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H.R.H. THE PRINCE PHILIP opens the Newton Driver Services Club, 
Rustington, Sussex, 24 April 1949 








Oxford University Press , Amen House * London E.C.4 




Oxford University Press 1957 





With the approval ofH.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh, 
the fifty speeches in this volume have been chosen for 
their diversity of subject and occasion. Except for an 
occasional modification, and the omission of a few 
opening and closing sentences, the speeches are here 
printed as they were originally delivered 


1. 8 JUNE 1948. Visit to Guildhall and Mansion House. 

On receiving The Freedom of the City of London i 

2. i MARCH 1949. Visit to Edinburgh. On receiving The 
Freedom of the City of Edinburgh 3 

3. 28 APRIL 1949. Visit to University College, Bangor. 

On installation as Chancellor of the University of Wales 5 

4. 8 AUGUST 1951. Visit to Edinburgh. Presidential 
Address to the British Association ^ 

5. 13 OCTOBER 1951. Visit to Canada 27 

6. 5 MAY 1952. First Meeting of Coronation Commission 30 

7. 1 1 JUNE 1952. Opening of Braille Centenary Ex- 
hibition 32 

8. 13 OCTOBER 1952. Opening of Affric Hydro-Electric 
Scheme at Fasnakyk Power Station 35 

9. 15 OCTOBER 1952. Unveiling of Extension to Naval 
War Memorial, Chatham 37 

10. 15 OCTOBER 1952. Ramsay Centenary Dinner 38 

n. 20 OCTOBER 1952. Opening of 'The Model En- 
gineer 9 Exhibition 44 

12. 21 OCTOBER 1952. Opening of Extension to Municipal 
College, Portsmouth 46 

13. 5 NOVEMBER 1952. London Master Builders 9 Associa- 
tion. Address to Students 47 


14. 13 NOVEMBER 1952. Opening of Mew Engineering 
Laboratory, Cambridge University 49 

15. 21 NOVEMBER 1952. Visit to Military College of 
Science, Shrivenham 51 

16. 25 NOVEMBER 1952. Radio Industry Council Annual 
Dinner 54 

17. 1 8 FEBRUARY 1953. Land Agents' Society Jubilee 
Dinner 57 

18. 25 FEBRUARY 1953. Admission to the Freedom of 'the 
Mercers' Company 59 

19. 14 APRIL 1953. Presentation of Prizes to Cadets on 
board H.M.S. Devonshire 60 

20. 27 APRIL 1953. Opening of Imperial Cricket Memorial 62 

21. 8 MAY 1953. Opening of Royal Yachts Exhibition, 
Royal Observatory 63 

22. 22 JUNE 1953. Unveiling of Memorial Roll of Honour 
ofL.C.C. Staff 64 

23. 24 JULY 1953. Annual Dinner of the Chartered Insur- 
ance Institute 65 

24. 28 JULY 1953. Passing-out Parade at R.A.F. College, 
Cranwell 67 

25. 15 OCTOBER 1953. Annual Luncheon of National 
Union of Manufacturers 70 

26. 23 OCTOBER 1953. 1953 Alamein Reunion 73 

27. 4 NOVEMBER 1953. Visit to Edinburgh University. 
Installation as Chancellor 74 


28. 13 JANUARY 1954. Commonwealth Tour. Address to 
New Zealand Scientists 82 

29. 20 JANUARY 1954. Commonwealth Tour. Address at 
Canterbury Chamber of Commerce Luncheon, Christchurch 9 
New Zealand 88 

30. 1 6 FEBRUARY 1954- Commonwealth Tour. Opening of 
University House, Canberra 93 

31. 20 APRIL 1954. Commonwealth Tour. Opening of 
University of Ceylon 94 

32. 8 JUNE 1954. English-Speaking Union Dinner to 
General Gruenther 97 

33- 30 JUNE 1954. Visit to Staff College, Camberley 99 

34. 10 AUGUST 1954. Visit to Canada. Broadcast from 
Tellowknife 102 

35. 1 2 OCTOBER 1 954. Visit to Edinburgh. Address to the 
Speculative Society 105 

36. i DECEMBER 1954. Visit to Cardiff. On receiving 

The Freedom of City and County Borough of Cardiff 107 

37. 1 6 DECEMBER 1954. British Commonwealth and 
Empire Lecture to the Royal Aeronautical Society 109 

38. 15 FEBRUARY 1955. Visit to Glasgow. On receiving 

The Freedom of The City of Glasgow 126 

39. 20 MARCH 1955. Visit to the Mediterranean. Broadcast 

to the Fleet at Malta 128 

40. 12 MAY 1955. Visit to 'Windyridge* Approved Proba- 
tion Farm Home 131 

41. 20 JUNE 1955. Dinner with the Royal College of 
Surgeons, Edinburgh 132 


42. 3 JUNE 1955. At Outward Bound School 135 

43. 8 JULY 1955. Royal College of Art Convocation 138 

44. 13 JULY 1955. Opening of New Mycological Institute, 
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux 141 

45. 1 6 JULY 1955. Visit to the Gordon Boys' School at 
Woking. Presentation of New Colours 143 

46. 20 JULY 1955. Conference of European University 
Rectors and Vice-Chancellors, Cambridge 144 

47. 28 JULY 1955. Sovereign's Parade, Royal Military 
Academy, Sandhurst 149 

48. 26 OCTOBER 1955. Presentation of Awards at the 
Royal Society of Arts 1 5 1 

49. 21 NOVEMBER 1955. British Olympic Association 
Banquet 153 

50. 30 NOVEMBER 1955. Festival Dinner of Royal 
Scottish Corporation 155 

Visit to Guildhall and Mansion House 
8 JUNE 1948 

On receiving The Freedom of the City of London 

My Lord Mayor, 

I thank you for the great honour you have done me in pre- 
senting me with the Freedom of the City of London. I am well 
aware that it is your most precious gift, and it makes me very 
proud to be invited to join the great company of past and present 

Since the last war you have taken the opportunity of honour- 
ing those men who were principally responsible for the Allied 
Victory. All of them were great leaders of men, whether in 
Parliament, in civil life, or in the field of battle. But, my Lord 
Mayor, in every kind of human activity there are those who lead, 
and there are those who follow. You have honoured the leaders. 
Now, if you will allow me, I would like to accept the Freedom 
of this City, not only for myself, but for all those millions who 
followed during the Second World War. Our only distinction is 
that we did what we were told to do, to the very best of our 
ability, and kept on doing it. 

The Chamberlain referred just now, in rather flattering terms, 
to my war record. The point I want to emphasize is something 
you all know. I want to emphasize that there are hundreds upon 
thousands like it, and taken together they represent the en- 
deavours of the followers during the last great war, and so the 
greater part of our war effort. 

Good leaders undoubtedly got the best out of us and without 
their leadership our efforts would have been fruitless. However, 

these leaders will not always be with us, and the time will come 
when members of our generation will have to take their place. 

In peace, as in war, the followers have a great contribution to 
make to their country and to the cause of peace in the world 
generally. The ideal that my wife and I have set before us is to 
make the utmost use of the special opportunities we have to try 
to bring home to our own generation the full importance of that 
contribution and the effort, both at work and at play, that is 
required of us. 

Only the other day we had one of those special opportunities, 
and a very happy experience it proved to be. Not three weeks 
ago, we visited the capital city of our old friends and neighbours, 
the French. Wherever we went we were given an extremely 
cordial and kindly reception. Part of that welcome may have 
been for us personally, at any rate we like to think so, but we 
are both convinced that the crowds who greeted us were ex- 
pressing, through us, their friendship for our countrymen. 
Those waves and cheers were the spontaneous expressions of 
the goodwill felt by the people of France for the people of this 
country. If through us they have been able to see you, we are 
well satisfied. 

Visit to Edinburgh 

I MARCH 1949 

On receiving The Freedom of the 
City of Edinburgh 

It is almost two years since I last set foot in this Hall. A great 
deal has happened in the world since then, but I doubt whether 
there are many people who have been as fortunate as I. 

First of all ; I had the extreme good fortune to get married 
and I would like to take this opportunity, on behalf of my wife 
and myself, to thank you, my Lord Provost, and the citizens of 
Edinburgh for the magnificent wedding present of the Service 
of Glass which you so kindly gave us. 

Then, last November, our son was born, and now I hope it 
will not be long before we have a home of our own in London. 
In addition to these domestic blessings, I have been greatly 
honoured by being allowed to use the name of Edinburgh as 
my title. Finally, you have today made me very proud and 
given me much pleasure by inviting me to become a Burgess 
of your city. 

This ceremony is really a climax, not only of the events of 
the last two years, but also of the numberless benefits which 
Scotland has bestowed on me. Three years at school in Moray- 
shire, apart from providing me with the necessary book- 
learning, laid the foundations of what I am sure will prove to 
be a deep and abiding love for this country and her people. 

My earliest instruction in the art of seamanship was received 
at the hands of a Scottish trawler skipper, and in the process I 
discovered the east and west coasts, as well as that unique piece 
of water, the Pentland Firth. All this stood me in good stead 
during the years of the war. 

More recently I have had the opportunity of wandering over 
the hills and also of doing some fishing. These pursuits, with the 
moments of solitude and reflection which they give, are in- 
valuable to any man who is trying to keep a balanced outlook 
in the midst of the furious activity of modern life. 

I could continue the list of benefits indefinitely, but I think 
this is an appropriate moment to be a bit more topical. I would 
like to discharge a debt of gratitude to the citizens of Edinburgh 
for your hospitality to myself and thousands of other servicemen 
who managed to get here for a few hours' relaxation during 
the war. 

I was based at Rosyth for nearly two years and I know that 
whenever we had the chance we used to jump into the train at 
Inverkeithing and come here. I know we were a dreadful 
nuisance and frequently misbehaved, but as a result of your 
forbearance we all have a very tender spot for the 'Burg', as we 
sometimes used to call it. 

You in this city did a great deal for servicemen, not because 
you had to, but because you knew it would be kind and right. 
There are in this world hundreds of things which are right but 
which cannot be legislated for things which will never be done 
unless someone is prepared to do them for no reward except 
possibly a clear conscience. 

Once upon a time it was a relatively easy matter to clear one's 
conscience by contributing money to various charities and 
organizations which set out to do the right thing. This method 
is not so easy now and yet there is just as much to do. It will be 
fatal for us if we ever come to think that merely by passing laws 
we can get out of our responsibilities towards our fellow men. 

As an example of what can be done there is the case of the 
Ladywell playing field at Maybole in Ayrshire, which was laid 
out, levelled, and turfed almost entirely by voluntary labour, 
and then, not content, they built a grandstand and changing- 

In the case of Sighthill, here in Edinburgh, the residents got 
together and made themselves a bowling-green. Their com- 

pleted scheme will include a putting-course and a pavilion. 
To achieve this, craftsmen gave their services and others helped 
with their hands. In both these cases unselfish service was freely 
given, and I refuse to believe that the glow in the hearts of those 
who took part is not the brighter for what they have done. 


Visit to Wales 
(University College, Bangor) 

28 APRIL 1949 

Address on Installation as Chancellor of the 
University of Wales 

We all know what a great part this University is playing in the 
life and hopes of the Welsh people today. For this we are deeply 
indebted to those who, by their foresight and persistence, 
founded the several colleges of the University in different parts 
of Wales. 

My generation, although reasonably well-schooled, is prob- 
ably the worst educated of this age. The war cut short any 
chance there was of acquiring a higher education. The im- 
mense strain upon the resources of all universities at the present 
moment is largely due to this lost generation trying to make up 
for what it missed between 1939 and 1945. 

However, the universities have more to offer than simply the 
benefit of a higher education. The ties and friendships made 

and the community life shared are of vital importance to gradu- 
ates in the ordinary business of living in the outside world. 

Never before has the value of the universities been more 
highly appreciated, not merely for the twin opportunities they 
give to their students, but also for their preservation of all that 
is best in the national traditions and culture of Western Europe. 

Today, as many times before, the Fellowship of the Univer- 
sities is doing a noble service to humanity; it has undertaken the 
great and increasing responsibility of providing the cradle for 
the mature thought of the future. I am both honoured and 
proud to be associated with this your work, and I shall watch 
your progress and prosperity with great interest. 

It gives me particular pleasure, therefore, to help you to do 
honour to men and women who, by their work and leadership, 
have won distinction in the State, in the Church, and in pure 

I cannot conclude without mentioning two things. First, I 
would like to say how much pleasure it gave me when the King 
bestowed the Earldom of Merioneth upon me, and secondly, to 
greet you all with your own motto, 'Cymru am byth 5 . 

Visit to Edinburgh 

8 AUGUST 1951 

Presidential Address at the Inaugural General 
Meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science 

To mark the opening of this year's meeting, His Majesty the 
King has been graciously pleased to send the following message : 

I shall be glad if you will express to the members of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science my appreciation of 
their having once more honoured a member of my family by inviting 
him to be their President. 

I trust that this year's meeting of the Association will further the 
development of Science for the benefit of mankind throughout the 
world, and prove an encouragement to all those men and women 
who are so devotedly working for that end. 

On your behalf I propose to reply in these words : 

The Members of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science assembled at Edinburgh send Your Majesty their humble 
duty and their loyal thanks for Your Majesty's Patronage of the 
Association and your gracious message of encouragement. 

I am to assure Your Majesty that the development of Science for 
the well-being of Your Majesty's Realm and for the general welfare 
of mankind is the constant object of the Association. 

We will strive with all humility and with the grace of God to 
apply the blessings of scientific and technological improvement to 
the problems which face us all today. 

In Aberdeen in 1859 my great-great-grandfather started his 
address to the British Association with these words : 

Your kind invitation to me to undertake the Office of your 
President for the ensuing year could not but startle me on its first 

announcement. The high position which Science occupies, the vast 
number of distinguished men who labour in her sacred cause, and 
whose achievements, while spreading innumerable benefits, justly 
attract the admiration of mankind, contrasted strongly in my mind 
with the consciousness of my own insignificance in this respect. 

I cannot improve on this to express my own feelings, but, 
like him, I reflected upon your invitation and came to the con- 
clusion that it is just as an outsider, a layman so to speak, that I 
can be useful to you and to science. This very invitation seems 
to me to demonstrate that science is not a magic circle and that 
you wish us to enter your confidence. In return the least I can 
do is to show our appreciation of the work of scientists and to 
give you a layman's impression of the march of science in the 
last hundred years. I crave your indulgence if I have drawn any 
false conclusions and I hope that during the meetings which 
will follow this one, the experts will take the opportunity to 
make any corrections. 

The Prince Consort had very much less reason to be modest 
about addressing you than I have, because this year we cele- 
brate the anniversary of the Exhibition which was his greatest 
achievement, and an event which had an untold value to 
science. Let us hope that this year's Festival will be judged a 
worthy successor and an inspiration for the future. I am proud 
to pay tribute to this man who saw so clearly the part science 
was destined to play in the future of this country, and my ad- 
dress to you tonight is largely the story of the fulfilment of his 

The Starting-point 

In a review of British science and technology 1851 is a con- 
venient starting-point for two reasons. Firstly, the Exhibition 
of that year can be regarded as a gigantic stocktaking of the 
national resources and technical skill. Secondly, because it 
marked the end of the Industrial Revolution and the conversion 
of Victorian England to the policy of industrial expansion on 
which our future still depends. The period as a whole saw the 


climax of our industrial supremacy and its inevitable decline 
when countries with greater resources and population learned 
from us the lessons of the mechanization of industry. It also 
covers the birth and growth of the new concepts of modern 

Social conditions of a hundred years ago were, generally 
speaking, the outcome of the Industrial Revolution, but with 
all the traditions of the England of agriculture, cottage industry^ 
and small market towns. The population of twenty millions was 
growing fast but still small compared to our fifty millions of 
today. Education was limited to a minority and was almost en- 
tirely classical, so the new profession of engineering had to draw 
its recruits from a different sphere, that of self-educated men. A 
new wealthy class was growing up in the commercial world to 
rival the old aristocracy. There was unbounded optimism about 
the future and ample scope in commerce and industry to attract 
all intelligent and enterprising men. The number of poor was 
on the increase and their conditions were deteriorating because, 
as yet, no social conscience had grown up to replace the patri- 
archal responsibility of the landowners and master craftsmen. 

In the domestic field, lighting was by candle and oil lamps, 
cooking and heating by coal or wood in ranges or open fires 
with the consequent enormous waste of energy. Food had to be 
fresh or crudely preserved, and thus needed to be produced 
locally. In health and hygiene the figures speak for themselves. 
In 1851 the infant death-rate was 150 per 1,000 living births 
compared with 25 per 1,000 today. Anaesthetics, antiseptic 
surgery, biochemistry, tropical medicine were all virtually un- 
known or in their infancy. Psychology had not yet achieved 
independence from philosophy on the one hand and physiology 
on the other. 

This was the age of the practical engineer and of processes 
arrived at by intuition born of experience and by trial and 
error. Technology was concerned with the application of steam 
power, with metallurgy and the working of metals for various 
purposes, and with the production of machine tools and precision 

machinery. Men were already turning their minds to other 
types of engines and the internal-combustion engine was in the 
process of development. 

Scientists, while continuing their search for the secrets of 
nature, were beginning to turn their attention to exploring the 
empirical developments of industry. Their numbers as yet were 
small, the endowments for research were negligible and much 
of their work was carried out in the watertight compartments of 
the different sciences. But the seed had been sown and it was 
not long before scientists and engineers were preparing the way 
for the great technological harvest of the twentieth century. 

The Conditions 

The changes brought about in the lives of men and women 
in the last hundred years have been greater and more rapid 
than during any other period in history, and these changes have 
been almost entirely due to the work of scientists and technolo- 
gists all over the world. They have not only affected the way of 
living of all civilized peoples but have also vastly increased our 
knowledge about ourselves, the earth we live on, and the uni- 
verse around us. I cannot emphasize too much that the sum 
total of scientific knowledge and technological progress is an 
international achievement to which every civilized country has 
made some contribution. 

And now before considering the contribution of the British 
Commonwealth, I should like to sketch what appear to a lay- 
man like myself to have been the main influences on the course 
of scientific and technical achievement since 1851 and their 
relation to one another. 

The great stimulus of the 1851 Exhibition created a growing 
interest in technical education and research, followed by a 
widening of the scientific horizon which was soon to find expres- 
sion in borderline subjects. For the next fifty years science 
advanced rapidly, but in most fields there was a wide gap 
between science and industry. Electricity was an exception and 
the groundwork was already being laid for the electrical revolu- 


tion of the Victorian age. Medicine was on the verge of breaking 
away from medieval practice and taking the first steps towards 
its modern pattern, while British colonial development stimu- 
lated the study of tropical disease. 

Between 1851 and 1870 practice, in many industries, was 
ahead of science, and in that period the large number of inven- 
tions of the industrial revolution were progressively improved 
and widely applied. These inventions, which added so much to 
our industrial production, were mainly the work of British 
genius. They were of great economic advantage to this country 
and were quickly exploited commercially. New factories and 
plants were built to include the very latest ideas, and with the 
expansion of industry came the demand for more and more new 
ideas and greater efficiency. This demand was a direct stimulus 
to technological invention as well as an indirect stimulus to 
science. We are still struggling with the social results of this vast 

From 1870 to 1890 the high- water mark of British industrial 
expansion, as compared with other countries, had been reached 
and the competition of the United States and Europe was just 
beginning to be felt. But the lack of serious competition hitherto 
had bred a feeling of over-confidence and satisfaction in the 
methods and processes employed. The result was a conservative 
attitude towards technical change and, particularly in the older 
industries, neglect of scientific research. Accumulation of wealth 
and the income from foreign investments in any case made the 
country as a whole less dependent on the efficiency of her in- 
dustries. Concurrently a subtle change occurred in the type of 
British exports. So far the products of our machinery, such as 
rails and rolling-stock, had been shipped abroad for immediate 
use, but now machines themselves were exported to do their 
work in the factories of Europe and America instead of in 
Britain. The result of this was to intensify foreign industrial 
competition between 1890 and 1914, but with the increasing 
demands from the Colonies the volume of British exports was 
not greatly affected. 


Then came the critical years of the First World War bringing 
a realization of the part science must play in the industrial and 
military strength of the nation. For the first time in history a 
real attempt was made to enlist the services of science in the 
war effort and the Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research was founded to further the application of science in 
industry through government laboratories and research asso- 

The effects of these measures appeared clearly in the inter- 
war years when there was a marked swing of education from 
classics towards science. Coupled with this the war had directed 
the attention of many research scientists to practical objectives 
so that after the war there was a rapid expansion of industrial 
research. Scientific progress was no longer confined to the work 
of a few brilliant individuals, but came also from teams of 
research scientists each working on different parts of the same 
problem. It was during this period that many new commercial 
research laboratories grew up, employing scientists to discover 
new processes and materials connected with their industry as a 
direct weapon of competition. 

The war had also shown a great weakness in our dependence 
on foreign production for many vital articles, such as dyestuffs, 
scientific instruments, and optical glass, in the manufacture of 
which scientific research played an essential part. This weakness 
was remedied with the help of the Key Industry Import Duties 
which gave the necessary support and encouragement to the 
establishment of these industries at home. 

It is true that manufacturers in some of the older industries 
still clung to traditional methods in spite of the pressure of com- 
petition from America and other countries. And in this con- 
nexion it is significant that the history of production engineering 
after 1890 is almost entirely confined to the United States. 

It was, however, a period of rapid development in Britain. 
The invention of the internal-combustion engine and the pneu- 
matic tire had opened new branches of industrial engineering, 
and the demand for fuel for motor-cars and aircraft gave birth 


to the new technology of oil. In the electrical, chemical, and 
aircraft industries, science was fully enlisted in the fields of 
electronics, synthetic fibres, plastics, aerodynamics, and light 
alloys. Consequently the outbreak of war in 1939 found us in a 
much stronger position to meet the immense demands it made 
on all branches of technology for new gadgets, machines, and 
weapons. From the outset science in all its forms and branches 
was harnessed and completely co-ordinated with the war effort. 
It was only the intimate partnership of science and engineer- 
ing with the staffs of the Fighting Services that enabled us to 
meet swiftly and effectively the ever-changing menace of total 

The tremendous demands on our industries had some good 
after-effects. Once again these demands revealed weaknesses 
where our industrial capacity was out of date. The realization 
of this has initiated comprehensive reconstruction on most 
modern lines. The almost complete absence of income from our 
foreign investments has forced us to rely once more on our 
capacity to make the goods the world requires. Our industry 
and productivity have shown a wonderful improvement, but 
there is still a lot more that can be done. The rate at which 
scientific knowledge is being applied in many industries is too 
small and too slow. Our physical resources have dwindled, but 
the intellectual capacity of our scientists and engineers is as 
great as ever and it is upon their ingenuity that our future 
prosperity largely depends. 

The Contribution 

I would now like to make a brief survey of the British contri- 
bution to natural knowledge and technology and pay a tribute 
to some of the great men of science of the last hundred years. 

In some branches almost the whole story can be told since 
one problem after another has been solved by British scientists. 
In others there are many blanks and gaps where the vital links 
in the chain were forged abroad. But looking at the whole vast 
field of abstract and practical science there can be no doubt 


that during this period the contribution of the British Com- 
monwealth has been of outstanding importance. 

Our knowledge of the stars, the heavens, and our place in the 
universe has increased steadily through the centuries, but since 
1851 some of the most important links were supplied by such 
men as Eddington, Jeans, and Milne in their work on mass, 
luminosity, and stellar evolution. Huggins made a great contri- 
bution with his application of spectrum analysis to astronomy, 
and Lockyer's discovery of helium in the sun had a significance 
far beyond the realms of astrophysics. 

Coming nearer to the earth, the work of Abercromby and 
Shaw on the behaviour of the earth's atmosphere in the tropo- 
sphere started the scientific study of weather and weather pre- 
diction, and Appleton's research into the ionosphere extended 
this to the upper air. 

Chemistry has fascinated man from the earliest times, and 
vast progress has been made in the last hundred years both in 
knowledge and theory. Much fresh ground was broken by 
Crookes by his work on spectra, his discovery of thallium and of 
'radiant matter' known later as cathode rays. Long after every- 
one was quite sure of the composition of the air, Rayleigh found 
another ingredient which he called argon and so started the 
hunt for other inert gases. In organic chemistry both Perkin and 
Robinson have added enormously to our knowledge of the struc- 
ture of carbon compounds, and to our power to copy natural 
products synthetically. The development of X-ray analysis by 
the two Braggs, father and son, has given us a means of finding 
the actual arrangement of the atoms in the molecule and has 
revealed the accuracy of the chemists' conclusions about the 
architecture of molecules based on their reactions with one 
another. This is a most striking example of the power of the 
theoretical and practical scientist to penetrate nature's secrets. 

Going beyond the chemist and his molecules we come to the 
physicist and the study of even smaller particles. Thomson's dis- 
covery of the nature of the electron was the first attack upon the 
integrity of the atom. Next, thanks to Rutherford's brilliant 

research and keen intuition, came the nuclear theory which 
revolutionized our ideas of matter. To prove it, he was the first 
man to succeed in the transmutation of an element. It is appro- 
priate to mention Moseley's work on the X-ray spectra of the 
elements, as it already showed such great promise, before he was 
killed at Gallipoli. 

Parallel with this activity in the physical sciences there oc- 
curred a technological revolution of even greater scope and 
variety. The Darbys of Coalbrookdale were the lineal ancestors 
of Bessemer, Thomas, and Siemens, and the whole technology 
of metals. First cheap cast iron followed by cheap steel, then 
steel from phosphatic ores, completely changed the materials 
available to engineers, shipbuilders, and architects. Scientific 
metallurgy can be said to have started when Sorby first applied 
a microscope to the surface of metals. The way was opened for 
the investigation of the metallic alloys which came in quick 
succession from developments in which Hadfield and Rosenhain 
made outstanding contributions. 

It was not long before the possibilities of these new materials 
were recognized, and the great majority of the mechanical 
developments of the period were due to new alloys which could 
withstand higher stresses. But before these materials could be 
fully used, Maudsley and Whitworth had to lay the founda- 
tions of production engineering, and Mushet had to do pioneer 
work in developing tungsten steel as the first high-speed cutting 

The reciprocating steam engine of the industrial revolution 
was the main source of power until Parsons invented the steam 
turbine, which revolutionized large-scale power production on 
land and sea. But that was not the only source of power to rival 
the push-and-pull engine. The internal-combustion engine, in 
which Dugald Clerk and Ackroyd-Stuart were among the early 
pioneers, has proved to be a formidable challenger in many 
fields. In marine engineering, Froude's work on hull forms and 
propellers enabled the full benefit of the new prime movers to 
be reaped at sea. 


Here I wish I could mention early British pioneers of motor 
vehicles but, as is well known, restrictive legislation drove the 
development of the motor-car abroad, until the repeal of the 
speed limit in 1903 gave scope to the genius of Royce, Lan- 
chester, and Ricardo. In place of the motor-car, however, we 
have Lawson to thank for the invention of the safety bicycle; 
and all wheeled vehicles, except those running on rails, owe 
their rapid development to Dunlop's invention of the pneu- 
matic tyre. The material required for this started the vast 
natural and synthetic rubber industry, and has made famous the 
name of Wickham for a brilliant feat of smuggling, when he 
brought the rubber seeds from Brazil to Kew, from which 
sprang the rubber plantation industry of the east. 

In flying, the names of the pioneers and their feats are legion, 
and more than in any other mechanical science the develop- 
ment of aerodynamics has been shared by many nations, but 
Lanchester's vortex theory was one of the stepping-stones to 
powered flight, and the achievement of Alcock and Brown in 
making the first Atlantic flight in 1919 speaks highly for the 
tremendous scientific and technological background of flying 
in this country. Of outstanding importance and consequence 
was the genius which Mitchell brought to aircraft design, and, 
more recently, Whittle's pioneer work has given us the lead in 
jet-engine production both for civil and military use. 

Following on the immense progress in metallurgy and mechan- 
ical engineering, the most far-reaching development of the 
period has been that of electricity and electronics. Although the 
key discovery belongs to Faraday in an earlier period, the second 
founder of the science is undoubtedly Clerk Maxwell, with his 
classic treatise on electro-magnetism. The use of electricity for 
domestic and industrial pui poses was helped by Wilde's de- 
velopment of the dynamo and then by Swan's incandescent 
lamps. Wheatstone and Kelvin pioneered the use of electricity 
for communication by their work on line and cable telegraphy. 
Wireless telegraph soon followed and the work on tuned circuits 
by Lodge, and Marconi's many brilliant developments made in 


this country with the General Post Office and the Navy, soon 
made radio a practical proposition. Heaviside and Appleton 
made further contributions on the propagation of radio waves. 
It is interesting to see that the technique used by Appleton in 
his pulse-ranging on the ionosphere and upper layers was later 
developed by Watson- Watt into radar which is now almost 
indispensable to airmen and seamen all over the world. And 
here Randall's development of the magnetron for high-fre- 
quency radar was one of the major contributions to the Allies' 
equipment for war. 

