those of Japan, Mexico, the Solomon Is- 
lands, and others. 

Over the whole active length of the arc, 
from about i75E to i45W, shocks are fre- 
quently in the range from 50 to 80 kilometers 
depth which crosses the boundary between 
shallow and intermediate earthquakes. Inter- 
mediate shocks at depths from 100 to 170 km. 
occur along the north side of the island arc 
and the Alaska Peninsula from 176 to i6oW. 
No deeper shocks are known in this region. 

Macroseismic data for most of the Aleutian 
arc consist of shocks felt on shipboard. Numer- 
ous shocks are felt at Dutch Harbor on Una- 
laska, and in the regions of Seward and Fair- 
banks. For recent macroseismic reports on 
Alaska refer to the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey publications under the serial 
head United States Earthquakes (Heck and 
Bodle, 1930, 1931; Neumann, 1932-1943; Bodle 
1941, 1944, 1945). 

Of the characteristic Pacific arc features, A 
is the Aleutian Trench, which extends from 
about i7oE south of the island arc and the 
Alaska Peninsula into the Gulf of Alaska al- 
most to Yakutat Bay (Murray, 1945, with 




s 

-5 

,13 



THE CIRGUM-PACIFIC BELT 



maps and profiles). Feature B Is expressed in 
the occurrence of shallow earthquakes between 
the Island arc and the Trench; It is more easily 
distinguishable from C and D at the east, 
where there Is an outer chain of non-volcanic 
islands off the Alaska Peninsula, accompanied 
by some shallow seisrnicity. Feature C, indi- 
cated by earthquakes at depths near 70 km., 
extends along the whole arc; in the main west- 
em portion it Is closely limited between the 
belt of shallow earthquakes and the volcanic 
Islands. At the eastern end in the region of 
Kenai Peninsula and Cook Inlet, these shocks 
occur well to the southeast of the volcanic line. 
Feature D is this volcanic line, including the 
entire chain of the Aleutian Islands and ex- 
tending up the coast of the Alaska Peninsula, 
accompanied by shocks at depths of 100 km. 
and over. Of these, the most westerly now 
known occurred on February 4, 1946, about 
05:44:48, near 53N, i76W, at a depth of 
1 50 km. Features E and F are not represented. 
The shallow shocks in the Interior of Alaska 
represent an interior structure, related to the 
Pacific coastal arc as the Rocky Mountains are 
related to the Pacific coast ranges. 

Alaska to British Columbia 

This is region 2 (Figs. 7 and 8), extending 
from southeastern Alaska to Puget Sound. It 
includes an area of fiord and island topog- 
raphy southward from Sitka and Juneau, as 
well as the more isolated group of the Queen 
Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island sep- 
arated from the mainland by narrow straits. 
There are no marked oceanic deeps or 
troughs. Structurally this is not one of the 
Pacific active arcs, but one of the intervening 
regions in which block faulting is dominant. 
Though shearing may occur, the drowned to- 
pography indicates vertical displacement. This 
is confirmed by the evidence of the visible 
faulting accompanying the shocks of Septem- 
ber 3 and September 10, 1899, in the region of 
Yakutat Bay; their magnitudes are of order 
854 to 81/2, as derived from seismograms repro- 
duced by Milne (1900) and by Tarr and Mar- 
tin (1912). The latter from evidence of raised 
shore lines (observed in 1905) established up- 
lifts along fault coasts reaching a maximum of 
47 feet, which is the largest known displace- 
ment attributable to a single group of earth- 
quakes (summary in Davison, 1936, Chap. xi). 

There is no topographical evidence to mark 
the boundary of the Pacific Basin in this sec- 



tor. Amplitudes of reflected longitudinal 
waves indicate that in latitude 48N it is at 
about longitude i3oW (Gutenberg and Rlch- 
ter, 1935, p. 324). 

No present volcanic activity is known. Ash 
and other evidences of recent eruption have 
been reported at several points. There is a 
questionable report of a submarine eruption, 
probably near Cape Ommaney, in 1856 (Ru- 
dolph, 1887, pp. 234, 338). 

For this region all shocks which could be 
located have been tabulated and mapped. Lo- 
cations depend largely on the data of the two 
nearest stations at Sitka and Victoria. The 
principal seismic zone extends west of the is- 
lands to about 48 N, where it ends abruptly. 
Seisrnicity is only moderate. Macroseismic data 
are few; shocks are occasionally felt on the 
Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Is- 
land. A class b shock on June 23, 1946, 17!!, 
originated near 49^4 'N, 1 241/2 W off the east 
coast of Vancouver Island, and is definitely 
east of the principal seismic zone. This is true 
of all shocks in the region of Puget Sound, in- 
cluding those which have been especially stud- 
ied (Coombs and Barksdale, 1942; Barksdale 
and Coombs, 1946). One epicenter (2N88o) is 
in southeastern Washington (Brown, 1937). 
Shocks in Idaho and M ontana are part of the 
activity of the Rocky Mountains, discussed 
with minor seismic areas. 

California and adjacent areas 

This includes regions 3 and 4 (Figs. 8 and 
31). Here also the boundary between the Pa- 
cific Basin and the continental structures is 
not well known; evidence from submarine 
topography and from seismicity indicate that 
continental structures underlie a large sub- 
marine area extending northwest off the coasts 
of California and Oregon. A somewhat similar 
area off Southern California and Lower Cali- 
fornia, with a few small islands and compli- 
cated submarine relief, is a submerged part of 
the continent; there is strong evidence of struc- 
tures like those of the mainland. Revised sub- 
marine contours for the region are given on 
charts of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
Nos. 5101, 5202, 5302, 5402, 5502, 5602. Charts 
with detailed discussion are given by Shepard 
and Emery (1941). No oceanic deeps exist. 

The present structure is largely determined 
by block faulting, although older folded struc- 
tures exist, and folding appears to be still in 
progress in the Coast Range. The geology has 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



been summarized, chiefly stratigraphically, by 
Reed (1933). Known faults have been mapped 
by Willis and Wood (Willis, 1923), and by 
Jenkins (1938). In the Coast Ranges the most 
conspicuous and most active faults are strike- 
slip features associated with characteristic rift 
topography. Chief of these Is the San Andreas 
fault, with several branches and parallel 
structures. The general trend of these faults Is 
northwest-southeast, and the southwest side 
regularly shows displacement northwest rela- 
tive to the northeast side. Such strike-slips oc- 
curred in the southern California earthquake 
of January 9,- 1857, as well as in 1906 (Lawson 
et al. 9 1908) and 1940 (Buwalda and Richter, 
1941; Ulrich, 1941) when the displacement on 
the San Andreas fault ruptured the surface. 
The direction of relative displacement is con- 
firmed by field evidence of recent motion on 
this and other faults (Buwalda, 1929; 1937). 
This has been extended to even very small 
shocks in southern California, on evidence of 
the direction of first motion recorded at the 
local stations (Gutenberg, i94ib). 

The Garlock fault appears on Figure 8 as a 
northeastward trending branch of the San An- 
dreas fault. It is also a strike-slip fault, with 
displacements toward the northeast on the 
southeast side. Small strike-slip of similar char- 
acter accompanied a shock in the central Mo- 
jave Desert on April 10, 1947. 

An important zone of faulting is that termed 
the Nacimiento fault by Reed (1933, p. 41). 
The displacements are chiefly dip-slip; there 
are no conspicuous rift structures or fresh 
scarps. Reed and others subdivide the coastal 
region by the presence or absence of the Fran- 
ciscan series of probably Jurassic age overlying 
the granitic basement rocks. Between the San 
Andreas and Nacimiento faults the Franciscan 
is absent. Further south, these rocks are lack- 
ing northeast of the Inglewood fault, and are 
missing from the east-west transverse belt of 
structures just north of latitude 34. Most of 
southern California, also including the region 
of the Mojave Desert between the Garlock and 
San Andreas faults, belongs to the area of 
granitic basement. This is accompanied by a 
comparative uniformity in the propagation of 
seismic waves, with clearer seismograms and 
more accurate location of epicenters. 

The major Sierra fault, and the north-south 
trending faults paralleling it to the east, are 
part of the structures of the Great Basin. Dis- 
placements are predominantly vertical, but 
strike-slip has also occurred, as in the great 



n 

Owens Valley earthquake of March 26, 1872 
(Hobbs, 1910; Davison, 1936, Chap. vn). A 14- 
foot vertical displacement took place In 1915 
on one of the Basin Range faults in Nevada 
(Jones, 1915; Page, 1935; shock 3X330). 

The transverse belt of structures between 
34 and 35 N is associated chiefly with thrust 
faults, except where it is traversed by the San 
Andreas fault and its associated structures, 
which are offset roughly 50 miles eastward in 
crossing it from north to south. 

Volcanic activity Is low; the period for 
which historical information bearing on erup- 
tions can be used Is comparatively short. There 
is no doubt of the activity of Tres Virgenes in 
Lower California, nor of Mount Lassen In 
California. The latter, however, is In a very 
late stage, and there is some question as to the 
nature of the eruption in 1914 (Day and Al- 
len, 1925). The latest eruption of Cinder Cone, 
a few miles east of Mount Lassen, is very re- 
cent and usually dated about 1850. Several of 
the peaks of the Cascade Mountains, such as 
Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, and Mount 
Hood, are considered by some authorities to 
have had true eruptions within historic time; 
contemporary accounts are very incomplete, 
and evidence now on the ground is inconclu- 
sive. Evidence, both historical and on the 
ground, for an eruption of Mount St. Helens 
in 1843, * s distinctly better (Jillson, 1917). 
Tres Virgenes, Lassen, Cinder Cone, and St. 
Helens are indicated definitely on the map 
(Fig. 8); the others are indicated with ques- 
tion. 

Very recent appearing sites of eruption in 
Oregon and Idaho are omitted for lack of au- 
thoritative dating. 

The crustal structure of Southern California 
has been worked out from seismometric data 
by Gutenberg (i94ga, i943b). The most re- 
cently revised results are given by Gutenberg 
(1944, pp. 158-159). 

Sediments are unevenly scattered over the 
region. In the Sierra Nevada and some other 
mountainous areas they are practically absent; 
elsewhere they accumulate in deep basins 
which extend to depths of 10 kilometers and 
over. (Uhrig and Schafer, 1937; Gutenberg 
and Buwalda, 1936.) Thus the top of the gra- 
nitic layer varies in level almost 15 kilometers. 
There is certainly not so much variation in the 
level of its base, which is generally at a depth 
of about 18 kilometers; the foci of most of the 
earthquakes are in or close to this level. There 
are at least two intermediate layers between 



34 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



the granitic layer and the Mohorovicic discon- 
tinuity. The upper of these appears to have a 
nearly constant thickness of about 15 kilo- 
meters. The lower varies greatly, from a thick- 
ness of a few kilometers in the coastal areas to 
roughly 30 kilometers under the Sierra Nevada 
(Fig. 32). Isostatic compensation for the Sierra 
block thus depends on the increased thickness 
of this lowest crustal layer. The Mohorovicic 
discontinuity, which is the lower boundary of 
the continental crust, consequently lies at a 
depth increasing from about 35 kilometers in 
the coastal areas to 60 kilometers under the 
Sierra Nevada. 

In central California, the depth of the Mo- 
horovicic discontinuity has been placed by 
Byerly (iggSb; 1939) at 32 kilometers, with a 
thickness of g kilometers for the granitic layer 
near Berkeley. In a study of wave velocities for 
shocks originating in the California coast 
ranges, Byerly (i938b) found a delay in the 
arrival times at stations in the Owens Valley, 
which he correctly interpreted as due to ob- 
struction by the downward projecting "root" 
of the Sierra Nevada. 

Gravity observations (Meinesz et al. 9 1934) 
indicate considerable negative gravity anoma- 
lies off San Francisco, and off Lower Califor- 
nia near 27 N. Data from the U.S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey show negative anomalies ap- 
proaching 100 milligals in the Puget Sound 
area. 

There are now more than twenty seisxnolog- 
ical stations, including eight belonging to the 
southern California network centered at Pasa- 
dena, six in central and northern California 
with headquarters at Berkeley, and a group of 
five (Grand Coulee Dam, Shasta Dam, and 
three stations in the Lake Mead area) with 
headquarters at Boulder City, as well as Tuc- 
son, Ukiah, and Santa Clara. This makes the 
region now one of the best covered by local 
stations; in earlier years this was far from the 
case. The first installation of modern instru- 
ments was at Berkeley in 1910, and the Pasa- 
dena group of stations began issuing reports 
in 1931. 

All shocks of magnitude definitely exceed- 
ing 5 (class c or higher) which could be located 
well enough for a significant mapping have 
been included. This involves rejecting many 
class c shocks in the region of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia where data are often insufficient for 
location. 

There is a geographic gap between the seis- 
micity of this and the previously discussed 



region. Shocks off the coast are apparently 
missing between 48N and 44N. The seismic 
zone to the south (Byerly, 1937; i938a) is defi- 
nitely out of line with that to the north. Be- 
ginning off the coast of Oregon, it extends 
southeastward into California, with a trend 
aligned with that of the San Andreas fault and 
its associated structures, suggesting that they 
continue offshore. Roughly a third of the 
shocks of the region occur in this north coastal 
zone. North of 40 N soundings show a large 
east-west submarine scarp, indicating a trans- 
verse structure which does not appear to affect 
the trend of the seismic belt (Shepard and 
Emery, 1941; Byerly, 1940). The transverse 
structures at about 34 N are associated with 
a very distinct eastward deflection of the seis- 
mic belt, which then passes southward through 
Imperial Valley and down the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. 

That central California appears low in seis- 
micity is partly an expression of temporary 
conditions; historical data suggest that since 
the earthquake of 1906 the activity of central 
California has been abnormally low relative to 
that of southern California. 

Epicenters in eastern California and west- 
ern Nevada represent activity which probably 
is not independent of that nearer the coast, 
although it belongs to a different structural 
province. A few c shocks in this area may have 
been missed, since the records are imperfect, 
and shocks of this group record with abnor- 
mally small amplitudes at distant stations. For 
the latter reason, several well-located shocks 
with magnitudes between 5.3 and 6 (as calcu- 
lated from the data of the nearer stations) have 
been omitted and are treated as of class e. His- 
torical data are almost lacking, so that it is 
impossible to tell whether the activity shown 
is fairly representative. What appears on the 
map as the westernmost of this group, the cen- 
tral California shock of February 8, 1940, is 
notable for peculiar seismograms and for focal 
depth probably in excess of that normal for 
Southern California and Owens Valley, which 
is about 18 kilometers (Gutenberg, ig43a). 

One epicenter (s>8N. i26^W) is far to 
the west of the chief active belts. Shocks far to 
the east in the Cordilleran structures are dis- 
cussed under "Minor Seismic Areas/' 

The historical record of earthquakes in Cali- 
fornia begins at a very late date (1769). Most 
of the data are collected in a catalogue (Town- 
ley and Allen, 1939) which extends to 1928. 
Data for more recent shocks are given in the 



SHALLOW EARTHQUAKES 
CLASS... fe c d 

* X x 




FIGURE 8. Western United States. 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey serial United 
States Earthquakes (Bodle, Heck, Neumann), 
and many other reports are published in the 
Bulletin of the Seisrnological Society of Amer- 
ica. References to special papers on the larger 
shocks are given in Tables 13 and 14. Papers 
on some of the smaller shocks are entered in 
the bibliography under Arnold (1918); Black- 
welder (1929); Byerly (iggSa); Byerly and 
Wilson (1935); Callaghan and Gianella 
(1934); Gutenberg, Richter, and Wood (1932); 
Laughlin et al. (1923); Mitchell (1928); Neu- 
mann (1941); Richter (1947); Sparks (1936); 
Townley (1918); Ulrich (1941); Wood 
(i933b; 1937); Willis, Byerly, et al. (1925). 

The San Andreas fault is the principal seis- 
mic locus of the region, with two great shocks, 
in 1857 and 1906, and many others of lesser 
magnitude. Its branches,, the San Jacinto and 
Hayward faults, have been the origin of sev- 
eral strong shocks. Others have occurred on 
the parallel Elsinore and Inglewood faults, 
and on faults associated with the transverse 
structural belt. 

The great earthquake of 1872 was associated 
with the major Sierra fault system. A shock of 
magnitude 61/4 occurred further south at 35.7 
N, n8.oW on March 15, 1946. Other north- 
south faults in the Basin Range region have 
shown activity; the class a shock in Nevada in 
1915 was on one of these. The Garlock fault, 
though an important and well-marked rift 
structure, has shown only minor activity in the 
short time for which information in the desert 
region it traverses is available. Many small 
shocks are known in the general region of the 
Nacimiento fault, but locations are not ac- 
curate in that region. A larger shock on April 
11, 1885, which reached destructive intensity 
north of San Luis Obispo, may have been from 
this source. 

Further details are included in the section 
on minor seismicity. The frequency of shocks 
of all magnitudes in the area has been dis- 
cussed by Gutenberg and Richter (1944). 

Mexico and Central America 

This includes regions 5 and 6 (Figs. 9 and 
10), following the Pacific coast from Colima 
to Panama. Offshore are the Guatemala 
Trench and the Acapulco Deep (Whiter oft, 
1944). The structure is that of a succession of 
active arcs, complicated by the branching off 
of the Caribbean loop. 

There are two active volcanic lines, one ex- 



tending roughly east and west across central 
Mexico from Colima to near Vera Cruz, the 
other beginning in Guatemala (Anderson, 
1908) and extending southeastward through 
Central America. 

Gravity data include a few offshore observa- 
tions by Meinesz, and the partly reduced re- 
sults of a limited number of stations in Mexico 
(Ruiz, 1937). 

The only first class seismological station in 
the region is at Tacubaya, D.F. (near Mexico 
City), with reports available beginning with 
1909. Several secondary stations have been op- 
erated in Mexico. For earlier years the abso- 
lute times reported for these secondary sta- 
tions are inaccurate; but the time intervals 
between P and S are reliable, and have often 
been used in completing locations when other 
data were scanty. 

Bosch-Omori instruments were installed at 
Ancon (Canal Zone) in December 1908. The 
installation was moved to Balboa Heights in 
October 1914. At first the time control was not 
satisfactory, but this was later overcome. These 
instruments were not highly sensitive, but 
their readings are of great value for shocks 
originating not far from Panama. Wood-An- 
derson torsion seismometers were installed in 
1932. 

For shallow shocks, the seismicity of the Pa- 
cific coast of central Mexico is the highest in 
the western hemisphere. Our map shows local 
concentrations of epicenters due to high activ- 
ity in Oaxaca in 1931 and Jalisco in 1932; the 
intervening coast (Guerrero) has been active 
at other times, notably in 1911. This chief ac- 
tive belt continues southeastward near the 
coast to western Panama, but with compara- 
tively low seismicity. It leaves the coast to turn 
southward across the Gulf of Panama. In the 
vicinity of Oaxaca a less well-defined active 
zone branches southward and westward, with 
a further trend toward the Galdpagos Islands. 

Intermediate shocks closely follow the vol- 
canic belts. For the shock 51175 supposed 
faulting is described by Urbina and Camacho 
(1913). No deep shocks are known. 

Especially for the earlier years, when instru- 
mental data were scanty, use has been made of 
the macroseismic reports collected at Tacu- 
baya. 

The Mexican region presents many of the 
typical features of a Pacific arc. Feature A is 
the trough of the Acapulco Deep and Guate- 
mala Trench. Feature B is indicated by the 
belt of high seismicity. The mountains of the 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



37 



CLASS .. b C d 
SHALLOW *" X X 

h 70-500 KM V 
HUNDREDS OISIT OF DEPTH IM KM /.2 




FIGURE 9. Mexico. 



Mexican coast correspond in position to geo- 
logically young (nonvolcanic) submarine 
ridges elsewhere. A few observations by Mei- 
nesz indicate negative gravity anomalies off 
the coast. On land there are negative anomalies 
in and north of the volcanic belt; between this 
and the coast observations are few and scat- 
tered. Feature D is the main volcanic axis of 
Mexico, accompanied by shocks at depths of 
100 kilometers or more. There is a divergence 
in trend between this and the coastal belt of 
shallow shocks, apparently connected with the 
branching off of the Caribbean loop. 

Off Central America feature B is represented 
by a zone of shallow shocks, less active than 
the Mexican zone. The line of feature C is in- 
dicated by slightly deeper shocks. Feature D 
is marked by active volcanoes and by shocks 
at depths near 100 kilometers. A few shocks at 
depths over 200 kilometers, associated with 
extinct volcanoes, represent feature E, notably 



in Chiapas and Guatemala. South of 10 north 
latitude all the features are less well marked, 
except the belt of shallow shocks, which 
spreads out southeastward and no longer sug- 
gests an arcuate structure. 

The Caribbean loop 

This is region 7 (Fig. 10). The Caribbean 
structural loop extends from Yucatan and 
Honduras round the arc of the West Indies, 
returning through Venezuela and Colombia 
to join the Andean structures. The deep 
Puerto Rico Trough is external to the loop 
on the north; the Cayman Trough (which con- 
tains the Bartlett Deep), passing from the Gulf 
o Honduras between Cuba and Jamaica, is 
directly involved in the loop. 

The eastern portion of the loop, including 
the Lesser Antilles, has most of the features of 
a Pacific active arc. On both north and south 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



limbs there Is division Into branches of differ- 
ent character. The Cayman Trough repre- 
sents one of the two northern branches; the 
other follows the curving structures of Cuba 
to Yucatan. The southern division occurs near 
Trinidad, with one branch following a line of 
small islands Including the Dutch West Indies, 
while the other extends Inland in South 
America. 

Almost all the active volcanoes are in the 
Lesser Antilles (Ferret, 1939). A possibly ac- 
tive vent (Sanare) in the interior of Venezuela 
Is described by Centeno-Graii (1940, pp. 143- 



There are no local seismic data bearing on 
the deeper crustal structures; amplitudes of 
seismic waves reflected at points in the interior 
of the loop and recorded at distant stations in- 
dicate Pacific rather than continental structure 

(Gutenberg and Richter, 1935, p. 324). Cer- 
tain shocks north of the loop, particularly in 
the vicinity of 2ON, 7oW, have peculiarities 
in the observed travel times. The T waves 

(Linehan, 1940) have been identified by Tol- 
stoy, Ewing and Press (oral communication) 
as traveling through a low-velocity layer in 
the ocean. There is evidence of unusually high 
wave velocity near the surface in the region of 
Puerto Rico. Owing to the numerous struc- 
tural discontinuities In the area, surface waves 
are rapidly broken up and dissipated; this cre- 
ates difficulties in the assignment of magni- 
tude to shocks in this area, so far as it depends 
on the amplitudes of surface waves. The mi- 
croseismic project established by the U.S. Navy 
in connection with hurricane forecasting es- 
tablished a considerable loss of energy in sur- 
face waves between Cuba and Puerto Rico, 
and between Cuba and Florida (Gutenberg, 

1947)- 

Gravity data are from surveys by submarines 
of the U.S. Navy (Ewing, 1938). The data have 
been discussed by Hess (1938; 1939). A clearly 
marked belt of negative gravity anomalies fol- 
lows the arc of the Lesser Antilles; its northern 
and southern limbs show some indication of a 
branching following the structures. Serpen- 
tinite intrusions are found along the belt on 
the northern limb; these continue westward 
through Cuba, where no large negative anom- 
alies now occur. Hess suggests that these mark 
the trace of a former extent of the belt, in 
which the forces formerly maintaining it have 
now relaxed. 

Seismological stations are located at San 
Juan, Puerto Rico (formerly at Vieques), at 



Port au Prince, at Fort de France (Marti- 
nique), and at Bogota. In the Caribbean loop 
proper all shocks have been mapped which 
could be located with any useful degree of 
accuracy. Depth determinations, especially in 
the earlier period, are less accurate than the 
average. The seismic belt follows the structural 
loop, with some indication of the branching 
described. On the north limb, most of the 
seismicity follows the Cayman Trough; the 
northern branch here is indicated only by a 
few rare shocks in northern Cuba. The one 
shown on the map (7^00) was strong at 
Remedios. There was a destructive shock in 
1880 at San Crist6bal. 

The greatest activity in the loop during re- 
cent years is north of Mona Passage between 
Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The general ac- 
tivity of the remainder of the loop in recent 
years is lower than the historical record sug- 
gests as normal. However, even this still indi- 
cates a level of activity well below average for 
the Pacific belt. The historical record, extend- 
ing over four centuries, includes a number of 
locally destructive shocks which have given the 
region an undeserved reputation for high seis- 
micity. 

Seismicity at shallow depth is lowest in the 
eastern part of the loop. A shock on May 21, 
1946, near i5N, 6iW, magnitude 6s^, was 
destructive on Martinique. The majority of 
the intermediate shocks, some of them large, 
occur under the Lesser Antilles. On the south- 
ern limb of the loop the greatest activity is in 
the southern branch, passing through Vene- 
zuela. The coastal cities of Caracas and Cu- 
mana are in this branch. The more northerly 
branch, passing through the Dutch West In- 
dies, is less well indicated by recent instru- 
mental data, but there is a history of strong 
shocks at Cartagena and Barranquilla. As in 
many other regions, the active line here ap- 
pears to follow the 2ooo-meter isobath, which 
suggests drawing it west and north to include 
epicenters north of Panama and Costa Rica. 

Macroseismic data for the West Indies have 
been given by Scherer (1912) and Taber 
(1920; 1922). The whole region, with special 
reference to Venezuela, has been discussed by 
Centeno-Graii (1940). 

Nearly all the strong earthquakes of Cuba 
have been near Santiago, the most notable be- 
ing those of 1678, 1755, 1766, 1932 and 1947. 
Faulting in this region has been described by 
Thayer and Guild (1947). Shocks in 1692 and 
on January 14, 1907, were very destructive on 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



Jamaica. Taber (1920) considers that both 
originated off the north coast. A class b shock 
in 1941 (yNiyo) was strongly felt on Jamaica. 
Both the northern and southern structures of 
Hispaniola have been associated with very de- 
structive shocks the former in 1842, the lat- 
ter in 1751 and 1770. 

For the Puerto Rico earthquake of 1918, 
with epicenter in Mona Passage, see Reid and 
Taber (igiga; igigb). The only shocks as- 
signed to class a in the entire region are those 
of July 29, 1943, and August 4, 1946, with epi- 
centers farther north. 

The arc passing through the Lesser Antilles 
is a Pacific-type structure, although it fronts 
on a non-Pacific area. Feature A is most evi- 
dent in the very deep Puerto Rico Trough, but 
the depths are not so great opposite the arc of 
small islands. Feature B is marked by shallow 
earthquakes, which are most frequent and in- 
tense opposite the Puerto Rico Trough, and 
by the strong belt of negative gravity anoma- 
lies. This feature also includes the non-vol- 
canic Barbados Ridge. Feature D is the main 
volcanic arc, accompanied by shocks at depths 
of 100 kilometers and over. Intermediate 
shocks in Venezuela east of Cumana appar- 
ently continue this feature; but the structural 
and other relations are imperfectly known and 
are complicated by branching. Features E and 
F are unrepresented. 

Andean zone 

This zone falls chiefly in region 8, but struc- 
turally includes parts of regions 6, 7, 9 (Fig. 
11). In addition to the Andes proper, it in- 
volves the active coastal Cordillera on the 
west, and on the east a belt of activity at great 
depths beyond the mountains, as well as the 
Mendoza region. Marked oceanic troughs oc- 
cur off the coast. For geological references see 
Weeks (1947) and Oppenheim (1947). 

Until recently the only available gravity 
data were those of land stations (Aslakson, 
1942). These are insufficient to clear up the 
evident complications. The Office of Naval 
Research, in collaboration with Columbia 
University, has initiated a long-term program 
of submarine gravity observations intended 
eventually to survey the entire Pacific area. 
This work is under the supervision of Dr. 
Maurice Ewing. In 1947 a number of profiles 
were run off the South American coast by Mr. 
Paul C. Wuenschel on board the U.S.S. Con- 
ger, using Vening Meinesz apparatus. Accord- 



ing to the information kindly supplied by Dr. 
Ewing during the printing of this volume, pre- 
liminary calculations on three traverses, off 
Guayaquil, off Chiclayo, and off Antofagasta, 
show gravity minima, with the free air anom- 
alies reaching 150 milligals at about the foot 
of the continental slope. The zones of pro- 
nounced negative anomaly appear to be about 
100 kilometers wide. 

Especially in the southern part of the An- 
dean Zone, the structures and features of Pa- 
cific-type arcs occur. In the region of Peru 
these features are obscured and partly obliter- 
ated by a shear-type structure; here conspicu- 
ous recent fault scarps with forms suggesting 
those found in regions of strike-slip faulting, 
show that displacements reach the surface 
(Rich, 1942). The class b shock of November 
10, 1946, produced a scarp 4 kilometers long 
and up to 2.5 meters in height (Silgado, 1947). 

Location of South American earthquakes 
depends heavily on the reports from La Paz 
for the entire period since that station was 
established. The station at Huancayo (Peru) 
began recording in August 1932. Since the 
seismograms to 1944 are on file at Pasadena, 
comparison with records written in California 
has been very useful. Other important stations 
are La Plata, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago de Chile 
(to 1938, and since 1946 together with Punta 
Arenas and two other stations). The new sta- 
tion at Bogota has been very helpful in the 
northern part of the area. Many minor stations 
have been operated in South America, some 
only for a few years, some with unreliable time 
service, some with insensitive and obsolete 
types of instruments. The most important of 
these, all with good timing, are C6rdoba-Pilar, 
Montezuma, and Sucre. Pilar, with a Milne 
instrument of the older type, was often the 
only source of data on South American shocks 
until the establishment of the La Paz station 
in 1913. Montezuma is situated in a region 
where there are many shocks at intermediate 
depth. 

Shocks have been mapped whenever the lo- 
cation was dependable. Many otherwise well- 
recorded shocks have been rejected because it 
was not possible to determine the depth, which 
usually leads to uncertainty in the epicenter. 
The number of intermediate shocks located in 
the region of Peru is disproportionately high, 
owing to the use of the Huancayo seismograms. 
Many others with well-determined depth could 
not be placed accurately; often all the report- 
ing stations are to the north. 



EARTHQUAKES 
LASS: o b c 

SHALLOW -J( -$f X 

h- 70-300 ^7 V 
h 300 KM. W 




FIGURE 11. South America and adjacent Pacific. 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



Shocks of the largest magnitudes are more 
frequent relative to smaller earthquakes than 
in most other active regions. Except in the re- 
gion of Peru, the overwhelming majority of 
located shocks show indication of focal depth 
greater than usual. Even shocks listed as shal- 
low frequently can be placed at depths of 40 
to 60 kilometers. In general, shallow shocks 
occur near the coast, intermediate and deep 
shocks farther inland. In Peru some shallow 
shocks, which are occasionally destructive, oc- 
cur several hundred kilometers inland. The 
Mendoza region of western Argentina lies east 
of the Andes; here shocks occur which are 
shallow and sometimes locally disastrous, as at 
Mendoza in 1861 and San Juan in 1944 (Cas- 
tellanos, 1945). This is a region of Mesozoic 
folds which branch eastward from the main 
Andean system. 

The epicenter of the shock 8N84O of 1931 
is revised to a point off the coast north of San 
Antonio, the only locality where it was re- 
ported felt (Bobillier, igs^a). This shock is 
notable for disproportionately large surface 
waves at distant stations as well as at Santi- 
ago. It appears to be an unusually shallow 
shock for the region. 

Seismicity decreases south of 37 S; no recent 
shock has been found south of 45 S, From 
these latitudes a minor active belt extends 
westward. A strong shock occurred in 1879 
near the Strait of Magellan. 

Macroseismic data for current shocks, as well 
as historical summaries, appear in bulletins 
issued from Santiago. Among recent general 
publications is that of Briiggen (1943). 

Of the typical Pacific arc features, A is rep- 
resented by oceanic troughs extending with 
interruptions to about 37 S. Feature B is well 
established by the negative gravity anomalies 
lately observed, which are in the typical posi- 
tion with respect to the shallow shocks and the 
oceanic troughs. Shallow and slightly deep 
shocks, (feature C), some of large magnitude, 
follow the coast to about 37 S. The structural 
line of feature D is continuously followed by 
shocks at depths of 100 to 150 kilometers. Ac- 
tive volcanoes occur along this line, but are 
absent between 2 and i5S. Only one inter- 
mediate shock is known south of 37, but 
active volcanoes continue to at least 43 S. 

Feature E is typically developed in the east- 
ern Puna de Atacama, between 20 and 25$ 
at about 67 W, where shocks at depths of 200 
kilometers and more are very frequent; they 
follow a line of nearly extinct volcanoes 



(Briiggen, 1947). Similar shocks occur else- 
where along the eastern Cordillera, 

Feature F is represented by deep shocks east 
of the Andes. Most of these are at depths near 
600 to 650 kilometers, with a few as shallow as 
550 kilometers. These shocks are infrequent, 
although some of them are large (8D8o and 
8D8i, magnitude 7.6; Inglada, 1943). Not 
enough of them are well located to establish 
the existence of a continuous belt. 

Southern Antilles 

Region 10 (Figs. 12 and 27). The name was 
applied by Suess to the island arc connecting 
South America with the Antarctic. It includes 
the South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South 
Sandwich Islands, and South Georgia. The 
Falkland Islands to the north are geologically 
different. East of the arc lies the deep South 
Sandwich Trench. This and the topography 
of the entire area are well shown on the Hy- 
drographic Office chart of Antarctica (No. 
2562), accompanying the Sailing Directions for 
Antarctica (Hydrographic Office, 1943), which 
include valuable information of all kinds for 
the area south of 60 S. 

Fragmentary geological data indicate that 
the arc is an active structure of Pacific type 
analogous to that of the Caribbean loop. 
There is some indication of a ridge or rise 
closing the loop in a position analogous to 
that of the Isthmus of Panama. 

There are probably three active volcanoes 
in the South Sandwich Islands, and four others 
less well-documented in the region of Palmer 
Peninsula on the Antarctic arm o the loop. 

Seismic mapping is difficult in this area, 
which is remote from all stations. Location de- 
pends principally on the records at La Paz, 
with data from La Plata, Cape Town, Tana- 
narive, and stations in Australia and New 
Zealand. Some of the epicenters mapped may 
be in error by as much as 5. 

The seismicity of this region is somewhat 
higher than that of the Caribbean loop. It was 
first discussed by Tarns (i93oa; *93ob). Inter- 
mediate shocks are found in the South Sand- 
wich Islands only. Epicenters of shallow 
shocks appear to follow the structural loop, 
being most frequent also near the South Sand- 
wich Islands. None have been located south, of 
63 S. There are no epicenters following the 
probable structural connection with the An- 
dean zone. There is a definite line of epicenters 
extending from near 60 S, 25 W eastward and 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



43 



somewhat northward in the direction of Bon- 
vet Island, following a ridge which extends 
into the southern Indian Ocean, and so con- 
necting with the seismic belt there. 

Of the typical arc features, A, B, and D can 
be identified in die region of the South Sand- 
wich Trench and South Sandwich Islands. 
Gravity data are lacking, and the comparative 
uncertainty of locating epicenters in this re- 
mote region prevents detailed investigation. 

Eastern and Southern Pacific 

Regions 43 and 44 (Figs. 11 and 12). The 
southeastern boundary of the Pacific basin in 
the limited sense appears to be marked by a 
series of oceanic ridges and rises which trend 
southward from central Mexico, pass west of 
the Galapagos group, and follow the Easter 
Island Rise into the Antarctic south of New 
Zealand. Much of the oceanic area southeast 
of this boundary appears to be a region of 
continental crustal structure (Gutenberg and 
Richter, 1935, p. 314; 1941, p. 37; many more 
observations are now available). Data of all 
kinds are scanty. Soundings are few, and are 
completely lacking in many large areas. The 
state of information in the southern portion is 
well shown on the Hydrographic Office chart 
of Antarctica. 

The absence of intermediate shocks, and 
the scattered epicenters of the few located 
shocks, indicate that in this region there are 
no active arcs of the Pacific type. It is probable 
that the seismicity corresponds rather to shear 
type structures. Active volcanoes occur in the 
Galapagos group, near the Juan Fernandez 
Islands and on San Felix. 

Location of epicenters is increasingly diffi- 
cult with increasing south latitude. In the far 
south it is more uncertain than in almost any 
other active area. La Paz and Huancayo are 
the only first-class stations at moderate dis- 
tance. For the larger shocks, North American 
and New Zealand stations can be used. Papeete 
was useful during its short period of reporting 
(1937-1939; resumed in 1948). Special effort 
has been made to include far southern shocks, 
and every observed time of P, PP, or 5, has 
been used to check the epicenters. Shocks are 
listed even when the location is in doubt by 
five degrees. 

The principal belt of seismicity follows the 
line of rises referred to as forming the bound- 
ary of the Pacific basin. Off Colombia and 
Panama is an area of probably complicated 



structure, with scattered epicenters. Near the 
Galapagos group the line of activity is de- 
flected to the east. From, that vicinity south- 
ward the principal seismicity closely follows 
the Easter Island Rise. There are also epi- 
centers southeast of Easter Island along a belt 
extending toward the South American coast. 
Shocks 44N990 and 44^91 at is^S, gzy 2 W 
are far from any others. These recorded with 
relatively small surface waves. 

A few of these shocks are near the boundary 
between shallow and intermediate depth. One 
in 1918 (43N8oo) had been assigned a depth 
of about 200 kilometers from the travel times, 
but the surface waves are well developed 
though not large, corresponding to a depth of 
about 60 kilometers. The epicenter, at 301^ 
S, 92i/W is fairly well determined and is re- 
mote from any others. 

No shocks had been located along the Easter 
Island Rise west of about i5oW, until one 
of magnitude 7 occurred on December 15, 1947, 
19:20:26, near 6oS, 161 W. There remains a 
gap to 66 S, i75E, where one shock (50^00) 
is known. 

Macroseismic data consist of a few reports of 
seaquakes felt on shipboard. Rudolph (1895, 
p. 581) reports a typical example in 1884 at 
5457'S, i2834'W. 

Indian-Antarctic Swell 

Region 45, Figures 12 and 13. This structure 
appears as a continuation of the Easter Island 
Ridge. Lines of sounding cross it at widely 
separated points. Seismicity is definitely higher 
than that of the preceding region, and over 40 
epicenters have been located, depending 
chiefly on readings at the stations in Australia 
and New Zealand. Only shallow shocks are 
found. The principal group does not extend 
west of i35E, but there are a few epicenters 
following the rises into the Indian Ocean 
(Fig. 12). 

Macquarie Island to Stewart Island 

Region 11, Figures 12 and 13. Submarine 
ridges trending southwest-northeast here form 
the southern extremity of the New Zealand 
structures. The smaller shocks can be located 
only from stations in New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia; but seismicity is moderately high, and 
two class a shocks have been located. The belt 
of shallow shocks follows the ridges mentioned. 
Some shocks west of this have been assigned 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



45 



SHALLOW 
EARTHQUAKES 

CLASS:- a b c 4 
X x 



VOLCANO 

OCEAN "DEPTH, KM. 

0246 




FIGURE 13. Region southwest from New Zealand. 



slightly greater depths, but are not true inter- 
mediate shocks. Determination of depth is 
troublesome in this region. P r is often very 
weak and late, even where large amplitudes 
are to be expected. A rather journalistic ac- 
count of a shock felt on Macquarie Island has 
been reprinted from the Sydney Gazette of 
June 22, 1816 (Anonymous, 1917). 

* 

New Zealand 

Region 11, Figure 14. New Zealand includes 
areas which differ in structure and seismicity. 
Except at the extreme southwest, the southern 
part of the South Island is one of the relatively 



stable blocks which intervene even in the most 
active parts of the Pacific Belt. The North 
Island and the northern part of the South Is- 
land form the southern extremity of the active 
arcs of the Tonga salient, with a transition 
southward from the arcuate forms to a block 
structure. The Auckland Peninsula is rela- 
tively stable. Structures and associated faults 
have been discussed by Henderson (1929), 
with a large-scale fault map. A general account 
is given by Cotton (1942, especially Chap, 
xm). The block structure has developed since 
the middle Tertiary. Henderson considers 
New Zealand as the uplifted edge of a gigantic 
continental block which has bowed up and 



4 6 



THE CIRCUM-FAGIFIC BELT 



SHALLOW 
h 8 70-300 KM 
h > 300 KM. 
HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH 
IN KM. /,2 '"5 




FIGURE 14. New Zealand. 



shattered under pressure. However, it is clear 
that the displacements have been accompanied 
by shearing. This is suggested by the long 
rift structures (trending northeast-southwest) 
which traverse the North Island and the north- 
ern part of the South Island, and is confirmed 
by large strike-slip components observed in 
several cases when faulting has broken the 
surface. Some of these rift structures show a 
recent reversal of vertical faulting (Cotton, 
1947). The character of the surface rock is 
such as to produce frequent enormous land- 
slides, which interfere with the observation of 
trace and rift features. A list of recent fault 
scarps, with a map, is incorporated in the 
paper by Ongley (1943^. The more important 
instances, with references, are discussed by 
Ferrar and Grange (1929). The Alpine Fault 
of the South Island has been discussed by Well- 



man and Willett (1942) and by Cotton (i947b). 
There are indications of Quaternary movement 
of the west side northward by about one mile. 

The Awatere earthquakes on the South Is- 
land in October 1848 led to the discovery of 
a remarkable rift, but it is uncertain whether 
there was surface displacement due to these 
shocks. 

The earthquake on the North Island on 
January 23, 1855, is the subject of one of the 
earliest published notices of actual faulting 
accompanying an earthquake (Lyell, 1868). 
Ongley (i943a) has investigated present evi- 
dences of this displacement. He finds that 
some of the features described and figured by 
Lyell are not on the trace of the active fault. 

Principally strike-slip displacement occurred 
on a fault near Glenwye, South Island, in the 
Amuri earthquake of September i, 1888 (Me- 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



47 



Kay, 1890, 1892, summarized by Montessus de 
Ballore, 1924, pp. 209-210). Both horizontal 
and vertical displacements occurred in the 
Buller or Murchison earthquake in the West 
Nelson district of the South Island on June 16, 
1929 (Fyfe, 1929; Henderson, 1937). Small dis- 
placements were found after the earthquake 
of 1942 (Ongley, 19430). Displacements of 
trigonometric points were found following the 
Wairoa earthquake of 1932 (Ongley et al, 
1937; discussed by Bartrum, 1939). 

No oceanic trough is known off the New 
Zealand coast. The well-known volcanic activ- 
ity is discussed by Cotton (1942); there is a 
brief notice in Henderson (1943). Ruapehu has 
been added to the active list by a recent erup- 
tion (1945-1946). 

Crustal structure has been derived from the 
data of local earthquakes by Hayes (19360) 
and by Bullen (1936; 1938; 1939). The Moho- 
rovicic discontinuity is found at the very shal- 
low depth of 30 kilometers. Bullen (1939) 
finds two upper layers with a combined thick- 
ness of about 12 kilometers, and one or more 
intermediate layers between these and the Mo- 
horovicic discontinuity. Below this, the wave 
velocities are the same as at corresponding 
levels in other regions. 

Since early in 1931 an active group of local 
seismological stations has been maintained, 
with reports issued from the Dominion Ob- 
servatory, Wellington. Reports from Welling- 
ton and Christchurch begin much earlier, with 
Milne instruments of the old type. Modern in- 
struments were installed at Wellington in 1924 
and at Christchurch in 1931. Several of the 
stations are now equipped with Wood-Ander- 
son torsion seismometers, which has made pos- 
sible direct application of the magnitude scale 
for local shocks (Hayes, i94ib) in the form 
developed for Southern California. 

Epicenters for many small earthquakes are 
regularly reported from Wellington. In the 
present study only those are included which 
were fairly well recorded at distant stations. 
Minor local shocks are not considered, follow- 
ing the rule here applied also to California, 
Europe, and Japan. 

The historical period in New Zealand is very 
short, but much information has been assem- 
bled. The catalogue by Bastings (1935) begins 
with 1835. The evidence has been discussed 
geographically by Bastings and Hayes (1935), 
Hayes (19410; 1944), and Henderson (1943). 
Instrumental locations from 1931 to 1940 were 
revised by Hayes, and the results mapped 



(Hayes, 1941 a). Numerous other papers on 
New Zealand seismology have been published, 
especially in the New Zealand Jouinal of Sci- 
ence and Technology. 

The principal seismic area of New Zealand 
includes the northern part of the South Island 
and the eastern part of the North Island. Seis- 
micity is comparable with that of Southern 
California. The map by Hayes (1941 a) shows 
a scattering of epicenters for small shocks simi- 
lar to that found in California and other re- 
gions; the epicenters fail to mark out the 
structural features. Intermediate shocks at 
depths near 100 to 200 kilometers follow the 
volcanic line which trends northeast-southwest 
through the center of the North Island. In the 
fiord region at the southwest of the South Is- 
land shocks are frequently felt. Macroseismic 
data as well as instrumental readings for some 
of these indicate depths greater than those of 
the shallow shocks of the northern active area. 
They form the northern extremity of the ac- 
tive zone discussed in the previous section. 

The Tonga salient 

Regions 12 and 13, Figure 15. Northward 
from New Zealand the andesite line outlines 
the margin of the submerged Australasian 
continental area, trending northeast toward 
the Samoa group, then westward north of the 
Fiji Islands (Marshall, 1912). The eruptive 
rocks of Samoa are of Pacific type, comparable 
with those of Hawaii. The boundary between 
continental and Pacific rocks, defining the 
andesite line in the Samoa-Fiji region, has 
been discussed by Macdonald (1945) and 
Stearns (i945a). This eastern and northeast- 
ern Australasian borderland is here referred 
to as the Tonga Salient. It includes many small 
islands in addition to the Fiji group, notably 
the Tonga and Kermadec groups along the 
east front. Opposite these are the deep Tonga 
and Kermadec trenches. 

Investigation of crustal structure in this 
area from seismic data has been attempted by 
de Jersey (1946). Seismograms at Apia are 
often unusual in character. Angenheister 
(igsiajb) derived abnormally high velocities 
in the region of Apia from the data of a num- 
ber of shocks, assuming normal focal depth; 
but several of these certainly were instances 
of deep focus, and it is to be suspected that 
others were. Consequently, Angenheister's re- 
sult must now be received with reserve. 

The only gravity data are those of Hecker 



4 8 

(Helskanen, 1936, p. 932; Sdimehl, 1931, p. 
240), using boiling-point observations to find 
negative gravity anomalies of about 200 milli- 
gals over the Tonga Deep and positive anoma- 
lies of about the same amount over the Tonga 
Plateau. 

Except for large shocks, location in this re- 
gion depends mainly on readings at Apia, sup- 
plemented by those at stations in New Zea- 
land and Australia. A Milne instrument was 
set up at Suva; but the times were generally 
inaccurate. Recently this installation has been 
improved; readings available for July-Decem- 
ber 1943 were very useful. 

Along the east front of the salient shocks are 
frequent, and only those which were required 
for statistics or were unusually well observed 
have been listed. Some shallow shocks appear- 
ing farther east than might be expected have 
been investigated with special care. Deep 
shocks are common but data are frequently in- 
sufficient for determination of location and 
depth, and only well-recorded shocks have 
been worked out. Recently many definitely 
deep shocks had to be rejected for lack of data 
required to fix the epicenter. Along the north 
front of the salient, and outside of it toward 
Samoa, every shock that could be located with 
reasonable accuracy has been worked out and 
plotted. 

In general, shallow shocks occur along the 
andesite line, which runs east of the Kermadec 
and Tonga Islands, and curves westward from 
a point south of Samoa to pass north and west 
of the Fiji group, thence apparently north- 
westward toward the New Hebrides. This is 
the boundary of the Tonga salient, but a few 
exceptional shallow shocks are just outside it 
in the Pacific area. The seismicity represented 
by shallow shocks is somewhat above average 
for the Pacific belt. 

Intermediate shocks are frequent; and the 
area southeast of the Fiji Islands is one of the 
most active sources of deep shocks in the 
world, including two o the largest known 
(120130, Brunner, 1938; 120340, Westland, 
1938). Deep shocks in this area are included in 
studies by Hayes (i936b; 1939). Father D. 
O'Connell (1946) has revised the readings at 
Riverview, especially during earlier years and 
with particular reference to deep shocks. Many 
additions to our catalogue of deep shocks are 
the result of correspondence with him. 

Macroseismic data are scanty. Shocks are 
frequently felt at Apia, and the reports of that 
station and the New Zealand group occasion- 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



ally refer to shocks felt on Raoul (Sunday) 
Island in the Kermadec group, at Nukualofa 
(Tonga), and elsewhere. 

Features of the Pacific arc type are well de- 
veloped in association with the eastern front 
of the salient. Feature A is the trough includ- 
ing the Tonga and Kermadec Deeps. Feature B 
is indicated by shallow shocks between these 
deeps and the islands; Hecker's negative grav- 
ity anomalies are in line with this. Feature C 
is strongly suggested by shocks near the bound- 
ary between shallow and deep earthquakes; 
usually there is uncertainty as to exact depth 
which affects the epicentral determination, 
making it not sure whether these are in the 
position to be expected between the preceding 
and following features. Feature D is marked 
by the line of islands, including several active 
volcanoes, extending into the North Island of 
New Zealand, and by shocks at depths of 100 
to 200 kilometers. Feature F is well marked by 
the north-south belt of deep shocks centering 
about i79W. Between this and feature D, 
shocks occur at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. 

The north front of the Tonga salient is in- 
dicated by shallow shocks. No oceanic deeps 
are known, and the other Pacific features are 
doubtful or poorly represented. 

The structural and seismic transition to the 
next region is uncertain. The map gives the 
impression of an offset between the southern 
New Hebrides and the northern Tonga Is- 
lands, conceivably due to tectonic displace- 
ments. There is a small group of shocks in 
the vicinity of i6S, i74E. 

New Hebrides 

Region 14, Figure 15. This region has the 
character of a narrow Pacific type active arc 
which fronts to the southwest, away from the 
Pacific basin. The oceanic deeps are adjacent 
to the islands on that side. The volcanoes have 
been described by de la Rue (1937). A prelimi- 
nary note on a submarine gravity expedition 
across the Pacific (Anonymous, 1949) indi- 
cates that the circum-Pacific seismic belt was 
crossed by it five times in 1948. One of these 
profiles was run between the Santa Cruz Is- 
lands and the New Hebrides. Large negative 
gravity anomalies were 'found on all five cross- 
ings. 

The nearest seismological stations are Suva 
and Apia and those of Australia and New 
Zealand. Location of shocks in this region has 



THE CIRGUM-PACIFIC BELT 



49 



!60E 



170 E 



170 Vi 



HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH 
IN KM. 1,2, * 



VOLCANOES STATIONS 



OCEAN DEPTH, KM. 
2 4 6 8 10 




160 E 



170 E 



I70W 



FIGURE 15. Tonga salient. 



always been difficult; it is complicated by the 
occurrence of shocks in the whole range of 
shallow and intermediate depths. The estab- 
lishment of the station at Brisbane in 1937 * m " 
proved the situation materially. With Sep- 
tember 1943, the Brisbane readings are taken 
from Benioff instruments. This new first-class 
installation has added much new data for the 
study of all shocks in the southwest Pacific. 



In general, only the larger shocks have been 
tabulated and mapped. Shocks with unusual 
epicenters and depths have been included 
whenever the data were sufficient to establish 
them. It is frequently difficult to distinguish 
shallow shocks from those in the upper part of 
the intermediate range. This is one of the 
regions like the coast of South America, in 
which the deeper shocks are relatively fre- 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFJC BELT 



quent, and those shocks classified as shallow 
are largely in the deeper part o that range. 
The region is one of the most active sources 
for intermediate shocks. 

A few shallow shocks appear to be disasso- 
ciated from the main structural arc; those near 
i5S, i7oE suggest a connection with the 
shocks west of the Fiji Islands, and those near 
22 S, i74E follow a structure trending east 
and then north toward the Fiji group. 

Feature A is indicated by the oceanic deeps 
near the islands. As in South America, the 
depths indicated for the nearest shocks suggest 
feature C rather than B. Feature D is shown 
by the volcanic islands and accompanying in- 
termediate shocks. The only representatives of 
features E or F are two shocks (140200 and 
140700) at depths somewhat exceeding 300 
kilometers. 

Solomon Islands to New Guinea 

Regions 15 and 16, Figures 15 and 16. This 
includes at least three structurally different 
regions; (i) the principal group of the Solo- 
mon Islands, which resembles that of the New 
Hebrides in being an arcuate structure of 
Pacific type fronting away from the Pacific 
basin, (2) the anomalous arc of the Bismarck 
Islands, with structures extending into New 
Guinea, and (3) the region of central New 
Guinea, with only shallow earthquakes and no 
typical arcuate structures. (See van Bem- 
melen, 1939.) 

Data for certain of the volcanoes have been 
taken from Fisher (1939, 1940). The submarine 
gravity survey in 1948, mentioned in the pre- 
ceding section, included one profile between 
Bougainville Island and New Britain, with 
large negative anomalies near the seismic belt. 

Location of shocks in this region is some- 
what less troublesome than for the New Heb- 
rides, on account of the shorter distances from 
stations in the Netherlands East Indies and 
from Manila. 

In the region o the Solomon and Bismarck 
Islands seismicity reaches a high level (with a 
relatively large number of class b shocks), 
probably exceeded only in the Japanese area. 
Accordingly, only those shallow shocks needed 
for statistical study have been included, ex- 
cept for smaller shocks north and west o the 
Bismarck Islands, where the epicenters are of 
interest for structural reasons. Intermediate 
and deep shocks have been included whenever 
the data were adequate. 



In the Solomon Islands large typically shal- 
low shocks are frequent. Many of these gen- 
erate enormous surface shear waves of the 
Love type (G waves), with periods of more 
than one minute and actual ground ampli- 
tudes of several centimeters even at large dis- 
tances. Those of shock i5Nioo are discussed 
by Gutenberg and Richter (i934c, pp. 68-73) 
and attributed to displacement of large crustal 
blocks. 

Feature A is represented by oceanic troughs 
south of the Solomon group; large shallow 
earthquakes occur next to this in the position 
of feature B. Here it is feature C which is un- 
certain. Feature D is represented by rather 
lower volcanic activity than in the New Heb- 
rides, with fewer intermediate earthquakes. 
Feature E may perhaps be associated with the 
northeastern, less actively volcanic, islands of 
the group. Feature F is apparently represented 
by the following shock: 1947, May 26, 19:40:55 
(with small foreshock at 17: 3 3 -.55) located 
tentatively at 8^S, i58E, depth 560 kilo- 
meters, magnitude about 614. 

The active arc of New Britain, while pre- 
senting many of the typical features, fronts in 
an unusual direction. It has a definite foredeep 
(feature A) off the convex southern coast. 
Shallow and slightly deep shocks (features B, 
C) occur chiefly in the northern part of the arc. 
Feature D is well represented by intermediate 
shocks and by volcanoes. The volcanic line 
extends westward through the line of islands 
off the north coast of New Guinea; it is paral- 
leled by intermediate shocks south of it. 
Deeper shocks, possibly referable to feature E 
or F, occur in the area of northern New Brit- 
ain, At 7S, i53E is shock 150500, doubtfully 
assigned a depth of 450 kilometers. This epi- 
center is probably not in error by more than 
2. It falls between the New Britain arc and 
the Solomons, in an extremely disturbed re- 
gion. 

The structures including New Ireland and 
the Admiralty Islands, accompanied by shal- 
low shocks, may be regarded either as a loop 
in continuation of the New Britain arc or as 
an extension of the northern line of the Solo- 
mon Islands. The frequent intermediate 
shocks of northeastern New Guinea fall in the 
volcanic line which passes west from New Brit- 
ain through small islands off the New Guinea 
coast (Fisher, 1940). However, they all also fall 
into a structural arc extending from Central 
New Guinea into the southeastern peninsula, 
where there are active volcanoes. North~cen- 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



tral New Guinea is a region of frequent shal- 
low earthquakes, some of them large, and 
there is a foredeep off the north coast. Other 
typical features do not appear. 

A small group of shocks centering about 
iS, i5iE is anomalously far north of the ac- 
tive belts. 

Western New Guinea is associated with the 
structures of the Banda Sea region, discussed 
later. 

Caroline Islands 

Region 17, Figure 16. The interpretation of 
the circum-Pacific belt here adopted connects 
the active zones just discussed with that of the 
Caroline Islands. This involves a very sharp 
change of direction in the vicinity of Halma- 
hera. The structures of that island constitute 
an active arc of Pacific type, with its convex 
front to the west. The associated seismicity and 
other features support this interpretation. De- 
tails will be found in the section dealing with 
the Moluccas. From Halmahera the structural 
zone continues northeast by way of Yap to 
Guam. 

An unsuccessful search has been made for 
epicenters which might establish an active 
connection across the area between Guam and 
the Bismarck Islands. There are reports of 
shocks felt on Ponape. An earthquake in 1925, 
doubtfully assigned to this area in previous 
papers, has been rejected. The few shocks 
north of the Bismarck Islands near iS, 151 E 
are probably marginal outliers of the southern 
active zone. On the northwest, a number of 
epicenters are definitely southeast of the struc- 
tural line indicated by oceanic troughs, etc., 
but a wide gap is left unclosed. 

The line of islands, and the submarine con- 
tours, clearly indicate a structure passing by 
way of Palau and Yap. (See also Hess, 1948.) 
Only the northern part is associated with seis- 
micity; between Halmahera and Palau no epi- 
centers are known. 

The location of the andesite line here is 
somewhat uncertain. The western Carolines, 
including Yap, are andesitic; the eastern Caro- 
lines are islands of Pacific type. Chubb (1934) 
and others have drawn the boundary rather 
far to the east, crossing from the region of Yap 
to that of the Bismarck Islands; but there 
seems to be no direct evidence for this (Bridge, 
1948). 

A good station was operated by the Japanese 
at Palau. A small station without absolute 



timing was in operation at Agana, Guam. Sta- 
tions at Manila and in the Netherlands East 
Indies have supplied essential data for small 
shocks in this region. Many shocks occur in 
the vicinity of Guam, and only a representa- 
tive fraction of these have been studied. Every 
shock which could be located in the rest of 
this region has been worked out and tabulated. 
Magnitude determination here is exception- 
ally difficult; the surface waves are abnormally 
diminished, either by slight focal depth, or by 
loss of energy in crossing the various structural 
boundaries surrounding the region. No true 
intermediate shocks have been found, except 
near Guam. 

Some of the Pacific arc features can be iden- 
tified in the region of Yap. There is a foredeep 
(feature A), and negative gravity anomalies 
(feature B) appear on a profile run by Meinesz 
crossing Yap. Shallow shocks appear to occupy 
the corresponding position. No deep-focus 
shocks are known, and there are no active vol- 
canoes. 

Marianas Islands 

Region 18, Figure 16. The arc of the Mari- 
anas extends from about 12 to 20 north lati- 
tude, Guam being the largest and one of the 
most southerly of the group. In a paper just 
received, Hess (1948) has discussed the sub- 
marine topography and the structural features 
of this and adjacent areas. 

Location of the larger shocks in this area is 
fairly reliable, especially for those years in 
which extensive data from Japanese stations 
are available. Most of the activity is at inter- 
mediate focal depth; consequently shallow 
shocks have been searched for. The arc in- 
cludes the active area off Guam, where only a 
few representative shocks have been added to 
those needed for the statistical cataloguing. 

Macroseismic data exist chiefly for Guam, 
for which Repetti (1939) published a long 
catalogue of felt earthquakes. 

Feature A is shown by oceanic troughs, in- 
cluding the Nero Deep. Feature B is shown by 
shallow shocks between the island arc and the 
deep, and is further supported by negative 
anomalies appearing on a gravity profile by 
Meinesz approaching Guam. Feature C is well 
developed, many of the shallow shocks being 
at depths approaching 60 kilometers, as in 
South America and the New Hebrides. Feature 
D is shown by true intermediate shocks fol- 
lowing the line of islands, where there are 



EARTHQUAKES 
CLASS: abed 

SHALLOW HI- "ft- X X 

h 70 -300 KM. ^ V V V 
h > 300 KM. V 

HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH 




FIGURE 16. New Guinea-Marianas Islands. 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



active volcanoes (Tanakadate, 1940). Shocks 
In a considerable range of depth occur among 
the islands, so that features D, E, and F appear 
to be almost coincident. In the northern is- 
lands, where the volcanism is highest, the in- 
termediate shocks approach 200 kilometers in 
depth. Near these are two shocks deeper than 
500 kilometers. To the northwest of the north- 
ern end of the island arc are several shocks 
with depths near 300 and 400 kilometers. 

Japan and adjacent areas 

Regions 18, 19, 20 and 46, Figures 17 and 18. 
This area is complex both in structure and in 
the pattern of seismicity. It includes the prin- 
cipal branching of the circum-Pacific belt, 
which descends from Kamchatka and divides 
in Honshu into a branch southward toward 
the Marianas and a branch southwestward 
through Kiushiu to Formosa. It also involves 
the two belts of deep shocks originally de- 
scribed by Wadati (1934, 1940), one crossing 
Japan transversely to Manchuria, the other 
extending from Manchuria across southern 
Sakhalin into the Sea of Okhotsk. 

Structurally the region includes a series of 
Pacific-type active arcs, complicated by branch- 
ing; but the northern coastal region of Hon- 
shu, fronting on the Japan Sea, shows active 
faulting with a considerable shear component 
associated with a well-developed block struc- 
ture. This was clearly demonstrated by the 
fault displacements at the surface following 
the Tango earthquake of 1927 (Davison, 1936, 
pp. 212-245) and the Tottori earthquake of 
1943 (Tsuya, 1944; Miyamura, 1944). Honshu 
is crossed by the active fault displaced at the 
time of the Mino-Owari earthquake of Octo- 
ber 28, 1891, when both vertical and horizontal 
motions were large (Koto, 1893). To the east 
of this is the Fossa Magna, a zone of fissuring 
and volcanic activity extending from the Idzu 
Peninsula and Fujiyama directly across Hon- 
shu. 

Data for the numerous active volcanoes of 
Japan have been assembled from many sources, 
notably Krijanovsky (1934), Milne (1886), 
and Tanakadate (1931-1939; 1937). For the 
Kurile Islands data have been taken from maps 
compiled by the U.S. Army Map Service, 
Washington, B.C., 1944, from Japanese maps 
and charts, including supplementary informa- 
tion on location and activity of some volcanoes 
assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Crustal structure for Honshu should be de- 



53 

livable from the seismograms of the Japanese 
stations. Most of the data would be suited by 
a depth of about 45 kilometers for the Moho- 
rovicic discontinuity. Suda (1925) considered 
that the continental layers are thinner on the 
Pacific side of Honshu than toward the Japan 
Sea. Several authors have suggested a major 
structural difference on the two sides of the 
Fossa Magna. In some of the earthquakes it 
has been possible to determine velocities for 
longitudinal waves of about 5.6 and 6.2 kilo- 
meters per second, corresponding to those 
found for the granitic layer and that next be- 
low it in other regions. Details call for much 
further investigation, with sensitive seismo- 
graphs and precise timing. 

Gravity observations are numerous. De- 
tailed oceanic surveys by a Japanese submarine 
were reported by Matuyama (1934; 1936). 
These and observations on land are discussed 
by Kumagai (1940). The entire group of data 
have been summarized and reduced by Heis- 
kanen (1945). 

An exceptional wealth of data, both macro- 
seismic and instrumental, is available for the 
study of earthquakes in and about Japan. It 
has been necessary to reject data for many 
well-observed minor shocks, as these would not 
be available for study in most other regions, 
and only serve to blur the general description. 

An important development in seismology 
occurred about 1880, with the founding of 
Tokyo Imperial University and the bringing 
in of such men as Gray, Milne, and Ewing. 
The rapid progress made both instrumentally 
and in field study is recorded in the publica- 
tions of the Seismological Society of Japan for 
the following years. 

Among the earliest established stations ca- 
pable of recording distant earthquakes were 
those at Tokyo and Osaka. For the latter we 
have a summary publication giving readings 
from 1882 to 1929. For Tokyo there is a simi- 
lar catalogue (Yasuda and Kodaira, 1938), giv- 
ing all shocks recorded from 1872 to 1897, and 
those strong enough to be perceptible to per- 
sons in Tokyo from 1898 to 1923. This is much 
less valuable for general purposes than the 
Osaka report; it contains only Japanese shocks, 
and the timing appears to be less reliable. 

Timing at many Japanese stations was not 
of the best during the earlier years. However, 
some apparent inconsistencies in reported 
times were removed by the discovery that many 
clearly recorded shocks in the region are deep- 
focus earthquakes. 



54 



THE CIRCUM-PAGIFIG BELT 



The development of secondary stations In 
Japan was largely under the auspices of the 
Central Meteorological Observatory. A list of 
over 100 such stations was presented to the 
Edinburgh meeting of the International Geo- 
detic and Geophysical Union in 1936. 

The disastrous earthquake of 1923 led to 
great expansion in the government seismolog- 
ical program in Japan. A new organization, 
the Earthquake Research Institute, was set up 
at Tokyo Imperial University. Its objectives 
only partly overlapped those of the program 
connected with the Central Meteorological 
Observatory. 

The Central Meteorological Observatory is- 
sued a bulletin reporting observations at all 
the stations, with determinations of epicenters. 
Copies were sent to Oxford, and the data are 
incorporated in the International Seisrnolog- 
ical Summary so far as it has proceeded. The 
issue for 1938 is available at Pasadena. Many 
observations and epicenters reported from 
Tokyo were found in separate bulletins pub- 
lished from Zinsen, Taihoku, Nagoya, and 
Osaka, as well as in the Geophysical Magazine, 
issued under the auspices of the Central Me- 
teorological Observatory. Many valuable pa- 
pers were published in this periodical. 

The Bulletin of the Earthquake Research 
Institute contains numerous valuable theo- 
retical and observational papers, including 
geodetic data bearing on crustal deformations. 
A group of stations in the region of Tokyo 
provided material for epicenters of shocks per- 
ceptible at Tokyo; these are listed quarterly 
beginning in 1932, and a summary publica- 
tion gave data for 1924 to 1930. 

One of the oldest independent stations with 
reliable time was at the international station 
at Mizusawa. For 1933 to 1937 excellent and 
detailed reports were available from Kobe 
(including secondary stations at Sumoto and 
Toyooka). Bulletins from Taihoku and Zinsen 
summarize data for the stations in Formosa 
(Taiwan) and Korea (Chosen) respectively. 

Among the stations outside Japan which are 
important for studying shocks in this region 
are the long-established station at Zi-ka-wei 
(near Shanghai), the station at Vladivostok 
operated intermittently since 1930, and the 
first-class station operating from 1931 to 1937 
at Chiufeng (near Peking). 

Historical data for Japan are exceptionally 
useful, since the long record includes many 
great shocks. The following is quoted from 
Imamura (1937, p. 144). 



"Although the first recorded earthquake of 
authentic history bears date of A.D. 416, the 
number of those recorded is very small until 
the great Nankaido earthquake of November 
29, A.D. 684. While even as early as A.D. 684, 
Central Japan was more or less cultured, and 
earthquake records are fairly comprehensive, 
this cannot be said of localities remote from 
the centre of culture; but from 1596 and on- 
wards, the records for the whole country may 
be regarded as fairly complete." Imamura lists 
66 destructive earthquakes from 1596 to 1935. 

The belt extending from near Tokyo up the 
east coast of Honshu, and then past the Kurile 
Islands to Kamchatka, is the most active source 
of shallow and intermediate shocks in the 
world. Ten class a shocks are mapped; in or- 
der from south to north these are the earth- 
quakes of 1923, 1933, 1905, 1918 (2), 1915, 
1904, 1915, 1923, 1917. (The 1904 epicenter 
represents three shocks.) The class a shock on 
the Japan Sea coast is the Tango earthquake 
of 1927. Large intermediate and deep shocks 
occur relatively frequently in the region; the 
deep shock of 1906 (igDiGo) in central Japan 
is the largest known, and the intermediate 
shock (201250) of 1911 south of Kiushiu is one 
of the largest in its depth range. 

Typical Pacific arc features are found be- 
tween the Marianas and Honshu. To the east 
is a deep trench (Feature A). Feature B is in- 
dicated by a strongly marked belt of negative 
gravity anomalies west of the trench. It is ac- 
companied by shallow shocks, mostly small in 
this sector. Feature C is indicated by a few 
shocks at slightly greater depth. The line of 
volcanic islands (feature D), is associated with 
a few intermediate shocks at depths of 100-200 
kilometers. West of it is a second line of ridges, 
largely submerged, with volcanism in a later 
stage corresponding to feature E. Seismicity of 
features E and F cannot be separated readily. 
It consists of a broad and very active belt of 
deep shocks which diverges from the other 
features with a northwesterly trend; shocks at 
depths near 200 kilometers occur near its east- 
ern margin, and shocks deeper than 500 kilo- 
meters at the west. This belt continues directly 
across Honshu and probably crosses the Japan 
Sea. On Honshu it is apparently paralleled to 
the east by a belt of relatively low gravity, 
which interrupts the otherwise well-marked 
belt of positive anomalies running up the east 
coast of Honshu. Shallow shocks near Tokyo 
fall in this low-gravity belt. 

This arc is followed in order northward by 



h -7O-3OOKM. 
h > 3OO KM. 
HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH 




FIGURE 17, Japan. 




I 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



5? 



two others, one associated with Honshu, the 
other extending from Hokkaido through the 
Kurile Islands to Kamchatka. At about 41 N 
these arcs meet at a sharp angle which is ex- 
pressed in the alignment of all the features, 
possibly including the angle formed by the 
principal belts of deep shocks meeting in Man- 
churia. The Honshu arc features are compli- 
cated by the branching of the Pacific belt; it 
will simplify their discussion to describe first 
the northern arc. 

Here feature A is the Kurile Trench. Fea- 
ture B is represented by many shallow shocks, 
frequently large, on the Pacific side of the 
islands; approaching Hokkaido, negative grav- 
ity anomalies are known. Feature C is marked 
by shocks definitely assigned to depths of the 
order of 70 to 100 kilometers, between the 
shallow earthquake belt and the island arc. 
The latter, with active volcanoes and inter- 
mediate shocks, represents feature D, extend- 
ing into Kamchatka. Feature E is indicated by 
a few shocks at depths over 200 kilometers on 
the concave side of the arc. It is clearly evident 
in Kamchatka, where there are two volcanic 
lines, the eastern now active, the western prac- 
tically extinct (Reck and Hantke, 1935). Fea- 
ture F is the "Soya deep-focus earthquake 
zone" of Wadati, with foci mostly deeper than 
400 kilometers and descending below 600 kilo- 
meters, which crosses the Sea of Okhotsk to 
Manchuria. The profile (Fig. 6) shows all 
these features. 

Off the Pacific coast of Honshu, feature A is 
the Japan Trench, which is essentially con- 
tinuous with the foredeeps to the south and 
north. Most of the large shallow shocks of the 
Japanese region occur in the belt of strong 
negative gravity anomalies (feature B) on the 
west side of the Japan Trench. The convexity 
of the Honshu arc is clearly evident between 
latitudes 35 and 41. Feature C is shown by 
numerous shocks at depths of 70 to 100 kilo- 
meters; shocks at depths of over 100 kilometers 
are associated with the main volcanic line 
(feature D). A few shocks at depths of 200 
kilometers and over occur inland or in the 
Japan Sea (feature ?). Feature F is presum- 
ably represented by the transverse belt of deep 
shocks across Honshu and the Japan Sea. 

Superposed on the arcuate structure is a 
belt of block structure associated with shallow 
earthquakes, constituting the northern termi- 
nal of the western branch of the circum-Pacific 
belt. The principal activity follows the Japan 
Sea coast, including several shocks west of 



Hokkaido (one of magnitude 7.1, November 
4, 1947, 00:09:10, 44N, i40i^E). The Tango 
earthquake of 1927 (Davison, 1936) is prob- 
ably the largest of these during the historical 
period; it was accompanied by block move- 
ments with both vertical and horizontal com- 
ponents. The region shows no extended longi- 
tudinal rift structure such as might indicate 
predominant strike-slip displacement like that 
in California. The coastal active zone appears 
to have secondary branches which strike south 
into eastern Honshu north of Tokyo. Such 
branches probably also account for the occa- 
sional strong shocks in and near the Inland 
Sea north of Shikoku. 

The Mino-Owari earthquake zone crosses 
Honshu between the Fossa Magna and the 
transverse belt of deep shocks. Recent data in- 
dicate very little activity here, suggesting a 
period of quiet following the great shock o 
1891. 

Many maps of the seismicity of Japan show 
a submarine active belt including the shocks 
off the east coast of Honshu, but continuing 
along the entire Pacific coast of the islands 
past Shikoku to Kiushiu. Large shocks have 
occurred in the vicinity of the Kii Peninsula 
east of Shikoku. The great shock of 1707 was 
destructive on both, and caused large tsunamis 
entering the channels on both sides of Shikoku. 
At 33i/N, i35i/c> E is the epicenter of the 
Wakayama shock of January 11, 1938 (Mina- 
kami, 1938). The great shock of December 7, 
1944, has been located at 33^ N f i36E. That 
of December 20, 1946, originated near 32i/N, 
1 341/2 E. 

For the region of Shikoku itself Figure 17 
shows only one small shock (class d). There 
appears to be a real gap in the seismic belt; at 
least, the conditions of activity differ widely 
from those to east and west. This corresponds 
to the absence of any deep trench off the coast, 
and to the lack of strong negative gravity 
anomalies. There is also a gap in the belt of 
active volcanoes. Very small shocks occur in 
this region, and are recorded by local stations; 
such shocks occur everywhere in Japan. 

Kiushiu to Formosa 

Regions 20 and 21, Figure 17. This includes 
the arc of the Riukiu Islands with the masses 
of Kiushiu and Formosa (Taiwan) at the ends; 
it is an active zone within an area of primarily 
continental structure. The Philippine Sea, on 
which the arc fronts, is rather of continental 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



than of Pacific character as indicated by the 
velocities of surface waves crossing it. 

Data for this region are mainly from the 
same Japanese sources to which reference has 
been made in the preceding section. 

Kiushiu and Formosa are very different 
structurally. Kiushiu is at the active northern 
end of a volcanic belt, associated with an ac- 
tive arc. Formosa is non-volcanic, although 
there is active volcanism southeast and south 
of it. It has a block structure, with both hori- 
zontal and vertical fault displacements reach- 
ing the surface, as in the earthquakes of 1906 
(Omori, igoyb) and 1935 (Miyabe et al., 1936; 
Nishimura, 1937). In the latter case the dis- 
placements occurred on two different fault sys- 
tems intersecting at an angle, recalling those 
observed after the Tango earthquake of 1927 
on Honshu. Otuka (in Miyabe et aL, 1936, p. 
70) writes as follows: 

"During this earthquake of Central Taiwan, 
Mr. D. Ho and K. Kwo observed at Sintakusan 
and Roppun in Sitan-syo, respectively, that the 
Siko earthquake fault formed after their 
houses were destroyed by the earthquake 
shocks, and not simultaneously with the initial 
shock. 

"The late F. Omori has left on record that 
the Neo valley earthquake fault, the well- 
known earthquake fault that formed at the 
time of the Mino-Owari earthquake, 1891, 
formed after the destructive shocks took place. 
According to N. Nasu similar phenomenon is 
observed along Yamada earthquake fault at 
the time of the Okutango earthquake, 1927. 

"These observations show that earthquake 
faults, at least those exposed on the land sur- 
face, are not the cause of the earthquake mo- 
tions, but the result of it." 

Seismological stations were fairly numerous, 
with several on Kiushiu and a few in the 
Riukiu Islands; the group of stations on For- 
mosa was organized as a network publishing its 
own bulletins from the chief station at Tai- 
hoku. Observations at Manila, Hong Kong, Zi~ 
kawei (Shanghai), Chiufeng, and Nanking are 
important in this region. 

Shallow seismicity about Formosa is higher 
than for the rest of the arc, which is nearer 
the average level for a Pacific arc and lower 
than that of eastern Japan. About Kiushiu the 
number of located intermediate shocks in- 
creases notably; this is only partly due to the 
position of the stations. 

Of the Pacific arc features, A is represented 
by a trench less deep and less sharply defined 



than the Japan Trench, intervening between 
the Riukiu Islands and the Philippine Sea. 
Shallow shocks and the non-volcanic chain of 
the principal islands form feature B. The 
deeper shocks of feature C, the intermediate 
shocks and volcanoes of feature D, and shocks 
at a depth near 200 kilometers (feature E) fol- 
low in regular order, particularly in the vicin- 
ity of Kiushiu. No deep shocks corresponding 
to feature F are known. 

Philippines 

Region 22, Figure 19. The structures of the 
Philippines have been discussed by Willis 
(1937, 1940, 1944). There is a great complica- 
tion, with intersecting structures of different 
types and trends. The western branch of the 
Pacific belt descends from Formosa into an 
area of low activity and uncertain structure, 
which passes into a more active arc following 
the west coast of Luzon. Extending across Lu- 
zon and into the southeastern islands is a rift 
structure including a great fault with strike- 
slip displacement, referred to by Willis, fol- 
lowing Becker, as the Philippine Fault. Repetti 
(1935) calls this the Master Fault. On the map 
published by Willis (1944) it appears as the 
Visayan rift zone. Where the islands Mindanao 
and Samar front on the Philippine Sea is an 
arcuate Pacific structure with strongly devel- 
oped features. West of this is the central part 
of the archipelago, including structures with a 
southwesterly trend; one of these follows 
through Palawan into northern Borneo. 

Gravity data are chiefly from the work of 
Meinesz. The principal seismological station 
was Manila, which operated continuously from 
1884 until its destruction by the Japanese. Sev- 
eral secondary stations with less sensitive in- 
struments and incomplete time service were 
maintained. 

The mapping is not uniform. Shocks are 
very frequent in the region of the Mindanao 
Trench, and here only the larger shocks 
needed for statistics have been plotted. Deep 
shocks have been searched for with special 
attention. In the less active central and south- 
western part of the archipelago, all shocks 
capable of satisfactory location have been in- 
cluded. Finally, in the vicinity of Manila a 
number of small shocks have been omitted. 

Macroseismic data for the Philippines ex- 
tend back over three centuries; they have been 
summarized by Mas6 (i9^7a; ig^b), and a 
detailed catalogue has been published by 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



59 



120 



J30 




EARTHQUAKES 

CLASS". abed 

SHALLOW ) * X X 

h 70-300 KM. V V V * 
h>300 KM. V V 

HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH IN KM. 1,2 "6 



VOLCANOES 



OCEAN DEPTH, KM. 
2 4 6 8 10 




FIGURE 19. Formosa- Philippines. 

Repetti (1946). Reports of each year were ing instrumental^ located epicenters, was pub- 

regularly given in the bulletins issued from lished by Willis (1944). This map includes a 

Manila,- recent earthquakes and the distribu- number of small and doubtfully located earth- 

tion of instrumental epicenters were discussed quakes not considered in the present study. 



by Repetti (i9$ia; 



; 1935; 



Seismicity is high in the region of the Min- 



1940). A map based on Repetti's data, show- danao Trench, moderate in the vicinity of 



6o 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



Luzon, and relatively low elsewhere in the 
Philippines. 

There is some indication of a Pacific type 
arc, probably fronting eastward, extending 
from Formosa into northeastern Luzon. It is 
marked by a few shallow shocks, by submarine 
volcanism southeast of Formosa, and by active 
volcanoes in the Batan and Babuyan Islands, 
where there is a well-determined shock (22!- 
900) with a depth of 170 kilometers. 

The following arc fronts west toward the 
China Sea, as indicated by the convex west 
coast of Luzon. No definite trench exists. Shal- 
low and slightly deep earthquakes are fre- 
quent off this coast, while intermediate shocks 
occur near the coastal line on an arc extending 
from Luzon into Mindoro. These are associ- 
ated with active volcanoes, including Taal. 

The principal structural arc of the eastern 
Philippines extends from Luzon at least to 
the Talaud Islands. Feature A is the Mindanao 
Trench or Philippine Deep, the most pro- 
found foredeep known. Feature jB is marked by 
numerous and often large shallow shocks just 
west of the trench. Meinesz's data show large 
gravity anomalies on one cross profile near 
ioN, and on closely spaced profiles in the 
southern part of the arc. Feature C is suggested 
by a few shocks at depths near 70 kilometers. 
Feature D appears plainly in the northern 
part of the arc, where there are active vol- 
canoes (including Mayon), and at least one 
intermediate shock (221450). At the south 
there are shocks at depths over 100 kilometers 
under eastern Mindanao, but no accompany- 
ing volcanism. Volcanoes here are farther west, 
suggesting feature ; Camiguin is active. Fea- 
ture F is positively indicated by a series of 
very deep shocks, with epicenters close to the 
volcanic line. 

The remaining structures are indicated, 
rather incompletely, by shallow shocks. A num- 
ber of these follow the Visayan fault zone, 
from Luzon across Leyte and Mindanao; this 
includes shock 22^90 in 1937, destructive at 
Manila, and possibly the Agusan Valley earth- 
quakes (22N2go) in 1911 on Mindanao. The 
activity in general is much lower than that of 
the feature B zone west of the Philippine 
Beep; in the Mindanao region it is often diffi- 
cult to tell whether an imperfectly recorded 
shock belongs to one or the other of these two 
lines. 

The belt of shallow shocks west of Luzon 
appears to continue southward through Panay 
and Negros including the class a shock of Janu- 



ary 24, 1948, crossing the narrowest part of 
Mindanao and then turning eastward south of 
that island. It may be compared with the belt 
of shallow shocks on the north coast of Hon- 
shu. 

The structures diverging southwestward to- 
ward Borneo are represented each by one epi- 
center: 22N8io in the Sulu Islands, and 
22N84O on Palawan. 



Celebes and Moluccas 

Region 23, Figures 19 and 20. South of Min- 
danao the structural and geophysical complex- 
ities increase. Between northern Celebes and 
Halmahera the two principal branches of the 
Pacific belt approach each other and may be 
said to be in contact. One structural arc, be- 
longing to the series followed in the preceding 
sections, extends from Mindanao to Celebes, 
and is convex to the east. It is faced by the 
westward fronting arc of Halmahera, which 
connects the structural and seismic belt of 
northern New Guinea with that of the Caro- 
line Islands extending toward Palau and Yap. 

The most probable southward continuation 
of the structural belt on the basis of present 
information is that which follows a loop 
through eastern Celebes to connect with Buru 
and Ceram, and so directly into the arc which 
surrounds the Banda Sea (Meinesz et al. 3 1939; 
Schuppli, 1946). 

The highly important gravity observations 
by Meinesz (1934, 1940) are involved at every 
point. His reports include maps from official 
sources which have been used in studying sub- 
marine contours and other features. 

Data on volcanoes in the Netherlands East 
Indies were originally taken from Escher 
(1937). These have been supplemented from 
an extended summary of historical eruptions 
(van Bemmelen, 1941). 

This region is not near enough to first-class 
stations to be studied with the precision it de- 
serves. The only station actually in the area 
was that at Amboina (south of Ceram), which 
suffered from frequent interruptions in serv- 
ice and occasional difficulty in time determina- 
tion. In consequence, it is not always possible 
to find satisfactory epicenters for the large 
shocks of the region, and only limited use can 
be made of the frequent smaller shocks, epi- 
centers for which might otherwise assist in in- 
terpreting the structural relations of the high 
seisrnicity. Activity is well above average for 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



6l 




EARTHQUAKES 



CLASS 



SHALLOW 

h -70-300 KM, 

h > 300 KM. 



bed 
* X x 

V v * 



AXIS OF NEGATIVE GRAVITY ANOMALY 
AXIS OF POSITIVE GRAVITY ANOMALY 



HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH 
IN KM. l t & f -7 



VOLCANOES * 
STATION:- AM BOINA <) 



OCEAN DEPTH, KM. 
02468 



FIGURE 20. Moluccas. 



the Pacific belt; intermediate shocks are very 
numerous, and some of them (notably in 
northern Celebes) are among the largest 
known. Deep shocks are fairly frequent. 

At the north, both opposing arcs that of 
Celebes and the Sangi Islands, and that of 



Halmahera show all the characters of feature 
D, with active volcanoes and accompanying 
intermediate earthquakes. A number of inter- 
mediate shocks just south of the northern pen- 
insula of Celebes are plotted on the equator, 
although their latitudes may be in error by a 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



quarter or a half degree. This gives the effect 
of a spuriously definite line of activity. 

Between the opposing arcs is a ridge which 
includes the Talaud Islands, and is an axis of 
very large negative gravity anomalies as well 
as a source of shallow earthquakes. This may 
be considered as a feature of type B common 
to both arcs. The ridge is apparently continu- 
ous with the elevated area of eastern Min- 
danao. Deep shocks representing feature jF 
occur to the west under the sea between Cele- 
bes and Mindanao; there are none known to 
the east, corresponding to the Halmahera arc. 

Scattered shallow shocks occur about the 
coasts of Borneo and Celebes. Some of these 
are associated with Macassar Strait, an interior 
fracture of the stable mass of which Borneo is 
a part. Shallow shocks, some of them large, 
occur south of Celebes in the Flores Sea. Here 
they are close to the epicenters of a number 
of large deep shocks, which belong to feature 
F of the Sunda arc, discussed later. 

Earthquake epicenters fail to confirm the 
hypothetical extension of the Celebes arc 
southward and then eastward toward Buru. 
This structural connection is based on the 
geology and a few gravity observations. It is 
possible that this represents a part of the ac- 
tive belt which has been distorted into such a 
position that the forces are now relaxed and 
the features are beginning to disappear. Com- 
pare Hess's hypothesis as to the West Indies 
loop and its extension through Cuba; there is 
even an analogous occurrence of peridotites on 
Celebes and Buton (as reported by De Roever, 
Pacific Science Congress, 1949). The change 
in stresses may account for some peculiarities 
of the Banda Sea arc. 

Banda Sea 

Regions 23 and 24, Figures 19, 20 and 30. 
The structural arc round the Banda Sea 
through Buru, Ceram, and the Tenimber 
Islands has most of the Pacific-type features, 
although it fronts against the masses of New 
Guinea and Australia rather than against the 
Pacific. The expression of the features is un- 
even and in part abnormal. There is an ex- 
terior trough (feature A) between the prin- 
cipal arc and New Guinea. Feature B is well 
shown by the strong belt of negative anomalies 
extending as far as Timor. The northern part 
of the arc is also a locus of shallow earthquakes 
(including the great shock of 1938, which was 
felt as far away as Port Darwin); in the south- 



ern part few shallow shocks have been identi- 
fied. Feature D appears as an inner arc of small 
volcanic islands, with epicenters of intermedi- 
ate earthquakes. The Weber Deep, between 
these and feature B, represents an exaggera- 
tion of the depression which normally occurs 
in the corresponding position. Feature F is 
suggested by a few shocks at depths near 400 
kilometers. 

Seismicity is high. Shocks at almost all 
depths occur, and uncertainty as to the depth 
often adds to the general difficulties of accu- 
rately locating epicenters in this region. Very 
few shallow shocks can be located more closely 
than within two degrees. Shocks have been 
added to the tables and maps whenever suffi- 
ciently well located to assist in interpreting 
the structural relations; most of these oc- 
curred during the periods when the data for 
Amboina were useful. 

Sunda arc 

Region 24, Figures 21 and 22. This appears 
to be a single long arc of Pacific type, extend- 
ing through the lesser and greater Sunda Is- 
lands to the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. 
There is considerable doubt as to how, if at 
all, the northwestern end of the arc should be 
connected with the structures of Burma. At 
the east is a disturbed region marked by the 
outlying islands of Timor and Sumbawa. For 
its relation to the Australian mass see Figure 
30. In the region of Sumatra the arcuate thrust 
structure begins to be disturbed by a super- 
posed block structure with horizontal faulting. 
An earthquake in 1892 produced "displace- 
ments of triangulation points by more than 
one meter (Reid, 1913). 

The geology of the region has an extensive 
literature, Summaries are given by Umbgrove 
(1938; 1942; also in Meinesz et al. } 1934), and 
by Schuppli (1946). Sources for data on gravity 
anomalies and volcanoes are the same as those 
for the two preceding sections. 

For the western part of this area the chief 
station is Batavia, Secondary stations were 
maintained at Amboina, at Malabar (privately 
owned), and in Sumatra at Medan and for a 
short time at Soengi Langka. The stations in 
India, particularly Calcutta, are very useful 
here; to the north are Phu-Lien and Hong 
Kong, and to the south are the Australian sta- 
tions, of which Perth is here the most valuable 
for large shocks. More of the larger shocks have 



THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 



EARTHQUAKES 
a b 



OCEAN DEPTH, KM 
246 



CLASS: - 

SHALLOW 
h = 70- 300 KM 
h > 30O KM. 
HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH IN KM. /,2," 7 



AXIS OF NEGATIVE GRAVITY ANOMALY 

AXIS OF POSITIVE GRAVITY ANOMALY -i h- -4- 




FICURE 21. Sunda arc. 



been included here than in previous papers, 
since study of amplitudes has improved the 
distinction between shallow and intermediate 
shocks, thus diminishing an uncertainty which 
affected epicenters as well as depth. 

Seismicity at shallow depth, which is mod- 
erately high off Sumatra, decreases eastward 
past Java to Timor. The belt of intermediate 
shocks through the main line of volcanic is- 
lands is more evenly active. Very deep shocks 
occur under the Java Sea and Flores Sea. (Ber- 
lage, 1937; 1940.) 

The Pacific arc features are in general well 
developed along the Sunda arc, but show much 
variation. From the south and west the floor 
of the Indian Ocean rises gradually to shallow 
depths, emerging at Christmas Island, which 
is an old volcano. North of this shallow sea is 
a steep descent into the Java Trough (feature 
A). Off Sumatra this descent is less steep, and 
the trough is shallower. Next inland, off the 
Sumatra coast, is a line of small islands sepa- 
rated by shallow straits. These mark feature B. 
The line continues eastward as a submarine 
ridge off the coast of Java. The belt of strong 
negative gravity anomalies practically coin- 



cides with this ridge. Between Java and the 
Java Trough these anomalies are large, but 
there is very little accompanying seismicity; 
while among the islands off Sumatra the grav- 
ity anomalies are less marked, and seismicity 
is intense, consisting exclusively of shallow 
shocks. Inshore slightly greater depths again 
are found before the coast of Sumatra and Java 
are reached. This coastal belt is a region of 
positive gravity anomalies and earthquakes at 
depths in the upper part of the intermediate 
range (feature C). Beyond these is the volcanic 
belt of the two large islands, with earthquakes 
at depths of about 100 kilometers (feature D). 
This feature is perfectly continuous through 
the entire length of the Sunda arc, extending 
east of Flores through the interior volcanic 
islands of the Banda Sea arc. The exterior fea- 
tures, however, show a great disturbance from 
about 120 to 123 E, in the vicinity of Soemba. 
Here there is a gap between the Java Trough 
and the Timor Trough which lies east of it; 
the belt of negative gravity anomalies is inter- 
rupted, several observations in this area giving 
positive anomalies; and the trends of the struc- 
tures are distorted. Timor may belong, with 



6 4 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



the Tenimber Islands, to feature B along with 
the small islands off Sumatra; but Soemba at 
least is out of line. 

Feature E is indicated by a few shocks, in- 
cluding two northeast of Medan in Sumatra, 
at depths of 150 to 200 kilometers. 

Feature F is well developed, with fairly fre- 



quent shocks, some of them large, in a belt 
crossing the Java Sea and Flores Sea at about 
6S. The depths determined for these shocks 
generally exceed 600 kilometers, and some 
exceed 700 kilometers; these are the deepest 
shocks known. Two shocks at depths near 400 
kilometers are south of these. 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



General survey 

This is the southern and more active por- 
tion of what has been referred to in previous 
papers as the trans-Asiatic zone. It consists of 
a succession of arcuate structures extending 
from Burma across Asia, through the Alpine 
structures of Mediterranean Europe, and into 
the Atlantic probably as far as the Azores. Such 
areas as the Caucasus and Crimea are included 
for convenience of discussion. 

The belt crosses the numbered regions 
noted in the following discussion. Maps are 
Figures 22, 23, and 24. Structural lines shown 
are taken from Born (1953), Arni (1939), 
Egeran (1947), Willis (1939), Clapp (1940), 
Mushketov (i936a,b), Wilser (1928) and Gre- 
gory (1929). 

The frontal structures of the belt in Asia 
are a series of arcs convex to the south (except 
the Burma arc, which is convex to the west). 
In spite of certain differences to be pointed out 
in the course of the detailed discussion, these 
are usually regarded as analogous to the Pa- 
cific active arcs. Although of about the same 
age, their activity is lower, and the character- 
istic features are generally less well defined. 
The belt includes all known intermediate 
shocks outside the circum-Pacific belt. No 
shocks appreciably deeper than 300 kilometers 
are known. 

Foredeeps (feature A) are much less evident 
than for the Pacific arcs. The alluviated de- 
pression of the Ganges has been considered to 
represent such a feature. In India and in the 
Mediterranean area belts of negative gravity 
anomalies are found in the position of feature 
B, accompanied by shallow earthquakes. A 
few volcanoes indicate feature D; intermediate 
shocks are fairly numerous, and distributed 
along practically the whole belt. There are 
two remarkably persistent sources of inter- 
mediate shocks: one under the Hindu Kush at 
about 36.5N, 70.5 E, at a depth of about 230 
kilometers, the other in Rumania near 46 N, 



26i/E, with shocks at depths of 100 to 150 
kilometers. The frequent repetition of earth- 
quakes from nearly the same hypocenter in 
these two instances is an exceptional phenom- 
enon, suggesting mechanical conditions differ- 
ing in some way from those controlling the 
occurrences of most other earthquakes. 

Burma arc 

Regions 25 and 26, Figures 22 and 23. Seis- 
mic data do not suffice to settle the question of 
connection between the Burma arc, which is 
the first of the Alpide series of Asia, and the 
Sunda arc. This is really a question of connec- 
tion between the circum-Pacific belt and Al- 
pide belt. A few small shallow shocks appear 
to continue the Sunda arc northward from the 
Andaman Islands, but there is a gap between 
these and the mainland. Structures associated 
with shallow shocks, some of them large, trend 
north and south through Burma at about 
96 E; a few shallow shocks occur along the 
projection of this trend off northern Sumatra 
and in the intervening sea. 

Location of shocks in this region depends 
largely on Phu-Lien, Hong Kong, and the In- 
dian stations. All even moderately well-re- 
corded shocks have been examined with care. 

In the Burma arc the characteristic features 
are less definite than in the Sunda arc. Few, if 
any, shallow shocks are located along the 
western, curved mountain arc. The larger 
shallow shocks of the area belong to the north- 
south zone farther east. There is a belt of nega- 
tive gravity anomalies up to -75 milligals fol- 
lowing the lines of maximum uplift in the 
hills separating Assam from Burma, and a 
gravity maximum follows a line of minor and 
probably dying volcanism to the east of this 
(Evans and Crompton, 1946). Intermediate 
shocks are frequent near 34 N, 93 E; but this 
is directly on the principal mountain arc, and 
not. in a volcanic region. It suggests rather a 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



EARTHQUAKES 

CLASS: a b c 

SHALLOW -K- * x 

h- 70-300 KM V V V 

h>300 KM * 

HUNDREDS DIGIT OF DEPTH 

IN KM ',2,6 



AXIS OF NEGATIVE GRAVITY ANOMALY 
AXIS OF POSITIVE GRAVITY ANOMALY 



TREND OF MOUNTAIN RANGES 




FIGURE 22. Sumatra-Burma. 



locus of repeated intermediate shocks from the 
same source, resembling that in the Hindu 
Kush. Like the latter, it lies near a sharp angle 
formed by the intersection of two structural 
arcs. However, there appears to be less con- 
centration of these epicenters in Burma; they 
extend for two or three degrees along the arc. 



Himalayan arc 

Region 26, Figure 23. The arcs of Burma, 
the Himalayas, and Baluchistan front toward 
the stable mass of peninsular India. The Him- 
alayan arc is the most active and most clearly 
developed of the Asiatic arcs. Structural and 



66 



THE ALPIBE BELT 



geophysical information is available in con- 
siderable detail. Much of this is included in 
publications of the Geological Survey of In- 
dia. Gravity observations have been presented 
and discussed by Glennie (1935) and J. de 
Graaff Hunter (1932, with maps); see also 
Survey of India (1939). A valuable supple- 
ment is provided by the corresponding data 
for the territory of the Soviet Union adjoining 
to the north (Oczapowski, 1936). 

The principal seisxnological station is at 
Colaba Observatory, Bombay. Other long- 
established stations are at Alipore (Calcutta), 
Colombo, Kodaikanal, Hyderabad (Deccan), 
and Behra Dun. In 1929 a good station was 
added at Agra; in August 1942 the instruments 
were moved to New Delhi, which is now head- 
quarters for the Director-General of Observa- 
tories. 

For the years 1927 to 1937, an d f r parts of 
1946 and 1947, reports are available for an 
important network of stations operated by the 
Soviet Union in Central Asia Andijan, Al- 
ma-Ata, Frunse, Samarkand, Tchimkent, Semi- 
palatinsk. These, with the long-established 
first-class stations at Tashkent and Irkutsk, 
add much to our data for the entire region. 
Moreover, the newer stations, equipped with 
short-period seismometers, often report times 
for P for distant shocks not otherwise recorded 
in southern Asia. 

Locations in this region are often very good 
even for the smaller shocks. Accordingly, ex- 
cept when needed for statistical purposes, only 
well-located shocks have been added to the 
tables and maps. 

For shallow shocks at least, the Himalayan 
arc is the most seismic sector of the entire Al- 
pide belt. This makes its activity comparable 
with that of California, or a little higher. It 
falls well below the more active parts of the 
Pacific belt. 

