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In magnis et uoluisse sat est. 


Hontton : 


[The Right of Translation is reserved.] 


CDamfctoge : 


* > 4 






Introduction on the Life and Wobks or Pbopertius 

Chapter I. Life and Character 

II. Works and Style 

HI. Grammar and Vocabulary 

IV. Metre and Prosody 

V. Literary History 

Fasti Propertiani 



Notes ...... 

Table op the relations of Cobnelia 

Appendix A. Manuscripts and Conspectus of Bead 


B. On fulcire and its cognates 

C. Comparison with the numbering of 
other editions 



Index to Notes 


• •• 













The object of this book is two-fold, to provide the 
students of Fropertius with an annotated edition of 
a portion of the poems of Propertius and a general 
introduction to the study of the whole. 

In selecting the poems, I have not picked out all 
the easiest or most interesting, but I have endeavoured 
to make the selection representative of my author's 
subjects and of his style, and I am very confident that 
those who are attracted by the poems that I have 
selected will not be disappointed when they read the 
remainder. In forming my text, which is chiefly 
based on the critical materials of Hertzberg supple- 
mented by those of Baehrens, I have been generally 
guided in cases of doubt by internal considerations, 
which are our sole stay when the relative values of 
manuscripts have still to be determined. (Compare 
the remarks in Appendix A.) I may add that I have 
spent some pains to make the spelling as near as 
possible to that of the age of Propertius. 

In my notes, whether original or drawn from the 
sources specified below, I have endeavoured to be 
suggestive rather than exhaustive, but I trust that 
they will supply all the information required for 
understanding a very difficult author. With that end 
in view, I have given arguments for most of the 
poems, and a complete translation of the first half; 
in performing which most delicate task, I have aimed 


at preserving, as far as I could, the full sense and 
general style of the original. I am afraid that my 
readers will find a certain want of uniformity in the 
notes due to the fact that I have had to work at them 
intermittently and at long intervals. But I trust 
that it will not be serious enough to cause any 
practical inconvenience. 

Through pressure of space I have often passed over 
explanations which I believe to be wrong but which 
would have been noticed in a larger commentary. 
I mention this expressly, as it might otherwise be 
thought that I was ignorant or negligent of the work 
of my predecessors. I have however generally re- 
corded the opinion of the only English editor of 
Propertius, Prof. F. A. Paley (abbreviated P.), where 
it differs from my own. 

Besides Mr Paley's edition, I have consulted the 
following, of which the ones marked with a star are 
those that I have found the most useful. 

*JScaliger f Passerat (chiefly in Volpti* edition), 
* Volpi, Broukkwye, *Bv/rvtoann t *Lachmann (chiefly 
the first edition), PaZdamu*, Barlh, Kuinoel, * Becker 
(selections), *J£ertzberg 9 Carutti, * Jacob >, Rett and 
L. Midler. 

Baehreru? and Palmer's texts came into my hand* 
when the bulk of my work was done. But I have 
nevertheless been able to make some use of them. In 
preparing the Notes and Introduction I have also 
referred to several programmes and dissertations as 
well art papers in the learned journals. Amongst the 
former I may mention those of Nobbe, Peerlkamp, 


lleydenreich, EscJienberg, *LiUjolharm, *Conr. Ross- 
berg t JSandstrom, Faltin, *Haupt (Opuscula) <fca 

In the Introduction my obligations to the fore- 
going are chiefly to Hertzberg, Vol i., and in Ch. TV. 
to L. Mailer. But the greater part of it is the out- 
come of independent reflection and research, and 
-where my facts are taken from Hertzberg my treat* 
ment of them is often quite different to his. I must 
ask leave again to point out that I have often been 
obliged to be briefer than I could have -wished, and 
that in consequence the facts that I have advanced 
for a position are generally intended to be examples 
to elucidate it, not evidence to prove it. The same 
enforced brevity has often prevented me from deve- 
loping a question into all its collateral issues and 
defining its relations to everything connected with it. 
To take a single example, I have given a short sketch 
of the grammar of Fropertius without, as a rule, 
attempting to frame it, as it were, in the grammatical 
usage of the Latin language as a whole. 

Of Grammars, I have chiefly used Roby, Kuhner 
and Draeger. I have referred very frequently to 
Becker's Gallus and Rich's Dictionary of Antiquities, 
books which no student of Latin literature should be 
without ; and also to Mr Potts' useful ' Latin Prose/ 

I have quoted Propertius both by L. Muller's and 
by Paley's editions (see note on p. li.) ; and I have 
added a comparative table of the numbering in these 
editions, and those of Baehrens and Palmer, which 
should be referred to in case of doubt. 


In conclusion, I wish to express my best thanks 
to Pro£ R. Ellis, who has sent me from time to time 
notes published and unpublished on various passages 
of Propertius; to Prof. A. Palmer for some friendly 
criticisms and suggestions; and above all to Mr J. S. 
Reid (J. S. R.), who offered unsolicited to revise my 
proof-sheets, and from whose observations my com- 
mentary has derived much advantage, which is by no 
means confined to the passages where I have quoted 
him by name. Nor must I forget my brother, 
Mr L. H. Postgate, who has contributed what I trust 
will prove a useful index to the Notes. 

I have only to add that I shall be very much 
obliged for any criticisms or suggestions. 


Tkinitt College, 
April 12, 1881. 

The second edition of these selections differs in 
very few respects from the first. Some obvious errors 
and misprints have been corrected, and one or two new 
interpretations inserted. I take this opportunity of 
tendering my sincere thanks to the scholars and 
reviewers for the favour and friendly criticism which 
my work has received at their hands and the en- 
couragement thus given me towards the larger under- 
taking of a complete edition of Propertius. 


December 1, 1834 




With the exception of his own poems, the mate- 
rials for constructing a life of Propertius . A _, A . 

, , ° . i • . Authorities. 

are meagre in the extreme, and consist 
chiefly of scattered allusions in writers of very various 
dates from Ovid to Appuleius. The poems furnish 
us with considerable information ; but it is often diffi- 
cult to utilize it, as we do not know how far we are to 
accept his expressions, nor how much we are to deduct 
for the habit of vague exaggeration which is character- 
istic of his work. 

It may be safely said that few poets present more 
problems than Propertius; and the first, 
though the easiest, is the ascertainment 
of his name. 

We have the authority of the grammarian Dona- 
tus 1 that it was Sextus Propertius simply. Aurelius 
and Navta y to which in course of time Meuanienris 
and Vmber might have been added, have been obtruded 
on him by the undiscriminating bounty of tradition and 
are the figments of ignorance, corruption or confusion*. 

1 Verg. Vit. 12. 45. 

* Aurelius is probably due to confusion with the Christian 
poet Pmdentius, a later age finding no difficulty in his 



Like most of the great poets of Italy, Propertius 
came from the North* He tells us himself Biramlae ^ 
that he was an Umbrian and carefully p ^ 

describes the district where he was born, the fair and 
fertile valley between Perusia and the river Clitum- 
nus. But the exact locality has been disputed. Meua- 
nia, now Bevagna, EispeUum, now Spello, and other 
towns have claimed the poet for their own : and their 
claims * have been supported by argument and, we 
grieve to add, also by forgery. But there is no doubt 
that it was Asisium or Assist, the birth-place of the 
famous St Francis, that is entitled to the honour. 
His native place was on the side of a hill not far from 
Perugia, as his expressions clearly shew, si Per us in a 
tibi patriae sunt nota sepulcra, proximo, supposito 
contingent Vmbria eampo me genuit 1 and scanden- 
tes si quia cernet de uallibus arces, ingenio muroe 
aestvmet Ule meo*. Now Asisium is situated on. the 
west slope of the Apennines at the head of the valley, 
about twelve miles from Perusia, while Hispellum is 
at their foot, and Meuania some distance in the plain, 
both being over twenty miles from Perusia* This 
identification is completely established by the general 
description which the poet gives of his native country, 
in which there is a distinct allusion to the passage 
already quoted: Vmbria te notis antiqua Penatibus 
edit (mentior an patriae tangitur ora tuae ?) qua nebvr 
losa cauo rorat Meuania campo et locus aestiuis intepet 
Vmber aquis scandentisque Asisi consurgit uertice 
murus murus ab ingenio notior tile tuo*. We hear 
little about Asisium in ancient writers. Its chief 

having two gentile names. Nauta arose from a corrupt read* 
ing of in. 19 (16). 38 ; Propertius as a nauita dines is certainly 
a rich idea. Meuaniemu (to he discussed presently) and Vmber 
appear in G. Of all the mss. N alone is sober. Its title is in- 
cipit Propertius. 

1 i. 22. 9. * v. 1. 65, 66. ' v. 1. 121 seqq. 


importance seems to have been military. The modern 
town contains a considerable number of remains, 
amongst which we may mention the portico of a 
temple, an aqueduct and baths. 

The natural advantages of this region, and espe- 
cially of the southern part of it, the tract watered by 
the Clitumnus, have called forth the warmest admira- 
tion from the younger Pliny onwards 1 . The bold 
forms of the Apennines, and their contrast with the 
peaceful beauty of the lower valley with the Clitum- 
nus flowing between rich pasturages on which grazed 
herds of snow-white oxen, designed for the service of 
the Gods, or spreading out into a clear expanse, so 
shallow as to be warmed by the summer sun and so 
broad as to earn the title of the 'Umbrian Lake/ 
could not fail to impress the early imagination of Pro- 
pertius, which clung closely to local attachments; and 
the sadness of later events only deepened the recollec- 

The Propertii were what we should call a 'good 
county family.' They were well known in „ „ 
their own neighbourhood, and enjoyed the *"* 
consideration attaching to large landed proprietors. 
But they were not * noble ' ; they had not attained to 
high official distinction at Home *. About the time of 
Augustus the family, in one at least of its branches, 
was rising into notice. There is an inscription 3 , which 

1 Plin. Ep. 8. 8. Compare the description in Dante Para- 
dise xi. 63 seqq. ' Between Tupino and the wave that falls 
From blest Ubaldo's chosen hill, there hangs Rich slope of 
mountain high whence heat and cold Are wafted through 
Perugia's eastern gate. * * * Upon that side, Where it doth 
break its steepness most, arose A sun upon the world. 1 (Cary.) 

9 Compare the noti Penates, which I refer to Propertius' 
family, with m. 32 (26). 55, 66 aspice me cui nulla domifortuna 
relictast nullus et antiquo Marte triurnphtis aui and in. 19 (16). 
37 nee sanguine auito nobilit. v. i. 121 — fin. is the authority 
for most of the statements about Propertius* life. 

* Corp. Inscr. vi. 1501 and Hermes Vol. rtr. p, 370. 


Mommsen refers to this period, of a Gains Propertras, 
who, amongst other offices, was Uwmuir capitaH* and 
proconsul. In later times we hear of a Propertius 
Celer, a senator in the reign of Tiberius, who was too 
poor to support his rank and received from the empe- 
ror a subvention of a million sesterces 1 ; and of Pro- 
pertius Blaerus (Passenmu Paulhu), an eques splendid 
du$, for whom see below. 

The date of Propertras? birth is uncertain. We 
hare only the testimony of Ovid that he 
was older than himself*, but not too old 
to be his companion. Again he places Propertras 
and Tibullus as the two links in the elegiac chain 
between himself and Cornelias Gallus*. Now Ovid was 
born in B.a 43 and Gallus in 69. So that we shall 
probably be near the mark in making him from six to 
eight years older than Ovid and in putting the year of 
his birth as 50 or thereabouts. 

His youth was crowded with misfortunes. He 
lost his father early, and, soon after, his 
large and well cultivated estate in the arv 
general confiscation of 41, a misfortune which be 
shared with Virgil, Horace and many others. The 
indignation aroused by the arbitrary measures of the 
triumvirs caused a general rising in the North under 
the leadership of L. Antonius, brother of the Triumvir, 
and the notorious Fulvia. This outbreak, generally 
called the bellum Pervsinum, was crushed by Octavian 
by the capture and sack of Perusia in 40. This siege, 
which seems to have been attended by circumstances 
of peculiar horror, made a deep impression on the 
poet's suBoeptible imagination; the more so as it 
proved fatal to another of his relations 4 , who has been 

i Tao. A. 1. 75. 

' Ov. Tr. 4. 10. 45, 46. 

* id. 1. o. yv. 58, 54; of. Tr. 2. 467. 

< I. 99. 5—8. 


generally identified with the G alius who was killed in 
the fight of the Antonian army, and whose death is 
the subject of I. 21. In this case he was probably 
related to the poet by the mother's side. Whether 
there was anything saved from the wreck of the poet's 
property is not known. He and his mother may 
have found shelter with her own kinsmen, or her own 
property may have been untouched. From his ex- 
pressions which vary a good deal we should conclude 
that he was reduced to comparative poverty but not 
to penury (tenues Lares — nulla domi fortuna relicta— 
turn ita diues). At any rate his mother managed to 
secure him a superior education, of which his poems 
bear abundant traces, possibly (like Horace) at a ludus 
in Borne. After rarating the toga of manly freedom 
about 34, we find him with his mother in Home, 
where he was probably urged to study as a pleader. 
But, like Ovid, he found the attractions of love and 
poetry too strong ; or, as he puts it himself, * Apollo 
forbade him to thunder phrases in the frenzied forum ' 
(v. 1. 134). 

Soon afterwards he made the acquaintance of 
Lycinna. We do not know who she was, j^dnna 
nor how long the attachment lasted. It oua^ment. 
is however probable from the way in which Propertius 
speaks of her that his heart was not seriously engaged, 
though she seems subsequently to have excited the 
jealousy of Cynthia and been exposed to all her powers 
of persecution (uexandi) \ It is not necessary to sup- 
pose that Propertius was idle during this period. He 
was probably engaged in studying Greek and Roman 
literature and antiquities, and earning the name of 
doctus y to which no Roman poet has a better right 
than he. It is also possible that he may have written 
some of the archaeological poems in the fifth book. 

1 iy. 13 (15). 3—10, 43. 


But the mistress of his life and the directress of 
his inspiration was now to appear upon Cynthia 
the scene, the famous Cynthia. Her real auachment 
name was Hostia 1 , and she was a native of Tibur\ 
But her condition in life has been a much disputed 
question. There is now however no reasonable doubt 
that she was a courtesan of the higher class. All the 
evidence points in this direction. Her accomplish- 
ments which were those of a Thais, her house in the 
Subura 3 , the occurrence of scenes like those in I. 3, 
mi. 27 (21), 31 (25), v. 8, the mention of a Ima (v. 5), 
and above all the fact that Propertius could not have 
married her, admit of no other explanation 4 . But, 
though a meretrix, she was not an ordinary one. She 
had inherited literary distinction from her grand- 
father, probably the poet Hosbius, who wrote a poem 
on the Ulyrian war of 178, and flourished about the 
time of the Gracchi*. Of her personal appearance 
Propertius has left us glowing accounts . She was 

1 Appul. Apol. p. 415. 2 v. 7. 85. 

8 We do not know how large an establishment she had 
there. Eight slaves are mentioned by name in v. 7. 35 sqq., 
73 sqq. one of whom, Lygdomus, was probably a present from 
Propertius. Horace puts the minimum for a man at ten, 
Sat. 1. 3. 12. She had no near relations alive with the excep- 
tion of her mother and sister (ii. 6. 11, 12) who probably died 
before her, or they would have been mentioned in v. 7. Com- 
pare in. 11. 11 (9. 33) cum tibi nee frater nee sit tibi JiUw 
ullus, &c. which is a way of saying that she had no male pro- 

4 We shall not be doing any wrong to the gens Hoetia in 
adopting this supposition. The only members of it that we 
have records of were far from reputable: e.g.L. Hostiuswasthe 
first parricide after the Punic war (Plutarch Bomul. 22). 

6 See rsr. 20. 8 splendidaque a docto fama refulget auo. 
Some fragments of this poem have been preserved. Here is 
one from Festus s. v. te*ca: Hostius belli Histrici L 1: per 
gentes alte aetherias atque auia tesca perque uolabis templa 
antiqua deum. It was written in an archaic style. 

6 ii. 2. 5 sqq., 3. 9 sqq., in. 3. 23, 24. Allusions to the 


tall, stately, and well proportioned, with long tapering 
hands, a clear zed and white complexion, dark brown 
hair and brilliant black eyes. Her eyes especially 
and her graceful movements are the theme of the 
poet's perpetual admiration. To these she added 
other attractions. She was a skilful player and ac- 
complished dancer and an adept in the processes of 
the loom. She had inherited a taste for poetry too, 
and wrote verses whose merits she did not underrate \ 
Of her character we eannot form so favourable an 
estimate, at any rate if we believe what her lover 
says. She had all the faults of her class — fickleness, 
avarice, and an excessive love of finery. To these 
she added a very violent temper, which often vented 
itself in slander of those who had offended her. It is 
curious that we hear nothing of her good qualities. 
Probably she had some. At any rate she seems to 
have entertained for Propertius all the affection of 
which she was capable*. 

beauty of her eyes occur again and again, beginning with the 
very first line, Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocelli*. 

1 ii. 3. 21 et sua cum antiquae committit scripta Corinnae, 
carmina quae quinis (Bossberg) non putat aequa suis. For her 
accomplishments see, besides the passages cited, i. 2. 27 sqq., jv. 
19 (20). 7, 8. He frequently calls her docta paella, e. g. in. 2. 6. 

9 I am not responsible for this not very nattering portrait. 
It is drawn from Propertius himself. Possibly it needs mitiga- 
tion in some respects. It must be remembered here, as else- 
where, that we have only one side of the picture and that 
independent evidence, if we had it, might deprive Cynthia of 
some of her wonderful charms, but restore her some amiable 
traits. For her fickleness see the subsequent history aud com- 
pare also i. 15; 16. n. 6 (where he says she had as many 
lovers as Lais, Thais or Phryne) ; 8 ; 9. in. 14 (12) ; 20 (17) ; 30 
.(24). Her love of money resulted from her love of ornament. 
Propertius often complains of both; e.g. in. 8 (7). 11, 12 
'Cynthia does not care for office or distinction. She always 
weighs her lover's purse' (semper amatorum ponderat una 
rinus) ; ni. 11. 1 (9. 23) sqq. Sometimes his complaints seem 
just (l 15) ; sometimes they are amusing in. 18 (15). 11 et modo 


We do not know bow she became acquainted with 
Propertius. Possibly she heard of him 
through Lycinna; possibly the young poet ^HS^ h€ 
may even then hare gained a name amongst 
his private acquaintances which attracted the poetic 
Cynthia. It is certain that she made the first proffers 
of affection, and proposed to the poet that he should 
supply the place of a lover who had just deserted 
her to go to Africa 1 , To these he eagerly responded; 
for he was captivated by the beauty and charms of 
Cynthia. The disparity of their ages — for she was a 
good deal older than he — was not felt to be a bar, and 
may have been an attraction. The intimacy began in 

pauoniB cauda© flabella superbae et manibus dura frigus habere 
pila et cupit iratum talos me poscere eburnos quaeque nitent 
Sacra uilia dona Via. But we gather from what he says him- 
self that he knew these to- be common failings (ni. 8 (7). 17 — 
20) and that he had less cause than others to complam. For 
ha was exceptionally favoured ; see e.g. i. 8 and notes, and in. 
18 (11). 25, 26 'I nave never bought your preference by rich 
gifts ; quioquid eram, hoc animi gratia magna tui'; and he 
indulged her taste for magnificence himself, e.g. n. 3. 15, 16 
neo si qua Arabio lucet bombyce puella — non sum de nikilo 
blandus amator ego fit costs me something to be an attractive 
lover'; P.'s translation is wrong). His somewhat voluptuous 
nature was sensible to the charms of attire. He associates his 
first conquest with a particular dress, qua primum oculos cepisti 
uette Properti indue, neo uaouum florerelinque caput rv. 9 (10). 
15 ; perhaps the purple tunic of m. 27 (21). 26 non ilia mini for- 
mosior umquam uisa, neque ottrina cum fuit in tunica* Her 
violent temper too pleased him: he regarded its outbursts as 
proofs that her heart was really touched rv. 7 (8), esp. 10 nam 
sine amore graui feznina nulla dolet, 28 semper in irata 
pallidus esse uelim. But when she was seriously angry, he 
felt it as taeuitia (i. 8. 18). For her love of slander see i. 4. 
18 sqq. soiet haeo insana puella et tibi non tacitis uocibua 

hostis erit et te circum omnes alias irata puellas differ et ; cf. 

in. 17 (14). 17 ; 18 (15). 7 and 10. It was her personal attrac- 
tions that kept Propertius at her side. He tells her so himself, 
iv. 7 (8). 85 gaude quod nuUatt neque formosa, doleret si qua 
foret: nuno sis iure superba licet, 

* Bee it. 20 which was written on the occasion. 


28. For we have poems addressed to Cynthia from 28 
to 23, and Propertius tells us his # faithful servitude ' 
lasted jwe years, which is probably exclusive of a year 
of separation 1 . 

For two years hardly a cloud marred the serenity 
of the lovers' day. There were no doubt 
the usual quarrels, partings, and recon- First period. 
ciliations ; and at one time it seemed possible that 
Cynthia would be tempted by the splendid offers of a 
Praetor to accompany him abroad. But Cynthia was 
true to her self-chosen lover, and the Praetor had to 
depart alone. Propertius on his part was equally 
firm in resisting the solicitations and expostulations 
by which his father's friends 2 sought to draw him 
away from his mistress. The majority of the elegies 
in the first book are the outcome of this, the most 
fortunate period of his attachment ; and in their tone 
they differ widely from the rest. There is a noticeable 
absence of the bitterness which pervades some of the 
later Cynthia elegies ; they are gentler, tenderer, 
and more trustful. Another source of anxiety also 
passed away. After his power was established and 
his victory over his rivals magnificently celebrated, 
Augustus turned his attention to social reforms. The 
evil which called most clamorously for redress was 
the wide prevalence of celibacy and the moral cor- 
ruption which it at once betokened and aggravated. 
Augustus brought forward a repressive measure, of the 
same tendency as the one passed in B.C. 18, inflicting 
severe penalties on those who continued obstinately 
in the single estate 3 . This would probably have parted 
the lovers, as Propertius in spite of his protestations 

1 iv. 25. 3 quinque tibi potui seruire fideliter annos. 

8 i. 1. 25, iv. 24. 9. 

3 The measure is generally placed in b.o. 27. It is probably 
referred to in i. 8. 21 (n.), and it is the subject of u. 7, which 
was written some time after the law had been proposed (v. 2 
quondam edicta). 

P. P. c 


would have been unable to resist an imperial edict, 
and he could not legally many a woman of Cynthia's 
class 1 . But the danger passed, and the law was allowed 
to drop (sublata) in consequence of the opposition 
which it encountered and the pressure of external 

But this mutual happiness was now to be broken 
up. Propertius fell away from his faith, separatum for 
His defection was severely punished. «i«w- 
He was banished from his mistress' presence for a 
year*. We must suppose that Cynthia's feelings were 
deeply piqued and even wounded by this conduct, as 
she visited it with a punishment which, she did not 
extend to later infidelities. 

The separation seems to have quite unbalanced 
Propertius, and partly to still the cravings of an 
unsatisfied passion, and partly in retaliation for 
Cynthia's severity, he plunged into reckless dissipa- 
tion 3 . But all in vain. His passion, to which absence 
had only given a double intensity, gave him no rest, 
until exhausted by its own efforts it gradually sank 
into a dull and resourceless despair. This stupor of 
grief is embodied in the elegy which was afterwards 
prefixed to Book I., and which forms the most gloomy 
opening to a book of love poems that can well be 

About the beginning of 25 a reconciliation took 
place ; and soon after, perhaps as a peace- JtoMlieilWtol . 
offering to Cynthia, the first book was Second period. 
published and inscribed with her name : and imme- 
diately gained for its author and its subject a wide 

1 TJlpian quoted by Hertzberg i. p. 36. 

3 iv. 15 (16). 9 peccaram semel et totum sum pulsus in 

* Laohmann's explanation of the circumstances of i. 1 
seems to me unquestionably correct. See his introduction. 
Hertzberg's caution however as to the uncertainty of the data 
must be borne in mind. 


and enduring reputation 1 . Soon after this Propertius' 
mother died. Her son had carefully tended her de- 
clining years, and though she is only three times 
mentioned in the poems', we can gather from incidental 
expressions that this was a labour of love. 

The intimacy thus renewed lasted for three years. 
For the first few months all was sunshine. Compare 
II. 3. 3 sqq. with in. 13 (11). 21 sqq. septima iam 
plenae deducitur orbita lunae, cum de me et de te corn- 
pita nulla tacent; interea nobis non numquam ianua 
mollis, &c. But the bond had been too severely 
strained for this to last. Though it seems that neither 
party now demanded from the other a single devotion, 
yet, when either fell back into old ways, retaliations 
and recriminations could not fail to ensue: in. 8 (7), 
cf. 30 (24). The Praetor returned from Ulyricum, and 
found Cynthia more compliant than formerly; and Pro- 
pertius consoled himself with a Phyllis or a Teia (v. 8. 
31 sqq.). Besides Propertius was awaking to a sense 
of the turpitude of a connexion which, though ex- 
cusable in a youth, was entirely out of keeping with a 
more advanced age. Thus we find him in iv. 21 con- 
templating or undertaking a voyage to Athens to find 
in its distractions a cure for his degrading passion. 
So in iv. 16 (17) he would seek a remedy in the potency 

1 ni. 18 (15). 1 cum sis iam notofabuia libro et tua sit toto 
Cynthia lecta foro, Mart. 14. 189 Cynthia, facundi carmen 
iuuenile Properti, accepit famam nee minus ipsa dedit, 

9 Viz., ii. 8.39,iii. 13 (11). 15, 1. 11. 21 an mini sit maior 
carae custodia matris ? Compare the sympathy which Proper- 
tius shews with a mother's feelings in the Paetus, Marcellus 
and Cornelia elegies, and the usage of mater and maternus. 
There is nothing similar in the case of pater and paternus, as 
we might expect from Propertius having lost his father so 
early. We do not know precisely when his mother died : hut 
he had lost both parents when in. 13 (11) was written, i.e. six 
months after the first book was published, v. 15 ossa tibi iuro 
per matris et ossa parentis; si fallo, cinU, heu, sit mini uterque 



of Bacchus. If we suppose, as I think we may, that, 
on the whole, the poems in Book iv. (in.) are later than 
those in Books n. and in. (Bk. n.), we may see in its 
quiet beauty and measured tone, as contrasted with their 
bursts of anger and jubilant outcries, a sign that the 
end was near. 

All the same the last two elegies of Book iv. jar us 
with a harsh surprise. By this time love second separa- 
tism cooled almost to indifference. The tiolu 
glamour which no friendly counsels, no remedies, nay- 
no aid from supernatural powers could dispel, has van- 
ished of itself. The blaze and the heat of passion are 
extinct ; and Propertius takes the cinders and flings 
them coolly and contemptuously away. 'Woman' (he 
nowhere else uses this slighting form of address), your 
reign is over. My shameful hallucination is past. 
Go to a loveless old age to be flouted by others as you 
have flouted me 1 .' 

This separation probably took place in b.c. 23 
which is the last year to which we can assign any of 
the Cynthian elegies*. Cynthia survived the separa- 
tion, but not for long 8 . As we have already said, she 
was considerably older than Propertius, and had al- 
ready had an illness in which her life was despaired of 4 . 
Whether a reconciliation took place before her 
death turns on the interpretation of v. vii., subsequent 
a poem full of difficulties which have been ***<»?• 
neglected by the commentators. 

1 These expressions seem to us harsh and cruel in the 
extreme. But the ancient Greeks and Romans were destitute 
of chivalry : and Propertius may even compare favourably with 
the cold-blooded exultation of Horace in similar cases, Od. 1. 25, 

a See below, p. lii. 

8 She probably died before B.C. 18. The longer we suppose 
her to have lived, the less likely was the reconciliation to have 
^ken place. 

4 hi. 24 seqq. (20) compared with n. 9. 25—27. 


It represents the spirit of Cynthia as appearing in 
a dream to the poet shortly after her „ . ,. 

, T .. , r , , , . J n Examination 

death, in it she rebukes him for so soon of Book v. 
forgetting their love (13—22) and for his EU9yviU 
carelessness in superintending her funeral (23 — 34). 
She insinuates that her death has been caused by 
poison and that the torture test should be applied to 
her slaves (35 — 38). She accuses Propertius of ex- 
alting to her place a rival of the lowest class, whose 
name we are told in v. 72 was CMoris, and allowing 
her to wreak her malice on Cynthia's slaves and to 
melt down the gold statuette which she had taken 
from the burning pyre (39 — 48). Then, after saying 
she will not' chide Propertius although he deserves it, 
she passes on to describe her lot in the world below 
(49 — 70). Then she gives him some instructions. Her 
nurse Parthenie is to be shielded from want in her 
declining years; Latris, her favourite maid, is not to 
wait on a new mistress. Propertius is to burn the 
verses he has written in her honour. Lastly he is to 
clear away the ivy which is strangling her in her tomb 
by the Anio, and write upon it an epitaph which she 
dictates (71 — 86). And now she must leave him: 
for the morn is approaching. But it is only for a 
while. Though he is another's now, he will soon be 
hers. 'Mine' she adds in a ghoulish line: mecum eris 
& mixti» ossibus ossa teram. And then she vanishes. 

Can anyone read this poem and suppose that the 
last two elegies of Book iv. represent the final act of 
the Ci/nthia drama? And even supposing that her 
death had so far softened Propertius that this sym- 
pathy and even this self-reproach was possible, can we 
neglect precise expressions like those in w. 5, 6 and 
14 in te iam uires somnus habere potest? Why the 
iam, if they had been parted for years? It seems to 
me that this compels us to conclude that the lovers 
were reconciled once more. Possibly Cynthia finding 


her health declining recalled her ancient lover, and he 
remembering only her kindness and forgetting her 
faults, softened by time and absence, came once more 
to help her in her need, and stood by the sick bed as 
in the olden time. But what are we to say of the 
contents of the poem? Can we pretend that it is pure 
poetic fiction, that the persons who crowd it, Chloris, 
Petale, Nomas, <fcc., its detail of circumstance, its air 
of life and reality are, after all, mere phantasmagoria 
and as shadowy as the vanishing Cynthia herself? 
Better say that the poem is a fictitious account of an 
imaginary occurrence, and that Cynthia did not die 
nor Propertius celebrate her death \ But, on the other 
hand, can we give unquestioning belief to the voice 
from the tomb? Shall we suppose that Propertius 
had sought a new mistress, ere the ashes of the first 
were cold in their urn, to occupy her place in her house 
and to tyrannize over her faithful slaves, that he had 
neglected the poor ceremonies which custom claimed 
for the dead, and demanded from an heir, nay that he 
had suspected that there was poison in her death and 
had not tracked the odious suspicion? Then, in spite 
of the preceding history, we shall have no scruple in 
believing Cynthia when she solemnly avers that she 
has kept her faith to Propertius (vv. 51 — 54). 

If we would rightly estimate the meaning of this 
poem, we must keep several considerations before us. 
First we must allow for that propensity to exaggeration 
in Propertius, which is always leading him to overstate 
and overcolour, and of which we shall speak anon. 
Again we must bear in mind that he is presenting 

1 This would at least be more in keeping with the Proper- 
tian genius whose ordinary tendency is to make the circum- 
stantial vague and not vice vena. We may account for the 
difference in this and some other cases by supposing that the 
vividness and singularity of the events had photographed their 
smallest details upon his memory. 


Vt/nthda 9 8 case, and realizing it vividly and poetically. 
Lastly we must deduct something for the self-upbraid- 
ings of grief and bereavement, and we must remember 
that in such a case it is in large measure true that 
qui tf accuse s'eoomse. To sum up, I think we may 
fairly state the circumstances of this poem as follows. 
Cynthia had died shortly before it was written, from 
an illness whose origin was obscure 1 , leaving to Pro- 
pertius the disposal of her effects and the arrangements 
for her burial. In the prostration of his grief he 
seems not to have superintended the execution of his 
instructions for the funeral and to have allowed a 
certain Chloris, otherwise unknown, to usurp an un- 
authorised authority over the household. And this 
poem is an expression of contrition and an earnest of 

Thus ended an intimacy which is for us by far the 
most important incident of Propertius* life. Without 
the stimulus of his love and without the sympathy and 
encouragement of his beloved his genius might never 
have broken the crust of lethargy which covered it. 
He himself says that his love stood him in the stead 
of genius; and with the proper interpretation this 
confession is true*. With its extinction decayed his 
poetical activity, and it is no accident that the only 
poems which can be assigned to a later date, viz. v. vi. 
and v. xL, were written for special occasions and at the 
request of others. ' His Muse,' as Hertzberg says, ' sank 
to silence with his love.' And his own words proved 
more prophetic than he intended : 

Cynthia prima fvit, Cynthia finis erit. 

And here too the records, the meagre records 
which we have been endeavouring pain- 

Txita* lit* 

fully to spell, break off: and a chasm opens 

1 This is probably what the charge of poison means. 

9 ii. 1. 4 ingenium nobis ipsa puella facit; compare i. 7. 7. 


in the life of the poet which we cannot see beyond. 
We know that he was alive at the end of B.c. 16, 
because v. 6 was written to commemorate the celebra- 
tion of the ludi quinquennales, and in v. 11. 66 allusion 
is made to the consulship of P. Cornelius Scipio in 1 6. 
Besides this we have two passages of the younger 
Pliny which throw a solitary and uncertain gleam 
upon this period. Epist. 6. 15 Passennus Paullus, 
splendidus eques Romanus et in primis Passcnnus 
eruditus, scribit elegos. gentilicium hoc illi: *««"•«. 
est enim municeps Properti atque etiam inter maiores 
suos Propertium numerat. is cum recitaret ita coepit 
dicere 'Prisce iubes.' ad hoc Iauolenus Priscus (aderat 
enim ut Paullo amicissimus) 'ego uero non iubeo.' 
cogita qui risus hominum, qui ioci. <fec. 9. 22 Magna 
me sollicitudine adfecit Passenni Paulli ualitudo et 
quidem plurirais iustissimisuue de causis. uir est 
optimus honestissimus nostri amantissimus ; praeterea 
in litteris ueteres aemulatur exprimit reddit ; Proper- 
tium in primis a quo genus ducti, uera soboles eoque 
simillima illi in quo ille praecipuus. si elegos eius in 
manum sumpseris, leges opus tersum molle iucundum 
et plane in Propertii domo scriptum. The natural, 
though I admit not the only possible, explanation of 
these passages is that Passennus PauUus or G. Passen- 
nusSergius PauUus Properlius Blaesus (as we learn from 
an inscription found at Assisi 1 was his full name) was 
a lineal descendant of Propertius : and that he lived in 
the family mansion at Assisi. From this it would 
follow that Propertius married and had at least one 

1 The inscription runs c. pabsenno (Hertzb. has passennio, 
while the undoubtedly corrupt reading of the name in Pliny's 
mss. is Passienus) c. f. serg paullo 'ropebtio blaeso. Hertz- 
berg explains his numerous names by assuming adoption, 
1 Propertius Blaesus qui a C. Paullo adoptatm in gentem Passen- 
mam et Sergiam tribum venit.' It may be added that the 
passages in Pliny refer to events which happened between a.d. 
105 and 110. 


son. There is certainly nothing that conflicts with 
this supposition. Indeed there is one consideration 
which is distinctly in favour of it. As already said, 
the poet was alive in B.c. 16. Now two years before 
in 18 Augustus carried the Leges Ivliois whose object 
was the same as the proposals referred to above (p. xxi.). 
Now we have already seen that even in B.C. 27, when 
Propertius was in the heyday of his youth and in the 
first blush of the Cynthia attachment, he would not 
have resisted the imperial will; and in the poem 
which refers to the enactment of that year he uses 
expressions which shew that he regarded the separa- 
tion as a real danger. How much less likely was he 
to resist it nine years later when he was now past 
thirty, when his ancient love was in her grave, and 
age and memory and authority were at one in urging 
him to a soberer walk of life % There is nothing more 
to telL Perhaps, as a reward for his poetical services 
and his submission in a matter which the emperor had 
near at heart, Augustus restored him to his paternal 
estates; and he returned to the hills and streams of 
Umbria to see his children grow up around him and 
to sink from placid day to day into an old age which 
was 'not inglorious/ though 'it lacked the lyre 1 .' It 
is not impossible. In modern times, even within our 
own experience, we have seen the flame of poetry die 
out with youth : we have seen poets who have outlived 
their inspiration and become a wonder to themselves. 
Perhaps after all — and possibly this may be con- 
sidered as the more likely supposition * — the poet's own 
forebodings were realized ; and though he did not go 
before his Cynthia, he may have followed her at no 
long distance to the grave, so that it was death, 
not desuetude, that stilled the TJmbrian Muse. But 
this is fruitless speculation. Beyond the year 16 there 

1 Hor. Od. 1. 31. 19. * Compare p. xxxvi. and nm 


is not a shred for conjecture to lay hold of, and the 
obscurity which wraps so much of the poetry of Pro- 
pertiu8 sinks, like a pall, upon his life. 

Bat we mast not let the absorbing interest of the 
Cynthia drama blind us to the fact that nefrialdg 
there was another side to the poet's life at and patron* of 
Rome. It would have been a marvel if J****** 
his social inclinations and literary tastes had not 
drawn him to one or other of the two circles of writers 
which clustered round the patronage of Maecenas and 
Messala, and if the success of his first book had not 
secured him admission. Of the two influences that 
of Maacmas proved the more potent, and to that states- 
man are addressed the first elegy of the second book 
and the ninth of the fourth. His relations to his 
patron were doubtless far less intimate than those of 
Horace; but there is not the slightest authority for 
the suspicion which Dean Merivale has promulgated 
that "the assiduity of Fropertius was perhaps too offi- 
cious, and it was necessary to repel without offending 
him. Like all his unfortunate class (sic), he could 
not understand how, with his undoubted talents and 
acknowledged industry, his pursuit of the great was 
through life a failure, while that of his rivals, who 
seemed so much less eager in it, was crowned with 
such distinguished rewards 1 ." The poems referred to 
shew the very opposite. It is Maecenas who urges 
him to celebrate the events of the day, and the poet 
who is reluctant, shielding himself under the plea of 
the inferiority of his own genius and the example of 
his patron. And the terms in which he addresses 
Maecenas* are suggestive of friendly and sympathetic 
relations, not of importunate officiousness on the one 
side judiciously avoided on the other*. Chief among 

1 Bom. Hist. tv. p. 599. 

» n. 1. 71—78, nr. 8 (9). 57—60. 

9 He stood at a much greater distance from Augustus, as 


his literary friends were Virgil, for whose genius he 
expresses the warmest admiration in the well-known 
passage in. 32 (26). 61 sqq., his senior, and Ovid, his 
junior. The latter tells us he was united to Proper- 
tius by the right of friendship, and that he frequently 
heard him recite his love poems, opportunities which 
he certainly turned to good account. Other members 
of Propertius' circle of friends were Pontims, an epic 
poet (i. 7 ; 9), also mentioned by Ovid (Tr. 4. 10. 47), 
Bossies (i. 4), possibly the same as the iambic poet 
mentioned by Ovid (1. a), and Lynceus, possibly a 
pseudonym, a tragic writer (in. 32). Besides these 
we hear of Gallus, not improbably a relation of the 
poet's on the mother's side (i. 5 ; 10 ; 13 ; 20) [distinct 
from the Gallus of I. 21, for whom see above], Tvllus, 
generally supposed to be a nephew of L. Volcatius 
Tullus, who was consul in rc. 33 (i. 6 ; 14, iv. 22), 
Foetus (iv. 6 (7)), Panthus (in. 14 (13)), Postumus, 
the husband of an Aelia GaUa (iv. 11 (12)), and Demo- 
phoon (in. 15 (14)). That this is a complete list of 
the friends of Propertius is not for an instant to be 
supposed. It only embraces those whose names have 
been associated with the surviving portion of his 
poems. We may well conjecture that Ovid is not the 
only instance of a distinguished contemporary enjoying 
his friendship without obtaining a place in his writings. 

the only poem addressed to him shews ; m. 1, especially w. 21 — 
24. His flattery of the emperor is no doubt gross to oar taste: 
but not a whit more so than that of his contemporaries. We 
cannot in fairness censure him for calling a man dew to whom 
the Senate itself had decreed divine honours (Dion 51. 20) and 
of whom Horace could write Od. 3. 5 Caelo tonantem credi- 
dimus Iouem regnare: praesens diuus habebitur Augustus 
adiectis Britannia impeno grauibusque Persia, and 3. 3. 11 
(Pollux et uagus Hercules) quos inter Augustus recumbene 
purpureo bibit ore nectar. This latter passage almost makes 
us suspect that there is some truth in the story of the cena 
twSeicdOcos Suet. Aug. 70. unless indeed it gave rise to the story 


There are however two noteworthy omissions on 
which a word must be said. We hear no- jy^™^ and 
thing of Tibullus, his elegiac rival ; nor of TibuUw. 
Horace, his predecessor in the favour of Maecenas. A nd 
Tibullus and Horace are equally silent about Proper- 
tius. The first omission, supposing it not to be acci- 
dental, may be explained without having recourse to 
the icepa/tcvs K€pafi€i hypothesis. Tibullus belonged 
to Messala's circle, and thus the two poets might 
never be thrown in each other's way. I do not believe 
that Propertius' assertions of originality are covertly 
aimed at Tibullus. The Propertian use and treatment 
of the elegy is sufficiently different from the Tibulline 
to warrant Propertius in claiming originality without 
interfering with existing claims. With Horace the 
case is different. Propertius could hardly Harace afU j 
fail to meet him at Maecenas' house and Propertius. 
elsewhere and to meet him frequently ; and it has 
even been conjectured that the inquisitive fellow of 
Sat. 1. 9 is no other than our author . Though chrono- 
logy seems to forbid the supposition 8 , there is good 
reason for believing that the relations of Horace and 
Propertius were not particularly friendly. There is a 
passage in the second book of the Epistles 2. 87 sqq., 
which can hardly be anything but a direct attack upon 

Frater erat Bomae consulti rhetor at alter 
alterius sermone meros audiret honores. 
Gracchus ut hie illi foret, huic ut Mucius ille. 
qui minus argutos uexat furor ille poetas? 90 

1 By Volpi in his edition of Propertius, Prolegomena,' pp. 
XV. sqq. Those who "wish to see Volpi's ingenious reasoning 
may find a r&mmt of it in Professor A. Palmer's edition of 
the Satires in the Introduction to the poem in question (Mac- 
millan, 1883). Prof. Palmer agrees in rejecting the idea. 

3 The garrulus had lost his mother and relations (v. 27). 
Now Propertius' mother died, at the very earliest, in 28, which 
is a later date than is usually assigned to the publication of the 


carmina compono, hie elegos, mirabile uisu 

caelatumque nouem Musis opus, aspice primum . 

quanto cum fastu, quanto molimine circum- 

Epectemus uacuam Romanis uatibus aedem. 

mox etiam, si forte nacas, sequere et procul audi 95 

quid ferat et quare sibi nectat uterque coronam. 

caedimur et totidem plagis consumimus hostem, 

lento Samnites ad limina prima duello. 

discedo Alcaeus puncto illius; ille meo quis? 

quis nisi Callimachus? si plus adposcere uisus, 100 

fit Mimnermus et optiuo cognomine crescit. 

This has been already appreciated by Orelli in his 
note and by others ; but as the full strength of the 
evidence has not yet been pointed out, I shall estimate 
it here. Horace is aiming at an elegiac and erotic poet 
who imitated Callimachus. The incisive expression 
in vv. 99, 100 will not allow us to suppose that 
Horace intends the criticism to be quite general. Who 
can this be but Propertius whose favourite boast is 
that he is the Roman Callimachus? v. 1. 63, 64 ut 
nostris tumefacta superbiat Ymbria libris, Ymbria 
Romani patria Callimachi 1 . In other respects too 
the identification is plausible. The charge of belong- 
ing to a clique of mutual admirers migh&with a show 
of fairness be brought against one who, amongst other 
instances of exaggeration, compared his friend Ponti- 
cus to Homer (i. 7. 3, 4). The expression caelatum 
nouem Musis opus is not more extravagant than many 
in Propertius : iv. 4 (5). 19 me iuuat in prima 
coluisse Helicona iuuenta, Musarumque choris im-. 
plicuisse manus ; iv. 2, 13, 14 et Musae comites e^ 
carmina cara legenti et defessa choris Calliopea meis ; 
iv. 1. 17 opus hoc de monte sororum and so on. 
"Verse 96 is probably a hit at Propertius' frequent use 
of this metaphor with reference to himself, iv. 1. 19, 
20 mollia, Pegasides, uestro date serta poetae; non 

1 Propertius had a high opinion of Mimnermus also as an 
erotic poet. See i. 9. 11. 


faciet capiti dura corona meo; v. 10. 4 non iuuat e 
facili lecta corona iugo. Again, fastu and molimine 
just hit the impression which the style and perhaps 
the bearing of Propertius (see below, p. xxxv.) would 
make on an unfavourable observer. Verse 94 is a 
clear allusion to Propertius' exultation at the recep- 
tion of his poems into the Palatine library ; see iv. i. 
38 and note. Even Romania has its sting; i. 7. 22 
tunc ego Romania praeferar ingmiia and Romo/ni GcuM- 
machiy 1. c. 1 Lastly I trust that it is not fanciful to 
see in the two words adposcere and optiuiw, which 
are each only found in one other passage in Latin, 
a travesty of Propertius* love of archaisms ; for which 
see below. We need not go far to seek a cause or a 
justification for this dislike. It was the result of an 
antipathy for which neither party was to blame. It 
would have been surprising if they had been friends. 
Not to speak of the difference of age, the impetuosity 
of Propertius would not be to the taste of the placid 
and somewhat lethargic Horace. Still more repellent 
would be his frequent self-assertion, while the pomp 
and obscurity x>f his style would offend against tho 
Horatian caifons of taste 9 . 

In the company of these and other friends we can- 
not doubt that Propertius passed some of 
the most agreeable hours of his life. Some- L ^ eat Rome - 
times in his own house on the Esquiline 8 in what 
now, thanks to Maecenas, was one of the pleasantest 
parts of Home 4 , but more frequently in those of his 
richer friends, he would gratify his social inclinations 

1 On Propertius' fondness for the word see in. 1. 4 n. 

9 Ovid seems to have taken his friend's side in the quarrel 
and criticizes Horace in turn. Compare Ov. A. A. 2. 271 sqq» 
with Hor. S. 2. 5. 10 sqq. and Teuffel's remarks I. p. 389 and 
n. 2. He says it may be that Horace occasionally shewed his- 
mental and social superiority in a way offensive to young men. 

8 iv. 23. 24 ; cf. v. 8. 1. 

4 Hor. Sat. 1. 8. 14 with the notes. 


at entertainments like those described in Y. 6. 69 and 
following lines, which united the refined pleasures of 
the table. to the higher charms of congenial society 
njid cultivated discourse. On such occasions he would 
not be backward in paying his homage to that God 
whose worship was then regarded in Borne as at once 
a duty to society and the infallible source of the poet's 
highest inspiration 1 . He does not seem to have often 
quitted Rome. We read of his going to Tibur at a 
sudden message from his mistress (iv. 15 (16)) and 
of his following her to the country (ill. 12(10)}. We 
also hear of his leaving her to take a sea-voyage, pro- 
bably to Greece, in which he suffered shipwreck*; 
and later we find him intending to start on a visit to 
Athens in the hope that absence may cure his love 
(it. 21). 

We have very little information about Fropertius' 
person and dress. . He was pale and thin, 
as he tells us himself, and probably un- Sj^'j op " a .^f-> 
usually so, as he seems to have been fre- y''v/""'l t' 

quently rallied on it by bia friends 8 . He paid '«o^ %*■ . 
siderable attention to his personal appearance, jiu,d-<;ul- ' 
tivated a slow and impressive gait*. His health ^ufltna, ■ 

1 iv. 4. (5). 21 me iuaat et multo mentem nincire Lyano tit .J^-ji*^ 
caput in uerna semper habere roan, ib. 9 (10). 21 noz inter 
pocuta cmrat, t. 6. 75 ingeniuni positis imtet Musa poetis ; 
Bacche, soles Phoebo fertUis esse tun. This is the origin of 
some of the most charming of his poems ; i. 3, m. 27 (21), it. 
16 (17). 

* This seems to be the meaning of i. 17 compared with the 
reference to it in iv. 24 haec ego, non ferro, non igne coactus, et 
ipsa naufragui Aegaea uerba fatebar aqua. 

■ i. 1. 22 et tacit* ilia meo palleat ore magis, m. 15 (13). 21 
Sed tibi si exiles uideor tenuutus in arias, falleris ; I. 5. 21 nee 
jam pailortm Miens mirabere nostrum aut cur sim lata corpere 
nulla/ ego. 

* ii. 4. 15 (5) negjriquam perfusa meis ungventa oapillia, 
ibat et expciisu planla morala gradu. 


to have been delicate. We hear of one serious illness 1 : 
and his habitual melancholy and frequent allusions to 
death and burial point in the same direction*. 

We have no information about the personal 
appearance and habits of Propertius ex- „. . ^ 

i. T. a. i_« •>• i i ii Hu character. 

cept what his writings supply : and these Nature of the 
too are our only guide towards the de- evtdmce - 
lineation of his character. 

It has often been declared that a writer's character 
may be collected from his works. But it has not been 
always observed how careful such a reconstruction 
must be. The delimitation between character and 
circumstances, the distinction between intellectual and 
moral characteristics, which are often widely sundered, 
the separation of the effects of education, to use the 
word in its widest sense, into those which indicate 
a profound modification of the writer's nature and 
those which ncefaqons deparler, the superficial gloss of 
his culture or his age— these and other problems await 
those who would elicit from the thoughts and style of 
an author" a confession of himself. In this hazardous 
and speculative region I only propose in the present 
instance to state what may be claimed as fairly estab- 
lished, reserving the nicer and more contestable points 
for a minuter critical examination. 

Propertius' nature was soft rather than strong. 
This was inevitable from the elements which composed 
it. An almost morbid self-consciousness, a continual 
longing for the sympathy and appreciation of others, 
an habitual melancholy, at times breaking into quern- 
lousness, at times sinking in a gloomy foreboding; a 
feeble will, scant physical courage, and a deficiency of 
self-command and restraint, these qualities and tenden- 
cies formed the weakest of foundations and one which 

1 This is probably the danger mentioned in i. 15. 
9 Allusions to death i. 19, it. 1. 71 sqq. m. 5. 1 sqq. rr. 21, 
33 sqq. and more exx. in Teuffel i. § 241. L See also below. 


the first flood of passion must inevitably sweep away. 
It was Cynthia's form that opened the flood-gates; and 
the; sudden irresistible deluge carried all before it, 
maxims of prudence, conventional restraints, and the 
weak rebellion of the will. The havoc which this at- 
tachment undoubtedly produced was certainly not 
repaired by his life at Borne. A life which consisted 
to a very large extent of convivial pleasure and social 
distractions and which was not steadied either by fixed 
aims or regular employment, still further weakened 
and disintegrated .his character. The very ease and 
completeness of Cynthia's victory was a presage thajb 
it could not last. A heart so light and impression- 
able invited conquest of itself. We should rather 
wonder that, with so much in himself to beget fickle- 
ness and so much in Cynthia to justify it, the passion 
lasted so long, than that his professions of fides 1 
were not always exactly interpreted, and that his 
admiration of Cynthia dissolved into a universal ten- 
derness*. A strict moralist must condemn Propertius' 
attachment, and his unfaithfulness to it is still less to 
be excused. But when we have allowed for the influ- 
ence of his age, from whose grosser taints he was 
entirely free, the temptations and provocations of his 
position and the effects of his natural infirmity, the 
remainder is too poor for our censure; it rather merits 
our compassion. 

Such then in broad outline was the character of 
the principal elegiac poet of Borne : weak but amiable, 
with a capacity for tenderness and a gentleness and 
placability of temper as its chief merits and irresolu- 
tion and inconstancy as its most glaring faults. A 
commonplace character certainly; and one which we 
are startled to discover united with a genius so strange 

1 To a fine ear, perhaps, Propertius does * protest too much.' 
3 in. 15 (13). 13 quaeris, Demophoon, cur sim tarn mollis in 

P. P. d 


and solitary as to be, I will not say unsurpassed or 
unequalled, but perhaps never paralleled at all. 

Even the casual reader cannot help being struck 
by the great prominence of personal feeling 
in Propertius. This is of course to be ex- f^™* feel ~ 
pected in amatory writing in which thou 
and I compose the world. But it is more marked 
in his case than in that of others. Personal pro- 
nouns are used both where they are redundant and 
unusual. Thus iv. 15 (16). 7 at si distulero haec 
ivostro mandata timore, in. 30 (24). 23 nuper enim de 
te nostras me laedit ad aures rumor, iv. 8 (9). 10 
^xactis Calamis se mihi iactat equis and note, I. 13. 
14 haec ego non rumore malo, non augure doctus, 
uidi ego: me, quaeso, teste negare potes? So in a 
less degree with tu, tuus, <fcc. i. 7. 25 tu caue nostra 
tuo contemnas carmina fastu, 15. 25 desine iam reuo- 
care tuis periuria uerbis. [While on this subject, I 
may mention some numerical results which may be 
interesting, as tending in some degree to bear out the 
more specific evidence above. By the aid of Pas- 
serat's index which errs more on the side of omission 
than redundance, I found that the first person sin- 
gular (including nos and noster where used in that 
sense) occurred 656 and the second singular 579 times 
in 4046 lines, being nearly at the rate of 1 to 6 
and 1 to 7 lines respectively. I then counted the 
occurrences of the same two pronouns in Ovid Amores 
I., Fasti I., and Tristia I., which may be fairly said 
to represent, when taken together, the proportion of 
subjects in Propertius. In these three books ego, nos, 
mens, <fcc. in the singular sense occurred 337 times in 
2328 lines, or at the rate of about 1 to 7 lines and 
tu> <fcc. 222 times, or at the rate of 2 to 21 lines. The 
two together would occur in Propertius on the average 
a little over 30 times, and in Ovid about 24 times 
in every hundred lines. I believe that a more minute 


examination would bear out this result. In the mean 
time valeat quantum.] We may draw the same con- 
clusion from his frequent use of tarn, tantus, tot 
and totiens. All of these words involve a reference 
which is sometimes to the knowledge or feelings of 
others and sometimes to his own experience ; and thus 
the thought assumes the character of a reminiscence 
or an appeal. Some of the more Btriking instances 
are in. 4. 3 tarn graciles uetuit contemnere Musas, 
iv. 14 (15). 11 Dirce tarn uero crimine saeua, iv. 
10 (11). 20 tarn dura traheret mollia pensa manu, 
and i. 16. 18, 39, iv. 3. 5 notes, tanti, 'worth that 
price/ is common, e. g. iv. 19 (20). 4, v. 11. 92; tantus 
i. 5. 26, <fec. tot and totiens are also frequent, almost 
in the sense of phirimus and saepe iv. 11 (12). 32 
totque hiemis noctes totque natasse dies, cf. v. 24 ; iv. 
7 (8). 2 uocis tot maledicta tuae; m. 26. 3 (20. 49) 
tot milia formosarum, cf. iv. 17 (18). 16, 23. 2, <fcc. : in. 
17 (14). 5 quaerit totiens, v. 8. 27 cum fieret nostro 
totiens iniuria lecto, i. 5. 21 n. &c. This usage might 
perhaps be called a relative 'intensive,' tam gracilis, 
<fec. * so slight/ as you or I know well, being put for 
' very slight.' The same is shewn by the frequency 
of phrases like aspice (cerne) 9 times, accipe (disce) 
5 times, crede mihi 7 times; quaeris (quaeritis) 8 times, 
quaeso 7 times. It is not surprising that such a mind 
should have keenly felt what is due to himself or others, 
and that he should have been continually appealing 
to his or their deserts (l 8. 17 n., 18. 15, n. 5, 3, hi. 
7 (6). 47, iv. 6 (7). 34, <kc.) or that it should have re- 
coiled from the strange and the unknown. This 
repulsion is manifest in the use of ignctus, I. 17. 17 
ignotis circumdata litora siluis, I. 5. 5, in. 32 (26). 8 
(compare quern non nouerit in. 16. 6 (13. 48) : and 
nosse, <fcc. in the sense of ' feel ' I. 9. 20, &c.) ; extemus 
in. 12 (10). 16 ab externo uiro; insolitus I. 8. 8, 3. 
29,. with which mav be contrasted I. 12. 5 nee mihi 



conmetos amplexu nutrit amores, and sometimes in 
that of nouua I. 8. 30 n. muto, when metaphorical, 
is nearly always used in a bad sense. A change 
for Propertius is a change for the worse ; I. 18. 9, in. 
19 (16). 17, v. 11. 45. A melancholy and almost 
lachrymose disposition is shewn, on the ^^ 
one hand, by the frequency with which * 

words like querelas, &c.,flere, lacrima, <fcc. tristis and 
the like occur and, on the other, by the frequency 
of allusions to death and the grave, which has already 
been mentioned. This will be at ouce obvious by 
reference to any Propertian index, or to the articles 
on bustum, cinis, fauiUa, fatum, farms, Mams, mors, 
pului8 f 088a, rogus, sepulcrum in B. Kuttner's tract 
de Propertii elocutions. A temper like this could not 
fail to increase the wretchedness of an attachment 
which had in itself many seeds of unhappiness. It 
alloyed its pleasures and aggravated its pains, and 
threw over all the black inevitable shadow of death l . 

Weakness of will (besides some other character- 
istics already pointed out, such as sensi- weaknm qf 
tiveness and dislike of the unknown) is wUL 
apparent from the large number of verbal uS*?^ ,poUn ~ 
periphrases which he employs and the Peri P hra9 ^ 
way in which he uses them. Speaking generally, he 
prefers the potential to the actual. The capacity, the 
desire, the purpose, the preparation, the beginning, 

1 This use of interjections like heu, a is remarkable. It 
shews a curious and almost irrational sympathy. If Propertius 
is contemplating a gloomy picture, he cannot help a sigh 
escaping him, no matter whether appropriate to his own posi- 
tion or not. Thus a heu breaks out in n.5.8 where he is 
threatening Cynthia with punishment heu sero flebis amata 
din; so a in a precisely similar way rr. 25. 14. Cf. x. 1. 38 and 
note. This undercurrent of melancholy is apt to come to the 
surface whenever his feelings are disturbed. Thus in in. 27 
(21) talis uisa mini somno dunissa reoenti, heu quantum per se 
Candida forma ualet and r?. 14 (15). 6. Compare v. a 48. 


the effort in an action impress him more than the 
attained and completed result : and thus, where other 
writers would use a simple verb, we find in Propertius 
an infinitival expression. In this and similar questions 
it is well to bear in mind that the question of degree 
is of the highest importance. For while, on the one 
hand, it is true that in many passages a writer may 
have chosen a word for the same reasons that might 
have guided other writers to its choice and that con- 
sequently its employment is a recognition of the 
requirements of the passage and not a trace of the 
author's personality, so on the other if he habitu- 
ally throws his thought into such a form that only 
a particular word or phrase is appropriate, it cannot 
be pleaded that he has yielded to a necessity, when 
that necessity has been created by himself 1 . 

The following tables will put the facts more clearly. 
Propertius uses the following verbal periphrases. 

Verbs denoting capacity. 

possum, very common, 74 times (Kuttnor) : often 
a mere expletive, e.g. v. 10. 24 uincere cum Veios 
posse laboris erat. 

queo, i. 18. 4, n. 7. 4. nequeo, twice. 

ualeo, i. 14. 7 non tamen ista meo ualeant con- 
tendere amori, where observe that the subj. . makes 
the expression still more vague. 

Denoting desire or purpose. 

nolo, with inf. 31 times (subjunctive uelim, udlem 
17 times): often with no particular force, e.g. in. 
1. 9. 

cupio, with inf. 9 times: often otiose; as in I. 
9. 19, iv. 8 (9). 2. \ 

*. In the case of Propertius the strength of the following 
argument is not weakened by a conscious choice of expression, 
still less by a desire to mystify. •_ . . . • . 


Zibet, 4 times; can frequently be dispensed with, 
eg. iy. 4(5). 25. 

lUinam, atque utinam, o utinam, 14 times. 
cogito, in. 22. 9 (18. 29). 
meditor, II. 2. 1. 
quaero, in. 6 (5). 13. 

Denoting preparation, beginning and effort. 

paro, 1. 15. 8, 20. 43, m. 27 (22). 19. 

incipio, 11 times; always with inf. except in in. 
13 (11). 36 when a verbal noun replaces it. It can 
often be spared, e.g. v. 1. 120, &c. According to 
Kuttner it is very rare in the elegiac poets. 

coepi, twice, v. 4. 74, 11. 78. It is wanted in 
neither place. 

conor 9 4 times (3 times in theirs* person). 

tempto, in. 32 (26). 73 where it has its proper force. 

Denoting constraint or its absence. 

cogo, 19 times (cogor 9 times). Especially note- 
worthy is its use within the sphere of love, I. 13. 32 
ilia suis uerbis cogat amare Iouem, II. 4. 9, v. 5. 8, 
and above all i. 4. 2 quid me tarn multas laudando, 
Basse, puellas mutatum domina cogis abire mea? 

fero, iv. 6 (7). 47 non tulit... a,udire. It occurs 
8 times in sense of ' holding out against.' 

potior, with occ. and inf. 10 times. 

perpetior, i. 22. 7. 

licet, 18 times altogether with subj. and inf. 

sino, with occ. and inf. 11 times (once with ace.); 
sometimes curiously used, e g. in. 15 (13). 38. 

ueto, with ace. and inf. 8 times, iv. 13 (14). 21 is 
very curious, lex Spartana uetat discedere amantes = 
' allows them not to be separated.' 

prohibeo, in. 7 (6). 21. 

iubeo, occurs 5 times (out of 8) where another 
verb meaning 'causing' or the like would be more 


appropriate; thus i. 3. 40 noctes me miseram quales 
semper habere tubes. 

Denoting fear or its absence. 

metuit, timet, with inf.* i. 14. 19, 20 ilia neque 
Arabium metuit transcendere limen nee timet ostrino, 
Tulle, subire toro. 

uereor, I. 14. 23 non ulla uerebor regna...despicere; 
non ego nunc uereor occurs 3 times. 

ausus, ausim, 8 times. 

Denoting habit. 

8oleo ) 17 times. 

consueui, I. 17. 25 omnia consueui timidus per- 
ferre superbae iussa neque arguto facta dolore queri 
(a perfect revelation of character). 

sueuit, v. 10. 17. 

Denoting acquaintance or knowledge and its oppo- 

8cio, i. 2. 12. 

noui, 3 times, e.g. in. 24 (20). 13 semper, formosae, 
non nostis parcere uerbis. 

disco, 9 times, e.g. I. 10. 13 non solum uestros 
didici reticere dolores. 

doctus, v. 6. 24. 

Periphrases by means of verbs of saying or thinking. 

dico with no especial force. Pass, l 9. 8, 19. 1 1 
semper tua dicar imago, n. 8. 6 nee mea dicetur quae 
modo dicta meast. Act. — Phrases like I. 11. 26 dicam 
* Cynthia causa fuit ' are not uncommon. 

fero, iv. 16 (17). 20 uirtutisque tuae, Bacche, 
poeta ferar, cf. iv. 8 (9). 60 and m. 9 (8). 11. 

habeo, pass. n. 4. 24 quicquid habetur amor and in 
iv. 12 (13). 62. 

puto and reor also occur; but generally add some- 
thing to the sense. 


Besides the above we find other periphrases where 
simple verbs might have been expected, e.g. i. 11. 
13 uacet alterius blandos audire snsurros and I. 14. 13 
turn mihi cessuros spondent mea gaudia reges ( = reges, 
quae mea gaudia sunt, mihi cedent). 

Jn estimating the value of the foregoing evidence 
we must first bear in mind that these in- 
finitive forms are very convenient for ^uno vfiF 
verse, especially for elegiac verse, and so may 
be expected to occur with some frequency. The best 
way of ascertaining what deduction is to be made for 
this is to examine the frequency with which such peri- 
phrases* occur in other elegiac poets. As before, I will 
take Ovid for the testV 

Ovid's elegiac poems contain about 6 times as many 
verses as Propertius, Le. about 24,000 lines. In these 
24,000 lines I find the following verbs denoting desire, 
&c, and preparation, <fec, occurring with the inf. the 
following number of times: nolo 31, cupio 15, opto-5% 
libet 6, desidero 1*, posco I s , [utinam over 8. times], 
paro 15, incipio 10, coepi 5, ordior 4 (3 with loqui), 
experior 4, pergo 2, molior I s *, laboro 5, teinpto 15, 
conor 3. * This gives* the* following result : Propertius 
64, Ovid 123. If the same proportion were observed, 
Ovid would shew 384. To this must be added the 
fact that the Ovidian examples have not been weeded 
like the Propertian, and that, if we counted up 
the instances where the phrase is really otiose, the 

1 I have* used Le Maire's Index to obtain these results, and 
I have selected the most characteristic claas that I could, that 
containing. possum not being available through deficiencies in 
the index. It is noteworthy that several of the verbs occur 
more frequently in the Metamorphoses than in the Elegiac 
poems', shewing that too much weight must not be assigned tcr 
the metrical convenience of the forms. Their prevalence there 
is probably due to the poem- being a history of inchoate and 
interrupted lives. 

* Not in Propertius with inf. 


•Propeftian preponderance would be still niore evident. 
I do not claim undue importance for these figures, 
which are from the nature of the case imperfect, and, 
I doubt not, in some particulars contestable. I only 
appeal to them to confirm the impressions which every 
unprejudiced reader must gather from reading the 
poems himself. 

We have thus seen that they occur far less fre- 
quently in Ovid than in Properties; and unprejudiced 
and experienced readers will probably admit without 
further demonstration, that they cannot- be regarded 
as wholly or chiefly the effect of metrical necessity l . 
Another explanation claims to be considered. May 
paot Propertius have been snared, as it were, by certain 
forms of rhythm and expression) Or, to put it in 
another way, may . not particular phrases and turns 
of metre have reproduced themselves mechanically in 
his poems 1 That .this is possible, will- be allowed by 
all who have watched with attention either their own 
habits of speech and writing or those of others. The 
persistence of these forms is one of the most interest- 
ing phenomena of language. Any one who has ob- 
served how some fashionable trick of verbiage or cant- 
phrase of the hour is taken up and introduced on every 
possible occasion, not only in the streets but even in 
educated society, will readily recognize the irregular 
actions of a principle which is the parent of style in 
the individual and idiom in a nation. That such per- 
sistence of phrases is very marked in Propertius, I 
should be the last to deny ; and that it is to be explain- 
ed as due to weakness of will, I should not venture to 
assert. It may at least be probably supposed to be 

• * Another view is possible, that they are the remains of a 
certain redundance of expression which we find in early Latin ; 
in which case they will be related to the other archaisms of 
Propertius. I do not deny that some of them are. Bat this 
will only account for a portion. Compare p. cxliii. 


one of his intellectual characteristics, on which more 
anon. But the question still recurs; 'why was it these 
particular phrases that manifested the persistence?' 
To this the natural answer seems to be; because the 
ideas that they embodied and the tendencies which 
they conveyed were those most characteristic of the 
writer. To take an example which might perhaps be 
thought to make against the argument. It is not the 
truly brave man who is continually saying 'Who's 
afraid?' It is rather he who can ask 
with the young Nelson, 'Fear! I never ac qrcou,agCm 
saw fear! What is it?' So the recurrence of non ego 
nunc uereor and similar phrases in Propertius, even in 
default of positive evidence, would have taught us 
that he was scantly endowed with physical courage. 
But that evidence is forthcoming. He naively says 
he will chase the timorous hare and bird and leave the 
hazardous boar alone (I.e. on n. 7. 14). He fears a 
night journey from Rome to Tibur as though it were 
an expedition to the Gallinaria Pinvs, iv. 15 (16). 
He freely owns that ' from his blood will no soldier 
spring,' II. 7. 14 and note. 

Subject to the cautions which we have pointed out, 
the argument will stand, and could, if we had more 
space at our disposal, be still further supported. For 
example, it might be plausibly contended that the fre- 
quent use of the pluperfect aud other completed tenses 
on the one hand and the periphrastic future on the 
other (vide infr.) is similarly to be explained. The 
author declines the effort of contemplating the reality 
face to face and relegates it, so far as he may, into the 
buried past or the formless future. Again, the want 
of connexion in his thought, the frequent change of 
subject, his eccentric use of particles and other peculi- 
arities which will be discussed below, all point to a 
weak and unbalanced mind 


We may easily understand how such a mind was 
influenced by the foreign superstitions 
which had even then begun to infect and **"**»• 
supplant the religion of Borne. Evidently he had 
dabbled in ' Babylonian calculations.' His allusions 
to divining and astrology are frequent. And, although 
he sometimes rises above himself and ventures to jest 
upon these formidable subjects (as in v. 1), his lan- 
guage more frequently betrays a genuine apprehension 
of their power. See in. 23 (19), and n. 4. 15 (25) 
nam cui non ego sum fallaci praemia uati ? quae mea 
non decies somnia uersat anus ? v. 5. 9 sqq., <fcc. 



§ i\ Arrangement and subjects of his poems. 

The poems which have borne down to us under the 
name of Propertius consist of 4046 lines 
of elegiac verse; and of these all but a ^aS?" 1 * into 
very trifling proportion are genuine. 
They are divided in all the mss. which mark such 
divisions into fowr books, I. containing 708, il 1402, 
in. 988 and iv. 948 lines. The unusual length of 
Book ii. has thrown suspicion on the arrangement, 
and Lachmann and others have divided it into two, 
ii. 1—9 (354 lines), and n. 10— end (1048 lines). In 
support of this view it is argued that the poems, as we 
have them, are incomplete. The evidence Auumed <n . 
of this is (a) external and (b) internal, completeness «/• 
(a) The grammarian Fvlgentius, c. 22, as- ° 
cribes the following line to Propertius, diuidias mentis 
conficit omnis amor. His authority is however con- 
siderably weakened by his also attributing to him a 
line from an old Latin comedy, catillata geris uadi- 
monia publicum prostibulum : and the line in question 
has generally been given to Petronius. I may observe 
that conficio does not occur in Propertius ; and if we 
assign the line to him, we shall have to add diuidiae to 
his numerous list of archaisms (p. xc). Servius on Virg. 
EcL 5. 21 quotes testes sunt sidera nobis. This is al- 


most certainly a misquotation of H. 10. 41 sidera sunt 
testes et matutina pruina...te nihil in uita nobis accep- 
tius umquam. The same commentator on G. 1. 19 
says that some attribute the invention of the plough 
to Triptolemus and others, more correctly, to Osiris, 
ut dicit Propertius uel Tibullus. Here the uel marks 
a correction; and the reference is to Tibullus 1. 7. 29. 
None of these passages prove anything. Lachmann 
lays more stress on Ovid Tr. 2. 447 sqq. where Ovid 
alleges in justification of his own Ars Amatoria the 
practice of previous poets; and, after quoting largely 
from Tibullus, says, multaque dat talis furti praecepta 
docetque qua nuptae possint fallere ab arte uiros : nee 
fuit hoc illi fraudi; legiturque Tibullus et placet et 
iam te piincipe notus erat. inuenies eadem blandi 
praecepta Properti; districtus minima nee tamen ille 
notast. Lachmann asks ' where shall we find them?' 
In answer to this, we must observe first that we are 
not to expect to find too many. For, on the one hand, 
we must remember that it was to Ovid's interest to 
make the most of his authorities in amatory writing; 
and on the other that it may be inferred from his 
dwelling at so much greater length on Tibullus than 
Propertius that the latter did not lend him so much 
countenance as the former. In fact, the allusion to 
him looks like one of those references which are not 
intended to be verified. There are some passages in 
Propertius which point in the same direction as the 
lines in Ovid. Thus we have iv. 3. 49 ut per te 
clausas sciat excantare puellas qui uolet austeros arte 
ferire uiros; and c£ v. 20 quae legat expectans sola 
puella uirum. The meaning of these and other pas- 
sages is elucidated by i. 7. 13 me legat assidue post 
haec neglectus amator et prosint illi cognita nostra 
mala, which shews that Propertius' teaching was 
rather by example than precept. We find praecepta 
about love also in I. 1. 35 sqq., i. 9, l 10. 15 — 30, m. 


20 (17). 21 «qq., and Y. 5. 21 sqq. where -the speaker if 
Acanthi Compare also nr. 7 (8). 25, 26 where by a 
provoking chance several lines are lost There are 
other passages and pieces whose spirit might have been 
in Ovid's mind at the time. Hence on the whole we 
may pronounce that there is enough foundation for 
the statement in the works as we have them at present, 
but only ju»t enough. 

I now pass on to (6). And first for the poems 
themselves. I do not think that any 
one who reads the poems carefully can Lacunae - 
HUppose that they are in all cases complete. In 
determining which are not, the very greatest care 
is needed. We must remember, firstly, that the 
ordinary rules of coherence do not apply to Pro- 
pertius, and that a harsh transition of thought by 
no means implies a lacuna. Secondly, in some cases 
where that has been assumed, a transposition will set 
everything right. After all these deductions there 
still are loft several places where lacunae must be as- 
Hiuned. Suoh are found in n. 6, n. 9, and elsewhere. 
J hit L, M tiller and Baehrens have assumed far too 
many, The loss of whole poems remains unproven. 

The second argument is drawn from n. 13. 25, 26 
(ill. 5. 9 where see note) sat mea sat niag- 
naat si tree sint pompa libelli quos ego /^HTlu. 25 
l'ereephonae maxima dona feram. It is 
contended that tres libelli implies at least finislted 
Itooks, and that consequently this distich formed ori- 
ginally part of the third book; from which it would 
follow that the end of the second book has been lost 
This however is bv no means necessarv. The instrac- 
turns which the poet is here giving for the conduct of 
his funeral are not death-bed instructions. He is in 
one of his despondent moods, and contemplating the 
remote phantom of death (of. quam1ocKw*qne v. 1), as 
though it were face to face. like Shakspere's Richard 


XL, "he will 'talk of graves and worms and epitaphs.' 
Why then should he not refer to unfinished books) 
It seems to me that this adds more point to the poem. 
'I must die,' he says; 'but I shall die content, if I am 
not forgotten in my grave, if you, Cynthia, are faith- 
ful to me, and three books preserve my name.' An- 
other poem which has been pressed into MA 

. , r . . ,, jit. a and from II. 10. 

the service is the one addressed to Au- 
gustus, ii. 10 (in. 1), which it is asseverated can only 
have formed the exordium of a new book. This con- 
tention may be met by a simple non sequitur. I have 
pointed out in the commentary to this poem that, if it 
is intended to introduce a fresh book, it is a most 
inappropriate introduction, as only one poem out of 
the remainder has anything to do with Augustus. 
But not only are the arguments for the M 

j i. ax. • i • v i. 'j. • Arguments a- 

proposed change thus inconclusive, but it is gainst the 
refuted by positive evidence. As already theory * 
said, the MSS. are against it, and they must count for 
something. Nonius, the grammarian, is against it (p. 
169); for he quotes secundat in. (iv.) 21. 14 as oc- 
curring in the third book. Lastly, if we can trust — 
and I think we can — the phrase so far, Propertius 
himself is against it: for in n. 24. 1 [in. 17 (15). 1], 
quoting what others say of him, he says tu loqueris 
cum sis iam noto fabula libro, et tua sit toto Cynthia 
lecta foro. Lachmann's theory then appears to be 
little more than an arbitrary surmise;' and the sooner 
it goes and disencumbers our editions of the double . ,,//■ 

notation the better 1 . \l : \ "r ^.. 

V. >;,*■- w 
1 This is the proper place to explain why in this edition 1/ -*.. 
have retained a notation which I have rejected above as un- ..,_ ! \ 
founded. "When the commentary was written and the text """" '^~~ 
printed, the division into five books was the accepted one. All 
the latest editors had adopted it ; and I did not wish to intro- 
duce innovating restorations into a volum r of selections ; the 
more so as the editions which were then most generally used 
in England (Mailer's and Paley's), and whose numbering I 


I how pass to consider the date of the various 
poems. There are very few chronological „ 

I •.!/?. li ••• ° j Composition v 

traces in the first book. i. vm. seems to the books, 
have been written when the law forbid- tfafc L 
ding celibacy was contemplated (see v. 21); and 
Hertzberg (i. pp. 23, 24) has advanced arguments to 
shew that I. vi. was not written before rc. 27. 

The clues we get for the data of the composition of 
the various poems in the second book (n. . 
and iil) are, omitting allusions to events 
earlier than b. c. 28, 

ii. i. rc. 25 (after publication of first book). 

vii. after b. c. 27. 

x. (m. i.) B.C. 24 (see notes). 

xxxi. (in. xxix.) end of B.C. 28. 

xxxi v. (hi. xxxii.) not earlier than b. c. 28. 
Thus all the poems in Book ii. whose date can be 
settled fall within the period embraced between b. c. 
28 and 24. 

Book hi. (iv.), like Book i., contains very few allu- 
sions that we can fix to a precise date. 
Elegy xvii. (xviii) was written after the 
death of Marcellus in 23. The allusions to the ex- 
pedition against the Parthians to recover the standards 
of Crassus iii. (iv.), iv. (v.) 48, xi. (xii.) 3, 4 probably 
point to the same period. For, it is to be observed 
that nowhere does Propertius hint that the standards 
liave been recovered. His exultation is always pro- 
spective. The last poem in the book, as already said, 
must have been written six years after the beginning 
of the Cynthia attachment. On the other hand, eL 

proposed to use in citing Propertius, gave the new division. 
Since then all is changed. The two last editors, Baehrens 
and Palmer, have returned to the old order, and I can only 
regret that my own book had advanced toot far to permit my 
making the change. Baehrens, I may add, though printing 
the ms. order, believes that n. 7—13 (or ii. 7— in. 5) belong to 
Book in. (iv.). [See however Addendum to ^mpendix, p. 249.] 


xx> goes back to its very beginning. Thus the 
poems included in Book in. (iv.) fall between B.C. 
28 and 23. 

Book iv. (v.) presents many difficult problems. 
There can be no doubt that it contains 
some of the poet's latest work. Elegies 
vi. and xi. were nob composed before B.C. 16; and, 
as we have already seen, elegy viL cannot be much 
earlier. But about the rest of the book we cannot 
be at all certain. It is probable that el. viii. was 
written before B.C. 23. At any rate it was com- 
posed long before vii. We shall not be far wrong in 
assigning iii to r c. 23 l . Elegy i. cannot at most be 
later than the same year: and some scholars put 
the first part of it much earlier. Elegy v. was written 
after the beginning of the Cynthia attachment. The 
date of the remaining poems is quite uncertain. Their 
subjects, like that of the first part of el L, are anti- 
quarian and historical Some critics consider them to 
be the earliest poems and others amongst the latest : 
and probably either the one or the other opinion is 

It is a natural question next when the poems were 
published. The first book is the only one 
whose publication can with certainty be Bo^f. Hon ** 
ascribed to Propertius himself; and we have 
assigned it conjecturally to b. c. 25. The second and 
still more the third book shew, as we have observed, 
some appearance of being prepared for publication. 
The publication of the second cannot have 
been earlier than B.a 24 nor that of the fg? IL and 
third than b.c. 23. And we can say 
little else. They may have been published separately 
or together, they may have been issued by Propertius 
during his life or (less probably) by his executors 

1 See verses 7—10, 18, 35, &c. 
p. p. e 


after his death. "We do not know; and, though the 
expression in Martial already quoted, that Cynthia 
"was Propcrtius , irmenile carmen, suggests that there 
was some considerable interval between its publication 
and theirs, it is not enough to ground an inference 

About the fourth book there is, as we have seen, 
much uncertainty. But about one thing 
I am clear. It can never have been issued 
by its author. I will not lay stress on the long period 
over which the different pieces extend, a circumstance 
which suggests a posthumous publication 1 , nor on the 
miscellaneous nature of its contents. 

But I must call attention to the juxtaposition of 
vii. and viii. I cannot believe that these Juxta agiHon 
poems are placed together by the delibe- of Elegit* v%i 
rate act of Propertius, but by the careless- 
ness of some redacteur who saw that the subject of 
both was Cynthia, and who did nob trouble to enquire 
further. Of vii. I have spoken at length, viii is the 
best piece of genre painting in Propertius. It describes 
how Cynthia drove with one of her lovers to see the 
t famous cave and dragon at Lanuvium ; how Propertius 
took advantage of her absence to have an entertain- 
ment of his own with Phyllis and Teia, two acquain- 
tances whom I have already mentioned ; how all went 
wrong at their banquet, and portended that something 
was about to happen ; how Cynthia suddenly burst in 
upon them 'in a beautiful fury/ broke up the festivities, 
scattered the guests and chastised Propertius and his 
offending slave; lastly, how, her anger abated, she 
consented to be appeased, and the lovers made terms 
of peace. All this is told in a poem which in its 

1 The Cornelia elegy would be naturally put at the end if it 
bad to be copied from a monumental inscription ; see the intro- 
duction to it 


vivid colouring, its clearness and minuteness of detail 
and its bright spontaneous humour is unique in Pro- 
pertius, and has evidently come fresh from the poet's 
imagination in one of its happiest moments \ 

If viii. had preceded vii., the contrast would 
have been startling enough. To pass thus from this 
warm-blooded lighthearted life in all its thoughtless 
bustle and enjoyment to the chill and shadowy ghost* 
land would, we may say without rashness, have been 
too violent a change for the Greek and too bold a one 
for the Roman. But to reverse the ordar and to bid 
nature revolve upon her track is a ghastly imagination, 
or rather Mephistophelian mockery, only possible to 
ages which have learnt to finger the secret springs of 
the horrible and produced the painting of a Wiertz and 
the fiction of a Poe 8 . 

1 It was written when the impression was still quite recent; 
the day after the events, as hoc node v. 1 shews. 

2 I ought to add something on a remarkable line of Ovid 
K. A. 764 (a poem which as we see from vv. 155 seqq. was 
written about a. d. 2), et tibi cuius opus Cynthia, solafuit. First, 
the form of the expression leads us to suppose that Fropertius 
was not alive in a.d. 2; for fuit is naturally an aorist. And 
this is a supposition by no means inconsistent with the results 
of the preceding investigation. Secondly, it seems to give us a 
criterion as to the poems of his which were published or known 
to Ovid by a. d. 2. Cynthia, Ovid says, was Propertius' sole work 
or subject. This word opus does not necessarily mean a pub- 
lished, but only a completed work ; though, as a general rule, 
the two things are the same. Again, it is unnecessary precision 
to confine Cynthia to the first book. All the Cynthia poems 
may be and probably are meant. But it does look as if our 
Book iv. (v.) was then unknown to Ovid in its collected form. 
This cannot cast any doubt on its genuineness, which is abso- 
lutely beyond suspicion. The internal evidence of its Propertian 
authorship is so strong that it would justify us in attributing 
it to him, even if traditionally assigned to some one else. The 
conclusion then which it seems should be drawn is that the 
book was published posthumously, and published later than 
▲.d. 2. 




The poems of Propertius fall into the following 
division : »**#. 

A. Personal, chiefly amatory, and ad- 
dressed to Cynthia ; the bulk of the poems and nearly 
all of the first three books. 

B. Political and social, on events of the day ; 
addressed to Augustus, Maecenas, &c.; e.g. n. i., iv. 
(v). xi. 

C. Historical and antiquarian; the bulk of the 
last book. A good many of these latter deal with 
derivations of names; Vertumnvs (el. ii.), Sanctis (ix.), 
the Tdrpeian rock (iv.), luppitcr Feretrius 1 (x.). 

The following detailed analysis of the different 
books will be instructive* : 

A Amatory 




































These figures speak for themselves. The great 
preponderance of Cynthia elegies and their decrease in 
number in the last two books are especially noteworthy. 
Compare page xxiv. 

1 The Romans seem always to have been interested in the 
history of a name, and more so after Varro's time. Propertius 
especially shews an inclination to etymology. Besides the 
names mentioned he explains Calliopea, Latris, Superbu* 
(Tarquinins), Argennum. Compare pp. lxix, xc. 

9 It must be observed that the classification is necessarily 
rough, as some of the poems, e. g. v. i., have two subjects. 


§ ii. Literary style. 

There are not many direct criticisms of Propertius 
in ancient writers. QuintUian (10. 1. 93), 
while himself giving the preference to $$$!?* *** 
Tibullus, admits that some critics placed 
Propertius above him l . Ovid refers to him several times; 
and, where he uses an epithet, he calls him once tener 
(A. A, 3. 333) and twice blandus (Tr. 3. 465, 5. 1. 17). 
Martial calls him Uzsciuus (8. 73) and facundus 
(14. 189). The passage from the younger Pliny about 
Propertius has been already quoted, p. xxviii. It does 
not give one a favourable opinion of Pliny's critical 
sagacity. The qualities which he praises 
in Passennus Paulus, and which he finds jJJ£ r ****&**" 
constitute him a 'true descendant' of Pro- 
pertius and give his work the character of being 
' clearly written in the house of Propertius/ are by no 
means characteristic of Propertius. He is not par- 
ticularly tersus, ' smooth and finished,' an epithet which 
Quintilian applies much more appropriately to Ti- 
bullus ; molle and iucundum are still less distinctive, 
and the latter word only indicates a mere general 
satisfaction. But the other judgments are not much 
better. No critic of discernment would now place 
Tibullus above Propertius, though the former has far 
fewer faults, and sinks below his level of excellence 
much more rarely. When Ovid and Martial call 
him tener and lasciuus, they are thinking rather of 
his subject than of his treatment of it. There are 
only two traces of a recognition of his real merits, 

1 Elegia Graecos quoque prouooamus cuius mihi terms 
atque elegant maxime uidetur auctor Tibullus. sunt qui Pro* 
pertium malint. Ouidius utroque lasciuior sicut durior Galhra. 


the hlandus of Ovid and the facundus of Martial, 
of which I shall say more anon. The truth 
is that the literary criticism of the Romans Roman literary 
was essentially superficial. They had not crUicUm ' 
at their disposal the keen scalpel and the polymath ter- 
minology of modern analysis. Nor had they 
the delicate perception and flexibility of J$«y. 9uperf * ci ' 
expression which might have supplied 
\iijb<h* these deficiencies. Their rhetorical bias 1 , the narrow- 
limits and concrete character of their vocabulary and 
their practical habits of mind all worked in the same 
direction. And if the Roman critical 
resources were thus limited, Propertius p^^ll^ 
must have taxed them severely. His ob- 
scurity, his indirectness and his incohcrencies were 
all offences against the Roman taste which (to take a 
liberty with a line of Tennyson), loved to hear The apt 
oration flowing free From point to point. Hence it 
is no matter of surprise that he was much less popular 
with his countrymen than Tib villus, and that there 
are much fewer notices of him than of his rivaL 
None the less however was he cherished in the sympa- 
thetic appreciation of the literary few, and exercised 
through them a real, though unacknowledged, influence 
upon the popular mind. 

I have already said in words which perhaps require 
explanation, that Propertius stands almost 
alone amongst the poets of his and other mS^SSH ^ 
times. By that I do not mean of course 
that in point of poetical genius and achievement he is 
the greatest or amongst the greatest poets of the world ; 
but that his work is stamped by an individuality so 
peculiar as to entitle him to a separate place and 

1 It is worth noting here, that their best criticism is to be 
found in Quintilian's Institutes of Oratory, a practical manual 
by a professed rhetorician. 


We have seen bow his idiosyncracies repelled the 
Xiatin taste. This is not surprising with 
a writer who carries them so far as to f2«^J. ormo ' 
raise the question, the at first sight para- 
doxical question, whether he is writing in Latin at all. 
Where else in Latin shall we find sentences like these 1 

et duo in aduersum missi per moenia currus 
ne possent tacto stringere ab axe latus. 

iv. 10 (11). 24. 




baeo postquam meeum querula sub lite peregit. 

v. 7. 95. 

baeo lvmpba puellis 
auia secreti limitis una fluit. v. 9. 59. 

Pbidiacus signo se Iuppiter ornat eburno. iv. 8. (9) 15* 

This is not the Appian high road of Latin; it iaf 
an untrodden and sequestered bypath of Propertius' 

His chief demerits have been already enumerated. 
A good many of them are summed up in 
the one word obscurity. Much of this H ^ l SSSP f ' 
obscurity is due to the singularity of 
expression which has been just exemplified. These 
tendencies towards what is out of the way are by 
no means easy to unravel. But we may be certain 
of one thing. They are not due to affectation* They 
are peculiarities deeply rooted in his genius, they 
appear in the most spontaneous unstudied passages, 
and to compare them to the strainings of a conscious 
pedant like Persius is to miss the whole distinction 
between the far-fetched and the abnormal 1 . Besides 
the singularity to which I have referred and which 

1 Some have explained his peculiarities as due in part to 
his Umbrian origin. It is a mere conjecture. 


I know not How to name and the love of literary 
allusion which he shared with others of his age, but 
which is more marked in him than in them, and a 
certain delight in archaisms which is all his own, his 
difficulty and obscurity is due to other causes which 
may be more easily defined. 

First and chiefly it is- due to a certain vagueness 
and indirectness in his manner of con- 
ceiving and presenting an idea. Where ^J^" **~ 
other poets would bring it immediately 
before us, Propertius indicates the region where it 
may be found; and often his indications are by no 
means sufficient to identify it. There may be other 
ideas within the region ; and the reader is left to 
choose between them. To change the metaphor, the 
outlines of his pictures lack sharpness and precision, 
and the colours and even forms on his canvas tend 
to blend imperceptibly with each other. Thus it is 
the general impression that fascinates us in his poems, 
not the proportion and perfection of its details. It is 
possible theoretically to distinguish between a certain 
tortuousness in Propertius , way of arriving at an idea 
and his indefiniteness in putting it before us. But 
the two things are in practice so much connected that 
I shall not attempt to separate them in the examples. 

To take perhaps the most striking example of all, 
where another would say to ' believe ' a charge, Pro- 
pertius says to ' disseminate ' it, iv. 23. 14 note. f You 
will not be fond of changing ' is nee noua quaerendo 
semper 'amicus eris I. 13. 12; 'to love one maiden' 
is ttna amare domo in. 18. 8 (16. 24); in the same 
poem we have v. 13 quos utinam in nobis, uita, 
experiare labores, and v. 30 iam tibi de timidis iste 
superbus erit. In iv. 6 (7). 38 'you will rarely 
succeed,' ut tibi succedat, uix semel esse potest. 4 If 
the other refuses me her love, 1 altera si quando non 
sinib esse locum, in. 15 (13). 38. So in adjectives 


and nouns. "The tears fell fast adown,' ex oculis 
multa cadebat aqua iv. 5 (6). 10 (also of sweat m. 
15 (13). 38), 'fire-breathing bulls' flagrantes taurod 
iv. 10 (11). 9, 'the realms of night 1 caecis locis i. 
19. 8 opposed to superis locis in. 26. 4 (20. 50), and 
other examples in the commentary 1 . 

Sometimes the cause is a desire for brevity 2 . 
The sp/iere of a word or phrase is left 
undefined and has to be gathered from Brevit * 
the context in. 10 (9). 21 quin ego deminuo curam 
(sc. mihi), rv. 1. 36 ilium post cineres auguror ipse 
diem (to be taken with diem (futurum), not with 
auguror\ iv. 4 (5). 6 nee miser aera paro clade, Corinthe, 
pia, Ac. 8 Hence words appear in new senses, rudis 
'a stranger to love' iv. 16 (17). 7, pugnante 'strag- 
gling' (of ivy) v. 7. 79, diuidit 'causes dissension' 
i. 12. 10. Somewhat different are cases like tuba 
i trumpet-note,' manus * movement of the hand,' iv. 
4 (5). 3 nee tamen inuiso pectus mihi carpitur auro, 
€ the hateful love of gold. We may place here the use 
of common for proper names, of which he has one 
striking example. The Fates, the Muses, and even 
the Danaids are all called * the Sisters ' ; in. 5. 28, 

1 Other traces* of the tendency may be seen in his use of 
quicumque, quandocumque, talis (for hie) <ftc. ; of esse, ire, <&c., 
for more precise words ; of in with the abl. ( in the case of/ and 
of the abl. itself, for which see below, pages cxviii., o. 

* The most striking is where he only gives the beginning 
and end of a thought, omitting the intermediate links. Some- 
times an intermediate step in an argument is left out : some- 
times two stages of an action or two scenes in a picture are 
run into one. Examples of the first are in I. 2. 27, 8. 21, n. 
7. 15, &c. ; see notes, and compare the use of igitur below. 
Examples of the second are to be found in i. 8. 15, 9. 29, in. 8. 
IS (probably), and notes, and cf. l 1, 8 n, See also iv. 20. (7) 
17 Amor ipse suo eonstringet pignera signo. (The tying of letter 
tablets came first ; cf. v. i 82 pacta ligat ; then the sealing.) 

3 Sometimes, as in this example and v. 11 . 85 mutarit ianua 
leotum, the idea has to be corrected as well as expanded. 


in. 28 (22). 27 ; v. 1 1. 27. So Cupid is puer and ales ; 
I. 19. 5, in. 28. (22). 31. Paris is pastor, n. 2. 13. 
The use of mater for * stepmother,' iv. 7 (8). 38, is 
surprising. Compare v. 11. 21, 59 and notes. 
Occasionally harsh omissions occur, especially of the 
personal pronouns; e.g. tu where the person is 
changed iv. 10 (11). 68, te ib. 24. 6. 

One of the peculiarities of Propertius is the great 
and often disproportionate stress which 
he lays on a single word and that word 2onJJ # on Hngl * 
frequently not one of the most promi- 
nent syntactically in the sentence n. 24 (20). 20 
hanc miser implorat nauita LeucotIu>en * implores her 
help, as now divine / v. 6. 52 quae nisi iusta subest 
excutit arma pudor. See more in the notes and 
Hertzb. i. p. 142. Another source of 
obscurity is a disposition to be spasmodic nco CTU5e * 
and incoherent. His poems have often the appearance 
of being disarranged; and thus critics 
have resorted to lacunae and transpo- a'/m^ce! 1 * in 
sitions where these aids to intelligence 
ought never to have been invoked. The derangement 
goes deeper than this and penetrates to the very 
heart of a sentence. What disorder is this? iv. 12 
(13). 55, 56 

te scelus acoepto Thracis Polymestoris auro 
nutrit in hospitio non, Polydore, pio, 

or this? iv. 3 (4). 18 

et subter captos arma sedere duces. 

For more examples, see Hertzb. p. 121 sqq. But a 
sentence is comparatively fortunate if its order is 
only perturbed. Frequently it is not finished at all, 
and sometimes there is no attempt to 
finish it; e.g. iv. 17 (18). 1—7, 19 (18). Anac ^ 11 ^ 
21, 22. Hertzberg has shewn (p. 125 sqq.) that it 


is in Propertius' manner to leave his sentences with- 
out connecting particles. "Where he em- 
ploys them, he is not less peculiar. If he ^ $&£££!*' 
uses igitur where others would have used 
nam or enim (iv. 19 (18). 1. c. tuque, o Minoa uenum- 
data Scylla figura, tondens purpurea regna paterna 
coma, hanc igitwr dotem uirgo desponderat hosti ; cf. 
II. 5. 27 n.), his nam and namqv-e, on the other hand, 
appear where they add little, if anything, to the 
sense, in. 14 (12). 12, iv. 5 (6). 5. His use of certe is 
not less peculiar, n. 7. 1 n. He is fond of the 
violent at, where others would use Bed or even et ; e. g. 
iv. 8 (9). 14. The connexion of sentences 
is often extremely loose, I. 18. 23, 24 quot ^ffSSSSS^ 
euros,. .quae. . .cognita sunt, iv. 1 6 (1 7). 40 
haec ego referam qualis Pindarico spiritus ore tonat, 
in. 13 (11). 34 ultima talis erit quae mihi prima 
fides. Generally we may say that he is 
fond of abrupt transitions of thought and J£** tranti - 
construction. For the latter see below, 
p. exxiv. The former are too common to need illus- 

Sometimes on the other hand the opposites of these 
tendencies occasion difficulty. For ex- 
ample, instead of incoherence we find o^osUetendm- 
too close a coherence between the mem- 
bers of sentences. Words which we should at first 
sight suppose went with the sentence generally, 
we find on examination are to be con- 
strued only with a part of it. Thus we u?ty**if con- 
get a stib-comtruction, as it were, besides 9truetion ' 
a principal one; and a part of the sentence is bracketed 
off from the rest. Thus we have v. 3. 20 struxit 
querulas-rauca-per-ossa tubas, ib. 11. 29 fama-per- 
auita-tropaca &c., I. 10. 30 qui numquam uacuo- 
pectore-liber erit <fcc. There are three examples in 
I. 13. 2 — 8. Sometimes a word goes equally with 


two other words, and we thus get a two-headed con- 
struction; e.g. ii. 32 (26). 54 nee si consulto fnhnina 
missa tonent, i. 11. 5 nostri crura subit memores a 
ducere noctes (n. and d. both go with c), v. 6. 6 
ductus erat per quas ante Iugurtha uias (Le. ducta 
per eas uias per quas ante ductus erat Iugurtha). 
Sometimes the expression becomes extraordinarily 
brief; e.g. v. 4. 73 urbi festus erat (dixere Parilia 
patres), hie primus coepit moenibus esse dies (where 
dies has to be anticipated from the following dies), 
in. 19. 19 (16. 35) tu mea compones et dices ossa, Pro- 
perti, haec tua sunt (Hertzb. p. 123). Sometimes the 
sentence must be read as a whole, as it is almost im- 
possible to give it a detailed construction. Examples 
are in. 32 (26). 60 quern tetigit iactu certus ad ossa 
deus (we must take tetigit with iactu and i. with 
certus ad o.), ib. 1. 83 (misunderstood by the commen- 
tators but taken rightly by Teuffel, Hist. Lit. i. p. 373), 
iv. 1. 14 non datur ad Musas currere lata uia, ib. 3. 
Cf. I. 20. 24 where I have compared the tendency of 
the Greek tragoedians to spread the meaning through 
a sentence rather than apportion it among the words. 

A fulness which often degenerates 
into redundance alternates with brevity, tofomdatajw,- 
Not to mention the numerous cases in 
which Propertius simply reports a word or some part 
of it or of some kindred word or some other word , 
which carries the same meaning, for which it is 
sufficient to refer to Hertzb. p. 107 sqq. and 
many examples pointed out in the notes, we find 
two or more words which mean substantially 
the same appearing together where one _. 
would be quite sufficient. Sometimes this where one wta 
only creates a sense of redundance jag. I. do ' 
11. 10 remis confisa minutis paruola... cumba,, in. 5. 
8, v. 1. 63 nostris tumefacta superbiat Ymbria libris, 
ib. 46, 47 uexit et ipsa sui Caesaris anna Venus. 


anna resurgentis portans uictricia Troiae 1 . But often 
the consequence is that either the construction is 
clogged or the meaning confused. Examples of the 
first are in. 4. 1, 2 non tot Achaemeniis armantur 
Susa sagittis spicula quot nostro pectore fixit Amor, 
i. 14. 5, 6 et nemus unde satas intendat uertice sHuas 
urgetur quantis Caucasus arboribus, n. 5. 11, 7. 8 and 
notes. Examples of the second are n. 8. 40 mirum si 
de me iurc triumphat Amor, in. 8 (7). 10 die alias iterum 
nauiget Illyrias. Often it is due to a desire to be 
empfuitic (which may easily become exaggeration) com- 
bined with an inattention to the precise form of the 
expression. Thus saepe is used in I. 13. 1 tu quod saepe 
soles, I. 15. 1 saepe ego multa tuae leuitatis dura time- 
bam: so semper II. 9. 32 hoc unum didicit f emina semper 
opus: solus II. 1. 65 hoc si quis uitium -potent mihi 
demere, solus Tantaleae poterit tradere pbma manu, in. 
13 (11). 35 hoc mihi perpetuo ius est quod solus ama- 
tor nee cito desisto nee temere incipio. Sometimes mere 
inattention to the context produces an effect which 
was not intended ; iv. 6 (7). 26 where the sand is asked 
to do a favour sponte sua, at the same time that it is 
addressed as uUis. For in. 5. 28, where I have ex- 
plained the recklessness of the expression as due to a 
sick despair, see note. So in i. 16. 22 (n.) tristis et in 
tepido limine somnus erit he had Catullus' mihi limina 
tepida before him, and he put it down without ob- 
serving that it does not go well with tristis* But 
oftener exaggeration is the cause. Proper- „ 

" ,. , , , ,. V Exaggeration. 

tins is very liable to exaggeration. He 

gets carried away and uses a stronger phrase than is 

1 These must be distinguished from mere careless repetitions, 
e.g. v. 1. 121, 124, Vmbria — lacus Vmher, or cases where the 
repetition adds something to the sense, v. 4. 39, 40 quid minim 
in patrios Scyllam saeuisse capillos candidaque in saeuos in- 
guina uersa canes? Scylla is punished with the same sae- 
uitia as she shewed to her father. [Baehrens alters both pas- 
sages without necessity.] 


justified and perhaps than was intended. This adds 
to his vagueness and obscurity. For we never know- 
how much he has overstated and overcolourecL A good 
example is iy. 10 (11). 41 (of Cleopatra). It will be 
seen how the expression becomes more and more ex- 
aggerated, until it is absolutely false and nnreaL 

ansa lorn noetro latrantem opponert Anubin 

et Tiberim Nili cogere ferre minas 
Bomanamque tnbam crepitanti pellere Bistro 

baridos et oontis rostra Liburna sequi (Cleopatra fled) 
foedaque Tarpeio conopia tender* saxo 

iura dare et statuas inter et arma MarL 

Hardly less strange is v. 3. 5, 6 ant si qua in- 
certo fallet te litters tractu, signs meae dextrae tarn 
morientis erunt. The rest of the poem shews that 
Arethusa by no means thinks death is at hand. There 
is a curious instance (already quoted) in iv. 13 (14). 
21 lex igitur Spartana uetat secedere amantes (Le. 
allows them not to be separated). It is needless to 
multiply instances which may be gathered from the 
notes, e.g. in. 1. 7 1 . 

And now we have traced most of the threads which 
cross in Fropertius' tangle of obscurity: and though 
we have only been able to do so briefly and imperfect- 
ly, we have learned, I trust, better to appreciate his 
singularity. Many of the tendencies which we have 
pointed out are not peculiar to him. Other writers have 
written with indenniteness or exaggeration, and have 
overlooked the meaning involved in their words or re- 
quired by their context. In some perhaps this has 
produced as much confusion as in Propertius. Many 

1 I may however call attention to his fondness for semper 
and omnia, semper is only ' very often ' ; i. 20. 14 n., i. 3. 40, 
hi. 8 (7). 17. For omnia see in. 7 (6). 50 (a fine use) omnia 
si dederis oscula, pauca dabis, iv. 1. 23 omnia post obitum fingit 
maiora uetustas. It is frequent with an adj. or part. e.g. I. 
4. 14 lacrimis omnia nota meis. 


authors have been brief to obscurity or full to re- 
dundance: but few have been both. Still rarer is 
it to find such oversubtlety in the arrangement and 
connexion of ideas. Barest of all to find this 
alternating with an absolute disregard of their con* 
nexion. But it raises our wonder, indeed, to find 
all these qualities united in a single writer, and we 
cannot believe that there can be anything else tarn 
sibi dispar. 

But the phenomena which meet us next are stranger 
still, and, I believe, even unique \ As they have not 
received the attention which is their due, I shall ex- 
amine them in detail. In presenting his 
conceptions Propertius often resolves them of an idea™ 
in a very peculiar way. After giving us «2U^ meWw " 
an idea in one form, he frequently gives 
it immediately in another, and treats this new 
aspect or manifestation of it, as though it were a 
fresh idea. To borrow a metaphor from physics, he 
frequently polarizes an idea and gives it two distinct 
unconvicting expressions. This often has an exceed- 
ingly odd effect as may be seen from the following ex- 
amples. I. 11. 11, 12 aut teneat clausam tenui Teu- 

1 These expressions may seem too strong to some of my 
readers. As a statement of the facts themselves, I do not 
thin,k that they are. I have not found anything like them 
elsewhere, except a few traces of the same tendency in Lucan. 
It may be said, however, that I have misinterpreted their 
significance. Some will think perhaps that they are merely 
unusual manifestations of verbosity ; others, perhaps, that they 
are only strange examples of th6 Latin tendency which is most 
marked in the poets to repeat an idea for emphasis or clear- 
ness, and that here too Propertius is ultra-Latin. See p. xciii. 
That both these explanations are possible, and perhaps partially 
true, I would admit, and the more cheerfully so as I hold most 
firmly the conviction that there are no linguistic facts which 
are really simple, and that their explanation, like themselves, 
must often ramify into the most widely separated regions both 
of speech and of thought. 


thrantis in unda alternae facilis cedere lympha manu, 
ib. 20. 17 — 20 (and notes) namque feruntolim Pagasae 
naualibus Argon egressam...Mysorum scopulis adpli- 
cuisse ratem (the Argo is the ratis, only viewed differ- 
ently), ib. 22. 6 — 8 (note) sit mini praecipue, puluis 
Etrusca, dolor... tu nuUo miseri contegis ossa solo, n. 

7. 17 hinc etenim tantum meruit mea gloria nomen 
('a glory winning a reputation' is a phrase which will 
remind our readers of Alice in Wonderland), with 
which compare in. 5. 21 nostri notescet fama sepulcri. 
iv. 1. 17 is a striking example Bed, quod pace legos, 
opus tnlit intacta pagina nostra uia; ib. L 35 
meque inter seros laudabit Roma nepotes (the nepotes 
are the Rome which will praise Propertius) with 
which v. 1. 30, a passage that has given some trouble, 
is to be compared magnaque pars Tatio rerum erat 
inter oues the property was 'in sheep* i.e. it was 
sheep ; v. 3. 51 Poenis tibi purpura fulgeat ostris (one 
of these words means the stuff); ib. 9. 21 sicco torret 
sitis ora palato. So also in the use of verbs i. 18. 29 
quodcumque meae possunt narrare querelae, in. 32 
(26). 87 haec cantarunt scripta Catulli, 89 haec... 
eonfessast pagina Calui, iv. 25. 17 has... cecinit mea 
pagina diras. 

Sometimes it is less obvious, i. 19. 14 quas dedit 
Argiuis Dardana praeda uiris (the heroines were 
part of the prey), in. 15 (13). 21 si exiles uideor 
tenuatus in artus (the man is his limbs) ; compare v. 

8. 41 nanus et ipse suos breuiter concretus in artus 
and observe the false echo or reminiscence, iv. 16 (17). 

9. 10 hoc mihi quod ueteres custodit in ossibus ignes... 
malum, ib. 30 cinget Bassaricas Lydia mitra comas (he 
is addressing Bacchus and he uses an adj. derived 
from one of his attributes instead of tuas), v. 7. 7 (of 
Cynthia) eosdem habuit secum quibus est elata capil- 
los where it is very noticeable, as shewing how difficult 
it was after all for the Roman imagination to conceive 


that what it had seen devoured and dissipated by the 
flames could reunite, even in another world. There 
is an uncomfortable feeling in the description that 
Cynthia's ghost was pieced together; compare v. 12 
poUicibus fragiles increpuere manus. Once more it 
gives occasion to subtle etymological uses of words. 
Thus in in. 5. 8 plebei paruae funeris exsequiae (the 
procession of the funeral), v. 9. 24 lucus ab umbroso 
fecerat orbe nemus 'a circle of sacred shade trees 
(lucus) formed a glade' (nemus). nemus is an open space 
in a lucus 1 . There is a term, already used by others 8 
with reference to Propertius, which seems to me to 
be an appropriate description of the foregoing phe- 
nomena ; and I have consequently used it throughout 
my commentary with reference to them. I should, 
however, be sorry to see it limited to them, as it 
gives very happily the general disparateness of the 
Propertian genius. The word I mean is ' disjunc- 

This may be justly called perverting language and 
forcing it into channels along which it was never in- 
tended to flow. But here, -as elsewhere, p 
there is the inevitable retribution ; and Pro- 
pertius on his part is often snared in his words. I 
have already pointed out instances where his choice of 
expressions has been irrationally 8 influenced by what 
he or others have written : and examples of these ' false 
echoes,' as Professor Campbell in his Sophocles appro- 
priately calls them, might be multiplied still further. 
Thus we have in n. 1. 57, 58 omnes humanos sanat 
medicina dolores : solus Amor morbi non amat artificem, 
an obvious echo of i. 2. 7, 8 crede mihi non ulla tua 

1 Compare p. xci. 

2 I do not know who used it first, or in what connexion. 
Nor can I now find out where I daw it quoted. 

8 By this I mean that, though the meaning is changed, the 
expression is the same. 

P. P. f 


est medicina figurae : nudus Amor formae non amat 
artificem (where see note) ; in in. 3. 20 uapulcU 
umbra mea is a reminiscence of Plautus (quoted 
in the note), n. 6. 26 et quaecumque uiri femina 
limen amat is from Horace Od. 1. 25. 4 amatque 
ianua limen. I have pointed out the same tendency 
in iv. 24. 7 (where see note) and iv. 7. 58 *, 
which shews the influence of metre. p r<ue *' 

With all his love of variety and inclination to change, 
Propertius has a large number of phrases into which 
his thought seems naturally to fall. Of these I have 
already given some examples and drawn some infer- 
ences from them (p. xl.). Their number need not sur- 
prise us. It is a mark of a certain phase 6f disorga- 
nized intellect to set round anything which has even a 
/vrv. "ft* I comparative fixity. Still less, as the foregoing exam in w- 
v -- * «. tion might show us, need we wonder that their meaning 
often fluctuates and sometimes disappears. They are 
the buoys in Propertius* troubled sea of thought and 
they share in its heavings. There was another cause 
for these repetitions which we must not neglect. 
Propertius was deeply imbued with the spirit of 
Greek literature, and he felt with a Greekin/l 
true, poet's instinct that his own lan- 
guage was in itself incapable of producing the qua- 
lities which attracted him. Consequently he called in 
the assistance of art, and, following in the steps of his 
Alexandrine masters, he has succeeded better perhaps 
than any other Roman poet in giving to his verse 
something of the harmony and symmetry of the 
Greek. I cannot spare space to demonstrate this at 
length : for one illustration will suffice and Hertzberg 
(pp. 107sqq.) has given many. It is very apparent in 

1 I am aware .that these and the following remarks ma\ 
seem fanciful, especially to persons who have not considered 
the subject. 


