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SELECTIONS 



FROM THE 



Correspondence of Cicero 



EDITED FOR SIGHT READING 
BY 

J. C. KIRTLAND, JR. 

PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY 



o\^^ 



NEW YORK . : • CINCINNATI • : • CHICAGO 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

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Copyright, 1898, by 
J. C. KIRTLAND, JR. 



COR. OF CICERO. 

w. P. 3 



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PREFACE. 

The necessity of constant practice in the sight trans- 
lation of Latin and in rapid reading without translation 
is not yet realized by the greater number of teachers. 
If the study of the Latin language is to have more 
than a disciplinary value, it must lead to the ability to 
read Roman literature with understanding and aesthetic 
appreciation ; and this ability is possible only to the stu- 
dent who has been emancipated from slavery to gram- 
mar and lexicon, — and perhaps we should add, the 
* literal translation/ The exercises in rapid reading 
should be begun as soon as the regular forms and some 
little elementary syntax have been mastered, and should 
be from the first so frequent as to influence the method 
of preparation of the more formal lessons. Rapid read- 
ing postulates observance of the Latin order, and the 
student who is led to follow the Latin order cannot but 
come sooner or later to know the language. No form ' 
of recitation is so apparently easy and vain and yet so 
potentially difficult and profitable as the reading of large 
amounts of Latin aloud and without translation. The ^ 
measure of success of this method depends almost en- 
tirely upon the teacher, as does indeed the success of 
all methods of teaching ; but much of Roman literature 
made its appeal in the first instance to the ear rather 
than the eye, and many a difficult passage may be made 
clear by a careful pronouncing of it. 

The material for the exercises in rapid reading should 
be carefully chosen. The subject matter should be so 

WI20001. ''''"' '^^^^8^^ 



4 PREFACE. 

interesting as to tempt the reader on, the language 
should oppose a minimum of hindrance, and the style 
should heighten the allurement of the theme by its 
perspicuity and vivacity. Nothing in Roman literature 
meets these requirements so nearly as do many of the 
letters of Cicero. Almost all were intended for the 
eye of the correspondent alone, and not for publica- 
tion, and were accordingly, for the most part, genuine 
in sentiment and easy in diction. They are one of our 
chief sources for the history of the final years of the 
Republic, and put us on intimate terms with the men 
of that momentous time. We owe it to them that we 
know Cicero himself from all points of view better than 
any other man of ancient Rome. More important, how- 
ever, than their historical and autobiographical value is 
the familiar account they give us of Roman character 
and of Roman life. 

It is believed that with the help given in the foot- 
notes the letters of the present selection will not prove 
difficult to students who have begun the reading of 
Cicero, and that they will be found to have sufficient 
interest to justify their use as late as the first years of 
the college course. The text is based in the main on 
the recensions of Mendelssohn, Wesenberg, and O. E. 
Schmidt. 

It remains for me to acknowledge the generous assist- 
ance rendered by Prof. A. P. Hall of Drury College, 
Mr. G. B. Rogers of the Phillips Exeter Academy, and 
Mr. Glanville Terrell of Harvard College in the reading 

of proof. 

^ J. C. KIRTLAND, JR. 

EXETBR, N.H. 



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CONTENTS. 



Introduction 


7-13 


I. Writing materials 


• 7 


2. Ancient paper 


8 


3. The transmission of letters 


8 


4. The form of the letter 


9 


5. The collections of Cicero's letters 


10 


6. Publication of the letters 


II 


7. Atticus 


. 12 


8. Style of the letters 


13 


Text and 


Commentary 15 


-103 


I. 


Roman politics {Aii. i. i. I, 2) 


15 


II. 


Cicero and Catiline {Att. 1.2) 


18 


III. 


An angry friend {Fam, 5. i) 


19 


IV. 


Wounded pride {Fam, 5. 7) 


20 


V. 


Cicero slighted by a consul (^//. i. 13. I, 2) . 


21 


VI. 


A lost letter {Alt. 2. 8) 


24 


VII. 


Cicero longs for news of Rome (from AiL 2. 11) 


25 


VIII. 


Pompey and Caesar unpopular {Att. 2. 19. 3) . 


26 


IX. 


A letter dictated as Cicero walked {Att. 2. 23. i) . 


28 


X. 


Cicero the politician (from Ait, 2. 25. i) . 


28 


XI. 


A runaway slave (from Quint FraU i. 2. 14) . 


28 


XII. 


The exile to his friend (^Att 3. 5) . 


29 


XIII. 


The exile to his family (^Fam, 14. 4) 


30 


XIV. 


The exile to his brother {Quint. Frat. I. 3. 1-6) . 


ZZ 


XV. 


A suppressed oration {Att. 3. 12. 2) 


37 


XVI. 


Cicero's return from exile (from Att, 4. i. 4, 5) 


37 


XVII. 


A welcome to Atticus (^Att. 4. 4a) 


39 


XVIII. 


Wanted, a panegyrist {Fam. 5. 12) 


39 


XIX. 


A purchase of statues {Fam, 7. 23. 1-3) 
5 

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46 




^le 



CONTENTS. 



XX. The dedication of Pompey*s theater {Fam, 7. 

XXI. A letter of recommendation {Fam. 7. 5) . 

XXII. Cicero quotes from Ennius {Fam. 7. 6) . 

XXIII. No gold or silver in Britain {Fam. 7. 7) . 

XXIV. Cicero banters Trebatius {Fam, 7. 16. 2, 3) 
XXV. Trebatius an indifferent soldier {Fam, 7. 10. i 

XXVI. The true nobility is that of worth (^Fam. 3. 7. 

XXVII. Hunting panthers for a curule aedile {Fam. 2 

XXVIII. Cicero and his secretary {Fam. 16. i) . 

XXIX. Cicero as an epicure (Fam. 9. 20) . 

XXX. The pardon of Marcellus (from Fam, 4. 4) 

XXXI. A pilfering librarian (Fam. 13. 77. 3) . 

XXXII. A family pedigree (Fam. 9. 21) 

XXXIII. Cicero grieves for TuUia (from ^//. 12. 15) 

XXXIV. A monument to Tullia (^//. 12. 18. I ) . 
XXXV. A letter of condolence (Fam. 4. 5) 

XXXVI. The vote of Dec. 5, 63 B.C. (A/^. 12. 21. i) 

XXXVII. Domestic worries (^//. 12. 32) 

XXXVIII. Reply to the letter of condolence (Fam. 4. 6) 

XXXIX. The murder of Marcellus (Fam. 4. 12) . 

XL. Dedication of the Academica (Fam. 9. 8. i) 

XLI. The singer Tigellius (Fam. 7. 24) . 

XLII. Cicero in favor with Caesar (Fam. 5. lob) 

XLIII. The speech for Deiotarus (Fam. 9. 12) . 

XLIV. Consul for half a day (Fam. 7. 30. i) 

XLV. Cicero intercedes for a pirate (Fam. 5. loa) 

XLVI. A dearth of wit at Rome (Fam. 7. 31) . 

XLVII. The Ides of March (Fam. 6. 15) . 

XLVIII. A student at Athens (Fam. 12. 16. I, 2) 

XLIX. A point of law (Fam. 7. 22) . 

L. Brutus and Cassius defy Antony (Fam. 11. 3) 

LI. A faithful friend (Fam. 11. 28) 

LII. Tiro turns farmer (from Fam. 16. 21. 7) . 

LIII. The company makes the dinner (Fam. 9. 24. 2j 

LIV. The battle at Forum Gallorum (Fam. 10. 30) , 







.2) 

5) 
II). 



3). 



PAGE 
48 
52 

54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
61 
62 
64 
66 
67 
69 
69 
70 

74 
76 

77 
80 
82 
84 

85 
86 

87 
88 
90 
91 
91 
92 

93 
95 
98 

99 
100 



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INTRODUCTION. 

I. Writing materials. — In early times the Romans 
used for their letters thin tablets of wood or ivory 
{tabellae) smeared with wax {cera\ through which they 
scratched {exarare) the characters with the stilus. This 
was of metal or ivory, sharpened at one end for writ- 
ing, and having the other end rounded for erasure 
{yertere stilum). The tablets were surrounded by a 
raised rim, like that of the modern schoolboy's slate, 
which served to keep the waxed surfaces apart when 
two or more tablets were fastened together. To secure 
the letter from molestation, the tabellae were tied to- 
gether by means of a thread {linum) passing through 
holes in the center, and the knot was sealed with wax 
and pressed with the signet ring {anuliis\ Inasmuch 
as letters were often dictated to an amanuensis, this seal 
{signum) was the proof of genuineness, and the thread 
was therefore cut that the seal might be kept intact 
(see Cic. in Cat. 3. 5. 10, where the image of a distin- 
guished ancestor is used as the seal). Cicero himself 
preferred to write to his intimates with his own hand, 
but was often forced by circumstances to resort to dicta- 
tion (IX.*). In Att. 6. 6. 4 Cicero boasts of his forgery 
of a letter, which he dictated to a secretary of the sup- 
posed writer to insure belief in its genuineness. 

* The Roman numerals refer to letters of this selection. 

7 

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8 INTRODUCTION. 

2. Ancient paper. — We know that many of Cicero's 
letters were written on the tablets described above, but 
for the longer letters paper {chartd) made from the 
papyrus plant was used. Pliny the Elder is our chief 
authority for the manufacture of the chartae. The pith 
of the reed was cut into thin strips; these were laid 
side by side, and covered transversely with a similar 
layer. They were then wet with water, and perhaps 
with paste, pressed or hammered into a single sheet, 
and made smooth by polishing. The size of the charta 
depended upon the distance between successive joints 
of the papyrus reed. For writing on this substance, a 
pen {calamus) of reed, very like the quill pen of modern 
times, was used. The ink (atramentmn) was made of 
soot and gum, or from the juice of the cuttle-fish, and 
was thick like the ink of the Chinese. It could be 
removed with a sponge {spongia), and the charta thus 
cleaned was called a palimpsestus. In Fam, 7. i8. 2 
Cicero asks Trebatius what writing could have been so 
worthless as to be replaced by the latter' s letter. 

3. The transmission of letters. — There was no gov- 
ernment post in the time of Cicero, and the letter writer 
had to depend for the delivery of his letters upon mes- 
sengers {tabellarii) in his service or in the service of a 
friend, the messengers of the farmers of taxes {piibli- 
cani), the orderlies {statores) of the officials of the prov- 
inces, or the kindness of those who happened to be 
going in the right direction. The messengers covered 
from thirty-five to forty-five miles a day on land, and 
by sea, from five to seven knots an hour. In Fam. 14. 



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INTRODUCTION. 9 

5. I we are told of a letter which was brought from 
Rome to Athens (sane strenue) in twenty-one days, 
while in Fam. 16. 21. i the tabellarii are said to have 
taken forty-six days for the same journey. The person 
into whose hands the letter was given was frequently 
not trustworthy, and when important, it was sometimes 
sent in duplicate by different messengers {tino or eodem 
exetnplo). In VI. we find mention of the loss of a 
letter on the road. In view of the fact that letters 
might be tampered with (V. 8-1 1), the meaning was 
often disguised, where the subject was a delicate one, 
by the use of covert language. 

4. The form of the letter. — A Pompeian wall paint- 
ing represents a sealed letter addressed M. Liicretio 
Flamini Martis Decnrioni PompeiSy and in Att, 8. 5. 2 
Cicero gives the direction of a package as simply M\ 
Curio, The Roman letter had date and place of writing 
at the end, and in this order. The name of the place 
stood in either the ablative or the locative (XII., XIII., 
XXVIII., XXXIX., XLIL, L., LIV.). It will be 
noticed that both date and place are generally omitted, 
and that the date is sometimes given without the place. 
The reason for the invariable omission of the date in 
the case of letters of introduction is obvious. The sig- 
nature was not subscribed as with us, but the name of 
the writer stood at the beginning of the letter in the 
nominative, with the name of the person addressed in 
the dative, as subject and object respectively of the 
phrase of salutation, salutem dicit (S.D.). This was 
sometimes amplified to salutem plurimam dicit {S.P,D,)y 

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lO INTRODUCTION. 

sometimes shortened to salutem {Sal, or 5.), and some- 
times omitted altogether. The formality of the greet- 
ing varied with the intimacy of the correspondents. 
We find the praenomen alone (XIV.), cognomen alone 
(XXL), praenomen and cognomeny praenomen and nomen 
(XXXVIII.), and all three (IV.). A very formal greet- 
ing contained, as in the last example, the full names of 
both persons with their titles, if they held office, and the 
praenomina of their fathers, sometimes of their grand- 
fathers also. In correspondence with members of his 
own household, Cicero used less regular forms (XIII., 
XXVIII.). The greeting was sometimes followed by 
stereotyped expressions of interest in the health and wel- 
fare of the person addressed (III., IV., XLV., XLVIIL, 
L.). There was greater variety in the forms of affec- 
tionate or considerate farewell ; cf. Cnra ut valeas 
(XII.), Ctira ut valeas et me, ut amas^ ama (XXL), 
Vale (XXXV.). 

5. The collections of Cicero^s letters. — Of the letters 
of Cicero's correspondence there have come down to 
us nearly nine hundred in all, of which about four hun- 
dred are Epistulae ad Atticumy a somewhat larger num- 
ber Epistulae ad Familiares so called, and the remainder 
ad Quint um Fratrem and ad Brutum, The greater col- 
lections are divided into sixteen books each, the Epist. 
ad Quint. Frat. into three, and the Epist ad Brut, into 
two. Nearly one hundred of the letters are from other 
than Cicero's hand; among the writers are Cato, D. 
Brutus, M. Brutus, Cassius, Pompey, Caesar, Asinius 
Pollio, Lepidus, and other famous men of the time. 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

The earliest of the extant letters is Au, i. 5, written 
in B.C. 6S, in Cicero's thirty-ninth year, and the latest 
Fam. 10. 24, dated July 28th of the last year of his life. 
There are no letters for the eventful year of Cicero's 
consulship. The letters to Atticus are arranged chrono- 
logically, but not without mistakes in order; those of 
the collection ad Fam., roughly by correspondents. 

6. Publication of the letters. — No edition of the let- 
ters could have been published in Cicero's lifetime ; we 
have the promise of an edition in Att. 16. 5. 5, but this 
could not well have appeared before his death, a year 
and a half later. He does not seem to have looked 
upon its publication as important, and it is not likely 
that he gave much thought to the project at this trou- 
blous time. In Fam. 16. 17. i we have an earlier ref- 
erence to the possibility of the publication of his 
correspondence, addressed to him who was destined 
to be its editor. This was Tiro, his freedman, secre- 
tary, and friend. The editorship of the Epist,ad Att. 
is, however, disputed, many scholars holding that the 
collection must have been made by Atticus. The chief 
support of this view is derived from the fact that no 
letters from Atticus appear in the collection (as none 
from Tiro appear in the Epist ad Fam.\ although his 
letters were preserved by Cicero, as we learn from Att. 
9. 10. 4. We know, moreover, that Atticus was one of 
Cicero's publishers. The title ad Fam. does not occur 
in any mention of the letters in antiquity, and is inexact, 
since many letters to Cicero are included in the collec- 
tion, and many of the correspondents were not famili- 



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12 INTRODUCTION. 

ares. Another modern title, ad Diversos, is not Latin. 
This collection seems to have been known to the an- 
cients as simply Epistiilarum Libri Sedecim^ and the 
individual books bore the names of those to whom the 
first letters in each were addressed (I., ad Lentulum ; 
II., ad Curionem ; VIII., M, Caeli Epistulae ad M, Tul- 
Hum Ciceronem). We have in Nepos* life of Atticus 
(i6. 3) a reference to the Epist, ad Atty and the proba- 
ble reading points to the collection of sixteen books as 
it has come down to us ; but of the other letters known 
to the ancients half seem to have been lost. Among 
them were three books ad Caesarem and four ad Pom- 
peium. The extant collection ad Fam. is supposed to 
be an early and incomplete edition. 

7. Atticus. — That the Epist. ad Att. are more valua- 
ble than the Epist. ad Fam. is due not mof e to the con- 
tinuity and regularity of the correspondence than to the 
intimacy existing between Atticus and Cicero, and the 
consequent frankness of the latter in writing of political 
matters. T. Pomponius Atticus was well-born, cultured, 
and in possession of a fortune which enabled him to 
speculate in business enterprises of a novel sort, as well 
as in recognized ways, while preserving his position as 
gentleman of leisure and patron of literature. He held 
himself steadfastly aloof from political life, living abroad 
a great part of the time, and managed to keep the favor 
of the prominent men of all factions. He had great 
business sagacity, and acted frequently in matters of 
business as Cicero's agent. Cicero deferred to his judg- 
ment in literary matters also. 

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INTRODUCTION. 1 3 

8. Style of the letters. — Some of the letters were 
expected by the writer to become public property, and 
were formal in tone and studied in diction; but the 
great mass have the charm of spontaneity and are 
written in the language of conversation, the se^'mo fa- 
miliaris or cottidianus (XXXII.). Among the chief 
stylistic peculiarities of the letters are: {ft) the fre- 
quent use of Greek words and phrases, especially as 
technical terms or to make the letter unintelligible to 
those who might tamper with it, but also in some 
measure, perhaps, an aifectation, although it should be 
noted that most of the Greek occurs in letters to Atti- 
cus, who sic Graece loquebatur tit Athenis natus videre- 
tur(l<iep. Att. 4. i); (^) the prevalence and variety of 
diminutive formations; {c) the freedom of composition 
vjiXh per zxiA sub. {d) Here should l?e mentioned, too, 
the epistolary tenses. The Roman letter writer trans- 
ferred himself to the time of receipt or of reading of 
his letter, and used the imperfect to describe that which 
was happening at the time of writing, the pluperfect to 
describe that which had happened previous to the time 
of writing (cf. profecti stitnuSy petebatnuSy XIII. 18, 19; 
putareSy XXVII. i ; sperabam, audiebam, XXXVIII. 
45, 46). 



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SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 
OF CICERO. 



I. ROMAN POLITICS {Att. i. i. i, 2). 

Clcer5 Attic5 Sal. 

Petitionis nostrae, quam tibi summae curae esse scio, 
huius modi ratio est, quod adhuc coniectura pr5viderT 
possit. Prensat Onus P. Galba; sine fuc5 ac fallacils 
more maiorum negatur. Ut opIni5 est hominum, n5n 
aliena ration! nostrae fuit illlus haec praepropera pren- 
satio. Nam illT ita negant vulgo ut mihi se debere 
dicant. Ita quiddam sper5 n5bis profici, cum hoc per- 
crebrescit, plurimos nostr5s amicos inveniri. Nos autem 
initium prensandl facere c5gitaramus e5 ips5 tempore 



I. Written in July, 65 B.C. Qcero 
had been praetor the previous year. 
The year following the tenure of 
the praetorship was usually spent 
either as governor of a province 
(propraetor) or in seeking political 
support that would justify candidacy 
for the consulship. Atticus had now 
been living in Athens for more than 
twenty years, i. Petitionis, candi- 
dature, sc. for the consulship of 63 
B.C. 2. ratio, conditiony prospects. 
— quod . . . possit, restrictive, so 
far as. 3. Prensat, is making an 
active canvass; notice the effect of 



the position of Petitionis nostrae 
(i), Prensat, and Nos (8). — sine 
fuco ac fallaciis more maionim, 
in the good old-fashioned way, with- 
out dissimulation and deceit. 5. ra 
tioni, advantage, interest. — prae- 
propera, precipitate. 6. ita . 
ut . . . dicant, with the explana- 
tion that. 7. profici, = prodesse. 
— percrebrescit, is spread abroad. 
9. cogitaramus, dicebat, epistolary 
tenses. — tempore: the election of 
tribunes, the first election of the 
year, called together a large con- 
course of citizens; the active can- 



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CORR'EStONDENCE OF CICERO. 



lo quo fuum'pliertififcam hfs litterls proficlscl Cincius dice- 
bat, in campo comitils tribunicils a. d. xvi. Kalend. Sex- 
tills. Competltores qui certi esse videantur Galba et 
Antonius et Q. Cornificius. Puto te in hoc aut risisse 
aut ingemuisse ; ut f rontem f erias, sunt qui etiam Cae- 

15 sonium putent. Aqullium non arbitramur, qui denegat 
et iuravit morbum et illud suum regnum iudiciale op- 
posuit. Catillna, si iudicatum erit meridie non lucere, 
certus erit competitor. De Aufidia et de Pallcan5 n5n 
put5 te exspectare dum scrlbam. De ils qui nunc 

20 petunt, Caesar certus putatur. Thermus cum Sllan5 
contendere existimatur, qui sic inopes et ab amicis et 
ab exIstimStione sunt ut mihi videatur non esse aBvvarov 
Curium obducere, sed hoc praeter me nemini videtur. 
Nostris rationibus maxime conducere videtur Thermum 

25 fieri cum Caesare. Nem5 est enim ex iis qui nunc 
petunt qui, si in nostrum annum reciderit, firmior can- 



vass commonly began at this time, 
but the formal announcement of can- 
didacy (pro/essto), corresponding to 
nomination with us, was not made 
until seventeen days before the 
election. 10. puerum, s/avg, man. 
12. certi: of those named in this 
letter, these three and Catiline ran. 
Cicero and Antonius were elected. 

16. iuravit morbum, Aas sworn 
thai he is too ilL — regnum iudi- 
ciale : Aquilius was a famous jurist. 

17. Catilina: he was under accusa- 
tion of malversation in office, and 
was consequently not eligible; that 
Cicero believed him guilty is clear 
from si , . . lucere, 19. nunc pe- 



tunt, i.e. as candidates for the con- 
sulship of 64 B.C. 20. Caesar, L. 
Julius Caesar, who voted in 63 B.C. 
for the execution of his brother-in- 
law Lentulus and the other Catilina- 
rian conspirators. His colleague in 
the consulship was, as appears from 
the next letter, one C. Marcius Figu- 
lus, but this is commonly supposed 
to have been the name assumed by 
Thermus on adoption into the Mar- 
cian gens. — Silano : Silanus was 
consul in 62 B.C., and as consul elect 
moved Dec. 5th, 63 BC, the execu- 
tion of the conspirators. 21. ab, in 
respect to. 22. dSirvarov, impossible. 
26. candidatus: the candidate for 



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ROMAN POLITICS. 



17 



didatus fore videatur, propterea quod curator est viae 
Flaminiae, quae turn erit absoluta sane facile. Eum 
libenter nunc Caesarl consulem addiderim. Petitorum 
haec est adhuc informata cogitatio. Nos in omnl 30 
munere candidatori5 fungend5 summam adhibebimus 
dTligentiam et fortasse, quoniam videtur in sufifragiis 
multum posse Gallia, cum Romae a iudicils forum re- 
f rlxerit, excurremus mense SeptembrI legati ad Pis5nem, 
ut Ianuari5 revertamur. Cum perspexer5 voluntates 35 
n5bilium, scrlbam ad te. Cetera spero pr5lixa esse, his 
dumtaxat urbanis competitoribus. Illam manum tu 
mihi cura ut praestes, quoniam propius abes, Pompel, 
nostrl amlci. Nega me el Iratum fore, si ad mea 
comitia non venerit. 40 



public office was so called because 
custom required that he should wear 
a new toga or one newly whitened 
{toga Candida). 27. curator, super- 
intendent, — viae Flaminiae, the 
great northern road, took its name 
from the C. Flaminius who com- 
manded the Romans in the disas- 
trous battle of Lake Trasumennus; 
it terminated at Ariminum on the 
upper Adriatic. 28. sane, very. 
30. informata cogitatio, the opinion 
that I have formed^ or my general 
impression. 33. Gallia, sc. Cispa- 
dana ; Caesar finally secured the 
right of suffrage to the rest of Cis- 
alpine Gaul in 49 B.C. — refrix- 
erit, refrigescOf frigus. The last 
four months of the year were given 
up almost altogether to the celebra- 
tion of various festivals, and the 
COR. OF cic. — 2 



courts of law had a long vacation 
at that time. 34. legati: Cicero 
had in mind a libera legatio, by vir- 
tue of which a senator might travel 
in the provinces with all the privi- 
leges and perquisites of an ambassa- 
dor, but without public responsibility. 
— Pisonem, C. Calpurnius Piso, at 
this time governor of Narbonese 
Gaul. 36. nobilium : these in their 
fear of Catiline and the revolution- 
ists cast their votes and influence 
for Cicero. — prolixa, favorable. 
37. dumtaxat, at least. — urba- 
nis, civilians. — manum, the staff 
of Pompey, who was now conduct- 
ing the campaign against Mithri- 
dates in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Manilian Law of 66 
B.C. 38. propius abes, i.e. a Pom- 
peio. 