Macroseismic data are of some importance. 
In spite of the antiquity of culture in northern 
India, useful historical records do not extend 
far into the past, since older shocks are chiefly 
reported as destructive to weak structures on 
the deep alluvium of the Ganges basin, but 
some important shocks have been well ob- 
served. The earthquake of Cutch in 1819, 
which provided the earliest clear instance of 
faulting observed at the surface accompanying 
an earthquake, was outside the present field 
of discussion, being marginal to the stable 
mass of southern India. The great earthquake 
of June 12, 1897, investigated by Oldham 



(1899), has interesting structural implications. 
Faulting and distortion of the surface with 
both vertical and horizontal displacement, 
were found over so extended an area and pre- 
senting so complicated relations that Oldham 
explained them as superficial effects of dis- 
placement on a large thrust underlying the 
Assam hills. However, better knowledge of the 
structural geology (Wadia, in Dunn et al, 
1939) indicates that there are no such thrusts 
in this area, although great thrusts are known 
along the Himalayan front. In a later paper 
Oldham (i9s6a, pp. 118-147) came to the con- 
clusion, based on reported times when after- 
shocks were felt, that the disturbance origi- 
nated at a depth of the order of 100 kilometers. 
In the light of present knowledge of deep 
shocks this is most unlikely, but shocks at 
depths ranging to 80 kilometers are now 
known to occur in the immediate area. 

The great shock of 1934 originated in the 
vicinity of the Himalayan front. No effects of 
faulting were found at the surface, though 
there were extensive changes of level in the 
alluvial surface, attributable to settling. The 
phenomena are described in a detailed report 
(Dunn et al., 1939), which includes discus- 
sions of other earthquakes of the region and 
their probable structural relations. Macro- 
seismic data for Afghanistan and the Hindu 
Rush have been summarized by Stenz (1945). 

Considering the Himalayan arc as of the 
Pacific type, the following description applies: 
Feature A, the foredeep, is represented by the 
extremely deep alluviated depression of the 
Ganges valley. Feature B is indicated by strong 
negative gravity anomalies (not shown on 
Fig. 23) in a belt well outside of the mountain 
arc, extending with some interruptions across 
the entire width of India, and along the upper 
Brahmaputra. The epicenters of the larger 
shocks appear to be associated with this belt. 
A limited number of gravity observations show 
positive anomalies in the mountain arc, sug- 
gesting feature C. 

Feature D is indicated by shocks at depths 
of the order of 100 kilometers, north of the 
mountain front along almost the entire extent 
of the arc as far east as longitude 100. 

The Hindu Kush focus of intermediate 
earthquakes (region 48) lies beneath the angle 
formed by the Himalayan arc and the Balu- 
chistan structures. About 70 shocks have been 
located here, the earliest in 1905. Those of 
i97 iQQQ' 1921, *933> *937 (Lynch, 1938), 
1939, and 1943 were large earthquakes; some 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



6 7 




FIGURE 23. Asia. 



were destructive. Many smaller intermediate 
shocks in this region were not recorded well 
enough for location. Most of the epicenters 
are at nearly the same point near 36.5 N, 
70.5 E. The depths are generally near 230 
kilometers. A few shocks at shallower depth 
have slightly different epicenters. 

Shallow shocks north of the Himalaya will 
be discussed under the subhead "Central and 
East Asia"; those of southern India are dis- 
cussed as marginal shocks of a stable mass. 

Baluchistan 

Region 47, Figure 23. This is an arcuate 
structure, or a series of such arcs, which fronts 
southeastward toward the Indian stable mass. 
Data are available under nearly the same con- 
ditions as for the Himalayan arc. 

Whether the Indus valley represents a fore- 
deep referable to feature A is somewhat ques- 
tionable. Feature B is indicated by a belt of 
negative gravity anomalies in that region, but 
there is no corresponding belt of shallow 
shocks. Large shallow shocks occur farther 
toward the interior of Baluchistan, in the 
region of Quetta (West, 1934; 1935; i93 6 )- 
Rift valleys exist, suggesting strike-slip fault- 
ing. In 1892 an earthquake near Old Chaman 
produced a horizontal offset of a railroad line 



(Griesbach, 1893; Davison, 1893; McMahon, 
1893, p. 402). 

The structural relationships of a few shal- 
low shocks in the northern Arabian Sea off 
the coast of Baluchistan are not quite clear. 
Some of them lie in line with a possible off- 
shore continuation of the southeastern Balu- 
chistan arc; but they also align with the trend 
of the structures in Iran. The great shock of 
November 27, 1945, off the Baluchistan coast 
is more obviously assigned to the latter align- 
ment. It would be possible to draw an arc con- 
vex southward, extending off the coast and 
turning up the Persian Gulf; the intermediate 
shocks near 27 N, 62 E would fit this reason- 
ably well as feature D. 

Iran 

Region 29, Figure 23. This is a broadened 
part of the Alpide belt. The frontal structures 
are not sharply defined, and there are a wide 
series of parallel interior structures (de Bockh, 
Lees and Richardson in Gregory, 1929, pp. 
58-176; Clapp, 1940). Published geophysical 
data are scanty. Location of shocks depends 
considerably on stations to the north and west 
Baku, Tiflis, Ksara, Helwan. These, with the 
Indian stations, surround the area. 

Shocks of class c are frequent; their epi- 



68 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



centers are scattered over the area. Only the 
best recorded are catalogued and mapped. Oc- 
casionally shocks of class b occur; some of 
these are very destructive because of weak con- 
struction. 

Description in terms of Pacific arc structure 
is doubtful. The outer arc fronts against the 
practically non-seismic depressed areas of 
Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. There is 
a line southwest o which no epicenters have 
been found. This extends into the Persian 
Gulf, and may cross into Oman. Destructive 
earthquakes have occurred at Muskat. 

Caucasus, Crimea 

Regions 29 and 30, Figures 23 and 24. The 
Caucasus and Crimea are on the northern 
edge of the Alpide belt. Although the south- 
ern front is the chief seismic zone, in Iran and 
westward the belt is broad and there is ap- 
preciable seismicity (shallow shocks only) to 
the north. 

Stations have long been established at Baku 
and Tiflis, and somewhat later at Piatigorsk. 
Other stations have operated in the area for 
limited periods. A network of stations was 
later established in the Caucasus; a report is 
available for 1933 to March 1938, resumed in 
1946. From seismograms Raiko (1930) found 
a velocity of about 5% kilometers per second 
for longitudinal waves in the uppermost layer. 
The interval P-Pn on the seismograms he re- 
produces suggest a depth of about 50 kilo- 
meters for the Mohorovic'ic' discontinuity in 
the region o the Caucasus. Rozova (igsgb) 
finds about 60 kilometers (depth of the bot- 
tom of the granitic layer about 45 km.) from 
two earthquakes in the northeastern part. 

Macroseismic data and their structural re- 
lations have been discussed by Vardanjanc 
(1935). 

Gravity stations are numerous (Leushin, 
1935). Strong positive anomalies occur in the 
Caucasus, especially to the south (Skeels, 
1940); equally strong negative anomalies oc- 
cur to the southeast in the general vicinity of 
Baku. Gravity data near the Crimea are sum- 
marized by Tanni (1942). Negative anomalies 
have been found in the Black Sea, positive on 
the Crimean Peninsula. 

Seismicity near the Crimea received special 
attention in consequence of a disastrous shock 
in 1927 (Obruchev et al, 1928). A network of 
regional stations, with Nikiforov torsion seis- 
mometers, issued valuable reports beginning 



with 1927. Local activity is rather low, mostly 
concentrated off the coast in the northern part 
of the Black Sea. 

Asia Minor, Levant, Balkans 

Region 30, Figure 24. Discussion now 
reaches the region of Alpine folding, the west- 
ern portion of the Alpide belt. The structures 
here have a double front, south and north. 
The exact interpretation is a well-known sub- 
ject of controversy. In the present paper the 
description of the facts favored by Stille (1924) 
is followed. This does not imply a final prefer- 
ence for his interpretation, but it proves sim- 
pler to describe the seismological and geo- 
physical data in his terms. 

The eastern portion of the area designated 
by Stille as Neo-Europa has a strongly marked 
arcuate southern front, with some of the Pa- 
cific type characters- For the structure of Asia 
Minor, Arni (1939) Egeran (1947) and other 
references have been used. Pare] as et al. 
(1941) describe faulting in 1939 (horizontal 
displacement 3.7 meters, vertical i meter). 
Gravity data are from Cassinis (1941, manu- 
script of isostatically reduced data from Dr. 
Heiskanen), and for the vicinity of Cyprus 
from Mace and Bullard (1939). 

Location of shocks in this area depends 
largely on observations at Ksara and Helwan. 
The better equipped of the Italian stations 
are useful, particularly for Balkan shocks. The 
stations in central Europe are all in the same 
general direction, so that a shock in this re- 
gion recorded by numerous stations may still 
not be well located. Zagreb, being closer, is 
often more valuable. Observations at Athens, 
when available, are frequently of critical im- 
portance. In 1936 a first-class station was es- 
tablished at Bucharest. To the northeast are 
Tiflis, Baku, and the Russian stations. The 
Crimean stations contributed many useful ob- 
servations for the whole region. 

Seismicity is moderately high, comparable 
with that of other active sectors of the Alpide 
belt. Beginning with the great earthquake of 
December 1939, there has been an extended 
period of high activity in Asia Minor. This 
appears to be somewhat above the average for 
that region, though historical records indicate 
similar episodes in the past. The active area 
extends westward through the Balkans, but 
ends abruptly at about 20 E. There is also a 
fairly definite northern boundary at about 
41 N. 



THE ALPIDE BELT 




FIGURE 24. Asia Minor and eastern Mediterranean. 



Accounts of destructive shocks throughout 
the region extend far into antiquity, but few 
of the descriptions are sufficiently detailed to 
be of use for scientific purposes. Not much use 
can be made of historical accounts even in the 
nineteenth century, owing to the sparse popu- 
lation and low state o culture of most of the 
region. However, certain of the larger earth- 
quakes are so abnormal in their effects that 
they were noticed and correctly interpreted by 
Schmidt (1881). He concluded that these 
shocks must have a focal depth greater than 
that of ordinary earthquakes, and associated 
their occurrence in this region with the vol- 
canic activity of Santorin and the Cyclades. 
Some of these intermediate shocks are the 
largest earthquakes in Europe. That of August 
11, 1903, in southern Greece (Sieberg, ig^sb, 
Fig. 45; seismogram in von dem Borne, 1904) 
was an intermediate shock of magnitude about 
8. A very large shock of this group (magnitude 
7.9) occurred in 1926 (Critikos, 1929), It was 
investigated on the ground by Sieberg, who 
published a special study of the group (Sie- 



berg, i93sb), which he termed Levantinische 
Riesenbeben. He did not consider the possi- 
bility of intermediate focal depth, but at- 
tempted an explanation in terms of abnormal 
conduction of seismic energy along extended 
hypothetical lines of faulting. Sieberg's figures 
show the enormous shaken area of some of 
these shocks, several of which were felt in 
Egypt, Cyrenaica, Asia Minor, and far up the 
Adriatic. 

Shocks at intermediate depth from 1903 to 
the present have now been identified. These 
were previously frequently overlooked, as most 
of the stations are at such distances that the 
usual evidences of depth are not available. 
Investigation of amplitudes of P, S, and sur- 
face waves has discriminated many of these 
shocks from the shallow earthquakes of the 
region. 

Critikos (1942) has applied seismometric 
data to analyzing tectonic forces in the region. 
His map of epicenters shows whether the first 
motion recorded at Athens is a compression or 
a dilatation and plainly exhibits the type of 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



effect found in California (Gutenberg, ig4ib); 
shocks in a given area regularly show the same 
character of first motion. Critikos suggests an 
interpretation of the observed distribution in 
terms of known structures. This is complicated 
both by the occurrence of intermediate shocks 
and by change of structural trends in the re- 
gion. Critikos (1946) discusses relationship of 
deep-focus earthquakes in the Aegean and 
eastern Greece to volcanoes. 

Data on the seisinicity of Albania have been 
published by Mihailovic (1940), Morelli 
(1942), and Magnini (1946). 

The characteristic arc features are incom- 
pletely established. Feature A may be repre- 
sented by the depths of the Mediterranean 
basin. As for feature B, negative gravity anom- 
alies have been found south of Rhodes and 
Crete. Shallow shocks occur here along the 
structural front, as well as south of Cyprus. 
Cyprus itself is an area of exceptionally large 
positive gravity anomalies (Mace and Bullard, 
1939). Positive gravity anomalies also occur in 
the region of feature D } which is indicated by 
intermediate shocks in the region of Santorin 
and the volcanic arc of the Cyclades. Other 
intermediate shocks are mapped farther south. 
Some of these are relatively shallow, and may 
belong to feature C. Others are deeper and 
suggest some southern, active structure under 
the Mediterranean, but most of these epicen- 
ters may be in error by two or three degrees. 
The shock of 1870, which was certainly one 
of the deep Riesenbeben, attained its greatest 
violence (on land) in Egypt, and was felt at 
points far south and east. 

Rumania 

Region 51, Figure 24. Associated with the 
northern front of the active belt in Rumania 
is a remarkable source of intermediate shocks. 
These occur near the sharp bend in the Car- 
pathian structures, at about 46N, s6i/E. 
Eleven of these are tabulated in this paper. 
Numerous others, all small, have been identi- 
fied at Bucharest. Historical records include 
shocks (1790, 1829, etc -) probably from the 
same focus, reported destructive at Bucharest 
and perceptible at surprisingly great distances. 
Detailed accounts of the destructive shocks of 
1940 were published by Demetrescu (1941). 

These shocks resemble those of the Hindu 
Kush in location under a very disturbed struc- 
ture and in frequent repetition from nearly 
the same focus, which here lies at a depth be- 



tween 100 and 150 kilometers. Here, also, the 
other arc features are not well developed. For 
a discussion of structures and gravity anoma- 
lies see Tanni (1942, pp. 94-96). 

Italy, Sicily 

Region 31, Figures 24 and 25. Stille and 
other authors trace the Alpine folding from 
the Balkans through the Dinaric Mountains 
east of the Adriatic, and connect it by way of 
the southern Alps with the Apennines; an ac- 
tive arc extends by way of Sicily into Africa. 
Gravity data are from Coster (1945); see also 
Meinesz (1947, p. 27). Since there are no seis- 
mological stations to the south, listed epicen- 
ters and focal depths in this area are less ac- 
curate than for the Aegean. Seismicity is 
decidedly lower than in the Aegean. To the 
north it decreases so much that discussion has 
been included under minor seismic areas. The 
largest shock in the period under investigation 
was the Messina earthquake of 1908 (311^150) 
(revised magnitude not over 71^, perhaps 
slightly less). The Avezzano earthquake of 
1915 (3^250) had a magnitude near 7. 
Smaller shocks have been very destructive lo- 
cally in Italy; this is due to weak construction 
(Caloi, 1942). 

Feature A is indistinctly shown by deep 
water east of Calabria and Sicily. Negative 
anomalies occur here, apparently exterior to 
the belt of shallow earthquakes, which follows 
the Apennine structures. This belt has been 
well established from macroseismic data for 
many years; the historical succession of shocks 
along the structural line has been noted by 
many authors especially since the earthquakes 
of 1783 (Davison, 1936, pp. 29-53). Feature D 
is well established; the volcanoes of western 
Italy, the Lipari Islands, and Sicily follow an 
interior arc, and are accompanied by earth- 
quakes at intermediate depth, some of which 
approach or slightly exceed 300 kilometers, 
thus being the deepest shocks known outside 
the Pacific belt. Shocks 311800 and 900 have 
been investigated by Di Filippo (1941). Posi- 
tive gravity anomalies occur here. Interior to 
the arc, the sea descends to considerable depth. 
This may be compared to the Weber Deep in 
the Banda Sea, interior to its active arc. 

Western Mediterranean to Azores 

Regions 31 and 32, Figures 25 and 27. The 
structural line continues through northern 



THE ALPIDE BELT 



7 1 



VOLCANOES * 

TREND OF MOUNTAIN RANGES 



AXIS OF GRAVITY ANOMALY I 
NEGATIVE POSITIVE 



OCEAN DEPTH, KM. 
0246 




FIGURE 25. Europe. 



Africa; it is usually drawn as a loop returning 
through Spain and France to the Alps. Seismic 
data support a continuation of the active belt 
into the Atlantic as far as the Azores, but not 
farther. There is no justification for extending 
it to the West Indies, as was done on some 
early seismic maps of the world. Topography 
and gravity have been discussed by Meinesz 

(1942), Cloos (1939), Wiist (i939 b )- Gravity 
data are fairly extensive for the western Medi- 
terranean (Coster, 1945), showing prevailing 
small positive anomalies. 

Active volcanism occurs only in the Azores 

(Agostinho, 1931). No intermediate shocks are 
known. In the Atlantic some (for example 
3^375) seem to be slightly deeper than the 



average shallow shock. There is no evidence 
anywhere of Pacific arc features. 

In the western Mediterranean quite small 
shocks can be located accurately, using data of 
the Spanish stations and Algiers. Only the 
larger of these have been catalogued here. 
Many have been discussed in detail in Spanish 
publications. A catalogue based on macro- and 
microseismic data was published by Rodriguez 
(1932, 1940, with extended bibliography). 

The westward continuation of the seismic 
belt is considerably more active than the area 
of North Africa and the western Mediterra- 
nean (which is a minor seismic area only). This 
is the region of origin of the great earthquake 
of 1941 (3^420) and the Lisbon earthquake 



72 



NON-ALPIDE ASIA! EASTERN ZONE 



of 1755 (Reid, 1914; Davison, 1936, pp. 1-28), 
which seems to have had a magnitude of at 
least 8^4. 

Practically all shocks of class c, and some of 
class d, can be located in this part of the At- 
lantic using the European and American sta- 
tions. Table 17 includes most of those large 



enough to be recorded on both sides of the 
Atlantic. 

There are macroseismic reports for numer-, 
ous shocks felt in the Azores, and of others 
(Rudolph, 1887; 1895) felt as seaquakes on 
vessels in the major shipping lanes. 



NON-ALPIDE ASIA: EASTERN ZONE 



General survey 

Asia outside the Alpide belt includes at least 
one great stable mass and a number of minor 
seismic areas. These are discussed together 
with other regions of similar geological type 
and seismic character. The region now consid- 
ered includes all the remaining major seismic- 
ity of the world outside of the circum-Pacific 
and Alpide belts, accounting for almost all the 
remaining class a shocks, but having no known 
intermediate or deep shocks. 

The area is roughly triangular, with its west- 
ward vertex in the vicinity of the Pamir Pla- 
teau, and sides extending northeastward and 
southeastward, including the whole of China, 
Tibet, eastern Turkestan (Sinkiang), and 
Mongolia. In addition to the references for 
the Alpide belt, structural data are from J. S. 
Lee (1939). 

Active volcanism is known only far to the 
east in Manchuria. Gravity observations are 
very few, except in the Pamir-Turkestan area. 

When the data of all the principal stations 
are available, location of even class d shocks 
in this region is reliable. No station is located 
in the interior (excepting perhaps that oper- 
ated for a short time at Pehpei near Chung- 
king). To the east are the Japanese stations, 
including those in Korea and Formosa; on the 
mainland are Zikawei (Shanghai), Chiufeng 
(Peiping), Nanking, Hong Kong, and Phu- 
Lien. Many of these were discontinued, and 
some destroyed, during the war. To the south 
are the Indian group, while to the north and 
west are the Soviet stations, including the first- 
class stations at Vladivostok, Irkutsk, and 
Tashkent, as well as the network of stations in 
Ferghana and Turkestan. Because of the gen- 
erally high seismicity of the region, and its 
clear relation to the principal structures, 
minor shocks usually have not been worked 
out. 



The Pamir-Baikal active zone 

Regions 28 and 48, Figure 23. A broad and 
not very sharply defined belt of activity bounds 
the seismic area of eastern Asia on the north 
and west, forming the northern face of the 
triangle whose vertex is in the Pamir region. 
This boundary belt extends south of the zone 
of depressions marked by Lakes Balkash and 
Baikal. The stable area of north central Asia 
lies beyond it. 

There is a gap between the most northeast- 
erly shocks of this zone, in the vicinity of Lake 
Baikal, and the shocks of the Arctic belt near 
the mouth of the Lena. To close this gap pre- 
sumably would call for shocks following the 
structures eastwardly from Lake Baikal to- 
wards Okhotsk and thence northwest along 
the Verkhojansk Mountains. There would 
then be a seismic belt completely surrounding 
the Eurasian mass by way of the Arctic, the 
North Atlantic, the Azores, the Mediterranean, 
the Black Sea, and central Asia. 

The Pamir-Baikal active zone resembles the 
Arctic and Atlantic belts in the absence of 
deep shocks, but differs in higher general seis- 
micity and in the greater magnitude of its larg- 
est shocks. The tabulations include seven 
great shocks with epicenters from the Pamir to 
Lake Baikal. The alignment of this activity is 
not along the strike of the more evident sur- 
face structures (Fig. 23), which are mostly 
Palaeozoic or older. Instead, the active belt 
crosses these structures and follows the region 
of highlands between the great depressions 
and the Gobi Desert. 

The western terminus of the belt is in the 
region of the Pamir Plateau and the Ferghana 
basin. Surface structures in this complicated 
area have been discussed in many special pa- 
pers, notably by Mushketov (1929, ig36b,c). 
The Central Asiatic network of stations fa- 
cilitates investigation of the deeper crustal 



NON-ALPIDE ASIA: EASTERN ZONE 



structure (Rozova, 1936; iggga; 1940). The 
thickness of the granitic layer is about 35 kilo- 
meters, the depth of the Mohorovicic discon- 
tinuity about 50 kilometers. 

Gravity observations are fairly numerous 
and have been discussed in relation to the 
structure by Erola (1941), who has reconsid- 
ered data given by Oczapowski (1936). Erola 
compares the great negative anomalies in the 
Ferghana area with those in the East and West 
Indies. 

Heiskanen (ig$ga) has compiled gravity ob- 
servations in Siberia. The majority of these are 
in the stable area north of the active belt. 
Some stations in the active belt show large 
positive anomalies. 

The Chinese active area 

Between the Pamir-Baikal zone and the Al- 
pide belt is the broad triangular region which 
includes Sinkiang (Chinese or Eastern Turke- 
stan), Tibet, Mongolia, and China proper. 
This excludes the coastal area of China and 
Manchuria which is fairly quiet, with occa- 
sional large shocks (not considering the very 
deep shocks of Manchuria, which belong to 
the circum-Pacific belt). The Chinese area is 
traversed by a series of structures with varying 
trend, all of which show more or less seismicity, 
while the intervening blocks are relatively un- 
disturbed. The principal stable blocks are 
those in Sinkiang, Tibet, and the Gobi Desert, 
and a smaller one lying between the Kuen 
Lun on the south and the Altyn Tagh and 
Nan Shan on the north. 

Most of the region is remote and sparsely 
populated, so that macroseismic data are lack- 
ing or imperfect; it is fortunate that instru- 
mentally located epicenters for important 
shocks are usually reliable. For China proper, 
there are annals extending over many centur- 
ies, during which earthquakes were given spe- 
cial notice. These indicate that the most seis- 
mic regions of China are to the southwest in 
Szechuan and Yunnan, and to the northwest 
in Kansu. Hulin (1946) has reported on large 
scale block faulting of Basin Range type in the 
western part of this region, near the meridian 
of iooE. North of this, in western Szechuan 
about 31 N, 101 E, Heim (1934) has described 
rift features with photographs bearing a strik- 
ing resemblance to those of the San Andreas 
fault zone, so as to suggest that strike-slip dis- 



placements occur. Heim describes fresh fis- 
sures which originated in the earthquake of 
1923 (26X195). Dr. S. P. Lee, after discussion 
with his colleagues at Nanking, has furnished 
the following information: 

"A series of faults has been actually ob- 
served. They are almost running in the com- 
mon direction of NW-SE, along the main val- 
ley of the Hsintu river up to Taofu, where the 
river turns to southwest, but the faults con- 
tinue in the same direction passing Taining 
down to Tatsienlu, then turn to N-S direction 
to the region near Minya Konka and further 
south. It has been traced from 3i45'N, 100 
i5'E to 283o'N, ioi3o'E. Earthquakes oc- 
curred frequently in and near the fault 
zone. . . . 

"It is no doubt the earthquakes are due to 
the unsettled faults. A great number of fis- 
sures or cracks either parallel or cross cut 
the fault zone, sometimes very long, were seen 
by the observers, especially in the area near 
Taining and between Sharato and Kaladrong. 
Many have suffered heavy erosion, but 
they can be definitely taken as caused by the 
earthquakes ancient and recent. From the rela- 
tive upheavals it has been interpreted by the 
observers that the northeast side of the main 
fault has been tilting up toward north quite a 
number of times." 

In the Nan Shan and eastward, shocks are 
frequent, and many other epicenters could 
have been added. The adjacent province of 
Kansu with two great shocks (1920, 1927) is 
one of the most frequently shaken parts of 
China. The history of destructive shocks al- 
lows us to extend the seismic belt eastward, at 
least far enough to include the valley of the 
Weiho, which enters the Huangho from the 
west near 34 N, i ioE. This has long been one 
of the most thickly settled areas in the world, 
so that merely destructive shocks with consid- 
erable loss of life might not prove high local 
seismicity. However, the reported effects are 
extreme; the earthquake of 1556 in this region 
is said to have taken 830,000 lives. If the earth- 
quake history can be trusted, it suggests a de- 
flection to the north rather than an eastward 
continuation of the active line, but strong 
shocks have occurred more nearly to the east 
(26N35 and 27Nio near 35N, ii5E). A little 
farther east, destructive shocks have occurred 
in Shantung (4iNioo). 



74 



OCEANIC ACTIVE BELTS 



OCEANIC ACTIVE BELTS 



General survey 

Much of the seismicity remaining to be dis- 
cussed is concentrated along narrow belts 
which follow oceanic ridges. The best known 
of these belts passes centrally through the At- 
lantic Ocean, along the mid-Atlantic Ridge. 
It extends into the Arctic, and across the polar 
area to the north coast of Siberia near the 
mouth of the Lena. A similar belt passes south- 
ward from Arabia through the central Indian 
Ocean to at least 30 S; here there is a branch- 
ing, and other ridges in the same region ap- 
pear to be active. The principal branch ex- 
tends southwest to connect with the Atlantic 
belt. 

Structurally, these active ridges are to be 
interpreted as young mountain ranges, but 
there is little evidence of an arcuate structure 
resembling those of the Pacific belt. The per- 
sistence of active volcanoes along these ridges 
suggests a former condition more like that in 
the Pacific (or the Alpide) belt, but only shal- 
low earthquakes are associated with them, and 
the few gravity observations (due to Meinesz) 
have not revealed any belt of large negative 
anomalies. It is suggested that these ridges, 
originally produced by folding, are now being 
broken up by block faulting consequent on a 
redistribution of tectonic forces. 

Evidence from velocities of surface waves 
indicates in both Atlantic and Indian Oceans 
a crustal structure more nearly of continental 
than of Pacific type. The "continental" crust 
here has a total thickness less than under the 
continents, one or more layers probably being 
absent. 

Though no intermediate shocks have been 
found, a number of shocks in the Atlantic ap- 
pear to be deeper than the average shallow 
earthquake. Surface waves from these shocks 
are abnormally small; and time observations 
often suggest depths which various authors 
have occasionally placed as great as 100 kilo- 
meters, though this is certainly excessive. 

Large shocks are rare; only one class a shock 
is listed, and this is at the lower limit of the 
class. Large shocks in the Atlantic between 
Portugal and the Azores, off Puerto Rico, and 
off the South Sandwich Islands, belong to the 
Alpide and Pacific belts. Class c shocks are 
relatively frequent. 
For these areas nearly every available shock 



has been studied and mapped, except in the 
active areas in the northern and equatorial At- 
lantic and off Madagascar. 

Instrumental data were applied to investi- 
gation of the seismicity of these regions by 
Tarns (1922; igsya, b; 1928; 1931). For discus- 
sion of bottom contours of the Atlantic and 
Indian Oceans see Littlehales (1932), Wiist 
(1934; i939a, c) and Vaughan et al. (1940). 
Contours for the southern latitudes are based 
on the chart of Antarctica (Hydrographic Of- 
fice, 1943). For the Atlantic, Hydrographic 
Office charts nos. 955, 955a, 956, 956a, 957, 
958, and 959 have been used. 

Arctic belt 

Region 40, Figure 26. The seismicity in the 
Arctic region north of Europe was first studied 
by Tarns (1922), who recognized this activity 
as a northward extension of the Atlantic belt 
into the polar region. He also published a 
separate discussion (Tarns, 19270) of earth- 
quakes in the region of the Nordenskjold Sea 
(near the mouth of the Lena), but refrained 
from suggesting a direct connection between 
these and the other Arctic shocks. Such a con- 
nection seems first to have been emphasized by 
Rajko and Linden (1935) and by Mushketov 
0935)- Their map shows epicenters in the 
Arctic which clearly fall along a continuous 
belt. This map has been reproduced by Heck 
(i938a). In the present volume every ade- 
quately reported shock from Spitzbergen to 
the Lena has been included; between Iceland 
and Spitzbergen only the better located shocks 
are given. 

Shocks have been reported felt on Spitzber- 
gen and Jan Mayen. Iceland has a long history 
of destructive earthquakes. 

Conditions for accurate location are very 
uneven. The more westerly shocks are favor- 
ably placed with respect to northern European 
stations, but observations at Pulkovo or other 
Russian stations are usually needed to fix the 
longitude. Really good location in this region 
also requires data for Ottawa or other Amer- 
ican stations. The Nordenskjold Sea shocks 
call for the Russian stations and some data 
from Far Eastern stations. The only active sta- 
tions in the Arctic region itself are Scoresby- 
Sund, Ivigtut, and Reykjavik. No large shocks 
are known; shocks of class c are fairly frequent. 



t^ffirSrS:ijg'i. : flra^^^ 

&xy#&&^ 

&:&ra:!:$Mg^!^ 






^^x^^^^K^-^m^. 













no 100 9Q ao TO go so *o 30 20 10 o 10^ 20 



EARTHQUAKES 
CLASS: o b c d 

SHALLOW * X X 

h 70-300 KM. 

h>300KM. 

HUNDREDS DIGIT OF 

DEPTH IN KM. 1,2 " 6 



TREND OP MOUNTAIN RANGES 



OCEAN. DEPTH, KM. 

0246 8 10 




100 90 80 70 60 SO 40 3O 20 10 O 10 3O 4O SO 6O TO 



FIGURE 27. Atlantic Ocean, sinusoidal equal-area projection. 



OCEANIC ACTIVE BELTS 



Atlantic belt 



Region 32, Figure 27. The earliest systematic 
collection of data on Atlantic shocks is con- 
tained in the papers on seaquakes by Rudolph 
(1887; 1895). Shocks are felt on shipboard in 
the Atlantic chiefly near the Azores and in the 
central area near the equator. During the fol- 
lowing 20 years it was found that compara- 
tively few of these shocks were recorded by the 
instruments then in service in Europe and 
America. This showed that the activity re- 
ported by vessels must consist of comparatively 
small earthquakes, and it was suggested that 
much of it might be due to submarine volcan- 
ism. This is quite certainly false, for with im- 
proved instruments epicenters began to be lo- 
cated in the Atlantic, and the energy of the 
shocks, though moderate, is still larger than 
that of any ordinary volcanic earthquake. Sie- 
berg and others had pointed out the associa- 
tion of seaquakes with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; 
and Tarns (ig27a; 1928), using revised epi- 
centers from the International Summary sup- 
plemented by other observations, showed that 
the Ridge is the chief locus of Atlantic seis- 
micity. 

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is not a mere rise 
or swell in the ocean bottom, but has a com- 
plicated topography (Wiist, i939a; Pettersson, 
1947; Ewing, 1948); it is in fact a submarine 
mountain range. In the equatorial Atlantic 
the Ridge has a striking flexure, giving it a 
long nearly east-west course. This bend paral- 
lels the strong curves in the coasts of Africa 
and South America. From the equator the 
Ridge trends nearly due south, west of the 
meridian ioW; it then turns eastward south 
of Africa. 

North Atlantic shocks are very favorably 
placed for epicentral determinations using the 
stations in Europe and North America. Nu- 
merous minor shocks could have been added 
to the catalogue, but only enough have been 
taken to locate the active belt which follows 
the Ridge very closely. Adequately recorded 
shocks which appear to fall out of line have 
been investigated carefully. In the equatorial 
region locations are not so reliable, but activ- 
ity is higher here than anywhere else along 
the Ridge, and enough shocks of class c are 
available to define the active belt. In southern 
latitudes there is a decrease in activity along 
the Ridge. Simultaneously the epicenters be- 
come more remote from the majority of good 
stations, and correspondingly difficult to lo- 



77 

cate. The tables and maps show every depend- 
able epicenter in this region. 

Slightly higher activity in the far south 
makes it possible, in spite of the unfavorable 
situation, to trace a nearly continuous belt of 
epicenters from the South Sandwich Islands to 
Bouvet Island, and thence along the Atlantic- 
Indian Swell into the southern Indian Ocean. 
The class a shock of November 10, 1942, is in 
the eastern part of this belt. No epicenters 
have been located between Tristan da Cunha 
and Bouvet Island on the southern part of the 
Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Shock ioN48o at 6oS, 
i2i^W originally was assigned a depth of 
150 kilometers. This is not consistent with the 
amplitudes of the surface waves. 

Indian Ocean 

Region 33, Figure 28. The bottom configu- 
ration of the Indian Ocean is very imperfectly 
known. Wiist (1934; *939c) has attempted to 
supplement the data by inferences from tem- 
perature distribution. 

Location of even large shocks in this area is 
often difficult. Epicenters depend chiefly on 
observations at Tananarive, the Indian sta- 
tions, and Capetown. Listing is as complete as 
practicable. Near 34S, 57 E, Figure 28 shows 
only a few of the listed shocks. 

The main seismic belt begins abruptly off 
the coast of Arabia north of the island group 
of Socotra and trends roughly southeastward 
along the Carlsberg Ridge discovered by 
Schmidt and confirmed by the work of the 
John Murray Expedition (Farquharson, 1936; 
review by Hoffmeister, 1938). Near the equator 
the belt changes direction rather sharply and 
continues slightly west of south. No large 
shocks are known here, and seismicity is mod- 
erate. The belt passes through a region of re- 
cent relatively high activity near 34 S, 57 E, 
and trends southwestward by way of Prince 
Edward Island and Bouvet Island into the 
south Atlantic. The class a shock of 1942 lies 
on this belt beyond Prince Edward Island. 

Another belt, possibly a branch, trends 
southeastward from Amsterdam and St. Paul 
Islands towards the epicenters on the Indian- 
Antarctic Swell discussed with the Pacific belt 
(Fig. 12). However, there are large unfilled 
gaps, even with the addition of a class c shock 
on December 24, 1947, 05:22.0, near 55 S, 
H5E. 

There is now adequate evidence of a minor 



OCEANIC ACTIVE BELTS 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 



EARTHQUAKES 

CLASS: abed 

SHALLOW }(* X * 

H 70-200 KM. V v * 



STATIONS <> VOLCANOES 



OCEAN DEPTH, KM. 

2 46 



TREND OF MOUNTAIN RANGES 



FIGURE 28. Indian Ocean, sinusoidal equal-area projection. 



seismic belt trending southwest from Ceylon 
to join the main belt about 15 S. 

A peculiarly isolated group of shocks occurs 
near 2S, 89E. The catalogue now includes 
a shock in 1918 (sgNSgo) at 8S, 85E. (The 
International Summary places this at 5S, 
85 E; it may actually have been there, but not 



farther north). With other epicenters near 
90 E north of the equator, there is suggested 
a minor seismic belt following imperfectly 
known rises and ridges roughly north and 
south. 

Shocks west of Australia are discussed with 
the stable masses. 



RIFT ZONES 



79 



The activity near 34$, 57 E calls for special 
notice. The catalogue shows shocks in this gen- 
eral vicinity in 1909 and 1916, but there was a 
definite increase in activity about 1925. The 
improved installation at Tananarive did not 
become effective until 1926, so that the addi- 
tional data are not solely responsible for the 
larger number of shocks located in the area. 
Many of those listed could have been located 
without Tananarive, though with less pre- 



cision. The series continued with interruption 
to January 1933; since that time the principal 
activity of the region has been elsewhere. In 
the International Summary practically all 
these shocks are referred to a single epicenter 
at 34 S, 57 E, but the data at distant stations 
establish activity over an extended area, and 
this is confirmed by the appearance of the seis- 
mograms at Tananarive (Poisson, 1939). 



RIFT ZONES 



General survey 

Certain shallow shocks are associated with 
interior fractures of the stable masses. The 
most active of these are the East African rift 
zones, including their possible northerly ex- 
tension into Palestine. Seismicity at a lower 
level is associated with the St. Lawrence Valley, 
which is perhaps rather marginal than interior 
to the Canadian Shield. The shocks of central 
Australia are analogously placed. These two 
groups will be discussed with the associated 
stable masses. 

Hawaiian shocks are included in the present 
section, since they undoubtedly occur along a 
fracture system in the interior of the Pacific 
stable mass. The mechanism of this fracturing, 
and the forces occasioning tectonic earth- 
quakes, may differ fundamentally between 
Hawaii and East Africa. There are other frac- 
tures in the Pacific mass analogous to that of 
Hawaii, but their seismicity is comparatively 
minor, as apparently is the case in Samoa. 

Active rifts occur in the Parnir-Baikal active 
zone, notably Lake Baikal and the Turfan 
Basin. Rift zones associated with strike-slip 
faulting occur in many parts of the Pacific 
belt. 

East African rifts 

Region 37, Figure 28. The African activity 
is moderate, even compared with the Atlantic 
and Indian Ocean belts. It is now possible to 
include shocks from 1909 to 1914, when there 
was greater seismicity in East Africa than at 
any time since. Location is generally difficult, 
depending on a small number of stations. 

Large negative gravity anomalies are found 
in the rift area from Lake Albert to Lake 
Tanganyika, as well as north and east of Lake 
Victoria (Horsfield and Bullard, 1937; Kren- 



kel, 1922). Only positive anomalies are found 
in the region of southern Egypt and the Red 
Sea (Bullard, 1937; Heiskanen, i939a). 

The complexity of the known rift structures 
is reflected in the seismicity, which follows no 
single line in the equatorial region. A seismic 
belt runs northwest through Ethiopia to the 
head of the Gulf of Aden. There is activity 
along the west coast of the Red Sea, but seis- 
mological evidence does not indicate any con- 
tinuous active zone from central Africa across 
Suez into the unquestionably active Jordan 
trough of Palestine. Any such projection of the 
African rifts must be based on geological and 
geomorphological evidence (Cloos et aL, 1942). 

Hawaiian Islands 

Region 39, Figure 29 shows the principal 
volcanic vents known to be active. On the 
island Hawaii these are Kilauea, Mauna Loa, 
and Hualalai (which last erupted in 1802). 
The symbol on Maui indicates the site of an 
eruption about 1750 (Stearns and Macdonald, 
1942, pp. 102-107, 302-303) and not the summit 
depression of Haleakala. 

Gravity observations have been discussed by 
Duerksen (1943). There is a predominance of 
positive anomalies (Heiskanen, i939a, p. 54). 
Duerksen concludes that the island of Hawaii 
is an uncompensated load on the earth's crust, 
while the load of Oahu seems to be partly 
compensated isostatically. 

The principal seismological station is Hono- 
lulu, operated by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. The station was originally at the Ewa 
Magnetic Observatory, where a Milne instru- 
ment was installed in 1903, and replaced by a 
Milne-Shaw in 1921. The instruments were 
moved to the University of Hawaii in 1926- 
1927 and returned to Ewa in October 1946. 



8o 



SEISMICITY MARGINAL TO STABLE MASSES 




FIGURE 29. Hawaiian Islands. 



Honolulu is a highly important station be- 
cause of its isolated location in the center of 
the Pacific area. Unfortunately it is subject to 
heavy microseismic disturbance, which often 
obscures the first seismic motion. 

For the local shocks of Hawaii supplemen- 
tary data are obtained from the readings at the 
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory near Kilauea, 
where Bosch-Omori instruments have been in 
operation since 1912. Auxiliary stations with 
small instruments have been operated at vari- 
ous times and locations on Hawaii. 

The catalogue includes all shocks recorded 
at distant stations for which epicenters could 
be given. 

Although this is an active volcanic region, 
and most small shocks on the island of Hawaii 
are direct results of volcanic processes com- 
paratively near the surface, there are shocks of 
tectonic origin. The most noteworthy is the 
great shock of April 2, 1868 (Wood, 1914; 
193321). Though this was accompanied by erup- 



tive phenomena on Hawaii, it produced frac- 
turing at the surface such as might result from 
the displacement of large underlying masses 
of magma, or solid material, or both. More- 
over, it presumably originated at the depth 
usual for great earthquakes, for it was not only 
violently destructive in the southern part of 
the island of Hawaii, but was moderately 
strong at Honolulu, and apparently percep- 
tible on all the islands of the group. It was 
preceded and followed by many small shocks. 
In the middle of September 1929, a swarm 
of small shocks began in the northwestern part 
of the island of Hawaii near Hualalai. Larger 
shocks occurred; that of September 26, at O4h, 
though of class d, was recorded as far as west- 
ern Europe. The largest (magnitude 6.5) took 
place on October 6, at oyh. This was violent, 
with heavy damage in the Kona district, which 
includes Hualalai. The seismograms are of the 
usual character for shallow earthquakes. No 
eruption was associated with these shocks. 



SEISMICITY MARGINAL TO STABLE MASSES 



General survey 

Nearly all the stable masses exhibit mar- 
ginal fractures which are seismically active. 
Some of these are rift zones, but appear to be 
different in character from those discussed 
under that heading. Such are the St. Lawrence 



Valley and the shatter zone of Australia. There 
are no extended seismic belts in this class, and 
very irregular minor seismicity. The pattern 
is that of occasional large shocks, sometimes 
in groups separated by long intervals of quiet. 
All these shocks are shallow, though some are 
deeper than average. 



SEISMICITY MARGINAL TO STABLE MASSES 



8l 



Canadian Shield 

Regions 34 and 42, Figures 27 and 34. Mar- 
ginal shocks of the Canadian Shield are known 
in three groups: to the southeast, in the region 
of the St. Lawrence River; to the northeast, in 
Baffin Bay; to the northwest, in the region o 
the mouth of the Mackenzie River. 

The long-established station at Ottawa was 
later supplemented by auxiliary stations at 
Seven Falls and Shawinigan Falls, so that the 
southeastern group of shocks is well observed. 
These shocks are also recorded at stations in 
the northeastern United States. Many small 
shocks have been located in this area by the 
workers at Ottawa and by the Northeastern 
Seismological Association. The present cata- 
logue includes only those recorded at more 
distant stations. A great earthquake in 1663 
was violent near Three Rivers (roughly 461^ 
N, 72i/W; Lefebvre, 1928). The shocks of 
1925 and 1935 h a d depths near 60 kilometers. 
The epicenter of the latter is well within the 
margin of the Canadian Shield. 

The class b shock off Newfoundland (34N- 
950) is an eastern member of the St. Lawrence 
group of shocks. 

The northeastern marginal shocks, in Davis 
Strait and Baffin Bay, are more remote from 
the American stations, but are better recorded 
in Europe, and within close range of the 
Greenland stations (Ivigtut and Scoresby- 
Sund). The shock of 1933 (42Nioo) is a good 
instance of a large shock in a region not pre- 
viously considered active. Small shocks have 
often been felt on the west coast of Greenland 
(Tams, 1922) and Tertiary faulting has been 
found there (Born, 1933, p. 800, following 
Koch, 1929). The Baffin Bay shocks might have 
been referred to under the rift zones, if the 
pre-Cambrian rocks of Greenland are consid- 
ered as part of the Canadian Shield. 

Three shocks (42^00; 550; 600) are re- 
ferred to the northwestern Mackenzie River 
group. The station at College (near Fair- 
banks, Alaska) now makes it more probable 
that shocks in this remote region will not be 
overlooked. 

Brazilian Shield 

Region 35, Figures 27 and 34. Seisrnicity in 
this region is low. In spite of many years of 
recording at Rio de Janeiro and La Plata, only 
one shock (35^00) can be listed; this was felt 
on the coast of Brazil. BranAer (1912; 1920) 



gives a history of small shocks. To the west and 
northwest the stable shield abuts directly on 
the active Andean zone of the Pacific belt; to 
the south against its eastern branch in the 
Mendoza region which is an area of Mesozoic 
folding. 

Africa 

Regions 32, 33, and 37, Figures 24, 27, 28, 
and 34. Strong shocks reported infrequently 
from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands are 
in part volcanic; presumably tectonic shocks 
large enough to record at distant stations are 
known from both. The destructive Gold Coast 
shock (37N8io) of 1939 is the largest of a series 
(Junner et aL, 1941). That previously best 
known occurred on November 20, 1906, but 
was not reported by any distant station. Shock 
37 N 840 was reported strong in Cameroon in 
the region of Yokaduma. Shock 37^70 is lo- 
cated in Angola on instrumental data alone. 

Shock 37N78o south of the Cape of Good 
Hope was felt in Capetown. The shocks of 
South Africa occur in a region of Palaeozic and 
Mesozoic folding, and are discussed with those 
of other minor seismic areas. Shocks 37^20 
and 37N725 in the Mozambique Channel may 
be considered as marginal, or as representative 
of an internal rift zone, Madagascar being re- 
lated to the African mass analogously to the 
situation of Greenland with respect to the 
Canadian Shield. The local shocks of Mada- 
gascar have been reported by Poisson (1939, 
1941, 1942, 19 47 a). He finds that in this region 
the granitic layer is about 1 5 kilometers thick, 
the second layer 20 to 50 kilometers, and that 
the Mohoroviclc discontinuity is at a depth of 
55 to 60 kilometers (1947^ and personal com- 
munication). 

Arabia 

Regions 30, 33, and 37, Figures 23 and 34. 
The Arabian mass may be considered as an 
outlying part of the African stable mass, sepa- 
rated from it by the active zones of the Red 
Sea and the Gulf of Aden, the former of which 
has already been mentioned with rift zores. 
See Cloos et aL (1942). Two true marginal 
shocks in 1941 (37N6o; 120) are well located 
on the east coast of the Red Sea. The Palestine 
earthquake of 1927 (30^50) is the only shock 
in Table 17 representing the long seismic his- 
tory of the Jordan Valley. This shock may be 
considered as marginal to the Arabian mass, 



8s> 



MINOR SEISMIC AREAS 



or as in the northern extension of the African 
rift activity (Sieberg, 1932 a, pp. 796-803; 
19320; Willis 1928; correction, 1933). 

India 

Regions 26, 33, and 47, Figures 23 and 34. 
The shocks of northern and northwestern 
India have been discussed with the Alpide 
belt. Shocks off southern India and Ceylon 
represent a minor active belt in the Indian 
Ocean rather than marginal activity of the 
stable mass. The earthquakes of central India, 
immediately north of the stable oldland, are 
true marginal shocks. Several are listed. Shock 
26N94O has been investigated by Mukherjee 
(1942). Shock 47N3O is in the region of the 
great earthquake of Cutch in 1819 (Oldham, 
igsGa, pp. 71-117; Davison, 1936, pp. 68-76) 
which was the first established case of eyewit- 
ness observation of fault displacement during 
an earthquake. The active margin here fol- 
lows a structural trend slightly north of east 
from central India. The shocks of Assam are in 
line with it. 

Shock 33N8o5 in the Bay of Bengal may be 
in the epicentral region of the great earth- 
quake of December 31, 1881, which was strong 
on all the coasts of the Bay (Doyle, 1882; Old- 
ham, 1884). 

Australia 

Region 38, Figures 30, 33, and 34. The old 
stable mass of western Australia has marginal 
shocks in several directions. A class d shock 
(38Nioo) is off the northwest coast. This and 
a few other small shocks suggest activity be- 
tween Australia and the Sunda arc. The large 
shock 38Ni5o of 1906 is now placed with some 



doubt at 22 S, iogE. It was felt along almost 
the whole west coast. Shocks in south and cen- 
tral Australia occurred and are listed in 1938^ 
1939, and 1941. The last of these (38^00) 
ranks as the largest Australian earthquake in 
at least forty years. These shocks occur in a 
well-known fracture zone, called the "shatter 
zone" in its southern portion, which separates 
the stable mass of Western Australia from the 
folded structures east of it. 

The epicenter inland in Western Australia 
is that of shock 38Nsoo, felt at Perth and 
throughout the Southwestern Division of 
Western Australia. It appears to indicate an 
active fracture within the margin of the stable 
mass. Shock 381^250 is off the coast southwest 
of Perth. 

Other marginal shocks 

Of the areas usually named as continental 
shields there remains only that in eastern 
China. This is smaller than most of the others; 
it abuts against a very active region to the 
west, and has marginal shocks near the east 
coast. One of the latter (2^975) was destruc- 
tive at Swatow. 

Borneo is part of a stable mass, separated 
from Celebes by the active fracture of the 
Strait of Macassar. The epicenter 22N92O at 
7N, ii4E may be marginal or internal to 
the principal mass. Shocks inland from the 
coast are clearly marginal. Macroseismic data 
are reported by Sieberg (19333, p. 833). 

Other important stable masses either show 
no identified marginal activity (Antarctica) 
or are immediately surrounded by active belts 
(Philippine Basin) or exhibit marginally an 
alternation of these conditions (Eurasian 
stable mass). 



MINOR SEISMIC AREAS 



Genera! survey 

Significant seismicity is not restricted to the 
principal active belts, the rifts, and the in- 
terior or marginal fractures of the stable 
masses. Two large areas and several smaller 
ones show fairly frequent minor shocks and 
occasional larger ones. These areas necessarily 
fall between the stable masses and the active 
belts (Fig. 34). The eastern Asiatic active area 
may belong in this class, since it lies between 
the Alpide active structures and the stable 



mass of northern Asia, but its seismicity is 
much higher than that of the regions now to 
be discussed. 

Regions like the Rocky Mountains and the 
Alps, which belong structurally with the Pa- 
cific and Alpide belts, are included in the pres- 
ent section on account of their relatively low 
seismicity. 

The geological structures are generally of 
the same type, but show great difference in ex- 
tent and in activity. The clearest example is 



MINOR SEISMIC AREAS 



that of eastern Australia. The West Australian 
pre-Cambrian Shield is bounded on the east 
by the active fractures of the marginal "shat- 
ter zone." East of these is the area of the Palae- 
ozoic mountains of Australia, with minor ac- 
tivity. Beyond this is an extremely stable 
oceanic area, bounded on the east by the 
highly active cir aim-Pacific belt including the 
Solomon Islands and New Zealand, and mark- 
ing the edge of the Australasian continental 
area. 

It frequently happens that in one or sev- 
eral directions the stable mass abuts almost 
directly on one of the principal active belts, 
and the intervening area of minor seismicity 
is narrow or lacking. 

In minor seismic areas shocks of class d have 
usually been catalogued whenever the data 
were adequate. Even when well-recorded, 
smaller shocks (class e) have been omitted. 
This explains the omission of numerous epi- 
centers in Europe and North America. 

North America 

Region 34, Figures 8, 27, and 34. The North 
American active area is surrounded by the 
circum-Pacific and Arctic-Atlantic belts. The 
stable mass of the Canadian Shield is eccen- 
trically placed to the northeast. South of the 
marginal fractures of the St. Lawrence region 
is the Palaeozoic Appalachian mountain struc- 
ture. To the west the Rocky Mountains are the 
eastern and older edge of the Pacific belt. 

The crustal structure of this broad region 
probably varies greatly, and differs from that 
in the California area. At St. Louis, Chicago, 
and other stations in the central United States 
the first seismic waves from distant shocks may 
arrive as much as 4 seconds early (A. W. Lee, 
1937; Gutenberg and Richter, 1938^. The 
phenomenon suggests unusual structure of the 
deeper crustal layers and unusually high aver- 
age wave velocities. 

From recorded explosions off the coast of 
Maryland, Tuve et al. (1948) report a thick- 
ness of about 12 kilometers for the granitic 
layer, a second boundary at a depth of 24 
kilometers, and the Mohorovicld discontinuity 
at 42 kilometers. 

C. Tsuboi (unpublished, personal com- 
munication) has calculated the thickness of 
the isostatically uncompensated part of the 
crust in the United States separately for each 
of nine regional divisions as follows (thickness 
in km.): 



West Central East 

North 70 39 108 

Central 35 64 38 

South 39 54 89 
General mean 59 

Shocks east of the Rocky Mountains fre- 
quently show a wider area of perceptibility 
for given epicentral intensity than those of the 
Pacific coast. This indicates greater depth of 
focus. On plausible assumptions macroseismic 
data can be made to yield a rough estimate of 
this depth which probably differs from the true 
depth, since it must be affected by local struc- 
ture and ground (Gutenberg and Richter, 
1942). For some shocks this estimate exceeds- 
60 kilometers. Extreme instances are the 
Charleston (South Carolina) earthquake of 
August 31, 1886, rediscussed by Wood (1945), 
and the Charleston (Missouri) earthquake of 
October 31, 1895 (Heinrich, 1941, p. 197)- 
The former is the better known; but the latter 
was even more remarkable, since it occasioned 
only moderate damage near its epicenter and 
yet was felt from the District of Columbia to 
New Mexico and from Canada to Louisiana. 

Marginal shocks of the Canadian Shield 
show a similar distribution of intensity sug- 
gesting relatively large depth, which is con- 
firmed by instrumental observations for some 
of them. 

Gravity data for over 1000 stations have 
been issued in various forms by the U.S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey. A gravity profile across 
the United States has been discussed in rela- 
tion to geological structure by Woollard 
(1943). Maps showing gravity data are given 
by Woollard (1936; 1937; 1939); Woollard,, 
Ewing and Johnson (1938); Longwell (1943). 

Seismological stations are most numerous in 
the coastal regions. Shocks in the central Mis- 
sissippi Valley are well observed at St. Louis 
and its auxiliary stations (Florissant, Little 
Rock, Cape Girardeau), but there are many 
large areas of the United States where shocks 
of magnitude 5 to 514 are still difficult to lo- 
cate. For earlier years, with fewer stations and 
less sensitive instruments, information is very 
incomplete, Macroseismic data are also imper- 
fect; what is known has been summarized by 
Heck (i938b) and in the serial United States 
Earthquakes (Bodle, Heck, Neumann). 

The principal activity of the region is in the 
eastern Cordilleran belt. Structurally this be- 
longs to the Pacific belt; the Rocky Mountains 
and related structures are of the same age as 



MINOR SEISMIC AREAS 



others which have been included in the dis- 
cussion of the circum-Pacific activity. How- 
ever, their seismicity is lower. Probably the 
largest known shock of this group was destruc- 
tive at Bavispe, in Sonora (Mexico), May 3, 
1887. It is described as accompanied by sur- 
face faulting (Button, 1904, p. 54; Montessus 
de Ballore, 1924, p. 81, quoting Aguilera, 
1889). The largest of these shocks in Table 17 
is the Montana earthquake of 1925 (Willson, 
1926; Byerly, 1926). The table also includes the 
shocks in Texas (Byerly, 1934) and Utah 
(Neumann, i936b; Adams, 1938) in 1931 and 
1934, the Helena (Montana) shocks of 1935 
(Ulrich, 1936; Gutenberg and Richter, i938b), 
and a few smaller earthquakes. 

The Helena earthquakes of 1935 are of in- 
terest for their succession in time. A small 
earthquake on October 4 was followed by a 
series of minor perceptible shocks, until on 
October 12 a shock occurred strong enough to 
cause some damage. On October 18 (October 
19, G.C.T.) the first destructive shock (34^0) 
followed. The second destructive shock, 34N- 
60, on October 3 1 , was of nearly the same mag- 
nitude. This is one of many exceptions to the 
commonly stated rule that danger is largely 
over after the first destructive shock. 

The Appalachian belt is a region of fairly 
continuous minor activity. The northeastern 
part of it is shaken by the marginal shocks of 
the Canadian Shield, but moderate earth- 
quakes originate within the Appalachian area. 
Table 17 gives one example, the New Hamp- 
shire earthquake of 1940 (34^80). Shocks 
are probably more frequent in the southern 
Appalachians, but even the largest of these is 
not recorded widely enough for instrumental 
location, and they are of class e, although 
sometimes felt to distances of several hundred 
kilometers. 

Near the Atlantic coast is the epicenter of 
the Charleston earthquake of 1886 (Wood, 
1945). Small shocks are fairly frequent in the 
same area. 

The earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 in the 
Mississippi Valley, originating near New Ma- 
drid (Missouri), rank as the greatest shocks in 
the history of the United States, considering 
the enormous area disturbed and the violent 
effects (Fuller, 1912). The magnitudes of the 
large shocks must have been at least 8. 

Northeastern Asia 

Regions 41 and 42, Figures 7, 18, and 34. A 
minor seismic area includes northeastern Asia 



and the extreme northwestern part of North 
America. This region, like the preceding, lies 
between the Canadian Shield and the active 
belts, which are here the Aleutian arc, Kam- 
chatka, and the (non-seismic) eastern bound- 
ary of the Angara Shield. Between Lake Baikal 
and Kamchatka there is no bounding active 
belt, so that eastern Asia south to Sumatra and 
Borneo might logically be included, but this 
larger region is of different seismic and struc- 
tural type, including several important minor 
stable masses. 

Between Siberia and Alaska this region is 
transgressed by the Bering Sea, the coasts of 
which are probably of structural significance, 
since practically all the known shocks of the 
region are close to them. 

There are no stations in the region. On its 
margins are Vladivostok, one of the first-class 
Soviet stations, with reports available since 
1930 with interruptions; College (Alaska), in 
operation since 1935; and Ootomari, one of 
the older Japanese stations, on the southern 
part of Sakhalin. 

Shock 4iN5Oo was reported destructive at 
Suihwa, north of Harbin, Manchuria. This is 
the only shock at normal depth instrumentally 
located in the interior of this region. Shock 
4iN6oo was destructive on Sakhalin. Shocks 
4iN8oo and 4iN9oo east of Okhotsk are well 
located from instrumental data. Four shocks, 
42N7oo to 42N850, near 67N, 172 W (north- 
west of Bering Strait), occurred within a few 
weeks in 1928. 

Purely coastal or marginal activity of this 
type is characteristic of stable masses, as well 
as of some minor seismic areas. No structural 
conclusions should be drawn from seismolog- 
ical data, which cover only the larger shocks of 
the area, although every shock for which data 
were adequate has been investigated. 

Northeastern Asia is almost uninhabited, so 
that no macroseismic data are available. Seis- 
micity comparable with that of most of north- 
ern Europe could not possibly be detected 
here. The region is probably analogous, both 
in structure and in seismicity, to others in the 
present main section. 

Central and Western Europe 

Regions 31 and 36, Figures 25 and 27. The 
exceptional circumstances of information on 
the seismicity of Europe call for special treat- 
ment. In a previous paper (Gutenberg and 
Richter, 1941, p. 95) a figure was given on 



86 



MINOR SEISMIC AREAS 



which all epicenters in the International Sum- 
mary for a limited period were mapped, re- 
gardless o the magnitude o the shocks. This 
is undesirable for comparison with other 
maps; it overemphasizes very small shocks, 
such as occur in all parts of the world, unre- 
lated to the principal active structures. More- 
over, it includes only those shocks of that class 
which are near several good stations; and it 
maps imperfectly recorded shocks for which 
epicenters may be seriously in error. The listed 
shocks of class d and over are now sufficient for 
seismic mapping. 

Reference has been made to Stille's struc- 
tural subdivision of Europe. His Neo-Europa 
includes the entire Alpide belt. The relatively 
high activity of the southern front has been 
discussed. The northern front, including the 
Alps, Pyrenees, and Betic Mountains, remains 
to be considered. 

Seismicity differs somewhat between Meso- 
Europa, the region of Variscan or Hercynian 
folding, Palaeo-Europa, the region affected 
only by the Caledonian folding, and the stable 
Baltic Shield, which is the eastern part of 
Stille's Ur-Europa. 

With the occurrence of more of the rare 
stronger shocks of central Europe, some in- 
crease in the number of stations and the ob- 
servations of the Helgoland explosion on 
April 18, 1947, crust al structure in Europe is 
now better worked out. The depth of the 
Mohorovicic discontinuity is at the relatively 
shallow level of about 30 to 40 kilometers in 
northwestern Europe. It has a maximum un- 
der the Alps at about 70 kilometers and de- 
creases in northern Italy to about 50 kilo- 
meters under the Etruscan Apennines and to 
about 40 kilometers in Yugoslavia. The thick- 
ness of the granitic layer is about 20 to 30 kilo- 
meters in northwestern Europe and about 40 
to 45 kilometers in the general area of the Alps 
(Gutenberg, i94$b; Caloi, 1942, 1943). Grav- 
ity data for the eastern Alps are discussed by 
Holopainen (1947). 

Hiller (1935) has investigated instrumental 
and macroseismic data for shocks in the north- 
ern foreland of the Alps in southern Germany. 
The larger shocks are all at depths of 30 to 40 
kilometers, near the bottom of the granitic 
layer, but some of the smaller shocks (all defi- 
nitely class e) are at depths of only a few kilo- 
meters. This is confirmed by Caloi (1943). 
Macroseismic data are in agreement with these 
results (Gutenberg and Richter, 1943). On the 
other hand, macroseismic data (Oldham, 1923) 



indicate that the shock of August 7, 1895, in 
northern Italy had an unusual focal depth, 
although probably less than 100 kilometers. 

The European area is exceptionally well 
provided with good stations, many of them 
with excellent time-keeping, and some with 
short-period instruments for registering local 
shocks. There are many observations for these 
shocks, so that European earthquakes are dis- 
proportionally represented in the Interna- 
tional Summary. This gives a misleading im- 
pression of high seismicity in that region if all 
the listed epicenters are mapped without re- 
gard to magnitude especially in the Alpine 
area, as a result of the excellent Swiss stations, 
Stuttgart with auxiliary stations, Strasbourg, 
and Trieste. 

Macroseismic data are plentiful. There are 
innumerable papers discussing the seismicity 
of particular small areas, often including only 
a few hundred square kilometers, and many 
others reporting on particular shocks. More 
inclusive studies will be referred to in order. 

Shocks in the Alps are generally smaller and 
less frequent than those of Italy (Wanner, 
1934; Roth<, 1941). The largest known shock 
of the region is that at Basel in 1356. A mod- 
erately strong shock occurred near Visp in 
1855 (Montandon, 1945/43, reviewed by Til- 
lotson, 1946). Probably somewhat less strong 
is the class c shock of January 25, 1946, with 
epicenter near Sion at 46.4 N, 7-5E, accord- 
ing to Zurich. This earthquake was felt in all 
directions to points beyond the Swiss border. 

The Basel earthquake is more properly in- 
cluded with the notable minor activity of the 
northern and northeastern foreland of the 
Alps, particularly of the region known in Ger- 
many as the Schwabische Alb; the misleading 
translation as the "Swabian Alps" has unfor- 
tunately become accepted in English. This is 
the area of the earthquake 36^00 of 1911 
(Gutenberg, 1915; Sieberg and Lais, 1925). 

Seismic activity along the northern front of 
the Alpide zone is otherwise small. Occasional 
shocks are destructive on the Riviera and in 
the Pyrenees. Seismicity increases along the 
southeastern coast of Spain; a number of off- 
shore shocks are shown on the maps. 

The principal mass of Meso-Europa is nearly 
quiescent, except for shocks such as occasion- 
ally occur even in the interior of the great 
stable masses. It is transected by the Rhine 
structures, which are associated with a notable 
heightening of minor activity, although prac- 
tically all the shocks are too small to be in- 



MINOR SEISMIC AREAS 



eluded in this study. For discussion of the 
Rhine structures as rifts see Cloos (1939, pp. 
445-462). The macroselsmic history of Ger- 
many has been catalogued by Sieberg 
(ig4oa,b). 

Swarms of small shocks in the Vogtland, 
Saxony, have been described by Etzold (1919). 
Small locally damaging shocks have occurred 
about the coasts of France, notably near 
Nantes and in the Channel Islands. Similar 
shocks are known from the coast of Portugal, 
although some of the destructive shocks af- 
fecting that region originated far to the west 
in the Atlantic continuation of the Alpide 
zone. 

The northern boundary of Meso-Europa is 
associated with a number of comparatively 
large shocks of class d. Such are the Belgian 
earthquake of 1938 (36N6oo), and that at 
Colchester in 1884. 

The northern region of Caledonian folding 
(Stille's Palaeo-Europa) shows notable minor 
seismicity. In view of the complete quiescence 
of much younger structures, it is highly im- 
probable that these shocks represent any per- 
sistence of the Caledonian orogeny to the pres- 
ent time. Stresses of more recent origin have 
produced fractures in the Caledonian mass, or 
have rejuvenated old faults of Caledonian age. 
In Scandinavia these stresses are generally at- 
tributed to the uplift of the land after removal 
of the Pleistocene ice load. (See Gutenberg, 
1941 a.) For a summary, see Renquist (1930). 

The history of Norwegian earthquakes was 
summarized by Kolderup (1913), in a paper 
which has been followed by a series of annual 
reports. The available history is comparatively 
short, Kolderup's earliest shock being dated 
1612. Few, if any, of these shocks were larger 
than class d. Instrumental data for the largest 
(October 23, 1904) are not sufficient to locate 
it precisely. This was a shock of perhaps mag- 
nitude 6 in the Skagerrak near 581^ N, ioi/ 2 
E. On March 9, 1866, there was a somewhat 
smaller shock on the northwest coast near 
Trondhjem and Kristiansund. Earthquakes in 
Finland have been discussed by Renquist 



The compilation for Great Britain by Davi- 
son (1924) is the most extended critical history 
available for a region of such low activity. 
Davison lists the earliest authentic British 
earthquake as of date 974. His list suggests 
nearly uniform seismicity in the time covered, 
as the frequency of listed shocks does not 
greatly vary until the beginning of scientific 



8 7 

Investigation in the seventeenth century. The 
low level of activity is apparent from the fact 
that from 974 to 1924 Davison lists only 1191 
shocks, of all sizes down to the smallest; and 
over 600 of these are accounted for by swarms 
of minor shocks at Comrie and Menstrie in 
Scotland. As Davison points out, the activity 
in Scotland differs from that In England and 
Wales; more small shocks are known in Scot- 
land, and the stronger shocks there constitute 
a large fraction of the total for Great Britain. 
The Scottish shocks are more plainly associ- 
ated with known structures than the others; 
thus many important shocks have occurred 
along the Great Glen Fault (Kennedy, 1946), 
at Inverness and southwest of it. This and 
analogous structures of Scotland and else- 
where in Britain have been discussed by E. M. 
Anderson (1942). 

The largest British shock listed by Davison 
(1924) was destructive at Colchester, In the 
southeast of England, in 1884. The North Sea 
shock 36^00 of 1931 was still larger, and thus 
ranks as the largest known shock in the British 
region for a thousand years (magnitude about 
514). Other shocks have occurred still farther 
out in the North Sea, such as shock sj6N8oo. 

Australia 

Region 38, Figure 30. A general discussion 
is given by de Jersey (1946), who finds a crustal 
thickness of about 40 kilometers. The shocks 
of South Australia and central Australia have 
been noted as marginal to the stable mass of 
West Australia. East and southeast of these lies 
an area of very minor seismicity. Shocks are 
occasionally reported felt in Queensland. One 
of these (3^650) is mapped. A smaller shock, 
on April 12, 1935, was responsible for the 
establishment of the station at Brisbane 
(Bryan and Whitehouse, 1938). This is not In- 
cluded in Table 17, not being large enough for 
class d. Table 17 and Figure 30 show shock 
38N75O near the Queensland coast. Shocks in 
that area are rare; Bryan (1944, p. 50) states: 
"I have watched particularly for disturbances, 
even small ones, from the edge of the Great 
Barrier Reef, which especially might be ex- 
pected to yield evidence of mobility, but al- 
though our station is in an excellent position 
for receiving such shocks, not one has been 
recorded." Shocks are not infrequent about 
the fracture of Bass Strait, such as shock 38N- 
850 and a class c shock on September 14, 1946, 
with nearly the same epicenter. 



88 



MINOR SEISMICITY 



South Africa 

Region 37, Figure 28. The Cape region of 
South Africa is an area of Palaeozoic and 
Mesozoic folding. Only a few shocks have been 
large enough to include. These are marginal 
to the folded area; either externally, near the 



coast, or internally, between the folded area 
and the interior stable mass. The older data 
were discussed by H. E. Wood (1913); several 
recent shocks have been discussed in special 
papers (Krige and Venter, 1933; Gane et aL 9 
1946), 



MINOR SEISMICITY 



MINOR earthquakes occur almost anywhere. 
Practically all existing seismological stations 
have recorded local earthquakes in their im- 
mediate vicinity. However, seismographs with 
long-period characteristics, such as are suitable 
for recording distant earthquakes, often fail to 
write legible records of nearer shocks, even 
when these are perceptible at or close to the 
station. Short-period instruments, which are 
sensitive to small local shocks, have mostly 
been installed in active areas. Comparatively 
few are in regions of minor seismicity. 

There are few regions where we have both 
historical and instrumental data on minor ac- 
tivity. Europe is the only area of low seismicity 
for which both are available, and even in Eu- 
rope many of the instruments are ill-suited for 
the study of minor local shocks. 



The somewhat different problem of minor 
activity in a region of marked seismicity may 
be studied with the aid of the results in south- 
ern California, where a local group of eight 
stations is in operation, with supplementary 
data available from temporary installations 
and stations outside the* area. 

Figure 31 shows all epicenters for shocks of 
magnitude 3 or more in the area 33-35N, 
ii6~ii9W during the years 1934-1940 in- 
clusive. Each epicenter is given a symbol indi- 
cating the magnitude of the largest shock asso- 
ciated with it in that period. The numerous 
smaller shocks from identical epicenters are 
not indicated. 

The structural cross-section in Figure 32 
passes north of the area shown in Figure 31. 

The principal known faults are indicated in 




MAGNITUDES: 6 ormor. (I9I6-I940) 5, 5'/i CI934-1S40) 4, 4'/t (1934-1940) 3, 3>/g (1934-1940 



FIGURE 31, Map of epicenters and faults, southern California. 



STABLE MASSES 




II 



U ife If 

5S sSi =i| 



in ii 



"6RANJTIC" LAYER 
V- 5S8 KM /SEC 



V 6 KM /SEC. 



V 7 KM /SEC.? 



INTERMEDIATE LAYERS 




DEEP STRUCTURES ARE APPROXIMATE ONLY 



FIGURE 32. Structural cross-section, southern California, horizontal and vertical scales equal. 



the figure; the "foothill fault zone," consisting 
of a series of disconnected traces along the 
front of the San Gabriel range, is shown as a 
dashed line. The general lack of clear associa- 
tion between minor shocks and important 
faults should be noted. Most of the many small 
shocks are located close to one or another of 
the numerous minor faults which are common 
throughout the region. Only the larger shocks 
show definite association with the larger frac- 
tures. It should be added that the only major 
earthquake known to have occurred in this 
area, that of January 9, 1857, originated on 
the San Andreas Fault. There was probably 
displacement along all that part of the fault 
shown on the western half of our map, extend- 



ing northwest far beyond its limits. In recent 
years most of this part of the fault has been 
almost completely quiescent (note the absence 
of epicenters for small shocks). The same ap- 
plies to most of that segment of the same fault 
zone along which displacement took place in 
the major earthquake of 1906, farther north. 

Since the larger earthquakes represent a 
dominant fraction of the seismic energy re- 
leased, it is apparent that in southern Cali- 
fornia, as elsewhere, most of this energy is re- 
leased along the major structures. 

The more recent maps showing minor ac- 
tivity in New Zealand (Hayes, 1941 a) show a 
similar irregular distribution of the smaller 
earthquakes. 



STABLE MASSES 



General survey 

The present section takes up certain large 
areas which are nearly free from shocks. Only 
the larger and more important masses of this 
type have been selected for detailed discussion; 
stable areas of all sizes exist, their number in- 
creasing as one proceeds to smaller dimen- 
sions. Even in the interiors of the most active 
belts it is possible to find minor crustal blocks 
which are internally unfractured, and are dis- 
turbed only by earthquakes external to them. 
The trans-Asiatic zone includes many such 
blocks, some of which are hundreds of miles 
wide. 

Of the principal stable masses that of the 
Pacific basin differs structurally from all the 
others. The remainder are principally conti- 
nental nuclei, continental shields, or oldlands, 
which remain as nearly undisturbed at present 



as they have been through most of their geo- 
logical history. A few smaller blocks of similar 
type will be mentioned, owing to their signifi- 
cance in connection with the general pattern 
of world seismicity. 

Pacific Basin 

Region 39, Figure 33. The structure and ex- 
tent of the Pacific basin have been discussed in 
the section on the structure of the earth. Ex- 
cept for the single internal zone of the Ha- 
waiian Islands, and for possibly volcanic 
shocks in some other island groups, the prin- 
cipal Pacific basin is an area of complete seis- 
mic calm. A few shocks on the east fall outside 
the usual belts of activity; noteworthy are 
shocks 39N95O and 5Nio, far off the Mexican 
coast, and shock 441^220 far west of the Gala- 
pagos group. These epicenters correlate with 



STABLE MASSES 



SEISMIC BELTS ANDE8ITE 

SHALLOW INTERMEDIATE DEEP LINE 

OOOOOOOO TV H it 1 M TT 



CONTINENTAL 
STABLE MASSES 




FIGURE 33. Pacific stable mass, azimuthal equal-area projection. 



the vagueness in delimitation o the Pacific 
boundary on the American side. 

Sieberg (igssa, p. 919) refers to a shock on 
April 11, 1911, which was strong on Ponape in 
the eastern Carolines but was not instrumen- 
tally recorded. Montessus de Ballore (1906, p. 
174) refers to shocks felt on Tahiti and in the 
Society Islands. It does not appear that the 
station at Papeete, during the short period for 
which reports are available, recorded any local 
earthquakes. The seismic waves from distant 
shocks were at first reported as local shocks in 
the station bulletins, a misinterpretation origi- 
nating in the surprisingly short periods with 



which these waves recorded at Papeete, prob- 
ably due to some local crustal peculiarity 
(Ravet, 1940). 

Seismological maps sometimes show epicen- 
ters at scattered points interior to the Pacific 
basin. Especially in its earlier years, the Inter- 
national Summary contains epicenters for 
poorly recorded shocks which were located, 
often with expressed doubt, in the stable area. 
All these epicenters have been subjected to 
close critical examination. It can now be stated 
positively that not one of these is well estab- 
lished; many of them are seriously in error. 

In the previous paper (Gutenberg and Rich- 



STABLE MASSES 



ter, 2941, p. Sgf.) these shocks were discussed 
in detail, excluding epicenters near the margin 
of the stable area which, assuming moderate 
error, might well belong to the adjacent active 
belts. Of shocks given in the Summary as in- 
terior to the stable area, some are deep-focus 
earthquakes, located erroneously on the sup- 
position of shallow depth. Others are inade- 
quately recorded, or too much weight has been 
placed on the data of one or two stations with 
inferior instruments and timing. 

The data of eighteen shocks were examined; 
all but one of the indicated epicenters were 
rejected. The exception was the earthquake 
of May 16, 1925, loh, given in the Summary 
as in the Caroline Islands. Re-examination 
now makes it probable that this shock origi- 
nated in northern New Guinea. 

None of these supposedly interior Pacific 
epicenters are found in the International Sum- 
mary for 1931-1935, except for shock 120520 
(soS, i79W, A~6oo km.) which is errone- 
ously given in the Summary as a normal shock 
at 8.6S, i79.8E. 

Canadian Shield 

Region 34, Figures 27 and 34. This is that 
large part of Canada and a small area in the 
United States, over most of which pre-Cam- 
brian rocks are exposed at the surface. The in- 
terior of the Canadian Shield, thus defined, 
appears to be almost completely aseismic. Be- 
cause of the proximity of good stations, only 
minor shocks can have escaped notice. The 
earthquake 34N68o of 1935 appears excep- 
tional, with an epicenter in the pre-Cambrian 
area though near its edge. It is of interest that 
this shock, like others farther south, appears 
to have had more than the average depth of 
shallow shocks. These shocks have been dis- 
cussed in the section on marginal fractures. 

Brazilian Shield 

Region 35, Figures 27 and 34. Branner 
(1912; 1920) has summarized the seismicity of 
Brazil, as well as the regional geology (Bran- 
ner, 1919). The earthquakes reported are all 
small. The Brazilian Shield includes the Ar- 
chaean masses of Brazil and Guiana; the stable 
area also includes later rocks consolidated with 
these by Palaeozoic folding, and thus takes in 
all of South America east of the Andes and 
north of the Plata (except the active district 
of Mendoza). No shock of any consequence has 



been located within this area from instru- 
mental data. 

Seismological evidence fails to distinguish 
between the Brazilian Shield and the adjacent 
area, with no known shocks, between the coast 
and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 

Eurasian stable mass 

Region 49, Figures 25, 26, and 34. Seismic 
maps of Eurasia show a great blank including 
the Baltic Shield of Europe, the Angara Shield 
of Asia, and the intervening Ural mountain 
system. Throughout this vast area there is ap- 
parently no report of felt earthquakes, except 
that near its boundaries shocks of adjacent 
active zones are noticed, and that minor local 
shocks have occurred in the southern Urals. 

(See Mushketov, i96a; Weiss-Xenofontova 
and Popoff, 1940,) There is not a single good 
instrumental epicenter, although a chain of 
first-class stations at Moscow, Baku, Sverdlovsk 

(formerly Ekaterinburg), Tashkent, Irkutsk, 
and Vladivostok was established under the 
imperial Russian government, and has been 
maintained by the Soviet government with the 
addition of important local networks in 
Crimea, the Caucasus, and central Asia. The 
few epicenters in this area given by the Inter- 
national Summary are as questionable as those 
in the Pacific, or worse. 

On the south and southeast the stable mass 
is bounded by the active belt of the central 
Asiatic highlands. In the northeast is the active 
area near the mouth of the Lena, which is at 
the end of the known extent of the Arctic ac- 
tive belt. Between these, the border of the 
Angara Shield has shown no verifiable recent 
activity. 

On seismological evidence alone, the stable 
area might be made to include extreme north- 
eastern Asia, which has been considered among 
the minor seismic areas. 

Africa 

Region 37, Figures 27, 28, and 34. Most of 
the shocks associated with the African stable 
mass have already been disposed of as associ- 
ated with the rift system or as marginal con- 
tinental shocks. A few shocks appear in the 
International Summary with epicenters inte- 
rior to the stable mass. These have been ex- 
amined carefully; only shock 37^50 near the 
upper Congo can be retained. Rather numer- 
ous shocks are felt in that region (Sieberg, 
a^ pp. 879-881). These are the only seis- 



STABLE MASSES 









FIGURE 34. Continental stable masses, azimuthal equal-area projections, uniform scale. 



mological evidence of the separation between 
the main units o the African mass. 

The long history of Egypt includes a few 
strong shocks which appear to have originated 
on the continent west of the rift structures. 
(Sieberg, iggsa, p. 873; iggsb.) The clearest 



instances are those of 1303 and 1847, a PP ar * 
ently centering in the Fayum west of Cairo. 
The great shock of 1870 was probably an inter- 
mediate earthquake under the Mediterranean. 
Smaller recent shocks of the same group have 
been repeatedly reported felt at Cairo. 



STABLE MASSES 



Antarctica 



Region 50, Figures 12 and 34. Teleseismic 
observation indicates that the whole of Ant- 
arctica is stable. There is no present seismo- 
logical evidence to confirm the supposed struc- 
tural connection from the South Antillean arc 
across Antarctica to the vicinity of Macquarie 
Island. The existence of at least one active 
volcano, Mt. Erebus, suggests that occasional 
minor seismicity is to be expected. Permanent 
seismological stations are all distant, so that 
detection of minor shocks is usually impos- 
sible. 

Temporary seismological installations have 
occasionally been set up on the Antarctic con- 
tinent. The results of the Scott expedition are 
published in a summary report by Milne 
(1905). Instruments were installed near 77 
51'$, i6645'E, and operated for several 
months in 1902-1903. One hundred thirty-six 
shocks were recorded, none of which were felt. 
Twenty-seven were identified as originating 
in distant parts of the world; 73 others were 
located between the station and New Zealand, 
by using records at Wellington, Christdmrch, 
and Perth. Locations for the remainder are not 
mentioned; but considering the characteris- 
tics of the instruments then in use, it is not 
likely that- trustworthy conclusions could be 
drawn from these seismograms. It is quite pos- 
sible that no truly Antarctic shocks were re- 
corded and that the most southerly of those 
noted belong to the group south of Macquarie 
Island, region 45. 

The Byrd expedition of the U.S. Antarctic 
Service operated instruments (with coopera- 
tion of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) at 
Rockefeller Mountain, 78o8'S, i5525'W, 
through parts of November and December 
1940. Only distant earthquakes were recorded. 
Readings are given in the reports of the U.S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey for those months. 
The Ronne Antarctic expedition operated a 
station near Marguerite Bay in 1947-1948. 

The International Summary and its prede- 
cessor reports assign only 11 shocks from 1913 
to 1930 and none since then to latitudes from 
65 S southward. These data have been re- 
viewed with close attention. None of these epi- 
centers are trustworthy (details in Gutenberg 
and Richter, 1941, p. 8gf.). Locations depend 
principally on times at La Paz; other data are 
mostly doubtful. Most of these shocks might 
be in any of the active regions of southern lati- 
tudes. 



No great shock (class a) can have occurred 
in the extreme south since 1904. Since about 
1918 the International Summary provides as- 
surance that a shock of class b could hardly 
have been overlooked or grossly misplaced. By 
definition, earthquakes of class c are well re- 
corded up to 90; such a shock at the South 
Pole would be well recorded at all stations in 
the Southern Hemisphere. However, these sta- 
tions are not numerous, and a combination of 
errors and accidents might result in the loss of 
such an epicenter. It might be possible to de- 
tect a shock of class d and identify it roughly 
as occurring in the south polar area. 

Thus, Antarctica seems to be a stable mass 
comparable with those named above. It is not 
likely that an Antarctic seismological station 
would provide data that would modify this 
conclusion, since additional shocks most prob- 
ably would fall into the minor classes, which 
are not characteristic of major structures in 
other parts of the world. However, minor 
shocks in the Antarctic may prove to be better 
indicators of major structures and fractures 
than they are elsewhere. 

Seismological evidence for the stability of 
the Antarctic continent has occasionally been 
obscured by vague references to shocks in "the 
Antarctic" which were actually in the South- 
ern Antilles or the Macquarie Island active re- 
gion. In both, verifiable activity extends south 
of the 6oth parallel, but not beyond the Ant- 
arctic Circle. 

Australia, Arabia, India 

The pre-Cambrian continental nuclei of 
western Australia, Arabia, and southern India 
are practically aseismic. Shocks a short dis- 
tance within their borders have been men- 
tioned in the section on marginal fractures. 

Other and minor stable masses 

O areas usually named as continental stable 
shields there remains only that in eastern 
China. This is smaller than most of the others; 
it is the largest of several such blocks in the 
Chinese active area, of which the next most 
important is that of the Gobi Desert. Another 
such area includes Borneo, the Malay Penin- 
sula, most of Indo-China, and the intervening 
China Sea. Patagonia may be considered here. 
Greenland and Madagascar may be inter- 
preted either as detached portions of the Cana- 



94 



TSUNAMIS 



dian Shield and the African stable mass, or as 
minor independent stable masses. 

To these may now be added a group of im- 
portant non-seismic areas of continental char- 
acter, most of them, covered by ocean. The 
larger of these are; 

1. The area in the Atlantic lying between 
the American continents on the west and the 
Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the east. There is no 
seismological evidence of a connection between 
the seismic areas of the West Indies and the 
Mediterranean. 

2. The area in the southeastern Pacific south 
of the Galapagos Islands, between the Easter 
Island Ridge and the coast of South America. 

3. A narrow area in the Arctic and Atlantic 
Oceans, between the coast of Europe and the 
active region. This probably has an analogue 
in the South Atlantic. 

4. The Philippine Basin or Philippine Sea, 
between the active regions of the Philippines 
and the Marianas. 

5. Somaliland and the area of the Indian 
Ocean east of it and west of the Carlsberg 
Ridge. 

6. The region east of Australia, between the 
coast and the Pacific active belt. Here de Jer- 
sey (1946) finds a total crustal thickness of the 
order of 25 kilometers. Bryan (1944) has re- 



ferred to this as forming an essential part of 
the Australian stable mass. In terms of pres- 
ent activity this is practically correct, if we do 
not consider the shocks of the fracture system 
in the interior of Australia, and the minor 
shocks associated with the ancient mountains 
of the east. This would correspond in Europe 
to bringing together Stille's Ur-Europa and 
Palaeo-Europa into a single stable mass. 

7. The region west and southwest of Aus- 
tralia, between those epicenters considered as 
marginal to the Australian stable mass and 
those of the active belts of the Indian Ocean. 
This is one of a number of rather ill-defined 
areas of this type in the southern hemisphere, 
for which we have no data adequate for com- 
parison with such well-observed regions as 
northern Europe. Such are the oceanic areas 
immediately surrounding Antarctica. 

This list probably should include the Gulf 
of Mexico. It has not included the area in the 
Arctic Ocean north of Alaska, which is clearly 
non-seismic, but for which evidence from re- 
flected seismic waves indicates a structure of 
Pacific rather than continental character. A 
much smaller but probably similar area of 
suspected Pacific crustal structure is the in- 
terior of the Caribbean loop. 



TSUNAMIS (SEISMIC SEA WAVES) 



THE present discussion includes earthquake 
effects only when they bear either on causative 
mechanism or on geographical distribution. 
The phenomena of seismic sea waves bear on 
both points. 

It is necessary to distinguish carefully be- 
tween (i) seaquakes, (s) seiches, and (3) tsu- 
namis. 

The term seaquake is restricted to actual 
shaking, usually felt on vessels, due to the ar- 
rival of elastic (acoustic) waves through water. 
Seaquakes are not ordinarly felt to great dis- 
tances from the earthquake epicenter, and re- 
ports from remote seas are of interest in geo- 
graphical discussion. The only full account is 
that of Rudolph (1887, 1895). 

Seiches are free oscillations of closed or 
partly closed bodies of water (lakes, harbors), 
which may be occasioned by wind or currents 
as well as by the arrival of earthquake waves. 
The latter are usually the large long-period 
surface waves from a distant source; seiches of 



this sort usually begin within an hour of the 
origin time of the earthquake. However, 
seiches may be started by the arrival of a 
tsunami, which at very distant points may be 
more than a day after the occurrence of the 
earthquake. 

Tsunamis or seismic sea waves, popularly 
but incorrectly termed "tidal waves/* are large 
water waves, often rising to great heights on 
exposed coasts and propagated -across the 
oceans with the velocity of waves on the sur- 
face of deep water. Most of them follow large 
shallow earthquakes. Waves of the same type 
have been produced by volcanic phenomena, 
notably by the explosion of Krakatoa in 1883. 
Others are due to great storms or to submarine 
landslides not connected with earthquakes, 
Such waves without apparent cause are not in- 
frequent on the coasts of Peru and Mexico, 
but sometimes high swell or storm waves are 
reported erroneously as tsunamis. 

Tsunamis are often attributed to block mo- 



TSUNAMIS 



95 



tion o the ocean floor in consequence of ver- 
tical faulting. This interpretation may be cor- 
rect In some Instances, but cannot be generally 
applicable, since some of these waves have fol- 
lowed earthquakes with epicenters on land. 
Submarine landslides set off by earthquakes 
may be a frequent cause. For discussion refer 
to Gutenberg (iQBga). In conversation with 
the writers, Dr. Benloff has suggested that tsu- 
namis may be generated directly by the large 
seismic surface waves within about 100 kilo- 
meters of the epicenter. 

Tsunamis are frequently recorded on mareo- 
grams written by tide gages. A number of these 
are reproduced by Rudolph (1887) and by 
Imamura and Moriya (1939). Individual rec- 
ords are published in many scattered papers. 

Periods of oscillation (T) in tsunamis range 
roughly from 20 minutes to i hour. Wave 
lengths (LvT) are very large since the veloc- 
ity v of waves over deep water is given by ^gh, 
where g is the acceleration of gravity and h is 
the depth (Table 12). 



canlc disturbances. An extended discussion 
was given by Montessus de Ballore (1907, pp. 
iSsfL). For a list of tsunamis see Heck (1934; 
1947). Jaggar (1931) has discussed tsunamis 
destructive In Hawaii. 

There Is no thorough synthetic study of 
these phenomena. Great tsunamis are rela- 
tively rare; descriptions of a few of the larg- 
est, such as those of 1755, 1868, and 1877, have 
been repeated in many textbooks. 

The majority of tsunamis originate and are 
effective in the Pacific area. Three at least 
have been great enough to send large waves 
across the Pacific Ocean; those following the 
Arica earthquake of 1868, the Iquique earth- 
quake of 1877, and the Aleutian earthquake of 
1946. Many more have risen to destructive 
heights on coasts near the origin of the earth- 
quake. Local coast and bottom configurations 
bring about great differences In wave height 
between adjacent localities. Many tsunamis 
are reported only locally. 

The following geographical account is not 



TABLE 12 

Approximate calculated velocities and wave lengths 
for waves on the surface of deep water. 



Ocean depth in 


Velocity 


Wave length for period 
of 30 minutes 


km. 


feet 


meters /sec. 


miles /hour 


km. 


miles 


0-5 


1640 


70 


160 


135 


80 


i 


3280 


100 


225 


1 80 


no 


4 


13120 


200 


450 


360 


220 


9 


2953 


300 


670 


540 


335 



In the open ocean the height of these waves 
is relatively small; together with the great 
wave length this results in such waves escaping 
direct observation. Large waves seen by vessels 
far from land over deep water must be due to 
other causes. Since the velocity decreases in 
shallow water, the waves rise rapidly on ap- 
proaching a coast. Heights of 60 feet and over 
have been observed. Many of these have been 
in confined Inlets and harbors, but some oc- 
curred on exposed low coasts, notably on Ha : 
waii in April 1868 (Wood, 1914, pp. ig6ff.). 
The destructive waves o 1946 In the Hawaiian 
Islands surged locally to heights of 55 feet 
(Shepard, 1946; Macdonald et 'al, 1947)- 

Rudolph (1887) gave a map showing the 
coasts affected by tsunamis, which has been 
reproduced by other authors. He assumed er- 
roneously that all tsunamis originate in vol- 



meant to be inclusive, but names a few out- 
standing instances in each region. 

The history for tsunamis originating in the 
Aleutian arc is necessarily short, since in most 
cases instrumental data are required to locate 
the corresponding earthquake. That of No- 
vember 10, 19^8, produced only a compara- 
tively small wave, observed at Hilo, Hawaii, 
and recorded elsewhere on tide gages; but the 
smaller shock of April i, 1946, gave rise to a 
great wave which was destructive at Hilo and 
rose to observable heights on distant coasts, as 
in California and Peru (Green, 1946, with 
mareograms). 

The Yakutat Bay earthquake of 1899, with 
the largest known vertical fault displacement 
(47 feet) produced only a locally destructive 
wave. 

On the Pacific coast of the United States, 



96 TSUNAMIS 

only small tsunamis have been known to origi- 
nate. Some confusion has been caused by re- 
ports of small tsunami waves from distant 
earthquakes, or even of tide-gage registrations 
of such waves. The earthquake of December 
21, 1812, is reported to have caused such a 
wave in Refugio Harbor west of Santa Bar- 
bara; this shock was destructive at several of 
the missions in that part of California. There 
is a report of a wave 60 feet high at San Pedro 
(California) following the Peruvian shock of 
1868; this is probably either an exaggeration 
or a geographical mistake. The shock of No- 
vember 4, 1927, off Point Arguello caused a 
small wave on the west coast of Santa Barbara 
County (Byerly, 1930) which recorded on a 
tide gage at Hilo, Hawaii (Jaggar, 1931). 

Notable tsunamis on the west coast of Mex- 
ico occurred in 1787, 1907, and 1932. This is of 
particular interest because the epicenters of 
most of the better located and larger shocks 
are inland. The class a shock of June 3, 1932, 
produced a damaging tidal wave which was re- 
corded strongly at Hilo, Hawaii. Some of the 
aftershocks, notably the b shock of June 22, 
produced smaller but locally destructive tsu- 
namis. 

The Pacific coast of South America is no- 
toriously subject to destructive seismic sea 
waves. That at Tumaco, Colombia, following 
the great earthquake of January 31, 1906, is 
described by Rudolph and Szirtes (1912, pp. 
181-189). The propagation across the ocean of 
the great waves following the Arica earth- 
quake of 1868 and the Iquique earthquake of 
1877 was studied by Hochstetter (1868, 1869) 
and by Geinitz (1878). Their results are sum- 
marized by Montessus de Ballore (1907, p. 
201). The latter wave is particularly well 
known for having been very destructive on the 
Chatham Islands on the other side of the Pa- 
cific, and on Hawaii. The epicenter of the 
earthquake which produced it was probably 
on land. 

Descriptions of the tsunami following the 
Atacama earthquake of 1922 can be found in 
Willis (1929). The epicenter is fixed on land 
by the instrumental data. Waves seem to have 
started from at least two points (Sieberg, in 
Sieberg and Gutenberg, 1924). Gutenberg 
(i939a) has given a rediscussion. 

A list of twelve seismic sea waves (mare- 
mo tos) on the coast of Chile from 1562 to 1932, 
with descriptive notes, has been given by Bobil- 
lier (1933^). T ^ dates are 1562, 1570, 1575, 
1604, 1657, 1730, 1751, 1819, 1835, l868 > l8 77> 



1922; which shows how infrequent the larger 
phenomena of this sort are. To this list should 
probably be added the waves on November 7, 
1837, which caused damage at Hawaii (Jag- 
gar, 1931; Davison, 1936, p. 94). 

Many tsunamis originate in the southwest 
Pacific. A shock on March 25, 1947, off the 
North Island, New Zealand, was followed by a 
tsunami at Poverty Bay. For the shocks of May 
i, 1917, and April 30, 1919, Angenheister 
(1923) reports tide-gage readings from Hono- 
lulu and California, also from Apia for the 
latter shock, and for that of June 26, 1917. 
These originated in the Tonga salient. He also 
gives an Apia observation from a wave follow- 
ing the shock of September 20, 1920, in the 
New Hebrides. Imamura and Moriya (1939, 
p. 128) reproduce mareograms doubtfully at- 
tributed to the great intermediate shock of 
January i, 1919, in the Tonga salient. These 
waves arrived rather late for a tsunami and 
are possibly large seiches. 

Gutenberg and Richter (i936a, pp. 126-127) 
have reported briefly on the tide-gage record- 
ings at Honolulu and Santa Barbara (Califor- 
nia) of the tsunami produced by the earth- 
quake in the Solomon Islands on October 3, 



A seismic sea wave accompanied the shock 
in eastern New Guinea (Papua) on Septem- 
ber 14, 1906 (Sieberg, 1910; summarized, 
i932a, p. 911). 

In the Philippines, at least one clear instance 
is the wave at Cotobato following the earth- 
quake of August 15, 1918 (Maso, 1918; mareo- 
grams in Imamura and Moriya, 1939, P- 12 ^)- 

Many destructive seismic sea waves are 
known from the region of Japan, where the 
name "tsunami** originated. The best docu- 
mented is that following the earthquake off 
the Sanriku coast on March 2, 1933 (March 3, 
Japanese time; Ishimoto et aL, 1934). Imamura 
(1937, pp. 145-146), in listing severe earth- 
quakes in Japan since 1596, notes 15 tsunamis 
of which at least eight were large and destruc- 
tive. Several, including those of 1854 and 1707, 
were destructive in the region of Osaka, which, 
as Imamura points out, is especially exposed 
to these waves. Unpublished manuscripts from 
the Central Meteorological Observatory de- 
scribe recent instances. The shock of Novem- 
ber 18, 1941, was followed by a tsunami about 
one meter high on the coasts of eastern Kiu- 
shiu and southwestern Shikoku. That follow- 
ing the Tonankai earthquake of December 7, 
1944, was very destructive on the east coast 



MECHANISM 



97 



of the Kii Peninsula and on the neighboring 
coasts, reaching a maximum height of 5 to 6 
meters at the heads of bays on the west coast 
of Wakayama prefecture (Kii Peninsula) and 
on the east and south coasts of Shikoku, The 
tsunami in the same vicinity on December 
20, 1946, should now be added. The former 
was recorded on tide gages on Attu and in 
California. The great waves of 1896 and 1933 
were destructive on the eastern (Sanriku) 
coast. Mareograms for several Japanese tsu- 
namis are reproduced by Imamura and Moriya 
(1939). A tsunami occurred on the west coast 
of Hokkaido on August i, 1940 (Miyabe, 
1941). 

The shock of September 7, 1918, produced 
a tsunami destructive on Urup in the Kuriles. 
Angenheister (1923) reproduced a mareogram 
written at Apia. 

The large shocks of the Kamchatka coast 
occasionally produce tsunamis. That of June 
25, 1904, stranded boats at Petropavlovsk. 
That of February 3, 1923, is notable for hav- 
ing been destructive at Hilo, Hawaii. 

Seismic waves have often been reported 
from the coasts of the East Indies. Montessus 
de Ballore (1907, p. 220) quotes the opinion 
o Verbeek (1900) that the Ceram earthquake 
of September 30, 1899, which was followed by 
a disastrous wave, had its epicenter on land. 
This depends on scanty macroseismic observa- 
tions. Instrumental records (Rudolph, 1904) 
are inadequate. 