1 * .. . l 

ii. 3. 43, 44 siue illam Hesperiis sine illam ostendet 

3 3 4 2 3 4 8 

Eois, uret et Eoos 1 uret et Hesperios. Compare I. 8. 
25 and indeed the whole of the poem, i. L 
16. 30, 20. 26, and the notes*. The attrac- try and corrv- 
tion of these correspondences in metre and . ^ <mdenee - 
syntax extends yet^further ; and under their influence 
Propertius often assimilates the form of one sentence 
to another, even when^ there is little similarity in sub- 
stance between them, ^xamples are 1. 12. 20 Cynthia 
prima f uit, Cynthia finis exit (Cynthia et ultima erit 
would have made the correspondence real); n. 5. 28 
Cynthia forma potens, Cynthia uerba leuis (the discord 
between the real construction and that which the 
words seem to suggest is very marked). In' m. 13 
(11). 18 the result is a ver£ forced expression ambos 
una fides auferet, una dies. While discussing the 
iufluence of mere expressions in Propertius, I will add 
a tolerably complete list of the instances T . t , , 

. J * . ^ • . Literal ami mc- 

wnere in consequence or the use of a word taphorkai tow- 
in more than one sense we find either a d ' 
confusion, or more strictly a non-differentiation of ideas, 
or a more or less conscious play upon words, in. 1 7 
(14). 23, 24 (a passage generally misunderstood) 
libertas quoniam nulli iam restat amanti, nullus liber 
erit si quis amare uolet 'since we now see (iam as in 
in. 32 (26). 24 omnes iam noruirt quam sit amare 
bonum) that no lover is free (i. e. his own master), he 
will be no free man (i. who chooses to 
love/ ib. 19. 24 (K>. 40) ferre ego formosam nullum 

1 Observe the double quantity of Eous, and compare what 
Martial says 9. 12. 13 sqq. on the unsuitability of Carinas for 

— - « 

verse, diennt Earinon tamen poetae, sed Graeci quibus est nihil 
negatum et quo** Apes 'Apes decet sonare ; nobis non licet esse 
tarn disertis qui Musas colimus seueriores. 

3 The repetition of the same words in similar positions is 
the chief agent in producing these effects. 



onus esse puto 'to bear with the beauteous is no burden,' 
so in iv. 1. 6, iv. 6 (7). 33, iv. 8 (9). 23, 24, iv. 23. 7 
and notes, v. 5. 54 uersibus auditis quid nisi uerba feres? 
(a play on uerba dare to cheat) 1 . In some of these 
cases the literal and metaphorical are blended. So also 
in iv. 3 (4). 4 Tigris et Euphrates sub tua iura fluent, 
where the idea of the actual motion of the rivers 
is united with the metaphorical idea of their passing 
under Augustus 1 jurisdiction. We have, however, 
nothing as bad as Ovid's experiments in this line, of 
which I will quote two, in order to shew how hope- 
lessly false and hollow the thing may become -when 
not guided by genuine poetical feeling. Trist. 3. 5. 

non mihi quaerenti pessumdare cuncta petitum 
Caesareum caput est quod caput orbis erat (two bodies 
and one head) 

Pont 2. 5. 38 

sed sunt tua pectora laote 

et non caloata candidiora nine (a good metaphor spoilt, 
material and metaphorical ' fairness ' being confused). 

I am sure that my readers will pardon this some- 
what long, though imperfect, discussion if 
I have shewn them that in Propertius we SpK^iSwf 
are dealing with no ordinary phenomena. 
These contrasts, these extravagancies, these fluctuations 
and incoherencies, these half-formed or misshapen 
thoughts, what do they signify] What is the secret of 
this chaos? It is that here we are looking on a stage 
in the realization of thought which is not usually pre- 
sented to our view. In other writers we only see the 
full-formed crystals, sometimes flawed and dim, some- 
times bright and clear. In Propertius thought is 
crystallizing still. It is still comparatively amorphous 

1 These must be distinguished from cases where the con- 
fusion is in the idea itself ; where, for example, a God and his 
statue (y. 1. 7) or a river and river-God are not discriminated 
(iv. 3. 46 n., v. 2. 7n.). 


and still turbid with development. At such a stage 
there is hardly any limit to possibilities; and almost 
anything is possible with Propertius. At such a stage 
the susceptibility to impressions is extreme; and we 
have seen how potent even the smallest influences are 
in attracting and deflecting Propertius. But I will 
leave my readers to pursue the metaphor farther for 
themselves 1 . 

It is hardly necessary to point out that with 
thought, thus unconsciously developing 
itself, a conscious self-criticism was impos- f^SS«c2m? r 
sible. And I cannot And the slightest 
proof or hint in the poems that they were subsequent- 
ly submitted to its test. It is true that we find traces 
of double readings occasionally (see Appendix A); 
but these are to be differently explained. Poets are 
not usually good critics, especially of their own com- 
positions ; and Propertius certainly was no exception 
to the rule. There is the greatest difference in his 
work. By the side of poems which shew the highest 
flights of his imagination, we find, as in in. 18 
(15), the flattest level of conversational prose. Even 
if he had wished thus to improve his poems, it is very 
doubtful whether he could. For his best work is that 
which is done at once under the strong and control- 
ling influence of immediate inspiration 8 . 

1 This, though an early stage in the development of poeti- 
cal thought, is not the earliest. The curious in such matters 
may find the earliest in some of the poems of Blake. 

I trust these remarks will be intelligible. They are as clear 
as the nature of the case allows. It is impossible here at any 
rate to distinguish between the genesis of thought and its em- 
bodiment in language. 

* There is nothing that shews so much spirit as v. 8, nor 
so mueh grace as hk 9 (10), a birthday poem to Cynthia ; and 
they are as finished as anything in Propertius. Tet they 
were written immediately after the events that they com- 


I have hitherto been mainly occupied in tracing 
the peculiarities where they have had an ^ , 
injurious influence upon his work; but we rising out of his 
must nob forget that there is another side. ^ eculvxrUuS9 - 
To them we owe the greater part of that facundia 
which, as we have seen, Martial singles 
out for his praise. Not only is the vo- Ha € ^ acundta - 
cabulary on which he draws unusually large 1 , but 
he employs it with the greatest freedom*. Thus he 
frequently uses a word in a fresh sense on the strength 
of some analogy. E.g. on the analogy of leuitas 
'inconstancy' he has grauitas in the sense of * con- 
stancy' in. 13 (11). 14, and pondus habere 'to be 
constant,' in. 20 (17). 22. This, and the frequency 
with which words occur with slight changes in mean- 
ing give an unequalled freshness and variety to his 

But this freedom is by no means confined to his 
expression. It is even more apparent in 
his thought I have spoken already of ^u^!' qfPro ' 
the extraordinary originality or rather 
singularity of his conceptions. This is shewn in many 
ways; ]>erhaps in none so clearly as the boldness of 
his imagery. I do not know any ancient writer who 
compares with him in this respect with the exception 
of Pindar ; and Pindar's boldness is not that of Pro- 
pertius 8 . The one shews the exuberance of a splendid 

1 In estimating it we must make allowance for the unu- 
sually large number of proper names that occur in his writings, 
and also the number of words and phrases which occur again 
and again and form, as it were, the framework of his style. 

* One of the best ways of testing this is to look oat in the 
dictionary a few words which occur in Propertius, and to 
observe the number of oases in which his usage differs from 
the rest. 

■ In several other respects Pindar and Propertius approxi- 
mate. In their grammar I may notice the predicative use of 
the noun, yow4om (Hot * your parents while they live'; a part. 


and daring genius : the other the irregular workings 
of a mind whose yet indefinite possibilities were not 
directed by any law either external or self-imposed, 
and whose natural bent was towards the singular and 
solitary* There is hardly any simile or Metaphors 
employment of a simile from which Pro- 
pertius shrinks. Thus we hare v. 1.61 Ennius hirsuta 
cingat swa dicta corona, iy. 8 (9). 3 n. quid me scri- 
bendi tarn uastum mittis in aequor? Occasionally 
his metaphors are so bold and so remote from the 
subject that they illustrate as to be almost unreal. 
Thus * to sing of war ' is hardly recognizable in Phoe- 
bum quicumque. moratur in armis iv. 1. 7; Cynthia's 
avarice is expressed with hyperbolical symbolism in 
in. 8 (7). 17 semper in Oceanum mittit Trie quaerere 
gemmas et iubet ex ipsa tollere dona Tyro. 
So metaphors are sometimes so accumu- a * A w°P ta - 
lated or so interwoven with metonymies as to produce 
what was technically known as dWrjyopta or alia 
or alio, a word which we cannot translate literally but 
which means the real meaning of the expression is so 
completely unlike its apparent, literal meaning that, 
in order to be understood, it has to be completely 
recast. A good example of the first is v. 6. 1 — 10, 
and of the seeond ib. 58 n. 

It is in his metaphors perhaps that Propertius 
approaches most closely to the modern 
spirit. But the resemblance is not limited Modern f P iriL 
to them. It is a resemblance which must at once 
strike the attentive reader and perhaps puzzle him at 
first. It is not merely due to his treating of human 
passions and affections which are the same through 
all time and under every mask of fashion. It is not 
this identity of subject or even of treatment that I 

or adj. and noun forming one idea, xQ0«y& TBXXcfr the < desire 
for Greece' ; their curious use of prepositions, &c. 



mean now. It is rather a resemblance in the tone. 
In his employment of sentiment Fropertius is modern 
and even romantic. The personal feeling -which, as 
already seen, is so predominant in his poems is reflected 
upon inanimate objects and external events ; they are 
transfigured so to .speak in a human mirror* The 
form which these coincidences take may be best under- 
stood from a few examples. 

traicit et fati litora ma gnus amor. i. 19. 12. 

imposuit prorae publica uota tuae (freighted with a nation's 
prayers). v. 6. 42. 

cunota tuns sepelinit amor. rv. 14 (15). 9. 
lacrimis omnia nota meis. i. 6. 24. 

mi fortuna aliquid semper amare dedit (an 'object' for my 
love). m. 15 (13). 18. 

tu modo, dum lucet, fructum ne desere nitae. 

m. 5 (6). 49. 

His fancy often assumes a modern shape especially 
when swayed by the * pathetic fallacy.' 
Thus in v. 11. 42 labe mea uestros eru- £**** fal ' 
buisse focos (and note) the fire's red light 
appears to the poet as the blush of shame. The Par- 
thian arrows are gladdened by blood I v. 11 (12). 11 
tua Medae laetentwr caede sagittae. v. 1. 95, 96 
is a very fine example, Gallus at, in castris dum 
credita signa tuetur, concidit ante aquilae rostra 
cruenta suae. To the poet's excited fancy the eagle 
has dyed its beak in the blood of its protector. 

There is another attraction in Propertius to which 
the peculiarities above mentioned have 
sensibly though less obviously contri- ,Blandttia -' 
buted. It is the one for which Ovid commends him 
when he calls him blandus. This blanditia, if I 
may use the word, is rather hard to define. It is 
a charm better felt than analysed. Yet several 


qualities contribute to it. Its chief ingredient is the 
writer's power of awaking sympathy. He has no 
secrets with us, he admits us to his inmost feelings ; 
and, before we know it, our own heart is engaged 
in return and is ready to respond to his appeals. 
The habit of vagueness which I have already touched 
upon is now most effective. It adds a softness and 
gentleness to the forms that he would bring before us, 
and wraps them, as it were, in a floating golden haze. 

And now we have completed our survey of the 
ancient criticisms of Propertius. And we have seen 
how from their nature they were inevitably incomplete 
and unsatisfactory. But we have done much more 
than this. We have seen how our endeavour to esti- 
mate and even to understand them has necessarily led 
us into a closer examination of the causes which have 
vitiated them, and thus to a more just appreciation 
of the singularity and incongruity of the Propertian 

It now becomes our duty to take a more general 
view, to regard him as a >hole and to 
assign him his poetical position among his JSToth™ Ro- 
successors and contemporaries. naSt. elegiac 

There are two other writers who come 
into this comparison, Tibullus and Ovid 1 . It is sur- 
prising what a difference there is in the quantity of 
each that has come down to us. The two genuine 
books of Tibullus are less than one-third of the bulk 
of the four books of Propertius and less than one- 
sixteenth of the elegiacs of Ovid. And yet I think 
that no real judge of poetry will hesitate for a moment 
to place Propertius high above them both. It is 

1 I purposely omit Catullus. His elegies, though containing 
fine passages, are, as Mr Munro allows (Catullus, p. 231), by no 
means on the level of his lyrics. Their metre has not reached 
even the minimum of technical perfection, and is at times rude 
and barbarous. 


true that in some respects they may both claim the 
advantage over him ; Tibullus for refined simpli- 
city, for natural grace and exquisiteness of touch. ; 
Ovid for the technical merits of execution, for trans- 
parency of. construction, for smoothness and polish of 
expression. But in all the higher qualities of a poet 
he is as much their superior. 

In vigour and originality of conception, in ricli- 
ness and variety of colouring, nay in the „..„ m . 
very quality and compass of imagination 
he leaves Tibullus far behind. Tibullus is seen at nis 
best in poems like the last in the second book, where he 
has a theme which gives play to his delicate sensi- 
bility and refined tenderness. In passages like this 
he shews a quiet, chastened beauty which is best illus- 
trated by quotation. 

Castra Macer sequitur. tenero quid fiet Amori? 
sit comes et collo fortiter arma gerat? 

The delicacy of this picture is beyond Propertius' 
reach. Contrast n. 7. 15, 16. 

et sen longa uirum terrae uia sen uaga ducent 

aequora, cum telis ad latus esse suae? 
ure puer, quaeso, tua qui ferns otia linquit 

atque iterum erroaem sub tua signa uoca. 
* * * 

castra peto, ualeatque Venus ualeantque puellae ; 

et mihi sunt uires et mihi facta tubast. 
magna loquor : sed magnifice mihi magna locuto 

excutiunt clausae fortia uerba fores, 
iuraui quoties rediturum ad limina numquam ! 

cum bene iuraui, pes tamen ipse redit. 

* * * 

iam mala finissem leto; sed credula uitam 
spes fouet et semper eras fore ait melius. 

In 41, 42 perhaps he touches the summit of his 

desino ne dominae luctus renouentur acerbi. 
non ego sum tanti ploret ut ilia semel. 


The exquisite feeling of the last line will not readily 
be matched. Still this delicacy and finish hardly atones 
for the absence of robuster excellence. It is not sepa- 
rable from a certain sameness which may easily be 
felt as monotony; and its sweetness is apt to cloy. 
What we miss above all in Tibullus is variety and 
imaginative power and boldness. The latter is so 
rare that it almost startles us when it occurs, as it 
does in the lines n. 4. 7 seqq. 

ego ne possem tales sentire dolores: 
quam mallem in gelidis montibus esse lapis, 

stare uel insanis cautes obnoxia uentis, 
naufraga quam uasti tunderet unda maris. 

nunc et amara dies et noctis amarior umbrast : 
omnia nunc tristi tempora felle madent. 

Both the picture of v. 10 and the metaphor of v. 12 
are imaginations worthy of Propertius. 

1 now come to Ovid for whose works I would 
obtain a juster estimation. To the merits 

which I have indicated above he added WUh0vUL 
the ability to tell a story with clearness and vivacity 
and even with elegance. Nor must it be denied 
that he had a wide acquaintance with the works of 
the poets who preceded him, Greek and Latin alike, 
an appreciation of their beauties and a practical judg- 
ment in selecting from them. Whether he had any 
of the qualities of a poet himself, I shall leave un- 
determined; though it may be doubted with reason 
whether in the whole mass of his writings there is a 
single poetical image or idea for which he had not 
warrant among his predecessors. His calm surface 
is most rarely disturbed by genuine feeling. With 
Tibullus and Propertius love was at any rate a passion. 
With Ovid it was une affaire de cosur. But it is as 
a rhetorician that he excels. He finds his function in 
presenting a moral or quasi-moral statement to the 
public ; he arranges it, he divides it into its parts, he 


compares it with what it does not resemble, and dis- 
tinguishes it from what it could not be mistaken for, 
elucidating it all the while by a generous employ- 
ment of antithesis and other rhetorical devices of 
repute. Here too we may call in the. aid of quota- 
tion. A short passage from the beginning of one of 
the Heroides (Epist. xiv.), generally considered to be 
one of his best works 1 , will satisfy the reader of the 
existence of this rhetorical character in Ovid, and 
also of the meaning of Quintilian's remark that he 
was nimium amator ingeni mi. Possibly it will 
satisfy him in other respects as well. 

Hypermnestra, the only Danaid, who refused to 
kill her husband, is writing from the prison into 
which she has been thrown by her father, an account 
of her sentiments and the events which have inspired 
them. She begins by enlarging upon the text, that 
doing our duty sometimes brings us into trouble, v. 3. 

Clausa domo teneor grauibusque coercita uinclis ; 
est mini supplioii causa fuisse piam (I am punished for 
doing my duty), 
quod maims extimuit iugulo demittere ferrom 
sum rea (do.) : laudarer si seems ansa forem. 
(I should not be punished if I had not done my duty.) 
esse ream praestat quam sio placuisse parenti. 
(I prefer to do it and be punished than not to do it and 

be rewarded.) 
non piget immunes caedis habere manus. (I do not 
regret having done it.) 
me pater igne licet quern non uiolauimus urat 

(let my father punish me by means of the sacred 

emblems to which I have done my duty.) 
quaeque aderant sacris tendat in ora faces (do.) 
aut illo iugulet quern mm bene tradidit ense (let him 
punish me for doing my duty), 
ut, qua non eecidit tctr nece, nnpta cadam (do.) 

i "The Loves of the Heroines," says Dean Merivale (His- 
tory, vol. iv. p. 701) "is the most elevated and refined in senti- 
ment of all elegiac compositions of the Romans." 


non tamen ut dicent morientia 'paenitet' ora 
efficiet. (yet punishment will not make me repent hav- 
ing done my duty.) non est quam piget esse piam 
(general reflection ; we do not do our duty if we repent 
having done it). 

I now pass on to the last point to be considered in 
connexion with this writer. There is no The ovtdian 
doubt that his successors in elegiac poetry ele oy- 
formed their metre upon his model: and we have 
been told on high authority that in this treatment the 
elegiac couplet 'lost much while gaining more.' I am 
sorry that I cannot subscribe to this view. It is true, 
as I have already said, that it gained greater polish and 
smoothness: but it gained them at the expense of 
nearly all its vigour and variety, a loss which more 
than counterbalanced its gain 1 . It must be remem- 
bered that, as a literature, Latin began to die from the 
time that it began to be patronized. Without doubt 
there were some great writers after Augustus. But 
genius cannot be blasted, even by the favour of a 
court; and a Tacitus is always independent of his 
times. But the literature, as a natural growth and as 
the expression of a nation's thought, was dead. It 
had become a literary tradition which was affected to 
nausea and polished even to inanity. The beginning 
of the end is plainly visible in Ovid. I do not hold 
him responsible for this enervation of the elegy. It 
was due to causes which were beyond his control and 
by which he was influenced himself. But I believe 
also that his extraordinary facility and fecundity ac- 
celerated its approach. Ovid is an inferior Cicero in 
verse. The two writers have a good many points in 
common, But I will only mention two to which they 
owe most of their influence upon subsequent literature. 
The first is their power of taking up the tendencies of 
their times, and expressing them in an appropriate 

1 Cf. pages cxxvi. sqq. 


literary form. This literary susceptibility or discern- 
ment has been amply rewarded. They have been 
taken as the originators of a movement which at most 
they directed: and the vast multitude of concurring im- 
pulses behind them has been left out of sight. The 
influence which they gained by thus striking in with a 
popular movement they still further increased by 
their prodigious fertility. The public is always a slow 
animal to move; and consequently the influence of a 
writer is often in direct proportion to his bulk. This 
was preeminently true of the Romans, than whom there 
probably never was a nation more pachydermatous 
to literary impressions 1 , . "" " 

1 It may and perhaps will be said that I hare been unjust 
to Ovid in this estimate. If this is so, at any rate, a good deal 
more injustice will be required before the balance is redressed. 
Ovid has been as much overpraised as Propertius has been 
underrated. E.g. the" writer of the notice in Dr Smith's Diet, of 
Biography, says, under Ovid, " His views were more ambitious 
than his master's whom he was destined to surpass in the 
quality, not only of the Muse, but of the mistress he courted " (!) 
Dean Merivale, Hist. vol. rv. p. 599, is still more unfair to Pro- 
pertius in the comparison which he draws between him and 
Horace. It is difficult to read with patience a sentence Jike 
this, which would have been resented almost equally by Horace 
and Propertius: " The playfulness of the Sabine bard is that of 
the lapdog, while the Umbrian reminds us of the pranks of a 
clumsier and less tolerated quadruped " (!) Next follows a 
passage which has already been referred to (p. xxz) about Pro- 
pertius' unsuccessful pursuit of the great. Then the historian 
proceeds to allow .that this disappointment is not "wholly 
merited." " Although Propertius is often frigid and pedantio in 
his sentiments" (his sentiments surely are hardly ever so), 
"though he takes his learning from dictionaries" (what diction- 
aries?) "and his gallantry from romances" (what romances?) 
"and retails at second-hand the flattery of his contemporaries," 
(does this mean that Propertius was actually obliged to borrow 
flattering phrases from Virgil, Horace, and other writers? 
Surely flattery was in the air and everyone employed its language) 
* * there is notwithstanding a strength and sometimes a grandeur 
in his language, which would have been more highly relished in 
the sterner age of Lucretius. Propertius stands alone among 


As the view which I have felt it my duty to 
take about the respective merits of Ovid, Poetical Zj ._ 
Tibullus and Propertius may be new. or ties of Proper- 
distasteful to some of my readers, I will 
endeavour by a few examples to put the higher poeti- 
cal qualities of Propertius beyond the reach of cavil. 

One of the truest tests of a poetical faculty is the 
way in which it seizes a new aspect of a 
thing, and thus presents a conception which 5jJJJ*£ na '"* 
is felt at once to be both fresh and true. 
How much better is this than the hackneyed descrip- 
tions of grief? 

denique quis curuum nostro te funere uidit, 
atram quis lacrimis incaluisse togam? 

v. 7. 27, 28. 

Does not Vesta's altar-fire burn brighter before the 
eyes in a line like this 1 

Mart pater et sacrae fatalia lumina Vestae 

iv. 3 (4). 11. 

Can the utter dissipation of the human body in 
the funeral pyre be better hinted than iu the words 
of Cornelia? 

et sum quod digitis quinque lcuatur onus. v. 11. 14. 

Some will prefer his flauo lumine chrysolithos ill. 
8 (7). 44 to Gray's beautiful expression * Full many a 
gem of purest ray serene* which it probably suggested: 

the Roman poets in the force and fervour which he imparts to 
elegiac verse : he alone raises the soft and languid pentameter 
to the dignity of its heroic consort." (This is just, forcible and 
true ; but we soon go back to the old style.) " But it is in the 
weight of single lines, and the manly savour of occasional 
expressions, that the charm <of this writer is to be found : he 
has none of the form of poetical invention, and is alike defi- 
cient in sustained majesty, in natural grace and in flowing 


just as they will see that the rest of that fine stanza is 
inferior in imagination to Propertius' 

et quae sub Tyria concha superbit aqua. 

v. 5. 22. 

T have already illustrated Propertius' avdacia. It 
often produces very fine effects, as 

armigera proelia seuit humo. iv. 10 (11). 10. 

tibi gloria Dirce 
ducitur in multis mortem habitura locis. 

iv. 14 (15). 40. 

multos pallere colores. i. 16. 39. 

atque uni Stygias homini luxisse tenebras. v. 9. 41. 

Often his vagueness is absorbed in his imagination; 
and we have a wonderfully vivid and graphic picture. 
This is how he brings before us the desolation of the 
once imperial Yeii 

O Yeii ueteres, et uos turn regna fuistis 

et uestro positast aurea sella foro. 
nunc intra fines pastoris bucina lenti 

cantat et in uestris ossibus arua metunt 1 . 

v. 10. 27. 

Here is a sketch from which a Hogarth might have 

lamina sopitos tnrbant elata Qoirites, 
omnis et insana semita nocte tonat. v. 8. 59. 

The same power is sometimes exhibited less plea- 
santly as in the description of the death of Acanthis 
from consumption v. 5. 67 sqq. In speaking of his 
metaphors, we must remember that the ancient taste 
was considerably less exacting with regard to them 
than our own, and that many that were fresh when 
Propertius wrote have become stale and trite with the 
use of two thousand years. When he wrote obductis 

1 I think few will read these lines without preferring them 
to the more elaborate description in Virgil G. 1. 493 sqq. 


tsommittam mene tenebris? iv. 15 (16). 5, he really felt 
that the curtain of the dark was drawn over the 
world ; when he describes his native town as scandentes 
de uallibus arces v. 1. 65, his poetical sight did not 
merely see it placed on the side of the heights, but fol- 
lowed it as it climbed up them. Yet we can still 
appreciate the lines in which he compares the way in 
which human lives loose hold of their pleasures and 
drop silently into the death below, to the rose-leaves 
falling from the wreaths of the banqueters into their 
wine-cups, in. 7 (6). 51 — 54, or in which he compares 
the utter exhaustion of Antiope to the weary wash of 
the sea upon the shore when the storm is over. 

ac ueluti, magnos cum pontmt aequora motus, 

Eurus ubi aduerso desinit ire Noto, 
litore sic tocito sonitus rarescit harenae, 

sic cadit inflexo lapsa puella genu. 

iv. 14 (15). 33 sqq. 

Sometimes he touches heights which hardly any 
one else has reached. Witness the noble 
metaphor of in. 1. 21 sqq. sublimit*. 

ut, caput in magnis ubi non est tangere signis, 

ponitur hie imos ante corona pedes, 
sic nos nunc, inopes laudis conscendere carmen, 

pauperibus sacris uilia tora damus. 

The following attains an almost Hebrew sublimity, 

uertite equum, Danai ; male uincitis. Ilia tellus 
uiuet, et huio cineri Iuppiter arma dabit x . v. 1. 54. 

But perhaps after all it is in less ambitious regions 
that he most excels. His softness of out- 
line, his warmth of colouring, his lore of £2u2J?** >r 
beauty in itself, his pleading and often 
melancholy tenderness, are most suited to passages of 

1 Here again I think Propertius has surpassed Virgil in 
imagination. Compare Aen. 4. 625 exoriare aliquis nostris ex 
ossibus ultor. 

p. p. g 


quiet description and emotion. The expression of 
these feelings will often redeem a passage from being 
eold and prosaic by the merest touch. Thus I. 18. 12 
non altera nostro limine formosos intulit ulla pedes, 
IV. 14(15). 13 a quotiens pulchros ussit regina capillos, 
id. v. 9 nee femina post te ulla dedit collo dulcia 
uincla meo 1 . 

I may be excused giving two pictures of still 
beauty, one in illustration of the peace of old age, and 
the other of the resting of death. The first noteworthy 
for feeling and felicity of expression, the second for 
imagination as well. The first is : 

putris et in uacua requiescit nauis harena 
et uetus in templo beliica parma uacat. 

m. 20 (17). 7. 

In the second he bids Cynthia bury him away from 
the ceaseless tramp of the crowd, in some sequestered 
woodland where the trees may shower their leaves 
upon him, or under a mound heaped up in some un-i 
traversed plain. 

di faciant mea ne terra locet ossa frequenti, 

qua facit assiduo tramite uolgus iter, 
post mortem tumuli sic infamantur amautum ; 

me tegat arborea deuia terra coma 
aut humer ignotae cumulis uallatus harenae. 

non iuuat in media nomen habere uia. 

rv. 15 (16). 25. 

Occasionally he shews a vein of humour which we 

1 Propertius* feeling for colour and perfume is almost 
voluptuous. I have mentioned the ' chrysolite's yellow ray.' 
Compare also i. 20. 38 white lilies and red poppies, n. 3. 10— 
12 white lilies, Scythian snows, Spanish cinnabar, rose-leaves 
swimming in milk, iv. 12 (13). 28 sqq. scarlet rubi, violets, 
lilies shining through baskets, a bird with variegated plumage 
and changing colours, and elsewhere. Compare note on p. xx, 
supra. His love of perfume comes out in expressions like 
v. 6. 5 costum molle date et blandos mini turis honored 
iv. 9 (10). 22 et crocino nares murreus ungat onyx. 



should not have expected; as in the descriptions of the 
disconsolate lover's woes (i. 16), of Cyn- 
thia's anger (v. 8), of his own lack of cour- 
age (in. 12 (10). 21) and of Hercules' perplexity in his 
thirst (v. 9). 

But it will be said, that all this only proves that 
there are some jewels of thought and diction scattered 
through the works of Propertius ; and it will be assert- 
ed, as it has been asserted before, that this is all the 
excellence of which he is capable. This is prima 
fade plausible. For, as I have said above, Propertius 
is essentially unequal ; and even in the best of his 
poems there occurs much that we should gladly see 
altered or removed. And hence it has happened, not 
only in ancient, but also in modern times, that some 
have assigned him a poetical position below that of 
Tibullus and of Ovid ; just as some minds, and pro- 
bably more than is suspected, find the rugged mountain 
torrent less attractive than the rippling village brook 
and even than the dead level of a canal. And yet the 
judgment is really unfair. Propertius often maintains 
a high general excellence for long passages and whole 
poems at a time. In the tender style I may men- 
tion among many i. xiv., xvii. Book iv. ix. (x.) on 
Cynthia's birthday is a perfect gem: and in. xxviL 
(xxi.), Propertius' encounter with the Cupids, is not 
much inferior. The love of Tarpeia is veiy finely 
painted (v. vi.). The description of Antiope's perse- 
cution and her escape and revenge can hardly be im- 
proved, iv. xiv. (xv.). In a higher style is iv. x. (xi.) 
which expresses the national indignation against Cleo- 
patra. The description of the battle of Actium (v. vi.) 
niay well compare with that of Virgil. Fancy and 
humour have rarely been so well combined as in v. ix. ; 
the description in w. 27 sqq. always reminds me of 
the faerie Queene. 



I will allow myself the pleasure of appending a 
version of iil iii by Elton, who is the most ,-. „ r .. 

!>**■*■%* y t> t\ nook III. tltgi 

successful of all the translators of Fro- «*. 
pertius 1 . 

Had he not hands of rare device, whoe'er 

First painted Love in figure of a boy? 
He saw what thoughtless beings lovers were, 

Who blessings lose, whilst lightest cares employ. 

Nor added he those airy wings in vain 
And bade o'er human hearts the godhead fly; 

For we are tost npon a wavering main ; 
Our gale inconstant veers around the sky. 

Nor without cause he grasps those barbed darts, 
The Cretan quiver o'er his shoulder east; 

Ere we suspect a foe, he strikes our hearts ; 
And those inflicted wounds for ever last. 

For me are fixed those arrows in my breast; 

But sure his wings are shorn, the boy remains. 
For never takes he flight nor knows he rest; 

Still, still I feel him waning through my veins. 

In these dry vitals dost thou joy to dwell? 

Oh shame! to others let thy arrows flee; 
Let veins untouched with all thy venom swell; 

Not me thou torturest, but the shade of me. 

Destroy me — who shall then describe the fair? 

This my light Muse to thee high glory brings: 
When the nymph's tapering fingers, flowing hair, 

And eyes of jet and gliding feet she sings. 

1 I have made some slight alterations in order to make it 
correspond better with Propertras' meaning. But a divergencr 
or two remain. 



I have already said that Greek literature exerted 
a general influence upon his style : and ^^ 

how he sought to attain its symmetry of 
form by adopting and developing the devices of ar- 
rangement which first appear in the Alex- „ . a . M 
andrme elegiac poets. The same leaning to 
the Greek is seen in his accumulation of several adjec- 
tives upon a single substantive ; see below, p. cv. 
This grata neglegentia might also be explained by 
Propertius' love for the archaic, as such concurrences 
are not avoided by Catullus and Lucretius, were 
it not for the fact that he seems actually to have 
cultivated them. Allied to this is his accumulation 
of similar endings, especially in the case of short 
vowels, d, &c, notably at the end of a pentameter 
in. 20 (17). 48 femina multa mala, in. 25. 12 (20. 
46) longa pericla sua, Y. 1. 132 libera sumpta toga, 
v. 11. 59 sua nata dignum (Ovid would without doubt 
have written dignum nata). 

To come to more obvious imitations, he has a good 
number of borrowed Greek words, e.g. 
ephemeris, cerastes, pyropus, crotalistria, ^firS?"* 
conopium, baris, hippoma7ies, trochus, gym- 
nasium, cataphraotus, croctnum. 


There are also some expressions which the Greek 
have suggested, e.g. pennis, 'omens' = 
*T€pofc iv. 9 (10). 11, leetus* wife' n. 6.23, ^SS^^S. 
in numero ivapCOfiuos in. 26. 9 (20. 55) 
(nvJtto (in) numero is however common Latin). 

Besides tolerably common Greek constructions, 
Fropertins has est quibus Zariv ok rv. 8 (9). 
17, est cui in iv. 10 (11). 64 is less strange, jjJJJ* ***** 
though in ordinary Latin the qui is rarely 
put in an oblique case; foederis heu taciti v. 7. 
21 = <fy€v c. gen. in is used like Greek cc? in il 9. 
12 appositum fluuiis in Simoenta uadis, c£ iv. 24. 19 
tua me in sacraria dono. In n. 3. 45 (4. 1) ut uerear 
= otrcD? c. subj. See also iu. 5. 22 note. 

In a very considerable number of cases Propertius 
uses a word with a sense or in a form J i reka i tmSt9c 
which is not found in his immediate con- 
temporaries. The number of these usages is greater 
than it would otherwise have been owing to the ety- 
mological bias of which I have spoken, p. lvi note. 

Words used in an archaic or etymological sense : 

sedulus (prob.) ' resting on' l 3. 32. 

desidia ' sitting at the toilet' I. 15. 6. 

fvlcire 'press' I. 8. 7. 

fauilla 'spark, glow' (metaph.),i. 9. 18. 

dissidere 'to lie apart from' i. 12. 4. 

eleuare 'raise up' i. 8. 12 n. 
JiuuiuB adj. 'flowing' il 9. 12. 

iner8= sine arte m. 30 (24). 20. 

twrba ' commotion' (lit.) iv. 2 (3). 24. 

quod sin iv. 5 (6). 41. 

insinuate ' to take into the bosom ' iv. 8 (9). 28. 

apricus ' open' v. 10. 18. 

impurus in a literal sense v. 8. 22. 

ooncumbere ' to lie down in a multitude 'v. 1. 4. 

concubitus = discubitus v. 8. 36. 


intepere v. 1. 124. 

uelificare ) in literal sense rwre v. 9. 6, in 25. 6 

uelificari f (20. 40 1 ). 

Forms of words : 
Verbs : 

comitarerd act. il. 7. 15. 
meretur pass. n. 30 (24). 22. 
conspicer pass. v. 4. 34. 
ter$r# v. 8. 84. 
consuemus ? pres. i. 7. 5. ' 
lenibunt fut. I v. 21. 32* 
iu&rint for iimerint in. 17 (14). 22. 
nexisti perf. iv. 7 (8). 37. 
sueuit v. 10. 17. 

Nouns, <fcc. 

clatra = KX-fjOpa v. 5. 74. 

insomnia plur. 'sleeplessness' in. 20. (17). 47- 

sertae in. 31 (25). 37. 

exuuio abl. of exuuiumv. 10. 6. 

w£ for ne n. 7. 3. 

#Zt for Uliu8 v. 10. 43. 

nuUae ) foj , the formg ^ ^ gee L 2Q 35 . Jy 10 

*** f (11). 57; ii. 1.47. 

roridu8 = roscidus, perh. provincial v. 4. 48. 

His genders are sometimes archaic : e.g. puluis 
sndjinis are common., and colttf masc. 

There are one or two surprising apparent instances 
of resolution of a word into its elements, in. 28 (22). 
11 et iam, si pecces, deus exorabilis illest; I. 3. 37 if 

1 The same tendency to regard the primitive meaning of 
words is seen in Medeae aequacis v. 5. 41, herbae tenaces of the 
lotus, the * binding' weed, iv. 11 (12). 27. Of course this 
list does not include all words which do not occur till Proper? 
tins; e.g. adsesstt, mentyrator, seuecta est. 


Kuttner is right in taking rwmque ubi for ubinam. 
So we may add in. 10 (9). 10 quam prius and in. 20 
(17). 25 prius... quam ante where observe the doubling. 
There are also some archaistic constructions which 
will be found in their place. 

The number of proper names in Propertius is very 
large, and they have been gathered from 
all quarters. They had a strange at- € P ernanu *' 
tractiveness for him as they have had for many other 
poets, amongst whom we at once think of Milton and 
Scott He does not however use them with the same 
fine effect as these writers. 

Two things are noteworthy about their use ; (1) the 
way in which he accumulates them to- A 
gether, and (2) his habit of putting proper **"»«" < ~ 
names side by side in a sort of imaginary antithesis, 
especially in the pentameter. Both are 
illustrated by n. 1. 59 sqq., iv. 13 (14). 13 ****** 
sqq., 22. 1 — 37. For (2) I may quote n. 1. 54 
ColcJiis Iolchiacis urat aena focis, i. 6. 32 Lydia 
Pactoli tingit arata liquor, iv. 12 (13). 54 Galliea Par- 
nasus sparsit in arma niues, id. 16 (17). 30 cdnget 
Bassaricas Lydia mitra comas, id. 4 (5). 17 Lydus 
Dulichio non distat Croesus ab Iro. The recognition 
of this principle makes our way clearer in several 
passages, v. 11. 30 Afra Numantinos regna loquontur 
auos, m. 5. 32 (4. 48) Gallicus Iliads miles in ag- 
geribus, iv. 6 (7). 22 qua notat Aryynni poena Miman- 
tis aquas. 

Fond as he is of proper names, he does not treat 
them very ceremoniously. At the bid- 
ding of metre he cuts them down with- 
out mercy. This is especially the case with adjec- 
tives. Hence we have AsmiHa raids, Pompeia mami, 
TtUiae turmae, Horatia pila ; Jiomula uincla ; Inch 
formica, Pkaeaeas siluas, Aniema unda (Aniensis in 
prose), Partka tellus, Dor* poeta, Anio Tiburm, 


Athamana litora (the proper adj. would be -ia or -tea) ; 
probably also animi Deri, and Hylaei rami (for Hy- 
laeii). Still more surprising are Baiae aquae and 
Cutrios fratres (= Guriatios 1 ). Arganthos (for Argan- 
thone i. 20. 33) has some Greek authority ; see note. 

His declension of Greek names shews some uncer- 
tainty. In the feminines we usually have 
Greek forms preferred where they are found 
in Latin usage. Thus we have Nom. -e, Niobe, Nesaee, 
sometimes -a, Ariadna, once Electrd. Gen. -es, sometimes 
-ae,Pagasae. Dat. always -ae. Aoc. -am and -en. So in the 
masc. we have both -m and ~n in the Aoc. e. g. Persem, 
AchUlem, Parim and even Adonem, Euphrates, Daph- 
nin ; in the Nom. -es or -a*, once -d A tridd. In the third 
declension Gen. fern, is always -08 Tanialidos, Pal- 
lados, Ac. ; so sometimes Gen. masc. except where o 
precedes, Myos, but Minds. In masculines in -eus 
the Gen. is -H or -afo; Capanei, Pentheos. The Ace. 
is -d (sing.) and -a* (plur.) for both genders Sal- 
monida, Pana; Tyndaridas, Phaeacas; and -sin in 
the Dat. plur. Hamadryasin. Noteworthy forms are 
Panes, Argon (ace. feni. of Argo), Menandre voo. IV, 
21. 28. Add beryllon. 


Propertiu8 , syntax is very peculiar. Sometimes 
it may be called ud -Latin and sometimes ultra-Latin. 
In other words, it sometimes shews the effect of foreign 
influences and sometimes a genuine Latin tendency 
pushed to its extreme. 

I shall touch briefly upon some main points 9 . 

1 There are somewhat similar shortenings in carbata Una 
and praetexto senatu. 

3 X must again ask leave to point ont that here, as else- 
where in this Introduction, my treatment is intended to be 
illustrative rather than exhaustive,, and that my object, ia 




One of the most common and characteristic idioms 
is his predicative use of nouns. For ex- 
ample, he does not say 'the ' chaste Tar- . ouns ' 
peia' but ' the chastity of Tarpeia* (i. 16. 2). This is 
a sort of converse to the predicative use of 
the participle (or adjective) 1 : thus mortuus E^i^H^"* 
Caesar omnia perturbauit 'the death of 
Caesar threw all into confusion* : but Caesaris mors 
in foro iacebat (cf. in. 5. 6 n.) ' Caesar, when dead 
(the dead body of C), lay in the forum.' It is, without 
doubt, a native Latin idiom, though it is also found in 
(Jreek, It appears e.g. in Cicero, fontium perennitates 
* the everlasting fountain flows/ — the 'fountains ever- 
lastingly flowing' : cf. Potts' Lat. Prose, p. 39. But 
Propertius pushes it far beyond its ordinary 
range. It is only used, as a rule, where the JjJ^ 1 * ** 
leading idea is that contained in the princi- 
pal noun, and where the form of the rest of the sentence 
is accommodated to that idea. It is not used as a mere 
periphrasis or conversion of the ordinary expression, 
irrespective of the context, which is the Propertian use. 
Cicero says he does not fear the sleepiness of Len- 
tulus (Lentuli somnum), Catullus has talis isto meus 
stupor nil uidet. In both these cases the adoption of 
the form is appropriate, as it is the quality in the 
man that is emphasized. But Propertius would have 
ventured on iste stupor periit 'your besotted lover is 
dead,' though the idea in the noun has nothing to do 

general, is to give a statement of what is found in Propertius 
himself not to bring his usages into relation with those of all 
other Latin writers. 

1 This predicative use of the part, is also common in Prop. v. 
4. 41 prodita quid minim fraterni cornua monstri?, n. 7. 6 note. 
Bo rr. S3. 40 hie tibi pro digma geute petendus honos (pro dig- 
nitate gentis), it. 18 (19). 4 nesoitis capiat mentis habere 
ttodum (sc insaniae), Ac- 

IN TROD UCTIOffi. xcr 

with tbat in the verb. Compare iv. 18 (19). 15 
patria sucoensa senecta 'her aged father/ in. 8 (7). 52 
fulminis ira cadit (fulroen iratuni) i the angry thunder- 
bolt/ in. 13 (11). 31 mea poena (ego punitus) 'I iii 
my punishment ' (pronouns are very frequent in this 
use), iv. 2 (3). 17 pyramidnm sumptus 'the costly 

?y rounds' and many more : see the commentary and 
lertzb. pp. 149 sqq. 1 

Closely allied to this substitution of an abstract 
state or quality as manifested in a particular example 
for the concrete example which manifests it, is the 
substitution of some special characteristic of a thing 
or a person for that which it character- 
izes. Inis diners from the preceding, as j r thing cka- 
one concrete thing is a substitute for racUrixed ' 
another, not an abstract for a concrete ; though it 
is not always easy to distinguish between them. 

Examples are Arionia lyra (in. 21 (18). 18 where 
see note) = Arion lyristes, probably pila Sabina v. 4« 
12 = Sabini pilati, oven tibia rauca = raucus tibicen 
iv. 9 (10). 23. 

Some pregnant uses of single nouns now call for 
attention, which are also quite in keeping 
with the Roman genius. Thus we have fS^SHSS.^ 
8uperciliis l gestures of the eyebrows ' iv. 
7 (8). 25, in/acem ' to the likeness of a torch ' v. 6. 
30, patera ' by libations from the patera * v. 6. 85, 
perhaps ueste* 'by the slielter of her robe* v. 1. 118,: 
niello (sub) limine, &c, ' under no amount of waiting 
at the threshold* in. 20 (17). 17. See more above, p. 
lxi As in other writers, a feeling or state is put 
for its cause; discordia 'source of discord' I. 2. 17, 
picti metus v. 6. 50. 

1 The simple use of abstracts for concretes like caedes for 
4 blood ' ii. 8. 34 (cl. i. 5. 26) is not common in Propertius. 
3 This may be abl. after aueJXi. 


His use of apposition is more than usually free. 
Sometimes we have as many as three AmoMi£im , 
nouns in apposition to each other, e.g. 11. 
3. 14 non oculi, geminae, sidera nostra, faces; or the 
collocations are in other respects unusual. I. 19. 13 
formosae ueniant, chorus, heroinae, n. 1. 21 Pergama 
nonien Homeri, v. 8. 24 armillatos, colla Molossa, 
canes, &c. Appositions to the idea of a whole sen- 
tence occur as in other writers, see iv. 2 (3). 4 and note. 
The most remarkable is v. 6. 64 hoc unum iusso non 
moritura die (and note). See also the remarks on his 
use of the Nom. 

His fondness for verbals in -tor may be mentioned 
as a point in which he resembles Livy. ^^ 

Thus we have mirator sum = miror (cf. 
horum ego sum nates = haec ego uaticinor) ; also 
raptor, memorator (aira£ Aeyo/icvov), corrupter, ser- 
uator, <fea amator is once used most strangely for 
amare (or for amator esse) in. 13 (11). 35 amator 

He frequently uses the plur. for the sing. Some- 
times this is due to his love of the indefi- ^^ 
nite, the plural giving a choice where the 
singular would specify ; partly it is an artifice which 
all poets use on the principle of omne 
ignotum pro magnifico, the pluralis mag- g^f^ * *" 
nificentiae and the plural of emphasis, (a) 
and (6), which creates the impression of there being 
more than there really is. (c) In some cases the plural 
indicates a series of things, (d) Li a few instances it 
is due to the convenience of the metre. 

A good example of (a) is rv. 10 (11). 61 Curtios 
expletis statuit monumenta lacunis. So defessis uiris 
(of Hercules only) v. 9. 34. Compare note on il 7. 


(6) is used for various sorts of emphasis: die alias 
nauiget IUyria* ill 8 (7). 10, tantis minis (partly 


(c) ), iv, 12 (13). 3, guttura $ecta v. 5. 66, cumulis iv. 
15^ (16). 29. Compare uestes n. 5. 21, harundinibvs 
m. 32 (26). 68. 

(c) libidines 'debauches' in. 8 (7). 14, spatia an- 
norum aut longa interualla profundi iv. 21. 31 (the 
imagination refuses to take them all in at once). 

\d) esseda it. 1. 76 is clearly metrical; so pro- 
bably nomina v. 2. 50. cutes v. 5. 64 is very re- 

The sing, for the plur. is not nearly so common. 
It is usually found where a collection of 
things does not differ much in appearance &$$?* * w 
from the individuals in it, or in the case of 
objects which are generally seen together, e. g. rosa. 
But the following are worth mentioning, uersu in. 32 
(26). 93 \ hora iv. 9 (10). 29, angue iv. 4 (5). 40. 

Nom. We may note a use of the worn, as predicate 
where prose writers would have avoided 
the noun or possibly used the dative; 
e.g. I. 14. 18 solet duris mentibus esse dolor, n. 4. 15 
cuinon ego sum . . .praemid* (plural = ' source Nominative 
of profits'), v. 1 1. 43 non fuit exuuiis tantis and Vocative. 
Cornelia damnum. So also with the infin. ; see below 8 . 

Voc. As Propertius is very fond of apostro- 
phizing the things or persons that he is speaking of, 
the voc. occurs frequently in his writings, sometimes 
very strangely as iv. 10 (11). 67 nunc ubi Scipiadae 
classes et signa Camilli et modo Pompeia Bospore 
capta manu, iv. 18 (19). 17sqq. nam quid Medeae 
referam quo tempore matris iram natorum caede 
piauit amor?... tuque, o Minoa uenumdata Scylla 
figura. Sometimes a predicate or epithet is attracted 

1 So probably in i. 9. 11, though another explanation has 
been given in the note there. 

8 In prose the sing, would of course be used. 
* Pagecxv. 


into agreement with it iv. 22. 33 nee tremis Ausonias, 
Phoebe fugate, dapes ; though it is doubtful whether 
this will justify I. 8. 19, where see note. 

Ace. Notice (i) an extension of the cognate ace. 
i. 15. 39 multos pallere culores, in. 13 
(11). 8 lacrimas defluit, in. 32 (26). 25 AccutaUve - 
seros insanit amores, v. 1. 134 uerba tonare, v. 9. 13 
furem sonuere; (ii) of that of the part concerned in. 
32 (26). 48 cornua quam ualidis haeserit in laqueis, 
with the pass, in. 8 (7). 24 Candida tarn foedo bracchia 
fusa (f.) uiro, with another ace. in. 13(11). 9 me 
licet aeratis astringunt bracchia nodis, and with a 
stretch of the conception uerba leuis n. 5. 28; (iii) of 
place towards and adj. with domum I. 19. 10, &c., and 
domos iv. 10 (11). 12. (v) Also after the following 
adverbs : — comminus (with ire) in. 12» (10). 22 agrestes 
comminus ire sues, ulterius (archaic) I. 6. 4 ; and with 
the following verbs aemutor m. 32 (26). 19, degenero 
appy. 'to make degener f v. 1. 79. flagro, ordior also 
take the ace. licet with an inf., esse, <fcc., always takes 
an ace. in Propertius against Roby's rule Lat. Gr. 
1357 and note. 

. Dat. Notice (i) the dat. for ad with ace. I. 15. 8 
nouo quae parat ire uiro, in. 31 (25). 41 nulla tamen 
lecto recipit se, I. 20. 32 ibat Hamadrya- 
sin; with ferre in. 12 (10). 13, v. 3. 71; 
for in or sub with ace. v. 1. 148 armatis hostis 
inermis eas, iv. 3 (4). 5 Ausoniis ueniet provincia 
uirgis. (ii) There are some unusual predicative 
datives, though, as already said, Prop, frequently has 
the nom. in this use; pallori esse n. 5. 30, inuidiae 
esse 'to be the victim of the evil eye' i. 12. 9, tecto 
esse in. 22. 11 (18. -31), exemplo ponere n. 3. 42, 
poenae est with inf. (unless this be a gen.) iv. 5 (6). 
20. natiuo creuerat herba toro iv. 12 (13). 36 may .W 
a dat. ; it is however more likely to be a disjunctive use 
of the abl. (iii) Dat. of personal reference {dot. commodi) 



after adjectives mollis (lacrimis) iv. 14 (15). 29, lentus 
(ploranti) in. 6 (5). 14, taciturna (querenti) I. 18. 1, 
qualiscumque (mini) iv. 21. 16. (iv) A few instances 
of dak with passive in. 32 (26). 58, iv. 6 (7). 62. (v) 
Some of the dat. of personal appeal (cf. supra, p. xxxviiL); 
e.g. tibi 'look you,' 'think you/ in. 18 (15). 10 num 
tibi causa leuia, I. 5. 8 n. <fcc. (vi) The following are 
especially noteworthy; in. 15 (13). 25 Alcmenae 
requiescere (for cum A.), i. 10. 21 pugnare puellae (for 
cum p.), iv. 1. 20 faciet capiti (for ad c.) (cf. factus 
amori Y. 5. 49), iv. 5 (6). 30 uitta cincta uiro (as if r ~ ; ^ 
drcumdata). For the gen. (with causa) in. 12 (li$\\ / ". 
10 fanaque peccatis plurima causa tuis. iV> " 

Gen. (i) Propertius uses the gen. after nouns fill; a 
rery remarkable way. The connexion be- „ ,.\v-it -■ ■■<:-' ; 
tween the governed and governing noun is 'vvV^i <- 

often very remote. Thus iv. 3 (4). 17 telafugacis eqyfy , \- : K 
'launched from the horse,' n. 4. 20 tarn parui litoris LJ^ 
unda 'that rolls on so small a shore/ v. 9. 33 luoi 
sacro antro 'a wooded dell/ n. 1. 9 lyrae carmen 'a 
song on the harp' 1 ; v. 7. 69 mortis lacrimis i after 
death'... uitae amores ' during life/ I. 20. 18 uia Phasi- 
dos Ho Phasis/ in. 5. 29 (4. 45) tarn dubiae spiritus 
horae (see note), and compare iv. 13 (14). 26 longae 
repulsa morae 'lasting over or causing a long delay' 
with which contrast v. 8. 4 tarn rarae hora morae 
'spent in delay/ n. 1. 28 Siculae classica helhi fugae 'in 
which the Sicilian rout took place.' (ii) Sometimes 
the gen. is used after a noun, where we should expect 
something depending on the verb; v. 1. 101 Iunonis 
facito uotum impetrabile, I. 15. 1 multa tuae leuitatis 

1 But in. 1. 23 laudis carmen * a song deserved by merit.' 
The rule in Boby Lat, Gr. 1308 that the 'gen. of quality or 
description is always used with an adjective ' is not true of 
Propertius, unless indeed the term is to be much more limited 
than it is with him. Hence in tientorum mortem, my conjec- 
ture in zv. 10 (11). 5, the gen. need be no difficulty. 


dura timebam. This reminds us of the Greek trage- 
dians, (iii) v. 10. 24 uincere cum Yeios posse laboru 
trot (= laboriosum) is a predicative use which is worth 
attention, (iv) The Greek genitive in exclamation 
has been already noticed, (v) The gen. after adjec- 
tives is very rare; I. 16. 2 is an instance. 

A bl. Propertius' use of the ablative is characteristic, 
(i) His fondness for the ablative abso- 
lute, as it is called, or ablative of atten- 
dant circumstances is especially noteworthy, as it 
shews very clearly his proclivities towards what 
is vague. It is often employed where we should 
expect other constructions, (a) Gen. in. 5. 3 (4. 
19), id. 7 (23) n., i. 4. 13 multis decus artibus, 
in. 18 (15). 12 manibu8 dura frigus habere pila, 
iv. 23. 3 nostris manibus quondam detriuerat usus, 
v. 3. 63 ascensis gloria Hariris, dec., (b) dot. (or 
prep, with ace) I. 18. 12 non altera nostro limine 
formosos intulit ulla pedes, iv. 10 (11). 40 Phi- 
lippeo sanguine adusta nota, iv. 5 (6). 24 insultet 
morte mea. (c) A preposition with a case; L 14. 1 
abiectus Tiberina molliter unda (ad u.), ill. 5. 39 (4. 
55 n.), in. 32 (26). 92 inferna uolnera fleuit aqua (so we 
should read for MS. lauit) : L 14. 2 Mentoreo uina bibas 
opere (ex o.). (d) It is often used where its connexion 
with the main idea of the sentence is far from ob- 
vious, and the expression becomes cramped and 
obscure. Thus rv. 22. 13 Argoa natat inter saxa 
oolwmba pinus (which Hertzb. resolves 'cum Argoa 
oolumba adesset' 1 ), i. 19. 19 quae tu uiua mea possis 
sentire JauiUa 'when I am ashes' (for the use of the 

1 Several of these ablatives are susceptible of various expla- 
nations according to the context. Thus Argoa columba might 
be taken as an extended abL of the instrument, • through the 
instrumentality of the dove.' This must happen, when the 
construction used is so loose that we have no clue to the 
writer's intention. 


noun see above), y. 4. 60 palla foedus inite mea Sunder 
the auspices of my bridal robes/ IV. 16 (17). 21 mater- 
nos Aeinaeo fulmine partus 'when the thunderbolt was 
raging,' V. 11. 96 prole mea Faullum sic iuuet esse 
senem 'through my offspring being what they are.' 
So in v. 1. 56 quaHa creuerunt moenia lacte tuo we 
can merely flay that the abl. is connected with the 
sentence. It may seem futile in the face of examples 
like these to attempt any further classification. How- 
ever I will give an example or two of apparent exten- 
sions of other special usages of the abl. in Fropertius. 
(ii) AbL of respect ('thing in point of which') n. 8. 39 
inferior multo uel matre uel armis. He uses the adj. 
with an abl., where a prose writer would put the adj. 
into agreement with the abl. and another poet would 
generally use the ace. ; e. g. i. 20. 5 nomine dispar, v. 8. 
52 operosa comis* (in) AbL after words denoting 
lack of anything; v. 5. 59 rugis integer, v. 10. 12 
sanguine sicca, (iv) Abl. of instrument-, iv. 3 (4). 16 
titulis oppida capta legam (where place is also instru- 
ment), I. 14. 4 funibus ire rates, (v) AbL' of cause) 
in. 32 (26). 52 fratemis Luna laboret equis, i.e. by 
their absence, (vi) Abl. of description; iv. 11 (12). 23 
miranda coniuge Vlixes, n. 1. 76 esseda caelatis iugis, 
in. 31 (25). 15 fuscis Aegyptus alumnis, i. 14, 22 
uariis Serica textUibus. (vii) Abl. of motion from; in. 
30 (24). 14 flumina sopito quaeque Anione cadunt, i. 
15. 29 multa prius uasto labentur flumina ponto (where 
the ambiguity is very harsh), (viii) Abl. of origin ; iv. 
6 (7). 67 aequoreae Nereo genitore puellae, n. 6. 16 
his Troiana uides funera principiis 1 . 

Propertius never avoids the close concurrence of 
ablatives in the same sentence. Thus I. 1 8. 
15, 1G tua flendo lumina deiectis turpia 2B5S* " ° f 
sint, lacrimis, i. 16. fin. n., iy. 6 (7). 19, 

1 More exx. in Hertzberg, p. 135 sqq., from whom some of 
the above have been taken. 

P. P. h 


20, r. 10- 46 omine quod certo dux ferit ense 


The first thing which strikes us is his very bold use 
of hypallage. Hypallage, or the construe- AiieeU9am 
tion of an epithet with a noun to which it 
does not properly apply, is a relic of an early stage of 
language. Not to speak of cases where HmaBaatm 
it is due to irrational attraction by adja- 
cent words, which of course become rarer as language 
is improved and thought obtains a greater mastery 
over its materials, hypallage is due to a certain inde- 
nniteneus in the conception. An attribute which 
should properly only qualify a single noun is allowed 
a wider influence, so that it still qualifies that noun, 
but qualifies it indirectly while directly qualifying the 
word on which that noun depends. We thus get it 
exerting its influence over a bracket, as it were. Thus 
we have 'the wandering [shelter of a river]' uago 
[fluminis hospitio] i. 20. 10 instead of 'the shelter of 
a wandering river/ uagi fluminis hospitio. This 
liberty of placing two words in agreement which are 
not directly connected, is restricted by a rule which is 
already indicated in what I have said. So far as I 
know, it has not yet been pointed out, though its 
rationale is pretty clear. The range of an epithet may 
be extended, but it must not be confined The reader 
may be allowed a choice, and. the sense required may 
be trusted to guide him right in that choice. But he 
cannot be expected to spread a meaning which the 
writer has limited to a special point over the rest of 
its context. Thus we find in almost all cases, certainly 
in all that I know in Propertius, either (a) an adj. 
which should go with a gen. agreeing with the noun 
that governs it, not vice versa, or (6) an adj., which 


should agree with the subject of the sentence (or some 
prominent noun in it), agreeing with some noun that 
is in close connexion with it. The usage is more or 
less harsh, precisely as the words thus put into agree- 
ment are unsuitable or suited to each other. Thus iv. 
10 (11). 11 (a) feros serpentis hiatus is, as Hertzb. 
well remarks, not at all harsh, as 'savageness' is natu- 
rally connected with the open ravening jaws. Not so 
in. 17 (14). 22 (a) furta pvdica tori (for pudici): 
for the furta are not pudica. That this licence would 
be frequent in Propertius will be obvious to any one 
who has considered the tendencies on which I have 
insisted; and who remembers that this predisposition 
to the use would be strengthened by his k>ve and 
knowledge of Greek literature in which it is far com- 
moner than in Latin. I add a few more examples, 
(a) iv. 21. 28 librorumque tuos, docte Menandre, 
sales {tuorum), iv. 6 (7). 52 miser (for miseri), I. 13. 
10 multarum miseras exiget una uices (for multarum 
miserarum ; the harshness is softened by the fact 
that the retribution itself brings misery), (b) I. 3. 9 
ebria cum traherem uestigia (for ebrius), i. 16. 40 
oscula mxa dedi (harsh for niocus), n. 5. 21 periuro 

Sometimes an adjective used substantively is put 
into agreement with the noun that governs it; e.g. 
l 16. 4 lacrimis supplicibus; cf. i. 20. 30 uolucres 
insidiae, iv. 6 (7). 10 cognati rogi where see 

This is also the case where the substantive and 
adjective are only typically related, and AdJectiv€S /or 
where we should use an abstract noun in nouns in gmt- 
place of the adj.; iv. 6 (7). 32 miseras uias ttWt 
1 roads to misery,' v. 6. 62 libera signa 'standards of 
freedom' (where see note), in. 30 (24). 21 famae 
ptcdicae 'reputation for chastity.' So also probably 
it. 3. 48 ebria signa. 


Derivative adjectives are sometimes loosely used; 
rota staminea 'to which a stamen is fas- 
tened' iv. 5 (6). 26, ratis pampinea 'vine f£j™\ ive "*' 
wreathed* iv. 16 (17). 26, uirgineus 'car- 
ried by maidens' urnut n. 1. 67, calcUJws iv. 12 (13). 
30, ramosa arua 'overshadowed with boughs' v. 7. 81, 
Jiarenosum antrum 'surrounded by sands' v. 1. 103, 
paludosus 'dwelling in marshes' v. 6. 77. I have not 
noted commoner uses, e.g. auratue 'ornamented with 

Adjectives are sometimes found where we might 
expect participle*, in a way that reminds . _. _. 
us of Lavy. This use is nearly allied to and participle, 
jrrolepsis. Thus we have I. 20. 41 » far- **<*»**' 
mosie undis now beautiful, 'beautified,' ib. v. 22 n. 
molUa ( = mollita), rv. 8 (9). 50 firma (c=nrmata), i. 
16. 22 tepido limine (=tepefacto) n., rv. 2 (3). 12 
tuhim (=seruatum), iv. 13 (14). 30 nee digitum an- 
guxtast inseruisse uia 'so crowded, narrowed is the 
way,' v. 7. 27 euruum ( = curuatum). We have still 
clearer proleptdc uses in l 11. 16 labi perfida 'fall 
away into treachery,' ul 12 (10). 26 nitteos abluit 
unda boues 'washes them white,' rv. 7 (8). 15 timidam 
dementia somnia terrent 'till she becomes timid,' v. 
4. 8 Jicfaque suggesta castra coronat humo 'so as to be 
,/i<fa.' A few participles are used where we might 
expect adjectives; iv. 16 (17). 29 laxatis corymbis, iv. 
.5. 11 cdatis annis, v. 11. 4 nan exorato adamante. 

The use of an adj., where the notion to be conveyed 
is what we should call more or less adver- Fm . ad9 ^ rtt , 
bialy is a well-known Latin idiom. Pro- 
liertius has some noteworthy examples; L 6. 12 lentu* 
auiare, iv. 23. 23 cite* propone, t. 3. 22 aeternus 
p&se&t* and probably in. 20 (17). 31 semper sua 
maxima cuique uerba nocere solent (for maximc), 

1 Ko corresponding paztieqple. 


i. 16. 12ru For the converse use of adverbs see 

Several neuter adjectives (and participles) as nouns. 
arata i. 6. 32, stanUa v. 5. 12, data iv. 
14 (15). 6 nullis datis (also in Plautus, %%mveV "*■ 
Ov.), textilia i. 14. 22 (Plin., Cic. in sing.), 
texta (Ov.), dura, cupera, &c. Note piano v. 10. 36 
without a prepn. omnia is very common, and it is 
sometimes hard to tell whether it or the word in 
agreement is the subst.; see p. lxvi., note. We may 
add v. 9. 35 circa sonantia lymphis and uanum for 

Propertius nearly always has the superlative in 
the sense of 'very' not of 'most': i.e. in 

.. *• . % . .. i .. . Superlative. 

its 'intensive not its 'comparative' use. 

He follows the Greeks in putting several adjec- 
tives (participles or pronouns) into con- 
struction with one noun. This is avoided ^rSSSSS" 
by Latin writers as a rule, especially where 
the inflexions are the same, n. 2. 3, 4 cur haec in 
terris facies humana moratur? Iuppiter, ignoro pris- 
tina furta tual n. 7. 9, 10 aut ego transirem tua limina 
clausa maritus respiciens udis prodita luminibus, in. 
20 (17). 1 unica nata meo jmlcherrima cura dolori, iv. 
18 (19). 19, 20 tota Mycenis in/amis stupro stat 
Pelopea domus, rv. 2 (3). 33 diuersae sortitae iura 
puellae, v. 8. 40 et facilis spargi munda sine arte 
rosa; and many others. 

Adverbs. f</ .- % \'-\ : '\ 

like ti&etit&'cs^l 

We occasionally find adverbs used !ifc& u<$eGpfc'es^l 
both (a) as attributes (epithets) and (fys s '"**-. ^ yLJ 
as predicates. Thus we have in. 26. 15 v t^js^'^y 
(20. 61) diuae nunc, ante iuuencae, in. 21"(in)r!l0 
iam dea Leucothoe, iv. 6 (7). 41 paulatim iacturam, 
iv. 7 (8). 18 has didici certo saepe in amore notas (i.e. 


frequently occurring), iil 20 (17). 16 paruo aaepe li- 
^uore 'by a little water often'; cf. i. 3. 4. Add i. 2. 11 
surgit formosius, and compare i. 16. 47, 22. 2 notes, 
in. 26. 11 (20. 57) nee forma aeternwm aut cuiquamst 
fbrtuna perennis. 

magis shews two curious uses: (1) almost = 'but,' 
Fr. mais; II. 4. 9 (3. 53) quern non lucra, magi* Pero 
formosa coegit; and (2) almost = < perhaps'; iv. 21. 30 
siue ebore exactae sen magi* aere manus. 


Propertius does not spurn collocations which Ovid 
generally avoids as too clumsy or too 
close to prose, e.g. idem We, hoc eodem, 
unus quisque. The demonstrative pronouns are used 
in a pregnant way. Sometimes they refer _ 
to the preceding context m general, some- 
times the reference is more precise, but it has to be 
gathered from the context all the same. -^^ 
Thus hie, iil 1. 20 uates tua castra ca- "w*"***- 
nendo magnus ero : seruent hune mini fata diem (and 
n.), iy. 17 (18). 9 Aw pressus and n., iil 32 (26). 51 
harum (subject last mentioned in 46), n. 1. 56 una 
meos quoniam praedatast femina sensus, ex hoe ducen- 
tur funera nostra domo. Hie, ill 5. 39 (4. 55) Hits palu- 
dibus, iy. 17 (18). 25 n. tile (the typical human being, 
the person in question), v. 4. 14 ubi nunc est curia 
saepta, bellicus ex illo fonte bibebat equus. So the 
adv. %Uic iy. 21. 25. The same tendency may be ob- 
served in the use of other pronouns: e.g. the relative 
which thus frequently appears without an antecedent 
(iy. 24. 9, <fec.). Sometimes it may be explained as a 
sort of hypallage as in the case of adjectives; e.g. u. 
8. 26 uierque cruor ( = utriusque). So Martial quis 
labor in phiala! docti Myos! for cuius. 

ItffBdDWTiOJSr. cvii 

hie is used to point out something specially, even« 
though not present* So in it. 8. 26 me- * 

cum moriaris oportet: hoe eodem ferro J& uu and 
stillet uterqtie cruor, the sword k shining 
before bis imagination, n. 9. 26 capite hoc your head. 
So hie (adv.) in. 1. 22. Compare H. 1. 10 Iwc totum 
e Coa ueste uolumen erit ' thereupon there will be a 
whole volume/ v. 6. 64 n. Hence hie comes not to 
differ much from is in. 27 (21) 4 A*«, or hine from 
t#wtt ib. v. 27 ibat et ^mc. ' 

wte and Aw too are used interchangeably, li. 0. 1 
iste quod est ego saepe fui; sed fors et in hora hoc ipso 
eiecto, <fec., ib. 23 hie etiam petitur qui, &a....ieto capta 
fruare uiro; cf. i. 8. 46 n. 

An emphatic (though redundant) use of ills may 
be mentioned. It calls particular attention to the 
personality of the actor; e.g. 1. 1. 12 n., in. 27 (21). 
15, 16 quae cum Sidoniae nocturna ligamina mitrae 
soluerit atque oculos mouerit ilia graues ('in her 
waking 7 ). 

As Hertzberg has pointed out, p. 140, Propertius 
is very fond of using the possessive pro- 
nouns with A subst. where a more ordinary JJJJjJ? 1 * pr *" 
expression would be a personal pronoun 
with some added specification (see also above, p. xciv.). 
Thud 4 ii. 9. 30 mea nauis C I m my ship' <fec. A pre- 
dicative use of hmm is noteworthy, in. 24 (20). 2 tarn 
formosa tuum mortua crimen erit (for tibt). For the 
omission of personal pronouns see pages Ixii, exxiii. 


* . . * 

The use of particular verbs does not belong here. 
So I must be content with mentioning 
that ire % uenire, <fcc, are used sometimes 
where a less precise verb, e.g. esse, is required, some- 
times where a more precise one. 


Simple for compound verbs and vice versa 1 , (a) 
noluit ire (for redire or abire) u, 8. 24, 
notesco (Catullus), missus (for invmissus or fS^HncS." 4 
admissus) I v. 1. 13 note, focfo (for attudo) 
iv. 17 (18). 1 n. (6) educo (duco 'pass' time; thence 
in Stat. &c.) ii. 9. 47; perdisco jv.. 4 (5). 25 (also 
Cic), persideo iv. 11 (12). 37 (afterwards in Plin.); 
adsum iv. 14 (15). 23 (cf. i. 2. 21), adsto iv. 6 (7). 11 
n.; retineo (?) in. 27 (21). 5. 

Voice. The following usages are curious; scandert 
(neut. and absolute) v. 1. 125 a ' climbing' 
wall, ludere to 'play,' i. e. 'to be wasted,' in. Voict ' 
31 (25). 23 non audis et uerba sinis mea ludere. In k 19. 
12 we have traicit neut. in a meiap/iorical 
sense. Note also diuido absolutely I. 12. * Active ~ 
10. One use of the active calls for particular atten- 
tion. It may be named the inverted pas- 
sive. Often where prose writers would Jj^ rtet< pa *' 
give the construction a passive cast, Pro- 
pertius in common with other poets converts it and 
makes it active. An example is i. 20. 8 tuos tinxeril 
unda pedes. In prose we should have tincti erunt 
undo, (the abl. of place where the place is also the 
means). This usage is due originally to poetical ima- 
gination which attributes activity to the inanimate 
things which are concerned in an action; hut it easily 
becomes a form of language. A few instances will 
suffice, ii. 1. 57 omnes humanos sanat medicina dolores. 
Here 'the leech's art' unites the idea of the personal 
activity of the leech, his ' healing,' and the instru- 
mentality of his skill; in prose however we should 
have sanat medicus or sanantur medicina. v. 8, 76 las- 
CHXiiin sternat harena forum (forum sternUfwr harena), 

1 In the following instances it is not alleged that the use 
of the compound or simple respectively does not make some 
difference to the sense, but that the use is rare. 


hi. 22. 13 (18. 33) tabula duos poterit componere 
(oomponentur in tabula). See my notes on v. 6. 16, 
74 and the collection in Hertzb. p. 153 which however 
is to be read with discrimination, v. 3. 27 is very 
curious diceris et macie uoltum tervuasse (for tenuatus 
esse uoltu). It reminds us of Greek. 

We have deponents used passively, conspicor v. 4. 
34, mereri m. 30 (24). 22, partiri (part.), B Pagsive 
mercari (part.), sortiri (part.); persuadeor 
(part.) is noteworthy v. 1. 146. Compare pigendus v. 
1. 74. On the other hand, the middle 
use of the so-called passive is very notice- Middie - 
ablo in iv. 18 (19). 21 Minoa uenumdata Scylla figura 
'who didst sell thyself.' v. 8. 5 abripitur caeco descen- 
sus hiatu a very bold use, 'rushes from under us/ of a 
precipitate, cavernous descent 

Still more remarkable is the appearance of a new 
passive-middle formed in the same way as 
the old one; see my note on iv. 8 (9). 15 ^w/«. pow,w " 
Phidiacus signo se luppiter ornat eburno. 
So v. 1. 9 qua gradibus domus ista Remi se sustulit, 
v. 9. 56 quae se suramota uindicat ara casa. We see 
the germs of a tendency which has been very fruitful 
in Romance. 

As in other writers, we find the indicative in apo 
dosis in the cases enumerated by Roby Lat. 
Gr. 1574; cf. II. 5. 16 note. The indie. MootL 
without protasis is rarer; n. 3. 34 pulcriud ha,c fuerat, 
Troia, perire tibi, iv. 12 (13). 65 ille furor 
patriae futi utUis « would have been.' The figSSSc"^ 
interchange of ind. with subj. is an archaic 
feature, Draeger Hist. Synt. n. pp. 433, 218; in. 8 (7). 
29, 30 aspice quid donis Eriphyla iwuenit amaris, arserit 
et quantis nupta Creusa malis, 32 (26). 34 — 36 licet re- 
f eras— -fluxerit ut . . . atque ut . . . errat et . . . decipit. But it 
is useless to multiply instances when we have a pas- 
sage like iv. 4 (5). 25 — 46 which should be referred to. 


We may notice a hortative subj. in the third per- 
son .expressing a mild obligation ; I. 22. 6 n. , 
l 19. 15, 16 harum nulla tua fuerit mihi, SubJftncU9e - 
Cynthia, forma gratior, et Tellus hoc, ita iusta, sinat. 
But in in. 4. 8 the sim seems to be semioblique and 
attracted by the previous subjunctive. 

. Propertius is fond of the longer forms of the 
imper. I have noted negato, uocato, one- 
rato, /actio, spectato. To these may be **"**"*• 
added seruato i. 21. 5, but probably not caeditti v. 5. 
77. In usage observe the imper. in wishes I. 8. 19 
utere n., m. 5. 24 (4. 40) ueni n., iv. 18 (19). 25 
innuptae felicius write taedas. We find it con- 
joined with the fut. ; see below and compare note 
on v. 2. 22. 

Pres. of past There are two uses, not distinguished 
as a rule by the grammars, but merged 
under the one title of historic present, (a) aueim 
is the descriptive or pictorial use. It shews us the past 
event happening now, as it were, before 
our eyes, n. 9. 9, 10 exanimum amplectens ruenL 
Briseis Achillem Candida uesana uerberal ora manu 
et dominum lauit; so in in. 7 (6). 3 sqq., 
ii, 7. 2 note, v. 1. 118, 4. 3, 4. The nou- * <tfpagL 
recognition of this has led L. Mttller to suppose 
several absurd contractions, such ssjlemits . 

for Jleuimus. (b) The second class is ^**+? 
that where the effects of an action are re- **»**»*«■ 
presented as lasting into the present 1 . So the Greek 
legal phrase a&urci oti K.T.A., not T&unprcr, c he i3 
guilty'; aXX* iJSc ruerct ere 'she is thy mother.' Thus 
we find in v. 1. 77 me creat, 121 Vmbria te edit 
and sqq., 2. 3 orior n., 4. 54 quern nuirit inhumanae 
dura papilla lupae. The use of the pres. for the 

1 («) generauy oorrespoocte to the taper/, (A) to the 


•imperf. subjunctive 1 is recognized and is to be ex- 
plained in the same way as (a). But this 7 . 
is not the case with that of the part, which junctive* parti- 
has even been denied altogether. It oo- *** **"*** 
curs however in two passages at least; see v. 11. 39 
note. We find it also in the infin., as in Greek, iv. 
13 (14). 19, 20 inter quos Helene nudis capere arma 
papillis fertur nee fratres erubuisse deos (for oepisse). 

In one or two cases the present is coupled or inter- 
changed with the future; iv. 12 {13). 43 — 
46 quieumque uenis, uenaberis et si. . .quae- vx/Mure. 
ris aueni «t ma l?a,n&...uocato i siue petes calamo prae- 
mia eiue cane. Compare I. 5. 9 n. The last quota- 
tion shews a use which is often overlooked, uenaberis 
is *vou may hunt/ you shall hunt if you like. It is 
found with the imper., as already said, iv. 16 (17). 29, 

Properties is fond of the fut. part in -rue, (i) An 
elegant use has been already illustrated 
by Hertzb. p. 141, where Hie part, may be £$£ re J***" 
paraphrased by a relative sentence; e.g. 
iv. 20. 12 (4) Phoebe moraturae contrahe lueis iter 
* which would otherwise delay.' (ii) He is fond of 
using this part, with sum in place of the fut. ind.; i. 17. 
3, in. 7 (6). 24, v. 11, 79, <fcc. 

Ferf. (i) There is a * potential' use, which is 
niueh rarer than that. of the future, and „ „ 

• Perfect 

reminds us somewhat of the Greek aorist, 

for an act begun but not completed. Thus v. 5. 64 

per tenues ossa has sunt nwmerata eutes, _ t tl , 

. » • i . i i «i» « i rTI Potential use. 

'they might have been counted, v. 1. 104 

libra locuta deos ' which will tell if consulted.' So in 

1 v. 5. 9 — 12 is in point, and a good instance of what Proper- 
tins will venture upon. He is speaking of a woman who is 
dead ; ilia uelit, poterit magnes non ducere ferrum et uolucris 
nidis esse nouerca suis. quippe et Collinas ad fossam mouerit 
herbas, stantia currenti diluerentur aqua. Cf. iv. 15 (16). 21, 22. 


iv. 10 (11). 23 the sense is rather that the chariots 

might have been sent than that they were. See I. 9. 

29 n. (ii) The use of the per£ inf. for 

the pres.; e.g. in. 4. 11, 8 (7). 3. It is %£«* *** 

probably metrical, I. 1. 15 n. Otherwise 

it connects with the tendency pointed out on p. 


Pluperf. Propertius' use of this tense is very charac- 
teristic. I have ventured (p. xlvi.) to attri- 
bute it to a desire to throw what he has been plu P er ^ eeL 
contemplating into the past and to have done with ii 
There is no doubt that the pluperfect must have a 
larger territory assigned to it than is usually conceded 
by the grammars, and that it frequently represents in 
Latin prose an English aorist There is always how- 
ever a reason for this. To take one example, in Ter. 
Ad. 1. 1. 2 non rediit hac nocte a cena Aeschinus 
neque seruolorum qaisquam qui aduorsum ierant 'Ha* 
not Ae. returned or any of the slaves who went to 
meet him)' the pluperf. is used to distinguish it 
from the peril which has preceded it. ierunt would 
be taken k have gone.' But in Propertius the use is 
pushed far beyond the limits demanded by perspicuity. 
It is used of (a) anything which has happened in the 
remote past or (o) which Propertius wishes to regard as 
having so happened. Thus (a) il 2. 13 diu&e quas 
pastor uiderat olim, &c f n. 6. 3 curba Menandreae 
Juerat nee Thaidos dim (with contemporary perfects), 
iv. 10 (11). 65 haec di condiderant (edd -uni) f haec 
di quoque moenia servant, 12 (13). 34 — 40 dedere... 
operibat ... creuerat ... circumdabat ...Juerat ... reduxit 
So in I. 8, 36 (and note) et quas Elis opes ante pararal 
equis, I. 12. 11 non sum ego qai Jueram 'what I once 
was, 9 i. 11. 29 multis ista dabunt litora discidium, 
litora quae Juerant castis inimica puellis. (6) rv. 
34. 20 e&ciderant (edd -unt) surdo tot mea facta 


It sometimes gives a special force to. the expression 
which is easy to feel, but difficult to render; 
v. 8, 53, 54pocula mi digitos inter cecidere ffiop***"" 
remissos palluerantque ipso labra soluta 
niero 'fell'... 'were overspread with pallor,' ib. .82 re- 
spondi ego * legibus utar.' riserat, of a sudden laugh. 
So in v. 9. 27, 28 deuia puniceae uelabant limina uittae, 
putris odorato luxerat igne casa I believe the tense 
gives by a fine poetical touch the sudden lighting up of 
the fire when the spices are thrown on it. It is sig- 
nificant that Propertius carries this fondness for the 
pluperfect still further. We find double-loaded plu- 
perfects, so to speak. Not to speak of the 
instances above where olim and ante occur ^S^/^Sl^ 4 
with that tense, we have in. 21 (18). 3 
fitera8 mentita (for eras), in. 24 (20). 21 fuerat deuota, 
i. 16. 1 quae fueram magnis olim patefacta triumphis. 
[So in the fut. iv. 9 (10). 29fuerit exacta, and peril 
subj. iv. 23. 11.] 

This is the place to speak of the Past participle, 
which the perf. and pluperf. share in conir 
mon. That participle marks an action as *" 
past, but not necessarily as past as regards the main 
verb. Its use may only indicate that it was past 
when the account was written. Thus it may repre- 
sent (a) a dependent sentence with main verb in a 
)mt tense (perf., imperf., pluperf.) defined as past to 
the main verb, a perfect participle; (b) an action abso- 
lutely past, but not defined as to the main verb, an 
wrist participle; (c) an action absolutely past, but 
of the same time as the main verb. For example in 
Livy 2. 36. 1 sub furca caesum egerat without the 
context might be taken either (a) 'he drove him after 
he had beaten him* perf., or (b) 'he drove and beat him ' 
<ww. or (c) 'he drove him beating him ' pres. From 
the influence of (a) and (c) combined we get (d), 
a use of it which does not differ at all from a pre- 


sent participle, (a) does not require illustration, (6) 
in a given passage is often bard to distinguish from 
(a) on the one hand or (c) or (d) on the other. Still, 
I think, it is clear in II. 9. 8 ilium expectando facta 
remansit anus 'she remained faithful and became 
old,' iv. 5 (6). 3 num me laetitda tumefaction fallis 1 
v. 5. 13 cantatae leges imponere lunae; and so vrhere 
no past has preceded, I. 1. 19 deductoe fallacia lunae 
and note, iv. 11 (12). 3 spoliati gloria Parthi and 
others quoted by Hertzb. p. 121 \ (c) and (d) have 
become so mixed in usage (which was to be expected, 
as the part, in both eases is in the same relation to the 
main verb), that we cannot conveniently separate them. 
The past part has a present sense, Le. it is used of 
the same time as the principal verb, iu iv. 18 (19). 26 
pendet Oretaea tracta puella rate, rv. 13 (14). 6 uersi 
clauis adunca trochi, v. 7. 92 nos uehimur: uectum 
nauta recenset onus, and still stranger id. 59 ecce 
coronato pars altera uecta phaselo [for uehitw (uecta 
est) y unless, as is more probable, it is anacoluthic 
like the pres. part.; see below], rv. 1. 12 et mecum 
in curru parui uectantar Amores scriptorumque 
meas turba secuta rotas, unless this is a case like iv. 
16 (17). 38 libatum fundens in tua sacra meum. The 
passage of past participles into adjectives is now more 
intelligible, p. civ.* 

There are some very odd uses of the inf., partly 
Graecisms, (i) after verbs or verbal phrases; 
i. 11. 5 ecquid te...nostri cura subit me- UKm 

mores a! ducere noctes? (where observe the double- 

1 In these two latter cases the gerundive is more 

3 The use of the perl and ploperf . to denote that a con- 
tinuous state is now past may be noted in passing. It is not 
unusual. But it rarely gets a separate mention. See v. 2. 26 
note, m. 28 (23). 2 a magno Caesar© aperta fait * Caesar has 
been opening* 


headed construction) = Jkttc arytiv, l 9. 5 non me... 
uincant dicere (i. e. dicendo, see note), 1. 16. .^ 

1 1, 12 reuocatur pour cere (wort ^a&e<70tu).., 
et uiuere (to /u} ov §iairao'0cu) double-headed again, 
ii. 1. 42 nee mea oonueniunt praecordia — Caesaris in 
Phrygios condere nomen auos, it. 1. 14 non datur ad 
Musas eurrere lata ilia (cvTptx«*, as a Greek might hare 
said), iv. 10 (11). 64 est cui cognomen coruus habere 
dedit (apparently an imitation of Virgil), (ii) after adjec- 
tives', i. 11. 12 facilis cedere, iil 5. 12 (4. 
28) las8a uocare {note) and elsewhere, iy. $££* <U U 4C ~ 
4 (5). 35 Berus uersare, y. 5. 13 audax 
leges imponere. There are not so many as in some 
Augustan writers. (Hi) = supine I. 1. 12 note, I. 6. 
33 seu pedibus terras seu pontura carper e ^ 
remis ibis, I. 20. 24 processerat quaerere. 
(iv) as a norru Propertius uses the ini thus very 
freely ; iy. 12 (13). 28 illis munus erant tondere, ib. 38 nee fuerat poena 
uidere. So also with other verba, L 9. 34. nom 


Propertius' use of these presents very great peculi- 
arities. I shall take them in order. 

ad. (i) 'to,' with loqui, dicere; e.g. I. 18. 30, v. 11. 
83. (ii) 'near,' where we should expect in 
(an indefinite use); ad frontem errare ca- 
pillos ii. 1. 7, ad Indos ' in India' n. 9. 29, crepat ad 
ueieres herba Sabina focos v. 3. 58, ad baculum v. 2. 39. 
(iii) 'at,' of time (elsewhere with horam, tempus, and 
the like); ad Archemori funera in. 32 (26). 38. (iv) 
'against'; Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras in. 18 (16). 9, 
arma deus Caesar dites meditatur ad Indos iv. 4 (5). 
1. (v) 'for,' denoting the purpose or object of anything; 
satus ad pacem iv, 8 (9). 19 note, ad effectum uires 
dare ib. 27, fortis ad proelia in. 1. 3, hie tibi ad elo- 
quiumciues 'to hear your eloquence' iv. 22. 41. (vi) 'to,' 


' respecting'; irritus ad v. 9. 40, ad Priami uera caput 
v. 1. 52, caecus ad in. 15 (13). 20. For ad uerum 
in. 5. 26 (4. 42) and ad sanum iv. 24. 18 compare 
notes there. 

per. Of place = (i) 'through/ 'from amidst'; so i. 21. 

7 n., y. 4. 20 per flauas arina leuare tubas 

* from the crowd of plumes'; not the same per ' 

as inter which would be used where the line of view is 
uninterrupted, whereas per indicates that a thing is seen 
suddenly or by glimpses: ' through and before'; iv. 12 
(13). 12 spolia opprobrii nostra per ora trahit. (ii) 

* over,' ie. on or around; v. 3. 26 det mihi plorandas 
per tua colla notas, c£ V. 5. 51 titulus per barbara 
colla pependit. (iii) 'over' ie. , { across? on the other 
side of; v. 7. 55 est sedes turpem sortita per amnem. 
(iv) some pregnant uses; iv. 13 (14). 5 pila uelocis 
fallit per bracchia iactus 'from arm to arm, '-v. 8. 87 
mutato per singula pallia lee to, 'one coverlet after 
another'; cf. v. 6. 35 n. Of metaphorical usages we 
may notice (v) a. use for the abL of the instrument iv. 

8 (9). 26 onerare tuam fixa per anna domum and note. 

If the rule that subter with the ace. means * to and 
under* (Roby 2125) is correct, Propertius ni6£ _ 
does not observe it; in. 32 (26). .67 canis 
subter pineta, iv. 3 (4). 18 subter captos arma sedere 
duces, where observe the dislocation of words. 

ab = (i) 'away from' in a pregnant use; in. 9 (8). 6 
ut liquor arenti fallat ab ore sitim, ' as it 
flies from his lips.' (ii) 'on the side of; in 
a very odd expression iv. 10 (11). 24 ne possent tacto 
stringere ab axe latus (this is sometimes taken as in 
iil). (iii) ab of 'instrument'; redundant v. 3. 39 putris 
ab aestu, iv. 1. 63 (2. 23) ab aeuo excidet, perhaps ab 
insidiis iv. 25. 6, though that may be also taken for 
ex insidiis (note), or as ab irrisu 'in derision' Livy. 
So ab arte ib. 5, <fec (iv) 'after '; note a condensed 
expr. in i. 13. 24 ab Oetaeis iugis 'after Oeta/i.e. after 


it had done its worst to Hercules. So in Lucan post 
Tethyos aequora ' after reaching the ocean.' 

Propertius is very fond of de, using it where we 
might expect ab or ex; e.g. surgere de 
toro, de ducibus arma recepta, de pectore 
euolare, de tanto nomine rumor eris I. 5. 26 n. But 
there is nothing very peculiar in his general use of it, 
except the phrase already referred to in. 19 (16)* 14 
iam tibi de timidis iste superbus erit (for timidus) and 
the phrase de nihilo 'at no expense 1 n. 3. 16, but in 
in. 8 (7). 52 * without a motive.' 

ex. (i) of things attached) iv. 8 (9). 51 ex ubere 'at 
the teats' is peculiar, less so is in. 3. 10 
ex umero utroque ' hanging from.' (ii) of . 
origin', I. 4. 28 nee quicquam ex Ula quod querar 
inueniam (in would be expected), (iii) 'in conse- 
quence of; ii. 1. 50 totam ex Helena non probat 
lliada. We have a very rare adverbial phrase iv. 21. 
6 ex omni. 

pro. One very rare phrase calls for remark i. 10. 
24 neu tibi pro uano uerba benign a cadant. 
Compare iv. 6 (7). 12 n. * r * 

sine is a favourite preposition of Propertius. Ob- 
serve its use with a noun and a predicate 7. 
11. 79 sine testibus illia and note, v. 4. 53 " 
sine matris honore. 

in. A. with ace. (i) motion in space. A pregnant 
use iv. 8 (9). 60 in partes fuisse tuas and 
note, iv. 24. 19 and note. C£ Lewis and "* 

Short s. v. It is sometimes used with a good deal of 
subtlety; in. 31 (25). 43 semper in absentes 
felicior aestus amantes 'the tide sets fair ace ' 

towards an absent love,' v. 5. 48 surdus in obductam 
somniet usque seram 'go to sleep over.' (ii) of time = 
'till the time of; v. 6. 82 differat in pueros. (iii) 
very frequently metaphorical, 'for' or 'to,' of -the 
end, object or result of anything; .v. 6. 13 Oaesaris m 

p. P. * 


nomen ducuntur carmina (note), v. 3. 48 in glaciem 
frigore nectit aquas *till they are ice/ iv. 2 (3). 35 hede- 
ras legit in thyrsos (c£ v. 34), iv. 22. 14 in faciem 
prorae pinus adacta nouae, with which compare the 
more difficult expressions v. 6. 30 in obliquam ter 
sinuata/acera and v. 1 1. 83 somniaque in faciem credita 
saepe meam * believed to take my form,' iv. 22. 38 cur- 
uatas in sua fata trabes 'to cause the death of their 
master,' v. 5. 73 cards in nostros nimis experrecta 
dolore8 'to pain me,' iv. 20. 25 pactas in foedera 
aras ' plighted in troth 1 (in Greek /?<iyu>? is used of an 
'altar pledge' olaiv ovre /?o>/ao? ovO* optco<; /xcpci Aristoph.). 
For iv, 8 (9). 18 see note, (iv) with neuter adjectives 
as substantives; iv. 10(1 1). 23 in aduersum missi currus, 
ill. 8 (7). 45 haec uideam rapidas in uanum ferre 
procellas (Prop, is fond of uanum as already noted), 
III. 22. 16 (18. 36) uelaque in incertu rafrigidus Auster 
agat. B. with abl. (i) of place where. 
Thus 'on the banks of' I. 3. 6 in herboso 
concidit Apidano; 'inside,' within (generally «u6), il 
6. 31 a gemat in terris (but some take it with what 
follows); an extension of the in of clothing v. 2. 28 
corbis in 1 imposito pondere messor eram (note). A 
fine use in v. 10. 30 in uestris ossibus arua metruat 
(ii) where the simple^abL would have done; in. 16. 2 
(13. 44) in nullo pondere uerba loqui (abl. of descrip- 
tion, 'words of no weight')*, (iii) with words denoting 
personal feelings or states; with gandeo 1 v. 8. 63 
Cynthia gaudet in exuuiis, so II. 4. 28 (18) gaudeat in 
puero; felix 1 iv. 11 (12). 15 ter quater in casta felix, 
o Postume, Galla; perditus I. 13. 7 perditus in quo- 
dam; pallidus it. 7 (8). 28 in irata pallidus esse, (iv) 
denoting the circumstances = 'in the case of (indefi- 

1 In all these cases the in may be omitted. 
* Perhaps this is due to the analogy of in numero ipaptopuos, 
of which I have already spoken. 


nrtie); so veiy frequently, in. 1. 21 caput in magnis 
tangere signis, iv. 7 (8). 34 in te pax mini nulla placet 
(so in me), v. 3. 49 omnis magnus amor sed aperto in 
coniuge maior, y. 6. 51 n. <fcc. So where we should 
expect the ace. ; iv. 16 (17). 23 uesanum in uite Lycur- 
gum, iv. 18 (19). 28 aequus in hoste fuit (so Virg.), 
(v) in orbe, apparently metrical for in orbem; iv. 13 
(14). 10 disci pondus. in orbe rotat. 

sub* A. with ace, A pregnant use may be noticed 
iv. 3 (4). 4 Tigris et Euphrates sub tua iura 
fluent 'will come and flow under your rule,' 
iv. 8 (9). 52 crescet et ingenium sub tua 
iussa meum (see note). B. with all. (i) 'of 
space': two uses (a) 'under the shadow of,' close to; 
i. 20. 33 note, sub uertice montis (sub monte is com- 
mon), I. 4. 12 sub aequoribus 'on the 
shore,' in. 23 (19). 13 Stygia sub Jiarun- 
dine (note); (b) 'under shelter of; in in. 30 (24). 39 
Idaeo legisti poma sub antro ' in Ida's dells,' iv. 8 (9). 
36 n. sub exiguo flumine nostra morast. (ii) 'next to,' 
* after.' ir. 1. 26 Caesare sub magno cura secunda fores, 
(iii) of the circumstances (a Graecism) in. 25. 1 (20. 
35) magico torti sub carmine rhombi (vif avX<2v). Hence 
too probably the very extraordinary use v. 7. 95 haec 
mecum querula sub lite peregit. 

Conjunctions and particles, 

I have already said something about these (p. lxiii.), 
and I will add something on the most no^ conjunction* 
ticeable points in their use. and particles. 

non (neque, ne), Propertius is very fond of re- 
solved negatives, not only where the nega- 
tive. is in a compound, but also where the e0a * t,e> 
idea resolved is really positive. Thus we get (i) cases 
like i. 3. 8 non certis ( = incertis), iv. 12 (13), 56 non 
,..piu8 r non exoratus v. 11. 4; even (ii) where the neg, 
appears as nee; I. 20. 14 nee expertos ( = et inexpertos 



see note), in. 26. 6 (20. 52)necproba Pasiphae (et im- 
proba P.), in. 22. 33 (18. 53) nee umquam alternante 
uorans uaata Charybdis aqua, (iii) two negatives for 
one positive; often with meiosis; n. 5. 2 non ignotou 
notorious, iv. 13 (14). 3 non in/amis honourable, L 4. 
18 non tacitt£8 loud, <fcc. (iv) with verbs; n. 1. 50 
non probcU (improbat), &c. These are treated as if 
they were positive verbs; n. 9. 35 nee sic incerto 
mutantur flamine Syrtes...quam cito feminea non con- 
stat foedus in ira 'is broken/ in. 24 (20). 13 semper, 
formosae, non nostis parcere uerbis (numquam n. or 
else nescitis would have been more usual). Hence, I 
believe, v. 9. 70 is to be emended Herculis eximie ne 
sit inulta sitis 'that it may not lack a signal vengeance. 1 

quoque is used in one place simply as etiam, i. 12. 
18 sunt quoque translato gaudia seruitio, c ~ ur ^. 
in contravention of the rule that it quali- and disjunctive 
fies the preceding word. par 

Propertius sometimes uses (i) uel, <fca, and et with- 
out much difference in meaning; thus 
uel for et n. 8. 11 munera quanta dedi JJjJ, * ne9Ut * 
uel qualia carmina feci, ib. 39 (so too in 
other writers); et for uel v. 6. 51 n. (ii) neque, <fec, 
with uel, <kc., and et, <fcc. Thus n. 1. 19 sqq. non 
canerem. . .nee. . .et. . .ue. . .aut. . .que. . .et. eeu also inter- 
changes with uel... aut and que; iv. 21. 25 sqq. uel... 
aut...aut...que...aut...siue...seu. It is found in a 
unique use in n. 1. 15 eeu quicquid fecit riue est quod- 
cumque locuta where it adds nothing to the sense. 
This use of sen becomes more prominent 
in later Latin. So does the intensive use 
of eed 'and that too' which is very common in Martial, 
and whose origin is explained on n. 5. 15 ; see v. 10. 
12 hie spolia ox umeris ausus sperare Quirini ipse 
dedit 8ed non sanguine sicca suo. Its adversative 
force tends to disappear in other cases as in. 27 (21). 
'7 (cf. 11) and supra p. lxiiu 


A curious use of ut has been mentioned above, 
p. xc. ne, which appears in one place as 
ni (v, supra), is put tor ut turn -eo that... 1 

not* in iv. 10 (11). 24 and not improbably v. 11, 47. ; 

num appears where no negative and even a positive 
answer is required, v. 3, 23, ii, 3. 23. Rm 

Hitherto I have spoken of particular words and 
forms of words, so far as the word or form 
may be said to have a particular use or <j£j22£" <m ^ 
meaning attached to it I shall now say 
a little on their combination and interaction in sen- 
tences. The distinction is a convenient one though 
not always easy to apply. 

Stress of the sentence. 

I have already pointed out (p. lxii.) that this is often 
where we should least expect it, and more 
examples may be got from the notes. The fJJgjL^ ** 
non-perception of this has sometimes led 
commentators wrong. Thus in. 32 (26). 72 huic licet 
ingratae Tityrus ipse canat means ( a Titvrus might 
sing to her and she would be ungrateful . Proper- 
tius often leaves the predicate to be taken care of by 
the emphasis alone, where others would have helped it 
by inserting a word like esse. See note on i. 8. 62. 
Sometimes a part, or adj. contains a thought which 
would have been more clearly conveyed by a separate 
sentence; I. 19. 24 frangitur assiduis certa puella 
minis (La quamuis c), in. 31 (25), 9 cum te iussit 
habere pueUam cornua Juno 'maid as thou wast/ v. 9* 
22 terraque non ulkts /eta ministrat .aquas 'in spite 
of its teeming breast,' 'from its teeming breast, 1 

1 I believe this has been already pointed out by Mr 
Wratislaw in a paper read before the Cambridge Philological 


Concord and attraction. 

The following are unusual; it. 9. 41 sidera sunt 
testes, iil 6 (5). 24 haec mini deuictis 
potior uictoria Parthis, haec spolia, haec SSnSSm *% 
reges, haec mihi -currus erunt It would XJJJJ^"* "* 
usually be hi reges, nic currus erit. Observe 
also the change to neut plur. haec in the pentameter, and 
the plur. erunt in agreement with haec. This is the 
usual construction in Prop.; it. 12 (13). 27 illis 
munus erant decussa Cydonia ramo, iv. 8 (9). 34. 
Amongst attractions may be mentioned iv. 5 (6). 39, 
40 me quoque consimili impositum torquerier igni 
iurabo et bis sex integer esse dies where the change of 
constr. is very noticeable, n. 9. 7 is still stranger 
ui&wra et quamuis numquam speraret Vlixem. It is 
to be explained as follows, (a) speraret ee ui&uram 
is the ordinary constr. Roby 1444, then (6) the 
se is omitted speraret uisuram, Roby 1347; then 
(c) the uisura is attracted into the nom., as in the 
foregoing ex. and others quoted by Roby 1350 to 
which i. 16. 8 (n.) is probably to be added. The 
subtle influence of juxtaposition probably accounts for 
in. 8 (7). 16 Iuppiter, indigna merce puella perit (for 
indignum an exclamation * monstrous!'), in. 7 (6). 38 
uitae longus et annus erit (probably for uitae longutn 
as the order seems to shew). Compare p. cvi. on the 


There are two omissions in Propertius of frequent 
occurrence, (i) of parts of sum. Theomis- 
sion of the inf. throws the stress of the 0mi9tUmt ' 
sentence into the predicate as has been already ex* 
plained. Besides this, finite parts of it are 
omitted. The regular omissions are given ""^ 
in Roby 1442 — 4. Propertius has several rare ones; 


ii. 8. 13 ergo tarn multos nimium temerarius annos 
(sc. sum) qui tulerim, in. 24 (20). 12 an contempt* tibi 
lunonis templa Felasgae Palladia aut oculos ausa (es) 
negare bonos? His absolute use of the part is perhaps 
so to be explained; iv. 16 (17). 38 ante fores templi 
(erit) crater antistitis auro libatum. fundens in tua 
sacra "merum. See above on the pdfet part, and on the 
vocative. Omissions of the subj. in i. 8. 37 n. (esset), 
in. 23 (19). 11 n. (sit), (ii) The second class of omis- 
sions is that of the personal pronouns both < 
in the nom. as in i v. 10 (11). 68 nunc ubi JJJJ -1 ^ 
Scipiadae classes... aut modo Pompeia Bos- 
pore capte manu? and in oblique cases as in I. 1. 23 
note, I. 3. 30, iv. 24. 6 n., in. 30 (24). 28 testis eris 
puras, Phoebe, (tc) uidere manus. So with is; iv. 15 
(16). 14 nemo adeo, ut noceat (ei), barbarus esse 
uolet. See more in Hertzb. p. 124; and compare 
p. lxiL 

We have other elliptical expressions. Verbs of wu>- 
tion are to be supplied in iv. 4 (5). 30 in 
nubes unde perennis aqua, iv. 17 (18). 21 ****' 

sed tamen hue omnes, v. 2. 29 sobrius ad lites. The verb 
is omitted with quo and unde in interrogations in. 27 
(22). 31 quo tumatutinus, ait, speculator amicae? n. 7. 
13 unde mihi patriis natos praebere triumphis) and in 
exclamations v. 6. 65 di melius ! 

When a word is put once which should appear 
twice, we get a zeugmatic or double-headed 
construction which has been noticed al- J %%$% eon ~ 
ready; seep. lxiv. So 1. 15. 13 et quamuis 
numquam posthac uisura-dolebat-illa tamen longae 
conscia laetitiae, iv. 21. 33 seu-moriar-fato non 
turpi fractus amore 'if I die, I shall die by the decree 
of fate.' A second case is where another word or 
phrase, either (a) alike in meaning but different in 
form, or (b) alike in form but different in meaning, 
has to be supplied from the context. Thus (a) iv. 12 


(13). 61 uera loquor: sed nulla fides, neque enira Ilk 
quondam (sc. fidem habuit), uerax Pergameis Maenaa 
habenda malis. (b) iv. 29 (23). 13 (15) note. So pro- 
bably (with Hertzb.) is to be explained iv. 22. 37, 
jSinis being nom. Compare I. 2. 17 n. 

The first class is allied to anacoluthon and the 
second to zeugma. Compare p. lxii. 

Changes of construction. 

These are so common in Propertius that little 
more is necessary to do than to enumerate 
the heads under which they fall, (i) The #3ta!l >lr " 
change which apostrophe is largely influ- 
ential in producing is discussed by Hertzb. p. 115. One 
example will suffice from a poem which 
will also abundantly illustrate anacoluthon, p^ r ,^ inff€ ** 
iv. 10 (11). 33 sqq. Alexandria is ad- 
dressed (v. 33), then Memphis (v. 34), then Rome 
(36), Pompey 1 (37), Rome (49), Cleopatra 1 (51). 

(ii) The alternation of the first person sing, and plur. 
is extraordinarily frequent in Propertius. 
Thus in the first poem 1. 1. 33 in me nostra S2»2?T* / 
Venus and note; and see the collection of 
instances in Hertzberg, p. 121. Occasionally other 
changes are found; e.g. in. 20 (17). 43 — 47 from v,os 
to tu, m. 23 (19). 7 sqq. 

(iii) I have already given examples of the substitu- 
tion of one tense or mood for another (see 
above, pp. cix. sqq.), and the same examples S*«SSt»io«L 
will serve as instances of the conjunction 
of dissimilar tenses or the change from one to another. 
It is in consequenco sometimes difficult to decide 
whether a change of tense indicates a change of mean- 
ing, in. 5. 33, 34 and note. 

1 In these cases there is no name in the too. to warn ns 
there is a change of person. See more exx. in the notes. 


(iv) Propertius is very fond of varying his con- 
structions in all sorts of ways. Thus n. 1. 
19 sqq. non ego Ti tanas cow«rcm...Xerxis ^Sn£SSSnJ^ 
et imperio bina coisse uada regnaue prima 
Herni, iv. 10 (11). 37 issent Phlegraeo melius tibi 
funera campo uel tua si socero colla daturus eras, iv. 
12 (13). 27 illis munus erant dare 
canistra, nunc uiolas tondere. See also I. 5. 19 sqq., 
I. 8. 34 sqq., in. 23 (19). 7 sqq., iv. 2 (3). 41 sqq., <fcc. 

We have seen' from an example 1 that Propertius 
often adopts a very strange arrangement of ^ J M 

, S • . /• \ i Order of words. 

words, and more instances of such hyper- 
bata or transpositions may be gathered from Hertzberg. 
I will add some dislocations of words which are ap- 
parently due to the influence of metre, the next subject 
that we shall treat of. They consist chiefly in post- 
poning particles to a later place than their proper one 
in the sentence; sometimes however, as in i. 2. 30 omnia 
quaeque (for omniaque quae) Venus quaeque Minerua 
probat, they make them occupy an earlier one. Though 
they occur in pentameters, we do not find the special m 
variety which is such a favourite of Tibullus and to a 
less extent of Ovid, viz. a quadrisyllable in the last 
half followed by a que\ e.g. Tib. n. 5. 72 multus ut in 
terras depbueretque lapis. They are often used with 
a certain subtlety of emphasis which we should have 
expected could only have been given in Greek. Thus 
iv. 15 (16). 5 obductis committam rnene tenebris? 'my 
poor life/ so iv. 5 (6). 12 ornabat niueas nullane gem- 
ma manus? 'what, not one?' iv. 21. 16 qualiscumque 
mihi tuque puella uale, kax avy\ <3 Kofyq. 

1 See page lzx. 


In his treatment of the elegiac metre Propertius ap- 
pears to great advantage. With him it has xiuPronaita 
a weight and a vigour that no one else can eUgi. and i*r 
shew; and while it is conceivable that a a$& ?n£cr- 
greater poet might have handled it better, 
it is certain that no one has done so as well. 

In the hands of Catullus the elegiac is still semi- 
barbarous. The pentameters of Catullus can only be 
compared to the hexameters of Ennius. In both we 
see the struggle of form with an unyielding material; 
and the sense of this inevitably jars upon us. This is 
not the place to enter into an elaborate analysis of the 
elegiac verse of Catullus. But two points may be 
mentioned ; his extraordinary number of elisions, and 
his carelessness about the ending of the pentameter. 
In the verse of Tibullus and Propertius there is equi- 
librium between the forces. The versification is 
finish eil and yet free. With their successors the rules 
re drawn tighter, the metrical composition stiffens, 
id the verse becomes a mould to which the writer 
lust fit his thought instead of a plastic medium 'which 
that thought may shape at its will. In metre as in 
language this is inevitable. A. custom grows out of 

•lNTEOD UCTIOF. cxxvii 

what is often a chance majority of instances. Once 

established, it is continually being strengthened by 

fresh adhesions. It becomes more and more binding 

and less tolerant of exceptions : till at last it arrogates 

an exclusive authority, and poses over the rival forms, 

not merely as a victor, but a victor on its merits. But 

it does not follow that the regularity thus attained is 

to be set above all the stages that have preceded its 

attainment. It is one thing to own no law, another 

to be tied to its letter. There is a happy medium 

which is not so difficult to attain as to preserve. We 

find this in Tibullus and Propertius. 