Television has a wide parentage, but Baird's name will always 
be linked with the first successful pictures. 

Another great innovation of this hundred years was the dis- 
covery and development of plastic and synthetic materials. 
The story starts with Parke's discovery of celluloid and Cross 
and Sevan's manufacture of viscose, which gave birth to the 
rayon industry and the many later types of synthetic fibre. 
Perkin's mauve, first of the aniline dyes, and Kipping's new sili- 
con compounds were, however, disregarded by industry in this 
country. But we see today a change of heart in the development 
in our industrial laboratories of two new plastics, perspex and 
polythene, with almost an unlimited range of applications in 
the air, on the ground, and at sea. 

The effect all this has had upon the citizen varies naturally 
with where and how he lives, but basically it has given him 
reliable light and heat in his home, push-button communica- 
tion with almost any part of the world, and home entertainment 
of a high quality. His transport on land, at sea, and in the air 
is quick, comfortable, and clean. In addition he has a vast range 
of materials with which to clothe himself and to furnish and 
embellish his home. Almost more important, these developments 
have brought about a complete change in his conditions of work. 

But if the citizen has benefited, so too has science from the great 
array of new techniques that have been invented, and the new 
tools with which the scientist and technologist can burrow, hack, 
and worry at the growing mountain of problems to be solved. 

17 c 

So far I have dealt with the physical sciences. Now I would 
like to turn briefly to the biological and psychological sides, 
which after a slow beginning in this country have made in- 
creasingly rapid progress. 

The whole field of biological science in this period is over- 
shadowed by the works of Darwin presented in his Origin of 
Species and The Descent of Man. Nothing has done so much to 
widen man's thoughts as his conception of evolution as the great 
law controlling living things, 'that progress comes from unceasing 
competition, through increasing selection and rejection 5 . 

In the basic study of living things some of the most important 
contributions from this country were the pioneer work of 
Francis Galton and William Bateson in the field of heredity, 
Sherrington's work on the integrative action of the nervous 
system, and Dale's and Adrian's contributions to our knowledge 
of the transmission of nervous impulses. 

The science of biochemistry is relatively new and Gowland 
Hopkins was its founder in this country. His discovery of the 
significance of accessory food factors, leading up to the recogni- 
tion of vitamins, started the modern science of nutrition. Other 
landmarks were Bayliss and Starling's recognition of the part 
played by hormones in the blood-stream, followed by Banting 
and Best's isolation of insulin, and Harington's synthesis of 
thyroxin here in Edinburgh. 

Fleming working on mould cultures discovered the anti- 
bacterial properties of penicillin, and later Florey and Chain, at 
Oxford, found that penicillin could be extracted in a highly 
purified form, and used it to treat human disease. 

Modern surgery can be said to have been born in Scotland 
with Simpson's discovery of the use of chloroform as an anaes- 
thetic and Lister's antiseptic technique based on Pasteur's 
bacteriological discoveries. A further advance of the greatest 
value to surgery as a science was Macewen's aseptic technique 
which made surgery clean and safe, followed by his classic work 
on the brain and spinal cord. 

If Lister was the father of modern surgery, then Manson was 


the father of tropical medicine, and it is particularly in this field 
that the British contribution has led the world. The discovery 
by Ross that malaria is carried by the anopheles mosquito and, 
much later, the work of Fairley in Australia on its prevention 
and cure have been of the greatest benefit to mankind. Bruce 
will always be remembered for his discovery of the part played 
by the deadly tsetse-fly in the transmission of sleeping-sickness 
and his work on Malta fever. Finlay, Adrian Stokes, and Hindle 
stand high among the names linked with the study and preven- 
tion of yellow fever. 

These were all vital efforts towards the prevention of sickness, 
but there is another aspect of medical practice in which the 
Commonwealth has taken a leading part the promotion of 
health. It was Sir John Simon, the first Medical Officer ap- 
pointed to a central authority, who made a careful statistical 
study of the causes of sickness, with a view to taking effective 
measures for the health of the community at large. Through his 
leadership health services have been provided in regular stages 
throughout the country. At first these were largely aimed at 
providing pure water, effective sanitation, and the abolition of 
slums ; but since the beginning of the present century the per- 
sonal health services, especially in the case of mothers, babies, 
and school children, have become national in scope and lead 
the world. 

There are two other fields in which the biological sciences 
play a major part. The first is in the preservation of food and in 
nutrition which has had the most profound economic, and social, 
effects. The ability through freezing, drying, and canning to 
import large quantities of food has enabled a rapidly increasing 
population to maintain and increase its standards of living, 
which would have been impossible had it been dependent on 
British agriculture alone. The scientific study of nutrition has 
made it possible to improve the health of the population and in 
war to feed the people with the minimum of waste. 

Mort had the first freezing works in the world at Sydney, and 
was a pioneer in refrigeration, but success in transporting meat 


to Britain had to wait for the development of more reliable 
refrigerating plant. Since 1918 the Food Investigation Labora- 
tories of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 
of which Sir William Hardy was the first director, have estab- 
lished the basic biological knowledge on which the storage and 
transport of meat, fish, and fruit arc now largely based. 

The second field is in agriculture, where in order to compete 
with cheap foreign foods the most successful farmer is one who 
enlists the full assistance of science. Lawes, who discovered how 
to make and use superphosphate, and started the great fertilizer 
industry, was quick to realize this. He founded Rothamsted, 
now the oldest agricultural research station in the world, and 
there he and Gilbert carried out the first scientifically controlled 
field experiments which laid the foundation of agricultural 
science. Later, BifTcn's pioneer work in plant breeding at Cam- 
bridge became one of the greatest contributions to the problem 
of feeding the world's growing population. He showed how it 
was possible to breed strains of wheat combining resistance to 
disease with high yields and good milling properties. In the field 
of animal breeding, the foundation of the most important aspect 
of British agriculture today, I will mention amongst the many 
investigators only Cossar Ewart and Crew who did so much to 
advance its scientific study here in Edinburgh. The mechaniza- 
tion which was to revolutionize farming in all parts of the world 
was also under way and Britain was playing a leading part. The 
reaping machine, for instance, was invented by Patrick Bell in 
1826 although it was not manufactured until 1853. 

There is no need to point out the effect which all these im- 
provements, discoveries, and inventions have had on society. 
It is this group of biological sciences which have had the most 
far-reaching social results, and it is particularly during and 
since the last war that it has been possible to exploit them. 

There is one science which I have not yet mentioned. It is 
both the youngest science and the oldest problem. The study 
of man's mind was the province of the philosopher until the 
middle of the nineteenth century, when it separated from him 


and began its independent existence as the science of psychology. 
The foundations were not laid in this country, but important 
contributions were made, both from the biological and the 
philosophical sides, by men like Ferrier, Bain, and Ward. Sully's 
work on child psychology was the first of its kind. But probably 
the most outstanding figure in this country was Galton, whose 
teaching is widely respected in all psychological laboratories, 
and who was the first to develop an interest in the mental dif- 
ferences between individuals a field in which British psychology 
has made some of its greatest contributions. Again it is only 
recently that full practical advantage is being taken of the pro- 
gress made in this branch of science, but the results of that 
application may be as important as the many more easily under- 
stood developments in the purely physical world. 

The Implications 

The story of the British contribution to science in the past 
century is indeed impressive and I am very pleased to have this 
opportunity to pay tribute to the men whose achievements I 
have been discussing. But this story would not be complete 
without studying the wider implications of their work and ex- 
amining some of the lessons to be learnt from it. 

The concrete measurement and indirect effect of all scientific 
effort is the general improvement in the condition in which 
people live and work, it is in the improvement in health, in the 
expectation of life and standards of living. The latter, including 
not only food and clothing, but housing, home comforts, medi- 
cal care, education, books and newspapers, recreations, and 
travel facilities. In every one of these directions the progress that 
has been made has amounted to a revolution. 

Not all this springs directly from science and invention. 
Much has been due to the politicians and administrators, and 
behind them to religion, morals, education, art, and the com- 
plex influences which we call culture. But even there science has 
stood beside the authors of progress to advise, to help, and some- 
times to guide. 


Now as science and technology are so vital to the future 
strength and prosperity of the British Commonwealth, the great 
problem is to discover the conditions under which they are most 
likely to flourish. The records show that both depend very much 
on co-operation, and upon the linking up of a long chain of 
discoveries, one with another; so that it is quite exceptional for 
the credit of a great advance to belong to one man or even to 
one country, although it will always require the flash of inspira- 
tion to weld the links into the chain. Today the development of 
teamwork in laboratories has made this truer than ever. For 
many reasons, but principally because of the increasing com- 
plexity of research and its cost, such teamwork is becoming 
more and more the rule. We need not repine at this but it would 
be a disaster if the individual inquirer working in his own 
laboratory were discouraged out of existence. 

While the quality of scientific work is determined by the 
quality of the scientist, the quantity of scientific output is deter- 
mined by the money available. The rapid progress of science in 
Britain has owed much to the growing support and sympathy 
of government and individual benefactors and to the endow- 
ment of research by industrial corporations. However, the basic 
discoveries that mark the great advances depend on the acci- 
dent of individual genius and are not at our command. 

The scope and intensity of the progress of applied science and 
technology, on the other hand, bear a close relationship to the 
circumstances of the time. Technology, as the combination of 
scientific knowledge with the practical ability of the inventor to 
apply that knowledge to the solution of particular problems, 
comes into play with any new discovery of scientific fact. The 
latest particle of truth is then developed, according to the cir- 
cumstances of the time for military, commercial, or medico- 
social purposes. It is a sad reflection that the urgent demands of 
modern war can produce advances that might otherwise take 
many years to develop, especially in the costly and uncertain 
experimental stages. 
The rivalry between large commercial undertakings, using 


science to improve their products or processes as a direct means 
of competition, has produced a steady flow of improvements 
and developments. However, the fruits of this form of scientific 
work are sometimes open to considerable misuse. The discover- 
ies of these commercial laboratories may be kept secret and in 
some cases a number of teams may be working on the same prob- 
lem, which may have already been solved elsewhere. The buying 
up and suppression of patents and discoveries to protect equip- 
ment from becoming obsolete has also been known to happen. 
I am glad to see, however, a change of outlook in the growing 
quantity of publication of the results of industrial research. 

It would seem that science has become so well established that 
nothing can stand in the way of its natural growth. This is far 
from the truth. Since the earliest times the natural conservatism 
of laymen has acted as a powerful brake to the adoption of 
new ideas which do not rigidly conform to his notion of the 
correct order of things. In its most violent form it will pro- 
duce unreasoning anger, utter disbelief in face of the clearest 
evidence, or provoke plain ordinary laughter. The storm raised 
by Darwin's Origin of Species is an excellent example where 
even scientists failed to keep an open mind. 

The position seems better today, and I am sure that Sir 
Harold Hartley, our immediate past President, spoke for all 
scientists when he said : 

Today, with our greater understanding, there is humility in the 
minds of all scientists. The further we penetrate into Nature's secrets 
the more clearly we see the ever-receding frontiers of knowledge. 

The resistance towards anything new or unexpected is bal- 
anced on the other hand by bursts of enthusiasm that some par- 
ticular discovery or invention will see the end of all our troubles. 
The belief in the philosopher's stone seems to be just as great 
as ever. 

As the front of pure science has advanced so its lines of 
communication to practical exploitation have got longer and 
longer. The time was when the whole process of discovery, 
application, and exploitation could be achieved by one man. 


In our time a great army of scientists, technicians, inventors, 
designers, and production engineers are required to keep the 
lines of communication open. Quite how important some of the 
members of this follow-up team have become is not always 
appreciated. In his presidential address in 1948 Sir Henry 
Tizard emphasized this point when he said : 

All depends on good design and production. Our weakness in the 
war was not to be found in what was best to do, nor in the scientific 
work of how to do it. It was when the stage of design and production 
was reached that we fell short of the best standards. 

This was true already when Whitworth invented the screw 
micrometer, which was subsequently put into production in 
Germany and the United States and up to the 1914 war all 
micrometers had to be imported into this country. 

To Professor Kipping of Nottingham goes the credit for the 
basic work which led to the development of siliconcs in Russia 
and the United States and yet until this year we have been 
dependent on imports from America of marketable silicone 

There arc many cases in the Navy where a piece of apparatus 
has been used operationally exactly as the inventor put it 
together, with all the resulting disadvantages in maintenance 
and efficient operation. The limitation in performance, except 
in some cases, is practical as opposed to scientific. Where the 
basic scientific principles are known by all nations the advan- 
tage lies in the good design of equipment for practical use. 

A more general and far-reaching matter for concein and 
possibly the most vital factor affecting the industrial application 
of scientific research is the lack of a co-ordinated system of 
scientific and technological education in this country. Excellent 
as they are, the existing institutions, which have grown up to 
meet particular circumstances, do not produce anything like 
enough trained technologists to meet the urgent needs of scien- 
tific development in industry and to provide leaders for the 
future. It is to be hoped that the new and rather uncertain 


science of education will develop sufficiently quickly to point 
the way to a speedy solution of this problem. 

The shortage in Britain of 'personnel trained and eager to 
apply scientific knowledge and scientific methods to practical 
ends' as Sir Ewart Smith said last year is only one of the 
many shortages which the world is now facing. Among them 
are food, non-ferrous metals, steel alloy metals, and sulphur. 
These very shortages are due to the scientific complexity of 
present-day life and it is only by science that they can be over- 
come. Naturally there are many ways of tackling this problem; 
but the most obvious are firstly by improved design to secure 
economy in production and the minimum use of scarce materials. 
Secondly by the development of substitutes made from raw 
materials which are still abundant. Thirdly by the reclamation 
of scrap and improved methods of using low-grade ores. Finally 
the development of renewable raw materials such as timber to 
satisfy the world demand for cellulose. Some of these shortages 
are partly due to the huge inevitable waste of war and its 
consequences, and partly to the lack of any comprehensive 
survey of the world's resources and requirements. It is only by 
an accurate knowledge of the world's resources that we can 
foresee the scope and magnitude of the future problems that 
science and technology have to meet and that only they can solve. 

It is, therefore, good news that the Economic and Social 
Council of the United Nations has resolved 'to promote the 
systematic survey and inventory' of those resources which are 
not already covered by the Food and Agriculture Organization. 

We have evolved a civilization based on the material benefits 
which science and technology can provide. The present short- 
ages are a timely reminder of the slender material foundation 
on which our civilization rests and of our dependence upon 
science and technology. 

The Conclusion 

The pursuit of truth in itself cannot produce anything evil. 
It is in the later stage when the facts dug up enter the process 


of application that the choice between the beneficent and de- 
structive development has to be made. It is quite certain that it 
is an exception if any particular discovery cannot be used 
equally well for good and evil purposes. Happily the beneficent 
exploitation of scientific knowledge has kept pace with its 
destructive application. 

In a mid-century article The Times put it this way : 

... It has been an age of great achievement. The lines of progress 
in which the Victorians trusted have been pursued farther and faster 
than they foresaw. Scientific discovery, from which above all their 
doctrines of progress derived, has swept forward on an enormous 
front. The conquest of the air has made possible an intercourse and 
understanding between distant peoples such as our ancestors could 
not imagine and it has been diverted to the vast destruction of men 
and cities. The invention of wireless telephony has opened a channel 
through which liberating truths might be proclaimed to all the 
listening earth and every would-be despot has used it to suborn 
the blind masses into the worship of false gods. The medical art has 
performed miracles; the cures of immemorial pestilences have been 
found, infancy has been safeguarded and old age tended, so that the 
normal expectation of life has been extended by years aside from 
the new and universal apprehension of sudden death. 

To my mind it is vital that the two sides of scientific develop- 
ment are fully and clearly understood, not only by the research 
scientist, inventor, designer, and the whole scientific team, but 
also by all laymen. The instrument of scientific knowledge in 
our hands is growing more powerful every day, indeed it has 
reached a point when we can cither set the world free from 
drudgery, fear, hunger, and pestilence or obliterate life itself. 

Progress in almost every form of human activity depends 
upon the continued efforts of scientists. The nation's wealth and 
prosperity are governed by the rapid application of science to 
its industries and commerce. The nation's workers depend upon 
science for the maintenance and improvement in their standard 
of health, housing, and food. Finally, superiority or even our 
ability to survive in war is a direct measure of the excellence 
and capacity of the scientific team. 


This team of research workers and engineers has a dual 
responsibility, one for its work and the other as informed 
citizens, and it can only fulfil its proper functions if its members 
have a sound general education as well as a thorough training 
in science. It is no less important that the people who control 
the scientific machine, both laymen and scientists, should have 
a proper understanding and appreciation of what science has 
grown into and its place among the great forces of the world. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, it is clearly our duty as citizens to 
see that science is used for the benefit of mankind. For, of what 
use is science if man does not survive? 

Visit to Canada 

13 OCTOBER 195 I 

Reply to Toast as Guest of Honour at Luncheon 

given by the Toronto Board of Trade at the Royal 

York Hotel, Toronto 

I have a few words here which I prepared beforehand do not 
worry, you are going to get them but before I start I just want 
to say how overwhelmed we have been by the tremendous hos- 
pitality shown to us wherever we have been in Canada these 
last few days. I cannot hope to put into words what I feel about 
it but I do want to thank everybody for making us feel so much 
at home here. 


Before leaving England I made some inquiries about com- 
merce and science in Canada. I was overwhelmed by the help- 
fulness of the High Commissioner's Office with every sort and 
kind of information. Reading the material I was struck by the 
insistence that Canada was a young country full of promise. 
Meaning no disrespect to the Canadian who wrote this, I would 
beg to differ. 

To me youth means the absence of history or background, a 
catalogue of untapped resources, and in culture and science a 
reliance upon others for original thought. But coupled with this 
statement that Canada is a young country was a series of ac- 
counts of achievements in every branch of national life which 
would make many an older country feel proud. 

Youth means inexperience and lack of judgement, and an 
inability to look after one's own affairs. I do not see how these 
descriptions can be made to fit a nation that drove a railroad 
through the Rockies, developed the prairies, and exploited the 
vast natural resources of timber, oil, and water power, and is 
steadily pushing the last frontier northward. The Chalk River 
project alone implies a considerable scientific background which 
is certainly lacking in many long-established nations. Indeed 
one does not have to look very hard for the achievements of 
Canadian scientists. At the University of Toronto here Profes- 
sors Banting and Best developed insulin which means life to 
diabetics, and at McGill University new hope for those suffering 
from certain nervous diseases is offered at the Neurological 
Institute headed by Dr. Penfield. 

But perhaps more important than the individual triumphs is 
the unique and very sensible organization of science in Canada. 
From the National and Provincial Research Councils through 
the associate committees a simple and effective pattern exists 
for getting problems to the right research worker and the right 
answer back to the people who need it. It is also quite evident 
that the work of the research laboratories, whether they deal 
with metallurgy, wood-pulp, agricultural machinery, or forestry, 
is second to none in the world. 


To my mind the most important evidence that Canada is no 
longer a young country, although, I hasten to add, still full of 
youthful energy, is the publication of the Royal Commission's 
Report on the national development in the Arts, Letters, and 
Sciences. This report is a remarkable attempt to find out exactly 
what is present and what is lacking in the national culture. It 
does not try to hide the fact that there is a great deal which is 
missing, but the fact that this report was written at all implies 
that it will not be missing for long. It is this consciousness of 
individuality and determined independence which is the hall- 
mark of a successful nation. 

In the old days this independence could only have been won 
by armed force, but here it has been accomplished by something 
far stronger and more lasting. It has been accomplished by the 
living certainty in the minds and hearts of all Canadians that 
the way of life which you have evolved is full and satisfying and 
well suited to the conditions under which you live and work. 
Above all, this has been achieved alongside the parallel develop- 
ment and the powerful influence of the friendly giant at the 
South Door. It is easy enough to withstand the influence of an 
unfriendly neighbour, but in your case both countries developed 
with the same ideals and traditions. That you have maintained 
your own identity and have not been overwhelmed by kindness 
is a remarkable achievement. 

For all this peace at home, the Armed Forces have built a 
tradition of courage and determination, not in the emotionally 
charged atmosphere of the immediate defence of their homes, 
but in unselfish service far from home for the freedom of others. 
In the British Isles the Canadian Army will always be remem- 
bered for the security they gave when invasion threatened and 
the gallantry displayed in the fighting in Italy and north 
Europe. I can speak from personal experience as I was serving 
in a destroyer off the beaches at Sicily when the Canadian 
Division landed there in 1943. 

Young men from every part of the Commonwealth, and 
indeed the world, will remember their period of training in 


Canada under the British Commonwealth Air Training plan, 
which is a monument of what we can do when we get together. 
The people of Europe have not forgotten the part played by 
Canadian airmen in bringing them freedom from tyranny. 

Naval warfare is seldom spectacular, and convoy duty is 
especially dull, but I can assure you that anti-submarine war- 
fare in the North Atlantic is not for beginners; but that was the 
cradle of the Royal Canadian Navy. 

These martial traditions, the history and culture, the scientific 
and commercial achievements, prove to me that this is a 
flourishing nation with a lot to look back on with pride, a 
present which compares very favourably with any other country, 
and a future which is a challenge to all that is best in the 
Canadian character. 


First Meeting of the Coronation Commission 
5 MAY 1952 

Statement as Chairman 

My Lords and Gentleman, 

First, as Chairman, welcome to the first meeting of the 
Coronation Commission. There is a tremendous amount of 
work to be done, so the sooner we get down to it the better. 

The Coronation of Her Majesty the Queen is to take place in 
Westminster Abbey on Tuesday, the 2nd June, 1953. 

Her Majesty has been pleased to appoint us as a Commission 
to consider those aspects both of the Coronation Service itself 
and of the attendant ceremonial which are of equal interest to 
all the member countries of the Commonwealth of which Her 
Majesty is Sovereign. 


Speaking at the Imperial Conference of 1937, which opened 
immediately after the Coronation of His Late Majesty King 
George VI, Mr. Mackenzie King said : 

Those who participated in the Coronation of the King and Queen 
must have been impressed by the blending of tradition and adapta- 
bility to new needs and new occasions which characterized that 
impressive service. It was marked by the continuing use of ritual and 
words and symbols which were ancient when the New World lands 
represented here were undiscovered and unknown, but it was marked 
also by the recognition of new political facts and constitutional 
relationships brought into being by the change and growth of the 
past generation and recorded in the Imperial Conferences of recent 

A similar Commission was set up in 1937 in preparation for 
the Coronation of His Late Majesty but its membership was 
limited to the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zea- 
land, and South Africa. The new political facts and constitu- 
tional relationships to which Mr. Mackenzie King referred are 
responsible for our present membership which has been enlarged 
by the addition of representatives of Pakistan and Ceylon, both 
of which have during recent years attained the status of equal 
and independent partners in the Commonwealth. 

I now refer to Item 2 on the Agenda. 

You will, I think, all agree that there are many problems 
which might conveniently be examined in detail in committee 
before they are brought before this Commission. I therefore 
propose that a committee should be set up by the Commission 
and that this might suitably be called, as before, the Coronation 
Joint Committee. I have already caused to be circulated to 
members of the Commission a list of those who the Commission 
will probably consider should be appointed to the Committee. 
As you will have seen, I propose that the Duke of Norfolk, as 
Earl Marshal, should be Chairman of this Coronation Joint 
Committee, and that Sir Robert Knox should be Secretary. 

The traditional authority in the United Kingdom for order- 
ing the arrangements for the Coronation is the Coronation 

Committee of the Privy Council. This has not yet been formed 
but will be set up, so I understand, during the next few weeks. 
There will also, in accordance with tradition, be a Coronation 
Executive Committee appointed by the Coronation Committee 
of the Privy Council. The United Kingdom members of the 
Coronation Joint Committee are expected to form the Corona- 
tion Executive Committee. In this way the work of the Corona- 
tion Commission and the Coronation Committee of the Privy 
Council will be co-ordinated. 

If the Commission approve these appointments then the Joint 
Committee will be able to start very soon its examination of the 
various questions which arise. 

There is one general aspect of the matter to which I should 
like to refer. I am informed that, at the last Coronation, the 
proposals of the Commission and Committees, though not by 
any means extravagant, were framed without specific regard 
to costs. Costs have mounted since 1937 and I am sure that in 
our present economic circumstances it would be the wish of the 
Commission that the Joint Committee, in framing their detailed 
recommendations, should have due regard to financial con- 


Opening of the Braille Centenary 
1 1 JUNE 1952 

Today we commemorate the death one hundred years ago of 
one of mankind's great benefactors, Louis Braille, whose in- 
vention of embossed type has given a new sense to blind people 
all over the world. This blind young Frenchman will be 
honoured next week in his native land by the re-interment of 
his ashes in the Pantheon, the resting-place of immortals. 


Like all great inventions the idea of Braille is simple, but it 
needed the practical genius of Dr. Thomas Rhodes Armitage, 
the Caxton of embossed type, to exploit the idea for the benefit 
of all blind people. Dr. Armitage was also the founder of the 
National Institute in whose headquarters we are now assembled, 
and whose presses last year alone produced over eighty thousand 
Braille volumes and pamphlets of literature and music and over 
half a million Braille periodicals. 

The bond of friendship between nations which Braille and 
Armitage were instrumental in creating extends now not simply 
across the Channel, but across the Seven Seas. There is a sense 
of kinship between blind people which ignores national boun- 
daries, and the tie of that kinship is Braille. Braille as a means 
of reading and writing, as a method of education, as a music 
notation, as utilized in scientific appliances and domestic 
gadgets, has made the effort to conquer blindness an inter- 
national crusade and thereby sown a potent seed of understand- 
ing and goodwill between nations. 

We see here today illustrations of the early struggles of self- 
devoted men, both blind and sighted, to break down the barriers 
which have surrounded blind people for thousands of years. 

When we come to the work of men like Louis Braille and 
Dr. Armitage, we see the first signs of success, and it is a 
remarkable fact that most of the major services to the blind 
have come from within the blind community, from men who 
have themselves been blind Louis Braille, Dr. Armitage, Dr. 
Moon, Sir Francis Campbell, Sir Arthur Pearson, Ben Purse, 
and Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C. 

But in remembering these famous blind men, we must not 
forget the selfless, unweary work of the seeing the men and 
women who have devoted their lives to their blind comrades, 
and who are exemplified in the voluntary Braillists who have 
built up, by laborious work, the twenty thousand volumes which 
now constitute the Institute's Students' Library, and in the 
scientists, who are always urging Braille and kindred matters 
towards new prospects. 

33 D 

Consider, now, from a practical point of view, what Braille 
has actually accomplished in the world of the blind. This 
Exhibition illustrates its influence in many directions how it 
has spread knowledge and culture and the ability to enjoy, 
appreciate, and create works of literary and musical beauty and 
worth; how it has enabled people to overcome the daily difficul- 
ties of living without eyesight in a seeing world; how it has made 
it possible for blind people to be independent, self-supporting 
citizens, contributors to the national strength. 

The National Institute publishes each month in letterpress 
and Braille a magazine fittingly entitled The New Beacon. One 
of its regular features is a chronicle of the current achievements 
of blind people all over the world. 

Every one of these achievements owes something to Braille, 
and not the least to benefit is the seeing world, which can now 
draw upon the intellect of blind people in a surprising number 
of fields of human thought and endeavour. 

Here are achievements of which any community might be 
proud. And it may rightly be claimed that the greatest impetus 
towards their accomplishment came from the vision and inven- 
tive genius of the man who died, in early manhood and almost 
unknown, in Paris, one hundred years ago. 

I have pleasure in declaring open this Exhibition, held in 
honour of the immortal name of Louis Braille. 



Opening of the Affric Hydro-Electric Scheme at the 
Fasnakyle Power Station 

13 OCTOBER 1952 

I am most grateful to you, Mr. Chairman, for asking me to be 
present here today to witness the completion of this great 
Hydro-Electric undertaking and the inauguration of the Fasna- 
kyle Power House. 

There were several reasons why I accepted your invitation, 
not least was a wish to see for myself whether there was any 
justification in the criticisms that the North of Scotland Hydro- 
Electric Board was wantonly destroying the natural beauty 
spots of the Highlands. From what I have seen this afternoon I 
am entirely relieved of all anxiety on that score. Naturally there 
are many scars left from the damming, tunnelling, and building 
operations, but I have no doubt that these will disappear after a 
few years. To suggest that the Power House alone destroys the 
beauty of Glen Affric is being as fastidious as the fairy tale prin- 
cess who could feel a pea under fifteen mattresses. I congratu- 
late you on the success of your efforts to preserve the character 
of this lovely part of the Highlands. 