The wave following the volcanic explosion 
of Krakatoa in 1883 is described by Symons 
(1888) and others. 

The earthquake on the west coast of Su- 



matra on January 4, 1907, was followed by a 
tsunami. 

In the Indian Ocean a wave of moderate 
size followed the great earthquake of Decem- 
ber 31, 1881 (raareograms in Dutton, 1904, 
p. 284). A spectacular tsunami was produced 
by the shock off Baluchistan on November 27, 
1945 (Anonymous, 1945). 

Tsunamis are relatively infrequent in the 
Atlantic. A comparatively small one following 
the shock of November 18, 1929 (Keith, 1930) 
rose to destructive heights in the narrow Burin 
inlet on the south coast of Newfoundland. 
The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 produced 
great waves which contributed heavily to the 
destruction on the coast of Portugal, were de- 
structive at Madeira, and noticeable in the 
West Indies. These waves entered the English 
Channel and North Sea with sufficient ampli- 
tude to be noticed in various harbors, many 
hours after the seiches produced by the seismic 
surface waves of the earthquake. (Reid, 1914; 
Davison, 1936.) 

Destructive waves some of which were true 
tsunamis have occasionally followed earth- 
quakes in the Caribbean region. Among the 
best known are those on May 7, 1842 (Scherer, 
1912), and August 4, 1946, on the north coast 
of Hispaniola; October 11, 1918 on Puerto 
Rico (Reid and Taber, 1919); January 14, 
1907, and other dates on Jamaica (Taber, 
1920). 

Minor tsunamis on the coasts of the Medi- 
terranean have accompanied earthquakes and 
volcanic eruptions throughout the historical 
period. An instance is that following the Mes- 
sina earthquake of 1908. 



MECHANISM 



To THIS point care has been taken to present 
facts of observation, with only the minimum of 
hypothesis requisite to organize them into in- 
telligible form. The following interpretative 
discussion necessarily involves an increased 
proportion of hypothetical conclusions. The 
purpose is not to undertake the vast labor of 
synthesizing the seismological data with those 
of geology and of other branches of geophysics, 
but to point out certain features of such a syn- 
thesis as they present themselves most natural- 
ly, and to forestall the most likely misinterpre- 
tations by students unfamiliar with the tech- 
niques of seismology. 



Seismicity must have changed greatly in the 
course of geologic time. Contemporary earth- 
quakes indicate only contemporary stresses, 
displacements, and fracturing. These may well 
differ, and in some cases they certainly differ 
markedly, from those associated with the for- 
mation of even late Pleistocene structures. A 
few tens of thousands of years Is ample time 
for extensive and significant changes in the 
local distribution of stress. The fact that much 
of the present seismicity of Europe is mechan- 
ically unconnected with the Alpine folding has , 
been emphasized by Sieberg (iggsa), who at- 
tributes contemporary shocks to fractures pro- 



MECHANISM 



duced in the rigid Alpine mass after the con- 
clusion of folding. However, his ingenious 
localization of these fractures on the basis of 
the very limited earthquake data is open to 
question. 

Stresses now producing earthquakes in 
northern Europe have been attributed to un- 
loading of the Pleistocene ice burden (see 
Renquist, 1930); this may apply to some of the 
Canadian shocks. The progress of this unload- 
ing is visible in the evidence of post-glacial 
uplift. 

Few definite changes in seismicity have oc- 
curred during historical time. Chronologically 
long histories for Japan, China, the Near East, 
and Italy indicate activity of about the same 
character as at present,, with shocks in the same 
range of magnitude occurring in the same 
areas, apart from a few individually excep- 
tional events. For less active areas, the best 
available history is that of Great Britain, ex- 
tending over about a thousand years with no 
sign of secular change. 

Comparatively quiet regions may have short 
periods of unusual seismicity. Such appears to 
have been the case in Korea about three cen- 
turies ago (Kunltomi, 1937). Recent instances 
are the long series of strong shocks in the In- 
dian Ocean near 34S, 57E from 1925 to 
1933, and the repeated earthquake catastro- 
phes in Anatolia since the great shock of 1939. 
Examples of individual shocks or brief groups 
of large shocks from unusual epicenters are 
the Mississippi Valley shocks of 1811-1812, the 
Charleston earthquake of 1886, the Baffin Bay 
shocks of 1933-1934, the west Cuban earth- 
quake of 1880, and the destructive shock at 
Basel in 1356. 

Rather delicate adjustment of crustal blocks 
to stress conditions is indicated by the occur- 
rence of swarms of small earthquakes, with a 
few ranging up to magnitude 5, in the vicinity 
of Boulder Dam subsequent to the filling of 
Lake Mead, although the area had not pre- 
viously been considered as active (Carder, 



Most of the earth's surface is partitioned 
among a number of comparatively stable 
blocks, separated by active belts. Undoubtedly 
these blocks have not always had exactly their 
present size and shape, and they may have 
greatly changed their relative positions. In 
particular, the continental blocks may have 
encroached on the Pacific. 

The active zones between the stable blocks 
frequently coincide with the "orogens" of Ko- 



ber (1933). As he points out, these zones are 
chiefly mountainous in character; the oceanic 
ridges Included are submarine mountain 
chains. The agreement is not necessarily a con- 
firmation of Kober's further Interpretations, 
since it applies chiefly to the larger lines, and 
frequently diverges widely in detail. More- 
over, Kober does not discriminate the Pacific 
stable area from the structurally different con- 
tinental blocks, and he draws one orogen 
across the central Pacific which conflicts with 
the conclusions of this volume. 

The mechanism of stresses in the active 
zones is of two chief types expressed in folds 
and in block structures respectively. The for- 
mer may be seen in the arcuate structures of 
Pacific type which are well-defined regions of 
folding and thrust faulting. Their general 
relation to the central stable mass of the Pa- 
cific Basin is evident, but they are frequently 
separated from it by wide areas of continental 
character. The arcs are thus not directly corre- 
lated with the boundary of the Pacific Basin, 
nor with the discontinuity in structure and 
material there. Rather, they arise in a wide 
disturbed zone extending from the Pacific 
Basin far into the surrounding continental 
areas. These latter may originally have been 
part of the Pacific Basin, subsequently covered 
by continental masses. Systematic interpreta- 
tion of the occurrence and tectonic significance 
of peridotites and other ultrabasic rocks was 
undertaken by Benson (1927). Peridotites are 
being used by H. H. Hess and others to infer 
the location of former active arcs. 

The typical arc features, including earth- 
quakes, active volcanism, gravity anomalies, 
and such forms as foredeeps, can be main- 
tained only by continuing processes, which 
must have a non-symmetrical character to ac- 
count for the unilateral order of the features. 
This order must be determined by a direction 
associated with these processes, and not by the 
direction toward the center of the Pacific 
Basin; for, although most of the structural arcs 
front toward the Basin with their convex sides 
and foredeeps, some of them, like that of the 
New Hebrides, front in the opposite direction, 
and others front on non-Pacific areas. The 
Basin itself Is completely passive in the devel- 
opment of these structures. In nearly every 
case the foredeep forms a definite outer bound- 
ary on the convex side of the active structure; 
outside it there are usually no signs of crustal 
disturbance. 

Where foredeeps persist, the relative move* 



MECHANISM 



ment of surface rocks must be outward and 
downward. This may be due either to forces 
applied to the continental crustal layers, push- 
ing the rocks down toward the foredeep, -with 
compensating sub-crustal movements (theories 
of continental spreading), or to forces origi- 
nating at depth, causing a drawing down of 
the sub-crustal material and a compensating 
movement at the surface (theories of sub- 
crustal convection). In either case deep-focus 
earthquakes should be expected to originate 
not at the level of maximum flow, but rather 
at that of maximum stress associated with the 
flow or at a minimum of breaking strength. 
The foci of deep shocks seem to be restricted 
to the vicinity of a nearly plane surface (Fig. 
6) which is probably related to a thrust surface 
between two different structures, usually dip- 
ping towards the continent, but exceptionally 
vertical or with the opposite dip (as in the 
New Hebrides and Solomon Islands). 

Many authors have correlated deep and shal- 
low earthquakes too closely with oceanic 
troughs and deeps. The association appears 
clearly on small-scale maps, but requires modi- 
fication in detail. Epicenters of shallow shocks 
usually fall not in the troughs, but on their 
inner marginal slopes or along the crests of 
adjacent submarine ridges. Frequently, as 
south of Sumatra and Java, the ridge adjacent 
to the deep is not seismically active but be- 
comes so in another part of its course where 
the adjacent depths are less marked. These 
ridges are very young anticlines. 

All arcs of the Pacific belt do not front 
toward the Pacific stable mass. The Caribbean 
and South Antillean arcs front toward the 
Atlantic. The Sunda arc fronts toward Aus- 
tralia and the Indian Ocean, and the reversal 
in the region of the New Hebrides also results 
in a front southwestward toward the Austral- 
ian mass. 

With this may be compared the grouping 
about the Indian stable mass of the three arcs 
of Burma, the Himalayas, and Baluchistan. 
The remaining arcs of the Alpide system front 
toward the stable masses of Arabia, Africa, and 
northern Europe. The whole belt Is less active 
than the Pacific belt; It appears as in a later 
stage of activity, in which the arc features, 
once perhaps as clearly defined as those of the 
Pacific, have begun to lose their defmiteness 
and disappear. 

A different mechanism not necessarily con- 
nected with the stress system producing the 
active arcs must be postulated for the regions 



of block and shear faulting, including long 
sectors of the circum-Pacific belt. The Cali- 
fornia region is typical of this group. Espe- 
cially towards the coast, there are young folds 
associated with active faults; but in general 
the stresses which produced the Coast Range 
mountains are either no longer in action or 
have shifted, and the region is broken up into 
blocks along fractures which usually cross the 
older structural trends at a low angle. In 
southern California much of the faulting can 
be described in terms of a north-south compres- 
sion, which will account both for the thrust 
faulting of the east-west Transverse Ranges, 
and for the strike-slip faults trending roughly 
northwest-southeast (San Andreas Fault and 
parallel fault systems) or northeast-southwest 
(Garlock Fault). These latter have approxi- 
mately the right orientation for shear fractures 
under the north-south compression, and the 
directions of relative displacement in the 
strike-slip faulting are consistent with it. 

Displacements in this area on the principal 
fault systems correspond to southward dis- 
placement of the continent relative to the 
oceanic area. The same apparently applies on 
the opposite side of the Pacific, where there is 
evidence that the continental (western) sides 
of the principal faults are being displaced 
southward (Tsuboi, 1939; Willis, 1940). Un- 
fortunately such information is scarce, in spite 
of its fundamental importance. Descriptions 
of strike-slip faulting frequently fail to specify 
the direction of throw. 

The nature of the first motion, compression 
or dilatation, recorded even at distant sta- 
tions gives some information as to the charac- 
ter of displacements producing the earthquake 
(general historical discussion by Kawasumi, 
1937; see also Gutenberg, 194113). Many au- 
thors have described the distribution of com- 
pressions and dilatations for individual earth- 
quakes. Gherzi (1923; 1925) and Somville 
(1925) have observed that at Zikawei and 
Uccle compressions and dilatations are con- 
sistently recorded from shocks in particular 
regions. Similar observations have been made 
at Pasadena (Gutenberg and Richter, 1935, p. 
290; 19383, p. 283). Vesanen (1942; 1946; 
1947) has initiated a very promising investi- 
gation of seismograms, especially at Helsinki 
and Upsala, with reference not only to com- 
pressions and dilatations, but to the entire re- 
corded wave form for P, 5, and other phases. 
He finds remarkable correlations regionally as 
well as in depth. 



1OO 



MECHANISM 



All the microseismic evidence strongly Indi- 
cates the persistence of displacements in the 
same sense in each individual region. In many 
areas, as in California, such consistent dis- 
placements can be traced into the geological 
past. On the other hand, Cotton (1947) finds 
in New Zealand clear evidence of reversals. 

The mechanism associated with the seis- 
micity of the oceanic ridges is best considered 
with reference to the only well-observed ex- 
ample, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Its parallelism 
with the continental coasts is so close that it 
practically demonstrates a mechanical connec- 
tion with them. However, it is still possible to 
consider the Ridge either as a remnant left 
over from a former connection between Amer- 
ica and the Old World, or as a young struc- 
ture originating at the contact between rigid 
blocks. (For a summary with references, see 
Du Toit, 1937, Chap, x.) It can hardly be a 
young structure in the sense in which the very 
active zone of the East Indies and other similar 
regions are young, for it lacks many of the 
associated phenomena found in such regions, 
which have been taken as evidence for the con- 
temporary occurrence of sub-cms tal flow. Thus 
there are no parallel deep troughs, and no 
belts of negative gravity anomalies; the gravity 
anomalies over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are 
slightly positive (Meinesz, 1939). Intermediate 
and deep shocks are absent, which indicates 
that there are no large stresses at great depth. 
Present seismicity and volcanism do not neces- 
sarily imply that the processes which created 
the Ridge are now in action. The Ridge may 
represent an orogeny of Tertiary age, in which 
the folding has at least temporarily ceased, and 
the now practically rigid structures are being 
broken up by diastrophic processes, along 
faults which are either of recent origin or re- 
cently rejuvenated. For a discussion from the 
geological point of view see Bucher (1940). 

The Carlsberg Ridge in the northern Indian 
Ocean is almost certainly a structure of this 
same character. The other active belts in the 
Indian Ocean and elsewhere are imperfectly 
known. 

The group of active rifts, of which those of 
East Africa are the best known and best devel- 
oped, are presumably of different mechanical 
type. They occur chiefly where it appears that 
formerly contiguous masses have been sepa- 
rated, either by relative displacement or by 
foundering of formerly connecting structures. 
This may be due to any of several causes. The 



active rift of the Hawaiian volcanic arc may be 
different in mechanism. 

The association of earthquakes with volca- 
noes requires mechanical interpretation. 
Shocks in volcanic regions are classifiable into 
at least three distinct types: (i) very shallow 
shocks, usually directly associated with explo- 
sive and eruptive phenomena; (2) shocks at 
the normal depth for shallow tectonic earth- 
quakes; (3) shocks at intermediate depths (100 
to 200 kilometers) below the volcanic lines. 
The first group includes shocks associated with 
eruptions in preparation or abortive, as has 
been supposed for the destructive earthquakes 
on Ischia in 1881 and 1883, and for those near 
Hualalai (Hawaii) in 1929. Most of these 
shocks come in swarms of which the individ- 
uals are very small; even the largest of them 
are not recorded at great distances. 

Although the principal active faults are 
usually at some distance from volcanic lines, 
true tectonic earthquakes, some of consider- 
able magnitude, occasionally occur under vol- 
canic areas. Not infrequently such shocks ac- 
company or follow notable eruptions. Ex- 
amples are those associated with eruptions of 
Mauna Loa in 1868, and Sakurajima in 1914. 
Those associated with Katmai in 1912 and 
Paricutin in 1943 did not originate close to 
the volcanoes, but at approximately the near- 
est points of the Pacific active belt, adjacent 
to the Aleutian Trench and the Acapulco Deep 
respectively. 

The occurrence of earthquakes at depths of 
100-150 kilometers under active volcanoes sug- 
gests a common cause, but hardly a direct re- 
lation of cause and effect. Probably a single 
system of stresses is responsible for both shocks 
and eruptions. There are conspicuous excep- 
tions to the correlation; thus, intermediate 
shocks are lacking in association with the vol- 
canoes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland, and 
Jan Mayen, while in northern Peru epicenters 
of intermediate shocks follow the structural 
belt in a sector where there is no present vol- 
canic activity. In regions where both phenom- 
ena occur, they are invariably closely asso- 
ciated. 

A similar group of phenomena of greater 
age seems to be indicated by the presence in 
certain arcs of a second interior row of older 
volcanoes under which shocks occur at depths 
of the order of 200 kilometers. These volcanoes 
are especially well represented in Kamchatka 
and South America. In some other arcs they 
are absent or rare; very deep shocks are then 



MECHANISM 



101 



usually missing. These volcanoes do not ap- 
pear on the maps, which show only active 
vents. 

The mechanism of deep shocks is not com- 
pletely understood, although it must be similar 
to that of shallow earthquakes. There is no 
explanation of the circumstance that activity 
ceases rather abruptly at a depth slightly ex- 
ceeding 700 kilometers. Moreover, some of the 
deepest shocks are decidedly large. The 700- 
kilometer level is not distinguished by any 
known change in the physical properties, 
which show only gradual alterations between 
the crust and a depth of about 1000 kilometers. 
However, our information on the material 
even in the earth's crust and on the properties 
of rocks under high pressure and temperature 
is rather limited. (Adams and Williamson, 
1923; Anderson, 1938; Birch, 1938; 1939; 1943; 
Birch and Dow, 1936; Birch et aL, 1942; Bridg- 
man, 1936; 1943; Buddington, 1943; Bullard, 
1945; Daly, 1940; 1943; 1946; Fujiwhara, 1927; 
Griggs, 1936; 1939; Gutenberg, igsgb; Holmes, 
1933; Jeffreys, 1929; Kennedy and Anderson, 
1938.) 

Calculations based on the rate of post-glacial 
uplift lead to a viscosity of the earth's crust of 
approximately io 22 poises (gm./cmu sec.). It 
requires several thousand years for the strains 
due to removal of the ice load to be reduced to 
half (Gutenberg, 1941 a). Consequently, if 
stresses accumulate in the interior of the earth 
rapidly enough to reach a fracture point in 
times as short as a few centuries, these processes 
are practically unaffected by plastic flow. 
Hence the occurrence of earthquakes at levels 
down to 450 miles below the surface in no way 
excludes the possibility of slow equalization 
of stresses by plastic flow at those levels. This 
removes any supposed discrepancy between 
isostasy and the occurrence of deep shocks. 
The fact that the maximum energy released in 
deep shocks is less than in shallow shocks may 
represent a lowered value of breaking strength 
at great depths. To account for the post-glacial 
uplift, the strength resisting plastic flow at 
great depths must be relatively small. 

Deep-focus earthquakes cannot be of the 
nature of detonations due to rapid local 
changes of state. The distribution of initial 
compressional or dilatational motion as re- 



corded at distant stations (Honda, 1932; 1934), 
and the existence of large elastic shear waves 
radiated directly from the source, leave no 
doubt that deep shocks are mechanically simi- 
lar in origin to tectonic shallow shocks. When 
both shallow and deep shocks occur in the 
same region it is often observed that the direc- 
tion of initial displacement indicated by the 
seismograms is the same for both. 

Theoretical investigations by Timoshenko 
(1934) and Haskell (1935, 1936) show that a 
shearing strain originating near the surface 
may extend and be effective to great depth; for 
discussion see Daly (1939, p. 393). 

A number of general problems remain, 
among them the lower seismicity of the south- 
ern hemisphere. The frequency relation be- 
tween large and small shocks, deep as well as 
shallow, which results in concentration of the 
release of energy in the higher magnitudes, not 
merely justifies the geographical methods of 
the present study, but disposes of a number 
of inveterate misconceptions. In general the 
occurrence of small shocks does not appreci- 
ably affect that of the larger earthquakes, 
which are essentially independent events. In 
most active regions there is little "safety valve" 
effect of small shocks. Great shocks occur only 
on major structures, and then only in certain 
parts of them. This means that major faults 
are zones of weakness within large structures 
which are strong, that is, competent to sup- 
port the accumulation of large stresses. Struc- 
tures where the crust is weaker or much frac- 
tured by minor and shallow faults may be ex- 
pected to show smaller shocks. On the other 
hand, great shocks are relatively frequent only 
in the active zones where tectonic processes are 
sufficiently rapid to develop large strains in a 
relatively short time. 

Dr. Hugo Benioff is applying the magni- 
tudes given in this book to investigate the 
mechanism of sequences of earthquakes. This 
includes aftershocks and also the general seis- 
micity of limited regions, and applies to deep 
as well as to shallow shocks. Preliminary re- 
sults (Benioff, 1948) suggest that each sequence 
forms a dynamically connected series, which 
may be either of elastic creep or flow character, 
or may be analyzed as a superposition of the 
two. 



1O2 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



THE writers wish to make grateful acknowl- 
edgment of indebtedness to the directors and 
officers of many seismological stations, who 
have provided much of the data used in this 
study in the form of current station bulletins, 
reprints of publications, and specific informa- 
tion in response to requests. Many publica- 
tions obtained in this way will be found in the 
bibliography. 

The Branner Library, attached to the Stan- 
ford University Library, has provided numer- 
ous station bulletins collected by the Seismo- 
logical Society of America, chiefly of old date. 
Some of these were part of the library of de 
Montessus de Ballore. Mrs. Kathryn N. Cutler 
undertook the difficult task of cataloguing this 
material. We are indebted to Dr. Eliot Black- 
welder for his assistance in the matter. 

Data of importance available in Washing- 
ton were secured through the cooperation of 
the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. This in- 
cludes many readings of times and amplitudes. 
The writers are particularly indebted to Mr. 
Frank Neumann, Captain O. W. Swainson, 
and Captain N. BL Heck, and for data con- 
cerning the Lake Mead and associated stations 
to Dr. Dean S. Carder. The short-period ver- 
tical component seismograms written at Tuc- 
son are regularly available at Pasadena by ar- 
rangement with the Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey. 

There has been a rapid and satisfactory ex- 
change of data with the international office at 
Strasbourg under the direction of the late E. 
Roth and his son, J. P. Roth<. 

To Miss Ethel Bellamy of Oxford the writers 
are indebted for many courtesies in connec- 
tion with the International Seismological Sum- 
mary, and for a number of valuable publica- 
tions of older date by Milne and others, in- 
cluding a set of the publications of the Seis- 
mological Society of Japan. 

Many stations have kindly provided back 
files of their bulletins earlier than 1920. Spe- 
cial acknowledgment is due: 

To Father D. O'Connell, for bulletins and 
readings from Riverview, some of which he 
personally revised; to Father Descotes, for La 
Paz; to Commander Reichelderfer, Chief of 
the U.S. Weather Bureau, for an old file of the 



Monthly Weather Review containing readings 
for American stations; to Father Due Rojo, 
for Cartuja; to the Director of the Meteoro- 
logical Observatory, Uppsala; to Mr. Sapsford, 
Acting Director, Apia; to Dr. F. A. Vening 
Meinesz, for De Bilt; to Father Macelwane, for 
St. Louis; to Dr. W. W. Doxsee and Dr. E. A. 
Hodgson, for Ottawa; to Dr. V. Conrad, for 
Wien; to Father Ch. Poisson, for Tananarive; 
for Balboa Heights to Dr. George B. Mathew, 
Chief Hydrographer; and Mr. W. H. Esslinger, 
Engineer, Panama Canal; and to Dr. S. K. 
Banerji for the Indian stations; 

For special readings for particular shocks to 
Professor Byerly and his assistants for Berkeley 
and associated stations; to Dr. R. H. Hayes, 
Director, Wellington, for the New Zealand 
stations; to Mr. Arthur J. Gaskin, University 
of Melbourne, for Melbourne; 

To the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
for the file of seismograms written at Huan- 
cayo (Peru); 

To the Hydrographic Office, Navy Depart- 
ment, for maps, charts and miscellaneous in- 
formation; 

To Dr. Heiskanen, Dr. Ewing, and Dr. 
Woollard, for published and unpublished data 
on gravity; 

For data on active volcanoes, to Dr. F. H. 
Pough, of the American Museum of Natural 
History; Dr. Howel Williams; Dr. W. A. Ken- 
nedy; Dr. Robert Coate (U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey); Section of Areal Geology, U.S. Geolog- 
ical Survey (revised U.S. Army maps of the 
Kurile Islands); 

For valuable discussion and references, in 
seismology, volcanology, and geology, to Mr. 
H. O. Wood; in seismology and geology to Dr. 
J. P. Buwalda. 

Mr. J. M. Nordquist has drafted the maps 
and other figures. He has made up the list of 
active volcanoes, studying the literature thor- 
oughly, and has carried much of the labor of 
checking and indexing the listed material, to 
which work large contributions have been 
made by other assistants, notably Mrs. R. P. 
Scheck, Mrs. George Fort, Miss Gertrude Kil- 
leen, Miss Mildred Lent, Miss Patricia Close, 
and Mrs. (5arla Maurer. 



SUMMARY 



SUMMARY 



PREVIOUS results (Gutenberg" and Richter, 
1941; 1945) are revised and extended. Numer- 
ical magnitudes have been assigned to all 
shocks, both shallow and deep, included in 
the study, when the magnitude is 6 or over. 
The maps showing epicenters, active volcanoes, 
gravity anomalies, and ocean depths have been 
redrawn. A checklist of active volcanoes is 
given. Tsunamis are discussed. 

All shocks prior to 1946 which have been lo- 
cated are included in regional tabulations. Of 
great shallow shocks, 98 have been identified 
for 1904-1947; 361 major shallow earthquakes 
of less magnitude have been identified for 
1918-1946. These are given in separate chron- 
ological lists, which are believed to be prac- 
tically exhaustive. Over 2000 shallow shocks, 
and about 1000 deep-focus shocks, 266 with 
magnitude > 7, have been selected for study 
because of magnitude or geographical location. 

The geographical discussion is based largely 
on instrumental results, supplemented by his- 
torical records. 

The earth's surface consists of relatively in- 
active blocks separated by active zones of four 
groups: 

(1) The circum-Pacific zone includes about 
80 per cent of shallow shocks, 90 per cent of 
intermediate shocks, and all deep shocks. Shal- 
low seismicity is highest in Japan, western 
Mexico, Melanesia, and the Philippines; South 
America has an exceptionally high proportion 
of great shocks. From Japan southward the 
zone divides into two branches, which again 
approach closely between Celebes and Halina- 
hera, and then diverge through Polynesia and 
the Sunda Arc respectively. The Polynesian 
branch follows the andesite line, which is the 
boundary of the Pacific structure. Southward 
from Mexico there is a division into two main 
branches, one of which follows the Andean 
structures, while the other passes along the 
Easter Island Ridge. The area between these 
is probably chiefly of continental character. 
The outlying Caribbean loop and the similar 
loop in the South Atlantic include areas of 
Pacific type. 

(2) The Mediterranean and trans-Asiatic 
zone includes nearly all remaining intermedi- 
ate and large shallow shocks. Epicenters are 
aligned along mountain chains. 

(3) Narrow belts of sfeaJUow shocks follow the 
v v. 



principal ridges in the Atlantic, Arctic, and 
Indian oceans. 

(4) Moderate activity is associated with rift 
structures such as those of East Africa and the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

The Pacific basin (except the Hawaiian 
Islands) and the continental nuclear shields 
are nearly Inactive. Between the stable shields 
and the active belts are areas of minor to mod- 
erate activity, with occasional large shocks. 
Small shocks apparently occur everywhere. 

The largest identified shocks in each depth 
range are as follows: 

Shallow shocks, magnitudes near 814 



Jan. 31, 1906 
Aug. 17, 1906 
Jan. 3,1911 
Dec. 1 6, 1920 
Mar. 2, 1933 



Colombia 

Chile 

Tien Shan 
Kansu 
Japan 



Intermediate shocks, magnitudes near 8 
June 16, 1910 Loyalty Is. h = 100 km. 
June 15, 1911 Ryukyu h = 160 km. 

Nov. 24, 1914 Marianas h = no km. 
June 26, 1926 Rhodes h = lookm. 

Dec. 21, 1939 Celebes h = 150 km. 

Deep shocks, magnitudes 73^ to 8 
Jan. 21,1906 Japan h =: 340 km. 

May 26,1932 Tonga h =: 600 km. 

Apr. 16,1937 Tonga h z= 400 km. 

These few shocks account for much of the en- 
ergy released in earthquakes over the period 
studied, of the order of io 27 ergs per year or 
roughly io 9 kilowatts. The annual average in- 
cludes about 2 great shallow shocks, and 17 
other major earthquakes of which about 5 are 
intermediate and one is deep. The annual 
number of true earthquakes is of the order of 
one million. Fluctuations are large; in the 
year 1906 about 6 times the average energy 
was released. 

Structural arcs of the Pacific region typically 
exhibit the following features in order, begin- 
ning at the convex side: A, foredeeps; B, shal- 
low earthquakes and negative gravity anom- 
alies following anticlines; C, positive gravity 
anomalies and slightly deeper shocks; D, the 
principal mountain arc (Tertiary or older) 
with active volcanoes and shocks about 100 
kilometers deep; E, an older structural arc 
with volcanism in a late stage or extinct, and 
shocks about 200-300 kilometers deep; F, a belt 



104 

o deep shocks (below 300 km.). In some arcs 
only a few of these features can be identified; 
this is true of the similar structural arcs along 
the southern Alpide front of the trans-Asiatic 
zone. In parts of the Pacific belt structural arcs 
and the accompanying features are absent. In 
many such sectors there is strong evidence of 



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The structural arcs may be interpreted as 
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io6 



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n6 



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ADDENDUM 



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TABLES 



TABLE 13 
Class a., Shallow Shocks 



(M = 


= magnitude; R = serial number of reg 


Date 


Time 


location 


M 




R 




1904, Jan. 


20 


14:52. 


, 1 


7 


N 79 W 


7 


3/4 


6 




June 


25 


14: 


;45.6 


52 


N 


159 E 


8. 





19 


1 


June 
June 


25 

27 


21 : 
00: 


;OO, 
09. 


-5 
O 


52 

52 


N 

N 


159 E 

159 E 


8. 

7- 


i 
9 


'1 

19 J 


Aug. 


24 


20: 


59- 


9 


30 


N 


130 E 


7 


3/4 


20 




Aug. 


27 


21 : 


56. 


1 


64 


N 


151 w 


7 


3/4 


1 




Dec. 


20 


05: 


44. 


3 


8 


1/2 N 83 W 


7 


3/4 


6 




1905, Feb. 


14 


08: 


46. 


6 


53 


N 


178 W 


7 


3/4 


1 




April 4 


00: 


50. 


O 


33 


N 


76 E 


8 




26 




July 


6 


16: 


21 . 





39 


1/2 N 142 1/2 E 


7 


3/4 


19 




July 
July 


9 
23 


09: 

02: 


40. 
46. 


4 
2 


49 
49 


N 

N 


99 E 
98 E 


8 
8 


1/4 
1/4 


28 
28 


} 


1906, Jan. 


31 


15: 


36. 





1 N 81 1/2 W 


8. 


6 


8 




April 18 


13: 


12. 





38 


N 


123 W 


8 


1/4 


3 




Aug. 


17 


OO: 


1 0. 


7 


51 


N 


179 E 


8. 





1 


li 


Aug. 


1*7 


00: 


40. 


O 


33 


S 


72 W 


8. 


1* 


8 


J 


Sept. 


14 


16: 


04. 


3 


7 S 1 


49 E 


8. 


1 


16 




Nov. 


19 


07: 


18. 


3 


22 


S 


109 E 


7 


3/4 


38 




Dec. 


22 


18: 


21 . 


O 


43 


1/2 N 85 E 


7- 


9 


28 




1907., April 15 


06: 


08. 


1 


17 


N 


100 W 


8. 


1 


5 


] 


Sept . 


2 


16: 


01 . 


5 


52 


N 


173 E 


7 


3/4 


1 




Oct. 


21 


04: 


23- 


6 


38 


N 


69 E 


8. 





48 




1909, July 


30 


1 0: 


51 - 


9 


17 


N 


100 1/2 W 


7 


3/4 


5 




1911, Jan. 


3 


23: 


251 


45 


43 


1/2 N 77 1/2 E 


8. 


4 


28 


( 


Feb. 


18 


18: 


41-. 


03 


40 


N 


73 E 


7 


3/4 


48 





June 


7 


1 1 : 


02. 


7 


17 


1/2 N 102 1/2 W 


7 


3/4 


5 




July 


12 


04: 


07- 


6 


9 N 1 


26 E 


7 


3/4 


22 




Aug. 


16 


22 : 


41 . 


3 


7 N 1 


37 E 


7- 


9 


17 




1912, May 23 


021 


24. 


1 


21 


N 


97 E 


8. 





25 




Aug. 


9 


01 : 


29. 





40 


1/2 N 27 E 


7 


3/4 


30 


j 


1913, Mar. 


14 


08: 


45: 


OO 


4 


1/2 


N 126 1/2 E 


7- 


9 


23 





References 



Rosenthal 
1906,1907) 



Middlemiss (1910) 
Omori ( 



Sieberg 
O932a, p. 789) 

Rudolph and Szirtea 

(1912) 

Lawaon et al. 
(1908) 

1 Rudolph and Tarns 
(1907) 

Sieberg (1910) 
Boeae et al.(l9O8) 



Galltzin (1 91 l ) 
Jeffreys (1923) 



91 



(p. 128) 



119 



120 TflDJjni O iuuiiuj_nucu; 


Date 




Time* 


Location 


M 


H 


References 


1913, Aug. 6 


22:1 4.4 


17 S ?4 W 


7 3/4 


8 




1914, 


, May 26 


14:22.7 


2 S 137 E 


7-9 


16 




1915. 


my 1 


05:00.0 


47 1 155 E 


7-9 


19 




1916, 


July 51 
Oct. 5 
Jan. 1 


01 :$1 .4 - 
06:52.8 
15:20.6 


54 I 162 E 
40 1/2 N 117 1/2 

4 S 154 E 


7 3/4 
W 7 3/4 
7 3/4 


19 
3 

15 


/ Jones (1915) 
\ Page (1935) 




Jan. 13 


08:20.8 


5 S 135 1/2 E 


7.8 


16 




1917, 


Jan. 30 


02:45.6 


56 1/2 N 163 E 


7 3/4 


19 




1918, 


May 1 
jJune 26 
Aug. 15 


1 8:26.5 
05:49.7 
12:18.2 


29 S 177 W 
15 1/2 S 173 W 
5 1/2 N 123 E 


8 
8.3 
8 1/4 


12 
12 
22 


f Gutenberg (1925) 
4 Sieberg, 
^ (I932a, p. 758) 
Masd (1918) 




Sept. 7 


1 7 : 1 6 : j 3 


45 1/2 N 151 1/2 


E 8 1/4 


19 






Nov. 8 


04:38.0 


44 1/2 N 151 1/2 


E 7 3/4 


19 






Dec. 4 


1 1 :47.8 


26 S 71 W 


7 3/4 


8 




19193 


April 30 


07:17:05 


19 S 172 1/2 W 


8.3 


12 






May 6 


19:41 :12 


5 S 15^ E 


7-9 


15 




1920, 


June 5 


04:21 :28 


23 1/2 N 122 E 


8 


21 




1922, 
1925, 


Sept. 20 
Dec. 16 

Nov. 11 
Feb. 3 


1 4:39:00 
12:05:48 

04:32.6 

16:01 :41 


20 S 168 E 
36 N 105 E 

28 1/2 S 70 w 
54 N 161 E 


8 
8 1/2 

8,3 
8.3 


14 
27 
8 

19 


J Close et al. (1922) 
(^ Darnmann (1 924) 

/ Willis (1929) 
\ Sieberg et al. 
(1924) 




Sept . 1 


02:58:36 


35 1/4 N 139 1/2E 


8.2 


19 


f Daviaon (1931 ) 
\ with references 


1924, 


April 14 


16:20:23 


6 1/2 N 126 1/2 E 


8.3 


22 


Masd* (1924) 




June 26 


01 :37:34 


56 S 157 1/2 E 


7.8 


11 


Macelwane (1930) 


1927, 


Bferch 7 


09:27:36 


35 3/4 N 134 3AE 


7 3/4 


20 


/ Davison (1936) 
X with references 




May 22 


22:32:42 


36 3/4 N 1 02 E 


8.0 


27' 




1928, 


June 17 


03:1 9:27 


16 1/4 N 98 W 


7-8 


5 






Dec. 1 


04:06:1 o 


35 S 72 W 


8.0 


8 




1929, 


March 7 


01 :34:39 


51 N 170 W 


8.1 


1 






June 27 


12:47:05 


54 S 29 1/2 W 


7.8 


1 


Tarns ( 1930s, ID) 


1931, 


Jan. 15 


01 :50:41 


16 N 96 3/4 W 


7-8 


5 


Qrdon'ez (1931 ) 




Feb. 2 


22:46:42 


39 1/2 S 177 E 


7 3/4 


1 1 


f Adams et al. (1933) 
\Davison (1936) 




Aug . 1 


21 :18:40 


47 N 90 E 


8.0 


28 


S. P. Lee (1933) 



TABLE ^3 (continued) 



Date 






Time 


Location 


M 




R References 


1931, 

1932, 


Oct. 3 
May 14 


19:^3 

13:11 


:00 


10 1/2 S 16: 3/4 E 
1/2 N 126 E 


7- 
8, 


-9 
,0 


] 5 / Gutenberg and 
| Richter (1 93 4c) 

23 




June 


3 


10:36 


:50 


19 


1/2 N 


1 04 1/4 W 


8. 


. 1 


5 




June 


18 


1O:12 


:10 


19 


1/2 N 


1 03 1/2 W 


7 


.8 


5 


1933, 
1934, 


Bferch 2 
Jan. 15 


17:30 
08;43 


:54 


39 
26 


1/4 If 
1/2 N 


1 44 1/2 E 
86 1/2 E 


8. 

8. 


5 
3 


19 Matuzawa(l935,l 936) 
, f Dunn et al. (1939), 
26 \ Nasu (1935) 




July 


18 


1 9:40 


:15 


1 1 


3/4 S 


1 66 1/2 E 


8. 


.2 


14 


1935, 


Sept 


. 20 


01 :46 


:33 


3 1 


/2 S 1 


41 


3/4 E 


7- 


.9 


16 




Dec. 


28 


02:35 


:22 





98 1/4 E 


7- 


9 


24 


1938, 


Feb. 


1 


1 9 : 04 


:18 


5 1 


/4 S 1 


03 


1/2 E 


8. 


,2 


24 




Nov . 


10 


20:18 


:43 


55 


1/2 N 


158 W 8, 


.3 


f Mokherjee et al. 
1 \ (1941) 


1939, 


Jan. 


25 


03:32 


:14 


36 


1/4 S 


72 


1/4 W 


7 


3/4 


8 




Jan. 


30 


02:18:27 


6 1 


/2 S 1 


55 


1/2 E 


7- 


.8 


15 


April 30 


02:55 


:30 


1 


1/2 S 


1 58 1/2 E 


8, 


.0 


15 




Dec. 


26 


23:57:21 


39 


1/2 N 


38 


1/2 E 


8 


.0 


f Pamir and Ketin 
30 < (1541 ), Pare j as 
. [et al. (1941) 


19^0, 


May 24 


16:33 


:57 


10 


1/2 S 


77 


W 


8 




8 


1 941 , 


June 


26 


11 :52 


:03 


12 


1/2 N 


92 


1/2 E 


8. 


1 


24 




Nov. 


18 


16:46 


:22 


32 


N 132 


E 




7. 


8 


20 




Nov. 


25 


18:03 


:55 


37 


1/2 N 


18 


1/2 W 


8. 


3 


31 


1942, 


May 1 


4 


02:13 


:18 3/4 S 81 


1/2 W 


7- 


9 


8 




Aug. 


6 


23:36 


:59 


14 


IT 91W 






7- 


9 


5 




Aug. 


24 


22:50 


:27 


15 


S 76 W 


8. 


1 


8 




Nov. 


1 


1 1 :4l 


:27 


49 


1/2 S 


32 


E 


7- 


9 


33 


1943, 


April 6 


16:07 


:15 


30 


3/4 S 


72 


W 


7. 


9 


8 


May 25 


23:07 


:36 


7 1 


/2 N 128 


E 


7- 


9 


22 




July 


29 


03 : 02 


:16 


19 


1/4 N 


67 


1/2 W 


7 


3/4 


7 




Sept. 


6 


03:41 


:30 


53 


S 159 


E 




7- 


8 


1 1 


1944, 


Dec. 


7 


04:35:42 


33 


3/4 N 136 E 


8. 





18 


1945, 


Nov. 


27 


21 -.56:50 


24 


1/2 N 


63 


E 


8 


1/4 


29 Anonymous (1945) 




Dec. 


28 


17:48:45 


6 S 


1 50 E 






7- 


8 


15 


1946, 


Aug. 


4 


17:51 


:05 


19 


1/4 N 


69 


W 


8. 


1 


7 




Sept . 


12 


15:20:20 


23 


1/2 N 


96 


E 


7 


3/4 


25 




Sept. 


29 


03:01 ; 


:55 


4 1/2 S 153 


1/2 E 


7 


3/4 


15 




Dec. 


20 


19:19; 


:05 


32 


1/2 N 


13J 


- 1/2 E 


8. 


2 


20 



TABLE 14 
Class b shallow shocks 



Date 
1918, Feb. 


13 


(M 
Time 

06:07 


= magnitude; R = 
Location 

:13 24 I 117 E 


serial 


number 
M 

7.3 


of region) 

R Remarks 
(Depth h in km) 

21 


Bfey 


20 


14 


:36 


.0 


7 


1/2 N 


36 W 


7 


.4 


32 


May 25 


19 


:29 


:20 


30 1/2 S 


92 


1/2 W 


7 




43 h = 60+_ 


July 


3 


06 


:52 


:05 


3 


1/2 S 


142 


1/2 E 


7 


5 


16 


July 


8 


10 


:22 


:07 


24 


1/2 N 


91 


E 


7 


.6 


25 


Aug. 


15 


17 


:30 


:1 1 


5 


f/2 N 


126 


E 


7 


.0 


22 


Oct. 


1 1 


14 


:14 


: 5 


18 


1/2 N 


67 


1/2 W 


7 


.5 


7 Reid and Taber 


Oct. 


27 


17 


:06 


:40 


2 


S 148 E 


7 


.4 


16 h = 50 


Dec. 


6 


08 


:41 


:05 


49 


3/4 N 


126 1/2 W 


7 


.0 


2 


1919, Jan. 


1 


01 


:33 


.7 


8 


N 126 E 


7 


.4 


22 


March 2 


03 


:26 


:50 


41 


5 73 


1/2 


W 


7 


.2 


9 h = 40 +_ 


March 2 


11 


:45 


:17 


41 


S 73 


1/2 


W 


7 


-3 


9 ^ IJ.Q.+ 


April 17 


11 


:22 


:05 


29 


1/2 S 


178 W 


7 


.0 


12 


April 17 


20 


:53 


:03 


14 


1/2' N. 


91 


3/4 W 


7 


.0 


5 


May 


3 


00 


:52 


:00 


40 


1/2 N 


145 1/2 E 


7 


.6 


19 


Aug. 


29 


05 


:43 


:54 


2 


1/2 S 127 


E 


7 




23 


Dec. 


20 


20:37 


:27 


22 


N 122 


E 




7 


.0 


21 


1920, Feb. 


2 


1 1 : 22.: 1 8 


4 S 152 1/2 


E 


7 


.7 


15 


March 20 


18: 


:31 :25 


35 


S 110 


W 




7. 


.0 


43 


Oct. 


18 


08: 


:11 :35 


45 


N 150 


1/2 


E 


7. 


.2 


19 h = 50+, 


Dec. 


10 


04: 


:25: 


:40 


39 


S 73 1 


nf 




7 


.4 


9 


1921 , Feb. 


27 


18: 


;23: 


= 34 


18 


1/2 S 


173 


W 


7 


.2 


12 


Iteirch 28 


07: 


:49; 


:22 


12 


1/2 N 


87 


1/2 W 


7- 


3 


6 


Sept. 11 


04: 


01- : 


:38 


11 


S 11 1 


E 




7- 


.5 


24 


Sept. 


13 


02: 


36: 


:54 


55 


S 29 W 


7-2 


10 


Oct. 


15 


04: 


58: 


:12 


13 


1/2 S 


166 


E 


7-0 


U h = 40+ 


Nov. 


11 


18: 


36: 


08 


8 N 127 E 


7-5 


22 


1922, Jan. 


6 


14: 


1 1 : 


02 


16 


1/2 S 


73 W 


7. 


,2 


8 


Jan. 


9 


05: 


09: 


34 


24 


N 46 W 


7. 


1 


32 


Jan. 


31 


13: 


17: 


22 


41 


N 125 


1/2 


W 


7- 


3 


3 Macelwane ( 1 923 ) 


Sept. 


1 


19: 


16: 


06 


24 


1/2 N 


122 


E 


7- 


6 


21 Omorl (1923) 


Sept. 


14 


19: J 


=31: 


39 


24 


1/2 N 


121 


1/2 E 


7- 


2 


21 



122 



TABIE 14 (continued) 



123 



Date 


Tine 


Location 


M 


R Remarks 


1922, Oct. 11 


14:49:50 


16 S 72 1/2 W 


7.4 


8 h 50 


Nov. 7 


23:00:09 


28 S 72 W 


7-0 


o Fore shock 
of Nov. 11, V 4 


Dec. 3 1 - 


07:19:59 


45 1/2 N 151 1/4 E 


7.0 


19 


1923^ Jan. 22 


09:04:18 


40 1/2 N 124 1/2 W 


7.2 


_ Townley and Allen 
^ (1939) 


Feb. 1 


19:24:58 


21 S 169 1/2 E 


7 


U h - 50+ 


Feb. 2 


05:07:38 


53 1/2 H 162 E 


7-2 


- Q Foreshock h 
19 of Feb. 3, 16 


Feb. 24 


07:34:36 


56 N 162 1/2 E 


7-4 


19 Aftershock of Feb. 3 


Mar. 2 


16:48:52 


6 1/2 N 124 E 


7.2 


22 


Mar. 16 


22:01 :38 


6 N 127 E 


7.0 


22 


March 24 


12:40:06 


31 1/2 N 1O1 E 


7-3 


26 Heim (1934) 


April 13 


15:31 :02 


56 1/2 N 162 1/2 E 


7-2 


19 Aftershock of Feb. 3 


April 19 


03:09:08 


2 1/2 N 117 1/2 E 


7.0 


23 


May 4 


16:26:39 


55 1/2 N 156 1/2 W 


7-1 


1 


May 4 


22:26:45 


28 3/4 S 71 3/4 W 


7 


8 h = 60+ 


June 1 


17:24:42 


35 3/4 N 141 3/4 E 


. 7-2 


19 


June 22 


06:44:33 


22 3/4 N 98 3/4 E 


7-3 


25 


July 13 


11 :13:3^ 


31 N 130 1/2 E 


7-2 


20 


Sept . 2 
Sept. 9 


02:46:40 
22103:43 


35 N 139 1/2 E 
25 1/4 N 91 E 


7-7 
7-1 


1 o Aftershock 
of Sept . 1 , 2 k 
26 


Oct. 7 


03:29:34 


1 3/4 S 128 3/4 E 


7-5 


23 


Nov. 2 


21 :08:06 


4 1/2 S 151 1/2 E 


7.2+_ 


15 h = 50+ _ 


Nov. 4 


00:04:30 


5 S 152 E 


7.2 


15 


Nov. 5 


21 :27:53 


29 1/4 N 130 E 


7^2 


21 


1924, March 4 


1 : 07 : 42 


9 3/4 N 84 W 


7.0 


6 


March 15 


10:31 :22 


49 N 142 1/2 E 


7.0 


41 


July 3 


04 : 40 : 06 


36 N 84 E 


7-2 


27 


-July 11 


19:44:40 


36 1/2 N 84 E 


7-2 


27 


July 24- 


04:55:17 


49 1/2 S 159 E 


7-5 


11 h = 50;t 


Aug. 14 


18:02:37 


36 N 142 E 


7.0 


19 


Aug. 30 


03:04:57 


8 1/2 N 126 1/2 E 


7.3 


22 


Dec. 28 


22:54:56 


43 1/4 N 147 E 


7-0 


19 


1925. Jan. 18 


12:05:54 


47 1/2 N 153 1/2 E 


7.3 


19 


March 1 


02 : 1 9 : 1-8 


48 1/4 N 70 3/4 W 


7.0 


34 Hodgson (1925) 


March 16 


14:42:12 


25 1/2 N 100 1/4 E 


7.1 


26 


March 22 


08:41 :55 


18 1/2 S 168 1/2 E 


7-6 


U h - 50+ 


March 29 


21 :12:37 


8 N 78 W 


7-1 


6 h - 60+ 



Bate 
1925, April 11 
April 16 


Time 
1 : 42 : 02 
19:52:35 


Location 
34S 59 E 

22 N 121 E 


M 
7.0 
7*.l 


R Remarks 
33 

21 


May 


3 


17:21 


:45 


1 


1/2 N 


127 E 


7-1 


23 


May 


3 


22 


:59 


:04 


34 


S 58 


E 


7.0 


33 


May 


15 


11 :56:57 


26 


S 71 


1/2 W 


7.1 


8 h - 50+ 


June 


3 


04 


:33 


:55 


1 


1/2 N 


126 1/2 E 


7.1 


23 


June 9 


13 


:40 


:41 


3 S 140 


E 


7.0 


16 


Aug. 


19 


12 


:07 


:27 


55 


1/4 1 


* 168 E 


7.2 


1 


Oct. 


13 


. 17 


:40 


:34 


11 


N 42 


W 


7.5 


32 


Nov. 


10 


13 


:50 


:36 


1 S 129 


1/2 E 


7-4 


23 


Nov. 


13 


12 


:14 


:45 


13 


N 125 E 


7.3 


00 Lehmann and Plett 
22 (1952) 


Nov. 


16 


11 


:54 


:54 


18 


N 107 W 


7-0 


5 


1926, Jan. 


25 


00 


:56 


:18 


9 S 158 


E 


7.4 


15 


Feb. 


8 


15 


:17 


:49 


13 


N 89 


W 


7.1 


6 


March 21 


14 


:19 


:12 


61 


S 25 


W 


7-1 


10 


March 27 


10 


:48 


:30 


9 S 157 


E 


7-2 


15 


April 12 


08 


:32 


:28 


10 


S 161 


E 


7.5 


15 


June 


5 


04:46 


:56 


15 


S 168 1/2 E 


7.1 


14 h = 60 


July 


10 


10 


:51 


:10 1 N 126 E 


7.0 


23 h = 40+ 


Aug. 


25 


05:44 


:40 


23 


s 172 


E 


7-0 


14 h = 50+. 


Sept 


. 2 


01 ; 


:21 ; 


: 52 


33 


1/2 S 


59 E 


7.0 


33 


Sept 


. 16 


17: 


:59:12 


11 


1/2 S 


1 60 E 


7.1 


15 h - 50+. 


Oct. 


3 


19: 


:38:01 


49 


S 161 


E 


7-5 


11 h 50 


Oct. 


13 


19:08:07 


52 


N 176 


W 


7.1 


1 


Oct. 


26 


03: 


;44: 


:41 


3 1 


/4 S 


138 1/2 E 


7-7 


f6 


1927, Jan. 


24 


01 : 


05:43 


16 


1/2 S 


167 1/2 E 


7.1 


14 


Feb. 


16 


01 : 


35: 


20 


47 


N 153 


1/2 E 


7,0 


19 


March 3 


01 : 


05: 


09 


63 122 E 


7-0 


24 


Aug. 


5 


21 : 


12: 


55 


37 


1/2 N 


1 4 1 /2 E 


7.1 


19 


Aug! 


10 


11:36: 


15 


1 S 


131 E 


7-1 


16 


Aug. 


20 


23: 


5^: 


25 


5 N 


82 1/2 W 


7-0 


8 


Oct. 


24 


15: 


59: 


55 


57 


1/2 N 


137 W 


7.1 


2 Soraner (1931 


Nov. 


4 


13:50: 


43 


34 1/2 N 


121 1/2 W 


7-3 


3 Byerly (1930) 


Nov. 


16 


21 : 


10: 


09 


6 1/2 N 126 E 


7.0 


22 h - 50 


Nov. 


21 


23:12:25 


44 


1./2 S 


73 W 


7.1 


9 



Date 




Time 


Location 


M 


R 


Remarks 




19-2?, 


Dec. 28 


18:20:23 


55 N 161 E 


7-3 


19 






1928, 


Jan. 6 


19:31 :58 


1/2 N 36 1/2 E 


7.0 


37 


Tillotaon (1937) 




Bferch 9 


18:05:27 


2 1/2 S 88 1/2 E 


7-7 


33 








March 16 


05:01 :02 


22 S 170 1/2 E 


7-5 


14 








March 22 


04:17:00 


16 N 96 W 


7.5 


5 








May 14 


22:14:46 


5 S 78 W 


7-3 


8 








May 27 


09:50:26 


40 N 142 1/2 E 


7.0 


19 








June 1 5 


06:12:^6 


12 1/2 N 121 1/2 E 


7-0 


22 








June 21 


16:27:13 


60 N 146 1/2 W 


7-0 


1 








June 29 


22:49:38 


15 S 170 1/2 E 


7.1 


14 


i 






July 18 


19:05:00 


5 1/2 S 79 W 


7-0 


8 


Lehmann and Plett 
(1932) 




Aug. k 


18:26:16 


1 6 N 97 W 


7-4 


5 








Oct. 9 


03:01 :08 


16 N 97 W 


7-6 


5 








Nov. 20 


20:35:07 


22 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


7.1 


8 








Dec. 19 


1 1 :37:10 


7 N 124 E 


7-3 


22 






1929, 


Feb. 2 


00:00:19 


1 1/2 S 21 W 


7.1 


32 








Feb. 22 


20:41 :46 


11 N 42 W 


7.2 


32 








May 1 


15:37:30 


38 N 58 E 


7-1 


29 








May 26 


22:39:54 


51 N 131 W 


7.0 


2 








June l 3 
June 1 6 
July 5 


09:24:34 
22:47:32 
14:19:02 


8 1/2 N 127 E 
41 3/4 S 172 1/4 E 
51 N 178 W 


7-2 
7.6 
7-0 


22 
1 1 
1 


f Lehmann (1930); 
J Bastings (1933); 
L Henderson (1937) 




July 7 


21 :23:12 


5P N 178 W 


7.3 


1 








Nov . 1 5 
Nov. 18 


18:50:33 
20:31 :58 


7 1/2 N 142 1/2 E 
44 N 56 W 


7.2 
7.2 


17 
34 


f Hodgson et al 
1 (1930), 
V Keith (1930) 


- 




Dec. 17 


10:58:30 


52 1/2 N 171 1/2 E 


7.6 


1 






1930, 


March 26 


07 : 1 2 : 05 


7 1/2 S 125 1/2 E 


7.2 


24 


h - 40 






May 5 


13:45:57 


17 N 96 1/2 E 


7-3 


25 


Viaser (1934) 






May 6 


22:34:23 


38 N 44 1/2 E 


7.2 


30 








June 1 1 


00:49:35 


5 1/2 S 150 E 


7.1 


15 








July 2 


21 :03:42 


25 1/2 N 90 E 


7.1 


26 


Gee (1934) 






Aug. 18 


09:53:^1 


55 S 27 W 


7.1 


1 


h = 50+ 






Oct. 2k 


20:15:11 


18 1/2 N 147 E 


7-1 


18 


Lehmann 
and Plett (193 


2) 



14 (continued) 



Date 






Time 


Location 


M 


R 


Remarks 


















! Davis on 




1930, 


Nov. 


.25 


19:02:47 


35 N 159 E 


7-1 


19 


(1936 p. 246) 


















Imamura ( 1 931 ) 


















EAinitomi (l 931 ) 






Dec. 


3 


18:51 :44 


18 N 96 1/2 E 


7-3 


25 


Brown et al. ( 1933 


) 


1931, 


Jan. 


27 


20:09:13 


25.6 N 96.8 E 


7.6 


26 








Jan. 


28 


21 :24:03 


11 N 144 3/4 E 


7-2 


17 








Feb. 


1 


06:34:25 


5 1/4 S 102 1/2 E 


7-1 


24 


/ Gutenberg 
\ and Richter O934c) 




Feb. 


13 


01 :2?:1 6 


39 1/2 S 177 E 


7-1 


1 1 








Mar. 


9 


03:48:50 


40 1/2 N 142 1/2 E 


7-7? 


19 








Mar. 


18 


08:02:23 


32 1/2 S 72 W 


7-1 


8 


Bobillier (1933) 










i 














Mar. 


18 


20:13:34 


5 3/4 N 126 1/4 E 


7.0 


22 


h = 50 + 






May 


20 


02:22:49 


37 1/2 N 16 W 


7.1 


31 








Aug. 


7 


02:11 :30 


4 S 142 E 


7.1 


16 








Aug. 


18 


14:21 :00 


47 N 90 E 


7.2 


28 


Aftershock 
of Aug . 1 






Aug. 


24 


21 :35:22 


30 1/4 N 67 3/4 E 


7-0 


47 


i West (1934) 






Aug. 


27 


15:27:17 


29 3/4 N 67 1/4 E 


7.4 


47 


J 






Sept 


. 25 


05:59:44 


5 S 102 3/4 E 


7.4 


24 


/ Gutenberg and 
\ Richter d934c) 




Oct. 


3 


21 :55:10 


11 S 163 E 


7-0+. 


iyj 


I f Aftershocks of 


















I Oct . 3 , 19" 






Oct. 


3 


22:47:40 


11 S 161 1/2 E 


7.3 


15 


\ < Gutenberg and 


















Richter 






Oct. 


1 


00;19:53 


10 S 161 E 


7.7 


15J 


lO934c) 






Nov. 


2 


1 0:02:59 


32 N 131 1/2 E 


7.5 


20 






1932, 


Jan. 


29 


13:41 :10 


6 S 155 E 


7.0 


15 








Dec. 


4 


08:11 :12 


2 1/2 N 121 E 


7.1 


23 




















fByerly (1935), 






Dec. 


21 


06:10:05 


38 3/4 N 118 W 


7.2 


3 


< Gianella and 














^Callaghan (1934) 




Dec. 


25 


02:04:24 


39 1/4 N 96 1/2 E 


7.6 


27 






1933, 


Jan. 


21 


19:21 :10 


33 S 57 1/2 E 


7.0 


33 








Feb. 


23 


08:09:12 


20 S 71 W 


7-6 


8 


h = 40 +. 




April 27 


02:36:04 


61 1/4 N 150 3/4 W 


7.0 


1 








June 


18 


21 :37:29 


38 1/2 N 143 E 


7-3 


19 








June 


24 


21 :54:46 


5 1/2 S 104 3/4 E 


7-5 


24 








Aug. 


25 


07:50:25 


31 3/4 N 103 1/2 E 


7.4 


26 








Aug. 


28 


22:19:40 


59 1/2 S 25 W 


7.4 


1 








Nov. 


20 


23:21 :3'2 


73 N 70 3/4 W 


7-3 


42 


f Lee (1937) 
J Rajko et al. 




1934, 


Feb. 


14 


03:59:34 


1 7 1 /2 N "11 9 E 


7.6 


22 


\0935) 






Feb. 


24 


06:23:40 


22 1/2 N 144 E 


7-3 


18 








Feb. 


28 


14:21 :42 


5 3 150 E 


7-2 


15 







(continued) 



Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


R Remarks 


1934, Mar. 5 


11 :46:15 


40 1/2 S 175 1/g E 


7-5 


i 1 Builen (1938) 


Mar. 24 


12:04:26 


10 S 161 1/2 E 


7.1 


15 


April 15 


22:15:13 


7 3/4 IT 127 E 


7-3 


22 


July 18 


Ol :36:24 


8 N 82 1/2 W 


7.7 


6 


July 19 


01 :27:26 


1/2 S 133 1/4 E 


7.0 


16 


July 21 


O6: 18: 18 


11 S 165 3/4 E 


7.3 


14 


Nov. 30 


02:05:10 


18 1/2 N 105 1/2 W 


7.0 


5 


Dec. 15 


01 :57:37 


31 1/4 N 89 1/4 E 


7.1 


26 


Dec. 31 


18:45:45 


32 N 114 3/4 W 


7-0 


3 


1935, April 19 


15:23:22 


31 1/2 N 15 1/4 E 


7.1 


31 


April 20 


22:01 :54 


24 1/4 N 120 3/4 E 


7.1 


\ Miyabe 
21 < et al. (1936), 
1 Nishimira ( 1 937 ) 










{West 


May 30 


21 :32:46 


29 1/2 N 66 3/4 E 


7.5 


(1935, 1936), 
Bamanathan (1938) 


Aug. 3 


01 :1O:01 


4 1/2 N 96 1/4 E 


7.0 


24 


Sept . 4 


01 :37:41 


22 1/4 N 121 1/4 E 


7.2 


21 


Sept. 9 


06:17:30 


6 N 141 E 


7.0 


17 


Sept. 11 


1 4 : 04 : 02 


43 N 146 1/2 E 


7-6 


19 h 6O 


Sept. 20 


05:23:01 


3 1/4 S 142 1/2 E 


7-0 


16 Aftershock of 1 h 


Oct . 1 2 


16:45:22 


40 1/4 N 143 1/4 E 


7.1 


19 


Oct . 1 8 


00:1 1 :56 


40 1/2 N 143 3/4 E 


7.2 


19 


Oct. 18 


1 1 : 05 : 23 


12 1/2 N 141 1/2 E 


7.i 


17 h = 50 


Dec. 14 


22:05:17 


14 5/4 N 92 1/2 W 


7.3 


5 


Dec. 15 


07:07:48 


9 3/4 S 161 E 


7.6 


15 


Dec. 17 


19:17:35 


22 1/2 N 125 1/2 E 


7-2 


21 


1936, Jan. 2 


22:34:30 


N 99 1/2 E 


7.0 


24 h = 60 


Jan. 1 4 


05:36:30 


60 S 22 W 


7.2 


10 h = 50 


Feb. 15 


12:46:57 


4 1/2 S 133 E 


7.3 


16 


Feb. 22 


15:31 :54 


49 1/2 S 164 E 


7.2 


11 


April 1 


02:09:15. 


4 1/2 N 126 1/2 E 


7-7 


23 


April 1 9 


05:07:17 


7 1/2 S 156 E 


7.4 


1 5 h-40+. 


May 27 


06:19:19 


28 1/2 N 83 1/2 E 


7-0 


26 


June 30 


15:06:38 


50 1/2 N 160 E 


7-4 


19 


July 5 


18:55:13 


6 1/4 N 126 3A E 


7-3 


22 h=60nh 


July 13 


11:12:15 


24 1/2 S 70 W 


7-3 


8 h 60 


Aug. 22 


06:51 :35 


22 1/4 N 120 3/4 E 


7.2 


21 



12? 



128 



TABLE 14 (continued) 



Date 


Time location 


M 


R Remarks 


1936, Aug. 23 


21 :12:13 5 N 95 E 


7-3 


24 h = 40 +. 


Sept. 19 


01 :01 :47 3 3/4 N 97 1/2 E 


7.2 


24 


Oct. 5 


09:44:24 1 1/2 N 126 3/4 E 


7.1 


23 


Nov. 2 


20:45:50 38 1/4 N 1 42 1/4 E 


7-3 


19 


Nov. 13 


12:31 :27 55 1/2 N 163 E 


7.2 


19 


1937, Jan. 7 


13:20:35 35 1/2 N 98 E 


7.6 


27 


Jan. 23 


1 0:55:51 4 1/2 S 153 E 


7.0 


15 


Jan. 25 


06:34:00 1 S 1 63 E 


7.1 


15 


Feb. 21 
July 22 
Aug. 20 


07:02:35 44 1/2 N 149 1/2 E 
17:09:29 64 3/4 N 146 3/4 W 
11 :59:16 14 1/2 N 121 1/2 E 


7.4 
7-3 

7-5 


19 

- ( Bramhall (1938), 
| Adkins (1940) 

22 


Sept. 23 


13:06:00 6 S 1$k E 


7A 


15 h = 60 


Sept. 27 


08:55:10 9 1/2 S 111 E 


7.2 


24 


Dec. 8 


08:32:09 23 N 121 1/2 E 


7.0 


21 


Dec. 23 


13:17:56 16 3/1* N 98 1/2 W 


7*5 


5 


1938, Jan. 24 


10:31 :44 61 S 38 W 


7.1 


10 


May 12 


15:38:57 6 S 147 3/4 E 


7.5 


16 


May 19 


17:08:21 1 S 120 E 


7.6 


23 


May 23 


07:18:28 36 1/2 N 141 E 


7.4 


19 


June 9 


19:15:11 3 1/2 S 126 1/2 E 


7.2 


23 h 60 


June 1 


09:53:39 25 1/2 N 125 E 


7.7 


21 


June 16 


02:15:15 27 1 /2 N 129 1/2 E 


7A 


20 


Aug. 16 


04:27:50 23 1/2 N 94 1/4 E 


7.2 


25 


Sept. 7 


04:03:18 23 3/4 N 121 1/2 E 


7.0 


21 


Oct . 1 o 


20:48:05 2 1/4 N 126 3/4 E 


7-3 


23 


Nov. 5 


08:43:21 36 3/4 N 141 3/4 E 


7.7 


19 h = 60 +. 


Nov. 5 


10:50:15 37 1/4 N 141 3/4 E 


7-7 


19 h = 60 +, 


Nov. 6 


08:53:53 37 1A N 1^2 1/4 E 


7.6 


19 h = 60 +. 


Nov. 6 


21 :38:47 36 1/2 N 142 E 


7.1 


19 h = 60+, 


Nov. 13 


22:31 :30 37 N 142 1/2 E 


7.0 


19 h = 50+_ 


Nov. 17 


03:5^:3^ 55 1/2 N 158 1/2 W 


7-2 


1 ( Aftershock ^ 
| of Nov. 10, 20 n 


Nov. 30 


02:29:50 37 1/4 N 141 E 


7-0 


19 h = 50 


Dec. 6 


23:00:53 22 3/4 N 120 3/4 E 


7.0 


21 


Dec. 16 


17:21 :25 45 S 167 E 


7-0 


11 h 60 + 


1939, Feb. 3 


05:26:20 10 1/2 S 159 E 


7-1 


15 


March 21 


01 :11 :09 1 1/2 S 89 1/2 E 


7.2 


33 



TABLE U (continued) 



Date 




Time 


Location 


M 


R Remarks 


1939, 


May 1 


05:58:33 


40 N 139 3/4 E 


7.0 


20 Hagiwara (1940) 




May 8 


01 :46:50 


37 N 24 1/2 **: 


7-1 


32 




June 2 


03:33:15 


5 N 127 E 


7.0 


22 h = 60 +. 




Oct. 10 


18:31 :59 


38 1/2 N 143 E 


7.4 


19 




Dec. 21 


20:54:48 


10 E 85 W 


7.3 


6 


1940, 


April 16 


06:07:43 


52 N 173 1/2 E 


7.1 


1 




April 16 


06:43 :07 


52 N 173 1/2 E 


7.2 


1 




Aug. 1 


15:08:21 


44 1/2 N 139 E 


7.7 


19 Miyabe (1941 ) 




Aug . 22 


03:27:18 


53 N 165 1/2 W 


7-1 


1 




Sept . 1 2 


13:17:10 


4 1/2 S 153 E 


7-0 


15 h = 40 +. 




Oct . 1 1 


18:41 :13 


41 1/2 S 74 1/2 W 


7-0 


9 




Nov. 19 


15:01 :4O 


39 N 141 3/4 E 


7.1 


19 h = 50 +. 


1941, 


Jan. 5 


18:47:05 


2 N 122 E 


7.0 


23 h = 50 +_ 




Jan- 1 3 


16:27:38 


4 1/2 S 152 1/2 E 


7-0 


15 Fisher (1944) 




April 7 


23:29:17 


17 3/4 N 78 1/2 W 


7.1 


7 




April 15 


19:09:56 


18 N 103 W 


7-7 


5 




May 1? 


02:24:50 


10 S 166 1/4 E 


7.4 


14 




Aug. 2 


1 1 :4l :26 


28 1/2 S 178 W 


7-1 


12 




Sept. 12 


07:02 :04 


1/2 S 132 1/2 E 


7.0 


16 




Sept. 16 


21 :39:05 


28 3/4 S 177 1/2 W 


7-0 


12 




Nov. 8 


23:37:22 


1/2 N 122 E 


7.3 


23 




Nov. 18 


10:14:36 


61 S 58 W 


7.0 


1 




Dec. 5 


20:46:58 


8 1/2 N 83 W 


7.5 


6 




Dec. 16 


19:19:39 


21 1/2 N 120 1/2 E 


7.1 


21 




Dec. 26 


14:48:04 


21 1/2 N 99 E 


7-0 


25 


1942, 


Jan. 27 


13:29:08 


4 1/2 S 135 E 


7-1 


16 




Feb. 21 


07 : 07 : 43 


38 N 142 E 


7.1 


19 h = 60 




April 8 


15:40:24 


13 1/2 N 121 E 


7-7 


22 




June 1 8 


09:30:57 


9 N 140 1/2 E 


7-1 


17 




June 24 


11 :1 6:29 


41 S 175 1/2 E 


7.1 


1 1 Ongley ( 1 943b ) 




July 29 


22:49:15 


2 S 128 1/2 E 


7.0 


23 




Aug. 1 


12:34:03 


41 S 175 3/4 E 


7.1 


11 h 50 




Aug. 1 


1 4 : 3 : 05 


48 S 99 E 


7-0 


33 




Aug. 23 


06:35:21 


53 N 162 1/2 E 


7-0 


19 h == 60 



29 



130 



TABIE 14 (continued) 



Date 


Time Location 


M 


R Remarks 


1942, Oct. 20 


23:21 :44 8 1/2 N 122 1/2 E 


7-3 


22 


Oct. 26 


21 :09:13 45 1/2 N 151 1/2 E 


7-2 


19 h = 60 +, 


Nov. 15 


17:12:00 37 N 141 1/2 E 


7-0 


19 


Nov. 28 


10:38:45 7 1/2 N 36 W 


7-1 


32 


Dec. 19 


23:10:40 31 V 2 N 142 1/2 E 


7-0 


18 


Dec. 20 


14:03:08 40 1/2 N 36 1/2 E 


7-3 


30 


1943> Feb. 22 


09:20:45 17 3/4 N 101 1/2 W 


7-5 


5 


torch 9 


09:48:55 60 S 27 W 


7-3 


10 


torch Hi- 


17:1 1 :00 22 S 169 1/2 E 


7-1 


14 


torch 21 


20:35:43 5 3/4 S 152 1/4 E 


7-3 


15 


torch 25 


18:27:15 60 S 27 W 


7-3 


10 


April i 


14:18:08 6 1/2 S 105 1/2 E 


7.0 


24 


toy 2 


17:18:09 6 1/2 N 80 W 


7.1 


6 


toy 3 


01 :59:12 12 1/2 N 125 1/2 E 


7-4 


22 


June 8 


20:42:46 1 S 101 E 


7.4 


24 h = 50 


June 9 


03:06:22 1 S 101 E 


7-6 


24 h = 50 


June" 13 


05:11 :49 42 3/4 N 1 43 1 /4 E 


7-4 


19 h * 60 


Sept . 1 


08:36:53 35 1/4 N 134 E 


7-4 


20 


Sept. 14 


02:01 :1 2 22 S 171 E 


7-5 


14 


Sept. 14 


03:47:15 22 S 170 E 


7-3 


14 


Sept. 14 


07:18:08 30 S 177 W 


7-6 


12 h = 60 


Oct. 21* 


23:08:13 15 S 177 1/2 W 


7.0 


12 


Oct. 23 


17:23:16 26 N 93 E 


7-2 


26 


Oct. 24 


1*6:04:36 22 S 1 74 W 


7-0 


12 


Nov. 2 


18:08:22 57 S 26 W 


7-2 


10 


Nov. 3 


14:32:17 61 3/4 N 151 W 


7-3 


1 


Nov. 6 


08:31 -.37 6 S 134 1/2 E 


7.6 


16 


Nov. 13 


18:43:57 19 S 170 E 


7-2 


14 


Nov. 26 


22:20:36 41 N 34 E 


7.6 


30 


Dec. 23 - 


19:00:10 5 1/2 S 153 1/2 E 


7-3 


15 h = 50 


1944, Jan. 5 


21 :l 2:43 3 1/2 S 102 E 


7-0 


24 h = 60 


Jan. 15 
Feb. 1 


23:49:30 31 1/4 S 68 3/4 W 
03:22:36 41 1/2 N 32 1/2 E 


7.4 
7-4 


8 h * 50;t 
Caatellanoa ( 1 945 ) 
30 


Feb. 29 


16:28:07 1/2 N 76 E 


7.2 


33 


March 9 


22:12:58 44 H 84 E 


7-2 


28 



131 



Date 
1944, Marcla 31 


Time 
02:51 :43 


7 S 130 1/2 E 


7- 





24 


arks 
h = 60 +. 


April 26 


Ol 


:5^ 


:15 


1 S 134 E 


7- 


2 


16 


h = 


50 


JL 


April 27 


14 


:38 


:09 


1/2 S 135 1/2 E 


7. 


4 


16 


h = 


50 


i. 


May i 


9 


00 


:19 


:1 9 


2 1/2 S 152 3/4 E 


7- 


2 


1 5 


h 


50 


i. 


May 25 


12 


:58 


:05 


2 1/2 S 152 3/^ E 


7- 


5 


15 








June 


21 


10 


:58 


:20 


22 S 169 E 


7- 


2 


14 


h = 


50 


i. 


June 


28 


07 


:58 


:5^ 


15 N 92 1/2 W 


7. 





5 








Sept. 


3 


19 


ill 


:29 


57 S 122 W 


7 




^3 








Sept. 


1 1 


09 


:45 


:22 


1 1/2 N 127 E 


7. 


2 


23 


h = 


40 


. 


Sept. 


23 


12 


:13 


:20 


54 N 160 E 


7. 


4 


19 


h = 


40 


. 


Sept. 


27 


16 


:25 


:02 


39 N 73 1/2 E 


7- 





48 


h = 


40 


i 


Nov. 


15 


20 


:4 7 


:01 


4 1/2 N 127 1/2 E 


7- 


2 


23 








Nov. 


16 


12 


:1 


:58 


12 1/2 S 167 E 


7- 


3 


14 








Dec. 


10 


16 


:24 


:58 


18 S 168 E 


7-- 


3 


14 


h = 


50 


. 


Dec. 


12 


04 


:17 


:10 


51 1/2 N 179 1/2 E 


7- 





1 








1945, Jan. 


12 


18 


:38 


:26 


34 3A N 136 3A E 


7- 


1 


19 








Feb. 


1 


10:35:51 


22 S 170 E 


7 




14 


h = 


60 





Feb. 


1 


12 


:13 


:40 


22S 170 E 


7 


1/4 


14 


h - 


60 





Feb. 


10 


04 


:57 


:56 


41 1/4 N 142 1/2 E 


7. 


3 


19 


h = 


50 




Feb. 


18 


10 


:08 


:07 


42 N 143 E 


7. 





19 


h = 


50 


i. 


Feb. 


26 


22 


:14 


:27 


26 N 143 1/2 E 


7. 


1 


18 


h - 


50 




March 


1 1 


21 


:37 


:50 


37 N 142 E 


7. 


2 


19 


h = 


50 





March 


23 


23 


:14 


:13 


62 S 153 E 


7- 


1 + 


^4-5 








April 


15 


02 


:35 


:22 


57 N 164 E 


7- 





19 








April 


19 


13 


:03 


:58 


21 S 169 1/2 E 


7- 





14 


h 


40 


i. 


June 


27 


13 


:08 


:20 


27 N 111 W 


7- 





4 








Aug. 


29 


10 


:22 


:40 


15 S 168 E 


7- 


2 


14 


h = 


50 


i. 


Sept. 


1 


22 


:44 


:10 


46 1/2 S 165 1/2 E 


7- 


2 


1 1 








Sept . 


5 


21 


:48 


:45 


5 S 153 1/2 E 


7- 


1 


15 


h = 


50 


i. 


Sept. 


9 


04 


:03 


:5^ 


17 S 16? E 


7- 





14 


h = 


60 





Sept. 


22 


09 


:10 


:05 


4 S 147 E 


7- 





16 


h = 


50 





Oct . 1 6 


16 


:02 


:58 


1/4 S 125 E 


7- 


1 


23 


h - 


50 





Dec. 


8 


01 


:04 


:02 


6 1/2 S 151 E 


7- 


1 


15 








Dec. 


27 


04 


:41 


:05 


6 S 151 E 


7. 





15 


h - 


40 


+ 



14 (continued) 



Date 
1946, Jan. 5 
Jan. 12 
Jan. 20 
April i 
April 11 
May 3 


Tine 
19:57:20 
20:25:37 
16:54:21 
12:28:54 
01 :52:20 
22:23:40 


Location 
16 S 167 E 
59 T/if N 147 1/4 W 
17 1/2 S 167 1/2 E 
52 3/4 N 163 1/2 W 
1 S 14 1/2 W 
5 S 153 E 


M 
7-3 
7-2 
7-0 
7-4 
7.2 
7.4 


R 
14 

"r 

14 
1 
32 
15 


Remarks 
h = 50 
h = 50 


May 


8 


05:20:22 





99 


1/2 


E 


7 


.1 


24 




May 


21 


09:16 


:42 


14 


1/2 N 


60 


1/2 W 


7 




7 




June 


23 


17:13 


:22 


49 


3/4 N 


124 1/2 W 


7 


.*5 


2 




Aug. 


2 


19:18 


:48 


26 


1/2 S 


70 


1/2 W 


7 


1/2 


8 


h = 50 


Aug. 


8 


13:28 


:28 


19 


1/2 N 


69 


1/2 W 


7 


.6 


7 




Sept 


. 12 


15:17 


:15 


23 


1/2 N 


96 


E 


7 


1/2 


25 




Oct. 


4 


14:45 


:26 


18 


3/4 N 


68 


1/2 W 


7 




7 


h = 50 


Nov. 


1 


11:14 


:24 


51 


1/2 N 


174 


1/2 W 


7 


.0 


1 


h - 40 


Nov. 


2 


18:28 


:25 


41 


1/2 N 


72 


1/2 E 


7 


.6 


48 




Nov. 


4 21 :47:47 


39 


3/4 N 


54 


1/2 E 


7 


.5 


29 




Nov. 


10 


17:42 


:53 


8 1 


/2 S 77 1/2 W 


7 


1/4 


8 




Nov. 


12 


17:28 


:41 


20 


S 173 


1/2 


W 


7 


1/2 


12 




Dec. 


21 


10:18 


:49 


44 


N 149 


E 




7 


.2 


19 








(continued) 



Date 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Region 


1 G 1 Jl ^lj*T % t' *7 
J jjM w f CW3>i|/v f 


07:11 .3 


BO 


6 S 151 B 


7 1 A 


15 


Oct. 4 


23:00.1 


120 


22 S 69 W 


7 1/4 


8 


low. 9 


06 : 02 . 


70+ 


16 S 166 E 


7 3A 


14 


N6v. 10 


12:19.9 


90+ 


14 S 166 1/2 1 


7.2 


14 


1911, April 4 


15:43.9 


UO 


36 1/2 I 25 1/2 E 


7 


30 


April 10 


18:42.4 


100 


9 I 74 W 


7.2 


7 


May 4 


23:36.9 


2*0 


51 I 157 E 


7-6 


19 


15 


14:26.0 


160+ 


29 I 129 E 


8.2 


20 


July 4 


13:33:26 


190 


36 N 70 1/2 E 


7-6 


48 


Oct. 20 


17:44.0 


160 


12 1/2 S 166 E 


7.1 


14 


MOV. 22 


23:05-4 


200 


15 S 169 E 


7 1A 


14 


1912* Jan. 31 


20:11 .8 


80 


61 I 147 1/2 W 


7 1A 


1 


March 25 


04:49.5 


240 


18 S 169 E 


7 


14 


Aug. 6 


21 :11 .3 


260 


14 S 167 E 


7-2 


14 


Oct. 26 


09:00.6 


130 


14 N 146 E 


7- 


18 


Hov. 7 


07:40.4 


90 


57 1/2 H 155 W 


7 1/2 


1 


Hov. 19 


13:55-0 


80+ 


19 I 1 00 W 


7 


5 


Dec. 5 


12:27.6 


90 


57 1/2 H 154 W 


7 


1 


1913, Jan. 19 


25:%7:55 


150 


46 H 152 E 


7 


19 


March 25 


20:47-3 


80+ 


24 I 142 E 


7.0 


18 


May 8 


18:35.4 


200 


17 S 174 1/2 W 


7.0 


12 


Aug. 15 


04:25.7 


75 


5 1/2 S 105 E 


7-2 


24 


Oct. 14 


08:08.8 


230 


19 1/2 S 169 E 


7 3/4 


14 


Hov. 10 


21:12.5 


80 


18 S 169 E 


7 1/2 ? 


14 


Hov. 15 


05:27.1 


150 


23 S 171 E 


7 


14 


1914, Feb. 6 


11^42.3 


100+_ 


29 1/21 65 E 


7 


29 


Feb. 26 


04:58.2 


130 


18 S 67 W 


7.2 


8 


Marcti 30 


00:41 .3 


150 


17 H 92 W 


7 1/2 


5 


May 28 


03:23.9 


70 


9 H 78 W 


7.2 


6 


July 4 


23:38.9 


200 


5 1/2 S 129 E 


7 


23 


Oct. 3 


17:22.2 


100 


16 I 61 W 


7.4 


7 


Oct. 11 


16:17-1 


80 


12 I 9^ E 


7-2 


24 


16V. 22 


08: 14, 3 


100+ 


39 S 176 E 


7 


11 


Hov. 24 


11:53:30 


110+ 


22 I 143 E 


8.1 


18 


915, Jan. 5 


14:33:15 


200 


15 3 168 B 


7 1A 


14 



i tccnU 



Date 




Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Region 


1915, Jan. 5 


23:26.^ 


i0 


25 I 123 2 


"T I/- 


21 




March i? 


16:45:00 


> oo 


^2 1! 142 E 


7 1 / 4 


19 




June 6 


21 :29: *~ 


160 


18 1/2 S 68 1/2 


7.6 


a 




Sept. 7 


01 :20. 8 


80 


14 I 89 W 


7 3/4 


6 




Oct. 8 


15:36:03 


170 


33 1/2 II 138 E 


7 


18 


1916, 


April 18 


04:01 .8 


170 


53 1/4 I 170 W 


7-5 


1 




April 24 


04:26.7 


80 


18 1/2 I 68 W 


7-2 


7 




Juoe 2 


13:59.4 


150+_ 


17 1/2 I 95 W 


7-1 


5 




July 27 


11 :52.7 


100 


4 I 96 1/2 E 


7 


24 




Aug. 25 


09:44.7 


180 


21 S 68 W 


71/2? 


8 




Sept. 11 


06:30.6 


.100 


9 S 113 E 


7 1/4 


24 




Sept. 15 


07:01 .3 


100 


34 1/2 I 141 E 


7 1/4 


19 


1917, 


April 21 


00:49:49 


220 


37 H 70 1/2 E 


7-0 


48 




Aug. 30 


04:07:15 


100 


7 1/2 S 128 E 


7 3/4 


24 


1918, 


Feb. 7 


05:20:30 


120+_ 


6 1/2 H 126 1/2 E 


7 1/2+ 


22 




May 20 


17:55:10 


80+ 


28 1/2 S 71 1/2 W 


7-5 


8 




Oct. 14 


12:00.5 


130+_ 


19 s 174 w 


7 


12 




Nov. 18 


18:41 :55 


190 


7 S 129 E 


7.8 


24 




Hov. 23 


22:57:55 


190 


7 S 129 E 


7 1/4 


24 


1919, 


Jan. 1 


02:59:57 


180 


19 1/2 S 176 1/2 W 


7 3/4-8 


12 




June 1 


06:51 :20 


200 


26 1/2 I 125 E 


7 + 


21 




Aug. 31 


17:20:46 


180 


16 S 169 E 


7 1/4 


14 




Nov. 20 


14:11:43 


210 


13 S 167 E 


7 


14 


1921, 


Feb. 4 


08:22:44 


120 


15 H 91 W 


7-5 


5 




July 4 


14:18:20 


200? 


25 1/2 N 1 41 1/2 E 


7-2 


18 




Oct. 20 


06:03:24 


120 


1 8 1 /2 S 68 W 


7 


8 




Nov. 15 


20:36:38 


215 


36.5 H 70.5 E 


7 3/4 


48 


1922, 


March 4 


13:07:38 


220 


52 1/2 H 157 E 


7*0 


19 




March 28 


03:57:54 


90 


21 S 68 W 


7.2+ 


8 




Oct. 24 


21 :21 :06 


80 


47 H 151 1/2 E 


7-4 


19 




Dec. 6 


13:55:36 


230 


36 t/2 1 70 1/2 E 


7-5 


48 


1925, 


Sept. 2 


22:38:12 


1 50 


16 S 68 1/2 W 


7.0 


8 


1924, 


June 30 


15:44:25 


120 


45 I 147 1/2 E 


7.3 


'9 




Oct. 13 


^6:17:45 


220, 


36 S TO 1/2 E 


7-3 


48 




Be,", ,27' ' : 


1 ?!': ; 1:22 | : | 05 1 ' 1 -' 


ii5o , 


%5 rn.tw E " . 


7.3 . 


19 



136 


TABIE 15 (continued) 


Date 


Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Region 


1926, April 28 


11 :13:50 


iso 


24 S 69 W 


7-0 


8 


June 26 


19:46:34 


100 


36 1/2 N 27 1/2 E 


7-9 


30 


June 29 


14:27:06 


130 


27 N 127 E 


7-5 


20 


Aug. 30 


1 1 :38:12 


100 


36 5 A ^23 1/4 E 


7.0 


30 


Sept. 10 


10:34:29 


80 


9 S m E 


7-0 


24 


Nov. 5 


07:55:58 


135 


12.3 N 85.8 W 


7-0 


6 


1927, April 14 


06:23:34 


1 10 


32 S 69 1/2 W 


7.1 


8 


June 3 


07 : 1 2 : 1 1 


150 


7 S 131 E 


7A 


24 


1928, torch 13 


18:31 :52 


100 


5 1/2 S 153 E 


7.0 


15 


Aug. 24 


21 :43:30 


220 


15 S 168 E 


7-0 


14 


1929, Jan. 13 


00 : 03 : 1 2 


140 


49 3/4 N 154 3/4 E 


7-7 


19 


Feb. 1 


17:1^:26 


220 


36.5 N 70.5 E 


7.1 


48 


Oct. 19 


10:12:52 


1 00 


23 S 69 W 


7.5 


8 


1930, July 22 


19:25:53 


140 


44 3 A ff 1^7 1/2 E 


7.1 


19 


1951 , torch 2 


02:18:34 


1 10 


22 S 172 E 


7-1 


14 


torch 28 


12:38:37 


80 


7 S 129 1/2 E 


7-3 


24 


July 21 


03:36:22 


140 


21 S 170 E 


7.0 


14 


Sept. 9 


20:38:26 


180 


19 N 145 1/2 E 


7-1 


18 


1932, Aug. 14 


04:39:32 


120 


26 N 95 1/2 E 


7.0 


26 


1933, Jan. l 


08:48:39 


140 


14 3 A S 168 E 


7.0 


14 


Oct. 25 


23:28:16 


220 


23.0 s 66.7 w 


7.0 


8 


193^, March 1 


21 :45:25 


120 


40 S 72 1/2 W 


7. 1 1 


9 


toy 1 


07:04:56 


145 


3 1/2 N 97 1/2 E 


7-0 


24 


toy 4 


04:36:07 


80 


61 1/4 N 147 1/2 W 


7.2 


1 


June 15 


22:10:28 


80 


27 1/2 N 62 1/2 E 


7.0 


29 


1935, Jan. 1 


13:21 :00 


300 


17 1/2 S 17^ 1/2 W 


7-1 


12 


toy 14 


23:23:1 


155 


59 S 26 1/2 W 


7-0 


10 


June 24 


23:23:14 


140 


15 3A S 167 3A E 


7.1 


14 


Aug. 17 


01 :44:42 


120 


22 1/2 S 171 E 


7.2 


14 


Oct. 2 


05:33: oo 


70 + 


43 1/2 N 146 1/2 E 


7.0 


19 


1936, Jan. 20 


16:56:19 


80 


6 N 127 E 


7-1 


22 


Dec. 29 


1 4:47:56 


100 


4 1/2 S 153 1/2 E 


7.0 


15 


1937, July 19 


19:35:24 


190 


1 1/2 S 16 1/2 W 


7-1 


8 


Diameter of macroaeismic area 1500 


km. 





TABLE 15 (continued) 



Date 


Time 


Depth 


location 


M 


i 3 
Region 


1937, July 26 


03:47:1 1 


100 


18. 4 N 95.8 W 


7.3 


5 


July 26 


19:56:37 


90 


38 1/2 N Ul 1/2 E 


7.1 


19 


Sept. 1 


08:38:59 


120 


32 S 180 


7.0 


12 


Sept. 3 


18:48:12 


80 


52 1/2 N 177 1/2 W 


7.3 


1 


Sept. 8 


00:40:01 


130+ 


57 S 27 W 


7.2 


10 


Sept . 1 5 


12:27:32 


80 


10 1/2 S 161 1/2 E 


7.3 


15 


Nov . 1 4 


10:58:12 


240 


36 1/2 N 70 1/2 E 


7.2 


48 


1938, Feb. 5 


02:23:34 


160 


4 1/2 N 76 1/4 W 


7.0 


8 


May 23 


08:21 :53 


80 


18 N 119 1/2 E 


7.0 


22 


May 30 


14:29:50 


70+ 


20 1/2 S 169 1/2 E 


7-0 


14 


Oct. 20 


02:19:27 


90 


9 S 123 E 


7-3 


24 


1939, April 5 


16:42:40 


70 


19 1/2 S 168 E 


7.1 


14 


April 18 


06:22:45 


100 


27 S 70 1/2 W 


7.4 


8 


June 8 


20:46:53 


100 


15 1/2 S 174 W 


7-2 


12 


Aug . 1 2 


02:07:27 


180 


16 1/4 S 168 1/2 E 


7.2 


14 


Oct . 1 7 


06:22:06 


120 


14 S 167 3/4 E 


7.4 


14 


Dec. 16 


10:46:32 


75 


43 3/4 N 147 3/4 E 


7*1 


19 


Dec. 21 


21 :00:4Q;f 


150 + 


123 E 


8.0 


23 


1940, Jan. 6 


14:03:24 


90 


22 S 171 E 


7.2 


14 


Jan. 17 


01 :15:00 


80 


17 N 148 E 


7-3 


18 


Feb. 7 


1 7 : 1 6 : 02 


70 


51 1/2 N 175 E 


7 


1 


Feb. 20 


02:13:20 


200 


13 1/2 S 167 E 


7.0 


14 


July 14 


05:52:53 


80 


51 3/4 N 177 1/2E 


7 3A 


1 


Sept. 19 


18:19:48 


80 


24 S 171 E 


7-0 


14 


Oct. 4 


"07 ."5 1 *-: ^2 


75 


22 S 71 W 


7-3 


8 


Oct. 1 


06:43:04 


100 


5 N 126 E 


7-0 


22 


Nov. 10 


01 -.39:09 


150 + 


45 3/4 N 26 1/2 E 


7.4 


51 


Dec. 22 


18:59:^6 


230 + 


15 1/2 S 68 1/2 W 


7-1 


8 


Dec. 28 


16:37:44 


80 


18 N 147 1/2 E 


7*3 


18 


191*1* April 3 


15:21 :39 


060 


22 1/2 S 66 W 


7-2 


8 


Sept. 4 


10:21 :44 


90 


it 3/4 S 15^ E 


7.1 


15 


Sept. 17 


06:47:57 


190 


1/2 S 121 1/2 E 


7.1 


23 


Sept. 18 


13:14:09 


100 


13 3/4 S 72 1/4 W 


7.0 


8 


Sept. 24 


01 :01 :24 


75 


51 N 158 E 


7-0 


19 


Nov. 15 


04:19:5^ 


80 


59 S 27 1/2 W 


7.0 


10 



TABLE 15 (continued) 



Date 


Time 


Depth 


Location M 


Region 


1941 , Nov. 24 


21 :46:2? 


80 


28 S 177 1/2 W 7-3 


12 


1942, Jan. 29 


09:23:44 


130 


19 S 169 E 7-1 


14 


May 28 


01 :01 :48 


120 


1 ^4 E 7-5 


23 


June 1 4 


03:09:45 


80 


15 N 145 E 7-0 


18 


July 8 


06:55:45 


140 


24 S 70 W 7-0 


8 


Sept. 9 


01 :25:26 


80 


53 N 164 1/2 W 7*0 


1 


Sept . 1 4 


1 1 :31 :01 


130 


22 S 171 1/2 E 7- 


14 


Nov. 26 


14:27:28 


1 10 


45 1/2 N 150 E 7-4 


19 


1943, Feb. 16 


07:28:35 


1 90 


15 S 72 W 7 


8 


Feb. 28 


12:54:33 


21 


36 1/2 N 70 I/ 2 E 7-0 


48 


March 1 4 


18:37:56 


150 


28 S 69 1/2 W 7.2 


8 


April 9 


08:48:59 


170 


19 N 146 E 7-0 


18 


July 11 


02:10:25 


180 


32 1/2 S 178 1/2 W 7.0 


12 


July 23 


14:53:09 


90 


9 1/2 S 1 10 E 7 3/4 


24 


Aug. 1 


16:18:41 


230 


20 S 170 E 7.0 


:4 


Sept. 27 


22:03:44 


90 


30 s 178 w 7.1 


12 


Nov". 26 


21 :25:22 


130 


2 1./2 S 1 00 E 7.1 


24 


Dec. 1 


06:04:55 


120 


4 3/4 S 144 E 7.2 


16 


Dec. 1 


10:34:46 


80 


19 1/2 S 69 3/4 W 7* 


8 


1944, Jan. 7 


02:49:20 


120 


4 1/2 S 143 1/2 E 7.1 


16 


Feb. 29 


03:41 :53 


200 


14 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 7 + 


8 


March 22 


00:43:18 


220 


8 1/2 S 123 1/2 E 7.5 


24 


July 27 


00:04:23 


70 


54 N .165 1/2 W 7.1 


1 


Oct. 2 


20:29:51 


75 


42 1/2 N 142 1/2 E 7-0 


19 


Oct. 5 


17:28:27 


120 


22 1/2 S 172 E 71/2 


14 


Nov. 24 


04:49:03 


170 


19 S 169 E 7.5 


14 


Nov. 29 


18:51 :21 


170 


19 S 169 E 7.0 


14 


Dec. 27 


15:25:49 


90 


5 1/2 3 152 E 7.0 


15 


1945, June 22 


09:18:40 


120 


44 N 146 E 7.0 


19 


July 15 


05:35:13 


120 


17 1/2 N 146 1/2 E 7.1 


18 


Sept . 1 3 


11 :17:11 


100 


33 1/4 S 70 1/2 W 7.1 


8 


Oct. 9 


14:36:33 


80 


43 1/2 N 147 1/2 E 7.0 


19 


19^6, Jan.. 17 


09:39:35 


100 


7 1/2 S 147 T/2 E 7.2 


16 


June 7 


04:13:20 


150 


16 1/2 N 94 W 7.1 


5 


July 9 


13:13:50 


170 


19 S 169 E 7 


14 



TABLE 15 (continued) 159 



Bate 






Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Region 


19^6, 


July 


1 1 


Ql|.;l;6:42 


130 


17 N 9^ V 2 W 


"7 


5 




Aug. 


21 


18:00:18 


100 


2k S 177 W 


1 


12 




Sept. 


23 


23:30:00 


100 ? 


6 S H5 E 


7.2 


16 




Sept;. 


30 


00:59:^0 


70 


13 S 76 W 


7 


8 



Date 

1904, June 7 

1905, July 11 

1906, Jan. 21 
1907,, March 29 

torch 31 
May 25 

1909, Feb. 22 

1910., Feb. 12 
April 20 
Aug. 21 
Dec. 14 

1 91 l , April 28 
July 5 
Aug. 21 
Sept . 6 
2, Sept. 1 
Dec. 7 
^ Aug. 6 

1915, Feb. 25 
April 23 

1916,, June 21 
July 8 

1917, July 31 

1918, Jan. 30 
April 10 
May 22 

1919, Aug. 18 

1920, Feb. 22 

1921 , Dec. 18 
1922., Jan. 17 
1924, Jan. 16 

Jan. 21 







TABLE 1 6 






Large Deep Shocks 


Tine 


Lepth 


Location 


M 


Region 


06:'-. 9 


-G 


40 N "34 E 


7 1/2 


19 


1 c . =! ~r K 


4-0 


22 1 143 E 


7 1/4 


18 


13:49:35 


340 


34 N 138 E 


8.0 


19 


50:46.5 


500 


3 N 1 22 E 


7 1/4 


23 


22:00.6 


400 


18 S 177 W 


7 1/4 


1 2 


1 4:O2:08 


6OO 


51 1/2 N 1 47 E 


7.4 


46 


09:21 .7 


550 


18 S 179 W 


7-5 


1 2 


18:10.1 


350 


32 1/2 N 138 E 


7.4 


18 


22:22.0 


330 


20 S 177 W 


7 


1 2 


05:38.6 


600 


17 s 179 w 


7 1/4 


12 


20:46.2 


600 


21 S 178 W 


7 


1 2 


09:52.9 


600+. 


o 71 w 


7-1 


8 


1 8:40.1 


370 


7 1/2 S 1 17 1/2 E 


7 


24 


16:28:55 


300 


21 S 176 W 


7-3 


12 


00:54.3 


350 


46 N 143 E 


7-3 


46 


04:10.0 


430 


4 1/2 S 155 E 


7 


15 


22:46:50 


620 


29 S 62 1/2 W 


7 1/2 


8 


04:1 0.7 


600+ 


6 S 123 E 


7 


24 


20:36.2 


600 


20 S 180 


7 1/4 


12 


15:29.3 


650 


8 S 68 W 


7 1/4 


8 


21 :32:30 


600 


28 1/2 S 63 W 


7-5 


8 


09:34.5 


600 


18 S 180 


7 


12 


03:23:1 o 


460 


42 1 /2 N 131 E 


7.5 


46 


21:18:33 


330 


45 1/2 IT 135 E 


7-7 


46 


02:03:54 


570 


43 1 /2 N 130 1/2 E 


7.2 


46 


06:31 :27 


380 


17 S 177 1 /2 W 


7 


12 


16:55:25 


300 


20 1/2 S 178 1/2 W 


T-2 


12 


17:35:50 


340 


47 1/2 N 146 E 


7 


46 


15:29:35 


650 


2 1/2 S 71 W 


7-6 


8 


03:50:33 


650 


2 1/2 S 71 W 


7-6 


8 


21 :38:00 


350 


21 S 176 W 


7.0+ 


12 


01 :52:?4 


34o 


55 N 156 1/2 E 


7.0 


46 



i4o 





TABLE 1 


6 (cent 


inuec } i 1 


T-te 


fey * 


Time 


;.* 


Depth 
560 


Location 
21 S ** W 


M 

T "2 


Region 

12 




May 26 


09:5* 


:59 


500 


.8 


K 146 


E 




1 


.0 


46 


1927, 


April 1 


I 9:06 


:09 


400 


20 


S 1^7 


1/2 


W 


1 


. 1 


12 


1928, 


March 29 


05:06 


:03 


MO 


31 


.7 I 138.2 


E 


7 


.1 


18 


1929, 


June 2 


21 : 3 8 


:34 


360 


34 


1/2 N 


137 


1/4 E 


7 


.1 


19 




June 4 


15:15 


:58 


380 


6 


1/2 N 1 


24 


1/2 E 


7 


.0 


22 


1931, 


Feb. 20 


05:33 


:24 


350 


44 


.3 N 135-5 


E 


7 


.4 


46 


1932, 


Jan. 9 


10:21 


:42 


380 


6 . 


