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—BY— yS 


K. C. M. G., M. D., Ph. D., F. R. S., 

Honorary or Corresponding Member of Scientific Societies and Academies in Philadelphia, 

New Orleans, San Francisco, Chicago, Kingston, Mexico, 

Caracas, Buenos Ayres. 

Omnia enim in usus suos creata sunt." — Syrach, xxxix, 21, 26. 

American edition, revised and enlarged. 







DETROIT, MICH., 1884. 


















IN the volumes, issued by the Victorian Acclimatization Society from 
1871 to 1878, five contributions have appeared concerning such in- 
dustrial plants as are available for culture in extra-tropical countries, or in 
high mountain-regions within the tropics. These writings were mainly offered 
with a view of promoting the introduction and diffusion of the very many kinds 
of plants, which may be extensively reared in the forests, fields or pastures 
of temperate geographic latitudes. But the work thus originated became acces- 
sible merely to the members of the Society, while frequent calls arose for these 
or some similar data, not only throughout the Australian communities, but also 
abroad. The whole was, therefore, re-arranged and largely supplemented, first 
for re-issue in Victoria, and lately also in India, under the auspices of the 
Central Government at Calcutta. Subsequently the work was honored by being 
reprinted, with numerous additions, for the use of New South Wales; and at 
nearly the same time it went through a German translation, by Dr. Goeze, in 
Herr Th. Fischer's publishing establishment in Cassel; while now it appears 
revised and still further augmented, more particularly for North American use, 
through the generous interest of one of the most enterprising scientific 
publishers in the United States. As stated in the preface to the original 
essays, they did not claim completeness, either as a specific index to, or as a 
series of notes on, the respective rural or technologic applicability of the 
plants enumerated. But what these writings may; perhaps, aspire to, is to bring 
together some condensed data, in popular language, on all the principal 
utilitarian plants, hitherto known to prosper in extra-tropical zones. Informa- 
tion of this kind is widely scattered through many, and often voluminous, 
works in several languages; yet such volumes apply, generally, to countries 
with a climatic zone far narrower than that for which these pages were written. 
Most, but not all the books, which it was desirable to consult, were at the 
author's command; but the necessity of further successive supplements will be 
apparent, even irrespective of needful references to future discoveries, because 
in the progress of geographic, medical, technologic and chemical inquiries, many 
new plants of utilitarian value are likely to be disclosed, and new uses of 
known plants to be elucidated. Thus, for instance, among the trees and 
shrubs, or herbs and grasses, occurring in the middle and higher altitudinal 
zones of Africa, or, nearer to us, of New Guinea and the Sunda Islands, many 


specific forms rruy be expected to occur, which we could transfer to extra- 
tropical countries or to mountains in other equinoctial regions. Indeed, the 
writer would modestly hope, that his local efforts may prove to be useful 
in various parts of the globe, in extending rural pursuits, through the generous 
action of an enlightened American, Capt. Ellwood Cooper, late Principal of the 
Santa Barbara College, of California, who deemed the first fragmentary pub- 
lications then offered for Australian use, also worthv of re-issue in San 
Francisco. Occasional and partial reprints had also previously appeared in 
weekly journals of Sydney and San Francisco, and in some other periodicals, 
likewise in a volume of miscellaneous writings of mine, issued by Captain 
Ellwood Cooper, as early as in 1876, for California. 

As already intimated, the rapid progress of tillage almost throughout all 
colonial dominions, is causing a growing desire for general and particular 
indications of such plants, which a colder clime excludes from the northern 
countries, in which many of the colonists spent their youth; and it must be 
clear to any reflecting mind, that in all warmer latitudes, as compared with 
the Middle- European zones, there exists a vastly enlarged scope for cultural 
choice of plants. Thus, merely indicative as these notes are, they may 
yet facilitate the selection. More extensive information can then be 
sought for in larger, though less comprehensive works already extant, or likely 
still to be called forth by local requirements in other countries. The writer 
should even not be disinclined, under fair support and encouragement, to 
issue, collateral to the present volume, also another, exclusively devoted to 
the industrial plants of the hotter zones, for the promotion of tropical culture, 
particularly in our Australian continent. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in fixing the limits of such 
remarks as are admissible into the present pages, from the fact that a 
certain plant may be important only under particular climatic conditions 
and cultural applications, or it may have been overrated in regard to 
the copiousness and relative value of its yield. Thus it was not always 
easy to sift the chaff from the grain, when these notes were gathered; the 
remarks might, indeed, under less rigorous restrictions, have been indefinitely 
extended; and although the author has for more that twenty years been watch- 
ing, for industrial tests, the plants introduced by him into the Melbourne 
Botanic Garden, he had still, to a very large extent, to rely implicitly on the 
experience of Other observers elsewhere. It may, also, be here stated, that 
when calculations of measurements and weights were quoted, such always 
represent the maximum as far as hitherto on record. To draw prominent 
attention to the primarily important among the very many hundreds of plants, 

referred to in these pages, the leading species have been designated with an 
asterisk. It has not been easy, in numerous instances, to trace the original 
source of that information on utilitarian plants, which we find recorded in the 
various volumes of phytologic or rural or technologic literature; many original 
observations are, however, contained in the writings of Bernardin, Bentley 
Brandis, Brockhaus, Candolle, Chambers, Collins, Dyer, Drury, Engelmann, 
Flueckiger, Asa Gray, Grisebach, Hanbury, Hooker, King, Koch, Langethal, 
Lawson, Lindley, Lorentz, Loudon, Martius, Masters, Meehan, Meyer, 
Michaux, Nuttall, Oliver, Pereira, Philippi, Porcher, Rosenthal, Roxburgh, 
Sargent, Seemann, Simmonds, Stewart, Trimen, Wittstein and also some 
others, to whose names reference is cursorily made in the text. The volumes 
of the Agricultural Department at Washington, of the Austrian Apotheker- 
Verein, of the Journal of Applied Science, of the Bulletin de la Societe d'Accli- 
matation de France, and of several other periodicals, have likewise afforded 
data, utilized on this occasion. 

In grouping together, at the close of this volume, all the genera enumer- 
ated, according to the products which they yield, facility is afforded for 
tracing out any series of plants regarding which special economic information 
may be sought, or which may at any time prominently engage the attention of 
the cultivator, the manufacturer, or the artisan. Again, the placing together in 
index-form of the respective industrial plants according to their geographic dis- 
tribution, as has likewise been done in the concluding pages, has rendered it 
easy to order or obtain from abroad the plants of such other countries with 
which any settlers or colonists may be in relation, through commercial, literary, 
or other intercourse. Lists like the present may also aid in naming the plants 
and their products with scientific correctness, in establishments of economic 
horticulture or in technologic or other educational collections. If the line of 
demarkation between the plants admissible into this list and those which 
should have been excluded, has occasionally been extended in favor of the 
latter, then it must be pleaded that the final value of any particular species for 
a peculiar want, locality or treatment, cannot always be fully foretold. Doubt- 
less, many plants of primary importance for rural requirements, here again 
alluded to, have long since been secured by intelligent early pioneers of im- 
migration, who timely strove to enrich the cultural resources of their adopted 
country. In these efforts the writer, so far as his public or private means 
would permit, has endeavored for more than a quarter of a century to take 
an honorable share. But although such plants are introduced, they are not in 
all instances as yet widely diffused, nor tested in all desirable localities. For 
the sake of completeness even the most ordinary cultural plants have not been 

passed, as the opportunity seemed an apt one to offer a few cursory remarks 
on their value. 

The writer entertains a hope that a copy of this plain volume may find a 
place in the library of every educational establishment, for occasional, and, 
perhaps, frequent reference to its pages. The increased ease of communica- 
tion, which has latterly arisen between nearly all parts of the globe, places 
us now also in a fair position for independent efforts, to suggest or pro- 
mote introductions of new vegetable treasures from unexplored regions, or to 
submit neglected plans of promising value to unbiased original tests. It may 
merely be instanced, that after the lapse of more than three centuries since the 
conquest of Mexico, only the most scanty information is extant on the timber of 
that empire, and that of several thousand tropical grasses not many dozen have 
been tried with chemical exactitude for pasture purposes, not to speak of 
many prominently utilitarian trees, shrubs and herbs, restricted to cool moun- 
tain regions elsewhere within the tropics, but never yet carried to the lowlands 
of higher latitudes. For inquiries of such kind every civilized State is striving 
to afford, in well-planned, thoughtfully directed and generously-supported 
special scientific establishments, the needful aid, not merely for adding to the 
prosperity, comfort and enjoyment of the present generation, but also with an 
anticipation of earning the gratitude of posterity; and this, as a rule, is done 
with a sensitive jealousy, to maintain also thereby the fair fame of the country 
for scientific dignity and industrial development. Friendly consideration 
' will recognize the fact that a desire to arouse, more and more, such a spirit 
of emulation, has much inspired the writer to offer these pages, trusting that 
enlightened statesmanship, far and wide, will foster this aim which he 
has had in view, in a liberal and circumspect manner. 
Melbourne, t8Sj. 


— IN — 


Aberia Caffra, Hooker. 

The Kai-Apple of Natal and Caffraria. This tall shrub serves 
for hedges. The rather large fruits are edible, and can be con- 
verted into preserves. Allied South-African species are A. 
Zeyheri and A. tristis (Sonder). 

Acacia acuminata, Bentham. 

A kind of "Myall" from Western Australia, attaining a 
height of forty feet. The scent of the wood comparable to that 
of raspberries. It is the best of West-Australian woods for 
charcoal. The stems much sought for fence posts, very lasting, 
even when young. A similar tree with hard and scented wood 
is A. Doratoxylon (A. Cunn.). 

Acacia aneura, F. v. Mueller. 

Arid desert-interior of' extra-tropic Australia. A tree never 
more than 25 feet high. Wood excessively hard, dark-brown, 
used preferentially by the natives for boomerangs, sticks to lift 
edible roots, end-shafts of Phragmites-spears, woomerangs, 
nulla-nullas and jagged spear-ends. 

Acacia Arabica, Willdenow. 

The "Kikar" or "Babur." North and Central Africa, also 
in South-west Asia, growing in dry, calcareous soil. This small 
tree can be utilized for thorny hedges, as also A. Seyal (Delile) 
and A. tortilis (Forskael). They all furnish the best gum- 
arabic for medicinal and technical purposes. The lac insect 
lives also on the foliage, and thus in Sind the lac is mainly 
yielded by this tree. The stem attains a circumference of 10 
feet. The astringent pods are valuable for tanning, also the 


bark, which is known as "Baboot" bark; the wood, known as 
"Sunt," is very durable if water-seasoned, extensively used for 
wheels, well-curbs, and many kinds of implements, also for the 
knees and planks of boats. A. gummifera (Willd.) and A. 
Ehrenbergiana (Hayne) are among the species which yield 
gum-arabic in North Africa A. latronum (Willdenow) and A. 
modesta (Wallich) form thorny hedges in India (Brandis). 

Acacia armata, R. Brown. 

Extra-tropical Australia. The Kangaroo-Thorn. Much 
grown for hedges, though less manageable than various other 
hedge plants. Important for covering coast-sand with an 
unapproachable prickly vegetation. 

Acacia binervata, De Candolle. 

Extra-tropic East-Australia. A tree attaining a height of 40 
feet. The bark used by tanners, but not so rich as that of A. 
decurrens (W. Dovegrove). 

Acacia Catechu, Willdenow. 

India, Africa, up to 3,000 feet. Tree attaining 40 feet in 
height. The extract prepared from the bark and tieartwood is 
the catechu of medicine or cutch of tannery. Pure cutch is 
worth about ^25 per ton ; 4 tons of bark will produce 1 ton of 
cutch or terra japonica. A. Suma (Kurz) is closely allied. 

Acacia Cavenia, Hooker and Arnott. 

The Espino of the present inhabitants of Chili, the Cavan of 
the former population. A small tree with exceedingly hard 
wood, resisting underground moisture. The plant is well 
adapted for hedges. The husks contain 32 per cent, tannin 
(Sievers), valuable as a dye material. 

Acacia Cebil, Grisebach. 

La Plata States. This is one of the most useful of all trees 
there, on account of its bark, which is exceedingly rich in tan- 
nic acid ; a species well worthy of introduction here, even as 
an ornamental tree. Numerous other Acacise, particularly the 
Australian species, deserve yet tests for tannin. 

Acacia concinna, De Candolle. 

India. Praised by Dr. Cleghorn as a valuable hedge-shrub. 
The pod contains saponin. 

Acacia decurrens, Willdenow.* 

The Black Wattle. From the eastern part of South Australia, 
through Victoria and New South Wales, to the southern part of 
Queensland. A small or middle-sized tree. Its wood is used 
for staves, for turners' work, occasionally also for axe and pick- 


handles and many other purposes ; it supplies an excellent fire- 
wood ; a chief use of the tree would be also to afford the first 
shelter, in treeless localities, for raising forests. Its bark, rich in 
tannin, and its gum, not dissimilar to gum-arabic, render this 
tree highly important. The English price of the bark ranges 
generally from £8 to ^n. In Melbourne it averages about 
^5 per ton. It varies, so far as experiments made in my 
laboratory have shown, in its contents of tannin from 30 to 40 
per cent, in bark artificially dried. In the mercantile bark the 
percentage is somewhat less, according to the state of its dry- 
ness — it retaining about 10 per cent, moisture. ljA lb. of Black 
Wattle-bark give 1 lb. of leather, whereas 5 lbs. of English 
Oak-bark are requisite for the same results, but the tannic prin- 
ciple of both is not absolutely identical. Melbourne tanners 
consider a ton of Black Wattle-bark sufficient to tan 25 to 30 
hides ; it is best adapted for sole-leather and other so-called 
heavy goods. The leather is fully as durable as that tanned 
with oak-bark, and nearly as good in color. Bark carefully 
stored for a season improves in tanning power 10 to 15 per 
cent. From experiments made under the author's direction it 
appears that no appreciable difference exists in the percentage 
of tannin in Wattle-bark, whether obtained in the dry or in the 
wet season. ' The tannin of this Acacia yields a gray precipitate 
with ferric, and a violet color with ferrous salts ; it is 
completely thrown down from a strong aqueous solution by 
means of concentrated sulphuric acid The bark improves by 
age and desiccation, and yields about 40 per cent, of catechu, 
rather more than half of which is tannic acid. Bichromate of 
potash added in a minute quantity to the boiling solution of 
mimosa-tannin produces a ruby red liquid, fit for dye-purposes; 
and this solution gives, with the salts of sub-oxide of iron, black 
pigments, and with the salts of the full oxide of iron, red-brown 
dyes. As far back as 1823 a fluid extract of Wattle-bark was 
shipped to London, fetching then the extraordinary price of 
^50 per ton, one ton of bark yielding 4 cwt. of extract of tar- 
consistence (Simmons), thus saving much freight and cartage. 
Tan extract is best obtained from the bark by hydraulic pres- 
sure and evaporation of the strong liquid thus obtained in wide 
pans under steam-heat, or better still, to avoid any decomposi- 
tion of the tannic acid, by evaporation under a strong current 
of cold air. For cutch or terra japonica the infusion is care- 
fully evaporated by gentle heat. The estimation of tannic acid 
in Acacia barks is effected most expeditiously by filtering the 
aqueous decoction of the bark after cooling, evaporating the 
solution and then re-dissolving the residue in alcohol and deter- 
mining the weight of the tannic principle obtained by evapo- 
rating the filtered alcoholic solution to perfect dryness. 


The cultivation of the Black Wattle is extremely easy, being 
effected by sowing either broadcast or in rows. Seeds can be 
obtained in Melbourne at about 5s. per lb., which contains from 
30,000 to 50,000 grains ; they are known to retain their vitality 
for several years. 

For discrimination in mercantile transactions it may be noted, 
that the seeds of the genuine A. decurrens are somewhat 
smaller, comparatively shorter, rounder and not so flat as those 
of A. dealbata, while the funicular appendage does not extend 
so far along the seeds nor is the pod quite so broad ; from those 
of A. pycnantha they differ in being shorter, thus more ovate 
than oblong. 

Seeds should be soaked in warm water before sowing. Any 
bare, sterile, unutilized place might most remuneratively be sown 
with this Wattle Acacia ; the return could be expected in from 
five to ten years. Full-grown trees, which supply also the best 
quality, yield as much as 1 cwt. of bark. Mr. Dickinson states, 
that he has seen 10 cwt. of bark obtained from a single tree of 
gigantic dimensions at Southport. A quarter of a ton of bark 
was obtained from one tree at Tambo without stripping all the 
limbs. The height of this tree was 60 feet, and the stem 2 feet 
in diameter. The rate of growth of the tree is about 1 inch in 
diameter of stem annually. It is content with the poorest and 
driest soil, although in more fertile ground it shows greater 
rapidity of growth. This Acacia is perhaps the most important 
of all tan-yielding trees of the warm-temperate zones, for its 
strength in tannic acid, its rapidity of growth, its contentedness 
with almost any soil, the ease with which it can be reared and 
its early yield of tanner's bark, and indeed also gum and stave- 
wood. This tree is to be recommended for poor land affected 
with sorrel. It is hardier than Eucalyptus globulus, thus 
enduring the climate of South England; although it hardly 
extends to sub-alpine elevations. 

The variety dealbata (Acacia dealbata, Link) is generally 
known amongst Australian colonists as Silver-wattle. It prefers 
for its habitation humid river-banks, and sometimes attains there 
a height of 150 feet, supplying a clear and tough timber used 
by coopers and other artisans, but principally serving as select 
fuel of great heating power. The bark of this variety is much 
thinner and greatly inferior in quality to that of the Black Wattle, 
yielding only about half the quantity of tannin principle. It is 
chiefly employed for lighter leather. This tree is distinguished 
from the Black Wattle by the silvery or rather ashy hue of its 
young foliage : it flowers early in spring, ripening its seeds in 
about 5 months, while the Black Wattle occurs chiefly on drier 
ridges, blossoms late in spring or at the beginning of summer, 
and its seeds do not mature in less than about 14 months. 


For fuller information the " Report on Wattle-bark," pre- 
sented in 1878 to the Parliament of Victoria by a special com- 
mission, may be referred to. 

Acacia estrophiolata, F. v. Mueller. 

Central Australia. A tree attaining a height of 30 feet with 
a stem-diameter of 1 foot, enduring the extremest of dry heat; 
suitable for cemeteries on account of its pendent branches. 
It flowers almost constantly and accommodates itself to all 
sorts of soil, even sand. Wood very durable, locally much 
used for implements and especially wheel-wright's work (Rev. 
H. Kempe). 

Acacia excelsa, Bentham. 

The Ironbark-Acacia of Queensland, extending into New 
South Wales. Attains a height of 80 feet. Branches pendent. 
The wood is dark-colored, hard, heavy and durable, well adapted 
for furniture and implements; towards the centre it is of a deep 
pink color. The tree exudes a large quantity of clear gum 

Acacia falcata, Willdenow. 

East Australia. One of the best of trees for raising a woody 
vegetation on drift-sand, as particularly proved at the Cape of 
Good Hope. Important also for its bark in tanneries. 

Acacia Farnesiana, Willdenow. 

Dioscorides' small Acacia. Indigenous to South Asia; found 
westward as far as Japan; a native also of the warmer parts of 
Australia, as far south as the Darling River; found sponta- 
neous in tropical and sub-tropical America, but apparently 
not in tropical Africa. Professor Fraas has recognized in this 
Acacia the ancient plant. The scented flowers are much 
sought for perfumery. This species may be utilized as a hedge 
plant; a kind of gum-arabic may also be obtained from it. 

The scent perhaps obtainable from the fresh and slightly 
moist flowers by gentle dry distillation under mere steam-heat. 
Ordinarily the odorous essential oil is withdrawn from the 
flowers by the enfleurage-process; many Australian Acacias 
might be thus treated for perfumery. 

Acacia fasciculifera, F. v. Mueller. 

South Queensland. Tree sometimes seventy feet high, 
branches pendent. Desirable for culture on account of the 
excellence of its easily-worked dark wood. Eligible also for 



Acacia giraffae, Willdenow. 

South Africa. The Camel-Thorn. This tree attains a great 
age, and a height of 40 feet. The trunk assumes a large size, 
and supplies a wood of great hardness. The tree will grow on 
the driest of soil. 

Acacia gummifera, Willdenow. 

This species yields the Gum Arabic of Morocco. (Sir Joseph 
Hooker and John Ball.) 

Acacia glaucescens, Willdenow. 

Queensland and New South Wales. Extreme height about 
60 feet. A kind of "Myall," with hard, dark, prettily-grained 
wood which is less fragrant than that of some other species. 

Acacia harpophylla, F. v. Mueller. 

Southern Queensland, where this tree, according to Mr. 
Thozet, furnishes a considerable share of the mercantile wattle- 
bark for tanning purposes. Wood, according to Mr. O'Shanesy, 
brown, hard, heavy and elastic; used by the natives for spears. 
The tree sometimes attains a height of 90 feet, growing nat- 
urally on sand lands, almost to the exclusion of other trees and 
shrubs, furnishing wood of a violet odor, which splits freely, and 
is useful for fancy lathe-work. Saplings used as stakes in vine- 
yards have lasted 20 years and more. The tree yields also 
considerable quantities of gum. It is one of the principal 
" Brigalows" in the scrubs of that designation. 

Acacia homalophylla, Cunningham. 

The Victorian "Myall," extending into the deserts of South 
Australia and New South Wales. Never a tall tree. The 
dark-brown wood is much sought for turners' work on account 
of its solidity and fragrance; perhaps its most extensive use is 
in the manufacture of tobacco-pipes. 

Acacia horrida, Willdenow. 

The " Doornboom" or " Karra-Doorn" of South Africa. A 
formidable hedge bush with thorns often 3 inches long, readily 
available for impenetrable hedge-rows. It exudes also a gum 
of good quality, but often of amber color. This is the prin- 
cipal species used for tanners' bark in South Africa, where 
Leucospermum conocarpum (R. Br.) is also extensively em- 
ployed for the same purpose (M. Gibbon.) It imparts, how- 
ever, an unpleasant odor to the leather made with it (McOwan). 


Acacia implexa, Bentham. 

Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland. A tree of middle 
size, content with poor soil. Wood firm and close, dark-brown 
with yellowish stripes ; much in demand for turnery, cog- 
wheels, and other purposes which need tenacity and strength 
(Dickinson). Bark available for tanneries. 

Acacia Koa, A. Gray. 

Hawaii; there one of the most valuable of timber trees. Stem 
reaching a height of 60 feet, topped by wide-spreading phyllo- 
dinous foliage. Wood easy to work, particularly in a fresh state ; 
formerly much used for boat-building and for building pur- 
poses generally; also suitable for cabinet-work. Species of 
Metrosideros, some ascending to 8,000 feet, one overtopping 
all other trees, furnish a large share of hard, tough and very 
durable timber in the. Hawaian islands. Their wood varies 
from a light red to a purplish hue. 

Acacia leiophylla, Bentham.* (A. saligna, Bentham, non Wendland.) 

South-western Australia, where it is the principal tree chosen 
for tanners' bark. It is a wide-spreading small tree, fit for 
avenues ; emitting suckers. The bark contains nearly 30 per 
cent, of mimosa-tannin, and is extensively used by tanners in 
West Australia. Perfectly dried leaves yield from 7 to 8 per 
cent, mimosa-tannic acid, giving a lead precipitate of a light 
yellow color ; the leaves contain also a considerable quantity of 
sulphate of lime. The London price of fair West Australian 
gum-arabic from this species was from 46s. to 49s. per cwt. in 
1879. The tree has proved in Algeria to resist the sirocco bet- 
ter than most species (Ur. Bonand). A. cyanophylla (Lindley) 
is a closely allied species, serving the same purposes. 

Acacia longifolia, Willdenow. 

South-eastern Australia. This tree is introduced into this 
list inasmuch as the very bushy variety known as A. Sophorae 
(R. Brown) renders most important service in subduing loose 
coast-sand; it should therefore be disseminated on extensively 
bare sand-shores in regions where no severe frosts occur. The 
bark of A. longifolia is only half as good as that of A. decur- 
rens for tanning, and used chiefly for sheep-skins. The tree is 
of quick growth — 20 to 30 feet in 5 to 6 years (Hartmann). 

Acacia macrantha, Bentham. 

From Mexico to Argentina ; also in the Galapagos Group. 
This tree, usually small, provides the " Cuji-pods" for tanning 


Acacia melanoxylon, R. Brown.* 

South-eastern Australia. Generally known as Blackwood- 
tree, passing also under the inappropriate name of Light Wood. 
In irrigated glens of deep soil the tree will attain a height of 80 
feet, with a stem several feet in diameter. The wood is most 
valuable for furniture, railroad cars and carriages, boat-build- 
ing (stem and stern post, ribs, rudder), for tool-handles, 
crutches, some portions of the work of organ-builders, casks, 
billiard-tables, pianofortes (for sound-boards and actions) and 
numerous other purposes. The fine-grained wood is cut into 
veneers; it takes a fine polish, and is considered almost equal 
to walnut. The best wood in Victoria for bending under 
steam, it does not warp and twist. Local experiments gave the 
strength in transverse strain of Blackwood equal to Eucalyptus 
wood of middling strength, approaching that of the American 
White Oak, and surpassing that of the Kauri. The bark con- 
tains about 20 per cent, mimosa-tannin. The tree has proved 
hardy in the isle of Arran (Rev. D. Landsborough). 

Acacia moniliformis, Grisebach. 

Argentina. The "Tusca." The young pods are used for 
feeding horses and cattle (Dr. Lorentz), like those of Acacia 
Cavenia in South-western America. 

Acacia microbotrya, Bentham. 

South-western Australia. The " Badjong." A compara- 
tively tall species, the stem attaining a diameter of 1 to 1^ feet. 
It prefers river-valleys and lines brooks naturally. According 
to Mr. Geo. Whitfield, a single tree often yields 50 lbs. of gum 
in "a season. The aborigines store the gum in hollow trees 
for winter use ; it is of a pleasant, sweetish taste. 

Acacia pendula, All. Cunningham. 

New South Wales and Queensland. Generally in marshy 
tracts of the interior. The "Weeping Myall." Reaching 35 
feet in height. Wood violet-scented, hard, close-grained, 
beautifully marked; used by cabinet-makers and turners, in 
high repute for tobacco-pipes (W. Hill). The tree is desirable 
for cemeteries. 

Acacia penninervis, Sieber. 

Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. A small tree, 
so hardy as to occupy sub-alpine localities. The bark contains 
about 18 per cent, of tannin. 

Acacia pycnantha, Bentham.* 

Victoria and South Australia. The "Golden Wattle" of the 
colonists. This tree, which attains a maximum height of about 


30 feet, is second perhaps only to A. decurrens in importance 
for its yield of tanners' bark ; the quality of the latter is even 
sometimes superior to that of the Black Wattle, but the yield is 
less, as the tree is smaller and the bark thinner. It is of rapid 
growth, content with almost any soil, but is generally found in 
poor sandy ground near the sea-coast, and thus also important 
for binding rolling sand. Experiments instituted by me have 
proved the artificially dried bark to contain from 30 to 45 per 
cent, tanning principle, full-grown sound trees supplying the 
best quality. The aqueous infusion of the bark can be reduced 
by boiling to a dry extract, which in medicinal and other 
respects is equal to the best Indian catechu, as derived from 
Acacia Catechu and A. suma. It yields about 30 per cent., 
about half of which or more is mimosa-tannic acid. This 
catechu is also of great use for preserving against decay articles 
subject to exposure in water, such as ropes, nets, fishing-lines 
etc. The fresh leaves yield 6 per cent, and dry leaves 15 to 16 
per cent, of mimosa-tannin. While, according to Mr. Simmons, 
the import of the bark of oaks and hemlock-spruce into Eng- 
land becomes every year less, and while the import of sumach 
and gambir does not increase, the annual demand for tanning 
substance has within the last twenty years been doubled. A. 
pycnantha is also important for its copious yield of gum, which 
is in some localities advantageously collected for home con- 
sumption and also for export. The wood, though not of large 
dimensions, is well adapted for staves, handles of various 
instruments and articles of turnery, especially bobbins (Dickin- 
son). By improved methods the fragrant oil of the flowers will 
doubtless be fixed, though its absolute isolation might be diffi- 
cult and unremunerative. The tree as a rule seeds well. 

Acacia retinodes, Schlechtendal. 

South-eastern Australia. Ascertained so early as 1846 by Dr. 
Hermann Behr to yield a good tanners' bark and much gum. 
This Acacia is ever-flowering, and in this respect almost excep- 
tional. It likes river-banks, but never grows beyond the height 
of a small tree. A. neriifolia (A. Cunningham) of New South 
Wales is a closely allied species. 

Acacia Sentis, F. v. Mueller. 

Interior of Australia. This shrub or small tree is suitable 
for hedges. The seeds of this species and also of A. Kempeana, 
A. isbaria and some others are eaten by the natives. 

Acacia Seyal, Delile. 

In the Libyan and Nubian Deserts. This thorny tree exudes 
a brownish kind of gum-arabic. It is adapted for the most 


arid desert country. In any oasis it forms a large and shady 
tree. Native name, " Soffar." 

Acacia stenocarpa, Hochstetter. 

Abyssinia and Nubia. A large tree, which yields the brownish 
" Suak" or "Talha"-Gum, a kind of gum-arabic. (Hanbury 
and Flueckiger.) 

Acacia stenophylla, A. Cunningham. 

On banks of water-courses in the interior of Australia, as far 
south as the Murray River. A tree with exquisite, hard, dark 
wood, serving the same purposes as Myall-wood, and also 
known as Ironwood. Attains a height of 60 feet and a 
diameter of 2 feet. 

Acacia Verek, Guillemin and Perrottet. 

From Senegambia to Nubia. Affords the best white gum- 
arabic of the Nile region, and a large quantity of this com- 
mercial article. A. Etbaica (Schweinf.) from the same region 
produces also a good mercantile gum. 

Acanthophoenix rubra, H. Wendland. 

Mauritius and Reunion. This palm has proved hardy as far 
south as Sydney (C. Moore). Height reaching 60 feet. ■ The 
upper rings of the stem are, of a bright red. 

Acanthosicyos horrida, Welwitsch. 

In the deserts of Angola, Benguela and Damarland. This 
thorny, erect, cucurbitaceous shrub bears fruit the size and color 
of oranges and of pleasant acidulous taste. The seeds are also 
edible. No rain occurs in the Acanthosicyos and Welwitschia 
region, but the heat does not exceed 70 F. and the soil is 
kept somewhat moist through capillarity from beneath. 

Acer campestre, Linne. 

The British Maple. Extends from Middle Europe to North- 
ern Asia. Height reaching 40 feet, in shelter and deep soil ; the 
yellow and purple tints of its foliage in autumn render the tree 
then particularly beautiful. Occurs in Norway south of 63 26' 
N. L. (Schuebeler). The wood is compact and fine-grained, 
and sought for choice furniture. The tree can be trimmed into 
hedges. Comparatively quick of growth, and easily raised from 
seed. These remarks apply to many kinds of maples. 

Acer circinatum, Pursh. 

The Vine Maple of North-western America, forming in 
Oregon impenetrable forests on account 'of its long branches 
bending to the ground and striking root. The stem is some- 


times 40 feet long, but slender. Found to be hardy in Chris- 
tiania, Norway (lat. 59 55' N.), where the mean annual tempera- 
ture is 41° F., the highest being 90 and the lowest — 21° F. At 
Nyborg in lat. 70 10' the mean annual temperature is 29° F., 
the highest 95 and the lowest— 40° F. (Professor Schuebeler). 
The wood is heavier and of closer grain than that of A. macro- 
phyllum (Dr. Gibbons). 

Acer dasycarpum, Ehrhart. 

The Silver Maple of North America. Requires a rather 
warmer climate than the other American maples, but has 
proved hardy in Norway as far as 59° 55' N. (Schuebeler.) 
Height reaching 50 feet ; stem sometimes 9 feet in dia- 
meter. Much praised for street planting- ; growth compara- 
tively rapid. It produces no suckers, nor is the tree sub- 
ject to disease. A most beautiful tree, with a stout stem 
and a magnificent crown, growing best on the banks of 
rivers with limpid water and a gravelly bed, but never in 
swampy ground, where the Red Maple takes its place. The 
wood is pale and soft, of less strength and durability than that 
of its congeners, but makes excellent charcoal. It may be 
cut into extreme thinness for wood-paperhangings (Simmonds). 
The tree also yields maple-sugar, though not in such quantity 
as A. saccharinum. 

Acer macrophyllum, Pursh. 

Large Oregon Maple. From British Columbia to Northern 
Mexico. Tree of quick growth ; sometimes reaching a 
height of 90 feet; stem attaining 16 feet in circumfer- 
ence; wood whitish, beautifully veined. A fine shade- 
tree ; delights in banks of streams. The inner bark can 
be utilized for baskets, hats and superior mats ; the 
hard and close wood is a substitute for hickory. The wood 
when curled is splendid for ornamental work. Maple-sugar is 
also manufactured from the sap of this species (Sargent). 

Acer Negundo, Linne, (Negundo aceroides, Moench). 

The Box-elder of North America. Hardy in Norway to 59 
55' N. (Schuebeler). A tree, deciduous like the rest of the 
maples ; may attain a height of about 50 feet, and is rich in sac- 
charine sap ; according to Vasey it contains almost as much as 
the Sugar-maple. In California it is used extensively as a 
shade-tree. Cultivated, the stem attains about 8 inches in 
diameter in 8 years (Brewer). The wood is yellow, marked with 
violet and rosy veins (Simmonds.) 


Acer niveum, Blume. 

Continental and Insular India, up on the forest-ranges. This 
is the tallest of the maples, attaining a height of 150 feet. 
Several other large maples, worthy of cultivation particularly in 
parks, occur on the mountains of India. 

Acer palmatum, Thunberg. 

This beautiful tree, with deeply cleft leaves, is indigenous to 
Japan, where various varieties with red and yellow-tinged leaves 
occur. Unhurt by frost at 0° F. (Gorlie). Should it be an aim 
to bring together all the kinds of maples, which could be easily 
grown in appropriate spots, then Japan alone would furnish 22 

Acer platanoides, Lirine. 

The Norway maple, extending south to Switzerland. Up to 
80 feet high. Found hardy in Norway (cultivated) to 67° 56' 
N. Attained in latitude 59° 46' a diameter of 3^2 feet (Schue- 
beler). The pale wood much used by cabinet-makers. Tint of 
the autumn foliage golden-yellow. A tree of imposing appear- 
ance, much recommended for ornamental gardening ; it gives a 
denser shade than most of the other maples. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus, Linne. 

The Sycamore Maple or Spurious Plane. Middle and 
Southern Europe, Western Asia. Hardy to 67^ 56' N. in Nor- 
way (Schuebeler). The celebrated maple at Trons, under 
which the Orisons swore the oath of union in 1424, exists still 
(Langethal). Attains a height of over 100 feet. The wood is 
compact and firm, valuable for "various implements, instruments, 
and cabinet-work ; — e. g. for mangles, presses, dishes, printing 
and bleaching works, beetling-beams and in foundries for pat- 
terns (Simmonds); also for the back, neck, sides and circle of 
violins, for pianofortes (portion of the mechanism), it being 
free-cutting and clean on the end-grain. It furnishes like some 
other maples a superior charcoal. Will admit of exposure to 
sea-air. The sap also saccharine. 

Acer rubrum, Linne. 

The Red Maple of North America. Hardy in Norway at 
63 26' N. (Schuebeler). A tree, attaining over 100 feet in 
height, 5 feet in diameter ; wood close-grained. Grows well 
with several other maples, even in «dry, open localities, although 
the foliage may somewhat suffer from hot winds, but thrives 
most luxuriantly in swampy, fertile soil. It is valued for street- 
planting. The foliage turns red in autumn. The wood is of 
handsome appearance, used in considerable quantity for saddle- 


trees, yokes, turnery, chairs and other furniture. That of old 
trees is sometimes cross-grained, and thus furnishes a portion 
of the curled Maple-wood, which is very beautiful and much in 
request for gun-stocks and inlaying. The tree yields also 
Maple-sugar, but, like A. dasycarpum, only in about half the 
quantity obtainable from A. sacchai-inum (Porcher). 

Acer saccharinum, Wangenheim* 

The Sugar or Rock Maple ; one of the largest of the genus. 
Eastern North America, extending to Arizona. It is the 
national emblem of Canada. In the cooler latitudes often 80 
or rarely 120 feet high, with a stem 3 to 4 feet in diameter. 
Hardy to 59 55' N. in Norway (Schuebeler). The wood is 
strong, tough, hard, close-grained, of rosy tinge, and when well 
seasoned is used for axle-trees, spokes, shafts, poles and furniture, 
exteriors of pianos, saddle-trees, wheel-wrights' work, wooden 
dishes, founders' patterns and flooring; not apt to warp; preferred 
for shoe-lasts ; when knotty or curly it furnishes the Birds-eye 
and Curly Maple-wood. From the end of February till the 
earlier part of April the trees, when tapped, will yield the sac- 
charine fluid, which is so extensively converted into Maple- 
sugar, each tree yielding 12 to 24 gallons of sap in a season,. 3 
to 6 gallons giving 1 lb. of sugar ; but exceptionally the yield 
may rise to 100 and more gallons. The tapping process com- 
mences at the age of 20 years, and may be continued for 40 
years or more without destruction of the tree (G. Maw). 
According to Porcher, instances are on record of 33 lbs. of 
sugar having been obtained from a single tree in one season. 
The Sugar Maple is rich in potash, furnishing a large propor- 
tion of this article in the United States. The bark is important - 
for the manufacture of several American dyes. The tree is 
particularly recommended in Australia for alpine regions. It 
bears a massive head of foliage on a slender stem. The 
autumnal coloring is superb. In the Eastern States of North 
America the Sugar Maple is regarded as the best tree for shade 
avenues. Numerous other maples exist, among which as the 
tallest may be mentioned Acer Creticum, L., of South Europe, 
40 feet ; A. laevigatum, A. sterculiaceum and A. villosum, Wal- 
lich, of Nepal, 40 feet ; A. pictum, Thunb., of Japan, 30 feet. 

Achillea Millefolium, Linn6. 

Yarrow or Millfoil. Europe, Northern Asia and North 
America. A perennial medicinal herb of considerable astrin- 
gency, pervaded with essential oil, containing also a bitter prin- 
ciple (achillein) and a peculiar acid, which takes its name from 
the generic apellation of the plant. Fitted for warrens and 


light sandy soil. Recommended by many for sheep-pastures, 
but disregarded by Langethal. Found indigenous in Norway 
as far as 71 jo' N. (Schuebeler). 

Achillea moschata, Wulfen. 

Alps of Europe. The Genipi or Iva of the Swiss. This 
perennial herb ought to bear transferring to any other snowy 
mountains. With the allied A. nana (L.) and A. atrata (L.) it 
enters as a component into the aromatic medicinal Swiss tea. 
Many species of this genus, including the Yarrow, are whole- 
some to sheep. A. fragrantissima (Reichenbach) is a shrubby 
species from the deserts of Egypt, valuable for its medicinal 

Achras Balata, Aublet. (Mimusops Balata, Gaertner). 

Mountains of tropical South America. Balata wood surpasses 
three times in elasticity and resistence to fracture the best of 
English oak. Labatia macrocarpa furnishes also Balata wood. 

Achras Sapota, Linne. (Sapota Achras, Miller.) 

The Sapodilla the Plum of the West Indies and Central 
America. A fine evergreen tree, producing delicious fruit. 
Yields also gutta-percha. The bark possesses tonic properties. 
Achras Australis, a tree yielding also tolerably good fruit, 
occurs in New South Wales. Other sapotaceous trees, produc- 
ing table-fruit, such as the Lucuma mammosa (the Marmalade 
Tree), Lucuma Bonplandi, Chrysophyllum Cainito (the Star 
Apple), all from West India, and Lucuma Cainito of Peru, 
might also be subjected to trial culture in sub-tropical forest- 
valleys ; so furthermore many of the trees of this order, from 
which gutta-percha is obtained (species of Achras, Dichopsis, 
Isonandra, Sideroxylon, Cacosmanthus, Illipe, Mimusops, Imbri- 
caria and Payenia) would prove hardy in sheltered woodlands, 
as they seem to need rather an equable, humid, mild climate 
than the heat of the torrid zone. 

Aconitum Napellus, Linne. 

The Monk's Hood. In the colder parts of Europe and North- 
ern Asia, in regions especially mountainous. A powerful medi- 
cinal plant of perennial growth, but sometimes only of biennial 
duration, variable in its forms. It,was first introduced into Aus- 
tralia, together with a number of other Aconites, by the writer. 
All the species possess more or less modified medicinal quali- 
ties, as well in their herbage as in their roots; but so dangerously 
powerful are they, that the plants should never be adminis- 
tered except as prescribed by a qualified physician. Napellus 
root contains three alkaloids : aconitin, napellin and narcotin. 


The foliage contains also a highly acrid volatile principle, per- 
haps chemically not unlike that of many other Ranunculaceae. 
Aconitin, one of the most potent poisons in existence, can like- 
wise be obtained from the Nepalese Aconitum ferox, and 
probably from several other species of the genus. 

Acorus Calamus, Linne. 

The Sweet Flag. Europe, Middle and Northern Asia, North 
America. In Norway indigenous to 6i° N., cultivated up to 
63° 26' (Schuebeler). A perennial pond or marsh-plant. The 
aromatic root is used as a stomachic, and also in the pre- 
paration of confectionery, in the distillation of gin and liqueurs, 
and in the brewing of some kinds of beer. The flavor of the 
root depends mainly on a peculiar volatile oil. 

Acrocomia Mexicana, Karwinski. 

Mexico ; in the cooler regions up to 3,000 feet, with a mean 
temperature of 65 ° F. (Drude). A prickly palm, reaching 20 
feet in height, accompanied by very slender Chamaedora Palms 
in the shade of oak-forests. 

Actsea spicata, Linne. 

The Baneberry. On wooded mountains, mainly in limestone 
soil in Europe, North Asia and North America. A perennial 
medicinal herb. Its virtue depends on peculiar acrid and bitter 
as well as tonic principles. In North America this species and 
likewise A. alba are also praised as efficacious antidotes against 
ophidian poisons. 

Adenostemum nitidum, Persoon. 

Southern Chili, where this stately tree passes by the appella- 
tions Queule, Nuble and Aracua. Wood durable and beauti- 
tifully veined. Fruit edible. 

Adesmia balsamica, Bertero. 

The Jarilla of Chili. A small shrub, remarkable for exuding 
a fragrant balsam of some technic value. 

^Egiceras majus, Gaertner. 

Southern Asia, Polynesia, Northern and Eastern Australia. 
This spurious mangrove-tree extends far south into New South 
Wales. It may be employed for preventing the washing away 
of mud by the tide, and for thus consolidating shores subject 
to inundation by sea-floods. 


^schynomene aspera, Linnfe. 

The Solah of tropical Asia and Africa. A large perennial 
erect or floating swamp-plant. Introduced from the Botanic 
Gardens of Melbourne into the tropical parts of Australia. 
Pith hats are made from the young stems of this plant. It 
is also a substitute for cork in its various uses. The Solah 
is of less importance for cultivation than for naturalization. 

iEsculus flava, Aiton. 

The Buck eye. North America. This showy tree rises 
occasionally to a height of 80 feet. The wood is light, soft 
and porous, not inclined to split or crack in drying. It is 
valuable for troughs, bread-trays, wooden bowls and shuttles 
(Simmons) ; also for ceiling and wainscoting (Mohr). 

^sculus Hippocastanum, Linne. 

The Horse-Chestnut Tree. Indigenous to Central Asia and 
also to North Greece, Thessaly and Epirus, on high ranges 
(Heldreich), where it is associated with the Walnut, several 
Oaks and Pines, at an altitude of 3-4,000 feet, occurring 
likewise in Imeretia, Caucasus (Eichwald). One of the 
most showy of deciduous trees, more particularly when during 
spring " it has reached the meridian of its glory, and stands 
forth in all the gorgeousness of leaves and blossoms." Height 
reaching 60 feet, circumference of stem sometimes 16 feet. In 
cool climates one of the choicest of trees for street-plant- 
ing. Flowers sought by bees in preference to those of 
any other tree except the Linden. Even in Norway, in 
latitude 67 56' N., a cultivated tree attained a height of 
60 feet and a circumference of 11 feet (Schuebeler). It 
will succeed in sandy soil on sheltered spots; the wood 
adapted for furniture; the seeds yield starch copiously, and 
supply also a food for various domestic animals ; the bark a 
good tanning material. The wood remains free from insects; 
it is used for a variety of purposes, including the slips of piano- 
fortes. The tree ascends the Himalayas up to 10,000 feet. A 
variety is known with thornless fruits. Three species occur in 
Japan, and several, but none of great height, in North America 
and South Asia. 

^sculus Californica, Nuttall. , 

California. This beautiful tree attains a height of 50 feet, 
with a stem 2 feet in diameter, the crown spreading out excep- 
tionally over a width of 60 feet, the upper branches touching 
the ground. In full bloom it is a magnificent ornament, with 
its crowded snow-white flowers, visible for a long distance. 
The wood is light and porous, and used for the yokes of oxen 
and for various other implements (Dr. Gibbons). 


./Esculus Indica, Colebrooke. 

In the Himalayas, from 3,500 to 9,000 feet. Height finally 
50 feet ; trunk comparatively short, occasionally with a girth of 
25 feet. Never quite without leaves. Can be used like the 
Horse-Chestnut as an ornamental shade-tree. Other Asiatic 
species are A. Punduana (Wallich), A. Sinensis (Bunge) and 
A. dissimilis (Blume). 

iEsculus turbinata, Blume. 

Japan. The seeds are there used for human food. 
Agaricus Caesareus, Schaeffer. 

In the spruce forests of Middle and Southern Europe. 
Trials might be made to naturalize this long famed and highly 
delicious mushroom in our forests. It attains a width of 
nearly one foot, and is of a magnificent orange-color. Numer- 
ous other edible Agarics could doubtless be brought into this 
country by the mere dissemination of the spores in fit 
localities. As large or otherwise specially eligible may here 
be mentioned A. extinctorius L., A. melleus Vahl., A. deli- 
ciosus L., A. giganteus Sowerby, A. Cardarella Fr., A. Mar- 
zuolus Fr., A. Eryngii, Cand., A. splendens, Pers., A. odorus, Bul- 
liard, A. auricula, Cand., A. oreades Bolt, A. esculentus 
Wulf., A. mouceron, Tratt., A. socialis Cand., all from 
Europe, besides numerous other highly valuable species from 
other parts of the globe. Professor Goeppert adds as edible 
species sold in Silesia and other parts of Germany: A. decorus, 
Fries, A. fusipes, Bull., A. gambosus, Fries, A. procerus, Scop., 
A. scorodonius, Fries, A. silvaticus, Schaeff., A. virgineus, Wulf., 
A. volemus, Fries, besides the almost cosmopolitan A. campestris, 
Linne. Mushroom beds are best made from horse-manure, 
mixed with }£ loam, the scattering of the mushroom fragments 
to be effected when the temperature of the hot-bed has become 
reduced to 85 F., this sowing to be made 2-3 inches deep and 
4 inches apart; 1 inch sifted loam over the damp bed and some 
hay to cover the whole. After two months mushrooms can be 
gathered from the bed. Mushroom-beds can also be prepared 
in spare places of cellars, stables, sheds and other places, where 
equability of mild temperature and some humidity can be 
secured. According to Mr. C. F. Heinemann, of Erfurt, the 
needful hot-beds can best be made one above another, inclined 
forward, causing a temperature of from 6o° to 90 F., a surface 
layer of cut straw being applied subsequently, to be removed 
after about 2 weeks, then to be replaced by a stratum of rich 
loam as a matrix for the roots of the pushing fungus. In Japan 
mushrooms are reared on decayed split logs, and largely con- 


sumed and exported. In France mushrooms are grown in caves 
to an enormous extent. Puff-balls are also edible, and some of 
them delicious (Meehan). 

Agaricus flammeus, Fries. 

In Cashmere; a large and excellent edible mushroom (Dr. 
Aitchison). Some of the noxious mushrooms become edible 
by drying. Professor Morren mentions among edible Belgian 
species Agaricus laccatus, Scop., Lycoperdon bovista, L., Rus- 
sula integra, Fr., Scleroderma vulgare, Fries. Any kind of 
cavern might be turned into a mushroom field; the spawn is 
spread on fermented manure, and kept moist by water, to which 
some saltpetre is added. They all afford a highly nutritious 
nitrogenous food. 

Agaricus ostreatus, Jacquin. 

On trunks chiefly of deciduous trees throughout Europe. 
The delicious oyster-mushroom, renowned from antiquity 

Agave Americana, Linne. 

The gigantic aloe of Central America. In the open air it 
comes into flower in about ten years. The pithy stem can be 
utilized for some of the purposes for which cork is usually 
employed — for instance, to form the bottoms of insect-cases. 
The honey-sucking birds and bees are very fond of the 
flowers of this prodigious plant. The leaves of this and some 
other Agaves, such as A. Mexicana, furnish the strong Pita- 
fibre, which is adapted for ropes, and even for beautiful textile 
fabrics. The strengh of ropes of this fibre is considerably 
greater than that of hemp-ropes, as well in as out of water. 
The leaves contain saponin. The sap can be converted into 
alcohol, and thus the " Pulque " beverage is prepared from the 
young flower-stem. Where space and circumstances admit of 
it, impenetrable hedges may be raised in the course of some 
years from Agaves. 

Agave inaequidens, K. Kock. 

A species closely allied > to A. Americana, and seems to 
include A. Hookeri and A. Fenzliana, Jacobi, according to 
Baker (in Bot. Mag., 6589 and Gardener's Chron., 187 1, p. 718). 

Agave rigida, Miller. {A. Ixtli, Karwinsky.) 

Yucatan. The Chelem, Henequen and Sacci of the Mexi- 
cans, furnishing the Sisal-hemp. Drs. Perrine, S6ott and Engel- 
mann indicate several varieties of this stately plant, the fibre 
being therefore also variable, both in quantity and quality. 
The yield of fibre begins in four or five years, and lasts for half 


a century or more, the plant being prevented from flowering by 
cutting away its flower stalk when very young. The leaves are 
from 2 to 6 feet long and 2 to 6 inches wide; the flower stem 
attains a height of 25 feet, the panicle of flowers is about 8 
feet long, bearing in abundance bulb-like buds. Other large 
species of Agave, all fibre-yielding, are A. antillarum (Des- 
courtil) from Hayti; A. Parryi (Engelmann) from New Mexico; 
A. Palmeri (Engelmann) from South Arizona, up to a cool 
elevation of 6,000 feet. 

Agonis flexuosa, De Candolle. 

The Willow- Myrtle of South- West Australia. A tree attain- 
ing finally a height of 60 feet, with pendent branches. One of 
the best of trees for the cemetery in a climate free from frost. 
The foliage is rich in antiseptic oil. 

Agriophyllum Gobicum, Bunge. 

Eastern Asia. The "Soulchir" of the Mongols. Przeval- 
sky says that the seeds of this plant, wild as well as cultivated, 
afford a great part of the vegetable food of the Ala-Shan 
nomads. Several other annual salsolaceous herbs belong to the 
genus Agriophyllum, among them A. arenarium, Bieb. being 
closely cognate to A. Gobicum. 

Agrostis alba, Linne. 

The Fiorin or White Bent-Grass. Europe, Northern and Mid- 
dle Asia, North Africa, North America. Perennial, showing a 
predilection for moisture; can be grown on peat soil. It is the 
herd-grass of the United States and valuable as an admixture 
to many other grasses, as it becomes available at the season 
when some of them fail. Sinclair regards it as a pasture-grass 
inferior to Festuca pratensis and Dactylis glomerata, but supe- 
rior to Alopecurus pratensis. The variety with long suckers 
(A. stolonifera) is best adapted for sandy pastures, and helps to 
bind shifting sand on the sea coast, or broken soil on river- 
banks. It luxuriates even on saline wet soil or periodically 
inundated places, as well observed by Langethal. It is more a 
grass for cattle ranges than for sheep-pasture, but wherever it 
is to grow, the soil must be penetrable. Its turf on coast- 
meadows is particularly dense and of remarkable fineness. 
For sowing, only one-sixth of the weight of the seeds, as com- 
pared with those of the rye-grass, is needed. 

Agrostis rubra, Linne. 

Northern Europe, Asia and America. A perennial grass 
called red-top and also herd-grass in the United States of 
North America. Professor Meehan places it for its value as 


pasture among grasses cultivated there next after Phleum pra- 
tense and Poa pratensis (the latter there called blue grass), 
and before Dactylis glomerata, the orchard-grass of the 
United States. 

Agrostis scabra, Willdenow.* 

The hair-grass of North America. Recently recommended 
as one of the best lawn-grasses, forming a dense turf. It will 
grow even on poor gravelly soil, and endure drought as well as 
extreme cold. Its fine roots and suckers spread rapidly, form- 
ing soon dense matted sods (Dr. Channing). It starts into new 
growth immediately after being cut, is selected for its sweet- 
ness by pasture animals, has proved one of the best grasses 
for dairy ground, and suppresses weeds like Hordeum secali- 
num. One bushel of seed to an acre suffices for pastures; two 
bushels are used for lawns. 

Agrostis Solandri, F. v. Mueller. 

Extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. Produces a large 
quantity of sweet fodder in damp localities (Bailey). A^aluable 
as a meadow-grass (W. Hill). It is essentially a winter-grass. 
Chemical analysis in spring gave the following results: Al- 
bumen, 4/08; Gluten, 8 - 8i; Starch, i - 34; Gum, 2-50; Sugar, 
975 per cent. (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel.) 

Agrostis vulgaris, Withering. 

Europe, North Africa, Middle Asia, North America. One of 
the perennial grasses, which disseminate themselves with 
celerity, even over the worst of sandy soils. Though not a 
tall grass, it may be destined to contribute perhaps with others 
largely to the grazing capabilities of desert lands; yet it will 
thrive also even in moist soil and Alpine regions, and is essen- 
tially a grass for sheep-pastures. 

Ailantus glandulosa, Linne. 

South-Eastern Asia. A hardy, deciduous tree, reaching 60 feet 
in height, of rather rapid growth and of very imposing aspect in 
any landscape. Particularly , valuable on account of its leaves, 
which afford food to a silk-worm (Attacus Cynthia) peculiar to 
this tree. Wood extremely durable, pale yellow, of silky lustre 
when planed, and therefore valued for joiners' work; it is 
tougher than oak or elm, easily worked, and not liable to split 
or warp. In Southern Europe planted for avenues. Valuable also 
for reclaiming coast sands, and to this end easily propagated by 
suckers and fragments of roots, according to Professor Sargent. 
The growth of the tree is quick even in poor soil, but more so 
in somewhat calcareous bottoms. Thrives on chalk (Vasey). 


Professor Meehan states that it checks the spread of the 
rose-bug, to which the tree is destructive. In Norway hardy to 
latitude 63 26' N. (Schuebeler). 

Aira caespitosa, Linne. 

Widely dispersed over the globe. A rough fodder-grass, best 
utilized for laying dry any moist meadows. Extends to 71° 7' N., 
in Norway (Schuebeler). 

Albizzia basaltica, Bentham. 

Eastern Sub-tropic Australia. A small tree. The wood 
praised by Mr. P. O'Shanesy for its beautiful reddish color and 
silky lustre. Cattle like the foliage. As a genus Pithecolobium 
differs no more from Albizzia than Vachelia from Acacia or 
Cathartocarpus from Cassia. The oldest generic name is Zygia, 
but no species was early described under this name. 

Albizzia bigemina, F. v. Mueller. {Pithecolobium bigemimim, Martius.) 

India, up to Sikkim and Nepal, ascending in Ceylon to 4,000 
feet. Available for Australian forests on account of its peculiar 
dark and hard wood. Another congener, A. subcoriacea 
(Pithecolobium subcoriaceum, Thwaites), from the mountains 
of India is deserving of cultivation with numerous other tall 

Albizzia dulcis, F. v. Mueller. {Pithecolobium dulce, Bentham.) 

Mexico. A valuable hedge-plant. The sweet pulp of the 
pod is regarded as wholesome. 

Albizzia Julibrissin, Durazzini. 

From the Caucasus to Japan. A favorite ornamental Shade 
Acacia in South Europe. 

Albizzia latisiliqua, F. v. Mueller. {Lysiloma latisiliqua, Bentham.) 

Tropical America. A large spreading tree, trunk attaining a 
diameter of 3 feet; wood excellent for select cabinet-work, 
excelling, according to Nuitall, the Mahogony in its variable 
shining tints, which appear like watered satin; it is hard and 

Albizzia Lebbek, Bentham. 

The Siris-Acacia of Southern and Middle Asia and Northern 
Africa. Available as a shade-tree. It produces also a good 
deal of gum. 


Albizzia lophantha, Benth. (Acacia lophantha, Willdenow.) 

South-Western Australia. One of the most rapidly growing 
plants for copses and first temporary shelter in exposed locali- 
ties, but never attaining the size of a real tree. It produces 
seeds abundantly, which germinate most easily. For the most 
desolate places, especially in desert tracts, it is of great im- 
portance, quickly affording shade, shelter and a copious vegeta- 
tion. Cattle browse on the leaves. The bark contains only 
about 8 per cent, mimosa-tannin; but Mr. Rummel found in the 
dry root about 10 per cent, of saponin, so valuable in silk and 
wool factories. Saponin also occurs in Xylia dolabriformis of 
South Asia. In Australia this plant is found better even than 
the Broom-bush for sheltering new forest plantations in open 
sand lands. 

Albizzia micrantha, Boivin. (A. Odoratissima, Bentham.) 

Common in India; growing in almost any kind of soil; hardy 
in subtropical countries. A middle-sized tree; timber particu- 
larly hard, dark colored, durable and strong; well adapted for 
naves and felloes (Drury and Brandis). Regarded by Roxburgh 
as one of the most valuable' jungle-timbers. 

Albizzia Saman, F. v. Mueller. (P-ithecolobium Saman, Bentham.) 

The Rain-tree or Guango, extending from Mexico to Brazil 
and Peru. It attains a height of 70 feet, with a trunk 6 feet in 
diameter, the colossal branches expanding to 150 feet; it is of 
quick growth, and in outline not unlike an oak; it forms a mag- 
nificent feature in a landscape. In India it attained in 10 years 
a stem-girth of about 6 feet at 5 feet from the ground, its rami- 
fications by that time spreading out to 90 feet (Blechyndon). It 
thrives in the dry salt-pond districts of the West Indies, and 
likes the vicinity of the sea. Not ascending to above 1,000 feet 
altitude in Jamaica, resisting drought. The pods mature at a 
time when grass and the herbage of pastures become parched. 
Rain and dew fall through its foliage, which is shut up at night, 
thus allowing grass to grow underneath. It thrives best where 
the rainfall fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches a year. One of 
the best trees in mild climates for shade by the roadsides. The 
wood is hard and ornamental, but the principal utility of the 
tree lies in its pulpy pods, which are produced in great abun- 
dance, and constitute a very fattening fodder for all kinds of 
pastoral animals, which eat them with relish (Jenman, J. H. 

Albizzia stipulata, Bentham. 

South- Asia to the Himalayas and China. An umbrageous 
tree of easy culture. 


Alchemilla vulgaris, Linne. 

Europe, West- Asia, Arctic North America, Alpine Australia, 
extending in Norway to 71 10' N. (Schuebeler). This peren- 
nial herb is important for moist dairy-pastures. The same can 
be said of other congeners; for instance, A. alpina, (L.) from the 
coldest parts of Europe, North-Asia and North America; A. 
Capensis (Thunberg) and A. elongata (Ecklon and Zeyher) of 
South Africa, some Abyssinian species, as well as A. pinnata 
(Ruiz and Pavon) and other congeners of the Andes. 

Aletris farinosa, Linne. 

The colic-root of the woodlands of North America. This 
pretty herb is of extreme bitterness, and is employed medicinally 
as a tonic. 

Aleurites cordata, R. Brown. 

From Japan to Nepal, also in Bourbon. This tree deserves 
cultivation for its beauty and durable wood in our plantations 
in humid districts. The oil of the seeds serves as a varnish. 
Perhaps in localities free from frost it would be of sufficiently 
quick growth. 

Aleurites triloba, R. and G. Forster. 

The candlenut-tree, a native of the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres, which furnishes a valuable dye from its fruits, and 
copious oil from its seeds. I found the tree barely able to 
endure the winters of Melbourne. 

Alibertia edulis, A. Richard. 

Guiana and Brazil, southward to extra-tropic latitudes, widely 
dispersed through the drier regions. The fruit of this shrub is 
edible and known as "Marmeladinha." A. Melloana (J. 
Hooker), of South Brazil, seems to serve the same purpose. 

Alkanna tinctoria, Tausch. 

On sandy and calcareous places around and near the Medi- 
terranean Sea, extending to Hungary. Cultivated in the open 
air to perfection up to 59 55' N., by Professor Schuebeler. It 
yields the alkanna root used for dyeing oleaginous and other 
substances. It might be naturalized. Can be grown in almost 
pure coast sand. 

Allium Canadense, Kalm. 

North American garlic. Could be cultivated or naturalized 
on moist meadows for the sake of its top bulbs, which are much 
sought for pickles of superior flavor. 


Allium leptophyllum, Wallich. 

The Himalayan onion. Captain Pogson regards the bulbs 
as sudorific; they are of stronger pungency than ordinary 
onions; the leaves form a good condiment. 

Allium roseum, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. This, with Allium 
Neapolitanum (Cyrillo), one of its companions, yields edible 
roots, according to Heldreich. 

Allium Schaenoprasum, Linne. 

The Chives. Europe, Northern Asia and North America. 
Cultivated in Norway in latitude 70 22' (Schuebeler). Avail- 
able for salads and condiments. This species of Allium seems 
not yet so generally adopted in our culinary cultivation as 
Allium ascalonicum (the shallot), A. cepa (the ordinary 
onion), A. fistulosum (the Welsh onion), A. porrum (the leek) 
and A. sativum (the garlic). A. scorodoprasum, the sand- 
leek of Europe and North-Africa, resembles both garlic and 
shallot. A. ampeloprasum is the British leek, which extends 
over Middle and South Europe and West Asia; called in culture 
the summer-leek, a variety of which is the early pearl-leek. 

Alnus glutinosa, Gaertner. 

The common alder. Throughout Europe and extra-tropical 
Asia; indigenous to 64° 10' N. Lat., in Norway (Schuebeler). 
Reaches a height of 70 feet; attaining even in lat. 6i° 47 
a diameter of 10 feet. Easily clipped, when young, into 
hedges ; well adapted for river banks ; recommended by 
Wessely for wet valleys in coast sand ; wood soft and 
light, turning red, furnishing one of the best charcoals 
for gunpowder; it is also durable under water, and adapted 
for turners' and joiners' work. The wood is- also well 
suited for pump-trees and other underground work, as it will 
harden almost like stone. The tree is valuable for the utiliza- 
tion of bog-land. A. incana (Willd.) extends to North 
America; it is of smaller size, was found over 60 feet high in 
lat. 70 in Norway by Professor Schuebeler. The bark of 
several alders is of great medicinal value, and a decoction will 
give to cloth saturated with lye an indelible orange color 
(Porcher); it contains a peculiar tannic principle to the extent 
of 36 per cent. (Muspratt). American alder-extract has come 
into use for tanning; it renders skins particularly firm, mellow 
and well-coloured (Eaton). A. Oregana, Nuttall, of California 
and Oregon, rises to a height of 80 feet; its wood is extensively 
used for bent-work (Meehan). A. Japonica and A. firma 
(Sieb. and Zucc.) of Japan, furnish wood there for carvers and 
turners, and bark for black dye (Dupont). 


Alnus Nepalensis, D. Don. 

Himalayas, between 3,000 and 9,000 feet. Reaches a 
height of 60 feet. With another Himalayan alder, A. nitida 
(Endlicher), it can be grown along streams for the sake of its 

Aloe dichotoma, Linne, fil. 

Damara and Namaqua-land. This species attains a height 
of 30 feet, and occasionally has an expanse of 40 feet. The 
stem is remarkably smooth, with a girth sometimes of 12 feet. 
It is a yellow-flowering species. A. Zeyheri is almost as 
gigantic as the foregoing. Both doubtless yield medical gum- 
resin like many other species. A. Barberse which is closely 
related to A. Zeyheri, attains in Caffraria a height of 40 feet, 
with a stem 16 feet in circumference at 3 feet from the 

Aloe ferox, Miller. 

South- Africa. This species yields the best Cape aloes, as 
observed by Dr. Pappe. The simple inspissated juice of the 
leaves of the various species of the genus constitutes the aloe 
drug. It is best obtained by using neither heat nor pressure 
for extracting the sap. By re-dissolving the aqueous part in 
cold water and reducing the liquid through boiling, or other 
process of exsiccation, to dryness the extract of aloes is pre- 
pared. The bitter sap used for dressing wounds, keeping off 
flies effectually. It deserves introduction particularly in veterinary 
practice. All species are highly valuable, and can be used, 
irrespective of their medicinal importance, to beautify any 
r&cky or otherwise arid spot. 

Aloe linguiformis, Miller. 

South-Africa. According to Thunberg, the purest gum-resin 
is obtained from this species. 

Aloe Perryi, Baker. 

Socotra. It is now known, that it was this species which 
furnished the genuine aloes, renowned in antiquity (Baker, 
Balfour). It grows best in lime-stone soil, and ascends to 3,000 
feet. Flowers turning from scarlet to yellow, closely allied to 
A. vulgaris. 

Aloe plicatilis, Miller. 

South-Africa. The drug of this species acts more mildly than 
that of A. ferox. 


Aloe purpurascens, Haworth. 

South-Africa. Another of the plants which furnish the Cape 
aloes of commerce. The South African aloe arborescens 
(Miller) and A. Commelyni (Willdenow) are also utilized for 
aloes, according to Baillon, Saunders and Hanbury. 

Aloe vera, Miller. (A. socotrina, Lamarck.) 

South-Africa. A purplish flowered species, figured by 
Commelyn in 1697 (Baker). Yields the common Socotrine 
aloes and Moka aloes. 

Aloe spicata, Thunberg. 

South-Africa. This also furnishes Cape aloes. It is an ex- 
ceedingly handsome plant. 

Aloe vulgaris, Bauhin. (A. vera, Linne, A. Barbadensis, Miller). 

The yellow-flowered aloe. Countries around the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, also Canary Islands, on the sandy or rocky sea- 
coast. Such places could also be readily utilized elsewhere for 
this and allied plants. Dr. Sibthorp has identified this species 
with the AXorj of Dioscorides; hence it is not probable that A. 
vulgaris is also simultaneously of American origin, although it is 
cultivated in the Antilles, and furnishes from thence the main 
supply of the Barbadoes aloes, also Curacao aloes. In East 
India this species also seemingly only exists in a cultivated 
state. Haworth found the leaves of this and of A. striata 
softer and more succulent than those of any other aloe. It 
is said to be the only species with yellow flowers among those 
early known. This is the only species which Professors Wil- 
koram and Parlatore record as truly wild in Spain and Italy. 

Aloexylon Agallochum, Loureiro. 

Cochin-China, on the highest mountains. The precious aloe- 
wood, so famed from antiquity for its balsamic fragrance and 
medicinal properties, is derived from this tree. 

Alopecurus bulbosus, Linne. 

Middle and South-Europe. An important grass for salt- 

Alopecurus geniculatus, Linne. 

Europe, Asia, North-Africa. A perennial fodder-grass, val- 
uable for swampy ground; easily naturalized. 


Alopecurus pratensis, Linne.* 

Meadow fox-tail grass. Europe, North Africa, Northern 
and Middle Asia. In Norway indigenous in lat. 69 11' (Schue- 
beler). One of the best of perennial pasture grasses. It 
reaches its full perfection only after a few years of growth, 
as noticed by Sinclair. For this reason it is not equal to 
Dactylis glomerata for crop rotation, but it is more nutritious 
than the latter, although the annual return in Britain has 
proved less. Langethal places it next to Timothy for arti- 
ficial pastures. Sheep thrive well on it. Sinclair and others 
have found that this grass, when exclusively combined with 
white clover, will support after the second season five ewes 
and five lambs on an acre of sandy loam. But this grass, 
to thrive well, needs land not altogether dry. In all permanent 
artificial pastures this Alopecurus should form one of the prin- 
cipal ingredients, because it is so lasting and so nutritive. It 
is one of the best grasses for maritime or alluvial tracts of 
country. In alpine regions it would also prove prolific, and 
might gradually convert many places there into summer pas- 
tures. It is early flowering, and likes the presence of lime in 
the soil. 

Alstonia constricta, F. v. Mueller. 

Warmer parts of East Australia, particularly in the dry 
inland districts. The bark of this small tree is aromatic-bitter, 
and regarded as valuable in ague, also as a general tonic. It 
is allied to the Dita-bark of India and North-Eastern Aus- 
tralia procured from Alstonia scholaris (R. Brown), and pro- 
duces a peculiar alkaloid, the Porphyrin of Hesse. The sap 
of all Alstonias should be tried for caoutchouc, that of A. 
plumosa and another species yielding Fiji rubber (Hooker). 

Alstrcemeria pallida, Graham. 

Chili. Palatable starch can be obtained from the root of 
this plant, which for its loveliness alone deserves a place in any 
garden. The tubers of others of the numerous Alstrcemerias 
can doubtless be practically utilized in a similar manner. 

Althaea officinalis, Linne. 

The real Marsh-Mallow. Europe, North Africa, North and 
Middle Asia. Hardy in lat. 59 55' in Norway (Schuebeler). 
A tall perennial herb, with handsome flowers. The mucil- 
aginous root and also the foliage are used for medicinal pur- 
poses. The plant succeeds best on damp, somewhat saline soil. 

Amarantus Blitum, Linne. 

South Europe, North Africa, South-West Asia. This annual 
herb is a favorite plant among allied ones for spinage; but not 


only species of this genus, but also many other Amarantacese 
serve as culinary herbs. The dried plant contains 10 to 12 per 
cent, nitrate of potash. It arrives at maturity in two or three 
months, producing on good soil about 4 tons per acre, equal to 
about 400 lbs. saltpetre. A. cruentus, L., A. hypochondriacus, 
L. and A. caudatus, L. are cultivated in Ceylon, though not all 
of the agreeable taste of real spinage. A. frumentaceus, 
Hamilt., is closely allied to the first one mentioned, and attains 
6 feet on slopes of mountains, when cultivated in Southern India 
for food-grain. The leaves serve as a vegetable. A. Mango- 
stanus, A. Gangeticus, A. melancholicus, A. tristis, L. and A. 
polystachyus, Willd. likewise furnish in Southern Asia either 
foliage for spinage or seeds for porridge. 

Amarantus paniculatus, Linne. 

In tropical countries of Asia and also America. An annual 
herb, yielding half a pound of floury nutritious seeds on a 
square yard of ground in three months, according to Roxburgh. 
Extensively cultivated in India. 

Amelanchier Botryapium, De Candolle. 

The grape-pear of North America; also called service-berry 
or shadbush. Cultivated in Norway as far north as 59° 55' 
(Schuebeler). This handsome fruit-tree attains a height of 30 
feet. The purplish or almost black fruits are small, but of 
pleasant subacid taste, and ripen early in the season. It bears 
abundantly, and Mr. Adams, of Ohio, has calculated the 
yield at 300 bushels per acre annually, if the variety oblongi- 
folia is chosen. It is the Dwarf June-berry of North America. 
This bush or tree will live on sandy soil; but it is one of those 
hardy kinds particularly eligible for rich hilly ground. 

Amyris terebinthifolia, Tenore. 

Brazil. Is perfectly hardy in Victoria, and is content with 
dry ground without any irrigation. It has proved one of the best 
among the smaller avenue-trees, is beautifully spreading and 
umbrageous, and probably of medicinal value. 

Anacylus Pyrethrum, De Candolle. 

Countries near the Mediterranean Sea. The root of this 
perennial herb is used medicinally. 

Andropogon annulatus, Forskael. 

Intra- and Sub-tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia. Recom- 
mended by Mr. Walter Hill as a meadow grass. Dr. Curl 
observes, that it is both a summer and autumn grass; that it 
does not grow fast in winter, but at the period of its greatest 
growth sends up an abundance of herbage. 


Andropogon argenteus, De Candolle. 

Pronounced by Leybold to be one of the best fodder grasses 
of the Cordilleras of Chili. 

Andropogon australis, Sprengel. {Sorghum plumosum, Beauvois.) 

Tropical and also Eastern Extra-tropic Australia as far south 
as Gippsland. Brought under notice by Mr. Ch. Moore as an 
admirable perennial pasture grass. The allied A. tropicus, 
Sprengel (Sorghum fulvum, Beauv.), of tropical Australia, 
South Asia, China and Japan, serves similar purposes. 

Andropogon avenaceus, Michaux. {Sorghum avenaceum, Willd.) 

North and Central America. This tall perennial grass lives 
in dry sandy soil, and should be tried for growth of fodder. 

Andropogon bicolor, Roxburgh. 

Warmer parts of Asia. One of the annual tall Sorghums. It 
ripens its seeds in three or four months from the time of sowing, 
the produce in good soil being often upwards of one hundred- 
fold. It is a wholesome grain. 

Andropogon bombycinus, R. Brown. 

Australia. This strong grass, which is generally well spoken 
of by graziers, seems to like a somewhat strong soil and is often 
found among the rocks on hill-sides. The bases of the stems 
of this species, like several others of the genus, are highly aro- 
matic (Bailey). It will live in shifting sand and endure the 
hottest desert clime. The Australian A. procerus (R. Br.) and 
the Mediterranian A. laniger (Desf.) are closely allied con- 

Andropogon Calamus, Royle. 

Central India. The sweet calamus of the Ancients. From 
this species the gingergrass oil of Nemaur, an article much 
used in perfumery is distilled. 

Andropogon cernuus, Roxburgh.* {Sorghum cernuum, Willd.) 

One of the Guinea-corns. India, where it is much cultivated, 
as in other tropical countries. It is perennial, and forms 
the " staff of life " of the mountaineers beyond Bengal. It 
reaches a height of 15 feet, with leaves over 3 feet long. 
The thick stems root at the lower joints, and cattle are very 
fond of them. The grain is white. The specific limits of the 
various sorghums are not well ascertained. 

Andropogon citratus, De Candolle. 

The lemon-grass of India. It yields an essential oil 'for 
perfumery, and is occasionally used for tea. This applies as 
well to Andropogon nardus, L. and some allied grasses. 


Andropogon erianthoides, F. v. Mueller. 

Eastern sub-tropical Australia. Mr. Bailey observes of this 
perennial grass, that "it would be difficult to find a grass 
superior for fodder to this; it produces a heavy crop of rich, 
sweet, succulent herbage; it spreads freely from roots and seeds, 
and snoots again when fed down." 

Andropogon falcatus, Steudel. 

India and Queensland. Considered by Mr. Bailey a good 
lawn grass, of dwarf, compact growth and of bright verdure. 

Andropogon furcatus, Muhlenberg. 

Southern States of North America. Strongly recommended 
by Bouche for fixing loose maritime sand. Attains a height of 
5 feet. 

Andropogon Gryllos, Linne. 

In the warm temperate, and the hot zone of the eastern 
hemisphere. A useful fodder grass (Bailey). 

Andropogon Halepensis, Sibthorp. 

South Europe, warmer parts of Asia and North Africa. 
Praised by Theophrastus more than 2,000 years ago. Not 
easily repressed in moist ground. A rich perennial grass, 
cultivated often under the name of Cuba grass. It yields a 
large hay crop, as it may be cut half a dozen times in a season, 
should the land be rich. All kinds of stock have a predilection 
for this grass. It will mat the soil with its deep and spreading 
roots; hence it should be kept from cultivated fields. Detri- 
mental to Lucerne on meadows (Rev. Dr. Woolls). In Victoria 
hardy up to 2,000 feet elevation. 

Andropogon Ischaemum, Linne. 

South Europe, South Asia, Africa. One of the fittest of 
grasses for hot dry sand regions, and of most ready spontaneous 
dispersion. Perennial. Succeeds well on lime soil, and that con- 
taining gypsum. In its new annual upgrowth it is particularly 
liked by sheep. 

Andropogon Ivarancusa, Roxburgh. 

One of the fragrant grasses of North India, much used like 
A. Schoenanthus. 

Andropogon montanus, Roxburgh. 

Southern Asia, Northern and Eastern Australia. Rapid in 
growth and valuable for fodder when young; resists fire better 
than many other grasses (Holmes). Perennial, like most other 
species of this large genus. 



Andropogon muricatus, Retzius. 

India. A swamp grass, with delightfully fragrant roots. 
According to Dr. G. King, the fragrant Indian mats are made 
of this grass. 

Andropogon nutans, Linne. {Sorghum nutans, Gray.) 

North America. A tall, nutritious, perennial grass, content 
with dry and barren soil. 

Andropogon pertusus, Willdenow. 

South Asia, Tropical and Sub-tropical Australia. Perennial, 
Mr. Nixon, of Benalla, regards it as one of the best grasses to 
withstand long droughts, while it will bear any amount of feed- 
ing. It endures cold better than some other Andropogons of 
Queensland, according to Mr. Bailey's observations. 

Andropogon refractus, R. Brown. 

North and East Australia, Polynesia. Mr. Bailey observes 
of this perennial grass, that it is equally excellent for pastures 
and hay, and that it produces a heavy crop during summer; the 
root is fragrant. According to Mr. Holmes it is easily inflam- 
mable, of inferior fodder-value, but is particularly useful for 

Andropogon saccharatus, Roxburgh.* {Sorghum saccharattim, Pers.) 

Tropical Asia. The broom-corn. A tall annual species, 
splendid as a fodder-grass. Produces of all grasses, except the 
Teosinte, the heaviest fodder-crop in warm climates. From the 
saccharine juice sugar is obtainable. A sample of such, pre- 
pared from plants of the Melbourne Botanic Garden, was 
shown at the Exhibition of 1862. This Sorghum furnishes also 
material for a well-known kind of brooms. A variety or a 
closely allied species yields the Caffir-corn (A. Caffrorum, 
Kunth). The plant can be advantageously utilized for prepar- 
ing syrup. For this purpose the sap is expressed at the time 
of flowering, and simply evaporated; the yield is about 100-200 
gallons from the acre. In i860 nearly seven millions of gallons 
of sorghum-treacle were produced in the United States. 
General Le Due, then commissioner for agriculture at Wash- 
ington, states that Mr. Seth Kenny, of Minnesota, obtained 
from the "Early Amber" variety up to 250 gallons of heavy 
syrup from one acre of this sorghum. Machinery for the 
manufacture of sorghum sugar on plantations can be erected 
at a cost of ,£50 to ^"ioo. Sorghum juice can be reduced to 
treacle and sugar without the use of chemicals, beyond clearing 
with lime and neutralizing the lime remaining in the juice by 
sulphurous acid. Raw sorghum-sugar is nearly white. By an 


improved method Mr. F. L. Stewart obtained 10 lbs. of sugar 
from a gallon of dense syrup. At the State University experi- 
mental farm, in Wisconsin, Professors Swenson and Henry have 
proved that sorghum-sugar, equal to the best cane-sugar, can 
be produced at 4^ cents per pound. The seeds are very 
valuable for stable fodder as well as for poultry feed, and may 
even be utilized for bread and cakes. The stem can be used 
as a culinary vegetable. 

Andropogon Schoenanthus, Linne. (A. Martini, Roxb.) 

South Asia and Tropical Australia, extending to Japan. A 
scented, strong grass, allied to the Indian oil-yielding 
Andropogons. The medicinal Siri Oil is prepared from the 
root. It will live in arid places. 

Andropogon scoparius, Michaux, 

North America. Takes permanent possession of sandy or 
otherwise poor land, and is regarded as one of the best 
forage resources of the prairies. 

Andropogon sericeus, R. Brown. 

Hotter regions of Australia, even in desert tracts, also ex- 
tending to New Caledonia and the Philippine Islands. A fat- 
tening perennial pasture grass, worthy of praise. 

Andropogon Sorghum, Brotero.* {Sorghum vulgare, Persoon.) 

The large Indian millet or Guinea-corn, or the Durra. 
Warmer parts of Asia. It matures seed even at Christiania in 
Norway (Schuebeler). A tall annual plant. The grains can be 
converted into bread, porridge and other preparations of food. 
It is a very prolific corn — Sir John Hearsay counted 12,700 
seeds on one plant; it is particularly valuable for green fodder. 
The panicles are used for carpet-brooms, the fibrous roots for 
velvet-brushes. A kind of beer called "Merisa" is prepared 
from the seed. Many others of the numerous species of 
Andropogon, from both hemispheres, deserve our attention. 

Anemone Pulsatilla, Linne. 

Europe and Northern Asia. On limestone soil. This pretty 
perennial herb is of some medicinal importance. 

Angophora intermedia, De Candolle. 

Southeastern Australia. This is one of the best of the 
Angophoras, attaining a large size, and growing with the 
rapidity of a Eucalyptus, but being more close and shady in 
its foliage. It would be a good tree for lining public roads and 
for sheltering plantations. The Rev. J. Tennison-Woods states, 


that it is not rarely over 150 feet high; that the wood is hard, 
bearing dampness well, and very tough; but that the many kino 
veins lessen its usefulness. It is employed for boards and 
wheels. Mr. Kirton observes, that a single tree of this species, 
or of A. lanceolata, Will yield as much as two gallons of liquid 
kino. Timber useful, when extra toughness is to be combined 
with lightness (Reader). 

Angophora subvelutina, F. v. Mueller. 

Queensland and New South Wales. Attains a height of 100 
feet. The wood is light and tough, soft while green, very hard 
when dry, used for wheel-naves, yokes, handles &c. ; it burns 
well and contains a large proportion of potash (Hartmann). 

Anona Cherimolia, Miller. 

From Mexico to Peru. One of the Custard-apples. This 
shrub or tree might be tried in frostless forest-valleys, where 
humidity and rich soil will prove favorable to its growth. It 
is hardy in the mildest coast regions of Spain. It yields the 
Cherimoyer fruit. The flowers are very fragrant. 

Anthemis nobilis, Linne. 

The true Chamomile. Middle and South Europe, North 
Africa. A well-known medicinal plant, frequently used as 
edgings for garden plots. Flowers in their normal state are 
preferable for medicinal use to those in which the ray florets 
are produced in increased numbers. They contain a peculiar 
volatile oil and two acids similar to angelic and valerianic acid. 
Hardy in Norway in lat. 63° 52' (Schuebeler). 

Anthemis tinctoria, Linne. 

Middle and South Europe, Orient. An annual herb. The 
flowers contain a yellow dye. 

Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. Mueller. 

Extra-tropical and Central Australia. A nutritious, peren- 
nial pasture grass. Called by Mr. Bailey " one of the most 
productive grasses of Australia" ; it produces a large amount of 
bottom-fodder, and it has also the advantage of being a prolific 

Anthistiria ciliata, Linne, fil.* {Anthistiria Australis, R. Brown.) 

The well-known Kangaroo grass, not confined to Australia, 
but stretching through Southern Asia also, and through the 
whole of Africa. Chemical analysis of this grass during its 
spring growth gave the following result : — Albumen, 2.05 ; 
gluten, 4.67 ; starch, 0.69 ; gum, 1.67 ; sugar, 3.06, per cent. 


(F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel.) There are several species of 
Anthistiria deserving introduction and naturalization in warm- 
temperate or tropical climates. 

Anthistiria membranacea, Lindley. 

Interior of Australia. Esteemed as fattening ; seeds freely 
(Bailey). Particularly fitted for dry, hot pastures, even of 
desert regions. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum, Linne. 

The scented Vernal grass. Europe, North and Middle Asia, 
North Africa. Found wild in Norway in lat. 71 7' (Schue- 
beler.) Perennial, and not of great value as a fattening grass, 
yet always desired for the flavor which it imparts to hay. Per- 
haps for this purpose the scented Andropogons might also 
serve. On deep and moist soils it attains its greatest perfection. 
It is much used for mixing among permanent grasses in pas- 
tures, where it will continue long in season. It would live well 
in any alpine region. Dr. Curl observes, that in New Zealand 
it grows all the winter, spring and autumn, and is a good feed- 
ing-grass, as well as lawn-grass. The lamellar crystalline 
cumarin is the principle on which the odor of Anthoxanthum 

Anthriscus Cerefolium, Hoffmann. 

Europe and West Asia. The chervil. An annual culinary 
plant ; its herbage used as an aromatic condiment, but the root 
is seemingly deleterious. 

Anthyllis vulneraria, Linne. 

The kidney vetch. All Europe, North Africa, West Asia. 
This perennial herb serves as sheep-fodder, and is particularly 
recommended "for calcareous soils. It would also live in any 
alpine region. Indigenous in Norway as far north as lat. 70* 

Apiosjtuberosa, Moench. 

North America. A climber, with somewhat milky juice. 
The mealy tubers are edible. 

Apium Chilense, Hooker and Arnott. 

Western extra-tropic temperate America. A stouter plant 
than the ordinary celery, but of similar culinary use. 

Apium graveolens, Linne. 

The celery. Europe, North Africa, North and Middle 
Asia. Grows in Norway in lat. 70 (Schuebeler). It is here 
merely inserted with a view of pointing out, that it might be 
readily naturalized anywhere on sea-shores. 


Apium prostratum, La Billardiere. 

The Australian celery. Extra-tropical Australia, New Zea- 
land, Extra-tropical South America. This also can be utilized 
as a culinary vegetable. 

Apocynum cannabinum, Linne. 

Indian hemp. On river-banks in North America. A peren- 
nial herb. This is recorded among plants yielding a textile 

Aponogeton crispus, Thunberg. 

From India to New South Wales. The tuberous roots of 
this water-herb are amylaceous and of excellent taste, though 
not large. The same remarks apply to A. monostachyos, Linne, 

Aponogeton distachyos, Thunberg. 

South Africa. This curious water-plant might be naturalized 
in ditches, swamps and lakes, for the sake of its edible tubers. 
The scented flowering portion affords spinage. 

Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxburgh. 

On the mountains of Silhet and Assam. A tree of immense 
size. It furnishes the fragrant calambac or agallochum-wood, 
known also as aggur or tuggur or the aloe-wood of commerce, 
famed since ancient times. The odorous portion is only par- 
tially distributed through the stem. This wood is also of 
medicinal value. 

Arachis hypogaea, Linne.* 

The earth-nut, pea-nut or ground-nut. Brazil. The seeds 
of this annual herb are consumed in a roasted state, or used for 
the expression of a palatable oil. The plant is a very pro- 
ductive one, and yields a very quick return. It ranks also as a 
valuable fodder herb ; the hay is very nutritious, much increas- 
ing the milk of cows. A light somewhat calcareous soil is best 
fitted for its growth. On such soil 50 bushels may be obtained 
from the acre. 

Aralia cordata, Thunberg. 

China. The young shoots provide an excellent culinary 

Aralia Ginseng, Decaisne and Planchon. {Panax Ginseng, Meyer.) 

China and Upper India, ascending to 12,000 feet. This herb 
furnishes the celebrated Ginseng-root, so much esteemed as a 
stimulant by the Chinese, the value of which, however, may be 


overrated. The species is closely related to the North Ameri- 
can A. quinquefolia. The root, to be particularly powerful, 
needs probably to be obtained from high mountain elevations. 

Araucaria Bidwilli, Hooker.* 

Bunya-Bunya. Southern Queensland. A tree attaining 250 
feet in height, with a fine-grained, hard and durable wood, par- 
ticularly valuable for furniture; it shows its beautiful veins best 
when polished. The seeds are large and edible. 

Araucaria Brasiliensis, A. Richard.* 

Brazilian Pine. South Brazil. A tree 180 feet high, produc- 
ing edible seeds. Dr. Saldanhada Gama reports that it makes 
splendid boards, masts and spars, and that the sap yields a good 
deal of turpentine. Except a few palms (Mauritia, Attalea, 
Copernicia), this seems the only tree which in Tropical South 
America forms forests by itself. (Martius.) 

Araucaria Cookii, R. Brown. 

In New Caledonia, where it forms large forests. Height of 
tree, 200 feet. 

Araucaria Cunninghami, Aiton.* 

Moreton-Bay pine. Eastern Australia, between 14° and 32 
south latitude, extending also to New Guinea, according to Dr. 
Beccari. The tree attains a height of 200 feet with a trunk 6 
feet in diameter. The timber is fine-grained, strong and dur- 
able, if not exposed to alternately dry and wet influences; it is 
susceptible of a high polish, and thus competes with satin-wood 
and birds-eye maple. Value in Brisbane, £2 15s. to £3 IOS - 
per 1,000 superficial feet. The tree grows on alluvial banks as 
well as on rugged mountains, overtopping all other trees. The 
resin which exudes from it has almost the transparency and 
whitenesss of crystal, and is often pendent in the shape of 
icicles, which are sometimes 3 feet long and 6 to 12 inches 
broad (W. Hill). Araucarias should be planted by the million 
in fever regions of tropical countries for hygienic purposes. 

Araucaria excelsa, R. Brown.* 

Norfolk-Island pine. A magnificent tree, sometimes 220 feet 
high, with a stem attaining 10 feet in diameter. The timber is 
useful for ship-building and many other purposes. 

Araucaria imbricata, Pavon.* 

Chili and Patagonia. The male tree attains generally a 
lesser height than the female, which reaches 150 feet. This 
species furnishes a hard and durable timber, as well as an 


abundance of edible seeds, which constitute a main article of 
food of the natives. Eighteen good trees will yield enough of 
vegetable food for a man's sustenance all the year round. The 
wood is yellowish white, full of beautiful veins, and capable of 
being polished and worked with facility. It is admirably 
adapted for ship-building. The resin is pale and smells like 
Frankincense (Lawson). The tree is most frequently found on 
rocky eminences almost destitute of water (J. Hoopes). It is 
hardier than any other congener, having withstood the frosts of 
Norway up to latitude 6i° 15' (Shuebeler). 

Araucaria Rulei, F. v. Mueller. 

New Caledonia. A magnificent tree, with large shining leaves 
doubtless not merely of decorative but also of utilitarian 
value. A closely allied species, A. Muelleri (Brogniart), comes 
with A. Balansae and A. montana from the same island. 

Arbutus Menziesii, Pursh. 

North-West America. An evergreen tree, attaining a height 
of 150 feet, with a stem reaching 8 feet in diameter. It is of com- 
paratively quick growth (Dr. Gibbons). It belongs to the coast 
tract exclusively. Wood exceedingly hard. The tree requires 
a deep loamy soil (Bolander), and is fit only for shady, irrigated 
woodlands; likes the company of Pinus Douglassii and of 
Sequoias. It would here be valuable at least as a highly orna- 
mental garden-plant. 

Archangelica officinalis, Hoffmann. 

Arctic zone and mountain regions of Europe. The young 
shoots and leaf- stalks are used for confectionery; the roots are 
of medicinal use. Hardy in Norway to lat. 71 10' (Shuebeler). 
In any alpine regions this herb would establish its value. The 
root is biennial, and used in the distillation of some cordials. 

Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Sprengel. 

Alpine and Arctic Europe, North Asia and North America. 
A medicinal small shrub, which could best be reared in the 
heath-moors of alpine regions. 

Arenga saccharifera, La Billardiere. 

India. This Palm attains a height of 40 feet. The black 
fibres of the leaf-stalks adapted for cables and ropes intended 
to resist wet very long. The juice converted into toddy or 
sugar; the young kernels made with syrup into preserves. This 
Palm dies as soon as it has produced its fruit; the stem then 
becomes hollow and is used for spouts and troughs of great 
durability. The pith supplies sago, about 150 lbs. from a tree, 
according to Roxburgh. An Arenga occurs as far north as 
Japan, according to Miguel. 


Argania Sideroxylon, Roemer and Schultes. 

The Argan-tree. Western Barbary, on dry hills. Its growth 
is generally slow, but it is a long-lived tree. Though com- 
paratively low in stature, its foliage occasionally spreads to a 
circumference of 220 feet. It sends out suckers from the root. 
The fruit serves as food for cattle in Morocco; but in Australia 
the kernels would be more likely to be utilized by pressing an 
oil from them. Height of tree exceptionally 70 feet. 

Aristida prodigiosa, Welwitsch.* 

Angola, on the driest sand-hills. A perennial fodder grass, 
of which the discoverer speaks in glowing terms of praise. In 
the West African desert country, in places devoid of almost all 
other vegetation, zebras, antelopes and hares resort with avidity 
to this grass; it also affords there in the dry season almost the 
only fodder for domestic grazing animals. Moreover this 
seems to indicate that the closely cognate A. plumosa, L. and 
A. ciliata, Desf., of the countries at or near the Mediterranean 
Sea, might likewise be encouraged in their natural growth or 
cultivated. All feathery grasses are among the most lovely 
for minor decorative purposes or designs, and this may also be 
said of the Australian plumous Stipa elegantissima, La Bil- 
lardiere and S. Tuckeri, F. v. M. 

Aristolochia Indica, Linnfe. 

Tropical Asia and Polynesia. A perennial climber; the leaves 
famed as an alexipharmic. Can only be grown in places free 
from frost. 

Aristolochia recurvilabra, Hance. 

The green Putchuck of China. A medicinal plant, largely 
obtained at Ningpo. The present value of its export is from 
^2o,oco to ^30,000 annually. 

Aristolochia serpentaria, Linn6. 

The snake-root of North America. The root of this trailing 
herb is valuable in medicine; it contains a peculiar volatile oil. 
Several other Aristolochiag deserve culture for medicinal pur- 
poses, — for instance, Aristolochia ovalifolia (the Guaco) and A. 
anguicida, from the mountains of Central America. 

Aristotelia Macqui, L'HSritier. 

Chili. The berries of this shrub, though small, have the 
pleasant taste of bilberries, and are largely consumed in Chili. 
The plant would thrive in our forest-valleys. 


Arnica montana, Linn6. 

Colder parts of Europe and Western Asia. This pretty herb 
is perennial, and of medicinal value. It is eligible for sub- 
alpine regions. Hardy in Norway to lat. 62° 47' (Schuebeler). 
The active principles are arnicin, a volatile oil, caproic and 
caprylic acids. 

Arracacha xanthorrhiza, Bancroft. 

Mountain regions of Central America. An umbelliferous 
herb. The roots are nutritious and palatable. There are yel- 
low, purple and pale varieties. 

Artemisia Absinthium, Linne. 

The wormwood. Europe, North and Middle Asia, and 
North Africa. A perennial herb, valuable as a tonic and 
anthelminthic. Should be avoided where bees are kept 
(Muenter). Recommended for cultivation as a preventive of 
various insect-plagues, even the Phylloxera. Several other 
species of Artemisia deserve cultivation for medicinal purposes. 
Active principles : Absinthin, an oily substance indurating to a 
crystalline mass; also a volatile oil peculiar to the species. 

Artemisia Cina, Berg. 

Kurdistan. This herb furnishes the genuine santonica seeds 
(or rather flowers and fruits), a vermifuge of long-established 
use. Some other Asiatic species yield a similar drug. 

Artemisia Dracunculus, Linne. 

The Tarragon or Estragon. Northern Asia. A perennial 
herb, used as a condiment. Its flavor depends on two volatile 
oils, one of them peculiar to the plant. Hardy in Norway to 
lat. 63 52' (Schuebeler). 

Artemisia Mutellina, Villars. 

Alps of Europe. This aromatic, somewhat woody plant de- 
serves to be established in any snowy region. Hardy in Chris- 
tiania (Schuebeler). This plant and A. glacialis, L., A. rupes- 
tris, L. and A. spicata, Wulf. comprised under the name of 
Genippi, serve for the preparation of the Extrait d'Absinthe 

Artemisia Pontica, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe, Western Asia. More aromatic 
and less bitter than the ordinary wormwood. Hardy in lat. 
63 45' in Norway (Schuebeler). Many other species of this 
genus deserve attention of the culturist. 


Artocarpus incisa, G. Forster. 

The Tahiti bread-fruit tree. It stretches in the Sandwich 
Islands through cultivation almost beyond the tropics. The 
oldest name of this well-known and remarkable tree is that given 
in 1776 by R. & G. Forster, viz., A. communis. According to 
Dr. Seemann's excellent account seedless varieties exist, and 
others with entire leaves and smooth and variously shaped and 
sized fruits; others again ripening earlier, others later, so that 
ripe bread-fruit is obtainable more or less abundantly through- 
out the year. The fruit is simply boiled or baked or converted 
into more complicated kinds of food. Starch is obtainable from 
the bread-fruit very copiously. The very fibrous bark can be 
beaten into a sort of rough cloth. The light wood serves for 
canoes. The exudation issuing from cuts made into the stem 
is in use for closing the seams of canoes. 

Artocarpus integrifolia, Linne. 

India. The famous Jack-Tree, ascending, like the allied A. 
Lakoocha (Roxburgh) to 4,000 feet. 

Arundinaria falcata, Nees. 

The Ringal or Ningala-Bamboo of the Himalayas, at eleva- 
tions from 3,500 to 10,000 feet, forming close and dense 
thickets. Foliage pale green. It rises to the height of 40 feet; 
the canes attaining a diameter of only 4 inches, durable, applied 
to manifold useful purposes. This bamboo does not neces- 
sarily require moisture. Withstood the severest winters with 
o° F. at Edinburgh (Gorlie). It is as hardy as the Pampas- 
Grass, and can be propagated even in an English climate in the 
open air from cuttings. The seeds retain their vitality for some 
time, and germinate readily. In reference to various bamboos 
see the Gardners' Chronicle of December, 1876, also the 
Bulletin de la Societe d'Acclimation de Paris, 1878. The closely- 
allied Jurboota-Bamboo of Nepal, which occurs only in the 
cold altitudes of from 7,000 to 10,000 feet, differs in its solitary 
stems, not growing in clumps. The Tham or Kaptur-Bamboo 
is from a still colder zone, at from 8,500 to 11,500 feet, only 
500 feet or less below the inferior limits of perpetual glaciers 
(Major Madden). The wide and easy cultural distribution of 
bamboos by means of seed has been first urged and to some 
extent initiated by the writer of the present work. 

Arundinaria Falconeri, Munro. (Thamnocalamus Falconeri, J. Hooker). 

Himalaya, at about 8,000 feet elevation. A tall species with 
a panicle of several feet in length. Allied to the foregoing 


Arundinaria Hookeriana, Munro. 

Himalaya, up to nearly 7,000 feet. Grows to a height of 
about 15 feet. Vernacularly known as Yoksun and Praong. 
The seeds are edible, and also used for a kind of beer (Sir Jos. 

Arundinaria Japonica, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

The Metake of Japan, attains a height of from 6 to 12 feet. 
Uninjured by even the severest winters at Edinburgh, with 
o° F. (Gorlie). 

Arundinaria macrosperma, Michaux and Richard. 

Southern States of North America, particularly on the 
Mississippi. This bamboo-like reed forms there the cane- 
brakes. Fit for low borders of watercourses and swamps. Ac- 
cording to C. Mohr it affords throughout all seasons of the year 
an abundance of nutritious fodder. It requires to be replanted 
after flowering, in the course of years. Height reaching 20 

Arundinaria spathiflora, Trinius. 

Himalaya, at elevations of 8,000 to 10,000 feet, growing 
among firs and oaks in a climate almost as severe as that of 
England, snow being on the ground from 2 to. 3 months. 

Arundinaria tecta, Muhlenberg. 

Southern States of North America. A cane growing 10 feet 
high. Prefers good soil not subject to inundations; ripens 
its large mealy seeds early in the season, throwing out subse- 
quently new branches with rich foliage. Fire destroys this 
plant readily (C. Mohr). 

Arundinella Nepalensis, Trinius. 

Middle and Southern Africa, Southern Asia, Northern and 
Eastern Australia. This grass commences its growth in the 
spring weather, and continues to increase during the whole 
summer, forming a dense mat of foliage, which grows as fast as 
it is fed off or cut. In New Zealand it is a summer grass, but 
valuable for its rapid growth at that season, and for thriving on 
high dry land (Dr. Curl). 

Arundo Ampelodesmos, Cyrillo. 

South Europe, North Africa. Almost as large as a 
Gynerium. The tough flower-stems and leaves readily avail- 
able for tying. 


Arundo Bengalensis, Roxburgh. 

China, India. Closely allied to A. Donax. The long panicle 
beautifully variegated with white and violet (Hance). 

Arundo conspicua, G. Forster. 

New Zealand and Chatham-Islands. Although not strictly 
an industrial plant, it is mentioned here as important for 
scenic effect, flowering before the still grander A. Sellowiana 
comes in bloom, but not quite so hardy as that species, still 
bearing considerable frost. 

Arundo Donax, Linne. 

The tall, evergreen, lasting bamboo-reed of South Europe 
and North Africa. It is one of the most important plants of its 
class for quickly producing a peculiar scenic effect in picturesque 
plantations, also for intercepting at once the view of unsightly 
objects, and for giving early shelter. The canes can be used 
for fishing-rods, for light props, rustic pipes, distaffs, baskets 
and various utensils. Readily flowering when strongly 
manured. The root is used medicinally in France (Oliver). 

Arundo Karka, Roxburgh. 

India, China, Japan. The Durma mats are made of the split 
stems of this tall reed. 

Arundo Pliniana, Turra. 

On the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. A smaller plant 
than A. Donax, with more slender stems and narrower leaves, 
but similarly evergreen, and resembling the Donax-reed also 
in its roots. 

Arundo saccharoides, Grisebach. (Gynerium saccharoides, Humboldt). 

Northern parts of South America. Attaining a height of 20 
feet. Like the following, it is conspicuously magnificent. 

Arundo Sellowiana, Schultes. {Arundo dioica, Sprengel non Loureiro, Gyne- 
rium argenteum, Nees). 

The Pampas-grass of Uruguay, Paraguay and the La Plata 
States. A grand autumnal-flowering reed, with gorgeous 
feathery panicles. As an industrial plant it deserves here a 
place, because paper can be prepared from its leaves. 

Asparagus acutifolius, Linne. 

In all the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, also in 
the Canary Islands. Although a shrubby Asparagus, yet the 
root-shoots, according to Dr. Heldreich, are collected in Greece, 
and are tender and of excellent taste, though somewhat thinner 
than those of the ordinary herbaceous species. The shrub 


grows on stony rises, and the shoots are obtained without cul- 
tivation. A. aphyllus, L., and A. horridus, L., according to Dr. 
Reinhold, are utilized in the same manner, and all may prob- 
ably yield an improved produce by regular and careful culture. 

Asparagus albus, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea, and Canary Islands. 
Serves for garden hedges. 

Asparagus laricinus, Burchell. 

South Africa. Dr. Pappe observes of this shrubby species, 
that with some other kinds of that country it produces shoots 
of excellent tenderness and aromatic taste. 

Asparagus officinalis, Linne. 

Europe, North Africa, North Asia. The well-known Aspar- 
agus plant, which, if naturalized on our coast, would aid in 
binding the sand. Hardy in Norway to lat. 64 12' (Schuebeler). 
The foliage contains inosit-sugar ; the shoots yield asparagin. 
Sea-weeds are a good additional material for forcing asparagus. 

Asperula odorata, Linne, 

The Woodruff. Europe, North Africa, West and North 
Asia. Indigenous in Norway to lat. 66° 59' (Schuebeler). A 
perennial herb with highly fragrant flowers ; it deserves natural- 
ization in forests, as it contains much cumarin in its flowers, 
and serves in Germany for preparing the "Maitrank." 

Aspidosperma Quebracho, Grisebach. 

Argentina. Shrub or tree, even tall, with wood fit for xylo- 
graphy. The bitter bark is astringent and febrifugal (Lorentz.) 
The bark is almost as rich in tannin as that of Acacia Cebil. 
The leaves even contain 27^ per cent.; both have the advan- 
tage of producing an almost colorless leather (Sievert). F. 
Jean states that even the Quebracho wood contains 14 to 16 
per cent, of tannic and 2 to 3 per cent, of gallic acid. 

Astragalus adscendens, Boissier and Haussknecht. 

Persia, in alpine elevations of 9,000 to 10,000 feet. A shrub, 
attaining a height of 4 feet. Yields gum tragacanth in 
abundance (Haussknecht). The species of this genus, numer- 
ous in various parts of Europe and Asia, in California and some 
other parts of the globe, deserve attention for pasture and 
other agronomic purposes. 

Astragalus Arenarius, Linne. 

Europe and Western Asia. A perennial fodder herb for any 
sandy desert country. 


Astragalus brachycalyx, Fischer. 

Kurdistan. A low shrub, affording gum tragacanth 

Astragalus cephalonicus, Fischer. (A. aristatus, Sibthorp.) 

Cephalonia. A small shrub, yielding a good tragacanth ; and 
so probably also does the true A. aristatus of l'Heritier. 

Astragalus Cicer, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe and Middle Asia. A nutritious 
and well flavored perennial herb, much sought by grazing 
animals. It requires, according to Langethal, deep friable 
grounds and, like most leguminous herbs, calcareous ingredients 
in the soil. 

Astragalus Creticus, Lamarck. 

Candia and Greece. A small bush, exuding the ordinary 
vermicular tragacanth. The pale is preferable to the brown 

Astragalus glycyphyllos, Linne. 

Europe and Northern Asia. Succeeds on light soil, also in 
forest regions. It has been recommended as a perennial, sub- 
stantial fodder plant. 

Astragalus gummifer, La Billardiere. 

Syria and Persia. This shrub also yields a good kind of 

Astragalus hypoglottis, Linne. 

In the colder regio.ns of Europe, Asia and North America. 
This perennial plant is regarded as a good fodder-herb on cal- 
careous and gravelly soil, and would likely be of importance in 
any alpine region. Of the enormous number of supposed species 
of this genus (according to Boissier, not less than 750 merely in 
Asia Minor and the adjoining countries) many must be of value 
for pasture, like some of the closely-allied Australian Swain- 
sonas, though they also may include deleterious species. A. 
Hornii and A. lentiginosus, Gray, California, and A. mollis- 
simus, Nutt.*, of Texas, are known as loco weed, and are 
poisonous to cattle and horses. 

Astragalus Parnassi, Boissier. {A. Cylleneus, Heldreich). 

Greece. This small shrub furnishes there almost exclusively 
the commercial tragacanth. It ascends to elevations of 7,000 
feet, becoming therefore alpine. 


Astragalus microcephalus, Willdenow. 

From Turkey to Russian Armenia. Gum Tragacanth is col- 
lected largely also from this species (Farnsworth) and from the 
nearly allied A. pycnocladus of Boissier and Haussknecht. 

Astragalus stromatodes, Bunge. 

Syria, at elevations of approximately 5,000 feet. Exudes 
Aintab tragacanth, which is also obtained from A. Kurdicus, 
Boissier (Haussknecht). 

Astragalus strobiliferus, Royle. 

Asiatic Turkey. A brown tragacanth is collected from this 

Astragalus venosus, Hochstetter. 

From Abyssinia to Central Africa. This perennial herb is 
subjected to regular cultivation for fodder known as "Hamat 
Kochata" (Oliver). 

Astragalus verus, Olivier. 

Asiatic Turkey and Persia. This shrub furnishes the Takalor 
or Smyrna Tragacanth, or it is derived from an allied species. 

Astrebla pectinata, F. v. Mueller.* {Danthonia pectinata, Lindley). 

New South Wales, Queensland, North and Central Australia, 
in arid regions, always inland. A perennial desert grass, resist- 
ing drought; sought with avidity by sheep, and very fattening 
to them and other pasture animals. 

Astrebla triticoides, F. v. Mueller.* {Danthonia iriticoides, Lindley). 

The Mitchell-grass. Of nearly the same natural distribu- 
tion as the preceding, and equalling that species in value. Both 
so important as to deserve artificial rearing even in their native 

Atalantia glauca, J. Hooker. 

New South Wales and Queensland. This desert-lemon is 
mentioned here to draw attention to the likelihood of its improv- 
ing in culture, and to its fitness for being grown in arid land. 

Atriplex albicans, Aiton. 

South- Africa. A good salt-bush for pastures there (McOwan) . 

Atriplex crystallinum, J. Hooker. 

South-Eastern Australia and Tasmania, on the brink of the 
ocean and exposed to its spray. This herb vegetates solely 
in salt coast-sands, which it helps to bind, like Cakile. 


Atriplex halimoides, Lindley. 

Over the greater part of the saline desert-interior of Aus- 
tralia, reaching the south and west coasts. A dwarf bush, with 
its frequent companion, A. holocarpum, among the very best 
for salt-bush pasture. 

Atriplex hortensis, Linne. 

Northern and Middle Asia. The Arroche. An annual spin- 
age-plant. Hardy in Norway to lat. 70 (Schuebeler). 

Atriplex Muelleri, Bentham. 

* Interior of Australia, reaching the South and West coasts. 
Cattle, and especially sheep, are so fond of it that they often 
browse it to the root. This species approaches in its character- 
istics closely to A. roseum from Europe, North Africa and West 

Atriplex nummularium, Lindley. 

From Queensland through the desert tracts to Victoria and 
South Australia. One of the tallest and most fattening and 
wholesome of Australian pastoral salt-bushes. Sheep and cat- 
tle pastured on salt-bush country are said not only to remain 
free of fluke, but to recover from this Distoma-disease and 
other allied ailments. 

Atriplex semibaccatum, R. Brown. 

Extra-tropic Australia. A perennial herb, very much liked 
by sheep (R. H. Andrews), thus considered as among the best 
of saline herbage of the salt-bush country. 

Atriplex spongiosum, F. v. Mueller. 

Through a great part of Central Australia, extending to the 
South and West coast. Available, like the preceding and 
several other species, for salt-bush culture. Unquestionably 
some of the shrubby extra-Australian species, particularly those 
of the Siberian and Californian steppes, could also be trans- 
ferred advantageously to salt-bush country elsewhere, to 
increase its value, particularly for sheep pasture. 

Atriplex vesicarium, Hewerd. 

In the interior of South-Eastern, and Central Australia. 
Perhaps the most fattening and most relished of all the dwarf 
pastoral salt-bushes of Australia, holding out in the utmost 
extremes of drought, and not scorched even by sirocco-like 
blasts. Its vast abundance over extensive salt-bush plains 
of the Australian interior, to the exclusion of almost every 
other bush except A. halimoides, indicates the facility with 
which this species disseminates itself. Splendid wool is pro- 


duced in regions where A. vesicarium and A. halimoides almost 
monopolize the ground for enormous stretches on the salt- 
bush plains. 

Atropa Belladonna, Linne. 

The deadly nightshade. Southern and Middle Europe and 
Western Asia. A most important perennial medicinal herb. 
The highly powerful atropine is derived from it, besides another 
alkaloid, belladonnine. 

Avena elatior, Linne. 

The tall meadow oat-grass. Europe, Middle Asia, North- 
Africa. Indigenous in Norway to lat. 6&° n' (Schuebeler). 
This grass should not be passed altogether on this occasion, 
although it becomes easily irrepressible on account of its wide- 
creeping roots. It should be chosen for dry and barren tracts 
of country, having proven to resist occasional droughts even 
better than rye-grass. The bulk yielded by it is great; it 
submits well to pasturing, and gives two or three crops of 
hay annually; it is, however, not so much relished by animals 
as many other grasses. 

Avena fatua, Linne. 

Wild Oat. Europe, North Africa, Northern and Middle 
Asia, eastward as far as Japan. The experiments of Professor 
Buckman seems to indicate that our ordinary cultivated Oat 
(Avena sativa, L.) is descended from this plant. Cultivated in 
California for fodder, but requiring early cutting as it matures 
and sheds its seed in July. For this reason it is also hard to 
exterminate it in grain fields, where it sometimes proves quite 
troublesome except by a change of crops. 

Avena flavescens, Linne. (Trisetum Jlavescens, Beauv.) 

Yellowish Oat-Grass. Europe, North Africa, Middle and 
North Asia, eastward as far as Japan. One of the best of 
perennial meadow-grasses, living on dry soil; fitted also for 
alpine regions. Lawson observes that it yields a considerable 
bulk of fine foliage, and that it is eagerly sought by sheep, but 
that it thrives best intermixed with other grasses. It likes 
particularly limestone soil, where it forms a most valuable un- 
dergrass, but is not adapted for poor sand, nor will it stand well 
the traversing of grazing animals (Langethal). 

Avena pratensis, Linne. 

Meadow Oat-Grass. Europe, North Asia. Indigenous in 
Norway to lat. 66° 40' (Schuebeler). It thrives well on dry 
clayey soil, is well adapted also for snowy mountains, where it 
would readily establish itself, even on heathy moors. It pro- 


duces a sweet fodder, but not in so great quantity as several 
other less nutritious grasses. It is perennial, and recom- 
mended by Langethal for such ground as contains some lime, 
being thus as valuable as Festuca ovina. Eligible also for 
meadows, especially under a system of irrigation. 

Avena pubescens, Linne. 

Downy Oat-Grass. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. A 
sweet perennial grass, requiring dry but good soil containing 
lime. It is nutritious and prolific. One of the earliest kinds, 
but not well resisting traffic. Several good Oat-grasses are 
peculiar to North America and other parts of the globe. Their 
relative value for fodder is in many cases not exactly known, 
nor does the limit assigned to this treatise allow of their being 
enumerated on this occasion. 

Avena sativa, Linn6. 

The Common Oats. In Middle Europe. Cultivated even 
before the Christian era. Annual. Important for fod- 
der, green, or as grain — for the latter indispensable. Fit 
for even poor or moory or recently drained land, though 
not so well adapted for sandy soil as rye, nor well avail- 
able for calcareous ground; resists wet better than other 
cereals; best chosen as first crop for inferior land when newly 
broken up; middling grassy soil is particularly suited for 
oats; in rich ground more prolific for green fodder. It succeeds 
in rotation after every crop, though variously as regards yield, 
and best after clover. In volcanic soil of the Victoria colony, 
as much as 75 bushels of Oats have been obtained from an acre 
in one harvest, and in most favorable places in New Zealand 
even double that quantity. Extends not quite so far towards 
polar and alpine regions as barley, on account of the longer 
time required for its ^maturing, yet it will grow to lat. 69°28' in 
Norway (Schuebeler). Varieties with seeds separating spon- 
taneously from the bracts (chaff) are, A. nuda, L. and A. 
Chinensis, Metzger, the Tartarian and Chinese Oats, which 
are the sorts preferred for porridge and cakes. Other 
varieties or closely allied species are: A. orientalis, Schreber, 
which is very rich in grain, and on account of the rigidity of its 
stem especially fitted for exposed mountain localities; A. 
brevis, Roth, the short-grained oats, which is particularly 
suitable for stable-fodder; A. strigosa, Schreber, which deserves 
preference for sandy soil. Russian quas-beer is made of oats 
(Langethal, Brockhaus). 

Averrhoa Carambola, Linn6. 

Continental and insular India. Not hurt by slight frost except 
when very young. Sir Jos. Hooker found this small tree 


on the Upper Indus as far as Lahore. The fruit occurs in a 
sweet and acid variety; the former is available for the table, raw, 
the other for preserves. That of A. Bilimbi (Linne) is of 
similar use, especially for tarts. 

Avicennia officinalis, Linne. 

From the coasts of South Asia to those of South Africa; all 
Australia and New Zealand. It is proposeed by Dr. Herm. 
Behr to plant this tree for consolidating muddy tidal shores. 

Azima tetracantha, Lamarck. 

From South India to South Africa. A hedge-bush, growing 
freely in every kind of soil. 

Baccharis pilularis, De Candolle. 

California. This evergreen bush, like B. consanguinea, is 
grown for hedges, used also for garlands, wrappers of flower- 
boquets and many decorative purposes, as cut branches do not 
wither for a considerable time. It attains a height of 15 feet 
(Professor Bolander). 

Backhousia citriodora, F. v. Mueller. 

South Queensland. Though only a small tree it is well 
worth cultivating for the fragrance of its lemon-scented foliage. 

Bactris Gasipaes, Humboldt. (Guilielma speciosa, Mart.) 

The Peach-Palm of the Amazon River, ascending to the warm 
temperate regions of the Andes. Stems clustered, attaining a 
height of 40 feet. The fruit grows in large bunches; Dr. 
Spruce describes it as possessing a thick, firm and mealy peri- 
carp, and when cooked it has a flavor between that of the 
potato and chestnut, but superior to either. 

Bacularia Arfakiana, Beccari. 

In Araucaria forests of New Guinea up to 6,000 feet. A reed- 
like palm. 

Bacularia monostachya, F. v. Mueller. {Areca monostachya, Martius.) 

Eastern Australia, extending to extra-tropical latitudes. One 
of the best among small Palms for table decoration. The stems 
sought for walking-sticks. 

Baloghia lucida, Endlicher. {Codiceum lucidum, J. M.) 

East Australia. A middle-sized tree. The sap from the 
wounded trunk forms, without any admixture, a beautiful red 
indelible pigment. 


Balsamodendron Ehrenbergi, Berg. 

Deserts of Arabia. This tree yields the commercial myrrh, but 
perhaps B. Myrrha (Nees) and some other species may produce 
the same substance. Professor Oliver unites this with B. Opo- 

Balsamodendron Mukul, Hooker. 

Scinde and Beluchistan. Yields the Bdellium-resin. 

Balsamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunth. (B. Gileadense, Kunth). 

Arabia, Abyssinia and Nubia. This species furnishes Mekka 
or Gilead Balsam. B. Capense (Sonder) is a closely allied 
species from Extra-tropical South Africa. Some other Balsam- 
shrubs deserve introduction. 

Bambusa arundinacea, Roxburgh.* 

The Thorny Bamboo of India. It likes rich, moist soil, and 
delights in river banks. It is of less height than Bambusa vul- 
garis; it also sends up from the root numerous stems, but with 
bending branches, thorny at the joints. Used in continental 
India for hedges. According to Kurz it will thrive in a 
climate too dry for B. Tulda and B. vulgaris. The seeds 
of this and some other Bamboos are useful as food for 
fowls. Whenever seeds of any Bamboos can be obtained 
fresh and disseminated soon, large masses of these plants 
could easily be raised in suitable forest ground; Bamboo-seeds 
moreover, like Palm-seeds, ought to become a valuable article 
of commercial export for horticultural purposes. 

Bambusa aspera, Poiret. 

Indian Archipelago. Attains a height of 120 feet. Stems 
very strong and thick. This species ascends to elevations of 
4,000 feet. 