At the moment we are a poor nation struggling to make ends 
meet, and, as we have frequently been told, our recovery 
depends upon increased exports and reduced imports. The more 
cheaply we can make goods for export, the more goods we shall 
be able to sell abroad. To make goods cheaply, the manu- 
facturer must have abundant power. Figures are often deceptive, 
but it is an interesting fact that the average American worker 
has between three and four times more horse-power at his elbow 
than the corresponding worker in this country. 

Although coal provides 94 per cent, of all the power con- 
sumed in industry, it is becoming increasingly difficult to mine, 


and more expensive. Alternative and cheaper sources of power 
and more efficient production and use of power are absolutely 
vital. Hydro-electricity is one alternative way and any new 
extension should be welcomed as another step towards the 
recovery of our prosperity. This scheme alone will save 150,000 
tons of coal in a year. 

There are many known ways of producing power and doubt- 
less many new ones will be developed in the future, but there 
can be no doubt that in whatever way we make our electricity 
the basis of production must rest upon resources available in 
this country. 

The British Islands only produce enough of the essential 
foods to feed less than half her population. Any increase in the 
agricultural output allows a corresponding reduction in food 
imports. Most of the good agricultural land is already farmed 
intensively, but the hill farms of Scotland could do a great deal 
better if they had the advantages of cheap electric power. It 
cannot be cheap yet, but things should improve as more schemes 
come into production. 

It is encouraging to see the progress which the North of 
Scotland Hydro-Electric Board has made in bringing electricity 
to the people of the Highlands. Four and a half years ago one 
farm in fourteen and one croft in 100 were connected to the 
mains; the figures are now one in six, and when supplies have 
been doubled, the figures will be one in three. 

More power for industry and more power for agriculture, and 
the price? Two dams which will soon merge into the background 
and quite an attractive stone Power House. Imagine if coal 
had been found under this ground ! 

Finally, may I congratulate all the men who had a hand in 
bringing this scheme into existence. Surveyors, designers, archi- 
tects, engineers, builders, miners, and labourers are all part of a 
team who, I hope, are proud of a job well done and happy in 
the knowledge that their work will be a great benefit to their 

Unveiling of the Extension to the Naval War 
Memorial, Chatham 

15 OCTOBER 1952 

It is my privilege today to unveil this Memorial to the men of 
the Royal Navy and Royal Marines who lost their lives in the 
Second World War. 

I am particularly proud to do this because like all of us who 
served in the Navy during the War I lost many friends and 
shipmates who are commemorated here. We have suffered a 
great loss, but it is as nothing compared to the tragedies suffered 
by the families of these men. They are the ones who deserve 
sympathy and help, particularly from us, the lucky ones who 

These men paid the greatest sacrifice and it was not in vain. 
England remained inviolate and who is there here who would 
not gladly give his life that England should stay free? 

It is now our duty to work with all our strength to prevent 
another war from shaking the world. Only in this way can we 
really do honour to the courage and devotion of the men whose 
names are inscribed on the panels of this Memorial. 

The Imperial War Graves Commission are required by their 
charters to mark and maintain the War Graves of all the 
Commonwealth countries. In addition they are required to 
commemorate name by name those to whom the fortunes of 
war have denied the known and honoured burial of their com- 
rades in death. This is the first of three great Memorials to be 
erected at the home ports to Officers and Men of the Sea- 
Services who have no other grave than the sea. In carrying out 
this task, the Commission represents all the peoples of the 
Commonwealth and Empire in paying tribute to the men and 
women whose names are on these panels. 


The names of 9,946 officers and men have been added to the 
glorious company of 8,541 whose names are recorded here as 
having lost their lives in the First World War. 

You will see the naval battle honours of the recent war, 
carved in the stone above the bronze name panels, names from 
all over the world, from the River Plate to Narvik, from Crete 
to St. Nazaire, and from the Pacific to the Barents Sea. Battles 
too numerous to mention and actions without number. To 
many of us they recall stirring memories when those we honour 
today stood beside us to defend our homes and our neighbours 
from oppression. 

I am proud to unveil this Memorial to men and women who 
loved their country and who loved the sea. 


Ramsay Centenary Dinner 
15 OCTOBER 1952 

Toast 'The Immortal Memory of Sir William 


We are here tonight to do honour to the memory of a great 
chemist, Sir William Ramsay, and there could be no more 
appropriate setting for this gathering than University College 
in which he did the work that made him famous. 

It will be my privilege in a few moments to propose to you 
the toast of the immortal memory of Sir William Ramsay, and 


I do so with special pleasure as Ramsay not only made a great 
permanent contribution to science, but few discoveries have 
been so fruitful in widespread industrial application as that of 
the rare gases of the atmosphere. 

I am not a scientist and needless to say my knowledge of 
Ramsay and his work was almost non-existent until a short 
time ago. To the layman reading the story of Ramsay's work 
for the first time there are several chapters which are most 
revealing of the man's character and ability. 

I find that the exact parts played by Lord Rayleigh and 
Sir William Ramsay in the discovery of argon are a bit con- 
fusing to unravel, but the character of both is clearly revealed 
in their letters. This from Ramsay starts : 

Dear Lord Rayleigh I have isolated the gas. Its density is 19-075 
and it is not absorbed by magnesium. 

And he ends up : 

I should much like to talk to you about this. Are you going to be 
at Oxford? [For the B.A. Meeting.] If so we will meet there. I did 
not want to trespass on your preserves and yet I feel I have done so. 

To which Rayleigh replied: 

Dear Professor Ramsay I believe that I too have isolated the 
gas, although in miserably small quantities. 

And later: 

As to publication. I had thought of giving at Oxford some definite 
results of work (with urea etc.) undertaken to settle the question of 
the unity of chemical nitrogen, and perhaps throwing in such results 
as I have from the repetition of Cavendish. But it seems now so much 
mixed up with your work as to be difficult or impossible to treat 
separately. My own feeling is that the only solution is joint publica- 
tion. Doubtless your last results go further than mine and are prob- 
ably better established. But as you suggest the whole is founded 
upon work which I had carried to a certain point and was continuing. 

In answer Ramsay said: 

To take the last part of your letter first, I think that joint publica- 
tion would be the best course and I am much obliged to you for 


suggesting it, for I feel that a lucky chance has made me able to get 
Qin quantity (there are two other X's, so let us call it Qor Quid?) 

Yours sincerely, 

No wonder he was popular with his students and fellow workers. 

Their joint publication was received with a certain amount 
of scepticism and generally speaking people did not take kindly 
to the idea that a new element had been discovered. We pride 
ourselves nowadays on being more open-minded, but even so 
it does not prevent us from being rather slow at times to make 
the best of scientific developments. 

Using liquid air made in an apparatus devised by Dr. 
Hampson, Ramsay, helped by Dr. Travers, who we are 
delighted to see here tonight, succeeded in isolating neon, 
krypton, and xenon. They also found from spectrographic 
examination of an argon fraction that helium formed part of the 
atmosphere. These results were final proof, if any were needed, 
of Ramsay's remarkable ability as an experimental chemist. 
This work was done before the turn of the century and although 
there was no doubt about the importance of Ramsay's contribu- 
tion to natural knowledge, there was no practical application 
of their discovery whatever. However, since 1918, when argon 
was manufactured commercially for the first time, more and 
more uses have been found for the inert gases. 

For many years argon was used almost entirely as a filling 
for filament lamps and for glow discharge tubes. The presence 
of argon in filament lamps slows down the evaporation of the 
filament which can therefore be raised to a higher temperature 
and so produces a brighter light than was possible with the 
so-called vacuum lamp. 

Recent advances in the metallurgical field, more particularly 
in the manufacture, working, and welding of the more highly 
reactive metals such as aluminium, magnesium, and now 
titanium as well as stainless steels and even copper and nickel 
and their alloys, have led to an increasing demand for sub- 
stantially nitrogen-free argon as a blanketing gas. 


The chief use for neon is well known, but it is also used for 
detecting static electricity, in Geiger counters, thermometry, 
leak detection, and fluorescent lighting. 

Krypton and xenon have properties so similar to one another 
that for most purposes it is unnecessary to separate the two 
gases. They are used as a filling for filament lamps where they 
are appreciably more effective than argon. On account of 
the high cost, krypton is used as a lamp filling only in cases 
where the maximum illumination is of the utmost importance 
in relation to the available current supply, as in miners' 

An interesting and rather unexpected discovery about 
krypton, and more particularly xenon, is that these gases are 
effective and safe anaesthetics. It appears that these gases dis- 
solve in the body fats where they displace oxygen and bring 
about a state of anaesthesia. 

In the field of therapeutics xenon has also been used in the 
X-ray photography of the lungs. 

As a result of researches, mainly carried out in the States, 
helium has attained special importance in giving divers im- 
munity from nitrogen narcosis. This is achieved by supplying 
them with a mixture of helium and oxygen and in consequence 
a diver at great depths can be kept clear-headed and mentally 
alert throughout his task. 

Other uses for helium would be too numerous to mention, 
but it is perhaps interesting to note that it is one of the few 
substances which do not absorb neutrons and can, therefore, 
be used for cooling atomic piles. 

From this brief outline it will be seen that these rare gases 
whose very existence was unknown little more than half a 
century ago and which, when isolated, remained for some 
years merely scientific curiosities, have, within the last decade, 
assumed considerable importance. It is certain that they are 
destined to play an increasing role in industry and in the affairs 
of men in the years to come. 

In fact there is no better example of the value of fundamental 

research in providing new tools for the scientist to use in un- 
foreseen circumstances as new problems crop up. I have recently 
had opportunities of visiting a number of research establishments 
engaged in scientific work and that is exactly what is happen- 
ing every tool is being used to solve everyday problems. Let 
me give you a few examples. At Harwell I saw the production 
of radioactive isotopes; today they are being used more and 
more both in medicine and in medical research as well as in 
industry. By earmarking, so to speak, particular materials, it is 
possible to follow their movement and their transformations 
quite easily, by radioactive measurements. In this way artificial 
isotopes are throwing fresh light on such diverse fields as blast 
furnaces, the distribution of phosphorus in steel, and on the wear 
of piston rings and cylinders. They are used, too, in textile and 
paper machinery to improve the quality of the product by 
preventing the build-up of static electric charges. 

At Teddington I saw germanium of the highest purity being 
made in the Chemical Research Laboratory. The importance 
of this lies in its use as a semi-conductor in transistors which are 
being developed as substitutes for electronic valves with the 
advantage, in their latest form, that they should have an almost 
indefinite life. 

Then at Farnborough I saw a new application of plastics in 
the construction of future aeroplanes. An ingenious new form 
of wing structure has been designed in which plastics can be 
used as a substitute for metals, and obviously there are many 
applications in other forms of engineering structures. This was 
only made possible by the scientific study of the properties of 
plastics which forms the background of the new design. 

These are but brief examples of similar work which is going 
on all the time in the laboratories of the United Kingdom, and 
every one is an example of the practical application of known 
scientific facts or techniques. 

Sir William Ramsay died in 1916. He had worked here in 
University College for twenty-six years and his many friends and 
admirers decided to promote a worthy memorial to com- 


memorate his personal distinction and the importance of his 
contributions to the advancement of science. 

The Ramsay Memorial Fund was launched, with Lord Ray- 
leigh as Chairman of the General Committee, with the object 
of providing Ramsay Research Fellowships of an international 
character and the establishment of a Ramsay Memorial Labora- 
tory of Chemical Engineering at University College, London. 
This last was completed in 1931. 

It was the wish of the committee which made the original 
appeal that the Ramsay Memorial Fund should be used to pro- 
mote the study of chemical science, pure and applied, by pro- 
viding competent advanced students with the means of doing 
chemical research. Considerable importance was attached to 
the international aspect of the scheme which would contribute 
to the linking closer together of the scientific thought of the 
chief countries of the world. 

In addition to the United Kingdom, no less than twelve 
countries have from time to time provided funds to support 
Ramsay Fellows. 

It is a great tribute to Ramsay's memory that there are here 
tonight so many High Commissioners and Ambassadors, repre- 
sentatives of the many countries who have shared in the Fellow- 
ship scheme. 

Many former Fellows have attained very distinguished posi- 
tions in all the continents of the world. Among them are included 
twenty-seven professors and many heads of important research 
organizations both in industry and government service. 

The Ramsay Fellowships were suspended during the war, but 
appointments were renewed in 1945 and since then, in addition 
to British Fellows, men and women from Australia, Canada, 
France, Holland, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States 
have held Fellowships. 

When the scheme first started, the income of the General 
Fellowship Fund was sufficient to allow always for one and 
sometimes for two General Fellowships to be awarded annually, 
each tenable for two years. At present this is no longer possible. 


I understand, however, that another appeal for the Fellow- 
ship Fund has been made this year to commemorate the cen- 
tenary of Ramsay's birth. I wish this cause every possible success. 

Tonight we remember Sir William Ramsay, the man beloved 
by his students and a wide circle of friends in many countries; 
the great chemist who wrote a brilliant chapter into the story 
of British scientific achievement. We also remember him as an 
able administrator who devoted a great deal of his time and 
energy to the welfare of the Universities of Bristol and London. 

What more fitting memorial for such a man than this Fellow- 
ship scheme which reflects all the facets of his life, students from 
all over the world doing chemical research in which he delighted, 
and the whole scheme run by his own University? 

Ladies and Gentlemen : I give you the toast : { The Immortal 
Memory of Sir William Ramsay 5 . 


Opening of 'The Model Engineer' Exhibition 
20 OCTOBER 1952 

Not long ago, the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science decided to form a scientific committee to find out what 
is hampering the practical application of new discoveries. Every 
effort must be made to discover what is delaying and hampering 
the use of scientific discoveries for public good and for the good 
of the country as a whole. 

There are many reasons for this gap between the blueprint 
and the prototype, but one can see in this exhibition that the 
lack of model engineers is not one of them. 


British model engineers, indeed, are acknowledged to be the 
finest in the world. The fact that they get a lot of fun and a great 
deal of satisfaction out of their hobby does not lessen its value 
to our advance. 

Indeed many scientific projects that are news today have been 
pioneered by model engineers radio control of guided missiles, 
for example and many achievements that are now regarded 
as commonplace would not have succeeded had not the model 
engineer, with his love of craftsmanship, enabled the blueprint 
to be transformed, at an economic price, from thought to solid 

Here in this hall is evidence of the British desire to create 
of the dexterity, concentration, self-discipline, and originality 
on which our past successes have been based and our future 

Model engineering plays an important part in the develop- 
ment of character. Whether it starts in the simple form of using 
children's bricks to build a tower and knock it down again, or 
with a simple construction set, it can lead to the making of these 
models which so largely determine the form of the engineering 
wonders of our world today. 

It is a great pleasure for me to be here today and to see some- 
thing of the work of our model engineers, and I have pleasure in 
declaring your exhibition open. 



Opening of Extension to Municipal College, 

21 OCTOBER 1952 

This country has a record of achievement in science and tech- 
nology which is admired by the whole world. In the early days 
many great figures in the world of engineering were entirely 
self-taught men. This is hardly possible any more as the whole 
field of technology has become so much more complicated. 
Present-day achievements depend upon highly trained men and 
women and no one without the proper knowledge could be 
expected to make any contribution of importance. That is why 
it is so necessary to see that there are ample teaching establish- 
ments and facilities for those who wish to become scientists, 
technologists, or engineers. In fact, I personally believe that we 
should go further; we should try to make provision for a greater 
number than those who have positively decided upon their 
careers, so that there is room for the waverers who could be 
encouraged to take up those technical professions which are so 
important for the future welfare of the British Islands. 

The Portsmouth Municipal Authorities are to be congratu- 
lated on their decision to carry out these extensions to the 
Technical College at a time when there must have been great 
temptations to proceed with other forms of building. 

Their decision will benefit the industries of Portsmouth as 
well as the whole of the south of England. This College, which 
has already a long history of achievement, can now train more 
recruits for industry as well as acting as a centre of research to 
which industries can turn for help and advice. 

Perhaps the most important feature is that by part-time 
release and evening classes a growing number of people of 
initiative, already engaged in industry, will be able to improve 

their knowledge of their profession and at the same time im- 
prove their prospects. 

Research in the Navy is daily becoming more important and 
it is therefore interesting to note that an increasing proportion 
of students are coming from Admiralty Research and Experi- 
mental Establishments. What they learn here about the design 
and construction of ships and naval equipment can help to 
improve the efficiency of the Sea Service, and incidentally per- 
haps save the taxpayer some money. 

I wish every possible happiness and success to all the teachers 
and to all the students who pass through this College and have 
much pleasure in declaring open this extension to the Ports- 
mouth Technical College. 


London Master Builders' Association 

5 NOVEMBER 1952 

Address to Students after presenting medals 

Last year I accepted the position of President of the City and 
Guilds of London Institute and two days ago I attended their 
yearly meeting. The Institute, through its Department of Tech- 
nology, seeks to help every branch of industry and commerce by 
holding examinations in nearly 200 subjects. Last year out of 
almost 80,000 candidates 14,000, or nearly one-fifth, entered 
for building subjects. 

To encourage the candidates and to reward exceptional merit 
the London Master Builders' Association have very generously 


offered these sixteen medals which I have just handed to the 
winners. These are no minor distinctions and I heartily con- 
gratulate all those who have been fortunate enough to qualify 
for these awards. Not everyone can win prizes or medals nor are 
they a criterion of ultimate success. If you have worked hard to 
learn your trade and you like the work, there is plenty of room 
in the building industry, where you will find the joy and satis- 
faction of a creative job. 

Buildings are a mirror of the age in which they are built. 
They reflect the ability of their architects and craftsmen and 
they show clearly the character and mentality of the people of 
their time. 

Good buildings stand as evidence of good builders. Slums, 
sham fronts, and jerry-building are all there for the world to see 
and to judge. 

Inspiration cannot be taught and masterpieces do not come 
to order, but craftsmanship can be learned. We can therefore 
make certain that there are no pretences about our buildings 
and that they are well designed, honestly built, sturdy, and 

There is one overriding requirement of the building industry. 
The people must be properly housed. Unless housing is to be- 
come a progressively heavy burden on the community, it is the 
industry's most important duty to try every possible way to 
reduce the cost of building houses without sacrificing quality. 
These are desirable and, I believe, attainable ends. 

You the medal winners are at the threshold of your careers, 
you have made a wonderful start and I trust that this early 
promise will be fulfilled. I wish you all the very best of luck. 


Opening of New Engineering Laboratory, 
University of Cambridge 


It is only eighty years ago since James Stuart, the first Professor 
of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics, bravely built the first 
workshops at Cambridge. The story goes that they soon fell into 
disfavour because the noise from them disturbed the horse of the 
Master of Corpus stabled nearby. But the seed had been sown 
and under another great man, Alfred Ewing, known to the 
Navy as the man in Room 40, the department flourished. He 
built and equipped laboratories and put the teaching of en- 
gineering on a firm basis, making the subject a rigorous disci- 
pline, so that in 1894 the University established the Mechanical 
Sciences Tripos. Quite apart from its value in fitting students to 
earn their living as engineers, I am assured that the present 
course still provides a stiff educational discipline in its own right. 

With an increasing number of students the problem of ac- 
commodation has always been difficult. The size and scope of 
the department's buildings were greatly enlarged at the end of 
the First World War. Then in 1949 the late Field Marshal 
Smuts opened the engineering workshop and instrument shop, 
which provide facilities for teaching as well as for the construc- 
tion of research apparatus for the whole University. Even that 
addition was not enough and in the same year work was started 
on the construction of this fine building which is to be opened 

However important buildings may be in the process of train- 
ing engineers, it is not the least bit of good turning out highly 
qualified engineers if there are no openings for them in industry 
or if industry does not value their qualifications. The response 
therefore from industry to an appeal in 1948 to provide funds 

49 E 

to endow two new chairs, in Electrical Engineering and Applied 
Thermodynamics, is very encouraging and ample proof of the 
esteem in which British industry holds Cambridge engineers. 

By their whole-hearted support no less than forty firms and 
organizations, prominent among them being the British Elec- 
trical and Allied Manufacturers' Association and Imperial 
Chemical Industries, have demonstrated their faith in the work 
of the Engineering Department of Cambridge University. 

Once trained, it is the business of every engineer to create, 
but in an engineering department research plays several special 
and important parts. It is essential, particularly in a school such 
as this where the emphasis is on fundamentals, that the teacher 
should remain an engineer; the simplest way for him to do this 
is to engage in applied research which will bring him into con- 
tact with industry. Secondly, in the training of research students, 
whatever is sometimes said to the contrary, many branches of 
British industry are now well aware of the need to set up 
research organizations, and the universities still provide the best 
training ground for the men to staff them. Lastly, there is the 
search for new knowledge and methods. 

When some new discovery is made it is vitally important to 
see that it is passed into practice as soon as possible. Professor 
Baker's researches into structures and welding have resulted in 
a fundamentally new approach to structural design. This piece 
of new knowledge is being passed on to experienced engineers 
returning from industry in a post-graduate course. This is a 
wonderful example of a partnership between science and indus- 
try for the benefit of the nation. Virtually a new branch of 
engineering science, which has the great merit of making con- 
siderable economies in structural steel, is going into the coun- 
try's service with the least possible delay. 

There are many different ways in which our industry can be 
helped artificially, but if it is to compete successfully on level 
terms with the rest of the world, then our scientists and en- 
gineers must be just that little bit better than any others. This 
can certainly be achieved if the system of teaching is good 


enough and if it can properly anticipate the country's needs. 
The solution of our industrial problem lies here in the univer- 
sities and technical colleges; their efforts can turn our present 
struggle for survival into a story of success. 


Visit to the Military College of Science, 


Address in College Hall 

As you know, I spent several years as a professional sailor, and 
so I feel very diffident about addressing a gathering such as this, 
and I must admit that I am largely ignorant of the special 
applications of science and scientific thought, particularly to 
Army problems; but, obviously, the necessity to use scientific 
knowledge, and scientific brains is common to all three Ser- 
vices, and, I think, it is recognized by all of them. Up until 
now, and throughout history, the basic qualifications for 
all officers has been that they should be able to handle 
men. Modern warfare undoubtedly has added two other 
requirements: the ability to handle machines, and the ability 
to handle paper. Those are the three qualifications for 
all officers, men, machines, and paper, and I know that we 
have all spent a lot of time being taught how to handle 
men. I am sure that the Army is no exception, and a great 
many officers spend a great deal of time learning to handle 

5 1 

paper. Now, at last, for the Army here is an establishment 
which sets out to make a really comprehensive study of the place 
of the machine in land warfare. I am no authority on military 
matters, neither naval nor otherwise, but I did, once upon a 
time, spend a bit of time doing a naval staff course in Greenwich, 
whatever that teaches you but one did learn that, when prob- 
lems of strategy are considered, they depend very much on condi- 
tions which are governed by equipment, whether they are ships, 
aircraft, or lorries, or whatever it happens to be. In exactly the 
same way the tactics depend eventually on the capabilities of the 
weapons available on both sides, and the capabilities of weapons 
likely to be available on both sides, which means, in the end, 
really, that an officer, if he is required to make a strategic and 
tactical decision, must fully understand and take into account 
the effect of the machines; in other words, of the equipment or 
the weapons which are going to be used, as well as all the 
more traditional considerations, such as food and one thing 
and another. 

The idea that a commander can always make correct deci- 
sions, if he is surrounded by a sufficient number of expert 
advisers, obviously does not make sense. How on earth can he 
be expected to judge the relative importance of the advice 
without at least a background knowledge, and, equally, how 
can the adviser, if he is such an expert, know that his advice 
is going to be valuable unless he knows what the over-all 
problem is? So that (and here you must forgive me, be- 
cause I am obviously speaking to the converted) the modern 
commander in any Service, just as his predecessor, must know 
something about all the forces, all the weapons, and all the 
equipment which are at his disposal, and more than that, he has 
got to know something about the design and the capabilities of 
those weapons. 

Equally, on the other side, the most ingenious minds, 
whether they are military or civilian, and the most scientific 
brains, which are probably civilian, will never think up a new 
weapon, or improve an old one, unless they have got a working 


knowledge of the strategic or tactical use, and limitations of 
existing equipment. Weapons and equipment, whether we 
like it or not, are going to become more and more compli- 
cated, and their design and control has already become a 
scientific problem. There is only one thing for it, science has 
got to be brought into the Army. And that is why an establish- 
ment such as this, which teaches science to the soldiers, and 
incidentally gives the soldier's point of view to the scientists, is 
not an interesting novelty at all, but an absolute necessity. In 
fact, some people go so far as to say that the ideal would be for 
every officer in the Army to go through the course here that is 
if he is going to be of any use eventually if and when he, or 
when and if, he reaches high rank. Desirable, obviously, but 
there are a great many difficulties in the way, and I am not 
sure that it is absolutely vital. The aim should be for 
the College to send back to the Army a sufficient number 
of officers who by their influence, and also their effort, will 
ensure that the Army as a whole gets some idea of the place of 
science in warfare, and that the commanders, in particular, 
should understand the scientific problems of weapon design 
and development. In the end, the citizen depends on the 
Armed Services for the defence of his country, and, as such, 
he has every right to expect that the Armed Services, on their 
part, will use all the devices known to man to achieve security 
and discourage aggression. 



Radio Industry Council Annual Dinner 


Toast 'The British Radio Industry* 

Fifty years ago there was no such thing as a radio industry. In 
fact it was only in 1897 that J. J. Thompson introduced the 
electron and Sir Oliver Lodge invented the tuning circuit, and 
it was seven years later before Sir Ambrose Fleming invented 
the two-electrode wireless valve. Yet today the industry carries 
on an export trade alone worth 25 million annually. 

I am always pleased and I think we are all encouraged to 
hear of an industry which is clamouring for, and using, new 
ideas. The very speed at which the radio industry has developed 
in the last fifty years is ample proof that every new discovery 
has been quickly exploited. I suspect that the reason is that the 
radio and electronic industry is one of the few that were born 
entirely in the research laboratory and therefore it does not 
regard back-room boys with the usual suspicion. 

Even the Post Office, which might easily have become too 
well satisfied with itself, still remembers that if one parent was 
Rowland Hill the other is certainly Dollis Hill. 

Industrial electronics can play an enormous part in almost 
every other industry, particularly by improving production 
methods including control, inspection, and safeguarding pro- 
duction processes. But you cannot expect electronic devices to 
be readily accepted which are only a little bit better than 
existing systems, they must be far and away better before in- 
dustry generally will think it worth while to go over to them. 

The Services, on the other hand, have come to the conclusion 
that there is nothing that radio and electronics cannot do. 
Through radio communications and navigation, with electronic 


detection and weapon control, the whole art of war has been 

At one stage of the war on the east coast every destroyer was 
fitted with a contraption to intercept the radio-telephone con- 
versations of German E boats and every ship had an interpreter 
in German to work it. One night a message was intercepted 
which said: C I am about to fire a torpedo at the destroyer on 
my starboard side.' This was immediately translated and passed 
on to every captain on the coast and every destroyer out that 
night from the Humber to the Thames took avoiding action. 

The clamour for new and better equipment is still going on. 
In fact, I was told in one research establishment that the 
Services were now demanding the impossible. I am quite con- 
fident that the industry can achieve the impossible, but it will 
take a little time, and the research departments must have the 
people they need. 

In these days every industry is judged by its exports, so that 
sales on the home market tend to become guilty secrets. But a 
pioneering industry's ability to export at all depends upon a 
lively and discerning home market. It is sometimes forgotten 
that Britain had the first television service in the world and that 
the present transmitters are the most powerful in the world, 
covering 78 per cent, of the population of the British Isles. 
Without that background we could not hope to try to install 
radio and television systems, or sell receivers abroad. 

Speaking from the customer's point of view, the wireless set, 
radio, or television is no longer a modern scientific toy, it has 
become a piece of functional furniture. We, that is the customers, 
know that the things ought to work; our choice will now depend 
upon what they look like. Indeed, radio and television them- 
selves have gone far beyond the stage of being amusing and 
entertaining novelties. Where the instantaneous connexion of 
the radio telephone has become an established feature in the 
political life of the Commonwealth, so too can radio and tele- 
vision play their part in the cultural field to cement the ties of 
Commonwealth and Empire. We should look forward to the 


day when the member countries of the Commonwealth can 
receive each other's programmes as easily as they can tune into 
their own domestic stations. 

I believe that the future holds almost unlimited possibilities 
for radio and electronics. In the relations of the people of the 
Commonwealth, in industry, in the home, in defence, and as 
an increasing part of Great Britain's export trade, the radio 
industry is a growing factor in the nation's economy. But it 
cannot play its proper part if there is not a big enough entry of 
properly qualified people. It is a highly skilled industry and it 
needs highly skilled people. It is a very grave matter that there 
are not enough qualified radio or electronic engineers and 
physicists coming from the universities and technical colleges 
to meet the industry's requirements. 