2 S 154 


-5 


E 


7 


.3 


15 




Mb.y 26 


16:09 


:40 


600 


25 


1/2 S 


179 


1/4 E 


7 


3/4 


12 




Nov. 13 


04:47 


:OQ 


320 


43 


3/4 N 


137 


E 


7 


.0 


46 


1933, 


Sept . 6 


22:08 


:29 


600 


21 


1/2 S 


179 


3/4 W 


7 


.1 


12 


1934, 


Oct. 10 


15:42 


:06 


540 


23 


1/2 S 


180 




7 


-3 


12 


1935, 


July 29 


07:38 


:53 


510 


20 


3/4 S 


178 


W 


7 


.2 


12 


1937, 


April 16 


03:01 


:37 


400 


21 


1/2 S 


177 


W 


7 


3/4 


12 




Aug. 11 


00:55 


:54 


610 


6 


1/4 S 1 


16 


1/2 E 


7 


.2 


24 


1939, 


April 21 


04:29 


:04 


520 


47 


1/2 N 


139 


3/4 E 


7 


.0 


46 




July 20 


02:23 


:00 


650 


22 


S 179 


1/2 


W 


7 


.0 


12 


1940, 


July 10 


05:49 


:55+ 


580 


44 


N 131 


E 




7 


.3 


46 


1943, 


Nov. 17 


14:57 


:17 


30 


33 


1/2 N 


138 


E 


7 


.0 


18 


1944, 


May 25 


01 :06 


:37 


640 


21 


1/2 S 


179 


1/2 W 


7 


.2 


12 


1945, 


Nov. 26 


05:13 


:10 


600 


21 


S 180 






7 


.0 


12 


1946, 


Jan. 1 1 


01 :33 


:29 


580 


44 


N 129 


1/2 


E 


7 


.2 


46 




Aug. 28 


22:28 


:15 


580 


26 


S 63 W 






7 


.2 


8 




Sept. 26 


10:53 


:15 


600 


25 


S 179 E 


7 




12 



TABLE 1? 

Regional List cf Shallow Shocks 

Region 1 (Aleutian Islands , Alaska) 

No. Date Time Location M Remarks 

20 1925, Aug. 19 12:07:2? 55 1 /4 N 168 E 7-2 

30 1939. July Ik 08:31:40 53 3/4 N 169 E 6 1/2 h = 60 

40 1929, Dec. 17 10:58:30 52 1/2 N 171 1/2 E 7.6 

50 1907, Sept. 2 16:01.5 52 N 173 E 7 3/4 

60 1940, April 16 06:07:43 52 N 1 73 1 /2 E 7.1 

61 191*0, April 16 06:43:07 52 N 173 1/2 E 7.2 
80 1935, Feb. 22 17:05:54 52 1/4 N 175 E 6.9 
100 1906, Aug. 17 00:10-7 51 3tf 179 E 8 

105 1936, April 23 23:14:21 50 1/4 N 179 E 6 1/4 

110 1944, Dec. 12 04:17:10 51 1/2 N 179 V 2 E 7.0 

120 1913, torch 31 03:41 .1 51 N 179 W 6.9 h - 60 

130 1912,, Jan. 4 15:46.9 52 N 179 W 7.0 

140 1932, Jan. 13 16:17:27 52 N 179 W 6 

150 1929, July 5 14:19:02 51 N 1 78 W 7.0 

160 1932,, March 8 04:29:30 51 1/2 N 1 78 W 6 

161 1932,, April 29 18:18:23 51 1/2 N 176 W 6 1/4 
170 1929, July 7 21:23:12 52 N 176 W 7.3 
180 1905, Feb. 14 08:46.6 53 N 178 W 7 3/4 
190 1-910, Sept. 9 01:13.3 51 1/2 N 176 W 7.1 
200 1926, Oct. 13 19:08:07 52 N 176 W 7.1 
210 1933, Nov. 2 12:26:54 52 N 176 W 6 1/2 
220 1934, Nov. 5 23:02:20 52 N 175 W 6 1/2 

230 1933, July 19' 10:45:29 51 3/4 N 1 7^ W 6 

231 1933, July 19 10:53:53 51 3/4 N 174 W 6 

232 1933, July 19 13:32:21 51 3/k N 17^ W 6 1/4 

233 1933, July 19 14:59:52 51 3/4 N 174 W 6 1 /4 
270 1933/ mj 1 18:49:47 51 3A N 1 73 W 6 1/2 
280 193^, July 20 02:10:44 52 N 173 W 6 

290 1929, March 7 01:34:39 51 N 1 70 W 8.1 h=50 

300 1931, March 29 17:24:58 51 N 170 W 6 

310 1935, Jan. 23 07:24:00 52 1/4 N 169 1 /2 W 6 3/4 

1 42 



TABLE 1? (cont.), REGION 1 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


320 


1933, 


July 


22 


20:55; 


:13 


53 


N 169 


1/2 


W 


6 


3/4 


350 


1932, 


Aug. 


12 


03:23:57 


52 


1/4 N 


169 


W 


6 


3A 


340 


1931, 


Aug. 


14 


16:12; 


;03 


52 


1/2 N 


168 


W 


6 




350 


1933, 


April 27 


11 :55:38 


52 


1/2 N 


167 


w 


6 




360 


1938, 


July 


24 


13:12: 


:13 


53 


1/2 N 


167 


w 


6 


1/4 h50 


370 


1940, 


Aug. 


22 


03:27: 


;18 


53 


N 165 


1/2 


w 


7- 


,1 


380 


1933, 


June 


28 


23:34: 


:58 


53 


1/2 N 


165 


w 


6 




390 


1933, 


Oct. 


14 


22:19: 


:01 


53 


3/4 N 


164 


w 


6 


1/4 


400 


1940, 


Feb. 


12 


09:17: 


:46 


55 


N 161 


1/2 


w 


6 


3/4 


410 


1932, 


Oct. 


16 


12:08:01 


54 


1/4 N 


160 


w 


6 


3/4 h-50 


420 


1932, 


Oct . 


30 


20:46:56 


55 


N 159 


3A 


w 


6 


3/4 


If 30 


1938, 


Nov. 


17 


03:5^: 


3^ 


55 


1/2 N 


158 


1/2 W 


7- 


2 


440 


1938, 


Nov. 


10 


20:18: 


43 


55 


1/2 N 


158 


w 


8. 


3 


450 


1934, 


July 


28 


21 :36: 


57 


55 


1/2 N 


156 


3/4 W 


6 


3A 


460 


1923, 


May 4 


16:26: 


39 


55 


1/2 N 


156 


1/2 W 


7- 


1 


4?0 


1912, 


June 


7 


09:55. 


9 


59 


N 153 


w 




6. 


, Follows Katmai 
eruption 


471 


1912, 


June 


10 


1 6 : 06 . 


1 


59 


N 153 


w 




7- 





480 


1932, 


Nferch 25 


23:5^: 


51 


62 


1/2 N 


153 


W 


6 




481 


1932, 


June 


8 


07:52: 


39 


62 


1/2 N 


153 


W 


6 




500 


1932, 


March 25 


23:58: 


31 


62 


1/2 N 


152 


1/2 W 


6. 


9 


510 


193^, 


May i 


4 


22:12: 


46 


57 


3 A N 


152 


1/4 W 


6 


1/2 h=60 


515 


1936, 


Jan. 


18 


01 :20: 


00 


62 


N 1 52 


W 




d 




520 


1940, 


Oct. 


11 


07:53: 


10 


59 


1/2 N 


152 


W 


6 




530 


19^5, 


Nov. 


3 


22:09: 


03 


53 


1/2 N 


151 


W 


6 


3/4 h=50 


540 


1933, 


June 


13 


22:19: 


47 


61 


N 151 


W 




6 


1/4 


550 


1943, 


Nov. 


3 


14:32: 


17 


61 


3/4 N 


151 


W- 


7- 


3 


555 


1935, 


Sept. 


4 


01 :27: 


39 


63 


3/4 N 


152 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


560 


1904, 


Aug. 


27 


21 156. 


1 


64 


N 151 


W 




7 


3A 


570 


1933, 


April 


27 


02:36: 


04 


61 


1/4 N 


150 


3/4 W 


7- 





580 


1933, 


June 


19 


18:47: 


43 


61 


1/4 N 


150 


1/2 W 


6 




590 


1933, 


June 


12 


15:23: 


38 


61 


1/2 N 


150 


1/2 W 


d 




600 


1933, 


March 


28 


04:20: 


26 


58 


1/4 N 


149 


W 


d 




610 


1911, 


Sept. 


22 


05:01 . 


4 


60 


1/2 N 


149 


W 


6. 


9 h=60 


620 


1931, 


Jan. 


27 


14:29: 


03 


60 


3A N 


149 


W 


d 




630 


1929, 


July 


3 


00:53: 


00 


62 


1/2 N 


1^9 


W 


6 


1/4 



L y i TABLE 1 ? ( cent . ) , REGI01 1 



No. 


Date 


Time 


L: cat ion 


M Remarks 


640 


193U 


May 


29 


05:16:32 


"Z, 

""-/ 


N 


U9 


W 


d 


650 


1932, 


Sept 


.14 08:43 


:23 


6"! 


N 


146 


W 


6 1/4 h=50 


651 


1933, 


Jan. 


4 


03 


:59 


-.28 


61 


N 


148 


W 


6 1/4 


670 


1929, 


Jan. 


21 


10:30 


:53 


64 


N 


148 


W 


6 1/4 


671 


1929, 


July 


4 


04 


:28 


:^ 


64 


N 


148 


W 


6 1/2 


690 


1934, 


Aug. 


2 


07 


:13 


:08 


61 


1/2 N 


147 1/2 W 


6 


700 


1934, 


June 


2 


16 


:45 


:29 


61 


1/4 N 


147 W 


6 1/4 


710 


1923, 


July 


17 


01 


:02 


:11 


63 


N 


147 


W 


d 


720 


1931, 


Oct. 


17 


12 


:34 


:50 


63 


N 


147 


W 


d 


730 


1933, 


July 


26 


04 


:57 


:26 


63 


N 


147 


W 


d 


740 


1912, 


July 


7 


07 


:57 


.6 


6k 


N 


147 


W 


7.4 


750 


1937, 


July 


22 


17 


: 09:29 


64 


3/4 N 


146 3/4 W 


7-3 


760 


1928, 


June 


21 


16; 


:27: 


:13 


60 


N 


146 


1/2 W 


7-0 



REGION 2 (Eastern Alaska, British Columbia) 

20 1940, Jan. 28 08:27:57 61 3/4 N 137 1/2 W 5 1/4 

40 1920, July 7 18:41:29 61 N 1 40 W 6 

60 1942, June 12 02:01:32 61 N 138 W 5 3/4 

80 1944, Feb. 3 12:14:59 60 1/2 N 137 1/2 W 6 1/2 

100 1933^ Sept. 19 23:39:32 60N138W d 

120 1933, Aug. 31 02:51:40 59 1/4 N 137 1/2 W 5 lA 

140 1941, Aug. 10 05:05:17 59 1/4 N 137 1/2 W 51/4 

160 1908, May 15 08:31.6 59 N 1 41 W 7.0 

180 1923, April 25 19:31:53 59N138W 53/4 

200 1938, Oct. 14 15:52:16 58 1/2 N 136 W 5 

220 1945, Nov. 16 18:02:22 58 N 136 1/2 W d 

240 1927, Oct. 24 15:59:55 57 1/2 N 137 W 7.1 

260 1921, April 10 13:40:16 54 N 134 W 6 1/2 

280 1945, Aug. 2 20:44:45 54 N 133 W 6 1/4 

300 1930, July 1 01:09:15 52 1/2 N 132 1/2 W 5.7 

320 1936, Dec. 21 19:03:13 52 1/2 N 131 1/2 W 6.0 

340 1938, torch 22 15:22:14 52 1/4 IT 132 W 6.3 

341 1938,, March 22 22:27:46 52 1/4 N 132 W 5 1/4 
380 1929, March 1 07:31:13 51 1/2 N 130 3/4 W 6.1 
400 1944, Aug. 10 01:52:50 51 1/4 N 131 W 6 1/4 



TABLE 1 7 ( cont . ) , REGIOI 2 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


420 


1912, 


torch i i 


10:17 


p; 
X 


51 


N 131 


W 




6 


1/2 


kko 


1929, 


May 26 


22 


:39 


:54 


^1 


I 131 


W 




7 


.0 


441 


1929, 


Sept . l 7 


19 


:17 


:34 


.51 


I 131 


w 




6 


.3 


480 


1920, 


March 29 


05 


:07 


:53 


51 


N 129 


W 




6 


.4 


500 


19^2, 


Jan. 31 


06 


:49 


:07 


51 


N 124 


w 




5 


1/2 Felt, Vancouver 


520 


1942, 


torch 19 


1 1 


:59 


:19 


50 


1/2 N 


131 


w 


6 




540 


1924, 


torch 30 


00:08:56 


50 


N 130 


1/4 


w 


6 


.0 


560 


1938, 


April 22 


04 


:15 


:49 


49 


3/4 N 


129 


3/4 W 


5 


1/2 


580 


1918, 


Dec. 6 


08 


:4l 


:05 


49 


3A N 


126 


1/2 W 


7 


.0 


600 


1930, 


April 16 


14 


:30 


:40 


49 


1/2 N 


130 


W 


5 


1/2 


605 


1935, 


Sept. 24 


22 


:12 


:15 


^9 


1/2 N 


130 


W 


6 


.2 


620 


1942, 


June 9 


1 1 


:06 


:48 


49 


1/2 N 


129 


W 


5 


3A 


640 


1937, 


Sept. 29 


1 1 


:3Q 


:19 


^9 


1/4 N 


129 


1/2 W 


5 


1/2 


660 


1914, 


July 21 


22 


:31 


.3 


49 


N 130 


w 




6 


1/2 


680 


1939, 


July 18 


03 


:26 


:38 


^9 


N 129 


1/4 


W 


6 


1/2 


700 


1932, 


Aug. 18 


20 


:22 


:49 


49N 129 W 


d 




705 


1933, 


May 5 


04 


:14 


:1 1 


49 


N 129 


W 




5 


-5 


740 


1926, 


Nov. 1 


01 


:39 


:18 


48 


3/4 N 


128 


1/2 W 


6 


.6 


780 


1926, 


Oct. 30 


19 


:41 


:55 


48 


1/2 N 


129 


w 


6 


.1 


800 


1930, 


toy 31 


1 


:21 


:53 


48 


1/2 N 


129 


w 


5 


.4 


820 


1945, 


April 29 


20 


:16 


:17 


47 


3/4 N 


121 


3/4 W 


5 


1/2 


840 


1939, 


Nov. 13 


07 


:^5 


:5^ 


^7 


1/2 N 


122 


1/2 W 


5 


3/4 


860 


1926, 


toy 12 


14 


:53 


:33 


46 


1/2 N 


131 


W 


d 




880 


1936, 


July 16 


07 


:07 


:48 


46 


N 118 


1/2 


W 


5 


3A 


REGION 3 (California) 


10 


19^, 


July 12 


19 


:30 


:23 


44 


1/2 N 


115 


1/2 W 


6 


,1 


15 


19^4, 


torch 6 


20 


:09 


:08 


44 


1/2 N 


129 


W 


5 


3A 


16 


19^4, 


torch 6 


23 


:16 


:30 


44 


1/2 N 


129 


W 


5 


3A 


20 


191-4, 


Aug. 22 


,5 


:28 


-3 


44 


N 129 


W 




6 


3A 


25 


1917, 


June 1 


04 


:32 


.4 


44 


N 129 


W 




6 


1/2 


30 


1936, 


April 30 


1 


:55 


:38 


44 


N 128 


1/2 


W 


5 


1/2 


40 


1924, 


Feb. 24 


05 


:45:10 


44 


N 127 


W 




5 


3A 


^5 


19^, 


Dec. 30 


22 


:03 


:02 


^3 


3/4 N 


126 


3/4 W 


5 


3A 



? k 6 TABLS 1? (cont.), ESGION 3 



No. 
50 

60 


Date 

1928, Sept* 11 
1933, March 26 


Time 

12:36:19 
19:05:53 


Location 
43 1/2 I 130 1/4 W 
43 1/2 N 129 W 


M Remarks 
6.3 
5 1/2 


70 


1929, Aug. Ik 


1 9:03:30 


43 


If 130 W 


5 1/4 


80 


1941 , 


. Oct. 


31 


12:41 


:00 


43 


N 128 1/2 


W 


5 1/2 


90 


1926, 


June 


c; 


1 9:50 


>:24 


43 


N 127 


1/2 


W 


6 




100 


1932, 


June 


20 


09:26 


:27 


43 


N 127 


1/2 


W 


5 


-5 


1 10 


1938, 


Aug. 


3 


13:32 


:30 


43 


N 127 


1/2 


W 


d 




120 


1933, 


July 


19 


05:06:56 


43 


N 127 


1/4 


W 


5 


1/4 


130 


1938, 


May 


28 


1 0:14 


:oi 


42 


3/4 N 


126 


W 


6 




140 


1941, 


June 


9 


06:17 


:26 


42 


3/4 N 


126 


W 


5 


1/4 


141 


1941, 


, June 


9 


08:43:45 


42 


3/4 N 


126 


W 


5 




150 


1936, 


Sept 


. 25 


12:53:35 


42 


1/2 N 


128 


W 


6 


.2 


160 


1910, 


Aug. 


5 


01 :31 


.6 


42 


N 127 


W 




6 


.8 


1JO 


1945, 


Sept 


. 28 


22:24 


:10 


42 


N 126 


W 




6 


.0 


180 


1925, 


June 


4 


12:02 


:52 


41 


1/2 N 


125 


W 


6 




190 


1934, 


July 


6 


22:48 


:52 


41 


1/4 N 


125 


3/4 W 


6 


5 


200 


1939, 


Dec. 


4 


23:54 


:54 


4-1 


N 128 


1/2 


W 


5 


1/4 


210 


1915, 


Dec. 


31 


12:20, 


.0 


41 


N 126 


W 




6 


1/2 


220 


1922, 


Jan. 


26 


09:31 :20 


41 


N 126 


W 




6 


Foreahock of 
Jan. 31 


230 


1922, 


Jan. 


31 


13:17: 


:22 


41 


N 125 


1/2 


W 


7- 


,3 


240 


1918, 


July 


15 


00:23: 


:00 


41 


N 125 


W 




6 


1/2 


250 


1923, 


April 29 


02:31 :29 


41 


N 125 


W 




d 




260 


1926, 


Dec. 


10 


08:38:53 


40 


3/4 N 


126 


W 


6.0 


270 


1941, 


Oct. 


3 


16:13: 


08 


40 


3/4 N 


125 


W 


6. 


4 


280 


1932, 


June 


6 " 


08:44: 


22 


40 


3/4 N 


124 


1/2 W 


6. 


4 


290 


1937, 


Feb. 


7 


04:41 : 


34 


40 


1/2 N 


125 


1/4 W 


5 


3/4 


300 


1941, 


Feb. 


9 


09:44: 


04 


40 


1/2 N 


125 


1/4 W 


6. 


6 


310 


1923, 


Jan. 


22 


09:04: 


18 


40 


1/2 N 


124 


1/2 W 


7- 


2 


320 


1931, 


Sept. 


9 


13:40: 


40 


40 


1/2 N 


124 W 


5* 


8 


330 


1915> 


Oct. 


3 


06:52. 


8 


40 


1/2 N 


117 


1/2 W 


7 


3/4 


340 


1945, 


my 1 


9 


15:07: 


04 


40 


1/4 N 


126 


1/2 W 


6. 


2 


350 


1935, 


Jan. 


2 


22:40: 


58 


40 


1/4 N 


125 


1/4 W 


5 


3A 


360 


1938, Sept. 


12 


,06:10: 


43 


40 


1/4 N 


125 W 


5 


1/2 


370 


1941, fey 13 


16:01 : 


^5 


40 N 126 W 


6 





TABLE I? (cont.), RSGI01 3 u 



No. Date Time Location M Remarks 

380 1936, June 3 09:15:13 40 11 125 1 /2 W 5.9 

590 1931 , Aug. 23 1 8:01 :46 40 N 1 25 W 5.3 

400 193!, March 10 03:28:53 4o N 1 25 W d 

410 1930, Aug. 5 00:11:06 39 3A N 12 ? " l A w 5-3 

420 19^0, Dec. 20 23:^0:54 39 3/4 N 124 1/2 W 5 1/2 

430 1940, Feb. 8 08:05:59 39 3/4 N 121 1/4 W 6 h=35 

440 1915. toy 6 12:09-0 39 1/2 N 126 1/2 W 6 3/4 

450 1933, June 25 20:45:27 39 1/4 N 119 W 6.1 

460 1932, Dec. 21 06:10:05 38 3/4 N 118 W 7.2 

470 1933, Jan. 5 06:50:20 38 3A N H8W 5.? 

480 1939, May 11 18:04:42 38 1/2 N 117 3/4 W 5 1/2 

490 1906, April 18 13:12.0 38 N 123 W 8 1/4 

500 193 1 *, Jan. 30 20:16:31 38 N 118 1/2 W 6.3 

510 191*1, Sept. 14 16:43:32 37. 6 N 118. 7 W 5.8 

511 19^1, Sept. 14 18:39:12 37-6 N 118. 7 W 6.0 

512 19^1, Dec. 31 06:48:44 37. 6 N 118. 7 W 5.4 
530 1927, Sept. 18 02:07:07 37 1/2 N 118 3A W 6 
540 1911,. July 1 22:00.0 37 1/4 N 121 3/4 W 6.6 

550 1926, Oct. 22 12:35:11 36 3A N 122 w 6 * 1 

551 1926, Oct. 22 13:35:27 36 3/4 N 122 W 6.1 
570 1934, June 8 04:47:45 36 N 120 1/2 W 6.0 
580 1922, March 10 11 :21 :20 35 3 A N 120 1/4 W 61/2 
590 1916, Oct. 23 02:44 34.9 N 118.9.W 5 1 /2+. 
600 1927> Nov. 4 13:50:43 3^ 1/2 N 121 1/2 W 7-3 
610 1941, July 1 07:50:55 3^-^ N 119-6 W "5-9 
620 1925, June 29 14:42:16 3^.3 N 119- 8 W 6 1/4 
630, 1930, Jan. 16 00:24:34 3^.2 N 116. 9 W 5 lA 
640 1935, Oct. 24 14:48:08 34.1 N 116.8W 5 lA 
650 1940, May 18 05:03:59 3^1 N 116. 3 W 5-* 
660 1923, July 23 07:30:26 3^ N 117 1A w 6 1 A 
670 1930, Aug. 31 00:40:36 33*9 N 118.6W 5 lA 
680 1933, Oct. 2 09:10:18 33-8 N 118.1 W 5-^ 
690 1918, April 21 22:32:25 33 3A N 117 W 6.8 
700 1933, March 11 01; 5^:08 33-6N118.0W 6 1 /4 



1 j t g TABLE 17 (cont.), REGION 3 

Ho. Date Time Location M Remarks 

710 1937. March 25 16:49:03 33-5 N 116. 5 W 6.0 

720 1942, Oct. 22 01:50:38 33-3 N 115. 7 W 5 3/* 

750 19*2 Oct. 21 16:22:1* 33- ON 116. OW 61/2 

7*0 19*0, May 19 04:36:41 32-7 N 115-5 W 6.7 

750 1927, Jan. 1 08:16:45 32 1/2 N 115 1/2 W 5 3/4 

751 1927, Jan. 1 09:13:30 32 1/2 N 115 1/2 W 5 1/2 
770 1935, Feb. 24 01:45:10 32 1/2 N 115 W 5 1 /* 
780 193*, Dec. 30 15:52:1* 52 1 /* N 115 1/2 W 6.5 
790 1939, June 24 16:27:27 32 N 117 1 /2 W 5 I/* 
800 1915, Nov. 21 00:13-7 32 N 1 1 5- W 7-1 
810 193*, Dec. 31 18:45:45 32 N 114 3/* W 7-0 

REGION * (Gulf of California) 

20 1939, Sept. 21 21:27:35 31 N 114 W 5 3/* 

40 1940, Dec. 7 22:16:21 30 3/* N 115 I/* W 5 3/* 

80 1941, April 9 17:08:36 30 1/2 N 114 W 5 I/* 

120 1931 , Oct. 1 11 :45:38 30 N 1 14 1/2 W 6 

1*0 1939, May 2 13:1*:*7 29 1/2 N 113 1/2 W 6 3/* 

160 1939, Dec. 22 06:59:18 29 N 1 1 * W 5 3/* 

180 1932,, July 7 16:15:51 29 N 113 W 6 3/* 

220 19*1, March 15 05:*6:23 28 1/2 N 113 1/4 W 6 

260 1907-, Oct. 16 l*:57-3 28 N 112 1/2 W 7-5 

300 193*, May 1* 13:14:50 27 N 1 1 5 W 51/2 

340 1918, May 23 11:57:30 27 N 111 W 6.8 

360 1945., June 27 13:08:20 27 N ill W 7.0 

400 1931, Jan. 17 02:50:14 26 3/4 N 111 W 6 1/2 

440 1932, July 12 19:24:10 26 1/2 N 110 W 6 3/4 

480 1929, Sept. 27 23:16:03 25 N 110 1/2 W 6 

520 1936, July 31 17:41:15 24 3/4 N 109 3/4 W 5 3/4 

560 1932, April 24 06:10:48 24 1/2 N 112 W 5 3/4 

600 1932, Oct. 11 19:08:05 24 N 110W d 

640 1922, June 12 04:47:44 24 N 1 08 1 /2 W 6 3/4 

680 193U May 9 10:3*:33 23 1/2 N 1 09 1 /4 W 5 3/4 

720 1931, Oct. 26 04:25:00 22 3/4 N 108 1 /2 W 5 3/4 

760 1932, March 14 04:05:55 22 1/2 M 1 09 W 6 



TABLE 17 (cont.) REGION 4 


ih 


No. 
800 


Dste 


Aug. 


26 


Tine 
01 :*1 :21 


Location 

22 I 108 W 


M Remarks 
5 3/* 


840 


1931, 


April 19 


02 


:00 


:26 


21 


N 109 


W 


5 


3/4 


880 


1937, 


July 


1 1 


17 


:19 


:27 


20 


1/2 N 108 1/2 W 


5 


3/* 


920 


153*, 


Sept 


15 


06 


:56 


:46 


20 


N 105 


W 


6 


1/4 


REGION 5 


(Mexico) 






10 


1945, 


June 


30 


05:31 :18 


17 


N 115 


W 


6 


3/4 


20 


1931, 


Nov. 


14 


13 


:51 


:28 


19 


N 1 10 


W 


d 




30 


1931, 


June 


21 


12 


:23 


:03 


18 


N 107 


1/2 W 


d 




*5 


1932, 


Aug. 


25 


08 


:05:47 


19 


1/2 N 


107 1/4 W 


d 




60 


1931, 


Jan. 


2 


09:49: 


:02 


19 


N 107 


W 


6 


3/* 


75 


1925, 


Nov. 


16 


11:54:54 


18 


N 107 


W 


7 


.0 


90 


1943, 


flfey 26 


1 0:31 :30 


18 


1/4 N 


106 W 


6 


1/2 


105 


193*, 


Nov. 


30 


02: 


:05:10 


18 


1/2 N 


1 05 1 /2 W 


7 


.0 


120 


1932, 


June 


5 


09:04:37 


19 


1/2 N 


105 w 


6 


1/4 


135 


1933, 


April 9 


03:58:17 


19 


1/2 N 


105 W 


6 


1/2 


150 


1933, 


July 


9 


05:34: 


20 


18 


N 105 


W 


6 




165 


1932, 


June 


22 


12:59: 


24 


19 


N 104 


1/2 W 


6, 


.9 


180 


1932, 


June 


3 


1*0:36: 


50 


19 


1/2 N 


104 1/4 W 


8.1 


181 


1932, 


June 


3 


17:40: 


04 


19 


1/2 N 


104 1/4 W 


6 


Aftershock 


195 


1933, 


Dec. 


13 


21 : 


23: 


*5 


19 


1/4 N 


104 1/4 W 


6 


1/2 


210 


1932, 


Sept. 


8 


01 : 


41 : 


13 


19 


N 104 


W 





1/4 


225 


1932, 


Dec. 


7 


16: 


22: 


09 


19 


N 104 


W 


6 


1/2 


240 


1932, 


Nov. 


17 


06: 


02: 


58 


19 


1/2 N 


103 3/4 W 


6 


I/* 


255 


1932, 


July 


25 


09: 


12: 


*7 


19 


N 103 


3/* W 


6 


3/* 


270 


1932, 


June 


18 


10: 


12: 


1 


19 


1/2 N 


103 1/2 W 


7- 


.8 


285 


1933, 


July 


10 


03: 


22: 


04 


19 


N 103 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


300 


1935, 


June 


29 


06: 


48: 


5* 


19 


N 103 


1/2 W 


6. 


9 


315 


1933, 


Dec. 


14 


07: 


16: 


29 


18 


3/4 N 


103 1/2 W 


6 




330 ' 


19*1, 


April 


15 


19: 


09:56 


18 


N 103 


W 


7- 


7 


3*5 


19*3, 


Feb. 


22 


09: 


20: 


*5 


17 


3/* N 


101 1/2 W 


7- 


5 


360 


1911, 


June 


7 


11 : 


02.7 


17 


1/2 N 


102 r 1/2 W 


7 


3/* 


375 


1933, 


May 8 


10: 


33: 


40 


17 


1/2 N 


101 W 


6 


3/* 


390 


19**, 


Jan. 


10 


20: 


09: 


52 


17 


I 101 


W 


6. 


8 


405 


1909, 


July 


30 


1 : 


51- 


9 


17 


I 100 


'1/2 W 


7 


3/4 



TABLE 1 7 ( cont - ) , 
1 5Q - 

No. Date Time Location M 

410 1911, Dec. 16 1 9 :i*.3 i 7 Kiooi/2W 7-5 h = 50 

420 1907, April 15 06 = 08.1 17N100W 8.1 

435 1934, Jan. 28 19:10 = 03 17K100W 6 3/* 

450 1537, Dec. 23 13=17=56 l6 5 /*N 9 8l/2W 7-5 

465 1928, June 17 03 = 19=27 161/4N98W 7-8 

480 193U July 17 09:13:** 16 i/* N 97 I/* W 61/4 

495 1931, May 16 20:4 7 :30 161/2N97W 6 1/4 

510 1928, Aug. 4 18:26:16 16N97W 7-* 

511 1928, Oct. 9 03:01:08 16N97W 7-6 
525 1931, Nov. 2 00:32:03 16 N 97 W 6 3 /* 
540 1931, Jan. 15 01 : 5 0:41 16 H 96 3/* W 7-8 
555 1932, June 21 04:33:^5 16 N 96 1/2 W 6 
570 1942, Oct. 28 10:44:39 1 5 1 /* N 96 1/2 W 61/4 
585 1951, Jan. 16 19=19=53 161/2N961/4W 61/2 
600 1928, March 22 04:17 = 00 1 6 N 96 W 7-5 
615 1934, June 12 09:32=20 i43/*N96W 6 
630 1931, July 7 5 :5*:12 1 4 N 96 W 61/4 

645 19*3, ^. 7 01:07 = 23 1 6 IT 9* W 6 h = 60 

660 1935, April 24 18:51:*0 151/*N93W 61/4 h = 50 

675 192*, July 27 02:25:^5 16 N 92 1/2 W 6 1/4 h = 50 

690 1935, Dec. 14 22:05:17 1 4 3/* N 92 1 /2 W 7-3 

705 1944, June 28 07:58:5* 1 5 N 92 1 /2 W 7-0 

720 1932 1 , Dec. 19 06:28:45 1* N 92 1/2 W d 

735 1931, Sept. 26 19:50:30 15N92W 6 h = 60 

750 1919, April 17 20:53:03 1* 1/2 N 91 3/* W 7-0 

765 1932, Aug. 17 08:46:53 15 1/2 N 91 1/2 W d h = 40 

780 1931, Sept. 26 20:03:07 14 1/2 IT 91 1/2 W 61/4 

795 1939, Dec. 5 08:30:07 1* 1/2 N 91 1/2 W 6 3/* 

810 1942, Aug. 8 22:36:3* 1* V* 91 1/2 W 6 1/2 

825 1942, Aug. 6 23:36:59 14K91'W 7-9 

900 1931, Jan. 25 12 = 3*:24 15 K 1 05 W 6 

920 1926, Oct. 1 09:07:55 H N104W 6 

9 40 1936, May 28 18:49:00 10 1/2 M 1 03 1/2 W 6 3/* 

960 1911, Oct. 29 18:09-0 n Mf 101 W 6 3/* 

980 1933, Aug. 7 3 :OS:43 12 1/2M?,8W 6 



TABIE 1 7 ( cont . ) 15 1 



REGION 


6 (Central America) 


No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


10 


1 


916, 


Feb. 


27 


20 


:20 


.8 


12 


N 90 W 


7 


-5 


20 


1 


931, 


Aug. 


25 


22 


:20 


:42 


12 


1/2 N 89 1/2 W 


d 




40 


1 


926, 


Feb. 


15 


02 


:59 


:48 


1 1 


3/4 N 89 1/2 W 


6 


9 


60 


1 


945, 


Oct. 


7 


13 


:23 


:27 


12 


1/4 N 89 1/4 W 


6 


3/4 


80 


1 


926, 


Feb. 


8 


15 


:17 


:49 


13 


N 89 W 


7 


.1 


100 


193^, 


Dec. 


3 


02 


:38 


:29 


15 


N 88 3A ^ 


6 


1/4 


120 


1 


93^, 


torch 


7 


22 


:41 


:47 


13 


1/4 N 87 3 A w 


6 


1/4 


140 


1921, 


torch 


28 


07:49 


:22 


12 


1/2 N 87 1/2 W 


7 


3 


160 


193^, 


Dec. 


22 


14 


:29 


:31 


11 


1/2 N 87 W 


6 


1/2 


180 


1933, 


Jan. 


12 


01 


:17 


:42 


1 1 


N 87 W 


d 




200 


1920, 


July 


16 


17 


:14 


:15 


10 


N 87 W 


6 




220 


1932, 


Oct. 


2 


02 


:59 


:08 


1 1 


1/2 N 86 1/2 W 


6 


3A 


240 


1 


931, 


torch 


31 


16 


: 02:21 


13 


1/4 N 85 3 A w 


d 




260 


1 


916, 


April 


24 


08 


:02 


.2 


11 


N 85 W 


7 


3 


280 


1916, 


April 


26 


02 


:21 


.5 


10 


N 85 W 


7 


.3 


300 


1 


939, 


Dec. 


21 


20:54 


:48 


10 


N 85 W 


7 


.3 


310 


1 


936, 


torch 


20 


18 


:46 


:28 


1 1 


N 84 W 


d 




320 


1 


939, 


Dec. 


22 


04 


;44 


:00 


10 


N 84 1/2 W 


6 


3A 


340 


1 


940, 


Oct. 


27 


05 


:35 


:37 


9 


3/4 N 84 1/2 W 


6 


3A 


360 


19^0, 


Oct. 


5 


14 


:38 


:*3 


9 


1/2 N 84 1/4 W 


6 


^/k 


380 


1 


924, 


torch 


4 


10 


:07 


:42 


9 


3/4 N 84 W 


7 


.0 


400 


1 


9^1 , 


Dec. 


6 


21 


:24 


:40 


8 


1/2 N 84 W 


6 


-9 


420 


1 


904, 


Dec. 


20 


05 


:44 


.3 


8 


1/2 N 83 W 


7 


3A 


440 


1 


941, 


Dec. 


5 


20 


:46 


:58 


8 


1/2 N 83 W 


7 


5 


460 


1 


933, 


toy 30 


1 1 


:^3 


:36 


8 


N 83 W 


d 




470 


1 


933, 


Nov. 


21 


23 


:48 


:38 


8 


N 83 W 


6 




471 


1 


933, 


Nov. 


23 


18 


:57 


:44 


8 


N 83 W 


6 




V75 


1933, 


Nov. 


29 


05 


:03 


:20 


8 


N 83 W 


6 




490 


1 


93^, 


July 


18 


04:00:35 


8 


N 83 W 


6 


1/2 


520 


1 


939, 


Oct. 


20 


20 


:06 


:02 


8 


N 83 W 


6 




540 


193^, 


July 


18 


06 


:35 


:32 


8 


1/4 N 82 1/2 W 


6 




560 


1 


93^, 


July 


21 


10 


:39 


:06 


8 


1/4 N 82 1/2 W 


6 


3A 


580 


1 


93^, 


July 


18 


01 


:36 


:24 


8 


N 82 1 /2 W 


7 


-7 



132 TABLE 17 (cost.), RE&IOI 6 

N~. Date Time Location M Remarks 

600 1931, Oct. 12 03:57:24 7 1/2 I 82 1/2 W 6 

620 1934, July 18 16:09:49 8 N 82 1/4 W 6 

640 1934, July 18 16:59 = 38 7 3A N 8s 1 /4 W 6.9 

660 1941, torch 10 04:05:42 7 1 /2 N 80 3/4 W d 

680 1943, May 2 17:18:09 6 1/2 N 80 W 7-1 

700 1904, Jan. 20 14:52.1 7 N 79 W 7 3 A 

720 1924, July 6 14:18:41 7 N 78 W 6 3/1* 

740 1932, June 29 22:20:12 7 N 77 1/2 W d 

800 1926, March 17 11:53:36 12 1/2 N 82 1/2 W 6.9 h=50 

820 1913, July 25 12:38.1 13 N 83 W 6.3 

840 1929, Jan. 19 03:17:54 10 N 81 1/2 W 6 

860 1935, Nov. 30 03:39:47 10 N 79 1/4 W 6 1/4 

900 1930, March 8 03:45:30 9 3 A N 78 3A W 6 1/4 

920 1925, March 29 21:12:37 8 N 78 W 7.1 h=60 

980 1942, Dec. 26 12:31 :40 8 1/2 N 75 1/2 W 6 1/2 

REGION 7 (Caribbean) 

10 1912, June 12 12:43.7 17 N 89 W 6.8 

15 1936, April 27 06:31 : 01 17 N 87 W d 

20 1942, Feb. 27 08:22:55 18 N 87 W d h=6o 

30 1933, March 12 04:25:52 1 6 1 /2 N 86 1 /2 W d 

40 1933, June 10 1 1 .-26:59 17 1/4 N 86 1/4 W d 

50 1933, Feb. 18 19:45:43 16 1/2 N 86 W d h^60 

60 1933, March 18 23:32:50 17 N 86 W d 

70 1931, July 27 07:16:15 17 1/2 N 85 1/2 W d 

80 1931, Jan. 16 16:52:03 15 3A N 85 W d 

90 1910, Jan. l 1 1 :02.0 16 1/2 N 84 W 7.1 

100 1940, Nov. 10 20:40:27 1 7 N 84 W d 

110 1935, torch 26 21:32:18 171/2N84W d 

120 1941, March 23 09:00:27 17 N 83 3/4 W d 

140 1943, April 19 01:19:15 17 N 81 1/2 W d 

150 193^, July 10 01:02:01 19 N 80 I/a W d 

160 1941, April 27 05:34:28 17 3/4 N 79 1 /2 W d 

170 1941, April 7 23:29:17 17 3/4 N 78'l/2 W 7.1 

180 1917, Feb. 20 19:29.8 19 1/2 N 78 1/2 W 7.4 



TABLE 1? (cent.), REGION 7 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


190 


1941, 


April 


2k 


01 : 


04 


:17 


17 


1/2 N 


78 


W 


a 


200 


1924, 


Jan. 


30 


20: 


^ 


:48 


20 


N 77 1 


/2 


W 


a 


21 


19U, 


Aug. 


3 


1 1 : 


25 


-5 


18 


1/2 N 


76 


1/2 W 


6 


220 


1932, 


June 


6 


1 1 : 


49 


:55 


19 


1/2 N 


76 


1/2 W 


6 


230 


1932, 


Feb. 


3 


06: 


15 


:55 


19 


1/2 N 


75 


1/2 W 


6 3A 


24O 


19^0, 


July 


30 


16: 


05 


:26 


19 


1/4 N 


75 


1/4 W 


a 


250 


1932, 


July 


6 


15: 


07 


:04 


19 


N 7^ W 






a 


260 


1938, 


Nov. 


10 


15: 


23 


:30 


20 


3/4 N 


Ik 


W 


a 


270 


1923, 


Nov. 


3 


08: 


37 


:46 


19 


1/2 N 


73 


1/2 W 


6 


280 


1942, 


flfetrch 


9 


1 0: 


19 


:46 


19 


1/2 N 


73 


W 


a 


290 


1939, 


Nov. 


7 


15: 


^3 


:57 


18 


N 72 1 


/2 


W 


a 


310 


1911, 


Oct. 


6 


1 0: 


16 


.2 


19 


N 70 1 


/2 


W 


7-0 


320 


19^5, 


Jan. 


22 


07: 


^7 


:53 


19 


1/2 N 


70 


1/2 W 


6 


330 


1942, 


July 


5 


23: 


16 


:10 


19 


1/2 N 


70 


W 


a b= 50 


340 


1916, 


Nov. 


30 


13: 


18 


.0 


20 


N 70 W 


6 3A 


350 


1926, 


Mferch 


24 


05: 


41 


:21 


19 


1/2 N 


69 


1/2 W 


a 


370 


19^3, 


Aug. 


15 


00: 


13 


:15 


19 


N 68 1 


A 


W 


a 


375 


19^3, 


Aug. 


8 


00:38 


:43 


19 


N 68 W 


a 


380 


1939, 


Dec. 


24 


18: 


53 


:57 


18 


N 68 W 


a 


390 


1923, 


March 


15 


06: 


03 


:12 


20 


N 68 W 


a 


395 


19^3, 


July 


30 


01 : 


02 


:30 


19 


1/4 N 


67 


3/4 W 


6 1/2 


400 


1920, 


Fb. 


10 


22: 


07 


:15 


18 


N 67 1 


/2 


W 


6 1/2 


410 


1918, 


Oct. 


1 1 


14: 


14 


:30 


18 


1/2 N 


67 


1/2 W 


7-5 


420 


1917, 


July 


27 


01 : 


01 


3 


19 


N 67 1 


/2 


W 


7.0 h*=50 


430 


19^3, 


July 


29 


03: 


02 


:16 


19 


1/4 N 


67 


1/2 W 


7 3 A 


440 


1939, 


March 7 


1 1 : 


20 


:49 


18 


N 67 W 


a 


441 


1939, 


March 7 


22: 


10 


:33 


18 


N 67 W 


a 


450 


1915, 


Oct. 


1 1 


19: 


33 


.2 


19 


N 67 W 


6 3/4 


*55 


19M>, 


Aug. 


9 


04: 


15 


:30 


18 


1/2 N 


67 


W 


a h= 60 


460 


1922, 


Dec. 


18 


12: 


35 


:03 


19 


N 67 W 


6 1/4 


470 


1939, 


June 


12 


04: 


05 


:09 


20 


1/2 N 


66 


W 


6 1/4 


V75 


1935, 


Sept. 


15 


04: 


01 


:35 


19 


U 65 w 


d 


480 


1919, 


Sept. 


6 


09: 


29 


:49 


19 


1/2 N 


64 


1/2 W 


6 1/4 


490 


1927, 


Aug. 


2 


00: 


51 


:46 


19 


N 64 1 


'/* 


W 


6 1/2 


500 


1930> 


June 


25 


12: 


06 


;20 


19 


S 64 W 


6 1/4 



L5 



TABLE 17 (cont.), REGION 7 



No. 
510 
520 

525 


Date 

1941, 
1918, 

1944, 


Jan. 
June 
June 


17 
1 1 

3 


Time 
12:35 
12:30 
07:12 


:44 
:30 
:15 


Location 
18 1/2 N 63 1/2 W 
19 N 62 1/2 W 
20 N 65 W 


M Remarks 
d 
5 3/4 
5 3/4 


530 


1925, 


Sept 


. 29 


17 


:33 


:50 


18 


1/2 


N 62 W 




6 1/2 


535 


1936, 


torch 20 


17 


:48 


:34 


18 


1/2 


N 62 W 




d h~50 


540 


1925. 


July 


7 


15 


:05 


:21 


18 


1/2 


N 61 W 


6 


1/2 h=60 


541 


1925, 


July 


7 


17 


:43 


:45 


18 


1/2 


N 61 W 


6 


3/4 h=6o 


550 


1933, 


April 4 


12 


:09 


:38 


17 


1/2 


N 60 1/2 W 


d 




560 


1941, 


March 12 


02:53 


:28 


17 


N 61 


W 


d 




570 


1919, 


Nov. 


6 


07 


:13 


:12 


13 


1/2 


N 58 W 


5 


3/4 


580 


1922, 


my ' 


1 1 


06: 


:45:35 


12 


N 59 


1/2 W 


6 




590 


1928, 


Sept, 


. 27 


00:44 


:05 


12 


N 60 


W 


6 


1/2 


600 


1938, 


April 13 


13: 


:53:13 


12 


N 60 


1/2 W 


d 




610 


1918, 


Feb. 


24 


23: 


:00:20 


12 


N 62 


W 


6 


1/4 


620 


1940, 


Feb. 


27 


12; 


:12:47 


8 -1/2 N 


62 W 


6 




630 


1939, 


Oct. 


14 


06: 


;02; 


;18 


10 


1/2 N 64 W 


d 




640 


1929, 


Jan. 


17 


11 : 


:45:39 


10 


1/2 N 64 1/2 W 


6, 


.9 


650 


1942, 


toy 6 


22: 


:50:13 


10 


N 65 


W 


6 




660 


1940, 


June 


23 


18: 


59:33 


10 


N 68 


W 


d 




670 


193U 


my 1 




22: 


36:52 


8 1/4 N 


69 3/4 W 


6 


1/4 - 


680 


1921, 


Nov. 


13 


08: 


40:45 


10 


1/2 N 71 w 


6 


1/4 


690 


1943, 


Dec. 


22 


12: 


53:00 


12 


N 71 


W 


6 


1/2 


700 


1943, 


Dec. 


21 


13: 


46: 


21 


13 


N.71 


W 


6 


1/2 


702 


1943, 


Dec. 


23 


15: 


56: 


05 


13 


N 71 


W 


6 


1/2 


703 


1943, 


Dec. 


24 


01 : 


00: 


14 


13 


N 71 


W 


6 


1/4 


705 


1944, 


Jan. 


5 


10: 


59:12 


13 


N 71 


W 


6 


1/4 


740 


1932, 


IVferch 


14 


22: 


42: 


48 


8 1/4 N 


71 3/4 W 


6 


3/4 


750 


1919, 


July 


1 1 


00: 


30: 


38 


8 N 72 W 


6 


1/4 


760 


1933, 


Nov. 


* 


08: 


41 : 


H 


8 1 


/2 N 


72 W 


6 




770 


1932, 


Feb. 


17 


16: 


06: 


57 


12 


N 73 


1/2 W 


d 




900 


1939, 


Aug. 


15 


03: 


52: 


35 


22 


1/2 N 79 1/4 W 


d 




950 


1939, 


March 


5 


15: 


11 : 


52 


23 


N 70 


W 


d 





TABXJ5 1 7 ( cont . ) i 5i! 


REGIOI 8 (South America) 


No. 


D-ate 


Tine 


Location 


M Remarks 


10 


1920, 


Sept 


. 24 


21 :55:00 


6 


N 83 


W 




6 1/2 


20 


19*2, 


Oct. 


8 


03:02:39 


6 


N 82 


3/* 


W 


6 


30 


19*1, 


Feb. 


2 


25 


:38 


-.32 


6 


N 77 


1/2 


W 


d 


40 


1933, 


May 


6 


20:30:29 


5 


3/4 N 82 


3/4 W 


6 


50 


1933, 


May 


6 


05:33:30 


5 


1/2 ] 


N 83 


W 


6 1/2 


60 


1924, 


June 


22 


22 


:29:08 


5 


1/2 I 78 


1/2 W 


6 1/2 h=6o 


70 


1943, 


torch 5 


00 


:31 


:40 


5 


1/4 N 82 


1/2 W 


6 3/4 


80 


1929, 


Aug. 


15 


19:56:21 


5 


N 83 


1/2 


W 


6 1/2 


90 


1927, 


Aug. 


20 


23:5* 


:25 


5 


N 82 


1/2 


W 


7.0 


100 


1941, 


July 


1 1 


01 


:16 


:29 


5 


N 82 


1/2 


W 


6 1/4 


110 


1931, 


Sept 


. 12 


15 


:41 


:32 


5 


N 77 


1/2 


W 


6 1/4 


120 


193*, 


April 3 


07 


:36 


:27 


4 


N 78 


W 




6 


130 


1917, 


Aug. 


31 


1 1 


:36.4 


4 


N 7* 


W 




7-3 


140 


193*, 


Aug. 


6 


12 


:07 


:08 


3 


1/4 N 77 


3/4 W 


6 


150 


1937, 


July 


8 


12 


:51 


:05 


3 


N 84 


W 




6 


155 


1935, 


Dec. 


24 


12:24 


:05 


3 


N 79 


W 




6 3/* 


160 


1920, 


Jan. 


30 


18 


:26 


:45 


3 


N 77 


1/2 


W 


6 


170 


192*, 


Oct. 


18 


23 


:05 


:27 


2 


1/2 ! 


N 80 


W 


6 3/4 


180 


1906, 


Jan. 


31 


15 


:36 


.0 


1 


N 81 


1/2 


W 


8.6 


190 


19**, 


Oct. 


23 


23 


:40 


:01 


1/2 N 


80 1 


/2 W 


6.9 


200 


1933, 


May 


18 


04 


:28:35 


1/2 N 


78 1 


/2 W 


d h=6o 


210 


19*2, 


May 


14 


02 


:13 


:18 


3/* S 


81 1 


/2 W 


7-9 


220 


1933, 


Oct. 


3 


1 


:21 


:20 


1 


3/* 


S 80 


3/4 W 


6 1/4 


221 


1933, 


Oct. 


3 


14 


:21 


:49 


1 


3/* 


S 80 


3/4 W 


6 


230 


1933, 


Oct. 


2 


15:29 


:21 


2 


S 81 


W 




6.9 


240 


192*, 


March 11 


22 


:44 


:23 


4 


S 82 


W 




6 3/4 h=60 


250 


1928, 


May 


14 


22 


:14 


:46 


5 


S 78 W 


7-3 


260 


1928, 


July 18 


19 


:05 


:00 


5 


1/2 


S 79 


W 


7.0 


270 


1927, 


March 13 


05 


:32 


:26 


6 


S 81 


1/2 


W 


6 


280 


1932, 


Sept. 5 


06:23:50 


6 


S 81 


W 




6 h~50 


290 


19*0, 


May 


4 


16:44:30 


6 


1/2 


S 81 


W 


d 


300 


19*0, 


May 


5 


02:03:42 


7 


S 80 W 


6 


*1 


1Q^7. 


June 


3 21 


15 


i:13 


i:04 


8 


1/2 


S 80 W 


6 3/* fc6o 



TABLE 1? (oont), REGION 8 



Mo . Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


320 1951, April 5 


01 :56:1 1 


9 1/4 S 79 W 


6 1/4 




330 1940, May 24 


16:33:57 


10 1/2 S 77 W 


8 


h=60 


340 1937, Dec. 24 


06:20:40 


10 1/2 "S 76 1/2 W 


6 1/4 




350 1940, Jan. 50 


11:56:55 


11 1/2 S 77 W 


d 


h=50 


360 1939, Sept. 20 


06:53:12 


11 1/2 S 75 1/2 W 


6 


h=6o 


370 1933, Aug. 20 


22:59: 15 


13 S 80 W 


d 




371 1933, Aug. 22 


09:49:58 


13 S 80 W 


d 




390 1928, April 9 


17:34:15 


13 S 69 1/2 W 


6,9 


h=30 


591 1928,, April 27 


20:34:58 


13 S 69 1/2 W 


6 3/4 




400 1931, June 15 


11-:19:55 


14 1/2 S 75 1/2 W 


6 




420 19^2, Aug. 24 


22:50:27 


15 S 76 W 


8.1 


h=6o 


^30 1939, Nov. 18 


07:42:15 


15 S 75 1/2 W 


d 




440 1943, July 5 


21 :07:54 


16 S 74 W 


6 3A 




450 1922, Oct. n 


14:49:50 


16 S 72 1/2 W 


7.^ 


h50 


460 1922, Jan. 6 


1 4 : 1 1 : 02 


16 1/2 S 73 W 


7-2 




470 1513, July 28 


05:39.3 


17 S 7^ W 


7.0 




471 1913, Aug. 6 


22:14.4 


17 S 74 W 


7 3A 




480 1940, March 31 


16:52:30 


19 S 70 1/2 W 


6 


h50 


^90 1938, April 17 


14:39:38 


19 S 69 1/2 W 


6 1/2 


h~60 


500 193^, May n 


17:13:08 


19 1/2 S 71 W 


d 




510 1911, Sept. 15 


13:10.0 


20 S 72 W 


7-3 




520 1933, Feb. 23 


08:09:12 


20 S 71 W 


7-6 


h~4o 


530 1940, Oct. 6 


15:38:20 


22 S 71 W 


6 3A 


h6o 


540 1928, Nov. 20 


20:35:07 


22 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


7-1 




550 1926, Aug. 12 


22:17:^8 


23, S 70 W 


6 3/4 




560 1936, July 26 


07:36:53 


24 S 70 W 


6 3A 


h=40 


570 1936, July 13 


1 1 :12:15 


24 1/2 S 70 W 


7.3 


h=6o 


580 1937, JVJarch 14 


11 :55:48 


24 1/2 S 69 1/2 W 


6 1/2 


h=6o 


590 1937, Dec. 12 


14:03:45 


25 S 70 W 


6 


h-6o 


600 1930, Dec. 24 


06:o?: 47 


25 S 66 W 


6 




610 1925, May 15 


11:56:57 


26 S 71 1/2 W 


7.1 


h50 


620 1918, Dec. 4 


11 :47.8 


26 S 71 W 


7 3/4 




630 1909, June 8 


05:46.5 


26 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


7.6 




640 1 931 , Jfey 20 


21 :53:5^ 


27 1/2 S 71 1/2 W 


6 1/4 





TABLE 1? (cont.), REGI01 8 



No. 


Date 


Tims 


Location 


M Remarks 


650 


1920, 


Aug. 


3 


19 


:57:12 


27 


1/2 


S 70 


w 


6 


3A 


655 


1936, 


Feb. 


16 


03 


:09:07 


28 


S 71 


1/2 


w 


d 




660 


1922, 


Nov. 


7 


23 


:00:09 


28 


S 72 W 


7 


.0 


670 


1934, 


torch 31 


03 


: 1 3 : 00 


28 


1/2 


S 72 


w 


5 


1/2 h=60 


680 


1922, 


Nov. 


11 


04 


:32.6 


28 


1/2 


S 70 


w 


8 


.3 


690 


1923, 


toy 4 




22 


:26:45 


28 


3A 


S 71 


3/4 W 


7 


h=60 


700 


1931, 


June 


29 


20 


:24:04 


29 


1/2 


s 71 


W 


6 




720 


1934, 


Jan. 


1 


08 


:05:14 


29 


1/2 


S 71 


W 


d 




730 


1917, 


Feb. 


15 


00 


:48.4 


30 


S 73 


W 




7 




740 


1933, 


Dec. 


10 


07:49:02 


30 


s 71 


W 




d 




750 


1927, 


Nov. 


14 


07 


:19:25 


30 


1/2 


S 71" 


1/2 W 


6 


3A 


760 


1943, 


April 


6 


16 


: 07:15 


30 


3A 


S 72 


w 


7 


.9 


762 


1943, 


toy 22 


09 


:01:57 


30 


3/4 


S 72 


w 


6 


3A 


780 


1934, 


July 


28 


17 


:25:30 


31 


S 71 


1/2 


w 


d 




790 


1928, 


July 


28 


19 


:50:15 


31 


S 71 


W 




6 


1 /g h=50 


800 


1917, 


July 


27 


02 


:51 .8 


31 


S 70 W 


7 


.0 h=60 


810 


1944, 


Jan. 


15 


23:49:30 


31 


1/4 


S 68 


3/4 W 


7 


.4 


820 


19 VI, 


July 


3 


07 


:11:46 


31 


1/2 


S 69 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


830 


1936, 


toy 22 


00 


:15:58 


32 


S 66 


W 




6 




840 


1931, 


torch 


18 


08 


: 02:23 


32 


1/2 


S 72 


W 


7 


.1 


850 


1906, 


Aug. 


17 


00 


:4oo 


33 


s 72 


W 




8 


.4 


860 


1940, 


April 


8 


08 


:49:15 


33 


1/2 


S 71 


1/2 W 


6 




870 


1935, 


June 


28 


02 


:00:35 


3^ 


S 73 


W 




6 




880 


1914, 


Jan. 


30 


03 


136.0 


35 


S 73 


W 




7 


.6 


885 


1935, 


Aug. 


5 


23: 


: 50:10 


35 


S 72 


W 




6 




890 
900 


1928, 
1929, 


Dec. 1 
toy 30 


04 
09 


:06.2 
:43:24 


35 
35 


S 72 
S 68 


W 
W 




8 
6 


.0 

_ / , Lunkenhe imer , 
5/ 1930 


910 


1939, 


Jan. 


25 


03 


:32:l4 


36 


1/4 


S 72 


1/4 W 


7 


3A 












REGION 


9 (South America 37-50 


S) 


100 


1923, 


Nov. 


6 


17 


:15:17 


38 


S 73 


1/2 


W 


6 


1/4 


200 


1920, 


Dec. 


10 


04 


:25:40 


39 


S 73 


W 




7 


.4 


300 


1919, 


torch 


2 


03 


-.26:50 


41 


S 73 


1/2 


W 


7 


.2 h=*4o 


301 


1919, 


torch 


2 


11 


:45:17 


41 


S 73 


1/2 


W 


7 


. 5 h=*4o 


400. 


1940, 


Oct. 


11 


18 


:41:13 


41 


^ 2 


s 74 


1/2 W 


7 


.0 



Mo. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


500 


1942, 


Sept. 


27 


15:12 


:21 


42 


S 


81 


w 


6 


1/U 


600 


1930, 


June 


22 


18:24 


:40 


44 


S 


81 


w 


6 




700 


1 926 , 


Sept. 


10 


08:26 


:53 


44 


s 


80 W 


d 




800 


1927, 


Hov. 


21 


23:12 


:25 


44 


1 


/2 


S 73 W 


7 


.1 


900 


1932, 


Dec. 


3 


17:25 


:51 


45 


s 


60 


W 


d 




REGION 1 





(Southern Antilles ) 


20 


1930, 


July 


13 


01 :12 


:22 


56 


s 


67 


W 


6 


iA 


40 


1941, 


Dec. 


1 


19:56:20 


54 


s 


56 


W 


6 


iA 


60 


1928, 


Oct. 


17 


15:19 


:35 


53 


s 


5^ 


W 


6 


1/2 


80 


1933, 


Dec. 


2 


20:05 


:12 


51 


s 


53 


w 


6 


1/2 


120 


1941, 


Jan. 


19 


03:13 


:28 


53 


s 


41 


w 


6 


1/2 


140 


1934, 


July 


4 


01 :42 


:34 


55 


1 


/2 


S 41 W 


6 


1/fc 


160 


1929, 


Dec. 


6 


20:21 


:09 


54 


1 


/2 


S 30 W 


6 


3A 


180 


1929, 


June 


27 


12:47 


:05 


54 


s 


29 


1/2 W 


7 


.8 ' 


200 


1929, 


Dec. 


6 


16:46 


:43 


53 


1/2 


S 29 W 


6 


3A 


220 


1921, 


Sept. 


13 


02:36 


:54 


55 


s 


29 


W 


7 


.2 


240 


1930, 


March 


30 


08:26 


:10 


54 


1 


/2 


S 27 I/ 2 W 


6 


3A 


260 


1929, 


March 


28 


20:17 


:57 


55 


s 


27 


1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


280 


1930, 


Aug. 


18 


09:53 


:41 


55 


s 


27 


W 


7 


. 1 h=50 


300 


1933, 


July 


21 


20:06 


:45 


56 


1 


/2 


S 26 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


320 


1930, 


April 


21 


1 1 :50 


:56 


56 


1/2 


S 26 W 


6 


3/it. h=60 


3^0 


1925, 


Jan. 


21 


18:1 1 


:10 


56 


s 


25 


W 


6 


3/14. h=60 


360 


1937, 


Sept. 


17 


09:30 


:41 


56 


1 


/2 


S 25 W 


6 


1/2 


380 


1923, 


May i 




1 0:36 


:18 


55 


s 


24 


W 


6 


3A h=50 


400 


1929, 


April 


13 


21 :05 


:59 


55 


s 


24 


W 


6 




420 


1928, 


May 15 


05:43 


:45 


5* 


s 


23 


W 


6 




460 


1933, 


torch 18 


03:05 


:22 


59 


s 


15 


W 


6 


1/2 


480 


1932, 


Feb. 


23 


00:13 


:50 


60 


s 


12 


1/2 W 


6 


.9 h=6o 


520 


1910, 


Nov. 


15 


14:21 


.8 


58 


s 


22 W 


7 


1/4 h=6 


540 


1936, 


Jan. 


14 


05:36 


:30 


60 


s 


22 W 


7 


.2 


550 


1935, 


Aug. 


10 


17:31 


:55 


62 


1 


/2 


S 21 W 


6 


1/2 h-60 


560 


194-3, 


Nov. 


2 


18:08 


:22 


57 


s 


26 W 


7 


.2 


561 


1943, 


Nov. 


4 


06:45 


:44 


57 


S 26 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


580 


1933, 


Aug. 


28 


22:19 


:40 


59 


1 


/2 


S 25 W 


7 


.4 


600 


1930, 


Feb. 


18 


01 :52 


:48 


60 


S 25 W 


6 


1/2 



TABLE 1? (cont.), REGION 10 



No. Date Tine Location M Remarks 

620 1926, March 21 14:19:12 61 S 25 W 7-1 

640 1935, July 17 10:46:14 60 1/2 S 24 W 6 3/4 h60 

660 1929, Oct. 21 10:33:38 59 S 26 W 6 

660 1943, March 9 09:48:55 60 S 27 W 7-3 

685 1943, March 25 18:27:15 60 S 27 W 7-3 

720 1938, Jan. 24 10:31:44 61 S 38 W 7-1 

760 1937, Oct. 7 07:51:45 59 1/2 S 53 W 6 1/4 

780 1928, Dec. 27 04:46:10 61 S 55 W 6 1/4 

800 1938, April 2 06:02:00 59 1/2 S 58 W 6 1/4 

820 1941, Nov. 18 10:14:36 61 S 58 W 7-0 

860 1933, Oct. 26 12:07:02 60 S 60 W 6 3/k 

990 1944, Nov. 21 10:02:20 58 S 66 W 6 1/2 

REGION 11 (New Zealand) 

30 1924, June 26 01:37:3^ 56 S 157 1/2 E 7-8 

60 1929, Dec. 16 00:45:31 55 S 156 E d 

80 1935, Dec. 9 07:23:30 55 S 162 E 6 1/4 

90 1934, Oct. 25 10:23:17 5^ S 1 60 E d 

120 1943, Sept. 6 03:41:30 53 S 159 E 7-8 

150 1939, Nov. 10 16:49:40 53 S 160 E 6 

180 1933, Dc. 2 05:17:18 52 S 161 E 6 

210 1932, Aug. 13 20:56:01 51 S 164 E 6 1/4 

225 1939, Sept. 17 19:20:14 50 1/2 S 1 64 E d 

240 1936, Feb. 22 19:22:40 50 S 164 E 6 

245 1939, Sept. 20 07:28:20 50 S 164 E d 

300 1924, July 24 04:55:17 ^9 1/2 S 159 E 7-5 

330 1936, Feb. 22 15:31:54 49 1/2 S 164 E 7-2 

360 1926, Oct. 3 19:38:01 49 S 161 E 7-5 

390 1918, Nov. 3 11:14:00 47 S 1 65 E 6 3 A h=50 

420 1945, Sept. 1 22:44:10 46 1/2 S 165 1/2 E 7-2 

450 1939, April 20 22:06:35 ^6 1/2 S 167 1/2 E 6 

480 1931, Sept. 15 21:08:47 45 S 1 68 E d 

510 1938, Dec. 16 17:21:25 45 S 167 E 7-0 h=60 

520 1943, Aug. 2 00:46:35 ^5 S 1 67 E 6*3/4 

570 1922, Dec. 25 03:33:10 43 S 173 E 6 1/4 



TABLE 1? (cont.), REGION n 



Ho. Date Tine Location M Remarks 

600 1929, Bferch 9 10:50:55 42 1/2 S 172 E 6.9 

630 1929, June 16 22:47:32 41 3/4 S 172 1/4 S ?- 6 

660 1942, Aug. 1 12:34:03 41 S 175 3/4 E 7-1 k=50 

690 1942, June 24 11:16:29 41 S 175 1/2 E 7-1 

720 1931*, March 5 11:46:15 40 1/2 S 175 1/2 E 7-5 

750 1914, Oct. 26 00:16.3 40 S 178 E 6 1/2 

780 1932, July 20 01^:52:27 40 S 174 E & ^= 60 

810 1934, March 15 10:46:35 40 S 1 76 E _ 61/4 

840 1931, Feb. 2 22:4-6:42 39 1/2 S 177 E 7 3/4 

841 1931, Feb. 8 01:43:47 39 1/2 S 1 77 E 6 1/2 
845 1931, Feb. 13 01:27:16 39 1/2 S 177 E 7-1 
900 1932, May 5 08:23:57 39 1/2 S 177 1/2 E d 
910 1932, Sept. 15 13:54:54 39 S 177 1/2 E 6 - 8 

940 1927, Feb. 25 15:41:23 38 S 178 E 6 3/4 h=6o 

970 1914, Oct. 6 19:15.8 38 S 178 1/2 E 6 1/2 

990 1932, Jferch 5 01:40:54 36 1/2 S 178 E d 

REGION 12 (Kei*madec and Tonga Islands) 

20 1930, Sept. 22 01:31:19 35 1/2 S 179 1/2 W 61/2 

40 1943, Sept. 22 23:18:08 35 1/2 S 178 1/2 W 6 3/4 

60 1924, April 30 05:07:38 34 S 176 W 6 

61 1924, April 30 03:59:20 34 S 175 W 5 3/4 
80 1933, April 16 06:00:03 33 S 178 W d 
100 1943, Dec. 30 07:36:07 32 1/2 S 177 W 6 1/4 
120 1934, Jfey 5 14:32:16 32 S 1 79 W 6 1/4 
140 1943,, Dec. 27 03:55:13 32 S 178 1/2 W 6 1/4 
160 1910, June 29 10:4-5-0 32 S 176 W 7-0 
180 1932, April 3 20:38:53 30 3/4 S 177 1/2 W 61/4 

200 1924, Aug. 10 06:12:00 30 S 1 78 W 6 3/4 h=50 

220 1943> Sept. 14 07:18:08 30 S 1 77 W 7-6 

240 1919, April 17 11:22:05 9 1/2 S 178 W 7-0 

260 1931, Aug. 13 22:09:11 29S178W 61/4 

280 1917, Nov. 16 03:19-5 29 S 177 1/2 W 7-5 

290 1935, March 29 12:24:18 29 S 177 1/2 W 6 1/4 

300 1917, May 1 18:26.5 29S177W 8 



TABLE 1? (cont.), REGIOI 12 161 



No. Date Time Location M Remarks 

320 1941, Aug. 2 11:41:26 28 1/2 S 1 78 W 7.1 

322 1941, Sept. 16 21:39:03 28 3/4 S 177 1/2 W 7-0 

340 1940, Sept. 30 11:13:06 27 S 177 W d 

341 1940, Sept. 30 14:10:30 27 S 177 W d 
360 1951* <3une 9 15:58:36 24 1/2 S 176 W 6 1/4 
380 1939,, Feb. 3 20:13:15 22 1/2 S 175 1/2 W 6 1/4 
400 1935, April 5 02:55:00 22 S 175 W 6 
420 1943, Oct. 24 16:04:36 22 S 174 W 7-0 
430 1936,, Sept, 6 17:39:28 21 1/2 S 174 W 6 

440 1930, Feb. 14 20:41:10 21 S 175 W 6 1/2 h=50 

460 1917., June 24 19:48.6 21 S 174 W 7 1/4 h=60i 

480 1933, May 20 04:38:24 20 S 174 1/2 W 6 

500 1913, June 26 04:57.2 20 S 174 W 7-6 

510 1931, Nov. 18 03:32:05 20S 174W 6 

520 1932, May 22 1 1 :29:18 20 S 174 W 6 1/4 

530 1933, March 15 04:58:19 20 S 1 74 W 6 

540 1935, Feb. 4 17:24:27 20 S 1 74 W 6 1/4 

600 1941, Aug. 28 20:27:03 19 1/2 S 173 1/2 W d 

620 1942, Nov. 2 23:59:36 19 S 173 W 6.9 

640 1919, April 30 07:17:05 19 S 172 1/2 W 8.3 

660 1932, March 8 18:01:04 18 1/2 S 179 E 6 1/4 

680 1921, Feb. 27 18:23:3^ IS 1/2 S 173 W 7.2 

700 1929. Aug. 3 12:49:28 17 S 172 1/2 W 6 1/2 

720 1942, Dec. 22 04:14:40 16 3/4 S 1 74 W 6 3/4 h=50 

730 1926, March 16 17:37:20 16 1/2 S 171 W 6 

740 1933, July 24 18:55:30 16 S 173 1/2 W 6 3A 

745 1934, Jan. 31 10:06:30 16 S 173 1/2 W 6 1/4 

760 1943, June 3 20:48:03 16 S 1 73 W 6 1/2 

780 1933, Jan. 27 22:36:35 16 S 172 W 63/4 h-50 

800 1930, Jan. 14 22:01:19 16 S 171 W 6 1/4 

820 1917, June 26 05:49-7 15 1/2 S 1.73 W 8.3 

840 1940, July 20 01:53:53 15 1/2 S 173 W 6 

860 1940, Aug. 24 13:31:07 15 1/2 S 173 W ,6 

880 1940, Aug. 11 16:46:4-4 15 1/2 S 1 72 W 6 



162 




TAT 


SisCi 1 ( ^iiUJ-iL.. Jy IXCA-TJUWI* 


a c. 


No. 


Date 


Tine 


Location 


M Remarks 


90O 


1945, Sept. 11 


19:34:00 


15 S 174 W 


6.9 


92O 


1927, July 3 


10:37:49 


15 S 172 1 /2 W 


6 1/4 


930 


1932, Bee. 3 


06 :1 9:52 


15 S 172 1/2 W 


5 3/14. h=60 


940 


1933, June 18 


03:53:56 


15 S 1 72 W 


6 


950 


1941 , Oct. 5 


1 O:1 1 :12 


14 1/2 S 173 3/4 W 


6 1/2 


955 


1936, March 20 


23:53:03 


14 1/2 S 173 1/2 W 


6 1/4 


960 


1940, May 31 


O0:4l :O5 


14 1/2 S 173 W 


d 


980 


1931 , June 9 


13:52:12 


14 S 174 W 


6 1/2 


990 


1934, April 24 


17:36:20 


14 S 174 W 


6 1/4 








REGION 13 (Fiji) 




25 


1936, June 16 


00:33:31 


15 S 175 W 


6 


50 


1940, July 2 


19:08:53 


15 S 1 75 1/2 W 


6 


100 


1943:, Oct. 21 


23 :08:13 


15 S 1 77 1 /2 W 


7-0 


150 


194Q-, Dec. 2S 


1 2:31 :44 


14 S 1 78 W 


6 1/2 


2OO 


1938, March 25 


1 5:49:26 


14 1/2 S 1 79 W 


6 


250 


1935, Dec. 5 


17:50:42 


16 S 178 W 


6 1/2 


3OO 


1939* Nov. 24 


23:21 :37 


16 S 1 79 1/2 W 


d 


boo 


1923, July 12 


03 :1 5:40 


14 1/2 S 1 80 


6 1/2 h=50 


500 


1932, Feb. 16 


1 3:48:5O 


15 S 1 SO 


6 1/2 


600 


1934, Aug. 14 


08:49:14 


18 1/2 S 1 76 E 


6 


650 


i 936jr Sept. 21 


1 6:29: 1 9 


17 S 176 1/2 E 


d 


700 


1939* Nov. 18 


00:13:28 


16 1/2 S 1 75 E 


d 


800 


1933, Sept. 22 


1 1 :37:36 


16 1/2 S 174 1/2 E 


6 


850 


IS 43. March 20 


04:50:33 


16 S 1 74 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


900 


1930, June 5 


1 1 :42:43 


1? S 174 E 


6 1/2 


REGION 114- (New Hebrides) 


20 


1938, April 20 


06:27:05 


22 S 175 E 


6 1/2 


25 


1941 3 Sept. 29 


17:08:23 


22 S 175 E 


6 1/2 11=60 


IfO 


1934, Nov. 4 


01 :53 :4O 


22 S 174 1/2 E 


6 1/4 


60 


1934, Nov. 4 


03 : 1 4 : 1 6 


22 S 1 74 E 


6 1/2 


80 


1930, May 8 


13:35:00 


22 S 173 E 


6 1/4 


100 


1926,, Aug. 25 


05:44:40 


23 S 172 E 


7.0 h=5O 


120 


1934,, April 26 


07:56:52 


22 1/2 S 172 E 


6 


130 


1934, Sept. 4 


1 6:34:25 


22 1/2 S 1 72 E 


6 1/4 


160 


1934, April 26 


05:31 :53 


23 S 171 1/2 E 


6 1/4 


1 8O 


T934, April 27 


20:46:55 


22 3/4 S 171 1/4 E 


6 1/2 



TABLE I? (cont.), U 



No. Bute Time Location M Remarks 

200 19*3, Sept. 1 4 02:01:12 2 S 1 ?1 E 7.5 

220 1928, March 16 05:01:02 22 S 170 1/2 E 7-5 

240 1943, Sept. U 03:^7:15 22 S TfO E 7-3 

242 19^5, Feb. 1 10:35:51 22 S 170 E 7 h=6o 

243 1945. Feb. 1 12:13:40 22 S 170 E 7 1 A h=6 

260 1943,, March 14 17:11:00 22 S 169 1/2 E 7-1 

261 1943., March 15 02:24:29 22 S 169 V 2 E 6.9 

280 1944., June ?" 10:58:20 22 S 169 E 7-2 h=;50 

300 1931, April 12 02:00:43 24 S 1 69 E 61/4 

320 1923, Feb. 1 19:24:58 21 S 169 1/2 E 7 &=50 

325 1945, April 19 13:03:58 21 S 169 1/2 E 7-0 h=4o 

340 1935, Jan. 17 02:08:11 20 1/4 S 169 1/2 E 6 1/2 

360 1920, Sept. 20 14:39:00 20 S 1 68 E 8 

380 1943, Nov. 13 18:43:57 19S170E 7-2 

400 1925, torch 22 08:41:55 18 1/2 S 1 68 1/2 E 7.6 h=50 

420 1939, Aug. 18 22:16:02 18 1/2 S 1 68 1/4 E 6.9 h=50 

440 1944, Dc. 10 16:24:58 1 8 S 1 68 E 7-3 h=50 

460 1944, Aug. 30 01:1-4:09 1 7 1 /2 S 1 67 1/2 E 6 3 A h==6 

480 1932, Jan. 24 03:44:19 17 lA S 167 3/4 E 6 1/2 

490 1945,, Sept. 9 04:03:54 17 S 167 E 7-0 h=6o 

500 1934, March 4 05:55:01 16 3/4 S 167 3A E 6 1 A 

520 1927, Jan 24 01 :05:43 16 1/2 S 167 1/2 E 7-1 

540 1933, Oct. 30 06:59:51 16 1/2 S 167 1/2 E 6 

542 1933, Nov. 19 03:11:20 1 6 1 /2 S 1 67 1 /2 E 61/4 

560 1928, June 29 22:49:38 15 S 170 1/2 E 7-1 

580 1926, June 3 04:46:56 1 5 S 1 68 1 /2 E 7-1 

600 1939, Dec. 18 06:26:18 15 S 168 E 6 

620 1945, Aug. -29 10:22:40 15 S 168 E 7-2 

640 1940, April 27 09:35:18 15 S 1 67 E 6 1/2 

641 1940, April 27 1 8:04:40 15 S 167 E 61/2 
660 1930, Oct. 8 10:19:18 14 S 168 1/2 E 6.9 
680 1910, Nov. 26 04:41.3 ' US 167 E 7** 
700 1934, Aug. 23 23:W:42 14 S 1*67 E 6 1/4 
720 1934, April 26 21:00:18 14 S 166 E 6 1/2 



TABLE 1 7 (cont . } f REGION 1 4 



164 

No. 


Dute 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


740 


1921 , 


Oct. 


15 


04 


:58 


:1 2 


13 


1/2 S 


166 E 


7- 


,0 h=40 


760 


1932, 


Rov . 


29 


01 


:47 


: 3 4 


13 


S 167 


E 


6 




780 


1934, 


July 


19 


05 


:45 


:21 


13 


S 166 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


8OO 


193^, 


July 


19 


07 


:36 


:55 


13 


S 166 


E 


6, 


.9 


820 


1944, 


Nov. 


16 


1 2 


:1 


:58 


12 


1/2 S 


167 E 


7.3 


840 


1934, 


Aug. 


7 


03 


:40 


:04 


12 


3/* S 


166 3/* E 


6. 


>9 


860 


1928, 


Sept, 


. 22 


.07 


:31 


:28 


12 


1 /2 S 


166 1/2 E 


6- 


,9 h=60 


880 


193*. 


June 


28 


00:56 


:03 


12 


1/2 S 


165 E 


6 




900 


1914, 


June 


20 


07 


:20 


-5 


12 


S 166 


E 


7 


1/4 h=50 


91 


193*, 


July 


19 


00 


:06:43 


12 


S 166 


E 


6 


3/* 


911 


1935, 


Jan. 


31 


17 


:45 


:45 


12 


S 166 


E 


6 


1/4 


920 


193*, 


July 


18 


19 


:40 


:15 


1 1 


3/4 S 


166 1/2 E 


8. 


2 


940 


1934, 


July 


22 


02 


:57 


:49 


1 1 


1/2 S 


1 65 E 


6 


1/4 


960 


193*, 


July 


21 


06 


:18 


:18 


1 1 


S 165 


3/4 E 


7* 


3 


980 


193*, 


Oct. 


18 


07 


:48 


:22 


10 


3/4 S 


1 65 E 


6 


1/2 


985 


1941, 


May 17 


02 


:24 


:50 


1 


S 1 66 


1/4 E 


7- 


4 


990 


1933, 


Oct. 


2 


13 


:59 


:06 


1 O 


S 166 


E 


6 




REGION 1 5 


(Solomon Islands to New 


Britain) 


1 


1932, 


June 


23 


02 


:19 


:13 


1 1 


S 164 


E 


d 




20 


193*, 


March 13 


13 


:1 1 


:51 


1 1 


S 164 


E 


6 


3/* 


30 


1914, April 1 1 


16 


:30 


.4 


12 


S 163 


E 


7 


1/4 h=50 


40 


1931, 


Oct. 


3 


21 


:55 


:1O 


1 1 


S 163 


E 


7- 


o 


50 


1933, 


Feb. 


19 


08 


:3* 


:39 


1 1 


S 163 


E 


6 


1 /2 h=6o 


60 


1937, 


Jan. 


25 


06 


:3* 


:OO 


10 


S 163 


E 


7- 


1 


70 


193U 


Oct. 


13 


04:34 


:36 


9 S 163 E 


d 




80 


1910, 


Dec. 


10 


09 


:26.7 


1 1 


S 162 


1/2 E 


7. 


5 h-50 


90 


1932, 


Feb. 


23 


20 


:1 1 


:30 


1 O 


S 162 


E 


6 


1/2 h-60 


1 OO 


1 Q*5 "] 


Oct. 


3 


19:13:13 


10 


1/2 S 


161 3/4 E 


7- 


9 


1 1 


1 Q ^5 1 


Nov. 


20 


14:16; 


:26 


1 


1/2 S 


1 61 3/4 E 


6 


3/4 


120 


1931, 


Oct. 


3 


21 


:18: 


:15 


1 1 


S 161 


1/2 E 


6 


3/* 


121 


1 Q"^ 1 


Oct. 


3 


22:47; 


:40 


1 1 


S 161 


1/2 E . 


7- 


3 


1 40 


193*, 


March 


24 


1 2 


:04; 


:26 


10 


S 161 


1/2 E 


7* 


1 


150 


1935, 


June 


19 


22:1 4: 


:54 


1 O 


1/2 S 


161 E 


6 




1 60 


1926, 


April 


12 


08; 


:32: 


:28 


1 


S 161 


E 


7- 


5 


170 


1931 , 


Oct . 


1 


00: 


:195 


'53 


1-0 


S 161 


E 


7- 


7 



TABLE 1 7 { eont * ) , REGION 1 5 



No. Bate Time Location M Remarks 

1-1 *93l , Oct. 10 01 : 08: 20 10 S 1 61 E 63/4 

172 1931, Get. 10 01:30:48 10 S 161 E 6 3/ 1 * 

173 193U Oct. 10 02:16:^7 10 S 161 E 6 3/4 
200 1935, Dec. 15 07:07:^8 9 3/* S 161 E 7-6 

210 1926, Sept. 16 17:59:12 11 1/2 S 160 E 7.1 h=5G 

220 1939, Feb. 3 05:26:20 10 1/2 S 159 E 7-1 

230 1931, Oct. 23 20:06:3^ 9 S 159 E 6 1 A 

240 1939, April 30 02:55:30 10 1/2 S 158 1/2 E 8.0 h-50 

250 1926, Jan. 25 00:36:18 9 S 158 E 7-^ 

260 1931, April 16 21:35:00 8S158E d 

270 1933, Aug. 5 00:44:13 9 S 157 1/2 E 6 1/4 

275 1936, March 22 12:16:05 8 1/4 S 157 1/2 E 6.9 h*60 

280 1926, July 28 08:52:28 8 S 157 1/2 E 6 1/2 h=50 

290 1926, March 27 10:48:30 9 S 157 E 7-2 

300 1933, June 7 05:49:52 8 S 156 3/k E d 

310 1935, March 20 22:57:21 7 3A S 1 56 E 6 1/2 

320 1936, April 19 05:07:17 7 1/2 S 156 E 7^ *i=40 

330 1927, Feb. l 17:56:37 6 1/2 S 155 1/2 E 6.9 h=60 

340 1939, Jan. 30 02:18:27 6 1/2 S 155 1/2 E 7-8 

350 1932, Jan. 30 03:04:46 7 1/2 S 155 E 6 1/4 

360 1931, April 6 06:49:37 7 S 1 55 E 6 3A 

370 1931, April 24 17:22:11 6 1/2 S 155 E 6.9 

380 1932, Jan. 29 15:39:06 6 1/2 S 155 E 6 1 /2 

390 1932, Jan. 29 13:41:10 6 S 155 E 7-0 

400 1932, Jan. 31 16:01:05 6 S 155 E 6 

410 1939, IVferch 8 21:58:18 6 S 155 E 6 

420 1933, Nov. 18 03:5^:00 7 S 15^ 1/2 E 6 I/ 

430 1932, March 30 15:01:32 6 1/2 S 15^ 1/2 E 6 

440 1937, Sept. 23 13:06:00 6 S 1 5^ E 7^ 

450 1919, May 6 19:^1:12 5 S 15^ E 7-9 

460 1916, Jan. l 13:20,6 4 S 15* E 7 

470 1943, Dec. 23 19:00:10 5 1/2 S 153 1/2 E 73 

480 1945, Sept. 5 21:48:^5 5 S 153 1/2, B ' 7-1* 

490 1937, Jan- 23 10:55:51 :* 1/2 S 153 E 7-0 



166 TABLE l? (cent.), REGI01 15 



No. 
500 
510 
520 

529 


Date 

1940, Sept. 12 
1934, Nov. 18 
1941., Feb. 9 
1944, May 19 


Time 
13:17:10 
22:40:07 
19:19:28 
00:19:19 


Location 
4 1/2 S 153 E 
4 S 153 E 
4 S 153 E 
2 1/2 S 152 3/4 E 


7 
6 
6 
7 


M Remarks 
-.0 h=4o 
1/2 
1/2 


530 


1^44, 


May 


ncz 


12:58:05 


2 


1/2 S 152 5/4 E 


7 


-5 


540 


1933, 


Dec. 


12 


14:1 1 


:10 


4 


1/2 S 1 


52 1/2 E 


6 


3A 


550 


1941, 


Jan. 


15 


16:27:38 


4 


1/2 S 


1 


52 1/2 E 


7 


.0 


555 


1935* 


Nov. 


14 


19:56 


:43 


4 


1/4 S 


152 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 h=60 


560 


1920, 


Feb. 


2 


11 :22 


:18 


4 


s 152 


1 


/2 E 


7 


.7 


570 


193^, 


April 28 


1'5:07 


:54 


4 


s 152 


1/2 E 


6 




580 


1943, 


March 21 


20:35 


:43 


5 


3A S 


1 


52 1/4 E 


7 


.3 


590 


^923, 


Nov. 


4 


00:04 


:30 


5 


s 152 


E 


7 


.2 


600 


1931, 


June 


1 


1 1 :54 


:23 


4 


1/2 S 


1 


52 E 


6 


1/4 


61 o 


1934, 


Feb. 


3 


14:33 


:07 


5 


3/4 S 


1 


51 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


620 


1934, 


Aug. 


11 


11 :57 


:39 


5 


1/2 S 


1 


51 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


630 


1923, 


Nov. 


2 


21 :08 


:06 


4 


1/2 S 


1 


51 1/2 E 


7 


.2 h=50 


640 


1934, 


Feb. 


9 


09:28 


:47 


4 


s 151 


1 


/2 E 


6 


1/2 


650 


1945, 


Dec. 


8 


01 :04 


:02 


6 


1/2 S 


1 


51 E 


7- 


.1 


660 


1935, 


Nov. 


22 


1 2 : 42 


:15 


6 


s 151 


E 




6 


3/4 


665 


1945, 


Dec. 


27 


04: 41 


:05 


6 


s 151 


E 




7- 


,o h=4o 


670 


1933, 


Sept, 


. 27 


21 :4l ; 


:30 


4 


3/4 S 151 E 


6 




680 


1940, 


Nov. 


27 


14:41 : 


:22 


3 


1/4 S 


151 E 


6 


3A 


685 


1936, 


April 2 


06: 16: 


:51 


3 


s 151 


E 




6 


1/2 


690 


1945, 


Dec. 


28 


1 7:48; 


1 45 


6 


s 150 


E 




7- 


8 


700 


1930, 


June 


11 


00:49: 


:35 


5 


1/2 S 


150 E 


7. 


1 


710 


193^ 


Feb. 


28 


1 4:21 : 


;42 


5 


s 150 


E 




7- 


2 


800 


1 916, May 20 


1 8 : 03 . 


7 


1 


S 153 


E 




6. 


7 


81 


1938, 


Feb. 


7 


01 :19: 


;04 


1 


s 152 


E 




d 




820 


1931, 


Aug. 


6 


15:21 : 


08 





151 E 






d 




830 


1934, 


June 


22 


17:55: 


34 


3 


s 150 


E 




6 




840 


1913, 


June 


4 


09:57. 


3 


1 


1/2 S 


150 E 


7 




850 


1933, 


Dec. 


24 


10:45: 


55 


1 


s 150 


E 




6 




900 


1940, 


June 


7 


07:17: 


15 


9 


3A S 


151 1/4 E 


6 


1/4 



TABLE 17 


(coxit . } 


16 


No. 

10 
20 


Date 

1944, 
1939, 


Dec. 
Jan. 


28 

22 


Time 
01 :05: 
13:31 : 


REGION 16 (New 
Location 
35 6 S 14S 1/2 
43 7 1/2 S 149 


Guinea ) 

E 
E 


M 

6 
6 


Remarks 

3/4 h=60 

1/4 


30 


1906, 


Sept. 


14 


16:O4. 


3 


7 


S 149 


E 




8. 


i 


40 


19*0, 


April 


24 


10:22: 


06 


5 


S 1*8 


1/2 


E 


6 




45 


1936, 


May 5 




19:*3: 


09 


5 


1/4 S 


148 


1/2 E 


6 


iA 


50 


193*, 


Bferch 


1 


1 9:41 : 


09 


7 


S 148 


E 




6 


1/2 


60 


193*, 


June 


15 


02:51 : 


57 


6 


1/2 S 


148 


E 


6 




70 


193*, 


March 


20 


02:38: 


22 


5 


1/2 S 


148 


E 


6 


I/a 


80 


1938, 


my 1 


2 


15:38:57 


6 


S 147 


3/* 


E 


7. 


5 


90 


1935, 


June 


16 


06:18:3* 


4 


1/2 S 


147 


E 


6 




95 


19*5, 


Sept. 


22 


09:10: 


05 


4 


S 147 


E 




7- 


h=50 


100 


1930, 


Sept. 


30 


21 :20: 


45 


4 


1/2 S 


146 


E 


6 


3A 


105 


1936, 


May 25 


03:02: 


35 


3 


1/2 S 


146 


t/2 E 


d 




1 10 


1931, 


Jan. 


15 


22:*2: 


59 


3 


S 143 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/2 


120 


1927, 


May 1 


3 


23:09: 


13 


2 


1/2 S 


143 


1/2 E 


6 


i /4 h=50 


130 


1911, 


Dec. 


31 


06:07- 


1 


2 


S 143 


1/2 


E 


7- 





140 


1918, 


July 


3 


06:52: 


05 


3 


1/2 S 


142 


1/2 E 


7- 


5 


150 


1935, 


Sept. 


20 


05:23: 


01 


3 


1/4 S 


142 


1/2 E 


7- 


,0 


160 


1931, 


Aug. 


7 


02:1 1 : 


30 


4 


S 142 


E 




7- 


,1 


170 


1935, 


Sept. 


20 


01 :46: 


33 


3 


1/2 S 


141 


3/* E 


7- 


.9 


180 


19*0, 


Feb. 


24 


12:00: 


06 


3 


S 141 


1/2 


E 


6 


3/* 


190 


193*, 


June 


3 


21 :01 : 


3* 


2 


1/2 S 


141 


1/2 E 


d 




200 


1917, 


July 


29 


21 :52. 


4 


3 


1/2 S 


141 


E 


7- 


.6 


210 


1939, 


May 22 


01 :34:48 


3 


S 141 


E 




6 


1/4 


220 


1939, 


May 26 


17:50:23 


3 


1/2 S 


140 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


230 


1925, 


June 


9 


13:40:41 


3 


S 140 


E 




7- 


.0 


240 


1933, 


April 16 


19:16: 


27 


3 


S 139 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 


250 


19*0, 


April 1 


11:18*: 


:57 


3 


1/4 S 


139 


E 


6, 


.9 


260 


19*0, 


May 28 


09:40: 


:41 


2 


1/2 S 


139 


E 


6 


9 


270 


1921, 


Feb. 


19 


18:14:35 


2 


S 139 


E 




6 


3/4 


280 


1935, 


Jan. 


22 


14:56:43 


2 


3/* S 


138 


3/* E 


6 


1/4 


290 


1939, 


July 


12 


22:58:25 


3 


1/2 S 


158 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 h=60 


300 


1926, 


Oct. 


26 


03:44 


:41 


3 


1/4 S 


138 


1/2 E 


7 


-7 


310 


1 $40, 


Dec. 


17 


14:42 


:07 


3/4 S 138 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 



TABIE 1 7 ( cont . } y REGION 1 6 



No. 
320 
330 
340 


Date 
1931 , 
1933, 
1932, 


April 8 
Sept. 30 
July 21 


Time 

1 9 : 03 : 1 5 
1 4:21 :O3 
12:39=^9 


Location 
2 S 138 E 
2 S 138 E 
3 1/4 S 137 1/2 E 


M Remarks 
6 
6 1/4 
6 1/2 


350 


1932, 


June 


20 


19 


:O9 


:00 


2 1/2 S 


137 1/2 E 


d 


360 


1914, 


May 


26 


14 


:22 


-7 


2 S 137 


E 




7-9 


370 


1916, 


Jan. 


13 


06 


:18 


.5 


3 S 136 


E 




7.5 


380 


T916, 


Jan. 


13 


08 


:20 


.8 


3 


S 135 


1/2 E 


7.8 


390 


1944., April 27 


1 4 


:58 


:09 


1 


/2 S 133 


1/2 E 


7, if h=50 


4OO 


1932, 


April 14 


16 


:58 


:42 


1 


s 13^ 


E 




d 


41 


1933, 


June 


2 


12 


:20 


:56 


1 


s 134 


E 




d 


420 


19^4, 


April 26 


Ol 


:5^:15 


1 


S 13^ 


E 




7.2 h=5O 


430 


1934,, 


July 


19 


01 


:27 


:26 


1/2 S 133 1A E 


7.0 


440 


1941, 


Sapt 


. 12 


07 


:O2 


:04 


1 


/2 S 132 


1/2 E 


7.0 


450 


1930, 


Nov . 


9 


19 


:08 


:36 


1 


/2 S 132 


E 


6.9 


460 


1927, 


Aug. 


1 O 


1 1 


: 5 6 


:15 


1 


s 131 


E 




7.1 


700 


1942, 


Jan. 


27 


13 


:29 


:08 


4 


1/2 S 


135 E 


7-1 


710 


1934, 


Feb. 


2 


15 


:05 


:l6 


4 


1/2 S 


135 E 


6 1/4 


720 


19V3, 


Nov. 


6 


08^31 :37 


6 


s 13^ 


1/2 E 


7.6 


730 


1933, 


July 


10 


10:33 


:12 


6 


s 134 


E 




6 1/4 


735 


1 941 , 


May 24 


05:12: 


:30 


5 


1/2 S 


134 E 


6 


740 


1937, 


Nov. 


5 


09:28: 


:30 


4 


S 13* 


E 




d 


750 


1936, 


Feb. 


15 


12:46:57 


4 


1/2 S 


133 E 


7-3 


800 


193^ 


Dec. 


17 


15:52:38 


2 


1/4 S 


148 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


810 


1918, 


Oct. 


27 


1 7:O6:4O 


2 


S 148 


E 




7,4 li=5O 


820 


193^, 


Aug. 


4 


13: 


08: 


:06 


3 


S 146 


I/ 


2 E 


6 


830 


1940, 


Sept. 


19 


23: 


:59: 


55 


2 


1/2 S 


146 E 


d 


840 


1932, 


Dec. 


24 


06: 


30: 


32 


3 


1/4 S 


T45 3/4 E 


6 1/2 


900 


19^0, 


July 


31 


1 1 : 


39: 


16 


9 


1/2 S 


149 1/2 E 


d 


920 


1939, 


Nov. 


1 


20: 


20: 


48 


9 


S 148 


E 




6 1/4 


940 


193H, 


Nov. 


2 


17: 


02:56 


8 


S 146 


E 




6 1/2 



TABLE 1 7 C cant . ) 



169 



No. 

30 


Date 
1930, 


Oct. 


3 


i? (Caroline Islands) 
Tine Location 
18:09:04 1/2 N 135 E 


M Remarks 
6 


60 


1928, 


Nov. 


15 


02 


:32 


:18 


2 


N 133"E 


d 


90 


1931, 


Sept 


- 19 


07 


:40 


:38 


8 


N 136 


E 


6 


120 


1911, 


Aug. 


16 


22 


:4l 


-3 


7 


If 137 


E 


7-9 


150 


1936, 


April 12 


20 


:5l 


:00 


8 


N 137 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


180 


1912, 


Sept, 


. 29 


20 


:51 


-5 


7 


N 138 


E 


7.5 h=50 


210 


1912, 


Oct. 


31 


17:24, 


.1 


7 


N 138 


E 


7.0 


240 


1930, 


March 30 


00:26:45 


1 1 


N 139 E 


d 


270 


1933, 


July 


18 


1 9 : 05 ; 


:22 


11 


N 139 E 


6 


300 


1940, 


June 


2 


1 2:09:34 


11 


1/2 N 139 E 


d 


330 


1935, 


Sept. 