Bambusa Brandisii, Munro. * 

Tenasserim, Martaban and Pegu, wild up to elevations 
of 4,000 feet. Height of stems reaching 12c feet, diameter 9 
inches. It likes limestone soil. 

Bambusa Balcooa, Roxburgh.* 

From the Plains of Bengal to Assam. Proved hardy at the 
Cape of Good Hope. Height reaching 70 feet. With B. Tulda 
the principal Bamboo used by the natives for constructing 
large huts or sheds, but, as Roxburgh has pointed out, 
in order to render the material durable it needs long immer- 
sion in water. Mr. Routledge recommends young shoots of 
Bamboos as paper material. The seeds of Bambusa Tulda 
have been found by me to retain their vitality for some time 
and to germinate readily. 


Bambusa Blumeana, Schultes. 

Insular India. This Bamboo, with its spiny buds and 
pendent branchlets, is, according to Kurz, one of the best for 
cattle-proof live hedges among the Asiatic species. In conti- 
nental India B. nana and B. arundinacea are much used for the 
same purpose. Periodic trimming is required. 

Bambusa flexuosa, Munro. 

China. Only 12 feet high, but very hardy, having resisted in 
Southern France a temperature of 8° F. (Geoffroy de St. 

Bambusa spinosa, Roxburgh.* 

Bengal. A Bamboo attaining 100 feet in height. The cen- 
tral cavity of the canes is of less diameter than in most other 
species; thus the strength for many technic purposes is in- 

Bambusa Senaensis, Franchet and Savatier. 

Japan. A tall and hardy species, distinguished from all other 
Japanese Bambusacese by its large leaves. Young Bamboo 
shoots (probably of several species) constitute part of the nour- 
ishment of all classes in Japan (Dupont). 

Bambusa vulgaris, Wendland. 

The large unarmed Bamboo of Bengal. It rises to a height 
of 70 feet, and the stems may attain a length even of 40 feet in 
one season, though the growth is slower in cooler climes. It 
has proved to be capable of resisting occasional night-frost. It 
is the best for building bamboo houses. Immersion in water 
for some time renders the cane still firmer. To the series of 
large thornless bamboos belong also Bambusa Tulda and Bam- 
busa Balcooa of India, and Bambusa Thouarsii from Madagas- 
car and Bourbon. These Bamboos are much used for various 
kinds of furniture, mats, implements and other articles. 
Besides this, Mr. Kurz enumerates as among the best Asiatic 
bamboos for building purposes: Gigantochloa aspera, G. 
maxima, G. atter ; while Mr. Teysmann notes G. apus for the 
same purpose. Kurz recommends further, Bambusa arundi- 
nacea, B. Balcooa, B. Brandish, B. polymorpha, Dendrocalamus 
Hamiltoni and Schizostachyum Blumei. In the Moluccas, 
according to Costa, Gigantochloa maxima, or an allied species, 
produces stems thick enough to serve when slit into halves for 
canoes. Bamboos are utilized for masts and spars of small 
vessels. Bambusa Balcooa was found by Wallich to grow 12 
feet in 23 days. Bambusa Tulda, according to Roxburgh, has 
grown at first at the rate of from 20 to 70 feet in a month. 


Fortune noticed the growth of several Chinese Bamboos to be 
two to two and a half feet a day. There are many other kinds 
of Bamboo eligible among the species from China, Japan, 
India, tropical America and perhaps tropical Africa. Two 
occur in Arnhem's Land, and one at least in North Queensland. 

Baptisia tinctoria, R. Brown. 

The wild Indigo of Canada and the United States. A peren- 
nial herb. It furnishes a fair pigment when treated like the 
best Indigoferas. 

Barbarea vulgaris, R. Brown. 

In the cooler regions of all parts of the globe, ascending to 
alpine zones. Hardy to lat. 64° 5' in Norway (Schuebeler). 
This herb furnishes a wholesome salad. As with other raw 
vegetables, particularly watercress (Nasturtium aquaticum, 
Trag.), circumspect care is necessary to free such salads from 
possibly adherent Echinococcus-ova or other germs of entozoa, 
particularly in localities where hydatids prevail. An excellent 
honey-plant. (Muenter.) Several allied species exist. 

Barosma serratifolia, Willdenow. 

South Africa. This shrub supplies the medicinal Bucco- 
leaves. B. crenulata, Hook. (Diosma crenulata, L.) is only a 
variety of this species. Active principles : a peculiar volatile 
oil, a peculiar resin, and a crystalline substance called diosmin. 

Base 11a lucida, Linne. 

India. Perennial. This spinage-plant has somewhat the 
odour of Ocimum Basilicum ; other species serve also for 
culinary purposes. 

Basella rubra, Linne. 

From Southern Asia to Japan. This annual or biennial herb 
serves as a spinage of pleasant coloration, but is not possessed 
of the agreeable flavor of real spinage. It yields also a rich 
purple dye, not easily fixed however (Johnson). 

Bassowia solanacea, Bentham. ( Witheringia solanacea, L'Heritier). 

South America. This perennial herb needs trial-culture, on 
account of its large edible tubers. 

Batis maritima, Linne. 

Central America and northward to Florida, also in the Sand- 
wich Islands. This shrub can be used to fix tidal sediments 
for the reclamation of harbor-lands. 


Beesha elegantissima, Hasskarl. 

Java, on mountains of about 4,000 feet elevation. Very tall 
and exceedingly slender ; the upper branches pendulous. A 
hardy species of Bamboo. 

Benincasa cerifera, Savi. 

India, Philippines, China, Polynesia. This annual plant 
produces a large edible gourd, which in an unripe state forms 
part of the composition of many kinds of curry. 

Berberis Asiatica, Roxburgh. 

Himalaya. Hardy in Christiania (Schuebeler.) One of the 
best among numerous species with edible berries. Among 
these may particularly be mentioned B. Lycium (Royle) and B. 
aristata (De Candolle), which also yield valuable yellow dye- 
wood (Dr. Rosenthal). 

Berberis buxifolia, Lamarck. 

From Magelhaen's Straits to Chili. This bush, according to 
Dr. Philippi, is the best among the South American species for 
berries, which are comparatively large, black, hardly acid, but 
slightly astringent. In Valdivia and Chiloe they are frequently 

Berberis Darwinii, Hooker. 

Chiloe and South Chili. Considered one of the most hand- 
some of all shrubs for garden-hedges. Hardy in England ; also 
at Christiania. Several other evergreen Barbery-shrubs serve 
the same purpose. 

Berberis Nepalensis, Sprengel. 

Himalayas, at elevations between 4,000 and 8,000 feet. 
Hardy in lat. 59 55' in Norway (Schuebeler.) The fruit of this 
evergreen species is edible. 

Beta vulgaris, Linne.* 

The Beet or Mangold-Wurzel. Middle and South Europe, 
Middle Asia, North Africa. Hardy in Norway to lat. 70 4' 
(Schuebeler.) This well-known perennial or biennial herb 
ought to engage the general and extensive attention of any 
farming population. Can be grown for mere foliage even in 
sandy soil near the sea. The herbage is most valuable as a pala- 
table and nutritious spinage ; the root is of importance not only 
as a culinary vegetable, but, as is well-known, also for contain- 
ing crystallizable sugar. The sugar of the beet, indeed, is 
now almost exclusively consumed in Russia, Germany, Austria, 
France, Sweden and Belgium ; and these countries not only 


produce beet-sugar, but also export it largely to the neigh- 
boring States. The white Sicilian Beet is mainly used for 
salads, spinage and soups. The thick-ribbed variety serves like 
asparagus or sea-kale, dressed like rhubarb. Cereal soil, par- 
ticularly such as is fit for barley, is generally adapted also for 
the culture of beets. The rearing of the root and the manufac- 
ture of the sugar can be studied from manifold works ; one has 
been compiled by Mr. N. Levy, of Melbourne. A deeply 
stirred, drained soil, rich in lime, brings the saccharine variety 
of beet to the greatest perfection. The Imperial beet yields 
from 12 to 20 per cent, sugar. The Castlenauderry, the Magde- 
burg, the Siberian White-rib and the Vilmorin Beet are other 
varieties rich in sugar. About 5 lbs. of seed are required for 
an acre. In rotation of crops the beet takes its place best 
between barley and oats. In Middle Europe the yield aver- 
ages 14 tons of sugar-beets to the acre, and as many hundred- 
weight of raw sugar. The mercantile value of the root, at dis- 
tilleries, has ranged from 20s. to 30s. per ton. In climates 
not subject to frost the beet harvest can be extended over 
a far greater portion of the year than in Middle Europe. 
The extraction of the sap is effected generally by hydraulic 
pressure. The juice is purified with lime and animal char- 
coal. Excess of lime is removed by carbonic acid, and 
the purified and decolorized juice is evaporated in vacuum 
pans, with a view to prevent the extensive conversion of the 
crystallizable sugar into treacle. The production of beet- 
sugar needs far less labor than that of cane-sugar, and the 
harvest is obtained in so short a time as eight months. The 
beet has shown itself subject neither to alarming diseases 
nor to extensive attacks of insects. It may be grown in 
extra-tropical zones, while the sugar-cane is confined to tro- 
pical and sub-tropical latitudes. Beet-culture, by directly or 
indirectly restoring the refuse, ameliorates the soil to such an 
extent that in some parts of Europe land so utilized has risen 
to fourfold its former value. The beet furthermore affords one 
of the most fattening stable-fodders ; and thus again an ample 
supply of manure. In the beet-districts of Middle Europe 
about one-sixth of the arable land is devoted to beets, yet the 
produce of cereals has not been reduced, while the rearing 
of fattened cattle has increased. Notwithstanding a heavy tax 
on the beet-sugar factories in Europe the industry has proved 
prosperous, and assumes greater and greater dimensions. In 
1865 the sugar consumption of Europe amounted to 1,583,825 
tons, one-third of which had been locally supplied by the beet, 
from over one thousand beet-sugar factories. Treacle obtain- 
ed from beet is distilled for alcohol. For establishing remu- 
nerative factories on a large and paying scale, it has been sug- 


gested that farmers' companies might be formed. For ascer- 
taining the percentage of sugar in the beet, saccharometers are 
used. In Germany some scientific periodicals are exclusively 
devoted to the fostering of this industry. In 1875 the total 
production of beet-sugar amounted to 1,318,000 tons (Bou- 

Betula acuminata, Wallich. 

Himalaya, between 3,000 and 10,000 feet. Attains a height 
of 60 feet, and thrives along forest-streams. The wood is hard, 
strong and durable. Another Himalayan Birch, B. utilis (D. 
Don.), grows on arid ground, and produces good timber of less 

Betula alba, Linne. 

White Birch. The common Birch of Europe and Extra- 
tropical Asia and North America. With some Willows 
approaching nearer to the North Pole than any other 
woody vegetation. It attains a height of 80 feet, and would 
thrive best in moist glens of the ranges or in the higher 
regions of mountains, where it would form at the alpine 
zone excellent shelter plantations. The variety B. pubes- 
cens (Ehrhart) attains a height of 60 feet in lat 70 N. in 
Norway (Schuebeler.) Content with the poorest soil. The 
variety B. populifolia (Willd.) extends to North America. 
The durable bark serves for roofing. Wood white, turning red, 
adapted for spools, shoe-pegs and many other minor purposes, 
also for some parts of the work of organ-builders. The oil 
of the bark is used in preparing the Russian leather. 

Betula lenta, Willdenow. 

The Cherry Birch of North America. A tree reaching to 80 
feet in height, 2 feet in diameter, liking moist ground, but also 
content with dry soil. Hardy at Christiania in Norway (Schue- 
beler). Wood rose-colored or dark, fine-grained, excellent for 
furniture. It is so heavy that when fresh it will not float in 
water. It is used for snips' keels, machinery, furniture and 
other purposes where strength, hardness and durability are 
required. Red Birch twigs furnish the best material for rough 
brooms. Bark of a somewhat aromatic odor. Several 
Birches occur in Japan, which might well be tried elsewhere. 

Betula lutea, Michaux. 

The Yellow or Gray Birch of North-Eastern America. 
Height sometimes 80 feet. Adapted for moist forest land. In 
timber similar to B. lenta. The wood is used for shoe-lasts and 
various other purposes. 


Betula nigra, Linne. 

The Red Birch or River Birch of North America. One of 
the tallest of Birches, occasionally more than 3 feet in dia- 
meter. If grown on the banks of a limpid stream it will bear 
intense heat. The wood is compact, of a light color, easily 
worked, excellent for turning, also in use by cabinet-makers 
and carriage-builders ; well adapted to sustain shocks and 
friction (Robb). It is also used for shoe-lasts, bowls and trays, 
and the saplings and branches for hoops. The bark is well 
adaped for rough roofing. Hardy at Christiania (Schuebeler). 

Betula papyracea, Alton. 

The Paper Birch of North America. A larger tree than B. 
alba, with a fine-grained wood and a tough bark ; the latter 
much used for portable canoes. It likes a cold situation. 
Hardy to lat. 63° 55' in Norway (Schuebeler). 

Boehmeria nivea, Gaudichaud.* 

The Ramee or Rheea. Southern Asia, as far east as Japan. 
This bush furnishes the strong and beautiful fiber woven into 
fabric, which inappropriately is called grass-cloth. The bark is 
softened by hot water or steam, and then separable into its 
tender fibers. The best is obtained from the young shoots ; it 
is glossy, tough and lasting, combining to some extent the 
appearance of silk with the strength of flax. The ordinary 
market-value of the fiber is about ^40 per ton ; but Dr. Royle 
mentions that it has realized, at times, ^120. The seeds are 
sown on manured or otherwise rich and friable soil. In the 
third year, or, under very favorable circumstances, even earlier, 
it yields its crops, as many as three annually. The produce of 
an acre has been estimated at two tons of fiber. This latter, 
since Kaempfer's time'; has been known to be extensively used 
for ropes and cordage in Japan. Rich forest valleys seem best 
adapted for the Ramee, as occasional irrigation can be applied 
there. In the open grounds of Victoria it suffers from the 
night-frosts, although this does not materially injure the plant, 
which sends up fresh shoots, fit for fiber, during the hot season. 
The plant has been cultivated and distributed since 1854, in 
the Botanic Garden of Melbourne, where it is readily propa- 
gated from cuttings, the seeds rarely ripening there. Cordage 
of this Boehmeria is three times as strong as that of hemp. 
Numerous shoots spring after cutting from the same root. 
Fertile humid soil or rich manuring is necessary for productive 
returns. Dr. Collyer, of Saharumpore, boils the whole branches 
with soap-water (a process used here since 1866, for separating 
the Phormium-fiber) for the easy separation of the fiber, of which 
he obtained 150 lbs. from a ton of Rheea branches ; the cost of 


separation and final preparation being calculated at p^io per 
ton (interest on capital for machinery not counted). He also 
perfected the machinery, to render the process easy and highly 
remunerative. Fiber further prepared by Bonsor's process can 
be spun into the finest yarn. Colonel Hannay and Dr. Forbes 
Watson record, that in Assam four to six crops are cut annually, 
that obtained in the cool season providing the strongest fiber ; 
the latter is obtainable to the length of 6 feet. Other species 
require to be tested, among them the one which was discovered 
in Lord Howe's Island, namely, Boehmeria calophleba, Moore 
and Mueller. 

Boletus bovinus, Linne. 

Europe. Besides this species Dr. Goeppert mentions also the 
following as sold for food in the markets of Silesia : B. circi- 
nans, Persoon; B. edulis, Bull.; B. luteus, L.; B. sapidus, Harzer; 
B. scaber, Bull.; B. subtomentosus, L. ; B. variegatus, Sw. 

Bongardia Rauwolfi, C. A. Meyer. 

From Greece through Turkey to the Caucasus. A perennial 
herb, the leaves of which are utilized like culinary sorrel. 

Borassus Aethiopicus, Martius. 

Africa, from Zanzibar to Egypt. A palm of gigantic dimen- 
sions, its stem attaining 9 feet in diameter at the base or 7 
feet at 4 feet above the ground ; sometimes even stems have 
been measured having a circumference of 37 feet. The leaves 
are as much as 1 2 feet across, serving for baskets, mats, ropes 
and sieves. The edible portion of the fruit is yellow, stringy, 
of a fruity flavor. The sap obtained from incisions in the 
stem under the leaves yields a kind of palm-wine. In its 
natural home the tree always denotes water (Colonel Grant). 
Sir J. Hooker admits only one species and regards Africa solely 
as its home. 

Borassus flabelliformis, Linne. 

The Palmyra. From the Persian Gulf to India, extending to 
30 North. This noble palm attains a height of 100 feet. The 
pulp of the fruit serves as food. Enormous masses of sugar 
and toddy are produced in India from the sap which flows 
from incisions of the stalk of the unexpanded flowers. Also to 
be reared for scenic plantations. Assumed to reach, like the 
Date Palm, an age of more than 200 years. Many other Palms 
are notable for longevity, thus Euterpe oleracea has been cal- 
culated to attain 130 years, Cocos oleracea, 650 years, Cocos 
nucifera 330 years, according to the number of their stem-rings 
(Langethal), of which however perhaps more than one is formed 
in a year. 


Boronia megastigma, Neess. 

In Western Australia, on margins of swamps. This remark- 
able bush is recorded here as an emblem of mourning, its 
externally blackish flowers rendering it especially eligible for 
graves. Industrially it interests- us on account of its very 
fragrant blossoms, for the sake of which this bush well deserves 
to be cultivated. The perfume could doubtless be extracted and 
isolated. B. heterophylla (F. v. M.) from King George's 
Sound is of similar but not quite so strong a scent. 

Borrago officinalis, Linne. 

Southern Europe, Orient. An annual herb, occasionally 
used for medicinal purposes or as an admixture to salad. 

Boswellia papyrifera, A. Richard. 

Morocco, Nubia and Abyssinia, forming entire forests about 
Bertat on the Atlas. This tree exudes a kind of Olibanum 
resin, and represents apparently one of the hardiest species of 
this or allied genera. 

Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke. 

India. A deciduous tree, living in arid forest regions. 
Yields an aromatic resin. The real Olibanum is exuded by B. 
Carteri (Birdwood) of Arabia and tropical Africa. 

Boussingaultia baselloides, Humboldt. 

South America. This hardy climber is well fitted for bowers; 
the mucilaginous tubers are edible. It is not uncommonly 
grown as a climber on verandahs. 

Bouteloua barbata, Lagasca. 

North and Central America. One of the Gamma grasses of 
the prairies, called with some other species also Muskit grass. 
Annual. Famed for nutritive value. 

Brabejum stellatifolium, Linne. 

South Africa. The nuts of this shrub are edible, resembling 
those of our Macadamia ternifolia, to which also Brabejum is 
closely allied in foliage and flowers. The nuts are also similar 
to those of the Chilian Guevina Avellana. The fruit should 
be roasted, otherwise it is deleterious. 

Brachychiton acerifolium, F. v. Mueller. 

The East Australian Flame Tree. An evergreen shade tree, 
with magnificent trusses of crimson blossoms. Like B. popul- 
neum, R. Br., eligible for shading promenades when rapidity 
of growth is no object. The mucilaginous sap when exuded 
indurates to a kind of Bassorin Tragacanth. 


Brahea dulcis, Martius. 

Mexico, as far as its northern parts, and ascending to 3,000 
feet. A Brahea Palm has also been discovered as far north 
as Arizona, 32° (Drude). 

Brahea edulis, Wendland. 

Lower California, 20 feet high. The clusters of plum-shaped 
fruits sometimes weigh 40 lbs., and are eaten by domestic 

Brassica alba, Visiani. {Sinapis alba, Linne). 

White Mustard. Europe, North Africa, North and Middle 
Asia. An annual. The seeds are less pungent than those of 
the Black Mustard, but used in a similar manner. The young 
leaves of both are useful as a culinary antiscorbutic salad. 
Can be employed with great advantage as green manure and 
suppresses weeds simultaneously (W. Emerson Mclvor). The 
cold-pressed oil of mustard seed serves for table use. Dr. 
Masters enumerates Brassica Chinensis, B. dichotoma, B. 
Pekinensis, B. ramosa and B. glauca among the mustards which 
undergo cultivation in various parts of Asia, either for the 
fixed oil of their seeds or for their herbage. From 15 lbs. to 
20 lbs. of seed of the White Mustard ar,e required for an acre. 
In the climate of California 1,400 lbs. of seed have been 
gathered from an acre. Can be grown in shallow soil, even on 
land recently reclaimed from swamps. It prefers argillaceous 
ground. The return is obtained in a few months. The stalks 
and foliage after the seed-harvest serve as sheep fodder. In 
Norway the plant comes to perfection as far north as lat. 70 

Brassica Chinensis, Linne. 

China and Japan. Serves like B. oleracea for cabbage, and 
may in cultivation produce new varieties. The seeds in Japan 
extensively pressed for oil. B. Cretica (Lam.) is a woody 
Mediterranean species. 

Brassica juncea, J. Hooker and Thomson. {B. Willdenovii, Boiss. ; Sinapis 
juncea, Linne.) 

From Middle Africa to China. According to Colonel Drury 
cultivated all over India for Sarepta Mustard seed ; also a 
good salad plant. 

Brassica nigra, Koch. {Sinapis nigra, Linne.) 

The Black Mustard. Europe, North Africa, Middle Asia. 
An annual. The seeds simply crushed and then sifted consti- 
tute the mustard of commerce. For medicinal purposes the 


seeds of this species are preferable for sinapisin and other pur- 
poses, especially sinapisms. In rich soil this plant is very pro- 
lific ; and in forest valleys it is likely to remain free from the 
attacks of aphides. Chemical constituents: a peculiar fixed oil, 
crystalline sinapin, the fatty sinapisin, myronic acid and 

Brassica oleracea, Linne.* 

An annual or biennial coast plant, indigenous to various parts 
of Europe. It is mentioned here with a view of showing that 
it might be naturalized on any rocky and sandy sea shores. 
From the wild plant of the coast have originated various kinds of 
cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohl-rabi, 
etc. Some regard the fattening qualities of cabbage as 
superior to those of turnips, particularly for stable-food during 
the autumnal season. The gluten of cabbages on one acre has 
been estimated at 1,500 lbs. against 1,000 lbs. of gluten obtain- 
able from turnips. Other races of this species are collectively 
represented by Brassica Rapa, L. (B. campestris, L.), the wild 
Navew, yielding most of the varieties of turnips, some handed 
down to us from ancient times with other cultivated forms. 
Again, other varieties are comprehended within Brassica Napus, 
L., such as the Swedish and Teltower turnips, while the Rape- 
seed, so important for its oil (Colza), is also derived from a 
form of B. Napus. The rape should be produced extensively 
as an agrarian produce, giving a rapid return, wherever it 
remains free from aphides. Ordinary Rape is a good admixture 
to summer fodder. Important where bees are kept. The 
hardier turnips can be produced on the highest Alps, as they 
are grown even within the Arctic Circle, and, according to Sir 
J. Hooker, at a height of 15,000 feet in the Himalaya moun- 
tains. In Norway, Oil-Rape and Turnips are grown as far 
north as 70 22' (Schuebeler), yet the Rape also, succeeds well 
in the hottest parts of Central Australia. 

Bromus asper, Murray. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. A good perennial fod- 
der grass for wood regions; but, like Festuca gigantea, late in 
the season. 

Bromus ciliatus, Linne. 

North America. A perennial fattening grass, resembling the 
Prairie grass, growing all the winter and also during summer, if 
drought is not too long continued, starting afresh after the 
least rain (Dr. Curl). 

Bromus erectus, Hudson. 

Europe, North Africa. Important as a perennial nutritious 
grass for dry limestone regions; much liked by cattle and sheep. 


Bromus unioloides, Humboldt.* (B. Schraderi, Kunth). 

In Australia called the Prairie-grass. From Central America 
to the sub-alpine zone of Northern Argentina. It has spread 
over many parts of the globe. The writer saw it disseminated 
in the mountains of St. Vincent's Gulf as early as 1847. It * s 
one of the richest of all grasses, grows continuously and spreads 
rapidly from seeds, particularly on fertile and somewhat humid 
soil, and has proved, as a lasting and nutritious fodder grass or 
pasture grass, one of the best acquisitions. Very early out in 
the season for fodder. In Norway it is hardy to lat. 67 55' 
(Schuebeler). Chemical analysis in early spring gave : albu- 
men, 2.80; gluten, 3.80; starch, 3.30; gum, 1.70; sugar, 2.30 
per cent. (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel.) 

Broussonetia papyrifera, Ventenat. 

The Paper-Mulberry tree. Islands of the Pacific Ocean, 
China, Japan, perhaps only truly indigenous in the last-named 
country. The bark of this tree or shrub can be converted into 
very strong paper. It can also be used for textile fabrics; 
furthermore, the cloth made from it can be dressed with linseed 
oil for waterproof coverings. In cultivation the plant is kept 
like an osier. The leaves cannot be used for silkworms. 
European fabrics have largely superseded the clothing made of 
this plant in the South Sea Islands 

Buchloe dactyloides, Torrey.* 

The true Buffalo grass of Kansas, naturally extending from 
Canada to Texas, forming a large proportion of the food of the 
buffaloes on the prairies (Englemann). Dioecious, creeping, 
only rising to half a foot or less. It is extremely fattening, but 
apt to be suppressed by coarser grasses in places where these 
are not trampled out or kept down by pasture animals. 

Buddleya Madagascariensis, Lamarck. 

Madagascar. Of the numerous species of Buddleya, the most 
eligible one for shelter copses on account of its great size and 
always tidy appearance, as well as vigor and celerity of growth. 
It is ever-flowering, highly elegant, and tolerant to many kinds 
of soil. 

Bursera elemifera, J. Hooker. 

Mexico, up to the temperate plateau. This tree furnishes the 
Mexican Copal or Elemi. 

Butea frondosa, Roxburgh. 

The Dhak or Pulas of India. This magnificent tree extends 
to the Himalaya mountains, ascending to elevations of 4,000 


feet, and bears a few degrees of frost. It is very rich in a 
peculiar kind of kino, which, according to Muspratt, contains 
up to 73 per cent, of tannin. The Lac insect is also nourished 
by this tree. 

Butomus umbellatus, Linne. 

The Flowering Rush. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. 
This elegant perennial water-plant is mentioned here more for 
its value in embellishing our lakes and water courses than for 
the sake of its roots. The latter, when roasted, are edible. 
The plant would live in sub-alpine rivulets. In Norway it is 
hardy in lat. 59 55' (Schuebeler). 

Buxus sempervirens, Linne.* 

The Turkey Box-tree. England, South Europe, North 
Africa, South- Western Asia, extending to Japan. This slow- 
growing tree should be planted, to provide the indispensable 
box wood for wood-engravers and musical instrument makers, 
no good substitute for it having been discovered as yet. It 
is also employed for shuttles, rollers and various other select 
implements, clarionets, flutes, flageolets. Box wood on account 
of its extreme density can best be used as a unit in compara- 
tive scales of the closeness of various kinds of wood. The 
box tree needs calcareous soil for its best development. In 
Norway it is hardy to lat. 63° 26', according to Prof. Schue- 
beler, who saw a plant 1 1 feet high and 6 inches in diameter in 
lat. 5 8° 58'. Among allied species B. Balearica attains a height 
of 80 feet. Other congeners are B. subcolumnaris, B. Cubana, 
B, Purdieana, B. citrifolia, B. acuminata, B. laevigata, B. Vahlii, 
B. gonoclada, B.~retusa, B. glomerata, B. Wrightii, all from 
the West Indies; and B. Madagascarica and B. longifolia 
from Turkey and B. Wallichiana from the Himalayas. It does 
not, however, appear to be known how the wood of either of 
these, nor of the various species of the Indian genus sar- 
cococca or the genus styloceras of the Andes compares with 
true box-wood; nor is it known whether or not they are of 
more rapid growth. 

Buxus microphylla, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

Japan. There used for the best of wood-engravings and 
turnery; considered as good as ordinary box wood. Native 
name, Tsougne (E. Dupont). 

Caesalpinia Bonduc, Roxburgh. (Guilandina Bonditc, Linne.) 

Widely dispersed through the intertropical regions of both 
hemispheres with G. Bonducella, L. Both would be well 
adapted for hedges in the warmer parts of the temperate zone. 


Caesalpinia brevifolia, Bentham. {Balsamocarpon brevi folium, Clos). 

Chili, the " Algoborillo." The pods of this shrub are extra- 
ordinarily rich in tannic acid, containing sometimes 80 per cent, 
and hence valuable for tanneries (Philippi). Godeffroy found 
in the husks 68% per cent, tannic acid. The process of tan- 
ning is accomplished in one-third of the time required for 
leather from oak bark; especially valuable as giving a bloom to 
the leather. 

Caesalpinia coriaria, Willdenow. 

Wet sea shores of Central America. Might be naturalized in 
Victorian salt marshes. Colonel Drury states that each full- 
grown tree produces annually about 100 lbs. of pods, the husk 
of which, commercially known as Divi-Divi, is regarded as the 
most powerful and quickly acting tanning material in India. 
The mercantile price of the pods is from £8 to ^13 per ton. 

Caesalpinia crista, Linne. 

West Indies and Carolina. This shrub or tree furnishes a 
yellow dye-wood. 

Caesalpinia echinata, Lamarck. 

Brazil. The Fernambuc or Red Brazil Wood is obtained 
from this tree and allied species; they also furnish the dye prin- 
ciple brazilin. 

Caesalpinia Gilliesii, Wallich. (Poinciana Gilliesii, Hooker.) 

La Plata States. This beautiful hardy bush can be utilized 
for hedges. 

Caesalpinia Sappan, Linne. 

South Asia. The wood furnishes a red-dye. This shrub can 
also be adopted as a hedge plant. 

Caesalpinia sepiaria, Roxburgh. 

Southern Asia, east to Japan. There often utilized as a 
hedge bush. It can advantageously be mixed for hedge growth 
with Pterolobium lacerans (R. Br.), according to Dr. Cleghorn. 
It furnishes a red dye wood. 

Caesalpinia tinctoria, Humboldt. 

Chili. The bark yields a red dye. 

Caesalpinia vesicaria, Linne. (C. bijuga, Swartz.) 

West Indies, on dry savannas and limestone rocks. This 
tree furnishes part of the red Fernambuc Wood of commerce, 
for dye purposes and select implements. 


Cajanus Indicus, De Candolle.* 

The Catjang ; in Assam, called Gelooa-mah, also called 
Arhar. A shrubby plant of tropical Africa and India, ascend- 
ing to 6,000 feet in the extra-tropical latitudes of 
the Himalayas. One of the upland varieties will endure 
a few degrees of frost (C. B. Clarke). It sustains itself 
on dry ground, and yields the pulse known as Dhal, Urhur 
and Congo Pea. The plant lasts for about three years, 
attains a height of 15 feet, and has yielded in the richest 
soil of Egypt 4,000 lbs. of peas to the acre. A crop is 
obtained in the first year. The seeds can be used as peas 
in the green state, as well as when ripe. Even more used 
in India than Phaseolus radiatus and Cicer arietinum. Some 
of the tribes of Central Africa use the stem of this shrub 
in friction with reeds to strike fire, according to Speke. Several 
species of Cajanus of the Atylosia section, indigenous to the 
warmer parts of Australia, might be tested for the sake of the 
economic value of their seeds. The insect, active in the for- 
mation of Lac, lives extensively on the Cajanus, according to 
Mr. T. D. Brewster, of Assam. Silkworms also live on it. 

Cakile maritima, Scopoli. 

Europe, North Africa, North and Central America, extra- 
tropical Australia. Not unimportant for aiding to cover drift 
sand cast up on low sea shores; not hurt by the spray. In 
Norway hardy to lat. 71° 7' (Schuebeler). 

Calamagrostis longifolia, Hooker. 

North America. Excellent for fixing drift sand. C. Epi- 
geios (Roth) and C. Halleriana (De Candolle) serve the same 
purpose according to Wessely. 

Calamintha Nepeta, Hoffmansegg. 

From England to the countries around the Mediterranean 
Sea; fond of limestone soil. It is strongest in odor among 
several species, but not of so pleasant a scent as C. incana, 
Boiss. and C. grandiflora, Moench. 

Calamintha officinalis, Moench. 

Middle and Southern Europe and Middle Asia, North Africa. 
A perennial herb, used like Melissa as a condiment. 

Calamus montanus, T. Anderson. 

Himalaya, up to 6,000 feet. A hardy climbing palm. The 
old canes are naked. ''The light but strong suspension 
bridges, by which the large rivers of Sikkim are crossed, 
are constructed of this palm. It supplies material for 


the strongest ropes to drag logs of wood from the forest. 
Most durable baskets and cane work of chairs are manufactured 
from the slit stems. Walking sticks and riding canes made of 
this species are exported from Sikkim in considerable quantity." 
Many other Calami serve similar purposes, but probably few, or 
perhaps none, are equally hardy. 

Callitris arborea, Schrader. ( Widdringtonia juniperoides, Endlicher). 

South Africa, 3,000 to 4,000 feet above sea level. A middling 
sized tree, rich in resin. 

Callitris columellaris, F. v. Mueller. 

Eastern Australia, on bare and sandy coast tracts. Height 
reaching 100 feet. Timber durable, fine grained, fragrant, capable 
of a high polish; used for piles of wharves and sheeting of 
punts and boats; it resists the attacks of chelura and white ants; 
the roots are valued for veneers. The wood is also used for 
telegraph poles according to Mr. Thozet. Present market 
value jQ6 per 1,000 superficial feet. (Queensland Exhibition, 

Callitris Macleayana, F. v. Mueller. {Frenela Macleayna, Parlatore). 

New South Wales. A handsome tree, of regular pyramidal 
growth, attaining a height of 70 feet; the timber is valuable. 
C. actinostrobus and C. acuminata from southwest Australia 
are too small for timber purposes, but the first mentioned is one 
of the very few conifers fit for saline soil. 

Callitris Parlatorei, F. von Mueller. 

Southern Queensland. Recommended by Mr. F. M. Bailey 
as a shade tree. It attains a height of 60 feet. The wood is 
esteemed by cabinet makers. Several other species of Callitris 
are worthy of forest culture. 

Callitris quadrivalvis, Richard. 

North Africa. A middling sized tree, yielding the true san- 
darac resin. 

Callitris verrucosa, R. Brown. {Frenela verrucosa, A. Cunningham}. 

Through the greater part of Australia. Several other species 
from Victoria and other parts of Australia are also among 
the trees which may be utilized for binding the coast and desert 
sand. They all exude Sandarac. 

Calyptranthes aromatica, Saint Hilaire. 

South Brazil. The flower buds of this spice shrub can be 
used almost like cloves, the berries like allspice. Several other 
aromatic species are eligible for test culture. 


Calyptronoma Swartzii, Grisebach. 

West Indies. A palm, reaching a height of 60 feet. Ascends 
on tropical mountains to over 3,000 feet elevation. It yields the 
"long thatch" of Jamaica, the foliage furnishing an amber 
colored roofing material, neater and more durable than any 
other used on that island, lasting twenty years or more without 
requiring repairs (Jenman.) 

Camelina sativa, Crantz. 

Middle and Southern Europe, temperate Asia. An annual 
herb, cultivated for the sake of its fibre and the oil of its seeds. 
It is readily grown after cereals, yields richly even on poor 
soil, and is not attacked by aphides. Mr. W. Taylor obtained 32 
bushels of seed from an acre, and, from this, 540 lbs. of oil. 
The return is obtained within a few months. Hardy in Nor- 
way to lat. 70 (Schuebeler.) 

Camellia Japonica, Linne. 

This renowned horticultural plant attains a height of 30 feet 
in Japan. It is planted there on roadsides for shelter, shade 
and ornament (Christie). The wood is used for superior xylo- 
graphy (Dupont). The seeds, like those of C. Sasanqua 
(Thunberg), are available for pressing oil. C. reticulata 
(Lindley) from China is conspicuous for its very large flowers. 

Camellia Thea, Link.* {Thea Chinensis, Linne.) 

The Tea shrub of South Eastern Asia, said to be indigenous 
also to some localities of Japan, for instance, Suruga. This 
evergreen and ornamental bush has proved quite hardy in the 
lowlands at Melbourne, where in exposed positions it endures 
quite unharmed light night frosts as well as the free access 
of scorching summer winds. But it is in humid valleys, with 
rich alluvial soil and access to springs for irrigation, that 
the most productive tea fields can be formed. The plant comes 
into plentiful bearing of its product as early as the Vine 
and earlier than the Olive. Its culture is not difficult, 
and it is singularly exempt from fungus diseases, if 
planted in proper localities. Pruning is effected in the cool 
season, in order to obtain a large quantity of small tender 
leaves from young branches. Both the Chinese and Assam tea 
are produced by varieties of a single species, the tea shrub 
being indigenous in the forest country of Assam. Declivities 
are best adapted and usually chosen for tea culture, particularly 
for Congo, Pekoe and Souchong, while Bohea is often grown in 
flat countries. In Japan tea cultivation extends to 39° north 
latitude, where the thermometer occasionally sinks to 16° F. 
(Simmons). It has withstood the winter of Washington in 


sheltered positions without protection (W. Saunders). The 
Assam variety succumbs to frost. For many full details For- 
tune's work, "The Tea Districts of China," might be consulted. 
The very troublesome Tea bug of Asia is Helopeltis theivora. 
Fumigation and the application of birdlime are among the 
remedies to cope with this insect. The third volume of the 
Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India 
is mainly occupied by Lieut. -Colonel Edw. Money's and Mr. 
Watson's elaborate essays on the cultivation and manufacture 
of tea in India. For full advice on the culture and prepara- 
tion of tea consult the writer's printed lecture, delivered, in 
1875, at the Farmers' Club of Ballarat. 

The tea of commerce consists of the young leaves, heated, 
curled and sweated. The process of preparing the leaves can 
be effected by steam machinery. In 1866 three machines for 
dressing tea were patented in England — one by Messrs. 
Campbell and Burgess, one by Mr. Thomson and one by Mr. 
Tayser. To give an idea of the quantity of tea which is con- 
sumed at the present time, it may be stated that from June to 
September, 187 1, 11,000,000 lbs. of tea were shipped from 
China alone to Australia, and that the produce of tea in India 
from January to June of 1872 was 18,500,000 lbs. In 1840 
India sent its first small sample of tea to the European 
market, but in 1877 exported to England forty million pounds, 
that is, as much as the whole English importation thirty years 
ago (Burrell). Dr. Scherzer estimates the Chinese home con- 
sumption at 400,000,000 pounds, others much higher. In 1873, 
China exported 242,000,000 pounds, Japan 12,000,000 
pounds. Simmonds estimates the area under tea cultivation in 
China at 25,000,000 acres. 100 lbs. of prepared tea is the aver- 
age yield per acre. Seeds of the tea bush are now locally to 
be gathered in many parts of Australia from plants distributed 
by the writer since 1859, and for years to come the cultivation 
of the tea bush, merely to secure local supplies of fresh seeds, 
ready to germinate, will in all likelihood prove highly lucrative. 
Tea contains an alkaloid, caffein, a peculiar essential oil, and 
Boheic acid, along with other substances. 

Canavalia gladiata, De Candolle.* 

Within the tropics of Asia, Africa and America. This peren- 
nial climber grows to an enormous height, and bears an 
abundant crop of large edible beans which can be used 
green (Sir Walter Elliott). It varies with red and white seeds, 
and in the size of the latter, which are wholesome. C. ensi- 
formis (D. C.) is another variety. C. obtusifolia is deleterious. 

Carina Achiras, Gillies. 

Mendoza. One of the few extra-tropic Cannas, eligible for 
arrowroot culture. 


Canna coccinea, Roscoe. 

West Indies. Yields, with some other Cannas, the particular 
arrowroot called Tous Les Mois. 

Canna edulis, Edwards.* 

The Adeira of Peru. One of the hardiest of arrowroot plants. 
Seeds, will germinate even when many years old. Plants sup- 
plied at the Botanic Garden of Melbourne have yielded 
excellent starch at Melbourne, Western Port, Lake Welling- 
ton, Ballarat and other localities in the colony Victoria. The 
Rev. Mr. Hagenauer, of the Gippsland Aboriginal Mission 
station, obtained over one ton from an acre. The Rev. Mr. 
Bulmer found this root to yield 28 per cent, of starch. The 
gathering of the roots is effected there about April. The 
plants can be set out in ordinary ploughed land. Starch grains 
remarkably large. The plant resembles a banana in miniature, 
hence it is eligible for scenic plantations ; the local production 
in Gippsland is already large enough to admit of extensive sale. 

Canna flaccida, Roscoe. 

Carolina. Probably also available for arrowroot, though in 
the first instance, like many congeners, chosen only for orna- 
mental culture. 

Canna glauca, Linne. 

One of the West Indian Arrowroot Cannas. 

Cannabis sativa, Linne.* 

The Hemp Plant ; indigenous to various parts of Asia, as far 
west as Turkey and as far east as Japan. Long cultivated 
for its fiber. It exudes the churras (Hasheesh), a medicinal 
resinous substance of narcotic properties, particularly in hot 
climates. The foliage also contains a volatile oil, while the 
seeds yield by pressure the well-known fixed hemp oil. The 
staminate plant is pulled for obtaining the fiber in its best state 
immediately after flowering ; the seeding plant is gathered for 
fiber at a later stage of growth. Good soil, well drained, never 
absolutely dry, is needed for successful hemp culture. Hemp 
is one of the plants yielding a full and quick return within the 
season. The summer temperatures of St. Petersburg (67 F.) 
and of Moscow (62 F.) admit still of the cultivation of this 
plant. The hemp plant serves as a protection against insects 
on cultivated fields, if sown along their boundaries. 

Cantharellus edulis, Persoon. (C. cibarius, Fries). 

The Chanterelle. Various parts of Europe. Dr. Goeppert 
mentions this among the many mushrooms admitted under 
Government supervision for sale in Silesia. 


Capparis sepiaria, Linne. 

From India to the Philippine Islands, ascending to cool eleva- 
tions and living in arid soil. A prickly bush, excellent for 
hedges. Dr. Cleghorn mentions also as hedge plants C. hor- 
rida (L. fil.), C. aphylla (Roth), C. Roxburghii (D. C), some of 
which also yield capers. 

Capparis spinosa, Linne. 

The Caper Bush. South Europe and North Africa, South 
Asia and North Australia. A somewhat shrubby and trailing 
plant, deserving, even for the sake of its handsome flowers, a 
place in any garden. It sustains its life even in arid deserts. 
Light frosts do not destroy this plant. The flower-buds and 
young berries, preserved in vinegar with some salt, form the 
capers of commerce. Samples of capers, prepared from plants 
of the Botanic Garden of Melbourne, are placed in our Indus- 
trial Museum, together with many other products emanating 
from the writer's laboratory. The caper plant is propagated 
either from seeds or suckers ; it is well able to withstand either 
heat or drought. The buds, after their first immersion in 
slightly salted vinegar, are strained and afterwards preserved in 
bottles with fresh vinegar. Chemical principle : Rutin. 

Capsicum annuum, Linne. 

Central America. An annual herb, which yields the chillies, 
and thus also the material for cayenne pepper. Chemical 
principle : capsicin, an acrid, soft, resinous substance. 

Capsicum baccatum, Linne. 

The Cherry Capsicum. A perennial plant. Brought from 
Brazil to tropical Africa and Asia, where other pepper capsi- 
cums are likewise now naturalized. 

Capsicum frutescens, Linne. (C. fastigiatum, Blume). 

Tropical America. The berries of this shrubby species are 
likewise converted into cayenne pepper. 

Capsicum longum, De Candolle. 

Some of the hottest parts of America. An annual herb, also 
yielding cayenne pepper. C. grossum (Willd.) is also men- 
tioned by Colonel Drury as a very pungent species. The sum- 
mers of the warm temperate zone admit of the successful 
growth of at least the annual species of Capsicum in all the 
lowlands. C. humile also binds sand even when brackish. 

Capsicum microcarpum, De Candolle. 

South America. It is this species which is used by prefer- 
ence in Argentina. There are annual and perennial varieties. 


Caragana arborescens, Lamarck. 

The Pea Tree of Siberia. The seeds are of culinary value, 
but particularly used for feeding fowls. The leaves yield a blue 
dye (Dr. Rosenthal). 

Carex arenaria, Linne. 

Europe and Northern Asia. Hardy to lat. 62 30' in Norway 
(Schuebeler). One of the most powerful of sedges for subdu- 
ing rolling sand, its rigid foliage not attracting grazing animals. 
The roots are of medicinal value. 

Carex Moorcroftiana, Falconer. 

The Loongmur of the Alps of Thibet. One of the best of 
sedges for fixing the shifting sand by its deeply penetrating 
and creeping roots. It forms an intricate net-work on the sur- 
face and beneath. Outliving most other fodder plants at its 
native places, it becomes available for cattle and horse food, 
particularly in the cold of winter, and is held to be singularly 
invigorating to pasture animals. 

Carissa Arduina, Lamarck. 

South Africa. A shrub with formidable thorns, well adapted 
for boundary lines of gardens, where rapidity of growth is not 
an object. Quite hardy at Melbourne. C. ferox (E. Meyer) 
and C. grandiflora (A. de Cand.) are allied plants of equal 
value. The East Australian C. Brownii (F. von Mueller) can 
be similarly u'tilized. The flowers of all are very fragrant. C. 
Carandas (Linne) extends from India to China ; its berries are 

Carpinus Americana, Michaux. 

The Water Beech or Iron wood of North America, thriving 
best on the margins of streams. The wood is very fine grained, 
tough and compact ; used for cogs of wheels and any purpose 
where extreme hardness is required, such as yokes, etc. (Robb). 
It is often speckled and somewhat curled, thus fitted for 
superior furniture (Simmons). 

Carpinus Betulus, Linne. 

The Hornbeam. A tree 80 feet high. Middle and South 
Europe and Western Asia. Wood pale, of a horny toughness 
and hardness, close-grained, but not elastic. It is used by 
wheel-wrights, for cogs in machinery and for turnery (Laslett). 
It furnishes a good coal for gunpowder. This tree would serve 
to arrest the progress of bush-fires, if planted in copses or 
hedges, like willows and poplars, around forest plantations. In 


Norway it is hardy to lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler), Four species 
occur in Japan : C. cordata, C. erosa, C. laxifiora, and C. 
japonica (Blume). Carpinus viminea (Wallich) is a species 
with durable wood, from the middle regions of Nepal. 

Carthamus tinctorius, Linne. 

From Egypt to India. The Safflower. In Norway grown 
to lat. 70 22' North. A tall, annual, rather handsome herb. 
The florets produce yellow, rosy, ponceau and other red shades 
of dye, according to various admixtures. Pigment principles : 
carthamin and carthamus yellow. For domestic purposes it 
yields a dye ready at hand from any garden. In India the Car- 
thamus is also cultivated for the sake of the oil, which can be 
pressed from the seeds. 

Carum Ajowan, Bentham. (C. copticum, Benth). 

From the countries around the Mediterranean Sea to India. 
The fruits of this annual herb form an excellent culinary condi- 
ment with the flavor of thyme. Its peculiar oil is accompanied 
by cymol and thymol. 

Carum Bulbocastanum, Koch. 

Middle and South Europe, North Africa, Middle Asia, on 
limestone soil, extending in Cashmere to 9,000 feet elevation. 
The tuberous roots and also the leaves serve as a culinary 
vegetable; the fruits, as a condiment. 

Carum Capense, Sonder. 

South Africa, where the edible, somewhat aromatic root is 
called Fenkelwortel. 

Carum Carui, Linne. 

The Caraway Plant. Perennial. Europe, North and Middle 
Asia. Grown in Norway to lat. 71 7'. A wholesome adjunct 
if interspersed among the herbs of sheep-pastures. It might 
be naturalized on our Alps and also along the sea shores. 
The Caraway oil is accompanied by two chemical principles : 
carven and carvol. Royle mentions two varieties or allied 
plants from Upper India. 

Carum ferulifolium, Koch. (Bunium ferulifolium, Desfont.). « 

A perennial herb of the Mediterranean regions. The small 
tubers are edible. 

Carum Gairdneri, Bentham. 

Western North America, particularly in the Sierra Nevada. 
A biennial herb, the tuberous root of which furnishes an article 
of food as well as the root of the allied Californian C. Kel- 


loggii (A. Gray). Geyer probably had this plant in view, when 
he mentions the tubers of an umbelliferous plant, which are 
among the dainty dishes of the nomadic Oregon-natives. The 
truly delicious root bursts on being boiled, showing a snowy 
white farinaceous substance, which has a sweet, cream-like 
taste, and somewhat the aroma of parsley leaves (Lindley). 

Carum Petroselinum, Bentham. {Apium Petroselinum, Linne). 

The Parsley. This biennial, well known herb, indigenous to 
South Europe and the Orient, is always desirable on pastures as 
a preventive or curative of some kidney and liver diseases of 
sheep, horses and cattle. In Norway it is hardy to lat. 70 
(Schuebeler). The root is also valuable for the table. Essen- 
tial oil with a peculiar stearopten. 

Carum segetum, Bentham. {Anethum segetum, Linne). 

Around the Mediterranean Sea, extending to Middle Europe. 
An aromatic annual herb, available for culinary purposes. 

Carya alba, Nuttall*. 

A Shellbark Hickory. North America, extending to Canada. 
Professor Schuebeler found it to be hardy in Norway to lat. 
63° 52'. A deciduous tree, reaching a height of 90 feet, which 
delights in rich forest soil. Wood heavy, strong, elastic and 
tenacious, but not very durable; used for chairs, agricultural 
implements, carriages, baskets (Sargent) and whip handles. 
Yields the main supply of hickory nuts. All the hickories are 
extensively used in North America for hoops. 

Carya amara, Nuttall. 

The Bitternut Tree or Swamp Hickory. A tree sometimes 
80 feet high, in the swampy grounds of North America. Wood 
less valuable than that of other hickories. Richest of all North 
American trees in potash, in which most hickories also abound. 
Hardy in Christiania. 

Carya glabra, Torrey*. {Carya porcina, Nuttall). 

The Pignut Tree. North America, reaching Canada and 
Florida. Often 80 feet high. Wood very tough; the heart 
wood reddish or dark colored; much used for axletrees and 

Carya microcarpa, Nuttall. 

The Balsam Hickory. North America. A fine lofty tree, 
attaining a height of 80 feet, with a stem two feet in diam- 
eter. The wood is white and tough, and possessed of most of 
the good qualities of C. tomentosa, to which this species is also 
in other respects allied. Also very closely allied to C. alba. 
The nut is of a pleasant taste, but small (Nuttall). 


Carya olivaeformis, Nuttall.* 

The Pecan nut Tree of North America. A handsome lofty tree, 
reaching 70 feet in height, with a straight trunk. The most rapid 
growing of all the hickories (Meehan). Its wood is coarse- 
grained, heavy and compact, possessing great durability; in 
strength and elasticity it surpasses even that of the White Ash 
(Harrison). The nuts are usually abundant, and the most 
delicious of all walnuts; they form an article of commerce in 
the Southern States. Texas annually exports nuts to the value 
of over ;£io,ooo (Dr. C. Mohr). The tree bears nuts as far 
north as Philadelphia. It commences to bear in about eight 
years. The nuts should be packed in dry moss or sand for 
distant transmission. Although the wood of all the hickories is 
not adapted for building purposes, as it is subject to the attacks 
of insects and soon decays if exposed to the weather, yet its 
great strength and elasticity render it extremely useful for 
implements, articles of furniture, hoops and many minor uses, 
besides supplying locally the very best of fuel. Hickories, 
even when very young, do not well bear transplanting, C. 
amara, perhaps, excepted. C. alba and C. glabra would be 
particularly desirable for the sake of their timber, and C. 
olivaeformis on account of its fruit. The bark of all the 
hickories contains yellow dye principles; by the addition of 
copperas an olive color is produced; by the addition of alum, a 
green color. Hickory stems are known to attain 12 feet in 

Carya sulcata, Nuttall.* 

The Furrowed Hickory and Shellbark Hickory of some dis- 
tricts; also Shagbark Hickory. North America. A tree, 80 
feet high, in damp woods. Its rate of growth is about 18 
inches in a year while young. Heart wood pale colored. Seed 
of sweet pleasant taste. Wood similar to that of C. alba, but 
paler. The tree is hardy in Christiania. 

Carya tomentosa, Nuttall.* 

The Mockernut Tree or White Heart Hickory. North 
America, extending to Canada, but not to California. A large 
tree. Likes forest soil, not moist. Heart wood pale colored, 
remarkable for strength, elasticity, heaviness and durability, 
yet fissile; used for axles, spokes, felloes, handles, chairs, screws, 
sieves, and the best of mallets; the saplings for hoops and 
wythes. Hickory is the most heat-giving amongst all North 
American woods. Nut small, but sweet; very oily. A variety 
produces nuts as large as a small apple, which are called King 


Caryota urens, Linne. 

India. One of the hardier Palms, ascending the Himalayas 
to an altitude of 5,000 feet, according to Dr. Thomas Ander- 
son, yet even there attaining a considerable height, though the 
temperature sinks in the cooler season to 40 F. Drude 
mentions that species of this genus ascend to an elevation of 
7,500 feet, where the temperature occasionally approaches the 
freezing point. The trunk furnishes a sago-like starch. This 
palm flowers only at an advanced age, and after having pro- 
duced a succession of flowers dies away. From the sap of the 
flower-stem as well as from the Cocos and Borassus Palm, toddy 
and palm sugar are prepared, occasionally as much as 12 gallons 
of liquid being obtained from one tree in a day. The fiber of 
the leaf stalks can be manufactured into very strong ropes, also 
into baskets, brushes and brooms. It also serves the Indian 
races as tinder. The outer wood of the stem serves for turn- 
ery. Several allied species exist, one extending to Australia. 

Casimiroa edulis, Llav and Levarz. 

Mexico, up to the cool heights of 7,000 feet, bearing orange- 
like fruits. This tree comes into bearing in about ten years. 
The kernel of its fruit is deleterious (Hernandez); the pulp of 
a delicious, melting, peach-like taste (Garner). The fruit is 
said to induce sleep. The tree thrives well at Santa Barbara, 
California. The fruit is about an inch in diameter, pale yellow, 
of a rich subacid taste, and most palatable when near decay. 
Efforts to propagate it from cuttings were not successful, and 
seeds do not seem to reach perfection in California. The 
Spanish inhabitants call the tree Zapote (Calif. Hortic. Magaz., 

Cassia acutifolia, Delile. 

Indigenous or now spontaneous in Northern and Tropical 
Africa and Southwest Asia. Perennial. The leaflets merely 
dried constitute part of the Alexandrian and also Tinnevelly 
senna. The active principle of senna — namely, cathartic acid — 
occurs also in the Coluteas and in Coronilla varia, according to 
C. Koch. 

Cassia angustifolia, Vahl. 

Northern and Tropical Africa and Southwestern Asia, in- 
digenous or cultivated. Perennial. Yields Mecca senna, also 
the Bombay and some of the Tinnevelly senna. 

Cassia artemisioides, Gaudichaud. 

Sub-tropical and extra-tropical Australia. The species of 
this series are considered valuable for sheep-runs as affording 
feed. They brave intense heat, and are adapted for rainless 


Cassia fistula, Linne. 

Southern Asia. The long pods of this ornamental tree con- 
tain an aperient pulp of pleasant taste and of medicinal value. 
It is also used in the manufacture of cake tobacco. Traced by 
Sir Jos. Hooker to the dry slopes of the Central Himalayas. 

Cassia Marilandica, Linne. 

An indigenous Senna plant of the United States of North 
America. Perennial. 

Cassia obovata, Colladon. 

Southwestern Asia; widely dispersed through Africa as a 
native or disseminated plant. Perennial. Part of the Alex- 
andrian, and also Aleppo-senna is derived from this plant; less 
esteemed and less collected, however, than the other species. 
It furnishes also Tripolis, Italian, Senegal and Tanacca senna. 

Castanea sativa, Miller.* (C. vulgaris, Lamarck; C. vesca, Gaertner). 

The sweet chestnut tree. South Europe and Temperate 
Asia, as far as Japan ; a variety with smaller fruit extending 
to North America. Professor Schuebeler records that even in 
Norway in latitude 58 15' a chestnut tree attained a height of 
33 feet with a stem 4 feet in circumference; in a shrubby state it 
was found as far north as 63 . It reaches an enormous age; 
at Mount Etna a tree occurs with a stem 204 feet in cir- 
cumference. At other places trees are found 10 feet in 
diameter, solid to the center. The tree does not readily admit 
of transplantation. The wood is light, cross-grained, strong, 
elastic and durable, well adapted for staves, wheel-cogs; the 
young wood for hoops and mast-rings. The wood is compara- 
tively rich in tannic acid (about 4 to 6 per cent.), and hence used 
for preparing a liquid extract; the bark contains 12 per cent, 
tannin (Wiesner). The leaves furnish food for the Bombyx 
Tamamai (Dupont). The greatest importance of the tree rests 
on its adaptability for shade plantations, its nutritious nuts and 
timber value. The American wood is slightly lighter in 
color than that of the Red Oak, and valuable for its durability, 
thus available for shingles and rails; chestnut rails in North 
America have lasted for half a century. The wood is beauti- 
fully laminated, and hence sought for furniture (Simmons). Dr. 
Vasey mentions that the wood is largely employed for furniture, 
for the inside finish for railroad cars and steamboats. The 
American nuts are smaller, but sweeter than the European; 
they are largely available for fattening hogs (Robb). 

Castanopsis argent ea, A de Candolle . 

A lofty tree in the mountains of India, produces also edible 
chestnuts. Other species of the genus Castanopsis are valu- 


Castanopsis chrysophylla, A. de Candolle. 

The Oak Chestnut of California and Oregon. A tree, 
attaining a height of 150 feet, and 8 feet in diameter. Either 
for beauty or utility worthy of cultivation (Dr. Gibbons). The 
leaves are golden yellow underneath. Wood durable. 

Castanopsis Indica, A de Candolle. 

Mountains of India, at about 4,000 feet. This Oak Chestnut 
produces seeds with the taste of filberts. 

Casuarina Decaisneana, F. v. Mueller. 

Central Australia, where it is the only species of the genus. 
The tree is one of the largest among its congeners, and par- 
ticularly valuable for arid, especially sandy regions. The wood 
is exceedingly hard, and resists the attacks of termites and also 
decay; the stem wood is straight and easily fissile (Rev. H. 

Casuarina distyla, Ventenat. 

Extra-tropical Australia. A shrubby species, well adapted 
for fixing the sand-drifts of sea coasts. All Casuarinas can be 
pollarded for cattle fodder. 

Casuarina equisetifolia, Forster. 

East Africa, South Asia, North Australia, Polynesia. Attains 
a maximum height of 150 feet. Splendid for fuel, giving great 
heat and leaving little ashes. The timber is tough, nicely 
marked. The tree will live in somewhat saline soil at the edge 
of the sea. Captain Campbell-Walker estimates the yield of 
firewood from this tree as four times as great as the return from 
any tree of the forests of France. Known to have grown in 10 
years to a height of 80 feet, but then only with a comparatively 
slender stem (Blechyndon). In India it grows on pure sand, 
and is much used as fuel for railway locomotives. It yields a 
lasting wood for piles of jetties and for underground work, and 
is much used for knees of boats and for tool handles (Wil- 
cox). The cost of raising Casuarinas in India has been from 
£ s \ to £\o per acre, and the return, after only eight years, ^13 

Casuarina Fraseriana, Miquel. 

South-Western Australia. A middle-sized tree; the wood 
easily split into shingles. The best furniture-wood of South- 
western Australia, as it does not rend. This tree is adapted 
even for sterile heath-land. 


Casuarina glauca, Sieber. 

Widely distributed through Australia, even in desert country, 
but nowhere forming forest-like masses. This species attains, 
in favorable places, a height of 80 feet. Its hard durable wood 
is valuable; used for staves (Woolls). Important for its rapid 
growth, its resistance to exposure, for shelter plantation, and its 
speedy supply of fuel, — a remark which applies also to the fol- 
lowing species. 

Casuarina quadrivalvis, La Billardiere. 

The Coast Sheoak of South-East Australia. Not living merely 
in coast-sand, but also on barren places reaching the inland 
hills. Height attaining 60 feet. The foliage of this species is 
drooping. The male tree is very eligible for avenues, but the 
female less sightly. Cattle are fond of the foliage. For arrest- 
ing the ingress of coast-sand by belts of timber this is one of 
the most important trees. It produces seed early and copiously, 
like other Casuarinas, and is easily raised. The foliage, like 
that of the other species, is acidulous from a crystallizable sub- 
stance allied to bicitrate of lime. 

Casuarina suberosa, Willdenow. 

The erect Sheoak of South-East Australia. Height reaching 
40 feet. A beautiful shady species. Casuarina trichodon 
(Miq.) and C. Huegeliana (Miq.) are arboreous species of 
South-West Australia, valuable for their wood. 

Casuarina torulosa, Aiton. 

New South Wales and Queensland. Attains a height of 70 
feet. The tough wood of this handsome tree is in demand for 
durable shingles and furniture work, as well as for staves and 
veneers; it is also one of the best for oven-fuel. 

Catalpa bignonioides, Walter.* 

On the Gulf of Mexico; Southern United States. A tree 
of remarkably rapid growth in warm humid climates, attain- 
ing a height of about 20 feet in four years. Professor 
Meehan observed a tree to attain a stem of 4 feet in 
diameter in twenty years, even in the latitude of New 
York. In many parts of the United States it is a favorite 
tree for shade-lines. When closely planted it will grow tall and 
straight, with a stem of 50 feet below the first branch. It 
prefers bottom lands, but will grow in any soil and position, 
according to Mr. Barney. It is hardier than most Eucalypts, 
but will not stand severe frosts. According to Professor Burrill, 
it is not liable to be destroyed by insects. Seeds when quite 
young. Professor Meehan considers the wood to be as durable 


as that of the best Chestnut trees; indeed, it lasts for an 
almost indefinite period. General Harrison insists that there is 
nothing like it for posts. Catalpa pickets of the old French 
stockade are still sound. Logs thrown across water-courses for 
crossing have lasted for three generations; railway posts and 
platforms of this wood are almost indestructible. Logs a 
century old, and posts half a century old, were not in the 
least decayed (Barney). Railway cross-ties made of this wood 
are also very durable, a tree twenty years old furnishing 
sufficient timber for four ties. Canoes of Catalpa-wood never 
crack or decay. 

Catalpa speciosa, Warder. 

In the Mississippi states. Hardier and taller than C. big- 
nonioides, blooming earlier; leaves inodorous, flowers larger, 
growth as rapid and wood as durable; also only with a very thin 
layer of destructible sapwood (Dr. Engelmann). Found to 
have attained in 40 years a stem circumference of 40 feet at 4 
feet from the ground (Letterman). 

Catalpa Kaempferi, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

Japan. Grows in eight years to about 25 feet in height, with 
a trunk of 2 feet circumference; bunches of flowers very large 
and fragrant (Hovey). Proved hardy at Christiania (Schue- 
beler). C. Bungei (Meyer) from North-China, or a closely 
allied species, can be grown for hedges. 

Catha edulis, Forskael. 

Arabia and Eastern Africa. The leaves of this shrub, under 
the designation of Kafta or Cat, are used for a tea of a very 
stimulating effect, to some extent to be compared to that of 
Erythroxylon Coca. To us the plant would be mainly valuable 
for medicinal purposes. 

Ceanothus rigidus, Nuttall. 

California. One of the best of hedge-shrubs, available for 
dry situations. Evergreen; 12 feet high; the branches becom- 
ing densely intricate. In the coast tracts it is replaced by C. 
thyrsiflorus (Esch.), which can also be used for hedges and 
copses, and will live in mere coast-sand. C. prostratus (Benth.) 
forms natural mats on slopes made by roads and slides, which 
it gradually covers, and with its pretty blue flowers soon 
decorates (Professor Bolander). Irrespective of their beauty, 
the different species are worthy of cultivation as forming excel- 
lent wind-breaks. A fair tea is made from the leaves of C. 
velutinus (Dr. Gibbons). Some species are relied on for forage- 


Cedrela Brasiliensis, A de Jussieu.* (C. fissilis, Velloza). 

South Brazil and Argentina, extending to Mexico. The tim- 
ber is soft, fragrant and easily worked ; it is known as Acajou 
wood. The wood of C. odorata (Linn£), from Central America, 
furnishes the principal material for cigar boxes (Laslett). The 
Surinam cedar-wood is furnished by C. Guianensis (A de 

Cedrela Sinensis, A de Jussieu.* 

China and Japan. An elegant tree, hardy in South Europe. 
It furnishes a wood not unlike that of the Singapore-cedar, red- 
dish in color, particularly sought for cigar boxes. 

Cedrela Taona, Roxburgh.* 

The Singapore-cedar. Foliage deciduous. One of the most 
important of all timber trees for furniture wood, which is easily 
worked, most sightly, and applicable also for a multitude of 
other purposes. Ascends the Himalayas 8,000 feet. 

Cedrela australis, F. v. Mueller.* 

Eastern Australia, as far south as 35 °. Foliage deciduous in 
cool regions. Attains a height of 200 feet. The Rev. Dr. 
Woolls noted in New South Wales trees so large as to yield 
30,000 feet (superficial) of timber. Market value in Brisbane 
£1 10s. to ^8 10s. per 1,000 superficial feet. The light, beau- 
tiful wood, easily worked and susceptible of high polish, is very 
much in request for furniture, for piano-cases, for turnery, in- 
cluding stethoscopes, for the manufacture of pianofortes, for 
boat-building, frames of window-blinds, and a variety of other 
work. The timber from the junction of the branches with the 
stem furnishes the choicest veneers. The bark contains a con- 
siderable quantity of tannin, which produces a purplish leather 
(Fawcett). The red cedar is hardy at Melbourne, but of slow 
growth in our open exposed gardens and poor soil. C. Taona, 
C. glabra (Cas. de Cand.) and C. microcarpa (C. de Cand.) all 
yield cedar-wood in Sikkim, according to Dr. Geo. King. 
C. serrata (Royle) grows at higher altitudes, and yields a differ- 
ent but also good timber (G. King). 

Cedrela Velloziana, Roemer. 

Brazil. A magnificent tree, with odorous wood of a red hue. 

Cedronella cordata, Bentham. 

United States of North America. A perennial herb, fragrant 
like the following. 


Cedronella triphylla, Moench. 

Madeira and Canary Islands. A shrubby plant with highly 
scented foliage. The volatile oil obtainable from it resembles 
that of Melissa, but is somewhat camphoric. 

Celtis australis, Linne. 

The lotus-tree of South Europe, North Africa and South 
Asia, ascending the Himalayas to 9,000 feet. Attains a height 
of about 50 feet. Though of rather slow growth, this tree can 
be used for avenues, as its stem finally reaches 6 feet in 
diameter. It is supposed that this Celtis reaches the age of 
fully 1,000 years. Berries edible. Wood hard and dense, eli- 
gible particularly for turners' and carvers' work. The stem 
wood is fine-grained, easily cleft, and of a splendid yellow 
tinge; the branch- wood is one of the best for whip-sticks. 

Celtis occidentalis, Linne. 

The hackberry-tree. North America. Height reaching to 
80 feet. The variety called C. crassifolia is the best. The 
sweet fruit edible. Wood elastic and fissile. 

Celtis Sinensis, Persoon. (C. Japonica, Planchon). 

China and Japan. The "Henoki." A tree bearing extreme 
cold. Wood useful for carpenters' and turners' work. Fruit 
edible, but small. 

Celtis Tala, Gillies. 

From Texas to the La Plata States. A thorny shrub, or, un- 
der favorable circumstances, a good-sized tree. This plant can 
be used for forming impenetrable hedges or shade avenues. One 
or two other Argentine species serve the same purpose. 

Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, Richard. 

Brazil, in mountain woods, consociated with Palms and 
Tree ferns. It is not unlikely that this herb, which is perennial 
and yields the important medicinal ipecacuanha root, would live 
in warmer, extra-tropic forest regions. Active principles: 
emetin and ipecacuanha acid. 

Cephalotaxus drupacea, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

China and Japan. This splendid Yew attains a height of 60 
feet, and is very hardy. According to Dr. Masters the C. For- 
tunei (Hooker) is merely a variety. 



Ceratonia Siliqua, Linn6.* 

The Carob-Tree of the Mediterranean regions. It attains a 
height of 30 feet and resists drought well; succeeds best on a 
calcareous subsoil. Wood pale red. The saccharine pods, 
Algaroba or St. John's Bread, of value for domestic animals. 
The seeds germinate readily. The exportation of the pods for 
cattle food from Creta is very large. The fruit yields a 
medicinal syrup, an imitation of chocolate, and a liqueur 
(Wittmack). In some of the Mediterranean countries horses 
and stable-cattle are almost exclusively fed upon the pods. 
The meat of sheep and pigs is greatly improved in flavor by this 
food, while its fattening properties are twice those of oil-cake. 
The pods contain about 66 per cent, of sugar and gum. To 
horses and cattle 6 lbs. a day are given of the crushed pods, raw 
or boiled, with or without chaff. The Spanish conquerors took 
this plant early to Central and South America. 

Ceratopetalum apetalum, Don. 

Extratropic East Australia. Height reaching 90 feet, diameter 
3 feet. A beautiful tree with long cylindrical stem. Wood 
soft, light, tough, close grained, of agreeable fragrance, good 
for joiners' and cabinet-makers' work, often in request for coach 
building and therefore called coach wood by the colonists. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius, Nuttall. 

California. Becomes in favorable spots a tree 40 feet in 
height, with a stem-diameter of 2)4 feet. The wood is the 
hardest known in California. It is of a dark color, very dense, 
used for bearings in machinery (Dr. Gibbons). C. parvifolius 
is of lesser dimensions. 

Cereus Engelmanni, Parry. 

Utah. A dwarf species with large scarlet flowers, and re- 
freshingly cool fruits of strawberry-flavor. C. Lecomtei attains 
there the size of a flour-barrel. 

Cereus Quixo, Gay. 

Chili. This stately Cactus attains a height of 15 feet, and is 
one of the hardiest species. The charming snow-white flowers 
are followed by sweetish mucilaginous fruits, available for the 
table (Philippi). C. giganteus (Engelmann), from New 
Mexico, which attains the stupendous height of 60 feet, with a 
proportionate columnar thickness, also yields edible fruit, and 
lives unprotected at Port Phillip. It was introduced by the 
writer many years ago. Columnar species of Cereus rising to a 
height of 40 feet occur also in Argentina. C. repandus and C. 
triangularis (Haworth), of the West Indies and Mexico, together 


with several other species, are available as hedge plants in 
places free from frost. Nee speaks of a Mexican Cactus 
(probably an Echinocactus) five feet in diameter by 3 feet in 

Ceroxylon andicola, Humboldt.* 

The Wax-palm of New Granada, ascending the Andes to 
11,000 feet. One of the most majestic and at the same time 
one of the most hardy of all Palms, attaining occasionally a 
height of 180 feet. The trunk exudes a kind of resinous wax, 
about 25 lbs. being obtainable at a time from each stem; this, 
after the admixture of tallow, is used for candles. There are 
several other Andine palms which could be reared in Australian 
forests or in sheltered positions about our dwellings. 

Ceroxylon australe, Martius. 

Juan Fernandez, latitude 34 south, on the higher mountains. 

Ceroxylon Klopstockia, Martius. 

Venezuela. This very tall Wax-palm reaches elevations of 
6,000 feet. 

Cervantesia tomentosa, Ruiz and Pavon. 

Forest mountains of Peru. This tree yields edible seeds. It 
is likely to prove hardy in lower forest regions of the warmer 
extratropic countries. 

Cestrum nocturnum, Linne. 

West Indies, South Mexico. Praised above almost all other 
plants for its fragrance in Mexico, its flowers lasting through the 
summer and autumn, and their scent being particularly power- 
ful at night (Dr. Barroeta). 

Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Linne. 

Middle Europe and Western Asia. The parsnip-chervil. A 
biennial herb. The root a very palatable culinary esculent, 
three times as rich in starch as potatoes. 

Chaerophyllum sativum, Lamarck. {Anthriscus Cere folium, Hoffmann). 

The Chervil. Middle and Southern Europe, Western Asia. 
An annual herb, available for salads and condiments, but the 
root deleterious. 

Chamffirops excelsa, Thunberg.* (Trachycarpus excelsus, Wendland). 

Southern China, as far north as Napong, also in Japan. This 
Fan-palm is highly desirable, although not tall, as the 
name would indicate. The hardiest of all palms; has 
stood 3 F. with only a slight litter (Count de Saporta). Hardy 


in the mild middle coast-regions of England. Cordage 
prepared from the leaves does not decay in water (Dupont). 
The hairy covering of the stem of this palm and of 
Livistona Chinensis is utilized for fixing lime-plaster to 
buildings in Japan (Christie). C. Fortunei (Hooker), the 
Chusan-palm from North China, is a variety. It attains a 
height of about 12 feet, and endures considerable frost. The 
leaves can be employed for plaiting palm-hats. Other hardy 
palms might be naturalized and used for various purposes, irre- 
spective of their ornamental features. 

Chamaerops humilis, Linne. 

The Dwarf Fan-palm of South Europe, North Africa, and 
the most southwestern parts of Asia. It is very ornamental for 
gardens and plantations, and particularly eligible for scenic 

Chamaerops Khasyana, Griffith. 

In the Himalayas at elevations of from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 
Allied to C. Martiana. Also, according to Kurz, in dry pine- 
forests of Martaban and Ava. 

Chamaerops Martiana, Wallich. 

Ascends the mountains of Nepal to 5,000 feet. Attains a 
height of 50 feet, and is altogether a noble object. Reaches 
higher altitudes in the Himalayas than any other species. 

Chamaerops Ritchieana, Griffith. (Nannorhops Ritchieana, H. Wendland). 

Arid mountains of Afghanistan; seemingly the only native 
palm there extensively used for cordage. Leaves also made 
into baskets and mats; fruit locally used like dates (Dr. Aitkin- 
son). Has proved hardy even in England. 

Chelidonium majus, Linne. 

The Celandine. Europe and Western Asia. A perennial 
herb of medicinal value. Chemical principles: chelerythrin and 
chelidonin; also a yellow pigment, chelidoxanthin. 

Chenopodium ambrosioides, Linne. 

Tropical and subtropical America. An annual medicinal 
herb. Chenopodium anthelminthicum seems to be a perennial 
variety of this species. Easily naturalized. 

Chenopodium auricomum, Lindley. 

Australia, from the Darling river to Carpentaria and 
Arnheim's Land. A tall perennial herb, furnishing a nutritious 
and palatable spinage. It will live in arid desert-regions. It is 


one of the "Blue Bushes" of the squatters. Several other 
species of Chenopodium, among them the European C. bonus 
Henricus, afford fair spinage, but they are annual. 

Chenopodium Blitum, F. v. Mueller. {Blitum virgatum, Linne). 

From South Europe to India. An annual herb, extensively 
in use there as a cultivated spinage-plant. The fruits furnish 
a red dye. The genus Blitum was reduced to Chenopodium by 
the writer in Caruel's Nuovo Giomale Botanico some years ago, 
and in 1864 by Dr. Ascherson, who gave to B. virgatum the 
name Chenopodium foliosum. C. capitatum, Ascherson {Blitum 
capitatum, Linne) may not be really a distinct species. Some 
of this group of plants are useful to anglers, attracting fish 
when thrown into rivers or lakes. 

Chenopodium nitrariaceum, F. v. Mueller. 

Interior of Australia, especially in localities, occasionally 
humid, reaching in some places the south coast. A rather tall 
"Salt-bush" liked particularly by sheep. 

Chenopodium Quinoa, Willdenow. 

New Granada, Peru, Chili. An annual herb. Admitted here 
as a savory and wholesome spinage-plant, which can be grown 
so quickly as to become available during the short summers 
of even the highest habitable alpine altitudes. In Peru the 
seeds are used for a nutritious porridge. (Tschudi, Markham). 

Chionachne cyathopoda, F. v. Mueller. 

Tropical and Eastern Sub-tropical Australia. With C. bar- 
bata of India and Queensland a valuable fodder-grass, yielding 
a large return. Sclerachne punctata (R. Brown) from Java is 
closely allied. 

Chloris scariosa, F. v. Mueller. 

Tropical Australia. Particularly recommended by Mr. 
Walter Hill as a pasture grass. Dr. Curl mentions, besides this, 
C. divaricata (R. Brown), from North and East Australia, as a 
useful summer and autumn grass. 

Chloris truncata, R. Brown. 

The Windmill-grass. Southeastern Australia, as far south 
as Port Phillip. This perennial and showy grass is regarded 
by Mr. Walter Bissill as an excellent summer and autumn grass, 
of ready growth and relished by grazing animals. C. ventricosa 
(R. Br.) is another valuable East Australian species. Several 
other congeners from the eastern and western world deserve the 
attention of graziers. 


Chlorogalum pomeridianum, Kunth. 

California, frequent on mountains. This lily-like plant 
attains a height of 8 feet. The heavy bulb is covered with 
many coatings, consisting of fibers, which are used for cushions, 
mattresses, etc. ; contracts are entered into for the supply of this 
material on a very extensive scale (Professor Bolander). 
The inner part of the bulb serves as a substitute for 
soap, and the possibility of utilizing it for technological pur- 
poses like the root of Saponaria, might be tested, as it con- 
tains saponin. 

Chloroxylon Swietenia, De Candolle. 

The Satin-wood. Mountains of India. Like the allied 
Flindersias, possibly this tree would prove hardy in sheltered 
places of milder extra-tropic latitudes, the cognate Cedrela 
Taono advancing in East Australia southward to the 35th 
degree. A resin, valuable for varnishes, exudes from the stem 
and branches. 

Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, Trevisan. (Pyrethrum cineraria folium.) 

Austria. Furnishes the Dalmatian Insect-powder. It is 
superior even to the Persian powder as an insecticide. 
It will keep for years. It is prepared from half-opened 
flowers during dry weather, and exsiccated under cover. Best 
applied in puffs from a tube. To be used also against aphides 
(W. Saunders). [See further U. S. Agricultural Report for 

Chrysanthemum roseum, Adam. (Pyrethrum roseum, Bieb.). 

Sub-alpine South-West Asia. This perennial herb, with C 
coronopifolium (VVilldenow) yields the Persian insect-powder. 

Cicer arietihum, Linne. 

South Europe and Orient. The Gram or Chick Pea. An 
annual herb, valuable as a pulse for stable-food, but an exten- 
sive article also of human diet in India. Colonel Sykes counted 
as many as 170 seeds on one plant. In Spain, next to wheat, 
the most extensively used plant for human food (Honorable 
Caleb Cushing). The seeds can be converted into pea-meal or 
they can be used otherwise for culinary purposes. 

Cichorium Endivia, Linne. 

South Europe, Orient, Middle Asia. A biennial plant, used 
even in ancient times as a culinary vegetable. In Norway it 
grows to lat. 70 (Schuebeler). 


Cichorium Intybus, Linne. 

Chicory. A well-known perennial plant, indigenous to 
Europe, North Africa and North West Asia. The roots much 
used as a substitute for coffee. This plant requires a rich, deep, 
loamy soil, but fresh manure is detrimental to the value of the 
root. It is also a good fodder plant, especially for sheep. The 
root can be dressed and boiled for culinary purposes; the leaves 
are useful for salad. Hardy in Norway to lat. 63 30' (Shue- 

Cimicifuga racemosa, Elliott. 

The Black Snake-Root of North America. A perennial herb 
of medicinal value, the root possessing emetic properties. 

Cinchona Calisaya, Ruiz and Pavon.* 

Yellow Peruvian-Bark Tree. Andes of Peru, New Granada, 
Brazil and Bolivia, 5,000 to 6,000 feet above the ocean. This 
tree attains a height of 40 feet. It yields the Yellow Bark and 
also part of the Crown Bark. It is one of the richest yielders 
of quinine, and also produces cinchonidin, but yields little 
of other alkaloids. The most valuable species in Bengal, brav- 
ing occasional night frost. This has flowered at Berwick (Vic- 
toria) already, seven years ago, under the care of Mr. G. W. 
Robinson, from plants supplied by the author, therefore as far 
south as Port Phillip. It grows under conditions more limited 
than those of C. succirubra, nor is it so easily propagated. All 
of its varieties do not furnish bark of equal value. The Santa 
Fe variety ascends the Andes of New Granada 10,000 feet, and 
produces the highly valuable soft Columbia-bark. The variety 
Ledgeriana comes from Brazil, southeast of Lake Titicaca. 
Its bark yielded in Java 11 to 12 per cent, of quinine. 

Renewed bark, obtained by covering the stem where the bark 
has been removed with moss or matting, according to Mr. 
MTvor's method, realized double the ordinary market price, 
and in C. succirubra even more (Woodhouse). Young Cin- 
chona plants are subject to the attacks of Helopeltis Antonii, 
which insect preys also on the Tea-bush. 

Cinchona cordifolia, Mutis.* 

Peru and New Granada on the Andes, at between 6,000 and 
8,000 feet elevation, and, according to Mr. Willis Weaver, at 
Bogota (probably under the shelter of forests) up to the frosty 
region of 9,500 feet. Provides the hard Cartagena-bark, or 
West Pitaya-bark, one extremely rich in alkaloids. It is a spe- 
cies of robust constitution, grows with rapidity and vigor. The 
thickest bark is obtained in the highest altitudes, which are 
often involved in misty humidity by passing clouds. (Cross). 


Cinchona micrantha, Ruiz and Pavon. 

Cordilleras of Bolivia and Peru. This tree attains a height 
of 60 feet, and from it part of the Grey and Huanuco-Bark, as 
well as Lima-Bark, are obtained. It is comparatively rich in 
cinchonin and quinidin; contains, however, also quinine. 

Cinchona nitida, Ruiz and Pavon. 

Andes of Peru and Ecuador. This tree rises to 80 feet under 
favorable circumstances. It also yields Grey Bark and Huanuco 
Bark, besides Loxa-Bark. It will probably prove one of the 
hardiest species. It contains predominantly cinchonin and 

Cinchona officinalis, Linne (partly).* {Cinchona Condaminea, Humboldt). 

Andes of New Granada and Peru, at a height of 6,000 to 
10,000 feet. Yields Crown or Brown Peruvian-bark, besides 
part of the Loxa-bark. Comparatively rich in quinine and cin- 
chonidin. The temperature of the middle regions of the Andes, 
where this tree grows, is almost the same as that of the 
Canary Islands. Superabundance of moisture is particularly 
pernicious to this species. The Crispilla variety endures a 
temperature occasionally as low as 27° F. 
Cinchona lancifolia (Mutis) is considered by Weddell a variety of C. 
officinalis. This grows where the mean annual temperature 
is that of Rome, with, however, less extremes of heat and cold. 
It yields part of the Pitaya-Bark. 
Cinchona Pitayensis must also be referred to C. officinalis as a 
variety. This attains a height of 60 feet and furnishes also a 
portion of the Pitaya-bark. It is this particular cinchona which 
in Upper India yielded in some instances the unprecedented 
quantity of 11 per cent, alkaloids, nearly 6 per cent, quinine, 
the rest quinidin and cinchonin; this plant is now annihilated 
for bark purposes in its native forests. 

Cinchonas raised from seeds provided by the writer of this 
work have withstood the frosts of San Francisco (G. P. Rixford.) 

The Uritusinga or Loza-variety grows in its native forests to 
a height of 60 feet and more (Pavon), and attained in Ceylon 
in fifteen years a height of 28 feet with a stem-girth of nearly 
2 feet. The price of its bark in 1879 was about 7s. per pound, 
and of renewed bark ns. Mr. M'lvor obtained 6,850 cuttings 
from one imported plant in twenty months; but all Cinchona 
produce seeds copiously, so that the raising of great numbers 
of plants can be effected with remarkable facility. The bark 
has yielded 7.4 to 10.0 per cent, sulphate of quinine (Howard). 

In Java some of the best results were obtained with Cinchona 
Hasskarliana, Miq., a species seemingly as yet not critically 


Cinchona succirubra, Pavon.* 

Middle Andine regions of Peru and Ecuador. A tree attain- 
ing a height of 40 feet, yielding the Red Peru Bark, rich in 
quinine and cinchonidin. It is this species which is predomi- 
nantly cultivated on the mountains of Bengal. It has been 
found hardy in Lower Gippsland and the Westernport District 
of Victoria. It grew in Madeira at an elevation of 500 feet, 
after having been planted two and a half years, to a height of 
20 feet, flowering freely. 

All these cinchonas promise to become of importance for 
culture in the warmest regions of extratropical countries, 
on places not readily accessible or eligible for cereal cul- 
ture. The Peruvian proverb that cinchona trees like to be 
"within sight of snow" gives some clue to the conditions 
under which they thrive best. They delight in the shelter of 
forests, where there is an equable temperature, no frost, some 
humidity at all times both in air and soil, where the ground is 
deep and largely consists of the remnants of decayed vegetable 
substances, and where the subsoil is open. Drippage from 
shelter-trees too near will be hurtful to the plants. Closed val- 
leys and deep gorges, into which cold air will sink, are also 
not well adapted for cinchona culture. The cinchona-region 
may be considered as interjacent between the coffee and the 
tea-region, or nearly coinciding with that of the Assam tea. 
Cross found the temperature of some of the best natural 
cinchona regions to fluctuate between 35 ° and 6o° F. We 
ought to consociate the Peru-bark plants with naturally-grow- 
ing fern trees, but only in the warmest valleys and richest soil. 
The best temperature for cinchonas is from 53 to 66° F.; but 
for the most part they will endure in open places a minimum of 
32 F.; in the brush shades of the Botanic Garden of Melbourne, 
where many years ago cinchonas were raised by the thousand, 
they have even resisted uninjured a temperature of a few de- 
grees less, wherever the wind had no access, while under such 
very slight cover the cinchonas withstood also a heat of a few 
degrees over ioo° F. 

The plants are most easily raised from seed, best under 
some cover such as mats, and they seed copiously a few 
years after planting. C. succirubra, first introduced into 
California by the writer of this work, together with the 
principal other species, thrives well in the lower coast- 
ranges as far north as San Francisco; better indeed than 
C. Calisaya, according to Dr. Herman Behr. The quantity 
of alkaloids in the bark can be much increased by artifi- 
cial treatment, if the bark is only removed to about one-third 
on one side of the stem and the denuded part covered with 
moss or straw matting (kept moist), under which in one year as 


much bark is formed as otherwise requires three years' growth, 
— such forced bark moreover containing the astounding quan- 
tity of 25 per cent, alkaloids, because no loss of these 
precious substances takes place by gradual disintegration 
through age. The root-bark of some cinchonas has proved to 
contain as much as 8 per cent, of alkaloids (see Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1877, p. 212). The income from Java plantations is 
considerably over double the cost of the expenses of culture 
and transit. Mr. Howard's opinion that cinchonas in low land 
plantations produce a far less quantity of alkaloids needs 
further confirmation, particularly regarding the valuable quinine 
and cinchonidin. 

The cinchona plants are set out at distances of about 
6 feet. The harvest of bark begins in the fourth or fifth 
year. The price varies in Europe from 2s. to 9s. per lb., 
according to quality. The limits assigned to this literary com- 
pilation do not admit of entering further into details on this 
occasion; but I may add that in the Darjeeling district over 
three millions of cinchona plants were already in cultivation in 
1869, in Government plantations. Cultivation of cinchona for 
commercial purposes was first initiated in Java through Dr. 
Hasskarl in 185 1. In 1880, 240,000 lbs. of bark were already 
exported from this island. The British harvest in the Madras 
Presidency alone amounted to 150,000 lbs. in 1875. Dr. G. 
King reports in 1880 that four million trees of Cinchona succi- 
rubra are now under his control in the Sikkim plantations. 
This has proved the hardiest species; it grows under a wide 
range of conditions, and seeds freely; thus it is the most valu- 
able cinchona in the elevations of Sikkim. In the Neilgherries 
more than 600,000 cinchona plants were distributed from the 
Government plantations in 1879, and 1,322 lbs. of seed (Barlow), 
from 80,000 to 250,000 seedlings being obtained from one pound 
of seed, as almost every grain will grow. All its varieties pro- 
duce bark of great value. The total amount of alkaloids is at 
an average 4 per cent. If the trees were cut every seven or 
eight years, and simultaneous replanting should take place, Dr. 
King could keep up an annual supply of 366,000 lbs. of bark. 
The total number of deaths of the Indian population from fever 
is considered to approach a million and a half annually. 

Cinna Arundinacea, Linne. 

North- America. There recorded as good fodder-grass; peren- 
nial, somewhat sweet-scented. Particularly adapted for forest- 
meadows. Blyttia suaveolens (Fries) is, according to Dr. Asa 
Gray, a variety with pendent flowers. 


Cinnamomum Camphora, Fr. Nees.* 

The Camphor tree of China and Japan north to Kinsin, at- 
taining a height of about 40 feet. It endures the occasional 
frosts of a clime like that of Port Phillip, though the foliage 
will suffer. The wood, like all other parts of the tree, is per- 
vaded by camphor; hence resists the attacks of insects. The 
well known camphor is obtained by distilling or boiling the 
chopped wood and root; the subsequently condensed camphoric 
mass is subjected to a purifying sublimation process. 

Cinnamomum Cassia, Blume. 

South China. It is not unlikely that this tree, which pro- 
duces the Chinese cinnamon or the so-called Cassia lignea, may 
prove hardy outside the tropics. Sir Joseph Hooker found on 
the Khasya mountains up to 6,000 feet three cinnamons pro- 
ducing this Cassia bark — namely, C. obtusifolium, C. pauciflo- 
rum and C. Tamala, the latter extending to Queensland. Dr. 
Thwaites notes the true Cinnamon tree (C. Zeilanicum, Breyn), 
even up to 8,ooo feet in Ceylon, but the most aromatic bark 
comes from lower altitudes. Cinnamon leaves yield a fragrant 
oil, and the root gives camphor. Mr. Ch. Ford has ascertained 
that the Chinese cut Cinnamomum Cassia when 6 years old, the 
time chosen being from March to May, after which season the 
bark loses much of its aroma. The branches are cut to near 
the root. The leaves on distillation afford the Cassia oil 
much used for condiments. 

Cinnamomum Loureiroi, Nees. 

Cochin China and Japan. A middle sized tree. The leaves 
locally in use as a condiment and for perfumery. 

Cistus creticus, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. This shrub, with C. 
cyprius (Lam.) furnishes the best ladanum-resin. Other species 
yield a less fragrant produce. 

Citrus Aurantium, Linn6.* 

The Orange (in the widest sense of the word). A native of 
South Asia. A tree of longevity; thus a tree at Versailles 
known as the "Grand Bourbon" is still in existence, though 
planted in 142 1. Stems of very good Orange trees have 
gained such a size as to require two men to clasp them. If 
intervening space exist in orangeries, they might be used 
for raising herbaceous honey plants. Any specific differ- 
ences, to distinguish C. Aurantium from C. Medica, if they 
once existed, are obliterated now through hybridization, at 
least in the cultivated forms. In Central India a peculiar 


variety is under culture, producing two crops a year. The 
blossoms of February and March yield their ripe fruit in Novem- 
ber and December, whereas from the flowers of July mature 
fruits are obtained in March and April. To prevent exhaustion 
only alternate fruiting is allowed. It is not unusual for orange 
trees to continue in full bearing for 60 or 70 years, and after that 
the wood is still valued for its durability, fragrance and beauty. 
The Sorrento honey derives its delicious perfume from orange 
flowers, and it has become classical as the best, and analogous 
to that of Hymethus (Laura Redden). As prominent varieties 
of C. Aurantium, the following may be distinguished: — 

Citrus Bergamium, Risso. From the fruit rind of this variety 
Bergamotte oil is obtained; the flowers also yield oil. The 
Mellarosa variety furnishes a superior oil and exquisite confit- 

Citrus Bigaradia, Duhamel. The Bitter Orange. This fur- 
nishes from its flowers the Neroli oil, so delicious and costly as a 
perfume. It is stated that orange flowers to the value of ^50 
might be gathered from the plants of an acre within a year. 
The rind of the fruit is used for candied orange peel. Bitter 
principle; hesperidin in the rind, limonin in the seed. 

Citrus decumana, Linne. The Shaddock or Pompelmos. The 
fruit will exceptionally attain a weight of 20 pounds. The pulp 
and thick rind can both be used for preserves. 

Citrus dulcis, Volkamer. The Sweet Orange, of which many 
kinds occur. The St. Michael Orange has been known to bear 
in the Azores on sheltered places 20,000 fruits on one tree in 
a year. Navel oranges weighing 19 ounces have been obtained 
at Rockhampton; other varieties have been known to reach 
3 pounds (Thozet) Neroli oil is also obtained from the flowers 
of this and allied varieties. The oil of orange-peel might be 
used as a cheap and pleasant one for distilling with its costly 
odorous substances. 

Citrus nobilis, Loureiro. The Mandarin Orange. The thin peel 
separates most readily from the deliciously flavored sweet pulp. 
There are large and small fruited Mandarin oranges; the Tan- 
gerine variety is one of them. Some varieties are excellent for 
hedges, for which they are much used in Japan. Burnt earth 
is valuable as an admixture to soil in orangeries. 

Citrus Australasica, F. v. Mueller. 

Coast forests of Extra-tropical East Australia. A shrubby 
species, with oblong or almost cylindrical fruits of lemon-like 
taste, measuring 2 to 4 inches in length. They are thus very 
much larger than those of Atalantia glauca of the coast and the 
desert interior of tropic Australia, which are also of similar 


taste. These plants are entered on this list, together with the 
following, merely to draw attention to them as probably capable 
of improvement in their fruit through culture. 

Citrus Japonica, Thunberg. 

The Kumquat of Japan. A shrubby Citrus with fruits of the 
size of a gooseberry, from which on account of their sweet peel 
and acid pulp an excellent preserve can be prepared. 

Citrus Medica, Linne. 

The Citron (in the widest sense of the word). Indigenous to 
Southern Asia. For the sake of convenience it is placed here 
as distinct from C. Aurantium. As prominent varieties of the 
Citrus Medica may be distinguished: — 

Citrus Cedra, Gallesio. The true citron. From the acid tuber- 
cular fruit essential oil and citric acid can be obtained, irrespec- 
tive of the ordinary culinary use of the fruit. A large variety 
with thick rind furnishes candied the citrionate or succade. The 
Cedra oil comes from a particular variety. 

Citrus Limonium, Risso. The true lemon. Lemon-juice is largely 
pressed from the fruit of this variety, while the thin, smooth, 
aromatic peel serves for the production of volatile oil or for 
condiments. The juice of this fruit is particularly rich in citric 
acid. A large variety is the Rosaline Lemon. 

Citrus Limetta, Risso. The true lime. The best lime-juice is 
obtained from this variety, of which the Perette constitutes a 
form. Less hardy than most other varieties. The Lime is one 
of the best and most enduring hedge-plants for warmer 
countries (H. A. Wickham). 

Citrus Aumia, Risso. The Sweet lemon, including the Pear 
lemon with large pear-shaped fruit. Rind thick and pale ; 
pulp not acid. This variety serves for particular condiments. 

Citrus trifoliata, Linne. Japan. Much grown as a hedge-shrub 
in its native country; used often as stock for grafting oranges 

Citrus Planchoni, F. v. Mueller. (C. Australis, Planchon, partly). 

Forests near the coast of Sub-tropic East Australia. A noble 
tree, fully 40 feet high, or, according to C. Hartmann, even 60 
feet high, with globular fruit about the size of walnuts, called 
in Australia native oranges. The species first appeared 
under the above name in the " Report on the Vegetable Pro- 
ducts of the Intercolonial Exhibition of 1867." Its beautiful 
wood takes a high polish; hence it is made use of for the finest 


Cladrastis tinctoria, Rafinesque. 

Yellow wood. North America. The wood of this tree pro- 
duces a saffron-yellow dye. 

Clavaria botrytis, Persoon. 

Europe. This and the following are species admitted for 
sale among Silesian mushrooms, according to Dr. Goeppert : 
C. brevipes (Krombholz), C. flava, C. formosa, C. grisea (Per- 
soon), C. muscoides (L.), C. aurea (Schaeffer), C. palmata 
(Scop.), C. crispa (Wulfen). Morren mentions as much con- 
sumed in Belgium, C. fastigiata (L.). All Clavarias seem 
adapted for human sustenance; their growth should therefore 
be encouraged. 

Clinostigma Mooreanum, F. v. Mueller. (Kentia Mooreana, F. v. M.). 

Dwarf-palm of Lord Howe's Island, where it occurs only on 
the summits of the mountains, at about 3,000 feet elevation. 
Likely to prove one of the hardiest of all palms. 

Coccoloba uvifera, Jacquin. 

Central America, northward to Florida. A tree attaining a 
large size, fit for sandy sea-shores. The dark-blue sweet or 
acidulous berries are edible. A kind of kino is obtained from 
the bark; the wood yields a red dye. Dr. Rosenthal notes as 
likewise producing edible fruits: — C. nivea (Jacq.), C. pubes- 
cens (L.), C. excoriata (L.), C. fiavescens (Jacq.), C. diversi- 
folia (Jacq.). C. Leoganensis (Jacq.) is also a coast-tree; other 
species belong to forest regions of mountains. They are all 
natives of the warmer zones of America. 

Cochlearia Armoracia, Linne. (Nasturtium Armoracia, Fr.). 

The Horse-radish. Middle Europe and Western Asia. 
Perennial. The volatile oil of the root allied to that of mus- 

Cochlearia officinalis, Linne. (Nasturtium officinale, R. Br.) 

Water cress. Shores of Middle and North Europe, North 
Asia and North America. A biennial herb, like the allied C. 
Anglica and C. Danica, valuable as an antiscorbutic, hence 
deserving naturalization. It contains a peculiar volatile oil. 

Cocos Australis, Martius. 

From Brazil to Uruguay and the La Plata States. One of 
the hardiest of all palms, hardier than even the Date palm, 
withstanding unprotected a cold at which oranges and 
almonds are injured or destroyed. It remained perfectly 
uninjured at Antibes at a temperature of 15 F. (Naudin). 
C. pityrophylla ascends the Andes to 7,800 feet (de Den- 


Cocos flexuosa, Martius. 

Brazil, extending far south. This slender but not tall decora- 
tive Palm belongs to the dry Cactus region with C. coronata, 
C. capitata, Astrocaryum campestre, Diplothemium campestre 
and Acrocomia sclerocarpa (Martius). Cocos coronata withstood 
at Hyeres a temperature of 22 F. (Bonnet). 

Cocos regia, Liebmann. 

Mexico, up to 2,500 feet. A Palm of enormous height; al- 
most sure to prove hardy in the mildest extratropic latitudes. 

Cocos Romanzoffiana, Chamisso. 

Extra-tropic Brazil. This noble Palm attains a height of 
40 feet. 

Cocos Yatay, Martius.* 

Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and Argentina. Forms dis- 
tinct forests mainly with C. Australis and C. Datil (Drude). 
The last mentioned bears date-like fruits, according to Dr. 

Coffea Arabica, Linne. 

Mountains of South-Western Abyssinia. The Coffee-plant. 
This shrub or small tree has been admitted into this list, not 
without great hesitation, merely to avoid passing it without 
mention. The cultivation within extra-tropical boundaries can 
only be tried with any prospect of success in the warmest 
and at the same time moistest regions, frost being detri- 
mental to the coffee-plant. In Ceylon the coffee regions 
are between 1,000 and 5,000 feet above the ocean, but 
Dr. Thwaites observes that the plant succeeds best at an 
elevation of from 3,000 to 4,500 feet, in places where 
there is a rainfall of about 100 inches a year. The tem- 
perature there hardly ever rises above 8o° F., and almost never 
sinks below 45 F. Coffee requires moist weather whilst it 
ripens its fruit, and a season of drier weather to form its wood. 
Average yield in Ceylon 4 to 5 cwt. per acre. An extraordi- 
narily prolific variety of coffee was introduced twenty years ago 
by the writer of this work into Fiji, where it now forms the 
main plantations. The Coffee-plant has been found hardy as 
far north as Florida. For many particulars see the papers of 
the Planters' Association of Kandy. Chemical principles : 
caffein, a peculiar tannic acid and quinic acid. The loss sus- 
tained in 1878 alone by the ravages of parasitic fungus growth 
on coffee plants in Ceylon amounted to ^2,000,000, the total loss 
since 1869 from this source reaching ^£15,000,000 (Abbay). The 
destruction of this Coffee-leaf Fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) is 


effected by applying flour of sulphur, particularly in dewy 
weather, and by dressing the ground with quicklime (Morris). 
See also essay by Mr. T. Dyer, in Journal of Microsc. Soc. New 
series, vol. XX. In America coffee plantations have suffered 
not only from the attacks of an erysiphoid fungus, but also the 
Cemiostoma fly. Coffee leaves have recently come into use 
similarly to tea. 

Coffea Liberica, Bull. 

The Liberian Coffee-plant, distinguished already by Afzelius. 
According to Dr. Imray this species has shown immunity from 
the Cemiostoma fly, and it is less affected by the Hemileia 
mould. It grows to the size of a real tree, is a rich bearer, and 
the berries are larger than those of the ordinary coffee bush; 
but the (useless) pulp is about twice as large in proportion to 
the seeds. The fruit requires a longer time to ripen (a year), 
but this species can be grown in hot tropical countries down to 
the coast (Lietze; Regel). 

Colchicum autumnale, Linne. 

The Meadow-Saffron. Middle and South Europe, West Asia. 
The seeds and roots of this pretty bulbous-tuberous herb are 
important for medicinal use. The plant has been introduced 
into Australia by the writer with a view to its naturalization on 
moist meadows in our ranges. Active principle: colchicin. The 
plant has proved hardy in Norway to lat. 67°56' (Schuebeler). 

Colocasia antiquorum, Schott.* 

The Taro. From Egypt through South Asia to the South- 
Sea Islands; apparently also indigenous in the warmer parts of 
East Australia. The stem-like, tuberous, starchy roots lose 
their acidity by the process of boiling, roasting or baking. It 
is the Kolkas of the Arabs and Egyptians, and one of their 
most esteemed and abundant vegetables. Immense quantities 
are harvested and kept during the winter. A splendid starch is 
obtainable from the tubers of this and the following species. 
The plant proves hardy as far south as Melbourne. Cultivated 
as far south as New Zealand. The tops of the tubers are 
replanted for a new crop. Taro requires a rich, moist soil, and 
would grow well on banks of rivers. For scenic culture it is a 
very decorative plant. Colocasia esculenta is a variety of this 

Colocasia Indica, Kunth. (Alocasia Indica, Schott). 

South Asia, South-Sea Islands and Eastern Australia. Culti- 
vated for its stem and tubers on swamps or rivulets. This 
stately plant will rise in favorable localities to a height of 12 


feet, the edible trunk attaining a considerable thickness, the 
leaves sometimes measuring 3 feet in length. In using the stem 
and root for food great care is needed to expel all acridity by 
some heating process. Colocasia odoraand C. macrorrhiza seem 
varieties of this species. Several other aroid plants deserve 
attention for test-culture on account of their edible roots, 
among them Cyrtosperma edule, Seeman, from the Fiji Islands. 

Combretum butyraceum, Caruel. 

The Butter-tree of Caffraria and other parts of South-East 
Africa. The Caffirs call the fatty substance obtained from this 
tree Chiquito. It is largely used by them as an admixture to 
their food, and is also exported. It contains about one-quarter 
olein and three-quarters margarin. This butter-like fat is ex- 
tracted from the fruit, and is of an aromatic flavor. The tree 
should be hardy in the warmer and milder parts of extra-tropical 

Comptonia asplenifolia, Solander. 

The Sweet-Fern. North America. This dwarf shrub is 
perhaps quite worthy of dissemination on sterile hills, as the 
foliage contains nearly 10 per cent, of tannin, an extract of 
which has come into the tanning trade. 

Condalia microphylla, Cavanilles. 

The Piquillin. Chili and Argentina. Bush yielding sweet, 
edible, succulent fruit. 

Conium maculatum, Linne. 

The Poison Hemlock. Europe, North Africa, North and 
West Asia. A biennial herb, important for medicinal purposes. 
It should, however, not be allowed to stray from its plantations, 
as it is apt to be confounded with culinary species of Anthris- 
cus, Chaerophyllum and Myrrhis, and may thus cause, as a most 
dangerous plant, disastrous mistakes. Active principles: coniin 
in the fruit, also conhydrin. 

Conopodium denudatum, Koch. 

Western Europe. The small tuberous roots of this herb, 
when boiled or roasted, are available for food, and known as 
Earth Chestnuts. The plant is allied to Carum Bulbocastanum. 

Conospermum Stcechadis, Endlicher. 

West Australia. The question has arisen whether this shrub, 
with C. triplinervium (R. Brown), ought to be introduced into 
any desert country. All kinds of pasture animals browse with 
avidity on the long, tender and downy flower stalks and spikes 
without touching the foliage, thus not destroying the plant by 
close cropping. 


Convolvulus floridus, Linne, fil. 

Canary Islands. A shrubby species, not climbing or winding. 
With C. scoparius it yields the Atlantic Rosewood from stem 
and root. 

Convolvulus Scammonia, Linne. 

Mediterranean regions and Asia Minor. A perennial herb. 
The purgative drug,. Scammonia resin, is obtained from the 
root, which will grow 2 feet long. Plants readily raised from 
seeds. To obtain the drug a portion of the root is laid bare, 
and into incisions made some shells are inserted to collect the 
juice, which is daily removed (Maw). 

Copernicia cerifera, Martius.* 

Brazil, extending into Bolivia and Argentina. This magnificent 
Fan Palm has been proved to be hardy as far south as Sydney, 
by Mr. Charles Moore. It resists drought in a remarkable de- 
gree, and prospers also on a somewhat saline soil. The stem 
furnishes starch; the sap yields sugar; the fibers of the leaves 
are converted into ropes, which resist decay in water; it can 
also be used for mats, hats, baskets and brooms, and many other 
articles are prepared from the leaves. The inner part of the 
leaf-stalks serves as a substitute for cork. This palm however, 
is mainly valued for the Carnauba wax, with which its young 
leaves are coated, and which can be detached by shaking. This 
is harder than bees'-wax, and is used in the manufacture of 
candles. Each tree furnishes about 4 lbs. annually. In 1862 
no less than 2,500,000 lbs. were imported into Great Britain, 
realizing about ^100,000. 

Corchorus acutangulus, Lamarck. 

Tropical Africa, South Asia and North Australia. This plant 
is specially mentioned by some writers as a jute-plant. A par- 
ticular machine has been constructed by Mr. Le Franc, of New 
Orleans, for separating the jute fiber. With it a ton of fiber is 
produced in a day by four men's work, and it leaves no butts or 
refuse. This apparatus can also be used for other fiber plants. 
The seeds of the Corchorus, which drop spontaneously, will re- 
produce the crop. 

Corchorus capsularis, Linne.* 

From India to Japan. One of the principal jute plants. An 
annual, attaining a height of about twelve feet, when closely 
grown, with almost branchless stem. A nearly allied but lower 
plant, Corchorus Cunninghami, F. v. Mueller, occurs in tropical 
and sub-tropical East Australia. Jute can be grown where cot- 
ton and rice ripen, be it even in localities comparatively cold in 


the winter, if the summer's warmth is long and continuous. 
The fiber is separated by steeping the full-grown plant in water 
from five to eight days, and it is largely used for rice, wool and 
cotton bags, carpets and other similar textile fabrics, and also 
for ropes. About 60,000 tons are annually exported from India 
to England, and a large quantity also to the United States. 
Jute is sown on good land, well plowed and drained, but re- 
quires no irrigation, although it likes humidity. The crop 
is obtained in the course of four or five months, and is 
ripe when the flowers are replaced by fruit capsules. Good 
paper is made from the refuse of the fiber. Jute has been 
found, like hemp, to protect cotton from caterpillars when 
planted around fields (Hon. T. Watts). In India jute often 
alternates with rice or sugar-cane ; as a crop it requires 
damp soil. It does not require drained land, according to Mr. 
C. B„ Clarke. Unlike cotton, it will bear a slight frost. Under 
favorable circumstances 2,000 to 7,000 lbs. may be obtained 
from an acre. It is best grown on flooded ground, as otherwise 
it proves an exhaustive crop. Two hundred million pounds of 
jute were woven in 1876 in Dundee, and fifty million gunny 
bags were exported from Britain in one single year, according 
to S. Waterhouse. Jute does not decay so easily as hemp when 
exposed to moisture. 

Corchorus olitorius, Linne." 

South Asia and North Australia. Furnishes, with the fore- 
going species, the principal supply of jute fiber. As it also is 
an annual, it can be brought to perfection in the summers of 
the warm temperate zone. The foliage can be used for spinage. 
The fiber is not so strong as hemp, but very easily prepared. 
It will not endure long exposure to water. The allied Corcho- 
rus trilocularis, L., of Indian origin, is likewise wild in eastern- 
tropical and sub-tropical Australia. 

Cordyline Banksii, J. Hooker. 

New Zealand. This lax and long leaved Palm Lily attains a 
height of 10 feet; its stem is usually undivided. This and the 
following species have been admitted into this list for a double 
reason, not only because they are by far the hardiest, quickest 
growing, and largest of the genus, and thus most sought in hor- 
ticultural trade for scenic planting, but also because their 
leaves furnish a fair fiber for textile purposes. The small 
seeds are produced in great abundance, and germinate with 
extreme readiness. These Palm Lilies ought to be naturalized 
copiously in forest ranges by mere dissemination. 


Cordyline Baueri, J. Hooker. (C. Australis, Endlicher, 11011 J. Hooker). 

Norfolk Island. The stem of this stately species attains a 
height of 40 feet, and becomes ramified in age. It is very inti- 
mately allied to the following. 

Cordyline indivisa, Kunth. 

New Zealand. The stem of this thick and rigid-leaved palm- 
like species rises to a height of 20 feet, and remains undivided, 
Leaves finally 5 inches broad; yield the toi fiber. Aged leaves 
persistent in a perfectly downward position for many years. 
Panicle at first erect. Berries white. 

Cordyline superbiens, C. Koch. (C. Australis, J. Hooker, non Endlicher). 

New Zealand. The stem of this noble thin-leaved plant 
attains a height of 40 feet, and is branched. Aged leaves 
readily separable; berries blue. Hardy at Torquay (W.Wood), 
Power's Court, Limerick, and in others of the milder localities 
of South England and Ireland, also in the Island of Arran, 
where it grows luxuriously and flowers (Rev. D. Landsborough). 
It will stand a minimum temperature of 20 F. (Gorlie). 

Cordyline terminalis, Kunth. 

South Asia, Polynesia, East Australia. The roots are 
edible when roasted. The leaves, like those of other species, 
can be utilized for textile fiber. The splendid decorative 
Cordylines with red or variegated foliage belong to this 

Coriandrum sativum, Linne. 

Orient and Middle Asia. An annual or biennial herb, much 
in use for condiments. The essential oil peculiar. Hardy in 
Norway to lat 68° 40' (Schuebeler). 

Cornus norida, Linne. 

The Dogwood. North America. A showy tree, sometimes 
30 feet high. The wood in great demand for shuttles, handles, 
harrow teeth, horse collars and sledge runners. The tree is 
hardy at Christiania (Schuebeler). 

Cornus Nuttalli, Torrey. 

Northwest America. This is the largest of the genus, attaining 
a height of 70 feet, with a stem 2 feet in diameter. One of the 
most showy of Californian forest trees. The wood is hard and 
close-grained, similar to that of the preceding species. The 
natives use the small twigs for making baskets (Dr. Gibbons). 


Corylus Colurna, Linne. 

The Constantinople Nut Tree, the tallest of hazels, attaining 
60 feet in height, of rather quick growth. Hardy at Christiania 
in Norway (Schuebeler). This, as well as the European Hazel 
(Corylus Avellana, L.) and the Japan Hazel (C. heterophylla, 
Fischer), might be naturalized in forest gullies for their filberts. 

Corynocorpus laevigata, Forster. 

The Karaka of New Zealand and the principal forest tree of 
the Chatham Islands, attaining a height of 60 feet. The wood 
is light, and used by the natives for canoes. The pulp of the 
fruit is edible. Cattle browse on the foliage. In rich irrigated 
soil the tree can be adopted for very shady avenues. 

Corynosicyos edulis. {Cladosicyos edulis, J. Hooker). 

Guinea. A new cucumber-like plant, with edible fruits about 
1 foot long and 3 inches in diameter. Referred recently by 
Cogniaux to the genus Cucumeropsis. 

Crambe cordifolia, Steven. 

From Persia and the Caucasus to Thibet and the Himalayas, 
up to 14,000 feet. The root and foliage of this Kale afford an 
esculent. Flower stems reaching 10 feet in height; the long 
stalked leaves measure more than 2 feet in width. The root 
bears severe frost (Gorlie). C. Kotschyana (Boiss.) is an 
allied plant. 

Crambe maritima, Linne. 

Sea Kale. Sandy-coasts of Europe and North Africa. A 
perennial herb; the young shoots used as a wholesome and 
agreeable vegetable. Should be naturalized. 

Crambe Tataria, Wulfen. 

From Southern Europe to the Orient. Perennial. Leaves 
likewise used for culinary purposes. According to Simmons the 
large fleshy roots also form an esculent. 

Crataegus aestivalis, Torrey and Gray. 

The Apple Haw. Southern states of North America. The 
small juicy fruit of an agreeable acid taste. 

Crataegus apiifolia, Michaux. 

North America. Highly serviceable for hedges. 

Crataegus Azarolus, Linne. 

Welsh Medlar. South Europe and Southwest Asia. Hardy 
in Christiania, Norway (Schuebeler). The pleasantly acidulous 
fruits are much used for preserves. 


Crataegus coccinea, Linne. 

North- American White Thorn. A valuable hedge plant; also 
very handsome. Spines strong. It braves the winters of 
Norway as far north as lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler). 

Crataegus cordata, Aiton. 

Southern States of North America. Also much employed for 

Crataegus Crus-Galli, Linne. 

The Cockspur Thorn. North America. Regarded as one of 
the best species for hedges. Spines long and stout. Hardy to 
lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler). 

Crataegus Oxyacantha, Linne. 

The ordinary Hawthorn or White Thorn or Quick. Europe, 
North-Africa, North and West Asia. In Norway it grows 
to lat. 67 56': Professor Schuebeler found a plant 20 feet 
high in lat. 63 35'. Recorded here as one of the most 
eligible among deciduous hedge plants, safe against pastoral 
animals. The wood is considered one of the best substitutes 
for boxwood by engravers. 

Crataegus parvifolia, Aiton. 

North America. For dwarf hedges. Spines long, slender, 
sharp, and numerous. 

Crataegus pyracantha, Persoon. 

The Firethorn. South Europe. This species is evergreen. 
It is likewise adapted for hedges, but slower in growth than 
the Hawthorn, altogether not difficult to rear. Hardy in Nor- 
way to lat. 59 55' (Schuebeler). 

Crataegus tomentosa, Linne. 

North America. Reaching a height of 20 feet. Fruit edible. 
The list of American Hedgethorns is probably not yet 
exhausted by the species mentioned. 

Crithmum maritimum, Linne. 

The real Samphire. Sea-shores of Middle and South 
Europe, North Africa and the Orient. A perennial herb. 
Settlers on the coast might readily disseminate and naturalize 
it. It is held to be one of the best plants for pickles, the 
young leaves being selected for that purpose. 


Crocus sativus, Linne. 

The Dye-Saffron. South-Europe and the Orient. The stig- 
mata of this particular autumnal flowering crocus constitute the 
costly dye substance. The best is collected from the flowers as 
they daily open in succession. At any early stage of coloniza- 
tion it would not be profitable to grow saffron commercially; 
but as the plant is well adapted for many extra-tropical 
countries or for high elevations within the tropics, it might 
be planted out into various unoccupied mountain localities 
with a final view to naturalize it, and to thus render it available 
from native sources at a later period. Noted as a bee- 
plant even by the ancients (Muenter). In Norway it is grown 
as far north as lat. 67 56'. , 

Crocus serotinus, Salisbury. (C. odorus, Bivona). 

South Europe. This species also produces saffron rich in 
pigment. The bulbs of several species are edible. 

Crotalaria Burhia, Hamilton. 

Beloochistan, Afghanistan, Scinde. This perennial herb 
grows in arid places and like the following, yields Sunn fiber. 

Crotalaria juncea, Linne. 

The Sunn Hemp. Indigenous to South Asia, and also widely 
dispersed through tropical Australia. An annual herb, 
rising under favorable circumstances to a height of 10 feet. 
In the colony of Victoria, Sunn can only be cultivated in the 
warmest and moistest localities. It comes to maturity in 
four or five months. The plant can also be grown as a fodder 
herb for cattle. It requires rich, friable soil. If a superior soft 
fiber is desired, the plant is pulled while in flower; if 
strength is the object, the plant is left standing until it 
has almost ripened its seeds. The steeping process occupies 
about three days. For the purpose of obtaining branchless 
stems it is sown closely. Cultivated in the Circars, according 
to Roxburgh, to feed milch cows. 

Crotalaria retusa, Linne. 

Asia, America, and Australia within and near the tropics. A 
perennial herb. Its fiber resembles that of C. juncea, and is 
chiefly used for ropes and canvas. Others of the multitudinous 
species of Crotalaria deserve to be tested for their fibers. 

Croton lacciferus, Linne. 

Ceylon, up to 3,000 feet. Valuable for the warmer forest 
regions of temperate climes, for its peculiar exuding lac resin. 


Crozophora tinctoria, Necker. 

South-Europe, North-Africa and the Orient. An annual 
herb. The turnsole-dye is prepared by exposing the juice to 
the air, or by treating it with ammonia. 

Cryptomeria Japonica, D. Don, 

The Sugi .or Japanese Cedar. Japan and Northern China. 
The largest tree in Japan, the trunk attaining 35 feet in circum- 
ference (Rein), and 1 20 feet in height. Stem long, clear, of perfect 
straightness; it is also grown for hedges; in Japan it yields the 
most esteemed timber, scented like that of Cedrela (Christie). 
It requires forest valleys for successful growth. The wood is 
compact, white, soft and easy to work. In the Azores preferred 
even to the Pinus Haleppensis for timber culture, on account of 
its still more rapid growth in that insular climate. 

Cucumis cicatrisatus, Stocks. 