Propertius , general superiority in vigour and 
variety to Tibullus appears also in their versification. 
For that of Tibullus is hardly ever impressive and apt 
sometimes to become monotonous. Both in hexame- 
ter and pentameter Propertius shews a freer structure 
than Tibullus, and, we need not add, than Ovid. 

Spondees and spondaic beginnings are noticeably 
more frequent in him than in either, although not in 
excess. This adds considerably to the weightiness of 
his lines. 

He does not shrink from hexameters like Hexameter of 


sen mini sunt tangenda nouercae pocula Phaedrae 

ii. 1. 51. 


aut in amore dolere uolo aut audire dolentem. 

rv. 7 (8). 23. 


ut Maeotica nix minio si certet Hibero. n. 3. 11. 


non me moribus ilia sed herbis improba uicit. 

iv. 5 (6). 25. 


quern modo felicem inuidia admirante ferebant. 

m. 9 (8). U.. .. 



at tu etiam iuuenem odisti me perfida cum sis. 

iii. 10 (9). 19. 


or endings like 

et tibi ob inuidiam Nereides increpitarent. 

ni. 21 (18). 15. 

nam cursus licet Aetoli referas Acheloi. 

in. 32 (26). 33. 


cui saepe immundo Sacra oonteritur Via socco. 

in. 17 (14). 15. 

nam nullo dominae teritor sab limine amor qui. 

m. 20 (17). 17. 

His vigorous and masculine treatment of the pen- 
tameter has been well described by Dean 
Merivale, in a passage already quoted, who pJJ^JJJttl ^ 
says that he alone of Roman poets ' raises 
it to the dignity of its heroic consort.' He by no 
means limits himself to the disyllabic ending: we 
frequently find quadrisyllables and even trisyllables 
and sometimes quiuquesyllables. It is worth noting 
that in the fourth or fifth book the disyllabic end- 
ing is almost exclusively used; and this 
is not improbably interpreted to mean that £232**** 
the poet adopted the custom which became 
almost invariable after his death. On the relative 
merits of these various endings, I do not propose to 
speak at length, though I agree with Mr Faley in his 
defence of the polysyllable (Preface p. viiL), and I 
think the passage which he adduces in illustration of 
his argument (i. 20. 29sqq.) fully bears him out. Of 
the value of the trisyllable Ovid's imitator Martial was 
fully sensible, an we see from his frequent use of it to 
give the point of an epigram. But ou Propertius' use of 
the trisyllabic ending I must be allowed a few words* 


Dr Atkinson in an ingenious paper in Hermathena, 
vol. I. p. 276, has enunciated a metrical canon for 
Propertius which he calls the 

Rule of the Liquid 

as follows : — ** No pentameter in Propertius ends in 
a trisyllable unless the word contains a 
liquid 1 , usually in either the penult or j^H^ *** lim 
the ultimate syllable." 

For example pueri, mefius, manibus. To this he 
allows an exception in cubitum i. 3. 34 sic ait in molli 
fixa tore cubitum and also in pedibus I. 1. 4, in. 
20 (17). 20. On the first passage he criticises Mr 
Paley's note, which runs u This verse is faulty not 
so much from ending with a word of three syllables 
as from having no counterbalancing epithet in the 
former part" which he misunderstands, I think, to 
mean that all are faulty which do not have "in the 
former part a counterbalancing epithet to every noun 
in the hinder/' an absurd proposition as he easily 
shews ; whereas what I conceive is meant is that this 
is the case where the ending is trisyllabic. 

The argument of Dr Atkinson for the * rule of the 
liquid,' on the strength of which he alters 
the reading refer sociis in i. 6. 20 to re- i 5Lf2S! w,l# 
feme m f orb* may be summed up as follows. 
He finds that in Propertius' 2010 pentameters there 
are 50 trisyllabic endings, i.e. 2 'non-liquid' (cubitum, 
8odi8), 46 'liquid' and 2 in -ibus {pedtbus) which, for 
some reason or other, he thinks should be put in a 

> When Dr Atkinson says a 'liquid/ what he means is a 
liquid or nasat, 

9 I agree in changing tociis (to socis), but on different 
grounds ; although it Was Dr Atkinson's paper that first called 
my attention to the passage. 


separate category. In Tibullus there are 28 in 920 
pentameters, i.e. 20 'liquid/ 5 'non-liquid' 'and 
3 in -ibu8. [Dr Atkinson includes the spurious poems 
in this calculation. The figures should be 23 = 17 
+ 3 + 3 respectively in about 620 pentameters.] In 
Catullus the rule is not observed at all ; nor is -thus 
used as an ending in any case. In his 320 penta- 
meters trisyllabic endings occur 50 times (surely 
there must be some mistake here ; I make them 79), 20 
out of which are non-liquids. Thus there is a gradual 
establishment of the rule which we observe to be 
almost invariable in Propertiua. 

This reads very plausible; but I am afraid after 
all it is only a maresnest. Mr Fennell has 
suggested to me that the reason why most ^minS!**"* 
trisyllabic endings contain a 'liquid' is 
that most trisyllables contain a liquid ! He has 
taken the trouble to go through the greater part of 
the first book of Fropertius. Amongst 271 trisyl- 
lables he found 204 i liquid' and 67 'non-liquid.' 
In 318 lines of Ovid's Tristia he found 140 trisyl- 
lables, 100 'liquid 1 and 40 ' non-liquid.' Thus we 
should expect ' liquid ' endings to predominate largely. 
But it may be urged that there is still a margin of 
difference. This may be accidental, though I do not 
think it is, as will be seen below. 

If this and other arguments hold, Dr Atkinson's 
theory totters to its base. Statistically, indeed, it 
is much less probable than the view which J have 
attributed to Mr Paley, and which he rejects for it. 
The theory that a trisyllabic ending is only permis- 
sible when the first half of the verse The • COHnUr . 
ends with a corresponding word of the balancing <j*- 
same or similar termination — for this is ***"*. 
the way I should state the theory — moreover ex- 
plains, the metrical growth in the three poets just 
as well. 


The following are the statistics ; 

Corresponding Non-corresponding and Total 

endings. imperfectly corresponding. 

Catullus 27 52(46 + 6) =79 

(genuine 18 5 (3 verbs) = 23 

Propertius 44 6 (5 + 1) =50 

or a percentage of non-corresponding endings as fol- 
lows ; Catullus 65, Tibullus 22, Propertius 12. 

But neither is this perfectly satisfactory, Mr 
Fennell has suggested to me that some 
classes of words may have been avoided 2^S£^' A<? 
by Propertius. And this I think will 
lead us to the true solution. 

First we expect that words which were avoided 
in the disyllabic endings would be avoided 
in the trisyllabic. This will exclude pro- c^in^ciatsc* 
nouns, conjunctions and most adverbs. And ^ordtasend- 
we shall expect to find few adjectives. 
Verbs are avoided for another reason. Containing, as 
they generally do, the pith of the sentence, they 
receive a double emphasis at the end of the line ; 
and so call attention to the fact that the ending is 
trisyllabic and unusual. Besides this, as they very 
frequently end with an explosive consonant, e.g. 
sedeat (Tibullus), they would in that position, so to 
speak, pull a Roman up much in the same way as 
a final porb does an Englishman 1 . Nouns then are 
left. Now (i) in these (as also in adjectives and adverbs) 
the so-called 'liquid' suffixes are exceedingly com- 
mon ; see Roby, Lat. Gram. Yol. L This will satisfy 

1 I am surprised that Dr Atkinson has not recognized the 
importance of the last sound. I wonder that he can hear a 
difference in favour of gradibus over pedibtu (Prop.) on the one 
haad, and of xefugit oyer capite (Tib.) on the other. 


the facts as seen by Dr Atkinson ; or, if not, we 
may further admit that the general predominance 
of ' liquid ' endings would naturally extend itself by 
the influence of imitation and analogy, (ii) If a 
noun or adj. is placed at the end of the second halfj 
it is a natural tendency to place the word agreeing 
with it at the end of the first. Thus, when we 
get to the end of the ) couplet, we are not surprised 
by an unexpected trisyllable, but have the satisfaction 
of receiving a word which we have been expecting 
and for* which we are prepared. 

I will now sum up the facts as I conceive they 
should be regarded. 

A. Trisyllabic pentameter endings summary qfr* 
diminish steadily in frequency from Ca- tulu - 
tullus to Ovid. 

Thus we have 

Catullus. Tibullus. Propertius. 

Pentameters 323 618 2023 

Trisyllabic endings 79 23 50 

or per cent, about 25 3f- 2| 

B. Most of the examples are nouns. In Catullus 
we find adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. But these 
latter were avoided by his successors. 












Total 79 23 50 

Or nouns form 63 per cent, of the whole in 
Catullus, 78 in Tibullus, and 96 in Propertius. 
These figures speak for themselves, 



INTRODUCTION. cxxxiii ! 

Propertiua never avoids, or perhaps rather affects 
the assimilation of the first half of the Symmetrical 
pentameter to the second, as in ^S^f 

reccidit inque snos mensa supina pedes v. 8. 44. 


semper arnica mihi semper et uxor eris n. 6. 42. 


omnia quaeque Venus quaeque Minerua probat 

i. 2. SO. 

The same tendency is seen at work in some 
endings that remind ns of Greek, 

huno super et Zetes huno super et Calais i. 20. 26. 

uret et Eoos uret et Hesperios u. 3. 44. 

Candida Nesaee caerula Cymothoe in. 21 (18). 16. 

As already said (p. lxxxix.) he does not avoid the 
concurrence of similar terminations especially when 
&e termination is & (so also Catullus) 1 . Nor does 
he observe the artificial rule of not ending a couplet 
*ith a nom. part, e.g. egens ends a verse in iv. 20. 30 
"jd tedens iv. 15 (16). 24. He is not so careful as 
Wl not to allow the sense to run on from the 
hexameter to the pentameter, or from one couplet 
to another. This latter frequently produces a fine 
effect; e .g. v. 8. 7 

qua penetrat (uirgo, tale iter omne caue) 
ieiuni serpentis honos 2 . 

In his employment of elisions he stands between 
Catullus and Ovid, but nearer to the for- 
?*er. He has many more than the latter, 
fle has 23 cases of elision of a long syllable before 

* He does not observe the rule of not putting qui &c. alter an 
1 Thus we find taleque m. 6 (5). 26, iungiteque iv. 21. 13. 

' To an English reader the difference between the Owdian 
*na ^ropertian custom will suggest that between the versifica- 
to °n of Pope and Morris. 

P. P. k 


a short one, chiefly in the first foot ; of which four 
are of a monosyllable. Once this elision occurs in 
the latter half of a pentameter, in. 6 (5). 18. As 
L. MiLller points out, this elision chiefly occurs in 
phrases like uidi ego, <fcc. ; or else where the vowel 
which precedes is o (afterwards 6) as in nemo adeo. 
For the elisions at the end of the first half of a penta- 
meter see the footnote 1 . 

Proper tius has two non-elisions of rn, huuu*. 

me felicem, o nox mihi Candida et o tu 

in. 7 (6). 1. 

haec eadem ante illam impune et Lesbia feoit 

in. 30 (24). 45. 

one unelided long vowel, in imitation of Virgil, 

. sed thyio thalamo aut Oricia terebintho 

iv. 6 (7). 49. 

and one with shortening, 

Omphal£ in tantum formae processit honorera 

iv. 10 (11). 17. 

He does not object to keeping a short vowel before 
8 and a following consonant. He never _ 
lengthens it as Tibullus does. fare * ana con- 

Thus quoscumque' amaragdos in. 8 (7). sonanL 
43, bracchia */?ectaui iv. 10 (11). 53, iam bene* sjoonde 
bant v. 1. 41, tu cauS spinosi v. 4. 48, nunc no! 
/Scipiadae classes iv. 10 (11). 67, Minoa uemimdata 
ScjIIb, figura iv. 18 (19). 21; even consuluitquS 
8triges v. 5. 17, and probably Iouis cum prolg *Sca- 
mandro iv. 1. 27 n. 

1 He has two instances of the end of the first half of the 
pentameter being elided before the last ; i. 5. 32 non impune 
ilia rogata uenit, iv. 22. 10 Heroulis Antaeique Hesperidumque 
choros, compare in. 6 (5). 10 immortalis ero si altera talis erit. 
The close connexion between the two halves which this pro- 
duces is a Greek liberty which Tibullus and Ovid abandoned. 
It is found in Catullus. In the hexameter he affects an elision 
at the end of the second foot. Some exx. have been quoted 


The following seem to be all the cer- Lengthenings in 
tain instances : ar "*- 

uinceris ant uincis : haeo in amore rotast n. 8. 8. 
nulla cora fait externos quaerere dinos v. 1. 17. 

The coalescence of two syllables into one occurs 
chiefly in Greek words, such as Pro- 

mthei ii. 1. 69, Eni^oju 13. 21, &c. $£$&&? 
Besides these we find eodem n. 8. 26 
(eddem iv. 5 (6). 36, eosdem v. 7. 7), dehinc n. 4. 60 : 
I for -n in plur. in Gobi v. 1. 34, probably . 

Ded (adj.) v. 1. 45 and 80c&8 1. c. and I for ^ 
n the pronoun, in. 19 (16). 35, in. 32 (26). 64 Lauinls 
litoribus. In abiegnus v. 1. 42, the vowel becomes 
a semivowel (abyegnus). So in Suebus iv. 2 (3). 45. 

The resolution of one syllable into two is not 
found in Propertius. The sole exception 
is the gen. in -ii. Up to his time this gen. JaiwMt 
from words in -ius and -ium is only found 
in a few isolated cases; e.g. Catullus 9. 5 o mihi 
nuntti beati, Virg. Aen, 3. 702 immanisque Gela 
fluuti cognomine dicta, and in Ennius in the proper 
name Tarquinius : and the -I form is the only one 
in use in the best classical prose. 

Propertius however found the -ii form so con- 
venient for his verse that he used it freely in con- 
junction with the -i form ; and Ovid followed him 
and extended the use still further. On the one hand 
we have Mercurii, imperii, gymnasii and on the other 
Pdusiy Antoni, Ma/ri r Tati. 

It only remains to remark that, besides the usual 
eg8\ nescid, uol6, we find an isolated ex- 
ample of 6 in verbs, Le.Jind8 iv. 8 (9). 35. *"*** <*-- 
As is well known, the shortening spread fast after 
the Augustan period ; and in the age of Juvenal final 
o is indifferently short or long. 

1 ego, v. 2. 8, is remarkable. 




The relation of a poet to his predecessors, contem- 
poraries and successors is always a question of literary 
interest. In the case of Propertius it is also one of 
critical importance. The happy comparison of some 
passage of his models or of his imitators may often 
suggest the right explanation or emendation of a 
passage classed up till then as corrupt. Much has 
been done in this way and much remains to be done. 
But of this upon a future occasion. 

Propertius tells us more than once who are his 
masters in poetry. These are of course 
the Alexandrine writers of elegy Colli- p^L^^ of 
rnachus and Philetas 1 . His ambition is to 
be the 'Roman Callimachus , (v. 1. 64); he prays 
the sacred shades of Callimachus and 
Philetas to admit him to their sacred ^* Crec *" 
grove (iv. 1.1). 

Of Philetas we have only some inconsiderable 
fragments. We have more of Callimachus ; 
but not sufficient of his elegiac poems to SS pSSSSI 
estimate the amount of our poet's debt to 

1 The reader will find a long and somewhat barren discus- 
sion of Propertius' relations to the Alexandrines in fiertzb. i. 
pp. 186 sqq. 


him. It is however not improbable that it was not so 
great as it might seem from his expressions. Enthu- 
siasm for the writer whom they took as their model of 
harmonious verse might easily have led both him and 
Catuljus to exaggerate his merits. When the glamour 
of those feelings had faded away, it was possible, as 
Ovid, a good judge in the matter, does, to take a 
cooler view; Am. 1. 15. 13 Battiades toto semper 
cantabitur orbe. quamuis ingenio non ualet, arte ualet. 
It was this consummate ars that aroused the hearty 
admiration of poets who were struggling with the 
difficulties of a yet unharmonized language, and threw 
a halo round the somewhat slender ability of its 
possessor. Still there are a good number of passages 
in Propertius where he has had Oallimachus before 
him. I will quote one. In the mss. v. 9. 57 is 
read magnam Tiresias aspexit Pallada uates. It is 
corrected to magno from Callim, Lauacr. Pall. 101, 

Ss k4 tip* adav&TUv o/ca /xrj 6ebs a£rfo IXiyrai 
dBpy&V A"<r0? tovtov Idetv /xeyaXq). 

And more are given in the notes 1 . 

There is another writer of the Alexandrine period 
to whom and to those whom he included 
in his collection Propertius apparently jSt^SiarS!^ 
owes much, more in comparison than to 
Callimachus. This is Meleager of Gadara who lived 
about B. c. 60. He compiled the first Greek Antho- 
logy. A list but not a complete one of the authors 
npon whom he drew is given in his prefatory poem, 
Anthol. 3. 1. To use his own expression, they are 

1 Further illustrations of the statements in this and follow- 
ing pages may be obtained from the Index, where the chief 
coincidences in the poems included in this selection between 
Propertins and his predecessors and successors have been col- 
lected, and to which the reader is referred. 



the * flowers in the garland* of Meleager.' Meleager 
was a man of refined taste and feeling as the collector 
of an Anthology should be. His poetry is endowed 
to a wonderful degree with the gift of tears ; and this 
no doubt was largely instrumental in drawing Pro- 
pertius to him. I will quote one exquisite passage. 

ov croc ravr c/Socw, V™* 1 ? ; " Ncu Kvnpiv oXoMrr t, 

<» dwe'pttf, t£& irvKva irpoamrapin)" 
ovk €@6<ov ; cfXev <r€ irayij. Tt fianfp cVi dc cr/iots- 

anaipeis. avror *Epa>f ra irrcpa trov dcdfjcev, 
rat a €ir\ vvp tcmfcrt pvpois (V cppavt Xtirorrrovr 

&»K* dc di^ocny dcurpva Scppa iriclv. 
a ^v;p} /3apv/AOY0t, <rv <V apri pep c< irvpor alc% 

aprt <V apo^rvyctr irncvp apake^aiuinj. 
ri cXaxcir ; to* arcyitroy or cV jcdXirouru'^Epatfra 

€Tp£<JHt, OVK fjfctS lis €Wl <To\ Tpf<f>CTO ; 

ovk ffdctff ; yvv y*a>6t kclKvv aKkaypa rpofaivv 

vvp afia Koi if/v^pa* dc^afievtj ^tona. 
avrfj ravff ciXov* 4>cp€ rov troiw, a(ta iracr-^ccr 

of cdpar, otrr<» tuuopbnj /xcAiti. 

The delicate cruelty and gilded mockery of Love 
are touched in a way that reminds us of Blake's most 
exquisite poem. 4 A bath of ointment to the scorched 
sufferer, a potion of scalding tears for his thirst. 
Yes, and rightly so; for he has taken to himself one 
who is as burning snow, and fiery honey is his re- 
ward.' Taking the number of Meleager's poems into 
account, Propertius' obligations to him are consider- 
able. Several of them are quoted in the notes ; see 
Index s.v. Meleager. I add two more. Prop. y. 1. 143 
illius arbitrio noctem lucemque uidebis, Meleag. Anth. 
12. 159 rjv /tot owvc^cs ofLfia fldXys votI, x«/&a Scoopjccr 
rpr & iXapov fikofny:, ^8w T&qXev cop: Prop. HI. 17 (14). 
20 inuitis ipse redit pedibus, Meleager Anth. 12. 85 
avTOfidrots 8* okv>v voaai ra^vs ifxpofjuu. Propertius 
seems also to have caught some of Meleager's tricks of 
speech: e.g. ecce, aspicc — Meleag. ISov, i/fc^c. Anth. 
5. 178, 12. 101, <fcc. 


Amongst the other contributors to the Anthology 
whom we observe that Proper tius had read _ jr 

Otncr conttiov- 

were Leonidas of Tarentum, an epigram tors to the* Gar- 
from whom he translates in iv. 13 (12). tom ** 
43—44 = Anth. 9. 337 ; compare also Anth. 9> 82 
vavrov ras ra\ivd<i olvos IS^orc x*P a ? "^^h IV. 5 (4). 
21 mentein uincire Lyaeo and more in the notes. 
Dioscorides. Anth. 7. 450 Alxrxvvrjv ov vofiicacra 0€dV = 
Prop. in. 27 (21). 12 intereat qui nos non putat esse 
deos, 9. 568 fx6)(0os c^tos iroXi^s t' cpya ictpicrva X € P°? 
v&op irav iyeveaOc = Prop. in. 8 (7). 46 quae tibi terra 
uelim quae tibi fiat aqua. Posidippus. Anth. 5. 213 = 
iv. 15 (16). 5, 6 and 20, 7. 170 = Prop. i. 20. 34 note. 
Antipater. Anth. 9. 58 (q. y.) = Prop. iv. 1. 57 (2. 
17) sqq. cf. iv. 10 (11). 21. There is an epigram 
attributed to him which I must take leave to quote as 
it was manifestly written in Proper tius* time* Anth. 
9. 297. 

SreXXcu cV Ei^pijnji/, Zrjvbs reicos' €ts <rc yap tj&rj 

ijtaot HdpOav avTOfwXoixri irofos* 
TTcXXev, ava£. dqets dc (frofkp Kexakcurncva ro^a, 

Kaltrap* irarpipcav d* apjai 1 aV avrokeav. 
'Papqi' o , ctKfavcp ircpiTcp/jLova irdvrotiev, avrbs 

7rp(oros dvcpxofitPn a^payia-ai 1 i;c\ta>. 

The language reminds us very strikingly of Proj). 
in. 1 and irarpuMu dvrokat throw light on the obscure 
phrase of v. 3. 7, the allusion probably being to 
Julius Caesar's expedition against Pharnaces. Anacreon. 
Meleager tells us that he included some of his elegies 
in his ' Garland. ' B a t it is certain that, if so, and if they 
were those which are ascribed to him in the Greek 
Anthology, they are. not by any means all genuine: 
e.g. those on Myron's cow (9. 715, 716); for Myrou 

1 The editors by accenting <r<f>pdyL<rcu, a middle form without 
authority, and taking dpijcu from apxofuu, ' begin,' have caused 
themselves unnecessary trouble. I take both atppaylacu and 
a/>£at as imperative infinitives ; ' rule from your father's East.' 


is muck later than Anacreon. The latter contains a 
phrase \j/cvcraTo fio&iov strikingly like Prop. V. 7. 58 
mentitae bonis. These examples might probably be 
reinforced by many more, if we had the ( Garland' as 
its editor published it 

Amongst the other Alexandrine poets Propertius 
was doubtless acquainted with Theocritus Theocritus A . 
and ApoUonius Rhodivs. Of the former I pcu<mitu *Bko- 
cannot find any very numerous imitations. XUSm 
However i. 18. 5, 6 unde tuos primum repetam, rnea 
Cynthia, fastus? quod mihi das fiendi, Cynthia, princi- 
pium? seems an expansion of Theocr. 2. 63trd0cvTov Zpwra 
SaKpvcrw; and u. 4. 16(6)=Theocr. 2. 90. Hence X think 
I. 14. 5 satas intendat uertice siluas is to be explained 
by Theocr. 7. 135 Kara icoaros Sovtovro alytipou As 
to Apollonius, I cannot speak confidently. I have 
only examined his first book However, the following 
parallels are worth noting. The love of Calliope and 
Oeagrus vv. 23, 24, Prop. m. 28 (22). 35 l , 36 : 268 
€7r€\€vaTo m/x €€ 7ra ^A Prop. in. 8 (7). 24 Candida tarn 
foedo bracchia fusa uiro. The turn in 1067 diro ft\e- 
<f>dpa)v Sera SaKpva ^cvav ?pa£c is like Prop. ill. 7 (6). 
50 omnia si dederis oscula, pauca dabis. As pointed 
out on L 20, Propertius had both Theocritus and Apol- 
lonius before him when he wrote it. 

It must not be supposed that so learned a man as 
Propertius had only studied the Alexan- Barlier Gr ^ t 
drines. On the contrary there is reason writers. 
to believe that he was acquainted with the omer ' 
works of Pindar, Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Sophocles, 
Euripides, and others. But I cannot enter into the 
subject of these obligations now % There is one, how- 

1 Oeagrifigura there recalls Soph. Trach. <f>aur/xa ratipov. 

9 I have already pointed out some affinities between Proper- 
tius and Pindar. One coincidence between Aeschylus and Pro- 
pertius is so striking and involves such a curious confusion of 
ideas, that I will set it down. Plainly it does not matter how 


ever, for whom he had a profound veneration and 
whose works he had deeply studied — the poet Homer, 
There are many, and these specific, allusions to the 
Iliad and Odyssey in the poems of Propertius. See 
for example iv. 1. 26 sqq., 11 (12). 25 sqq. where a 
complete resume" of the Odyssey story is given, and 
other allusions and imitations; e.g. iv. 6 (7). 62, in. 
5. 22 (4. 38). 

We now come to Propertius' own countrymen. 
Among the earlier writers, the only one 
that he mentions is Ennius, whom he had B * *"%££ wri " 
evidently read with appreciation. See 
especially iv. 2 (3). 7 — 12 where he hints that he 
would have taken him as his fountain- 
head of inspiration if he had written on a 
national subject. There is not much direct imitation 
of Ennius, so far, at any rate, as the existing frag- 
ments are concerned. Their subjects are of course 
not those of Propertius; and their number is not 
large. I have noted the following coincidences. 
puluis fern. (Ann. 320). ferro saeptus (Trag. 375) may 
have suggested Propertius* phrase iv. 17 (18). 25 note. 
The curious redundance in i. 4. 7 et quascumque tulit 
formosi temporis aetas (which also connects with the 
phenomena illustrated on p. lxvii) reminds us of Ennius 
Ann. 401 postremae longinqua dies confecerat aetas l . 
In one passage the younger poet seems to have im- 
proved on the older; Ann. 355 erubuit ceu lacte (nom.) 
et purpura mixta, Prop. n. 3. 12 utque rosae puro 
lacte natant folia. Another line of Ennius Ann. 405 

hard a thing one throws oneself off, if what one falls on is 
soft. But Aeschylus has, Prom. V. 748, ippiyj? i/mvriiv Tiyrd 1 
itrb <7T<f<p\ov Wrpas, jc.t.X. and Propertius in. 9 (8). 13 nunc 
iacere e dwo corpus iuuat, impia, saxo. 

1 This circumlocution seems to shew that the Roman had 
some difficulty at first in grasping the abstract idea of time, as 
we might have expected. 


post aetate pigret svfferre laborem suggests the true 
reading and interpretation of iv. 21. 21 quod superest, 
sufferre, pedes, properate laborem. Compare Attius 
Fr. 72 ita territa membra animo aegroto cunctant 
sufferre laborem. I do not find . any coincidences 
between thoughts or phrases of Propertius and the 
fragments of the other old scenic poets. 
Plautus and perhaps Terence I believe he ***' 

had read; and perhaps it is to their study that we are 
to attribute certain prosaic and even conversational 
expressions which later poets eschewed, as below the 
dignity of poetry. In this respect Propertius re- 
sembles Catullus who never avoids a prose word or ex- 
pression, if it oonveys his meaning best ; see Mr Ell is, 
CatulL Prolog, p. xxii. Such words a,ve/erire ' cozen,' 
uapukure, ducere 'cheat/ tute* 9 comicus. So in phrases 
quod quamuis ita sit m. 9 (8). 17, and the frequency 
of collocations like hie idem, tile idem with a subst., 
which are somewhat cumbrous expressions for verse. 
Of his obligations to Lucretius I will leave others to 
speak. There is no doubt that he had read and ad- 
mired Catullus; in. 32 (26). 87, 88 haec „ M n 
quoque lasciui cantarunt senpta Catulli 
Lesbia quis ipsa notior est Helena. In in. 20 (17). 3, 
4 he gives vent to the not unambitious boast that his 
poems will make Cynthia more renowned than the 
mistresses of Calvus and Catullus. In his thoughts 
and their expression I do not think he owes very 
much to Catullus. He owes something however. 
£.g. CatulL 45. 9 Amor dextram sternuit approba- 
tionem = Prop. il 3. 24 Candidas argutum sternuit 
omen Amor, Catull. 63. 65 mihi limina tepida= i. 16. 
22 (already quoted), CatulL 68. 24 gaudia nostra 
quae tuus in. uita dulcis alebat amor suggested i. 12. 
5. 6 nee mihi Vmsuetos amplexu nutrit amores Cynthia 
nee nostra dukis in ore sonat. But the resemblances 
are chiefly in {he framework of the language, so to 


speak. I notice the following: (i) a frequent use of 
'potentials,' not however nearly so frequent as in 
Prop. Cat. 64. 199 uos nolite pati nostrum uanescere 
luctum, id. 101 cupiens contra contendere monstrum ; 
so imto, nolo, cogor 1 . (ii) some full expressions which 
recall the 'disjunctiveness* of Propertius without how- 
ever going anything like as far, e.g. Cat. 68. 99, 100 
Troia infelice sepultum detinet extremo terra aliena 
solo. The expression, though full, is perfectly con- 
sistent; for terra is 'the country' and solo 'the soil/ 
Contrast the examples given above. So mem animi 
Cat. 65. 4 (Ellis), (iii) In his use of the pluperf. Ca- 
tullus reminds us of Propertius without however 
leaving the common idiom so far behind ; 10. 28, 64. 
158, 313. (iv) A certain oddity about the use of in 
64. 318 prono in pollice torquens, 22. 17 tarn gaudet 
ia se. In conclusion I may notice 64. 317 insultans 
extremo tempore which is very like the Propertian 
abl. insultet morte mea (1. c. on p. c.) and ieiunvs for 
'thirsty ' Cat. 68. 79, Prop. iv. 14 (15). 18. 

Propertius was more affected by the living influence 
of his contemporaries. Amongst these we 
must mention Virgil first. As we have rff ' 

seen, Propertius was one of his friends, aud he shared 
the high estimate of his genius which was general in 
Rome. The well-known passage at the end of the 
second (third) book is very instructive, as it shews us 
not only Propertius' opinion of Virgil, but also the 
curious way in which what he had read or heard would 
work in his mind and take new and indefinite forms. 
The passage is not so much an account as an echp of 

1 It is uncertain whether some of the expressions of desire 
do not arise out of Catullus' ardent impulsive temperament. 
Here, as in the ease of Propertius (see above, p. xlv.), it is a 
question of degree. There is no doubt that this fulness of 
expression is partly a characteristic of early Latin, and thus 
will connect in both eases with arehaie tendencies. 


Virgil and, like an echo, it is not always true x . v. 
1. 40 sqq. is another reminiscence of Virgil. There 
are a good many Virgilian phrases in Propertius. 
Thus thalamo aut Orycia terebintho iv. 6 (7). 49 n., 
uentosas addidit alas in. 3. 5il, i. 12. 15 felix qui 
potuit praesenti flere puellae = Virg. G. 2. 490 felix 
qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas (for the thought of 
this passage cf. iv. 4 (5). 25 sqq.). census induta 
nepotum iv. 12 (13). 11 is a false echo of Aen. 8. fin. 
attollens umero famamque et fata nepotum, n. 2. 6 
incedit uel Ioue digna soror = Aen. 1. 46 ast ego quae 
diuom incedo regina Iouisque et soror et coniunx, v. 8. 
55 et quantum femina saeuit = Aen. 5. 6 furens quid 
femina possit So in it. 22. 19 (a poem which is 
founded on Virg. G. 1. 136 sqq.), commoda noxae = 
Virgil's accommoda fraudi, diuom sator is a Virgilian 
phrase, sanguine siccus has been quoted; it is like 
Virgil's siccas sanguine fauces, the interpretation of 
which it establishes. 

Dr Teuffel (Hist of Lat. lit. i. p. 467 Eng. tr.) 
has pointed out several coincidences be- 
tween Horace and Propertius ; and others <nraee - 
will be found in the notes. A striking one is Hor. 
Od.2. 17. 26 laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum = Prop, 
iv. 9 (10). 4 manibus faustos ter crepuere sonos. On 
their social relations see above, p. xxxii. I believe our 
poet reproduces him, but reproduces him unconsciously. 
His coincidences with Tibuttus* again be- 
long on the whole to the class of reminis- n, "~ 
cence rather than direct imitation. I will quote a 
few. Tibull. 1. 2. 76 cum fletu nox uigitanda uenit = 
Prop. rv. 20. 22 non habet ultores nox uigitanda deos 
(observe that he uses it with much more pregnant 

1 I wish I had space to develope this ; but the materials 
for doing so are in everybody's hands. 

1 I exclude of course Books m. and iy., the authors of which 
imitated Propertius. 


meaning than Tibullus), Tib. 1. 8. 3 conscia fibra deo- 
rum = Prop. v. 1. 104 aut sibi commissos fibra locuta 
deos, and several from Tibullus 1. 9 (init.). Occa- 
sionally Tibullus may help us to an emendation of 
Propertius, as in 1. 7. 55 = Prop. v. 11. 70. 

I must add a word about the prose writers. 
Broukhuys long ago held that Propertius 
had been infiuenced by Cicero and, I be- ProtewrUert ' 
lieve, the agreements between them are sufficient to 
shew that the poet had read and assimilated the 
orator. There are points of similarity too between 
his style and that of IAwj\ but I prefer not to venture 
on an explanation. 

Amongst the imitators of Propertius Ovid is en- 
titled to first place. His obligations to Pro- 
pertius are not quite adequately set forth JSnftSSwrir 
even in so careful and learned a treatise 
as that of Dr A. Zingerle. Ovid owes him first the 
conception of his Heroides and Fasti. The 
first was suggested by the epistle of Are- 
thusa to Lycotas v. 4, the second by the aetiological 
poems in the same book. v. 1. 69 sacra diesque canam 
et cognomina prisca locorum is a perfect description of 
the Fasti. Secondly, his mind was thoroughly satu- 
rated with the poems of Propertius ; and Propertian 
turns and phrases are continually coming to the sur- 
face. I will give one instance to distinguish this 
kind of coincidence from the next one. Am. 1. 1. 
12 Aoniam Marte mouente lyram seems an obvious 
phrase enough ; and yet Aoniam lyram is from Prop. 
i. 2. 28, and Marte mouente is an echo of Prop. iv. 22. 
32 exitium nato matre mouente suo. Lastly he has 
a large number of direct and conscious plagiarisms. 
For there is no other word for imitations like this, 
Ov. P. 2. 3. 39 mitius est lasso digitum supponere 
mento = Prop. iv. 7 (8). 69 uos decuit lasso supponere 
bracchia mento. It is needless to multiply instances, 


many of which may be found in the notes and more 
in Zingerle's collection, p. 109 sqq. 

Propertius was very widely read in the literary 
circles of Home for many centuries, and 
the writings of almost all the poets who *"" 

succeeded him bear traces of his influence. The influ- 
ence which he had on Juvenal has been already pointed 
out by Mr Palmer. Martial too quotes from him and 
imitates him sometimes. Statins had read him very 
carefully. He often follows him very closely in points 
of phraseology; e.g. in rare words like undisonus, 
insinuare in a literal sense. His very mention of 
him shews how well he knew him, Silv. 1. 2. 253 hunc 
ipse choro plaudente Philetas Callimachusque senex 
VmbroquQ Propertius antro ambissent laudare diem. 
It shews too that the Romans felt his use of antrum 
to be strange. Manilius and probably Lucari, Vale- 
rius Flaccus and SUius Italicus all had read him. 
The author of the poem on Aetna imitates him 1 . So 
too does Claudian. Ausonius founds a whole poem (the 
Rosas idyll) on a couplet of his v. 5. 61, 62. Some 
of the prose writers too seem to have studied him, 
notably Seneca*, and later Appuleius. The latest 
ancient writer whom we can make sure was acquaint- 
ed with him was the Greek epigrammatist IPauUus 
Silentiarius, who lived in the time of Justinian I. On 
his imitations of Propertius see Hertzb. p. 230. But 
there is a much later writer who may have had Pro- 
pertius before him, as he certainly had many other an- 
cient authors, Nicetas Eugenianus, a Greek romancer in 
the iambic verse of the time, who probably lived about 

1 One passage is very striking, Prop. xv. 4 (5). 25 sqq.= 
Aetna 219 sqq. Not only is the subject, the study of physical 
philosophy, the same, and worked out on the same lines, bat 
the indicative and subjunctive in oratio obliqua alternate in a 
precisely similar way. 

3 The tragedies also contain several imitations. 


the 12th century a.d. I think attention should be 
directed to him as he certainly has some very obvious 
imitations of Euripides, Theocritus, &c, which may be 
of importance in determining the text of those authors '. 

Then for some centuries Propertius disappeared 
from the world. The deluge of barbarism ._ ^ . J 
which swept over the civilized world sub- 
merged his works like those of so many of the ancients. 
We do not hear anything of him till we 
get to Petrarch, who, without doubt, had Pararch * e ' 
seen or possessed a copy, as he both mentions* and 
imitates a Propertius. Perhaps Dante knew his works ; 
at any rate the coincidence pointed out in the note on 
iv. 2 (3). 22 is striking. But Dante would have little 
sympathy with Propertius. Tasso and Ariosto also 
imitated him; e.g. Jerusalem Delivered Canto 6 
Stanzas 104, 105 = Prop. v. 4. 31 — 34, and exx. in 
the notes. Henceforward Propertius may be said to 
have regained a place among classical poets; and it is 
unnecessary to pursue his literary influence further, 
now that it no longer bears upon the history of his text. 

But I may ask leave to quote from the Introduc- 
tion to Jacob and Binder's German trans- 
lation a sentence upon Propertius from 
the great critic-poet of Germany which may be set 
against the comparative neglect of him in England. 
The following is the entry in Goethe's diary for Nov. 
28, 1798. "The Elegies of Propertius, of which I 
have read the greater part in KnebePs translation, 

1 The following are the passages I have noted in which he 
may have had Propertius before him (I quote from Boisso- 
nade's edition) I. 148, 273; n. 127 sqq., 326; m. 10, 12, 46, 184, 
235, 251; iv. 355, 413; v. 135; vi. 349, 369 sqq., 437, 475; 
vm. 231. 

2 On the triumph of Love * L' un era Ovidio e 1' altr' era 
Catullo, L' altro Properzio che d' amor cantaro Fervidamente ; 
<* V altr' era Tibullo.' 

3 E.g. as in Sonn. 220 = Prop. n. 6. 13, 14. 


have produced an agitation (Erschutterung) in my 
nature, such as works of this kind are wont to cause; 
a desire to produce something similar which X must 
evade, as at present I have quite other things in 

Fasti Peopertiani. 


69. Birth of Gallus. 

57. Birth of Tibullus. 

50. Birth of Peopertius. 

43. Birth of Ovid. 

42. Propertius loses his paternal estate. 

34. Assumes toga uirilis. 

28. Becomes acquainted with Cynthia (Hostia). 

25. First book published. 

23. Rupture with Cynthia. 

After 23. Publication of second, and third books (n. 

III. IV.). 

18. Leges Iuliae. Marriage of Propertius. [Previous 

death of Cynthia.] 
1 6. Poem celebrating performance of Ivdi quinqzcen- 

nales, v (iv). 6. 

Before A. D. 2. Death of Propertius. 

After a.d. 2. Posthumous publication of last book. 

*^* It must be remembered that some of the 
above dates are only conjectural. 


I. i 

His Love. 

Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis 

contactum nullis ante cupidinibus. 
turn mini constantis deiecit lumina fastus 

et caput impositis pressit Amor pedibus, 
donee me docuit castas odisse puellas 5 

improbus et nullo uiuere consilio. 
et mihi iam toto furor hie non deficit anno, 

cum tamen aduersos cogor habere deos. 
Milanion nullos fugiendo, Tulle, labores 

saeuitiam durae contudit Iasidos. 10 

nam modo Fartheniis amens errabat in antris, 

ibat et hirsutas ille uidere feras; 
ille etiam Hylaei percussus uolnere rami 

saucius Arcadiis rupibus ingemuit. 
ergo uelocem potuit domuisse puellam: 15 

tantum in amore preces et bene facta ualent. 
in me tardus Amor non ullas cogitat artes 

nee meminit notas, ut prius, ire uias. 

p. p. 1 


at uos, deductae quibus est fallacia lunae 

et labor in magicis sacra piare focis, 20 

en agedum dominae mentem oonuertite nostrae 

et facite ilia meo palleat ore magis. 
tunc ego crediderim uobis et sidera et amnes 

posse Cytinaeis ducere rarniinibus. 
et uos qui sero lapsum reuocatis, amici, 25 

quaerite non sard pectoris auxilia. 
fortiter et ferrum saeuos patiemur et ignes, 

sit modo libertas quae uelit ira loqui 
ferte per extremas gentes et ferte per undas, 

qua non ulla meum femina norit iter. 30 

uos remanete quibus facili deus adnuit aure, 

sitiset in tuto semper amore pares, 
in me nostra Venus noctes exercet amaras, 

et nullo uacuus tempore dent amor, 
hoc, moneo, uitate malum : sua quemque moretur 35 

cura, neque adsueto mutet amore locum, 
quod si quis monitis tardas aduerterit aures, 

heu! referet quanto uerba dolore mea, 

33 uoces. 

I. ii 
Beauty unadorned. 

Quid iuuat ornato procedere, uita, capillo 
et tenues Coa ueste mouere sinus) 

aut quid Orontea crines perfundere murra 
teque peregrinis uendere muneribus, 


naturaeque decus mercato perdere cultu 5 

nee sinere in propriis membra nitere bonis 1 
crede mihi, non ulla tuaest' medicina figurae : 

nudus Amor formae non amat artifioem. 
aspice quos summittat humus formosa colores, 

ut ueniant hederae sponte sua melius, 10 

surgat et in soils formosius arbutus antris, 

et sciat indociles currere lympha uias. 
litora natiuis praelucent picta lapillis 

et uolucres nulla dulcius arte canunt. 
non sic Leucippis succendit Castora Phoebe, 15 

Pollucem cultu non Hilaira soror, 
non, Idae et cupido quondam diseordia Phoebo, 

Eueni patriis filia litoribus, 
nee Phrygium f also traxit candore maritum 

auecta ex'ternis Hippodamia rotis; 20 

sed facies aderat nullis obnoxia gemmis, 

qualis Apelleis est color in tabulis. 
non illis stud i urn uolgo conquirere amantes: 

illis ampla satis forma pudicitia. 
non ego nunc uereor, ne sim tibi uilior istis. 25 

uni si qua placet, culta puella sat est; 
cum tibi praesertim Phoebus sua carmina donet 

Aoniamque libens CaUiopea lyram, 
unica nee desit iucundis gratia uerbis, 

omnia quaeque Yenus quaeque Minerua probat. 30 
his tu semper eris nostrae gratissima uitae, 

taedia dum miserae sint tibi luxuriae. 

10 et. 11 felicius, 



I. v 
The woes of love. A warning voice. 

Inuide, tu tandem noces compesce molestas 

et sine nos cursu quo sumus ire pares, 
quid tibi uis, insane? meos sentire furores? 

infelix, properas ultima nosse mala 
et miser ignotos uestigia ferre per ignes 5 

et bibere e tota toxica Thessalia. 
non est ilia uagis similis conlata puellis; 

molliter irasci non solet ilia tibi. 
quod si forte tuis non est contraria uotis, 

at tibi curarum milia quanta dabitl 10 

non tibi iam somnos, non ilia relinquet ocellos; 

ilia feros animis alligat una uiros. 
a! mea contemptus quotiens ad limina curies, 

cum tibi singultu fortia uerba cadent, 
et tremulus maestis orietur fletibus horror, 15 

et timor informem ducet in ore notam, 
et quaecumque uoles fugient tibi uerba querenti, 

nee poteris qui sis aut ubi nosse miser, 
turn graue seruitium nostrae cogere puellae 

discere et exclusum quid sit abire domum; 20 
nee iam pallorem totiens mirabere nostrum, 

aut cur sim toto corpore nullus ego. 
nee tibi nobilitas poterit succurrere amanti: 

nescit Amor priscis cedere imaginibus. 
quod si parua tuae dederis uestigia culpae, 25 

quam cito de tanto nomine rumor eris! 


non ego torn potero solacia ferre roganti^ 
cum Tm'Tij nulla mei sit mediciua mali, 

sed pariter miseri socio cogemur am ore 

alter in alterius mutua flere sinu. 30 

quare quid possit mea Cynthia deaine, Galle, 
quaerere : non inpune ilia rogata uenit. 

. vm 
Cynthia's voyage. 

Tune igitur demons, nee te mea cura moratur? 

an tibi sum gelida uilior IUyria? 
et tibi iam tanti quicumquest iste uidetur,' 

ut sine me uento quolibet ire uelis % 
tune audire potes uesani murmura ponti 5 

fortis et in dura naue iacere potes) 
tu pedibus teneris positas fulcire pruinas, 

tu potes insolitas, Cynthia, ferre niues? 
o utinam hibernae duplicentur tempera brumae, 

et sit in era tardis nauita Yergiliis; 10 

nee tibi Tyrrhena soluatur funis harena, 

neue inimica meas eleuet aura preces, 
et me defixum uacua patiatur in ora (15) 

crudelem infesta saepe uocare manu. (16) 

atque ego non uideam tales subsidere uentos, (13) 

cum tibi prouectas auferet unda rates; (14) 

sed quocumque modo de me, periura, mereris, 17 

sit Galatea tuae non aliena uiae, 


ut te felici praeuecta Ceraunia remo 

accipiat placidis Oricos aequoribus. 20 

nam me non ullae poterunt corrumpere taedae, 

quin ego, uita, tuo limine uerba querar; 
nee me deficiet nautas rogitare citatos 

'dicite, quo porta claasa puella meastT 
et dicam l licet Autaricis considat in oris, 25 

et licet Hylleis, ilia futura meash' 

19 utere. 22 uera. 25 Atraciis. 

Cynthia's voyage abandoned. 

Hie erit! hie inrata manet! rumpantur iniqui! 

uicimus: adsiduas non tulit ilia preces. 
falsa licet cupidus deponab gaudia liuor: 

destitit ire nouas Cynthia nostra uias. 30 

illi cams ego et per me carissima Roma 

dicitur, et sine me dulcia regna negat 
ilia uel angusto mecnm requiescere lecto 

et quocumque modo maluit esse mea, 
quam sibi dotatae regnum uetus Hippodamiae, 35 

et quas Elis opes ante pararat equis. 
quamuis magna daret, quamuis maiora daturas, 

non tamen ilia meos fugit auara sinus, 
hanc ego non auro, non India flectere conchis, 

Bed potui blandi carminis obsequio. 40 

sunt igitur Musae, neque amanti tardus Apollo, 

quis ego fretus amo: Cynthia rara raeast. 


nunc mihi summa licet contingere sidera plantis: 
siue dies seu nox uenerit, ilia meast. 

nee mihi riualis certos subducit amores: 45 

ista meam norit gloria canitiem. 

I. ix 

The prophecy fulfilled. 

Dicebam tibi uenturos, irrisor, amores 

nee tibi perpetuo libera uerba fore : 
ecce iaces supplexque uenis ad iura puellae, 

et tibi nunc quouis imperat empta modo. 
non me Chaoniae uincant in amore columbae 5 

dicere quos iuuenes quaeque puella domet. 
me dolor et lacrimae merito fecere peritum: 

atque utinam posito dicar amore rudis! 
quid tibi nunc misero prodest graue dicere carmen 

aut Amphioniae moenia flere lyrae? 10 

plus in amore ualet Mimnermi. uersus Homero : 

carmina mansuetus lenia quaerit Amor, 
i quaeso et tristes istos compone libellos, 

et cane quod quaeuis nosse puella uelit 
quid si non esset facilis tibi copial nunc tu 15 

insanus medio flumine quaeris aquam. 
necdum etiam palles uero nee tangeris igni: 

haec est uenturi prima £etu01a mali 
turn magis Armenias cupies accedere tigres 

et magis infernae uincula nosse rotae, 20 


quam. pueri totiens arcum. sentire medullis 

et nihil iratae posse negare tuae. 
nullus Amor cuiquam faciles ita praebuit alas, 

ut non alterna presserit ille manu. 
nee te decipiat quod sit satis ilia parata: 25 

acrius ilia subit, Pontice, si qua tuast; 
quippe nbi non liceat uacuos seducere ocellos, 

nee uigilare alio nomine cedat Amor, 
qui non ante patet donee manus attigit ossa. 

quisquis es, adsiduas a! fuge blanditias. 30 

illis et silices possunt et cedere quercus.; 

nedum tu par sis, spiritus iste leuis. 
quare, si pudor est, quam primum errata fatere: 

dicere quo pereas saepe in amore leuat. 

33 p088l8. 

I. xvi 
The door's complaint. 

Quae fueram magnis olim patefacta triumphis, 

ianua Tarpeiae nota pudicitiae, 
cuius inaurati celebrarunt limina currus, 

captorum lacrimis umida supplicibus, 
nunc ego, nocturnis potorum saucia rixis, 5 

pulsata indignis saepe queror manibus; 
et mihi non desunt turpes pendere corollae 

semper et exclusis signa iacere faces, 
nee possum infamis dominae defendere noctes 

nobilis obscenis tradita carminibus. 10 


nee tamen ilia suae reuocatur paroere famae, 

turpior et saecli uiuere luxuria. 
has inter grauius cogor deflere querelas, 

snpplicis a longis tristior excubiis* 
ille meos numquam patitur requiescere postes, 15 

arguta referens carmina blanditia: 
( ianua uel domina penitus crudelior ipsa, 

quid mihi tarn duris clausa taces foribus? 
cur numquam reserata meos admittis amores, 

nescia furtiuas reddere mota preces? 20 

nullane finis erit nostro concessa dolori, 

tristis et in tepido limine somnus erit? 
me mediae noctes, me sidera prona iacentem, 

frigidaque Eoo me dolet aura gelu: 
tu sola humanos numquam miserata dolores 25 

respondes tacitis mutua cardinibus. 
utinam traiecta caua mea uocula rima 

percussas dominae uertat in auriculas ! 
sit licet et saxo patientior ilia Sicano, 

sit licet et ferro durior et chalybe, 30 

non tamen ilia suos poterit compescere ocellos, 

surget et inuitis spiritus in lacrimis. 
nunc iacet alterius felici nixa lacerto: 

at mea nocturno uerba cadunt Zephyro. 
sed tu sola mei, tu maxima causa doloris, 35 

uicta meis numquam, ianua, muneribus. 
te non ulla meae laesit petulantia linguae, 

quae solet irato dicere turba ioco, 
ut me tarn longa raucum patiare querela 

sollicitas triuio peruigilare moras. 40 


at tibi saepe nouo deduxi Carolina uersu, 

osculaque inpresfds nixa dedi gradibus. 
ante tuos quotiens uerti me, perfida, poster, 

debitaque occultis uota tuli manibusi' 
haec ille et si quae miseri nouistis amantes, 45 

et matutinis obstrepit alitibus. 
sic ego nunc dominae uitiis et semper aniantis 

fletibus aeterna differor inuidia. 

13 grauibu»...querelis. 38 tecta) 

I. XX 

Hylas. A warning. 

Hoc pro contiuuo te, Galle, monemus amore: 

id tibi ne uacuo defluat ex animo, 
'saepe inprudenti fortuna occurrit amanti 

crudelis Minuis dixerit Ascaniua 
est tibi non infra speciem, non nomine dispar 5 

Thiodamanteo proximus ardor Hylae. 
huic tu, siue leges umbrosae flumina Silae, 

siue Aniena tuos tinxerit unda pedes 
siue Gigantea spatiabere litoris ora, 

siue ubioumque uago fluminis hospitio, 10 

Nympharum semper cupidas defende rapinas: 

non minor Ausoniis est aroor Adryasin: 
ne tibi sit — durum — montes et frigida saxa, 

Galle, neque expertos semper adire lacus; 
quae miser ignotia error perpessus in oris 15 

Herculis indomito fleuerat Ascania 

LIBER J. 11 

namque ferunt olim Pagasae naualibus Argon 

egressam longe Phasidos iase uiam, 
et iam praeteritis- labentem Athamantidos undis 

Mysorum scopulis adplicuisse ratem. 20 

hie manus heroum, plaoidis ut constitit oris, 

mollia composita litora fronde tegit: 
at comes inuicti iuuenis prooesserat ultra 

raram sepositi quaerere fontis aquam. 
hunc duo sectati fratres, Aquilonia proles, 25 

hunc super et Zetes hunc super et Calais, 
oscula suspensis instabant carper© palmis, 

oscula et alterna ferre supina fuga. 
ille sub extrema pendens secluditur ala 

et uolucres ramo submouet insidias. 30 

iam Pandioniae cessit genus Orithyiae: 

a! dolor, ibat Hylas, ibat Hamadryasin. 
hie erat Arganthi Pege sub uertiee montis, 

grata domus Nymphis umida Thyniasin; 
quam supra nullae pendebant debita curae 35 

roseida desertis poma sub arboribus, 
et circum irriguo surgebant lilia prato 

Candida purpureis mixta papaueribus: 
quae modo decerpens tenero pueriliter ungui 

proposito florem praetulit officio, 40 

et modo formosis incumbens nescius undis 

errorem blandis tardat imaginibus. 
tandem haurire parat demissis flumina palmis 

innixus dextro plena trahens umero. 
cuius ut accensae Dryades candore puellae 45 

miratae solitos destituere choros, 


prolapsum leuiter facili traxere liquore: 

torn sonitum rapto corpora fecit Hylas. 
cui procul Alcides iterat responsa: sed illi 
• nomen ab extremis fontibus aura refert. 50 

his, o Galle, tuos monitus seruabis amores, 
formosum Nymphis credere tutus Hylam. 

52 uisus. 

I. xxi 
The dying words of Gallus. 

Tu qui consortem properas euadere casum, 

miles, ab Etruscis saucius aggeribus, 
qui nostro gemitu turgentia lumina torques, 

pars ego sum uestrae proxima militiae. 
sic te seruato ut possiut gaudere parentes, 5 

nee soror acta tuis sentiat e lacrimis: 
Galium per medios ereptum Caesaris enses 

effugere ignotas non potuisse manus ; 
et quicumque super dispersa inuenerit ossa 

montibus Etruscis, haec sciat esse mea. 10 

9 quaeewnque. 
. XXll 

The Poet's birthplace. 

Qualis et unde genus, qui sint mihi, Tulle, Penates, 

quaeris pro nostra semper amicitia. 
si Perusina tibi patriae sunt nota sepulcra, 

Italiae duris funera temporibus, . 

LIBER I. 13 

cum Romana suos egit discordia ciues, 5 

(sit mihi praecipue, puluis Etrusca, dolor, 

tu proiecta mei perpessa's membra propinqui, 
tu nullo miseri oontegia ossa solo) 

proxima supposito contingens Ymbria campo 
me genuit terris fertilis uberibus, 10 

II. v 


Hoc uerunist, tota te ferri, Cynthia, Roma 

et non ignota uiuere nequitia ? 
haec merui sperare 1 dabis mihi, perfida, poenas : 

et nobis Aquilo, Cynthia, uentus erit. 
inueniam tamen, e multis fallacibua unam, 5 

quae fieri nostro carmine nota uelit, 
nee mihi tarn duris insultet moribus et te 

uellicet: heu! sero fiebis amata diu. 
nunc est ira recens, nunc est discedere tempns: 

si dolor afuerit, crede, redibifc amor. 10 

non ita Carpathiae uariant Aqnilonibus undae 

nee dubio nnbes uertitur atra Noto, 
quam facile irati uerbo mutantur amantes : 

dam licet, iniusto subtrahe colla iugo. 
nee tu non aliquid sed prima nocte dolebis : 1 5 

omne in amore malum, si patiare, leuest. 
at tu per dominae Iunonis dulcia iura 

parce tuis animis, uita, nocere tibL 


non solum taurus ferit uncis cornibu* hostem; 

uerum etiam instant! laesa repagnat ouis. 20 
nee tibi periuro scindam de corpore uestee, 

nee mea praeclusas fregerib ira fares, 
nee tibi conexos iratus carpere crines 

nee duris ausim laedere pollicibus: 
rusticus haee aliquis tarn turpia proelia quaerat, 25 

cuius non hederae circumiere caput 
scribam igitur quod non umquam tua deleat aetas, 

'Cynthia forma potens, Cynthia uerba leuis.' 
crede mihi, quamuis contemnas murmura famae, 

hie tibi pallori, Cynthia, versus erit. 30 

4 aliquo. 

II. vii 
The cruel law. 

Gauisast oerte sublatam Cynthia legem, 

qua quondam edicta flemus uterque diu, 
ni nos diuideret quamuis diducere amantes 

non queat inuitos Iuppiter ipse duos, 
at magnus Caesar, sed magnus Caesar in armis : 5 

deuictae gentes nil in amore ualent. 
nam citius paterer caput hoc discedere collo, 

quam possem nuptae perdere more faces, 
aut ego transirem tua limina clausa maritus, 

respiciens udis prodita luminibus. 10 

a! mea turn qualis caneret tibi, Cynthia, somnoft 

tibia, funesta tristior ilia tuba. 


undo mihi patriis natos praebere triumphis? 

nullus de nostro sanguine miles erit. 
quod si uera meae comitarent castra puellae, i$ 

non mihi sat magnus Castoris iret eqtras. 
hinc etenim tantum meruit mea gloria nomen, 

gloria ad hibernOs lata Borysthenidas. 
tu mihi sola places: placeam tibi, Cynthia, solus: 

hie erit et patrio sanguine pluris amor. 20 

8 amore. 20 nomine. 

III. i 


Sed tern pus lustrare aliis Helicona choreis, 

et campum Haemonio iam dare tempus equo* 
iam libet et fortes memorare ad proelia turmas 

et Romana mei dicere castra ducis. 
quod si deficiant uires, audacia certe 5 

laus erit : in magnis et uoluisse sat est. 
aetas prima canat Yeneres, extrema tumultus : 

bella canam, quando scripta puella meast. 
nunc uolo subducto grauior procedere uoltu; 

nunc aliam citharam me mea Musa docet. 10 

surge, anima, ex humili iam carmine; sumite uires, 

Pierides; magni nunc erit oris opus, 
iam negat Euphrates equitem post terga tueri 

Parthorum et Crassos se tenuisse dolet: 
India quin, Auguste, tuo dat colla triumpho, 15 

et domus intactae te tremit Arabiae: 


et si qua extremis tellus se subtrahit oris, 

sentiet ilia tuas postmodo capta manus. 
haeo ego castra sequar: uates tua castra canendo 

magnus ero: seruent hunc niihi fata diem! 2c 
ut caput in magnis ubi non est tangere signis, 

ponitur hie imos ante corona pedes, 
sic nos nunc, inopes laudis conscendere carmen, 

pauperibus sacris uilia tura damus. 24 

nondum etiam Ascraeos norunt mea carmina fontes, 

sed modo Permessi flumine lauit Amor, 

25 etenim, 

III. ii 
The Poet's threat. 

Scribant de te alii uel sis ignota licebit: 
laudet qui sterili semina ponit humo. 

omnia, crede mihi, tecum uno munera lecto 
auferet,extremi funeris atra dies: 

et tua transibit contemnens ossa uiator, 5 

nee dicet ' cinis hie docta puella fait.' 

III. iii 
The God of Love. 

Quicumque ille fuit puerum qui pinxit Amorem, 
nonne putas miras hunc habuisse manus? 

hie primum uidit sine sensu uiuere amantes 
et leuibus curis magna perire bona, 


idem non frustra uentosas addidit alas, 5 

fecit et humano corde uolare deum; 
scilicet alterna quoniam iactamur in unda, 

nostraque non ullis permanet aura locis. 
st merito hamatis manus est armata sagittis, 

et pharetra ex umero Gnosia utroque iacet; 10 
ante ferit quoniam, tuti quam cernimus hostem, 

nee quisquam ex illo uolnere sanus abit. 
in me tela manent manet et puerilis imago : 

sed certe pennas perdidit ille suas ; 
euolat heu ! nostro quoniam de pectore nusquam 1 5 

adsiduusque meo sanguine bella gerit. 
quid tibi iucundumst siccis habitare medullis? 

si pudor est, alio traice tela tua. 
intactos isto satius temptare ueueno : 

non ego sed tenuis uapulat umbra mea. 2 a 

quam si perdideris, quis eiit qui talia cantet, 

(haec mea Musa leuis gloria magna tuast), 
qui caput et digitos et lumina nigra puellae 

et canat ut soleant molli^er ire pedes ? 

III. v 
The last rites. 

Quandocumque igitur nostros mors claudet ocellos, 

accipe quae seraes funeris acta mei. 
fcec mea tunc longa spatietur imagine pompa, 

nee tuba sit fati uana querela mei, 
p. p. 2 


nee mihi tunc fulcro sternatur lectus ebnrno, 5 

nee sit in Attalico mors mea nixa toro. 
desit odoriferis ordo mihi lancibus; adsint 

plebei paruae funeris exequiae. 
sat mea sat magnast si tres sint pompa libelli, 

quos ego Persephonae maxima dona feram. 10 
tu uero nudum pectus lacerata sequeris, 

nee fueris nomen lassa uocare meum, 
osculaque in gelidis pones suprema labellis, 

cum dabitur Syrio munere plenus onyx, 
deinde, ubi suppositus cinerem me fecerit ardor, 15 

accipiat Manes paruola testa meos, 
et sit in exiguo laurus super addita busto, 

quae tegat extincti funeris umbra locum, 
et duo sint uersus, 'qui nunc iacet horrida puluis, 

unius bic quondam seruos am oris erat.' 20 

nee minus haec nostri notescet fama sepulcri, 

quam fuerant Phthii busta cruenta uiri. 
tu quoque, si quando uenies ad fata, (memento 

hoc iter), ad lapides cana ueni memores. 
interea caue sis nos aspernata sepultos : 25 

nonnihil ad uerum conscia terra sapit. 
atque utinam primis animam me ponere cunis 

iussisset quaeuis de tribus una soror ! 
nam quo tarn dubiae seruetur spiritus horael 

Kestoris est uisus post tria saecla cinis : 50 

cui si longaeuae minuisset fata senectae 

Gal lieu s Iliacis miles in aggeribus, 
non aut Antilochi uidisset corpus bumari, 

diceret aut ( o mors, cur mihi sera uenis]' 


tu tamen amisso non numquam flebis axnico: 35 

fas est praeteritos semper amare uiros. 
testis, cni niueum quondam percussit Adonem 

uenantem Idalio uertice durus aper : 
illis formosum iacuisse paludibus, illuo 

diceris effusa tu, Venus, isse coma. 40 

sed frustra mutos reuocabis, Cynthia, Manes : 

nam mea quid poterunt ossa minuta loqui? 

III. iv. 17—56. Paley. 37 qui. 

III. xxi 
A dream. 

Vidi te in somnis fracta, mea uita, carina 

Ionio lassas ducere rore manus, 
et quaecumque in me fueras mentita fateri, 

nee iam umore graues tollere posse comas, 
qualem purpureis agitatam nuctibus Hellen, 5 

aurea quam molli tergore uexit ouis. 
quam timui ne forte tuum mare nomen haberet 

atque tua labens nauita fleret aqua ! 
quae turn ego Neptuno, quae turn cum Castore fratri, 

quaeque tibi excepi, iam dea Leucothoe! 10 

at tu, nix primas extollens gurgite palmas, 

saepe meum nomen iam peritura uocas. 
quod si forte tuos uidisset Glaucus ocellos, 

esses lonii facta puella maris, 
et tibi ob inuidiam Nereides increpitarent, 15 

Candida Nesaee, caerula Cymothoe. 



sed tibi subsidio delphinum currere nidi, 
qui, puto, Arioniam uexerat ante lyram. 

iamque ego conabar summo me mittere saxo, 
cum mihi discussit talia uisa metus. 20 

m. zvm, Paley. 15 prae inuidia. 

III. xxiii 
Love and Destiny. 

At uos incertam, mortales, funeris horam 

quaeritis et qua sit mors aditura uia; 
quaeritis et caelo, Phoenicum inuenta, sereno 

quae sit Stella homini commoda quaeque mala, 
seu pedibus Parthos sequimur seu classe Britannos, 5 

et maris et terrae caeca pericla uiae; 
rursus et obiectum flemus caput esse tumultu, 

cum Mauors dubias miscet utrimque manus; 
praeterea domibus flammam domibusque ruinas, 

neu subeant labris pocula nigra tuis. 10 

solus amans nouit quando periturus et a qua 

morte, neque hie Boreae flabra neque arma timet 
iam licet et Stygia sedeat sub harundine remex, 

cernat et infernae tristia uela ratis : 
si modo clamantis reuocauerit aura puellae, 15 

concessum nulla lege redibit iter. 

III. zix. Paley. 

V \ 


III. xxix 

The Temple of Apollo. 

Quaeris cur ueniam tibi tardior. aurea Phoebi 

porticus a magno Caesare aperta foifc. 
tanta erat in speciem Poenis digesta columnis, 

inter quas Danai femina turba senis. 
turn medium claro surgebat marmore tern plum 5 

et patria Phoebo carius Ortygia. 
et duo Solis erant supra fastigia currus, 

et ualuae, Libyci nobile dentis opus, 
altera deiectos Parnasi uertice Gallos, 

altera maerebat funera Tantalidos. 10 

deinde inter matrem deus ipse interque sororem 

Pythius in longa carmina ueste sonat. 
hie equidem Phoebo uisus mihi pulchrior ipso 

marmoreus tacita carmen hiare lyra: 
atque aram circum steterant armenta Myronis, 15 

quattuor artifices, uiuida signa, boues. 

m. xnn. Paley. 7 in quo Solis erat. 

5—12=9—16. 13—16=6—8. 

IV. i 

The Poet's reward. 

Callimachi Manes et Coi sacra Philetae, 
in uestrum, quaeso, me sinite ire nemus. 

primus ego ingredior puro de fonte sacerdos 
Itala per Graios orgia ferre choros. 


dicite, quo pariter carmen tenuastis in antro 1 5 

quoue pede ingressi? quamue bibistis aquam? 
a ualeat Phoebum quicumque moratur in armis! 

exactus tenui pumice uersus eat, 
quo me Fama leuat terra sublimis, et a me 

nata coronatis Musa triumphat equis, 10 

et mecum in curru parui uectantur Amores, 

scriptorumque meas turba secuta rotas, 
quid frustra missis in me certatis habenis? 

non datur ad Musas currere lata uia. 
multi, Roma, tuas laudes annalibus addent, 15 

qui finem imperii Bactra futura canent. 
sed quod pace legas opus hoc de monte sororum 

detulit intacta pagina nostra uia. 
mollia, Pegasides, date uestro serta poetae.} 

non faciet capiti dura corona meo. 20 

at mihi quod uiuo detraxerit inuida turba, 

post obitum duplici faenore reddet honos. 
omnia post obitum fingit maiora uetustas; 

maius ab exequiis nomen in ora uenit. 
nam quia equo pulsas abiegno nosceret arces, 25 

numinaque Haemonio comminus isse uiro, 
Idaeum Simoenta Iouis cum prole Scamandro, 

Hectora ter campos ter maculasse rotas? 
Deiphobumque Helenumque et Pulydamantas in armis ? 

qualemcumqiie Parim uix sua nosset humus. 30 
exiguo sermone fores nunc, Ilion, et tu, 

Troia, bis Oetaei numine capta dei. 
nee non ille tui casus memorator Homerus 

posteritate suum crescere sensit opus. 


meque inter seros laudabit Roma nepotes : 35 

ilium post cineres auguror ipse diem. 

ne mea contempto lapis indicet ossa sepulcro, 
prouisumst Lycio uota probante deo. 

carminis interea nostri redeamus in orbem, 
gaudeat at solito tacta puella sono. 40 

27 Iouis cunabula parui. 

IV. iii 
His Mission. A Dream. 

Yisus eram molli recubans Heliconis in umbra, 

Bellerophontei qua fluit umor equi, 
reges, Alba, tuos et regum facta tuorum, 

tantum operis, neruis hiscere posse meis. 
paruaque tarn magnis admoram fontibus ora, 5 

unde pater sitiens Ennius ante bibit, 
et cecinit Curios fratres et Horatia pila, 

regiaque Aemilia uecta tropaea rate, 
uictricesque moras Fabii pugnamque sinistram 

Oannensem et uersos ad pia uota deos, 10 

Hannibalemque Lares Komana sede fugantes, 

anseris et tutum uoce fuisse Iouem; 
cum me Castalia speculans ex arbore Phoebus 

sic ait aurata nixus ad antra lyra: 
( quid tibi cum tali, demens, est flumine? quis te 15 

carminis heroi tangere iussit opus? 
aon hie ulla tibi sperandast fama, Properti; 

mollia sunt paruis prata terenda rotis; 


ut tuus in scamno iactetur saepe libellus, 

quern legat expectans sola puella uirum. 20 

cur tua praescripto seuectast pagina gyro 1 

non est ingenii cumba grauanda tuL 1 

alter remus aquas, alter tibi radat harenas; 

tutus eris : medio maxima turba marist.' 
dixerat, et plectro sedem mihi monstrat ebumo 25 

qua noua muscoso semita facta solost. 
hie erat adfixis uiridis spelunca lapillis, 

pendebantque cauis tympana pumicibus 
orgia Musarum et Sileni patris imago 

fictilis et calami, Pan Tegeaee, tui; 30 

et Veneris dominae uolucres, mea turba, columbae 

tingunt Gorgoneo punica rostra lacu, 
diuersaeque nouem sortitae iura puellae 

exercent teneras in sua dona manus. 
haec hederas legit in thyrsos, haec carmina neruis 35 

aptat; at ilia manu texit utraque roaam. 
e quarum numero me contigit una dearum : 

ut reor a facie, Calliopea fait : 
'contentus niueis semper uectabere cygnis, 

nee te fortis equi ducet ad anna so mis. 40 

nil tibi sit rauco praeconia classica cornu 

flare nee Aonium cingere Marte nemus, 
aut quibus in campis Mariano proelia signo 

stent et Teubonicas Roma refringat opes, 
barbarus aut Suebo perfusus sanguine Khenus 45 

saucia maerenti corpora ucctet aqua, 
quippe coronatos alienum ad limen amantes 

nocturnaeque canes ebria signa fugae; 


ut per te clausas sciat excantare puellas 
qui uolet austeros arte ferire uiros.' 50 

talia Calliope, lymphisque a fonte petitis 
ora Philetaea nostra rigauit aqua. 

IV. 11. L. Mtiller. 29 ergo. 33 rura. 

42 tinguere. 

IV. vii 

The death of Paetns. 

Ergo sollicitae tu causa, pecunia, uitae ! 

per te immaturuni mortis adimus iter. 
ta uitiis hominum crude lia pabula praebes : 

semina curarum de capite orta tuo. 
tu Paetum ad Pharios tendentem lintea portus 5 

obruis insano terque quaterque mari. 
nam dum te sequitur primo miser excidit aeuo 

et noua longinquis piscibus esca natat: 
et mater non iusta piae dare debita terrae 

nee pote cognatos inter humare rogos; 10 

sed tua nunc uolucres astant super ossa marinae, 

nunc tibi pro tumulo Carpathium omne marest. 
infelix Aquilo, raptae timor Orithyiae, 

quae spolia ex illo tanta fuere tibi) 
aut quidnam fracta gaudes, Neptune, carina? 15 

portabat sanctos alueus ille uiros. 
Paete, quid aetatem numeras ? quid cara natanti 

mater in ore tibist? non habet unda deos. 


nam tibi nocturnis ad saxa ligata procellis 

omnia detrito uincula fune cadunt 20 

sunt Agamemnonias testantia litora curas, 

qua notat Argynni poena Mimantis aquas, 
[hoc iuuene amisso classem non soluit Atrides, 

pro qua mactatast Iphigenia mora.] 
reddite corpus humo; positaque in gurgite uita 25 

Paetum sponte tua, uilis harena, tegas; 
et quotiens Paeti transibit nauta sepulcrum, 

dicat 'et audaci tu timor esse potest 
ite, rates curuate et leti texite causas : 

ista per humanas mors uenit acta nianus. 30 

terra parum f uerat ; fatis adiecimus undas : 

fortunae miseras auximus arte uias. 
ancora te teneat quern non tenuere Penates) 

quid meritum dicas cui sua terra parumst? 
uentorumst quodcumque paras: haut ulla carina $5 

consenuit; fallit portus et ipse fidem. 
natura insidians pontum substrauit auaris: 

ut tibi succedat, uix semel esse potest, 
saxa triumphales fregere Capharea puppes, 

naufraga cum uasto Graecia tracta salost. 40 

paulatim socium iacturam fleuit Ylixes, 

in mare cui soliti non ualuere doli. 
quod si contentus patrio boue uerteret agros, 

uerbaque duxisset pondus habere mea, 
tdueret ante suos dulcis conuiua Penates, 45 

pauper, at in terra nil ubi Here sat est. 
non tulit hie Paetus stridorem audire proceDae 

et duro teneras laedere fune manus; 


sed thyio thalamo aut Oricia terebintho 

effultum pluma uersicolore caput. 50 

huic fluctus uiuo radicitus abstulit ungues, 

et miser inuisam traxit hiatus aquam; 
hunc paruo ferri uidit nox inproba ligno; 

Paetus ut occideret, tot coiere mala, 
fleas tamen extremis dedit haec mandata querelis, 55 

cum moribunda niger clauderet ora liquor : 
'di maris Aegaei quos sunt penes aequora, Yenti, 

et quaecnmque meum degrauat unda caput, 
quo rapitis miseros primae lanuginis annos 1 

attulimus Ion gas in freta uestra manus. 60 

a! miser alcjonum scopulis adfligar acutis: 

in me caeruleo fuscina sumpta deost. 
at saltern Italiae regionibus euehat aestus: 

hoc de me sat erit si modo matris erit.' 
subtrahit haec fantem torta uertigine fluctus; 65 

ultima quae Faeto uoxque diesque fuit. 
centum aequoreae Nereo genitore puellae, 

et tu materno tacta dolore Thetis, 
uos decuit lasso supponere bracchia mento; 

non poterat uestras ille grauare manus. 70 

at tu, saeue Aquilo, numquam mea uela uidebis; 

ante fores dominae condar oportet iners. 

IV. vi. L. Miiller. 29 curuas. 

81 terra parum fuerat fatti ; 46 potest. 

63 aduehaU 


IV. ix 
To Maecenas. 

Maecenas, eques Etrusco de sanguine regum, 

intra fortunam qui cupis esse tuam, 
quid me scribendi tarn uastum mittis in aequor? 

non sunt apta meae grandia uela rati, 
turpest quod nequeas capiti committere pondus 5 

et pressum inflexo mox dare terga genu, 
omnia non pariter rerum sunt omnibus apta; 

fama nee ex aequo ducitur ulla iugo. 
gloria Lysippost animosa effingere signa; 

exactis Calamis se mihi iactat equis; 10 

in Veneris tabula summam sibi ponit Apelles ; 

Parrhasius parua uindicat arte locum; 
argumenta magis sunt Mentoris addita formae; 

at Myos exiguum flectit acanthus iter ; 
Phidiacus signo se Iuppiter ornat eburno; 15 

Praxitelem propria uindicat urbe lapis, 
est quibus Eleae concurrit palma quadrigae; 

est quibus in celeres gloria nata pedes; 
hie satus ad pacem; hie castrensibus utilis armis: 

naturae sequitur semina quisque suae. 20 

at tua, Maecenas, uitae praecepta recepi, 

cogor et exemplis te superare tuis. 
cum tibi Romano dominas in honore secures 

et liceat medio ponere iura foro, 
uel tibi Medorum pugnaces ire per hastas 25 

atque onerare tuam fixa per anna domum, 


et tibi ad effectum uires det Caesar et omni 

tempore tarn faciles insinuentur opes, 
parcis et in tenues humilem te colligis umbras; 

uelorum plenos subtrahis ipse sinus. 30 

crede mihi, magnos aequabunt ista Camillos 

iudicia, et uenies tu quoque in ora uirum, 
Caesaris et famae uestigia iuncta tenebis : 

Maecenatis erunt uera tropaea fides. 
non ego uelifera tumidum mare findo carina; 35 

tota sub exiguo flumine nostra morast. 
non flebo in cineres arcem sedisse paternos 

Cadmi nee semper proelia clade pari; 
nee referam Scaeas et Pergama Apollinis arces, 

et Danaum decimo uere redisse rates, 40 

moenia cum Graio Neptunia pressit aratro 

uictor Palladiae ligneus artis equos. 
inter Callimachi sat erit placuisse libellos 

et cecinisse modis, Dore poeta, tuis. 
naec urant pueros, haec urant scripta puellas, 45 

meque deum clament et mihi sacra ferant. 
te duce uel Iouis anna canam caeloque minantem 

Coeum et Phlegraeis Eurymedonta iugis; 
celsaque Romania decerpta Palatia tauris 

ordiar et caeso moenia nrma Renio, 50 

eductosque pares silnestri ex ubere reges, 

crescet et ingenium sub tua iussa meum ; 
prosequar et currus utroque ab litore ouantes, 

Partborum astutae tela remissa fugae, 
castraque Pelusi Romano subruta ferro, 55 

Antonique graues in sua fata manus. 


mollia tU coeptae fautor cape lora iuuentae, 
dexteraque immissis da mihi signa rotis. 

hoc mihi, Maecenas, laudis concedis, et a test, 
quod ferar in partes ipse fuisse tuas. 60 

IV. vin. L. Mtiller. 57 mollis. 

IV. xviii 
The death of Marcellus. 

Clausus ah umhroso qua ludit pontus Auerno, 

fumida Baiarum stagna tepentis aquae, 
qua iacet et Troiae tuhicen Misenus harena 

et sonat Herculeo structa lahore uia, 
hie uhi, mortalis dextra cum quaereret urbes, 5 

cymbala Thehano concrepuere deo: 
at nunc, inuisae roagno cum crimine Baiae, 

quis deus in uestra constitit hostis aqua? 
his pressus Stjgias uoltum demisit in undas, 

errat et in uestro spiritus ille lacu. 10 

quid genus aut uirtus aut optima profuit illi 

mater et amplexum Caesaiis esse focos? 
aut modo tarn pleno fluitantia uela theatro 

et per maternas omnia gesta manus? 
occidit, et misero steterat uigesimus annus : 1 5 

tot bona tarn paruo clausit in orbe dies, 
i nunc tolle animos et tecum finge triumphos, 

stantiaque in plausum tota theatra iunent; 


Aitalic&s supera uestes, atque omnia magnis 

gemmea sint ludis : ignibus ista dabis. 20 

Bed tamen hue omnes, hue primus et ultimus ordo: 

est mala sed cunctis ista terenda uiast. 
exoranda canis tria sunt latrantia colla, 

scandendast torui publica cumba senis. 
ille licet ferro cautus se condat et aere, 25 

mors tamen inclusum protrahit inde caput. 
Nirea non facies, non uis exemit Achillem, 

Croesum aut, Pactoli quas parit umor, opes, 
hie olim ignaros luctus populauit Achiuos, 

Atridae magno cum stetit alter amor. 30 

at tibi nauta pias hominum qui traicit umbras, 

hue animae portet corpus inane tuae, 
qua Siculae uictor telluris Claudius et qua 

Caesar ab humana cessit in astra uia. 

IY. xvii. L. Muller. 81 traicis. 

82 portent. 

IV. xxiii 
The lost tablets. 

Ergo tara doctae nobis periere tabellae, 
scripta quibus pariter tot periere bona. 

has quondam nostris manibus detriuerat usus, 
qui non signatas iussit habere fidem. 

illao iam sine me norant placare puellas 
et quaedam sine me uerba diserta loqui. 


non illas fixum caras effecerat aurum : 

uolgari buxo sordida oera fuit. 
qualescumque mihi semper mansere fidelos, 

semper et effectus promeruere bonos. 10 

forsitan haec illis fuerint mandata tabellis : 

'irascor quoniam's, lente, moratus herL 
an tibi neacio quae uisast formosior 1 an tu 

non bene de nobis crimina ficta iacis 1 ' 
aut dixti : ' uenies hodie, cessabimns una : 15 

hospitium tota nocte paranit Amor:' 
et quaecumque nolens reperit non stulta puella, 

garrula cum blandis ducitur hora dolis. 
me roiserum ! his aliquis rationem scribit auarus, 

et ponit duras inter ephemeridas. 20 

quas si quis mihi rettulerit, donabitur auro. 

quis pro diuitiis ligna retenta uelit 1 
i, puer, et citus haec aliqua propone columna 

et dominum Esquiliis scribe habitare tuum. 

17 dolens. 18 dicitur. 

IV. xxiv 


Falsast ista tuae, mulier, fiducia formae, 
olim oculis nimium facta superba meis. 

noster amor tales tribuit tibi, Cynthia, laudes: 
uersibus insignem te pudet esse meis. 

mixtam te uaria laudaui saepe figora, 
ut quod non esses esse putarct amor, 


et color est totiens roseo conlatus Eoo, 

cum tibi quaesitus candor in ore foret. 
quod mihi non patrii poterant auertore amici, 

eluere aut uasto Thessala saga mari, 10 

haec ego non ferro, non igne coactus, et ipsa 

naufragus Aegaea uerba fatebor aqua, 
correptus saeuo Veneris torrebar aeno; 

uinctus eram uersas in mea terga manus. 
ecce coronatae portam tetigere carinae; 15 

traiectae Syrtes; ancora iacta mihist. 
nunc demum uasto fessi resipiscimus aestu, 

uolneraque ad sanum nunc coiere mea. 
mens bona, si qua dea's, tua me in sacraria dono. 

exciderant surdo tot mea uota IouL 20 

IV. xxv 


Risus eram positis inter conuiuia mensis, 

et de me poterat quilibet esse loquax. 
quinque tibi potui seruire fideliter annos : 

ungue meam morso saepe querere fidem. 
nil moueor lacrimis : ista sum captus ab arte ; 5 

semper ab insidiis, Cynthia, flere soles, 
debo ego discedens; sed fletum iniuria uincet : 

tu bene conueniens non sinis ire iugum. 
limina iam nostris ualeant lacrimantia uerbis, 

nee tamen irata ianua fracta manu. 10 

P. p. 3 


at te celatis aetas grauis urgeat annis, 

et ueniat fonnae ruga sinistra tuae. 
ueilere -tuni capias albos a stirpe capillos, 

a ! speculo rugas increpitante tibi, 
exclosa inque uicem fastus patiare, superbos, 15 

et quae fecisti facta queraris anus, 
has tibi fatalis cecinit mea pagina diras. 

euentum fonnae disce timere tuae. 

V. ii 
The god Vertumnus. 

Qui mii-are meas tot in uno corpore formas, 

accipe Yertumni signa paterna dei 
Tuscus ego, Tuscis orior; nee paenitet inter 

proelia Yolsinios deseruisse focos. 
haec me turba iuuat, nee templo laetor eburno : 5 

Romanum satis est posse uidere forum, 
hac quondam Tiberinus iter faciebat, et aiunt 

remorum auditos per uada pulsa sonos ; 
at postquam ille suis tantum concessit alumnis, 

Yertamnus uerso dicor ab amne deus. 10 

sen, quia uertentis fructum praecepimus anni, 

Yertanni rursus creditur esse sacrum, 
prima mihi uariat liuentibus una racemis 

et coma lactenti spicea fruge tumet. 
hie dulces cerasos, hie autumnalia pruna 15 

cernis et aestiuo mora rubere die. 

LIBER r. 35 

insitor hie soluit pomosa uota corona, 

cum pirus inuito stipite mala tulit. 
mendax fama noces : alius mihi nominis index : 

de se narranti tu modo crede deo. 20 

opportuna meast cunctis natura figuris : 

in quamcumque uoles uerto, decorus ero. 
indue me Cois, ■ fiam non dura puella : 

meque uirum sumpta quia neget esse toga 1 
da falcem et torto frontem mini comprime faeno, 25 

iurabis nostra gramina secta manu. 
arma tuli quondam et, memini, laudabar in illis ; 

corbis in imposito pondere messor eranu 
sobrius ad lites: at cumst imposta corona, 

clamabis capiti uina subisse meo. 30 

cinge caput mitra, speciem furabor Iacchi : 

furabor Pboebi si modo plectra dabis. 
cassibus impositis uenor : sed harundine sumpta 

fantor plumoso sum deus aucupio. 
est etiam aurigae species uertumnus, et eius 35 

traicit alterno qui leue pondus equo. 
suppetat hoc, pisces calamo praedabor; et ibo 

mundus demissis institor in tunicis. 
pastor me ad baculum possum curuare : uel idem 

sirpiculis medio puluere ferre rosam. 40 

nam quid ego adiciam, de quo mihi maxima famast, 

hortorum in manibus dona probata meis? 
caeruleus cucumis tumidoque cucurbita uentre 

me notat et iunco brassica uincta leui ; 
aec flos ullus hiat pratis, quia ille decenter 45 

unpositus fronti langueat ante meae, 



at mihi, quod formas unus uertebar in omnes, 

nomen ab euentu patria lingua dedit. 
et tu,. Roma, meis tribuisti praemia Tuscis, 

unde hodie uicus nomina Tuscus habet, 50 

tempore quo sociis uenit Lycomedius armis 

atque Sabina feri contudit arma TatL 
uidi ego labentes acies et tela caduca, 

atque hostes turpi terga dedisse fugae. 
Bed facias, diuom sator, ut Roinana per aeuom 55 

transeat ante meos turba togata pedes, 
sex superant uersua : te qui ad uadimonia curris 

non moror : haec spatiis ultima creta meis. 
stipes acernus eram, properanti falce dolatus, 

ante Numam grata pauper in urbe deus. 60 

at tibi, Mamurri, formae caelator aenae, 

tellus artifices ne terat Osca manus, 
qui me tarn docilis potuistt fundere in usus : 

UDum opus est; operi non datur unus honos. 

19 uaces. 34 Faunus. 

V. vi 

The triumph of Actium. 

Saci-a facit uates : sint ora fauentia sacris, 
et cadat ante meos icta iuuenca focos. 

serta Philetaeis certet Eomana corymbis, 
et Cyrenaeas urna ministret aquas. 

liber r; 37 

costum molle date et blandi mini turis honores, 5 

terque focum circa laneus orbis oat. 
spargite me lyniphis, carmenque recentibus aris 

tibia Mygdoniis libet eburna cadis, 
ite procul fraudes ; alio sint aere nozae : 

pura nouom uati.laurea mollit iter. 10 

Musa, Palatini referemus Apollinis aedeni : 

res est, Calliope, digna fauore tuo. 
Caesaris in nomen ducuntur carmina : Caesar 

dam canitur, quaeso, Iuppiter ipse uaces. 
est Phoebi fugiens Athamana ad litora portus, 15 

qua sinus Ioniae murmura condit aquae, 
Actia Iuleae pelagus monumenta carinae, 

nautarum uotisnon operosa uia. 
hue mundi coiere manus; stetit aequore moles 

pinea, nee reniis aequa fauebat auis. 20 

altera classis erat Teucro damnata Quirino, 

pilaque femineae turpiter apta manu : 
tine Augusta ratis plenis Iouis omine uelis 

signaque iam patriae uincere docta suae, 
tandem aciem geminos Nereus lunarat in arcus, 25 

armorum et radiis picta tremebat aqua ; 
cum Phoebus linquens stantem se uindice Delon 

(nam tulit iratos mobilis una Notos) 
astitit Augusti puppim super, et noua flamma 

luxit in obliquam ter sinuata facem. 30 

non ille attulerat ciines in colla solutos 

aut testudineae carmen inerme lyrae, 
sed quali aspexit Pelopeum Agamemnona uoltu, 

egessitque auidis Borica castra rogis, 


aut qualis flexos soluit Pythona per orbes 35 

serpentem, imbelles quern timuere lyrae. 
mox ait *o longa mnndi seruator ab Alba, 

Auguste, Hectoreis cognite maior auis, 
uince mari : iam terra tuast : tibi militat areas, 

et fauet ex umeris hoc onus omne meis. 40 

solue metu patriam quae nunc te uindice freta 

imposuit prorae publica uota tuae. 
quam nisi defendes, murorum Romulus augur 

ire Palatinas non bene uidit aues. 
et nimium remis audent ; pro ! turpe Latinos 45 

principe te fluctus regia uela pati. 
nee te quod classis centenis remiget alia 

ten-eat : inuito labitur ilia mari : 
quodque uehunt prorae Centaurica saxa minantis, 

tigna caua et pictos experiere metus. 50 

f rangit et attollit uires in milite causa ; 

quae nisi iusta subest, excutit arma pudor. 
tempus adest ; conmitte rates : ego temporis auctor 

ducam laurigera Iulia rostra manu.' 
dixerat, et pharetrae pondus eonsumit in arcus : 55 

proxima post arcus Caesaris hasta fuit. 
uincit Roma fide Phoebi : dat femina poenas : 

sceptra per Ionias fracta uebuntur aquas, 
at pater Idalio miratur Caesar ab astro : 

'sum deus, et nostri sanguinis ista fides.' 60 

prosequitur cantu Triton, omnesque marinae 

plauserunt circa libera signa deae. 
ilia petit Nilum cumba male nixa fugaci, 

hoc unum, iusso non moritura die. 

LIBER V. 39 

di melius ! quantus mulier foret una triumphus 65 

ductus erat per quad ante Iugurtha uias. 
Actius hinc traxit Phoebus monumenta, quod eius 

una decern uicit missa sagitta rates, 
bella satis cecini : citharam iam poscit Apollo 

motor et ad placidos exuit arma choros. 70 

Candida nunc molli subeant conuiuia luco, 

blanditiaeque fluant per mea colla rosae, 
uinaque fundantur prelis elisa Falernis, 

terque lauet nostras spica Cilissa comas, 
ingenium potis irritet Musa poetis : 75 

Bacche, soles Phoebo fertilis esse tuo. 
ille paludosos memoret seruire Sugambros ; 

Cepheam bic Meroen fuscaque regna canat, 
hie referat sero confessum foedere Partbum : 

'reddat signa Remi, mox dabit ipse sua : 80 

sine aliquid pharetris Augustus parcet Eois, 

differat in pueros ista tropaea suos. 
gaude, Crasse, nigras si quid sapis inter barenas: 

ire per Eupbraten ad tua busta licet. 1 
sic noctem patera, sic ducam carmine, donee 8$ 

iniciat radios in mea uina dies. 

3 cera. 22 feminea turpiter acta manu. 

75 positis. 



V. xi 
Cornelia's Defence. 

Desine, Paulle, meum lacrimis urgere sepulcrum: 

panditur ad nullas ianua nigra preces. 
cum semel infernas intrarunt funera leges, 

non exorato stant adamante uiae. 
te licet orantem fuscae deus audiat aulae: 5 

nempe tuas lacrimas litora surda bibent. 
uota mouent superos : ubi portitor aera recepit, 

obserat umbrosos lurida porta rogos. 
sic maestae cecinere tubae, cuin subdita nostrum 

detraheret lecto fax inimica caput. 10 

quid mini coniugium Paulli, quid currus auoruin 

profuit aut famae pignera tanta meae? 
num minus immites habuit Cornelia Parcas, 

et sum, quod digitis quinque leuatur, onus? 
daamatae noctes et uos uada lenta paludes, 15 

et quaecumque meos implicat unda pedes, 
immatura licet, tamen hue non noxia ueni: 

det pater hie umbrae mollia iura meae, 
aut, si quis posita iudex sedet Aeacns urna, 

in mea sortita uindicet ossa pila : 20 

adsideant fratres : iuxta Minoida sellam 

Eumenidum intento turba seuera foro. 
Sisyphe, mole uaces; taceant Ixionis orbes; 

fallax Tantaleo corripere ore liquor; 
Cerberus et nullas hodie petat improbus umbras, 25 

et iaceat tacita laxa catena sera. 

LIBER V. 41 

ipsa loquor pro me : si fallo, poena sororum " 

infelix uineros urgeat urna meos. 
si cui fama fuit per auita tropaea decori, 

Afra Numantinos regna loquontur auos : 30 

altera maternos exaequat turba Libones, 

et domus est titulis utraque fulta suis. 
mox, ubi iam facibus cessit praetexta mantL*, 

uinxit et acceptas altera uitta comas, 
iungor> Paulle, tuo sic discessura cubili : 35 

in lapide hoc uni nupta fuisse legar. 
testor maiorum cineres tibi, Roma, colendos, 

sub quorum titulis, Africa, tonsa iaces, 
et Persenx proaui stimulantem pectus A chilli 

quique tumens proauo fregit Achille domos, 40 
me neque censurae legem mollisse nee ulla 

labe mea uestros erubuisse focos. 
non fuit exuuiis tantis Cornelia damnum : 

quin et erat magnae pars imitanda domus. 
nee mea mutatast aetas, sine crimine totast : 45 

uiximus insignes inter utramque facem. 
mi natura dedit leges a sanguine ductas, 

ne possem melior iudicis esse metu. 
quaelibet austeras de me ferat urna tabellas ; 

turpior adsessu non erit ulla meo, 50 

uel tu quae tardam mouisti fune Cybeben, 

Claudia, turritae rara ministra deae, 
uel cui, commissos cum Vesta reposceret ignes, 

exhibuit uiuos carbasus alba focos. 
nee te, dulce caput, mater Scribonia, laeai? ; 55 

in me mutatum quid nisi fata uelis ? 


maternia laudor lacrimis urbiaque querelis, 

defenBa et gemitu Caeaaria oaaa mea. 
ille sua nata dignain uixisse Hororem 
i increpat, et lacriraaa uidimua ire deo. & 

et tamen emerui generosoa uestia honores, 

neo mea de sterili facta raptna domo. 
tn, Lepide, et tu, Panlle, moum post, fata leuamen 

condita aunt uoatro liimina noatia aiim. 
uidimus et fiat rem sellam gominaaae cuiulem ; 6 

consuls quo laeto tempore rapta soror. 
filia, tu specimen censurae nata paternae, 

fac teneas nnnm noa imitata uirwn. 
et aerie fuleite genua : mihi cumba nolentt 

aoluitur aucturia tot mea facta meia. 1 

haec est feminei merces extrema triumph!, 

laudat ubi emeritum libera fatna rogum. 
nunc tibi commendo eommunia pignera natoa : 

liaec cura et cineri spirat inuata meo. 
fungere maternis uicibus, pater : ilia meorum ; 

omnia erit collo turba ferenda tuo. 
oacula cum dederis tua flentibus, adice matris : 

tota domua ooepit nunc onus esse tuum. 
et si quid dolitorus eria, sine testibuB illis : 

cum uenieot, siocia oacnla falle genia. 8 

Bat tibi sint noctea quaa do me, Paulle, fatiges, 

. ■ ■ . uiaque in faciem credita saepe meam : 
atque ubi secreto nostra ad simulacra loqueris, 

ut responsnrae singula uerba iace. 
seu men adueranm mntarit ianua tectum, S. 

aederit et nostra cauta nouerca toro, 


LIBER V. 43 

coniagium, pueri, laudato et ferte paternum : 

capta dabit uestris moribus ilia manus. 
nee matrem landate nimis : conlata priori 

uertet in offensas libera uerba suas. 90 

sea memor ille mea contentus manserit umbra 

et tanti cineres duxerit esse meos, 
discite uenturam iam nunc sentire senectam, 

caelibis ad curas nee uacet ulla uia. 
quod mihi detractumst, uestros aceedat ad annos : 95 

prole mea Paullum sic iuuet esse senem. 
et bene habet : numquam mater lugubria sumpsi : 

uenit in exequias tota caterua nieas. 
causa peroratast. flentes me surgite, testes, 

dum pretium uitae grata rependit humus. 100 
moribus et caelum patuit : sim digna merendo, 

cuius honoratis ossa uehantur auis. 

8 herbosos. 13 habui. 

24 Tantaleus corripiare. 89 simulantem. 

40 tuas. 70 fata. 102 aquU. 


i. i. 


This elegy was prefixed to the first book of poems which 
Propertiua published under the name of Cynthia. The poet 
intended it to serve as a preface to the Cynthia poems, as is 
clear from the pointed references to it in iv. 24 which comme- 
morates the poet's final release from the attachment whose 
early wretchedness is depicted here. Written after a year of 
tyranny on the part of Cynthia and patient submissive waiting 
on that of Propertius, it shews a strong and slighted passion 
sinking into a dull and resourceless despair. This year was 
probably that year of separation, for which see Introduction ; 
compare w. 7, 35—88 and notes. The poem is addressed to 
TnUus, for whom see Introduction. This melancholy begin- 
mng, in strong contrast with those of Tibullus, Lygdamus and 
Ovid, is in keeping with the Propertian genius. 


Cynthia first subdued me (1, 2). My subjection has been 
complete. My love has warped my soul and wrecked my life 
(B--r6). Even continued disappointments cannot cure it (7, 8). 
Milanion's love for Atalanta was once as fierce and hopeless as 
mine : but it prompted him to exertions which were successful 
at the last (9—16). Mine is dull and uninventive (17, 18). 
Ordinary aid is in vain : let magic help me if it can (19 — 24). 
Advice is too late, my friends, now : find some remedy, however 
severe, for this stifling passion (25 — 28). Take me where no 
woman can follow: let the fortunate stay at home (29—32). 
My darling is always reviling me : my love is spurned, but it 
continues (83, 84), Be warned by my woe, happy lovers, and be 
withf ul lest you repent it (35— end). 

46 NOTES. I. i. 

1. 2. 'It was Cynthia first with those sweet eyes that madl 
me, poor wretch, her prey : till then no shafts of desire \m 
thrilled through my heart. 1 Cynthia, see Introduction, 
prima, i.e. exclusive of the passing fancy for Lyciram 
Introduction. miseram strikes the key-note' of the elegy 
and the attachment, see Introduction. ceplt =elXor Meie- 
ager (see below) : n. 3. 9 nee me tarn faciei, quamuis sit Candida* 
cepit; im. Ov. M. 14. 372 per o tua lumina, dixit, quad 
mea ceperunt. Compare the pretty conceit in Meleager (57) 
Anth. Gr. 12. 113 kout6s *Epm 6 irravbi iv odd 4 pi biafuo* ijX« 
dypcvScls tois aois ofifiaat, Ttjldpiov. ocellls, the dimin. of erotic 
poetry and domestic life. 

2. contactum unites the senses of (1) reach, hit, Aen.5. 
509 auem contingere ferro, and (2) taint, by communicating 
poison; of. m. 3. 19 intactos Uto satiu* temptare ueneno 
and v. 12 nee quisquam ex iUo uolnere * anus obit. In the 
same connexion Ov. M. 9. 483 quam me manifesta libido con- 
tig it. contactum nullls ante cupi<n\nibus=T60oti drpt*- 
to? Meleag. 

8 — 6. 'It was then Love's God cast down my looks of 
resolute disdain, and trod my neck beneath his feet : till he 
taught me in his wantonness to hate chaste beauty, and to lire 
without a plan.' 

3. deledt, l effecit ut deicerentur* ; Prop, more suo, see 
Introduction, omitting a link in the conception : of. Theocr. 2. 
112 kcU ft iffidutp uaropyos, exl %^ ov ^ oftfiara wd£as. Im. Ov. 
Her. 11. 35 erubui gremioque pudor deiecit oeellos. For sense 
cf. in. 28 (22). 9 (Amor) tollere numquam te patietur humo lumina 
capta semel. lumlna fastua =ro 5' iv 6<f>pv<n /teiro ippvaypn 
Meleag.; cf. Plin. N. H. 11. 37. 51. 138 superbia aliubi concep* 
taculum ted hie (in superciliis) sedem hdbet. fastua = 'in- 
definite gen. of kind'or contents' Boby 1304 ; see Introduction, 

4. caput imposltis presslt pedlbus = voaal vara Meleag., 
as a victor on his fallen enemy, cf. in. 28 (22). 7 sqq. ; imitated 
Ov. M. 8. 424 ipse pede imposito caput exitiabile pressit. Yv. 
3—6 are a close imitation of Meleager Anth. Gr, 12. 101 (cf. id. 
Anth. 12. 48), 

rbv fit tt60ols arpvrop vtt6 <rr4fwot<rt Mtf<r*of 

Sfifuuri ro£eu<ras rovr' c/fcbprei' twos' 
rbr Opaovp eTXor eytb. to b" ex 6<f>ptiai kcIvq <pp6ay/ia 

<TK7jrTpo<p6pov aortas, fylde, ttovvI irarv. 

0TOTE8. I. I 47 

5. castas paellas, not 'as prudes' P. which gives a wrong 
turn to the sense. It is to be taken closely with v. 6. Cynthia's 
severe punishment of Properties' one breach of faith (cf. v. 
7 n.) had driven him into unworthier attachments {=quaerere 
uiles, in. 18 (15). 9, <fec). 

6. lmprobus, cruel and shameless; cf. Virg. Eel. 8, 60 
puer improbus (of Love), and Aen. 2. 80 improba (Fortuna). 
nullo conslllo, aimlessly, recklessly. In Cio. Inv. 1. 34. 58 
Umere et nullo consilio is opposed to ratione; cf. in, 3. 4. 

7. 8. ' And now after a whole year this my madness is not 
spent, yea though I am forced to have the gods against me,' 

7. toto anno. So again in rv. 15 (16). 9 peccaram semel 
et to turn sum pulsus in annum, 

8. tamen, in the protasis like Gr. S/kos; cf. Ov, M. 2. 782 
quamuis tamen oderat Mam, talibus affatast breuiter Tri- 
tenia dictis. cogor, by an inexorable fate. But observe that 
cogor tends to become a mere auxiliary in Prop, j see Intro- 
duction, habere, cf. v. 11, 13 n. 

9 — 16. 'Milanion, friend Tullus, by shrinking from no 
toil broke the stubborn cruelty of the daughter of Iasus. 
He sometimes wandered in Parthenian dells, distraught with 
love, and went to face the shaggy wild beasts; he was stricken 
too with a wound from the branch Hylaeus bore, and on Arca- 
dian rooks he moaned in pain. Therefore could he achieve the 
taming of the swift-footed maiden ; such power in love have 
prayers and deeds of merit.' 

9. Milanion; the lover of the Arcadian Atalanta, the 
daughter of Iasus (Iasius, Iasion). According to Prop, whom 
Ovid follows, A. A 2. 185, a passage modelled on this, he 
owed his success to helping her in hunting and against the 
Centaur Hylaeus. 

10. saeultlam is explained by dnrae. A. was cruel be- 
cause unyielding. contudlt, of breaking in animals ; cf, 
Tib. (?) 3. 6. 13 ille (Bacchus) ferocem contudit et dominae misit 
in arbitrium and Ov. A. A. 1. 12. 

11. modo, answered by etiam 1. 13. ParthenUs, of Par- 
thenium, the mountain on which Atalanta had been exposed, 
antrls, 4 mountain dells' ; cf. v. 4. 3 lucus * * hederoso conditm 
antro, v. 9. 33 luci antro, a wooded dell, and other passages. 
Comp,el..3 v lln, - v ; v ,., > 

-3: \ .v,^ 


48 NOTES. L L 

12. Ala, emphatic (like MUamon, v. 9)= 'unlike myself.' 
vJdere, nearly =*adire, experiri'; cf. Aen. 6. 134 bis nign 
uidere Tartara, Aen. 8. 431 informem uasto uidisse *«& antr* 
Scyllam. The inf. is a Giaeeism for the supine, Boby 1362. 

13. HylaeL Prob. an adj., agreeing with rami ; cf. m. 8 
(7). 8 $axo Cerauno for Ceraunio; Aen. 4. 552 eineri Siehaeo 
tot Sichaeio. Prop, is very fond of catting his proper names 
down. percustus uolnere rami, cf. Cic. Ac 1. 3. 11 fortunae 
grauissimo percustus uolnere (v. L perculsus). Silius imitates 
Prop. Punic. 5. 251 o£ simuJ in/esto Lateranum uulnere trun- 
eae arbor i$ urguebat. rami, a stripped or unstripped 
bough, the primitive club. Centaurs are seen fighting with such 
weapons on ancient monuments ; cf. v. 9. 15 (of Hercules' club). 
Ovid (A. A. 1. c.) says however sensit et Hylaei contentxm 
eaucius arcum. 

14. sauduf marks rather the effect of the wound than the 
wound itself; cf. the ira. in Ov. A. A. 1. 169 saucius ingemuit 
telumque uolatile 8 ens it. Arcadlis rupibus. Mr Reid sug- 
gests that this is a dat., which is very possible, as Properties is 
fond of introducing these appeals to inanimate nature ; ef . l 
20. 16, <feo. It seems to me however that the moan of physical 
pain, when its cause is specified as here, is not naturally 
addressed to anything ; and this view is not discountenanced 
by the passages in Ovid. 

15. potuit domulsae. P. wrongly " potuit domare would 
probably mean * he might have vanquished her.' " Both p. 
domare and p, domuiue^'he could tame;' but domuitse lays 
more emphasis on the completing of the action, Boby 1371. 
This use of the perfect in verse is probably determined in 
great part by metrical reasons, as it is rare in classical prose, 
uelooam, an allusion to the foot-race in which Prop, hints 
Atalanta was willing to be beaten, uelocem puellam in Ov. 
lb. 371. 

16. bene facta, cf. Virg. G. 3. 525 quid labor out bene 
facta iuuanit quid uomere Urrat inuertisse graucs ; n. 1. 24 
bene facta Mori ; Ov. A. ALo. succubuit meritis trux tame* 
\lla u*ru 

17. 18. * With me slow-witted Love plans no devices, and 
forgets him to travel, as formerly, on his wonted paths.' 

17. tame 'in my case.' Ct Aen. 2. 541 at mm ** Achilla 
ten* t» kotUfmit Priamoy and compare m. 3. 13. 

~ , fifmUti tardus ammr in a different sense i. 7. 26. 

NOTES. I. i. 49 

cogltat ' ponder over ' for the purpose of devising : Cio. Cat. 2. 
9. 20 proscriptiones ac dictaturas c ogitare. 

18. nee memlnlt, cf. 1. 10. 2o\ nlas, the ways of inspiring- 
affection, cf. Achill. Tat. 1. 9 rt \4y<a; rl irotcS; xm <zr r^xotfu 
ttis ipwfjUnis; ov yap ofta ras odous, Cic. Leg. 1. 6. 18 non 
tarn iustitiae quam litigandi uias. 

19 — 24. ' Come ye whose deceit would draw the moon from 
the aky, whose task it is to perfect solemn rites over the magic 
fire, come and turn the heart of my lady and make her paler 
than my face is pale. Then I might trust your boast that ye 
can lead the stars and the rivers with Cytinian spells.' 

19. at, in sudden apostrophe as e. g. iv. 18 (19) 25 at taw, in- 
nttptae, felicius write taedas. deductae qu. e. faii^H lunae. 
Whether Prop, meant (1) ' who bewitch the moon into coming 
down,' or (2j 'who dupe men by pretending to have brought 
down the moon,' the expression is very harsh. The context 
favours (2). The gen. is one of definition (Roby 1302) 4 who 
use the-descent-of-the-moon-trick.' For the part, deductae, 
where the gerundive is more usual, see Introduction. It is to 
be observed that the forms in -dus are awkward in verse. On 
the other hand the apparent imitation in Ov. M. 13. 163 
sumptae fa 11 act a uestis (of Achilles disguised as a woman) 
favours (1). 

20. plare, 'pie facere ' KaOaylfeiv, dyvlfar, P. labor est 
plare, for this constr. cf. i. 2. 23 n. 

21. en = tfou Meleaper; see Introduction. conuertlte, 
Aen. 2. 73 quo gemitu conuersi animi, cf, x, 15. 23 tuos con- 
uertere mores, 

22. fadte palleat, for the constr. see Roby 1606. meo 
ore. The point of comparison is often substituted by Propertius 
for the thing compared. So also in Tac Ann. 1. 13 L. 
Arruntius haud multum discrepans a Galli oratione. 

23. crediderim nobis ducere. For the omission of ties, which 
is easily supplied from nobis, of. i. 4. 1 and Introduction. 

24. ducere, ' guide, draw after them ' i<j>4\Kc<r0ai. Cyti- 
naeis, Hertzberg's certain conjecture for the ms. Cythalims, 
Oytallinis, &c, Cytina being a town in Thessaly mentioned by 
Lycophr. 1389 Aaxfidnnol re ical Kvtwcuoi, K6dpoi and Steph. 
Byz. s. v. The reference to this line in the palinode, rv. 24. 
10 n. Thessala saga seems conclusive. The other conjectures 
Cptaines (Medea, so called from Cyta or Cytaea a town in 
Colchis) and CytaeaeU (Colchicis) are unsupported. 

P, P. 4 

50 NOTES. I. i. 

25 — 28. ' And you, my friends, whose voice recalls too late 
a fallen man, seek some help for the fever of my breast 
Bravely will I bear the steel and the torturing fire, let me have 
but freedom to utter the promptings of my wrath.' 