9 


06:17:30 


6 


N 141 


E 


7.0 


360 


1928, 


Feb. 


13 


05:33:37 


11 


N 141 


E 


6 


390 


1929, 


Dec. 


31 


01 : 03:57 


11 


N 141 


E 


6 1/4 


420 


1927, 


July 


17 


08:48:33 


13 


% 141 


E 


6 


450 


1925, 


July 


17 


03: 


:13:53 


12 


IT 141 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


460 


1935, 


Oct. 


18 


11 :05:23 


12 


1/2 N 141 1/2 E 


7-1 h=50 


480 


1942, 


June 


18 


09: 


30:57 


9 N 140 


1/2 E 


7-1 b=50 


510 


1943, 


March 15 


04:47: 


56 


9 


1/2 N 


142 E 


6 3A 


540 


1931, 


Aug. 


31 


06: 


34: 


40 


12 


N 142 


E 


d 


570 


1929, 


Nov. 


15 


18: 


50: 


33 


7 


1/2 $ 


142 1/2 E 


7.2 


600 


1941, 


June 


4 


16: 


31: 


03 


12 


N 143 


1/2 E 


d 


630 


1933, 


March 2 


08: 


10: 


03 


12 


1/2 N 


143 1/2 E 


d 


660 


1929, 


Jan. 


17 


22: 


28:42 


12 


N 144 


E 


6 1/4 


690 


1939, 


Jan. 


16 


02: 


13: 


38 


12 


N 144 


E 


d 


720 


1924, 


Jan. 


30 


04: 


47: 


43 


13 


N 144 


E 


6 1/4 


740 


1932, 


IVferch 


15 


04: 


32: 


14 


11 


N 144 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


780 


1909, 


Dec. 


9 


23: 


28. 


8 


12 


N 144 


1/2 E 


7.4 h=50 


810 


1931, 


Jan. 


28 


21 : 


24: 


03 


1 1 


N 144 


3AE 


7-2 


840 


1928, 


Oct. 


10 


20: 


36: 


30 


13 


N 146 


E 


d 


REGION 


18 (Marianne Islands) 


15 


1932, 


June 


1 1 


17: 


00; 


00 


13 


1/2 N 


145 1/2 E 


6 h-60 


30 


1939, 


Feb. 


23 


10: 


07: 


04 


13 


1/2 H 


1 46 E 


d 


35 


1936, 


Oct. 


29 


18;3$:52 


13 


3/4 M 


, 1 44 1 /2 E 


63/4 br6Q 



TABI^ 17 (cont.) REGION 18 



Ho. Date Time Location M Remarks 

45 1925, July 17 22:31:04 1* N 142 E 6 

60 1931, Oct. 30 08:39:09 1* N 145 1/2 E d 

75 1929, May 1 07:38:41 14 N 147 E- 6 1/4 

80 1944, Dec. 4 20:3*:3* 1 4 1 /2 N 1 46 1 /2 E 6 3 A k= 6 

90 19*1, July 10 03:22:06 15 N 146 E d 

91 1941, July 10 10:16:43 15 N 1*6 E d 
105 19*1, July 26 20:11:19 15 1/2 N 1*6 E 6 1/4 
120 1932, March 19 10:59:36 1 5 1 /2 N 1 47 3/* E 6 3/* 

135 19*1, June 21 00:35:50 1 8 N 1 *7 E d h=40 

150 1921, Feb. 10 23:53:*5 1 8 N 1 48 E 6 1/4 

165 1930, Oct. 2* 20:15:11 18 1/2 N 147 E 7-1 

180 1934, Dec. 25 06:27:20 18 1/2 N 1 47 E 6 

195 1941, Aug. 30 13:06:52 18 1/2 N 147 E 6 3/* 

200 19*1, Aug. 30 09:36:18 18 1/2 N 1*7 1/2 E 6 1/2 

215 1930, Oct. 29 12:29:3^ 1 9 N 148 E d 

230 1940, Nfeirch 15 05:27:5B 22 N 144 1/2 E d 

245 1931, Aug. 20 00:03:26 22 N 146 E d 

260 1934., Feb. 24 06:23:*0 22 1/2 N 144 E 7-3 

275 1939, May 17 18:3O:3* 22 3/* N 1*3 I/* E 6.9 

290 1931, March n 12:26:39 23 N 1*3 1 /2 E 6 3/* 

305 1926, April 22 23: *7: 52 23 N 1 *5 E 6 

320 1920, Jan. 12 13:39:58 23 1/2 N 1 ** E 6 

335 1929, March 9 02:11:51 2* 1 /2 N 1 *2 1 /2 E 61/4 

350 1945, Feb. 26 22:14:27* 26 N 1*3 1/2 E 7.1 h=50 

365 1933, Jan. 4 01:25:01 26 N 1 44 E - 61/2 h=6o 

380 1933, June 6 06:44:50 27 N 1 43 1 /2 E 51/2 h=60 

395 1924, April 25 18:04^59 27 1 /2 N 1 42 E 6 

410 1934, May 3 01 :31 :1l 27 3/* N 1 *2 1 /2 E 6 

425 1929, March 14 18:37:16 28 N 139 1/2 E d 

440 1927., Feb. 22 19:54:16 28 N 144 E 6 1/4 h=50 

*55 193*, April 3 22:32:00 28 1/2 N 1*0 1/2 E 6 

470 1927., Oct. 31 13:25:10 29 N 142 E d 

485 1928, Sept. 19 08:15:48 29 N 1 42 E 6 

500 1932, Nov. 27 03:37:28 29 N 142 E 6 h=60 - 



TAHLE 1? (cont.) REGIOI 18 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


515 


1928, 


Jan. 


26 


18:50:39 


29 


N 143 


E 




6 


530 


1933, 


Aug. 


15 


02:57:59 


29 


I 143 


1/2 


E 


6 1/4 h=6o 


545 


1927, 


May 


16 


12:01 :05 


30 


N 142 


E 




6 1/4 


560 


1926, 


June 


21 


08:48:52 


30 


N 142 


1/2 


E 


6 


575 


1925, 


May 


22 


09:40:10 


30 


1/2 N 


142 


E 


6 1/4 


580 


1927, 


April 27 


19:16:17 


30 


1/2 N 


142 


E 


6 1/2 h50 


585 


1927, 


May 


18 


09:25:10 


30 


1/2 N 


142 


E 


d 


586 


1927, 


May 


20 


22:09:18 


30 


1/2 N 


142 


E 


d 


595 


1925, 


toy 


20 


1 1 :04:48 


30 


1/2 N 


142 


1/2 E 


6 


610 


1924, 


June 


22 


13:23:53 


31 


N 143 


E 




5 3/4 


615 


1936, 


Sept 


. 4 


08:09:38 


31 


N 141 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 h=50+. 


616 


1936, 


Sept 


. 18 


18:38:30 


31 


N 142 


E 




6 1/4 h=50+. 


625 


1926, 


May 


7 


06:1 1 :28 


31 


1/2 N 


141 


E 


6 1/4 


640 


1942, 


Dec. 


19 


23:10:40 


31 


1/2 N 


142 


1/2 E 


7.0 


655 


1939, 


Feb, 


7 


04:09:31 


32 


N" 142 


E 




d 


670 


1933, 


Dec. 


21 


23:08:54 


32 


N 142 


1/2 


E 


d 


685 


1916, April 21 


11 :jl .8 


33 


N 141 


E 




7-0 


700 


1927, 


Oct. 


24 


19:05:32 


33 


N 143 


E 




6 


715 


1921, 


Sept 


. 3 


08:58:00 


33 


1/2 N 


143 


E 


6 


730 


1927, 


Oct. 


28 


1 5:22:56 


33 


1/2 N 


U3 


E 


d 


900 


1944, 


Dec. 


7 


04:35:42 


33 


3/4 N 


136 


E 


8.0 










REGION 


19 


(Japan to 


Kamchatka ) 




5 


1933, 


July 


1 1 


05:59:33 


34 


N 142 


1/2 


E 


d 


10 


1927, 


Oct. 


8 


12:26:10 


3^ 


ff 143 


E 




6 


15 


1933, 


July 


1 1 


06:49:56 


34 


1/2 N 


141 


1/2 E 


d 


20 


1933, 


Oct. 


21 


02:44:21 


34 


1/2 N 


141 


3/4 E 


d 


25 


1933, 


Oct. 


1 


14:35:00 


35 


N 142 


E 




d 


30 


1935, 


Feb. 


19 


20:10:19 


35 


1/2 BT 


140 


1/2 E 


6 


35 


1931, 


June 


17 


12:09:37 


35 


3A N 


139 


1/2 E 


6 


40 


1923, 


June 


1 


17:24;42 


35 


3/4 N 


141 


3/4 E 


7-2 


45 


1932, 


June 


22 


00:36:03 


36 


IT 140 


1/2 


E 


6 " ^0 


50 


1931, 


June 


23 


, 06:14:55 


36 


IT 141 


E 




6 1/4 


55 


1931, 


June 


9 


05:07:39 


36 


N 141 


1/2 


E 


6 


60 


1924, 


Aug. 


14 


18:02:37 


36 


N 142 


E; 




7.0 



TABUS 17 (cont.), REGION 19 



No. "Date Time Location M Remarks 

65 1938, Sept. 21 18:52:00 56 1/4 N 141 E 6.9 h=6O 

68 1938, May 23 07:18:28 36 1/2 N 141 E 7-4 

70 1931, Aug. 18 05:40:14 36 1/2 N 141 1/4 E d 

75 1931, Sept. 8 19:08:58 36 1/2 N 141 1/2 E 6 1/4 

80 1938, Nov. 6 21:38:47 36 1/2 N 1 42 E 7-1 h=6o 

85 1938, Nov. 5 08:43:21 36 3/4 N 1 41 3/4 E 7-7 h=60 

90 1938, Nov. 13 22:31:30 37 N 142 1/2 E 7-O h-50 

95 1942, Nov. 15 17:12:00 37 N 141 1/2 E 7-0 

100 1945, March 11 21:37:50 37 N 1 42 E 7-2 h=50 

105 1938, Nov. 30 02:29:50 37 1/4 N 1 41 E 7-0 h=50 

110 1938, Nov. 5 10:50:15 37 1A N 1 41 3/4 E 7-7 k=6o 

115 1938, Nov. 6 08:53=53 37 1A N 142 1/4 E 7-6 h-60 

120 1935, IVferch 30 21:19:43 37 1/2 N 141 1/4 E 6 1/2 h=50 

125 1927, Aug. 5 21:12:55 37 1/2 N 142 1/2 E 7-1 

130 1934, Jan. 29 12:34:43 37 1/2 N 144 1/4 E d 

135 1942, Feb. 21 07:07:^3 38 N 142 E 7-1 h-6o 

140 1936, Nov. 2 20:45:56 38 1/4 N 142 1/4 E 7-3 h=^0 

145 1932, June 3 00:18:53 38 1/2 N 1 42 E d 

150 1933, June 18 21:37:29 38 1/2 N 143 E 7-3 

155 1933, Sept. 21 09:47:56 38 1/2 N 143 E 6 1/4 

160 193,9, Oct. 10 18:31:59 38 1/2 N 143 E 7-4 

165 1929, March 18 23:21:02 38 1/2 N 143 1/2 E 6 

170 1934, July 12 09:51:43 38 3/4 N 144 E 6 

175 1940, Nov. 19 15:01:40 39 N 141 3/4 E 7-1 h=50 

180 1915, Nov. 1 07:24.0 39 N 142 1/2 E 7*7 

185 1933, April 23 07:13:41 39 N 143 E * 6 1/4 

190 1934,, IVfey 20 07:01:54 39 N 143 1/2 E d h=60 

195 1933, July 10 00:21:31 39 N 144 3/4 E 6 1/4 

200 1933, lYferch 3 09:12:52 39 1/4 N 143 E 61/2 

205 1933, April 9 02:46:35 39 1 /4 N .143 3/4 E 6 3/4- 

210 1933, March 2 17:30:54 39 1/4 N 144 1/2 E 8.5 

215 1931, Nov. 3 16:19:56 39 1/2 N 141 3/4 E 6 

220 1905, July 6 16:21.0 39 1/2 N 142 1/2 E 7 3/4 

225 1933, March 2 20:42:52 39 1/2 N 1 43 E 61/2 



TABLE l ? { cont . 1 , REGION 1 9 



Ho. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


230 


1933, 


March 3 


15 


: 07:1 4 


39 


1/2 I 


143 


1/2 E 


6 




235 


1933, 


April 1 


15 


:58:58 


39 


1/2 N 


143 


1/2 E 


6 




240 


1932, 


July 


10 


07 


: 45:10 


39 


1/2 I 


145 


E 


6 




245 


1928, 


May 27 


09 


:50:26 


40 


H 142 


1/2 


E 


7 


.0 


250 


1933, 


March 8 


01 


:35:42 


40 


H 143 


E 




6 




255 


1933, 


June 


8 


18 


:10:39 


40 


H 144 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 


260 


1929, 


March 14 


14 


:14:55 


40 


I 146 


E 




d 




265 
270 
275 


1935, 
1933, 


Oct. 12 
March 9 
Jan. 7 


16 
03 
04 


:45:22 
:48:50 
:06:37 


40 
40 
40 


1/4 N 
1/2 H 
1/2 N 


143 
142 

143 


1/4 E 
1/2 E 

E 


7 
7 

6 


^ f About 7 1/4 
7 J from P, S; 7 1/2 to 8 
(from maxima. 

1/2 


280 


1931, 


March 15 


16 


:33:27 


40 


1/2 N 


143 


1/4 E 


d 




285 


1933, 


Jan. 


8 


06 


:28:5l 


40 


1/2 IT 


143 


1/4 E 


6 




290 


1935, 


Oct. 


18 


00 


:11 :56 


40 


1/2 N 


143 


3/4 E 


7 


.2 


300 


1933, 


Jan. 


3 


15 


:26:55 


40 


1/2 IT 


144 


E 


6 


1/4 


305 


1919, 


May 3 


00 


:52:00 


40 


1/2 N 


145 


1/2 E 


7 


.6 


310 


1932, 


June 


4* 


02:00:43 


41 


N 143 


E 




d 




315 


1933, 


June 


13 


20 


-.33:36 


41 


N 143 


E 




6 


1/4 


320 


1945, 


Feb. 


10 


04 


:57:56 


41 


1/4 H 


142 


1/2 E 


7 


.3 h=50 


325 


1932, 


Sept. 


3 


1 1 


:58:54 


41 


1/4 N 


143 


1/4 E 


6 


3/4 h=50 


330 


193^ 


Oct . 


5 


20 


:25:52 


41 


3/4 N 


143 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


335 


1932, 


Nov. 


26 


04 


:23:53 


42 


N 142 


1/2 


E 


6 


3A 


340 


1945, 


Feb. 


18 


10 


: 08 : 07 


42 


N 143 


E 




7 


. h=50 


345 


1931, 


Feb. 


16 


18 


:48:35 


42 


1/4 N 


142 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


350 


1933, 


March 11 


14 


: 22:01 


42 


1/2 N 


147 


E 


6 


iA 


355 


1943, 


June 


13 


05: 


:11 :49 


42 


3/4 N 


143 


1/4 E 


7 


.4 h=60 


360 


1935, 


Sept. 


11 


14: 


: 04 : 02 


43 


N 146 


1/2 


E 


7 


.6 h=60 


365 


1924, 


Dec. 


28 


22: 


:54:56 


43 


1/4 N 


147 


E 


7 


.0 


368 


1938, 


May 28 


16: 


: 42 : 03 


43 


1/2 N 


144 


3/4 E 


6 


1/2 


370 


1931, 


April 9 


23: 


:01 :13 


43 


1/2 N 


146 


E 


6 


1/4 


375 


193^, 


June 


6 


06; 


123:51 


43 


1/2 N 


146 


1/2 E 


d 




380 


1930, 


Aug. 


21 


15: 


: 05:20 


44 


N 148 


E 




d 




385 


1933, 


July 


9 


01 : 


:2<?:58 


44 


1/2 H 


149 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


390 


1937, 


Feb. 


21 


97:02:55 


44 


1/2 H 


149 


1/2 E 


.7- 


*', 


395 


1933, 


July 


9 


09- 


:B7;5T 


4*4 


1/g 1 


150 


'B 


6 


.1/4, 


3,0(5 ! 


',1 9i' : * 


Xltf( 


^'i' 1 .. 1 


,12; 


'' t- < , 'i i 


;' tot > 


i/a I 


Iso! 


E , ' ' ' 


6 


'*/* 



TABLE i? 



Ko. 


Bate 


Tiise 


IccatI 


.on 




M 


Remarks 


400 


! 


:916, 


Ncv. 


a 


04:36.0 


44 


1/2 N 


151 1/2 E 


7 


3/4 


405 


i 


933, 


May ' 






44 


3A 


N 


1 49 E 


6 


1/2 




41 


i 


925, 


Jan. 


31 


IT- OO : 4 o 


45 


N 1 


49 


E 


d 




415 


1 


933, 


May ' 


? 


1 6*30: 05 


45 


N 1 


49 


E 


6 




418 


i 


908, 


Nov. 


6 


O7:09.5 


45 


N 1 


50 


E 


7 


1/4 


420 


1 


933, 


July 


9 


1 1 :2l :33 


45 


N 1 


50 


E 


6 




421 


1 


933, 


July 


9 


1 6 : 07 : 02 


45 


N 1 


50 


E 


6 


1/4 


422 


i 


933, 


July 


9 


22:14:51 


45 


N 150 


E 


6 




430 


1 


920, 


Oct. 


18 


08:11 :35 


45 


N 1 


50 


1/2 E 


7- 


2 h=50 


435 


i 


921 , 


Jan. 


2 


07:06:40 


45 


1/2 


N 


150 E 


6 


1/4 


440 


1 


939, 


Aug. 


12 


09:50:00 


45 


1/2 


N 


151 E 


6 


1/4 h=60 


445 


1 


922, 


Dec* 


31 


07:19:59 


45 


1/2 


N 


151 1/4 E 


7- 





450 


i 


918, 


Sept, 


. 7 


17:16:13 


45 


1/2 


N 


151 1/2 E 


8 


1/4 


455 


1 


942, 


Oct . 


26 


21 : 09: 13 


45 


1/2 


N 


151 1/2 E 


7- 


2 h-60 


460 


1 


933, 


July 


9 


09:48:20 


46 


N 1 


48 


E 


6 


1/4 


461 


1 


933, 


July 


9 


17:51 :4l 


46 


N 1 


48 


E 


6 




465 


1 


935, 


June 


25 


12:33:37 


46 


N 1 


50 


E 


.6 


1/4 


470 


1 


932, 


June 


26 


19:19:09 


46 


N 1 


52 


E 


6 


1/4 


475 


i 


932, 


Sept, 


. 29 


1 7:46:27 


46 


N 1 


53 


E 


6 


1/2 


480 


i 


922, 


May 5 


00:18:45 


47 


N 1 


51 


E 


5 


3/4 


485 


i 


927, 


Feb. 


16 


OT :35:20 


47 


N 1 


53 


1/2 E 


7. 





490 


1 


915, 


May 1 




05:00.0 


47 


N 1 


55 


E 


7- 


9 


495 


i 


925, 


Jan. 


18 


1 2 :05:54 


47 


1/2 


N 


153 1/2 E 


7- 


3 


500 


1 


934, 


May 9 


16:13:34 


47 


1/2 


N 


154 1/2 E 


6 




505 


i 


936, 


Nov. 


2 


1 4:57:50 


47 


1/2 


N 


1 54 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


508 


1 


935, 


Dec. 


23 


1 4:43:19 


48 


1/2 


N 


154 1/2 E 


6 


h=60 


51 


1 


931, 


Nov. 


4 


1 7:53:34 


49 


1/4 


N 


1 55 1/2 E 


6 




515 


1 


931, 


June 


9 


12:14:1 1 


50 


1/2 


N 


159 E 


6 




520 


1 


936, 


June 


30 


1 5:06:38 


50 


1/2 


N 


1 60 E 


7. 


4 


525 


1 


933, 


Oct. 


22 


11 ".53:39 


51 


N 156 


E 


d 




530 


1 


931, 


May 1 


2 


01 :37:03 


52 


N 158 


E 


6 


1/2 h=50 


535 


1904, 


June 


2 5 


14:45-6 


52 


N 159 


E 


8. 





540 


1904, 


June 


25 


21 :00.5 


52 


N 159 


E 


8. 


1 


545 1904, 


June 


27 


00: 09 * 


52 


N 159 


E 


7- 


9 



TABLE 1? (cont.) REGION 19 



No. 
550 
555 
560 

565 


Date 
1904, 

1931, 
1942, 


July 24 
April 26 
May 28 
Aug. 23 


Time 
10:44.6 
04:22:07 
18:54:10 
06:35:21 


Location 
52 N 159 E 
53 1/2 N 162 E 
52 1/2 N 160 E 
53 N 162 1/2 E 


M Remarks 
7 1/2 
6 1/4 h=50 
6 
7.0 h=6o 


570 


1923, 


Feb. 


2 


05:07:38 


53 


1/2 N 


162 E 


7.2 


575 


1944, 


Sept. 


23 


12:13:20 


54 


N 160 


E 


7.14. jhssito 


580 


1934, 


Nov. 


18 


09:1 8:31 


54 


N 1 


60 


1/2 E 


6 


585 


1923, 


Feb. 


3 


16 


;:oi 


:41 


54 


N 1 


61 


E 


8.3 


590 


1931, 


June 


20 


01 


:1 6:21 


54 


N 1 


61 


E 


d 


595 


1931, 


July 


18 


1 1 


:23 


:44 


54 


N 1 


61 


E 


6 3/4 


600 


1933, 


May i 


7 


23 


:55:24 


54 


N 161 


E 


6 1/4 


605 


1915, 


July 


31 


01 


= 31 


.4 


54 


N 1 


62 


E 


7 3/4 


61 


1931, 


June 


28 


16 


:26 


:56 


54 


N 1 


64 


E 


6 


615 


1933, 


Bferch 


17 


15 


:55 


:23 


54 


1/2 


N 


161 1/2 E 


6.9 


620 


1931, 


Dec. 


14 


19 


:17 


:50 


54 


1/2 


N 


163 E 


6 


625 


1933, 


Feb. 


20 


1 1 


:01 


:19 


54 


1/2 


N 


163 E 


d 


630 


1927, 


Dec. 


28 


18 


:20 


:23 


55 


N 1 


61 


E 


7.3 


635 


1931, 


Jan. 


12 


20 


:34 


:03 


55 


1/4 


N 


163 E 


6 1/2 


640 


1936, 


Nov. 


13 


12 


:31 


:27 


55 


1/2 


N 


163 E 


7-2 


645 


1923, 


Feb. 


24 


07 


:34:36 


56 


N 1 


62 


1/2 E 


7.4 


650 


1934, 


Nferch 


4 


1 1 


:17 


:30 


56 


N 164 


E 


6 1/4 


655 


1931, 


Sept. 


12 


01 


:45 


:00 


56 


I/? 


N 


161 E 


6 


660 


1923, 


April 


13 


15 


:31 


:02 


56 


1/2 


N 


162 1/2 E 


7-2 


665 


1917, 


Jan. 30 


02 


:45 


.6 


56 


i/a 


N 


163 E 


7 3/4 


670 


1945, 


April 


15 


02 


:35:22 


57 


N 164 


E 


7.0 


671 


1945, 


April 


15 


03 


:41 


:28 


57 


N 164 


E 


6 3/4 


680, 


1937, 


Sept. 


21 


21 


:02 


:42 


58 


N 165 


E 


d 


800 


1935, 


April 


9 


08 


:18 


:45 


34 


1/2 


N 


138 E 


d 


805 


1931, 


Aug. 


10 


14 


:34:00 


35 


N 138 


E 


d 


81 


1930, 


Nov. 25 


19 


: 02:47 


35 


N 139 


E 


7.1 


820 


1923, 


Sept. 


2 


02 


:46 


:40 


35 


N 139 


1/2 E 


7-7 


830 


1923, 


Sept. 


1 


02 


:58 


:36 


35 


1/4 


N 


139 1/2 E 


8.2 


840 


1931, 


Sept. 


16 


12 


:43 


:05 


35 


1/2 


N 


138 3A E 


6 


850 


1929, 


July 26 


22 


:48 


:16 


35 


1/2 


N 


139 E 


6 1/2 h=60 



176 


TABES 1 


7 ( cont . ) , 


REGION 


19 


Ho. 


Date 


Tine 


Location 


M Remarks 


860 


1931, 


. Sept. 21 


02 


:19 


:56 


36 


N 139 


1/4 


E 


6 3/4 


870 


I 9 4i, 


July 15 


14 


:-5 


:26 


36 


3/4 N 138 


1/4 E 


6 


880 


1943, 


Oct . 1 3 


05 


:43 


:03 


36 


3/4 N 


138 


1/4 E 


6 


900 
91 o 

920 


1945, 
1933, 


Jan. 1 2 
Aug. 14 

Sept. 21 


18 
06 

03 


:38:26 

:31 .0 

:14:26 


34 
35 

37 


3/4 N 
1/2 N 

1/4 N 


136 
136 

137 


3/4 E 
E 

1/4 E 


7.1 

_, A f Destructive 
7 i east of Lake 
iBIwa 


930 


^933, 


Oct. 3 


18 


:38 


:51 


37 


1/4 N 


139 


S 


S 


940 


193*, 


Nov. 8 


03 


:25 


:46 


37 


1/2 N 


138 E 


d 


950 


193*, 


Sept. 23 


21 


:40 


:58 


39 


1/2 N 


139 1/2 E 


d 


96o 


1935, 


March'? 


10 


:26 


:43 


40 


N 139 


1/4 


E 


d 


970 


1939, 


May 1 


05:58 


:33 


40 


N 139 


3/* 


E 


7-0 


980 


1919, 


Oct. 11 


13 


:17 


:30 


40 


N 140 


E 




6 1/4 


990 


1940, 


Aug. 1 


15 


:08 


:21 


44 


1/2 N 


139 


E 


7-7 


REGION 20 (Riukiu 


Islands 


) 


SO 


1923, 


April 25 


03 


:16; 


:50 


26 


1/2 N 


126 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


ko 


1923, 


Aug . 1 2 


10: 


:06; 


:08 


26 


1/2 N 


128 


E 


6 3/* 


60 


1940, 


Jan. 26 


17: 


:04; 


:l-9 


26 


3/4 N 


132 


E 


6 3/4 


70 


19*5, 


Aug- 14 


12; 


:10: 


:53 


27 


N 129 


1/2 


E 


6 3/4 h=60 


80 


1931, 


Aug. 17 


17:48: 


:46 


27 


1/2 N 


128 


E 


6 


1 00 


1931, 


May 13 


23:03: 


:47 


27 


1/2 N 


128 


1/2 E 


d 


1 20 


1938, 


June 16 


02:15:15 


27 


1/2 N 


129 


1/2 E 


7.* 


1 4o 


1934, 


Sept . i 2 


17: 


;42: 


:20 


28 


N 130 


E 




d 


1 60 


1933, 


Aug. 26 


01 : 


30: 


29 


28 


N 131 


E 




d 


180 


1933, 


Sept. 15 


16:19: 


46 


28 


N 131 


1/2 


E 


d 


200 


1932, 


May 28 


02: 


21 : 


19 


28 


N 132 


E 




6 1/2 h=60 


220 


1935, 


June 3 


17: 


09: 


1 1 


28 


1/4 N 


128 


3/4 E 


6 1/4 


240 


1931, 


Jan. 1 5 


21 : 


01 : 


35 


28 


1/2 N 


127 


*J/4 E 


6 3/4 


260 


1929, 


Feb. 14 


14: 


39: 


26 


28 


1/2 N 


128 


1/2 E 


6 


280 


1933, 


Aug. 18 


08: 


19: 


3* 


28 


1/2 N 


131 


E 


d 


290 


1935, 


Dec. 1 


23:45: 


03 


29 


N 128 


E 




6 1/4 


291 


1935, 


Dec. 2 


16: 


42: 


42 


28 


3/4 N 


128 


E 


6 


300 


193*, 


Oct, 26 


17: 


11 : 


06 


29 N 131 


1/4 E 


6 3/4 


320 


1923, 


Nov. 5 


21 : 


27:53 


29 


1/4 N 


130 E 


7-2 


340 


1904, Aug. 24 


20:59.9 


30 N 130 E 


7 3/4 



17 (cont. ), REGION 20 



No. 




Bate 


Time 


Location 


M Reraar-ka 


360 


"939, 


Jan . 5 2 


1' 


: : : i 5 


30 


N 1 


32 


E 




d 


1^.50 


380 


1923, 


July 13 


1 1 


:13:34 


31 


N 1 


30 


1/2 


E 


7, 


. 2 


400 


1933, 


June 2 


07 


:3S:45 


31 


N 1 


31 


1/2 


E 


6 


iA 


420 


19^, 


Jan. 12 


09 


:28.1 


31 


1/2 


N 


131 


E 


7 


h= 5 


440 


1932, 


May 2 


23 


:2 9 :12 


31 


1/2 


N 


131 


E 


d 




460 


1913, 


April 13 


06 


:^0.3 


31 


1/2 


N 


132 


E 


6.8 


480 


1932, 


June 8 


06; 


:13:38 


31 


1/0 


N 


132 


E 


d 




500 


1932, 


June 8 


10; 


:54:00 


31 


1/2 


N 


132 


E 


d 




520 


1931, 


Nov. 2 


10: 


:02:59 


32 


N 131 


1/2 


E 


7- 


.5 


540 


1941, 


Nov. 18 


1 6:46:22 


32 


N l, 


32 7.8 


560 


1931, 


Nov. i 


18:53:12 


32 


1/2 


N 


132 


E 


5 


1/2 


580 


1924, 


Aug. 28 


23:50:36 


33 


1/2 


N 


131 


E 


6 




600 


1934, 


Jan. 8 


23:07:03 


34 


N r 


34 


E 




d 




620 


1940, 


May 28 


1 4:23:24 


34 


1/2 


N 


134 


1/2 3 


d 




640 


1943, 


Sept . 1 


08:36:53 


35 


1/4 


N 


134 


E 


7- 


k 


650 


1943, 


March 4 


10: 


13:46 


35 


1/2 


N 


134 


1/4 E 


5 


3/4 


651 


1943, 


IVferch 4 


20: 


50:08 


35 


1/2 


N 


134 


1/4 E 


5 


3/4 


660 


1925, 


May 23 


02: 


09:45 


35 


3/4 


N 


134 


3/4 E 


6 


3/4 


680 


1927, 


Nferch 7 


09:27:36 


35 


3/4 


N 


134 


3/4 E 


7 


3/4 


700 


1940, 


Aug. 13 


15: 


36:40 


36 


N 132 


E 




6 


3/4 


900 


1938, 


Jan. 1 1 


15: 


11:58 


33 


1/2 


N 


135 


1/2 E 


6 


1 /2 h=50 


910 


1936, 


Feb. 21 


01 : 


07:58 


34 


1/2 


N 


135 


3/4 E 


6 




REGION 21 


(Formosa) 


25 


1932, 


Dec. 15 


19: 


33:38 


21 


N 121 


E 




6 




50 


1941, 


Dec. 16 


19: 


19:39 


21 


1/2 


N 


120 


1/2 E 


7- 


1 


75 


1934, 


April 16 


13: 


40:18 


21 


1/2 


N 


121 


1/2 E 


6 




100 


1930, 


May 19 


15: 


03:48 


21 


1/2 


N 


122 


E 


6 


1 /2 h=50 


125 


1925, 


April 16 


19: 


52:35 


22 


N 121 E 


7- 


1 


150 


1919, 


Dec. 20 


20: 


37:27 


22 


N 122 


E 




7- 





175 


1935, 


Dec, 17 


19: 


17:35 


22 


1/2 


N 


125 


1/2 E 


7- 


2 


200 


1936, 


Aug. 22 


06: 


51:35 


22 


1/4 


N 


120 


3/4 E 


7- 


2 


225 


1935,. 


Sept. 4 


01 : 


37:41 


22 


1A 


N 


121 


1/4 E 


7- 


2 


250 


1943 


Nov. 24 


13: 


17:13 


22 


1/2 


N 


122 


E 


6. 


9 


275 


1938, 


Dec, 6 


23: 


00:53 


22 


3/4 


N 


120 


3/4 E 


7- 





300 


1927, 


Aug. 24 


18: 


09:00 


23 


N 120 


1/2 


E 


6 


3/4 h=*6o 


xo* 


1 OX 7 


TV><-_ A 


OA:*p : OQ 2^ N 121 


1/2 


E 


7. 






i 7 g ^ TABLE 1? (cont.), REGION 21 



' . f ^ 

No. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


350 


193^, 


Oct. 


28 


23:36 


:08 


23 


1/4 


N 


123 


1/2 E 


d 


375 


1920, 


June 


5 


04:21 


:28 


23 


1/2 


N 


122 


E 


e 


400 


1931, 


Jan. 


1 


23:52 


:22 


23 


1/2 


N 


122 


E 


6 1/4 


425 


1938, 


Sept, 


. 7 


04:03 


:18 


23 


5/4 


N 


121 


1/2 E 


7.0 


450 


19U, 


July 


6 


06:37 


.5 


24 


N 122 


E 




6 5/4 h60 


475 


1929, 


Aug. 


19 


02:45 


:05 


24 


N 122 


E 




6 3/4 


500 


1937, 


Nov. 


26 


10:45 


:14 


24 


N 123 


E 




6 h=50 


525 


1935, 


April 20 


22:0". 


:54 


24 


1/4 


N 


120 


3A E 


7.1 


550 


1935, 


May 4 


23 :02:24 


24 


1/4 


flf 


121 


1/4 E 


6 


575 


1933, 


April 19 


06:44:36 


24 


1/4 


H 


121 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


600 


1922, 


Sept, 


, 14 


19:31 


:39 


24 


1/2 


N 


121 


1/2 E 


7-2 


625 


1932, 


Aug. 


21 


04:15 


:35 


24 


1/2 


N 


121 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


650 


1935, 


Feb. 


9 


19:19 


:37 


24 


1/2 


N 


121 


3A E 


6 1/4 


675 


1922, 


Sept, 


, 1 


19:16 


:06 


24 


1/2 


N 


1 22 


E 


7.6 


700 


1932, 


Oct. 


23 


21 :27 


:48 


24 


1/2 


ff 


122 


1/4 E 


6 1/4 


725 


1931, 


Oct. 


24 


12:36 


:39 


24 


1/2 


N 


123 


E 


d 


750 


1934, 


Aug. 


1 1 


08:18 


:21 


24 


3A 


N 


121 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


775 


1935, 


April 20 


22:26 


:26 


25 


N 120 


1/2 


E 


6 


800 


1931, 


Feb. 


13 


00:40 


:45 


25 


1/2 


N 


122 


E 


6 


825 


1934, 


Jan. 


20 


22:52 


:23 


25 


1/2 


N 


1 22 


E 


d 


850 


1938, 


June 


10 


09:53 


:39 


25 


1/2 


N 


T25 


E 


7-7 


950 


1929, 


Oct. 


24 


06:34 


:13 


22 


N 11 


8 E 


6 1/2 


975 


1918, 


Feb. 


13 


06:07 


:13 


24 


N 117 E 


7-3 


REGION 


22 


(Philippine Islands) 


20 


1939, 


June 


2 


03:33 


:15 


5 N 127 


E 






7,0 h=6o 


30 


1918, 


Aug. 


15 


12:18, 


.2 


5 1 


/2 H 


' 1 


23 E 


8 1/4 


40 


t933, 


Feb. 


22 


03:48:10 


5 1 


/2 K 


' 125 E 


d 


50 


1918, 


Aug. 


15 


17:30:11 


5 1 


/2 N 


' 126 E 


7-0 


60 


1935, 


May 7 


05:55:20 


5 3/4 N 126 E 


6 h50 


70 


1931, 


IVferch 


18 


20:13; 


:3^ 


5 3/4 N 


' 126 1 


/if E 


7.0 h50 


80 


1934, 


Jan. 


16 


1 8:39:42 


6 N 


124 


3/4 E 


6 1/4 


90 


1933, 


Sept. 


25 


13:45:45 


6 N 


126 


E 






6 


95 


1923, 


Aferch 


16 


22:01 : 


:33 


6 IS 


127 


E 






7-0 


1 00 


1933, 


April 


1 


08:07: 


:35 


6 N 


127 


E 






d 


102 


1936, 


July 5 


18:55:13 


6 1 


/4 N 


126 3A E 


7.3 h604. 



TABLE 1 ? ( cont . 3 , REGION 22 



No. Date Time Location M Remarks 

105 1923, March 2 16:48:^2 6 1/2 II 12^ E 7.2 

110 1927, Nov. 16 21:10:09 6 1/2 N 126 E 7.0 h=50 

120 1924^ April Hi- 16:20:23 6 1/2 I 126 1/2 E 8. 3 

131 1935, March 17 19:32:25 6 1/2 N 127 E 6 3/4 

140 1928, Dec. 19 11:37:10 7 I 124 E 7.3 

150 1932, April 29 17:30:40 7 N 1 27 E d 

160 1932, Dec. 16 07:14:22 7 N 127 E d 

170 1928,, Dec. 28 14:19:35 7 1/2 N 123 E 6.9 

180 1922, June 2 20:11:47 7 I/? N 127 1/2 E 6 3/4 h=50 

190 19^3, May 25 23:07:36 7 1/2 N 128 E 7-9 

200 1934, April 15 22:15:13 7 3/4 N 127 E 7-3 

210 1919, Jan. 1 01:33.7 8 N 126 E 7.4 

220 1931, Oct. 26 11:^7:29 8N126E d 

230 1921, Nov. 11 18:36:08 8 N 127 E 7.5 

240 1934, April 16 03:59:15 8 N 127 1/4 E 6 

250 1942, Qct*. 20 23:21:44 8 1/2 N 122 1/2 E 7-3 

260 1924., Aug. 30 03:04:57 8 1/P N 126 I/? E 7-3 

270 1934, Aug. 12 23:49:17 8 1/2 N 126 3/4 E 6.9 

280 1929, June 13 09:24:34 8 1/2 N 127 E 7-2 

285 1936, Aug. 13 20:02:41 9 N 126 1/2 E 6 3/4 h=60 

290 1911, July 12 04:07.6 9 N 126 E 7 3/4 h=50 

300 1925, May 5 10:06:06 9 1/2 N 1 23 E 6 3/4 

310 1915, April 25 17 = 56.5 9 1/? N 127 E 7-2 

320 1931, May 24 00:13:00 10 N 125 1/2 E 6 1/4 

330 1931, Jan. 24 13:41:04 10 N 126 E 6 1/4 

340 1919, April 27 00:22:05 11 N 1 23 E 6.4 

350 1926, Jan. 23 03:11:52 11 N 126 E d 

360 1928, June 15 17:16:17 11 1/2 N 121 1/2 E 6 3/4 

370 1935, May 26 22:03:47 11 3/4 N 125 1/2 E 6 1/4 

380 1931, July 12 16:45:23 12 N 123 E 61/2 

390 1915, March 12 14:48:^ 12 N 124 E 7 

400 1935, May 24 05:36:31 12 N 1 25 E 6 3A 

410 1935, Nky 25 00:07:55 12 N 125 1/2 E 6 1/4 

420 1928, June 15 06:12:36 12 1/2 N 121 1/2 E 7-0 

430 1925, IVfey 25 03:43:06 12 1/2 N 122 1/2 E 6 1/4 



180 TABUS 17 (cont. ), BEGIQI 22 



No. 
440 
450 
460 


JDate 

1 94l y Nov . 5 

1932, July 1 1 
1935, June 18 


Tiiae 
17:38:47 
08:21 :31 
22:27:41 


Location 

12 1/2 N 123 E 
12 1/2 N 124 1/2 E 
12 1/2 N 125 1/2 E 


M Remarks 
6.9 
d 
6 1/4 


470 


1943, May 


3 


01 


:59:12 12 1/2 N 125 1/2 E 


7.4 


480 


1 91 9, March 21 


01 


: 02:23 


13 


N 123 


E 


6 1/2 h~50 


490 


1925 


, Nov. 


. 13 


12 


:14:45 


13 


N 125 


E 




7 


-3 


500 


1931 


, Oct. 


, 26 


14 


:4s:08 


13 


1/4 N 126 1/4 E 


d 




510 


1942 


, April 8 


15 


:40:24 


13 


1/2 N 121 


E 


7 


.7 


520 


1935 


, Feb. 7 


17 


:29:02 


13 


1/2 N 


122 


3/4 E 


6 




530 


1907 


, April 18 


23 


:52.4 


13 


1/2 N 


123 


E 


7 


.4 


540 


1933 


, Aug. 


20 


11 


:45:05 


13 


1/2 N 


125 


E 


6 


1/2 


550 


1933 


, June 6 


02 


:28:22 


14 


N 120 


E 




6 


1/4 


5-60 


193^ 


, Nov. 


26 


12:09:08 


14 


N 120 


E 




6 


1/4 


570 


1907, April 18 


20 


:59-8 


14 


N 123 


E 




7 


.6 


580 


1941. 


, fey 


9 


05 


:32:37 


14 


N 123 


E 




6 


3/4 


590 


1937, Aug. 


20 


1 1 


:59:16 


14 


1/2 N 


121 


1/2 E 


7 


-5 


600 


1929, July 


21 


13: 


:15:59 


14 


1/2 N 


T24 


E 


d 




610 


193*, July 


31 


05:58:34 


15 


N 119 


3/4 


E 


d 




620 


1928, Aug. 5 


14:41 :56 


16 


N 1 19 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 


630 


1932, Aug. 


24 


12:10:32 


16 


1/2 N 


120 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


640 


193^ 


Feb. 


14 


03:59:34 


17 


1/2 N 


119 


E 


7.6 


650 


1931, 


Oct. 


28 


05: 


35:03 


17 


1/2 N 


121 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


660 


1932, 


June 


13 


20: 


57:32 


18 


N 119 


1/4 


E 


6 


1/4 


670 


1932, 


June 


14 


11 : 


ffO : 1 2 


18 


N 120 


E 




6 


h~4o 


680 


1931, March 1 9 


06: 


25:00 


18 


N 120 


1/2 


E 


6. 


9 


685 


1936, 


Aug. 


4 


14: 


09:41 


19 


N 121 E 


d 




690 


1932, 


Jan. 


18 


20: 


26:47 


19 


1/2 N 


121 


E 


d 




700 


193^, 


April 12 


03: 


20:42 


19 


3/4 N 


120 


1/4 E 


d 




810 


1932, 


Sept . 


15 


11 : 


13:15 


6 N 


120 3/4 E 


6 


1/4 


840 


1940, 


Dec. 


19 


15: 


48:30 


9 N 


1 18 E 






d 




920 


1930, 


July 


21 


14: 


06:02 


7 N 


114 E 






6 




REGION 23 


(Celebes) 


15 


1923. 


Aug. 


11 


00:54:25 


4 1/2 N 119 1 


/2 E 


6 


1/2 


30 


1910, 


Dec. 


1.6 


14:45.0 


4 1/2 N 126 1/2 E 


7-5 


45 


1913, 


March 


14 


08:45:00 


4 1/2 N 126 1 


/2 E 


7. 


9 h*40 



17 {cont.), 23 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


50 


1936, 


April 


i 


02 


: 09 : 1 5 


4 


1/2 N 


126 


1/2 E 


7. 


7 


60 


1944, 


Nov. 


15 


20 


:4?:01 


4 


1/2 N 


127 


1/2 E 


7- 


2 


65 


1941, 


Feb. 


27 


09 


:44:12 


4 


1/4 N 


127 


E 


6 


3/4 h=50 


75 


1933, 


June 


24 


13 


:55:00 


4 


N 126 


E 




a 




90 


1935, 


May 20 


05 


:21 :29 


4 


N 126 


1/2 


E 


6 




105 


1912, 


Aug. 


17 


19 


:11 .8 


4 


N 127 


E 




7. 


5 


120 


1921, 


Feb. 


14 


01 


:00:47 


3 


1/2 N 126 


E 


6 


1/4 


130 


1941, 


Feb. 


5 


23 


:O4:36 


3 


N 128 


E 




5 


3/4 b=50 


135 


1953, 


Sept . 


3 


03:45:59 


3 


N 126 


E 




a 




150 


1935, 


Feb. 


27 


09:09:21 


3 


N 126 


E 




6 




165 


1923, 


April 


19 


03 


:09:08 


2 


1/2 N 


117 


1/2 E 


7- 





180 


1932, 


Dec. 


4 


08:11 ;12 


2 


1/2 N 


121 


E 


7* 


1 


195 


1940, 


July 


21 


15 


:38:25 


2 


1/2 N 


121 


E 


6 


1/4 


210 


1933, 


Feb. 


16 


09 


:08:08 


2 


1/2 N 


126 


E 


a 




225 


1932, 


Dec. 


4 


1 


-.32:57 


2 


1/4 N 


121 


E 


6 


1/4 


240 


1938, 


Oct. 


10 


20:48:05 


2 


1/4 N 


126 


3/4 E 


7- 


3 


255 


1934, 


June 


14 


19 


:08:36 


2 


N 121 


E 




a 




270 


1941, 


Jan. 


5 


18 


:47:05 


2 


N 122 


E 




7- 


h=50 


285 


1931, 


Feb. 


27 


09 


:37:35 


2 


N 127 


E 




6 


3/4 


300 


1934, 


Nov. 


27 


06 


:14:06 


2 


N 127 


1/2 


E 


6 


3/4 


315 


1913, 


Jan. 


11 


13 


:16.9 


1 


1/2 N 


122 


E 


7- 


1 


330 


1925, 


June 


3 


04 


:33:55 


1 


1/2 N 


126 


1/2 E 


7- 


1 


345 


1931, 


Sept. 


29 


05 


:14:32 


1 


1/2 N 


126 


1/2 E 


6 




360 


1936, 


Oct. 


5 


09 


:44:24 


1 


1/2 N 


126 


3/4 E 


7- 


1 h-40 


375 


1925, 


May 3 




17 


:21 :45 


1 


1/2 N 


127 


E 


7- 


1 


390 


1944, 


Sept. 


11 


09 


:45:22 


1 


1/2 N 


127 


E 


7. 


2 h=40 


391 


1944, 


Oct. 


14 


20 


:16:08 


1 


1/2 N 


127 


E 


6 


3/4 


400 


1941, 


Jan. 


12 


00 


:18:38 


1 


3/4 N 


122 


E 


6 


1/4 h=6o 


405 


1941, 


Feb. 


8 


18 


:46:08 


1 


N 120 


E 




6 


1/2 


420 


1934, 


April 


26 


13 


:39:35 


1 


N 123 


E 




6 


1/4 


425 


1926, 


July 


10 


10 


:51 :10 


1 


N 126 


E 




7- 





435 


1924, 


April 


13 


13 


:48:00 


1 


/2 N 1 


17 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


450 


1941, 


Nov. 


8 


23 


: 37:22 


1/2 N 122 E 


* 7- 


3 


465 


1932, 


May 14 13:11 ;0p 


* 1/2 N 126 E 


,8. 





495 


J'9ta, 


Dae*,', 


23 


23 


5^?': 





;^ 123 * - ' . 


7 


&=: 



TABIE 1 7 ( cont . } , HEGIOH 23 



Bo. 


Date 


Tine 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


510 


1923, 


Feb. 


23 


05 


:51:54 





N 124 


E 




6 


5A 


525 


1934, 


April 


2 


04 


:57:45 





N 125 


E 




6 


h=50 


530 


1945, 


Oct. 


16 


16 


:02:58 


1/4 S 125 E 


7 


.1 h=50 


540 


1941, 


June 


18 


10 


:15:01 1/2 S 125 E 6 


1/2 


555 


1941, 


June 


18 


19 


:58:56 


1/2 S 125 E 


6 


1/4 


570 


1925, 


April 


22 


23 


: 10:42 


1/2 S 129 E 


6 




585 


1938, 


May 19 


17 


:08:21 


1 


S 120 E 


7 


.6 


600 


1932, 


July 


30 


12 


:13:36 


1 


"S 121 


E 




d 




615 


1936, 


July 


6 


18 


:21:01 


1 


S 126 


1/2 


E 


d 




630 


1933, 


March 


5 


08 


:19:51 


1 


S 128 E 


d 




645 


1925, 


Nov. 


10 


13 


:50:36 


1 


S 129 


1/2 


E 


7 


* 


655 


1941, 


June 


23 


09 


:28:45 


1 


S 119 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 


660 


1925, 


Dec. 


29 


16 


:04:11 


1 


1/2 S 


120 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


675 


1932, 


Sept. 


9 


06 


:46:25 


1 


1/2 S 


128 


1/2 E 


d 




690 


1927, 


June 


11 


02 


:32:09 


1 


1/2 S 


130 


E 


6 


1 /2 h=60 


705 


1933, 


May 16 


16 


:4l:l 9 


1 


3/4 S 


121 


E 


d 




720 


1923, 


Oct. 


7 


03:29:34 


1 


3/4 S 


128 


3/4 E 


7 


^5 


735 


1936, 


Nov. 


30 


23 


:45:48 


2 


S 126 


E 




6 


1/4 


750 


1936, 


Oct. 


19 


12 


:04:17 


2 


S 127 


E 




6 


3A 


765 


1942, 


July 


29 


22 


:49:15 


2 


S 128 


1/2 


E 


7 


.0 


780 


1915, 


Aug. 


12 


07:36.6 


2 


1/2 S 


119 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 h=60 


795 


1924, 


July 


29 


05 


:18:45 


2 


1/2 S 


120 


E 


6 


3/4 


810 


1924, 


Feb. 


13 


22:50:13 


2 


1/2 S 


122 


E 


6 


1/2 


825 


1926, 


Aug. 


3 


10 


:32:04 


2 


1/2 S 


126 


1/2 E 


6 


3A 


840 


1919, 


Aug. 


29 


05 


:43:54 


2 


1/2 S 


127 


E 


7 




855 


1932, 


July 


2 


02 


:11:17 


2 


1/2 S 


132 


E 


6 




860 


1941, 


Dec. 


9 


02 


:43:13 


3 


S 121 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 


870 


1938, 


June 


9 


19 


:15:11 


3 


1/2 S 


126 


1/2 E 


7 


.2 h=60 


885 


1932, 


Sept. 


9 


13 


:39:04 


3 


1/2 S 


128 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


900 


1935, 


Dec. 


29 


23 


:37:20 


3 


1/2 S 


128 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


915 


1932, 


April 


13 


03 


:59:02 


4 


S 128 


E 




d 




930 


1935, 


March 


16 


07 


:50:13 


4 


S 128 


E 




d 




945 


1938, 


Aug. 


30 


17 


: 08:42 


4 


S 128 


1/2 


E 


d 




960 


1932, 


March 


26 


09 


:52:18 


4 


1/2 S 


128 


1/4 E 


6 


3A 



IT (cont.) is 


REGI01 24 


(Sunda ar-c ; 


) 






lo. 


Date 




Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


10 


1940, 


Dec. 4 


13:05:42 


5 


s 131 


E 




6 


1/2 




20 


1921, 


torch 23 


22:44 


,:40 


6 


1/2 S 


131 


E 


6 




h=50 


30 


1931, 


March 1 i 


05:58:47 


7 


s 131 


E 




6 






40 


1938, 


Feb. 1 


19:04 


:18 


5 


1/4 S 


130 


1/2 E 


8 


.2 




50 


1934, 


April 24 


01 :59 


:10 


6 


s 130 


1/2 


E 


6 






60 


1944, 


torch 31 


02:51 


:43 


7 


s 130 


1/2 


E 


T 


.0 


h=6o 


70 


1932, 


July 2T 


21 :19 


:30 


6 


1/2 S 


130 


E 


6 


1/4 


h=60 


80 


1934, 


Feb. 4 


22:01 


ill 


5 


S 129 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 




90 


1939, 


Oct. 7 


20:43 


:01 


6 


1/2 S 


128 


E 


6 


1/2 




100 


1931, 


Jan. 19 


12:24 


:06 


7 


1/2 S 


126 


1/2 E 


6 






1 1 


1930, 


torch ?6 


OT:12 


:05 


7 


1/2 S 


125 


1/2 E 


7 


.2 


Jh=40 


120 


1940, 


June 1 1 


08:42 


:13 


8 


S 125 


E 




6 


1/4 




130 


1927, 


torch 3 


01 :05 


:09 


6 


S 122 


E 




7 


.0 




135 


1941, 


Jan. 4 


03:12 


:55 


5 


3/4 S 


122 


E 


6 ^ 1=: 5 


i4o 


193*, 


Jan. 1 


06:16 


:45 


8 


S 122 


E 




6 


1/2 


h=60 


150 


1928, 


Nov. 28 


10:43 


:10 


7 


1/2 S 


121 


1/2 E 


6 


.9 




160 


1931, 


July 28 


03:37 


:53 


10 S 121 


E 




d 






170 


1926, 


Dec. 14 


1T:10 


:32 


12 S 121 


E 




6 


-1/4 




180 


1935, 


June 22 


15:48 


:28 


6 


S 120 


E 




6 


1A 




190 


1925, 


torch 15 


13:46 


:45 


11 


S 119 1/2 E 


6 




b=50 


191 


1925, 


torch 15 


15:41 


:30 


11 


S 119 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


h=50 


195 


1936, 


Jan. 2 


17:26 


:42 


9 


1/4 S 


119 


1/4 E 


6 


3/4 




200 


1930, 


toy 8 


12:47 


:16 


8 


S 117 


E 




d 




h=60 


210 


1931, 


Feb. 24 


17:28 


:24 


9 


1/2 S 


117 


E 


d 






220 


1934, 


April 11 


21 :56 


:02 


7 


S 116 


1/4 


E 


6 






230 


193*, 


April 10 


10:22 


:58 


6 


1/2 S 


116 


E 


6 


3A 




240 


1925, 


Oct. 23 


01:4T:3 10 1/2 S 115 E 


6 






250 


1935, 


April 21 


07:25: 


:54 


4 


1/2 S 


114 


E 


6 






255 


1936, 


Feb. 28 


16:15: 


:24 


5 


S 114 


E 




6 


1/2 




260 


1929, 


June 20 


18:22: 


:33 


8 


1/2 S 


114 


E 


6 


1/4 


h=60 


270 


1939, 


toy 11 


1 7:30; 


:50 


9 


1/2 S 


112 


E 


d 






280 


1937, 


Sept. 27 


08:55: 


:JO 


9 


1/2 S 


1 1 1 


E 


7-2 


290 


1921, 


Sept. 11 


04: 0! ; 


:38 


11, 


S 1 1 1 


E 


7-5 



TABLE 1? (cent.) 5 REGION 24 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M 




Remarks 


500 


1931, 


Jan. 


20 


23:44 


:01 


"7 1 I L 


S 108 


1/2 E 


d 






305 


1944, 


Sept s 


1i* 


06:38 


:56 


B 1 /2 


S 108 


1/2 E 


6 


3A 




310 


1940, 


May i 





16:59 


:32 


9 1/2 


S 108 


E 


6 




h=50 


320 


1940, 


March 21 


13:52 


:52 


10 S 


108 E 




6 


3A 




330 


1927, 


Sept. 


8 


23-22 


:48 


7 1/2 


S 107 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


h=50 


340 


1939, 


July 


25 


07:17 


:24 


7 1/2 


S 1 06 


1/2 E 


d 




h=6o 


350 


1934, 


Dec. 


9 


1 1 :18 


:59 


7 1/2 


S 106 


E 


d 






360 


1943, 


April 1 


14:18 


:08 


6 1/2 


s 105 


1/2 E 


7- 







370 


1933, 


Aug. 


10 


04:42 


:01 


8 1/2 


S 105 


E 


d 






380 


1933, 


June 


24 


21 :54 


:46 


5 1/2 


S 104 


3/4 E 


7. 


5 




385 


1941, 


April 18 


12:25 


:40 


5 S 1 


03 1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 




390 


1931, 


Sept. 


25 


05:59 


:44 


5 S 1 


02 3/4 


E 


7- 


4 




400 


1914, 


June 


25 


19:07 


3 


4 1/2 


S 102 


1/2 E 


7- 


6 




4io 


1931, 


Sept. 


25 


21 :31 


:38 


5 S 1 


02 1/2 


E 


6 






420 


1931, 


Feb. 


10 


06:34 


:25 


5 1A 


S 1 02 


1/2 E 


7. 


1 




421 


1931, 


Feb. 


12 


05:43 


:57 


5 1/4 


S 102 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 




422 


1931, 


Feb. 


14 


13:58 


:45 


5 1 A 


S 102 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 




426 


1935, 


Aug. 


23 


13:57 


:44 


4 1/4 


S 1 02 


E 


6 


1/2 




430 


19411, 


Jan. 


5 


21 :12 


:43 


3 1/2 


S 102 


E 


7- 





h=60 


440 


1931, 


Dec. 


18 


09:49 


:19 


5 1/2 


S 1 02 


E 


6 


1/4 




450 


1943, 


June 


8 


20:42 


:46 


1 S 1 


01 E 




7- 


4 


h=50 


451 


1943, 


June 


9 


03:06 


:22 


1 S 1 


01 E 




7- 


6 


h=50 


460 


1909, 


June 


3 


18:40 


.8 


2 S 1 


01 E 




7- 


6 




470 


1926, 


July 


1 


1 4: 08 


:49 


2 1/2 


S 101 


E 


6 


3A 




480 


193^ 


toy 23 


23:08 


:3B 


2 1/2 


S 101 


E 


d 






490 


1918, 


Sept. 


22 


09:55 


:03 


1 S 1 


00 E 




6 


3A 




500 


1934, 


Feb. 


19 


1 0:24 


:45 


2 1/2 


S 99 3/4 E 


6 


1/4 




510 


1936, 


Jan. 


2 


22:34 


:30 


99 


1/2 E 




7- 





h=6o 


515 


1936, 


June 


9 


16:36 


:30 


99 


E 




6 


3/4 


h=6o 


520 


1926, 


June 


28 


06:15 


:4l 1 S 99 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 




530 


1926, 


June 


28 


03:23 


:25 


1 1/2 


S 99 1 


/2 E 


6 


3/4 




5^0 


1927, 


May 1 





06:03 


:44 


1 1/2 


S 99 1 


/2 E 


6 




h=50 


550 


1939, 


Feb. 


9 


1 1 :45 


:20 


o 98 


1/2 E 




d 






560 


1935, 


Dec. 


28 


02:35 


:22 


98 


1/4 E 




7- 


9 




570 


1934, 


Aug. 


21 


19:26 


:15 


98 


E 




6 


1/4 





17 (cont.h 2k res 



Ho. Date Time Location M Renarka 

572 1936, torch 17 19:49:22 98 E d 

580 1926, Aug. 3 19:41:20 1 N 97 1/2 E 6 

590 1907, Jan. 4 05:19.2 2 N 94 1/2 E J.6 h=50 

600 1940, March 29 21:57:24 2 H 96 l /2 E d 

610 1921, April 1 04:06:44 2 1 98 E 6 3/4 

620 1931, torch 5 17:55:01 3 N 96 E 6 

630 1928,1)60. 10 04:33:38 3 N 98 E 6 

640 1934, July 31 11:49:16 3 1/2 N 96 1/4 E 6 

650 1936, Sept. 19 01:01:47 3 3/4 1 97 1/2 E 7-2 

660 1933, June 1 17:19:53 4 N 94 E d 

670 1934, July 31 10:58:47 4 N 96 E d 

680 1934, May 12 20:26:30 4 N 96 1/2 E d 

690 1929, Dec. 9 06:49:54 4 1/2 N 9^ 1/2 E 6 3/4 

700 1935, Aug. 3 01:10:01 4 1/2 I 96 1/4 E 7-0 

710 1939, Jan. 29 15:25:50 5 N 9^ 1/2 E d 

720 1936, Aug. 23 21:12:13 5 N 95 E 7-3 h^O 

725 1945, July 23 03:5^:55 5 N 96 E 6 3/4 

730 1942, May 24 03:26:30 5 N 96 1/2 E 6 3/4 h=6o 

740 1935, Nov. 25 10:03:02 6 N 94 E 61/2 

750 1933, May 16 01:12:28 7 N 96 1/2 E 6 1/2 

760 1939, July 18 11:24:09 8 N 93 E d h=6o 

770 1932, Sept. 20 15:43:25 8 1/2 N 93 1/2 E d 

780 1940, Nov. 13 11:35:58 8 1/2 ft 93 1/2 E d 

800 1915, Aug. 12 09:17.1 9 N 92 E 61/4 

805 1941, Aug. 19 16:19:30 9 N 93 E d 

810 1932, Dec. 11 04:25:55 9 N 93 1 /2 E 6 

820 1939, Sept. 25 15:31:03 9 N 9^ E d 

830 1931, Aug. 8 04:07:06 9 1/2 N 93 E d 

840 1929, Aug. 1 05:01:48 1 N 93 E 61/2 

850 1936, April 19 09:04:pO 10 1/2 H 93 E 6 1/2 

860 1925, May 13 23:54:34 ,11 N 92 E 6 

865 1945, Aug. 8 09:53:%0 11 N 92 1/2 E 6 3A **=50 

870 1925, June 28, 13^1., ;%5 U N 93 E 6 1/2 h=6o 

885 1941, July 14 02:02 :?5 12 $ 93 E 6 

890 1941 , June 26 11 :52:03 i 12 1 /2 ,W 92 J/2 E 8-1 



TABLE l? (cont.), REGION 24 



No. 


Date 








Time 


location 


M Remarks 


900 


1941, 


Aug. 


9 




22:17 


:38 


12 


1/2 


N 93 S 


6 




910 


1922, 


Oct. 


1 


7 


06:37 


:59 


12 


1/2 


N 96 E 


6 


1/4 


920 


1935* 


April 




1 1 


01 :17 


:55 


13 


1/4 


N 95 1/2 E 


6 




930 


1928, 


May 19 


03:28 


:46 


13 


1/2 


N 91 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 h=60 


940 


1926, 


May 2 


9 




22:37 


:32 


15 


N 92 


E 


d 




960 


1932, 


March 




28 


00:35 


:34 


8 S 


98 


1/2 E 


6 




980 


1928, 


Jan. 


26 


21 :51 


:34 


5 S 


96 


E 


6 


1/4 


990 


1937, 


Nov. 


30 


00:40:27 


5 l 


/2 N 


90 E 


6 


1/2 



REGION 25 (Andaman Islands to Burma) 

40 1931, Nov. 30 17:01:36 15 1/2 N 92 1/2 E d 

80 1932, June 21 22:59:12 16 1/2 N 112 E d 

120 1930, mj 5 13:45:57 17 N 96 1/2 E 7-3 

160 1930, Dec. 5 18:51:44 18 N 96 1/2 E 7-3 

200 1931, Sept. 6 05:38:07 18 1/2 N 96 E d 

240 1933, July 3 15:09:05 1 9 N 97 E d 

280 1935, May 13 19:53:33 19 1/2 N 101 E 6 1/2 

320 1931, Sept. 21 10:27:17 19 3/4 N 113 E 6 3/4 

360 1934,, Feb. 12 11:30:50 20 N 101 1/4 E 6 

400 1935, Nov. 1 16:22:01 20 1/2 N 1 03 1/2 E 6 3/4 

440 1912, May 23 02:24.1 21 N 97 E 8.0 

480 1925, Dec. 22 05:05:30 21 N 101 1/2 E 6 j/4 

520 1941, Dec. 26 14:48:04 21 1/2 N 99 E 7-0 

560 1923, June 22 06:44:33 22 3/4 N 98 3/4 E 7-3 

580 1936, Feb. 21 06:20:40 23 N 96 E d 

600 1939> 3' UDB 19 21:56:40 23 1/2 N 94 E d 

640 1938, Aug. 16 04:27:50 23 1/2 N 94 1/4 E 7-2 

680 1334, Jan. 12 13:31:49 23 3/4 N 102 1/2 E 6 

720 1941, May 16 07:14:32 24 N 99 E 6.9 

760 1929, March 22 03:04:04 24 N 1 03 E d 

800 1918, July 8 10:22:07 24 1/2 N 91 E 7-6 

840 1932, March 27 08:44:40 24 l /2 N 92 E d 

880 1940, April 6 13:42:52 24 1/2 N 103 E 6 

REGION 26 (Szechuan, Southern Tibet ) 

15 1932, April 6 09:11:14 31 1/2 N 115 E 6 

35 1937, July 31 20:35:^ 34 1/2 N 115 E 6.9 



TABIE 17 (cont.), REGI0I 26 16? 



No. 


Itete 


Tims 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


50 


1940, 


Nov. 


6 


16 


:ll :06 


29 


1/2 


I 104 


1/2 E 


d 




60 


1936, 


May 


16 


07 


:05:4l 


28 


1/2 


I 103 


3/4 E 


6 


3A 


70 


1933, 


Aug. 


25 


07 


:50:25 


31 


3/4 


I 103 


1/2 E 


7- 


,k 


80 


1935, 


Dec. 


18 


07 


:10:30 


28 


1/2 


N 103 


1/2 E 


6 




85 


1927, 


March 14 


17 


:37:39 


26 


N 1 


03 E 




d 




90 


1936, 


April 26 


23 


:59:04 


29 


N 1 


03 1/2 


E 


6 


5A 


92 


1936, 


May 


8 


15 


:24:21 


29 


N 1 


03 1/2 


E 


d 




105 


1941, 


Jim 


11 


23 


:13:30 


30 


N 1 


02 1/2 


E 


6 




120 


1928, 


July 


19 


20 


:13:50 


31 


1/2 


I 102 


1/2 E 


d 




140 


1931, 


Dec. 


6 


23 


:00:57 


34 


1/2 


N 102 


S 


d 




155 


1926, 


Aug. 


11 


05 


:4?:35 


29 


1/2 


N 101 


1/2 E 


d 




175 


1927, 


July 


2 


20 


:38:46 


29 


1/2 


1 101 


E 


d 




195 


1923, 


March 24 


12 


:40:06 


31 


1/2 


N 101 


E 


7- 


3 


200 


1935, 


July 


26 


10 


:32:18 


33 


1/4 


N 101 


E 


6 




210 


1925, 


March 16 


14 


:42:12 


25 


1/2 


N 100 


1/4 E 


7- 


1 


230 


1933, 


June 


7 


1 1 


:46:06 


27 


1/4 


N 100 


1/4 E 


b 


I/!* 


245 


1930, 


Aug. 


24 


10 


:51:16 


30 


N 100 E 


d. 




260 


1932, 


Jan. 


3 


07 


:50:23 


25 


1/2 


N 98 1/2 E 


d 




'275 


1933, 


Aug, 


11 


08 


: 54:01 


25 


1/2 


N 98 1 


/SB 


6 


1/2 


290 


1931, 


May 27 


00:43:29 


27 


1/2 


N 98 1 


/2 E 


d 




310 


1934, 


Jan. 


19 


12 


:33:07 


25 


1/2 


N 98 1/4 


6 




325 


1933, 


Nov. 


19 


09 


: 08:29 


25 


N 98 E 


d 




345 


1931, 


Oct. 


18 


07 


: 06:40 


26 


N 98 E 


d 




360 


1908, 


Dec. 


12 


12:54.9 


26 


1/2 


N 97 E 




7 


1/2 


380 


1931, 


Jan. 


27 


20:09:13 


25* 


6 N 


96.8 E 




7- 


6 


395 


1931, 


Feb. 


10 


01 


:22:54 


25 


1/2 


N 96 E 




d' 




415 


1929, 


March 25 


03 


:47:04 


29 


N 94 1/2 E 


d 




430 


1930, 


Sept. 22 


14:19:11 


25 


N 94 E 


6 


1/4 


450 


1943, 


Oct. 


23 


17:23:16 


26 


N 93 E 


7- 


2 


465 


1941, 


May 22 


01 


:00:32 


27 


1/2 


N 93 E 




d 




485 


1932, 


March 6 


00:17:56 


25 


1/2 


N 92 1/2 E 


d 




500 


1934, 


June 


23 


05:19:53 


35 


N 92 1/2 E 


6 




520 


1932, 


Nov* 


9 


18:39:09 


26 


1/2 


N 92 E 




d 




535 


1940, 


Sept. 3 14:40:32 


31 


N91 1/2 E 


d 


1 


w 


1 OP1 - 


anfc 


.. Q 


09 


fksk* 


'p*l 


1 /k 


T^oi'iR 




i V' 


1 



1 CC 

Ho. 

570 


Date 
1933, 


March 


6 


Time 
13:05:35 


Location 
26 N 90 1/2 


E 


M Remarks 
d 


590 


1932, 


March 


24 


16 


:08:36 


25 


N 90 E 


d 




605 


1930, 


July 


2 


21 


: 05 : 42 


25 


1/2 


N 90 


E 


7 


.1 


625 


1924, 


Aug. 


13 


23 


:57:50 


29 


1/2 


N 90 


E 


d 




640 


1924, 


Oct. 


8 


20 


:32:57 


30 


N 90 E 


6 


1/2 


660 


1934, 


Dec. 


15 


01 


:57:37 


31 


1/4 


N 89 


1/4 E 


? 


- 1 


665 


1936, 


Feb. 


18 


14 


:30:32 


31 


N 89 


E 




d 




675 


1935, 


Jan. 


3 


01 


:50:08 


30 


1/2 


N 88 


E 


6 


1/2 


685 


1936, 


Feb. 


11 


04 


:48:00 


27 


1/2 


N 87 


E 


d 


h-50 


695 


193 1 *, 


Jan. 


15 


08 


:43:18 


26 


1/2 


N 86 


1/2 E 


8 


.3 


710 


193U 


JUBB 


18 


12 


:58:29 


30 


1/2 


N 84 


E 


d 




730 


1936, 


May 27 


06 


: 1 9 : 1 9 


28 


1/2 


N 83 


1/2 E 


7 


.0 


745 


1944, 


Oct. 


17 


18 


:36:54 


31 


1/2 


N 83 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


760 


1944, 


Oct. 


29 


00 


:1 1 :32 


31 


1/2 N 83 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


780 


1913, 


March 


6 


02 


:Q9.0 


30 


ET 83 


E 




6 


.2 


785 


1913, 


March 6 


1 1 


:04.0 


30 


N 83 


E 




6 


.4 


800 


1934, 


Oct. 


19 


20 


:58:l6 


34 


N 82 


E 




d 




820 


1927, 


June 


2 


16 


:37:34 


23 


1/2 


N 81 


E 


6 


1/2 


840 


1916, 


Aug. 


28 


06 


:39.7 - 


30 


N 81 


E 




7 


.5 


860 


1932, 


March 


4 


23 


:20:48 


33 


1/2 N 81 


E 


d 




880 


1911, 


Oct . 


14 


23 


:24.0 


31 


N 80 


1/2 


E 


6 


3/4 


900 


1935, 


March 


5 


22 


:15:53 


29 


3/4 N 80 


1/4 E 


6 




905 


1945. 


June 


4 


12 


:09:06 


30 


N 80 


E 




6 


1/2 h=60 


920 


1905, 


April 


4 


00 


:50.0 


33 


N 76 


E 




8 




925 


1945, 


June 


22 


18 


: 00:57 


32 


1/2 N 76 


E 


6 


1/2 h=60 



940 1938, March 14 00:48:38 21 1/2 N 75 3/4 E 6 1/4 h=50 

REGION 27 (Kansu to Sirfciang) 

3 1945, Sept. 23 15:34:21 39 1/2 N 119 E 6 1/4 

10 1937, Aug. 1 10:41:00 35 N 115 1/2 E 6 3/4 

40 1934, Jan. 20 17:56:07 40 3/4 N 108 1/4 E 6 1/4 

50 1936, April 10 20:00:55 42 N 1 06 E d 

60 1936, Aug. 1 06:24:25 34 N 106 E 6 

70 1920, Dec. 16 12:05:48 36 N 105 E . 81/2 

90 1936 Feb. 7 08:56:25 35 1;/2 N 103 1/4 E t 6 

100 1927, May 22 22:32:42 36 3/4 N 102 E 8.0 



1 7 ( cent . ) , REGIONS? U9 



lie. 

130 
160 


Date 

1928, 
1958, 


March 7 
Aug. 22 


Time 
22:43 
21 :37 


-.24 
:26 


Location 
37 1/2 N 
36 3/4 N 


102 E 
99 E 


M Remarks 
6 
d 


190 


1950, 


July 1 


5 


19 


:27 


:17 


38 


N 98 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


220 


1955, 


May 19 




17 


:20 


:45 


38 


N 98 1 


12 E 


d 




250 


1957, 


Jan. 7 




15 


:20 


:55 


55 


1/2 N 


98 E 


T* 


6 


280 


1927, 


March 


15 


21 


:48 


:55 


38 


1/2 N 


97 1/2 E 


6 




310 


1941, 


April 


19 


07 


:55 


:42 


59 


N 97 E 




6 




540 


1955, 


Jan. 1 


7 


15 


:59 


:56 


40 


N 97 E 




d 




370 


1952, 


Dec. 25 


02 


:04 


:24 


59 


1/4 I 


96 1/2 E 


7- 


6 


400 


1922, 


Oct. 1 


6 


16 


:01 


:32 


59 


1/2 N 


91 E 


6 


1/2 


430 


1926, 


June 4 




06 


:50 


:58 


55 


N 89 1/2 E 


6 




460 


1955, 


Sept. 


25 


18:51 :21 


58 


N 87 E 


6 


5A 


490 


1924, 


July 5 




04 


:40 


:06 


56 


N 84 E 


7. 


2 


500 


1924, 


July i 


1 


19 


:44 


:40 


56 


1/2 IT 


84 E 


7-2 


550 


1950, 


Sept. 


1 


17 


:45 


:15 


55 


1/2 N 


81 E 


d 




560 


1920, 


Oct. 12 


06 


:54 


:48 


56 


N 81 E 


6 


1/4 


590 


1959, 


March 


17 


12 


:12 


:59 


41 


1/2 IT 


81 E 


d 




620 


1926, 


Aug. 6 




22 


:45 


:5^ 


55 


1/2 N 


78 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


650 


1927, 


April 


50 


13 


:56 


:47 


58 


1/2 N 


78 E 


6 




680 


195^ 


July 28 


02 


:06 


:24 


41 


N 77 1 


/2 E 


d 




710 


1925, 


Dec. 7 


08:3^ 


:50 


57 


N 76 1 


/2 E 


6 




REGION 28 (Mongolia) 


50 


1917, 


April 


29 


1 1 


:55 


.5 


55 


1/2 N 


113 E 


6 


1/2 


40 


1956, 


March 


1 1 


08 


:40 


:48 


56 


1/2 N 


1 12 E 


d 




60 


1957, 


Dec. 25 


09 


:55 


:55 


57 


N 110 


E 


6 




90 


195U 


Aug. 6 


18 


:16 


:04 


55 


1/2 N 


109 E 


6 




120 


1959, 


May 26 


09 


:40 


:55 


55 


N 109 


E 


6 




150 


1941, 


July 1 




06 


:25:50 


55 


N 106 


E 


d 




180 


1955, 


March 


23 


17 


:58:20 


48 


N 104 


E 


6 




210 


1952, 


June 2 


19 


:44 


:50 


47 


1/2 N 


102 1/2 E 


d 




240 


1950, 


June 1 


7 


20:07 


:22 


43 


t/2 N 


102 1/2 E 


d 




270 


1915, 


April 


30 


01 


:44 


.9 


44 


N 101 


E 


6 


1/2 


300 


1959, 


May 19 >9;51 3 1 


50 


1/2 1ST 


^8 E 


d 




550 


1905, 


July S 


> ' 


09 


,i>0 


U4 


49 


Jr 99 E ' : " 


8 


lA 


360 


1905, 


^July;? 




'/Q& 


:'MM5 


UN 


;*9 


1 91* i 


l '""I 1 ', 1 ' 


' ,4 


I/* 



TABIS 1? (cont.), REGION 28 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


390 


1923, 


Sept. 14 


12 


:57 


:31 


48 


N 96 E 




6 


i/* 


420 


1935, 


Jan. 


30 


00 


:35 


:16 


49 


1/2 N 95 


E 


d 




450 


1932, 


July 


9 


1 1 


:11 


:51 


49 


N 93 E 




d 




460 


1935, 


July 


12 


01 


:41 


:23 


^3 


3/4 N 92 


3/4 E 


d 




470 


1936, 


Jan. 


27 


19 


:30 


:22 


45 


N 91 1/2 


E 


d 




480 


1914, 


Aug. 


4 


22 


:41 


.6 


43 


1/2 N 91 


1/2 E 


7 


1/2 


510 


1922, 


Aug. 


25 


19 


:29 


:40 


50 


N 91 E 




6 


1/2 


540 


1933, 


Feb. 


13 


02 


:49 


:12 


45 


3/4 N 90 


1/4 E 


6 


1/2 


570 


1938, 


Oct. 


19 


04 


:13 


:26 


49 


N 90 E 




6 


?/* 


600 


1931, 


Aug. 


1O 


21 


: 18:40 


47 


N 90 E 




8. 





630 


1931, 


Aug. 


18 


14 


:21 


:00 


47 


N 90 E 




7. 


.2 


660 


193U 


Nov. 


5 


12 


:19 


:33 


47 


N 90 E 




6 


1/Jf 


690 


1927, 


May 


1 


19 


:59 


:20 


52 


N 88 1/2 


E 


d 




720 


1934, 


Aug. 


7 


11 


:49 


:58 


43 


N 87 1/2 


E 


d 




750 


1906, 


Dec. 


22 


18 


:21 


.0 


43 


1/2 N 85 


E 


7. 


9 


780 


1941, 


Aug. 


14 


09:38 


:42 


45 


N 84 E 




d 




810 


1944, 


March 9 


22 


:12 


:58 


44 


N 84 E 




7- 


2 


840 


1927, 


Sept 


23 


13:54 


:20 


42 


1/2 N 84 


E 


6 


3A 


870 


1932, 


Sept 


. 1 1 


14 


:13 


:04 


45 


N 83 1/4 


E 


6 




900 


1941, 


April 4 


22 


:00 


:26 


46 


N 82 1/2 


E 


d 




930 


1939, 


Feb. 


23 


15 


:4o 


:56 


43 


N 82 E 




d 




960 


1911, 


Jan. 


3 


23 


:25 


:45 


43 


1/2 N 77 


1/2 E 


8. 


* 


REGION 


29 (Iran 


- Urals ) 






20 


1933, 


July 


7 


07 


:30 


= 51 


24 


N 65 E 




d 




40 


1932, 


April 18 


1 1 


:23:21 


25 


N 64 E 




6 




50 


1943, 


Feb. 


6 


02:35:58 


24 


1/2 N 63 


E 


6 


1/4 


60 


1932, 


Feb. 


4 


21 


:18:09 


26 


1/2 JI 62 


1/4 E 


d 




80 


1945, 


Nov. 


27 


21 : 


:56: 


:50 


24 


1/2 N 63 


E 


8 


1/4 


100 


1936, 


June- 


30 


19:26:06 


33 


N 60 E 




6 


1/4 


120 


1926, 


May 1 


9 


2*1 : 


:13:55 


26 


1/2 N 59 


E 


d 




140 


1932, 


Sept. 


8 


07: 


:25:32 


31 


N 58 1/2 


E 


d 




160 


1933, 


Feb. 


21 


1 9 : 02 : 


:59 


27 


1/2 N 57 


1/2 E 


d 




180 


1934, 


Jan. 


2 


20; 


:55: 


:38 


30 


N 57 1/2 


E 


d 




200 


1923, 


Sept . 


22 


20; 


:47:38 


29 


N 56 1/2 


E 


6. 


9 


220 


1939, 


June 


10 


08:36:41 


33 


1/2 N 56 


1/2 E 


d 




240 


1927, 


May 9 


1 0; 


:31 : 


:47 


27 


1/2 N 56 


E 


6 


1/4 



TABLE 17 (cont.h REGION 29 1.91 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


260 


1911, 


April 


18 


18: 


14.6 


32 


N 56 E 


6. 


7 h=50 


280 


1933, 


Nov. 


28 


1 1 : 


09:18 


32 


N 56 E 


6 


1/4 


300 


1930, 


May 1 


1 


22: 


35:46 


27 


1/2 N 


55 


E 


6 




320 


1925, 


Sept. 


17 


07: 


09:14 


35 


1/2 N 


55 


E 


6 


1/2 


340 


1929, 


Oct. 


29 


05: 


53:39 


27 


1/2 N 


54 


1/2 E 


d 




360 


1939, 


April 


6 


04: 


08:00 


35 


1/2 N 


54 


1/2 E 


d 




380 


1931, 


IVfey 5 




06: 


42:15 


26 


1/2 N 


54 


E 


d 




400 


1930, 


April 


15 


09: 


56:27 


29 


N 54 E 


d 




420 


1932, 


May 20 


19: 


16:1 1 


36 


1/2 N 


53 


1/2 E 


d 




440 


1935, 


April 


1 1 


23: 


1 4:43 


36 


1/2 N 


53 


1/2 E 


6 


3A 


460 


1927, 


July 


22 


03: 


55 = 10 


3^ 


1/2 N 


53 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


480 


1935, 


March 


5 


10:26:35 


36 


1/4 N 


"53 


1/4 E 


6 




500 


1909, 


Jan. 


23 


02: 


48.3 


33 


N 53 : 


E 




7- 


4 


520 


1931, 


July 


28 


17: 


36:25 


29 


1/2 N 


52 


E 


d 




540 


193^, 


Feb. 


4 


13:27:14 


30 


1/2 N 


51 


3/4 E 


6 


1/4 


560 


1930, 


Sept. 


2 


18:58:48 


30 


N 51 


1/2 


E 


d 




580 


1939, 


Jan. 


25 


11 :02:22 


51 


N 50 


E 




d 




600 


1929, 


July 


15 


07:44:14 


32 


N 49 


1/2 


E 


6 


1/4 


620 


1939, 


Nov. 


4 


1 O: 


;15:24 


32 


N 49 


1/2 


E 


6 




640 


1934, 


Oct. 


29 


16: 


:15:4 5 


40 


3/4 N 49 


E 


d 




660 


1932, 


March 15 


1 0: 


:18:06 


34 


N 48 


E 




d 




680 


1941, 


June 


10 


20:38:43 


32 


N 47 


1/2 


E 


d 




70O 


1932, 


Jan. 


22 


00:48:56 


"33 


N 47 


E 




d 




720 


1927, 


Nov. 


12 


14:45:50 


32 


1/P N 46 


1/2 E 


d 




740 


1931, 


April 27 


16: 


150:38 


38 


3/4 N 46 


E 


6 


1/2 


760 


193^, 


Feb. 


22 


08:07:13 


38 


1/2 N 45 


E 


d 




780 


1932, 


March 15 


07:44:34 


41 


N 45 


E 




d 




810 


195^ 


April 3 


1 1 


:26:37 


35 


1/2 N 65 


E 


d 




825 


1941, 


Feb. 


16 


16 


:39:03 


33 


3A * 


r 59 


E 


6 


1/4 


835 


1931, 


Aug. 


8 


03 


:54:16 


37 


N 58 


1/2 


E 


d 




850 


1940, 


May 4 


21 


:01 :54 


35 


1/4 N 58 


1/4 E 


6 


1/2 


860 


1929, 


May i 


I 


15 


:37:30 


38 


N 58 


E 




? 


' 1 


870 


1933, 


Oct. 


5 


13 


:29:%5 


35 


1C 57 


3/4 


E ' 


6 




880 


* 1928, 


Nov. 


6 


13 


: 42:35 


40 


N 53 


T/2 


E 


a 




890 


193&, 


Feib. 


14 


02 


: 54:16 


40 


1/2 N 53 


1/2 E 


6 




930 


1933, 


Ju3Ly 


14 


04 


: 41 : OJ 


43 


N 56 


1/2 


i , , - 


v:-4 


i;> ; 


960 


1931, 


'bc^. t 


30 


t? 


:?6c3l 


43 


N 51 


E 




1 :-: : ' ; 





TABLE 17 ( cont . ) 



/.jgNg- 

No. 
1 


D&te 
1932, 


May 7 


REGION 30 {Asia Minor - Levant - 
Time Location 
14:54:09 36 1/4 N 45 E 


Balkans ) 
M Remarks 
d 


20 


1930, 


May 6 




22: 


:34:23 


38 


N 44 


1/2 E 


7-2 


25 


1926, 


Oct. 22 


19:59:26 


40 


1/2 N 44 E 


d 


30 


1935, 


May 1 




1 0: 


:24: 


:35 


39 


1/2 If 43 E 


6 


40 


1941, 


Sept. 


1 


21 : 


:53: 


:55 


39 


1/2 M 


43 E 


6 


50 


1940, 


May 7 


22:23:43 


42 


N 43 


E 


6 1/2 b=50 


60 


1924, 


Sept. 


13 


14 


:54 


:05 


40 


N 42 


E 


6 3/4 


70 


1934, 


Mov. 


12 


07 


:19 


:16 


39 


N 41 


E 


6 


80 


1931, 


July 


31 


00 


:25 


:50 


4o 


1/2 E 


F 40 E 


d 


90 


1939, 


Dec. 


26 


23 


:57 


:ei 


39 


1/2 15 


F 38 1/2 E 


8.0 


1 00 


1909, 


Feb. 


9 


1 1 


:24 


.1 


40 


W 38 


E 


6 3/4 h=60 


110 


1929> 


May 18 


06 


= 37 


:51 


40 


N 38 


E 


6 1/2 


12O 


1923, 


April 


29 


09 


:34:35 


40 


N 37 


E 


d 


130 


1942, 


Dec. 


20 


14 


:03 


:08 


40 


1/2 15 


[36 1/2 E 


7-3 


135 


1940, 


April 


13 


06 


:29 


:04 


39 


1/2 IT 36 E 


d 


i4o 


1928, 


Aug. 


23 


06:15:55 


36 


1/2 E 


F 36 E 


d 


150 


1936, 


June 


14 


17 


:01 


:30 


37 


N 35 


1/2 E 


d 


160 


1940, 


July 


30 


00 


:12 


:07 


39 


3/4 ft 35 1/2 E 


6 1/4 


170 


1941, 


April 27 


13 


:01 


:32 


40 


N 35 


1/2 E 


d 


180 


1924, 


Feb. 


18 


17 


:03:56 


34 


1/2 IT 34 E 


6 


190 


19-43, 


Nov. 


26 


22 


:20 


:36 


41 


N 34 


E 


7.6 


200 


1938, 


April 19 


10 


:59 


:15 


39 


1/2 1 


* 33 1/2 E 


6 3/4 


210 


1921, 


April 20 


16 


:04 


:20 


34 


N 33 


E 


d 


220 


1936, 


Sept. 


21 


1 1 


:41 


:24 


41 


N 33 


E 


d 


230 


1944, 


Feb. 


1 


03 


:22 


:36 


41 


1/2 1 


tf 32 1/2 E 


7.4 


240 


1930, 


May 9 


07 


:07 


:22 


34 


1/2 N 32 E 


d 


250 


1924, 


Sept. 


10 


1 1 


:59 


:30 


37 


N 32 


E 


d 


260 


1931, 


Jan. 


12 


15 


:06 


:09 


38 


1/2 N 32 E 


d 


270 


1929, 


Aug. 


4 


09 


:03 


:53 


36 


N 31 


E 


d 


280 


1930, 


Sept. 


11 


12 


:36:44 


37 


H 31 


E 


6 


290 


1934, 


June 


19 


18:43:15 


39 


N 31 


E 


d 


300 


1925, 


Aug. 


7 


06:46:37 


38 


N 30 


1/2 E 


5 3/4 


305 


1939, 


Sept. 


15 


23 


:16:,P4 


39 


J/4 N 30 1/4 E 3 


310 


1914, 


Oct. 


3 


22:07-1 


.38 


N 30 


E ' , 


' 7 ' 1 !, 


320 


19^3, 


June 


20 


15:52:53 


41 


I 30 


E 


6 1/4 



17 (cont.), 50 193 



Mo. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


330 


1926, 


March l 8 


14 


:06 


:09 


35 


I 29 1/2 


E 


6.9 


340 


1932 


9 


May 1 


4 


03 


:44 


:53 


36 


I 28 1/2 


E 


d 


350 


1922 


9 


Aug. 


13 


00 


:09 


:53 


36 


N 28 E 




6 3/4 h=4o 


360 


1941 


9 


May 23 


19 


:51 


:53 


37 


1/4 N 28 


E 


6 


361 


1941 


9 


May 23 


22:34 


:12 


37 


1/4 N 28 


E 


d 


370 


1932 


9 


June 


29 


02 


:30 


:01 


35 


1/2 N 27 


1/2 E 


d 


380 


1935 


9 


Jan. 


4 


14 


:4l 


:23 


40 


1/4 N 27 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


381 


1935 


9 


Jan. 


4 


16 


:20 


:00 


40 


1/4 N 27 


1/2 E 


6 


400 


1932 


9 


Oct. 


23 


13 


:36:35 


35 


1/4 N 27 


1/4 E 


d 


41 


1933 


9 


April 


23 


05 


:57 


:35 


36 


3/4 N 27 


1/4 E 


6 3/4 h=5G 


420 


1933 


9 


April 


28 


22 


:28 


:41 


35 


1/4 N 27 


E 


d 


430 


1928 


9 


March 


31 


00 


:29 


:47 


38 


N 27 E 




6 1/4 


440 


1939 


9 


Sept. 


22 


00 


:36 


:32 


39 


N 27 E 




6 1/2 


450 


1912 


9 


Aug. 


9 


01 


:29 


.0 


40 


1/2 N 27 


E 


7 3/4 


460 


1941 


9 


July 


13 


15 


:39 


:31 


38 


N 26 1/4 


E 


d 


470 


193^ 


9 


March 


8 


02 


:56 


:47 


33 


1/4 N 26 


E 


d 


480 


193^ 


3 


Nov. 


21 


22 


:26 


:13 


^5 4 


N 26 E 




d 


482 


1936 


y 


Aug. 


8 


04 


:12 


:43 


*5 4 


N 26 E 




d h=6o 


490 


1931 


9 


July 


12 


22 


:24 


:22 


39 


1/2 N 26 


E 


d 


500 


1940 


9 


Feb. 


29 


16 


:07 


:42 


35 


1/2 N 25 


1/2 E 


6 


510 


1937 


9 


Jan. 


2 


14 


:04 


:02 


35 


N 25 E 




d 


520 


1928 


9 


April 


14 


08 


:59:53 


42 


N 25 E 




6 3/4 


530 


1928 


9 


April 


18 


19 


: 22:46 


42 


N 24 3/1* 


E 


6 3/4 


540 


1913 


9 


Sept. 


30 


07:33 


.8 


35 


N 24 E 




5 3/4 b=6Q 


550 


1933 


9 


May 1 


1 


19 


:09 


:44 


40 


1/2 N 23 


3/4 E 


6 1/4 


560 


1932 


9 


April 


27 


01 


:47 


:46 


34 


N 23 1/2 


E 


d 


570 


1914 


9 


Oct. 


17 


06 


:22 


-5 


38 


1/4 N 23 


1/2 E 





580 


1932 


9 


Sept. 


26 


19 


:20 


:37 


40 


N 23 1 A 


E 


6.9 


590 


1932 


9 


Sept. 


29 


03 


:57 


:19 


40 


1/2 N 23 


1/4 E 


6 1/4 


600 


1932 


9 


Nov. 


1 


16 


:19 


:26 


40 


1/2 N 23 


1/4 E 


d 


610 


1904 


9 


April 


4 


10 


:26 


.0 


41 


3A N 23 


1/4 E 


7 1/2 


620 


1931 


9 


Jan. 


4 


00 


:00 


:43 


38 


N 23 E 




d 


630 


1941 


9 


May 14 


08 


:36 


:21 


39 


1/2 N 23 


E 


d 


640 


1952 


9 


Sept . 


30 


06 


tie 


:09 


3;6 


N 2 3/4 


E 


d 


650 


1:936 


9 


June 


13 


00 


:32:39 


32 


5/4 Jjf, ^2 


1/2S 


d 


(ifir\ 


.voklfi 




,taft>J_," 


01 ' "'' 


tl 


t^7 


1? '. 


5% 


1 /2 N 22 


1/2 E 


d 



194 


TABLE 17 (cent.), REGION 


30 


No. 


Date 


TlBB 


Location 


M Remains 


670 


1931 , March 7 


00:16:42 


41 I 22 1/2 E 


6 


680 


1931 , March 8 


01 :50:19 


41 N 22 1/2 E 


6 3A 


690 


1941 , March i 


03:52:48 


39 1/2 N 22 E 


6 1/4 


700 


1942, Aug. 27 


06:1 4:1 1 


42 N 21 E 


d 


710 


1912, Jan. 24 


16:23-1 


38 N 20 1/2 E 


6 3/4 h=6o 


720 


1932, March 9 


10:16:48 


38 N 20 1/2 E 


d 


730 


1941 , June 24 


15:16:10 


41 N 20 1/2 E 


d 


740 


1943, Feb. 14 


07:28:22 


38 N 20 E 


d h=50 


810 


1929, Feb. 10 


17:20:16 


44 N 44 E 


d 


820 


1927, June 26 


11:20:48 


44 1/2 N 34 1/2 E 


6 


830 


1927* Sept. 11 


22:15:47 


44 1/2 N 34 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


840 


1928, Nov. 23 


04:23:30 


47 1/2 N 30 E 


d 


850 


1913, June 14 


09:33-2 


43 1/2 N 25 1/2 E 


6 3/4 


860 


1916, Jan. 26 


07:38.0 


46 N 24 E 


6 1/2 


950 


1927* July 11 


13:04:07 


32 N 35 1/2 E 


6 1/4 






REGION 


31 (Western Mediterranean) 


15 


1912, April 21 


02:53*7 


37 1/2 N 19 1/2 E 


5 3/4 


30 


1930, Nov. 21 


02:00:25 


40 1/2 N 19 1/2 E 


6 


45' 


1939, May 20 


09:35:23 


41 N 19 1/2 E 


d 


60 


1934, Feb. 4 


09:35:22 


41 1/2 N 19 1/4 E 


d 


75 


1925, Feb. 7 


12:14:58 


37 N 19 E 


d 


90 


1927, Feb. 14 


03:43:21 


43 N 1 8 E 


6 1/4 h=50 


105 


1932, Jan. 2 


23:36:43 


39 N 17 1/2 E 


d 


120 


1938, May 27 


21 :23:50 


42 1/4 N 17 1/4 E 


d 


135 


1942, Dec. 29 


03:42:12 


43 N 17 E 


d 


150 


1908, Dec. 28 


04:20.4 


38 N 15 1/2 E 


7 1/2 


165 


1930, July 23 


00:08:37 


41 N 15 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


180 


1952, May 22 


17:01 :48 


38 N 15- 1/2 E 


d 


195 


1939, Jan. 27 


20:10:15 


38 1/2 N 15 E 


d 


210 


1933, Sept. 26 


03:33:22 


42 N 14 1/4 E 


d 


225 


1929, Dec. 13 


04:45:27 


36 N 14 E 


d 


240 


1934, Nov, 30 


02:58:14 


44 N 14 E 


d 


250 


1915> Jan. 13 


06:52*7 


42 N 13 1/2 E 


7 


255 


1930, Oct. 30 


07:13:10 


43 3/4 N 13 1/2 E 


6 



TABIS 1? (cont), HBGION 31 195 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


270 


19*3, 


Oct. 3 


08 


:28 




:25 


42 


1/2 


If 13 


1/4 E 


d 


285 


1929, 


April 20 


01 


:09 




45 


44 


1 1 


1 1/4 


E 


d 


300 


1920, 


Sept. 7 


05 


= 55 




:40 


44 


I 1 


E 




5 3/4 


315 


1935, 


March 19 


07 


:27 




15 


44 


3/* 


I 6 


1/2 E 


d 


330 


1923, 


July 10 


05 


:31 




13 


42 


1/2 


N 3/4 W 


d 


3*5 


1932, 


March 5 


02 


:10 




28 


37 


1/2 


N 2 


3/4 W 


d 


350 


1930, 


July 5 


23 


:11 


: 


47 


37 


3/* 


N 4 


1/2 W 


d 


360 


193*, 


Nov. 12 


08 


= 31 




57 


38 


N 8 


1/2 W 


d 


375 


19*1, 


Dec. 27 


18 


:17 


: 


27 


36 


M" 4 


1/2 


W 


6 3/4 h~6o 


390 


1915, 


July 11 


11 


:28. 


6 


37 


N 1 


1/2 


W 


6 1/4 h=50 


405 


1931, 


May 20 


02 


:22 


: 


49 


37 


1/2 


N 16 


W 


7.1 


420 


19*1, 


Nov. 25 


18 


:03 


* 


55 


37 


1/2 


N 18 


1/2 W 


8.3 


430 


19*2, 


May 29 


05 


:32 


: 


03 


38 


N 1 


9 W 




d 


490 


1921, 


April 22 


16 


:04 


: 


02 


44 


N 17 W 


d 


520 


1939, 


Jan. 23 


02:22: 


46 


31 


1/2 


N 16 


E 


d 


540 


1935, 


April 20 


05 


:10 


: 


51 


31 


N 1 


5 3/* 


E 


6 1/2 


560 


19*1, 


March 4 


23 


:45:10 


30 


3/4 


N 15 


3/* E 


d 


580 


1935, 


April 19 


20 


:31 


. 


30 


31 


K 1 


5 1/2 


E 


6 


600 


1935, 


April 1<? 


15 


:23 


: 


22 


31 


1/2 


N 15 


I/* E 


7-1 


620 


1920, 


Feb. 25 


17 


:56 


: 


23 


35 


N 9 


1/2 ! 