Scinde, where it is called "Wungee." The edible ovate fruit 
is about 6 inches long. Deemed a wild form of C. Melo by 

Cucumis Citrullus, Seringe. {Citrullus vulgaris, Schrader). 

Mediterranean regions. The Water-Melon. It is simply 
mentioned here to indicate the desirability of naturalizing it in 
any desert. In those of South Africa it has become sponta- 
neously established, and retained the characters of the cultivated 


Cucumis Colocynthis, Linne. {Citrullus Colocynthis, Schrader). 

From the Mediterranean regions to India. An annual herb. 
The medicinal extract of colocynth is prepared from the small 
gourd of this species. Active principle: colocynthin. 

Cucumus Melo, Linne. 

The Melon. Originally from the country about the Caspian 
Sea, but some forms indigenous to India, northern and tropical 
Africa and tropical Australia. The best varieties might also be 
naturalized in sand-deserts, particularly in places where some 
moisture collects In seasons of drought the Muscat-Melon, 
introduced by the author into Central Australia, has borne fruit 
more amply than any other variety. Some of the Bokhara 
varieties are remarkably luscious and large. Apparently re- 
munerative results have been gained in Belgium from experi- 
ments to cultivate Melons for sugar and treacle. The seeds 
thus obtained in quantity become available for oil pressing. 
The root contains melonemetin. The Japan Conomon belongs 
to this species. 


Cucumis Momordica, Roxburgh. 

Cultivated in India. It produces cucumbers 2 feet long, 

bursting slowly when ripe into several divisions. Young, the 

fruit is used like cucumbers; older, like melons. Referred by 
Cogniaux to the varieties of C. Melo. 

Cucumis sativus, Linne. 

The Cucumber. Egypt. Indicated here merely for com- 
pleteness' sake, also because gherkin pickling ought to become 
a more extended local industry. Dr. G. King brought under 
notice and Indian culture the Chinese Cucumber "Solly-Qua," 
which attains a length of 7 feet. It must be trained on walls or 
trellises, to afford to the fruit sufficient scope for suspension. 
For definitions of numerous varieties of Melons, Cucumbers 
and Gourds, as well as for full notes on their cultivation, see, 
irrespective of other references, G. Don's Dichlamydeous 
Plants. III., 1-42. 

Cucurbita maxima, Duchesne. 

Large Gourd or Pompion. Turkey. Instances are on record 
of fruits having weighed over 2 cwt. This species, also, is 
eligible for naturalization in the interior. Amongst other pur- 
poses it serves for calabashes. 

Cucurbita Melopepo, Linne. 

The Squash. May be regarded as a variety of C. Pepo. It 
will endure storage for months. 

Cucurbita moschata, Duchesne. 

The Musky Gourd. Doubtless also from the Orient, but its 
nativity never traced (A. De Candolle). 

Cucurbita Pepo, Linne. 

The Pumpkin and Vegetable Marrow, as well as the Succade 
Gourd. Countries on the Caspian Sea. Its naturalization in 
the desert would be a boon. The seeds on pressure yield a 
fixed oil; they are also anthelmintic. This, with many other 
Cururbitacere, yields much honey for bees. The perennial C. 
melanosperma, A. Braun, is not edible. 

Cudrania Javensis, Trccul. 

East Australia, South and East Asia to Japan, East Africa. 
This climbing thorny shrub can be utilized for hedges. Fruit 
edible, of a pleasant taste; the root furnishes a yellow dye. 

Cuminum Cyminum, Linne. 

North Africa. The fruits of this annual herb are known as 
Cumin, and used for certain condiments, as also in medicine. 
Cuminum Hispanicum, Merat, is similar. Essential oil pe- 


Cupressus Benthami, Endlicher. 

Mexico at 5,000 or 7,000 feet. A beautiful tree reaching 
60 feet in height. The wood is fine-grained and exceedingly 

Cupressus fragrans, Kellogg. 

The Ginger Pine or Oregon Cedar. California. A tree 
reaching 150 feet in height, with a clear trunk for 70 feet and 
a stem diameter reaching 6 feet. Wood abounding in aromatic 
oil (J. Hoopes). 

Cupressus Lawsoniana, Murray. (CJiamiecyparis Lawsoniana, Pari.). 

Northern California. This splendid red-flowered Cypress 
grows 100 feet high, with a stem 2 feet in diameter, and 
furnishes a valuable timber for building purposes, being clear, 
easily worked, free from knots, elastic, and very durable (Sar- 
gent). Hardy to lat. 6i° 15' in Norway (Schuebeler). 

Cupressus Lindleyi, Klotzsch. 

On the mountains of Mexico. A stately Cypress reaching a 
height of 120 feet. It supplies an excellent timber. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, Hartweg.* (C. Lambertiana, Gordon). 

California, from Monterey to Noyo, in the granite as well as 
sandstone formation; sometimes in Sphagnum moors. This 
beautiful and shady tree attains the height of 150 feet, with a 
stem of 9 feet in circumference, and is one of the quickest grow- 
ing of all conifers, even in poor, dry soil. One of the best 
shelter trees on sea sands, naturally following the coast line, 
never extending many miles from the shore, and occurring in 
localities where the temperature does not rise above 8o° F., nor 
sink below the freezing point (Bolander). It is hardy in Chris- 
tiana. Richer in its yield of tar than the Scotch Fir, according 
to American writers. 

Cupressus Nutkaensis, Lamb. {Cha/ncecyparis Nutkaensis, Spach, Thuja 
excelsa, Bongard). 

The Yellow Cedar or Cypress of Alaska and the neighboring 
states. Height of tree reaching 100 feet. Timber soft, pale, 
clear, durable, tough and close, also scented; worked with ease; 
used for boat building and other purposes; the bast for mats and 
ropes. Can be trimmed for hedge growth. The Cypresses of 
the sections Chama^cyparis and Retinospora are now regarded 
by Sir Jos. Hooker and Mr. Geo. Bentham as species of Thuja. 

Cupressus obtusa, F. v. Mueller. {Retinospora obtusa, Sieb. and Zucc). 

The Hinoki of Japan. Attains a height of 100 feet; stem 5 
feet in circumference. It forms a great part of the forests at 


Nipon. Growing naturally between 1,200 and 4,200 feet eleva- 
tion on the transition of the compact alluvial clays to eruptive 
granite (Dupont). The bark is used for thatching, also for 
cordage and tow. The wood is white-veined and compact, 
assuming, when planed, a silky luster. According to Mr. 
Christie, it is durable, close-grained, and easily worked. It is 
selected in Japan for temples. There are varieties of this 
species with foliage of a golden and of a silvery white hue. 
Hardy at New York, even in exposed localities. One of the 
finest of evergreen trees for the vicinity of dwellings. It 
resembles C. Lawsoniana, but excels it; it is also hardier and 
of more rapid growth (Rev. H. W. Beecher). Easily multi- 
plied from layers of the lower branches. 

Two other Japanese Cypresses deserve introduction — namely C. 
breviramis (Chamsecyparis breviramea, Maxim.), and C. pendens 
(Chama;cyparis pendula, Maxim.). 

Cupressus pisifera, F. v. Mueller. {Chamtzcyparis pisifera, Sieb. and Zucc). 

The Sarvara of Japan. It attains a height of 30 feet. Stem 
occasionally 3 feet in diameter (Rein.) Very hardy, like the 
foregoing, bearing the frosts of Norway at least to lat. 59 55' 
(Schuebeler); also of beautiful aspect and quick growth. 
There is also a variety with golden foliage. Less esteemed 
than C. obtusa; grows in about the same localities, but is con- 
tent with poorer soil, and bears more heat (Dupont). 

Cupressus sempervirens, Linne. 

Common Cypress of South Europe. Height of tree reaching 
80 feet. It is famous for the great age it attains, and for the dura- 
bility of its timber, which is next to imperishable. At present 
its wood is much sought for the manufacture of musical instru- 
ments. Young records the stem circumference of a Cypress at 
Lago Maggoire at 54 feet, and this was known even 600 
years ago as a venerable tree. 

Cupressus thurifera, Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth. 

Mexican White Cedar; 3,000 to 4.500 feet above sea level. 
A handsome pyramidal tree, upwards of 40 feet high. 

Cupressus thuyoides, Linne. {ChanicecypaHs. spkceroidea, Spach. Thuja 
sphceroidalis, CI. Richard). 

White Cedar of North America; in moist and swampy ground. 
Height of tree reaching 80 feet; diameter of stem, -3 feet. The 
wood is reddish, light, clear, easy to split, soft and fragrant; it 
turns red when exposed to the air. Extensively used for a great 
variety of purposes — for boat-building, cooperage, railway ties, 
particularly also shingles; it is fine-grained and easily worked. 


Mohr says that the wood when well seasoned offers the finest 
material for hollow-ware. For furniture it admits of a high 
finish and has a pleasing hue. The old wood resists the suc- 
cession of dryness and moisture better than any other American 
Cypress hitherto tried. 

Cupressus torulosa, Don.* 

Nepal Cypress. Northern India; 4,500 to 8,000 feet above 
the sea level. Average ordinary height 40 feet, but much 
larger dimensions are on record, thus Dr. Stewart and Major 
Madden mention a tree 150 feet in height and 17 feet in stem- 
girth. The reddish fragrant wood is as durable as that of the 
Deodar Cedar, highly valued for furniture. The tree seems to 
prefer limestone soil. Splendid for wind-breaks and tall 
hedges. Dr. Brandis thinks that it may attain an age of 1,000 

Cyamopsis psoraloides, De Candolle. 

South Asia. This annual is mentioned by Dr. Forbes Watson 
among the plants which furnish throughout green table-beans 
to a portion of the population of India. 

Cycas Normanbyana, F. v. Mueller. 

A noble Queensland species, deserving introduction, and 
capable of being shipped to long distances in an upgrown state 
without emballage. 

Cycas revoluta, Thunberg. 

The Japan Fern Palm. The trunk attains, in age, a height 
of about 6 feet, and is rich in sago-like starch. The slow 
growth of this plant renders it only valuable for scenic decora- 
tive culture; it endures the climate of Melbourne without pro- 
tection. Cycas media, R. Br. may also prove hardy, and would 
be a noble horticultural acquisition, as it is the most gigantic 
of all Cycadeae, attaining a height of 70 feet in tropical East 
Australia. C. Siamensis will endure a temperature occasionally 
as low as the freezing point. Like the Zamia stems, the 
trunks of Cycas admit of translocation, even at an advanced 
age, and like the stems of many kinds of tree ferns they can be 
shipped on very long voyages packed as dead goods in closed 
wood cases, deprived of leaves and soil, for subsequent revival 
in conservatories, as shown many years ago by the writer of this 
work. The Macrozamias can be associated with the hardier 
palms in gardens, M. spiralis advancing naturally southward to 
the 37th degree. One genuine Zamia occurs as indigenous in 
Florida, several in Mexico are extra-tropical, while Z. Chiqua 
(Seemann), or a closely allied species, ascends to 7,000 feet in 
Central America. The South African species of Encephalartos 
also endure the night frosts of Melbourne perfectly well. 


Cymopterus glomeratus, De Candolle. 

Western States of North America. Root edible (Dr. 

Cynara Cardunculus, Linne. 

The Cardoon. Mediterranean regions. A perennial herb. 
The bleached leaf stalks serve as esculents. This as well as 
the following will grow in Norway to lat. 63 52' (Schuebeler). 

Cynara Scolymus, Linne. 

The Artichoke. South Europe and North Africa. The 
receptacles and the base of the flower-scales well known as a 
vegetable. The plant is perennial, and here merely mentioned 
as entitled to extended culture grouped with other stately 
plants. Several other species are worthy of cultivation. In 
Italy Artichokes are much grown under olive trees to utilize 
spare ground. The plant is greatly benefited in cultivation by a 
dressing with sea-weed or any other manure containing sea-salt 
(G. W. Johnson). 

Cynodon Dactylon, Richard.* 

Widely dispersed over the warmer parts of the globe, thus as 
indigenous reaching the northern parts of the colony of Victoria; 
stretching also into Middle Europe and West England. Hardy 
in Norway to lat. 63 52' (Schuebeler). Passes under the names 
of Bermuda Grass, Indian Couch or Scotch Grass, Doab or 
Doorva or Bahama Grass. An important grass for covering 
bare, barren land, or binding drift sand, or keeping together 
the soil of abrupt declivities, or consolidating earth banks 
against floods. It is not without value as a pasture grass; re- 
sists extreme drought, and may become of great importance to 
many desert tracts. The dispersion is best effected by the 
creeping rooting stems, cut into short pieces; each of these 
takes root readily. In arable land this grass, when once 
established, cannot easily be subdued. The stems and roots 
are used in Italy for preparing the Mellago graminis. Rox- 
burgh already declared this grass to be by far the most com- 
mon and useful for pastures of India, particularly in the drier 
regions; that it flowers all the year, and that it forms three- 
fourths of the food of the cows and horses there. Excellent 
also as a lawn grass in mild climates, on account of its dwarf 
and creeping growth and as enduring trampling pertinaciously. 
Chemical analysis, made very early in spring, gave the follow- 
ing results: — Albumen r6o, gluten 6.45, starch 4/00, gum 3- 10, 
sugar 3-60 per cent. (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel). 


Cynosurus cristatus, Linne. 

The Crested Dog's-tail Grass. Europe, North Africa, West 
Asia. A perennial grass, particularly valuable as withstanding 
drought, the root penetrating to considerable depth. The 
stems can also be used for bonnet-plaiting. Though inferior in 
value for hay, this grass is well adapted for permanent pasture, 
as it forms dense tufts without suffocating other grasses or 
fodder herbs. 

Cyperus corymbosus, Rottboell. 

India. This stately perennial species may be chosen to 
fringe our lakes and ponds. It is extensively used for mats in 

Cyperus esculentus, Linne. 

South Europe, West Asia, various parts of Africa. Produces 
the "Chufa" or Ground Almond, an edible root, which contains 
about 27 per cent, of starch, 17 per cent, of oil and 12 percent, 
of saccharine substance; other (French) analyses give 28 per 
cent, oil, 29 starch, 14 sugar, 7 gum, 14 cellulose. This plant 
does not spread like the C. rotundus, and can be reared on sand- 
land, though in rich loose soil the harvest is far more plentiful. 
The tubers, of which as many as 100 to 150 may be obtained 
from each plant, are consumed either raw or cooked. Hogs 
root them up for food. The oil surpasses in excellence of taste 
all other oils used for culinary purposes. The tubers are a fair 
substitute for coffee, when properly roasted; the root crop is 
available in from four to six months. The plant may become 
important in the most dreary and arid desert countries through 
naturalization. In Norway it can be grown to lat. 6i°$6' (Schue- 
beler). The root of the North American C. phymatodes, 
Muehlenberg is also nutty. 

Cyperus Papyrus, Linne. 

The Nile Papyrus, wild in various regions of Africa. Attains 
a height of 16 feet. Though no longer strictly a utilitarian 
plant, as in ancient times, it could scarcely be passed on this 
occasion, as it ought to become valuable in the horticultural 
trade. Its grand aspect recommends it as very decorative for 
aquatic plantations. 

Cyperus Syriacus, Parlatore. 

The Syrian or Sicilian Papyrus. This is the Papyrus plant 
usual in garden cultivation. The plants in the Melbourne Bo- 
tanic Garden attain a height of 8 feet, but suffer somewhat from 
frost. Other tall decorative Cyperi deserve introduction — for 


instance, C. giganteus, Rottboell, from the West Indies and 
Guiana, this kind of plants being hardier than the generality of 
others from the tropics. 

Cyperus tegetum, Roxburgh. 

India, China and North Australia. This Galingale Rush 
might be naturalized on river banks to obtain material for the 
superior mats made of it in Bengal. The fresh stems are slit 
longitudinally into three or four pieces, each of which curls 
round while drying, and can then be worked into durable and 
elegant mats. In China it is cultivated like rice, but in brackish 
ground only, where narrow channels will allow the water to flow 
in and out with the rising and receding tide (Hance and 

Cyperus textilis, Thunberg. {Cyperus vaginatus, R. Brown). 

Widely dispersed over the Australian continent, also occur- 
ring in Southern Africa. It is restricted to swampy localities, 
and thus is not likely to stray into ordinary fields. In the colony 
of Victoria it is the best indigenous fiber plant, and it is like- 
wise valuable as being with ease converted into pulp for good 
writing paper, as shown by the author some years ago. Its 
perennial growth allows of regular annual cutting. The natives 
of the Murray River use this as well as Carex tereticaulis, F. 
v. M. for nets. 

Cytisus prolifereus, Linne, fil. 

Canary Islands. The "Tagasaste." A fodder shrub for 
light dry soil; rather intolerant to frost (Dyer). 

Cytisus spinosus, Lamarck. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. This bush forms 
a strong prickly garden-hedge, handsome when closelv clipped 
(W. Elliott). 

Cytisus scoparius, Link. {Spartiuiti scoparium, Linne). 

The Broom Bush. Europe, North Asia. Of less significance 
as a broom plant than as one of medicinal value. It can also 
be used for tanning purposes. Most valuable for arresting drift 
sand. An alkaloid (spartein) and a yellow dye (scoparin) are 
obtainable from this shrub. 

Dacrydium Colensoi, Hooker. 

New Zealand. A beautiful tree, growing to 50 feet in height, 
and producing hard and incorruptible timber; chiefly eligible 
in Victoria for Alpine regions. 


Dacrydium cupressinum, Solander. 

New Zealand. Native name, Rimu; the Red Pine of the 
colonists. This stately tree attains the height of 200 feet, and 
furnishes a hard and valuable wood, very lasting for fences, but 
readily decaying in water-works. Professor Kirk recommends 
the timber on account of its great strength for girders and 
heavy beams anywhere under cover. With other New Zealand 
conifers particularly eligible for forest valleys. A most suitable 
tree for cemeteries, on account of its pendulous branches. 

Dacrydium Franklini, J. Hooker. 

Huon-pine of Tasmania; only found in moist forest recesses, 
and thus might be planted in dense fern-tree gullies. Height 
of tree, sometimes 100 feet; stem circumference reaching 20 
feet. The wood is highly esteemed for boat-building and 
various artisans' work. It is the best of Australian woods for 
carving, also extensively used for the rougher kinds of xylo- 
graphy and in the manufacture of pianos. 

Dacrydium Kirkii, F. v. Mueller. 

New Zealand. The "Manoao." A pyramidal tree, attaining 
80 feet in height; stem diameter to 4 feet. Timber of a reddish 
color and extreme durability (Professor Kirk). Bears seeds 

Dactylis glomerata, Linne.* 

Europe, North Africa, North and Middle Asia. The Cock's 
foot grass, perennial. One of the best of tall pasture grasses, 
adapted as well for dry as moist soil, thus even available for 
wet clays. It will live under the shade of trees in forests; fit 
also for Coast sands. It is indigenous in Norway to lat. 68° 50' 
(Schuebeler.) Its yield of fodder is rich and continuous, but its 
stems are hard. It is generally liked by cattle, unless when by 
understocking or neglect it has been allowed to become rank. 
Langethal observes: "What the Timothy grass is for the more 
dry sandy ground, that is the Cock's-foot grass for more bind- 
ing soil, and no other (European) grass can be compared to it 
for copiousness of yield, particularly if the soil contains a fair 
quantity of lime. It grows quickly again after the first cutting, 
and comes early on in the season. The nutritive power of this 
grass is of first-class." The chemical analysis made very late 
in spring gave the following results: Albumen 1.87, gluten 7.1 1, 
starch 1.05, gum 4.47, sugar 3.19 per cent (Von Mueller and 
Rummel). . 


Dactylis litoralis, Willdenow. {Aeluropus laevis, Trinius). 

From the Mediterranean countries to Siberia. The stolon- 
iferous grass can be utilized for binding coast-sands; but it is of 
greater importance still in sustaining a Kermes insect (Porphy- 
rophora Hamelii), which produces a beautiful purple dye 

Dalbergia latifolia, Roxburgh. 

India, up to cool but not cold regions. A deciduous tree, 
attaining a height of 80 feet. The wood tough and heavy, in 
request for ornamental furniture, yokes, wheels, ploughs, knees 
of boats; its color from nut brown to dark purplish, streaked 
and spotted with lighter hues (Brandis, Gamble). 

Dalbergia miscolobium, Bentham. 

Southern Brazil. This tree supplies a portion of the Jaca- 
randa wood (Tschudi). 

Dalbergia nigra, Allemao. 

Brazil, down to the Southern Provinces. A tail tree, likely 
to prove hardy in warmer extra-tropic regions. It yields a por- 
tion of the Jacaranda or Palisander Wood, also Caviuna Wood, 
which, for rich furniture, have come into European use. 
Several Brazilian species of Machserium afford, according to 
Saldanha da Gama, a similar precious wood, also timber for 
water works and railway sleepers, particularly M. incorruptible 
(Allen), M. legale and M. Allemai (Bentham). 

Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxburgh. 

The Indian Sissoo tree, extending to Afghanistan, ascending 
to elevations of 5,000 feet, attaining a height of 8c feet. It may 
be worthy of test whether in localities free of frost, particularly 
along sandy river banks, this important timber tree could be 
naturalized. Brandis found the transverse strength of the wood 
greater than that of teak and of sal; it is very elastic, seasons 
well, does not warp or split, and takes a fine polish. It is also 
durable as a wood for boats. The tree is easily raised from 
seeds or cuttings, is of quick growth, and resists slight frosts. 
The supply of its wood has fallen short of the demand in India. 
Captain Campbell- Walker states that in the Panjab artificial 
rearing of Sissoo is remunerative at only 15 inches annual rain- 
fall, with great heat in summer and occasional sharp frosts in 
winter; but irrigation is resorted to at an annual expense there 
of four shillings per acre. Sterile land is by the Sissoo planting 
greatly ameliorated. 


Dammara alba, Rumph. (Z>. orientalis, Lamb.) 

Agath Dammar. Indian Archipelago and mainland. A 
large tree up to ioo feet high, a stem to 8 feet in diameter, 
straight and branchless for two-thirds in length. It is of great 
importance on account of its yield of the transparent Dammar 
resin, extensively used for varnish. 

Dammara Australis, Lambert.* 

Kauri Pine. North Island of New Zealand. This magnifi- 
cent tree measures, under favorable circumstances, 180 feet in 
height and 17 feet in diameter of stem; the estimated, but per- 
haps overrated age of such a tree being 700 to 800 years. It 
furnishes an excellent, remarkably durable timber, straight- 
grained, and much in use for masts, boats, superior furniture, 
casks, rims of sieves, and is particularly sought for decks of 
ships, lasting for the latter purpose twice as long as the deal of 
many other pines. It is also available for railway break- 
blocks and for carriages, and regarded as one of the most durable 
among timbers of the Conifers. Braces, stringers and tie-beams 
of wharves remained, according to Professor Kirk, for very many 
years in good order under much traffic. In bridge-building also 
the Kauri timber gave excellent results; it can likewise be used 
advantageously for the sounding-boards of pianofortes. Kauri- 
wood is also used for light handles for many implements and 
instruments, including stethoscopes, for wool-presses, the body- 
work of wagons, butter-casks, brewers' vats; further, in ship- 
building for bulwarks and the sides of boats. In strength it is 
considerably superior to Baltic Deal. Kauri ought to be exten- 
sively introduced into our denser forests. Auckland alone exports 
about ^20,000 worth of Kauri timber annually. It is easily 
worked, and takes a high polish. This tree yields, besides, the 
Kauri resin of commerce, which is largely obtained from under 
the stem. The greatest part is gathered by the Maoris in 
localities formerly covered with Kauri forests; pieces weighing 
100 lbs. have been found in such places. 

Dammara macrophylla, Lindley. 

Santa Cruz Archipelagos. A beautiful tree, often 100 feet 
high, resembling D. alba. 

Dammara Moorei, Lindley. 

New Caledonia. Height of tree about 50 feet. 

Dammara obtusa, Lindley. 

New Hebrides. A fine tree, reaching 200 feet in height, 
with a long, clear trunk, resembling D. Australis. 


Dammara ovata, C. Moore. 

New Caledonia. This tree is rich in Dammar Resin. 

Dammara robusta, C. Moore. 

Queensland-Kauri. A tall tree, known from Rockingham's 
Bay, Fraser's Island and Wide Bay. It thrives well, even in 
open, exposed, dry localities at Melbourne. Height attaining 130 
feet; largest diameter of stem, 6 feet; free from knots and easily 
worked. Market value ^3 10s. for 1,000 superficial feet of 
timber. As much as 12,000 feet (superficial) of good timber 
have been cut from one tree, that not being the largest. The 
species is closely allied to the Indian D. alba, and yields Dam- 
mar Resin. 

Dammara Vitiensis, Seemann. 

In Fiji. Tree, 100 feet high; probably identical with 
Lindley's D. longifolia. 

Danthonia bipartita, F. v. Mueller. 

From the interior of New South Wales and Queensland to 
West Australia. Available as a tender-leaved and productive 
perennial grass for any desert regions. 

Danthonia Cunninghami, J. Hooker. 

New Zealand. A splendid Alpine fodder grass with large 

Danthonia nervosa, J. Hooker. {Amphibronms Neesii, Steudel). 

Extra-tropical Australia. One of the best nutritious swamp 

Danthonia penicillata, F. v. Mueller. 

Extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand, ascending to sub- 
alpine elevations. Mr. A. N. Grant mentions this as the most 
gregarious of grasses in Riverina, though after seeding early in 
summer it becomes parched, until it pushes afresh after the first 
autumnal rains. It is most easily disseminated. Dr. Curl 
found this perennial grass useful for artificial mixed pasture. 
Its principal value is in spring. Noted as very valuable in its 
native localities. 

Danthonia robusta, F. v. Mueller. 

Australian Alps. Forms large patches of rich forage at the 
very edge of glaciers. The tall D. rigida (Raoul) of New Zea- 
land is closely allied. 


Daucus Carota, Linne. 

The Carrot. Europe, North Africa, extra-tropical Asia, east 
to Japan. Biennial. Admits of naturalization along shores. In 
Norway it is grown to lat. 70 22' (Schuebeler). Beyond the 
ordinary culinary utilization it serves for the distillation of a 
peculiar oil. Large-rooted varieties as well as the herb give a 
good admixture to stable fodder. Carrot treacle can also be 
prepared from the root. Requires lime in the soil for its pro- 
lific culture. The chemical substances carotin and hydrocarotin 
are derived from it. 

Debregeasia edulis, Weddell. 

The Janatsi or Teon-itsigo of Japan. Berries of this bush 
edible, fiber valuable for textile fabrics. A few Indian species, 
with fiber resembling that of Boehmeria, ascend the Himal- 
ayas for several thousand feet, and may therefore be very hardy 
— namely, D. velutina, D. Wallichiana, D. hypoleuca. The latter 
extends to Abyssinia, where it has been noticed at elevations of 
8,000 feet. D. dichotoma on mountains in Java occurs. 

Oecaisnea insignis, J. Hooker and Thomson. (Slackea insignis, Griffith.) 

Himalaya at 6,000 to 10,000 feet elevation. This showy 
shrub or miniature tree produces fruit full of juicy pulp of 
pleasant sweetness. 

Dendrocalamus giganteus, Munro. 

Malacca and the adjacent islands. Habit of Gigantochloa 
maxima; therefore one of the mightiest of all Bamboos. It con- 
tinues constantly to add stems from its root, several hundred 
sometimes belonging to the same tuft. Stems reach a height of 
100 feet and a circumference of 33 inches; the joints are occa- 
sionally as much as 18 inches thick and the walls, an inch thick 
(Dr. Trimen). 

Dendrocalamus Hamiltoni, Nees. 

Himalayas, between 2,000 and 6,000 feet. Height reaching 
60 feet. The young shoots of this stately Bamboo are edible 
in a boiled state (Hooker). It endures great cold as well as 
dry heat (Kurz). 

Dendrocalamus strictus, Nees.* * *% 

India, particularly Bengal. Grows on drier ground than 
Bamboos generally. Its strength and solidity render it fit for 
many select technic purposes. It attains a height of 100 feet, 
and occasionally forms forests of its own. It endures great cold 
as well as dry heat (Kurz). Readily raised from seed. 


Desmodium triflorum, De Candolle. 

In tropical regions of Asia, Africa and America. A densely 
matted perennial herb, alluded to on this occasion as recom- 
mendable for places too hot for ordinary clover, and as repre- 
senting a large genus of plants, many of which may prove of 
value for pasture. Dr. Roxburgh already stated that it helps 
to form the most beautiful turf in India, and that cattle are very 
fond o f this herb. Colonel Drury informs us that it is spring- 
ing up on all soils and situations, supplying the place of Tri- 
folium and Medicago there. D. Canadense (I). C.) is also an 
" excellent fodder herb (Rosenthal). 

Desmodium acuminatum, De Candolle. 

North America. With D. nudiflorum (D. C.) mentioned by 
C. Mohr as a nutritive plant for stock, and particularly adapted 
for forest soil. 

Dicksonia Billardierii, F. v. Mueller. (D. antarctica, La Billardiere, Cibotium 
Billardierii, Kaulfuss). 

Southeast Australia, New Zealand. This tree-fern is men- 
tioned- here, as it is the very best for distant transmission, and 
endures some frost. It attains a height of 40 feet. Hardy in 
the island of Arran with D. squarrosa and Cyathea medullaris 
(Rev. D. Landsborough). This species above all others, 
should be disseminated in warmer extra-tropical countries, e. g. 
with us in West Australia. Important also as commercial 
plants among fern trees are Cyathea medullaris, of Southeast 
Australia and New Zealand; Cyathea dealbata, the Silvery 
Tree-fern; and C. Smithii, from New Zealand only; because 
when grown their shipment is not attended with the same diffi- 
culty as that of the tall Alsophila Australis (which attains 60 feet), 
and numerous other tree ferns, about 200 species of which are 
now known. Those mentioned are among the hardiest of this 
noble kind of plants. Anthelmintic properties, which may 
exist in these and many other ferns, have not yet been searched 
for. The dust-like spores should be scattered through moist 
forest valleys, to ensure new supplies of these superb forms of 
vegetation for the next century. D. Billardierii is nowhere an- 

Digitalis purpurea, Linne. 

The Foxglove. Greater part of Europe. A biennial and 
exceedingly beautiful herb of great medicinal value, easily 
raised. In Norway it grows to lat. 63 52' (Schuebeler). 
Chemical principles: digitalin, digitaletin and three peculiar 


Dioscorea aculeata, Linne.* 

The Kaawi Yam. India, Cbchin-China, South Sea Islands. 
Stem prickly, as the name implies, not angular. Leaves alter- 
nate, undivided. It ripens later than the following species, and 
requires no reeds for staking. It is propagated from small 
tubers. This yam is of a sweetish taste, and the late Dr. See- 
mann regarded it as one of the finest esculent roots of the globe. 
A variety of a bluish hue, cultivated in Central America (for 
instance at Caracas), is of very delicious taste. 

Dioscorea alata, Linne.* 

The Uvi Yam. India and South Sea Islands. The stems 
are four-angled and not prickly. The tubers, of which there are 
many varieties, will attain, under favorable circumstances, a 
length of 8 feet, and the prodigious weight of ioo pounds! 
This species and the preceding are the two principal kinds cul- 
tivated in tropical countries. D. alata is in culture supported 
by reeds. It is propagated from pieces of the old root, and 
comes to perfection in warm climes in about seven months. 
The tubers may be baked or boiled. It is this species which 
has been successfully cultivated in New Zealand and also in the 
Southern States of North America. 

Dioscorea glabra, Roxburgh.-" (£>. Batatas, Decaisne). 

The Chinese Yam. From India to China. Not prickly. 
The root is known to attain a length of 4 feet, with a circumfer- 
ence of 14 inches, and a weight of about 14 lbs. The inner 
portion of the tuber is of snowy whiteness, of a flaky consist- 
ence and of a delicious flavor; preferred by many to potatoes, 
and obtainable in climes too hot for potato crops. The bulb- 
lets from the axils of the leaf-stalks, as in other Dioscoreas, 
serve as sets for planting, but the tubers from them attain full 
size only in the second year. The upper end of the tubers offers 
ready sets, but there are dormant eyes on any portion of the 
surface of the tubers (Sir Samuel Wilson, General Noble). 
First grown in Australia by the author in 1858. 

Dioscorea globosa, Roxburgh. 

India. Roxburgh states this to be the most esteemed Yam in 
Dioscorea hastifolia, Nees. 

Extra-tropical Western Australia, at least as far south as 32 . 
It is evidently one of the hardiest of the Yams, and on that ac- 
count deserves particularly to be drawn into culture. The 
tubers are largely consumed by the local aborigines for food; 
it is the only plant on which they bestow any kind of cultiva- 
tion, crude as it is. Fit for arid situations but fond of lime. 


Dioscorea Japonica, Thunberg. 

The hardy Japan Yam. Not prickly. The material here for 
comparison is not complete, but seems to indicate that D. 
transversa, R. Br., and D. punctata, R. Br., are both referable 
to D. Japonica. If this assumption should prove correct, then 
we have this Yam along the coast-tracts of North and East 
Australia, as far as south as latitude 33 . In. Australia we find 
the wild root of good taste. 

Dioscorea nummularia, Lamarck. 

The Tivoli Yam. Continental and insular India, also South 
Sea Islands. A high, climbing, prickly species, with opposite 
leaves. Roots cylindrical, as thick as one's arm; their taste ex- 
ceedingly good. 

Dioscorea oppositifolia, Linne. 

India and China. Not prickly. One of the edible yams. 

Dioscorea pentaphylla, Linne. 

Continental and insular India, also South Sea Islands. Like- 
wise a good yam. A prickly species, with alternate divided 

Dioscorea purpurea, Roxburgh. 

India. In Bengal considered next best to D. alata. 

Dioscorea quinqueloba, Thunberg. 

Japan, and there one of several yam plants with edible tubers. 
Among numerous congeners are mentioned as providing like- 
wise root vegetables: D. piperifolia (Humboldt) from Quito, 
D. esurientum (Fenzl) from Guatemala, D. tuberosa and D. 
conferta (Vellozo) from South Brazil, D. Cayennensis 
(Lamarck) from tropical South America, D. triphylla (Linne) 
from tropical Asia, D. deltoidea (Wallich) from Nepal. Of 
these and many other species the relative quality of the roots, 
and their adaptability to field cultivation, require to be more 
fully ascertained. 

Dioscorea sativa, Linne. 

South Asia, east as far as Japan, also in the South Sea 
Islands, and North and tropical East Australia, likewise re- 
corded from tropical Africa. Stem cylindrical, not prickly. 
The acrid root requires soaking before boiling. It has proved 
hardy in the Southern States of North America. Starch is very 
profitably obtainable from the tubers. 

Dioscorea spicata, Roth. 

India. Roots used like those of other species. 


Dioscorea tomentosa, Koenig. 

Ooyala Yam. India. The nomenclature of some of the 
Asiatic species requires further revision. 

Dioscorea trifida, Linne fil. 

Central America. One of the Yams there cultivated. Vari- 
ous other tuberous Dioscorea? occur in tropical countries, but 
their respective degrees of hardiness, taste and yield are not 
recorded or ascertained. The length of the warm season in 
many extra-tropical countries is probably sufficient for ripening 
all these Yams. 

Diospyros Ebenum, Koenig.* 

Ceylon, where it furnishes the best kind of Ebony wood. It 
is not uncommon up to an elevation of 5,000 feet in that island, 
according to Dr. Thwaites; hence I would recommend this large 
and valuable tree for test plantations in warm extra-tropical 
lowland forest regions, where also D. qusesita and D. oppo- 
sitifolia, the best Calamander Trees, and D. melanoxylon 
should be tried. Many other species of Diospyros could 
probably be introduced from the mountains of various tropical 
regions, either for the sake of their ebony-like wood or their 
fruit. Black Ebony wood sinks in water. The price in Eng- 
land ranges from ^8 to ^10 per ton, from 700 to 1,000 tons 
being imported into Britain annually for pianoforte keys, the 
string-holders of musical instruments, the fingerboard and tail- 
piece of violins, sharp note-pieces of pianos, harmoniums 
and cabinet organs, and other select purposes. The following 
species, some of which may prove hardy, yield Ebonyr wood, 
according to Hiern : India — D. Ebenum, Koen., D. melan- 
oxylon, Roxb., D. silvatica, Roxb., D. Gardneri, Thw., D. 
hirsuta, L. fil., D. discolor, Willd., D. Embryopteris, Thw., D. 
Ebenaster, Retz., D. montana, Roxb., D. insignis, Pers., D. 
Tupru, Hamilt., D. truncata, Zoll., D. ramifiora, Wall; Africa 
— D. Dendo, Welw., D. mespiliformis, Hochst. ; Mauritius 
— D. tesselaria, Poiret; Madagascar — D. haplostylis, Boivin, 
D. microrhombus, Hiern. 

Diospyros Kaki, Linne fil. 

The Date Plum of China and Japan. A slow-growing not 
very productive tree, here recorded for completeness. The 
fruit is yellow, pink or dark purple, variable in size, but 
seldom larger than an ordinary apple; it can readily be 
dried on strings. A hard and soft variety occur. It has 
ripened at Sydney, and as far north as Philadelphia (Saunders). 
The most famed varieties are, according to the Rev. Mr. Loo- 
rins: Ronosan, Nihon, Micado, Daimio, Taikoon, Yamato, the 


latter particularly large and saccharine, and with the Jogen 
variety, mostly used for drying. In Japan this is thought to 
be the best native fruit (Christie); attains one pound in 
weight. There is also a small seedless variety. Dried Kaki 
fruit is considered superior to figs. For drying the fruit is 
peeled, and requires a month to exsiccate. The Hyakuma 
variety when shrivelled measures as much as 4 by 3 inches 
(Jarmain). The green fruits serve as medicinal astringents 

Diospyros Lotus, Linne. 

From Northern China to the Caucasus. The ordinary Date- 
Plum. The sweet fruits of this tree, resembling black cherries, 
are edible, and also used for the preparation of syrup. The 
wood, like that of D. chloroxylon, is known in some places as 
Green Ebony. It resembles Mottled Ebony; it must not, how- 
ever, be confounded with other kinds, such as are furnished by 
some species of Exccecaria, Nectandra and Jacaranda. 

Diospyros Texana, Scheele. 

Mexico and Texas. Tree reaching a height of 30 feet; fruit 
globose,' black, luscious (A. Gray). 

Diospyros Virginiana, Linne. 

The North American Ebony or Parsimon or Persimmon. A 
tree reaching 70 feet in height. Wood very hard, blackish. 
Valuable for shuttles instead of box wood (Jos. Gardner). 
The stem exudes a kind of gum. The sweet variety yields a 
good table fruit. Ripens fruit to 41 north, in Illinois 
(Bryant). Hot summers promote the early ripening and sweet- 
ness of the fruit, the delicious taste not depending on early 
frost. The final sweetness depends upon chemical decomposi- 

Diposis Bulbocastanum, De Candolle. 

Chili. The tubers of this perennial herb are edible (Phil- 

Dipsacus fullonum, Linne. 

Fuller's Teasel. Middle and South Europe and Middle Asia. 
A tall biennial herb. The thorny fruit-heads are used for full- 
ing in cloth factories. The import into England during one 
of the last years was valued at ^"5,000. The plant is most 
easily raised. The use of these Teasels has not yet been 
superseded by any adequate machinery. 


Dirca palustris, Linne. 

North America. An ornamental forest shrub, the tough bark 
of which is serviceable for straps and whipcords. 

Distichlis maritima, Rafinesque. (Festuca distichophylla, J. Hooker). 

North and South America, Extra-tropical Australia. This 
dwarf Creeping Grass is of great value for binding soil, forming 
rough lawns, edging garden plats in arid places, and covering 
coast sand. 

Dolichos gibbosus, Thunberg. 

South Africa. This woody climber is one of the most eligible 
for covering rustic buildings with a close and almost ever- 
flowering vegetation. 

Dolichos Lablab, Linne. 

Warmer parts of Africa; probably thence spread widely- 
through the tropics. An annual herb, sometimes lasting 
through several years. The young pods, as well as the ripe 
seeds, of several varieties available for culinary use. It de- 
lights in rich soil, and ripens in hot countries within three 
months; its yield is about forty-fold, according to Roxburgh. 
The whole plant forms excellent stable feed for cattle. 

Dolichos unifiorus, Lamarck. 

Tropical and Sub-tropical Africa and Asia. An annual herb, 
the Horse-Gram of South India, where it is extensively grown. 
Colonel Sykes got over 300 seeds from a moderate-sized plant. 
Dr. Stewart saw it cultivated up to 8,000 feet. Content with 
poor soils; well adapted for stable pulse. 

Dorema Ammoniacum, Don. 

Persia, on mountains up to 4,000 feet. A tall perennial herb, 
yielding the gum-resin Ammoniacum, which might be obtained 
from plants introduced into other snowy mountainous countries 
beyond a severe clime. 

Dracaena Draco, Linne. 

The Dragon-blood Tree of the Canary Islands. An impos- 
ing feature in scenic horticulture, with D. schizantha (Baker) of 
eastern tropical Africa; it yields Dragon-blood resin. The 
famed Dragon-tree of Teneriffe, measured in 1831, 46 feet in 
circumference of stem, and even at the commencement of the 
15th century was celebrated for its age. 

Dracocephalum Moldavica, Linne. 

North and Middle Asia. An annual showy scent-herb. 


Drimys Winteri, R. and G. Forster. 

Extra-tropical South America. The Canelo of Chili, sacred 
under the name of Boighe to the original inhabitants. Attains 
in river valleys a height of 60 feet. The wood never attacked 
by insects (Dr. Philippi). The Australian and New Zealand 
species may be equally valuable. 

Duboisia Hopwoodii, F. v. Mueller. 

The Pitury. Inland desert regions from New South Wales 
and Queensland to near the west coast of Australia. This 
shrub deserves cultivation on account of its highly stimulating 
properties. D. myoporoides (R. Br.) of East Australia and 
New Caledonia has come into use for ophthalmic surgery. The 
alkaloid of the latter, duboisin, is allied to piturin. Important 
for mydriatic purposes, in medicine (Bancroft). The tree at- 
tains in deep forest glens a height of 60 feet (Ralston), but 
flowers even as a shrub. 

Duvana longifolia, Lindley. 

La Plata States. This or an allied shrub, called Molle there, 
yields foliage rich in tannin (about 20 per cent.), which, as it 
does not give any color to leather, is much valued for particular 
currying (Dr. Lorentz). 

Dypsis pinnatifrons, Martius. 

Madagascar. This dwarf Palm proved hardy in Sidney, to- 
gether with Copernicia ceiifera (C. Moore). 

Ecbalium Elaterium, Richard. 

The Squirting Cucumber. Mediterranean regions and 
Orient. An annual. The powerful purgative Elaterium is 
prepared from the pulp of the fruit. Chemical principles : 
elaterid, elaterin, hydroelaterin. 

Echinocactus Fendleri, Engelmann. 

Mexico. A species attractive for its large rosy flowers and, 
like the orange-flowered E. gonacanthus and E. Simpsoni, 
E. conoideus, E. phoeniceus, E. viridiflorus, E. viviparus and 
E. paucispinens, among the most hardy of North American 
Cacteae (E. G. Loder). 

Ehrharta diplax, F. v. Mueller. {Microlana avenacea, J. Hooker). 

New Zealand. This tall perennial grass is fond of wood- 
lands, and deserves introduction. It is likely to prove a rich 
pasture-grass. A few Australian species, particularly of the 
section Tetrarrhena, are readily accessible, and so indeed also 
the South African Ehrhartas, all adapted for a warm temperate 
clime; the majority perennial, and several of superior value. 
Ehrharta caudata, Munro, is indigenous in Japan. 


Ehrharta longiflora, Smith. 

South Africa. Easily disseminated and like other perennial 
species from the same part of the world, fit to grow in sand- 
land as a pasture-grass. 

Ehrharta Stipoides, La Billardiere. 

Extra-tropical Australia, also New Zealand. Often called 
Weeping Grass. A perennial grass, which keeps beautifully 
green all through the year. For this reason its growth for pas- 
turage should be encouraged, particularly as it will live on poor 
soil. Mr. W. H. Bacchus, of Ballarat, considers it nearly as 
valuable as Kangaroo-Grass, and in the cool season more so. 
He finds it to bear overstocking better than any other native 
grass, and to maintain a close turf. High testimony of the 
value of this grass is also given by Mr. Rankin, of Gippsland, 
after many years experiments. However, it does not always 
seed copiously. The chemical analysis made in spring gave 
the following results: albumen 1.66, gluten 9.13, starch 1.64, 
gum 3.25, sugar 5.05 per cent. (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel). 

Elaeagnus hortensis, Bieberstein. 

From South Europe and North Africa to Siberia and China. 
The fruits of this shrub, known under the name of Trebizonde 
dates, are used in Persia for dessert. Flowers highly fragrant 
(G. W. Johnson). 

Elaeagnus parvifolius, Royle. 

From China to the Himalayas. This bush has been intro- 
duced into North America as a hedge-plant and, according 
to Professor Meehan, promises great permanent success, as it 
has already achieved a high popularity in this respect. In 
Norway hardy to lat. 59 55' (Schuebeler). Several other 
species might well be experimented on in the same manner. 

Elaeagnus umbellatus, Thunberg. 

Japan. The fruits of this or an allied species are edible, of a 
particular and pleasant flavor, and especially adapted for con- 
fectionery. This bush resists frost as well as drought, and 
bears in prodigious abundance throughout the year (Joseph 
Clarte). It can be struck from cuttings, and Comes into bear- 
ing in the third year. 

Elegia nuda. Kunth. 

South-Africa. A rush, able with its long roots to bind moving 
sand; its also affords good material for thatching (Dr. Pappe). 
Many of the tall Restiaceae of South Africa would prove valu- 
able for scenic effect in gardens and conservatories, and among 
these may specially be mentioned Cannamois cephalotes 


Elephanthorrhiza Burchelli, Bentham. 

South Africa. The huge club-footed roots of this somewhat 

shrubby plant are extraordinarily rich in tannin (Prof. Mac 

Owan). All grazing animals like the foliage much; it starts 

from the root again after frost (Mrs. Barber). An allied species 

;is E. Burkei. 

Eleusine Coracana, Gaertner. 

Southern Asia, east to Japan, ascending the Himalayas to 
7,000 feet. Though annual, this grass is worthy of cultivation 
on account of its height and nutritiveness. It is of rapid 
growth, and the produce of foliage and seeds copious. Horses 
prefer the hay to any other dry fodder in India, according to 
Dr. Forbes Watson. The large grains can be used like millet. 
E. Indica, Gaertner, only differs as a variety. It extends to 
tropical Australia, and is recorded also from many other tropical 

Eleusine stricta, Roxburgh. 

India. The increase of grain of this annual grass in rich soil 
is at times five-hundredfold. E. Tocusso, Fresenius, is a valu- 
able kind -from Abyssinia, seemingly allied to E. stricta. The 
Arabian and Himalayan E. flagellifera, Nees, is perennial. 
Other species of Eleusine are deserving of trial. 

Elymus arenarius, Linne.* 

The Sea Lyme-Grass. Europe and North Asia, on sand- 
coasts, growing in Norway to lat. 71 7'. One of the most im- 
portant and vigorous of grasses for binding drift-sand on the 
sea-shores. Endures being gradually covered with sand, but 
not so completely as Psamrha. The North American E. mollis, 
Trinius, is allied to this species. 

Elymus condensatus, Presl.* 

The Bunch-Grass of British Columbia and California, ex- 
tending to lat. 58 . This is favorably known as adapted for 
sand land. Mr. W. Gorlie noted it to bear severe frost, as much 
as o° F. Bunches become fully a yard in diameter and bear 
stalks up to 10 feet high, so that in annual bulk and weight of 
produce it surpasses all British pasture-grasses. It is also earlier 
that any of them, and its young growth never suffers from 
spring-frosts; moreover it is highly nutritious and greedily eaten 
in all its stages by stock. 

Elymus Virginicus, Linne. 

North America. Perennial, easily spreading, but fit for river- 
banks; of some fodder value (C. Mohr). 


Embothrium coccineum, R. and G. Forster. 

From Chili to the Straits of Magellan. The Notra or Cirue- 
lillo of Chili. A tree of exquisite beauty, but seldom reaching 
above 30 feet in height. The wood is utilized for furniture. 
E. lanceolatum is merely a variety (Dr. Philippi). The equally 
gorgeous E. emarginatum of the Peruvian Andes and E. Wick- 
hami from Mount Bellenden-Ker of North Queensland, de- 
serve, with the East Australian allied Stenocarpus sinuatus, a 
place in any sheltered gardens or parks of the warm temperate 

Encephalartos Denisonii, F. v, Mueller. 

New South Wales and Queensland. This noble Pine-Palm is 
hardy as far south as Melbourne, and with E. spiralis, E. Preissii 
and the South African species, to be regarded as a most 
desirable acquisition to any garden scenery in mild zones. All 
admit of translocation even when of large size and when many 
years old. The stems, with an unusual tenacity of life, some- 
times remain dormant for several years. After removal they 
can be shipped in closed cases as dead goods, the leaves being 
previously cut away, but such shipments should not be exposed 
to severe frost. 

Engelhardtia spicata, Blume. 

The spurious Walnut Tree of the mountains of Java, Burma 
and the Himalayas. It reaches a height of 200 feet. Wood 
pale red, hard and heavy, manufactured into the solid cart- 
wheels and large troughs which are in use throughout the 
Sunda Islands (Brandis). The bark is rich in tan-substance 

Eremophila longifolia, F. v. Mueller. 

Desert-regions throughout Australia. In the hot season this 
tall bush or small tree affords food to sheep in desert countries 
when grass and herbage fail (A. N. Grant). Sheep browse 
on many other species of this highly ornamental genus. All 
resist drought and great climatic heat. 

Eremurus aurantiacus, Baker. 

Afghanistan, 7,000 to 9,000 feet. The leaves of this liliaceous 
plant form for two months in the year almost the sole vegetable 
on which the natives of Hariab depend; it is an agreeable food, 
crisp and somewhat hard, but neither tough nor fibrous (Dr. 
Aitchison). Likely to become valuable as a spring vegetable. 


Erianthus fulvus, Kunth. 

Interior of Australia. A sweet perennial grass, of which 
cattle are so fond as to eat it closely down, and thus cause it to 
die out (Bailey). Readily raised by re-dissemination. 

Erianthus Japonicus, Beauvois. 

Japan. Bears frosts of o° F. (Gorlie). Stems woody at the 
base, reaching a height of 6 feet with spikes nearly a foot long. 
The striped-leaved variety is particularly decorative. 

Eriochloa annulata, Kunth. 

In tropical and sub-tropical regions around the globe. 
Perennial. Endures moderate cold in South Queensland, and 
affords fodder all the year round (Bailey). It resists drought. 
Fattening and much relished by stock (Dr. Curl). E. punctata, 
Hamilton has a similarly wide range, and is of equal pastoral 

Eriophorum comosum, Wallich. 

Upper India. This wool-rush has been recommended by 
Dr. King as paper material, and Mr. Routledge regards it as 
equal in value to Esparto, but the yield is less (42 per cent.). 
The natives use it as material for ropes. Other species of 
Eriophorum deserve technologic trials. 

Erodium cygnorum, Nees. 

Extratropical Australia. This herb yields a large amount of 
feed even in the sandy desert-tracts of Central Australia and is 
relished by all kinds of pasture animals. 

Ervum Lens, Linne. (Lens esculenta, Moench.). 

The Lentil. Mediterranean regions, Orient. Cultivated up 
to an elevation of 11,500 feet, in India. Annual, affording in 
its seeds a palatable and nutritious food. A calcareous soil is 
essential for the prolific growth of this plant. The leafy stalks, 
after the removal of the seeds, remain a good stable-fodder. 
The variety called the Winter Lentil is more prolific than the 
Summer Lentil. Valuable as honey-yielding for bees. 

Eryngium pandanifolium, Chamisso. 

South Brazil, Paraguay, Misiones and Chaco. This or an 
allied species called " Caraguata," with bromeliaceous habit, 
yields there the best fiber, which is long and silky (Kew Report, 
1S77, p. 37; Gard. Chron., 1882, p. 431, E. H. Egerton). 


Erythroxylon Coca, Lamarck.* 

Peru. This shrub is famed for the extraordinary stimulating 
property of its leaves, which pass under the names of Spadic 
and Coca. They contain two alkaloids, cocain and hygrin; 
also a peculiar tannic acid. An enormous quantity is annually 
collected and sold. The Peruvians mix the leaves with the 
forage of mules, to increase their power of enduring fatigue. 
Whether any of the many other species of Erythroxylon possess 
similar properties seems never yet to have been ascertained. 

Eucalyptus Abergiana, F. v. Mueller. 

North Queensland. A stately tree with spreading branches 
and dense foliage. The quality of its timber has remained hither- 
to unknown, but the species will probably prove one of the 
most suitable among its congeners for tropical countries. 

Eucalyptus amygdalina, La Billardiere*. 

Southeast Australia. Vernacularly known as Brown and 
White Peppermint tree, Giant Gum tree, and as one of the 
Swamp-Gum trees. In sheltered springy forest glens attaining 
exceptionally to a height of over 400 feet, there forming a 
smooth stem and broad leaves, producing also seedlings of a 
foliage different from the ordinary form of E. amygdalina, which 
occurs in more open country and has small narrow leaves and a 
rough brownish bark. The former species or variety, which 
might be called Eucalyptus regnans, represents probably the 
loftiest tree on the globe. Mr. G. W. Robinson, surveyor, 
measured a tree at the foot of Mount Baw-Baw, which was 471 
feet high. Another tree in the Cape Otway ranges was found 
to be 415 feet high and 15 feet in diameter, where cut in 
felling, at a considerable height above the ground. Another 
tree measured 69 feet in circumference at the base of the stem; 
at 12 feet from the ground it had a diameter of 14 feet; 
at 78 feet a diameter of 9 feet; at 144 feet a diameter of 
8 feet, and at 210 feet a diameter of 5 feet. The wood is 
fissile, well adapted for shingles, rails, for inner building mate- 
rial and many other purposes, but it is not a strong wood. That 
of the smaller rough-barked variety has proved lasting for 
fence-posts. La Billardiere's name applies ill to any of the forms 
of this species. Seedings raised on rather barren ground near 
Melbourne have shown nearly the same amazing rapidity of 
growth as those of E. globulus; yet, like those of E. obliqua, 
they are not so easily satisfied with any soil. In the south of 
France this tree grew to a height of 50 feet in eight years. It 
has endured the frosts of the milder parts of England, with E. 
Gunnii and E. viminalis. In New Zealand it has survived the 


cold, where E. globulus succumbed. E. amygdalina, E. urni- 
gera, E. coccifera, E. rostrata and E. corymbosa have proved 
more hardy than E. globulus, E. diversicolor, E. resinifera, E. 
longifolia and E. melliodora at Rome, according to the Rev. 
M. Gildas. The now well-known Eucalyptus oil, the distilla- 
tion of which was initiated by the writer, is furnished in greater 
or less proportion by all the different species. It was first 
brought extensively into commerce by Mr. Bosisto, who has the 
credit of having ascertained many of the properties of this oil 
for technic application. It is this species which yields more 
volatile oil than any other hitherto tested, and which therefore 
is largely chosen for distillation; thus it is also one of the best 
for subduing malarial effluvia in fever regions, although it does 
not grow with quite the same ease and celerity as E. globulus. 
The respective hygienic value of various Eucalypts may to 
some extent be judged from the percentage of oil in their 
foliage, as stated below, and as ascertained by Mr. Bosisto, at 
the author's instance, for the Exhibition of 1862: — 

E. amygdalina 3-3 x 3 per cent, volatile oil. 

E. oleosa L250 " 

E. leucoxylon 1.060 " 

E. -goniocalyx 0.914 " 

E. globulus... 0.719 " 

E. obliqua 0.500 " 

The lesser quantity of oil of E. globulus is, however, compen- 
sated for by the vigor of its growth and the early copiousness 
of its foliage. The proportion of oil varies also somewhat 
according to locality and season. E. rostrata, though one of 
the poorest in oil, is nevertheless important for malaria regions, 
and it will grow well on periodically inundated places, and even 
in stagnant water not saline. E. oleosa, F. v. M., from the 
desert regions of extra-tropical Australia, might be reared on 
barren sands of other countries for the sake of its oil. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Osborne's experiment, initiated by myself, Eucalyp- 
tus oils dissolve the following, among other substances, for select 
varnishes and other preparations: camphor, pine-resins, mastic, 
elemi, sandarac, kauri, dammar, asphalt, xanthorrhcea resin, 
dragon's blood, benzoe, copal, amber, anime, shellac, caoutchouc, 
also wax, but not gutta-percha. These substances are arranged 
here in the order of their greatest solubility. The potash ob- 
tainable from the ashes of various Eucalypts varies from 5 to 
27 per cent. One ton of the fresh foliage of E. globulus yields 
about 8)4 lbs. of pearl ash; a ton of the green wood, about 2% 
lbs. ; of dry wood, about 4^ lbs. For resins, tar, acetic acid, 
tannin and other products and educts of many Eucalypts, see 
various documents and reports of the writer, issued from the 
Melbourne Botanic Garden. 


Eucalyptus Baileyana. F. v. Mueller. 

South Queensland. A tree to about ioo feet high; bark re- 
markably tenacious (Bailey). The timber splits easily, yet is 
tough and durable, thus locally used for fence-posts and similar 
purposes (A. Williams). This species, unlike most of its con- 
geners, can be grown to advantage on sandy soil. Branches 
more spreading and foliage more dense than with most other 

Eucalyptus botryoides, Smith.* 

From East Gippsland to South Queensland. Vernacular 
name Bastard Mahogany, and a variety called Bangalay, the 
latter generally found on coast-sands. One of the most stately 
among an extensive number of species, remarkable for its dark- 
green shady foliage. It delights in river-banks. Stems attain 
a height of 80 feet without a branch, and a diameter of 8 feet. 
The timber usually sound to the center, adapted for water- 
works, wagons, particularly for felloes, knees of boats, etc. Posts 
formed of it, very lasting, as no decay was observed in fourteen 
years; it is also well adapted for shingles. The Rev. Dr. 
Woolls, Mr. Kirton and Mr. Reader all testify to its general 

Eucalyptus calophylla, R. Brown. 

South-West Australia, where it is vernacularly known as Red- 
gumtree. More umbrageous than most Eucalypts and of com- 
paratively rapid growth. In its native forests it has quite the 
aspect of the eastern Bloodwood-trees. The wood is destitute of 
resin when grown on alluvial land, but not so when produced 
on stony ranges. It is preferred to that of E. marginata and E. 
cornuta for rafters, spokes and fence-rails, also used for handles 
and agricultural implements; it is strong and light, but not 
durable underground. The bark is valuable for tanning, as an 
admixture to Acacia bark; the seed vessels of this and perhaps 
all other Eucalypts can be used for the same purpose. The stem 
of this tree may occasionally be observed 10 feet in diameter; it 
is the only tree in West Australia which yields copiously the 
fluid and indurating Eucalyptus kino; this is soluble in cold 
water to the extent of 70 to 80 per cent. This species will 
only endure a slight frost. 

Eucalyptus capitellata, Smith. 

One of the Stringy-bark trees of Southeast Australia, attain- 
ing occasionally a height of 200 feet. The timber is principally 
used for fence rails, shingles, and rough building purposes. 
This species might with advantage be raised on wet sandy land. 


Eucalyptus citriodora, Hooker. 

Queensland. A handsome slender tree with a smooth white 
bark, supplying a useful timber. According to notes of the late 
Mr. Thozet, a trunk 40 feet long and 20 inches in diameter 
broke after a flexion of 17 inches, under a pressure of 49 tons. 
It combines with the ordinary qualities of many Eucalypts the 
advantage of yielding from its leaves a rather large supply of 
volatile oil of excellent lemon-like fragrance, in which respect 
it has, among about 150 species of Eucalypts, only one rival. 
Very closely allied to E. maculata, and perhaps only a variety. 
Adapted for a tropical jungle clime. 

Eucalyptus cornuta, La Billardiere.* 

The Yate tree of Southwest Australia. A large tree of rapid 
growth, preferring a somewhat humid soil. The wood is used 
for various artisans' work, and preferred there for the strongest 
shafts and frames of carts and other work requiring hardness, 
toughness and elasticity, and is considered equal to the best 
ash wood. The tree appears to be well adapted for tropical 
countries, for Dr. Bonavia reports that it attained a height of S 
to 10 feet in the first year of its growth at Lucknow, and that 
the plants did not suffer in the rainy season like many other 
Eucalypts. The dry wood sinks in water. E. occidentalis, 
Endlicher, is the flat-topped Yate, an allied and equally valu- 
able species of southwest Australia. 

Eucalyptus corymbosa, Smith. 

The principal Bloodwood tree of New South Wales and 
Queensland. A tree attaining large dimensions; it has a rough 
furrowed bark and a dark red wood, soft when green, but very 
hard when dry; very durable underground, and therefore ex- 
tensively used for fence posts, rails, railway sleepers, and rough 
building purposes. The bark is rich in kino. 

Eucalyptus corynocalyx, F. v. Mueller. 

South Australia, Northwest Victoria. The Sugar-Gum tree. 
A timber tree, attaining a height of 120 feet, length of bole 60 
feet, circumference at 5 feet from the ground reaching 17 feet. 
The wood has come into use for fence posts and railway sleepers. 
Its durability is attested by the fact that posts set in the ground 
fifteen years showed no sign of decay. The tree thrives well 
even on dry ironstone ranges. It does not exude any saccharine 
substance (Melitose) like E. viminalis. The base of the trunk 
swells out sometimes in regular tiers. The sweetish foliage 
attracts cattle and sheep, which browse on the lower branches, 
as well as on saplings and seedlings. Scarcely any other 
Eucalypt is similarly eaten (J. E. Brown.) In culture the 
writer did not find this species of very quick growth. 


Eucalyptus crebra, F. v. Mueller.* 

The Narrow-leaved Ironbark tree of New South Wales and 
Queensland. Wood reddish, hard, heavy, elastic and durable; 
much used in the construction of bridges and for railway sleep- 
ers, also for wagons, piles, fencing, etc. A lemon-scented tree, 
perhaps a variety of this species, from northeast Australia, 
brought under notice by Mr. F. M. Bailey, has a perfume and 
flavor so excellent as to serve as a table condiment. E. lepto- 
phleba and E. drepanophylla are closely allied species of similar 
value. They all exude astringent gum-resin, resembling kino 
in appearance and property, in considerable quantity. 

Eucalyptus diversicolor, F. v. Mueller.* {E. colossea, F. v. M.). 

The Karri of Southwest Australia. A colossal tree, exception- 
ally reaching the height of 400 feet, with a proportionate girth 
of the stem. Mr. Muir measured stems about 300 feet long 
without a branch; widths of timber of as much as 12 feet can 
be obtained. Furnishes good timber for ship and boat planks, 
particularly for masts, likewise for wheels; also valuable for 
shafts, spokes, felloes, fence rails; it is elastic and durable, but 
not so easily wrought as that of E. marginata. Its strength in 
transverse strain is equal to English oak. Wood exposed to the 
wash of the tide for 26 years continued quite sound. Fair pro- 
gress of growth is shown by the young trees, planted even in 
dry exposed localities in Melbourne. The shady foliage and 
quick growth of the tree promise to render it one of our best for 
avenues. In its native localities it occupies fertile, rather humid 
valleys, and resembles there in habit the E. amygdalina var. 
regnans of southeast Australia. 

Eucalyptus Doratoxylon, F. v. Mueller. 

The Spear- wood of Southwest Australia, where it occurs in 
sterile districts. The stem is slender and remarkably straight, 
and the wood of such firmness and elasticity, that the nomadic 
natives wander long distances to obtain it as a material for their 

Eucalyptus eugenioides, Sieber. 

One of the Stringy-bark trees of Victoria and New South 
Wales. The tree is abundant in some localities, and attains 
considerable dimensions. Its useful fissile wood is employed 
for fencing and building purposes. Systematically the species 
is closely allied to E. piperita. 

Eucalyptus ficifolia, F. v. Mueller.* 

South-West Australia. Although not a tree of large dimen- 
sions, this splendid species should be mentioned for the sake of 


its magnificent trusses of crimson flowers, irrespective of its 
claims as a shady, heat-resisting avenue tree. It bears a close 
resemblance to E. calophylla. 

Eucalyptus Globulus, La Billardiere.* 

Blue Gumtree of Victoria and Tasmania. The tree is of 
extremely rapid growth, and attains a height of 350 feet, fur- 
nishing a first-class wood. Ship builders get keels of this timber 
120 feet long; besides this, they use it extensively for planking 
and many other parts of the ship. Experiments on the strength 
of various woods, instituted under my direction by Mr. Lueh- 
mann, proved Blue-gum in average of eleven tests, to be about 
equal to the best English oak, American white-oak and Ameri- 
can ash. The best samples, indeed, carried as great a 
weight as hickory in transverse strain, the ordinary kind 
about as much as that of Eucalyptus rostrata, and more than 
that of E. macrorrhymla, E. Gunni, E. Stuartiana and E. goni- 
ocalyx, but did not come quite up to the strength of E. 
melliodora, E. polyanthema, E. siderophloia and E. Leucoxy- 
lon. ^Blue-gum wood is also very extensively used by car- 
penters for all kinds of out-door work, joists and studs of 
wooden houses; also for fence-rails, telegraph poles, railway 
sleepers (lasting nine years or more), for shafts and spokes of 
drays, and a variety of other purposes. The price of the timber 
in Melbourne is about is. 7d. per cubic foot. In South Europe it 
has withstood a temperature of 19 F., but succumbed at 17 F.; 
it perished from frost at the Black Sea and in Turkestan, when 
young, according to Dr. Regel. The sirocco, however, does 
not destroy it. Regarding the celerity of its growth, Mr. 
Thomson mentions that it attains 60 feet in seven years, in 
Jamaica on the hills ; in California it grew 60 feet in eleven 
years, in Florida forty feet in four years, with a stem of 1 
foot in diameter. In some parts of India its growth has been 
even more rapid; at the Nilgiri Hills it has been reared advan- 
tageously, where E marginata, E. obliqua, E. robusta and E. 
calophylla had failed. Its growth was there found to be four 
times as fast as that of Teak, and the wood proved as valuable 
for many purposes. Trees attained a height of 30 feet in four 
years; one tree twelve years old was 100 feet high and 6 feet in 
girth at 3 feet from the ground; to thrive well there it wants an 
elevation of not less than 4,000 feet. It has succeeded particu- 
larly well at elevations of from 2,500 to 7,000 feet in Central 
Mexico (Dr. Mariano Barcena). In Algeria and Portugal it 
has furnished railway sleepers in eight years, and telegraph 
poles in ten years (Cruikshank). On the mountains of Guate- 
mala it attained in twelve years a height of 120 feet and a stem 


circumference of 9 feet (Boucard). According to the Rev. D. 
Landsborough it proved hardy in the Isle of Arran. For scenic 
window culture in cold countries E. globulus was first recom- 
mended by Ucke; for culture in hospital wards to destroy 
contagia, by Mosler and Goeze. Eucalyptus leaves generate 
ozone largely for the purification of air; the volatile oil is very 

Eucalyptus gomphocephala, De Candolle.* 

The Tooart of South-West Australia; attains a height of 120 
feet, the clear trunk 50 feet long. The wood is tough, strong 
and rigid, the texture close and the grain so twisted as 
to make it difficult to cleave. It shrinks but little, does not 
split while undergoing the process of seasoning, and is alto- 
gether remarkably free from defects. It will bear exposure to 
all vicissitudes of weather for a long time, and is particularly 
valuable for large scantling, where great strength is needed; in 
ship-building it is used for beams, keelsons, stern-posts, engine 
bearers and other work below the floatation; recommendable 
also for supports of bridges, framing of dock gates and for 
wheelwrights' work; indeed it is one of the strongest woods 
known, whether tried transversely or otherwise (Laslett). This 
species, as well as E. odorata, E. fcecunda and E. decipiens, 
thrive best in limestone soil. 

Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F. v. Mueller.* 

Generally known as Bastard Eucalyptus-box, mostly found 
on clayey ridges. From Cape Otway to the southern parts of 
New South Wales, rare near St. Vincent's Gulf (J. E. Brown). A 
large tree which should be included among those for plantations. 
Its wood resembles in many respects that of E. globulus, and is 
comparatively easily worked. For house building, fence-rails 
and similar purposes it is extensively employed in those forest 
districts where it is abundant, and has proved a valuable timber. 
It is especially esteemed for wheelwrights' work (Falck). Our 
local experiments showed the strength greater than that of E. 
amygdalina and E. obliqua, but less than that of E. globulus. 
Melitose is formed occasionally on this tree and also on E. 

Eucalyptus Gunni, J. Hooker.* 

Known as Swamp-gum tree, the mountain variety, in Tas- 
mania, as Cider tree. Victoria, Tasmania and New South 
Wales, ascending alpine elevations. In the lowland, along fer- 
tile valleys, it attains a considerable size and supplies a strong 
useful timber. It is this species which survived severe frosts 
at Kew Gardens. Timber found to be almost equal in strength 


to that of E. macrorrhymla, E. rostrata and E. globulus. The 
other very hardy Eucalypts comprise E. pauciflora, E. alpina, 
E. urnigera, E. coccifera, and E. vernicosa, which all reach 
heights covered with snow for several months in the year. 

Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smith. 

One of the White Gum trees of New South Wales and South 
Queensland, abundant in many localities. This species attains 
a very considerable size, and furnishes fencing and rough build- 
ing material, also fuel of fair quality. Claims our attention 
particularly as fit for culture on sandy land, for wh'ch very few 
other Eucalypts are suited. A variety occurs with persistent 
stringy bark. 

Eucalyptus hemiphloia, F. von Mueller.* 

Extra-tropical Southeastern Australia, particularly inland. 
A tree reaching 90 feet in height, 4 feet in diameter. Trunk 
generally not tall. Regarded as a timber tree of great excel- 
lence. It is famous for the hardness and toughness of its 
timber, which is used for railway sleepers, telegraph poles, 
shafts, spokes, mauls, plow beams and similar utensils. 

Eucalyptus Leucoxylon, F. v. Mueller.* 

The ordinary Iron-bark tree of Victoria and some parts of 
South Australia and New South Wales. It attains a height of 
100 feet, and supplies a valuable timber, possessing great 
strength and hardness; it is much prized for its durability. It 
is largely employed by wagon builders for wheels, poles etc.; 
by ship builders for top sides, tree nails, the rudder (stock), 
belaying pins, and other purposes; it is aiso used by turners for 
rough work. It proved to be the strongest of all the woods 
hitherto subjected to test by Mr. Luehmann and myself, bear- 
ing nearly twice the strain of American oak and ash, and excelling 
even hickory by about 18 per cent. It is much recommended 
for railway sleepers, and extensively used in underground 
mining work. It is likewise very extensively employed for the 
handles of axes and other implements by Victorian manufac- 
turers. The price of the timber in the log is about 2s. 5d. per 
cubic foot in Melbourne. As it is for some purposes superior 
to that of almost any other Eucalyptus, the regular culture of 
this tree over wide areas should be fostered, especially as it can 
be raised on stony ridges not readily available for ordinary 
husbandry. The wood is sometimes pale, in other localities 
rather dark. The tree is generally restricted to the lower 
Silurian sandstone and slate formation with ironstone and 
quartz. Nevertheless, this tree accomodates itself to various 
geologic formations, thus even to limestone ground. The bark 


is remarkably rich in kino tannin, yielding as much as 22 per 
cent, in the fresh state, but much less after drying. The fresh 
leaves contain about 5 per cent., and the dried leaves 9 to 10 per 
cent, of kino tannin. This kino tannin is not equal in value to 
mimosa tannic acid from Acacia bark, but it is useful as a sub- 
sidiary admixture when light-colored leather is not aimed at. 
As an astringent drug this kino is not without importance. 
The flowers are sought by bees, even more eagerly than those 
of most Eucalypts. E. Leucoxylon has, next to E. rostrata, 
thriven best about Lucknow (in India) among the species tried 
there for forest culture. E. sideroxylon is a synonym. 

Eucalyptus longifolia, Link.* 

Extra-tropic East Australia. A tree, known as "Woolly Butt," 
under favorable circumstances reaching 200 feet in height, 
the stem attaining a great girth. Mr. Reader asserts that there 
is not extant a more useful timber; it stands well in any situa- 

Eucalyptus loxophleba, Bentham.* 

The York Gum tree of extra-tropic West Australia. Attains 
a height of about 100 feet with a stem four feet in diameter. 
The wood is very tough, and preferably sought in West Aus- 
tralia for naves and felloes for wheels. Even when dry it is 
heavier than water. 

Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha, F. v. Mueller. 

The common Stringy-bark tree of Victoria, not extending far 
into New South Wales. This tree attains a height of 120 feet, 
and is generally found growing on sterile ridges, not ascending 
higher mountains. The wood, which contains a good deal of 
kino, is used for joists, keels of boats, fence rails and rough 
building purposes, also extensively for fuel. The fibrous dark- 
brown bark serves for roofs of huts and also for tying. The 
wood proved in our experiments here nearly as strong as that 
of E. globulus and E. rostrata, and considerably stronger than 
that of E. obliqua. 

Eucalyptus maculata, Hooker. 

The Spotted Gum tree of New South Wales and South 
Queensland. A tree reaching 150 feet in height, the wood of 
which is employed in ship building, wheelwrights' and coopers' 
work. The heart wood is as strong as that of British oak (Rev. 
Dr. Woolls). 


Eucalyptus marginata. Smith.* 

. The Jarrah or Mahogany tree of Southwest Australia, famed 
for its indestructible wood, which is neither attacked by chelura, 
nor teredo, nor termites, and therefore much sought for jet- 
ties and other structures exposed to sea water, also for any 
underground work, telegraph poles, and largely exported for 
railway- sleepers. Vessels built of this timber have been 
enabled to do away with copper-plating. For jetties 
the piles are used round, and they do not split when 
rammed even into limestone or other hard foundations, pro- 
vided the timber is of the best hard kind (Walker and Swan). 
The Government Clerk of Works at Perth observes, that he 
took up piles in 1S77, which were driven for a whaling jetty in 
1834, and that the timber was perfectly sound, although the 
place was swarming with teredo. At the jetty in Freemantle, 
piles thirty years old and others one year old could scarcely be 
distinguished. The durability of the . timber seems largely at- 
tributable to a substance (Kino-red), allied to phlobaphen, of 
which it contains about 16 to 17 per cent. Of kino-tannin it 
contains 4 to 5 per cent. It is of a close grain and a slightly 
oily a*nd resinous nature; it works well, makes a fine finish, 
and is by local ship-builders considered superior to either sal, 
teak or any other wook except perhaps English or live oak. 
In West Australia it is much used for flooring, rafters, shingles; 
also for furniture, as it is easily worked, takes a good polish, 
and then looks very beautiful. It is not too hard, and hence is 
more easily worked than E. redunca and E. loxophleba. 
The wood from the hills is darker, tougher and heavier than 
that from the plains. Well-seasoned timber weighs about 64 
lbs. per cubic foot; freshly cut, from 71 to 76 lbs. It is one of 
the least inflammable woods according to Captain Fawcett, and 
is locally regarded as one of the best woods for charcoal. Mr. 
H. E. Victor, C. E., of Perth, estimates the area covered at 
present by marketable Jarrah in Southwest Australia at nine 
million acres, and its yield at an average about 500 cubic feet of 
good timber per acre. The trees should be felled in autumn or 
towards the end of summer, in which case the timber will not 
warp. The tree grows chiefly on ironstone ranges. At Mel- 
bourne it is not quick of growth, if compared to E. globulus, or 
to E. obliqua, but it is likely to grow with celerity in mountain- 
ous regions. In its native country it presents the features of 
the East Australian stringy-bark forests. Stems of this tree 
have been measured So feet to the first branch, and 32 feet in 
circumference at 5 feet from the ground. Instances are on 
record of the stem having attained a girth of 60 feet at 6 feet 
from the ground, through the formation of buttresses. 


Eucalyptus melanophloia, F. v. Mueller. 

The silver-leaved Iron-bark tree of New South wales and 
Queensland. A middle-sized tree with a deeply-furrowed bark 
and mealy white foliage. The timber is strong and durable, 
and used for telegraph-poles and railway-sleepers; it is, how- 
ever, apt to rend, when exposed to the sun, unless well 
seasoned. Mr. Casmo Newbery obtained from the bark 9-10 
per cent, tannin. 

Eucalyptus melliodora, A. Cunningham.* 

The yellow Boxtree of Victoria and some parts of New 
South Wales; of a spreading habit of growth, attaining a height 
of about 120 feet with a comparatively stout stem. The wood 
resembles that of E. rostrata in texture, but is of a paler color 
and not quite so durable. It is fully as strong, though second 
to E. Leucoxylon, E. siderophloia and E. polyanthema in this 
respect, but equalling that of E. globulus. It is esteemed for 
wheelwrights' and other artisans' work, in ship-building, and 
supplies excellent fuel; the young trees are used for telegraph- 
poles. Flowers much sought by bees. 

Eucalyptus microcorys, F. v. Mueller.* 

One of the Stringy-barktrees of New South Wales and 
South Queensland, mostly known as Tallow-wood by the 
colonists. It attains a great size; barrel up to 100 feet in 
length, 7 feet in diameter. The wood is yellowish, free from 
kino-veins, easily worked by saw or plane; it is of a very greasy 
nature, so much so as to be quite slippery when fresh cut (C. 
Fawcett). This oily substance, very similar to viscin, of which 
it contains about 1 per cent., prevents the wood from splitting 
and twisting, though not from shrinking. The timber is also 
hard and durable underground and is employed for railway- 
sleepers, wheelwrights' work, for knees and breasthooks in ship- 
building, the young trees for telegraph-poles. The foliage is 
remarkably rich in volatile oil. 

Eucalyptus microtheca, F. v. Mueller. 

Widely dispersed over the most arid extra-tropical, as well as 
tropical,'inland regions of Australia. Withstood unscorched a 
frequently repeated heat of 156 F. in Central Australia. One 
of the best trees for desert tracts; in favorable places 150 feet 
high. Wood brown, sometimes very dark, hard, heavy and 
elastic; prettily marked; hence used for cabinet-work, but more 
particularly for piles, bridges and railwav-sleepers (Rev. Dr. 


Eucalyptus obliqua, L. Heritier.* 

The ordinary Stringy-barktree of Tasmania, generally 
designated Messmate-tree in Victoria, attaining a height of 300 
feet, with a stem more than 10 feet in diameter, growing mostly 
in mountainous country. The most gregarious of all Eucalypts, 
from Spencer's Gulf to the southern parts of New South Wales, 
and in several varieties designated by splitters and other 
wood-workers by different names. Most extensively used for 
cheap fencing-rails, palings, shingles and any other rough 
wood-work not to be sunk underground nor requiring great 
strength or elasticity. The bulk of wood obtained from this 
tree in very poor soil is perhaps larger than that of any other 
kind, and thus this species can be included even in its native 
country, where it is naturally common and easily re-dis- 
seminated, among the trees for new forest plantations in barren 
woodless tracts, for the ready and early supply of cheap and 
easily fissile wood. The young trees are sometimes used for 
telegraph-poles. The fresh bark contains from ri to 13^2 per 
cent, kino-tannic acid. 

Eucalyptus odorata, Behr. 

The Peppermint tree of South Australia. Reaching 70 
feet in height, 2^2 feet in diameter. Timber hard, very 
durable; used for sleepers, posts, piles, etc. (J. E. Brown). 
The tree follows the limestone formation. 

Eucalyptus oleosa, F. v. Mueller. 

One of the smaller Eucalypts known as Mallee, extending 
from East to West Australia through the desert regions. The 
essential oil, in which the foliage of this species is comparatively 
rich, dissolves india-rubber without heat, according to Mr. 
Bosisto. It is also one of the best solvents for amber and other 
fossil resins. The variety longirostris attains a height of 120 
feet, with a stem of 70 feet without branch, in West Australia, 
where it is vernacularly known as Morreli. The wood is remark- 
ably hard, splits freely, and is used for spars, rafters, fence-rails, 
wheelwrights' work, agricultural implements, etc. It is of a 
red tinge and sinks in water, even when dry. 

Eucalyptus paniculata, Smith.* 

The White Iron-bark tree of New South Wales. This species 
furnishes a hard durable wood, excellent for railway sleepers. 
It is also much used for building and fencing, as it splits well 
and is lasting underground. All the trees of this series are 
deserving of cultivation, as their wood, though always excellent, 
is far from alike, and that of each species preferred for special 
purposes of the artisan. 


Eucalyptus pauciflora, Sieber. {E. coriacea, A. Cunningham). 

Vernacularly known as White-gum, Drooping-gum or Swamp- 
gum tree. New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania. A tree of 
handsome appearance, with a smooth white bark, and generally- 
drooping foliage, attaining considerable dimensions. It grows 
best in moist ground, ascends to alpine elevations, and is one of 
the hardiest of all its congeners. Its timber is used for ordi- 
nary building and fencing purposes. 

Eucalyptus phcenicea, F. v. Mueller. 

Carpentaria and Arnhem's Land. Of the quality of the tim- 
ber hardly anything is known, but the brilliancy of its scarlet 
flowers recommends this species for a place in any rural or gar- 
den plantation. For the same reason also E. miniata, from 
North Australia, and E. ficifolia, from South-West Australia, 
should be brought extensively under cultivation. 

Eucalyptus pilularis, Smith. 

The Black-butt tree of South Queensland, New South Wales 
and Gippsland. One of the best timber-yielding trees about 
Sidney; of rather rapid growth (Rev. Dr. Woolls). It is much 
used for flooring boards, also for railway sleepers and telegraph 
poles. Messrs. Camara and Kirton measured a tree in the Illa- 
warra district which had a girth of 45 feet and a height of about 
300 feet. 

Eucalyptus piperita, Smith. 

A Stringy-bark tree of New South Wales and Gippsland, 
often termed White Stringy-bark. It grows to a considerable 
height and its stem attains a diameter of 4 feet. The wood 
is fissile, and used for the same purposes as that of other Stringy- 
bark trees. The foliage is rich in volatile oil. 

Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F. v. Mueller. 

South Queensland. A tree to about 100 feet in height, stem 
reaching 3 feet in diameter. The foliage is dense. Timber 
sound, heavy, hard and durable, well adapted for sawing, but 
not easy to split (Bailey). 

Eucalyptus platyphylla, F. v. Mueller. 

Queensland. Regarded by the Rev. Julian Tenison Woods 
as one of the best of shade-trees, and seen to produce leaves 
sometimes 1^3 feet long and 1 foot wide. This tree is available 
for open exposed localities, where trees from deep forest 
valleys would not thrive. It is closely allied to E. alba from 
Timor. The timber is curlv and durable. 


Eucalyptus polyanthema, Schauer.* 

South-East Australia, generally known as Red Box. A tree 
attaining a height of 150 feet, which furnishes an extremely hard 
and lasting timber; in great demand for mining purposes and 
railway sleepers, also for wheelwrights' work. For fuel this 
wood is unsurpassed. It is extremely strong, excelling oak and 
ash. Surpassed among Eucalypts in transverse strength, accord- 
ing to our experiments, only by E. Leucoxylon and E. sider- 

Eucalyptus populifolia, Hooker. 

The "Bembil" or Shining-leaved Box-Eucalyptus. Warmer 
portions of East Australia. Wood used for posts, handspikes, 
levers and other articles needing toughness; proved to be 
durable (Bailey). Particularly adapted for dry and hot 

Eucalyptus punctata, De Candolle.* 

The Leatherjacket or Hickory Eucalypt of New South Wales. 
A beautiful tree, with a smooth bark, attaining a height of 100 
feet or more, of rather quick growth. The wood is of a light 
brown color, hard, tough and very durable; used for fence- 
posts, railway sleepers, wheelwrights' work, also for ship build- 
ing (Woolls). 

Eucalyptus Raveretiana, F. v. Mueller.* 

Vernacularly known as Grey or Iron Gum tree. Queensland. 
A tree of the largest size, attaining a height of 300 feet and 10 
feet in diameter; delights in the immediate vicinity of rivers 
or swamps. It furnishes a very hard, durable, dark-colored 
wood, valuable for piles, railway sleepers, and general building 
purposes (Thozet, O'Shanesy, Bowman). From cuts into the 
stem an acidulous, almost colorless liquid exudes, available in 
Considerable quantity, like that of E. Gunni. 

Eucalyptus redunca, Schauer.* 

The White Gum tree of West Australia, the Wandoo of the 
aborigines. Attains very large dimensions; stems have been 
found with a diameter of 17 feet. The bark is whitish, but not 
shining, imparting a white coloration when rubbed. The tree 
is content with cold flats of comparatively poor soil, even where 
humidity stagnates during the wet season. It furnishes a pale, 
hard, tough, heavy and durable wood, highly prized for all 
kinds of wheelwrights' work, and especially supplying the best 
felloes in West Australia. The seasoned timber weighs about 
70 lbs. per cubic foot. 


Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith.* 

The Red Mahogany Eucalypt of South Queensland and New 
South Wales. A superior timber tree, of large size, according 
to the Rev. Dr. Woolls, the wood being much prized for its 
strength and durability. It has proved one of the best adapted 
for a tropical clime, although not so rapid of growth as some 
other species. It grew 45 feet in ten or twelve years at Luck- 
now, according to Dr. Bonavia, but in the best soil it has 
attained 12 feet in two years. Proved in Italy nearly as hardy 
as E. amygdalina and E. viminalis, according to Prince Trou- 

Eucalyptus robusta, Smith.* 

New South Wales and South Queensland, where it is known 
as Swamp Mahogany by the colonists. It attains a height of 
100 feet and a girth of 12 feet, with a barrel up to 50 feet in 
length, bearing a really grand mass of foliage. Resists 
cyclones better than most of its congeners. The wood is strong 
and durable, reckoned a very good timber for joists, also used 
for ship building, wheelwrights' work, and many implements, 
such as mallets. The tree seems to thrive best in low, sour 
swampy ground near the sea coast; where other Eucalypts look 
sickly, E. robusta is the picture of health (W. Kirton). 

Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlechtcndal.* 

The Red Gum tree of Southern Australia and many river-fiats 
in the interior of the Australian continent, nearly always found 
on moist ground with a clayey subsoil. It will thrive in ground 
periodically inundated for a considerable time, and even in 
slightly saline places. Attains exceptionally a height of 200 
feet with a comparatively stout stem, but is mostly of a more 
spreading habit of growth than the majority of its tall congen- 
ers. Mr. R. G. Drysdale, of the Riverina district, observed that 
an exceptional temperature of 125° F., in the shade, did not 
shrivel the foliage of this tree; it has also withstood the severest 
heat in Algeria better than E. globulus; and Dr. Bonavia found 
it to thrive well in the province of Oude in places where E. 
globulus, E. obliqua and E. marginata perished under the ex- 
treme vicissitudes of the clime. It does not bear cold so well 
as E. amygdalina, succumbing when still young at a tempera- 
ture below 23 F., as observed in Italy by Prince Troubetzkoy. 
In Mauritius and Reunion it resisted the hurricanes better than 
any other Eucalypt; in the latter island the Marquis de Chateau- 
vieux observed it to grow 65 feet in six years, and it is always 
of more rapid growth than E. marginata, but less so than E. 
globulus. It is recommended as an antiseptic tree for ceme- 
teries in tropical countries. The timber is one of the most 


highly esteemed in all Australia, among that of Eucalypts, 
being heavy, hard, strong and extremely durable, either above 
or under ground, or in water. For these reasons it is highly 
prized for fence posts, piles and railway sleepers. For the latter 
purpose it will last at least a dozen years, but if well selected 
much longer. Whenever practicable the government of Victoria 
has discarded the use of any other timber for railways and 
bridges in favor of this tree. It is also extensively employed by 
ship builders for main-stem, stern-post, inner-post, dead-wood, 
floor timbers, futtocks, transoms, knighthead, hawse pieces, cant, 
stern, quarter and fashion timbers, bottom planks, breast hooks 
and riders, windlass, bow rails, etc. It should be steamed 
before it is worked for planking. Also extensively employed 
by wheelwrights, principally for felloes, and by builders for 
posts and any other part of structures which come in contact 
with the ground. Next to the Jarrah from West Australia, this 
is the best Eucalyptus wood for resisting the attacks of the crus- 
taceous chelura and limnoria, the teredo mollusk and white 
ants, and it has the advantage of being considerably stronger, 
proving equal in this respect to American white oak. According 
to rny experiments and those of Mr. Luehmann, it is surpassed in 
resistance to transverse strain by E. melliodora, E. polyanthema, 
and particularly E. siderophloia and E. Leucoxylon, though 
stronger than the wood of many other of its congeners. The 
kino of E. rostrata is far less soluble in cold water than that of 
E. calophylla, and is used as an important medicinal astringent. 
For other details of the uses of this or other Victorian trees, 
refer to the Reports of the Victorian Exhibitions of 1862 and 

Eucalyptus salmonophloia, F. v. Mueller. 

The Salmon-barked Gum tree of Southwest Australia, attain- 
ing a height of 120 feet. The timber is good for fencing, 
while the foliage is available for profitable oil distillation. The 
shining mixed whitish and purplish bark does not give off a 
white coloration like that of E. redunca. 

Eucalyptus saligna, Smith. 

The Blue or Flooded Gum tree of New South Wales. A tali 
straight-stemmed species attaining a diameter of 7 feet. Ac- 
cording to the Rev. Dr. Woolls the wood is of excellent quality, 
and largely used for shipbuilding. The tree is generally found 
on rich soil along river-banks. 

Eucalyptus salubris, F. v. Mueller. 

The Gimletwood or Fluted Gum tree of West and Central 
Australia, living on poor dry soil. It is generally a slender- 
stemmed tree, sometimes 100 feet high, and 2 feet in stem- 


diameter, with a small crown. The bark is shining with a 
brownish tinge, and broad longitudinal and often twisted 
impressions, or roundish blunt longitudinal ridges. The wood 
is hard and tough, but comparatively easily worked, heavier 
than water, even when dry. It serves for roofing, fencing, 
poles, shafts, etc. For xylography it seems better than Pear- 
tree wood, and deserves attention for this purpose. The tree 
exudes kino. 

Eucalyptus siderophloia, Bentham.* 

The large-leaved or white Ironbark tree of New South Wales 
and South Queensland, attaining a height of 150 feet. Ac- 
cording to the Rev. Dr. Woolls this furnishes one of the strong- 
est and most durable timbers of New South Wales; with great 
advantage used for railway-sleepers and for many building pur- 
poses. It is highly appreciated by wheelwrights, especially for 
spokes, also well adapted for tool-handles. Found by us to be 
even stronger than Hickory, and only rivalled by E. Leucoxylon. 
It is harder than the wood of E. Leucoxylon, but for this 
reason worked with more difficulty. The price of the timber is 
about 2s. 6d. per cubic foot, in the log. The tree yields much 
kino Mr. Newbery obtained from the bark 8 to 10 per cent, 
tannin. This species is often confounded with E. resinifera in 

Eucalyptus Sieberiana, F. v. Mueller. (E. virgata, Bentham, not Sieber). 

Southeast Australia. Vernacularly known as Mountain ash 
in Gippsland, and New South Wales, and as Ironbark-tree 
or Gumtop in Tasmania. A straight-stemmed tree, reaching 
150 feet in height and 5 feet in stem-diameter. The wood is of 
excellent quality, strong and elastic, hence used for shipbuilding, 
implement handles, cart-shafts, swingle-trees, also for fencing 
and for general building purposes. It splits freely and is soft 
to work. It burns well, even when freshly cut. Systematically 
the species is very closely allied to E. haemastoma, but much 
superior as a timber-tree. 

Eucalyptus Stuartiana, F. v. Mueller. 

Southeast Australia. Vernacularly known as Apple-scented 
Gum-tree. A medium sized tree with fibrous bark and droop- 
ing branches; foliage rather copious. Occurs on rather dry and 
sandy as well as on humid soil. The wood is mostly used for 
fencing and for fuel, but might also be turned to account for 
furniture, as it is of a handsome dark color, and takes a good 
polish (Boyle). According to our own observations here it is of 
nearly the same strength as E. rostrata and E. globulus, and 
somewhat stronger than that of E. amygdalina and particularly 
E. obliqua. 


Eucalyptus tereticornis, Smith.* 

From East Queensland, where it is termed Red Gum-tree, to 
Gippsland, attaining a height of 160 feet. Closely allied to E. 
rostrata. The timber is esteemed for the naves and felloes of 
wheels. For telegraph-poles and railway-sleepers it is inferior 
to some of the Ironbark trees, lasting a shorter time, and then 
not rarely decaying by dry rot. Quite under ground it remains 
sound much longer (Thozet), but much depends, as regards its 
durability, on the locality where it is obtained and the manner 
of drying, a remark which applies also to many other 

Eucalyptus terminalis, F. v. Mueller. 

The Bloodwood tree of the northern parts of Australia, 
closely allied to E. corymbosa, attaining a considerable size. 
The wood is dark red, hard and extremely tough, particularly 
fit for boards, as it does not crack. The tree resists the 
enormous desert-heat of Central Australia, where the shade-tem- 
perature ranges from 27 to 122 F., and where the annual rain- 
fall in some years is only 2 inches and seldom more than 10 
inches. Particularly adapted for tropical climes. 

Eucalyptus tesselaris, F. v. Mueller. 

Central and North Australia and Queensland. This tree is called 
Ilumba by the natives of Central Australia, where it reaches on 
dry ridges a height of 150 feet, surpassing any other in this re- 
spect, and resists the severest summer heat (Rev. H. Kempe). 
Furnishes a brown, rather elastic wood, not very hard, easily 
worked, of great strength and durability, available for many 
kinds of artisans' work, and particularly sought for staves and 
flooring. The tree exudes much astringent kino (P. 
O'Shanesy). Several other species might yet be mentioned, 
particularly from tropical Australia, but we are not yet well 
enough acquainted with their technical value. All Eucalypts 
are eligible for the production of tar, pitch, acetic acid, paper 
material, potash and various dye substances. 

Eucalyptus triantha, Link. (£. acmenoides, Schauer). 

New South Wales and East Queensland. Known as White 
Mahogany. It attains a considerable height, with a stem reach- 
ing 4 feet in diameter, and is of rapid growth. The wood is 
used in the same way as that of E. obliqua, but is superior to 
it. It is heavy, strong, durable, of a light color, and has 
been found good for palings, flooring-boards, battens, rails and 
many other purposes of house carpentry (Rev. Dr. Woolls). 


Eucalyptus viminalis, La Billadiere. 

South-East Australia. On poor soil only a moderate-sized 
tree, with a dark rough bark on the trunk, and generally known 
as Manna-gum tree; in rich soil of the mountain-forests it 
attains, however, gigantic dimensions, rising to a height of rather 
more than 300 feet, with a stem 15 feet in diameter. It has 
there a cream-colored smooth bark, and is locally known as 
White-gum tree. The timber is light-colored, clear, and though 
not so strong and durable as that of many other kinds of 
Eucalyptus, is very frequently employed for shingles, fence- 
rails and ordinary building purposes; also for fuel. It is 
stronger than that of E. amygdalina and E. obliqua. The fresh 
bark contains about 5 per cent, kino-tannin. Professor Balfour 
observes that a tree of this species has stood thirty years 
in the open air at Haddington (South Scotland), attaining a 
height of 50 feet with a stem 8 feet in circumference at the base, 
Shelter against hard cold winds is in these cases imperative. 
This is the only species which yields the crumb-like melitose- 
manna copiously. For fuller information on Eucalypts con- 
sult my "Descriptive Atlas." 

Euchlaena luxurians, Ascherson.* {Reana luxurians, Durieu). 

The Teosinte. Guatemala, up to considerable elevations. 
Annual. Recommendable as a fodder-grass. A large number 
of stems spring from the same root, attaining a height of a 
dozen feet or even more. The leaves grow to lengths of 3 feet 
and form a good forage. The young shoots, when boiled, con- 
stitute a fair culinary esculent. Dr. Schweinfurth harvested at 
Cairo from three seeds in one year about 12,000 grains; the 
fruit required ten months to ripen from the time of sow- 
ing; the three seeds furnished ten stalks each, about 18 feet 
high. The plant, particularly in its young state, is remarkably 
saccharine. For scenic growth this stately grass is also recom- 
mendable. Vilmorin estimates one plant sufficient for two head 
of cattle during twenty-four hours. Mons. Thozet, at Rock- 
hampton, obtained plants 12 feet high and 12 feet wide in damp 
alluvial soil, each with thirty-two main stalks bearing nearly 100 
flower bunches. It is rather slower in growth than Maize, but 
lasting longer for green fodder, and not so hardy as Sorghum. 
Its growth can be continued by cutting the tufts as green fod- 
der; as such it does not cause colic to horses and cattle. As a 
forage plant it is without a rival in climes free from frost. It likes 
humid soil best, but also resists extreme dryness. It was first 
brought into notice by the Acclimatization Society of Paris, and 
introduced into Australia by the writer. Euchlaena Mexicana 
might also be tested. 


Euclea myrtina, Burchell. 

South-Africa. Berry small, black, but edible. To us this 
plant would hardly be more than an ornamental bush. 

Euclea Pseudebenus, E. Meyer. 

Africa, down to extra-tropic regions. Yields the Orange 
River Ebony. 

Euclea undulata, Thunberg. 

South-Africa. Berry small, red, edible. Other shrubby 
species from the same portion of the globe also yield esculent 
fruits, which under superior culture may vastly improve. 

Eucryphia cordifolia, Cavanilles. 

The Muermo or Ulmo of Chili. This magnificent evergreen 
tree attains a height of over 100 feet, producing a stem some- 
times 6 feet in diameter. The flowers are much sought by bees. 
For oars and rudders the wood is preferred, in Chili, to any other 
(Dr. Philippi). We possess congeneric trees in Tasmania (E. 
BiHardieri, J. Hooker) and in New South Wales (E. Moorei, 
F. v. M.). 

Eugenia cordifolia, Wight. 

Ceylon, up to 3,000 feet elevation. Fruit edible, of 1 inch 

Eugenia Hallii, Berg. 

Quito. Fruit of large size, edible. 

Eugenia Jambolana, Lamarck. 

South Asia, Polynesia, East Australia to extra-tropic lati- 
tudes. The fruit of this handsome tree is about cherry-size and 
edible; it is inferior to Damson, but may perhaps be improved. 

Eugenia maboides, Wight. 

Ceylon, up to seven thousand feet elevation. Fruit of the 
size of a small cherry (Dr. Thwaites). 

Eugenia Malaccensis, Linne. 

The large Rose-Apple. India. Although strictly a tropical 
tree, it has been admitted into this list as likely adapted for 
warmer forest regions in extra-tropic zones. The leaves are 
often a foot long. The large fruits, of rosy odor, are whole- 
some and of agreeable taste. E. Jambos, L., also from India, 
likewise produces excellent fruit. 


Eugenia myrtifolia, Sims. 

East Australia. A handsome bush with palatable fruit. 
Careful special culture would probably improve all Eugenia- 

Eugenia Nhanica, Cambessedes. 

South-Brazil. The berries, which are of the size, of plums 
are there a table-fruit. 

Eugenia pyriformis, Cambessedes. 

Uvalho do Campo of South-Brazil. Fruit of pear size. 
Eugenia revoluta, Wight. 

Ceylon, up to heights of 6,000 feet; berry 1 inch in diameter. 

Eugenia rotundifolia, Wight. 

Ceylon, up to 8,000 feet; rejoicing therefore in a cool or 
even cold climate. 

Eugenia Smithii, Poiret. 

From Gippsland to Queensland. A splendid large unbrag- 
eous tree; but not of quick growth, and requiring' rich soil in 
river-valleys for its perfect development. The bark contains 
about 17 per cent, tannin. This fact may give a clue to the 
recognition of the same tan-principle in the barks of numerous 
other species of the large genus Eugenia. 

Eugenia supra-axillaris, Spring. 

The Tata of South Brazil. Fruit large. 

Eugenia uniflora, Linne. 

Extra-tropical South America. A tree of beautiful habit, 
with edible fruit of cherry size. Dr. Lorentz mentions also as 
a sub-tropical Argentine fruit species E. Mato. 

Eugenia Zeyheri, Harvey. 

South-Africa. A tree attaining 20 feet in height. The ber- 
ries are of cherry size and edible. The relative value of the 
fruits of many Asiatic, African and American species of Eu- 
genia remains to be ascertained; many of them doubtless fur- 
nish good timber, and all more or less essential oil; some prob- 
ably also superior fruit. All such, even tropical trees, should 
be tested in warm tracts of the temperate zone, inasmuch as 
many of them endure a cooler clime than is generally sup- 
posed. Hence Anona muricata, L., the Soursop bush of West 
India, should also be subjected to test culture for the yield of 
its sweet, fragrant, melon-like fruit; and not less so Anona 
squamosa, L., the Sweetsop shrub or tree of Central America, 
for the sake of its very pleasant fruit. 


Eupatorium tinctorium, Grisebach. 

Paraguay. A shrub of remarkably prolific and vigorous 
growth (E. H. Egerton). Competes almost with the indigo 
plant for dye. It can be stripped of its leaves four times a 
year without injury to the plant. 

Eupatorium triplinerve, Vahl. {E. Ayapana, Ventenat.) 

Central America. A perennial somewhat shrubby herb, 
possibly hardy in the warmer parts of extra-tropical countries. 
It is used as a medicinal plant, also as an alexipharmic. It 
contains eupatorin and much essential oil peculiar to the plant. 
It stands locally in renown as a remedy against ophidian pois- 
ons, and evidently possesses important medicinal proper- 
ties. A tanning extract is prepared for the English market 
from this herb, which contains about 20 per cent, tannic acid. 

Euryale ferox, Salisbury. 

From tropical Asia to Japan. Though less magnificent than 
the grand Victoria Regia, this closely-allied water-lily is much 
more hardy, and would live unprotected in ponds and lakes 
of a temperate climate. Though not strictly an industrial 
plant, it is not without utility, and undergoes some sort of cul- 
tivation in China for its edible roots and seeds. 

Euryangium Sumbul, Kaufmann. 

Central Asia. Yields the true Sumbul root, a powerful stim- 
ulant, with the odor of Musk. It is also a decorative plant 
for lawns. 

Eustrephus Brownii, F. v. Mueller. 

East Australia. This climber produces sweet though only 
small tubers, which however are probably capable of enlarge- 
ment through culture. 

Euterpe andicola, Brongniart. 

Bolivia. Ascends to 9,000 feet (Martius), an altitude higher 
than is reached by any other palm unless E. Haenkeana and E. 
longivaginat (Drude). E. edulis (Martius), extends as far 
South as Minas Geraes in Brazil. 

Excaecaria sebifera, J. Mueller. (Stillingia sebifera, Michaux.) 

The Tallow-tree of China and Japan. The fatty coating of 
the seeds constitutes the vegetable tallow, which is separated by 
steaming. The wood is so hard and dense as to be used for 
printing-blocks; the leaves furnish a black dye. The tree en- 
dures slight night-frosts, though its foliage suffers. 


Euxolus viridis, Moguin. 

Temperate and tropical regions of Europe, Asia and Africa. 
Not without value as a spinage-plant. 

Exomis axyrioides, Fenzl. 

South Africa. A good salt bush there for pastures. 

Fagopyrum cymosum, Meissner. 

The perennial Buckwheat, or rather Beech-wheat of the 
Indian and Chinese Highlands. Can be used with other spe- 
cies for spinage, and a blue dye may be obtained from its leaves. 

Fagopyrum emarginatum, Babington. 

Chinese and Himalayan Mountains, where it is cultivated for 
its seeds. Annual. 

Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench.* 

Central Asia, growing at an elevation of 14,000 feet in 
the Himalayas. The ordinary Buckwheat. This annual 
herb succeeds on the poorest soil; clayey soil yields more fol- 
iage but less grain. The crushed amylaceous seeds can be 
converted into a palatable and wholesome food by boiling or 
baking. Starch has also recently been prepared from the seeds 
as an article of trade. It can be raised with advantage as an 
agrarian plant for the first crop on sandy but not too dry heath- 
land, newly broken up, for green manure. It gives a good 
green-fodder, serves as admixture to hay, and is also important 
as a honey-plant. The period required for the cyclus of its 
vegetation is extremely short; thus it can even be reared on 
Alpine elevations. In Norway it grows to lat. 67 56' (Schue- 

Fagopyrum Tataricum, Moench.* 

Middle and Northern Asia. Yields for the higher mountain- 
regions a still safer crop than the foregoing, otherwise the 
remarks offered in reference to F. esculentum apply also to F. 
Tataricum, but the seeds of the latter are more thick-shelled, 
less amylaceous and less palatable. 

Fagopyrum triangulare, Meissner. 

In the Hamalayan Mountains, ascending naturally to regions 
11,500 feet high. An annual. F. rotundatum, Babington, 
seems a variety of this species. It is cultivated for food like 
the rest. 


Fagus Cunninghami, Hooker. 

The Victorian and Tasmanian Beech. The Myrtle-wood of 
the trade. A magnificent evergreen tree, attaining large dimen- 
sions, and living only in cool, damp, rich forest valleys, not rarely 
200 feet high. The wood is much used by carpenters and other 
artisans. It remains to be ascertained, by actual tests in the 
forests, whether the allied tall evergreen New Zealand Beeches 
possess any advantage over this species for forest-culture; they 
are Fagus Menziesii,the Red Birch of the colonists; F.fusca and 
F. cliffortioides (J. Hooker), the Black Birches and F. solandri 
(Hooker), the White Birch. A magnificent beech, Fagus Moorei 
(F. v. Mueller), occurs in New South Wales on high mountains. 

Fagus Dombeyi, Mirbel. 

The Evergreen Beech of Chili, called there the Coigue or 
Coihue. Of grand dimensions. Canoes can be made out of its 
stem large enough to carry 10 tons freight. The wood is still 
harder than that of the following species, with the qualities of 
which it otherwise agrees (Dr. Philippi). This species 
exfends to the Chonos-group, and perhaps still further south, 
and thus may be of value even for Middle European forest- 

Fagus ferruginea, Aiton. 

North-American Beech. A large tree, with deciduous foliage, 
easily raised in woodlands. Grows there as our Evergreen 
Beech does here. Wood variable according to localities. 
Well-seasoned wood, according to Simmonds, is extremely 
hard and solid, hence employed" for plane-stocks, shoe-lasts, 
tool-handles, various implements and turneries. 

Fagus obliqua, Mirbel. 

The Roble of Chili, called Coyam by the original inhabitants. 
A tall tree with a straight stem, attaining 3 to 4 feet diameter. 
Wood heavy and durable, well adapted for posts, beams, girders, 
rafters, joists, etc., but not for flooring. One of the few Chilian 
trees with deciduous foliage (Dr. Philippi). Its value, as com- 
pared with that of the European Beech, should be tested in 
forest plantations. 

Fagus procera, Poeppig. 

Another deciduous Beech of Chili, where it passes by the 
name of Reule or Rauli. Of still more colossal size than the 
Roble. Wood fissile, well adapted for staves; finer in grain 
than that of F. obliqua, and much used for furniture (Dr. 


Fagus silvatica, Linne. 

The deciduous Beech of Britain, of most other parts of 
Europe and extra-tropical Asia. The trunk has been measured 
in height 118 feet, the head 350 feet in diameter. As far north 
as lat. 6o° 23' in Norway Professor Schuebeler found a tree over 
70 feet high with a stem 12 feet in circumference,and trees grew 
even to lat. 6j°$6'. The wood is hard, extensively used by 
joiners and ship-builders and the manufacturers of various im- 
plements, especially for planes, shoe-lasts, keys and cogs of 
machinery, lathe-chucks, gun-stocks, staves, chairs, spoke-shaves, 
in piano manufacture, for bridges, some portion of the work of 
organ-builders; enters also into the construction of harmoniums 
(beds of notes, pallets, rest-planks), also used for carved moulds 
and for wooden letters in large prints; it is of rather difficult cleav- 
age, great compactness and of considerable strength, and resists 
great pressure. Beech-tar contains a considerable proportion 
of paraffine; the ash from any portion of this tree is rich in 
phosphate of lime. For trimming into copse-hedges, many give 
preference to a purple-leaved variety for show. An allied Beech, 
Fagus Sieboldii, Endl., grows in Japan. In the warmer tem- 
perate zones, all these could only be grown to advantage in 
springy mountain forests. 

Fatsia papyrifera, Bentham. {Aralia papyri/era, Hooker.) 

Island of Formosa. The Rice-Paper Plant, hardy in the low- 
lands of Victoria, and of scenic effect in garden plantations. 
The pith furnishes the material for the so-called rice-paper, and 
for solah-hats. 

Ferula Assafoetida, L. (Scorodosma foetidum, Bunge). 

Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan. This very tall perennial 
herb yields the ordinary medicinal asafetida. Ferula Narthex, 
Boissier (Narthex Assa foetida, Falconer) furnishes a very 
similar drug in Thibet. The cultivation of these plants in ade- 
quate climes seems not surrounded by any difficulties. 

Ferula galbaniflua, Boissier. 

Persia; on mountains 4,000 to 8,000 feet high. This tall 
perennial herb might be transferred to alpine regions, for 
obtaining locally from it the gum-resin galbanum. 

Ferula longifolia, Fischer. 

South-Russia. The long aromatic roots furnish a pleasant 
vegetable (Dr. Rosenthal). 

Festuca Coiron, Steudel. 

Chili. A valuable perennial fodder-grass, according to the 
testimony of Dr. Philippi. 


Festuca dives, F. v. Mueller. 

Victoria, from West Gippsland to Dandenong towards the 
sources of rivers. One of the most magnificent of all sylvan 
grasses, often 12 and sometimes 17 feet high. Root peren- 
nial, or perhaps of only two or three years' duration. 
This grass deserves to be brought to any forest tracts in mild 
climes, as it prospers in shade; it assumes its grandest forms 
in deep soil along rivulets. The large panicle affords nutri- 
tious forage. 

Festuca elatior, Linne.* 

The Meadow-Fescue. Europe, North-Africa, Northern and 
Middle Asia. A perennial grass, attaining a height of several 
feet. There are several varieties of this species. The tallest 
follows rivers readily as far down as the tides reach. The 
ordinary form is well adapted for permanent pastures, has ten- 
der leaves, produces excellent, tasty, nutritious hay, and is early 
out in the season. Langethal places Meadow-Fescue above 
Timothy and Foxtail-grass in value, though its copiousness is 
somewhat less. The seed is readily collected. The tall variety 
(arundinacea) will occupy land preferentially and densely 
among the best of eligible fodder-grasses. It can be mixed 
advantageously with F. ovina. It is superior to Rye grass in 
production and improves with age. It succeeds also on humid 
and even swampy ground and in forest land as well with sandy 
as a calcareous subsoil. Dr. Curl observes, that this and some 
other Fescues grow vigorously in New Zealand, and yield her- 
bage also in the cool season, when Rye-grass is nearly dormant. 
Chemical analysis made in spring gave the following re- 
sults: Albumen 2.47, gluten 2.75, starch 0.50, gum 2.84, sugar 
2.84 per cent. (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel). F. arundinacea, 
Schreb., F. pratensis, Huds, and F. loliacea, Huds., are varieties 
of this species. 

Festuca flava, F. v. Mueller. {Poajlava, Gronov. ; Tricuspis sesleriodes, Torr. 
Uralepis cuprea, Kunth.) 

The tall F.ed-top grass of the eastern states of North 
America. A perennial sand-grass, with wide panicles. 

Festuca gigantea, Villars. 

Europe and Middle Asia. A good perennial forest-grass. 

Festuca heterophylla, Lamarck. 

Mountains of Europe. This perennial grass attains a height 
of 5 feet; it produces a proportionately great bulk of fodder, 
and serves as an admixture to grasses for hay or pasture lands, 
particularly the former (Lawson). It is best fitted for Alpine 


Festuca Hookeriana, F. v. Mueller.* 

Alps of Australia and Tasmania. A tall perennial grass, ev- 
idently nutritious, required to be tried for culture as pasture, 
and perhaps destined to become a meadow-grass of colder 
countries. Stands mowing and depasturing well; much liked, 
by cattle, horses and sheep (Th. Walton). 

Festuca litoralis, La Billardiere. 

Extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. An important 
strong perennial grass for binding drift-sand on sea-shores. 

Festuca ovina, Linne. 

Sheep-Fescue. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, North 
America; found also in South America and the Alps of Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand. This species, like F. elatior, is ob- 
tainable with facility. F. duriuscula, L. and F. rubra, L. are 
varieties. A perennial grass, thriving on widely different soils, 
even moory and sandy ground. It yields a good produce, 
maintains its virtue, resists drought, and is also well adapted 
for lawns and swards of parks. F. vaginata, Willdenow, is a 
form particularly recommended by Wessely for sand-soil. 
Chemical analysis made very late in spring gave the following 
results: Albumen 1.86, gluten 8.16, starch 1.45, gum 2.14, su- 
gar 5.05 per cent. (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel.) 

Festuca purpurea, F. v. Mueller. (Uralepis purpurea, Nuttall; Tricuspis pur- 
purea, A. Gray.) 

South-east coast of North America. A tufty sand-grass, but 

Festuca silvatica, Villars. 

Middle and South Europe. A notable forest-grass. F. dry- 
meia (Mert. and Koch), a grass with long creeping roots, is 
closely allied. Both deserve test culture. 

Festuca spadicea, Linne. 

Alps of Europe. This grass would thrive on the heights 
of snowy mountains. Perennial. Space does not admit of 
entering here into further details of the respective values of 
many species of Festuca, which might advantageously be intro- 
duced from various parts of the globe for rural purposes. 

Ficus Carica, Linne.* 

The ordinary Fig-tree. Alph. de Candolle speaks of it as 
spontaneous from Syria to the Cana^-Islands; Count Solms- 
Laubach confines the nativity of the Fig-tree to the countries 
on the Persian gulf. It attains an age of several hundred 


years. In warm temperate latitudes and climes a prolific tree. 
The most useful and at the same time the most hardy of half a 
thousand recorded species of Ficus. The extreme facility with 
which it can be propagated from cuttings, the resistance to heat, 
the comparatively early yield and easy culture, recommend the 
Fig-tree where it is an object to raise masses of tree 
vegetation in widely treeless landscapes of the warmer zones. 
Hence the extensive plantations of this tree made in formerly 
woodless parts of Egypt; hence the likelihood of choosing the 
Fig as one of the trees for extensive planting through favorable 
portions of desert waste, where moreover the fruit could be dried 
with particular ease. Fig-trees can be grown even on sand- 
lands, at least as observed on the Australian south coast. In 
Greece the average yield of figs per acre is about 1,600 lbs. 
(Simmonds). Caprification is unnecessary, even in some instan- 
ces injurious and objectionable. Two main varieties may be 
distinguished: that which produces two crops a year, and that 
which yields but one. The former includes the Gray or Purple 
Fig, which is the best, the White Fig and the Golden Fig, the 
latter being the finest in appearance but not in quality. The 
main variety, which bears only one crop a year, supplies the 
greatest quantity of figs for drying, among which the Marseillaise 
and Bellonne are considered the best. The Barnisote and the 
Aubique produce delicious large fruits, but they must be dried 
with fire-heat, and are usually consumed fresh. The ordinary 
drying is effected in the sun. For remarks on this and other 
points concerning the Fig, the valuable tract published by the 
Rev. Dr. Bleasdale should be consulted. The first crop of figs 
grows on wood of the preceding year; the last crop however on 
wood of the current year. Varieties of particular excellence are 
known from Genoa, Savoy, Malaga, Andalusia. 

Ficus columnaris, Moore and Mueller. 

The Banyan-tree of Lord Howe's Island, therefore extra- 
tropical. One of the most magnificent productions in the whole 
empire of plants. Mr. Fitzgerald, a visitor to the island, re- 
marks that the pendulous aerial roots, when they touch the 
ground, gradually swell into columns of the same dimensions as 
the older ones, which have already become converted into stems, 
so that it is not evident which was the parent trunk; there 
may be a hundred stems to the tree, on which the huge dome of 
dark evergreen foliage rests, but these stems are all alike, and 
thus it is impossible to say whence the tree comes or whither it 
goes. The aerial roots are rather rapidly formed, but the wood 
never attains the thickness of F. macrophylla, which produces 
only a single trunk. The allied F. rubiginosa of continental 
East Australia has great buttresses, but only now and then a 
pendulous root, approaching in similarity the stems of Ficus 


columnaris. The Lord Howe's Island Fig-tree is more like 
F. macrophylla than F. rubiginosa, but F. columnaris is more 
rufous in foliage than either. In humid, warm, sheltered tracts 
this grand vegetable living structure may be raised as an enor- 
mous bower for shade and for scenic ornament. The nature of 
the sap, whether available for caoutchouc or other industrial 
material, requires yet to be tested. A substance almost identical 
with gutta-percha, but not like India-rubber, has been obtained 
by exsiccation of the sap of F. columnaris (Fitzgerald). The 
hardened sap of this species resembles in many respects that of 
F. subracemosa and F. variegata, called Getah Lahoe, but differs 
apparently by its greater solubility in cold alcohol, and by the 
portion insoluble in alcohol being of a pulverulent instead of 
a viscid character. The mode of exsiccation affects much the 
. properties of the product. 

Ficus Cunninghami, Miquel. 

Queensland, in the eastern dense forest-regions. Mr. O'Shane- 
sy designates this as a tree of sometimes monstrous growth, 
the large spreading branches sending down roots which take 
firm hold of the ground. One tree measured was 38 feet in 
circumference at 2 feet from the ground,the roots forming wall- 
like abutments, some of which extended 20 feet from the tree. 
Several persons could conceal themselves in the large crevices 
of the trunk, while the main branches stretched across a space 
of about 100 feet. A kind of caoutchouc can be obtained from 
this tree. A still more gigantic Fig-tree of Queensland is F. 
colossea F. v. M., but it may not be equally hardy, not advanc- 
ing naturally to extra-tropical latitudes. This reminds one of 
the great Council-tree, F. altissima from Java, where it grows 
in mountains on calcareous ground. F. eugenioides, F. v. M., 
from North-east Australia, attains a height of 100 feet, and 
produces also columnar air-roots. It is comparatively hardy, 
reaching extra-tropic latitudes. 