25. et, as P. rightly with the mss. for aut edd. lapsnm 
reuocatis, im. Quint. 2. 6. 2 plus proderit demonstrasse rectam 
protinus uiam quam reuocare ab errore iam lapsos. lap- 
sum, of love; cf. I. 13. 8 primo lapsus abire gradu and Plant. 
Cist. 2. 1. 11 amor me lap sum animi ludificat. amid, patrii 
amid in the palinode iv. 24. 9. 

26. non sani, cf. contactum v. 2 and n. auxilla, * reme- 
dies '; i.e. any remedy; cf. Ov. K. A. 48 uulneris aux ilium, 
Prop. iv. 21. 9, Cels. 2. 11. Compare for the sense Meleager 
Anth. 12. 85 dXXd (pLXy, £c?voi, fiaibr irapK^irare, aptcfoaf, 
w 1-eivQi. 

27. et ferrum saeuos et lgnes, i.e. the knife and cautery of 
the surgeon (auxiliator Stat. Silv. 3. 4. 24), imitated Ov. Her. 
20. 185 ut ualeant aliae, ferrum patiuntur et ignes and else- 
where, Senec. Ag. 21 et ferrum et ignis saepe medicinae locost, 
Claud. Eutr. 2. 14. The expression became almost proverbial, 
as rifwtiv koX KaUtv in Gr. It is perh. from Soph. Track 1016 
Kal vvv iirl rfde vocovvti ov jrvp ovd' &y%os rt$ or*iaifji.ov owe 
4viTp4rf/ei ; 

28. llbertas loqui, a rare constr. It is also found in Cic. 
Acad. 2. 38. 120 quanti libertas ipsa aestimanda est non mihi 
necesse esse quod tibi est? and in Val. Fl. 1. 601 ; also in rv. 
14 (15). 4. In Quintilian and the Plinies liberum est is found 
with an inf. For the sense cf. i. 5. 14, 17. 

29 — end. ' Carry me through furthest lands or carry me over 
the waves where no woman may know my way. Stay ye behind to 
whom heaven has bent with favouring ear, and may ye remain 
for ever meetly mated in safe love. Against me my darling 
plies her bitter speech and unsatisfied passion never flags. 
Shun, I warn you, this evil : let each hold fast to his fancy's 
queen nor shift his ground from a familiar love. Yet if any 
turn a slow ear to the warning, oh with what a pang will he 
recall my words!' 

29. We are again reminded of Meleager Anth. Gr. 5. 161 
xal xvpl koI vi<p€T(ji fie ical el fiovXoio Kepavvy fidXke xal els xpryt- 
yovs p&Kke xal els reX&yrj. 

81. remanete, 'stay behind'; not t as P. seems to prefer, 
* remain constant to each other.' remanere is especially appii- 


NOTES. I. i. 61 

cable to remaining in Borne ; cf. Suet. Aug. 43. facili aure, 
opp. to mrda aure in. 8 (7). 43. pares 'well matched/ Cf. 
i. 5. 2 n. * 

33. in me nostra Venus noctes exercet amaras. The 
edd. (Baehrens excepted) do not seem to have grasped the 
difficulty of the ms. reading. It must mean (1) ' My love plies 
bitter nights, as a weapon, against me' — an unexampled use of 
exercet or (2) 'in my case my love passes bitter nights' — a 
tautology not excused by in. 24. 25 de te nostras me laedit ad 
awes. Hence I prefer uoces. In enumerating the troubles of 
his love Prop, would not forget the cruel temper of his mistress: 
see Introd. For more see my paper in the Journal of Philology, 
Vol. ix. p. 62. [F. Plessis and H. Magnus, who compares Kerne- 
sianus Eel. n. 56, independently take n. V. 'the Goddess whom 
we lovers serve*' This removes a good deal of the harshness.] 

34. uacuus probably 'ungratified,' almost = t fructu amoris 
tgens* rv. 20. 20, and so opp. toplenus in. 20 (17). 21 tu quo- 
que qui pleno fastus adsumis amore: cf. Ov. M. 7. 786 uacuos 
exercet in aera morsus. Not far removed is iv. 16 (17). 11 
uacuos nox sobria torquet amantes, and the use oiuacuae for 
single women or widows Tac. A. 13. 44, Ov. M. 14. 831. Another 
way is to take uacuus closely with dent ' fails and rests.' Cf. i. 
9. 27, and for the form of expression, a negative with several 
words taken in conjunction, i. 10. 30 qui numquam. uacuo 
pectore liber eriU 

35. 36. cura, 'source of care (cura), object of affection' = 

Gr. fUXrifia ; cf. in. 32 (26). 9, &c, Ov. Am. 3. 9. 32 altera 

(the one) cura recens, altera primus amor. For cura cf. in. 

B. 4 n. moretur, ' cum uoluptate detineat? cf . 1. 11. 10. 

mutet locum, cf. Plin. N. H. 2. 48. 49. 132 locum ex locomutans. 

adsueto amore is the Propertian extended use of the abl. of 

'attendant circumstances,' 'when love is grown familiar'; cf. 

Introduction, hoc malum, i.e. anguish like mine ; not exilium. 
as P. 

37. tardas aures. Cf. x. 8. 41 n. 

38. heu. Most writers would have suppressed the sigh as 
their warning was disregarded : not so Propertius. See Intro- 
duction, referet, 'recall'; not 'repeat' which P. offers as an 
alternative. Cf. Ov. M. 1. 165. Recollection is regarded as 
mental repetition just as thought is mental speech (\6705). 




A gentle expostulation with Cynthia on her love of drew. 
Theae protests of the poet were probably as inefficacious as 
the; were frequent; nee Introduction. 

Properthu. 'Why this love of finery, Cynthia t Tom 
beauty cannot be improved (1—8). Learn this lesson from 
nature (9—14) and the heroines of old. Chastity was orna- 
ment enough for them ' (16 — 24). 

Cynthia. 'You are not likely to think me Inferior to those 
heroines' (25). 

Properriui. ■ If yon satisfy mi, you are adorned enough (28). 
Besides, your native gifts are sufficiently enthralling. They 
will keep me true to yon if you do not plunge into folly 

1 — 6, ' What joy is it, my life, to more with tired hair, or 
to sway the fine folds of the Coan robe? Or what to drench 
thy locks in the myrrh of Orontes, and to blazon thyself with 
alien gifts ; to mar the grace of nature with bought embellish- 
ment, and not to suffer thy limbs to shine in their own rich 
dower ? Believe me there is no improving thy fair form. Loyb 
id naked, and loves not the artist in beauty.* 

1. oraato, ' dressed,' not necessarily 'decorated,' though 
this was usually done ! see Beck. Gall. p. 439. procedan, 

'pace, move majestically'; of. Ov. A. A. 8. 165 ftmiiia pro- 
cedit dtmiuima crini'itis enplii and Hot. S. 8. 8. 14. A slow 
gait, like the rest mentioned sere, was a lover's device. Cf. n. 
4. 15, 16 (o, 6) ntquiqitam ptrfuta mtit tutguenta eapiilU, ibat 
tt txptneo plant a mora (a gradu. ulta, 'the source of 

my life, yon that are as dear to me as life '= Or. jvi). As a form 
nf iiililivK!;, it is found in Plautus, Catullus, e.g. 68. 154 (where 
in non. cf. Ellis ad lac.) and frequently in Prop. 

ft, Coa Mate. Not to be explained by supplying induta, as 
P. suggests, an impossible ellipse, bnt almost = Coae tuitit, an 
extension of the abl. of material (description, Roby 1232): cf. 
l 4. 13 multU dtau ariibui, and hi. 5. 7 (4. 23) n. It may 
be also explained as an ahL of place, which would come to the 
s, of thin transparent silk. monere, the 

it of the wearer. 

NOTES. I iL 03 

Plant. Epid. 3. 3. 61 eum quam qui undantem chlamydem 
quassando facit. 

3. Orontea. Antioch on the Orontes was the emporium 
from which the produce of Arabia was shipped for Borne. 

4. peregrin!*, ' foreign, outlandish/ here in a disparaging 
sense; ct Suet. Jul. 43, who says Julius Caesar first taxed 
imported luxuries (peregrinarum mercium portoria institutsse, 
adeo corruptissima republica luxus Romanorum inuoluerat). 
snmerlbus, ' graces, endowments.' peregrinis shews they are 
not the natural munera of in. 2. 3 <ftc. But see note on in. 
5. 14. uendere, 'endeavour to sell/ 'get up for sale.' 
For the inceptive force of the verb cf. n. 8. 4 ipsum me iugula; 
lenior Jiostis ero, i. e. try to kill me. It is given by the fre- 
quentative prefix in uenditare. 

5. mercato. For a list of deponent verbs with passive 
participles see Boby 734, and for mercatus v. 5. 32. perdere. 
So Tib. 1. 9. 17 auro ne pollue formam, and Seneca Consol. 
Helv. 16, in a passage evidently modelled on this elegy, non 
faciem lenociniis (cf. uendere supr.) ac coloribus polluisti : 
numquam tibi placuit uestis quae nihil amplius quam nudam 
cmponeret (i. e. a Coa uestis) : unicum tibi ornamentum pul- 
cherrima et nulli obnoxia arti forma : maximum decus uisa 
utpudicitia (see v. 24). 

6. Cynthia moves in an atmosphere of beauty; cf. Byron 
1 She walks in beauty like the night.' A bolder use is m. 16 
1 (13. 44) in nullo ponder e uerba loqui. proprlls bonis, 
' natural advantages/ For bona in this sense cf . n. 3. 28 : im. 
Ov. (?) Her. 21. 38 proprio uulneror ipsa bono. 

7. tuae est. N. reads tua est, which gives a very good 
sense, 'Your way of improving beauty is worthless.' Cf. Cic. 
Orat. 17. 56 si enim eloquentia nulla sine hoc, haec autem sine 
eloquentia tanta est. medl&na, verbal =medicatio; cf. rv. 
16 (17). 4 curarum tuo fit medicina mero. figurae, 
form and the beauty of form; a Greek turn of thought, recalling 
the gymnasia. See Ellis on Catull. 63. 62, and cf. in. 19. 25 
(16. 41) credo ego non paueos ista periisse figura, and for the 
sense in. 11. 8 (9. 25) ut natura dedit, sic omnis recta figurast 
and the epigram in the AnthoL Lat. x. p. 641 (Burm.) augeri 
studio tarn bona forma nequit. 

8. nudus, because without disguises; cf. Hor. Od. 1. 24. 7 
nudaque Veritas. Prop, often lays a strong emphasis on his 
adjectives ; el Introduction. Amor non amat, a false 

•» humanot lanat midicina dolores : solus amor morbi 
non amat artificem. forms* artlflcem, 'an eipert in.' 

Cf. morbi arttjkem already quoted, and for the gen., ' thing in 
point of which,' Roby 1320. Compare for the sense the imita- 
tion in Ovid. Am. 1. 10. IS, 16 et puer tst et nudm Amor : 
tint sordibus aimot et imllat ueitet, ut lit apertttt, habet. 

9 — 14. ' See the colours that the fair earth rears ; Bee how 
the ivy shoots grow best at their own free will ; how the arhnte 
springs more lovely in lonely mountain dells and with untaught 
skill the stream runs on its nay. With pebbles from nature's 
hand the shores are bright beyond compare, and the birds sing 
sweeter that they sing untrained.' 

9. Hnmmlttat, itairiuret. Lacr. 1. 7 dacdala tellue tttb- 
mittit fares. Some mss. -it. If right, the change of mood, 
submittif — ueniant, is not due to any essential difference of 
meaning, bat is a relic of a time when, as in Old Latin, the 
distinction between facts regarded as facts and as conceptions 
had not been evolved. Cf. iv. 3. 4 (5). 25 — 16 where the snbj. 
and ind*. are used indifferently throughout, and compare Intro- 
duction. Draeger Hist. Synt. n. 433 follg. colore*. Cf. 
Tib. 1. A. 29 quam cito purpureas deperdit terra colorei. 
Columella 10. 176 et qnos mills parit diaes natura colorei 
dirponat plantis alitor quos temine seuit, 

10. ut, mbs. et. ueniant sponte sua, from Virg. G. 
2. 9: 0. 1. Hillie ueniunt felieius una* seems to have sag- 
gested to Lschmann his emendation felicius for formotius in v. 
11. uenire is frequently need by Prop, where some more defi- 
nite word must be need to translate it. Cf. Introduction. 
melius, 'better,' i.e. than when cultivated; cf. Virg. quoted 
above and iv. 10 (11}. 5. The comparative in such cases is 
nearly a superlative ; so in Gr. as Pind. Nem. 11. ult. irpoc- 
litruip iF ipCiTUf oJiJts/mi pv>tai, 'passing fierce is the madness 
of unattainiiLk dosirea.' 

11. sursat. Sea note on el. 20. 37. formoslua. The 
adj. is more usual in such connexions, and the adverbial forms 
from fonrwsus are very rare. Bee however for a similar use 
and for fonnosius as an adv. Quint. 8. S. 10 in orbem se for- 
mosiuifimdct (of the olive). antrls. See el. 1. 11 n. The 
arbutus of course does not grow in caves. 

NOTES. I. ii 55 

kennen. The idea is at the root of the Socratio doctrine that 
vice is merely ignorance. lndoclles, ' untaught.' Of the 

thing done, here and Ov. Tr. 4. 1. 6 in doe Hi numcro, of. 
Gic. Acad. 2. 1. 3 indocilem usus disciplinam; of the agent 
Hor. Od. 1. 1. 18 indocilis pauperiem pati and Ov. Tr. 3. 12. 
8 indocili gutture uernat auU. It is opposed to doctus, 
which is applied to rivers that have been banked in, &c. ; cf. 
Hor. A. P. SQfluuiu8 doctus iter melius. 

13. penuadent. This, the reading of all mss. except G. 
which has collucent, a manifest correction, is obviously corrupt. 
Various emendations have been proposed of which the one in 
the text is that of Hertzb., praelucent; it='to transcend in 
shining, to shine very brightly'; cf. Plin. N. H. 32. 10. 52. 141 
baculum praelucet. It is not satisfactory, though better than 
Scaliger's per se dent — canant, for which cf. in. 32 (26). 49 nee 
tu tarn duros per te patieris amores, and Palmier's (not 'Pal- 
mer's* P.) persqualent. 

14. nulla arte, r§ /irj fyctp rtyw ' q n0a * nulla ars adest ' : 
for the use of the neg. cf. Ov. M. 8. 683, et ueniam dapibus 
null i 8 que paratibus orant (the want of preparation); for 
the abl. cf. Introduction. 

15 — 20. 'Not thus did Phoebe, the daughter of Leucippus, 
fire Castor's heart ; not by attire did Hilaira, her sister, win 
Pollux ; not thus did the daughter of Evenus sow strife in days 
of old betwixt Idas and lovesick Phoebus on the shores of her 
father's stream; nor did Hippodamia, whom the stranger's 
wheels bore away, allure her Phrygian spouse by a lying fair- 

15. 16. Phoebe and Hilaira, the daughters of Leucippus 
had been betrothed to Lynceus and Idas. Castor and Pollux 
carried them off and were pursued by Lynceus and Idas. In 
the fight that ensued (see Theocr. 22. 137 sqq., Ov. Fast. 5. 
700 sqq.) three of the four were killed, but Castor was rescued 
from death by Pollux sharing with him his own immortality, 
succendit, so in the pass. iv. 18. (19). 15 patria succensa 
tenecta Myrrha. 

17. cupldo, ' eager and full of desire.' Cf. Tib. 2. 5. 54. 
discordia, in apposition to filia, 'source of discord.' Cf. Intro- 
duction. With non a verb is to be supplied from the context : 
cf . Introduction. 

18. Eueni filia. Marpessa who was carried off by Idas. 
Her father pursued them; but, not overtaking them, threw him* 

56 NOTES. I. ii. 

self in bis chagrin into the river Evenus, which was so named 
from him. Near the river Phoebus fell in with Idas and took 
Marpessa front him ; bat according to one account she was 
afterwards restored. Utorlbui, litut for ripa as in Aen. 8. 83 
and elsewhere. So in Greek Find. N. 9. ID rap irriut 'EXtapm. 

19. Phrygium moiitum, Ptlopi; who according to one 
tradition was expelled by Has from his native town Sipylua in 
Phrygia and' emigrated to Pisa : and according to the well- 
known legend won Eippodamia for his wife by conquering her 
father OenomaaB in the chariot race. false candors. Gf- it. 
24. 8 quaeiitm candor where see note. traxit, 'drew his 
affections to herself.' So of spells, it. 5 (6). 37, 28 ilium 
turgentis rartae portenta rabetae et lecta extctit anguibus una 

20. externls rotls. On the car which hod just been vie. 
torious (cum uictore Ov. infr.). I do not understand what F. 
means by saying ' by the stranger Pelopa in Vie chariot race ' 
(the italics are mine). Eippodamia was the prize and not a 
passenger in the chariot race ; and the Lat. could not possibly 
mean 'through the victory of a stranger's oar.' The epithet 
exterats is softened down by Ovid in his imitation A. A. 2. 7, 8 
tt curru viclore ferebat, uccta peregrinit Hip- 

21 — 24. 'No! their helper was beauty that owed no debt to 
jewels, like the hues in the paintings of Apelles. It was not 
their one aim to hunt for lovers through the town. Chastity, 
a wealth of beauty, was theirs.' 

21. fades, 'beauty,' as in rn. 32 (26). 1. aderat, ' nan 
present to help them.' obnaxla, probably from Virg. G. 
1. 396/ra(r« radiis obnoxia funa. Ira. by Seneca L c. on t. 5. 
obnoxins is literally 'exposed to a penalty {noxa)' irtuOvrm, 
and with a dat. ' at the meroy of.' 

22. quails, a loose connexion of sentences not uncommon 
in Prop.; of. el. 16. 38, and Introduction. Apellels. Apelles 
of Cob, the chief painter of antiquity and the perfeoter of the 
technical part of his art. He invented a process of varnishing 
Iiis pictures, which not only preserved them, but made the 
colours rioher and more subdued. Ha generally painted on 
panels {tabuiae), and his subjects were usually taken from the 
nude. Hence the point of the comparison. tobnlisk For the 
trisyllabic ending see Introduction. 

23. ' Hunting for lovers was not their life's aim.' sta- 
dium conqulrere. Prop, is very bold in this use of the inf. as 

NOTES. I. ii. 57 

the nom. to a sentence. Cf. iv. 12 (IS). 38 nee fuerat nudat 
poena uidere dean and Introduction. nolgo, of. Ter. 

Heaut. 8. 1. 38 uictum uolgo quaerere in a similar connexion. 

24. See Seneca quoted on v. 5. 

26 — 32. "'I fear not now that thou should' at hold me 
cheaper than those heroines of thine.' Whosoever finds favour 
in one lover's eyes, that maiden is decked enough ; and thou 
especially, since to thee beyond all others Phoebus grants his 
power of song and Calliope her Aonian lyre with hearty will, 
and on thy pleasant talk there waits a matchless charm, yea 
all that Venus and all that Minerva commends. These gifts 
will make thee ever the darling of my life, if thou wilt but 
scorn the wretched ways of fashion." 

25. I have punctuated this line so as to mark that it is an 
interruption of Cynthia's. She is supposed to say 'I am not 
afraid of your preferring your heroines to me. I am sure of 
you. I dress for others.' Prop, replies 'A maid is adorned 
enough if she find favour in one lover's eyes. 1 For a similar 
dialogue between Propertius and Cynthia see bk. in. 20 (17). 
non ego nunc uereor is a favourite phrase with Prop. See 
i. 6. 1, i. 19. 1, &c, and cf. Introduction. uilior, with dat. 
as in Ov. Her. 12. 187 si tibi sum uilis. istis, with a cer- 
tain contempt. 

27. cum tibl. A step in the argument is omitted. Cf. the 
trans, and argument and compare Introduction. cajinlna, 
' power of song/ a thoroughly Latin brachylogy : cf. Pott's Lat. 
Prose, p. 32. For a somewhat similar expression see v. 1. 133 
turn tibi pauca suo de carmine dictat Apollo. For Cynthia's 
accomplishments see Introduction. 

28. Aonlam lyram, imitated Ov. Am. 1. 1. 12 Aoniam 
Marie mouente lyram. • 

29. nee dealt. For this use of a double negative where the 
other portions of the sentence, as here iucundis, require a posi- 
tive conception— a use foreign to our idiom — see Introduction, 
gratia, x^P t5 ? compare Phooylides Anal. Br. i. p. 78 oft oW 
iv utidots iirerat xd/>if otir' ivipovXjj and Meleag. Anth. Gr. 
5. 195 al rpuraal Xaptres rpiaabv aTcfavufxa <rvvcipat Zqpo^lXp, 
rpuTvds evfxfioXa Ka\\o<Tvt>as, a fiiv M xpwrdj depAva r66ow r a 8' 
1*1 ftopfds t/iepop t aSc \4you rb yXvicvpivdor tiro*. Com- 
pare for the whole passage Meleager Anth. 5. 140. nerbls. 
The weight of us. authority is in favour of uerbis, not dietis, 
and in the only other passage where dietis occurs in Prop. 

SS X0TE8. 1 a. 

(v. 1. 61) it is used of written composition, Enniut hirsuta ciitgal 
tun dicta corona (cf. note on el. 9. 9). On the other hand 
the palpable imitation in Ov. M. 13. 127 neque abut 
facundit gratia dictti slightly favours the latter word. For 
Properties' fondness for verba cf. el. 8. 22 n. 

30. Compare for the displacement of que i. 20. 28. It 
produces a Greek rhythmical effect of which Flop, is fond. See 
Introduction. quae probat, i. e. all the charms which these : 
goddesses naturally regard with satisfaction; in less vague 
language the attractions they typify, Venui representing the 
softer, Minerva the severer ones. For the expression com- 
pare an epigr. attributed to Virgil, CataL 13. 5, cut Vema ant/ 
aliot, dim diuomque loraret euncta ntque indigno, Muta, dedert 
bona, euncta qui bus gaudet Phoebus, choral ipsegue Phoebi, 
and Anal. Br. in. n. 743, 

p-opifrat £ rpurelor lx sitf Ktjrpts, 

tpya &' Adnrala reprta namppoirOvas, 
HoGfftL bi nal aoiplar koX TaxriSa rdf tpChipatrra* 

ciiupauou iparott lufa/iifa lUXtn. 

31. his. the foregoing recommendations. Cf. el. 20. 51. 
nostras ultae. For this expression, w-Mch nearly=noWi dim 
uiuimiu, compare iv. 10 (11). 1 quid mirare mean it uctioJ j 
femina ui lam! Cf. Introduction. 

S2. mlssrae luruilae 'wretched frivolity': contemptuom 
like Or. biarnpot. It is loosely translated by P. ' finery thai 
brings no happiness.' Inxurlae is probably the gen. sing. 


Aiiduesseb to Callus, a friend of the poet's (see Intro- 
duction), espo-ttu lilting with him for endeavouring to supplant 
him in Cynthia's iilTections and pointing oat the miseries of his 

Cease from towing dissension between two lover* (1, !). 
fan are mnd to tempt the miseries of a love like mine (3—6) 
ir the anger of my mistress (9, 10). Even if she cmueoti, 
waits you (11— 30). Yon will then anas- 

NOTES. I. r. 59 

stand too well why I am pale and emaciated (21, 22). Your 
rank will be of no avail (23, 24) and, if you betray your secret, 
you will be the common talk of the town (25, 26). I shall not 
be able to help you : I can only share your wretchedness (27 — 
30). Therefore beware (31, 32). 

1 — 6. 'Enough, thou envious man. Restrain thy unwel- 
come speech and let us travel on our course, as now, hand in 
hand. What does thy heart desire, madman ? To feel a frenzy 
like mine ? Ah, hapless man, thou hurriest to a knowledge of 
the direst woe, to tread in misery over fires thou knowest not, 
to quaff all the poisons that Thessaly can brew. 1 

2. cursu quo sumus, for the phr. cf. Oic. Att. 1. 1. fin. uidc 
in quo cursu simus. quo for in quo is partly to be explained 
as a loose use of the simple abl. such as prevails in the earlier 
writers — cf . Plaut. Most. 254 suo quidque locost ?, Ennius 
quo loco, curru quadriiugo — partly as a sacrifice to grammati- 
cal symmetry. Prop, not unfrequently prefers correspondence 
in Byntax to correspondence in thought. A striking instance 
is n. 5. 28 where see note. pares, 'well mated, pulling well 
together' ; properly of animals at the plough. Cf. el. 1. 32 and 
iv. 25. 8 tu bene conueniens non sinis ire iugum. Theocr. 
12. 15 d\\^\ovs i<t>l\Tj<rav t<r<p £uyy. 

3. quid tibi.uis, Insane, word for word in a passage quoted 
from C. Gracchus by Cic De Orat. 2. 67. 269. The tibi makes 
the question more incisive. meos furores, ' paroxysms like 
mine,' 'my frenzy with all its outbreaks'; whereas furor el. 1. 7 
is the course of mad love as a whole. Some read meae referring 
to Cynthia's passionate outbreaks (el. 1. 33 n.), an alteration 
which is not necessary, though it lends more point to quod si 
v. 9. sentire, cf. i. 9. 21. 

4. properas, with inf. as Sail. Cat. 13. 2 quippe quas (sc. 
diuitias) honeste habere licebat, abuti per turpitudinem pro- 
per abant, 'was eager to'; comp. Boby 1344. ultima mala 
= Soph. Phil. 65 i<rx<a.T i<rx&T<ov jccura. 

5. lgnotos dwells on the note struck in nosse. With 
Propertius the strange or unknown seems to have excited an 
instinctive repulsion: cf. his uses of nouns, extemus, ignotus 
and compare Introduction. To translate ignotos ' hidden,' as 
P. and others, gives a wrong sense, (since Prop, is speaking of 
pain, not of* danger), and also an unexampled meaning to 


60 NOTES. L v. 

G. toxica = rof i if and properly 'arrow poison, ' a word which, 
like many other Latin borrowings, is strange to Greek litera- 
ture, Thessalla, the land of witches and poisonous vegeta- 
tion; of. Tib. 3. i. 56 quicquid et htrbarum Theteala terra 
geril and iv. 24. 10 Tkettala aaga. Observe the imposing 
vagueness of the line, an effect frequent in Propsrtius. 

7 — 13. ' Set giddy girls beside her, they cannot shew her 
like. Hex anger, I warn thee, is not wont to be mild. Btit if 
perohanoe she is not adverse to thy hopes, yet what thousand 
thousand cares will she bring thee I She will not even leave 
thee thy sleep free or thine own eyes. 8he enohains the men 
of proud spirit as none else can.' 

7. uagls metaphorically 'giddy, light'; of. Mart. 2. 90. 1 
Qtiintilicme uagae moderator lumme iuuentat. Not literal!; 
as though a yiirij irrpiSf.otiot Theogn. 581. auallls conlata, for 
this bracketing of words cf. Introduction. 

8. solet. The Cuiaciamit has adet, a reading worth at- 
tention. With it, tint belongs to fraud; if >alet is read, it is 
the dat. of personal reference, 'of the person interested in a 
statement' Hoby 1150. For Cynthia's temper see Introduction. 

9. est, like est in v. 7, a true present, 'if her present die- 
position is what you desire': it might however be for erit. Cf. 
Livy5. i. 10 perficir.tur bellum ti urgemus obsestoi and Hor. 
Ep. 1. 20. 7 dtcet ubi quid U lateeHt et tcil in breve te cogi. 
On the consecution of tenses in Prop, see Introduction. 

10. at — oXXd, a more vivid tamen: see en. in Madv. Lai. 
Gr. % 437 (c). mull quanta, an illogical expression in which 
tilt and number are confused. Its germ may be seen in i. 12. t 
tam multa iUa meo diuita til milia lecto Quantum Uypanti 
Veneto diatidet Eri&tLno, so Claud. Stil. 1. 171 tanti* milibut 
Cf. Val. Fl. 5. 273 magna milia and lit. 5. 3 n. 

11. Ism, i.e. it [joint will be reached at which she 'will not 
leave ; cf. v. 21. voeuos. Compare A poll. Rhod. 3. 1018 
mpam-ii 'Epus tjifiav diri ^X6-)/o, rfli &' ina.puyd% 6tp6aXii£ir 
ijpraffi', and cf. notes on el. 9. 27 and el. 1. 3. 

12. olllg-at, *tiw down' to an obstacle, makes a helpless 
prisoner of: frtijiuiUly metaphorical, though not in precisely 
the some connexion. una=imt«; and so nearly in v 6 
23 n. Cf. tit. 8 (7). 13 temper amatorum portdentf wn« tirmi 
(Palmer, with ubb.). 

13 — 18. ' Ah, how oft under her soorn wilt thou hie thee to 
my threshold. Then thy brave words will falter into sobs: 

NOTES. I. v. 61 

chill shuddering will arise and piteous weeping, and fear will 
trace unsightly characters on thy face, and in thy complaining 
every word thou wouldst utter will fly from thee, nor wilt thou 
be able to discern who or where thou art, poor wretch ! ' 

14. fortla uerba : ' these be brave 'Ords,' such as Chaere- 
stratus uses, Pers. 5. 161 sqq. Cf. el. 9. 2 libera uerba n. sin- 
gvltar, an abl. of attendant circumstances passing into a causal 
abl. : see Introduction. cadent, cf. Lucr. 4. 1182 et medi- 
tata din cadat alte sumpta qutrella, Hor. Od. 4. 1. 85 cur 
facunda parum decoro inter uerba cadit lingua siUntio t 

15. tremulus horror, not a tautology, tremulus refers to the 
quaking of the limbs, horror to the bristling of the hairs on the 
body and the shuddering and chilliness accompanying; com- 
pare Ov. M. 9. 345, probably a reminiscence of this passage, 
nidi guttas e flore cruentas decidere et tremulo ramos horror e 
moueri (where Jwrrore is to he explained of the pointing of the 
leaves, as in Lucan 3. 411 arboribus $uus horror inest). 
maestis 'piteous, heartbroken' ; Virg. G. 4. 515 maestis late 
loca questibus implet. For the Proper tian abl. of accompani- 
ment see Introduction. 

16. Fear distorts the lines of the face. Hence ducet, for 
which cf. Tib. 1. 6. 20 mensae ducat in orbe notas, Ov. A. A. 

3. 493 ducere consuescat multas manus unafiguras. Hor. Od. 

4. 2. 59, quoted by P., is different. 

17. fuglent. Cf. Virg. Eel. 9. 53, 54 uox quoque Moerin 
iamfugit ipsa. querent!. Cf. Lucr. quoted on v. 14. 

Id. nee poterls qui sis aut ubi nome. Compare Catul- 
lus 17. 22 ipse qui sit, utrum sit an non sit, id quoque nescit 
(where see Ellis). It is an expression taken from everyday life, 
something like ours, 'you will not know whether you are on 
' your head or youtf heels.' 

19 — 22. 'Then thou wilt he forced to learn that bondage 
to my lady is hard, and how bitter is it to depart home from 
dosed doors. Then thou wilt not wonder so often that my 
cheeks are pale, nor why my whole body is worn to a shade.' 

19. crane, for this use of the pred. without esse comp. el. 
8, 32 and note, and Introduction. seruitium graue is a 

favourite phrase of Sallust, e.g. Fr. Hist. 43, <ftc. For seruitium 
in this connexion cf. in. 13 (11). 20 (me) posset seruitium 
mite tenere tuum (to Cynthia). 





62 NOTES. I. v, 

20. quid alt, olo'f lm. ef. m. 31 (25). 7, 8 m certe Xouii 

eiclusum aomnm, an assonance to which Licbmunn objects. 
But tie numerous classes of eiceptious which he is compelled 
to admit (see Mb note) are a sufficient answer to him. 

31. neo lain='no longer': cf. m. 6 (5). IS nee mihi ian 
faalus opponere quaerit iniquet. totlens, ' as often as yon do 
now'; but (aliens, lot, &c, in Prop, are used almost absolutely 
= saepe, &c. See Introduction. mirabere, ' speak 'won. 

daringly of or 'look with wonder at'; cf. i. 14.3 mireria cur- 
rerc linirei and i. 9. 10 n. pallorem. For Proportiaa* pallor 
and thinness (t. 22) see Introduction. 

22. nnllns, 'a mere nothing.' Cf. v. 1. 34 et qui nunc 
nulli, maxima turba Gait. For the thoroughly Propertian 
changes of construction, discere grain leraitium et...qmd $il, 
mirabere ■pallorem et car. . . see in. 23. 7 n. 

23— 26._ 'And high birth will be powerless to help thee in 
thy love : it is not in love to yield to the busts of ancestry. 
Then if thon shewest though it be faint traces of thy failing, 
how speedily will that great name of thine turn to a byword !' 

S3, poterit. Cf. Introduction. 

24 Desert. See i. 16. 20 n. imagiuibns. m. 6. 3 n. 

26. parua, emph. =ue( parua. For this emphatic use of 
words without emphasizing particles of. Introduction, 
uestlgia parua, Lucr. 1. 102 ueritm animo eaCil hate ueetigia 
parua lagaci; so Prop. 1. 18. 17 an quia parua damtta rtaUato 
lirjna colore J eulpas, a^aprla; cf. v. 4. 70 Vesta. ..cvtpam 

alit et plures condit in oiea facet. Propertins often uses 
stronger terms such as uitium, nequitia. 

26. de tanto nomine rumor erls. For .the use of de cf. - 
Just. 3. 2, '2 Jiitid de uno populo duo corpora. For the name 
(or reputation) and its owner thus united in a single expression 
comparo n. 5. 1, 2 hoc ventmtt tola te ferri (i.e. thy name). 
Cynthia, Roma et ntm ignota uiuere (i.e. thyaelf) ntquitia! 
and note there, tor nomen— ' a person with a name' cf. Ov. 
Tr. 2. 413 quit duldltt nomina tantaiequil perhaps a recal- 
leotion of this passage. So in Eng. sometimes 'A still greater 
reputation condescended to appear upon the human stage' 
Disraeli. Compare Introduction. rumor erls, ' be the aub- 

jeet of the town's talk'=Hor. Ep. 1. 13. 9 /acuta fiat. Cf. it. 
35. In. 

NOTES. I. r. 63 

27 — 30. ( I shall not be able to bring thee comfort then 
when thou prayest it, since for my own woe I have no cure. 
But in equal misery we shall be forced by the love we share to 
mingle our tears in one another's arms.' 

29. socio, in a passive sense 'shared, held in common'; cf. 
Ov. M, 5. 378 socio regno. 

30. alter in alterius. Gf. Aen. 2. 667 alteram in altering 
mactatos sanguine cernam. Comp. Greek dWijXot (&\\ovs d\Xoi) 
and French Vun V autre; so in Eng. the 'one' has become indis- 
solubly attached to the 'other 1 — ' one another.' nratua, ad- 
verb, as in i. 16. 26 and n., and in Lucr. 2. 76 inter se mortales 
mutua uiuont (where the sens9 is somewhat different ' pass life 
on from one to another ') and elsewhere. Virgil has per mutua. 
sinu, a proof of the greatest intimacy. Cf. Plin. Ep. 8. 16. 5 
quibus ex causis necesse tanquam immaturam mortem eiua in 
tinu tuo def learn, and Petr. Fr., an imitation of Prop., gran- 
dine qui segetes et totum perdidit annum in simili dejUt tristia 
fata iinu. The whole line is modelled on Meleager's, Anth. 
Gr. 12. 72 dXXa fioi fypeo, Act/u 8u<rdfifJLop€' tcavrds "Epuroi 
t\Kos i% (av ^ 7r * ff0 ?* daKpijffi 5&Kpv x^w. 

31. 32. ' Wherefore cease to seek, Gallus, what my Cynthia 
•can do : they rue in answer to whose prayers she comes.' 

31. quid posslt, what misery she can work : cf. Cic. Div. 
1. 10. 16. 

32. impune ilia. For the elision of a vowel at the end of 
the first half of a pentam. cf. Introduction. rogata uenlt. 
Not, as Hertzb. and P., a fuller expression for rogatur, like 
i. 10. 25 irritata uenit; for the dangers here dwelt on were 
not in asking, but in having the request granted. But uenit is 
used as in m. 6 (5). 20 sic hodie uenietsi qua negauit heri. 

I. Yin. 


This is not properly two poems, but a poem in two parts. 
A rival of Propertius, then praetor designate of the senatorian 
province of Illyricum and Dalmatia, had tried to induce Cynthia 
to accompany him there, and had nearly succeeded. Proper- 
tins wrote the first part to dissuade her ; and, on her abandon- 
ing the idea, expressed in the second part his feelings of 


64 NOTES. I. tUL 

triumph and confidents. The praetor afterwards came bud to 
Rome, and Propertins had to regret a renewal of the inlinuc* 

nn. 6). 


Am I so worthless, is he so precions that yon will face mj 
dangers and any hardships to go with him (1—8) t 01 that the 
stormy weather might continue and prevent yon from putting 
to sea and leaving me to my misery [9—13, (16), (16)]. Yet, 
though you have wronged me so grievously, I would not wis! 
you to he endangered when onoe yon have started on yoar 
voyage. Let the winds blow fair though they bear yon *nj 
from me ((13), (11), IT— SO]. Your perfidy shall not make mi 
change. Though tar away, I will still think you mine (SI— 36). 

My entreaties have prevailed. She stays with me (27— 32) 
Pin riches could not induce her to leave me (33 — 38). Sit 
could not resist the pleading charm of my verse (39 — 12). Shi 
is mine and mine for ever (43— 46). 

1 — I. 'Art thou mad then? Does no thought for me 
make thee stay 7 Or dost thou hold me cheaper than Hlyfii'i 
cold clime f And dost thou already rate thy knight, whoe'er 
he is, so highly that thou wouldst voyage without me in anj 
wind that blows V 

1. lgitur. The conclusion to a train of thought which is 
not expressed in the context. Here of a distasteful reality 
which most be recognized. So ergo Hor. Od. 1. 24. 5 <rjo 
Quinetiliwn perpetuui topor urget. Semens, addressed to 
Cynthia, as in m. 11. 7 (9. 23). mea can, as amor mea 
Hor. Epod. 5. 81. 

2. niyrla, in prose Illyricum. ullior, cf. el. 2. 25 n. 

3. tantl, a favourite expression of Propertins, a. g. m. S 
(7). 55 ne titii sit tanti Sidonia uettit ut timeai, Ac. qui- 
cumque eat lste, accumulated contempt. Propertins knows 
nothing of this extenau utr {m. 12 (10). 16), and will ii« 
nothing himself to say to him (ute), cf. n. 9, 1 iite quod (rt 

4. sloe me. Contrast v. 82. uento quoliost, with • 
reckless disregard of the season; Suet. Jul. 66 tMtuilim** 
fin up impr/siios qaocumqtie tieitto in qvaacumque terras iuM) 
nvehi. The abl. is of 'attendant circumstances,' as in Ed. 
Epod. 9. 30 Mentis iturot mm tuit, Koby 1242. 

NOTES. I. viii. 65 

&— & 'Canst thou hear the roar of the frantio sea and 
quail not? Canst thou lie on the hard ship's deck? Canst 
thou press the frost upon the ground with those soft feet ; thou 
bear, my Cynthia, the unaccustomed snow ? ' 

5. uesanL The §ea is called ' mad ' from the violence and 
apparent causelessness of its commotions ; hence in Flaut. Trin. 
4. 1. 7 of Neptune. So with other ill-understood natural 
powers, e.g. the wind; Catull. 25. 13 uesanienU uento. mur- 
mura ponti, a regular collocation. So Luor. 8. 1045, Or. Tr. 
1. 11. 7. fortls may go with the first or second inf. or more 
probably with both. 

6. dura. Cf. Aen. 5. 836 placida laxarant membra quiete 
sub remisfim per dura cubilia nautae. 

7. positas, 'fallen*: cf. Hor. Od. 3. 10. 7 positas ut 
glaciet nines puro numine Tuppiter^ Ov. F. 2. 72 postta tub niue 
ttrra latet. fulcire, * press/ See Appendix B and Introduction, 
prulnas, the ice and snow on the ground; nines, v. 8, the 
falling snow. 

8. insolitas. For Propertius' dislike of the unfamiliar 
eee el. 5. 5, and Introduction. 

9—14 (16). '0! that the stormy winter season might be 
doubled in length, and the lagging Pleiads keep the sailor idle, 
that thy cable might not be loosed from the Tuscan strand, and 
no hostile breeze make light of my prayers, nor steel itself to 
leave me on a deserted shore to clench my hands in rage and 
call thee cruel again and again.' 

9. hibemae, the adj. of hiemps storm; cf. Aen. 5. 12C 
hiberni Cori. tempera, 'the duration* of the winter. 

10. iners. Cf. it. 6 (7). 72 n. Vergiliis, the Latin 
name for the Pleiades whicn rose on April 2nd. Or. P. 4. 169. 

tardis, a secondary predicate, ' through the Pleiads rising 
lite'; see Introduction. 

11. Tyrrhena barena. The double or leonine rhyme, m 
common in late Latin poetry, is also sometimes found earlier, 
but almost exclusively in such a position that the metrical 
ictus falls on different syllables in the two rhyming words, as 
in Lucr. 3. 337 motihu accentus nobis per viscera s4nsus f not 
on the same as in Ov. Her. 2. 126 protinut ilia mefo auguror 
use detis or Prop. n. $. 16 in nostrum iaeies uirba supirba caput. 

fonia. ' retinaculum.' The ship, as usual, was secured by 
stern cables to the shore and by anchors from the bows, ready 
to start as soon as the weather was fair, 

P. P. 5 

66 NOTES. I. viii 

19. eleust, i 
between the mea 

13—16. With Soaliger, Milller and others, I hare changed 
the places of those two diaticha. The change is requited t 
give tales a meaning, and is supported by the orderly construe 
tion of the poem which falls into the following division* t, i 
6, 6, 6, each division containing a complete thought and ending 
with a psuae. 

13. pataotur, 'bear,' Or. irt^tittax, rXTJrat; with infln. ;■ 
in Cic. Off. 1. 9. 26 ut eat quae tutari debeant detertoi tin 
patianlur, and Prop, l 16. 89 n. The subject of the inf. i- 
generally that of the verb of suffering as in vix tolero dice. 
not different aa here; comp. el 22. 7. P., 'allow my voice si 
be heard,' is quite wrong. defiXUm, in a stupor of grief; 
hardly consistent with the violent gestures of the next lie. 
But here, as elsewhere, Propertius has compressed two eta£» 
into one; see Introduction. nacua. Contrast with ibis 
picture of desolation the undisturbed rest of HE. 20 (17). "• 
putrit it in uacua requieacit karena. 

14. Infests, roanu naturally means ' with threatening ges- 
tures ' : but a comparison with its use in Or. e.g. Am. 3. 9. I 1 - 1 
and with the scene in Ov. Her. 10. 87 quod unci deerat, pUmgo" 
replebam, uttbtra cum uerbii mixta fuere mei* makes it doabl- 
ful whether Prop, may not have intended infeeta mihi ipii- 
' beating my breast and tearing my hair.' Compare el. 6. 15, 15. 

15 — 20. ' And yet I would not then see such breezes sini 
when the barks with thee put out and the wind bears thei- 
away ; nay, however thou deservest at m y hands, forsworn ohp. 
may Galatea be not unfriendly to thy voyage that thou may's 
sail past the Cerannian rocks with prosperous oar, and tire 
waters of Oricoa be calm to receive thee.' 

15. atque, ' and yet,' so frequently. tales, like the pi. 
Toto&roi, to avoid a repetition of the adj. ; here inimical »!**■ 
Compare also in. 21 (18). 20 n. The expression is eoriousi; , 
roundabout 'X do not wish winds unfriendly to me, i.e. favoni- 
uLle io you, to sink when yon have once set out.' 

16. pronectM, * fairly under weigh,' the usual word in Uw 
connexion-; cf. Aen. 3. 72 prouekimur porta. anfsnrt- 
Softened down by Ov. It. A. 264 abitulit aura rata. abdufcni 
would have been more accurate. rates, probably not tie 
in'leflnite plural, but the crowd of ships which would grsdosD; 
t--jllect during the bad weather. 

NOTES. , I. viii. 67 

17. quocumque modo, -echoed in v. 34. mereris. Prop. 
often appeals to his or other people's deserts. 

18. Galatea, a sea-nymph; mentioned here as specially 
connected with Sicily, as the Acis and Polyphemus stories 
shew. non aliena, imitated Ov. Am. 2. 11. 34 aequo, 
tamen puppi sit Galatea tuae. 

19. praeuecta. This is a very strange use of the voc, and 
praeuectamfelice, the conj. of Mr Munro, as earlier of Heinsius 
and Guyetus, is easy. But the alteration gives a weak order 
of words, and it is not certain that Prop, could not have written 
the voc. See Introduction. [Since the above was written 
I find that Baehrens reads utere with his mss. I think this is 
very probably what Propertius wrote. For (1) the imper. can 
be used in wishes, as in haue, uale, and in vtebe felix, an 
inscription found on drinking- vessels. So in Greek, Xnth. Gr. 
7. 350 NaurtXe, pd) ircvdov rtvos ivdade rv/jfios 6& dfd, a\X' avrbs 
vovtov Tvyxavf xPV ffT0T ^P 0V ' Either of the last illustrations is 
so much in point that it may have suggested the use here. 
(2) The omission of te with accipiat which will then have to be 
assumed is thoroughly Propertian ; cf. Introduction.] Cerau- 
nia, Kepatitna optj ; a mountain range on the coast of Epirus, 
very dangerous for seamen : here its extremities, the Acrocerau- 
nia, which formed a promontory in front of Oricum, are es- 
pecially meant. 

20. Oricos (also Oricum), now Ericho, a town of Hlyria on 
the borders of Epirus at the mouth of the Aous, famous for 
box and turpentine wood, OHcia terebintho, rv. 6 (7). 49. It 
was the place where Caesar laid up his fleet in the Pharsalian 

21 — 26. * For no marriage torch shall have power to tempt 
my soul or to keep me from pouring at thy threshold, my hie, 
my loud complaint. Nor shall I fail to question oft the bustling 
sailors: 'Say ye, what harbour encloses the maiden of my 
choice ? ' I will say too : ' Though she settle on the Atracian or 
on the Elean shores, she shall still be mine. 1 

21. nam, the argument is: 'to pass on to me, I shall 
always be true to you.' corrumpere, ' seduce me from you, 
make me false to you.' Gf. in. 12 (10). 9 illic te nulli pote- 
runt corrumpere ludi. taedae, the accompaniments of 
a marriage procession, and so 'marriage,' as in Ov. M. 15. 826 
Romanique ducts coniunx Aegyptia, taedae non benejisa, cadet. 
There was some danger about this time of Propertius being 


68 NOTES. I. viii. 

forced to marry and resign Cynthia. See the introduction to 

ii. 7. 

22. quin. The student should observe that in clas- 
sical Latin quin (like fir) ov in Greek) is only used in 
negative or quasi-negative sentences. Thus poterunt me cor- 
rumpere ne querar, but non poterunt me corrumpere quin 
querar : cf . Boby 1636. ulta. See el. 2. 1 n. uerba 
querar. This, the us. reading, is altered by most edd. into uera 
querar, an easy but quite unnecessary change, and one too which 
destroys the balance of the context The reading is strongly 
supported by Ov. Met. 9. 804 moturaque dura* nerba que tot 
tUices, 'where the phrase is softened down by the addition of 
an epithet. For the cognate ace. see Boby 1100: the noun 
thus put in the aco. is generally of the same origin as the verb 
(as currere cursum) or at least commonly used as its verbal 
subst. (as* ire uiam), but ci Hor. Od. 2. 17. 26 laetum, theatris 
ter crepuit sonum, The next point is the use of uerba, which 
has misled the commentators.- uerba is frequently used by 
Prop, where we should use a more definite word ; e.g. x. 18. 21 
a, quotient resonant teneras men uerba tub umbras (prayers and 
lamentations), so in n. 8. 16, Ac.; v. 1. 184 ineano uerba 
tonare foro (a public harangue) : in. 81 (25). 10 pecoris duro 
perdere uerba sono (human accents). So here uerba queri is 
' give articulate utterance to my woe* opposed to tacite queri 
(P.). Compare for the apparent tautology i. 4. 18 et tibi non 
tacitis uocibus hostis erit and the phr. uooe uocare; and con- 
trast i. 5. 17. limine. Compare in. 6 (5). 82 uestibulum 
iaceam mortuut ante tuum, and the whole of el. 16 "which is 
such a serenade or wapaKkavelBvpov. 

23. nee me deficiet rogltare. The inf. is the nom. and = 
rogitatio, 'nor will asking fail me.' Cf. Hor. Ep. i. 11. 30 
animus ti te non deficit aequut. This use of an inf. in nom. 
and governing an aco. (nautas) is hard to parallel. Cf. how- 
ever eL 9. 84. Possibly it is a Graecism, as Mr Beid suggests. 
He reminds me of Soph. O. T. 1282 ov Xe/rei rb ftrj oi> /Sapfaror' 
etveu. rogltare, a frequentative form, very common in Plant. 
and Ter. , otherwise very rare. Virgil has it twice. crtatos, 
adj., * moving quickly ' ; it is also taken as the part., * I will 
call and question.' So Ovid asks the sailors for news, Ov. Tr. 
3. 12. 33. 

24. clausa, in sheltered water ; cf. 1. 11. 11 clausatn tenui 
Teuthrantis in unda. 

25. et dicam. Where another writer would say a thing w. 
Prop, frequently puts it as something taid in the past, present 

NOTES. I. riii. 69 

or future, by himself or others. Of. x. 11. 26 quicquid ero, 
dicam Cynthia causa fuit: i. 9. 8n. Comp. Ov. Am. 2. 11. 43, 
44 primus ego adspiciam notam de litore pinum, et dicam 
4 nostras aduehit ilia deos '. licet, licet. For this Propertian 
repetition compare in. 19. 19(16. 87) quamuis nee sanguine 
auito nobilis et quamuis non ita dines eras, and Introduction. 
Atradis is the reading of the best mss. : and may be defended. 
For Atrax was a town in Thessaly about 32 miles from the 
coast : and it may be said that the poet means * whether you 
are on the east or west side of Greece.' Or, again, the river 
Atrax in Aetolia, falling into the Ionian Sea (Plin. 4. 2. 3. 6), 
may be meant. Autarids, Puoci's conjecture, has some 

rather doubtful MS. support, but it suits the general sense 
very well (compare introd. supra) ; and the cutting down of 
the proper name Autariatae (AfrapieTt App. Illyr. 2) is quite 
in Properties' manner ; cf. note on el. 1. 13. The evidence is 
provokingly ambiguous. oonsidat, in its proper use 'to 

take up a permanent abode,' 'settle/ as in Cic. Att. 5. 14 
antequam aliquo loco considero neque longas neque semper mea 
mam litteras expectabis. Even a lasting separation will not 
extinguish Propertius' claim on Cynthia. 

26. Hyllels (mss. hileis), a certain correction. The"T\X«« 
or'TXX^ti were an Hlyrian tribe in the peninsula of Hyllis. 
fntura meast, stronger than eriU Prop, is Tery fond of this 
fat. part. Cf. Introduction. 

27 — 80. 'Here she will stay. Here she abides: she has 
sworn it. Let the spiteful burst. I have conquered. She 
could not bear the persistence of iny prayers. Let greedy envy 
lay down its visionary joys. My Cynthia has ceased to travel 
upon an unknown course. 1 

27. erit. esse is frequently used esp. in Oicero in the 
sense of * remain'; Cic. Sep. 1. 9. 14 cum Africanus constitu- 
isset in hortis esse. lurata manet, not for iurauit se man- 
mram. It is a strong way of expressing confidence. She will 
stay because she has promised it. rumpantur, faappaycicv ; 
in full rumpantur inuidia as in Virg. EcL 7. 26 and elsewhere. 
Here the inuidia is suppressed, as in the palpable imitation of 
this passage in Ov. R. A. 387 sqq. si mea materiae respondet 
Musa iocosae, uicimus, et falsi criminis acta reast. rumpere % 
liuor edax y <fec. The fable of the frog and the bull is a good 
comment on the phrase. lniqui as a subst. is Ciceronian; 
nonnuUi nostri iniqui Plane. 23. 57 and elsewhere. 

28. ulcimus. Compare Ovid quoted above. tulit, 

70 NOTES.. I. viii. 

'.withstood'; see note on el. 16. 29. So in the imitation by 
Ov. Tr. 3. 5. 38 Dardanii lacrimasnon tulitille sent*. 

29. falsa gaudia, 'unreal,' comp. pseudo-Tibnll. 3.6. 33 
imitari gaudia falsa to counterfeit joy; Ter. Andr. 1. 2. 9 
duci falso g audio, Cf. Oonsol. ad Liv. 37 gaudia uam 
foues: spem pone, muerrima, falsam. cupidus=ciij>tdtu 
laedendi Quint. 5. 7. 16. Prop, frequently omits to define the 
sphere of a word closely where it can be gathered from the 
context ; see Introduction. liuor. As we say ' envy,' substi- 
tuting for the class a concrete personification of the class- 
quality, liuor is the ' black ' or ' blackening ' disposition ; cf. 
Hor. Sat. 1. 4. 85 (of a calumniator) hie niger est; hunc tu, 
Romane, caueto. 

30. The vagueness of the expression Jiere is to be observed, 
destitit ire probably means ' has given up going,' ( relinquished 
the idea of going.' Compare the strange expression m. 13 (11). 
36 amator desisto. Then uias includes the journey to the 
coast as well as the sea voyage, and probably also the meta- 
phorical ' course ' on. which Cynthia had embarked by casting 
in her lot with a new lover. nouas, in a bad sense, which 
is still more strongly marked in v. 4. 68 nescia uae furiu 
accubuisse nouis. For Proper tins' dislike of the wTiffrwiiliiir 
which is partly that of Roman conservatism see el. 5. 5 n. 

31 — 36. ' She calls me dear to her, and Borne for my sake 
most dear. Without me sHe says that no royalty is sweet. 
Yea, she chose to rest with me in a narrow bed, to be mine, 
whatsoever the terms, rather than the ancient realm of rich- 
dowered Hippodamia to have for her own, rather than the 
riches that Elis gained in old time by its steeds.' 

31. Ull goes with earns, not with dicltur. Observe the 
exquisite skill with which the couplet is constructed. The 
poet begins by trying to express the facts as Bimply and 
soberly as possible (Mi earus ego), but his joy seems to oyer 
master him and break into a climax, yet with an indirectness 
(Roma) which is doubly effective. First the contrast be- 
tween ego and Roma heightens the impression of uncontroll- 
able feeling. He has guarded the main channel of passion, bat 
it has found an outlet in spite of him. Then again it is sug- 
gested that even what is remotely connected with Pronertius is 
dear to Cynthia, not himself only, but the city which holds 
him. Lastly the whole is softened by the vague passive dkitur. 
Propertius has certainly a title to his name of blandu*. 

NQTJES.. I. viii. 71 

82. sine me, contrast v. 4. There Cynthia will face the 
most adverse conditions to abandon Propertius; here she will 
not do it for the. most tempting proposals. Compare pseudo- 
Tibnil. 3. 8. 23 sit mihi paupertas tecum iucunda, Neaera, at 
sine te regum munera nulla nolo. dulda negat. For the 

adjective used as a pred. without case see in. 22. 41 (18. 51) 
crudelem Borean rapta Orithyia negauit: I. 6. 9 ilia me am 
mihi 8e iam dene gat: so r?. 14 (15). 29 et durum Zethum 
et lacrimis Amphiona mollem expertast : i. 5. 19 graue ser~ 
uitium disc ere: i. 7. 19 turn menon humilem mirabere saepe 

33. angosto lecto, Le. ' a humble bed' ; so in n. 1. 45. 

34. quocumque xnodo, Contrast again v. 4, and for the 
expression quouis modo v. 4 of the next elegy and n. 

35. sibi, 'for herself'; compare el. 5. 3. dari is not to 
be supplied, as P. says. uetns, very nearly= dpx<"6* 
rXovrov; cf. Hor. Od. 1. 15. 8 et regnum Priami uetus. 
Hlppodamlae. See note on el. 2. 19. * A greater king than 
Pelops' was a proverb : UtXoxos (kurike&repos Tyrt. 17. 12 (8) 

36. Ells, perhaps where Cynthia's lover had proposed to 
take her. ante pararat. To a modern reader this seems 
more naturally to mean 'amassed before Hippodamia's time,' 
and it may do so. But it is more probable that ante =* in 
past times' in. 24 (20). 7 hoc perdidit ante pueUas, so rv. 2 (3). 
6, <fcc, and that pararat is the Propertian use of the pluperf. 
where the perf. is more usual. See Introduction. •quia. 
The greatness of Elis was founded on the Olympian con- 
tests ; and of these the most important was the chariot race. 

37 — 40. ' Though he offered much, though he would have 
offered more, yet greed did not drive her from my arms. Not 
by gold, not by Indian shells could I move her, but by the 
gracious homage of my song.' 

37. quamuls...quamuls. v. el. 16. 30 n. daret, daturas. 
The sense wavers between * give ' and 'offer' in a way which it 
is not easy to reproduce. Prop, probably means • he offered to 
give much, and he would have given more.' daturas. For 
the omission of esset see Introduction. 

38. fugit sinus. The opposite expression in pseudo-Tibull. 
4. 3. 24 in no8 tr 08 ipse recurre sinus* It is worth observ- 

72 NOTES. I. viii. 

ing that sinus is never used for the ' breast ' as the seat of the 
affections, a Bense in which even good scholars often employ it 
in their verses. auara, closely with faglt. Cf. eL 16. 20 n. 

39. hanc, the ilia of the previous verse. On Prop.'s use of 
pronouns see Introduction. conchis, pearl-shells. CI 
ps.-Tib. 3. 3. 13 in Erythraeo legitur quae litore concha, 

40. bland! 'winning'; Ovid's epithet for Propertius. See 
Introduction. carminis obseftuio, i.e. by being humoured 
in my song. 

41 — 46. 'Then the Muses are no dream and Apollo is not 
dull to the lover. On them I lean and love; the peerless Cyn- 
thia is mine. Now on the highest stars I may set my feet 
Come day, come night, she is mine* No rival steals from me 
that trusty love. This glory shall not vanish till my hairs are 

41* sunt 'really exist' ; they are real powers, of. Tib. 1. 5. 
57 sunt numina amanti. So in Ov. Am. 3* 3. 1 esse deos i 
crede; fidem iurata fefellit. Stat. SiL 1. 4. 1 (in a similar 
jubilant outburst) estis, io, superi. tardus 'slow to answer 

and aid, indifferent'; cf. el. 1. 37 supr. tar das aures, and, with 
more of the physical sense, el. 10. 16 dominae tardas fores 

42. rara 'seldom found, hard to match'; el. 17. 16 quamuis 
dura tamen, rara pueUa fuit 9 Ov. M. 14. 337 rara quidem 
faeiet sed rarior arts canendi, basissiica. conivnx &o. are fre- 
quent in epitaphs. 

43. sununa. 'The loftiest star of unamended heaven/ 
Shelley. licet. In the range of feeling Properdins prefers 
the possible to the actual. contingere stdera plant!*. P.'s 
illustrations of this phrase are not strictly in point. In Hor. 
Od. 1. 1. fin. sublimi feriam sidera uertice the human dilates 
and riBes to divine stature. In Theocr. 5. 144 is ovpavbp vnpv 
aXeu/ucti 'I will leap sky high 1 springing exultation seems to itself 
able to perform the highest tasks. Here the sense is *I Bhall 
walk a god among the gods' ; cf . in* 6 (5). 10 immortalis ero si 
altera talis eriU Thus in Catull. 66. 69 the look, now a star, 
says me nocte premunt uestigia diuom. contdngere unites 
the ideas of 'touching' and 'reaching,' Aen. 4. 259 ut primw 
alatis tetigit magalia plantis, 

45. certos 'proved,' and so 'to be depended on, true;' cf. m. 
27 (21). 19 certos nunc spondet amoves, so of persons in. 19 (16). 
20 tu mini certus eras. suMudt. The balance of m an- 

NOTES. I. viii. 73 

thority is in favour of the pres. and it is the more poetical 
reading. The present and the past are to be one in Propertius' 
love, a continuous bliss. Comp. pseudo-Tib. 4. 13. 1 nulla 
tuum nobis aubducet femina Uctum (an apparent imitation of 

46. ista, see note on t. 39. norit would in Gr* have 
probably been £w<f<rrai, 'will befriend or accompany my old 
age.' It is also possible to explain it as a hypallage for l mea 
canities nouit gloriam istam,' the acquaintance being supposed 
mutual. For the preference of an indefinite expression cf. 
el. 9. 14 note. 

I. ix- 


Addressed to Ponticus for whom see Introduction. From 
i. 7 we gather that Ponticus had rallied the poet on his love- 
sick strains and had advised him instead to take tragic or epic 
subjects. Propertius defends himself there and warns Ponticus 
that love may be in store to him ; see verses 15 — 20 and 25, 
26 tu cane nostra ttto contemnas carmina fastu : saepe uenit 
nagno faenors tardus amor. 


My prediction is verified. Love has come to you, mocker, 
and come with a vengeance (1 — i). In matters of love I am a 
sure prophet; but it id a gift wnioh has cost me dear (5—8). 
Away with your epic poem and attempt some more attractive 
style (9—141 What if your love were unrequited? (15, 16). 
This is only a foretaste of what is coming. Love always 
makes his victims feel his power (17—24). Your very success 
is dangerous. There is nothing so insidious as a lover's en- 
dearments (25—32). Give me the confidence then to which I 
am entitled. Confession will ease your pain (33, 34). 

1-— 4. 'I told thee, mocker, that love would come to thee, 
that not for everlasting would a freeman's speech be thine. 
See, thou art prostrate and comest a suppliant to a girl's com- 
mand, and a bought maid rules thee as she will.' 

1. dicebam, i.e. * with something of prophetic strain '; Or. 
ofc ify6pevop; Ov. Am. 1. 14. 1 dicebam * medicare tuos desiste 
copillos.' So dixit Tib. 1. 6. 55 = 'predicted.' Comp. v. 6. 

74 KOTMS. I. ix. 

lrrisor cyyAcwra; apparently only here and in Cic. Farad. 
1. 3. 13 (with a gen.). 

2. libera uerba Unshackled freedom of speech.' It is the 
freedom Prop, prays for in el. 1. 28 q. v., and which is lost in 
the seruitium of love (el. 5. 19); compare Eur. Phoen. 392 
&ov\ov t6V ttwas pi) \4yeiv a rtj (pporet 

8. ecce, the l8ov or ifrWoe of Meleager ; see Introduction. 
Compare Ovid Am. 3. 9. 39 iacet, ecce, TibuUus. laces, 

like a captive on the ground; so v. 11. 38. Compare also its 
application in i. 6. 25 me sine quern uoluit semper fortuna 
i ace re, hanc animam extremae redder e nequitiae. ad inn 

4 to receive the commands of :' ct Ov. Am. 1. 2. 20 porrigitm 
uietas ad tua iura manus. puellae, probably *a girl:' 

possibly 'a servant,' anciUae. 

4. quouis modo, 'in any way she please'; cf. note on el. 
8. 84. empta. An attachment of this kind was considered 
discreditable to a freeborn Boman. Compare Hor. Od. 2. i 
which is an exhortation to Xanthias Phooeus not to be ashamed 
of his affection for his slave; and so in Hor. Od. 1. 27. 14 qwu 
te cumque domat Venus, rum erubescendis adurit ignibus in- 
genuoque semper amort peccas. 

5 — 8. *In the field of love Chaonian doves could not sur- 
pass me in saying what youths each maid shall tame. Woe 
and tears have given me a just title to this skill : and oh ! that 
I could lay my love aside and men call me tiro.' 

5. Qhaonlae, the prophetic doves of Dodona. Chaonia i* 
the name of the province of Epirus nearest the sea, and hence 
that of Epirus generally. Its use in this phrase is the more 
harsh, as Dodona is in the interior. The appeal to the doves of 
Dodona is the more appropriate from Dione, the mother of Aph- 
rodite, being worshipped there. See Carapanos Dodone et ses 
Buines pp. 134, 135, 145. In amore, one of the commonest 
phrases in Propertius. It occurs no less than 19 times alone 
and 15 with an epithet as i. 6. 27. ulncant dicere, a very 
bold construction, uincant is substituted for the equivalent 
phrase meUores tint. The inf. is for the gerund with a pre- 
position, meUores ad dicendum, in imitation of the Greek use; 
Boby 1361, 1363. So rum failor in Lucan 7. 287 caelum cum 
lamcea transit, dicere non failor quo sit uibrata lacerto. Cf. 

6. domat, 'shall tame'; the regular use, though P. seems 
to imply the opposite: see Boby 1507 where the role is dearly 

NOTES. I. ix. 75 

7. merlto, cUbrtot, a favotirite word of Prop. ; in 1. 17. 1 et 
merito, quoniampotui fogisse puellam, nunc ego desertas alio- 
quor alcyona*. Cf. in. 3. 9. iure is similarly used of other 
dearly purchased advantages Tib. 1. 1. 49 sit diues iure furo- 
rem qui maris et tristes ferre potest pluuias, peritum, used 
absolutely, as in Cic. Off. 1. 41. 147 nee uero alienum est ad ea 
eligenda quae dubitationem adferunt adhibere doctos homines 
uel etiam usu peritos &c. So rudis is used absolutely in the 
same connexion by Prop. rv. 16 (17). 7 te quoque enim mm 
esse rudem testdtur &c. 

8. atque utlnam. Of. note on m. 5. 27. poslto amo re 
im. Ov. Am. 2. 9. 25 uiue deus posito si^quis mihi dicat 
amore, deprecer. dicar, a Propertian expression; cf. n. 8. 6 
nee mea dicetur quae modo dicta meast and notes on el. 8. 25, 
SI. rudls, for the antithesis cf. in. 32 (26). 82 siue in amore 
rudis siue peritus erit. 

9 — 14. 'What avail is it now in thy woe to frame heroic 
verse, or to mourn over the ramparts of Amphion's lyre ? In 
love one line of Mimnermus is more potent than Homer: 
peaceful love asks gentle strains. Go, I prithee, and put thy 
gloomy books away; and sing what any maiden would be glad 
to learn.' 

9. dicere carmen, Hor. Od. 1. 32. 3 and elsewhere. It 
must not be forgotten that ancient poetry -was primarily in- 
tended for recitation, graue, i.e. not amatory; cf. Hor. Od. 
4. 9. 8 Stesichorique graues Camenae. 

10. moenia, the walls of Thebes. Comp. Anth. Lat. 3. 
182 Amphion cithara Thebarum moenia saepsit. Amphio- 
nlae lyrae, raised by Amphion's lyre, by Amphion with his 
lyre. For the gen. which is a rather unusual example of gen. 
of the thing causing (Eoby 1280) cf. Introduction. For the 
phr. cf. in. 21 (18). 18 Arioniam lyram and note. Here, 'tell 
in. mournful numbers': a condensed use of the verb not un- 
common in Latin. Hor. Epod. 14. 11 testudine fleuit amorem, 
Mart. 8. 56. 20 qui modo uix eulieem fleuerat ore rudi, and 
with the inf. Prop. rv. 8 (9). 37 n. Our idiom requires a subtler 
analysis. Thus we say * look with wonder on,' ' express wonder 
at;' but the Roman said mirari, Prop. i. 14. 3, i. 7. 21. So 
confideret Caes. B. C. 8. 72 * express reliance in,' contemnere Cic. 
Sest. 8. 18 'express scorn for,' Pliny N. H. Praef. quanto {ore) 
fratris (uirtutes) amas, 'how affectionately you dwell upon the 
excellences of your brother.* 

76 NOTES. I. ix. 

11. uersus, *<ms verse'; cf. m. 1. 13. Compare the epi- 
gram on Erinna in the Anthology 9. 190 ol W r/mpcoVtot avrijs 
crrlxot t<roi 'Om^Spv. There is a reference to el. 7. 3 pritrw 
eontendis Homsro ' your rivalling Homer will do you no good.' 
Homero, Homer's poems, as Isaeo Juv. 3. 74 is 'Isaeus' style.' 
Another instance of the tendency of Latin noted on v. 10. 

12. mansuetus, literally 'domesticated, civilized/ rt0a<r6s, 
Xeiporjdrjs, and so shrinking from tales of bloodshed. Compare 
iv. 4 (5). 1 pads amor deus est; pacem ueneramur amantes. 

13. tristes 'gloomy/ not 'dull' P.: from their subject, for 
which see introd. supr. and i. 7. 1, 2 dum tibi Cadmeae dicun- 
tur, Pontics, Thebae armaque fraternae tristia militiae. 
compone *lay aside,' from collecting things and putting them 
carefully away. So in Hor. Od. 4. 14. 52 te caede gaudenUs 
Sigambri compositis uenerantur armis, Gic. Fam. 16.20 libros 
compone: indicem cum Metrodoro UbebiU Compare condo. 

14. quaeuls puella, the generality of maids. noise, for 
a more precise word such as legere. Compare note on el. 8. 
46 and Introduction. 

15 — 18. ' What if thou hadst not ready access ? Now thou 
art mad and seeking water in mid stream. Thou art not pale 
as yet or touched with a real fire: this is but the first spark of 
the evil to come.' 

15. Copla. 'What if you were debarred from your love* ' 
Compare m. 81 (25). 44 eleuat adsiduos copia long a uiros, 
' a long-oontinued preference.' Not, as P., scribendi materie*. 

16. A proverbial expression ; of Tantalus Ov. Am. 2. 2. 43 
quaerit aquas in aquti, Gr. &> laXrfovjr £>pw vdtap. lnsannt 
* madly.' You do not know how well you are off. 

17. uero 'real'; so ueri calorU t, 8. 3. 

18. fciullla * spark/ the first bright spot in a kindling 
fire, fauitta is from the root boaw, an expanded form of bha. to 
shine, seen in 0d\f )-©t , fau-us honeycomb, from its bright look, 
fau-eo (see Curt. Gr. Etym. no. 407), and means properly some- 
thing 'shining, glowing' and thus (1) a spark, (2) glowing 
embers. Compare Aen. 3. 573 turbine fumanUm piceo et can- 
dente fauilla. For the sense compare Callim. Fr. 161 to *vp ft, 
raW*«w«*, od voXXy $\ayl vpfotr jrcxupipce, and osp. an epigram 
of Philodemus Anth. Gr. 5. 124 wvp rti+enu 4yKp6+tor...pdrra 
cyu /utrydXip adrUa wvpaLtsu Fox Propertius' archaisms and 
etymological bias see Introduction. 

&OTES, I. ix. 77 

19 — 24. 'Then wilt thou sooner desire to approach the 
tiger of Armenia and sooner prove the bonds of the wheel of 
hell than feel the young god's bow again and again in thy vitals 
and be powerless to deny aught to an angry love. No love ever 
left a captive his wings so free as not ever and anon to make 
him feel the checking hand.' 

19. cupies, a Propertian use, see Introduction. Here 
magis cupies is a stronger expression for males (magis uoles). 
accedere 'draw nigh.* Compare Aen. 1. 201 uos et Scyllaeam 
rabiem penitusque sonantes accestis scopulos. Compare i. 1. 
12 n. Armenlas tigres. This epithet for tigers appears in 
Virg. Eel. 5. 29, Ps.-Tib. 3. 6. 16. 

20. lnfernae rotae ulncula, i.e. be bound to Ixion's wheel. 
noeae=' possum esse, sensisse 9 ; for vaOqtiara are fiadij- 

iulto, Hdt. 1. 207. Compare also i. 6. 4. 

21. puerl, i.e. Cupid, called istepuer i. 6. 23. It is in Pro- 
pertius' manner to replace a proper by a common name: so 
Cupid is ales, the Muses, Pates, Danaides are sorores, Intro- 
duction, totiens, frequently used by Prop, almost in the 
sense of saepe; so inm. 10 (9). 18 canae totiens oscula ferre 
comae: so tot=multaiv. 7 (8). 2, <fec. Compare Introduction. 

arcum sentlre * feel the work of the bow ' ; whether it is 
old wounds that, are rankling or fresh inflicted ones. A similar 
brevity makes v. 29 obscure ; see note there. medullls. This 
abl. seems to fall under Boby 1174, the abl. of place where the 
place is also the means (1214 — 1226), cf. Cic. si memoria tenes: 
or in philosophical language the medulla is not only sentient, 
bat also the sensorium. The imitation Ov. Am. 1. 11. 11 is a 
good example of how Ovid softens down what seems to him 
harsh in Prop, credibile est et te sensisse Cupidinis arcus. 

22. tuae, as a noun (like mea rv. 7 (8). 22) Hot. Od. 
1. 15. 32 non hoc poUicitus tuae. The concurrence of adjec- 
tives in apposition is never avoided by Prop. See Intro- 

23. fadlas 'easy to work;' so facilis arcus Val. Fl. 
1. 109. There is a peculiarity in its use here, as the difficulty 
is caused by external impediment, not something in the tiling 
itself. It is not easy to settle what the metaphor is. Two 
interpretations claim to be considered. (1) explains it by a 
reference to the sport, still prevailing, I believe, in Naples, of 
tying a bird to a string, letting it fly and pulling it back again. 
Compare Aristoph. Nub. 763, quoted by Becker Chariol. p. 224 
(trans.), \ir6derov wrirep firjKoKSvOrjy (a cockchafer) rod votet. So 

78 NOTES. I. ix. 

Shaksp. Rom. and Jul. 2. 2. 177 "Tis almost morning: I 
would have thee gone-, And yet no further than a wanton's bird ; 
Who lets it hop a little from her hand, Like a poor prisoner in 
his twisted gyves, And with a silk thread pulls it back again, So 
loving jealous of his liberty.' (2) supposes the metaphor 
to be from chariot driving and an adaptation from the famous 
myth in the Phaedrus, p. 245 seqq. Love is the driver of a 
chariot drawn by the winged soul (irrrivbp ap/xa Plato). The 
metaph. is not unfrequent in love poetry; Meleag. Anth. 12. 
119 0ebt OvaroM opioxci KpaZlav, Anacr. Fr. 4 tt}s i/trjs fvxfc 
7)vlox€V€ls. I prefer (2), 

24. alterna ' pulling and loosing alternately.' See note 
onTm.8* 7.V xl < manu 'movement of the hand'; cf. infesta 
vianu i. 8. 16. 

25 — 32. * And let it not mislead thee that thou canst quite 
command her love. If a maid be all thine own, Ponticus, she 
steals more deeply into thy souL Yes, for then thou canst not 
withdraw thine eyes from the spell nor will Love allow thee to 
watch in any cause but his, that Love who does not reveal 
himself till his hand has reached the bones. Whoever thou 
art, oh, flee incessant blandishments 1 They can make the 
flint and the oak yield to them ; still less canst thou resist 
with thy frail spirit.' 

*• 25. nee te decipiat quod. The constr. is nee quod sit 
satis ilia par ata (the idea that, &c.) decipiat te. 

26. acrius subit, a union of two allied ideas 'piercing' 
(acrius) and 'entering into ' {subit, with which altius would have 
been more suitable), acrius 'with keener passion'; cf. n. 4. 2 
(3. 46) si quis acrius ut moriar, uenerit alter amor and Tib. 
2. 6. 15 acer amor, subit of stealthy entry as in Ov. Am. 1. 2.6 
an subit et tacita callidus arte nocet f tuast, emphatic. 

27. The punctuation here is doubtful. Either (A) the one in 
the text may be adopted or (B) a full stop may be put after tuast, 
a comma after nomine and a note of interrogation after om. 
The sense then will be ' Would love forsooth cease to be there 
(cedat, give place) where there can be no withdrawing of the 
eyes from the fascination, or watching in any cause but his?' 
For quippe, ubi and a question following, comp. Lucr. 1. 167, 
168 quippe, ubi non essent genitalia corpora cuique, qui posset 
mater rebus consistere certaf ("Quippe is here joined with 
168 Qui, ubi — cuique being a separate clause, but 182 Quippe 
ubi are of course connected: he (Lucr.) never cares to avoid 
such ambiguities of construction." Munro.) The last remark 

NOTES. I. ix. 79 

is true of Prop, and apposite to the present passage. In the 
other place in which Prop, uses the phr., n. 4. 19 (9) quippe 
ubi nee eausas nee apertos eemimus ictus, the quippe and ubi 
are closely connected. (B) makes line 29 more pointed, hut 
does not satisfy the rhythm so well, nor the argument, unless 
indeed we suppose a meiosis, cedat amor? being put for a strong 
affirmation. I incline to (A). quippe ubi, Gr. Strov ye, 

' of course this must be so where.' The subj. is used after it, 
as the statement is general. non liceat. Love and the; 

loved one with Propertius wield irresistible constraint. Comp. 
the use of cogere 1. 13. 32 ilia suis uerbis eogata mare Iouem. 
uacuos, lit. unoccupied, free from her image, 'fancy-free/ 
Shaksp. Cf. 1. 10. 30 qui numquam uacuo pectore liber erit; 
and for ocellos cf. i. 5. 11. seducere, ' withdraw ' to other 

objects from the all-absorbing one; generally used of taking 
gome one aside. 

28. alio nomine, ' for any other reason or purpose ' ; com- 
pare Hor. Oct 3. 21 nata mecum consule Manlio, seu tu 
querela* siue geris tocos, seu rixam et insanos amoves seu 
jacilem pia testa, somnum, quocumque tectum nomine Massi- 
cumseruas, Gels. 6. 6. § 14 acres cibi non alio magis nomine 
his nocent quam quod lacrimas mouent. cedat. With inf. as 
Stat. Theb. 1. 704 aether ii dono cesser e parentes aeternum flo- 
rere genas. 

29. patet. So patesco, Aen. 2. 309 turn uero manifesta fides 
Danaumque patescunt insidiae. ante is nowhere else fol- 
lowed by donee. donee attlglt. The perf . ind. with donee is 
unusual after a pres. ; but cf. Yirg. G. 4. 313 miscentur tenuem- 
que magis magis aera carpunt donee. ..erupere. A curious 
archaic form attigat (pres. subj.) is said to occur in some 
mss. manus attlglt ossa. The Gron. ms. reads cutis, 
plainly a gloss, but pointing to a different interpretation than 
the one given above. The copyist seems to have taken the 
Latin as meaning ( Love that does not disclose himself till the 
hand has touched or, as we should say, can touch the bones '— 
which, for the general sense and for the use of the perf., is very 
like v. 6. 63, 64 his animum nostrae dum uersat Acanthis amicae, 
per tenues ossa has sunt numerata cutes, Comp. also Intro- 
duction. Another way of construing it — and by far the most 
natural, if we regard the words only — is ' until his hand has 
touched the bones'; but the metaphor is strange to the classics. 
The ordinary one is to suppose the metaphor is from archery. 
' Love, the archer, lurks concealed until his hand has reached 
the bones,' sent an arrow to the bones. This agrees well with 

80 NOTES. I. ix. 

Theocr. 3. 17 os fit KaTCWfjrfxw *«2 it dariw &XP 1 * '**r«i &i 
Prop. in. 32 (26), 60 quern tetigit iactu certtu ad oaa 
Nor is the ambiguity too harsh for Propertius. 

30. quisquis es. The advice continues to be gen: 
though the person shews he has one particular application i-f 1 
in view. a foge, mss, aufuge, a correction of afuge. 

81. poflfuxit eedere. A typical instance of Property 
fon:lness for possum. See Introduction. We should expei 
cedunt, or at least instead of eedere the passive of some actv 
verb. sHices et quercus, as in the legend of Orpheus, ' 

which perhaps Prop, is thinking. Oaks and rocks are the 
of insensate nature. Compare Wordsworth ' She neither 
nor sees, Boiled round in earth's diurnal course, With re 
and stones and trees.' Ulii, the blanditiae, not as P. 

32. The mss. have nedum tu possis. nedum is not unfre- 
quently used after an affirmative sentence : so in Livy 9. 13. 1 i 
The peculiarity here is that possis is possis non eedere, not, a< 
one would expect, possis eedere. [Hence I have accepted i 
Baehrens' ingenious conjecture par sis.] spiritus, in apposi 
tion to a person, comp. Theocr. 14. 31 kclkoX (pptves and it. IT 
(18). 10 n. late. The expression will be harsh and cor 
fused if iste has its usual reference to the second person. I: 
is better then to suppose iste=ille. Comp. el. 8. 48. ' 

33, 34. ' Wherefore, if thou canst blush, confess thy error* 
with all speed. To say for whom we languish oft lightens ocr 
pain in love.' 

33. quare. The argument is not very cogent, but Prop. 
is fond of this mode of connecting thoughts. Comp. Intro- 
duction. Here the connexion seems to be 'You slighted m? 
words in the past, and now you have found that I was righf. 
Do not disregard them now, but confess your love; which, 
believe me, will alleviate your pain.* si pudor est has caused 
unnecessary difficulty. It is not a strong expression. Virgil 
addresses it to goats Eel. 10. 77 ite domum saturae, si qui* 
pudor, ite capellae. It continues the idea in quare, * if yon 
nave any respect for me and yourself,' not " if you are ashamed 
of loving a slave " P. Propertius appreciated these love cor- 
fidences. Compare el. 10. errata, of love, Prop. 1. 13. 35 
quoniam nouns incidit error. So in Ov. Am. 2. 4. 3 (a rem: 
niscence of this passage) conftteor, si quidprodest delictafaU 

34. quo, not to be altered into qua nor taken with • 
smore. It is the masc. of indefinite gender. quo perns 


w trt Vt 

IVOTES. I. be 81 

&e abl. of the inatr. So with uror, ardeo, ferueo. Compare Hor. 
Od. 1. 27. 10 dicat Opuntiae frater Megillae quo beatus uolnere, 
qua per eat sagitta. leuat, 'relieve/ as Hor. Ep. 1. 8. 8 quod 
leuet aegrum. But observe (1) that it is used without an accus, 
following, of. 1. 14. 22 quid releuant uariU serica textilibut K 
(2) that it is used with a clause (infinitival) as nam., a use which 
Propertius has considerably developed. Comp. t 8. 23 n. and 
v. 25 of this elegy. i 

I. xvL 


The idea of this poem is taken from Catullus 67. It is the 
complaint of a house- door about the wrong doings of the 
inmates. In this case they are those of a lady of fashion who 
conducts her dissipations without regard to her own reputation 
or the traditions of the house that she inhabits. The sad 
reflections which this occasions are made still sadder by the 
lamentations of one of her unfortunate lovers who spends his 
nights, on her doorstep, bemoaning his love. Who she was and 
who was her lover is not certain. But it is probable that she 
was Cynthia and that the wretched lover was Propertius, who 
gives a feeling account of his sufferings, not without some sense 
that they had their ludicrous side. Compare w. 13, 41 and notes. 


Door. 'I was glorious once (1 — 4). I am degraded now 
(5 — 8). My present mistress lives in open shame, and I cannot 
save her (9 — 12). Then to add to my sorrow there is a lover 
who is never tired of supplicating and lamenting in the follow- 
ing strain (13 — 16). 'Door, why so cruel to me? Why will 
you not admit my love or my prayers (17 — 22) ? Even inani- 
mate nature has pity on me, but you have none (23 — 26). If 
my love heard me, hard-hearted though she is, she would 
relent (27 — 32). Some one is happy in my wretchedness (33; 
34). This is all your doing, door, though I have never done 
you harm (36—40), and have often paid you honours (41 — 44).' 
Thus he laments till the dawn breaks ; and between the mistress 
and the lover I have no rest (45 — end). 

1 — 8. 'I, that in past days of yore was opened for great 
triumphs, the door whom Tarpeia's chastity made renowned; 
whose threshold has been thronged with gilded cars and wet 

p. p. 6 

82 &OTES. I. xvi. 

with the suppliant tears of oaptives, am now wounded in 
nightly brawls of revellers and have oft to complain of blows 
from unworthy hands ; and degrading garlands never fail to 
hang near me nor torches, signs to the shut out lover, to lie 

1. fueram. The pluperf. heightens the contrast between 
the glorious past and the degrading present. See el. 8. 36 note. 

patefacta, the household pouring forth to meet the 
triumphant general and receive the spoils, which were to adorn 
the atrium. 

2. Tarpelaepudldtlae, probably not (1) the gen. after lamia = 
Tarpeiae pudicae, but (2) the gen. after nota, 'the gen. of 
thing in point of which a term is applied ' Boby 1320 ; Hor. 
Od. 2. 2. 6 not us infratres animi paterni. If the text be right, 
the only thing that we can say about this Tarpeia is that she 
was not the famous one. 

3. inaurati currus. These were the triumphal cars, Hor. 
Epod. 9. 21, 22 io triumphe, tu moraris aureos currus et 
intactas bouest, deposited in the vestibule Juv. 7. 125 huiiu 
enim stat currus aeneus, alti quadriiuges in uestibulis, For 
a description of them see Bich's Diet. s. v. currus. 

4. captorum. The captives assigned to the triumphing 
general. lacrlmis umlda. Gf. Ov. Tr. 3. 3. 82 deque tuU 
lacrimis umida serta dato. There is a latent contrast be- 
tween the tears of the captives and of the lovers. 

5. potorum, from potus or potort sauda, properly of 
sentient things; yet cf. Hor. Od. 1. 14. 5 et malus celeri sauciu* 
Africo. noctumls rlxis, cf. Ov. B. A. 31 effice nocturna 
frangatur ianua rixa. 

6. pulsata queror. It is not easy to say whether Proper- 
tius meant (1) queror me esse pulsatam, a Greek attraction, for 
which cf. Boby 1350, or (2) queror, pulsata; queror being used 
absolutely, 'I utter complaints/ as in Cio. The sense is in 
either case substantially the same. 

7. desunt pendere, ' fail to hang.' Compare Sil. It 7. 497 
pascere nee Pocnis prauutn et nutrire furorem deer at, Tac. 
Hist. 4. 11 nee deer at ipse stipatus armatis uim principu 
amplecH. In Luoan 7. 670 nee deerat robur in eases ire duci 
we see an earlier stage in the growth of the idiom. corona* 
See the description of the lover's behaviour at the door of his 
mistress, Lucr. 4. 1177 at lacrimans exchmis amator UmiM 

NOTES. I. xvi. 83 

taepe floribtu et serHs operit postisque superbos unguit amara- 
cino et foribtu miser osculafigit, and Catullus quoted on, v. 22. 

8. excluslfl. So Mr Tyrrell with the mss. rightly: edd. 
exclusi. The faces lying on the ground shew shut-out lovers 
that a more fortunate rival is within. faces, which had 
lighted him to the house, cf. Pers. 5. 165* dum Chrysidis udas 
ebrius ante fores extincta cum face canto, 

9 — 12. * Nor can I protect the nights of my mistress from 
dishonour, hut, though once so honoured, am the prey of 
ribald Bongs. And yet that does not call her back to have 
mercy on her own fair fame from a life that is viler than the 
licence of the age.' 

9, 10. The uncertainties of this couplet are best shewn by 
taking the words separately. Infamlfl may be either fl) 
gen. or (2) ace. agreeing with nodes. domlnae may De 
(1) gen. or (2) dat. after defendere ; cf. V. Eel. 7., 47 solstitium 
pecori defendite. defendere may mean (1) 'ward off' dis- 
honourable nights from my mistress, or (2) ' protect ' the nights 
of my mistress. nobilis may be (1) nom. referring to the 
door, or (2) gen. and may mean either (1) noble, or (2) 'notorious.' 
I have marked by italics the interpretation I have given 
in the translation, which probably represents the general 
sense, but is in no particular certain. tradlta, 'made 
over,' < surrendered to.' Slightly different is the use (in a 
good sense) of committere, credere for committing to writing ; 
Hor. Od. 4. 9. 11 uiuuntque commissi calores Aeoliae fidibus 
pueUae, Hor. Sat. 2. 1. 30 Me uelut fidis arcana spdalibus 
olim credebat UbrU. carminibus, frequently hung outside 
the loved one's doors. Cf. Ov. Am. 3. 1. 53 uel quoties foribus 
duris incisa pependi, non uerita a populo praetereunte legi (sc. 
Elegia), Plaut. Merc. 2. 3. 73. 

11. tamen, in spite of the infamia and obscena carmina. 
reuocatur parcere...uluere, ' recalled to spare and from living' ; 
a two-headed use of the same construction (the inf.) which it is 
hard to parallel exactly. For the same word however to be 
used in different senses with different parts of the sentence is 
not unexampled. Thus Eur. Iph. Taur. 279 Wo£e 3* iffiuov eu 
Xfyet* to?$ irXelovi (we thought she spoke well) dfeiv re tJ 0e$ 
(we resolved to sacrifice) where it is also to be observed that 
the inf. is used in the two clauses with a somewhat different 
iorce. reuocatur parcere is a constr. like Ov. Am. 3. 9. 36 
*ollicitor nullos esse putare deos, Plin. N. H. 9. 17. 31. § 66 
dlecem excogitare prouocauit. reuocatur uiuere is analogous to 


84 NOTES. I. xvl 

the inf. after prohibere, deterrere Cic. Verr. 1. 5. 14 commemorate 
pudore deterreor. suae famae p., Sail. Oat. 52. 32 uerum 

parcite dignitati Lentuli, si pudicitiae si famae suae si du 
aut hominibus umquam ullis pepercit. 

12. turpior. turpiu* would be more usual. The adjec- 
tive is used where the feelings or nature of the person are 
emphasized : the adverb where the character of the life. Thus 
Cic. Att. 3. 5 ego uiuo miserrimus 'I am the most wretched 
being alive/ mis ere uiuo 'I live a wretched life.' But in many 
cases the distinction vanishes. saecli lunula. It does 
not matter whether we take this ' the profligate life of the age,' 
which goes better with uiuere, or 'the profligate age, ' which 
suits turpior better, a use of the subst. for which see Intro- 
duction ; and compare for this comparison between a person 
and a quality el. 20. 5 n. 

13 — 16. ' In the midst of these complaints I am doomed 
to sorrow still more grievously, in sadness deepened by a sup- 
pliant's long watchings. He never suffers my posts to sleep, 
as he repeats his strains with artful blandishment.' 

13. grauibus querelis, mss., with which has Inter can 
only mean ' in the midst of such nights as these, ' nodes being 
supplied from line 9. haec inter would give a very good sense, 
but does not explain has. I have therefore adopted Scaligex's 
brilliant emendation graulus querelas, grauius was changed 
to grauibus and querelas made to agree with it. deflere 
without an ace. is very rare. It comes only in Pliny 1. c. on 
el. 5. 31 and Appul. Met. 4. fin. Psychen pauentem ac trepidam 
et in ipso scopuli uertice deflentem t with an inf. Manil. 4. 743 
minui defleuit onus dorsumque leuari, and with an obj. to be 
supplied from the context Tao. Ann. 16. 13 dum adsident, 
dum deflent. Observe that the adv. makes the use less harsh. 
For the expression comp. rv. 25. 9 limina nostris lacrimantia 
uerbis (a distinct allusion to the present passage) and note. 

14. a, the preposition; cf. Ov. Tr. 4. 3. 36 tempus et * 
nostris exige triste malis, 

16. arguta. It is not clear whether this refers to the 
'whining, wheedling' tones or to the cunning flattery of 
the blanditia. In any case compare i. 18. 26 arguto facta, 
dolor e queri. referens, 'repeating.' They had been com- 
posed at home. carmlna, a serenade, irapaicXavaLdvpor. 

17 — 26. ' Door, crueller to the core, yea than thy mistress 
herself, why art thou shut against me with those grim silent 

NOTES. L xvi. 85 

leaves ? Why art thou ne'er unbarred to let my love in ? Can 
nothing teach thee to relent and be the herald of my stealthy 
prayers? Shall there be no end vouchsafed unto my pain, but 
a dreary sleep here until the threshold is warm? The mid- 
night, the sloping stars, the breeze chill with the frosts of 
dawn, grieve for me as I he. Thou, the only one that never 
pitiest the woes of men, givest me back in answer the silence 
of thy hinges.' 

17. penltus crudelior, a rare strengthening of the com- 
parative. Cf. Yell. Pat. 2. 27. 1 penitus Romano nomini in- 

18. mini, ( to my discomfort/ dat. of personal reference. 
tarn durls. Propertius is very fond of the expressions which 

imply a comparison, even where it is not clear with what the 
comparison is made. Compare v. 39 tarn longa querela and 
ii. 5. 7. foribus, ' leaves/ of which there were two : hence 

fores in plur. = • a door.' See the illustration in Rich, s. v. Ianua, 
and compare Ov. Am, 1. 6. 74 (where the parts are specified) uos 
quoque crudeles rigido cum limine postes duraque con* 
seruae ligna ualete fores, 

19. meos amores, not quite the same here as me amantem. 
Bather the person is regarded as sunk in the affection, ' I that 
am all love.' 

reserata admlttls, one idea as reddere mota v. 20. 

20. nesda, so Hor. Od. 1. 6. 6 Pelidae stomachum 
eedere nescii, Yirg. G. 4. 470 nesciaque humanis precious man- 
sjiescere corda. Compare the use of nescit el 5. 24. It may be 
a Graecism, though other nations have seen that ( knowledge is 
power/ el. 2. 12 note. mota coheres closely with reddere. 
Compare Introduction. reddere, 'to deliver' to my mis- 

21. finis, fern, as in Lucr. &c. erlt concessa. See In- 

22. tepido limine, with tears (of. v. 7. 28 atram lacrimis 
incaluisse togam) and the warmth of the prostrate body. The 
phrase is perhaps from Catullus 63. 65 mihi ianuae frequentes, 
rhihi liminatepida, mihifloridis corollis redimita domus eraU 
The use of the adj. is proleptic and — tepefacto; so mollia 
el. 20. 22 =mollita and firma rv. 8 (9). 50 =firmata. It is much 
the same as saying on the cold threshold fvxpoh irpoOtipois 
Callimachus Anth. Or. 5. 23. 2. tristls, broken and dis- 
turbed; so amarus somnus in. 12 (10). 6. 

86 JO TBS. I. xvl 

23. mediae noctes, the indef. plur. ; cf. in. 31 (25). 25 tenia 
bibis: mediae nequeunt te frangere noctes. This is the 
first period. sidera prona, i.e. the stars which emerged 
from the horizon at nightfall have passed the zenith and are 
sinking to their setting, Yal. Fl. 3. 33 et iam prona leues 
spargebant sidera somnos; the second period, about two or 
three in the morning. 

24. aura, the third period when the breeze springs up, jnst 
before dawn (##0t rp6) ; compare v. 46. dolet, * grieves for 
me.' Inanimate nature itself sympathizes with me in my 
lonely watch through the night; compare Virg. Ed. 10. 13 
ilium etiam lauri, ilium fieuere myricae, <fec. Eoo, 'morn- 
ing,' t}<j><j>. Of. Virg. G. 1. 221 Eoae Atlantides abscondantur. 

gelu. So in n. 9. 41 sidera sunt testes et matutina 
pruina etfurtim misero ianua aperta mihi. 

26. respondes tacitls, a kind of oxymoron* The only 
answer that comes to the strained ears is silence. tadtds. 
So Ov. Am. 1. 6. 49 fallimurf an uerso crepuerunt cardine 
postes raucaque concussae signa dedere fores t fallimur* impuU 
sast animoso ianua uento. mutua. El. 5. 30 n. 

27 — 34. * Oh, that my weak voice might strike through 
some hollow chink and fall on my dear lady's startled ears. 
Though she be more impassive than the Sicanian rock, though 
Hhe be harder than iron and harder than steel, yet she will not 
be able to restrain her own eyes, and the sigh will rise amidst 
unbidden tears. Now she is leaning in repose on another's 
happy arm, while my words are scattered to the zephyrs of the 

27. traiecta, crossing the barrier of the door. uocnla, a 
Ciceronian diminutive Att. 2. 23. 1, Ac. caua, ' open, not 
stopped up,' cf. v. 1. 149 cauus hiatus 'a yawning gulf.' 

rlma, probably abl. of ' road by which,* Roby 1176, though it 
may be also the abl. of means as F. takes it. For rima comp. 
hi. 9 (8). 16 per rimosas mittere uerba fores; v. 1. 146 per- 
suasae f alter e rima sat est. 

28. percussas. Of the same time as uertat, 'fall upon 
them and startle them.' For this use of the part. comp. 
Introduction. Tbis sense of percutere is Ciceronian. uer- 
tat, intrans. ; so Livy, in the metaphorical sense, 9. 38. 8 fama 
aduersae rei uertit in Romanos, but cf. Plaut. Amph. 1. 1. 95 
uortentibus Telebois telis complebantur corpora. auriculas, 

ROTES. I. xvL 87 

11 popular diminutive preserved in Romance, e.g. Fr. oreiUe. 
Observe the tenderness which these diminutives give the expres- 

29. saxo. The ordinary interpretation of this, ' the rocks 
of the Cyclops,' is absurd. The lapis molaris or the lava of 
Aetna is meant. Strictly it was not a saxum, Plin. N. H. 36, 
18. SO. 1S6 nusquam hie utilior t quam in Italia gignitur, lapis- 
que non saxum est; but cf. Aetn. 45. Its patientia or endu- 
rance is not hardness which is expressed by durior (v. SO) but 
capacity for bearing, i.e. retaining fire. In thite sense the 
anthor of the Aetna, 408 (Munro), has aed simul atque hausit 
jiammas non tutior hausti ulla domus, seruans aciem duramque 
tenaci septa fidest ; ut turn est illi patientia uicto, and 421 hie 
semel atque iterum patiens ac mille perhaustis ignibus in- 
staurat uires* Luoilius (?) had evidently read Prop. See In- 
troduction* Slcano, Aetnaean ; so Sicuhu uertex Sen. Herd 
F. 80, XuceXbs <nrivdr)p Konn. 14. 56. patientior. So Ov: 
Am. 1. 15. SI ut dens patientis aratri; of persons Pliny Ep. 
2. 10. 1 (a noteworthy passage) hominem te patient em uel 
potlus durum ac paene crudelem qui tarn insignes libros tarn 
diu teneas. Passages like i. 8. 28 non tulit ilia preces, and v. SQ 
of this elegy, are the best commentary on the use; compare 
also the use of the Greek rXrmwp, literally 'enduring,' for 
'hardhearted.' [P.'s note is 'more enduring than Sicilian 
rock,' i.e. than Aetna. Query, how does he take the passage ?] 

30. Observe the correspondence sit licet.. Mt licet,, 
and compare Introduction. 

31. compescere ocellos, usually lacrimas. 

32. spirltus, 'a deep-drawn breath,' 'a sigh 1 ; bo nearly 
Hor. Epod. 11. 10 latere petitus imo spiritus, lnultis, * in- 
voluntary'; but in 1. 15. 40 fletum inuitis ducere luminibus of 
forced tears. 

33. nlxa, a favourite word with Propertius, but only in 
this form nixus ; in a slightly different sense nixus in rv. 3 (4). 
15 inque sinu carae nixus spectare puellae incipiam. 

34. cadunt, 'are wasted,' cf. i. 17. 4 omniaqve ingrato 
litore uota c a dent; paraphrased by Ov. (?) Her. 15. 208 Zephyri 
uerba caduca ferunt. Zephyro is probably like More, quoted 
above, the abl. of place. 

35 — 44. 'But thou, door, art the sole, the signal cause of 
my woe, since thou hast never yielded to my gifts. Thou 
hast never been harmed by wantonness from my tongue such 

68 XOTES.. I. xvi. 

jm the crowd is wont to use in angry jest, that thou shouldest 
leave me hoarse with my long complaint to wear the night 
through in the street in anxious watchings and delays. Nay, I 
have often spun the thread of song for thee in novel verse, and 
bent me down to print the gift of kisses on thy steps. How 
many a time, traitress, have I turned round before thy posts 
and paid the votive offering with hidden hands 1 ' 

35. maxima, not 'greatest/ which would be an anti- 
climax, but 'very great,' a much commoner sense in Prop.; 
of. ni. 82 (26). 86 Varro Leucadiae maxima fiamma suae, 

86. ulcta, possibly the voc. For the sense of. rv. 11 (12). 
19 Oallam non munera uincent, Tib. 1. 2. 9 ianua iam patea* 
urii mihi uicta querelis. 

37. petulantia, 'wanton attack/ like the butting of ani- 
mals ; so peto, petulcu8. The attacks referred to are the abusive 
earmina of 1. 10. 

38. The Mss. read tota loco. It is clear that loco is for 
loco, but not equally clear what tota represents, turba (Puccit 
does not account for the uss. reading, and leaves (though this 
is a minor matter) quae without an antecedent. -The other 
conjectures, trita, torua, theta, have nothing in their favour. 
It has occurred to me the poet may have written tecta, mean- 
ing that he has never shewn the petulantia which would reveal 
the secrete of the house in angry jesting. 

89. tarn longa, v. 18 n. patiare, ' do nothing to prevent 
me watching,' * bear the sight of my watching.' Comp. i. 8. 
13 n. 

• • 

40. sojliettas moras. P. rightly 'a long and anxious 
night-watch.' The ace. is an extension of the cognate ace. 
(i. 8.' 22 n.). Comp. pseudo-Tib. 3. 6. 54 tecum longos peruigi- 
tare dies, 

41. at, 'on. the contrary.' nouo, 'fresh to Rome, 9 the 
boast of all the Latin imitators of Greek models: bo Prop. 
v. 6. 10 pura nouom uatis laurea mollit iter, rv. 2 (3). 26 qua 
noua muscoso semita facta solost; comp. Virg. Eel. 3. 86 
Pollio et ipse facit noua earmina. deduxl, 'have drawn out ' 
as in spinning ;. of. Hor. Ep. 2. 1. 225 tenui deducta poemata 
Jilo. uersu nouo, a loose ahL, either of description after 
earmina 'poems of novel metre,' or of. manner or means with 

42. oscula, a mark of respect usually only paid to sacred 
buildings, e.g. Tib. 1. 2. 86 et dare sacratis oscula liwimibmt 

&OTES. I. xvC 89 

Compare debita uota v. 44. The lover intimates this house 
waa his temple. oscula nlxa, a bold hypallage for nixus- 

oecula dedi. Comp. I. 20. 10 n. uago fluminis hospitio. lm- 
preasls, we rather expect impressa, but Prop, has chosen to 
vary the ordinary expression. Compare rv. 5 (6). 17 umidaque 
impressa siccabat lumina lana. gradlbus, steps up to the 

door, dvafiadfjioh. Sen. Ep. 84. 12 praeteri istos grddus diui- 
turn et magno aggestu suspensa uestibula. I do not believe it 
can refer to stairs or scalae up to the cenacula as Hertzb. 
supposes. Mr Beid suggests that it may mean ' checking my 

43. uerti me. Vulpius explains this by an ancient religious 
custom, Pliny N. H. 28. 2. 5. 25 in adorando dextram ad osculum 
referimus totum'que corpus circumagimus quod in laeuum 
fecisse GaUiae religiosius credunt. 

44. occultls, Vulpius takes this as =uelatis like a suppliant's ; 
Plant. Amph. 1. 1. 101 velatis manibus orant ignoscamus pec- 
catum suum. It would thus be the part, of occulo ' cover up,' 
Virg. G. 2. 341 qnaecumque premes uirgulta per agros sparge 
fimo pingui et multa memor occule terra. The ordinary expla- 
nation is that Propertius wished to be unobserved by passers- 
by : and that he turned his back on the door when he placed 
the verses upon it. debita uota, dona ex uoto debita ; Aen. 
3. 279 uotis incendimus aras. 

45 — 48. 'In these laments and others which wretched 
lovers know he vents his grief and babbles against the morning 
birds. So now, through the vices of my mistress and the 
weeping of her constant lover, I am defamed with everlasting 

45. haec, the verb of saying being omitted. Observe the 
directness of expression in this line, which it is impossible to 
preserve in English. miserl noulstls amantes, for the turn 
of the sentence comp. Ov. M. 4. 68 primi semistis amantes. 
The whole passage bears traces of being imitated from this. 

noulstls, ' with which you are familiar. 1 Comp. x. 6. 24 
lacrimis omnia not a meis, also note on 8. 46. 

46. matutlnls alitibus, not, as P., 'the morning cock' 
only, but birds in general, including, for example, the swallow, 
called dpOpoy&qs by Hesiod. Compare Aen. 8. 456 et matutini 
uo lucrum sub culmine cantus t Ov. Her. 10. 7, 8 tempus erat 
uitrea quo primum terra pruina spargitur et tectae fronde que- 
runtur aues.- obstreplt = obloquit ur ; Ov. E. P. 3. 1. 21 non 
auis obloquitur. . . '. _ 

9a NOTES. I. xvi 

47. nunc, takes up the nunc oi v. 5. semper with 

48. dlfferor, • bruited abroad ' in a bad sense ; an ante- and 
post-classical use of differre. So in i. 4. 22 et te circum omnes 
alias irata jmellas differ et. But in Gr. diafopeir is used in a 
good sense. fletibU8...inuidla. For the union of ablatives in 
the same sentence see Potts' Lat. Prose, p. 42. JUtibus is abl. of 
cause Boby 1228, inuidia of means 1214. 

I. zx. 

Introduction and Argument. 

This poem, like eL 5, is addressed to G alius. It warns 
him not to put his favourite Hylas in the power of the water 
nymphs (1 — 12, and 51, 52), and enforces the warning by the 
story of his namesake Hylas and Hercules (13 — 50). 

The story of Hylas had been related by several of Properties' 
predecessors. The longest accounts are Theocritus Id. 13, and 
Apollonius Bhodius 1. 1207 — 1272. Propertius' narrative is 
not a mere rechauffe* of these. The episode of Zetes and 
Calais (vv. 25 — 32) is not found elsewhere, and there are minor 
differences. Among Latin poets, Valerius Flaccus Arg. 3. 
521 sqq. gives the Hylas story at length and Virgil and Ovid 
refer to it. 

It is well worth observing that, though it is the object of the 
poet to inculcate a lesson of caution to Gallus and to enforce 
it by bringing home to him the woe of Hercules, that woe 
is hardly touched upon in the story. It seems as though 
Propertius has himself fallen under the spell of the fairy 
picture he has called up, and has shrunk from introducing 
any tumultuous human emotious which might break its colours 
and its calm. 

Thus the representation so far from being dramatic is 
pictorial and even statuesque in its stillness. The group of 
Hylas and the two winged brothers, the deserted orchard and 
the meadow round it with its contrast of white and crimson, 
the boyish carelessness of Hylas, now plucking the flowers, 
now bending over the water, are all brought vividly before us. 
But the robber-like act of the Nymphs is softened down to 
the gentlest possible constraint, and Hylas" despairing cry and 
the agonized answer of Hercules become merely a ' sound ' and 
an • oft-repeated reply.' And so too the scene is closed, without 

NOTES. I. xx. '91 

a word to stir our deeper sympathies, by bringing before us the 
utterances which, whether they ware the empty voice of Echo or 
the faint dead accents of Hylas, were ' an answer that was no 
answer.' A close like this, the last touch to the harmony and 
completeness of the picture, Is in the very spirit of Greek art, 
and, with the epilogue with which the poem concludes, leads 
ns to suspect that Propertius may have had before him a Greek 

1 — 4. « For thy unwavering love, Gallus, we give thee this 
warning: and lest it slip from thy unthinking mind, the 
Ascanius, so cruel to the Minyae, will tell thee that fortune 
often crosses the lover unawares.' 

I have altered the punctuation of verses 1 — 4. They are 
ordinarily read thus : 

Hoc pro continuo te Galle, monemus amore, 

id tibi ne uacuo drfluat ex animo: 
saepe inprudenti fortuna occurrit amanti. 

crudelis Minyis dixerit Ascanius. 

Which may be translated, ' For thy unwavering love, Gallus, 
we give thee this counsel. Let not the saying slip from thy 
unthinking mind : fortune often crosses the lover unawares. 
So would say the Ascanius, &c.' The choice is one full of 
difficulties: but as td=illud, referring to what is coming, is 
a very doubtful usage and as the use of dico without an ace. 
is very harsh, I have preferred the one first given. 

1. hoc, referring vaguely to the advice in the poet's mind 
which he is going to give Gallus and support by an example. 
For this use of hie compare hi. 6- (5). 19 hoc sensi prodesse 
magis: contemnite, amantes. pro, not, as P., 'by' (for the 
sake of) ; but ' in return for' your affection for me. 

2. Id drives the hoc home. uacuo, not, as Hertzb. 
tit vacuus fiat, « flow from your mind and leave it empty, 1 which 
is riding the metaphor to death, but 'idle, unthinking'; Virg. 
G. 3. 3 caetera quae uacuas tenuissent carmina mentes, do- 
fluat ex SLDimo=effluo ex animo Gic. Fam. 7. 14; so Catull. 
65. 18 ne dicta effluxisse meo forte putes animo. ani- 
mo. A step from this use brings us to animus ' memory ' as in 
Virg. EcL 9. 51. 

3. Inprudenti, possibly « unwary,* 'imprudent'; but the 
proverbial character of the saying and the consideration that 
Hercules had not shewn imprudence make the translation 
'unawares' preferable, Comp. Virg. G. 1. 873 numquam in- 

92 NOTES: I. xx. 

prudentibus imber obfuit <off their guard.' ooenrrit, 

* crosses their path, confronts them ' ; cf. Quint. 2. 13. 3 si mom 
occurret, si ftumen obetabit. So interuenire in Gic. Fin. 
L 19. 63 ita fit beatae uitae domina fortuna quam Epicurus 
ait exiguam interuenire sapienti. 