There are millions of ordinary citizens who owe a great debt 
to electronics for the defence of our country or in everyday 
life; the least they can do in return is to encourage the younger 
generation to take up radio and electronics as a career. 

The industry has many problems to face, but if it tackles them 
with the same initiative and enterprise as in the past, the whole 
country will have cause to be grateful. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I give you the toast: 'The British 
Radio Industry '. 


The Land Agents' Society Jubilee Dinner 


Proposing Toast 'The Society 

First of all may I thank you very much indeed for a most 
excellent and enormous dinner. I cannot help thinking that if 
this is your usual standard, then I suggest that land agents 
should eat half as much and then we should not have to produce 
twice as much food. 

May I straight away congratulate you on attaining your 
fiftieth anniversary. I must admit that I should have thought 
that this profession was much older than that, and I was sur- 
prised to learn that it was only fifty years ago that you decided 
to get together. But, speaking as a landowner, or a part land- 
owner, it is just as well to learn that you did not get together 
sooner. However, for all that, many congratulations. 

Indeed, you have a great deal to celebrate. From a modest 
start and growing from strength to strength over the years you 
have now reached a very strong position where it is not only 
landlords who listen to you, but even governments. The land 
agent's job may or may not have changed depending on how 
you look at it. It certainly has gone beyond the days when he 
was required merely to explain to the farm labourer in the farm 
labourer's words what he had to do. He has now, as far as I can 
make out, to have a very good command of government and 
legal jargon. He is also a farmer, a forester, lawyer, accountant, 
and a diplomat. In fact, he is a universal uncle to the land 
generally, and I believe that he has to have a nodding acquain- 
tance with forms. On top of all this if that were not enough 
I read in the newspapers this morning that food production has 
to go up another 60 per cent. That is just the sort of problem, as 


far as I am concerned, that gets handed straight on to the land 
agent. I can just see your predecessors in the feudal age being 
told very much the same thing, but at least they had the advan- 
tage of thumbscrews and other inducements. 

Seriously, I hope that this demand will not give rise to dust- 
bowl farming, and equally I hope that it is appreciated that if 
this increase is to come about, which I am told is a lenient 
demand, then one of the first requirements is to get the water 
out. In this connexion, may I, Sir, with your permission, take 
this opportunity of offering my sympathy to everybody who 
suffered as a result of the recent floods and devastation both 
here and in Holland. I should also like to say which you all 
know, of course what a great debt we owe to the Dutch for 
this technique of reclaiming land, and I hope in the near future 
we shall be able to repay the debt we owe to them by practical 
help for all the help which they have given us in the past. 

This country has 130,000 acres or more under water. More 
food has to be produced. What does this mean? It means that 
every man who is employed on the land has to be productively 
employed the whole year round. Every new idea that is pro- 
duced has to be used to the utmost. Every lesson which is 
learned now and has been learned in the past has to be re- 
membered, and who is it that has to do all this? It is the land 

Let me give you this toast and, if I may, couple it with the 
name of your President, Mr. Arnold, who I am told has the 
distinction of never settling any dispute to the satisfaction of 
both sides. 

I give you the toast: 'The Land Agents' Society, coupled 
with the name of the President, Mr. Arnold*. 


Admission to the Freedom of the Mercers' Company 


Reply to Toast 'The Health of our New 
Freeman' at Luncheon following admission 

Master and Gentlemen, thank you very much indeed for those 
very kind words of welcome and the charming way in which 
you have proposed the toast, and also for this cup, which will 
remind me of the very pleasant day spent with you. 

I should like you to know what a great honour and privilege 
I consider it to be to join your Company, especially after what 
you have told me, and also after having seen a list of previous 

Also, that from what you say there is only one older profession 
than a Mercer. 

There is one thing I have in mind in connexion with Freedom 
by Redemption. I am wondering what I have in common with 
other Freemen as, like one or two of your members, I have no 
connexion with the commercial world whatsoever. 

I have not very much experience of City companies. I try to 
take a certain amount of interest in the two other companies I 
belong to, but time is rather short; I have always been very 
much impressed by the way in which the life and vigour is 
kept in the old bodies of City companies by the very great 
amount of practical work done for education and charity, and 
I am particularly interested in the support they give to the 
technical education in this country, particularly in London 
through the City and Guilds of London Institute. Indeed it will 
be a very sad day if they forget their responsibility to the present 
and only think of their glorious past. 


If I may say so you would be like baboons all behind and 
no forehead. 

Thank you again very much indeed for your hospitality and 
for the most excellent lunch. 


Presentation of Prizes to Cadets on board 
H.M.S. Devonshire 

14 APRIL 1953 

I would like to congratulate heartily all the prize-winners and 
at the same time offer my sympathy to all those who were un- 
successful an experience with which I am quite familiar. 

I am afraid that I am in no position to offer you any advice 
about your future in the Navy as I only served about half a 
Dog Watch myself. However, I would like to expose what are, 
in my personal opinion, three fallacies about the Navy. 

First of all there is no such thing as a career for a naval officer. 
Service in the Navy is a privilege enjoyed by those who prove 
themselves capable of discharging the duties imposed upon 
them satisfactorily. Promotion is not a question of 'jobs for the 
boys' ; it is a competition of service in the interest of the Navy 
and the country. 

Lord Fisher wrote in the log at Dartmouth : 'Favouritism is 
the secret of efficiency.' If by that he meant that all officers 
should be yes-men, then I think he was wrong, but if he meant 
that selection should be by merit in the best interests of the 
Service, then I think he was right. If you put the interest of the 


Royal Navy first at all times, you will be acting in the best 
tradition of the Sea Service. 

Second is the fallacy that a good seaman is necessarily a good 
naval officer. There is absolutely no doubt whatever that every 
naval officer must have a full and comprehensive sea-going 
experience. But the best interests of the Service demand a great 
deal more than that. Why is it that experienced people are 
chosen for responsible jobs? It is because in making decisions 
they are able to draw upon their experience which will prevent 
them making mistakes. 

It follows, therefore, that the foundation of a naval officer's 
experience must be his seamanship, but the wider his knowledge, 
and the broader his outlook, the more easily and ably he will 
shoulder responsibilities. His outlook must encompass the func- 
tion and importance of the men and ships of the Navy, the 
relationship of the Services to one another and the State, and 
their responsibilities in defence of the realm. And of course, the 
position of this country in the Society of Nations. 

The third fallacy I put forward with trepidation. It is con- 
tained in the famous preamble to the Naval Discipline Act and 
reads: '. . . relating to the Government of the Navy whereon 
under the good providence of God, the wealth, safety and 
strength of the Kingdom chiefly depends. . . .' That was certainly 
true at the time that it was written. The safety and strength of 
this country, Commonwealth, and Empire now can only be 
ensured by power at sea, on land, and in the air. In the event 
of war, the enemy can only be defeated by action at sea, on 
land, and in the air. 

The division of responsibility for the safety of this country 
between the three Services is purely technical. The only effective 
action in defence or offence is the concerted action of the total 
defensive of war machinery of the country. 

In conclusion, I wish you all who are standing here at the 
beginning of your life in the Navy the greatest happiness and 
success in the Naval Service. 



Opening of the Imperial Cricket Memorial at 
Marylebone Cricket Club 

27 APRIL 1953 

One of the most remarkable things about the British Common- 
wealth and Empire is the almost universal delight in the game 
of cricket. As a result the game has attracted to itself a wide and 
devoted following who are bound together by ties of affection 
for a wonderful game. They are a great brotherhood of kindred 
spirits from every corner of the world. 

The presence here today of so many High Commissioners is a 
token of the unifying strength of cricket and a great tribute to 
the cricketers of our family of nations. 

It is therefore only right and proper that here at Lord's 
Cricket Ground, the national centre of cricket, we should 
remember the cricketers who lost their lives in war. 

At one time or another we must all of us have made cricketing 
friends from many different walks of life. Many of them must 
have lost their lives and I am sure all of them are commemorated 
by their regiments, or services, or in their home towns. But we 
their friends would rather remember them as cricketers. 

These men, wherever they were born and wherever they died, 
whatever colour and whatever creed, were cricketers and this is 
their worthy Memorial. 



Opening of the Royal Yachts Exhibition and the 
Octagon Room, Royal Observatory 

8 MAY 1953 

Thanks to a diligent grandmother, I have quite a working 
knowledge of the Museums of London, and thanks to the last 
Prime Minister, who made me a Trustee of this Museum, I 
know something about how they are run. 

The difficulty of all Museums is for the Director to find 
out what the visitor is particularly interested in, and for the 
Director to give us what the visitor wants to see. In this 
particular case, and as far as I am personally concerned, the 
Director has guessed right. 

I see here the Admiral commanding Royal Yachts, and I 
hope particularly that he will take a good look round, and also 
perhaps that he might note the record of some of his prede- 
cessors, as I believe that one remained in command of yachts for 
thirty-five years. 

As to the Observatory, I was most interested to hear what the 
Astronomer Royal had to say; but to all who have the mis- 
fortune to try to learn how to work out a star sight, the Observa- 
tory is more like a rather awesome temple with the ghosts of 
such high priests as Maskelyne and his Nautical Almanac, and 
Marc St. Hilaire and his method. However, I am sure that one 
would get over that with acquaintance. I cannot help thinking 
that they would both be somewhat surprised to know that the 
Almanac and the method of working out sights has been com- 
pletely re-designed as the result of experience with air almanacs. 
It seems to show that the Senior Service is rather left behind in 
matters of finding its way about the sea. It will simplify matters, 
I am sure, and it will be a great help, particularly to yachtsmen, 


because it was difficult enough doing these complicated sums on 
a perfectly stationary platform. I am sure, therefore, that these 
Tables will be a great help. 

The Octagon Room is only the beginning of the Museum 
which is going to be extended at the Observatory. It is still in 
use by various people, but as the rooms become available, so 
we hope that the Museum will be extended. 

Finally, although this has really nothing to do with either 
this exhibition or with the Royal Observatory, I may say that 
I am delighted to see one of the Presidents, or Vice- Presidents, 
of the Cutty Sark Preservation Society as well as the Chairman, 
here today. May I congratulate them on what they have so far 
achieved and say how much personally I am looking forward to 
the day when the Cutty Sark will also be open to the public to 
remind them of the men who went to sea in the great days 
of sail. 

Unveiling of the Memorial Roll of Honour of the 

Staff of the London County Council who lost their 

lives in the war 1939-45 

22 JUNE 1953 

The names of 1 3 1 2 1 men and women of London County Council 
Staff who lost their lives in the last war are inscribed in this 
book in memory of their great sacrifice: 427 served with the 
Armed Forces and the Merchant Navy; 414 served with Civil 
Defence organizations, and 278 were members of the civilian 


staff. These figures give some measure of the brunt of war borne 
by the civilian population of this city and indeed of the civilian 
population of the whole country. 

Battlefields soon disappear under the plough or in the drifting 
sands, but the towns and cities which suffered bombs and shells 
show their scars for many long years. 

We must never forget the valiant and courageous work of the 
men and women in Civil Defence, and let us also never forget 
that if ever war should strike again, this whole lovely country 
of ours will be in the front line no one will be beyond the 
reach of weapons of destruction. 

Today we pay our tribute to the people whose names fill 
this book; let us at the same time remember their friends and 
relations. You have suffered much grief, but you can always be 
proud of their devotion to you and to their country. 


Annual Dinner of the Chartered Insurance 

24 JULY 1953 
Toast 'The Chartered Insurance Institute' 

I cannot help feeling somewhat surprised that you have asked 
me to propose this toast. As far as I know my life has never been 
insured, and I doubt very much whether any of my personal 
goods and chattels are worth insuring either. I do know Blue- 
bottle, Cowslip, and Kiwi are insured, but you can put that down 

65 F 

perhaps to my knowledge of marine risks, especially if I happen 
to be sailing them! I might, on the other hand, be interested in 
other forms of insurance, for instance, my Lord Mayor, exces- 
sive hospitality, and if I believe everything I hear it might be 
useful not only in this country, but in Australia and other 
places also. 

I would dearly have liked to have met whoever it was who 
first thought of the idea of insurance. He must have been a very 
brilliant man, and if he came from nowhere else I am sure he 
was a native of these islands. We pride ourselves on many 
qualities, but it is the contradiction of qualities, which always 
infuriates the French, which makes me think the idea started 
here. After all it is the contradiction of the quality of adventure 
with the quality of prudence from which insurance sprang. 

The end of the Preamble to the Marine Insurance Act of 
1 60 1 puts it this way: 

... By means of which policies of assurance it cometh to pass, on loss 
or perishing of any ship, there followeth not the undoing of any man, 
but the loss lighteth rather easily upon many than heavily upon few, 
and rather upon them that adventure not than those that do adven- 
ture, whereby all merchants, especially the younger sort are allured 
to adventure more willingly and more freely. 

You gentlemen are, I am sure, well aware of the present 
fashion of referring rather glibly to the first and second Eliza- 
bethan ages. My Lord Mayor, you must forgive me now, 
because you did not prepare your speech but I prepared mine, 
and this is what I was going to say : whereas we only talk about 
adventure after dinner, here is an exhortation to adventure 
written into an Act of Parliament. If I see the like of it again 
I will take a very much more optimistic view of our future ! 

However, I am wandering from the point of this toast, which 
is the Chartered Insurance Institute. Once again it seems that 
the very idea of members of a profession banding together 
voluntarily to help the young to enter that profession and to 
protect the old and infirm is very typically British, and it must 
be a very good idea because so many other people have copied it. 


The work of the Institute in running examinations for dip- 
lomas and fellowships is well known to you all. I cannot help 
thinking that as a result of maintaining the proper standards, 
examinations, and encouragement the Institute has had a major 
part in raising the premium income I took a great lot of 
trouble about this and I have got the figures too in raising the 
premium income from a paltry 200 million to 1,000 million 
in the last twenty-five years. 

Insurance, as you all know, is one of this country's most 
vital and important invisible exports, and a vital factor in our 
struggle now for solvency, and I think, if I may say so, that this 
achievement is a tremendous advertisement for one particular 
characteristic of British commerce, and that is its integrity. I 
congratulate you on what you have done in the past, and I hope, 
with a great many other people, that the business of insurance, 
backed by the Chartered Insurance Institute, will go on from 
strength to strength. 


Passing-out Parade at the Royal Air Force 
College, Cranwell 

28 JULY 1953 
Address to Cadets 

At Odiham some days ago, the Royal Air Force put on a display 
which will take its place as one of the great reviews of history. 
In conception and execution, in smartness and spirit, it was in 
the best British tradition. 

Even though equipment displayed on the ground demon- 
strated the enormous complexity and diversity of the Air Force, 
it could not hope to show the full technical and organizational 
background which alone can turn the squadrons we saw flying 
past into an effective weapon in the air. 

In the process of making you fit to become officers in this 
great Service, you have been subjected to strict discipline and 
trained to instant obedience. This is most necessary if you are 
to be a useful member of the fighting team, but at the same time 
do not forget that no Service wants automatons as officers. You 
may be passing out from here in a block, but you join the Ser- 
vice, and you are only wanted in the Service, as individuals. 

Every year nearly 10,000 cadets join the three Services as 
officers. They leave their colleges or training establishments 
dressed in the uniforms and steeped in the traditions of their 
particular Service, each group jealously thinking that on their 
Service falls the main burden for the defence and security of the 
United Kingdom and dependencies. I am sure this is a very 
good thing up to a point, but it ignores the fundamental prin- 
ciple that sound defence depends upon co-operation and team- 
work between the three Services in thought, word, and deed. 
As the equipment becomes more complicated, so the tendency 
to grow apart increases; this must be resisted at all costs. 

You have joined the Air Force to become specialists in air 
warfare or some part of it, and for the time being you can do no 
better than master your own branch. That mastery must in- 
clude leadership and tactical skill as well as a thorough grasp 
of the technical and scientific background of the Service. But 
the demand for the specialists tapers off with seniority. You will 
never, or perhaps, as it is only my personal opinion, I should 
say you ought never to reach the top unless you have a proper 
understanding of the art of war as a whole. 

There will always be a strong tendency to assume that any 
future war will start where the last one left off. We should learn 
our lessons from what went wrong at the beginning of the last 
war and not from what went right at the end of it. 


One of those lessons was that the national weapon can only 
be effectively wielded by the three Services working as a team. 

If you think I am harping on this point, I can only say that 
history is full of cases where co-operation ceased the moment 
the dire necessity had passed. 

One last point. I want to suggest that specialization, whether 
within a Service or as between Services, should not be exclusive. 
The Services have frequently been accused of having a very 
narrow outlook. If this is true, it is certainly quite unnecessary. 
There seems to be no reason why officers should not take an 
intelligent interest in the industrial and commercial problems 
of this country as well as the economic and political problems 
of the world. 

Indeed, military and economic problems are very closely 
associated, and I believe that every officer should have a reason- 
able acquaintance with those problems from the very first. How 
else can you be expected to make the right decisions later on, 
which may react on the whole economy of the country? When 
the time comes for those decisions to be made you will be too 
busy, and it will be too late anyway, to try to grasp the 

To sum up, then. Make yourselves thoroughly acquainted 
with your profession and serve it as individuals with the best 
interest of the Royal Air Force always at heart. 

Secondly, never lose sight of the fact that war is total and 
demands that the three Services fight as one team. 

Thirdly, try to see the defence organizations and problems of 
this country as part of the broad picture of national and inter- 
national conditions. Good luck to you all. 


Annual Luncheon of the National Union of 

15 OCTOBER 1953 

Toast 'The National Union of 

My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, thank you very much for 
your kind and hearty welcome. I am most grateful for your 
invitation today because I have tried, and I will go on trying, 
to get about and see as much as possible of industry in the 
British Isles. But I cannot possibly get around to visiting every 
manufacturer, which is what I should like to do. So I am 
delighted to have this opportunity of speaking to such a large 
gathering of manufacturers. It is rather like Mohammed coming 
to the mountain. 

First, I want to congratulate you on your really tremendous 
efforts to get things going again after the war and to build up 
the export trade which alone can put us on our feet again. Large 
firms and small have all made their contribution and as a 
result we are beginning to climb out of the red. It has been 
rather like pulling yourselves up by your own bootlaces, but 
you have done it. 

Now secondly, having got you all on my side, I hope, I want 
to suggest that if you can be proud of your achievements that 
is no reason why you should be satisfied with them. 

You all know much better than I do why it is so important 
for us as a nation to sell our goods and services abroad. 
After all, if a manufacturer is only able to sell his products to 
his own workpeople he is not going to remain in business very 


No, the problem is not why, but how to increase the export 
trade, how to pay for our imports, how to reduce prices. 

Basically, I believe, the solution lies in our wits; we must 
literally live by our wits. Judging by the past achievements of 
this country we are certainly not a nation of nitwits ! In fact, 
wits are our greatest single asset, and one upon which we can 
still rely. 

My business training, I regret to say, has been sadly neg- 
lected, but I have picked up quite a bit of the jargon in recent 
years. I hope I have the right expression if I say that it is only 
businesslike to exploit our natural assets to the greatest possible 

We must exploit the wit of the scientist and the engineer who 
by their inventions start new industries. We must exploit the 
wit of the specialist and the expert who can improve methods 
of production and the materials. We must exploit the wit of the 
designer who can improve the product itself and its saleability. 
Finally, and probably most important, we must exploit the wit 
of the manager, the co-ordinator who alone can bring together 
and make use of the ideas of the scientist, specialist, and 
designer. The manager should be the great brain-picker, con- 
stantly on the look-out for new methods and new ideas. 

But of course the full weight of responsibility lies on you 
gentlemen the manufacturers, the impresarios of industry. It 
is you who make things tick, who can really stir up the brains, 
human and mechanical. This applies to firms great and small, 
but whereas the big firm can help the manager by keeping a 
research department and a studio full of designers, the small 
firm is probably unable to afford these essentials. But that is no 
excuse. Every manufacturer can use the Research Associations, 
the Productivity Council, the Council of Industrial Design, and 
countless other bodies which are there waiting to have their 
brains picked. 

It should not be necessary for these councils and associations 
to point out where waste and inefficiency can be corrected. 
If manufacturers were less satisfied with themselves and were 

convinced that there is always room for improvement they 
would go asking for help to solve their problems rather than 
wait to be told what is wrong. Healthy self-criticism and an 
abiding willingness to learn seem to me to be the most im- 
portant requirements of any manager. 

I do not want you to get the impression that I consider the 
only way to improve productivity and the only way to keep 
British industry on its feet is to concentrate on the technical 
details. As much if not more can be done in the proper handling 
of the men and women who do their work in the factories and 
workshops. Lord McGowan, who has a certain amount of 
experience of these things, said recently: 'Human or personal 
relations are all-important in any industry. They are the basis 
of its prosperity.' No amount of efficiency experts, labour- 
saving devices, canteens, or even pension schemes will neces- 
sarily make any difference to the spirit of the workpeople. Like 
the old song 'It's not what you do, it's the way that you do it'. 
That is what gets results. In my opinion, the working formula 
is Happiness plus Efficiency equals High Productivity. 

Finally, I would like to pay a tribute to the National Union 
of Manufacturers for all it has done for British industry in the 
thirty-eight years of its existence. It has fought many battles, 
both for its members and sometimes with its members, but always 
with the best interests of the manufacturers of this country at 

I have great pleasure in proposing the toast: The National 
Union of Manufacturers.' 


*953 Alamein Reunion 
23 OCTOBER 1953 

When Field Marshal Montgomery very kindly asked me to 
come to this Reunion, I was naturally most delighted to accept, 
but I was also astonished to find that the great battle at 
Alamein was fought only eleven years ago. That may be only 
a personal feeling of astonishment, but such a tremendous lot 
seems to have happened since then much more, it seems to 
me, than could reasonably be contained in eleven years. But 
there may be another reason for this astonishment. It may be 
that if you live looking forward, you tend to lose track of the 
timing of past events until you are suddenly reminded of one of 
them. This may be bad for one's history but I am quite sure 
it is much better for one's present and future. 

The bald facts of history are obviously important in their 
own way, but what we must all try to remember is the spirit 
and feeling of the past events. We are often urged to show the 
same adventurous spirit of the first Elizabethans, but there are 
examples in our own lifetime which are just as worthy and 
which we can all remember. The spirit of endurance which our 
people showed in the dark days of the war, the triumphant 
spirit which carried you through Alamein and the desert, and 
more recently the unifying spirit which bound us all as brothers 
at the Queen's Coronation this summer. 

There has grown up in recent years the great fashion for 
debunking, the theory that nothing is what it appears to be. 
There is no harm in that; by all means let us debunk the false 
and the sham, the boaster and the fool; but it is a very stupid 
gardener who cannot tell the difference between his weeds and 
his flowers. You know better than I do that the spirit which 
turned the 8th Army into a fighting team was no sham. That is 


something worth remembering and something that cannot be 

So tonight I would say this to you: look ahead, and keep 
alive within you the spirit of endurance, triumph, and unity 
which is our greatest heritage. 


Visit to the University of Edinburgh 


Installation as Chancellor 

This is the third time that I have attended University cere- 
monies in the McEwan Hall, but as far as I am concerned, this 
occasion is by far the most important. 

I consider it a very great honour indeed that you have 
elected me to be Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, 
and I want to take this first opportunity to thank you all per- 
sonally. I am naturally delighted with this new position and 
perhaps a bit flattered, especially as I never had the privilege 
of attending a university myself. However, if I cannot claim a 
Scottish university I can at least claim a Scottish school. It 
cannot be given to many to have the opportunity and the 
desire to heap honours upon their former headmasters. 

Although it gave me very great pleasure indeed to bestow 
degrees upon our distinguished honorary graduates this morn- 
ing, I am sure the others will forgive me if I say with what 
particular pleasure I made Doctor Hahn an Honorary Doctor 
of Laws of this University. 


This is one of the occasions when the University is gathered 
together and made visible; but the greatness of the University 
has to be felt as well as seen. The student body can only be 
represented here today by a small portion of its thousands of 
members. Even more numerous is the General Council of 
Graduates of the University. Many of these are, of course, with 
us in this assembly, but the great majority are to be found far 
beyond the bounds of this building, not merely in Edinburgh, 
but throughout the United Kingdom and the British Com- 
monwealth of Nations. Indeed, they are to be found scattered 
over the face of the earth, wherever there is an honourable 
profession or vocation to be pursued, or public service to be 

That is the University of the present, but there is also the 
University of the past, and it is fitting that on this occasion we 
should call to mind that long procession of men and women, 
some great and famous, some unknown, who, over a period of 
nearly 400 years, have passed through this University and gone 
on to serve their country and their own community in almost 
every walk of life. 

Universities have always been the top of the educational tree, 
and now that you have made me your Chancellor, although I 
realize that it is only a titular position, I feel it is only fair to 
warn you of my personal views on the ticklish subject of teach- 
ing and learning. It is a subject with many experts, but I have 
noticed that in their discussions the vigour of their arguments 
is seldom matched by the unanimity of their opinions. I do not 
claim to be an expert, but I am at least nearer the personal 
experience of being educated than most of them. 

I have chosen the subject of 'Education' for this address for 
two very simple reasons. First, and this is purely a personal one, 
I wanted to find out something about the subject myself. 
Secondly, because of my conviction of its vital importance to 
this country both now and for the future. Apart from the ob- 
vious material importance, it will have a tremendous influence 
upon civilized life in these islands in the years ahead. 


The process of education that I wish to discuss starts in the 
schools, but, unfortunately, the very term education means 
different things to different people. To some it means mere 
book learning and the ability to pass examinations, some again 
concentrate on the powers of reasoning and observation, to 
others it means a preparation for life and citizenship, but to 
most of us it means a bit of all these things. 

The difficulty is that while the purely book learning side can 
be measured by standards and examinations, the development 
of character is highly individual and cannot be measured by 
classes or at stated intervals. Neither can the training of intel- 
lect and the development of character be done separately, be- 
cause character will be formed whether it is guided into the 
right paths or whether it is neglected, and no amount of intel- 
lectual training will make up for that neglect. 

In addition, life in school should be so ordered that it is in a 
real sense a preparation for life in a larger community; it is 
out of classroom hours and away from home that many of the 
practical lessons of life are taught and learned. The schools 
therefore have this further duty, to teach the young to live as 
members of a community with all that that implies in learning 
to give and take and play their part in a common life. 

Whatever the meaning of education, then, there can be no 
doubt that all schools have the threefold responsibility of train- 
ing the intellect, actively developing character, and providing 
a practical preparation for life. 

In the formation of character and the preparation for citizen- 
ship, parents and schools are both in their turn helped by the 
many voluntary organizations who teach the principle of ser- 
vice to the community, such as the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 
Boys' and Girls' Clubs, and the many Cadet units. In addition, 
there are many short courses, as it were, like the summer camps 
and the Outward Bound Schools, both of which have grown 
out of the Duke of York's Camps. Each of them in its own way 
plays a vital part in the educational structure, and between 
them, by the very variety of their aims, outlook, and methods, 

they can help every sort and kind of children. After all, it is the 
qualities of initiative and perseverance, qualities of the spirit, 
which are going to use the trained intellect to the best advantage. 

When it comes to training the intellect the schools bear the 
full burden of responsibility and they in their turn rely abso- 
lutely upon the teachers. Theirs is a dedicated life, for there 
cannot be any other profession with so many heart-breaks and 
so much satisfaction, so much responsibility and such meagre 
reward. It may be a splendid idea to have one examination for 
all, but it would be a disaster if every child were prepared for 
that examination in exactly the same way. Every school has its 
own characteristics, which are due to the individuality of its 
teachers and traditions; indeed, it is inevitable, and a blessing 
for every part of our national life, that schools should be differ- 
ent and each one unique. 

But in the preparation for examinations and professions 
teachers are up against the everlasting problem of aptitude. 
There is no doubt that they have the opportunity and the respon- 
sibility to find their pupils' natural bent, but should they then 
concentrate on that or should they keep the scope of teaching 
for those with natural aptitudes as wide as possible? Obviously, 
to find the natural bent of a majority the range of teaching has 
to be fairly wide in the first place, and ideally it should be kept 
as wide as possible until it is essential to specialize for a particu- 
lar profession or vocation. Far be it from me to tell the teacher 
his business, but in my opinion intense specialization is neither 
necessary nor desirable at any school. 

The necessities of a successful professional career are a broad 
mind and wide interests. Their foundations must be laid in 
school. If narrowness begins in school it cannot be cured at the 
university or anywhere else. It is in school and not at the 
university that the budding scientist should be helped, for in- 
stance, to develop a taste for music and the arts, and the young 
historian an understanding and reverence for science, and both, 
incidentally, an appreciation of the crafts. 