Ficus elastica, Roxburgh.* 

Upper India, to the Chinese boundary, known as far as 28°3o' 
north latitude. A large tree, yielding its milk-sap copiously for 
caoutchouc, i. e., the kind called Assam-Rubber. Roxburgh 
ascertained seventy years ago that India-rubber could be dis- 
solved in cajaput oil (very similar to eucalyptus oil), and that 
the sap yielded about one-third of its weight caoutchouc. This 
tree is not of quick growth in the changeable and often dry 
clime of Melbourne, but there is every prospect 
that it would advance rather rapidly in any mild humid 
forest-gullies, and that copious plantations of it there would 
call forth a new local industry. This tree has grown in Assam 


to ri2 feet with 100 aerial roots in thirty-two years (Markham). 
In moist, warm climes, according to observations in Assam 
by Mr. Gustave Mann, branches lopped off and planted will 
speedily establish themselves. The import of all kinds of 
caoutchouc into Great Britain during 1874 amounted to 129,168 
cwt., worth ^"1,326,605. Markham and Collins pronounce the 
caoutchouc of F. elastica not quite so valuable as that of the 
Heveas and Castilloas of South America. Heat and atmos- 
pheric moisture greatly promote the growth of F. elastica. 
Like most other fig-trees it is easily raised from seed. A tree 
of F. elastica is tapped in Assam when twenty-five years old. 
After fifty years the yield is about 40 lbs. of caoutchouc every 
third year and lasts till the tree is over 100 years old. The 
milky sap flowing from cuts in the stem yields nearly one-third 
of its weight of caoutchouc; the collected sap is poured into 
boiling water and stirred till it gets firm ; or the sap is poured 
into large bins partly filled with water; the fluid caoutchouc- 
mass after a while floats on the surface, when it is taken out 
and boiled in iron pans, after the addition of two parts of 
water, the whole being stirred continuously; after coagulation 
fhe caoutchouc is taken out and pressed, and, if necessary, 
boiled again, then dried and finally washed with lime-water. 
The sap from cuts into the branches is allowed to dry on the 
trees (J. Collins). Dr. S. Kurz states that F. laccifera Rox- 
burgh, from Silhet is also a Caoutchouc tree, and that both this 
and F. elastica yield most in a ferruginous clay-soil on a rocky 
substratum; further, that both can bear dryness, but like shade 
in youth. Several other species of tropical figs, American as 
well as Asiatic, are known to produce good caoutchouc, but it 
is questionable whether any of them would prosper in extra- 
tropical latitudes; nevertheless for the conservatories of botanic 
gardens all such plants should be secured with a view of pro- 
moting public instruction. 

Ficus Indica, Linne. 

The Banyan tree of India, famed for its enormous expansion 
and air-roots. Although not strictly a utilitarian tree, it is 
admitted here as one of the most shady trees, adapted for 
warm and moist regions. At the age of 100 years one indi- 
vidual tree will shade and occupy about one and a half acres, and 
rest on 150 stems or more, the main stems often with a circum- 
ference of 50 feet, the secondary stems with a diameter of 
several feet. At Melbourne the tree suffers somewhat from the 

Ficus infectoria, Willdenow. 

India, ascending to 5,000 feet. Probably hardy, and then 
adapted for street planting. Brandis and Stewart found its 


growth quicker than that of Siris or Albizzia procera. F. 
religiosa L„ ascends to the same height, and is of quick 
growth in moist climates. It is one of the trees on which the 
lac insect largely exists. The fruits of some huge Himalayan 
species — for instance, F. virgata Roxb., F. glomerata Roxb., 
F. Roxburghii Wallich — are edible. 

Ficus macrophylla, Desfontaines.* 

The Moreton Bay fig tree, which is indigenous through a 
great part of East Australia. Perhaps the grandest of Aus- 
tralian avenue trees, and among the very best to be planted, 
although in poor dry soil its growth is slow. In the latitude of 
Melbourne it is quite hardy in the lowland. The foliage may 
occasionally be injured by grasshoppers. Easily raised from 

Ficus rubiginosa, Desfontaines. 

New South Wales. One of the most hardy of all fig trees, 
and very eligible among evergreen shade trees. It is estimated 
that the genus Ficus comprises about 600 species, many occur- 
ring in cool mountain regions of tropical countries. The 
number of those which would endure a temperate clime is 
probably not small. 

Ficus Sycamorus, Linne. 

The Sycamore fig tree of the Orient, copiously planted along 
the roadsides of Egypt. The shady crown extends to a width 
of 120 feet. Attains an enormous age. A tree at Cairo, which 
legends connect with Christ, still exists. Seven men with out- 
stretched arms could hardly encircle the stem. 

Fitzroya Patagonica, J. Hooker.* 

Chili, as far south as Chiloe. The Alerce of the Chilians. 
Grows on swampy, moory places. A stately tree, sometimes 100 
feet high. The diameter of the stem sometimes reaches the 
extraordinary extent of 15 feet. The wood is almost always red, 
easily split, light, does not warp, stands exposure to the air for 
half a century; in Valdivia and Chiloe almost all buildings are 
roofed with shingles of this tree (Dr. Philippi). The outer 
bark produces a strong fiber, used for calking ships. Like 
Libocedrus tetragona, this tree should be extensively planted 
in unutilized swampy moors of mountains. 

Flacourtia Ramontchi, l'Heeritier. (F. sapida, Roxburgh). 

India up to Beloochistan. This and F. cataphracta (Roxb.) 
form thorny trees with somewhat plum-like fruits. They can. 
be adopted for hedge-copses with other species. 


Flemingia tuberosa, Dalzell. 

Western India. The tubers of this herb are said to be 
edible. Another species, F. vestita, is on record as cultivated 
in North-western India for its small esculent tubers. 

Flindersia Australis, R. Brown. 

New South Wales and Queensland. With Araucaria Cun- 
ninghami and Ficus maycrophylla, the tallest of all the jungle 
trees of its localities, attaining 150 feet. Bark scaly; stem, 
frequently with a diameter of 8 feet. Timber of extraordinary 
hardness (Ch. Moore). A noble tree for avenues. Rate of 
growth, according to Mr. Fawcett, about 25 feet in eight years. 

Flindersia Oxleyana, F. v. Mueller. 

The Yellow Wood of New South Wales and Queensland, 
called "Bogum Bogum" by the aborigines. Its wood is used 
for dye, also for staves as well as that of F. Australis, Tarrietia 
argyrodendron, Stenocarpus salignus and Castanospermum 
Australe. Mr. C. Hartmann mentions that F. Oxleyana attains 
a^ height of 150 feet, and supplies one of the finest hardwoods 
for choice cabinet-work. Other species occur there, among 
which F. Bennettiana is the best for avenue purposes. 

Flueggea Japonica, C. Richard. 

China and Japan. The mucilaginous tubers can be used for 
food — a remark which applies to many other as yet disregarded 
liliaceous plants. 

Foeniculum officinale, Allioni. 

The Fennel. Mediterranean regions, particularly on lime- 
stone soil. A perennial or biennial herb, of which primary 
varieties occur, the so-called sweet variety having fruits almost 
twice as large as the other. The herb and fruits are in use as 
condiments and the latter also for medicine. The fruits are 
rich in essential oil, containing much anethol. 

Fourcroya Cubensis, Haworth. 

West India and continental tropical America. A smaller 
species than the following, but equally utilized for fiber and 
impenetrable hedges. F. flavo-viridis (Hooker), from Mexico, 
is still smaller. 

Fourcroya gigantea, Ventenat. 

Central America. In species of Yucca, Agave, Dracaena, 
Cordyline, Phormium, Doryanthes, and this and a few other 
Fourcroyas, we have gigantic liliaceous and amaryllidaceous 
plants available industrially for fiber. Frost injures the leaves 
of this species. Development of flower-stalks extremely 


rapid up to 30 feet high. Fiber often 3 feet long and 
of considerable tenacity. The fiber produced in Mauritius 
by Messrs. Bourgignon and Fronchet proved stronger than 
hemp and resisted decay in water. Mr. Boucard also testifies 
to the excellence of the fiber, which he describes as long, silky 
and solid, particularly adapted for luxurious hammocks and for 

Fourcroya longaeva, Karwinski and Zuccarini. 

High mountains of Guatemala and Mexico, at an elevation 
of about 10,000 feet. One of the most gigantic and magnificent 
of all liliaceous or amaryllideous plants, in volumen only sur- 
passed by Dracsena Draco, the Dragon-tree of the Canary 
Islands. This is the principal high-stemmed species, the trunk 
attaining a height of 50 feet, and the huge panicle of flowers 
40 feet more. It dies, like many allied plants, after flowering. 
The species is recorded here as a fiber-plant, but should also be 
cultivated for its ornamental grandeur. 

Fragaria Chiloensis, Aiton. 

Chili Strawberry. In various of the colder parts both of 
North and South America. Almost incredible accounts have 
been published regarding the yield of the Chiloen Strawberry 
in the neighborhood of Brest, far exceeding the fecundity of any 
other strawberry. 

Fragaria collina, Ehrhart. 

Hill Strawberry. In various parts of Europe. Cultivated in 
Norway to lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler.) 

Fragaria grandiflora, Ehrhart. {F. Ananas, Miller.) 

Ananas Strawberry. Various colder parts of America. 
Closely allied to F. Chiloensis. 

Fragaria Illinoensis, Prince. 

North America. Hovey's seedling and the Boston kind from 
this plant. Is regarded by Professor Asa Gray as a variety of 
F. Virginiana. 

Fragaria pratensis, Duchesne. (F. elatior, Ehrhart.) 

Cinnamon Strawberry. Hautbois. In mountain-forests of 

Fragaria vesca, Linne. 

Wild Wood -Strawberry. Naturally very widely dispersed over 
the temperature and colder parts of the northern hemisphere, 
extending southward to the Mountains of Java, ascending the 
Himalayas to 13,000 feet (J. D. Hooker). From this typical 


form probably some of the other Strawberries arose. Middle 
forms and numerous varieties now in culture were produced by 
hybridization. These plants, though already abounding in our 
gardens, are mentioned here, because they should be naturalized 
in any ranges. Settlers, living near some brook or rivulet, 
might readily set out plants, which, with others similarly 
adapted, would gradually spread with the current. 

Fragaria Virginiana, Miller. 

Scarlet Strawberry. North America. 

Fraxinus Americana, Linne.* 

The White Ash of North America. A large tree, which 
delights in humid forests. Trunks have been found 75 
feet long without a limb and 6 feet in diameter (Emerson). 
It is the best of all American Ashes, of comparatively rapid 
growth. Timber valuable, resisting extreme heat better than 
the common Ash; largely exported; it assumes a red tint in 
age; much valued for its toughness, lightness, and elasticity, 
excellent for work subject to sudden shocks and strains, such 
as the frames of machines, carriage-wheels, agricultural imple- 
• ments, pick-handles, billiard cues, fishing-rods, handles, chair- 
rails, shafts, staves, pulley-blocks, belaying-pins and oars; also for 
furniture and musical implements. The young branches are util- 
ized for mast-hoops. Baron von Mueller and Mr. J. G. Lueh- 
mann found the strength greater than that of our Blackwood- 
tree and of many Eucalypts, but not equal to that of E. leu- 
coxylon, E. siderophloia, E. polyanthema, the best E. globulus 
and hickory. Over-old wood not desirable. When once thor- 
oughly seasoned, it does not shrink or swell, and is therefore 
preferred for flooring to any native timber in Virginia (Robb, 
Simmonds).' The inner bark furnishes a yellow dye. The Red 
Ash (Fraxinus pubescens, Lam.), the Green Ash (F. viridis, 
Mich.), the Black Ash (F. sambucifolia, Lam.) and the Carolina 
Ash (F. platycarpa, Mich.) are of smaller size, but F. pubescens 
may sometimes also become large. 

Fraxinus Chinensis, Roxburgh. 

It is this Ash on which a peculiar wax is produced by Coccus 
Pela, perhaps also on some species 'of Ligustrum. About 
40,000 lbs. are exported annually according to Bernardini. 

Fraxinus excelsior, Linne.* 

The ordinary Ash of Europe and West-Asia, of comparatively 
quick growth, known to attain an age of nearly 200 years. It 
is a very hardy tree, braving the winters of Norway to lat. 69 
40', though there only a shrub; but in lat. 6i° 12' it attained a 
height of 100 feet and a diameter of 5 feet (Schuebeler). Rich 


soil on forest-rivulets or river-banks suits it best although it 
thrives on moist sand. Wood remarkably tough and elastic, used 
for agricultural and other implements, handles, ladders, drum- 
hoops, under carriage-work, for oars, axle-trees, and many 
other purposes. Six peculiar kinds of Ash trees occur in Ja- 
pan, some also in the Indian highlands; all might be tried for 
industrial culture. 

Fraxinus floribunda, Don. 

Nepal- Ash. Himalaya, between 5,000 and 11,000 feet. It 
attains a height of 120 feet, and serves as a fine avenue-tree; 
girth of stem sometimes 15 feet. The wood much sought for 
oars, ploughs, and various implements (Stewart and Brandis). 
For forest plantations Ashes are best mixed with beeches and 
some other trees. 

Fraxinus Oregana, Nuttall. 

Californian and Oregon Ash. A tree reaching 80 feet in 
height, preferring low-lying alluvial lands. The wood of this 
fine species is nearly white, tough and durable, often used for 
oars and handles of implements. Though allied to F. sambuci- 
folia, it is very superior as a timber tree. Ash-trees will grow 
readily in the shade of other trees. 

Fraxinus ornus, Linne. 

The Manna-Ash of the Mediterranean regions. Height 
about 30 feet. Hardy at Christiania. It yields the medicinal 
manna. F. ornus is well adapted for a promenade-tree, and is 
earlier in foliage than F. excelsior, F. Americana, and most 
other Ash-trees. 

Fraxinus quadrangulata, Michaux.* 

The Blue Ash of North America. One of the tallest of the 
Ashes becoming 70 feet high. Timber excellent, better than that 
of any other American species except the White Ash, hence 
frequently in use for flooring and shingles. The inner bark 
furnishes a blue dye. The tree requires a mild clime and the 
most fertile soil. 

Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lamarck. 

Black or Water- Ash of North America. Attains a height of 
80 feet. Wood still more tough and elastic than that of F. 
Americana, but less durable when exposed; easily split into 
thin layers for basket-work. Its wood is comparatively rich 
in potash, like that of most of its congeners; for oars and 
implements it is inferior to that of the White Ash (Simmonds). 


Fraxinus viridis, Michaux. 

The Green Ash of North America. Height reaching 70 feet; 
wood excellent, nearly as valuable as that of the White Ash, but 
of less dimensions. The tree requires wet, shady woodlands. 
Especially recommended for street-planting by Dr. J. Warder. 
The tree, like the preceding, is hardy as far north as Christiania 
in Norway (Schuebeler.) 

Fuchsia racemosa, Lamarck. 

South- America. One of the hardier species, with edible ber- 
ries of very good taste. Another Fuchsia occurs in cold 
regions of Guatemala, 10,000 feet high, with orange-colored 
flowers and with tasty wholesome berries, the latter an inch 
and a half long. 

Garcinia Travancorica, Beddome. 

Madras-Presidency, up to elevations of 4,500 feet. This 
seems to be the hardiest of the superior Gamboge trees; 
hence there is some prospect of its prospering in forests of the 
warmer temperate zone. 

Garuleum bipinnatum, Lessing. 

South- Africa. A perennial herb of medicinal properties; 
praised like numerous other plants there and elsewhere as an 
alexipharmic, but all requiring close re-investigation in this re- 

Gaulthieria Myrsinites, Hooker. 

North California, Oregon, British Columbia. The fruit of 
this procumbent shrub is said to be delicious. It would prove 
adapted for any of the Alps. 

Gaulthieria Shallon, Pursh. 

North-western America. This handsome spreading bush 
would yield its pleasant edible berries in abundance, if planted 
on snowy mountains, where it would likely become naturalized. 

Gaylussacia frondosa, Torrey and Gray. 

The Blue Tangleberry of North America. A bush with 
deciduous foliage; berry sweet. 

Gaylussacia resinosa, Torrey and Gray. 

The Black Huckleberry of North America. A dwarf shrub 
with deciduous leaves. It likes swampy woodlands, and thus 
would find ample space in forest ranges. Berry of pleasant 
taste. Perhaps some of the South American species also pro- 
duce edible fruits. 


Geitonoplesium cymosum, Cunningham. 

Through the whole East Australian forests. It is mentioned 
here, to draw attention to the fact that special culture may con- 
vert this into an Asparagus plant, as Mr. P. O'Shanesy found 
the young shoots to offer a fair substitute for Asparagus. 

Gelsemium nitidum, Michaux. 

Southern States of North America and Mexico. A twining 
shrubby plant of medicinal value, long since introduced into 
Australia by the writer, with numerous other plants of industrial 
or therapeutical importance. Active principle: gelsemin. The 
perfume of the flowers has also come into use as a cosmetic. 

Genista monosperma, Lamarck. 

.Mediterranean regions. One of the best of Broom-brushes 
for arresting sand-drift. G. sphserocarpa, Lamarck, is of like 
use, and also comes from the Mediterranean Sea. 

Gentiana lutea, Linne. 

Sub-alpine tracts of Middle and Southern Europe. A most 
beautiful perennial herb, yielding the medicinal gentian root. 
It could be easily raised in our higher mountains. Chemical 
principles: gentian-bitter and gentianin. Medicinal gentian 
root is also obtained from G. punctata, L., G. purpurea, L., and 
G. pannonica, Scop, pf the European Alps. 

Geonoma vaga, Grisebach and Wendland. 

West-Indies to Brazil. A dwarf decorative Palm, ascending 
the mountains 3,000 feet. 

Geum urbanum, Linne. 

The "Avens" of Britain. Europe, North-Africa, extra-tropi- 
cal and Alpine Asia, South-East Australia, North-America. A 
perennial herb with a powerful anti-dysenteric root, which, ac- 
cording to Muspratt, contains as much as 41 per cent, of tannic 

Gigantochloa Abyssinica, F. v. Mueller. {Oxytenanthera Abyssinica, Bentham.) 

Tropical Africa. A tall species, ascending to considerable 
Gigantochloa apus, Kurz. {Bambusa apus, Roemer and Schultes.) 

Indian Archipelagus, at elevations under 5,000 feet. Height 
of stem reaching 60 feet. When young it is used for strings 
and ropes. 
Gigantochloa aspera, Kurz. 

Java. Found by Zollinger to attain a maximum height of 
170 feet. 


Gigantochloa atter, Kurz. 

Java, at elevations of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. Height of 
stems reaching 70 feet. One of the species much grown for 
rural and industrial purposes. 

Gigantochloa maxima, Kurz. 

Java. Height sometimes 120 feet, the stems nearly a foot 
thick. One of the most extensively cultivated of all Asiatic 
bamboos, ascending into mountain regions. 

Gigantochloa nigro-ciliata, Kurz. (Oxytenanthera nigro-ciliata, Munro. j 
Continental and insular India. Stems 130 feet long. 

Gigantochloa robusta, Kurz. 

Mountains of Java. Height 100 feet. Kurz noticed the 
early growth to be nearly 18 feet in a month, the principal 
branches only commencing when the shoot had reached a height 
of about 70 feet. Some Java bamboos are known to measure 
22 inches in girth at a height of about 120 feet. 

Gigantochloa Thwaitesii, Kurz. {Oxytenanthera Thwaitesii, Munro.) 

Ceylon, at elevations of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. This pretty 
Bamboo reaches only 12 feet in height. 

Gigantochloa verticillata, Munro. {Bambusa verticillata, Blume.) 

The Whorled Bamboo of India. It attains a height of fully 
100 feet; in damp heat it grows at the astonishing rate of 40 
feet in about three months, according to Bouche. The young 
shoots furnish an edible vegetable like G. Apus and Bambusa 

Ginkgo biloba, Linne.* (Salisburia adianti folia, Smith.) 

Ginkgo tree. China and Japan. A deciduous fan-leaved 
tree, 100 feet high, with a straight stem 2 feet in diameter. 
The wood is white, soft, easy to work, and takes a beautiful 
polish. The seeds are edible, and when pressed yield a good 
oil. The fruits, sold in China under the name of "Pa-Koo," 
are not unlike dried almonds, but white, fuller and rounder (For- 
tune). Ginkgo trees are estimated to attain an age of 3,000 
years. Mr. Christy observes that the foliage turns chrome-yel- 
low in autumn, and that it is the grandest and most highly 
esteemed of all trees in Japan; it will grow in dry situations. 
In America it is hardy as far north as Montreal; in Europe to 

Gladiolus edulis, Burchell. 

Interior of South Africa. The bulb-like roots are edible, 
and taste like chestnuts when roasted. 


Gleditschia triacanthos, Linne. 

The deciduous Honey Locust tree of North America. Height 
reaching 80 feet. Wood hard, coarse-grained, fissile, durable, 
serves principally for blocks, hubs, etc. The tree is not with- 
out importance for street planting. Sown closely, this plant 
forms impenetrable, thorny, not readily combustible hedges. 
An allied species, the G. sinensis, Lamarck (G. horrida, Willd.), 
occurs in East Asia. The Water Locust tree of North America 
(G. monosperma, Walt.) will grow to a height of 80 feet in 

Glycine hispida, Bentham. (Sofa hispida, Moench.) 

An annual herb of India, China and japan. The beans 
afford one of the main ingredients of the condiment known as 
Soja. The seeds are very oily, nutritious, and of pleasant 
taste when boiled. The plant endures slight frost (Wittmack). 
Oil is pressed from the seeds. Glycine Soja, Siebold and Zuc- 
carini, is said to be a distinct plant, but probably serves the 
same purpose. 

Glycyrrhiza echinata, Linne. 

South Europe and the Orient. From the root of this herb a 
portion of the Italian liquorice is prepared. The Russian 
liquorice root is also derived from this species. The root is 
thicker and less sweet than that of the following. 

Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linne. 

South Europe. The extract of the root of this herb consti- 
tutes the ordinary liquorice. The plant grows most vigorously 
in adequate climes. Both this and the preceding are hardy in 
Norway to lat. 59 55' (Schuebeler). Liquorice is of some 
utility in medicine and also used in porter breweries. Chemical 
principle: glycyrrhizin. 

Glyptostrobus heterophyllus, Endlicher. 

China. Kxi ornamental tree, allied to Taxodium distichum 
in some respects, and like that tree particularly fit for perma- 
nently wet ground. The Chinese plant it along the edges of 
canals and narrow creeks, the buttress of the tree standing 
actually in the moist mud (Dr. Hance). 

Gmelina Leichhardtii, F. v. Mueller. 

East Australia. Grown now on a commercial scale for fancy 
timber purposes in Queensland. 

Gonioma Kamassi, E. Meyer. 

South Africa. This small tree furnishes the yellow Kamassi 
wood, much sought for carpenters' tools, planes and other select 
articles of wood-work ; also for wood-engraving, according to 
Dr. Pappe. Flowers deliciously fragrant. 


Gordonia lasianthus, Linne. 

The Loblolly Bay. North America. A handsome tree, 
growing to a height of 60 feet ; flowers snowy white. The 
wood is extremely light, of a rosy hue and fine silky texture, 
but unfit for exposure. The bark is extensively employed for 
tanning in the Southern States. Available for swampy coast 

Gossypium arboreum, Linne.* 

The Tree Cotton. India, Arabia. A tall perennial species, 
but not forming a real tree, yielding cotton in the first 
season. Leaves long-lobed. Bracts with few teeth. Petals 
yellow, or in age pink or purple. Seeds brown, disconnected, 
after the removal of the cotton fiber greenish-velvety. The 
cotton of long staple, but a variety occurs with short staple. 
The New Orleans cotton (G. sanguineum, Hassk.) belongs to 
this species. The cotton fiber is crisp, white, opaque, and not 
easily separable. 

Gossypium Barbadense, Linne.* 

Sea Island Cotton. From Mexico to Peru and Brazil. 
Leaves long-lobed. Petals yellow. Seeds disconnected, black, 
after the removal of the cotton fiber naked. The cotton of 
this species is very long, easily separable and of a silky luster. 
This species requires low-lying coast tracts for attaining to per- 
fection. Perennial, and yielding like the rest a crop in the first 
season. Cultivated largely in the Southern States of North 
America, also in South Europe, Central and North Africa, 
Queensland and various other countries. G. Kirkii, Masters 
from Dar Salam, may be a wild state of G. Barbadense. The 
only other type of this genus in tropical Africa is G. anomalum 
according to Dr. Welwitch. The "Kidney Cotton" is a 
variety with more accuminate leaves. M. Delchevalerie has 
drawn attention to a new plant, of tall size and exceed- 
ingly prolific in bearing, raised in Egypt, called Bamia 
Cotton, which Sir Joseph Hooker regards as a variety of 
G. Barbadense. The Bamia Cotton Bush grows 8 to 10 
feet high, ripens (at Galveston) fruit in four or five months, 
and produces 2,500 pounds of cotton and seed per acre. It 
is remarkable for its long simple branches, heavily fruited 
from top to bottom. Its cotton is pale yellow. 

Gossypium herbaceum, Linne.* 

Scinde, Cabul and other parts of tropical and sub-tropical 
Asia. Much cultivated in the Mediterranean countries. Per- 
ennial. Leaves short-lobed. Petals yellow. Seeds discon- 
nected, after removal of the cotton-fiber gray, velvety. Dis- 


tinguished and illustrated by Palatore as a species, regarded by 
Seemann as a variety of G. arboreum. Staple longer than in 
the latter kind, white opaque, not easily separating. The wild 
type of this seems to be G. Stocksii, Masters. Even this species, 
though supposed to be herbaceous, will attain a height of 12 
feet. The root of this and some other species is a powerful 
emmenagogue. A variety with tawny fiber furnishes the Nan- 
kin cotton. 

Gossypium hirsutum, Linne.* 

Upland or Short-staple Cotton. Tropical America, culti- 
vated most extensively in the United States, Southern 
Europe and many other countries. Perennial. Seeds 
brownish-green, disconnected, after the removal of the cotton- 
fiber greenish, velvety. Staple white, almost of a silky luster, 
not easily separable. A portion of the Queensland cotton is 
obtained from this species. It neither requires the coast-tracts 
nor the highly attentive culture of G. Barbadense. 

Gossypium religiosum, Linne.* (G. Peruvianum, Cavan.) 

Tropical South America. Kidney Cotton, Peruvian or Bra- 
zilian Cotton. Leaves long lobed. Petals yellow. Seeds 
black, connected. The cotton is of a very long staple, white, 
somewhat silky, and easily separable from the seeds. A tawny 
variety occurs. This is the tallest of all cotton bushes, and it 
is probably this species which occurs in the valleys of the An- 
des as a small tree, bearing its cotton while frosts whiten the 
ground around. 

Gossypium Taitense, Parlatore. (G. religiosum, Banks and Solander.) 

In several islands of the Pacific Ocean. A shrub. Petals 
white. Seeds disconnected, glabrous after the removal of the 
fulvous cotton-fiber, which does not separate with readiness. 

Gossypium tomentosum, Nuttall.* (6". Sandvicense, Parlatore; G. religio- 
sum, A. Gray.) 

Hawaia. Perennial. Petals yellow. Seeds disconnected; 
after the removal of the tawny cotton-fiber fulvous, velvety, not 
easily parting with their cotton. The roots are a power- 
ful remedial agent, which, however, should only be used in legit- 
imate medical practice. The barks of Hamamelis Virginiana 
and Virburnum prunifolium are antidotes (Phares and Dur- 

For limitation of species and varieties Parlatore's "Specie 
dei Cotoni" (Florence, 1866) and Todaro's "Osservazioni su 
Cotone" may be consulted. Information on culture may be 
sought in Porter's "Tropical Agriculturist" and in Mallet's 
work on "Cotton" (London, 1862.) 


The following notes were written for the use and guidance of 
Victorian colonists: — 

There are many parts of our colony in which all these species 
of Gossypium could be cultivated, and where a fair or even 
prolific cotton crop may be obtained. Good cotton, for in- 
stance, has been produced on the Goulburn river, the Loddon, 
the Avoca and the Murray river, particularly in places where 
water could be applied. All cultivated kinds of cotton plants 
are either naturally perennials or become such in favorable 
climes, although they may be treated strictly as annuals. Some 
of them will indeed in particular instances grow to the height 
of 20 feet. The geographic parallels, between which cotton 
culture is usually placed, stretch in various girdles between 36 
north latitude and t,6° south latitude. According to General 
Capron, cotton is grown in Japan to 40 north latitude, but su- 
perior quality is not obtained north of 35 . 

The cotton culture in the Southern States of North 
America utilized seven million acres before the civil 
war, cultivated by a million and a half of Negroes: India 
lias now 14 million acres in cotton. The primary advan- 
tages of this important culture are; a return in a few 
months, comparatively easy field operations, simple and not 
laborious process of collecting the crop, and requirement 
of but little care in the use of the gin-machine in finally pre- 
paring the raw material for the market, the woolly covering of 
the seeds constituting the cotton of commerce. The oil ob- 
tained by pressure from the seeds is useful for various technic 
purposes, and the oil cake can be used like most substances of 
similar kind for very fattening stable-food. This oil can even 
be used quite well in domestic cookery (Colonel O. Nelson). 
Crushed cotton seed cake without admixture is eaten by cattle 
and sheep with avidity. Sea Island cotton was raised in great 
perfection in the northern parts of Victoria fully twenty- 
five years ago from seeds extensively distributed by the writer; 
but the want of cheap labor has hitherto militated against 
the extensive cultivation of this crop as well as that 
of tea and many other industrial plants. Cotton having 
been raised far away from the influence of the sea 
air, it would be worthy of attempts to naturalize 
various kinds of cotton in the oases of our deserts, 
irrespective of regular culture. Our native Gossypiums 
of the interior produce no fiber worth collecting. Cotton 
plants have a predilection for gently undulating or sloping 
ground, with light soil and a moderate supply of moisture. 
In the most favorable climes, such as that of Fiji, cotton pro- 
duces flowers and fruit throughout the year, but the principal 
ripening falls in the dry season. From two hundred to three 


hundred plants or more can be placed on an acre. As many as 
seven hundred bolls have been gathered from a single plant at 
one time, twelve to twenty capsules yielding an ounce of mer- 
cantile cotton. Weeding is rendered less onerous by the vigorous 
growth of the plants. Cotton comes in well for rotation with 
other crops. Major Clarke has ascertained that crossing cannot 
be effected between the oriental and occidental kinds of cotton. 
A high summer temperature is needed for a prolific cotton - 
harvest. Intense heat, under which even maize will suffer, does 
not injuriously affect cotton, provided the atmosphere is not 
dry in the extreme. The soil should not be wet, but of a kind 
that naturally absorbs and retains humidity, without over- 
saturation. In arid regions it is necessary to irrigate the 
cotton-plant. Heavy rains at the ripening period are injurious, 
if not destructive, to the cotton crop. Dry years produce the 
best returns, yet aqueous vapor in the air is necessary for the 
best yield. In colder localities the bolls or capsules continue 
to ripen after the frosts prevent the formation of new ones. 
Porous soils resting on limestones and metamorphic rocks are 
eminently adapted for cotton culture. The canebrake-soil of 
the North- American cotton regions absorbs ammonia to a pro- 
digious extent. 

Gourliaea decorticans, Grisebach. 

The Chanar of Argentina. Bears sweet pleasant fruits and 
yields a tough valuable wood (Dr. Lorentz). 

Grevillea annulifera, F. v. Mueller. 

West- Australia. A tall bush or small tree, with highly orna- 
mental flowers. The seeds are comparatively large, of almond 
taste, and the fruits produced copiously. The shrub will live 
in absolute desert-sands, where the other Australian proteaceous 
Nut-tree Brabejum (Macadamia) ternifolium could not exist. 

Grevillea robusta, Cunningham. 

A beautiful Lawn-tree, indigenous to the sub-tropical part of 
East- Australia, rising to 150 feet, of rather rapid growth, and 
resisting drought in a remarkable degree; hence one of the most 
eligible trees for desert-culture. Cultivated trees at Melbourne 
yield now an ample supply of seeds. The wood is elastic and 
durable, valued particularly for staves of casks, also for furni- 
ture. The richly developed golden-yellow trusses of flowers 
attract honey-sucking birds and bees through several months of 
the year. The seeds are copiously produced and germinate 


Guadua angustifolia, Kunth.* {Bambusa Guadua, Humboldt and Bonpland.) 

New Granada, Ecuador and probably other of the Central 
American States. This Bamboo attains a height of 40 feet, and 
might prove hardy in sheltered places of temperate low-lands. 
Holton remarks of this species that it is, after the plantain, 
maize and cane, the most indispensable plant of New Granada, 
and that it might becalled the Lumber-tree, as it supplies nearly 
all the fencing and wood-work of most of the houses, and is 
besides manufactured into all kinds of utensils. The genus 
Guadua comprises the stoutest of all Bamboos. 

Guadua latifolia, Kunth.* (Bambusa latifolia, Humboldt and Bonpland.) 

One of the tall Bamboos of Central America, whence 
several other lofty Bamboos may be obtained, among them the 
almost climbing Chusqueas. This Guadua is stouter than any 
Indian Bamboo. In tropical America native Bamboos are 
planted for hedges. 

Guevina Avellana, Molina. (Quadria heterophylla, Ruiz and Pa von.) 

' The evergreen Hazel-tree of Chili, extends from Middle Chili 
to the Chonos-Archipelago. One of the most beautiful trees 
in existence, attaining a height of 30 feet. The snowy-white 
flower-spikes produced simultaneously with the ripening of the 
coral-red fruit. In the cooler southern regions the tree attains 
considerable dimensions. The wood is tough and elastic, used for 
boat-building (Dr. Philippi). The fruit of the allied Brabejum 
stellatifolium can only be utilized with caution and in a roasted 
state as an article of diet, because it is noxious or even abso- 
lutely poisonous in a raw state. 

Guizotia oleifera, De Candolle. 

India and probably also Abyssinia. Rantil-oil is pressed 
from the seeds of this annual herb, which yields its crop in three 
months. The oil is much used like Sesamum-oil, for culinary 
as well as for technic purposes. 

Gunnera Chilensis, Lamarck. 

Caracas to Patagonia, chiefly on cliffs. A most impressive 
plant for scenic groups in gardens. Darwin measured leaves 8 
feet broad and 24 feet in circumference. The acidulous leaf- 
stalks serve as a vegetable; the thick roots are used for tanning 
and dyeing. G. macrophylla, Blume, is a native of Java and 
Sumatra, where it occurs on mountains up to 6,000 feet elevation. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lamarck. 

The Chicot, or Kentucky Coffee Tree. A North-American 
timber and avenue tree, attaining a height of 80 feet; allied 
to Gleditschia, but, as the name implies, thornless. Delights 


in a rich soil and a sheltered position. Can be raised from 
cuttings of the roots. The wood is strong, tough, compact, 
fine-grained, and assumes a rosy color. The pods, preserved 
like those of Tamarinds, are said to be wholesome (Simmonds). 
Insects preying on the foliage of this tree are poisoned by it. 
The tree will bear the frosts of Norway to lat. 6i° 17' (Schue- 

Hagenia Abyssinica, Willdenow. {Brayera antkelminthica, Kunth.) 

Abyssinia, at elevations from 3,000 to 8,000 feet. A tall tree, 
admitted in this list because its flowers have come into medicinal 
use. It is moreover quite eligible for ornamental plantations. 

Hardwickia binata, Roxburgh. 

India, up to elevations of nearly 4,000 feet. Maximum height 
of- tree 120 feet. Wood from red-brown to nearly black, close- 
grained, exceedingly hard, heavy and durable; valued for 
under-ground work. The bark furnishes easily a valuable 
material for cordage. The tree can readily be pollarded for 
cattle fodder (Brandis). 

Harpullia Hillii, F. v. Mueller. 

The Tulip Wood of Queensland. One of thejnost important 
of the numerous kinds of trees indigenous there for select 
cabinet-work. H. pendula Planchon, is equally valuable. 

Hedeoma pulegioides, Persoon. 

The Penny-royal of North-America. An annual herb of 
aromatic taste, employed in medicine. The volatile oil is also 
in use. 

Hedera Helix, Linne. 

The Ivy. Europe, North- Africa, Western-Asia as far as the 
Himalayas. Not to be omitted here as it quickly forms ever- 
green walls over all kinds of fences and is also a bee-plant for 
honey. Individual plants will live through several centuries. 
The yellow-leaved variety is singularly ornamental. Resists 
the smoky air of cities (Loudon). Hederic acid is of medicinal 
value. A decoction of the leaves dyes hair black. 

Hedysarum coronarium, Linne.* 

The Soola-Clover. Southern Europe. One of the best of 
perennial fodder herbs, yielding a bulky return. It is also 
recommended as being extremely handsome. 

Heleocharis spharelata, R. Brown. 

Australia, New Zealand and South Sea Islands. This rush is 
well deserving to be transferred to any swamps in warmer climes 
on account of its nutritious and palatable tubers. 


Heleocharis tuberosa, Roemer and Schultes. 

China, where it is called Matai or Petsi. This rush can be 
subjected to regular cultivation in ponds for the sake of its 
edible wholesome tubers. H. plantaginea and H. fistulosa of 
India are allied plants. 

Helianthus annuus, Linne.* 

The Sun-Flower. Peru. This tall, showy and large-flowered 
annual is not without industrial importance. As much as 
fifty bushels of seeds, or rather seed-like nutlets, have been 
obtained from an acre under very favorable circumstances, and 
as much as fifty gallons of oil can be pressed from such a crop. 
The latter can be used not only for machinery but even as one 
of the best for the table; also used for superior toilet-soaps 
and for painting; It belongs to the series of drying-oils. Other- 
wise the seeds afford an excellent fodder for fowl; they are also 
used for cakes, and afford a substitute for coffee, according to 
Professor Keller. The leaves serve for fodder. The large 
flower-heads are important as yielding much honey. The stalks 
furnish a good textile fiber, and the blossoms yield a brilliant 
lasting yellow dye. About six pounds of seed are required for 
an acre. The plant likes calcareous soil. Important also for 
quickly raising vegetation around fever morasses, the absorb- 
ing and exhaling power of this plant being very large (Dr. v. 
Hamm). The Sun-Flower, according to Lacoppidan, will ex- 
hale iy 2 lb. of water during a hot day. Several North American 
species deserve rural culture. The return from a Sun-Flower 
field is attained within a few months. In Norway it can be 
grown to lat. 7o°4' (Schuebeler) ; yet it will, according to the 
Rev. H. Kempe, also endure the excessive summer heat of 
Central Australia better than any other cultivated herb. 

Helianthus tuberosus, Linne.* 

Brazil. Sun-Flower Artichoke, inappropriately passing under 
the name "Jerusalem Artichoke," instead of "Girasol Artichoke." 
The wild state, according to Professor Asa Gray, seems to be the 
North American H. doronicoides, Lamarck. The tubers are 
saccharine and serve culinary purposes. As a fodder they in 
crease the milk of cows to an extraordinary degree. The 
foliage serves well also as fodder. The plant is propagated 
from the smallest but undivided tubers, placed like potatoes, but 
at greater distances apart. The root is not susceptible to frost. 
The plant would be valuable for Alpine regions. In Norway it 
will grow at lat. 68°24 (Schuebeler). The yield is as large 
as that of potatoes, with less labor, and continues from 
year to year in fairly-treated land uninterrupted and spontane- 
ously. The stem is rich in textile fiber. The percentage of 


crystalline sugar is largest during the cold season, namely, 5-6 
per cent. During the summer the starch-like inulin prevails. 
This plant can only be brought to full perfection in a soil rich 
in potash. 

Helichrysum lucidum, Henckel. (H. bracteatum , Willdenow.) 

Throughout the greater part of Australia. H. lucidum grows 
to lat. 70 4' in Norway (Schuebeler). The regular cultivation 
of this perennial herb would be remunerative to supply its ever- 
lasting flowers for wreaths, just as those of H. orientale, 
Tournefort, from Candia, are largely grown and sold in South 
Europe to provide wreaths for graves. Furthermore, the lovely 
Helipterum Manglesii, F. v. M., from West Australia, could, for 
the same purposes, be reared on a large scale with several other 
Australian evergreens. Some South African species of Heli- 
chrysum and Helipterum are also highly eligible for these pur- 
poses of decoration. Helichrysum apiculatum affords herbage 
in the worst deserts of Australia. 

Heliotropium Peruvianum, Linne. 

Andes of South America. A perennial somewhat shrubby 
plant. Among \4ari0us species of Heliotrope this one can best 
be utilized for the distillation of the scented oil. 

Helleborus niger, Linne. 

Forest mountains of Middle and Southern Europe. The 
Christmas Rose of British Gardens. A perennial handsome 
herb. The roots are used in medicine. 

Helvella esculenta, Persoon. 

Europe. Dr. Goeppert notes among saleable Silesian mush- 
rooms for table use, this species as well as H. gigas, Krorrib- 
holz and H. infula, Fries. Kohlrausch and Siegel found in H. 
esculenta when dried 26 per cent, of protein, against the follow- 
ing other results; in beef 39 per cent., in veal 44, wheat-bread 
8, oatmeal 10, pulse 27, potatoes 5, various mushrooms often ^7, 
per cent. Of course starch, sugar, inulin, pectin, gum and even 
fiber have to be further taken into consideration in these cal- 
culations on value of nutriments. The deleterious principle of 
H. esculenta needs to be removed by repeated treatment 
with boiling water, or by keeping the dried fungus for about a 
year before it is used for the kitchen. 

Hemarthria compressa, R. Brown. 

South Asia, South Africa, extra-tropical Australia. This 
perennial grass, though somewhat harsh, is recommendable for 
moist pastures, and will retain a beautiful greenness throughout 
the year; very highly esteemed by graziers in Gippsland 


(Victoria); it is not injured by moderate frost. H. uncinata is 
a closely allied plant, which grows down to high-water mark on 
estuaries of rivers; also otherwise on somewhat saline ground. 

Heracleum Sibiricum, LinnS. 

Colder regions of Europe and Asia. A very tall biennial 
herb with leaves of enormous size. Recently recommended for 
sheep-fodder in Alpine regions. This plant could also be turned 
to account for scenic effect in horticulture. 

Heterothalamus brunioides, Lessing. 

South Brazil and Argentina. A dwarf shrub, furnishing the 
yellow Romerillo dye from its flowers. 

Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn6. {H. radiatus, Cavanilles.) 

Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. An annual showy herb, 
yielding a hemp-like fiber. Stems 12 feet high, without rami- 
fication if closely sown. Rich soil on the Nile has yielded 
over 3,000 lbs. of clear fiber from one acre. The bearing 
strength is often found to be more than that of the Sun 
fiber. The leaves serve as sorrel spinage. Several other Hibisci 
can be utilized in the same manner. Good fiber is also obtained 
from Sida rhombifolia, L. 

Hibiscus esculentus, Linn6. 

West India and Central America. A tall herb. The unripe 
mucilaginous seed capsules are known as Ochro, Okra Bandakai, 
or Gumbo, and used as culinary vegetables. The summers of 
Victoria bring them to maturity. The Ochro can be preserved 
by being dried either in the sun or by artificial heat after 
previous slicing. The leaves of this and allied species can be 
used as pot-herbs. 

Hibiscus Ludwigii, Ecklon and Zeyher. 

South Africa. A tall, shrubby, and highly ornamental 
species, desirable also as yielding a fiber of fair strength and 

Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Linne. 

Tropical Asia and Africa. A showy annual plant, occasion- 
ally of more than one year's duration, admitting of culture in 
the warmer temperate regions; it is, however, cut down by frost. 
It yields the Rosella-fiber. The acidulous calyces furnish a 
delicious sorrel, and rosella jellies, particularly relished in hot 
climes. H. punctatus, Dalz. and Gibs, is mentioned as an 
annual fiber plant, occuring in Sindh and Mooltan. 


Hierochloa redolens, R. Brown. 

South Eastern Australia, almost confined to the Alps; also 
found in the lowlands of Tasmania and New Zealand, in the 
Antartic Islands and the southern extremity of America. A 
tall, perennial, nutritious grass, with the odor of Anthoxan- 
thum. It is worthy of dissemination on moist pasture land. 
H. borealis of the colder regions of the northern hemisphere 
accompanies H. redolens in the south, but is a smaller 
grass. These grasses are particularly valuable for their 
fragrance as constituents of hay, the odorous principle, 
as in Anthoxanthum, Melilotus and Asperula, being cumarin. 
Hierochloas are particularly appropriate for cold, wet, moory 

Hippocrepis comosa, Linn6. 

The Horse-shoe Vetch. Middle and South Europe, North 
Africa. A perennial fodder herb, not without importance. 
Likes stony ground, and delights, like most leguminous herbs, 
in limestone soil. The foliage is succulent and nutritious. 
Langethal recommends it for a change after Sainfoin pastures 
fail. It furnishes not quite as much but an earlier fodder. 

Holcus lanatus, Linne. 

Velvet grass or meadow soft grass, also known as Yorkshire 
fog. Europe, North Africa, Middle Asia. Indigenous in Nor- 
way to lat. 63 34'. A well-known and easily disseminated peren- 
nial pasture grass, of considerable fattening property. For rich 
soil better grasses can be chosen, but for moist, moory or sandy 
lands, and also for forests, it is one of the most eligible pasture 
grasses, yielding an abundant and early crop ; it is however 
rather disliked by cattle as well as horses. One of the best 
pasture grasses in recently cleared forest ground, not — like 
Cocksfoot grass and particularly rye grass — apt to be attacked 
by caterpillars; also suited for suppressing bracken ferns after 
they have been burnt down. The chemical analysis made in 
full spring gave the following results : — Albumen, 3.20; gluten, 
4.1 1 ; starch, 0.72; gum, 3.08; sugar, 4.56 per cent. (F. v. 
Muller and L. Rummel). 

Holcus mollis, Linn6. 

Creeping Soft-grass. Of nearly the same geographic range 
and utility as the preceding species. Particularly adapted to 
sandy forest land. Grown in Norway to lat. 63 7' (Schue- 

Holoptelea integrifolia, Planchon. (Ulmus integrifolia, Roxburgh.) 

The Elm of India, extending from the lowlands to sub-alpine 
regions. A large tree, with timber of good quality. Foliage 


Hordeum deficiens, Steudel. 

The Red Sea Barley. One of the two-rowed barleys culti- 
vated in Arabia and Abyssinia. Allied to this is H. macrolepis, 
A. Br., a native of Abyssinia. 

Hordeum distichon, Linne.* 

Wild from Arabia to Central Asia (A. de Candolle). Culti- 
vated as early as the stone age (Heer). The ordinary two- 
rowed barley. To this species belong the ordinary English 
barley, the Chevalier, the Annat, the Dunlop, the Long-eared, 
the Black, the Large, the Italian and the Golden barley, along 
with other kinds. A variety with grains free from the bracts 
constitutes the Siberian and the Haliday barley, which however 
is less adapted for malt. Dry barley-flour, heated at the tem- 
perature of boiling water during several hours, constitutes 
Hufeland's meal for invalids. Barley culture might be carried 
on in many alpine regions. Marly and calcareous lands are 
particularly fit for its culture. It resists moderate spring 
frosts. As much as 100 bushels of Cape barley have been 
< obtained from an acre of land in volcanic soil of Victoria as 
first harvest. 

Hordeum hexastichon, Linne.* 

Orient. The regular six-rowed barley. In cultivation 
during the stone age (Heer). This includes among other 
varieties the Red, the Scotch, the Square and the Bear barley. 
Seeds less uniform in size than those of H. distichon. The 
so-called skinless variety is that in which the grain separates 
from the bracts. Langethal observes that it is most easily 
raised, requires less seed grain than ordinary barley, has firmer 
stems, is less subject to the rust disease and to bending down. 

Hordeum secalinum, Schreber.* {H. nodosum, Smith; H. pratense, Hudson). 

Europe, North and Middle Asia, North America. Perennial. 
Famed as the best fattening grass of many of the somewhat 
brackish marsh pastures on the North Sea. It never fruits when 
kept down by cattle, and finally suppresses nearly all other 
grasses and weeds. 

Hordeum vulgare, Linne.* 

Orient. The four-rowed barley, though rather six-rowed 
with two prominent rows. Of less antiquity than H. distichon 
and H. hexastichon (Heer). Several varieties occur, among 
them: the Spring, Winter and Black barley, the Russian, the 
French, the Naked and the Wheat barley. Pearl barley is 
obtained from the winter variety, which also surpasses summer 
barley in rigor of stems and rich and early yield, it being the 


earliest cereal in the season; the straw is copious and nutri- 
tious, and the grain is rich in gluten, hence far better adapted 
for flour than for malt. Summer barley also passes under the 
name of sand barley; is inferior in yield to H. distichon, but is 
content with a less fertile, even sandy soil, and comes to ripeness 
in a month's less time. In alpine regions it ripens with a 
summer of sixty or seventy days without frost. In Norway 
it can be grown to lat. 70 (Schuebeler). The Naked barley is 
superior to many other varieties for peeled barley, but inferior 
for brewing; the grain is also apt to drop (Langethal). Malt 
is important as an antiscorbutic remedy. Chemical principles 
of malt: asparagin, a protein substance, diastase, an acid and 
cholesterin fat. 

Hordeum zeocriton, Linne.* 

Central Asia. A two-rowed barley. To this species 
belong the Sprat, the Battledore, the Fulham and the Putney 
barley, the rice barley, the Turkish barley and the Dinkel. 
This species might be regarded as a variety of H. distichon. 
The grains do not drop spontaneously, and this variety is 
securer than others against sparrows; requires however a supe- 
rior soil, and is harder in straw (Langethal). 

Hovenia dulcis, Thunberg. 

Himalaya, China, Japan. The pulpy fruit-stalks of this tree 
are edible. H. insequalis, DC. and H. acerba, Lindl. are mere 
varieties of this species. 

Humulus Lupulus, Linn6.* 

The Hop plant. Temperate zone of Europe, Asia and North 
America. Very hardy, being indigenous in Norway to lat. 
64 12' and cultivated to lat. 69 40' (Schuebeler). This twin- 
ing perennial unisexual plant has proved to yield enormously 
on river banks in rich soil or on fertile slopes where irrigation 
could be effected. A pervious, especially alluvial soil, fertile 
through manure or otherwise, appliances for irrigation, natural 
or artificial, and also shelter against storms, are some of the 
conditions for success in hop growth, and under such condi- 
tions the raising of hops will prove thus far profitable in 
countries and localities of very different mean temperature. A 
dry summer season is favorable to the ripening and gathering 
of hops. On the Mitchell River, in Gippsland, 1,500 lbs. 
have been obtained from an acre. In Tasmania large crops 
have been, realized for very many years. The plant might be 
readily naturalized on river banks and in forest valleys. The 
scaly fruit-cones form the commercial hops, whose value largely 
depends on the minute glandular granules of lupuline. Hops 



impart their flavor to beer, and prevent acetous fermentation 
and precipitate albuminous substances from the malt princi- 
pally by their tannic acid. Hop pillows are recommended to 
overcome want of sleep. Many of the substitutes for hops are 
objectionable or deleterious. The refuse of hops of breweries 
possess double the value of stable manure. Active principles 
of hop leaves and fruits : a peculiar volatile and a bitter acid 
substance. The fiber of the stem can be made into cords and 
paper. The young shoots can be used for food, dressed like 

Hydnum coralloides, Scopoli. 

In Cashmere, where it inhabits hollow trunks of Pinus Web- 
biana, called there the Koho-Khur. Cooked, of excellent taste. 
[Common on dead wood in forests in the United States.] 

Hydnum imbricatum, Linne. 

In pine-forests of Europe. A wholesome mushroom of deli- 
cious taste, which we should endeavor to naturalize in any pine 
plantations. Other recommendable European species are: H. 
erinaceum, Pers.; H. coralloides, Scop.; H. album, Pers.; H. 
diversidens, Fries; H. auriscalpium, Linne; H. subsquamosum, 
Batsch; H. lsevigatum, Sw.; H. violascens, Alb.; H. infundi- 
bulum, Sw. ; H. fuligineo-album, Schm. ; H. graveolens, Brot. ; 
H. Caput Medusse, Nees; H. hystrix, Fries. These and other 
edible fungi are given on the authority of Rosenthal's valuable 
work. The Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Dr. Morren and Dr. Goeppert 
add Hydnum repandum, L. and H. suaveolens, Scop. 

Hydrangea Thunbergi, Siebold. 

Japan. The leaves of this shrub give a peculiar tea, called 
there the " Tea of Heaven." 

Hydrastis Canadensis, Linne. 

The Yellow Puccoon. North America. A perennial herb, 
utilized in medicine. The root contains two alkaloids, berberin 
and hydrastin. Root dyes of a brilliant yellow, admitting of its 
use with indigo for rich green colors. 

Hymensea Courbaril, Linne. 

Tropical and Southern sub-tropical America. A tree of 
colossal size and remarkable longevity. Timber hard, extremely 
heavy, close-grained, used for select wheel-work, treenails, 
beams and planks in various machinery. Courbaril wood 
exceeds the best British Oak four times in elasticity and 
nearly three times in resistance to fracture (Lapparents). A 
fragrant amber-like resin, known as West Indian Copal, exudes 
from the stem. The Mexican trade-name of the resin is 


Coapinole. The beans of the pod are lodged in a mealy pulp 
of honey-like taste, which can be used for food. The chance 
of the adaptability of this remarkable tree to the warmer tem- 
perate zone needs to be ascertained. 

Hymenanthera Banksii, F. v. Mueller. 

South East Australia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island. A tall 
spiny shrub, well adapted for close hedges, where rapid growth 
is not required. It stands clipping well. Flowers profusely 

Hyoscyamus niger, Linne. 

The Henbane. Europe, North Africa, extra-tropical Asia. 
In Norway indigenous to lat 63 35'. An important medi- 
cinal herb of one or two years' duration. It contains a pecu- 
liar alkaloid — hyoscyamin. 

Hyospathe pubigera, Grisebach. 

Trinidad, on the summits of the highest mountains. The 
stem of this palm attains only 12 feet in height. Valuable 
among the dwarf palms, now so much sought for table and 
window decoration. 

Hyphaene Argun, Martius. 

Nubia, to 21 north latitude. Probably hardy anywhere on 
lowlands in the warmer temperate zone. 

Hyphaene coriacea, Gaertner. 

1 Equatorial Eastern Africa. The dichotomous Palm of the 
sea-coast regions. It attains a height of 80 feet. 

Hyphaene crinita, Gaertner. (H. Thebaica, Martius.) 

The Gingerbread-Palm or Doum-Palm. Abyssinia, Nubia, 
Arabia and Egypt, as far as 31 north latitude, and southward 
to the Zambesi, Nyassa and Sofala. In Arabia to 2 8° north 
latitude (Schweinfurth), up to the plateaux of Abyssinia 
(Drude). It is much branched and attains a height of about 
30 feet. The mealy husk of the fruit is edible. Grows away 
from the sea. 

Hyphaene ventricosa, Kirk. 

Zambesi. Loftier than the other species. Stem turgid 
towards the middle. Fruit large. 

Hypochceris apargioides, Hooker and Arnott. 

Chili. A perennial herb. The root is used for culinary pur- 
poses like that of the Scorzonera Hispanica. 


Hypochoeris Scorzonerae, F. v. Mueller. {Achyrophorus Scorzonerce, D. C.) 

Chili. Of the same use as H. apargioides. Allied species of 
probably similar utility exist in Western South America. 

Ilex Aquifolium, Linne. 

The Holly. Europe, Western Asia. Known to have attained 
an age of more than 150 years and a stem-circumference of 8^4 
feet. It yields a wood for ornamental turnery, remarkable for 
its almost whitish paleness. In Norway it is indigenous to lat. 
63° 7' and in lat. 59 45' it attained a height of nearly 50 feet 
(Professor Schuebeler). 

Ilex Cassine, Linne. 

Southern States of North America. A tea-bush, to which 
also remarkable medicinal properties are ascribed. Ilex opaca 
attains a height of over 50 feet in Alabama. 

Ilex crenata, Thunberg. 

Japan. The wood employed there for superior kinds of 

Ilex integra, Thunberg. 

Japan. Bird-lime can be prepared from the bark of this 
and several other Hollies; from this species at the rate 
of 10 per cent. 

Ilex Paraguensis, St. Hilaire. 

The Mate. Uruguay, Paraguay and Southern Brazil. This 
Holly-bush, which attains the size of a small tree, is inserted in 
this list rather as a stimulating medicinal plant than as a sub- 
stitute for the ordinary Tea plant, although in its native country 
it is very extensively used as such. From the province 
of Parana alone more than 36 million pounds were exported in 
187 1, besides 9 million pounds used for home consumption; 
while in Rio Grande de Sul the local provincial consumption 
is nearly four times as much', not counting large quantities con- 
sumed by the aboriginal race. It is cheaper than coffee or tea 
(about 5d. per pound), but an individual there uses about 1 lb. 
per week. It has a pleasant aroma, can be taken with milk and 
sugar, and is the favorite beverage in large portions of South 
America (Dr. Macedo Soares). The leaves destined for the 
Mate are slightly roasted. I. Dahoon and I. dipyrena are used 
for the same purpose, and probably other hollies may be found 
equally good. I. theezans, Martius, also yields in South Brazil 
a kind of Mate. Chemical principles: coffein, quina acid, and 
a peculiar tannic acid, which latter can be converted into 
viridin acid. 


Illicium anisatum, Linne. 

China and Japan. The Star-Anis. An evergreen shrub or 
small tree. The starry fruits used in medicine and as a condi- 
ment. Their flavor is derived from a peculiar volatile oil with 
anethol. This species and a few others also deserve culture 
as ornamental bushes. 

Illipe latifolia, F. v. Mueller. {Bassia latifolia, Roxburgh.) 

The " Mahwa." Central India. A tree 50 feet high, con- 
tent with dry, stony ground; enduring a slight frost. The 
succulent corolla affords a never-failing crop of nourishing 
food to the rural inhabitants. Each tree supplies 2 to 3 cwt., 
each hundred weight yields about 3 gallons of spirit; essential 
oil is also obtained from the corolla. The flowers are also used 
for- feeding cattle; they will keep for a long time. The seeds 
yield oil of thick consistence. I. neriifolia is an allied species 
which ascends to 4000 feet. 

Imperata arundinacea, Cyrillo. 

South Europe, North Africa, South and East Asia, Australia, 
Polynesia. The Lalong-Grass of India. Almost a sugar-cane 
in miniature. Valuable for binding sand, especially in wet 
localities. Difficult to eradicate. Available also for thatching. 

Indigofera Anil, Linne. 

Recorded as indigenous to the West Indies, and extending 
naturally through continental America from Carolina to Brazil. 
A shrub several feet high. Pods sickle-shaped, short, com- 
pressed. One of the principal Indigo-plants under cultivation 
both in the eastern and western hemispheres. Only in the 
warmer parts of the temperate zone can we hope to produce 
indigo with remunerative success. But many of the hardier 
species seem never yet to have been tested for pigment. One 
hundred and fourteen have already been recorded from 
extra-tropical Southern Africa alone. An Indigofera 
of Georgia, said to be wild, perhaps I. Anil, yields an 
excellent product. The pigment in all instances is obtained 
by maceration of the foliage, aeration of the liquid, and inspis- 
sation of the sediment. 

Indigofera argentea, Linne. (/. cxrulea, Roxburgh.) 

Tropical and extra-tropical Northern Africa, Arabia, India. 
A shrub, several feet high, closely allied to I. Anil, and likewise 
a good Indigo-plant. 


Indigofera tinctoria, Linne.* 

Warmest parts of Asia, as far east as Japan; recorded also 
from tropical Africa and even Natal, as wild and certainly indi- 
genous to northern Queensland. A shrubby plant, attaining- a 
height of 6 feet. Pods straight, cylindrical, many-seeded. Ex- 
tensively cultivated in warm zones for indigo, and probably 
hardy in warmer temperate regions. The plant is frequently 
sold fresh by the grower to the factories. The Indigo-plant 
requires a rich friable soil, neither too moist nor too dry. The 
seeds are sown in furrows about a foot apart, and in hot damp 
climes the plant can be cut in about two months, as soon as it 
begins to flower; in six or eight weeks it yields a second crop, 
and under favorable circumstances as many as four crops can 
be gathered in a year. The plants have to be renewed every 
year, as the old ones do not yield such an abundant produce. 
Bright sunshine favors the development of the dye principle, 
but frequent rains cause a more luxuriant growth (Hartwig). 

Inula Helenium, Linne. 

The Elecampane. Middle and Southern Europe, Middle 
Asia eastward to Japan. A perennial herb. The bitter and 
somewhat aromatic root, for the sake of its stimulating and 
tonic properties, is used in medicine. It contains also the amy- 
laceous inulin and the crystalline helenin. With the Mullein 
(Verbascum Thapsus, L.), and many other large herbs, adapt- 
able for scenic effects. 

Ipomoea Batatas, Poiret.* {Batatas edulis, Choisy.) 

The Sweet Potato. Tropical South America. First brought 
to Europe from Brazil. It has proved well adapted also for the 
southern part of Australia and for New Zealand. The tuberous 
roots afford a palatable food, more nutritious than ordinary 
potatoes; they can be well utilized for starch. Varieties with 
red, white and yellow roots occur. Each tuber weighs gen- 
erally from 3 to 5 lbs., but may occasionally attain to 56 lbs. 
The yield is from 200 to 300 bushels from an acre. 

Ipomoea Batatilla, G. Don. 

Cooler regions of Venezuela. The tubers serve as sweet 
potatoes. I. platanifolia, Roem. and Schult., from Central 
America, and I. mammosa, Choisy, from Amboina are similarly 

Ipomoea Calobra, Hill and Mueller. 

Central Australia. The large roots are a fair esculent. 

Ipomoea costata, F. v. Mueller. 

Central and North-West Australia. Produces edible tubers. 


Ipomoea graminea, R. Brown. 

Tropical Australia. The root, called " Mallamak," is eaten 
by the natives either raw or cooked (Foelsche). 

Ipomoea magapotamica, Choisy. 

Southern Brazil and Argentina. The root attains several 
pounds weight, and serves as jalap. Propagation by pieces of 
the root or from cuttings of the underground stem. 

Ipomoea paniculata, R. Brown. 

Almost a cosmopolitan plant on tropical coasts; e. g. indi- 
genous to North- Australia and the warmer parts of East Aus- 
tralia. The tubers of this species also are edible. If hardy, 
the plant would deserve cultivation. 

Ipomoea purga, Wenderoth. 

Mountains of Mexico. The true Jalap. This species yields 
the medicinal jalap-root. It has recently been cultivated with 
apparent success even in New York, and is therefore entitled to 
a trial in warm woodlands. Active principle: the resinous 
convolvulin. I. Orizabensis, Ledanois, also yields jalap, accord- 
ing to Hanbury. 

Ipomoea simulans, Hanbury. 

Mexico. From this species the Tampico-jalap, or rather the 
Sierra Gorda jalap, is derived. I. operculata, Mart., yields the 
Brazilian jalap. 

Iris Florentina, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The well-known 
Orris root is obtained from this species. Of the same geo- 
graphic range is Iris juncea, Poiret, the edible root of which is 
known by the name of Zeloak among the Algerian natives 

Isatis indigotica, Fortune. 

North China. Perennial, almost shrubby. Its use is similar 
to that of the following plant. 

Isatis tinctoria, Linn6. 

Dyer's Woad. From the Mediterranean regions through part 
of the Orient, apparently extending as far as Japan. In Nor- 
way it is hardy to lat. 67 16' (Schuebeler). A tall herb of two 
years' duration. The blue dye is obtained from the fermented 
leaves. Woad succeeds best in rich limestone-ground. Con- 
tains luteolin. Many other species of Isatis, mostly Asiatic, 
may perhaps produce dye with equal advantage. Boissier 
enumerates twenty-eight kinds merely as Oriental. 


Isonandra Gutta, Hooker.* {Dichopsis Gutta, Benth.) 

The Gutta-percha Tree or the Gutta-Taban. Malayan 
Peninsula. It seems not altogether hopeless to render this 
highly important tree a denizen of the mildest wood regions, in 
temperate climes, Murton having traced it to elevations of 
3,500 feet. The milky sap, obtained by ringing the bark at 5 
to 15 inches interstices, is boiled for an hour before gradual 
exsiccation, otherwise the product becomes brittle; 5 to 20 catties 
yielded by one tree. Genuine Gutta-Percha is only got from 
plants of the sapotaceous order, as far as hitherto known. Be- 
sides Isonandra Gutta the following are actually drawn into use 
for obtaining this gum-resin: Imbricaria coriacea, A. de Cand., 
Mimusops Elengi, L., M. Manilkara, G. Don, Sideroxylon 
attenuatum, D. C, Illipe (Bassia) sericea, Blume, Payenia 
macrophylla and P. Maingayi, Clarke, Dichopsis obovata, D. 
polyantha, D. Krantziana, Benth., Ceratophorus Leerii, Hassk., 
Cocosmanthus macrophyllus, Hassk., all from tropical Asia; 
Chrysophyllum Africanum, A. de Cand., from tropical Africa, 
Achras Sapota, L., Mimusops globosa, Gaertner, from Central 
, America, but many of these often at cool elevations. Possibly 
other sapotaceous trees, including some Australian, could be 

/worked for Gutta-Percha. The export of Gutta-Percha from 
the Straits settlements in 1875 was estimated at ^"10,000,000. 

Jacaranda mimosifolia, Don. 

Brazil. This tree, with J. Braziliana and J. Obtusifolia, 
Humboldt, furnishes a beautiful and fragrant kind of Palix- 
anderorPalissandre wood, and so do probably some other tropi- 
cal American species. This wood is bluish red, traversed by 
blackish veins. J. mimosifolia is hardy at Sydney, and thus 
may perhaps be reared with advantage in many of the warmer 
and moister regions of the temperate zone. 

Jacksonia cupulifera, Meissner. 

West Australia. It might prove an advantage to disseminate 
this small tree in arid desert regions, as horses and cattle relish 
the foliage amazingly. Several other Jacksonias share the im- 
portance which this congener of theirs has acquired from its 
utility as a pasture-bush. 

Jasminum grandiflorum, Linne,* 

From India to Japan. Flowers white. Extensively culti- 
vated in South Europe. It is planted in rows three feet apart, 
the plants at a distance of 2 to three inches in the rows. Leek, 
tuberoses and similar plants are used to occupy the spare 
ground for the first year; 1,000 plants in the second year after 
grafting produce 50 kilos (about 1 cwt.) of flowers in rich soil 


Five thousand kilos can be produced on a hectare (nearly 2^4 
acres), which under very favorable circumstances will realize a 
profit of 5,800 francs per annum. The plants must be guarded 
against frost and exposure to wind (Deherain). In France it 
is generally grafted on J. officinale. The bushes are richly 
manured and well watered. Ordinary cleft grafting is prac- 
tised, the stock being headed down to near the ground. A 
good workman and assistant wi,ll graft about 1,000 plants in a 
day. The delicate scent is withdrawn, either by fixed oil or 
alcoholic distillation, or it may be drawn over along with oil of 
orange-peel. The pecuniary yield obtainable from Jasmin cul- 
tivation seems vastly overrated, even if inexpensive labor 
could be procured. 

Jasminum odoratissimum, Linne. 

Madeira. Shrubby like the rest. Flowers yellow. Used 
like the foregoing and following for perfumery. This may be 
prepared by spreading the flowers upon wool or cotton slightly 
saturated with olive oil or other fixed oil, and covering them 
with other layers so prepared. The flowers are renewed from 
time to time until the oil is thoroughly pervaded by the scent, 
when the latter is withdrawn by alcohol. Other modes of ex- 
tracting the oil exist. 

Jasminum officinale, Linne. 

From the Caucasus to China. Flowers white. This is the 
principal species cultivated in South Europe for its scent. In 
Cannes and Nice about 180,000 lbs. of jasmine flowers are pro- 
duced annually for distillation (Regel). By Simmonnet's pro- 
cess the essence of jasmine is solidified as jasminin. 

Jasminum Sambac, Aiton. 

From India to Japan. It has the richest perfume of all. 
The bush attains a height of 20 feet, and is almost climbing. 
The flowers are white, and must be collected in the evening 
before expansion. The relative value of many other species of 
jasmin, nearly all from the warmest parts of Asia, seems in no 
instance to have been ascertained, so far as their oils or scents 
are concerned. The Australian species are also deliciously 
fragrant, amongst which J. lineare, Br. occurs in Victorian de- 
serts; while also J.didymum,Forst., J. racemosum, F. v. M., 
J. simplicifolium, Forst., J. calcareum, F. v. M. and J. suavissi- 
mum, Lindl. reach extra-tropical latitudes. 

Jubsa spectabilis, Humboldt. 

The tall and stout Coquito Palm of Chili, hardy still in Val- 
divia. Well adapted for extra-tropical latitudes. A kind of 
treacle is obtained from the sap of this palm. A good tree will 


give 90 gallons of mellaginous sap (C. Darwin). The small 
kernels are edible. Stem reaching a height of 60 feet, turgid 
towards the middle; leaves sometimes 10 feet long. Has 
endured at Montpelier a winter cold of + io° F. (Osw. de 
Kerchove de Denterghm). Jubasa Torallyi ascends the Andes 
to 8,530 feet. 

Juglans cinerea, Linne.* 

The Butternut tree of North America. About 50 feet high; 
stem-diameter 4 feet. Growth of comparative celerity; admits 
of transplantation readily. Likes rocky places in rich forests, 
but is also content with poor soil. Wood lighter than that of 
the black walnut, durable and free from attacks of insects. It 
is particularly sought for furniture, panels of coaches, corn- 
shovels, wooden dishes, and similar implements, as it is not 
heavy nor liable to split. Splendid for select posts and rails 
needing durability; it is soft and therefore easily worked. This 
tree with J. nigra endures even the severe frosts of St. Peters- 
burg, where the Caryas can no longer be maintained (Regel). 
The kernel of the nuts is more oily than that of the ordinary 
walnut, taste similar to Brazil nuts. The leaves, bark and husk 
are of medicinal importance, and so are those of other species. 

Juglans cordiformis, Maximowicz. 

Japan. This species approaches in many respects J. Siebol- 

Juglans Mandschurica, Maximowicz. 

Corea and Mandschuria. This walnut is allied to J. cinerea 
of North America. Wood splendid for cabinet work. The 
nuts available as well for the table as for oil factories. 

Juglans nigra, Linne.* 

Black walnut tree. Attains a height of 80 feet; trunk grows to 
6 feet in diameter; found in rich forest land in North America. 
Quicker of growth than the European walnut tree, but the 
wood not so easily worked (Meehan). It will bear fruit after 10 
years, giving, when of large size, 10 to 15 or even 20 bushels in 
a season, realizing as much as 4 shillings per bushel. The tree 
is hardy in Christiania, Norway. Wood most ornamental, pur- 
plish-brown, turning dark with age, strong, tough, not liable to 
warp nor to split; not attacked by insects. Supplies three- 
fourths of the material for hardwood furniture in the United 
States (Sargent), and fetches there the highest price. Wood 
stored for many years is the best for gun-stocks, and used also 
for musical instruments. For the sake of its compactness, 
durability and its susceptibility to high polish, it is much 


sought for elegant furniture, stair-rails and other select pur- 
poses. Seeds more oily than the European walnut. The tree 
extends in a slightly altered variety to Bolivia and Argentina. 

Juglans regia, Linne.* 

The ordinary walnut tree of Europe, indigenous in Hungary 
(Heuffel) and Greece (Heldreich), extending from the Black 
Sea to Beluchistan and Burmah, and seemingly also occurring 
in North China, preferentially in calcareous soil. It attains a 
height of fully 80 feet, and lives many centuries. Professor 
Schuebeler found it hardy in Norway to lat. 63 35', bearing 
fruit occasionally. In lat. 6o° 14' it attained a height of nearly 
50 feet and a stem circumference of 13 feet. An aged walnut 
tree at Mentmore had a circumference of 12^ feet at 4 feet 
from the ground, its branches spreading diametrically to about 
100 feet (Masters). Wood light and tough, much sought for 
gun-stocks, the exterior of pianofortes, and the choicest furni- 
ture. The shells of the nut yield a black pigment. Trees of 
select quality of wood have been sold for £600, the wood being 
the most valuable of middle Europe. In some departments of 
France a rather large quantity of oil is pressed from the nuts, 
which, besides serving as an article of diet, is used for the pre- 
paration of fine colors. To obtain first-class fruit, the trees are 
grafted in France (Michaux). An almost huskless variety 
occurs in the north of China. Can be grown in cold localities, 
as it lives at 2,000 feet elevation in middle Europe. Nuts for 
distant transmission, to arrive in a fit state for germination, are 
best packed in casks between layers of dry moss. 

Juglans rupestris, Engelmann. 

From California to New Mexico, along the course of streams 
in rich moist soil. A handsome symmetrical tree of utility, 
attaining a height of 60 feet, and a stem diameter of 3 feet 
(Dr. Gibbons). Hardy in Christiania. 

Juglans Sieboldiana, Maximowicz. 

Throughout Japan, where it forms a large tree. 
Juglans stenocarpa, Maximowicz. 

From the Amoor territory. Allied to J. Mandschurica. 

Juniperus Bermudiana, Linne.* 

The Pencil Cedar of Bermuda and Barbadoes. This species 
grows sometimes 90 feet high, and furnishes a valuable red 
durable wood, used for boat building, furniture and particularly 
pencils, also for hammer-shanks of pianofortes, on account of 
its pleasant odor and special fitness. It is almost the only 
native timber of Bermuda. It will thrive in the poorest soil, 


for instance coral sand, and has a great power to resist storms 
(Lieut-General Sir J. H. Lefroy). Many of the plants in 
gardens called Thuya or Biotia Meldensis belong to this species. 

Juniperus brevifolia, Antoine. 

In the Azores, up to 4,800 feet; a nice tree with sometimes 
silvery foliage. 

Juniperus Cedrus, Webb. 

A tall tree of the higher mountains of the Canary Islands. 

Juniperus Chinensis, Linn6. 

In temperate regions of the Himalaya, up to an altitude of 
15,000 feet, also in China and Japan. Hardy in Christiania 
(Schuebeler). This tree is known to rise to 75 feet, excep- 
tionally even to 100 feet, with a girth of stem of 13 feet; it is 
of comparatively rapid growth, furnishing a reddish, soft and 
fine grained wood, suitable for pencils (Hoopes). Probably 
identical with it is the Himalayan Pencil Cedar (Juniperus 
religiosa, Royle). The timber of some other tall Junipers 
heeds tests. 

Juniperus communis, Linne. 

Colder parts of Europe, Asia, North Africa and North 
America, ascending the European Alps to 8,000 feet, the Indian 
Mountains to 14,000 feet. In Norway it is indigenous to lat. 
71 10', and under 6o° 10' it attains a height of 40 feet (Profes- 
sor Schuebeler). One of the three native Conifers of Britain, 
attaining under favorable circumstances a height of nearly 50 
feet. The berries are of medicinal value, also used in the pre- 
paration of gin. Important for fuel in the coldest regions. 
Will grow on almost pure sand. 

Juniperus drupacea, La Billardiere. 

Plum Juniper. A very handsome long-leaved species, the 
Habhel of Syria. It attains a height of 30 feet, and produces 
a sweet edible fruit, highly esteemed throughout the Orient. 

Juniperus excelsa, Bieberstein. 

In Asia Minor, 2,000 to 6,000 feet above the sea level. 
Extends to the Himalayas, where its range of elevation is from 
5,000 to 14,000 feet. A stately tree, 60 feet high. Trunk 
short but of great girth, over 20 feet circumference being 
known (Stewart and Brandis). 

Juniperus flaccida, Schlechtendal. 

In Mexico at 5,000 to 7,000 feet altitude. A tree reaching 
30 feet in height, rich in resin, similar to sandarac. 


Juniperus foetidissima, Willdenow. 

A tall and beautiful tree in Armenia and Tauria, at 5,000 to 
6,500 feet. 

Juniperus Mexicana, Schiede. 

Mexico, at an elevation of 7,000 to 11,000 feet. A straight 
tree, sometimes 90 feet high, stem of three feet diameter, 
exuding copiously a resin similar to sandarac. 

Juniperus occidentalis, Hooker. 

North California and Oregon, ascending to 5,000 feet. A 

straight tree, as much as 80 feet high, with a stem often 3 feet 

in diameter, Wood pale, comparatively hard. Thrives well 
among rocks. 

Juniperus Phoenicea, Linne. 

South Europe and Orient. A tree 20 feet high, yielding 
an aromatic resin. 

Juniperus procera, Hochstetter. 

In Abyssinia. A stately tree, furnishing a hard, useful 

Juniperus recurva, Hamilton. 

On the Himalayas, from 7,500 to 15,000 feet. A tree 
attaining 30 feet in height, or even 80 feet according to J. 

Juniperus sphffirica, Lindley. 

North China. A handsome tree, sometimes 40 feet high. 

Juniperus Virginiana, Linne. 

North American pencil cedar or red cedar, extending to 45 
N. L. Hardy in Christiania. A handsome tree, rarely 90 feet 
high, supplying a fragrant timber, much esteemed for its 
strength and durability; it is dense, fine-grained, light and 
of pleasant odor; the inner part is of a beautiful red color; 
the outer is white; it is much used for pencils; one of the 
best of all woods for buckets, tubs and casks. Simmonds ob- 
serves that fence-posts of this wood last for ages. Of wonder- 
ful durability for railway cross-ties (Barney). The heartwood 
is almost imperishable (Vasey), nor is it bored by insects. The 
tree grows best near the sea, but is rather independent of soil 
and locality. 



Juniperus Wallichiana, J. Hooker and Thomson. 

From the Indus to Sikkim, at elevations from 9,000 to 15,000 
feet. Attains a height of 60 feet. Desirable for transfer to 
any Alps. Wood similar to that of J. excelsa (Stewart and 

Justicia Adhatoda, Linne. 

India; enduring the climate of the lowlands of Victoria. 
This bush possesses anti-spasmodic and febrifugal properties. 
It can be utilized also as a hedge plant. 

Kentia Baueri, Seeman. {Rhopalostylis Baueri, H. Wendl. and Drude.) 
The Norfolk Island Palm. Height 40 feet. 

Kentia Beccarii, F. v. Mueller. {Nengella montana, Beccari.) 

On the mountains of New Guinea, up to 4,500 feet. This 
slender palm is only a few feet high and eligible for domestic 
decoration. „ __ 

Kentia Belmoriana, Moore and Mueller. {Honea Behnoriana Becarri.) 

The curly palm of Lord Howe's Island; about 40 feet 
high. With its cogeners evidently designed to grace our gar- 
dens and to become also important for horticultural traffic 
abroad. K. Fosteriana is a close ally, restricted to the same 

Kentia Canterburyana, Moore and Mueller. {Hedyscepe Canterburyana, H. 
Wendland and Drude.) 

Umbrella palm of Lord Howe's Island. Likewise a tall and 
hardy palm, growing at or below 2,000 feet altitude. 

Kentia Moluccana, Beccari. 

Ternate, at heights up to 3,500 feet. This noble and com- 
paratively hardy palm attains a height of 90 feet. 

Kentia sapida, Blume. {Rhopalostylis sapida, H. Wendland and Drude.) 

The Nika palm of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. 
It also attains a height of 40 feet, is one of the hardiest of all 
palms, and extends to the most southern latitude attained 
by any palm, being found down to 44 south latitude. The 
unexpanded flower-spikes can be converted into food as palm- 

Knightia excelsa, R. Brown. 

The Rewa-Rewa of New Zealand. The wood of this tree is 
recommended as valuable for ornamental work and furniture 
(Campbell Walker). 


Kochia eriantha, F. v. Mueller. 

Proved an excellent fodder herb for sheep on the hot and 
dry pastures of Central Australia, where the temperature in 
summer reaches 120 F. in the shade, and in the winter falls to 
2 7 (Rev. H. Kempe). Several other Australian species of 
Kochia afford excellent pasture fodder. 

Kochia pubescens, Moguin. 

South Africa; there one of the best salt bushes for pastures, 

Kochia villosa 5 Lindley. 

In most of the depressed and saline regions of Australia, 
also on sand lands. Renowned amongst occupiers of pasture 
land as the "Cotton Bush," strangely so called, on account of 
downy adventitious excrescences. This rather dwarf shrub 
resists the extremes of drought and heat of even the trying 
Central Australian clime. The roots sometimes penetrate into 
the ground to a depth of a dozen feet. 

Kceleria cristata, Persoon. 

Widely dispersed over the globe. A perennial grass of fair 
nutritive quality, sustaining itself on dry soil. The closely- 
allied K. glauca can be sown with advantage on coast-sand. 

Krameria triandra, Ruiz. 

Chili, Peru and Bolivia, at elevations of from 3,000 to 8,000 
feet. This pretty little shrub can be grown on sandy ridges in 
an equable clime. It produces the medicinal Ratanhia-root, 
well known also as a dentifrice. The root contains -38 to 43 
per cent, tannin (Muspratt). Some other species have similarly 
astringent roots, particularly K. Ixine (Loefling), from Central 
America and the West Indies. Some could be chosen to aid 
in adorning and diversifying our gardens. 

Lactuca sativa, Linne. 

South Asia. The ordinary annual Lettuce, in use since re- 
mote antiquity. It is not without value for medicinal purposes, 
especially as a sedative. L. Scariola, Linne, seems to be the 
wild state of the garden lettuce. L. altissima, Bieberstein, is a 
variety attaining a height of 9 feet. All yield lactucarium. 

Lactuca virosa, Linne. 

Middle and South Europe, North Africa, Middle Asia. A 
biennial. The inspissated juice of this lettuce forms the seda- 
tive lactucarium. 


Lapageria rosea, Ruiz and Pavon. 

The Copigue. Chili. Almost the only plant which can exist 
in the area covered by the sulphurous smoke of the local smelt- 
ing furnaces (Dr. R. O. Cunningham). A half-woody climber 
with large showy flowers. The berries, which attain the size 
of a hen's egg, are sweet and edible. The plant bears slight 

Lardizabala biternata, Ruiz and Pavon. 

Chili. A climber with stems of enormous length. Might be 
naturalized in forests for obtaining the tough fiber for cordage. 
In its native country the torrified stems are used instead of 
ropes, according to Dr. Philippi. 

Laserpitium aquilegium, Murray. 

Middle and Southern Europe. The stems of this perennial 
herb are edible. The fruits serve as a condiment. 

Lasiocorys Capensis, Bentham. 

South Africa. Professor McOwan directs attention to the 
economy of this plant, it having a singular propensity of rend- 
ering rainwater retained in small gutters; the Lasiocorys com- 
pacts the detritus and impedes also soil washed onward, forming 
natural little catch-dams. The plant is bitter, hence not con- 
sumed by goats and sheep in plentiful times. 

Lathyrus Cicera, Linne. 

Countries at or near the Mediterranean Sea, also Canary 
Islands. An annual, similar in its use to L. sativus, furnishing 
a tender palatable fodder on sandy soil. L. Clymenum. L., 
from the same regions, serves similar purposes. 

Lathyrus macrorrhizus, Wimmer. {Orobus tuberosus, Linne.) 

Europe, West Asia. This herb would gradually establish 
pasturage in sterile forest regions, and could with some allied 
species be disseminated in alpine elevations. 

Lathyrus pratensis, Linne. 

The Meadow Pea. Europe, North and Middle Asia. Hardy 
in Norway to lat. 69 40'. A good perennial pasture-herb. 
It can also be utilized for forest pastures, like L. silvestris. 
The yield is considerable, and the herbage, though bitter, is 
relished by sheep. The plant spreads easily, particularly on 
fresh ground. L. tuberosus L. can likewise be utilized as a 
fodder-herb; its tubers are edible, but very small. 


Lathyrus sativus, Linne. 

The Jarosse. Middle and Southern Europe. An annual 
forage-herb; the pods also available for culinary purposes. 
Can be grown in Norway to lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler). Superi- 
or to vetches in quality of fodder and seed, but inferior in yield; 
according to Langethal's observations, content with a lighter 
soil, hence often chosen for first sowing on sand-lands. Lime 
in the soil increases the return. The seeds can only be used 
with great caution, as their frequent or continous use like that 
of L. Cicera, induces paralysis, not only in man but also in 
horses, cattle and birds. Probably other species of Lythyrus 
could advantageously be introduced. 

Laurelia aromatica, Poiret. 

Southern Chili. A colossal tree, in Valdivia the principal 
one used for flooring. Wood never bored by insects, and well 
able to stand exposure to the open air, far superior to that of L. 
serrata, the Vouvan or Huahuoa, which tree predominates over 
L. aromatica in the far south of Chili (Dr. Philippi). 

Laurus nobilis, Linne. 

Asia Minor. The Warrior's Laurel of the ancients. The 
leaves are in much request for various condiments, and the 
peculiar aroma of these Bay-leaves cannot be replaced by any 
others, except those of Lindera Benzoin. 

Lavandula angustifolia, Ehrhart. (Z. vera, De Candolle.) 

The Lavender Plant. Countries around and near the Medi- 
terranean Sea. Of somewhat shrubby growth; from it, by 
distillation, the best oil of lavender is prepared. It lives on dry 
soil, but is less hardy than the following, still it will grow in 
Norway to lat. 59 55' (Schuebeler). 

Lavandula latifolia, Villars. (L. Spica, De Candolle.) 

South-Europe, North-Africa. From this species also much 
lavender-oil is obtained. Hardy in Norway to lat.67°56'. 

Lavandula Stoechas, Linne. 

South-Europe, North-Africa. Topped Lavender. This shrub 
can also be utilized for oil distillation and other purposes, 
for which the two other Lavenders are used. The quality 
of the oil of these species seems to differ according to their 
locality of growth. Mr. James Dickinson, of Port Arlington, 
Victoria, informs us that this is the best plant known to him for 
staying sand. It grows much quicker than the Ulex; every 
seed which falls germinates, so that around each bush every 
stroke of the spade brings up lots of seedlings fit for trans- 



plantation. In mild regions it is five months in full flower 
annually, coming into bloom early. Bees are passionately fond 
of the nectar of the flowers. Mr. Dickinson calculates that 
a ton of the finest-flavored honey can be obtained annually 
from an acre of this Lavender. 

Lavatera arborea, Linne. 

Tree-Mallow of Middle-Europe and the countries on the 
Mediterranean Sea. A tall biennial plant of rapid growth. 
The ribbon-like bast is produced in greater abundance and more 
rapidly than in most malvaceous plants, and is recommended 
for paper material. Bears frost to 15 F. (Gorlie). The Tree- 
Mallow might easily be naturalized on sea-shores, where it 
would be useful as a quick shelter. Perhaps it might serve 
with allied plants for green manure. The bulky foliage has 
proved valuable for fodder, and so has that of Lavatera plebeja 

Lawsonia alba, Lamarck. 

North and Middle Africa, Arabia, Persia, India, and North- 
Western Australia. The Henne or Henna-Bush. It may become 
of use as a dye-plant in regions free from frost. The orange 
pigment is obtained from the ground foliage. Mr. C. B. Clarke 
considers it one of the best hedge-plants in India, together 
with Dodonasa viscosa, L. and Odina Wodier (Roxb.). 

Leersia hexandra, Swartz. 

Africa, South Asia, warmer parts of America and Australia. 
Found by Mr. Bailey to be one of the most relished by cattle 
among aquatic grasses of East Australia. L. Gouini Fournier, 
is a Mexican species. 

Leersia oryzoides, Solander. 

Middle and South Europe, various parts of Asia, Africa and 
America. A perennial nutritious swamp-grass. Other Leersias 
from both hemispheres are deserving of introduction. 

Leonotis Leonurus, R. Brown. 

South Africa. The foliage of this highly ornamental bush 
deserves attention for therapeutic purposes, as, according to 
Professor Owen, the leaves, when used like Tobacco, are highly 

Lepidium latifolium, Linne. 

Europe, North Africa, Middle and North Asia. A perennial 
herb of peppery acridity, used for some select sauces. 


Lepidium sativum, Linne. 

The Cress, Pepper Grass. Orient. Annual. Irrespective of 
its culinary value, cress is of use as one of the remedies in 
cases of scurvy. Active principle : a volatile oil and the bitter 

Lepidosperma gladiatum, La Billardiere. 

The Sword-Sedge of the sea-coast of extra-tropical Australia. 
One of the most important plants for binding sea-sand, also 
yielding a paper material as good as Sparta. 

Lepironia mucronata, CI. Richard. 

East-Australia, Malayan Archipelagus, East-Indies, South- 
China, Madagascar. The rush is cultivated (like Rice) in 
China for textile purposes, but, in poor soils, the manure impairs 
its strength. The plant renews itself by sprouts from its peren- 
nial root. It attains a height of 7 feet; the stems are beaten 
flat to fit them to be woven or plaited for either bed-mats and 
bags or especially for mat-sails, the latter being the most exten- 
sively used for the junks in China; further, the floor-matting, 
which is exported in vast quantities to the United States, to be 
used in summer for the sake of coolness, in preference to 
carpets (Dr. Hance). This rush thus furnishes the raw material 
for a great manufacturing industry. The dyeing of the mats 
yellow is affected with the flowers of Sophora Japonica, un- 
der addition of alum; green with an acanthaceous plant, 
the Lam-yip (Blue Leaf), alum and sulphate of copper (Dr. 

Leptospermum laevigatum, F. v. Mueller.* {Fabricia Icevigata, Gaertner.) 

The "Sandstay." Sea-shores and sand-deserts of extra-tropi- 
cal Australia, but not extending to Western Australia. This 
shrub or small tree is the most effectual of all for arresting the 
progress of drift-sand in a warm clime. It is most easily raised 
by simply scattering the seeds on the sand in autumn and cover- 
ing them loosely with boughs, or better still by spreading 
lopped-off branches of the shrub itself, bearing ripe seeds, on 
the sand. 

Letospermum lanigerum, Smith. 

South-East Australia. This tall shrub or small tree can be 
grown in wet semi- saline soil. It exercises antimalarian 
influences on such places like Melaleuca ericifolia. 

Lespedeza striata, Hooker and Arnott.* 

China and Japan. Sometimes called Japan Clover. An 
annual herb, which in North-America has proved of great use. 



Professor Meehan states it to be identical with the Hoop-Koop 
plant, and that it has taken possession of much waste land in 
the Southern States. It grows there wonderfully on the hot 
dry soil, and the cattle like it amazingly. Mr. Jackson observes 
that it spreads on spaces between forest trees, covering the soil 
with a dense permanent herbage. Dr. Carl Mohr says that it 
stands drought well, and thrives on sandy clay, but luxuriates 
on light calcareous soil. It is impatient of frost (W. Elliott). 
The Department of Agriculture of Washington (in 1878) regards 
it as rich in albuminous substances as the best clovers. 

Leucadendron argenteum, Brown. 

The Silver-tree of South Africa is included on this occasion, 
because it would add to the splendor of our woods, and thrive 
far better there than in our gardens. Moreover, with this tree 
many others, equally glorious, might be established in any mild 
forest-glens as a source of horticultural wealth, were it only to 
obtain in future years a copious supply of seeds. Mention may 
be made of the tall Magnolia trees of North America (Magnolia 
grandiflora, L., 100 feet high; M. umbrella, Lam., 40 feet; M. 
acuminata, L., 80 feet; M. cordata, Michx., 50 feet; M. Fraseri, 
Walt., 40 feet; M. macrophylla, Michx., 40 feet); M. Yulan, 
Desf., of China, 50 feet; M. Campbelli, Hook., of the 
Himalayas, 150 feet high, with flowers nearly a foot across; M. 
sphserocarpa, Roxb., also of the Indian highlands, 40 feet; the 
Mediterranean Styrax-tree (Styrax officinalis, L.); Stenocarpus 
sinuosus, Endl., of East Australia (the most brilliant of the 
Proteacese); the crimson and scarlet Ratas of New Zealand 
(Metrosideros florida, Sm.; M. lucida, Menz.; M. robusta, Cunn., 
80 feet high; M. tomentosa, Cunn., 40 feet); Fuchsia excorticata, 
L., also from New Zealand, stem reaching 2 feet in diameter; the 
crimson-flowered Eucalyptus ficifolia of West Australia; and 
Rhododendron Falconeri,Hooker,from Upper India,5o feet high, 
leaves 18 inches long. In warm and humid gullies here alluded 
to may also be planted the great Melaleuca Leucadendron, L., 
the true Asiatic Cajaput-tree, which grows to a height of 100 
feet, and even the North European Holly (Ilex aquifolium), which 
occasionally rises to 60 feet, though both from regions so 

Lewisia rediviva, Pursh. 

North- West America. The root of this herb is large and 
starchy, was formerly extensively used by the native inhabitants, 
and called by them "The Gift of the Great Spirit." The plant 
deserves trial-culture. 

Leyssera gnaphalioides, Linne. 

South-Africa. A perennial herb of aromatic scent and taste. 
Much used there as a medicinal tea. 


Liatris odoratissima, Willdenow. 

Southern States of Northern America. A perennial herb 
occurring in swampy places. The leaves are sometimes used, 
for the sake of their aromatic odor, to flavor tobacco and other 
substances (Saunders). 

Libocedrus Chilensis, Endlicher. 

In cold valleys on the Southern Andes of Chili, at from 2,000 
to 5,000 feet. A fine tree, sometimes 80 feet high, furnishing 
a hard resinous wood of a yellowish color. 

Libocedrus decurrens, Torrey. 

White Cedar of California, growing on high mountains, in 
fine groves up to 5,000 feet, in what Hinchcliff calls the noblest 
zone of Coniferae of the globe. Attains a height of fully 200 
feet, with a stem 25 feet in circumference. The wood is light 
and strong, used for exquisite cabinet-work, but also suitable 
for fence-rails, etc. According to Dr. Gibbons the tree is well 
adapted for wind-breaks, and can be trained into tall hedges. 

Libocedrus Doniana, Endlicher. 

Northern Island of New Zealand, up to 6,000 feet elevation. 
A forest-tree, reaching 100 feet in height, stem 3 feet and more 
in diameter. The wood is hard and resinous, of a dark reddish 
color, fine-grained, excellent for planks and spars. 

Libocedrus tetragona, Endlicher.* 

On the Andes of North Chili, at an elevation of 2,000 to 5,000 
feet, growing as far south as Magellan's Straits, especially in 
moist moory localities. This species has a very straight stem 
and rises to 120 feet. The wood, though soft and light, is 
resinous, and will resist underground decay for a century and 
more, like that of Fitzroya Patagonica; for railway-sleepers this 
timber is locally preferred to any other (Dr. Philippi); it is also 
highly esteemed for various artisans' work; it is nearly white. 

Ligustrum Japonicum, Thunberg. 

The Japan Privet. A shrub, evergreen or nearly so, promis- 
ing to become a valuable hedge-plant. Hardy in Christiania 
(Schuebeler). It grows readily from cuttings like the ordinary 
European Privet. Both will grow under trees where scarcely 
anything else would live (Johnson). 

Limonia acidissima, Linne. 

India, up to 4,000 feet; hardy in England. This shrub or 
small tree has fruit of extreme acidity. 


Lindera Benzoin, Blume. 

From Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, there called the Spice- 
Laurel. An aromatic bush, one of the hardiest of the Order. 
The aroma of the foliage much like that of Bay-leaves. 

Linum usitatissimum, Linne.* 

The Flax Plant. Orient. Perhaps indigenous also in Sonth 
Europe, and possibly derived from L. angustifolium Hudson, 
which was cultivated in Switzerland, during the Stone 
age (Heer). A well-known annual, which yields linen fiber 
and linseed oil. Few plants find a wider congeniality of 
soil and climate, and few give a quicker return. Good and 
deep soil, particularly of forests, well-drained, is requisite for 
successful flax-culture. In Norway it is cultivated as far north 
as lat. 70 3' (Prof. Schuebeler). The Flax belongs to the 
Potash plants. Change of seed-grain is desirable. Thick sow- 
ing extends the length and flexibility of the fiber. To obtain 
the best fiber, the plant must be pulled when the seeds com- 
mence to ripen. If the seeds are allowed in part to mature, 
then both fiber and seeds may be turned to account. If the 
seed is left to ripen completely, the fiber is generally dis- 
carded. The seed yields by pressure about 22 per cent, of oil. 
The residue can either be prepared as linseed meal or be utilized 
as admixture to stable-fodder. The demand for both fiber and 
oil is enormous. Two principal varieties are under culture; a 
tall sort, with smaller flowers, closed capsules and dark seed; a 
dwarf sort, more branched (even if closely sown), with larger 
flowers and capsules, the seed-vessels opening spontaneously 
and with elasticity, while the seeds are of a pale color. None 
of the perennial species of Linum are so manageable in culture 
as the ordinary annual flax. 

Lippia citriodora, Kunth. 

Peru, Chili, La Plata States, Brazil. An evergreen shrub, 
yielding scented oil, used for condiments, the leaves fit for 
flavoring tea. 

Liquidambar Altingia, Blume. 

At the Red Sea and in the mountains of India and New 
Guinea, ascending to 3,000 feet. The tree attains a height of 
200 feet. It yields the fragrant balsam known as Liquid 

Liquidambar Formosana, Hance. 

China. A silk-producing insect is reared on this tree 



Liquidambar orientalis, Miller. (L. imberbe, Aiton). 

Asia Minor. This tree also yields Liquid Storax, which is 
vanilla-scented, containing much styrol and styracin, and thus 
used for imparting scent to some sorts of tobacco and cigars, 
also for keeping moths from clothing;. Its use in medicine is 
more limited than in perfumery. 

Liquidambar stryaciflua, Linne. 

The Sweet-Gum tree. In morasses and on the springs of 
the forests of North- America, with a wide geographic range. 
Endures severe frost. The crown of the tree attains vast 
dimensions; the stem ioo feet in height and 10 feet in diameter. 
The wood is reddish-brown, very compact and heavy, fine-grained, 
durable, easily worked, little liable to warp and, admitting of 
a fine finish, with its pleasing tint, especially adapted for furni- 
ture. The terebinthine juice hardens, on exposure, to a resin 
of benzoin odor. The bark contains about 8 per cent, tannin. 

Liriodendron tulipifera, Linne. 

The Tulip-tree of North America. One of the largest trees 
of the United States, and one of the grandest vegetable produc- 
tions of the temperate zone. In deep fertile soil it sometimes 
attains a height of 140 feet, with a straight clear stem reaching 9 
feet in diameter. In Norway it is hardy to lat. 6i° 17' (Schue- 
beler). The Tulip-wood is highly esteemed and very exten- 
sively used, wherever this tree abounds, uniting lightness with 
strength and durability. It is of a light-yellow color, fine- 
grained, strong, compact, easily worked, and takes a good 
polish. It is employed for house-building, inside as well as 
outside, for bridges, furniture, coach-building, implements, 
shingles, carriage-panels, and a variety of other purposes. From 
its uniformity and freedom from knots and disinclination to 
warp or shrink, it is much used in Canada for railway-cars and 
carriage-building, chiefly for the panelling (Robb). The bark 
yields about 8 per cent, tannin. As this tree is difficult to 
transplant, it should be grown on the spot where it is to remain. 
Professor Meehan observes that it is of quicker growth than 
the Horse-Chestnut tree and many Maples, 

Lithospermum canescens, Lehmann. 

North-American Alkanet. This, as the vernacular name 
indicates, offers a dye root. 

Lithospermum hirtum, Lehmann. 

North- American Alkanna. A showy perennial herb; the root 
yields a red dye. 


Lithospermum longiflorum, Sprengel. 

North-America. A red pigment can also be extracted from 
the root of this species. 

Livistona Australis, Martius. 

East Australia. The only palm tree in Victoria, occurring in 
East Gippsland (in the latitude of Melbourne), and there at- 
taining a height of 80 feet. It endures the winters of South 
France to 43 ° 32' south lat. (Naudin). The young leaves can 
be plaited as a material for cabbage-tree hats. The seeds (of 
which about 200 are contained in one pound) retain their vital- 
ity far longer than those of the Australian Pt)'chospermas. 
This palm can be transferred from its native haunts to very 
long distances for growth, by previously separating the main 
portion of the root from the soil, and leaving the plant for 
some months on the original spot, so as to remove it finally 
with new rootlets, retaining much soil. Some of the Indian 
Livistonas may be equally hardy; their stems often tower above 
the other forest trees. 

Livistona Chinensis, R. Brown. 

South China and Japan. A very decorative fan palm, and 
one of the hardiest of the whole order. 

Livistona Mariae, F. v. Mueller. 

Central and West Australia, barely within the tropics. This 
noble fan palm attains 40 feet in height, and is likely to prove 
very hardy. 

Lolium perenne, Linne.* 

Europe, North Africa, Western Asia. The well known 
perennial rye grass, mentioned here for the sake of com- 
pleteness. In Norway it grows to lat. 65 28' (Schue- 
beler). L. Italicum, Al. Br., the Italian rye grass, seems to 
be only a variety. One of the most important of all pasture 
grasses, also almost universally chosen for lawn-culture. It 
produces an abundance of seeds, which are readily collected 
and easily vegetate. It comes early to perfection. Neverthe- 
less the produce and nutritive powers are considerably less than 
those of Dactylis glomerata, Alopecurus pratensis and Fes- 
tuca elatior, but it pushes forward earlier than the last men- 
tioned grass, while the ripening of seeds is less defective than 
in Alopecurus. The chemical analysis, made very early in 
spring, gave the following results: — Albumen, 3.36; gluten, 
4.88; starch, 0.51; gum, 1.80; sugar, 1.80 per cent. (F. v. 
Mueller and L. Rummel). At the London Sewerage Depot 60 
tons of rye grass were obtained from one acre (Mclvor). Rye 
grass, though naturally living but a few years, maintains its. 


ground well by the ease with which it disseminates itself spon- 
taneously. Several sorts, which can scarcely be called varie- 
ties, are under cultivation. Rye grass stands the dry heat of 
Australian summers well. It is likely to spread gradually over 
the whole of the Australian continent, and to play an impor- 
tant part in pasture, except the hottest desert tracts. Sheep 
should not be continually kept on rye-grass pasture, as they 
may become subject to fits similar to those produced by L. 
temulentum, possibly due to the grass becoming ergotized or 
otherwise diseased, as many observers assert. It is one of the 
best grasses to endure traffic on roads or paths, particularly on 
soil not altogether light, and is also one of the few among impor- 
tant grasses which can be sown at any season. The Italian 
rye grass is preferabty chosen as an early temporary shelter 
for tenderer but more lasting pasture grasses, also furnishing 
a good collateral return the first season. 

Lotus corniculatus, Linne. 

Bird's-foot Trefoil. Europe, North Africa, North and 
Middle Asia, extra tropical Australia. Indigenous in Norway 
as far north as lat. 6g° 58' (Schuebeler). A deep- rooting per- 
ennial herb, readily growing on pasture land, sandy links 
and healthy places. This plant is well deserving cultivation on 
light inferior soil, on which it will yield a greater bulk of her- 
bage than any of the other cultivated clovers; it is highly nu- 
tritious and is eaten with avidity by cattle and sheep. From the 
great depth to which its roots penetrate, it is not liable to be 
injured by drougtht. It well fills out vacant places between 
higher fodder herbs on meadows; it is always somewhat saline 
and welcome among hay. L. tenuis, Kitaibel, is a valuable 
variety of the coasts. The nearly allied L. major yields a still 
greater amount of herbage; it is particularly suited for bushy 
and moist localities, and it attains its greatest luxuriance on 
soils which have some peat in their composition (Lawson). 
In Australia this Lotus shows a decided predilection for wet 

Lotus tetragonolobus, Linn6. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. Though annual, this 
herb is highly valued for sheep pastures. The green pods 
serve as a culinary vegetable. The allied L. siliquosus, Linn6, 
is perennial, and occurs in a succulent form on sea coasts. 

Loxopterygium Lorentzii, Grisebach. 

La Plata States. The bark, called Quebracho Colorado, 
extensively used for tanning; latterly much exported to Eu- 
rope. The length of time for the tanning process with this 
bark is only half that for oak bark. 


Lupinus albus, Linn6. 

The White Lupine. Countries on the Mediterranean Sea, 
also in the Orient. An annual quick-growing herb, valuable 
for fodder and for green manure. In Norway it will grow to 
lat. 70 22' North (Schuebeler). It is famed as the 
"Tramoso" in Portugal, to suppress sorrel and other 
obstinate weeds by its close and easy growth. The 
lentil-like seeds, after the bitter principle (lupinin) 
has been removed through boiling or soaking in salt water 
are edible. It would lead too far to enumerate here 
many others of the numerous species of Lupines, of which 
unquestionably .very many are eligible for agrarian purposes, 
while all are acceptable as hardy, elegant and easily-grown 
garden-plants. One, L. perennis, L. extends in America to the 
Northern States of the Union, and Canada; fourteen are record- 
ed from South-Europe, seventeen from Brazil, and numerous 
species from other parts of America, where the limits of the 
genus are about Monte Video southward and about Nootka- 
Sound northward. The majority of the species are perennial. 
The Egyptian L. Termis, Forsk., is closely allied to L. albus 
and of equal use. 

Lupinus angustifolius, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. An annual blue-flowered 
species, preferable to L. luteus for grain harvest. Hardy to lat. 
70° in Norway. 

Lupinus arboreus, Sims.* 

California. This has been used there for the reclamation of 
sand, on account of its long tap roots, the latter having been 
traced to a depth of 25 feet, while the stems were only 3 feet 
high. The germination is easy and the growth rapid on the 
sand-downs. For aiding the young lupines for the first two 
months, to get hold of the sand, barley is sown with them, as 
the latter sprouts in a few days and holds the sand in the second 
week; the lupine subsequently covers the sand with a dense 
vegetation in less than a year. 

Lupinus Douglasii, Agardh. 

Oregon and California. Hardy in Norway to lat. 67 56'. 
This somewhat woody species can be used for binding sand 
with L. arboreus, L. Chamissonis, Esscholtz (L. albifrons, Ben- 
tham) and many perennial Lupines from other countries. 

Lupinus luteus, Linne.* 

The Scented Yellow Lupine. Countries in tfce vicinity of 
the Mediterranean Sea. Can be grown in Norway to lat. 70 


(Schuebeler). This annual species is predominantly in use 
through Middle Europe to improve sandy soil; it is the best of 
all yet tested, and will do even on coast drifts. It can also be 
employed like some other lupines as a fodder herb, green as 
well as for hay; some Lupines are also very valuable as pasture 
herbs. Lupine seeds are very fattening when used as an 
addition to ordinary fodder, and are in this respect quite equal 
to oil-cake, while the foliage is said to be not inferior to that of 
clover and more bulky. Nevertheless some Lupines have proved 
poisonous to sheep. About 90 lbs. of seeds are required for an 
acre. Langethal observes: "What the Sainfoin does for the 
poorest limestone or marly soil, that the Yellow Lupine carries 
out for sand-land." Lupines are not adapted for wet or moory 
ground, nor for limestone formations, where most leguminous 
fodder-plants do well. Mr. Joseph Augustin speaks of a yellow- 
flowering Lupine which sometimes in the Azores attains a height 
of 12 feet in three months. 

Lupinus varius, Linne. 

The Blue Lupine. Also a Mediterranean annual, used like 
the above species; but a few others are under cultivation as 
Blue Lupines. Some of the American, particularly Californian 
species, are regarded as superior to the ' Mediterranean kinds 
for agrarian purposes. 

Lycium Europaeum, Linne. 

Hardy in Norway to lat. 67°56. Countries around the Medi- 
terranean Sea. An excellent hedge-plant, particularly in sand- 
land, emitting copious offshoots (C. Bouche). 

Lycium Afrum, Linne. 

Africa and South-West Asia. The Caffir-Thorn. Can with 
many other species be utilized as a hedge bush. It is ever- 
green, fiercely spiny, early raised from seeds, readily trans- 
planted, quick in growth, stands clipping well, seeds freely, is 
strong enough to resist cattle and close enough to keep off 
fowls. \y 2 lbs. of seeds at a cost of 30 shillings suffices for a 
mile of hedging (Th. Lang). 

Lycopodium dendroideum, Michaux. 

North America. This, with L. lucidulum, Michaux, has be- 
come there a great article of trade, being in request for bouquets 
and wreaths; both plants, after having been dyed of various 
colors, are used as ornaments in vases etc. (Meehan). These 
club mosses are mentioned here, to draw attention to similar 
species in other countries. 


Lygeum Spartum, Linne. 

Regions on the Mediterranean Sea. This perennial grass 
serves much like the ordinary Esparto-Grass, but is inferior to it. 

Lyperia crocea, Ecklon. 

South-Africa. The flowers of this shrub produce a fine orange 
dye, and are also in use for medicinal purposes. 

Maba geminata, R. Brown. 

One of the Ebony-trees in Queensland. Wood, according to 
Mr. Thozet, black towards the center, bright red towards the 
bark, close-grained, hard, heavy, elastic and tough. It takes a 
high polish, and is recommended for veneers. Maba fascicu- 
losa, F. v. M., has the outer wood white and pink. Several 
other species exist in Queensland, which may perhaps give good 
substitutes for Ebony-wood. 

Macadamia ternifolia, F. v. Mueller. 

The Nut-tree of sub-tropical East Australia, attaining a 
height of 60 feet; hardy, as far south as Melbourne; in forest- 
valleys probably of fair celerity of growth. In favorable 
localities it bears fruit in seven years. The nuts have the taste 
of hazels. 

Machilus adoratissima, Nees. 

The "Soom-tree." From the Himalayas to Assam, Cochin- 
china, Burma, Java and Sumatra, ascending to the cool eleva- 
tion of 8,000 feet. A tree of considerable size. The Muga- 
Silkworm feeds on the foliage (Gamble). The leaves are per- 
vaded by an orange-scent (Brandis). 

Madura aurantiaca, Nuttall.* 

The Osage-Orange, or North- American Bow-Wood, or Yellow 
Wood. Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana. This thorny deciduous 
shrub or tree can be well trained into hedges. It is unisexual, 
and will in favorable localities on rich river-banks attain a 
height of 60 feet, with a stem 2 to 3 feet thick, thus becoming 
available as a timber-tree. It resists severe frosts. The sap- 
lings furnish stakes for vines, which are very lasting. The 
elastic wood serves well for bows, buggy-shafts, carriage-poles 
and similar articles. It is one of the most durable of all North- 
American woods, also valuable for all purposes where tough- 
ness and durability are required (Dr. C. Mohr). The plant is 
not readily subject to blight or attacks of insects. It produces 
from the root a yellow dye. Mrs. Timbrell, at the suggestion of 
the author, has shown that the foliage is as good a food for 
silkworms as that of the white mulberry, and the silk produced 


in no way inferior to ordinary silk. [Cf. Riley, publications of 
the United States Department of Agriculture]. M. tinctoria 
(D. Don) furnishes the Fustic-wood of Central and Southern 

Maclura excelsa, Planchon. 

West-Africa, on mountains, up to 3,000 feet elevation. 
Height of tree often 150 feet. The wood is remarkably durable 
and tough, beautifully dark brown and veined. Birds feed on 
the fruit. 

Maclura Mora, Grisebach. 

North-Argentina. A high tree. Wood greatly esteemed for 
its density and toughness; fruit edible (Dr. Lorentz). 

Magnolia hypoleuca, Siebold. 

Japan. A stately tree, with very large and whorled leaves. 
Trunk a foot in diameter. Wood remarkably flexile; used 
for many kinds of utensils. Worthy of introduction as a mag- 
nificent garden-object (Christy). 

Magnolia macrophylla, Michaux. 

Eastern States of North- America. Although not cultivated 
for any special purposes of the arts or of technics, yet this tree 
is admitted into this list as one of the grandest of its kind, 
as well in foliage as flowers. It attains a height of 60 feet; its 
leaves are from 1 to 3^ feet long, while its flowers attain a 
diameter of fully 1 foot. M. grandiflora, L., attains a height 
of 100 feet and a stem-diameter of 3 feet on the Mississippi; 
it bears the winter of Philadelphia. M. acuminata L. and 
M. Fraseri, Walter, are also large trees. 

Maharanga Emodi, A. De Candolle. 

Nepal. The root produces, like that of Alkanna tinctoria, a 
red dye. 

Malachra capitata, Linn6. 

Tropical America. A tall herb, annual, or of more than one 
year's duration. Its fiber is obtainable to lengths of 9 feet; it is 
of a silky luster and equal in technical value to Jute 


Mallotus Philippinensis, J. Mueller. {Rotllera tinctoria, Roxburgh.) 

South- Asia and East- Australia, in jungle country, extending 
into New South-Wales. A bush or tree, attaining, according 
to Mr. O'Shanesy, a height of 60 feet. Though not of great 
importance, this plant should not be passed on this occasion, 
inasmuch as the powdery substance, investing the seed-cap- 
sules, constitutes the Kamala, which can be employed not only 
as an orange-dye, but also as an anthelminthic remedy. The 
Hindoo silk-dyers produce the color by boiling the Kamala 
with carbonate of soda. 

Mangifera Indica, Linn6. 

The Mango. South Asia. An evergreen tree, reaching 70 
feet in height. Possibly it could be made to bear its delicious 
fruit in warm and humid forest-regions of sub-tropic zones. 
In the Himalayas its culture for fruit ascends to 3,500 feet just 
outside the tropics. 

Manihot Aipi, Pohl.* 

The Sweet Cassava. Tropical South-America, but traced as 
far south as the Parana- River. The root is reddish and harm- 
less; it can therefore be used as a culinary esculent, without 
any preparation further than boiling, while its starch is 
also available for tapioca. It is a somewhat woody plant, 
several feet high, and too important to be left altogether un- 
noticed on this occasion, although we have no evidence that it 
will be productive in a temperate clime. The Aipi has ligneous 
tough fibers, stretching along the axis of the tubers, while gen- 
erally the roots of the following species are free from this cen- 
tral woody substance. 

Manihot Glazioui, J. Mueller.* 

A native of Ceara, a coast-district of Brazil, in latitude 4°, 
possessing an arid climate for a considerable part of the year. 
This plant is evidently of a comparatively hardy character, and 
adapts itself readily to the exigencies of culture (D. Morris). 
It attained in little more than a year a height of 12 feet at Port 
Darwin (Holtze). It produces the Ceara-Rubber. 

Manihot utilissima, Pohl.* 

The Bitter Cassava or Tapioca- Plant. Tropical South- 
America. Closely allied to the former, producing varieties with 
roots of poisonous acridity and with roots perfectly harmless. 


The tubers attain a length of 3 feet; they can be converted into 
bread or cakes, the volatile poison of the milky sap being 
destroyed through pressing the grated root in the first 
instance, the remaining acridity being expelled by heat. 
The starch, heated in a moist state, furnishes tapioca. 
Manihot is abundantly cultivated at Caracas, where the singu- 
larly uniform temperature throughout the year is only 6o° to 
70 F. It is a very exhausting crop, and thus stands in 
need of rich soil and copious manuring. The propa- 
gation is effected by cuttings from the ligneous part of the 
stem. The soil, destined for Cassava, must not be wet. 
In warm countries the tubers are available in about 
eight months, though they still continue to grow after- 
wards. The growth of the plant upwards is checked by 
breaking off the tops. The Bitter Cassava is the more produc- 
tive of the two. The yellowish tubers sometimes attain a weight 
of 30 lbs. They do not become soft by boiling, like Aipi. 

Maoutia Puya, Weddell. 

India, on mountains up to 4,000 feet. It is taller than 
Boehmeria nivea, and furnishes a similar fiber, which however, 
is not so easily separated. This shrub belongs to a tribe of the 
Nettle-order not possessing burning acridity. None of the 
true nettles, such as the Girardinias, nor allied stinging plants 
have been recommended in this index, although an exquisite 
fiber is derived from some, as the writer wishes to guard against 
the introduction of any burning species, which possibly might 
disseminate itself in a mischievous manner, and then probably 
could not again be suppressed. 

Maranta arundinacea, Linne. 

The True Arrowroot-Plant, or more correctly "Aru-root," in- 
asmuch as Aru-Aru is the Brazilian word for flour, according 
to Martius. West-Indies, Florida, Mexico to Brazil. The plant 
is introduced into this list not without hesitation, as it seems to 
require a tropical clime to attain perfection. It furnishes most 
of the West-Indian arrowroot, although other species, such as 
M. nobilis, M. Allouya and M. ramosissima, are also cultivated 
for a similar starch contained in their tubers. Porcher observes, 
that it still flourishes as far north as Florida, producing even 
in the pine-lands from 200 to 300 bushels of tubers to the 
acre. M. Indica, Tuss., is merely a variety. 

Marlea Vitiensis, Bentham. 

Fiji, New South Wales and Queensland. A middle-sized 
tree, generally with a gouty trunk; wood bright yellow with fine 
undulating rings, black towards the center. Fruit edible (P. 


Marliera glomerata, Bentham, {.Rubachia glomerata, Berg.). 

The Cambuca of sub-tropical Brazil. The fruits attain the 
size of apricots, and are much used for food (Dr. Rosenthal). 

Marliera tomentosa, Cambessedes. 

Extra-tropical Brazil. The Guaparanga. The sweet berries 
of this tall shrub are of the size of cherries. 

Matricaria Chamomilla, Linne. 

The annual Chamomile. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. 
A highly useful herb in medicine. In many parts of the European 
continent it is much more extensively employed than the ordinary 
perennial Chamomile. The infusion of the flowers has rather a 
pleasant taste without bitterness. The flowers serve as a tonic, 
and especially as a sudorific, and possess a peculiar volatile oil. 
In Norway it is grown as far north as lat. 70 22' (Schuebeler). 

Matricaria glabrata, De Candolle. 

The South-African Chamomile. This annual herb is there in 
renown as an excellent substitute for the European Chamomile 
(Dr. Pappe). 

Mauritia flexuosa, Linne. 

From Guiana to Peru and Brazil. This noble Palm is known 
to ascend up to 4,000 feet along the Essequibo. As Palms, 
like Bamboos, prove to be among the hardier of tropical plants, 
experiments for naturalizing M. vinifera, Martius, might also be 
instituted. This attains a height of 150 feet, has leaves some- 
times 15 feet in length, and yields, from the incised stem, a 
copious sap, which forms wine by fermentation. 