E 


d 


640 


192*, 


March 16 


10 


:17 


: 


25 


35 


N 6 


E 




d 


660 


1910, 


June 24 


13 


:27 








36 


N 4 


E 




6.4 


680 


1924, 


Nov. 5 


18 


:54 


: 


25 


36 


N 4 


E 




d 


700 


1943, 


April 16 


11 


:*3 


: 


05 


35 


1/2 


N 4 E 


d 


720 


193*, 


Sept. 7 


03 


:39: 


10 


36 


N 2 


E 




a 


740 


1928, 


Aug. 24 


09 


:44 


: 


15 


36 


N 






a 


760 


19*1, 


June 1 2 


13 


:55: 


35 


36 


N 1 


W 




d 


780 


1926, 


Oct. 11 


06:38:52 


36 


N 3 


W 




d 


800 


1935, 


March 14 


17 


:02 


: 


14 


36 


3/4 


N 3 3/4 W 


a 


820 


1927, 


Sept. 8 


08 


:52 


: 


50 


36 


N 3 


1/2W 


a 


840 


19*10, 


June 16 


04 


:16 





3 


36 


1/2 


N 4 W 


6*1 


860 


1923, 


July 9 


15 


:31 


: 


16 


35 


1/2 


N 4 W 


a 


880 


1930, 


Aug. 9 


18:09:26 


3* 


N 5 


W 




a 


900 


1930, 


March 7 


06 


:4l 


: 


00 


3? 


1T1 


1 >/2 


W 


a 


940 


1936, 


June 20 


14 


:03 


: 


10 


42 


1/2 


N 11 


W 


a 



TABLE 17 (cont.) 



EEGIOI 


32 (Atlantic Ocean) 


lo. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


5 


1925 


, 


Feb* 


16 


17 


:39 


:18 


58 


S 7 W 


6 


3A 


10 


1925 


, 


March 


7 


18 


:U 


:16 


58 


S 7 W 


6 


1/2 


15 


1928 


> 


Nov. 


22 


08 


:31 


:01 


56 


1/2 S 3 W 


6. 


9 


20 


1928 


, 


July 


19 


23 


:38 


:*5 


55 


1/2 S 9 E 


6 


1/4 


25 


1938 


, 


Bferch 


1 


23 


:26 


:58 


55 


S 12 E 


6 


1/2 


30 


19*2 


, 


June 


2 


00 


:30 


:31 


5* 


1/2 S 4 W 


6 


1/4 


35 


1927 


, 


Nov. 


14 


15 


:04 


:35 


5* 


S 8 E 


6 


1/4 


4o 


1920 


, 


Sept. 


4 


14 


:09 


:02 


5* 


S 2 E 


6 


1/2 


50 


1931 


, 


April 


7 


07:39:26 


51 


S 15 E 


6 




60 


1933, 


Jan. 


18 


08 


:37 


:32 


37 


S 18 W 


6 


1/4 


70 


1939 


, 


Aug. 


2 


00:46 


:22 


36 


S 16 W 


6 


1/2 


75 


1930 


, 


Dec. 


25 


13 


:07 


:19 


33 


s 13 w 


6 


1/4 


95 


1925 


, 


June 


13 


20 


:23 


:10 


29 


S 22 W 


6 




1 10 


1925 


, 


Dec. 


15 


10 


:31 


:31 


25 


S 9 W 


d 




115 


1933 


, 


Jan. 


6 


19 


:10 


:13 


22 


S 1 E 


6 




125 


1926 


, 


May 1 


7 


21 


:42 


:17 


14 


1/2 S 14 W 


d 




130 


1929 


, 


July 


25 


22 


:57 


:17 


13 


1/2 S 14 W 


6 


1/4 


135 


193*. 


May 1 


9 


01 


:15 


:41 


13 


S 14 W 


6 




140 


19*3 


, 


June 


20 


17 


:39 


:35 


1 1 


1/2 S 14 W 


6 




145 


1928 


, 


April 


3 


16 


:42 


:4 5 


1 1 


1/2 S 14 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


155 


1932 


, 


Aug. 


1 


10 


:46 


:26 


83 12 1/2 W 


d 




165 


1922 


, 


Nov. 


8 


23 


:33:*5 


6 


1/2 S 11 W 


d 




170 


1932 


, 


April 


30 


01 


:06 


:19 5 S 1 1 1/2 W 


6 




175 


1923 


, 


July 


20 


15 


:02 


:37 


1 


1/2 S 13 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


180 


1920 


, 


July 


4 


00 


:11 


:40 


2 


S 14 W 


6 




185 


1928 


, 


Aug. 


3 


11 


:44 


:42 


2 


S 14 W 


6 




190 


1929 


, 


June 


6 


10 


:50 


:1 1 


1 S 14 1/2 W 


6 


1/P 


195 


1933 


, 


May 19 


17 


:57 


:59 


1 


1/2 S 15 W 


6 


1/2 


200 


1929 


, 


March 


31 


03 


:09 


:53 


1 


S 15 W 


d 




210 


19*2 


, 


April 


13 


07 


:46 


:18 


1 


S 16 W 


6 


1/2 


215 


1939 


, 


Dec. 


21 


01 


:45 


:50 


1/2 S 1 6 W 


d 




225 


1920 


, 


Dec. 


5 


10 


:01 


:15 





17 w 


6 


1/4 


230 


1929, 


Jan. 


18 


21 


:27 


:45 


1 


N 1 7 W 


d 





TABLE 1 7 ( cont . ) 32 1 97 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


250 


1939, 


April 23 


16 


:23 


:06 


1 


/2 1 


17 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


255 


1925, 


Sept. 


12 


14 


:14 


. Kp 
>o 


1 


S 19 W 


d 




260 


1928, 


May 12 


20 


:28 


:00 


i 


I 19 W 


6 




265 


1941, 


July 


21 


16 


:36:10 


1 


/4 S 


19 1/2 W 


6 




275 


1940, 


April 27 


10:33 


:13 


1 


N 19 1/2 W 


6 


3/4 


280 


1940, 


Oct. 


30 


03 


:10 


:08 


1 


1/2 


S 20 W 


6 


1/4 


285 


1928, 


Sept. 


. 18 


17 


:19 


:20 


20 


W 


6 


1/2 


290 


1941, 


Jan. 


24 


15 


:35 


:24 


1 


/2 N 


20 W 


6 


1/4 


300 


1929, 


Aug. 


22 


19 


:40 


:53 


3 


S 21 


W 


d 




305 


1929, 


Feb. 


2 


00 


:00 


:19 


1 


1/2 


S 21 W 


7 


.1 


315 


1925, 


Aug. 


20 


23 


:04 


:30 


1 


S 21 


1/2 W 


d 




320 


1932, 


Maj 21 


15 


:43 


:30 


1 


S 21 


1/2 W 


d 




330 


193^, 


Sept. 


1 


1 1 


:39 


:26 


1/2 N 


25 1/2 W 


6 




340 


1924, 


June 


20 


16 


:21 


:34 





26 W 


d 




3^5 


193^, 


Oct. 


6 


12 


:48 


:34 


1 


N 27 W 


6 




355 


1920, 


Nov. 


12 


05 


:41 


:58 


1 


N 28 W 


6 


5 


360 


1935, 


Jan. 


19 


12 


:37 


:30 


1 


N 28 W 


6 


1/4 


361 


1935, 


Jan. 


19 


12 


:58 


:53 


1 


N 28 W 


6 




365 


1924, 


Oct. 


12 


19 


:3^ 


:10 


1 


/2 S 


29 W 


6 


1/2 


375 


1937, 


Dec. 


28 


06 


:19 


:26 


1 


N 29 W 


6 


1/2 


380 


1937, 


Oct. 


6 


21 


:48 


:02 


1 


1/2 


N 29 W 


6 


1/4 


390 


1923, 


Sept. 


26 


02 


:29 


:20 


1 


1/2 


N 29 1/2 W 


6 




395 


1923, 


Aug. 


8 


12 


:17 


:25 


1 


/2 N 


30 w 


6 


1/4 


400 


1934, 


May 22 


1 1 


:01 


:40 


1 


1/4 


N 30 1/4 W 


6 


1/2 


410 


1934, 


Sept. 


26 


07 


:27 


:28 


5 


1/4 


N 33 W 


6 


1/4 


415 


1939, 


Nov. 


5 


02 


:02 


:05 


7 


N 34 


W 


6 




420 


1941, 


March 


21 


07 


:57 


:59 


7 


N 35 


W 


6 


1/2 


430 


1937, 


Aug. 


22 


1 1 


:31 


:44 


7 


N 36 


W 


6 




435 


1932, 


May 31 


08 


:37 


:18 


7 


N 38 W 


6 




440 


1934, 


July 


23 


18 


:21 


:26 


7 


1/4 


N 34 1/2 W 


6 




445 


19*5, 


June 


1 


22 


:24 


:07 


7 


1/2 


N 34 1/2 W 


6 




450 


1918, 


May 20 


14 


: 5 6 


.0 


7 


1/2 


N 36 W 


7 


.4 


455 


19^2, 


Nov. 


28 


10 


:38 


:4 5 


7 


1/2 


N 36 W 


7 


.1 


465 


1928, 


Aug. 


31 


05 


:14 


:34 


8 


N 37 W 


d 





198 


TABIE 17 (cont.)j REGION 32 


No. 
470 
480 
485 


Date 

1929, 

1928, 
1929, 


Jan, 
Dec. 

July 


27 

10 
27 


Time 
1 6:07:12 
15:39:00 
12:53:12 


Location 
8 N 37 W 
9 N 39 W 
9 N 40 W 


M Remarks 
6 1/2 
d 
d 


490 


1925, 


Oct. 


13 


17:40:34 


1 1 


N 42 


W 


7.5 


500 


1929, 


Feb. 


22 


20:41 


:46 


11 


I 42 


W 


7.2 


505 


1927, 


Sept, 


. 3 


19 


:47 


:45 


1 1 


N 44 


W 


6.9 


510 


1925, 


July 


5 


07 


:02 


:09 


13 


1/2 ] 


N 42 1/2 W 


6 h=6o 


515 


1936, 


June 


22 


19:27 


:00 


13 


1/2 3 


N 45 W 


6 


520 


1929, 


July 


6 


09 


:46 


:15 


14 


1/2 1 


Kf 46 W 


6 1/2 


525 


1930, 


Feb. 


28 


00 


:57 


:56 


15 


N 46 


W 


6 


530 


1940, 


Jferch 4 


19 


:59 


:05 


15 


1/4 3 


Ef 45 W 


6 


54o 


1942, 


Dec. 


31 


12 


:03 


:42 


18 


N 47 


W 


6 1/2 


550 


1938, 


Feb. 


15 


03 


:27 


:42 


19 


N 26 


W 


6 1/4 


555 


1941, 


Aug. 


15 


06 


:09 


:25 


20 


N 27 


W 


6 3/4 


575 


1944, 


May 6 


00 


:13 


:42 


22 


N 44 


W 


6 1/4 


580 


1928, 


Sept. 


14 


08 


:02 


:02 


22 


1/2 N 45 1/2 W 


d 


585 


1935, 


May 23 


17 


:58 


:59 


23 


N 45 


W 


6 1/4 


595 


1924, 


Oct. 


14 


05 


:00 


:19 


24 


N 45 


W 


6 1/2 


600 


1922, 


Jan. 


9 


05 


:09 


:34 


24 


N 46 


W 


7-1 


605 


1925, 


Aug. 


12 


06 


:58 


:45 


24 


N 46 


W 


6 1/2 h=60 


615 


1920, 


Aug. 


12 


06 


:21 


:01 


25 


N 46 


W 


d 


625 


1937, 


Dec. 


13 


22 


:58 


:47 


26 


N 45 


W 


6 


630 


1927, 


March 6 


01 


:33 


:40 


27 


N 45 


W 


6 . 


640 


1931, 


Aug. 


16 


08 


:06 


:1 1 


29 


N 65 


W 


d 


650 


1935, 


Feb. 


6 


01 


:53 


:53 


30 


1/2 N 42 W 


6 


660 


1923, 


May 31 


22 


:06 


:03 


32 


N 41 


W 


d 


665 


1933, 


July 


22 


09 


:37 


:48 


32 


1/2 N 40 W 


d 


670 


1928, 


Aug. 


15 


15 


:38 


:48 


32 


1/2 N 43 W 


d 


675 


1926, 


Jan. 


7 


14 


:31 


:18 


33 


N 40 


W 


6 


680 


1929, 


April 


21 


12 


:37 


:52 


34 


tt 38 


W 


d 


685 


1926, 


July 


31 


18 


:09 


:53 


35 


1/2 N 36 W 


d 


690 


1932, 


Dec. 


4 


04 


:04 


:00 


35 


1/2 N 36 1/2 W 


6 


700 


1939, 


June 


5 


23 


:03 


:31 


36 


N 34 


1/2 W 


d 


710 


1930, 


Oct. 


21 


1-9 


:05 


:51 


36 


1 /2 N 23 W 


d 


715 


1939, 


May 8 




01 


:46 


:50 


37 


N 24 


1/2 W 


7.1 



TABLE 1? (cont.), REGIOH 32 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


730 


1933 


9 


Aug. 


15 


00 


:4 5 


:04 


38 


N 26 1/2 


W 


d 


735 


1926 


f 


July 


9 


15 


:0 5 


:34 


38 


N 30 W 




d 


740 


1926 


y 


Aug. 


31 


1 


:40 


:08 


38 


1/2 I 28 


W 


d 


745 


1941 


> 


July 


19 


09 


:24 


:15 


38 


1/2 N 32 


W 


d 


750 


1926 


> 


April 


5 


23 


:29 


:19 


39 


N 29 W 




6 h=50 


760 


1931 


, 


July 


9 


12 


:00 


:19 


40 


1/4 N 29 


1/2 W 


d 


770 


1924 


, 


Aug. 


27 


22 


:33 


:57 


41 


1/2 N 30 


1/2 W 


d 


775 


1923 


> 


July 


18 


01 


:06 


: 0? 


42 


N 29 1/2 


W 


d 


780 


1939 


9 


April 


28 


00 


:32 


:55 


43 


N 28 1/2 


W 


d 


785 


1940 


t 


July 


1 


21 


:29 


:42 


43 


N 29 W 




d 


790 


1923 


y 


July 


18 


06 


:02 


:19 


43 


N 29 1/4 


W 


d 


795 


1930 


> 


May 21 


22 


:O9 


:07 


43 


N 30 W 




6 


810 


1939 


> 


Feb. 


6 


10 


:39 


:20 


45 


N 27 W 




d 


815 


1926 


> 


Sept. 


23 


15 


:1 1 


:14 


45 


N 29 W 




d 


825 


1922 


, 


Feb. 


16 


02 


= 51 


:15 


48 


N 28 W 




d 


830 


1931 


, 


April 


15 


16 


:58:58 


48 


N 28 W 




6 


835 


1934 


, 


Jan. 


22 


10 


:07 


:18 


48 


1/2 N 28 


1/2 W 


d 


845 


1939 


, 


Dec. 


25 


1? 


: 5 2 


:4 T 


51 


1/4 N 32 


1/2 W 


d 


850 


1932 


, 


Jan. 


27 


19 


:40:54 


51 


1/2 N 29 


1/2 W 


6 


855 


1933 


, 


Feb. 


28 


22 


:19 


:24 


51 


1/2 N 30 


W 


d 


860 


1941 


, 


June 


18 


1 1 


:09 


:10 


52 


N 34 1/2 


W 


6 1/4 


865 


1927 


, 


July 


6 


00 


:03 


:48 


53 


N 34 W 




d 


870 


1933 


, 


July 


31 


1 1 


:35 


:34 


53 


N 35 W 




d 


875 


1923 


, 


Sept . 


30 


01 


:20 


:50 


54 


N 32 W 




6 1/2 


880 


1923 


, 


Nov. 


28 


oo 


:34 


:23 


54 


N 37 W 




d 


885 


1924 


, 


March 


22 


13 


:08 


:52 


55 


N 34 1/2 


W 


d 


890 


1930, 


April 


16 


13 


:44 


:50 


55 


N 34 1/2 


W 


d 


895 


1939 


, 


Sept. 


21 


12 


:43 


:50 


55 


1/2 N 34 


1/2 W 


d 


900 


1931 





Sept. 


6 


08 


:02 


:16 


55 


1/2 N 35 


W 


d 


905 


1924 


, 


Dec. 


12 


02 


:20 


:57 


56 


N 33 W 




d 


910 


1929 


, 


July 


4 


07 


:14 


:23 


56 


N 33 W 




d 


915 


1934 


, 


Nov. 


10 


15 


:39 


:51 


5-6 


N 33 1/2 


W 


d 


925 


1929 


, 


March 3 


16 


:52 


:02 


56 


N 35 W 


< 


d 


930 


1929 


, 


July 


4 


07 


156 


:42 


56 


N 35 1/2 


W 


d 


935 


1933, 


Dec. 


15 


07 


:42 


:06 


56 


1/2 N 34 


W 


6 



Mo. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


940 


1921, 


Aug. 


23 


05 


:11 


:57 


57 


N 3* 


W 


d 


945 


1932, 


April 




14 


01 


:38 


:22 


58 


H 31 


1/2 W 


d 


947 


1936, 


March 




25 


08 


:58 


:k9 


58 


1/4 I 32 W 


d 


950 


19*1, 


June 


16 


21 


:11 


:kl 


59 


N 32 


W 


d 


955 


1921, 


June 


30 


02 


:10 


:13 


61 


1/2 


N 33 W 


d 


960 


1929, 


Dec. 


15 


01 


:33 


:26 


63 


ff 36 


W 


d 


965 


1912, 


May 6 






19 


:00 


.O 


64 


jar 20 


W 


7.0 


970 


1929, 


July 


23 


18:43 


:08 


64 


jsr 23 


W 


6 1/4 


975 


1933, 


June 


l 





12 


:06 


:5* 


64 


IT 23 


W 


6 


980 


193*, 


May 20 


19 


:04 


:22 


64 


1/2 


N 2 W 


d 


985 


192*, 


Sept. 




4 


16 


:01 


:16 


64 


1/2 N 23 W 


d 


990 


1927, 


July 


31 


20 


:59 


:02 


65 


1/2 N 19 W 


d 


995 


193*, 


June 


2 




13 


:42 


:38 


66 


N 18 


1/4 W 


6 1/4 


998 


1935, 


July 


17 


00:04 


:13 


66 


N 8 E 


d 


KEGION 33 


(Indian Ocean) 




2 


1935, 


Oct, 


20 


04 


:51 


:30 


18 


N 60 


E 


d 


5 


1924, 


April 


20 


14 


:27 


:04 


15 


N 52 


E 


6 1/4 


10 


1932, 


June 


1 


1 


08 


:32:56 


15 


N 53 


1/2 E 


d 


15 


1931, 


June 


24 


23:47:04 


15 


N 59 


1/2 E 


d 


25 


1929, 


April 


28 


04 


:58 


:44 


14 


1/2 N 53 E 


d 


30 


1928, 


March 


19 


10 


:02 


:06 


14 


1/2 ; 


N 53 1/2 E 


d 


35 


1941, 


Sept. 




24 


03:45 


:57 


14 


1/2 N 53 1/2 E 


d 


40 


1935, 


Jan. 


1 


8 


02 


: 08:37 


14 


1/2 N 56 E 


d 


50 


1928, 


Sept. 




18 


19 


= 52 


:37 


14 


N 52 


E 


6.0 


55 


1929, 


March 




16 


12 


:30:52 


14 


N 5* 


E 


d 


65 


1923, 


Dec. 


10 


23 


:53 


:38 


13 


1/2 N 50 E 


d 


70 


1932, 


Aug. 


1 


4 


12 


:36 


:08 


13 


1/2 N 56 E 


d 


85 


1904, 


Oct- 


3 




03 


:05 


.0 


12 


N 58 


E 


7 


95 


1940, 


Oct. 


31 


05 


:21 


:55 


11 


1/2 N 57 1/2 E 


d 


105 


1^26, 


Jan. 


5 




10 


:03 


:24 


1 1 


N 58 


E 


d 


115 


1932, 


Feb. 


12 


00 


:58 


:09 


10 


1/2 N 57 1/2 E 


6 


125 


1928, 


July 


4 




1> 


:53 


:38 


1 


N 57 


E 


a 


130 
135 


1929, 
1939, 


Jan. 1 
May 23 


13 

04 


:38 
-.18 


:18 
:*5 


9 1/2 N 62 E 
9 N 59 E 


a 

6 


140 


1925, 


Feb. 2 


18 


:44 


:31 


9 N 62 E 


d 



TABLE 1? (cont.) KEGI0! 33 



201 



No. 
150 
160 
165 
170 

175 
185 
190 

195 
200 
210 

215 
220 

225 
235 
240 
245 

250 


Date 
1941 , March 16 
1930, Aug. 23 
1927, Aug. 18 
1928, July 6 
1932, Feb. 21 
1938, Oct. 21 
1932, March 26 
1926, Dec. 2 
1935, April 24 
1922, Sept. 8 
1936, Aug. 23 
1930, March 9 
1934, June 20 
1932, July 16 
1941 , March 4 
1922, July 3 
1929, Feb. 17 


Time 

20:54:53 
15:of:40 

01:50:55 
00:48:05 

13:20:57 
20:24:12 
07:08:50 
16:41 :47 
15:52:18 
14:14:13 
20:45:58 
08:52:26 
09:14:50 
21 :02:48 
15:18:00 
05:29:22 
20:44:17 


Location 
7 1/2 I 73 E 
6 N 65 E 
5 1 63 E 
4 N 62 1/2 E 
4 N 65 E 
2 1/2 N 66 E 
2 N 66 1/2 E 
1 N 67 E 
1/2 N Ik 1/4 E 
2 1/2 S 68 E 
3 S 67 E 
3 B 71 E 
4 S 69 E 
7 S 68 E 
7 1/2 S 68 E 
8 1/2 S 66 E 
8 1/2 S 67 E 


M Remarks 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
6 1/2 h=60? 
d 
d 
6 
d 
d 
d 
d 
6 
d 
6 
d 


255 


1912, 


May 1 


1 


17:26*4 


9 S 72 E 


6.8 


260 


1934, May 27 


13:26:38 


9 1 


/2 S 66 E 


d 


270 


1939, 


Feb. 


8 


10:26:40 


10 


1/2 S 66 E 


d 


280 


1939, 


Feb. 


20 


16:48:55 


12 


S 70 E 


d 


285 


1929, 


May 5 




16 


:56:43 


13 


S 66 E 


d 


290 


1922, 


Feb. 


14 


12 


:45:22 


13 


1/2 S 67 E 


6 


295 


1928, 


Oct. 


25 


12 


:36:19 


13 


1/2 S 68 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


297 


19^, 


Dec. 


10 


19 


:23:00 


14 


S 68 1/2 E 


6 


300 


1925, 


July 


8 


04 


:56:02 


14 


1/2 S 67 B 


d 


310 


1939, 


July 


16 


12 


:21:33 


15 


S 65 E 


d 


320 


193-1, 


Dec. 


31 


00 


:23:3^ 


17 


S 64 E 


6 1/4 


325 


19M, 


June 


30 


16 


:33:56 


17 


S 65 B 


,6 


330 


1932, 


March 18 


05 


:16:19 


17 


S 65 1/2 E 


6 


335 


1936, 


March 21 


01 


:J2S11 


17 


S 66 B -; / 


6.1/4 


3^5 


1926, 


Dec. 


24 07^01 :1 


19 


S 65 E 


.a,,, ;., 


350 


1932, 


Feb. 


1,4 




.'!st3'*3^ 


19 


& 66 1^2' B : ' ' 


; '''*'*/*:' 


360 


1944, 


Dec. 


10 


05 


;:fl(i'biaS 


24 


1/2 S"'#5;;'V3 '5-?' 


'N-6/*/*i, 


365 


1937, 


Aug r 


;*> '. 




' Vi"3R A* -rt*"} 


',$ 


S >6i ; typ tilt ,"'-', W . 


I,H ^-i 



202, 










TRD 


i*f 


if 


^ct 


}JJLL - / y IUSWTJ.WJ. 


jj 




No. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


370 


1934, 


March 


8 


23:02: 


20 


28 


S 


68 


1/2 E 


6 




375 


1943, 


June 


14 


02:59: 


58 


29 


S 


60 


E 


6 


1/4 


380 


1916, 


April 


7 


09:26: 


12 


30 


S 


55 


E 


7- 


4 


385 


1923, 


Nov. 


26 


12:18: 


37 


31 


S 


53 


E 


6 




4oo 


1933, 


Jan. 


21 


19:21.: 


10 


33 


S 


57 


1/2 E 


7- 





405 


1927, 


Rferch 21 


15:05: 


34 


33 


S 


58 


E 


6 


1/2 


410 


1928, 


Jan. 


30 


03:15: 


24 


33 


S 59 


E 


6 


1/2 


415 


1930, 


Jan. 


17 


11 :10: 


19 


33 


S 


59 


E 


6 




420 


1930, 


April 


27 


14:26: 


22 


33 


S 


59 


E 


6 


1/4 


425 


1929, 


Jan. 


8 


07:23: 


27 


33 


S 


60 


E 


6 


1/4 


430 


1929, 


May 3 




08:08: 


37 


33 


S 


60 


E 


d 




440 


1926, 


May 31 


13:35: 


49 


33 


1 


/2 S 57 E 


6 


1/2 


445 


1925, 


May i 


9 


05:23: 


45 


33 


1/2 S 58 E 


6 


3A 


450 


1929, 


April 


9 


03:52: 


49 


33 


1/2 s 58 E 


6 


1/4 


460 


1927, 


April 


16 


09:11 : 


19 


33 


1/2 S 58 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


465 


1926, 


Sept. 


2 


01 :21 : 


52 


33 


1 


/2 S 59 E 


7. 





470 


1929, 


June 


6 


14:18: 


53 


33 


1 


/2 S 59 E 


6 ' 


? 


480 


1933, 


Oct. 


23 


13:32: 


33 


34 


S 


55 


E 


6 




485 


1926, 


Dec. 


2 


08:13: 


44 


34 


s 


57 


E 


6 


1/4 


490 


1927, 


Sept. 


1 


16:28: 


15 


34 


s 


57 


E 


6 


1/4 ta=50 


495 


1928, 


Aug. 


8 


02:15: 


14 


34 


s 


57 


E 


6 




500 


1933, 


Aug. 


13 


09:27:58 


34 


s 


57 


E 


6 


1/4 


505 


1925, 


May 5 




22:59: 


04 


34 


s 


58 


E 


7- 





510 


1928, 


Nov. 


11 


22:40: 


56 


34 


s 


58 


E 


6, 


1/4 


520 


1926, 


March 


21 


12:05: 


58 


34 


s 


58 


1/2 E 


6 




525 


1925, 


April 


1 1 


10:42: 


02 


34 


s 


59 


E 


7- 





530 


1927, 


April 


1 1 


22:03: 


50 


34 


s 


59 


E 


6 




535 


1927, 


Oct. 


19 


13:48: 


40 


34 


s 


59 


E 


6 




540 


1933, 


Jan. 


17 


18:47: 


41 


34 


s 


'59 


E 


6 




550 


1925, 


Oct. 


12 


05:44: 


40 


34 


s 


60 


E 


6 


1/4 


560 


1927, 


Nov. 


8 


03:10: 


28 


34 


s 


60 


E 


6 


1/2 


565 


1 928, 


March 


27 


19:06:4$ 


34 


s 


60 


E 


6 


1/4 


570 


1929, 


Sept. 


10 


20:22: 


40 


34 


s 


60 


E 


6 


1/4 


580 


1909, 


April 


29 


22:41 . 


2 


35 


s 


53 


E 


6. 


8 


590 


1925, 


May 28 


05:55: 


1 1 


35 


s 


56 


E 


6 


1/2 



TABLE 17 Ccont . ) REGION 33 203 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


v 


Remarks 


600 


1925, 


July 


7 


08 


:14 


:02 


35 


1/2 S 59 1/2 E 


6 




605 


1943, 


Sept. 


26 


02 


:08 


:U 


38 


S 50 


I 


6 


1/2 


610 


1941, 


Nov. 


24 


16 


:37 


:37 


38 


S 48 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


630 


1927, 


Oct. 


15 


10 


: 59:10 


41 


S 47 


E 


d 




640 


1941, 


Oct. 


5 


07 


:04 


:45 


44 


S 34 


E 


6 


1/4 


650 


1927, 


Jan. 


29 


18 


:37 


:37 


44 


S 37 


E 


6 


1/4 


660 


1927, 


Oct. 


16 


14 


:12 


:08 


44 


S 42 


E 


6 




670 


1928, 


March 


17 


14:22 


:09 


44 


S 43 


E 


6 




680 


1924, 


Aug. 


25 


02 


:21 


:45 


45 


S 35 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


690 


1926, 


May 9 


09:47 


:37 


46 


S 34 


E 


6 




710 


1923, 


Aug. 


1 


04 


:29 


:4 7 


49 


S 32 


E 


6 




720 


1942, 


Nov. 


10 


11 


:41 


:27 


49 


1/2 S 32 E 


7 


.9 


730 


1924, 


Feb. 


29 


08 


:38 


:20 


50 


s 30 


E 


6 


3/1, h=60 


740 


1933, 


Aug. 


22 


10 


;57 


:15 


51 


S 31 


E 


6 


1/4 


750 


1938, 


April 


21 


01 


:15 


:14 


52 


1/2 S 27 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


805 


1927, 


July 


29 


00 


:03 


:11 


15 


N 87 


E 


6 


1/2 


815 


19*8, 


Sept. 


10 


22 


:23 


:57 


7 


1/2 N 


79 E 


d 




825 


1959, 


Aug. 


7 


23 


:59 


:42 


4 N 77 


1/2 E 


d 




835 


1913, 


Jan. 


19 


17 


:05 


.6 


2 N 86 E 


7 


.0 


840 


1916, 


May 9 




14 


:33 


.7 


1 


1/2 N 


89 E 


6 


-3 


850 


1944, 


Feb. 


29 


16 


:28 


:07 


1/2 N 76 E 


7 


.2 


860 


1923, 


May 28 


01 


:25 


:53 


1 


1/2 S 


88 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


865 


1939, 


March 


21 


01 


:11 


:09 


1 


1/2 S 


89 1/2 E 


7 


.2 


870 


1926, 


Jan. 


18 


21 


:07 


:23 


2 


S 89 E 


6 


3/4 


875 


1928, 


Feb. 


7 


00 


:01 


:43 


2 


1/2 S 


88 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


880 


1928, 


March 9 


18 


:05 


:27 


2 


1/2 S 


88 1/2 E 


7 


.7 


885 


1936, 


Jan. 


13 


18 


:10 


:16 


4 


S 85 E 


d 




890 


1918, 


April 13 


00 


:51 


:15 8 S 85 E 


6 


1/2 


920 


1929, 


Oct. 


5 


02 


:34 


:45 


37 


s 78 


E 


6 




925 


1940, 


Feb. 


20 


12 


:54 


:40 


37 


1/2 S 79 E 


6 


1/2 


935 


1924, 


Dec. 


1 1 


17 


:28 


'34 


41 


S 80 


E 


6 


T/4 


940 


1928, 


May 31 


23 


:23 


:58 


41 


1/2 S 80 E 


6 


1/4 


945 


1945, 


April 18 


13 


:04 


.8 


42 S 80 E 


6 


1/2 


950 


1927, 


Oct. 


16 


12 


:21 


:25 


42 S 81 


E , ,' ,; 


d 




960, 


1932, 


May 18 


19 


:45 


:50 


46 S 1 06 E 


6 





TABIE 17 (conb.), REGION 33 



if OH- 

No. 
965 
970 
975 


Date 
1936, 
1938, 

1942, 


March 1 
May 8 

Aug. 1 


Tim Location M Remarks 
10:27:11 47 S 96 E 6 1/2 
13:48:00 48 S 99 E 6 5/k 
14:30:05 48 S 99 E 7-0 
REGION 34 (North America) 


50 


1935, 


Oct. 


19 


04:48:03 


46.6 N 


112 W 


6 1/4 


60 


1935, 


Oct. 


31 


18:37 


:49 


46 


1/2 


N 


112 


W 


6 


100 


1925, 


June 


28 


01 :21 


:06 


46 


N 1 


11 


1/2 


W 


6 3/4 


150 


1934, 


March 


12 


18:20:13 


41 


3/4 


N 


112 


1/2 W 


6 


200 


1934, 


May 6 




08:09 


:49 


41 


3/4 


N 


113 


W 


5 1/2 


250 


193^, 


March 


12 


15:05 


:40 


41 


1/2 


N 


112 


1/2 W 


6.6 


260 


193^ 


April 


14 


21 :26:32 


41 


1/2 


N 


112 


1/2 W 


5 1/4 


350 


1938, 


Sept. 


17 


17:20 


:18 


33 


1/4 


N 


108 


3/4 W 


5 1/2 


400 


1931, 


Aug. 


16 


11 :40 


:23 


30.6 N 


104.2 


W 


6.4 


450 


1928, 


Nov. 


1 


04:72 


:49 


27 


N 1 


05 


1/2 


W 


6.3 


520 


1939, 


Oct. 


19 


11:53 


:58 


47 


3A 


N 


70 w 


d h=40 


550 


1925, 


March 


1 


02:19 


:18 


48 


1/4 


N 


70 


3/4 W 


7.0 , h=60 


580 


1940, 


Dec, 


20 


07:27 


:26 


43- 


,7 N 


71 


.5 W 


d 


620 


1931, 


Jan. 


8 


00:13 


:41 


50 


N 1 


'4 \ 







d 


650 


1944, 


Sept. 


5 


04:38 


:45 


44 


3/4 


N 


7^ 


3/4 W 


d ,- - 


680 


1935, 


Nov. 


1 


06:03 


:40 


46, 


,8 N 


79-1 W 


6 1/4' h=6o 


850 


193^ 


June 


15 


06:34 


:25 


61 


1/2 


N 


59 W 


d 


950 


1929, 


Nov. 


18 


20:31 


:58 


44 


N 56 W 


7*2 


990 


1945, 


July 


26 


10:32 


M5 


34 


1/2 


N 


81 


1/2 W 


d 


REGION 35 (Brazilian Shield) 


700 


1939, 


June 


28 


11:32 


:27 


27 


1/2 


S 


48 


1/2 W 


d 


REGION 36 


(Central 


and 


Western 


Europe) 


100 


1938, 


March 


27 


11 :16 


:23 


46 


N 17 E 


d 


200 


1928, 


March 27 


08:32 


:30 


46 


1/2 


N 


13 


E 


d 


300 


1936, 


Oct. 


18 


03:10 


:07 


46. 


2 N 


12 


5 E 


d 


400 


1935, 


June 27 


17:19 


:30 


48. 


1 I 


9. 


5 E 




d 


500 


1911, 


No v . 1 6 


21 :25-8 


48. 


3 N 


$. 


1, E 




6 1/4 h=4o 


600 


1938, 


June 11 


10:57:36 


50. 


8 N 


3- 


6 E 




d 


700 


1931, 


June 7 


00: 5 


:13 


54 


N 1 


1/4 E 


d 


800 


1927, 


Jan. 24 


05:18:22 


59 


N 3 


E 






: d 



TABIfi 17 (eont. ) 205 



REGION 37 (Africa) 

No. Date Time Location M Remarks 

20 1938, May 12 21:31:35 18 1/2 I 37 1/2 E d 

40 1913, Feb. 27 16:22.9 17 1/2 N 39 E 5 3/4 

60 1941, Jan. 11 08:31:56 17 N 43 E 61/4 

80 1913, March 27 03:13-0 16 1/2 N 39 E 5 1/2 

100 1915, Sept. 23 08:14.8 16 N 39 E 6 3/4 

120 1941, Feb. 4 09:17:44 1 6 N 43 E d 

140 1921, Aug, 14 13:15:28 15 1/2 N 40 1/2 E d 

160 1921, Sept. 21 11 :01 :31 14 N 39 E d 

180 1930, Oct. 27 23:28:41 12 1/2 N 43 1/2 E d 

200 1941, March 19 01:31:52 12 N 43 1/2 E d 

210 1942, Nov. 18 12:01:20 12 N 40 E d 

220 1929, May 18 01:02:12 11 1/2 N 41 1/2 E 6 

2*0 1929, Jan. 22 14:43:05 11 I/? N 43 1/2 E 6 

260 1930, Octr. 25 172*1:55 "H 1/2N44E d 

.280 1938, Sept. 27 02:31:49 11 N41 E 6 

290 1945, Oct. 28 00:17:10 11 N 42 1/2 E d 

300 1926, Oct. 30 01:38:10 1 1 N 44 E d 

320 1930, Oct. 24 . 10:47:21 10 1/2 N 43 E d 

3*0 1938, Oct. 23 .02:25:1* 10 N 3$ 1/2 E d 

350 1938, Oct. 20 13:1*"-58 10N39 1/2 E d 

370 1906, Aug. 25 13:*7-6 9 N 39 E 6 3/* 

390 1928, Oct. 4 18:22:58 7 N 38 E 6 

410 1915, May 21 04:18.1 6 N 31 E 6.6 

430 1913, Sept. 16 11:56-7 6 N 36 1/2 E 6.2 

440 1944, Sept. 6 13:27:55 6 N 38 E 6 

450 1937, Nov. 30 12:57:*6 5 N 36 E 61/4 

470 1912, July 9 08:18.1 3 N 33 E 6 

490 1928, Jan. 10 02:25:33 1/2 N 36 E 6 

500 1928, Jan. 6 19:31 :5B 1/2 N 36 1/2 E 7.0 

510 19*5, March 18 08:01:26 32 E- 6 

520 1919, JulyS 21:06:25 6 S 32 1/2 E 6 

540 1910, Dec. 13 11:37-* 8 S 31 K 7*3 

560 1919, May i 05:05:39 '99 35 K 



TABLE 17 (cont.), REPION 37 



Ho. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


580 


19*2, 


Oct. 


9 


15:46 


:14 


11 


S 35 


E 




6 


3/4 h-60 


600 


1940, 


Dec. 


18 


03:39 


:33 


13 


S 32 


E 




6 




710 


1938, 


July 21 


09:10 


:42 


3 S 40 E 


6 




720 


1938, 


Oct. 


23 


15:01 


:20 


17 


S 42 


E 




6 




725 


1943, 


March 29 


05:14 


:06 


18 


S 44 


E 




6 




730 


1940, 


May 


19 


18:16 


:32 


22 


3/4 S 32 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


740 


1915, 


May 


8 


13:42 


.9 


23 


S 39 


E 




6 


3/4 


750 


1919, 


Oct. 


31 


15:36 


:35 


25 


S 30 


E 




6 


1/2 


760 


1932, 


Dec. 


31 


06:30 


:53 


28 


1/2 S 32 


3/4 E 


6 


3/4 


770 


1912, 


Feb. 


20 


13:03 


,0 


29 


1/2 S 25 


E 


6 


.0 


780 


1920, 


Dec. 


4 


05:51 


:47 


39 


S 21 


E 




6 


1/4 


810 


1939, 


June 


22 


19:19 


:31 6 N 1 W 


6 


1/2 


840 


1945, 


Sept 


. 12 


00:51 


:20 


2 N 15 E 


6 




870 


1914, 


May 24 


15:56.4 


10 


S 15 


E 




6 




950 


1929, 


July 


26 


17:18:50 


2 1/2 S 


24 1 


/2 E 


d 




REGION 38 


(Australia ) 


50 


193*, 


July 


12 


14:24:18 


15 


S 112 


1/2 


E 


6 




100 


1929, 


Aug. 


16 


21:28:25 


16 


1/2 S 


121 


E 


6 


1/4 


150 


1906, 


Nov. 


19 


07:18.3 


22 


s 109 


E 




7 


3/4 h=*60 


200 


1941, 


April 29 


01:35:43 


26 


1/2 S 


117 


E 


6 


3/4 h60 


250 


1920, 


Feb. 


8 


05:24:30 


35 


S 111 


E 




6 


1/4 


350 


1941, 


May 4 


22:07:31 


26 


1/2 S 


137 


1/2 E 


d 




400 


1941, 


June 


27 


07:55:49 


26 


1/2 S 


137 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


450 


1938, 


April 17 


08:56:08 


28 


S 134 


E 




6 




500 


1939, 


March 26 


03:56:08 


31 


S 138 


E 




d 




650 


1913, 


Dec. 


18 


13:5*. 





20 


S 147 


E 




d 


Felt, Queensland 


750 


1918, 


June 


5 


18:14: 


24 


24 


s 152 


E 




5 


3/4 


850 


1929, 


Dec. 


28 


01 :22: 


53 


40 


S 149 


E 




d 




REGION 39 (Pacific Basin) 


50 


1940, 


July 


16 


03:17: 


33 


20 


1/2 N 


155 


W 


d 




150 


1935, 


June 


28 


19:30: 


05 


19 


1/2 N 


155 


1/4 W 


d 




250 


1940, 


Jujie 


17 


10:26: 


47 


20 


1/2 N 


155 


1/4 W 


6 




350 


19*0, 


Sept* 


2 


08:44: 


42 


21 


N 155 


1/4 


W 


d 




450 


1941, 


Sept. 


25 


17:48: 


38 


19 


1/2 N 


155 


1/2 W 


6 





TABUB 1? (cent.), REGIQff 39 



No. 

500 
600 
700 

800 

950 


Date 

1944, 
1929, 
1929, 
1938, 
1933, 


Dec, 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Jan. 


27 

, 26 
6 

23 
4 


Time 

14:1 1 :4o 
04:50:56 
07:51:31 
08:32:43 
21 :10:46 


Location 

19 1/2 1 155 1/2 W 
19 3/4 N 156 W 
19 3/4 N 156 W 
21 N 156 W 
28 N 126 1/2 W 


M Remarks 

, /Strong on Hawaii; 

a (.felt on Qabu 

d 
6 1/2 
6 3/4 
5 1/2 


REGIOI 40 


(Arctic Belt; 


) 


15 


1921, 


Aug. 


23 


20 


:17 


:28 


67 


N 18 W 


6 1/4 


30 


1910, 


Jan. 


22 


08:48 


5 


67 


1/2 


N 17 W 


7-1 


45 


1925, 


Nov. 


28 


08 


: 


14 


:53 


69 


N 18 W 


d 


60 


1934, 


Feb. 


13 


09 


: 


51 


:4 5 


70 


1/2 


N 14 1/2 W 


d 


75 ' 


1933, 


April 25 


22 


:37:54 


71 


N 19 W 


d 


90 


1927, 


July 


16 


01 


: 


35 


:03 


71 


N 17 W 


d 


91 


1927, 


July 


16 


02 


: 


16 


103 


71 


N 17 W 


d 


105 


1924, 


Oct. 


10 


09:21 


:17 


71 


N 16 W 


d 


120 


1930, 


Oct. 


11 


03 


: 


06 


:22 


71 


N 13 W 


d 


135 


1932, 


Nov. 


29 


08-: 


34 


:38 


71 


N 8 


W 


d 


150 


1929, 


June 


27 


22 


: 


39 


:07 


71 


N 6 


W 


d 


165 


1941, 


Sept. 


7 


00 


:50:51 


71 


1/4 


N 2 1/2 W 


d 


180 


1927, 


Oct. 


30 


03 


: 


09 


:04 


71 


1/2 


N 14 W 


d 


205 


1934, 


May 21 


10 


. 


07 


:19 


71 


3/4 


N 1 1 /2 W 


d 


220 


1923, 


Oct. 


10 


07 


: 


11 


:18 


72 


N 10 W 


6 1/2 


235 


1922, 


April 


8 


20 


: 


42 


:21 


72 


N 8 


1/2 W 


6 1/4 


250 


1929, 


Aug. 


6 


01 


: 


30 


:^3 


72 


N 8 


W 


d 


265 


1941, 


June 


6 


21 


: 


02 


:24 


72 


N 1/2 W 


d 


280 


1924, 


March 


12 


13 


: 


52 


:48 


73 


N 2 


1/2 E 


d 


290 


1936, 


June 


7 


04 


-* 


38 


:13 


72 


1/2 


N 4 E 


d 


295 


1924, 


July 


19 


02 


: 


50 


:09 


73 


1/2 


N 4 E 


d 


310 


1927, 


Aug. 


7 


23 


: 


57 


:05 


74 


N 4 


E 


d 


325 


1932, 


June 


20 


15 


: 


39 


:16 


74 


N 4 


E 


d 


340 


1927, 


Aug. 


8 


00 


: 


25 


:28 


75 


F 2 


E 


d 


355 


1926, 


Dec. 


25 


05 


: 


13 


:20 


75 


I 5 


E 


d 


370 


1938, 


Juite 


25 


23 




45 


:08 


77 


N 9 


E 


d 


385 


1927, 


Sept . 


6 


07 





16 


:09 


77 


N TO E <3 


400 


1935s 


May 1 


1 


19 




14 


:? 


77 


1/4 


M 4 1/2 E 


d 



TABUS 1? (cont-), REGIOM 40 



Mo. 

420 
430 
445 
460 
475 
490 
505 
520 
535 
550 
565 


Date 
1930, 
1935, 
1915, 
1941, 
1939, 
1943, 
1936, 
1929, 
1926, 
1908, 
1935, 
1935, 


March 15 
Aug. 25 
June 1 
July 17 
Jan. 1 6 
Kov. 8 
Jan. 2 
Aug. 16 
April 24 
Oct. 14 
Sept. 30 
Jan. 26 


Time 
09:13:30 

05:07:49 

14:43.9 
22:08:49 
OO:1 1 :16 
06:59:19 

23:29:02 
08:56:26 

14:56.3 
19:00:42 
17:41 :34 


Location 
78 1/2 N 4 B 
78 1/4 N 5 E 
78 1/2 N 8 E 
78 1/2 N 8 E 
80 N 5 E 
80 N 5 E 
79 3/4 N 2 E 
80 1/2 N 5 E 
82 N 3 E 
82 N 30 E 
84 N 2 1/2 W 
85 N 35 E 


M Remarks 

d 
6 3/4 
d 
d 
6 
6 
d 
d 
6.6 
d 
d 


580 


1933, 


Dec. 


19 


05:39:58 


86 


1/2 N 


35 E 


d 




595 


1916, 


Dec. 


6 


22:17 


.2 


87 


N 48 E 


5 


3/4 


61O 


1931, 


June 20 


15: 


r05 


:15 


86 


1/4 N 


79 E 


d 




625 


1926, 


Aug. 


6 


05:23 


:58 


86 


N 85 E 


d 




640 


1912, 


April 13 


02:39 


.7 


80 


N 100 


E 


d 




655 


1927, 


Jan. 


7 


10:43 


:12 


80 


N 117 


E 


d 




670 


1909, 


April 10 


18:46 


*9 


77 


1/2 N 


128 E 


6 


3/4 


685 


1923, 


Sfey 


30 


O8:30 


:40 


77 


N 127 


E 


6 




686 


1923, 


May 


30 


17: 


56:42 


77 


N 127 


E 


6 




70O 


1926, 


April 9 


10: 


04 


:50 


74 


N 125 


J5 


5 


3/4 


715 


1918, 


Nov. 


30 


06: 


48 


:40 


71 


N 132 


E 


6 


1/4 


730 


1927, 


Nov. 


14 


oo: 


12 


:05 


70 


1/2 N 


128 E 


6 


1/2 


732 


1927, 


Hov. 


15 


21 : 


48 


:46 


70 


1/2 N 


128 E 


6 




745 


1928,, 


Feb. 


3 


13: 


47 


:35 


70 


1/2 N 


128 E 


6 


1/4 


740 


1928, 


Aug. 


16 


07: 


36 


:37 


70 


N 126 


E 


d 




775 


1927, 


Nov. 


14 


04: 


56:29 


70 


H 128 


E 


6 


3/4 


820 


1940, 


June 


23 


06: 


55:38 


74 


3/4 N 


14 W 


d 




850 


1945, 


Hov. 


8 


09: 


05:23 


83 


N 15 W 




6 




851 


1945, 


Hov. 


8 


10: 


02:37 


83 


N 15 W 




6 




920 


T929, 


June 


10 


23: 


03:14 


71 


N 10 E 




6 


1/4 


950 


1924, 


July 


25 


19: 


36:22 


72 


1/2 N 


16 E 


d 





TABIE 17 (cont.) 



REGIOI 41 (Eastern Siberia) 


No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


100 


1910, 


Jan. 


8 


14 


:49. 


5 


35 


N 122 


E 


6 


3/4 


200 


1927, 


Feb. 


3 


03 


:53: 


10 


33 


1/2 N 


121 E 


6 


1/2 


300 


1932, 


Aug. 


22 


1 1 


:12: 


37 


36 


N 121 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


350 


1944," 


Dec. 


19 


14 


:08: 


56 


39 


N 124 


E 


6 


3/4 


400 


1940, 


Aug. 


5 


09 


:55: 


10 


40 


N 121 


1/2 E 


d 




500 


1941, 


May 5 




15 


:18:32 


46 


1/2 N 


127 E 


6 




600 


1924, 


Kferch 


15 


10 


:31: 


22 


49 


N 142 


1/2 E 


7 


.0 


650 


1935, 


Oct. 


25 


17 


:38: 


13 


51 


N 142 


1/2 E 


d 




TOO 


1932, 


July 


10 


00 


:43: 


22 


52 


1/2 N 


142 E 


6 




750 


1939. 


Jan. 


22 


04 


:41: 


08 


56 


N 130 


E 


d 




800 


193U 


July 


15 


16 


:26: 


57 


59 


N 148 


E 


6 


1/4 


900 


1931, 


Oct. 


10 


16 


:37: 


05 


59 


1/4 N 


14T 3/4 E 


6 


1/2 


950 


1936, 


Nov. 


3 


04 


:43: 


26 


59 


1/2 N 


153 E . 


d 




REGION 42 


(Baffin 


Bay to Bering 


Sea) 


50 


1945, 


Jan. 


1 


01 


:20: 


42 


73 


N 70 W 


6 


1/2 


TOO 


1933, 


Nov. 


20 


23 


:21 : 


32 


73 


N 70 3/4 W 


7 


.3 


150 


1934, 


Aug. 


31 


05 


:02: 


45 


73 


N 71 W 


6 


1/2 


180 


1935, 


Aug. 


22 


20 


:30: 


52 


73 


1/4 N 


T1 1/2 W 


d 




200 


1934, 


Feb. 


24 


00 


:49: 


03 


73 


1/2 N 


71 1/2 W 


d 




250 


1933, 


Dec. 


19 


17 


:48: 


20 


75 


N 72 W 


d 




300 


1935, 


April 


18 


22 


:15: 


28 


70 


1/2 N 


73 W 


d 




500 


1920, 


Nov. 


16 


08:30: 


57 


72 


1/2 N 


128 W 


6 


1 /2 h=50 


550 


1940, 


May 29 


01 


:57: 


52 


6T 


N 135 


W 


6 


1/4 


600 


1940 


June 


5 


11 


:01 : 


10 


6T 


1/2 N 


136 W 


6 


1/2 


650 


1926, 


July 


14 


22 


:22: 


25 


66 


N 163 


W 


d 




TOO 


1928, 


Feb. 


24' 


14 


:10: 


23 


67 


N 171 


W 


6 


1/4 


750 


1928, 


Feb. 


21 


19 


:49:04 


67 


N 172 


W 


6 


9 


800 


1928, 


May i 




18 


:54: 


41 


67 


N 172" 


W 


6 


1/4 


850 


1928, 


Feb. 


26 


01 


:19: 


10 


68 


N 172 


W 


6 


1/2 


900 


1933, 


Sept. 


7 


22 


:39: 


18 


61 


3/4 V 


177 1/2 E 


d 




950 


1934, 


March 9 


14 


:02: 


30 


62 


N 173, 


E 


d 





TABI2 17 (cont. ) 



^ r u 

REGION 


43 


(Southeastern Pacific) 


No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


20 


1932, 


Nov. 2 


1 1 


:03 


:22 


22 


S 1 


12 


W 


6 


3A 


4o 


1933, 


Sept . 27 


22 


:40:42 


24 


S 1 


1 1 


w 


d 




60 


1931, 


May 10 


19:24 


:45 


25 


S l 


16 


W 


6 


iA 


80 


1931, 


May 27 


06 


:34 


:14 


25 


1/2 S 


116 1/2 W 


6 


i/t 


90 


1944, 


April 19 


22:32 


:1 


26 


S 1 


12 


1/2 W 


6 




TOO 


1935, 


Sept. 15 


14 


:09 


:OO 


27 


S 1 


13 


W 


6 


3/4 


120 


1918, 


May i 1 


21 


:23 


:14 


27 


S 1 


13 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


1 40 


1932T, 


Jan. 5 


01 


:53 


:56 


27 


S 1 


14 


W 


6 


1/2 


16O 


1938, 


Jan. 1 3 


22 


:44 


:25 


27 


S 1 


16 


W 


6 




170 


1944, 


Nov. 18 


07 


:53 


:19 


28 


S 1 


12 


W 


6 




180 


19^3, 


Sept. 19 


04 


:47 


:48 


28 


S 1 


13 


w 


6 


1/4 


190 


19^, 


April 22 


03 


:35 


:38 


28 


S 1 


13 


1/2 W 


6 




200 


1912, 


July 18 


21 


:16 


3 


28 


S 1 


14 


w 


6 


1/2 


220 


1926,, 


June 25 


03 


:36 


:52 


28 


S 1 


15 


w 


6 


1/4 


240 


19*0, 


Jan. 2 


11 


:07 


:14 


28 


1/2 


S 


1 13 W 


6 


1-A 


260 


1925, 


Dec. 19 


16 


:O9:3O 


32 


S 1 


1 1 


w 


6 


3/4 


280 


1929, 


May 28 


04 


:49 


:15 


33 


S 1 


1 


w 


6 


1/4 


300 


1929, 


July 14 


08 


:58 


:00 


33 


S 1 


1 


w 


6 


1/2 


320 


19^0, 


March 7 


07 


:08 


:40 


33 


S 1 


11 


w 


6 


1/2 


340 


19*3, 


July 21 


04 


:13 


:57 


3* 


S 1 


1 O 


w 


6 


1/2 


360 


1920, 


March 20 


18 


:31 


:25 


35 


S 1 


10 


w 


7- 





370 


1.944, 


April 4 


22 


:46 


:00 


36 


S 1 


01 


w 


d 




380 


193*9 


Sept . 1 


06 


:57 


-'32 


36 


S 1 


04 


w 


6 


1/2 


400 


1939, 


Oct. 20 


07 


:13 


:25 


36 


S 1 


1 1 


w 


d 




420 


1939, 


Aug. 24 


14 


:44 


:50 


37 


1/2 


S 


1 04 W 


d 




440 


1927, 


March 1 2 


18 


:44 


:32 


41 


S 1 


06 


w 


6 


1/2 h=50 


1*50 


19411., 


May 18 


19 


:55 


:12 


44 


S 1 


09 


w 


6 




1*60 


1937. 


Nov. 23 


13 


:52 


:50 


44 


S 1 


16 


w 


6' 


1/4 


480 


1930, 


June 15 


21 


:08 


:1 1 


46 


S 1 


16 


w 


6 


1/4 


500 


193*, 


Oct . 27 


09 


:5* 


:55 


48 


S 1 


16 


w 


6 


1/4 


520 


1933, 


April 19 


01 


:45 


:47 


51 


S 1 


16 


w 


6 




5^0 


19*1 , 


Feb. 14 


18 


:55 


:16 


53 


1/2 


S 


131 w 


6 


1/2 


560 


1935, 


May 16 


20 


:41 


:30 


55 


S 1 


23 


w 


6 


1/4 



TABLE 17 (cont), REGION 43 211 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


570 


1943, 


Nov. 


13 


16: 


43:28 


55 


S 


129 


W 


6 1/2 


580 


1930, 


Jan. 


6 


23: 


50: 


00 


55 


.S 


131 


W 


6 


600 


19*0, 


Jan. 


20 


09: 


58: 


oo 


55 


S 


133 


W 


6 3/4 


620 


1932, 


March 


10 


05: 


17: 


47 


55 


S 


135 


w 


6 1/2 


640 


1938, 


Sept. 


5 


14: 


42:32 


55 


s 


152 


w 


6 


660 


1929, 


Feb. 


16 


19: 


23: 


16 


56 


S 


121 


w 


6 1/4 


680 


1934, 


June 


6 


03: 


18: 


34 


56 


S 


140 


w 


6 1/4 


700 


1937, 


Aug. 


13 


11: 


47: 


38 


56 


1/2 S 


130 w 


6 


720 


1926, 


Dec. 


27 


08: 


42: 


:55 


57 


S 


110 


w 


6 


740 


1926, 


Dec. 


27 


09: 


20:30 


57 


S 


110 


w 


6 1/4 


760 


1930, 


Aug. 


2 


16:06:05 


57 


S 


135 


w 


6 1/2 


770 


1944, 


April 1 


09:22: 


;08 


57 


S 


128 


w 


6 


780 


19*4, 


Sept. 


3 


19:11 : 


:29 


"57 


S 


122 


w 


7 


800 


1918, 


May 25 


19:29: 


;20 


30 


1/2 S 


92 1/2 W 


7 h-60 


820 


1934, 


April 9 


15:29: 


;24 


35 


S 


99 W 


6 1/2 


840 


19*2, 


July 


20 


13:31 :45 


35 


S 


99 W 


6 


860 


1937. 


Nov. 


9 


10:21 ; 


:40 


36 


1/2 S 97 W 


6 


880 


1937, 


March 23 


00:44 


:26 


36 


1/2 S 98 W 


6 1/2 h=50 


900 


19*2, 


Sept, 


, 22 


00:46:15 


37 


S 


98 W 


6 1/4 


920 


1932, 


torch 23 


12:08 


:02 


37 


S 


99 


w 


6 


940 


19*2, 


Oct. 


9 


00:40 


:50 


37 


S 


100 W 


d 


960 


1926, 


Aug. 


14 


08:36 


:50 


40 


S 


88 


w 


6 


980 


1937, 


Oct. 


11 


21 :23:02 


42 


S 


91 


w 


6 


REGION 


44 


(Eastern Pacific) 


20 


1927, 


Nov. 


19 


06:51 


:00 


10 N 


101 


w 


d 


60 


1930, 


Jan. 


17 


16:54 


:30 


8 


N 


105 


w 


d 


80 


1944, 


Dec. 


29 


22 


:55 


:59 


8 


N 


104 


w 


6 


81 


19**, 


Dec. 


29 


23 


:45 


:19 


8 


1/2 N 


104 W 


6 1/4 


100 


1939, 


Feb. 


28 


01 


:17 


:00 


7 


N 


103 


W 


d 


140 


1928, 


Dec. 


26 


21 


:32 


:52 


6 


N 


99 v 


J 


6 


180 


1931, 


Aug. 


30 


07 


:3* 


:3^ 


6 


N 


99 V 


yr '<' 


d 


220 


' 1938, 


June 


20 


14 


:02 


:28 


6 


N 


119 


W 


d 


260 


1937, 


Aug. 


2* 


20 


:13 


:23 


5 


N 


89 V 


f , ' .' 


6 


300 


1935, 


June 


11 


21 


:55 


:55 


3 


1/2 N 


83 W i . 


d 



TABI^B 17 (cont*), KEGIQH 44 



No. 
^40 
380 
420 
460 
500 
520 

530 

540 


Date 
1926, 
1938, 
1928, 
1937, 

1940, 
1935, 


May 5 
Feb. 4 
Dec. 5 
May 24 
July 27 
Aug. 26 
June 1 1 
Nov. 23 


Tizae 
06:21 :33 
1 O:27:21 
1 1 :O4:32 
OO:4O:32 
16:28:54 
O5:OO:43 
19:18:56 
07:52:30 


Location 
3 N 91 W 
3 N 91 W 
3 N 95 W 
3 N 95 W 
1 1/2 N 90 1/2 W 
1 1/4 N 90 W 
1 N 86 W 
1/2 N 85 1/2 W 


M Remarks 

6 1/2 

6 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
6 1/4 li=60 


580 


1932, 


Oct. 


3 


04:37 


:4o 


1 


s 91 w 


d 


620 


1940, 


May 3 


1 


04 


:56 


:2O 


2 


1/2 


S 1 


03 1/2 W 


d 


660 


1934, 


June 


24 


01 


:39 


:55 


2 


1/2 


S 1 


06 1/2 W 


6 


7OO 


1931, 


April 


24 


02 


:15 


:05 


3 


S 1 


03 W 


d 


T4O 


1938, 


Oct. 


10 


02:56:23 


3 


1/2 


S 1 


05 1/2 W 


d 


780 


1934, 


Feb. 


20 


03 


:18 


:55 


4 


S 1 


05 W 


6 


82O 


1942, 


July 


25 


15 


: 18:55 


5 


S 1 


04 W 


d 


860 


1936, 


Aug. 


26 


21 


:19 


:32 


5 


S 1 


06 W 


d 


900 


19^1, 


July 


17 


07:47 


:53 


5 


S 1 


06 W 


d 


920 


1959, 


July 


23 


15 


:07 


:24 


9 


S 1 


09 W 


6 


950 


1936, 


March 


5 


06 


:05 


:58 


9 


1/2 


S 1 


08 W 


6 


970 


1937, 


Sept. 


15 


19 


:30 


:05 


10 


s 


1 10 


W 


d 


990 


19^, 


Aug. 


5 


00 


:57 


:17 


15 


1/2 S 


92 1/2 W 


6 


991 


19^4, 


Aug. 


5 


01 


:24 


:08 


13 


1/2 S 


92 1/2 W 


6 1/4+ 


REGION 45 


( Jrudian-Antarct ic 


Swell) 


25 


1931, 


Dec. 


l 


03 


:20 


:21 


63 


s 


153 


E 


6 1/4 


50 


1938, 


Oct. 


9 


16 


:36 


:40 


62 


s 


1 60 


E 


6 


75 


19^0, 


Oct. 


1 


21 


:38 


:20 


62 


s 


1 6O 


E 


6 1/2 


10O 


1929, 


May 22 


2O 


:06 


:15 


62 


s 


155 


E 


6 1/2 


125 


19^5, 


Marcli 


25 


23 


:14 


:13 


62 


s 


153 


E 


7-1 


150 


1931, 


Jan. 


19 


15 


:54 


:51 


61 


s 


150 


E 


d 


175 


1931 , 


Nov. 


26 


11 


:54 


:42 


61 


s 


150 


E 


d 


176 


1931, 


Nov. 


26 


12 


:30 


:OO 


61 


s 


150 


E 


d. 


200 


1939, 


April 


15 


20 


:03 


:40 


61 


s 


150 


E 


d . 


225 


19^0, 


Nov. 


17 


05 


:55 


:4 7 


61 


s 


148 


E 


6 1/2 


250 


1930, 


Dec. 


13 


02 


:35:32 


60 S 


1 50 


E 


6 



TABIE 17 (cont.), REGIOI 45 213 



No. 
275 
300 


Date 
1930, 
1925, 


Sept 
Aug. 


. 14 

14 


Time 
03:01 :05 
04:08:38 


location 
60 S 148 E 
59 S 151 E 


M Remarks 
6 1/4 

6 1/2 


325 


1931, 


Dec. 


7 


18:51 


:57 


59 


S 148 


E 


d 




350 


1928, 


Feb. 


29 


21:57 


:00 


58 


1/2 S 


148 E 


6 


1/4 


375 


1933, 


Oct. 


7 


02:09 


= 35 


58 


1/2 S 


146 E 


d 




400 


1933, 


Sept 


. 6 


01 : 


:15 


:46 


58 


S 146 


E 


d 




425 


1940, 


Aug. 


8 


14:08 


:20 


57 


1/2 S 


14? E 


6 


1/4 


450 


1 Q^i 1 


Sept 


- 25 


16: 


35 


:02 


57 


r/2 S 


144 E 


d 




451 


1 Q *S 1 


Sept 


- 25 


20: 


31 


:27 


57 


1/2 S 


144 E 


d 




460 


1933, 


Feb. 


27 


16: 


09 


:57 


57 


1/2 S 


144 E 


6 




475 


1934, 


Nov. 


24 


12:34 


:03 


57 


S 146 


E 


6 


1/4 


500 


1942, 


Dec. 


17 


01: 


08 


:20 


57 


S 146 


E 


6 




525 


1931, 


Dec. 


1 


18: 


10 


:02 


57 


S 144 


E 


6 


1/2 


550 


1940, 


March 29 


23: 


20 


:22 


57 


S 144 


E 


6 




575 


193*, 


Sept 


. 22 


23: 


08 


:00 


56 


1/2 S 


144 E 


d 




600 


1929, 


Dec. 


28 


11 : 


28 


:24 


56 


1/2 S 


143 E 


d 




625 


1927, 


Sept 


- 7 


19: 


57 


:05 


56 


S 148 


E 


6 


1/4 


650 


1925, 


April 26 


08: 


24 


:40 


56 


S 14? 


E 


6 


1/4 


675 


1940, 


March 14 


18: 


22 


:35 


56 


S 145 


E 


6 


3A 


700 


1942, 


June 


10 


13: 


*9 


:30 


55 


1/2 S 


143 1/2 E 


d 




725 


1937, 


Oct. 


12 


03: 


10 


:12 


53 


S 145 


E 


6 




750 


1931, 


Dec. 


25 


03: 


04 


:24 


52 


S 141 


E 


6 




775 


1931, 


Aug. 


10 


09: 


*3:57 


52 


S 137 


E 


d 




800 


1926, 


July 


25 


04: 


52 


:40 


51 


S 146 


E 


d 




825 


1921, 


Jan. 


7 


02: 


51 


:24 


51 


S 140 


E 


6 


1/4' 


850 


1927, 


Dec. 


31 


23: 


13 


:23 


51 


S 140 


E 


6 




860 


1936, 


Aug. 


24 


22: 


22:00 


51 


S 140 


E 


6 


1/4 


875 


1929, 


Dec. 


31 


04: 


10:20 


51 


S 138 


E 


6 




900 


1931, 


Aug. 


1 


19: 


14:42 


51 


S 138 


1 


d 




925 


1927, 


June 


14 


17: 


16:55 


50 


S 1*0 


E 


6 


1/2 


950 


19*0, 


June 


12 


11:48:49 


50 


S 139 


E 


d 





975 1929, Jan. 21 0*155:35 5 S *3& B 



214 


TABLE 17 


(cant . ) 


REGION 47 (Baluchistan) 


No. 


Date 


Time 


Location 


M Remarks 


30 


1940, 


Oct. 


31 


10 


:43 


: 5 6 


24 


1/2 N 


70 T/4 E 


d 


1OO 


1934, 


May 


i 


03 


:4o 


:40 


27 


N 69 E 


d 


170 


1931, 


Aug. 


26 


19 


:29 


:2O 


28 


N 69 E 


d 


24O 


1931, 


Sept 


. 50 


1 1 


:14 


:45 


28 


1/2 N 


69 


E 


d 


310 


1930, 


Sept 


- 29 


13 


:29 


:OO 


27 


1/2 N 


68 


1/2 E 


d 


380 


1928, 


Sept 


. i 


06 


;09 


:OO 


29 


N 68 


1/2 


E 


6 1/4 


450 


1935, 


May 


15 


02 


:01 


:24 


28 


N 68 E 


6 


520 


1909, 


Oct. 


20 


23 


:-4l 


.2 


30 


N 68 E 


7-2 


590 


1931, 


Aug. 


24 


21 


:35 


:22 


30 


1/4 N 


67 


3/4 E 


7-0 


660 


1928, 


Oct. 


15 


14 


:19 


:41 


28 


1/2 N 


67 


1/2 E 


6.8 


730 


1931, 


Aug. 


27 


15 


:27 


:17 


29 


3/4 N 


67 


1/4 E 


7.4 


800 


1933, 


Oct. 


16 


04 


:34 


:44 


33 


N 67 E 


d 


870 


1935, 


May 30 


21 


:32 


:46 


29 


1/2 N 


66 


3/4 E 


7-5 


920 


1935, 


June 


2 


09 


:16 


:25 


30 


N 66 3/4 


E 


6 


980 


1934, 


April 19 


23 


:27 


:OO 


24 


N 65 E 


d 


REGION 


48 (Hindu 


Kush and 


Pamir ) 


30 


1944, 


Sept 


. 27 


16 


:25: 


:02 


39 


N 73 1 


/2 


E 


7.0 h=4o 


60 


1924, 


July 


6 


18: 


:31 :49 


40 


1/2 N 


73 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


90 


1924,, 


July 


12 


15 


:12:34 


40 


1/2 N 


73 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


120 


1933, 


March 22 


02: 


:22:55 


42 


1/2 N 


73 


1/2 E 


d 


150 


1911, 


Feb. 


18 


18: 


:4l :03 


40 


N 73 E 


7 3A 


18O 


1932, 


Oct. 


29 


1 1 : 


;08:49 


39 


1/2 N 


72 


E 


6 


21 


1934, 


No^. 


15 


23:14:42 


36 


1/2 N 


71 


E 


d 


212 


1936., 


Aug. 


20 


23 = 


;32: 


33 


36 


1/2 N 


71 


E 


d 


240 


1939, 


June 


19 


00: 


;42: 


40 


36 


1/2 N 


71 


E 


d 


270 


1934,, 


Sept . 


8 


06: 


44: 


56 


38 


1/2 N 


71 


E 


d 


3OO 


1934, 


Aug. 


31 


14: 


57: 


41 


38 


3/4 N 


71 


E 


6 1/2 


330 


1939, 


May 30 


1 0: 


07: 


04 


39 


N 71 E 


d 


56O 


1924,, 


Sept. 


16 


02: 


36: 


00 


39 


N 70 1 


/2 


E 


6 1/4 


590 


1941,, 


April 


20 


17: 


38: 


30 


39 


N 70 1 


/* 


E 


6 1/2 


595 


1941,, 


April 


26 


23: 


1 1 : 


01 


39 


N 70 1 


/2 


E 


d 


.20 


1941, 


May 6 




16: 


55-" 


36 


39 


N 70 1 


/* 


E 


6 h6o 


f50 


1940, 


March 


19 


04: 


35: 


50 


35 


3/4 N 


70 


E 


6 h50 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Location 


M 


Remarks 


480 


1926, 


torch 22 


16:24:10 


36 


I 70 E 


d 




510 


1935, 


Dec. 


2 


02 : 1 5 : 


16 


36 


1/2 N 


69 


1/2 E 


d 




520 


1933, 


Dec. 


9 


07:52: 


10 


36 


1/2 N 


69 


1/2 E 


d 




540 


1907, 


Oct. 


21 


04:23- 


6 


38 


1 69 E 


8. 





570 


1923, 


Dec. 


28 


22:24: 


52 


39 


1/2 N 68 


E 


6 




600 


1935, 


July 


5 


17:53: 


01 


38 


N 67 


1/2 


E 


6 




630 


1928, 


Feb. 


25 


17:23: 


58 


37 


1/2 E 


[ 67 


E 


d 




660 


1929, 


June 


3 


20:29: 


47 


43 


I 67 


E 




6 


1/2 


720 


1929, 


Sept 


. 4 


22:24: 


:57 


43 


N 67 


E 




d 




750 


1911, 


Jan. 


1 


10:18. 


,0 


38 


N 66 


E 




7- 


.2 b=50 


780 


1932, 


Oct. 


2 


03:22: 


:02 


41 


1/2 I 


J 66 


E 


d 




810 


1929, 


June 


13 


22:1 5; 


:51 


43 


N 66 


E 




d 




REGION 50 


(Antarctic ) 


500 


1929, 


Aug. 


14 


02:16 


:50 66 


S 175 E 


6 





No . 

1*0 

80 

120 

160 

200 

24Q 

280 

320 

5 60 

4oo 

420 

460 

500 

514.0 

580 

620 

66O 

700 

720 

740 

780 

820 

860 

900 

940 

25 
50 
75 
100 

125 
150 



TABLE 18 

REGIONAL LIST OP INTERMEDIATE AM) DEEP SHOCKS 
BEGION 1 (Aleutian Islands, Alaska }, Intermediate Shocks 
Bate 

191*0, Feb. 7 
1914-0, July ik 
1 941 , Aug. 4 
1937, Sept. 3 

1933, Sept. 24 

1930, Dec. 6 
1916, April 18 

1909, Sept, 8 
19*** July 27 
I939j Feb. 2k 
1942, Sept. 9 
1939, Aug. 20 
19*1 , Aug. 6 
19^1, Sept. 28 
1907, Aug. 22 

1910, May 13 
1942, Dec. 5 

1931, Dec. 24 
1936, May 8 
1912, Nov. 7 
1944, Aug. 14 
1912, Dec. 5 

1934, June 18 
1912, Jan. 31 
1 93*, 



1925, Au &- 7 
1933* Oct. 10 
1942, June 20 
1933, Jan. 24 
1939, May 23 
1945, April 21 



Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


17: 


16 


:02 


70 km. 


51 


1/2 H 


175 


E 


7 






AAA 


05: 


; 52:53 


80 


51 


3/4 N 


177 


1/2 E 


7 


3/4 


AAA 


10: 


53 


:09 


70 


53 


1/4 N 


179 


E 


6 


3 


/* 


BBB 


18: 


48 


:12 


80 


52 


1 /2 N 


177 


1/2 W 


7 


.3 




AAA 


15: 


19 


:41 


70 


51 


3/* K 


177 


W 


6 


3 


/* 


AAA 


07: 


03 


:28 


80 


53 


N 172 


W 




6 


1 


/2 


CCC 


04: 


01 


.8 


170 


53 


1/4 IT 


170 


W 


7 


-5 




BBB 


16: 


49 


.8 


90 


52 


1 /2 IT 


169 


W 


7 


.4 




BCB 


00: 


04 


:23 


70 


54 


N 165 


1/2 


W 


7 


.1 




BBB 


14: 


15 


:*5 


70 


53 


N 164 


1/2 


W 


6 


1 


/* 


CCA 


01 : 


25 


:26 


80 


53 


N 164 


1/2 


W 


7 


.0 




BBB 


07: 


17 


:26 


75 


5* 


N 164 


W 




6 


1 


/* 


CCB 


06: 


15 


:06 


150 


55 


3/4 IT 


163 


W 


6 


3 


/* 


AAA 


05:33:*5 


1 00 


56 


N 162 


1/2 


W 


6 


1 


/2 


CCB 


22:24 


.0 


120 


57 


N 161 


W 




6 


1 


/2 


CCB 


07: 


53 


. 1 


1 00 


57 


N 160 


W 




6 


3 


/* 


CCC 


14: 


28 


:40 


1 00 


59 


1/2 IT 


152 


W 


6 


1 


/2 


BBB 


03: 


40 


:40 


1 00 


60 


N 152 


W 




6 


1 


/* 


BBA 


17: 


22 


:18 


1 70 


61 


IT 153 


W 




5 


3 


/* 


BBB 


07: 


40 


.4 


90 


57 


1/2 IT 


155 


W 


7 


1 


/2 


BBB 


11 : 


07 


:23 


100 


59 


IT 155 


W 




6 


1 


/* 


BBB 


12: 


27 


.6 


90 


57 


1/2 IT 


15* 


W 


7 






CCC 


09: 


13 


:50 


80 


60 


1/2 IT 


151 


W 


6 


3/* 


AAA 


20: 


1 1 


.8 


80 


61 


IT 147 


1/2 


W 


7 


1 


/* 


BBB 


04:36 


:07 


80 


61 


1/4 IT 


147 


1/2 W 


7 


.2 




AAB 


REGION 5 


(Mexico) 


, Intermediate Shocks 


07: 


*7 


:48 


100 


19 


IT 1 02 


W 




6 


3/* 


BCB 


1 3:34:52 


1 10 


19 


IT 102 


W 




5 


1 


/2 


BBB 


10: 


02 


:07 


1 00 


19 


IT 101 


W 




6 


3/* 


BBB 


15:39 


:09 


90 


18 


3/* N 


101 


3/4 W 


6 


1 


/* 


AAB 


02:49 


:*3 


90 


18 


IT 101 


W 




5 


1 


/2 


BCB 


17: 


14 


:28 


100 


19 


IT 100 


1/2 


W 


6 


1 


/2 


BBA 












216 















TABIE 18 (cont.), BEGIOI 5 



2T 



No. 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 


Date 
1912, Nov. 19 
1938, June 28 
1941 , Feb. 23 
1937, Oct. 6 
1938, May 3 


Time 
13:55.0 
1 9 : 1 7 : 42 
11 -.32:15 
09 : 47 : 1 8 
02:15:27 


Depth 
80 
1 10 
120 
100 
100 


location 

19 I l 00 W 
1 8 N 1 00 W 
1 8 H 1 00 W 
18 1/2 H 99 W 
18 1/2 I 99 W 


M 

7 
6 1/2 

5 3A 
6.9 

6 1/2 


Quality 
BBC 

ABA 
BBB 
EAA 
AAA 


300 


1908, 


March 


26 


23:03.5 


80 


18 


H 99 W 


7. 


8 


BCB 


325 


19*5, 


Oct. 


1 1 


16:52: 


52 


90 


17 


1/2 N 98 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


350 


1928, 


Feb. 


10 


04:38: 


35 


100 


19 


N 97 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


375 


1920, 


April 


19 


21 :06: 


36 


110 


19 


N 97 W 


6 


3A 


BBB 


400 


1932, 


March 


10 


23:01 : 


39 


150 


18 


1/2 H 97 W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


425 


1910, 


Sept. 


24 


03:32. 


7 


80 


17 


N 96 W 


6. 


9 


CCC 


450 


1911, 


Aug. 


27 


10:59. 


3 


100 


17 


N 96 W 


6 


3/* 


BCB 


475 


1937, 


July 


26 


03:*7: 


1 1 


100 


18. 


,4 N 95-8 W 


7- 


3 


AAA 


500 


19*3, 


May 3 




10:17: 


17 


150 


18 


N 95 W 


5 


3A 


CCC 


525 


1916, 


June 


2 


13:59. 


4 


150 


17 


1/2 N 95 W 


7- 


1 


CCC 


550 


19*2, 


Nov. 


12 


04:55: 


3* 


90 


17 


1/4 N 9* I/* W 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


575 


1937, 


May 28 


15:35: 


:53 


150 


17 


N 93 W 


6 


1/2 


CBB 


600 


19*1, 


June 


27 


17:1 1 : 


:44 


220 


17 


3/4 N 92 1/4 W 


6 


1/4 


BEB 


625 


191*, 


March 30 


00:41 , 


.3 


150 


17 


N 92 W 


7 


1/2 


BBC 


650 


1937, 


Jan. 


11 


13:21 : 


;16 


no 


16 


H 9* 1/2 W 


6 




BBA 


675 


19**, 


Aug. 


24 


23:37: 


:5* 


100 


16 


N 93 1/2 W 


6 




BBA 


700 


19*5, 


Jn. 


12 


21 :59: 


:29 


110 


16 


N 93 W 


5 


3/* 


BBB 


725 


1937, 


June 


8 


22:29 


:39 


200 


16 


N 93 W 


6 


1/4 


BAA 


750 


1935, 


March 17 


21 :33 


:18 


110 


14 


1/2 N 92 W 


5 


3 /i 


BAA 


775 


1939, 


Dec. 


12 


02:50 


:12 


240 


15 


1/2 N 91 3/* W 


5 


1/2 


AAB 


785 


1939, 


Sept 


. 28 


14:58 


:27 


110 


15 


1/2 N 91 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


800 


19*3, 


Sept 


. 23 


15:00 


:44 


110 


15 


N 91 1/2 W 


6 


3/* 


AAA 


825 


19*2, 


April 11 


01 :25 


:12 


1*0 


14 


3/4 IT 91 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


850 


19*0, 


July 


27 


13:32 


:30 


90 


14 


1/4 N 91 1/2 W 


6 


3/* 


AAA 


875 


19*3, 


Aug. 


31 


16:10 


:40 


80 


14 1/4 N 91 1/2 W 


6 


3/* 


BBB 


900 


1939, 


Jan. 


20 


20:40 


:27 


70 


13 


1/2 N 91 1/2 W 


6 1/2 


BHB 


925 


193*, 


May 


19 


10:47 


:3T 


120 


14 3/* H 91 V* * 


6 1/4 


AAA 


935 


1945, Oct. 


27 


11^2* 


:41' ; 


200 


15 I 91 t/* W 


6 3/4 BBS 


950 


1921 , 


Feb. 


: 'i , 


,',',6:22 


; 


'' 1^ ; 


i ,1 5 


$ If 91 W : 


7.5 feBB 



18 (cent.), REGION 5 



e i_c 

No. 


Date 






Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


975 


1937, 


Dec. 


5 


05:42:09 


80 


14 


N 91 W 




5 


1/2 


CCA 


999 


1932, 


May 22 


22:40:02 


SO 


14 


1/4 N 90 


W 


6 




BCB 


KBGIOH 6 (Central America), Intermediate Shocks 


50 


1944, 


Oct. 


2 


17:22:00 


160 


1* 


1/2 N 89 


3/4 W 


6 


1/2 


AM 


100 


1915, 


Sept. 


7 


O1 :20.8 


80 


1* 


N 89 W 




7 


3/4 


BBB 


150 


1939, 


Dec. 


26 


11:55:11 


75 


13 


1/4 N 88 


1/4 W 


6 




AM 


200 


1931, 


Feb. 


7 


03:30:35 


100 


13 


N 87 W 




5 


3/* 


CCC 


250 


193*, 


Feb. 


24 


05:33:30 


200 


12 


3/4 N 86 


3/4 W 


6 




ABB 


300 


1926, 


Nov. 


5 


07:55:38 


135 


12-3 N 85*8 


W 


7- 


2 


BBA 


330 


1944, 


April 


7 


13:52:58 


200 


i 2 


N 85 1/2 


\? 


6 




BCC 


350 


1925, 


Oct. 


5 


04:09:07 


135 


12 


1/4 N 85 


1/4 W 


6 


3/* 


BBA 


400 


1931, 


March 7 


OO:41 :^6 


80 


1 t 


1/2 N 85 


1/2 W 


6 




ACB 


450 


1919, 


July 


22 


22:01 :35 


150 


12 


N 85 W 




6 


1/2 


CCC 


500 


1931, 


Dec. 


20 


14:59:42 


280 


1 1 


N 84 1/2 


W 


5 


3/* 


BCC 


550 


1939, 


June 


18 


16:46:05 


70 


10 


N 83 W 




6 


1/2 


BCB 


600 


1939, 


Nov. 


28 


02:09:56 


80 


8 3/4 N 78 1 


/2 W 


5 


3/4 


BBB 


650 


1914, Kfey 28 


03:23-9 


70 


9 N 78 W 


7- 


2 


CCB 


700 


1937, 


Sept. 


24 


02:40:07 


100 


9 N 76 W 


5 


i/a 


CCC 


750 


1932, 


June 


20 


09:01 :47 


80 


12 


1/2 N 89 


W 


6 




AM 


800 


1939, 


July 


8 


21 :31 :44 


90 


12 


1/2 N 88 


W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


850 


1932, 


May 21 


1 0:10:07 


90 


12 


N 87 1/2 


W 


6. 


9 


AM 


950 


1919, 


June 


29 


23:14:23 


90 


13 


1/2 N 86 


1/2 W 


6 


3/4 


BCC 


REGION 7 (Caribbean) 


, Intermediate Shocks 


100 


1925, 


June 


14 


22:28:16 


90 


18 


N 83 W 




6 


1/2 


CCC 


200 


1933, 


July 


21 


07:29:05 


100 


19 


N 68 1/2 


W 


5 


3/* 


BCC 


250 


1916, 


April 


24 


04:26.7 


80 


18 


1/2 N 68 


W 


7- 


2 


BCC 


400 


1943, 


Jan. 


23 


13:30:10 


1 10 


18 


N 61 1/2 


W 


5 


3A 


CCB 


450 


1935, 


Nov. 


10 


18:27:*6 


100 


16 


1/2 N 62 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


500 


191*, 


Oct. 


3 


17:22.2 


100 


16 


N 61 W 




7- 


4 


BBC 


550 


1906, 


Dec-. 


3 


22:59-* 


100 


15 


N 61 W 




7 


1/2 


CCC 


600 


1940, 


July 


6 


03:40:18 


. 160 


13 


N 61 1/4 


W 


6 


1/2 


HBA 


650 


1939, 


April 


20 


17:46:14 


130 


13 


N 60 1/2 


W 


5 


1/4 


CCC 


700 


1910, 


Jan. 


23 


18:49-7 


100 


12* 


N 60 1/2 


W 


7- 


2 


CCC 


750 


1935, 


April 


10 


22:32:31 


1 00 


10 


1/2 N 62 


W 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


800 


1945, 


Dec. 


25 


08:10:01 


100 


10 


N 62 W 




6 


1/2 


BBB 



TABLE 18 (cent.), KEGIOI 7 219 



No. 
850 
875 
900 
950 


Eute Time Depth Location M 
1925, Aug. 8 12:01:27 HO 10 1/2 N 63 1/2 W 6 1/2 
1926, Feb. 1 01:17:33 100 10 1/2 N 63 1/2 W 6 1/2 
1911 , April 10 18:42.4 100 9 N 7* W 7-2 
1930, my 29 08:30:5* 220 7 N 7* 1/2 W 6 
REGION 8 (South America), Intermediate Shocks 


Quality 
BCB 
BCB 
CCC 
CCC 


5 


1935, 


Sept. 18 


04:58:00 


80 


5 


1/2 N 76 W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


10 


19*2, 


my 22 


10:30: 


50 


130 


4 


1/2 N 75 ^ 


ft? 


5 , 


3/* 


BCC 


15 


1938, 


Feb. 5 


02:23: 


3* 


160 


4 


1/2 N 76 1/4 W 


7- 





AAA 


20 


1935, 


Oct. 27 


22:05: 


05 


150 


4 N 76 W 


5 


1/2 


BCB 


25 


1925, 


June 7 


23:*1 : 


42 


170 


3 N 78 W 


6 


3/* 


BBA 


28 


19**, 


toy 9 


14:29: 


57 


100 


2 


1/2 N 75 


1/2 W 


6 




BCC 


30 


19*5, 


July 9 


16:42: 


08 


100 


2 


1/2 N 16 


1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


35 


1937, 


May 21 


13:12: 


25 


90 


2 


1/2 N 77 


1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


40 


1925, 


June 23 


16:46: 


58 


180 





77 W 




6 


3/* 


BCB 


*5 


1937, 


July 19 


19:35: 


24 


190 


1 


1/2 S 76 


1/2 W 


7- 


1 


AAA 


50 


19*0, 


Oct. 23 


02:23 


:15 


140 


2 


S 76 W 




6 




CCA 


55 


1930, 


Nov. 24 


06:06:48 


100 


2 


S 77 W 




6 


1/4 


CCC 


60 


1906, 


Sept. 28 


15:24.9 


150 


2 


S 79 W 




7 


1/2 


CCC 


65 


1935, 


Nov. 2 


21 :05:40 


130 


2 


S 79 W 




6 




CCC 


70 


1924, 


July 22 


04:04:18 


250 


2 


S 80 W 




6 


1/2 


BBA 


75 


19*3, 


Jan. 30 


05:33:03 


100 


2 


S 80 1/2 


W 


6.9 


BBA 


80 


19*3, 


Dec. 22 


07:01 ; 


:50 


130 


2 


1/2 S 77 


W 


6 


1/4 


HBA 


85 


19*1, 


Jan. 24 


05:44:03 


120 


3 


1/4 S 76 


3/4 W 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


90 


1935, 


March 8 


11:59 


:14 


100 


4 


S 80 W 




6 




CCC 


95 


193*, 


Oct. 29 


23:25 


:23 


1 10 


5 


S 78 W 




6 


1/4 


BBB 


100 


1926, 


March 7 


20:33 


:38 


150 


5 


S 16 1/2 


W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


105 


1938, 


Jan. 1 6 


21 :41 


:47 


100 


6 


S 75 W 




6 




BCC 


110 


19*2, 


Nov. 6 


13:31 


:10 


130 


6 


S 77 W 




6 


3/* 


BBA 


112 


19*2, 


Jan. 8 


15:12 


:33 


110 


6 


S 78 W 




5 


1/2+ 


BBB 


115 


19*3, 


April 5 


03 : 08 


:58 


140 


6 


1/2 S 76 


W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


125 


1933, 


Oct. i 


02:40 


:42 


120 


7 


S 75 1/k 


W 


6 


1/4 


AAA 


130 


1936, 


May 6 


03:38 


:55 


160 


8 


S 75 W 




6 




BBA 


135 


1931, 


July 11 


05:56 


,:13 


120 


8 1/2 S 7* 


1/2 W 


6 


* 1/4 


ABC 


140 


1929, Ma7 2 5 


11 :59:58 150 


8 1/2 S 75 


1/2 W 


6 3/* 


BAA 


145 


19?9> 


Boy. 26 


'. OS: 26 


;>:is : 


V M0 


8 


\ 1/2 S 77 


1/2 -V 


5 */2 


IY..BCB 



220 



18 (cont- ), REGION 8 



No. 


D-te 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


150 


1937, 


June 22 


05:34 


:03 


150 


9 S 79 W 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


155 


1945, 


Aug . 2 1 


16:29 


:37 


120 


10 


1/2 S 75 


W 


6 


3/4 


BM 


160 


1933, 


Aug. 6 


02:54 


:52 


100 


1 1 


S 75 1/2 


W 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


165 


1940, 


Aug. 26 


02:27 


:59 


1 10 


1 1 


1/2 S 75 


W 


6 




BBA 


170 


1932, 


Jan. 20 


02:30 


:50 


100 


12 


S 77 1/2 


W 


6 


3/4 


BCC 


175 


1935, 


torch 9 


02:54:37 


150 


12 


S 78 W 




5 


3/4 


CCC 


180 


1939, 


April 25 


12:53 


:37 


150 


12 


1/2 S 75 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BBC 


185 


1937, 


March 28 


12:21 


:42 


120 


13 


1/2 S 75 


W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


190 


1937, 


Oct. 15 


03:41 


:15 


90 


13 


1/2 S 77 


W 


5 


1/4 


CCA 


195 


1941, 


Sept. 18 


13:14 


:09 


100 


13 


3/4 S 72 


1/4 W 


7. 





BBA 


200 


1925, 


Jan. 5 


13:45 


:46 


200 


14 


S 73 1/'2 


W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


205 


1940, 


Aug. 4 


16:07 


:05 


120 


14 


S 74 W 




5 


1/2 


CCC 


210 


1944, 


Feb. 29 


03:41 


:53 


200 


14 


1/2 S 70 


1/2 W 


7 




BBB 


215 


1928, 


Sept. 21 


13:27 


:05 


250 


15 


S 70 1/2 


W 


6 


3A 


BBA 


220 


1943, 


Feb. 16 


07:28 


:35 


190 


15 


S 72 W 




7 




BBB 


225 


1932, 


Dec. 9 


08:34 


:55 


75 


15 


S 75 W 




6 


1/2 


ABB 


230 


1933, 


Aug. 9 


23:02 


:45 


170 


15 


1/2 S 68 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


235 


19^0, 


Dec, 22 


18:59 


:46 


230 


15 


1/2 S 68 


1/2 W 


7- 


1 


BBA 


240 


1935, 


Sept . l 9 


09:55 


:47 


250 


15 


1/2 S 70 


W 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


245 


1937, 


March 29 


07:49:47 


120 


15 


1/2 S 71 


W 


6 


3/4 


BBA" 


250 


1935, 


March 26 


19:54 


:47 


1 20 


15 


1/2 S 73 


W 


6 




BBB 


255 


1941, 


Oct . 1 5 


09:35 


:15 


1 10 


15 


1/2 S 74 


W 


6 




CCB 


260 


1933, 


July 31 


15:23 


:07 


80 


15 


1/2 S 75 


1/2 W 


6 




BBB 


265 


1933, 


July 23 


04:13 


:1 1 


80 


15 


3A S 75 


1/4 W 


6 




ABB 


270 


1923, 


Sept. 2 


22:38:12 


150 


16 


S 68 1/2 


W 


7- 





BBB 


275 


1937, 


July 9 


17:27:40 


180 


16 


S 72 W 




6 




BCC 


280 


1936, 


Sept. 16 


17:44:13 


130 


16 


S 72 1/2 


W 


5 


3/4 


BBA 


283 


1943, 


July 6 


09:40:00 


160 


17 


S 70 W 




5 


3A 


CCB 


285 


1939, 


Dec. 13 


18:45:24 


100 


17 


S 74 W 




5 


1/2 


CCB 


290 


191^ 


Feb. 26 


04:58.2 


130 


18 


S 67 W 




7. 


2 


CCB 


295 


1939, 


May 19 


18:25:35 


100 


18 


S 69 W 




6 


1/4 


BCA 


300 


1936, 


July 4 


08:52:35 


140 


18 


S 70 W 




6 




BBA 


305 


T921, 


Oct. 20 


06:03:24 


120 


18 


1/2 S 68 


W 


7 




BAG 


310 


1915, 


June 6 


21 :29:37 


160 


18 


1/2 S 68 


1/2 W 


7- 


6 . 


BBB 


315 


1939, 


Oct. 7 


23:51 : 


:18 


no 


18 


1/2 S 70 


W 


6 




BBB 



TABLE 16 (cont.), REGIOI 8 



Ho. 


Date 






Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


320 


19*1, 


July 


10 


09:29:^2 


120 


18 


1/2 S ?0 W 


6 




CCB 


325 


1959, 


Sept 


. 13 


18:03:30 


130 


18 


1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


5 


3/* 


BBA 


330 


1932, 


toy 


30 


00:22:45 


160 


19 


S 69 W 


5 


3/4 


BBB 


335 


1932, 


July 


29 


00:45 


:18 


110 


19 


S 70 W 


6 




BAA 


3*0 


1933, 


Sept 


. 14 


07:59:24 


100 


19 


S 70 1/2 W 


5 


1/4 


BCB 


3*5 


193*, 


Dec. 


4 


17:24 


:38 


130 


19 


1/2 S 69 1/2 W 


6. 


9 


BBC 


355 


1909, 


toy 


17 


08:02 


9 


250 


20 


S 64 W 


7- 


1 


CCC 


360 


1920, 


Aug. 


13 


02:03 


:00 


150 


20 


S 68 W 


6 


1/2 


CCB 


365 


19*3, 


torch 1 4 


18:37 


:55 


150 


20 


S 69 1/2 W 


7- 


2 


CCC 


370 


1936, 


Dec. 


5 


00:37 


:58 


100 


20 


S 70 1/2 W 


6 




BBA 


375 


1932, 


June 


18 


00:13 


:39 


70 


20 


S 71 W 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


380 


1931, 


toy 


28 


03:15 


:04 


120 


20 


1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


CCB 


385 


T939, 


July 


4 


18:26 


:12 


290 


21 


S 66 W 


6 


3/* 


BBA 


390 


1927, 


toy 


22 


01 :45 


:10 


140 


21 


S 67 W 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


395 


1916, 


Aug. 


25 


09:44 


.7 


180 


21 


S 68 W 


7 


1/2? 


CCC 


400 


1922, 


torch 28 03*57 


:54 


90 


21 


S 68 W 


7- 


2 


BCB 


405 


1927, 


Oct. 


3 


23:55 


:52 


100 


21 


S 68 W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


41 


193*. 


Dec. 


23 


09:52 


:28 


100 


21 


S 68 W 


6 


1/2 


BBA 


412 


19*3, 


Dec. 


1 


10:34 


:45 


100 


21 


S 69 W 


7 


1/4 


BBC 


415 


19*0, 


Oct. 


3 


04:56 


:08 


110 


21 


s 70 w 


6 


1/4 


CCB 


420 


1939, 


Nov. 


1 


19:11 


:*5 


240 


21 


1/2 S 68 W 


5 


3/4 


CCB 


425 


1939, 


Jan. 


18 


12:40 


:11 


70 


21 


1/2 S 70 W 


5 


3/* 


BBB 


430 


1939, 


toy 


13 


00:*3 


:35 


210 


22 


S 66 W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


*35 


1936, 


Jan. 


31 


15:1* 


:15 


160 


22 


S 67 W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


440 


1939, 


Oct. 


5 


04:55 


:50 


240 


22 


S 67 W 


6 




CCC 


445 


19*1, 


Nov. 


10 


09:44 


:50 


200 


22 


S 67 W 


6 


1/4 


CCA 


450 


19*0, 


Aug. 


7 


02:55 


:-57 


'110 


22 


S 68 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BBA 


*55 


1 93*, June 2* 


05:59:3* 


100 


22 


;o s 68.6 W 


6. 


9 


BAA 


460 


1910, 


Oct. 


4 


23:00 


.1 


120 


22 


S 69 W 


7 


1/4 


CCC 


465 


1933, 


Nov. 


3 


0*:1* 


:*3 


70 


22 


S 70 1/2 W 


5 


1/2 


CCB 


470 


19*0, 


Oct. 


4 


07:5* 


:42 


75 


22, 


s 71 w 


7-3 


BBB 


*75 


1 941 , April 3 


14:55:16 


260 


22 


1 /2 S 66 W 


6 


1/3 


BCB 


*76 


19*1, 


April 3 


; 15:21 


:39 


2'$Q 


22 


1 /2 S 66 W 


7-2 


BBA 


480 


1936* 


Nov. 


, 29" V 


14:55:10 


230 


,: ',22 


1/2 S 67 W 


6 




iPC 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 8 



No. 


Date 






Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


485 


1936, 


June 


22 


10:28 


:06 


100 


22 


S 68 W 


6 




CBA 


490 


1931, 


July 


18 


05:27 


:05 


150 


22 


1/2 S"69 W 


6 


3/k 


BAB 


k95 


193k, 


Nov. 


28 


05:48 


-:50 


80 


22 


1/2 S 69 W 


5 


3/k 


BCB 


500 


1933, 


Oct. 


10 


03:34 


:12 


1 10 


22 


1/2 S 69 1/2 W 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


505 


1932, 


Feb. 