The late Lord Tweedsmuir stated the problem in this way : 


'That problem I should define as how to strike a just balance 
between the academic and the practical; how to combine 
education in the broadest sense, which is the training of the 
mind and character, with the acquisition of the special tech- 
nique which enables a boy to earn his livelihood 5 , and he goes 
on: 'The primary purpose of humane studies is the understand- 
ing of human nature, the broadening of the human interests and 
the better appreciation of the values of human life.' 

I personally believe that education should be one continuous 
process particularly for those who are to enjoy the privilege of 
going to a university. But this continuity can only be achieved 
by the very closest understanding between the schools and the 
universities. The schools cannot concentrate on the broad 
training of the intellect and the building of character if the 
universities are going to demand narrow academic qualifica- 
tions for their entry requirements. Here, again, all depends on 
the teachers in school and university working together to ensure 
that the education of our ablest youth, the future leaders in 
thought, is conceived as one whole and not in several bits. 

At this point I would like to digress for a moment, because it 
is only the minority who go on to a university from school. For 
the great majority the two years National Service is really the 
final stage of their education, so far as their preparation for life 
is concerned. Service with the Armed Forces may not be a 
severe intellectual exercise, but it is, or at least it can be, a very 
important character-building experience. That has nothing to 
do with the much discussed question whether National Service 
is necessary or not from a purely military point of view. If I 
may go to a shipbuilding yard to illustrate what I mean, if the 
yard is home and the stocks are the school, then National Ser- 
vice is the fitting-out basin. In the same way that a ship leaves 
the stocks at her launching and goes to the fitting-out basin to 
be made ready for sea, so must all men leave the intimate circle 
of home and school to be fitted out for life. There are many who 
do not like the experience of having the rough edges knocked 
off, but there are very few who come to any harm. 


Turning now to the university. As I have already said, I have 
no personal experience of a university education, but I often 
think of the differences between a Service and a university 
training. I graduated in the Navy, and I know the value of 
Service training in discipline, decision, and the art of handling 
men; it is a specialized and practical training, and yet a broad 
outlook and an original mind are essential to reach the top. In 
contrast, the university seems to breathe an atmosphere of free- 
dom, freedom to achieve as well as freedom to give up. Freedom 
to make or mar oneself and the freedom of research and inquiry. 
And with it go the friendships of university life which are such 
a potent and interesting force in the community. However, I 
still firmly believe that a university student has a great deal to 
gain from National Service however much the specialists may 
complain that it is a waste of time. 

As I see it, university courses can be divided between those 
which train the mind for general purposes and those which 
train the mind for special or professional purposes. Originally, 
I imagine, the proportion of one to the other was fixed by de- 
mand. A university must undoubtedly be alive to the demands 
of its members, but if it is to serve the best interests of the 
nation it must also be alive to the needs of the nation. 

The needs of the professions, of science, industry, and com- 
merce are constantly changing, particularly in this age of new 
invention. The university must continually assess the effects of 
these changes and by inducement and encouragement play its 
part in preparing men and women for the jobs that will be 
waiting for them by the time they are trained, even if they do 
not exist at the time of their training. If new specialist courses 
are only to be instituted as a result of the combined pressure 
from science and industry on the one hand and the students' 
wishes on the other, a lot of valuable time is going to be lost 
and the shortages which already exist are merely going to get 

With the growing complexity of modern life, an ever-increas- 
ing degree of specialization is becoming a professional necessity. 


The universities may decry the necessity, cries of Polytechnic 
may be raised, but specialization is here to stay. The real prob- 
lem is to see that specialization does not become exclusive. The 
budding specialist through school and university should first be 
given the opportunity of acquiring wider interests and then the 
chance to pursue them without detriment to his profession. In 
this respect the university has a particular responsibility, because 
the greatest virtue of the university is its universality. Every 
graduate, specialist or not, is bound to be considerably in- 
fluenced by the atmosphere of the university in which he lives 
and by the varied contacts with his fellow students and teachers. 
As a result, in time and with luck, one can hope that graduates 
will see themselves and their professions in the proper perspec- 
tive against the backcloth of their experience. 

Perhaps it matters little to individuals if they are selfish, 
narrow-minded, or bigoted, but it matters very much to the 
community in which they live and work. Especially if that com- 
munity forms part of a democracy where the power rests with 
the people. The quality of a democracy is the reflection of the 
qualities of its citizens, and it rests particularly with the univer- 
sities to instil and foster those qualities of knowledge, under- 
standing, and tolerance which are so badly needed by every 
one of us. 

Particularly understanding. We are continually hearing ap- 
peals for better international understanding, but what we do 
not hear so often are appeals for a better understanding between 
professions and a better understanding between different sec- 
tions of the community and different sections of the British 
Isles. If charity begins at home, understanding should begin in 
school and develop in the university. 

It is quite possible that the most important task of the univer- 
sity is the teaching of men and women, but it is not the only 
task. It is a centre of learning as well as of teaching, and the 
vigorous quest for new knowledge is a necessity to keep the 
vitality of university teaching. Professors working on the fringe 
of knowledge command respect, and, more important, have the 


power to inspire their students as no pure lecturer can hope 
to do. 

Edinburgh University in particular has a great tradition of 
fundamental work. When the great English universities were 
floundering in the doldrums of the eighteenth century, there was 
a vigour and vitality here which it would be hard to match 
even today. However, with Sir Edward Appleton as Principal 
and Vice- Chancellor there is no fear of stagnation here. We can 
be properly proud and relieved that someone with such an 
original and penetrating mind has the destinies of this Univer- 
sity in his keeping. 

Finally, the last stage of the process of education is reached 
in the graduate schools. These are the creative cells of the 
modern university and it is in them that the freedom of thought 
and research should be fostered. Any attempt to convert, or 
should I say subvert, them into commercial, professional, or 
industrial research laboratories is a blow at the very integrity 
of the university. They are the final flowering of the tree of 
education, delicate but vital. 

You may think that I have spent rather a long time laying 
down the law with very little justification. May I remind you 
then that the last time I was in this hall I was given full per- 
mission to teach law in any university in Christendom, so you 
have only yourselves to blame. 

In education, if in nothing else, the Scotsman knows what is 
best for him; indeed only a Scotsman can really survive a 
Scottish education, but having survived it he has spread the 
name and fame of his schools and universities throughout the 

I am proud and honoured to become Chancellor of this great 
University, for the fame of it is universal and the list of my pre- 
decessors is truly distinguished. I shall try all I can to be a 
worthy successor. I cannot claim the great gifts and remarkable 
career of the late Lord Linlithgow, but I hope you will find 
in me a constant desire to further the best interests of the 

81 o 

Edinburgh University has a wonderful history, but that alone 
is not enough. The foundations for future success must be laid 
now if the University is to play its full part in sending out into 
this country and the Commonwealth men and women as con- 
scious of their duties as of their trained abilities. 


Commonwealth Tour, 1953-4 

13 JANUARY 1954 

Address to meeting of New Zealand Scientists at 
Wellington, New Zealand 

When the arrangements for our tour in New Zealand were first 
under discussion, I had just been appointed President of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. For that 
reason, I asked to meet representative scientific workers here so 
that I could hear at first hand of some of the scientific problems 
under investigation in New Zealand, and also learn something 
of the scientific atmosphere. I made this request because I am 
convinced that the proper development and security of any 
country depends to a very large extent upon a high level of 
technology and scientific activity. 

Somehow this idea of mine has led to the suggestion that I 
should address you at this meeting and, while I do so willingly, 
you cannot expect me, after such a short time, to be able to 
discuss your scientific problems with you as intelligently as I 
would wish and as you might perhaps hope. 


As President of the British Association, I had originally in- 
tended to bring you fraternal greetings from the scientists of 
the United Kingdom. As you know, I no longer hold that 
position, but I am delighted to tell you that Dr. Adrian, Master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, who this year combines the 
Presidency of the British Association with that of the Royal 
Society, has asked me to bring their greetings and good wishes 
to the Royal Society of New Zealand and the scientists assembled 
here in Wellington today. 

I daresay that when this tour is over I shall have a chance to 
collect my impressions and form some conclusions, but there is 
one thing which seems quite clear to me already. I have always 
pictured science as man's struggle with nature to discover her 
secrets. Nature has been, so to speak, the scientists' adversary, 
reluctant to part with her mysteries. But here in New Zealand 
the picture seems to me to be entirely different. My impression 
is that nature and science are working in happy partnership. 
This may be because the principal efforts of scientists in New 
Zealand have been in the field of agriculture in its broadest 
sense. Indeed, New Zealand has produced many distinguished 
men whose work has been devoted to agricultural science. 

Most of these men are fortunately still alive and contributing 
to our store of agricultural knowledge and to the advancement 
of New Zealand's already outstandingly efficient agriculture. 
It would be invidious to select a few names from amongst so 
many. Their skill has used the wonderful climate of New 
Zealand and her potentially fruitful soils to provide one of the 
most, if not the most, economic systems for the production of 
meat and dairy products in the world. 

But the soil was not always fruitful before the studies of the 
soil chemists showed the need for trace elements. The dairy 
industry could not have been what it is today without the 
remarkable work of the bacteriologists. 

The study of the breeding and nutrition of livestock has 
raised the quality of sheep and cattle to its present high level. 
So well known is New Zealand for her meat, butter, and cheese 


that we are apt to forget that scientists have also made possible 
the successful cultivation of fruit and tobacco and have bred new 
varieties of grasses and cereals to suit New Zealand conditions. 

One name, however, I think I must mention, for he was 
probably the most distinguished pioneer of much of this work 
the late Dr. Cockayne. New Zealand owes him a great debt, 
and in mentioning his name I would like to pay my tribute to 
all those who have followed him. 

Quite apart from the agricultural sciences, there is no doubt 
whatever that New Zealand has pulled her full weight in 
scientific development within the limits of her resources, whether 
it be the care of children or the study of diseases such as goitre 
or the close study of Polynesian migrations. The reputation of 
her scientists, both those who have left these shores and those 
who are working here, stands high in Britain and other countries. 

The material achievements of scientific work in the past half 
century have been so remarkable that they may have led to 
claims verging on the extravagant, but, as Sir Edward Appleton 
has pointed out, we must avoid at all costs the disagreeable con- 
sequence of putting the scientist on a pedestal, for all true 
scientists are humble in the face of their knowledge. 

The advances in basic knowledge between the great wars were 
prodigious, and since the end of the last war the pace has 
accelerated still more and still there is no finality in sight. New 
knowledge is being obtained at such a rate that one man 
cannot keep abreast by even reading the abstracts of papers in 
one of the traditional branches of science. Subdivision and 
specialization are inevitable. Even so, the interest of the indi- 
vidual scientist need not be lessened by this specialization. 
There is still the pleasure of attempting to explore and under- 
stand and pass on to fellow workers. In an ideal world each 
scientist in his search for fundamentals builds on the work of 
his predecessors and colleagues, irrespective of racial or national 
boundaries, and we must keep this ideal in sight even if it is not 
now fully with us. 

It is perhaps a different story when this common, funda- 


mental, scientific knowledge is applied to industrial or national 
purposes. The field of applied science enters into questions of 
relative industrial development or into defence in which 
questions of national or group security arise. The matter is 
further complicated because the cost of apparatus, instruments, 
and facilities have become enormous, as it has become more and 
more removed from the common facilities required in everyday 
life. The string and sealing wax and simple flask days of research 
in the physical and chemical sciences, for instance, are over. 
Rutherford in his day could operate the material requirements 
of his band of research workers on less than 1,500 a year 
in terms of present-day money. Nowadays work in his field 
needs machines and atomic piles which cost as much as a small 
battleship and, relatively, this is the position in all branches of 

The day of the private adventurer in science is over. Even the 
universities cannot meet the demands of their science faculties; 
and it is the universities who train the nation's future scientists. 
It has become a national problem and if the nation needs top- 
class scientists it must help the universities to train them, which 
means of course that the money must come in the main from the 
taxpayer. Yet pure science can promise no definite returns in a 
given time, while political interference or official lay direction 
can do much more harm than good. However, by and large, 
the public understands that it is a necessary investment, and, on 
the whole, is sympathetic. As regards industry, particularly its 
larger units, the problem is rather to find enough sufficiently 
good men and women for the work. But as regards science for 
national purposes, health, agriculture, transport, nationalized 
undertakings, defence, the public can only be expected through 
its government to provide funds if it can be persuaded that 
science for itself is a good thing, that scientists as a whole and 
their leaders are worthy, and that science has a direct influence 
on its conditions of living and working. 

Scientists, on the other hand, need conditions of work 
peculiar to their avocation freedom to think and work in their 


own way, freedom from unreasonable restrictions and regula- 
tions an atmosphere in which they can enjoy their work, and 
earn the just reward of achievement, particularly in the eyes 
of their colleagues and universities. To obtain these conditions 
our scientific societies must be careful of their standards, of 
the leaders they elect or those whom they honour with their 

For their part, scientists as a whole must help the public to 
understand by making science and scientific method intelligible 
to them, without making use of sensational publicity or cynical 
fault-finding criticism. 

Your own efforts are best applied to the problems near at 
hand. Each country is dependent on all others for contributions 
to fundamental knowledge which assist in the solving of its own 
problems, and it only needs a high enough local level of scientific 
thought to take reasonably full advantage of the work of others. 
While the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 
can be relied on to take care of all branches of science which 
have a particular local importance, it remains for the universi- 
ties to maintain a sufficiently high level of scientific thought in 
all other branches. 

You may think this is asking too much of a small country. 
You may point out that the best of your scientific brains are 
tempted overseas by the intellectual attraction of the larger 
world. From Rutherford and Mellor, down through many lesser 
but still distinguished lights, you are tempted to say that New 
Zealand receives little but reflected glory. In the long run that 
is not so. The fruits of their work are already returning to New 
Zealand in the applications of their discoveries and in the 
respect which New Zealand and New Zealanders enjoy, especi- 
ally throughout the English-speaking world. If you create the 
right conditions, you may look to see in New Zealand growing 
centres of original scientific work of which you will be proud. 

In applied research, however, particularly for military pur- 
poses, there is less free flow of information, while the effort 
involved is, in general, more expensive. In this field I believe 


that it would be an enormous advantage if the countries of the 
Commonwealth could pool their resources. Modern warfare 
depends more and more on scientific equipment and trained 
men to operate it. There are not enough workers in any one 
country of the Commonwealth to provide all the up-to-date 
equipment necessary to ensure that each unit is properly pre- 
pared for war. It is good for morale if the Services know that 
they all have the best equipment available. The provision of 
such equipment depends on the scientific level of industry in 
our Commonwealth which again depends on the resources of 
high-grade technical manpower. Any effort to make the best 
use of this manpower must surely lead to the common good. 
But as in every other branch of science you must have defence 
scientists who can understand and appreciate the work being 
done elsewhere. Pooling resources does not mean that all 
military research development can be safely left to somebody 
else however great the saving may be. 

I have been most interested to hear about the wise, far- 
sighted experiment involved in the creation of your Defence 
Science Corps. Trained scientists and engineers who understand 
the problems of the Services are just as valuable as Service chiefs 
who understand the capabilities and limitations of scientists. 

It is not only scientists who can make a contribution to 
science. Almost as much can be done by men in authority, in 
industry, in the Services, in politics, or in administration who 
have a scientific outlook. These men can help because they can 
make the openings, they can authorize research and encourage 
its application, and also because their faith in the scientist can 
be his greatest inspiration. 

Finally, of course, there remains, particularly for you in New 
Zealand, the all-important question is it all worth it? Does all 
this effort and money pay any dividends? I think the answer is 
contained in last year's Presidential address to the Royal Society 
of New Zealand which is a most comprehensive and instruc- 
tive review of the application of research here in New Zealand. 
I would like to remind you of the concluding paragraphs: 


Such is the tempo of the times that it is easy to forget the sig- 
nificance of achievements of a few years past. They easily become 
accepted as a matter of course, and the anxiety and worry they 
occasioned, as well as the effort demanded for their solution, being 
easily forgotten. 

And again: 

The review also reveals that New Zealand industry has shown a 
readiness to adopt scientific advances and to use them in ways which 
promote our national prosperity, which to an increasing extent must 
depend on the assistance which scientific effort must supply. 

Finally, there exists abundant evidence that where applied in- 
telligently the results of scientific effort pay very handsome dividends 
whether in Government Departments or in New Zealand industries. 

Science pays all right, but there is more to it than that. For 
the future prosperity of the nation it is essential that everyone 
should realize that the essence of science is a way of thinking, an 
adventure of the mind and deed of partnership with nature. 


Commonwealth Tour,, 1953-4 


Address at Canterbury Chamber of Commerce 
Luncheon, Christchurch, New Zealand 

In 1945 I was serving in a destroyer here in the Pacific, and the 
time came for the ship to be docked and refitted. It so happened 
that another destroyer in the same flotilla was also due for a 
refit, so we returned to Sydney from the Gulf of Ley te together. 
We suspected that one of us would go to New Zealand, to 


Wellington, and the other probably to Melbourne. Well, 
someone in the Commander-in-Chief's office spun a coin, or 
whatever they do to decide these things, and we went to Mel- 
bourne and Wager went to Wellington. After the refit they told 
us all about it and ever since then I have been waiting for a 
chance to visit New Zealand. Here we are at last, and both the 
Queen and I are delighted to be here, and everything we have 
seen and done has given us the greatest possible pleasure. 

This visit to New Zealand is already nearing its end, but what 
we have seen and learned will remain with us as long as we live. 

John Robert Godley must have been a most remarkable 
pioneer. His choice of such lovely names as Christchurch and 
Canterbury shows that he must have had a reverence for the 
past while he built for the future, and that mixture of feelings is 
still apparent today in Christchurch, as in many other parts of 
New Zealand. 

It has become rather fashionable to make fun of old-fashioned 
ideas and for the younger generation to belittle the efforts of 
their elders. It would need a very small-minded man not to 
admire the founders and builders of Christchurch. If you can 
keep alive their outlook and their determination to build a 
community combining the best of the old and the advantages 
of the new, you will be rendering a tremendous service to the 
whole of New Zealand. 

Everybody will always have something to worry about, but in 
Europe just now the problems seem to be never-ending. The 
difficulties of reconstruction and the tensions of the international 
situation tend sometimes to obscure the blessings of this life. 
So that a visit to New Zealand is like a breath of fresh air, just as 
much for the gentle climate and lovely countryside as for the 
atmosphere of vigorous development which is apparent in every 
part of the country. 

If nature has smiled on New Zealand, then New Zealanders 
have certainly made the most of it. Your agriculture is a credit 
to your farmers and an immense benefit to Great Britain and 
other countries who need your food products. I am frequently 


told that next to peace food is the world's most difficult problem. 
But food feeds people, and the demand for more food is not so 
that people can eat more, or even so that the under-nourished 
can have enough, it is wanted because almost everywhere in the 
world populations are swelling with incredible speed. 

Here you grow enough to feed yourselves, and with the sur- 
plus you can buy all the gadgets that you need for your homes 
and farms. Until, of course, the population gets so big that 
there is no exportable surplus of food. This is what Sir Theodore 
Rigg said recently in Canberra : 

With a population increasing at the rate of 2 per cent, per annum, 
a steady increase in farm crops, dairy and pastoral products will be 
necessary to meet the food needs of our people and to obtain the 
necessary overseas currencies to permit the importation of manu- 
factured goods and capital equipment required in the country. 

In twenty-five years the population of New Zealand, based on a 
2 per cent, yearly increase, should be over 3 million, i.e. a 50 per cent, 
increase of our present population. To maintain the same standard 
of living which we enjoy today, not only must food crops consumed 
in New Zealand be increased 50 per cent., but exports likewise 
should be increased by about the same amount. 

In agriculture, and I include forestry in that term, you have 
the tremendous advantage that good agriculture, as opposed 
to the exploitation of land, works with a renewable raw material ; 
it is a continuous cycle; unlike mines and oil-wells it does not 
dig into capital assets. (Naturally I am not suggesting that 
mineral or other deposits should not be worked where they 

I see no reason to doubt that the solid interlocking of your 
economy with that of the United Kingdom will continue for a 
great many years. It is most unlikely that the farmers of the 
United Kingdom could be able to feed much more than half the 
present population. I also see no reason to get fussed about 
the last meat agreement with the United States. It is perhaps not 
appreciated that in 1951 New Zealanders consumed 228 Ib. 
of meat per head against 74 Ib. per head in the United Kingdom. 


You can take it from me it is not because they do not like 
meat. In any case, * Canterbury lamb' is a recognized symbol 
of quality, and more than that, it has become a habit and a 
tradition, and, as you know, the people of the old country are 
great believers in tradition. 

The most remarkable aspect of New Zealand's agriculture, 
to me at any rate, is that although it is the basis of your economy 
and the bulk of your export trade, it only employs 20 per cent, of 
the working population, which is 6 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion. I can think of no other undertaking so nationally reward- 
ing or so cheap in manpower. 

In any process of production a plentiful supply of, preferably, 
cheap power is probably the most important factor in achieving 
high productivity. Here again New Zealand seems to be especi- 
ally blessed because the main source of your power is con- 
tinually renewing itself, and that source will be available to you 
and your descendants until the rain stops falling. You are also 
fortunate in that both agriculture and electricity, hydro or 
geothermal, can still be greatly developed. I am told that the 
number of cattle and sheep could be doubled and electricity 
could be increased two and a half times in North Island and 
twenty-five times here in South Island. But for all that there 
is no reason to lose sight of the fact that there is a limit to 

Every country should aim at a balanced economy, if only as 
a cushion against changing world conditions. In this respect the 
secondary industries play a most important part, and once more 
looking at it through the eyes of a European, you are par- 
ticularly well placed, if only for the time being. With the flood 
of new knowledge, methods, and materials the manufacturing 
industries are hard put to keep up, particularly where plant 
and buildings, tradition and custom are old and well entrenched. 
Here you can build from scratch and be certain of at least a few 
years' production before drastic reconstruction is necessary in 
order to maintain efficiency. 

But industry is not merely a question of factories, railways, 


ports, and manufactured goods. Industry depends on the men 
and women who work in it, and it cannot thrive without a happy 
industrial society. Security and amenities play their part, but 
probably the most important single contribution to a happy 
industrial society is good housing. 

You are fortunate in that you have room to build, and if New 
Zealand builds now with an eye to the future, as Christchurch 
was built, the foundations will be laid for the health and happi- 
ness of the future generations of men and women who will find 
their livelihood in industrial and urban jobs. 

These things may be priceless assets to New Zealand, but 
there is something else here which ought to be an encourage- 
ment to the whole world. The history of many countries is 
shamed by racial intolerance, and in many others it is still 
a burning problem. Here in New Zealand, after a stormy 
beginning, you have set a wonderful example for all races and 
countries, of two peoples living happily together in peace and 

These are my impressions, for what they are worth. I know 
they are superficial and do not take into account a great many 
serious problems, but if I have sounded envious I hope I have 
also conveyed my admiration for your achievements and for 
your efforts for the future. 

Progress is not measured by gadgets, but by the development 
of human nature, and prosperity is not measured by the 
quantity of inhabitants, but by the quality of their standard 
of living. 


Commonwealth Tour, 1953-4 


Opening of University House, Australian 
National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 

It was a wise and bold decision to establish this National Uni- 
versity of Australia. Wise because it recognizes most clearly the 
importance of higher education and scientific research to the 
welfare of the State, and bold because there are always more 
reasons for not doing something than there are for doing it. 

The University with its present four postgraduate schools can 
look forward to becoming a focus of scientific talent in Australia. 
But I hope that in order to leaven the scientific lump, the study 
of the humanities will not be neglected. A broad scope of intel- 
lectual activity stimulates and freshens each of its parts. The 
greater the necessity for individuals to specialize, the more 
important it becomes for that specialization to be done against 
the widest possible background. A narrow field of work must 
not be allowed to give rise to a narrow outlook. 

This University is also being established at a moment when 
the first flowering of Australian science is giving a promise of 
great things for the future. I have heard something of the 
remarkable work that is being done in the biological sciences, 
in science applied to agriculture, in radio-physics and radio 
astronomy, and by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial 
Research Organization. I regret very much that there has been 
no chance to see something of this work or to meet some of the 
people concerned with it. But I will come back to see their work 
because as surely as the efforts of the pioneer farmers built the 
Australia of today, so it is the pioneering scientists and engineers 
who are building the Australia of the future. 


Science and scientists will receive great support and en- 
couragement from this University, but it takes more than good 
organization, nice laboratories, and a tidy arrangement of 
responsibilities to get the best out of human material. In science, 
as in many other walks of life, only good leadership can produce 
brilliant results from a team of good scientists. High standards 
of teaching and research are invaluable, but the University can 
perform a further and most important service to Australia if it 
can find and encourage the natural leaders and teachers, who 
can do so much for science. 

I hope everyone who works here, both now and in the future, 
will have good fortune and a useful and happy life. 


Commonwealth Tour, 1953-4 
20 APRIL 1954 

Opening of the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, 


We are both very pleased to be here today and to witness the 
start of the career of the University of Ceylon. 

I am particularly delighted to be here because I have the 
honour to be Chancellor of the Universities of Edinburgh and 
Wales, and I bring you their greetings and best wishes for the 

Under the terms of the Kandyan Convention Her Majesty 
is the successor of the King of Kandy who had the good sense 
to choose this site for a palace, and I also understand that one 
of your chronicles has described the river which passes the 
University Park as a 'necklace of pearls around the neck of a 


Queen of Kandy 5 . You can pride yourselves therefore that the 
past, the present and the poets all approve the choice of this 
lovely site for the University. 

The foundation occurred during the dark days of 1942, when 
an enemy fleet was in the Indian Ocean and the thoughts of all 
in Britain were on Ceylon. It was a great act of faith and a 
hope for the future of mankind that the people of Ceylon should 
choose that moment to establish a seat of learning. 

It is perhaps also significant that these same surroundings 
housed the headquarters which planned a major part of the 
defeat of a particularly nasty example of aggression and tyranny 
and brought freedom to a great many people. Now these gardens 
have become a headquarters in the more peaceful battle against 

There is another interesting coincidence. At about the same 
time that I was President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, His Excellency the Chancellor hap- 
pened to be President of the Classical Association. I told him 
the other day that I had read his scholarly Presidential Address 
with great interest, and somewhat to my surprise he admitted 
that he had read mine. But I hope that this coincidence of our 
association with the start of this University is a good omen, for 
it is my strong belief that we need a better understanding be- 
tween the arts and science; an agreement that knowledge with- 
out wisdom is of little use. 

The accumulation of knowledge is useless and indeed danger- 
ous unless we produce men and women wise enough to know 
how to use it. That is where university life and activities are of 
the utmost importance. The free atmosphere of a university 
preserved and enhanced by self-restraint and self-discipline is 
urgently needed to expose prejudice and uncontrolled emotion 
as the greatest enemies of knowledge and wisdom. 

Science is turned to useful as well as to destructive purposes, 
and the discoveries of those who study human behaviour can 
be used to enlighten and improve or to hoodwink and bam- 
boozle. The power of both is immense and growing. If our 


civilization is to survive we need men and women of the highest 
integrity and moral strength to control that power. 

A university is where students first take to the wings of 
thought, and like ordinary fledgelings some remarkable feats 
of intellectual aeronautics are not only to be expected but en- 
couraged. For the ultimate object is that men and women will 
leave with a sound knowledge of how to think with honesty and 
integrity, how to see through false propaganda and with the 
strength of mind not to be driven from the path of truth. 

I listened with interest, Mr. Chancellor, to your praise of a 
government, for usually governments are given more blame for 
what they have not done than praise for what they have done. 
In this case the Queen and I would like to add our congratula- 
tions to the Ministers and Members of Parliament and the 
many other benefactors who provided the land and the money, 
the architects and engineers who drew the plans and executed 
them, as well as the many thousands of working men and women 
who laboured with their hands to produce what we see around 
us today. 

Beautiful buildings and lovely surroundings will not by them- 
selves ensure the success of this University. Success depends on 
the type of man and woman who graduate from here and their 
subsequent work. It also depends on the teaching and adminis- 
trative staff, who must found and build up traditions which 
will be a source of strength and pride to all Ceylon. It is you, 
the human element, who will confirm or deny the faith of the 
Government and people of Ceylon when they decided to build 
this place. And do not forget that the university system has 
many friends in the world, and I can assure you that they too 
will be anxiously watching the development of the human side 
of this the latest addition. In the Navy it is said that you can 
judge the state of a ship by the state of her boats, and I do not 
think it would be too much to say that a country can be judged 
by her universities. You have been given a wonderful chance, 
the rest is up to you. 