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i8 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



11. CICERO AND CATILINE {Att i. 2). 
Cicero Attico Sal. 

L. Iuli5 Caesare C. Marcio Figulo consulibus fTliol5 
me auctum scito salva Terentia. Abs te tarn diu nihil 
litterarum ! Ego de mels ad te rationibus scrlpsl antea 
diligenter. Hoc tempore Catilmam, competIt5rem no- 

5 strum, defendere cogitamus. ludices habemus quos 
voluimus, summa accusatoris voluntate. Sper5, si ab- 
solutus erit, coniuncti5rem ilium nobis fore in ratione 
petltionis ; sin aliter accident, humaniter f eremus. Tu5 
adventu nobis opus est maturo. Nam prorsus summa 

10 hominum est opinio tuos familiarls, n5bills homines, 
adversarios honorl nostr5 fore. Ad edrum voluntatem 
mihi conciliandam maxim5 te mihi usul fore videa Qua 
re lanuario mense, ut constituisti, cura ut Romae sis. 



II. I. consulibus, sc designatis. 
The child appears to have been born 
on the day of the election of con- 
suls for 64 B.C., and the abl. abs. not 
only indicates the date of the domes- 
tic event, but makes known to Atti- 
cus the result of the election also. 
— filiolo me auctum, / was blessed 
in the birth of a little son, 3. antea, 
in the preceding letter. 5. cogita- 
mus: it is not known for certain 
whether Cicero defended Catiline, 
but that he should have contem- 
plated it after expressing so strongly 
his belief in Catiline's guilt seems a 
little strange. We must remember, 
however, that impeachment was in 
large measure a matter of politics. 



Cicero appears in this letter as still 
coquetting with the popular party. 
Even more surprising is the shame- 
less avowal of his willingness to profit 
by the collusion of jury and prosecu- 
tor. 6. accusatoris, Qodius, later 
a leader of the popular party. He 
it was who carried the bill banish- 
ing Cicero, and Cicero defended his 
murderer, T. Annius Milo, in the 
speech that has come down to us in 
an elaborated version {^pro Milone'), 
7. in ratione petitionis, in the con- 
duct of the canvass, 8. humaniter, 
as befits a man^ i.e. with equanim- 
ity. 9. prorsus, intensifies summa, 
II. honori, election, 13. Romae 
sis: Atticus seems to have com- 



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AN ANGRY FRIEND. 



19 



III. AN ANGRY FRIEND {Fam, 5. i> 

Q. MeteUuB Q. F. Celer Pr5c58. S. D. M. TulUo CicerSnL 

Si vales, bene est. Exlstimaram pro mutuo inter nos 
animo et pro reconciliata gratia nee absentem ludibrio 
laesum Irl nee Metellum fratrem ob dictum capite ac 
fortunis per te oppugnatum Irl. Quem si parum pudor 
ipslus defendebat, debebat vel familiae nostrae dignitas s 
vel meum studium erga vos remque publicam satis sub- 
levare. Nunc vide5 ilium circumventum, me desertum 
a quibus minime conveniebat. Itaque in luctu et squa- 
lore sum, qui prdvinciae, qui exercitui praesum, qui 
bellum gera Quae quoniam nee ratione nee maiorum 10 
nostrorum dementia administrastis, n5n erit mirandum 



plied, and to have remained at 
Rome for three years, for there are 
extant no letters ad AtL dating from 
the time of this one to the Kalends 
of January, 6i B.C. 

III. Written in January, 62 B.C. 
Q. Metellus Celer was praetor 63 
B.C. and rendered valuable assist- 
ance in the suppression of the con- 
spiracy of Catiline. When Cicero 
relinquished Macedonia to Antonius, 
it became necessary that one of the 
praetors should be given a consular 
province, and Cicero seems to have 
contrived that this province, Cisal- 
pine Gaul, should fall to Metellus. 
The brother of Metellus Celer, Q. 
Metellus Nepos, in his capacity of 
tribune had forbidden Cicero to 
make a farewell address to the 
people on laying down the consul- 



ship, on the ground that he had 
put citizens to death unheard, and 
had continued to attack him. Cicero 
finally replied in a sarcastic speech, 
which is not extant, and it is to this 
speech that our letter refers. Q. P. 
(greeting), Quinti filius. Procos. 
(greeting) : Metellus, although he 
had not yet held the consulship, 
was administering a consular prov- 
ince, i.e. a province in which a 
military force was stationed. 2. ab- 
sentem, sc. me. 3. capite, civil 
rights, 6. yos, you and your politi- 
cal friends; notice the changes of 
number. 8. squalore, a sign of 
mourning, but the word is not here 
to be understood literally. Mourn- 
ing was worn among the Romans 
by those whom disgrace threatened. 
10. ratione, in a reasonable way. 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



Si v5s paenitebit. Te tam mobill in me meosque esse 
animo non sperabam. Me interea nee domesticus dolor 
nee cuiusquam iniuria ab re publica abducet. 



IV. WOUNDED PRIDE {Fam. 5. 7). 

M. TulUuB M. F. Cicero S. D. Cn. Pomp6io Cn. F. MSgnd 
Imper&toxi. 

S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. Ex litteris tuis, quas publice 
misisti, cepi una cum omnibus incredibilem voluptatem. 
Tantam enim spem oti ostendistl quantam ego semper 
omnibus te uno fretus pollicebar. Sed hoc sclto, tuos 

5 veteres hostis, novos amlc5s vehementer litteris per- 
culs5s atque ex magna spe deturbat5s iacere. Ad me 
autem litteras quas mIsistI, quamquam exiguam signifi- 
cationem tuae erga me voluntatis habebant, tamen mihi 
sclto iucundas fuisse. Nulla enim re tam laetarl soleo 

10 quam meorum officiorum conscientia, quibus si quand5 
non mutue respondetur, apud me plus offici residere 
facillime patior. Illud n5n dubit5, quin, si te mea 
summa erga te studia parum mihi adiunxerint, res pu- 



13. sperabam, apprehend, — inte- 
rea» adversative, but without the 
loss of temporal force. 

IV. Probably written in April, 
62 B.C. Pompey had brought the 
Mithridatic War to a successful con- 
clusion, but was still in the East. 
Cicero had written to him a full 
account of the events of 63 B.C., and 
was disappointed and chagrined by 
what he considered the lack of ap- 
preciation of his services shown in 



Pompey *s reply. I. S. T. E. Q. V. 

B. £., si tu exercitusque valetiSf bene 
est, — publice, officially; these dis- 
patches were addressed to the mag- 
istrates and senate. 3. oti, peace. 

— semper, e.g. in the Oratio de 
Imperio Cn, Pompei, 6. deturba- 
tos, cast down, II. non mutue 
respondetur, no return is made, 

— plus, the balance, 13. studia: 
the use of the plu. implies that 
Cicero had manifested his zeal in 



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CICERO SLIGHTED BY A CONSUL. 21 

blica n5s inter nos conciliatura coniuncturaque sit. Ac 
ne ign5res quid ego in tuls littens desiderarim, scrlbam 15 
aperte, slcut et mea natura et nostra amicitia postulat. 
Res eas gessl quarum aliquam in tuis litterls et nostrae 
necessitudinis et rel ptiblicae causa gratulationem ex- 
spectavi, quam ego abs te praetermissam esse arbitror 
quod verebare ne cuius animum oifenderes. Sed sclto 20 
ea quae nos pro salute patriae gessimus orbis terrae 
iudicio ac testim6ni5 comprobarl, quae, cum veneris, 
tantd c6nsili5 tantaque animl magnitudine a me gesta 
esse c6gn5sces ut tibi, multo maiori quam Africanus 
fuit, me, non multo min5rem quam Laelium, facile et in 25 
re publica et in amicitia adiunctum esse patiare. 

V. CICERO SLIGHTED BY A CONSUL 
{Att, I. 13. I, 2). 

Cicero Attico Sal. 

AccepI tuas tris iam epistulas: unam a M. Corne- 
lio, quam Tribus Tabernls, ut oplnor, ei dedisti; alte- 



Pompey*s interest on more than one 
occasion. — res publica, our pa- 
triotism. 15. desiderarim, missed. 
17. Res eas, the suppression of the 
Catilinarian conspiracy. 18. neces- 
situdinis, intimacy. 20. animum 
offenderes : Pompey was at this 
time, or was thought to be, in sym- 
pathy with the purposes of the de- 
mocratic leaders (cf. veteres hostiSf 
novos amicos') . He had at any rate 
to look to the populace for his sup- 
port, and the execution of the con- 



spirators had been little to the liking 
of the populace. 25. Laelium, at- 
tracted to me. The friendship of 
C. Laelius the Wise and the younger 
Africanus had been unusually close 
and enduring, and was later cele- 
brated by Cicero in the essay de 
Amicitia. 

V. Written January 25th, 61 B.C. 
Atticus had just returned to Greece, 
and had written to Cicero several 
times during the journey. 2. Tribus 
Tabernls, an inn on the Via Appia, 



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22 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

ram, quam mihi CanusTnus tuus hospes reddidit ; tertiam, 
quam, ut scrlbis, ancora soluta de phasel5 dedistl. Quae 
5 fuerunt omnes, ut rhetorum puerl loquuntur, cum hu- 
manitatis sparsae sale, tum mslgnes amoris notis. 
Quibus epistulls sum equidem abs te lacessitus ad re- 
scrlbendum, sed idcirc5 sum tardior, quod non invenio 
fidelem tabellarium. Quotus enim quisque est qui 

lo epistulam paul5 gravi5rem ferre possit, nisi eam per- 
lectione relevant ? Accedit eo quod mihi n5n prodest, 
ut quisque in Epirum proficlscitur. Ego enim te arbi- 
tror caesls apud Amaltheam tuam vlctimls statim esse 
ad Sicyonem oppugnandum profectum. Neque tamen 

IS id ipsum certum habeo, quando ad Ant5nium proficl- 
scare aut quid in Epiro temporis ponas. Ita neque 
Achaicis hominibus neque Epiroticis paulo llberiores 
litteras committere audea Sunt autem post discessum 
a me tuum res dignae litterls nostrls, sed n5n commit- 

20 tendae eius modi perlculo, ut aut interire aut aperlrl aut 
intercipl possint. Primum igitur sclto primum me non 

between thirty and forty miles from sal ; this is the only occurrence 



Rome. 3. Canusinus tuus hospes, 
your host at Canusium. 4. ancora 
soluta : to weigh anchor is regularly 
ancoram tollere. — phaselo, a nar- 
row, usually light vessel, so named 
from its resemblance in shape to a 
kidney bean. 5. humanitatis . . . 
sale, elegant wit. 6. notis, tokens. 
7. lacessitus, importuned. 9. Quo- 
tus . . . quisque est, how many are 
there? 10. graviorem: there is a 
play upon the two meanings heavy 
and important. — perlectione, /^r«- 



of the word. 13. Amaltheam, the 
villa of Atticus near Buthrotum in 
Epirus, or the library of the villa 
simply; the name evidently has ref- 
erence to the nymph Amalthea, but 
its exact signification is not known. 
Atticus was intending to enforce 
payment of taxes or loans due him 
from the Sicyonians, and Cicero 
likens him to a general sacrificing 
before starting for the seat of war. 
15. Antonium, governor of Macedo- 
nia. 16. ponas, spend. 21. pos- 



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CICERO SLIGHTED BY A CONSUL. 



23 



esse rogatum sententiam praepositumque esse nobis 
pacificatorem Allobrogum, idque admurmurante senatu 
neque me invit5 esse factum. Sum enim et ab obser- 
vando homine perverse liber et ad dignitatem in re pu- 25 
blica retinendam contra illlus voluntatem solutus, et ille 
secundus in dlcend5 locus habet auctoritatem paene 
principis et voluntatem non nimis devinctam benefici5 
consulis. Tertius est Catulus, quartus, si etiam hoc 
quaeris, Hortensius. Consul autem ipse parvo animd 30 
et pravo, tantum cavillator genere illo m5r5s6 quod 
etiam sine dicacitate ridetur, facie magis quam facetils 
ridiculus, nihil agens cum re publica, seiunctus ab opti- 
matibus, a quo nihil speres boni rel publicae, quia non 
vult, nihil speres mall, quia non audet. Eius autem 3s 
conlega et in me perhonorificus et partium studiosus ac 
defensor bonarum. 



sint : the logical subject is litterae. 
— primum . . . sententiam: the 
presiding magistrate in taking a 
vote called first upon the princeps 
senatuSf consules designati^ consula- 
resy in this order, and he might 
honor some particular consular is 
by calling upon him among the 
first. The magistrates of the year 
had no vote. It seems likely that 
in the preceding consulship Cicero 
had led the consulares, but the new 
consul had conferred this honor 
upon his brother, the Piso men- 
tioned in I. 34. 23. pacificatorem 
AUobrogum, ironical; while gov- 
erning Narbonese Gaul as proconsul 
Piso had put down an insurrection 



of the AUobroges. — admurmurante, 
in disapproval. 24. observando, de- 
ferring to. 28. principis, sc. loci. 
29. Catulus, later princeps senatuSy 
and the most upright and uncompro- 
mising of the Optimates. 30. Hor- 
tensius, the famous orator, long a 
rival of Cicero. 31. caviUator, a 
mocker, 32. dicacitate, wiV. — facie 
. . . ridiculus, a man ivho excites 
lati^ter more by his zvry face than by 
his witticisms. 33. cum re publica, 
in the interest of the state, the res 
publica being personified. 36. con- 
lega, Messalla. — perhonorificus, 
very respectful. — partium . . . bo- 
narum, = optimatiumy bonorum-, in 
the sense of party commonly plu. 



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24 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



VI. A LOST LETTER {Att 2. 8). 

Cicero Attico Sal. 

Epistulam cum a te avide exspectarem ad vesperum, 
ut soleo, ecce tibi nuntius pueros venisse R5ma. Voco ; 
quaero, ecquid litterarum. Negant. Quid ais, inquam, 
nihilne a Pomp5ni6.? Perterritl voce et vultu confessi 

5 sunt se accepisse, sed excidisse in via. Quid quaeris.? 
Permoleste tulT. Nulla enim abs te per hos dies epistula 
inanis aliqua re utilT et suavl venerat. Nunc si quid 
in ea epistula quam ante diem xvi. Kal. Maias dedisti 
fuit historia dlgnum, scribe quam prlmum, ne Ign5re- 

10 mus ; sin nihil praeter iocationem, redde id ipsum. Et 
sclto Curi5nem adulescentem venisse ad me salutatum. 
Valde eius sermo de Public cum tuls litterls congruebat. 
Ipse vero mirandum in modum 

— reges odisse superbos. 

15 Peraeque narrabat incensam esse iuventutem neque 
ferre haec posse. Bene habemus n5s, si in his spes est. 
Opinor, aliud agamus. Ego me d5 historiae. Quam- 



VI. Written in April, 59 B.C., 
from Cicero's villa near Antium. 
Atticus was now at Rome. 2. ecce 
tibi, look you; tibi is ethical da- 
tive. — pueros venisse, ind. disc, 
with implied verb. 4. Pompo- 
nio, Atticus' nomen, 8. dedisti, 
dispatched, 9. historia dignum, 
especially important. 10. iocatio- 
nem, joking. — redde, make goody 
i.e. by repeating it in another let- 
ter. II. Curionem, a most dissolute 



young man, who later became an ar- 
dent supporter of Caesar. 12. Valde 
. . . congruebat, entirely agreed, 
— Publio, Clodius. 14. reges, 
quoted from Lucilius and used here 
of the so-called First Triumvirate. 
15. Peraeque, to quite the same de- 
gree. 17. Opinor, aliud agamus, 
in my opinion we should do well 
to eschew politics. — historiae : the 
exact nature of this work is un- 
known, but it may have been an 



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CICERO LONGS FOR NEWS OF ROME. 



25 



quam licet me Saufeium putes esse, nihil me est iner- 
tius. Sed c5gn5sce itinera nostra, ut statuas ubi n5s 
visurus sis. In Formianum volumus venire Parilibus. 20 
Inde, quoniam putas praetermittendum nobis esse h5c 
tempore Cratera ilium delicatum, Kal. Mails de Formi- 
ano proficlscemur, ut Antil simus a. d. v. Nonas Maias. 
LudI enim Antii futurl sunt a iiii. ad pr. Nonas Maias. 
Eos Tullia spectare vult. Inde c5gito in Tusculanum, 25 
deinde Arpinum, R5mam ad Kal. lunias. Te aut in 
Formian5 aut Antii aut in Tusculan5 cura ut videa- 
mus. Epistulam superiorem restitue nobis et appinge ^ 
aliquid novi. 



VII. CICERO LONGS FOR NEWS OF ROME 
(from Att. 2. 11). 

Clcerd Atticd Sal. 

Narro tibi : plane relegatus mihi videor postea quam 
in Formiano sum. Dies enim nuUus erat, Antii cum 



attack upon Caesar, and not in- 
tended for publication. 18. Sau- 
feium: he seems to have had the 
reputation of letting slip no occa- 
sion for writing. 19. itinera, itin- 
erary, 20. 'EoxmiaxiMmt my villa at 
Formiae ; it was near this villa that 
Cicero was put to death. — Pari- 
libus, a festival celebrated April 
2 1 St in honor of Pales, the Italian 
goddess of shepherds. The date of 
this festival was that given by tra- 
dition for the founding of Rome. 
22. Cratera, the Sinus Cumanus; 



Cicero had been taunted by Clodius 
with reference to a visit to Baiae, 
the most famous and frivolous of 
ancient watering places, and may 
have had a villa in this vicinity. 

— delicatum, cliarming, or per- 
haps, seductive. 25. Inde, sc. ire. 

— Tusculanum, Cicero's favorite 
villa at Tusculum. 26. Arpinum, 
his birthplace. 28. appinge, add. 

VII. Written during the visit to 
his Formian villa, i. plane rele- 
gatus, actually banished; relegatio 
was a milder punishment than exsi- 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



essem, qu5 die non melius sclrem R5mae quid ageretur 
quam il qui erant R5mae. Etenim litterae tuae n5n 

5 s5lum quid Romae, sed etiam quid in re publica, neque 
solum quid fieret, verum etiam quid f uturum esset indi- 
cabant. Nunc, nisi si quid ex praetereunte viatore 
exceptum est, scire nihil possumus. Qua re quamquam 
iam te ipsum exspect5, tamen isti puer5, quem ad me 

lo statim iussi recurrere, da ponderosam aliquam epistu- 
1am, plenam omnium n5n modo actorum, sed etiam 
opinionum tuarum, ac diem quo R5ma sis exiturus cura 
ut sciam. Nos in Formian5 esse volumus usque ad 
prid. Nonas Maias. E5 si ante eam diem non veneris, 

IS Romae te fortasse videbd. Nam Arplnum quid ego te 
invltem ? 



VIII. POMPEY AND CAESAR UNPOPULAR 
{AiL 2. 19. 3). 

Popull sensus maxime theatr5 et spectaculls per- 
spectus est. Nam gladiat5ribus qua dominus qua ad- 
vocatl slbills conscissi. Ludls Apollinaribus Diphilus 



Huntf for it did not carry with it the 
loss of civil rights. 7. nisi si, except 
in case. — viatore, traveler, 8. ex- 
ceptum est, has been picked up, 
10. ponderosam, heavy. 15. Nam 
. . . invitem: Cicero implies that 
Arpinum is not so much pleasing in 
itself as dear to him from its asso- 
ciations. The stay at Formiae had 
been prolonged, and Antium and 
Tusculum were, it would seem, not 
to be visited. 



VIII. Written from Rome in 
Ju^y» 59 B'Cm Atticus having re- 
turned to Greece, i. spectaculis, 
shows ^ games. 2. gladiatoribus, at 
a show of gladiators. — qua . . . 
qua, = et . . , et; used by Cicero 
only in the letters. — dominus, 
Pompey. — advocati, supporters ; 
the advocatus was one who sup- 
ported a friend in a suit at law by 
his presence or by testimony. 3. si- 
bilis conscissi, were assailed with 



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POMPEY AND CAESAR UNPOPULAR. 



27 



tragoedus in nostrum Pompeium petulanter invectus est. 

Nostra miseria tu es magnus ... 5 

miliens coactus est dicere ; 

Eandem virtutem istam veniet tempus cum graviter gemes 

totius theatri clamore dixit, itemque cetera. Nam eius 
modi sunt ii versus ut in tempus ab inimico Pompei 
scripti esse videantur. 10 

SI neque leges te neque mores cogunt . . . 

et cetera magna cum fremitu et clam5re sunt dicta. 
Caesar cum venisset mortu5 plausu, Curio filius est 
insecutus. Huic ita plausum est ut salva re publica 
Pompeid plaudi solebat. Tulit Caesar graviter. Litte- 15 
rae Capuam ad Pompeium volare dicebantur. Inimici 
erant equitibus qui Curi5ni stantes plauserant, hostes 
omnibus. Rdsciae legl, etiam frumentariae minitaban- 
tur. Sane res erat perturbata. Equidem malueram 
quod erat susceptum ab illis silentio transiri, sed vereor 20 
ne non liceat. N5n ferunt homines quod videtur esse 
tamen f erendum ; sed est iam una vox omnium, magis 
odi5 firmata quam praesidio. 



Aisses, 4. petulanter inyectus est, 
mac/e a saucy attack. 5. magnus: 
Pompey was given the surname 
Magnus by the dictator Sulla. 9. in 
Xjtrxayvi&i for the occasion, 13. filius, 
to distinguish him from his father; 
he was applauded because of his 
well-known hostility to the trium- 
virs. 16. Capuam : Caesar was now 
consul, and had carried a law for the 
distribution of the land of Capua 



among the soldiers of the army that 
had fought Mithridates; Pompey was 
serving on the commission intrusted 
with the execution of this law. 
18. Rosciae legi: it provided for 
the seating of the equites in the 
theater in a place of honor behind 
the senators. — frumentariae : this 
provided for the sale of grain at low 
fixed rates. — minitabantur, i.e. to 
abrogate them. 



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28 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

IX. A LETTER DICTATED AS CICERO 

WALKED {Att 2. 23. I). 

Clcerd Atticd Sal. 

Numquam ante arbitror te epistulam meam legisse, 

nisi mea manu scrlptam. Ex eo conligere poteris quanta 

occupatione distinear. Nam cum vacul temporis nihil 

haberem et cum recreandae voculae causa necesse esset 

5 mihi ambulare, haec dictavi ambulans. 

X. CICERO THE POLITICIAN 

(from Att, 2. 25. i). 
Cicerd Attic5 Sal. 
Cum aliquem apud te laudarS tuorum familiarium, 
volam ilium scire ex te me id fecisse, ut nuper me scis 
scrlpsisse ad te de Varr5nis erga me officio, te ad me 
rescrlpsisse eam rem summae tibi voluptati esse; sed 
5 ego mallem ad ilium scrlpsisses mihi ilium satis facere, 
non quo faceret, sed ut faceret. 