27 


08:49:40 


120 


22 


1/2 S 70 W 


5 


1/2 


BCB 


510 


1937, 


Sept, 


. 24 


19:09 


:52 


130 , 


22 


1/2 S 70 W 


6 




BCB 


515 


1940, March 24 


11 :48 


:39 


280 


23 


S 66 W 


5 


3/k 


CCC 


516 


1934, 


March 24 


22:52 


:46 


270 


23 


S 66 W 


5 


3/k 


BCC 


520 


1933, 


Oct. 


25 


23:28 


:16 


220 


23 


.0 S 66.7 W 


7- 





AAA 


522 


1941, 


Aug. 


14 


01 :43 


:40 


180 


23 


S 66 3/4 W 


6 




BBB 


525 


1935, 


Feb. 


28 


07:10 


:25 


200 


23 


S 67 W 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


530 


1936, 


Nov. 


7 


06:32 


:47 


200 


23 


S 67 W 


6 




BBB 


535 


1937, 


Feb. 


24 


18:45 


:45 


260 


23 


S 67 W 


5 


1/4 


CCC 


540 


1933, 


Feb. 


10 


08:46 


:01 


110 


23 


S 68 W 


5 


3/k 


CCB 


545 


I9k0, 


Sept. 


18 


15:09 


:03 


110 


23 


S 68 W 


6 


1/2 


CCB 


550 


1935, 


Sept. 


28 


o4:oo 


:30 


100 


23 


S 68 1/2 W 


5 


1/4 


CCC 


555 


1929, 


Oct. 


19 


10:12 


:52 


100 


23 


S 69 W 


7- 


5 


BAB 


556 


1929, 


Oct. 


19 


20:20 


:42 


100 


23 


S 69 W 


6 




BAB 


560 


1933, 


Oct. 


12 


07:12 


:50 


100 


23 


S 69 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


565 


1938, 


April 24 


14:10 


:58 


180 


23 


1 /2 S 66 W 


6 




BCC 


570 


1928, 


May 26 


08:28 


:56 


130 


23 


1/2 S 69 W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


575 


1936, 


Nov. 


7 


05:07 


:30 


200 


24 


S 66 W 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


580 


1927, 


Aug. 


t 


11:28 


:36 


200 


24 


S 66 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


585 


1927, 


Nov. 


17 


20:54 


:47 


200 


24- 


S 66 1/2 W 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


587 


19k4, 


July 


23 


16:13 


:39 


250 


24 


S 66 1/2 W 


6 




BBB 


590 


1938, 


Aug. 


4 


08:54:51 


220 


24 


S 68 W 


6 


3/k 


BAA 


595 


193k, 


Dec. 


16 


16:31 


:10 


150 


24 


S 68 W 


6 




CCC 


600 


1939, 


Aug. 


12 


19:41 


:04 


70 


24 


S 68 1/2 W 


5 


3/k 


BCB 


605 


1926, 


April 


28 


11:13 


:50 


180 


24 


S 69 W 


7- 





BCB 


610 


19*2, 


July 


8 


06:55 


:45 


140 


24 


s 70 w 


7- 





BCC 


615 


1932, 


Nov. 


1 


10:38 


:54 


100 


24 


S 70 W 


6 




CCB 


620 


1927, 


Nov. 


26 


12:53 


:58 


180 


24 


1/2 S 67 W 


6 


3/k 


AAA 


625 


1937, 


Oct. 


12 


20:50 


:55 


110 


25 


S 68 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


ABA 


630 


1932, 


April 


26 


07:5k 


:48 


70 


25 


S 69 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


ABB 



TABIE 18 (cont.), RBGIOH 8 _gg? 



No. 
632 
635 


Date 
19**, Dec. 22 
1935, Feb. 13 


Time 
22:31 :*7 
17:22:01 


Depth 

120 
1 00 


Location 
25 S 70 W 
25 1/2 S 69 W 


M 
6 1/2 
6 1/2 


Quality 

BBB 
BAA 


6^0 


1930, 


Sept. 23 


23:3*:10 


150 


26 


S 66 W 




6 


1/2 


BCC 


6*5 


19*0, 


Feb. 12 


00: 


01 :30 


70 


26 


1/2 S 71 W 


6 


1/2 


CBB 


650 


1931, 


April 3 


05: 


19:06 


180 


27 


S 65 W 




6 


I/* 


ABB 


655 


1939, 


April 18 


06: 


22:*5 


100 


27 


S 70 1/2 W 


7- 


4 


AAA 


660 


1932, 


June 9 


06: 


30:*3 


80 


27 


1/2 S 70 


I/? W 


5 


3A 


BCB 


665 


1936, 


Dec. 19 


02: 


57:37 


160 


28 


1/2 S 68 


1/2 W 


5 


3/* 


CCB 


670 


1918, 


May 20 


17: 


55:10 


80 


28 


1/2 S 71 


1/2 W 


7- 


5 


BCC 


675 


1939, 


July 8 


02: 


38:00 


170 


29 


S 68 W 




5 


1/2 


BCB 


680 


1937, 


March 19 


18: 


11:55 


70 


29 


s 70 w 




6 




BCB 


682 


19*3, 


Nov. 29 


19: 


37:00 


100 


29 


1/2 S 68 


1/2 W 


6 


3/* 


CCC 


685 


1939, 


Jan. 18 


01 : 


4*:18 


70 


29 


1/2 S 71 


W 


6 


V* 


BBA 


690 


19*0, 


Oct. 1 


10:^2:38 


80 


30 


S 72 1/2 


w 


6 


1/2 


CCB 


695 


1938, 


Jan. 9 


20:26:00 


120 


30 


1/2 S 69 


w 


5 


3A 


CCB 


700 


1938, 


June 23 


01 :03:58 


70 


30 


1/2 S 70 


w 


6 


i/a 


CBA 


705 


1939, 


Feb. 19 


12:51 :*o 


100 


30 


1/2 S 71 


w 


5 


1/2 


CCB 


710 


1936, 


April 30 


17:06:19 


200 


31 


S 65 W 




6 




BBB 


715 


1933, 


Dec. 21 


0*:31:55 


120 


31 


S 69 W 




6 


1/* 


BHB 


720 


1938, 


June 15 


07:*3=50 


70 


51 


S 70 1/2 


w 


6 




BBA 


725 


1939, 


Oct. 1 


10:56:5* 


200 


31 


1/2 S 66 


1/2 W 


5 


3/* 


CCC 


730 


1937, 


Feb. 12 


18:32:58 


200 


32 


S 66 1/2 


W 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


735 


1927, 


April 1* 


06 


:23:3* 


1 10 


32 


S 69 1/2 


W 


7 


.1 


BAA 


7^0 


1933, 


Nov. i* 


1* 


:05:09 


1 10 


32 


S 69 1/2 


W 


6 


1/2 


BAA 


7*5 


1932, 


May 8 


19 


:21:27 


1 10 


32 


S 70 W 




5 


1/2 


DED 


746 


1932, 


May 10 


1 1 


:53:0* 


1 10 


32 


S 70 W 




5 


1/2 


DDD 


750 


1932, 


Nov. 29 


1 1 


:11:05 


110 


32 


S 71 W 




6 


3/* 


BBA 


755 


19*2, 


June 29 


06 


:26:*0 


100 


32 


s 71 w 




6 


.9 


CCB 


760 


1931, 


Aug. 17 


05 


:05'.25 


120 


32 


1/2 S 69 


1/2 W 


5 


3/* 


BCB 


765 


19*5, 


Sept. 13 


1 1 


: 1 7 : 1 1 


100 


33 


1/* S 70 


1/2 W 


7 


.1 


BBA 


770 


193*, 


June 1 1 


03 


:07:09 


100 


33 


1/2 S 6* 


1/2 W 


6 




BBB 


775 


193*, 


June 1 1 


06 


:00:33 


1 00 


33 


1/2 S 6* 


1/2 W 


6 




BBB 


780 


1935, 


May 28 


* 12 


:08;5l 


200 


33 1/2 $ 68 


W 


5 


3/* 


OCB 


785 


1937, 


Oct. 27 


00:21 ?20 


tio 




r, 1/2 S 71 


W 


6 BOA 



Ho. 
790 


Date 
1940, 


Sept. 


29 


Time 
01 :21 


:22 


Depth 
110 


Location 
35 S 70 W 


M 

6 


1/4 


Quality 
CCB 


795 


1932, 


June 


n 


13 


:1 1 


:32 


80 


35 S 71 W 


5 


3/4 


BCC 


800 


1940, 


Oct. 


24 


20 


:06 


:40 


80 


35 S 72 1/2 W 


6 


3/4 


CBA 


805 


1937. 


Jan. 


30 


10 


:31 


:52 


100 


36 S 72 W 


5 


1/2 


CCB 


810 


1932, 


^ferch 


1 


19 


:01 


: 5 


290 


36 1/2 S 70 W 


5 


1/2 


BCC 


815 


1937, 


Dec. 


24 


03 


:23 


:38 


70 


37 S 72 W 


5 


1/2 


BCB 


REGION 8, 


Deep Shocks 








40 


1911, 


April 


28 


09 


: 5 2 


.9 


600 


71 W 


7 


.1 


CCC 


80 


1921, 


Dec. 


18 


15 


:29 


:35 


650 


2 1/2 S 71 W 


7 


.6 


BBB 


81 


1922, 


Jan. 


17 


03 


:50 


:33 


650 


2 1/2 S 71 W 


7 


.6 


CBB 


120 


1939, 


Dec. 


24 


22 


:27 


:40 


600 


6 1/2 S 71 W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


160 


1915, 


April 


23 


15 


:29 


.3 


650 


8 S 68 W 


7 


1/4 


CCB 


200 


1930, 


Aug. 


4 


05 


:04 


:3l 


650 


9 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


201 


1940, 


Sept. 


24 


09 


:55 


:44 


600 


9 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


6 




CCB 


240 


1935, 


Dec. 


14 


01 


:3l 


:13 


650 


9 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


6 


9 


AAA 


241 


1935, 


Dec. 


16 


16 


:57 


:24 


650 


9 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


AAA 


242 


1935, 


Dec. 


28 


04 


: 5 


:4 9 


650 


9 1/2 S 70 1/2 W 


5 


3/4 


AAA 


280 


1927, 


April 6 


18 


:54 


:0 5 


600 


10 S 70 W 


6 




CDC 


300 


1944, 


June 


8 


02 


:38:04 


600 


10 S 71 W 


6 


1/4 


CCB 


320 


1922, 


Sept. 


4 


17 


:04 


:08 


660 


10 1/2 S 69 1/2 W 


6 


9 


BAB 


360 


1933, 


Aug. 


29 


14 


:52 


:36 


650 


10.9 S 69-5 W 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


4oo 


1922, 


July 


10 


09 


:38 


:10 


630 


19 S 62 1/2 W 


6 


3/4 


BBC 


440 


1928, 


Jan. 


5 


21 


:46 


:13 


640 


19 1/2 S 64 W 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


480 


1940, 


Sept. 


23 


07 


:15 


no 


550 


23 S 64 W 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


500 


1940, 


May 1 




02 


:34 


:02 


580 


25 1/2 S 62 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


CCB 


520 


1939, 


Jan. 


24 


19 


:48 


:53 


580 


26 1/2 S 63 W 


6 




BBA 


560 


1942, 


Nov. 


30 


00 


:47 


:58 


590 


27 S 63 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


CCA 


600 


1926, 


Feb. 


9 


00 


:24 


:24 


660 


28 S 62 W 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


640 


1928, 


Aug. 


15 


17 


:15 


:43 


620 


28 S 62 1/2 W 


6 


.5 


AAA 


680 


1916, 


June 


21 


21 


:32 


:30 


600 


28 1/2 S 63 W 


7 


.5 


BCC 


720 


1934, 


Jan. 


9 


07 


:32 


:32 


630 


28 1/2 S 63 W 


6 




BBB 


760 


1912, 


Dec. 


7 


22 


:46 


:50 


620 


29 S 62 1/2 W 


7 


1/2 


CCC 


800 


1936, 


Jan. 


14 


14 


:12 


:13 


620 


29 S 62 1/2 W 


6 


.9 


AM 



No. 
200 


Date 
1934, 


REGION 9 (South America 37 - 59 S), Intermediate Shocks 
Time Depth Location M Quality 
March 1 21:45:25 120 40 S 72 1 /2 W 7<1 AAB 
REGION 10 (Southern Antilles ), Intermediate Shocks 


200 


1937, 


Sept. 


8 


00: 


40:01 


130 


57 


S 27 W 




7-2 


BBB 


250 


1936, 


Sept. 


7 


12: 


17:26 


160 


58 


s 30 w 




6 3/4 


CCB 


300 


19^1, 


Nov. 


15 


04: 


19:5^ 


80 


59 


S 27 1 


/2 W 


Y.O 


BCC 


400 


1926, 


June 


20 


06: 


54:28 


170 


59 


S 27 W 




6.9 


CCC 


500 


1935, 


May 1 


4 


23: 


23:10 


155 


59 


S 26 1 


/2 W 


7.0 


BBB 


REGION 


1 1 (New 


Zealand 


.), 


Intermediate Shocks 


300 


1914, 


Nov. 


22 


08: 


U-3 


1 00 


39 


S 176 


E 


7 


CCC 


400 


1921, 


June 


28 


13: 


58:55 


140 


38 


1/2 S 


175 1/2 E 


6 3/4 


BCC 


500 


1938, 


Oct. 


30 


12: 


45:23 


150 


38 


1/2 S 


176 1/2 E 


5+ 


BCC 


510 


1938, 


Nov. 


1 


23: 


:21 :20 


150 


38 


1/2 S 


176 1/2 E 


5 


BCC 


700 


1940, 


Oct. 


7 


01 : 


:25:59 


170 


38 


1/2 S 


176 3A E 


5 3A 


AM 


800 


1931, 


Sept. 


21 


13: 


: 5 U:2 5 


80 


37 


1/2 S 


178 E 


6 3A 


BCB 


900 


1939, 


May 1 


4 


18: 


:1 2:24 


80 


36 


1/2 S 


179 E 


6 


BOB 


REGION 12 


(Kermadec and Tonga Islands ; 


), Intermediate Shocks 


25 


1933, 


May 21 


08: 


:1 5 :*2 


100 


35 


S 180 




6 


CCC 


75 


19^3, 


July 


1 1 


02: 


:10:25 


180 


32 


1/2 S 


178 1/2 W 


7.0 


BHB 


100 


1937, 


Sept, 


, 1 


08 


:38:59 


120 


32 


S 180 




7-0 


BBC 


125 


1940, 


Jan. 


21 


04 


:19=36 


230 


32 


s 178 


W 


6 1/4 


CCB 


140 


1932, 


Oct. 


20 


17 


:36:43 


70 


30 


S 179 


W 


6 


CCB 


150 


1912, 


May 1 


15 


00 


:04.3 


250 


30 


s 178 


1/2 W 


6 1/2 


CCC 


175 


19^3, 


Sept, 


. 27 


22 


:03:44 


90 


30 


s 178 


W 


7-1 


BBB 


200 


1935, 


Nov. 


7 


12 


:08:17 


80 


30 


S 177 


W 


5 1/2 


CCB 


225 


193^, 


Sept. 


. 23 


07 


:59:03 


80 


30 


S 177 


W 


6 


BBB 


250 


1911, 


July 


19 


10 


:01 .0 


200 


29 


S 179 


w 


6.9 


CCC 


275 


1941, 


Nov. 


24 


21 


:46:23 


80 


28 


S 177 


1/2 W 


7-3^ 


ABA. 


300 


193*, 


July 


20 


20 


:05:46 


170 


27 


s 178 


w 


6 1/2 


BM 


325 


19U, 


Nov. 


30 


01 


:45:33 


180 


23 


S 179 


w 


6 3A 


CCB 


350 


19*4-0, 


Feb. 


12 


08 


:20:57 


200 


23 


S 177 


1/2 W 


6 3/4 


AAB 


575 


19^3, 


March 26 


17 


: 3 6:U 


100 


23 


S 176 


?/2 W 


6.9 


BIJB 


400 


1935, 


June 


n 


13 


4*9*W, 


80 


22 


1 a : i-76 


* : ; ;';',: ,^' ,;/,,,', 


,f J^ y 


iCCfc 


4,25 , 


1936* 




1 'i'f ' '' "; 


\/M 


iJfTt'M*,'; 


;!*<X*;,/ .'":'" 


,$;i 


; & vt? 


'.W! t^' : ^''l('r^' f \ 


: :^t':' ''!''''; 


: ',C&2' 



.225 



TABLE 18 (cent.), RE&IOH 12 



Ho. 


Date 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


*50 


1934, Feb. 


9 


22:32 


:13 


230 


20 


1/2 S 


176 1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


475 


1930, April 30 


16:06 


:10 


180 


20 


s 176 


W 


6 


3/4 


BCB 


500 


1932, June 


16 


23:13 


:05 


200 


20 


s 176 


W 


6 




CCB 


525 


1943, Jfey 


12 


08:23 


:15 


270 


20 


s 175 


W 


5 


3/* 


CCB 


550 


1919, Jan. 


1 


02:59 


:57 


180 


19 


1/2 S 


176 1/2 W 


7 


3/4-8 


BCC 


575 


1918, Oct. 


14 


12:00 


5 


130 


19 


s 174 


W 


7 




CCC 


625 


1944, Aug. 


25 


12:25 


:02 


240 


18 


S 175 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


650 


1935, Jan. 


1 


13:21 


:00 


300 


17 


1/2 S 


174 1/2 W 


7- 


^1 


BAA 


660 


1934, Nov. 


9 


03:58 


:56 


80 


17 


1/2 S 


174 W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


675 


1913, May 8 


18:35 


.4 


200 


17 


S 174 


1/2 W 


7- 


,0 


CCC 


725 


1935, Aug. 


21 


13:48:44 


100 


16 


S 174 


W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


750 


1939, Oct. 


30 


13:12:36 


150 


16 


s 174 


W 


6 


1/2 


BCA 


760 


1940, April 14 


09:33:22 


200 


16 


s 174 


W 


6 


1/4 


CCB 


765 


1 940,, July 


16 


22:05:50 


150 


16 


S 174 


W 


5 


1/2 


CCB 


825 


1939, June 


a 


20:46:53 


100 


15 


1/2 S 


174 W 


7- 


2 


AAA 


850 


1941, Feb. 


24 


12:44:09 


80 


15 


1/2 S 


1 73 1/2 W 


5 


3/4 


CCB 


875 


1944, Oct. 


11 


09:45:15 


80 


15 


S 173 


W 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


880 


1944, July 


10 


13=2*: 


:59 


180 


14 


1/2 S 


175 1/2 W 


6 


3/4 


CCC 


900 


1931, July 


20 


08:30: 


30 


80 


14. 


s 173 w 


6 


1/2 


BCB 



10 1938, April 15 

20 19*2, June 15 

30 1935* April 20 

40 1928, Sept. 12 

50 1931, May 15 

60 1939, Aug. 2 

70 1938, May 16 

80 1911, April 28 

90 1937,, May 10 

100 1937, June 19 

110 1931, Oct. 18 

120 1940, Aug. 1 

130 1932, May 26 

131 1932, May 26 



REGION 12, Deep Shocks 

02:59:17 580 33 S 179 E 5 3/4 CCC 

31 1/2 S 179 E 6 3/4 BCC 

31 1/2 S 179 1/2 W 5 3/4 CCC 

31 S 180 61/4 BCC 

29 S 180 6 CCC 

28 S 178 W 51/2 CCC 

27 S 179 E 5 3/4 CCB 

27 S 179 1/2 E 61/2 CCC 

26 1/2 S 178 E 61/2 CBB 

26 1/2 S 178 1/2 E 6 1/4 BBB 

26 S 180 6 3/1, AAA 

26 S 180 6 3/4 BBA 

25 1/2 S 179 1/4 E 7 3/4 BCB 

25 1/2 S 179 1/4 E 61/2 BCB 



13:47:12 550 

09:35:23 500 

01:20:00 500 

07:41:58 500 

04:56:50 380 

01:07:.20 -600 

18:35-7 600 

15:25:38 640 

17:07:27 650 

04:30:33 500 

12:39:38 500 

16:09:40 600 

22:21:54 600 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 12, Deep Shocks 



227 



No. Date Time Depth 

132 1952, May 27 01:29:^8 600 

133 1932, May 27 05:55:23 600 
140 1934, Dec. 12 08:40:li-9 600 

ISkk, Nov. 13 19:23:30 610 

1943, April 28 23:^3:18 530 

160 19^2, Aug. 29 01:39:20 570 

170 1934, Oct. 10 15:^2:06 5^0 

180 193^, Dec. 15 19:1^:26 530 

190 19^3, March 2k 11:11:27 ^30 

!95 1944, May 14 08:51:36 600 

200 1939, May 21 20:21:53 600 

210 19*0, July 21 18:28:15 550 

220 1922, March 10 16:52:30 57 

230 1939, July 5 22:41:04 650 

240 1939, July 20 02:23:00 650 

250 1943, March 4 06:^2:23 600 

260 1940, May 21 18:48:56 350 

270 19**, April 23 10:57:*5 570 

280 1933, Sept. 6 22:08:29 600 

290 1928, June 17 06:41:53 640 

300 1944, 'May 25 01:06:37 640 

310 1924, Dec. 26 23:32:00 5*0 

320 1940, Oct. 30 11:48:28 610 

3?0 1939., Nov. 1-7 18:39=30 600 

3*0 1957, April 16 03:01:37 *00 

350 1933, Jan. 23 1 8:1 4. 6 600 

360 1945, Nov. 26 05:13:10 600 

370 19*O, May 6 20:01:30 630 

580 193*, Jan. 18 03:21205 580 

390 1944, Dec. 1 04:0.0; 25 600 

400 1910, Dec. Ik 20:46.2 600 , 

410 192*, May*. . 16:311*3 560 

*20 1936, Noy. 15 21:30:16 5*0 ' 

430 19*s, ''July T : ', ;^;53S^' 



Location M Quality 

25 1/2 S 179 1/* E 61/4 BOB 

25 1/2 S 179 I/* S 5 3 A CCC 

25 S 178 1 61/2 BBA 

24 1/2 S 179 E 6+ CCA 

24 1/2 S 180 61/2 BOB 

24 S 179 1/2 E 6 3/4 BBB 

23 1/2 S 180 7-5 AAB 

23 1/2 S 179 1/2 W 6.9 AM 

23 S 179 W 61/4 CCB 

23 S 179 1/2 E 6 CCB 

22 1 /2 S 1 79 W 6 BCA 

22 5 179 E 5 3 A CCB 

22 3 180 6 3/4 BCC 

22 S 180 6.9 CBB 

22 S 179 1/2 W 7-0 CCC 

22 S 179 1/2 W 6 CCB 

22 3 178 1/2 W 6 1/2 AM 

22 S 177 1/2 W 6 1/2 BBB 

21 1/2 S 179 3A w T-1 BAA 

21 1/2 S 179 1/2 W 6 1/4 BAB 

21 1/2 S 179 1/2 W 7-2 BBB 

21 1/2 S 179 W 6 1/4 CCC 

21 1/2 S 179 W 6 1/4 BBA 

21 1/2 S 178 W 6 BBB 

21 1/2 S 177 Vff 7 3 A BAA 

21 S T80 6 1/4 CCC 

21 S 180 7-0 BBA 

21 3 179 1/2 W 61/2 CCA 

21 S 179 'W . 61/2 CCC 

21 3 178 1/2 W 6. ^ CCB 

21 S 178 W 7 OCB 

21 3 178 W 7t3 BAA 






228 



TABLE 18 (cont.h REGION 12, Deep Shocks 



Ho. 

450 
460 
470 
480 


Date 
191 1 , Aug. 21 
1924, Jan. 16 
1935, July 29 
1941 , Dec. 51 
1919, Aug. 18 


Time 
16:28:55 
21 :38:00 
07:38:53 
17:23:20 
16:55:25 


Depth 
300 
350 
510 
630 
300 


Location 
21 S 176 W 
21 S 176 W 
20 3/4 S 178 W 
20 1/2 S 180 
20 1/2 S 178 1/2 W 


M 

7-3 
7-0 
7-2 
6 1/4 

7-2 


Quality 
BCC 
CCC 
AAA 
CCC 
BCC 


490 


1941, 


, Feb. 22 


19:14:49 


500 


20 1/2 S 1 77 1/2 W 


6 




BCB 


500 


1931, April 3 


23:19:18 


680 


20 S 179 3/4 E 


6 


3/4 


BAA 


510 


1915, 


. Feb. 25 


20:36.2 


600 


20 


S 180 




7 


1/4 


BCB 


520 


1935, Sept. 12 


16 


:01 :22 


600 


20 


s 179 


W 


6 




CCC 


530 


1935, 


July 15 


14 


:13:35 


580 


20 


S 178 


1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


54o 


1941, 


June 21 


17 


:41:35 


580 


20 


S 178 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BCA 


550 


1927, 


April 1 


19 


: 06 : 09 


400 


20 


S 177 


1/2 W 


7 


. 1 


CCB 


560 


1910, 


April 20 


22 


:22.0 


330 


20 


S 177 


W 


7 




CCC 


570 


1924, 


May 25 


13 


:46:35 


550 


19 


s 179 


W 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


580 


1938, 


March 6 


16 


:54:05 


500 


19 


s 178 


W 


6 




CCC 


590 


1938, 


April 25 


09 


:20:16 


400 


19 


S 176 


1/2 W 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


600 


1936, 


Feb. 10 


18 


:05:40 


570 


18 


1/2 S 


178 W 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


61 


1936, 


Nov . 26 


08 


:33:32 


560 


18 


1/2 S 


178 W 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


620 


1941, 


Nov. 4 


02 


:26:47 


570 


18 


1/4 S 


178 W 


6 


1/4 


BBA 


630 


1916, 


July 8 


09:34.5 


600 


18 


S 180 




7 




CCC 


640 


1909, 


Feb. 22 


09: 


121.7 


550 


18 


S 179 


w 


7-5 


CCB 


650 


1940, 


Jan. i 


12; 


:15:13 


570 


18 


S 178 


1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


660 


1943, 


June 25 


19: 


:13:28 


550 


18 


S 178 


w 


6 


1/4 


CCA 


670 


1907, 


March 31 


22: 


:00.6 


400 


18 


S 177 


w 


7 


1/4 


CCB 


680 


1910, 


Aug. 21 


05:38.6 


600 


17 


S 179 


w 


7 


1/4 


CCC 


690 


1941, 


May 8 


10: 


21 :48 


580 


17 


S 179 


w 


6. 


9 


ABA 


700 


1918, 


May 22 


06: 


31 :27 


380 


17 


S 177 


1/2 W 


7 




BCC 


71 o 


1939, 


Oct. 3 


13: 


41 :22 


600 


16 


1/2 S 


179 1/2 W 


6 


1/4 


CCA 


REGION 13 


(Fiji), 


Intermediate Shocks 


500 


1939. 


Jan. 25 


20: 


26:22 


220 


13 


s 178 w 


5- 


3/4 


CCC 


REGION 13 (Fiji), 


Dee,p 


Shocks 








200 


1941, 


Jan. 25 


23: 


35:13 


570 


16 


S 176 


1/2 W 


6 


1/2 


BCA 


400 


1941, 


Npv . 22 


04: 


41 :54 


380 


16 


S 174 W , 5 


3/4 


CCB 


600 


1939, 


Jan. 5 


03: 


24:55 


80 


15 


S 176 W 


5 


1/2 


CCB 


800 


1943, 


March 15 


22 : 


59:15 


300 


14 


1/2 S 


177 W 


6 


3/4 


BBA 



TABIE 18 (cent.) 229 



REGION 14 


(New Hebrides), Intermediate .Shocks 


No. 


Date 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


10 


1936, 


Peb . 1 6 


14:16 


:56 


160 


24 


S 173 


E 




6 1/2 


BBB 


20 


1918, 


Sept . 3 


17:51 


:45 


80 


24 


s 171 


1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


BBB 


30 


1940, 


Sept . 1 9 


18:19 


:48 


80 


24 


s 171 


E 




7-0 


AAA 


40 


1941, 


July 20 


06:01 


:00 


100 


24 


s 170 


1/2 


E 


5 3/4 


CCC 


50 


1941, 


Nov. 23 


15:59 


:00 


100 


23 


1/2 S 


173 


E 


5 3/4 


ccc 


60 


1944, 


Dec. 21 


09:01 


:30 


100 


23 


1/2 S 


172 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


ccc 


70 


1911, 


Sept . 1 2 


12:53 


3 


150 


23 


s 172 


1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


ccc 


80 


19M, 


Nov. 5 


11:05 


:29 


100 


23 


s 172 


1/2 


E 


6 


ccc 


90 


1941, 


Nov. 5 


13:05 


:22 


100 


23 


s 172 


E 




6 1/4 


ccc 


100 


1913, 


Nov. 15 


05:27 


.1 


1.50 


23 


s 171 


E 




7 


ccc 


110 


1944, 


Sept. 6 


05:52 


:31 


120 


22 


1/2 S 


172 


E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


113 


1944, 


Oct. 5 


17:28 


:27 


120 


22 


1/2 S 


172 


E 


7 1/2 


BBB 


120 


1935, 


Aug. 17 


01 :44 


:42 


120 


22 


1/2 S 


171 


E 


7.2 


EBB 


130 


1944, 


Dec. 8 


07:17 


:05 


90 


22 


1/2 S 


170 


E 


6 1/4 


CCB 


131 


19^4, 


Dec. 8 


12:59 


:25 


70 


22 


1/2 S 


170 


E 


6 1/4. 


CCB 


140 


1909, 


Aug. 18 


00:39 


.5 


100 


22 


s 172 


E 




7 1/4 


CCC 


150 


1931, 


March 2 


02:18 


:34 


1 1 


22 


s 172 


E 




7-1 


EBA 


160 


19^0, 


Sept. 3 


01 :28 


:01 


100 


22 


s 171 


3A 


E 


6 


EBB 


170 


1942, 


Sept. 14 


1 1 :J1 


:01 


130 


22 


s 171 


1/2 


E 


7.0 


BBA 


180 


19^0, 


Jan. 6 


14:03:24 


90 


22 


s 171 


js- 




7.2 


AAA 


190 


19^3, 


March 11 


09:3^ 


:1 1 


80 


22 


s 170 


E 




6 3 A 


EBB 


200 


1944, 


June 25 


14:17 


:30 


80 


22 


S 169 


1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


CCC 


21 


19M, 


April 18 


06:15 


:58 


120 


20 


1/2 S 


170 


E 


6 1/4 


EBB 


220 


1910, 


March 30 


16:55 


.8 


80 


21 


s 170 


E 




7 1 /4 


CCC 


230 


1931 , 


July 21 


03:36 


:22 


140 


21 


s 170 


E 




7-0 


AAA 


240 


1938, 


June 23 


12:55 


:28 


90 


20 


3/4 S 


169 


1/2 E 


6.9 


EBB 


250 


1933. 


July 14 


01 :38 


:14 


110 


20 


1/2 S 


169 


1/2 E 


6 


CDD 


260 


1938, 


May 30 


14:29 


:50 


70 


20 


1/2 S 


169 


1/2 E 


7.0 


EBB 


263 


1938, 


June 30 , 


16:44 


:48 


70 


20 


1/2 S 


169 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


EBB 


270 


1933, 


Dec. 1 


10:26 


:26 


140 


20 


1/2 S 


169 


E 


6 1/2 


BC3B 


280 


1931, 


Oct. as 1 


11 :4^ 


:29 


80 


20 


s 170 


E 


! ' , '' ' ] 


,6,.: ;, 


I'*CB: 


290 


19^3, 


Aug. 1 


16:18 


:*i; 


'fisfl. 


; v ap 


S 170' 


B, 


: -:f/V'?/ ;; ' 


^ : ^V' 


v.jW#,; 


300 


1910* 


Itor i / < 


latMf" 


i>.v 


Vfitav:; 1 ' 


>."<s'Gl 


& 'fis^.. 


i 1 ' 1 ^ 


;,;, \'y! ', '/ ,i "' 


/,'!;' i ^jli^"> ll v- 


i ii*k ; 



TABIE 18 (cont.), REGION 14 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


303 


1910, 


June 


i 


05 


:55-5 


80 


20 


S 169 


E 


7 1/2 


CCC 


304 


1910, 


June 


1 


06 


:48.3 


80 


20 


S 169 


E 


7 1 /* 


CCC 


310 


193*, 


April 11 


21 


:11;57 


150 


19 


1/2 S 


1 69 1/2 E 


6 3/* 


ABB 


320 


1913, 


Oct. 


14 


08 


:08.8 


230 


19 


1/2 S 


1 69 E 


7 3/* 


CCC 


330 


1939, 


April 5 


16 


:42:40 


70 


19 


1/2 S 


168 E 


7-1 


AAA 


340 


1939, 


Aug. 


27 


1 1 


:18:00 


280 


19 


s 170 


E 


6'l/2 


CCC 


350 


1910, 


June 


16 


06 


:30.7 


100 


19 


S 169 


1/2 E 


8.1 


BBB 


360 


1941, 


May 


7 


12 


:19:44 


140 


19 


S 169 


1/2 E 


6 3/* 


BCB 


370 


1942,, 


Jan. 


29 


09 


:23:44 


130 


19 


S 169 


E 


7-1 


BBB 


380 


1944,, 


Nov. 


24 


04 


:49:03 


170 


19 


S 169 


E 


7-5 


AAA 


382 


1944, 


Nov. 


29 


18 


:51:21 


170 


19 


S 169 


E 


7-0 


AAB 


390 


1912, March 25 


04 


:*9-5 


240 


18 


S 169 


E 


7 


CCC 


400 


1913, 


Nov. 


10 


21 


:12.5 


80 


18 


S 169 


E 


7 1/2 


CCC 


410 


1939, 


Aug. 


12 


02 


:07:27 


180 


16 


1/4 S 


168 1/2 E 


7-2 


AAA 


420 


1940, 


July 


21 


05 


: 1 6 : 03 


160 


16 


S 169 


1/2 E 


6 


CCA 


430 


1919, 


Aug. 


31 


17 


:20:46 


180 


16 


S 169 


E 


7 1/* 


BBB 


440 


1935, 


June 


24 


23 


: 23:1 4 


140 


15 


3/* S 


167 3/4 E 


7-1 


AAA 


450 


193*, 


June 


3 


16 


:15:40 


120 


15 


1/2 S 


168 E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


460 


1924, 


Dec. 


15 


20 


:49:15 


210 


15 


1/2 S 


167 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BCC 


470 


1911, 


Nov. 


22 


23 


:05.4 


200 


15 


S 169 


E 


7 1/* 


CCB 


480 


1915, 


Jan. 


5 


14 


:33:15 


200 


15 


S 168 


E 


7 I/* 


BCC 


490 


1928, 


Aug. 


24 


21 


:43:30 


220 


15 


S 168 


E 


7.0 


BAB 


500 


1933, 


July 


30 


17 


:15:31 


160 


15 


S 167 


E 


61/2 


CCB 


510 


19*2, 


June 


3 


16 


:31:10 


120 


15 


S 166 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


CCC 


520 


1910, 


Nov. 


9 


06 


:02.0 


80 


15 


S 166 


E 


7 3/* 


CCC 


530 


1933, 


Jan. 


1 


08 


:48:39 


140 


1.* 


3/* S 


168 E 


7-0 


AAA 


540 


1932, 


July 


9 


, 12 


:56:10 


120 


14 


1/2 S 


167 1/4 E 


6 1/2 


ABB 


550 


1930, 


Sept 


. 14 


17 


:13:33 


280 


14 


1/2 S 


1 65 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BCC 


560 


1939, 


Oct. 


n' 


06 


:22:06 


120 


14 


S 167 


3/* E 


7** 


BBA 


570 


1911, 


July 


11 


21 


:22:18 


150 


14 


S 167 


E 


6.9 


BBB 


580 


1912, 


Aug. 


6 


21 


:11.3 


$60 


14 


s 167 


E 


7-2 


CCC 


590 


1920, 


Aug. 


15 


08 


:16:43 


240 


14 


S 167 





. 6 5/* 


CCC 


600 


1910, 


Nov. 


10 


12 


:19-9 


90 


Ik 


S 166 


1/2 E 


7-2 


CCC 


605 


19*5, 


Oct. 


28 


05 


:37:** 


200 


13- 


3/* S 


167 1/2 E 


6 3/* 


BBB 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 14 23 



No, 


Dute 








Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


610 


1940, 


Feb. 


20 


02:18 


:20 


200 


13 1/2 S 167 E 


7 


.0 


MA 


620 


1939, 


Sept . 




2 


08:58 


:48 


100 


13 S 167 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


BCC 


630 


1919, 


Nov. 


20 


1 4:1 1 


:43 


21 


13 S 167 E 


7 




BCC 


640 


1933, 


Sept. 




9 


21 :20 


:00 


130 


13 S 166 1/2 E 


6 


9 


ABB 


650 


1920, 


May 20 


07:26 


:05 


110 


12 1/2 S 167 E 


6 


3/4 


BCB 


660 


1911, 


Oct. 


20 


17:44 


.0 


160 


12 1/2 S 166 E 


7 


.1 


CCC 


670 


1940, 


Sept. 




26 


03:56 


:31 


150 


11 1/2 S 166 1/4 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


680 


1942, 


Feb. 


16 


18:08 


:15 


110 


11 1/2 S 166 E 


6 


.9 


BBB 


REGION 14 


, Deep Shocks 








200 


19*0, 


May 2 


08:24 


:00 


370 


19 1/2 S 169 1/2 E 


6 




CCC 


700 


1938, 


Nov. 


1 


8 


14:12 


:35 


360 


13 S 168 E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


REGION 1 


5 


(Solomon 


Islands to 


New Britain), Intermediate Shocks 


40 


1913, 


Feb. 


1 


5 


19:03 


.1 


200 


15 S 168 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


80 


1913, 


Feb. 


25 


14:18 


.4 


200 


15 S 168 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


120 


1913, 


Feb. 


1 


4 


18:52 


.0 


100 


9 S 162 E 


6 


.8 


CCC 


160 


1937, 


Sept. 




15 


12:27 


:32 


80 


10 1/2 S 1 61 1/2 E 


7 


.3 


AAA 


200 


1932, 


Oct. 


1 


7 


13:25 


:31 


100 


7 1/2 S 157 E 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


240 


1938, 


Sept. 




7 


12:58 


:20 


160 


6 1/2 S 155 E 


6 


1/2 


BAA 


280 


1934, 


Feb. 


1 


1 


08:59 


:31 


80 


6 1/2 S 15* 1/2 E 


6 


172 


BCC 


320 


1939, 


Nov. 


1 


7 


09:01 


:28 


140 


6 S 154 1/2 E 


6 




CCB 


360 


1937, 


May 31 


15:31 


:57 


100 


6 1/2 S 154 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


400 


1932, 


March 




8 


03:11 


:09 


70 


6 S 15* E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


440 


193*, 


Feb. 


27 


21 :29 


:35 


180 


6 S 15* E 


6 


1/2 


ABA 


480 


193*, 


May 13 


09:02 


:09 


100 


5 1/4 S 154 E 


6 


3/4 


ABB 


520 


19*1, 


Sept. 




4 


10:21 


:44 


90 


4 3/* S 15* E 


7 


.1 


AAA 


560 


1932, 


July 


1 


4 


08:53 


:28 


150 


3 1/2 S 15* E 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


600 


1936, 


Dec. 


29 


14:47 


;56 


100 


4 1/2 S 153 1/2 E 


7 


.0 


BBC 


640 


1928, 


March 




13 


18:31 


:52 


100 


5 1/2 S 155 E 


7 


.,0 


CCC 


660 


19*5, 


April 




23 


06:22 


:J1 


16Q 


4 1/2 S 153 E 


6 


5/* 


BBB 


680 


1 *iP' 


Aug. 


25 


03:48 


:17 


90 


5 S 152 3/* E 


6 


3/* 


EBB 


720 


19*1, 


May 2 






09:55 


:06 


80 


6 S 152 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


760 


19**. 


Oct. 


5 




16:57 


:02 


110 


4 1/2 S 152 1/2 E 


6 


.9 


BBB 


800 


1932, 


April 




12 


23:52 


:40 


100 


4 S 152 E 


6 


3/* 


BCB 


840 


19**, 


Dec. 


27 


15:25 


:*9 


90 


6 1/2 S 152 E 


7 


.0 


BCC 



No. 

Bco 


Date 


Sept. 25 


Ti,e 


= 


Deptl: 

'00 


5 S :~2 S 


6 


:/2 


Quality 
CCC 


920 


1910, 


Sept. 7 


0? : 1 < 


.3 


80 


6 


S <51 


E 


7 


'A 


CCC 


960 


1957, 


Aug. 5 


14:43 


:58 


140 


5 


1/2 S 


150 E 


6 


3A 


BBB 


REGION 


1 5, Deep Shocks 


200 


1931, 


July 23 


14:20 


156 


400 


6 


1/2 S 


155 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


300 


1912, 


Sept . i 


04:10 


.0 


430 


4 


1/2 S 


155 E 


1 




CCC 


400 


1932, 


Jan. S 


10:21 


:42 


380 


6 


.2 S 1 


54.5 E 


1 


3. 


AAA 


500 


1918, 


Dec. 25 


10:21 


:18 


450? 


7 


s 153 


E 


6 


3/4 


BCC 


600 


1926, 


Feb. 7 


02:44 


:04 


390 


4 


s 152 


E 


6 


1/2 


CCB 


700 


1932, 


March 1 9 


23:10 


:47 


350 


3 


s 152 


E 


6 


1/2 


CCD 


800 


1938, 


Aug. 31 


17:45 


:13 


350 


4 


s 151 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


REGION 16 


(New 


Guinea ) 


y Intermediate 


Shocks 






50 


1933, 


Jan. 15 


18:02 


:02 


140 


5 


1/2 S 


147 1/2 


E 6 


1/4 


BAB 


100 


1934, 


June 9 


12:58 


:44 


130 


5 


3/4 S 


147 1/4 


E 6 


.9 


AAA 


150 


1936, 


June i 


08:23 


:21 


190 


5 


1/2 S 


147 E 


6 


9 


AAA 


200 


1939, 


Jan. 30 


23:50 


:24 


200 


5 


1/2 S 


147 E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


250 


1931, 


June 17 


1 7 : 02 


:00 


140 


6 


1/2 S 


146 1/2 


E 6 


1/2 


BBB 


300 


1928, 


Sept. 7 


02:49 


:22 


140 


5 


1/2 S 


146 1/2 


E 6 


X /4 


BAB 


350 


1926, 


Sept. 7 


12:23 


:04 , 


100 


6 


S 146 


E 


6 


'5/4 


BCC 


400 


1935, 


May 21 


06:51 


:50 


140 


6 


S 146 


E 


6 


5A 


BBB 


425 


1935, 


May 21 


13:06 


:13 


140 


6 


S 146 


E 


6 




CCC 


450 


1934, 


March 16 


14:13 


:41 


120 


5 


1/2 S 


146 E 


6 


3A 


BBA 


500 


1933, 


June 4 


13:40 


:17 


120 


5 


S 146 


E 


6 




BBB 


530 


1936, 


Feb. 8 


12:1 1 


:1 


80 


5 


1/4 S 


145 3/4 


E 6 


3A 


BBA 


540 


1936, 


Feb. 21 


16:57 


:16 


75 


5 


S 144 


1/2 E 


6 


.9 


ABB 


550 


1943, 


Dec, 1 


06: 04 


:55 


120 


4 


3/4 S 


144 E 


7 


.2 


EBB 


600 


1937, 


May 12 


02:44 


:55 


150 


4 


1/2 S 


144 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


650 


1929, 


June 1 2 


11:43 


:02 


1 10 


5 


S 143 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


700 


1910, 


July 29 


10:26 


.7 


80 


5 


S 143 


E 


6 


.9 


CCC 


750 


1939, 


torch 2 


07:00 


:27 


130 


4 


S 143 


E 


6 


-9 


BBA 


800 


1944, 


Jan. 7 


02:49 


:20 


120 


4 


1/2 S 


143 1/2 


E 7 


.1 


EBA 


850 


1939, 


Dec. 27 


03:02:36 


80 


2 


3/4 S 


135 3/4 


E 6 


1/2 


BBB 


950 


1937, 


April 5 


06:56 


:41 


90 


1 


S 133 


E 


6 


9 


BBB 



TABLE - 



REGION 1? (Caroline 


IsLana 


s), Intermediate 


Shocks 




No. 


Date 


Time 


Dep t h Lo c a t i en 


M 


Quality 


800 


1939, 


Nov. 


9 


1 6:06:20 


90 


12 


N 143 


1/2 


E 


6 1 /A- 


BCC 








REGION 


18 (Marianne 


Is lands ) , Intermediate 


Shocks 




20 


1944, 


Aug. 


15 


1 1 :47:40 


1 1 


13 


N 143 


E 




6.9 


CCB 


40 


1932, 


Feb. 


13 


1 9:12:30 


90 


13 


1/2 N 


Uo 


E 


6 


CCC 


60 


1912, 


Oct. 


26 


09:00.6 


130 


14 


N 146 


E 




7 


CCC 


80 


1942, 


June 


14 


03:09:45 


80 


15 


N 145 


E 




7.0 


BCB 


1 00 


1932, 


Nov. 


3 


19:42:53 


170 


16 


1/2 N 


146 


1/2 E 


6 


BBB 


1 20 


1931, 


Nov. 


3 


02:35:55 


100 


17 


N 147 


E 




6 1/4 


CCC 


140 


1940, 


Jan. 


17 


01 :1 5:00 


80 


17 


N 148 


E 




7-3 


AM 


160 


1945, 


July 


15 


05:35:13 


120 


17 


1/2 N 


146 


1/2 E 


7.1 


BBB 


180 


1936, 


Nov. 


12 


02:15:58 


170 


17 


1/2 N 


147 


E 


6 1/4 


BCC 


200 


1933, 


Nov. 


7 


06:39:58 


70 


18 


N 146 


E 




6 


CCB 


21 


193^ 


Oct. 


21 


17:53:44 


210 


18 


N 146 


E 




6 1/2 


BAA 


220 


1940, 


Aug. 


15 


21 :23:28 


150 


18 


N 146 


E 




6 


CCB 


240 


1940, 


Dec. 


28 


1 6:37:44 


80 


18 


N 147 


1/2 


E 


7-3 


AM 


260 


1929, 


March 1 o 


1 4:34:43 


170 


18 


1/2 N 


146 


E 


6 3/4 


AM 


280 


1930, 


Jan. 


26 


12:20:30 


190 


18 


1/2 N 


146 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


BCB 


300 


1931, 


Sept 


. 9 


20:38:26 


180 


19 


N 145 


1/2 


E 


7-1 


AM 


320 


1935, 


July 


29 


04:1 2:49 


200 


19 


N 146 


E 




6 


BBA 


340 


1943, 


April 9 


08:48:59 


170 


19 


N 146 


E 




7.0 


BBC 


360 


1937, 


May 


5 


21 :15:39 


190 


19 


1/4 N 


145 


3/4 E 


6 1/4 


AAA 


380 


1934, 


June 


19 


03:50:15 


170 


20 


N 147 


E 




5 3/4 


CCB 


400 


1932, 


Jan. 


5 


1 1 :22:25 


130 


20 


N 148 


E 




6 


CCC 


420 


1936, 


March 31 


03:33:10 


290 


21 


1/2 N 


143 


1/4 E 


6 


ABB 


440 


1928, 


Dec. 


19 


15:15:50 


200 


21 


1/2 N 


143 


1/2 E 


6 


BBB 


460 


1935, 


Dec. 


14 


12:47:29 


270 


21 


1/2 N 


143 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


480 


1914, 


Nov. 


24 


11:53:30 


1 10 


22 


N 143 


E 




8.1 


BBB 


500 


1932, 


Dec. 


26 


22:31 :06 


280 


22 


N 143 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


AM 


520 


1933, 


May 


21 


21 :?4 :05 


200 


22 


N 145 


1/2 


E 


6 1/4 


CCC 


540 


1932, 


Sept 


. 2 


12:56:30 


i4o 


23 


N 142 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


ABB 


560 


1941 , 


June 13 


22 : 1 4 : 1 5 


220 


23 


N 146 


1/2 


E 


5 3A 


CCC 


580 


1913, 


March 23 


20:47-3 


80 


24 


N 142 


E 




7.0 


BCC 


600 


1931 , July 2 


03:38:50 


120 


24 


N 1-42 


1/2 


E 


6 


BCC 



23* 


TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 18 


No. 
620 
6JK> 


Date 
19*0, 
1921, 


April 5 
July * 


Time 
16:35:23 
1*:18:20 


Depth 

220 
200 


Location 
2* 1/2 N 1*3 E 
25 1/2 N 1*1 1/2 E 


M 
6 1/2 
7-2 


Quality 
CCB 
BED 


660 


1931, 


Oct . 1 7 


15:33:52 


180 


25 1/2 N 1*1 1/2 E 


6 


BBA 


680 


1907, 


May * 


08:36.8 


200 


28 N 1*1 


E 


7 




CCC 


690 


1936, 


April 5 


1*:27:*6 


100 


29 N 1*1 


E 


5 


3/* 


CCC 


700 


1933, 


June 1 8 


13 


:11 :25 


80 


30 N 1*2 


E 


6 


1/* 


BCC 


720 


1927, 


April 3 


13 


:*j:08 


150 


30 1/2 N 


1*2 E 


6 




CBC 


7*0 


1923, 


Sept . l 7 


03 


:39:32 


150 


31 


N 1*0 


E 


6 




CCC 


750 


19*1, 


July 6 


00 


:3*:28 


110 


31 


N 1*1 


E 


6 


l/* 


BBB 


760 


1909, 


March 13 


1* 


:29.0 


80 


31 


1/2 N 


1*2 1 /2 E " 


7 


7 


BCC 


780 


19*0, 


June 12 


18 


:36:58 


100 


31 


1/2 N 


1*2 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


800 


1926, 


Sept . 26 


01 


:00:39 


200 


32 


N 1*0 


E 


6 




CCC 


820 


1935, 


Sept. 1* 


08 


:28:01 


100 


32 


N 1*1 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


8*0 


1933, 


March 18 


15 


:51 :32 


170 


32 


1/* N 


139 3/* E 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


860 


1933, 


Nov . 1 9 


01 


:33:39 


230 


32 


1/2 N 


139 E 


5 




AAB 


900 


1932, 


Feb. 19 


13 


:25:32 


150 


33 


N 1*1 


E 


5 


1/2 


BAB 


920 


1933, 


Sept . 1 5 


13 


:53:*5 


120 


33 


N 1*1 


1/4 E 


5 


1/2 


AAB 


9*0 


1932, 


May 11 


06 


:53:35 


80 


33 


N 1*2 


E 


6 




BCC 


960 


1915, 


Oct. 8 


15 


:36:03 


170 


33 


1/2- N 


138 E 


7 




CCC 


980 


1930, 


May 23 


16:38:03 


130 


33 


3/* N 


1*0 1/* E 


6 


3/* 


AAA 


REGION 18, 


Deep Shocks 


20 


1931, 


Oct. 29 


08:39:18 


520 


17 


N 1*6 


E 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


*0 


193*, 


Feb. * 


03 : 1 : *5 


570 


18 


1/2 N 


1*5 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


50 


1934, 


April 25 


05:03:23 


570 


18 


1/2 N 


1*5 E 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


60 


T905, 


July 1 1 


15:37.5 


*50 


22 


N 1*3 


E 


7 


1/* 


CCC 


80 


1937, 


May 28 


19: 


56:03 


530 


2* 


N 1*2 


E 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


90 


1937, 


May 29 


02: 


00:01 


530 


2* 


N 1*2 


E 


5 


1/2 


AAA 


100 


1937, 


June 12 


18: 


08:10 


*30 


26 


N 1*1 


E 


6 




BBB 


120 


1931, 


Aug. 15 


12: 


*3:** 


**0 


26 


1/* N 


1*0 1/2 E 


5 


3/* 


BAB 


1*0 


1933, 


March 1 1 


19:32:39 


510 


26 


1/2 N 


1*0 1/2 E 


6 


3/* 


AAA* 


160 


1923, 


June 29 


10: 


*7:38 


*00 


27 


N 1*0 E 


5 


3A 


CCC 


170 


1923, 


June 29 


10: 


53:20 


*00 


27 


N 1*0 E 


5 


3A 


CCC 


180 


1930, 


Afcirch 6 


03: 


31 :36 


5*0 


27 


N 1*0 E 6 


BCC 


200 


19*0, 


March 9 


1 0: 


*7:0* 


500 


27 


N 1*0 E 


6 


1/2 


BCA 


220 


19*0 


July 8 


15: 


16:30 


500 


27 


1/2 N 


139 1/2 E 


6 




CCC 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 18 



235 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


240 


1937, 


Jan. 


5 


11 :09:12 


500 


27 


1/2 N 


139 E 


6 




BAB 


260 


1927, 


Aug. 


12 


00:33:50 


530 


27 


1/2 N 


140 1/2 E 


6 


3/* 


BEB 


280 


1932, 


Oct. 


1 


15:08:05 


450 


28 


N 140 


1/2 E 


6 




ABB 


300 


1928, 


Aug. 


16 


03:49:08 


500 


28 


N 140 


E 


6 




BBC 


320 


1938, 


Sept. 


21 


11 :36:20 


400 


28 


N 140 


E 


5 


3A 


CDS 


340 


1925, 


March 


27 


04:16:33 


500 


' 28 


N 139 


E 


6 




CCC 


360 


1933, 


Feb. 


4 


06:17:58 


550 


28 


N 139 


E 


6 




BBB 


380 


1931, 


June 


12 


01 :45:02 


410 


28 


1/2 N 


140 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BBC 


400 


1933. 


July 


31 


02:56:20 


400 


29 


N 141 


E 


5 


1/4 


CCC 


420 


1932, 


Jan. 


7 


1 1 :27:20 


400 


29 


N 140 


E 


5 


3A 


CCC 


430 


1932, 


Feb. 


3 


07:34:34 


400 


29 


N 140 


E 


6 


1/4 


BAB 


440 


1925, 


Oct. 


20 


09:41 :51 


380 


29 


N 139 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


460 


1921, 


March 4 


12:51 '-03 


450 


29 


N 139 


E 


6 




BCC 


480 


1933, 


July 


11 


08:28:07 


400 


29 


N 139 


E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


500 


1933, 


Sept. 


2 


16:41 :08 


4-10 


29 


.1 N 138.8 E 


6 


3/* 


AAA 


520 


1935, 


Feb. 


10 


18:29:33 


500 


29 


1/2 N 


139 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


540 


193*, 


April 19 


16:13:29 


430 


29 


3/* N 


139 1/* E 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


560 


1925, 


May 15 


18:25:3* 


360 


30 


N 139 


E 


6 


1/4 


BBC 


580 


1930, 


Jan. 


1 1 


21 :21 :00 


500 


30 


N 139 


E 


5 




CCC 


600 


1932, 


April 4 


19:16:38 


410 


30 


N 139 


E 


6 


3/* 


AAA 


620 


19*0, 


June 


27 


06:52:30 


400 


30 


N 139 


E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


640 


19*0, 


Nov. 


7 


13:57:5* 


500 


30 


N 138 


1/2 E 


6 


3/* 


BBB 


660 


1932, 


Oct. 


6 


05:00:53 


500 


30 


N 138 


E 


5 


3/* 


CCC 


680 


193*, 


June 


19 


15:47:10 


480 


30 


1/4 N 


139 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


700 


1932, 


July 


27 


00:30:53 


380 


31 


N 139 


E 


5 


3/* 


AAB 


720 


1912, 


July 


24 


23:24.4 


500 


31 


N 137 


E 


6 




CCC 


740 


1932,- 


Oct. 


14 


12:35:57 


330 


31 


1/2 N 


139 E 


5 


1/2 


ABB 


760 


1928, 


March 29 


05:06:03 


410 


31 


.7 N 138.2 E 


7 


.1 


AAA 


780 


1933, 


Feb. 


9 


03:56:53 


370 


31 


3/* N 


138 3/* E 


6 




AAA 


800 


1924, 


April 3 


02:30:30 


350 


32 


N 139 


E 


6 




BCC 


820 


1927> 


June 


18 


02:26:23 


400 


32 


N 139 


E 


5 


37* 


CCC 


840 


1933, 


May 28 


23:40:04 


400 


32 


1/2 N 


138 E 


5 


1/4 


AAB 


860 


1910, 


Feb. 


12 


18:10.1 


350 


32 


1/2 N 


138 E 


7 


.4 


BCB 


880 


1936, 


June 


25 


16:51 :52 


370 


32 


1/2 N 


137 1/2 E 


6 


1/4' 


BAB 



TABLS 1 3 1 cznz . / , REGION " 5 



g_Tq.-. 

No. 


late 




Tine Depth LcsatiC'H 


M Quality 


900 


'925, 


April "9 


^5:^:;? ;;o ?; :; ?= s 


3/4 AAf 








,- - _ " Tt 


5 CCC 


920 


1927, 


Aug . 2 


2 : " : ? c *5'3 r 3 * 3^-^ 




940 


1 935^ 


J, *1 TT . 5; 
VJ_J > 


09: i 1 :20 -20 33 II "3" E 


5 i/2 BBC 


960 


1943, 


Ncv . 1 7 


^.=-7.1- j 00 ?5 1/2 N 138 E 


7.0 BCC 


980 


1932, 


Dec. 5 


00:"9:20 420 33 1/2 N 13 17 E 


5 3/4 MB 



REGION 19 (Japan to Kamchatka), Intermediate Shocks 

10 1905, Oct. 24 03:^6.7 550 3^ N 139 E v 1 A 

20 193^ April 15 10:33:16 70 3* V 1 * N UO 1/2 E ^1/2 MA 

30 1935, June 28 18:5?:^ TOO 3^ 1 /^ N Uo 1/2 E 6 I/if BBC 

ifO 1933, Sept. 6 U:05:20 280 3^ 1/2 N 137 3A E 5 lA MB 

60 1916, Sept. 15 07:01.3 100 3^ V 2 N Ui E 1 1 /^ ccc 

70 1936, Oct. 25 15:30:25 80 3^ 3A N UO 1/2 E 6 l/^ MB 

80 1937, May 15 12:22:56 80 35 N 139 1/2 E 5 ABB 

90 1934, Feb. 1 00:15:59 90 35 1A N 1 39 lA E 5 AM 

100 1920, May 12 21:53 :l ^ TOO 36 N 137 1/2 E 6 3/4 BBB 

no 1931, June 2 02:37:52 260 36 N 137 1/2 E 6 1/2 AAA 

120 1938, June 5 16:31:38 80 36 N Uo I/if E 5 1/2 BBB 

125 1935, April 15 11:15:07 270 36 I/*- N 137 lA E 6 i/lj. AAA 

130 193^, May 30 23:03:58 70 36 1/4 N Uo 1/2 E 6 AM 

UO 1938, Feb. 7 1^:1*3:00 100 36 1/2 N 139 1/2 E 6 1/2 BBB 

150 1921*, Aug. 6 U:22:4o 75 36 1/2 N Uo 1/2 E 6 1/2 BCB 

160 1929, April 17 18:3^:12 100 36 1/2 N 1 41 E 6 ABA 

180 1934, April 6 19:09:36 100 37 1A N U1 1/2 E 6 3/4 ABB 

190 19^4, Aug. 18 10:33:17 150 38 N Uo E 6.9 " CCC 

200- 1931 ,, Why 25 06:48:55 100 38 1/2 N 1 4l E 5 MB 

210 1937, July 26 19:56:37 90 38 1/2 N Ul 1/2 E 7-1 AAA 

220 1933, July 20 23:14:05 100 38 1/2 N 144 1/2 E 6 3A AM 

230 1 931 , -Jan. 9 01 :45:4o 1 40 39 3/4 IT 1 4o 3/4 E 6 AM 

240 1931, Jan. 10 16:07:48 80 4o N 141 E 5 AAA 

250 1940, July 21 00:01:54 90 40 1 /2 N 1 42 1 /2 E 5 1 /" BCA 

260 1933, Jan. 3 22:41:04 280 41 N 138 E 51/2 BCC 

270 1926, Feb. 4 06:44:18 1^0 41 N 1 40 E 6 1/4 BBC 

280 1912, June 8 04:41.5 100 41 N 141 E 6 3A CCC 

290 1936, June 3 02:55:36 80 41 1 /g N 142 E 6 BBB 



TABLE 18 (cont.h HEGIOM 19 



237 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


300 


1939, 


Jan. 


13 


22:21 :56 


70 


41 


1/2 N 


142 


1/2 E 


5 1/4 


CCC 


310 


1934, 


Oct. 


29 


17:23:04 


100 


42 


N 141 


S 




5 1/4 


BCB 


320 


1 91 5, 


March 


17 


18:45:00 


100 


42 


N 142 


E 




7 1/4 


BCC 


330 


1933, 


July 


13 


07:57:45 


100 


42 


1/2 N 


139 


1/2 E 


6 


CCC 


340 


1944, 


Oct. 


2 


20:29:51 


75 


42 


1/2 N 


1 42 


1/2 E 


7.0 


BBA 


550 


1931, 


Jan. 


6 


03:22:46 


100 


42 


1/2 N 


142 


3/4 E 


50/4 


AAB 


560 


1939, 


Oct. 


22 


14:39:42 


90 


42 


1/2 N 


144 


E 


6 


BCB 


365 


1935, 


Dec. 


3 


17:44:01 


75 


42 


1/2 N 


146 


E 


5 3/4 


BCC 


370 


1931 , 


torch 


29 


17:51 -'52 


120 


42 


3/4 N 


143 


3/4 E 


6 3/4 


AAB 


380 


19M, 


March 


15 


19:07:33 


120 


4 **> 


N 140 


E 




5 3/4 


CCC 


390 


1930, 


Dec. 


13 


1 4:22:50 


100 


4^5 


N 142 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


ABB 


400 


1930, 


Dec, 


23 


23:55:06 


150 


43 


N 143 


E 




6 


BBC 


410 


1931, 


Jan. 


21 


08:58:04 


120 


43 


1/4 N 


146 


E 


6 1/4 


ABB 


415 


1935, 


Oct. 


2 


05:33:00 


70 


43 


1/2 N 


146 


1/2 E 


7.0 


AM 


420 


1945, 


Oct. 


9 


14:36:33 


80 


43 


1/2 N 


147 


1/2 E 


7.0 


BBB 


430 


1939, 


Dec. 


16 


1 0:46:32 


75 


43 


3/4 N 


1 47 


3/4 E 


7-1 


MA 


450 


1907, 


Dec. 


23 


01 :13.0 


1 00 


44 


N 145 


E 




6.9 




BBB 


460 


1907, 


July 


5 


15:46.1 


100 


44 


N 145 


E 




6 3/4 


CCB 


470 


1927, 


July 


12 


21 .-07:58 


1 00 


44 


N 145 


1/2 


E 


6 3A 


MB 


480 


1932, 


Dec.. 


8 


1 5:17:00 


100 


44 


N 146 


E 




5 3/4 


CCC 


500 


1945, 


June 


22 


09:18:40 


120 


44 


HI 146 


E 




7.0 


BBA 


510 


1933, 


Aug. 


28 


08:47:42 


130 


44 


N 147 


1/2 


E 


5 1/4 


BCB 


520 


19^3, 


Nov. 


9 


1 1 :46:32 


90 


44 


N 147 


1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


BBB 


530 


193^, 


June 


13 


01 :50:54 


90 


44 


N 147 


3A 


E 


6.9 


AM 


540 


1930, 


Aug. 


29 


20:02:33 


210 


44 


1/4 N 


146 


1/2 E 


6 


BBC 


548 


1938, 


Oct. 


17 


15:26:58 


250 


44 


1/2 N 


1 40 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BCA 


550 


1 942 , IV&rch 5 


1 9:48:16 


260 


44 


1/2 N 


142 


1/2 E 


6.9 


BBA 


560 


19^0, 


July 


4 


09:00:28 


250 


44 


1/2 N 


143 


1/2 E 


5 3/4 


BBA 


570 


1938, 


Nov. 


13 


13:13:^0 


70 


44 


1/2 N 


149 


1/2 E 


6.9 


BM 


580 


1930, 


July 


22 


19:25:53 


140 


44 


3/4 N 


147 


1/2 E 


7.1 


AM 


590 


1905, 


Sept. 


1 


02:45.6 


230 


45 


N 143 


E 




7 1/2 


CCC 


600 


1924, 


Dec. 


27 


1 1 :22:05 


150 


45 


N 146 


E 




7*3 


BBB 


610 


1924, 


June 


30 


1^:44:25 


120 


,45 


N 147 


1/2 


E 


7-3 


ABC 


620 


1938, 


Aug* 


1,7 


01 :45:35 


1 00 


45 


N 148 


E 




6 


, BCC 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 19 



No. 


Date 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


625 


1941, 


Nov . 1 4 


06:49:09 


130 


45 


1/2 N 


148 


E 


6 1/4 


EBB 


650 


1934, 


IVfey 28 


05:32 


:44 


140 


45 


1/2 N 


149 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


ABB 


640 


19^2, 


Nov. 26 


14:27 


:28 


110 


45 


1/2 N 


150 


E 


7.4 


BBB 


6^0 


1936, 


Nov. 12 


20;04 


:46 


150 


46 


N 148 


E 




6 1/2 


BBB 


660 


1937, 


June 8 


18:00 


:35 


130 


46 


1/2 N 


150 


E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


670 


1933, 


Feb. 3 


22:1 1 


:50 


70 


46 


N 151 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


ABA 


680 


1913, 


Jan. 19 


23:47:55 


150 


46 


N 152 


E 




7 


CCC 


690 


1922, 


Oct. 24 


21 :21 


:06 


80 


47 


N 151 


1/2 


E 


7-4 


BOB 


TOO 


1932, 


April 26 


13:31 


:39 


150 


47 


1/2 N 


154 


E 


5 1/2 


CCC 


710 


1929, 


Feb. 6 


06:49 


:13 


150 


48 


1/4 N 


152 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


BCB 


720 


1921, 


Sept. 29 


13:09 


:20 


100 


48 


1/2 N 


153 


E 


6 1/4 


CCC 


730 


1930, 


Jan. 5 


01 :19 


:48 


140 


49 


N 154 


E 




6.9 


BBB 


740 


1927, 


Aug. 8 


00:^7 


:50 


1 1 


49 


1/2 N 


155 


E 


6 3/4 


BBB 


750 


1929, 


Jan. 13 


00:03 


:12 


140 


49 


3/4 N 


154 


3/4 E 


7-7 


AAA 


760 


1934, 


March IS 


04:33 


:15 


100 


49 


3/4 N 


156 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


AAB 


770 


1911, 


Sept. 8 


22:44- 


.0 


80 


5.0 


N 156 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


CCC 


780 


1909, 


July^ 1 3 


13:13 


*5 


250 


50 


1/2 N 


152 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


790 


1939, 


Aug. i 


15:55 


:59 


140 


50 


1/2 N 


156 


E 


6 1/2 


BBA 


800 


1911, 


May 4 


23:36 


9 


240 


51 


N 157 


E 




7-6 


BBB 


810 


1941, 


Sept. 24 


01 :01 


:24 


75 


51 


N 158 


E 




7-0 


BBA 


820 


1907, 


Aug. 17 


17:27 


.9 


120 


52 


N 157 


E 




7 1/4 


CCC 


830 


1939, 


Nov. 18 


01 :32 


:48 


75 


52 


N 157 


E 




6 1/2 


BBB 


840 


1937, 


July 15 


19:03 


:26 


140 


52 


N 159 


E 




6 1/2 


BBB 


850 


1906, 


Oct. 8 


04:53 


:58 


200 


52 


1/2 N 


154 


1/2 E 


7 


CCB 


860 


1922, 


March 4 


13:07 


:38 


220 


52 


1/2 N 


157 


E 


7.0 


AAA 


870 


1934, 


Jan.. 3 


09:42 


:27 


280 


52. 


8 N 156.6 


E 


6.9 


AAA 


880 


1932, 


Aug. 4 


06:37 


:27 


100 


53 


N 160 


E 




6 1/4 


CBB 


890 


1912, 


May 13 


19:35 


.8 


100 


57 


N 162 


E 




6 3/4 


CCB 


REGION 19, 


Deep Shocks 


40 


1931, 


June 29 


16:43 


:17 


380 


34 


N 136 


1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


AAA 


80 


1933, 


Sept. 20 


03:56 


:35 


380 


34' 


N 136 


1/2 


E 


5 1/2 


AAB 


120 


1926, 


April 1 


16:03 


:51 


350 


34 


N 137 


1/2 


E 


6.9 


BBC 


I6p 


1906, 


Jan. 21 


13:49 


:35 


340 


34 


N 138 


E 




8.0 


BCC 


200 


1936, 


Oct. 26 


09:33 


:32 


380 


34 


1/4 N 


136 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


AAB 



TABIE 18 (cont.), REGION 19 



No. 


Dctte 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


240 


1932, 


May 5 


04:1 1 


:0t 


380 


34 


1/2 N 


135 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


AAA 


280 


1932, 


April 28 


03:43 


:04 


370 


34 


1/2 N 


137 


E 


5 3/4 


AAB 


320 


1942, 


April 20 


08:40 


:31 


350 


34 


1/2 N 


137 


E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


360 


1929, 


June 2 


21 :^8 


:34 


360 


34 


1/2 N 


137 


1/4 E 


7.1 


AAA 


400 


1940, 


April 20 


20:18 


:04 


400 


35 


N 136 


E 




6 


CCC 


440 


1926, 


July 26 


18:54 


.-50 


360 


35 


1/2 N 


135 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


BAA 


480 


1932, 


July 25 


08:24 


:39 


360 


35 


1/2 N 


135 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


AAA 


520 


1937, 


Nov. 22 


04:53 


:03 


360 


35 


1/2 N 


135 


1/2 E 


5 3/4 


BAB 


600 


1927, 


Jan. 15 


14:31 


:16 


420 


36 


1/4 N 


134 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


AAB 


680 


1925, 


May 27 


02:29 


:58 


4oo 


36 


1/2 N 


134 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BAA 


720 


1936, 


Oct . 1 9 


19:56 


:00 


350 


37 


N 135 


E 




5 3/4 


BAB 


760 


1907, 


March 26 


11:21 


:22 


360 


37 


N 136 


E 




6 3/4 


CCC 


800 


1935, 


Oct. 15 


14:35 


:09 


330 


37 


1/2 N 


135 


E 


5 3/4 


AAB 


840 


1931, 


April 21 


00:02 


:03 


320 


38 


3/4 N 


133 


3/4 E 


6 


AAB 


880 


1935, 


May 31 


08:18 


:37 


450 


38 


3/4 N 


134 


E 


6 1/? 


AAA 


920 


1904, 


June 7 


08:17 


-9 


350 


4o 


N 134 


E 




7 1/2 


CCC 


REGION 20 


(Riukiu Islands 


), Intermediate Shocks 


50 


1926, 


June 29 


14:27 


:06 


130 


27 


N 127 


E 




7-5 


BCB 


100 


1913, 


March 3 


20:02 


.2 


150 


28 


N 129 


E 




6 3/4 


CCC 


150 


1909, 


Sept. 16 


18:08 


-9 


90 


28 


1/2 N 


129 


E 


6 3/4 


CCB 


160 


1933, 


July 18 


11 :24:54 


100 


28 


1/2 N 


129 


E 


5 1/2 


BBC 


200 


1914, 


July 4 


17:48 


.4 


21 


29 


N 128 


E 




6.9 


BBB 


250 


1911, 


June 15 


14:26 


.0 


160 


29 


N 129 


E 




8.2 


BBB 


300 


1936, 


Dec, 1 


06:09 


:15 


270 


30 


N 129 


E 




6 1/2 


BBB 


400 - 


1930, 


Sept. 29 


04:52 


:21 


' 220 


30 


1/2 N 


130 


E 


5 1/4 


BCC 


500 


1926, 


June 5 " 


09:09 


:39 


180 


51 


N 130 


E 




6 1/2 


BAB 


600 


1935, 


Oct. 2 


09:27 


:.46 


120 


31 


N 130 


E 




5 1/4 


AAB 


700 


1932, 


Nov, 17 


20:11 


:40 


100 


31 


N 130 


1/2 


E 


5 1/4 


AAB 


800 


1909, 


Nov. 10 


06:13 


-5 


190 


32 


N 131 


K 




7.6 


BBA 


850 


1928, 


Sept. 25 


04:58:42 


120 


33 


1/2 N 


132 


E 


6 


CCC 


900 


1905, 


June 2 


05:59 


7 


100 


3^ 


N 132' 


E 




7 3A 


BCC 


REGION 21 


(Formosa). 


, Intermediate Shocks 


100 


1932, 


Oct'. 9 


12:49 


:49 


130 


23 


1/2 N 


122 


1/2 E 


6 


BBC 


200 


1909>' 


April 14 


19*53 


7 


80 


24 


N' 123 


E 




7-3 


CCC 



259 



18 (cent;.), KSGICf 21 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Depth Lccaticn M 


Quality 


300 


1915, 


Jan* 


5 


23:26.7 


160 


2f N "S3 S ~ 1/* 


BCC 


400 


1933, 


Feb. 


19 


011:26:1 1 


120 


2 N 12* E 5 


3/4 


ABC 


500 


1910, 


April 12 


00:22:13 


200 


SJ 


> V2 I 


122 1 /2 E 


7 


3/4 


BCC 


600 


1934, April 13 


22:03 :5* 


250 


25 V ^ 


: 24 1/2 E 


6 




BBC 


700 


1932, 


Dec . 


26 


21 :U:44 


21 


26 N "25 S 6 


1/4 


AAA 


800 


1919, 


June 


1 


06:51 :20 


200 


26 1/2 N 125 E 


7 




BBB 


REGION 


22 (Philippine 


Islands ) , Intermediate 


Shocks 


30 


1920, 


Aug. 


3 


03:02:28 


250 


5 


N 128 


E 


6 


3A 


CCC 


60 


1940, 


Oct. 


7 


06:43:04 


1 00 


5 


I 126 


E 


7 


.0 


BCB 


70 


1945, 


terch 1 1 


17:45:05 


1 00 


5 


K" 126 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


CCC 


90 


1932, 


June 


10 


20:21 :20 


80 


5 


1/2 N 


127 E 


6 


3A 


ABB 


120 


1932, 


July 


9 


20:23 :54 


120 


5 


1/2 N 


126 1/2 E 


6 




BCB 


150 


1925, 


March 26 


10:25:12 


180 


5 


1/2 N 


125 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


180 


1941, 


June 


16 


1 1 :26:56 


100 


6 


3tf 127 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


210 


1936, 


Jan. 


20 


16:56:19 


80 


6 


N 127 


E 


7 


-1 


AAA 


220 


1911, 


March 6 


17:30.0 


100 


6 


N 126 


E 


6 


3/4 


CCC 


240 


1918, 


Feb. 


7 


05:20:30 


120 


6 


1/2 N 


126 1/2 E 


7 


1/2 


BCC 


270 


1933, 


Sept. 


7 


17:53:38 


150 


6 


1/2 N 


126 E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


300 


1934, 


Sept. 


6 


02:16:52 


150 


6 


1/2 N 


126 E 


6 




BBC 


330 


1933, 


Sept. 


28 


00:27.*58 


100 


7 


N 127 


E 


5 


3A 


CCC 


360 


1939, 


Feb. 


4 


1 1 :34:05 


100 


7 


N 126 


1/2 E 


6 




BBC 


390 


1935, 


June 


1 


14:39:52 


100 


7 


1/2 IT 


126 1/2 E 


6 




BBB 


420 


1932, 


June 


8 


14:54:38 


100 


8 


N 126 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


450 


1938, 


Feb. 


5 


09:55:1 o 


160 


14 


N 124 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


500 


1942, 


July 


25 


06:22:35 


80 


11 


1/2 N 


124 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


CCB 


600 


1933, 


Sept. 


20 


23:33 :4o 


100 


13 


N 121 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


620 


1936, 


May 20 


00: 1 6 : 01 


160 


13 


1/2 N 


121 1/2 E 


6d 


K. 


CCC 


630 


1939, 


May 6 




17:00:07 


1 10 


13 


1/2 N 


121 1/4 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


660 


1932, 


July 


18 


05:02:05 


100 


14 


N 120 


E 


6 




BCC 


690 


19^0, 


torch 


28 


15:48:52 


200 


14 


1/2 N 


120 E 


6 


3A 


ABA 


720 


1933, 


March 


3 


02:19:38 


120 


15 


1/2 N 


120 E 


6 


1/2 


BBC 


750 


1927, 


April 


19 


17:30:10 


100 


16 


N 120 


E 


6 


3A 


BCB 


780 


1927, 


April 


13 


13:44:14 


140 


16 


N 120 


1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


ABB 


781 


1927, 


April 


13 


14:3^:37 


140 


16 


N 120 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


ABB 



TABI^l 18 REGION 22 



241 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


810 


1938, 


May 2 


3 


08:21 : 


C, Z 


80 


1 8 1 1 1 9 l /2 S 


7. 





.^CB 


840 


1937, 


March 


16 


15: 


45: 


:46 


1 CO 


1 6 I 1 2 1 E 


6 


1/2 


ME 


870 


1932, 


June 


14 


05: 


59 


:3 


80 


1 S 1/2 N 1 20 1/4 S 


6 


1/2 


ABB 


900 


1930, 


Dec. 


21 


14: 


51 


:24 


1 70 


20 B 122 1 /4 E 


6. 


9 


AAB 


REGION 22, 


Deep Shocks 








50 


1945, 


April 


22 


09: 


51 


:lfi 


650 


5 N 123 E 


6 


3/4 


CCC 


100 


1915, 


Sept. 


1 1 


23: 


59 


.2 


600 


5 1/2 N 123 1/2 E 


6 


3/4 


ccc 


200 


1940, 


June 


18 


13: 


52 


:33 


570 


5 1/2 N 123 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


300 


1935, 


Oct. 


4 


05: 


15 


:36 


500 


6 N 125 E 


6 


1/2 


ABB 


400 


1929, 


June 


4 


15: 


15 


:58 


380 


6 1/2 N 124 1/2 E 


7. 





BBB 


500 


1929, 


April 


8 


1 0: 


16 


:53 


61 


7.8 N 124.6 E 


6 


3/4 


AAA 


600 


1940, 


Sept. 


22 


22: 


51 


:56 


680 


8 N 124 E 


6 


3A 


BEB 


700 


1941, 


Feb. 


4 


14: 


03 


:12 


600 


9 N 124 E 


6. 


9 


BBB 


800 


1926, 


Oct. 


30 


13: 


46 


:34 


520 


9 1/2 N 124 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


AAA 


900 


1929, 


Sept. 


21 


18: 


5^ 


:23 


300 


10 N 125 E 


6 




BCC 


REGION 23 


(Celebes ), 


, Intermediate Shocks 








30 


1909, 


April 25 


22: 


36 


.0 


1 00 


4 N 127 E 


7 




CCC 


60 


1939, 


Sept. 


16 


07: 


16 


:26 


90 


3 1/2 N 127 3A E 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


90 


1925, 


Oct. 


18 


08: 


25 


:58 


220 


3 1/2 N 128 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


120 


1935, 


Feb. 


4 


21 : 


07 


:31 


80 


2 1/2 N 127 E 


6 


1/2 


ABB 


150 


1932, 


June 


6 


06: 


26 


:21 


280 


2 N 122 1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


i 80 


1940, 


Sept. 


12 


00: 


21 


:21 


1 00 


2 N 123 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


21 


1932, 


Nov. 


18 


13: 


^7 


:16 


280 


2 N 124 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


240 


19^3, 


June 


29 


09: 


05 


:06 


180 


2 N 125 E 


6 


1/2 


CCB 


270 


1921, 


July 


15 


18: 


06 


:22 


1 40 


2 N 128 E 


6 




BCB 


300 


1926, 


July 


14 


16: 


46 


:48 


180 


2 N 129 E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


301 


1926, 


July 


14 


16: 


:59 


:27 


180 


2 N 129 E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


330 


1932, 


Aug. 


2 


04: 


;25 


:38 


100 


1 1/2 N 126 E 


6 


1/2 


ABC 


360 


1905, 


Jan. 


22 


02: 


^3 


9 


90 


1 N 123 E 


7 


3/4 


CCC 


390 


1936, 


June 


5 


14: 


:37 


:31 


180 


1/2 N 124 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


420 


1907, 


June 


23 


17:5^ 


.6 


200 


1 N 127 E 


7 


1/2 


CCC 


430 


1928, 


Aug. 


rs 


08:08:50 130 


1 N 127 E 


6 


9 


BBB 


4^0 


1939, 


June 


13, 


; 20; 


'39 


255 


. 150 


3/4 N 125 3A 


6 


9 


BBC 


480 


1932, 


my 4 


05: 


;05 


; Ofi 


\ jjioo 


1/2 N 122 E 


6 




BCC 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 23 



?4 
No. 
510 
540 


Date 
1924, 
1932, 


Dec. 5 
May 12 


Tim 
09:36:25 
06:08:05 


Depth 

200 

170 


Location 
1/2 N 126 E 
1/4 N 126 E 


M 
6 1/2 

6 1/2 


Quality 
CCC 


570 


19*0, 


June 22 


11:36:46 


200 





N T22 


1/2 E 


6 


3/* 


BBC 


600 


195*, 


Sept. 11 


08:13 


:*3 


130 





N 123 


E 


6 


1/4 


BBC 


630 


1939, 


Dec. 21 


21 :00:40 


150 





123 E 




8 


.0 


ABC 


640 


19*1, 


Jan. 7 


10:37 


:51 


220 





123 E 




6 




CCC 


660 


1932, 


Oct. 18 


04 : 09 


:50 


200 





123 l 


/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


690 


1937, 


May 13 


18:47 


:55 


200 





123 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


EBB 


691 


1937, 


Sept. 28 


13:17 


:*3 


200 





123 1 


/O T? 
/ d Si 


6 


1/2 


EBB 


720 


19*2, 


IVfey 28 


01 :01 


:48 


120 





124 E 




7 


5 


ABB 


750 


19*1, 


Sept. 17 


06:47 


:57 


190 


1/2 S 1 


21 1/2 E 


7 


.1 


BCC 


780 


1939, 


Dec. 25 


20:56 


:07 


125 


1/2 S 123 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


810 


1932, 


July 29 


20:58 


:37 


200 


1 


/2 S 1 


24 E 


6 


1/2 


ABB 


840 


1929, 


Dec. 27 


13:32 


:07 


230 


3 


S 125 


E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


870 


1933, 


May 21 


1 1:51 


:28 


120 


3 


1/2 S 


130 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


900 


1933, 


Oct. 17 


12:23 


:52 


130 


3 


1/2 S 


131 E ' 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


930 


191*, 


July 4 


23:38 


-9 


200 


5 


1/2 S 


129 E 


7 




CCB 


REGION 23, Deep Shocks 


100 


1930, 


Nov. 8 


03:22 


:4o 


670 


4 


N 122 


1/2 E 


6 


-9 


ABB 


200 


1926., 


Sept. 30 


05:17 


:*3 


600 


3 


N 122 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BCD 


250 


19*1, 


Jan. 2 


16:49 


:38 


500 


3 


N 122 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


CCB 


300 


1907, 


March 29 


20:46 


5 


500 


3 


N 122 


E 


7 


1/4 


CCB 


400 


1930, 


May 30 


12:5^ 


:55 


300 


2 


N 124 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BCD 








REGION 


24 


(Sunda 


arc ) , Intermediate 


Shocka 


T5 


1936, 


March 4 


06:30 


:00 


150 


5 


s 131 


E 


5 


3/* 


CCC 


30 


1909, 


Oct. _30 


10J17 


.5 


250 


6 


s 131 


E 


6 


9 


CCC 


45 


1927, 


June 3 


07:12 


:ll 


150 


7 


s 131 


E 


7 


.4 


ABC 


60 


1909, 


May 30 


21 :01 


.3 


100 


8 


s 131 


TS 


7 


.2 


CCC 


75 


1927, 


Nov. 6 


15:3* 


:32 


230 


7 


s 130 


E 


6 


3/* 


BHB 


90 


19*1, 


Feb. 23 


22:30 


:43 


170 


6 


3/*S 


129 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


105 


1931, 


March 28 


12:38 


:37 


80 


7 


S 129 


1/2 E 


7 


3 


CAB 


120 


19*0, 


Dec. 18 


05:32 


:15 


150 


7 


S 129 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


130 


19*1, 


July 8 


17:13 


:10 


170 


7 


1/2 S 


129 E 


5 


3A 


CCC 


135 


1 9 18, 


HOT. 18 


18:*1 


:55 


190 


7 


a 129 


E 


7 


,8 


BCC 



TABLE 18 (cont.)* REGION 24 



243 



No. 


Dbte 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


140 


1918, 


Nov. 23 


22:57:55 


190 


7 


S 129 


E 


7 


1-A 


BCC 


150 


1924, 


March 5 


04:25 


:04 


180 


7 


S 129 


E 


6 


3/4 


BOB 


165 


1931, 


June 4 


09:50 


:18 


150 


6 


1/2 S 


129 E 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


180 


1936, 


April 28 


13:35 


:45 


200 


6 


1/2 S 


129 E 


6 


1/2 


BBC 


195 


1938, 


April 26 


12:53 


:35 


150 


6 


1/2 S 


129 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


200 


1941, 


Jan. 31 


02:38 


:40 


270 


6 


S 129 


E 


6 


3A 


CBC 


210 


1926, 


June 24 


21 :16 


:30 


150 


7 


1/2 S 


128 1/4 E 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


225 


1921, 


March 30 


15:02 


:17 


170 


7 


S 128 


E 


6 


3/4 


BCB 


240 


1917, 


Aug. 30 


04:07 


:15 


100 


7 


1/2 S 


128 E 


7 


3A 


BCC 


255 


1932, 


May 10 


14:23 


:03 


170 


7 


1/2 S 


128 E 


6 




BCC 


270 


1932, 


Nov. 22 


14:51 


:25 


180 


8 


S 128 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBC 


285 


1933, 


May 21 


21 :23 


:50 


180 


7- 


S 127 


E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


300 


1936, 


Feb. 27 


10:04 


:08 


180 


7 


S 127 


E 


6 


3/4 


BBA 


315 


1927, 


April 17 


09:05 


:52 


200 


7 


1/2 S 


127 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


330 


1931, 


April 2 


12:22 


:$ 


130 


6 


S 126 


1/2 E 


6 




CCC 


345 


19M, 


Feb. 25 


05:37 


:45 


180 


9 


S 125 


E 


6 


.9 


CCB 


355 


1936, 


May 19 


20:50 


:09 


90 


9 


S 124 


E 


6 


3/4 


EBB 


360 


19^4, 


Marches 2 


00:43 


:18 


220 


8 


1/2 S 


123 1/2 E 


7 


5 


BBB 


375 


1939, 


June 4 


00:24 


:oo 


80 


9 


S 123 


-1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


390 


1924, 


Sept. 10 


05:54 


:30 


200 


7 


1/2 S 


123 E 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


405 


1942, 


Nov. 7 


07:32 


:09 


100 


8 


1/2 S 


123 E 


6 


3/4 


CCC 


420 


1938, 


Oct. 20 


02:19 


:27 


90 


9 


S 123 


E 


7 


3 


ABA 


435 


193^ 


Feb. 14 


01 :21 


:13 


1 00 


6 


S 122 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


ACB 


450 


1931, 


Feb. 22 


21 :27 


:27 


100 


8 


S 120 


E 


6 




CCC 


465 


1932, 


Nfay 17 


12:56 


:3X 


80 


8 


1/2 S 


1 15 E 


6 


1/4 


BCB 


480 


1*916, 


Sept. 11 


06:30 


.6 


100 


9 


S 113 


E 


7 


1/4 


CCC 


495 


1931, 


April 24 


05:47 


:00 


100 


1 


S 112 E 


6 




CCC 


510 


1926, 


Sept . 1 


10:34 


:29 


80 


9 


3111 


E 


7 


.0 


AAA 


525 


1936, 


April 15 


06:05 


:58 


100 


9 


S 111 


E 


6 




BBB 


540 


1943, 


July 23 


14:53 


:09 


90 


9 


1/2 S 


110 E 


7 


3A 


BHB 


535 


1924, 


June 22 


16:36 


:43 


100 


7 


S 107 


E 


6 




CCC 


570 


1933, 


July 13 


14:23 


:25 


70 


7 


3/4 S 


106 1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BHB 


585 


1931, 


Nov. 23 


13235 


:'47 


140 


5 


S 106 


E 


5 


1/4 


BCA 


600 


1932, 


May 21 


21:39-24 


100 


6 


1/2 S 


105 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 



.nt. ), REGION 2 



No. 


Date 


Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 




Quality 


615 


1913, 


Aug. 


13 


04 


:25 


7 


75 


5 : 72 S i 05 E 


7 


2 


BCB 


630 


1932, 


July 


5 


1 


:52 


:15 


80 


6 S 105 1/2 E 


6 




BBB 


645 


1936, 


Jan. 


22 


09 


:25 


:25 


80 


IT S 1 03 E 


6 


1/lt 


BCC 


660 


1932, 


April 


22 


04 


158 


:08 


80 


4 1/2 S 103 E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


675 


1958, 


Aug. 


18 


09 


:30 


;04 


1 00 


4 S 1 03 E 


6. 


9 


BBA 


690 


1938, 


Aug. 


25 


01 


:28 


:07 


70 


5 1/2 S 102 E 


6. 


9 


BCB 


705 


1933, 


June 


21 


13 


:41 


;12 


80 


4 S 1 02 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


720 


1938, 


Jan. 


18 


04 


:20 


:04 


1 00 


4 S 1 01 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


735 


1938, 


Feb. 


2 


09 


:37 


:03 


120- 


3 S 1 00 E 


6 




CCC 


750 


19^3, 


Nov. 


26 


21 


:25 


:22 


130 


2 1/2 S 100 E 


7- 


1 


CCC 


765 


19M, 


March 


3 


07 


:27 


:4 7 


1 00 


2 S 1 00 1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


CCB 


780 


1938, 


July 


29 


13 


:06 


:58 


80 


1 S 99 E 


6 


1/2 


BCB 


795 


193^, 


Sept. 


21 


12 


:38 


:5^ 


100 


2 N 99 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


810 


1932, 


June 


16 


01 


:18 


:45 


80 


3 N 97 1/2 E 


6 


3A 


AAA 


825 


1934, 


May 1 




07 


:04 


:56 


145 


3 1/2 N 97 1/2 E 


7- 





ABA 


840 


1936, 


July 


4 


08 


:57 


:1 1 


200 


4 N 99 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


855 


1931, 


Jan. 


20 


15 


:26 


:32 


150 


4 N 99. E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


870 


1916, 


July 


27 


11 


:52 


.7 


100 


4 N 96 1/2 E 


7 




CCC 


885 


1912, 


Sept. 


1 1 


00 


:47 


.9 


100 


5 N 96 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


900 


1928, 


July 


27 


15:23 


:04 


1 00 


6 N 95 1/2 E 


6 




CCC 


915 


1937, 


Aug. 


4 


23 


:55 


:22 


120 


6 N 95 1/2 E 


6 




BBB 


930 


1938, 


Oct. 


7 


16 


:23 


:45 


120 


9 1/2 N 94 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


945 


191*, 


Oct. 


1 1 


16 


:17 


,1 


80 


12 N 9^ E 


7- 


2 


CCC 


960 


1939, 


Sept. 


14 


09 


:01 


:06 


1 00 


12 N 95 E 


6 




CBC 


REGION 


24 (Sunda 


arc), Deep Shocks 








30 


1920, 


May 1 





18:49 


;48 


370 


5 S 130 E 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


60 


1930, 


June 


4 


09 


:50 


:29 


400 


6 1/2 S 128 1/2 E 


6 


3A 


ACC 


90 


1938, 


April 


4 


21 


:09 


:03 


420 


7 S 127 E 


6 




BCB 


120 


1927, 


Aug. 


4 


15 


:48 


:05 


500 


5 S 126 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


150 


195^, 


Oct. 


26 


14 


:44 


:29 


700 


6 S 124 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


180 


1938, 


May 8 




14 


:40 


:35 


700 


6 S 124 E 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


210 


T927, 


Aug. 


8 


18:43 


:48 


680 


7 S 124 E 


6 


1/4 


AAB 


240 


19*5, 


NLy 9 




03 


:31 


:13 


550 


7 1/2 S 124 E 


6 


3A 


CCC 


270 


1934, 


June 29 


08 


:25 


:17 


720 


6 3 A s 123 3 A E 


6. 


9 


AM 



TABLE 18 (cent.), REGION 2k 245 



No. 


Date 




Ti 


me 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


300 


1914, 


Aug. 6 


04 


:1 0. 


7 


600 


6 


S 123 E 


7 




CCC 


330 


1912, 


Aug. 18 


13 


:20. 





650 


7 


S 123 E 


6 


1/2 


ccc 


360 


1943, 


June 30 


10 


:49: 


02 


720 


7 


S 122 E 


6 


3/4 


ccc 


390 


193^, 


June 29 


12 


:34: 


45 


670 


5 


3/4 S 121 


1/2 E 6 


1/4 


ABB 


420 


1941, 


Nov. 27 


08 


:37: 


43 


600 


7 


1/2 S 121 


1/2 E 6 


3/4 


BBC 


450 


1933, 


Aug. 25 


09 


:26: 


05 


720 


6 


S 121 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


480 


1926, 


Dec. 25 


15 


:43: 


52 


610 


6 


S 120 E 


6 


3/4 


BBB 


510 


1939, 


Dec . 2 o 


13 


:04: 


06 


700 


7 


S 120 E 


6 




CCC 


540 


1941, 


terch 1 4 


16 


:08: 


18 


550 


7 


S 120 E 


6 




CCC 


570 


1933, 


Oct. 27 


05 


:40: 


20 


420 


7 


1/2 S 120 


E 6 




CCC 


600 


1911, 


July 5 


18 


:40. 


1 


370 


7 


1/2 S 1 17 


1/2 E 7 




CCC 


630 


1937, 


Aug. 11 


00 


:55: 


5^ 


61 


6 


1/4 S 116 


1/2 E 7 


.2 


AAA 


660 


1936, 


Feb. 12 


09 


:34: 


30 


600 


6 


S 116 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


690 


1920, 


May 27 


05 


:48: 


12 


600 


6 


S 113 E 


6 


1/2 


BCC 


720 


1938, 


Feb. 1 


18 


:52: 


17 


600 


6 


S 113 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


750 


1936, 


toy 8 


09 


:1 1 ": 


34 


620 


5 


3/4 S 1 12 


3/4 E 6 


1/2 


BAB 


760 


1936, 


May 19 


07 


:22: 


26 


61 


5 


3/4 S 112 


3/4 E 6 


1/2 


AAA 


780 


1935, 


July 1 1 


23 


:03: 


42 


620 


4 


S 111 E 


6 




CBC 


810 


1932, 


Aug. 11 


1 1 


:4 9 : 


33 


600 


6 


SHOE 


6 




CBB 


840 


1921, 


Sept. 20 


20 


:21: 


23 


600 


5 


SHOE 


6 




CCC 






REGION 25 


(Andaman 


Islands 


to 


Burma ) , Intermediate 


Shocks 


100 


1938, 


April 14 


01 


:16: 


35 


130 


23 


1/2 N 95 


E 6 


3/4 


AAA 


200 


1940, 


May n 


21 


:00: 


20 


80 


23 


3/k N 94 


1/4 E 6 


1/2 


ABB 


300 


1935, 


April 23 


16 


:45: 


41 


1 10 


24 


N 9^ 3 A 


E 6 


1/4 


AAA 


400 


1927* 


March 15 


16 


:56: 


32 


130 


24 


1/2 N 95 


E 6 


1/2 


BBC 


500 


193^ 


June 2 


05 


:5^: 


29 


130 


24 


1/2 N 95 


E 6 


1/2 


AAA 


600 


1938, 


May 6 


03 


:4l: 


08 


100 


24 


1/2 N 95 


E 5 


3A 


CCC 


700 


1939, 


May 27 


03 


:45: 


44 


75 


24 


1/2 N 94 


E 6 


3/4 


ABA 






REGION 


26 (Szechuan, Southern Tibet ), 


Intermediate Shocks 


1 00 


1914, 


March 28 


10 


:44. 


8 


100 


25 


N 99 E 


6 


.9 


CCC 


200 


1926, 


May 10 


08 


:19: 


10 


80 


26 


N 97 E 


6 


1/4 


BCC 


300 


1906, 


Aug. 31 


14 


:37. 


5 


100 


27 


N 97 E 


7 




CCC 


350 


1941, 


Feb. 23 


09 


:56; 


40 


90 


28 


N 96 ,E 


5 


1/8 


BBC 


400 


1932, 


Aug. 14 


04 


:39:32 


120 


26 


N 95 1/2 


E> - . . 7 


.0 


AM 



2k6 TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 26 



Ho, 


Date 






Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


500 


19*1, 


Jan. 


27 


02:30:16 


180 


26 


1/2 N 92 1/2 E 6 


1/2 


BOB 


600 


19*1, 


Jan. 


21 


12:*1 :*8 


100 


27 


N 92 E 




6 


3/* 


ABC 


700 


1935, 


March 21 


00:0*: 02 


80 


2* 


1/4 N 89 


1/2 E 


6 


I/* 


ABB 


800 


1935, 


May 21 


0*:22:31 


1*0 


28 


3/* N 89 


I/* E 


6 


I/* 


AAB 


900 


1937, 


Nov. 


15 


21 :37:3* 


100 


35 


N 78 E 




6 


1/2 


ACC 


REGION 


27 (Kansu 


to Sinkiang), Intermediate 


Shocks 


800 


1910, 


July 


12 


07:36.2 


120 


37 


N 76 E 




6 


3/* 


CCC 


REGION 29 (Iran - Urals) 


, Intermediate Shocks 


300 


191*, 


Feb. 