The whole future of Ceylon will be moulded by members of 


this University; they will have far-reaching opportunities and 
responsibilities. We believe that this can become one of the 
great universities of the Commonwealth, a Commonwealth 
which has, happily, many great universities. 

You have remarked, Mr. Chancellor, that it is not easy to 
open a university because once established it is always open. 
However, like the shopkeepers of London during the bombing, 
I can declare this place to be 'more open than usual'. And in 
doing so I wish the University of Ceylon, now established at 
Peradeniya, and all who may come here to teach or to learn, 
every success in all their undertakings. 


English-Speaking Union of the Commonwealth 
Dinner to General Gruenther 

8 JUNE 1954 
Toast 'The Supreme Allied Command Europe* 

This dinner tonight falls very near the tenth anniversary of the 
Invasion of Normandy. That great undertaking will be remem- 
bered as long as history lives, but we remember it tonight for 
one very special reason. The Invasion was probably the supreme 
example of co-operation for success. Co-operation between 
Services, between nations, between planners and leaders, it will 
always be there to show what can be done. 

We are also gathered here for another reason. This dinner 
is being given in honour of General Gruenther, whose main 
job at SHAPE is to get people and nations to co-operate now. 
We had also hoped to entertain Mrs. Gruenther, who has 
played such a notable part in helping the General to build a 
happy and co-operative atmosphere at his headquarters, but she 
has been unavoidably prevented from joining us this evening. 

97 H 

Europe at the end of the War needed two things very badly, 
social stability and military security. To build up confidence 
those two problems had to be solved. The solution of one 
without the solution of the other could not and will not achieve 
the desired result. 

I think perhaps I had better not go any further with that as I 
shall certainly end in trouble and there are altogether too many 
experts here tonight. But at least I can say this: here is the man 
who is tackling the problem of building up in Europe a sense 
of military security, and a sense of military security only follows 
from the facts. We know he is fitted for this difficult job by his 
previous record as a Staff Officer, but even more by his remark- 
able record as Supreme Commander since he succeeded 
General Ridgway. 

He has been in Europe some time as Chief of Staff to the two 
previous Supreme Commanders and has most certainly acquired 
an extensive knowledge of the unpredictable ways of Euro- 
peans. At any rate he knows enough to be accepted, indeed 
welcomed, as an impartial umpire in the age-old game of 
European rivalries. (Having been an international bridge 
umpire in his spare time may have something to do with it.) 

He is the third Supreme Commander in Europe and the 
third American in that post. That is a compliment to America 
as well as a tacit acknowledgement that America is playing the 
leading part in building up military security in Europe. I think 
we in this Union can also take pride in the fact that he speaks 
English, or perhaps I had better put it that he speaks a language 
which we can all understand. I think it would only be fair to 
add that he has, of course, the invaluable support and assistance 
of an English-speaking Field Marshal. 

In the last six months the Queen and I have had a unique 
opportunity to discover, by practical experience, that unity 
between peoples is brought about by a common acceptance of 
ideas good ideas which have the quality of striking a respon- 
sive chord in human minds. Unity of thought cannot be brought 
about by coercion. 


The good ideas which are embodied in the British Common- 
wealth and Empire have developed and grown over many 
centuries. SHAPE, on the other hand, has had to achieve the 
same sort of unity in a notoriously disunited area in a few short 
years. We have every cause to be thankful to the Supreme 
Commanders for what they have accomplished in the face of 
tremendous obstacles. If anything the present will prove to be 
one of the most testing periods. With increased resources, 
experienced staff, and a slight reduction in tension, General 
Gruenther must somehow keep alive the sense of urgency, ex- 
tend and improve the machinery of the organization as a whole. 

We can help by showing our confidence in him and in all 
those who are working for him. 

Personally I am looking forward to seeing something of 
General Gruenther's 'set-up 5 in a fortnight and I hope that 
what I have said proves to be true. In the meantime, on behalf 
of the English-Speaking Union, everyone here tonight, as well 
as many others, we thank you for what you have done, we wish 
you further success in the future, and we would all like to drink 
to the health of General Gruenther and, although she is absent, 
to Mrs. Gruenther. 


Visit to the Staff College, Camberley 
30 JUNE 1954 

Address after Lecture by Sir Frederick 

I am delighted to have had this chance to listen to Sir Frederick 
Brundrett here at the Military Staff College. I have listened to 
his remarks with the utmost interest and attention. I was par- 
ticularly fascinated by his reference to helicopters. I am 


delighted to think that my presence here is due to an abortion ! 

The lecture we have just listened to has brought out most 
clearly the way in which the relations between science and the 
Services have developed over the years. It also brings out the 
enormous contribution which scientists have made to the con- 
duct of war in the past and the possibilities which are being 
opened up for the future. It now rests with the Services to make 
the best use of scientific development. 

Lord Montgomery said this at the end of his annual exercise 
at SHAPE 'and the conclusion I reach is that we must adjust 
our affairs to the progress of science'. 

The point is whether the Services are in fact in a position to 
adjust their affairs to the progress of science at all levels. 

I have a feeling that Sir Frederick may have left the impres- 
sion that science should only be handled at the very top level 
and in the rarefied atmosphere of the Ministry of Defence or 
possibly with bated breath in the Service Ministries. That is 
obviously an exaggeration, but that is my feeling. 

In fact, of course, scientists and science can and do cope with 
problems at all levels so long as they find people at all levels 
able to understand what they are getting at. It is obviously 
more rewarding to discuss improved infantry weapons with a 
company commander who has fought in Korea than with, let 
us say, a general who was at Balaclava. But if that company 
commander does not understand what the scientist is trying to 
do there will be no significant progress either. 

The development of weapons and equipment of all sorts and 
for all Services demands the very closest co-operation between 
scientists and the Services at all levels. 

The second field in which science has proved itself to be most 
useful to the Services is in operational research. Here, again, no 
problem is too small or at too low a level which the scientist is 
not prepared to have a shot at solving. But the problem must be 
stated in terms which he can understand and the solution worked 
out jointly in such a way that it is both scientifically, militarily, 
and practically sound. This can only be done if there is the very 


closest co-operation and understanding between the Services 
and the scientists at all levels. 

In this connexion I was most impressed to see the way in 
which just these difficulties were being tackled at the Military 
College of Science at Shrivenham. There the dreams of scien- 
tists are kept near the earth by battle-experienced soldiers and 
there the sometimes narrow and inflexible military mind is 
given a course of mental gymnastics. There they both learn 
which problems stand the best chance of being solved by science 
and which are best dealt with by specialized officers. 

In this present age officers need more than the ability to 
understand what scientists are talking about. In my opinion 
officers need to have a scientific attitude of mind themselves. 

By that I mean first of all the ability to look at the problems of 
war and defence without prejudice and without inter-Service 
jealousy. Honour, prestige, tradition, and envy must never be 
allowed to cloud judgement on matters which affect the safety 
of the nation in war. 

Secondly, it means the ability to look upon war as a complete 
undertaking where all available and allowed weapons and re- 
sources are used to achieve success; to be able to profit, without 
recrimination, from past mistakes; for it is from the mistakes 
which we made at the beginning of the last war that we must 
learn and not only from what went right at the end of that war. 

The scientific attitude of mind implies that nothing is taken 
for granted, to accept facts no matter how unpalatable, and to 
distrust anyone who starts off 'I always say the only solution is*. 
It means keeping an open mind when long-cherished ideas are 
proved false and out of date. Merely because a certain problem 
has always been solved in a certain way is no reason to believe 
it is the best way; it may be but there may be a better way. 

It means the ability to distinguish between fact and conjec- 
ture. Above all it means that complete integrity of thought 
without which no scientist can do good work and no officer can 
hope to render valuable service. 

To sum up then. Officers of all three Services must make it 


their business to learn to understand the potentialities and limi- 
tations of science in war. Secondly, the development of weapons 
and equipment is a joint undertaking and demands the closest 
co-operation between designer and user at all levels. Thirdly, if 
operational research is to pay the best dividends scientists and 
the Services must get close together. Lastly, all officers should 
attempt to develop a scientific attitude of mind to everyday 
military problems. 


Visit to Canada, 
10 AUGUST 1954 

Broadcast, from Yellowknife, over Northern 
Network of Amateur Radio Stations 

I am speaking to you from Yellowknife on the Great Slave Lake 
in the North- West Territories. 

I left Vancouver on Sunday, and since then I have visited 
Whitehorse on the Yukon, Fort Nelson, Fort Simpson, Port 
Radium, and Coppermine on the Arctic coast. I have met, and 
spoken with, a good many people in those places, and I have 
seen something of what goes on. 

You may be wondering why I am doing this tour. Well, there 
are two reasons. In the first place, like many other boys, I read 
stories about Canada's North- West and I have long had the 
ambition to see what it looked like. The second reason is that 
three years ago, when the Queen and I were in Canada, we 
heard a great deal about the new developments in this vast area. 
We heard of new mines and new discoveries, and of growing 
communities. In the last few years I have had a chance to see 
quite a bit of industry in different parts of the world, and I know 


from that the increasing importance of the base metals. So I 
decided to see where those metals came from. Nobody could 
think of any good reason why I should not come and have a 
look so here I am. 

I realize only too well that I have only seen a very small 
fraction of this part of Canada, and, of course, I have not seen 
it in winter. As a matter of fact it was warmer at Port Radium 
than it was at Vancouver. 

All the same I shall go back with a much better picture in 
my mind of the North- West Territories, its people and its 

I am still a bit dazed by the immense size of the Territory, 
and when I think of the distances I have covered in terms of 
miles on foot, by water, and by air, my admiration for the early 
explorers and pioneers is greater than ever. 

Men first came to Canada for the fish in the waters off 
Newfoundland, and British seamen explored the Canadian 
arctic in the reign of the first Queen Elizabeth. On land they 
found fur, and the fur trade led them into the interior to exploit 
the forests and farm the rich land of the prairies. Now, in the 
reign of the second Queen Elizabeth, the pioneers are turning 
north again to satisfy the world's hunger for minerals. The land 
here is rich in mineral wealth, and rich too in water power 
which can be harnessed to make electricity. I have seen what 
they have done at Kemano, where a power-house inside a 
mountain will produce 2% million horse-power. I am told that 
the Hamilton river in Labrador is capable of generating 
10 million horse-power, and that is quite something when you 
think that the total developed hydro power in Canada at the 
moment is about 1 5 million horse-power. 

None of this can be done without people. I have met some 
of the men who are opening up this country, and I was even 
more impressed by them than by the possibilities of these 

I was also able to meet many people who have made their 
homes here and are raising families. Aircraft and modern 


science seem to have made life not only tolerable but almost as 
comfortable as in the more temperate zones. However, I feel I 
must add a special tribute to the wives whose cheerfulness and 
courage does more than anything to make life pleasant in 
remote settlements. 

I was also delighted to meet a number of Indians and 
Eskimos, and I know that my children will be enchanted with 
the presents which I was given to take back to them. 

I have thoroughly enjoyed every moment of this tour, and I 
am looking forward to the rest of it, to Churchill and the giant 
project at Knob Lake. 

I am most grateful to everyone who has made this journey 
possible, and particularly to my kind hosts. They have made 
this visit very interesting, and very enjoyable. 

Everything I have seen confirms my belief that Canada is on 
the threshold of an era of great prosperity. I congratulate you 
on what you have done, and I wish you all the best of luck and 
good fortune in the future. 



Visit to Edinburgh 

12 OCTOBER 1954 

Address to meeting of the Speculative Society of 
Edinburgh after having received Honorary Mem- 
bership and having listened to reading of essay 

As you know, Gentlemen, I am by profession a sailor, and in my 
Service the ability to give clear orders is valued more highly 
than skill in oratory. So if, this evening, I do not cloak my words 
in the neat garments becoming to the Speculative Society, you 
will, I know, forgive me. 

Ever since I first enjoyed Scotland's hospitality at school and 
later in the Navy, I have had a great affection for this country 
and this city. Then suddenly I found myself with the name and 
later the Freedom of Edinburgh. Since that time I have tried 
to take an active interest in all that goes on in this northern 
capital. Indeed, so many of the institutions of Edinburgh have 
been kind enough to enrol me in their ranks that it is not always 
easy to reconcile their conflicting interests. I understand that a 
hundred years ago the Speculative Society disapproved of the 
idea of a Canal at Suez. But the Edinburgh Chamber of Com- 
merce to which I also belong proudly told me that they 
were represented by Mr. Josiah Livingstone, the then President, 
at the Opening of the Canal in 1868. 

But tonight I cannot help feeling that I have been admitted 
to Edinburgh's inner circle and I am proud and happy to accept 
the honorary privileges of this ancient Speculative Society. 

Speaking as Chancellor of the University, I skip lightly over 
the explicit hints of the essayist, except to say that I am sure 
that Members of the University are delighted that you have 


invited their Chancellor to be an honorary Member of this 

If 'the Senatus holds these rooms in trust for the Speculative 
Society exclusively' then by the same token I must be one of 
the trustees. I have discussed with my fellow trustees the ques- 
tion of our attitude towards this Society and we have agreed 
that we feel rather like an uncle whose rather difficult nephew 
has finally made good. 

In my instructions from your Secretary I was told that a few 
words of thanks to the Society and a compliment or two to the 
essayist would be in order. So now by your leave I thank 
Mr. Guild for his expressions of welcome and congratulate him 
on his Speculation. All of it interested me, particularly his views 
about the exclusion of female influence from this masculine 
fortress. May I perhaps remind him that much the same 
opinion has been held in ships of the Royal Navy for several 
years past now? 

Before I conclude it might interest the Society to know some- 
thing about the Prince William of Hesse, who was admitted to 
membership at the same time as Prince Alfred. Born in 1845 he 
was the youngest brother of the Grand Duke Louis of Hesse who 
had recently married Queen Victoria's eldest daughter. Princess 
Alice, my maternal grandmother. On this occasion he had just 
accompanied his sister-in-law on a visit to Balmoral. He then 
came here to spend two months with Prince Alfred as, presum- 
ably, a companion of about the same age. He fought against the 
French in 1870 and died in 1900 a general in the Hessian Army. 
He must have been a man of parts as a letter from Princess 
Alice to her mother says : 'William will probably join us in 
Rome. He is quite a connoisseur in Art and a good historian, 
quite at home in Rome.' 

I wonder if any other members can claim two grand uncles 
as previous members, and admitted on the same day at that. 

As we have heard so much this evening about the freedoms 
which this Society enjoys, I hope I may be allowed to add one 
positive freedom and one perhaps that is more important than 

1 06 

any namely the freedom to speculate, a freedom which has 
become increasingly rare but which still flourishes in our islands 
and in our Society. In Communist countries the censor's clamp 
has closed on free expression and even in many parts of the 
nominally free world it is not always safe to speak one's mind. 
It is my hope that this Society will always remain a champion 
of the outspoken and a stronghold of free debate. 


Visit to Cardiff 


On receiving The Freedom of City and County 
Borough of Cardiff 

My Lord Mayor, 

Any thanks which I may be able to offer on this great occasion 
would be quite inadequate to the honour and privilege which 
you have conferred upon me. I realize, of course, that I owe 
you thanks four times over, because I feel that in conferring the 
Freedom of Cardiff upon me you have given much pleasure to 
the Earl of Merioneth, you have honoured the University of 
Wales in the person of its Chancellor, you have paid tribute to 
the gallant Regiment of Welsh Guards, and speaking personally 
and on behalf of your humble servant you have amply rewarded 
all my meagre endeavours. No one man could wish for more 
than that. 

But for all that you have made me feel somewhat conscience- 
stricken. I do not really deserve this; for one thing, I have not 


spent nearly enough time in Wales. May I say that I am not 
suggesting that this is your loss far from it the loss is entirely 
mine. Every time I set foot in the Principality I wonder why I 
do not come more often. There may be some who think it 
strange that an erstwhile sailor should find anything beautiful 
about the land; but here in Wales there is a strange wild beauty 
which makes each visit a delight. 

That is not all, my Lord Mayor, for I would be lacking in 
truthfulness and courtesy if I did not pay a tribute to the very 
genuine kindness and hospitality of the people of Wales to 
myself and indeed to all visitors. That is one of the reasons why 
I am so pleased that Wales will be host to the athletes of the 
British Commonwealth and Empire for the British Empire 
Games to be held here in Cardiff in 1958. I saw at Vancouver 
what a wonderful family occasion the Games can be and I have 
no doubt that Wales will prove to be a popular and highly 
successful host. 

That occasion will also be an admirable opportunity for a 
great many people from all over the world to see at first hand 
the remarkable contribution which Wales has made to the 
post-war recovery of this country. The products of your skill and 
industry are in great demand everywhere, and we all fervently 
hope that it will long remain so. 

There have been changes and upheavals, difficulties and 
disasters, but through them all the tough tenacious spirit of 
Wales has risen in triumph. 

My Lord Mayor, I thank you for the charming way you have 
conducted this ceremony, and for giving me the chance to pay 
my tribute to a great city and a great people. 

1 08 


The British Commonwealth and Empire Lecture 
to the Royal Aeronautical Society 

l6 DECEMBER 1954 

Aviation and the Development of Remote Areas 


It is a very great honour indeed to find myself addressing the 
Royal Aeronautical Society. If, as I am often told, a little learn- 
ing is a dangerous thing then you are in for a very dangerous 
address. For much as I would like to say that I know nothing 
about aviation it would not be altogether true. My knowledge 
is of the picked-up rather than the learned variety. During the 
war I was either at the receiving end of enemy aviation or under 
a friendly and comforting umbrella, which counts as passive 
experience. I started flying as a passenger in about 1935, and in 
common with many others I have put up with all the frustra- 
tions and delays of airline travel, particularly getting to and 
from the airfields this I put down to semi-active experience ! 
The active part of my experience began two short years ago 
when I started to learn to fly. 

From this you will gather that any views I express this even- 
ing must be treated with caution if nothing else. 

For the purpose of this address I would like to divide aviation 
into three broad divisions. First, Service aviation, and I do not 
think I need define it any more closely than that; secondly, 
scheduled airline operation which can include some of the long- 
distance passenger charter work; and in the third division, the 
rest, which is in fact largely made up of aviation in the remote 
areas of the great countries of the world. 

I do not propose to make any further reference to Service 


aviation or civil airline operation or to the development of 
aircraft for their use because a great many people, far more 
qualified than I am, have covered those subjects in very great 
detail. In any case, it is my contention that there is much more 
to aviation than fighters, bombers, and airliners. A comparison 
of figures may give a clearer picture. 

Broadly speaking, in the United Kingdom there are 5,000 
aircraft in the Air Force, 639 airliners, and 1,618 others. In 
Canada there are 2,000 in the Air Force, 285 airliners, and 
2,409 others. In Australia 1,000 aircraft in the Air Force, 185 
airliners, and 634 others. New Zealand has 200 aircraft in the 
Air Force, 44 airliners, and 416 others. South Africa has 300 in 
the Air Force, 44 in airline work, and 441 others. 

It is the 5,500 aircraft in the last division which I would like 
to talk about. 

Not very long ago the aircraft used in the three divisions were 
roughly comparable in cost and performance, and some aircraft, 
notably the Dakota, have served in all three. In recent years, 
however, invention and development have tended to open up 
an ever-widening gap between the third division and the other 
two. To the Air Force and airline operators higher, faster, 
bigger, and better may be an excellent motto, but it means 
nothing to the man who wants to do top-dressing or crop dust- 
ing from the air. It means that in a few years' time there will be 
little use for the second-hand high performance aircraft except 
in the role for which they were designed. It is therefore perhaps 
a good moment to take stock of the position in the third division 
of aviation and see what is going on and what is likely to happen 
in the future. 


During the recent tour of Australia and New Zealand, and 
then later in Canada, I had a wonderful opportunity to hear 
about and sometimes to see the enormous variety of uses other 


than passenger carrying to which aircraft have been put in 
those countries. It is not perhaps surprising that they have 
found so many uses for aircraft considering the conditions. 
Australia and Canada are enormous countries by any standard 
and although New Zealand is not much bigger than the British 
Isles the population is about 2| million compared to roughly 
50 million in these islands. The distances involved alone make 
aircraft the obvious choice for general transport. 

In this country all forms of aviation and transport are be- 
devilled by chancy weather, to say the least of it, while Australia, 
New Zealand, and Canada are blessed with relatively good 
flying weather for most of the year. Services in Australia work 
to a 98 per cent, regularity. On top of that, the attitude to flying 
in those countries is quite different; it is part of their life and not 
in the least restricted to the relatively few people who go abroad 
regularly, as it is largely in this country. 

Aircraft and the men who fly them occupy quite a special 
place in the minds and affections of the people who live in 
remote districts. For instance, the pilots of the aircraft engaged 
in the outback services in the Northern Territory of Australia 
are doing by air, with all the added difficulties, what the 
carriers and bus drivers are doing in the rural areas of this 

(Incidentally, since writing this, I caught sight of an article in 
Flight describing the Beaver Service in Nyasaland, which said, 
among other things : 'There is a genuine similarity between the 
work of the Beaver and the country bus. . . .') 

The pilots are required to service their aircraft, repair minor 
defects, refuel, collect fares, issue invoices for passengers and 
freight, and do the loading and unloading. In addition, they are 
expected to run to a strict schedule, navigate over poorly mapped 
areas which they must know well, land and take off from a great 
variety of bush airfields under varying weather conditions. In 
fact, the pilots become well known to all the residents and 
become part of the life of the Territory, and the whole thing is 
accepted as being perfectly normal. 


Many things are quite reasonably done by aircraft out there 
which would be the height of extravagance or folly in this 
country. In many cases, of course, aircraft are used not because 
it is easier, quicker, or cheaper, but simply because there is no 
other way at all. 

Distances, weather, and the absence of other facilities, there- 
fore, make aviation a vital and integral part of the civilization 
of those countries and no longer an interesting novelty or a 
convenience for the relatively few. 

My first-hand knowledge of Africa and the Indian continent 
is rather more limited, but I imagine much the same applies 
there, or will do before very long, especially if the right kind of 
aircraft are forthcoming. 


Now, for a moment, I would like to get down to cases, because 
it is only by quoting cases that I can try to show you the 
extraordinary range and importance of aviation in the 

To take agriculture first. Aircraft are being used for crop- 
dusting which is really a form of pest control, for seeding, top- 
dressing, and for the survey of land and in forestry. That is, of 
course, broadly speaking because it would be almost as difficult 
to describe all the uses of aircraft in agriculture as to enumerate 
all the uses of a farm tractor. 

Top-dressing is a speciality of New Zealand, and the object 
of the exercise is to drop fertilizer on to otherwise inaccessible 
pasture-land to improve the grass to feed sheep. It is important 
to remember that this is not an alternative way of doing it it is 
the only way. Top-dressing is done by air or not at all. I do not 
think that there is any doubt about its usefulness. Let me give 
you some figures. On a goo-acre block in the Auckland district 
two seasons of top-dressing with 4 to 6 cwt. of phosphate and 
potash per acre the capacity of the block has been increased 
from 1,200 to 2,300 ewes, and it is hoped to increase that to 


3,ooo in the next two years. Throughout New Zealand there 
were twelve aircraft employed on top-dressing in 1939. That 
figure has now risen to 162. In 1953 they distributed 140,000 
tons of fertilizer over i million acres. Some people estimate 
that aerial top-dressing is capable of increasing meat production 
in New Zealand 50 per cent, in ten years, and the ultimate 
target is to treat 10 million acres of hill country. 

To give some idea of the cost of this work, it is estimated that 
counting fertilizer, transport, dropping, interest on capital, &c., 
it works out at between 30^. and 34^. per acre or some 3 per 
ton dropped. The latest development is a product consisting of a 
hormone and a superphosphate for the dual purpose of weed 
killing and fertilizing. 

Apart from top-dressing, aircraft are used to spread trace 
elements (this is done commercially in New Zealand for between 
6d. and is. per acre), for sowing seeds, dropping fencing and 
other supplies such as fodder and poison bait, and frost protection 
of valuable crops. In America it is estimated that aircraft used 
for agricultural purposes and there are 7,000 of them, com- 
pared to 65 in Western Europe spend 55 per cent, of their 
total flying time in pest and disease control, 35 per cent, in 
seeding and fertilizing, and 10 per cent, in photographic surveys 
for erosion, pest infestation, and for planning irrigation works. 

So far as aircraft for agriculture are concerned, particularly 
in spraying for pest and weed control, they have one important 
advantage in that they avoid any mechanical injury to the 
crop which would be unavoidable with ground machinery. 

Whatever purpose aircraft are used for there is one funda- 
mental rule, the aircraft must be employed all the year round 
to make it worth while. The whole difficulty of operating air- 
craft for agriculture lies in finding a variety of uses which will 
achieve this ideal. 


There are many sides to pest control from the air, but they are 
mostly alternatives to ground methods. In Africa, however, 

113 i 

aircraft arc used for locust control and in this case there is no 
alternative which is anything like so effective. For every pound 
spent on aerial spraying of locusts, crops up to the value of i 10 
can be saved. In 1954 a battle was fought in East Africa by ten 
light aircraft operating from a 6oo-mile line of bases in Kenya 
and Tanganyika against an invasion by some fifty swarms with 
a total area of about 500 square miles and containing something 
like 50,000 million locusts weighing perhaps 100,000 tons. This 
time the locusts won, although many large swarms were attacked 
in flight and several were completely destroyed. During the 
battle it was found that 300,000 locusts can be killed by one 
gallon of poison sprayed from aircraft at a cost of 6 per 
million locusts killed. 

Also in Africa aircraft are used against what is probably the 
greatest obstacle to development of that continent. In Tangan- 
yika alone 75 per cent, of the total land is unsuited for settlement 
because of the tsetse-fly. They could be wiped out from the air, 
but at the moment it takes three applications and that is still 
rather expensive. 

Almost every country in the Commonwealth and Empire can 
provide examples of the use of aircraft in pest and disease con- 
trol. Forests are surveyed to find infected areas and in Canada 
budworm in forests have been attacked with DDT with great 

The most important and effective way of controlling pests 
and diseases if good husbandry and good sanitation prove 
inadequate is by the use of poisonous chemicals. The immense 
developments of potent new chemicals in recent years has meant 
that only from i to 25 gallons of spray per acre are required 
where 100 to 3,500 gallons would have been necessary a few 
years ago. In fact, the low dosages at which the new chemicals 
are effective have been directly responsible for the increased use 
of aircraft for the control of pests and diseases in the last twelve 
years. The essential quality of aircraft which suits them for this 
work is their independence from the nature of the countryside, 
which enables them to reach standing crops, deserts for locusts, 


tree tops for forest pests, and swamps breeding mosquitoes, that 
would be inaccessible to ground machines, and to treat infested 
areas with a speed quite impossible by any other means. 

Another method of dealing with pests is by biological control. 
This means spreading harmless insects which will live on the 
pests and reduce their numbers. This sort of thing can be done 
most efficiently by air in fact it can also be done unintentionally 
with harmful results. For instance, before starting the South 
Africa-Australia air service it was discovered that there were 
fifty- two varieties of pests which existed in South Africa but not 
in Western Australia, which were liable to be transported inside 
or outside the aircraft on that route. 


Considering the immense size of Canada, Australia, and 
Africa, and the large proportion of unexplored country, it is not 
surprising that aircraft are used extensively in the survey of vast 
areas of unknown country. These surveys are made for a number 
of reasons apart from ordinary map-making. In Africa 30,000 
square miles were mapped for the purpose of choosing the best 
route for a projected railway line. In the Gold Coast 16,000 
square miles were mapped for a hydro-electric scheme, and in 
Northern Rhodesia 1 1,000 square miles have been looked at for 
a possible extension of the copper belt. In India 180,000 square 
miles have been photographed for the survey of India. In 
Pakistan under the Colombo Plan 300,000 square miles are to 
be photographed for geological and irrigation surveys. 

Probably the most important aerial surveying is done for 
geological reasons. Aerial prospecting is indispensable in 
Canada and Australia, and many interesting techniques have 
been developed. Geological interpretations of photographs, 
measurements of the earth's magnetic field, measurements of 
electromagnetism, and measurements of radio-activity all play 
their part in laying bare the hidden resources of those great 


Allied to geological surveys are the aerial soil surveys over 
country otherwise inaccessible, or where the use of land changes 
rapidly. Over- or under-developed land and soil erosion are 
quickly detected in photographs, and volumes of timber per 
acre can be estimated with fair accuracy. Canada has led in the 
development of the technique of assessing the composition, 
wealth, and best logging plan for her vast forests using stereo- 
examination of photographs combined with ground work. 