Maytenus Boaria, {Boaria Molina, De Candolle; Maytenus CJiilensis, De Can- 

Chili. An evergreen tree, assuming considerable dimensions 
in the southern provinces. Wood extremely hard. Cattle and 
sheep browse with predilection on the foliage; hence the trees 
are cut down, when foliage becomes scarce in protracted snow- 
falls or in times of drought (Dr. Philippi). 

Medicago arborea, Linne. 

South-Europe, particularly Greece. This shrubby yellow 
Lucerne is of value for dairy farmers, as it much promotes the 
secretion of milk. This genus includes several other species, 
valued as pasture-plants besides the present and those noted 


Medicago lupulina, Linne. 

The Black Medick. Europe, Asia and North-America. An 
annual or biennial pasture-herb, easily grown, and not without 
nutritive importance. Langethal observes: "It effects for 
argillaceous soils, what the White Clover does for sandy moist 
soils. It will even succeed in moory ground, provided such 
contains some lime. It suits also particularly for sheep-pastures." 
It will thrive, where on account of poor soil lucerne and clover 
fail. In rich land its product is very copious. In Norway it will 
grow to lat. 63 26'. 

Medicago sativa, Linne.* 

The Lucerne, purple Medick or Alfalfa. Orient; now spread 
through Middle and Southern Europe and Middle Asia. The 
Romans brought it 470 years before the Christian era from 
Media, hence the generic name (A. de Candolle). A perennial 
fodder-herb of great importance, and latgely utilized in most 
countries with a temperate clime; perhaps descended from the 
European and North-Asiatic Medicago falcata, Linne, the 
Yellow Medick, which also deserves naturalization, especially on 
light or sandy calcareous soil; but that plant is less productive 
than the true Lucerne, and does not resist occasional slight 
inundations so well, enduring however, a rougher clime. 
Lucerne keeps green and fresh in the hottest season 
of the year, even in dry and comparatively barren 
ground and on coast-sands, but develops itself for field-culture 
with the greatest vigor on river-banks or when subjected to a 
judicious system of irrigation, particularly in soil rich in lime. 
Its deeply penetrating roots render the plant particularly fit for 
fixing embankments or hindering the washing away of soil sub- 
ject to occasional inundations. The Peruvian variety (Alfalfa) 
resists drought and frost better than the original European 
Lucerne. Dr. Curl, of New Zealand, allows cattle to feed upon 
Alfalfa for two weeks, then takes them off and puts sheep on 
for two weeks, to eat the Alfalfa close to the ground; he then 
removes them and allows the Alfalfa to grow for a month, when 
he repeats the process. He allows five large cattle or twenty 
sheep to the acre. Lucerne is also an important honey-plant 
for bees. Much iron in the soil or stagnant water is detrimental 
to lucerne culture, while friable warm soil much promotes its 
growth. Langethal records instances of lucerne having yielded 
on the same field under favorable circumstances for fifteen 
years four or five cuts annually. The chemical analysis of the 
fresh herb collected very early in spring gave the following re- 
sults: Starch 1.5, gum 2.1, unfermentable sugar 3, albumen 2.3, 
insoluble proteins 2.3, ash 2.3 per cent. (F. V. Mueller and L. 
Rummel). For sandy tracts a yellow variety (M. media, Pers.) 



deserves preference. To show how enormously plants are 
affected in their mineral constituents by difference of soil, Lace 
has analyzed the ashes of lucerne (a) from granitic soil, (b) 
chalky soil with flints, (c) clayey with chalk, (d) very chalky, 
and found — 





Silicic acid 

Per cent. 









Per cent. 

8. 11 




Per cent. 



10. 11 






Per cent. 


Ferric oxide 







Calcium sulphate 

" phosphate 

Potassium carbonate 

Potassium and sodium chlorides. 

Medicago scutellata, Allioni.* 

Countries at and near the Mediterranean Sea, where this 
annual herb, as well as the allied M. orbicularis, Allioni, is re- 
garded as a valuable fodder-plant (Camel), without the disad- 
vantage of their fruits adhering to fleeces like those of its 
prickly-fruited congeners. For this particular reason the author 
introduced this plant into Australia, where in the dry hot inland- 
regions it has surpassed all other fodder-herbs in value and re- 
sistance to drought. 

Melaleuca ericifolia, Smith.* 

South-Eastern Australia. This tall shrub or bushy tree is of 
importance for consolidating muddy shores; it will live in salty 
ground and water, almost like mangroves. I found it grow- 
ing vigorously, where the water contained rather more than 2 
per cent, chlorides, and the wet soil contained nearly 1^ per 
cent, chlorides (the contents of sea-water are from 3 to 4 per 
cent, chlorides, or about 2^2 per cent, chloride of natrium). It 
yields also a comparatively large quantity of cajaput-oil. It ad- 
mits of easy transplantation when full grown. Myoporum 
insulare, R. Brown and Leptospermum lanigerum, Aiton, can 
in like manner be used in tree plantations for the sake of shelter 
on wet saline soil. Melaleuca linarifolia and M. genistifolia can 
also be grown in swamps for hygienic purposes and for subdu- 
ing paludal malaria or fever-provoking effluvia. The branches 
of M. ericifolia furnish the best native material in South-East- 
ern Australia for easily-worked and lasting garlands. 


Melaleuca Leucadendron, Linne. 

The Cajaput-tree of India, North- and East- Australia as far 
south as 34 south latitude. This tree attains a height of 80 
feet, with a stem reaching 4 feet in diameter, on tidal ground; it 
can with great advantage be utilized on such areas and in salt 
swamps for subduing malarian vapors where no Eucalyptus will 
live. The lamellar bark protects it against conflagrations. The 
wood is fissile, hard and close-grained, regarded as almost im- 
perishable underground, and resists the attacks of termites. 
It is well adapted for posts, wharf-piles, ship-building and 
various artisans' work. The allied Callistemons (C. salignus, 
DC, 60 feet high, C. lanceolatus, DC, 40 feet) produce 
a hard, heavy, close-grained wood, suitable for wheelwrights' 
work and implements, proving very durable underground (W. 

Melaleuca parviflora, Lindley. 

Extra-tropical Australia. A tall bush or small tree. One of 
the most important plants for fixing moving coast-sands. 

Melaleuca styphelioides, Smith. 

East-Australia. Height of tree reaching 60 feet; stem diameter 
2^4 feet. The timber is hard, close-grained, and stands well in 
damp situations. It is said that the timber has never been 
known to decay (Queensland Exhibition, 1878). Tree adapted 
for swamps. 

Melaleuca trichostachya, Lindley. 

Tropical East-Australia. A small tree, deserving attention 
as eligible for saline land, on which it can be raised much 
more easily than Myoporum insulare. M. Thozet ob- 
serves that it occurs in places where it is bathed by 
the tides; also that large saplings without roots can be 
transplanted: Thus it may be destined to aid, with 
several of its congeners and with Salicornias, Avicennias, 
^Egiceras, Batis, Suaedas, and some other plants, to reclaim low 
muddy shore-lands from sea-floods. M. squarrosa, Smith, of 
South-East Australia, can be grown in fresh-water swamps, to 
subdue miasmata. It attains exceptionally the height of 60 
feet, with a stem two feet in diameter. 

Melanorrhoea usitata, Wallich. 

The Varnish-tree of Burmah, Munnipore and Tenasserim. 
Possibly hardy in forest-valleys free of frost, as it ascends to 
3,000 feet elevation. The hardened sap is used for a highly- 
prized black varnish. 


Melia Azedarach, Linne. 

Called "the Pride of India." South Asia, North and also 
East Australia, and there to far extra-tropical latitudes. As an 
avenue tree not without importance, because it will successfully 
cope with dryness of clime and sterility of soil. It recommends 
itself also for retaining the foliage till very late in the season, 
and for producing an abundance of fragrant flowers, which may 
perhaps be worth distilling for essential oil. The wood is con- 
sidered of value for some kinds of musical instruments. A 
black-fruited Melia seems as yet little known. 

Melianthus major, Linne. 

South Africa. The leaves of this stately plant are very effi- 
cacious as antiseptics, also in cases of scald head, ringworm 
and various other cutaneous diseases (Dr. Pappe). Its effect of 
promoting granulation is very remarkable (Dr. A. Brown). 
Flowers rich in honey, as indicated by the generic name. Will 
bear some frost. 

Melica altissima, Linne. 

North-Eastern Europe, Middle Asia. This perennial grass 
has recently come into use for pasture. 

Melica ciliata, Linne. 

Europe and Middle Asia. A perennial fodder-grass, par- 
ticularly desirable for sheep. Best for dry gypsum or lime 

Melica nutans, Linne. 

The Pearl-Grass. Europe, North and Middle Asia, enduring 
an alpine exposure and living also in the shade of forests. It will 
bear the clime of Norway to lat. 70 28' (Schuebeler). It pro- 
duces suckers, and affords good herbage in woody regions; so 
also does M. uniflora. Several other species are on record from 
various parts of the globe, among which M. mutica, of North- 
America, seems to deserve special attention. 

Melicocca bijuga, Linne. 

Central America, on mountains. So many sapindaceous trees 
of the Cupania series have been shown by my own experiments 
to be hardy in a climate like that of Victoria, that this important 
member of the series could now also be admitted into this 
list. The pulp of the fruit is of grape-taste; the seeds can be 
used like sweet chestnuts. 

Melilotus alba, Desrousseaux. 

The Cabul, or Bokhara-Clover. Europe, North Africa, 
Middle Asia. Indigenous in Norway to lat. 6o° 16' (Schuebeler). 


A biennial herb. On account of its fragrance it is of value as 
admixture to hay. It is also a good bee-plant. Flowers white. 
Odorous principle: cumarin. 

Melilotus ccerulea, Lamarck. 

Cultivated in Norway to lat. 70 22'. South Europe and 
North-Africa. An annual, very odorous fodder-herb. It forms 
an ingredient of the green Swiss cheese, which owes its flavor 
and color chiefly to this plant. 

Melilotus officinalis, Desrousseaux. 

Europe and Middle Asia. In Norway hardy to lat. 67 17'. 
Biennial, or lasting through several years, if prevented from 
flowering. Contains also cumarin. An allied species is M. 
macrorrhiza, Pers. Both serve purposes similar to those for 
which M. alba is employed. Grown on the coast it becomes less 

Melissa officinalis, Linne. 

The Balm-Herb. Southern Europe and Middle Asia. A 
perennial herb, valuable for its scent, which depends on a 
peculiar volatile oil. This herb is also important as a 
bee-plant. 1 

Melocanna bambusoides, Trinius. 

The Berry-bearing Bamboo, from Chittagong and other 
mountainous parts of India, as well as of the Archipelagus. 
The fruit is very large, fleshy, like an apple, and contains a seed, 
which is said to be very pleasant eating (Masters). It is a 
thornless bamboo, growing on dry slopes of hills. Height 
reaching 70 feet; circumference towards base, 1 foot; growth 
beautifully erect. 

Melocanna Travancorica. (Beesha Travancorica, Beddome.) 

A new bamboo from Travancore, worthy of introduction. 

Mentha laxiflora, Bentham. 

Victoria and the most southern parts of New South Wales. 
This, the Australian Forest-Mint, furnishes a peculiarly pleasant 
oil, not dissimilar to that of peppermint. A fair oil can also be 
distilled from M. Australis, R. Brown, the common River- 
Mint of Southeastern Australia. 

Mentha piperita, Linn6.* 

The peppermint. Middle Europe. This well known peren- 
nial herb is important for its peculiar essential oil. This dis- 
tilled oil is in considerable demand, and would be best obtained 
from plants cultivated in mountain regions or naturalized along 


forest rivulets. The annual production of oil of peppermint 
is estimated at 90,000 lbs., two-thirds of which are prepared in 
the State of New York (Masters). Eminent authorities refer 
the peppermint as a variety to Mentha aquatica, L., the water- 
mint of Europe, North Africa, West and North Asia, from 
which the true Crisp Mint (M. crispa, L.) is again derived, as 
well as the Bergamot Mint (M. citrata, Ehrh.). 

Mentha Pulegium, Linne. 

The true penny-royal. Europe, Western Asia, Northern 
Africa. A perennial scent-herb, yielding a peculiar ethereal 
oil. It likes moist soil. To be avoided on pastures, as not 
readily repressed. 

Mentha rotundifolia, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Western 
Asia. Fond of wet places, which by the culture of this and 
other mints may be profitably utilized. In odor this mint ap- 
proaches to Melissa. The French and Italian Crisp Mint 
is partly derived from this species. Closely allied to the 
following, and often regarded as a variety of M. viridis, L. 

Mentha silvestris, Linne. 

The horse-mint. Europe, North Africa, temperate Asia. 
Perennial. One of the crisp mints is derived from this species. 
Hardy, like the three preceding species, to lat. 59 55' in 
Norway, (Schuebeler.) 

Mentha viridis, Linne. 

The spearmint. Middle and Southern Europe. Perennial. 
A particular sort of crisp mint (M. crispata, Schrad.) belongs 
to this species. 

Menyanthes trifoliata, Linne. 

Inappropriately called the bog bean or buck bean. Europe, 
Northern and Middle Asia, North America. In springy and 
spongy bogs. A perennial herb of great beauty, which could 
be naturalized with facility in any cold regions. Indigenous 
as far north as lat. 71 10' in Norway (Prof. Schuebeler). The 
root is starchy. The whole plant is pervaded with a bitter 
principle, largely derived from menyanthin. The plant is used 
medicinally as a tonic and febrifuge. 

Meriandra Abyssinica, F. v. Mueller. (M. Benghalensis, Bentham.) 

Abyssinia, on high mountains. A shrub of penetrating 
odor; utilized much like sage. 


Mesembrianthemum acinaciforme, Linn6. 

The Hottentot fig of South Africa. Under the same ver- 
nacular name is also comprised the distinct M. edule, L. 
Both should be transferred into any of the most inhospitable 
desert regions, as they afford in the inner part of their fruit a 
really palatable and copious food. 

Mesembrianthemum aequilaterale, Haworth. 

Australia and West coast of America. This widely creeping 
species spreads readily over saline ground, whether clayey, 
sandy or rocky, Mr. J. Clode observes that sheep are very 
fond of this succulent plant, and require but little water when 
browsing on it; or, in cold coast districts, they will do without 
any water even in summer, while thriving well on the foliage. 
Fruit with a sweetish edible pulp. 

Mesembrianthemum capitatum, Haworth. 

South Africa. This perennial species, from the readiness 
and quickness of its growth, and from the abundance of its 
seeds and their easy dispersion, is one of the best for staying 
any rolling sea sand (Dickinson). M. pugioniforme, Linn£, 
and many other species serve the same purpose. 

Mesembrianthemum crystallinum, Linne. 

South Africa. Recently recommended as a spinage plant. 
Can be grown on bare sand, which it helps to cover. Eaten 
by sheep. In Norway it will succeed northward to lat. 69 18'. 

Mesembrianthemum floribundum, Haworth. 

South Africa. This succulent perennial with many allied 
species from the same part of the globe is a far more important 
plant than might be assumed, "a good stretch of this is worth 
as much as a dam" (Professor McOwan). Succulent plants 
like these would live in sandy deserts, where storage of water 
may be impracticable. 

Metrosideros tomentosa, Cunningham. 

Northern Island of New Zealand. Could be grown for tim- 
ber on rocky sea shores. Height reaching 80 feet, trunk stout, but 
comparatively short. The timber, according to Professor 
Kirk, deserves attention, as one of the most durable for the 
frame-work in ship building, for jetties, docks, sills. Other 
species with dense wood, occurring in New Zealand, are M. 
lucida, Menzies and M. robusta, A. Cunn., ornamental trees 
, with crimson flowers. 


Michelia excelsa, Blume. 

In the Himalayas and other Indian mountains, up to 8,000 
feet. It grows to a large size, supplying boards of three 
feet in width, and is one of the best timber trees there. Fol- 
iage deciduous, flowers large, white; wood yellowish. M. 
lanuginosa, Wallich, ascends there also to temperate regions 
with M. Kisopa, Hamilton, M. Cathcartii, Hooker and Thom- 
son, M. Champaca, Linne, M. punduana, H. and Th. and 
M. Nilagirica, Zenker, all being tall trees. 

Microseris Forsteri, J. Hooker. 

The Native Scorzonera of extra-tropical Australia and New 
Zealand. A perennial herb deserving attention, as its root 
would probably enlarge and improve through culture. On the 
summits of snowy mountains the plant develops most luxur- 
iantly during summer. The Australian aborigines use the root 
for food. The plant would prove hardy in Middle Europe. 

Milium effusum, Linne. 

English Millet-Grass. Europe, North- and Middle-Asia, 
North-America. Perennial, suited for damp forest-land par- 
ticularly, the pastural capabilities of which it enhances. On 
river-banks it attains a height of 6 feet. It is relished by cattle. 
The seeds can be used like millet, the stems for the manufacture 
of superior straw hats. It is a great favorite with pheasants and 
many other birds for the sake of its seeds, which ripen early in 
the season. Indigenous in Norway as far north as lat. 71 7' 

Mimosa rubicaulis, Lamarck. 

India. A hedge-bush, almost inapproachable. It has proven 
hardy, enduring some frost at Melbourne. 

. Mimusops Sieberi, A. de Candolle. 

West-Indies and Florida. Tree reaching 30 feet in height. 
Fruit of agreeable taste (Sargent). 

Monarda didyma, Linne. 
\J J North- America. Hardy to lat. 59 55' in Norway. A peren- 

nial odorous herb, producing the medicinal Oswego- or Beebalm- 
Tea. M. punctata, L. and M. fistulosa, L. with several others, 
are also of very strong scent. Their volatile oil contains 

Monodora Angolensis, Welwitsch. 

Tropical West-Africa, up to the comparatively cool elevation 
of 3,500 feet. A tree attaining 30 feet in height. The pleasantly 
aromatic seeds come into the market, like those of the following 
species; they measure about half an inch in diameter and are 
produced in numbers. 


Monodora Myristica, Dunal. 

West- Africa. A small tree. The seeds serve as nutmegs. 

Morchella esculenta, Persoon. {M. conica, Persoon.) 

Europe, northward to lat. 70 in Norway, Asia, Northern and 
Central America. With M. semilibera this Morel has been 
found in Victoria and New South Wales; its spread should be 
encouraged by artificial means, as it is a wholesome esculent. 
Kohlrausch and Siegel found 29 to 35 per cent, of protein in 
this species when dried. European superior species, probably 
admitting of introduction, are: M. Gigas, Pers., M. rimosipes, 
DC, M. Bohemica, Krombh., M. deliciosa, Fries (which extends 
to Java) and M. patula, Pers., the Bell Morel; but several others 
occur in other parts of the globe. Though these fungi show a 
predilection for pine-forests, they are not dependent upon them; 
thus the writer found M. esculenta in Eucalyptus-forests, and 
this late in the autumn. They can all be dried and preserved 
for culinary purposes. 

Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertner. 

The Horse-Radish Tree of India, abundant as far as the 
middle regions of the mountains. The long pods are edible; 
the seeds are somewhat almond-like and rich in oil. M. aptera, 
Gaertner, occurs from Abyssinia and Egypt to Arabia and Syria. 

Morus alba, Linne.* 

The White Mulberry-Tree. China. This tree in several 
varieties provides the food for the ordinary Chinese silk-insect 
(Bombyx Mori). Silk was produced in Italy 600 years ago, and 
this branch of industry has flourished there ever since. In 
China silk has been reeled for 4,500 years; this may demon- 
strate the permanency of an industry, which we wish to establish 
extensively anywhere under a similar sky. "One pound of silk 
is worth its weight in silver, and this pound may be produced 
(so far as the food of the Bombyx is concerned) from thirty 
pounds of mulberry-leaves or from a single tree, which may 
thus be brought to yield annually the material for 16 yards of 
Gros de Naples." The White Mulbery-tree is of extremely easy 
growth from cuttings, also readily raised from well-matured 
seeds. It is usually unisexual, and finally attains a very large 
size. It can be grown in climes where olives will no longer 
thrive. In Norway the tree bore seeds in lat. 59 55' (Schuebe- 
ler). Spots for mulberry-culture must not be over moist, when 
the leaves are to be utilized for the Bombyx. In 1870, accord- 
ing to the British Trade Journal, the produce of cocoons 
amounted in Europe to ^16,588,000; in Asia to ^28, 11 2,000; 
in Africa to ^"44,000; in the South-Sea Islands to ^24,000; in 


America to ^20,000 — thus giving a general total of ^"44,788,- 
000. In 1875 the yield of raw silk in the district of Rajshahye 
(British India) was estimated at ^400,000, employing about 
12,000 people, the plantations extending approximately over 150 
square miles (Dr. S. Forbes Watson). In that district alone a 
quarter of a million people derive their support from the trade 
and other branches of the silk industries. Superior varieties of 
mulberry can be grafted with ease on ordinary stock. M. Indica, 
L., M. macrophylla, Morett., M. multicaulis, Perott., M. 
Morettiana, Jacq., M. Chinensis, Bertol., M. latifolia, Poir., 
M. Italica, Poir., M. Japonica, Nois., M. Byzantina, Sieb., 
M. nervosa, Del., M. pumila, Nois., M. tortuosa, Audib., as 
well as the Constantinople-Mulberry, are merely forms of M. 
alba, to which probably also M. Tatarica, L. and M. pabularia 
Jacquin belong. The variety known as M, Indica produces 
black fruits. The raising of Mulberry-Trees has recently 
assumed enormous dimensions in California, where between 
seven and eight millions were planted in 1870. The 
process of rearing the silk-insect is simple and 
involves no laborious exertions. The cocoons, after 
they have been properly steamed, dried and pressed, readily 
find purchasers in Europe, the price ranging according to 
quality from 3s. to 6s. per lb. The eggs of the silk moth sell 
at a price from 16s. to £2 per ounce; in 1870 Japan had to 
provide two millions of ounces of silk-ova for Europe, where 
the worms had extensively fallen victims to disease. As an ex- 
ample of the profit to be realized, a Californian fact may be 
cited, according to which ,£700 were the clear gain from 3^ 
acres, the working expenses having been ^93. The Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture of the United States has estimated that 
under ordinary circumstances an acre should support from 700 
to 1000 mulberry trees, producing, when four years old, 5,000 lbs. 
of leaves fit for food. On this quantity of leaves can be reared 
140,000 worms, from which ova at a net profit ranging from 
£80 to ^240 per acre will be obtained by the work of one 
person. Mr. C. Brady, of Sydney, thinks the probable proceeds 
of silk culture to be from £60 to ,£150 for the acre. The dis- 
crepancies in calculations of this kind are explained by differ- 
ences in clime, soil, attention and treatment. 

A very palatable fruit is obtained from a variety cultivated 
in Beloochistan and Afghanistan. Morus Tatarica L., resem- 
bles M. alba; its juicy fruit is insipid and small. The leaves 
are not generally used for silkworms. 

The results of Mr. Brady's experience on the varieties of 
Morus alba are as follows: In the normal form the fruits are 
white with a purplish tinge more or less deep; the bark is pale; 
the leaf is also of a pale hue, not very early nor very tender, 


nor very abundant. It may be grown on moist ground so long 
as such is drained, or it will live even on poor, loose, gravelly 
soil, bordering on running water. The Cevennes variety is a 
free grower, affords a large quantity of leaves, though of 
rather thick consistence; all varieties of the Morus Bombyx 
like these leaves whether young or old. It is also called the 
Rose-leaved variety. The silk which it yields is substantial in 
quantity and also good in quality. It does best on rich dry 
slopes. The bushy Indian variety has a fine leaf of a beautiful 
green, which, though light in weight, is abundantly produced. 
It can be cut back to the stem three or four times a year; the 
leaves are flat, long and pointed, possess a fine aroma, and are 
relished by every variety of the ordinary silk insect, though all 
do not thrive equally well on it. The silk derived from this 
variety is excellent, but not always so heavy in quantity as that 
produced from the rosy variety. It prefers rich, low lying bot- 
toms, is a greedy feeder, but may thus be made to cover an 
extraordinary breadth of alluvial or manured land in a marvel- 
lously short space of time. At Sydney Mr. Brady can provide 
leaves from this Indian variety all through the year by the re- 
moval of cuttings, which will strike their roots almost at any 
season. It also ripens seeds readily, and should be kept at 
bush size. It requires naturally less space than the other 
kinds. A fourth variety comes from North China; it has heart- 
shaped, flat, thickish leaves, which form very good food for the 
silkworm. Mr. Brady, as well as Mr. Martelli, recommend 
very particularly the variety passing under the name of Morus 
multicaulis for the worms in their earliest stages. The former 
recommends the Cape variety also; the latter wishes likewise 
the variety called Morus Morettiana to be used on account of 
its succulent nutritious foliage, so well adapted for the insect 
while yet very young, and also on account of producing the 
largest amount of food within the shortest time. The Manila 
variety, known as Morus multicaulis, comes into bearing several 
weeks earlier than most other sorts, and should therefore be 
at hand for early hatched worms. 

The Muscardine disease is produced by Botrytis Bassiana, 
while the still more terrible Pebrine disease is caused by a mi- 
nute psorospermous organism. On the Pebrine Pasteur's re- 
searches since 1865 have shed much light. Countries like 
ours, happily free from these pests, can thus rear healthy silk- 
ova at a high premium for exportation. 

The White Mulberry tree with others offering food to the 
silkworms, such as the osage-orange, should be planted cop- 
iously everywhere for hedges or copses. A very soft textible 
fiber is obtained from the bark of the Chinese Mulberry tree. 


Morus celtidifolia, Humboldt. 

From Peru to Mexico, ascending to 7,000 feet. The fruit of 
this Mulberry tree is edible. M. insignis, Planchon, from New 
Granada, is a similar species. 

Morus nigra, Linne.* 

The Black Mulberry tree. South Russia and Persia. At- 
tains a height of 60 feet. Highly valuable for its pleasant 
refreshing fruits. It is a tree of longevity, instances being on 
record of its having lived through several centuries. It is also 
very hardy, enduring the winter cold of Norway to lat. 6i° 15'; 
at Christiania it bore fruit (Schuebeler). Mr. John Hodgkins 
regards it as a superior tree for sandy coast ridges. The 
leaves of this species also afford food for the ordinary silk 
moth and are almost exclusively used for this purpose in the Ca- 
nary Islands, although the produce therefrom is not always so 
good as that from M. alba. The tree occurs usually unisexual. 
M. atropurpurea, Roxb., from Cochin China, is an allied tree. 
The cylindrical fruit spike attains a length of two inches. 

Morus rubra, Linne.* 

The Red Mulberry-Tree of North America; the largest of the 
genus, attaining a height of 70 feet; it produces a strong and 
compact timber, of wonderful endurance underground, hence in 
demand for posts and railway ties (General Harrison) ; also for 
knees of small vessels (Dr. C. Mohr) and a variety of other 
purposes. Fruit edible, sweet, large. The tree is hardy in 
Christiania (Schuebeler.) 

Mucuna Cochinchinensis, Bentham. {Macrantkus Cochinchitiensis, Loureiro.) 

A climbing annual, which can be reared in the open air in 
England. Pods, cooked as a vegetable, taste like those of the 
kidney bean (Johnson.) 

Muehlenbergia diffusa, Willdenow. 

Southern States of North America. Perennial. Recorded 
among the good native fodder grasses of Alabama by C Mohr, 
thriving as well on dry hills as in low damp forest-ground. 

Muehlenbergia Mexicana, Trinius. 

Southern States of North America. A perennial good fodder- 
grass, particularly fit for low humid ground. 

Murraya exotica, Koenig. 

South Asia, Polynesia, East and North Australia. This shrub 
or small tree is one of the best among the odoriferous plants in 
India (C. B. Clarke). 


Musa Cavendishii, Lambert.* {Musa regia, Rumph; Musa Ckinensis, Sweet; 
Musa nana, Loureiro.) 

The Chinese Banana. A comparatively dwarf species, the 
stem attaining a height of only about 5 or 6 feet. Its robust 
and dwarf habit render it particularly fit for exposed localities, 
and this is one of the reasons why it is so extensively cultivated 
in the South Sea Islands. The yield of fruit is profuse (even as 
much as 200 to 300 fruits in a spike), and the flavor excellent. 
This, as well as M. sapientum and M. paradisiaca, still ripens 
its fruits in Madeira and Florida. The specific name, given by 
Loureiro, deserves preference. 

Musa corniculata, Rumph.* 

Insular India. Fruits as large as a good-sized cucumber; 
skin thick; pulp reddish-white, firm, dry, sweet; an excellent 
fruit for cooking (Kurz). The Lubang variety is of enormous 

Musa Ensete, Gmelin. 

Bruce's Banana. From Sofala to Abyssinia in mountain 
regions. This magnificent plant attains a height of 30 feet, the 
leaves occasionally reaching the length of 20 feet, with a 
width of 3 feet, being perhaps the largest in the whole empire of 
plants, exceeding those of Strelitzia and Ravenala, and surpass- 
ing even in quadrate measurement those of the grand water- 
plant Victoria Regia, while also excelling in comparative circum- 
ference the largest compound frond of Angiopteris evecta or 
divided leaf of Godwinia Gigas, though the compound leaves of 
some palms are still larger. The inner part of the stem and 
the young spike of the Ensete can be boiled, to serve as a table 
esculent, but the fruit is pulpless. This plant produces no 
suckers, and requires several years to come into flower and 
seed, when it dies off like the Sago Plant, the Caryota Palm, 
and others, which flower but once without reproduction from the 

Musa Livingstoniana, Kirk. 

Mountains of Sofala, Mozambique, and the Niger regions. 
Similar to M. Ensete; seeds much smaller. This superb plant 
requires no protection in favorable places in warm temperate 
climes, as it advances in its native country to elevations of 7,000 
feet. This and a Musa of Angola, like M. Ensete, form no 

Musa paradisiaca, Linne.* 

The ordinary Plantain or Pisang. India. Among the most 
prolific of plants, requiring the least care in climes adapted for 


its growth. Stem not spotted. Bracts purple inside. In this, 
as well as M. Cavendishii and M. simiarum, new shoots are pro- 
duced from the root, to replace annually the fruit-bearing stem. 
The fruit of this is often prepared by some cooking process. 
Very many varieties are distinguished, and they seem to have 
sprung from the wild state of M. sapientum. The writer did 
not wish to pass this and the allied plants unnoticed, as they 
will endure the clime in warmer localities of the temperate zone, 
where under careful attention they are likely to mature their fruit 
with regularity. They require rich and humid soil. Plantain 
meal is prepared by simply reducing the dried pulp to powder. 
It is palatable, digestible and nourishing. M. sapientum, L., the 
ordinary Banana, or Sweet Plantain, is a variety. It is one of 
the most important plants among those yielding nutritious 
delicious fruits. The stem is spotted; bracts green inside. 
The leaves and particularly the stalks and the stems of this and 
other species of Musa can be utilized for producing a fiber 
similar to Manila hemp. The fruit of this species is used 
chiefly unprepared; it is generally of a yellow color. Numerous 
varieties are distinguished. Under favorable circumstances as 
much as a hundredweight of fruit is obtained from a plant 
annually in tropical climes. At Caracas, where the temperature 
is seldom much above or below 70 F., the plantain and banana 
plants are very productive, being loaded with fruits 12 to 15 
inches long, on mountains about 5,000 feet high. In the dry 
Murray regions of South-east Australia the winter temperature 
seems too low for the successful development of the plants 
except on sheltered spots; but bananas still ripen under the 
shelter of limestone cliffs as far south as Swan River in West 
Australia. The plant matures its fruit still in the Canary Islands. 
The banana requires indefinitely less care within its geographic 
latitudes than the potato; contains along with much starch 
protein compounds. The preparation of starch from bananas 
is lucrative, as the yield is copious. Many Indian populations 
live very extensively or almost exclusively on this fruit. 

Musa simiarum, Rumph.* {M. corniculata, Loureiro; M. acuminata, Coll.). 

From Malacca to the Sunda-Islands. About half a hundred 
marked varieties of this species, called mainly Peesangs in India, 
are under cultivation there, especially on the Archipelagus, while 
M. sapientum occurs wild more frequently on the mainland. 
Though the latter is principally cultivated on the Indian conti- 
nent, yet it never equals in delicacy the cultivated forms of M. 
simiarum, the fruit of which sometimes attains a length of 2 feet 


Musa troglodytarum, Linne. {M. uranoscopos, Rumph.). 

India, and apparently indigenous also in the Fiji and other 
islands of the Pacific Ocean. The fruit-stalk of this species 
stands upright; the edible fruits are small, reddish or orange- 
colored; pulp gamboge-yellow, mawkish-sweet (Kurz). The 
Chinese M. coccinea, Ait., a dwarf ornamental species, has also 
the fruit-spike straight. 

Myoporum laetum, Forster. 

New Zealand, where it is called Ngaio by the aborigines. As 
a shelter-tree it is equal to the Australian M. insulare for the 
most exposed parts of the coast. It is excellent for shade, and 
its wood takes a fine polish. It can be raised on the beach from 
cuttings. Uprooted it will produce new roots, if covered in 
near the sea. Sheep and horses browse on the foliage. 

Myrica cerifera, Linne. 

The Wax-Myrtle. Sandy sea-coast of North-America. This 
; shrub helps to bind the rolling sand; it has fragrant leaves; the 
fruits are boiled, and the floating wax, which can be converted 
into candles, is skimmed off. In Patagonia, Argentina and 
Chili the scrophularineous Monttea aphylla, Bentham (Oxy- 
cladus aphyllus, Miers), yields vegetable wax from its branches 

Myrica cordifolia, Linne. 

South- Africa. This bushy plant arrests the influx of the sea- 
sand; it also yields wax from its fruits in remunerative quantity. 

Myrica Faya, Aiton. 

Madeira, Azores and Canary-Islands. A small tree. The 
drupaceous fruits are used for preserves. M. sapida Wallich, 
an Indian mountainous species, has also edible fruits. 

Myrica quercifolia, Linne.* 

South- Africa. This, as well as M. cordifolia and the follow- 
ing, are the principal wax-bushes there. Many other species 
from different parts of the globe are available for trial-culture, 
but none have as yet been discovered in Australia. 

Myrica serrata, Lamarck. 

South-Africa. Shrub only about 3 feet high. The Myrica- 
wax is heavier, harder and more brittle than bees'-wax, but 
melts easier. It is obtained from the fruits throughout the cool 
season. The sowing of seeds is done after the first rain of the 
cool months has steadied the sand. The plant can also be mul- 
tiplied from cuttings. The subterraneous trunk is creeping, and 
in age of considerable length (Dr. Pappe.) 


Myrica rubra, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

China and Japan. The bark of this tree or shrub serves for 
a brown dye; the fruit is edible. 

Myrrhis odorata, Scopoli. 

The Sweet Chervil or Cicely. Mountains of Middle and 
Southern Europe and Asia Minor, particularly in forests. A 
perennial aromatic herb, used for salad and culinary condiments. 
It could be naturalized in forests, and would endure an Alpine 
climate; a second species, M. occidentals, Benth., occurs in 

Myrtus acmenoides, F. v. Mueller. 

Queensland. The fragrant leaves of this and of M. fragrant- 
issima used for flavoring tea, according to Mr. P. O'Shanesy. 

Myrtus communis, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The Bridal Myrtle. 
This bush of ancient renown should not be passed; it is indus- 
trially in requisition for myrtle-wreaths. 

Myrtus edulis, Bentham. {Myrcianthes edulis, Berg.) 

Uruguay. A tree attaining a height of about 25 feet. Berries 
of 1 Y /z inch diameter, of pleasant taste. 

Myrtus Luma, Molina. 

South-Chili. A tree fully 100 feet high in the virgin forests. 
Wood very hard and heavy, much sought for press-screws, 
wheel-spokes and select implements (Dr. Philippi.) 

Myrtus Meli, Philippi. 

South-Chili. Of the same use as the foregoing species, and 
in this manner most favorably contrasting with the numerous 
other myrtaceous trees of Chili. 

Myrtus nummularia, Poiret. 

The Cranberry- Myrtle. From Chili to Fuegia, also in the 
Falkland-Islands. This trailing little plant might be transferred 
to the turfy moors of alpine mountains. Sir J. Hooker des- 
cribes the berries as fleshy, sweet and of agreeable flavor. Allied 
species occur in the cold zone of the Peruvian Andes. 

Myrtus tomentosa, Aiton. 

India and China. This showy shrub ascends to 8,000 feet. 
The berries are dark purple, of cherry size, pulpy and of 
aromatic sweetness. Various other Myrtles with edible berries 
are known from different warm countries. 


Myrtus Ugni, Molina. 

The Chilian Guava. A hardy shrub freely bearing its small 
but pleasantly aromatic berries. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) amara, Blume. 

Java, on high volcanic mountains. A large tree, sometimes 
200 feet high. Timber valuable. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) andina, Poeppig. (Prumnopithys elegans, Philippi.) 

The Lleuque of Chili. A stately tree with clusters of edible 
cherry-like fruit. As might be expected from its native place, 
it will bear severe frost — o°F. (Gorlie). The wood is yellowish 
and fine-grained, and is chosen for elegant furniture work. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) bracteata, Blume. 

Burma, Borneo, Java, up to 3,000 feet. Generally reaching 
80 feet in height, with a straight trunk and horizontal branches. 
The close-grained wood is highly prized. The allied N. nerii- 
folia from the Himalayas has proved hardy at Melbourne. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) Chilina, Richard. 

The Manniu and Lahaul of the Chilians. Height reaching 
100 feet, with corresponding thickness of stem. Wood white, 
of excellent quality. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) coriacea, Richard. 

West-Indies. This tree attains a height of 50 feet, and 
advances to elevations of 8,000 feet. Other species of both 
hemispheres should be tested. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) cupressina, R. Brown, 

Java and Philippine-Islands. Height of tree 180 feet; 
furnishes a highly valuable timber. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) dacrydioides, A. Richard. 

In swampy ground of New Zealand; the "Kahikatea" of the 
Maoris, called White Pine by the colonists. Height 150 feet; 
diameter of stem often 4 feet. The white sweet fruit is eaten 
by the natives; the wood is pale, close-grained, heavy. It will 
not stand exposure to wet, but is one of the best for flooring- 
boards. The strength is equal to that of Rimu, according to 
Professor Kirk; but it is more readily attacked by boring 

Nageia (Podocarpus) elata, R. Brown. 

East-Australia. A fine timber-tree attaining a height of 80 
feet with a stem 2 feet in diameter. The timber is soft, close- 
grained, free from knots, much used for joiners' work, also for 
spars. Market price in Brisbane ^3 5s. to ^3 10s. per 1,000 
superficial feet (Queensland Exhibition, 1877.) 



Nageia (Podocarpus) elongata, L'Heritier. 

South-Africa. With N. Thunbergi, Erythrina Caffra and 
Oreodaphne bullata, this is the tallest tree of Capeland and 
Caffraria, although it does not advance beyond 70 feet. The 
yellowish wood is highly valuable, deal-like, not resinous. The 
stems can be used for top-masts and yards of ships. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) ferruginea, Don. 

Northern parts of New Zealand. The Black Pine of the 
colonists; native name"Miro." Height reaching 80 feet; it 
produces a dark red resin of a bitter taste. The wood is of a 
reddish color, very hardy; will stand exposure to sea-water. 
Fruit solitary. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) Lamberti, Klotzsch. 

Brazil. A stately tree, yielding valuable timber. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) macrophylla, Don. 

The Inou-maki of Japan. A tree attaining 50 feet in height. 
The nut-stalks used for food there. The wood is white and 
compact, employed for carpenters' and joiners' work; the bark 
for thatching (Dupont.) 

Nageia (Podocarpus) nubigena, Lindley. 

Southern Chili, generally a companion of N. Chilina, with 
which it agrees in its dimensions and the utility of its timber. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) Purdieana, Hooker. 

Jamaica, at 2,500 to 3,500 feet. This quick-growing tree 
attains a height of 100 feet. 

Nageia (Podocarpus) spicata, Brown. 

Black Pine or Matai of New Zealand. Fruit spicate. Tree 

sometimes 80 feet high; wood pale or reddish, soft, close and 

durable; used advantageously for piles, machinery, stringers, 

braces, millwrights' work, house blocks, railway sleepers, also 

': weather-boards and flooring boards (Kirk.) 

Nageia (Podocarpus) Thunbergi, Hooker. 

South Africa. Superior to N. pruinosa, E. Meyer, and even 
N. elongata in the quality of its wood; it is bright-yellow, fine- 
grained, and very handsome when polished (Dr. Pappe.) 

Nageia (Podocarpus) Totara, Don.* 

New Zealand. A fine tree, 120 feet high, with a stem of 20 
feet in circumference; it is called Mahogany-pine by the colon- 
ists. The reddish, close-grained and durable wood is valuable 
both for building and for furniture; and is also extensively used 


for telegraph posts; it is considered the most valuable timber of 
New Zealand. Chosen for piles of bridges, wharves and jetties, 
and in other naval architecture; the heart-wood resists decay 
and the attacks of the Teredo for a long time, according to Pro- 
fessor Kirk. It ranks below Kauri in strength, but equals it in 
durability. It is one of the most lasting woods for railway- 
sleepers. When used for piles, the bark should not be removed 
from the timber. Many other tall timber-trees of the genus 
Podocarpus or Nageia occur in various parts of Asia, Africa and 
America, doubtless all desirable; but the quality of their timber 
is not well known, though likely in many cases excellent. 
Nageia is by far the oldest published name of the genus. 

Nardostachys Jatamansi, De Candolle. 

Mountains of Bengal and Nepal. The Spikenard. A per- 
ennial herb, famous in ancient times as a medicinal plant. The 
root contains an ethereal oil and bitter principle. The drug is 
also often obtained from N. grandiflora, DC. 

Nastus Borbonicus, Gmelin. 

Reunion, where it forms a belt all round the mountains of the 
island, in a zone of 3-4,000 feet. This beautiful bamboo grows 
to a height of about 50 feet (General Munro). A second 
species, namely, M. capitatus Kunth occurs in Madagascar. 

Nelumbo lutea, Caspary.* {Nelumbium luteum, Willdenow.) 

The Water Chinquepin. In North America, north to 
44 ; also in Jamaica. This magnificent perennial water- 
plant carries with it the type of Nelumbo nucifera, but 
seems more hardy, and thus better adapted for extra- 
tropical latitudes, the Pythagorean Bean not descending in 
Australia naturally beyond 23 , although this species also 
may perhaps live in the warmer parts of the temperate 
zone. The tuberous roots of both species resemble some- 
what the Sweet Potato and are starchy; the seeds are of par- 
ticularly pleasant taste. The plants would be of great value as 
ornamental aquatics. The leaves of N. lutea are from 1 to 2 
feet in diameter. The flower measures ^ to 1 foot across. 
The capsular fruit contains from twenty to forty nut-like seeds. 
The plant in congenial spots displaces nearly all other water 
vegetation by the vigor of its growth. 

Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertner.* {Nehimbium speciosiim, Willdenow.) 

The Pythagorean Bean and Sacred Lotus of the ancients. 

Egypt; on the Caspian and Aral Seas (46 N.); Persia; 

.. through India, where in Cashmere it occurs at an elevation of 

5,000 feet; China; Japan; Amur (46 N.); tropical Australia as 


far south as 23 . The occurrence of this grand plant at the 
Ima, at Pekin, and at Astrachan proves sufficiently that we can 
naturalize it in moderately cool climes, as has been done already 
by Marquis Ginoi at Doccia, near Florence. The Nelumbo re- 
quires deep water with a muddy bottom. The large white or 
rosy flowers are very fragrant. The seeds retain their vitality 
for several years. According to the ancient Egyptian method, 
they are placed in balls of muddy clay and chaff, and then sunk 
into the water. 

Nepeta Glechoma, Bentham. {Glechoma hederacea, Linne.) 

The ground Ivy. Europe, Western Asia. This herb is still 
held in great estimation as a pectoral medicine in many parts of 

Nephelium lappaceum, Linne. 

India. This tree furnishes the Rambutan or Rampostan 
fruit, similar to the Litchi and Longan fruit. As one species of 
Nephelium is indigenous as far south as Gippsland (Victoria), 
and as all the species seem to require rather a moist, mild forest 
clime than great atmospheric heat, we may hope to bring this 
tree also to perfect bearing in favorable spots of a temperate 

Nephelium Litchi, Cambessedes. 

South China, Cochin China and the Phillipine Islands. An 
evergreen tree, producing the Litchi fruit. The pulpy arillus 
is of extremely pleasant taste, though not large. 

Nephelium Longanum, Cambessedes. 

India and Southern China. The Longan-fruit is obtained 
from this tree; it is smaller than that of the Litchi-tree and less 

Neurachne Mitchelliana, Nees. 

The Mulga-Grass. In the desert interior of Eastern and 
South-Eastern Australia. With its companion, N. Munroi, 
F. v. M., eligible as a perennial fodder-grass for naturalization 
in sandy or dry sterile land. It endures any extent of drought, 
but requires heavy rain to start anew (R. S. Moore.) 

Nicotiana glauca, Graham. 

Argentina and Uruguay. This quickly-growing arborescent 
species can be raised on mere sand on the coast, as one of the 
best of plants to establish shelter and stay the shifting of the 


Nicotiana multivalvis, Lindley. 

The native tobacco of the Columbia River. An annual. This 
can be utilized for some inferior kinds of tobacco. 

Nicotiana Persica, Lindley. 

The Shiraz-Tobacco. Persia. Annual. This can be brought 
to perfection only in cool mountain-regions. The mode of cul- 
ture is somewhat different from that of the ordinary tobacco. 
Moderate irrigation is favorable. The plants, when ripe, are 
cut off and stuck into the ground again until they become yel- 
low. They are then heaped together for a few days in the dry- 
ing-house. They are afterwards packed into thin strata and 
placed into bags for pressure and daily turning. 

Nicotiana quadrivalvis, Pursh. 

The native tobacco of the Missouri. An annual. 

Nicotiana repanda, Willdenow. 

Cuba, Mexico, Texas. Annual. It is utilized for some of the 
Havanna tobaccoes. 

Nicotiana rustica, Linne. 

Tropical America. Annual. Some exceptional sorts of East- 
Indian tobacco, of Manila-tobacco and of Turkey-tobacco are 
derived from this particular species. 

Nicotiana Tabacum, Linne.* 

The ordinary Tobacco-Plant of Central America. Annual. 
The tobacco-plant delights in rich forest soil, particularly where 
lime-stone prevails, on account of the potassium-compounds 
which abound in soils of woodlands, and also because in forest 
clearings the greater atmospheric humidity prevails, need- 
ful for the best development of the finest kinds of tobacco. 
Various districts, with various soils, produce very different sorts 
of tobacco, particularly as far as flavor is concerned; and 
again, various climatic conditions will greatly affect the 
tobacco plant in this respect. We can, therefore, not hope 
to produce, for instance, Manila or Havanna tobacco in 
cooler latitudes; but we may expect to produce good sorts 
of our own in Australia, more or less peculiar; or we 
may aspire to producing in our rich and frostless forest-val- 
leys a tobacco similar, to that of Kentucky, Maryland, Con- 
necticut and Virginia. Frost is detrimental to the tobacco- 
plant; not only, particularly when young, must it be guarded 
against it, but frost will also injure the ripe crop. The scarcity 
of dew in some of the districts of Australia militates against the 


production of the best kinds, otherwise the yield as a rule is 
large, and the soil in many places well adapted for this culture. 
Leaves of large size are frequently obtained, but the final pre- 
paration of the leaf for the manufacturer must be effected by 
experienced skill. The cruder kinds are obtained with ease, 
and so are leaves for covering cigars. Virgin soil, with rich 
loam, is the best for tobacco-culture, and such soil should also 
contain a fair proportion of lime and potash, or should be en- 
riched with a calcareous manure and ashes, or with well decom- 
posed stable-manure. According to Simmonds the average 
yield in Greece is about 800 pounds of tobacco per acre. The 
seedlings, two months or less old, are transplanted. When the 
plants are coming into flower, the leading top-shoots are nipped 
off, and the young shoots must also be broken off. A few 
weeks afterwards the leaves will turn to a greenish yellow, which 
is a sign that the plants are fit to be cut, or that the ripe leaves 
can gradually be pulled. In the former case the stems are split; 
the drying is then effected in barns by suspension from sticks 
across beams. The drying process occupies four or five weeks, 
and may need to be assisted by artificial heat. Stripped of the 
stalks, the leaf-blades are then tied into bundles to undergo 
sweating, or a kind of slight fermentation. It does not answer 
to continue tobacco-culture beyond two years on the same soil 
uninterruptedly. A prominent variety is Nicotiana latissima, 
Miller or N. macrophylla, Lehm., yielding largely the Chinese, 
the Orinoco and the Maryland tobacco. Latakia tobacco, 
according to Dyer, is prepared by submitting the leaves for sev- 
eral months to fumigation from fir-wood. Substances contain- 
ing cumarin, particularly the Tonka Bean (Dipterix odorata), 
are used to flavor tobacco and snuff. The dangerously power- 
ful nicotin, a volatile acrid alkaline oily liquid, and nicotianin, a 
bitter aromatic lamellar substance, are both derived from tobacco 
in all its parts, and are therapeutic agents. The Tobacco-plant 
has been grown as far north as lat. 70 22' in Norway (Schue- 
Niemeyera prunifera, F. von Mueller. [Lucuma prtmifera, Bentham). 

The Australian Cainito. An evergreen tree, sparingly dis- 
persed from the north of New South Wales through the coast 
forests of Queensland. The fruit is of a plum-like appearance 
and edible. Culture is likely to improve its quality. 

Nuphar multisepalum, Engelmann. 

Western North-America. This Water-Lily produces nutri- 
tious seeds, which taste like Broom-Corn and are used locally 
for food, but are more particularly valuable for waterfowl. 
Various species of Nymphaea might be utilized in the same 
manner, irrespective of their value as decorative lake- or pond- 


Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Linne. 

India, up to Assam. This arborescent shrub may be grown 
in any moist regions free from frost, for the exquisite fragrance 
of its flowers, from which essence of jasmin can be obtained. 

Nyssa aquatica, Linne. 

The Tupelo, or Pepperidge. North-America. This large 
deciduous tree can be grown in pools and deep swamps, and is 
thus well adapted for aquatic scenery. The spongy roots 
serve as a substitute for cork and the floats of nets. 

Nyssa multiflora, Wangenheim. 

Eastern States of North-America, where it is called the 
Forest-Tupelo or Black Gum-Tree (Dr. Asa Gray); also called 
Sour Gum-Tree. Attains a height of 50 feet. Suited for forest- 
soil; has horizontal branches and a "light, flat spray, like the 
Beech." Can be propagated from cuttings. The wood is very 
hard, but light and almost unwedgeable; it serves for hubs of 
wheels, pumps, side-boards of carts, trays, bowls, dippers, mor- 
tars, wooden shoes, hatters' blocks and various turners' work. 
The foliage turns bright crimson in autumn. The fruits are 
, pleasantly acidulous, like those of N. capitata, Walter, and of 
some other species, and often used for preserves. 

Nyssa uniflora, Walter. 

Eastern States of North- America. The Swamp-Tupelo. Wood 
soft, that of the roots very light and spongy, hence used for corks 
(Dr. Asa Gray). A shrub or small tree. The mucilaginous 
fruits are. edible. 

Ocimum Basilicum, Linne. 

The Basil. Warmer parts of Asia and Africa. Will grow in . 
Norway to lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler). An annual herb, valuable 
• for condiments and perfumery. Several varieties exist, differ- 
ing considerably in their scent. A crystalline substance is also 
obtained from this and similar species. O. canum, Sims, ; is 
closely allied. Valuable, like many other aromatic Labiatae, for 

Ocimum gratissimum, Linne. 

Recorded from India, the South-Sea Islands and Brazil, as 
indigenous. Somewhat shrubby. This is also a scent plant like 
■ the following, and is one of the best of the genus. O. viride, 
Willd. from tropical Africa seems a variety. 

Ocimum sanctum, Linne. 

Arabia, India, tropical Australia. A perennial herb. The 
odor of the variety occurring in North-Australia reminds one of 


anise; the smell of the variety growing in East-Australia re- 
sembles cloves. O. tenuiflorum, L., seems to be another variety. 
Probably other species, cis- as well as trans-Atlantic, can be 
used like Basil. 

Ocimum suave, Willdenow. 

East-Africa. A scrubby species. 
Oenanthe stolonifera, De Candolle. 

Japan, China, India, where this swamp-herb is used for spinage. 

Olea Europaea, Linne.* 

The Olive-tree. From South-Western Asia; naturalized in 
the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. A tree not of 
great height, but of many centuries' duration and of unabating 
fecundity. In Corfu, however, it grows sometimes to a height 
of 60 feet, and forms beautiful forests. The well-known olive- 
oil is obtained from the fruit. Certain varieties of the fruit, 
preserved in vinegar or salt-liquid before perfectly ripe, are 
also much used for the table. For this purpose the fruit is gen- 
erally macerated previously in water containing potash and 
lime. The gum-resin of the Olive-tree contains the crystalline 
olivil. The oil of the drupaceous fruit is a most important pro- 
duct of countries with a temperate climate. Its chemical con- 
stituents are: 30 per cent, crystalline palmitin; 70 per cent, olein, 
for which reason olive-oil belongs to those kinds which are not 
drying. In pressing, the kernels must not be crushed, as then 
a disagreeable taste will be imparted to the oil. The wild 
variety of the olive tree usually has short blunt leaves and 
thorny branches. Long-continued droughts, so detrimen- 
tal to most plants, will affect the olive but slightly. 
It thrives best on a free, loamy, calcareous soil, even 
should it be strong and sandy, but it dislikes stiff clay. 
Proximity to the sea is favorable to it, and hill-sides are more 
eligible for its culture than plains. The ground must be 
deeply trenched. Manuring with well-decayed substances is 
requisite annually, or every second and third year, according to 
circumstances. Irrigation will add to the productiveness of the 
plant. Captain Ellwood Cooper, of Santa Barbara, Southern 
California, obtained from orchards 10 years old sufficient fruit 
for 700 gallons of olive oil to the acre, one-fourth of the 
produce paying for the expenses of preparing the soil, gathering 
the crop and conveying it to market. Mons. Riordet dis- 
tinguishes three main varieties, of which he recommends two: 
1. The Cayon, a small-sized tree, which comes into bearing 
after three or four years, but bears fully only every second 
year; its oil is fine with some aroma. 2. The Pendulier, a 
larger tree, with long drooping branches, yielding an oil of first- 


rate quality. Mons. Reynaud, " Culture del'Olivier," separates 
twelve varieties, as cultivated in France, and recommends among 
them: i. The Courniau or Courniale, also called Plante de 
Salon, bearing most prolifically a small fruit and producing an 
excellent oil. 2. Picholine, which by pruning its top branches 
is lead to spread over eight yards square or more; it is of weep- 
ing habit, yields a good oil in fair quantity, and resists the at- 
tacks of insects well. 3. The Mouraou or Mourette, a laige tree 
also furnishing oil of a very fine quality. Olive trees require 
judicious pruning immediately after the fruit is gathered, when 
the sap is compar atively at rest. They may be multiplied from 
seeds, cuttings, layers, suckers, truncheons and old stumps, the 
latter to be split. They can also be propagated from protuber- 
ances at the base of the stem, which can be sent long distances 
(Boothby). The germination of the seeds is promoted by soak- 
ing the nutlets in a solution of lime and wood ash. The seed- 
lings can be budded or grafted after a few years. Truncheons 
or estacas may be from one to many feet long and from one to 
many inches thick; they are placed in the ground horizontally. 
Some Olive plantations at Grasse are worth from ^200 to ^250 
per acre. For many details the tract on the " Culture of Olive 
and its Utilization," issued in Melbourne by the Rev. Dr. Bleas- 
dale, should be consulted, as it rests largely on its author's ob- 
servations during a long stay in Portugal; also the essay of Mr. 
S. Davenport in Adelaide, and the treatise issued recently by 
Mr. Ellwood Cooper in San Francisco. 

The following notes are derived from the important "Tratado 
del Cultivo del Olivo en Espana," by the Chev.Capt. Jose de Hid- 
algo-Tablada (second edition, Madrid, 1870). The Olive tree 
will resist considerable frost (5 F.), for a short time, provided 
that the thawing takes place under fogs or mild rain (or perhaps 
under a dense smoke). It requires about one-third more an- 
nual warmth than the vine for ripening its fruit. The Olive-zones 
of South Europe and North Africa are between 18° and 44 
north latitude. An elevation of about 550 feet corresponds in 
Spain, as far as this culture is concerned, to one degree further 
north. Olives do not grow well on granitic soil. The fruit pro- 
duced on limestone formations is of the best quality. Gypsum 
promotes the growth of the tree. An equable temperature 
serves best; hence exposure to prevailing strong winds is to be 
avoided. The winter temperature should not fall below 19° F. 
The quantity of oil in the fruit varies from 10 to 20 per cent. ; 
sometimes it even exceeds the latter proportion. In the 
Provence an average of 24 lbs. of olive-oil are consumed by each 
individual of the population annually; in Andalusia, about 30 
lbs. For obtaining the largest quantity of oil the fruit must be 
completely ripe. Hand-picked olives give the purest oil. 


Knocking the fruit from the branches with sticks injures the 
tree and lessens its productiveness the next year. Spain 
alone produces about 250,000,000 lbs. of olive oil a year. 


A. — Varieties of early maturation, for colder localities : — 

1. Var. Po?>iiformis, Clem. 

Manzanillo. (French: Ampoulleau.) Fruit above an inch 
in diameter, spherical, shining black. Putamen broad and 

2. Var. regalis, Clem. 

Sevillano. (French: Pruneau de Catignac.) Fruit about an 
inch in diameter, ovate-spherical, blunt, bluish black. 

3. Var. Bellotudo or Villotuda. 

Fruit about an inch long, egg-shaped ; pericarp outside dark 
red, inside violet. 

4. Var. Redondillo. 

Fruit ovate-spherical, nearly an inch long. Pericarp outside 
bluish black, inside whitish. A rich yielder. 

5. Var. ova/is, Clem 

Lechin, Picholin, Acquillo. (French: Saurine.) Fruit broad- 
oval, two-thirds of an inch long. A copious yielder. 

6. Var. argentata, Clem. 

Nevadillo bianco; Doncel; Zorzalena; Moradillo; Ojiblanco; 
Olivo luck). Fruit broad-ovate, an inch long, very blunt, not 
oblique. Quality and quantity of oil excellent. 

7. Var. Varal bianco. 

(French : Blanquette.) Fruit, ovate-globular, three-fourths 
of an inch long, neither pointed nor oblique, outside blackish- 

8. Var. Empeltre. 

Fruit ovate, an inch long, equable. Rich in oil of excellent 
quality, also one of the best for pickles. Pericarp outside 
violet, inside whitish. 

9. Var. Racimal. 

(French : Bouteillan, Boutiniene, Ribien, Rapugette.) Fruit 
violet colored, globose-ovate, about an inch long; neither 
pointed nor oblique. Bears regularly also on less fertile soil, 
and is one of the earliest to ripen. 

10. Var. Varal negro. 

Alameno. (French : Cayon, Nasies.) Fruit violet-black, 
spotted, globose-ovate, nearly an inch long, somewhat pointed. 
Bears richly. 

11. Var. Colchonuaa. 

Fruit spherical, outside red, inside whitish, an inch in diame- 
ter, slightly pointed. Produces a large quantity of good oil. 


12. Var. Ojillo de Liebre. 

Ojo de Liebre. Fruit nearly spherical, outside violet-black, 
about one inch long, somewhat oblique. One of the less 
early varieties. 

13. Var. Carrasquena. 

(French; Redouan de Cotignat.) Fruit black-red, almost 
spherical, about an inch long. Valuable both for oil and 
preserves, but liable to be attacked by various insects. 

14. Var. Hispalensis, Clem. . 

Gordal; Ocal; Olivo real. Fruit black-grey, oblique, spheri- 
cal, slightly oblique, measuring about an inch. Rather large 
and quick-growing tree. Fruit used in the green state for 
preserves, not used for table oil. 

15. Var. Verdego. 

Verdial. (French: Verdal, Verdan.) Fruit black-violet, 
oblique, spheric, pointed, about one inch long. Furnishes 
good oil and resists the cold best of all. 

B." — Varieties of late maturition, for warmer localities: — 

16. Var. maxima, Clem. 

Madrileno; Olivo morcal. Fruit over an inch long, cordate- 
globose, strongly pointed. Less valuable for oil than for 

17. Var. ro strata, Clem. 

Cornicabra. (French: Cournaud, Corniaud, Courgnale, PI. 
de Solon, PI. de la Fane; Cayon Rapunier, Grasse.) Strong 
and tall, less tender; Fruit blackish-red, over an inch long, 
oval, much pointed. Good for oil. 

18. Var. ceratocarpa, Clem. 

Cornezuelo. (French: Odorant, Luquoise, Luques.) Fruit 
fully an inch long, oval, pointed. 

19. Var. Javaluno. 

Fruit black-grey, over an inch long, egg-shaped, somewhat 
oblique, gradually pointed. Rich in good oil; can also be 
chosen for preserves; much subject to attacks of insects. 

20. Var. Picudo. 

Fetudilla. Fruit fully an inch long, egg-shaped, blunt at the 
base, pointed at the apex, with black-gray pulp. Pericarp 
easily separable. Employed both for oil and preserves. 

21. Var. Nevadillo negro. 

Fruit egg-shaped,fully an inch long,with turned pointed apex. 
One of the richest of all varieties in yield. Endures con- 
siderable cold and is not late in ripening. 

All these Spanish varieties show rather long, lanceolate leaves, 
of more or less width. 



(Some verging into the Spanish kinds.) 

22. Var. angulosa, Gouan. 
Galliningue, Laurine. For preserves. 

23. Var. Rouget. 
Marvailletta. Produces a fine oil. 

24. Var. atrorubens, Gouan. 

Salierne, Saverne. Fruit dusted white. Furnishes one of 
the best of oils. 

25. Var. variegata, Gouan. 

Marbree, Pigale, Pigau. Purple fruit, with white spots. 

26. ' Var. Le Palma. 

Oil very sweet, but not largely produced. 

27. Var. atrovirens, Ros. 

Pointue, Punchuda. Fruit large, with good oil. 

28. Var. rubicans, Ros. 

Rougette. Putamen small. Yield annual and large. 

29. Var. alba, Ros. 

Olive blanche, Blancane, Vierge. This, with many others 
omitted on this occasion, is an inferior variety. 

30. Var. Caillet rouge. 

Figanier. Small tree. Fruit large, red. Oil good and pro- 
duced in quantity. 

31. Var. Caillet blanc. 

Fruit almost white, produced annually and copiously, yielding 
a rather superior oil. 

32. Var. Ray met. 

Fruit large, reddish. Oil copious and fine. This variety 
prefers flat country. 

$^: Var. Cotignac. 

Pardigniere. Fruit middle-sized, blunt. Oil obtained in 
quantity and of excellent quality. This requires much pruning. 

34. Var. Bermillaon. 

Vermilion. Yields also table-oil and resists cold well. 

Many other apparently desirable varieties occur, among which 
the Italian Oliva d'Ogni Mese may be mentioned, which 
ripens fruit several times in the year, and furnishes a pleas- 
ant oil and also fruit for preserves. 

Oncosperma fasciculatum, Thwaites. 

Ceylon. This palm ascends there to 5,000 The very slender 
but prickly stem attains a height of 50 feet. 

Onobrychis sativa, Lamarck.* 

The Sainfoin, Esparsette or Cock's-head Plant. Southern and 
Middle Europe, Middle Asia. Hardy in Norway to lat. 6$° 26' 


(Schuebeler). A deep rooting perennial fodder herb, fond of 
marly soil, and living in dry localities. It prepares dry calca- 
reous soil for cereal culture. Stagnant underground humidity 
is fatal to this plant. It prospers even where red Clover and 
Lucerne no longer succeed. Sheep cannot be turned out so 
well on young Sainfoin fields as cattle. The hay is superior 
even to that of Lucerne and Clover. The plant will hold out 
from five to seven years (Langethal). It yields much honey 
for bees. 

Onosma Emodi, Bentham. (Maharanga Emodi, A. De Candolle.) 

Nepal. The root, like that of the Canna tinctoria, pro- 
duces a red dye. 

Opuntia coccinellifera, Miller. 

Mexico and West Indies. The Cochineal Cactus. On this 
and O. Tuna, O. Hernandezii, and perhaps a few others, subsists 
the Coccus, which affords the costly cochineal dye. Three 
" gatherings can be effected in the year. About 1,200 tons used 
to be imported annually into Britain alone, and a good deal to 
other countries, valued at about ^400 per ton. The pre- 
cious carmin pigment is prepared from cochineal. Different 
Cochineal Opuntias occur in Argentina also. Some species of 
Opuntia will endure a temperature of 14 F.; one even ad- 
vances to 50 north latitude in Canada. Mr. Dickinson 
observes, that many species are hardy at Port Phillip, growing 
even in sand, overtopping by 10 feet the Leptospermum lseviga- 
tum, and breaking it down by their great weight within a few 
yards of the sea. 

Opuntia Dillenii, De Candolle. 

Central America. A Tuna-like Cactus, serving for unin- 
flammable hedges, and perhaps also for the rearing of the 
Coccus Cacti. It is particularly eligible for barren land. 

Opuntia elatior, Miller. 

Central America. A hedge plant with formidable thorns. 

Opuntia Ficus Indica, Miller. 

Called inaptly, with other congeners, Indian Fig. Central 
America, north as far as Florida. Serves for hedges. Pulp of 
fruit edible. 

Opuntia Hernandezii, De Candolle. 

Mexico. Also affords food for the Coccus Cacti. 


Opuntia Missouriensis, De Candolle. 

From Nebraska to New Mexico. Very hardy. Professor 
Meehan found this Cactus covered with the Cochineal Coccus, 
and points to the fact that this insect will live through the in- 
tense cold which characterizes the rocky mountains of the Col- 
orado regions. 

Opuntia Rafinesquii, Engelmann. 

The Prickly Pear. North America. The most northern of 
all species, extending to Lake Michigan. It resists severe 
frosts, as do also O. brachyantha, O. Comanchica, O. humilis 
(Mayer), O. Whipplei, O. oplocarpa, O. arborescens and Mam- 
millaria Missouriensis (Loder, Meehan). 

Opuntia spinosissima, Miller. 

Mexico and West Indies. Stem columnar, with pendant 
branches. Also a good hedge plant. Harding recommends 
for hedges, besides these species, O. maxima, Miller, as the 
most repellent. 

Opuntia Tuna, Miller. 

West Indies, Ecuador, New Granada, Mexico. Irrespective 
of its value as the principal cochineal plant, this Cactus is also 
of use for hedges. It will attain a height of 20 feet. The 
pulp of the fruit is edible. With many other species hardy 
anywhere on the south coast of Australia. 

Opuntia vulgaris, Miller. 

Central America, northward to Georgia, southward to Peru. 
Very hardy. Adapted for hedges, and, like the rest, not in- 
flammable, hence particularly valuable along railway lines. The 
fruit almost smooth, eatable. A dye can also be prepared from 
its pulp and that of allied species. Numerous other species 
are industrially eligible for hedging purposes. 

Oreodoxa frigida, Humboldt. 

Central America, ascending the Andes to 8,500 feet. This 
dwarf slender Palm may be chosen for domestic decoration. 

Oreodoxa oleracea, Martius. 

West Indies, up to nearly 5,000 feet elevation. One of the 
most rapid growing of the Palms, rising to a height of 120 
feet. In highly manured moist ground the Palm cabbage, 
which in this species is of exquisite nut-flavor, can be obtained 
in two years (Imray, Jenman). 


Oreodoxa regia, Humboldt. 

West Indies. This noble Palm attains a height of 60 feet. 
It has proved hardy in Southern Brazil. The stem is thick- 
ened at the middle, and from it, as from O. oleracea, starch 
can be obtained. 

Origanum Dictamnus, Linne. 

Candia. Like the following, a scent-plant of somewhat 
shrubby growth. 

Origanum Majorana, Linne. 

North- Africa, Middle Asia, Arabia. A perennial herb, used 
for condiments, also for the distillation of its essential oil. In 
Norway it will grow to lat. 70 22' (Schuebeler). 

Origanum Maru, Linne. 

Palestine. Perennial and very odorous. 

Origanum Onites, Linne. 

Countries at and near the Mediterranean Sea. Somewhat 
shrubby and strongly scented. 

Origanum vulgare, Linne. 

The ordinary Marjoram. All Europe, North-Africa, North- 
ern and Middle Asia. In Norway it is indigenous to lat. 66° 
16' (Schuebeler). A scented herb of perennial growth, con- 
taining a pleasant volatile oil. It prefers limestone soil. Of 
importance also as a honey-plant. O. hirtum, Link, O. virens, 
Hoffmannsegg and O. normale, D. Don, are closely allied 
plants of similar use. Several other Marjorams, chiefly Medi- 
terranean, are of value. 

Ornithopus sativus, Brotero. 

South-Europe and North- Africa. The Seratella or Serradella. 
An annual herb, larger than the ordinary Bird's-foot clover. It 
is valuable as a fodder-plant on sterile soil. It requires, like the 
smaller O. perpusillus, no lime, but improves in growth on 
gypsum land. It thrives better on sandy soil than on lime-soil, 
according to Langethal. A good honey-plant. It matures 
seeds near Christiania (Schuebeler). 

Oryza latifolia, Humboldt and Bonpland. 

Central America. This species is said to be perennial and 
to attain a height of 18 feet. It deserves trial culture, and 
may prove a good fodder-grass on wet land in warm localities. 
O. perennis, Moench, seems closely allied. 


Oryza sativa, Linne.* 

The Rice-Plant; South-Asia and North-Australia. Annual 
like most cereals. Many rivulets in ranges afford ample oppor- 
tunities for irrigating rice-fields; but these can be formed with 
full advantage only in the warmer parts of extratropic countries, 
where rice will ripen as well as in Italy, China or the Southern 
States of the American Union. Among the numerous varieties 
of Indian rice may be noted as prominent sorts: The Early 
Rice, which ripens in four months and is not injured by saline 
inundations; the hardier Mountain-Rice, which can be raised on 
comparatively dry ground, and which actually perishes under 
lengthened inundation, but which is less productive; the Glutin- 
ous Rice, which succeeds as well in wet as in almost dry places, 
and produces black or reddish grains. In the rich plains of 
Lombardy, irrigated from the Alps, the average crop is estimated 
at forty-eight bushels for the acre, annually. According 
to General Capron the average yield in Japan is 
fifty bushels per acre. The spirit, distilled from rice 
and molasses, is known as arrack. Rice-beer, known as 
"Sake," is extensively brewed in Japan, and the principal fer- 
mented beverage used by the inhabitants. Rice-starch is now 
consumed in enormous quantities, particularly in Britain. Rice- 
sugar, called "Ame" in Japan, constitutes there a kind of con- 

Osmanthus fragrans, Loureiro. 

China and Japan. The flowers of this bush serve for oil- 
distillation like those of the Jasmine. The scent of one plant 
will perfume a whole conservatory (G. W. Johnson). 

Osmitopsis asteriscoides, Cassini. 

South-Africa. A camphor-scented shrub, much in us"e there 
for medicinal purposes (Dr. Pappe). 

Ostrya carpinifolia, Scopoli. 

The Hop-Hornbeam. South-Europe and Orient. A decidu- 
ous tree, reaching 60 feet in height. Uses much like those of 
the following : 

Ostrya Virginica, Willdenow. 

Lever-wood Tree of North-America, also called Iron-wood; 
40 feet high, in rich woodlands. Wood singularly hard, close- 
grained and heavy, in use for levers, mill-cogs, wheels, mallets, 
wedges and other implements. Cattle browse on the foliage. 
The growth of the tree is very slow. 


Osyris compressa, A. De Candolle. 

South-Africa. One of the most valuable tans for finer leathers 
is provided there by the leaves and young twigs of this shrub 
or small tree. The bloom obtained from this tan is much like 
that imparted by Sumach. 

Owenia venosa, F. v.- Mueller. 

Queensland; called locally Sour-Plum. A tree, approaching 
40 feet in height, furnishing a wood of great strength. O. 
acidula, F. v. M., the Rancouran, is a handsome tree, 50 feet 
high, with close-grained, nicely marked wood. Culture might 
improve the fruits. 

Oxalis crassicaulis, Zuccarini. 

Peru. This seems one of the best of those Wood-Sorrels 

which yield a tuberous edible root. Amongst others, O. tuberosa, 

Mol. and O. succulenta, Barn., from Chili, as well as O. car- 

nosa, Mol. and O. conorrhiza, Jacq., from Paraguay, might be 

. tried for their tubers. 

Oxalis esculenta, Otto and Dietrich. 

Spurious Aracacha. Mexico, there with O. tetraphylla, 
Cavanilles, O. Deppei, Loddiges, O. violacea, Linne and 
several others, producing tuberous, starchy, wholesome roots; 
the first-mentioned gives the largest yield. Propagated by sub- 
division of the root stock. It requires a deep, rich, moist soil. 
In Norway it can be grown to lat. 70 (Schuebeler). As simi- 
larly useful may be mentioned, among many others, O. crenata, 
Jacquin, from Chili and O. enneaphylla, Cavanilles, from the 
Falkland-Islands and Magelhaen's Straits. 

Oxytropis pilosa, Da Candolle. {Astragalus pilosus, Linne.) 

Europe, West-Asia. This perennial plant furnishes fair pas- 
ture herbage; it is deep-rooted, content with almost absolute 
sand; the numerous other species — twenty-four alone enum- 
erated as Oriental by Boissier — should be tested. All these 
plants might be classed as Astragals. They are satisfied with 
poor soil. 

Pachyma Cocos, Fries. 

The Tuckahoe Truffle, or Indian Bread. North-America 
and East- Asia. 

Pachyma Hoelen, Fries. 

China. This large Truffle occurs particularly in the province 
of Souchong. Flavor most agreeable. 



Pachyrrhizus angulatus, Richard. 

From Central America, rendered spontaneous in many tropi- 
cal countries. A climber, the horizontal starchy roots of which 
attain a length of 8 feet and a thickness of many inches. Dr. 
Peckolt records tubers of seventy pounds weight. They keep 
in dry ground, growing for five years, but such are then avail- 
able only for starch, whereas annual tubers are the most palat- 
able and yield 6 to 7 per cent, of starch. The root is edible, 
though inferior to the Yam. From the stems a tough fiber is 
Obtained. The plant proved hardy at Sydney; it requires rich 

Paliurus ramosissimus, Poiret. {P. Aubktia, Schultes.) 

China and Japan. A thorny tree, which could be utilized for 

Paliurus Spina Christi, Miller. {P. actdeatus , Lambert.) 

. The Christ-Thorn. From the Mediterranean Sea to Nepal. 
A deciduous bush or, finally, tree, which can be trimmed into 

Pandanus furcatus, Roxburgh. 

This Screw-Pine occurs in India, up to heights of 4,000 feet, 
according to Dr. S. Kurz; hence it will be likely to bear a 
temperate clime, and give a stately plant for scenic group- 
planting. P. pedunculatus, R. Br. occurs in East Australia 
as far south as 32 , and an allied tall species (P. Forsteri, 
Moore and Mueller) luxuriates in Howe's Island. 

Panicum altissimum, Meyer. {P. elatius, Kunth.) 

From Mexico to Brazil. An almost woody species of arbor- 
escent habit, attaining a height of 30 feet. Panicles sometimes 
a foot and a half long. Evidently desirable for naturalization. 

Panicum amarum, Elliot. 

North-America. A perennial species, fit to be grown on drift- 
ing coast sand. 

Panicum atro-virens, Trinius. (Jsachne Australis, R. Brown.) 

South-Asia, East-Australia and New Zealand. A perennial 
grass, not large, but of tender nutritive blade, particularly fitted 
for moist valleys and woodlands. 

Panicum barbinode, Trinius. 

Brazil. Valuable as a fodder-grass. 

Panicum brizanthum, Hochstetter. 

From Abyssinia to Nepal. A large-grained perennial Millet- 


Panicum coenicolum, F. v. Mueller. 

Extra-tropic Australia. Valuable as an enduring grass for 
moist meadows. 

Panicum compositum, Linne. {Oplismenus compositus, Beauv.) 

South-Asia, East-Australia, Polynesia, New Zealand. The 
growth of this soft-bladed and prolific grass should be encour- 
aged in forest-ground. 

Panicum Crus Galli, Linne. 

The Barnyard or Cockshin-Grass. Occurring now in all 
warm countries, but probably of Oriental origin, as it seems not 
recorded in our ancient classic literature. Apparently spon- 
taneous in North- Western Australia. A rich but annual grass 
of ready spontaneous dispersion, particularly along sandy river 
banks, also around stagnant water. P. colonum, L. and P. Crus 
Corvi, L., are varieties of it. Regarded by R. Brown as indi- 
genous in Eastern and Northern Australia, where many other 
excellent fodder species occur, some perennial. It will succeed 
also on somewhat saline soil, particularly on brackish water- 
courses, likewise on moor-land. 

Panicum decompositum, R. Brown. (P. lavinode, Lindley.) 

The Australian Millet. One of the most spacious of Aus- 
tralian nutritious grasses. The aborigines convert the small 
millet-like grains into cakes. It is the only grain stored by 
the nomads of Central Australia. This grass will thrive on 
poor soil. Hardly different from the North American P. capil- 
lare, L., except in perennial roots. The allied P. trachyrrha- 
chis, Bentham, from North and East Australia also constitutes 
a very good fodder grass. Of similar value the exclusively 
Australian P. effusum, R. Br. and P. melananthum, F. v. M. 

Panicum divaricatissimum, R. Brown. 

Australia, particularly in the warmer island regions. A good 
perennial grass, of easy growth on poor soil. 

Panicum divaricatum, Linne. (P. bambusoides, Hamilton.) 

Central and Southern America. A grass of scandent habits, 
ascending high up in trees; desirable for naturalization in for- 

Panicum flavidum, IJetzius. 

South Asia, tropical and Eastern sub-tropical Australia. 
A prolific seed-bearer, mostly prostrated by the weight of the 


Panicum fluitans, Retzius. 

Tropical Asia and Africa. This perennial grass, like P. 
spinescens R. Brown, of East Australia, ought to be natural- 
ized along lakes, lagoons and rivers, particularly for the ben- 
efit of waterfowl. 

Panicum foliosum, R. Brown. 

India, East Australia. Perennial. Mr. Bailey finds this to 
be one of the best grasses for river banks. 

Panicum frumentaceum, Roxburgh. 

The Shamalo or Deccan grass. Probably introduced from 
tropical Africa into South Asia. A hardy grass having matured 
seeds at Christiania (Schuebeler). It serves as a fodder grass 
and produces also a kind of millet. The grain much recom- 
mended by Mr. C. B. Taylor for culinary purposes. 

Panicum Italicum, Linne.*" 

This grass, notwithstanding its specific name, is of Indian 
origin, ascending the Himalayas to 6,500 feet. It endures a 
cold clime, its seeds coming to perfection as far north as 
Christiania (Schuebeler). Reared in Switzerland since prehis- 
toric ages; one of the five kinds of plants sown ceremoniously 
each year by the Emperor of China, according to an imperial 
custom initiated 2700 years before the Christian era (A. de Can- 
dolle). It is annual, attaining a height of five feet, and par- 
ticularly worthy of cultivation as a tender green fodder. It keeps 
weeds down, and is one of the most valuable of soiling plants; 
withstanding drought well. Yields early in the season a heavy 
crop of excellent hay, which dries easily (C. Mohr). The 
abundantly produced grain is not only one of the best for poul- 
try, but that of some varieties can be utilized as millet. Con- 
sidered by many a delicious grain for cakes and porridge. The 
Brahmins hold it in higher esteem than any other grain (Dr. 
Ainslie). P. Germanicum, Roth, is a form of this species. 
Allied is also the West Indian Setaria magna, Grisebach, 
which attains a height of 10 feet on margins of lagoons, and 
Panicum macrostachyum, Nees, of East Australia, South Asia 
and tropical America. 

Panicum Koenigii, Sprengel. (P. Helopus^ Trin.) 

Tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Australia. A 
good fodder grass. 

Panicum latissimum, Mikan. 

Brazil. A highly ornamental grass. Leaves extremely broad, 
but hard; panicle very rich. 



Panicum maximum, Jacquin.* (PI Jumentorum, Persoon.) 

The Guinea Grass. Tropical Africa; elsewhere not indigen- 
ous. This perennial grass attains a height of 8 feet. It is 
highly nutritious and quite adapted for the warmer temperate 
zone, being hardy as far south as Buenos Ayies. In Jamaica 
it is the principal fodder grass up to elevations of 5,000 feet, 
springing up over wide tracts of country, to the exclusion of 
everything else. It forms large bunches, which when cut 
young supply a particularly sweet and tender hay; throws out 
numerous stolons: can be mown every six weeks; the roots can 
be protected in the ground against light frosts by a thin cover- 
ing with soil. A favorite grass in tropical countries for stall 
fodder. It is necessary to guard against over feeding with this 
grass solely. Succeeds even on poor clay soil and on sea sand. 

Panicum miliaceum, Linne.* (P. Miliare, Lam.). 

The true Millet. South Europe, North Africa, South Asia, 
ascending the Himalayas to 11,000 feet, North Australia. Cul- 
tivated in Southern Europe as early as the times of Hippocrates 
and Theophrastus ; in Egypt prior to historic records; and in 
Switzerland during the stone age. Annual, attaining a 
height of 4 feet. Several varieties occur, one with black 
grains. They all need a rich but friable soil. It is one of the 
best of all grains for poultry, but furnishes also a palatable and 
nutritious table food. It ripens even in Christiania (Schue- 

Panicum molle, Swartz.* (P. Sarmentosiim, Roxburgh.) 

Warmer parts of America, Africa and Asia. The Para 
Grass. A perennial, very fattening pasture grass, of luxuriant 
growth, attaining a height of 6 feet (Grisebach). It is hardy 
at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Panicum Myurus, Lamarck. 

Tropical Asia and America, North Eastern Australia. A per- 
ennial aquatic grass,with broad -bladed foliage, fit for ditches and 
swamps. Regarded by Mr. Bailey as very palatable and nutri- 
tious to stock. 

Panicum obtusum, Humboldt.* 

The Mosquito, or Mezquite Grass of Mexico. Perennial; 

Panicum parviflorum, R. Brown. 

East Australia. On dry hills; a fine pasture grass. P. bicolor 
and P. marginatum R. Br. are likewise enumerated by Mr. 
Bailey among the nutritious grasses of East Australia. 


Panicum pilosum, Swartz. 

Tropical America. A perennial fodder-grass. 

Panicum prolutum, F. V. Mueller. 

South Eastern Australia. Flourishes in the hottest weather ; 
bears a large panicle of seed. 

Panicum prostratum, Lamarck. (P. setigerum, Retz.) 

Egypt, South Asia, North Australia, perhaps also indigenous 
to tropical America. Perennial. Recommendable for pastures. 

Panicum pygmsum, R. Brown. 

East Australia. Forms a soft, thick, carpet-like verdure in 
forest shade (Bailey). 

Panicum repens, Linne. 

Near the Mediterranean Sea, also in South Asia and North 
Australia. Regarded by the Cingalese as a good fodder-grass. 
It is perennial and well suited for naturalization on moist soil, 
river banks or swamps. 

Panicum sanguinale, Linne. 

From South Europe and Southern Asia, spread through all 
countries with a warm climate, but apparently also indigenous in 
East Australia. This is the Crab-grass of the Southern United 
States, where, according to Mr. Hagenaur, it is recognized as 
the most useful of all pasture grasses; in Fiji it is also considered 
the best grass for pastures according to Mr. Holmes. It 
accommodates itself to swampy and shady places and readily 
disseminates itself on barren ground, and is likely to add to the 
value of desert pastures, although it is annual. Stock relish this 
grass. P. ciliare, L. and P. glabrum, Gaudin are allied 

Panicum semialatum, R. Brown. 

Warmer regions of Asia, Africa and Australia. A superior tall 
pasture grass, of easy dispersion in warm humid localities. 

Panicum spectabile, Nees.* 

The Coapim of Angola. From West Africa, transferred to 
many other tropical countries. A rather succulent, very fattening 
grass, attaining a height of about four feet. It may be assumed 
that at present about 300 well-defined species of Panicum are 
known, chiefly tropical and sub-tropical; very few extending 
naturally to Europe or the United States of North America, 
Japan, or the southern part of Australia. Though mostly from 
the hot zones, these grasses endure a cooler clime in many in- 
stances, and some of them would prove great acquisitions, par- 
ticularly the perennial species. Numerous good kinds occur 
spontaneously in Queensland and North Australia. Panicum is 
the genus richest in species among grasses. 



Panicura striatum, Lamarck. (/>. gibbum, Elliot). 

Southern States of North America, West Indies and Guiana. 
A perennial grass for swampy localities, valuable for pastoral 
purposes, according to C. Mohr, who mentions also P. anceps, 
L. and P. hians, Elliot, as good fodder grasses. 

Panicum tenuiflorum, R. Brown. (Paspahtm brevifolium, Fluegge). 

South Asia and East Australia. It has a running stem and 
forms a good bottom as a pasture grass (Bailey). 

Panicum turgidum, Forskael. 

Egypt, where this millet yields a bread grain. 

Panicum virgatum, Linne. 

North America, South Asia, and North Australia. A tatt 
perennial species, with a wide, nutricious panicle. Easily dis- 
seminated. Content with sandy soil, but likes some humidity. 
The foliage good for fodder when young. 

Panicum viride, Linne. ' {Setaria viridis, Beauvois). 

Widely spread over many parts of the old world. Though 
annual, this grass is of value for the first vegetation on bare 
sand land, over which, as well as over calcareous soil, it spreads 
with remarkable facility. The same may be said of Setaria 
glauca and a few other related species. 

Papaver somniferum, Linne. 

The Opium Poppy. Orient. The capsules of this tal! 
annual, so showy for its flowers, are used for medicinal purposes. 
From the minute but exceedingly numerous seeds, oil of a harm- 
less and most palatable kind can be pressed remuneratively; 
but a still more important use of the plant is for the 
preparation of opium. Both the black and pale seeded 
varieties can be used for the production of opium. The 
return of poppy culture, whether for opium or for oil, is ob- 
tained within a few months. Mild and somewhat humid open 
forest-tracts proved most productive for obtaining opium from 
this plant; but it can also be reared in colder localities, good 
opium rich in morphia having even been obtained in Middle 
Europe and the Northern United States, the summers there 
being sufficiently long to ripen the poppy with a well elaborated 
sap. Indeed the plant matured its seeds as far north as lat. 6g° 
18' in Norway (Schuebeler). The morphia contents in opium 
from Gippsland were on an average somewhat over 10 per cent. 
Opium was prepared in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens for the 
Exhibition of 1866; but Mr. J. Bosisto and Mr. J. Hood par- 
ticularly have given commercial dimensions to this branch of. 


rural industry in Australia. The Smyrna variety is particularly 
desirable for opium; it enables the cultivator to get from 40 lbs. 
to 75 lbs. of opium from an acre, generally worth 30s. to 35s. 
per pound. The ground for poppy-culture must be naturally 
rich or otherwise be well manured; dressing with ashes increases 
the fecundity of the plant. The seeds, about 9 lbs to the acre, 
are generally sown broadcast mixed with sand. In the most 
favorable places as many as three crops are obtained during a 
season. The collecting of the opium, which consists merely of 
the indurating sap of the seed-vessels, is commenced a few 
days after the lapse of the petals. Superficial horizontal or 
diagonal incisions are made into the capsules as they successively 
advance to maturity. This operation is best performed in the 
afternoons and evenings, and requires no laborious toil. The 
milky opium sap thus directed outwards is scraped off next 
morning into a shallow cup and allowed to dry in a place away 
from sunlight; it may also be placed on poppy leaves. From 
one to six successive incisions are made to exhaust the sap, 
according to season, particular locality or the knife-like instru- 
ment employed. In the Department of Somme (France) alone 
opium to the value of ^70,000 annually is produced and poppy 
seed to the value of ^170,000. Australian seasons as a rule are 
favorable for collecting opium, and therefore this culture is ren- 
dered less precarious here than in many other countries. Our 
opium has proved as good as the best Smyrna kind. The petals 
are dried for packing the opium. The main value of opium 
depends on its contents of morphia, for which the genus Papaver 
as far as heretofore known, remains the sole source; but not 
less than fourteen alkaloids have been detected in opium by the 
progressive strides of organic chemistry: codein, metamorphin, 
morphia or morphin, narcein, narcotin, opianin, papaverin, 
porphyroxin, xanthopin, meconidin, codamin, laudanin, pseudo- 
morphin and thebain. It contains, besides an indifferent bitter 
principle, meconinand meconicacid(e'/^ "VVittstein'sChemische 
Analyse von Pflanzentheilen,"or my English edit., p. 163). Vari- 
ous species of Papaver produce more or less opium and morphia. 
P. setigerum, De Candolle, supposed to be the wild state of P. 
somniferum, was cultivated, evidently for the sake of the seeds, 
by the lacustrine people of Switzerland prior to historic ages 

Pappea Capensis, Ecklon and Zeyher. 

South-Africa. The fruit of this tree is of the size of a cherry, 
savory and edible. The seeds furnish an oil similar to castor- 
oil in its effect (Prof. McOwan). 

Pappophorum commune, F. v. Mueller. 

Widely dispersed over the continent of Australia, occurring 


also in some parts of Asia and Africa. Perennial; regarded as 
a very fattening pasture-grass, and available for arid localities 
and almost rainless zones. 

Parinarium Nonda, F. v. Mueller. 

The Nonda-Tree of North-Eastern Australia. Attaining a 
height of 60 ft.; wood soft, close-grained, easily worked (W. Hill). 
It may prove hardy in mild temperate climes, and may perhaps 
live in the dry and hot air of deserts, where it deserves trial 
culture for the sake of its edible, mealy, plum-like fruit. A 
few other species with esculent drupes occur in different tropical 

Parkinsonia aculeata, Linne. 

From California to Monte Video. A thorny shrub, clearly 
adapted for the warmer temperate zone, where it might be 
utilized with the following plant for evergreen hedges. The 
flowers are handsome. 

Parkinsonia Africana, Sonder. 

South- Africa. A tall bush. A third species, P. microphylla, 
Torr., occurs on the Colorado. 

Parrotia Jacquemontiana, Decaisne. 

North- Western Himalayas, from about 3,000 to 8,500 feet 
elevation. This deciduous-leaved small tree merits attention. 
Its tough and pliable twigs are used for basket-work and pre- 
ferably for the twig bridges, the latter sometimes 300 feet long; 
hence this tree could be used for a variety of economic purposes 
(Stewart and Brandis). P. persica, C. A. Meyer, occurs on the 
Caspian Sea. 

Parthenium integrifolium, Linne 

North-America. The flowering tops of this perennial bitter 
herb have come into use as a febrifuge (Houlton). 

Paspalum ciliatum, Humboldt. 

Tropical South-America. A perennial and lauded cereal 

Paspalum dilatatum, Poiret. 

Extra-tropical South- America. Perennial; of excellent quality 
for fodder; keeps green during the hottest summer-time. Mr. 
Bacchus found it hardy up to a height of 2,000 feet. It grew 
4^- feet in little more than two months in New South Wales, 
after drought was followed by heavy rains. It is closely allied 
to the Mexican P. virgatum, L. Introduced into Australia by 
the writer with many other fodder-grasses. 


Paspalum distichum, Linne.* 

The Silt-Grass. From India to South-Eastern Australia. A 
creeping swamp-grass, forming extensive cushions. It keeps 
beautifully green throughout the year, affords a sufficiently ten- 
der blade for feed, and is exquisitely adapted to cover silt or 
bare slopes on banks of ponds or rivers, where it grows grandly; 
moderate submersion does not destroy it, but frost injures it; it 
thrives well also on salt marshes. The chemical analysis made 
in spring gave the following results: Albumen 2.20, Gluten 7.71, 
Starch 1.56, Gum 1.64, Sugar 5.00 (F. v. Mueller and L. 

Paspalum notatum, Fluegge.* 

Brazil and Argentina. This is one of the best of fodder- 
grasses there, forming a dense, soft, carpet-like sward on 
meadows, and becoming particularly luxuriant and nutritious 
on somewhat saline soil (Lorentz). 

Paspalum scrobiculatum, Linn6. 

Through the tropics of the eastern hemisphere, widely dis- 
persed, extending to South-East Australia. A valuable pasture- 
grass. A superior variety is cultivated in India for a grain- 
crop. This grass furnishes a good ingredient to hay. The 
stem sometimes attains a height of 8 feet. Will grow in swamps. 
Rosenthal pronounces it pernicious, perhaps when long and ex- 
clusive use is made of this grass, or possibly when diseased 
through Fungi. 

Paspalum stoloniferum, Bosc. 

Central America. A fodder-grass of considerable value. 

Paspalum undulatum, Poiret. 

North- and South-America. Noticed by C. Mohr as valuable 
for fodder. A. Gray records it as annual. 

Passiflora alata, Aiton. 

Peru and Brazil. This Passion-Flower and all the following 
(probably with other species) furnish Granadilla-fruits. 

Passiflora coccinea, Aublet. 

From Guiana to Brazil. 

Passiflora ccerulea, Linn6. 

South-Brazil and Uruguay. One of the hardiest of all Pas- 
sion Flowers and with many others well adapted for covering 
bowers, rockeries and similar structures. Many of the equa- 
torial species come from mountainous regions and may thus 
endure mild temperate climates. 


Passiflora edulis, Sims. 

Southern Brazil. 
Passiflora filamentosa, Willdenow. 

Southern Brazil. 
Passiflora incarnata, Linne. 

North America from Virginia and Kentucky southward. The 
fruits are called May-Pops. 

Passiflora laurifolia, Linne. (P. tinifolia, Jussieu.) 

The Water-Lemon. From the West-Indies to Brazil. 

Passiflora ligularis, Jussieu. 

From Mexico to Bolivia. Professor Ernst of Caracas says 
that its fruit is one of the finest anywhere in existence. 

Passiflora lutea, Linne. 

North-America, from Pennsylvania and Illinois southward. 
Berries small. 

Passiflora macrocarpa, Masters. 

Brazil and Peru. Mr. Walter Hill reports having obtained 
fruits of 8 lbs. weight at the Brisbane Botanic Garden. 

Passiflora maliformis, Linne. 

From the West-Indies to Brazil. 

Passiflora quadrangularis, Linne. 

Brazil. One of the most commonly cultivated Granadillas. 

Passiflora serrata, Linne. 

From the West-Indies to Brazil. 

Passiflora suberosa, Linne. {P. pallida, Linne.) 

From Florida to Brazil. A careful investigator, Dr. Maxw. 
Masters, has recently defined about 200 species of Passion- 

Paullinia sorbilis, Martius. 

Brazil. A climbing shrub, possibly hardy in the warm tem- 
perate zones, where many tropical Cupaniae and other sapin- 
daceous trees endure the clime. The hard Guarana-paste of 
chocolate color is prepared from the seeds by trituration in a 
heated mortar with admixture of a little water, kneading into a 
dough and then drying. This paste, very rich in coffein, serves 
for a pleasant beverage and is also used medicinally. 


Paulownia imperialis, Siebold. 

Japan. A tree, hardier than Cercis Siliquastrum, of value for 
scenic effects. It will endure the climate of Norway to lat. 58 
58' (Professor Schuebeler). 

Peireskia aculeata, Miller. 

The Barbadoes Gooseberry. West Indies. A tall shrub, 
adapted for hedges in localities free of frost. The cochineal- 
insect can be reared on this plant also. The berries are edible, 
the Bleo is also available for salad. Several other species exist 
in tropical America, among which P. Bleo, Humb. is particularly 
handsome ; but they may not all be sufficiently hardy for 
utilitarian purposes in an extra-tropical clime. 

Peireskia portulacifolia, Haworth. 

West Indies. This attains the size of a fair tree. 

Pelargonium odoratissimum, Aiton. 

South Africa. A perennial trailing herb, from the leaves of 
which a fragrant oil can be distilled. Pelargonium oil is exten- 
sively produced in Algeria as a cheap substitute for attar of 
roses. The same remark applies to the shrubby P. radula and 
P. capitatum. The Kaffirs assert that these plants keep off 

Peltophorum Linnaei, Bentham. {Ccesa 1 pinia Brasiliensis, Linne ) 

A small tree, which provides the orange-colored Brasiletto 
wood. This species likes dry calcareous soil (Grisebach). 
Endures the climate of Carolina. 

Pennisetum latifolium, Sprengel. 

Extra-tropical South America. A tall perennial nutritious 
grass, forming large tufts, easily spreading from the roots or 
seeds. It is of quick growth. 

Pennisetum longistylum, Hochstetter. 

Abyssinia. A grass of decorative beauty, forming ample 
tufts; it is much recommended by Dr. Curl for permanent pas- 
ture. With numerous other grasses it was introduced into 
Australia by the writer of this work. Proves hardy in Nor- 
way to lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler). 

Pennisetum thyphoideum Richard.* {JPenicillaria spicata, Willdenow ; Pani- 
cum rceru^eum, Miller.) 

The Bajree. Tropical Asia, Nubia and Egypt. An annual, 
requiring about three months to ripen its millet-crop in warm 
countries. The stems are thick and reach a height of six feet ; 


the maximum length of a spike is about a foot and a half ; 
Colonel Sykes saw exceptionally 15 spikes on one plant and 
occasionally 2,000 seeds in one spike. Together with Sorghum 
this is the principal cereal, except rice, grown in India by the 
native races. This grass requires a rich and loose soil, and on 
such it will yield upwards of a hundred-fold. It furnishes a 
good hav, though not very easily dried, and is also valuable as 
green fodder. In the United States cultivated as far north as 
Pennsylvania, and it matures seeds even as far north as Chris- 
tiania in Norway (Schuebeler). Its fast growth prevents weeds 
from obtaining a footing. In very exceptional cases and under 
most favorable circumstances as regards soil and manure, the 
first cutting is there in six or seven weeks, then up to seven feet 
1 high, giving at the rate of 30 tons green feed or 6^ tons of hay 
per acre on weil-manured soil ; in six or seven weeks more a 
second cutting is obtained, reaching 55 tons per acre of green 
feed, the grass being nine feet high ; a third cut is got in the 
same season. Farm stock eat it greedily. Some of the many 
other species of Pennisetum are doubtless of value on pasture. 
A plant allied to P. thyphoideum occurs in China, namely, P. 
- cereale, Trin. This also affords millet or corn for cakes. 

Pentzia virgata, Lessing. 

South Africa. A small cushion-like bush, recommended for 
establishment in deserts for sheep fodder. It has the peculiar- 
ity that whenever a branch touches the ground it strikes roots 
and forms a new plant; this enables the species to cover ground 
rapidly (Sir Samuel Wilson). Valuable also for fixing drift- 
sand in water-rills, by readily bending over and rooting, thus 
forming natural little catch-dams to retain water (McOwan). 
Several other species occur in South Africa. 

Periandra dulcis, Martius. 

Sub-tropical Brazil. The sweet root of this shrub yields 
"' licorice. 

Perilla arguta, Betham. 

Japan. An annual herb. An infusion of this plant is used 
for imparting a deep-red color to table vegetables and other 
substances. In Japan the seeds are pressed for oil. P. oci- 
moides, L., of Upper India probably serves similar purposes. 
Some species of Perilla are suitable for ribbon-culture. 

Persea gratissima, Gaertner. 

The Avocado Pear. From Mexico to Peru and Brazil in 
forest tracts near the coast. Suggestively mentioned here as 
probably available for mild localities, inasmuch as it has become 


naturalized in Maderia, the Azores and Canary Islands. A 
noble evergreen spreading tree. The pulp of the large pear- 
shaped fruit is of delicious taste and flavor. The fruit is sliced 
for salad. Its pulp contains about eight per cent, of green- 
• ish oil. 

Persea Teneriffae, F. v. Mueller. {P. Indica, Sprengel.) 

Madeira, Azores and Canary Islands. This magnificent tree 
produces a beautiful, hard, mahogany-like wood, especially 
sought for superior furniture and turners' work. One of the 
most hardy trees of the large order of Laurinse. 

Peucedanum graveolens, Bentham. {Anethum graveolens, Linne.) 

The Dill. South Europe, North Africa, Orient. Annual. 
The well-known aromatic fruitlets used as a condiment. In 
India known as Sowa. 

Peucedanum officinale, Linne. 

The Sulphur-Root. Middle and Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, Middle Asia. Perennial. The root is used in veteri- 
nary medicine. It contains, like that of the following species, 
the crystalline Peucedanin. 

Peucedanum Ostruthium, Koch. {Imperatoria Ostruthium, Linne.) 

Mountains of Middle Europe. A perennial herb, which 
could be grown in alpine regions. The acid aromatic root is 
used in medicine, particularly in veterinary practice. It is 
required for the preparation of some kinds of Swiss cheese. 
P. Cervaria, Cuss., and P. Oreoselinum, Moench, are also occa- 
sionally drawn into medicinal use. 

Peucedanum sativum, Bentham. {Pastinaca sativa, Linne.) 

The Parsnep. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. Biennial- 
The root palatable and nutritious. A somewhat calcareous soil 
is favorale to the best development of this plant. It is very hardy, 
having been grown in Norway to lat. 70 22'; it matured seeds 
as far north as lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler). The culture is that of 
' the carrot; for fodder the root surpasses that of the latter in 
augmenting milk (Langethal). A decoction of Parsnep-roots 
ferments with sugar and yeast into a sparkling beverage, but 
requires casking for about a year (Bandinet). 

Peucedanum Sekakul, Bentham. 

Egypt and Syria. Biennial. The root is edible. 
Peumus Boldus, Molina. 

The Boldo of Chili. A small ornamental evergreen tree, 
with exceedingly hard wood, which is utilized for many kinds 
of implements. The bark furnishes dye material. The fruits 
are of aromatic and sweet taste (Dr. Philippi). 


Peziza macropus, Persoon. 

Europe. Mentioned by Goeppert among the edible mush- 
rooms sold in Silesia, along with P. repanda, Wahlenberg. 

Phalaris aquatica, Linne. 

South Europe and North Africa. Important as a perennial 
fodder grass, fit for wet ground. 

Phalaris arundinacea, Linne. 

Temperate and colder regions of Europe, Asia and America; 
indigenous in Norway to lat. 70 30'. Not without some im- 
portance as a reedy grass of bulky yield on wet meadows or in 
swampy places. A variety with white-striped leaves is a favorite 
as a ribbon-plant for borders. 

Phalaris Canariensis, Linne. 

The Canary-Grass. An annual grass from the Canary-Islands, 
now widely dispersed as a spontaneous plant over the warmer 
zones of the globe. Thus it has also become naturalized in 
Australia. It will endure the climate of Norway to lat. 70 22', 
bearing seed to lat. 63° 26' (Prof. Schuebeler). It is grown for 
its seeds, which form one of the best kinds of food for many sorts 
of small cage-birds. The flour is utilized in certain processes 
of cotton manufacture, and liked for some kinds of 
cakes. The soil for culture of the Canary-Grass must 
be friable and not too poor. It is an exhaustive 
crop. As allied annual species of similar use, but mostly 
of less yield, may be enumerated : P. brachystachys, 
Link, from Italy, P. minor, Retz. and P. trunctata, Guss. 
from various countries on the Mediterranean Sea. Other 
species, including some from Asia, are deserving of trial. P. 
minor is recommended by Dr. Curl for permanent pastures, as it 
supplies a large quantity of fine, sweet, fattening foliage, 
relished by stock. It keeps green far into the winter in the 
climate of New Zealand. Chemical constituents here (in Novem- 
ber): Albumen 1-59, Gluten 6-14, Starch 1-03, Gum 6-64, Sugar 
2-86 per cent. (F. v. Mueller, and L. Rummel); another analysis 
in the same month gave: Albumen i - o6, Gluten 5-64, Starch 0-98, 
Gum 3.22, Sugar 4-20 per cent. 

Pharnaceum acidum, J. Hooker. 

St. Helena. A dwarf perennial succulent plant, which might 
advantageously be naturalized on sea-shores, to yield an acid 
salad, perhaps superior to that of Portulaca oleracea. 

Phaseolus aconitifolius, Jacquin. 

India, up to 4,000 feet. A dwarf species. Dr. Forbes Watson 
admits it among the culinary beans of India. It will bear arid 
soil. P. trilobus, Aiton is a still hardier variety. 


Phaseolus adenanthus, G. Meyer. {P. Truxi/lensis, Humboldt; P. rostratus, 

Almost cosmopolitan within the tropics, where, irrespective of 
navigation and other traffic, it becomes dispersed by migrating 
birds; truly spontaneous also in tropical Australia. A perennial 
herb with large flowers, resembling those of Vigna vexillata, 
Benth. Cultivated for its seeds, which are rather small, but 
copiously produced. A variety with edible roots occurs. 

Phaseolus coccineus, Kniphof.* (P. muttijlorus, Willenow.) 

The Turkish Bean or Scarlet Runner. A native of the Orient, 
if SprengeJ's identification is correct, according to which this 
plant was known in Arabia and Persia in Avicenna's time; but 
according to other opinions it is a native of Mexico. A twining 
showy perennial, as useful as the ordinary French bean. Its 
seeds usually larger than those of the latter plant, purple with 
black dots, but sometimes also pure blue and again quite white. 
The flowers occur sometimes white. The root contains a nar- 
cotic poison. 

Phaseolus derasus, Schranck. 

Brazil. There, next to Maize, the most important and exten- 
sively used plant for human food (Dr. Peckolt). 

Phaseolus lunatus, Linne. 

Considered as a native of tropical America, but also recorded 
as wild from many parts of tropical Africa and Asia. Biennial 
according to Roxburg. Much cultivated in the warm zone for 
its edible beans, which are purple or white. A yellow-flowered 
variety or closely-allied species is known as the Madagascar Bean 
and has proved hardy and productive in Victoria. P. perennis, 
Walt., from the United States of North America, is another 
allied plant. 

Phaseolus Max, Linne. (P. Mungo, Linne ; P. radicatus, Linne.) 

The Green Gram. South-Asia and tropical Australia. An 
annual, very hairy plant, not much climbing. Frequently reared 
in India, when rice fails or where that crop cannot be produced. 
According to Sir Walter Elliot one of the most esteemed of 
Indian pulses. "It fetches the highest price and is more than 
any other in request among the richer classes, entering largely 
into delicate dishes and cake." Cultivated up to 6,000 feet 
(Forbes Watson). Col. Sykes counted sixty-two pods on one 
plant with from seven to fourteen seeds in each. The seeds 
are but small, and the herb is not available for fodder. This 
plant requires no irrigation, and ripens in two and a-half to 
three months. The grain tastes well and is esteemed whole- 
some. The harvest is about thirty-fold. 


Phaseolus vulgaris, Linne.* 

The ordinary Kidney-Bean, or French Bean, or Haricot. 
India, whence it came to Europe through the conquests of 
Alexander the Great ; but apparently also wild in North- 
western Australia. Though this common and important culinary 
annual is so well known, it has been deemed desirable to refer 
to it here, with a view of reminding our readers that the Kidney 
Bean is nearly twice as nutritious as wheat. The meal from 
beans might also find far-augmented use. As constituents of 
the beans should be mentioned a large proportion of starch 
(nearly half), then much legumin, also some phaseolin (which, 
like amygdalin, can be converted into an essential oil) and inosit- 
sugar. Lentils contain more legumin but less starch, while Peas 
and Beans are almost alike in respect to the proportion of these 
two nourishing substances. The Kidney-Bean can still be 
cultivated in cold latitudes and at sub-alpine elevations, if the 
uninterrupted summer warmth lasts for four months ; otherwise 
it is more tender than the Pea. The soil should be friable, 
somewhat limey and not sandy for field-culture. Phaseolus 
nanus, L. (the Dwarf Bean) and P. tumidis, Savi, (the Sugar-Bean, 
Sword Bean, or Egg Bean,) are varieties of P. vulgaris. Several 
other species of Phaseolus seem worthy of culinary culture. Hari- 
cot Beans contain very decided deobstruent properties, which 
however are generally destroyed by too much boiling. To obvi- 
ate this they should be soaked for 24 hours in cold water to 
which salt has been added, and then gently boiled for not 
more than 30 or 40 minutes in very little water (W. B. Booth). 

Phleum pratense, Linn&.* 

The Timothy- or Catstail-Grass. Europe, North-Africa, 
Northern or Middle Asia. One of the most valuable of all 
perennial fodder grasses. Its production of early spring foliage 
is superior to that of the Cock's-Foot Grass. It should enter 
largely into any mixture of grasses for permanent pasturage. 
It will live also on moist and cold clay-ground. This grass, 
and perhaps yet more the allied Phleum alpinum, L., are 
deserving of an extensive transfer to moory mountain-regions. 
It is very hardy, having been found indigenous in Norway to 
lat. 70 (Professor Schuebeler). For hay it requires mowing in 
a young stage. The seed is copiously yielded and well retained. 
The greatest advantage from this grass arises, according to 
Langethal, when it is grown along with clovers. It thrives even 
better on sandy meadows than on calcareous soil; it will pros- 
per on poorer ground than Alopecurus pratensis; the latter 
furnishes its full yield only in the fourth year, whereas the 
Phleum does so in the second. The Timothy-grass dries more 


quickly for hay and the seeds are gathered more easily, but it 
vegetates later, is of harder consistence, and yields less in the 
season after the first cut. Dr. Curl, of New Zealand, observes 
that, while many grasses and clovers, if eaten in their spring 
growth, may cause diarrhoea in sheep. Timothy-grass when 
young, does not affect them injuriously. 

Phoenix dactylifera, LinnS* 

The Date-Palm. North Africa, also inland; Arabia, Persia. 
This noble Palm attains finally a height of 80, exceptionally 120 
feet. It is unisexual and of longevity. "Trees of from 100 to 
200 years old continue to produce their annual crop of dates," 
though gradually at very advancing age at diminished rates. 
Though sugar or palm-wine can be obtained from the sap, and 
hats, mats and similar articles can be manufactured from the 
leaves; we would utilize this palm beyond scenic garden-orna- 
mentation only for its fruits. The date palm would afford in 
time to come a real boon in the oases of desert-tracts, swept by 
burning winds, where although it might be grown also in 
the valleys of mountains and in any part of lowlands free of 
severe frost. Several bunches of flowers are formed in a sea- 
son, each producing often as many as 200 dates. In Egypt as 
many as 4 cwt. of dates have been harvested in one season from 
a single date-palm. Many varieties of dates exist, differing in 
shape, size and color of the fruit; those of Gomera are large 
and contain no seed. The unexpanded flower bunches can be 
used for palm-cabbage and the fiber of the leaf-stalks for cordage. 
The town Elche, in Spain, is surrounded by a planted forest of 
about 80,000 date palms, and the sale of leaves for decorative 
purposes produces a considerable income to the town, irre- 
spective of the value of the date fruits; and so it is at Ali- 
cante. As far north as the Gulf of Genoa also a date-forest 
exists. The ease with which this palm grows from seeds 
affords facility in adapted climes to imitate these examples, 
and we certainly ought to follow them in all parts of Australia 
and in similar climes. The best dates are grown in oases, 
where fresh water gushes from the ground in abundance and 
spreads over light soil of the desert subject to burning winds. 
The Zadie variety produces the heaviest crop, averaging 300 
lbs. to the tree; superior varieties can only be continued from 
offshoots of the root; these will commence to bear in five years 
and be in full bearing in ten years; one male tree is considered 
sufficient for half a hundred females. The pollen-dust is 
sparingly applied by artificial means. The date-palm will live in 
saltish soil, and the water for its irrigation may be slightly 
brackish (Surgeon-Major Colvill). Northern limit of date 
about 35 north latitude. 


Phcenix Hanceana, Drude. 

South-China. This palm was buried for ten days under 
three feet of snow in the south of France without injury 

Phcenix paludosa, Roxburgh. 

India. A stout species, not very tall. Of value at least for 
decorative culture. 

Phoenix pusilla, Gaertner. 

India and South-China. A dwarf species, which bears the 
clime of the South of France without protection (Kerchove de 
Denterghem). P. farinifera, Roxb. appears to be identical. 
It is adapted for sandy and otherwise dry and barren land, but 
prefers the vicinity of the sea. Berry shining black, with a 
sweet mealy pulp. 

Phcenix reclinata, Jacquin. 

South-Africa, in the eastern districts. A hardy species, but 
not tall, often reclining. It is adapted for ornamentation. The 
sweet coating of the fruit is edible (Backhouse). 

Phcenix silvestris, Roxburgh. 

India, almost on any soil or in any situation. It has proved 
a very hardy species at Melbourne. Its greatest height is 40 
feet. Berries yellowish or reddish, larger than in P. pusilla. 
Where this Palm abounds, much sugar is obtained from it by 
evaporation of the sap, which flows from incisions into the 
upper part of the trunk — a process not sacrificing the plant, as 
for 50 years the sap can thus be withdrawn. This Palm-sugar 
consists almost entirely of Cane-sugar. A kind of arrack is 
obtained by fermentation and distillation of this sap, and also 
from the young spikes. Each plant furnishes the juice for 
about 8 lbs. of date-sugar annually, but in some instances much 
more. About 50,000 tons of sugar a year are produced in 
Bengal alone from this and some other palms. The leaves are 
used for mats. It lives in dryer regions than other Indian 

Phcenix Spinosa, Thonning. 

Tropical Africa, ascending mountain-regions, thus perhaps 
hardy in milder extra tropic regions. Sir John Kirk found 
that the green bunches, if immersed in water for half a day, 
suddenly assume a scarlet hue, when the astringent pulp 
becomes edible and sweet. 


Phormium tenax, J. R. and G. Forster.* 

The Flax-Lily of New Zealand, where it grows as far south 
as 46 30', occurring also in the Chatham-Islands and Norfolk- 
Island, though not on Lord Howe's Island. It is also found in 
the Auckland islands, nearly 51 south (Schur). It flowered in 
several places of England in exposed positions, and was not 
affected by severe frost (Masters). It perfected seeds in the 
Orkney-Islands and will bear unhurt a temperature of 15 F.; 
the tops of the leaves become injured at 9 F. (Gorlie). It is 
desirable that this valuable plant should be brought universally 
under culture, particularly on any inferior spare ground or on 
the sea-beaches or any rocky declivities, where it may be left 
to itself unprotected, as no grazing animal will touch it. It is 
evident that the natural growth will soon be inadequate to 
the demand for the plant. It is adapted for staying bush-fires 
when planted in hedgerows. Merely torn into shreds, the leaves 
serve at once in gardens and vineyards as cordage, and for this 
purpose, irrespective of its showy aspect, the Phormium has 
been distributed from the Botanic Garden of Melbourne during 
the last twenty years. From the divided roots any plantation 
can gradually be increased, or this can be done more extensively 
still by sowing the seeds. In all likelihood the plant would 
thrive and become naturalized in the Auckland and Campbell's 
Group, in Kerguelen's Land, the Falkland Islands, the 
Shetland Islands and many continental places of both 
hemispheres. It has proved hardy in England. Among the 
varieties three are better characterized than the rest: the 
Tehore,- the Swamp,- and the Hill-variety. The first and 
the last mentioned produce a fiber fine and soft, yet strong, and 
the plants attain a height of only about 5 feet, whereas the 
Swamp variety grows to double that height, producing a larger 
yield of a coarser fiber, which is chiefly used for rope or paper 
making. One of the most dwarf varieties is P. Colensoi, J 
Hooker. As might be expected, the richer the soil the more 
vigorous the growth of the plant. Flooding now and then 
with fresh or brakish water is beneficial, but it will not 
live if this is permanent. In swampy ground trenches 
should be dug to divert the surplus of humidity. Fiber, free 
from gum-resin, properly dressed, withstands moisture as well 
as the best Manila rope. Carefully prepared, the fiber can be 
spun into various textile durable fabrics, either by itself or mixed 
with cotton, wool or flax. In October 1872, the sale of Phor- 
mium fiber in London was 11,500 bales, ranging in price from 
^19 to £31. The tow can be converted into paper, dis- 
tinguished for its strength and whiteness. The London price 
of Phormium fiber for this purpose is from jQio to ^20 per 


For further details on the utilization of this plant, the elaborate 
report of the New Zealand Commission for Phormium should 
be consulted. 

Photinia eriobotrya, J. Hooker. (P. Japonica, Franchet and Savatier, Erio- 
botrya Japonica, Lindley.) 

The Loquat. China and Japan. This beautiful evergreen 
shrub or tree, remarkable for its refreshing fruit, is easily raised 
from seed, or superior varieties can, according to G. W. John- 
son, be grafted not only on its own stock, but also on the 
Whitethorn, or better still on the Quince. It is also a grand 
bush for scenic ornamental effects. P. villosa, DC. also yields 
edible native fruit to the Japanese. 

Phyllocladus rhomboidalis, Richard. 

Celery-Pine of Tasmania. A stately tree, often 60 feet high, 
with a stem 2 to 6 feet in diameter. The timber is valuable 
for the masts of ships. It will only grow to advantage in deep 
. forest valleys. 

Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Don. 

Celery-Pine of New Zealand, northern island; it is also called 
Pitch Pine by the colonists; native name, Tanekaha. This tree 
attains a height of 70 feet, with a straight stem reaching 3 feet 
in diameter, and furnishes a pale close-grained timber, strong, 
heavy and remarkably durable, according to Professor Kirk, 
greatly valued for mine-props, struts, caps, sleepers, water-tanks, 
bridge-planks and piles, also spars; the Maoris employ the bark 
for dyeing red and black. 

Phyllostachys bambusoides, Siebold. 

Himalayas, China and Japan. A dwarf Bamboo, but hardy; 
the yellowish canes available for excellent walking-sticks 

Phyllostachys nigra, Munro.* {Bambusa nigra, Loddiges.) 

China and Japan. Reaching 25 feet in height. The stems 
nearly solid and becoming black. Has withstood severe frost in 
the south of France and at Vienna. Known to have grown 16 feet 
in six weeks. Bamboo chairs and walking-sticks often made of 
this species. A Japanese species of this bambusaceous genus 
proved hardy in Scotland. P. viridi-glaucescens and P, aurea 
are perfectly hardy in England (Munro); the latter withstood 
the severest winters of Edinburgh, with o° F. (Gorlie). 