6 


11 :*2.3 


100 


29 


1/2 N 65 


E 


7 




BBC 


koo 


193*, 


June 


13 


22:10:28 


80 


27 


1/2 N 62 


1/2 E 


7 


.0 


AAA 


500 


1929, 


Sept, 


. 3 


12:07:39 


no 


26 


1/2 N 62 


1/* E 


6 


1/2 


ABB 


600 


1927, 


July 


7 


20:06:30 


100 


27 


N 62 E 




6 


1/2 


BBB 


REGION 30 (Asia Minor - 


Levant 


- Balkans), Intermediate Shocks 


28 


19*0, 


July 


2* 


22:15:27 


80 


3* 


1/2 N 3* 


E 


5 


3/* 


BBB 


30 


19*1, 


Jan. 


20 


03:37:07 


100 


35 


N 3* E 




6 


1/2 


BBB 


60 


1910, 


Aug. 


21 


16:1 1 .5 


170 


3* 


N 27 E 




6 


1/2 


CCC 


65 


1927, 


June 


5 


02:2*:58 


120 


36 


N 31 E 




6 


I/* 


BBB 


90 


1911, 


April 30 


20:*2.5 


180 


36 


N 30 E 




6 


I/* 


CCC 


120 


1933, 


July 


19 


20:07:08 


100 


38 


I/* N 29 


3/* E 


6 




BBC 


150 


19*5, 


Sept. 


2 


11 :53:57 


So 


33 


3/* N 28 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


165 


19*1, 


Dec. 


13 


06:16:05 


100 


37 


N 28 E 




6 




ABC 


180 


1926, 


June 


26 


19:*6:3ij. 


100 


36 


1/2 N 27 


1/2 E 


7. 


9 


BCB 


185 


19*3, 


Oct. 


16 


13:08:53 


1 10 


36 


1/2 N 27 


1/2 E 


6 


1/* 


BBB 


18? 


19**, 


May 27 


23:52:30 


100 


36 


N 27 1/2 


E 


6 


1/* 


CCC 


188 


19**, 


Aug. 


9 


17:36:37 . 


100 


36 


1/2 N 27 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


210 


1926, 


July 


5 


09:21 :5* 


150 


36 


1/2 N 27 


E 


5 


1/2 


BCC 


215 


19*2, 


June 


21 


0*:38:*3 


130 


36 


1/2 N 27 


E 


6 


I/* 


BBB 


2*0 


1935, 


IVkrch 


18 


08:*0:*1 


130 


35 


1/2 N 27 


E 


6 


I/* 


AAB 


260 


1936, 


April 


28 


23:15:26 


170 


36 


3/* N 26 


3/* E 


5 


3/* 


BBC 


270 


1938, 


June 3 


16:58:03 


120 


3* 


1/2 N 26 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


BCC 


300 


1929, 


Mkrch 


27 


07:41 :*6 


120 


36 


3/* N 26. 


1/2 E 


5 


3/* 


BCC 


320 


19*2, 


May 9 




0*:37:07 


100 


35 


1/2 N 26 


E 


5 


3/* 


CCC 


330 


19*3, 


June 27 


10:05:37 


100 


35 


N 26 E 




5 


3/* 


CCC 


360 


1930, 


March 


6 


0.8:21 :*2 


130 


3* 


1/2 N 26 


E 


5 


3/4 


BBC 



TABLE 18 (cont.)* REGION 30 



247 



No. 


Date 






Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


390 


1934, 


Nov. 


9 


13:40:56 


140 


36 


3/4 N 25 


3/4 E 


6 


1/4 


EBB 


420 


1911, 


April 


4 


15:43-9 


140 


36 


1/2 N 25 


1/2 E 


7 




CCC 


450 


1918, 


July 


16 


20:03:46 


150 


35 


1/2 N 25 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


CCC 


480 


1923, 


Aug. 


1 


08:16:38 


150 


35 


N 2 E 




6. 


7 


BBB 


510 


1935, 


Feb. 


25 


02:51 :37 


80 


35 


3/4 N 25 


E 


6 


3/4 


AAA 


540 


1930, 


Feb. 


14 


18:38:20 


130 


35 


3/4 N 24 


3/4 E 


6 


3/4 


ABB 


570 


1910, 


Feb. 


18 


05:09.3 


150 


36 


N 24 1/2 


E 


7 




CCC 


600 


1930, 


March 


6 


09:18:32 


100 


35 


N 24 1/2 


E 


6 




ABB 


630 


1908, 


May 1 


7 


12:30-9 


100 


35 


N 24 E 




6 


3/4 


CCC 


660 


1937, 


Dec. 


16 


17:35:30 


1 00 


35 


N 23 1/2 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


690 


1926, 


Aug. 


30 


1 1 :38:12 


1 00 


36 


3/4 N 23 


1/4 E 


7- 





ABB 


720 


1931, 


June 


30 


10:23:56 


100 


36 


1/2 1ST 23 


E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


750 


1927, 


July 


1 


08:19:04 


120 


36 


3/4 ft 22 


3/4 E 


6. 


9 


BBB 


780 


193&, 


Sept. 


18 


03:50:38 


1 00 


38 


N 22 1/2 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


81 


1926, 


Sept. 


19 


01 :03:57 


80 


36 


N 22 E 




6 


1/4 


BBC 


840 


1932, 


Aug. 


15 


04*:34:40 


1 00 


39 


1/4 N 22 


E 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


870 


1925, 


July 


6 


12:15:55 


120 


38 


1/4 N 21 


3/4 E 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


900 


1942, 


May 21 


03:42:41 


150 


37 


1/P N 20 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


930 


T939, 


Sept. 


20 


00:19:31 


80 


38 


N 20 1/2 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


960 


1943, 


Jan. 


7 


1 1 :14:45 


1 00 


38 


1/2 N 20 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCB 


REG-ION 31 


(Western 


Mediterranean), Intermediate 


Shocks 


1 00 


1928, 


March 


7 


10:55:12 


120 


38 


3/4 N 16 


E 


6 




ABB 


200 


1943, 


Sept. 


17 


03:39:20 


270 


39 


1/2 N 15 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


300 


1911, 


April 


5 


15:28.2 


200 


40 


N 15 1/6 


E 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


400 


1938, 


April 


13 


02:45:46 


270 


39 


.2 N 15.2 


E 


6 


3/4 


AAA 


500 


1910, 


Aug. 


1 


1 0:40.4 


200 


39 


N 15 E 




6 


1/2 


OCC 


600 


1915, 


July 


7 


16:42.9 


300 


40 


N 15 E 




6 




BBC 


700 


1926, 


Aug. 


17 


01 :42:53 


1 00 


39 


N 14 3/4 


E 


5 


3/4 


BCC 


800 


1941, 


March 


16 


16:35:15 


100 


38 


1/2 N 1 1 


1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


900 


1941, 


March 


16 


18:48:21 


1 00 


38 


1/2 N 1 1 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


BBB 


REGION 46 (Manchuria to 


Sea 


of Okhotsk), Deep 


Shocks 


15 


1905, 


Aug. 


25 


09:46:45 


470 


43 


N 129 E 




6 


3/4 


BCC 


30 


1918, 


Feb. 


9 


20:46:26 


450 


43 


N 130 E 




6 


1/2 


CCC 


^5 


1923. 


July 


26 


23:27:06 


430 


43 


N 130 E 




5 


3A 


CCC 



TABLE 18 (cont.h REGION 46 



Ho. 


Date 




Time 


Depth Location 


M 


Quality 


60 


1933, 


Sept . 9 


05:02 


:35 


590 


44 N 130 E 


6 1/4 


ABA 


75 


1918, 


April 10 


02:03 


:54 


570 


43 1/2 N 130 1/2 E 


7 


.2 


BBB 


90 


1917, 


July 31 


03:23 


:10 


460 


42 1/2 N 131 E 


7 


.5 


BCC 


105 


1933, 


July 24 


08:37 


:57 


550 


42 


1/2 N 131 E 


5 


3/4 


AAA 


120 


1935, 


March 28 


23:47 


:51 


550 


43 


N 131 


E 


6 


1/4 


AAA 


135 


1933, 


July 14 


16:03 


:35 


536 


43 


N 131 


E 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


150 


1920, 


May 6 


09:40 


:35 


520 


43 


N 131 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


CCC 


165 


1938, 


Oct. 21 


06:46 


:22 


550 


43 


1/2 N 131 E 


6 


1/4 


BOB 


180 


1928, 


June 7 


06:24 


:35 


430 


44 


N 131 


E 


6 




AAC 


195 


1927. 


May 17 


21 :44 


:16 


430 


44 


N 131 


E 


6 


1/2 


AAC 


210 


1940, 


July 10 


05:49:55 


580 


44 


N 131 


E 


7 


3 


BBA 


225 


1940, 


NOV. 22 


13:06 


:40 


570 


44 


N 132 E 


6 




CCB 


240 


1927, 


Dec. 18 


19:49 


:19 


300 


41 


N 133 


E 


5 


1/4 


BBD 


255 


1939, 


Oct. 24 


14:43 


:35 


500 


42 


N 133 


E 


5 


3/4 


BCC 


270 


1908, 


April 1 9 


07:56 


.8 


48o 


42 


N 134 


E 


6 


9 


CCB 


285 


1938, 


July 31 


21 :54 


:20 


450 


44 


N 134 


E 


6 




CCC 


300 


1924, 


Feb. 24 


16:46 


:05 


320 


44 


N 135 


E 


5 


3/4 


BAB 


315 


1918, 


Jan. 30 


21 :18:33 


330 


45 


1/2 N 


135 E 


7 


-7 


BCC 


330 


1931, 


Feb. 20 


05:33:24 


350 


44 


-3 N 135.5 E 


7 


.4 


AAA 


345 


1933, 


May 22 


15:29:08 


350 


43 


N 136 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


BCC 


360 


1932, 


No v . 1 3 


04:47:00 


320 


43 


3/4 N 


137 E 


7.0 


AAA 


375 


19375 


April 29 


20:18:58 


370 


46 


1/2 N 


137 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


390 


1932, 


Sept. 23 


14:22:12 


300 


44 


5/4 N 


138 E 


6.9 


AAA 


405 


1924, 


Nov. 25 


17:26:52 


320 


46 


N 141 


1/2 E 


6 




CCC 


4to 


1935, 


Nov. 21 


08:41 :i8 


320 


46 


1/2 N 


142 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


420 


1926, 


Jan. 1 5 


14:52: 


48 


360 


45 


1/2 N 


143 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


435 


1911, 


Sept. 6 


00:54. 


3 


350 


46 


N 143 


E 


7- 


3 


BBC 


450 


1937, 


July 21 


00:07: 


37 


400 


46 


N 143 


E 


6 




BBC 


465 


1931 , 


IVferch 1 


14:23: 


06 


530 


46' 


1/2 N 


143 E 


6 


1/2 


BBC 


480 


1932, 


Oct. 25 


17:02: 


12 


410 


46 


3/4 N 


144 E 


6 


1/2 


AAA 


495 


1933, 


Dec, 4 


19:33: 


55 


360 


47 


N 144 


E 


6 


3/4 


AAA 


510 


1939, 


mj 26 


12:18: 


17 


420 


47 


N 144 


E 


6 




BCA 


525 


1939, April 21 


04:29:04 


520 


47 


1/2 N 


139 3/4 E 


7- 





AAA, 


540 


1929, March 17 


12:14:22 


310 


48 


N 144 


E 


6 




BCQ 


555 


1928, April 22 


04:55:01 


350 


47 


1/2 N 


145 E 


6 


1/p 


BCC 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 46 



No. 


Date 






Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


570 


1933, 


May 


24 


04:35 


:48 


420 


47 


1/2 N 


145 1/2 E 


6 


BAB 


585 


1935, 


July 


26 


08:03 


:39 


480 


48 


N 145 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


AAA 


600 


1929, 


Sept 


. 28 


14:56 


:23 


430 


47 


N 146 


E 


6 1/4 


BCC 


615 


1920, 


Feb. 


22 


17:35 


:50 


340 


47 


1/2 N 


146 E 


7 


BCB 


630 


1924, 


May 


28 


09:51 


:59 


500 


48 


N 146 


E 


7.0 


BAB 


645 


1936, 


March 1 


1 0:21 


:57 


430 


47 


1/2 N 


146 1/2 E 


6 1/4 


BBB 


660 


1935, 


July 


27 


10:13 


:09 


490 


48 


3/4 N 


146 1/2 E 


6 1/4 


AAA 


675 


1928, 


Aug. 


23 


01 :17 


:53 


620 


50 


N 147 


E 


6 1/4 


BAB 


677 


1935, 


Nov. 


1 1 


18:55 


:29 


590 


50 


N 147 


E 


6 


BBB 


690 


1907, 


May 25 


14:02 


:08 


600 


51 


1/2 N 


147 E 


7-4 


CCD 


705 


1931, 


Feb. 


23 


02:15 


:02 


600 


50 


N 148 


E 


6 


CCC 


720 


1930, 


M&rch 1 


1 6:27 


:26 


620 


50 


N 149 


E 


6 1/2 


BBC 


735 


1930, 


June 


3 


18:09 


:28 


650 


50 


1/2 N 


149 E 


6 1/4 


BCD 


750 


1933, 


Jan. 


18 


17:15 


:01 


570 


51 


N 149 


E 


6 1/2 


BBB 


765 


1940, 


May ' 


19 


15:17 


:55 


580 


51 


N 149 


E 


6 3/4 


ABA 


780 


1928, 


May 8 


04:46 


:02 


570 


50 


1/2 N 


1 49 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BAA 


795 


1932, 


Nov. 


6 


12:47 


:53 


520 


51 


N 150 


E 


6 


BCC 


810 


1922, 


Aug. 


14 


1 1 :4l 


:13 


530 


53 


N 150 


E 


6.8 


CCC 


825 


1912, 


June 


14 


01 :31 , 


.7 


500 


52 


N 151 


E 


6 1/2 


CCC 


840 


1928, 


Jan. 


1 


18:43:27 


530 


53 


N 151 


E 


6 1/2 


CCC 


855 


1931, 


Aug. 


2 


23:29:45 


400 


51 


1/2 N 


151 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BCC 


870 


1942, 


Dec. 


13 


08:42:40 


530 


53 


N 152 


E 


6 


CCB 


885 


1924, 


Jan. 


21 


01 :52:54 


340 


55 


N 156 


1/2 E 


7-0 


CBC 



249 



200 

3 

5 

7 

9 

1 1 

12 

14 

17 



REGION 47 (Baluchistan), Intermediate Shocks 
1925, March 8 11:27:47 200 34 N 67 E 5 

REGION 48 (Hindukuah and Pamir), Intermediate Shocks 
1907, April 13 17:57.3 260 36 1/2 N 70 1/2 E 7 

36 1/2 N 70 1/2 E 
36 1/2 N 70 1/2 E 
36 r/2 N 70 1/2 E 
36 1/2 N 70 1/2 E 



1907, Dec. 25 

1908, March 12 
1908, April 16 
1908, Oct. 23 
1908, Oct. 24 
1909^ July 7 
1911 , July fr 



22:36.0 
19:26.4 
17:38.8 
20:14.1 
21 : 16. 6 


240 
200 
220 
220 
220 



,21 :37:^0 230 

, ' !l3^j:e6' 'i9Q 



36 1/2 N 70 1/2 E 
36 1/2 N 70 1/ E 



6 3A 
6 1/2 

6 

7-0 

7.0 

7 

.6, 



CCC 

BCB 
BBB 
CCC 
CCC 
CCC 
CCC 
ABB 
BBB 



No. 


Date 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


19 


1912, 


April 25 


10:27 


.8 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 3A 


CCC 


21 


1912, 


May 22 


23:08 


.3 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 1/4 


. CCC 


23 


1912, 


June 1 


00:31 


-3 


200 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 


CCC 


25 


1912, 


Aug. 23 


21 :14 


-5 


200 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


BBB 


27 


1912, 


Nov. 28 


20:55 


.1 


230 


36 


I/? N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


CCC 


32 


1915, 


June 3 


08:08 


.6 


200 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


5 3/4 


CCC 


34 


1916, 


April 21 


1-3:56 


:22 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 1/4 


BCC 


36 


1917, 


April 21 


00:49 


:49 


220 


37 


N ?0 1 


/2 E 




7.0 


BAA 


40 


1921, 


May 20 


00:43 


:20 


220 


36 


N 7O 1 


/2 E 




6 3/4 


BCB 


42 


1921, 


Nov. 15 


20:36 


:38 


215 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1 /2 


E 


7 3/4 


AAA 


44 


1922, 


Dec. 6 


13:55 


:36 


230 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


7 1/2 


AAA 


46 


1922, 


Dec. 17 


00:51 


:20 


210 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 1/4 


BBB 


50 


1924, 


Oct. 13 


16:17 


:45 


220 


36 


N 70 1 


/2 E 




7-3 


AAA 


52 


1925, 


June 20 


13:04 


:15 


230 


36 


1/2 N 


71 1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


AAB 


54 


1925, 


Dec. 18 


18:1 


:25 


230 


36 


1/2 N 


71 E 




6 


BBB 


58 


1927, 


April 18 


15:02 


:00 


200 


37 


N 71 E 6 


BCC 


60 


1927, 


July 15 


03:46:43 


250 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


5 374 


BAA 


63 


1928, 


June 24 


04:34 


:38 


1 20 


36 


N 70 1/2 E 


6 1/2 


BCB 


65 


1928, 


Aug . 1 o 


15:33 


:48 


230 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


AAA 


67 


1929, 


Peb. 1 


17:14 


:26 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/P 


E 


7-1 


AAA 


69 


1929, 


torch 3 


03:11 


:02 


250 


36 


1/2 N 


71 E 




6 1/4 


AEB 


71 


1929, 


March 13 


11:01 


:37 


200 


36 


1/2 N 


70 E 




5 3/4 


CCC 


73 


1930/ 


Sept. 11 


17:20 


:16 


250 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


5 3/4 


BCB 


75 


1931, 


Jan. 7 


.03:49 


:42 


200 


36 


1/2 N" 


71 E 




5 1/2 


CCC 


77 


1931, 


Jan. 20 


09:27 


:22 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


71 1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


AAA 


80 


1931, 


Aug. 15 


04:01 


:08 


240 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 


BCB 


82 


1931, 


Sept . 1 4 


03:32 


:16 


220 


36 


I/? N 


70 1/2 


E 


5 3/4 


ABB 


84 


1931, 


Oct. 5 


22:31 


:27 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 3/4 


AAA 


86 


1932, 


Feb. 9 


02:19 


:44 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


5 1/4. 


CCC 


88 


1932, 


April 30 


10:52 


:41 


250 


36 


3/4 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 


ABB 


91 


1933, 


Jan. 9 


02:01 


:43 


230 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


6 1/2 


AAA 


93 


1933, 


Jan . 2 


12:12 


:12 


230 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1 /2 


E 


5 1/2 


BBB 


95 


1933, 


May 21 


17:53 


:43 


220 


36 


1/2 N 


70 1/2 


E 


5 1/2 


CCC 


97 


1933, 


May 27 


22:41 


:5B 


230 


37 


N 70 1 


/2 E 




5 3/4 


CCC 


99 


1934, 


July 22 


19:56 


:57 


240 


"36 


1/2 N 


70 1 /2 


E 


6 3/4 


BBB 



TABLE 18 (cont.), REGION 48 



No. 


Bute 


Time 


Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


1 02 


1934, Nov. 18 


03 


:21 :24 


220 


36 


1/2 N 70 1/2 E 


6 


1/2 


BBB 


105 


1935, Feb. 3 


02 


:10:47 


230 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


6 




AAA 


107 


1935, 


April 3 


1 1 


:11:59 


250 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


ABB 


109 


1935, 


July 28 


05 


:23:58 


150 


36 


N 71 E 




6 




ABC 


11 1 


1935, 


Oct . 1 1 


04 


:20:18 


230 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


ABB 


1 12 


1935, 


Dec- 1 9 


23 


:10:45 


230 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


t/2 


BBC 


114 


1936, 


June 29 


14 


:30:1 


230 


36 


1/2 N 71 


E 


6 


3/4 


AM 


118 


1937, 


Oct. 29 


07 


:26:30 


230 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


122 


1937, 


Nov. 14 


10 


:58:12 


240 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


7 


.2 


AM 


128 


1938, 


Jan. 18 


09 


:29:02 


250 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


BBB 


130 


1938, 


Jan. 26 


10 


:48:12 


250 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


1/4 


CCC 


134 


1938, 


April 6 


01 


:14:30 


240 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


1/4 


CCC 


144 


1939, 


Nov. 21 


1 1 


:01 :50 


220 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


6 


.9 


AM 


148 


1940, 


May 27 


04 


:10:38 


240 


37 


N 71 E 




6 


1/4 


AM 


152 


1940, 


Sept. 21 


13: 


:4 9 :03 


250 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


BBB 


156 


1940, 


Nov . 2 o 


17:59:59 


200 


36 


N 70 1/2 


E 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


1 60 


1941, 


March 1 1 


21 :48:55 


210 


36 


1/2 N 71 


E 


6 




BBB 


164 


1941, 


April 14 


19:32:45 


240 


36 


N 71 E 




5 


1/2 


CCC 


168 


1941, 


May 15 


15:19:52 


230 


36 


1/2 N 70 


E 


6 




CCC 


170 


1941, 


May 17 


21 :29:34 


250 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


CCB 


174 


1941, 


Nov. 28 


12:23:23 


220 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 


CCC 


177 


1942, 


March 22 


02:08:33 


21 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/4 E 


6 




AM 


180 


1942, 


May i 5 


16: 


55:30 


250 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


185 


1942, 


Nov. 16 


21 : 


26:17 


230 


36 


1/2 I 70 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


190 


1943, 


Feb. 28 


12: 


54:33 


210 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/S E 


7- 





AM 


195 


1943, 


Sept. 9 


04: 


06:10 


200 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


6 


1/4 


CCB 


200 


1943, 


'Dec. 12 


15: 


54:21 


230 


36 


N 70 1/2 


E 


5 


1/2 


BBB 


205 


1944, 


April 29 


21 : 


41 :26 


200 


36 


1/2 N 71 


E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


21 


1944, 


Nov, 14 


23: 


18:10 


200 


36 


1/2 N 70 


1/2 E 


5 


1/2 


CCC 


600 


1943, 


Sept. 24 


1 1 : 


31 :37 


120 


36 


1/2 N 74 


E 


6 


3/4 


BBC 


650 


1928, 


Nov. 14 


04: 


33:09 


110 


35 N 72 1/2 


E 


6 




BBC 


800 


1928, 


April 25 


01 : 


16:58 


150 


38 


1/2 N 73 


1/2 E 


5 


3/4 ' 


BCC 


850 


1943, 


April 5 


01 : 


56:14 


100 


39 N 72 1/2 


E 


6 


1/2 


BBC 


900 


1933, 


July 25 


13: 


38:23 


250 ' 


39 K 72 E 


5 


1/2 


BCC 



251 



TABLE 18 (cont. ) 



REGION 51 


( Rumania ) , 


Interme diate Shocks 


No. 


Date 




Time 




Depth 


Location 


M 


Quality 


1 


1908, 


Oct. 6 


21:39 


.8 


150 


45 


1/2 


N 26 


1/2 E 


6 3/4 


CCC 


30 


1912, 


May 25 


18:01 


.7 


100 


45 


3A 


N 27 


1/4 E 


6 


BBC 


1 00 


19295 


Nov. 1 


06:57 


:21 


160 


45 


.5 N 


26.5 


E 


5 3/4 


ABC 


120 


1934, 


Feb. 2 


19559 


:16 


150 


45 


N 26 E 


5 1/4 


BBC 


125 


1934, 


fl/krch 29 


20:06:51 


150 


45 


5A 


N 26 


1/2 E 


6 1/4 


ABB 


130 


1935, 


July 13 


00:03 


:46 


150 


46 


N 26 1 /k 


E 


5 1/4 


BBC 


150 


1938, 


July 13 


20:15 


:17 


150 


45 


3/4 


N 26 


3/4 E 


5 1/4 


AAB 


160 


1939, 


Sept. 5 


06:02 


:02 


150 


45 


3/4 


N 26 


1/2 E 


5 1/4 


BBB 


170 


1940, 


Oct. 22 


06:37 


:00 


150 


45 


3/4 


N 26 


1/2 E 


6 1/2 


AAA 


190 


1*940, 


Nov . 1 


01 :39 


:09 


150 


45 


3/4 


N 26 


1/2 E 


7.4 


AAA 


250 


1945, 


Sept . 7 


15:48 


:22 


1 00 


46 


N 26 


3/4 


E 


c 1 /'- 


BBB 


270 


1945, 


Dec. 9 


06:08 


:45 


100 


45 


N 26 


1/2 


E 


6 


CCC 



Name of Volcano 

Pinnacle Islet 

Kiaka 

Little Sitkin 

Semisopochnoi 

Gareloi 

Tanaga 

Kanaga 

Great Sitkin 

Sarichef , 
Atka I. 

Seguam 

Araukta 

Yunaaka 

Carlisle 

Mt . Cleveland 

Kaganiil 

Recheachnoi, 
Unxnak I. 

Bogoalof I. 

Okraok 3 
Umnak I. 

Mfekushin, 

Unalaaka I. 

Akutan 

Pogromni , 
Unimak I. 

Shishaldin, 
Unimak I. 

laanotakl, 
Uniraak I. 

Frosty 
Button 
Paylof 



TABLE 19 
LIST OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES 

(Coordinatea in degrees and decitaal fractions.) 

La at Eruption 

location lat. and Long. Date Qhapacter Remarks 

Pribilof 60.27 N 172.38 W 1874 ? 

la . 

Aleutiana 52.10 N 177.60 E 19^5 Expl. 

51.95 N 178.53 E 1828 Smoke 

51 -98 N 179.58 E 1875 * 

11 51 -80 N 178.80 W 1950 Lava 

H 51 .88 N 178.09 W 19111- Lava 

51 -92 N 177.17 W 1933 ? 

52.07 N 176.09 W 19^7 Lava dome 

11 52.32 N 17^.05 W 18121, ? 

" 52.32 N 172. 38 W 1902 Expl. 

52.50 N 171 -27 W 1876 Smoke 

52.63 N 170.65 W 1937! Expl. 

M 52.90 N 170.07 W 1828 ? 

" 52.82 N 169.97 W 19^ Expl., lava 

52.97 N 169.73 w 1929 ? 



Alaaka 



53-13 N 168.70 W 1878 
53-93 N 168.03 W 1931 

53-^2 N 168.13 W 



Expl. 
Lava 

/Formerly 
Lava and ashtTuliakoi 



53-87 N 166.93 W 1938 Expl. 
5^.13 W 166.00 W 19^7 Lava 



5^.57 N 164.70 W 1830 Expl. 

31*-. 75 N 163.96 W 1932 Expl., lava Aah, 



Aah eruption 
1795 



5^-75 N 163.73 W 1831 Effusive 
55-07 N 162.85 W 1768 ? 
55-1-7 M" 162.28 W 1817 Lapllll 
,J f. If 'a & t61,9p W ' 

5^-1 ; T W 13.9*38. W /I 



Formerly 
Msdwenikoff 



TABLE 19 



Name of Yolcano Location 


Lat and long . Ds,te Character 


Aniakchak Alaska 


56 


.88 


N 


158 


.17 


W 


1 


931 


Ash, lava 


Chiginagak n 


57 


.13 


N 


157 


.00 


W 


1 


929 


? 


Peulik 


57 


.75 


N 


156 


.35 


w 


1 


814 


Expl. 1852, smoke 


Mageik 


58 


.20 


N 


155 


.25 


w 


1 


927 


Ash, pumice (1929?) 


Katmai 


58 


.27 


N 


15fc 


.98 


w 


1 


912! ! 


Ash (1929?) 


Novarupta " 


58 


.28 


N 


155 


.25 


w 


1 


912 


Ash 


Kukak 


58 


.45 


N 


15^ 


.35 


w 


1 889 ? ? 


St. Augustine w 


59 


37 


N 


153 


.42 


w 


1 


935 


Ash and Lava 


Iliamna " 


60 


.03 


N 


153 


.10 


w 


1 


867 


Expl. 


Redoubt 


60 


.47 


N 


152 


.75 


w 


1 


902 


Ash 


Wrangell 


61 


.53 


N 


143 


.95 


w 


1819 ? 


Near Atlin Lake 


59 


.25 


N 


133 


50 


w 


1898 


Ash 


Onnimah-Strasse " 


56 


2 


N 


134 


7 


w 


1 


856 


Submarine; 



(Near Gape Qmmaneyf) 



whaler 

"Alice Frazer" 



Mb. Baker 


Washington 


48.73 N 121 .77 W 


185** 


f 




Mb. Rainier 


n 


46.87 N 121 .77 W 


1843 


? 




Mb. St. Helens 


" 


46.20 N 122.17 W 


l84i-4?Lava/ ash 


Mb. Hood 


Oregon 


45.38 N 121 .17 v 


1854 


Ash 




Mb. Shasta 


California 


41 .41 N 122.20 W 


1876? 


Ash 




Cinder Cone 


n 


*4o.50 N 121 .30 W 


1851 + 


? 




las sen 





40.48 N 121 .30 W 


1917 


Lava 




Sunset Crater 


Arizona 


35.37 N 111 .50 W 


1060+, 


Ash 


dated by 
tree rings 


Near Valle de 
San Rafael 


Baja Calif. 


31 .9+ N 116.2+ W 


1870 


Ash 


Exact location 
Doubtful 


Tres Virgenes 


tt 


27.53 N 112.67 W 


Ilk6 


? 




Paricutin 


Mexico 


1 9.50 N 102.05 W 


i$48 


Lava 3 ash 


New , 19 43 


Ceboruco 





21 .37 N 104.70 W 


1870 


Lava flow 




Colima 
Jorullo 


n 
n 


19.42 N 103.72 W 
18.85 N 101 .82 W 


1941 
1759 


Lava 


Ash expl. 
1913 
New, 1759 


Popocatepetl 
Orizaba 


M 

n 


19.0,2 N 98.69 W 
19.03 N 97-32 W 


1921 
1687 


Steam 
Lava 


1523, fragmentary 
ejecta 


San Martin 
Tuxtla 
Cerro Quemado 


tt 

Guatemala 


18.51 N 95-23 w 
14.79 N 91 .52 W 


1793 
1785 


Ash, lava 




Santa Maria 


n 


14.75 N 91 .55 W 


1934 


Ash 




At it Ian 


n 


14.58 N 91 .18 W 


1856 ? 


Fragmentary 
ft lor* -ho 





TABLE 19 



255 



Name of Volcano 


Location Lat. and Long. 


Last Eruption Remarks 
Date Character Kemar * s 


Acatenango 
Fuego 


Guatemala 14.49 N 90.87 W 
" 14.47 N 90.88 W 


1924-27 Fragmentary 
ejecta 
1945 Ash 


Pacaya 
Izalco 


14.37 N 90.60 W 
Salvador 1 3-8l N 89.64 W 


1846 
1946 


* Eruptions 
chiefly ash 
and lapilli 

Lava 


El Playon 


13'. 7 N 89.3 W 


1659 


Lava flow 


El Salvador 


" 13.74 N 89.26 W 


1917 


Lava flow 


Ilopango 


15.67 N 89.05 W 


1880 


Lava New, 1880 


Bouquer<a 


13.73 N 89.29 W 


1917 


Lava 


San Miguel 


tt 13.43 N 88.27 W 


1931 


Ash 


Concha gua 


13.27 N 87-84 W 


1868 


Ash 


Coseguina 


Nicaragua 12.97 N 87.59 W 


18352! 


Ash 


Chinandega 


n 12.70 N 87.02-W 


1685 


? 


Telica 


12.60 N 86.86 W 


1529 


Ash 


Las Pilas 


12.49 N 86.68 W 


1923 


? Lava, 1867 


Momotombo 
Masaya-Nindiri 


12.42 N 86.55 W 
" 1 1 .97 N 86.17 W 


1905 
1927 


Ash, lava 
flow 

Lava Lake 


Orae tepee 
Orosi 


n .56 N 85.62 w 

Costa Rica 10.98 N 85.48 W 


1921-6 
1849 


Ash 

T^ve> ( r Gosgora, 
m 10.92 N, 85.92 V\ 


Rincon de la 
Vieja 
Poas 


" 1 0.83 N 85.37 W 
11 1 . 1 7 N 84 . 23 W 


1922 

1910 


Ash 
Ash expl. 


Turrialba 


10.02 N 83.77 W 


1864-6 


Ash 


Irazu 


9.98 N 83.87 W 


1933 


Ash 


Chiriqui 


Panama 8.80 N 82.50 W 


15XX? 


? 


Near St. 
Vincent I. 


West 14.00 N 60.92 W 

Indies 


1902 


Submarine 



Soufriere, 
St. Lucia I. 

Soufriere,- 
St. Vincent I. 



Martinique I. 

Mt. Misery^ 
St. Kltta I. 

Grande Soufriere, 
Guadeloupe I. 

Near Guadeloupe I. 

Grande Soufriere, 
Dominica 



13.82 N 61 .06 W 

13-33 N 61 .18 ^ 
14.81 N 61 .17 W 

17.38 N 62.80 W 
16.04 N 61 .66 W 

16.0 N 61 .4 W 
15.30 N 61 .31 W 



1766 ? 

1902! Nue'es ardentes 

1929 Ash 

1692 ? 

1903 ? 



1 843 Submarine 
1 80 Ash 



Nuees 
ardentes, 
1798 



256 TABLE 19 


Name of Volcano Location Lat. and Long. 


Last Eruption 
Bate Character 


Remarks 


Sanare 


Venezuela 9-75 N 69.77 W 


1927 


Steam 

explosions 


? 


To lima 
Ruiz 


Colombia ^<$8 N 75.30 w 
4.50 N 75.28 W 


1826! 
1845 


' 


Mid flow 
apparently 
due to lava 
melting snow 


Purace x 


2.33 N 76.35 * 


1869 


Ash, bombs 




Dona Juana 


1 .5 N 76.8 W 


1899 


? 




Pasto, or 
LaGalera 
Reventador 

Pichincha 


1 .21 N 77.25 W 
Ecuador 0.05 S 77-68 W 

0.07 s 78.58 w 


1936 
1926 
1881 


Lava 
Ash 


Ash, 1660 


Ant is ana 


0.50 S 78.08 W 


1728 


Lava flow ? 




Cotopaxi 
Tungurahua 
Sangay 
Ubinas 


0.68 S 78.47 W 
1 .53 S 78.49 W 
1 .68 S 78.37 W 
Peru 16.17 S 70.78 W 


1926 
1903 
1935 
1937 


Steam expl. 
Explosive 
Lava (Press) 


1886, 

lava flow 

1 865, ash expl 


Misti 


16.28 S 71 -^0 w 


1869 


* 


Ash, 1830 


Ornate 


16.62 S 70.90 W 


1752 ? 


? 


1 660, ash! 


Tutupaca 


16.88 S 70.33 W 


1802 


Ash 




Andahua 
Huallatiri 


" 17 S 70+_ W 

Chile 17-57 S 68.88 W 


1913? 
1913 





Ash and 
steam in 
previous 
centuries 


Yucamani 


18+ S 70+ W 


1787 







Isluga 


18.77 S 69-95 W 


1913 


7 




San Pedro - 
San Pablo 
Lias car 


Bolivia 21 .87 S 68.3 W 
Chile 23-35 S 67.68 W 


191 1 
1933 


Stromtolian 
Ash 




Turitari 
Near La Poma 


Argentina 23-55 S 66.60 W 
25+ S 66+ W 


1937 
1931 


7 


Press Report 
unconfirmed 


Nevado 
San Jose' 


34+ s 69+ W 
Chile-Argent. 33-78 S 69.90 W 


1929 
1895 


Lava 
Ash 


Presa Report 
unconfirmed 
Also 1939 
(Press) 


Maipo 


Chile 3^.12 S 69.87 W 


1912 


Heavy smoke 




Tinguiririca 


" 34.82 S 70-37 W 


193^ 


* 




Peteroa 


n 35.20 S 70.60 W 


1.937 


Ash (Press ) 


Plank flow, 
1762 


Planchon 


35-2 S 70.7 W 


1937 


Ash 




Cerro Azul 


35.67 s 70.75 w 


1927 


7 


Lava flow, 
1847 



TABLE 19 25 


Name of Volcano 


Location Lat. and Long. 


Last Eruption 
Date Character 


Remarks 


Quizapu 


Chile 35-64 S 70.75 W 


1932 


Ash 




Chilian 


36.82 S 71 -50 W 


1935 


Lava 




Tromen 


Argentina 37-12 S 70.10 W 


1822 


? 




Antuco 


Chile 37-42 S 71 -34 W 


1861 


Lava flow 




Trolhuaco 


38.30 s 71 -56 w 


1940 


"smoke and 
flame" 


Press report 


Lonquimai 


38.39 S 71 -59 W 


1933 


? 




Llaima 


w 38.70 S 71 -73 W 


1940 


Lava , ash 




Villarica 


11 39-42 S 71 .93 W 


1920 


? 


Ash, 1908 


Rininahue 


" 39-93 S 72.03 W 


1907 


Lapilli, 
ash 




Los Azufres 


40.47 S 71 .89 W 


1929 


Lava 




Puyehue 


" 40.59 S 72.12 W 


1905 


? 




Caulle 


41 + S 72+ W 


1934 


Incandescent 
bombs 


Oaorno 


41 .1 2 S 72.49 W 


1835 


Lava 




Puntiagudo 


40.97-S 72.28 W 


1930 


? 




Calbuco 


41 .3^ S 72.66 W 


1929 


Ash 




Huequi 


42.68 S 72.60 W 


1906-7 


Explosive 




MInch inmav Ida 


w 42.78 S 72.43 W 


1835 


Lava 




Corcovado 


43.18 s 72.77 w 


1835 


Explosive 




San Martin 


11 49.0 S 73-0 W 


1879 


? 


Uncertain 


Mt . Burney 


52.33 S 73-^0 W 


1910 


? 




Zavodovskii I. 
Darnley, Bristol 


S. Sandwich 56.3 S 27-5 W 
Is. 

I. " 58.0 S 26.8 W 


1936 


Lava flow 


Sulfur 
flowing, 
1908 


Brldgeman I. 


Antarctic 62.07 S 56.67 W 


1839 


? 




Mt". Pond f 
Deception I. 


62.93 s 60.57 w 


' 


' { 


Glacier 
contains 
layers of 
ash and ice 


New Island 


" -65.2 S 72.2 W 


1877 




Vessel 
"Lutterfeld" 


Lindenberg I. 


65+ S 60+ W 


1893 


Smoke , 
stones 




Near Juan- 
Fernandez Is . 
Ruapehu 


Pacific 33-60 S 78.85 W 
New Zealand 39.26 S 175.55 E 


1837 
1945~4 


Submarine 

, Lava dome 
5 and aah 
eruptions 




Ngauruhoe 


11 39-17 S 175-64 E 


1934 


Ash 




Te Marl, 
Tongariro 
Tarawera 


39*.1 S 175-7 B 


1896 ';,,,, 


Explosive ; 





> 5 8 TABLE 


19 










Name of Volcano Location Lat. and Long. 


Last Eruption Remarks 
Date Character 


White I. 


New Zealand 37 


.46 S 


177* 


15 


E 


1 


914 


Steam expl . ? 




Kermadec Is. 30 


.0 S 


178. 


50 


E 


i 


877 


Submarine 


Brimstone I. 


" 50 


.23 S 


178. 


92 


E 


1 


825 


New island 


Denham Bay 


Raoul I. 29 


.25 S 


177- 


92 


W 


i 


870 


New island 




Tonga Is . 21 


.17 S 


175- 


75 


W 


1 


907 


Submarine 


Near Honga 
Eapai I. 
Falcon I. 


20 
11 20 


.85 S 
.32 S 


175- 
175- 


20 

40 


W 
W 


1 
1 


912 
927 


Submarine 
Ash, lava 


Tofua I. 


19 


.85 S 


175. 


05 


w 


1 


906 


Lava flow 


Metis I. 


" 19 


.20 S 


174. 


86 


w 


i 


894 


Submarine 


Maurelle Is. 


n 19 S 


175+ W 


1 


781 


New island 


Late I. 


18 


.82 S 


m. 


64 


w 


1 


85^ 


Flank eruption 


Fanua Lai I. 


18 


.04 S 


174. 


29 


w 


i 


847 


Strombolian 


Niuafoou I. 


? 15 


.58 S 


175. 


72 


w 


1 


946 


Lava 


^fenua Group 


Samoa Is. 14 


.20 S 


169. 


58 


w 


1 


866 


Submarine 


flfetavanu, 
Sawaii I. 


13 


.6 S 


172.45 w 


i 


911 


A lava flow 


Mauga Af i 


13 


.6 S 


172. 


7 V 


V 


1 


902 


Lava flow 


Hunter I. 


New Hebrides 22 


.28 S 


172. 


10 


E 


1 


895 


7 1835, lava 


Yasowa,Tanna I 


" "19 


.48 S 


169. 


40 


E 


1 


878 


New Crater 


Eromanga I. 


18 


.65 S 


169. 


15 


E 


1 


881 


Submarine 


Epi I. 


16 


.83 S 


168. 


53 


E 


1901 


New island 


Lopevi I. 


16 


.46 S 


168. 


37 


E 


1908 


Lava flow 


MIrmei,Ambrym : 


r. " 16 


.20 S 


168. 


10 


E 


1 


935 


Scoriae 


Vanua Lava I. 


13 


.7 S 


167. 


5 I 


S 


1 


861 


Ash 


Ureparapara I. 


13 


.47 S 


167. 


35 


E 


1 


872 


* 


Tinakula I. 


w 10 


.40 S 


165. 


78 


E 


1909 


Lava 


Savo I. 


Solomon Is . 9 


14 S 


159. 


80 


E 


1 


850 


Explosive 


Bagana 


Bougainville I . 6 


.20 S 


155 


.05 E 


1943 


Lava, ash 


Matupi 


New Britain 4. 


40 S 


152. 


47 


E 


1937 


Ash 


Vulcan I. 


4. 


40 S 


152. 


^7 


E 


1 


937 


Ash 


TJlawon (Vater) 


5- 


03 s 


151 . 


23 


E 


1 


915 


Lapllli? 


Lolobau I. 


* w 4. 


86 S 


151. 


05 


E 


1 


905 


Lava 


Pago 


5- 


55 S 


150. 


62 


E 


1 


905 


? Basalt flows 
recently 


Benda 


5- 


08 S 


150. 


13 


E 


1 


900HK 


? 



TABLE 19 25 


Name of Volcano 
Langila 


Location Lat . and Long. 
Britain ^55 S 148.30E 


Last 

Date 

1905 


Eruption Remarks 
Character KemarKa 

Lapllll 


Vitu Is. 


4.6 S 149.4 E 


1863+ 


New island 


Goropu Mt s . 


New Guinea 9-7 S U9-0 E 


1 944 


Ash, lap! Ill 


Ritter I. 


5.45 S 148.1 E 


1888! 


Explosive 


Karkar I. 


" 4.7 S 146.0 E 


1895 


Ash 


Mfenam I. 


" 4.13 S 145.05 E 


1937 


Stones 1919.> 
and dust lava flow 


Lesson I. 


3-60 S 144.77 E 


1919 


Ash 


Oemsini 


1 .2 S 134.0 E 


1864 


? ? 


Guguan I . 


Marianas 17-3 N 145-9 E 


1901 


A'sh 


Uracas I. 

Shinto^ near 
Minami Iwo 


" 20.54 N 144.90 E 
Bonins 24.22 N 141 .48 E 


1936 
1914 


Flame Strombolian 

New island, 
Lava 1904,, 1914 


Near Kita Iwo 


25.4 N 141 .3 E 


i860 


Submarine 


Near Mitsugo 
Torishima 


" 30 N 140 E 
30.55 N 140.25 E 


1871 

1902 


Submarine 
^plosive tauao 


Near Smith I. 


3-1 N 139 E 


1916 


Submarine 


Urania 


31 .9 N 140.0 E 


1946 


New island 


Near Bayonnaise 


31 -9 N 139-9 E 


1905 


Submarine 


n 


rt 32'. 05 N 140.10 E 


1915 


Submarine 


Aoga Shima 


" 32.40 N 139.80 E 


1785 


* 


Hachijo Shiraa 
Miyakeshimii 


" 33.10 N 139.82 E 
34.10 N 139.55 E 


1605 
1940 


Lava flow 

Lava flow,, 
etc. 


Kozushima 


34.22 N 139.17 E 


838 


Liparitic 


Niizima 


34,4 N 139-28 E 


886 


Liparitic 


Miharayama, 
Shima 


34.75 N 1 39-^0 E 


1938 


Scoriae 


Fuji 


Honshu 35.36 N 138.24 E 


1707 


Ash 


Asama 


36.40 N 138.53 E 


1947 


Ash 


Shirane-Kusatsu 


11 36.63 N 138.55 E 


1938 


Ash 


Shirane, Nikko 


36.77 N 139. ^0 E 


1872 


* 


Iwodake 


36.10 N 137-55 E 


1932 


Ash 


Hakusan 


36.15 N 136.78 E 


1575 


Explosive 


Tateyama 


36.55 N 137-62 E 


704 


7 


Nasuyama 


37-15 N 139,92 E 


1 390 


. ' ? , . 


Bandai 


M 57.58 N 1^.05 ? 

i , i , ^i ' , r i ' ' 't > < 


,1 888 


.Explosive!! 



TABLE 19 



g5Q 

Name of Volcano Location 


Lat. and Long. vJte^ 


Eruption 
Character 


Retries 


Adatara Honshu 


37-n N 140.27 E 


1900 


Fragmentary 
ejecta 




Azumasan " 


37.73 N 140.14 E 


1895 


Explosive 




Zaosan w 


38.1 1 N 140.42 E 


1918 


Subaqueous , 
in crater lake 


Komagatake rt 


38.95 N 140.80 E 


1932 


Ash 




Iwatesan tt 


39-84 N 141 .03 E 


1824 


? 


Ash, 1686 


Yake-Yama, Ugo n 


40^ N 141 +_ E 


1875 


? 




Iwakisan " 


40.65 IT 140.32 E 


1848 


? ? 




Oshima 


41 .50 N 139.35 E 


1741 


Explosive! 




Tarumai Hokkaido 


42.70 1 141 .37 E 


1933 


Explosive 


Ash, 1926 


Usudake " 


42.52 N 140.85 E 


1944- 
1945 


Ash. Marked 
topography, ( 


changes in 
Intrusions? ). 


Komagatake " 


42.08 N 140.67 E, 


1929 


Ash and glowing 
avalanches 


Tokachi M 


43.42 N 142.68 E 


1926 


Explosive 




Shiretoko-Iwo- San K 


44.20 N 145-30 E 


1890 


Explosions 


sulfur flow 


Chirip, Kuriles 
Etorofu I. 


45-35 N 147.93 E 


1843 


7 




fotsrorodake, 
Etorofu I. n 


45.39 N 148.84 E 


1883 


7 




Rebuntsiridake , 
Kita Jima, 
Chirlhoi To 


46.53 N 150.88 E 


1859 


Explosive 


N. Brother 


Shimushirudake " 


46.83 N 151 .80 E 


1914 


Ash 




Ketoi 


47.33 N" 152.45 E 


1843 


? ? 




Raikoke 


48.29 N 153.25 E 


1 924 


Ash 




Sarichev, " 
Matsuwa I. 
Harimukotan " 


48.09 N 153.22 E 
49.15 N 154.50 E 


1930 
1933 


Ash, 
Lapilli 
Explosion 


(Fuyo) 
Ash, 1931 


Kurodake, " 
Shasukotan 

Chirinkotan " 


48.87 N 154.18 E 
49-00 N 153.50 E 


1855 
1878 


"Throws out 
stones" 


* 





49.8+ N 155.0 E 


1937 


2 new Islands 


Chikura Dake " 


50.30 N 155.47 E 


1945 


? 


Press report 



Fugs Peak, 

Paramushiro I. 

lo-Yama, " ^ 

Masakariyama, / 
, Paramushiro I J 



50.27 N 155-26 E 1793 ? 



50.69 N 156.02 E 1935 Explosive 



Kuriles 



Araito I. 



50.85 N 155-58 E 1854 Ash 





TABLE 19 




261 


Name of Volcano 


Location Lat . and Long. 


Last 

Date 


Erupt ion -p ] 
Character KemarKS 


Taketomi I. 


Kuriles 50.84 N 155-67 E 


1934 


New island 


Kb she leva 


Kamchatka 51.35 N 156.75 E 


1 6xx 


? 


Ilina 


M 51 .49 N 157.22 E 


i 901 


Explosive 


Zheltovski 


51 .57 N 157.34 E 


1923 


tr 


Shtyubelya 


51 .80 N 157.51 E 


1 907! 


Ash 


Khadutka 


52.1 N 157.7 E 


1855 


7 


Opala 


" 52.54 N 1 5-7-32 E 


17XX 


? 


Gorely 


" 52.56 IT 158.02 E 


1930 


Ash 


Mutnovaki 


52.46 N 158.20 E 


1927 


Ash, 
? 1897-1907 


Avachinski 


" 53-35 W 158.83 E 


1927 


Lava 


Koryataki 


53-32 N 158.63 E 


1896 


? 


Igorevaki" 


53.47 N 159-04 E 


1923 


7 


Zhupanovski 


53.60 N 159-18 E 


1925 


? 


Veyer 


53.63 N 1 58.50 E 


1858 


Lava flows 


Karymaki 


54.03 N 159.51 E 


1S35 


Lava 


Maly Semyachik 


54.13 N 159.74 E 


1854 


Aah 


Bolahoi 

Semyachik 


54.29 N 160.03 E 


1852 


Ash 


Kronotaki 


54.77 N 160.58 E 


1923 


Ash 


Kizimen 


" 55-23 N 160.18 E 


1932 


Aah 


Tolbachik 


55-83 N 160.27 E 


1931 


Ash 


Klyuchevakoi 


" 56.05 N 160.65 E 


1945 


Lava, aah 


Shiveluch 


" 56.66 N 161 .32 E 


1930 


Ash 


Off Formosa 


24.0 N 121 .8 E 


1853 


Submarine, 
aah 





25.4 W 122.2 E 


? ? 


Submarine Quoted ' bv 








Sapper) 


Hatoma 


Ryukyu Is- 24.57 N 123.93 E 


1925 


Submarine * 
pumice 


Toriahima 


" 27.85 N 128.23 E 


1902 


Exploaive 


Suwanoae Jima 


" 29.68 N 129-72 E 


1938 


Incandescent 
ejecta 


Hachido, 
Kuchinoerabu 


" 50,48 N 130.25 E 


193^ 


Aah 


Io-Ziraa-Sint6 


H 30,82 N 130.33 E 


1935 


Hew ialand 



Iwo Jima 



30,8 






^o TABLE 19 


Name of Volcano Location 


Lat. and Long. 


last Eruption Remarks 
Date Character 


Kaimondake Kyushu 


31 .17 N 130.55 E 


1 615 


? 


Sakurajima " 


31 .60 N 131 -TO E 


1946 


Lava flow 


Unzendake w 


32.7 N 130-3 E 


1792 


Lava 


Saishuto I. Korea 


33.4 N 126.5 E 


1 007 


Lava ? 


Sulu I. Philippines 


6.0 N 121 .2 E 


1641 


7 


Macaturin, 
Mindanao w 


7.60 E" 124.43 E 


1871 


* 


Ragang 
Mindanao " 


7.67 N 124.48 E 


191 6 ? 


Aah 


Calayo 


7.83 N 124.67 E 


1886 


? 


Garni guin 
de Mindanao " 


9.20 N 124.70 E 


1871 


Ash, lava 


Canlaon, 
Negros I* tt 


10.41 N 123-10 E 


1906 


Ash 


Buluaan, Luzon w 


12,78 N 124.02 E 


1918 


Lava, ash 


Nfeyon, Luzon " 
Taal, Luzon " 


13.28 N 123-67 E 
14.03 N 120.95 E 


1947 
191 1 ! 


Explosive 

Ash, 
explosive! 


Banajao, Luzon " 
Dldiea,off Luzon 


14.09 IT 121 .49 E 
19.03 N 122.15 E 


1730 

1856- 
1860 


Explosion 

Growing 
island 


Babuyan Claro " 


19.50 N 121 .95 E 


1919 


? 1831 , ash! 


Near Sabtan I. " 


20.3 N 121 .9 E" 


1854 


Submarine 


West of 
waKian - Halmshera 


0.33 N 1 27-41 E 


1 890 


Ash, lava 


Motir " 


0.45 N 127-41 E 


1744 


Explosive 


Peak of Ternate w " 


0.81 N 127-34 E 


1933 


Explosive 


Gainkonora Halmahera 


1 .38 N 127-54 E 


1926 


Lava 


Iboe 


1 .50 N 127-64 E 


191 1 


Explosive 


Doekono " 


1 .70 N 127.90 E 


1941 


Ash 


Oena Oena Celebes 


0.16 S 121 .60 E 


1898 


Ash 


Api, Siaoe I, " 


2.81 N 125-44 E 


1941 


Ash, lava 


Banoe Woehoe, 
Nkhengetany I. " 


3.15 N 125-46 E 


1919 


Lava 


Awoe, Sangihe I. " 


3.70 N 125.46 E 


1931 


Lava 


West of 
Sangihe I. 


4.0 N 124.2 E 


1922 


Submarine 


Sopoetan " 


1 .12 N 124.74 E 


1923 


Lava, ash 


Mahawoe " 


1 .41 N 124.89 E 


1789 


Explosive 


Lokon " 


1 .40 N 124.79 E, 


1893 


. Explosive 



TABLE 


19 






263 


Name of Volcano Location 


Lat. 


and Long. 


Last Eruption Remarks 
Date Character wemarKs 


Tongkoko Celebes 


1 . 


54 


N 


125. 


16 


E 


1821 


Ash, lava 


Hoeang " 


2. 


32 


N 


125. 


38 


E 


1915 


Lava 


Emperor of China Banda Sea 


6. 


67 


S 


124. 


67 


E 


1927 ? 


Submarine 


Mleuwerkerk w 


6. 


66 


S 


124. 


20 


E 


1927 ? 


w 


Api, N. of Wetar 


6. 


66 


S 


126. 


64 


E 


1699 


Explosive 


ganda Api * 


* 


52 


S 


129. 


88 


E 


1901 


Lava 


Seroea " 


6. 


31 


S 


130. 


03 


E 


1921 


Explosive 


Nlla I. 


6. 


75 


S 


129. 


51 


E 


1932 


Ash 


Teon 


6. 


98 


S 


129- 


15 


E 


1904 


Ash 


Damar I. " 


7- 


14 


S 


128. 


61 


E 


1892 


Ash 


Siroeng, Pantar I. " 


8. 


48 


S 


124. 


12 


E 


1934 


Ash, lava 


Batoe Tar a n 


7- 


77 


S 


123. 


60 


E 


1850 


Lava flow 


111 Weroeng, 
Lomblen I. " 


8. 


52 


s 


123- 


56 


E 


1928 


Ash, lava 


111 Lewotolo, 

Lomblen I. " 


8. 


28 


s 


123- 


52 


E 


1899 


Explosive 


111 Boeleng, 
Adonara I. " 


8. 


35 


s 


123- 


30 


E 


1925 


Ash 


Rokatinda, 
Paloeweh I. w 


8. 


32 


s 


121 . 


73 


E 


19282 


Pumice, ash, 
lava blocks 


Leweno Flores 


8. 


34 


s 


122. 


85 


E 


1881 


Ash 


Lew ot obi 
Laki Laki 


8. 


53 


s 


122. 


76 


E 


1940 


Ash 


Lew ot obi 
Perampoean ft 


8. 


57 


s 


122. 


80 


E 


1935 


Explosive 


Keli Mbetoe 


8. 


76 


s 


121 . 


84 


E 


1860- 
1870 


Explosive 


Endeh Api " 


8. 


78 


s 


121 . 


67 


E 


1882 


, 


Poei 


8. 


85 


s 


121 . 


65 


E 


1671 


tt 


Amboe Romboe w 


8. 


80 


s 


121 . 


16 


E 


1924 


Lava 


Inle Lika 


8. 


7.4 


s 


120. 


99 


E 


1905 


Old debris - 


Sangeang Apl Soembawa 


8. 


20 


s 


119- 


07 


E 


1927 


Ash 


Tambora M 


8. 


20 


s 


118. 


00 


E 


18151 


Ash! 


Rindjanl Lombok I. 


8. 


35 


a 


116. 


42 


E 


1900 


Lava flow 


Agoeng Ball 


8. 


34 


s 


115- 


50 


E 


1843 


Aah, 
lava flow 


Batoer " 


a. 


23 


s 


115. 


42 


E 


192* 


,Aflh, .JW 


Kawah Idjen Jatfa 


8. 


07 


s 


114. 


2? 


E 


1917 


;^am, :i !asli 


Raoeng , " 


;, 


i.i 


*; 


^v 


ISO 


'35, 


?9M-/'- 


i** 1 ;:^! 1 ; 1 - 1 ;, ; 



TABLE 19 



:Wifc 

Uarne of Volcano 


Location Lat. and Long. 


Last Eruption Remarks 
Date Character 


Lamongan 


Java 7-99 S 


113.35 E 


1898 


Lapilli, 
Lava flow 


Semeroe 


" 8.1 1 S 


1 12.95 E 


1941 


Lava 


Bromo, Tengger 


7-99 S 


1 12.96 E 


1940 


Ash 


Keloed 

Msrapi 


7-95 S 
7-56 S 


112.35 E 
1 10.45 E 


1920 
1934 


Lava 

lava -dome 
and glowing 
avalanches 


Soeridoro 


7-30 S 


1 09.99 E 


1906 


Ash 


Pakoe Wodjo 


" 7.20 S 


109.92 E 


1847 


Ash 


Boetak Petarang 


" 7-20 S 


1 09.8 E 


1786 


Explosive 


Slamat 


7.25 s 


1 09.22 E 


1939 


Ash 


T jerimai 


M 6.90 S 


109.22 E 


1938 


Ash 


Galoengoeng 


7-2 S 


108.3 E 


1918 


Lava 


Papandajan 


M Y.4 S 


107.9 E 


1924 


Explosive lava 'flow 


Goentoer 


M 7.0 S 


108.1 E 


1847 


Ash 


Tangkoeban 
Prahoe 


6.7 S 


107.6 E 


1910 


Ash, scoriae 


Gedeh 
Krakatau 


6.77 S 
Sumatra 6 . 1 o S 


106.95 E 
105-42 E 


1947 
1941 


Ash 

M A Q0 *h Great ex- 
Mad, ash plosion, 1883 


Soeoh, 
Pematang Bata 


5.23 s 


104.27 E 


1933 


Phreatic 
explosion 


Dempo 


4.00 S 


103.10 E 


1940 


.Lava 


Kaba 


3-4 S 


102.7 E 


1941 


Ash 


Kerint ji 


1 . 7 S 


101 .3 E 


1936-7 


Phreatic gtrombolian 


Talang 


" 0.9 S 


1 00.8 E 


1845 


Explosive 1 833 3 lava 


Tandikat 


0.5 S 


1 00.4 E 


1914 


Lava 


Ma rap i 


11 0.2 S 


1 00.5 E 


1930 


Ash 


Sorikraarapi 


0.8 N 


99-5 E 


1917 


Ash 


Boer Hi Telong 


4.7 N 


96.8 E 


1856 


Ash 


Peuetsagoe 


" 4.9 N 


96.3 E 


1919- 
1920 


Ash, lava 


Barren I. 


Andamans 12.20 N 


93-83 E 


1803 


Strombolian 


Puppa 


Burma 21 .0 N 


95-3 E 


? 


? 




Indian Ocean 6+ S 


89. E 


1883 


Floating Vessel 
lava n Siam !f 


Near 
Pondicherry 


1 2 N 


8o E 


1757 


Submarine 


L'ile des 
Cendres 


China Sea 10, i N 


109.0 E 


1923 


New island 



TABLE 19 



265 



Name of Volcano Location 


Lat. and Long, 


Last 
Date 


Ke- ka 


Nimrod 


Armenia 


38.60 N 42.16 E 


1441 


? 


Nisyros I* 


Aegean 


36.58 N 27.20 E 


1422 


Strombolian 


Santorini 


tt 


36.4 N 25.4 E 


1940 


Lava 


Msthana 


Greece 

Medi- 
terranean 


37.60 N 23- 38 E 
36.68 N 13.74 E 


3d 
Cent. 
B.C. 

1845 


New volcano 

Vessel 
Submarine "Victory" 




n 


36.28 N 21 .28 E 


1886 


Vessel 
"LaValette" 




Ionian Sea 


35.90 W 18.67 E 


1886 


n 




W. of Malta 


36.1 N 14 E 


191 1 





Monte Nuovo 


Italy 


14-0.83 N 14.10 E 


1538 


New volcano 


La Solfatara 


Italy 


1^0.80 N U.15 E 


1935 


Explosion 


Epomeo, 
Ischia I. 

Etna 


n 

Sicily 


1*0.75 N 13-92 E 
37.75 N 15-02 E 


1301 
1946 


Lava flow 

1 Qh-7 

E^ 1031 lava flow 


Vulcano 


N. of 

Sicily 


38.40 N 14.95 E 


1890 


Explosive 


Stromboli 


tt n 


38.80 N 15.22 E 


1937 


Lava 


Vesuvius 


Italy 


40.82 N 14.42 E 


1944 


Lava 


Ferdinand ea, 
or Graham's 


Medi- 
Reef terranean 


37.02 N 12.70 E 


1868 


New island 


Forstner 


n 


36.84 N 1 1 .92 E 


1891 


Submarine 




Atlantic 


1 /2 S 20-22 W 


I8xx 


Submarine 




n 


0.6 S 15-8 W 


1836 


Submarine 




tt 


4.3 N 21 -7 W 


1878 


it 




n 


7 N 21 .8 W 


1824 


if 


Pico de Cano, 
Fogo I. 


Cape Verde 
la. 


14.9 N 24.4 W 


1909 


Weak,, ash 


La Palma I. 


Canary la . 


28.67 N 17-83 W 


1785 


Scoriae 


Teyde, 
Tenerife I. 


n 


28.33 N 16.72 W 


1909 


Lava flow 


Lanzarote I. 


n 


29.00 N 13-67 W 


1824 


Explosive 


Furnas, 
Sfo Miguel 


I. Azores 


37.67 N 25.30 W 


1630 


Explosive 


Agua de Pau 


if 


37.67 N 25- 1 *-8 W 


1 652 


Ash., lava 


Sete Cidadea 


it 


37.75 N 25-80 W 
38.25 N S6.6 W 


1811 
; 1720 


SubtnariBe 

., . , N.W. of SSo 
New la land lttguel ., I . 


Pico I. 


tfl 


38.50 JST 28,3 W 


1 7 SO 


Ash,- laira / ,.,, " ^ 



TABLE 19 



=:oo 

Name of Volcano 


Location 


Lat. and Long. 


Last 
Date 


Eruption 
Character 


Remarks 


Caldeira, 
Fayal I. 


Azores 


58.58 N 28.75 W 


1672 


Ash., lava 




Sao Jorge I. 


rt 


38.60 N 28.00 W 


1808 


Ash, lava 




Santa Barbara, 
Terceira I. 


w 



38.75 N 27-25 W 
38.8 27.^ W 


1761 
1867 


Ash, lava 
Submarine 


W. of 
Terceira I. 


Askja 


Iceland 


65.03 N 16.68 W 


1875 


Pumice 




Da If jail 


tt 


65.6 JST 16.7 W 


1728 


Lava! 




Lairhnukur 


tt 


65-7 ^ 16.7 W 


1729 


Lava 




tt " 

Oraefa-Jokull 


n 


6^.05 N 16.70 W 


1727 


Lava 




Sveinagja 


n 


65-7 N 16.3 W 


1875 


Lava 




Kverkf joll 


tt 


6^.59 N 16.60 W 


1929 


? 


1717, as'h 


Katla 


tt 


63-59 N IB. 9^ W 


1918 


Ash 




Eyjaf jallajokull 


ft 


63.61 N 19*64 W 


1 822 


Melted 
glacier 




Laki 


n 


64.2 N 1,8.2 W 


1783! 


Ash, lava! 




Hagongur 


tt 


64.27 N 17.30 W 


1774 


? 




Helgafell, 
Heimaey I. 


n 


63.43 W 20.22 W 


9xx ? 


? 




Hekla 


tt 


63.98 I 19.70 W 


1947 


Ash, bombs 




Trolladyngja 


tt 


63.93 N 22.10 W 


1389 


? 




Eldeyar Is. 

Grimsvotn w 1 
Ske idara - Jokul I) 


Tt 
tt 


63.8 N 23-0 W 
64.41 N 17.33 W 


1879 
193^ 


7 

Explosive 


Erupt ions , 
chiefly 
submarine 

Subpl&clal 


Beerenberg 


Jan 
Mayen I. 


71 .0 N 8.Q W 


1818 


Ash 




Harra-en-N^r 
Schadar Valley 


Arabia 

Tt 


24 1/2+N 
40 1/2+ E 
24 N 42+. E 


6 
1254 


Lava flow 


Location 
doubtful 




Yemen 


14.5 N 44.5 E 


1937? 




Near Damar 


Erta-Ale 


Abyssinia 


13.62 F 40.57 E 


1928 


Smoke Alighted 
by lava in 
crater 


Afdera 


tt 


13.18 N 41 .01 E 


1907 


Lava 




Edd, or Dubbi 


Eritrea 


13.74 N 41 .55 E 


1861 


? 




Teleki 


Kenya 


2.34 N 36.56 E 


1896 


New crater 




Nyamlagira 


Belgian 
Congo 


1 .42 S 29.20 E 


1938 


Lava 




Niragongo 


tt 


1 .52 S 29-24 E 


1912 


Lava flow 




Kanamaharagi 


ti 


1 .41 S 29.30 E 


1905 


? 




Oldongo -lengai 


Tangan- 
yika 


3 + S 36 +_ E 


1917 


Gas explosion 



TABLE 19 



267 



Pagan I. 
Agrigan I. 
Asuncion 1. 



Name of Volcano Location Lat. and Long. 

Kartala 
Cameroun 

Piton de la 
Fournaise 

Kilauea 
Ifeuna loa 
Hualalai 
Haleakala 
Farborough I. 
Albemarle I. 
James I. 
Wassilieff 
Chang Pai 
Erebus 
Buckle I. 



1906- ? 
1907 

48.90 N 126.10 E 1721 Lava 



Remarks 



Lava 

West Africa 4.20 N 9-15 E 1925 Lava 

Reunion I. 21.38 55-8 E 1942 Lava 

Hawaii 19-37 N 155-30 W 1934 Pumice 

" 19.50 N 155.92 W 1942 Lava flow 

" 19.70 N 155.87 W 1801 " " 

Maui 20.72 N 156.25 W 1750+ " " 

Gala'pagos 0.4o S $1.62! 1936 ? 

" 0.0 S 91. 4 W 1948 Lava flow 

" 0.33 90. 8 W 

Manchuria 

42.00 I 128.10 E 1702 ? 

77.5 S 168 E 1912 Ash, pumice 

66.80 S 163.3 E 1899 Smoke 



Lava, 1825 



Antarctic 



Added in proof. (List closed June lplj.8) 



MLrianaa 



18.11NH5.7SE 1925 ^a flow 

18.75NU5-67E 191? Ash 

IS- 17 N U5.4 E 1 $o6 Ash, lava flow 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Adams, C. E., 104, 120 

Adams, L. H., 101, 104 

Adams, T. C., 85, 104 

Adkins, J. N., 104, 128 

Agostinho, J., 71, 104 

Aguilera, F. G., 85, 104 

Akyol, I. H., 112, 121 

Allen, E. T., 33, 106 

Allen, M. W., 34, 114, 123 

Altinli, E., 112, 121 

Anderson, E. M., 26, 87, 101, 104, 

109 

Anderson, T., 8, 36 104 
Angenheister, G., 47, 96, 97, 104 
Anonymous, 45, 48, 97, 104, 121 
Arni, P., 64, 68, 104 
Arnold, R., 36, 104, 110 
Aslakson, C. L, 40, 104 
Auden, J. B., 106, 121 

Banerji, 5. K., 9, 104 

Barksdale, J. D., 32, 104, 106 

Barnett, M. A. F., 104, 120 

Bartrum, J. A., 47, 104 

Bastings, L., 47, 104, 125 

Becker, 58 

Benioff, H., 95, 101, 104 

Benson, W. N., 98, 104 

Berlage, H. P., 9, 63, 104 

Birch, F., 101, 104 

Blackwelder, E., 36, 104 

Blake, A,, 9, 105 

Bobillier, C., 8, 42, 96, 105, 126 

de Bockh, 67 

Bodle, R. R., 30, 36, 84, 105, 108, ni 

Boese, E., 105, 1 19 

Born, A., 26, 64, 81, 105 

Bramhall, E. H., 105, 128 

Branner, J. C., 81, 91, 105 

Bridge, F,, 51, 105 

Bridgnian, P. W., 101, 105 

Brown, B. H., 32, 105 

Brown, J. C., 105, 126 

Brttggen, J., 8, 42, 105 

Brunner, G. J., 9, 20, 48, 105 

Bryan, W. H., 26, 87, 94, 105 

Bucher, W. H., 100, 105 

Budding ton, A, F., 101, 105 

Bullard, E. C., 21, 68, 70, 79, 101, 

105, 109, no 

Bullen, K. E., 47, 105, 127 
Buwalda, J. P., 33, 105, 107 
Byerly, P., 9, 34, 36, 85, 96, 105, 116, 

124, 126 

Callaghan, E., 36, 105, 107, 126 

Caloi, P., 70, 86, 106 

Camacho, H., 36, 115 

Carder, D. $., 98, 106 

Cassinis, G., 68, 106 ; ; * >'., ' , 

C^stelianos, A., 42, 106, 130 

. 6, 106 ,. " ;,', ; ; '' ' ', ' ' '' 



Centeno-Graii, M., 39, 106 
Christensen, A., 8, 106 
Chubb, L. J., 26, 51, 106 
Clapp, F. G., 64, 67, 106 
Cloos, H., 8, 71, 79, 81, 87, 106 
Close, U., 106, 120 
Coats, R. R., 30, 106 
Conrad, V., 21, 25, 106 
Coombs, H. A., 32, 104, 106 
Coster, H. P., 70, 71, 106 
Cotton, C. A., 45, 46, 100, 106 
Cox, D. C., 95, 1 10 
Crary, A. P., 27, 107 
Critikos, N. A., 69, 70, 106 
Crompton, W., 8, 64, 116 

Daly, R. A., 26, 101, 106 
Dammann, Y., 106, 120 
Davison, C., 21, 25, 32, 33, 53, 57, 67, 
70, 72, 82, 87, 96, 97, 106, 120, 126 
Day, A. L., 33, 106 
De La Rue, E. A., 8, 48, 106 
Demetrescu, G., 70, 106 
De Roever, W. P., 62 
Descotes, P. M., 6 
Di Filippo, D., 70, 106 
Donoso, E., 106 
Dow, R. B., 101, 104 
Doyle, P., 82, 106 
Doxsee, W. W., 109, 125 
Duerksen, J. A., 79, 106 
Dunn, J. A., 66, 106, 121 
Du Toit, A. L, 100, 106 
Dutton, C. E., 85, 97, 106 

Egeran, E. N., 64, 68, 116 

Emery, K. O., 32, 34, 113 

Eppenstein, O., 6, 106 

Erola, V., 73, 106 

Escher, B. G., 60, 106 

Etzold, F., 87, 107 

Evans, P., 8, 64, 116 

Ewing, J. A., 53 

Ewing, M., 27, 39, 40, 77, 84, 107, 116 

Farquharson, W. I., 77, 107 
Ferrar, H. T., 46, 107 
Fisher, N. H., 8, 50, 107, 129 
Fu, C. Y., 10, 107 
Fujiwhara, S., 8, 101, 107 
Fuller, M. L., 85, 107 
Fyfe, H. E., 47, 107 

Galitzin, B., 107, 119 

Gane, P. G., 10, 88, 107 

Garcia, J., 105, 119 

Gee, E. R., 107, 125 

Geinitz, E. 96, 107 

Geldart,' L. P., 25,, 1 1 1 

Qherzi, E., 99, 107 

Gb04h,. A* M., N., 100, iW '. 

Giawella, V. P.. 36, <*o&, tbfc- i'*6,";'v 



Glennie, E. A., 66, 107 

Graaff-Hunter, J. de, 66, 107 

Grange, L. I., 46, 107 

Gray, T., 53 

Green, C. K., 95, 107 

Gregory, J. W., 64, 67, 107 

Griesbach, C. L., 67, 107 

Griggs, D. T., 101, 107 

Guild, P. W., 39, 114 

Gutenberg, B., 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 21, 25, 
26, 27, 28, 32, 33, 36, 39, 43, 50, 70, 
84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 99, 

101, 103, 107, 1O8, 113, 120, 121, 
126 

Hagiwara, T., 108, 129 

Hales, A. L., 107 

Hantke, G., 8, 57, 112 

Haskell, N. A., 101, 108 

Hayes, R. C., 9, 47, 48, 89, 104, 108, 

112 

Heck, N. H., 30, 36, 74, 84, 95, 108 

Hecker, O., 47 

Heim, A., 73, 108, 123 

Heinrich, R. R., 84, 108 

Heiskanen, W., 8, 48, 53, 68, 73, 79, 

108 

Henderson, J., 45, 47, 108, 125 
Hess, H. H., 39, 51, 62, 98, 108 
Hiller, W., 86, 108 
Hobbs, W. H., 33, 108 
Hochstetter, F. von, 96, 109 
Hodgson, E. A., 109, 123, 125 
Hoffmeister, J. E., 77, 109 
Holmes, A., 101, 109 
Holopainen, P. E,, 86, 109 
Honda, H., 101, 109 
Horsfield, W., 79, 109 
Hulin, C. D., 73, 109 

Imamura, A., 54, 95, 96, 97, 109, 126 
Inglada, V., 42, 109 
Ishimoto, M,, 96, 109 

Jaggar, T. A., 8, 95, 96, 109 
Jeffreys, H., 9, 101, 109, 119 
Jenkins, O. P., 33, 109 
Jersey, N. J. de, 26, 47, 87, 94, 106 
Jillson, W. R., 33, 109 
Johnson, M., 84, 116 
Jones, J. C., 33, 109, 120 
Junner, N. R,, 81, 109 

Kawasumi, H,, 99, 109 

Keith, A., 97, 109, 125 

Kennedy, W. Q. 8, 26, 87, 101, 109 

Ketin, I., 112, ivi 

Kew, W. S. W., 36, 110 

Kofeer, 'JL^ 98, 109 



27 

Koto, B. ? 53, log 
Krenkel, E. 79, 109 
Krige, L. J,, 88, 109 
Krijanovsky, N., 8, 53, 109 
Kuenen, Ph. H., no 
Kumagi, N., 53, 109 
Kiinitoml, S. I., 98, 109, 126 

Lais, R., 8, 86, 113 
Landsberg, H., 25, 109 
Laughlin, H., 36, no 
Lawsan, A. C., 33, no, 119 
Lee, A. W., 84, no, 126 
Lee, J. S., 72, no 
Lee, S, P., 73, no, 120 
Lees, 67 

Leet, L. D., 25, no 
Lefebvre, J. H., 81, no 
Leicester, P., 105, 126 
Lehmann, L, no, 124, 125 
Leushin, P. L, 68, no 
Linden, N., 74, 112 
Linehan, D., 39, 1 10 
Littlehales, G. W., 74, no 
Longwell, C. R, 84, no 
Liinkenheimer, F., 157 
Lyell, C., 46, no 
Lynch, J., 66, 110 , 

Macdonald, G. A., 26, 47, 79, 95, no, 

H4 

Mace, C., 68, 70, 110 
Macelwane, J. B., 110, 120, 122 
Magnani, M., 70, 110 
Marshall, P., 26, 47, no 
Martin, L., 19, 32, 114 
Mas6, M. S., 58, 96, no, 120 
Matuyama, M., 53, no 
Matuzawa, T,, no, 121 
McCormick, E,, 106 
McKay, A., 46, 47, no 
McMahon, A. H., 67, no 
McMurry, H., 21, no 
Meinesz, F. A. V., 8, 28, 29, 34, 37, 

51, 58, 60, 62, 70, 71, 74, loo, no 
Middlemiss, C, S., no, 119 
Mihailovic, F., 70, no 
Miller, B. L., 27, 107 
Milne, J., 4, 8, 19, 32, 53, 93, 110,111 
Minakami, T., 57, 111 
Mitchell, G. D,, 36, in 
Miyabe, N., 58, 97, 111, 127, 129 
Miyamoto, M., 9, in 
Miyamura, S., 53, 111 
Montandon, F., 86, 111 
Montessus de Ballore, F. de, 8, 47, 

% 90' 95> 96 97 in H9 
Morelli, C,, 70, in 
Moriya, M., 95, 96, 97, 109 
Mukherjee, S. M-, 8s, in, 112, 121 
Murray, H. W., 30, m 
Mushketov, D., 64, 72, 74, 91, in 

Nasu, N-, 58, 111, 121 
Neumann, F., 30, 36, 84, 85, in 



INDEX 

Neumayr, M., 8, n i 
Nielsen, N., 8, n i 
Nishimura, S., 58, 111, 127 
Nordquist, J. M., 8, 9, n, 25, m 

Obruchev, V. A., 68, in 
O'Connell, D. J. K., 6, 20, 48, in 
Oczapowski, B. L., 66, 73, in 
Oddone, E., 8, in 
Oldham, R. D., 66, 82, 86, in 
Oliver, H. (X, 10, 88, 107 
Ornori, F., 58, in, 112, 119, 122 
Ongley, M., 46, 47, 112, 129 
Oppenhelm, V,, 40, 112 
Ordonez, ., 112, 120 
Otuka, Y., 58 

Page, B. M., 33, 112, 120 
Pamir, H. N., 112, 121 
Parejas, E., 68, 112, 121 
Perret, F. A., 39, 1 12 
Pettersson, H., 77, 112 
Plett, G., no, 124, 125 
Poisson, C., 81, 112 
Popoff, V,, 91, 115 
Pough, F. H., 8 
Press, F., 39 

Raiko, N., 68, 74, 112, 126 

Ramanathan, K. R,, 112, 127 

Rangaswami, M. R., 111, 121 

Ravet, J., 90, 112 

Rebeur-Paschwitz, E. vori, 4, 112 

Reck, H., 8, 57, 112 

Reed, R. B., 33, 112 

Reid, H. F., 19, 40, 62, 72, 97, 112, 
122 

Renquist, H., 87, 98, 

Repetti, W. C., 51, 58, 59, 112 

Rich, J. L v 40, 112 

Richardson, 67 

Richey, J. E., 8, 109 

Richter, C. F., 3, 4, 9, 20, 21, 25, 26, 
28, 32, 33, 36, 39, 43, 50, 84, 85, 86, 
9 9 1 ' 93' 9 6 99' 10 3> l 5> i7> 

108, 112, 121, 126 

Rittmarm, A., 8, 26, 112 
Robinson, G. D., 30, 112 
Rodriguez, J. G., 71, 112 
Rosenthal, E., 4, 113, 119 
Roth^, J. P,, 8, 86, 113 
Roy, S. C., 106, 121 
Rozova, E., 68, 73, 113 
Rudolph, E., 8, 32, 43, 72, 77, 94, 

95, 96, 97, 113, 119 
Ruiz, E., 36, 113 
Russell, I, C., 8, 113 
Rutherford, H. M., 27, 107 

Salomon- Calvi, W., 113 
Sanchez, P. C., 8, 113 
Scheu, E., 8, 113 
Schafer, S., 33, 115 
Scherer, J., 39, 97, 113 
Schmehl, H., 48, 113 
Schmidt, J., 69, 113 



Schuppli, H. M., 60, 62, 113 
Scrase, F. J., 9, 113 
Shepard, F. P., 32, 34, 95, no, 113 
Sieberg, A., 8, 20, 69, 82, 86, 87, 90, 

91, 92, 96, 97, 113, 119, 120 
Silgado, F. E., 40, 113 
Skeels, D. C., 68, 113 
Sommer, H., 113, 124 
Somville, O., 99, 114 
Sparks, N. R., 36, 114 
Stearns, H. T., 26, 47, 79, 114 
Stechschulte, V. C., 9, 114 
Stehn, C. E., 8, 114 
Stenz, E., 66, 114 
Stetson, H. T., 21, 114 
Stille, H., 68, 70, 86, 87, 114 
Stoneley, R., 9, 114 
Straubel, R., 6 
Suda, K., 53, 114 
Suess, F. ., 26, 42 
Synions, G. J., 97, 114 
Szirtes, S., 4, 20, 96, 113, 114, 119 

Taber, S., 39, 40, 97, 112, 114, 122 
Tarns, E,, 21,42, 74, 77, 81, 113, 114, 

119, 120 

Tanakadate, H., 8, 53, 114 
Tanni, L., 68, 70, 114 
Tarr, R. S., 19, 32, 114 
Thayer, T. P., 39, .114 
Tillotson, E-, 86, 114, 125 
Timoshenko, S., 101, 114 
Tolstoy, L, 39 

Townley, S. D., 34, 36, 114, 123 
Tsuboi, C., 19, 84, 99, 114 
Tsuya, H,, 51, 114 
Turner, H. H., 3, 4, 9, 115 
Tuve, M. A., 84, 115 

Uhrig, L. F., 33, 115 
Ulrich, F. P., 33, 36, 85, 115 
Umbgrove, J. H, F,, 62, no, 115 
Urbina, F., 36, 115 

Van Bemmelen, R. W., 50, 60, 115 
Vardanjanc, L., 68, 115 
Vaughn, T. W., 8, 74, 115 
Vening Meinesz, F. A., 8, 28, 29, 34, 

37, 51, 58, 60, 62, 70, 71, 74, 100, 

110 

Venter, F. A., 88, 109 
Verbeek, R. D. M,, 97, 115 
Vesanen, E., 99, 115 
Villafana, A., 105, 119 
Visser, S. W., 9, 25, 115, 125 
Von dem Borne, G*, 69, 115 

Wadati, K., 9, 53, 115 
Wadia, D. N., 66, 106, m 
Walshe, H. E., 112 
Wanner, E., 21, 86, 115 
Weeks, L. G., 40, 115 m 
Wegener, K,, 4, 115 
Weiss-Xenofontova, Z., 91, 115 
Wellman, H. W., 46, 115 
West, W. D,, 67, 115, 1*6, 1*7 



Westland, A. J., 20, 48, 115 
Whitcroft, H. T., 36, 115 
Whitehouse, F. W., 87, 105 
Willett, R. W., 46, 115 
Williamson, E. D., 101, 104 
Willis, B., 33, 36, 58, 59, 64, 82, 96, 
99, 115, 116, 119 



INDEX 

Willson, F. F., 85, 116 
Wilser, J. L., 64, 116 
Wilson, J. T., 36, 105 
Wolff, F. von, 8, 26, 116 
Wood, H. E., 88, 116 
Wood, H. O., 33, 36, So, 84, 85, 95, 
108, 116 



271 



Woollard, G. P., 8, 82, 116 
Wuenschel, P. C., 40 
Wust, G., 71, 74, 77, 1 16 

Yasuda, T., 53, 116 
Ziemendorff, G., 8, 106 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Accuracy of determinations, 11 

Acknowledgments, 102 

Active belts, 30, 64, 74, 103 

Africa, 78, 81, 88, 91, 205, 266 

African Rifts, 78, 79 

Aftershocks, n, 101 

Alaska, 30, 85, 142, 144, 216, 253; 
earthquakes of 1899, 19, 32, 95 

Aleutian arc, 30, 95, 142, 216, 253 

Alpide belt, 64, 99, 104 

Alpine folding, 68, 70, 97, 98 

Alps, 86 

Amplitudes, 4, 6, 9 

Andaman Islands, 62, 65, 186, 245, 
264 

Andes, 40, 256 

Andesite line, 26, 47, 51, 9 

Angara shield, 85, 91 

Annual energy release, 21, 22, 23; 
number of shocks, 17, 18, 22, 24, 
103 

Antarctic, 43, 44, 215, 257, 267; ex- 
peditions, 93 

Antarctica, 42, 44, 82, 92, 93, 94, 267 

Antilles, 39, 40, 152, 218, 255 

Apia, 6, 48, 96 

Apennines, 70 

Appalachians, 85 

Arabia, 77, 81, 93, 266 

Arctic, 72, 74, 94, 207, 260; belt, 72, 
74, 207 

Arcuate structures, 28, 29, 57, 63, 64, 
67, 98, 103, 104; orientation, 99 

Argentina, 42, 256, 257 
Artificial explosions, 21, 84, 86 
Asia, 64, 67, 72, 85; Central, 66, 72; 
Minor, 68, 69, 192, 246, 265; North- 
eastern, 85, 209; structural lines, 
67 

Asiatic active zone, 64, 67, 72 
Atlantic, 24, 26, 72, 74, 7$ 94* 97 
196, 265; belt, 77, 196; -Indian 
swell, 77; Ridge, 74, 77, 100; 
structure, 26 

Australia, 82, 83, 84, 87, 93, 94* 206 
Azores, 71, 72, 194, $6$ 

Baffin Bay, 81, 209 
Balkans, 68, 192, 246 
Baltic shield, 91 
Baluchistan, 67, 97, 2 4, 20 



Batavia, 7 

Bering Sea, 85, 209 

Berkeley, 7, 34 

Bismarck Islands, 50 

Block faulting, 32, 98 

Blocks, 89, 98, 103 

Borneo, 62, 82, 93 

Bouvet Island, 77 

Brazil, 81, 91 

Brazilian shield, 81, 91, 204 

British Columbia, 32, 144 

Bureau Central, 7 

Burma arc, 64, 186, 245, 264 

Byrd expedition, 93 

Caledonian folding, 87 
California, 18, 24, 32, 35, 88, 96, 99, 

145, 254 

Canada, 81, 204; stations, 7, 81 
Canadian shield, 81, 91 
Caribbean region, 37, 97, 152, 218, 

255 

Carlsberg Ridge, 77, 100 
Caroline Islands, 51, 90, 91, 169, 233 
Carpathians, 70, 252 
Cataloguing, 3, 4, 16 
Caucasus, 68 

Celebes, 60, 62, 180, 241, 262 
Central America, 37, 38, 151, 218, 

254, 255; Asia, 66 
Chile, 41, 42, 96, 256, 257 
'China, 72, 73, 82, 93, 186, 188, 245, 

246 

China Sea, 93, 264 
Circum-Pacific belt, 22, 24, 30, 53, 

57, 60, 103 

Class a shocks, 10, 16, 119, 133, 140 
Class b shocks, 10, 16, 122, 133, 140 
Classes of shocks, 10, 16 
Coast Ranges, California, 33, 99 
Compression and dilatation, 99 
Continental displacement, 99; 

shields, 27, 91, 92; spreading, 99; 

structure, 26, 27, 74, 84, 89 
Contours, submarine, 8 
C6rdoba, 6, 40 
Core, 25 
Creep, 101 
Crimea, 68 
Crustal structure, 8, 26, 27, 33, 47, 

tea. fifi. >7. T4.<fti. HA. 86. ft*, ftol W 



Cuba, 39 
Cyprus, 68, 70 

Daily period, 25 

De Bilt, 7 

Deep- focus earthquakes, 4, 9, 10, 15, 

16, 17, 22, 23, 29, 48, 49, 54, 55, 57, 

64, 89, 92, 99, 101, 140, 216; large, 

140; mechanism, 101 
Depth of shocks, 4, 9, 27, 84, 86 
Dip-slip faulting, 33, 66 
Displacement, fault, 32, 33, 46, 53, 

58, 62, 66, 68, 73, 82; persistent or 

reversed, 100 

East Indies, 62, 97 

Easter Island Ridge, 27, 43, 44, 210 



Energy, xo, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 
Epicenters, 4, 9 
Eurasian stable mass, 91 
Europe, 3, 68, 71, 85, 86, 87, 91, 204 
Expeditions, 77, 93 

Faulting, 27, 32, 33, 46, 58, 62, 66, 
68, 73, 82, 85, 88, 89, 94, 98, 99, 
10 1; persistence, 100 

Fault formation delay, 58 

Figures, 11, 13 

Fiji, 48, 162, 228 

Finland, 87 

Flores Sea, 62, 63 

Foredeeps, 26, 28, 64, 66, 98 

Formosa, 57, 59, 117, 239 

Fossa Magna, 53, 57 

Fracturing, 80, 98, 

France, 87 

Frequency of shocks, 16 

Galapagos Islands, 43, 267 

Ganges depression, 66 

Geography of shocks, 28 

German stations, 6 

Geocentric latitude, 4 

Gottingen, 6 

"Granitic" layer, 27, 33, 68, 73, 81, 

84,- 86, 89 
Gravity anomalies, 29, 34, 39, 4> 4 8 > 

50, 5L 53 54' 57- 6 * %' 6 4> 66 68 ' 

70, 71, 73> 79' ^4 i 
Great Britain, 87, 98 
Great shocks^ 20. io 



272 

Greenland, 81 
Guam, 51 

Halmahera, 51, 60, 61, 262 

Hawaiian Islands, 79, 95, 206, 267 

Himalayan arc, 65 

Hindu Rush, 24, 66, 214, 249 

Honolulu, 79 

Huancayo, 7, 16, 27, 40 

Iceland, 74, 266 

Index maps, 12, 13 

India, 66, 78, 93; earthquake of 1897, 
19, 66, 82; stations, 7 

Indian Ocean, 24, 26, 63, 74, 77, 78, 
94, 97, 100, 200, 264, 267; Ant- 
arctic Swell, 43, 77, 78, 212 

Indus Valley, 67 

Instruments, 4, 6, 9, 18, 88 

Intensity, 9 

Intermediate shocks, 4, 10, 15, 16, 
17, 22, 23, 27, 54* 69, 70, 74, 90, 
92, 133, 216; and volcanoes, 100; 
large, 133 

Internal. Seismol. Summary, 3, 4, 
6, 16, 86, 90, 91, 93 

Iran, 67, 190, 246 

Isostasy, 84, 101 

Italy, 70, 86, 265; stations, 6 

Japan, 3, 24, 29, 53, 55, 56, 96, 97, 
171, 236, 259, 261; Sea, 57; sta- 
tions, 6, 7, 53 

Java, 63, 263; Sea, 63 

Jena, 6 

Jesuit Seismol. Assoc., 7 

Kamchatka, 56, 57, 97, 100, 171, 236, 

261 

Kansu, 73, 188, 246 
Kermadec, 24, 47, 160, 225, 258 
Kiushiu, 55, 57, 261 
Korea, 98, 262 
Krakatoa, 21, 94, 97, 264 
Kurile Islands, 56, 57, 260 

Lake Mead, 98 

Largest shocks, 20, 103 

La Paz, 6 

Latin America, stations, 7 

Levant, 68, 192, 246, 265,* Riesen- 

beben, 69, 70 

Lisbon earthquake, 19, 71, 97 
Location of earthquakes, 3, 4, 9 
Luzon, 58, 59 

Mackenzie River, 81 

Macquarie Islands, 43 

Macroseismic data, 3, 8, 9 

Madagascar, 81 

Magnitude, 6, 9, 10, 11, 18, 51; scale, 

9, 10 
Manchuria, 28, 55, 56, 57, 73, 85, 

247 267 
Manila, 7 
Mantle, 25 



INDEX 

Maps, 3, 11, 13, 29 
Mareograms, 95, 96, 97 
Marginal seismicity, 80, 82, 85 
Marianas Islands, 24, 51, 169, 233, 

259, 267 

Marshall line, 26, 47, 51, 90 
Maximum earthquake, 19 
Mechanism, 97 
Mediterranean, 16, 69, 70, 192, 194, 

246, 247, 265; belt, 70 
Mexico, 6, 36, 85, 96, 148, 149, 216, 

254 

Mindanao, 58 
Minimum earthquake, 18 
Minor earthquakes, 3, 19, 20, 88; 

seismic areas, 82 
MohoroviSic discontinuity, 26, 34, 

47> 53> 68* 73* 81, 84, 86, 89 
Moduccas, 60, 61, 262 
Mongolia, 189 
Montana, 35, 85 
Mountains, roots, 27, 34, 89 

Nevada, 34, 35 

New Britain, 50, 164, 231, 258 
New Guinea, 50, 62, 96, 167, 232, 259 
New Hebrides, 16, 24, 48, 96, 162, 

229, 258 
New Zealand, 18, 43, 45, 89, 96, 100, 

159, 225, 257; stations, 7 
Newfoundland, 81, 97 
Nordenskjold Sea, 74 
North America, 30-40, 84, 204, 216, 

253; stations, 6, 84; Polar region, 

74, 94; Sea, 87 
Norway, 87 

Number of earthquakes, 28 
Numbered regions, 12, 28 

Oceanic belts, 74; ridges, 74, 99, 100; 
troughs, 28, 30, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 
48, 50, 51, 54, 57, 58, 60, 63, 99, 100 

Origin time, 4, 9 

Orogens, 98 

Osaka, 6, 53 

Pacific, southeastern, 27, 41, 43, 44, 
94, 210, 211, 257; arcs, 27, 28, 36, 
40, 42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 58, 90; basin, 
26, 89, 90, 98, 206; belt, 22, 24, 30, 
53, 57, 60, 103; boundary, 26, 47, 
90; structure, 26; outlying areas, 

*7 94 

Palestine, 79, 81 
Pamir, 72, 214, 249 
Panama, 39, 43, 255 
Peridotites, 62, 98 
Periodicities, 21, 24, 25 
Peru, 40, 256 
Philippine Deep, 59, 60; Fault, 58; 

Sea, 57, 94 

Philippines, 58, 59, 96, 178, 240, 262 
Pilar, 6, 40 
Plastic fiow, 101 
Portugal, 87 



Profile, Pacific arc, 29 
Pyrenees, 86 

Quality of locations, 11 

Red Sea, 79, 81 

Reflected waves, 26, 27 

Rhine structures, 86, 87 

Ridges, oceanic, 74, 99, 100 

Rifts, 33, 46, 58, 67, 73, 79, 80, 100 

Riverview, 6 

Riu-kiu Islands, 57, 176, 239, 261 

Rocky Mountains, 84, 204 

Ronne Expedition, 93 

Rumania, 28, 70, 252 

Russian stations, 7, 66, 72, 91 

"Safety Valve," 20, 101 

St. Lawrence rift, 79, 80, 81 

St. Louis, 7 

Samoa, 47, 48, 258 

San Andreas fault, 33, 34, 35, 36, 88, 

89 99 

Scandinavia, 87 

Schwabische Alb, 86 

Scott Expedition, 93 

Sea of Okhotsk, 57, 247 

Seaquakes, 43, 72, 77, 94 

Secular changes, 97, 98 

Seiches, 94 

Seismic sea waves, 94 

SeismoL Soc. Amer., 8 

Serial numbers, 28 

Serpentinite intrusions, 39 

Shallow shocks, 4, 10, 14, 17, 22, 23, 
27, 90, 92, 119, 142; large, 119, 122 

Shields, 27, 92 

Siberia, 85, 209 

Sicily, 70, 265 

Sierra fault, 33, 36 

Sierra Nevada, California, 33, 34, 36 

Socotra, 77 

Solomon Islands, 50, 96, 164, 231, 
258 

Somaliland, 94 

South America, 24, 40, 96, 155, 157, 
219, 225, 256; stations, 7; Sand- 
wich Islands, 42, 77, 257 

Southeastern Pacific, 27, 41, 43, 44, 
94, 210, 211, 257 

Southern Antilles, 76, 158, 225, 257; 
hemisphere, 24, 101 

Spain, 71, 86 

Stable masses, 27, 80, 89, 92 

Stations, 4, 5, 6, 7; bulletins, 4 

Statistics, 16 

Strain, 19, 20, 99 

Strasbourg, 7, 8 

Strength, 26, 101 

Stresses, 98, 99, 101 

Strike-slip faulting, 33, 40, 46, 58, 
62, 66, 67, 68, 73, 99 

Structure of earth, 25 

Subcrustal movements, 99 

Submarine slides, 95 

Sumatra, 63, 65, 264 



Summary, 103 

Sunda arc, 62, 183, 242, 263 

Sunspot period, 25 

Surface waves, 26, 50, 74, 95 

Swarms of shocks, 87, 98, 100 

Switzerland, stations, 7 

Szechuan, 73, 186, 245 

Tacubaya, 6 
Tahiti, 90 
Tananarive, 77, 79 
Tectonic processes, 98 
Texas, 35, 85 
"Tidal" waves, 94 
Tiflis, 6 
Time data, 6 



INDEX 

Times used, 3 

Tonga Salient, 24, 47, 49, 96, 160, 

225, 258 

Torsion seismometer, 9, 18 
Transasiatic belt, 22, 64 
Travel times, 4 
Tucson, 7 
Tsunamis, 94, 95 

U.S.S.R. stations, 66, 72, 91; bulle- 
tins, 7 

United States, 35, 84; Coast and 
Geod. Survey, 7 

Uplift, fault, 32; post-glacial, 87, 
98, 101 

Upsala, 6 



273 



Ural mountains, 91, 190 
Utah, 35, 85 



Velocity of seismic waves, 26; tsuna- 
mis, 95 

Venezuela, 39, 256 

Viscosity, 101 

Volcanic shocks, 100 

Volcanism, 80; and intermediate 
shocks, 100 

Volcanoes, 8, 29, 30, 33, 39, 42, 50, 
53> 57> &>, 69, 70, 71, 79, 80, 253 

West Indies, 39, 152, 218, 255 
Zurich, 7 



1 28 546