The great attraction of aerial surveying for whatever purpose 
is the speed at which it can be done and hence the tremendous 
amount of time saved. For instance, before building the hydro- 
electric plant at Kitimat in Western Canada it was necessary to 
find the best route for a 5O-mile power line across mountains 
5,000 feet high. By any other method the survey would have 
taken three years, but, using helicopters, the work was com- 
pleted in thirty hours flying. Or again, the survey of the Frazer 
River Canyon in British Columbia which took five years on 
foot was completed in one season from the air. 

As early as 1923 aerial survey was used in Canada to sketch 
waterways, lakes, rivers, and areas of burn and merchantable 
timber. The cost was J cent per acre against 2\ cents for ground 
reconnaissance and it was done at the rate of 36 square miles 
an hour. 


I think it can be generally assumed that aircraft are not 
employed on jobs which can be done more cheaply by other 
means. In the moving of freight, however, a whole host of com- 
plicated problems make the issue rather more difficult. I do not 
propose to deal with express air freight because from the aircraft 
point of view it is not so very different from passenger carrying. 

For many years there was a tendency in this country to think 
of air freighting as rather expensive and unnecessary. This is not 
altogether surprising considering the difficulties of weather, 
short distances, and, in the early days, the relative lack of funds 
available to the aviation industries. There are now, I am glad 


to say, many welcome signs of growing interest in the rapidly 
expanding market for air freight. 

Development was very different in Canada, for example, 
where as early as 1937 Canadian aircraft carried 24 million 
pounds of freight compared with 9 J million pounds lifted by 
United States carriers in 1939. 

Air freight opened the Canadian North in the 2o's and 30*5 
and every further development in that area depends entirely on 
aviation. Take, for instance, the Eldorado uranium mine at 
Port Radium on the Great Bear Lake less than 30 miles south 
of the Arctic Circle. In the first place it was discovered by 
Gilbert Labine in 1930 from the air in an aircraft flown by 
C. H. Punch Dickens, a famous name among the bush pilots of 

The mine at Port Radium is entirely supplied by air from 
Edmonton 1,200 miles away, except for particularly large or 
heavy equipment. The Eldorado Company also look after 
another establishment at Beaverlodge 350 miles from Edmonton. 
The Company operates one Dakota and one Curtis Commando 
which between them lift on the average 3,000 passengers and 
about 3,000 tons of freight every year. A total of roughly 
2^ million ton miles at a cost of 22 cents per ton mile. The only 
other transport system is by water, and although this is con- 
siderably cheaper it costs $80 for every ton taken to Port 
Radium compared to $225 per ton by air navigation to Port 
Radium is only open for one month and to Beaverlodge for four 
months in the year. Therefore, allowance must be made for the 
cost involved in carrying large inventories of waterborne freight 
and equipment. In fact, the water route is only used to bring 
out the products of the mine. 

The figure of 22 cents per ton mile becomes rather more 
interesting when it is compared to the cost of road transport 
over comparable distances in northern Canada which is at a 
rough estimate about 15 cents per ton mile, although the 
average for the whole of Canada is 5 J cents per ton mile. 

Two of the reasons why this Company can operate at such a 


relatively low cost are that both aircraft were picked up cheap 
as war disposal, and because of the large back haul of passengers 
and concentrates which make for the high load factor of 90 
per cent. 

The important point here is that these establishments, thanks 
to aircraft, are in no way cut off from the outside world. Since 
fresh food and vegetables, newspapers, and books can be flown 
in all the year round, the community, which includes several 
families, lives a normal full life. 

Passing now from Canada to Australia, where an experiment 
has been running some six years on the flying of beef from a 
cattle station to the coastal port. These cattle stations can be 
up to 5 million acres in extent and 500 miles from the nearest 
railhead or harbour. 

The experiment was started by Air Beef Limited who estab- 
lished an experimental abattoir at Glenroy some 180 miles 
inland from Wyndham in the north-west corner of Western 
Australia, with a capacity for dealing with sixty head of cattle 
per day or 300 a week. During the six years an average of 4,000 
head of cattle per annum have been killed and the result has 
been to up-grade the meat from 23 per cent, export quality to 
65 per cent, export quality, and total frozen carcass weight has 
gone up 13 per cent. Before the introduction of Air Beef only 
about 7 per cent, of the cattle raised ever reached the meat 
works. Although the value of the meat has only gone up by 
345. a head, the increased production of meat has increased 
revenue by over 200 per cent. The number of cattle marketed 
from that station has doubled and the station has been enor- 
mously improved by the increased income and by using the 
aircraft to transport to the station all the equipment required 
for the development. 

The possibilities for Australia are immense. It has been 
estimated that by using inland abattoirs and air freighting, 
beef production in Australia could be doubled in ten years. 

There is one other use for air freight which I would like to 
mention. It is in connexion with the giant construction jobs in 


remote districts. Early this year a sso-mile railway from the 
St. Lawrence to Knob Lake on the border of Quebec and 
Labrador was completed to carry iron-ore. This railway is 
capable of carrying trains weighing up to 10,000 tons. The 
railway was built principally by air. Using six landing strips, 
men, equipment, and food were flown to work on various 
sections of the line. I have already mentioned that helicopters 
were used to survey the route for the power line from Kemano 
to Kitimat. I think it is worth mentioning here that the line 
was also built with the use of helicopters which carried every 
man and piece of equipment to remote spots up to 5,000 feet 
above sea-level. 


I have tried to describe to you the major fields of employment 
for aircraft other than fighting or passenger carrying. There are 
one or two fields which do not fall into any category but which 
ought to be mentioned. 

There is the flying doctor service in Australia which has made 
such an enormous difference to life in the outback. I am not 
going to describe the organization except to point out that the 
pilot has a lot of problems which normally do not apply. The 
mere fact that weather or airfield conditions are such that 
normal flying would cease does not matter very much when a 
life is at stake. The pilot often has to make a decision knowing 
that if anything happened to the aircraft it would not be 
covered by the insurance. Emergencies are much more likely to 
occur after floods or storms just when air strips are at their 
worst. Night flying is not possible at the moment so there is 
the added hazard of not getting back in time and having to 
make a forced landing in the desert. The flying doctor service 
is a wonderful achievement, but flying the doctor is no piece 
of cake. 

In the exploration for and production of oil, Shell have five 
aircraft in British Borneo which are used to carry staff between 

oilfields, camps, and the nearest major airport at the rate of 
about 1,000 a month. Journeys which would take 14 to 20 hours 
on the ground are done in 50 minutes by amphibian. 

Quite apart from the practical advantages, the moral effect 
on staff of the ability to extricate casualties from difficult places 
and get them quickly to hospital has been one of the most 
welcome results of using aircraft. For instance, a suspected 
typhoid case was in the main base hospital within 5 hours of the 
emergency message being received. The out-station was 200 
miles away and the surface journey would have taken 24 to 
36 hours. 

Much as I would like to say something about the private 
owner and flying for fun, I am afraid the subject is too big 
and complicated to be dealt with here. 

In spite of the claims I have made for the contribution of 
aircraft to the progress of civilization, I must admit that there 
are other uses not quite so Utopian. 

At Yellowknife in Canada this year, a man succeeded in 
pinching two gold bars which he put in his kit-bag. He then 
hired an aircraft and flew off to Edmonton and vanished. The 
story goes that the pilot helped him to lift his bags into the air- 
craft and when he felt the weight he is supposed to have said: 
'What have you got in there a couple of gold bricks?' 


I have deliberately avoided the subject of helicopters simply 
because the relative expense at the moment puts them out of 
the reach of most people. However, now that they have caught 
the imagination of the public and official mind I have no doubt 
that their development will not lag through lack of interest or 
funds. Neither does it need a particularly vivid imagination to 
think of the uses for helicopters once they can be produced 
reasonably cheaply. 

I also do not wish to become involved in an argument about 
the use of helicopters, but judging by present trends it looks as 


if this country particularly could benefit from their character- 
istics. Fixed wing aircraft are ideal for agriculture, pest control, 
and survey so long as the geographical scale of countryside is 
large. When it comes to dealing with small detailed work, which 
is the rule in this country, then the helicopter is the only really 
useful type of aircraft for that purpose. In fact the greatest part 
of air spraying in this country is done by helicopters, and some 
thousands of acres of potatoes are sprayed by helicopters each 


That really concludes my rather sketchy summary of what 
aircraft are used for in the Commonwealth and Empire. 

There are several conclusions to be drawn. The first and most 
important is that apart from the Bristol Freighter and the 
Beaver, and later the Otter, not one single aircraft used in any 
of the fields I have mentioned was actually designed for the job. 
Every sort and kind of aircraft are used from Moths to Dakotas 
and they are all old and were all designed for something else. 
It is like using a double-decker bus as a milk float or a Bentley 
as a farm tractor. 

It is also perhaps interesting to note that both the Freighter 
and the Beaver were private ventures, the latter being designed 
and built in Canada. I may be wrong but, so far as I know, the 
only aircraft on the stocks which falls into the category I am 
discussing is the Twin Pioneer known to some as the 'Double 
Scotch'. This started and is still substantially a private venture; 
it was designed and is being built by a company that has only 
produced one type of aircraft previous to this effort. I think it is 
worth remembering that when the Beaver was first mooted 
the makers went to considerable trouble to find out exactly 
what the bush pilots of Canada really wanted, and throughout 
its development their opinions, experience, and criticisms were 
sought and used. The result is an aircraft which they like and use ; 
113 Beavers and 51 Otters are in use in Canada already. Not 
unnaturally, this aircraft is in demand outside Canada also. 


Several attempts are being made to produce a D.C.3 replace- 
ment, notably the Herald in this country, but it is not an easy 
thing to do because the D.C.3 wiH on ty be replaced by an air- 
craft which is better in all respects and, most important, con- 
siderably cheaper to operate. 

The secret of success seems to be the very closest co-operation 
between the makers and the operators. That co-operation exists 
in development of airliners; it is not always present in the 
development of aircraft for the outback. 

The Civil Aviation Journal of New Zealand introduced an 
article with these words : 

While it is not usually the policy of the Civil Aviation Journal to 
reprint articles from other publications this article is so apposite to a 
major problem of concern to operators in New Zealand that we have 
on this occasion departed from normal policy. Acknowledgment is 
made to the publishers of Aviation Age for permission to reproduce 
this article. 

The Journal then prints an article called We Want a Flying 
Tractor'. I will not weary you with details, but the author wants 
an aircraft of one ton capacity, a biplane, low wing loading, 
load and engine ahead of the pilot, no flaps or slots, simple, 
low speed and price. 

In fact, an aircraft obviously based on these requirements has 
been built in America and is expected to cost between 5,000 
and 6,000. Trials already indicate that using this specially 
designed aircraft the operating cost of chemical application is 
roughly half that of the cost of the best existing aircraft con- 
verted for the purpose. The other interesting fact is that a third 
of these aircraft to be built will probably be sold to New Zealand. 
I have also heard that more than one British aircraft company 
is giving careful attention to the needs of New Zealand's top- 
dressers and aerial agriculturists. 

From Australia, I would like to read an extract from a letter 
from the Operations Supervisor of Connellan Airways at Alice 
Springs who among other things run the flying doctor service 


The one difficulty which is faced by bush airline operators is the 
lack of a suitable type of aircraft. At the moment there is no aircraft 
being manufactured, nor, as far as is known, is one even contem- 
plated. Tough conditions are experienced and the aircraft must be 
designed for the job. Specifications for such an aircraft, the 'Brolga', 
were published in the Australian Aircraft magazine in 1950 and were 
sent all over the world to manufacturers. A great service would be 
done to bush operators, not only here, but in other undeveloped 
parts of the world if this need could be presented to the aircraft 
manufacturers, for then it is possible that such a suitable aircraft 
would be produced. 

Quite obviously this is only one side of the picture and no 
one would deny that the makers have their troubles and diffi- 
culties too. After all, even pilots and operators are not well 
known for being able to state and stick to their requirements, 
although they can be relied on to say with considerable emphasis 
what they do not want. But the fact remains that aircraft are 
needed for these operations, that aircraft will be used for these 
operations and somebody has got to make them. 

There can be no doubt that aviation is an essential element 
in the development of the Commonwealth and Empire. Hence 
it follows that aircraft must be designed for the jobs for which 
they are required or the aircraft must be highly versatile; that 
whatever the job the aircraft must be simple, robust, and easy 
to maintain; that speed is a secondary consideration for the 
simple reason that even if they only flew at 30 knots they would 
still get to places several months before dog teams or ox carts. 
This does not mean that aircraft have got to be slow. If high 
speed makes them more economical to operate so much the 

Eventually, of course, in anything of this sort the question of 
relative cost creeps in, and quite rightly. This applies equally to 
bush or outback operations as it does to the movement of heavy 
freight over long distances. The difficulty about estimating the 
cost of this type of aviation is that it is very difficult to find 
comparable figures. In northern Canada the cost per ton mile 
by air is not much greater than by road, but that takes no 


account of the cost of the road in the first place or its mainten- 
ance. In Australia the railways, as in quite a number of coun- 
tries, are run at a loss, yet quite obviously they must go on 

The difficulty at the moment seems to be to estimate cor- 
rectly exactly what type of operations are most suited to each 
system of transport. The conclusions, as I see it, are that the 
scope for aviation will be considerably broadened : first, when 
the full advantages and possibilities of aircraft are thoroughly 
appreciated and trusted by potential operators, and second, if 
and when suitable aircraft make their appearance. 

Although it is really outside the scope of this lecture I must 
draw attention to the very great importance of a strong flexible 
air cargo fleet in the event of war. After all it is the combination 
of the Navy and Merchant Navy which constitutes our maritime 
strength. Similarly, our power in the air depends upon the 
combination of the Air Forces and the Merchant Air Fleets of 
the Commonwealth. 


At the risk of becoming monotonous, I would like to repeat 
that aviation has become a vital and integral part of the 
civilization of the countries of the Commonwealth and Empire, 
and that their further development depends upon operators 
demanding and the aircraft industry producing machines cap- 
able of doing a wide variety of work cheaply and efficiently. 

At the moment the centre and head of the aviation industry 
for the Commonwealth and Empire is in these islands. It is true 
that great strides have been made in some of the Dominions in 
the design and production of aircraft suited to their own needs, 
but the industry in these islands is still the leading partner and 
capable of making many useful contributions for a number of 
years yet. If it is to do this it must not be blinded by the chances 
of lucrative Ministry of Supply contracts or have its attention 
to the requirements of the Commonwealth and Empire dis- 
tracted by the clamour of Britain's airline operators. The 


Ministry of Supply, the Service Ministries, and the civil opera- 
tors are obviously the industry's best customers and patrons, 
and they cannot be blamed for only considering their own 
special requirements. But if the industry is to play its proper 
part it must look beyond that and consider the progress of 
aviation as a whole and all over the world. 

I have no intention of telling them how this can be done. All 
I wish to do is to draw attention to what I think has become a 
neglected part of aviation. What is more, it is that part of avia- 
tion which has the most important part to play in opening up 
the remote areas of the new world. 

It rather looks as if I have placed all the burden of the future 
development of outback and bush aviation on the makers. That 
is not the impression I want to leave. It is much more important 
that each party concerned should understand and appreciate 
the demands, difficulties, and limitations of the others and of 
aviation in remote areas in general. 

I started the preparation of this lecture thinking it was going 
to be quite a burden, but thanks to the wonderful help I have 
had from people all over the Commonwealth and Empire, I 
have learned more about aviation than I could have done in 
any other way. For that reason I owe a debt of gratitude to the 
Royal Aeronautical Society for asking me to give this lecture. 
I have also acquired an even greater admiration for the pilots 
and operators of aircraft in my third division of aviation. All 
over the world they are doing their work without fuss or fan- 
fare, without publicity or uniforms, and nearly all of it is done 
with makeshift equipment. 

We hear often enough about the need for a strong, modern, 
and efficient Air Force, and I fully agree with that. We hear, 
not quite so often, about the need for a strong, modern, and 
efficient Mercantile Air Service, and at the moment that seems 
to me to be even more important. But above all we must have 
an aircraft industry capable of meeting our own needs as well 
as the special needs of those countries whose development and 
future well-being depend upon aviation. 



Visit to Glasgow 


On receiving The Freedom of the City of Glasgow 

This most generous gift of the Freedom of this great and historic 
City of Glasgow has given me a very large measure of quite 
undeserved pleasure. It is an honour, indeed an unexpected 
honour, for which I am profoundly and humbly grateful. I 
will not attempt to guess at the reasons which prompted this 
gesture, but I look upon it as much more than a charming com- 
pliment to myself. I prefer to see this ceremony as an expression 
of Glasgow's loyalty and adherence to the idea of the constitu- 
tional monarchy as it works in the United Kingdom today. I 
am, for the time being, a small part of its fabric, and in honour- 
ing a part you acknowledge the whole. 

Several members of the Royal Family in years past have had 
the privilege of being Freemen of this city and I was particularly 
interested to see that the last Duke of Edinburgh was given the 
Freedom in 1866. On that occasion he also inaugurated a 
statue in George Square. At one time I was rather expect- 
ing to be asked to reverse his good work, but I am glad to say 
that both the statue and I have been spared that awkward 

Very naturally, and quite rightly, the Freedom of the City is 
looked upon by those who give it and those who receive it as a 
very great honour indeed, and the ceremony is full of charm and 
dignity; unlike the ownership of Glasgow which, I understand, 
can be obtained with a couple of drinks any Saturday night. 

In common with all the great cities and institutions of this 
country Glasgow has a long and fascinating history. There 
have been good times and bad, prosperity and depression, 


but throughout it all her citizens have remained steadfast and 

Over the centuries Glasgow has made a contribution to the 
prosperity of these islands in more ways than any other city. 
From tobacco and from cotton, from shipbuilding and the 
heavy industries, the citizens of Glasgow have made money and 
fame for themselves and put muscle on the sinews of the nation. 

I have heard you, my Lord Provost, boasting that Edinburgh 
may be the capital but that Glasgow has the capital. I am very 
proud of the fact that I have the Freedom of Scotland's capital; 
if you are now offering me Glasgow's I shall be very happy if not 
a little surprised. 

Glasgow is a great city in every sense of the word. Great in 
size and numbers, her people are great in toughness and energy, 
and her products from ships to sealing wax bear the stamp of 
great engineers and craftsmen. Why this should be so I have no 
idea, except perhaps because there is no other city in the world 
quite like Glasgow, none has quite the same background or 
environment, none has quite the same people. With cities as 
with people, the great are always different from the rest. 

If history is any guide it is worth remembering that if we 
want great men in all walks of life in the future we should en- 
courage differences in background and upbringing, differences 
in education and development within, of course, the broad 
limits of current political thought and circumstance. There is 
quite enough uniformity in this age of factory and office life to 
make difference in character and intellect more important than 

Cities and industries, commerce and trade would never grow 
or develop or have the flexibility to meet change or depression 
if all men thought the same way. We need the enterprising and 
the cautious, the pillar and the rebel, the clever and the slow, the 
lazy and the industrious. Without them we would amount to 
no more than a row of beans. Only different and independent 
minds are capable of having new ideas or of understanding the 
changing conditions of our times. Only original minds can 


offer solutions to our many problems. You may set up an organi- 
zation to cope with a particular difficulty, but nothing will 
happen unless the men inside are capable of constructive 

Throughout her long history Glasgow has produced great 
men in abundance, in commerce and medicine, in shipbuilding 
and industry, and in the arts and science, and there is every 
reason to believe that she will go on doing so for a very long 
time to come. If Glasgow has great people she herself will grow 
in greatness to the pride of her citizens and as a strong support 
to the prosperity and stability of the British Islands and Empire. 


Visit to the Mediterranean 
20 MARCH 1955 

Broadcast to the Fleet at Malta 

I am not going to make any secret of the fact that I enjoy going 
to sea. I realize of course that there are some who do not. It is 
true that being a passenger all the time is rather deadly, but one 
cannot have everything, I suppose. 

I do not know what you thought of the recent Exercises, but 
from my point of view they were most interesting and instruc- 
tive. We are going through a period in history roughly compar- 
able to the time when gunpowder was first used in warfare, 
although the introduction of nuclear weapons will bring about 
a far more profound revolution. Gunpowder affected the battle- 
field only and, even just before the atom bomb, damage due to 


high explosive only affected a relatively small area. If there is 
another war the whole world will be the battlefield. 

I do not think anybody would disagree that nuclear weapons 
are forcing a revolution in military thinking, but no two people 
seem to agree about what form the revolution will take and 
what the result will be. 

One thing is quite definite, the revolution will be a painful 
process for all three Services. There is no easy way out of the 
problems we are facing, whatever some people may say. New 
ideas will only emerge from argument and discussion and from 
trial and error. There will be good guesses and bad guesses and 
everybody knows that even good ideas are not always accepted 
at once. The arguments and discussions are bound to be violent 
at times and a lot of hard and sometimes irresponsible things 
will be said, but it is all part of the process of feeling our way 
towards solving the military problems of the atomic age. 

As I am not intimately connected with any one Service any 
longer, and as I have had various opportunities of seeing the 
three Services at work and of listening to their ideas, it is quite 
possible that I see some of the problems in a slightly different 
way. What I see is this. 

If the Services are to fulfil their proper functions at home and 
abroad efficiently in this new age there must be a very much 
higher degree of understanding and co-operation between them. 
To make N.A.T.O. really effective the national contributions 
must be properly national and not just so much from each 

Secondly, the other point which strikes me is that many inter- 
Service arguments start from the wrong conception. There 
seems to be an idea that the difference between the Services 
lies in the difference between the weapons which they use, 
whereas the real difference lies in the functions which they have 
to perform. We must be properly equipped to fight in all 
elements and in all parts of the world, and the weapons we 
choose to use should be treated as a means to that end. 

The question of the relative importance of the Services is a 

129 K 

red herring, for defence is now one problem. The thing to 
remember is that whatever weapons are used we must be able 
to fight at sea, on land, and in the air under conditions governed 
by the situation of potential enemies and the weapons available 
at the time. 

The present period of readjustment is bound to bring personal 
difficulties to almost everyone serving with the Armed Forces 
of the Crown. That is inevitable, but it may make them a bit 
more understandable if you can keep in the back of your mind 
that it is all, ironically perhaps, part of the price of progress and 
well worth while in the interests of our national safety. 

To get back to the Combined Fleet Exercises. They were 
interesting to me because it is always comforting to know that 
the Navy is trained and prepared for the worst. They were in- 
structive to me personally because after four years away I have 
learned a great deal about the changes in tactical doctrine and 
technical equipment. In both cases it is quite obvious that the 
Navy is doing everything possible to keep up to date, and there 
is certainly no lack of original ideas. 

Well, I hope you have all had a very pleasant time here in 
Malta. I must admit that I shall be sad when we sail. Good luck 
to you all. 



Visit to 'Windyridge* Approved Probation Farm 


12 MAY 1955 
Opening of the Home 

It is nearly seventy years since the Whitechapel Mission began 
its work for destitute boys in the East End of London. Estab- 
lished by Methodists, it is a practical demonstration of their 
concern for the poor, the neglected, and the unhappy. 

This new venture will continue the work of coping with the 
problems of the day using the methods of today, but based on 
the eternal principles of lively Christianity. This is a wonderful 
undertaking in every way, particularly as it recognizes that 
misfortune rather than evil intent is at the bottom of most 

We must recognize that in a large and relatively free society 
such as ours many people are going to get hurt through no 
special fault of their own. Not everyone can hope to go through 
life, particularly early life, with a full measure of affection, 
guidance, and opportunity. Getting hurt can take many forms 
and can have many different results, but the thing to remember 
is that it is happening all the time and that it is a duty, not a 
charity, for the more fortunate to do what they can to help. 

One of the difficulties is that there are many people who do 
not know or do not want to know what can happen to people 
who have not had the benefit of the same care and protection 
as themselves. However, I am convinced that there is a great 
well of sympathy and understanding in the community as a 
whole largely untapped, because the problems are not recog- 
nized. The more people know of the dangers the more it will 
become a matter of course to attempt to minimize them. 

The Whitcchapel Mission deserves to be most warmly con- 
gratulated for pioneering this work. It must be a perplexing 
task to convert the disappointed, disillusioned, and un-coopera- 
tive, and to set aright the false values which do so much harm. 

Here lads on probation will be helped to prepare themselves 
to take their place in the community as steady and dependable 
citizens. I have no doubt that at the end of their training they 
will leave here happier and more responsible people, able to 
face with confidence the difficulties which confront them. Above 
all they will leave with a fresh understanding of the things in 
this life that are worth striving for. 


Dinner with the Royal College of Surgeons of 

20 JUNE 1955 

Toast ' The Craft of Surgery 

First of all, I want to say how pleased and honoured I am to 
become a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 
on this its 45Oth Anniversary. And, as Patron of the College, I 
offer myself a hearty welcome. 

In the same breath, perhaps, I ought to give an immediate 
undertaking not to attempt to practise the craft of surgery. I 
understand that James IV sometimes used to have a go at 
members of his Household. Mine are quite safe, I value their 
assistance and friendship too highly to take that sort of liberty 


with them. I am gratified to become an apprentice because, 
though you may not believe it, I can read and write. 

However, I take it that I am also absolved from replying that 
I am an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of 
Edinburgh if anyone should ask if there is a doctor in the house. 

Some of you will no doubt know the story about the 
glamorous film star who bruised her leg in a liner. The purser 
looked through the passenger list and hurried to get help from 
the first doctor on the list. But the man insisted that he was an 
LL.D. 'Never mind', said the purser, 'she won't know the dif- 
ference.' When the LL.D. got to the girl's cabin he found he 
had been beaten to it by a D.D. The only reason the D.D. got 
there first was obviously because there was no Hon. F.R.C.S.E. 
in that ship. 

If I know nothing of the business end of surgery, so to speak, 
I am almost ignorant of the receiving end. In fact, I have only 
been under the knife, which is an unattractive expression, twice 
to my certain knowledge. 

For all that, I am full of gratitude to Sir James Young 
Simpson. I ought to feel just as grateful to Lord Lister, but it is 
already so difficult to imagine what conditions were like before 
him that we, as patients that is, are beginning to take the results 
of his work for granted. That is something that can never 
happen in any college of surgeons anywhere in the world. 

As Chancellor of the University, and as Patron and Honorary 
Fellow of this College, I am very proud that the two bodies 
have been so intimately associated over the years in the great 
enterprise of medical teaching. Of course, I am particularly 
delighted that the President this year is a Professor in the 
University. These two with the Royal College of Physicians 
have made the Medical School of Edinburgh one of the most 
famous in the world. 

I hope that this co-operation will long continue for the benefit 
of medicine and for the comfort of the sick. 

This college has had 450 years of achievement. I hope the 
college's next 450 years will be just as successful. 


As you will see from the card, I am supposed to be proposing 
a toast to the Craft of Surgery. In these days when everything is 
either raised or reduced to a science, which really means that 
the human element is removed as much as possible, it is refresh- 
ing to find the word craft applied to something so august as 
surgery. In one respect it is certainly the right word, for the 
surgeon is, after all, the craftsman who draws together the 
laboratory work of the chemist and the physicist, the nutri- 
tional expert and the bacteriologist, the biochemist and the 
psychologist, and through the skill of his hands is the person 
ultimately responsible for the multiplying of human enjoy- 
ments, and the mitigation of human suffering. 

I only hope that those people who, quite rightly, believe that 
surgery is more than a craft will forgive me, but I look at it, 
still, from the point of view of the patient. If anyone is going to 
tinker about with my insides I would rather he were an ac- 
complished craftsman than an experimental scientist. 

Since the days of John Hunter many brilliant men have made 
surgery progressively surer, safer, and wider in scope, and that 
work continues today. Whatever the future holds, there is still 
a lot to be learnt about the art, craft, or science of surgery 
(whatever you like to call it) and mankind will be grateful to 
those who practise surgery for many years to come. 

And now in recognition of past services, in appreciation of 
present efforts, and in confidence of future successes, I give you 
the toast: The Craft of Surgery coupled with the President of 
the College, Professor Mercer*. 



Renaming the New Schooner for the OutwardBound 
Moray Sea School at Springfield Quay, Glasgow 

30 JUNE 1955 
Address to Meeting on board Carrick 

Prince Louis of Battenberg was my maternal grandfather. Un- 
fortunately I was only born the year he died so I never knew 
him, but by all accounts he was a most remarkable man. At the 
end of a distinguished career in the Navy he became First Sea 
Lord and was largely responsible for keeping the Reserve Fleet 
mobilized just before the start of the 1914 War. 

I have no doubt that he would have been delighted to know 
that his name was to be given to a ship to be used to teach 
young men and boys about the sea and about themselves. 

It has frequently been said that war often brings out the best 
in people. There are doubtless many theoretical explanations 
for this, but basically it is rather like saying that if you throw 
some people into the water it will show that many of them can 
swim remarkably well. In other words, if you throw out a 
challenge it is sometimes surprising how many people take it up 
and how well they overcome it. That is the principle on which 
the Outward Bound Sea Schools are based. 