Phymaspermum parvifolium, Bentham. {Adenockaena parvi folia, De Can- 

South-Africa. Praised by Professor McOwan as equal in 
value to Pentzia virgata for sheep-pastures. A dwarf, somewhat 
shrubby plant, fit to be naturalized on mere sandy ground. 


Physalis Alkekengi, Linne. 

The Strawberry-Tomato or Winter-Cherry. Middle South- 
Europe, North- Africa, Middle Asia, extending to Japan; said to 
have come originally from Persia. Hardy in Norway to lat. 63 
26' (Schuebeler). A perennial herb. The berry, which is red 
and of a not unpleasant taste, has some medicinal value. The 
leaves contain a bitter principle — physalin. 

Physalis angulata, Linne. 

In many tropical countries, extending as a native plant to the 
northern parts of the United States and to Japan. An annual 
herb. The berries yellowish, edible. P. minima, L. (P.fiarvi- 
flora, R. Br.), appears to be a variety and extends also into 
tropical Australia. 

Physalis Peruviana, Linne. 

Temperate and tropical America, widely naturalized in many 
countries of the warmer zones. With double inaptness called 
the Cape-Gooseberry. A perennial herb; but for producing its 
fruit well, it requires early renovation. The acidulous berries 
can be used as well for table-fruit as for preserves. Doubtless 
several other kinds of Physalis can be utilized in the same 
manner. In colder countries the P. Peruviana becomes annual. 

r Pilocarpus pinnatifolius, Lemaire. 

The principal Jaborandi-plant of tropical and sub-tropical 
Brazil. The leaves and bark of this shrub, which contain essen- 
tial oil and a peculiar alkaloid, are famed as an agreeable, 
powerful and quickly acting sudorific. Recommended as a 
specific in diphtheria and supposed to be also reliable in hydro- 
phobia. This bush is likely to endure the clime of milder 
temperate frost-regions (Continho, Baillon, Hardy, Guebler). 
Like P. simplex, also an active sialogogue. Pilocarpin contracts 
the pupil, and stimulates powerfully the salivary glands. 

Pimpinella Anisum, Linne. 

The Anise-Plant. Greece, Egypt, Persia. An annual. The 
seed-like fruits enter into various medicines and condiments, 
and are required for the distillation of oil, rich in anethol. 
The herbage left after obtaining the seeds serves for fodder. 
The plant will bear seeds in Norway up to lat. 68° 40 

Pimpinella saxifraga, Linne. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. A perennial herb; its 
root used in medicine; a peculiar volatile oil can be distilled 
from the root. P. manga, L. is a closely allied species, and P. 
nigra, W. is a variety. The root of the last is particularly 


Pimpinella Sisarum, Bentham. (Sium Sisarum., Linne.) 

East Asia. A perennial herb. The bunches of small tubers 
afford an excellent culinary vegetable. The taste is sweet and 
somewhat celery-like. The roots endure frost. 

Pinus Abies, Du Roi.* {Pinus Picea, Linne.) 

Silver Fir, Tanne. In Middle Europe, to 50 north latitude, 
forming dense forests. It will endure the climate of Norway 
to lat. 67 56 (Schuebeler). A fine tree, already the charm of 
the ancients, attaining 200 feet in height, and 20 feet in circum- 
ference of stem, reaching an age of 300 years. It furnishes a 
most valuable timber for building as well as furniture, and in 
respect to lightness, toughness and elasticity it is even more 
esteemed than the Norway Spruce, but is not so good for fuel 
or charcoal. It is pale, light, not very resinous, and is 
mostly employed for the finer works of joiners and cabinet- 
makers, for sounding boards of musical instruments, largely for 
toys, also for lucifer matches, for coopers' and turners' work, 
and for masts and spars. It also yields a fine white resin and 
the Strasburg turpentine, similar to the Venetian. Besides the 
above normal form the following two main varieties occur: — P. 
Abies var. Cephalonica, Parlatore (P. Cephalonica, EndL), 
Greece, 3,000 to 5,000 feet above the sea. A tree 60 feet high, 
with a stem circumference of 10 feet. The wood is very hard 
and durable, and much esteemed for building. General Napier 
mentions that in pulling down some houses at Argostoli, which 
had been built 150 to 300 years, all the wood-work of this fir 
was found as hard as oak and perfectly sound — P. Abies var. 
Nordmanniana, Parlatore (P. Nordmanniana, Steven), Crimea 
and Circassia,to 6,000 feet above the sea. Can be grown in Nor- 
way to lat. 6i° 15'. This is one of the most imposing firs, at- 
taining a height of about 100 feet, with a perfectly straight 
stem. It furnishes a valuable building timber. The Silver Fir 
is desirable for mountain forests. It will grow on sand, but 
only half as fast as P. Pinaster. 

Pinus alba, Aiton. 

White Spruce. From Canada to Carolina, up to the highest 
mountains. It resembles P. picea, but is smaller, at most 50 
feet high. It bears the shears well when trained for hedges, 
which are strong, enduring and compact (J. Hicks). The bark 
richer in tannin than that of the Hemlock Spruce. The timber 
well adapted for deal-boards, spars, and many other purposes, 
but on the whole inferior to Black Spruce. The tree grows in 
damp situations or swampy ground. Eligible for Alpine 
regions. Hardy in Norway to lat. 67 ° 56'. 


Pinus albicaulis, Engelmann. 

California. Akin to P. fiexilis. Fruit aments nearly globu- 
lar, purplish, with short and thick scales. Bark whitish, scaly. 

Pinus Alcocqiana, Parlatore. 

Japan, at an elevation of 6,000 to 7,000 feet. A fine tree, often 
120 feet high, with very small blue-green leaves; the wood is 
used for light household furniture. P. tonga and P. Polita as- 
cend there to the same height (Rind). 

Pinus amabilis, Douglas. 

Californian Silver Fir. North California, Oregon, British 
Columbia, at elevations of from 4,000 to 7,000 even 10,000 feet. 
A handsome Fir 200 feet high, circumference of stem 24 
feet. The stem is branchless up to 100 feet. The tree passes 
under the name of the "Queen of the Forests" (Lemmon). 
The wood is elastic, strong and hard, fit for masts and spars; 
it has a peculiar red color; spikes, nails, and bolts hold firm 
and never corrode in it (Dufur). Very closely allied to P. no- 
bilis, and also to P. grandis. 

Pinus aristata, Engelmann. 

California at elevations of 8-10,000 feet in the Sierras. A 
tree, attaining 75 feet in height, the stem three feet in diam- 
eter; leaves extremely short (Gibbons). Fit for an alpine 

Pinus Arizonica, Engelmann. 

Arizona, California. Differs from P. ponderosa in glaucous 
branchlets, thinner leaves constantly in fives and of different 
structures, and in thicker and shorter fruit cones, with greater 
prominence on the scales (Engelmann, Sargent, Perry.) 

Pinus Australis, Michaux.* 

Southern or Swamp Pine, also called Georgia, Yellow Pitch, 
Long-leaved Yellow or Broom Pine. Southern States of North 
America. The tree attains a height of about 100 feet. It fur- 
nishes a superior timber for furniture and building, also for 
naval architecture, railway ties and flooring. It yields the 
principal Yellow Pine of the lumber trade. The wood is com- 
pact, straight grained, very durable, and has only a slight layer 
of sapwood. The tree is not so quick of growth as many other 
Pines. According to Dr. Little the tree produces 30,000 feet 
of first class timber per acre. It is this species which forms 
chiefly the extensive Pine barrens of the United States, and 
yields largely the American turpentine, as well as resin, pitch 
and tar. Porcher observes that the tree shoots up devoid of 
branches for sometimes as much as 60 feet, and he calls it ''one 


of the greatest gifts of God to man." The tree prevails, ac- 
cording to C. Mohr, where the silicious constituents of the 
drift-soil mingle with the out-crops of tertiary strata, and he 
observes that forests of this pine cause grateful showers with 
wonderful regularity through all seasons. The emanations 
from Pines, particularly the very resinous species, are antima- 
larian and antiseptic, as proved by residences near Pine-forests, 
and by the use of hospital buildings constructed of Pine wood. 

Pinus Ayacahuite, Ehrenberg. (P. Loudoniana, Gordon.) 

In Mexico, at an elevation of 8,000 to 12,000 feet. An ex- 
cellent Pine, 150 feet high, with a stem diameter of three to 
four feet. It has the habit of P. excelsa, and is equal to it in 
its own line of beauty (Beecher) and in hardiness — yielding a 
much esteemed white or reddish timber. Its cones are among 
the very largest, measuring as much as 15^ inches in length 
(Sir J. Hooker). 

Pinjis Balfouriana, Jeffrey. {P. aristata, Engelmann). 

The Fox-tail or Hickory-pine. California to Colorado, up 
to 12,000 feet elevation. Height reaching 100 feet; trunk 
diameter reaching five feet. Wood close-grained, tough, very 
strong (Sargent.) 

Pinus balsamea, Linne. 

Balsam Fir, Balm of Gilead Fir. Canada, Nova Scotia, 
south to New England, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. An ele- 
gant tree, 40 feet high, which with Pinus Fraseri yields Canada 
balsam (Balsam of Firs) the well-known oleo-resin. The timber is 
light, pale, soft and useful for furniture and implements. The 
tree does not attain a very great age. Sends a pleasant odor 
through the forest regarded as salubrious, especially in phthisic 
diseases — a remark which applies to many other pines. It 
thrives best in cold swampy places. Eligible for alpine regions; 
in Norway it is hardy to lat. 63 26'. 

Pinus bracteata, D. Don. 

Southern California, up to 6,000 feet. A very handsome tree, 
attaining 150 feet in height, forming a slender, perfectly straight 
stem, not more than two feet in diameter. The resin is used 
for incense. 

Pinus Brunoniana, Wallich. (P. dumosa, D. Don). 

Himalaya, descending to 8,000 and ascending to 10,500 feet. 
Attains a height of 120 feet, and the stem a circumference of 28 
feet (J. D. Hooker). Particularly eligible for alpine tracts. 
The timber is pale and soft, and does not stand exposure well. 


Pinus Canadensis, Linne. 

Hemlock Spruce. In Canada and over a great part of the 
United States, on high mountains, as well as on undulating 
land. A very ornamental tree, about ioo feet high, with a 
white cross-grained wood, remarkably durable when used for 
submerged water-works; also employed for railway ties. Ac- 
cording to Vasey it is one of the most graceful of Spruces 
with a light and spreading spray. Schacht saw aged 
stems, on which 440 wood-rings could be counted. Can be 
kept trimmed for hedges. Next to P. Strobus it is the highest 
pine of the Eastern States of North America. The tree is ex- 
tremely valuable on account of its bark, which is much esteemed 
as a tanning material, containing 9 to 14 per cent, tannin; this 
is much liked as an admixture to oak-bark for particular leathers 
of great toughness, wearing strength and resistance to water. 
The extract of the bark for tanning fetches in the London mar- 
ket from £16 to ;£i8 a ton, and is imported to the extent of 
6,000 tons a year ; the bark is stripped off during the summer 
months. The young shoots are used in making spruce beer. 
P. Caroliniensis is the Hemlock-Spruce of Carolina. 

Pinus Canadensis, C. Smith.* 

Canary-pine. Canary Islands, forming large forests at an 
elevation of 5,000 to 6,000 feet. A tree reaching the height of 
80 feet, with a resinous, durable, very heavy wood, not readily 
attacked by insects. It thrives well in Victoria, and shows 
celerity of growth. Will endure an occasional shade-tempera- 
ture of 118 F. (W. J. Winter). 

Pinus Cedrus, Linn6*. 

Cedar of Lebanon. Together with the Atlas variety' on the 
mountains of Lebanon and Taurus, also in North Africa. The 
tree grows to a height of 100 feet, with a healthy trunk some- 
times 46 feet in circumference (Booth) and attains a very great 
age. Goeppert and Russegger allot to Lebanon Cedars an age 
reaching to the commencement of the Christian era. The wood 
is of a light-reddish color, soft, almost inodorous, easy to work, 
and much esteemed for its durability. 

Pinus Cedrus, var. Deodara*. 

Deodar Cedar. On the Himalaya Mountains in Afghanistan, 
3,000 to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. A majestic tree, 
reaching a height of more than 300 feet, and sometimes 30 feet 
in circumference of stem. The wood is of a light-yellow 
color, very close-grained and resinous, strongly and agreeably 
scented, light, extremely durable, well resisting the vicissitudes 
of a changeable clime, and furnishes one of the best building 


timbers known. Pillars of Kashmir mosques made of this wood 
are found sound after 400 years, and bridges of still greater 
antiquity are in existence. White ants hardly ever attack the 
heartwood. Boats built of this wood have lasted about forty 
years. It is also extensively used for canal edges and for rail- 
ways. The tree should not be felled too young. It yields a 
good deal of resin and turpentine. A humid clime very 
much accelerates the growth of this pine, which would come 
best and quickest to its development in forest-ranges. Deodars 
will endure, when not too young, an exceptional temperature 
of 118 F. in the shade (W. J. Winter.) 

Pinus Cembra, Linne. 

On the European Alps, also in Siberia and Tartary. Less 
hardy than P. Laricio, although from higher Alps; still it grows 
to a height of 60 feet at Christiania (Schuebeler). The tree 
attains a height of 120 feet, the stem upwards of four feet in 
diameter. The wood is of a yellow color, very soft and resinous, 
.of an extremely fine texture, and is extensively used for carving 
and cabinet work. The seeds are edible, and when pressed 
yield a great quantity of oil, as much as 47 per cent., according 
to Schuppe. A good turpentine is also obtained from this Pine. 

Pinus cembroides, Zuccarini. (P. laveana, Schiede and Deppe). 

Mexican Swamp-Pine. A small tree 30 feet high, growing 
at an elevation of 8,000 to 10,000 feet. The timber is not of 
much use, but the seeds are edible and have a very agreeable 

Pinus Cilicica, Antoine and Kotschy. 

Cilician Silver- Fir. Asia Minor. 4,000 to 6,500 feet above 
sea-level. A handsome tree of pyramidal growth, 160 feet high. 
Quite hardy in climes like that of Vienna. The wood is very 
soft and used extensively for the roofs of houses, as it does not 

Pinus concolor, Engelmann. 

North-Western America, at elevations of 8,000 to 9,000 feet. 
Tree reaching 150 feet in height; trunk 4 feet in diameter. 
The wood is tough, eligible for building purposes and other 
substantial work (Vasey.) 

Pinus contorta, Douglas. (P. Bolandri, Parlatore.) 

On high damp ranges in California and British North-West 
America; also abundant on the mountains of Colorado; very 
eligible for clothing rocky hill-sides (Meehan). In California it 
forms dense thickets along the coast, and is in this respect as 
valuable as P. Laricio, P. Pinaster and P. Haleppensis in 


Europe, as a shelter-tree in stormy localities. Dr. Gibbons re- 
marks of this pine which vernacularly is called Tamarak or 
Hack-me-tack, that its size has generally been understated. At 
the foot of the Sierra and on mountains 8,000 feet high he saw 
it in great numbers, forming one of the most stately of forest- 
Pines, not rarely attaining a height of 150 feet and 4 feet in 
stern-diameter. The timber is pale, straight-grained and very 
light; there considered the best and most durable material for 
dams and for general building purposes. It furnishes sea-ports 
with piles and masts, also railway-ties. Its value is beyond cal- 
culation. This species includes P. Murrayana, Balfour. 

Pinus Coulteri, D. Don. 

California, on the eastern slope of the coast-range, at an ele- 
vation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. A pine of quick growth, attaining 
a height of about 100 feet, with a trunk 4 feet in diameter; it 
has the largest cones of all pines, comparable in size and form 
to sugar-loaves. The nuts are nutritious (Vasey). 

Pinus densiflora, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

The "Akamatsou" of Japan, where it forms, along with P. 
Massoniana, extensive forests at 1,000 to 2,000 feet above sea- 
level. It is hardy at Christiania. Attains an age of several 
centuries (Rein). The timber is excellent for building; it is less 
resinous than that of P. Massoniana (Dupont). 

Pinus Douglasii, Sabine.* 

Oregon Pine, called also the Yellow Pine of Puget-Sound, 
where it yields the principal timber for export, and is therefore 
of great commercial value in the lumber-trade. It extends 
from Vancouver's Island and the Columbia-River, through 
California to Northern Mexico, from the coast up to the higher 
mountains of 9,000 feet. The maximum height known is nearly 
400 feet; the greatest diameter of the stem 14 feet. Can be 
grown very closely, when the stems will attain, according to 
Drs. Kellogg and Newberry, a height of over 200 feet without a 
branch. A densely wooded forest will contain about 36 full- 
grown trees to an acre. The timber is fine and clear-grained, 
heavy, strong, soft, and hence easily worked, yet firm and solid, 
splendid for masts and spars, ships' planks and piles; also valu- 
able for flooring, being for that purpose regarded as the best of 
California (Bolander). It will bear a tension of 3 to 1 as com- 
pared with the Sequoias. It is the strongest wood on the 
North-Pacific coast, both in resisting horizontal strain and 
perpendicular pressure. Sub-Alpine localities should be 
extensively planted with this famous tree. It requires deep 
and rich soil, but likes shelter; its growth is equally rapid 


with that of the Larch; it passes in various localities as Black 
and Red Spruce. Both in clayey and light soil it attains 50 
feet in about eighteen years; it requires, however, a moist 
forest clime for rapid growth. 

Pinus edulis, Engelmann. 

New Mexico. A tree, not tall, but very resinous. Wood 
easily split. One of the best for fuel (Meehan). It yields the 
" Pino " nuts, which are produced in immense quantities and of 
very pleasant flavor (Sargent). 

Pinus Elliotti, Engelmann. 

Southern States of North America. A forest-tree, becoming 
100 feet high, of quick growth, adapted for exposed localities. 
Prefers the borders of swamps or streams and sandy-clay 
ground (C. Mohr.) 

Pinus excelsa, Wallich.* 

. The Lofty or Bootan Pine. Himalaya, forming large forests, 
at from 5,000 to 12,500 feet elevation; also in Macedonia and 
Montenegro. A fine tree, at length 150 feet high, furnishing a 
valuable, close-grained, resinous, soft and easily workable wood, 
ranking among Himalayan Pine-woods for durability next to 
Deodar timber (Stewart and Brandis). It also furnishes a good 
quantity of turpentine. Under cultivation it shrinks before a 
fierce summer sun (Beecher); but will bear the winter of Chris- 
tiania(Schuebeler). Cones often 15 inches long (Sir J. Hooker.) 

Pinus firma, Antoine. 

Northern Japan, at 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea-level in 
humid valleys. A lofty tree of the habit of the Silver-Fir. The 
timber is white, soft and fine-grained, employed particularly by 
coopers and upholsterers. 

Pinus flexilis, James. 

The White Pine of the Rocky Mountains, also known as the 
Bull-Pine. From New Mexico to British Columbia, ascending 
to 13,000 feet. Prefers the limestone formation. A valuable 
Fir for cold regions. It attains a height of 150 feet, according 
to Dr. Gibbons. J. Hoopes states that it is of slow growth. 
Wood pale, soft and compact, of fine texture, according to 
Sargent, intermediate between that of P. Strobus and' P. Lam- 

Pinus Fortunei, Parlatore. 

China, in the neighborhood of Foo-Chow-Foo. A splendid 
tree, 70 feet high, somewhat similar in habit to P. Cedrus. 


Pinus Fraseri, Pursh. 

Double Balsam Fir. On high mountains of Carolina and 
Pennsylvania. This tree, which grows to a height of about 20 
feet, yields, with P. balsamea, the well-known Canada balsam. 
The tree is hardy at Christian ia. 

Pinus Gerardiana, Wallieh. 

Nepal Nut-Pine. In the north-eastern parts of the Himalaya 
at an elevation of 10,000 to 12,000 feet, forming extensive 
forests. With P. Deodara, P. excelsa, P. Webbiana, P. Smithi- 
ana and Juniperus excelsa, reaching the highest regions of 
Pine-forests in Southern Asia. The tree attains a height of 50 
feet, with a comparatively short stem, exceptionally 10 feet in 
girth, and produces very sweet, edible seeds, also turpentine. 
Hoopes refers to it as remarkable for the copiousness of its 
resin. In reference to the nut-seeds, the proverb prevails at 
Kunawar, "One tree a man's life in winter." 

Pinus glabra, Walter. 

Carolina. Allied to P. mitis. It attains, according to Chap- 
man, a height of 60 feet. Porcher compares the wood to that 
of P. Strobus. 

Pinus grandis, Douglas. 

Great Silver-Fir of North-California, also known as the 
Yellow-Fir of Oregon. A splendid quick-growing Fir, 200 
feet high and upwards, growing best in moist valleys of high 
ranges. The stem occasionally attains a diameter of 7 feet at 
130 feet from the ground, and of 6 feet at 200. Trees occur of 
15 feet stem-diameter, and 320 feet high; the wood is white 
and soft, too light and brittle, according to Vasey, for general 
purposes, while Prof. Brewer asserts that it is employed for 
boards, boxes, cooperage, and even much sought for ship- 

Pinus Griffithii, Parlatore. {Larix Griffit/iii, J. Hooker and Thomson.) 

The Himalayan Larch. Descends to 8,000 feet and ascends 
to 12,000 feet. Timber pale, soft, without distinct heartwood, 
one of the most durable of all Pine-timbers (Stewart and 
Brandis). P. Ledebourii, Endlicher, is the Siberian Larch. 

Pinus Halepenis, Miller. {P. maritima, Lambert.) 

Aleppo-Pine. South-Europe and North-Africa, South-West- 
ern A.sia. This well-known Pine attains a height of 80 
feet, with a stem often 5 feet in diameter. The timber of 
young trees is white, of older trees dark colored; it is princi- 
pally esteemed for ship building, but also used for furniture. 
The tree yields a peculiar kind of turpentine, as well as a 


valuable tar. Although ascending mountains in South Europe 
to the height of 4,000 feet, it thrives best in sandy coast-lands, 
where in ten years it will measure 25 feet, and finally will 
become a larger tree than on firmer lands. M. Boitel has 
published a special work on the importance of this pine for 
converting poor sand-land into productive areas, referring also 
to P. silvestris and P. Laricio for the same purpose. Accord- 
ing to Mr. W. Irvine Winter it will resist an occasional heat of 
118 F. in the shade. We find the Aleppo Fir one of the best 
of evergreen avenue-trees in Victoria, as first proved by the 
writer. It is content with the poorest and dryest localities and 
comparatively rapid in growth. 

Pinus Hartwegii, Lindley. 

Mexico, 9,000 to 14,000 feet above sea-level. A Pine reach- 
ing 150 feet in height, with a very durable wood of a reddish 
color; it yields a large quantity of resin. 

Pinus Hookeriana, McNab. {Abies Hookeriana, Murray). 

California, at 5,000 to 6,000 feet elevation. Allied to P. 
Pattoniana but distinct (Dr. McNab). Height of tree becoming 
300 feet, stem perfectly straight. Wood hard, of a reddish 
color, with handsome veins. Not a resinous tree. 

Pjfjnis Hudsonica, Poiret. (P. Banksiana, Lamb.) 

Grey Pine. Colder parts of North America, both eastern 
and western up to 64 north latitude. Height of tree as much 
as 40 feet; in the cold north only a shrub. The wood is 
light, tough, resinous and easily worked. 

Pinus inops, Solander. 

Eastern North-America. The Jersey-Pine. A tree attaining 
a height of 40 feet, available for fixing drift-sand on coasts. 
Easily disseminated. Wood reddish-yellow. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, Murray. 

California. Tree 150 feet in height. Hardy at Christiania, 
Norway. The glaucous branchlets with aromatic fragrance, 
thinner and greyish leaves, greater size of the fruit cones 
with thin and recurved spines to the scales, larger nutlets 
and more numerous cotyledons separate this Pine from 
P. ponderosa (Engelmann, Sargent, Perry). 

Pinus Kaempferi, Lambert. 

Chinese Larch; also called Golden Pine. North-Eastern 
China. This is the handsomest of all the Larches. Resists 
severe frost. It is of quick growth and attains a height of 150 
feet. The leaves, which are of a vivid green during spring and 
summer, turn to a golden yellow in autumn. The wood is very 
hard and durable. 


Pinus Kasya, Royle. 

Kasya and also Burma, from 2,000 to 7,000 feet. Allied 
to P. longifolia. Attains a height of 200 feet. Wood very 
resinous, somewhat fibrous, rather close-grained, pale brown 
with darker waves (Kurz). 

Pinus Koraiensis, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

Kamschatka, China and Japan. A handsome tree, often 40 
feet high, producing edible seeds. 

Pinus Lambertiana, Douglas.* 

Shake-, Giant-, or Sugar-Pine. North-west coast of America, 
mostly at great altitudes. A lofty tree, of rapid growth, up- 
wards of 300 feet high, with a straight naked stem attaining 60 
feet in circumference. It holds, in most places, preeminence in 
beauty and size over accompanying pines and reaches an age of 
600 years (Dr. Vasey). It thrives best in sandy soil, and pro- 
duces a soft, white, straight-grained wood, which for inside work 
is esteemed above any other Pine-wood in California, and ob- 
tained in large quantities; it is especially used for shingles, 
flooring and for finishing purposes by joiners and carpenters. 
The tree yields an abundance of remarkably clear and pure 
resin, of sweet taste, eaten by the natives. The cones may be 
19 inches long; the seeds are edible. This Pine would come to 
perfection best in the humid regions of higher mountains. P. 
reflexa, Engelmann is an allied large species with smaller fruit, 
occurring in Arizona. 

Pinus Laricio, Poiret.* 

Corsican Pine. South-Europe. It attains a height of 120 
feet. A splendid shelter-tree in the coldest regions. It will 
succeed on stiff clay as well as on sandy soil, even on sea-sand. 
The wood is white, towards the center dark, very resinous, 
coarse-grained, elastic and durable, and much esteemed for 
building, especially for water-works; valuable for its permanency 
underground. There are three main varieties of this Pine, viz.: 
P. L. Poiretiana, in Italy; P. L. Austriaca, in Austria; P. L. 
Pallasiana, on the borders of the Black Sea. The tree grows 
best in calcareous soil, but also in poor sandy soil, where, how- 
ever, the timber is not so large nor so good. It yields all the 
products of P. silvestris, but in greater quantities, being perhaps 
the most resinous of all Pines. Assumed to attain an age of 
500 years (Langethal). 

Pinus Larix, Linnfe. 

Common Larch; deciduous. On the European Alps, up to 
7,000 feet. Of quick growth in cool localities; adapted to poor 


soil. It attains a height of 100 feet, sometimes rising even to 
160 feet, and produces a valuable timber of great durability, 
which is used for land- and water-buildings, and much prized 
for ship-building; for staves of wine-casks almost indestructible, 
not allowing the evaporation of the spirituous contents (Sim- 
monds). The Brianeon-Manna exudes from the stem. Larch- 
trees cut in Bohemia have shown over 500 annual rings in their 
wood (Langethal). Larch-timber lasts three times longer than 
that of Norway-spruces, and although so buoyant and elastic it 
is tougher and more compact; it is proof against water, not 
readily igniting, and heavier and harder than any deal (Stauf- 
fer). The Venetian houses, constructed of Larchwood, showed 
for almost indefinite periods no symptoms of decay. This wood 
is also selected for the most lasting panels of paintings. The 
bark is used for tanning and dyeing. The tree is also of great 
importance for its yield of Venetian turpentine, which is ob- 
tained by boring holes into it in spring; these fill during the 
summer, supplying from half to three-quarters of a pint of tur- 
pentine. In Piedmont, where they tap the tree in different 
places and let the liquid continually run, it is said that from 
seven to eight pints may be obtained in a year, but the wood 
suffers through this operation. The Larch is grown in Norway 
to lat. 66° 5'; in 63 26' a tree still attained a height of over 70 
feet (Professor Schuebeler). P. L. var. Rossica, the Russian 
Larch, grows principally on the Altai Mountains, from 2,500 
to 5,500 feet above sea-level. The species would be important 
for upland, particularly alpine, country. 

Pinus leiophylla, Schiede and Deppe. 

At elevations of from 7,000 to 11,000 feet on the mountains 
of Mexico. A tree as much as 90 feet high. The wood is 
excessively hard. 

Pinus leptolepis, Siebold and Zuccarini. 

The Karamatson or Japan-Larch. In Japan, between 35 
and 48 north latitude, up to an elevation of 9,000 feet. Never 
a very tall tree. The timber, when mature, reddish brown and 
soft; it is highly valued by the Japanese. 

Pinus longifolia, Roxburgh.* 

Emodi-Pine or Cheer-Pine. On the Himalayan Mountains, 
from 2,000 to 9,000 feet. A handsome tree, with a branchless 
stem for 50 feet, the whole tree attaining a maximum height of 
somewhat over 100 feet, the girth of the stem 12 feet. The 
wood is resinous, and the red variety useful for building; it 
yields a quantity of tar and turpentine. The branches are used 
for torches by the rural population of its native country. The 
tree stands exposure and heat well. According to W. J. Winter 
it endures an occasional shade-temperature of 118 F. 


Pinus Massoniana, Lambert. {P. Sinensis, Lamb.). 

China and Japan. The most common of all trees in Japan, 
called there the "Matsu" or " Kouromatsou." It attains a 
stem-diameter of 6 feet, a height of ioo feet, and reaches an age 
of several centuries. It prefers sandy soil. Splendid for avenues 
(Rein). It supplies a resinous, tough and durable wood, used 
for buildings and furniture, but suitable only for indoor work. 
The roots, when burned with the oil of Brassica Orientalis, fur- 
nish the Chinese Lampblack. Parlatore distinguishes the 
Japanese tree as P. Thunbergii. 

Pinus Merkusii, Junghuhn. 

Burma, Borneo and Sumatra, chiefly at elevations of from 
3,000 to 4,000 feet. A tall tree. The only species of Pinus 
which extends south of the equator. Valuable for masts and 
spars, according to Mr. Gamble. Weight of wood about 50 lbs. 
per cubic foot. 

Pinus Mertensiana, Bongard. 

Californian Hemlock-Spruce. North-West America. The 
wood is white, tough and very soft, but is often used for build- 
ing. The tree gains a height of 200 feet, with a stem 4 to 6 
feet in diameter. 

Pinus mitis, Michaux.* 

Yellow Pine of North- America, called also Short-leaved Pine, 
in contrast to P. Australis, extending far south. In dry 
sandy and more particularly somewhat clayey soil, attaining a 
height of 90 feet; rapid in growth; eligible for rocky ridges. 
Wood yellowish, compact, hard, durable, fine-grained, moderately 
resinous, valuable for flooring, cabinet-work and ship-building. 
According to Dr. Vasey it commands a higher price even than 
that of P. Strobus. P. glabra, Walter, is closely allied to P. 
mitis, and fit for growth on low hummocks. Seeds smaller than 
those of the North-East American Pines, hence easier of transit 
in quantity (Meehan). 

Pinus monophylla, Torrey. 

Stone- or Nut-Pine of California, on the Sierra Nevada and 
Cascade- Mountains, up to 6,500 feet. It thrives best on dry 
limestone soil. The large seeds are edible, of almond-like taste, 
and consumed in quantity by the natives. Height of tree gen- 
erally about 35 feet, but occasionally as much as 80 feet, stem 
not of great thickness. This species is not of quick growth. 
Wood pale, soft, very resinous, much used for charcoal. 


Pinus montana, Du Roi. {P. pumilio, Haenke.) 

On the Alps and Carpathians, up to the highest points. Of 
woody vegetation, covering large tracts, and thriving on the 
poorest soil. In Norway it will grow to lat. 70 4' (Schuebeler). 
The tree, which grows to about 25 feet high, but in favorable 
localities to 50, yields much oil of turpentine. The wood is 
used largely for carving. Only available to advantage for high- 

Pinus Montezumse, Lambert. (P, Devoniana, Lindley; P. Grenvillece, Gordon.) 

Mexico. A handsome Pine, 80 feet high; wood white, 
soft and resinous. Cone attaining a length of 15 inches (Mas- 

Pinus monticola, Douglas. 

British Columbia and California, at an elevation of 7,000 feet. 
It thrives best in poor soil of granite-formation, and attains the 
height of 200 feet, with a stem often 7 feet thick. The wood is 
white, close-grained, similar to that of P. Strobus. Dr. Gibbons 
observes that this species is less than half the size of P. Lam- 
bertiana, but in all other respects resembles it. Woodmen are 
very pronounced in their statement that there are two kinds of 
Sugar-Pine, both growing in close proximity to each other. J 
Hoopes states that the wood is similar to White Pine, but 

Pinus muricata, D. Don. 

Bishop's Pine. California. Found up to 7,500 feet. This 
Pine grows to about 40 feet, but reaches 120 feet under favor- 
able circumstances. It might be utilized for wind-brakes (Dr. 

Pinus nigra, Aiton. (P. rubra, Lambert.) 

Black Spruce. North-East America, occurring extensively 
between 44 and 53 north latitude. In Norway it will grow to 
lat. 63 45' (Schuebeler). This tree, which is termed Double 
Spruce by the Canadians, attains a height of 70 feet, and 
furnishes a light elastic timber of pale color, excellent for 
yards of ships; largely sawn into boards and quarterings; 
nas also come extensively into use for paper pulp. The spruce 
lumber of eastern markets in the United States is chiefly 
furnished by this species (Sargent). The young shoots are used 
for making spruce beer, and the small roots serve as cords. 
The tree prefers poor and rocky soil, but a humid cool clime, 
and is best available for mountainous localities inaccessible to 
culture. Mr. Cecil Clay estimates that 20,000 cubic feet of 
timber can be obtained from this tree on one acre of ©round. 


Pinus nobilis, Douglas. 

Noble White Fir; also known as Red Fir. Oregon and its 
vicinity, where it forms extensive forests at 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 
A majestic tree, often 200 feet high, with regular horizontal 
branches. Timber splendid. P. magnifica, Murray is a variety. 

Pinus Nuttallii, Parlatore. 

The Oregon-Larch, at elevations of from 3,000 to 6,000 feet. 
According to Dr. Gibbons, one of the most graceful trees. 
Stem frequently 200 feet to the first limb. Timber fissile, very 
strong and durable (Dufur). 

Pinus obovata, Antoine. (P. Schrenkiana, Antoine.) 

North-Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Somewhat like the 
Norway-Spruce. Wood soft and pale, much used for furniture 
and household-implements, also packing T boxes of great durabil- 
ity (Regel). 

Pinus orientalis, Linne. 

Sapindus-Fir. In Asia Minor, ascending to 6,600 feet. 
Hardy in Christiania. The tree rises to about 80 feet, and 
somewhat resembles the Norway-Spruce. The wood is exceed- 
ingly tough and durable. 

Pinus Parryana, Engelmann. 

California. One of the pines with edible nuts. 
Pinus parviflora, Siebold. 

The " Imekomatsou." Kuriles and Japan. A middle-sized 
tree of longevity; ascends to alpine heights. Much used as an 
avenue tree. Wood for furniture and boat-building. It is 
harder than that of P. Massoniana and P. densiflora (Dupont). 

Pinus Pattoniana, McNab. (Parlatore partly). 

California, restricted to elevations* above 5,000 feet and 
advancing thence to the glacier-region in a gradually dwarfed 
state. The tree rises to a height of 150 feet, the stem enlarging 
at the base to a diameter of sometimes 13 feet (Jeffrey). 

Pinus patula, Schiede and Deppe. 

In Mexico, at elevations of from 6,000 to 12,000 feet. A 
graceful Pine, becoming 80 feet high. 

Pinus pendula, Solander. (P. microcarpa, Lambert.) 

Small-coned American Larch, Black Larch or Tamarack. From 
Labrador and Canada to Virginia. Delighting in swampy 
ground. A pine of pyramidal growth, 100 feet high. The 
timber is pale, heavy, resinous, and as highly valued as that 


of the common Larch. It is close grained, well adapted for 
underground work; it combines lightness, strength and dura- 
bility; much sought by shipbuilders, as for knees, bends and 
ship-garlands it cannot be surpassed (Robb); much in use also 
for railway-ties. 

Pinus picea, Du Roi.* {P. Abies, Linn6.) 

Norway-Spruce, Fichte. Middle and Northern Europe and 
Northern Asia, rising from the plains to an elevation of 4,500 
feet, and forming extensive forests. It exceeds even the Birch 
in endurance of cold. Indigenous in Norway to lat. 69 30' 
(Schuebeler). Adapted to most kinds of soil. The tree attains 
a height of 150 feet or even more, and furnishes an excellent 
timber, commonly known under the name of White Deal, for 
building and furniture, for masts, spars, ladders, oars, &c, 
Stems of 6 feet diameter are on record with more than 200 
wood-rings. It also produces the Burgundy-Pitch in quantity 
while the bark is used for tanning. Though enduring dry 
■ summers, this Spruce would have to be restricted for timber- 
purposes to the damp mountains. 

Pinus Pinaster, Solander.* (P. maritima, Poiret and De Candolle.) 

Cluster Pine. From the shores to the mountains of the 
countries on the Mediterranean Sea. This tree rises to 60 feet 
in height. The wood is soft and resinous; it yields largely the 
French turpentine. Among the best of Pines for consolidating 
sandy coasts, and for converting rolling sands into pasture 
and agricultural land. For ease of rearing and rapidity of 
growth, one of the most important of all Pines. On the testi- 
mony of Mr. J. Hoopes, it does not thrive well on calcareous 
soil. W. J. Winter observed, that P. Pinaster and the allied 
P. Pinea can withstand an occasional shade-temperature of 118 
F. A tree 60 to 70 years old, heavily tapped, yields 12 to 
16 lbs. of turpentine, equal to 4 lbs. of resin, the rest being oil 
of turpentine (Simmonds). The tree comes into full flow of 
turpentine at about 25 years, and the tapping process, if only a 
slight one, is endured by this Pine for an enormous length of 
time. Thus the annual production of resin from a good tree 
fluctuates between 5 and 8 lbs. The quantity of resin gathered 
in France during 1874 was about sixty million pounds (Crouzet- 

Pinus Pinceana, Gordon. 

Mexico, up to 9,000 feet above the sea-level. A very re- 
markable Pine, frequently 60 feet high, having drooping 
branches like the Weeping Willow. Most desirable for ceme- 


Pinus Pindrow, Royle. 

In great abundance on the spurs of the Himalayan Moun- 
tains, 7,000 to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. A fine, straight- 
stemmed tree, becoming 190 feet high; cones purple. Con- 
sidered by Stewart and Brandis a variety of P. Webbiana. 

Pinus Pinea, Linne.* 

Stone-Pine. Frequent in the countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea. Height of tree 80 feet; top rather fiat. 
The wood is whitish, light, but full of resin, and much used for 
furniture, naval architecture and general building purposes. 
The seeds are edible, but of a resinous though not disagreeable 
taste; they should be left in the cones until they are about to 
be used, as otherwise they speedily become rancid; they only 
ripen in their third year. This Pine grows as easily and almost 
as quickly as the Cluster-Pine. 

Pinus Pinsapo, Boissier. 

Spanish Fir. Spain, and North-Africa, at from 3,000 to 6,000 
feet elevation. A tree 70 feet high, with branches from 
the ground. The timber is similar to that of the Silver- 
Fir and resinous. 

Pinus polita, Antoine. 

Japan and Kurile-Islands. A tall superb tree, forming large 
forests on the mountain ranges (A. Murray). Resists severe 
frost. Allied to P. Smithiana. 

Pinus ponderosa, Douglas.* {P. Benthamiana. Hartweg.) 

Yellow, Pitch-Pine or Trucker-Pine of the mountains of 
North-west America. Height of tree often 225 feet, with astern 
reaching 24 feet in circumference. Growth comparatively quick. 
The wood is yellowish, hard, strong, durable and heavy, and for 
general purposes preferred to that of any other Pine. There 
are fine groves of this tree up to 5,000 feet elevation in California, 
but the variety P. Englemanni, Parry, ascends to 12,000 feet. The 
bark contains a considerable quantity of tanning substance. 
Wood pale and soft, neither knotty nor resinous, much esteemed 
for cabinet-work (Hoopes); it is of great strength, and used for 
floors, joists, and much other carpenter work. Dr. Gibbons 
relates that the wood, with the bark adherent, exposed to the 
weather, will decay within a year, but that when stripped and 
covered with soil it is very durable. Dr. Kellogg saw logs which 
had been in the ground twelve years quite sound. It has proved 
well adapted even for rather dry localities in Victoria, but is 
there slow of growth. 


Pinus Pseudo-Strobus, Lindley. 

Mountains of Mexico, up to 10,000 feet. This tree is super- 
ior in appearance to any other Mexican Pine; height 80 feet. 

Pinus pungens, Michaux. 

South Eastern States of North America. Although seldom 
over 50 feet high, this Pine has the recommendation of being 
of remarkably quick growth, especially in earl)'' life. 

Pinus Pyrenaica, Lapeyrouse. (P. Brutia, Tenore). 

In the countries at the Mediterranean Sea, ascending to 
5,000 feet. A fine tree, of quick growth, 80 feet in height; the 
wood is pale and dry, almost free from resin and of considerable 

Pinus radiata, Don.* (P. insignis, Douglas). 

California. A splendid Pine, fully 100 feet high, with a 
straight stem, occasionally 8 feet in diameter. It is of re- 
markably rapid growth, a seedling one year old being strong 
enough for final transplantation: it has been noticed to grow 
fully 5 feet annually, in .light soil near Melbourne. Mr. Dick- 
inson found it to attain a height of 70 feet with a stem girth of 
5 feet in 13 years at Port Phillip. According to Mr. W. J. 
Winter it will endure unhurt exceptional exposure to ti8° F. in 
the shade. In the United Kingdom it suffers greatly from the 
attacks of the Pine Beetle, Hylurgus piniperda, Lawson. 
The wood is tough, and is sought for boatbuilding and various 
utensils. This tree can be utilized for obtaining tar and pitch. 
It bears exposure to the sea at the very edge of the coast. 

Pinus reflexa, Engelmann. 

California. Allied to P. flexilis, belonging to the Strobus 
section, but with large inappendiculated nutlets. 

Pinus religiosa, Humboldt. 

Oyamel Fir. Mexico, from 400 to 11,500 feet above the sea 
level, thus reaching' the limits of arboreous vegetation. A 
magnificent tree with silvery leaves, growing 150 feet high; 
stem reaching 6 feet in diameter. The wood is particularly well 
fitted for shingles and laths. This species endures the middle 
European winter. 

Pinus resinosa, Solander. 

Red Pine. North America, principally Canada and Nova 
Scotia, but extending to Pennsylvania. It attains a height of 
150 feet, the stem 2 feet in diameter. It is of rapid growth, 
and on account of the red barked stem very ornamental (Sar- 


gentt; delights in sandy soil: the wood is hard, fine-grained, 
heavy and durable, very resinous, and is used for ship-building 
and structures of various kinds. 

Pinus rigida. Miller.* 

American Pitch Pine. From New England to Virginia. It 
grows to a height of 80 feet: the timber from gravelly or rocky 
soil heavy and resinous, from damp alluvial soil light and soft; 
used for building; but the tree is principally important for its 
yield of turpentine, resin, pitch and tar. It is suitable for sea 
shores; it will also grow in the driest localities, as well as in 
swamps, nor is it readily susceptible to injury from fire. 
Professor Meehan mentions this as the most rapid grower 
among North East American Pines. With P. Taeda among 
the most oleous and resinous pines, to be disseminated million- 
fold in such extensive malarial regions as cannot be readily or 
profitably drained, to subdue miasmata by the copious evolution 
of the double oxyde of hydrogen, and ozone. 

Pinus Sabiniana, Douglas.* 

Californian Nut Pine or White Pine. Most frequent on the 
western slopes of the Rocky Mountains intermixed with other 
trees: 150 feet high, stem frequently 5 feet in diameter. The 
wood is pale and soft; according to Dr. Gibbons it is hard and 
durable when seasoned, with close and twisted grain, and con- 
tains much resin; the clustered heavy cones attain a length of 
one foot. The seeds are edible, they are produced in great 
profusion, and constituted formerly a large portion of the win- 
ter food of the native tribes. Proves even in dry localities of 
Victoria to be of quick growth. 

Pines serotina, Michaux. 

Pond Pine. Southern States of North America, in morassy 
soil, principally near the sea-coast. It gets to be 50 feet high. The 
wood is soft. Of importance as antimalarian for fever swamps. 
Regarded by Prof. Meehan as an extreme form of P. rigida. 

Pinus Sibirica, Turczaninow. (P. Puhta, Fischer). 

Siberian Pitch Fir. Russia, westward to the Volga, eastward 
to Kamschatka, ascending the Altai mountains 5,000 feet. 
This Pine reaches a height of 50 feet. 

Pinus silvestris, Linne.* 

Scotch Fir, Foehre. North Asia, Middle and Northern 
Europe, reaching to 70° north latitude, ascending the Alps 
6,000 feet, thriving best in sandy soil. Of all trees the one 
which needs the least of mineral aliment from the soil, hence 
adapted for pure sand, where it forms twice as much humus 


within the same time as Robinia pseudacacia or Poplars, while 
its wood is much more valuable. More easily transplanted than 
any other species (Wesseley). A very valuable tree becoming 
fully ioo feet high, usually growing to an age of about 120 
years, but sometimes getting much older; thus a venerable tree 
at Schandau blown down by a storm, showed 463 annual rings. 
It is important for masts and spars. The Red Baltic, Norway 
or Riga deals are obtained from this Pine, as well as a large 
portion of the European Pine tar. Pine cones have come into 
use for tanning in France. Proves well adapted even for the 
drier parts of Victoria. The leaves of Pines can be well 
converted into material for pillows and mattresses, with the 
great recommendation of healthfulness for such a purpose. All 
Fir forests are antimiasmatic and salubrious for hectic patients, 
in consequence of the di-oxyde of hydrogen evolved from their 
terebinthine emanations. 

Pinus Sitkensis, Bongard. (P. Menziesii, Dougl., P. Jezoensis, Ant.) 

■ ' North- West America, extending to Japan. The Blue Spruce 
of California, also called Tideland Spruce, ascending to eleva- 
tions of 9,000 feet, of rapid growth in congenial soil. A very 
handsome tree which furnishes soft, light, pale, and fine-grained 
timber, used largely for piles (Dr. Gibbons). It thrives best in 
moist ground. According to Professor Brewer, instances are 
on record of trees having attained a height of over 300 feet, 
and a stem 7 feet in diameter at 100 feet from the base. From 
an exceptionally large tree 100,000 shingles were obtained, 
besides 58 cords of wood. 

Pinus Smithiana, Lambert. (P. Khutrow, Royle.) 

On the Himalaya Mountains, at elevations from 6,000 to 
11,000 feet. Attains a height of 150 feet, and the stem a girth 
of 2 1 feet. The wood is pale, even and straight grained, but 
only durable under shelter. 

Pinus stenolepis, Parlatore. (Picea Veitchii, Lindley.) 

Japan. Up to 7,000 feet. A fine tree, attaining a height of 
140 feet. 

Pinus Strobus, Linn6.* 

Weymouth-Pine or American White Pine. North-Eastern 
America, growing on any soil, but particularly adapted for deep, 
rich ground in mountain valleys; known to reach a height of 270 
feet, with a stem as much as 8 feet in diameter. It is the principal 
pine of the lumber-trade of the Eastern States. One of the 
finest among ornamental conifers. The wood is soft, white or 
yellowish, light, free from knots, almost without resin, easy to 


work, very durable, and much esteemed for masts, bridges, 
frames of buildings, windows, ceilings, flooring, oars, cabinet- 
work and organ-pipes. The tree yields American turpentine and 
galipot . Mr. Cecil Clay cut exceptionally 40,000 feet of its 
timber on an acre of ground in the Virginian mountains. The 
sap-wood is remarkably thin. The tree endures the climate of 
Norway to lat. 6i° 15' (Schuebeler). 

Pinus Taeda, Linne. 

Frankincense- or Loblolly-Pine. Florida, Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, in sandy soil attaining a height of 90 feet. The timber is 
liked for pumps, but liable to warp and decay in buildings, on 
exposure (Sargent). It yields turpentine in good quantity, 
though of inferior quality, and exudes much resin. The tree 
likes regions near the coast ; hence can be utilized for 
raising Fir-forests on sea-land. 

Pinus tenuifolia, Bentham. 

Mexico, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, forming dense forests. 
Height of tree 100 feet, stem up to 5 feet in diameter. 

Pinus Teocote, Chamisso and Schlechtendal. 

Okote- or Torch-Pine. Mexico, from 5,000 to ir,ooo feet 
above the sea-level. Tree often 150 feet high, stem 4 feet in 
diameter. It yields the Brea-turpentine and resin; the wood is 
resinous and durable. 

Pinus Torreyana, Parry. 

California. An average cone of this Pine will contain about 
130 seeds, weighing 3 ounces; they are edible (Meehan). 

Pinus Tsuga, Antoine. 

In the northern provinces of Japan, 6,000 to 9,000 feet above 
the sea. The tree grows to a height of only 25 feet. Its timber is 
highly esteemed for superior furniture, especially by turners. 
It is of a yellowish-brown color. 

Pinus Webbiana, Wallich. 

King-Pine, Dye-Pine. On the Himalaya Mountains, at an 
elevation of from 7,000 to 13,000 feet. A splendid fir, reaching 
a height of 150 feet; the stem with a circumference of 30 feet. 
The wood is of a pale color, soft, coarse-grained, and very 
resinous, on the testimony of Mr. Webb equalling in texture 
and odor the Bermuda-Cedar. The natives extract a splendid 
violet dye from the cones. 


Pinus Williamsonii, Newberry. 

California and Oregon up to 12,000 feet. Height of tree 
reaching 150 feet. Timber very valuable (Vasey). Many other 
Pines, eastern as well as western, not alluded to on this oc- 
casion, are worthy of especial utilitarian enquiries. 

Piptadenia rigida, Bentham. 

Sub-tropical and extra-tropical South-America. The acacia- 
tree furnishes the angico-gum, similar to gum-arabic. The 
wood, according to Saldana da Gama, serves for naval con- 

Pipturus propinquus, Weddell. 

Insular India, South Sea Islands and warmer parts of East- 
Australia. This bush is higher and rather more hardy than 
Boehmeria nivea, but in fiber it is similar to that plant. P. 
vehitinus, Wedd., is closely allied. The few other species 
serve probably as well for fiber. 

Pircunia dioica, Moquin. 

Southern Brazil and La Plata-States. The Ombu. A decidu- 
ous tree, for shady avenues, grown in South-Europe, as well as 
in many tropical countries, shown by the writer to be hardy in 
the lowlands of Victoria. It is comparatively quick of growth. 

Pisonia aculeata, Linne. 

Tropical and sub-tropical countries of both hemispheres, ex- 
tending as a native plant into New South Wales. This rambling 
prickly bush can be chosen for hedge-copses. 

Pistacia Lentiscus, Linne. 

The Mastic-Tree. Mediterranean regions. A tall evergreen 
bush, exuding the mastic-resin, mostly through incisions into its 
bark. In Morocco the plant is extensively used for hedges. 
The deciduous P. Atlantica, Desf., also yields mastic. 

Pistacia Terebinthus, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. A tall bush or 
small tree with deciduous foliage. The fragrant Cyprian or 
Chio turpentine exudes from the stem of this species. 

Pistacia vera, Linne. 

Indigenous in the Orient, as far as Persia. A deciduous tree, 
sometimes 30 feet high, yielding the Pistacio-nuts of commerce, 
remarkable for their green almond-like kernels. 


Pisum sativum, Linn6.* 

The Common Pea. Mediterranean countries and Western 
Asia. Matures seeds as far north as 70 22' in Norway (Schue- 
beler). Cultivated even by the ancient Greeks. This annual 
of daily use could hardly be left unnoticed on this occasion. 
Suffice it to say, that the herbage as a nutritious fodder deserves 
more attention than it receives. The green fruit contains inosit- 
sugar and cholestrin fat. For field-culture a sandy calcareous 
loam should be chosen for this plant, to ensure rich and safe 
harvests. Peas retained their vitality after four years' exposure 
to the extreme frosts of Polaris-Bay. A second species, P. 
Aucheri, Jaub. and Spach, which is perennial, occurs in alpine 
elevations on the Taurus. 

Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Solander. 

New Zealand. This with P. eugenioides has proved very 
suitable for tall garden-hedges, for which these and several 
other species were first brought into notice by the writer. Un- 
hurt by a cold of 9 F. (Gorlie). 

Pittosporum undulatum, Ventenat. 

South-eastern Australia. This tree with P. bicolor, Hooker, 
produces a wood well adapted for turners' purposes and also as 
a substitute for boxwood (Oliver). The flowers furnish a highly 
fragrant volatile oil on distillation. 

Planera aquatica, Gmelin. 

North America. An elm-like tree, which can be chosen for 
plantations in wet localities. The wood is hard and strong. 

Platanus occidentalis, Linne.* 

The true Plane-Tree of the eastern part of North-America; 
also known as Buttonwood. More eligible as an avenue-tree 
than as a timber-tree. Height reaching 100 feet. Diameter of stem 
at times 14 feet. Wood dull red, light, not readily attacked by 
insects; used in the manufacture 'of pianofortes and harps; cuts 
into very good screws, also presses, dairy utensils, windlasses, 
wheels and blocks. The young wood is silky white and often 
handsomely mottled (Robb). The tree likes alluvial river-banks 
and has been successfully planted in morassy places, to cope 
with miasmatic effluvia. 

Platanus orientalis, Linn6.* 

The Plane-Tree of South-Europe and Middle Asia. Hardy 
in Norway to lat. 58 8' (Schuebeler). One of the grandest 
trees for lining roads and for street-planting, deciduous like the 
other Planes, rather quick of growth, and not requiring much 


water. Attains a height of 90 feet and a stem-circumference of 
occasionally 70 feet, reaching an age of over 800 years. It re- 
sists the smoke in large towns such as London, better than any 
other tree, growing vigorously even under such disadvantage. 
The wood is well adapted for furniture and other kinds of 
cabinet-work. Propagation from seeds or cuttings. 

Platanus racemosa, Nuttall. 

The Californian Plane-Tree. A good promenade-tree, which, 
according to Professor Bolander, grows more rapidly and more 
compact than P. occidentalis. Wood harder and therefore more 
durable than that of P. occidentalis, also less liable to warp. 
According to Dr. Gibbons the tree attains a height of about 100 
feet and a diameter of 8 feet; the wood is very brittle; in use 
however by turners. 

Plectocomia Himalaiana, Griffith. 

Sikkim, up to 7,000 feet, extending to 27 south latitude. 
This Rattan-Palm requires moist forest-land. Its canes are not 
durable, but the plant is an object worthy of scenic horticul- 
ture, and would prove the hardiest among its congeners. P. 
elongata ascends, according to Drude, to 4,500 feet. 

Plectocomia macrostachya, Kurz. 

Tenasserim, at 3,000 feet elevation, therefore most likely hardy 
in temperate lowlands. 

Plectronia ventosa, Linn6. 

South Africa. A hedge-bush, like P. ciliata, Sonder, and P. 
spinosa, Klotzsch. 

Poa Abyssinica, Jacquin. 

The Teff of Abyssinia. An annual grass. The grain there 
extensively used for bread of an agreeable acidulous taste. 

Poa airoides, Koeler. (Catabrosa aquatica, Beauvois.) 

The Water Whorl Grass. Europe, North Africa, Northern 
and Middle Asia, North America. A creeping grass, suitable 
for pastures subject to inundation. 

Poa alpina, Linn6. 

Alpine and Arctic Europe, Asia and North America. De- 
serves to be transferred to snowy mountains as a nutritious 
perennial pasture grass. P. Sudetica, Haenke, and P. hybrida, 
Guadin, are mentioned also as excellent alpine grasses. 


Poa angustifolia, Linne. 

Europe, North Asia, North America. A perennial grass, 
allied to P. nemoralis, excellent for moist meadows and river 
banks. Poa fertilis, Host., may be a mere variety of this 

Poa aquatica, Linne. (Gfyceria aquatica, Smith.) 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, North America. This 
conspicuous Water grass attains a height of 6 feet. It is per- 
ennial, and deserves naturalization in our swamps. It pro- 
duces a large bulk of foliage, and may be disseminated for fod- 
der purposes. On the testimony of Dr. Curl this is one of the 
best feeding grasses in New Zealand. 

Poa Billardieri, Steudal. 

Australia. A perennial rigid grass, of some value for saline 

Poa Brownii, Kunth. {Eragrostis Brownii, Nees.) 

Tropical and Eastern extra tropical Australia. It is here 
mentioned as a valuable perennial species, keeping beautifully 
green in the driest Australian summer, even on poor soil. The 
section Eragrostis of the genus Poa contains numerous species 
in the hotter parts of the globe. Of these many would doubt- 
less be hardy far beyond the tropics, and prove of value on 
pastural land. 

Poa Canadensis, Beauvois. 

The Rattlesnake Grass of South- East America. A valuable 
swamp grass. 

Poa Chinensis, Koenig. 

South and East Asia, East Australia. Recommended by 
Mr. F. M. Bailey as a valuable pasture grass, perhaps on ac- 
count of its tender panicles. Poa bulbosa, L., of Europe and 
West Asia, and P. compressa, L., of the same regions, will grow 
in pure sand. 

Poa cynosuroides, Retz. 

North-Eastern Africa, South Asia. A harsh perennial grass, 
not serviceable for fodder, but mentioned by Royle as a fiber- 
plant of North-Western India, where it is valued as a material 
for ropes. In this respect it may not surpass the rough tufty 
variety of Poa caespitosa, Forster, so common on river banks 
of South-East Australia, from the leaves of which excellent 
nets are made by the natives. 


Poa digitata, R. Brown. 

South-Eastern and Central Australia. Valuable for fixing 
wet river banks and slopes. It forms large stools. Cattle and 
horses relish it. 

Poa distans, Linn6. 

Europe, North Africa, Middle and Northern Asia, North 
America. Perennial. It is one of the limited number of ten- 
der grasses, suited for moist saline soil, and thus affords pas- 
turage on coast marshes. 

Poa fertilis, Host. {P. Serotina, Ehrhart.) 

Europe, North Asia, North America. Perennial. Important 
for wet meadows, even with sandy subsoil. Its foliage is ten- 
der, tasty and nourishing. In mixtures of grasses it keeps up 
the growth late into the autumn; it will prosper also in sandy 
and saline soil. 

Poa fluitans, Scopoli. (Glyceria fluitans, R. Brown.) 

The Manna Grass. Europe, North Africa, Middle and 
Northern Asia, North America, East Australia. Perennial. 
Excellent for stagnant water and slow-flowing streams. The 
foliage is tender. The seeds are sweet and palatable, and in 
many countries are used for porridge. This grass is indigenous 
in Norway, northward to lat. 6g° 9' (Schuebeler). 

Poa Forsteri, Steudel. {Dactylis ccespitosa, Forster.) 

The Tussock Grass. Fulgia, Falkland Islands, South Pata- 
gonia. Introduced by Sir Joseph Hooker into the Hebrides, 
and by Mr. Traill into the Orkney Islands. Delights, accord- 
ing to Mr. Ingram, in deep, boggy and mossy land, even when 
exposed to sea spray. Cultivated plants might be dressed with 
some salt. Thrives in cold countries near the sea in pure sand, 
at the edge of peat-bogs. It would probably prosper in alpine 
moors. It is perennial and reaches a height of nine feet. It is 
very nutritious and much sought by herds. The base of the 
stem is nutty and edible. 

Poa maritima, Hudson. 

Europe, North Africa, North Asia, North America. Its long 
creeping roots help to bind coast sand. This grass can also be 
depastured and grown on meadows. 

Poa nemoralis, Linn6. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, North America. This 
perennial grass can be grown on shady forest land, as the name 
implies, but it accommodates itself also to open places, and 


will grow even among rocks. It endures Alpine winters. Ac- 
cording to Lawson no better grass exists for displacing weeds 
on pleasure lawns; the same may be said of Poa compressa, L. 

Poa nervata, Willdenow. 

Southern North America, called in Alabama the Manna- 
Grass. Perennial. Valuable for pastures in low forest land. 
(C. Mohr). 

Poa pectinacea, Michaux. {Eragrostis pectinacea, Gray.) 

Middle and Southern States of North America. This peren- 
nial grass spreads rapidly over dry ground and even coast 
sands. C. Mohr regards it as valuable for pastures, and men- 
tions as such also Eragrostis nitida, Chapman, and E. tennis, 

Poa pratensis, Linn6." 

The ordinary English Meadow Grass. A perennial species, 
with creeping roots, fit for any, even very dry, meadows, thriv- 
ing early, and able to live also in alpine localities. In Norway 
it is indigenous to lat. 71 7' (Professor Schuebeler). Better 
adapted for pasture than hay. It is suitable for moor-land, 
when such is laid dry; although it flowers only once 
during the season, it forms a nutritious fodder, even on 
comparatively poor soil; it resists drought, forms excellent 
sward, and can be used with advantage for intermixing with 
other pasture grasses. In the United States it is known as the 
Kentucky Blue Grass or Pennsylvania Green Grass, and is con- 
sidered one of the best for lawns by Professor Meehan, as it 
will crowd out all weeds in time. 

Poa trivialis, Linne. 

Europe, North Africa, Middle and Northern Asia. Also a 
good perennial grass for mixture on pasture land. One of the 
best grasses for sowing on ground recently laid dry. Recom- 
mendable also as a lawn grass. Sinclair regarded the produce of 
this Poa as superior to many other kinds, and noticed the 
marked partiality which horses, oxen and sheep evince towards 
it. To thrive well, it wants rather moist and rich soil and shel- 
tered places. It is a later grass than P. pratensis, well adapted 
for hay, and gives good after-growth (Langethal). 

These few species of Poa have been singied out as recom- 
mendable, because they are well tested. Future experiments 
beyond Europe will add others to lists of recommendations 
like this. 

Podachsenium alatum, Bentham. {Ferdinanda eminens, Lagasca.) 

Central America, up to a height of 8,000 feet. A tall 
shrub; on account of the grandeur of its foliage in requisi- 
tion for scenic effects. 


Podophyllum peltatum, Linne. 

North America, where it is known as the Mandrake. Hardy 
in Christiania. A perennial forest-herb, not without import- 
ance for medicinal purposes. The root contains the bitter 
alkaloid berberin. Podophyllum Emodi, Wall., occurring in 
the Indian mountains at heights of from 6,000 to 14,000 
feet, can probably be used like the American species. The 
berries of both are edible, though the root and leaves are 

Pogostemon Patchouli, Pelletier. 

Mountains of India. A perennial herb, famed for its 
powerful scent, arising from a volatile oil. P. parvifiorus, 
Benth. and P. Heyneanus, Benth. belong to this species. 

Polianthes tuberosa, Linne . 

Mexico. The tuberose. Valuable for perfume distillation. 
Available late in the season. 

Polygala crotalaroides, Hamilton. 

Temperate Himalya and Khasia. Praised as an ophidian 
alexipharmic. To several other species both of the eastern and 
western hemispheres similar properties are ascribed, but we are 
almost entirely without any reliable medical testimony on these 
and many other supposed vegetable antidotes against snake 

Polygala Senega, Linne. 

The Seneca Snake Root. North America. A perennial 
herb. The root is of medicinal value. 

Polygaster Sampadarius, Fries. 

South Eastern Asia. One of the most palatable of all 

Polygonum tinctorium, Loureiro. 

Japan and China. . An annual herb, deserving attention and 
local trials, as yielding a kind of indigo; one of the most im- 
portant dye-plants of Japan. It can be cultivated in cold 
climes, being hardy at Christiania. Its growth would be vig- 
orous. Various Polygonums contains tannin, P. amphibium 
as much as 11^ per cent. (Masters). 

Polyporus giganteus, Fries. 

Dr. Goeppert records this and also the following species as 
allowed to be sold for food in Silesia : P. frondosus, Fr., P. 
ovtnus, Fr., P. tuberaster, Fr., P. citrinus, Pers. Dr. Atkin- 
son mentions as edible among the fungi of Cashmere P. fo- 
mentarius and P. squamosus. 



Populus alba, Linne. 

The Abele or White Poplar of Europe, North-Africa and 
Middle Asia, growing on the Himalayas up to 10,000 feet, ceas- 
ing at 4,000 feet. In Norway it is hardy to lat. 67 56' (Prof. 
Schuebeler). Height reaching 90 feet. It has proved an excel- 
lent avenue-tree, even in comparatively waterless situations, 
and the partial whiteness of its foliage gives a pleasing effect 
in any plantation. A Silver-Poplar at Slowitz attained a 
stem-diameter of 20 feet, indicating according to Pan- 
newitz an age of probably 400 years. The wood is pale, 
with a reddish tinge, brown near the center, soft and 
light. It can be used for flooring; it is particularly sought 
for trays, bowls, bellows and shoe-soles; also according 
to Porcher, for wooden structures under water. " Spar- 
terie" for plaiting is obtained from the wood-shavings. The 
wood of this and some other poplars is easily converted 
into paper-pulp, which is cheaply bleached. Lines of pop- 
lars along forest streams prevent or impede the progress of 
wood conflagrations. The roots of Poplars spread widely. P. 
canescens, Sm., the Grey Poplar, is either a variety of the 
Abele or its hybrid with the Aspen, and yields a better timber 
for carpenters and millwrights. 

Populus angustifolia, James. 

North America. A rather large tree of vigorous and rapid 
growth (Vasey); adapted for shelter-plantations, particularly in 
wet localities. 

Populus balsamifera, Linne. 

The Tacamahac or Balsam-Poplar of the colder, but not the 
coldest parts of North-America; also in Siberia and on the 
Himalayan Mountains, where it ranges from 8,000 to 14,000 
feet. It will endure the winters of Norway to lat. 69 40' 
(Schuebeler). It attains a height of 80 feet. The tree may be 
lopped for cattle-fodder (Stewart and Brandis). Professor 
Meehan says that it will grow near the ocean's brink. Its 
variety is P. candicans, Ait. 

Populus ciliata, Wallich. 

Himalaya, from 4,000 to 10,000 feet. Height as much as 
70 feet with a straight trunk, which attains 10 feet in girth. 

Populus Euphratica, Olivier. 

From Algeria, dispersed to the Himalayas and Songaria, up 
to 13,500 feet. Height 50 feet. Wood harder than that of 
most Poplars, the inner wood turning blackish in old trees. It 
is used for planking and boat-building (Stewart and Brandis), 


also for beams, rafters, boxes, panelling, turnery. Cattle will 
browse on the leaves. This is the Willow of the 137th Psalm 
(C. Koch). 

Populus grandidentata, Michaux. 

The Soft Aspen. North-America. 80 feet high. Wood 
whitish, soft, very light; can be ground into pulp for paper. P. 
angulata, Ait., is another large Poplar of North-Eastern 

Populus heterophylla, Linne. 

The Downy Poplar of North-America, passing also by the 
name of Cottonwood. Height often 60 feet. The wood is very 
pale, soft and fissile. All poplars, like willows, are very import- 
ant to eliminate miasma by absorbing humidity to an enormous 
extent from stagnant swampy localities; they are likewise good 
scavengers of back-wards. 

Populus monilifera, Aiton.* {P. Canadensis, Desfontaines.) 

The Cottonwood-Tree of North-America. Height 150 
feet; stem 8 feet in diameter. One of the best Poplars for 
the production of timber, which is soft, light, easy to work, 
suited for carving and turnery; it is durable if kept dry, and 
does not readily take fire. The wooden polishing-wheels of 
glass-grinders are made of horizontal sections of the whole 
stem, about 1 inch thick, as from its softness it readily imbibes 
the polishing material. It is also useful for rails and boards, 
and supplies a fair fuel. Judge Whitning says that it has no 
rival in quickness of growth among deciduous trees. Recom- 
mended by Wessely, together with P. alba and P. nigra, for 
fixing drift-sand, on which they never become suffocated. It is 
advisable to obtain cuttings from male trees only, for planting 
along streets or near dwellings, as the minute downy seeds of the 
female trees are copiously wafted through the air, and have irri- 
tant effects on the respiratory organs. P. angulata, Aiton, the 
Water-poplar, is very closely allied. 

Populus nigra, Linne. 

The European Black Poplar, extending spontaneously to 
China; in the Himalayas up to 12,500 feet. The spreading 
variety is one of the best of trees for lining roads. This species 
includes P. dilatata, Ait., or as a contracted variety P. fastigiata, 
Desf., the Lombardy-Poplar. Greatest height 150 feet. 
Growth rapid, like that of all other Poplars. At Bensberg a 
Black Poplar formed in 80 years a stem 19 feet in circum- 
ference; at Wippach a hollow stem showed a breath of 48 feet. 
In warm zones the growth is more rapid than in Middle Europe, 


as is the case with the majority of trees. Wood soft, light and 
of loose texture, used by joiners, coopers and turners; also for 
matches; furnishing also superior charcoal for gunpowder. 
Bark employed in tanning, producing a fragrant leather; it is, 
however, not rich in tannic acid. The tree requires damp soil. 
It retains its foliage longer than most Poplars. 

Populus tremula, Linn6. 

The Aspen. Europe, North-Africa, Northern Asia to 
Japan. Height reaching 100 feet, stem-circumference 12 
feet; age 130 years or more. The Aspen is very hardy; 
in lat. 70 in Norway a tree still attained a height of 60 feet 
(Schuebeler). The Aspen-wood is white and tender, and in 
use by coopers and joiners. Like the wood of other Poplars, 
much sought for paper-mills as an admixture to the pulp. In 
Japan it is used for engraving rough works and posters. In 
Sweden largely employed for matches. 

Populus tremuloides, Michaux. 

The North-American Aspen. Ascends to alpine elevations 
of 10,000 feet. The wood is white, soft, and readily worked, 
and can be converted into paper pulp. Height as much as 50 
feet. It extends westward to California, where also a particular 
species, P. trichocarpa, Torrey, occurs. All Poplars might be 
planted in gullies, like all Willows, to intercept forest-fires; 
also generally on river banks. 

Porphyra vulgaris, Agardh. 

Temperate and cold oceans. This largely cosmopolitan sea- 
weed is mentioned here, because in Japan it undergoes regular 
cultivation. For this purpose branches of Quercus serrata are 
placed in shallow bays, where Porphyra occurs, during spring, 
and the crop is obtained from October to March, the seaweed 
being consumed in its young state. It grows best where fresh 
water enters the sea. Porphyra contains about 26 per cent, of 
nitrogenous substances (with more than 4 per cent, of nitrogen) 
and about 5 per cent, of the phosphate of potash. In Japan, 
according to the catalogue of the International Exhibitions of 
Sydney and Melbourne, the following Alga? are also consumed 
for food: Gloiopeltis intricata, G. capillaris, Laminaria saccha- 
rifera, two species of Phylloderma, Phyllitis debilis, Kallhy- 
menia dentata, Capea elongata, Alaria pinnatifolia, Gracilaria 
confervoides, Enteromorpha compressa, species of Cystoseira 
and Halochloa, Codium tomentosum, Mesogloia decipiens, and 
Gelidium corneum. 


Portulacaria Afra, Jacquin. 

South- Africa. Called Spekboom. Affords locally the prin- 
cipal food for elephants; excellent also for sheep- pasture, 
according to Professor McOwan ; hence this succulent shrub 
may deserve naturalization on stony ridges and in sandy desert 

Pouzolzia tuberosa, Wight. 

India. The turnip-shaped root of this herb is edible. The 
plant may prove hardy here, and its root may improve in culture. 

Prangos pabularia, Lindley. 

Plateaux of Mongolia and Thibet. A perennial fodder-herb, 
much relished by sheep, eligible for cold and arid localities 
and deserving naturalization on alpine pasture-grounds. Other 
perennial species exist near the Mediterranean Sea, on the 
Atlas, the Caucasus and the Indian highlands. P. pabularia is 
regarded by some as the Silphium of Arrianus. 

Pringlea antiscorbutica, W. Anderson and R. Brown.* 

The Cabbage or Horse-radish of Kerguelen's Island. The 
perennial long roots taste somewhat like horse-radish. The 
leaves in neverceasing growth are crowded cabbage-like into 
heads, beneath which the annual flower-stalks arise. The plant 
ascends mountains in its native island to the height of 1,400 
feet, but luxuriates most on the sea-border. To arctic and 
other antarctic countries it would be a boon. Probably it would 
live on our Alps. Whalers might bring us the roots and seeds 
of this remarkable plant, which seems never to have entered 
into culture yet. The plant was used as cabbage, by the cele- 
brated Captain Cook and all subsequent navigators, touching at 
yonder remote spot, and it proved to possess powerful properties 
against scurvy. Dr. Hooker observes that Pringlea can sec- 
tionally be referred to Cochlearia. The whole plant is rich in a 
pungent volatile oil. Through culture important new culinary 
varieties may probably be raised from this plant. The taste 
of this vegetable in its natural growth is like mustard and 
cress, and the Kerguelen's Land Cabbage, when boiled, 
proved a wholesome and agreeable substitute for the ordinary 

Priva laevis, Jussieu. 

Chili and the Argentine Republic. A perennial herb, the 
small tubers of which can be used for food (Philippi). 


Prosopis dulcis, Kunth. 

From California and Texas to the southern parts of the La 
Plata States. Vernacularly known as the Cashaw-, Mesquite- 
or Algaroba-Tree. A thorny shrub, growing finally to a tree, 
with a stem 2}^, feet in diameter, adapted for live-fences. 
The wood is durable and of extraordinary strength. This is 
one of the species yielding the sweetish Algaroba-pods for 
cattle-fodder, and utilized even in some instances for human 
food. The pods of the various kinds of Prosopis are adapted 
only for such animals as chew the cud, and thus get rid of 
distending gases (R. Russell). Argentina Algaroba-pods 
contain, according to Sievert, 25 to 28 per cent, grape-sugar, 
n to 17 per cent, starch, 7 to 11 per cent, protein; of organic 
acids, pectin and oiher non-nitrogenous nutritive substances 14 
to 24 per cent. They are also comparatively rich in potash, 
lime and phosphoric acid. A sparkling drink called Aloja is 
made of the fruits. This and some allied species yield the 
Algarobylla-bark for tanning; the leaves contain, according to 
Sievert, 21 per cent, tannin. The pods also of several species 
are rich in tannic acid. Mere varieties, according to Bentham 
are: P. horrida, P. juliflora, P. siliquastrum, P. glandulosa. 
The latter variety exudes a gum not unlike gum-arabic, and 
this is obtained so copiously that children could earn two to 
three dollars a day in Texas while gathering it, latterly about 
40,000 lbs being bought by druggists there. The tree attains a 
height of 30 feet; its wood is excessively hard, eligible for select 
furniture; polished it has the appearance of Mahogany. A 
short communication on the American Algaroba-tree was pre- 
sented to the Parliament of Victoria by the writer in 187 1. 
Pods of some Prosopis, used as fodder, have caused the death 
of horses in Jamaica. 

Prosopis pubescens, Bentham. 

The Tornillo .or Screw-bean. Texas, California, Mexico. 
The pods ripen at all seasons and contain much saccharine nu- 
tritive substance (J. S. Gamble). Likely available for hedges, 
with other species of other countries. Seeds can be converted 
into food (Sargent). 

Prosopis spicigera, Linne. 

India, extending to Persia. A thorny tree, also with edible 
pods, enduring some frost. It attains a height of 60 feet, but 
is of slow growth (Brandis). Serves for hedge lines. It can be 
chosen for desert land (Kurz). 

Prosopis Stephaniana, Kunth. 

Syria and Persia. A shrubby species for hedge-growth. 


Prunus Americana, Marshall. (P. nigra, Aiton.) 

Canada, Eastern United States of America. A thorny tree, 
furnishing the Yellow and Red Plum of North-America. Hardy 
in Norway northward to lat. 65 ° (Schuebeler). The fruit is 
roundish and rather small, but of pleasant taste. 

Prunus Amygdalus, J. Hooker.* {Amygdalus communis, Linne.)* 

The Almond-tree. Countries around the Mediterranean Sea 
and Orient; really indigenous on the Anti-Lebanon, in Kurdes- 
tan, Turkestan and perhaps on the Caucasus (Stewart). Both 
the sweet and bitter almond are derived from this species. The 
cost of gathering the crop in South-Europe is about 20 per 
cent, of its market value. Their uses and the value of the 
highly palatable oil obtained by pressure from them are well 
known. This oil can well be chosen as a means of providing a 
pleasant substitute for milk during sea-voyages, etc., by mixing 
with it, when required, half its weight of powdered gum-arabic, 
and adding then successively, while quickly agitating in a stone- 
mortar, about double the quantity of water; thus a palatable 
and wholesome sort of cream for tea or coffee is obtained at 
any moment. Oil of apricot-seeds is much used in India like 
almond-oil. There exist hard and soft-shelled varieties of both 
the sweet and bitter almond. Almonds can even be grown on 
sea-shores. It will bear the climate of Christiania in Norway 
(Professor Schuebeler). The crystalline amygdalin can best be 
prepared from bitter almonds, through removing the oil by 
pressure, then subjecting them to distillation with alcohol, and 
finally precipitating with ether. The volatile bitter almond-oil 
— a very dangerous liquid — is obtained by aqueous distillation. 
Dissolved in alcohol it forms the essence of almonds. This can 
also be prepared from peach kernels. 

Prunus Armeniaca, Linne. {Armeniaca vulgaris, Lamarck.) 

The Apricot-tree. China, as already indicated by Roxburgh, 
not indigenous in Armenia. Professor C. Koch points to the 
alliance of this tree to P. Sibirica, L., and he considers P. 
dasycarpa, Ehrh., to be a hybrid between the Apricot- and 
Plum-tree. A variety of Apricot occurs with a sweet kernel. 
Cold-pressed Apricot-seeds yield an oil much like that of al- 
monds. Muspratt found as much as 24 per cent. Tannin in the 
bark. The Chinese P. Mume, Sieb. and Zucc, is a peculiar 

Prunus Caroliniana, Aiton. 

Southern States of North- America. Porcher regards it as 
one of the most beautiful and manageable evergreens of the 
States. It can be cut into any shape and is much employed for 
quick and dense hedges. It can be grown on coast-land. 


Prunus cerasifera, Ehrhart. {P. Myrobalanus, Desfont.) 

The Cherry-Plum tree. Countries at and near the Caspian 
Sea. The fruits known also as Mirabelle-Plums, whence long 
ago the objectionable designation Myrobalane-Plum arose. 
Among all kindred species it is this one which flowers earliest, 
indeed before the development of its leaves, hence its claims 
for decorative horticulture. On this and some other cultivated 
species see also Koch's Dendrologie, 1869. 

Prunus Cerasus, Linne. 

The Cherry-tree. Orient, especially in the countries near the 
Caspian Sea. The name applies strictly only to the species dis- 
tinguished by never assuming large dimensions, by emitting 
suckers, by smoothness of leaves and austerity and acidity of 
fruit. P. avium, Linne, the sweet-fruited Cherry-tree attains a 
high age, when the stem may acquire a diameter of 4 feet, pro- 
duces no suckers and has downy more wrinkled leaves, irrespec- 
tive of some few other discrepancies. It afforded its fruit 
even to the ancient inhabitants of Switzerland in prehistoric 
times (Heer, Mortillet), and the tree was cultivated by the 
Greeks from early historic records (A. de Candolle). The 
Cherry-tree is hardy in Norway to lat. 66° 30' (Schuebeler). 

Prunus Chisasa, Michaux. (Oldest name P. angustifolia, Marsh.) 

North- America, west of the Mississippi. On the prairies it is 
only 3 to 4 feet high. Fruit spherical, red, rather small, with a 
tender usually agreeable pulp. Other species with edible fruit 
occur in North-America, such as P. pumila, L., P. Pennsyl- 
vania, L., P. Virginiana, L., but their fruits are too small 
to render these plants of importance for orchard culture, though 
they also may become enlarged by artificial treatment. 

Prunus demissa, Walpers. 

California. The Wild Plum of Utah. Worthy of improving 
cultivation. It fruits abundantly, often when only 2 or 3 feet 
high. It is of near affinity to P. Virginiana. 

Prunus domestica, Linne. 

Plum-tree, Damson-tree, Prune-tree. From the Black Sea to 
Western China. In the countries at the Mediterranean Sea 
numerous varieties were cultivated even at the commence- 
ment of the Christian era. In Norway this species endures the 
winter to lat. 64 (Professor Schuebeler). 

Prunus ilicifolia, Nuttall. 

California. In deep rich soil, valuable for evergreen hedges 
of intricate growth. Fruit about J4 inch diameter, red or black, 
of a pleasant sub-acid flavor, but somewhat astringent (Gib- 


Prunus insititia, Linn6. 

The Bullace. Middle and Southern Europe, North-Africa, 
West-Asia to the Himalayan mountains. Professor Heer has 
proved that the lacustrine Swiss of the Stone-age were already- 
acquainted with the Bullace as well as the Sloe. This species 
yields some of the Damascene-Plums. P. cerasifera seems de- 
scended from P. insititia, and this again may be the original 
wild plant of P. domestica (Loudon, J. Hooker). 

Prunus Mahaleb, Linn6. 

South Europe and South-Western Asia. It deserves some 
attention on account of its scented seeds and also odorous 
wood, the latter used in turnery for pipes and other articles. 
The flowers are in use for perfumes. The tree is hardy in 
Norway to lat. 63 26'. 

Prunus maritima, Wangenheim. 

The Beach-Plum of North America. A shrubby species, of 
.service not only for covering coast-sands, but also for its fruit, 
which is crimson or purple, globular, measuring from ^2 to 
1 inch. Information on these and other varieties may be 
sought in " Hogg's Fruit Manual." The Almond (Amygdalus 
communis, L.) and the Peach (Amygdalus Persica, L.) also 
belong generically to Prunus, as indicated in 181 2 by Stokes 
("Bot. Mat. Med.," iii., 101) and in 1813 by F. G. Hayne 
("Arznei-Gewachse," iv., 38), and finally settled by J. D. 
Hooker (Benth. and Hook., gen. pi., i., 610), for which therefore 
the names P. Amygdalus and P. Persica should now be adopted. 

Prunus Pseudo-Cerasus, Lindley. {P. Puddum, Roxburgh.) 

The " Sakura " of Japan, extending to Upper India. A large 
shady tree, the stem attaining two feet in diameter, charming 
to view when bearing its profusion of flowers. The fruit is of 
the size of small cherries and of pleasant and refreshing taste, 
though never quite sweet (Wallich). This is the tree which 
supplies mainly the wood so extensively required for xylography 
in Japan (Dupont). . 

Prunus serotina, Ehrhart. 

The Black Cherry-tree of North-America. Fruit slightly 
bitter, but with a pleasant vinous flavor; wood compact, light, 
easily worked, not liable to warp (Sargent), very valuable for 
cabinet and sash-makers (A. Gray). In Virginia and Alabama 
the tree attains a height of 100 feet, with a stem 4 feet in diam- 
eter; it prefers rich porous soil in the upper parts of valleys. 
Wood pale red, dense, fine-grained; when polished as beautiful 
as mahogany-wood (Robb and Simmonds). It will live on the 


poorest soil, and even within the salt spray of the coast. Read- 
ily raised from seeds and transplanted; not succumbing under 
rough usage (Sargent). 

Prunus spinosa, Linn6, 

The Sloe or Blackthorn. Wild in many parts of Europe. 
Indigenous in Norway to lat. 6o° 8', but it will endure 
the winter even to lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler). With its 
flowers it is one of the earliest plants to announce the 
spring. Its tendency to throw out suckers renders' the bush 
less adapted for hedges of gardens than of fields, but these 
suckers furnish material for walking-sticks. The small globular 
fruits can be made into preserves. Of medicinal value are P. 
Lauro-Cerasus, L., the evergreen Cherry-Laurel from the 
Orient, and P. Padus, L., the deciduous Bird Cherry, which 
extends from Europe to North- Africa and West-Asia. These 
and most other species contain amygdalin in their foliage and 
in some other parts. Perhaps the fruit of some of the species 
from Eastern Asia, California and tropical America may be 
improved by horticultural skill. The Sloe and others might 
with advantage be naturalized on forest streams. 

Prunus tomentosa, Thunberg. 

North China. A very hardy species with cherry-like edible 

Prunus Virginiana, Linn6. 

The Choke Cherry-tree of the United States. In a mild 
clime and fertile soil this tree attains a height of 100 feet and a 
stem circumference of 16 feet. Endures the winters of Nor- 
way to lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler). The wood is compact, fine- 
grained, and not liable to warp when perfectly seasoned, of a 
dull light-red tint, deepening with age. The fruit finally loses 
its acerbity. 

Psamma arenaria, Roemer and Schultes.* {P. littoralis, Beauvois; Cala- 
magrostis arenaria, Roth.) 

The Morram, Marrem or Bent-Grass. Sand-coasts of 
Europe, North- Africa and North-America. One of the most 
important of reedy grasses, with long descending roots, for 
binding moving drift- sands on the sea-shore, for the consolida- 
tion of which this tall grass and Elymus arenarius are chiefly 
employed in Europe. It delights in the worst of drift-sands, 
and for its full development gradual accumulation of fresh 
sands around it becomes necessary (Wessely): hence it never 
gets suffocated. The plant will by gradual upgrowth finally 
form stems and roots, sanded into a depth of fully 100 feet. 


Psamma Baltica, R. and S., from the Baltic and North Seas, 
serves the same purpose. Both can also be used in the manner 
of Sparta for paper material, for tying and for mats. Like 
Elymus arenarius, it is not touched by grazing animals. It col- 
lects the sand-heaps at the tops of ridges, while the Elymus 
fastens their sides. 

Psidium acidum, Martius. 

Higher regions on the Amazon-River. A tree at length 
30 feet high; its Guava- fruit pale yellow and of apple-size, 

Psidium Araca, Raddi. 

From the West-Indies and Guiana to Peru and Southern Brazil, 
where it is found in dry high-lying places. This is one of the 
edible Guavas, already recorded by Piso and Marcgrav. The 
greenish-yellow berry is of exquisite taste. 

Psidium arboreum, Vellozo. 

Brazil; province of Rio de Janeiro. This Guava-fruit measures 
about one inch, and is of excellent flavor. 

Psidium Cattleyanum, Sabine.* 

The Purple Guava. Brazil and Uruguay. One of the hard- 
iest of the Guava-bushes, attaining finally a height of 20 feet. 
The purple berries are seldom above an inch long, but of de- 
licious flavor and taste, resembling thus far strawberries. P. 
buxifolium, Nutt., of Florida, seems nearly related to this 

Psidium chrysophjdlum, F. v. Mueller. {Abbevillea chrysophylla, Berg.) 

The Guabiroba Do Mato of South-Brazil. This tree attains a 
height of about 30 feet. The fruit is generally not larger than a 
cherry. Perhaps other species of the section Abbevillea would 
be hardy and worthy of cultivation. 

Psidium cinereum, Martius. 

Brazil, provinces Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo. Also yield- 
ing an edible fruit. 

Psidium cordatum, Sims. 

The Spice-Guava. West-Indies. This attains the height 
of a tree. Its fruit is edible. Probably hardy in sub-tropic 

Psidium cuneatum. Cambessedes. 

Brazil, province Minas Geraes. Fruit greenish, of the size 
of a Mirabelle-Plum. 


Psidium grandifolium, Martius. 

Brazil, provinces Rio Grand do Sul, Parana, Sao Paulo, 
Minas Geraes, where the climate is similar to Southern Queens- 
land. A shrub of rather dwarf growth. The berries edible, 
size of a walnut. 

Psidium Guayava, Raddi.* (P. pomiferum, Linne; P. pyriferum, Linne.) 

The large Yellow Guava. From the West-Indies and Mexico 
to South-Brazil. For this handsome evergreen and useful bush 
universal attention should be secured anywhere in warm low- 
lands, for the sake of its aromatic wholesome berries, which 
will attain the size of a hen's egg, and can be converted into a 
delicious jelly. The pulp is generally cream-colored or red- 
dish, but varies in the many varieties, which have arisen in cul- 
ture, some of them bearing all the year round. Propagation is 
easy from suckers, cuttings, or seeds. Many other berry-bear- 
ing Myrtaceae of the genera Psidium, Myrtus, Myrcia, Marliera, 
Calyptranthes and Eugenia furnish edible fruits in Brazil and 
other tropical countries; but we are not aware of their degrees of 
hardiness. Berg enumerates as esculent more than half a hun- 
dred from Brazil alone, of which the species of Campomanesia 
may safely be transferred to Psidium. 

Psidium incanescens, Martius. 

Brazil, from Minas Geraes to Rio Grand do Sul. This Guava- 
bush attains a height of 8 feet. Berry edible. 

Psidium lineatifolium, Persoon. 

Mountains of Brazil. Berry about i inch in diameter. 
Psidium malnifolium, F. v. Mueller. (Catnpomanesia malifolia, Berg.) 

Uruguay. Berry about i inch in diameter. 

Psidium polycarpon, Al. Anderson.* 

From Guiana to Brazil, also in Trinidad. A comparatively 
small shrub, bearing prolifically and almost continuously its 
yellow berries, which are of the size of a large cherry, and of 
exquisite taste. 

Psidium rufum, Martius. 

Brazil, in the province of Minas Geraes, on sub-alpine heights. 
This Guava-bush gains finally a height of 10 feet, and is prob- 
ably the hardiest of all the species producing palatable fruit. 
Psoralea esculenta, Pursh. 

North- America. This herb is mentioned here, as its tuber- 
ous roots, known as the Prairie-Turnips, may be capable of 
great improvement by cultivation, and of thus becoming a 
valuable esculent. 


Psychotria Eckloniana, F. V. Mueller. (Grumilia cymosa, E. Meyer.) 

South-Africa. Dr. Pappe describes the wood of this tree as 
of a beautiful citron-yellow. 

Pterocarpus Indicus, Roxburgh. 

The Lingo of China and India. A tree of considerable di- 
mensions, famed for its flame-red wood. It furnishes also a 
kind of dragon-blood resin. 

Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxburgh. 

India, ascending in Ceylon and the Circars to at least 3,000 
feet altitude; hence this tree would doubtless grow without 
protection in those tracts of the temperate zone which are free 
from frost. It exudes the best medical kino, which contains 
about 75 per cent, of tannic acid. The foliage is deciduous. 
P. santalinus, Linne fil., which provides the Saunders or 
Red Sandal-Wood, is also indigenous to the mountains of 
India, and important for dye-purposes in cultures of Japan. 

Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Kunth. 

From Central Asiatic Russia to Persia. A kind of Walnut- 
tree, which, with P. stenoptera, Cas. de Cand., on Dr. Hance's 
recommendation, should be adopted as trees for both ornament 
and timber, and so perhaps also the Japanese species, P. 
rhoifolia, Sieb. & Zucc. 

Ptychosperma Alexandrae, F. v. Mueller. 

The Alexandra Palm. Queensland, as well in tropical as 
extra tropical latitudes. The tallest of Australian Palms, and 
one of the noblest forms in the whole empire of vegetation. It 
exceeds 100 feet in height, and is likely destined to grace any 
shady moist grove free from frost, as it seems less tender than 
most palms. The demand for seeds has already been enor- 

Ptychosperma Arfakiana, Beccari. 

New Guinea, reaching elevations of 5,000 feet in compara- 
tively temperate regions. Height as much as 30 feet. 

Ptychosperma Cunninghami, Hermann Wendland. 

East- Australia, as far south as Illawarra; thus one of the 
most southern of all Palms. This also is a very high species, 
destined to take a prominent position in decorative plantations. 
Several congeners occur in Fiji and other islands of the Pacific 
Ocean, and others again might be obtained from India, but 
they are probably not so hardy as those mentioned. Though 
strictly speaking of no industrial value, these palms are import- 
ant for horticultural trade, and are objects eminently fitted for 
experiments in acclimation. 


Ptychosperma disticha, Miquel. (Areca disticha, Griffith.) 
Assam, up to 4,000 feet. 

Ptychosperma elegans, Blume. {P. Seaforthia, Miquel; Seaforthia elegans, 
R. Brown.) 

Littoral forests of tropical Australia. Also a lofty magnificent 
Feather Palm. Its leaflets are erose. It may prove hardy in 
mild extra-tropic regions. 

Ptychosperma Musschenbroekiana, Beccari. 

Ternate, Insular India, up to 3,000 feet. Height of this 
palm reaching 90 feet. Almost sure to be hardy in sheltered 
localities of the warmer temperate zone. 

Pueraria Thunbergiana, Bentham. 

Japan. There starch is prepared from the tubers of this 

Pueraria tuberosa, De Candolle. 

South Asia, up to 4,000 feet. A tall woody twiner. Its large 
tubers are edible and might improve by culture. 

Pugionium cornutum, Gaertner. 

From the Caspian Sea to China. This herb is grown by the 
Mongols as a vegetable (Hance). 

Punica Granatum, Linne. 

The Pomegranate. North Africa and South Western Asia, 
in the Himalayas up to 6,000 feet. Well-known for its showy 
habit, rich-colored flowers, peculiar fruit and medicinal astrin- 
gency, but much overlooked regarding its value as a hedge- 
plant. The bark contains 32 per cent, tannin (Muspratt), and 
is also used for dyeing the yellow Morocco leather (Oliver). 
The peel of the fruit serves likewise for dye. 

Pycnanthemum incanum, Michaux. 

North America. A perennial herb, in odor resembling both 
Penny-royal and Spearmint. It likes to grow on rocky wood- 
land, and on such it might be easily naturalized. 

Pycnanthemum montanum, Michaux. 

The Mountain Mint of North America. A perennial herb of 
pleasant, aromatic, mint-like taste. These two particular 
species have been chosen from several North American kinds 
to demonstrate, that we may add by their introduction to the 
variety of our odorous garden herbs. They may also be sub- 
jected with advantage to distillation. 


Pyrularia edulis, Meissner. 

Nepal, Khasia, Sikkim. A large umbrageous tree. The 
drupaceous fruit is used by the inhabitants for food. A few 
other species occur in Upper India, one on the high mountains 
of Ceylon and one in North America. The latter, P. pubera, 
Mich., can be utilized for the oil of its nuts. 

Pyrus coronaria, Linne. 

The Crab Apple of North America. This showy species 
is mentioned here as worthy of trial culture, since it is likely 
that it would serve well as stock for grafting. Best grown in 
glades. Wood nearly as tough for screw work as that of the 
Pear Tree (Robb). 

Pyrus communis, Linne. 

The Pear Tree. Middle and Southern Europe, Western 
Asia. Well known even at the time of Homer; and many 
varieties were cultivated in Italy at the commencement 
of the Christian era; pears were available also to the lacrustine 
people of Switzerland, Lombardy and Savoy, but seemingly not 
so extensively as the apple. The pear tree is cultivated up to 10,- 
000 feet in the Himalayas; like the apple tree, it sets no fruit in 
tropical regions, but on the other hand it will bear a good deal 
of frost, being grown in Norway to Lat. 63 52'. The tree attains 
an age of over three hundred years, fully bearing. At Yarmouth, 
a tree over 100 years old has borne as many as 26,800 pears 
annually; the circumference of its crown is 126 feet (Masters). 
Pear-wood is used by wood-engravers, turners and instrument- 
makers. A bitter glycosid, namely, phlorrhizin, is attainable 
from the bark of apple and pear trees, particularly from that of 
the root; while a volatile alkaloid, namely, trimethylamin, 
can be prepared from the flowers. Pyrus auricularis, Knoop, 
(P. Polveria, L.), the Bollwiller Pear, is a hybrid between P. com- 
munis and P. Aria, Ehrh. Curious fruits have been produced 
latterly in North America, by the hybridization of the apple 
with the pear. The generic writing of Pirus is inadmissible, as 
even Plinius used both Pirus and Pyrus in his writings, and as 
the latter wording was already adopted by Malpighi and fixed 
for the species by Linne. 

Pyrus Cydonia, Linne. (Cydonia vulgaris, Persoon). 

The Quince. Countries at the Caspian Sea. Reared in 
South Europe from antiquity; in the Himalayas its culture 
reaches to 5,500 feet elevation. The Portuguese variety bears 
extremely large fruit. The prepared Quince is one of the 
most agreeable of fruits. The seeds impart copiously to 
water a tasteless mucilage. Quinces are not attacked by 



Pyrus Germanica, J. Hooker. (Mesflilus Germanica, Linne.) 

The Medlar. Southern Europe, Western Asia. Of this spe- 
cies a large variety exists, with large fruits, of particularly- 
pleasant taste. The ordinary Medlar fruits become edible after 
some storage. 

Pyrus Japonica, Thunberg. 

Japan. One of the prettiest of small hedge-bushes. Under 
favorable circumstances it will produce its quince-like fruit. 

Pyrus Malus, Linne. 

The Apple tree. Europe, Western Asia, ascending the Him- 
alayas to n,ooo feet. Shown to have been in culture in 
Switzerland and Northern Italy prior to historic records, 
though Professor C. Koch regards neither the wild and variable 
Crab trees nor the Pear, as original denizens of Middle and 
Northern Europe, but simply as strayed from cultivation and 
degenerated. Koch traces some sorts of cultivated apples to 
P. pumila, Miller, of South-West Asia; as other original forms 
he notes the P. dasyphylla, Borkh., P. silvestris and P. pruni- 
folia, Willd., of Middle and Western Asia. Apple trees will en- 
dure the winters of Norway to lat. 65 28' (Schuebeler). The 
best dried apples and similar fruits, are obtained by submitting 
them, according to a new California method, to a blast of 
cold air. The United States sent to England in the season 
1880-1 about 1,350,000 barrels of apples, irrespective of the 
large quantity sent by Canada. 

Pyrus nivalis, Jacquin. 

The Snow Pear. Middle and South Europe. This would 
be adapted for orchards in higher mountain regions. The fruit 
becomes soft and edible through exposure to snow. P. amyg- 
daliformis, Villars, is probably the wild state of this tree. 

Pyrus salicifolia, Linne. 

Greece, Turkey, Persia, South-West Russia. Hardy at 
Christiania like the preceding. Though its fruit, which softens 
slowly, is edible, this tree is mainly utilized as a superior stock 
for grafting. 

■ Quercus ^Egilops, Linne.* 

South Europe, also Syria. A nearly evergreen tree of the 
size of the British oak. The cups, known as Valonia, 
used for tanning and dyeing; the unripe acorns, called 
Camata or Camatena, for the same purpose. Valonia is 
mainly exported from Smyrna to London (33,802 tons in 
1876). Greece used to produce annually 10,000 tons, worth 


as much as ^18 per ton. The supply is inadequate to 
present demand. Valonia (Wallones) produces a rich bloom 
on leather, which latter also becomes less permeable to 
water (Muspratt). The ripe acorns are eaten raw or boiled. 
The tree is also recommended as a fine avenue tree. It bears 
considerable frost. The wood is capital for furniture. 

Quercus agrifolia, Nee. 

California and Mexico. One of the most magnificent among 
evergreen Oaks, with dense, wide-spreading foliage. The thick 
bark available for tanning (C. Hoffmann). According to Dr. 
Gibbons this tree attains a height of ioo feet, a stem diameter 
of 8 feet, and a crown of 125 feet in diameter. Wood-cutters 
distinguish two varieties, one with red and one with white wood. 
It grows naturally near the sea, and luxuriates in the deep soil of 
valleys, but also on the tops of mountains. The value of its 
timber is not fully appreciated. Although brittle when green 
and perishable if exposed to the weather, it becomes almost as 
hard and strong as Live Oak, if properly seasoned, and is es- 
pecially adapted for ships' knees. 

Quercus alba, Linne.* 

The White or Quebec Oak. From Canada to Florida, west 
to Texas. A most valuable timber-tree, becoming 100 feet high; 
diameter of stem 7 feet, trunk sometimes 65 feet long to first 
branch. This tree attains a great age; succeeds best in rich 
woodlands; and is of quicker growth than the English Oak. 
The timber is pliable, most durable, one of the very best of all 
woods for casks, also of first-class value for cabinet work, for 
machinery, spokes, naves, beams, plough-handles, agricultural 
implements, carriages, flooring, basket material (Sargent) and 
railway-ties (Robb); it is also largely employed in ship-build- 
ing; the young saplings serve for hoops and whip-handles. 
The bark contains about 8 per cent, tannin. 

Quercus annulata, Smith. 

Upper India. A large evergreen Oak, which provides a very 
good timber. It does not ascend quite so high as Q. incana. 
Q. spicata, Smith, another very large Indian Oak, ascends 
only 5,000 feet; it is known also from Borneo, Java, and 

Quercus aquatica, Walter. 

North America. Height of tree often 60 feet; it furnishes a 
superior bark for tanning, also wood for ship-building. This 
Oak should be chosen for planting in wet ground or for border- 
ing streams. Although the wood is not of much value, yet the 
tree is a great favorite as a shade-tree, being of rapid growth 
and fine outline. 


Quercus bicolor, Willdenow. 

South-Eastern States of North America. Closely allied to 
Q. Prinus, but vernacularly distinguished as Basket Oak; it 
thrives best in deep, damp forest-soil, and is regarded as the 
most important hardwood tree in the Gulf region; height 
reaching ioo feet but growth comparatively slow; wood similar 
in applicability to that of the White Oak; it is split readily 
into thin strips of great strength and flexibility for rough 
baskets (Dr. C. Mohr.) 

Quercus Castanea, Nee. 

The Mexican Chestnut Oak. Evergreen. It furnishes edible 

Quercus Cerris, Linne. 

Turkey or Mossy-cupped Oak. South Europe, South-West- 
ern Asia. Hardy at Christiania. Of the height of the English 
Oak, in suitable localities of quick growth. The foliage decid- 
uous, or also evergreen. The wood available for wheelwrights, 
cabinet-makers, turners, coopers; also for building purposes. 
Structure of the wood similar to that of the British Oak; the 
sapwood larger, the heartwood of a more saturated brown, and 
the large rays more numerous, giving it a most varied and 
beautiful wainscot-grain (Brandis). 

Quercus Chinensis, Bunge. 

North China. One of the hardiest among the evergreen 

Quercus chrysolepis, Liebmann. 

California. According to Vasey this evergreen Oak rarely 
exceeds 50 feet in height, but supplies the hardest oak-wood on 
the Pacific coast. Dr. Gibbons observes that it holds a primary 
rank among Californian forest trees, but is of sparse occurrence; 
in suitable soil on the sides of mountains it is of giant growth, 
spreading out in magnificent proportions. In toughness and 
density of wood it represents the Live Oak of Florida. 

Quercus coccifera, Linne. 

The deciduous Kermes-Oak of South-Europe, North-Africa 
and South-Western Asia. So called from the red dye furnished 
by the Coccus ilicis from this Oak. It also supplies tanner's 
bark containing about 8 per cent, tannin (Muspratt). The huge 
and ancient Abraham's Oak belongs to this species. The tree 
likes rich woodlands. 


Quercus coccinea, Wangenheim. 

The Black Oak of North-America. Height to about ioo 
feet; stem diameter 5 feet. Foliage deciduous. The tree 
thrives best in rich woodlands and moist soil. The timber is 
almost as durable as that of the White Oak, and in use for floor- 
ing and other carpenter's work. The yellow dye, known as 
quercitron, comes from this tree; it is much more powerful than 
that of Woad (Bancroft). With alumina the tinge of the bark 
is bright yellow, with oxyde of tin it is orange, with oxyde 
of iron it is drab (Porcher). Q. tinctoria, Bartram, has 
been called a variety of this. According to Sargent, 
it produces timber of close grain and great durability, 
utilized for carriage building, cooperage and various con- 
structions; the bitter inner bark yields a yellow dye. The 
bark of the variety called Scarlet Oak is practically far in- 
ferior in value to that of the Black Oak (Meehan). Bark con- 
tains about 8 per cent, of tannic acid. Dr. Engelmann found 
the Black Oaks twice as rapid in growth as the White Oaks of the 
United States. Bartram's Oak (Q. heterophylla) is, accord- 
ing to him, a hybrid between the Willow Oak and Scarlet Oak. 
Hybrid Oaks produce acorns capable of germination. 

Quercus cornea, Loureiro. 

China. An evergreen tree at length 40 feet high. Acorns 
used for food. 

Quercus cuspidata, Thunberg. 

Japan. A magnificent evergreen Oak, grand in its propor- 
tions, bears acorns in bunches or strings, of very sweet taste 
when baked like chestnuts, but only of the size of kidney-beans 
(F. C. Christy). The acorns, when boiled or roasted, are edible 
and regularly sold in Japan for food (Rein). 

Quercus densiflora, Hocker and Arnott. 

Californian Chestnut-Oak. A large evergreen tree of beauti- 
ful outline, dense foliage and compact growth. Very hardy, 
having withstood the severest winters at Edinburgh with a tem- 
perature of o° F. (Gorlie). Bark very valuable for tanning; 
wood, however, subject to rapid decay (Prof. Bolander). 

Quercus dentata, Thunberg.* 

Japan. This is one of the species on which the Oak Silkworm 
(the Yama Mayon) lives. Franchet and Savatier enumerate 22 
distinct species of Oaks as indigenous to Japan. 

Quercus Douglasii, Hooker and Arnott. 

The Blue Oak. California. Stem reaching 7 feet in circum- 
ference (Brewer). Resembles the White Oak in the quality of 
its timber. 


Quercus dilatata, Lindley. 

From the Himalayas to Afghanistan, at elevations from 4,500 
to 10,000 feet. Evergreen. Height becoming 100 feet; crown 
very shady, lopped for sheep fodder. The hard, heavy and 
durable wood much used for building purposes and implements 

Quercus falcata, Michaux. 

North-America. Known as Spanish Oak. A tree attaining 
a height of 80 feet, with a stem 5 feet in diameter. Foliage 
deciduous. It lives in dry sandy ground, and can also be util- 
ized for sea-coasts. Produces an excellent tanners' bark, and 
also galls for superior ink. The wood is finer-grained and 
more durable than that of Q. rubra, used for staves, railway- 
carriages and in ship-building (C. Mohr). 

Quercus Garryana, Douglas. 

North-West America, along the coast between the 38th and 
50th degrees. A tree, 100 feet high or more, with a stem often 6 
feet in diameter. This, with Q. Douglasii and Q. lobata, passes 
as California White Oak. The timber is remarkably pale for an 
Oak, hard and fine-grained, of great strength and durability, 
well suited for almost every kind of construction, for which the 
White or the European Oak is employed. The acorns, being 
sweet and agreeable, form an excellent mast for hogs. 

Quercus glabra, Thunberg. 

Japan. Evergreen. The acorns are consumed for food by 
the Japanese. 

Quercus glauca, Thunberg. 

The Kashi of Japan. A truly magnificent evergreen tree, 
80 feet high. The hard and close-grained wood is chosen there 
for select tools, particularly planes and utensils (Christy). 

Quercus Ilex, Linne. 

The Holly-Oak of South-Europe; extending also to Algeria 
and to the Himalayas, which it ascends up to about 10,000 feet. 
Height of tree rather less than that of the English Oak, but 
occasionally it is very lofty. Wood in use for ship-building and 
wheelwright's work, bark for tanning. From varieties of this 
tree are obtained the sweet and nourishing Ballota and Chest- 
nut acorns, as much as 20 bushels occasionally from one tree in 
a season. 

Quercus incana, Roxburgh. 

Himalayas, at elevations between 3,000 and 8,000 feet. A 
beautiful evergreen tree of great dimensions. Mr. Simmonds 


reminds us that a silkworm (Antheraea Roylei), producing large 
cocoons, lives on this oak. In its native localities Q. lanuginosa, 
D. Don, is associated with it. Q. lamellosa, Smith, of the 
same region, attains a height of 120 feet, with a straight trunk 
of 60 feet, 15 feet in girth (Brandis). 

Quercus infectoria, Oliver. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. A tree, with 
deciduous foliage. The galls of commerce are chiefly obtained 
from this species. A variety, Q. Lusitanica, Webb, or Q. 
Mirbeckii, Durieu, reaches a height of 120 feet, with a stem 
girth of 20 feet. Some states of this are almost evergreen. 

Quercus lancifolia, Roxburgh (not Chamisso.) 

A tall evergreen timber tree of the Himalayas. Wood valued 
for its durability; its medullary rays exceedingly fine (Brandis). 

Quercus lobata, Nee. * 

California. The Sacramento White Oak. A tree 150 feet 
high with a stem six feet in diameter, with wide-spreading 
branches, which often bend to the ground. The wood is brittle 
when green, but hard and tough when seasoned; its value has 
been much underrated (Gibbons). ' The acorns of this oak used 
to form a large proportion of the winter-food of the aborginal 
inhabitants of North California. 

Quercus lyrata, Walter. 

The Overcup Oak of the South-eastern States of North 
America, extending from South Illinois to Florida and Louisi- 
ana. A tree of majestic size, with a stem four feet in diameter. 
Lately recommended as valuable for timber cultivation, especi- 
ally in wet ground. 

Quercus macrocarpa, Michaux. 

The Bur Qak of North America. Tree 70 feet high, stem- 
diameter sometimes 8 feet. Hardy at Christiania. The timber 
regarded by some as nearly as good as that of the White Oak. 
The bark contains about 8 per cent, tannin. 

Quercus macrolepsis, Kotschy.* 

Greece. This evergreen oak also yields Valonia, being 
closely allied to Q. segilops. 

Quercus magnolifolia, Nee. 

Mexico, in cooler mountain regions. From Nee's note it 
would appear that he saw on this oak the numerous caterpillars 
which construct ovate cocoons eight inches long, consisting of 
grey silk, which is manufactured into stockings and hand- 


Quercus Mongolica, Fischer.* 

Manchuria. It is on this tree and on Q. serrata and Q. 
dentata that the silk insect peculiar to Oak trees mainly, if not 
solely, is reared, as shown by Dr. Hance. 

Quercus Muehlenbergii, Engelmann. 

Middle and Eastern States of North America. A middle- 
sized tree; its wood compact, strong, durable for posts and 
railway ties (Sargent). 

Quercus obtusiloba, Michaux. 

North America. This Oak will live on sandy or otherwise 
sterile soil. Wood very durable (A. Gray). 

Quercus palustris, Du Roi. 

The Pin Oak or Marsh Oak of North America. Hardy at 
Christiania. Height at length eighty feet; of quick growth. 
The wood, though fine-grained, is strong and tough. It is 
ornamental for furniture on account of the strong develop- 
ment of medullary rays. 

Quercus Phellos, Linne. 

The Willow Oak of the Eastern States of North America, in 
low damp forest land attaining a stem girth of 12 feet. The 
wood is hard, compact and very elastic, suitable for railway 
carriages (Dr. C. Mohr). The acorns available for food. A 
variety or closely allied species is the shingle oak, Q. imbri- 
caria, Mich. The comparative value of the very numerous 
Cis and Trans-Atlantic Oaks, but little as yet understood either 
for avenue purposes or timber plantations, should be tested with 
care in botanic gardens. Even recently Oaks have been dis- 
covered on the mountains of New Guinea. 

Quercus Prinus, Linne. 

The North American Swamp Oak or Chestnut Oak. A tree 
becoming 90 feet high; stem as much as 15 feet in girth: 
generally growing on hills (Meehan). The tree is hardy in 
Norway to lat. 59 55'. Foliage deciduous. Wood strong 
and elastic, but more porous and of a coarser grain than that 
of the White Oak; according to Porcher it is easy to split 
and not hard, used for building purposes, also cooperage. A 
red dye is produced from the bark; the latter is one of the 
most important among oak barks for tanning, furnishing a 
very solid and durable leather. 

Quercus Robur, Linn6.* 

The British Oak. Extending through the greatest part of 
Europe, also to Western Asia, attaining a great age and an 


enormous size. It endures the frosts of Norway as far North 
, as 65 54'; in lat. 59 40' a tree measured was 125 feet high 
and 25 feet in circumference of stem (Schuebeler). Over 700 
sound annual rings have been counted. At Ditton's Park, owned 
by the Duke of.Buccleugh, is an ancient Oak, assumed to be 
600 years old, with a stem circumference of 30 feet at some 
distance (a few feet) from the ground (Dr. Masters and Th. 
Moore). It has been known to have a stem 12 feet in diameter 
at the base, 10 feet in the middle and 5 feet at the main 
branches. Two varieties are distinguished; 1, Q_. sessiliflora, 
Salisbury, the Durmast- Oak, with a darker, heavier timber, 
more elastic, less fissile, easier to bend under steam. This tree 
is also the quicker of the two in growth, and lives in poorer 
soil. Its bark is richer in medicinal dyeing and tanning prin- 
ciples. Extract of Oak-bark for tanners' use fetches about 
£i& per ton in the London market; the best oak bark yields 
16 to 20 per cent, tannin. 2, Q. pedunculata, Ehrh. This 
variety supplies most of the oak-timber in Britain for ship- 
building, and is the best for cabinet-makers' and joiners' 
work. In Britain it is attacked by Scolytus multistriatus. Mr. 
W. Winter noticed that the British Oak withstood an occasional 
shade temperature of 118 degrees F. in Riverina, New South- 
Wales. The long continued adherence of dead leaves in the 
cool and most verdant season renders this Oak not so well 
adapted for pleasure-grounds in the warmer parts of the 
temperate zone as many others, particularly evergreen Oaks. 
The English Oak is however of quicker growth than most 
other species. 

Quercus rubra, Litine. 

The Red-Oak of North- America. Height reaching about 100 
feet; diameter of stem 4 feet. A tree content with poor soil. 
The wood, though coarse, is of rigidity and has not the fault of 
warping. It is of fair quality for staves (Simmonds), and even 
building purposes, but variable in quality according to soil and 
clime (Sargent). The bark is rich in tannin. Autumnal tint of 
foliage beautifully red. The acorns, which are produced in 
great abundance, are relished by hogs. The tree is hardy at 

Quercus semecarpifolia, Smith. 

In the Himalayas and adjoining ranges up to 10,000 feet. 
The largest of the Oaks of India, upwards of 100 feet high, 
with a stem often 18 feet in girth. Leafless for a short time. It 
furnishes a hard and heavy timber of fair quality. 


Quercus serrata, Thunberg.* 

One of the twenty-three known Japanese Oaks; extending to 
China and Nepal. A good avenue tree, though deciduous. It 
yields the best food for the Oak-silkworm (Bombyx Yamamai). 
It is recommended to pack acorns intended for far distances in 
dry moss or sand, to secure retention of vitality; moreover they 
must be quite fresh, when packed. 

Quercus sideroxyla, Humboldt. 

Mountains of Mexico up to 8,000 feet elevation. An Oak of great 
size; timber compact, almost imperishable in water. Q. lanceo- 
lata, Q. chrysophylla, Q_. reticulata, Q. laurina, Q. obtusata, 
Q. glaucescens, Q. Xalapensis, Humb. and Q. acutifolia, N£e 
are among the many other highly important timber Oaks of 
the cooler regions of Mexico. No printed records seem extant 
concerning the technology of the numerous Mexican Oaks, 
though doubtless their respective values are well known to local 
artisans. According to the Abbe and Surgeon Liturgie, one of 
the Mexican Oaks, near San Juan, nourishes a Bombyx the 
cocoons of which are spun by the natives into silk (Tschi- 

Quercus Skinneri, Bentham. 

Mexico. Foliage deciduous. The acorns of this Oak meas- 
ure nearly 6 inches in circumference, and are available for 
feeding various domestic animals. 

Quercus stellata, Wangenheim. 

The Post-Oak of North-east America. Content with poor 
and even sandy soil, but not a large tree On account of its 
very durable and dense wood it is much in requisition there for 
posts, and is particularly prized for ship building, also sought 
for railroad ties. 

Quercus Suber, Linne.* 

The Cork-Oak of South-Europe and North-Africa. It is 
evergreen and attains an age of fully two hundred years. After 
about twenty years it can be stripped of its bark every six or 
seven years; but the best cork is obtained from trees over forty 
years old. Height of the tree finally about 40 feet. Acorns of 
sweetish taste. Mr. W. Robinson found that young Cork-Oaks, 
obtained from the writer, made a growth of 4 feet in a year in 
the humid Western Port district of Victoria. The bark of Q, 
pseudo-suber, Santi, is inferior for cork, but the closely-allied Q. 
occidentalis, Gay, which is hardier than Q. Suber, produces 
an excellent cork-bark. 


Quercus Sundaica, Blume. 

One of the Oaks from the mountains of Java, where several 
other valuable timber Oaks exist. The existence of Oaks on 
the higher mountains of New Guinea has been demonstrated 
by Dr. Beccari; hence, in all probability, additional valuable 
evergreen species will be obtainable thence for our arboreta. 

Quercus Toza, Bosc. 

South-Europe. One of the handsomest oaks, and one of the 
quickest growth. Will live in sandy soil. It furnishes superior 
tanners' bark. 

Quercus virens, Linne.* 

The Live-Oak of North-America, extending northward only 
to Virginia, occurring also in Mexico, and perhaps the hardiest 
of the evergreen species. Likes a coast-climate and a soil rich in 
mold. Becomes sixty feet high, with a stem sometimes 9 feet 
in diameter. Supplies a most valuable timber for ship-building; 
it is heavy, compact, fine-grained; it is moreover the strongest 
and most durable yielded by any American Oaks. Like Q. 
obtusiloba, Mich., it lives also on sea-shores, helping to bind 
the sand, but it is then not of tall stature. Of many of the 
three hundred Oaks occurring in the western and eastern por- 
tions of the northern hemisphere, the properties remain unre- 
corded and perhaps unexamined; but it would be important to 
introduce as many kinds as possible for local test-growth. The 
acorns, when packed in dry moss, retain their vitality for some 

Quillaja saponaria, Molina. 

Chili. A colossal tree. The bark is rich in saponin, and 
therefore valuable for dressing wool and silk. 

Rafnia amplexicaulis, Thunberg. 

South- Africa. The root of this bush is sweet like liquorice, 
and is administered in medicine. Rafnia perfoliata, E. Meyer, 
also from South- Africa, furnishes likewise a medicinal root. 

Raphanus sativus, Linne. 

The Radish. South-Asia, up to 16,000 feet in the Himalayas, 
eastward to Japan. In Norway it can be grown northward to 
lat. 70 22' (Prof. Schuebeler). R. caudatus, L., the Radish 
with long edible pods, is regarded by Dr. Th. Anderson as a 
mere variety, and he thinks that all are sprung from the ordin- 
ary R. Raphanistrum, L., of Europe. All Radishes succeed 
best in a calcareous soil, or aided by manure rich in lime. The 
root of the Black Radish is comparatively rich in starch. 