XI. A RUNAWAY SLAVE (from Quint. Frat. 
I. 2.' 14). 

Praeterea Aes5pl tragoedl, nostri familiaris, Licinius 
servus, tibi notus, aufugit. Is Athenis apud Patr5nem 



IX. 2. conligere, infer, 4. vo- 
culae, my weak voice ; walking was 
thought to strengthen the voice. 

X. 3. Varronis, "most learned of 
the Romans," author of the De Re 
Rustica and the De Lingua Latina. 

XI. Quintus Cicero, the brother 
of Marcus and brother-in-law of 



Atticus, is best known for the he- 
roic defense of his camp of which 
Caesar gives an account in Bk. V. 
of the Gallic War. He was at this 
time governor of the province of 
Asia. I. Aesopi, the most famous 
of Roman tragedians; as a young 
man Cicero had studied his gestures 



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THE EXILE TO HIS FRIEND. 



29 



Epicureum pr5 libero fuit. Inde in Asiam venit. Postea 
Plato quidam Sardianus, Epicureus, qui Athenis solet 
esse multum et qui turn Athenis fuerat, cum Licinius 5 
e5 venisset, cum eum fugitlvum esse postea ex Aes5pi 
litteris cogn5sset, hominem comprehendit et in cust5- 
diam EphesI tradidit, sed in publicam an in pistrlnum 
non satis ex litteris eius intellegere potuimus. Tu quo- 
quo modo est, quoniam EphesI est, hominem investlges 10 
velim summaque dlligentia vel tecum deducas. Noli 
spectare quanti homo sit. Parvl enim pretl est, qui iam 
nihill est ; sed tant5 dolore Aesopus est adf ectus propter 
servl scelus et audaciam ut nihil el gratius facere possis 
quam si ilium per te reciperarit. 15 



XII. THE EXILE TO HIS FRIEND 

{Ait 3. 5). 

Cicerd Atticd Sal. 

Terentia tibi et saepe et maximas agit gratias. Id est 
mihi gratissimum. Ego vivo miserrimus et maximo do- 
lore conficior. Ad te quid scrlbam nescio. Si enim es 



and delivery, and was now intimate 
with him. 3. Epicureum, the Epi- 
curean, 4. Sardianus, of Sardis. 
8. publicam, sc. custodiam, — pi- 
strinimi, a mill for grinding grain, 
in which refractory slaves were often 
compelled to work as a punishment. 
10. Ephesi: Ephesus was the seat 
of the provincial government. — in- 
vestlges, hunt up, 

XII. In March of 58 B.C. Qodius 
had proposed a bill providing for the 



banishment of any one who had put 
to death a Roman citizen without 
trial. When Cicero, against whom 
this was aimed, found that his foes 
were too powerful to be resisted, he 
fled from the city, and Clodius there- 
upon carried another bill banishing 
and outlawing him by name. Atti- 
cus was now in Rome, and this letter 
is one of several addressed to him by 
Cicero while on his way into exile. 
I. saepe, i.e. in her letters to me. 



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30 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



R5mae, iam me adsequi n5n potes; sin es in via, cum 
5 eris me adsecutus, coram agemus quae erunt agenda. 
Tantum te oro ut, quoniam me ipsum semper amasti, 
eodem amore sis. Ego. enim Idem sum; inimlcl mel 
mea mihi, non me ipsum ademerunt. Cura ut valeas. 
Data VIII. idus April. Thurils. 



XIII. THE EXILE TO HIS FAMILY 
{Fam, 14. 4). 

TullluB S. D. Terentiae et Tulllae et Clcerdnl Suis. 

Ego minus saepe d5 ad vos litteras quam possum 
propterea quod cum omnia mihi tempora sunt misera, 
tum vero, cum aut scrlbo ad vos aut vestras lego, con- 
ficior lacrimls sic ut ferre non possim. Quod utinam 

5 minus vltae cupidi fuissemus ! Certe nihil aut non mul- 
tum in vita mall vidissemus. Quod si n5s ad aliquam 
alicuius commodi aliquand5 reciperandl spem fortuna 
reservavit, minus est erratum a nobis ; si haec mala fixa 
sunt, ego vero te quam primum, mea vita, cupio videre 

10 et in tuo complexu emorl, quoniam neque dil, quos tu 
castissime coluisti, neque homines, quibus ego semper 



XIII. Cicero wrote this letter to 
his wife, son, and daughter as he was 
about to take ship at Brundisium 
for Dyrrhachium. Suis (greeting), 
his dear, 3. vestras, sc. litteras, 
4. Quod utinam: of. the frequent 
quod si; Cicero laments that he had 
not met death in resistance to Qo- 
dius, or as in other letters from 



exile, that he had relinquished out 
of consideration for his family and 
friends his intention to commit 
suicide. It must be remembered 
that suicide was sanctioned by Cic- 
ero's philosophic belief. 9. vita, a 
term of endearment common in fa- 
miliar Latin. 11. castissime colu- 
isti, have worshiped most piously. 



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THE EXILE TO HIS FAMILY. 



31 



servlvl, nobis gratiam rettulerunt. Nos Brundisii apud 
M. Laenium Flaccum dies xiii. fuimus, virum optimum, 
qui perlculum fortunarum et capitis sul prae mea salute 
neglexit, neque legis improbissimae poena deductus est 15 
quo minus hospiti et amicitiae ius officiumque praesta- 
ret. Huic utinam aliquando gratiam referre posslmus ! 
Habebimus quidem semper. Brundisi5 profecti sumus 
a. d. II. K. Mai. ; per Macedonian! Cyzicum petebamus. 
O me perditum! O adfllctum! Quid nunc rogem te 20 
ut venias, mulierem aegram et corpore et animo con- 
fectam.? Non rogem.? Sine te igitur sim.? OpTnor, 
SIC agam: si est spes nostrl reditus, eam c5nfTrmes et 
rem adiuves ; sin, ut ego metu5, transactum est, qu5qu6 
modo potes ad me fac venias. Unum h5c sclto : sl te 25 
habebo, non mihi videbor plane perisse. Sed quid Tul- 
liola mea fiet.? lam id vos videte; mihi deest c5n- 
silium. Sed certe, qu5qu6 modo se res habebit, illlus 
misellae et matrimonio et famae serviendum est. Quid ? 
Cicero meus quid aget ? Iste vero sit in sinu semper et 30 
complexu me5. Non queo plura iam scrlbere ; impedit 
maeror. Tii quid egeris nescio, utrum aliquid teneas 
an, quod metuo, plane sis spoliata. Pisonem, ut scrlbis. 



14. fortunarum et capitis : he who 
sheltered an outlaw was himself 
liable to banishment and the con- 
fiscation of a third of his prop- 
erty. — prae, in comparison with, 
18. profecti sumus, petebamus, 
epistolary tenses. 19. a. d. II., 
= pridie, — Cyzicum : he actually 
went no farther than Thessalonica. 
23. confirmes : the subj. is logically 



dependent upon a verb of wish or 
command implied in sic agantf and 
not an instance of the rare definite 
second person as a substitute for the 
imperative; ctfac venias. 24. trans- 
actimi est, it is all up with me, 
26. Tulliola, an affectionate diminu- 
tive. 27. fiet, will become of; the 
abl. in this idiom is instrumental 
29. misellae, dim. of miser, — ma- 



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32 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

spero fore semper nostrum. De familia llberata nihil 

35 est quod te moveat. Primum tuTs ita promissum est, te 
facturam esse ut quisque esset meritus. Est autem in 
officio adhuc Orpheus, praeterea magnopere nem5. 
Ceterorum servorum ea causa est ut, si res a nobis 
abisset, iTbertI nostrl essent, si obtinere potuissent; sin 

40 ad n5s pertinerent, servlrent praeterquam oppida paucl. 
Sed haec minora sunt. Tu quod me hortaris ut animo 
sim magn5 et spem habeam reciperandae saliitis, id 
velim sit eius modi ut recte sperare posslmus. Nunc 
miser quand5 tuas iam litteras accipiam ? Quis ad me 

45 perferet.? Quas ego exspectassem Brundisil, si esset 
licitum per nautas, qui tempestatem praetermittere nolu- 
erunt. Quod reliquum est, sustenta te, mea Terentia, 
ut potes honestissime. Viximus, floruimus. Non vitium 
nostrum, sed virtus nostra nos adfllxit; peccatum est 

50 nullum, nisi quod non una animam cum ornamentis 
amisimus. Sed si h5c fuit llberls nostrls gratius, nos 
vivere, cetera, quamquam ferenda non sunt, feramus. 
Atque ego, qui te conflrmo, ipse me non possum. Clo- 



trimonio et famae: TulUa's dowry 
had not been paid ; her husband 
was the Piso mentioned below. 
34. De familia llberata, touching 
the manumission of our slaves; with 
familia^ cf. famulus. 36. in of&cio, 
doing his duty by us, 38. causa, = 
condicio. — res . . . abisset, our 
property should pass out of our hands. 
39. obtinere, establish their freedom 
in the courts of law ; the legality 
of such a manumission might well 
be questioned. 40. servirent, they 



should continue our slaves ; the sec- 
ondary sequence is due to the fact 
that ea causa est implies the mak- 
ing of the agreement in past time. 
— oppido, very. 41. minora, of 
minor importance. 43. recte, rea- 
sonably. 45. esset licitum, = lieu- 
isset; the use of the passive is 
peculiar to familiar Latin. 46. tem- 
pestatem, here, as often, favorable 
weather. 50. ornamentis, honors. 
53. Clodium Philhetaerum, Sallu- 
stius, Pescennius : these were prob- 



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THE EXILE TO HIS BROTHER. 33 

dium Philhetaerum quod valetudine oculorum impedie- 
batur, hominem fidelem, remlsi. Sallustius officio vincit 55 
omnis. Pescennius est perbenevolus nobis, quern sem- 
per spero tul fore observantem. Sicca dixerat se mecum 
fore, sed Brundisio discessit. Cura, quod potes, ut 
valeas et sic existimes, me vehementius tua miseria 
quam mea commoverl. Mea Terentia, fidissima atque 60 
optima uxor, et mea carissima filiola et spes reliqua 
nostra, Cicero, valete. Pr. K. Mai. Brundisio. 

XIV. THE EXILE TO HIS BROTHER 
{Quint. Frat, i. 3. 1-6). 

MSrcuB Quintd Fr&tri Salfltem. 

Mi frater, mi frater, mi frater, tune id veritus es, ne 
ego iracundia aliqua adductus puer5s ad te sine litteris 
miserim } Aut etiam ne te videre n5luerim } Ego tibi 
irascerer.? Tibi ego possem irasci.^ Scilicet, tu enim 
me adflixisti; tui me inimici, tua me invidia ac non ego s 
te misere perdidi. Mens ille laudatus consulatus mihi 



ably freedmen. 54. valetudine, = 
infirmitate. 57. observantem, at- 
tentive. — Sicca, a friend who had 
entertained Cicero at Vibo, and had 
accompanied him to Brundisium 
upon receipt of news of the second 
rogatio of Clodius. 58. quod potes, 
as far as you are able. 61. optima 
uxor : Cicero and Terentia had now 
been married twenty years, and their 
relations at this time seem to have 
been most affectionate ; but they 
COR. OF cic. — 3 



later became estranged and were 
divorced in 46 B.C. Terentia's ex- 
travagance was the ostensible cause 
of the estrangement. 

XIV. Written from Thessalonica 
on the Ides of June, 58 B.C. Quin- 
tus had left his province to return 
to Rome, but by the advice of his 
brother did not come to Thessalo- 
nica on the way. 3. Ego tibi, Tibi 
ego: notice the effect produced by 
the change in the order. 6. Meus 



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34 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

te, iJberos, patriam, fortunas, tibi velim ne quid eripuerit 
praeter unum me. Sed certe a te mihi omnia semper 
honesta et iucunda ceciderunt, a me tibi luctus meae 

lo calamitatis, metus tuae, desTderium, maeror, solitude. 
Ego te videre noluerim.? Immo ver5 me a te viderl 
noluT. Non enim vidisses fratrem tuum, n5n eum quem 
relTqueras, non eum quem noras, n5n eum quem flens 
flentem, pr5sequentem proficlscens dimlseras, ne vestl- 

15 gium quidem eius nee simulacrum, sed quandam effigiem 
splrantis mortuT. Atque utinam me mortuum prius vi- 
disses aut audlsses! Utinam te non solum vltae, sed 
etiam dignitatis meae superstitem rellquissem! Sed 
testor omnis de5s me hac una v5ce a morte esse revoca- 

20 turn, quod omnes in mea vita partem aliquam tuae vltae 
repositam esse dicebant. Qua in re peccavl scelerate- 
que feci. Nam si occidissem, mors ipsa meam pietatem 
amoremque in te facile defenderet. Nunc commlsl ut 
me vivo careres, vlv5 me alils indigeres, mea vox in 

25 domesticis perlculls potissimum occideret, quae saepe 
alienissimls praesidi5 fuisset. ~ Nam quod ad te puerl 
sine litteris venerunt, quoniam vides non fuisse Iracun- 
diam causam, certe pigritia fuit et quaedam Inflnlta vis 
lacrimarum et dol5rum. Haec ipsa me quo fletu putas 

30 scrlpsisse ? E5dem qu5 te legere cert5 sci5. An ego 
possum aut non cogitare aliquando de te aut umquam 
sine lacrimls cogitare.? Cum enim te desldero, fratrem 
solum desldera.? Ego vero suavitate fratrem prope 



. . . fortunas, sc. eripuit, 13. re- 
liqueras, i.e. on leaving Rome for 
his province. 14. vestigium, trace. 



18. dignitatis, i.e. by dying sooner 
than submit to disgrace. 28. pi- 
gritia, supineness, 33. suavitate, 



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THE EXILE TO HIS BROTHER. 



35 



aequalem, obsequio filium, consilio parentem. Quid 
mihi sine te umqiiam aut tibi sine me iucundum fuit? 35 
Quid, quod eodem tempore desider5 fTliam ? Qua pie- 
tate, qua modestia, quo ingenio ! Effigiem oris, sermo- 
nis, animi mel! Quod filium venustissimum mihique 
dulcissimum ? Quem ego ferus ac f erreus e complexu 
dimisl me5, sapientiorem puerum quam vellem. Sentie- 40 
bat enim miser iam quid ageretur. Quod ver5 tuum 
filium, imaginem tuam, quem mens Cicero et amabat ut 
fratrem et iam ut mai5rem fratrem verebatur? Quid, 
quod mulierem miserrimam, fidelissimam coniugem, me 
prosequi non sum passus, ut esset quae reliquias com- 45 
munis calamitatis, communis llberos tueretur? Sed 
tamen, quoquo modo potui, scrlpsi et dedl litteras ad te 
Philogon5, llberto tu5, quas cred5 tibi postea redditas 
esse, in quibus idem te hortor et rog5 quod puerl tibi 
verbis mels nuntiarunt, ut Romam protinus pergas et 50 
properes. Primum enim te praesidi5 esse volul, si qui 
essent inimlcl quorum crudelitas n5ndum esset nostra 
calamitate satiata ; deinde congressus nostrl lamentatio- 
nem pertimul. Digressum ver5 non tulissem, atque 
etiam id ipsum quod tu scrlbis metuebam, ne a me dis- 55 
trahi non posses. His de causis hoc maximum malum, 
quod te non vidl, qu5 nihil amantissimis et coniunctissi- 
mls fratribus acerbius miseriusve videtur accidere po- 
tuisse, minus acerbum, minus miserum fuit quam fuisset 
cum congressio, tum vero dlgressid nostra. Nunc, si 60 



pleasant companionship, 34. obse- 
quio, compliance, 38. venustissi- 
mum, most lovable, 43. verebatur, 



respected, 47. ad te, for you, 
48. postea, i.e. after you had written 
finding fault with me, 50. protinus 



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36 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



potesj id quod ego, qui tibi semper fortis videbar, n5n 
possum, erige te et c5nflrma, si qua subeunda diraicatio 
erit. Spero, si quid mea spes habet auctoritatis, tibi et 
integritatem tuam et amorem in te civitatis et aliquid 

65 etiam misericordiam nostrl praesidi laturam. Sin eris 
ab ist5 perlculo vacuus, ages scilicet, si quid agi posse 
de n5bls putabis. De quo scribunt ad me quidem multl 
multa et se sperare demonstrant, sed ego quod sperem 
non dispicio, cum inimlcl plurimum valeant, amici par- 

70 tim deseruerint me, partim etiam pr5diderint, qui in meo 
reditu fortasse reprehensionem sui sceleris pertimescant. 
Sed ista qualia sint tu velim perspicias mihique declares. 
Ego tamen, quanl diu tibi opus erit, si quid perlcull sub- 
eundum videbis, vivam; diutius in hac vita esse non 

75 possum. Neque enim tantum virium habet uUa aut 
prudentia aut doctrlna ut tantum dolorem possit susti- 
nere. Scio fuisse et honestius moriendl tempus et 
utilius, sed non hoc solum, multa alia praetermisi, quae 
si querl velim praeterita, nihil agam nisi ut augeam 

80 dolorem tuum, indicem stultitiam meam. Illud quidem 
nee faciendum est nee fieri potest, me diutius quam aut 
tuum tempus aut firma spes postulabit in tam misera 
tamque turpi vita commorari ut, qui modo fratre fuerim, 
liberis, coniuge, copils, genere ipso pecuniae beatissimus, 

8s dignitate, auctoritate, existimatione, gratia n5n inferior 



pergas et properes: notice the al- 
literation. 62. dimicatio: Quintus 
was threatened with impeachment 
on his return to Rome. 63. aucto- 
iA\zX\&i foundation, 65. nostri, de- 
pends upon misericordiam ; praesidi 



is to be taken with aliquid, 82. tem- 
pus, necessity. %z* modO, but lately. 
84. genere, because the pecunia had 
been acquired by honorable means. 
The chief sources of Cicero's wealth 
were the gifts and bequests of grate- 



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CICERO'S RETURN FROM EXILE. 37 

quam qui umquam fuerunt amplissimi, is nunc in hac 
tarn adfllcta perditaque fortuna neque me neque me5s 
lugere diutius possim. 

XV. A SUPPRESSED ORATION (Att. 3. 12. 2). 

Percussisti autem me etiam de 5ratione prolata. Cui 
vulnerl, ut scribis, raedere, si quid potes. ScrlpsI equi- 
dem olim el Iratus quod ille prior scrlpserat, sed ita 
compresseram ut numquam emanaturam putarem. Qu5 
modo exciderit nescio. Sed quia numquam accidit ut 5 
cum eo verbo un5 concertarem, et quia scripta mihi 
videtur neglegentius quam ceterae, put5 posse probarl 
n5n esse meam. Id, si putas me posse sanarl, cures 
velim ; sin plane peril, minus laboro. 

XVI. CICERO'S RETURN FROM EXILE 
(from AU. 4. i. 4, 5). 

Pr. N5nas Sextllls Dyrrhachio sum profectus, ipso 
illo die qu5 lex est lata de nobis. Brundisium veni 



ful clients and generous friends; he 
did not loan money on interest; he 
had refused the governorship of the 
rich province of Macedonia, and 
did not use his position as gov- 
ernor of Cilicia for his own pe- 
cuniary advantage. 87. adflicta 
perditaque, wretched and hopeless, 
XV. I. oratione prolata, the 
publication of my speech. 4. ema- 
naturam, exciderit, here substan- 
tially synonymous with prolata. 
9. laboro, suffer; in sanari and 



laborOf perhaps also in cures and 
periif Cicero returns to the figure 
with which he introduced the sub- 
ject (^Percussisti, vulneri, medere). 
XVI. Written in September, 57 
B.C. After many months of discus- 
sion and commotion the comitia 
centuriata had finally voted Cicero's 
recall on August 4th of this year. 
The exile, who had been watch- 
ing events from Dyrrhachium, sailed 
for Brundisium the same day. Atti- 
cus was now in Epirus. 2. lata, pro- 



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38 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

N5nls Sextilibus. Ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto 
natal! su5 ipso die, qui casu Idem natalis erat et Brundi- 

5 sinae col5niae et tuae viclnae Salutis, quae res animad- 
versa a multitiidine summa Brundisin5rum gratulatione 
celebrata est. Ante diem vi. Idus Sextllls cogndvl litte- 
rls QuIntI mirifico studio omnium aetatum atque ordinum, 
incredibill concursu Italiae legem comitils centuriatis esse 

lo perlatam. Inde a Brundislnis honestissimis ornatus iter 
ita feci ut undique ad me cum gratulatione legatl con- 
venerint. Ad urbem ita veni ut nem5 ullius ordinis 
homo nomenclatorl notus fuerit qui mihi obviam n5n 
venerit, praeter e5s inimlc5s quibus id ipsum, se iniml- 

15 cos esse, non liceret aut dissimulare aut negare. Cum 
venissem ad portam Capenam, gradus templorum ab 
Infimo plebe completl erant, a qua plausu maximo cum 
esset mihi gratulati5 significata, similis et frequentia et 
plausus me usque ad Capitolium celebravit, in foroque 

ao et in ipso Capitoli5 miranda multitudo fuit. Postrldie 
in senatu, qui fuit dies Nonarum Septembr., senatui 
gratias egimus. 



posed. 3. fuit praesto, met. 4. na- 
talis, i.e. the anniversary of the 
founding of the colony at Brundi- 
sium and of the dedication of the 
temple of Salus on the Quirinal. 
5. yicinae : Atticus had a house on 
the Quirinal. — Salutis, goddess 
of the public welfare. 9. concursu 
Italiae : Roman citizens could exer- 
cise their right of suffrage only in 
Rome itself, and the senate had 
summoned to Rome in the name 
of the consuls all who were favor- 



able to the recall of Cicero, ii. le- 
gati, deputations. 1 3. nomenclatori, 
a slave whose part it was to know 
by name all influential men and to 
prompt his master when necessary. 
16. portam Capenam: through this 
gate the traveler by the Via Appia 
entered the city. — ab infimo, from 
top to bottom. 19. celebravit, at- 
tended. 21. Nonarum, appositional 
gen.; the appositive Nonae also oc- 
curs. 22. egimus, in the so-called 
Oratio post Reditum in Senatu. 



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WANTED, A PANEGYRIST. 



39 



XVII. A WELCOME TO ATTICUS (^//.4. 4 a). 
Cicero Attico Sal. 

Periucundus mihi Cincius fuit ante diem iii. Kal. 
Febr. ante lucem. Dixit enim mihi te esse in Italia 
seseque ad te puer5s mittere, quos sine mels litterls Ire 
n5lul, n5n quo haberem quod tibi, praesertim iam prope 
praesentT, scriberem, sed ut h5c ipsum sTgnificarem, 5 
mihi tuum adventum suavissimum exspectatissimumque 
esse. Qua re advola ad nos e5 anim5 ut n5s ames, te 
amarl scias. Cetera coram agemus. Haec properantes 
scrlpsimus. Quo die venies, utique fac cum tuls apud 
me sis. 10 



XVIII. WANTED, A PANEGYRIST 

{Fatn, 5. 12). 

M. Clcerd S. D. L. Lucc§i5 Q. F. 

C5ram me tecum eadem haec agere saepe c5nantem 
deterruit pudor quidam paene subriisticus, quae nunc 
expr5mam absens audacius. Epistula enim non erube- 
scit. Ardeo cupiditate incredibill neque, ut ego arbitror, 
reprehendenda, nomen ut nostrum scrlptis inlustretur 5 
et celebretur tuls. Quod etsi mihi saepe ostendis te 



XVII. Written in 56 B.C. Atti- 
cus was on his way to Rome. 
I. Cincius, perhaps the agent of 
Atticus at Rome. 3. meis, from me. 
6. ezspectatissimum, most welcome, 
8. properantes, in haste, 9. utique, 
without fail. 