4- crudelis, contains the pith of the sentence, ' Ascanius' 
cruelty ' ; crudelis with dat. as in in. 22. 25 (18. 45) sed rum 
Neptunus tanto crudelis amori. The lake is cruel to the 
Minyae as being the place where they lost Hercules and 
Hylas. WnaiB=Argonautis t as most of them were de- 

scended from Minyas, an old king of Thessaly ; Apoll. Bhod. 
1. 229 robs uh apurrijas Murfar rrepLvcuerdovTes kIkKi)<tkov fiaXa 
irapras, iirel Mtvtfao 6vya.Tpuh> ol r\ct(TToi koX apurroL &<f> aXfiarot 
c&xcr6<arro (fipievat. I have given Baehrens' spelling. dixe- 

rlt, the reading is not quite certain, some mss. having dixerat. 
dixerit is /may tell you,' cfrot av\ compare the discussion in 
Roby Gr. Vol. xi. Introd. p. ci. Ascanius. The most 

southerly part of. the coast of Bithynia is the Gulf of Oios, 
a deep triangular. indentation running nearly due East. The 
northern, side of the gulf is formed by the mountain range, 
Arganthone (now Sumanly Dagh), the southernmost by the 
Mygdonian range. Into the head of this gulf the river Cios 
empties itself, after passing through the large lake Ascania 
Palm or Ascanius (now Isnik) which is distant about ten miles 
from the coast. The whole country in the neighbourhood is 
Called Ascania; and even the river Cius Ascanius by Pliny and 
Strabo. Probably however Prop, means the lake here, not 
the river as the edd. say ; for certainly his Greek authorities 
would call the river Klos (as Theocr. and Apoll. Bhod. do) ; and 
lacus v. 14 is in favour of the lake. ' 

5 — 12. ' Thou hast a love very near to Hylas the son of 
Thiodamas, not less in beauty nor unlike in name. Him, 
whether thou skim the streams of Sila the shady or the wave 
of Anio wash thy feet, or thou pace on the edge of the Giants' 
shore, or wheresoever a winding river receive thee, do thou ever 
shield from the hands of the Nymphs that burn to steal 
Ausonian wood-nymphs do not yield the palm in love.' 

5. Infra speciem, 'inferior to his beauty*: i.e. inferior to 
him in beauty; compare for the expression Hor. Sat. 2. 1. 75 
quicquid sum ego, quarnuis infra, Lucili censum in gen i- 
Urn que, and note on el. 16. 12. 

6. Thlodamanteo. The adj. really corresponds to the Eng. 
phr. 'Thiodamas' Hylas.'. proximus, 'very close to,' 

NOTES. I. xx. 93 

'rivalling'; of. el. 10. 29 lout digna et proximo, Ledae. 
ardor, ' object of passion.' Ov. M. 14. 683 tw primus et ulti- 
mas illi ardor eris, bo furor 'cause for raging el. 18. 15. It 
is not quite similar to Herculis error v. 15, 16: that is Her- 
cules qui errat, H, errant, but ardor is (Hylas) quo ardet 

7. huic, mss. hunc which may be retained, with the change . 
of cupldaa rapinas in v. 11 to the abl. slue, whether you 
are sailing on a river, bathing in (v. 8) or walking by it (v. 9) 
or trusting yourself to it in any way (v. 10). leges, ' skim': . 
Ov. F. 4. 289 aequoraque Afra legit. Silae. Scaliger's 
correction for ms. siluae. The same corruption comes in Yirg. 
G. 3. 219 pascitur in magna Sila formosa iuuenca. Sila was 
the mountainous district in the extreme south of Italy ; it be- 
gan about Locri and included the whole of South Bruttium. 
It was well watered and covered with forests; hence Jlumina and 

8. Anlena, the prose adj. is Aniensis. tlnzerlt, 'moisten, 
wet'; of the water, as in i. 6, 32 Lydia Pactoli tingit arata 
liquor. The fut. perf, means that it has wetted him, that he 
is already in it. 

9. Glgantea. The volcanic region round Cumae, called the 
Fhlegraean plains, was the scene of the mythic war. between 
the Giants and the Gods. spatl&bere, with the slow gait of 
a holiday-maker; cf. spatiatur of Pallas' majestic tread n. 2. 
7. ora with litorls, in its original meaning ' edge, verge' ; 
Yirg. G. 2. 44 primi lege lit oris or am. 

10. ubicumque, not * wherever ' with spatiabere supplied, 
as P.; but 'anywhere', 'wherever it be,' further limited and 
defined by the following ablative 'in the charge of a river.' 
ubique and ubicumque mean first 'wherever,' then * anywhere' 
and finally 'everywhere.' Examples of the second use are 
Prop. rv. 22. 18 natura hie posuit quidquid ubique fuit = Quint. 
10. 7. 28 quidquid loquemur ubicumque. uago, hypallage for 
uagi (of. note on el. 16. 12). uagus is an epithet of rivers Hor. Od. 
1. 34. 9 bruta teUus et uaga Jlumina (Le. all external nature, 
whether motionless (bruta) or moving); in. 12 (10). 30 uaga 
muscosis Jlumina fusa iugis. The precise force is not easy 
to seize. The central meaning of uagus is ' motion through a 
wide area.' The rivers then which find their way where they 
can through various regions and nations are uagi, just as 
is the wind ' that bloweth where it listeth ' (Hor. Od. 3. 29. 24) : 
compare the expression aduena Tibris v. 1. 8. In like 

94 NOTES. I. xx. 

manner the * far-travelling ' sun who passes from land to Ian-' 
in his course is uagus, Catull. 64. 271 (Ellis). In m. 12. 30 
(quoted above) there is the additional idea of the streams 
scattering, and so in uago pede, Catull. .64. 277 (of Peleus' 
visitors separating). In Catull. 63. 86, however, pede uago- 
4 with rushing feet'; the lion sweeps to his goal with reckless 
haste. hospitio, 'reception, housing': so Virg. Aen. 1. 

540 hospitio prohibemur harenae. 

11. cupldas defende raplnas, imitated Stat. Theb. 4. 696 
cup i das Faunorum arcebo rap in as ; cf. id. Silv. 2. 3. 
24. cupldas =auidas, Stat. Silv. l.e%; see note on i. 2. 17. 

12. non minor, sc. quam alienigenis. It is like Pro- 
pertius to omit one member of a comparison; cf. Intro- 
duction. Adryasin, mbs. adriacis. Scaliger reads a, Drya- 
sin ; but the interjection is not wanted. Lachmann*s Hydri- 
asin makes Propertius inconsistent, see v. 45. 

13 — 16. ' Lest it be thy lot — hard lot ! — to visit for ever moun- 
tains and chill rocks and pools untried before, to feel all that 
the ill-starred wanderer Hercules once bore on a foreign 
strand and mourned to the unrelenting Ascanius.' 

13. ne tibl sit, 'lest it be thine,' i.e. * thy fate'; so Tib. 1 
6. 24 tunc mi hi non oculis sit timuisse meis: but * thy work 1 in 
pseudo-Tib. 4. 3. 3 neu tibisit duros acuisse in proelia denies; 
cf. Prop. iv. 3. 41 n. durum, a sort of interjection, in ap- 
position with the sentence ; cf. Hor. Od. 1. 24. 19 durum, ted 
Uuiusfit patientia, &c. * it is a hard case.' montes. Compare 
i. 18. 27—30. The lover who is debarred from warm human 
companionship finds nature hard and unsympathizing. 

14. neque expertos-=et inexpertos : so n. 3. 6 nee tolitu* 
ponto uiuere toruus aper for et insolitus, m. 26. 6 (20. 52) 
nee proba Pasiphae—et improba P., and Virg. Aen. 5. 781 
nee exsaturabile pectus. For the sense, cf. Sil. ItaL, 3. 4% 
primus inexpertas adiit Tirynthius arces (the Alps). Milton. 
Paradise Lost n. 702, ( Or at one stroke of this dart Strange 
horror seize thee and pangs unfeU before,* There is the same 
feeling of repugnance conveyed in the word as in ignotis v. 15. 
nouus i. 8. 30, where see note. For expertos comp. z. 3. 1* 
expertae metuens iurgia saeuitiae and note on i. 2. 5. sem- 
per, a pardonable exaggeration which must not be pressed; 
it only means *very frequently'; so i. 3. 40 o, utinam tela 

NOTES. I. xx. &5 

producas, improbe, noctes me miseram quales semper habere 
iubes. We may compare the hymn celebrated by Thackeray 

•Where the skies for ever smile 
And the blacks for ever weep.' 

&dlie=accedere i. 9. 19 n. ; cf. Sil. ItaL quoted above, a pas- 
sage possibly imitated from this. In this and the next couplet 
Prop, is thinking of Theocr. 13. 66 crx^rXtot oi 4>i\4opt€i. d\(6- 
fievos oW ifx6yrj<T€P uipea koX bpvfiuis. 

15. quae, in loose construction with what has gone be- 
fore ; cf. Introduction. ignotis, see notes on v. 14 and el. 
5. 5. error Herculis, Hercules wandering in search of Hylas, 
see on v. 6 and Introduction. perpessus, i. e. drank the 
bitter cup to the dregs, cf. in. 22. 15 (18. 35) omnia perpetiar. 

16. indomito, comp. Tib. 2. 5, 80 prodigia indomitis 
merge sub aequoribus. fleuerat Ascanio. Contrast 1. 12. 
15 felix qui potuit praesenti flere puellae. For the tense 
Bee notes on el. 8. 36 and 16. 1. 

17 — 22. 'For they say that in the olden time the Argo 
had set forth from the dockyards of Pagase and had gone far 
on her voyage to Phasis, and now had left in her gliding 
course the waves of the daughter of Athamas and had brought* 
her bark to land on Mysia's rock-bound coast. Here the hero 
band, when they had once set foot on the peaceful shore, 
gathered leaves and softly carpeted the strand/ 

17. Fagasae, for this gen. see Introduction. Argon, 
the ms. reading. It may be either the aoc. of Argo (cf . Calyp- 
son Priap. 68. 23), as L. Muller takes it, or of Argus (Argos), 
the constructor or the ship, as Prof. Ellis suggests 1 , comparing 
in. 22. 19 (18. 39) where the mss. have ratis Argo. I prefer the 
former view, not only on account of the curious tendency of 
Propertius to break up one and the same idea under different 
aspects into two, for which see i. 22. 8 n., and Introduction; but 
also because this analysis is easier in the case of the Argo than 
in almost any other. In ancient legends the Argo is personi- 
fied. She is a semidivine being, endowed with sentient faculties 
and the power of speech. See Arist. Polit. 3. 13. 16 : 'There 
is also a legend that the Argonauts left Heracles behind for a 
similar reason, the Argo refusing to take him with the rest 
(ou yap idtXeur avrov dyeiv ri\v 'A/ryw fiera rd» etXXwi'), as he 
dwarfed by his size the rest of the crew.' See also Grote, 
Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 320 (226). 'Argus built the ship, 

l University College Professorial Dissertations 1872—1878, p. 20. 

96 NOTES.. I. xt, 

inserting in the prow a piece of timber from the celebrated 
oak of Dodona, which was endued with the faculty of speech, 
Apoll. Bhod. 1. 525, 4. 580,' where the Argo speaks. 

18. egressam, roOv. Tr. 1. 10. 6 oeeupat egressas quam- 
libet ante rates; more fully egredi e, porta. longe, not with 
ulam, rrjv Toppci 656v, as in Virg. Aen. 1. 13 Tiberinaque long* 
ostia, Mart. 3. 58. 51 rus hoc uocari debet an domus longet, 
which gives a very perplexed construction ; but with isae, cf . v. 
1. 80, if the reading be right, hoc ubi Fidenas longe erat ire 
uia 'had gone a long way on her voyage. 1 uiam Phaslrtoi 
'her voyage to Phasis ': so eae li iter n. 1, 20 and comp. note on 
zv. 6 (7). 2. via with gen. in another sense m. 23 (Id). 6. 

19. labentem, cf. 1. 17. 27 si quando uestras lab ens Amor 
attigit undo* and in. 21 26. 8. It is Tennyson's 'sliding 
keel.' AtbamantldM undls, the Hellespont. Athamantis 
is only used in the gen. 

20. Bcopulls, 'cliffs.' See note on Aseanius v. 4. Of course 
the text does not mean they landed on the rocks (cf. v. 21), but 
that these were the most prominent features of the country, 
adpliculsse, in prose usually with ad. The dat. properly indi- 
cates a closer connexion; but cf. Aen. 1. 616 quae tits immani- 
bus adplicat oris t 

21. pladdls, evdpums: cf. iv. 18 (19). 7 plaeidwn portmw^ 
t)v. £. P. 1. 2. 62 mo Ilia naufragiis Mora pone daru 

22. moUla, proleptic, so as to make them moUia. So dl 
12 (10). 26 niueos abluit unda bout* 'makes the oxen white* 
and eL 16. 22 n. For this use of leaves compare Aen. 11. 64 
molle feretrum 'a bier strewed with leaves,' and v. 6. 10 n. 
pura nouom uati laurea mollit iter. It is also possible to ex* 
plain it as in the Ovid 1. c. on v. 21. c onip oalta, collected 
and disposed on the shore. So ApolL Bhod. 1. 1182 A«x«fqr 
^vXAafc Xeifutfrwv +tpov Arrrror cyuf oarret arriprurftu, Theoe. 
13. 83 woXXol fc filar aropArajro xapctfrar* **Qh** y4p *+& 
fcctra^ ftiya vTtfMJkvm* 6Vaa/>, £r$cr fiovro/um a£i> f3a&&* t frrf- 
porro K&rttpom. 

23 — 32. 'But the unconquered warrior's comrade had 900* 
vet farther before them to seek the scarce water in soma "Virtiirt 
spring. Two brothers pursued him, the offspring of the North 
wind. Above him hung Zetes, above him hung Calais. With 
lifted palms they pressed upon him to snatch kisses and to 
bear their prise away from his upturned Usee, each as they fled 
in tern, He clings to them withdrawn beneath their wings' 

NQTMS. I. xx. 97 

furthest edge and pushes with a bough the winged conspiracy 
aside. And now the offspring of Orithyia, descendant of Pan- 
dion, departed : and Hylas went his way, his way, ah woe ! 
to the wood-nymphs/ 

23. proceaaerat ultra. Val. Fl. 3. 530 takes these words, 
but uses them' of Dry ope, the nymph who drowned Hylas. The 
pluperf. coming after the continuous pres. of v. 22 tegit marks 
the rapid advance of the action; 'while they were laying 
leaves on the shore, he had gone. 1 Of. Boby 1492. 

24. raram lepositi fontls aquaxn, a very curious expres- 
sion ; for aquam is used of a different thing with the adj. raram 
and the gen. fontis. It reminds one of Greek tragic choruses 
which cannot be construed literally, because the meaning is 
not apportioned among the several words, but diffused through 
the sentence. Perhaps the best way of explaining it is to take 
it as a very loose use of the gen. ; cf. v. 9. 60 haec lympha puellis 
atria secreti limitis una fluit, 'in a secluded channel,' 
though there the meaning comes by a different route. Another 
explanation which may be advanced would be to take raram 
as in el. 8. 42 n., 'to seek the rare, choice water of some distant 
spring.' raram and sepositi will then naturally explain each 
other, 'a spring such as you will not often find.' Apoll; Eh. 
1. 1207 has rofoa 6' "TXew x a ^ K V *bv K&\irifo vbatyv ofdKov 
St'fy™ Kpfyys Upbv wor6v. sepositi, ' put out of. the way, 
remote, 1 like repostus, semotus ; so Mart. Spect. 3. 1 quae tarn 
tepSsitast, quae tarn gens barbara, Caesar. It also means 
(like rarus) ' choice, select-.' So Tib. 2. 5. 8. quaerere, see 
1. 1. 12 n., Introduction. 

25. AqnlVHrtft proles, the winged sons of Boreas and 
Orithyia. They accompanied the Argonauts and prevented them 
returning to look for Hercules, which he afterwards avenged 
by killing them (Apoll. Bhod. 1. 1300 seqq.). Hence may have 
been suggested to Prop, this episode which, we find nowhere 
else. sectatl, participle. 

26. Observe the thoroughly Greek structure of this line: 
and ef. u. 3. 44 met et Eoos uret et Hesperios and i. 2. 30 n. 

27. instabant. With inf. as in Virg. Aen. 10. 116* instant 
sterner e cdede uiros, Cic. Verr. n. 3. 59. 136 ins tat Scan- 
dUiusposcete teciperatores carpere. So Ov. Her. 11. 117 
non 08cula frtyida carpsi t and elsewhere. suspensls palmls, 
i. e. raising their hands to hold the boy's face while they kissed 
it. So i. 3. 16 osculaque admota sumere *rara* manu. 
Propertius is evidently describing a scene which he had seen 

P. P. 7 

98 NOTES. I. xx, 

represented in art. The two winged brothers are hovering above 
Hylas in the air. One of them bears down upon him to snatch 
a kiss from the boy's upturned face. While Hylas is engaged 
in warding him off, the other comes and secures the prize 
(alterna fuga). Hylas defeats them by clasping one of them 
behind under his wing where he could not reach him and 
allowing him to raise him in the air (pendens), and by driving 
the other off with a branch. 

28. ferre, middle, <p4 pea 6 ai, as P.; but it is for 4>4pctw 
in in. 10 (9). 18 canoe totiens osculaferre comae. snplii&, 
a bold expression of the same class as oscula nixa el. 16. 42. 

29. pendens. Hylas was hanging in the air with one arm 
round one of the winged brothers who was also hovering in 
the air, pendeo is used of anything above the ground, whether 
in suspension or not; Stat. Silv. 2. 7. 4 pendentis bibit 
ungulae liquorem (of Pegasus), Juv. 11. 107 clipeo uenientis et 
hasta pendentis que -dei. secluditur, middle, 'retires be- 
hind the shelter of the wing.' extrema ala, probably the part 
of the wing where it joined the shoulder. This gives more 
force to secluditur. Mr Wratislaw (quoted by P.) takes ala as 
Hylas' ' arm.' Supposing ala could mean this — and it cannot — 
it would involve explaining sub extrema ala 'he put his head 
under his armpit,' a feat of gymnastics impossible even in the 
heroic age. 

30. uolucres, not for alitum as Hertzb. Their very actions 
were winged, submouet, 'puts aside.' 

31. For the rhythm cf. Val. Fl. 1. 4. 68 quin et Cecropiae 
proles uacat Orithyiae. Pandionlae. Pandion, king of Attica, 
was the grandfather of Orithyia. cesslt, 'retired baffled.' 

32. Haxnadryasin, *to the Hamadryads,' with ire : for the 
dat. cf. i. 15. 8 ut formosa nouo quae parat ire utro, Intro- 

33 — 42. 'Here beneath the crest of Arganthns* mount lay 
Pege, a watery home, the joy of Thynian nymphs. Above it 
under abandoned trees hung dewy fruits that no care claimed : 
and all around in the well-watered mead rose lilies, their clear 
white mingling with the crimson poppy's hue. These did he 
now pluck from their stalks with tender nail, boylike pre- 
ferring flowers to his task of duty ; and now bent in artless 
wonder over the beauteous waves and prolonged his truancy with 
their mirrored charms.' 

NOTES. I. xx. 99 

33. ArgantM, usually 'ApyavOwr} or 'Apyavduvciov 6pos 
(Apoll. Rhod.) ; but 'ApyavBos is found in Orph. Arg. 636. For 
Propertius' habit of cutting his proper names down see 1. 1. 13 n. 
Introduction. Pege. Seal. Pegae from Apoll. Eh. 1. 1222 
alrj/a $ oye Kp-f}vqv (xereidadev fy Kaktovviv II 177 &s ayx^yvot- 
vepivaUrai. But Propertius has not followed Apollonius closely 
(cf. previous note), and he may well have taken the liberty of 
putting the name of one spring in the sing, sub uertlce, Le. 
near the top. 

34. grata domua Nymphis. Cf. Aen. 1. 167 fronte sub 
aduersascopulis pendentibus antrum: intus aquae dulces iduoque 
sedilia saxo, Nymph arum domus. Ovid imitates, Ov. F. 4. 
421 grata domus Cereri. umlda, with domus ; cf. Hermo- 
creon Anth. Gr. 9. 327 ifdardevTa dbftov and Virg. G. 4. 363 
iamque domos mirans genetricis et umida regna. For two ad- 
jectives with one subst. see Introduction. Thyniasin, here-- 
BithynU. Cf. Hor. Od. 3. 7. 3 Thyna merce beatum. Bithynia 
was the name of the whole province, Thyni and Bithyni being 
two tribes in it, who according . to the geographers were sepa- 
rated by the river Psilis or Psilion; cf. Catull. 31. 5 Thyniam 
atque Bithynos (Ellis' note). 

35. nullae debita curae. The labour of its cultivation 
has claims on the plant which must be satisfied. So Virgil 
frequently, e.g. Aen. 11. 759 fatis debitus Arum. The ex- 
pression may be originally Greek, as in Simon, davary irarres 
o0ei\6/Ae0a. nullae, for nuUi; so wno—uni n. 1. 47, toto... 
orbi rv. 10 (11). 57. For other examples see Eoby 372, and 
Ellis on Catull. 17. 17 pilifacit uni (which is a locative). 

36. roscida, * with the dew upon them.' C£ Virg. Ed. 8. 38. 
The sun's heat had not reached them. desertls has its 
proper force. The trees had been planted and abandoned and 
cultivation had renounced its claim upon them. sub, 
sheltered by the overarching trees ; cf. Priap. 76. 14 uua pam- 
pinea rubens educata sub umbra. 

37. irriguo, 'well- watered.' So irriguus hortus Hor. S. 
2.4. 16. surgebant, 'were growing high,' of tall plants. So 
Hor. S. 2. 2. 124 uenerata Ceres, ita culmo surgeret alto, and 
cf. el 2. 11. 1111a. Contrast the description in Theocr. Id. 
13. 40. sqq. 

38. Candida. By putting the stop after Candida, P. sepa- 
rates it from purpureis, thus destroying half the beauty of the 



100 NOTES, I. xx. 

89. tenero tftteriliter ungui. Observe how the order of the 
words brings Bytes' youth home to as : puerililer, which goes 
principally with praetulit, is put next to tenero ungui — an 
elegance which the absence of inflexions in English prevents m 
from preserving. Soft tender nails are characteristic of youth. 
Thus Hor. Od. 3. 6. 24 de t titer o meditator ungui means 
4 from her youth up,' i£ airaXav 6vti%t&. 

41. formosls, 'beautified/ by reflecting his features. The 
reflection of fair scenes is meant also in in. 12 (10). 25 qua 
formosa suo CUtumnus flumina luco integit. Compare Yal. 
Fl. 1. c. v. 558 stagna uaga sic luce micant ubi Cynthia caelo 
prospicit aut medii transit tota Candida Phoebi t tale iubar 
diffundit aquis (i.e. Hylas); and, of a girl looking into a 
wine vat, Anth. Gr. 11. 64 fiapptapvyfj rtdXXovs p&fta kclt- 
T)y\aL<T€r. The ancients Were, however, keenly alive to the 
beauty of water in itself; Aen. &. 75 quocumque solo pul- 
eherrimus exis, Petron. Sat. 100 quid aquis did formosius 
potest} Compare Kdkrj Kfrf)vt), kolWIctwv vScltuv. nesdaa, 'in 
his simplicity 1 ; the inexperience of childhood making every- 
thing a marvel. Comp. Vit'g. Aen. 7. 381 (of boys spinning a 
top) stupet inscia supra impubesque manus. We mnst re- 
member too that he did not know the fate that lurked behind 
the beauteous mirror. 

42. tardat, 'protracts'; a rare sense ^tardum facit er~ 
rorem, • dragging, slow in ending.' Comp. Virg. (jr. 2. 482 
tardis mensibus, 'the long summer months.' The eon verse 
transition in Pind. P. 4. 285 ovSi uaKtiwp tA©j o6$4v, 'delaying.' 
blandls imaginibus, ' attractive ' adridentibus ; of. Anth. Gr. 7. 
170.(Posidippus or Callimachus) rbv Tpterrj val^vra vcpl <pp£ap 
' Apxcavdicra €tda\bp p.op<pc.s Kb><f>bt ^irecirdtraro. Observe the 
plur. Like Narcissus,- Ov. Met. 3. 458 sqq., he tries the effect 
of several positions on the image in the water. 

43 — 50. 'At last he makes ready to lift water from the 
stream with lowered hands ; and leaning on his right shoulder 
he draws the plenteous draught. When, lo, his dazzling fair- 
ness fired the Dryad maids, and in marvel they abandoned the 
accustomed dance. Then slipt he forward) and they drew hira 
lightly through the yielding water. Then Hylas raised a cry 
as his form was snatched away. Far away AJcides- gives husi 
answer again and again : but faint from the furthest springs 
the air brings back his name.' 

43. haurire. The word implies the tue of a vessel Winch 
is mentioned expressly by Apollonius and Theocritus; see 

NOTES, I, xx. 101 

below. parat. Theocr, imixe tot<$ r«\i/x<Mr5Ax Kpwaabv 

Pa^cu 4t€^/juevo$. flumina, * water'; Ov. M. 14. 768 uenas 
et flumina fontifi tficvfere vui, 

44. He lay down on the ground, his weight thrown op to 
his right shpulder, which rested on the edge of the spring, and 
his hands holding the urn while he let it down into the water. 
dextro umero, less precisely in Apoll. fiy tvi koXttlv (jpeicev 
M X P " irixpipfOeh* plena, probably * sufficient,' c abund- 
ant.* So in Cic. Jvosc. Am. 2. 6 pecunia tarn plena et praeclara, 
for which we have immediately after patrimonium tarn amplum et 
copiosum. This is supported by Theocr. tro\vx av ^°- KpuxraSv 
and Apollon. rcpl d* dqireTov tfipaxw vSutp x ^^ £* yxfc VTa 
<pop€Vfxevov. It may also be 'from the brimming stream,' 
compare Virg. G. 3. 143 plena secundum flumina : in this case 
with the subsidiary idea of 'well filled.' 

45. cuius, the shoulder or Hylas? accensae, with love ; 
cf. I. 2.15 and Apoll. Eh. rijs 8e <ppivas irrotriaev Kvirpis. 
Drya4es. Propertius here is in marked disagreement with Apol- 
lonius,who says very precisely that the wood-nymphs remained 
at a distance (at ye yjkv vXyupoi dr6irpo6cv lartxAciU'ro), while a 
water-nymph (p^m4v i^vSarir}) entered the spring and drew 
Hylas down. Theocr. calls them Ht&u<t>ai without specifying. 
Valerius says they were hunting and that one of them, Dryope, 
was startled by the noise of Hercules 1 hunting, and went to see 
him, but was frightened by his appearance back to the spring, 
where Juno metj her and induced her to beguile Hylas to it. 
puellae oal}s attention to their sex and their youth. Cf. Juv. 
4. 36 narrate, puellae Pierides: prosit mihi uot dixisse 
puellaa. The phrase itself is from Yirg. G. 1. 11 ferte simul 
Faunique pedem Pryafasque puellae, 

46. injratae, an (accompaniment of the action destituere, 
whereas qccensajR gives. Us cause* chorpg, so Theocr. and 

47. Observe, that Propertius, unlike his authorities, does 
not expressly say that Hylas was pulled down into the water. 
It was sq gep.tly done that you mipht h&Te supposed it an 
accident (conipare leuiter, facili liquoxe). Contrast Valerius' 
prosaic expression 563 magni referehtem nomen amid detrahit, 
adiutaa, nam ponders, uiree. fadM, Comp. i. 
11. 12 alternae facili* cedere \ympham<J<m< 

48. sonltum fecit. Mr Wratislaw, with Mr Paley's ap- 
proval, takes this 'made a splash. 1 To this there are three 
objections: (1) if th&?e was a splash and a cry for help, we 

102 SOTE& I. xx. 

should expect the poet to mention the last, not the first, as 
Apollonins does', for the splash could be inferred : (2) 1. 47 pre- 
cludes a loud splash ; and turn seems in favour of taking sonitum 
as 'cry * : (3) it is ludierous to suppose that Hercules on hearing 
a splash at once concluded it was 'that hoy* Hylas. sonitum, 
a loud inarticulate cry : sonitus is not common of the human 
voice; but we have in Ck. Or. 1. 12. 51 uerborum sonitus 
inanis, and Att. 1. 14, 4 sonitus nostros, 'my high-sounding 
phrases. 1 rapto corpore. Prop, might have written raptus. 
But his representation of the story is throughout panoramic, 
not dramatic, and he therefore keeps the physical side promi- 
nent. Besides this use of corpus is in keeping both with his 
own usage and Latin idiom. Cf. in. 9. (8). 13 nunc iacere e 
duro corpus iuuat impia saxo, and n. 5. 21, in. 5. 33 n. and 
some excellent remarks in Potts' Lat. Prose, Part u., Ch. r, 

49. cui, Hylae, the nearest noun and the nom. of the pre- 
ceding sentence. 

50. It is not at all clear what answer Hercules (ille) re- 
ceived. Virgil and Valerius Flaccus speak of the echo answering : 
Eel. 6. 43 his adiungit Hylam nautae quo fonte relictum 
clamassent ut litus Hyla Hyla omne sonaret, 1. 596 rursus 
Hylan et rursus Hylan per longa reclamat aula : responsant siluae 
et uaga certat imago. But Theocritus says Hylas answered 
(v. 5. 8) rpls fxkv "1\av avrev 6<rov ftadin rjpvye \atfi6f rpls V dp 
6 vats virajcovcrev' dpaia 8* fjcero <piovrj 4% udaros. There 
are thus two possible explanations here: (1) nomen= Hylas' 
name, which is echoed back (refert) to Hercules from the distant 
spring; (2) nomen^ Hercules' name, which is brought back to 
him from Hylas at the bottom of the spring. I prefer the last, 
as nomen more naturally refers to Hercules and extremus 
never means merely * distant' in Prop, but only, 'bounding, 
on the edge,' a sense inapplicable here. ab extremis 
fontibus then means 'from the furthest part of the spring,' 
from 'the beginning ooze, where was the Nymph's grot.' For 
the use of extremus cf. Cat. 4. 15 ultima ex origine. aura, 
the air conveying the sound. Cf. in. 23 (19). 15 note. 

51. 52. 'Warned by this, Gallus, thou wilt guard thy love: 
thou hast seen fair Hylas trusting in the Nymphs.' 

51. Ms, referring to what precedes. Cf. i. 2. 31 n. 

52. tutus, on which uisus, the reading of most mss., is appa- 
rently a gloss, is preserved in the Cuiacianus. It may be taken 
either (1) as an adj. =cautus, 'you will be careful about trusting/ 
or (2) as a participle. The objection to (1) is that tutu$ is not 

NOTES, I. xx. 103 

used in this way with an inf. Horace, A. P. 28 serpit kumi 
tutus nimivm, ib. 267 tutus et intra spem ueniae cautus, uses it 
absolutely. Still there is nothing impossible in the use; for 
we find it with cautus, which, like tutus y meant originally 'cir- 
cumspect.' If it is a participle, it may be either (a) passive 
( = uisus) or (b) active. Of these I prefer (b); tutus will then 
take the inf. credere after it as in Lucr. 1. 152 multa in terris 
fieri caeloque tuentur (mortales) and elsewhere, and the general 
sense will be 'you have seen Hylas rashly trusting to the 
nymphs, putting a misplaced confidence in them, and you 
must make him be more cautious for the future.' With (a) or 
with uisus, credere will be act., and we may translate 'thou 
hast been seen to trust fair Hylas to the Nymphs.' See also 
the Journal of Philology, vol. a. p. 65. 

L xxi 

Intboduction and Aboument. 

This poem is put in the mouth of Gallus, probably a kins* 
man of the poet, who was killed by brigands in the Perusian 
war. In b. c. 41 Lucius Antonius, the brother of Antonius and 
consul for the year, headed a rising against Octavian in Italy. 
The insurgents were shut up in Perusia, and, after enduring the 
last extremities of hunger, had to capitulate. The city was 
fired by one of the Perusians themselves, and the captives in 
revenge massacred by the victors. See Merivale Hist, of the 
Empire in. p. 224 sqq. The sack of the town seems to have 
made a powerful impression on Propertius. See the next elegy 
and Introduction, p. xvi. 

'Wounded soldier, do the last bidding of a fellow-soldier. 
Hiet not my sister learn from you the manner of my death, and 
tell the finder of my bones to give them burial.' 

1 — fin. 'Thou that art hasting to escape thy comrade's 
fate, soldier, that comest wounded from Etruscan lines, who 
tamest at my moans thy swollen eyes, I am the nearest portion 
of your army. Guard well thyself that so thy parents may have 
joy; nor let my sister gather from thy tears the deeds that 
have been done, that Gallus rescued from amid the swords of 
Caesar could not escape from nameless hands; and whosoever 
finds bones scattered upon Etruria's mountains, these let him 
know are mine.' 

104 NOTES. I xxx 

1. consortem, generally explained as—awwortiwiij *ypur 
comrades' fate/ and this is the substantial meaning no doubt 
The places quoted for the enallage do not however bear it out 
See on iv. f . 10 and iv. 3. 48 ; and there is no authority for 
con8or8=commilito. It is better to take it as = ' shared with 
others/ e.g. myself. So Yirg. G. 4, 153 consortia tecta, 'held 
in common.' euadert casum, Yirg, G. 4. 486 iamqtiepedem 
referent casus ei+aserat omnes. 

2. aggerlbus, better (1} * offensive works, siege-mounds,' 
the usual meaning, than (2) ' ramparts, defences,' which might 
be defended from Virg. Aen. 10. 24 aggeribus murorum and the 
agger of Seryius Tullius. Etrusds, Octavian's; lines round 
Perusia which L. Antonius was defending. . ' 

8. qui. Most of the mss. have the reading quid, which 
the edd. have taken, though it makes Gallus ask a senseless 
question, nostro ffemitu, ' nobis gementibus,' abl. of attend- 
ant circumstances. turgentia, not 'swelling, filled with 
tears,' as P.; turgere and tumere always mean to be swollen, 
to have swelled. So here the soldier's eyes have swollen from 
the tears extorted by the pain of his wounds: they are not 
filling with the tears of pity (fprae miseratiqne' P.). Cp. Gat. 
3. 18 fiendo turgiduli rubent ocelli, Tib. 1. 8. 68 Jletu 
lumina fessa tument. torques, is neither for de torques, as 
P. suggests, nor, as Kuinoel absurdly supposes, 'rack your eyes 
with weeping,' but simply turn. A preposition might have been 
expected, as in Aen. 12. 670 oculos ad moenia torsit. 

4. proxlma, not = proximo, as Hertzb., against which fhe 
mm is decisive. Better, as P., * closely connected with.' He 
compares Aesoh. Ag. 246 t6£' dyx«rro* Aviof yalat pum6^povp» 
?p*os. In this case pars sum *n«<««* is like Virgil's expression, 
Aon. 2. 6 quaea%e ipse miserrima uidi et quorum pars magna, 
/tit. A still simpler explanation is 'I am the nearest oi 
your fellow-soldiers*; tnilitiae, which in any case is gen., 
meaning in this case 'soldiery,' as in Just, 32. 2, not 'warfare.' 
This may seem too obvious; but we must remember that it is 
natural for Gallus to appeal to their companionship in mis- 
fortune, and secondly that it brings home to us the utter root 
of the army of which two wounded men are all that are left 
together. uectrae. Had he been speaking to the general, 
he might have said tmae. 

5» 6. I see no reason torn abandoning the jn. tchiImiji 
seruato at poesUtt for Jacobs seraelo postimL Pfcopestias is 
very fond of this form of the imperative, sea Introduction ; 

X0T$8.. I. x*L 105 

and also of an elision after the end of the second foot ; see 
Introduction. nee. corresponds to tt v. 9. Something may 

be said for Jacob's reading bwc, though nee ean be defended. 
The soldier is to conceal from, Gatius* sister the real history of 
his death. 

6. soror, * my sister.' So we say ' father, ' « mother,* omitting 
the personal pronoun. acta, not 'funeral rites/ as in 
in. f>. 2 n., but 'what has happened. 1 So Stat. Theb. 2. 651 
sine tristia Thebis nuncius acta feram, and in a good sense 
Sail. Jug. 53. 8 acta edocent atque audiunt, sua quisque fortia 
facta ad caelum ferre. The indefinite acta is quite Propertian. 
So facta « injuries, ' 1. 17. 26, facto 'fault* iv. 5 (6). 21. tula 
sentiat e lacrimis, i.e. do not betray yourself in her presence. 
Do not destroy her fond belief that I was killed in honourable 
battle. The expression is a very modern one. It is worth 
noticing how Ovid has used the phrase Trist. 1. 1. 13, 14 neue 
liturarum pudeat ; qui uiderit Was, de lacrimis factas sentiat 
Me meis. Even' where Ovid is not directly copying Propertius 
he often has Propertian phrases in his )iead. 

7, 8. In apposition to acta. 

7. per me4ios tnses ereptum. Cf. Aen f 6. \\to ilium ego 
per flammas et mille sequentia tela eripui his umeris. 
per 'from amidst': it never =inter (as P. says), neither in 
iv. 1. 4 nor v. 4. 20, though in the latter case inter might nave 
been used. ereptum either implies that his fate had 4 one 
its best fox him in rescuing him from the greater danger, or 
else it is the part, of se eripere, to escape. For the turn of 
thought cf. Leonidas Anth. Gr. 7. 550 vawrybs y\avKoto <pvywv 
TpLnayos dretX&s 'Av$€tos ^diumjv ov <f>iryev alvdXvKov. 

8. effuygere manqs, Ci©. Rep. 6. 12 si impias propin- 
quorum manus effugeris. ignotas, 'unknown/ here almost 
= i ignojbiles,.* So Luoan 10. 338 dignatur uiles isto quaque 
sanguine dextrqs quo Fortund parat uictos perfundere Patres 
(of Pothinus sending a slave to assassinate Caesar). Compare 
Johnson Y an ity °f Human Wishes 

' His fate was destined to a foreign sfcajid, 
At petty fortress an4 a dubious {fand.' 

9. quioumque. I am astonishe4 that the ed<}« without ex- 
ception should have taken quaeoumque the reading of some 
mss. I cannot believe that Propertius could have made Gallus 
saj that 'all the bones pn the mountains of Etruria, were his.* 
Although it is' trqe tna{ £e sometimes uses auaecumqne where 

106 NOTES. L xxi 

we expect quae, this does not help us here, for quae only 
makes the statement a trifle less absurd. P. sees the diffieoftr 
and slurs it : 'Tell her this... that she may know that my body 
was mangled and my bones scattered over the mountain-pasta' 
(The italics are mine.) The meaning is clear. The soldier is 
to see that Gallus' bones receive a separate bniiaL super nith 
montlbus Etrasds. 

10. h&ec, the bones in question which he can now iden- 

I. xxii. 

Introduction and Argument. 

This poem, addressed to Tullus, is a sort of envoi to the 
first book. It contains an account, not very precise, of the 
poet's birthplace, with a parenthesis lamenting the melancholy 
fate of his relation (w. 6 — 8). Poets not nnfreqnently added 
an account of this kind to a volume of their poems, just as 
German candidates for a degree suffix to their inaugural dis- 
sertations their own biographies. Hor. Ep. 1. 20 is another 

1 — end. ' What and whence my lineage, what my native 
home, thou art ever asking, Tullus, in our friendship's name. 
If thou dost know Perusia, thy country's grave-yard, the scene 
of death in Italy's hard days when strife with Borne maddened 
Home's own sons — to me, Etruscan earth, there should he 
ohiefest sorrow: thou hast left my kinsman's corse to lie 
unburied, thou ooverest his bones with no dole of dust— 
Umbria gave me birth where it touches dose the plains below 
with its wealth of fertile land.' 

1. quails, not exactly the same as quis, which is com- 
moner, but = Gr. vdcos *of what kind of family.' Propertius 
prefers the indefinite word (comp. Introduction), and tends to 
use it as equivalent to the definite one ; cf. m. 13 (11). 34 
«ftuna talis erit quae mea prima fides. quails et trade 
genua, so, simu Prop, frequently omits the sub}, of the sub- 
stantive verb; cf. I. &. 37. For the form of question et 
Horn. Od. 19. 105 rfe *4fe» eft oritur ; **& roc wroXa i* 
recoct ; Vixg. Aen. 8. 114 qui genus I unde domo est 

3. pro nostra amtetUa, Sail. Jug. 9. S tibi quidem pro 
nostra amicitia fr*tmlor=pro iwre nostrae awudtime, Caes. 

NOTES. I. xxii. 107 

ap. Cie. Att. 10. 86. semper may either (1) go with 
amicitia—continua t for which cf. Aen. 1. 198 neque enim ignari 
sumu8 ante malorum (r<5v vptv kclkwv) and probably Ter. Andr. 
1. 2. 4 eri semper lenitas, and others quoted by Draeger. Hist. 
Synt. i. Ill (131), or (2) with quaeris ; so Cicero, in complying 
with a request, Orat. 1. 3 quaeris igitur idque iam saepius. 

3. Perusina, see introduction to eL 21. patriae sepulcra. 
Cicero Cat. 4. 6. 11 cerno animo sepulta in patria miseros 
atqueinsepultos aceruos ciuium. Catull. 68. 89 Troia, commune 
sepulcrum Europae Asiaeque. So again in n. 1. 27 ciuilia 
busta Philippo8. 

4. Italiae. The construction of this word is uncertain, 
but it probably goes both with funera and with durls temporl- 
lras. For the first use compare Cic. Prov. Cons. 19. 45 disces- 
mm meum funus difii rei public ae, id. 1. 2 Gabinium et 
Pisonem rei publicae portenta ac paene funera, and for the 
second Lucr. 1. 41 patriai tempore iniquo; cf. Cic. Sest. 1. 5. 

5. dlscordia, almost personified as opposed to Concordia 
Lucan 6. 777 effera Eomanos agitat discordia Manes, 
eglt, * hounded on.' So Ov. M. 14. 750 quern iam deus ultor 
agebat. Hor. Epod. 7. 17 fata Eomanos agunt. Romana 
Buos, a curiously roundabout expression. It would have been 
more obvious to say ciuilis discordia egit Eomanos. But with 
the patriotic Propertius Eoman is a favourite epithet. For a 
somewhat similar use see in. 1. 4 n. and Lucan 3. 249 turn 
furor extremos mouit Eomanus Oretas. 

6. sit, 'should be.' pululs, fern., an archaism. 

7. proiecta. Foi the omission of esse see Boby 1444. 
perpessa es. The per emphasizes the reproach, 'you never 
repented or did your duty/ for which compare iv. 7. 26 Paetum 
sponte tua, uilis harena, teg as. 

8. This line is a striking instance of a peculiarity of Pro- 
pertius noticed on el. 20. 17. An expression like puluis solo 
oontegit ossa makes the same thing a personal agent in an 
action and then the instrument with which the action is per- 

9. supposlto campo, probably dat. after proxima, as con- 
tingens takes an ace. in this sense, e.g. Livy 10. 21. 8. 

10. The apodosis to v. 3. The sense is 'If you know 
Perusia, you know my birthplace Umbria.' For the thoroughly 
Latin form of expression compare V. Eel 3. 23 si nescis, meus 

108 JfOTJfS., I. xxii. 

iUe cqper fyit, • I tell you that was my goat. ' terris, 4 land, 
soil.' So nearly the Bame as glaeba. pompare this passage 
with Aen. 1. 531 terra qntiqua, paten* amis atque ubere 
glaebae, and Hoc. Od. 1. 4. 10 Jlore terrae quam, fervjU 
solutae with. Yirg. Q. 1. 44 Zephyro putrU se y\aeba 

p. v. 

Introduction and Abgument, 

The first rebuke to Cynthia that we find in Propertius. 
There is nothing to determine the date. 

Is this report of your profligacy true, Cynthia (1, 2) ? I 
will punish you. I will find another and a truer love (3 — 8). 
I will go, I must go at once, lest the lover's weakness make 
me relent (9 — 14). I shall suffer too by the separation, but only 
at first (15, 16), Be warned, Cynthia, and do not bring my 
resentment on your head. Even the sheep is sometimes roused 
to retaliate (17 — 20). I will take the revenge of a poet, not of 
a ohurl, and will consign you to posterity as lair but fickle 
(21—28). This will make you smart (29, 30), 

1 — 8. < Is this true, Cynthia, that thou art bruited through 
all Rome, that thou art living in open shame? Have I de- 
served to look for this t Traitress, thou shalt pay me penalty. 
With me too, Cynthia, shall the North wind blow. Still shall 
I find out or all your treacherous crew one maiden who mil 
oonsent to be ennobled by my verse, nor flout me with thy 
har4 ways, but carp at thee. Ah, too late wilt thou weep that 
wast t>elqve4 sq long ! ' 

1. uerum, 'true,' not 'fair.' Propertius cannot believe 
his ears, ferr4, usually impersonal *, fertur ; but here like Or. 
Tornpux $4p€ff0ai Xen. HelL 1. 5. 17 'to be ill spoken of, 
differr\} cf. Suet* Caes. 20 utque utdgo max ferrentu r to 
uersut, 'were circulated.' te, in a double sense, (1) 'Cynthia's 
name,' or 'reputation,' with ferri, (2) C. herself with, uiuert. 
For the first use cf. I. 11. 7 et te nescio qui^...$\utuUt t 
nostris, Cynthia, carminibus t and i. 5. 26 n. 

2. non ignota, meiosis x 'known to all. Compare Ovid's 
imitation Am. 1. 13. 34 an putat ignotam nequitiam esu 

* Le. when bo infin. follows. 

NOTES. II. v. 109 

suam ? neqnitia, frequently used by Propertius in this con- 
nexion ; sometimes with grave reproach, sometimes m a lighter 
sense, 'frowardness, naughtiness/ as iy. 9 (10). 24, 

3. sperafe, * expect/ so Gr. ikrrlfav. In Cicero only with 
non or in irony. 

4. et noUs. Cf.Virg. Eol. 3.44 et nobis idem Alcimedon 
duo pocula fecit, Aquilo. Laehmann's conjecture aliquo= alio 
quo, * to some other port/ is inviting ; cf. Brut. ap» Cic. 
Fam. 11. 1. 3 migrandum Rhodum aut all quo terrarum. The 
sense will then be ' I on my part will seek a fresh love.' But it 
is not necessary. Aquilo is, as Prof. Ellis points out, the 
treacherous, stormy wind of Propertius ; compare the whole of 
iv. 6, esp. lines 13, 71, and v. 11 of this elegy. Besides the meta- 
phor is not uncommon in amatory poetry; cf. Meleager Anth. 
Gr. 5; 190 tcvfxa t6 iriiepbv "Epwros dicoljniTol re irviovres fr)\oi 
and 12. 167 x €l f^P l0V ^v xpevua. uentus, in apposition 
with Aquilo. So Aul. Gell. L. L. 2. 30 Aquilones uvnti, Caes. 
B. G. 5. 7 Corns uentus, and elsewhere. 

5. inueniam. Theocr. 11. 73 evpyffeis TakAteicw fotat kclI 
kclWIov' dWau and Virg. Eel. 2. 73. tamen, explained by fal- 
lacious, 'though they are treacherous, I will yet find one.' 
Cf. el. 4. 20 unde tarn en ueniant tot mala,* caeca uiast, i.e. 
though we cannot see the way, it must be there; so Ov. Tr. 1. 5. 
81,82 denique quaesitos tetigit tarn en ille Penates; quaeque 
diu petiit, contigit arua tarn en. It thus nearly = tandem. 
emultis unam, a favourite antithesis with the' ancient writers; 
Hor. Od. 3. 11. 29 una de multis. 

6. nota. So Ov. Am. 1. 10. 60 quam uolui, not a fit arte 


7. 8. tarn duris. Cf. i. 16. 18 tarn duris clausa taces 
foribus and note. For durlB moribui compare 1. 17. 15 nonne 
fuit melius dominae peruincere mores ? quamuis dura, tamen 
rara puella fuiU Petrarch imitates Propertius, Sonnet 220 

Che pur il remembrar par mi consumi, 
Qualora a quel d\ torno ripehsandoi 
Come uenieno i mei spirti mancando ' 
Al uariar de* suoi duri costumi. 'and not... but.' For examples see Boby 2241. 
uallicet, 'pluck at, pull to pieces,' of abusing people in their 
absence; Hor. Sat. 1. 10. 79 uellicet dbsentem, Cio. Balb. 
26. 57 more hominum inuident, in cbtmiuiis rodunt, in circuits 
ue Hi cant, maledico dente carpunt. It certainly cannot mean 

110 NOTES. II. v. 

' vex and annoy yon by the contrast of her attachment with 
yonr levity,' P. Cynthia was not likely to be influenced by 
such a sentimental consideration. 

9—16. 'Now is thy wrath fresh, Propertius; now is the 
time to depart. If resentment be withdrawn, love, trust me, 
will return. Not so lightly do Carpathian waves change before 
the Northern blasts or the dark cloud eddy with the fitful 
South, as angry lovers relent at a word. "While thou mayest, 
withdraw thy neck from the unfair yoke. Thou wilt suffer 
some pain, too, but only for the first night. Every ill in love 
is light, if thou do but bear it.' 

9. nunc est Ira recens, addressing himself, sudden changes 
of the person being common in Prop. See Introduction, 
dlscedere, • to part ' from my mistress. Cf. iv. 25. 7 JUbo ego 
discedens ; so abire i. 4. 2 mutatum domina cogis abirt 

10. dolor, the pain of wounded feelings, 'resentment' 
Cf. el. 8. 86 tantus in erepto saeuit amore dolor. 

11 . ita, closely with variant. P. is wrong in saying < supply 
facile. 1 For the variation in the expression non ita uariant 
yuam facile mutantur (v. 13) compare in. 6 (5). 1 — 9, which 
is even still stranger, non ita...gauisus est... nee sic.uidit 
quanta ego collegi gaudia: and n. 9. 88 non sic ineerto 
mutantur famine Syrtes nee folia Hiberno tarn tremefacta Noto 
quam eito feminea non constat foedus in ira. uariant 
includes the changing colour (for which see v. 2. 18 n.) and the 
changing motion. The tossing waves are chequered by alter- 
nating patches of light and shade. For an enumeration of 
the tints which the sea assumes see Cic. Ac. 2. 33. 105. 
Aqullo is the dark wind (aquilus). 

12. uertttur,' rocks.' Cf. Lucr. 5. 604. 

13. mutantur uerbo. Compare n. 4. 21 (31) alter sarpe 
uno mutat praecordia uerbo. 

14. Ininito. The best commentary is Ovid's imitation 
B* A. 90 el tua laesuro subtrake coila iugo. 

15. allquld aad prima node. Observe here first that 
it is in accordance with Propertius' manner to contrast two 
phrases by **d which are not grammatically parallel (aUquid.. 
prum met*)* cf. t. 1. 98 a era std inuito contigit ista Jides and 
it. 7. 46 ; and secondly the pregnant emphasis of the ted clause 
* but only >*t for the first night,' This emphasis indeed 

NOTES, II. v. 111 

times overpowers the adversative meaning of the sed which 
becomes merely = K<d ravra 'and that too'; so in Mart, haec 
sunt quae relegente me solebas rapta exscribere, sed Vitellianis. 

16. si patiare leuest. It seems better on the whole to 
take the second person as general than as carrying on the tu of 
the previous line. For the snbj. cf. Gic. de Or. hi. 23. 87 ista 
dUcuntur facile si et tantum sum a 8 quantum opus sit et habeas 
qui docere jideliter possit &o. For the sense cf. Hor. Od. 1. 
24. 19, 20 leuius Jit patientia quicquid corrigerest nefas, 

16— end. 'Bat in the name of our lady Juno's sweet 
claims do thou cease, my life, to turn thy passions against thy- 
self. 'Tis not only the bull that strikes his enemy with crooked 
horns ; nay, even the injured sheep turns upon her pursuer. 
Nor will I tear the robe from thy perjured limbs nor will I 
let my anger burst the barred doors before me ; nor could I 
bear to pluck thy braided hair in rage or strike thee with my 
bard clenched hands. Let some churl seek a combat so de- 
grading whose brows the ivy has not circled. I will write then 
what no life of thine can efface: "Cynthia's form is queenly, 
Cynthia's words are light." Trust me, howsoever thou disdain 
the mutterings of report, this verse, Cynthia, will blanch thy 

17. at, as in in. 8 (7). 18, &c, marks a sudden appeal. 
Iunonls. Iiino Pronuba is meant. Prop, elsewhere speaks of 
his attachment to Cynthia as a legitimate marriage; e.g. iv. 
20. 26 (16) sacra marita. dominae, not otiose but marking 
Iuno's power. 'Do not provoke the domina dea, 1 Ov. Am. 3. 
13. 18. dulda, a favourite word of Prop, in this connexion 
(e.g. iv. 14 (15). 10), touches a gentler chord. iura, the rules 
which she imposes and you should obey ; cf. Ov. M. 6. 535 con- 
iugialia iura. 

19. hostem properly denotes a public, an avowed enemy; 
so here it may = the bull's natural foe. Ct Hor. Od. 4. 4. 10 ouilia demisit hostem uiuidus impetus. 
Propertius, however, uses it elsewhere as simply =inimicus t 
e.g. li. 4. 17. 

20. uerum etlam, a very rare collocation, except in Cicero. 
Hor. Sat. 1.6. 88 has uerum... quoque. instanti, if he follows 
her up, drives her to bay; cf. Livy 10. 36. 3 ni cedenti instatu- 
rum alterum credidissent, Plaut. Cure. 3. 6 si me (or mi) in- 
stabunt. repugnat, rare with a dative in the lit. sense; 
but cf. the use of pugno with, one Aen. 11. 600, &c. ouls 
laesa, as we say ' a trodden worm.' 

112 NOTES, IL t* 

21. c orpora with periuro, the puniEhment, like the fault, 
being corporal ; compare i. 20. 48 n. srtndam uestes, a freqtient 
habit of the Roman inamorato in his jealous moods. Gf. Hot. 
Od. 1. 17. 27, 28 ne...8cindat haerentem coronam crinibu* in- 
meritamque uestem. 

22. mea ira, almost ^ejo trains, ci". Herculis error i. 20. 
15 h. ; i. 18. 14 non Ua saeua tamen uenerit ira mea ut, Ac. is 
another way of putting it. fregerlt. Ov. Am. 1. 9. 20 Mc 
(miles) portas f ran git, at Me (amator) fores. 

23. conexos, • fastened up, dressed,' which Was usually 
done by braiding it and then making it up into a knot behind 
or bringing the ends round to the front again, Becker Gallus 
p. 439. It was kept in shape by bands or a pin, ib. 

24. auslm. For these old optative forms [sim, siem-Gh 
i(o)lw) see Roby 619 sqq. pollidbus, 'fists'; the aid of the 
thumb being indispensable for clenching the hand. In r. 7. 12 
pollicibus means the fingers or their joints. 

25. turpia, because with a woman. Cf. Aen. 2. 583 nullum 
memordbiie nomen feminea in poena est nee habet victoria 

26. hederae. The busts of poets, the votaries of Bacchus 
(v. 6. 76), were adorned with ivy ; Pers. Prol. 6 quorum imagine* 
lamvunt hederae sequdces. 

27. lgltur. We might have expected sed; but it is like 
Propertius to give the conclusion (as a conclusion) without the 
stepB of the argument. Here the connexion is * I shall not 
punish you in the vulgar way.' [But I shall not let you go scot 
free.] ' Therefore I shall punish you as a poet. ' Bo precisely in 
in. 12 (10). 17 — 23 ipse ego uenabor...non tamen ut uastos avsm 
temptare leones...haec igitur mihi sit lepores audacia molUs 
excipere. tua aetas, i.e. however long your life may be, 
you cannot live it down. In a somewhat different sense i. 6. 21 
nam tua non aetas unquam cessauii amori; cf. Pind. Pyth.6. 
26 faurds hk /tfnrore Ti/xas dpelpeur yovttav (Mov ireirpw/K&w. 

28. A striking instance of two contrasted clauses corre- 
sponding in outward form but not in substance : ( Cynthia is a 
potent beauty, Cynthia is light of word.' forma potens, ?sed 
of the beauty itself in iv. 20. 7 est tibi forma potens. It is here 
the opposite of leuis figura, i. 4. 9 si leuibus fuerit collate 
figuris. Cf. formas^ beauties.,' in. 26. 7 (20. 53). _ iwrta. 
here for 'pledges, promises.' Cf. n. on i. 8. 22. The ace. i< 
remarkable. It must fall under the head of ace. of 'part con- 

NOTES. II. v, 113 

cerned, Boby 1102, though it is a strain of the conception to 
regard 'words' as a part of a person. 

29. quamuis, « however ranch,' as P. rightly. Prop, also 
uses it with the suty. in the sense of 'though,' as a rule, though 
the indie, is found in four passages. murmura famae, so Ov. 
Her. 9. 4L 

30. pallori, * a cause of paleness,' to be added to the list of 
predicative datives in Boby Gr. x. p. zxxvii 

II. vii. 


This poem is addressed to Cynthia, and was written some 
time after the law referred to in the Introduction had been 
brought forward. It is a jubilant assertion of the impotence of 
enactments against love and a renewal of his faith to his 


Cynthia certainly shewed unfeigned joy when the obnoxious 
law was abandoned : yet, though it proceeded from one greater 
than Jove, it could not have parted us (1—6). I would have 
suffered anything sooner than have left my love to her woe 
(7—12). I am not likely to be the father of soldiers; why 
then should I marry (13, 14) ? If my love could go with me, 
I would gladly campaign. For it is through her that I am 
so renowned (15 — 18). May we be all in all to each other. 
This will be better than marriage and offspring (19, 

1 — 6. 'Certes Cynthia rejoiced that the law was swept 
away whose issuing a while ago made us both weep long lest 
it should part us, though Jupiter himself could not sunder two 
lovers against their will. "Yet great is Caesar." But Caesar is 
great in arms. The conquest of peoples is of no avail in love.' 

1. eerte. Propertius looks round, as it were, and reassures 
himself by the reflection that about Cynthia's joy there can be 
no doubt. So certe comes to mean 'at least.' Cf. m. 22. 23 
(18. 43) eerte iedem nudi pariter iactabimur oris. This should 
have prevented Lachmann and others from reading es for esU 
certe begins a poem as in i. 18. Cf. the Introduction. sub- 
latam implies nothing about the manner in which the law was 
got rid of. legem. See Introduction. 

P.P. 8 

114 NOTES. II. viL 

SL . quondam. This Mam to imply some considerable laps* 
of time. edleta. A loose use ; promtUgata is the proper word 
Compare, however, Curt. 6. 11. 20 legem remitter* edixitrei. 
flemm. An extension of the historical pres. to a dependent 
sentence. Their tears are yet present to Propertius. Compare 
t. i and Virg. Aen. 2. 275 quantum mutatus ab Wo Hectare qvi 
redit exuuias indutus A chillis, where Aeneas has Hector's 
brilliant retain in his mind's eye. There is another use of the 
pres, for the preterite, where .the effects of a past action con- 
tinue into and affect the present v. 1. 121 Umbria te edit, 
Gk. rj rlxrei <rc t *is thy mother.' For fear drawing tears 
cf. m. 23. 7 note. 

3. ni, a rare bye-form of ne found in inscrr. (beginning 
105 b.c.) and probably in Aen. 3. 686. Cf. Boby 2225. di 
uideret, dlducere. There is no difference of sense as P. thinks; 
see in. 7. 3 n. 

. 4. Iupplter ipse. Cf. n. 22. 22 (18. 42) incendat nauem 
luppiter ipse licet. 

5. at magnus Caesar. Observe the skilful way in which 
this gross flattery is served up. To supply potest diducw 
makes it far less effective. 

6. deulctae gentes =ro KaraveviiajK^at ra tBvq, a predica- 
tive use of the part, of which Prop, is fond. Cf. Introduction, 

7 — 12. 'For sooner would I have borne this head to quit 
its neck than have found the heart to quench the torch of love at 
the bidding of a bride, or have passed, a husband, by thy closed 
doors and looked back with streaming eyes on what I had be- 
trayed. Ah, what sleep would the notes of my marriage-flute 
have brought thee then, that flute more dismal than the foneru 

7. Compare Horn. H. 2. 259 pipcer ftreir 'Oiurip *o/»7 
wfjLoiatp ixeirj and Ovid's shameless appropriation of this 
passage Her. 16. 153 ante recessisset caput hoc ceruict 
omenta quam tu de thalamis abstraherere meis and Pont. 2. 8. 63. 
dtlus, ' sooner,* ■=* rather/ old Eng. rathe being early. P*- 
terer. For pati cf. i. 8. 15 n. The imperf. subj. in pater*. 
transirem denotes here 'continuous states supposed contrary to 
the fact to have occurred in past time- (Boby 1530, 1532 (c))= 
4 1 should have been suffering.' The student should, however, 
observe that this translation is not available, and that we haw 
to translate 'X should have suffered,' which is also the transla- 
tion we use for passus essem, Boby 1530 (d). 

NOTES. . II. viu 115 

8. . possem after paterer is a variation or redundancy, for 
which compare el, 5. 11 note. It occurs in other writers, e.g. 
Livy 2. 34. 12 hand tarn facile dictu est faciendumne fuerit 
quam potuisse arbitror fieri. more, amore the received read- 
ing is most unsatisfactory. The use of faces for. ' passion ' is 
in itself no doubt possible. So Stat. Ach. 1. 636 and elsewhere. 
But here it is intolerably harsh; for the mind at once connects 
it with nuptae, and thinks of the marriage-torch ; cf. Ov. Her. 
13. 160 perque pares animi coniugiique faces, and compare 
i. 8. 21. amore too is not the right word. Besides more is the 
ms. reading, and that is, at least, not more unsatisfactory; It 
probably means 'at the will or humour ot a bride'; of. Ter. 
Audr. 1. 1. 125 alieno more uiuendum est. perdere faces might 
either be taken to refer to the waste at a wedding, or else meta- 
phorically as in the translation. 

9. translrem. A rare use, copied by Ov. K. A. 785 dl 
faciant possis dominae transire relict ae limen. Propertius,- 
however, always has transire for praeterire t which he does not 
use except in the part. 

10. udifl. Comp. Ov. Her. 12. 55 oculis abeuntem pro* 
sequor udis. 

11. quails somnos, i.e. amaros v. 7. 5 cum mihi somnvs 
ab exequiis penderet amarus ; cf. I. 16. 22. We should say 
'what nights.* caneret, either 'cause by its sound '^canendo 
efficeret, Hertzb., who compares Yirg. Eel. 4. 46 talia saecla 
*uu dixerunt currite fusis 'run with these ages,' or, as I prefer, 
'give the signal for/ like cecinit iussos inflata receptus Ov. Af. 
1. 340, In any case it is a strange use. 

12. Compare Ovid's imitation Her. 12. 140 tibiaque 
effundit socialia carmina nobis at mihi funerea flebiliord 
tuba.. The flute was played during -the conducting of the 
bride home (deductio) Becker Gall. p. 161. tuba. The flute 
was also used at funerals ; cf. Ov. F. 6. 660 and Becker Gall, 
p. 511, but the more powerful trumpet made it less noticeable, 
So that tuba is taken as the typical funeral instrument. Cf. 
v. 11. 9 and Pers. 3. 102 hinc tuba, candelae, &c. 

13^-20. 'Why should I furnish sons for my country's 
triumphs ? From my blood will no soldier spring. Yet if the 
maid I love accompanied a real camp, Castor's great horse 
would not make speed enough for me. For hence my glory has 
won its far renown, that glory wafted to the Borysthenes' wintry 
sons. Thou, Cynthia, only art my joy : may I be only thine. 
This love will be more precious, yea than offspring of my bloodj 


116 NOTES. . II. viL 

13. Here begins a new division, marked in many of the 
mbs. as a separate poem. * I cannot serve my country by re- 
signing my love: then why should I do it? 1 unde=T&to 
♦from what cause,' as in Flor. 3. 12 unde enim populxu Bo- 
manos dgros Jiagitaret nisi per famem quam luxu feceratt; but 
only here for the more usual and logical quo, 'for what pur- 
pose, ' as in Hor. quo mihi fortunam si non conceditur utif 
trlumphls, to win them and take part in them. 

14. We may well believe this: see the amusing passage 
m. 12 (10). 17—24 and Introduction, 

15. uera castra, real warfare, opposed to the militia 
Veneris v. 1. 137. Cf. in. 1. 19 haec ego castra sequar and 
note, and compare also i. 6. 29. non ego sum laudi non natm 
idoneus armis : hanc me militiam fata subire uolunt. me&fl 
puellae, the indef. plur. Prop, does not necessarily mean 
more than Cynthia. So v. 9. 34 defessis uiris of Hercules only. 
Comp. Introduction. 

16. sat, either (1) as an adj. and pred. in which case bet 
is put for the less vivid esset; compare Aen. 7. 470 se satis 
ambobus Teucrisque uenire Latinisque, * he was a match for': 
or (2) as an adv., so that iret is put for some more special 
word, e. g. properaret, as is not uncommon in Prop. ; of. v. 11. 
60 n. equus, Cyllarus, Yirg. G. 8. 90. 

17* nine, i.e. apuellis; not, as P., 'from my profession as 
a poet. 1 etenim, since I cannot surrender what has brought 
me so much glory. tantum meruit mea gloria namen. 
Compare in. 5. 21 and Tib. (?) 4. 1. 29 nee tua maiorum 
contentast gloria jama. This is another instance of Prop. '6 
* distinctiveness ' ; cf. i. 20. 17, 22. 8 notes, mea gloria=*lia 
my illustrious aspect,' as in Tib. tua gloria= ' you in yoor 
thirst for fame.' 

18. hlberaofl. Cf. v. 3. 9 hiberni Getae, Borysthenidu, 
the sons of the Borysthenes,' a very modern expression for the 
dwellers near the river. But compare n. 9. 17 tunc utrit 
gaudebat Oraecia natis, 'in true daughters.' Borysthtw 
was another name of the town Olbia near the Dnieper : bnt 
Propertius can hardly mean its inhabitants. lata. I cannot 
admit that Propertius means that the legionaries take his 
poems with them on their expeditions (as in Mart. 11. 3). It j* 
of course a poetical hyperbole as in the hymn 'From Greenland's 
icy mountains.' Prop., as a poet, likes to send his glory torn- 
where, to give it a ' local habitation and a name/ Cf. Tib. 

NOTES. II. vfi. 117 

1. 5. 86 haee ego fingebam quae nunc Eurusque Notusque iactat 
odoratot uota per Armenioe* 

19. tu mini sola places, reproduced in Ov. A. A. 1. 42 
and in pseudo-Tib. 4. 13. 8. patrlo sanguine, 'offspring 
which makes me a father/ a very harsh and strange expression, 
and not justified by Gic. Sezt. Rose. 24. 66 which is quite 
different: nor can it mean 'the Boman race in a general 
sense,' P. sanguine is prob. corrupt and has got in from v. 16, 
where it comes in ihe same place. I would read nomine and 
compare Lucr. 1. 88 quod patrio princeps donarat nomine 
regem, 'I prize happy love more than the name of father *; so 
in Greek Soph. Tr. 817 firp-pfor Hyxop 6p6/xaros. Something 
may be said for Burmann's emendation Partho sanguine, * spilling 
the blood of the enemies of Borne.' 

III. i. 


This poem is an announcement that Propertius intends to 
abandon love themes and celebrate the feats of Augustus. It 
is a very vexed question whether it is the introduction to a 
fresh book. If it is, it must be regarded as a false start, as 
only one poem in the book (xxix., the opening of the temple of 
the Palatine Apollo,) has anything to do with Augustus. Bee 
more in the Introduction. There is little doubt about the 
time it was written. It must have been written when the ex- 
pedition of Aelius Gallus into Arabia was in contemplation or 
progress, and before its disastrous termination in b.o. 24. 
The negotiations with Phraates were also pending which were 
concluded in b.o. 28. Hence it was probably composed in the 
first half of b. c. 24. Of. note on 1. 15. 


I must change my subject and take a bolder flight. Enough 
of love. I will sing of war (1 — 12). Parthia, India, Arabia, the 
furthest land in the world shall all be subdued to Augustus. 
This is the great theme that is to inspire me (13 — 20). This is 
my humble offering to his greatness (21 — 26). 

1 — 6. ( But now 'tis the time to bid other dances pass over 
Helicon; 'tis time to let, the Haemonian steed range over the 
plain. Now am I fain. to sing the squadrons' courage for the 


figpbit and to tell of the warfare of my chief for Borne. Though 
strength fail me, yet daring surely will he merit: in great things 
it is enough even to have shewn the will.' 

1. led breaks off the train of thought and introduces t 
new one. 80 Ter. Ph. 5. 5. 5 An. zed Photmiost, quid ais t at 
is generally used for this purpose at. the beginning of a book; 
so Aen. 4. 1 at regina, &o. aliis ohorels, i.e. not the mollet 
choros of in. 32 {26). 42, but the severer measures of epic 
poetry. For the metaphor see iv. 1. 4 note. 

2. The metaphor changes from the dance with the Muses 
on Helicon to the field of song over which the poet guides his 
inspired car. So Pindar speaks of ' a four-horsed car of the 
Muses,' Pyth. 10. 65; and so frequently in Latin poets, e.g. 
Yirg. G. 2. ult., Juv. 1. 19 cur tamen hoc potius lib eat de- 
currere campo per quern magnus equos Auruncae Jlexit alumnut 
seems to have this passage in view. The moderns generally 
prefer the single horse, the Pegasus. So in English 

'I bridle in my struggling Muse with pain, 
That longs to launch into a bolder strain.' 

campum dare. A humbler writer would have said frena dare. 
Cic. Mur."8. 18 says less boldly nullum yiobis sots campum 
dedit in quo excurrere uirtus cognoscique posset. Haemoato, 
Thessalian horses and horsemen being proverbially good, farm 
Qc<r<ra\iKol AaKtdai/xovlat re ywaiKes. So in Anth. Or. 9. 21. 1 
Thessaly is called xwKorpoxpe. Haemonia is a poetical name 
of Thessalia, from Haemon f the reputed father of its eponymous 
hero Thessalus ; see Rhianus quoted by Sohol. on Apoll. Ehod. 
3. 1090 6 6" av riice 6e<r<ra\oy "At/wr. 

8. memorare, not substantially different in sense from 
dlcere, v. 4. These variations are very common in Propertins, 
and give great freshness to his style : v. 3. 57 fiore sactlla 
tego, uerbenis compita uelo, n. 7. 3 ditiideret...diducere, ib. 
v. 8 note. fortes ad, cf. Virg. G. 3. 50 fortes ad araira 
iuuenci, Ov. F. 2. 686 fortis ad arma. 

4. ^ Romana. Propertins, like his contemporaries, breathes 
the spirit of imperial Borne (tu regere imperio populos, Roman*, 
memento). Compare the proud phrase in. 11. 4 (9. 26) turpii 
Romano Belgicus ore color. mei duels, taken by Ov. A. A. 
1. 202 Eoas Latio dux meus addat opes. The mei shews the 
poet's warm personal interest. The ducti, as P. thinks, refers 
to the title imperator. 

5* audada, rare in a good sense. " It is almost confined 
to the poets and battle descriptions in the historians. " J. S. B. 


With thte whole passage and v. 23 compare pseudo-Tib; 4. 1. 
1—7 Te, Messala, canam quamquam mecognita virtus ut 
infirma-e,7}equtanl subsistere uires, incipiam tamen; at 
meritas si carmina laudes deficiant...e$t nobis uoluisse 

• 6. laus, a prose writer would usually have the dative* CI, 
ii. 1. 47 laus in amore mori. uoluisse. Cf. n. on x. 1. 15. 

7, 8« 'Let opening life sing the delights of love and closing 
life the outbreaks of war. X will sing of war, since X have 
written of my fair.' 

7. prima aetas, Pind. N. 9. 42 h akudq. rpwra. ex- 
trema, not to be pressed. The antithesis prima. ..extrema 
has run away with Propertius. In his case the interval- cannot 
be more than six years at the most. tumultus, 'risings.' 
The best commentary on it is Virg. G. 1. 465 operta turn esc ere 
bella. It is specially used of a rising in Italy or QalUa CisaU 
pina; cf. Gic. Phil. 8. 1. 8. Propertius uses it interchangeably 
with bella, e.g. Hi. 21. 7. 


8. quando =quoniam 9 quite classical, especially, with ,qui- 

9 — 12. ( Now would I move with staider gait and serious 
look; now doth my muse teach me another lyre. Bise, my 
soul, at last from thy lowly strain: take strength, Pierian 
nymphs : high is the tone ye now will need. 1 

9. uolo shews alacrity; cf. Cat. 6. 16 nolo te ac tuos 
amores ad caelum tepido uocare uersu. Propertius is, however, 
fond of these ' potentials '; cf . Introduction. Observe the 6 and 
cf. Introduction. subducto uoltu, not • withdrawn into 
itself ' P., but * drawn up.' For subducere supercilia, * to draw 
up the eyebrows,' was a mark of austerity; Bee Turpil. ap. 
Non. 399. 30 (fr 9 68) quom antea uidebam stare tristes, turbido 
uoltu sub due ti 8 cum super cilis series, Senec. Ep. 48 med. 
&o. procedere, i. 2. 1 n. 

10. aliam dtharaxn, i.e. a more exalted strain ; Hor. OcL 
4. 2. 33 concines maiore poeta plectro Caesarem. mea, 
she is a to* nata iv. 1. 9. docet, as the Muses did Hesiod. 
Thepg. 22 at vu voff 'KvloSov KaXrjp i8l8a£av doid-qp. So in 
v. 1. 133 Apollo dictates to the poet, turn tibi pauca suo de 
carmine dictat Apollo* 

11. anima-antww, 'soul, 9 a rare but not unexampled use. 
Cio. Nat* D* 1. 31. 87 animam rationis consilique participem. 

120 NOTES.. HI. L 

Sail. Jog. 2. 2 ingenii egregia facinora, ricut anima, immortaUa 
sunt. lam with sorgo. 

12. magni oris. This phrase arose from a transference or 
confusion of thought. An os magna sonaturum Hot. 8. 1. 
4. 44 became an os magnum by association; Virg. G. 3. 294 
magno nunc ore son a ndu m . Contrast parua ora rv. 3. 5 n. 

13 — 18. 'Euphrates now proclaims that none of Parthia's 
horsemen turn their glance behind them and repents it that it 
has not sent the Crasai back. Yea, India submits its neck to 
thy triumph, Augustus, and the house of virgin Araby trembles 
before thee, and wherever there is a land receding from the 
verge of the world, that land in time to come will be captive 
and feel thy hand.' 

18. Phraates agreed to restore the standards and prisoners 
taken from Crassus in B.C. 23, but did not do so till b. a 20. 
equttem, possibly 'not a single hor8eman. , Cf. for the use of 
the simple sing. Cie. Tusc 1. 14. 31 ergo arbores seret diligent 
agrieola quartan adspiciet bacam ipse numquam 'not a berry of 
which'; and Prop. x. 9. 11. It may also be the collective. 

• 14. Crassoe, the Crasai, father and son, their troops and 

15. India, noi= Aethiopia (Hertzberg). The reference is to 
the embassy from India mentioned in Bio Cassius 64. 9 where, 
speaking of the envoys who came to Augustus at Samos in 
b.c. 20, he says 'A very large number of embassies came to 
him, including one from the Indians, who had already sent 
envoys on a previous occasion (wpoKripvKevcafierot wporepov), and 
now formed an alliance with him, giving presents, amongst 
which were tigers, which, tQl then, the Bomans had never seen 
nor the Greeks either, I believe.' Cf. Hor. quoted on v. 16. 
Augusts, v. 6.23 n. 

16. domus, a bolder expression than in Virg. G. 2. 115 
Boasque domos Arabum. intactae, which has not yet sur- 
rendered its treasures to us. Hor. Od. 3. 24. 1 intactis op*- 
lentior thesauri* Arabum et dtuitis Indiae. Arahlae. The 
expedition of Aelius Gallus into Arabia b.c. 24 was a miserable 
failure, chiefly through the treachery of Syllaeus, the king of 
the Nabathaei. 

17. et at qua. The turn of the expression reminds us of 
Virg. Aen. ?. 225 audiit et si quern tellus extrema rtfuso 
submouet Oceano, where, as here, Britain is meant, the goal 
of Boman aspirations in the West. For the iwd«rfwMt» si q u* 
comp. Introduction^ extremis, ' on the edges! tjounding. the 

;fotes. iii. i 121 

▼odd. Cf. ir. 13 (14). 7 ad extremas siat fenwna metas. 
m subtrahlt, 'withdraws/ a sort of middle. A good com- 
mentary is v. .9. 56 qua se submota uindicat ara casa; comp. 
iv. 8 (9). 15 n. and Introduction. 

18. aentiet manus tuas. Cf. in. 7 (6). 18 scissa ueste 
meas experiere mama, Augustus never seriously intended to 
conquer Britain, and Tacitus attributes to him a policy of non- 
intervention, Agr. 13 longa obliuio Britannia* etiam in pace ; 
consilium id diuus Augustus uocabat, Tiberius praeceptum, 
postmodo, ' a while after,' is to postmodum as anno ante is to 
ante annum, 

19 — 26. * This camp will I follow. By singing of thy camp 
I shall become a mighty bard. May Fate keep that day in 
store for me. As, when in lofty statues men cannot touch the 
head, they lay the garland here low at their feet, so I, all 
powerless to climb in my song thy glory's height, present cheap 
incense in humble offering. For not as yet have my strains 
reached the springs of Ascra; hut Love has only dipped them in 
Permessus' stream.' 

19. haec castra, i. e. not those of Venus ; carrying out the 
idea of w. 7, 8. Cf. n. 7. 15 n. sequar, so. in spirit and 
with my song ; cf. iv. 9. 58, 

20. nunc diem, ie. that which sees me a great poet by 
singing Augustus' praises ; cf. Ar. Pax 346 el yap iicyipovr iSelv 
ravrvp iU wore rrjv Tifitpav. Compare Tib. 1. 3. 93, Ov. Pont. 
1. 4. 57. 

21 sqq. One of the noblest images of ancient poetry. It 
loses something, however, through not being consistently carried 
out, Propertius, more suo, changing the metaphor in v. 24. 

22. hie, as P. rightly, explained by ante pedes =Gr. avrou 
inro rotrlv. So in 1. 19. 7 illic Phylacides iucundae coniugis 
heros non potuit caecis immemor esse locis illic is explained 
by caecU locis. ante pedes. Cf. Ov. Am. 2. 13. 24 ipse 
feram ante tuos munera uota pedes. corona, a frequent 
form of offering; cf. Hor. Od. 3. 23. 15 paruos coronantem 
marino rore deos fragilique myrto. 

23. inopes, only here with inf., for which see Boby 1361. 
laudls conscendere carmen, 'to rise to the height of a song 
which represents your merits.' The best paraphrase is that of 
the pseudo-Tibullus (1. c. on v. 5) meritas si carmina laudes de- 
ficiant.. For. the metaphor in conscendere, taken from the in- 
spired mount of Helicon, compare v. 10. 3, 4 magnum iter 

122 jtoees: m.L 

as c en do, sed dot wihi gloria uireif: noniuiiate facili lute 
corona iugo. Perhaps Prop, is thinking of 'Hesiod Opt 657 
tvBa. fi€ to vpwrop \ ty vprjs iir^tjaay aotHijs. 

24. . pauperisms. Alciphron Ep. 3. 35 : * They contributed 
each according to his means or superfluity, one a ram, the 
poor man a cake, the still poorer a lump of frankincense. 9 So 
pseudo-Tib. 4. 1. 7 and 14 nee munera parua respueris...par- 
uaque caelestes pacauit mica. sacris. For this metaphor 
cf. iv. 1. 3. 

25. nondum etiam. Mailer's alteration etenlm is un- 
necessary^ as the omission of a connecting particle need not 
surprise us in our author and nondum etiam is a common phrase 
for * not yet.' Ascraeos. Heliconian and hence poetic (see 
next note). Cf. m. 4. 4 Ascraeum sic habitare nemw. 
fontes, opposed to flumine. « I have not drunk of the fountain- 
head of song. I have merely been dipped in the stream that 
flows from it.* 

26. Permessi. The source of this river is the fountain 
Aganippe on the N.E. of Mount Helicon. It flows past Ascra 
and joins the Holmeus, and the combined streams fall into the 
lake Copais. lault, one of the ways of receiving, inspiration. 
Hesiod. Theog. 5 makes the Muses bathe in Permessus. Amor. 
Of. for the sense n. 1. 3, 4 non haec Calliope non hate mihi 
dictat Apollo; ingenium nobis ipsa puella facit. Meleager 
makes Love melt the wax for the tablets of the poetess Nossis. 

IIL ii. 


It is surprising that this graceful little poem should hare 
been regarded as a fragment. In its miniature perfection it 
reminds us of the best Greek iTtypafifiara, the ancient 'sonnets.' 

It is the beginning of the end. The indifference which it 
professes may be easily hardened into final renunciation. 

1,2. 'Others may write of thee or thou mayst be un- 
known. He may praise thee who would place his seeds in 
barren ground.* 

1. The turn of the verse is imitated by Ov. Her.. 20. 73 
quamlibet accuses et sis irata licebiU The omission of the 

NOTES. III. U. [123 

name with do te increases the emphasis, there being no doubt 
who can be meant. 

2. A proverb, for wa sting one's toil, like ploughing the sand. 
Juv. 7. 49 litus sterili uersamus aratro. 

3 — 6. 'All thy endowments, believe me, shall the black 
4a^of death at last sweep before him in a single bier, and: the 
traveller shall pass thy bones with scorning, nor shall he say 
/'These ashes were once an accomplished maid." ' 

3. munera, ' accomplishments, graces'; cf. i. 2. 4 pert* 
grinU...muneribn8 and note. .lecto, the funeral bier; in. 5. 
5n. tecum. Compare a late inscription (Beines. 18. 23), 
which shews traces of a knowledge of Propertius. 

: " U M. 

Quid sibi uult quaeris tellus congesta uiator t 

ossibus hie uxor miscuit ossa meis 
nobilis Eufronia facilis formosa puella 

docta opulenta pia casta pudica proba. 
fortunam mirare meam; uerum exitus hie est. 
omnia mecum uno composui tumulo. 
~ % nunc et quicquam uotis melioribus opta: 

absumit tecum singula sarcophagus. 

Hermodoro Paragmid et Eufroniae Paragmiae Lib. Caris- 
timxs Hermodorus Praetorius Nomeneulatorposuit. H. M. H. N. S. 

4. auferet atra dies, from Yirg. Aen. 6. 429 quos ab- 
ttulit atra dies et funere mersit acerbo. extremi, 'closing,' 
death the end of all things ; cf. iv. 2. 20 mortis ab extrema 
condidone. .In a literal sense el. 1. 17 n. Fox the threat com* 
pare the fragm. of Sappho Bergk 68 (19) KarOdvoiaa di KcUreai 
vtifftf irora iiviiiMGtiva fftdev foccr* ovre r&r ovff varepor ov yap 
irc&xeis pp65wv rw iic Kieplas, d\\' aspavTjs nip *A18a SSfioit 
<p<HT&<Tei$ jreb* dfiatipw vzkvwv iKV€Tor*iUva. 

5. translbit. Compare rv. 7 (6). 27 andn. 7. 9 n. uiator, 
the tomb being by the road-side; cf. v. 6. 84 carmen... quod 
turrens uector ab urbe legal and ib. v. 4. 

6. dnls hie. N. has haec; and cinis, Mkepuluis in Prop., 
is fern, sometimes, e.g. in Calvus. But Prop, elsewhere has it 
masc. docta puella. Cf. in. 4. 11 and Introd. 

• i A 

y ^V 

124 JSfOTBS. in. iii. 


The subject of this finished little poem is a picture of the 
God of Love, represented in the same way as described by 
Eubulus in the fragment quoted on v. 14. Propertius, Kke 
Eubulus, criticises the truth of the symbolism* bul in quite » 
different spirit. A Terse translation is given in the Introd. 


He was a clever painter who painted the picture of Love as 
a boy (1, 2). He saw the childishness of lovers (3, 4). It was 
a happy thought, too, to add wings to mark the changing caprice 
of love (5 — 8), and a quiver to indicate the pangs that strike 
us unawares and rankle in oar hearts (9 — 12). In my own 
case, Love, yon are still the childish archer ; but where are 
your wings (13 — 16)? Why do you pursue your victim so 
relentlessly f You will kill me in the end, and then who will 
sing of Love and Cynthia (17 — end) ? 

1 — 12. • Whoe'er he was that painted Love as a boy, 
thinkest thou not he had a wondrous hand? First he saw that 
lovers lived in blindness, wasting great blessings on a trifling 
fancy. Not idly too he added the waving wings and drew the 
God flying o'er the human heart ; since, in sooth, we toss on 
waves that rise and &U, and in no place does the breeze with 
us stay steadfast. And rightly his hand is armed with barbed 
arrows, and a Gnosian quiver mils- from either shoulder; 
since he strikes before that from our stronghold we descry the 
foe, and none depart unpoisoned from that wound.' 

1. Qulcumque Ule fait, of people whose existence we infer 
from their works. Gf. m. 31 (25). 27 quicumque menses* 
repperit uuas, Tib. 1. 10. 1 quit fait horrendos primus qui pro- 
tulit eases t quamferm «t uereferreut iUefuit. Prop, probably 
has before him a passage of the comic poet Eubulus quoted on 
v. 14. puerum, predicatively. In earlier art he is repre- 
sented as an tjnjpos or youth. 

2. mlras manus, 'an inspired touch,' as we might say. 

3. hie. m. 23. 12 n. sine sensu=ayeu^ifrMt, to five 
in insensibility, without perceiving obvious facts; distinct 

NOTES. III. ill 125 

from sine menu which is to live without a guiding purpose. 
Oic. Phil 2. 28. 66 quamuis enim sine mente, sine sensu sis, 
tcmen et te et tua et tuos nosti. Compare Theocr. 10. 19 rv<p\6s 
& ouk avrbs 6 IIXoDrof aXXd kclI w<pp6vTi<TTos 'Epun. The hoy's 
tieedlees life which the poet means is well given by Pers. S. 
61, 62 an passim sequeris coruos testaque lutoque securus quo 
pesferat atque ex tempore uiuis t 

4. leuibus curls, through a 'worthless attachment'; not, 
as P., "prae negligentia" or perhaps 'with indifference.' Love 
is called cura, from the care spent on a beloved object (cf. 
1. 11. 21, 22), and the anxieties it gives rise to (i. 5. 10 cura* 
rum milia quanta dabit). In Propertius the latter sense pre- 
dominates, bona, wealth, fame, <fec, not 'goods' alone as 
P. apparently takes it. perire. For this, which is virtually. 
a change to the passive, perdi being not found (except once in 
Horace and in part.), cf. Lucan 10. 347 ut colla ferire Caesaris 
et socerum iungi tibi, Magne, iuberet, 

5. non frustra, ov pArty, ovk irot=merito v. 9. Tib. 1.5. 
71 non frustra quidam iam nunc in limine perstat, i.e. 'it 
means something that/ <ftc. uentosas, i.e. light and moving 
quickly, from Virgil, Aen, 12. 848 uentosasque addidit 
alas. Ov. Am. 2. 9. 49 tu leuis es multoque tuis uentosior 
alls imitates Prop. There is of course an allusion to its 
metaphorical sense of 'fickle.' 

6. fecit, 'represented,' as €TTOI€l. Aen. 8. 630 fecerat et 
uiridi fetam Mauortis in antro procubuisse lupam. humano 
corde, abl. of place as in Virgil ills uolat campis, as v. 15 
shews. In the picture he was probably represented flying from 
heart to heart; but Prop, has not made this clear, though 
Moschufl has 2. 17 koX vrepfeis wj Spins i<plirrarai SKKop ir 
d\Ktp wipas i}& yvraucat, irl <jr\6.yx yoii fe KdSrjrcu. 

7. alterna. This word is used for anything which shews 
two contrasting phenomena alternately. Here it denotes the up 
and down motion of the waves ; in i. 9. 24 the alternate move- 
ment of the driver's hand. So in in. 22. 34 (18. 54) alter* 
nante uorans uasta Charybdis aqua, and in Virg. Aen. 11.426 
mult08 alterna reuisens lusit et in solido rursus Fortuna loca- 
uit, ' the tide of fortune,' now ebbing, now flowing, iactamur, 
we lovers, by the winds which can raise or lull the sea. 

8. nostra aura, probably the breeze that bears us, though 
it may= 'favourable to us.' Cf. Ov. B. A. 14 gaudeat et uento 
nauiget iUe suo. The metaphor aura follows up and explains 

126 KOTES. III. iii. 

uentosas, v. 5. non ullis lods, not ' in no quarter? an un- 
paralleled use of locus, but 'wherever we are.' 

9« et merlto = non frustra v. 5. hamatis, ' barbed arrows.* 
Compare Pliny N. H. 16. 86. 65. 109: 'The nations of the 
East •conduct their wars with ieeds to which they fix points 
formidable from a barb which cannot be drawn from the 
wound.' They were then a sort of ancient ' explosive bullet' 
See the drawing in Rich Diet. s. v. Sagitta. 

10. Gnosla, a learned epithet, Cretan archers being famous, 
utroque. P.'s explanation of this is the best. 'The quiver 
when not in use hung at the back from both shoulders ; when 
used it was pulled to one side, and so was suspended from the 
opposite Bhoulder. In this case Love holds the barbed arrow 
ready in his hand (v. 9), because (quoniam) he aims instanta- 
neously... and does not wait to draw the arrow from the quiver.' 
Comp. v. 6. 40 et fauet ex umeris hoc onus omne meis. iacet, 
not Sot pendet, but of the place of the quiver low down the 
back, Rich Diet. s. v. pharetratus. So i. 11. 2 qua iaeet 
Herculeu semita litoribus, * the path stretches low.' 

11. tuti, from our place of safety, from our stronghold. 
The adj. brings out with force that we are safe one moment 
and lost the next. 

12. ex illo uolnere, after having been wounded by them ; 
cf. el. 5. 89 n. sanus, cf. 1. 1. 2, 26 notes. abit, euadit, 
* gets off.' 

13 — end. 'With me still stay the darts, the boyish, sem- 
blance stays. Yet surely he has lost his wings. Since, alas, 
he flies forth nowhere from my breast and wages in my blood 
unceasing war. What delight is it to thee to dwell in A dry 
heart? If thou hast shame, take thy shafts to some other 
mark. Better to thrill fresh victims with thy poison. It is 
not I, but my phantom shade that feels thy strokes. And 
if thou destroy it, who will there be to sing my themes, (this 
slight Muse of mine is great glory to thee,) to sing of ray 
maiden's head, her fingers and dark eyes, and now daintily her 
feet are wont to move ?' 

13. In ma, ' in my case,' cf. Introduction* tela manent. 
I am as deep struck and as foolish as any. Compare Mosch. 
1. c t6£op {gee fidXa pcu6r...Kal xpv<rew repl wurra fapirpu*' 
Crffolc b* ivrl roi wucpcl xdXafioi rots woXXdxc KOfifte rirpcforct. 
Imago, Hor. & 2. 3. 320 haec a te non multum abludit imago. 

XOTJBS. HI. iiL 127 

14^ Eubulus ap. Ath. 13. 562 c rls %v 6 ypd\f/as rpQrot 
dp drBpwrluv vj KripoxXaffTrpas *E/>«0' vtrbr repot ; a* oi>^. 
T?5« xX^r x e ^<W* ypdfew, d\\' i?f aweipos twv rp&rw t<w tow 
deov' i<rrlv ydp oib-e kou<£ot o(fre faStos diraXKay^vai ry <p4povri 
rrjv vbaov, /3a/>i>? & /c<yu£j?' reus ap ovv £x ot vrrepd tojouto wpay/Aa ; 
hypos el ical <j>7j<rl rts, 

15. enolat. Gf. Meleag. Anth. Gr. 5. 212 w m-a*©* aw* *al 
ror* i<f>lrra<r9at fiev "J&pwres otdar, airoicTrjvai 8* oi>b* o<ro» 
Urxfere* nusquam, ' nowhither,' for which Lat. has no word* 
Ct Ter. Ad. 2. 2. 88 nusquam abeo, Cic. Att, 7. 3. 11, De Or. 
1. 97 ; Livy 29. 17. 8, &c. 

16. adslduus. 'For the adj. of. v. 3. 22 aeternusque tuam 
paicat, aselle, famem. meo sanguine, abl. of attendant cir- 
cumstances, 'my blood accompanying.' See Introduction. 
Compare Meleager Anth. Gr. 5. 215 vol yap 8r) rd <ra r6$a rd 
p>ij fcdidayfxiva pdXkeiv dWov, del 5* iir tfiol vrrivd ^iovra fftXri, 

17. sleds, 'drained of blood/ and therefore unable to 
afford you more sport. habltare, Mrp-ai Mosch. 1. 0. Cf, 
Juv. 14. 267, 268 Corycia semper qui puppe moraris atque 
habit as, ' nay, who live there.' 

18. si pudor est, if you have any better feelings (1. 9. 33). 
So in Greek alSus is pity. tralce means mainly ' carry across,} 
transport,' cf. v. 4. 78 traicit immundos ebria turba pedes, &c; 
bat there is a subsidiary sense of 'shooting/ the primary, 
meaning with telum; cf. Caes. B. Civ. 8. 19. 1. Comp. Meleag. 
Anth. Gr. 5. 179 d\V Wt, twictriirc, Xa/3wp tf M KovQa HdiXa 
iicreraffov revival els iripovs uripvyas and Archias Anth.' 
Gr. 5. 98 'OirXtfet/, Kfapt, ro£a xcd ek <jkqttqv yavxot i\Bk 
dXXoy iyw ydp ex<# TpatfMTos ov&e r&wov* . 

19. intactos, cf. 1. 1. 2n. temptare, 'thrill/ oftfce, 
shooting of pain; cf. 1. 4. 25 non ullo grauius iemptatur 
Cynthia damno. Contrast Virg. Aen. 1. 502 Latonae taciturn 
pertempiant gaudia pectus, of pleasure coursing through the 

20. tenuis umbra mea. I am dead (pseudo-Tib. 3. 
2. 9 ergo ego cum tenuemjuero mutatus in umbram), and 
you are outraging the dead (Ov. Tr. 8. 11. 25 quid inanem 
proterU umbram 1 quid cinerem saxis bustaque nostra petis 1 cf. ; 
Prop, n, 8. 19, 20). This idea which Ovid more suo has vul- 
garized, Am. 3. 7. 16 nee satis ixactumst .corpus an umbra 
forem, is 'found elsewhere in ancient compositions, e.g. Cic. 

128. VOTES. DX iiL 

Quint. Fr. 8. 1 effigiem quondam epirantie mortui; andalao 
in modern writing: comp. Ariosto 23. 128 

Non son, non $on* io quel che* pajo in viso : 
Quel ch' era Orlando e morto ed e sotterra. 
La sua donna ingratissima Vha uecUo ; 
SI mancando dife, gli hafatto guerra. 
Io ton lo tpirto suo da lui diviso, 
Che in quetto inferno tormentandoti erra. 

Compare also the terrible lines of Shelley (Lament) 

'On the living grave I bear 
Scatter them without a tear.' 

uapulat, a word from common life, such as Propertius is not 
afraid to introduce. Of . Introduction. This expression is curi- 
ously like that in Plaut. Fers. 2. 4. 26 abigis facile; nam unbn 
me a iam intut uapulat, where it = 'I in my absence.' There 
is of oourse an allusion. to the poet's attenuated form; cf. 1. 5. 
22. umbra mea. For the rhythm see Introduction. 

21. quam si perulderis. The turn of the thought in 
Meleager Anth. Gr. 5. 215 is different but instructive, el al 
ifik rrefrrouf, Xel^u ^wevm 1 M rtipffy ypdfipar* "Bptrof •/», 
leire, /uaupovliir* talla, such as mine. 

22. leuis, not quite so strong as in v. 4. gloria magna. 
Of. lout in. 1. 6 n. 

23. caput, as shapely and covered with golden hair, n. % 
5 and Introduction, digltos, as longi (ib.) and eburni il L9. 
nigra, a beauty. Hor. Od. 1. 32. 11 Lycum nigris oculii 
nigroque erine decorum, 

24. molllter Ire. Lovers, male and female, affected a be- 
coming walk. Cf. n. 4. 5 nequiquam perfuea meit unguentt 
capillit ibat et expenso planta morata gradu, and Anth 
Gr. 9. 189 Aeafilies aflpa voowr ptguaJf t\ur<r6fi€*au 

UL v. 


Thib somewhat gloomy poem begins with the poet's direc- 
tions to Cynthia as to how he should be buried, and covlnfe 

with melsiwrholy leflettioM on the uncertainty of hfeaodtttf 
finality of death, and with entreaties to Cynthia to 
faithful to him after his death. 

NOTES. III. y. 129 

In the Mss. it is attached to the preceding poem, ni. 4; 
but I cannot believe that two poems in such, different strains 
(for in. 4 is gay and even trifling) can have been originally one, 
even with the assumption of a hiatus, still less (with P.) that 
this poem is a direct inference (igitur) from the former. 



When death comes, Cynthia, bury me without pomp. I will have 
no splendid funeral ; but poetry (9, 10) and love must be there. 
Thou wilt be there, Cynthia, to pay the last rites (11 — 18) and 
write the epitaph— the epitaph that will live for ever (19 — 22). 
And when thou diest, my love, be buried by my side, and till 
the hour comes, do not slight me in the grave: for even my 
dust can feel (23—26). 

Yet oh ! that I had died in my oradle. What is the value 
of a life so precarious (27 — 29)? Even Nestor died at last, 
happy had he died sooner (30—34). But, Cynthia, thou wilt 
mourn me as Venus mourned Adonis (35--40). Yet thou wilt 
mourn in vain (41, 42). 

1, 2. ' So then against the hour when death shall close my 
eyes, hear what ordering of my burial thou must keep.' 

1. Compare n. 1. 71 quandocumque igitur uitam mea 
fata reposcent. 

2. acta, ' instructions.' This is a curious use here, as the 
acta are certainly agenda. However Caesar's, or rather Antony's, 
acta shew the word may mean 'appointments': and Propertius 
has a liking for this indefinite use of the past participle ; cf. 
1. 1. 19 n. 

3 — 10. ' Then let no funeral pageant march for me with 
its long file of masks ; let no trumpet be idly plaintive for my 
fate ; let no bier with ivory foot be draped for me then, nor let 
me be laid in death on cushions of an Attalus. Absent be the 
line of perfume-laden chargers; present the mean rites of a 
common burial. Large, large enough for me is the procession, 
if three books 'form it, which greatest of all gifts I will carry to 

3. mea, 'in my case.' pompa, the public procession to 
the place of burning. Cf. Tac. Ann. 2. 13 (of Germanicus) 
Junu* sine imaginibus et pompa per laudes ac memoriam 
uirtutum celebre fuit. longs, imagine. Hertz berg remarks 
that there is a tendency in Latin to confuse words of number 

p. p. 9 

130 NOTES. III. v. 

with those of size. This is especially the case with things in 
the same line, as here. So Ov. M. 4. 80 longoque for amine 
buxus, long a dies, 'a long succession of days.' Cf. i. 5. 10 n. 
The same tendency is seen in the collective sing, imagine, for 
which cf. Sil. Ital 10. 567. spatietur, to be taken literally. 
At the funeral of any one who had held curule offices the wax 
masks representing his ancestors who had been similarly dis- 
tinguished were taken out of their cases and worn by persons 
who walked in front of the bier in a similar costume, with the 
same insignia as had belonged to the personages they repre- 
sented during their lives ; Rich s. v. imago. 

4. tuba, 'the note of the trumpet* (n. 7. 12), which was 
included in the idea trumpet. For a similar brevity cf. maims, 
4 a motion of the hand,' i. 9. 24 n., and see Potts Lat. Prose, 
p. 32. It is harsh here, as the identification of tuba with 
querela forces us to think of only one side of it, the sound. 
nana, because unavailing (v. 41), and perhaps also as super- 
fluous (superuaeuus Hor.), as the poet is really immortal. Com- 
pare the allegorical language of Hor. Od. 2. 20 and especially 
v. 21 absint inani funere naeniae, and the copy by the author of 
Consol. Liv. 76 ultima sit fati haee summa querela mei. fati. 
44 For the gen. of. Curio ap. Cic. Fam. 2. 16. 1 querelam tem- 
porum. A comma should be put after sit 'nor let there be 
a trumpet'; then the apposition is no harsher than many 
others in Propertius and elsewhere." J. S. R. 

5. micro, the descriptive abl. (Roby 1232], the foot or 
pedestal of the lectus (fimebris) or bier on which the corpse 
lay in state and was carried to the pyre. The drapery (strata) 
would be laid on it so as to shew the ivory foot. For a drawing 
see Bich Diet. s. v. lectus (6). 

6. nixa In, a rare construction, but of. it. 3 (4). 3. Atta- 
lico, 'gold-embroidered.' For Attalw, last king of Pergamus, 
aurum uestibus intexereinuenit, Plin. N. H. 8. 48. 74. 196; cf. rv. 
18. 19 Attalicae uestes. And so usually ; though it sometimes 
means 'rich, 1 from his proverbial wealth, bequeathed by him 
to the Roman people. mors mea, almost =' my corse. 1 See 
Introduction. Hence the bier is called mortifero lecto iv. 

12 (13). 17. 

7. dealt, 'let it be missed,' be conspicuous for its absence. 
Odoriferls, holding perfumes and spices to be thrown on to the 
pyre. landbus ordo, nearly = lancium ordo as m. 30 (24). 

13 creber platanis surgentibus ordo seems to shew ; see Intro- 

NOTES. III. ▼. 131 

8. plebel paruae funeris exequiae. Contrast this with 
the imitation in Ov. Tr. 3. 5. 40 praeclarique docent funeri$ 
exequiae, Consol. Liv. 202. exequiae is literally the 'foUovo- 
ing out of the funeral, the funeral ceremonial.' For the pie- 
beiumfunus see Becker Gall. 509 sqq. 

9. For. this much-disputed line see Introduction. For 
est followed by Bint see ii. 6. 16 n. 

10. dona. Propertius is probably thinking of the branch 
that Aeneas takes to Persephone, Yirg. Aen. 6. 142. 

11—22. * But thou wilt follow with bare breast torn, nor 
wilt thou be wearied with crying my name, and thou wilt lay 
the last kiss on the poor cold lips when the full onyx casket 
yields its Syrian offering. Then when the glow from beneath 
has turned me to ashes, let but the humblest crock receive my 
remains, and over the narrow spot let a bay tree too be planted 
to cover with its shade the place of the quenched pyre. And 
let there be two lines above it : 

The grisly dust ye tread above 
Once lived the bondsman of one love. 

And this my tomb's renown shall become as far-famed as was of 
old the bloodstained grave of Phthia's hero.' 

11. sequerls, the regular word. Cf. exequiae. Ter. Andr. 
1. 1. 102 funus interim procedit, sequimur. For the fut. 
Bee Roby 1589. 

12. lassa nocare. We expect uocando. For the inf. cf. el. 
7 (6). 46 lassa foret crines soluere Roma tuos. It is only found 
in Propertius; but Plautus and Terence have defessus with inf., 
and Stat. Silv. 5. 1. 35 fatisco. The inf. expresses the cause 
of the weariness (cf. Plant. Trin. 76 ut te uidere audireque 
aegroti stent 'sick of seeing'), not the result which is arrested 
by it. Ariosto imitates Propertius 24. 86 

Ne alle guance ne al petto si perdona 
Che V uno e V altro non percota e fragna, 
E straccia a torto V auree crespe chiome, 
Chiamando 8 em pre in van Vamato nome. 

13. pones. Observe the gentleness of this and the tender- 
ness of the dimin. labellls. Compare the imitation in Stat. 
Theb. 2. 355. 

14. Syrio, because shipped from Antioch (see i. 2. 3, n.). 
Cf. Theocr. 15. 114 Ivplta fxtpw. munere, explained by 
dabitur, the 'offering' of ointment poured on the burning 


132 NOTES. III. v. 

pyre. It might mean ' produce * of Syria, and so i. 2. 4 q.T. 
might be explained. Of course the abl. goes with plenu. 
onyx, properly a sort of marble of the colour of the human nail 
(ovvt), then a vessel made from it ; Plin. N. H. 8. 2 onyx fac- 
tum aliquid ex onyche ut uas unguentarium poUmum. 

15. suppositus, i.e. lighted from below, Cf. v. 11. 9 subdita 
nostrum detraheret lecto fax inimica caput, 

16. Manes, the remains or ashes are confused with the 
ghost. Cf. Pers. 1. 38 nunc non e Manibus Mis nascentw 
uiolae ? = Hamlet 'And from her fair and unpolluted flesh May 
violets spring/ Cf. v. 11. 8 n. testa, the cinerary urn of 
baked clay. 

17. Iannis, not 'the cypress funeraU* the inuisa ci- 
pressus of Hor. Od. 2. 14. 23, but the bays of poetic immortality. 
bnsto, properly (1) the (lighted or) burnt-out pyre, then 
(2) the place of burning, finally (3) the tomb contiguous to 
the place of burning. For (1) see Lucr. 3. 906 horrifico tint- 
factum te prope bus to, which also illustrates cinerem me ft- 
cerit v. 15 and horrida puluis v. 19 (but see Mr Monro'* 
note) ; (2) as here, and cf. Festus (Paul.), s. v., bustum proprir 
dicitur locus in quo mortuus est combustus et sepultus; (3) i» 
common. Kich Diet. s. v. should be read. exiguo, every- 
thing is to be on a small scale, 

18. quae is not in apposition to umbra, but agrees with 
it. For this use of umbra Hertzb. quotes V. Eel. 9. 20 utruti 
fontes inducer et umbra. extlncti funeris, the embers burnt 
out and slaked by pouring wine and milk on them. See Becker 
Gall. p. 519 and Virgil Aen. 6. 226, Stat. Silv. 2. 6. 90 tibi 
Setia canes restinxit cineres quoted there, funeris, for which 
see v. 11. 3, is softened down by Ovid F. 5. 425 extincto cineri 
sua dona ferebant. Note that here and in rv. 15 (16). 25 he 
seems to speak of his bones being interred (humari), not con- 
signed to a family sepulcrum (sepeliri). Compare iv. 6 (7). 9, 
10 and v. 11. 8. 

19. duo uersus. The lines are incomplete, an inattention 
to detail of which the polished Ovid would not have been 
guilty. See for example Her. 2 fin., 7 fin. horrida, * repul- 
sive ' not only in its appearance, but from its associations. Cf. 
horrifico Lucr. 1. c. on v. 17. puluis, 'ashes/ as in 1. 19.6. 
Cf. our ' dust.' For the fern. cf. i. 22. 6. 

20. unius, emphatic Propertius often proclaims his fide- 
lity. There is a contrast rather implied (cf. iacet) than ex- 

NOTES. Ill v. 133 

pressed between the life of love and the unsightly reliques of 

21. haec, resulting from this. For the 'disjunctive' ex- 
pression notescet fama see n. 7. 17 meruit mea gloria 
no men and Introduction. 

22. fuerant, as if nota erunt had preceded. Of. Horn. Od. 
7.69 <& Kelpy icepl Krjpi TerlfAnrat re kcu tariv. The idea 
that notescet is formed from esco (ero) is absurd ; both the stems 
contain the same inceptive suffix sco. For the pluperf. see 
Introduction. Phthli uiri, Achilles, to whose Manes Polyxena 
was sacrificed, cf. iv. 1. 26 Haemonio uiro, 

23 — 26. 'Thou too whene'er at last thou oomest to thy 
doom — forget not this journey — come with white hair to the 
stones that speak of the dead. Beware meanwhile thou slight 
me in the grave; truth to tell there is feeling in a lover's dust' 

23. si quando, 'whensoever/ does not express doubt, but 
puts the inevitable prospect as gently as possible. Cf. Cat. 
14. 17 si luxerit (Ellis). The turn is Propertian (cf. rv. 7 (8). 
25 and Introduction), and harmonizes with the context, which 
carefully avoids the word 'death.' In uenies ad fata again 
dying is just hinted and no more. The expression is curious; 
it is probably suggested by ad lapldes uenl, which is a transla- 
tion of Callim. Hymn. Art. 131 4tI erjua tyxovrai, 

24. hoc Iter, mortis iteriv. 7. 2. cana uenl contains 
a wish that Cynthia may live to ripe old age (cana: cf. si 
quando), and a request that she be buried by her lover, hence 
the imper. (This is better than explaining it as a strong wish 
as in haue, uale, though this is quite possible. See i. 8. 19.) 
Cf. ni. 19 (16) fin. uix uenit, extremo qui leg at ossa die. t tibi 
no8 erimus: sed iu potius pre cor ut me demissis pi an gas 
pectora nuda comis. lapldes memores , ( 1) ' the recording stone, ' 
the sepulchre which keeps alive my recollection. Comp. Val. 
El. 4. 314 pic et memori noscere sepulchro, Ov. M. 8. 745 
memores tabeUae {/xv^fiov^ 8s\toi). Thus it = Gr. fwrjua, yarr^ 
lulov. (2) We may also less probably explain it 'the stones 
that think of thee still,' like conscia terra. For the confusion 
cf. v. 16 n. 