Remirea maritima, Aublet. 

Intra-tropical coast-regions around the globe. A perennial 
creeping sedge for binding sand. 

Reseda Luteola, Linne. 

The Weld. Middle and Southern Europe, Middle Asia, 
North-Africa. An herb of one or two years' duration. Likes 
calcareous soil. A yellow dye (luteolin) pervades the whole 
plant. The plant must be cut before the fruit commences to 
develop, otherwise the pigment will much diminish. 

Reseda odorata, Linne. 

The true Mignonette. North-Africa and Syria. An herb of 
one or very few years' duration. The delicate scent can best 
be concentrated and removed by enfleurage. 

Rhagodia Billardieri, R. Brown. 

Extra-tropical Australia. An important bush for binding mov- 
ing sand on sea-shores. An herb of this order, Atriplex crystal- 
linum, J. Hooker, should be encouraged in its growth at the 
very edge of tides or sand-shores, where with Cakile maritima, 
Mesembrianthemum australe, and M. aequilaterale, it will form 
one of the most effectual first impediments to the influx of sea- 

Rhagodia nutans, R. Brown. 

Southern, Eastern and Central Australia. This, as well as 
the allied R. hastata, is a good fodder-herb for saltbush-runs. 
Some other shrubby species are equally valuable. 

Rhamnus alnifolius, L'Heritier. (J?. Purshiamis, DC.) 

North- America. A shrub with powerfully aperient fruits. 

Rhamnus catharticus, Linne. 

The Buckthorn. Middle and Southern Europe, North- 
Africa, Middle Asia. It can be utilized as a hedge-plant. The 
berries are of medicinal value, as indicated by the specific name. 
The foliage and bark can be employed for the preparation of a 
green dye. The plant is hardy in Norway to lat. 6o° 48'. 

Rhamnus chlorophorus, Lindley. 

China. From the bark a superior green pigment is prepared. 
R. utilis, from the same country, serves for the like purpose. 
This kind of dye is particularly used for silk, and is known as 


Rhamnus Frangula, Linne. 

Europe, North-Africa, Northern and Middle Asia. Endures 
the climate of Norway to lat. 64 3o'(Schuebeler). One of the 
very best woods for gunpowder. Recommended by Sir Joseph 
Hooker to be grown on the coppice-system for this purpose. 
The bark is medicinally valuable. 

Rhamnus Graecus, Reuter. 

Greece. From this shrub, and to no less extent from the 
allied R. prunifolius, Sibth., are derived the green dye-berries 
collected in Greece, according to Dr. Heldreich. These shrubs 
grow on stony mountains up to 2,500 feet. 

Rhamnus infectorius, Linne. 

On the Mediterranean Sea and in the countries near to it. 
Hardy at Christiania. The berry-like fruits of this shrub are 
known in commerce as Graines d'Avignon and Graines de 
Perse, and produce a valuable green dye. Other species seem 
, to supply a similar dye-material, — for instance, R. saxatilis, L., 
R. amygdalinus, Desf., R. oleoides, L., R. tinctorius, W. and 
K., all from the Mediterranean regions. 

Rhapidophyllum Hystrix, Wendland and Drude. {Chamcerops Hystrix, 

The Blue-Palmetto of Florida and Carolina. A hardy dwarf 

Rhapis flabelliformis, Linne fil. 

China and Japan. This exceedingly slender Palm attains 
a height of only a few feet. The stems can be used for various 
small implements. It is one of the best plants for table deco- 
rations. It bears the climate of the South of France to 43 
32' N. Lat. (Naudin). 

Rhaponticum acaule, De Candolle. {Centaura Cynara, F. v. M.) 

On the Mediterranean Sea. A perennial herb. The root is 

Rheum australe, D. Don.* (R. Emodi, Wall. ; R. Webbianum, Royle.) 

Himalayan regions up to 16,000 feet. From this species at 
least a portion of the medicinal Rhubarb is obtained, its qual- 
ity depending much on the climatic region and the geological 
formation in which the plant grows. Should we wish to culti- 
vate any species here for superior medicinal roots, localities 
in our higher and drier alpine tracts should clearly be chosen 
for the purpose. Hayne regards the presence of much yellow- 
ish pigment in the seed-shell as indicating a good medicinal 
Rhubarb plant. As much as five lbs. of the dried drug are 


obtainable from a single plant several years old. An important 
orange-red crystalline substance, emodin, allied to chrysophanic 
acid, occurs in genuine Rhubarb. Medicinal Rhubarb-root is 
now also grown in England. 

Rheum officinale, Baillon.* 

Western China and Eastern Thibet on the high table- land. 
Height of stem sometimes 10 feet, circumference of foliage 
reaching 30 feet, blade of leaf 2 feet long and broad (Balfour). 
It furnishes most of the true Turkey Rhubarb, not merely from 
the root but also from the woody stem. Suited for mountainous 
regions. Recommended also as a scenic plant by Regel. 
Hardy at Christiania. 

Rheum palmatum, Linne.* 

From insular to alpine North-Eastern Asia. Atains a height 
of 9 feet. A variety from the Tangut country of Mongolia or 
North Thibet, found by Col. Prejevalski, yields an excellent 
medicinal root, known as the Kiakhta or Khansu Rhubarb 
(Maximowicz), — indeed the best Russian Rhubarb. The plant 
is valuable also for decorative effect. For medicinal cul- 
ture alpine valleys with soil rich in lime are needed (Sir. Rob. 

Rheum Rhaponticum, Linne. 

From the Volga to Central Asia. This species, together with 
R. Tartaricum, L. fil., R. undulatum, L., and a few others, all 
Asiatic (one extending to Japan), provide their acidulous leaf- 
stalks and unexpanded flower-mass for culinary purposes. 
Rhubarb leaves can also be used in the manner of spinage. 

Rhizopogon magnatum, Corda. 

Europe. One of the edible truffles sold in the markets of 
Middle Europe, with R. rubescens, Tul. 

Rhododendron maximum, Linne. 

North-East America. Attains a height of 20 feet. Irre- 
spective of its being a fine acquisition for any garden copses, 
this bush seems of industrial importance, because Mr. C. Fors- 
ter asserts that the wood of this and the allied Kalmia latifolia, 
L., is equalled only by the best boxwood. This may give a 
clue to other substitutes for that scarce commodity, needed' so 
extensively by the wood-engraver. 

Rhus aromatica, Aiton. 

North America. A straggling bush. The aromatic foliage 
important for medicinal purposes. 


Rhus caustica, Hooker and Arnott. 

Chili, where it is called the Litre. A small or middle-sized 
tree, the very hard wood of which is used for wheel-teeth, axle- 
trees and select furniture. The plant seemed neither caustic 
nor otherwise poisonous (Dr. Philippi). 

Rhus copallina, Linne. 

North America, extending to Canada. A comparatively 
dwarf species. This can be used for tanning. A resin for 
varnishes is also obtained from this shrub. 

Rhus coriaria, Linne. 

The Tanner's Sumach. Countries around the Mediterranean 
Sea. The foliage of this shrub or small tree, simply dried and 
reduced to powder, forms the Sumach of commerce. It is re- 
markably rich in tannic acid, yielding as much as 30 per cent., 
and is extensively used for the production of a superior Cordu- 
an or Maroquin leather and pale-colored leathers and dress- 
goods. Sumach allows the leather to carry more grease (Balli- 
nent). Price in Melbourne ^24 to ^36 per ton. It thrives 
best in loose calcareous soils, and cannot endure stagnant water. 
The strongest sumach is produced on dry ground. The culti- 
vation presents no difficulty. A gathering can be obtained from 
suckers in the first year. The duration of sumach-fields under 
manure extends to fifteen years. Sumach can also be used for 
ink and various, particularly black, dyes. Under favorable cir- 
cumstances as much as a ton of Sumach is obtained from an acre. 

Rhus cotinoides, Nuttall. 

Arkansas and Alabama. A tree rising to 40 feet. The in- 
ner bark and the wood valuable for yielding a yellow dye (C. 

Rhus cotinus, Linne.* {Cotitms coccogyria, Scopoli.) 

The Scotino. Countries of the Mediterranean Sea, extend- 
ing to the Himalayas. The wood of this bush furnishes a yel- 
low pigment. The Scotino, so valuable as a material for yellow 
and black dye, and as a superior tanning substance, consists 
merely of the ground foliage of this plant. It contains up to 
24 per cent, tannin. The plant endures the Norwegian winters 
northward to lat. 67 56' (Prof. Schuebeler). 

Rhus glabra, Linne. 

North- America, extending to 54 north latitude; in Norway 
hardy to lat. 5 8° 8'. This Sumach shrub will grow on rocky and 
sterile soil. It produces a kind of gall, and can also be used as a 
substitute for the ordinary Sumach. This species can be easily 


multiplied from suckers. It will live on poor soil. American 
Sumachs contain generally from 15 to 20 per cent., or occasion- 
ally up to 26 per cent, tannin. [On value of American Sumachs 
see Special Report No. 26, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Rhus lucida, Linne. 

South-Africa. This shrub proved in Victoria of peculiar 
adaptability for forming hedges; it is evergreen, close growing, 
and stands clipping well. About half a hundred South African 
species are known, of which probably some could be utilized 
like ordinary Sumach, but hitherto we have remained unac- 
quainted with the nature and degree of any of their tanning 
and coloring principles. 

Rhus rhodanthema, F. v. Mueller. 

East Australia, on river-banks. A tree finally 70 feet high, 
stem often 2 feet in diameter. Wood dark yellow, soft, fine 
grained, beautifully marked, much esteemed for cabinet-work. 
Worth ^£"5 to ^6 per 1000 feet in Brisbane (W. Hill). 

Rhus semialata, Murray. 

China and Japan, extending to the Himalayas. Attains a 
height of 40 feet. This species produces a kind of nutgalls. It 
is apt to spread beyond ready control in rich soil. The stem 
will finally reach the thickness of a foot or more; the wood 
is tough and durable but stringy, prettily marked with dark edg- 

Rhus succedanea, Linne. 

The Japan Wax Tree, the produce of which has found its 
way into the English market. The crushed berries are steamed 
and pressed, furnishing about 15 per cent, of wax, which con- 
sists mainly of palmatin and palmitic acid. Rhus silvestris, 
Sieb. & Zucc, and R. vernicifera yield there a similar wax. 

Rhus typhina, Linne. 

The Staghorn-Sumach. North- America, extending to Canada. 
Hardy in Norway to lat. 6i° 17'. This species will become a 
tree of 30 feet height. Its wood is of an orange tinge. Through 
incisions into the bark a kind of Copal is obtained. The leaves 
can be used like ordinary Sumach. This bush can be reared 
on inferior land. The leaves of American Sumach must be 
collected early in the season if a clear white leather like that 
from Sicilian Sumach is to be obtained. This can be ascer- 
tained by the color of the precipitate effected with gelatine. 


Rhus vernicifera, De Candolle. 

Extends from Nepal to Japan. It forms a tree of fair size 
and yields the Japan varnish. In India it ascends to 7,000 feet; 
but Stewart and Brandis are doubtful whether the Japan species 
(R. Vernix, L.) is really identical with the Indian. The fruit 
yields vegetable wax. 

Ribes aureum, Pursh. 

Arkansas, Missouri, Oregon. Endures the winter cold of 
Norway northward to lat. 70 (Schuebeler). This favorite bush 
of our shrubberies would probably along forest-streams produce 
its pleasant berries, which turn from yellow to brown or black. 
Professor Meehan mentions a variety or allied species from 
Utah, with berries larger than those of the black currant; they 
are quite a good table-fruit, and of all shades from orange to 
black, and their variety remains constant from seeds. Allied to 
this is R. tenuiflorum, LindL, of California and the adjoining 
States, with fruits of the size of red currants, of agreeable 
flavor, and either dark purple or yellow color. R. aureum, 
R. palmatum and some other strong American species have 
come into use as stocks on which to graft the European 
Gooseberry (C. Pohl). 

Ribes Cynosbati, Linne. 

The Prickly-fruited Gooseberry-bush of Canada and the 
Northern States of the American Union. The berries are large. 
There is a variety not so objectionably burlike-prickly. R. 
Cynosbati has been hybridized with R. Grossularia, and the 
sequence has been a good result (Saunders). 

Ribes divaricatum, Douglas. 

California and Oregon. One of the Gooseberry-bushes of 
those countries. Can be grown in Norway to lat. 69 40'. Ber- 
ries smooth, black, about one-third of an inch in diameter, 
pleasant to the taste. Culture might improve this and many of 
the other species. R. Nuttalli (R. villosum, Nutt., not of Gay 
nor of Wallich) is ah allied plant, also from California. 

Ribes floridum, L'Heritier. 

The Black Currant-bush of North-America. The berries 
resemble in odor and taste those of R. nigrum. Allied to this 
is R. Hudsonianum, Rich, from the colder parts of North- 

Ribes Griffithi, J. Hooker and T. Thomson. 

Himalaya, at heights from 10,000 to 13,000 feet. Allied to R. 
rubrum, bearing similar but larger berries of somewhat austere 
taste. R. laciniatum, H. and T., is likewise a Himalayan 


species with red berries, and so is R. glaciale, Wall. Further- 
more, R. villosum, Wall. (R. leptostachyum, Decaisne), comes 
from the Indian highlands and seems worthy of practical notice. 

Ribes Grossularia, Linne.* 

The ordinary Gooseberry-bush. Europe, North- Africa, Extra- 
tropical Asia, extending to the Chinese boundary (Regel), on 
the Himalayan mountains up to a height of 12,000 feet; in Nor- 
way it endures the cold to lat. 62 44'. This* plant, familiar to 
everyone, is mentioned here merely to indicate the desirability 
of naturalizing it in any alpine regions where it is not indigen- 

Ribes hirtellum, Michaux. 

North America, particularly in the New England States. It 
likes moist ground. Yields the commonest smooth gooseberry 

Ribes nigrum, Linn6. 

The Black Currant bush. Europe, Middle and Northern 
Asia, North America, ascending the Himalayan and Thibet 
mountains to a height of 12,000 feet; also particularly fit to be 
dispersed through forests in elevated situations. Hardy in 
Norway to Lat. 69 30'. 

Ribes niveum, Lindl. 

One of the Oregon Gooseberry-bushes. Berries small, black, 
of a somewhat acid taste and rich vinous flavor. Hardy to 
Lat. 67 56'. 

Ribes orientale, Poiret. 

From Syria to Afghanistan, up to the elevation of 11,000 feet. 
The berries act as a powerful purgative (Dr. Aitchison). 

Ribes rotundifolium, Michaux. 

North America, as far as Canada. Hardy at Christiania. 
Yields part of the smooth Gooseberries of the United States. 
The fruit is small, but of delicious taste. Unlike the ordinary 
Gooseberry, not subject to mildew. Careful cultivation has 
gradually advanced the size of the fruit (Meehan). 

Ribes rubrum, LinnS. 

The ordinary Red Currant-bush. Europe, North America, 
Northern and Middle Asia, in the Himalayan mountains, ceas- 
ing where R. Griffithi commences to appear. One of the best 
fruit plants for jellies and preserves that could be chosen for 


colder mountain altitudes. It endures the climate of Norway 
to Lat. 70 30' (Prof. Schuebeler). The root-bark contains 
phlorrhizin. Perhaps other species than those recorded here, 
among them some from the Andes, may yet deserve intro- 
duction, irrespective of showiness, for their fruits. 

Richardia Africana, Kunth. (J?. Aethiopica, Rosenthal.) 

The Calla. From the Nile to the Cape of Good Hope* 
Important for scenic effects, particularly on the margins of 
waters. Easily moved at all seasons. The fresh root contains 
about 2 per cent, of starch. 

Richardsonia scabra, Kunth. • 

From Mexico to Brazil. As an herb for pastures and hay crop, 
appreciated in localities with sandy soil (C. Mohr). It has 
spread over the Southern States of North America. 

Ricinus communis, Linne*. 

The Castor Oil Plant. Indigenous to the tropical and sub- 
tropical zones of Asia and Africa. A shrubby, very decorative 
plant, attaining the size of a small tree. At Christiania it grew 
to 12 feet in height and bore fruit, and it endured the cold 
even to Lat. 68° 7' (Prof. Schuebeler). It was well-known to 
Egyptians four thousand years ago, and is also mentioned in 
the writings of Herodotus, Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theo- 
phrastos, Plinius and other ancient physicians, philosophers and 
naturalists. The easy and rapid growth, the copious seeding, 
and the early return of produce render this important plant of 
high value in the warm temperate zone, more particularly as it 
will thrive on almost any soil, and can thus be raised even on 
arid places, without being scorched by hot winds. Recently 
recommended for staying bush fires and for keeping off noxious 
insects and blights from plantations. It may thus become an 
important plant also for culture in desert tracts, and is evidently 
destined to be one of the most eligible plants to furnish oil for 
technical uses, particularly for lubricating machinery, irrespective 
of the value of its oil for medicinal purposes. The scalded leaves, 
applied externally, have long been known as particularly active 
in the mammary glands as a powerful galactagogue; the foliage 
is also in use as an emmenagogue. The seeds contain about 
50 per cent. oil. To obtain the best medicinal oil, hydraulic 
pressure should be employed, and the seeds not be subjected 
to heat; the seed-coat should also be removed prior to the 
extracting process being proceeded with. A screw-press 
suffices however to obtain the oil for ordinary supplies. By 
decantation and some process of filtration it is purified. For ob- 
taining oil to be used for lubrication of machinery or other 


technological purposes, the seeds may be pressed and prepared 
by various methods under application of heat and access of 
water. For lubrication it is one of the most extensively used of 
all oils. Castor oil is usually bleached simply by exposure to 
solar light, but this procedure lessens to some extent the laxa- 
tive properties of the oil. It dissolves completely in waterless 
alcohol and in ether, and will become dissolved also in spirit of 
high strength, to the extent of three-fifths of the weight of the 
latter. Solutions of this kind may become valuable for various 
technical purposes, and afford some test for the pureness of the 
oil. If pressed under heat it will deposit margaritin. Heated 
in a retort about one-third of the oil will distil over, and a sub- 
stance resembling india-rubber remains, which saponizes with 
alkalies. Other educts are at the same time obtained, which 
will probably become of industrial value. These facts are briefly 
mentioned here merely to explain that the value of this easily- 
produced oil is far more varied than is generally supposed, and 
this remark applies with equal force to many other chemical 
compounds from vegetable sources, briefly alluded to in this 
present enumerative treatise. The seeds contain also a peculiar 
alkaloid — ricinin. The solid chemical compound of castor oil 
is the crystalline isocetic acid (a glycerid). The oil contains 
also a non-crystalline acid peculiar to it (ricinoleic acid). For 
the production of a particular kind of silk the Ricinus plant is 
also important, inasmuch as the hardy Bombyx Arrindi requires 
the leaves of this bush for food. Even a few of the seeds, if 
swallowed, will produce poisonous effects. 

Robinia Pseudacacia, Linne. 

The North American Locust Acacia. Height reaching 90 feet. 
Hardy to Lat. 63 26' in Norway. The strong, hard and dur- 
able wood is in use for a variety of purposes, and particularly 
eligible for treenails, axletrees and turnery. The natives used 
the wood for their bows. The tree is of rapid growth, and 
attains an age of several hundred years. A tree raised in 1635 
in the Paris Jardin des Plantes, is still alive. It may be 
planted closely for timber-belts and hedge-shelter on farm 
lands. It is one of the best trees for. renovating ex- 
hausted land and for improving poor soil. Also a bee-plant. 
Recommended by Wessely as one of the easiest grown of all trees 
on bare sand, though standing in need of twice as much mineral 
aliment as Pinus silvestris and nearly as much as poplars. It 
pushes through shifting sand its spreading roots, which may at- 
tain a length of seventy feet. It will maintain its hold in hol- 
lows of drifts, where even poplars fail (Wessely). The roots 
are poisonous. The allied R. viscosa attains a height of forty 
feet. No less than four arborescent Robinias are recorded 
from Juan Fernandez. 


Roccella tinctoria, De Candolle. 

Canary Islands, Azores, also in Middle and Southern Europe 
and North Africa. This Lichen furnishes the litmus, orseille 
or orchil for dyes and chemical tests. It is a question of inter- 
est whether it could be translocated and naturalized on the 
cliffs of our shores also. Other dye-lichens might perhaps 
still more easily be naturalized; for instance, Lecanora tartarea, 
L. parella, Pertusaria communis, Parmelia sordida, Isidium 
corallinum and some others, which furnish the Cudbear or 

Rosa canina, Linne. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, North Africa. This 
species attains a very great age; the famed and sacred Rose at 
the cathedral of Hildesheim existed before that edifice was 
built, therefore before the ninth century (Langethal). In some 
of the German monasteries real rose-trees occur, which have 
also lived through several centuries and are regarded with ven- 

Rosa centifolia, Linne. 

The Cabbage-Rose, Moss-Rose, Provence-Rose. Indigenous 
on the Caucasus and seemingly also in other parts of the 
Orient. It will endure the frosts of Norway as far north as 
lat. 70 (Schuebeler). Much grown in South Europe and South 
Asia for the distillation of rose water and oil or attar of roses. 
No pruning is resorted to, only the dead branches are removed; 
the harvest of flowers is from the middle of May till nearly the 
middle of June; the gathering takes place before sunrise (Sim- 
monds). From 12,000 to 16,000 roses, or from 250 lbs. to 300 
lbs. of rose petals are required according to some calculations 
for producing a single ounce of attar through ordinary distilla- 
tion. The flowers require to be cut just before expansion; the 
calyx is separated and rejected; the remaining portions of the 
flowers are then subjected to aqueous distillation, and the satu- 
rated rose-water so obtained is repeatedly used for renewed dis- 
tillation, when on any cold place the oil separates from the 
overcharged water and floats on the surface, whence it can 
be collected after refrigeration by fine birds' feathers. Rose 
oil consists of a hydro-carbon stearopten, which is scentless, 
and an elaeopten, which is the fragrant principle. But some 
other methods exist for producing the oil; for instance, it may 
be got by distilling the rosebuds without water at the heat of a 
salt water bath, or by merely passing steam through the still. 
The odor may also be withdrawn by alcoholic distillation from 
the roses, or be extracted by the "enfleurage" process. The 
latter is effected by placing the flowers, collected while the 


weather is warm, into shallow frames covered with a glass plate, 
on the inner side of which a pure fatty substance has been 
thinly spread. The scent of the flowers is absorbed by the 
adipose or oleous substance, though the blossoms do not come 
in direct contact with it; fresh flowers are supplied daily for 
weeks. The scent is finally withdrawn from its matrix by mac- 
eration with pure alcohol. Purified Eucalyptus oil can be used 
for diluting rose oil, when it is required for the preparation of 
scented soap. The essential oil of orange-peel might similarly 
be employed as a vehicle. 

Rosa Damascena, Miller. 

Orient. Allied to the preceding species, and also largely 
used for the production of essential oil of roses. The annual 
time of flowering extends over several months. 

Rosa Gallica, Linne. 

The French or Dutch Rose. Middle and Southern Europe, 
Orient. Hardy to lat. 70 in Norway. The intensely colored 
buds of this species are particularly chosen for drying. These 
however may be got also from other kinds of roses. 

Rosa Indica, Linne. (J?. Sinica, L., J?. Chinensis, Jacq.) 

China, thence brought to India. The "Hybrid Perpetuals" 
are largely traceable to this plant. Flowering time of long du- 
ration annually. Some roses of the sweetest scent are derived 
from this species. R. fragrans, Redoute, the Tea-Rose, is a 
variety. The Noisette Rose is a cross of this and R. moschata 

Rosa laevigata, Michaux. (J?, Sinica, Aiton.) 

The Cherokee Rose. China and Japan. Considered one of 
the best hedge-roses, and for that purpose much employed in 
North America. It serves well also for bowers. Allied to the 
foregoing species. Rosa rugosa, Thunberg, of Japan, a large- 
fruited and large-leaved rose, is exceedingly well adapted for 
garden hedges. 

Rosa moschata, Miller.* 

North-Africa and South-Asia, ascending the Indian moun- 
tains to 11,000 feet. In bloom all the year round in warm 
climes but more profusely in the cool season. From the flowers 
of this extremely tall climbing species also essential oil is ob- 
tained. The attar thus derived from roses of not only different 
varieties, but even distinct species must necessarily be of var- 
ious qualities. In the Balkan mountains, on basalt slopes fac- 
ing south, the most odorous roses are produced. At Kesanlik 


rose-distillation is the main industry. Shoots of rose-bushes 
are placed in trenches 3 feet deep and 5 feet apart. Irrigation 
promotes the growth. The gathering commences in the third 
and lasts till about the fifteenth year (Simmons). The pure oil 
as a. European commodity is worth from ,£20 to ,£23 per 
pound. This is also the rose, according to Schlagintweit, used 
for attar distillation in Tunis. Pure attar, valued at 30 shil- 
lings per ounce, is produced in Roumelia to the amount of 
^"80,000 annually (Piesse). 

Rosa sempervirens, Linne. 

From South-Europe through Southern Asia to Japan. Hardy 
at Christiania. One of the best rose-bushes for covering walls, 
fences and similar structures. The flowers of this species also 
can be utilized for rose-oil. 

Rosa setigera, Michaux. 

North-Eastern America, where it is the only climbing rose- 
bush. It deserves introduction on account of its extremely 
rapid growth, — 10 to 20 feet in a season. Its flowers, how- 
ever, are nearly inodorous. 

Other original species of roses deserve our attention, Sir 
Joseph Hooker admitting about thirty, all from the northern 
hemisphere. But on the snow-clad unascended mountains of 
New Guinea and Africa south of the equator, perhaps new roses 
may yet be discovered, as they have been traced southward to 
Abyssinia already. 

Rosa spinosissima, Linne, 

Europe, North-Africa, Middle and Northern Asia. Adapted 
for holding coast-sands; unapproachable to pasture-animals, 
and not spreading into culture-land or pastures like the Sweet- 
briar, R. rubiginosa, L. 

Rosmarinus officinalis, Linne. 

The Rosemary. Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. 

This well-known bush is mentioned here as a medicinal plant, 

from which a distilled oil is rather copiously obtainable. One 

of our best plants for large garden-edgings. The oil enters 

into certain compositions of perfumery. The flowers much 
sought by bees. 

Rottboellia ophiuroides, Bentham. 

Tropical East-Australia. A tall perennial grass, praised by 
Mr. Walter Hill for fodder. Hardy in regions free of frost. 

Royenia pseudebenus, E. Meyer. 

South-Africa. Only a small tree, but its wood jet-black, hard 
and durable; in Capeland and Caffraria called ebony. R. 


pubescens, Willd., according to Dr. Pappe, furnishes there a 
wood adapted for xylography; this may give a clue to the adapt- 
ability of many other kinds of woods in the large order of 
Ebenacese as substitutes for the Turkish boxwood. 

Rubia cordifolia, Linne. (J?. Mungista, Roxburgh.) 

From the Indian highlands, through China and Siberia to 
Japan; also occurring in various parts of Africa, as far south as 
Caffraria and Natal. This perennial plant produces a kind of 
madder. Probably other species likewise yield dye-roots. The 
genus is represented widely over the globe, but as far as known 
not in Australia. 

Rubia peregrina, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe, South-West Asia. This peren- 
nial species also yields madder-root. Several other kinds de- 
serve comparative test-culture. 

Rubia tinctorum, Linne. 

The Madder. Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. 
Hardy at Christiania. A perennial herb of extremely easy cul- 
ture. Soil fit for barley is also suitable for madder. Its culture 
opens any deep subsoil and suffocates weeds, but requires 
much manure, leaving the land enriched, however. Stagnant 
water in the soil must be avoided, if madder is to succeed. The 
harvest is in the second or third year. It can be raised from 
seeds, or planted from off-shoots. The roots merely dried and 
pounded form the dye. The chemical contents are numerous: 
in the herb: rubichloric and rubitannic acid; in the root: alizarin, 
purpurin, rubiacin, rubian, ruberythric acid and three distinct 
resins; also chlorogenin, xanthin and rubichloric acid. On the 
five first depend the pigments produced from the root. Madder 
is one of the requisites for alizarin-ink. Since the manufacture 
of artificial alizarin from anthracene, a constituent of coal-tar, 
was commenced, the cultivation of madder has declined. Still 
it remains a valuable root, handy for domestic dye. The root 
is also important as an emmenagogue. 

Rubus caesius, Linne. 

The British Dewberry. Europe, Western and Northern Asia. 
Resists extreme frost, protracted dryness and also heat of ex- 
ceptional seasons. In this respect the most accommodating of 
all Blackberry-bushes. In Russia the berries are boiled together 
with apples into a preserve, which is of particularly pleasant 
taste. This Rubus supplies fruit till late in the season. Easily 
naturalized on ground subject to occasional inundations, shel- 
tered by bushy vegetation (Burmeister). Some regard R. 
caesius as one of the numerous forms of R. fruticosus. 


Rubus Canadensis, Linne.* 

The Dewberry of North- America. A shrub of trailing habit. 
Fruit black, of excellent taste, ripening earlier than that of R. 
villosus, Ait., which constitutes the High Blackberry of the 
United States, with large fruits. All the species can readily be 
raised from seeds. 

Rubus Chamaemorus, Linne. 

The Cloudberry. North-Europe, North-Asia, North-America, 
particularly in the frigid zone. In Norway it will grow north- 
ward to lat. 71 10' (Schuebeler). A perennial but herbaceous 
plant; a pigmy amongst its congeners. Nevertheless it is recom- 
mended for introduction to spongy, mossy, alpine moors, on 
account of its grateful amber-colored or red fruit. R. Arcticus, 
L., also with edibl* fruit, is usually its companion in the high 
north. A similar little herb, living for a great part of the year 
in snow — namely R. Gunnianus, Hook., — occurs on the alpine 
heights of Tasmania, whence it might be easily transferred 
to snowy mountains of other countries. The fruit of R. Gun- 
nianus is red and juicy, but not always well developed. 

Rubus cuneifolius, Pursh. 

The Sand Blackberry. North-America. A dwarf shrub. 
The fruit is of agreeable taste. 

Rubus deliciosus, Torrey.* 

On the sources of the Missouri. An erect shrub. Fruit 
raspberry-like, large and grateful. An exceedingly handsome 

Rubus ellipticus, Smith. (J?. Jlavus, Hamilton.)* 

On the mountains of India (4,000 to 7,000 feet), also in Cey- 
lon and Yunan. A large bush with yellow fruits, which are 
reckoned in flavor fully equal to the ordinary Raspberry (C. 
B. Clarke). 

Rubus fruticosus, Linne.* 

The ordinary Blackberry ©r Bramble. All Europe, North- 
and South -Africa, Middle and Northern Asia. Hardy in Nor- 
way to lat. 6o° 24'. The shrub bears well in a temperate clime. 
In some countries it is a favorite plant for hedges. It likes, 
above all, calcareous soil, though it is content with almost any, 
and deserves to be naturalized on the rivulets of any ranges. 
R. corylifolius, Sm., R. suberectus, Andr. and R. leucostachys, 
Sm. are varieties like many other named kinds of European 
Blackberries, or perhaps belong to the closely allied R. caesius, 
L., the English Dewberry; or in some instances hybrid forms 


may have arisen from the two, although the generality of these 
various Blackberry bushes bear their fruit freely enough. 

Rubus geoides, Smith. 

Falkland-Islands, Fuegia, Patagonia and Chiloe. An herbace- 
ous kind of Raspberry-plant with greenish-yellow fruits, resem- 
bling the Cloudberry, and of a very agreeable taste. Best 
adapted for mountainous regions. 

Rubus Havaiensis, A. Gray. 

Sandwich-Islands. The fruit of this bramble shrub is rasp- 

Rubus Idaeus, Linne.* 

The ordinary Raspberry-Bush. Europe and Northern Asia, 
eastward to Japan. In Norway hardy to lat. 70 22'. It is 
mentioned here to point out the desirability of naturalizing the 
plant on mountains and on river-banks. The fruits contain a 
stearopten. The leaves are a substitute for tea. 

Rubus imperialis, Chamisso. 

Brazil and Argentina. Furnishes superior fruits. 

Rubus lasiocarpus, Smith. 

India, reaching in the Himalayas an elevation of 8,000 feet, in 
Ceylon of 6,000 feet. The black fruit is very palatable. R. 
bifiorus, Hamilton, ascends to 10,000 feet; its fruit, either red 
or orange, is sweet (J. D. Hooker). R. lanatus, Wall., and R. 
paniculatus, Sm., afford also edible but rather insipid fruits in 
Upper India (Atkinson). 

Rubus nutans, Wallich. 

Himalayan mountains, ascending to 10,000 feet; growing on 
the ground like Strawberry-plants, yielding fruits of very pleas- 
ant subacid taste (Atkinson), but not of large size (Hooker). A 
species easily spreading and probably improvable by culture. 

Rubus occidentalis, Linn6.* 

The Black Cap Raspberry or Thimbleberry-bush. North- 
America. A species with woody stems and nice fruits, the 
latter with a glaucous bloom, well flavored and large. It ripens 
early. To this bears near affinity R. leucodermis, Douglas, 
from California, Utah and Arizona. The fruit is yellowish-red, 
rather large and of agreeable flavor (A. Gray). 

Rubus odoratus, LinnS.* 

North- America. A kind of Raspberry-bush. A handsome 
species on account of its large purple flowers. Berries edible. 


Hardy in Norway to lat. 67 56'. Culture would doubtless en- 
hance the value of the fruits of many of these Rubi. Hybridiz- 
ing might be tried. R. Nutkanus, Mocino is the Salmon- 
Raspberry of Western North- America and closely allied to R. 

Rubus parvifolius, Linne. 

East- Asia, Eastern and Southern Australia. It produces much 
finer fruits in the Alps of Australia than in the lowlands. It 
extends as a native to Japan, where according to Maximowicz 
22 species of Rubus exist, many of them endemic, and probably 
some eligible for special fruit-culture. 

Rubus rosifolius, Smith. 

Tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia, ascend- 
ing the Himalayas to 10,000 feet, also throughout the littoral 
forests of East-Australia. In woody regions this shrub bears 
an abundance of fruits of large size, and these early and long in 
the season. 

Rubus rugosus, Smith.* 

South Asia. The fruit, which ripens all the year round in 
temperate climes, is nearly twice the size of the ordinary Black- 
berry. This as well as the following hardy at Christiania. 

Rubus strigosus, Michaux.* 

North-America. Closely allied to the European Raspberry. 
Its fruits large, also of excellent taste. 

Rubus trivialis, Michaux.* 

Southern States of North America. Another shrubby species 
with good edible fruits, which are large and black. The plant 
will thrive in dry sandy soil. Like many other species this one 
has the bark rich in tannic acid. 

Rubus ursinus, Chamisso and Schlechtendahl. (J?, macropetalus, Douglas.) 

California and Oregon. A unisexual shrub. Fruit black, 
oval-cylindric, particularly sweet. Readily rendered spontaneous. 
It would lead too far to enumerate other kinds of Rubus, 
although about a hundred genuine species occur, which render 
the genus one of very wide dispersion over the globe. 

Rumex Acetosa, Linne. 

The Kitchen Sorrel. Europe, Middle and Northern Asia to 
Japan, also in the frigid zone of North America. Endures the 
frosts of Norway northward to lat. 71 10' (Schuebeler). A 
perennial herb. The tender varieties, particularly the Spanish 
one, serve as pleasant acidulous vegetables, but must be used in 


moderation, as their acidity, like that of the species of Oxalis 
(Wood Sorrel), depends on binoxalate of potash. The South 
African R. luxurians, L., serves likewise as culinary sorrel. 
Aquatic species of Rumex help to solidify embankments, 
subject to floods. A species of Rumex, vernacularly 
known as "Cafiaigre," of Texas, yields a root containing 23^ 
per cent. Rheo-tannicacid in the dry state. (Rep. Dept. Agrio, 
Wash., 1878). This Canaigre is Rumex hymenosepalum, which 
species extends widely and profusely into Mexico. It tans 
hides in half the time required for tanning with oak-bark. 
Probably other Rumex-roots could be similarly utilized. 

Rumex Patientia, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe, Middle Asia. Biennial. It is 
the R. sativus of Plinius according to Fraas. Bears the cold of 
Norwegian winters to lat. 70 . The young leaves furnish a 
palatable sorrel, like spinach. In cold climes it pushes forth its 
leaves before the frost is hardly gone, and thus comes in as one 
of the first vegetables of the season. 

Rumex scutatus, Linne. 

The French Sorrel. Middle and Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, Orient. Also perennial, and superior to the foregoing 
as a culinary plant. They are all of use against scurvy, and 
most easily reared. 

Rumex vesicarius, Linne. 

Southern Europe, Middle Asia, Northern Africa. x\n annual 
herb of the same utility as the former ones. 

Ruscus aculeatus, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe, Northern Africa, South-West- 
Asia. This odd plant serves for forming garden hedges. The 
young shoots of this and a few allied plants are edible. 

Ruta graveolens, Linne. 

The Rue. Mediterranean countries and the Orient. Hardy 
in Norway to lat. 63 26'. The foliage of this acrid and odor- 
ous shrub, simply dried, constitutes the Rue herb of medicine. 
The allied R. sylvestris, Mill., is still more powerful in its 
effect. These plants and others of the genus contain a peculiar 
volatile oil and a glycosid, the Rutin. 

Sabal Adansoni, Guernsent. 

Dwarf Palmetto. South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. A 
stemless Fan-Palm, with the two following and Rhapsido- 
phyllum Hystrix attaining the most northerly positions of any 
American Palms. According to Count de Saporta it resists a 


temperature as low as 17 F. M. Naudin found it to endure 
the frosts in Southern France to 43 ° 20' north latitude. This 
palm does well in marshy places. 

Sabal Palmetto, Roemer and Schultes.* 

Extends from Florida to North Carolina, also to the Bermu- 
da Islands. The stem attains a height of 40 feet. This noble 
Palm delights on sandy coast-tracts. Stems almost imper- 
ishable under water, not attacked by the Teredo. 

Sabal serrulata. Roemer and Schultes. (Serenaea serrulata, J. Hooker.) 

South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, particularly well 
adapted for sea-coasts. The stem grows to eight feet in height. 
The leaves can be used for cabbage-tree hats and other purposes 
for which palm-leaves are sought. The fibrous-spongy parts of 
the stem serve as brushes. 

Sabal umbraculifera, Martius. 

West-Indies. Attains, according to Grisebach, a height of 
80 feet, or, according to others, even over 100 feet. Though 
naturally a tropical Savannah-Palm, it has proved even hardier 
than the Orange. At Hyeres it withstood a temperature of 22 
F. (Bonnet). Another equally tall Antillan Palm is S. glau- 
cescens, Loddiges. 

Sabbatia angularis, Pursh. 

North-Eastern America. This pretty biennial herb is lauded 
as a substitute for gentian by American physicians, and might 
with its congeners be grown in medicinal gardens, though its 
naturalization would not be desirable, as pastoral animals avoid 
the bitter gentianaceous plants. 

Saccharum officinarum, Linne.* 

The Sugar-Cane. India, China, South Sea Islands, but not 
known with certainty as wild nor indigenous in any part of 
America or Australia; probably derived from one of the native 
South-Asiatic species of Saccharum. Sugar-cane having been 
cultivated in Spain and other countries on the Mediterranean 
Sea, it will be worthy of further trial at what distance from the 
equator and at what elevations in tropical parts of the globe 
sugar from cane can be produced to advantage. In the United 
States the profitable culture of cane ceases at 32 north latitude; 
in Japan it is carried on with advantage to 36 north latitude 
and even further northward (General Capron); the average 
yield of raw sugar even there is 3,300 lbs. per acre; in China it 
extends only to 30 north latitude. In South-Asia the culture 
of the sugar-cane dates from the remotest antiquity; from China 
we have a particular kind (S. Sinense, Roxb.), which is hardier 


and bears the drought better than the ordinary cane; this kind 
needs renewal every second or third year, and ripens in seven 
months, if planted early in spring; but if planted in autumn and 
left standing for fully a year the return of sugar is larger. 
Moderate proximity to the sea is favorable for the growth of 
canes. Prolific yields have been secured in East Australia as 
far south as 2 8°. 

The multiplication of all sorts of sugar-cane is usually 
effected from top-cuttings; but this cannot be carried on from 
the same original stock for an indefinite period without deteri- 
oration; and as seeds fit to germinate do not readily ripen on 
the canes, new plants must from time to time be brought from 
a distance. Thus, New Caledonia and Fiji have latterly supplied 
their almost wild-growing splendid varieties for replanting many 
sugar fields in Mauritius and some other places. The Bourbon 
variety is praised as one of the richest for sugar; the Batavian 
variety, S. violaceum, Tussac, is content with less fertile soil. 
Many other varieties are known. The Sugar-cane is one of 
the best of all plants of economic value to keep cleared ground 
in tropical forests free from weeds or the invasion of other plants. 
Excessive rains produce a rank luxuriance of the canes at the 
expense of the saccharine principle. Rich manuring is necessary 
to attain good crops, unless in the best of virgin soil. The 
lower leaves of the stem must successively be removed, also 
superabundant suckers, to promote the growth upwards, and to 
provide ventilation and light. Out of the remnants of sugar- 
cane molasses, rum and taffia can be prepared. The average 
yield of sugar varies from 1 ton 6 cwt. to 3 tons for the acre; 
but exceptionally as much as 6 tons per acre have even been ob- 
tained in the hardly tropical Hawaian Islands. The world's 
production of cane-sugar in 1875 amounted to 2,140,000 tons 
(Boucheraux). Among some other works, for fuller informa- 
tion the valuable volume of Mr. A. McKay, " The Sugar-Cane 
in Australia," should be consulted. The stately S. spontaneum, 
L., which extends from India to Egypt, is available for scenic 
culture. It attains a height of 15 feet. Other tall kinds of 
Saccharum occur in South Asia. 

Sagittaria lancifolia, Linne. 

From Virginia to the Antilles. This very handsome aquatic 
plant can doubtless be utilized like the following species. It 
attains a height of five feet. 

Sagittaria obtusa, Muehlenberg. (S. latifolia, Willdenow.) 

North America, where it replaces the closely-allied S. sagitti- 
folia. A few other conspicuous species are worthy of intro- 
duction. The Tule or Wapatoo root of California is derived 
from a species of Sagittaria. 


Sagittaria sagittifolia, Linnfe. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, east to Japan. One of 
the most showy of all hardy water-plants; still not alone on that 
account deserving naturalization, but also because its root is 
edible. If once established this plant maintains its ground 
well, and might occupy submerged spots not otherwise 

Salix alba, Linn6.* 

The Huntingdon or Silky Willow of Europe, originally prob- 
ably from Middle Asia. It bears the frosts of Norway to Lat. 
63 52'. It is positively known that the Silky Willow will live 
to an age of 150 years, and probably much longer. Available 
for wet places not otherwise in cultivation. Height reaching 80 
feet, circumference of stem sometimes 20 feet; of rapid growth. 
Foliage silvery, pubescent. Wood smooth, soft and tough, bearing 
pounding and knocking better than that of any other British 
tree; eligible where lightness, pliancy and elasticity are required; 
, hence in request for wheel-floats and shrouding of water-wheels, 
as it is not subject to splinter; for the sides and bottoms of carts 
and barrows, for breakblocks of trucks; also used for turnery, 
trays, fenders, shoe-lasts, light handles (Simmonds). Its weight 
is from 26 to 33 lbs. per cubic foot. Timber, according to Robb, 
the lightest and softest of all prominently utilitarian woods; 
available for bungs; it is planed into chips for hat-boxes, baskets 
and woven bonnets, also for cricket-bats, boxes and many uten- 
sils. The bark is particularly valued as a tan for certain kinds 
of glove leather, to which it imparts an agreeable odor. Mr. 
Scaling records, that in rich ground on the banks of streams this 
willow will grow to a height of 24 feet in 5 years, with 2 feet 
basal girth of the stem; in 8 years he found it to grow 35 feet, 
with 33 inches girth at 1 foot from the ground. Loudon 
noticed the height to be 53 feet in 20 years, and the girth 7^2 
feet. In winterless countries the growth is still more rapid. To 
produce straight stems for timber, the cuttings must be planted 
very close, some of- the trees to be removed from time to time. 
After 30 or 40 years the trees will deteriorate. Scaling esti- 
mates the value of an acre of willow-timber to be about ^300. 
The Golden Osier, Salix vitellina, L., is a variety. The shoots 
are used for hoops and wickerwork. With other large Willows 
and Poplars one of the best scavengers for back-yards where 
drainage cannot readily be applied; highly valuable also for 
forming lines along narrow watercourses or valleys in forests, to 
stay bush-fires. The charcoal excellent for gunpowder. The 
wood in demand for matches. 

Salix Babylonica, Tournefort. 

The Weeping Willow, indigenous in West Asia as far as 


Japan, sparingly wild, according to Stewart, in the Himalayas; 
probably also in Persia, Kurdistan and China. One of the most 
grateful of all trees for the facility of its culture and fitness of 
its embellishments; also as one of the quickest growing and most 
easily reared of all shade trees. Fifty feet growth has been 
witnessed in 5 years. The tree is important for consolidating 
river banks and everywhere available for cemeteries. In frost- 
less climes annually only for a few weeks without leaves. In 
Norway it will grow northward to Lat. 58 8'. Dr. C. Koch 
distinguishes another Weeping Willow from Japan as S. elegan- 

Salix Capensis, Thunberg. (S. Gariepina, Burchell.) 

South Africa. This Willow might be introduced on account 
of its resemblance to the ordinary Weeping Willow. S. daph- 
noides, Vill., of Europe and Asia, S. Petiolaris, Smith, S. cor- 
data, Muehlenb., S. tristis, Ait., of North America, are among 
the best for binding sand; one of the dwarf Californian Willows 
has been found on the coast-sands to send out root-like stems 
to 120 feet in length. S. longifolia, Muehlenb., also North 
American, is among those which form long flexible withes. 

Salix caprea, Linn6.* 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. The British Sallow or 
Hedge Willow. In Norway it extends to Lat. 70 37'; in 65 
28' Prof. Schuebeler found it to attain a height of nearly 70 
feet. Wood used for handles and other implements, the shoots 
for hoops. It is largely employed for gunpowder-coal. Bark 
for tanning, particularly glove-leather. The flowers are 
eagerly sought by bees. It is the earliest flowering Willow. 

Salix cordata, Muehlenberg. 

One of the Osiers of North-America. 

Salix daphnoides, Villars. 

Middle Europe and Northern Asia, as far as the Amoor, 
ascending to 15,000 feet in the Himalayas, growing in Norway 
northward to lat. 62 20'. A tree rising to 60 feet in height, 
rapid of growth, attaining 12 feet in four years. It is much 
chosen to fix the ground at railway-embankments, on sandy 
ridges and slopes, for which purposes its long-spreading and 
strong roots render it particularly fit. The twigs can be used 
for baskets, wicker-work and twig-bridges (Stewart and Bran- 
dis). The variety pruinosa is considered by Dr. Sonder to be as 
valuable as the Bedford-Willow. The foliage furnishes cattle- 
fodder. The tree is comparatively rich in salicin, like S. pen- 
tandra, L., and the following. 


Salix fragilis, Linne. 

The Crack-Willow. Indigenous in South-Western Asia. 
Hardy in Norway to lat. 64 5'. Height 90 feet; stem reaching 
20 feet in girth. According to Scaling next to S. alba the best of 
the European timber-willows, but the wood not quite so tough 
and the tree requiring more space for growth. Both species are 
recommended for shelter-plantations, on account of their 
rapidity of growth, uninflammability and easy propagation; the 
latter quality they share with most willows. A variety of this 
species is the Bedford Willow, also called Leicester Willow, 
Salix Russelliana, Smith, which yields a light, elastic, tough 
timber, more tannin in its bark than oak, and more salicin (a 
substitute for quinine and most valuable as an anti-rheumatic 
remedy) than most of its congeners. According to Sir H. Davy 
the layers of the bark contain 16 per cent, tannin, the whole 
bark only about 7 per cent. 

Salix Humboldtiana, Willdenow. 

Through a great part of South-America, southward as far as 
Patagonia, there furnishing building timber for inside structures. 
This Willow is of pyramidal habit, attains a height of 50 feet 
and more. The wood is much in use for yokes and other im- 
plements. Many kinds of Willow can be grown for consoli- 
dating shifting sand and ridges. 

Salix lucida, Muehlenberg. 

One of the Osiers of North-America. 

Salix nigra, Marshall. (S. Purshiana, Sprengel.) 

The Black Willow of North-America. It attains a height of 
30 feet. The Black Willow is one used for basket-work, 
although it is surpassed in excellence by some other species, 
and is more important as a timber- Willow. Mr. W. Scaling, of 
Basford, includes it among the sorts which he recommends in 
his valuable publication, " The Willow," London, 187 1). 

Salix purpurea, Linn6.* 

Of wide range in Europe and Western Asia. The Bitter 
Willow; one of the Osiers. Hardy in Norway northward to lat. 
67 56'. In deep moist soil, not readily otherwise utilized, it will 
yield annually, four to five tons of the best of rods, qualified for 
the finest work. Impenetrable, not readily inflammable screens 
as much as 25 feet high, can be reared from it in five years. In 
localities exposed to storms, willow copses fully forty feet high 
can be raised from this species. It is invaluable also for the 
reclamation of land along watercourses. Rich in salicin, which 
collatively can be obtained from the peelings of the twigs when 


the latter are prepared for basket-material. From Mr. Scaling's 
treatise on the Willow, resting on unrivalled experience, it will 
be observed, that he anew urges the adoption of the Bitter Wil- 
low (also called the Rose Willow or the Whipcord Willow), 
for game-proof hedges, this species scarcely ever being touched 
by cattle, rabbits and other herbivorous animals. Not only for 
this reason, but also for its very rapid growth and remunerative 
yield of the very best of basket-material, he recommends it for 
field hedges. Cuttings are planted only half a foot apart and 
must be entirely pushed into the ground. The annual produce 
from such a hedge is worth 4s. to 5s. for the chain. For addi- 
tional strength the shoots can be interwoven. In rich bottoms 
the shoots will grow from 7 to 13 feet in a year. The supply 
of basket-material from this willow has fallen very far short of 
the demand in England. The plant grows vigorously on light 
soil or warp-land, but not on clay. It likes sandy loam 
and will even do fairly well on gravelly soil, but it is 
not so easily reared as S. triandra. Mr. Scaling's re- 
newed advocacy for the formation of willow-plantations 
comes with so much force, that his advice is here given, 
though condensed in a few words. Osier-plantations come 
into full bearing in the third year; they bear for ten years and 
then slowly decline. The raw produce from an acre in a year 
averages 6 tons to 7^ tons, ranging from £2 10s. to ^3 10s. 
for the ton (unpeeled). Although 7.000 acres are devoted in 
Britain to the culture of basket-willows (exclusive of spinneys 
and plantations for the farmer's own use), yet in 1866 there had 
to be imported from the Continent 4,400 tons of willow-branches, 
at an expense of ^£44,000, while, besides, the value of the made 
baskets imported that year was equal to that sum. In recent 
years the importation into the United States of willow material 
for baskets, chairs, and other utensils, has, according to Sim- 
monds, been estimated as approaching ^£1,006,060. Land, 
. comparatively unfit for root or grain crops, can be used very 
remuneratively for osier-plantations. The soft-wooded willows 
like to grow in damper ground than the hard-wooded species. 
The best peeled willow-branches fetch as much as ^25 for the 
ton. Peeling is best effected by steam, by which means the 
material is also increased in durability. No basket-willow will 
thrive in stagnant water. Osier plantations in humid places 
should therefore be drained. The cuttings are best taken from 
branches one or two years old, and are to be planted as close 
as one foot by one foot and a half. No part of the cutting 
must remain uncovered, in order that only straight shoots may 
be obtained; manuring and ploughing between the rows is thus 
also facilitated, after the crop has been gathered, and this, 
according to the approved Belgian method, must be done by 


cutting the shoots close to the ground after the fall of the leaves. 
The accidental introduction from abroad of the destructive 
saw-flies (particularly Nematus ventralis), which prey also on 
currant- and gooseberry-bushes, should be guarded against. 

Salix rubra, Hudson.* 

Throughout Europe, also in West-Asia and North-Africa; it 
is much chosen for osier-beds. When cut down it will make 
shoots 8 feet long in a season. Porcher regards it as one of 
the most valuable species for work in which unpeeled rods are 
used. It is also admirably adapted for hedges. 

Salix tetrasperma, Roxburgh. 

Mountains of India, from 2,000 to 7,000 feet. Height of tree 
reaching 40 feet. This thick-stemmed Willow is worthy of a place 
on the banks of watercourses. The twigs can be worked into 
baskets, the wood serves for gunpowder, the foliage for cattle- 

Salix triandra, Linn6.* (S. amygdalina, Linn6.) 

The Almond- Willow; through nearly all Europe and extra- 
tropical Asia. Height of tree at length 30 feet. It sheds its bark 
annually after the third year. Likes rich loamy soil; requires 
less space than S. viminalis, more than S. purpurea. It is a 
prominent representative of the hard-wooded basket-willows, 
and comprises some of the finest varieties in use by the manu- 
facturers. Shoots are obtainable 9 feet long; they answer 
for hoops and white basket-work, being pliant and durable. 
The bark contains a good deal of salicin. For basket-purposes 
20,000 to 30,000 cuttings can be planted on an acre, and 2,000 
to 3,000 can be planted in a day by an expert; the second year's 
crop is already of considerable value; at 5 years it comes to its 
prime, the plantation holding good for 15 to 25 years. The 
rods for baskets should be cut as soon as the leaves are fallen. 
The annual value of a crop of basket-willows is in England 
from ^25 to ^35 per acre (Scaling). S. lanceolata, Smith, is 
a hybrid between S. triandra and S. viminalis, according to Prof. 

Salix viminalis, Linne.* 

The common Osier of Europe and North- and West-Asia; 
attains the height of 30 feet. The best of basket-willows for 
banks subject to occasional inundations. It is a vigorous 
grower, very hardy, (to lat. 67 56' in Norway), likes to be fed 
by deposits of floods or by irrigation, and disposes readily of 
sewage (Scaling). One of the best for wicker-work and hoops; 
when cut it shoots up to a length of 12 feet; distinguished by 
j the basket-makers as the soft-wooded willow: it is best for rods 


requiring two years' age, but inferior to several other species 
for basket-manufacture. S. Smithiana, Willd., is a hybrid of S. 
viminalis and S. caprea and has proved one of the best willows 
for copses and hedges. Its growth is very quick and its foliage 
remarkably umbrageous. It would lead too far, to enumerate 
even all the more important Willows on this occasion. Profes- 
sor Anderson, of Stockholm, admits 158 species. Besides these, 
numerous hybrids exist. Many of the taller of these Willows 
could be grown to advantage. 

Salpichroma rhomboidea, Miers. 

Extra-tropical South Africa, as far south as Magellan's Straits. 
A half-shrub, with good-sized berries of vinous taste (Lorentz). 

Salvia Matico, Grisebach. 

Sub-alpine Argentina. An important medicinal herb. 

Salvia officinalis, Linne. 

The Garden-Sage. Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. 
Endures the climate of Norway to lat. 70 . A somewhat 
shrubby plant of medicinal value, prevaded by essential oil. Pre- 
fers calcareous soil. Among nearly half a thousand species of 
this genus some are gorgeously ornamental. 

Sambucus Australis, Chamisso and Schlechtendal. 

Southern Brazil and La Plata-States. Resembles the ordi- 
nary Elder, and is locally used for tall hedges (Dr. Lorentz). 

Sambucus Canadensis, Linne. 

North-Eastern America. The berries of this half-woody 
Elder are used, like those of Phytolacca decandra, for coloring 
vinous liquids. Dr. Gibbons observes, that this species is 
recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia, and that S. 
Mexicana, Presl., and S. racemosa, L., possess similar medicinal 
properties. The flowers are gently excitant and sudorific, the 
berries diaphoretic and aperient; a kind of wine is frequently 
manufactured from them; the inner bark in large doses acts as 
a hydragogue cathartic and as an emetic. S. xanthocarpa, F. v. 
Mueller, is a large Elder-tree of extra-tropical East Australia. 

Sambucus nigra, Linne. 

The ordinary Elder. Europe, Northern Africa, Middle Asia. 
Endures the frosts of Norway northward to lat. 66° 5' (Schue- 
beler). Known to have exceptionally attained a height of 35 
feet. The flowers are of medicinal value, and an essential oil 
can be obtained from them. The wood can be utilized for 
shoe-pegs and other purposes of artisans. The berries are 
used for coloring port wine and for other dyeing purposes. The 


roots of the Elder possess highly valuable therapeutic proper- 
ties, according to Dr. Al. Buettner. 

Sanguinaria Canadensis, Linne. 

North-Eastern America. A perennial herb. Hardy to lat. 
63 26' in Norway. The root important as a therapeutic agent; 
it contains also dye principles. 

Sanguisorba minor, Scopoli. {Poterium Sanguisorba, Linne). 

The Salad-Burnet. Europe, North-Africa, Northern and 
Middle Asia. A perennial herb, easily disseminated and natural- 
ized, particularly adapted for calcareous soils. Serves as salad 
and particularly as a sheep-fodder. 

Sanseviera Zeilanica, Willdenow. 

India. This thick-leaved liliaceous plant should not be 
passed in this enumeration, as it has proved hardy in temperate 
climes, free from frost. Four pounds of leaves give about one 
pound of fiber, which unites softness and silky luster with ex- 
traordinary strength and tenacity, serving in its native country 
particularly for bow-strings. The plant might be left to itself 
for continued growth in rocky unutilized places. Several spe- 
cies, South Asiatic as well as African, exist. 

Santalum album, Linne. 

India, ascending to the temperate elevations of Mysore. A 
small or middle-sized tree, famed for its fragrant wood and 
roots. In the drier and stony parts of ranges the greatest fra- 
grance of the wood is generated. S. Freycenetianum, Gaudi- 
chaud, produces sandalwood on the mountains of the Sandwich 
Islands up to 3,000 feet. Several other species occur in Poly- 
nesia. The precious sandal-oil is obtained by slow distillation 
from the heartwood and root, the yield being about two and a 
half per cent. It is worth about ^3 per pound. Santalum 
Austro-Caledonicum, Vieillard, from New Caledonia, furnishes 
there sandal-wood, excellent for strength and agreeableness of 
odor (Simmonds). 

Santalum cygnorum, Miquel. 

South-Western Australia, where this tree yields scented san- 
dal wood. 

Santalum Preissianum, Miquel. (5. acuminatum, A. DeCandolle). 

The Quandong. Desert country of extra-tropical Australia. 
The fruits of this small tree are called Native Peaches. As 
both the succulent outer part and kernel are edible, it is advis- 
able to raise the plant in desert-tracts. 


Santalum Yasi, Seemann. 

The Sandal-tree of the Fiji-Islands, where it grows on dry 
and rocky hills. It is likely to prove hardy, and deserves, with 
a few other species from the South Sea Islands yielding scented 
wood, test-culture in warm temperate regions. 

Santolina Cyparissias, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. A very aromatic and 
handsome bush, of medicinal value. There are several allied 

Saponaria officinalis, Linne. 

The Soapwort or Fuller's Herb. Europe, Northern and 
Middle Asia. Hardy in Norway to lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler). 
A perennial herb of some technologic interest, as the root can 
be employed with advantage in some final processes of washing 
silk and wool, to which it imparts a peculiar gloss and dazzling 
whiteness, without injuring in the least the most sensitive col- 
ors. Experiments instituted in the laboratory of the Botanic 
Garden of Melbourne render it highly probable that saponin, 
which produces the froth from the soapwort, is also present in 
the bark and root of Acacia (Albizzia) lophanta, W. At all 
events, a substance closely resembling saponin was unexpect- 
edly detected (in the course of other investigations entrusted 
to Mr. Rummel) in the bark of this Acacia, and this substance 
occurred in so large a proportion as to constitute 10 per cent, 
of the dry bark. 

Sassafras officinale, Hayne. 

The deciduous Sassafras-tree, indigenous from Canada to 
Florida, in dry open woods. Height sometimes 80 feet. The stem 
has been known to attain a girth of more than 19 feet at 3 feet 
from the ground. It furnishes the medicinal Sassafras bark 
and wood, and from this again an essential oil is obtainable. 
The deciduous and often jagged leaves are remarkable among 
those of Lauraceae. They are used as a condiment in cookery. 
The root-bark contains 58 per cent, tannin (Reinsch). The 
wood ranks also as a material for a lasting dye. The wood is 
easily worked and of great resistance to the influence of water 
(Dr. C. Mohr). 

Satureja hortensis, Linn6. 

The Summer Savory. Countries around the Mediterranean 
Sea. An annual scent-herb, from which an essential aromatic 
oil can be distilled. The culture of this and allied plants is 
easy in the extreme. 


Satureja tnontana, Linne. 

The Winter Savory. On arid hilly places at and near the 
Mediterranean Sea. A perennial somewhat shrubby herb, fre- 
quently used as a culinary condiment along with or in place of 
the foregoing species, although it is scarcely equal to it in fra- 

Satureja Thymbra, Linne. 

Counties on or near the Mediterranean Sea. A small ever- 
green bush, with the flavor almost of thyme. The likewise 
odorous S. Graeca, L., and S. Juliana, L., have been trans- 
ferred by Bentham to the closely cognate genus Micromeria; 
they have been in use since Dioscorides' time, though not repre- 
senting, as long supposed, the Hyssop of that ancient physician, 
which according to Sprengel and Fraas was Origanum 
Smyrnaeum or some allied species. 

Saussurea Lappa, Bentham. {Haplotaxis Lappa, Decaisne.) 

Cashmere. The aromatic root of this perennial species is of 
medicinal value, and by some considered to be the Costus of the 

Saxono-Gothsea conspicua, Lindley. 

The Mahin of Southern Chili. A middle-sized tree, with 
fine-grained yellowish timber. 

Scandix grandiflora, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. An annual herb, 
much liked there as a salad of pleasant aromatic taste. 

Schitna Wallichii, Choisy. 

India, up to 5,000 feet. A tree attaining a height of 100 feet. 
Timber highly valuable (C. B. Clarke). 

Schizostachyum Blumei, Nees. 

Java, at an elevation of about 3,000 feet. A lofty Bamboo. 
A few other species, less elevated, occur in China, in the South 
Sea and Philippine Islands, and in Madagascar. The Bamboos 
being thus brought once more before us, it may be deemed ad- 
visable, to place together in one brief list all other kinds which 
are recorded either as very tall or as particularly hardy. 
Accordingly, from Major-General Munro's admirable monograph 
(" Linnean Transactions," 1868), the succeeding enumeration is 
compiled, and from that masterly essay, resting on very many 
years' close study of the richest collections, a few prefatory re- 
marks are likewise offered, to vindicate the wish of the writer of 
seeing these noble and graceful forms of vegetation largely 


transferred to every part of Australia, and to many other por- 
tions of the globe, where they would impress a grand tropical 
feature on the landscapes. Even in the far southern latitudes 
of Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand, Bamboos from the 
Indian lowlands have proved able to resist our occasional night- 
frosts of the low country. But in colder places the many sub- 
alpine species could be reared. Be it remembered that Chus- 
quea aristata advances to an elevation of 15,000 feet on the 
Andes of Quito, indeed to near the zone of perpetual ice. 
Arundinaria falcata, A. racemosa and A. spathiflora live on the 
Indian highlands, at a zone between 10, 00c and 11,000 feet, 
where they are annually beaten down by snow. Forms of Bam- 
busacese still occur, according to Grisebach, in the Kurilian 
archipelagus up to 46 N., and in Japan even to 51 . We may 
further recognize the great importance of these plants, when we 
reflect on their manifest industrial uses, when we consider 
their grandeur for picturesque scenery, when we observe 
their resistance to storms or heat, or when we watch the 
marvelous rapidity with which many develop. Their 
seeds, though generally produced only at long intervals, are 
valued in many instances higher than rice. The ordinary great 
Bamboo of India is known to grow 40 feet in forty days, when 
bathed in the moist heat of the jungles. Delchevalerie noticed 
the growth of some Indian Bamboos at Cairo to have been 10 
inches in one night. Their power of growth is such as to upset 
stone walls or demolish substantial buildings. As shelter-plants 
for grazing animals these trees are most eligible. The Bourbon 
Bamboo forms an impenetrable sub-alpine belt of extraordinary 
magnificence in that island. One of the Tenasserim Bam- 
busas rises to 150 feet, with the mast-like cane sometimes meas- 
uring fully one foot in diameter. The great West Indian 
Arthrostylidium is sometimes nearly as high and quite as 
columnar in its form, while the Dendrocalamus at Pulo-Geum is 
equally colossal. The Platonia Bamboo of the highest wooded 
mountains of Panama sends forth leaves 15 feet in length and 1 
foot in width. Arundinaria macrosperma, as far north as 
Philadelphia, still rises to a height of nearly 40 feet in favorable 
spots, and one of the Japan Bamboos, according to Mr. 
Christy, gains the height of 60 feet even in those extra-tropical 
latitudes. Through perforating with artistic care the huge 
canes of various Bamboos, musical sounds can be melodi- 
ously produced when the air wafts through the groves, 
and this singular fact may possibly be turned to practice 
for checking the devastations from birds on many a cultured 
spot. Altogether twenty genera, with one hundred and seventy 
well-marked species, are circumscribed by General Munro's con- 
summate care; but how may these treasures yet be enriched, 


when once the alpine mountains of New Guinea through Bam- 
boo jungles have been scaled, or when the highlands on the 
sources of the Nile, which Ptolemasus and Julius Caesar already- 
longed to ascend, have become the territory also of phytologic 
researches, not to speak of many other tropical regions as yet 
left unexplored! Europe possesses no Bamboo; Australia, as 
far as hitherto ascertained, only three. Almost all Bamboos are 
local, and there seems really no exception to the fact that none 
are indigenous to both hemispheres, a remark which applies to 
Palms as well, with the sole exception of Cocos nucifera, the 
nuts of which, indeed, may have drifted from the western to the 
east;rn world. All true Bambusas are Oriental. Observations 
on the growth of many Bamboos in Italy are recently offered by 
Chevalier Fenzi. The introduction of these exquisite plants is 
one of the easiest imaginable, either from seeds or the living 
roots. The Consuls at distant ports, the missionaries, the mer- 
cantile and navigating gentlemen abroad, and particularly also 
many travellers, could all easily aid in transferring the various 
.Bamboos from one country to another — from hemisphere to 
hemisphere. Most plants of this kind once well established in 
strength under glass can be trusted out in mild temperate climes 
to permanent locations with perfect and lasting safety at the 
commencement of the warm season. Indeed, Bamboos are 
hardier than most intratropical plants, and the majority of them 
are not the denizens of the hottest tropical lowlands, but delight 
in the cooler air of mountain-regions. Strong manuring brings 
some tardy flowering Bamboos early into bloom. In selecting 
the following array from General Munro's monograph, it must 
be noted that it comprises only a limited number, and that 
among those which are already to some extent known, but as 
yet cannot be defined with precision in their generic and specific 
relation, evidently some occur which in elegance, grace and 
utility surpass even many of those now specially mentioned: — . 
Arthrostylidium excelsum, Griseb. West Indies, Height reach- 
ing at length 80 feet, stem-diameter 1 foot. 
Arthrostylidium lon-gifloru?n, Munro. Venezuela; ascends to 

6,000 feet. 
Arthrostylidium racemiflorum, Steudel. Mexico; ascends to 

7,500 feet. Height 30 feet. 
Arthrostylidium Schomburgkii, Munro. Guiana; ascends to 

6,000 feet. Height 60 feet. 
Arundinaria acuminata, Munro. Mexico. Height 20 feet. 
Arundinaria collosa, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 6,000 feet. 

Height 12 feet. 
Arundinaria debilis, Thwaites. Ceylon; ascends to 8,000 feet. 

A tall species. 
Arundinaria Hookeriana, Munro. Sikkim; ascends to 7,000 

feet. Height 15 feet. 


Arundinaria Japo?iica, S. and Z. Japan. Height becoming 12 

Arundinaria Khasiana, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 6,000 

feet. Height 12 feet. 
Arundinaria suberecta, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 4,500 

feet. Height 15 feet. 
Antndinaria tesselata, Munro. South Africa; ascends to 6,500 

feet. Height 20 feet. 
Arundinaria verticillata, Nees. Brazil. Height 15 feet. 
Aulonemia Quexo, Goudot. New Granada, Venezuela, in cool 

regions. Tall, climbing. 
Bambusa Balcooa, Roxb. Bengal to Assam. Height 70 feet. 
Bambusa Beecheyana, Munro. China. Height 20 feet. 
Bambusa Brandish', Munro. Tenasserim; ascends to 4,000 feet. 

Height reaching 120 feet, stem-circumference finally 2 feet. 
Bambusa flexuosa, Munro. China. Height 12 feet. 
Bambusa marginata, Munro. Tenasserim; ascends to 5,000 

feet. Tall, scandent. 
Bambusa nutans, Wall. Himalaya; ascends to 7,000 feet. 
Bambusa pallida, Munro. Bengal to Khasia; ascends to 3,500 

feet. Height 50 feet. 
Bambusa polymorpha, Munro. Burma, in the Teak-region. 

Height 80 feet. 
Bambusa regia, Th. Thomson. Tenasserim. Height 40 feet. 
Bambusa Tulda, Roxb. Bengal to Burma. Height 70 feet. 
Bambusa tuldoides, Munro. China, Hong Kong, Formosa. 
Beesha capitata, Munro. Madagascar. Height 50 feet. 
Beesha stridula, Munro. Ceylon. 
Cephalostachyum capitation, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 6,000 

feet. Height 30 feet. 
Cephalostachyum pallidum, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 5,000 

feet. Tall. 
Cephalostachyum pergracile, Munro. Burma. Height 40 feet. 
Chusquea abietifolia, Griseb. West- Indies. Tall, scandent. 
Chusquea capituliflora, Trinius. South-Brazil. Very tall. 
Chusquea Culcou, E. iDesv. Chili. Height 20 feet. Straight. 
Chusquea Dombeyana, Kunth. Peru; ascends to 6,000 feet. 

Height 10 feet. 
Chusquea Fendleri, Munro. Central America; ascends to 12,000 

Chusquea Galleottiana, Ruprecht. Mexico; ascends to 8,000 

Chusquea Gaudichaudia?ia, Kunth. South-Brazil. Very tall. 
Chusquea Lorentziana, Grisebach. Sub-tropic Agentina. Height 

30 feet; not hollow. Useful for many kinds of utensils 

and structures. 
Chusquea montana, Philippi. Chili; Andes. Height 10 feet. 


Chusquea Muelleri, Munro. Mexico; ascends to 8,000 feet. 

Chusquea Quila, Kunth. Chili. Tall. 

Chusquea scandens, Kunth. Colder Central America. Climb- 
ing, tall. 
Chusquea simpliciflora, Munro. Panama. Height 80 feet. 

Chusquea tenuiflora, Philippi. Chili. Height 1 2 feet. 
Chusquea unifiora, Steudel. Central America. Height 20 

Dendrocalamus flagellifer, Munro. Malacca. Very tall. 
Dendro calamus Hamiltoni, Nees. Himalaya; ascends to 6,000 

feet. Height 60 feet. 
Dendrocalamus Hookeri, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 6,000 

feet. Height 50 feet. 
Dendrocalamus sericeus, Munro. Behar; ascends to 4,000 feet. 

Dinochloa Tjankorreh, Buese. Java, Philippines; ascends to 

4,000 feet. Climbing. 
Gigantochloa heterostachya, Munro. Malacca. Height 30 

Guadua capitata, Munro. South Brazil. Height 20 feet. 
Guadua macrostachya, Ruprecht. Guiana to Brazil. Height 

30 feet. 
Guadua paniculata, Munro. Brazil. Height 30 feet. 
Guadua refracta, Munro. Brazil. Height 30 feet. 
Guadua Tagoara, Kunth. South Brazil; ascends to 2,000 feet. 

Height 30 feet. 
Guadua virgata, Rupr. South Brazil. Height 25 feet. 
Merostachys Claussem, Munro. South Brazil. Height 80 feet. 
Merostachys Kunthii, Ruprecht. South Brazil. Height 30 feet. 
Merostachys ternata, Nees. South Brazil. Height 20 feet. 
/Vastus Bourbonicus, Gmel. Bourbon; ascends to 4,000 feet. 

Height 50 feet. 
Oxytenanthera Abyssinica, Munro. Abyssinia to Angola; ascends 

to 4,000 feet. Height 50 feet. 
Oxytenanthera albo-ciliata, Munro. Pegu, Moulmein. Tall, 

Phyllostachys bambusoides, S. and Z. Himalaya, China and 

Japan. Height 12 feet. 
Phyllostachys nigra, Munro. China, Japan. Height 25 feet. 
Platonia nobilis, Munro. New Granada, colder region. 
Pseudostachyum polymorphum, Munro. Himalaya; ascends to 

6,000 feet. Very tall. 
Teinostachyum Griffithi, Munro. Tall and slender. 

Schizostachyum brachycladum, Kurz. 

x Sunda Islands and Moluccas. Stems at length 40 feet high, 


very hollow. The short branches give to this bamboo a peculiar 
habit. One variety has splendidly yellow stems. 

Schizostachyura elegantissimum, Kurz. 

Java, at elevations from 3,000 to 6,000 feet. Unlike all other 
Bamboos, this bears flowers at an age of three years, and is 
therefore of special importance for scenic effect. Height 25 
feet; stems stout. It requires renewal after flowering, like 
many allied plants. 

Schizostachyum Hasskarlianum, Kurz. 

Java. This and S. serpentinum afford the best kinds of 
Bamboo vegetables for cookery; the young shoots, when bursting 
out of the ground, being used for the purpose. Kurz mentions 
as culinary " Rebong " Bamboos: Gigantochloa aspera, G. 
robusta, G. maxima, G. atter. For ornamental culture the same 
meritorious writer singles out Schizostachyum brachycladum, 
the varieties of Bambusa vulgaris, with gaudy, glossy coloring 
of the stems, in contrast with the black-stemmed species of 
Phyllostachys from China and Japan. 

Schizostachyum irratum, Steudel. 

Sunda Islands and Moluccas. Stems 30 feet high, remark- 
ably slender. 

Schizostachyum Zollingeri, Steudel. 

Hills of Java. Much cultivated. Height 35 feet; stems 

Schkuhria abrotanoides, Roth. 

From Peru to Argentina. This annual herb yields locally an 
insecticidal powder, 

Schoenocaulon officinale, A. Gray. (Asa Graya officinalis \ Lindley; Sabadilla 
officinalis, Brandt and Dierbach.) 

Mountains of Mexico. A bulbous-rooted herb with leafless 
stem, thus far specially distinct from any Veratrum. It 
furnishes the Sabadilla seeds and yields two alkaloids, veratrin 
and sabadillin; a resinous substance, helonin; also sabadillic and 
veratric acid. The generic names adopted for this plant by 
Lindley and by Dierbach are coetaneous. 

Sciadopitys verticillata, Siebold. 

The curious Kooya-maki or Umbrella Fir of Japan. Becom- 
ing 140 feet high; pyramidal in habit. Resists severe frosts. 
Wood white and compact. 


Scilla esculenta, Ker. (Camassia esculenta, Lindley). 

The Quamash. In the western extra-tropical parts of North 
America, on moist prairies. The onion-like bulbs in a roasted state 
form a considerable portion of the vegetable food on which 
the aboriginal tribes of that part of the globe extensively live. 
It is a pretty plant and might be naturalized on moist mead- 

Scilla Fraseri, A. Gray. 

The Quamash of the Eastern States of North America. 
Most prolific in the production of its bulbs, which taste some- 
what like potatoes. 

Seorzonera crocifolia, Sibthorp. 

Greece. A perennial herb; the leaves, according to Dr. 
Heldreich, used there for a favorite salad and spinach. 

Scorzonera deliciosa, Guasson.* 

Sicily. One of the purple-flowered species; equal, if not 
superior, in its culinary use to the allied Salsify. 

Scorzonera Hispanica, Linne.* 

Middle and Southern Europe, Western Asia. In Norway 
hardy to lat. 63 26'. The perennial root of this yellow-flow- 
ered herb furnishes not only a wholesome and palatable food, 
but also serves as a therapeutic remedy much like dandelion. 
Long boiling destroys its medicinal value. Some other kinds 
of Scorzonera may perhaps be drawn into similar use, there be- 
ing many Asiatic species. 

Scorzonera tuberosa, Pallas. 

On the Volga and in Turkestan, in sandy desert country. 
This species also yields an edible root, and so perhaps the Chi- 
nese Sc. . albicaulis, Bunge, the Persian Sc. Scowitzii, DC., 
the North African Sc. undulata, Vahl, the Greek Sc. ramosa, 
Sibth., the Russian Sc. Astrachanica, DC, the Turkish Sc. 
semicana, DC, the Iberian Sc. lanata, Bieberst. At all 
events, careful culture may render them valuable esculents. 

Scutia Indica, Brongniart. 

South Asia. This, on Dr. Cleghorn's recommendation, might 
be utilized as a thorny hedge-shrub. 

Sebaea ovata, R. Brown. 

Extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. This neat little 
annual herb can be utilized for its bitter tonic principle (Gen- 
tian-bitter). S. albidiflora, F. v. M., is an allied species from 
somewhat saline ground. These plants disseminate themselves 


most readily, but are unacceptable to stock. S. crassulifolia, 
Chamisso, and Chironia baccifera, Linne, serve for the same 
therapeutic purposes in South Africa (McOwan). 

Secale cereale, Linne.* 

The Rye. Orient, but perhaps wild only in the country be- 
tween the Caspian and Black Seas, and evidently so in Afghan- 
istan. Mentioned here as the hardiest of all grain-plants for 
the highest alpine regions. In Norway it can be grown as far 
north as lat. 69 30' (Schuebeler). There are annual and bien- 
nial varieties, while a few allied species, hitherto not generally 
used for fodder or cereal culture, are perennial. The Rye, 
though not so nutritious as wheat, furnishes a most wholesome 
well-flavored bread, which keeps for many days, and is most ex- 
tensively used in Middle and Northern Europe and Asia. 
The grain, moreover, can be reared in poor soil and cold cli- 
mates, where wheat will no longer thrive. In produce of grain, 
Rye is not inferior to wheat in colder countries, while the yield 
of straw is larger, and the culture less exhaustive. It is a 
hardy cereal, not readily subject to disease, and can be grown 
on some kinds of peaty or sandy or moory ground. The sow- 
ing must not be effected at a period of much wetness. Wide- 
sand-tracks would be uninhabitable, if it were not for the ease 
of providing human sustenance from this grateful corn. It 
dislikes moist ground. Sandy soil gives the best grain. It is a 
very remarkable fact that for ages, in some tracts of Europe, 
Rye has been prolifically cultivated from year to year 
without interruption. In this respect Rye stands favorably 
alone among alimentary plants. It also furnishes in cold coun- 
tries the earliest green fodder, and the return is large. Dr. 
Sonder observed, in cultivated turf-heaths with much humus, 
that the spikelets produce three or even four fertile florets, and 
thus each spike will yield as many as eighty beautiful seeds. 
Langethal recommends for argillaceous soils a mixture of early 
varieties of wheat and rye, the united crops furnishing grain 
for excellent bread. When the Rye grains become attacked by 
Cordyceps purpurea, Fr., or similar species of fungi, it 
becomes dangerously unwholesome, but then also a very im- 
portant medicinal substance — namely, Ergot — is obtained. 
The biennial Wallachian variety of Rye can be mown or depas- 
tured prior to the season of its forming grain. In alpine re- 
gions Wallachian Rye is sown with pine-seeds, for shelter of the 
pine seedlings in the first year. Rye is extensively used for the 
manufacture of gin. 

Secale Creticum, Linne. (Triticum creticum, R. & S.) 

Candia, Corsica. Though probably only a variety of S. 


cereale, L., it deserves specially to be mentioned as furnishing 
a bread of peculiar taste. 

Sechium edule, Swartz. 

Central America. The Chocho or Chayota. The large 
starchy root of this climber can be consumed as a culinary veg- 
etable, while the good -sized fruits are also edible. The fruit 
often germinates before it drops. The plant bears even in 
the first year and may ripen one hundred fruits in a year. It 
comes to perfection in the warmer parts of the temperate zone. 

Selinum anesorrhizum, F. v. Mueller. {Anesorrhiza Capensis, Ch. and Schl.) 

South- Africa. The root of this biennial herb is edible. A. 
montana, Eckl. and Zeyh., a closely allied plant, yields like- 
wise an edible root; and so it is with a few other species of the 
section Anesorrhiza. 

Selago leptostachya, E. Meyer. 

South- Africa. There an excellent bush for sheep-pastures in 
the Karro-grounds, reproduced spontaneously with great readi- 
ness from dropping seeds, and maintaining itself also by the 
running stems. It is the " Waterfinder " of the Orange-river 
regions, indicating generally humidity beneath the ground (Mc- 

Selinum Monnieri, Linne. 

From East Asia now extending to South-Europe, preferring 
moist places. An annual herb, praised by the Chinese as valu- 
able for medicinal purposes. 

Sequoia sempervirens, Endlicher.* (Taxodium sempervirens , Lambert.) 

Red Wood or Bastard-Cedar of North-Western America, 
chiefly California. One of the most colossal trees of the globe, 
exceptionally becoming 360 feet high, occasionally with a stem 
diameter of 55 feet. The wood is reddish, soft, close-veined, 
easily split, very durable, but light and brittle. The timber of 
mission-buildings one hundred years old are still quite sound. 
Its growth is about 32 feet in sixteen years. Often found on 
metamorphic sandstone. It luxuriates in the cool dampness of 
sea- fogs. Shinn describes these Sequoias as rugged shafts, rising 
like huge monolithic columns, crowned with downward curving 
branches and shining green. Dr. Gibbons writes, that this tree 
forms forests along the coast range for a distance of about 200 
miles in a belt 20 miles wide. The wood is suitable for exter- 
nal as well as internal finish. It constitutes almost the sole 
material for weather-boarding along the Calif ornian coast; and 
for fence-posts, foundations of buildings, and railway-sleepers 
it is almost the only material used. Is also susceptible of a 


splendid polish for furniture; is largely sawn into boards and 
shingles, furnishing in California the cheapest lumber. Stem 
bare for ioo feet or more; when cut, sending suckers from the 
root for renovation. Dr. Gibbons records as the stoutest stems 
some of 33 feet diameter at 3 feet from the ground. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia, Seemann.* (Wellingtonia gigantea, Lindley; Sequoia 
gigantea, Decaisne, not Endl.) 

Mammoth-tree. California, up to 8,000 feet above the sea. 
This, the biggest of all trees, attains a stem length of 320 feet and 
a circumference of 112 feet, the age of the oldest trees being 
estimated at 1,100 years. The total height of a tree has been 
recorded as occasionally 450 feet, but such heights have never 
been confirmed by actual clinometric measurements of trees ex- 
isting now. A stem broken at 300 feet had yet a diameter of 18 
feet. The wood is soft and white when felled; afterwards it turns 
red. It is very durable. Traditional accounts seem to have 
overrated the height of the Mammoth-tree. In the Calaveras- 
grove two of the largest trees, which may have been the tallest 
of all, were destroyed; the two highest now existing there are 
respectively 325 and 319 feet high, with a circumference of 45 
and 40 feet at 6 feet from the ground. At the Mariposa-grove 
the highest really measured trees are 272, 270 and 260 feet 
high; but one. of these has the enormous circumference of 67 
feet at 6 feet from the ground, while another, the height of 
which is not recorded, is 93 feet in girth at the ground, and 64 
feet at n feet from it; the branches of this individual tree 
are as thick as the stems of large Elms. The height of the 
Calaveras grove is about 4,760 feet above sea-level. A stump 2,3 
feet in diameter is known at Yosemite. According to Dr. Gib- 
bons this giant of the forest has a far wider range than was 
formerly supposed, Mr. John Muir having shown that it stretches 
over nearly 200 miles at an altitude of 5,000 to 8,000 feet. 
From the Calaveras to the King-River it occurs in small and 
isolated groves, but from the latter point south to Deer-Creek, 
a distance of about 70 miles, there are almost unbroken forests 
of this noble tree. Growth of the tree about 2 feet a year under 
ordinary culture, much more in damp forest-glens. Professor 
Schuebeler found it to endure the climate of Norway northward 
to lat. 6i° 15'. Both Sequoias produce shoots from the root 
after the stem is cut away. The genus Sequoia can be reduced 
to Athrotaxis, as shown by Bentham and Hooker. 

Sesamum Indicum, Linne. 

The Gingili. Southern Asia, extending eastward to Japan. 
This annual herb is cultivated as far as 42 north latitude in 
Japan. The oil, fresh expressed from the seeds, is one of the 
best for table use and free from any unpleasant taste; it congeals 


with more difficulty than olive-oil. There are varieties of this 
plant with white, red and black seeds; the latter is the earliest 
and richest, but gives a darker oil. Yield 45 to 50 per cent. oil. 
Nearly a million acres are under cultivation with this plant in 
the Madras-Presidency. The export of the oil from Bangkok 
in 1870 was valued, according to Simmonds, at ^183,000; the 
market value is from 25s. to 35s. per cwt. The plant still 
succeeds at Malta and at Gaza, and is much grown in Turkey. 
Parched and pounded, the seeds make a rich soup. In Greece 
the seeds are often sprinkled over cakes. One of the advan- 
tages of the culture of this plant consists in »its quick return of 
produce. The root of the oil is used for China-ink. 

Sesbania aculeata, Persoon. 

The Danchi. Intra-tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Africa and 
Australia. This tall annual plant has proved adapted for desert- 
regions. It yields a tough fiber for ropes, nets and cordage, 
valued at from ,£30 to ^"40 for the ton. Several congeneric 
plants can be equally well utilized. 

Sesbania ^Egyptiaca, Persoon. 

Africa, South- Asia, North-Australia. The foliage of this tall 
perennial herb, and of the allied annual S. brachycarpa, F. v. 
M., serves as fodder, which cattle are ravenously fond of. Ac- 
cording to Mr. T. Gulliver, the green pods, as well as the seeds, 
are nutritious, wholesome and of pleasant taste. Roxburgh 
mentions the leaves and young pods of S. grandiflora as excel- 
lent for spinach. 

Sesbania cannabina, Persoon. 

South Asia. An annual herb of easy growth in wet localities, 
requiring less attention in weeding and otherwise than the Jute 
plant. The crop for fiber ripens in about five months. 

Sesbania grandiflora, Persoon. 

North-western Australia, Indian Archipelagus. Called in 
Australia the Corkwood-tree; valuable for various utilitarian 
purposes. The red-flowered variety is grandly ornamental. 

Sesleria coerulea, Arduino.* 

Most parts of Europe. Of this perennial grass Langethal 
observes, that it is for dry and loose limestone what Elymus 
arenarius is for loose sand. It stands depasturing by sheep well, 
and is one of the earliest grasses of the season. 

Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Linne. 

All round the globe on the shores of tropical and sub-tropical 
countries, occurring naturally as far south as Port Jackson. A 


perennial creeping herb, fit to fix the sandy silt on the edges of 
sea coasts. 

Shepherdia argentea, Nuttall. 

The Buffalo-Berry. From the Missouri to Hudson's Bay. 
This bush bears red, acidulous, edible berries. 

Shorea robusta, Gaertner. 

The Sal-tree. India, up to 3,000 feet. It attains as a max- 
imum a height of 150 feet and a stem-girth of 25 feet. One of 
the most famed of Indian timber trees. Drs. Stewart and Bran- 
dis found it on sandstone, conglomerate, gravelly and shingly 
ground, where loose water-transmitting soils are mixed with a 
large portion of vegetable mold. The climatic conditions 
within a Sal-area may be expressed as — mean annual rainfall, 
40 to 100 inches; mean temperature, in the cool season, 55° to 
77 , in the hot season 77 to 85 ° F. Sal will stand the occa- 
sional sinking of the temperature below freezing point. The 
heart-wood is dark brown, coarse-grained, hard, very heavy, 
strong, tough, with fibrous cross-structure, the fibers interlaced. 
For buildings, river-boats and railway-sleepers it is the most 
important timber of North-India. It exudes a pale, aromatic, 
dammar-like resin. The Tussa silkworm derives food from 
this tree. 

Shorea Talura, Roxburgh. (S. laccifera, Heyne.) 

India, abounding in Mysore, where South-European fruits 
prosper. On this tree also the Lac insect lives. It furnishes a 
peculiar dammar. 

Sison Amomum, Linne. 

Middle and Southern Europe. An herb of one or two years' 
duration. It grows best on soil rich in lime. The seeds can be 
used for condiment. 

Smilax medica, Chamisso and Schlechtendal. 

Mexico. This plant produces mainly the sarsaparilla-root of 
that country. 

Smilax officinalis, Humboldt. 

New Granada and other parts of Central America. This 
climbing shrub produces at least a portion of the Columbian 

Smilax papyracea, Duhamel. 

Guiana to Brazil. The origin of the principal supply of 
Brazilian sarsaparilla is ascribed to this species, although seve- 
ral others of this genus, largely represented in Brazil, may yield 


the medicinal root also. In warm humid gullies of the tem- 
perate zone these plants would probably succeed in establishing 
themselves. Smilax Australis, R. Br., extends from the tropi- 
cal coast-parts of Australia to East Gippsland. Neither this, nor 
the East-Australian S. glycyphylla, Smith, nor the New Zea- 
land Ripogonum scandens, Forst., has ever been subjected to 
accurate therapeutic tests, and the same may be said of numer- 
ous other Smilaces scattered through the warmer countries of 
the globe. The Italian sarsaparilla, which is derived from the 
Mediterranean S. aspera, L., has been introduced into 

Smilax rotundifolia, Linne. 

Eastern States of North-America and Canada. A prickly 
climber with deciduous foliage. An immense local use is made 
of the roots for the bowls of tobacco-pipes. It is estimated that 
nearly three millions of these briar-root pipes are now made a 
year. The reed portion of these pipes is generally prepared 
from Alnus serrulata, Richard, according to Professor Meehan. 

Smyrnium Olusatrum, Linne. 

The Alisander. Middle and Southern Europe, Northern 
Africa, Western Asia. A biennial herb, which, raw or boiled, 
can be utilized in the manner of celery. The roots and fruitlets 
serve medicinal purposes. 

Solanum Aculeastrum, Dunal. 

South- Africa. Recommended for hedges as one of the tallest 
species of this genus, and as armed with the most formidable 

Solanum ^Ethiopicum, Linne. 

Tropical Africa. Cultivated there and elsewhere on account 
of its edible berries, which are large, red, globular and uneven. 
The plant is annual. 

Solanum betaceum, Cavanilles. (Cyphotnandra betacea, Sendtner.) 

Central America. This shrub is cultivated as far south as 
Buenos Ayres and Valparaiso, also on the Mediterranean Sea, 
for the sake of its tomato- like berries. 

Solanum Dulcamara, Linne. 

Europe, Northern Africa, Middle Asia, indigenous in Norway 
to lat. 66° 32'. A trailing half-shrub, with deciduous leaves. 
The stems are used in medicine, and contain two alkaloids: 
dulcamarin and solanin. 


Solatium edule, Schumacher and Thonning. 

Guinea. The berry is of the size of an apple, yellow and 
edible. How far this species is hardy remains to be ascer- 

Solanum Fendleri, Asa Gray. 

New Mexico. A new kind of Potato, enduring the tempera- 
ture of zero. Professor Meehan's endeavors to obtain good- 
sized tubers have as yet not been successful. Tubers of fair 
size have since been obtained, according to Simmonds. 
[This is S. tuberosum, var. Coreale, Gray]. The following 
plants are also spoken of by Dr. Rosenthal and others 
as new kinds of potato, perhaps to be developed through culti- 
vation : S. demissum, Lindley, S. cardiophyllum, Lindley, S. 
utile, Klotzsch, S. verrucosum, Schlechtendal, S. Bulbocas- 
tanum, Dunal, S. stoloniferum, Schlechtendal, all from Mexico 
and some from elevations of 10,000 feet; S. Maglea, Molina, 
from Chili and S. immite, Dunal, from Peru. 

Solanum Gilo, Raddi. 

Tropical America; much cultivated there for the sake of its 
large, spherical, orange-colored berries, which are eatable. 

Solanum Guinense, Lamarck. 

Within the tropics of both hemispheres. The berries of this 
shrub serve as a dye of various shades, particularly violet, for 

Solanum indigoferum, St. Hilaire. 

South-Brazil. A dye-shrub, deserving trial culture. 

Solanum Lycopersicum, Linne.* (Lycoperscium esculentum, Mill.) 

The Tomato. South-America. Annual. Several varieties 
exist, differing in shape and color of the berries. It is one of 
the most eligible plants with esculent fruits for naturalization in 
desert-country. As well known, the Tomato is adapted for 
various culinary purposes. Tomato foliage maybe placed round 
fruit trees, like the equally poisonous potato-leaves, to prevent 
the access of insects, and an infusion of the herb serves also as 
an insecticide for syringing, as first adopted by Mr. Sircy. 

Solanum macrocarpum, Linne. 

Mauritius and Madagascar. A perennial herb. The berries 
are of the size of an apple, globular and yellow. S. Thonningi, 
F. Jacq., from Guinea, is a nearly-related plant. S. calycinum, 
Moc. et Sess., from Mexico, is also allied. 


Solanum Melongena, Linne. (S. ovigrum, Dunal; S. esculentum, Dunal.) 

The Egg-Plant. India and some other parts of tropical Asia. 
Hardy at Christiania like the Tomato. A perennial plant, 
usually renewed in cultivation like an annual. The egg shaped 
large berries are known under the name of Aubergines, Brin- 
gals or Begoons as culinary esculents. Allied plants are S. in- 
sanium, L., S. longum, Roxb., S. serpentinum, Desf., S. un- 
datum, Lam., S. ferox, L., S. pseudo-saponaceum, Blume, S. 
album, Dour., which all bear large berries, considered harm- 
less; but all may not represent well-marked species. Absolute 
ripeness of all such kinds of fruits is an unavoidable requisite, 
. as otherwise even wholesome sorts may prove acrid or even 
poisonous. Probably many other of the exceedingly numerous 
species of the genus Solanum may be available for good-sized 
edible berries. 

Solanum muricatum, L'Heritier. 

The Pepino of Peru. A shrubby species with egg-shaped 
edible berries, which are white with purple spots, and attain a 
length of 6 inches. 

Solanum Quitoense, Lamarck. 

Ecuador, Peru. A shrubby plant. The berries resemble 
small oranges in size, color and taste, and are of a peculiar 
fragrance. To this S. Plumierii, Dun., from the West Indian 
Islands, is also cognate, as well as S. Topiro, Kunth, from 
the Orinoco-region. 

Solanum torvum, Swartz. 

From the West-Indies to Peru. A shrubby species with yel- 
low spherical berries of good size, which seem also wholesome. 
Other species from tropical America have shown themselves 
sufficiently hardy to induce us to recommend the test culture 
of such kinds of plants. Many of them are highly curious and 
ornamental. S. sisymbrifolium, Lam., of South America, also 
yields edible berries. 

Solanum tuberosum, Linne.* 

The Potato. Andes of South America, particularly of Chili 
and Peru, but not absolutely trans-equatorial, as it extends into 
Columbia. It is also wild in the Argentine territory, and ex- 
tends northward into the United States, in its variety boreale 
(S. Fendleri, Gray). In Norway it may be grown as far 
north as 71 7' (Schuebeler). From some varieties of pota- 
toes three crops can be obtained within a year in regions 
free from frost. In rich coast lands of Victoria as much 
as 14 tons of potatoes have been taken from an acre in a 


single harvest. As a starch-plant, the Potato interests us on 
this occasion particularly. Considering its prolific yield in rich 
soil, we possess as yet too few factories for potato-starch. The 
average yield is 10 per cent. The starch, by being heated with 
mineral acids or malt, can be converted into dextrin and dex- 
tro-glucose for many purposes of the arts. Dextrin, as a sub- 
stitute for gum, is also obtainable by subjecting potato-starch in 
a dry state to a heat of 400 F. Alcohol may be largely pro- 
duced from the tubers. The berries and shoots contain solanin. 
Baron von Liebig remark's, "So far as its foliage is concerned, 
it is a lime-plant; as regards its tuber a potash-plant." Lange- 
thal says, "It surpasses in easy range of cultivation all other 
root crops. Its culture suppresses weeds and opens up the 
soil, besides preparing the land for cereals." Seeds of the Po- 
tato berries should be sown in adapted places by explorers of 
new countries. The most formidable potato-disease of the last 
thirty years, from the Peronospora infestans, seems to have 
originated from the use of objectionable kinds of guano, with 
the introduction of which the murrain was contemporaneous. 
The foliage of potato-plants, when thickly placed under trees 
or shrubs infected by blights, checks materially the spread of 
insects which cause the disease. The most destructive Potato- 
grub is Lita Solanella. The Colorado bettle, injurious to the 
potato-crop in North America, is Doryphora decemlineata. So- 
lanum Commersonii, Dunal, which is closely allied to S. 
tuberosum, occurs in extra-tropical South America on both sides 
of the coast. See Sir Joseph Hooker's notes on the wild forms 
of the Potato-plant in the Flora Antarctica. II., 329-332. 

Solanum Uporo, Dunal. 

In many of the islands of the Pacific Ocean. The large, red 
spherical berries of this shrub can be used like Tomatoes. 
Proves hardy at Port Phillip. 

Solanum vescum, F. v. Mueller. 

The Gunyang. South-East Australia. A shrub yielding edi- 
ble berries, which need however to be fully ripe for securing 
absence of deleterious properties. 

Solanum xanthocarpum, Schrader and Wendland. 

North Africa and South Asia. A perennial herb. The ber- 
ries are of the size of a cherry, and either yellow or scarlet. 

Sophora Japonica, Linne.* 

A deciduous tree of China and Japan, resembling the La- 
burnum, at length 60 feet high; wood hard and compact, valued 
for turners' works. All parts of the plant purgative; the flowers 


rich in yellow dye, used for silk. The variety pendula, when 
trained as a creeper, has few rivals in handsomeness. 

Sophora tetraptera, J. Miller. 

New Zealand, Lord Howe's Island. Juan Fernandez Island, 
Chili, Patagonia. The Pelu of the latter countries. A small 
tree with exceedingly hard and durable wood, which is much 
used for cog-wheels and other select structures. Trunk excep- 
tionally attaining a diameter of three feet. The. wood differs 
much from that of S. Tomairo of the Easter Island (Dr. Phil- 

Spartina cynosuroides, Willdenow. 

Eastern part of North America, there often called Prairie 
grass. A perennial grass of fresh water swamps; it can be 
utilized for fodder, and its value as paper material seems equal 
to that of Esparto. Emits shoots copiously, hence is recom- 
mended by Bouche for binding maritime driftsands, covering 
the ground densely with its persistent rigid foliage. 

Spartina juncea, Willdenow. 

Salt-marshes of North America. A grass with creeping 
roots; it can be utilized to bind moist sand on the coast. A 
tough fiber can readily be obtained from the leaves. S. poly- 
stachya, Willd., is a stately grass, adapted for saline soil; it is 
also a North American grass. 

Spartina stricta, Roth. 

The Twin-spiked Cord-Grass. Countries on the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, extending to Britain and also to North America. A 
rigid perennial with creeping roots, recommended for fixing 
and rendering solid any mud flats on low shores and at the 
mouths of rivers; only suitable for brackish ground. 

Spartium junceum, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The flowers of 
this bush provide a yellow dye. A texile fiber can be separated 
from the branches. 

Spergula arvensis, Linne. 

All Europe, North Africa, West Asia. This annual herb, 
though easily becoming a troublesome weed, is here mentioned 
for the desirable completeness of this enumeration. The tall 
variety with large seeds (S. maxima, Weihe) can be chosen with 
advantage for the commencement of tillage on any sandy soil 
too poor for barley. It takes up the land only for about two 
months, if grown for green fodder, and as such much increases 
the yield of milk. It serves also for admixture to hay (Lange- 


thai). It is one of the earliest of fodder-plants, and imparts a 
particularly pleasant taste to butter. 

Spigelia Marylandica, Linne. 

The Pinkroot of North America, north to Pennsylvania and 
Wisconsin. A perennial handsome herb, requiring cautious 
administration as a vermifuge. S. anthelmia, L., is an annual 
plant of tropical America, and possesses similar medicinal 
properties, in which probably other species likewise share. 

Spilanthes oleracea, N. Jacquin. 

The Para Cress. South-America. An annual herb of con- 
siderable pungency, used as a medicinal salad. 

Spinacia oleracea, Linne. 

Siberia. The ordinary Spinach, an agreeable culinary annual 
of rapid growth. Can be grown in Norway to lat. 70 4' 
(Schuebeler). It has a mild aperient property, like several 
species of Chenopodium. Two varieties are distinguished, the 
Summer and the Winter Spinach, the former less inclined to 
run into seed, but also less hardy. 

Spinacia tetrandra, Steven. 

The Schamum. From the Caucasus and Persia to Turkestan 
and Afghanistan. Also an annual and unisexual plant like the 
preceding, with which it has equal value, though it is less 
known. A de Candolle surmises that it may be the original 
parent of the Spinage-plant. 

Spinifex hirsutus, La Billardiere. 

On the whole coast of extra-tropical Australia. Highly 
valuable for binding coast-sand with its long creeping roots. 

Spinifex longifolius, R. Brown. 

On the tropical and western extra-tropical coast of Australia. 
Available like the former. 

Spinifex paradoxus, Bentham. 

Central Australia. Not unimportant as a large perennial 
fodder-grass on sand ridges, and remarkable for its endurance 
of protracted drought and extremely high temperature (Flierl). 

Spinifex squarrosus, Linne. 

India. Useful for binding sand. Tennant remarks, that 
the radiating heads become detached when the seed is 
matured, and are carried by the wind along the sand, 
over the surface of which they are impelled by their elastic- 
spines, dropping their seeds as they roll along. The heads are 


so buoyant as to float lightly on water, and while the uppermost 
spiny rays are acting as sails, they are carried across narrow 
estuaries, to continue the process of embanking beyond on any 
newly-formed sandbars. 

Spondias dulcis, G. Forster. 

Fiji, Tonga and Society-Islands. This noble tree is intro- 
duced into this list to indicate that trials should be instituted as 
regards the culture of the various good fruit-bearing species of 
this genus, one of which, S. Solandri, Bentham, crosses 
the tropical circle in East- Australia. The lamented Dr. See- 
mann saw S. dulcis 60 feet high, and describes it as laden with 
fruits of agreeable apple-flavor called Rewa, some attaining 
over 1 lb. weight. 

Sporobolus Virginicus, R. Brown. 

Warmer regions of both hemispheres. A perennial grass, 
which will luxuriate even in sandy maritime places, and keep 
perfectly green after three or four months' drought. In Jamaica 
horses become rapidly and astonishingly fat while feeding 
upon this grass (Jenman). S. Indicus, S. purpuraceus and 
S. Jacquemonti are also highly spoken of as pasture grasses in 
the West-Indian Islands. Several other of its congeners 
deserve attention, but S. elongatus, though a very resisting 
grass, is rather too hard for fodder purposes. 

Stenopetalum nutans, F. v. Mueller. 

Central Australia. An excellent annual herb for sheep- 
pastures, disseminating itself over the ground readily (Rev. H. 
Kempe). The naturalization of other species, all Australian, 
might be effected in arid hot sandy deserts. 

Stenotaphrum Americanum, Schranck.* (S glabrum, Trinius.) 

South-Asia, Africa, warmer countries of America; not known 
from any part of Europe or Australia. Here called the Buffa- 
lo-grass. It is perennial, creeping, and admirably adapted for 
binding sea-sand and river banks, also for forming garden 
edges, and for establishing a grass sward on lawns much sub- 
jected to traffic; it is besides of some value as a pasture, and is 
one of the best of shade grasses also. The chemical analysis, 
instituted late in spring, gave the following results: Water 80.25; 
Albumen 0.50; Gluten 5.44; Starch 0.08; Gum 1.60; Sugar 
1.60; Fiber 10.53 (F. v. Mueller and L. Rummel). It consoli- 
dates rolling sands into a firm pasture-turf. It was this grass 
which Mr. John C. Bell reared with so much advantage for 
fodder on the bare rocks of the Island of Ascension, and it 
was there where Australian Acacias took the lead, to estab- 


lish wood-vegetation and to secure permanency of drinking 

Sterculia Carthaginensis, Cavanilles. (S. Chicka, St. Hilaire.) 

South-Brazil. This and some other South-American species 
furnish seeds of almond-like taste. 

Sterculia monosperma, Ventenat. (S. Nobilis, R. Brown.) 

China. A middle-sized spreading tree. The large seeds can 
be used as chestnuts in a roasted state. 

Sterculia quadrifida, R. Brown. 

Eastern and Northern Australia. This tree might be tried 
in rich and humid forest-regions. It is the " Calool " of the 
natives. The black seeds are of a filbert taste, like those of 
some other Sterculice. As many as eleven of the brilliant 
scarlet fruits may occur in a cluster, and each of them may con- 
tain as many as ten or eleven seeds (Fawcett). 

Sterculia urens, Roxburgh. 

India, extending to the north-western provinces, to Assam 
and Ceylon. A tree with deciduous foliage; likes dry, rocky, 
hilly situations. This and S. urceolata, Smith, from the 
Moluccas and Sunda Islands, produce edible seeds, and may 
prove hardy in mild extra-tropical regions. 

Stilbocarpa polaris, Decaisne and Planchon. 

Auckland's and Campbell's Islands, also in the southern 
extremity of New Zealand, and also in Macquarie Island, 
luxuriating in a frigid zone and in exposed, boisterous localities. 
An herbaceous plant, with long roots, which are saccharine and 
served some wrecked people for a lengthened period as suste- 
nance. The plant is recommended here for further attention, 
as it may prove through culture a valuable addition to the stock 
of culinary vegetables of cold countries. 

Stipa aristiglumis, F. v. Mueller. 

South-east Australia. Graziers consider this perennial grass 
as very fattening and as yielding a large quantity of feed. Its 
celerity of growth is such that, when it springs up, it will grow 
at the rate of 6 inches in a fortnight. Horses, cattle and sheep 
are extremely fond of it. It ripens seeds in little more that two 
months, should the season be favorable. 

Stipa tenacissima, Linne.* {Macrochloa tenacissima, Kunth.) 

The Esparto or Atocha. Spain, Portugal, Greece, North 
Africa, ascending the Sierra Nevada to 4,000 feet. This grass 
has been celebrated for some years, having already afforded 


a vast quantity of material for British paper-mills. It is tall 
and perennial, and would prove a valuable acquisition anywhere, 
inasmuch as it lives on any kind of poor soil, occurring natur- 
ally on sand and gravel as well as on clayey, calcareous or 
gypseous soil, and even on the very brink of the coast. Possi- 
bly the value of some Australian grasses, allied to the Atocha, 
may in a like manner become commercially established, and 
mainly with this view paper-samples of several grass-kinds were 
prepared by the writer. ( Vide " Report, Industrial Exhibition, 
Melbourne, 1867.") Even in the scorching heat and the forbid- 
ding sands of the Sahara-region the Atocha maintains itself, and 
it may thus yet be destined to play an important part in the 
introduced vegetation of any arid places of desert-tracts, partic- 
ularly where lime and gypsum exist. The very tenacious fiber 
resists decay, and is much employed for the manufacture of 
ropes, also for baskets, mats, hats and other articles. Dur- 
ing 1870 the import of Esparto-ropes into England was 18,500 
tons, while the raw material to the extent of about 130,000 tons 
was imported. Extensive culture of this grass has commenced 
in the south of France. It is pulled once a year, in the earlier 
part of the summer. The propagation can be effected from 
seeds, but is done usually by division of the root. 10 tons of 
dry Esparto, worth from ^4 to ^5 each, can be obtained from 
an acre under favorable circumstances. The supply has fallen 
short of the demand. Good writing-paper is made from Esparto 
without admixture; the process is similar to that for rags, but 
cleaner. The price of Esparto-paper ranges from ^40 to ^50 
for the ton. Stipa arenaria, Brot., is a closely allied and still 
taller species, confined to Spain and Portugal. Consul W. P. 
Mark deserves great praise for having brought the Atocha into 
commercial and manufactural recognition. Stipa pennata, S. 
capillata and S. elegantissima will grow in pure sand. 

Streblus asper, Loureiro. 

South-Asia. This bears a good recommendation for live 
fences, in being a shrub of remarkable closeness of branches. 

Styrax officinalis, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. A tall bush or small 
tree. The fragrant solid storax-resin exudes from this plant, or 
is particularly obtained by pressure of the bark. 

Swertia Chirata, Bentham. (Ophelia Chirata, Grisebach.) 

Widely dispersed over the higher mountain regions of India. 
A perennial herb, considered as one of the best tonics; it 
possesses also febrifugal and antarthritic properties. Its admin- 
istration in the form of an infusion, prepared with cold water, is 


the best. Besides S. elegans, Wallich and some of the other 
Upper Indian, Chinese and Japanese species probably deserve 
equal attention. Hanbury and Fliickiger mention as chiratas 
or chirettas of Indian bazaars: S. angustifolia, D. Don, S. den- 
sifolia, Grisebach and S. multifiora, Dalzell, besides species 
of Exacum and Andrographis. All come from the cooler up- 

Swietenia Mahagoni, Linne.* 

The Mahogany-tree of the West Indies, extending naturally to 
Florida and Mexico. The degree of endurance of this famous 
tree is not sufficiently ascertained. In its native mountains it 
ascends to 3,000 feet. It reaches a considerable height and the 
stem a diameter of 6 or 7 feet, indicating a very great age. 
Sir William Hooker counted 200 wood-rings in a block of 4 
feet width, which may not, however, indicate as many years of 

Symphytum officinale, Linne.* 

The Comfrey. Europe, Western Asia. A perennial herb. 
The root is utilized in veterinary practice. 

Symphytum peregrinum Ledebour.* 

The Prickly Comfrey. Caucasus and Persia. The growth of 
this hardy plant may be recommended as an adjunct to lupine- 
culture. The Hon. Arthur Holroyd, of Sydney, has recently 
devoted a special publication to this plant. He quotes on good 
authority the return of foliage even in the first year as 20 
tons to the acre, in the second year 50 tons, and every year 
after 80 to 120 tons on manured land. It yields a nutritive and 
relished forage in rapid and continuous reproduction. It is 
likewise recommended for green manure. Dr. Curl observed it 
to grow well in the moist clime of New Zealand during the 
hottest and driest as well as coldest weather. Fit especially for 
sub-alpine country. Dr. Voelcker found much mucilage but 
little sugar in this plant. The massive root, known to penetrate 
to a depth of 9 feet, sustains the plant in vigor, allowing it to be 
cut almost throughout the year. The propagation is easy from 
root-cuttings, difficult from seeds; 4,000 of the former to an 
acre; it will thrive even in sand and tough clay, but prefers 
moist and even boggy land. In tropical countries cattle have a 
predilection for it; there it likes shades. The likewise borra- 
gineous Cynoglossum Morrisonii, De Cand., of North America, 
yields three cuttings annually. Horses and cattle relish it. It 
ought to be naturalized along swamps, lagoons and river banks. 
It can be dried for hay. Finally it is recommended as a plant 
for game. 


Symplocos ramosissima, Wallich. 

Himalaya, up to 7,500 feet. In Sikkim, according to Dr. 
Stewart, the yellow silkworm is reared on the leaves of this 
tree. Two allied species occur spontaneously in the forests of 
East- Australia, many in Southern Asia, several in Tropical 

Syncarpia laurifolia, Tenore. 

Queensland and New South Wales. Vernacular name, Tur- 
pentine-tree; attains a height of 200 feet, with a stem of great 
thickness. The wood is comparatively soft and brittle, but 
very durable, mostly used for flooring and cabinet-making, as it 
takes a high polish (Hartmann). 

Synoon Glandulosum, A. de Jussieu. 

New South Wales and South-Queensland. This tall ever- 
green tree deserves cultivation in sheltered warm forest-valleys 
on account of its rose-colored easily-worked wood. Some 
species of Dysoxylon of East Australia also produce rosewood, 
for instance, D. Fraseranum, Bentham, of New South Wales, 
reaching 100 feet in height and 3 feet in stem-diameter, wood 
fragrant and D. Muelleri, Bentham, 80 feet high, wood of a rich 
color, valuable for cabinet-work, price in Brisbane ^3 to £4 per 
1,000 feet (W. Hill). 

Tacca pinnatifida, G. Forster. 

Sand-shores of the South Sea Islands. From the tubers of 
this herb the main supply of the Fiji arrowroot is prepared. It 
is not unlikely that this plant will endure a temperate clime. The 
Tacca starch is much valued in medicine, and particularly used 
in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. Its characteristics are 
readily recognized under the microscope. Several other kinds 
of Tacca are distinguished, but their specific limits are not yet 
well ascertained. Dr. Seemann admits two (T. maculata and 
T. Brownii) for tropical Australia, one of these extending as a 
hill-plant to Fiji. From the leaves and flower-stalks light kinds 
of bonnets are plaited. A Tacca occurring in the Sandwich 
Islands yields a large quantity of the so-called arrowroot ex- 
ported thence. Other species (including those of Ataccia) 
occur in India, Madagascar, Guinea, Guiana and North Brazil, 
all deserving tests in reference to their hardiness and their value 
as starch-plants. 

Tagetes glanduligera, Schranck. 

South-America. This vigorous annual plant is said by Dr. 
Prentice to be pulicifugous. 


Talinum patens, Willdenow. [T. paniculatum, Gaertner.) 

From Mexico to Argentina. A perennial succulent herb, 
which might easily be naturalized on coast- and river-rocks. It 
furnishes the "Puchero" vegetable. 

Tamarindus Indica, Linne. 

Tropical Asia and Africa. This magnificent, large, expan- 
sive tree extends northward to Egypt, and was found in North- 
western Australia by the writer of this list. Final stem- 
girth of 25 feet not rare. Never leafless. Varieties occur, ac- 
cording to Brandis, with sweetish red pulp. It is indicated 
here, not without hesitation, to suggest trials of its acclimation 
in regions of the temperate zone with a warm, humid and equa- 
ble temperature. The acid pulp of the pods forms the medicinal 
Tamarind, rich in formic and butyric acid, irrespective of its 
other contents. 

Tamarix dioica, Roxburgh. 

India, up to 2,500 feet. An important shrub for binding 
newly-formed river banks, even in saline soil. 

Tamarix Gallica, Linne.* 

Southern Europe, Northern and tropical Africa, South and 
East Asia, ascending the Himalayas to 11,000 feet; hardy at 
Christiania. Attains a height of 30 feet in Algeria, according 
to Cosson. This shrub or small tree adapts itself in the most 
extraordinary manner to the most different localities. It will 
grow alike in water and the driest soil, also in salty ground, and 
is one of the most grateful and tractable plants in culture; it is 
readily multiplied from cuttings, which strike root as easily as a 
willow and push forth stems with unusual vigor. Hence it is 
one of the most eligible bushes for planting on coast-sand, to 
stay its movements, or for lining embankments. Furnishes 
material for a superior charcoal (W. H. Colvill) and various 
implements (Brandis). Planted much in cemeteries. In 
Australia first largely sent out by the writer. 

Tamarix Germanica, Linne. 

Europe and West- Asia, ascending to 15,000 feet in the Hima- 
layas; hardy in Norway to lat. 70 20' (Schuebeler). Likewise 
available for arresting the ingress of shifting sand, particularly 
in moist places, also for solidifying precipitous river banks. 
The allied T. elegans (Myricaria elegans, Royle) attains a height 
of 20 feet. 

Tamarix orientalis, Forskael. {T. articulata, Vahl.). 

Northern and Middle Africa, South-Asia. A fast-growing 


tree, attaining a -height of 60 feet, the trunk occasionally enlarg- 
ing to a circumference of 12 feet. Springs up readily from 
seeds, and is also readily propagated from cuttings. Coppices 
well. The wood serves for ploughs, wheels and many imple- 
ments (Stewart and Brandis). With T. Gallica it grows 
with sufficient rapidity to be reared in India for fuel. Dye-galls 
and a kind of manna are also produced by this tree. The same, 
or an allied species, extends to Japan. 

Tanacetum vulgare, Linnfe. 

The Tansy. Northern and Middle Europe, Northern Asia, 
North-Western America. A perennial herb of well-known 
medicinal value, which mainly depends on its volatile oil. 

Taraxacum officinale, Weber. 

Dispersed over most of the temperate and cold parts of the 
globe, but apparently not a native of Australia. It succeeds in 
Norway northward to lat. 71 10' (Schuebeler). This well- 
■ known plant is mentioned, as it can be brought under regular 
cultivation, to obtain the medicinal extract from its roots. It 
is also considered wholesome to grazing animals. The young 
leaves furnish a medicinal salad. It is also an important honey 
plant and flowers early in the season. 

Tarchonanthus camphoratus, Linne. 

South Africa. This bush deserves attention, being of medi- 
cinal value. As an odorous garden plant it is also very accept- 

Taxodium distichum, Richard.* 

Virginian Swamp or Bald-Cypress. In Swampy places of 
Eastern North America, extending from 38 to at least 17 
north latitude. Thought to attain occasionally an age of 2,000 
years. A valuable tree, 100 feet high or more, sometimes with 
a stem circumference of 40 feet above the conical base; of 
rapid growth, with deciduous foliage, like that of the Larch 
and Ginkgo. Important as anti-malarian for wet fever-regions. 
It is found fossil in the miocene formation of many parts of 
Europe. The wood is fine-grained, hard, strong, light, elastic 
and very durable, splits well, and hence is much used for shingles, 
rails, cabinet work and planks; it is almost indestructible in 
water. The tiee requires a rich soil, a well-sheltered site, with 
much moisture and good drainage (Lawson). It yields much 
essential oil and a superior kind of turpentine. Useful for 
avenues on swampy margins of lakes or river banks. Porcher 
says, "This tree, lifting its giant form above the others, gives a 
striking feature to many of the swamps of Carolina and Geor- 
gia; they seem like watch-towers for the feathered race." 


Taxodium mucronatum, Tenore. 

The famed Montezuma-Cypress of Mexico, 120 feet high, 
with a trunk reaching 44 feet in circumference; it forms ex- 
tensive forests between Chapultepec and Tescuco. 