XVIII. Written in June, 56 B.C. 
Cicero himself thought this a *very 
elegant' (valde bella) letter, and it 
was evidently written with the great- 
est care, as indeed so delicate a sub- 
ject demanded. 2. subrusticus : 
notice the force of sub. 3. erube- 



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40 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



esse facturum, tamen Igndscas velim huic festmation! 
meae. Genus enim scriptorum tuorum etsi erat semper 
a me vehementer exspectatum, tamen vicit opinidnem 

lo meam, meque ita vel cepit vel incendit ut cuperem 
quam celerrime res nostras monumentis commendarl 
tuis. Neque enim me solum commemoratio posteritatis 
ad spem quandam immortalitatis rapit, sed etiam ilia 
cupiditas, ut vel auctoritate testimdnl tui vel indicio 

IS benevolentiae vel suavitate ingeni vivl perf ruamur. Ne- 
que tamen haec cum scribebam, eram nescius quantis 
oneribus premerere susceptarum rerum et iam Jnstitu- 
tarum ; sed quia videbam ItalicI belli et civilis historiam 
iam a te paene esse perfectam, dixeras autem mihi te 

20 reliquas res ordiri, deesse mihi nolul quTn te admonerem 
ut cogitares coniunctene malles cum reliquis rebus no- 
stra contexere an, ut multl Graeci fecerunt, Callisthenes 
Phdcicum bellum, Timaeus Pyrrhi, Polybius Numantl- 
num, qui omnes a perpetuis suls historils ea quae dixi 



scit, blush, 7. festinationi, impa- 
tience. 8. Genus, character, 10. ce- 
pit, charmed. 11. monumentis, 
memoirs, 13. rapit, draws irre- 
sistibly, 15. vivi, nom.plu. 18. Ita- 
lici belli, i.e. the Social War, 90- 
89 B.C. — civilis, the struggle be- 
tween Marius and other leaders of 
the popular party and Sulla, 88-78 
B.C. 20. reliquas res, i.e. the his- 
tory of Rome from the close of 
the Civil War to 56 B.C. — deesse 
mihi . . . quin, to throw away the 
opportunity of. 21. nostra, = res 
nostras. 22. Callisthenes, a pupil 



of Aristotle and the intimate com- 
panion of Alexander the Great, the 
romantic account of whose life was 
long supposed to be from his hand ; 
his perpetua historia was a history 
of Greece from 387 to 357 B.C. 
23. Timaeus, a Sicilian (about 352- 
256 B.C.), who while living in exile 
at Athens wrote a history of his na- 
tive land. — Polybius, one of the 
most trustworthy and valuable of an- 
cient historians; he lived for many 
years at Rome, and was the tutor 
and lifelong friend of the younger 
Africanus. 24. perpetuis, general. 



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WANTED, A PANEGYRIST. 41 

bella separaverunt, tu quoque item civllem coniurati5- 25 
nem ab hostllibus externlsque bellTs seiungeres. Equi- 
dem ad nostram laudem n5n multum video interesse, 
sed ad properationem meam quiddam interest, non te 
exspectare dum ad locum venias, ac statim causam illam 
totam et tempus adripere, et simul, si uno in argument5 30 
unaque in persona mens tua t5ta versabitur, cem5 iam 
animo quanto omnia uberiora atque omatiora futura 
sint. Neque tamen Igndro quam impudenter faciam, 
qui prlmum tibi tantum oneris imponam — potest enim 
mihi denegare occupatio tua — , deinde etiam ut ornes 35 
me postulem. Quid si ilia tibi non tanto opere viden- 
tur ornanda? Sed tamen qui semel verecundiae finis 
transierit, eum bene et naviter oportet esse impuden- 
tem. Itaque te plane etiam atque etiam rogo ut et 
ornes ea vehementius etiam quam fortasse sentis, et in 40 
eo leges historiae neglegas, gratiamque illam de qua 
suavissime quodam in prooemid scrlpsisti, a qua te 
flecti non magis potuisse dem5nstras quam Herculem 
Xenophontium ilium a Voluptate, eam, si me tibi vehe- 
mentius commendabit, ne aspernere, amorlque nostro 45 
plusculum etiam quam concedet Veritas largiare. Quod 
si te adducemus ut hoc suscipias, erit, ut mihi persuadeo, 



25. coniurationem, that of Catiline. 

28. properationem, cf. festinationi. 

29. locum, i.e. the place in his his- 
tory where the account of Cicero's 
consulship would naturally be given. 

30. argumento, thftm. 35. occupa- 
tio, engagements, yj, verecundiae, 
cf. pudor. 38. bene et naviter, 
thoroughly and completely. 39. plane, 



candidly. 40. sentis, you think they 
deserve. 42. prooemio, preface. — a 
qua, instead of qua, to correspond to 
a Voluptate ; perhaps gratia also is 
personified. 44. Xenophontium, 
as Xenophon tells us ; the fable of 
Hercules' choice between Duty and 
Pleasure is told in the Memorabi- 
lia. — eam, resumes ^r«/f<iw illam* 



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42 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

materies digna facultate et copia tua. A principio enim 
coniurationis usque ad reditum nostrum videtur mihi 

so modicum quoddam corpus confici posse, in quo et ilia 
poteris uti civllium commutati5num scientia vel in expli- 
candis causis rerum novarum yel in remediis incommo- 
dorum, cum et reprehendes ea quae vituperanda duces 
et quae placebunt exponendis rationibus comprobabis; 

55 et sT llberius, ut cdnsuesti, agendum putabis, multorum 
in n5s perfidiam, Insidias, proditidnem notabis. Multam 
etiam casus nostri varietatem tibi in scrlbend5 suppedi- 
tabunt plenam cuiusdam voluptatis, quae vehementer 
animos hominum in legendo te script5re tenere possit. 

60 Nihil est enim aptius ad delectationem lectoris quam 
temporum varietates fortunaeque vicissitudines. Quae 
etsi ndbis optabiles in experiend5 non fuerunt, in le- 
gend© tamen erunt iucundae. Habet enim praeteriti 
dol5ris secura recordatio delectationem. Ceteris vero 

65 nulla perfunctis propria molestia, casus autem alienos 
sine ullo dolore intuentibus etiam ipsa misericordia est 
iucunda. Quem enim nostrum ille moriens apud Man- 
tineam Epamin5ndas n5n cum quadam miserati5ne de- 
lectat.? Qui tum denique sibi evelll iubet splculum 

70 postea quam el percontanti dictum est clipeum esse 
salvum, ut etiam in vulneris dolore aequo animo cum 
laude moreretur. Cuius studium in legendo n5n erec- 



48. facilitate et copia, ability and 
eloquence, 49. redituin, i.e. from 
exile. 50. corpus, volume, 55. mul- 
torum . . . proditionem, i.e. at the 
time of his banishment. 57. casus, 
vicissitudes, 65. nulla . . . mo- 



lestia, who haite gone through no 
trouble of their own, 69. Spiculum, 
spear-head, 70. ei percontanti, in 
answer to his question. 71. aequo 
animo, abl. abs.; connect with in 
vulneris dolore, 72. studium, in' 



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WANTED, A PANEGYRIST. 43 

turn Themistocll f uga exituque retinetur ? Etenim ord5 
ipse annalium mediocriter n5s retinet quasi enumera- 
tione fastdrum. At viri saepe excellentis ancipites 75 
variique casus habent admlrationem, exspectationem, 
laetitiam, molestiam, spem, tim5rem; slverd exitu no- 
tabili concluduntur, expletur animus iucundissima lectio- 
nis voluptate. Quo mihi accident optatius, si in hac 
sententia fueris, ut a continentibus tuls scrlptls, in qui- 80 
bus perpetuam rerum gestarum historiam complecteris, 
secemas banc quasi fabulam rerum event5rumque no- 
str5rum. Habet enim varids actus multasque acti5nes 
et consiliorum et temporum. Ac n5n vereor ne adsen- 
tatiuncula quadam aucupari tuam gratiam videar cum 85 
h5c dem5nstrem, me a te potissimum ornarl celebrarlque 
velle. Neque enim tu is es qui quid sis nescias et qui 
non eos magis qui te n5n admlrentur invidds quam e5s 
qui laudent adsentatdres arbitrere; neque autem ego 
sum ita demens ut me sempitemae gl5riae per eum 90 
commendarl velim qui non ipse quoque in me commen- 
dando propriam ingeni gloriam c5nsequatur. Neque 
enim Alexander ille gratiae causa ab Apelle potissimum 
pingi et a Lysippo fingi volebat, sed quod ill5rum artem 
cum ipsis, tum etiam sibi gldriae fore putabat. Atque 95 
illl artifices corporis simulacra ign5tls nota faciebant, 



terest. 73. ordo, chronicle, 75. fa- 
storum, the calendar. 79. Quo . . . 
Optatius, / shall therefore consider 
myself all the more fortunate. 
82. fabulam, drama. — evento- 
rum, fortunes. 83. actus, acts, — 
actiones, scenes. 84. adsentatiun- 



CUla, a little flattery, 85. aucUpari, 
to be fishing for ; literally, to go fowl- 
ing for. 93. gratiae causa, because 
of his liking for them. — Apelle, 
the most famous of Greek painters. 
94. Lysippo : his bronze portrait 
statues were famous. 96. ignotiSy 



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44 CORRESPONDENCE OF aCERO. 

quae vel si nulla sint, nihil5 sint tamen obscuriores clarl 
virT. Nee minus est Spartiates Agesilaus ille perhi- 
bendus, qui neque pictam neque fictam imaginem suam 

loopassus est esse, quam qui in eo genere laborarunt. 
Unus enim Xenophontis libellus in eo rege laudand5 
facile omnis imagines omnium statuasque superavit. 
Atque hoc praestantius mihi fuerit et ad laetitiam animi 
et ad memoriae dignitatem si in tua scrlpta pervenerd 

losquam si in ceterorum, quod non ingenium mihi solum 
suppeditatum fuerit tuum, sicut TimoleontI a Timaeo 
aut ab Herodoto Themistocll, sed etiam auctoritas cla- 
rissiml et spectatissimi virl et in rel publicae maximis 
gravissimlsque causis cogniti atque in primis probati, ut 

siomihi non solum praec5nium, quod, cum in Sigeum 
venisset, Alexander ab Homer5 Achilll tributum esse 
dixit, sed etiam grave testimonium impertltum clarl 
hominis magnlque videatur. Placet enim Hector ille 
mihi Naevianus, qui n5n tantum *laudarr se laetatur, 

IIS sed addit etiam *a laudat5 viro/ Quod si a te non 
impetro, hoc est, si quae te res impedierit — neque enim 
fas esse arbitror quicquam me rogantem abs te non 
impetrare — , c5gar fortasse facere quod non nuUl saepe 



in the rare active sense, strangers. 
98. Spartiates, the Spartan. — 
perhibendus, must be mentioned. 
100. in eo genere, i.e. in having 
pictures and statues of themselves 
made. 103. praestantius, more 
helpful. 104. memoriae digni- 
tatem, my posthumous reputation. 
!o6. Timoleonti: he deposed the 
tyrants of the Greek cities of Sicily, 



and conducted a successful war 
against the Carthaginians (339- 
338 B.C.); notice the chiasmus. 
108. spectatissimi, most highly es- 
teemed. 109. cogniti, tried, no. 
praeconium, laudation, 1 14. Nae- 
vianus, i.e. in the Hector Profici- 
scens, Naevius flourished in the latter 
half of the third century B.C.; he 
was the father of Roman epic poe- 



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WANTED, A PANEGYRIST. 45 

reprehendunt : scribam ipse de me, mult5rum tamen 
exemplo et clardrum virdrum. Sed, quod te non fugit, 120 
haec sunt in hoc genere vitia: et verecundius ipsi de 
sese scrlbant necesse est, si quid est laudandum, et 
praetereant, si quid reprehendendum est. Accedit 
etiam ut minor sit fides, minor auctoritas, multl deni- 
que reprehendant et dicant verecundidres esse prae-125 
cones ludorum gymnic5rum, qui cum ceteris coronas 
imposuerint vict5ribus eorumque nomina magna voce 
pr5nuntiarint, cum ipsI ante ludorum missionem cordna 
donentur, alium praec5nem adhibeant, ne sua v5ce se 
ipsI vie tores esse praedicent. Haec nos vltare cupimusia© 
et, si recipis causam nostram, vltabimus, idque ut facias 
rogamus. Ac ne forte mirere cur, cum mihi saepe 
ostenderis te accuratissime nostrorum temporum con- 
si] ia atque eventus litterls mandaturum, a te id nunc 
tanto opere et tam multls verbis petamus, ilia n5si35 
cupiditas incendit de qua initio scrlpsi festlnati5nis, 
quod alacres animo sumus ut et ceterl viventibus nobis 
ex libris tuls nos cognoscant et nosmet ipsI vivl gldriola 
nostra perfruamur. His de rebus quid acturus sis, si 
tibi non est molestum, rescribas mihi velim. Si enimi4c 
suscipis causam, conficiam commentarios rerum omniumi ; 
sin autem differs me in tempus aliud, c5ram tecum 

try, and likewise created a national least was afterwards finished, but is 



drama. 119. scribam: Cicero had 
already written an account of his con- 
sulship in Greek, and had announced 
to Atticus his intention to write also 
a poem and a Latin memoir on the 
same subject; of these the poem at 



fortunately not extant. 126. gym- 
nicorum, athletic, 128. missio- 
nem, end, 129. adhibeant, employ, 
133. accuratissime, most carefully, 
138. gloriola, small meed of fame, 
141. commentarios, notes, 142. dil- 



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46 



CXDRRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



loquar. Tu interea non cessabis et ea quae habes In- 
stituta perpolies nosque diliges. 



XIX. A PURCHASE OF STATUES 
{Fam, 7. 23. 1-3). 

Cicero S. D. M. Fadio Gallo. 

Tantum quod ex Arpinati veneram cum mihi a te 
litterae redditae sunt, ab eddemque accepi AvianI lit- 
teras, in quibus h5c inerat liberalissimum, nomina se 
facturum, cum venisset, qua ego vellem die. Fac, 

5 quaes5, qui ego sum esse te. Estne aut tui pudoris 
aut nostrl primum rogare de die, deinde plus annua 
postulare.'* Sed essent, ml Galle, omnia facilia, si et 
ea mercatus esses quae ego deslderabam et ad earn 
summam quam volueram ; ac tamen ista ipsa quae te 

10 emisse scrlbis n5n s5lum rata mihi erunt, sed etiam 
grata. Plane enim intelleg5 te n5n modo studid, sed 
etiam amdre usum, quae te delectarint, hominem, ut 
ego semper iudicavl, in omnI iudicid elegantissimum, 
quae me digna putaris coemisse. Sed velim maneat 

15 Damasippus in sententia. Prorsus enim ex istis empti- 
onibus nullam desldero. Tu autem Ignarus InstitutI 



fers, put off. 143. cessabis, a polite 
equivalent of the imperative, chiefly 
colloquial. 144. perpolies, put the 
finishing touches to, 

XIX. I. Tantum quod, but just. 
— Arpinati, my villa at Arpinum, 
3. nomina se facturum, he would 
enter the sale; acting as Cicero's 
agent, Gallus had bought from Avia- 



nius the statues mentioned below. 
6. die, sc. solutionis y to ask for time. 
10. rata, accepted. 13. elegantissi- 
mum, ^ //4<? ^^«/Vrj/ /<ij/^. 15. Da- 
masippus, a virtuoso and dealer in 
works of art; he seems to have 
offered to take the statues off Cic- 
ero's hands. — Prorsus . . . nul- 
lam, not a single one. 16. instituti. 



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A PURCHASE OF STATUES. 47 

mei, quant! ego genus omnin5 signdrum omnium non 
aestimo, tanti ista quattuor aut qulnque sumpsistl. 
Bacchas istas cum Musis Metelll comparas. Quid si- 
mile ? Primum ipsas ego Musas numquam tantl putas- 20 
sem, atque id fecissem Musis omnibus approbantibus, 
sed tamen erat aptum bibliothecae studilsque nostrls 
congruens. Bacchls vero ubi est apud me locus ? * At 
pulchellae sunt/ N5vl optime et saepe vidi. N5minatim 
tibi signa mihi n5ta mandassem, si probassem. Ea enim 25 
signa ego emere sole5 quae ad similitudinem gymnasi- 
5rum ex5rnent mihi in palaestra locum. Martis ver5 
signum qu5 mihi, pacis auctorl? Gaude5 nullum Sa- 
turnl signum fuisse, haec enim duo signa putarem mihi 
aes alienum attulisse. Mercurl mallem aliquod fuisset; 30 
f ellcius, puto, cum Avianio transigere possemus. Quod 
tibi destinaras trapezophorum, si te delectat, habebis; 
sin autem sententiam mutasti, ego habebd scilicet. Ista 
quidem summa ne ego multo libentius emerim deversd- 
rium Tarraclnae, ne semper hospiti molestus sim. Om- 35 
nln5 llberti mel vide5 esse culpam, cul plane res certas 
mandaram, itemque lunl, quem put5 tibi notum esse, 



intention. 17. genus . . . omnium, 
all statues of whatever sort. 1 9. Bac- 
chas, Bacchantes, 22. bibliothecae, 
library, 23. congruens, appropri- 
ate, 26. g3rmnasiorum : the Greek 
gymnasia were adorned with statues. 
27. palaestra, a place for exercise; 
often used as synonymous with gym- 
nasium, 30. Mercuri . . . posse- 
mus, because Mercury was the god 
of gain; there is probably also a 



reference to the fact that among the 
Greeks Hermes had the gymnasia 
under his protection, and his statue 
usually had the place of honor in 
them. 32. destinaras, had in- 
tended. — trapezophorum, table; the 
word denotes literally the carved 
or sculptured support upon which 
the table rested. 34. ne, the as- 
severative particle. — deversorium, 
lodge; Tarracina was on the Via 



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48 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



Avian! familiarem. Exhedria quaedam mihi nova sunt 
instituta in porticula Tusculani. Ea volebam tabellls 

40 ornare. Etenim si quid generis istlus modi me delectat, 
pictura delectat. Sed tamen si ista mihi sunt habenda, 
certiorem velim me facias ubi sint, quando arcessantur, 
qu5 genere vecturae. Si enim Damasippus in sententia 
n5n manebit, aliquem Pseudodamasippum vel cum iac- 

45 tura reperiemus. 

XX. THE DEDICATION OF POMPEY'S 
THEATER {Fam. 7. i). 

M. Cicer5 S. D. M. Mari5. 

St te dolor aliquT corporis aut Infirm itas valetudinis 
tuae tenuit quo minus ad ludos venires, fortunae magis 
tribuo quam sapientiae tuae; sin haec, quae ceterl ml- 
rantur, contemnenda duxisti et, cum per valetudinem 
5 posses, venire tamen noluisti, utrumque laetor, et sine 
dol5re corporis te fuisse et animo valuisse, cum ea quae 
sine causa mirantur alii neglexeris, modo ut tibi con- 



Appitty and Cicero passed a night 
here on his way to and from his 
villas at Formiae and on the coast 
of Campania. 38. Exhedria, al- 
coves with seats and intended for 
lectures and discussions. 39. tabel- 
Us, paintings. 43. yecturae, con- 
veyance, 44. Pseudodamasippum, 
would-be Damasippus, — iactura, 
loss, 

XX. In his second consulship 
(55 B.C.) Pompey dedicated the first 



permanent theater of Rome and the 
temple of Venus Victrix adjoining it 
with shows of unprecedented magni- 
tude and magnificence. They in- 
cluded both dramatic representations 
and the savage sports of the amphi- 
theater. In this letter Cicero under- 
took to reconcile Marius to enforced 
absence from Rome at this time. 
4. per valetudinem, so far as your 
health was concerned. 5. utrum- 
que, on both accounts. 7. modo ut, 



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THE DEDICATION OF POMPEY'S THEATER. 49 

stiterit fructus 5ti tui, quo quidem tibi perfrui mirifice 
licuit, cum esses in ista amoenitate paene s5lus relictus. 
Neque tamen dubito quin tu in illo cubiculo tuo ex quo 10 
tibi Stabianum perforasti et patefecistl sinum per e5s 
dies matutina tempora lectiunculis consumpseris, cum 
illl interea qui te istic rellquerunt spectarent communis 
mlm5s semisomnl. Reliquas vero partis die! tu c5nsu- 
mebas iis delectationibus quas tibi ipsi ad arbitrium 15 
tuum compararas, nobis autem erant ea perpetienda 
quae Sp. Maecius probavisset Omnino, si quaeris, ludl 
apparatissimi, sed non tul stomach! — coniecturam enim 
facio de meo. Nam primum hondris causa in scaenam 
redierant ii quos ego honoris causa de scaena decesse 20 
arbitrabar. Deliciae vero tuae, noster Aesopus, eius 
modi f uit ut ei desinere per omnis homines liceret. Is 
iurare cum coepisset, vox eum defecit in illo loco : * Si 
sciens fallo.' Quid tibi ego alia narrem? N5sti enim 
reliquds lud5s, qui ne id quidem lep5ris habuerunt quod 25 
solent mediocres liidi. Apparatus enim spectatio toUe- 
bat omnem hilaritatem, quo quidem apparatu non dubito 

if only. — constiterit, was without ing, 14. rxdmos, far cfs, 15. ad 

arbitrium tuum, to your own liking. 
17. Sp. Maecius: he had been in- 
trusted by Pompey with the selection 
of the plays and the supervision of 
their performance. 18. appara- 
tissimi, most splendid. — tui sto- 
machi, to your taste. 19. honoris 
causa, to grace the occasion ; below, 
because they no longer graced the 
stage, 20. decesse, for decessisse. 
21. T>^\t\AAi favorite actor. 25. le- 

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alloy. 9. cum . . . relictus : Marius 
was at his villa on the Bay of Naples. 
10. cubiculo, study. 11. Stabia- 
num . . . sinum : this seems to mean 
that Marius had cut down some trees 
on his estate at Stabiae that the bay 
might be in sight from his study 
windows; the vista is said to have 
been produced by boring a pas- 
sage through {perforasti) the trees. 
12. lectiunculis, in desultory read- 
COR. OF cic. — 4 



so CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

quln animo aequissimo carueris. Quid enim delectatio- 
nis habent sescenti muli in Clytaemnestra, aut in Equo 

30 Troiano creterrarum tria milia, aut armatura varia pedi- 
tatus et equitatus in aliqua pugna? Quae popularem 
admlrati5nem habuerunt, delectati5nem tibi nullam attu- 
lissent. Quod si tu per eos dies operam dedisti Pr5- 
togeni tuo, dum modo is tibi quidvis potius quam 

35 5rati6nes meas legerit, ne tu baud paulo plus quam 
quisquam nostrum delectatidnis habuisti. Non enim te 
put5 Graec5s aut Osc5s ludos desTderasse, praesertim 
cum Osc5s vel in senatu vestro spectare possis, Graecos 
ita non ames ut ne ad viUam quidem tuam via Graeca 

40 Ire soleas. Nam quid ego te athletas putem deslderare, 
qui gladiatores contempseris ? In quibus ipse Pompeius 
confitetur se et operam et oleum perdidisse. Reliquae 
sunt venatidnes binae per dies quinque, magnificae — 
nemo negat — , sed quae potest homini esse pollto de- 

45 lectatio cum aut homo imbecillus a valentissima bestia 
laniatur aut praeclara bestia venabulo transverberatur ? 
Quae tamen, si videnda sunt, saepe vidisti ; neque nos 
qui haec spectamus quicquam novl vidimus. Extremus 



poris, elegance. 29. Clytaemnestra, 
Equo Troiano, plays by Accius and 
Naevius. 30. creterrarum, = era- 
ieraruniy bowls, 33. Operam, atten- 
tion. — Protogeni, a slave whose 
duty it was to read to Marius 
{anagnostes). yj. Oscos, i.e. the 
farcical fabulae Atellanae^ so called 
from Atella, a town of the Osci. 
^^. senatu, perhaps the local gov- 
erning board; the Campanian col- 



leagues of Marius were as droll as 
the clowns of their native farces. 
41. In quibus, i.e. in the athletic 
contests. 42. Operam . . . perdi- 
disse, had had his labor for his pains, 
43. yenationes, hunts; these we^e 
fights between men and wild beasts. 
On the present occasion five hundred 
lions alone were killed. 44. po- 
\iiOy of refinement. 45. imbecillus, 
feeble. 46. laniatur, is torn to 



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THE DEDICATION OF POMPEY'S THEATER. 5 1 

elephantorum dies fuit, in qu5 admlratio magna vulgl 
atque turbae, delectatio nulla exstitit. Quln etiam raise- 50 
ricordia quaedam c5nsecuta est atque opIni5 eius modi, 
esse quandam ill! beluae cum genere human5 societa- 
tem. His ego tamen diebus, ludls scaenicis, ne forte 
videar tibi non modo beatus, sed liber omnind fuisse, 
dirupl me paene in iudicio Galli Caninl, familiaris tul. 5S 
Quod si tam facilem populum haberem quam Aesopus 
habuit, libenter mehercule artem desinerem tecumque 
et cum similibus nostrl viverem. Nam me cum antea 
taedebat, cum et aetas et ambitid me hortabatur et lice- 
bat denique quem ndlebam non defendere, tum ver5 h5Q 60 
tempore vita nulla est. Neque enim f ructum uUum lab5- 
ris exspecto, et cogor non numquam homines n5n optime 
de me meritos rogatu eorum qui bene meriti sunt defen- 
dere. Itaque quaero causas omnis aliquando vlvendl 
arbitrate meo teque et istam rationem oti tul et laudd 65 
vehementer et probo, quodque nos minus intervlsis, h5c 
fero anim5 aequiore, quod, si R5mae esses, tamen neque 
nos lep5re tuo neque te — si qui est in me — meo f rul 
liceret propter molestissimas occupationes meas. Qui- 
bus si me relaxar5 — nam ut plane exsolvam non postulo 70 
— , te ipsum, qui multos annds nihil aliud commentaris, 
docebo profecto quid sit humaniter vivere. Tu modo 
istam imbecillitatem valetudinis tuae sustenta et tuere, 

pieces, 49. vulgi atque turbae, com- ace. with desinere in Cicero. 



tnon herd. 55. Galli Canini, cogno- 
men and nomen, the usual order in 
familiar Latin when the praenomen 
is omitted. 56. facilem, willing, 
57. artem, the only instance of an 



68. lepore, agreeable conversation, 
70. me relaxaro, / obtain some res- 
pite, 71. commentaris, have been 
studying, 72. humaniter vivere, 
to live a life of gentlemanly leisure. 