26. ad uerum perhaps means (1) ' in the direction of the 
truth or reality,' the vagueness of the expression denoting the 
indistinctness of the feeling : sapit is used with ad by Plautus, 
in the sense of possessing intelligence, e.g. Pers. 1. 3. 28 sap i* 
muUum ad Genium. (2) We may also take it adverbially si 
od uerum spectas, or ' so as to attain to the truth.' Compare 

134 NOTES. . IIL v. 

ad fid em Livy 3. 5. 12 difficile ad fid em est quot pugnaat- 
rint ceciderintue exacto affirmare numero, Censorinus de did nat 
19. 2 hoc tempos quot dierum e$set ad certum nondum astrologt 
teperire potuerunU So in Greek Thuc. 3. 64. 6 ££rj\iyx$ii is to 
d\ri$4s. This gives an easier construction, but a weaker sense. 
Bat it is, I believe, what Propertius intended. Compare Anth. 
Or. 9. 460 el dXrfdeiaiaiv (a still stranger use) ol red- 
rytcdres at<r$7j<riv etxov k.t.X. consda must mean 

'sharing a secret, 1 i.e. the lover's secret of a mutual pas- 
sion. The sense of 'sympathy' is foreign to the word, and 
to take it with sapit is weak in the extreme. Just as cognate* 
rogos, iv. 7. 10, means ' his kinsmen's ashes, his kinsmen as 
ashes,' so here consda terra means ' a lover's dust.' For the 
general sense cf. Gray's Elegy, 'E'en in our ashes live their 
wonted fires.' terra. Gf. Oic. Tusc. 3. 25. 59 reddendatt 
terrae terra from Euripides Hypsipyle Fr. 757. So in Eng. 
e.g. Shaksp. Jul. Caes. in. 1. 254 '0 pardon me, thou piece of 
bleeding earth. ' aaplt, of conscious feeling =8entit, cf. v. 6. 
93 gamte, Crosse, nigras si quid sapis inter harenas, and an 
inscription in Wilmann's Inscript. Lat. no. 607 f. set quic- 
quam sapiunt inferi. It is generally used of intelligent 

27 — 34. 'And oh that any of the sister three had in my 
infant cradle bid me resign my life! For why should I guard 
this, breath with its precarious span? After three ages men 
saw Nestor's ashes. But if on Ilium's ramparts the Gallic 
soldier had cut short the destined years of his long old age, he 
had not seen the form of Antilochus laid in the earth or cried 
'Ah, Death, why dost thou come so late to me?" 

27. Here a fresh strain of melancholy reflection begins, 
returning in verse 35 to the former subject. prlmls cnnif, 
* which come at the beginning'; so Ov. M. 3. 313, It is the 
opposite of extremus in. 2. 4 n. 

28. quaeuls, in a sort of sick desperation which, it is 
true, is not appropriately expressed. de tribus una oarer, 
copied by Ovid lb. 240, Martial 9. 77 and the forger of the 
Consol. Liv. 243. Similar phrases are frequent, cf . Hot. vtu 
de multis. The 'weird sisters,' the Parcae, are mearit. 

29. nam. Compare the Introduction. quo, 'for what 
good?' dublae horae. For the expression cf. Hor. Ep. 1. 
18. 110 neujiuitem dubiae spe pendulus horae. For the gen. 
cf. Introduction. P. apparently takes it as dat. and referring 
to the hour of death, which will hardly stand. 

NOTES. Ill r. 135 

30. A good example of how simplicity and vagueness may 
ran together. port trla laeela. Naevius ap. Gell. 19. 7. 18 
calls him trisaeclisenex. The sentiment forms the point of 
two epigrams in the Greek Anthology 9. 112 icai NArr«/> 8* 
rj\v0€v els *Aifir)v (Antipater) and 7* 157 i$avtv x^ rpiyiputv 

31. col si longaeuae. The mss. have auis tarn longae- 
uae, a conniption owing to cui si being written as one word, 
and tarn inserted for the metre's sake. The cui is against 
Hertzberg's reading cui tarn longaeuae, as the omission of si 
in conditional sentences seems only found where they are de- 
tached from the rest of the context ; see the exx. in Boby 1552. 
longaeuae senectae is supported by longaeuus sen ex Ov. 
Her. 5. 38, longaeua uetustas Mart. (?) Bpect. 5. 8. 

32. Galileos. This, the MS. reading, has been altered by 
the editors with one consent. And yet I am confident that, 
if not right, it is yet nearer what is than any of their con- 
jectures. A proper name is required by the contrast to Iliads; 
see Introduction. It is not certain who is the miles. It may 
be either (1) Hector, see II. 8. 80 sqq. ; or (2) Memnon, who 
killed Antilochus as he was defending his father, Quint. Smyrn. 
2. 244 sqq. If (1) is the reference, Oallicus may be defended, 
as the TdkXos was a river in Phrygia, Herodian 1. 11. 2 Ac, and 
Hector may have been connected with it in some legend. If 
(2) is the reference, it is probably corrupt, though I have 
nothing at present to propose. aggeribus, 'lines of defence.' 
Cf. i. 21. 2 n. 

33. 34. Antilocni. Compare the imitation in Juv. 10. 250 
oro parumper attendas quantum de legibus ipse queratur Fatorum 
tt nimvo de stamine, cum uidet acris Antilochi barbam ardent em, 
cum quaerit ab omni, quisquis adest, socio cur haec in tempora 
duret, quod J 'acinus dignum tarn longo admi&erit aeuo. corpus = 
' that fair but lifeless form.' humari, the mss. reading. The 
conjecture humati is tempting, as providing Propertius' favourite 
use of the part, and giving balance to the verse ; but it is not 
necessary, uidisset * * diceret. Tbe change of tense may be 
intentional. The pluperf. giving the one shuddering glance, 
the imperf. the repeated uncontrollable cries. But see the In- 
troduction, mini, m. 29. 1 n. 

35 — end. 'Yet thou — thou wilt sometimes weep for thy lost 
friend. Duty bids us always love the lover past away. She 
bears me witness whose Adonis, fair as snow, the cruel boar 
gored as he hunted on Idalia's height. There, as men tell, 
l&y the beauteous youth in the swamps, thither thou didst go, 

136 NOTES, III. xxi. 

Venus, with loose streaming hair. Bat vainly, Cynthia, wilt 
thou call the dumb dead back again* For what voice can 
there come from the fragments of my bones?' 

35. flebls, a request ; not, as P., a propheqf. 

36. P.'s translation ('It is usual to love when too late, 1 
fas est i.e. mos hominum) is quite wrong. fas est means 'it 
is permitted by religion,' and ulro8=' lovers,* as in v. 5. 29 
and elsewhere. praeteritos, a very rare but intelligible use. 
Cf. our 'past away,' and Pind. N. 6. 32 irapoixon&iav avlpvr 
and Gr. olxfawoi. So ire is 'to die' v. 7. 23 and in Lucr. 
For the line compare the imitation in Yal. Fl. 7. 208 fas hine 
tniki Manes dilexisse uiri, 

37. cut, mbs. qui, which Mr Palmer defends, comparing 
Ov. (?) Her. 20. 103 testis erit Calydonis aper. niueum, Bion 
1. 10 rd 84 ol fU\av cf/fercu aZ/xa x L0V ^ ai *<**"<* eapxdt. 

39. illls paludibus, so. Jdaliis. For this use of the pron. 
cf. h. 1. 66 una meos quoniam praedatast femina sennu, ex hac 
ducentur funera nostra domo. For the abl. cf . i. 14. 1 abiectus 
Tiberina molliter unda. formosum iaculsse. For the 
change of case compare Lucr. 3. 592 labefacta uidetur tn» 
anima ac toto solid de corpore men t em and Ov. Am. 2. 17. 15 
sqq. The change of person makes the construction harsher. 
The picture is from Bion 1. 7 /ceirai xa\bs "Adwm tv tipcat 
fiypbv 666vti, \€Uk6p wphv 656vti tvtcIs. 

40. eflusa coma. Again borrowed, as indeed is shewn by 
the use of dicerls, Bion 1. 20 a 6' 'A<ppobha Xvcafitwa tXo- 
Kafudas am $pvfx<M d\d\rp-ai. 

41 goes with v. 35. Manes =o«*a vi 42; cf. v. 16. re- 
uocabis. Contrast in. 19 (23). 15. 

42. nam elucidates mutos. minuta, the bones now 

reduced to a powder. Columella 6 177 has sal minute tritus, 
'pounded small.' 

III. xxi. 


Thbbe is no doubt that the dream which Propertius relates 
in this poem was a real occurrence. Its vividness and truth 
would be sufficient to shew us this; and if we wanted more 
assurance, we could compare Ovid's business-like composition, 

NOTES. III. xxl 137 

Am. 3. 5, which will also illustrate the difference between an 
inspired and a professional poet. 

1— & 'I saw thee in my dreams, my life, thy bark all 
shattered, move wearied hands through the Ionian surge, con- 
fessing all the lies that thou hadst wronged me with, and at 
last all powerless to lift thy tresses under their watery load, 
like Helle, tossed on the purple waves, her whom the golden 
ram bore on its soft fleece. 1 

1. In somnls. " So in prose also, not in somniis." J. S. E. 

2. Ionlo, through which she would sail on the voyage con- 
templated in i. 8. This, coupled with v. 3, suggests that the 
poet thought of the shipwreck as the punishment of Cynthia's 
perfidy, though with rare delicacy he has suppressed the 
thought. rare, 'sea spray.* Cf. Yirg. G. 4. 431 exultant 
late rorem dispersit amarum. So Eur. Iph. T. 256 4va\la 
5p6(r<i>. (Compare ros marinus, rosemary.) ducere, 'draw 
through the water'; Ov. M. 4. 353 alternaque bracchia due ens 
in liquidi* translucet aquis. 

3. fueras mentita. For the pluperf. comp. Introduction. 

4. umore, 'water' as always in Propertius, cf. v. 11. 
24 n. posse, v. Introduction. 

5. qnalem, a Greek attraction as in Od. 9. 322 to fxtv 
ififies iia/cofiep elaopdwret 6<j<jov 0* larov yifof, Virg. Aen. 11. 
68 hie iuuenem sublimem stramine ponunt qualem uirgineo de- 
nies sum pollice f lor em. The agent of the attraction here is 
the agltatam, which would naturally refer to Cynthia, but is 
put in the relative sentence as it is applicable to Helle also, 
purpureis, i.e. roughened and darkened by the storm. 

6. What Ovid (or an Ovidian) can do with a passage of 
Prop, we see by comparing Her. 18. 141 — 144 et satis amissa 
locus est infamis ab Helle utque mihi parcat crimine 
nomen habet. inuideo Phryxo quern p*r freta tristia tutum 
aurea lanigero uellere uexit ouis. tergore, the skin with 
the hair or wool on it. So in Manilius' imitation 4. 5. 18 
(JPhryxum) Colchida tergore uexit. ouis includes 'rams.' 
It is masculine. in Varro ap. Non. 216. 23. 

7— -10. ' How feared I at the thought that the sea might 
bear thy name and the sailor weep while gliding through waters 
called from thee ! What did I then undertake to Neptune, to 
Castor and his brother, to thee, Leucothoe, a goddess now ! ' 

138 NOTES. Ill xxi. 

8. atque. There is only one other passage (t; % 59 
where Propertius leaves atque without elision. The editors 
have altered it here (unnecessarily and inconsistently) to 
teque. tna, the emphatic word of the sentence. UTwnw 
i. 20. 19 n. fleret, through thinking of Cynthia's fate: cer- 
tainly a groundless apprehension. But perhaps we most set 
it down to Propertius somnians rather than to Propertius 

9. cum Castors fratri, an example of a word denoting 
relationship referring to a person in a subordinate position in 
the sentence. Of. Pind. N. 3. 10 &px* 5* ovpavod xo\w€+4\a 
Kpeovri BvyoLTep Soxifiov vfivov, 'his daughter thou.' 

10. except We might have expected suscepi, as the poet 
is speaking of vows, uota. But the sense is that Propertius 
* undertook to do' what they should command. Gf. Sen. H. F. 
42 foetus imperia excipit. lam, 'by this time.' Of. m. 26. 
15. (20. 61) diuae nunc, ante iuuencae, and Stat. Achill. 1. 
24 qua condita ponto fuetibus inuisU iam Nereie imperat 
Helle. Leucothoe, Ino. Of. in. 24 (20). 19, 20 Ino etiam 
prima Thebis aetate fugatast. hanc mUer implorat nauita Leu- 
cothoen. This makes iam clearer. Her troubles are over, and 
she is a goddess at last. The mention of Leucothoe suggests 
Vv. 13-16. 

11 — 16. 'And thou, scarce raising thy finger-tips from the 
flood, didst call my name ere dying again and again. Had 
Glaucus chanced to see thy eves, thou wouldest have become 
the nymph of the Ionian sea, and the Nereids for envy would 
be crying against thee, Nesaee the fair and the blue-haired 

11. primas, * tip '; cf. Catullus 2. 3 primum digitem. 
But Val. Fl. 1. 293, changing the point of view, has extre- 
masque manw spanosque per aequora crines. extoUens, 
'raising dear.' 

12. Cf. iv. 7. 18. 

13. ocellos. For Cynthia's beauty see Introduction. 

14. puella, 'nymph.' Cf. rv. 7. 67, Penng. Yen. 54 
ruris hie erunt puellae uel puellae montium. 8o wvpfq. 

15. ob Invidiam. Some good mbs. have prae tmddta, a 
Propertian rhythm, but ob is his word to denote a motive, ag. 
u. 9. 49 oft regno. In a slightly different sense Virg. Aen. 
10. 852 has pulsut ob inuidiam lolio sceptrtiqtte patends. 

NOTES. III. xxiii. 139 

increpitarent, with dot. ; compare Val. Max. 3. 3. 2 increpitans 
AgrigentinU ignauitatem (when there is an ace. of the thing). 

16. caerula. Cf. i. 9. 15 caemla mater (of Thetis). The 
nymphs of the seas are caeruleae, just as the goddess of the 
yellow corn isflaua Ceres. 

17 — 20. * But I saw a dolphin bound to thy rescue who 
once, I wot, had carried Arion and his lyre. And now I was 
striving to plunge from the cliff's height when fear dispelled 
this wondrous vision.' 

17. ■ubaidio currere, to be added to Roby, Lat. Gr. n. p. 
liii. delphinum. The student should note that delphinus 
is formed from the Gr. gen. SeXfavos. So Titanus, abacus, 
tignus for kvkcuvos. 

18. - The fable ' is for belief no dream.' See a very fine 
account in Wordsworth's Ode on the Power of Sound. The 
story is delightfully told in Herod. 1. 24. uezerat ante. Gf. 
i. 8. 36 n. Arlonlam lyram, too bold a phrase for Ovid's 
stomach; Fast. 2. 82 Lesbida cum domino sen tulit Me 
lyram. Cf. v. 6. 36 n. 

19. conabar. The verb and the tense probably express the 
ram effort of the dream. Compare an extremely modern passage 
in Virg. Aen. 12. 908 sqq. ac uelut in somnis oculos, ubi languida 
pressit nocte quies, nequiquam auidos extendere cursus uelle 
uidemuretin mediis conatibus aegri succidimus, non lingua 
unlet, non corpore notae sufficient uires nee uox aut uerba se~ 

20. dlscusslt, 'shattered, scattered.' So of scattering the 
lingering effects of sleep, rv. 9 (10). 13 pura somnum tibi 
diseute lymph a. Ovid Her. 10. 13 has exeussere metu* 
somnum. talla, nearly = haec. Compare in. 13 (11). 33 
ultima talis erit quae mihi prima fides. 

IH. xxiii. 


The subject of this short poem is the uncertainty of life 
and the futility of the attempts to unravel its mysteries which 
are contrasted with the certainty of love. We can already 
trace in Propertius the growth of that astrological superstition 

140 XOTES. III. xxiit 

which was to play such an important part in imperial history. 
See Introduction. 

1 — 10. ' Lo, mortals, ye search for the uncertain hour of 
doom and the path by which death is to come. Through the 
clear sky ye seek what Phoenicians have discovered, the stars 
that smile or frown on each, whether we advance on Parthia in 
the march or Britain on the main, and the perils that the 
paths of land and sea conceal. We weep too at the thought 
that the hazards of the fray beset our life when on this side 
and on that the war-god bids the' doubtful battle join.^ Yea, 
and ye fear fire for your homes and falling walls, and the black 
cup stealing to your lips.' 

1. At expresses strong surprise. It strikes with emphasis 
the keynote of the elegy, which is a contrast. Compare in. 
1. 1. n. 

2. Compare Martial 11. 91. 10 debuerant alia fata ueni re 

3. Phoenicum, through their commerce the great mission' 
aries of civilisation. Pliny however makes them the inventors 
of astronomy (siderum) N. H. 5. 12. 13. 67 ipsa gens Phoeni- 
cum in magna gloria litterarum inuentionis et siderum nauali- 
umque ac bellicarum artium. " There is a curious mixture of 
the use of the stars as guides in travel in which the Phoe- 
nicians excelled and their use in foretelling the future." J. S. B. 
inuenta, in apposition to the object of quaeritis, i.e. to the 
following line. Cf. iv. 3. 4. 

4. commoda, apparently an astrological term. Ov. lb. 
210 nee ulla commoda nascenti Stella leuisque fuit,< Petron. 
Sat. 30 just inverts the expression qui dies boni quique in* 
commodi essent. 

5. sequimur, used in a double sense. It means ' puisne 1 
with pedibus, and * make for, go towards ' with classe, as in 
Cic. Att. 10. 18. 2 Formias nunc sequimur. Some good mk. 
read sequitur. For the Parthians and Britons combined see 
Hor. Od. 1. 21. 15 and Prop. iv. 1. 16, hi. 1. 17. 

6. marls et terrae with uiae, genitives like that in Tib. 2. 
6. 3 et seu longa uirum terrae uia seu nag a ducent aequora. 
For the turn of the verse cf. v. 1. 88 et maris et terrae 
longa sepulera canam. caeca, 'hidden.' Cf. Plato's epigram, 
Anth. Gt. 7. 265 vavrjyov rd<f>os elfd' 6 6° avrlov iarl ycwpyov. wf 
aXi xal yalj} {wos vreor 'Aldrjs. 

NOTES. III. xxiii. 141 

7. flemus here is used with all its possible constructions, 
inf. (i. 7. 17), ace. and ne with subj., n. 7. 3, which see. For 
a similar change of constr. cf. i. 5. 22. Strange as it may 
seem to us, one of the signs of fear amongst the ancients was 
weeping; cf. Hor. Od. 1. 3. 18 qui sice is o cults monstra 
natantia, qui uidit mare turgidum. caput. Some mss. capiti. 
tumultu. Muller's restoration for tumultum. For the -u form 
see Boby 390, and for tumultus el. 1. 7. 

8. Cf. Virg. G. 2. 282, 283 necdum horrida miseent 
proelia, sedmediis dubius Mars errat in armis. dublaa 
manus, i. e. hostility of uncertain issue. utrlmque, i. e. in 
the two engaging armies. 

9. rulnas, a common danger at Borne. See Juv. 3. 
190—196. domlbusque, for the repetition see Introduction. 

10. subeant, 'rise unawares.' Cf. 1. 14. 20 nee timet ostrino, 
Tulle, subire toro, v. 2. 30 clamaiis capiti uina subisse meo. 
nigra, from the discolouring effect of poison on the corpse 
and on the liquid ; Aen. 4. 514 nigri ueneni, Virg. G. 2. 130 
atra uenena. tuis. For the change of number cf. hi. 20 
(17). 43, 47 uidistis quandam... cum satis una tuis insomnia 
portet ocellis, 

11 — 16. 'Only the lover knows when he shall die and 
whence his death-stroke comes. He fears not arms nor north- 
wind's blast. Yea, though he be sitting, oar in hand, beneath 
the reeds of Styx, and looking on the gloomy sails of the bark 
of hell, let but the breath of his darling's cries once call him 
back again, and he will retrace the journey though all laws 

11. periturus, sit being omitted, a rare ellipse (cf. Introd), 
except in Prop, where it is not uncommon. Cf. I. 8. 37, Ov. 
M. 3. 719 ilia quid Act a eon nescit. a morte. Cf. iv. 25. 5 
ista sum captus ab arte and i. 16. 14. The cruelty of his 
beloved is his death. 

12. blc, more vivid than is, 'the one I am discussing.* Cf. 
in. 3. 3. Compare Introduction. 

13. sub harundine, the boat being moored under the reeds 
on the bank. Cf. iv. 9. 36. For the reeds of Styx cf . Virg. G. 4. 
478 deformis harundo. remex. The ghosts row, as in Aris- 
tophanes Ban. 201 and Virg. Aen. 6. 320. 

14. cernat, cf. uidere 1. 1. 12 n. infernae ratte, like 
infernae rotae i. 9. 20. 

1« SOTES. III. nil. 

15. BttJBMrtfa lias more us. authority than damnation, and 
gives as good a sense. Cf. I. IT. 23 Ule mrum atremo da- 
maittt pulucre nomrn, and for the sense v. 7. 23, 24, Cool! 
dammit m ot itself mean 'morti addietia,' as P. takes it* un, 
a hold expression, 'the oirthat conveys theory,' Cf. I. 20. 60 n. 
Aen. 7. 616 ad not nts tenuit /amae jHrla&irur aura. The 
use, variously developed in these three passages, ma; have alio 
arisen in part from the ' breath ' of human speech being com- 
pared to the breath of the wind or air (cf. anima). The con- 
fusion between aura 'shining' and aura 'breathing,' for which 
see Prof. Nettleship, Joora. Philol. vii. p. 171, is not in point 


t, strictly it is the redire which is not per- 
can translate 'return by a forbidden way.' 


In this poem Propertins apologises for being late in keeping 
an appointment with Cynthia. Hie excuse is the opening ot 
the temple of Apollo Palatums or Actius, built by Augustas to 
commemorate the battle of Actium, and dedicated in b. c. 28. 
(Jompare the introduction to v. 6. 

PropertiuB gives a description of it, one more minute than 
we find elsewhere. He begins with the outside and the cloisters 
which surrounded it, as the portiau Octauiat surrounded tbo 
temples ot Jupiter, Juno, 4c. In one of these portieiu (txji- 
plvx cyir pqhticibvs Monum. Ancyr.) was the famous Palatine 
Library with its collections of ancient and contemporary works, 
and also a colossal bronze statue of Apollo by a Tuscan artist, 
which is said to have represented the Emperor himself. The 
Senate was sometimes convened here, Tac. Ann. 2. 37. The 
pillars in the open cloisters were of gialio antico marble, and 
adorned with statues of the Donalds and their cousins. The 
temple itself was of marble from Luna (now Carrara), with 
ivorv FuiiilotnmH dnorn. and it contained within statues of 
Latomi anil Piaus and the famous Apollo Citharoedus, s 
maiblr statue K SiAipal; also a group of four oxen by ths 
band of Myron. There were bet-ides other valuable works of 
art there. See Mr hum's Borne and the Campagna, p. ITS, 
and the passages quoted by him. 

NOTES. III. xxix. 143 

1, 2. 'You ask why I come so late to you. The golden 
portico of Phoebus has been opened by great Caesar.' 

1. ueniam. Observe the tense. It conveys the impression 
that the poem was written immediately after the temple was 
opened. tibi, the dative of personal reference passing into 
that of motion towards. Cf . in. 5. 34. aurea. In default of 
precise information about the porticos, we cannot tell whether 
this is to be taken literally, or whether it merely means 'magni- 
ficent' as Lewis and Short take it. Compare v. 1. 4 haec aurea 
templa. Chryselephantine decoration was not uncommon on 
the doors and panelled ceilings of temples ; cf. v. 2. 5, 

2. porttcus, really more than one. See introd. magno, 
compare u. 7. 5. aperta, our Eng. 'opened.' So aperire 
ludum 'open a school ' Cic. Fam. 9. 18. 1. Observe too that we. 
can express the time more exactly in English, 'Caesar has 
been opening, 9 

3 — end. ' So grand was it, laid out with Punic columns, 
a goodly show, and between them stood the women band of 
the old king Danaus. Then in the midst rose the temple of 
bright marble, dearer to Phoebus yea than Ortygia his birth- 
place. And over the pediment were two chariots of the Sun, 
and its folding doors were a glorious work of Libyan tusks. 
On one were the Gauls hurled down from Parnassus' height, 
another told the sad story of the dead children of Tantalus' 
daughter. Next, between his mother and his sister, the Pythian 
God himself in long robe chaunts a song. Truly more beau- 
teous than Phoebus' self did he seem to me with marble lips 
parted for a song and all but speaking lyre. Then round the 
altar were set the cattle of Myron, four oxen of cunning work, 
a life-like group.' 

3. in speciem, 'for show,' 'to make a fair show.' Cf. Manil. 
5. 152 neque in usum tegmina plantis sed speciem. So in 
Caes. £. G. 7. 23. 5 in speciem is opposed to ad utilitatem. 
?0Qnis=peregrini8 Ov.; i.e. African, Numidian, a brown red- 
veined marble, now called giallo antico. cUgesta, 'laid out, 
arranged,' frequently used of planting, as in Yirg. G. 2. 54 
uacuos si sit dig est a per agros. 

4. femina, for feminea or feminarum^ a curious use. It is 
to be carefully distinguished from oases where words like senex, 
anus, yipwp &c. are applied by metaphor to things or animals, 
e. g. senex autumnus, anus charta, ytpw X^c/So*. If we compare 
arm charta &a=uetula charta, arm* turba v?onl&=uetularum 
turba, I do not know any parallel. The Greek drjKvs is both 

H4 NOTES. III. xxix, 

femina and feminea. tuba, the children. So in v. 1L 76: 
c£ ib. v. 98. The use is a vivid one. We naturally think of 
the children all playing together, or 'trooping' in as we say. 
Ovid Am. 2. 2. 4 has Danai agmen. Danal tenia. The 
Danaids stood between the columns on one side, and opposite 
to them their cousins, the sons of Aegyptus. Compare the de- 
scription in Ovid Tr. 3. 1. 61 signa peregrinis ubi sunt alt em a. 
eolumnis Belides, et stricto statferus eme pater. 

6. I have adopted Hertzberg's order, which is the only 
natural one. The outside portico is first described, then the 
exterior of the temple and its doors, and then the interior, the 
statue and the altar. Of. note on v. 13. claro. For this 

use cf. Plaut. Most. 3. 1. 108, where a speaker wants a house 
speculo clariores, clarorem memm, Ov. M. 2. 24 elarit 
smaragdis. surgebat. Cf. i. 20. 37 n. 

6. Ortygla, the earlier name of Delos. See Odyss. 5. 
128, 15. 404 with the Scholiast's explanation, • Callimaehas 
Anth. Gr. 6. 121, Strabo 10. 486. 

7. et duo erant (Hertzb.) explains the ms. reading et quo— 
erat better than in quo erat. supra fastlgla, i. e. on the 
acroteria, which were pedestals for statues above the pediment 
(see Rioh s. v.). Cf. Ov. F. 5. 560 (quoted by P.) prospieit 
Armipotens operis fastigia summi et probat inuictos gumma 
tenere deos. eurrufl, probably those of the rising and setting 

8. ualuae. These representations on doors are as old as 
Simonides. See Anth. Gr. 9. 758. dentis, 'ivory tusks': 
first apparently in Cat. 64. 48. The elephant seems to have 
perplexed the anoient naturalists. His tusks are called detUet 
and cornua, and his trunk proboscis (sometimes in the form 
promuscis, as if a fly-flapper) and manus (x € *f>)« The whole 
phrase is quoted by Mart. 14. 3 essemus Libyei nobile 
dentis opus* 

9. altera. Some verb, meaning 'gave a thrilling repre- 
sentation of, 1 or something similar, has to be supplied from 
waerebat; for Fropertius can hardly have sympathised with 
the discomfited Gauls. Galloa. In 279 b.c. the Gauls under 
Brennus forced their way into Greece as far as Delphi, which 
they attempted to sack, but were repulsed with great slaughter 
by the Delphians. According to the historians the God himself 
interposed to protect it by sending a heavy storm of lightning 
and rain upon the assailants. Ct Callim. DeL 172. 

KOTES. HI. wax. 145 

10. maerebat, 'set forth in mournful imagery'; see i. 9. 
10 n. funera, P. ' dead children '; but it has more of the 
verbal meaning, 'the deaths in her family.' Cf. for the gen. 
v. 1. 97 (which he quotes) fatales pueri, duo funera matris 
auarae. Hence Seneo. Ag. 392 tu Tantalidos funera 
matris uictrix numeras. 

11. denude, -when yon enter the temple. Inter * * in- 
teftfne. The repetition of the preposition is not strictly logical, 
bat lends a certain emphasis, forcing us to think of both Latona 
and Diana separately ; in Ok. Parad. 1. 14, Hor. Bat. 1. 7. 11, Ac. 
it is used of moral difference. The reverse is the case m the 
use of /rcra£u, as in /*era£d yfjt, 'between heaven and earth.' 
Cf. Ar. Ach. 433. dens Ipse, the well-known Apollo Citharoe- 
dm.- The complete coincidence of the descriptions in this 
couplet and the following makes it certain that the same statue 
is intended in both, and nearly as certain that the two couplets 
should come together. 

12. lenga ueste, the jpalla of the citharoedus. So Virg. 
Aen. 6. 645 (of Orpheus singing) long a cum ueste sacerdos. 
canalna. aona^, an extension of the cognate aoc. Cf. Hor. 
Epod. 9. 5 xouan&e mixtum tibiis carmen lyra. 

13. hlc, the statue. See in. 23. 12 n. equidem, 
usually but not exclusively found with the first personal pro- 
noun, perhaps through an erroneous idea that it was connected 
with ego. mini. Compare Introduction, and rv. 9. 10. 
ipso, the original. 

14. marmoreu8, 'represented in marble.' For the adj. of. 
Antti. L. 4. 62 ni me uidisset Cypria marmoream. tadta 
we expect it to sound, but it is silent, re/wwf xarv ciy$. 
carmen hlare, to open the lips as in singing, to open the 
mouth for a song. So Pecs. 5. 8 fabula ten maesto ponatur 
hi an da tragoedo, i.e. to be uttered through the rictus of his 
mask. The phrase is from Gallimachus H. ApolL 24 udpuapov 
vri ?wcu«os oifvpov n %avovciit (of Niobe). 

15. steterant, hrrtww. Cf. v. 3 erat digesta. ar- 
menta, probably neut. pi., not fern. ring, (as in Pacuvius). 

16. TirUtnrn, passive. Of. Pers. 5. 40 artifiaemque 
too Meit sub pollute ssultum. ululda, ' lifelike. ' So in Mart. 
7. 44. 2 cuius adkuc vuttum uiuidu cera tenet. 


H6 . NOTES. IV. i. 

IV. i. 


In plain language this poem is a definition by Propertta 
of his poetic position. The poet asserts his originality (in the 
limited sense in which Boman writers understood the word), be 
declares his subjects and his models, and comforts himself 
against present detraction by the assurance of a future im- 
mortality. We have no other clue to the date than the allusion 
in y. 38 which seems to shew it was written after the opening 
of the temple of Apollo and the Palatine library in b.c. 28. 


Shades of Callimachus and Philetas, my masters, give me a 
share in your poetic inspiration. I am the first son of Italy 
that follows in your steps (1 — 6). I am no singer of arms. 
It is a more peaceful and polished theme that secures me I 
triumphant immortality and a superiority over all my rivals 
(7 — 20). The crowd may be envious now: but posterity will 
do me ample justice (21 — 24). The poet is immortal and his 
immortality in his gift. Hence Troy and Homer will live for 
ever (25 — 84). I too shall live after my death; my names 
preserved from oblivion through the favour of Lycia's god 
(35— 38). Meanwhile I will employ my song on its accustomed 
task, the pleasing of my love (39, 40). 

1. sacra, 'sacred reliques.' It cannot mean, as Hertzfc 
and P. take it, 'Philetas admit me to your sacred rites.' 
sacra, which means any ' sacred things,' i.e.. a victim, sacrifice, 
the Penates, <fcc., is here applied to the disembodied spirit, 
which was propitiated with offerings. The use is the le* 
surprising as a . poet is sacer even in his lifetime. Gf. SW- 
Silv. 2. 7. 116 (of Lucan) magna sacer et superbus umbra, 
CalllmaoTil, Philetae: see the Introduction. 

2. nemus, the grove whence you drew your inspiration and 
which is now haunted by your presence. Propertms ifl thinking 
of the groves affected by poets. Hot. Ep. 2. 2. 77 tcrijton* 
chorus omnis amat nemus t of which the prototype was the gro* 
of the Muses on Mount Helicon: and also of the Ivaatottr 
which was sometimes planted round the resting-place of the 

NOTES. IV, i. H7 

honoured dead; cf. Mart. 6. 76 famulum uictrix possidet umbra 

3. primus, not necessarily an assertion of himself against 
Tibullus who follows the Greek form much less closely. In 
the same connexion Virgil has G. 3. 11 primus ego in patri- 
am...Aonio rediens deducam uertice Mm as. ingredior with 
inf. as Cic, Yirg. Manil. Astron. 1. 3 sqq. seems to Have Prop. 
before him caelestis rationis opus deducere mundo adgredior 
primusque nouis Helicona mouere cantibus et uiridi nutantes 
uertice siluas, hospita sacra ferens (^sacerdos), nulli memorata 
priorum. puro de fonte sacerdos go closely together, 
'with priestly ministry from an unsullied spring.' I am a 
Musarum sacerdos, Hor. Od. 3. 1. 3, and sprinkle their votaries 
with song. For puro de fonte compare Callim. H. Apoll. 110 
(of himself) Aijoi 5 1 ovk dir6 iravrbi vdup </>op4ov<n fiiXuraai 
d\V iJTis Kadap-q re koX axp^avros dytpwet. tLSclkos O- 

4. 'To lead the mystic emblems of Italy through the 
dances of Greece,' i.e. to treat Latin subjects after the Greek 
manner ; of. Hor. Ep. 1. 3. 12 fidibusne Latinis Thebanos aptare 
modos t, Yirg. G. 2. 176. per cannot govern orgia nor is it 
the same as inter (P.). For orgia in this sense cf. Catull. 64. 
260 (Ellis) and Aien. 6. 517 ilia c hor urn simulant euantes 
orgia circum ducebat Phrygias. Compare also Yirg. G. 2. 475 
Musae quarum sacra fero, 

5. parlter, ' side by side.' Propertius couples the poets as 
in in. 32 (26). 31, 32. Perhaps he had Theocritus in view 
Epigr. 5 (of Pan and Priapus) forpov ftrw vrdxovres bpAppodoi. 
carmen tenuastis, 'spun your slender song'; the Aexral ^<nes 
of Callim. Epigr. 29. 3; compare the imitation by Stat. Silv. 
4. 7.^ 9, and Hor. Ep. 2. 1. 225 tenui deducta poemata filo. 
Elegiac poetry is slight compared with epic subjects; Hor. 
conamur tenues grandia. antro, iv. 3. 27 n. ' * 

6. quo, vol(p ; pede, ' gait,' movement of the feet ; cf. i. 9. 
24 n. With an allusion to the sense of metre, rhythm. For this 
confusion* (or rather non-differentiation) of the physical . and 
metaphorical see Introduction. So Ovid assigns his personi- 
fied Elegia one foot longer than the other Am. 3. 1. 8 uenit 
odoratos Elegeia neza capillos et, puto, pes illi longior alter 
erat. aquam, cf. rv. 3. 5, 6. 

7. ualeat, 'out on him,' xcu^rw : cf. Tib. 2. 3. 70 o! ualeant 
fruges, Prop. in. 4. 13 ualeto. Phoebum moratur in armis, 
takes up poetical leisure with singing of war. 


148 tf&ZE& -IV. i. 

*8. efcftctus tenul pumice, « with the polish of fine pcumec' 

tenui ' fine ' for refining (tenuanti), properly of the result, not 
the agent. Cf. Mart. 3. 89 mollet maluae 'relaxing' mallows. 
Hor. Ep. 1. 19. 18 exsangue cuminum 'pallor-causing' cummin. 
Pumice stone was used by bookbinders to smooth down the 
rough projecting edges of the parchment, Becker Gall. p. 329. 
eat, not ' in allusion to publication * P., but as in Hor. S. 1. 10. 
58 uer8iculos — euntes molliiut. In eat the poet goes off into 
a different metaphor, that of the chariot flying through the air. 

9. Fame soars with the poet in the winged car of his vera. 
Of. Hor. Od. 2. 2. 7 ilium aget penna metuente solui Farha super- 
stes. Anth. Gr. 9. 207 (of the elevating influence of philoso- 
phy) 6<ppa K€v el<Ta<pLKT)cu is dvpavlovs Keveuvas \^vxv p v^iti- 
\evdov i\'a<f>pL{wv aro yalys. The indie, leuat shews the 
picture is being realized. Propertius however is not careful 
about the distinction of ind. and subj., see Introduction 
a me nata, ' child of my brain.' One of the txyova voirrruf of 
whom Plato speaks, Symp. 209 d. Compare Ov. Ti\ 3. 14. 13 
quoted on v. 11. 76. 

10. coronatis, the metaphor ohanges to a triumphal pro- 
cession. JFor the garlanded steeds of. Ov. Tr. 4. 2. 22, 

11. CUrTU. Cf. Pindar OL 9. 81 drayeurOai rpoV^yot b 
bloiadv %l<t>p<$* t6\/xcl Se kuX d/j,(pi\a<p}js Svvapts icvoiro. 
uectantur Amores. When a father triumphed, his sons rode 
with him in the triumphal oar; Ldvy 46. 40. 

12. scriptorum, his imitators. Cf. v. 1. 136 ecribol «/ 
exemplo cetera turba tuo. secuta, supply neciatur from 
uectantur. The procession becomes a race to the Muses' 
temple, turba secuta Ov. Am. 1. 2. 36. 

13. missis, usually immissis : but cf . Petronius *& $ nw 
et Socratico plenus grege mi ft at habenas, and misso equofa 
admisso tv. 10 (11). 62. In me, with Missis, 'to catch me up-' 
certatis, apostrophising the turba. 

14. I.e. every one oannot be a Propertius. currsn .* 
Greek inf. : currentibus or currendi would be more usual Latia. 
See Boby Lat. Gr. 1360 which however is not all in point 

15. tuas, thy own peculiar merits. 'It is clear tW 
tuas laudes i.e. bellica* tdrtutes is opposed to pace (r.l'< 
and muUi to intacta uia. 1 P., rightly. annaHbui tj*rt 
like Ennius. 

ffQTES. IT. i* U% 

10, finem, i, e. ft will qbIj be, bounded by- Bact*% it> will 
reach a* fa* us Bactra. Ba*tr*,. the goal of Boman aspi- 

rationa «a t&e East : A^en. 8. 6Q8 ultima secum Bactrck uehit* 

17. soroTum, here, of course, the, ^fuses. Cf. in. 28 (22). 


18. dotattt pagma, a bold metaphor, which would be 
harsh even in modern poetry; but see iv. 25. 17 n. Intacta 
uta only means 'from an unhackneyed original/' It is very 
characteristic of the artificial and exotic, character of Latin 
literature that the favourite epithet of a poet is a well-read man 
{docHu). For the- metaphor cf. Virg. G. 3. 293 iuuat ire iugis 
qua nulla, priorum Castaliam molli deuertitur orbita cliuo. So 
Caltfm. Enigr. 8. 1 KaOap^v 656v. Dionys. HaMo. n. p. 129. 
49 shews it in prpse weipdaouai \iyeip...oM£ /cow A ©tfW kcl9^- 
fia^evitiPa rQv %pl>Tspw K feapkneyed (quoted by. Herts*.). \ 

19. mollla, those of elegiac poetry, durus of epic or tragic 
and mollis of elegiac poetry are m continual antithesis; 
cf, ux, 32 (2d). 42* 44. Pegasldes, a learned allusion 
in the manner of Latin poetry.. The Muses are associated 
with Hippocrene, the spring which rose from a kick of Belle- 
iophQn*B steed Pegasus. 

20.. faetet oajritf, *-swt>my tead^ ¥ng* *<fc> for': usually 
faere a4i bat cf, ?lin. K. P. 32. 1% %2. 48 rad^ coronopi 
coeliaci* praeclcure, faqit, 4wt. <?& hirsuta corona v. 

1. 61, of Enniua, 

21. at marks a transition of thought. * Let detraction do 
its. worst now: I shall outlive it. 1 

22. duplici* i. e. doable what would have naturally accrued ; 
i. 7. 26 ntagno faenore* honos. It i» instructive to see 
hqw Oyid softens this away Am. 1. 15. 39, 40 pascitur in. WMis 
Liuor: post fata quiescit, cum *uu» ex merita quemque hone*. 

23. omnia, ef. Introduction, finglt malora, *makee 
greater than before,* * magnifies*; without any idea of unreality 
(such as we have in Hot. Ep. 1. 9. Sfinxisse minora). Com- 
pare Hor. Od. 4. 3. l%{illujn) spissae nemorum comae fin,gent 
Aeolio carmine nobilem. uetustas, a progpective-retrospee- 
tive ug$ t « an age to come, when the present shall be a distant 
Past.' ^rst in Virg. Aon. 10. 792 si qua Jbdem tantosi open 
laturck ifietu&tae; of. Qv. Tr. 5. 9. 8 9cripta uetusi,atem si modo 
mtrafefent, i.e. 'if my writings shall live,' 

150 NOTES. IV. i. 

24. ftb dxequlis, ( after the last rites. 1 Gf. Ov. Tr. 4. 10. 
122 tu mihij quod rarumst, uiuo sublime dedisti nomen, 06 
exequiis quod dare jama solet. mains uenlt, Ov. P. 4. 
16. 3 famaque post cineres maior uenit. in on, 
i e. ' on men's tongues,* cf. rv. 9. 32. 

25. nam, ' for example/ eVef, indicates a suppressed train of 
thought. The poet's work lives and grows after him (this 
is the text of w. 33 — 36). Poetry is immortal and immor- 
talises its subjects. But for Homer, what would Troy be 
now? pulias. The use of this word shews that Propertras 
here regards the horse as a kind of battering-ram. Compare 
Pausanias 1. 23. 8 (referred to by P.) 'That the handiwork 
of Epeus was a device for dismantling the walls (els SiaKvciv tov 
rclxovs), everyone recognizes who does not impute absolute 
idiocy to the Trojans/ ablegno, of fir wood; so Prop, 
here and v. 1. 42, agreeing with Virgil Aen. 2. 16. nosceret, 
' come to know.' 

26. Haemonlo ulro. Cf. in. 5. 22 Phthii uiri, * the man 
of Phthia,' her most illustrious son. commlnus lsse ulro, 
Sil. It. 5. 560 saeuo comminus ire uiro. 

27. Idaeum, 'rising in Mount Ida.' lords com prole 
Scamandro. The certain conjecture of G. Wolff adopted by 
Haupt. flumina shews two rivers must be mentioned. Homer 
II. 21. 307, to which Propertius is referring, expressly says the 
Scamander summoned the Simois to his aid against Achilles, 
and louts cum prole agrees with Horn. H. 21. 2 ZtwOw 
StpyevTos tv dddvaros rc^ero Zeus. It is true that Ida and other 
places in Troy are confused with their namesakes in Crete and 
in consequence Zeus is said to have been born in Troy; cf. 
Schol. Apoll. Bhod. 3. 1323 seqq. dmiroioOprcu yap xal ol Tpwcj 
rrjs rov Aids yevtcrews Kaddvep <f>t^n Aijurp-pios 6 litcifioi and 
other passages. But this only goes a short way towards justify- 
ing the ms. reading louis cunabula. 

28. ter, a certain conjecture for mss. per. The canons of 
interpretation will not allow of tractum being supplied, as 
P. supposes* For the Propertian repetition ter — ter see Intro- 

29. Pulydamantas. Polydamas represents the public opinion 
of Troy, H. 2. 100, and thus acquires a proverbial reputation ; 
cf. Pers. 1. 4. He is coupled with Deiphobus by Ovid Her. 
5. 92, Met. 12. 547. As a warrior we do not hear of him in the 
Iliad; but in armis is supported by Sil. Ital. 12. 212 Pulyda- 
manteU iuuenis Pedianus in armis bella agitabat atrox. 

NOTES. IV. i. 151 

The plural is indefinite, as HoXvdafuwTes Ael. N. A. 8. 5 * such 
heroes as P.* [I think however it very probable that Pulyda- 
mantos is to be read, ' Paris who out a sorry figure in the arms of 
Polydamas.' This gives a more forcible construction and besides 
is supported by the phrase of Silius Italicus. Paris actually 
did fight against Menelaus in some one else's armour (H. 3. 
333), his brother Lyoaon's, and it is very possible that Proper- 
tius has forgotten the exact circumstances.] 

30. qualemcumque, owoiovdfaore, Boby, Lat. Or. 2289. 
nix sua nosset humus, appropriated by Ovid. Tr. 5. 5. 54 
forsitan Euadnen uix sua nosset humus, humus in the sense 
of * land ' (as we use * soil, ground ') is rare, except in Ovid. 

31. exigno sermone, a bold extension of the abl of descrip- 
tion (Boby 1232), sermone, the external fact, being put for the 
quality fama. Madvig, Lat. Or. 272 obs. 3, observes it is some- 
times used where in would be commoner ; cf. erat in sermone 4 
omnium Cic. Phil. 10. 7. 14. Hion and Trola are here j 
clearly different. Cf. Aen 3. 3 ceciditque superbum Ilium, * 
et omnia humo fumat Neptunia Troia. Compare also Eur. 

Hec. 922 'IXtdfa Tpolav. What the difference is, is not so clear. 
Servius on Yirg. I. c. says Troy is the country, Ilium the town. 
But in the Iliad and elsewhere Uium is used for the country ; 
and it is not easy to find instances to the contrary. The 
misapprehension of a double name, like 'AXtfavSpos, 116 pis, may 
have originated the distinction whatever it is. In the present , 
passage Propertius may be distinguishing between the old 
mythical Troia (or old Ilium) and new Ilium. 

32. Oetaei del, Hercules. Propertius' imagination seems 
to have been caught by his passage from the flames of his 
funeral pile on Mount Oeta into the celestial life. Cf. i. 
13. 24. numine, 'by the divine power of,' an exact ex- 
pression. Troy was first taken by Hercules himself from 
liaomedon and then by his follower Philoctetes with his arrows. 

33. nee non, i. e. as Well as his heroes. For the connexion 
of thought see v. 25 n. casus, 'fall'; Aen. 1. 623 casus 
mihi cognitus urbis Troianae. memorator, see Introduc- 

34. posterltate, a curious abl. apparently of the means, 
'through posthumous lapse of time,' opposed to uetustate. 
Compare Tao. Ann. 3. 19 gliscit utrumque (L e. truth and false- 
hood) posteritate, and for the general sense Hor. 0. 3, 30. 
7, 8 usque ego poster a creseam laude recens. crescere, 
apparently a word of the Augustan coterie of poets, Cf. Hor. 


152 JTOZXSL IV, t 

I. e. , Vkg. EcL 7. 25 cr4$cenUm ormU ptetom*. stBsJt- For 
though dead* he* ia ahm 

35. seroa nepotfes* ty47&tv$* Cf. Vtrg. G, 2. 59 #<ru 
faetura nepotibus utnbram. later, a striking example of 
Propertins r 'disjunctiveness/ fbr the seri nepotes=ltoma. Vie 
may compare Tao. H. 1. 1 ita tieutris cura posteritatit inter 
infen.808 uel obnoxios. 

36* ilium ditto, not 'Ulan uitam,' P., hut the day when 
this wiU happen ; an ille of unspecified reference. CL m. 5. 
39 n. poet cineres, imitated by Ov. 1. a on v. 24. It goes 
with the- sense of the whole clause rather than with any par- 
ticular expression. 

37. contempto sepulcra, 'on an unregarded grave, * an 
idea repulsive to so sensitive a nature. Cf. in. 5. 25 t 2. 5. 

38. lyoto deo, the Palatine Apollo- 

39. This line begins a fresh poem in the mss. (So Palmer.) 
Interea, as in nr. 5. 25. ort>em, 'the round/ a metaphor 
from the circus ring. Cf. Hox, A. P. 132 and el. 3. 21 n. 

40. tacta, impressed. soltto tone. Ptopcvtioa fre- 
quently read hi* poems to his mistress ; cf. eel 4- 11 — 14. 

IV. iii. 


Ik this poem. Properties indicates that^ having tried the 
grand style of historical poetry without success, he wiU hiarn 
forth abandon it and devote himself to the amatory class. His 
fervent Roman patriotism, his archfeologioal tastes, and the 
influence of Enninsv Virgil and other writers natrnwrily at- 
tracted him to the history of Borne. But he soon found it 
incompatible with his genius. This incompatibility he indi- 
cates in the form of a vision, or, as we should rather say, an 
allegory, telling how Apollo and Calliope' forbade him to pro- 
secute these 'severe studies,' and shewed him that his place in 
the temple of Fame was already secure. There ia no special 
allusion to determine the date. 

1, uistts tram, « methought I lay,' no* as P., who ia misled 
by jkhm v. 4 (where see note), 'I had fancied myself able.' It 
seems to me idle to draw distinctions between allegories, visions 

NOTES. IY, iii 153 

and dreams in the present passage. All thai Prop, hints is 
that he is drawing an ideal picture* moili, 'grateful,, sooth* 
ing': with soft grass and shelter from the bee*. Cf. Viig* G. 
3. 404 »oU* succedere saepiug umbrae 

t. umor, 'water.' Gf. in. 21. 4 n. ESppocrene is meant. 

4. taatnm opexla, for the phrase Plant Men. 2. 8. 85 
tan turn incepi operis, Livy Praef. 13 orat's tan turn operis, 
Prop. it. 10 (11). 70 tantum operis belli sustulit una dies, 
and for the construction, the aco. in apposition to the sentence, 
Ov.M. 5. 112, sed qui, pads opus, citharam cum uocemoueret. 
Msceze, ( lisp,' of incoherent utterance : humtia loqui Cie. Or. 
9. 32. The construction of reyes and. facta is hold hut is 
softened down by the intervention of the semi-cognate ace* 
tantum operis; cl Or. M. 13. 231 nee Tetamoniades etiam 
nunc Uiscere quicquam ausiU posscu Propertius ia f ond 
of the potential. See Introduction. 

5. parua ora, opposed to magnum os, ut+ 1. 12 n. Ci Ov. 
Tr. 1* 6. 30 nostraque sunt mtritis ora minora tuis. tan, 
'to that great spring. 7 For tarn see Introduction. P.*s iam 
is quite unnecessary. Persius travesties this poetical drinking, 
ProL 1 nee f ante labra prolui caballino, 

6. pater Ennius, a stock address of respect, as we say 
% Dan Chaucer'; ci* Box. En, 1. 19. 7. ante, 'formerly.' 
i. 8. 36 n, 

7. Ourlos ftatres, is. the CuriaHi, an extraordinary cur- 
tailment. See Introduction. Horatla, would be in prose 
Horatiana; butcf. ManiL 6. 107 Horatia facta. pila. Mr 
Burn, Borne and Campagna, p. 104, writes, ( A pillar at the 
corner of one of the arcades (i e. in the. Forum) containing 
shops was called the pila Horatia. * * * Upon it, according 
toDionysins, had been fixed the armour taken hy the surviving 
Horatius from the vanquished Guxiatii. The word pila may 
either mean the column of the arcade upon which the armour 
was fixed or the weapons themselves, and the Latin writers 
seem to understand it as referring to the latter, while Xtionysius 
translates it by orvkts. 9 Pila (/. )was confused with pila (n.). 
Hertzberg may be right in thinking Propertius intends in pila 
[the Koman weapon) to hint that it was the Horatii who were 
Romans. Compare Livy 1. 24. 1. 

8. The allusion is to the defeat of Demetrius of Pharos by 
L. A.emilius Paulina 219 B.C., not that of Perseus by his son, 
surnamed Macedonian f 167: for Ennius died in 169. 

154 NOTES. IV. UL 

9. ulctrices moras. Manil. 1. 786 inuicttuque mora 
Fabius, Ennius' own line unus homo nobis cunctando restituit 
rem is well known. pugnam Blnlstram Cannensem. The 
student should observe that two adjectives can be pat with one 
8ubst. when they refer to different aspects of it, when, as here, 
one specifies (Cannensem) and the other describes (siniitram). 
For Propertius' fondness for such accumulations see Intro- 

10. uersos, cf. in. 24 (20). 32. uersos ad uota is op- 
posed to auersos. 

11. This is not mentioned in Livy. But Varro in his 
Heracles introduces one of the Lares saying, Noctu Hannib&Us 
cum fugaui exercitum Tutanus, hoc Tutanus Romae nuncupor. 
Romana sede. Cf. Livy 5. 50. 4 quod Iuppiter O. M. suam 
sedem atque arcem populi Romani in re trepida tutatus esset. 
Cat. 80. 3 has a sede Pisauri. 

12. fulsse. For the change of construction cf. m. 23. 7 n. 
Iouem. His temple is meant This confusion of the divine 
personality with its outward material signs, such as statues, 
temples, is thoroughly Boman, but not confined to Rome. A 
good example is v. 1. 7 Tarpeiusque pater nuda de rupe tonabat. 

13. dastalia, on Parnassus in Phocis, while Helicon (v. 1) 
is in Boeotia. The topography of the Latin poets is always 
more or less fanciful, and the haunts of the Muses are no 
exception. Thus Statins Silv. 2. 7. 2 puts Hippocrene on the 
Acrocorinthus. 0)601118018, 'watching me,' xoratrydfur. 
arbore, ' the wood/ a collective sing, for the plur. ; see m. 
5. 3n. 

14. Phoebus gives a similar warning to Horace, Od. 4. 
15. 1 Phoebus uolenti proelia me loqui uictas et urbes increpuit 
lyra, ne parua Tyrrhenum per aequor uela darem. lyra 
nlxus. Apollo is frequently thus represented in art. ad 
antra. The order implies he was close to the grotto. 

15. flumlne, ie. the fontes of v. 5, the flow of epic poetry. 

16. carminis nerol opus, ' a work consisting in ' ; a genitive 
of equivalence or definition, Boby 1302. tangere, of un- 
lawful handling. Cf. in. 82 (26). 10. 

18. mollia. 'Over soft meadowfi should the small wheel roll.' 
Elegiac (iv. 1. 19 n.) poetry is your field. prata. Aristoph. 
Ban. 1300 says (or quotes) more appropriately Ira fiij row avro» 
^pwixv Xtt/twra Mo vera* lepbr 6<pdclt)v dp4rurw. But comp. 

NOTES. IV. iii 155 

Virg. 1. c. on it. 1* 18, Manil. 2. 50, 53 omnu ad accessus 
Heliconis semita tritast. — Integra quaeramus rorantes prat a 
per herbas. 

19. lactetur. Comp. an epigr. of Strato (addressing his 
book) xoAXa/a Qoirr/ffcts vwoicbXinov ij xapa 5t<ppois pXrjOty. 
The book was picked up and thrown down on to the scamnum 
or footstool, the inseparable attendant both of the sella and the 
lectus (Rich, Diet. s. v.). 

20. uirum, 'lover. 1 See in. 5. 36 n. 

21. seuecta, 'deviate, swerve aside'; only here. For the 
abL cf. V. Aen. 4. 385 et cum frigida mora anima seduxerit 
artti8. Hence P., following Scaliger, reads praescriptos euectast 
gyros, a slight but needless change. pagina seuectast. Cf. 
iv. 1. 18 n. gyro, lit. the ring or circus in which horses 
were trained. Here, like orbem EL 1. 39, of a narrow field in 
literature. Cf. Stat. Silv. 4. 7. 4 ingens opus in minores eon- 
trahe gyros. Gic. De Or. 3. 19. 70 ex ingenti quodam oratorem 
immensoque campo in exiguum sane gyrum compellitis. 

22. Dante apparently translates our author Purg. l 1 — 8 
* O'er better waves to speed her rapid course The light bark of 
my genius lifts the sail, Well pleased to leave so cruel sea be- 
hind.' Cary. The It* has la navicella del mio ingegno. 

23. As is frequent in Lat M the emphasis is on the last 
word harenas. The cumba was a two-oared boat (Rich, s. v.). 

24. tutus eris, so. by doing so. Cf. Ov. E. A. 650 lente 
desine: tutus eris. turba, 'ferment, uproar.' Bare in 
this literal sense; but cf. Lucan 3. 593 pelago turbante and 
mare turbidum, turbulentum ; Att. ap. Non. 524. 26 (Fr. 
608 Ribbeck) is instructive, non uides quam turbam quosue 
fluctus concites t Seneca (?) Ag. 103 paraphrases Prop.,/sZu? 
mediae quisquis turbae sorte quietus aura stringit litora tuta, 
timidusque mari credere cymbam remo terras propiore legit. 

25. sedem, 'a resting-place, retreat,' a very vague word. 

26. semita facta est, as in. Plant. Cure. 1. 1. 36 dum ne 
per fundum saeptum fades semi tarn. noua asserts by 
implication the poet's originality, like intacta uia el. 1. 18. 

27. adflxis. The poet is describing one of the operosa 
antra (2. 12) or artificial grottoes of the Muses, which were com- 
mon in the grounds of wealthy Romans. These musea are 
described in Plin. N. H. 36. 21. 42. 154 appellantur quidem ita 
(i.e. pumices) et erosa saxa in aedificiis quae Musea uocant 

156 NOTES. IY. iiL 

dependentia ad imagintm tpecus arte reddsndatru 
The stones have heen there long enough foe the moss to grow 
over them (uiridis). spelunca. Observe that this is theGx- 
aco. <xirr}\vyya. 

28. pendebant, from the projections ol the redC Qf. Plin. 
L c. tympana, 'the Bacchic instrument,' P. caula* 
erosis; not 'vaulted,' as P. seems to. suggest, pwmx is used 
of any porous stone, as P. points out. 

29. ergo, the ms. reading, is corrupt It cannot be ex- 
plained either (1) as an ergo of resumption after a digression, as 
m Aen. 6. 384, or (2) as a loose inference from what precedes, 
as in Virg. G. 1. 489, Eleg. in oh. Maecen. 114 redditur ar- 
boribus jlorens reuirentibus aetas: ergo non homini, quod fuit 
ante, redit. orgla, L. Midler's reading, is probable (cf. el. 
1. 4): and mystarum, not mustarum, as he spells it, is possible. 

SI. domlnae. Of. n. 5. 17* mea twrba, 'my iavoiu-- 

fteft.' The phrase is imitated hj Qt. Am, 1. X. 6, JL. iu 3. 8X1. 
Tr. 1. 5. 34. 

32, Gorgoxteo, Hippoorene, Pegasus having sprung from 
the blood of Medusa; a far-fetched ajUtasion. pakkja xxwtoa, 
taken by Ovid, Am* 2. 6. 22. Fwiew, like <frtrt$ k is ori g inally 
a proper name ; but el Bo*. EpcdL 9* 27. 

83. dtaena*, i.e. in <toffejren* parts ef the grotto ; cf. 
Vfag*G» 4. 432 siermM $e somm diuenae in liter* phocae. 
lura. I have restored this after Scaliger for the nnmeanjng 
rura of the mss, Xhe different provinces of the Muses are 

84. in so* 4ona, *oa the production of their special gifts.' 
So Virg. G. 1. 219 at $i triticeal in messem robmtaque 
farra exercebi* bumum* Cf. in thyrsos v. 35, 

85 gives descriptions of three Muses, of whom the second 
is probably Terpsichore; but the others can hardly be identified, 
as the Muses are variously represented in ancient art. ©ar- 
mina neruls aptat, very close to Hor. Epist. 1. 3. 12 fidi- 
busne LatinU Thebanos aptare modoa atudett 

36. manu utraame, Le. busily, energetically, Cf, el. 14 
(15). 24 regales manicas rupit utraque manu. rosam. 

Perhaps Erato is meant. Love is crowned with roses ; compare 
pseud.-Anacr. 53, 7, 15. For the collective sing. of. y. 6. 72. 

88. a lade, a false etymology. KoX\toir«4 is from ty, 
not <ty. See the Introduction. 

FOTES. IV. iil 157 

39. cygnls. This is somewhat magniloquent. As an erotic 
poet, Propertius is to ride on Venus' own swans ; cf. Hoa\ Od. 
4. 1. 10. Ovid follows him A. A. 3. 809 cygnis descenders 
tempus duxerunt collo qui iuga nostra suo, 

40. fbrtis probably goes with equi, as in Ov. E. A. 634. 
A. A. 3. 595. dneet, certainly noi=uehet (Hor., Ep. 1. 1. 93 
quern duci t priua friremis, has in -view the trailing motion of a 
ship) : nor of dragging a chariot (Od. 4. 3. 5) whieh was not 
used in Roman warfare. It mast then either be 'draw, allure 
you '; or else 'go before yon/ yon shall not follow in the wake 
of cavalry to war. sonus, a comprehensive word. It in- 
cludes the neighing and the prancing of the horses and the 
clatter of their harness. 

41. nil tibl sit, 'let it be no concern of thine,' more 
usually nil ad te sit, as Lucr. 3. 830 nil igitur mors est ad 
no s (Monro's note) : but Prop, uses the dat. for ad with ace. 
in other connexions also. See in. 29. 1 n. Compare haud 
tuumst uereri Plaut. Stick 5. 4. 36, with which compare 
Tib. 1. 6. 24 turn mihi non oculis sit timuisse meis and pseudo- 
Tibull.4.3. 3 neu tibi sit duros acuisse inproeliadentes. Nothing 
is gained by taking nil for non, as P. praeconia classica, 
' martial advertisement': praeconia seems better than prae- 
toria, the other reading, though flare class i cum, 'blow a 
trumpet,' is an authorised expression; cf. Virg. 6. 2. 539. 
classica is an adj.; compare classicum canere. rasco, 
'braying 1 ; of an ass Ov. F. 1. 433. 

42. flare, with an ace. as in Mart. 11. 3. S quantaque 
Pieria proelia flare tuba, and, nearer still, Gell. N. A. 1. 2. 6 has 
ille inanes glorias cum flare t. dngere is supported by 
Ov. Tr. 5. 2. 69 ftnitimo cine t us premor undique Marte and 
Stat. Ach. 1. 10 neque enim Aonium nemus aduena pulso 
('invade'), tinguere (N.) would be in grossly bad taste. 

43. qultous in caxnpis. The nom. to sit is changed from 
the inf. to a dependent sentence. Cf. Introduction. Observe 
the plur, of the two battles, Aquae Sextiae and the Campi 
Raudii, Mariano slgno, for the abl. see Introduction. 
The eagle is meant. Pliny N. H. 10. 4. 5. 16 says ' Gaius Marius 
in his second consulship made it (the eagle) the distinctive 
mark of the legions of Borne. Till then it was the principal 
one, but there were four others. Wolves, minotaurs, horses 
and boars preceded each company. A few years before it had 
begun to be the only one carried into battle ; the rest weie left 
in the camp. Marius abandoned them entirely.' 

158 NOTES. IV. iii. 

44. stent, 'the battle is 8et y ; cf/ Sil. It. 4. 274 medio 
stetit aequore pugna. Teutonlcas Roma refrlngat opea 
Cp. Hor. Od. 8. 3. 28 nee Priami domus periura pugnactt 
Achiuos Hectoreis optima re/ring it. 

45." quibus in campis is to be supplied with uectet, not quo, 
as P. A river can be said to flow through a battle-field. The line 
is generally supposed to allude to the victory of Caesar over 
Ariovistus. See B. G. 1. 53 (not 4. 1 as P.). perfasus, not 
very appropriate for a stream; but maerenti v. 46 shews the 
. Khine is half personified as in Ov. Tr. 4. 2. 42 cornibus hie 
fractis uiridi male tectus ab ulua decolor ipse sanguine Bhemu 
erit. There is a similar confusion between the river and the 
river-god in v. 2. 7 ; cf. Introduction. 

47. coronatos, i.e. fresh from a banquet. altmrnim, 
that of the uir v. 50. ad limen, like the serenader in 1. 16. 

48. 'The tipsy traces of the midnight rout,' i.e. the traces 
of a rout or 6camper of tipsy revellers ; such as the chaplets, 
torches, &c. which they would leave behind when punned. 
ebria would go more naturally with fugae ; cf. Introduction, 

49. excantare=' draw out by chants, 1 whether gods from 
a besieged city, the moon from the sky, or standing corn from 
a field ; but here metaphorical, by the blandi carminis obseqmo 
i. 8. 40. clausas puellas, Callim. Fr. 164 (Bergk) 17 reus i 

50. ferire, 'cozen,* a cant word for cheating; Ter. Ph. 
1. 1. 13. Cf. Prop. v. 5. 44. 

51. talia. For omission of verb see 1. 16. 45. 

52. Ovid gives the phrase a different turn Am. 3. 9. 25 
adiee Maeoniden a quo ceu fonte perenni uatum Pieriis ora 
rigantur aquis. Pniletaea. She moistened Propertius' lips 
with water from the spring from which Philetas drank. Cf- 
el. 1. 6. 

IV. vii. 


The subject of this poem is the drowning of Paetus, a young 
friend of the poet, on a trading voyage to Egypt. The poet 
draws an imaginary picture of the sad event and its circum- 
stances, and intersperses it with melancholy reflections on the 

NOTES. IV. vii. 159 

ring cf men and the power of the passion for gold which had 
an the destruction of Paetus. 

1. ergo. Cf. i. 8. 1 n. pecunla. Personified, as in 
>r. Ep. 1. 6. 37 regina pecunia, Juv. 1. 113 etsi, funesta 
:unia, templo nondum habit as, and so UXovtos in Aristoph. 

2. adimus seems hardly appropriate with Iter, unless the 
ase is 'we go near the path of death ' (i. e. to death ; cf. 1. 20. 

n.), Eur. Or. 1044 davdrov WXas fialveiv ; cf. adire peri- 
la Cic. Phaedras 3. 6. 9 has professi mortis audacem 
'am where audacem refers to the sailors, as immaturum here 
►es to mortis, 

3. I.e. you cruelly foster the vices of mankind by sup* 
ying them with an object; cf. rv. 21. 4 ipse alimenta 
)i maxima praebet amor. praebes pabula. Cf. Plaut. 
ad. 2. 6. 29 piscibus in alto, credo, praehibent pabulum. 
udelia. Statins Theb. 9. 300 has curiously varied the 
earring ibitU aequoreis crudelia pabula monstris. 

4. semlna orta, a confused way of emphasizing an idea by 
petition. de capita tuo, either (1) 'from you as source/ 
hich is not harsher than I. 18. 19 quae tu uiua me a possis 
ntire fauilla ' when I am asheB ' nor than fontis caput rv. 
) (19). 6 : for the metaphor see m. 18 (15). 6 non ego nequitiae 
cerer esse caput, or (2) 'from yourself/ as Hertzb. who 
impares Sen. Med. 1013 si quod est crimen, meumst — noxium 
acta caput. Perhaps, as P. suggests, there is an allusion to 
thene being born from Zeus' head. 

5. tendentem lintea, 'with canvas spread,' suggests a 
nooth course and a favouring wind. 

6. obruls, facis ut obruatur. torque quaterque. Pro- 
srtius is thinking of the storm and its savage determination 
1 drown Paetus; compare Leon. Tar. Anth. Gr. 7. 662 'Hxifarcra 
\aaaa, ri rw Tipapcos ovtws wXuovt 1 ov iroWj} vrjl TeXevrayopav, 
rpta x el f^V" affa % KaTarpyivtaffao Trovrtp truv <p6prq> \afipdv 
/* imxevafjUrrf. lnsano marl. Ov. Her. 1. 6 obrutus 
wanis esset adulter aquis. 

7. nam, explaining obruis. sequitur, 'in pursuit of 

ee.' exddit, 'made shipwreck of his youthful life.' Cf. 

jr. Andr. 2. 5. 12 uxore excidit, 'lost his wife. 1 Ov. M. 2. 

8 magnis tamen excidet ausis. Others take it 'he was lost 

his youth.' 

160 ITQTjBS. IV. vii. 

8. noma, i.e. an unexpected banquet; not, as P. titer 
Hertzb., a mere repetition of longmquis. longlnqtis, 
i.e. far from home ; xl 9. 29 longinquos ad Indos. The phrase 
is imitat 1 by Ov. Ibis 148 nostraque long in quits uiseera 
pise is edat, Claud. Eutr. 2. 334 longinquit piscibm. 
esca. Ov. Tr. L 2. 66 et non aequoreis piscibus esse eibum. 
Leonidas Anth. Gr. 7. 273 (of a similar fate) rbynp £w€vf*ros t 
ixQvvt icvpfia, cKxVMM" natat, of floating corpses and wrecks, 
v. 1. 116. 

9. iuflta, subst. Ov. F. 6. 491 maesta Learcheas mater 
tumulauerat umbras tt dederat miseris omnia iusta rogis. 
plae terrae, her son's dead body. For terra* compare in. 5. i 
26 n. pientissimvb in an inscr. OrelL C. I. 1. no. 4601 of! 
an infant two years old shews pius was a regular epitbef, 
though we have no reason for supposing that Paetus was not 
an affectionate son. Hertzb. takes the phrase as genitive after | 
iusta. 'The parental embrace of the earth' (P.) is not in 

10. pote, as adj., est being omitted. Cf. n. 1. 46. cog- 
nates, not for cognatorum. The rogi are the cognati ; cf. 
m. 5. 8 n. Prop, seems to imitate CatulL 68. 97 sqq. non 
inter nota sepulcra nee prope cognatos eompositum 

11. Compare a very similar epigram of Glaucns in the 
Greek Anthol. 7. 285 

ov kouls ovb* o\lyw Tirprjt /Sotpos* aXX' 'Epafflinrov 

rjv iaop$s avrrj xa<ra Od\aa<ra ra^os, 
(Skero yap ovv vrjl* rd 5* 6<rria xoL ror itcclvov 

nvBeratf aid via is ypuxrrd ftovatt ip&reur. 

The phrase in the second line may be an echo of Pericles' 
Traaa yij ra<pos. astant, a little more vivid than slant. 

Ovid imitates Her. 10. 123 ossa super stabunt uolucres 
infaanata inarinae. 

12. Observe how the vastness of the sea is suggested bythe 
rhythm. Note too that Prop, says pro tumula, not tumulus 
(r<ty<*). It is worth while reading Mr Buskin's most instruc- 
tive analysis of the lines "whose changing mound and foam 
that passed away Might mock the eye that questioned where I 
lay," Modern Painters m. p. 166. It is not all applicable 
here. But I may be excused quoting one sentence. 'Then, 
having put the absolute ocean fact as far as he may before oar 
eyes, the poet leaves us to feel about it as we may, and to trace 
for ourselves the opposite fact, the image of the green mounds 

JTOTEB. JV. Til k: 

(hut do not change, sad -flbefrinfee auioittBL tasmm tsar a 
not pass away; and theme to ioliow ami aavt la* aaaanami 
images of the calm life with the qmfttyawEU am. la*- 
life with the lading foam.' It ifa 
literally 'znoand,' hut it is a 

13. «wtwn*- 'ealaimtoiff.' -ftmvr. -cobs* o' fear ' a* 
t. 28, and Or. F- 1. 551 Coast Aasemtma* nm'r- axnv n*~ 
famia silttae. GL X, 2. 17 di#o<m£ui. xapfcae mittrjia r f r: 
Am. 1. 6. 53 ffi sari* « raptac. Jborca, sseaw O^ttnvuic. 
For the nOde see Plat. Phaedr. j,. 52U- 

14. tasta, Le. to excise audi crnfchj. 

15. qnUtnaiL, *why, prov,' am» «anpbatk atnc ecdiooma,' 
than gvad. So chiefly in the amm poefe. janatas. Ul -\. 
6 n. Veptsme, perhaps an alroaiox. to PoBeuusv*. 
land lacing Argenxumi, as Prof. £liis 

16. tir**—. * gnUtlesB.'' Bhipwre^r a* t rrcikhnaBXl inamj 
heaven is a common idea, e.g. Hor. 0l_ 2. i. .2C stj^, 

17. ae&attam ■■"— '— Far the use witu a eoliseirvt d 
numcrare pecus, numeral? tempos Garni lnsi. iL 172 : and 
Humerus uini, Ac. The forger of Consol Ijt. ha* 447 ^col 
numeral annos f In a different cannezian Hoi. i*p. 2. 5L 214/ 
mtales grate Humerus * 

18. mater in are tEmat, imitated in Or. U. 11 544 
Ceyct* tn ore nuZZa nz«i Halcponesi. mm mtfsat nmm oaaa, 

but Ov. M. 2, 8 caeruleos habet uuda dtos. Contrast x. b. 
41 n. Propertins has forgotten Keptnne t. la. 

19. nam explains the last phrase, lie eonstraction is 
complicated, ad saxa probably goes after Jfeata; compare 
i. 20. 20. noctornia, as P. rightly says, after the ship was 
moored at erening ; Theocsr. 13. 33L 

20. ^hw^mi*, the hawsers lor mooring, vefrporft, 
Aen. 1. 169. detrtta, worn away with the chafing. caw 
dunt, 'fall away.' 

21. sunt, 'there areS absolute. Ct t. 6. 15 est Phoebi 
fugiens Athamana ad Mora pontus. cm**, 'the distressed 
love. ' Cf. i. L 36 n., and for the plnr. x, 11. 7 ignibus and note 
an furores i. 5. 3. testantla. He takes Argennum to be derived 
from Argynnus, the name of the youth. Agamemnon, as Prof, 
Ellis points out, was specially honoured near Glazomenae (Paua, 
7. 5. 6), apparently in connexion with some hot springs. 

p.p. n 

162 NOTES. IV. vii. 

22. The text is Prof. Ellis' brilliant emendation for the 
vs. minantis aquae. He says : 'We may fix the scene of Paetos' 
shipwreck at that part of the coast of Lydia where the land, 
which contracts into a narrow neck between Clazomenae on 
the north and Teos on the south, again broadens oat into a 
rocky peninsula with three bold promontories, Corycium south, 
Argennum south-west, Melaena north. All these are projection.* 
of Mount Mimas*/ notat, 'brands,' cf. iv. 10 (11). 4* 
Tarquinii nomine quern simili uita superba notat; paraphrased 
by Ov. (?) Her. 16. 208 et qui Myrtoas crimine signal 
aquas. Mimantis, called the ' windy ' Mimas, Od. 3. 173. 
The stormy character of the coast is clear from the account of 
the battle of Arginusae. 

23, 24. These lines seem to point to the other legend of 
the death of Argynnus, which represented him as lost while 
swimming in the Cephissus in Boeotia. Prof. Ellis thinks that 
'the original legend was connected with the Boeotian coast, that 
it subsequently extended to the opposite side of the Aegean, 
and that Propertius who, as a learned man, had heard the 
story connected with both localities, indicates in these two 
lines somewhat awkwardly the connexion.' He paraphrase* 
the four lines thus: 'P. was wrecked on the coast which re- 
tains the name of the lost Argynnus, that youth whom Aga- 
memnon vainly sought to discover, and kept the fleet at Aulis 
waiting in the hope of doing so — a delay which caused the 
death of Iphigenia.' non soluit. The negative is thoroughly 
Propertian. See Introduction. mactatast. So v. 1. 109, 
110. In iv. 22. 34 we have the substituted stag (subdita eerua). 

25. reddlte, Neptune and Aquilo v. 13 — 18. Scaliger's 
transposition of 25 — 28 to come after 70 is not proven. If the 
lines are moved, they should be put after v. 64. corpus, the 
body despoiled of fife, positaque. The Neap. us. has 
positast ; but this makes the passage too jerky. 

26. Compare Petron. 114 out quod ultimum est iratis etiam 
ftuctibus imprudens harena componet. ullis, not Terr 
complimentary as an address, but Prop, is inattentive to the 
precise form of the expression. Cf. Introduction. hares*, 
addressed as in i. 22. 8. 

27. transiWt. in. 2. 5 n. 

28. tlmor, see n. on v. 13. A similar warning in Anth. 
Or. 7. 266 vavrjyov rd^os elul AcojcXIos ° ol 8* dyeryorrac, <ptv rokpsi* 
oar ifAov Tclaftara Xwrapevou 

* Voir. ColL Lond. Professorial Dissert 18TS-&, which ses. 

NOTES. IV. viL 163 

29. curuate. Mr Peskett's emendation* for the us. curuae 
(Edd. curuas). Cf. iv. 22. 35 curuare cornua, 'to make carved 
horns. 1 texlte is appropriately used of ships, ' fabricate/ as 
in Aen. 11. 326. causas, i. e. things that cause death. Ov. 
E. P. 4. 7. 12 aspicis et mitti sub adunco toxica ferro et telum 
cansas mortis habere duos. 

30. acta, of impelling ships, as in Ov. F. 1. 340. Pro- 
pertius means that those who go on the sea are rowers in 
Death's vessel. Mr Beid suggests that the metaphor is from 
hurling a javelin, for which see v. 6. 22 n. 

31. Lachmann puts the stop after fatis, comparing Seneca 
N. Q. 5. 18 quid maria inquietamus t par urn uidelicet ad 
mortes nostras terra late patet, an obvious imitation. 
Lucan 3. 196 fatisque per illam accessit mors una ratem 
supports the punctuation of the text, which gives a more usual 
construction and a better rhythm. 

32. Sen. Contr. 7. 1 multas rerum natura mortis uias aperuit 
et multis itineribus fata decurrunt. mlseras, 'leading to 
misery.' See Introduction. 

33. There is a play of words. teneat='keep its hold 
on you,' i.e. physically on your ship; tenuere, metaphorically 
'kept you from wandering.' 

34. cul, i.e. who is not satisfied with his native land; 
imitated in Ov. Am. 2. 11. 30 et t felix, dicas, quern sua terra 
tenet t 

36. consenuit, like Catullus' phaselus 4. 25 recondita senet 
quiet e. portus. Cf. in. 20 (17). 24 an quisquam in mediis 
persoluit uota procellis cum saepe in portufracta carina natett 

37. substrauit, like a smooth floor. Cf. stemere aequor. 
Lucretius frequently uses substratus of the sea, e.g. 6. 619. 
For the sense cf. Lucr. 2. 557 infidi maris insidias uiresque 
dolumque — subdola cumplacidi ridet pellacia pontu 

38. A curiously roundabout expression. Cf. Introduction. 

39. triumphales, a proleptio use, 'going to a triumph.' 
Capharea. For the form cf. Pacuv. 136 pater Achiuos in Ca- 
phareis saxis pleros perdidit. Ovid has -eus more correctly 
Tr. 5. 7. 36. Cf. Hygin. Fab. 116. Nauplius, king of Euboea, 
in revenge for the death of his son Palamedes, lighted false 

• Proposed Independently by Mr W.T. Lendrum of Csiufl ColL, Cambridge. 


164 NOTES. IV. rii. 

fires on the Greeks' return from Troy and so decoyed them 
on to the rocks of Caphareus. Gf. v. 1. 115, 116. 

40. Graeda, a natural exaggeration, as in bk. v. L c 
tracta, dragged by the currents. Gf. Lucan 5. 235 Ewripus- 
que trahit cursum mutantibus undis Chalcidicas puppet ad 
iniquam classibus Aulin, salo, probably an abl. of place; 
possibly one of means. 

41. paulattm with lactnram. Gf. i. 22. 3 n. This 'gra- 
dual, piecemeal loss' is the most harrowing part of Odysseus' 
sufferings. socium, contracted form as in Aen. 5. 174. 
VUxes, an instructive example of how Greek words are treated 
in early Latin, u is for o (as Hercules for older Hercoles), I for 
d (compare oleo with odor), i f or U (v, as in oriza), x for <r<r (ai 
mala&o for fiaX&aaw). 

42. soliti. MS8.8oli; i.e. 8oli(li), non nalnere In. In 
a different sense v. 7. 68 in scelus hoc animum non ua- 
luisse 8uum. 

43. patrlo, paterno, as in 11. 7. 20. Cf. Hor. Epod. 2. 2 
Beatius Me qui — paterna rura bobus exercet suis. uerteret, 
'if he had continued to turn.' The student must carefully 
distinguish between impossible suppositions relating to the 
present and those relating to the past, which are represented 
by the same forms in Latin. uertere = 'plough/ as in Yirg. 
G. 1. 2. 

44. uerba mea. P.'s trans, 'the sentiments which" I now 
express in words' may be right, though there is no reason why 
Propertius should not have given Paetus a warning. pondus 
habere. Cf. v. 7. 88 cum pia uenerunt somnia f pondus habent. 

45. uiueret, 'he would be now living to feast.' Observe 
how the language is humoured. The intervention of duxisset 
makes this change in the use of the imperf. (uerteret v. 43 * * 
uiueret), possible; cf. Aen. 11. 162 obruerent Rutuli Ulis! 
('would they had been overwhelming me!' a pictorial imperf.) 
animam ipse de diss em atque haec pompa domum me non 
Pallanta referret ('were now bringing me'). ante sum 
Penates. For these family festivities cf. Hor. S. 2. 6. 66 
noctes cenaeque deum quibus ipse meique ante Larem pro- 
prium uescor, Ov. F. 6. 305, 306 ante focos olim scammt 
consider e longis mos fuit et mensae credere adesse deos. dnlds 
conuiua, cf. rv. 9 (10). 25 du lei a que ingratos adimant con- 
uiuia somnos. 

NOTES. IT. viL 165 

46. pauper, at. Cf. n. 5. 15 n. pauper is virtually nega- 
tive ; hence at is used. Cic. Ao. 2. 11. 56 non cognoscebantur 
fori*, at domi. Here potest. This, the ms. reading, is cor- 
rupt, posset being required. Lachm. reads potti for potis (esset), 
which is hardly satisfactory, though better than the much 
praised flare, which can only mean ' where nothing can blow,' 
which is not true, or 'where blowing has no power}' which is 
very harsh. I think sat est was the original reading. Compare 
contentus v. 46. ' He was poor, it was true, but he was on terra 
firma, where freedom from misfortune is enough food for content- 
ment.' The correction is somewhat confirmed by Callinu Fr. 
HI, (114 Bergk) which Prop, is imitating, rplfffiaicap el iravpwp 
o\pt6s i<rri fi£ra, vavriklrit o? vrjiv (' unaoquainted with') f^ei 
§iov. potest in y. 38 induced the corruption'. 

47. non tulit, 'he could not bear to hear,' not 'he had 
not to endure.' P. hunc, pointing him out as a warning. 
Tib. 1. 8. 71 hie Marathus quondam miseris ludebat amantes. 
stridorem, 'the hurtling' of the blast ; cf. Aen. 1. 102 strident 
Aquilone procella. 

49. thylo thalamo (mss. chio calamo). In. my first edition 
I took this ' on a bed made of the Ova or Ovla or citrus tree,' 
thalamus being used as in Prop. iii. 7 (6). 14 r Petron. 26. See 
however Addendum, p. 246. This wood (thuja articulata, still 
grown in Barbary) was chiefly used for tables and couches, 
Mayor on Juv. 1. 137 orbibus. thyio is an adj. like Ovios [iff) 
Theophr. H. P. 5. 2. 1. Oricia terebintho. The substance is 
put for the object made from it, as often. The phrase is from 
Virg. Aen. 10. 136 (where the wood is used as a setting for 
ivory) quale per artem inclusum buxo ant Oricia tere- 
bintho lucet ebur. ' The turpentine tree (a name derived from 
terebinthinu8) is a stately tree resembling the ash,' P. For 
Orico8 see i. 8. 20 n. 

50. effultum, for ms. et fultum; cf. Mart. 3. 82. 7 
effultus ostro Sericisque puluinis. pluma, a second abl. 
'propped up with cushions of feather tapestry'; the work of 
the plumarim, see Becker Gall. pp. 288, 289. So Mart. 14 
146 perdidit unguentum cum coma, pluma tenet; and so Juv. 
1. 159 uehetur pensillbus plumis, ' feather hangings,' is best ex- 
plained, pauper v. 48 shows the picture is ideal, cf. Addendum. 
uersicolore, ' changing colour,' like shot silk: the proper mean- 
ing. So of the peacock's feathers, of the colours on a pigeon's 
neck (plumae uersicolores Cic. Fin. 3. 5. 18), of Astur's arms 
(Aen. 10. 181) ; and hence coupled with lustre (metaphorically) 

166 NOTES. IV. vii. 

Quint. 8. praef. § 20 translucida et uersicolor quorumda* 

51. When the drowned have been exposed for some time 
to the action of the elements, their nails drop away. Pro- 
pertius knew this ; and, not understanding the cause, thought 
that it might happen during life from the mere force of the 
waves. This is however impossible. 

52. trazlt. So Gr. *Xjc«j>, Eng. 'draught.' Lucan 7. 822 
has trahe, Caesar, aquas. hiatus, 'the open mouth.' 

53. fexrl. in. 22. 24 (18. 44) me licet unda ferat, te modo 
terra tegat. uldit, 'looked on at.' A very vivid use. In- 
proba, 'pitiless'; cf. Ov. Tr. 1. 11. 41 improba hiemps and 
i. 1. 6 n. 

54. tot, those mentioned w. 51 — 53. For a similar enu- 
meration cf. Anth. Gr. 7. 392 XcuXa^ kcu iro\i> Kv/xa teal dvroXal 
'ApKTOvpoio koX ffKoros AlycUov r oTdfia ica/co? irek&ytvs rattf* 
ajia Trdvr ixvicqaev iprp via. 

55. liens. See in. 23. 7 n. tamen, in spite of the dis- 
tress painted in the preceding lines. extremis querelia. 
So of Ariadne's last lament ; Cat. 64. 130. 

56. niger, from its depth and the darkness. clauderet 
ora, i.e. was choking him. Imitated by Ov. A. A. 2. 92 clau- 
serunt uirides ora loquentis aquae. 

57. Not, a3 P., *di maris, et uenti, et, 1 &c. The dl are the 
Ventl ; cf. Hor. Od. 1. 3. 15, 16 Noti quo rum arbiter Hadriac 
maior tollere seu ponere uolt freta. 

58. quaecumque, perhaps ' every passing wave.' For the 
Structure v. 11. 16 et quaecumque meos implicat unda pedes. 
degrauat, 'causes to sink, weighs heavy on.' Ovid, M. 5. 352, 
has degrauat Aetna caput. 

59. primae. There seems no authority for tenerae, which 
has apparently been printed by Lachmann by mistake, and 
has found its way into other editions. lanuginis is a loose 
gen. of description, ' years whose mark is.' miseros annos, 
the tendency commented on in i. 2. 31 pushed to its extreme; 
'me, a wretched boy.' Callim.l. c. has aXX' iftos alwp Kvpcurur 
nlOilrjs /jaXXa? ia^Klaaro. It is curious to see what the author 
of Ov. Heroid. 15 has done with the line, verses 85, 86 quid 
mirum si me primae lanuginis aetas abstulit atque anni 
quos quis amare potest ? (abstulit has evidently been suggested 

NOTES. IV. vii. 167 

by rapitis, whioh is the usual word for untimely death, v. 11. 
62, 66, though here used in a different sense). 

60. attulimus, ( I came with*; cf. v. 6. 31. longas, 

* taper hands,' whose youthful beauty is now destroyed by the 
sea (v. 51) ; a pathetic reproach. Long hands were considered 
beautiful, Prop. n. 2. 5. 

61. alcyonum scopulis, the rocks where they build. So 
Ov. M. 11. 746 incubat Alcyone pendentibiis aequore nidis. 
'This agrees well with the character of the Asiatic coast as 
of the vcuira\6e<r<ra Xlos from which, at Argennum, seemingly 
the narrowest part of the channel, it is separated by a distance 
of less than eight miles ; cf. freta.* Ellis. 

62. caeruleo, cf. in. 21. 16 n- fusdna sumpta. 
So Posidon in the Od. 5. 291 avvayev ve<pi\as irapa^e & 
vbrrw, x € P (r ^ rplaiwav iXww. in me, 'against me.' 

63. regionibus, indef. plur. 'some district of Italy.' 
Augustus divided it into 11 regiones. The word is used gene- 
rally of any division of a country. euehat, l£tp£yjc<M, 'throw 
me ashore at.' Ov. H. 18. 197 optabo tameri ut partes cx- 
pellar in ill as. 

64. hoc de me, my lifeless, mangled frame. For the expr. 
cf. iv. 11 (12). 13 neue a liquid de te fiendum referatur in 
urna. modo seems to shew that lioc is nom. to sat eriU 

65. Compare Petr. 114, which reads like a parody, et ilium 
quidemuociferantemin mare uentus excussit repetitumque infesto 
gurgite procella circumegit atque hausit, torta uerti- 
glne, 'in eddying whirl.' uertigo is the circular movement. V. 
Aen. 1. 117 is a good commentary, ilium ter Jluctus ibidem 
torquet, a gens circum, et rapidus uorat aequore uortex. 

66. quae, referring vaguely to Tiaec fantem; cf. i. 16. 38. 
The same idea in a different connexion comes in Thuc. 3. 59. 4, 
OTep 5& dpayKaioP Kcd xaXe7roJraroi' rots «5' £x ou<rt » Myov reXcv- 
t<xp, diori Kal rod fiiov 6 Klvdvvos iyyits per* avrov. 

67. centum. So Sophocles, Plato, Ovid. Kereo genl- 
tore, for the abl. cf. V. Aen. 3. 614 Achaemenides ge nit ore 

68. tacta, 'who hast felt a mother's woe'; i.e. whose grief 
for Achilles should make you sympathize with others in the 
like affliction; Ov. Am. 3. 8. 2 Memnona si mater, mater 
plorauit Achillem et tangunt magnas tristiafata deas* 

168 NOTES. IV. viL _ 

69. lasso supponere bracchla mento, appropriated by Or. 
E. P. 2. 3. 39: cf. E. P. 2. 6. 14. 

70. granare, 'burden,' i.e. weary with his weight. 

71. mea vela, ' see sail of mine/ i.e. see me sailing. 

72. ante fares domlnae. Cf? n. 1. 55, 56 una meo$ quomam 
praedatast fcmina aensus, ex hac ducentur funera nostra 
domo. condar, sepeliar: usually with some defining word, 
e.g. kumo. Hence perhaps with an accessory metaphor 'laid 
up' of a ship; cf. Cat. 1. c. nunc recondita tenet quiett. 
Compare lners, which seems to have been specially used of 
weather-bound seamen and their crews. Compare i. 8. 10. 
Here it = 'living the inactive life of love/ uitae inerti Tib. 1. 1. 
5; cf . id. 1. 1.58 tecum dum modo sim, quaeto, segni* inersqtu 

IV. ix. 


This poem is addressed by Propertins to Maecenas, and is 
an apology for his not venturing on the historical subjects 
recommended to him by that minister. The poet appeals to 
him to respect a modesty like his own, and grounded, unlike 
his own, on a real incapacity for the subjects which it declined. 
The only clues to the date are given in w. 53 — 56 which shew 
it was written after the battle of Actium and after the restitu- 
tion of the signa had been demanded from Parthia. 


Maecenas, why impose upon me a task which is too great 
for my powers (1 — 6) ? Everyone has a sphere of his own. ' 
the range of art Lysippus, Calamis, ApeUes, Parrhasius, My. 
Phidias, Praxiteles have each their special branch in which 
they are preeminently distinguished (7 — 16). And so it is ro 
all eases (17 — 20). My natural bias is the same as yours (21. 
22). Though you might have advancement at home and gkrj 
in war, though your influence with Caesar secures you all tb?t 
you could desire, you prefer humility and retirement (23 — Su*. 
This prudent abstinence will make you as famous as the hero© 
of old (31, 32). Tour loyalty to Caesar will ensure you immor- 
tality by his side (33, 34). So I too must be modest (35, 36 . 
I cannot venture on heroic themes (37 — 42). My theme is Ion 

NOTES. IV. ix. 169 ' 

(43 — 46). But, if you lead the way, I will rise to a bolder flight 
and sing of vaster subjects, the wonders of the old mythology, 
the ancient and the modern glories of Borne (47 — 56). Mean- 
while view with favour my present attempts, and do not forget 
that your example is my justification (57 — 60). 

1. eques, 'simple knight.' Maecenas ostentatiously de- 
clined the offices of the state, contented with being the private 
minister of Augustus ; and this 'humility' is duly celebrated by 
the court poets. Etrnsco de sanguine regum, 'of Etrurian 
royal blood' : i.e. descended from the Lucumones ; cf. Hor. Od. 
3. 29. 1 Tyrrhena regum progenies (a similar phr.), Mart. 12. 4 
Maecenas atauis re gibus ortus eques. One of his ances- 
tors was Porsena; hence Augustus in Macrobius Sat. 2. 4. 12 
calls him berylle Porsenae. Cf. Sohol. Hor. Od. 1. 1. 

2. Intra, i.e. who take less than your fortune entitles 
yon to. Hence Ov. Tr. 3. 4. 25 crede mihi, bene qui latuit 
bene uixit, et intra fortunam debet quisque manere suam, so 
Quint. 11. 3. 8 scripta Hortensi intra famam sunt, cupls. This 
may mean that circumstances would not let him realize his 
humble ambition. See however Introduction. 

3. Bcribendi aeqnor, ' a sea of writing.' This use of a word 
denoting space with a verbal noun is perhaps unparalleled 
in Latin. Dante Infern. i. 60 has quella fonte Che spande di 
parlar si largo fiume. But we hardly expect to find such 
modern boldness in an ancient poet. 

4. non apta, for they may make my bark capsize; i.e. I 
must not choose great themes, or I may suffer poetical ship- 
wreck. Ovid appropriates the metaphor, Tr. 2. 548 saepe dedi 
nostrae grandiauelarati,A. A* 3.26 conueniunt cumbae 
uela minora tuae. 

5. quod nequeas, i.e. ferre. The inf. with verbs like 
possum, is sometimes omitted where it can be readily supplied 
from the context, either when some other part of the verb to be 
supplied comes in the sentence (so most commonly), or when 
the verb is suggested by some other word, (as here by capiti 
committer e } ) or very rarely when it has to be inferred from 
the general sense, App. ApoL p. 534 posse litteras ejus ad per- 
niciem, non posse ad salutem (so. scribere). For the sentiment 
cf. Hor. A. P. 38 sumite materiam uestris qui scribitis aequam 
uiribus, et uersate diu quid ferre recusent quid ualeant umeri, 
Jjivy 24. 8, 17 magis nullius interest quam tua, T. Otacili, non 
tmponi eeruicibus Puis onus sub quo concidas, Statius Silv. 4. 

170 NOTES. IT. ix. 

4. 97 has Propertius in view, stabuntne sub ilia mole umeril 
an mag no uincetur pondere ceruixt die, Marcelle, feraml 
Jluctus an eueta minores nosse ratis nondum Ionii credenda 

6. dare terga. The back is exposed in falling forward as 
well as in running away, though the former is a rare applica- 
tion of this phrase. 

7. omnia rerun, ' everything in the world.' P . is not exact 
in supplying genera. The neut. is indef. and the gen. is like 
Aen. 2. 725 opaca locorum 'the dark bits in the ground'; cf. 
Hor. A. P. 49 abdita rerum^ Od. 2. 1. 23 cuncta terrarum. om- 
nibus, masc. Ovid imitates A. A. 3. 188 lana tot out phircs 
bibit': elige certos. nam non conueniens omnibus omnit 

8. ex aequo iugo. The general sense is ( in order to be famous, 
you must have a province of your own and keep to it. You 
must be solus and have no one running alongside of you.' The 
usual explanation, approved by Prof. Ellis, is ' no two candi- 
dates for glory pull evenly in the chariot of fame'; aequo iugo- 
taov {Vyo'p, a yoke in which two animals pull evenly; cf. i. 5. 
2n. I prefer taking it 'from level yokes,' like those of the 
two charioteers in Soph. El. 738 i^awaavrc $v>d: i. e. 'you 
cannot get any glory out of a race in which you do not distance 
^youi' competitor.' Mr Reid sends me the following note : " I 
believe palma to be the right reading for Jama and iugo to be 
certainly a hill, as in v. 10. 4 nee iuuat e facili lecta corona 
iugo, which gives the key to the general sense here. What ex 
aequo originally was is a puzzle. Some mss. have eoo; possibly 
read e Coo.. .ilia — ' Such laurels are not to be won on the Coan \ 
(Philetean) Parnassus.' Coum iugum in this sense would be 
no harsher than Cyreneae aquae in v. 6. 3. This emendation 
has at all events the merit of explaining the ms. corruptions. 
ecoo would readily pass into eco, equo, aequo, and ex would be 
easily added. Jlamma would come out of plama. ilia and ulla 
are interchanged incessantly." 

9. gloria, for the nom. cf. in. 1. 6. Lyslppo, the 
celebrated statuary in bronze. He was a contemporary of 
Alexander the Great and was the only statuary whom that 

Erince allowed to represent him, Hor. Ep. 2. 1. 240. One of 
is most celebrated works was a statue of Kcupc'y or Oppor- 
tunity, with a lock of hair in front, but only baldness behind. 
anUnosa. The senses of ' spirited ' and ' lifelike ' naturally pass 
into each other, as we could have gathered, even if the gloss 

NOTES. IV. ix. 171 

quoted by Hertzberg had not been preserved, animosus animates 
tfjuftvxos* For this character of Lysippus' work cf. Quint. Inst. 
12. 10. 9 ad ueritatem Lysippum ac Praxitelem accessisse 
optime affirmant. The same idea is expressed by the gram- 
marian Nicephorus Chunnus (quoted in Smith's Diet. Biogr. 
s. v. Lysippus), who speaks of Lysippus and Apelles as making 
and painting {(aaas eU6ras koX vvorjs uopov koX Kivijaeus dvo\ei- 
TrofUvas, Boissonade Anecd. vol. in. p. 357. 

10. exactis, 'finished,' /a cti* ad unguem: cf. iv. 21. 30 
siue ebore exactae seumagis acre manus. Cicero and Quintilian 
say his work is less rigid than his predecessors'. Calamia, 

a contemporary of Phidias, who was most famous for his eques- 
trian statues, though these were by no means his only wc~ks. 
Compare Ov. E. P. 4. 1. 33 uindicat ut Galamis laudem quos fecit 
e quorum, Plin. N. H. 34. 8. 19. 71 ipse Calamis et alias qua- 
driga* bigasque fecit, equis sine aemulo expressis. se mini 
iactat, commends himself to my taste; cf. Ov. (?) Her. 21.62 
quid mihi te iactas f gratia nulla tuast. For the escape of per- 
sonal feeling in mihi compare in. 29. 13 hie equidem Phoebo 
uisus mihi pulchrior ipso and Introduction. 

11. Veneris tabula, the celebrated picture of Venus rising 
from the sea. See Plin. N. H. 35. 10. 36. 91 and elsewhere. 
summam, 'perfection 1 ; cf. Quint. 12. 1. 20 nan maligne cre- 
diderim defuisse ei summam illam ad quam nemo propius 
accessit. Apelles ranks his Venus as his chef tfoeuvre. 

12. Parrhasius, the younger contemporary of Zeuxis 
(circ. b. c. 400]. His miniatures {parua arte) were not his 
most characteristic works. The only mention of them besides 
here is in Plin. N. H. 35. 10. 36. 72 pinxit et minoribus to- 
be Hi 8 libidines, eo genere petulant is ioci se rejiciens. To these 
miniatures Ovid probably alludes Trist. 2. 524, calling them 
paruae tabellae. parua arte, i.e. a skill exercised on 
small subjects. This is preferable to taking it 'small works of 
art,' a sense confined to the plur. as e. g. Hor. Od. 4. 8. 5. 
locum, 'claims his rightful place/ Some read iocum from the 
passage in Pliny without necessity. 

13. *To the mould of Mentor groups are chief assigned.' 
argumenta, ' subjects': i. e. scenes or groups; cf. Cic. Verr. 2. 4. 
56. 124 ex ebore diligentissime perfecta argumenta erant in 
ualuis (a group like those mentioned in ut. 29 (23). 9, 10), 
Ov.' M. 13. 684 (cratera) fabricauerat Aleon MyUus et longo 
caelauerat argumento. Such an argumentum is described in 
Mart. 8. 51 quiz labor in phialat docti Myos anne Myronist 

172 NOTES. IV. ix. 

Mentoris hate manu$ est an, Polyclite, tuaf...terga promt 
peeudis geminis Amor aureus alis: PaUadius tenero lotos ah on 
sonat. fonnae, * mould' or 'shape.' Here, as in v. 2. 61, it 
has a technical reference which has been overlooked by the 
commentators. To understand it we most go a little into 
detail. In the earlier periods of ancient art statues seem to 
have been made by embossing or beating oat thin softened 
plates of metal on to a raised pattern ; for examples see Miiller, 
Ancient Art §§ 60, 71, Ac. Later this process was superseded 
to a large extent by casting in moulds, an invention ascribed to 
Phoecus, a Samian, who flourished circa b.c. 630. These 
were exclusively used in the case of large bronze statues; but 
in the case of gold and silver statues and of smaller objects 
embossing was retained (id. §§ 807, 311, 312). But moulds 
were also used in the processes of caelatura or Topcvrunj, the 
object being roughly cast and then finished with the caelum or 
graver. The statuary's moulds are called TdySot and x^o* 
in Greek, &nd format in Latin which is also used of the collator's 
smaller moulds as here. See Pliny 86. 22. 49. 168 format in 
quibus aera funduntur. Hence a statua maxima forma, 
Plin. 34. 5. 10. 19, is a statue of great size. It is not certain 
whether the raised pattern used in embossing was called forma. 
Toreutic and statuary must be carefully distinguished, though 
many of the greatest Greek artists were celebrated for both 
(Smith, Diet. Ant. s. v. caelatura). magls, 'more than 

others,' 'especially.' Mentoris, the most famous of the 

Greek silver chasers. His date is uncertain; but he lived before 
B.C. 356, as most of his larger works were destroyed in the 
burning of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Martial fre- 
quently alludes to him. sunt addita, a curious use ; they 
are ' an adjunct' of the forma, they naturally go with it. additut 
is used as a sort of adjective ; ci Pacuv. Fr. 269 fetus muliebri 
ingenio additust, i.e. you can't have the one without the 
other. Here it requires a stretch of the conception to connect 
the ideas, as they are so far asunder. The connexion is easier 
in Soph. El. 1040 ctprjKas SpBtas £ ci> Tp6<TK curat rac$, with 
which contrast Ant. 1243 6Vy fuiyurrw dvdpl t po <tkc it at 


14. 'But Mys bids the acanthus wind on a narrow way.' 
at, Propertius' usual at in contrasts; cf. el. 3. 36. Kyos, 

a contemporary of Parrhasius who made designs for him. Like 
Mentor, he was a toreutic artist. flectlt iter, 'bends its 

course aside': so of turning out of one's path, Livy 1. 60. 1 
jiexit uiam Brutus; in Aen. 5. 28 fleets uiam uelis 'guide' your 
course by your sails. acanthus, a frequent ornament on 

NOTES. IV. ix. 173 

caps; e.g. Yirg. Eel. 3. 45 molli circum est ansae amplexus 
a cant ho. exlguum. The acanthus was a plant with 

long broad leaves. So PropertiuB probably means that it is 
straitened, as it were, on the narrow goblet. 

15. 'For Phidias Jupiter arrays himself in ivory statue.' 
This line may be easily mistranslated. The fundamental idea 
-which runs through it is that it is hard to tell whether the God 
is there in person or in representation, the ideal is so fully 
realized. This is a frequent theme with ancient writers, when 
speaking of the Olympian Zeus; Livy 45. 28. 5, of Aemilius 
PauUus' visit to Olympia, Iouem uelut praesentem intuens 
motus animo est, Lucian Somn. 8 $etdlas iiceivos tdeige tqv Ala. 
Compare Strabo 2. 8. 199 ' He was the only one that saw or 
the only one that revealed the forms of the Gods.' Anth. Gr. 
16. 81 rj Beds -rjXd' irrl yrjv £% oOpavov, eU6va 8el£(av, $et&a, rj at 
y' ipnt rbv debv dyf/bfievos. To pass on to the separate words : 
Phldlacus is an emphatic predicate, 'at the bidding, for the art 
of Phidias.' The adj. is much more indefinite; but this is the 
sense. For Propertras' habit of throwing the stress of the 
sentence on to a single word, see Introduction. Iupplter. 

Of itself, this word might mean either (1) the real Zeus, the 
original, or (2) the Zeus of Phidias's imagination, his conception 
of Zens, or (3) his realization of that ideal, the statue itself. 
(2) is certainly what is intended. Compare Cic. Orat. 2. 9 nee 
uero Me artifex, cumfaceret Iouis formam aut Mineruae, con- 
templabatur aliquem e quo similitudinem duceret, sed ipsius in 
mente insidebat species pulchritudinis eximia quaedam 
quam intuens in eaque defixus ad illius similitudinem artem et 
rnanum dirigebat. But the expression also carries something of 
(1). First we have (cf, forma, se ornat) a hint of the personality 
of the God as suggestive of the perfect art of the sculptor. 
Zeus is not loth to be thus exhibited; he is himself a 
consenting party. Compare the words in which Lucian de 
Sacrific. 11 scoffs at this feeling. * Nevertheless those that pass 
into the temple no longer fancy they are looking on ivory from 
Ind or gold from the mines of Thrace, but the very son of 
Kronos and Rhea, brought by Phidias to earth and bidden to 
survey the desolation of Pisa.' Again (3) is suggested by the 
phr. Phidiacus Iuppiter, which would be most naturally 
applied to the statue itself, as in Mart. 7. 56. 1. se ornat. 

There is an idea of spontaneity about this, 'naturally clothes 
himself.' It is rather a middle than a passive, as P. takes it. 
On this see the Introduction. It is interesting to see how in 
these uses which reappear in Romance, as in s'echapper, muo- 
vere si, the Latin is returning on its old path which produced the 

174 NOTES. IV. ix. 

passive (ornat-u-r=ornat-se). ornare here is to ( equip, array 
magnificently,' dvKeiv. So somewhat similarly in Yirg. Aen. 
12. 344 nutrierat Lycia paribusque ornauerat armis. 

16. 'The stone of his native city shields Praxiteles' fame.' 
Braxltelem, the illustrious sculptor who flourished about b.c. 
350. We know that he was an Athenian from inscriptions, 
and that his most famous works, the Cnidian Aphrodite, the 
Eros, &o., were made of Pentelic marble, so that there is not 
the slightest necessity to emend Paria. ulndlcat, 'defends, 
protects' rather than 'claims as its own,' as P. takes it; cf. v. 
9. 56 qua se summota uindicat ara casa, ' asserts its sanctity.' 
propria urbe, for the abl. of origin see Boby 1264. 

17. 'There are some on whom the poem of Elis' racing 
oar attends.' est quibus = <?<rrh' ots, a bold Graecism, Introd. 
Eleae, i. 8. 36. concurrit, afia rpix^h cvvrpe'x* 1 J compare 
Soph. Tr. 295 (in a slightly different sense) voKkfi 9 <rr' dwynj 
rjjie tovto ovvrp^x^v. Propertius might have used comitatur, 
dtcoXovdei: but concurrit gives the 'racing.' Prof. Ellis takes 
it 'for some the prize-aiming chariot contends in the race,' 
'runs with other chariots.' He compares Stat. Silv. 3. 1. 179 
nunc agmine blando certatim placidae concurrit ad oscula 
Pollae. For palma he compares Yirg. G. 1. 59 EUadum 
palm as Epiros equarum. It is, I think, the prize itself. 

18. In celeres gloria nata pedes, ' there are some for whose 
swift feet glory is destined': a perverted expression for which I 
know no parallel, though natus in is not unfrequent: e.g. Hor. 
Od. 1. 27. 1 natis in usum laetitiae scyphis, Ov. M. 15. 117 
placidum pecus inque tuendos natum homines, compare Ov. 
M. 2. 223 natus que ad sacra Cithaeron. 

19. 20. 'One is born for peace, another is profitable for the 
warfare of the camp. Eaoh follows the seeds that his nature 
has planted.* satus ad, like natus ad supr. ntlnt 
armis, Ov. F. 2. 239 and elsewhere, armis is a word used 
in so many senses that castrensibus is added to it for clearness, 
semlna, the tendencies implanted in his nature, the original 
bent of his nature. Gic. Lael. 5. 19 has a more consistent 
metaphor, sequi naturam optimum bent uiuendi due em* 

21. 'It is your plan of life, Maecenas, which commends 
itself to me.' uitae praecepta, 'rule of life, maxim of 
living': cf. Hor. S. 2. 4. 95 forties ut adire remotos atque hawrirt 
queam uitae praecepta beatae. 