The challenge is largely a personal one until the individuals 
become members of the crew of the training ship, when the 
challenge goes out to the crew as a team. In both cases it is 
astonishing how many hidden reserves and unsuspected talents 
are discovered and used. Once a boy is made aware of his own 
possibilities his confidence increases and his sense of uncer- 
tainty in a rather bewildering world is correspondingly reduced. 

The training and the experience offered at the Outward 

Bound Schools cannot fail to do some good to almost every boy 
who attends them. However, that is the point of view of the 
organizers of these schools and their very reason for going to 
all the trouble to set up the Sea Schools and the Mountain 

There is also the boys' point of view. Although I never at- 
tended an Outward Bound School, I did sail on a number of 
occasions in the old Prince Louis when she belonged to Gordon- 
stoun, and in her predecessors. I think the first Prince Louis was 
called the Maisie Graham before my grandmother came to 
Hopeman to rename her for the school after her husband. 

It is not so long ago that I cannot remember what it was like 
to go sailing in those ships. In fact, I remember only too well the 
times when I was wet, cold, miserable, probably sick, and often 
scared stiff, but I would not have missed that experience for 
anything. In any case the discomfort was far outweighted by the 
moments of intense happiness and excitement. Poets and authors 
down the centuries have tried to describe those moments but 
their descriptions, however brilliant, will never compare with 
one's own experience. 

And now there lies the second Prince Louis waiting for those 
boys who are fortunate enough to go to the Moray Sea School 
at Burghead. Waiting to give them an experience they will 
never forget. 

The important word here is 'fortunate'. There can be no 
doubt that the Outward Bound residential schools have intro- 
duced healthy activities into the lives of thousands of boys, but 
they are the fortunate few. 

I am quite certain that using the combined experience of the 
residential schools and the youth organizations there is a way 
of bringing the challenge of achievement to a much wider circle 
of boys. The aim must be to bring the young into contact with 
all that is good and healthy by arranging for them to experience 
a wide variety of pursuits. In this country we must avoid at all 
costs the mistakes that have been made elsewhere, we must 
never resort to conscription for youth organizations, we must 


never be tempted to try indoctrination and I am sure there is 
no reason to add to our very comprehensive array of voluntary 

Our greatest need is to make each new crop of boys, as it 
were, aware of the possibilities for healthy recreations and use- 
ful service. Different outlets suit different characters and unless 
boys know about the choice before them they may easily drift 
into bad habits. I cannot believe that there are not enough 
healthy pursuits, or channels for voluntary service, to suit almost 
every boy and girl in the country once they know of their 

The Outward Bound Schools, like the Scouts, the Boys' 
Clubs, Athletic Clubs, and many others, are only one of the 
many outlets available which are doing great work introducing 
young people to new and fascinating experiences. Somehow all 
these organizations must be helped to extend this work and I 
hope that a way may soon be found. 

I am delighted to have been here today to rename this ship 
and to see her on her way into the service of the Outward 
Bound Trust. Delighted, partly because I agree that attendance 
at a Sea School is good for any boy, but particularly because I 
think that any boy lucky enough to go for a cruise in Prince 
Louis will have a perfectly wonderful time if only in retrospect. 



Royal College of Art Convocation Ceremony 
8 JULY 1955 

Address to the Convocation 

First, I should like to say how much pleasure it has given me to 
become an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Art. Per- 
haps I may speak also for the other Honorary Associates and 
Designers in thanking the College for its kindness; we are all 
delighted to be associated with its work. 

But I think perhaps the College should warn future Honorary 
Fellows of the ordeal they will have to undergo in being made 
to wear flannel dressing-gowns in the summer. 

I should like also to congratulate all those who are receiving 
Diplomas today and to wish them the best of luck. 

Not very long ago I had the good fortune to pay a short visit 
to the Royal College of Art and to see something of the work 
going on. I want to say right away how much I was struck by 
the vitality and enthusiasm which was so obvious in every de- 
partment I visited. This, of course, is exactly as it should be, 
because, after all, if any artistic endeavour becomes dull, repeti- 
tive, boring, or uninspired, it loses its claim to have anything to 
do with art. 

It is particularly important that this College should always 
keep a fresh outlook and an adventurous spirit, otherwise it 
cannot hope to exert any influence for the good upon modern 
domestic design. 

Industrial design, or art in industry, is really a misnomer. The 
artist or designer may work in an industry, but the stuff he 
designs ends up in the home, in the streets, in the office, and in 
the workshop. I am sure that people like seeing and living with 
nice things. I do not believe that the critical or appreciative 


faculty is automatically switched off on leaving an art gallery. 
After all, most people take their eyes with them to work just as 
they take their eyes to the National Gallery or the bathroom. 
They may not always look but there is a growing tendency to 
look much more critically. We even have a new word Subtopia 
which is proof of a new awareness. 

There is no excuse for unattractive design in anything that is 
likely to be seen by human eyes, even less if it has a function to 
perform as well. With all due respect to that august body, it will 
be a great day when it is considered as important to have some- 
thing shown in the Design Centre of the Council of Industrial 
Design as it is to have a picture hung in the Royal Academy. 
This day is bound to be some way off, as the Design Centre is 
only to be opened next spring ! 

To put it kindly, you are lucky if you own a picture painted 
by an R.A., but most people have got to live with furniture, 
domestic objects, cars, shops, pubs, and everything else which 
surround our daily lives. It is inevitable that we should see 
more advertisements than old masters. 

Some people bewail the passing of the artist craftsman, others 
have no time for anything unless it is made by hand. Of course 
the artist craftsman is still there but he cannot possibly meet the 
needs of any but a very small section of the public. It may be 
very sad that things are not made by hand, but the fact remains 
that to make anything in sufficient quantity it must be made by 
machine, and there is no reason why the machine should not 
make nice things if it is given half a chance. What we lack is not 
artist craftsmen but artist engineers. There is no reason whatso- 
ever in this day and age why we should be palmed off with 
second-rate stuff on the excuse that it is machine-made. 

Artists cannot divorce themselves from the materials they 
work with and the tools of their art. Even a painter must know 
some technical details about his paints, brushes, and canvas. 
Likewise, I imagine a sculptor has to know the difference be- 
tween wood and stone. Therefore, it does not seem very much 
to ask that an artist, if he wants to be employed in industry, 


should know something about the capabilities and limitations 
of modern machinery. 

Conversely, it can also be said that those engineering draughts- 
men who are in fact product designers should have some specific 
training in the aesthetic side of their job. There is no mystery 
about it and they are certainly just as susceptible as most other 
people to artistic influence if they are given the chance and the 

It is frequently suggested that to produce a well-designed 
article you need the active co-operation and united efforts of 
artist and technologist. That may be true, but is it not rather 
like painting a picture second-hand? I would like to suggest 
that the best designer is the artist engineer. Only the artist 
engineer can readily understand the enormous possibilities 
which are constantly opening up with new materials and new 
techniques. The combination of qualities necessary to be an 
artist engineer give him the best chance of tackling those op- 
portunities with experiment and invention, with practical 
originality and with taste. 

Artists in any medium have something in common they 
belong to the same world; but their knowledge of their art alone 
will not let them into any other world. So that quite apart 
from any practical considerations, if artists wish to be whole- 
heartedly accepted into the industrial world they must have 
technological qualifications. That is only human nature. 

To sum up then. First, I believe that there is plenty of room 
for good design in all the things which surround us in our daily 
lives. Secondly, the machine is with us and I think it is here to 
stay, therefore we need artist engineers who can so control our 
machines that they will produce only attractive things. 

I fully appreciate that I am preaching to the converted. No 
one can visit the College without realizing how much import- 
ance is placed on technology. But I believe that it is not a bad 
idea to give even the converted a bit of encouragement now 
and then. 

This College can have a profound effect upon the lives of 


millions of people, and I want each one of you to leave here 
convinced that you personally can do something to make the 
everyday things of this life and this country nicer to look at, 
nicer to feel, and nicer to use. 


Opening New Mycological Institute of the 
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux 

13 JULY 1955 
Reply to speech of welcome 

There are various ways to increase or to maintain agricultural 
production, but probably the most important is the control of 
plant disease. The fight against plant disease is seldom 'once and 
for all'; new diseases and new variations of old diseases are 
always cropping up. 

Where whole areas specialize in a certain crop the danger of 
disease is greatly magnified, for it does not only affect the over- 
all production of the crop, it can have disastrous economic and 
social results. 

The spearhead of the attack on crop diseases is research. It 
is essential to know the nature of the disease, its powers, and 
its weaknesses before any effective action can be taken. This is 
so well recognized that research laboratories are growing up all 
over the world for the special purpose of research into crop and 
plant diseases. Some research is obviously highly specialized, 
but a great deal of work is being done which would be of interest 
in widely separated laboratories. 


This Institute has a most important part to play in making it 
easy for workers to follow what is going on elsewhere. It will 
help to avoid duplication of effort, or where the same problem 
is being tackled in different places it will help progress and 
techniques to be compared, and so speed the solution of urgent 

The quantity of scientific literature on even a relatively 
limited subject must be reaching immense proportions. By far 
the most impressive room in any research laboratory that I have 
visited is the technical library. Its management can have quite 
a remarkable effect upon the work of the establishment, for the 
selection of material can never be automatic. 

I am delighted that it is possible for the countries of the 
Commonwealth to co-operate in this field. We hear quite a lot 
about the invisible links, but not quite so much about the 
tangible advantages of the Commonwealth. This Institute by 
itself may not loom very large in the public imagination of 
Commonwealth co-operation, but then it is not by itself. It is 
in fact a part of the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, and 
even the biggest ropes are made up of quite small yarns. 

I am quite certain that this Institute will make a very im- 
portant contribution to plant pathology in the years to come. 
I hope everyone who works here will find it a rewarding occu- 
pation. I wish you all the best of luck. 



Visit to the Gordon Boys' School at Woking 
16 JULY 1955 

Presentation of New Colours 

I congratulate you all on today's parade. I was very impressed 
by your smartness and good drill. 

May I also offer my congratulations to the cup and medal 
winners. Do not forget that prize winning is no reason to relax. 
Prizes may be awarded for past merit but they are also intended 
to encourage greater efforts. Whether you have won a prize or 
not, let me remind you that the only prize worth winning is a 
clear conscience at the end of your days that you have lived a 
useful, Christian life. There is no better example than the man 
after whom this school is named. 

A few minutes ago I presented you with new Colours. These 
will replace the original Colours presented by Dr. Hope in 1 895 
which have now been honourably retired after sixty years' ser- 
vice. These Colours are a symbol of the spirit of this School. 
When you take them into Chapel and ask for God's blessing on 
them you are asking Him to bless this School as a complete 
entity embracing boys and masters, work and play, old boys 
and past achievements, members of the Committee of Manage- 
ment, and hopes for the future. 

The Colours bind together everything and everybody in any 
way connected with the Gordon Boys' School. It is therefore 
most important that you who are here now and have temporary 
custody of these Colours should look after them with respect so 
that you can hand them on untarnished to those who come 
after you. 

In recent years I have frequently driven past the School, and 
I have often seen boys in uniform outside. I am delighted to say 

that they have always been smartly dressed and, as far as I 
could sec, well-behaved. In fact, I formed a very good impres- 
sion of the School. Now that I know a bit more about it and 
have seen you at closer quarters that good impression is con- 
firmed. But do not forget that the important time of your lives 
will come when you leave here. It is then when you are on your 
own, responsible for your own actions, that what you learnt here 
will count. No matter how successful you are at school it is all 
wasted if you do not stick to the rules of good behaviour when 
you leave here. There will never be too many decent, honest, 
hard-working men and women in this country of ours. 

Finally, when you leave here I hope that every one of you 
will find something more than just a good job and a comfortable 
home. I hope that you will feel a pride and a satisfaction in your 
work and find real happiness through service to others. 


Inaugural Meeting of the Conference of European 

University Rectors and Vice-Chancellors at 


20 JULY 1955 
Address at the Opening 

My first duty is to read a message of good wishes from the 
Queen : 

The opening of this Conference of University Rectors from all over 
Europe is a unique occasion. I am most happy that such a gathering 


of representatives of European universities should take place for the 
first time in my country to which I should like to welcome all the 
distinguished members of the Conference. I wish the Conference 
every success in its deliberations and I hope that it will make a 
valuable contribution to the unity of Europe and to the heritage so 
dear to us all. 

Now may I say how glad I am that the Western European 
Union has asked me to take part in the opening of the Con- 
ference and how grateful we are to you, Sir, for allowing this 
Conference to take place here in Cambridge. The problems of 
education, particularly university education, are common to all 
countries. Every university is trying to do much the same thing. 
Therefore, I am delighted, as it were, to be able to ignite the 
train of discussions and comparisons of methods, ideas, and 
problems which I hope will mark this Conference. 

The privilege of being Chancellor of two Universities has 
taught me that all, or almost all, the responsibilities for running 
universities fall on you, the Rectors and Vice-Chancellors. 
Therefore, as a titular head you must acquit me of any re- 
sponsibility in what I say or of any special knowledge. 

In the Middle Ages it was the Church and the universities 
which were primarily responsible for knitting together the 
nations of Europe in a common culture. This amounted to a 
system of thought and behaviour, conditioned by a reverence 
for the classics and restrained by religion and social custom. 
Two world wars and the advent of science have completely 
upset those conditions and removed those restraints. So far we 
have neither returned to them nor put anything in their place. 
The responsibility of the universities is therefore much greater 
today if they are to minister to the specialized needs of modern 
society and to regain their position as the spiritual and moral 
reservoirs of Europe and the world. 

One of the marks of the Middle Ages was the free movement 
of scholars from university to university across the face of 
Europe. Since then the world has grown much smaller and that 
mobility ought in our day to cover the whole world. Teachers 

145 L 

in the arts must surely benefit from a wide personal knowledge 
of the places where those arts flourished most nobly, and the 
science teacher must surely draw inspiration from working in 
the universities which were responsible for some of the greatest 
strides in science. Perhaps even more important, the movement 
of teachers and students alike between universities must surely 
help to break down the narrow nationalism which grows up 
with isolation. A proper respect for the achievements of others 
may not be easy in this competitive world, but it is after all the 
first step towards a broad mind. 

European culture, thought, and ideas have drifted all over 
the world, and although they have received some hard knocks 
in recent years there are many far-away places where people 
still believe that Europe has something good to offer. We shall 
have nothing to offer unless our behaviour, our ideals, and our 
achievements gain universal respect. We can only have some- 
thing to offer if the universities have clearly before them what 
they are aiming to do. 

With the inevitable growth of specialization I see the uni- 
versities facing two great dangers. First, it is very easy to get so 
involved in the technical details of education that the object of 
education is lost. And secondly, in an effort to condition a 
university to the needs of its students and to the needs of the 
State it may lose its power to make or mould those students into 
reasonable and responsible men, capable of thinking for them- 
selves and capable of expressing the result of their thoughts to 

A university must do more than merely provide a high-class 
professional apprenticeship. It does not matter in the least what 
a student's specialized line happens to be; the fact that he is a 
specialist cannot excuse him from his responsibilities as a man. 
Students must emerge as complete human beings capable of 
taking their proper place in society as a credit to their univer- 
sities both for their professional knowledge and as men. 
There is no conflict between the disciplines here. Nobody can 
be termed a complete man who has no knowledge of what 


science has to teach, and, equally, human obligations cannot 
be escaped on the grounds of being a specialized scientist or 

By human obligations I mean the ability to behave in a 
reasonable way, to observe restraint so that restraints do not 
have to be imposed, to be able to think clearly and objectively 
so that false doctrines cannot gain ground. I believe that it also 
means the ability to see through nonsense, political, economic, 
scientific, and so on, and the feeling that it is a duty to resist it. 
This in no way conflicts with the amount of specialized know- 
ledge, whether scientific, classical, or anything else, which the 
student can absorb and turn to good account for himself and 
the community at large. 

The universities have a special responsibility to send people 
of that sort out into the world, because by their influence and 
example in the community at large they can extend the work 
of the universities to every corner of the world. 

However, to produce the complete man with that balanced 
sense of obligation and understanding we need to know much 
more about man himself. Our knowledge of science, the classics, 
or medicine is beautifully documented, indexed, and ordered. 
We may not know everything about the subject, but what is 
known is neatly bound. I imagine that is why we sometimes 
call this an age of reason, but we forget that in the midst of all 
that reasonable knowledge man himself remains as unreason- 
able, irrational, and unpredictable as ever. 

Everything around us has been found to have laws and order, 
and there are some who faintly resent the fact that man refuses 
to be ordered in the same way. But we must take care not to 
treat man, with his immense variety of prejudices and emotions, 
as just another statistical unit. There is the conflict; and it is 
perhaps inclined to become most noticeable in scientists who 
deal with ordered things and thoughts in their professional lives, 
but when the problems are human ones it is not altogether sur- 
prising that their ideal solutions are not universally accepted. 
The reverse is, of course, also true. If you spend your life making 

147 L2 

compromises it is hard to understand why that is not possible 
in science. 

I would like to repeat that the conflict is not between dis- 
ciplines, between humanism and science. The conflict lies 
between man and the world he has made for himself. Man has 
succeeded in changing many things but he has not changed 
much himself. 

It is just because we have got such a grip on nature and such 
a store of knowledge for its own sake that we must remember 
the central character, man, and his possibilities, limitations, and 
the depths he can sink to if he relaxes his self-control. 

Now, I do not claim that any of this is original, and I cer- 
tainly do not claim any particular right to say these things, but 
at least I am neutral. I am not a graduate of any university, 
I am not a humanist or a scientist, and, oddly enough, I do not 
regret it. I owe my allegiance to another of the world's few 
really great fraternities, the fraternity of the sea. At sea you will 
find all the conflicts that man has had to contend with now and 
in the past. The fear of the unknown, the power which is greater 
than man and his machines, the necessity to reconcile human 
frailties to scientific gadgets. For every modern ship, particularly 
a ship of war, is a small scientific world, ordered, mechanical, 
reasonable, but if it is to function at all the central characters, 
the men, must work together or there is anarchy. In order to be 
able to work together they must understand their obligations and 
must practise certain restraints whatever their specialized jobs. 

There are technical problems to be overcome in designing a 
ship as a scientific gadget, and there are the human problems 
to be overcome to make that ship work, and at sea you fail if you 
neglect those human problems. 

Now, Sir and Gentlemen, these are only random reflections 
and taken by themselves have probably no great merit, but I 
have advanced them in case some chance remark sparks a train 
of thought in another mind, or in agreeing or disagreeing with 
something I have said, somebody may find his own thoughts 
made a bit clearer. 


So, finally, I would like to wish this Conference every success, 
and I hope there will be many opportunities in the future for 
the universities of Europe to meet together for their own good, 
for the good of Europe, and ultimately to the benefit of the 
whole world. 


Taking the Salute at the Sovereign's Parade at the 
Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst 

28 JULY 1955 
Address to the Parade 

First of all, I want to say that I was very impressed by your 
drill and smartness this morning. I congratulate the instructors 
on a good job. This parade is a great credit to the Royal Military 
Academy. You can be certain that the Queen will get a good 

I congratulate also the prize-winners. Remember that you 
have much more important prizes to aim for after you leave 

To those who have not won prizes or distinguished themselves 
in any way and to those who passed out not quite at the top of 
the list I only want to say this: success in any career can only 
be measured at the end of it. Every one of you leaving this term 
has exactly the same chance of eventual success. 

You must all realize by now that your most important and 
most difficult job when you leave here will be to lead men of 

the corps and regiments which you join. This job is more 
important than ever now that such a large proportion of the 
young citizens of this country pass through the ranks of the 

Your influence upon them while they are serving in the Army 
can be a very great help to them and to the country as a whole 
when they return to civilian life. 

Your next job will be to understand and to learn how to 
handle your technical equipment. This part of your job may not 
be so rewarding as the leadership of men, but unless you can 
thoroughly master the machines as well as thoroughly under- 
stand the men you will never be properly equipped to exercise 
executive military command in any sphere. 

There is one other thing to which I would like to draw your 
attention. While it is most necessary that you should constantly 
try to improve your professional qualifications as soldiers, do 
not lose sight of the fact that your corps or regiment is part of 
the Army, that the Army is a part of the Armed Forces of the 
Crown, and that the Armed Forces are part of our national 
fabric. If you are to serve this country well in positions of trust 
and responsibility later on, you must keep yourselves well in- 
formed about political as well as military events and thought in 
this country and in the rest of the world. By keeping informed 
about these events, I naturally do not mean that you should 
get involved in theqj in any way whatsoever while you are still 

Finally, as you grow older try not to be afraid of new ideas. 
New or original ideas can be bad as well as good, but whereas 
an intelligent man with an open mind can demolish a bad idea 
by reasoned argument, those who allow their brains to atrophy 
resort to meaningless catch-phrases, derision, and finally anger 
in the face of anything new. 

I know that soldiering means hard work and is a serious 
business, but I still hope that you will all have a lot of fun in 
your chosen career. 

Good luck to you all. 



Presentation of Awards at the Royal Society 
of Arts 

26 OCTOBER 1955 

Presidential Remarks 

The bare business of today's meeting is to present the Society's 
Bicentenary Medal to Sir Charles Tennyson and to make Uffa 
Fox a Royal Designer for Industry. 

Put like that, I must admit that it sounds most uninteresting. 
Yet, oddly enough, I think both the men concerned and the 
reasons for their being here are full of interest. 

If you will all forgive me, you could not find two people with 
less apparently in common. The one: Eton, Cambridge, the 
law, industrialist, company and then government service. The 
other: apprenticed in a shipyard in Cowes, then in the Royal 
Naval Air Service, successful small-boat designer and sailor, a 
genius at enjoying himself, and an expert and passable per- 
former at the more obscure folk-songs. At least they have this in 
common. They are both authors. 

We honour Sir Charles today because in our opinion he has 
encouraged good design, and that really means a lot more than 
one might think. Anybody can display a passing interest by 
adverse criticism. It is only too easy to demonstrate your sup- 
posed independence of mind or disregard for convention by 
destructive comments. What is much more difficult is by the 
use of your own judgement to decide what is good, and to be 
right, if possible, more often than not. 

In any age in any fashion only about 10 per cent, is original 
conscious good design, the rest is copied or worse still is styled. 
The particular genius of what used to be called the Tatrons', 

and Sir Charles might be so described, is that they can recognize 
that 10 per cent, when they see it and encourage it for the benefit 
of the rest of us. 

The encouragement of good design and good taste is the 
special interest of this Society. We already give rewards for 
good design, the Bicentenary Medal is now given for the en- 
couragement of good design, and I expect we shall have a prize 
for the most discriminating consumer before long. 

I suppose I shall have to say something about Uffa here. All I 
can think is that he must find it just as difficult to see me as 
President of this Society as I do to see him as an R.D.I. That is 
not meant as any reflection on his work, it is just that when 
sailing together in small boats personality counts before 

There is a tendency nowadays to imagine that everything 
new must be scientific or rational. Uffa Fox as a helmsman in 
his day was a world beater and as a designer of small boats he 
is also a world beater, and I can state categorically that there is 
practically nothing scientific or rational about Mr. Fox. Like all 
the great designers, his genius is entirely human. 



British Olympic Association Banquet at Grosvenor 


21 NOVEMBER 1955 

Toast 'The British Olympic Association* 

The British Olympic Association was formed in 1905, so tonight 
we are celebrating its fiftieth birthday. 

Since the formation of the Association it has been responsible 
for raising the money and organizing every British team to take 
part in the nine Olympic Games held since then. That represents 
a very great deal of money and a very great deal of hard work, 
most of which was voluntary and unpaid. 

I do not propose to get involved, this evening at any rate, in a 
discussion on the merits or otherwise of international sport. I do 
not really know whether the Olympic Games have realized the 
dreams of their founders or not. It is just as easy to be cynical 
or sentimental about this subject. But I do know this: the urge 
to pit one's skill or ability against others is present in everyone 
from childhood and has been with man as a whole since he ran 
races up and down the trees, or threw a stone axe. 

The Olympic Games thrive on that urge and their real con- 
tribution is their brave effort to ensure that the contests are 
conducted in an honourable and sportsmanlike manner. 

The purpose of this dinner tonight is to start the campaign to 
raise money in order to send British teams to the Games next 
year in Sweden, Italy, and Australia. Very few individuals 
likely to be chosen to compete could possibly pay their own 
expenses. Very few indeed [of the governing bodies of amateur 
sport, who act as selectors, have got anything in the kitty at all. So 


that is the point of the British Olympic Association's appeal for 
funds. I expect you will be hearing more of the details later. 

The fact that the British Olympic Association is also cele- 
brating its Jubilee is relatively unimportant. 

As far as we are concerned in this country, there is something 
quite special about the 1956 Games. The athletic part of the 
Games is to be held in Australia, which some of you will recollect 
is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations, and the 
first of those nations, after this country, to be host for the 
Olympic Games. 

It is, therefore, not just a matter of sending a team to the 
Olympic Games as such. It is also a matter of sending a team 
of athletes to Australia. Here is an opportunity to show our 
interest in Australia and to support their very considerable 
efforts to arrange the Games properly. But if our team lacks for 
anything or the funds are not sufficient to send our best men 
and women it will be a clear demonstration to Australia and 
indeed to the whole world that we are not interested in one of 
our sister nations, and secondly not interested in the Olympic 
Games. And that, in my opinion, would be a very great disaster. 

Many people will be saying that the Government should take 
a hand in this: that it is monstrous that something so important 
should be left in the hands of volunteers, and they probably add 
the word incompetent for good measure, very unkindly and 

I think that is quite wrong. The team we want to send should 
be composed of amateurs, and not temporary civil servants. 
This venture must rest squarely on the voluntary support of 
individuals in this country who would like to see our best 
athletes in competition with the best athletes from the rest of the 
world, and in front of the eyes of our Australian cousins. 

It may be argued that there is a lot of national prestige to be 
gained from successful competition in the Olympic Games. In 
my opinion, there is a lot more prestige to be gained if we stick 
to the spirit as well as the letter of the rules both in preparing 
for these Games as well as during the Games themselves. 

Let us try to send the best party we can, and I sincerely hope 
the numbers will not be limited by lack of money; and, in- 
cidentally, let us show the rest of the world what a free people 
can do to help themselves. 

Let us also hope that our team win a lot of medals, but win- 
ning or losing it is much more important that they should come 
home having added lustre to the reputation of British sports- 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I give you a toast to the British 
Olympic Association, and may their efforts exceed all our 


sgoth Anniversary Festival Dinner of the Royal 
Scottish Corporation at Grosvenor House 

30 NOVEMBER 1955 

Toast 'Hie Royal Scottish Corporation 3 

First of all, as your Chairman, may I welcome you all to 
this dinner this evening, and may I say how delighted I am to 
be with you at this agoth Anniversary Festival of the Royal 
Scottish Corporation on this St. Andrew's Day. 

It is always a pleasure to be associated with or to attend any 
function which is in aid of a charity, especially when such a 
good dinner goes with it. I imagine that the excellence of 
the dinner is designed to prevent any guests feeling that their 


presence here is in any way a charitable action. I take it rather 
more of them is demanded. 

You will be pleased to hear that my charitable action this 
evening will be a short speech, but those who cannot make 
speeches will have to think of something else to do. 

It says a very great deal for the unselfish instincts of the 
Scottish people who such a long time ago provided for their 
less fortunate brethren in the form of this Scots Box, and later 
the Royal Scottish Corporation. I notice, incidentally, it was 
started at the time of King James I and VI, who came to unite 
England and Scotland. 

Nobody knows quite what inference to draw from that. Is 
it perhaps that there were no Scots poor in London before he 
arrived? If so, does it imply that he perhaps brought them with 
him? Or do you think they all suddenly became poor as a 
result of celebrating his arrival? 

If I had lived at that time I would have been celebrating too, 
not because I claim any very great proportion of Scottish blood, 
but only because his queen, Anne, was in fact a princess of Den- 
mark, and therefore presumably might have been a relation. 

That gives us a very good reason for celebrating, and possibly 
the only other reason I might have to celebrate St. Andrew's Day 
is that my father was called Andrew. As I say, I can claim very 
little Scottish blood by birth, but if you can acquire Scottish 
blood in the same way that you can acquire Nelson's blood 

However, to get back to this toast, which is to the Royal 
Scottish Corporation. The fact remains that over the years ever 
since 1611 they have done a very, very great deal to alleviate 
human suffering and want and, in the words of the oldest 
publication in the Corporation's possession, 'may answer fully 
the true design of charity'. Ladies and Gentlemen, I give you 
the toast of the Royal Scottish Corporation.