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52 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



ut facis, ut nostras villas obire et mecum simul lecticula 
75 concursare possis. Haec ad te pluribus verbis scrips! 
quam soleo, non oti abundantia, sed amdris erga te, 
quod me quadam epistula subinvltaras, si memoria 
tenes, ut ad te aliquid eius modi scriberem quo minus 
te praetermisisse ludos paeniteret. Quod si adsecutus 
80 sum, gaudeo ; sin minus, hoc me tamen cons5lor, quod 
posthac ad ludos venies n5sque vises neque in epistulis 
relinques meis spem aliquam delectationis tuae. 



XXI. A LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION 
{Fam, 7. 5). 

Cicerd Caesarl Imp. S. D. 

Vide quam mihi persuaserim te me esse alterum, non 

modo in iis rebus quae ad me ipsum, sed etiam in iis 

quae ad me5s pertinent. C. Trebatium cogitaram, qu5- 

cumque exirem, mecum ducere, ut eum meis omnibus 

5 studils, beneficiis quam ornatissimum domum reducerem; 



74. obire, visit — lecticula, sedan- 
chair. 75. concursare, travel about, 
77. me . . . subinvltaras, had hinted 
to me. 

XXI. Written in April, 54 B.C., 
the year of Caesar's second invasion 
of Britain, of which he gives an ac- 
count in Book V. of the Bellum 
Gallicum. C. Trebatius Testa was 
a famous jurist; he was about to 
go out to Caesar in Gaul, that he 
might gain the military experience 
which was thought an important part 
of the Roman's preparation for a life 



of public service. Imp. (greeting), 
Imperatori. i. te . . . alterum, that 
you are my second self. 3. meos, 
my friends. 4. mecum ducere: 
after Cicero's return from exile in 
57 B.C. he had carried a law intrust- 
ing to Pompey the control of the 
grain supply for five years, and had 
been appointed one of his deputies 
{legati). Pompey was now also 
governor of Spain, and Cicero may 
at one time have thought of ac- 
companying him to that province, 
but Pompey remained at Rome. 



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A LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION. 53 

sed postea quam et Pompel commoratid diuturnior erat 
quam putaram, et mea quaedam tibi non Igndta dubi- 
tatio aut impedire profectionem meam videbatur aut 
certe tardare, vide quid mihi sumpserim. Coepi velle 
ea Trebatium exspectare a te quae sperasset a me, 10 
neque mehercule minus ei prdlixe de tua voluntate pr5- 
misl quam eram solitus de mea pollicerl. Casus vero 
mirificus quidam intervenit quasi vel testis opinidnis 
meae vel sp5nsor humanitatis tuae. Nam cum de hoc 
ips5 Trebatid cum Balbo nostro loquerer accuratius 15 
domi meae, litterae mihi dantur a te, quibus in extre- 
mis scrlptum erat : * M. Iteium, quem mihi commendas, 
vel regem Galliae faciam, vel hunc Leptae delega, si 
vis. Tu ad me alium mitte quem 5rnem.' Sustulimus 
manus et ego et Balbus. Tanta fuit opportunitas ut 20 
illud nescio quid n5n fortultum, sed divlnum videretur. 
Mitto igitur ad te Trebatium, atque ita mitto ut initi5 
mea sponte, post autem invitatu tuo mittendum duxe- 
rim. Hunc, ml Caesar, sic velim omnI tua c5mitate 
complectare ut omnia quae per me possis adduci ut in 25 
meds conferre veils in unum hunc conferas. De qu5 
tibi homine haec spondeo, non ill5 vetere verbo meo 
quod, cum ad te de Milone scrlpsissem, iure lusistl, sed 
m5re Romano, quo modo homines non inepti loquun- 
tur, probidrem hominem, melidrem virum, pudentidrem 30 



7. dubitatio, irresolution. 11. pro- 
^Xttfrfely, 12. Casus, coincidence. 
14. sponsor, pledge. 1 5 . Balbo, Cae- 
sar's agent at Rome. — accuratius, 
somewhat earnestly. 18. delega, in- 
trust. 21. divinum, providential. 



22. ita mitto ut, I send him in the 
belief that. 24. tua comitate, ^(?«r 
accustomed kindness. 28. Milone, 
the murderer of Clodius. 29. more 
Romano, i.e. with Roman bluntness 
and sincerity. — inepti, without sense. 



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54 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



esse neminem. Accedit etiam quod familiam ducit in 
iure civil! singularl memoria, summa sciential. Huic 
ego neque tribunatum neque praefecturam neque uUlus 
benefici certum ndmen peto, benevolentiam tuam et 

35 llberalitatem pet5, neque impedi5 quo minus, si tibi 
ita placuerit, etiam hisce eum 5rnes gloriolae Inslgnibus. 
T5tum denique hominem tibi ita trado, *de many/ ut 
aiunt, * in manum * tuam istam et victdria et fide prae- 
stantem. Simus enim putidiuscull, quamquam per te 

40 vix licet; verum, ut video, licebit. Cura ut valeas et 
me, ut amas, ama. 



XXII. CICERO QUOTES FROM ENNIUS 
(Fam. 7. 6). 

Cicerd S. D. TrebStid. 

In omnibus mels epistulls quas ad Caesarem aut ad 
Balbum mitt5 legitima quaedam est accessio commenda- 
tionis tuae, nee ea vulgaris, sed cum aliquo Inslgnl in- 
dici5 meae erga te benevolentiae. Tu modo ineptias *' 
5 istas et deslderia urbis et urbanitatis depone et, quo 
c5nsilio profectus es, id adsiduitate et virtute conse- 
quere. H5c tibi tam Igndscemus nos amici quam ign5- 
verunt Medeae, 



31. familiam, profession. 32. me- 
moria, scientia, abl. of cause. 33. ul- 
lius . . . nomen, any par-Hcular favor 
byname. 35. impedio, tf<5/^r/. 39. pu- 
tidiusculi, a little troublesome. 

XXII. 2. legitima, regular. — 
accessio, addition. — commendatio- 



nis, appositional gen. 3. tuae, = 
tui. 4. ineptias . . . desideria, silly 
longing. 5. urbanitatis, the life of 
the city. 6. adsiduitate, persever- 
ance. 7. Hoc, i.e. your absence from 
Rome. 8. Medeae: the quotations 
that follow are from the Medea Ex- 



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NO GOLD OR SILVER IN BRITAIN. 



55 



quae Corinthum arcem altam habebant, matronae opulentae, 
optimates, 

quibus ilia manibus gypsatissimis persuasit ne sibi vitio lo 

illae verterent quod abesset a patria. Nam 

mult! suam rem bene gessere et publicam patria procul ; 
multi, qui domi aetatem agerent, propterea sunt improbati. 

Quo in numero tu certe fuisses, nisi te extrusissemus. 

Sed plura scribemus alias. Tu, qui ceteris cavere didi- 15 

cisti, in Britannia ne ab essedariis decipiaris caveto et, 

quoniam Medeam coepi agere, illud semper mement5: 

Qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse non quit, nequiquam sapit. 

Cura ut valeas. 



XXIII. NO GOLD OR SILVER IN BRITAIN 

{Fam, 7. 7). 

Cicer5 Treb2lti5. 

Ego te commendare n5n desisto, sed quid proficiam 
ex te scire cupio. Spem maximam habeo in Balbo, ad 
quem de te diligentissime et saepissime scribo. Illud 
soleo mirari, non me totiens accipere tuas litteras quo- 
tiens a Quint5 mihi fratre adferantur. In Britannia 5 



sul of Ennius, which was adapted 
from the Medea of Euripides. 9. ha- 
bebant, = habitabatiL — matronae, 
subj. of ignoverunt. lo. gypsatissi- 
mis, covered with gypsum; actors 
used gypsum to whiten their hands 
and arms. ii. verterent, impute, 
— patria: Medea was a native of 
Colchis; she had fled from home 
with Jason, the leader of the Argo- 
nauts. 12. patria, abl. with /r(7r2</. 



13. improbati, censured, 14. te 
extrusissemus, had thrust you out. 
15. alias, at another time. — ceteris 
cavere, to look out for the security of 
other meny i.e. as a lawyer. 16. esse- 
dariis, charioteers, the warriors who 
fought from the essedum. 1 7. agere, 
to play the part of, 18. quit, = po- 
test. 

XXIII. 5. Quinto : this was the 
year (54 B.C.) of his life and death 



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56 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



nihil esse audi5 neque aurl neque argentl. Id si ita est, 
essedum aliquod capias suadeo et ad nos quam primum 
recurras. Sin autem sine Britannia tamen adsequT quod 
volumus possumus, perfice ut sTs in f amiliaribus Caesaris. 
lo Multum te in e5 f rater adiuvabit mens, multum Balbus, 
sed, mihi crede, tuus pudor et labor plurimum. Impe- 
ratorem habes liberalissimum, aetatem opportunissimam, 
commendationem certe singularem, ut tibi unum timen- 
dum sit, ne ipse tibi def uisse videare. 



XXIV. CICERO BANTERS TREBATIUS 
{Fam. 7. 16. 2, 3). 

Ego SI forls cenitarem, Cn. Octavi5, familiarl tuo, non 
defuissem; cui tamen dixl, cum me aliquotiens invlta- 
ret: *Oro te, quis tu es?' Sed mehercules, extra 
iocum, homo bellus est ; vellem eum tecum abduxisses. 

5 Quid agatis et ecquid in Italiam venturi sitis hac hieme 
fac plane sciam. Balbus mihi c5nfirmavit te dlvitem 
futurum. Id utrum R5man5 more locutus sit, bene 
nummatum te futurum, an quo modo St5ici dicunt, 
omnis esse dlvites qui caelo et terra frul possint, postea 

10 videbo. Qui istinc veniunt superbiam tuam accusant. 



struggle with the Gallic insurgents. 
8. quod volumus, i.e. the prefer- 
ment of Trebatius. 12. aetatem ; 
Trebatius was at this time about 
thirty-five. 

XXIV. I. si foris cenitarem, 
if I were in the habit of dining 
out. 3. extra iocum, joking apart, 
4. homo beUus, a fine fellow, 5. ec- 



quid . . . sitis, whether you are com- 
ing at all; Caesar usually spent the 
winter in Gallia Cisalpina, that he 
might watch the course of events 
at Rome, but during the winter of 
54-53 B.C. he thought it necessary 
to remain with his army at Samaro- 
briva (Amiens). 7. Romano more, 
literally, — bene nununatum, well 



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TREBATIUS AN INDIFFERENT SOLDIER. 



57 



quod negent te percontantibus respondere. Sed tamen 
est quod gaudeas. C5nstat enim inter omnis neminem 
te uno Samarobrivae iuris periti5rem esse. 



XXV. TREBATIUS AN INDIFFERENT SOL- 
DIER {Fam, 7. 10. I, 2). 

M. Cicero S. D. Trebati5. 

Leg! tuas litteras, ex quibus intellexi te Caesarl no- 
str5 valde iure c5nsultum videri. Est quod gaudeas te 
in ista loca venisse ubi aliquid sapere viderere. Quod 
SI in Britanniam quoque profectus esses, profecto nem5 
in ilia tanta insula peritior te f uisset. Verum tamen — 5 
rideamus licet, sum enim a te invltatus — subinvideo 
tibi, ultr5 etiam arcessitum ab eo ad quem ceterT n5n 
propter superbiam eius, sed propter occupati5nem ad- 
splrare n5n possunt. Sed tu in ista epistula nihil mihi 
scrTpsisti de tuis rebus, quae mehercule mihi non min5ri 10 
curae sunt quam meae. Valde metuo ne frlgeas in 
hibernls. Quam ob rem camino luculent5 utendum 
cense5; idem Mucio et Manllio placebat, praesertim 
qui sagis non abundares. Quamquam vos nunc istic 
satis calere audio, qu5 quidem nuntio valde mehercule 15 



supplied with money, ii. respon- 
dere, a sorry pun, answer questions 
and give advice, in the latter sense 
a legal term. 

XXV. 2. iure consultum, = iu- 
ris peritus, 6. subinvideo tibi, / 
am a bit envious of you. 7. eo, i.e. 
Caesar. 8. adspirare, in the sense 
in which the Eng. derivative is used. 



12. camino luculento, a bright fire, 
literally stove. 13. idem . . . place- 
bat: Cicero cites two famous legal 
authorities. 14. sagis: the sagum, 
military cloak, was emblematic of 
war, as the toga was emblematic of 
peace, and Cicero may be joking 
Trebatius upon his disinclination to 
war. 15. calere: word had reached 



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58 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



de te timueram. Sed tu in re mllitari multo es cautior 
quam in advocationibus, qui neque in Ocean5 natare 
volueris, studi5sissimus homo natandi, neque spectare 
essedari5s, quern antea ne andabata quidem defraudare 
20 poteramus. 



XXVI. THE TRUE NOBILITY IS THAT OF 
WORTH {Fam, 3. 7. 5). 

Illud Idem Pausania dlcebat te dixisse: *Quid nl} 
Appius Lentul5, Lentulus Ampi5 processit obviam, 
Cicero Appio noluit } * Quaeso, etiamne tu has inep- 
tias, hom5 mea sententia summa prudentia, multa etiam 
5 doctrina, plurim5 rerum usu, addo urbanitatem, quae est 
virtus, ut Stoic! rectissime putant, ullam Appietatem aut 
Lentulitatem valere apud me plus quam ornamenta vir- 
tutis existimas 1 Cum ea consecutus nondum eram quae 



Rome that the Gauls under Ambio- 
rix were making it warm for Cae- 
sar's army. 17. advocationibus, 
legal consultations. — qui . . . pote- 
ramus : an allusion to the fact that 
Trebatius had not taken part in the 
expedition to Britain. 19. anda- 
bata : these were gladiators who 
fought blindfold; in essedarios there 
may be a reference to another class 
of gladiators, who fought from char- 
iots. 

XXVI. Written in February, 50 
B.C. Cicero was from the last of 
July, 51 B.C., to the first of August, 
50 B.C., in Asia Minor as governor 
of Cilicia. In 52 B.C. Pompey had 



carried a law providing that the 
governors of provinces should be 
consulares and praetorii of five 
years' standing; for five years after 
the passage of this law ex-magis- 
trates who had not yet had a pro- 
vincial government were called into 
service, and Cicero among them. 
His predecessor was Appius Clau- 
dius Pulcher, to whom this letter 
is addressed. I. Quid ni? Indeed? 
2. Lentulo, Ampio: Lentulus pre- 
ceded Appius and succeeded Am- 
pins. 3. etiam, often used in an 
impatient question ; cf. tandem. 
5. urbanitatem, refinement, 6. ul- 
lam . . . Lentulitatem, in app. with 



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HUNTING PANTHERS FOR A CURULE AEDILE. 



59 



sunt hominum opini5nibus amplissima, tamen ista vestra 
n5mina numquam sum admlratus ; viros eos qui ea v5bis lo 
relTquissent magnos arbitrabar. Postea vero quam ita 
et cepT et gessT maxima imperia ut mihi nihil neque ad 
honorem neque ad gl5riam adquTrendum putarem, supe- 
riorem quidem numquam, sed parem vobis me speravl 
esse factum. Nee mehercule aliter vTdT exTstimare vel 15 
Cn. Pompeium, quem omnibus qui umquam fuerunt, vel 
P. Lentulum, quem mihi ipsi antepon5. Tu si aliter 
existimas, nihil errabis, si paul5 dlligentius, ut quid sit 
€vy^P€ia, quid sit n5bilitas intellegas, Athenoddrus, San- 
donis fllius, quid de his rebus dicat attenderis. 20 

XXVII. HUNTING PANTHERS FOR A 
CURULE AEDILE {Fam. 2. 11). 

M. Cicero Imp. S. D. M. Caell5 Aedili Curuli. 

Putaresne umquam accidere posse ut mihi verba de- 
essent, neque solum ista vestra 5rat5ria, sed haec etiam 
levia nostratia.? Desunt autem propter hanc causam, 
quod mirifice sum sollicitus quidnam de provinciis de- 
cernatur. Mirum me desiderium tenet urbis, incredibile 5 



Aas inepiias. 12. imperia, magis- 
tracies, 19. ci^^vcia, nobility of 
birth. — nobilitas, nobility of worth. 
— Athenodorus, a Stoic philoso- 
pher, the tutor of Augustus. 

XXVII. Written April 4th, 50 
B.C. M. Caelius Rufus had been 
defended by Cicero in 56 B.C. against 
the charge of attempted murder {de 



vi) ; his speech (pro Caelio) is still 
extant. Imp. (greeting) : Cicero 
had been hailed Imperator by his 
soldiers after a successful expedition 
against some mountain tribes of his 
province. 3. levia nostratia, the 
simple words of our mother tongue^ 
i.e. of the sermo cottidianus. 4. quod 
. . . decematur : Cicero was anxious 



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6o CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

meorum atque in primTs tui,' satietas autem provinciae, 
vel quia videmur earn famam consecuti ut non tarn 
accessio quaerenda quam fortuna metuenda sit, vel quia 
t5tum neg5tium non est dlgnum viribus nostris, qui 

lo maiora onera in re publica sustinere et possim et so- 
leam, vel quia belli magnl timor impendet, quod vide- 
mur effugere si ad c5nstitutam diem decedemus. De 
pantherls, per eos qui venarl solent agitur mandatu meo 
dlligenter ; sed mira paucitas est, et eas quae sunt valde 

15 aiunt queri quod nihil cuiquam Insidiarum in mea pr5- 
vincia nisi sibi flat. Itaque c5nstituisse dicuntur in 
Cariam ex nostra provincia decedere. Sed tamen se- 
dul5 fit, et in prlmis a Patlsca Quicquid erit, tibi erit, 
sed quid esset plane nesciebamus. Mihi mehercule 

20 magnae curae est aedllitas tua. Ipse dies me admone- 
bat, scrlpsi enim haecipsis Megalensibus. Tu velim 
ad me de omnI rel publicae statu quam dlligentissime 
perscrlbas, ea enim certissima putab5 quae ex te 
c6gn5r5. 



that his successor should be ap- 
pointed, that he might return to 
Rome immediately upon the termi- 
nation of his year of office on July 
30th. 8. fortuna, i.e. a change of 
fortune. 11. belli magni, with the 
Parthians, who since the battle of 
Carrhae had been threatening Asia 
Minor; at this time and for many 
years they were considered the most 
formidable of the foes of Rome. 
15. quod . . . fiat : Cicero's ad- 
ministration had been remarkably 
free from the corruption and cru- 



elty that characterized Roman pro- 
vincial government. 1 7. sedulo, = 
diligenter. 19. nesciebamus, ad- 
monebat, scripsi, epistolary tenses. 
21. Megalensibus, the Megalensia 
was a festival in honor of Cybele, 
celebrated from April 4th to loth; 
the games at this festival were in 
charge of the curule aediles. 23. per- 
SCribas, write in detail; during his 
absence in Cilicia Cicero depended 
upon Caelius for the political news of 
Rome, and Bk. VIII. ad Fam. is made 
up entirely of the latter's letters. 



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CICERO AND HIS SECRETARY. 



6i 



XXVIII. CICERO AND HIS SECRETARY 
(Fam, 1 6. i). 

TulliuB Tirdni Suo S. P. D. et Cicero Meus et Fruiter et 
Fratrls F. 

Paul5 facilius putavl posse me ferre desiderium tui, 
sed plane non fero, et quamquam magni ad honorem 
nostrum interest quam primum ad urbem me venire, 
tamen peccasse mihi videor, qui a te discesserim ; sed 
quia tua voluntas ea videbatur esse ut prorsus nisi con- 5 
firmat5 corpore noUes navigare, approbavi tuum c5nsi- 
lium, neque nunc mut5, si tu in eadem es sententia. 
Sin autem postea quam cibum cepisti, videris tibi posse 
me consequi, tuum c5nsilium est. Marionem ad te e5 
misi, ut aut tecum ad me quam primum venlret aut, si lo 
tu morarere, statim ad me redlret. Tu autem hoc tibi 
persuade, si commod5 valetudinis tuae fieri possit, nihil 
me malle quam te esse mecum ; si autem intelleges opus 
esse te Patrls convalescendl causa paulum commorarl, 
nihil me malle quam te valere. Si statim navigas, nos 15 
Leucade consequere ; sin te conflrmare vis, et comites 
et tempestates et navem idoneam ut habeas dlligenter 



XXVIII. Written November 3d, 
50 B.C., on the journey from Cilicia. 
Tiro was sick, and on November 2d 
Cicero had been obliged to leave 
him behind at Patrae in Achaia. 
Suo, Meus (greeting) : notice the 
change of person. 2. plane, at all 
well. — honorem: Cicero hoped to 
be granted a triumph for his military 
successes in Cilicia. 3. ad urbem, 



i.e. into the neighborhood of Rome; 
Cicero could not enter the city until 
the question of his triumph was de- 
cided without forfeiting his military 
imperium and all claim to a tri- 
umph. 5. prorsus . . . noUes, you 
were altogether unwilling. 9. tuum 
consilium est, it is for you to decide 
what to do. — Marionem, a slave. 
12. commodo, without injury to. 



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62 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

videbis. Unum illud, ml Tiro, videto, si me amas, ne 
te Marionis adventus et hae litterae moveant. Quod 

20 valetudini tuae maxima conducet si feceris, maxime 
obtemperaris voluntati meae. Haec pro tu5 ingenio 
c5nsldera. N5s ita te deslderamus ut amemus; amor 
ut valentem videamus hortatur, deslderium ut quam 
primum. Illud igitur potius. Cura erg5 potissimum 

25 ut valeas ; de tuls innumerabilibus in me officiis erit 
h5c gratissimum. iii. Nonas Novembrls. 

XXIX. CICERO AS AN EPICURE {Fam, 9. 20). 

Cicer5 Paeto. 