22. eogor. The commentators have taken needless pains 
over this word. If it is not the Propertian use of coyer, for 

NOTES. IV. ix. 175 

which see Introduction, it is used apologetically. Propertiua is 
obliged to turn Maecenas' own example against him. ex-, 

emplis tula, 'your own ensample': i.e. arguments drawn from 
your own conduct. superare, • to overcome you, to refute 

you': not to 'outdo you/ as P. takes it. 

23. dominas secures, 'imperial axes' with their vast 
powers. So Mart. 12. 21. 9 speaks of Borne as the urbs 
domina. Romano in honore, 'in Boman office.' For 
Romanus cf. in. 1. 4 n. 

24. ponere. This is a zeugma. With secures it means to 
'plant,' place literally, with iura to place or lay down meta- 
phorically. Comp. Yirg. Aen. 1. 264 mores que uiris etmoenia 
ponet, ' establish the men customs and walls.' The first 
sense receives some explanation from a coin of Cn. Piso and 
Cinna, which is copied in Smith's Diet, of Antiquities s. v. 
Fasces, where the consul is represented as delivering an address 
with the fasces upright in the ground on both sides of him. 
For this purpose the securis was probably furnished with a 
spike like the butt-end of a javelin, arvp&Kiov or aavpwrip, 
though I cannot find any direct mention of it. In Hor. Od. 3. 
2. 19 aut sumit aut ponit secures it is used in a different 
sense. For its use with lura 'lays down the law' cf. v. 9. 64 
ponit uix siccis trutia iura labris. P.'s view that 'it is more 
probable that sumere is to be supplied to the word secures than 
ponere literally interpreted' is certainly incorrect; though he 
does well to remind us that it is a nice question in cases like 
the present, whether the verb actually bears two meanings or a 
second verb is left to be mentally suggested by the first. Cf. 

25. perhastas. This which is Markland's conjecture is 
not satisfactory, as the Parthians were not famous spearmen. 
Xjachmann's astus is not much better. He thinks astus pug- 
naces (for which epithet as applied to the Parthians he com- 
pares Lucan 3. 265) is opposed to timido astu which occurs in 
Stat. AchilL 1. 385, and is nearly the same as astus belli SiL 
It. 16. 32 non ars aut astus belli uel dextera deerat; cf. v. 54. 
The ms. reading hostes is certainly corrupt : it cannot be taken 
in either of the two ways between which P. vacillates, either as 
4 hostes qui ex Medis constant 1 or 'the enemies of the Medes, the 
Parthian or Bactrian peoples.' The phras£ of Seneca Med. 
713 pharetraque pugnax Medus aut Parthi leues suggests 
that arcus, J. Helvetius' conjecture, may be right, in spite of 
its divergence from the ms. reading. For the use of ire in 

176 NOTES. IV. ir. 

this connexion compare Yal. Fl. 1. 438 tu medio 8 glcutto bom 
ire per hostes. 

26. flza per axm&=fixis armis. Comp. Virg. (?) Cul. 69 
tellus gemmantes picta per herb a 8 and Ov. Her. 18. 8 freta 
uentis turbida per que c auas uix adeunda rates, Manil. 2. 142 et 
gaudente sui mundo per carmina uatis. For the general sense 
cf. Tibull. 1. 1. 53, 54 te bellare decet terra, Messala t mariqiu 
ut domus ho8tile8 praeferat exuuias. 

27, 28. ' And Caesar gives thee power to work thy will, and 
at every moment the stream of riches pours into thy lap.' 

27. tlbi. Observe the triple repetition and cp. Introduction. 
ad effectum, 'to work thy will/ for the accomplishment of your 
aims. So ad effectum rem adducere. 

28. tarn fadles, 'easily flowing,' coming at your call as if 
from a cornucopia; cf. i. 9. 15 facilis copia. lnslnuentur= 
in sinum fwndantur 'find their way to your bosom.' I can 
only find this use in Statius, who probably took it from Proper- 
tius, Silv. 2. 1. 234 et periisse nega, desolatamque sororem qui 
potes et miseros perge insinuare parentes. Lewis and Short 
quote Appul. M. 9, p. 219, 23 insinuatis manibiu ambulant, 
* with hands in one's pockets ' so to say. 

29. 'Thou refrainest and in lowliness thou dost gather 
thyself into modest shade/ parcis. This absolute use is 
rare; Stat. Ach. 1. 572 thyrso par cent e ferit, ie. with a gentle 
touch of the thyrsus. tenues in umbras, 'into a humble 
retirement.' tenuis belongs rather to the subject of the sen- 
tence. Perhaps the phrase is a false echo of in. 3. 20 tenuis 
umbra. colllgls, of shrinking up. Compare Virg. Aen. 12. 
491 se collegit in anna, Aen. 12. 862 alitis in paruae subitam 
c oil e eta figuram=breuiter concreta Prop. 

30. 'Of thyself thou furlest the swelling bosom of thy 
sails.' uelorum. For the sense cf. Hor. Od. 2. 10. 23 
sapienter idem contrahes uento nimium secundo turgida uela, 
plenos. So Cic. Dom. 10. 24 plenissimis uelis nauigare. 
subtrahis, i.e. from below. 

31. magnos Camillos, as in Virg. G. 2. 169, the pluralis 
magnificentiae. For the comparison of person and thing see 
i. 9. 11 n. ista ludicla, * thy wise resolve.' For the plnr. 
cf. Ov. H. 3. 104 semper iudiciis ossa uerenda tuis. 

33. 'Thou wilt tread on a path inseparable from Caesar's 
fame.' tenebiB, 'hold firmly,' keep firm footing; cf. Aen. 5. 

NOTES. IV. ix. 177 

332 wxtiffia presto baud temat titmbmt* aria. Ismm i-e. 

liis path of bine. 

34. erunt. For the ptor. which is dne to the attraetioi. of 
the predicate see Boby 1435. van, lunmm, witL ax aEs- 
sion to v. 26. Maecenas' real trophies will lie loyalty* 

fides, d ii. 1. 36 «t sutnpta et posit* face f&ele caput- 

35. uellfera, the same metaphor as in tt. 4, 3ft. V*mn*t 
picture the vessel scudding before a high wind war a heavy 
sea; a fresh breeze and a swell. ftnmo. a rnugafc fahorteav 
ing of the -o in Propertius; eL 

36. tota, 'I linger all my time in die sh^Her of a petty 
stream': so the xss. tafia, is a tempting but not a 
necessary emendation. sab eslgw* ■— ■! — is certain 
phrases the meaning of 'under 9 passes into that of 'under the 
shelter of Now a thing may be sheltered in two way*, wiueh ae» 
distinguished by Latin usage. It may be (a) clout u> an otyeet, 
in its shadow, so to speak; this is the sense in tub vrbe, kt~ i 
or (b) it may be actually surrounded by it, in it ©r m iU midst. 
This is the sense in the phrase sub uaUe (Or. F. 4. 427, tat.\ 
'in the valley's covert.' We find («J in i- 14L 12 e* Ugitur rubris 
gemma tub aequoribut where the poet is **»™vi»»g of the 
dome of sea rising from the strand {eL fommmhn aequor) and 
in m. 23 (19). 13 n. tub harundme. (b) come* in hl 30 (24). 
39 Idaeo legisti poma tub antro 'in Ida's delL' Here we may 
take sense (a) with P. who compares vjmpueu' * anebor near 
the mouth of a river'; or, as I prefer, sense (£>j * sheltered in it,' 
by its banks, nostra morast, virtually =190 surer; eL Intro- 
ductdon. For mora in this sense et TaL FL 2. 303 stora nee 
term tibi Jxmga cruentit. 

37. flebo, 1. 9. 10 n. For its constructions m. 23 (19). 7. 
In dneres sedlsse, of the collapse of a burning town. Hence 
Stat Theb. 3. 184 ueteris cum regia Cadmi fulmineum in 
cinerem monitU IurumU iniquis contedit. paternoa. 
This is generally taken as in Hot. Od. 1. 20. 5 pate rnifluminis 
ripa 'your native stream.' But if this is understood metaphori- 
cally, as meaning that the arx sank into the downfall of Thebes, 
its state and citizens, the expression is unintelligibly harsh. 
If, on the other hand, it is construed literally, 'it sank into 
the ashes of its native land,' it is absurd; for into what other 
ashes could it sink? The passage in Statins points another 
way. The allusion there is to the destruction of Semele and 
of the palace with her. Compare Capaneus 9 defiant address to 
Zens Stat Th. 10. 902 seq. tu potius ueniat. — en eineret £«• 

P. P. 12 

178 NOTES, IV. ix. 

meleaque busta tenentur. nunc age, nunc in me totit wtu.. 
fiammis, Iuppiter: an pauidas tonitru turbare puellas forHoret 
soceri thalamos exscindere Gadmif So paternos cinera, 
the ashes resulting from Zeus' fatherhood or caused by Zens 
then a father, are the fulmineum cinerem of Stat. , and refer to 
the birth of Dionysus which Propertius elsewhere calls ma- 
ternos Aetnaeo fulmine partus iv. 16 (17). 21. 

88. semper, with flebo understood. It indicates impati- 
ence; cf. Hor. Od. 2. 9. 9 tu semper urges flebilibus modit 
Mysten ademptum. I cannot conceive why the emendation 
septem should have been universally accepted. It puts in 
Propertius' mouth a statement which is contrary to the fact, 
whether it refers to the first or to the second expedition against 
Thebes or both together. It is, moreover, unneceRsary, as the 
plural proelia covers just as much ground, proelia, the inde- 
finite plural, referring to the single combat of Eteocles an-i 
Polynices. It is possible, though not very probable, that lie 
alludes to the fight of the Zvaprol, 

89. Scaeas, so. portas. So Auson. Epitaph. Her. 15. 3 
Astyanax Scaeis dejectus ab altis. The wooden horse entered 
Troy by the Scaean gate. Apolllnis, i.e. built by him and 
Neptune for Laomedon ; ci Ov. M. 12. 593 (said by Neptune 
to Apollo) uiuit adhuc operis nostri populator Achilles. 

40. rediase, for the change of construction from area cL 
jii. 23 (19). 7 sqq. 

41. Neptunla, cf. Yirg. Aen. 8. 2 omnia humi fumat Nep- 
tunia Troia and v. supr. presslt, fecit ut imprinter e tut. 
Pers. 1. 106 (of a book) nee pluteum caedit nee demon* 
sapit ungues, aratro, Hor. Od. 1. 16. 20 imprimeretque 
muris hostile aratrum exercitus insolens, 

42. Palladlae artls. Horn. Od. 8. 493 t6> 'Ereios ivoirper 
ffw 'Afl^tf, Yirg. Aen. 2. 15 tquom diuina Palladia arte 
aedificant. For the gen. Boby 1280. 

43. placulsse, he is thinking of his book. So Ov. Am. 2. 
4. 19, 20 est quae Callimachi prae nostris ruxtica dicat carmtn*; 
cui placeo, protinus ipsa placet. Observe how much less will 
content the poet than the plagiary. 

44. Dore. The mss. have dure which is evidently cor- 
rupted from in. 82 (26). 44 dure poeta. The name Doris seems 
to have had a special application to the district of Asia Mukv 
adjacent to and including the island of Cos ; and the Ceramiens 
is called the Doridis Sinus, Hence the emendations C« 

JfOTXS. IV. ix. 179 

and FUIeta are ■— ij . The adj. m <bb of tbe dipped 

foots of lrhiiih rmp iiiti m i in i ii fw i i a Tl j fond (cL Inteodnstioa). 
The form Dorm comes in Isidore) 9. 2. 80 aid » also found 

45. rant, 'inflame' with lore. 

46. dmiit an eqraBoa of entJu&vastie adinirasion; ef. 
^D e0r.2.42.179maTMl»a^a>as»idm«rf«. atom 
■cnt^etOr. B. A. fin. port ewdo fedidefcs men via notapoeta* y 

48L B uif umd— J» y Mg, O nismftwfi i. He was the king of 
the Giants according to Horn. Od. 7. 58. So thai Propertta* 
alludes to the Gigantomachia as well as the Titanomachia 
(inCoeat). JM scene was the Phkgraean plains ; el l 20. 9. 

49. tanzia, a poetical commonplace; see t. 1. 4 and el t. 


50. etwJar, set about describing; SO. It. 1. 1 ordior 
arm*. It is useless to press the future with P. ; whether he 
had or had not described them before, he could say * I will begin 
doing so now.' firma, 'now firm,' * gtahliRhed* =firmata* The 
me of the adj. reminds ns of Liry. 

51. sflnestri ex ubere, • at the wild beast's teats': Le. suckled 
by the she-wolf. For the expression Hertzb. compares jmwtqs 
used of a none Calhm. H. Bern. 96. The ex=ao: it indicates 
•attachment to,' as in m. 3. 10. The well-known group gives 
the position exactly. 

52. sob tea fossa, 'to the height of thy command*: i.e. 
till your bidding is done. The idea of movement, essential for 
sub with the ace., is contained in crescet. 

53. prosequar, as in Yirg. G. 3. 340 quid pascua uereu 
protequart Compare ra. 1. 19 n. The triumphal progre— 
makes the word appropriate. utroque ab utore, from the 
Eastern and the Western shores of the world. The phrase is 
from Virgil G. 3. 33 et duo rapta manu diuerto ex ho$U tropaea 
bisque triumphatat utroque ab More gentes. o uant cs , 
used loosely. An ovation was an inferior triumph. 

54. remlssa, 'unstrung': cf. Hor. Od. 8. 8. 23 iam 
Scythae laxo medUantur arcu cedere campi*. tela is used 
here for the 'bow,' as vice vena in Greek rd|a is used for 
♦arrows.' It is however quite possible that the sense is 'the 
arrows cease to be strained on the bow.' Of. Virg. Aen. 12. 


180 NOTES. IV. ix. 

815 nonut tela tamen, nonut contendere t arcum. art* 
tae rugae, the gen., as Hertzb. points out. fugae is wed 
in the predicative use so common in Propertius and =' Par- 
thorum subdole fugientium.' For the sense cf. eL 4 (3). 19 ttk 
fugacis equi. P.'s translation 'unstrung for a crafty flight' 
makes nonsense, as the bows would not be unstrung if the flight 
were crafty or pretended. 

55. castra Pelusi. Pelusium surrendered to Octaviu 
without a blow. Propertius' language implies its defences 
were dismantled, a fact I can find nowhere else. subntta. 
the usual word for overthrowing defences. ferro, used of 
any iron implement. 

56. graues = 'murderous,' * death-dealing. 1 So grauiui- 
mum supplicium, grauior hostis. In sua fata, 'to work 
his own destruction.' So Ov. Tr. 5. 2. 30 ut taceam strictat 
in mea fata manus, and Prop. rv. 22. 38 curuatas in «« 
fata trabes. We may translate 'the hand of Antony armed 
against his life.' 

57. The sense is *I will launch into these great theme? 
with your countenance and example but not without it 
Meanwhile do you help me in my present course and gnife 
my car in its poetical career.' The emphasis is on coeptw 
mollia. On metrical grounds this alteration is very probabk. 
besides the fact that mollis, the ms. reading, might seem &- 
inopportune allusion to Maecenas' mollitia. However it ma. ; 
be defended by passages like Claud. Eutrop. 1. 364. fantor. 
There seems to be a confusion between the spectator and the 
driver. iuuentae, ' my youthful career.' 

58. signa, i.e. the clamor fauentium. ImfflMp^* rotii 
'as my wheels speed along.' 

59. hoc laudla concedls, i. e. so much reputation jwr 
example allows me. I confine myself to the modest walk is 
which I can copy you. 

60. partes tuas, metaphorically 'go over to your side, joe: 
way of thinking ; cf. Hor. Od. 3. 16. 22 sqq. nil cupienti» 
nudus castra peto et tram fug a diuitum partes linquere gesty 
'the ranks of wealth.' The In is due to the idea of motion im- 
plied in the sentence; cf. Gic. Att. 15. 4 quo die in Tax* 
Ionian ess em futurus. Compare Lewis and Short 8. v. 

NOTES. IT. xriiL 181 

IV. xviii. 


The subject and the interpretation of this poem alike are 
wrapt in 'Avernian' obscurity. It is an elegy on the death of 
M. Claudius Marcellus, son of C. Claudius Maroellus and 
Octavia, Augustus* sister, a young man of the greatest promise. 
His talents and amiability recommended him to his uncle's 
notice, who probably designed him as his ultimate suocessor. 
In b.c. 24 he appointed him curule aedile for the following 
year, and gave biTn the means for conducting his office with 
the greatest magnificence. To the great grief of all, he died in his 
year of office, b.c. 23, from a malady contracted at Baiae, in 
spite of the skill of the Imperial physician Antonius Musa who 
applied to his case the same hydropathic treatment which had 
proved successful in restoring Augustus who had fallen ill 
about the same time. The poets of the court vied in tendering 
their consolation to Octavia and her brother ; and besides the 
present poem we have the well-known tribute of Virgil in the 
6th Aeneid. His death was attributed by some to poison admi- 
nistered by Livia (Dion Cass. 53. 33), probably an ungrounded 
suspicion. Dion seems to incline to the belief that it was due 
to the unhealthy condition of the atmosphere which proved 
fatal to a great many people. If we could fix the reference in 
v. 9 his pressus, we might assert with certainty that it was 
caused by the mephitic exhalations of Baiae. This is almost 
the only characteristic of that neighbourhood now remaining. 
See a striking description in Eustace, Classical Tour through 
Italy, Vol. i. p. 557. He is speaking of Solfatara, a district 
about a mile N. E. of Futeoli. 'The shattered hills that form 
this rampart are impregnated with sulphur and heated by a 
sort of subterranean fire. They are destitute of all verdure 
and all appearances of vegetation. The plain below is a pale 
yellow surface of sulphurous marl thrown like a vault over an 
abyss of fire. * * * Sulphurous exhalations rise from the 
crevices and from an orifice at one of the extremities a thick 
vapor by day and a pale blue flame by night burst forth with 
a murmuring sound and great impetuosity.' Of the once 
gloomy lake of Avernus, he says, p. 634, that it is 'quite 
changed' and that it is ' a scene on the whole light, airy, and 
exhilarating.' Of the Luorine (ib.) that in one night it changed 
into 'a conical mountain black and barren' (the Monte Nuovo), 

182 NOTES. IV. xviiL 

while the part remaining is 'a muddy pool half covered with 
reeds and bulrushes.' 


It was on the shores of Baiae, once under the especial 
favour of a benign deity but now haunted by some demon 
power, that he died (1 — 10). High birth, a mother's love, the 
favour of Caesar, youth and promise — all were of no avail (11 — 
16). Attend, ambition, this is what awaits you (17 — 20). But 
not you only : it is the lot of all. The law of death allows 
no exemption. Great men, great nations all feel the stroke 
(27 — 30). Yet though he be gone, may he obtain the celestial 
honours of his ancestors (31 — end). 

1. The allusion is to the IuUus Portia, constructed by 
Agrippa. He cut a passage from the Lucrine lake into the 
lake Avernus, and at the same time strengthened the via 
Hercutis, the low reef between the Lucrine and the sea, by an 
artificial dyke (hence clausus) to prevent the waves from break- 
ing over it as they did in heavy gales. The lake Avernus thus 
formed a deep, landlocked harbour. clausus all, cf. 
Livy 30. 24. 9 insula ea sinum ab alto claudit. iimbroso. 
The steeps overhanging the Avernus were formerly covered with 
dark woods; cf. Sil. It. 12. 123 turn tristi nemore atque wnbris 
nigrantibus horrent. They were felled by Augustus 1 order; see 
Servius on V. Aen. 3. 442 Atierna sonantia siluis. lndit, 
'sports, ripples': usually alludit, which has been conjectured. 
If all. be the right reading, we must erase the comma at the end 
of the line and take ttagna as the aee. after it, for which con- 
struction cf. Gat. 64. 67. pontus must be the outer sea. 

2. fumlda, i.e. uaporifera Stat. Silv. 3. 5. 96; cf. Or. A. A. 
1. 256 quid referam Baias praetextaque. litora uetis et quae dt 
caUdo sulfur e fumat aquamf The hot springs of Baiae are 
well known, and the Lucrine itself seems to have been tepid, 
stagna, the Lucrine lake, in loose apposition to the previous 

3. Ulsenus, the trumpeter of Aeneas who is said to have 
given his name to Miwwniwn Aen. 6. 234. qua with *»»»»»»• 

4. sonat, with the rippling or dashing sea. Hercnlea 
4 The Lucrine lake broadens out as far as Baiae. It is separated 
from the outer sea by a bank a mile long and wide enough lor 
a carriage to pass over. According to tradition it was Heracles 
who carried it through the sea.' Strabo 5. 4. 6 (p. 245). 

NOTES. IV. xviii. 183 

5. mortalla urbes, so. mortalium, cf. Introd. dextra 
quaereret, 'in his conquering progress through the towns of 
men. 1 quaereret is not quite —peteret, which we might have 
expected, but implies that, Alexander-like, he was ever looking 
for something to subdue ; Yirg. (?) Gatal. 11. 53 aliam ex alia 
bellando quaerere gent em 'hunt out'; cf. Lucan2. 572 territa 
quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis, and Prop. v. 9. 18 bis mihi 
quaesitae, bis nvea praeda bones. Compare also Fr. con- 
quirir from conqvirere. 

6. Thebano deo, Hercules (called deus as in rv. 1. 32), as 
born and worshipped at Thebes; not Bacchus, in spite of 
cynibala. There was a close connexion between the worship of 
Dionysus and Heracles, as Hertzb. points out. concrepuere, 
'clashed together^; Ov. F. 3. 740 aeriferae comipum concre- 
puere manus. Contrast the gentleness of Keats* phrase 'the 
kissing cymbals. ' The sense is — 'It was here that, when 
Hercules was subduing the world before him, he was met by 
the emblems of peace and festivity.' The legend is otherwise 
unknown; but Hercules, as the god of hot springs, was wor- 
shipped at Baiae. 

7. at. ' Now all is changed. The healing springs of the 
friendly deity have afforded shelter to a hostile power.' There 
is an anacoluthon, Baiae resuming v. 2. cum, emphatic, 
4 not without grave ch rge.' Lucan 1. 642 aut hie errat, ait, 
nulla cum lege per aeuura mundus, ' attended by no law.' 

8. constittt, as an archer in ambush. hostls, pred. 

9. his, 'these malific influences' ; a Similarly vague use in 
i. 20. 51. pressus, 'succumbing to,' prcmere of death from 
malaria and other causes in Ov. E. P. 1. 7. 11 nos premet aut 
hello tellus aut frigore caelum, Justin 2. 1 (ferunt) Aegyptum 
ita temperatam fuisse ut neque hiberna frigora neque aestiui 
soli* ardores incolas eius premerent. Styglas uoltum 
demlsit In undas, 'he stooped his face into the Stygian wave,' 
a phrase for dying; cf. n. 9. 26 cum capite hoc Stygiae tarn 
poterentur aquae, 'were closing over your head.' The old name 
of Avernus, Styx, is also alluded to; Sil. It. 12. 120 sqq. iUe, 
olim populis dictum Styga, nomine uerso stagna inter eelebrem 
nunc mitia monstrat Auernum; turn tristi nemore atque umbris 
nigrantibus horrens etformidatus uolucri letale uomebat suffuso 
uirus caelo. 

10. spirltus ille, 'that noble soul'; whereas spiritus iste 
leuis z. 9. 32 is *thy frail spirit. ' Lachmann's explanation, 
followed fry P., .'he wanders a ghost' involves a post-classical 

184 NOTES. IV. xviii. 

and ecclesiastical use of spiritus. Observe how Properties 
avoids mentioning the name Marcellus, and compare Virg. Aen. 
6. 869 sqq. lacn. This recalls the Indian superstition em- 

bodied in the poem 'The Lake of the Dismal Swamp' that the 
malarious and igneous vapours playing on stagnant waters are 
the souls of the departed. 

11. optima, 'his noble mother,' ie. the nobleness of his 
mother. No Roman lady ever deserved this title better than 
Octavia. Plutarch calls her XPW a Qavfiaarov yvpcuicJs Ant. 31. 

12. focos. The sacred shelter of Augustus 1 hearth was 
no protection to Marcellus. Augustus had adopted him and 
married him to his daughter Julia. 

13. modo, with the whole sentence, not with tarn pleno 
only as P. uela, the awnings over the theatre ; of course 
'different from the aulaea, Georg. in. 25/ which were the stage 
curtains forming a drop- or rather a raise-scene. 

14. omnia gesta, 'all that was conducted': cf. i. 6. 24 
lacrimU omnia not a meis. It might = * the doing of every- 
thing. ' 

15. steterat. A bold and very vivid expression. Time 
suddenly stopped for Marcellus in his twentieth year. I cannot 
find any exact parallel: but the use is in keeping with the 
general meaning of stare. Compare rv. 9 (10). 5 stent acre uenti y 
cease to stir, Livy stab ant adulescentes * refused to move.' For 
the pluperfect of instantaneous acts, cf. Livy 1. 14. 10 Mettius 
inpaludem sese coniecit auerteratque ea res etiam Sabinos, 'at 
once drew their attention' rather than 'diverted for a moment' 
(Seeley). There is another possible, though less likely inter- 
pretation, steterat may be compared with steterunt n. 8- 10 et 
Thebae steterunt altaque Troia fuit *has ceased to stand,' i.e. 
has fallen. So it would = 4 his 20th year was no more, it was 
blotted out,' or he died in that year. Bat it could hardly = • he 
had completed it.' 

16. bona, * accomplishments, noble qualities': et n. S. 28 
ista decern menses nan peperere bona. ortoe, • confined to 
such a narrow field'; cf. rr. 1. 39 n, dies, 'tune'; so Hor. 
Od. 4. 13. 16 tempora quae semel notis eondita fastis inclusit 
nolueris dies, Prop. m. 7 (6). 54 sic nobis. .forsitan inclmdUt 
crastinafata dies. 

17. 1 mo, addressing the ambitions, Ovid 
9. 105 i nunc, tolle animos etfortia facta 

ftOTES. IV. xviil 185 

in a day-dream ; of. Tib. 1. 5. 35 haec mihi Jingebam, ' such 
were my wild fancies.' 

18. In plausum, 'rising to cheer'; Phaedr. 5. 7. 28 in 
p lausus consurrectumst. iuuent, ( delight you. ' 

19. snpera, 'outdo the drapery of an Attalus.' For 
Attalicas see in. 5. 6 n. 

20. gemmea, 'spangled with gems, jewelled'; of. Ov. F. 
2. 74 gemmea purpureis cum iuga demit equis. lata, 
' those gauds.' The statement is hyperbolical ; unless indeed 
the rich tapestry used at the games was burnt with Marcellus' 
dead body. 

21. sedtamen. The sense seems to be : 'Death does not 
single out the illustrious, but takes all.' This is some conso- 
lation, but not much. hue, an ellipse which the imitator 
supplies Auct. Consol. Liv. 359 fata manent omnes: omnes 
expectat auarus portitor et turbae vix satis una ratis. tendi- 
mus hue omnes; so Ov. Met. 10. 34; but cf. rv. 4 (5). 30 in 
nubes unde perennis aqua. ordo keeps up the allusion 
to the theatre. 

22. mala, 'evil.' It expresses the strongest dislike; cf* 
Cat. 3. 13 at uobis male sit, malae tenebrae Orci, Ov. Am. 2. 
11. 1 prima malas docuit * * • Peliaco pinus uertice cacsa 

23. ezoranda, 'to be appeased.' Stat. Silv. 5. 2. 94 saeuas 
utinam exorare liceret Eumenidas timidaeque auertere Cer- 
heron umbrae. 

24. tornl, 'glowering'; so of Pluto Juv. 13. 50 Sicula 
toruus cum coniuge Pluton. Virgil says of Charon Aen. 6. 
300 stant lumina fiamma. publlca cumba, the skiff that 
takes all ; rj tcwSokos Setopls Aesch. Sept. 858. 

25. ille, the typical human being. The reference is 
vaguely to the context ; cf. Introduction. Mr Beid says : ( the 
typical warrior as opposed to the man of beauty and the man 
of wealth,' apparently taking ille as ' this one.' ferro. For 
the metaphor compare Sallust, Fragm. Hist. 1. 43 med. unum 
omnibus finem natura uel ferro saeptis statuit, and Enn. It 
is not from a snail or tortoise concealed in a shell, as P., misled 
by the use of caput, supposes. Propertius is thinking of the 
tnrres aeneae of JDanae, <fec., which are no safer against Death 
than against Jove. 

186 NOTES, TV. xviii. 

26. mclusum caput, 'his immured life.' For the head 
as representing the body cf. v. 11. 10. protrahlt. Or. Am. 
3. 9. 37, 38 uiue pitu, moriere pins : cole sacra, colentem Mors 
gravis a templis in caua busta trahet. 

27. Nlrea, St kclWuttos arrjp vrb iXtor rj\$er rear aXXur 
Aaraur fier apt/xopa UrjXeiupa II. 2. 673. exemit, * ex- 
empted.' Used absolutely, ct Quint. 4. 2. 74. 

28. parlt, an indef. pres. The gold dust washed down 
by the Pactolus was said to be the source of Croesus' pro- 
verbial wealth. opes, i.e. gold ; cf . dtuitiis el. 23. 22. 

29. The poet passes from individual to national visitations, 
hie luctus, 'this source of grief; i.e. death by pestilence, 
II. 1. 50 sqq. Ignaros, i.e. until enlightened by Calchas ; 
cf. H. 1. 92. 

30. Atridae, gen. magno stetlt, i.e. Achiuis, cf. Hor. 
Ep. 1. 2. 14 quicquid delirant reges, pUctuntur Achiui. 
amor, ChryseU. Agamemnon's refusal to restore her was the 
cause of the pestilence ravaging the Greek Jiost. There may 
be also an allusion to the anger of Achilles and its disastrous 
effects, which were a secondary result of the refusal. alter, 
the first being Argynnus el. J. 22. 

81. at, v. 5. tibl, addressing Marcellus. ^ traidt, 
Mr Paley's conjecture, hss. traicis. Here, as in v. 7. 55 
sqq., Propertius mentions two boats in the netherworld, one 
conducting to the Elysian fields and the other to the infernal 
regions. So Hegesippus, Anth. Gr. 7. 545 ttjp &t6 wpKaiys 
iv&iZid <pcuri k4\€V0qw 'E/ytyr root dyadobs els 'Pada/uxWtar &y*ir. 

82. hue with qua v. 83. animae, gen., as we see 
from the imitation in Ovid M. 13. 487 quae corpus complexa 
animae tarn fortis inane; cf. also Hor. Od. 3. 11. 23 inane 
lymph a e dolium, and Boby 1336. portet, P. for ms. por- 
tent. The corruption arose from the copyists taking animae for 
'angels' ! oorpus, 'thy body void of breath': really his 
Manes. But these confusions are very common; cf. Or. Tr. 
3. 11. 25 quid inanem proteris umbramf quid cine rem, saxis 
bustaque nostra premis t and v. 11. 20 n. 

33. Claudius, M. Claudius Marcellus, who took Syracuse 
212 B.C. 

34. Caesar, the Dictator, his ancestor by adoption as 
Marcellus by descent ah humana via, i e. ab kominum 
uia. So Keats speaks of ' human shores.' There is a very 


NOTES. IV. xviii. 187 

strange use of the adj. in. Hor. Epod. 5. 88 uenena magnum 
fas nefasque non ualent conuertere hum a nam uicem, 'like 
mere men.' The precise meaning of via is doubtful. It hardly 
= * the way of death ' as Hertzb. takes it, but rather ' the ways 
or haunts of men.' Cf. Horn. H. 6. 202 rdrov dvdp&iruv 
dXedptav. It is very possible that there may be an allusion 
to the tombs that lined the great roads from Borne, espe- 
cially the Appian. There is a curious passage in Seneca in 
his satire on Claudius (Apocolynt. 1. 2), which refers to a 
tradition of the apotheosis of the two first emperors which has 
been nowhere else preserved. 'Ask him who saw Drusilla 
going to heaven. He will tell you that he saw Claudius wend- 
ing on his way "with uneven steps" (non passibus aequis). 
Will he, nill he, he must see all that is done in heaven. 
Appiae uiae curator est qua sets et diuum Augustum et 
Tiberium Caesarem ad deos Use.* cesslt in astra. The 

Romans did not make the same strict distinction as the Greeks 
did between heaven, the abode of the Gods, and Elysium, 
the paradise of the under-world. Their heroes and their 
poets might attain to heaven itself. So Ennius says mi soli 
eaeli maxuma porta pate t, and so Cornelia (v. 11. 101) moribus 
et caelum patuit: sim digna merendo cuius konoratis ossa 
uehantur auis (in the last line she is thinking of Elysium). 
Hextzberg has a curious idea that Propertius is alluding to a 
back way to heaven from Elysium, which he finds in the Aiot 
686s of Pindar, 01. 2. 77, and in the *Xt/*a£ Fragm. 7 totI 
xXlfJutKa <T€fjipdp OuXvfiirov Xnrapdv kol8' bbbv, and which he says 
is expressly mentioned by Quintus Smyrnaeus. 

IV. xxiii. 

Introduction. - 

This subject of this poem is the loss of some writing tablets 
of Propertius. He had sent them with a message to Cynthia, 
and they were lost on their return with the answer. The poem 
is filled with lamentations for their loss, conjectures about the 
message which they contained, and an offer of a reward for 
their recovery. There is no clue to the date. 

1. ergo, cf. el. 7. 1 n. tarn doctae, i.e. 'on which 

so much' poetry had been written, ' both of Cynthia's and 
Propertius'. doctae , as in Hor. Od. 1. 1. 29 do ct arum hederae 
praemia frontium. For tarn x. 16. 18 n. nobis, a pathetic 

dat. , ' woe. is me.' Cf. i. 16. 18 mihi. 

188 NOTES. IT. xxiii 

2. parlter, with dat. Livy 88. 16 pariter ultimae gentes 
propinquis. tot Dona, 'all those treasures'; a vague 
expression for the kind message written on the tablets. Con- 
trast the use in el. 18. 16. 

3. manibus, we expect the gen. But see in. 5. 7 n. 
detriuerat usus, strikingly like Hor. Ep. 2. 1. 92 quod legerti 
tereretque uiritim publicus usus, 

4. non slgnatas, even though not stamped with my seal 
habere fldem, ' to be believed, carry authority ' : but rv. 5 (6). 
6 * to be loyal/ Mr Beid well compares Gic. Arch. 9 cum 
Qabini leuitcu omnem tabularum fidem resignasset, 

5. sine me, i.e. without my writing anything; cf. Stat. 
Silv. 4. 9. 9 noster (so. libellus) * • praeter me mihi comtitit 
decussi. puellas, indef. plur. * a maid'; so n. 7. 15 n. 

6. The sense seems to be similar to that in Mart. 14. 8 
nondum legerit hos licet puella, nouit quid cupiant ViUlliani. 
dlserta, 'speaking': i.e. their very silence is eloquent Ov. 
K. P. 2. 5. 51 dumque silcns adstat, status est uoUusque 

7. flxum aurum, gold plates, such as were subsequently 
used in the consularia diptycha or the tablets which the 
consuls under the Empire distributed on entering office ; Claud. 
Stilich. 2. 846 and Rich Diet. s. v. diptycha. caras, ' pre- 
cious' in a double sense, as either 'costly' or 'treasured.' 
Their value was not a commercial one. 

8. buxo, a Propertian abl. of attendant circumstances; 
see Introduction. ' Their wax was discoloured and their wood 
was common box.* 

9. qualescumqne, absolutely rv. 1. 30 n. fiddles, 
'they always did me true service 1 ; so Ov. Am. 1. 11. 27 fidas 
sibi Naso tabellas dedicate and Hor. Sat. 1. 2. 30, quoted 
on i. 16. 10. 

10. efTectus =effecta, ' results': rare in plur. as in Quint 
1. 10. 6. promeruere, 'earned': cf. Cic. Mur. 34. 70 
out promerendi aut referendi bentficii locum, Suet CaL 3 
promerendi awtoris mirum et efficax studtum. 

11. fuerint mandate, 'had been entrusted to': obaem 
the douhle past and see i. 16. 1 n. 

IS. lent*, 'cold one': cf. i. 6. 13 a y pert*tri fmu lentns 
mwunrt potest, * love with phlegm.' qponiam. We expee: 

NOTES. IV. xxiii 189 

quod or quia, but of. Bell. Afric. 42 non est utia ratio propius 
accedendi eo die ad oppidum quoniam ibi praesidium grand* 
Numidarum esse cognouerat. 

13. nesdo quae, contemptuous ; cf. i. 8. 3 quicumquest. 

14. non bene, * unfairly ' : non bona, the reading of some 
Mss., would stand ; cf. in. 30 (24). 24, and for the accumula- 
tion of adjectives the Introd. lads, a striking instance of 
Fropertius' habit of working round an idea. The point is his 
believing the charges, not his disseminating them, which would 
be a secondary eifect. P.'s rapis however is not necessary. 
See the Introduction. For the verb cf. ix. i. 77 iace uerba, 

15. dlxtl, Cynthia, in the letter. uenies, the fut. 
assumes something will be done, as Hor. Ep. 1. 7. 71 ergo post 
nonam uenies; cf. Boby 1589, 1591. cessabimus una, 
* keep holiday together'; cf.. i. 11. 1 te. mediis cess ant em, 
Cynthia, Bods; i. 6. 21 nam tua non aetas umquam cessauit 
arrwri. So in v. 4. 47 eras, ut rumor ait, tota cessabitur urbe 
(Mr Palmer's emendation). 

17. uolena. mss. dolens, which may be kept and explained 
either as 'indignant,' cf. irascor, v. 12, or as 'under 
the pain of passion, 1 cf. Oat. 2. 7 solaciolum sui dolor is. 
nolens however goes better with the context: it should be 
taken with reperit, 'devises if she has the will/ rather than 
absolutely ' complying ' with her lover's request to come. re- 
perit, cf. Lucr. 3. 420 reperta labor e carmina. 

18. ducltur, 'passes': Lachm. and the edd. read dicitur 
from G. They do not however explain how garrula hora 
is to be explained or justified. P.'s ' an hour for a chat ' is 
hardly possible, nolens, v.. 17, seems to have caused them to 
miss the general sense, which is this: 'Cynthia sent on the 
tablet some of the pretty, sparkling nothings which a clever 
girl can invent, if she chooses, when she meets her lover.' 
garrula, 'spent in chatting.' blandls dolls, 'a stealthy, 
pleasant meeting': P. well compares icpfaptoi oapurpol Hes. 
Op. 789. drjvea is used in a similar connexion, Apoll. Bhod. 
3. 661. [Baehrens reads dicitur... notis {ex conj. Font.), and 
compares Ov. A. A. 3. 624.] 

20. duras, as the property of a 'hard' man. There may 
also be an allusion to their heavy binding and stout clasps, as 
Hertzberg thinks. ephemerldas, 'day-books.' This is the 
fate Ovid invokes on his offending tablets in a passage strongly 
coloured by this, Ov. Am. 1. 12. 23 aptius hoe capiant uadir 

190 NOTES. IV. xxiii. 

monia garrula cerae quas aliquis duro cognitor ore legal, 
inter ephemeridas melius tabulasque iacerent in quibus ab- 
sumptas fieret auarue opes. 

22. diuitiis, i. e. antrum, the general for the special ; d 
Tib. 1. 1. 1 diuitias alius fuluo sibi congerat auro. Or. 
F. 4. 136 aurea marmoreo redimicula soluite collo: demite 
diuitias. llgna, so Ov. 1. c. y. 7, dijiciles, funebria ligna, 
tabellae. retenta uelit, for this construction see Boby 

23. Here again Prop, is strikingly like Horace, Sat. 1. 
10 fin. i puer, atque meo citus haee subscribe libello. 
columna, on some column in a portico, &c. amongst the 
gladiatorial show-bills and notices of auctions : see Beck. Gall. 
Sc. iv. n. 8, who quotes Dig. 47. 2. 43, solent plerique (who 
want to advertise) hoc etiam facere ut libellum prop on ant, 

24. Esquiliis. This would be after Maecenas had 
and laid them out ; see Hor. Sat. 1. 8 esp. 14 sqq. u^uMfctt t 
Esquiliis habitare salubrious. J\^- ■ *7 "' ' 

Introduction. J • ~ -?\ 

This poem and the following are evidently very closely 
connected: and in several mss. they appear as one. They 
both contain allusions to passages in previous poems expressing 
his attachment to Cynthia. The present one is a recantation 
of his praises of Cynthia and the love that elicited them : the 
second is couched in a more menacing style and points oat to 
Cynthia the approaching misery of a loveless old age. Whether 
they originally formed the conclusion of a book or not, they are 
very appropriate to that position : see notes on w. 2, 5, 9, 10, 
11, 12 and xxv. 9, 10. The date is B.C. 23. See Introduction. 


Your proud beauty is powerless now (1, 2). I am ashamed 
at last of my madness. The senseless passion which resisted 
the advice of friendship and the power of witchcraft is gone 
(3 — 10). Of my own accord I unsay those mad protestations 
(11, 12). I was a helpless prisoner once (13, 14). Now I am 
free and safe (15 — 18). Henceforward Good Sense shall be the 
divinity that I worship (19, 20). 

NOTES. IT. xxiv. 191 

1. falsa, 'baseless': i. 8. 29 n. xnnlier. Observe the 
change of address. She is now no longer mea uita or even 
Cynthia, bat merely * woman/ a term of reproach as in Ter. 
Hec. 2. 1. 17. flduda formae, Ov. M. 4. 687. 

2. oculis mels, by the capture of my eyes ; see i. 1. 3 and 
the Introduction. 

3. tales, i. e. so blind and abject, The reference is pro- 
spective and to the following line. 

4. pudet, me is omitted. Prop, frequently omits the per- 
sonal pronouns when they can be easily supplied ; of. v. 6 and 
i. 1. 23 n. and the Introduction. 

5. TOlTtam uarla figura, 'a harmony of diverse beauty,' 
as depicted in n. 3. 9 sqq. ; not, as P. suggests, = ' compositam 
partly real and partly made up/ a grotesque idea. 

6. ut. We might have expected cum, since the ' thinking * 
is prior to the * praising.' Here the inference might be ex- 
pressed at length thus : *I praised your beauty extravagantly, 
so that we had a case where love thought you something that 
you were not.' Mr Munro suggests that ut means 'although,' 
as so frequently in Ovid ; but then we should have expected ut 
non esses quod putaret amor, esse, so. te. Comp. Theocr. 6. 18 
if \yap ipwri roWdtftr, t c3 Ho\v<pr)(X€, rd fj.rj jcaXd iraXd 
W^aprac. A similar turn of thought in Ov. Am. 3. 14. 14 
teque probam, quamuis non eris, esse putem. 

7.' totlens. Where ? It is not necessary to suppose poems 
are meant, though it is more natural to do so. In this case 
either we have lost the poems in question or the poet's memory 
has failed him. In n. 3, where the poet is rapturous on 
Cynthia's charms, we have expressions which may have formed 
the kernel of the present passage, v. 12 utque rosae puro lacte 
natant folia, 43, 44 sine illam Hesperiis $iue Mam ostendet Eois 
uret et Eoos wet et Hesperios (like the warm Dawn). False 
echoes and loose references are not unfrequent in Propertius ; 
see the Introd. Boo, * the dawn ' : Yirg. Aen. 3. 588 postera 
iamque dies primo surgebat Eoo and elsewhere*. P. rightly 
* the blush of morning.' 

8. quaesltus, 'artificial,' lit. 'hunted up'; of. Ov. A. A. 3. 
199 scitis et inducta candorem quaerere creta. sanguine 
quae uero non rubet, arte rubet. =f alius candor x. 2. 19. 

* I hare shewn that this is the meaning of Ecus in this, and other passages, 
In a paper In the Transactions of the Cambridge Philological Society for 1880. 


192 NOTES. IV. xxiv. 

candor, the clear bright white of the skin, which sets off tins 
roseus color. It is clear this is the meaning from the other 
passages where Fropertius shews his delight in such contrasts, 
i. 20. 38 Candida purpureis. mixta papaueribus and n. 3. 
9 sqq. (of his mistress) nee me tarn fades quamuis sit Candida 
cepit (Ulia non domina sint magis alba mea), ut Maeotica nix 
minio si certet Hibero utque rosae puro lacte n at ant 
folia; in Ov. also (A. A. Lc.) the red and white are men- 
tioned together. The candor would be produced by white lead, 
ceru88a f or by chalk (Ov. 1. c). 

9. quod, 'the fatal passion which.' mini, ' from me': 
literally ' for my benefit'; cf. Val. F. 3. 491 Pallada... fallen 
prima molitur caroque dolis auertere fratri; cf. Stat. Lc. 
on iv. 18. 23. patrii amid, alluding to i. 1. 25. auertere, 
here of 'removing' rather than averting a danger. 

10. eluere. This line is partly a reminiscence of Aen. 
6. 741 aliis sub gurgite uasto infectum eluitur scelus, partly 
a reference to i. 1. 19—24. Thesnala, i. 1. 24, 5. 6, 
notes. Ov. imitates Am. 1. 14. 36 non anus Haemonia 
perfida lauit (te) aqua. uasto marl. We naturally think 
of the ' multitudinous seas ' of Shakspere, Macbeth n. 2. 61. 

11. haec with uerba, the usual attraction, though the 
words are not usually so widely separated. ferro.. .igne. 
Again a reference to i. 1, v. 27 foxtiter et ferrum saeuot 
patiemur etignes. noncoactus, of my own free will, with- 
out being forced by these drastic remedies-. P. misses the sense 
in paraphrasing ' without being put to the torture which I had 
then to endure.' 

12. naufragus, an allusion to i. 17 where he regards his 
shipwreck as a punishment for leaving Cynthia. uerba, 
i.e. ( mere words,' empty breath, as in the phrase uerba dare. 

13. correptus, di>ap*a<TdeLs, ' seized and hurried off.' 
aeno, 'the torturing caldron': a bold metaphor. Love cooks 
his victims for his own repast. Cf . Meleag. Anth. Gr. 12. 92. 
9 ovTaffd' iv K&KXei, rOipeeB' inroKcudjxepot wvp, dicpos 4tcI yfwXV 
iffrl fidyeipos tpws so id. 12. 1, 32. 5 ml <j £t\ rvp £<rripre. So 
in Prop. iv. 5 (6). 39 consimili imp o si turn torquerier ig ni. 

14. Ovid imitates E. P. 3. 2. 72 euincti geminas ad sua 
terga manus and Am. 1. 2. 31 mens bona ducetur manibm 
post terga retortis. The metaphor in uinctus is not uncom- 
mon, Meleag. Anth. Gr. 12. 119. 4 K<xl fxe irdXw Sijcat tow cow 
dyeis (ct correptus) Uerav. 

NOTES. IV. xxir. 193 

15. coronatae. On reaching harbonr the prows of the 
vessels were adorned with garlands; cf. Virg. G. 1. 803, which 
perhaps Propertius has in view, ceu pressae cum iam por- 
tum te tig ere carina e, puppibus et laeti nautae imposture 
coronas. So of the boat conveying the blessed to Elysium 
v. 7. 59. For the metaphor cf. Meleag. Anth. Gr. 12. 167. 3 
X€*-J*cdv€i &* 6 fiapv Tvctaat rodot' aXXd fi 4s op/xor &£ai top 
rat/ray Kvrpldos iv reXdyet. It is common in Cicero, 

16. Syrtes. Cicero warns us against a use of this word 
in oratorical metaphor as too farfetched, de Or. 3. 41. 163 
uidendum est ne longc simile sit ductum. ' Syrtim patrimoni ' ; 
scopulum libentius dixerim. 

17. feast, 'weary, 1 with toiling on the sea; so in Virg. 
Aen. 1. 168 fessas naues, 3. 85 da moenia fessis and elsewhere, 
reslplsclmus, properly * recover consciousness' (cf. sapit in. 
5. 26); as in Plant. Mil. 4. 8. 24. Here metaphorically 'to 
be again in one's right mind.' So Ov. Am. 1. 10. 9 has nunc 
timor omnia abest animique resanuit error, 

18. uolnera, so Meleag. Anth. Gr. 12. 80 rl <rot rb 
veirardZv "Epwro* rpavfxa bia <nc\ayx 9wv aSOis dpa<f>\£- 
yerat ; ad sanum, ' to a state of health.' Cf. Phaedr. 5. 7. 
12 ad sanitatem dum uenit curatio. So uanum for uanitas rv. 
5 (6). 5, in. 8 (7). 45. Compare Soph. Phil. 83 clt arattet (for 
els or aide lay). colore with ad sanum, ' closed and healed.' 
The whole phrase =consanuere. Cio. Fam. 4. 6. 2 nunc autem 
hoc tarn grout uolnere etiam ilia quae consanu isse ('healed 
up ') uidebantur recrudescunt. 

19. mens bona, called also simply mens. 'Good sense' 
was really worshipped as a goddess at Borne ; and her personi- 
fication is a good example of the concreteness of the Roman 
mind which could only conceive of abstractions as persons. 
Thus they, built temples to Fides, Concordia, <fec. Her temple 
on the Capitol was built in fulfilment of the vow of T. Otacilius 
after the death of Flaminius at Lake Thrasimene ; Livy 22. 9. 
10, 10. 10, Ov. F. 6. 241—6 Mens quoque numen habet. Menti 
delubra uidemus uota metu belli, perfide Poene, tui. — spem metus 
expuleraU cum Menti uota Senatus suscipit et melior protinus 
ilia uenit. si qua dea's, what the Spectator calls the 'if' 
inferential,' not the 'if' dubitative. ^ In sacraiia dono, a 
pregnant use of in; 'take myself as a gift to your sanctuary.' 
Cf. el. 9. 60 n. So Greek cfc 'Afli^aj dXlvKtcOai ' to be taken 
and brought to Athens.' Claudian just inverts the thought, iv. 
Cons. Honor* 256 inconcussa dabit puras sacraria menti. 

p. P. 13 

194 NOTES, IV. xxiv, 

me. A picture of the person saved from any danger or 
calamity, deposited in the temple of the God to whom ht 
ascribed his safety, was a common kind of donarivm, Gf. Jar. 

20. exciderant. There is no reason for changing the hs. 
reading. It is the common Propertian pluperf . snrdo looL 
Cf. in. 8 (7). 47, 48 non semper placidun periuroi ridet amanta 
Iuppiter et surda neglegit aure preces. 

rv. xxv. 


It is almost certain that this like the last refers to the 
same final parting. Cynthia's fickle and passionate conduct 
had thus produced the long-expected result, and her faithful 
slave was emancipated from his bondage. The language is 
cold with a coldness that- shews the last spark of affection is 
extinct. Even the tears (v. 7) are only a tribute to old asso- 
ciations, only the persistence of habit in the old channels of 
emotion. To us the poems seem not only cold but cold- 
blooded; and the modern feeling recoils against the taunts of 
faded beauty and the desire for revenge, as unworthy and un- 
generous. But the ancients had no chivalry ; and the expres- 
sions of Propertius are more pardonable than the exultation of 
Horace in similar circumstances (Od. 4. 13), as his feelings 
were warmer and had been wounded more deeply. 


Once all the town mocked me for my fidelity to you. Now 
all is over (1 — 4). Your tears cannot move me (5, 6). My own 
tears may flow; but this will not shake my purpose, for this 
parting you are to blame (5 — 8). I have done with my 
passion and its infatuated utterances (9, 10). For you, a love- 
less old age awaits you when you will suffer yourself as yon 
have made others suffer. This is my prophecy and my hope 
(11— end). 

1. Blsus eram=7Aws rjv. Ov. F. 1. 438 omnibus ad luxu 
lamina risus erat; cf. i. 5. 26 n. It goes with inter conuini*. 

posltis mensis, i. e. set beside the guests, brought in. 
Originally the tables were changed with each oo.urse, then the 

NOTES. IV. xxv. 195 

trays, fercula, which were set on them, only. Hence mensa is 
used for a ' course 1 as in mensa prima, secunda. Compare Cio. 
Att. 14. 6. 2 apposita secunda mensa and Prof. Mayor on Jar. 
1. 137. 

2. Ovid Her. 9. 48 et mater de te quaelibet esse potest 
is a reminiscence of this line. 

4. querere, 'reproach yourself for losing, bewail the loss 

5. sum captus. I have learned to mistrust them by being 
deceived: as the Trojans were Virg. Aen. 2. 196 captique dolis 
lacrimisque coactis. ab arte. The ab adds little to the 
sense. It just points out that the ars is the source, rather than 
the instrument of the deception. Cf. Tib. 1. 9. 66 ab arte, 
Prop. iy. 2. 23 a b aeuo excidet, and Introduction. 

6. ab insldlis, apparently for ex insidiis. See Introd. 

7. flebo, cf. ii. 5. 15. ego, see Introduction. In- 
lurla, 'sense of wrong.' hi. 8 (7). 31 nullane sedabit w©«- 
tros iniuria fletust 

8. tu, ' You, not I' P. bene oonueniens 'well match- 
ed,' Cynthia and Propertius being suited to each other. So 
of agreement between husband and wife Afran. 52 adulescentU 
optimas bene conuenientes, bene Concordes cum uiris, Suet. 
Tib. 7 uxorem bene conuenientem, iugum, cf. i. 5. 2. 

9, 10. In these verses the poet alludes to passages in his 
poems about Cynthia. In 10, n. 5. 22 nee me a praeclusas 
J'regerit ir a fores is clearly referred to. 9» I think, is a refer- 
ence to 1. 16. 13 where the door says has inter cog or grauius 
deflere querelas, supplicis a longis tristior excubiis. It is 
no objection that the disconsolate lover says the door does not 
pity him. verbis = querelis, i. 8. 22 n. tamen, sc. 

manu quamuis irata, tamen nonfracta ii. 5. 5 n. 

11. celatls 'hidden': i.e. unnoticed; cf. Hor. Od. 1. 12. 
45 crescit occulto uelut arbor aeuo, Juv. 9. 129 obrepit non 
intellect a senectus. Others take it ' disguised/ i.e. by the 
toilet, Phaedr. 2. 2. 4 c elans annos elegantia; but this is less 
appropriate. grauis, bowing you down with its weight. 

12. formae with ueniat, cf. Ov. A. A. 2. 117 et tibi iam 
uenient cam, formose, capilli; iam uenient rugae quae tibi 
corpus arent, though sinistra might take a dat. Virg. G. 1. 
444 satUque Notus pecorique sinister, 


196 NOTES, IV. xxv # 

13. capias, ' desire' and desire fruitlessly. a> stlxpa. 
Prop, has Tibuilus in view 1. 8. 45 tolUre tunc curast albo* a 
$tirpe capillos. 

14. a, 1. 1. 38 n. increpitante. For the oonstr. 're- 
proach you with your wrinkles 1 cf. Yal. Max. 3. 3. 2 fin. 
(quoted on in. 21. 15) and for the general sense Callim. 
Anth. Gr. 5.23tjto\it}5£ omtIi? drafiprpct radra ere T&rra K6/uq. 

15. fastus superbos 'haughty scorn': fastus and its con- 
geners are very common for rejecting a lover's advances. For 
the whole passage compare Hor. Od. 1. 25 which Propertius 
seems to have read. 

16. facta, i.e. done to you. 

17. cednlt, of prophetic utterances, oracles being usually 
given in verse. mea paglna. There are holder expressions 
in hi. 32 (26). 87 haec.cantarunt 8 eripta Catulli, and 89 
haec etiam docti confessast pagina Calui. fatatts dlrms, 
'this ominous doom': for dirae as subst. cf. Tib. 2. 6. 53 ha* 
tibi, lena,precor diras, 

18. euentum, « the end awaiting your beauty,' 6t dropi- 
ffcrat. dljce, ' learn the lesson of fear/ which is now Btrange 
to you; cf. el. 10 (11). 8 tu nunc exemplo disce timer e meo* 

V. ii. 


This is an archaeological poem on the worship of the God 
Vertumnus and the derivation of his name. It is pat in the 
mouth of the God himself, who is supposed to be addressing 
a bystander near his statue. There were several statues of 
Vertumnus in Borne: but the one meant here stood in the 
Vicus Tuscus (Varro L. L. 5. 46; cf. v. 50) near the Ve- 
labrum (v. 7), and commanded a view of the forum Romanum 
(v. 6). Asconius, cited below, says that it was at the end of 
the Vicus Turarius (the later name of the Vicus Tuscus) close 
under the Basilica (Iulia) as you turned to the right. See also 
Mr Burn's Borne and Campagna, pages 21, 98, 277. 

The origin and meaning of the worship of Vertumnus 
are involved in some doubt. The etymology of the word is 
dear. It is a. participial formation from root uert, and is fox 
uertomenus {rrpapofuvos). .The suffix reappears in the second 

NOTES. V. 5. in 

plur. passive, eg. ■ eili s Ms* ant in dUammm* Ac Thus it 
means ' t inning , 1 'ebanging* and, as & snbstaxttive, & «*t»ww* 
on horseback, a somersssfe-snxaer <t. 36*. The god swans 
chiefly to be a. sjmbol of the revolv ing spawns and their 
changing products, and tans aypeniB as a Lactxn Proteus whose 
varioas shapes are drnriihe d in our aoast. Henee Euan call* 
a man -who was the J TT <i>LlL * ** wnatale tcvrpKrckBsi I>r- 
tuntni* quotqwot smmt asaat iaifsu (Sat. 2. 7. 14 u Besioes 
Vortumnus flattest dan imnertemdarnm rcrmwL, ie. a^rca- 
taroe, a god of 'Change. PreUer (^om. Myth, p. 396 ( now- 
ever thinks this has arisen from his statue being in the 
Vicus Tuscum, a street foil of shonsnepers. As a God of the 
seasons and their fruits, he was associated "with Pomona (see 
the myth in Ov. H. 14. 623 sqq.). His worship was a genuine 
Italian cult; and if the statement that it was brought from 
Etrnria is not a misconception based on the name Vicmt 
Tuscus, it only shews that there was an Etrurian divinity 
closely resembling the Sabine and latin Yertumnos. 

Stranger, listen to my origin (1, 2). A Tuscan born, I am 
not ashamed to have left my Volsinii for Borne (3 — 6). Is my 
name derived from the turning of the stream (7 — 10), or the 
turning of the year (11, 12) as the offerings of its fruits to me 
declare (13 — 18)? No. I am named for my power of turning 
gracefully into every shape (21 — 10). 1 must not forget the 
fruits of the garden, which especially characterize me (41 — 46). 
I came with my countrymen of Etruria to Help Borne in her 
victory over Tatius (47— 54), and may I always see her citizens 
passing before me (55, 56). To conclude (57, 58), I once had 
a rude chopped statue of maple. But Mamurrius came and 
cast me in bronze. All honour to the workman (59— end). 

1, 2. *Thou who dost marvel at the many shapes one 
body can assume, hear the pedigree that sets forth the god 
Vertumnus.' tot In uno corpore forma*, i.e. so many 

successive changes in the exterior without change in the per- 
sonality. We might have expected species, as forma is more 
commonly used of a natural or stable form. But to the harle- 
quin God all his shapes are equally natural. signa pa- 
tenia, the hereditary marks, the marks of his origin. To 
understand this expression, we must remember (1) that patema 
is not limited in its use to « parentage/ but inoludes 'oountry' 

198 NOTES. V. u. 

also as in Hot. Ov. 1. 20. 5, and (2) that with the 
the names of things were signposts to their nature, and that 
etymology consisted in tracing the real thing (trvtxov) in the 
name on which it was stamped. Hence signa t notat (v. 44). 
And hence notatio is used for etymology in Cicero, Topic. 8. 
85 multa etiam ex notatione. ea est autem, cum ex ui nomtnit 
argumentum elicitur quam Graeci irvfioXoyiay uocant, id est 
uerbum ex uerbo, ueriloquium, nos autem, nouitatem tterbi turn 
satis apte fugientes, genus hoc notationem apprllamus quia 
sunt uerba return notat. itaque hoc idem AristoteUs <rtf/i£dXor 
appellat quod Latine est not a. Compare also Acad. 1. 8. 32 

3. orlor, not the historical or, as it would be better called, 
the pictorial present. The tense implies that the effect of the 
event continues into the present. It is not uncommon with 
verbs of begetting, &c; cf. v. 1. 77 me creat Archytae stiboles. 
nee, * and yet I do not regret.' For examples Bee the lexicons. 

4. VolslniOB. In prose the adj. would be VolsinitnsU. 
Volsinii, the most powerful city in Etruria, was razed by the 
Bomans in b. c. 280. The inhabitants were compelled to mi- 
grate to a site on the plain, the present Bolsena. The spelling 
of the name is doubtful. proelia does not refer, as at first 
sight it might seem, to this war, but to that in v. 51. foeos, 
♦my Volsinian home'; cf. n, 1. 29 euersosque focos antiquae 
gentis Etruscae. Propertius seems to have sympathized keenly 
with the fate of Northern Italy. 

5. haec. 'Here (i. e. in Borne} is the throng that delights 
me.' templo, where I should not be able to see the 
Bomans pass. eburao, adorned with ivory; which with 
gold was often used on the doors of temples and on their panel- 
led roofs; cf. in. 29. 1, 8. Eomanum seems to carry a 
double emphasis 'the forum of Borne' as distinguished from 
foreign ones and the forum Eomanum as distinguished from 
later for a. 

7. Iter faciebat. The moving of the river-God is confused 
with the movement of the stream. It seems strange to us that 
the Bomans did not see the absurdity of such expressions: 
cf. iv. 3. 45 n. 

8. A reminiscence of Tib. 2. 5. 83 at qua Velabri regie 
patet, ire solebat exiguus pulsa per uada linter aqua* 

. 9. tantum concessit, * granted such liberal room.' It is 
hard to. say whether Prop, intended concessit to be act. .'made 

NOTES. V. ii. 19d 

such sacrifices for,' or neut. 'retired so far for,' tantum being an 
ace. of space as in Ter. Enn. 4. 4. 39 concede istuc paululum. 
alnmnlB 'his foster children.' A river is most valuable to a 
community in fertilizing their land, watering their flocks and 
affording them means of transport. 

10. Vertamnus. Ovid adopts the derivation from uerto 
amnem F. 6. 409 nondum conueniens diuersis iste figuris nomen 
ab auerso ceperat amne dens. I have adopted P.'s suggestion 
that here, and in v. 12, the name should be spelt so as to shew 
the etymology, the mss. having Vertummu in both verses. 

11. uertentis annl, 'the turning year': i.e. the year 
throughout its course. The firstfruits of every season belong 
to Yertumnus. uertens is a reflexive use as in Hirtius ap. Cic. 
Phil. 13. 10. 22 intra finem anni uertentis 'the current year'; 
Juv. 7. 242 cum se uerterit annus. praeceplmus 'take 
first,' as Lucr. 6. 1050. For the per/, in repeated actions see 
Roby 1717. 

12. 'Men believe I claim the offering as Vertannut? The 
stress of the sentence is on the gen. creditor, mss. credidit. 
sacrum, i.e. the fruits so offered. 

13. prima mini, a double emphasis. 'The first cluster 
that changes with purpling grapes is mine* uartat* 
changes colour, being purple above and green below; the 
regular word, Colum. 4. 20. 4 uariantes adhuc et acerbae uuae; 
cf . Hor. 1. c. inf. The verb is neuter as in n. 5. 11. Uuen- 
tibus, a proleptio use, reminding us strongly of Hor. Od. 2. 5. 
10 iam tibi liuidos distinguet autumnus racemos purpureo uarius 
colore. The following words have been misunderstood by the 
commentators who take uua as 'a grape' (or as 'grapes') and 
racemis as 'clusters' which makes the expression very per- 
verted, uua is a 'cluster' and racemis the separate 'grapes' on 
their stalks. So clearly in Ov. M. 3. 664 racemiferis frontem 
circumdatus uuis and Yirg. G. 2. 60 turpes, ambus praedam, 
fert uua racemos. In the imitation in the Copa t. 21 it means 
the 'stalk' sunt et mora omenta et lent is uua racemis and 
bo in Columella. [See more in my paper on the Latin words 
for 'grapes', <fec. Transactions of Camb. Philol. Soc. i. p. 302.] 

14. coma splcea, 'the spiked ear.' coma is for arista as in 
Ov. F. 8. 854 sustulerat nulla*, ut solet, herba comas, and is 
naturally applied to 'bearded' corn ; spica also a aris ta, ab herba 
ad spicam Cic, 'from the blade to the ear.' lactentl fruge 
' milky grain': cf. Virg. G. 1. 314, 315 spice a iam campis cum 
messis inhorruit (cf. coma) et cum frumenta in uiridi stipula 

200 NOTES. V. a. 

lactentia tnrgent a good commentary on this passage* 
tumet, sc. mihi. 

15. lie, sc. ante pedes m. 1. 22. dulces, Le. ripe. 
This is better than supposing that it contrasts the sweet cherry, 
imported from Fontns by Luc alius, with the native Italian 
cornum Serv. ad Georg. 2. 18. cerasos. This would be 
cerasa in prose. But the rule that the trees are fern, and the 
fruits neut. is not always observed. Thus we have poma for 
pomi 'apple trees/ Tib. 1. 1. 8, <fec. Gf. rubus 'bramble' for 
'blackberry' Prop. iv. 12 (13). 28. 

16. cernifl, like mirare v. 1, to the bystander. aesttno 
die 'on summer days': imitated by the author of the Copa 18 
sunt autumnali cerea pruna die. rubere, being half 
ripe, mora cruenta Copa 1. c. on v. 13; Plin. N. H. 15. 24. 27. 
97 moris colores trini; candidus prima, mox rub ens, maturis 

17. pomosa, 'a garland of fruitage.' Fruits in general 
are meant, not 'either a string of young apples or a garland of 
apple blossoms' P. The present was an acknowledgment of 
his patronage; Hor. Carm. Saeo. 30 spice a donet Cererem 

18. plrus, cf. Yirg. G. 2. 33 et saepe alterius ramos tnt- 
pune uidemus uertere in alterius mutatamque insita mala 

19. 'Beport, thou liest to my harm: there is another 
guide to my name.' alius, i.e. Yertumnus himself. Com- 
pare the very close imitation Ov. F. 5. 191, 2 ipsa doce quae sis 
(v. 20). hominum sententia fallax. optima tu proprii no- 
minis auctor eris. tibi for mini (P.) is a quite unnecessary 
conjecture. index, 'one to give a clue'; here an explaining 
cause. So in a similar context Ov. F. 4. 393 hi Ceteris ludi: 
non est opus indie e causa, sponte deae munus promeritumque 

20. tu, again to the supposed bystander. modo, al- 
most = ' for your part'; cf. in. 13 (11). 14 de te quodcumque ad 
surdas mihi dicitur aures: tu modo ne dubita de grauitaU 
mea. Neither 'modo crede' nor 'deo modo dum de ae 
narrat' is to be construed, as P. 

21. opportuna, 'fit, suitable': with dat. as Yirg. G. 4. 
129 nee pecori opportuna seges nee commoda Baccho. enne- 
Us flgurls, Ov. M. 14. 765 formas deus aptus in omuss 
and Ovid L c. on v. 10, 

NOTES, V. ii 201 

22. Holes. The imperative, which gives in the present a 
command relating to the future, has a double outlook, and in 
consequence is found in conjunction with both tenses; see for 
examples Roby 1571. decorus ero, 'I shall adorn it 1 : we 

rather expect decebit or decora mi hi erit t but (1) it is Ver- 
tumnus' suitability for all guises that is in question, and (2) it 
is not unfrequent in Greek and Latin expressions of value, 
fitness, <&c. for the person to be referred to the thing, not the 
thing to the person. Thus cf£ios, dignw, &c. A good parallel 
is Plut. Pomp. 72 [o Uo/xt^los] firjdtva irpoaeiTuv air-get fiddrjp 
els top xapaffcc, vdvv rots iveai vpivuv tueLvois (then 
follows a quotation from the Iliad about Ajax). So the Scotch 
say a man * fits ' a coat. [Of course decorus is common enough 
of persons in the sense of * handsome.'] 

28. Cols. Coa, a Gr. plural =K yet Ifidna, are the celebrated 
transparent silks of Cos. non dura, 'not hard-hearted, 

soft, impressionable. 1 As this is the only meaning of durus as 
applied to persons in Prop., it is safer to explain it so here; 
though P.'s interpretation 'no awkward girl' (cf. Ov. Am. 2. 4. 
23 mo lliter inceditt motu capit. altera durast) is possible, 
and both kinds of mollitia would be found in the wearer of 

24. quia neget* of statements which a priori we might be 
expected to deny. Hence in irony and satire Hor. Od. 1. 29. 
10 quia neget arduos pronos relabi posse riuos ? and in the 
bitter epigram in Suet. Ner. 39 qui 8 neget Aeneae magna de 
stirpe Neronem t sustulit hie matrem, sustulit ille patrem. 

25. falcem, not 'a sickle,' but l a scythe 1 ; see Eich s. v. 
comprlme, 'bind'; cf. Aen. 5. 556 omnibus in morem tonsa 
coma press a corona, torto, cf. Virg. G. 1. 349 torta redU 
mitus tempora quercu. faeno. Ovid has pillaged the whole 
passage in Met. 14. 643 seqq. Yv. 645, 6 are tempora saepe gerens 
faeno religata recently desectum poterat gramen uersasse uideri. 

26. iurabls, Ov. 1. c. 648 ilium iurares fessos modo dis- 
iunxisse iuuencos, secta, i.e. that I have been cutting. 
Observe how much more exact English is here than Latin. 

27. anna, compare w. 3, 53. Ov. 1. c. 651 miles erat 
gladio , piscator harundine sumpta, 

28. corbis, *a basket of wicker-work of a pyramidal 
or cylindrical shape' Eich s. v. Ov. 1. c. 643 o! quotiens 
habitu duri messoris aristas corbe tulit uerique fait messoris 
imago. in, an expansion of the use of in for clothing ; cf. 

fcoi NOTES, V. ii. 

Virg. Aen. 6. 87 horridus in iaduUs, Phaedr. 5. a 1 curs* 
uolucri pendens in nouacula, 'with a razor in his hand.' It 
might have been omitted. See Introduction. pondete. 

The corbis messoria was of considerable size, Gio. Sext. 88. 83 
Gracchus messoria se corbe contexit, 

29. sobrius ad Utes. P. wrongly «I am not easily pro- 
yoked to a drunken brawl.' sobrius is a predicate, *I am 
sober when I have to deal with lawsuits/ i.e. when dressed as 
a lawyer. corona, the banquet wreath. 

80. damabls, like iurabis, a Btrong word. The resem- 
blance will be so perfect as to excite a cry of wonder. Hor. 
S. 2. 8. 180 insanum te omnes pueri clamentque pueilac. 
subisse, 'that the wine-fumes have stolen to your bead*; 
cf. in. 23. 10. The phrase is too bold for Ovid A. A. 1. 568 
ne iubeant capiti uina no cere two. 

81. mitra, cf. rv. 16 (17). 80 cinget Bassarieas JLydfo 
mitra comas, and see Rich s. v. furabor, appropriate it 
without Bacchus' consent, personate him. The couplet is 
imitated in Ov. (?) Her. Id. 23, 24 sums fidem et pharetram y fie* 
manifestus Apollo : accedant capiti cornua, Bacchus eris. 

83. casslbus, see Rich s. v. lmposltis, i.e. on my 
shoulders; cf. v. 28. uenor, 'I am huntsman.' narun- 
dlne, • the fowler's cane rod tipped with bird-lime,' Rioh a. v. 
In his imitation (I.e. on v. 27) Ovid uses it of the fisherman's 

84. fautor. I have adopted Herr Rossberg's conjecture. 
N. has fauor, of which the Faunas of other mbs. is an attempt 
to make sense at any cost. For the dat. cf . Cio. Plane 1. 1 
cum...tam multos et bonos uitoi eius honori uiderem esse 
fautor es, plumoso auouplo, a very bold expression, if 
it is for plumosorum aucupio, * the pursuit of feathered fowL' 
Sophocles Philoot. 1146 & ittaual Orjpai x a P OT ^ **** *?*! 
0i)pwv suggests another explanation, viz. that aucupium like 
drjpa there and Eng. 'game,' means the birds themselves. 
So in Cat. 114. 3 aucupium, omne genus piscis, and elsewhere. 
fautor would then mean the God ( preserves ' the game for the 
sportsmen. deus. A Greek would have used Salfuar* 

35. uertumnus, obviouBly a common noun here. 

36. traldt, act. as v. 4. 78 traicit immundos ebria turba 
pedes. alterno equo, the usual loose Propertian abL 
♦from one horse to another.' The desultor or circus rider 
is meant, for whom see Rich s. v. Manila Astron. 6. 85 *ec 

JEJOTX V. ifc i03 

the nies r s ma^&SL Sac. 3ifo L L3 fScfaaaatLs Jfiirfent itnt 
dfnv cnnF fflnftni m vutut' jSMtpa? imujiw^ub jjugtrhit gon-- 

neuter, fine pezhsne it & aZfL. 

u sgnnm. y The emptor did his bast to 
jHtnwiL 3m£ his muuis 3i die eyes of the y°TfifHt 
k P. pauns ant; M i iin i arru g; Hirr. OcL & &, 3iK 
tine aniBWib pedlar or annmexcial traveller: <&>- 

not gxrc an ay die azmra&aav L a. in. gcaflenii d&ffiatitU* 
Qvl it- A. L. 4fiT wwti£ , <jr (itZ (ATminum atrntct 
rfucinrff** merrm, ffiir: i L 1 35 XottAtsmn t*nto(* 
itwrisris iMiisftifiir. Ifc is append to jacctRrtu*. ta\ 

tuhhv *£ ^ JF'3I»» 38 itfnna (mm /tut in fra/tttfau Th* 
ptanl m nnirfL Ic may also be intended to »K£pi*t tot* 

BwAwr «*• gJrfa Tift tft» Tatm Tnmgjirg- tmtii*, 

wt in fBHEv if it goes closely with ctwtturr*,, K Wan. 
Bated wmrthnw almost =* v with/ So Ftaftt* 
Capk. 1. 1. 22 vs crira partem tri jw i uwiiun ad j<k?<m*»» &,•*♦,. 

lit. 'without ehftngtnfl my 
an. tfte other hand/ 

40. efeficaav, the naufet star. Tn« lasket *a» ttttftft 
and poctatte. ft w used for fish and vegetables a* wvtt Ml 
flowers (Bkks.TX Compare Columella 1<X 305 *t m*t+ *tpv*t**» 
Am fmfoBie* meOa damtitis jfcns, e*m> feat mmim hfJtHkm 
tirpicmlumferrmpmna ammitU ayeirtat*i>« ttfttta ffl&Mttx 
Le. throng da? tiesfty nans raada. Tb» auUu* ^ ti* 
Ojnaieeaastoawie»aMEntooditsa,T. 5fwtditt*«t *r*t*H* 
dtfeam pnluere cease? tax** i.e» than the Wtttttiy 

to the ton Cor 

41. !■■■■! Sobs sss. lead emit* *bkh fe ee*t*M» 
taoored bj Or. Tr. 4. 3. 17 esse tiki mtmmnm de •** t*M 
*axiaui eurmst. 

43. bartaram dosm, 'garden gilts*; Aearfw bat a epeeftl 
application to the kitchen garden. Hence it ia uvea far 
'greens, vegetables,' Cato B. B. 8. 2 ; of. Hot. Sat. 9« 4 1& 16 
cattle faterofmo fat riceis erwit in kortu Aiarfert *rtyM» 
ni/til eft tbtiat herto. probata, * choice*; eo fcefrh »r«. 

Utitjiimi Plin. 16. 8. U.31, • of the moat appioved tort/ 

204 NOTES. V. il 

43. caeruleus, dark green = liuidus Colum. 10. 389. In 
Lucr. 5. 1372 of the olive green. Auct. Cop. imitates, 22 est 
iunco (v. 44) pendens caeruleus cucumis, tnmido 
nentre, from Yirg. G. 4. 122 cresceret in uentrem cucumis. 
Colum. 10.385 utero nimium quae uasta tumescit, uentre 
leges medio. 

44. me notat 'distinguishes me,' i.e. shews people who 
I am. So of terms Cic. Part. 11. 37 insunt etiam in temporibas 
ilia quae temporis quasi naturam not ant \ and v. 2 n. Several 
mas. have meat. Perhaps the true reading is uocat, 'invite 
me * to use them. luhco. Bushes were used to fasten up 
flowers and vegetables with, Ov. F. 4. 870 textaque composite 
iuncea uincla rosa 9 where a sort of rude basket seems 

45. hiat 'opens.' Ov. A. A. 2. 115 hiantia UUcl, 'the 
wide-mouthed lily.' Ule, not needed for the construction, 
but giving more emphasis. It singles the flower out ; cf. 1. 1. 
12 n. decenter, 'becomingly'; cf. v. 22. Tib. (?) 4. 2. 
14 talis in aeterno felix Vertumnus Olympo mille habet ornatus, 
mille decenter habet. 

46. langueat 'droops': Yirg. Aen. 9. 433 cum flos succisus 
aratrolanguescitmoriens. ante, of time or space ? The 
same doubt occurs in Tib. 1. 1. 14 et quodcumque mihi pomum 
nouus educat hortus, libatum agricolae ponitur ante deo. It 
seems better to take it ' in front,' as the crown would naturally 
hang down in front, and in Tibullus we may suppose tmesis 
as in Cic Off. 3. 17. 71. 

47. unus, though one god, not several. uertebar, i. e. 
the real derivation is Vertomnus (compare v. 21 n.). Neither 
here nor in his other suggestions does the God shew himsAlf 
a philologist; see introd. 

48. ab euentu, 'from the circumstance, occurrence': cf. 
Ov. F. 1. 59 omen ab euentu est. The use is rather strange 
here as we expect some word denoting quality or habit t not 
one which refers to an isolated event. 

49. praemla, settlements and citizenship. 

50. nomlna, the plur. is used for metrical reasons; of. Or. 
F. 3. 246 qui nunc Esquilias nomina collis habet. 

51. sodls armls, i.e. ' with an allied force.' Yirg. Aen. 8. 
120 lectos Dardaniae uenisse duces socia arma rogante*. 
Xycomedlus, 'the Etrurian forces,' a collective singular (as an 

NOTES. V. ii. 205 

army should move as one man) ; so Romanus, &c, frequently in 
Livy and in Greek 6 M^Sos. In Eng. too we speak of the 
•enemy.' The form is uncommon; but it is vouched for by 
Paul. Diac. in his epitome of Festus s.v. Lucomedi, Lucomedi a 
duce 8uo Lucumo dicti qui postea Lucerez appellati sunt. The 
word has been Graecized like so much in the early Roman 
legends. Compare Lucmon, v. 29, and the myth which made 
Lucumo (afterwards called Tarquinius Priscus) the son of 
Demaratus of Corinth. The legend that Romulus was helped 
against the Sabines by the Etrurians under Lucumo or Lucu- 
mus is simply an attempt to explain the Roman name Luceres 
by the Etruscan title Lucumo a prince. 

52. contudit anna, Ov. F.4. 380 pcrfida magnanimi con- 
tudit arm a Iubae, 

63. labentes, * wavering' or rather * giving way/ Tac. 
H. 3. 23 sustinuit labentem aciem Antonius. There is no 
reason to assume with P. another allusion to Yertumnus 
(uertere terga). caduca x a M<"*"eroiWci, missing their aim and 
falling on the ground; cf. Lucan 3. 546 emissaque tela aera 
texerunt uacuumque cadentia pontum. 

54. dedlsse. Observe the change from the pres. part, to 
the perf. inf. The first gives a picture, • he saw them giving 
way,' the second the realized single fact, ' they had set off in 
flight 1 ; cf. Livy 1. 25. 8 respiciem uidet magnis interuallis magnis 
sequent es, unum haud procul ab %e abe8se t i.e. his eye 
singles out the important fact that the one Curiatius is near. 
For the phrase terga dare rugae, cf. Ov. M. 13. 879 terga 
fugae dederat. It is a good example of the way in which the 
forms of speech act upon each other, or of what we may 
call 'exosmosis' and 'endosmosis' in language. From the 
expressions dare terga ' to expose the back ' and dare se fugae 
' to turn to flight,' as in Cic. Att. 7. 23. 2, was formed a third 
one 'to turn one's back to flight' in which the two were 

55. dluom sator, from Virgil as in Aen. 1. 254, &c. So- 
malia, emphatic as in v. 6. 

56. transeat, n. 7. 9 n. togata may imply a prayer for 
peace and civil concord: but the leading idea is one of pride 
in the national dress; cf. Yirg. Aen. 1. 282 Eomanos rerum 
dominos gentemque to gat am. 

67. ad uadimonia curris, i.e. hastening to appear to your 
bail, that decision may not go against you by default; compare 

2rOTJES t V. \l 

Suet. Calig. 89 (of one of Caligula's monkey tricks) % He Mixed 
all the hired vehicles so that a large number of the litigant* lost 
their cases (causa caderent), absence from the city preventing 
them from appearing to their bail (occurrere ad uadimonium).' 

58. non moror, i. e. I shall not detain yon long. Compare 
the formula used in dismissing the Senate Capitolin. M. 
Aurel. 10 nihil amplius uos moramur. The present ia also 
used in the same phrase when an accusation is abandoned; 
C. Sempronium nihil moror Livy 4. 42. 8. spatiifl, lit. • laps/ 
Gt. 6iav\oi$. Then the running over them, 'courses,' Chad 
Hal. 67 sen septem spatiis circo meruere coronam. creta. 
So Baehrens and Palmer with the mss. creta is the chalked 
rope (linea alba, calx) which was drawn across the opening of 
a race-course for the purpose of making the start fair. Hence, 
as the chariots returned to the place from which they started, 
it means the ' end ' of anything. See Rich s. v. Linea (4). Com- 
pare Pliny N. H. 8. 42. 65. 160 peracto legitime cursu ad 
ere tarn stetere. So linea in Hor. Ep. 1. 10. 79 mors ultima 
linea rerum. Ovid in his imitation has meta (which some 
xss. read here and which is more appropriate to raditur), 
Am. 8. 15. 2 raditur hie elegis ultima meta meis. The race 
consisted of seven circuits (Prop. in. 20 (17). 25, 26 nee prim 
infecto deposcit praemia cursu septima quam metam triuerit 
ante rota) ; and Y. says he is now running the last one. 

59. Curiously like Horace, Sat. 1. 8. 1 olim truncus 
eram ficulnus inutile lignum, cum faber, incertus scamnum 
facere'tne Priapum, maluit esse deum. properantl, Cato ap. 
Gell. 16. 14. 2 aliud est properare, aliud est festinare. qui union 
quid mature transigit, is proper at: qui multa simul incipit 
neque perficit, is festinat. falce ' hatchet ' = dolabra (see 
Rich s. w.). It is called falx from having a crooked pick at 
the back. dolatus * rough-hewn'; see Rich s. v. 

60. grata, i. e. my poor appearance was not due to the 

people's neglect. 

61. Mamurri. This is MamnrinsVeturius, the mythical artist 
who cast the eleven sacred shields for Numa, see Ov.F. 3.383sqq. 
Mamurius morum fabraene exactior artis difjicilest, Mud, diccre, 
clausit opus. Whether he ever existed is doubtful. At any rate 
he did not cast this statue, as the first bronze one of a God was 
that of Ceres which was cast from the confiscated property 
of Spurius Cassius (see Pliny 1. c, Miiller's Ancient Art § 181. 
4). formae is properly the mould in which the statue was 
cast (compare iv. 9. 13 n.), then the form produced by casting. 

NOTES. V. a 207 

>f a chryselephantine statue in Cic. Or. 2. 9 Ionia forma, the 
hidian Zeus. caelator, properly a * chaser ' (1. c), hut here 
pparently a 'caster ' ; compare fundere v. 63. Lewis and Short 
ive this as a later use but without citing examples, caela* 
ira (ropcvrticq) is used for graying with the chasing tool either 
n a rough cast or on embossed metal, as described on rv. 9. 13. 
t does not seem to have been used lor bronze statues. Other- 
ise we might suppose that Propertius is describing a small 
gure of Vertumnus, chased like the ancilia which are called 
%elata (Ov. I.e.). 

62. artifices manna, 'your artist hand.' Ov. Am. 8. 2. 
2 artifices in te uerte, Minerua, manus. terat 'bruise, 
rush'; cf. Lucr. 3. 906 urgeriue superne obtritum pondere 
irrae. Osea. Propertius probably regarded Mamurius 
a a Sabine, the Sabines having settled in the territory for- 
lerly belonging to the Oid or Opsci. But probably there is 
n accessory idea, ' the rude earth ' as we might say, the Osci 
eing taken as the type of an uncultivated race; cf. Juv. 3. 207 
ut diuina Opici rodebant carmina mures, 'Gothic mice/ 
. play on Opicus and opifex, which P. supposes, is quite out 
f place. 

63. ' Who could cast me to such teachable use.' docills 
Lmo8t=' flexible.' Propertius applies an epithet, which is 
lore, appropriate to the thing made, to the uses to which it is 
y be put. Hertzb. quotes Aen. 2. 453 limen erat caecaeque 
yres et peruiu& usus tectorum (=peruiorum): cf. i. 2. 12. 

64. ' Single the work, not single the honour on the work 
estowed': i.e. it is praised in all its several aspects. 

V. vi. 


This poem was written in honour of the institution of the 
idi quinquennales 1 established to commemorate the battle of 
.ctium. They were first celebrated at the end of b.o. 16 by 
Lgrippa, Augustus having left Borne to repair the defeat of 
tollius. It was probably written for the occasion in obedience 
3 a request from the authorities ; and thus 1. 77 is a prophecy, 
r hich unlike the generality of such nattering predictions was 

* Hertzberg warns us against confusing these with the ludi Actiaci wkicfc 
ere held at Actium itselL 

208 NOTES. V. vl 

soon realized. The poem consists of three scenes: the ex- 
ordium or eixpTjfila, the poet's sacrifice, i.e. the description of 
the battle of Actium, and the sacrificial banquet. 


Make all ready for the poet's sacrifice (1 — 10). Apollo's 
temple is my subject, and it is in Augustus' honour that I sing 

It was at Actium that the world met in arms. On one 
side was the doomed armada. On the other the Teasel of 
Augustus and the standards of patriotism (15 — 24). The 
battle was set, when Phoebus came from Delos to Augustas' 
vessel, attended by his sign of fire (25 — 30). He did not 
come in peaceful guise, but as the God of vengeance (31 — 36). 
Then he spoke. * Onward to victory, Augustus. I am fighting 
on your side (37 — 40). Release your country whose sole hope 
is in you. Sweep this disgrace to Borne and Latium from the 
seas (41—46). Vain are their myriad oars and painted Centaur 
prows (47 — 50). It is the cause that nerves the soldier's courage. 
The hour of battle is come, and Phoebus aids you (51 — 54).' 
Then sped his shafts. Augustus' spear followed close behind. 
Home conquers through Phoebus. The woman is punished. 
Her sceptre is broken (55 — 58). From his star Caesar wonders 
at his offspring's valour; and all the powers of the sea rejoice 
(59 — 62). She flees to Egypt and seeks a voluntary death. 
Better so. One woman would have made a sorry triumphal 
spectacle (63 — 66). Phoebus' monument at Actium commemo- 
rates his timely help in the sea-fight (67, 68). 

Enough of wars. Apollo now demands the dance and the 
peaceful lyre. Now comes the banquet in the festal grove 
(69 — 74). Bacchus shall stimulate the muse, and the poet 
shall sing of the triumphs of Augustus, those achieved and 
those to come. So will I pass the night till morning break 
upon our carouse (75 — end). 

1. Sacra. The poet is the priest of the Muses, zv. 1. 3 n. 
nates, 'the poet,' sc. I. So Hor. Od. 1. 81. 2 quid dedicate* 
poscit Apollinem uatest In speaking of themselves the ancient 
writers can never keep up the third person long. Hence meoi 
v. 2. Gf. el. 11. 13 n. xauentia adj.=ctyiMia. 

2. et, P. ut quite needlessly. fboos, the altar-fires 
before which I officiate; cf. v. 6. The language is highly 

XOTES. X. *i 

3. cera. This is corrupt Keftker -rf li* 

it could have here, 'writing tahUi' and ' wax ^—mrv" 12 s&i**- 

factory. The first because w© vnt ber* scene wora w-jot 

would denote permanent, not fu g iliw? «c=xosn^K. Tut utrjxii 

because poets' busts seem to have bos xsaoe of zsa?t> ^r 

bronze. Still wax was not Hmifafl to {**.,-. *** m.z :**** t. Ct. 

I.e. on el. 11. 83). Nothing certain i? li-.-y » '^ e^r^jwacd a~ 

c«ra is proby. an attraction thr^rfc it* ir^^-i/* c£ or?**- 

' Ixdra (P.) is a contraction without dx iuaI ltoL :rdrr. thc^rl 

otherwise satisfactory, ara (Hanpti inif >ij^e* an ir*:*>c£3nx n- 

metaphor, serta is the best eonjeeas*: for the sirtz. cf. hl 

31 (25). 37. Mr Beid prefers fara. fUctNia. a eeruin 

correttion for the ms. Pfritippris. 'Pr-ptrizis eo~pl« /**t- 

feta* and CalUmaekus as his luswlnt in poetrr: w it. L 1. 

certet with the dat. is poetical. 

4. Cyrenaeas. CaHimachns was a i_ative of Cyrene. 
ministret, v. 9. 22 terraque nan uUat Uta r.i7*istrat aq-Mi*. 
aquas, x^pjrt/fa, the libation at the poeVs saezinoe. 

5. costnm, an ointment made from the root of the Aplo- 
taxis. Lappa (or. Auchlandia CosUu) which grows on the moon 
tain slopes of the Cashmere Valley. nlaadi, ' pleasant 
smelling,' with the secondary sense of ' propitiating.' See for 
the first sense Lucr. 2. 847 awuuracini blandum siactaeque 
liquorem, and for the second Hor. Od. 3. 23. 18 non sumptuota 
b I audio r hostia. honores * offering': so Virg. Aen. 3. 
178 and Ov. F. 4. 409 farm deae micaeque licet talientU 
honor em detis et in ueteres tuna grana focos. 

6. ter. Three, as we all know, is a mystic number. Virg. 
G. 1. 345 ter que nouai circumfelix eat hostia / lanetts 
orbls, * the circling wool ' of the fillet which was wound round 
the altar. Virg. EcL. 7. 64 moUi cinge haec altaria uitta ; see 
the illustration in Rick s. v. uitta. For the use of orbis, 
1 circlet,' cf. Juv. 10. 40 magnaeque coronae tantum orb em. 

7. spargite. This was usually done by the priest, 
lympfcte. The lustral water was sprinkled by means of a 
branch of bay, Ov. F. 5. 677 sqq. uda Jit hinc laurits : • lauro 
sparguntur ab uda omnia... spar git et ipse snot lauro rorante 
capillos. recentibua arts, 'over the fresh-raised altar. 1 
Besides the general metaphor, which is consistently carried 
out through the whole passage, Fropertius is thinking of the 
altar in the newly built temple of Apollo. carmen. My 
libation is song. 

8. tibia. The flute was played to drown all ill-omened 
p. p. 14 

210 NOTES. V. vi. 

sounds. A flute-player was a necessary accompaniment at 
sacrifices. He was called in Greek <TTo*8av\yjs. Mygdonlls. 
An allusion to the 'Lydian measure.' The Mygdones lived 
round Mount. Olympus on the confines of Mysia and Bithynia. 
But their name is loosely used by the Latin poets for Lydian 
or Phrygian. The primary object with a Roman poet is to 
use a foreign name ; it is quite a subordinate one to use it 
correctly. We must however remember in their justification 
that the vastness of the Roman empire obscured the sense of 
local distinctions. eburna, cf. Virg. G. 2. 193 infiauit cum 

pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras. cadis, a bold extension 

of the metaphor in libet, Propertius is still thinking of the 
sacrificial wine. A similar comparison is that in Pindar N. 3. 
76 sqq. iyw r66e roi wtfiirw fiefuy/itvov /ii\i \€vk$ oDv ydXaxn- 
Kipvajxiva 8' £ep<f d/JKpiireC xbfi dolSi/iov AiciKytrip iv vvoaiatv 
av\<2v. The music is to come from a Lydian 'bin' as we 
might say. Cadis, the town, is a too ingenious correction, 

9. lte procul, the usual address to those who were not 
ceremonially pure to keep away from the sacrifice. So in 
procul ite profani = Greek ixds wrns dXirpos. It is here ap- 
plied to the disembodied taint of crime. alio sint acre, 
a patriotic sentiment; cf. Virg. G. 3. 513 di meliora piu 
erroremque hostibus ilium I The vivid concreteness of the 

.idea is to be noticed. The noxae are supposed to be floating 
in the atmosphere. So we speak of ' there being mischief in 
the air, 1 of 'an atmosphere of crime.' noxae and fraudes 
are both used of wicked deeds. But noxa brings out the actual 
mischief done, fraus the malicious motive. 

10. pura, 'fresh pulled,' and therefore ceremonially pure, 
'clean.' Iivy 1. 24. 5 ivbente rege i sagmina i * inquit *te, rex, 
posco.' rex ait ' pur am (? pura) tollito. 1 fetialis ex arce grami- 
nis herbam puram attulit. We need not suppose with P. 
an allusion to Apollo's name <$ot)9<*. nouom. The poet is 
entering on a new vein of song ; cf. iv. 3. 26 n. mollit. A 
soft carpet of bay-leaves is strewn on the ground for the poet 
priest to tread on as he leads the procession to the altar; cf. 
Ov, M. 4. 742 mollit humum foliis and i. 20. 22 n, 

12. Calliope. She is Propertius' favourite Muse, cf. rv. 1. 
54 (2. 14), 2 (3). 37. 

13. In nomen, * to honour Caesar' : like Quint. 1. 1. 6 oratio 
habita in sexus honor em. For the use of nomen 'glory' c£ l 
7. 10 hinc cupio nomen carminis ire met. ducuntnr, 
'spun': from passing the thread through the hands. For the 
metaphor cf. rv. 1. 5 a. 

NOTES.. V. vi. 211 

14. uaces, not, as P., uaces carmine, but absolutely 
'give me your leisure, attend.' Ov. Am. 2. 2. 2 dim perago 
tecum pauca sed apta, uaca. 

15. est, used absolutely as in iv. 7. 21 $unt Agamem- 
nonio8 testantia litora euros. fugiens, 'receding' far into the 
land: of. Lucan 4. 223 penitus fugiente metallo. Atha- 
mana. The Athamanes were an inland tribe of Epirus'to the 
N.E. of Ambracia, which is meant here (see note on v. 8). For 
the form of the adj. see Introduction. portua, a land- 
looked basin, a sort of Iulius portus on a much larger 
scale. So Philip of Thessalonica in a votive epigram on the 
Actius Apollo (cf. y. 18), Anth. Gr. 6. 251 avff &v IKtikols, iirl 
&' tcrna iri/xxffov a^TTfp ovptov 'Akticikovs avvbpofiov els \i- 
jjL€pas. The Ambracian Gulf (sinus) is meant. 

16. condlt 'receives': a peculiar, but very poetical trans- 
formation of the passive. Wherever the subject to a passive 
verb is omitted or left indefinite, it is not usual in prose to 
convert the passive into an active, at least not without the 
addition of some other words. Thus in prose we should have 
had to say murmura conduntur sinu or in sinum; and not 
sinus condit; for sinus is not the real agent. A poet is not 
so fettered: for asperguntur tempora sudore he can say 
aspergit tempora sudor Prop.- in. 18 (15). 3. Compare also 
libet v. 8, lauet v. 74 (note) of this poem. The converse is 
also true. A prose writer must say pieces natant in aqua, 
a poet ventures on multo piece natantur aquae, Ov. See 
also Introduction. 

17. pelagus, here simply of 'a wide expanse of water,' 
P. an 'ocean, as it were.' So of the lake formed by the over- 
flow of a river, Virg. Aen. 1. 24&pelago premit arua sonanti (and 
Dr Henry's note in Aeneidea). monumenta. monumentum is 
properly something that reminds us, like documentum some- 
thing which informs of anything, as in Plaut. Stich. 1. 2. 6 
uos monumentU commonefaciam bubulis. In cases like the pre- 
sent it generally means a commemorative memorial, not merely, 
as here, anything to which historical memories cling. The 
plural is regular. Neither Propertius nor Ovid uses it in the 
singular. Iuleae carinae, i. e. the ship (not collective the 
'fleet') of Octavian, lulus' descendant. Throughout the poem 
Octavian's own personal exertions are placed in the foreground. 
Agrippa is not once alluded to. 

18. nautarum uotls, i. e. the praying sailors : the usual 
predicative use of the noun. non operosa, causing them 


212 NOTES. V. vi 

trouble, difficult and dangerous : with dat. as in Plin. 15. 23. 
25. 93 operas a£. cibo. ula, the passage into the pelagus 
or Ambracian Gulf. The allusion is to the larger harbour of 
Nicopolis which was constructed by Augustus after his victory, 
and which materially increased the security of ships entering it 
The stormy character of the straits was notorious; so Virgil 
Aen. 3. 275 etformidatus nautis aperitur Apollo. 

19. nrandl manna, 'a world's battalions,' the forces of 
the whole world;; so Lucan 7. 234 sanguine mundi fuso^ Magne, 
semel totos consume triumphos, of the battle of Fharsalia. rmm- 
dus in this sense was originally a translation of the Gr. koc^uk 
the 'ordered universe' : but the use required too great an effort 
for the ooncrete Roman intellect, and mundus drifted on the 
one side to the meaning of 'the heavens' (see Munro's note on 
Lucr. 1. 73) and on the other to that, of the world we live on 
(orbi8 terrarum, oUovufrri). Prop, has it in this sense even in 
the plur. v. 3. 37 e tabula pictos ediscere mundos. stetit, 
'stood motionless,' like moles, refers to the unwieldy size of 
Antony's galleys. Hence Virgil says Aen. 8. 691 pelago credos 
innare revulsas Cy clad as aut montes concurrere montibu* 

20. aula, an 'omen,' a word drawn from augury: cf. v. 1. 
68 inceptis dextera cantet auif. remis, those of Antony's 

21. altera, answered by h&nc in 23. Gic. Rose. Am. 6. 17 
alter gladiator habetur, hie autem, &c. Qulrino, the new 
Quirinus, i.e. Octavian; cf. Virg. G. 3. 27 uictorisque aruut 
Quirini and so in Mart. 10. 26 Ausonio.frustrapromisse Quirino. 
Teucro, of Trojan descent. Compare Iuleae v. 17. The Tro- 
jans were called TevKpot just as Lycophron v. 1389 calls the 
Athenians K65poi. damnata. damnare with a dat. is used 
of the person in whose favour the verdiot of condemnation is 
made, the prosecutor, Sil. Ital. 4. 229 ibant in Martem terrae 
dominanti8 alumni damnati suptris nee tarn reditttra 
iuuentus and Roby 1199. It is used absolutely of Antony's 
soldiers in. 8 (7). 38 cerne ducem modo qui fremitu compleuit 
inani Actia damn at is aequora militibus. 

22. . turpiter. This has been misunderstood. It does not 
mean 'it was discreditable in a woman to join a .war in an 
unholy cause' P. But the stress is on pjla; compare Lnoap 
1. 7 pares aquilas et pila minantia pilis. It was degrading 
to the national Roman weapon that it should be wielded by a 
woman and an Egyptian, i«e, the. al&anjce; of Antony and 
Cleopatra was a scandal to Rome. ftmalneae, mb*./«w 

ffOQES. V. vi. 213 

nea, through mistaking the dat. ntitrtu; efr. Tantaleae manu n. 
1. 66. apta, 'fitted to.' The <5onstrtfetion with a dat. in a 
literal sense is rare, it is seen In Ludr. 5. 808 terrae radicibus 
apH. The mbb. are divided between apta and acta. The latter 
may be right, though we «houkl expect adacta. 

23. nine, i.e. «on oar side' P. Augusta, i.e. Augusti. 
This seems to be its earliest use as an adj. Oetavian took the 
title of Augustus four years after the battle of Actium, on the 
Ides of January b. c. 27 ; see Ov. F. 1. 590. Iouls, the 
god of the air; Cat. 4. 20 sine utrumque Iuppiter sirhul'secun- 
dus incidisset in pedetn. omine, abl. of attendant circum- 
stances, Jupiter thus signifying his will. It is expanded by 
Stat. Ach. 2. 9 audiit arcitenens Zephyrumque a uei ; tice Cyn~ 
thi impulit et dubiis pie no dedit omina uelo. 

24. lam docta, now veterans in victory; conquerors in 
the Mutinense bellum, in the Perutinum, at Philippi, &c. 
patriae uincere suae, an assertion of Octavian's patriotic 
motives; cf. Just. 2. 8. 6 quasi eibi, non patriae uicisset 
tyrannidem per dolum occupat. 

25. Kerens. Hie god of the sea is said to marshal the op- 
posing lines, though the manoeuvre was really Augustus' or 
Agrippa's ; of. Mart. Speet.-28. 7 (of a Naumaehia in the Amphi- 
theatre) diemqueparat saews ratibw fera proelia Nerew*, abnuit 
in liquidis ire pedester aquw. gemlnos lunarat in axctts 
4 bent to twin crescent curves': of. the description in Sil. It. 14. 
366 ac iam diffusus vacua bellator in unda cornibus ambierat 
patulos ad proelia ftuctus, nauali claudens umentem indagine 
campum. at simtti curuata svnu diuersa ruebat classis et artabat 
lunato caerula gyro. Ovid has the verb in the act. luna- 
uitque genu smuosum fortiter arcum Am. 1. 1. 23. Compare 
the account in Dion Cassius 50. 31 ' Augustus suddenly and at 
a given signal advanced with both wings of his fleet converg- 
ing upon the enemy (ret icdpara iirel-ayaydk' &r^ca/^«')....So 
Antony alarmed at the manoeuvre met him by advancing on 
his side as far as he could.' In other words Augustus' front 
was concave and Antony's convex, geminos...arcus. 

26. radils, rare of reflected light; Val. Fl. 6. 517 clipei 
radii 8 curruque coruscus solis aui. So radiabat v. 1. 27. plcta 
tremebat, of the play of coloured light on the waters. So 
Aen. 8. 677 auroque efftUgere Jhtctus. Similarly pie tus is used 
of the unrea sidcra Varroap. Non. 451. 11 mem pic tus aer 
feruidis late ignibus caeli choreas astricas ostenderet. 

214 NOTES. V. vi 

27. linquens. Observe the present part which adds to 
the impression of the instantaneousness. He was leaving Deloe, 
and he was at Aotium. So Stat. Theb. 9. 678 of Juno, 
stantem, ( fixed, stationary '; cf . Senee. Hero. F. 15 quibusque natu 
mobilis tellus stetit, so ulmllcft 'under his guardian- 
ship/ not ( under threat of his vengeance* as P. prefers, whose 
explanation ' that he would have punished it for not standing 
by finally reducing it to its former condition of instability' 
does not convey a very fearful threat to the vagrant island. 

28. tulit, « bore the brunt* of the winds. Hence Apollo Aen. 
3. 77 immotamque coli dedit et contemner e uentos. una, 
Mss. unda; but the correction is necessary, compare Seneca Lc. 
The birthplace of Apollo was unique among islands. Notos. 
Horace Od. 1. 3. 14 speaks of the rabiem Notu 

29. astitit, i<p€L<jT-fjK€i. His praesens numen is more 
distinctly implied by using the compound; cf. rv. 7. 11 n. 
super, Virg. Aen. 8. 704 Actius hate cernens arcum intende- 
hat Apollo desuper. noua, 'strange,' as marking a unique 
interposition. flamma. So Virgil who makes it the lulium 
sidus Aen. 8. 678 hinc Augustus agens ltalos in proelia 
Caesar — stans eelsa inpuppi, geminas cui temporaflammas laeta 
uomunt p atrium que aperitur uertice sidus, 

30. 'A strange flame shone thrice curving like a slanted 
torch 1 : i.e. bent three times with a deflection like that of a 
torch held slantwise, in which the flame curves upwards. The 
appearance is just like the representation of the 'lightning 
curls' on ancient and mediaeval monuments. It is worth 
noting that fax is the usual word for a meteor. in flactm. 
A fuller expression in iv. 22. 14 in fa ci em prorae pinus 
adacta nouae. 

31. attulerat, 'had come with': Cio. Phil. 8. 8. 23 sena- 
tm enim faciem seeum attulerat^ auctoritatem populi Romani 
and of. iv. 7. 60. crines In colla solutos, 'with long haii 
streaming over his neck,' compare Lucan 5. 143 crines iu 
terga solutos. He was not crinitus Apollo (Enn.), nor ApoUv 
Citharoedus (v. 32). 

32. Compare the spurious Tibullus 4. 2. 22 et testudinea 
Phoebe superbe lyra and Ibis v. 2 omne fuit Musae carmen 
inerme meae. 

33. sed quail. For the change of construction cf. Stat. 
Silv. 2. 6. 42 nee petulant acies blandique seuero igne oculi 
qua lis beUis iam casside missa Parthenopaeus eraL aspcztt. 

NOTES. V. vL 215 

vwohpa tdwr, Propertius has translated the angry heart, x<*>- 
fxevoi Kijp, of Iliad 1. 43 into the angry look. Pelopeum, 

i.e. of the accursed line. Gf. rv. 18 (19). 20 in/amis stupro 
stat P elope a domus. Agamemnon was the periuri Pelopis 
tertius heres Gat. 63. 346. 

34. egeaflt, 'drained,' l&Kivuxrev: of. Stat. Theb. 1. 87 
eg est as alternis mortibus urbes. auidlfl, 'consuming,' 
uoracibus: cf. in. 26. 10 (20. 56) has omnes ignis auarus 
habet, auidos rogos Ov. Am. 3. 9. 28, &c. regis, the 
abl. as in Statins supra. The allusion is to H. 1. 52 aUl 61 
Tvpcd Koiovro daneial. Dorica castra. So Yirg. Aen. 2. 27 &c. 

35, 36. Observe how this passage, both in metre and 
expression, realizes the peculiar horror of the serpent's move- 
ment, the slow sinuous progress through all its length. We 
can almost see it 'as it crept through all its coiling rings.' 
serpentem, participle, in the midst of its snaky activity. 
per orbes. For the preposition cf. v. 8. 97 mutato per singula 
pallia lecto and, still nearer, Lucan 4. 629 omnem explicuit 
per membra uirum (of Hercules strangling Antaeus). Here it 
seems to go equally with soluit and serpentem. solult, relaxed 
the creature's contracted muscles and uncoiled its folds and 
stretched it loose and limp in death ; a much more pregnant 
word than explicuit which Lucan and Statius use Phars. 5. 81 
rudibus Paean Pythona sagittis explicuit , Theb. 1. 569. 
Compare Yirg. G. 3. 424 (of a wounded snake) cum medii nexu% 
extremaeque agmina caudae soluuntur. Had Propertius some 
ancient Turner before him? quern, 'the Python before 
whom cowered the peaceful quire/ lmbelles, as in Hor. 
Od. 1. 6. 10 imbellisque lyrae Musa potens: cf. inerme 
above. lyrae, a somewhat bold use (for Latin) of the 
instrument for the performer. Just as we speak of the first 
or second ' fiddle' or of the 'cornet,' so here it is the cffkvpos 
Mov<ra, Aristoph. Ban. 229, that is meant. Compare Stat. 
Theb. 7. 730 dum Marte propinquo horrent Tyrrhenos Heli- 
conia plectra tumultus; and in. 21. 18 Arioniamuexerat ante 
lyram. There is no need to emend deae <fcc. with P. 

37. ah Alba, whose line is derived from Alba; compare 
on the one hand Seneca Hippol. 758 thyrsigera Bacchus ah 
India and on the other Yirg. G. 8. 2 pastor ab Amphryso, 

38. cognlte, 'proved greater than thy forefathers of 
Hector's age.' Heetorels, not merely Trojan but =' worthy 
of Hector': of. Aen. 3. 343 ecquid in antiquam uirtutem ani- 
mosque uiriles et pater Aeneas et auunculus excitat Hector f 

216 NOTES. Y. vi. 

40. ex tunerifl, in. 3. 10 n. hoc onus, the phareirae 

pondus v. 53. 

42. publica uota. €aesar's ship is freighted with a 
nation's prayers. A very modern expression; cf. Introdnction. 

43. murorum augur =de maris auguratus: for the gen. 
cf. Gic. Divin. 1. 47. 105 augurium salutis, * an augury de 
salute 1 ; in a different setose of augur, Ov. Am. 3. 5. 31 
nocturnae quicumque es imaginis augur. 

44. ire, for a more distinct word like uoiare; cf. Introduc- 
tion. Palatums, * seen on the Palatine,' which was Romulus' 
station when he took the auguries, Ov. F. 5. 151 huic Remus 
institerat frustra quo tempore fratri regna Palatinae prima 
dedutis aues. See Livy 1. 6. non Dene, ' in an evil hour.' 
Better that Borne should never have been founded than that it 
should perish thus. 