Taxus baccata, Linne. 

Yew. Europe, North Africa and Asia, in the Himalayas up 
to 11,000 feet elevation. In Norway it extends northward to 
lat. 67 30' (indigenous); Professor Schuebeler found it to at- 
tain a height of 45 feet and a circumference of 4 feet in lat. 59 
26'. Generally a shrub, finally a tree as many as 100 feet high, 
which furnishes a yellow or brown wood, which is exceedingly 
tough, elastic and durable, and much esteemed by turners; one 
of the best of all woods for bows. Simmonds observed that 
"a post of Yew will outlast a post of iron." Much esteemed 
for pumps, piles and water-pipes, as more lasting than any other 
wood; also for particular musical instruments, the strongest 
axletrees and select implements (Simmonds). The tree is of 
very slow growth, and attains a great age, perhaps several 
thousand years; some ancient ones are known with a stem of 
50 feet in girth. It should be kept out of the reach of grazing 
animals, as leaves and fruit are deadly poisonous. 

Taxus brevifolia, Nuttall. (T. Lindleyana, Lavvson.) 

Western Yew. North- West America. A stately tree, finally 75 
feet high, with a stem 5 feet in circumference. Wood beau- 
tifully white or slightly yellow, as fine and close-grained as the 
European Yew. The Indians use it for their bows. Sir Joseph 
Hooker regards this as well as the Japanese and other 
Yews as all forms of one species. 

Tectona grandis, Linne fil.* 

The Teak of South Asia. This superb timber tree has 
its northern limit in Bandalkhand, at elevations of 3,000 
feet; it ascends to 4,000 feet, but is then not of tall size. 
In Western India, according to Stewart and Brandis, frost is 
not uncommon in the teak-districts. Teak-wood is held in the 
highest esteem by ship-builders, for the backing of ironclad 
men-of-war preferred to any other wood; also used for the 
panels of coaches and various other select purposes. It 
scarcely shrinks. 

Tectona Hamiltoniana, Wallich. 

Lower India. Yields the Burma-wood, which is heavy, close- 
grained, streaked and susceptible of a high polish. In habit 
and size it is similar to the ordinary Teak (Kurz), but perhaps 
not so hardy. 


Teinostachyum attenuatum, Munro. 

One of the hardier Bamboos of Ceylon, there growing on the 
mountains at elevations between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. It at- 
tains a height of 25 feet. Three species of this genus from 
New Caledonia have been described as Greslanias. 

Telfairia pedata, Hooker. 

Mozambique. A cucurbitaceous climber with perennial 
stems, attaining a length of 100 feet, with fringed lilac flowers 
of extraordinary beauty, and with fruits, attaining a weight of 
60 lbs. and containing at times as many as 500 large seeds. 
The latter in a boiled state are edible, or a large quantity of 
oil can be pressed from them. The root is fleshy. A second 
huge species of similar use, T. occidentalis, J. Hooker, occurs 
in Guinea. 

Terfezia leonis, Tulasne. {Cheiromyces leonis, Tul.) 

South Europe, North Africa. This edible truffle, together 
with other species of this and other genera, is deserving of 

Terminalia Buceras, J. Hooker. {Bucida Buceras, Linne.) 

From the Antilles to Brazil. One of the Mangrove trees, 
living in salt water. Possibly hardy and calculated to con- 
solidate mud shores. The Tussa silkworm inhabits, among 
other trees, several Terminalias. 

Terminalia Catappa, Linne. 

India, ascending only lower mountain-regions, also North- 
Eastern Australia. Few trees, as stated by Roxburgh, surpass 
this in elegance and beauty. We have yet to learn whether it 
can be naturalized in temperate climes, which it especially de- 
serves for its nuts. The seeds are almond-like, of filbert taste, 
and wholesome. The astringent fruits of several other species 
constitute an article of trade, sought for a lasting black dye. 
T. parviflora, Thwaites, forms a large tree in Ceylon, at eleva- 
tions up to 4,000 feet. Several of their congeners reach extra- 
tropic latitudes in Eastern Australia. 

Terminalia Chebula, Retzius. 

On the drier mountains of India, ascending to 5,000 feet. A 
tree rising to 100 feet. The seeds of this tree are of hazel taste; 
the galls of the leaves and also the young fruits, the latter 
known as Myrobalans, serve for superior dye and tanning ma- 
terial. Some of its congeners answer the same purpose. 

Tetragonia expansa, Murray. 

The New Zealand Spinach, occurring also on many places of 


the coast and in the desert-interior of Australia. Known also 
from New Caledonia, China, Japan and Valdivia. An annual 
herb, useful as a culinary vegetable, also for binding drift-sand. 

Tetragonia implexicoraa, J. Hooker. 

Extra-tropical Australia, New Zealand, Chatham-Island. }A 
frutescent, widely expanding plant, forming often large natural 
festoons, or trailing and climbing over rocks and sand, never far 
away from the coast. As a Spinach plant it is as valuable as 
the preceding species. It is well adapted for the formation of 
bowers in arid places; it also helps to bind sand. T. trigyna, 
Banks and Solander, seems identical. 

Tetranthera Californica, Hooker and Arnott.* {Oreodaphne Californica, 
Nees; Litsea Californica, B. and H.) 

Oregon and California, where it is called the Mountain-Laurel 
or Bay Tree. On the banks of rivers attaining a height of 100 
feet; throughout pervaded by a somewhat camphoric odor. 
Wood hard, close-grained, durable, susceptible of a high polish, 
easily worked, used for superior flooring, turnery and manifold 
other select work. The tree is easily cultivated, but not of 
quick growth (Dr. Behr and Prof. Bolander). 

Tetranthera calophylla, Miquel. {Litsea Wightiana, F. v. M.) 

Mountains of Java and the Neilgherries. From the kernels 
of the berries a tallow-like fat is pressed for the manufacture of 
candles. The yield is comparatively large. Trial cultures with 
this tree might be instituted in humid forest-valleys. Litsea 
Chinensis, Lamarck, of tropical Asia and Australia, and L. 
Japonica, Jussieu, are noted as similarly utilitarian. 

Teucrium Marum, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. A small somewhat 
shrubby plant, in use for the sake of its scent, containing a 
peculiar stearopten. T. Scordium, L., from Europe and 
Middle Asia, T. Chamaedrys, L., T. Polium, L., and T. 
Creticum, L., from South-Europe, are occasionally drawn into 
medical use. All these, together with many other species from 
various countries, are pleasantly odorous. 

Thapsia edulis, Bentham. (Monizia edulis, Lowe.) 

On the Island of Deserte Grande, near Madeira, where it is 
called the Carrot-tree. It might be of some use to bring this 
almost shrubby umbellate to the cliffs of other shores; though 
the root is inferior to a carrot, perhaps cultivation would im- 
prove it. T. decipiens, Benth. (Melanoselinum decipiens, Lowe), 
from Madeira, is of palm-like habit and desirable for scenic 
effects in plant-grouping. 


Theligonum Cynocrambe, Linne. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. An annual 
Spinach-plant of somewhat aperient effect. 

Thouarea sarmentosa, Persoon. 

Tropical shores of the eastern hemisphere. This curious and 
tender grass might be easily introduced, to help in binding the 
sand on sea-beaches. 

Thrinax parviflora, Swartz. 

South-Florida, West-Indies, and also on the Continent of 
Central America. The stem of this Fan-Palm attains a height 
of 25 feet, or according to Chapman 40 feet, but is extremely 
slender. It belongs to the sand-tracts of the coast; hardy in 
the South of France to 43 32' N. lat. (Naudin). The fiber of 
this Palm forms material for ropes. T. argentea, Lodd., is a 
closely allied Palm. The few other species of the genus from 
the West Indies also deserve trial culture. 

Thuya dolabrata, Linne, fil. (Thuyopsis dolabrata, Siebold and Zuccarini.) 

The Akeki of Japan. A majestic tree, of conical shape and 
drooping habit, growing 50 feet high, attaining a stem diameter 
of 3 feet. It delights in shaded and rather moist situations, and 
is used in China and Japan for avenues. Hardy in Norway to 
lat. 58 27' (Schuebeler). It furnishes an excellent hard timber 
of a red color. 

Thuya gigantea, Nuttall. 

North-west America. The Yellow Cypress of the Colonists, 
also known as Oregon Red or White Cedar. A straight grace- 
ful tree, in some instances known to have attained a height of 
325 feet, with a stem 22 feet in diameter; it furnishes a valuable 
building timber of a pale or light-yellow color, susceptible of 
high polish. It is light, soft, smooth and durable, and makes 
the finest sashes, doors, mouldings, and similar articles (Vasey). 
Canoes carrying 4 tons have been obtained out of one stem. 
The bast can be converted into ropes and mats. The tree can 
be trained into hedges and bowers. It endures the climate of 
Christiania. To Thuya are referred by Bentham and J. Hooker 
all the Cypresses of the sections Chamaecyparis and Retinos- 

Thuya occidentalis, Linne. 

North America, extending from Carolina to Canada. North- 
ern White Cedar or Arbor Vitge. A fine tree 70 feet high. 
Bears the frosts of Norway northward to lat. 63° 52'. The 
wood is reddish or yellowish, fine-grained, very tough and 
resinous, light, soft, durable, and well fit for building, especi- 


ally for water-work and railway ties, also for turnery and 
machinery. Michaux mentions, that posts of this wood last 
forty years; a house built of it was found perfectly sound after 
sixty years. The tree prefers moist soil; it is valuable for 
copses; it can also be trained into garden bowers. Porchersays 
that it makes the finest ornamental hedge or screen in the United 
States, attaining any required height and being very compact 
and beautiful; such hedges, indeed, were observed by the 
writer himself many years ago in Rio de Janeiro. The shoots 
and also an essential oil from this tree are used in medicine; the 
bast can be converted into ropes; the branches serve for 

Thymelsea tinctoria, Endlicher. {Passerina tinctoria, Pourr.) 

Portugal, Spain, South France. A small shrub which yields a 
yellow dye. Cursorily it may be noted here, that some of the 
Australian Pimeleae contain a blue pigment, which has not yet 
been fully tested. Their bark produces more or less of daphnin 
and of the volatile acrid principle, for which the bark of Daphne 
Mezereum, L. is used. These are remarkably developed in 
the South-east Australian Pimelea stricta, Meissn. The bark 
of many is also pervaded by a tough fiber, that of the tall 
Pimelea clavata, Labill, a West Australian bush, being hence 
particularly tenacious, and used for whips. 

Thymus capitatus, Hoffmannsegg and Link. {Satureja capitata, Linne.) 

Around the whole Mediterranean Sea. Since the time of 
Hippocrates, Theophrastos and Galenus, this small scented 
shrub has been employed in medicine. 

Thymus mastichina, Linne. 

Spain, Portugal, Morocco. A half-shrub of agreeable scent, 
used also occasionally in medicine. 

Thymus Serpillum, Linne. 

Europe, Western Asia, North-eastern Africa. A perennial 
herb of some medicinal value. It would live on the highest 
alps. An essential oil can be obtained from it. One particular 
variety is lemon-scented. 

Thymus vulgaris, Linne. 

The Garden Thyme. South Europe. Both this and the pre- 
ceding species can be grown in Norway up to lat. 70 22' 
(Schuebeler). This small shrubby plant is available for scent 
and for condiments; also as a honey-plant. It is also well 
adapted for forming garden-edges. The essential oil of this 
plant can be separated into the crystalline thymol and the liquid 
thymen and cymol. T. aestivus, Ruet. and T. hiemalis, Lange, 


are closely cognate plants. • Several other species with aromatic 
scent occur on or near the Mediterranean Sea. 

Tilia Americana, Linne. 

The Basswood Tree or North American Linden Tree, grow- 
ing there to 52 north latitude. In Norway it is hardy as far as 
Christiania (59 55') as well as the following (Schuebeler). 
Height of tree reaching 80 feet, diameter of stem, 4 feet. The 
wood is close-grained and firm, as soft as deal; used in the con- 
struction of musical instruments, particularly pianofortes. Speci- 
ally valuable for the cutting-boards of curriers and shoemakers, 
bowls, pails, shovels, panelling of carriages (Robb). As the 
wood is free from knots, it is particularly eligible for turnery and 
carving, and certain portions of machinery. The tree is highly 
valued for street-planting in its native land where it also furnishes 
linden bast or bass. This is one of the principal honey plants 
in many parts of the United States. Tilia heterophylla, Vent., 
the Silver Linden of North America, and Tilia Manchurica, 
Rupr., of South Siberia, might be tested. 

Tilia argentea, Desfontaines.* 

The Silver Linden of South-eastern Europe. The wood is 
not attacked by boring insects. The flowers are deliciously 
fragrant and yield on distillation a precious oil. 

Tilia Europaea, Linne. 

The common Linden tree of Europe, extending naturally to 
Japan; the large-leaved variety of South European origin. It 
lives to a great age. A very hardy tree, living in Norway as far 
north as lat. 67 56' (Schuebeler). A weeping variety is known. 
Height sometimes 120 feet; stem exceptionally 50 feet in girth. 
The wood pale, soft and close-grained; sought for turnery, 
piano-keys, carving, and by shoemakers and glovers to cut 
leather on; also for toys (Simmonds). The flowers yield a 
highly aromatic honey (Meehan). The bast excellent for mats. 

Tillandsia usneoides, Linne. 

Black Moss, Long Moss, Florida Moss. From Carolina and 
Florida to Uruguay and Chili, on trees. Might be naturalized 
in forests of countries with mild climes. In its native country 
a favorite materialfor upholsterers' work. 

Tinguarra Sicula, Parlatore. 

In the countries on the Mediterranean Sea. The root is 
edible and celery-like. 

Todea Africana, Willdenow. 

South- Africa, South-Eastern Australia, New Zealand. Most 


important for scenic effects in wet places; as an export article 
the aged stems of this fern are now much sought, and have en- 
dured wide transits, which were initiated by the writer. Stems 
have been found bearing from 500 to 600 fronds. A gigantic 
specimen was found in the Dandenong forests the trunk of which 
weighed 4,368 lbs., after the fronds were cut away, the extreme 
dimensions of the stem being about 6 feet in height, 
breadth and width. Supplies of this massive fern in the gullies 
ought to be maintained for future generations by the artificial 
dispersion of the dust-like spores. 

Torreya Californica, Torrey. (T. myristica. Hooker.) 

California, extending from the coast to the Sierras. A sym- 
metrical tree becoming 100 feet high, with a clear straight trunk 
30 feet in length and 6 feet in diameter (Dr. Gibbons). The 
wood is hard and firm. 

Torreya grandis, Fortune. 

The Kaya of China. A tree at length 60 feet high, with an 
umbrella-shaped crown; it produces good timber. 

Torreya nucifera, S. and Z. {Catyotaxus nucifera, Zuccarini.) 

Japan. Height of tree about 30 feet. From the nuts the 
Japanese press an oil used as an article of food. The wood is 
highly valued in Japan by coopers, also by turners; it resembles 
boxwood (Dupont). 

Torreya taxifolia, Arnott. 

Florida. A tree reaching 50 feet in height, with a firm close- 
grained light but durable wood of a reddish color; very lasting 
also underground. Prostrated trees did not decay in half a 
century. Timber slightly more yellow than that of the white 
pine (P. J. White). The tree yields a reddish turpentine 

Touchardia latifolia, Gaudichaud. 

In the Hawaiian Islands. A shrub, allied to Boehmeria 
nivea, yielding a tough and easily separable fiber, as shown 
by Dr. Hillebrand. Probably best adapted to humid warm 

Tragopogon porrifolius, Linne. 

The Salsify. Middle and Southern Europe, Middle Asia; 
hardy to lat. 70 in Norway. Biennial. The root of this herb- 
is well known as a useful culinary vegetable. 

Trapa bicornis, Linne fil.* 

The Leng, Ling or Links of China. The nuts of this 


water-plant are extensively brought to market in that country. 
The horns of the fruit are blunt. The kernel, like that of the 
two following species, is of an excellent taste. The plant is 
regularly cultivated in the lakes and ponds of China. 

Trapa bispinosa, Roxburgh.* 

Middle and Southern Asia, where it is called "Singhara," 
extending to Ceylon and Japan; found also in Africa as far 
south as Zambezi. The nuts are often worked for starch. 
They can be converted into most palatable cakes or porridge, 
and may be stored for food, even for several years. The pro- 
duce is copious and cheaply maintained by spontaneous redis- 
semination. In some countries, for instance in Cashmere, the 
nuts form an important staple of food to the population. To 
this species probably belong T. Cochin-Chinensis, Lour, and 
T. incisa, Sieb. and Zucc. 

Trapa natans, Linne.* 

' The ordinary Waternut. Middle and Southern Europe, 

Middle Asia, Northern and Central Africa. Recorded as an 

annual. T. quadrispinosa, Roxb., from Sylhet, is a mere 

Trichodesma Zeylanicum, Brown. (Pollichia Zeylanica, F. v. M.). 

From Abyssinia and South Asia to extra-tropical Australia. 
An annual herb, perhaps available for green manure. The 
dromedaries show an extraordinary predilection for the herb 
(Giles). Several other species deserve trial for fodder- 

Tricholana rosea, Nees. 

South Africa. This perennial grass promises to become 
valuable for desert-countries, together with T. Teneriffse and 
other congeners. It gets two feet high; the root is creeping. One 
of the best grasses to withstand drought but dislikes frost. Mr. 
Dangar counted about 300 stems on one plant in Riverina. 

Trifolium agrarium, Linne. 

The perennial Yellow Clover or Hop Clover. All Europe, 
Northern Africa, Western Asia; wild in Norway and Northward 
to lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler). Of considerable value in sandy 
soil as a fodder herb. It is easily naturalized. 

Trifolium Alexandrinum, Linne.* 

The Bersin-Clover. North-eastern Africa, South-western Asia, 
South-Europe. Much grown for forage in Egypt, where it is 
used as the main fodder. On the Nile it gives three green 
crops during the season, each up to 2 feet high. Seeds of this 


and other clovers must be sifted, to free them from the destruc- 
tive Dodder-plants or Cuscutas. About 20 lbs. of seed are 
required for an acre (Morton). Recorded as annual. 

Trifolium alpestre, Linne. 

Europe, West-Asia. Perennial. Content with lighter soil 
than that needed for most Clovers, but the constituents must be 
fairly marly or limy. This Clover is early out and very palata- 
ble to herds and flocks (Langthal). 

Trifolium fragiferum, Linne. 

The Strawberry-Clover. Europe, North Africa, Middle and 
North Asia. Indigenous in Norway to lat. 59 55'. A perennial 
species, well adapted for clay soils. Foliage closer and more 
tender than that of the white clover, but its vegetation later 
(Langethal). Morton recommends it for moist sandy soil. It 
delights in ground much wetter than suits most other clovers; 
it spreads over humid pastures most readily, with a growth more 
luxuriant than that of white clover, and stands the summer-heat 
better, smothering most other plants and covering the ground 
with a thick and close herbage. Cattle are very fond of it and 
fatten well on it (Geo. Black). 

Trifolium furcatum, Lindley. 

California. A stout and somewhat succulent species, with 
large flower-heads. Affords good pasturage (A. Gray) and dis- 
seminates readily, but it is annual. Several other native clovers 
occur in Western North-America. 

Trifolium hybridum, Linne.* 

The Alsike Clover. Europe, Northern Africa, Western Asia. 
Wild in Norway to lat. 63 50'. A valuable perennial pasture 
herb, particularly for swampy localities. It succeeds where the 
ground becomes too sandy for Lucerne and too wet for Red 
Clover, but does not withstand drought so well, while it pro- 
duces a heavier bulk of forage than White Clover, and maintains 
its ground when the soil has become too much exhausted for 
other Clovers. The seed being very small, less than half the 
quantity is required for the same area as for Red Clover. 

Trifolium incarnatum, Linne. 

The Carnation-Clover, also called Crimson or Italian Clover. 
In Norway it can be grown to lat. 70 22'. Middle and South- 
ern Europe. Though annual only, or sometimes biennial, it is 
valued in some of the systems of rotations of crops. In the 
South of England it is much sown on harrowed stubble-fields 
to obtain an early feed of great fattening value. It forms par- 
ticularly a good fodder for sheep, and is recommended especially 


for gypsum-regions. A white flowering variety exists. Bees 
are very fond of it (Darwin). 

Trifolium medium, Linne. 

The Red Zigzag Clover. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia. 
Indigenous in Norway to lat. 63 26' (Schuebeler). A deep- 
rooting, wide-creeping perennial herb, much better adapted for 
dry sandy places than T. pratense. It would also endure the in- 
clemency of the clime of higher alpine regions, if disseminated 
. there. One of the best of Clovers for forest-regions. For regu- 
lar culture it needs lime, like most plants of its class. More hardy 
than T. hybridum, less productive than T. pratense (Langethal). 
It ought not to be omitted among mixed clovers and grasses. 
According to Morton it is not so much sought and relished by 
grazing-animals as many other clovers. T. Quartinianum, A. 
Rich., is an allied plant from Abyssinia, where several endemic 
species exist. Some of the twenty-five known Californian 
Clovers would deserve test-culture. 

Trifolium montanum, Linne. 

Europe, West-Asia. Perennial. Not without importance for 
limy or marly ground. It is indigenous northward to Christi- 

Trifolium ochroleucum, Linne. 

Pale-yellow Clover. Middle and Southern Europe, West- Asia. 
Perennial. This species is much cultivated in Upper Italy; its 
value is that of T. medium (Langethal). 

Trifolium Pannonicum, Linne. 

The Hungarian Clover Southern Europe. Perennial. Earlier 
in the season than Red Clover, to which it is allied, but less 
tender in foliage (Morton). 

Trifolium pratense, Linne.* 

The ordinary Red Clover. All Europe, North-Africa, North- 
ern and Middle Asia. It is found wild as far north as 69 20' in 
Norway (Schuebeler). A biennial, or under special circumstances 
also a perennial herb, of great importance for stable-fodder. 
The perennial variety passes under the name of Cow-clover, by 
which name also T. medium is sometimes designated. Highly 
recommendable for permanent pastures, particularly in cool 
humid climes, as it continues to grow year after year and pro- 
duces a large amount of herbage (Dr. Curl). It prefers rich 
ground, and particularly soil which is not devoid of lime; 
gypsum dressings are recommendable for the fields. It enters 
into the rotation system of crops very advantageously. This 
species would also live in alpine regions, where it would much 


enrich the pastures. The nectar of the flowers is sucked by 
bumble bees, which tends to facilitate the production of seeds. 

Trifolium reflexum, Linne.* 

The Pennsylvania or Buffalo-Clover. North-America. An- 
nual or biennial; flower-heads larger than those of the Red 
Clover; likes alluvial flats. 

Trifolium repens, Linne.* 

The ordinary White Clover. Europe, North-Africa, Northern 
and Middle Asia, Sub-Arctic America; in Norway it is 
indigenous to lat. 70 57'. Perennial. Most valuable as a fod- 
der plant on grazing land. It has a predilection for moist soil, 
but also springs again from dry spots after rain. It likes soil 
containing lime, prospers on poorer ground than Red Clover, 
is more nourishing and better digested, and less exhaustive to 
the soil. Dressing with gypsum vastly enhances the value and 
productiveness of any clover field. Important as a bee-plant. 

Trifolium resupinatum, Linne. 

The annual Strawberry-Clover. From South-Europe and 
North Africa to Persia; also in the Canary Islands and 
Azores. Admitted here, though annual, as this clover is culti- 
vated with predilection in Upper India; it is of tall growth 
and succulent foliage. 

Trifolium spadiceum, Linne. 

Brown Clover. Europe, West Asia. Though only annual or 
biennial, this has been recommended for wet sandy moorland, 
on which it redisseminates itself with readiness. 

Trifolium subrotundum, Hochstetter. 

The Mayad-Clover. North and Middle Africa, ascending to 
9,000 feet. A perennial species, in its native countries utilized 
with advantage for clover-culture. 

This by no means closes the list of the Clovers desir- 
able for introduction, inasmuch as about 150 well-marked 
species are recognized, many doubtless of value for pas- 
ture. But the notes of rural observers on any of these 
kinds are so sparingly extant, that much uncertainty about 
the yield and nutritive value of various kinds continues 
to prevail. Most Clovers come from the temperate zone of 
Europe and Asia; only two are indigenous to the eastern of 
the United States of North America, none occur in Australia, 
few are found in South Africa, several in California and the 
adjoining countries, several also in Chili; no species is peculiar 
to Japan. 



Trigonella Foenum Graecum, Linne. 

Countries on the Mediterranean Sea. The seeds of this 
annual herb find their use in veterinary medicine. 

Trigonella suavissima, Lindley. 

Interior of Australia, from the Murray River and its tributa- 
ries to the vicinity of Shark Bay. This perennial, fragrant, 
clover-like plant proved a good pasture herb. A lithograph, 
illustrating this plant, occurs in the work on the "Plants Indig- 
enous to Victoria." Some of the many European, Asiatic 
and African plants of this genus deserve local tests. 

Triphasia Aurantiola, Loureiro. 

South-Eastern Asia. This shrub is worih cultivation for the 
exquisite fragrance of its flowers. The fruits, though small, 
are of pleasant sweetness. The plant may also prove well 
adapted for hedges. Glycosmis citrifolia, Lindley, and Claus- 
sena punctata, Oliver, also East Asiatic fruit-shrubs, may 
possibly show themselves hardy in sheltered forest regions of 
temperate clime. 

Tripsacum dactyloides, Linne. 

Central and Northern America; known vernacularly as 
Gama-Grass. A reedy perennial grass, more ornamental than 
utilitarian. It is the original Buffalo Grass, and attains a 
height of 7 feet, assuming the aspect of maize. It is of infer- 
ior value for feed, but serves for binding sand. C. Mohr how- 
ever regards it as a valuable fodder-grass. The seeds are 
available for food. 

Tristania conferta, R. Brown. 

New South Wales and Queensland. A noble shady tree, at- 
taining a height of 150 feet. It is not only eligible as an 
avenue tree, but also as producing select, lasting timber; ribs 
of vessels from this tree have lasted unimpaired thirty years 
and more. 

Trithrinax Acanthocoma, Drude. 

Rio Grande do Sul, in dry elevations. A dwarf Fan Palm 
for window or table decoration, attaining only a height of 6 
feet; foliage not leathery. 

Trithrinax Brasiliensis, Martius. 

Rio Grande do Sul and Parana, Uruguay and Paraguay. A 
very hardy Palm, not tall. 

Trithrinax campestris, Drude.* 

Argentina, as far south as 32 40'. Height reaching 30 feet. 


One of the most southern of all Palms. Content with even less 
humidity than Chamaerops humilis. The leaves are almost of 
a woody hardness and stiffer than those of any other Palm 
(Drude). Germination from seeds easy (Lorentz and Hierony- 
mus). Another species occurs in Southern Bolivia. 

Triticum junceum, Linne. 

Europe and North Africa. A rigid grass, with pungent 
leaves and extensively creeping roots, requiring sea-sand for its 
permanent growth. One of the best grasses to keep rolling 
sand ridges together, and particularly eligible where cattle and 
other domestic animals cannot readily be prevented from get- 
ting access. 

Triticum vulgare, Villars.* 

The Wheat. Traced back more than 5,000 years as an 
Egyptian and Chinese culture plant, indeed the earliest 
lacustrine people in Switzerland reared wheat in the stone- 
age (Heer). In Japan wheat is of extraordinary preco- 
city (Lartigne), and it is greatly recommended there as a 
forage-plant. The Punjab-Wheat is rust-proof according to 
Mr. W. Hill. This is not the place to enter into details about a 
plant universally known; it may therefore suffice merely to men- 
tion, that three primary varieties must be distinguished among 
the very numerous sorts of cultivated Wheat: 1. Var. muticum, 
T. hybernum, L., the Winter Wheat or Unbearded Wheat; 
2. Var. aristatum, T. asstivum, L., the Summer Wheat or 
Bearded Wheat; 3. Var. adhasrens, T. Spelta, L., Wheat with 
fragile axis and adherent grain. Metzger enumerates as dis- 
tinct kinds of cultivated Wheat: — 

T. vulgare, Vill., which includes among other varieties the 
ordinary Spring-Wheat, the Fox Wheat and the Kentish 
Wheat. It comprises also the best Italian sorts for plaiting 
straw-bonnets and straw-hats, for which only the upper part 
of the stem is used, collected before the ripening of the grain, 
and bleached through exposure to the sun while kept moist- 
T. turgldum, L., comprising some varieties of White and Red 

Wheat, also the Clock-Wheat and the Revet- Wheat. 
T. durum, Desfont., which contains some sorts of the Bearded 

T. Polonicum, L., the Polish Wheat, some kinds of which are 

well adapted for peeled Wheat. 
T. Spelta, L., the Spelt-Corn or Dinkel-Wheat, a kind not 
readily subject to disease, succeeding on soil of very limited 
fertility, not easily attacked by birds, furnishing a flour of ex- 
cellence for cakes, also yielding a superior grain for peeled 


Wheat. For preparing the latter it is necessary to collect 
the spikes while yet somewhat green, and to dry them in 

T.dicoccum, Schrank, (T. amyleum, Ser.). The Emmer-Wheat. 
Its varieties are content with and prolific on poor soil, pro- 
duce excellent starch, are mostly hardy in frost and not sub- 
ject to diseases. To this belongs the Arras- Wheat of Abys- 
sinia, where a few other peculiar sorts of Wheat are to be 
found. A large-grained variety of Wheat is baked in Persia 
like rice (Colvill). 

T. monococcum, L. St. Peter's Corn, which is hardier than 
most other Wheats; exists in the poorest soils, but produces 
grains less adapted for flour than for peeled Wheat. 

Tropaeolum majus, Linn6. 

Peru, This showy perennial climber passes with impropriety 
under the name of Nasturtium. The herbage and flowers serve 
, as cress, and are also considered antiscorbutic. The plant can 
be grown in Norway northward to lat. 70° 22' (Schuebeler). A 
smaller species, T. minus, L., also from Peru, can likewise be 
chosen for a cress-salad; both besides furnish in their flower- 
buds and young fruits a substitute for capers. A volatile oil of 
burning taste can be distilled from the foliage of both, and this 
is more acrid even than the distilled oil of mustard seeds. In 
colder countries these plants are only of one year's duration. 
Numerous other species, all highly ornamental, occur in South 
America and a few also in Mexico. 

Tropaeolum sessilifolium, Poeppig. 

Chili. Among the species of this genus one of the most 
eligible for its tubers, which can be consumed even in a raw 
state, and. are larger than those of most other Tropaeolums, 
while the stems are short and procumbent (Philippi). 

Tropaeolum tuberosum, Ruiz and Pavon. 

Peru. The tuberous root serves as an esculent. 

Trophis Americana, Linne. 

West Indian Archipelagus. The foliage of this milky tree 
has been recommended as food for the silk-insect. In Cuba 
and Jamaica it is used as provender for cattle and sheep. 

Tuber aestivum, Micheli. 

Middle and Southern Europe. The Truffle most frequent in 
the markets of England. The White British Truffle, Chairo- 
myces meandriformis, Vitt., though large is valued less. In 
the Department Vaucluse (France) alone about 60,000 lbs. of 
Truffles are collected annually, at a value of about ^4,000. 


Many other kinds of Truffles are in use. The Australian 
Truffle, Mylitta Australis, Berk., or Notiohydnum Australe, 
sometimes attains the size of the Cocoa-nut, and is also a fair 
esculent. It seems quite feasible to naturalize the best edible 
fungi of other genera, although such may not be amenable to 
regular culture; thus efforts should be made for the introduction 
of all the superior kinds of Truffles, as an insight into the man- 
ner in which vegetables of the fungus-species can be transferred 
to wide distances, has gradually been obtained. The total 
value of the export of Truffles from France in 1877 amounted 
to considerably over half a million pounds sterling, the total 
production in that year being valued at about ^800,000. The 
annual revenue of the Truffle ground of Carpentras is, according 
to Simmonds, ^80,000. The great White North-American 
Truffle (Tuber album) is as white as snow and as tender as 
curds (Millington). 

Tuber albidum, Cesalpini. 

Occurs with T. aestivum, but is smaller and less agreeable in 

Tuber cibarium, Sibthorp. 

The Black Truffle. Middle and Southern Europe. Like all 
others growing underground, and generally found in forest-soil 
of lime-stone formation. It attains a weight of over one pound. 
Experiments for naturalization may be effected with every 
prospect of success by conveying the Truffle in its native soil 
and locating it in calcareous places of forest-regions. As a 
condiment or merely in a roasted state, it affords an aromatic 
food. The famous Quercy or Perigord Truffle is derived from 
this species. T. melanosporum, Vitt., from France, Germany 
and Italy, is of a still more exquisite taste than T. cibarium — 
indeed, of strawberry flavor. 

Tuber magnatum, Pico. 

Grey Truffle. South Europe. One of the most esteemed 
Truffles, with some garlic flavour. Hymenogaster Bulliardi, 
Vitt., and Melanogaster variegatus, Tulasne, of South Europe, 
are also excellent Truffles. 

Tuber rufum, Pico. 

Red Truffle, especially in vineyards. Much used for food, 
but smaller than Terfezia Truffles. 

Typha latifolia, Linne. 

The Cattail, large Reedmace or Bullrush. Widely distributed 
over the northern hemisphere — in Norway to lat. 6o c 41'. Worthy 
of being encouraged in its growth on rivers and around lakes, 


and of being transferred to unutilized waters, as the very light 
and soft foliage can be converted into material for mattresses, 
which in the Royal Navy of Italy have come into universal use 
as additional means of saving human life in shipwreck. These 
mattresses continue to float for a very long time and bear a 
great weight; one mattress is capable of supporting several 
persons in water (Marquis Toverena and Captain Romano). 
The large rootstocks are rich in nourishing starch. The closely 
allied T. angustifolia extends to Australia. 

Ulex Europaeus, Linne. 

The Whin, Gorse or Furze. Middle and Southern Europe, 
Azores, Canary Islands; hardy in Norway to lat. 58 58'. 
A bush important for covering quickly drift-sands on coasts, 
not readily approached there by pastoral animals. Too apt to 
stray as a hedge plant. 

Ullucus tuberosus, Lozano. (Melloca tuberosa, Lindley). 

Andes of New Grenada and Peru, up to an elevation of 9,000 
feet. A perennial herb, the tubers of which are edible. 

Ulmus alata, Michaux. 

The Whahoo Elm of North America, extending to Newfound- 
land and Texas. Of quick growth. Height of tree reaching 
40 feet. Wood fine-grained, heavier and stronger than that of 
the White Elm, of a dull-red color, unwedgeable, used by 
wheelwrights, but, like that of U. Americana, not equal to the 
European Elm. 

Ulmus Americana, Linne.* 

The White Elm of North America, also called Rock or 
Swamp Elm. A tree of longevity, fond of moist river banks, 
becoming a hundred feet high; trunk 60 feet and as much as 5 
feet in diameter. The tree is found hardy in Norway at least to 
lat. 59 55'. Manning mentions that trees have been known to 
attain a circumference of 27 feet at 3 feet from the ground, and 
of 13 feet where the branches burst forth. It is highly prized 
for street planting in North America. Can be propagated from 
suckers like the European Elm. Almost indifferent to soil. 
The timber is light, used for wheelwright's work, for tubes, 
water-pipes; bears driving of bolts well (Robb). It is durable, 
if either kept quite dry or permanently submerged in water. U. 
floridana, Chapman, is a variety. 

Ulmus campestris, Linne.* 

The ordinary Elm, indigenous to Europe and temperate Asia, 
as far east as Japan. Several marked varieties, such as the 
Cork Elm and Wych Elm, exist, also a weeping variety. The 


elm in attaining an age of several centuries becomes finally of 
enormous size. Sir Joseph Hooker records the height of a tree 
at 125 feet, with a stem-circumference of 50 feet. In Britain it 
has been much attacked by Scolytus destructor. The wood is 
tough, hard, fine-grained and remarkably durable, if constantly 
under water. Next to the Yew, it is the best of European 
woods, where great elasticity is required, as for archery-bows. 
It is also used for keels, blocks, wheels, piles, pumps, gun-carri- 
ages, gunwales, various tools and implements. The Wych Elm 
(U. montana, Withering) grows even further north than the 
Cork Elm; in Norway to lat. 66° 59' ; in lat. 59 45' Professor 
Schuebeler found a tree over 100 feet high, with a stem 4 feet 
in diameter. The wood of the Wych Elm is preferred for bend- 
ing purposes (Eassie). The bast is tough. 

Ulmus crassifolia, Nuttall. 

The evergreen Elm of Mexico, Arkansas and Texas. A tree 
fully 90 feet high and 2 feet in stem-diameter. 

Ulmus fulva, Michaux. 

The Slippery or Red Elm of North America. Reaching a 
height of 60 feet. Splendid for street-planting. There is a 
pendant branched variety. Wood red, tenacious, useful for 
wagon-hubs and wheels (Vasey). Regarded as the best North 
American wood for blocks of rigging, according to Simmonds. 
The leaves seem available for food for the silkmoth; the bark 
is employed in medicine. 

Ulmus Mexicana, Planchon. 

Cordilleras of North America. This Elm attains a height of 
60 feet or perhaps more. Many of these Elms are available as 
quick-growing avenue trees for shade-lines. 

Ulmus parvifolia, Jacquin. 

The evergreen Elm of China, Japan, Upper India, Burmah 
and, perhaps, Queensland. A similar tree is found on the 
Himalayan mountains. Well eligible for big hedges. 

Ulmus pedunculata, Fougeraux. (U. ciliata, Ehrhart.) 

Europe and Asia, through their middle zone. A fine avenue 

Ulmus racemosa, Thomas.* 

The Cork Elm of North America, also called Western Rock 
Elm. Wood as valuable as that of U. Americana, but much 
heavier; it is fine-grained and compact, tough, flexible, not 
liable to split, holds bolts better than most timber, and is ex- 
tremely durable when constantly wet; deserves unqualified 


praise as a furniture-wood for hardness, strength, beauty and 
buff-reddish tint; largely employed for piles, pumps, naves, 
tackle-blocks, keels, heavy agricultural implements, such as 
mowing and threshing machines, ploughs, gunwales (Robb, 

Ulmus Wallichiana, Planchon. 

Himalayan Elm. . In the mountains of India from 3,500 feet 
to 10,000 feet. A tree sometimes 90 feet high with deciduous 
foliage, the stem attaining a girth of 24 feet. Bark very tough; 
foliage locally lopped off for cattle fodder (Brandis.) 

Umbellularia Californica, Nuttall. {Oreodaphne Californica, Nees.) 

Oregon and California. Tree becoming 100 feet high. Wood 
most valuable for cabinet-work, also for the best of flooring; 
that of the root splendid for turnery. 

Uniola gracilis, Michaux. 

North America. A perennial pasture-grass of considerable 
value, content with sandy soil, and liking the vicinity of the 

Uniola latifolia, Michaux. 

North America. This rather tall perennial grass forms large 
tufts, and affords valuable fodder; it is best adapted for shady 
woodlands (C. Mohr). 

Uniola paniculata, Linne. 

North-east America. This tall maritime grass can be chosen 
on account of its creeping roots to bind rolling coast-sands. 

Urena lobata, Linne. 

Intratropic girdle around the globe. This perennial herb 
has recently been enumerated among plants with comparatively 
tenacious fiber; it can be reared far beyond the tropics. 

Urginea Scilla, Steinheil. {Scilla maritima, Linne.) 

The medicinal Squill. South-Europe, North-Africa. The 
plant needs no regular cultivation; but settlers living near 
the coast might encourage its dissemination,and thus obtain the 
bulbs as drug from natural localities. Its peculiar brittle prin- 
ciple is called scillitin. The bulb contains 24 per cent, tannin. 
U. altissima, Baker, serves in South-Africa as Squill. 

Uvularia sessilifolia, Linne. 

North-America, in forests. This pretty herb is mentioned as 
yielding a good substitute for asparagus. 


Vaccinium alatum, Dombey. (Thibaudia alata, Dunal.) 

Frigid regions of the Andes of Peru. A tali evergreen shrub, 
with pink berries of the size of a cherry. This highly orna- 
mental plant could be grown in Sub-Alpine regions. 

Vaccinium Arctosaphylcs, Linne. 

From Greece to the Caucasus. The leaves, dried and slightly 
heated, furnish the Broussa tea, the material for a very palatable 
beverage (G. Maw). 

Vaccinium bicolor, F. v. Mueller. {Thibaudia bicolor, Ruiz and Pavon.) 

Cold zones of Peruvian Andes. A high evergreen bush, with 
red berries the size of a hazel-nut. All Thibaudias seem best to 
form a section in the genus Vaccinium, some species of the 
latter — for instance, Vaccinium Imrayi, Hook., from Dominica 
— mediating the transit. The species of the section Thibaudia, 
as a rule, produce red berries of acidulous grateful taste. Many 
others may therefore deserve culture in forest-ravines or on 
alpine heights. They occur from Peru to Mexico, also in the 
West-Indies. One species, Vaccinium melliflorum (Thibaudia 
melliflora, R. and P.), has its flowers particularly rich in honey- 

Vaccinium caespitosum, Michaux. 

Canada and Northern States of the American Union. A de- 
ciduous-leaved small bush, with bluish edible berries. V. ovali- 
folium, Smith, is an allied species. 

Vaccinium Canadense, Kalm.* 

From the Middle States of North- America northwards. A 
dwarf shrub in swampy ground of wood-lands. Yields, like V. 
Pennsylvanicum, to which it is allied, edible Blueberries or 
Huckleberries. Mr. Marity calls the berries delicious, fetch- 
ing a high price — up to n dollars a bushel, never lower than 5 
dollars, in New York. One bush yields from a pint to a quart 
of berries. It thrives through all grades of soil and exposure. 
The berries are rather large and aromatic; for cooking and 
preserves they locally take precedence to any other kind of 
fruit; they are easily dried, and retain then their full delicious 
flavor. The bush grows occasionally to a height of 15 feet. 

Vaccinium corymbosum, Linne.* 

The Swamp-Blueberry or Blue Huckleberry. Canada and 
United States of North- America. A good sized shrub reaching 
a height of 15 feet, with deciduous foliage. Berries bluish-black, 
rather large, aromatic, of sweetish taste, ripening late in 
the season. 


Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Michaux. (Oxycoccus crectus, Pursh.) 

Carolina and Virginia, on high mountains. An upright bush 
of a few feet in height, with deciduous leaves. The trans- 
parent scarlet berries, according to Pursh, are of excellent 

Vaccinium grandiflorum, Dombey. (Ceratostemma grandiflorum, Ruiz and 

Andes of Peru. A tall evergreen shrub. The berries of a 
pleasant acidulous taste. 

Vaccinium humifusum, Graham. 

North- Western America, on the Rocky Mountains. Berries 
of this bush well flavored. 

Vaccinium Leschenaultii, Wight. (Agapetes arborea, Dunal.) 

India, Neilgherries and Ceylon. This evergreen species 
attains the size of a tree, flowering and fruiting throughout the 
year. The fruits resemble cranberries. 

Vaccinium Leucanthum, Chammisso. 

Mountains of Mexico. An arborescent species. The black- 
ish berries are edible. 

Vaccinium macrocarpon, Aiton.* {Oxycoccus macrocarpus, Persoon.) 

The large Cranberry. From Canada to Virginia and Caro- 
lina, particularly in sandy and peaty bogs, and in cold mossy 
swamps. Hardy to Christiania. A trailing evergreen bush, 
with stems attaining a length of 3 feet. It is this species which 
has become so extensively cultivated in the eastern parts of the 
United States, where, on moory land, often not otherwise to be 
utilized, enormous quantities of this fruit have been produced 
by regular culture at a highly profitable scale. The berries are 
of acid taste, pleasant aroma, and the scarlet brightness of the 
British Cranberry, but considerably larger. 

Vaccinium meridionale, Swartz. 

Jamaica, from the summits of the highest ranges down to the 
coffee-regions. It attains a height of 30 feet and is evergreen. 
The small berries are of the taste and color of those of V. Vitis 

Vaccinium Mortinia, Bentham. 

Mountains of Columbia. A shrub several feet high. The 
fruits resemble those of V. Myrtillus, but are more acid. They 
come to the Quito market under the name Mortina. 


Vaccinium myrtilloides, Michaux. 

Michigan, Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador. The large edi- 
ble berries are called Bluets. This little bush is adapted for 
higher alpine country. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus, Linne.* 

The British Whortleberry or Bilberry. Throughout Europe, 
Northern and Middle Asia, remotest North-America, extending 
to the Calif ornian Sierra Nevada; in heathy and turfy forest- 
land. In Norway it is found wild up to lat. 71 10' (Schuebeler). 
A shrub, a few feet high or less, deciduous, erect, of great value 
for its copious supply of berries. They are, as well-known, 
black with a bluish-grey hue, and of exceedingly grateful taste. 
The naturalization of this plant on alpine ranges and in cooler 
woodlands would prove a boon. The berries can be utilized 
also for their dye. The whole bush contains quina-acid. 

Vaccinium ovalifolium, Smith. 

North-West America from Mendocino to Oregon. This shrub 
bears large edible berries (Gibbons). 

Vaccinium ovatum, Pursh. 

Common throughout California, also in British Columbia, at 
altitudes from 1,000 to 2,000 feet, attaining a height of about 8 
feet. It bears its fruit in densely crowded racemes, the dark- 
blue but small berries being of good flavor. This species would 
doubtlessly form a valuable accession among cultivated fruits 

Vaccinium Oxycoccus, Linne. (Oxycoccus palustris, Persoon.) 

The British Cranberry. Throughout Europe, Northern and 
Middle Asia, North-America; on turf-moss in moory heaths. A 
creeping evergreen shrub of particular neatness. The berries 
give a most agreeable preserve, and are of antiscorbutic value. 
This species is particularly eligible for the spongy, mossy bogs 
of snowy mountains. Indigenous in Norway northward to 
lat. 70 45'. 

Vaccinium parvifolium, Smith. 

North-Western America. A tall shrub. The berries are ex- 
cellent for preserves. 

Vaccinium penduliflorum, Gaudichaud. 

Sandwich-Islands, where it is called the "Ohelo." The acid- 
ulous berries of this bush are edible. 

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum, Lamarck.* (V. angustifolium, Aiton.) 

The early Blueberry or Blue Huckleberry. North-America, 


on dry woody hills. A dwarf bush with deciduous foliage, pro- 
ducing fruit in abundance. The berries are large, bluish-black 
and of sweet taste. V. Canadense, Kalm, according to Dr. 
Asa Gray, is closely allied. 

Vaccinium praestans, Rudolphi. 

Kamschatka. A minute plant, but with large delicious fruits. 
It might perhaps easily be disseminated on alpine mountains. 

Vaccinium uliginosum, Linne. 

British Bog-Bilberry. Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, 
North-America. A deciduous bush, with blackish berries, simi- 
lar to those of V. Myrtillus, but hardly of equal excellence. 
Wild to lat. 71 10' in Norway. 

Vaccinium vacillans, Solander. 

North-America, in sandy forest-lands. A deciduous small 
bush, with its blue berries coming later into season than V. 
' Pennsylvanicum. 

Vaccinium Vitis Idaea, Linne. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, North-America. Ex- 
tends in Norway to lat 71 7'. A dwarf shrub with evergreen 
leaves. The purplish-red berries are sought for jellies and 
other preserves. It is as yet impossible to say how many other 
species of Vaccinium produce good-sized and well-flavored 
fruits. The genus ranges in many species from Continental 
Asia to the Indian Archipelagus, and has a wide extension also 
in South-America, occupying in hot countries higher mountain- 
regions; but few reliable notes on the tropical species are extant, 
as far as the fruits are concerned. 

Vahea florida, F. v. Mueller. {Landolphia florida, Bentham.) 

West-Africa, up to 2,500 feet. This may prove hardy. 
Welwitsch describes the Aboh-fruits of this species as sweet 
and acidulous, but was not less gratified with the beauty and 
marvellous abundance of its large snow-white and jasmin- 
scented flowers. V. florida also yields caoutchouc, like V. 
Heudelotii {Landolphia Heudelotii, D. C.) from the Senegal- 
regions. The excellent work on the caoutchoucs of commerce, 
by James Collins, may be consulted as regards the sources of vari- 
ous kinds of India-rubbers. The genus Vahea was fully estab- 
lished by Lamarck as early as 1791. 

Vahea Owariensis, F. v. Mueller. {Landolphia Owariensis, Beauvois.) 

Tropical West- Africa, but ascending to the highlands of An- 
gola, according to Dr. Welwitsch. This climber, with several 
other Vaheas, yields the West African, and others the Madagas- 


car caoutchouc. It is said that the addition of ammonia to the 
caoutchouc improves the rubber. V. Owariensis produces edible 
fruits as large as middle-sized oranges, with sweet and slightly 
acid pulp. 

Valeriana Celtica, Linne. 

Alps of Europe; hardy at Christiania. The root of this 
perennial herb is particularly aromatic. 

Valeriana edulis, Nuttall. 

North- Western America, from Oregon to the Rocky Mount- 
ains. The thick spindle-shaped root of this herb affords food 
to the natives of that part of the globe. When baked, the root 
proves agreeable and wholesome. When we consider the wild 
state of the plants from which many of our important root- 
crops arose, this Valeriana and several other plants, suggestively 
mentioned in these pages, may well be admitted for trial - 

Valeriana officinalis, Linne. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, in swampy grass-land, 
with a predilection for forests and river-banks. In Norway it 
extends northward to lat. 70 22' (Prof. Schuebeler). This 
perennial herb would do particularly well on higher mountains. 
It is the only one among numerous congeners of Europe, Asia 
and America, which is drawn to a considerable extent into 
medicinal use. The root and herb contain valerianic acid and 
a peculiar tannic acid; the root furnishes also an essential oil, 
which again resolves itself into valerol (70 per cent.), valeren, 
barneol, and valerianic acid. The order of Valerianae is not 
represented by any native plant in Australia. 

Valerianella olitoria, Moench. 

Lamb's Lettuce. Europe, North-Africa, Northern and Mid- 
dle Asia. Northward to lat. 59 16' in Norway. A fair and 
early salad-plant. It is an annual, and has several congeners 
in Europe and Asm. 

Vangueria infausta, Burchell. 

Africa, as far south as Natal and Caffraria. The fruit of this 
shrub or small tree is medlar-like, but superior in taste. Worth 
test-cultivation with a view of improving the fruit. 

Veratrum album, Linne. 

Europe, Northern and Middle Asia, extending eastward to 
Japan. Hardy at Christiania. It delights particularly in sub- 
alpine localities. The root furnishes veratrin, jervin and saba- 
dillic acid. 


Veratrum viride, Aiton. 

Canada and United States of North-America. A near rela- 
tive of the former plant. Professor Schuebeler found it hardy 
in Norway to lat. 71 . Its root has recently come into medi- 
cinal use. 

Viburnum Tinus, Linne. 

The Lauristine. Countries around the Mediterranean sea. 
An evergreen shrub, the earliest flowering in the season; well 
adapted for ornamental hedges. Hardy in the south of England. 

Vicia Cracca, Linne. 

Europe, North-Africa, Northern and Middle Asia, North- 
America; in Norway it extends to lat. 71 10'. Perennial. 
Recommendable for naturalization as a fodder-plant in sylvan 
and alpine lands. It yields in shade a return three times larger 
than in open places (Langethal). The cognate V. Cassubica 
-and V. biennis, Linne, serve also for field-culture. 

Vicia Ervilia, Willdenow. {Ervum Ervilia, L.) 

South-Europe, North-Africa, South-Western Asia. An annual 
herb, praised as a valuable fodder-plant on dry calcareous soil. 

Vicia Faba, Linne.* 

The Straight Bean. Orient, particularly on the Caspian Sea. 
Professor Schuebeler found it to bear seeds in lat. 67 17'. This 
productive annual herb not only affords its seeds for table use, 
but provides also a particularly fattening stable food. The 
seeds contain about 33 per cent, starch. V. Narbonensis, L., 
from South Europe and South-west Asia, is preferable for 
the table, because its seeds contain less bitter principle, 
though they are smaller. 

Vicia peregrina, Linne. 

South Europe. Annual. In Italy preferred to the ordinary 
Tare for sandy soil; it recommends itself also for its close 

Vicia sativa, Linne.* (V. angustifolia, Roth.) 

The ordinary Vetch or Tare. Europe, North Africa, North- 
ern and Middle Asia. According to Professor Schuebeler it 
will grow in Norway, to lat. 70 ; in 63 26' it perfected its seeds. 
One of the best fodder-plants, but only of one or two years' 
duration. Important also for green manure, and as a com- 
panion of clovers. The allied -V. cordata, Wulfen, and V. 
globosa, Retzius, are similarly cultivated in Italy (Langethal). 


Many of the other European and Asiatic species of Vicia are 
deserving of our attention. 

Vicia sepium, Linne. 

Europe, West and North Asia. A perennial Vetch, enduring 
an alpine clime; indigenous in Norway northward to lat. 6g° 40'. 
It might with advantage be naturalized in forests and on moun- 
tains, but it can also readily be subjected to field culture, the 
yield being large and nutritious in regions with humid air, 
though the soil might be poor. This Vetch can be kept con- 
tinually on the same field for about fifteen years (Langethal). 
V. Pannonica, Jacquin, is an allied but annual species. 

Vicia Sitchensis, Bongard. {V. gigantea, Hooker.) 

From California to Sitka. Asa Gray remarks that the young 
seeds of this tall Vetch are eatable like green peas. 

Vicia sylvatica, Linne. 

The Wood- Vetch. Europe, North Asia. Indigenous in 
Norway to lat. 67 56'. Perennial. Recommendable to culturists 
settling in new forest-land; available also for alpine copses. 
Pasture animals have a predilection for this Vetch ; its yield is 
large. In limestone soil of forests V. pisiformis and V. dume- 
torum, Linne, can best be selected for introduction. 

Vicia tetrasperma, Koch. {Ervum tetraspermum, Linne.) 

The Lentil Tare. Europe, West Asia, North Africa. Annual. 
According to Langethal this species is preferable to the ordin- 
ary Tare for sandy soil. It is also less hard as fodder and very 
palatable. Lime in the sand enlarges the yield. V. monantha 
and V. hirsuta, Koch, serve nearly as well. 

Vigna lanceolata, Bentham. 

Tropical and sub-tropical Australia. Mr. P. O'Shanesy 
observes that this twiner produces, along with the ordinary 
cylindrical pods, others underground from buried flowers, and 
these somewhat resemble the fruit of Arachis. The plant is 
available for culinary purposes. 

Vigna Sinensis, Endlicher.* {Dolichos Sinensis, Rumph.) 

Tropical Asia and Africa. The cultivation of this twining 
annual pulse herb extends to Southern Europe and many other 
countries with a temperate clime. The pods are remarkable for 
their great length, and used like French beans, dry as well as 
green. This plant bears plentifully even in seasons of severe 
drought in Central Australia (Rev. H. Kempe). V. Catjang, 
A. Rich, V. sesquipedalis and V. melanophthalma are 


varieties of this species. In fair soil the produce is about 

Villebrunia integrifolia, Gaudichaud. 

India, ascending the Himalayan Mountains to 5,000 feet. A 
small tree, allied to the Ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea). Mr. C. 
B. Clarke regards the fiber as one of the strongest available in 
India, it being used. for bow-strings. Other Villebrunias — for 
instance, V. frutescens, and also some species of Debregeasia, 
particularly D. velutina — likewise deserve regular culture, for 
the sake of their fiber. Moist forest tracts seem particularly 
adapted for these plants, because V. integrifolia grows in 
Sikkim at an elevation where the rainfall ranges from 100 to 200 
inches. This fiber is much more easily separable than that of 
Maoutia Puya, according to Dr. G. King's observations. 

Viola odorata, Linne. 

The Violet. Middle and Southern Europe, North Africa, 
Middle Asia. Passingly alluded to here, as this modest though 
lovely plant should be extensively naturalized in forest-glens 
to furnish its delicate scent for various compositions of per- 

Vitis acetosa, F. v. Mueller. 

Carpentaria and Arnhem's Land. Stems rather herbaceous 
than shrubby, erect. The whole plant is pervaded with acidity, 
and proved valuable in cases of scurvy. The berries are edible. 
This species, if planted in countries with a mild temperate 
clime, would probably spring afresh from the roots annually. 

Vitis aestivalis, Michaux.* 

The Summer Grape of the United States of North America- 
Flowers fragrant. The berries are deep blue, of pleasant taste, 
and ripen late in the season, but are generally rather small and 
in some kinds somewhat sour. Among the varieties derived 
from this species, the Jacques, Herbemont, Norton's Virginia, 
Elsinburg, Cunningham, Rulander and Pauline are the best 
known; all resist the attacks of the Phylloxera vastatrix, as has 
been fully demonstrated by experience in the United States as 
well as in the South of France. Several of these give an ex- 
cellent produce; Jacques and Norton's Virginia gained a first 
prize in competition with the wines of Southern France,at an ex- 
hibition held in Montpellier. The Jacques variety especially is 
much esteemed in the Province for its resistance to Phylloxera, 
also for its luxuriant growth, great fertility and excellent wine of 
rich color. The whole group of Vitis aestivalis is, however, 
rather difficult to propagate, and is for this reason not so valu- 


able for stock of the European vine as V. riparia. As these vines 
are of larger growth than V. vinifera, they should be planted 
further apart; a distance of 8 or 10 feet, and 6 feet between 
the rows is considered the most suitable. In Europe the flower- 
ing season is at the end of June, about a fortnight later than 
that of the European vine. The following method has been 
recommended for propagating these American vines in districts 
infested by the Phylloxera. Cut the best old stocks of European 
vines down to six or eight inches underground, graft upon them 
American scions having at most three eyes, fasten with clay and 
cover the graft with soil, preferably with sand. To obtain then 
a number of American vines, cut off any European shoots 
which may have sprouted, leave all the best American shoots, maka 
furrows about four inches deep, radiating from the stock, in 
which layer the shoots, fixing them down with pegs, and cover 
them with sand. It is to be observed that in very poor dry soil, 
where the European vine still yields a fair crop, American vines 
do not succeed (Planchon's Vignes Americaines). 

Vitis Baudiniana, F. v. Mueller. {Cissus Antarctica, Ventenat.) 

East Australia. With V. hypoglauca the most southern of 
all Grapes, none extending to New Zealand. It is evergreen, 
and a vigorous plant for bowers, but suffers even from slight 
frosts. The berries are freely produced and edible, though not 

Vitis cordifolia, Michaux.* 

The Winter-Grape or Frost-Grape. From Canada to Florida. 
A deciduous Vine. The scent of the flowers reminds one of 
Reseda. The berries are small, either blackish or amber-colored, 
and very acid. They can be used for preserves, and are only fully 
matured when touched by frosts. A succession of seedlings 
may give us a superior and, at the same time, a very hardy Vine. 

Vitis hypoglauca, V. v. Mueller. 

East Australia, as far south as Gippsland. An evergreen 
climber of enormous length, forming a very stout stem in age. 
The black berries attain the size of small cherries. This species 
also may perhaps be vastly changed in its fruit by continued 

Vitis Indica, Linne. 

On the mountains of various parts of India, ascending to an 
altitude of 3,000 feet in Ceylon. The small berries are edible. 
The plant should be subjected to horticultural experiments. 
This is an apt opportunity to draw attention to some of the 
various Indian species of Vitis with large edible berries — for 


instance, V. laevigata, Bl., V. thyrsiflora, Miq., V. mutabilis, 
Bl., V. Blumeana, Steud., all from the mountains of Java, 
and all producing berries as large as cherries, those of V. 
Blumeana being particularly sweet. Further may here be in- 
serted V. imperialis, Miq., from Borneo, V. auriculata, Wall., 
and V. elongata, Wall.; the latter two from the mountainous 
mainland of Coromandel, and all producing very large juicy 
berries, even in the jungle wilderness. V. quadrangularis, L., 
stretches from Arabia to India and Central Africa, and has also 
edible fruits. Many such plants may be far more eligible for 
grape culture in hot wet climes than the ordinary Vine. About 
250 species of Vitis are already known, mostly from intratropi- 
cal latitudes, and mostly evergreen; but in regard to their 
elevation above the ocean and to the nature of their fruits we 
are almost utterly without data. An herbaceous species of a 
tuberous Vine, occurring in Soudan, is recommended by Mr. 
Lecard; another tuberous species, by Mr. J. B. Martin, as a 
native of Cochin China, with herbaceous stems, reproduced 
annually from the roots; both kinds bear excellent grapes; the 
species from Cochin China forms long shoots, sometimes of a 
length of 60 and exceptionally 150 feet, bearing grapes all along. 
It would be a grand acquisition to tropical countries; its ripe 
grapes are produced successively through fully three months; 
the berries are very large. 

Vitis Labrusca, LinnS.* 

The Isabella-Grape. North-America, from Canada to Texas 
and Florida, also in Japan. The Schuylkill Grape is derived 
from this species. A pale-fruited variety furnishes the Bland's 
Grape; another yields the American Alexander Grape. The 
Concord, Catawba, Isabella, Martha, Ives Seedling, Hartford 
Prolific and a number of other less known varieties are also 
derived from this species. Among these the Concord takes the 
first rank as well for wine as for dessert-grapes in the Eastern 
United States, where it is cultivated more than all the other 
varieties put together, although it has a strong so-called foxy 
taste. It is not quite proof against the attacks of the Phylloxera 
vastatrix, but suffers less than most other varieties of this 
species (Planchon's Vignes Americaines). Many good and 
fertile crosses between V. Labrusca and V. vinifera occur in 
North- American cultivation; the Delaware grape is a hybrid from 
V. Labrusca (Bush and Meisner), and has in its turn given rise 
to many other good crosses. The berries of V. Labrusca are 
large among American kinds, and are of pleasant taste. Flowers 
fragrant. It is the only species which thrives well and bears 
largely in the clime of Brisbane, according to Dr. Bancroft. 
This and the other hardy North American Vines seem never to 


be attacked by the Oidium disease. Dr. Regel unites the 
South- Asiatic V. lanata, Roxb., with this. 

Vitis riparia, Michaux.* (V. cordifolia var. riparia, A. Gray.) 

In the northern and central parts of the United States to 
the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. To this species belong the 
Clinton, Franklin, Taylor and some other varieties, probably 
also Vitis Solonis, which seem destined to revive viticulture in 
Southern France and other countries, where the Phylloxera 
vastatrix has annihilated such a vast extent of vineyards. They 
serve as grafting stock for the European vine, the majority of 
them showing a sufficient if not a complete resistance to this 
pest while they are for the most part not difficult to propagate. 
The experiments hitherto made in Providence and elsewhere 
have given good results, and the produce of the European 
vine on American stock has been found as good as if 
grown on its own root. Professor Planchon places the 
varieties in the following order of merit: Vitis Solonis, 
Clinton-Vialla or Franklin, wild Vitis riparia, Taylor, Clin- 
ton. The York-Madeira, which may be a hybrid between 
V. riparia and V. Labrusca, is by some growers placed 
next to Vitis Solonis and grafts well. The seedlings of 
V. Solonis retain the typical characteristics of the parent-plant 
— which the other varieties do not. To raise vines from seeds, 
the pips may be taken either before or after fermentation of the 
grape; the essential point is, not to let them get dry; they 
should be kept in a cool place and mixed with sand, to prevent, 
mold. For transmission to great distance they should be sent 
dried in the peel and pulp to ensure the preservation of 
their vitality. Several French cultivators recommend graft- 
ing "by approach." For this purpose an American and 
a European vine are planted side by side; early in spring, 
when the shoots are about the size of a small goose-quill, 
two from the different stocks are brought together and in 
the most convenient place a slice is taken out of the 
bark and the outer portion of the wood of each, about half 
an inch in length, care being taken that the two surfaces exactly fit 
each other; they have only to be tied together, the sap which is 
then at the height of its flow soon closing up the wound; the 
American shoot is pinched off when it has made 3 or 4 leaves; 
the following winter the root of V. vinifera is cut off. Phyllox- 
era-galls are frequently found on the leaves of V. riparia as 
well as of V. aestivalis, but the roots are not so often attacked; 
if the latter happens, the wounds inflicted by the insect are 
superficial and soon heal up (Planchon's Vignes Americaines). 


Vitis Schimperiana, Hochstetter. 

From Abyssinia to Guinea. This vine may perhaps become 
valuable, with many other Central African kinds, for tropical 
culture, and may show itself hardy also in extra-tropical coun- 
tries. Barter compares the edible berries to clusters of Frontig- 
nac grape. 

Vitis vinifera, Linne.* 

The Grape Vine. Greece, Turkey, Persia, Tartary; probably 
also in the Himalayas. The name of Vitis vinifera was given 
so early as 1661 by Sachs von Lewenhaimb in a large work pur- 
posely dedicated to this plant. This is not the place to discuss 
in Australia at length the great industrial questions concerning 
this highly important plant, even had these not already engaged 
the attention of a large number of colonists for many years. 
A large territory of West- and South-Australia, also in Victoria 
and New South Wales stretches essentially through the Vine- 
zone, and thus most kinds of Vine can be produced here, either 
on the lowlands or the less elevated mountains in various 
climatic regions and in different geologic formations. The 
best grapes with us are produced mainly between the 30th and 
45th degree of latitude. Cultivation for wine advances on the 
Rhine to 50 north; on trellis it extends to 52 or 53 N., in 
Norway even to 6i° 17'. In Italy vines are often trained high 
up over Maples, Willows and Elms, since Pliny's time; in the 
Caucasus they sometimes grow on Pterocarya. Vines attain an 
age of centuries and have stems 3 feet in diameter. The doors 
of the dome of the Ravenna Cathedral are of vine-wood 
(Soderim). Tozetti saw vines with branches extending diame- 
trically, as a whole, over 3,000 feet at Montebamboli. Rezier 
notes a plant bearing about 4,000 bunches of grapes annually 
at Besancon (Regel). A vine of enormous dimensions at 
Hampton Court has also gained wide celebrity. In Italy the 
establishing of Vine plantations on ordinary culture-land is 
regarded as enhancing the value of the latter four or five fold, 
and elsewhere often even more (whereas cereal-land is apt to 
deteriorate), provided that vine diseases can be kept off. 

The Corinthian variety, producing the Currants of commerce, 
also thrives well in some districts of extratropic Australia, where 
with raisins its fruit may become a staple article of export beyond 
home-consumption. The Sultana-variety is not to be much 
pruned; the bunches when gathered are dipped in an alkaline 
liquid obtained from wood-ashes, to which a little olive oil is 
added, to expedite drying, which is effected in about a week 
(G. Maw). The produce of Sultana-raisins fluctuates from 7 
to 30 cwt. per acre. The plant is best reared on lime-stone 
formations. In Greece the average yield of ordinary Raisins 


is about 2,000 lbs. per acre (Simmonds). Dr. W. Hamm, of 
Vienna, has issued a Vine map of Europe, indicating the dis- 
tribution of the different varieties and the principal sources of 
the various sorts of wine. The writer would now merely add, 
that the preservation of the grapes in a fresh state, according 
to M. Charmeux's method, and the sundry modes of effecting 
the transit of ripe grapes to long distances, ought to be turned 
to industrial advantage. The pigment of the dark wine-berries 
is known as racemic acid. The juice contains along with tartaric 
acid also grape-acid. All these chemically-defined substances 
have uses of their own in art and science. It might be worthy 
of a trial, how far the Grape-vine can be grafted on such other 
species not American, of the extensive genus Vitis as may not 
be attacked by the destructive Pemphigus or Phylloxera. Ir- 
respective of sulphur, borax has also latterly been recom- 
mended against the Oidium disease. Professor Monnier, of 
Geneva, has introduced the very expansive sulphurous anhy- 
drous acid gas against the Phylloxera. The cultivation of in- 
secticidal herbs to check the ingress of Phylloxera should be 
more extensively tried, as such plants might ward off the in- 
sect at all events in its wingless state. Dr. Herman Behr sug- 
gests for the mitigation of this plague the ignition of wood 
near vineyards, when the insect is on its wings, as all such in- 
sects seek fires and succumb in them largely when the sky is 
overcast, or when the nights are without moonlight. Mr. Lea- 
cock in Maderia, applies a coating of a sticky solution of resin 
in oil of turpentine advantageously to the roots of Vines 
affected by Phylloxera. None of the remedies hitherto suggested 
however seem to have proved really effective, or they are not of 
sufficiently easy and cheap application, as the Phylloxera pest 
is stili rapidly on the increase in Europe; according to the 
latest accounts one-third of all the vineyards of France are 
affected, and the disease is also spreading in Italy and Spain. 
Inundation to the depth of a few inches for about a month, 
where that is practicable, completely suffocates the Phylloxera, 
but renders the vine for a while much less productive. In 
sandy soil this dreadful insect is retarded in its development, 
action, and progress. Bisulphide of carbon has proved the 
most efficient remedy; this expansive fluid is introduced into 
the soil by a peculiar injector, or through porous substances 
(wood, earth), saturated with the bisulphide, the cost of this 
operation being, in France, £$ 10s. — ^4 per acre annually. 
(Planchon, David, Marion, Robart. See also translations by K. 
Staiger and A. K. Findlay). Dressing with sulpho-carbonate 
of potassium is still more efficacious and less dangerous, but 
involves an annual expenditure of about £8 per acre (W. T. 
Dyer). The American Vines seem generally to be but little at- 


tacked by the Phylloxera; but their grapes, as hitherto extant, 
cannot at all rival the real Vine Grape. 

Vitis vulpina, Linn6.* (Vitis rotundifolia, Michaux.) 

The Muscadine or Fox Grape. South-Eastern States of 
North America. Extends also to Japan, Manchuria and the 
Himalayas. This species also includes as varieties the Bullace, 
the Mustang, the Bullate Grape, and both kinds of the Scup- 
pernongs. The berries are of a pleasant taste, but in some in- 
stances of a strong flavor; they are the largest among Ameri- 
can Grapes. All the varieties derived from Vitis vulpina are 
perfectly proof against the attacks of Phylloxera vastatrix. 
Although in infested districts a few insects may sometimes be 
found on it, yet no ill effects are ever manifested. The flower- 
ing season is about six weeks later than that of the European 
vine. The species is not easily propagated from cuttings, but 
must be raised from seeds or by layering. As this is a very large 
species the vines should be planted 20 to 30 feet apart, and grown 
in bower fashion or on trellises. It does not bear pruning, but 
some of the superfluous wood may be trimmed off during sum- 
mer. It is only suited for mild climates; even in the latitude 
of Washington it succumbs to the cold (it endures how- 
ever the winter of Christiania). The bunches contain gener- 
ally only from 4 to 10 large berries, but are produced abund- 
antly all over the plant. The berries are of a brownish-yellow 
color with a bronze tinge when ripe; the peel is coriaceous, the 
juice vinous, of delicate perfume, resembling muscat. The 
grapes do not ripen together, but successively during about a 
month and drop off the stalk when ripe. To gather them a 
sheet is generally spread under the vine and the latter shaken. 
The Muscadine vine grows sometimes to an extraordinary size, 
rising to the top of the tallest trees. A Scuppernong, planted 
on the island of Roanoke, covers an area of more than 40 acres; 
another is mentioned by Mr. Labiaux as extending still further. 
Vitis vulpina is not suited for stock on which to graft the Euro- 
pean Vine (Planchon's Vignes Americaines). Hybrids of this 
species with the European and with other American vines are 
but little fertile, but by further crossing the first hybrids can 
furnish fertile sorts, whereas crosses between Vitis vinifera, V. 
aestivalis, V. cordifolia, V. riparia and V. Labrusca in any way 
are hardly less fertile than the original species (Bush and Meis- 
ner). V. candicans, the Mustang-grape of Texas, is recom- 
mended by Professor Millardet for grape-culture. Dr. Regel 
refers to V. vulpina also V. parviflora, Roxb. Dr. Planchon's 
important memoirs "Les Vignes Americaines," published since 
1875, should be consulted in reference to American vines. 


Voandzeia subterranea, Thouars. 

Madagascar and various parts of Africa, as far south as Na- 
tal. This Earth-Pea is annual, and pushes its pods under 
ground for maturation in the manner of Arachis hypogsea. 
The pods are edible and consumed in some tropical countries. 

Wallichia caryotoides, Roxburgh. {Harina caryotoides, Ham.) 

India, up to 4,000 feet elevation (Kurz). A dwarf tufted 
palm, eligible for scenic group-planting. 

Wallichia densiflora, Martius. {W. oblongi folia, Griffith.) 

Himalaya, as far as 27 north. There one of the hardiest of 
all Palms. It is not a tall one, yet a graceful and useful object 
for cultural industries. 

Washingtonia filifera, Wendland. (P rite hardia filifera, Linden.) 

South California to Arizona and Colorado. One of the most 
northern and therefore most hardy of American Palms. This 
species attains a height of 50 feet. 

Wettinia augusta, Poeppig. 

Peru, on mountains several thousand feet high. This Palm 
is therefore likely to endure mild, temperate climes. 

Wettinia Maynensis, Spruce. 

Cordilleras of Peru. Like the foregoing, it attains a height 
of 40 feet and advanced to elevations of 3,000 or 4,000 feet. 

Before finally parting from the American Palms, it may be ap- 
propriate to allude briefly to some of the hardier kinds, which 
were left unnoticed in the course of this compilation. From 
Dr. Spruce's important essay on the Palms of the Amazon 
River may be learned that,besides other species as yet imperfectly 
known from the sources of this great river, the following kinds 
are comparatively hardy and hence might find places for culti- 
vation or even naturalization within the limits of extra- 
tropical countries: Geonoma undata, Klotzsch, Iriartea de- 
toidea, R. and P., Iriartea ventricosa, Mart., which latter 
rises in its magnificence to fully 100 feet; Iriartea exorrhiza 
Mart.; this, with the two other Iriarteas, ascends the Andes 
to 5,000 feet. Oenocarpus multicaulis, Spruce, ascends to 4,000 
feet; from six to ten stems are developed from the same root, 
each from 15 to 30 feet high. Euterpe; of this two species 
occur in a zone between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. Phytelephas 
microcarpa, R. and P., eastern slope of the Peru Andes, as- 
cending to 3,000 feet. Phytelephas macrocarpa, R. and P., 
also on the eastern side of the Andes, up to 4,000 feet; it is this 
superb species which yields by its seeds part of the vegetable 

IN extra-trOpical countries. 399 

ivory. Phytelephas aequatorialis, Spruce, on the west slope of 
the Peruvian Andes, up to 5,000 feet; this Palm is one of the 
grandest objects in the whole vegetable creation, its leaves at- 
taining a length of 30 feet! The stem rises to 20 feet. Palm 
ivory is also largely secured from this plant. Though equinoc- 
tial, it lives only in the milder regions of the mountains. Car- 
ludovica palmata, R. and P., on the east side of the Andes of 
Peru and Ecuador, up to 4,000 feet; the fan-shaped leaves from 
cultivated specimens furnish the main material for the best 
Panama-hats. Count de Castelnau saw many Palms on the 
borders of Paraguay during his great Brazilian expedition. 
Most of these, together with the Palms of Uruguay and the 
wide Argentine territory, would probably prove adapted for accli- 
mation in mild temperate latitudes; but hitherto the limited ac- 
cess to those countries has left us largely unacquainted with its 
vegetable treasures also in this direction. Von Martius demon- 
strated so early as 1850 the occurrence of the following Palms 
in extra-tropical South- America: Ceroxylon australe, Mart., 
on high mountains in Juan Fernandez, at 30 south latitude; 
Jubaea spectabilis, Humb., in Chili, at 40° south latitude; 
Trithrinax Brasiliana, Mart., at 31 south latitude; Copernicia 
cerifera, Mart., at 29 south latitude; Acrocomia Totai, Mart, 
at 28 south latitude; Cocos Australis, Mart., at 34 south 
latitude; Cocos Yatai, Mart., at 32 south latitude; Cocos Ro- 
manzoffiana, Cham., at 28 south latitude; Diplothemium lit- 
torale, Mart., at 30 south latitude. All the last-mentioned 
Palms occur in Brazil, the Acrocomia and Trithrinax extending 
to Paraguay, and Cocos Australis to Uruguay and the La Plata 

While some Palms, as indicated, descend to cooler latitudes, 
others ascend to temperate and even cold mountain regions. 
Among the American species are prominent in this respect — 
Euterpe Andicola, Brogn., E. Haenkeana, Brogn., E. longi- 
vaginata, Mart., Diplothemium Porallyi, Mart., and Ceroxylon 
pithyrophyllum, Mart., all occurring on the Bolivian Andes at 
an elevation of about 8,000 feet Ceroxylon Andicola, Humb., 
Kunthia montana, Humb., Oreodoxa frigida. Humb., and 
Geonoma densa, Linden, also reach on the Andes of New 
Granada an elevation of at least 8,000 feet. Ceroxylon 
Klopstockia, Mart, advances on the Andes of Venezuela 
to a zone of 7,500 feet altitude, where Karsten saw 
stems 200 feet high, with leaves 24 feet long. There 
also occur Syagrus Sancona, Karst., and Platenia Chiragua, 
Karst., at elevations of 5,000 feet, both very lofty Palms. 
From the temperate mountain-regions of sub-tropical Mexico 
are known, among others, Chamaedorea concolor, Mart., 
Copernicia Pumos, Humb., C. nana, Kunth, and Brahea dulcis, 
Mart., at elevations of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. 


Wistaria Sinensis, De Candolle. 

The "Fuji" of Japan and China; hardy at Christiania. Lives 
through a century and more. The stem is carried up straight, 
and the branches are trained on horizontal trellises at Japanese 
dwellings, affording shade for seats beneath. One Wistaria 
tree will thus cover a square of 50 feet by 50 feet, the odorous 
trusses of flowers pendant through the trellis overhead 
(Christy). Fortune tells us of a tree of great age, which 
measured at 3 feet from the ground 7 feet in circumference, 
and covered a space of trellis-work 60 feet by 100 feet. Flow- 
ers probably available for scent distillation. 

Withania somnifera, Dunal. 

Countries around the Mediterranean sea, also in South-Asia 
and South-Africa. A half shrub. The root, according to Pro- 
fessor McOwan, acts much like Podophyllum, medicinally. 

Witheringia solanacea, L'Heritier. 

South-America. This perennial herb needs trial-culture, on 
account of its large edible tubers. 

Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, L'Heritier. 

North-America. A perennial, almost shrubby plant, of medi- 
cinal value. The root produces a yellow pigment similar to 
that of Hydrastis Canadensis, L. Both also contain berberin. 

Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Schott. 

West-Indies. The tubers are largely cultivated there, and 
used as an esculent like those of Colocasia. The plant may be 
as hardy as the latter. 

Xanthoxylon piperitum, De Candolle. 

Used as a condiment in China and Japan. Fruit capsules 
remarkably fragrant. 

Ximenia Americana, Linne. 

Tropical-Asia, Africa and America, passing the tropics, how- 
ever, in Queensland, and gaining also an indigenous position 
in Florida. This bush may therefore accommodate itself to 
cooler climes in localities free from frost. The fruits are edible, 
resembling yellow plums in appearance; their taste is agreeable. 
The wood is scented. In Mexico called "Alvarillo del campo." 
Mr. P. O'Shanesy recommended this shrub for hedges. 

Xylia dolabriformis, Bentham. 

The " Pyengadu " of India, extending to China and the 
Phillippine Islands, ascending mountains to 3,000 feet. An 


Acacia-like tree, attaining a height of 120 feet, with deciduous 
foliage, the stem often clear up to 80 feet and of very con- 
siderable girth. The wood is reddish brown, close grained, 
and pervaded when fresh by an oily glutinous clamminess. 
The heartwood is of greater durability than even Teak, and of 
a marvellous resistance to shocks through its extreme hardness. 
It is used for gun-carriages, crooks of ships, railway-sleepers, 
tools, gauges, ploughs, house- and bridge-posts (Laslett). It is 
as indestructible as iron, hence locally called iron- wood; a rifle 
shot at 20 yards distance will scarcely cause any penetration 
into it (Colonel Blake). Neither the tornado nor termites will 
touch the heartwood (Hooker). It can only be sawn up in a 
fresh state. The stem exudes a red gum-resin (Kurz). 

Yucca breviolia, Engelmann. 

Arizona and Utah, in the deserts. Attains a height of 30 
feet. The whole plant can be converted into paper (Vasey). 

Yucca filamentosa, Linne. 

The Adam's Needle. From Carolina and Florida to Texas 
and Mexico. An almost stemless species. It would hardly 
be right to omit the plants of this genus altogether here, as they 
furnish a fiber of great strength, similar to that of the Agaves. 
Moreover, all these plants are decorative, and live in the 
poorest soil, even in drifting coast sand. They are also not 
hurt, as is the case with the Fourcroyas, by slight frosts. 
Among the species with stems of several feet in height may be 
recorded Y. gloriosa, L. and Y. aloifolia, L., both from the 
sandy south-coast of North- America. At Edinburgh it bore a 
temperature of o° F. with impunity (Gorlie). 

Yucca Treculiana, Carriere. 

From Texas westward. Stem to 50 feet high, branched only 
near the summit. Grand in aspect and also most showy on 
account of its vast number of white flowers of porcelain luster. 
The fruit tastes like that of the Papaw (Lindheimer). ■ 

Yucca Yucatana, Engelmann. 

Central America. This species attains a height of 20 feet, 
branching from the base. Y. canaliculata, Hooker, ranges from 
Texas to North Mexico, and has a stem up to 25 feet high, with 
very long leaves. A variety of Y. baccata, Torre y, extending 
from Texas to California and Utah, occurs with a stem 50 feet 
high, but with singularly short leaves (Sereno Watson); it 
furnishes the Tambico-fiber for cordage, ropes, rugs and other 

Zalacca secunda, Griffith. 

Assam, as far north as 28 . A stemless Palm with large 



feathery leaves, exquisitely adapted for decorative purposes 
Before we quit the Asiatic Palms, we may learn from Von 
Martius' great work, how many extra-tropical members of this 
princely order were already known in 1850, when that masterly 
publication was concluded. Martius enumerates as belonging 
to the boreal extra-tropical zone in Asia; F7-om Silhet at 2<f 
north latitude: Calamus erectus, Roxb.; C. extensus, Roxb.; 
C. quinquenervius, Roxb.; — from Garo at 26 north lati- 
tude: Wallichia caryotoides, Roxb.; Ptychosperma gracilis, 
Miq.; Caryota urens, L. ; Calamus leptospadix, Griff.; 
from Khasya, in 26 north latitude: Calamus acanthospathus, 
Griff.; C. macrospathus, Griff.; Plectocomia Khasyana, Griff.; 
— -from Assam, about 27 north latitude; Areca Nagensis, 
Griff.; A. triandra, Roxb.; Livistona Jenkinsii, Griff.; 
Daemonorops nutantiflorus, Griff.; D. Jenkinsii, Griff.; D. 
Guruba, Mart.; Plectocomia Assamica, Griff.; Calamus 
tenuis, Roxb.; C. Flagellum, Griff.; C. Heliotropium, Hamilt.; 
C. floribundus, Griff.; Phoenix Ouseloyana, Griff.; — from Upper 
Assam, between 28 and 2p° north latitude: Caryota obtusa, 
Griff.; Zalacca secunda, Griff.; Calamus Mishmelensis, Griff.; — 
from Darjiling, at 27 north latitude: Wallichia obtusifolia, Griff.; 
Licuala peltata Roxb.; Plectocomia Himalaiana, Griff.; Calamus 
schizospathus, Griff.; — from Nepal, between 28 and 29° north 
latitude: Chamaerops Martiana, Wall; — fro?n Guhrvall, in jo° 
north latitude: Calamus Royleanus, Griff.; — from Saharanpoor, 
in jo° north latitude : Borassus flabelliformis, L.; — from Duab, 
in 3 1° north latitude: Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb.; from Kheree, 
in jo° degrees north latitude: Phoenix humilis, Royle; — from 
Dekanj Bentinckia Coddapanna, Berry, at an elevation of 
4,000 feet. Miquel mentions as Palms of Japan (entirely extra- 
tropical): Rhapis flabelliformis, Aiton; R. humilis, Blume ; 
Chamaerops excelsa, Thunb. ; Livistona Chinensis, Br. and 
Arenga saccharifera, Labill., or a species closely allied to 
that Palm. 

Zea Mays, Linn6.* 

The Maize or Indian Corn. Indigenous to the warmer parts 
of South America. St. Hilaire mentions as its native country 
Paraguay. Found in Central America already by Columbus. 
This conspicuous, though annual, cereal grass interests us on 
this occasion as being applicable to far more uses than those 
for which it has been employed in most parts of the globe. In 
North America, for instance, Maize is converted into a variety 
of dishes for the daily table, being thus boiled in an immature 
state, as " green corn." Mixed with other flour it furnishes 
good bread. For some kinds of cakes it is solely used, also for 
maizena, macaroni, and polenta. Several varieties exist, the 


Inca Maize of Peru being remarkable for its gigantic size 
and large grains. The variety named is very hardy, hav- 
ing matured seeds in Norway as far north as 63 15' 
according to Professor Shuebeler. Maize is not readily 
subject to the ordinary corn diseases, but to prosper it 
requires fair access to potash and lime. Good writing 
and printing papers can be prepared from maize-straw. 
Meyen calculated that the return from maize under most favor- 
able circumstances in tropical countries would be eight hundred 
fold, and under almost any circumstances it is the largest 
yielder among cereals in warm countries. Acosta counted on 
some cobs of the Inca Maize as many as 700 grains, and says 
that it is not uncommon to harvest of this variety 300 fold the 
seeds sown; it grows to a height of 15 feet in rich soil and 
under careful cultivation, by which means the grains will 
become 4 or 5 times as large as the ordinary kind. In Peru it 
can be grown up to an altitude of 8,000 feet. Mr. Buchanan 
of Lindenau obtained 150 bushels from an acre in Gippsland 
flats, colony Victoria. As a fattening saccharine green-fodder, 
maize is justly appreciated. In Middle Europe the Horse- 
tooth variety is frequently grown for this purpose and attains 
occasionally a height of fully 12 feet, although the seeds do 
not come to perfection there. Any ergot from it is used, like 
that of rye, for medicinal purposes. Maize corn contains about 
75 per cent, of starch. Dierbach recommends mellago or trea- 
cle from maize instead of that prepared from the roots of 
Triticum repens, L., and the molasses so obtained serves also 
for culinary uses. Sugar and treacle are now made on a large 
scale from Maize stems in the manner indicated under Andro- 
pogon saccharatus. Exposure to extreme and protracted cold 
— four years in Polaris Bay, Smith Sound, 8i° 38' north latitude 
— did not destroy the vitality of wheat and maize grains (R. J. 

Zelkova acuminata, Planchon. (P/anera acuminata, Lindley; P. Japonica, 

The "Keaki," considered one of the best timber trees of Ja- 
pan; it proved of rapid growth and valuable as a shade-tree at 
Melbourne. The wood never cracks, and is hence most exten- 
sively used for turnery, also much for furniture (Rein). Stems 
occasionally 20 feet in girth. For out door work the most 
valued wood in Japan (Christie). 

Zelkova crenata, Spach. {Planera Richardi, Michaux.) 

South- West Asia, ascending to 5,000 feet. In favorable 
localities a good-sized tree, with qualities resembling those of 
the Elms. The allied Z. cretica, Spach is restricted to South 


Zingiber officinale, Roscoe. 

The Ginger. India and China. Possibly this plant may be 
productive also in the warmer temperate zone, and give satis- 
factory results. The multiplication is effected by division of 
the root. For candied ginger only the young succulent roots 
are used, which are peeled and scalded prior to immersion into 
the saccharine liquid. 

Zizania aquatica, Linne.* {Hydropyrum esculentum, Link.) 

The Canada Rice. Annual. It attains a height of 9 feet. 
In shallow streams and around ponds and lakes, from Canada to 
Florida. This tall grass might be readily naturalized. Al- 
though its grain can be utilized for bread-corn, we would wish 
to possess the plant, chiefly to obtain additional food of a su- 
perior kind for water birds. 

Zizania latifolia, Hance.* {Hydropyrum latifolium, Grisebach.) 

The Kau-sun of China. In lakes of Amur, Manchuria, 
China and Japan. Nearly related to the preceding species. 
From Dr. Hance we know, that the solid base of the stem forms 
a very choice vegetable, largely used in China, where this tall 
water-grass undergoes regular cultivation like the Trapa. 

Zizania fluitans, Michaux. (Hydrochloa Carolincnsis , Beauvois.) 

Southern States of North America. This grass, floating in 
shallow streams, or creeping on muddy banks of rivers or 
swamps, is praised by C. Mohr, as valuable for fodder, lasting 
throughout the year. 

Zizania miliacea, Michaux. * 

Southern part of North America, West Indies. Tall and 
perennial, but more restricted to the tide-water meadows and 
ditches, according to Pursh; while according to Chapman's 
note it is generally distributed like Z. aquatica, with which it 
has similar use. In South Brazil occurs a similar grass — namely 
Z. microstachya (Nees). 

Zizyphus Joazeiro, Martius. 

Brazil. Recommended as yielding fruit in arid regions. 

Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamarck. 

From India to China, East Australia, extending also to trop- 
ical Africa, ascending the Himalayas to 4,500 feet. This shrub 
or tree can only be expected t© bear its pleasant fruits in the 
warmer part of the temperate zone. The fruit is red or yel- 
low, and of the size of a cherry. The Tussa silkworm, which, 
according to Dr. Forbes Watson, is the most important and 
widely distributed of the wild silk-insects of India, feeds on Z. 


Jujuba, but also on Terminalias, Shorea, Bombax heptaphyllum 
and some other trees. Often the cocoons are merely collected 
in the forests. 

Zizyphus Lotus, Lamarck. 

Countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The fruits are 
small and less sweet than those of Z. vulgaris; nevertheless 
they are largely used for food in the native country of this 
bush. Z. nummularia, Wight and Arnott, is an allied species 
from the mountains of India, ascending to 3,000 feet. It is 
much used for garden hedges. The fruit is sweet and acidu- 
lous and of a pleasant flavor (Brandis). 

Zizyphus Mistal, Grisebach. 

Argentina. A fine tree with edible fruits. 

Zizyphus rugosa, Lamarck. 

Nepal and other mountainous parts of India. A small tree, 
hardier than the last. The drupe of this is also edible, and the 
same may be said of a few other Indian species. 

Zizyphus Sinensis, Lamarck. 

China and Japan. Similar in use to the last. 

Zizyphus Spina Christi, Willdenow. 

Middle and North Africa, South-West Asia. Rather a hedge- 
plant than a fruit-bush. 

Zizyphus vulgaris, Lamarck. 

Orient, particularly Syria; in the Himalayas up to 6,500 feet. 
A small tree, well adapted for a temperate clime. Fruits scar- 
let, about an inch long, with edible pulp; they are known as 
South European Jujubes. The allied Z. oxyphylla, Edgeworth, 
has a very acid fruit. 

Zoysia pungens, Willdenow. 

Eastern and Southern Asia, East Australia. This creeping 
grass, although not large, is important for binding coast-sands; 
it will live on saline soil. 


Table of Average Annual Rainfall and Temperature at Stations in 
the United States. 

Names of Stations. 

above sea- 

Number of 

Number of 

Rain in 

years of 

Mean tem- 

years of 











7 5- 12 







38 7-12 



38 5-12 











30 5-12 







10 1-12 














16 5-12 














41 11-12 










41 , 




7 1-12 












7 1 

3 11-12 







7 7-12 



6 H 




15 5- I 2 










29 5-6 




45 5-12 







7 5-12 



f>y 2 





b S 


8 11-12 







8 7-13 
























10 1-12 




13 J" 12 













15 1-12 




























20 5-6 



16 s-6 


















5 l-M 







8 11-12 



7 5-6 




12 5-12 



10 1-12 




11 7-12 

7 1 


10 5-12 




14 7-12 



10 5-6 







10 5-11 







9 1-11 




12 5-6 

















7 5-6 




13 I-I2 







2 11-12 







9 1-12 



6 5-12 






14 11-12 







20 5-6 








37 r ° 






3 1-12 







3 11-12 





Portland Me 

Boston Mass 

New York City 

Detroit Mich 

Chicago Ill 

Omaha Neb 

Pittsburg Penn 

Washington D. C 

Cincinnati Ohio 

St. Louis Mo 

Louisville Ky 

Norfolk (Fortress Monroe). . Va 

Chapel Hill N. C 

Knoxville Tenn 

Memphis Tenn 

Fort Gibson Ind. Ter 

Charleston S. C 

Athens Ga 

Vicksburgh Miss 

San Antonio Texas 

Portland Or 

Fort Humboldt Cal 

St. Michael's Alaska 

Fort Abercrombie Dak 

Fort Mackinac Mich 

Fort Dalles Or 

Fort Randall Dak 

Fort Laramie Wyom. Ter 

Fort Crook Cal 

Salt Lake City Utah 

Fort Riley Kansas 

Sacramento Cal 

San Francisco Cal 

Fort Massachusetts Col 

Fort Davis Texas 

Fort Clark Texas 

Fort Duman Texas 

Fort Macintosh Texas 

Ringgold Barracks Texas 

Fort Colville Wash. Ter 

Fort Bridges Wyom. Ter 

Camp Floyd Utah 

Fort Churchill Nev 

Fort Garland Col 

Tonaquint Utah 

Fort Mojave Arizona 

Fort Yuma Cal 

Fort San Diego Cal 

Fort Bliss Texas 

Fort Quitman Texas 

Neeah-Bay Wash. Ter 

Mt. Washington N. H 


Table of Average Annual Rainfall and Temperature at Stations in 
the United States. 

Names of Stations. 

Cape Hatteras N. C 

Astoria Oregon 

Fort Stevens Oregon 

Blockhouse Oregon 

Sitka . .Alaska 

Perry . .' Me 

Steuben Me 

Fayetteville Vt, 

Southwick Mass 

Wallingford Ct. 

Ceres Penn , 

Berwick Penn. 

Poplar Grove W. Va. 

Camden S. C. 

Fulton S.C. 

Sparta Ga. 

Culloden Ga. 

Atlanta Ga. 

Fort Barramas Fla. 

Jacksonville Fla. 

Fort Brooke Fla. 

Fort Pierce Fla. 

Fort Myers Fla. 

Fort Dallas Fla. 

Huntsville Ala. 

Greensborough Ala . 

Monroeville Ala. 

Mt. Vernon Ala . 

Columbus Miss. 

Natchez Miss . 

Jackson Miss. 

Monroe La. 

West Feliciana La. 

Baton Rouge La. 

New Orleans La. 

Nashville Tenn. 

Washington Ark. 

Welchfield O. 

Sandwich Ill . 

FortTowson Ind.Ter. 

Camp Gaston Cal . 

Meadow Valley Cal. 

Fort Umpqua Or. 

Fort Hoskins Or. 

Fort Yamhill Or. 

Fort Cascades Wash. Ter . 

Fort Wrangell Alaska. 

St. Paul Kadiak Ala. 

Marquette Mich. 

Duluth Minn . 

St. Paul Minn. 

Oswego N. Y . 

above sea- 





r 33 





















Rain in 

Number of 
years of 

6 5-12 

9 5-12 

7 5-12 

3 3 A 

2 11-12 

&y 2 

9 1-12 

13 7-12 
13 1-12 

6 1-12 

7 5-12 

3 5-i2 


5 5-12 
16 7-12 
21 5-6 


5 5-6 


3 !-!2 


17 1-12 

18 7-12 

Mean tem- 












7 2 














3 1 





























































4 1 




4 6 


Number of 
years of 



16 11-12 

14 i- 

$ 2 A 



9 3 A 

9 , 




27 11-12 



6 11-12 

J 3 , 
3 11-12 


15 5-12 

6 7- 



3 "-« 

5 5-6 


9 5-12 

3 *-" 

1 5-6 


8 s-12 
18 7-12 



Alimentary Plants — 

i. Yielding Herbage (culinary) — 

Agriophyllum, Allium, Amarantus, Anthriscus, Apium, 
Aralia, Atriplex, Barbarea, Basella, Beta, Bongardia, Borrago, 
Brassica, Chenopodium, Corchorus, Crambe, Cynara, Eremurus, 
Euchlsena, Fagopyrum, Gigantochloa, Gunnera, Hibiscus, 
Lactuca, Lepidium, Musa, Oenanthe, Pharnaceum, Pringlea, 
Pugionium, Rheum, Rumex, Sanguisorba, Scandix, Schizo- 
stachyum, Scorzonera, Spinacia, Talinum, Tetragonia, Theli- 
gonum, Tropseolum, Valerianella, Zizania. 

2. Yielding Roots (culinary) — 

Allium, Apios, Aponogeton, Arracacha, Asparagus, Beta, 
Boussingaultia, Brassica, Butomus, Carum, Chserophyllum, 
Cichorium, Colocasia, Conopodium, Cordyline, Crambe, 
Cymopterus, Cyperus, Daucus, Dendrocalamus, Dioscorea, 
Diposis, Eustrephus, Ferula, Flemingia, Flueggea, Geitono- 
plesium, Gigantochloa, Gladiolus, Heleocharis, Helianthus, 
Hypochceris, Ipomcea, Iris, Manihot, Microseris, Nelumbo, 
Nepeta, Oxalis, Pachyrrhizus, Peucedanum, Pimpinella, 
Pouzolzia, Priva, Psoralea, Pueraria, Raphanus, Rhaponticum, 
Ruscus, Scilla, Scorzonera, Sechium, Selinum, Solanum, 
Stilbocarpa, Thapsia, Tinguarra, Tragopogon, Tropseolum, 
Ullucus, Uvularia, Valeriana, Xanthosoma. 

3. Yielding Cereal Grain — 

Andropogon, Avena, Eleusine, Hordeum, Oryza, Panicum, 
Pennisetum, Poa, Secale, Triticum, Zea, Zizania. 

4. Yielding Table Pulse — 

Cajanus, Caragana, Cicer, Cyamopsis, Dolichos, Ervum, 
Lupinus, Mucuna, Phaseolus, Pisum, Vicia, Vigna. 

5. Yielding various Esculent Fruits — 

Aberia, Acanthosicyos, Achras, Adenostemon, Albizzia, 
Alibertia, Amarantus, Amelanchier, Anona, Arachis, Araucaria, 
Aristotelia, Artocarpus, Atalantia, Averrhoa, Benincasa, Ber- 
beris, Borassus, Brabejum, Canavalia, Carissa, Carya, Casi- 
miroa, Castanea, Castanopsis, Celtis, Ceratonia, Cereus, Cer- 
vantesia, Citrus, Coccoloba, Condalia, Corynocarpus, Coryno- 


sicyos, Crataegus, Cucumis, Cucurbita, Cudrania, Cynara, 
Debregeasia, Diospyros, Euclea, Eugenia, Fagopyrum, Ficus, 
Fragaria, Fuchsia, Gaultiera, Gaylussacia, Gingko, Gourliaea, 
Guevina, Hibiscus, Hovenia, Hymensea, Illipe, Juglans, 
Juniperus, Lapageria, Limonia, Macadamia, Maclura, Mangi- 
fera, Marlea, Marliera, Melicocca, Mesembrianthemum, 
Moringa, Morus, Musa, Myrica, Myrtus, Nageia, Nelumbo, 
Nephelium, Niemeyera, Nuphar, Nyssa, Opuntia, Pappea, 
Parinarium, Passifiora, Peireskia, Persea, Peumus, Phoenix, 
Photinia, Physalis, Pinus, Pistacia, Prunus, Psidium, Punica, 
Pyrularia, Pyrus, Quercus, Ribes, Rubus, Salpichroma, 
Sambucus, Santalum, Sechium, Shepherdia, Solanum, Spondias, 
Sterculia, Tamarindus, Telfairia, Terminalia, Trapa, Triphasia, 
Vaccinium, Vahea, Vangueria, Vitis, Voandzeia, Ximenia, 

6. Truffles and Mushrooms — 

Agaricus, Boletus, Cantharellus, Clavaria, Helvella, Hydnum, 
Hymenangium, Lycoperdon, Morchella, Pachyma, Peziza, 
Polygaster, Polyporus, Rhizopogon, Terfezia, Tuber. 

Avenue-Plants (partly, also for street-planting) — 

Acer, ^Esculus, Castanea, Corylus, Cupressus, Eucalyptus, 
Ficus, Fraxinus, Gleditschia, Grevillea, Jubaea, Juglans, Melia, 
Oreodoxa, Pinus, Pircunia, Pistacia, Planera, Platanus, Populus, 
Prunus, Pyrus, Quercus, Robinia, Salix, Sequoia, Thespesia, 
Tilia, Ulmus, Zelkova. 

Bamboo-Plants — 

Arundinaria (Arundo), Bambusa, Beesha, Dendrocalamus, 
Gigantochloa, Guadua, Melocanna, Phyllostachys, Schizos- 
tachyum, (many other genera mentioned under Schizos- 
tachyum), Teinostachyum. 

Camphor-Plant — 



Condiment-Plants — 

Acorus, Allium, Apium, Archangelica, Artemisia, Asperula, 
Borrago, Brassica, Calamintha, Calyptranthes, Capparis, Capsi- 
cum, Carum, Chaerophyllum, Cinnamomum, Citrus, Cochlearia, 
Coriandrum, Crithmum, Cuminum, Fceniculum, Glycine, 
Illicium, Laserpitium, Laurus, Lepidium, Lindera, Mentha, 
Meriandra, Monarda, Monodora, Myrrhis, Nyssa, Ocimum, Olea, 


Origanum, Peucedanum, Pimpinella, Prunus, Pycnanthemum, 
Satureja, Sison, Smyrnium, Spilanthes, Tropaeolum, Thymus, 
Tuber, Valerianella, Xanthoxylon, Zingiber. 


Quercus. — Substitutes: Aeschynomene, Agave, Nyssa. 

Dye-Plants — 

Acacia, Acer, Albizzia, Aleurites, Alkanna, Alnus, Anthemis, 
Baloghia, Caesalpinia, Carthamus, Carya, Chlorogalum, 
Cladrastris, Coccoloba, Crocus, Crozophora, Cytisus, Dracaena, 
Excsecaria, Fagopyrum, Fraxinus, Garcinia, Gunnera, Hedera, 
Helianthus, Heterothalamus, Indigofera, Isatis, Juglans, 
Lawsonia, Lithospermum, Lyperia, Maclura, Maharanga, 
Mallotus, Onosma, Opuntia, Peireskia, Peltophorum, Perilla, 
Peumus, Phyllocladus, Pinus, Polygonum, Quercus, Reseda., 
Rhamnus, Rhus, Roccella, Rubia, Sambucus, Saponaria, 
Solanum, Sophora, Spartium, Terminalia, Thymelaea, Vac- 
cinium, Xanthorrhiza. 

Fiber-Plants — 

Agave, Apocynum, Boehmeria, Broussonetia, Camelina, Can- 
nabis, Caryota, Chlorogalum, Copernicia, Corchorus, Cordyline, 
Crotalaria, Cyperus, Debregeasia, Eryngium, Fitzroya, Four- 
croya, Gossypium, Hardwickia, Helianthus, Hibiscus, Humulus, 
Lardizabala, Lavatera, Linum, Malachra, Maoutia, Musa, 
Pachyrrhizus, Phormium, Pipturus, Poa, Sanseviera, Sesbania, 
Spartina, Spartium, Thuya, Tillandsia, Touchardia, Urena, 
Villebrunia, Yucca. See also paper plants. 

Fullers Plant— 


Fodder-Plants — 
i. Grasses — 

Agrostis, Aira, Alopecurus, Andropogon, Anthistiria, Anthox- 
anthum, Aristida, Arundinella, Avena, Bouteloua, Bromus, 
Buchloa, Carex, Chionachne, Chloris, Cinna, Cynodon, 
Cynosurus, Dactylis, Danthonia, Ehrharta, Eleusine, Euchlaena, 
Erianthus, Eriochloa, Festuca, Hemarthria, Hierochloa, Holcus, 
Hordeum, Koeleria, Leersia, Lolium, Melica, Milium, 
Muehlenbergia, Neurachne, Panicum, Pappophorum, Paspalum, 
Pennisetum, Phalaris, Phleum, Poa, Rottboellia, Sclerachne, 
Secale, Sesleria, Spartina, Spinifex, Stenotaphrum, Tricholaena, 
Tripsacum, Triticum, Uniola, Zizania. 


2. Herbage — 

Achillea, Alchemilla, Anthyllis, Arachis, Astragalus, Atriplex, 
Brassica, Cichorium, Conospermum, Crotalaria, Desmodium, 
Erodium, Ervum, Exomis, Heracleum, Hippocrepis, Jacksonia, 
Kochia, Lespedeza, Lotus, Lupinus, Medicago, Pentzia, 
Peucedanum, Phymaspermum, Portulacaria, Prangos, Sanguis- 
orba, Selago, Sesbania, Spergula, Stenopetalum, Symphytum, 
Trichodesma, Trifolium, Trophis. 

3. Stable Pulse (Pods and Herbs) — 

Cicer, Dolichos, Hedysarum, Lathyrus, Lupinus, Medicago, 
Melilotus, Onobrychis, Ornithopus, Oxytropis, Pisum, 
Trifolium, Trigonella, Vicia. 

4. Other Fruits — 

Argania, Carya, Castanea, Ceratonia, Helianthus, Prosopis, 

Garland-Plants — 

Baccharis, Cupressus, Helichrysum, Laurus, Lycopodium, 
Melaleuca, Pinus, Quercus. 

Grave-Plants — 

Acacia, Agonis, Boronia, Cupressus, Dacrydium, Fraxinus, 
Helichrysum, Lycopodium, Salix, Tamarix, Thuya, Viola. 

Gum-Plants — 

Acacia, Albizzia, Astragalus, Bambusa, Brachychiton, 
Caragana, Diospyros, Olea, Piptadenia, Prosopis, Xylia. 

Hedge-Plants — 

Aberia, Acacia, Acer, Agave, Albizzia, Alnus, Azima, 
Baccharis, Bambusa, Berberis, Buddleya, Buxus, Caesalpinia, 
Capparis, Carissa, Ceanothus, Celtis, Citrus, Crataegus, 
Cupressus, Cytisus, Elseagnus, Flacourtia, Gleditschia, Guilan- 
dina, Hymenanthera, Justicia, Lawsonia, Ligustrum, Lycium, 
Madura, Mimosa, Opuntia, Paliurus, Parkinsonia, Peireskia, 
Pisonia, Pistacia, Pittosporum, Plectronia, Prosopis, Prunus, 
Punica, Pyrus, Rhamnus, Rhus, Rosa, Rubus, Ruscus, Salix, 
Scutia, Streblus, Thuya, Viburnum, Zizyphus. 

Honey-Plants — 

Acacia, Aesculus, Agave, Barbarea, Brassica, Citrus, Crocus, 
Cucurbita, Eucalyptus, Eucryphia, Fagopyrum, Grevillea, 
Hedera, Helianthus, Lavandula, Medicago, Melianthus, 
Melissa, Mentha, Ocimum, Origanum, Ornithopus, Onobrychis, 


Robinia, Rosa, Rosmarinus, Salix, Salvia, Taraxacum, Thymus, 
Tilia, Trifolium, Tropaeolum, Viola. 



Insecticidal Plants — 

Artemisia, Chrysanthemum, Cannabis, Gymnocladus, Schku- 
hria, Solanum, Tagetes. 

Medicinal Plants — 

i. Yielding Herbage or Flowers — 

Achillea, Aconitum, Agave, Aletris, Aloe, Althaea, Anemone, 
Anthemis, Arctostaphylos, Aristolochia, Arnica, Artemisia, 
Atropa, Barosma, Cannabis, Cassia, Catha, Chelidonium, 
Chenopodium, Chrysanthemum, Cochlearia, Conium, Crocus, 
Cytisus, Digitalis, Duboisia, Erythroxylon, Eupatorium, Garu- 
leum, Hagenia, Hedeoma, Hyoscyamus, Ilex, Justicia, Lactuca, 
Leonotis, Leyssera, Marrubium, Matricaria, Melianthus, 
Mentha, Menyanthes, Nepeta, Osmitopsis, Papaver, Par- 
thenium, Pilocarpus, Polygala, Prunus, Rafnia, Ricinus, 
Rosmarinus, Ruta, Salvia, Sambucus, Santolina, Schkuhria, 
Sebaea, Selinum, Solanum, Sophora, Spigelia, Spilanthes, 
Swertia, Tanacetum, Tarchonanthus, Teucrium, Thuya, 

2. Yielding Bark — 

Alstonia, Aspidosperma, Cinchona, Juglans, Pilocarpus, Salix. 

3. Yielding Roots — 

Acorus, Actaea, Althaea, Anacyclus, Archangelica, Aristo- 
lochia, Arnica, Atropa, Carex, Cephaelis, Cimicifuga, Colchicum, 
Convolvulus, Euryangium, Gentiana, Glycyrrhiza, Helleborus, 
Hydrastis, Inula, Ipomcea, Krameria, Nardostachys, Panax, 
Periandra, Peucedanum, Pimpinella, Podophyllum, Polygala, 
Punica, Rafnia, Rheum, Sabbatia, Sanguinaria, Saponaria, 
Sassafras, Saussurea, Schoenocaulon, Scorzonera, Smilax, 
Smyrnium, Symphytum, Taraxacum, Urginia, Valeriana, 
Veratrum, Withania, Xanthorrhiza. 

4. Yielding Fruits (or only Seeds) — 

Cassia, Cucumis, Cuminum, Ecballion, Foeniculum, Illicium, 
Mallotus, Punica, Rhamnus, Rheum, Ricinus, Schoenocaulon, 
Smyrnium, Tamarindus, Trigonella. 

Oil : Plants— 

Aleurites, Arachis, Argania, Brassica, Camelina, Camellia, 


Cannabis, Carya, Combretum, Cucurbita, Cyperus, Excsecaria, 
Ginkgo, Gossypium, Guizotia, Helianthus, Juglans, Linum, 
Olea, Papaver, Prunus, Pyrularia, Ricinas, Sesamum, Telfairia, 


Acrocomia, Bactris, Bacularia, Borassus, Brahea, Calamus, 
Caryota, Ceroxylon, Chamserops, Cocos, Copernicia, Euterpe, 
Geonoma, Hyospathe, Hyphaene, Jubsea, Kentia, Livistona, 
Mauritia, Oncosperma, Oreodoxa, Phoenix, Plectocomia, Prit- 
chardia, Ptychosperma, Rhapidophyllum, Rhapis, Sabal, 
Thrinax, Trithrinax, Wallichia, Wettinia, Zalacca (many other 
American genera under Wettinia, many other Asiatic genera 
under Zalacca). 

Paper-Plants — 

Arundo, Broussonetia, Cyperus, Eriophorum, Fatsia, 
Lepidosperma, Lygeum, Phormium, Pinus, Populus, Psamma, 
Salix, Spartina, Stipa, Zea. (See also Fiber-plants.) 

Resin-Plants — 

Balsamodendron, Buswellia, Bursera, Butea, Cajanus, 
Callitris, Ceroxylon, Chloroxylon, Cistus, Croton, Dammara, 
Dorema, Ferula, Ficus, Frenela, Garcinia, Hymenaea, Isonandra, 
Juniperus, Liquidambar, Manihot, Melanorrhoea, Myrica, 
Pinus, Pistacia, Pterocarpus, Rhus, Shorea, Styrax, Vahea. 

Saline Plants — 

Agrostis, Alopecurus, Albizzia, Avicennia, Batis, Casuarina, 
Cynodon, Kochia, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Myoporum, 
Paspalum, Phormium, Poa, Salicornia, Sesuvium, Spartina, 
Tamarix, Zoysia. 

Sandcoast-Plants — 

Acacia, Agrostis, Ailantus, Alkanna, Aloe, Andropogon, 
Apium, Asparagus, Beta, Csesalpinia, Cakile, Calamagrostis, 
Callitris, Carex, Casuarina, Ceanothus, Coccoloba, Crambe, 
Crithmum, Cupressus, Cynodon, Cytisus, Dactylis, Distichlis, 
Ehrharta, Elegia, Elymus, Festuca, Genista, Hemitaphrum, 
Imperata, Lavandula, Lepidosperma, Leptospermum, Lupinus, 
Medicago, Melaleuca, Mesembrianthemum, Myoporum, Myrica, 
Opuntia, Ornithopus, Oxytropis, Panicum, Paspalum, 
Phormium, Pinus, Poa, Populus, Prunus, Psamma, Quercus, 
Rhagodia, Robinia, Remirea, Sabal, Salix, Sesuvium, Spartina, 
Spinifex, Stenotaphrum, Stipa, Tamarix, Tetragonia, Thouarea, 
Thrinax, Tripsacum, Triticum, Ulex, Uniola, Urginea, Yucca, 


Scenic Plants (other than Palms or Bamboos) — 

Agave, Ailantus, Aloe, Andropogon, Angelica, Arundo, 
Asplenium, Berberis, Boehmeria, Canna, Cereus, Colocasia, 
Cordyline, Cycas, Cynara, Cyperus, Datura, Dicksonia, Dirca, 
Dracaena, Elegia, Encephalartos, Euchlaena, Eustrephus, 
Fatsia, Ferula, Festuca, Foeniculum, Fourcroya, Gunnera, 
Helianthus, Heracleum, Inula, Lavatera, Leucadendron, 
Melianthus, Musa, Opuntia, Pandanus, Paulownia, Phormium, 
Pipturus, Podachsenium, Rheum, Richardia, Ricinus, Todea, 
Touchardia, Watsonia, Yucca, Zea. 

Scent-Plants — 

Acacia, Adesmia, Aloexylon, Andropogon, Anthoxanthum, 
Aquilaria, Backhousia, Boronia, Calamintha, Cedronella, Citrus, 
Convolvulus, Dracocephalum, Eucalyptus, Gelsemium, Lavan- 
dula, Liatris, Lippia, Liquidambar, Melia, Melissa, Mentha, 
Monarda, Murraya, Myrtus, Nyctanthes, Ocimum, Origanum, 
Osmanthus, Pelargonium, Pittosporum, Pogostemon, Polianthes, 
Prunus, Pycnanthemum, Reseda, Rosa, Rosmarinus, Santalum, 
Satureja, Styrax, Synoon, Teucrium, Thymus, Tilia, Triphasia, 
Viola, Wistaria. 


Ailantus, Cajanus, Liquidambar, Madura, Morus, Quercus, 
Ricinus, Shorea, Symplocos, Terminalia, Trophis, Ulmus. 

Starch-Plants — 

Alstroemeria, Canna, Caryota, Colocasia, Copernicia, Cycas, 
Fagopyrum, Hordeum, Levisia, Manihot, Maranta, Musa, 
Oreodoxa, Oryza, Secale, Solanum, Tacca, Triticum, Zea. 

Sugar-Plants — 

Acer, Andropogon, Beta, Borassus, Caryota, Copernicia, 
Cucumis, Euchlsena, Phoenix, Saccharum, Zea. 

Tan-Plants — • 

Acacia, iEsculus, Alnus, Albizzia, Angophora, Aspidosperma, 
Banksia, Butea, Csesalpinia, Cedrela, Coccoloba, Comptonia, 
Cytisus, Duvana, Elephanthorriza, Eucalyptus, Eugenia, 
Gordonia, Gunnera, Osiris, Pinus, Populus, Prosopis, Prunus, 
Pterocarpus, Quercus, Rhus, Salix, Terminalia. 


Andropogon, Camellia, Catha, Ceanothus, Hydrangea, Ilex, 



./Egiceras, Avicennia, Batis, Melaleuca, Myoporum, Sali- 
cornia, Spartina, Terminalia. 

Timber-Plants — 

1. Trees, coniferous — 

a. Evergreen — 

Araucaria, Callitris, Cephalotaxus, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, 
Dacrydium, Dammara, Fitzroya, Frenela, Juniperus, Libocedrus, 
Nageia, Phyllocladus, Pinus, Saxono-Gothsea, Sciadopitys, 
Sequoia, Taxus, Thuya, Torreya. 

b. Deciduous — 

Ginkgo, Glyptostrobus, Pinus, Taxodium. 
2., Trees, not coniferous — 

a. Evergreen — 

Acacia, Adenostemon, Albizzia, Angophora, Castanopsis, 
Casuarina, Cedrela, Cercocarpus, Chloroxylon, Corynocarpus, 
Dalbergia, Diospyros, Embothrium, Eucalyptus, Eucryphia, 
Fagus, Flindersia, Gmelina, Gourliaea, Grevillea, Harpullia, 
Hymensea, Jacaranda, Knightia, Laurelia, Maba, Machilus, 
Magnolia, Marlea, Maytenus, Metrosideros, Myrtus, Onenia, 
Peltophorum, Persea, Peumus, Psychotria, Quercus, Rhus, 
Royenia, Santalum, Shorea, Swietenia, Syncarpia, Tectona, 
Tetranthera, Tristania. 

b. Deciduous — 

Acer, ^Esculus, Ailantus, Alnus, Betula, Butea, Carpinus, 
Carya, Castanea, Catalpa, Celtis, Corylus, Diospyros, Engel- 
hardtia, Excsecaria, Fagus, Fraxinus, Gleditschia, Gymnocladus, 
Holoptelea, Juglans, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Melia, Ostrya, 
Pircunia, Planera, Platanus, Populus, Pterocarpus, Pterocarya, 
Quercus, Robinia, Salix, Sophora, Tilia, Ulmus, Umbellularia, 
Xylia, Zelkova. 

T obacco-Plant — 


Acorus, yEschynomene, Aponogeton, Butomus, Cyperus, 
Euryale, Menyanthes, Nelumbo, Nuphar, Nyssa, Oryza, Poa, 
Richardia, Sagittaria, Trapa, Zizania, 



Cyperus, Parrotia, Salix (also genera mentioned under 
Bamboo Plants). 

Wood-engravers' Plants — 

Aspidosperma, Buxus, Dacrydium, Camellia, Crataegus, 
Eucalyptus, Gonioma, Ilex, Pittosporum, Pyrus, Rhododendron, 
Royenia, Torreya. 









Nelumbo. . 








A nonacecc. 


























Barb are a. 
































Dip terocarpea. 
























Ailan tus. 


















































Cade a. 






Caryophyllece . 






















A ristolochiaceue . 


Hamamelideie . 










































































Saxifrage ce. 





















































































































































































Ebenacecz . 





















































































































































































































Anthoxanthum .