Dupliciter delectatus sum tuls litterls, et quod ipse 
rlsl et quod te intellexl iam posse ridere. Me autem a 
te, ut scurram yelitem, malls oneratum esse non mo- 
leste tull. Illud doleo, in ista loca venire me, ut con- 
5 stitueram, non potuisse ; habuisses enim non hospitem, 
sed contubernalem. At quem virum ! Non eum quem 
tu es solitus promulside c5nficere. Integram famem ad 
5vum adfero, itaque usque ad assum vitullnum opera 



18. videbis, a polite equivalent of 
vidfy found chiefly in familiar dic- 
tion. 21. obtemperaris voluntati 
meae, will consult my wishes. 22. ita 
. . . ut amemus, only so far as our 
love allows. 

XXIX. Written early in August, 
46 B.C. 3. scurram velitem, a skir- 
mishing wit; perhaps scurram refers 
to the professional diner-out, who 
paid for the dinners he ate by his 
contribution to the amusement of 



the guests. There will then be a 
pun in malis oneratum, overwhelmed 
with abuse {malis') and pelted with 
apples {malis), as the scurra might 
be at a boisterous dinner. 6. contu- 
bernalem, boon companion. 7. pro- 
mulside, appetizer ; this first course 
of the dinner might include eggs, 
pickles, shell-fish, vegetables, salted 
fish, olives, and similar dishes, and m ul- 
sum, a drink made of wine and honey. 
8. assum vitulinum, the roast veal. 



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CICERO AS AN EPICURE. 



63 



perducitur. Ilia mea quae solebas antea laudare, *0 
hominem f acilem ! O hospitem non gravem ! * abierunt. 10 
Nam omnem nostram de re publica curam, c5gitationem 
de dicenda in senatu sententia, commentati5nem causa- 
rum abiecimus ; in Epicurl n5s, adversan nostrl, castra 
coniecimus, nee tamen ad banc Insolentiam, sed ad illam 
tuam lautitiam, veterem dic5, cum in sumptum habebas, 15 
etsi numquam plura praedia habuisti. Proinde te para. 
Cum homine et edacT tibi res est et qui iam aliquid 
intellegat; o-^iiiaOm autem homines scis quam Inso- 
lentes sint. Dediscendae tibi sunt sportellae et arto- 
laganl tul. Nos iam ex arte ista tantum habemus ut 20 
Verrium tuum et Camillum — qua munditia homines, 
qua elegantia ! — vocare saepius audeamus. Sed vide, 
audaciam. Etiam Hirtio cenam dedi, sine pavone ta- 
men. In ea cena cocus mens praeter ius fervens nihil 
non potuit imitarl. Haec igitur est nunc vita nostra : 25 



II. Nam . . . curam: the senato- 
rial party had been completely over- 
thrown by the defeat at Thapsus on 
April 6th, and Cicero despaired of 
the republic. 12. commentationem, 
preparation. 14. hanc insolen- 
tiam, the prevailing extravagance. 
15. lautitiam, elegance. — cxan, . . . 
habebas, when you had money to 
spend. 16. etsi . . . habuisti : 
the value of land had depreciated 
throughout Italy in consequence of 
the civil war, and in 49 B.C. Caesar 
had provided for the relief of debt- 
ors by a law which required creditors 
to accept property in payment of 
debt at its value before the outbreak 



of the war. Paetus had suffered finan- 
cial loss as a creditor. 17. edaci, 
who has a good appetite, 18. oi|/t- 
(iaOcts, who have learned late, 
19. Dediscendae, unlearn^ forget. 
— sportellae, little baskets, used 
evidently for some article of food; 
perhaps there is hendiadys with 
artolagani, little baskets of cakes. 
21. munditia, niceness. 22. vo- 
care, ask to dinner. 23. Hirtio, 
the author of Book VIII. of the 
Bellum Gallicum, who lost his life 
at Mutina in 53 B.C. — pavone, 
peacock, first served by Hortensius, 
and now become a fashionable lux- 
ury. 24. cocus, cook. — ius, sauce. 



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64 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

mane salutamus dpmi et bonos viros mult5s, sed trlstis, 
et hos laet5s victores, qui me quidem perofficiose et 
peramanter observant. Ubi salutati5 defluxit, litteris 
me involvo; aut scrlbo aut lego. Veniunt etiam qui 

30 me audiunt quasi doctum hominem, quia paul5 sum 
quam ipsi doctior. Inde corporT omne terapus datur. 
Patriam eluxl iam et gravius et diutius quam ulla mater 
unicum filium. Sed cura, si me amas, ut valeas, ne 
ego te iacente bona tua comedim. StatuI enim tibi ne 

35 aegroto quidem parcere. 

XXX. THE PARDON OF MARCELLUS 

(from Fain. 4. 4). 

Uno te vicimus, quod de Marcelll, conlegae tul, salute 
paulo ante quam tu c5gn5vimus; etiam mehercule, 
quod quem ad modum ea res ageretur vidimus. Nam 
sic fac existimes, post has miserias, id est, postquam 
5 armis disceptarl coeptum est de iure publico, nihil esse 
actum aliud cum dignitate. Nam et ipse Caesar accu- 
sata acerbitate Marcelll — sic enim appellabat — lauda- 



26. salutamus, greet; the visitors 
called in accordance with custom 
to pay their respects to the great 
man; this formal morning call was 
called salutatio. — bonos viros, the 
defeated Pompeians. 28. defluxit, 
is over. 31. corpori; i.e. to exercise, 
the bath, and dinner. 32. eluxi, 
have mourned; the prefix denotes 
that the period of mourning has 
been completed. 34. comedim, eat 
^P' 35- aegroto, = aegro. 



XXX. Written in September or 
October, 46 B.C., to Servius Sulpi- 
cius, who was administering the 
province of Achaia. M. Marcellus 
had during his consulship (51 B.C.) 
shown himself a most bitter enemy 
of Caesar, and since Pharsalus had 
been living in voluntary exile at My- 
tilene. I. Uno, in one respect. — 
conlegae, in the consulship of 51 
B.C. — salute, restoration. 6. et 
ipse Caesar: there is a slight ana- 



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THE PARDON OF MARCELLUS. 6$ 

taque honorificentissime et aequitate tua et prudentia 
repente praeter spem dixit se senatul roganti de Mar- 
cello ne hominis quidem causa negaturum. Fecerat lo 
autem hoc senatus, ut cum a L. Pisone mentio esset 
facta de Marcello et cum C. Marcellus se ad Caesaris 
pedes abiecisset, cunctus c5nsurgeret et ad Caesarem 
supplex accederet. N5li quaerere. Ita mihi pulcher 
h'lc dies visus est ut speciem aliquam viderer videre 15 
quasi revlvlscentis rel publicae. Itaque cum omnes 
ante me rogati gratias Caesarl egissent praeter Volca- 
cium — is enim, si eo loco esset, negavit se facturum 
fuisse — , ego rogatus mutavi meum c5nsilium. Nam 
statueram non mehercule inertia, sed desiderio pristinae 20 
dignitatis in perpetuum tacere. Fregit h5c meum con- 
silium et Caesaris magnitudo animi et senatus officium. 
Itaque pluribus verbis egl Caesarl gratias, meque metu5 
ne etiam in ceteris rebus honest5 otio privarim, quod 
erat unum solacium in malls. Sed tamen, quoniam 25 
effugl eius offensi5nem, qui fortasse arbitraretur me 
banc rem publicam non putare, si perpetuo tacerem, 
modice hoc faciam aut etiam intra modum, ut et illlus 
voluntati et mels studils serviam. Nam etsi a prima 
aetate me omnis ars et doctrlna llberalis et maxime 3c 
philosophia delectavit, tamen h5c studium cottldie 



coluthon, Fecerat autem senatus 
standing for et senatus fecerat, 
10. hominis . . . causa, to satisfy 
his personal feeling, 12. C. Marcel- 
lus, cousin of Marcus. 13. cunctus, 
in a body, 14. Noli quaerere, = 
quid quaeriSf in short. 1 7. rogati, 
COR. OF CIC. — 5 



sc. sententiam, 18. eo lOCO, i.e. in 
Caesar*s place. 20. inertia, disincli- 
nation. — desiderio, r^»^^/. 22. of- 
ficium, loyalty. 23. Itaque . . . 
gratias, in the Oratio pro M. Mar- 
cello so called. 27. rem publicam, 
a constitutional government. 28. hOC 



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66 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

ingravescit, cred5 et aetatis maturitate ad prudentiam 
et ils temporum vitils, ut nulla res alia levare animum 
molestils possit. A qu5 studio te abduci neg5tiis intel- 
35 leg5 ex tuls litteris, sed tamen aliquid iam noctes te 
adiuvabunt. 

XXXI. A PILFERING LIBRARIAN 
{Fam, 13. yy. 3). 

Praeterea a te pet5 in maiorem modum pro nostra 
amlcitia et pro tu5 perpetuo in me studio ut in hac 
re etiam elabores. Dionysius, servus mens, qui meam 
bibliothecen multorum numm5rum tractavit, cum mul- 
5 tos libr5s subripuisset nee se impune laturum putaret, 
aufugit. Is est in pr5vincia tua; eum et M. Bolanus, 
mens familiaris, et multl alii Naronae viderunt, sed cum 
se a me manumissum esse diceret, crediderunt. Hunc 
tu si mihi restituendum curaris, non possum dicere quam 
10 mihi gratum futurum sit. Res ipsa parva, sed animi 
mel dolor magnus est. Ubi sit et quid fieri possit, 
B5lanus te docebit. Ego si hominem per te reciperar5, 
summ5 me a te beneficio adfectum arbitrabor. 



faciam, i.e. take part in the deliber- 
>ations of the senate. 32. ingrave- 
scit, grows more earnest. — aetatis 
. . . prudentiam, because I have now 
come to the age of full mental vigor. 
35. noctes, i.e. because they were 
growing longer. 

XXXI. I. in maiorem modum, 
very earnestly. 3. elabores, do your 
best to assist me ; notice the force of 



the prefix. 4. bibliothecen, Greek 
form, = bibliothecam. — multorum 
nummorum, = magni preti, pretio- 
sam. — tractavit, had charge of 
6. provincia tua: the letter is ad- 
dressed to the Roman commander 
in Illyricum. 7. Naronae, a city of 
Dalmatia, one of the divisions of 
Illyricum . 1 2. hominem, the fellow ; 
used contemptuously for eum. 



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A FAMILY PEDIGREE. 6/ 

XXXII. A FAMILY PEDIGREE {Fam. 9. 21). 
Cicer5 Paet5 S. 

Ain tandem ? Insanire tibi videris, quod imitere ver- 
b5rum meorum, ut scrlbis, fulmina ? Turn Insanlres, si 
consequi non posses; cum vero etiam vincas, me prius 
inrideas quam te oportet. Qua re nihil tibi opus est 
illud a Trabea, sed potius uTroTevyfjua meum. Verum 5 
tamen quid tibi ego videor in epistulls ? Nonne plebei5 
sermdne agere tecum ? Nee enim semper e5dem modo. 
Quid enim simile habet epistula aut iudicio aut c5n- 
tionl? QuTn ipsa iudicia non solemus omnia tractare 
un5 modo. Privatas causas, et eas tenuis, agimus sub- 10 
tilius, capitis aut famae scilicet 5rnatius ; epistulas vero 
cottldianis verbis texere solemus. Sed tamen, ml Paete, 
qui tibi venit in mentem negare Paplrium quemquam 
umquam nisi plebeium fuisse? Fuerunt enim patricil 
minorum gentium, quorum princeps L. Paplrius Mugil- 15 
lanus, qui censor cum L. Semproni5 Atratino fuit, cum 
ante consul cum eodem fuisset, annis post Romam con- 
ditam cccxii. Sed tum Paplsil dicebaminl. Post hunc 
xiii. fuerunt sella curull ante L. Paplrium Crassum, qui 



XXXII. I. Ain tandem? In- 
deed/ 5. illud, lAat qtMtation; 
Trabea was an early writer of come- 
dies. — &ir6TfVY)ia, failure ; sc. est, 
8. iudicio, the address to a jury. — 
contioni, a political speech, 10. te- 
nuis, of slight importance. — sub- 
tilius, more simply, 12. texere, 
compose. 13. qui, the adv. — Papl- 



rium: the Paeti were a family of 
the Papiria gens. 15. minorum 
gentium: the minores gentes were 
clans which had been incorporated 
into the early settlement on the 
Palatine and ennobled, as distin- 
guished from the clans of the orig- 
inal settlers there {maiores gentes). 
19. sella curuli, abl. of description. 



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68 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

20 primus Papisius est vocari desitus. Is dictator cum L. 
Paplri5 Cursore magistr5 equitum factus est annls post 
Rdmam conditam ccccxv. et quadriennid post consul 
cum K. Dullio. Hunc secutus est Cursor, hom5 valde 
hon5ratus; deinde L. Mas5 aedilTcius; inde multl Ma- 
ss sones. Quorum quidem tu omnium patriciorum imagi- 
nes habeas volo. Deinde Carbones et Turdi Insequuntur. 
Hi plebeil fuerunt, qu5s contemnas censeo. Nam prae- 
ter hunc C. Carbonem quem Damasippus occldit, civis 
e re publica Carb5num nemo fuit. Cognovimus Cn. 
30 Carb5nem et eius fratrem scurram. Quid his impro- 
bius? De hoc amico meo, Rubriae flli5, nihil dico. 
Tres illl fratres fuerunt, C, Cn., M. Carb5nes. Marcus 
P. Flacco accusante est condemnatus, fur magnus, ex 
Sicilia; Gaius accusante L. Crasso cantharidas sump- 
35 sisse dicitur. Is et tribunus pi. seditiosus et P. African5 
vim attulisse existimatus est. H5c ver5 qui Lilybaei a 
Pompeio nostro est interfectus improbior nem5 meo 
iudici5 fuit. lam pater eius accusatus a M. Ant5- 



20. Papisius: s between two vow- 
els was everywhere in Latin words 
changed to r at an early stage in 
the development of the language; 
this change is known as rhotacism. 
23. valde honoratus: he was one 
of the Roman leaders in the Second 
Samnite War, and was twice dicta- 
tor and five times consul. 24. aedi- 
licius, M^ ex-aediU, i.e. who rose to 
the aedileship, 25. imagines: the 
imagines of those who had filled 
some curule magistracy could alone 
be set up in the atrium of the bouse 



of the descendant and carried in 
funeral processions. 28. OCCldit, in 
82 B.C. as a partisan of Sulla. — 
civis e re publica, a useful citi- 
zen, 29. Cn. Carbonem, the Marian 
leader. 34. Gains: he had at one 
time supported the Gracchi, and 
his political apostasy did not save 
him. — L. Crasso, the orator. — 
cantharidas, cantharis, a poison. 

35. P. Africano, the younger. 

36. Hoc, Cn. Carbo, the Marian 
leader. 38. pater, the third of the 
brothers mentioned above; he was 



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A MONUMENT TO TULLlA. 69 

nio sutorio atramento absolutus putatur. Qua re ad 
patres cense5 revertare; plebeii quam fuerint impor- 40 
tuni vides. 

XXXIII. CICERO GRIEVES FOR TULLIA 
(from Att. 12. 15). 

In hac s5litudine care5 omfnium conloquio, cumque 
mane me in silvam abstrusi densam et asperam, non 
exe5 inde ante vesperum. Secundum te nihil est mihi 
amicius s5litudine. In ea mihi omnis serm5 est cum 
litteris; eum tamen interpellat fletus, cui repugno, 5 
quoad possum, sed adhuc pares n5n sumus. 

XXXIV. A MONUMENT TO TULLIA 
{Att 12. 18. i). 

Cicer5 Attic5 Sal. 

Dum recordationes fugio, quae quasi morsu quodam 
dolorem efficiunt, refugid ad te admonendum, quod 
velim mihi Tgnoscas, cuicuimodi est. Etenim habeo 
non nullos ex ils qu5s nunc lectit5 auctores qui dicant 
fieri id oportere quod saepe tecum egl et quod a te s 
approbarl vol5. De fan5 ill5 dico, de qu5 tantum quan- 



defeated by the Cimbri at Noreia in 
113 B.C. — M. Antonio, the orator. 
39. sutorio atramento, shoemaker's 
blacking, a poison. 

XXXIII. Written March 9th, 45 
B.C. Cicero had lost his beloved 
daughter, Tullia, in the middle of 
February, and he was now at his 



villa at Astura, the solitude of which 
was grateful in his sorrow, i. careo, 
/withdraw from, 2. abstrusi, ^^z'^ 
buried myself, 

XXXIV. Written March nth, 
45 B.C. 3. cuicuimodi, for cuius- 
cuius modiy gen. of quisquis mo- 
dus. 4. lectito, freq. of lego. 



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70 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



turn me amas velim cogites. Equidem neque de genere 
dubit5 — placet enim mihi Cluatl — , neque de re — sta- 
tutum est enim — , de loc5 n5n numquam. Velim igitur 

lo c5gites. Ego, quantum his temporibus tam eruditis fieri 
poterit, profecto illam consecrabo omnI genere monu- 
mentorum ab omnium ingenils scrlptdrum et Graec5rum 
et Latm5rum, quae res forsitan sit refricatura vulnus 
meum. Sed iam quasi vot5 quodam et pr5miss6 me 

15 tenerl puto, longumque illud tempus cum non ero 
magis me movet quam hoc exiguum, quod mihi tamen 
nimium longum videtur. Habeo enim nihil temptatis 
rebus omnibus in quo adquiescam. Nam dum illud 
tractabam de quo ad te ante scrips!, quasi fovebam 

20 dolores me5s ; nunc omnia respu5, nee quicquam habe5 
tolerabilius quam s5litudinem, quam, quod eram veri- 
tus, non obturbavit Philippus. Nam ut herl me salu- 
tavit, statim Romam profectus est. 



XXXV. A LETTER OF CONDOLENCE 
{Fam, 4. 5). 

Servius dcerdni S. 

Postea quam mihi renuntiatum est de obitu Tulliae, 
flliae tuae, sane quam pr5 e5 ac debul graviter moleste- 
que tull, communemque eam calamitatem existimavl. 



7. genere, design, plan. 8. Cluati, 
an architect. 11. illam, TuUia. 
13. sit . . . meum, is likely to re- 
open my wound. 18. illud: Cicero 
had begun to write for his own 
solace a treatise de luctu tninuendo 



{Consolatio) ', it was never pub- 
lished. 20. respuo, relinquish. 

XXXV. Written in March, 45 
B.C., by Servius Sulpicius, the gov- 
ernor of Achaia. 2. sane quam, 
exceedingly. — pro eo aCf = ui. 



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A LETTER OF CONDOLENCE. 



71 



qui, SI istic adfuissem, neque tibi defuissem coramque • 
meum dolorem tibi declarassem. Etsi genus hoc con- 5 
s5lati5nis miserum atque acerbum est, propterea quia 
per quos ea confierl debet propinquos ac familiarls, il 
ipsT pari molestia adficiuntur neque sine lacrimis mul- 
tis id conari possunt, uti magis ipsi videantur aliorum 
c5ns5latione indigere quam aliis posse suum officium 10 
praestare, tamen quae in praesentia in mentem mihi 
venerunt decrevi brevi ad te perscribere, non quo ea 
te fugere existimem, sed quod forsitan dolore impedi- 
tus minus ea perspicias. Quid est quod tanto opere 
te commoveat tuus dolor intestinus ? Cogita quern ad 15 
modum adhuc fortuna nobiscum egerit. Ea nobis 
erepta esse quae hominibus non minus quam liberi 
cara esse debent, patriam, honestatem, dignitatem, ho- 
nores omnis. Hoc uno incommodo additd quid ad 
dol5rem adiungi potuit? Aut qui non in illis rebus 20 
exercitatus animus callere iam debet atque omnia min5- 
ris existimare? An illius vicem, cred5, doles? Quo- 
tiens in eam c6gitati5nem necesse est et tu veneris et 
nos saepe incidimus, hisce temporibus n5n pessime cum 
iis esse actum quibus sine dolore licitum est mortem 25 
cum vita commutare! Quid autem fuit quod illam h5c 
tempore ad vivendum magn5 opere invitare posset? 
Quae res ? Quae spes ? Quod animi s5lacium ? Ut cum 
aliquo adulescente primari5 coniuncta aetatem gereret ? 



7. confieri, = confici. 12. brevi, adv. 
15. intestinus, private. 18. hone- 
statem, reputation, 20. illis re- 
bus, i.e. the fall of the republic. 



21. callere, to be insensible of pain» 

22. illius vicem, on her account, 

23. veneris, subj. with necesse est. 
29. primario, distinguished. — gere- 



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72 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



30 Licitum est tibi, cred5, pro tua dignitate ex hac iuven- 
tute generum diligere, cuius fidel liber5s tu5s te tut5 
committere putares ? An ut ea liber5s ex sese pareret, 
qu5s cum fl5rentls videret laetaretur, qui rem a parente 
traditam per se tenere possent, hon5res ordinatim peti- 

35 turi essent, in re publica, in amicorum neg5til^ llbertate 
sua usurl? Quid horum fuit quod non prius quam 
datum est ademptum sit ? * At vero malum est liberos 
amittere.' Malum; nisi h5c peius sit, haec sufferre et 
perpetl. Quae res mihi non mediocrem c6ns5lationem 

40 attulit, vol5 tibi commemorare, si forte eadem res tibi 
dolorem minuere possit. Ex Asia rediens cum ab 
Aeglna Megaram versus navigarem, coepi regi5nes cir- 
cumcirca pr5spicere. Post me erat Aeglna, ante me 
Megara, dextra Piraeus, sinistra Corinthus, quae oppida 

45 qu5dam tempore florentissima fuerunt, nunc prostrata 
et diruta ante oculos iacent. CoepI egomet mecum sic 
cogitare : * Hem ! n5s homuncull indlgnamur, si quis 
nostrum interiit aut occlsus est, quorum vita brevior 
esse debet, cum un5 loc5 tot oppidum cadavera pr5- 

50 iecta iacent? Visne tu te, Servl, cohibere et memi- 
nisse hominem te esse natum?' Crede mihi, cogitatione 
ea non mediocriter sum c5nflrmatus. H5c idem, si tibi 
videtur, fac ante ocul5s tibi pr5p5nas. Modo un5 tem- 



ret, = ageret^ degeret. 32. liberos 
. . . pareret, might become the mother 
of sons, 34. ordinatim, i.e. one of- 
fice after the other, as they reached 
the age of eligibility; the Ciceronian 
word is ordine. 38. haec, what we 
are now suffering. 42. versus, adv. ; 



translate in the direction of Megara. 
— circumcirca, roundabout; = quae 
circumcirca erant. 45. quodam 
tempore, once upon a time. 49. ca- 
davera, ruins. 50. Visne, will you 
not. 51. Crede mihi: formal prose 
has mihi crede. 53. Modo, but 



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A LETTER OF CONDOLENCE. 