45. et, ' and so.' nlmlum, some mbs. have lumen and 
numen. pro, mss. prope, which is due to the homoeotelen- 
ton turpe. Latinos, mss. Latinis, due to the attraction of 

46. prindpe in strong contrast to regla, rvpawtara. It is 
a disgrace that, when you are vested with a constitutional 
authority, a tyrant's fleet should flaunt on the sea. Compare 
iv. 10 (11). 55 non lioc, Roma, fui tanto tibi clue uerenda. 
Augustus became princeps Senatus in b. c. 28. uela. Cf. 
our use of * sail.' Both agents by which ships make their way 
through the water are mentioned, as in Tacitus Ann. 2. 23 
placidum aequor mille nauium remis strepere out uelis im- 
pelli. There is also probably an allusion to the 'purple safl' 
of Cleopatra's ship Plin. N. H. 19. 1. patl, compare v. 48. 
Ovid turns the distich to his own uses, Trist. 2. 205 fas pro- 
hibet Latio quemquam de sanguine natum Caesaribus saluit 
barbara uincla pati, 

47. 48. 'Nor let the thought affright thee that their barks 
are winged with a hundred oars. They glide o'er an unfriendly 
sea.' centenls, the distributive, because classis = nauet. 
remiget, for the subj. see Boby 1744: in the same phrase 
Statius has the ind. nee te quod soliius contra riget umbo 
malighi montis...terreat Silv. 3. 1. 110. alls, cf. Od. 23. 272 
oi/5* evype iperfid rdre rrepi vyval triXorrat, Bur. Iph. T. 1346 
'EXAaoos ve(os radios rapv$ jcar^pei irlrvhop Irrepctjiliror. 
The converse metaphor, as uxremigio .alarum Aen. 1. 301, » 
more common. invito marl, of. 1. 17. 14 invito furjitt 

fecit iter and Or. 

the vivid dcBaripl 

5 a tests m fUMoi 

fatts, castellormm et 

labore uento 

fuit. These 

'Meanwhile a 

sea, broke upon A ni aw j a 

and threw it all into 

(^ntotw jiobuk) 

49. good, ' as to their carrying ~; a "»*■ »y» widen ap- 
proximates to quamwit. for which it is need imr. 1> 4S> 42- 5j- 
Centanrlca aaxa mlaialry * forms threatening with Cenxaavs* 
rocks,' i. e. Centaur £gom I hu a lrnmg to rani ncta 
formed the figure-heads, as in Tice. Aeav. 10. 13&, ISC 
remi* C«sta*rsss fraaavf: iUe imtaX afar *«. 
undis immane minatur. It is to be noticed that the An- 
tonian fleet was supplied with engrnpn far limting real rocks, 
Dion 50. 33. P.'b idea that nafesmt is for utkmmtmr is ground- 

50. eana, rotXo, and therefore unlikely to stand the battle 
shock. Trme, 7. 35. 4, where he speaks of the Syraensan tactics* 
is a good commentary arrirptppoi TV tb» IpfkXaa x/ ^t^ 
av apprise i* to rpypaOew avrmt wrtphQan mm. irrjrta trpos 
icotXa jcal atrOerij xaXorret tow ippoKtm*. As * matter of fact, 
Antony's vessels were xax&, Dion 50. 18. pietoa, 'painted': 
and so opposed to umw (Hor. OcL 1. 37. 15). The foroe of 
the epithet is the same in Or. Tr. 1. 4. 8 pictos uerberat unda 
de<>8, the painted gods in the stern. We think of Macbeth 
2. 3. 54 ( 'tis the eye of childhood That fears a painted devil.' 
ezperiere, * find by experience ': a somewhat rare use, except in 
the "perfect; Juv. 13. 103 exorabile mimen fortasse erperiar. 
xnetins, 'source of terror'; as in Stat. Theb. 12. 606 ipsa met** 
Libyeos seruatricemqye Medusam pectoris incvesa mouit Tritonia 

51. 52. <f Tis the cause that breaks or lifts on high a 
soldier's strength ; if that be not righteous to support him, 
shame strikes the weapons from his hands.' at, * or,' like 
Greek xai, Thuc. 2. 42. 3 Tpc&rrf re fxtjvvov<ra *ai rcXtfvrala 
j3e/9ato0<ra, 6. 60. 1 M i-yvwiiocrlq. Skiyapx^V k*1 rvpavvtKQ. 
This use is inclusive and pictorial, presenting both alternatives 
simultaneously, as both are found in actual faot : our idiom is 
analytic and exclusive, and presents them successively, as only 
one k found in any given case. In milite, 4 in the case of a 

218 NOTES. V. vl 

soldier': cf. i. 1. 17 in me. causa. This idea frequently 
furnishes reflections in the Latin writers; see e. g. Gic. Cat. 
2. 11. 25, Ov. M. 8. 59 in causaque ualet catuamque tuentibv* 
armis. iusta. The student should observe this predicative 

use after a relative. subest, of what is at the bottom of a 
dispute, a Grundsache : Cic. Off. 1. 12. 88 cum uero de imperii* 
decertatur belloque quaeritur gloria, caussas omnino subesse 
tamen eaedem quas dixi paullo ante iustas caussa* 
ease be 11 or urn. excutlt, Cic. Mur. 14. 30 omnia ista nobi* 
studia de manibus excutiuntur. The pseudo-Tibullus ha* 
4. 2. 4 ne tibi miranti turpiter arma cad ant. anna 

includes weapons of offence as well as of defence, but has 
especial reference to the shield. 

53. temporis auctor, * in pledge that this is the hour/ or 
less probably, 'I who ordain the hour.' temporis =ri}f ev 
tccuplas, Ov. R. A. 131 temporis are medicina feresU 

54. laurlgera, ' with laurelled hand 1 : the laurel of Phoebus 
is the laurel of victory. rostra, ' the beaked ships.' 

55. pondus, the arrows ; cf. v. 40. consumit in areas, 
Virg. G. 3. 178 et tota in dulees consument ubera natot. 
Cicero would have used the abl. arciu, the phircUis mag- 
nificentiae; see Introduction. We must however remember the 
bow consists of two distinct parts, the wood and the string. 

. 56. fait, * came.' The Latin idiom is to use a colourless 
word : see Potts' Latin Prose, p. 33, and compare n. 27 (21). 
26, rv. 8 (9). 60. 

57. * Rome conquers; for Phoebus is true.' Observe the 
art of the poet in passing at once from the beginning of the 
fight to its victorious conclusion. It was, as is well known, a 
very stubborn one. fide. Phoebus was true to his word and 
true to the cause he protected. For the first sense cf. Virg. 
Aen. 2. 309 turn uero manufesta fides, 'the truth of the pre- 
diction,' and for the second Catull. 34. 1 Dianae sumus in 
fide* femina. It is very significant of the loathing of the 
Romans for Cleopatra that neither Horace nor Virgil nor Pro- 
pertius nor Ovid ever mention her by name. She is regiw 
(Hor.), or Aegyptia coniunx (Virg.), or even mulier or femina 
as here and Prop. rv. 10 (11). 30. 

58. seeptra. 'The shivered sceptre is borne o'er the 
Ionian waters ' : a very bold image for the breaking of Antonv 
and Cleopatra's power and the shipwreck of their armament. 
In such uses Propertius approaches very closely to the modem 

NOTES. V. vi. 219 

Dixit. The passage in Floras is instinctive 4. 11. 9 quippe im- 
ensa cUusis, naufragio belli facto, toto mari ferebatur, 
rabumque et Sabaeorum et mille aliarum gentium Asiae spolia 
urpuram aurumque in ripam assidue mota uentis maria re- 
omebanU uehuntur, certainly not 'is towed,' as P. sug- 
3sts. It may be for feruntur, ' drifts,' or it may = 'is 
jnveyed,' whether in the victor's vessels or lastly in the 
inquished ones. If we most 'fix' our poet, it is probably 
le last. 

59. pater, his adopted father. The Romans could Qwrcu 
ar-rovi Aristoph. Idalio, in allusion to the descent of the 
em Iulia from Venus through Aeneas. She was queen of 
dalium frondosum Catull. 64. 96. astro, cf. Yirg. Eel. 
. 47 ecce Dionaei processit Caesar is as t rum, Suetonius 
cd. 88 * He was deified, not merely by the terms of a reso- 
ltion, but in the popular conviction. For, during the games 
hich were exhibited in his especial honour by Augustus his 
eir, a comet (stella crinita) appeared and shone for Beven 
accessive days, rising about the eleventh hour. It was be- 
eved to be the soul of Caesar translated into heaven ; and in 
Dnsequence a star is placed above his statue.' 

60. 'I am a God: and this the proof that thou art of my 
lood.' Your exploits shew you to be of divine descent. 
uignlnls, like Gr. at/xa, probably 'descent,' possibly 'offspring.' 
des, 'proof,' as in el. 1. 98. For the phrase and the general 
anse cf. Yal. Fl. 1. 883 hie nates Phoebique fides non nana 
arentis Mopsut, Tac. Ann. 4. 52 Agrippina se natosque Au- 
usti nepotes pronepotesque imaginem tins ueram caelesti 
anguine ortam appeUat. 

61. Triton. The storm is over; and the sea creatures 
ambol in the wake of the fleet, as it rides over a mare pacatum. 
ompare the descriptions in Mosch. 1. 115 sqq. and also in 
'laudian Epithal. Honor. 153 sqq. and Senec. Tro. 208 sqq. 
Bkntn, i.e. from his shell trumpet (concha), with which he 
tilled the waves Ov. M. 1. 333. 

62. libera signa, not 'the enfranchised standards,' but 
ather 'the standards of freedom,' i.e. those maintaining free- 
om's cause. For the adj. cf. Find. Pyth. 8. 98 iXcvOtpy 
to\<? xrfXur t&v8c tfo/utfe 'in a course of freedom' (Fennell), 
3. 1. 86 dxl/evSeT 8i rpbt cur/tow %d\*6t/e y\w<r<rav 'on an anvil 
f truth' with which compare v. 1. 107 uerueque per astra 
rames, 'the path of truth'; cf. Catull. 68. 14 (Ellis). 

220 NOTES. V. vi. 

68. ill*, Cleopatra. Senec. Oct. 881 super atus acic puppibu* 
Nilum petit fugue paratis (of Antony). nlxsu P., not 

understanding the construction of hoc unvm, needlessly reads 

64. hoc unum, accusative in apposition to .the vest of the 
line, 'ready to do all but die on a bidden day.' Compare Hot. 
S. 1. 4. 10 in hora saepe ducentos, ut magnum, uersus dictabat 
stans pede in uno, Tac. H. 3. 31 aspernantem fatigant, txtrt- 
mum malorum, tot fortissimi uiri proditoris opem inuocanUs; 
so in Greek, Madv. Gr. Synt. § 19. B. 3. The <boc is an idiomatic 
fulness of expression : see e.g. Livy 3. 40. 9 quonam fato inci- 
disset ut decemuiros qui decemuiratum petissent out soli aut hi 
maxims oppugnarent. Ittaso, -of the subject, not the reci- 
pient of the order; of. Virg. Aefc. 10. 444 cesserunt aequore iusto 
and with an inf. Boby 1353. Compare also mundatam 
domumm. 27(11), 20. 

65. di melius, probably a -wish, not a statement as P. 
who supplies melius consuluerunt ; 'Heaven forefendl' Com- 
pare for the ellipse di meliora (so. duint) piis erroremque 
hostibus ilium Virg. G. 3. 513 and elsewhere. quanta*. 
i.e. quantulus, 'how poor a triumph'; so in Greek tijXLkoi is 
sometimes depreciative, Babe 69. 4 4 Ty\l*ot <rov, <faw, 
cuptBri ddcffw, 'that little creature.' 

66. ductuB erat. A prose writer would have said duet a, 
per quas uias ante Iugurtha {ductus erat). For ante with the 
pluperf. see i. 8. 36 n. 

t>7. htno, retrospective, 'from this contest,' rather than 
prospective and referring to quod. traxit monuments 

'gained his memorial': a somewhat strange collocation of 
words. The use of traxit seems to mediate between that in el. 
3. 14 traxit db euerso lumina nigra rogo and that in phrases 
like nomen trahere, &c. 

68. una decern. We need net speculate, a* some of the 
commentators do, how many arrows he had in his quiver, nor 
whether this was an average or an exceptional shot. ulctt. 
We might have expected 'sunk 1 or some such definite word. 
But Propertiufi prefers the vague. 

69. dtfcaram. He is Apollo Citharoedus again. For 
the change cf. Hor. Od. 2. 10. 18 quondam cithara taeenUm 
suscitat Musam neque semper arcum tendit Apollo, Senec A& 
327 arcus uictor pace relita, Phoebe, relaxa vmeroque grout 

NOTES. V. vi. 221 

uibus telis pone pJiaretras respnetque-mam pulsa citata uocale 

70. ad, cf. in. 32 (26). 42 ad mollis membra resolue clwros. 
acidoa, 'peaceful': opposed to implacidas el. 9. 14, 

71. 72. 'Now let the white-robed banquet seek the soft 
letter of the grove, and o'er my neck let the caressing roses 
>w.' Candida, * white-robed* =candi data, albata: so Tib. 

1. 16, Ac. For the practice of dressing in white on sacred 
id festal occasions cf. Hor. Sat, 2. 2. 61 ille repotia natales 
\iosue die rum festos albatus celebret. molli, iv. 3. 

n. subeant, 'seek the covert of the grove ' %=succedere 

irg. G. 3. 464. conuiula, ' the banquet ' and all that is 

icessary to it, and especially the guests, conuiuae. After the 
orifice is over, the officiating priests partake of a banquet in 
e sacred grove, such as the Pontiftcum cenae Hor. Od. 2. 14. 
i. In this case, though the poet's priestly office is more or 
3s metaphorical, the banquet is a reality. 

72. blandltiae, 'the roses' caresses': i.e. the caressing 
ses, a genuine Propertian expression; see Introduction, 
sae, as frequently, is the collective singular. fluant, ie, 
11 loosely, Ov. F. 2. 737 fusi a per colla coronis. 

73. elisa, ' crushed out ': a rather unusual word for pressing 
ine, but one that gives admirably the bursting of the grape- 

74. l&uet. For the act. see v. 16 n. We are not surprised 
find the use common with verbs applying to liquids, as from 
eir great mobility they are naturally regarded as agents in 
i action. spica Cilissa. A convenient expression for 
srse probably translated from the Greek, compare the Greek 
m. Kl\t<r<ra. Ovid has not been slow to appropriate it; Bl 1. 
>. Saffron ointment {croclnum) is meant of which Properties 
ems to have been fond iv. 9 (10). 22 et crocino naves 
urrew ungat onyx, spica is an allusion to the appearance 
' the plant And its ykurxtves, as they were called, Geopon. 11. 
K p. 831, 

75. 76. For the general sense cf. in. 28 (22). 40 nam.sine 
nostrum nil ualet ingenium (addressed to Bacchus). It is a 

>mmon-place. potls. Independently of the question of 

s, authority, I think the ms. poaltls, ' in their places at the 
inquet table,' is, very likely what the poet, wrote: of, hl 32 
$). 59 me iuuet hestemis positum languere corollti (of. a 
irouse. carried on till the next morning). In any case the 

222 NOTES. V. vi. 

stress of the sentence is on this word. lrritet, ' stir up': 

cf. Hor. A. P. 180 segnius irritant aniinos demtisa per aura. 
The sense is 'we must let wine wake poetry in as.' It is not 
necessary to alter it to irritat with P. and others. totWs, 

4 productive' or * fertilising,' as in Lucan 1. c. on v. 83. There 
is the same doubt about fecundi calices quern nan feeere 
disertum f Hor. Ep. 1. 5. 19. The whole passage should be 
compared with this. Phoebo, probably dat. too, 

'fratri, familiari et consorti tuo,' Pass. 

77. paludosos, * marshy/ i. e. marsh-inhabiting, like pcdu- 
dicolas Sugambros Sidon. Apollin. 4. 2. Elsewhere the word 
means forming marshes or full pf them. Sugambros, not 
Sicambros. In conjunction with the Usipeti and Tencteri they 
had defeated M. Lollius with great slaughter, b. c. 16 ; but on 
Augustus himself going to Germany they sued for peace and 
gave hostages. 

78. Cepheam Moreen. Meroe, a district of Aethiopia, 
was a sort of African Mesopotamia, being bounded on every 
side by the Nile and its tributaries the Astapus and Astaboras, 
and was hence incorrectly called an insula. The capital 
was also called Meroe. In b.c. 22 and 21 its queen Candace 
invaded Egypt, but was more than once severely defeated by 
Petronius who had succeeded Aelius Gallus in the government; 
on this she sued for peace. Cepheus, the father of Andromeda, 
was an old king of Aethiopia, Tac. Hist. 5. 2. fuaca, 
'the dusky realms.' Cornelius Fronto De Differentiis Voca- 
bulorum fusco album (dull white) opponitur, nigra candidum 
(clear white). regna, sc. the people. Ov. M. 4. 21 de- 
color Eoo qua tingitur India Grange. 

79. confeasum, used here absolutely, 'humbled, owning 
his fault and the power of Borne; cf. Ov. M. 5. 215 confessai- 
que tnanus obliquaque bracchia tendens • uincis,' ait, 'Peneuf 
Veil. Patero. 2. 90. 1 Dalmatia rebellis ad certam confes- 
sionem pacatast imperi and id. 2. 39. 2, Plin. Paneg. 16. 3 
confessa hostium obsequia. The word properly denotes a 
culprit brought to admit his guilt, confeuut reus Or. P. 2. 

81. pharetrls Eols, 'the quivered East,' the bowmen of 
the East ; a bold expression of the same kind as lyrae v. 36. 

82. dlfferat, ' may he only be deferring those trophies for 
his sons ': see Claud, iv. Cons. Hon. 885 tu proelia differ in 
iuuenem compared with ib. v. 874 fertur Pellaeut Eoum gut 
domuit Porum, cum prospera saepe Pkilippi audiret, laetot inter 

NOTES. V. vi. 223 

.HeuUse todales, nil sibi uincendum patris uirtute relin- 
q ui. pueros, Gains and Lucius Caesar, sons of Julia and 
Agrippa, adopted by Augustus. 

83. gaude, Crasse, imitated Ov. A. A. 1. 179 Parthe, dabis 
poenas. Crassi gaudete sepulti signaque barbaricas non bene 
passa mania. nlgras harenas. From the alluvial character 
of the soil in the neighbourhood of Carrhae. The following 
description is from a private letter to me from Professor 
Sayoe : ( Unfortunately I have never been as far east as 
Haran (Carrhae), so I cannot speak as an eye-witness. But 
the plain on which Haran and its villages stand is .a rich 
loamy one, consisting according to Buckingham of sandy soil 
which is dry and dusty where there is no water, but exceed- 
ingly fertile where there is any. It lies just under the range of 
limestone cliffs. 1 When Fropertius wrote, I have no doubt he 
had Virgil's line about the Nile in his mind, G. 4. 293 et 
uiridem Aegyptum nigra fecundat harena. For the com- 
parison between the Nile and the Euphrates was almost a 
common-place; of. Lucan 3. 259 sparsus in agros fertilis. 
Euphrates Phariae nice fungitur undae. It is possible 
also that he may have been thinking of Babylonia as well as 
Mesopotamia. But Hertzberg's idea that nigra* harenas means 
" the black country" is absurd. For harenas oannot mean 
' country,' and the Romans knew very well that the sun did not 
bake sand or any other soil blacker than it was before. si 
quid. Observe the difference between this and si aliquid, v. 
81 — 'If he shall shew some mercy '; ( if you have any feeling.' 
sapis, ni. 5. 26 (4. 42). 

84. per, ' across': Virg. G. 4. 457 dum te fugeret per 
flumina praeceps. licet. P. well quotes Tac. Ann. 2. 58 
inter quae ab rege Parthorum Artabano legati uenere. miserat 
amicitiam ac foedus memoraturos et cupere renouari dextras 
daturumque honori Germanici ut ripam Euphratis ac- 

85. patera, ' with libations' : the vessel being put for its 
use. So Tib. 2. 1. 51 assiduo aratro, 'with incessant plough- 
ing.' Propertius leaves the accompanying drinking to be 

224 NOTES. V. xL 

V. xi. 


This poem is: on elegy on the death of Cornelia, a Roman 
lady of the highest rank. She was the daughter of Cornelius 
Scipio, a man of consular rank, as we conclude from Sueton. 
Aug. 62 \ and Soribonia (v. 56) , the sister of L. Scribonius 
Libo, Hie father-in-law of Sextus Pompey, and subsequently 
the wife of Augustus. P. Cornelius Scipio, who was- consul in 
b. c. 16, was her brother (w. 65, 66). Her husband was PauUus 
Aemilius Lepidus (in full, Paull. Aem. L. f . M. n. Lepidus : see 
Mommsen's paper in the Bheinisches Museum 15. p. 192), the 
son of Paullus Aemilius Lepidus, brother of the Triumvir. Little 
is known about him. He was proscribed at the same time as 
his father, and was the Republican commander in Crete. But 
he afterwards joined Octavian, whom he accompanied in the 
campaign against Sextus Pompey* In reward for this submis- 
sion he was appointed consul (suffectus) July 1, b. o. 34, and sub- 
sequently, in b.o. 22, was allowed to hold the censorship on the 
last occasion that that office was held by private individuals. 
His colleague 1 was L. Munatius Plancus, a man of dissolute 
life. The colleagues quarrelled, and their office redounded to 
the credit of neither. Besides Augustus did much that ther 
should have done*. Paullus was a man of very circumscribed 
ability and probably owed his advancement in great part to his 
high birth and connexions. His greatest work was the com- 
pletion of the Basilica Aemilia which his father had begun. 
The offspring of the union were two sons, L. Aemilius Paullus 

1 Suetonius-says that Scrfoanfai had been married to two men of consular 
dignity before she married Augustus. We do not find Scipio's name in tlie 
Fasti, so that it is probable be was one of the consules suffectu 

* In Dr Smith's Did of Biography (a. v. Lepidus, no. 19), it is stated *tiut s 


contradiction arises between Yelleius Paterculus (ii. 95) , and Dion 

(liv. 2) on the one hand, and Propertius on the other, as the two former writer* 

say that Paullus died during his consulship.' I transcribe the two psnnngri in 

3uestion. Yelleius : ante quae tempore ceruura Pkmci et Paulli acta inttr 
iseordiam, neque ipsis. honori neque ret publicae usui fuit, cum aUcrt uii ce+ 
sari*, alteri uita dees set (Le. Plancus whose life was not such aa qualified 
him fdr the censorship), Paullus uix posset itnplere censorem, Plancus tiwure 
deberet Dion C. (speaking of Augustus) ovtc yap n\v dpxw vtre'cmi (the Senate 
wished to make him perpetual censor) kcu cv0i* ercpovc Tiaras, TJavAdr n 
AlfiCkiov AiwiBov icat Aovkiov VLowariov nAayieov, tovtoi' /*£•» a&cA^or rtv 
nXayieov exefrov tov iwucnpvx64vros bvra, tcv ok AivtBov avTbv r6rm fara- 
rtaOivra (condemned to death in the proscriptions) aWSet^ef. It seems u 
though the spaced words are the authority for this supposed contradietioa 
If so, the charitable reader may suppose that the writer of the article never re- 
ferred to the passages which he cites. 


NOTES. V. xi. 225 

and M. Aemilius Lepidus (v. 63), and a daughter, Aemilia 
Lepida (v. 67). The first married Julia the granddaughter of 
Augustus, and was consul in a. d. 1. This did not prevent 
him from subsequently entering into a conspiracy against him. 
The second was consul in a. d. 6 and was a man of very dif- 
ferent character, able but unambitious. In discussing his pos- 
sible successors, Augustus said that Lepidus was capax sed 
aspernan8 (Tac. A. 1. 13). Tacitus himself expresses a high 
opinion of Lepidus (A. 4. 20). Of Lepida nothing is known. 
She may be the (jenerosissima femina, who was condemned to 
death by Tiberius (Suet. Tib. 49). Cornelia died in B.C. 16 
during her brother's consulship (v. 66). Compare v. 61, where 
it is said that she had won the rewards of the Lex Iulia b. c. 
18. There would seem to have been unfavourable reports af- 
fecting her reputation which the poet carefully seeks to remove 
(see w. 15—22, 37—60) \ 

The poem itself is a sort of funeral oration in verse ; and it 
is Hiibner's probable conjecture that it was intended to be 
engraved upon Cornelia's tomb. This seems to be what is 
intended by v. 36. Nor is it surprising that a long poem should 
have been so engraved, when we have, preserved to us in this 
way the whole funeral oration which Q. Lucretius Vespillo, 
who was consul b. c. 21, spoke over his wife Turia (Corpus 
Lnscr. Lat. vi. 1527). Its plan is not consistently main- 
tained throughout. Cornelia passes from addressing her hus- 
band in the upper world to addressing her supposed judges in 
the lower, and vice versa. This is the more intelligible if the 
jlegy were sculptured on her tomb, at once the passage and the 
carrier between the two worlds. 


Your lamentations for me are vain, Paullns. The dead 
lever come back again. Death regards no claims (1 — 14). 

My early death was not the punishment of sin. Let the 
iternest court of the world below try me, and all hell listen 
vhile I plead my cause (15 — 28). 

My birth was noblo on both sides (29 — 34); my marriage 
vas noble, and I have done shame to neither (35— -48). My 
ife has been as blameless as that of the maligned Claudias 
ind Aemilias of old (49 — 54). I have never disgraced my im- 
>erial relationship. Caesar himself bemoans my fate (55— GO). 

1 A table of Cornelia's relations is given at the end of the notes. 

P. p. 15 

226 NOTES. V. xL 

I have won the honours of maternity. Three children 
will deplore my fate. I have seen my brother consul. Thus 
though I die before my time, I am not loth to depart and win 
the highest commendation that can fall to a woman, the praise 
of posterity (61—72). 

Now, my husband, I charge thee to play a mother's part to 
my half-orphaned children. Mourn for me in private ; but be 
cheerful when they are with you (73 — 84). And, my children, 
should your father take another in my place, be careful to win 
her love by your conduct (85 — 90). But if he is faithful to 
my memory, let your affection supply my loss and cherish his 
declining years. And may you both live the longer that I have 
died before my time (91 — 96). 

Enough. I am content. Bise, my witnesses, till the under- 
world awards me the due recompense of my merits, the celestial 
honours of my ancestors (97 — 102). 

1. Deslne, Virg. Aen. 6. 376 desine fata deum JUcti sperare 
precando. urgere, * to distress, importune, allow no rest 
to': of. Hor. Od. 2. 9. 9 tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
My 8 ten ademptum, lacrimls, these signs of grief 
being distasteful to the spirits of the dead; see Anth. Or. 
7. 667, and compare Tib. 1. 1. 67, 68 tu Manes ne laede 
meos; sed parce solutis crinibus et teneris, Delia, parce genis; 
and so of the deified Romulus Ov. F. 2. 504 nee uiolent 
lacrimis numina nostra suis. mown sepulcnim==3f ana 
meos, 'my buried shade': so in Catull. 96. 1 si quicquam 
mutis gratum acceptumque sepulcris accidere e nostro, Calve, 
dolore potest, Ov. F. 2. 33 aut quia p lac at is sunt tempera 
pura sepulcris: and see note on v. 20. There is also an idea 
of weeping at the grave. 

2. ad, ' in answer to, at the call of : cf. v. 5. 47 ianitor 
ad dantes uigilet. ianua nigra = lurida porta v. 8. 

8. Infernas leges, 'the domain of the underworld,' its 
jurisdiction: cf. Pind. Pyth. 2. 43 otir* h attipaatr our 4w (kt* 
pofiois (Dissen). The leges are mentioned again in el. 7. 91 
luce iubent leges Lethaea ad stagna reuerti. P.'s suggestion 
seats is unnecessary. intrarunt, a rare but intelligible 

use. The metaphor is probably derived from entering a court: 
so in Plin. Ep. 5. 4. 2 alio senatu Vicetini sine aduocato in- 
trauerunt, itinera —Manes: of the dead body i. 17. 6 

and Virg. Aen. 9. 489 quae nunc artus auolsaque membra it 
funus lacerum tellus Jutbett 

NOTES. V. xL 227 

4. non eronXo -inexorabilu Note first the resolved nega- 
tive of which Propertius is fond, Bee Introduction, ■» «4 com- 
pare iv. 12 (13). 56 in hospitio non, Polydort, pio iiwtpio), and 
secondly the perf. part, in an aoristie sense 'what ha* never 
been appeased nor will be so': so im$atmnUm — «* txoptatms. 
It is akin to the frequentative use of the Gk. aor. and Lot. pert 
BtsJL\=immotae sunt. Tib. 1. 1. 64 stat tibi corde silcz, 
Ov. F. 5. 383 saxo stant antra uctmsto. The stress of the 
sentence is on non exorato. adamaste. So Virg. Aen, 6. 
551 porta aduersa ingens solidoque idamantf nrfrntnar Theoer. 
2. 36 xal rbv ip "AiZq. Kunjaais $ dtdftarra. ttta#=Al- 
caeus Mess. Anth. Or. 7. 412. 8 evrc ^td^pel^p otjiop tfat 

5. fuscae, see el. 6. 78 n. The air is dusky, of 'darkness 
visible' so to say, while the gate is black. Appuleius Met. 6. 
p. 185 speaks of the fuscae Stygis undat. aolae 'the 
vasty hall of death,' Matthew Arnold; Eur. Ale. 259 Aytt 
lU tls...v€kv(op is avXap and Hor. Od. 2. 18. 31. tirftnt. 
i e. Kcjf k\v-q, ou/c d*owr«-cu. 

6. nempe, 'assuredly': of something which it is rain to 
doubt. Ov. Am. 2. 6. 20 infelix auium gloria, nempe iacest 
Utora. The scene of action does not seem to be clearly con- 
eeived. The ( shores ' are no doubt those of the infernal lake: 
but Paullus' actual presence there cannot have been intended, 
and yet that is implied in bibent. See on v. 8. surd*, re- 
turning no answer. bibent. Your tears will be wasted on 
the insatiable sand (bibula harena) no less than on the impene- 
trable rock. Cf. Oat. 66. 85 illius, a, mala dona leuis bib at 

7. superos, emphatic, * only the Gods above.' aera, 
the obol piece (triens in Juv. 3. 267) which was placed in the 
mouth of the corpse to pay Charon's fare with. See Ar. Ban. 
140, Leon. Tar. Anth. Gr. 7. 67 *w <f>0ifUpovs vglvcto\Iup 6po\6s. 
It was a Greek superstition adopted by the Bomans. 

8. obserat 'closes' = i ob8erata claudit*; an idiom of the 
same character as that noticed on el. 6. 16. nmbrosos. It 
is hard to decide between this and herbosos. Propertius' 
meaning is that, when the body is once placed in the earth, 
there is no return. It cannot leave the ' tree-shaded ' or the 
'grassy tombs.' umbrosus refers to the practice of planting 
trees over the spot where the body was burned and where it 
was interred. So in. 5. 18 (4. 34) q. v. herbosus would refer to a 
mound of turf (caespes). I cannot believe that it could denote 


228 NOTES. . V. xi. 

the flowers thrown on the blazing pyre. In either case Pro- 
pertius is thinking of a humatio ; see ni. 5. 18 n. lurid* 

•wan': of a ghastly yellow paleness. porta. The con- 

Grateness and narrow range of the Boman imagination causes 
endless confusion in their conceptions of the unseen world. 
Thus here and in v. 2 the conception seems to waver between 
the door of the material sepulcrum and the gate of the shadowy 
underworld. So again in v. 6 the prayers and tears addressed 
from the upper to the under world are thought to be actually 
wasted and absorbed in these invisible shores. So the disem- 
bodied spirit is now called the * bones ' {ossa v. 20, 56), now the 
'ashes' (cinis Tibull. 2. 6. 34),. now. the ' pyre,' i.e. the burnt 
body (rogi Ov. F. 6. 492), or the ' sepulchre/ L e. the buried 
body (v. 1 n.), or even the ' corpse ' {/units v. 8). Occasionally 
the commingling of the ideas is complete ; so in in. 5. 41, 42. 
Compare note on in. 5. 16. rogos, here probably the * tomb,' 
though the confusion already described makes it very difficult 
to decide; cf. iv. 6 (7). 10 n. 

9. sic, 'to this purport, in this strain.' tubae, n. 
7. 12. subdita fax, imitated by Seneca Troad. 387 cum 
profugo spiritus halitu immixtus nebulis cessit in aera et nudum 
tetigit subdita fax latus; cf. suppositus ardor m. 5. 15. 

10. detraheret, ' was withdrawing.' lecto, m. 5. 5 n. 
lnimlca, 'destroying.' caput, not intended to exclude 
the body. 

11. ' What did wedlock with Paullus or chariot of ancestors 
avail me, or all the gages of my matron's fame ? ' curnu. 
For this, which may be called a ' typical ' singular, compare 
Cic. Fam. 15. 61 quern ego cur rum aut quam lauream cum tua 
laudatione conferremt Prop. ni. 6 (5). 24 haec spolia, hate 
reges, haec mihi currus erunt. We must also remember that 
few houses would be able to shew more than one triumphal 
chariot : for which see I. 16. 3 n. 

12. famae =/amae pudicae, m. 30 (24). 21. plgnert, 
'assurances': my children who support their mother's fair 
fame by being living proofs of her chastity. We must not 
leave out of sight the use of the word for near relations, 
especially children, which first sprang up in the Augustan 
period and is due firstly to children being regarded as warrants 
of the existence and the continuance of mutual affection, and 
secondly to the fact that a man's nearest relations were those 
selected as hostages or security for his loyalty. tanta= 
tot, cf . i. 5. 10 n. 

NOTES. V. 3d. 229 

13. minus, 'the less' on that account; so in Ov. Her* 
11. 17 — 20 quid iuuat admotam per auorum nomina caelg inter 
cognatos -posse referre louemt num minus infestum, funebria 
munera, ferrum, feminea teneo y non mea tela, manu f So Prop, 
in. 15 (13). 30. habuit ' found.' So 1. 1. 8 aduersos cogof 
habere deos. Cic. Fam. 1. 4. 1 eo die acerbum habuimus 
Curionem, Bibulum multo iustiorem paene etiam amicum. All 
the editors read habui for the ms. habuit, which however 
may be right — compare v. 43 non fuit exuuiis tantU Cornelia 
damnum — especially as it is well known that the ancients could 
not keep up the third person for any time in speaking of 
themselves. One passage is enough to shew this. Soph. Oed. 
Col. 3 — 6 rls top TrXavrJTrjp Oldlvovp kclO' rifiipav rrpf pup 
(Tiravi<rr6ts &£ercu 8<opijfia<rtv 9 fffwcpop fikv i^atrovpra tov ofiiKpov 
8' £ti fieiop <f>£povra teal rod' i^apKovp ifiol; Cornelia. Such 
introductions of the proper name have always a special 
emphasis, as they contain an assertion of the personality. 
The self-assertion is sometimes that of conscious pride as here, 
' I with all my personal and hereditary claims for considera- 
tion.' Seneca Med. 171 Medea fugiamt 'Shall the descend- 
ant of the Sun, the mighty sorceress, fly?' Sometimes that of 
a proud humility, Aen. 5. 194 non iam prima peto Mnestheus, 

14. et, the editors en, a needless perversion of the text, 
digitis qulnque, a hack poet would have said una manu. 
leuatur, again a confusion between the ghost and the ashes. 
Observe the indie, and cf. I. 9. 29 n., where the tense is the 
perfect. The sentiment has become a commonplace, Ov. M. 
12. 615, 616 iam cinis est et de tarn magno res tat Achille 
neseio quid par u am quod non bene compleat urnam (where 
we may observe the same tendency to connect physical to 
intellectual greatness as we observed on in. 1. 12). 

15. damnatae noctes, either (1) ' nights for which one is 
condemned,' a usage like iusso die, el. 6. 64, or (2) ' nights of 
the condemned *=damnatorum noctes for which Tib. 1. 3. 67 
sedes scelerata may be compared. lenta, 'sluggish,' 
Hor. Od. 2. 14. 7 uisendus ater flumine languido Cocytus 
errans. paludes, Ov. M. 1. 737 Stygias iubet hoc audire 

16. quaecumque. For the metrical construction of the 
verse, cf. iv. 6 (7). 58 et quaecumque meum degrauat unda caput, 
lmpUcat, not ' entangles my feet,' the more natural meaning 
of the words, but ' winds round my path.' For this sense of 
4 encompassing ' see Stat. Theb. 2. 3 pigrae ire uetant nubes et 
turbidus implicate aer. Virg. G. 4. 479 is a good commentary, 

230 NOTES. . V. xl 

quos circum tristique palus inamabilis unda alii gat et nouies 
Styx inUrfusa coerceU 

17. My early death is not the punishment of a sinful life. 
Hon noxla, see v. 4 note. 

18 — 20. The general sense of these difficult lines is an 
assertion of her innocence. 'If I am innocent, let me have 
the rewards of innocence. If guilty, let me be punished by the 
severest judge in the lower world.' Hertzberg well compares 
m. 13 (11). 28 sqq. possum ego naturae nan meminisse tuaet t urn 
me uel tragicae uexetis Erinyes et me inferno damnes, 
Aeace, iudicio. 

18. pater. It is doubtful who is meant. Hertzberg sup- 
poses Die is meant, who is called Pater on inscriptions with 
the addition of some epithet. I think it possible however that 
Cornelia's father may be meant ; for it was usual for women 
who had been tried to be handed over by the state to their 
relations to be dealt with in private. The treatment of those 
who had taken part in the Bacchanalian rites is an instance, 
Livy 39. 18. 6, and it is probable that Cornelia's father would 
be mentioned somewhere in the poem. hie, * in the under- 
world/ cf. hue v. 17. dot mollla iura, * so may he deal 
leniently with my shade,' give me easy terms. I think that we 
must admit Hertzberg's distinction between ius dicere and 
iura dare here ; ius dicere is to expound the law, to administer 
it ; iura dare is to give a body of rights, a constitution ; and 
hence it is used with dare leges, Virg. Aen. 1. 607, Livy 
1. 8. 1 {Romulus) uocata ad concilium multitudine, quae coaJa- 
cere in populi unius corpus nulla re praeter quam legibut 
potcrat, iura dedit, 

19. aut, i.e. if I am guilty. si quia, i.e. ■ any such 
person as Aeacus.' The indefinite pronoun can be used in such 
cases, because the proper name is typical or representative of a 
class. Aeacus really = here *an Aeacus,' a person with his 
attributes and corresponding -to his description. Compare 
Virg. Aen. 1. 181 prospectum late pelago petit Anthea ft 
quern iactatum uento uideat, i.e. any one like Antheus, Seneca 
Here. Oet. 1792 si quis minor Busiris aut si quis minor 
Antaeus orbem feruidae terret plagae. index. Hertzberg 
has thrown the whole passage into confusion by making this 
s=iudex quaestionis or president of the court (whom he regards 
as the quaesitor of Virg. Aen. 6. 432), who appoints the indices 
eelecti from the ghosts to try the case (the sortitio iudicum). 
Whatever may be the true interpretation of the passage in 
Virgil, it is clear that Propertius could not have called the pre- 

NOTES. V. xL 231 

siding judge by the very name whioh was appropriated to the 
* special jurors 1 whom he appointed to hear the case ; and the 
mention of assessors (v. 20) is unintelligible unless Aeacus 
heard it himself, index then is not— index quaestionis, but 
has its general sense of an acting, not a presiding judge; 
and the reference to the sortitio iudicum is learning thrown 
away. sedet, cf. rv. 18. (19). 27 Minos sedet arbiter 

Orci, where arbiter =iudex here. posita urna* It is 

not certain, but very probable that this and sortita pila in 
v. 20 and n. refer to the same thing. What then is the 
•urn'? Not (1) the urn in which the names of the jury- 
panel were thrown for the purpose of selecting a jury to try 
the case (sortitio iudicum), but either (2) the voting urn, as 
in v. 49, or else (3) the urn containing the names of the accused 
and which decided the order in which their trial came on. 
This is the meaning in Seneca Ag. 24 quaesitor urna Gnosius 
uersat reos, in Stat. Silv. 2. 1. 218 ibimus omnes, ibimus; im- 
mensis urnam quatit Aeacus umbris, and, I believe, in spite 
of Conington and others, in Yirg. Aen. L c. Compare Hor. 
Od. 3. 1. 14 aequo, lege Necessitas sortitur insignes et imos, 
omne capax mouet urna no men. posita, placed near him or 
before him; a use Ukeposito Iaccho 'when the wine is on the 
.table ' n. 3. 17, <fec. 

20. ulndicet in, 'inflict punishment on.' This is the 
original construction of uindicare {uim dicere) 'to shew violence 
towards* In later Latin we only find it in the impersonal use, 
as in Cicero in socios uindicatum. But it is preserved in a 
fragment of the XII Tables in Gellius 20. 1. 45 si ivdicatvm 
facit avt qvis endo eom ivbe viNDiciT, i.e. in eum iure uindicat 
(uim dicit). For Propertius' archaisms see Introduction, ossa, 
see v. 8 n. sortita pila. It is possible to suppose that 
this refers to Aeacus being appointed index by ballot. It is 
however much more probable that it means 'drawing by lot the 
ball inscribed with my name' drawing my name in the ballot. 
tortitae is passive 'drawn by lot,' here as in el. 7. 55 nam 
geminast sedes turpem sortita per amnem where it means 'as- 
signed by lot.' 

21. adsideant. It was not uncommon for a single iudez 
to have one or more assessores who sat by his side on the 
tribunal to advise him on points of law, &c. This custom is 
transferred here to the infernal courts. Compare the passage 
quoted by Hertzb. Stat. Theb. 8. 21 sqq. forte 8 e dens (as 
index) media regni infelicis in arce dux Erebi populos poscebat 
crimina uitae......iuxta Minos cum fratre uerendo iura 

232 NOTES. V. xi. 

bonus meliora monet regemque cruentum temperat. So in 
the Peruigil. Yen. 49, 50 iussit Hyblaeis tribunal stare diua 
Jloribus, praeses ipsa iura dicet (=ius dicet), assidebunt 
Gratiac. fratres * half-brothers,' if we take the ordinary 

account, which makes Minos and Rhadamanthus sons of Zens 
and Europa, bat Aeaeus the son of Zeus and- Aegina. In this 
case we may compare sororem v. 59. Another account however 
made Aeaeus the son of Europa (Serv. Aen. 6. 566). Thus 
there is no need for Hertzberg v s interpretation 'confreres.' 
The reading of the rest of the line is somewhat uncertain, the 
MSB. having Minoia sella. But there is no reason for inserting 
an et after iuxta as a different verb to adsideant must be supplied 
with v. 22. For the Furies would be standing. Minoida 

sellam, Minos' magisterial seat. Minois is usually a subst. 
Catull. 64. 247, Seneca Phaedr. 132. [Mr Palmer's reading 
adsideant, fratrem iuxta Minoia sella et has some plausi- 

22. Eumenidum. The Furies are the lictors of the under- 
world, waiting to execute the sentence when pronounced, 
intento foro 'in the strained silence of the forum.' Yirg. 
Aen. 2. 1 conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant. Yal. FL 4, 
257 hinc Mine dubiis intenta silentia uotis. seuera= 
'austere': Y. Aen. 6. 374 has tu Stygias inhumatus aquas 
amnemque seuerum Eumenidum adspicies, 

23. Every part of Hell is to be still to hear the trial. The 
passage is imitated by Claudian Bapt. Pros. 2. 833 uerbera 
nulla sonant nulloque trementia luctu impia dilatis respirant 
Tartara poenis, non rota suspensum praeceps Ixiona torqutt, 
non aqua Tantaleis subducitur inuida labris et cett. So in rv. 
9 (10) 5. sqq. all the elements are to be at rest on Cynthia's 
birthday, cf. Callim. Hymn. Apoll. 19. mole uaoes, i. e. 'be 
freed from the task of rolling your stone.' So there is a simi- 
lar Latin conciseness in Livy 2. 48. 9 res publica et milite 
illic et pecunia uacet 'the duty of furnishing soldiers and 
money.' taceant, 'cease whizzing.' Compare Ov. M. 10. 42 
stupuitque Ixionis orbis. orbes, 'the circling wheel, the 
revolutions of the wheel': such seems to be the force of the 

24. fallax 'mocking' : compare in. 9 (8). 6 ut liquor arenti 
fallat ab ore sitim. Tantaleo. The msb. have TantaUo 
corripiare which can only be defended by supposing that there 
were two forms of the name, Tantalius and Tantalus, just ts 
there are two Tyndareus and Tyndarus. As this supposition 
is without authority, we must emend the text. Tantaleus has 

NOTES. V. xL 233 

been suggested ; but there is no reason why it should have 
been altered into Tantaleo. It is better then to read corripere 
ore which was altered into corriperare and then to corripiare. 
For the alternation of the imperat. and subj. see i. 8. 19, 20. 
liquor. Propertius always uses liquor and liquores in the sense 
of 'water/ of. m. 21. 4 n. 

25. petat. An American would say 'go for.' lmpro- 
bus, see i. 1. 6 note; 'unconscionable' about hits the general 
meaning of the word. 

26. Cerberus is not to ramp or pull at his chain. The 
chain lies loose on the ground and the padlock (sera) of the 
door to which it is attached ceases to rattle (tacita). Compare 
Bich s. v. sera, et, P.'s proposed alteration sed or set is 
quite unnecessary. laza has rather more ms. authority 
than lapsa. tacita sera. This explains the imitation Stat. 
Theb. 8. 56 ferrea Cerbereae tacuerunt limina portae. 

27. loquor, so the mss. ; and there is no need to change it 
to the less vivid future. 'I am my own advocate. 1 Compare 
Cic. Tusc. 1. 5. 10 forta88e etiam te inexorabiles iudices Minos 
et Ehadamanthus (te terrent) apud quos nee te L. Crassus de- 
fendet nee M. Antonius, nee, quoniam apud Graecos iudices res 
agetur, poteris adhibere Demos tlienem : tibi ipsi maxima 
corona caussa dicenda. si fallo. The present is a legal 
U6e ; cf. 6k. el dducco and the Latin formula in oaths si scucns 
fallo. So in el. 7. 53 (P.). sororum, the Danaid sisters. 
In el. 7. 67 narrat Hypermnestre magnum ausas esse s or ores 
there is more specification ; see Introduction. 

28. Infelix, 'unblessed,' 'accursed'; so Tib. 1. 4. 60 
infelix urgeat ossa lapis. 

29. 30. The sense is 'if any have ever been graced by the 
distinction of ancestral trophies, I have been so.' Instead how- 
ever of stating it thus generally, she gives a particular example; 
an indirectness which reminds us of Pindar. Thus in Nem. 3. 
19 sqq. we read el b* iwv Ka\6s tpSur r ioucora fu>p<f>$ avoptais 
vireprdrats 4r4^a rrats 'Apiffrofdvevf, and we expect 'it is im- 
possible for him to go farther'; but we have ovjtlrt rrporipa 
dparav a\a kiovuv virkp 'HpcurXlot/s xepdw evpuaph. fama 
per tropaea, we should expect the gen. or ex. See Intro- 
duction, decori fuit, 'adorned'; decisis more usual of 
the beautifying thing, decor being kept for the quality of beauty 
itself. Thus we have in Virg. Eel. 5. 32 uitis ut arboribus 
decdrist. Ovid however follows Propertius Met. 13. 848 
ouibus sua lana decdrist. For the sense compare Claudian in 

234 NOTES.. T. xi 

his Laus Serenae (the wife of Stilicho) which contains many 
imitations, w. 34—6 quod si nobilitas cunctis exordia 
pandit laudibus, atque omnes redeunt in semina 
causae, quiz uenerabilior sanguis, quae maior origo 
quam <fec. Afra, mss. aera. The line is a somewhat 

roundabout way of alluding to the African and Spanish suc- 
cesses of the two Scipios, Africanus the elder, the conqueror 
of Hasdrubal, Hannibal and Antiochus; and Africanus the 
younger, son of L. Aemilius Paullus, captor of Carthage 
and Numantia. The reading Afra is supported by Claadian's 
evidence (1. c. on v. 43). loquontur, 'tell the tale of,* 

4 are eloquent about': cf. eL 1. 104 out sibi commissos fibra 
locuta deos. 

31. exaequat, i.e. to the paterni aui. The absolute use 
of the word is very rare. turba...Libones is another instance 
of Propertius' 'disjunctiveness.' Cf. Introduction. Ubones. 
It is certainly a stretch of language to say the Libos were 
♦equal' to the Scipios: but Propertius cannot forget that Au- 
gustus allied himself with this house in marrying Scribonia. 

32. titulis, literally * commemorative inscriptions.' 

83. mox. She passes on from her birth to her marriage, 
praetexta, the toga praetexta, the dress of childhood, worn by 
girls till their marriage. facibus marltis, Ov. Her. 11. 101 

tolle procul decepte faces, Hymenaee, maritas. 

34. altera ultta. The matron's uitta differed in shape 
from the maiden's, uirginea, Val. Fl. 8. 6 ultima uirgineis 
turn flens dedit oscula uittis, and compare Aen. 2. 168. The 
bride's headband is called recta el. 3. 15 Stygio sum sparsa loot 
nee recta capiUis uitta datast, unless indeed it is meant that 
the uitta was put on askew. acceptas =* taken up.' The 

force of this word and of ulnxit will be apparent from the 
illustrations in Rich under uitta and fiammeum. So capio 
el. 9. 49 mollis et hirsutum cepit mihi fascia pectus. P. quotes 
Plaut. Most. 1. 3. 69 soli gerundum censeo morem et capiundot 
crines. Compare Anth. Gr. 6. 276 y *-o\u0pc£ aiXdt areft*- vapdivot "Itttttj xalrar... ijfdty yap ol iiryXOe ydp.ov rAor. 

85. slo alscessura, • thus,' by death, not by divorce ; for 
which discedere is frequently used, e.g. Cael. Cic. Fam. 8.6 
uxor a Dolabella discessit. cublll with iungor. 

36. hoe. There is confusion about the scene again. Cor- 
nelia is supposed to point to her gravestone. unl nupta, 
j. e. as a vniviba Inscrr. Cf. Yal. Max, 2. 1. 3 quae uno matri- 

NOTES. V. xL 235 

numio eontenta fuerant, corona pudicitiae ftonordbantur ; see 
Bekker Gallus p. 176. 

87. colendos. A good commentary is Cio. Agr. 2. 35. 95 
haec qui prospexerint, maiores nostros dico, Quirites, non eos 
in deorum immortalium uenerandos a nobis et colendos 

38. sub tltulis, the titulus or inscription, as frequently 
in coins, being placed over the figure. laces. The poet 
evidently has some artistic representation in view, in which 
Africa was depicted as a prostrate female figure with locks cut 
short. tonaa, with the hair clipped in sign of mourning, 
a Greek custom, see Becker's Chariot, p. 398. Or perhaps in 
token of her being reduced to slavery ; compare At. Av. 911 
ftrcM-a SovXos <3r k6\li\v #x«* J compare the Greek epigram 
ijneTtpais povXais ^vdprrf pty itceLparo d6£cu> translated by 
Cic. Tusc. 5. 17. 49 consiliis nostris laus est at ton 8 a Laconum. 
tunsa is also read, in the sense, I suppose, of Yirg. Aen. 1. 481 
tunsae pectora palmis; not a very pleasant or easy thing to 
represent, and besides a rather questionable use of the word. 

39, 40. These lines are read in the mss. : 

et Persem proaui stimulantem (or simulantem) pectus Achilli 
quique tuas proauo fregit Achille domos. 

This is not the only light we have for deciphering them. 
Silius Italicus has had the couplet before him in several pas- 
sages; 3.246 sqq. Sichaeus Hasdrubalis proles cui uano cor da 
tumor e maternum implebat genus, 14. 93 sqq. turn praecipiti 
materna furori Pyrrhus origo dabat stimulos proauique su- 
perbum Aeacidae genus atque aeternus carmine Achilles (of 
Hieronymus), 15. 291, 292 (of Philip) hie gente egregius ueter- 
isque ab origine regni Aeacidum sceptris proauoque tumebat 
Achille, 3. 649 ut uiso stimulabat corda Tonante. The conside- 
ration of these passages led Heyne (on Yirg. Aen. 6. 480) to 
read qui for et in v. 39 and et tumidas for quique tuas in v. 40. 
It is clear from them that Silius Italicus found tumidas or some 
word connected with it in his Propertius: but the same argu- 
ment also shews that he rend stimulantem (it is significant that 
the same word occurs in the context immediately after the first 
passage quoted). If we felt sure what was the reading of 
the rest of the line in Silius' copies, our way would be clearer. 
(1) He may have read proaui Achilli and taken it as a 
Propertian gen. 'goading his breast to an Achilles' courage' 
(cf. Introduction) or he may have read proauo Achille 
(Lipsiufl' conjecture), in which the construction is much easier 

236 NOTES. V. xi. 

and more like his own. I used to think the occurrence of the 
same case in the next line was against this view. I now think 
that it is possible the repetition may be intentional and designed 
to increase the mockery. It is clear from other passages that 
Perseus was always insisting on his ancestry, e.g. Justin 33. 1 
oblitus fortunae paternae ueterem Alexandri gloriam considerare 
suos iubebat. (2) We may however suppose that Silius' reading 
stimulantem is a corruption for almulantem ; and most editors 
have done so, thus certainly ensuring at whatever cost an 
easier construction. The next question is the reading of v. 40. 
Heyne's correction, which Baehrens has adopted and which I 
have already quoted, is too extensive an alteration, I think, 
and not really necessary; for fregit may be taken to refer to 
Perseus, ' caused the ruin ' of his house. For a similar use of 
frango ejficio ut frangatur, cf. Juv. 14. 93 immimiit rem, fregit 
opes and in a literal sense 8. 247 nodosam post haec /range- 
bat uertice uitem and 7. 86. I should therefore prefer to 
keep et in v. 39 (for it is quite in keeping with Propertius' 
manner to appeal to the conquered as witnesses to the con- 
queror's glory, e. g. iv. 10 (11). 59, 60) to retain quique and 
read tumens for tuas in v. 40. Of the conjectures which dis- 
regard the authority of Silius, the best is Santen's te, Perseu, 
proavi simulantem pectus Achilli quique tuas, Ac. « your house, 
Perseus, descended from Achilles.' [After writing this note, 
I remembered Mr Munro had discussed the passage in the 
Journal of Philology, Vol. vi. pp. 53 — 62. He believes that 
two lines have fallen out after v. 38, such as 

et qui contuderunt animos pugnacis Hiberi 
Hannibalemque armis Antiochumque suis, 

and in v. 40 he would read 

quique tuas proauus fregit, Auerne, domos, 

and take it to be an allusion to Hercules. I regret that I can. 
not accept these changes. For (i) the changes proposed are 
too extensive and require too many hypotheses to carry con' 
viotion. (ii) Mr Munro leaves out of Bight one of the most 
important elements in the problem, the evidence of 8ilius. 
(iii) His arguments against the existing reading cannot in all 
cases be sustained ; e. g. it seems too strong to say that «tm»- 
lantern must refer to the same time as testor and the Latin 
language peremptorily forbids its meaning ( who formerly af- 
fected. • For example, in Hor. Ep. 1. 19. 23 Parios ego prima 
iambos ostendi Latio, numeros animosque eecutus Archilochi, mm 
res et agentia uerba Lycamben, agentia must be prior in sub- 
stantial sense to ostendi and secutus. In the present passage 

NOTES. V. xl 237 

I regard the use of simulantem as vividly pictorial, as in rv. 
18 (19). 21, 22, in a similar historical allusion, tuque o Minoa 
uenumdata Scylla figura ton dens purpurea regna paterna 
coma. Compare Introduction.] 

41. mollisse, i.e. no fault of mine has caused my hus- 
band, the censor, to relax the strict justice of his office, or 
diminished its prestige and authority. The allusion (which 
Hiibner denies) is not a happy one, as Paullus was far from 
being a model censor. 

42. labe 'stain,' cf. el. 8. 20 format non sine labe meae. 
ernbuisse * blushed. ' To the poet's active imagination the ruddy 
glow of the fire on the hearth and its reflection on the 
Lares suggest the blush of shame. focos, tbe seat of the 
family feelings and associations. uestros is certainly right, 
the hearth which is hallowed by your memory. 

43. exuulis. Olaudian Laus Screnae w. 42, 3 has an 
evident allusion to this line claram Scipiadum taceat Cornelia 
gentem seque minus iactet Libycis dotata tropaeis. fuit, 
v. 13 n. damnum, i. e. she did. not impair the lustre of 
these honours. For the nom. cf. in. 1. 6 n. 

44. para 1m1tanda, of. Virgil et quorum pars magna fui 
quoted on i. 21. 4. 

45. xnea aetas = 'I throughout my life' or 'in my manner 
of living'; cf. n. 5. 27 n. mutatast, changed for the 
worse; cf. in. 20 (17). 37 non tamen ista meos mutabunt 
saecula mores. 

46. uiximus, cf. Consol. Liv. 365 spes publica uixi. In- 
slgnes, i.e. a mark for praise. utramque facem, the 
torches of marriage and of death; Ov. (?) Her. 21. 172 et face 
pro thai ami fax mihi mortis adest, Justin 11. 1 nonnulli 
facem nuptiis filiae accensam rogo patris subditam dolebant. 

47. 48. My virtue is natural and inherited, not assumed 
through fear of punishment. Compare for the sense Stat. 
Silv. 5. 2. 71 etpudor et docti legem sibi dicer e mores and 
Eur. Hipp. 79 (quoted by P.) oaots SidaKrov fiijdtv, d\X 4p rrj 
ipvaei to ffuxppovew etKyxw els rd iravd y ofi&s. possem, MSB. 
possim. xnetu. Ovid, as usual, works the thought thread- 
bare, M. 1. 89 seqq. aurea prima satast aetas quae uindice 
nullo sponte sua sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. poena 
met usque aberant: nee supplex turba timebat iudicis ora 
iui, sed erant sine in dice tuti. 

238 NOTES. V. xi. 

49. quaelibet urna, i.e. any panel or decuria of jnron, 
not 'for quilibet index? as F. A single index would give his 
award openly. Even if he put his pebble in the urn, it would 
not be difficult to identify it. ferat tabellas. The proper 
phrase for the juryman's taking his tablet to the urn ; cf . Senec. 
Ilhet. Contr. 23 (8. 8. 7) index quam tulit de reo tabellam re~ 
uocare non potest. It is here used of the urn holding the votes, 
but not without a distinct reference to the other sense. 

50. adsessu. No one will be disgraced through sitting at 
my side. There is no fear of a contagio turpitudinU Cic. Att. 

I. 16. 3. The friends of a defendant sat by his side during a 
trial, on the lef thand side of the basilica. Compare Cic. Plane. 

II. 28 (principes ^Macedonia*) huius repentino pericalo commoti 
huic adsidenty pro hoc laborant. 

51. uel— uel introducing an instance; cf. m. 9 (8). 5, 7. 
moulstl. He appeals to the story of Claudia Quinta. She was a 
Roman matron (not a Vestal Virgin, as F. asserts : our authori- 
ties, e.g. Livy 29. 14, Ov. F. 4. 313 distinctly state that she was 
a matron) who had been suspected of unchastity. Her inno- 
cence was established in the following way. In b. c. 204 F. Corne- 
lius Scipio, the son of Cn. Scipio, who fell in Spain about b.c. 
211, had the image of Cybele brought from Pessinus to Borne. 
The boat conveying it got fixed on a shoal in the Tiber. The 
soothsayers announced that only a chaste matron could move 
it. Thereupon Claudia stepped forward, took the rope in her 
hands and at once drew the vessel off. Compare the refer- 
ences in later writers Stat. Silv. 1. 2. 246 non Claudia talis 
respexit populos mota iam uirgo carina (i.e. with her 
chastity now established, uirgo being used loosely) : and Claud. 
Laus Seren. v. 28 sit Claudia felix teste dea castosque probes 
sub numine mores absoluens puppisque moras crimenque pudoris, 
tardam, i.e. not coming, a meiosis. See i. 8. 41 n. 

52. turritae, 'tower-crowned,' adorned with the corona 
muralis; see Rich s.v. and Lucr. 2. 607 sqq. (Munro). ran, 
cf. i. 8. 42. mlnistra probably implies that she was ap- 
pointed priestess to the goddess. 

58. cui is not to be construed with reposceret : it would 
otherwise be quam. The story is told in Dionys. Hal. 2. 67 
* It is said that the fire went out through some carelessness on 
the part of Aemilia, the Vestal who had then charge of it, she 
having entrusted it to the care of one of the newly elected 
Virgins who were just learning their duties. This caused s 
great uproar throughout the whole city and an enquiry by the 

SOTJSS. V. xi. 239 

pontifices if any impiety bad been enacted touching tbe sacred 
fire.' Then Aemilia after an appeal to the goddess 'tore a 
strip off tbe garment which, she then wore and cast it on the 
altar* They say that after the prayer the embers which had 
long been cold and had not a single spark left in them sud- 
denly shot out through the linen (Kapirdaov) into a bright flame, 
so that the state no longer needed either purifications or a 
fresh fire.' Compare Val. Max. 1. 1. 7 Maximae uero uirginis 
Aemiliae discipulam extincto igne tutam ab omni reprehensione 
Vestae numen praestitit, qua adorante, cum carbasum quam optU 
mam habebat foculo imposuisset, subito ignis emicuit. 

54. focos the altar fire. exhibuit, a semilegal word; 
* produced, presented, delivered up.' 

55. dulce caput, 'dear life/ <p[\ov icapa. caput brings 
out the personality; cf. v. 10. Scrlbonla, the second wife 
of Augustus and mother of Julia. He divorced her in b. c. 39 
in order to marry Livia, though the reason he assigned was 
her morum peruersitas Suefc. Aug. 62. i 

56. mutatum uelis. For this expression cf. Sail. Hist. 
Eragm. 1. 43 quis eademuolt? aut quis non omnia mutata 
praeter uictoriamt The thought is common on inscrip- 
182 ffUHpptav flip ovk av fiaWov eirrvxys 8' taws. 

57. laudor lacrimis, im. ConsoL Liv. 209 et uoce et 
lacrimis laudasti, Caesar, alumnum, 465 denique laudari 
sacrato Caesaris ore emerui lacrimas elicuique deo. 

58. defensa, 'shielded.' It is a sufficient answer to 
calumny that Caesar mourns for me. 

59. nata, the notorious Julia. It must be noticed how- 
ever that Augustus believed in her till long after this poem was 
written. ulxlsse, 'is no more' ; cf. Plaut. Bacch. 1. 2. 43 
uizisse nimio satiust iam quam uiuere, sororem, * half- 
sister.' Compare fratres, v. 21 n. 

60. Increpat ' complains,' with an inf. only in Propertius ; 
compare rv. 9 (10). 10 increpet absumptum nee sua mater 
Ityn, 'mourn that Itys is lost to her.' Ire, 'fall': the 
English is more definite than the Latin. 

61. et tamen emerui, imitated Ov. Am. 3. 1. 47 et tamen 
emerui plus quam tu posse. generosos. The precise sense 
of this word is rather hard to seize. In Ov. HaL 65 hie gene- 
rosus honos et gloria maior equorum it seems to mean 'the 

240 VOTES. V. xL 

honour of a noble birth,' the proper rise of the word. Here 
it seems rather to mean ' ennobling * than • appropriate to my 
high birth/ generositatis indices. uestis. Augustas con- 

ferred certain privileges on matrons who had had three 
children, analogous to the ius trium liberorum in the case of 
men. So Dion Cass. 55. 2 says (of Livia) is rat fnrrtpas rat 
rpls rcKovaat i<reypd<pii ; so Consol. Liv. 151 ius matris ha- 
bemus ab uno. Hiibner conjectures the uestis to be a stola, 
as stolatab feminae is frequent in inscriptions and marks an 
honour given during life; as we also find feminae stolatae 
qvondam. There is an analogous phrase in the case of un- 
married women, viaeo dextrata. Augustus afterwards nulli- 
fied the effect of these regulations by conferring the ius trium 
liberorum on those who had not fulfilled the conditions, e.g. 

62. sterili. For I have left three children behind. The 
idea of v. 61 is carried on. rapina, iv. 7. 59 n. 

63. Leplde, see supra introd. Paulle, see supra 
introd. leuamen, • solace.' Yirg. A. 3. 709 hie omnis 
curae casusque leuamen amitto Anchisen. 

64. uestro slnu, i.e. the order of nature was not reversed, 
I did not close their eyes. Compare Callim. Fragm. koI /m 
t4kv iyivovro 5v' dpcreua Kairtfivtr' iicelvwv ev yrjptas ipl 
%epolv. Observe the sing, sinu; sinibus is not used in this 

65. sellam geminasse curulem, obtain a second curule 
office, i.e. the consulship (see supra introd.). We are not told 
what his first was. 

66. laeto. If the line is genuine, perhaps this is the best 
restoration of the ms. facto. 

67. specimen, in whose birth is reflected your father's 
censorship ; cf . Tac. Ann. 3. 4 nihil Tiberium magis penetrauit 
quam studio, hominum accensa in Agrippinam quam deciu 
patriae, solum Augusti sajiguinem, unicum antiquitatis speci- 
men appellarent, and Auson. Parent. 23. 2 amissi specimen 
qui genitoris eras • the mirror or picture of your lost father.' 
nata does not necessarily imply that she was born during the 
censorship, though it may do. 

68. fae teneas * take care thou keepest to a single lord': 
the/oc makes the command a gentler one. 

FOTES. V. xi. 241 

69. lerie, an unbroken line of descendants. Ov. M, 18. 
29 sic ab Ioue tertius Aiax ; nee tamen haec series in causa 
prosit, Aehiui, faldte. Compare Leonidas Tar. Anth. 
Gr. 7. 648. 6 fo^i» trri/Xc&reuro* xaxfo 8' aarvkos IteaQai oXko*. P. 
quotes an interesting passage from the younger Pliny, Ep. 4. 
21. 3 cut nunc unus ex tribus liberis superest domumque pluri- 
bus adminiculis paulo ante fundatam desolatus fulcit ac 
8U8tinet. Compare Senec. Cons. Marc. 15. 2 fulcire domum 
adoptione, Stat. Theb. 1. 394 gemino natarum pignere fultus, 
and in Greek Eur. Iph. Taur. 57 <rrv\ot yap otxcov vdi54s efoiv 
afxreves. So we say the * pillar of the house.* cumba, 
Charon's boat rv. 18. 24. 

70. solultur, i. 8. 11 n. The rest of the line is read in 
the msb. uncturis (or nupturis) tot mea fata ma lis. First 
malis is out of place, as Cornelia knows of no ills impending on 
her family, and it has therefore been corrected to meis 'so 
many of my blood.' uncturis too has been seen to be corrupt 
and changed to aucturis. It is possible however to translate 
it 'as so many of my children will anoint my dead body/ — a 
ludicrous image and one which is false to fact, as such offices 
to the departed were performed in Borne by the undertaker's 
slaves : see Becker's Gallus p. 507. It is however worth noting 
that the forger of the Consolatio ad Liuiam apparently had it 
in his ms. For he makes the Empress Li via herself say (v. 9) 
tene meaepoterunt ungere, nate, manus 1 For aucturis Sil. It. 
3. 708 is compared Sidonios augebis auos, 'you add fresh lustre 
to the fame of your ancestors.' Compare also the lines of 
Tibullus 1. 7. 55 et tibi succrescat proles Quae facta parentis 
augeat et circa stet ueneranda senem. This suggests the cor- 
rection of the remaining corruption, fata is a quite unsuitable 
word here, and Hertzberg's examples are not to the point. I 
would read therefore facta. The two lines will then run ' So, 
my children, pillar our house with an unbroken lineage. For 
me the bark is loosed, nor am I loth, since so many of my 
blood will add fresh lustre to my deeds.' 

71. merces extrema, 'the final reward.' trlumphl, 
in a metaphorical sense, as in el. 8. 17 Appia, die quaeso 
quantum te teste triumphum egerit. 

72. emeritum. It is doubtful whether Cornelia means (1) 
that her remains (rogum v. 8 n.) have 'deserved' (perhaps 'fully 
deserved') the praise, or whether (2) that her course of life is 
over, that she has 'served her time.' ' For emeritus used abso- 
lutely in the former sense Hertzberg compares Ov. P. 1. 7. 61 
emeritis referendast gratia semper. For the latter I know of 

P. P. 16 

342 NOTES. V. xi 

no precise parallel ; but the use ol fondue, def undue (so. officio) 

while observing that we have already had antra) in the sense 
of 'winning and deserving' in a™, supra v. 61. liber* 

f&nut, free from the restraint of her presence, impartial ; Ov. 
Met. 15. 852 hie sua praeferri gvamquam netat acta paternu, 

libera Jama lama nullisqut obnoxia ittaii praeferet intuitu*. 


74. The metaphor ia the same aa in Cie. Yerr. n. 1. 44. 113 
cur hum: dolorcm cineri eius atque ossilnu inusiisti! The 
thought is given by the line of dray's, Even in our athet lire 
their wanted fires. splrat, fj. It has a special appro- 
priateness to the delicate mobility of flame, cf. Ov. M. 8. 355 
lax micat ex oculis tpiratque t peetort Jlamma. Innate. 
The metaphor may be from the branding of cattle or perhaps 
from encanstio painting. Peerlkamp's interpretation 'rmbnrnt,' 
aa in Locan 8. 786, ia worth attention. 

75. 'Be a mother to them.' Ear. Ala. 877 vi rvr -yeroi 
ToTffi' irr t/ioS HV"1P riicoir. Liyy makes EomnlUH Bay to the 
Sabine women 1. 9. 15 eo melioribut uturae uirit quint an- 
nixurutpro te quisqut tit at, cam tua uiee functus officio 
sit, partnium etiam patnaeque expUat deiiderium. mater - 
nls ulclbus, ' a mother's part.' The plur. is very rare in this 
sense. The adj. for the gen. of the subst., matrit, is like Hor. 
Epod. 5. 87 uenena magnum fas nefasque turn ualent comartere 
humanam uieem ('like mere men,' hominum uicem). 

76. collo, cf. Or. Her. 8. 91 non ego captaai breuibut ttut 
colla laceHU nee gremio sedi sarcina grata tua. In another 
place Ovid earicaturea the whole pusaags by applying it to his 
books, Tr. S. 14. 13 aqq. Palladis exemplo At me tine matre 
areata carmina sunt, stirpt haec progenietqae meatt. hane 
tibi commendo: quae, quo magie orba pareute, hoe 
tibi tvtori sarcina maior trit. tret mihi tunt nati ctmtagia 
nostra tecuti; cetera fae curat tit tibi turbapalam. amnli 
turba^tota damns i. 78, tota catena v. 98. Compare m. 29. 
4. ferenda, so all the mss. fouenda, the alteration of 
L. Mliller, ia both unsuitable and unnecessary. 

phatio 'the father's kiss. 1 nutria. For 

the elliptical gen. cf. Sen. Med, 958 otcalit pereant patrii: 

NOTES. V. xL 243 

78. onus, Ovid's sarcina. Comp. Yirg. Aen. 12. 59 in te 
omnia damns inclinata recumbiu The metaphor is still taken 
from a pillar. 

79. Compare Plin. Ep. 3. 16 cum diu eohibitae lacrimae 
uincerent prorumperentque, egrediebatur. tunc se dolori ddbat 
satiata sicds oculis composite uultu redibat, tamquam orbitatem 
forts reliquisseU For the periphrastic future doliturus erls 
see Introduction. sine testllnui 1111s, so. doleto. Compare 
el. 9. 13, where too there is an ellipse, nee tine teste deo, and 

80. oscula falls. To us it seems most natural to take this 
'to elude their questioning kisses/ to deceive your children 
when they kiss you by hiding the traces of your tears. So in 
Seneca I.e. on 77 osculis pereant pa trie (i.e. patri oscula- 
turo). But it is probable that Propertius meant oscula to refer 
to the father, not to the children, * to counterfeit kisses with 
dry eyes,' i.e. to hide your grief under a cheerful kiss. For 
this use of fallere 'to assume falsely* compare Yirg. Aen. 1. 
683 tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam falle dolo et 
notos pueri puer indue uoltus. Allied uses are those in Prop. 
v. 1. 81 fallitur auro Iuppiter ' misrepresented ' and v. 5. 14 
et sua nocturno fallere terga lupo 'disguise her form.' 
genls, probably 'eyes,' not 'cheeks': cf. el. 5. 16 cornicum im- 
meritas emit ungue genas, 

81. fatiges. ' Be content, Paullus, to weary the nights for 
me/ i. e. to pass weary nights in mourning for me. Compare 
Yirg. Aen. 8. 94 olli remigio noctemque diemque fa tig ant 

* night and day they ply the weary oar.' By a pathetic fallacy 
a period of time is represented as being affected by what takes 
place in it. It is a survival of the time when time and space 
and other abstractions could only be conceived as personal 
and as invested with personal attributes. The picturesqueness 
of the use makes it dear to poets. Thus Keats speaks of ' the 
frozen time.' And Aeschylus makes Clytaemnestra say that 
she saw more than could happen in 'the time that shared her 
sleep,' opuxra xXeto tou j-wcvdovTos xpbvov Agam. 894. Our 
own poet has the figure frequently, e.g. v. 8. 60 insana nox is 

* a night in which madness is let loose,' a sort of Walpurgis 
night ; ' malicious night ' watches Paetus clinging to his spar 
iv. 6 (7). 53. 

82. aomnla. The whole passage reminds us of an epigram 
of Meleager Anth. Gr. 5. 166 dpa /dm cropyijs i/ui Xelfaya 


244 NOTES. V. xi. 

k*\ to tptXij/ia nvqyMcvvov iftvxfi? fl^Xrer' iv eUaala; a*pd y 
(■X€i rd Sdxpva tc&fidv dveipor rpvxaTr&Trjr art/mm 
&lx<j>ipa\ouaa <fn\et; Cf. Eur. Ale. 348. a in fadem meam 
credita, i.e. * believed to represent me,* illusive images of me; 
a very condensed expression, in fadem is elsewhere used for 
' in the likeness of anything as iv. 22. 14, &c. 

83. secreto, i.e. in the cubiculum where the simulacra 
would be placed. simulacra, my image in marble or wax. 

See Eur. Alcest. 1. c, Ov. Her. 13. 151 sqq. esp. 156—8 adde 
sonum cerae: Protesilaus erit, hanc specto teneoque sinu pro 
coniuge uero, et tamquam possit uerba referre queror. 
Sil. It. 8. 91. The plur. probably refers to more than one; 
cf. Aesch. Ag. 416 c&fiAp<jxav 8e Ko\o<r<ruv fyflercu xdpts dv&pL 

85. aduersum lectum. The lectus genialis which was placed 
in the atrium fronting the door and remained there till a new 
marriage was contracted when ' the sternere took place again ' 
Becker Gall. p. 166; cf. p. 247. mutarit= 4 has seen the 
couch changed' : a bold use. 

86. sederit. Compare Laberius fragm. 30 materfamilia* 
tua in lee to aduerso sedet. cauta, ' circumspect, ' 
careful to avoid offence. 

87. conlugium=co7HU#m as ilia v. 88 shews. Compare 
iv. 12 (13). 19 et eertamen habent leti quae uiua sequatur 
coniugium. laudato. L. Miiller's alteration placati 
ferte is quite unnecessary, laudare, like Gr. ixatveiy, id not a 
strong word ; indeed it sometimes means * to have nothing to 
do with ' as in "Virg. G. 2. 412 laudato ingentia rura, exiguum 
colito. Thus there is no anticlimax; and besides we want 
both the children's expressions and their actions mentioned. 
Cornelia tells her sons to speak with proper respect of her 
successor and not let their conduct be at variance with their 

88. capta 'won.' She will own herself beaten and yield 
to your love. dabit manus, like a willing captive. So 
Hor. Epod. 17. 1 iamiam efficaci do manus scientiae and Or. 
F. 6. 800 dicite, Pierides, quU uos addixerit isti cui dedit 
inuitas uicta nouerca manust 

89. priori, • her predecessor.' 

90. 'She will turn the free word to an offence against 
herself. 1 libera uerba, unrestrained, outspoken praise. 
Compare the use in i. 9. 2. 

NOTES. V. xi. 245 

91. mea umbra, i.e. if he shall continue faithful to the 
dead. Compare for the sense Virgil Aen. 4. 28 Me meos primus 
qui me sibi iunxit amoves abstulit : ille habeat secum seruetque 
sepulcro and v. 552 non seruata fides cineri promissa Sychaeo. 

92. tantl, i.e. worth that sacrifice. 

93. sentlre, to observe and so to provide against. The 
reading is supported by Ov. A. A. 3. 59 uenturae mem ores iam 
nunc estote senectae, 

94. ad coras, a sort of proleptic use * to cause him care ' : 
cf. Ov. F. 3. 482 in lacrimas cognite Bacche meos, 'to cause me 
tears.' n&cet=pateat, 'be open or available' for their 

95. So Ovid M. 7. 168 deme meis annis et demptos adde 
parenti, Tibull. 1. 5. 63, 64 uiue diu mihi, dulcis anus ; proprios 
ego tecum, sit modo fas, annos contribuisse uelim. accedat 
ad annos, imitated Ov. A. A. 2. 113. 

96. prole mea, one of the most difficult ablatives in 
Propertius. It is probably • by the conduct of my offspring,' 
through my offspring being what they are. Cf. Introd. 
sic, amid these proofs of their affection. 

97. bene habet, icaXcfr fyet. The words of resignation. 
Compare Stat. Theb. 12. 338 sed bene habet, superi : gratumst : 
fortuna peractast. mater. ' I have never put on a mother's 
weeds of mourning,' I have never lost a child. A great piece 
of happiness ; cf. Corn. Nep. De Beg. 2 (of the elder Dionysius) 
7ieque in tarn multis annis cuiusquam ex sua stirpe funus uidit. 

98. nenlt In exequias. So Ov. F. 2. 845 fertur in exe- 
quias animi matrona uirilis. The in is often omitted on the 
analogy of the cognate accusative in exequias prosequi, exequi 

99. causa peroratast, the usual expression for winding 
up a speech at a trial ; cf. Cic. Cael. 29. 70 dicta est a me caussa, 
indices, et per or at a, ' surgite, rise to give evidence, 
dvdprfre, Seneo. Controv. 27 (9. 4. 7) grauior testis esse solet 
qui a reo surgit, testes, her weeping husband and 
children who have virtually been appealed to in the whole pre- 
ceding poem. 

100. dum, rather 'till' than 'while,' the way it is gene- 
rally taken. Cornelia tells her witnesses to rise till her judges 

246 2T0TES. V. xl 

are satisfied and give judgment in her favour and the reward 
her life has earned. grata humus, the earth as including 

the 'underworld,' ol x^ "*<>*• So TeUus is appealed to in 
i. 19. 16. Compare Eur. Hero. Fur. 45 xloyot fttXauxw 
6p<f>vTjv elo-tpaivev, and Prop. n. 6. 31 a gemot in terris, Ac. 

101. morlbus et caelum patult. Ennius makes Scipio 
say ap. Senec. Ep. 108. 34 si fas endo plagas caelestum adscen- 
dere cuiquam, mi soli caeli maxuma porta patet. Compare 
for the sentiment Hor. Od. 8. 2. 21 sqq. and in a different con- 
nexion 4. 2. 23, 24 (of Pindar) uires animumque moresque 
aureos educit in astra nigroque inuidet Oreo and compare 
iv. 18. 34 n. aim dlgna. Mr Pretor has suggested to me 
that sum would he more in keeping with Cornelia's self-asserting 
character, and this may be granted. But sim is probably 
genuine, and means 'may my deserts make good my title to 
be rewarded like my ancestors.' We have the subj. where the 
ind. might be expected in the very similar passage iv. 17 (18). 
31 sqq. at tibi nauta pias hominum qui traicit umbras hue 
animae portet corpus inane tuae qua Sieulae uictor telluris 
Claudius et qua Caesar ab humana cessit ad astra via. 
merendo, 'by my deserts': absolutely, as in Yirg. Aen. 6. 
664 qiiique sui memores alios fecere merendo, 

102. honoratls aula, the dat. of motion towards, • to the 
abode of my distinguished ancestors.' Cf. i. 20. 32 that 
Hamadryasin n. The mss. read equis or aquis. But the 
dative auis is justified by the imitations in the ConsoL Liv. 125 
tumulo portaris et igni, 188 nee poscunt tura ferenda rogo 
and v. 330 Me pio (si non temere haec creduntur) in aruo inter 
honor atos excipietur auos. Compare v. 162 ad ueteres 
conditus ibis auos. osaa, as in v. 20. uenantur, 
by the boat which conveys the good eh 7. 56 sqq. and I.e. in last 
note. This led to the alteration aquis. 

ADDENDUM IV. 7. 49. p. 165. 
Professor Gildersleeve (American Journal of Philology, iv. 
p. 210) points out that to suppose that the passage refers to a 
real chamber or bed belonging to Paetus is inconsistent with 
pauper v. 48. "Non tulit, he writes, is o&k tr\ii=non it fuit 
qui ferret, from which we get for the contrast sed is fuit qui 
mallet. ^ This Paetus was not the man to bear the sound of 
the piping storm, but he was the man (to have) his head 
propped on feather pillows of shot colours in a chamber (ie. 
stateroom) of thyian wood or (of) Orioian terebinth." Tor this 
use of BoKapLot cf. Athenaeus 5, p. 207, who tells us the ship 
which Archimedes built for Hiero had a OaKa/tos with doors of 
ivory and thyon wood. 







We have no existing ms. of Propertius that can be traced back 
earlier than the 14th century: and it is probable that all go 
back to a single archetype. 

The Codex Neapolitans (N.) has of late generally been con- 
sidered to be the best. But its claims have been lately attacked 
by Prof. Baehrens (in his Preface, p. vii.), who has been replied 
to by Heir Leo (Eh. Mas. 31, p. 431), by Prof. Ellis (American 
Journal of Philology 1. p. 389), and Prof. A. Palmer (Henna- 
thena, Vol. iv. 40 — 72). It is beyond my limits to enter 
upon this controversy ; so I content myself with observing that 
it seems to me that Baehrens* views require very considerable 
qualifications. It is probably to be assigned to the 14th cen- 

Other mss. are the Codex Vossiamu (about 1360, imperfect), 
the Florentimu (end of 14th or beginning of 15th century), 
Ottoboniano-Vaiicanus (end of 14th century), Dauentriamu 
(1410 — 1420). All of these have been recently collated by 
Baehrens ; and from, them he reconstructs the archetype which 
he calls O. 

Besides these may be mentioned the Perusimu (1467), which 
once belonged to Scaliger, and of which there is a collation in 
the edition of Mr Palmer, its rediscoverer, and the Gromnganut 
(G.) which was formerly held in high esteem, but has lately 
fallen into disfavour, owing to its numerous interpolations. 


That the text of Propertius as preserved to us in these mss. 
is far from perfect, every scholar will concede. It is none the 
less clear, however, that in many quarters there is a disposition 
to make it out to be more corrupt than it is, and to apply 
alteration in place of interpretation. I will enumerate some of 
the chief sources of its mistakes. 

(i) Clerical errors. These are chiefly due to confusions of 
the cursive character, and shew that the lost archetype was 
written in cursive, e.g. stem/us foiflemus, n. 1. 2. 

But some of the corruptions go back to an earlier stage, and 
shew uncial corruptions, e. g. n 1. 5 coots for coccis; v. 11. 30 
aeba for apba; iv. 18 (17). 38 pvndet for tvndet. 

(ii) Transposition*.} Of these I have spoken. Introduction 
(iii) Lacunae. J (PP- *1™» S( iq-)- 

(iv) Interpolations. There are very few of these. I am 
convinced of the spuriousness of only two passages, iv. 3. 55, 56 
(from i. 2) and v. 9. 41, where a line has been lost. In certain 
cases injudicious editing has caused lines to appear in un- 
suitable positions. 

Thus in in. 32 (26). 61 sqq. we have two versions of the 
compliment to Virgil, as Mr Munro has acutely pointed out ; 
n. 1. 37, 38 is a genuine Propertian distich, out of place in its 
present position. Perhaps it was written in the margin of the 
poet's ms. This may have been the case too with rv. 6 (7). 
23, 24 and note. 

I have added a comparison of the readings in this edition 
with those of Baehrens and Palmer. 


Since the first edition appeared the comparative merits 
of the mss. have been the subject of a careful examination 
by Solbisky (Comm. Ienenses n. (1883)). The division into 
books has been discussed from a new standpoint by Th. Birt 
(das antike Buchwesen, pp. 413 sqq.), who makes it probable 
that the poems consist of a single book published separately 
(the Cynthia monobiblos) and four books published together 
(tetrabiblos syntaxis). For a fuller account see the article 
Propertius in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (new ed.). 



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I rave already pointed out the true interpretation of this 
word in Prop. i. 8. 7 in the Journal of Philology, ix. p. 64. 
But as I see that Mr Palmer, in his critical edition of Pro- 
pertius, does not think this explanation worth even a men- 
tion, and prefers to put in his text what I had hoped was the 
obsolete conjecture, sulcare 1 , I maybe excused inserting here 
some more detailed observations on the word which I have hai 
in manuscript for some time, and which I trust may set the 
matter completely at rest I feel that at the present time I 
need no apology for resting them upon an etymological treat- 

Corssen, in his Aussprache und Betonung (l pp. 149, 476), 
derives julcio from root dhar, to hold or make fast, prop. But 
I think that I can shew that such was not the original meaning 
of the word, and, by establishing a correspondence between its 
uses and those of farcio, can bring it into relation with the 
words disoussed by Curtius in his Greek Etymology, No. 413. 
There he proves the existence of an Indo-European root bhbak 
or bhark (the B and K often appearing as I and g) with the 
meaning of * pressing ,' found in <ppd<r<r* (for fpax-ju), <pptky-rv- 
fu, Lat. frequ-ens, Lithuanian bruk-jL 

The change of fare to fulc shews regular Latin weakenings. 
For a becoming u (through an intermediate o) before i, see 
Corssen u. p. 149 seqq., and for I replacing an earlier r, Corssen 
i. p. 221. We must now examine the meaning, fuicire pl&inh- 
means to 'press * in Prop. 1.8.7 te pedibus teneris potitat 
fmlcire pruinas tu poles insolitas, Cynthia, fern niuest and 
in C^lsus 7* 19 Unamenta super wmfulcienda sed leuUer tomtom 

» Rhtmaml that aay om ob reooncfle rafearv wit* mMw f tnrrit 
Agaia 'ptoqghing' is Mt a reir appropriate word, mnkaa in de e d w» tmpptm » 

novdrilt Bm it fa ttiU «aor» mtnwtfcmf to te» the 

met* gumitm «««« ir* ftrmwue. *to go the 

l*w»> Mm* t^t a>ctn|r conifanriL To "fo tlw wfcofe bos* wooid be a 


ponenda sunt. So in Virg. Eel. 6. 53 ille latus niueum mo Hi 
fultus hyacintho, where it is absurd to say a bull is propped 
or supported on hyacinths, but perfectly appropriate to say he 
presses or is pressed by them. So, too, in Lucr. 2. 100 partim 
interuaUis magnis confulta resultant, rebound after being 
pressed together. So probably effulcio in Appul. Met. 2. 34 
stragulis aggeratis in cumulum et effultis in cubitum. From 
the original meaning of * pressing ' we get two chief offshoots : 
A, pressing out, stuffing; B, pressing together, making firm, 

The compound infuleio is particularly worthy of attention. 
It presents uses exactly corresponding to those of infarcio; 
but uses which are apparently later for infuleio than for in- 
farcio, and which form a passage from the original meaning to 
its first modification A. Compare Columella 12. 53. 2 in eas 
partes largum salem infarcito with Suetonius Tib. 53 rur- 
sus mori inedia destinanti per uim ore diducto infulciri cibum 
i-ussit; and in a metaphorical sense Cicero Orator 69. 231 in- 
far ci ens uerba with Seneca Epist. 106. 5 aliud {uerbum) 

Still nearer to the ordinary meaning of farcio is the use of 
qffulcio in Appuleius Metam. 1. 10 uulnus spongia offul- 
ciens, Met. 4. 70 multis laciniis offulto uulnere and 
Persius (or Nero?) 1. 78 Antiopa aerumnis cor luctificabile 
fulta, 'stuffed with griefs' (compare cor dolis refertum 1 
which is the Greek KpaSiij SoXoiai Tretppayfiivrj), not, as Gifford, 
'propped with dolorifick teen.' 

The sense B, fortify, secure, is not, so far as I know, found 
in farcio. But we have it in the Greek <f>pcur<r<a as in Horn. 
Od. 5. 256 (rxetiL'ijv <ppa%€ jkrr4<r<rL (compare <pdp^ai ir6\i<Tfxa 
Aesch. Sept. 63), &o. : and in the Latin fulcio in Aen. 8. 227 
fultos obice posies, Ov. A. A. 2. 244 adposita ianua fulta 

Other meanings of fulcio need only a passing mention. 
They are either slight modifications of those already referred 
to or else of that of prop, its commonest meaning, which is 
derived from that of press 2 , a prop being something pressed 
downwards and pressing upwards, and a fulcrum a point of 

1 Quoted by Curtlug 1. c 

1 By no means vice versa as Mr Paley, note on Propert I.e. 






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2 ° 


The first number gives the page, the second the verse. The 
proper names in italics are those 'writers whose coincidences 
with Propertius are quoted in the notes. See Introduction, 
Chapter V., Literary History. 

a (interject.) 196 14 

ab 195 5 6; 204 48 

Abl. 51 36; 52 3; 61 14; 61 
15; 64 4; 77 31; 81 34; 86 
27; 87 34; 88 41; 104 3; 
125 6; 127 16; 136 39; 151 
13; 151 34; 157 43; 164 
40; 165 50; 167 67; 174 
16; 188 8; 2O236; 213 23; 
245 96 

Abl. descriptive 130 5 

Ablatives two 90 48 

Abstract for concrete 95 15 

acanthus 172 14 

Aoc. 8840 

Aoc. of part oonoerned 112 28 

acer 78 26 

acta 105 6; 129 a 

ad 203 39; 221 70; 226 a; 245 

ad ueium 134 26 

additos 172 13 

adferre214 31 

Adjective lor adverb 84 12 

adfigareOO 11 



244 85 

Aeacus 230 19 
Aemilia 238 53 
aequor scribendi 169 3 
aera 227 7 
Afer (adj.) 234 30 
agger K>4 2 
ala 216 47 
ala, extrema 98 29 
Amphionins 75 10 
Anacoluthon 183 7 
angnstus 71 33 
Anienus93 8 
annua 119 1 1 
animosos 170 9 
animus 91 2 
ante 71 36 
ante... donee 79 29 
Antfloehus 135 33 
Antonins, L. 103 
antrum 47 11 
ApeUens56 22 
aperiie 143 a 

ApoOamau Rkodius 90 sqq. 
aptas, with dai. 213 22 
AqnUo 109 4 
Aqmkmioa 97 25 
Arabia 120 16 
Arcadras48 14 



ardor 93 6 

Arganthus 99 33 

Argo 95 17 

argumentum 171 13 

argatns 84 16 

Arionius 139 18 

Ariosto 128 20; 131 12 

Armenius 77 19 

Ascanius 92 4 

Ascraeus 122 25 

at 49 19; 60 10; 88 41; 111 

17; 140 1; 166 46; 183 7 
Attalicus 185 19 
Athamantidos (gen.) 96 19 
Athamanus 211 15 
atque66 15 
atque unelided 138 8 
Atracius 69 25 
Attalicus 130 6 
Attraction 137 5 
aucupium plumosum 202 34 
audacia 118 5 
Auernns 182 1 
auertere with dat. 192 9 
angere facta 241 70 
Augustus (adj.) 213 23 ' 
aura 102 50; 142 15 
aurum fixum 188 7 
ausim 112 24 
Ausonius 178 39 
Autaricus 69 25 
auxilium 50 26 

Bactra 149 16 
Bion 136 37 39 40 
blandus 72 40 
bona 53 6; 184 16 
Borysthenidae 116 18 
bustum 132 17 

cadere 87 34 
cadus 210 8 
caelator 207 6*1 
caeruleus 204 43 
Calamis 171 10 
calamus 203 37 
CallimachuB 146 1 

CaUimachus 133 23; 145 14; 

158 49; 165 46; 166 59; 168 

2; 240 64 
campum dare 118 2 
Candidas 221 71 
candor 192 8 
canere 115 1 1 
Cannensis 154 9 
capere 46 1 
Caphareus 163 39 
caput 169 4; 186 26; 239 55 
carmen 57 27; 63 10 
Castalia 154 13 
Catullus 160 10 
cauus 86 27 
cedere in astra 187 34 
celatus 195 1 1 
Centauricus 217 49 
Cepheus (adj.) 222 78 
cera 209 3 
cerasus 200 15 
Ceraunia 67 19 
certe 113 1 
certus 72 45 
cessare 189 15 
Ghaonius 74 5 
Cicero 69 27; 74 1 ; 107 3 4; 

111 20; 218 52; 24274 
Cilissa spica 221 74 
cinis 123 6 
citatus 68 23 
cithara 119 10 
Claudia (Quinta) 238 51 
Claudian 160 8; 193 19; 222 

82; 232 23; 23430; 237 4 3 
Goa 201 23 
cogi 47 8 
cogitare 49 17 
colligere 176 29 
commodus 140 4 
Comparative 54 10 
componere 76 13 
concha 72 39 
eoncurrere 174 17 
condere 168 72 
conectere 112 23 



oonfessus 222 79 

oonscias 184 20 

considere 69 25 

Consolatio ad Liuiam Augn*~ 

torn 130 4; 161 17; 185 21; 

241 70; 246 102 
consors 104 1 
contingere 46 2 ; 72 43 
contundere 47 10 
Copa 199 13; 200 16 
copia 76 15 
corbis 201 28 
Cornelia 224 
corolla 82 7 

coronatus 158 47 ; 193 15 
corpus 102 48; 162 25 
costum 209 5 
Crassi 120 14 
cradelis with dative 92 4 
cumba 241 69 
cupere 77 19 
cupidus 55 1 7 ; 70 29 
cora 51 35 ; 125 4 
Curii 153 7 
currus 228 1 1 
currus inauratus 82 3 
curuare 163 29 
Cybebe 238 51 
Cyrenaeus 209 4 
Cytinaeus 49 24 

damnare with dat. 212 21 
damnatae noctes 229 15 
Dante 155 22 
dare 71 37 
dare manus 244 88 
dare terga 170 6 
dare terga fugae 205 54 
Dat. 48 14; 60 8; 85 18; 96 
20; 143 1 ; 187 1 ; 246 102 
Dat., predicative 113 30 
de 62 26 

decori esse 233 29 
decorus esse 200 22 
deduoere 88 41 
deesse with inf. 82 7 

defendere 83 9 
deflere 84 15 
delphinus 189 17 
dens 144 8 
dicere 73 1 
differre 90 48 
di melius 220 65 
dirae 196 17 
discedere 160 9 
diuersus 156 33 
docilis 207 63 
dolare 206 59 
dolus blandus 189 18 
Doras 178 44 
Dryade8 101 45 
durum 94 13 

effectus (plur.) 188 10 
effultus 165 50 
egerere 215 34 
egredi 96 18 
eleuare 66 12 
Eleus 174 17 
Elis 71 36 
emeritus 242 72 
Eons 86 24; 191 7 
ephemeris 189 20 
equidem 145 13 
ereptus 105 7 
ergo 159 1 ; 187 1 
Esquiliae 190 24 
esse 69 27; 133 22 
est quibus 174 17 
et 217 51 
Eubuhu 124 
euentus 204 48 
Euenus 55 18 

Eumenides 232 22 
Eurymedon 179 48 
ex 179 51 
exoantare 158 49 
excidere 159 7 
exoipere 138 10 
externus 56 20 
extremus 102 50 



facere (neat, with dat.) 149 20 

faces perdere 115 8 

facilis 77 23 

fallere 243 80 

falx 201 25; 206 59 

fastus 196 15 

fatigare noctes 243 81 

fauilla 76 18 

femina (as adj.) 144 4 

ferire 158 50 

ferre oscula 98 28 

ferre tabellas 238 49 

ferri 108 1 

ferrum et ignis 50 27 

findo 177 35 

finis (fern.) 85 21 

flare with ace. 157 42 

fleeter e iter 172 14 

flere 75 10 

flere, constructions with, 141 7 

flumina 101 43 

fores 85 18 

forma 172 13; 206 61 

formosius 54 1 1 

formosus 100 41 

frangere 236 

f rater 232 21 

fraus 210 9 

fulcire (Append. B) 65 7 ; 241 

fulcrum 130 5 
funera 226 3 
funis 65 1 1 
IU8CU8 222 78 
Fut. 189 15 
Fut. perf. 93 8 

Galatea 67 18 
Galli 144 9 
Gallicus 135 32 
Gallus(a)58; 90; (b) 103 
Gen. 46 3; 49 19; 54 8; 75 

10; 82 2; 95 17; 97 24; 

130 4; 134 29; 140 6; 145 

10; 154 15; 166 59; 178 

42; 180 54; 216 43 

Giganteus 93 9 
Gnosius 126 10 
Gorgoneus 156 32 
gradus 89 42 
grauis 180 56 
gyrus 155 21 

habere 229 13 

Haemonius 118 2 ; 150 26 

Hamadryades 98 32 

hamatus 126 9 

harundo 202 33 

haurire 100 43 

hedera 112 26 

hiare carmen 145 14 

Hilaira 55 16 

Hippodamia 71 35 

hiscere 153 4 

hoc unum 220 64 

Homer 133 22 ; 167 65 

Homerus 76 1 1 

Horace 71 32; 111 16; 120 
16; 158 44; 174 21; 184 
16; 188 3; 189 23; 199 13; 
206 59; 226 1 

Horatius (adj.) 153 7 

horror tremulus 61 15 

hortus 203 42 

hospitium 94 10 

hostis 111 19 

humana uia 186 34 

humus 246 100 

Hylaeus (adj.) 48 13 

Hylas 90 

Hylleus 69 26 

Hypallage 89 42; 93 10 

iacere 74 3 
Idaeus 150 26 
Idalius 219 59 
igitur 64 1; 112 27 
ignotus 59 5 ; 95 15 ; 105 8 
Ilion and Troia 151 31 
ille 48 12 
imago 126 13 
impHcare 229 16. 



improbus 47 6 

inl80 6o; 193 19 

increpare with inf. 239 60 

increpitare with dat. 139 15 

India 120 15 

Indicative for subjunctive 111 

indocilis 55 12 
iners 168 72 
infestus 66 14 
Infinitive 48 12; 50 18; 56 

23; 68 23; 74 5; 79 28; 

82 7; 83 11; 131 12; 148 

Inf. for supine 97 24 

ingredi (with inf.) 147 3 

iniquus (subst.) 69 27 

iniuria 195 7 

inops with inf. 121 29 

insinuare 176 28 

insolitus 65 8 

instare (with inf.) 97 27 

inter repeated 145 1 1 

inuitus 87 32 

Ionius 137 2 

irrisor 74 1 

iste 73 46; 80 32 

index and quaestor 230 19 

iugo, ex aequo 170 8 

iuneus 204 44 

Iuno domina 111 17 

Iuppiter 213 23 

iura dare 230 18 

iusta 160 9 

Juvenal 135 33 

lectus 123 3 

legere 93 7 

Leonidas Tarentinus 105 7 ; 

159 6 
Lepidus 240 63 
leuare 81 34 
Leucothoe 138 10 
Libones 234 31 
liquor 233 24 

litus 56 18 
liuor 70 29 
Livy 115 8; 170 50 
longae xnanus 167 60 
longaeua senecta 135 31 
longus 129 3 
Lucan 163 31 
Lucilius (Aetna) 87 29 
Lupretius 65 25 
lunare 213 25 
Lycius 152 38 
Lycomedius 204 51 
lyra 215 36 
Lysippus 170 9 

Mamurriu8 206 61 
manes 136 41 
Manilius 137 6; 155 19 
mansuetus 76 12 
manus 78 24 
Marcellus 181 
Marianum signum 157 43 
Martial lte 2$; 165 50 
medicina 53 7 
Meiosisl08 2; 238 51 
Meleager 46 1 4 ; 50 29; 6330; 

127 15 18; 128 2i; I9213 

14; 243 82 
mens bona 193 19 
Mentor 172 13 
mercatus (pass.) 53 5 
merito 75 7 
Meroe 222 78 
metus 217 50 
Milanion 47 9 
militia 104 4 
Mimas 162 22 
Minois (adj.) 232 21 
Minuae 92 4 
mi*utus 136 42 
Misenus 182 3 
miser 58 32 
missus 148 13 
mollire 237 41 
mollis 96 22; 22171 
monumenta 211 17 



Moschus 125 6; 126 13 
mulier 191 1 
mundas (subst.) 212 19 
munu8 634; 131 14 
mutua 63 30 
Mygdonius 210 8 
Mys 172 14 

nam 150 25 

Nereus 213 25 

nescius 85 20; 100 41 

ni for ne 114 3 

nigrae harenae 223 83 

Nireus 186 27 

nixus 87 33 

nomen62 26; 79 28; 210 12 

Notus 214 28 

nouns 70 30; 8841 

noxa 210 9 

nullae (dat.) 99 35 

nullus 55 14 ; 62 22 

numerare aetatem 161 17 

nusquam 127 15 

ob 138 15 

obnoxius 56 21 

occultus 89 94 

occurrere 92 3 

ocellus 60 1 1 

obserare 227 8 

obstrepere 89 46 

Oetaeus 151 32 

omnia rerum 170 7 

onyx 132 14 

operosus (with dat.) 211 18 

opportunus (with dat.) 200 21 

ora 93 9 

orbis 152 39 ; 209 6 

orgia 147 4 

Oricius 165 49 

Oricos 67 20 

Orithyial61 13 

ornare 52 1 

Oronteus 53 3 

Ortygia 144 6 

osculum 88 42 

Osoos 207 62 

Ovid 46 1 3; 48 16; 50 27; 

53 6; 54 8; 56 20; 57 28; 

5829; 67 18; 70 28; 75 8; 

77 21; 80 33; 89 4 55 HO 14; 
114 7; 115 9; 115 12; 117 

19; 118 4; 122 1; 131 8; 

137 6; 161 30; 166 31 32; 

167 39; 160 11; 161 18; 163 

3 4 ;166 56;166 5p;168 6 9 ; 

169 4; 184 17; 186 32; 192 

10 14; 200 19; 201 25; 223 

83; 237 48; 239 61; 24595 

Oxymoron 86 26 

Pagase 95 1 7 

PalatinuB 216 44 

paludosus 222 77 

Pandionius 98 31 

par 59 2 

parcere 176 29 

pariter (with dat.) 188 2 

Parrhasius 171 12 

Part. fut. 69 26 

Part, past 49 19; 2274 

Part., predicative use of, 114 

Parthenius 47 1 1 
paternus 197 2 ; 177 37 
pati 66 13 
patiens 87 29 
paulatim 164 41 
Paullus 240 63 
Pegasides 149 19 
Pege 99 33 
pelagus 211 17 
Pelopeus 216 33 
Pelnsium 180 55 
penitus with comparative 85 

per 176 26; 223 84; 233 29 

percutere 86 28 

peregrinus 63 4 

Perf. 199 11 

Perf. infin. 48 15 

Periphrastic fut. 243 79 



perire 125 4 

Permessus 122 26 

perorare 245 99 

perpeti95 15; 107 7 

Perusinus 107 3 

Petrarch 109 7 

Petronitu 63 30; 148 13; 167 

petulantia 88 37 

Phasis 96 18 

Phidiacus Iuppiter 173 1 5 

Philetaeus 209 3 

Philetas 146 1 

Phoebe 55 15 

Phoenix 140 3 

pignus228 12; 242 73 

pila 153 7 

plla 231 20 

Pindar 112 27; 138 10; 219 

62; 2263; 233 29 
pins 160 9 

Plautus 128 20; 159 3 
plenns 101 44 
Pluperf. 71 36; 82 1; 97 23; 

137 3; 184 15 
Plural indef. 86 23; 116 15; 

167 63; 188 s j 203 3 8; 203 

Plur. of magnificence 176 31 ; 

218 55 
Poenns 143 3 

pompa 129 3 

Ponticus 73 

positus 65 7 

posse 80 31 32 

potus and positus 221 75 

praeoonia classica 157 41 

praelucere 55 13 

praeteritus 136 36 

Praxiteles 174 16* 

premere 183 9 

Pres. for preterite 114 2 

prooedere 52 1 

properare 59 4 

prouehi 66 16 

proximus 92 6 

pudor 80 33 
puella 101 45 ; 138 15 
puluis (fern.) 107 6 
Pulydamas 150 29 
pumex 148 8 

qualis 106 1 
quamuis 113 29 
quantus 60 10; 220 65 
que displaced 58 30 
quirt 68 22 

Quintilian 50 25 ; 54 11 
quippe ubi 79 27 
Quirinus 212 2 1 

racemus 199 13 14 

radius 213 26 

ramus 48 13 

rarus 72 42 

recens 209 7 

referre 51 38 

remanere 50 31 

repugnare with dat. Ill 2c 

resipiscere 193 1 7 

rogitare 68 23 

Bomanus 107 5 

ros 137 2 

rumor 62 26 

rumpere 69 27 

Salhut 61 19 
sanguis 117 19 
sanum 193 18 
sapere 134 26 
saucius 82 5 
saxum 87 29 
Scaeae (portae) 178 39 
Scamander 150 27 
scamnum 155 19 
scire 54 12 
Scribonia 239 55 
secures ponere 175 24 
sedllO 15; 118 1 
seducere 79 27 
semper 94 14 ; 178 38 
Seneca 53 5 ; 163 31 



Seneca Trag. 155 24; 175 25 ; 

214 27; 2289; 241 77 
sentire 245 93 
sepositus 97 24 
sepulcrum 226 1 
sequi 140 5 
seruitium 61 19 
seuehi 155 2 1 
Sicanus 87 29 
signum 198 2 
sinus 72 38 
Silius Italicus 48 13 ; 94 14 ; 

150 29; 170 50; 213 25; 

235 39 
sirpiculus 203 40 
socius (adj.) 63 29 
sonitus 102 48 
spatiari 93 9 
spatium 206 58 
sperare 109 3 
spiritus 80 32; 87 32; 183 

Statins 94 1 r ; 147 5 ; 159 3 ; 

170 5; 17628; 177 37; 213 

23; 215 36; 231 31; 233 26 
sub 99 36; 177 36; 179 52 
subductus 199 9 
subesse 218 52 
subire 141 10 
Subjunctive 246 101 
Subj. imperf. 114 7 
succendere 55 15 
Sugambri 222 77 
surgere 99 37 
Syrius 131 14 

taeda 67 21 
talis 66 15; 139 20 
tarn 88 39 
tamen47 8; 109 5 
tangere 154 16 
Tantaleus 232 24 
tantuB 228 12 
tardare 100 42 
tardus 48 17; 7241 

tela 179 54 

temptare 127 19 

tempus 65 9; 218 53 

Tenses 164 45 ; change of, 135 

tenuis 148 8 

tepidus 85 22 

terebinthus 165 49 

tergus 137 6 

terra 134 26 

terrae (plur.) 108 10 

thalamus 165 49 

Thebanus deus 183 6 

Theocritus 46 3 ; 90 sqq.; 147 5 

Thessalia 60 6 

Thessalus 192 10 

Thiodamanteus, 92 6 

thyius 165 49 

Thynias 99 34 

Tibullus 196 13 ; 198 8 ; 241 70 

pseudo-Tibullus 73 45 ; 116 1 7 ; 

119 5 ; 214 32 

tonsus 235 38 

toga praetexta 234 33 

toruus 185 24 

totiens 62 21; 77 21 

toxicum 60 6 

tradere 83 10 

trahere 56 19 

tristis somnus 85 22 

Triton 219 61 

tuba 115 12 

Tullus 106 

turba 155 24 

turgere 104 3 

tumultus 119 7 

tutus 103 52 

uacuus 51 34; 79 27; 91 2 

uagus 60 7 ; 93 10 

Valerius Flaccus 97 23; 100 

41; 101 47; 13436 

uapulare 128 10 
uariare 110 1 1 
ubioumque 93 10 
uellicare 109 8 




uendere 53 4 
uenire 54 10 
uentosus 125 5 
uerba queri 68 22 
uerbum and dictum 57 29 
Yergiliae 65 10 
uersioolor 165 50 
uertere86a8; 164 43 
Vertumnua 196 
ueBanus 65 5 
uestis (stola) 240 61 
uetustas 149 23 
uices 242 75 
uidere, 48 12 
uindicare in 231 20 
uirl36 3 6; 155 20 
Virgil 54 10; 56 21; 104 
105 7; 120 16 17; 123 4; 

43; 22383; 246 101 
uita 52 1 

uitta (uirginea) 234 34 
Vlixes 164 41 
umbrosus rogus 227 8 
umor 153 2 
unde 116 13 
unguis tener 100 39 
unus 60 12 
Voo. 67 19 
uocula 86 27 
Volsinius (adj.) 198 4 
uota 89 44 
urna 231 19 
utere 67 19 
una 199 13 

125 5; I5634; 165 49; 204 Zeugma 175 24 


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