73 



pore tot viri clarissiml interierunt, de imperio popull 
R5mam tanta deminutio facta est, omnes provinciae S5 
conquassatae sunt; in unius mulierculae animula si 
iactura facta est, tant5 opere commoveris? Quae si 
h5c tempore n5n diem suum oblsset, paucis post annis 
tamen el moriendum fuit, quoniam homo nata fuerat. 
Etiam tu ab hisce rebus animum ac cogitationem tuam 60 
avoca atque ea potius reminlscere quae digna tua per- 
sona sunt: illam quam diu el opus fuerit vixisse; una 
cum re publica fuisse ; te, patrem suum, praet5rem, con- 
sulem, augurem vidisse; adulescentibus prlmarils nup- 
tam fuisse; omnibus bonis prope perfunctam esse; cum 65 
res publica occideret, vita excessisse. Quid est quod 
to aut ilia cum fortuna hoc n5mine querl possltis? 
Denique n5ll te obllvlsci Ciceronem esse et eum qui 
alils c5nsueris praecipere et dare c5nsilium, neque imi- 
tarl malos medicos, qui in alienls morbis profitentur 70 
tenere se mediclnae scientiam, ipsl se curare n5n pos- 
sunt; sed potius, quae alils tute praecipere soles, ea 
tute tibi subice atque apud animum pr5pone. Nullus 
dolor est quem n5n longinquitas temporis minuat ac 
moUiat. H5c te exspectare tempus tibi turpe est ac 75 
non el rel sapientia tua te occurrere. Quod si qui etiam 
inferls sensus est, qui illlus in te amor fuit pietasque in 



recently, 56. COnquassatae, con- 
vulsed, — in . . . est, if the frail 
life of one little woman has been 
lost. 58. diem suum, = diem sup re- 
mum ^ mortem. 59. homo, mortal, 
61. persona, character, 64. adule- 
scentibus, Piso, Furius Crassipes, 



and Dolabella; all were patricians. 
67. hoc nomine, on this score. 69. 
consueris, = consueveris. — imitari, 
coordinate with oblivisci. 73. tibi 
subice, give your attention to, 76. ei 
rei . . . occurrere, to hasten this re- 
sult. 77. qui . . . fuit, such was. 



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74 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



omnis suos, hoc certe ilia te facere non vult. Da h5c 
illi mortuae, da ceteris amicis ac familiaribus, qui tu5 

80 dolore maerent, da patriae ut, si qua in re opus sit, 
opera et c5nsili5 tuo uti possit. Denique quoniam in 
earn fortunam devenimus ut etiam huic rel n5bls servi- 
endum sit, noli committere ut quisquam te putet n5n 
tarn flliam quam rel publicae tempora et ali5rum victo- 

85 riam lugere. Plura me ad te de hac re scrlbere pudet, ne 
videar prudentiae tuae diffldere. Qua re, si hoc unum 
proposuer5, flnem faciam scrlbendl. Vidimus aliquo- 
tiens secundam pulcherrime te ferre fortunam magnam- 
que ex ea re te laudem aplsci ; f ac aliquand5 intellega- 

90 mus adversam quoque te aeque ferre posse neque id 
mains quam debeat tibi onus viderl, ne ex omnibus 
virtutibus haec una tibi videatur deesse. Quod ad me 
attinet, cum te tranquilliorem anim5 esse c5gri5r5, de 
ils rebus quae hic geruntur, quem ad modumque se 

95 pr5vincia habeat certiorem faciam. Vale. 



XXXVI. THE VOTE OF DEC. 5, 63 B.C. 
(Att. 12. 21. i). 

Cicero Attico Sal. 

Legl Brutl epistulam eamque tibi remlsl, sane non 
prudenter rescrlptam ad ea quae requisieras. Sed ipse 
viderit. Quamquam illud turpiter Ign5rat. Cat5nem 



78. hoc . . . facere, i.e. to grieve 
immoderately. 8i. opera, serv- 
ices, 83. committere, give occa- 
sion, 89. apisci, = adipisci, 90. ae- 
que, with equal moderation. 



XXXVI. March 17th, 45 B.C. 
M. Brutus had written a eulogy of 
Cato Uticensis, in which he seemed 
to Cicero to have given undue credit 
to Cato for his part in the debate on 



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THE VOTE OF DECEMBER 5, 63 B.C. 75 

prTmum sententiam putat de animadversi5ne dixisse, 
quam omnes ante dixerant praeter Caesarem, et cum s 
ipslus Caesaris tarn severa fuerit, qui turn praet5rio 
loc5 dixerit, c5nsularium putat leni5res fuisse, Catuli, 
ServIlT, Lucullorum, Curionis, Torquatl, Lepidl, Gelll, 
VolcacI, Figull, Cottae, L. Caesaris, C. Pisonis, M*. Gla- 
brionis, etiam SllanT, Murenae, designatorum consulum. 10 
*Cur ergo in sententiam Catonis?* Quia verbis lucu- 
lenti5ribus et pluribus rem eandem comprehenderat. 
Me autem hlc laudat quod rettulerim, non quod pate- 
fecerim, cohortatus sim, quod denique ante quam con- 
sulerem ipse iudicaverim. Quae omnia, quia Cato 15 
laudibus extulerat in caelum perscribendaque censuerat, 
idcirco in eius sententiam est facta discessio. Hic 
autem se etiam tribuere multum mihi putat quod scrlp- 
serit 'optimum c5nsulem.' Quis enim ieiunius dixit 
inimlcus ? Ad cetera vero tibi quem ad modum rescrip- 20 
sit? Tantum rogat de senatus c5nsulto ut corrigas. 
H5c quidem fecisset, etiam si a librari5 admonitus esset 
Sed haec iterum ipse viderit. 

the punishment of the Catilinarian the vote taken on the proposal of Cato, 
conspirators. All other authorities, 
however, agree in ascribing the de- 
cision for capital punishment to the 
effect produced by Cato's speech. 
5. Caesarem : he had advocated 
imprisonment for life and confisca- 
tion of the property of the conspira- 
tors. 6. praetorio loco : Caesar was 
praetor designatus, and spoke there- 
fore after the consular es and before 
the praetor it. 11. in sententiam, 
sc. discessio facta est. Why then was 



who was only tribune elect? The 
senate voted by division (discessio). 
— luculentioribus, rAr/ir^r. 13. hic, 
i.e. Brutus. — rettulerim: referre in 
senatum is used of the magistrate 
who puts before the senate the 
business of the session, and car- 
ries no implication of his opinion. 
16. perscribenda, should be re- 
corded, 19. ieiunius, more grudg- 
ingly. 21. corrigas: perhaps Atti- 
cus was to publish the Cato^ and 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



XXXVII. DOMESTIC WORRIES {AtL 12. 32). 

Cicer5 Attic5 Sal. 

Publilia ad me scrlpsit matrem suam — ut cum Pu- 
blilio loquerer — ad me cum illo venturam et se una, si 
ego paterer. Orat multis et supplicibus verbis ut liceat 
et ut sibi rescribam. Res quam molesta sit vides. Re- 

5 scripsi mihi etiam gravius esse quam tum cum illl dix- 
issem me s5lum esse velle ; qua re n5lle me h5c tempore 
eam ad me venire. Putabam, si nihil rescrlpsissem, 
illam .cum matre venturam ; nunc n5n put5, apparebat 
enim illas litteras n5n illlus esse. lUud autem quod 

10 fore vide5 ipsum volo vltare, ne illae ad me veniant. 
leiuna est vltati5 ut ego nollem, sed necesse est. Te 
hoc nunc rog5, ut explores ad quam diem hic ita possim 
esse ut ne opprimar. Ages, ut scribis, temperate. Cice- 
roni velim hoc prdponas — ita tamen, si tibi non inlquum 

IS videbitur — , ut sumptus huius peregrin ati5n is, quibus, si 
R5mae esset domumque conduceret, quod facere cogi- 



had suggested some changes to Bru- 
tus before giving it to his slaves to 
copy; slaves engaged in this work 
were called librarii. 

XXXVII. Written from Astura, 
March 28th, 45 B.C. Soon after 
divorcing Terentia, Cicero married 
Publilia, confessedly for her money. 
She was little more than a girl, and 
is said to have been jealous of her 
step-daughter and to have offended 
Cicero by her indifference to his af- 
fliction. Whatever the cause, their 



estrangement dated from about the 
time of Tullia*s death, and they were 
divorced this same year. i. Publi- 
lio, Publilia's brother. 11. leiuna 
. . . nollem, Ifs a poor excuse for 
not seeing them, that I did not wish 
to, 12. ita . . . ut ne opprimar, 
without danger of being surprised. 
13. Ciceroni, Cicero's son, Marcus, 
who was to study in Athens. 14. ita 
tamen, si, that is, in case. 15. pere- 
grinationis, tour, sojourn abroad. — 
quibus, refers to mercedes, 16. con- 



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REPLY TO THE LETTER OF CONDOLENCE. JJ 

tabat, facile contentus f uturus erat, accommodet ad mer- 
cedes Arglleti et Aventlnl ; et cum el pr5posueris, ipse 
velim reliqua moderere, quem ad mod^im ex ils merce- 
dibus suppeditemus ei quod opus sit. Praestabo nee 20 
Bibulum nee Acidlnum nee Messallam, quos Athenis 
futures audio, mai5res sumptus facturos quam quod ex 
ils mercedibus recipietur. Itaque velim videas primum 
conduct5res qui sint et quanti, deinde ut sint qui ad 
diem solvant, et quid viatici, quid instrument! satis sit. 25 
lumento certe Athenis nihil opus erit; quibus autem in 
via utatur, domi sunt plura quam opus erat, quod etiam 
tu animadvertis. 

XXXVIII. REPLY TO THE LETTER OF 
CONDOLENCE {Fam. 4. 6). 

M. Cicer5 S. D. Ser. Sulpicio. 

Ego vero, Servl, vellem, ut scrlbis, in meo gravissimo 
casu adfuisses. Quantum enim praesens me adiuvare 
potueris et c5ns5land5 et prope aeque dolendo facile 
ex eo intelleg5, quod litterls lectls aliquantum adquievl. 
Nam et ea scrlpsisti quae levare luctum possent, et in s 
me c6ns6land5 non mediocrem ipse animi dolorem ad- 
hibuistl. Servius tamen tuus omnibus officils quae illl 
temporl tribul potuerunt declaravit et quanti ipse me 



duceret, were renting, 17. merce- 
dea, rentSt income; Cicero owned 
tenement houses or shops on the 
Aventine and in the quarter called 
Argiletum. ig. modeieTefyouwou/d 
manage, 24. conductores, tenants. 
— quanti, gen. of price. 25. via- 



tici, allowance for traveling expenses. 
— instrumenti, outfit. 26. lumento, 
a carriage, 

XXXVIII. 4. aliquantum ad- 
quievi, / have found some little 
relief 8. quanti . . . faceret, 
how highly he himself esteemed me. 



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yS CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

faceret et quam suum talem erga me animum tibi gra- 

lo turn putaret fore. Cuius officia iucundi5ra scilicet saepe 
mihi fuerunt, numquam tamen gratiora. Me autem non 
oratio tua solum et societas paene aegritudinis, sed 
etiam auctoritas consolatur. Turpe enim esse exTstimd 
me non ita ferre casum meum ut tu, tall sapientia prae- 

15 ditus, ferendum putas. Sed opprimbr interdum et vix 
resisto dolorl, quod ea me solacia deficiunt quae ceteris 
quorum mihi exempla propon5 simill in fortuna non 
defuerunt. Nam et Q. Maximus, qui filium c5nsula- 
rem, clarum virum et magnis rebus gestls, amisit, et 

20 L. PauUus, qui duo septem diebus, et vester Galus et 
M. Cat5, qui summo ingenio, summa virtute filium per- 
didit, ils temporibus fuerunt ut eorum luctum ipsorum 
dlgnitas consolaretur ea quam ex re publica conseque- 
bantur. Mihi autem amissis drnamentis ils quae ipse 

25 commemoras quaeque eram maximis lab5ribus adeptus, 

unum manebat illud s5lacium, quod ereptum est. Non 

amlc5rum neg5tils, n5n rei publicae pr5curatione impe- 

• diebantur cogitati5nes meae, nihil in foro agere libebat, 

adspicere curiam n5n poteram, existimabam, id quod 



10. Cuius . . . gratiora, i.e. he could 
take no pleasure at such a time in 
the kindly services of friends, al- 
though they were grateful to him. 
1 2. oratio tua, your words. 1 3. auc- 
toritas, the importance I attach to 
your opinion. 15. opprimor, / am 
overcome. 16. deficiunt, = desuni. 
18. Q. Maximus, the opponent of 
Hannibal; he delivered a funeral 
oration over his son. 19. magnis 



rebus gestis, abl. of quality. 20. L. 
PauUus, the victor of Pydna, whose 
two young sons died during the week 
of the celebration of his triumph in 
167 B.C. — vester, your kinsman. 
21. M. Cato, the Censor. 23. ex 
re publica, in the service of the state, 
27. rei publicae procuratione, the 
conduct of public business. 28. in 
foro agere, i.e. as pleader in the 
courts of law. 29. id quod erat, 



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REPLY TO THE LETTER OF CONDOLENCE. 79 

erat, omnis me et industriae meae fructus et fortunae 30 
perdidisse. Sed cum cogitarem haec mihi tecum et 
cum quibusdam esse communia, et cum frahgerem iam 
ipse me cogeremque ilia ferre toleranter, habebam quo 
c5nfugerem, ubi conquiescerem, cuius in sermone et 
suavitate omnIs curas doloresque deponerem. Nunc 35 
autem hoc tam gravl vulnere etiam ilia quae consa- 
nuisse videbantur «recrudescunt. Non enim ut tum me 
a re publica maestum domus excipiebat quae levaret, 
sic nunc domo maerens ad rem publicam confugere 
possum ut in eius bonis adquiescam. Itaque et domo 40 
absum et foro, quod nee eum dolorem quem de re pu- 
blica capio domus iam consolarl potest nee domesticum 
res publica. Quo magis te exspect5 teque videre quam 
primum cupio. Mains mihi solacium adferre ratio nulla 
potest quam coniunctio c5nsuetudinis sermonumque no- 45 
strdrum. Quamquam sperabam tuum adventum — sic 
enim audiebam — appropinquare. Ego autem cum mul- 
tls de causis te exopt5 quam primum videre, tum etiam 
ut ante commentemur inter nos qua ratione n5bls tra- 
ducendum sit h5c tempus, quod est totum ad unlus so 
voluntatem accommodandum, et prudentis et liberalis 
et, ut perspexisse videor, nee a me alienl et tibi aml- 



as 7uas indeed the case. 32. frange- 
rem, / was beginning to get myself 
in hand. 33. toleranter, patiently. 

36. consanuisse, to have healed. 

37. recrudescunt, are breaking open 
again. — Noii,with/(7««w. 39. mae- 
rens, in my grief. 40. bonis, = se- 
cundis rebus. — domo, i. e. from his 
residence in the city. 42. domesti- 



cum, sc. dolorem. 45. consuetudi- 
nis, intercourse. 46. sperabam, 
audiebam, epistolary tense. 49. ante, 
in advance, i.e. before Caesar's re- 
turn from Spain ; the battle of Munda 
had been fought March 17th. — com- 
mentemur, </<?//<5^r^/^. 51. pruden- 
tis, sensible. — liberalis, generous. 
52. a me alieni, unfriendly to me. 

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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



cissiml. Quod cum ita sit, magnae tamen est dellbera- 
tionis quae ratio sit ineunda n5bls non agendl aliquid, 
55 sad illius cohcessu et benefici5 quiescendl. Vale. 



XXXIX. THE MURDER OF MARCELLUS 
{Fam. 4. 12). 

Servius Cicer5nl Saiatem Pltlribtis Verbis. 

Etsi scio n5n iucundissimum me nuntium vobis adla- 
turum, tamen, quoniam casus et natura in nobis domina- 
tur, visum est faciendum, qu6qu5 modo res se haberet, 
vos certiores facere. A. d. x. Kal. lun., cum ab Epi- 

5 dauro Piraeum navl advectus essem, ibi M. Marcellum, 
conlegam nostrum, conveni eumque diem ibi consumpsi 
ut cum e5 essem. Poster5 die ab eo digressus sum e5 
consilio, ut ab Athenis in Boeotiam Irem reliquamque 
iurisdictidnem absolverem, ille, ut aiebat, supra Maleas 

10 in Italiam versus navigaturus erat. Post diem tertium 



55. concessu et beneficio, kind per- 
mission. 

XXXIX. Marcellus had not been 
unhappy in his voluntary exile at 
Mytilene, and it was several months 
after his pardon when he reluctantly 
set out for Rome. He did not come 
to his journey's end, but was mur- 
dered by one of his suite while at 
the Piraeus waiting to take ship for 
Italy. Among the irreconcilable 
Pompeians were some who foolishly 
thought that Caesar must have in- 
spired the murder; the real cause 
of the act was not known, i. non 



iucundissimum, litotes; = acerbis- 
simum, iristissimum. 2. quoniam 
. . . dominatur, i.e. since death is 
the lot of all, — death by violence or 
in the course of nature. 5. Pi- 
raeum, the famous port of Athens. 
8. reliquamque . . . absolverem, 
i.e. visit the other assize towns of 
the province before the close of his 
administration. 9. supra, round; 
super is commonly used to express 
this idea. — Maleas, a promontory 
at the southeastern extremity of La- 
conia. 10. versus, the prep.; ad 
or in are used with it, except with 



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THE MURDER OF MARCELLUS. 8 1 

eius diel, cum ab Athenis proficisci in animo haberem, 
circiter h5ra decima noctis P. Postumius, familiaris eius, 
ad me venit et mihi nuntiavit M. Marcellum, conlegam 
nostrum, post cenae tempus a P. Magi5 Cllone, f amiliarl 
eius, pugi5ne percussum esse et duo yulnera accepisse, 15 
unum in stomach5, alterum in capite secundum aurem ; 
sperare tamen eum vivere posse; Magium se ipsum 
interfecisse postea; se a Marcello ad me missum esse 
qui haec nuntiaret et rogaret uti medic5s el mitterem. 
Itaque medicos coegl et e vestTgio eo sum profectus 20 
prima luce. Cum non longe a Piraeo abessem, puer 
AcidinI obviam mihi venit cum codicillls, in quibus erat 
scriptum paul5 ante lucem Marcellum diem suum oblsse. 
Ita vir clarissimus ab homine deterrimo acerbissima ' 
morte est adfectus, et cui inimlcl propter dignitatem 25 
pepercerant, inventus est amicus qui el mortem offerret. 
Ego tamen ad tabernaculum eius perrexl. InvenI duos 
llbertos et paucul5s serv5s ; reliquos aiebant profugisse 
metu perterritos quod dominus e5rum ante tabernacu- 
lum interfectus esset. Coactus sum in eadem ilia lectlca 30 
qua ipse delatus eram melsque lectlcarils in urbem eum 



the names of towns and of small 
islands. 12. circiter . . . noctis, 
i.e. between two and three in the 
morning. - 14. cenae tempus : the 
dinner hour at Rome was apparently 
about half-past three. 15. pugione, 
dagger, 16. secundumt Jus^ l^eAtnci. 
20. e vestigio, = statiniy continuo. 
22. Acidini, probably the young man 
mentioned in a previous letter as a 
student at Athens. — codicillis, a 
COR. OF cic. — 6 



note. 25. inimici : Caesar is meant. 
27. tamen, i.e. although it was now 
too late to be of service to Marcellus. 
— tabernaculum, tent; the Piraeus 
was now in ruins. 29. metu . . . 
esset : by Roman law slaves who 
were present at the murder of their 
master were liable to the death 
penalty as accessory to the deed. 
31. meisque lecticariis, instrumen- 
tal abl. ; using my oivn bearers. 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



referre, ibique pro ea copia quae Athenls erat fiinus 
ei satis amplum faciendum curavT. Ab Atheniensibus 
locum sepulturae intra urbem ut darent impetrare non 

35 potuT, quod religi5ne se impedlrl dicerent, neque tamen 
id antea cuiquam concesserant. Quod proximum fuit, 
uti in quo vellemus gymnasio eum sepeliremus, n5bTs 
permiserunt. N5s in nobilissimo orbi terrarum gym- 
nasio Academlae locum delegimus ibique eum combus- 

40 simus, posteaque curavimus ut iidem Athenienses in 
eodem loco monumentum ei marmoreum faciendum lo- 
carent. Ita quae nostra officia fuerunt pro conlegio 
et pro propinquitate, et vivo et mortuo omnia el prae- 
stitimus. Vale. D. pr. Kal. lun. Athenls. 



XL. DEDICATION OF THE ACADEMICA 
{Fam, 9. 8. i). 

Cicero VarrSni. 

EtsI munus flagitare, quamvis quis ostenderit, ne 
populus quidem solet nisi concitatus, tamen ego ex- 



32. pro . . . erat, so far as there 
were facilities at Athens. 35. ta- 
men, / must admit, 36. Quod . . . 
fuit, the next best thing, 37. g3mi- 
nasio: the three great gymnasia 
of Athens — Academia, Lyceum, and 
Cynosarges — were in the suburbs. 
38. orbi, locative. 39. Academiae, 
a grove set apart as a gymnasium ; 
it contained temples, statues, and 
the tombs of famous men, and in it 
PJato had taught. — eum combussi- 
mus, burned his body. 41. facien- 



dum locarent, should contract for 
the erection of. 44. D., data. 

XL. This letter was written July 
nth or I2th, 45 B.C., and sent with 
the Academica to M. Terentius Varro, 
the greatest scholar and most prolific 
author of Rome. The Academ ica was 
an exposition of the teaching of the 
New Academy; it had been revised 
that Varro might be introduced as 
one of the interlocutors and fur- 
ther gratified by its dedication to 
him. I. ostenderit, has promised. 



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DEDICATION OF THE ACADEMIC A. 



83 



spectatione promissi tul moveor ut admoneam te, non 
ut flagitem. Mlsl autem ad te quattuor admonitores 
non nimis verecund5s — nosti enim profecto os illTus s 
adulescenti5ris Academiae. Ex ea igitur media exci- 
tatds misI, qui metuo ne te forte flagitent ; ego autem 
mandavl ut rogarent. Exspectabam omnino iam diu 
meque sustinebam ne ad te prius ipse quid scriberem 
quam aliquid accepissem, ut possem te remunerarl quam 10 
simillimo munere; sed cum tu tardius faceres, id est, 
ut ego interpretor, dlligentius, teneri n5n potui quin 
coniunctionem studiorum amdrisque nostri quo possem 
litterarum genere declararem. Feci igitur sermonem 
inter nos habitum in Cumano, cum esset una Pompo- 15 
nius. Tibi dedi partis Antiochinas, quas a te probarl 
intellexisse mihi videbar; mihi sumps! Philonis. Put5 
fore ut, cum legeris, mirere nos id locutos esse inter 
nos quod numquam locuti sumus — sed ndstl mdrem 
dialogorum. 20 



3. promissi: Varro fulfilled this 
promise later by dedicating to Cic- 
ero the last twenty of the twenty-five 
books of his De Lingua Latina, 

4. quattuor : the revised Academica 
was in four books, the first edition 
in two, called Catulus and Lucullus 
after Q. Lutatius Catulus and L. Li- 
cinius Lucullus; there are extant 
portions of both editions. 5. OS, 
assurance; cf. the slang cheeky face. 
6. adulescentioris, used comically 
for novae. 9. sustinebam, sc. a 
scribendo. 15. Cumano: Varro, as 
well as Cicero, had a country seat 



near Cumae. — Pomponius, Atticus. 
16. Antiochinas, of Antiochus; he 
professed to reconcile Stoicism with 
the teachings of Plato and Aris- 
totle.— quas . . . videbar: Cicero's 
uncertainty concerning Varro*s be- 
lief is not surprising; the latter has 
been called * the most unphilosophi- 
cal among the unphilosophical Ro- 
mans.' 17. Philonis, sc. /«r/w / it 
was largely through the influence of 
Philo that Cicero had been led to 
embrace the philosophy of the Acad- 
emy. 19. locuti sumus: notice the 
force of the indicative. 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



XLI. THE SINGER TIGELLIUS 

{Fam, 7. 24). 

M. Cicera S. D. M. Fadi5 QaUS. 

Am5ris quidem tui qu5quo me verti vestigia, vel 
proxime de Tigellio. SensI enim ex litterls tuls valde 
te laborasse. Amo igitur voluntatem. Sed pauca de 
re. Cipius, opinor, 5lim *Non omnibus dormio.' Sic 

S ego n5n omnibus, ml Galle, servio. EtsI quae est haec 
servitus? Olim cum regnare existimabamur, non tam 
ab ullls quam hoc tempore observor a familiarissimis 
Caesaris omnibus praeter istum. Id ego in lucrls pono, 
non ferre hominem pestilenti5rem patria sua, eumque 

10 addictum iam tum put5 esse Calvl LicinI Hipp5nacte5 
praec5ni6. At vide quid suscenseat. Phameae causam 
receperam, ipslus quidem causa, erat enim mihi sane 
familiaris. Is ad me venit dixitque iudicem sibi ope- 



XLI. Written about August 20th, 
45 B.C. Fadius had expressed his 
anxiety lest Tigellius' resentment 
should lead to a misunderstanding 
between Cicero and Caesar, with 
whom the singer was a favorite, as 
later with Augustus, i. vestigia, sc. 
vidi. — vel, in particular. 2. prox- 
ime, quite recently. 3. Amo, / am 
delighted by. 4. opinor, / believe 
that was his name. 6. regnare: 
Cicero's foes had charged him with 
playing the tyrant during his con- 
sulship. 8. in lucris pono, count 
clear gain. 9. patria : Tigellius 
was a native of Sardinia, which 



was notoriously unhealthy. 10. ad- 
dictum . . . praeconio, had been 
disposed of by the Hipponactean 
proclamation of Licinius Calvus ; 
addicere is used of the auctioneer, 
to knock down, and praeconium de- 
notes his crying of the goods to be 
sold. Calvus, the orator and poet, 
had attacked Tigellius in a lampoon 
written in choliambics, the meter in 
which Hipponax wrote and of which 
he was reputed the inventor. This 
poem was in form a praeconium. 
It began: Sardi Tigelli putidum 
caput venit (is for sale). 11. Pha- 
meae, the grandfather of Tigellius. 



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CICERO IN FAVOR WITH CAESAR. 



85 



ram dare constituisse eo ips5 die quo de P. Sestio in 
c5nsilium Irl necesse erat. Respondl null5 mod5 me is 
facere posse; quern vellet alium diem si sumpsisset, 
me el non defuturum. Ille autem, qui sclret se nepo- 
tem bellum tiblcinem habere et sat bonum cantorem, 
discessit a me, ut mihi videbatur, Iratior. Habes * Sar- 
dos venalis, alium ali5 nequiorem/ Cogn5stI meam 20 
causam et istius salaconis inlquitatem. * Catonem ' 
tuum mihi mitte, cupi5 enim legere. Me adhuc n5n 
legisse turpe utrlque nostrum est 



XLII. CICERO IN FAVOR WITH CAESAR 
{Fam. 5. 10 b). 

VatihiuB Cicerdni Su5 S. 

Ego post supplicati5nes mihi decretas in Dalmatiam 
profectus sum; sex oppida vi oppugnand5 cepi, unum 
h5c, quod erat maximum, quater a me iam captum. 
Quattuor enim turrls et quattuor mur5s cepi et arcem 
eorum totam, ex qua me nives, frigora, imbres detruse- 
runt indlgneque, ml Cicero, oppidum captum et bellum 



14. in consilium iri, that the jury 
should deliberate upon its verdict, 
18. bellum tibicinem, a skillful 
/lute-player. — sat, = satis; fairly^ 
moderately, 19. Sardos . . . ne- 
quiorem : Sardinian slaves were 
held in but slight esteem at Rome. 
21. salaconis, braggart. — inlqui- 
tatem, unreasonableness. ' — Cato- 
nem : Fadius had taken part in the 
pamphleteering war which followed 



the death of Cato and in which 
Cicero and Brutus bad also written 
on the one side, and Caesar and 
Hirtius on the other. 

XLII. Vatinius, the unscrupu- 
lous tool of Caesar, was now gov- 
ernor of lUyricum. Cicero had made 
a bitter attack upon him in 56 B.C. 
in the Oratio in Fatinium, but two 
years later defended him at the ur- 
gent request of Caesar, in a speech 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



c5nfectum relinquere sum coactus. Qua re te rogo, si 
opus erit, ad Caesarem meam causam agas meque tibi 
in omnls partis defendendum putes hoc existimans, ne- 
lo minem te tul amantiorem habere. Vale. Data Nonis 
Decembribus, Narona. 



XLIII. THE SPEECH FOR DEIOTARUS 
{Fam, 9. 12). 

Cicero Doiabellae. 

Gratulor Bails nostrls, si quidem, ut scrlbis, salubres 
repente factae sunt, nisi forte te am ant et tibi adsentan- 
tur et tam diu dum tu ades sunt oblltae sul. Quod qui- 
dem si ita est, minime miror caelum etiam et terras vim 
5 suam, si tibi ita conveniat, dlmittere. Oratiunculam pr5 
Deiotard quam requirebas habebam mecum, quod non 
putaram. Itaque eam tibi misl. Quam velim sic legas 
ut causam tenuem et inopem nee scrlptione magno opere 
dignam. Sed ego hospiti veterl et amico munusculum 



now lost, against the charge of am- 
bitm brought by Licinius Calvus. 
8. ad, = apud. 9. in omnis par- 
tis, = omni ratione. 

XLIII. P. Cornelius Dolabella, 
to whom this letter was addressed, 
had been TulHa*s third husband, but 
was divorced from her in 46 B.C. 
5. si . . . conveniat, if it suits your 
pleasure. — Oratiunculam pro Deio- 
taro : this speech is known to us as 
the Oratio pro Rege Deiotaro; Deio- 
tarus, the Galatian tetrarch, had 
been accused of having attempted 



to murder Caesar, before whom and 
in whose house the case was tried. 
This was Cicero's last plea as an 
advocate. 6. habebam mecum : 
Cicero was doubtless writing from 
one of his country seats. 9. ho- 
spiti : Deiotarus had offered the help 
of his army to Cicero and had other- 
wise been of service to him during 
the term of his administration in 
Cilicia, and Cicero in mock dispar- 
agement of his speech says that he 
had only committed it to writing 
because he wished to send a copy 



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CONSUL FOR HALF A DAY. 



87 



mittere volui levidense crasso fllo, cuius modi ipsius lo 
Solent esse munera. Tu velim anim5 sapient! fortique 
SIS, ut tua moderati5 et gravitas ali5rum infamet in- 
iuriam. 



XLIV. CONSUL FOR HALF A DAY 

(Fam, 7. 30. i). 

Clcer5 Curi5 S. D. 

Ego vero iam te nee hortor nee rogo ut domum 
redeas; quin hinc ipse evolare cupio et aliquo perve- 
nlre, *ubi nee Pelopidarum n5men nee facta audiam.' 
Incredibile est quam turpiter mihi facere videar, qui his 
rebus intersim. Ne tu videris mult5 ante providisse s 
quid impenderet turn cum hinc profugisti. Quamquam 
haec etiam auditu acerba sunt, tamen audire tolerabilius 
est quam videre. In campo certe non fuisti cum hora 
secunda comitiis quaest5riis institutis sella Q. Maximi, 
quern illl c5nsulem esse dicebant, posita esset, qu5 mor- 10 



to his old friend. lo. levidense 
crasso filo, slight and of coarse text- 
ure ; the metaphor is from spin- 
ning. 12. infamet, may bring into 
ill repute by contrast. 

XLIV. Written early in January, 
44 B.C. 2. quin, = quin etiam, 
3. ubi . . . audiam : the source of 
the quotation is not known, but the 
reference is to Caesar and the Cae- 
sarians. The house of Pelops, of 
which were Atreus, Thyestes, Aegis- 
thus, Agamemnon, Clytemnestra, and 
Orestes, was typical of monstrous 
crime and inhuman wrong. 5. Ne, 



really, 8. hora secunda, ite. be- 
tween eight and nine o'clock; the 
comitia were called together at day- 
break. 9. comitiis quaestoriis : 
the quaestors were regularly elected 
by the comitia tributa in the sum- 
mer and entered into office on De- 
cember 5th, but the election of 45 
B.C. had been postponed to De- 
cember 31st. — seUa, sc. curulis. 
10. illi, the followers of Caesar. 
For the greater part of the year 45 
B.C. Caesar had been sole consul, 
but in October he resigned and nom- 
inated Q. Fabius Maximus and C. 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



tuo nuntiat5 sella sublata est. lUe autem, qui comitils 
tributis esset auspicatus, centuriata habuit, c5nsulem 
hora septima renuntiavit, qui usque ad Kalendas Ian. 
esset, quae erant futurae mane postridie. Ita Canlnio 
IS consule sclto neminem prandisse. Nihil tamen e5 c5n- 
sule mall factum est. Fuit enim mlrifica vigilantia, t[ui 
su5 toto c5nsulatu somnum n5n viderit. 



XLV. CICERO INTERCEDES FOR A PIRATE 
{Fam, 5. loa). 

VatiniuB Cioeroni Su5 S. 

S. V. B. E. E. Q. V. De Dionysi5 tuo adhuc nihil 
extrlco, et eo minus quod me frigus Dalmaticum, quod 
illinc eiecit, etiam hic ref rigeravit ; sed- tamen n5n de- 
sistam quin ilium aliquando eruam. Sed tamen omnia 
mihi dura imperas. De Catllio nesci5 quid ad me 
scripsisti deprecationis dlligentissimae. Apage te cum 
nostra Sex. Servilio! Nam mehercule ego quoque 



Trebonius to serve for the three 
months that remained ; it is the 
constitutionality of Caesar's nomina- 
tion of magistrates that Cicero ques- 
tions in quern . . . dicebant. 1 1. lUe, 
Caesar. 12. esset auspicatus, had 
taken the auspices. — centuriata, i.e 
the comitia centuriata for the elec- 
tion of a consul suffectus ; the term 
of office would be but a few hours 
since the consuls for the new year 
would enter into office at midnight, 
but the possession of the chief mag- 
istracy for even so short a time was 



held an honor. 13. hora septima, 
about one o*clock. — renuntiavit, 
announced the election of, 

XLV. The interest of this letter 
is due chiefly to the fact that it is 
the self-righteous Cicero who is re- 
proved by the scapegrace Vatinius. 
I. S. V. B. E. E. Q. v., si vales, bene 
est; ego quoque valeo. — Dionysio, 
the runaway librarian. 2. eztrico, 
find out. 5. Catilio, probably an 
exiled Pompeian who in his despera- 
tion had turned pirate. 6. Apage 
te, get out, 7. Sex. Servilio, un- 



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CICERO INTERCEDES FOR A PIRATE. 



89 



ilium am5. Sed huiusce modi v5s clientls, huius modi 
causas recipitis? Hominem unum omnium crudelissi- 
mum, qui tot ingenu5s, matres familias, civis R5man5s 10 
occldit, abripuit, disperdidit, regidnes vastavit ? Simius, 
non semissis hom5, contra me arma tulit et eum bell5 
cepl. Sed tamen, ml Cicer5, quid facere possum? 
Omnia mehercule cupi5 quae tu mihi imperas. Meam 
animadversi5nem et supplicium, qu5 usurus eram in 15 
eum quem cepissem, remitt5 tibi et cond5n5. Quid 
illis respondere possum qui ob sua bona direpta, navis 
expugnatas, fratres, llberos, parentes occIs5s actiones 
expostulant ? Sl mehercules AppI os haberem, in cuius 
locum suffectus sum, tamen hoc sustinere n5n possem. 20 
Quid ergo est? Faciam omnia sedulo quae te sciam 
velle. Defenditur a Q. Volusi5, tu5 discipul5, si forte 
ea res poterit adversarios fugare. In e5 maxima spes 
est. N5s, si quid erit istic opus, defendes. Caesar 
adhuc mihi iniuriam facit ; de mels supplicati5nibus et 25 
rebus gestis Dalmaticis adhuc n5n refert, quasi ver5 
non iustissimi triumphi in Dalmatia res gesserim. Nam 
si h5c exspectandum est, dum totum bellum conficiam, 
viginti oppida sunt Dalmatiae antlqua; quae ipsi sibi 
adsclverunt, amplius sexaginta. Haec nisi omnia ex- 30 
pugn5, si mihi supplicati5nes n5n decernuntur, longe 
alia condicione ego sum ac ceterl imperatores. 



known. 8. vos, you Pompeians, 
II. Simius, ape, 12. semissis, 
worth a cent; gen. of value. 18. ac- 
tiones expostulant, demand that he 
be brought to trial. 19. mehercules : 
mehercule is preferred by Cicero. — 



Appi, Cicero*s predecessor in Cilicia; 
at his death Vatinius had taken his 
place in the college of augurs. 
26. Dalmaticis, = in Dalmatia. — 
refert, sc. ad senatum, 27. trium- 
phi, gen. of quality. 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



XLVI. A DEARTH OF WIT AT ROME 
{Fam, 7. 31). 

Cioerd Curio S. D. 

Facile perspexl ex tuls litteris, quod semper studui, 
et me a te plurimi fieri et te intellegere quam mihi carus 
esses. Quod quoniam uterque nostrum consecutus est, 
reliquum est ut officiis certemus inter n5s, quibus aequo 

5 anim5 vel vincam te vel vincar abs te. Acllio non f uisse 
necesse meas darl litteras facile patior. SulpicT tibi 
operam intelleg5 ex tuls litteris n5n multum opus f uisse 
propter tuas res ita contractus ut, quem ad modum 
scrlbis, nee caput nee pedes. Equidem vellem uti 

10 pedes haberent, ut aliquand5 redlres. Vides enim exa- 
ruisse iam veterem urbanitatem, ut Pomponius noster 
suo iure possit dicere. 

Nisi nos paucT retineamus gloriam antiquam Atticam. 

Erg5 is tibi, n5s el succedimus. VenI igitur, quaeso, 
15 ne tamen semen urbanitatis una cum re publica in- 
tereat. 



XLVI. 5. AciliO: Curius was 
living at Patrae as a banker and 
broker {negotiator)^ and Cicero had 
given him a letter of introduction 
to Acilius, who had recently suc- 
ceeded Sulpicius as governor of 
Achaia. The friendship of the pro- 
vincial governor was of supreme im- 
portance to the capitalist or financial 
agent who had made investments 
away from Rome, since his great 



power enabled him to enforce the un- 
equal contracts which made this busi- 
ness so inordinately lucrative. He < 
usually shared in the spoils. 9. nec 
. . . pedes, sc. haberent. 10. exa- 
ruisse, has dried up. 11. Pompo- 
nius : the quotation is said to be 
from L. Pomponius of Bononia, the 
writer who gave an artistic form to 
the Atellan farces; but Cicero seems 
to have had Atticus in mind. 



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A STUDENT AT ATHENS. 



91 



XLVIL THE IDES OF MARCH 
{Fam, 6. 15). 

Cloero Basilo S. 

Tibi gratulor, mihi gaudeo; te am5, tua tueor; a te 
amarl et quid agas quidque agatur certior fieri volo. 



XLVni. A STUDENT AT ATHENS 
(Fam, 12. 16. I, 2). 

TreboDiuB Ciceroni S. 

S. V. B. Athenas veni a. d. xi. Kal. lun. atque ibi, 
quod maxime optabam, vldl fllium tuum, deditum opti- 
mls studils summaque modestiae fama. Qua ex re 
quantam voluptatem ceperim scire potes etiam me ta- 
cente. N5n enim nescls quanti te faciam et quam pr5 s 
nostra veterrim5 verissim5que am5re omnibus tuis etiam 
minimis commodls, n5n modo tant5 bono gaudeam. 



XLVII. In this note Cicero con- 
gratulates one of Caesar's assassins 
on his deed. Basilus had served on 
Caesar's staff in Gaul ; he was led to 
join the conspiracy against his old 
commander by resentment that a 
province had not been granted him 
at the expiration of his year of office 
as praetor for 45 B.C. 

XLVIII. Written from Athens 
May 25th, 44 B.C. Trebonius had 
been a legatus under Caesar in Gaul, 
and had been appointed by him one 
of the consuls for 45 B.C.; but he 



too joined the conspiracy against 
his benefactor. He was not one of 
the actual murderers, but had the 
humaner part of keeping Antony 
from the scene. He was now on 
his way to Asia, which had been 
assigned to him as his province. 
I. S. V. B., si vales, bene, 2. de- 
ditum . . . fama: Trebonius was 
either deceiving or deceived, for we 
know that the young Cicero was 
neither the diligent student nor 
the moral paragon he paints him. 
7. bono, blessing, i.e. in having a 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



Noll putare, ml Cicero, me h5c auribus tuls dare. Nihil 
adulescente tu5, atque adeo nostro — nihil enim mihi a 

lo te potest esse seiunctum — aut amabilius omnibus ils 
qui Athenls sunt est aut studiosius earum artium quas 
tu maxime amas, hoc est, optimarum. Itaque tibi, quod 
vere facere possum, libenter quoque gratulor nee minus 
etiam n5bis, quod eum quem necesse erat dlligere, qua- 

15 liscumque esset, talem habemus ut libenter quoque dili- 
gamus. Qui cum mihi in sermone iniecisset se velle 
Asiam vlsere, non modo invitatus, sed etiam rogatus est 
a me ut id potissimum nobis obtinentibus provinciam 
faceret. Cui nos et caritate et amore tuum officium 

20 praestatur5s non debes dubitare. lUud quoque erit 
nobis curae, ut Cratippus una cum e5 sit, ne putes in 
Asia feriatum ilium ab iis studils in quae tua cohorta- 
ti5ne incitatur futurum. Nam ilium paratum, ut video, 
et ingressum pleno gradu cohortarl non intermittemus, 

25 qu5 in dies longius discend5 exercend5que se procedat. 



XLIX. A POINT OF LAW {Fam. 7. 22). 

Cicero Trebfttio S. 

Inluseras heri inter scyphos quod dixeram contr5- 
versiam esse possetne heres, quod furtum antea factum 
esset, furti recte agere. Itaque etsi domum bene p5tus 



model son. 9. atque adeo, or 
rather. 16. iniecisset, had men- 
tioned, 19. nos . . . praestaturos : 
notice the ace. and inf. for a quin 
clause. 21. Cratippus, a Peripa- 
tetic philosopher. 22. feriatum . . . 
futurum, is going to rest. 24. pleno 



gradu, with rapid progress^ lit. at a 
quick step, 

XLIX. I. inter scyphos, over 
the wine ; the scyphus was a two- 
handled beaker. 2. antea, i.e. be- 
fore his succession to the property. 
3. furti, gen. of the charge. — agere. 



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BRUTUS AND CASSIUS DEFY ANTONY. 93 

seroque redieram, tamen id caput ubi haec controversia 
est notavT et descrlptum tibi mIsT, ut sclres id quod tu s 
neminem sensisse dicebas Sex. Aelium, M*. Manllium, 
M. Brutum sensisse. Ego tamen Scaevolae et Testae 
adsentior. 

L. BRUTUS AND CASSIUS DEFY ANTONY 
{Fam, II. 3). 

Bnitus et Cassius Pr. S. D. AntoniS C5b. 

S. V. B. Litteras tuas legimus, simillimas edict! tuT, 
contumeliosas, minaces, minime dignas quae a te nobis 
mitterentur. Nos, Antoni, te nulla lacessiimus iniuria 
neque miraturum credidimus, si praetores et ea dlgni- 
tate homines aliquid edicto postulassemus a cdnsule; s 
quod si indlgnaris aus5s esse id facere, concede n5bls 
ut doleamus ne hoc quidem abs te Bruto et Cassi5 tri- 
bul. Nam de dllectibus habitis et pecunils imperatis, 
exercitibus sollicitatis et nuntils trans mare missis quod 
te questum esse negas, n5s quidem tibi credimus optim5 10 



bring suit. 4. caput, section, evi- 
dently of some law book; Aelius, 
Manilius, Brutus, and Scaevola had 
been eminent as jurists, and all had 
written legal commentaries. 7. Te- 
stae, Trebatius himself. 

L. Written August 4th, 44 B.C. 
Pr. (greeting) f praetores. I. edicti, 
manifesto. 4. miraturum, sc. te. — 
ea dignitate, abl. of quality with 
homines. 7. hoc, i.e. the request 
contained in their manifesto. What 
it was is not known, but perhaps 



they had asked to be allowed to 
resign the praetorship. — BrutO et 
CassiO: the names seem to have 
been used instead of nobis to con- 
trast their claim upon him as indi- 
viduals with their claim as magis- 
trates. 8. dilectibus . . . missis: 
Brutus and Cassius were reported to 
be engaged in preparations for seiz- 
ing the provinces of Macedonia and 
Syria, which had been promised to 
them respectively, but had been 
granted in June to Antonius and 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



anim5 te fecisse, sed tamen neque agnoscimus quic- 
quam e5rum et te mlramur, cum haec reticueris, n5n 
potuisse continere Iracundiam tuam quin nobis de morte 
Caesaris obiceres. Illud ver5 quern ad modum ferun- 

15 dum sit tute c5gita, non licere praetoribus concordiae 
ac llbertatis causa per edictum de su5 iure decedere, 
quIn consul arma minetur. Quorum fiducia nihil est 
quod nos terreas. Neque enim decet aut convenit nobis 
pencul5 ulll submittere animum nostrum neque est An- 

20 t5ni5 postulandum ut iis imperet quorum opera liber 
est. Nos si alia hortarentur ut bellum civile suscitare 
vellemus, litterae tuae nihil pr5ficerent. Nulla enim 
minantis auct5ritas apud llber5s est. Sed pulchre in- 
tellegis non posse n5s quoquam impelll, et fortassis ea 

25 re minaciter agis, ut iudicium nostrum metus videatur. 
Nos in hac sententia sumus ut te cupiamus in libera re 
publica magnum atque honestum esse, vocemus te ad 
nullas inimlcitias, sed tamen pluris nostram libertatem 
quam tuam amicitiam aestimemus. Tu etiam atque 

30 etiam vide quid suscipias, quid sustinere possis neque 
quam diu vixerit Caesar, sed quam non diu regnarit fac 
cogites. Deos quaesumus, c5nsilia tua rel publicae 
salutaria sint ac tibi; si minus, ut salva atque honesta 
re publica tibi quam minimum noceant optamus. Pri- 

35 die Non. Sext. 



Dolabella. The sequel abundantly 
substantiated this report, and their 
present denial (neque agnoscimus 
quicquam eoruni) must have been 
insincere. 11. agnoscimus, ac- 
knowledge^ own. 16. de . . . dece- 



dere, to relinquish their authority. 
20. opera, i.e. in the assassination 
of Caesar. 23. pulchre, perfectly. 
25. iudicium, decision^ resolve. 
27. vocemus, challenge; notice the 
asyndeton. 



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A FAITHFUL FRIEND. 95 

LI. A FAITHFUL FRIEND 
{Fam. II. 28). 

Matius Cloeronl S. 

Magnam voluptatem ex tuls litterls cepT, quod quam 
speraram atque optaram habere te de me opini5nem 
cognovl. De qua etsi non dubitabam, tamen quia 
maximl aestimabam, ut incorrupta maneret laborabam. 
C5nscius autem mihi eram nihil a me commissum esse 
quod boni cuiusquam offenderet animum. E5 minus 
credebam plurimis atque optimls artibus ornat5 tibi 
temere quicquam persuader! potuisse, praesertim in 
quem mea pr5pensa et perpetua fuisset atque esset 
benevolentia. Quod quoniam ut volui scio esse, re- 
spondeb5 crlminibus quibus tu pr5 me, ut par erat tua 
singular! bonitate et amicitia nostra, saepe restitistl. 
Nota enim mihi sunt quae in me post Caesaris mortem 
contulerint. Viti5 mihi dant quod mortem hominis 
necessari! graviter fer5 atque eum quem dllexl pensse 
indlgnor; aiunt enim patriam amicitiae praep5nendam 
esse, proinde ac s! iam vicerint obitum eius rei publicae 
fuisse utilem. Sed non agam astute. Fateor me ad 



Ll. Written at the end of Aug- 
ust, 44 B.C. Cicero had heard from 
Trebatius that Matius complained 
that he had unjustly criticised the 
attitude the latter maintained toward 
the murderers of Caesar, and had 
written to Matius to defend himself. 
This is Matius* reply. 9. propensa, 
spontaneous, 11. par, fit, meet. 



14. contulerint: the subj. is used 
as if in an ind. question with 
notum est; with the personal con- 
struction {nota sunt') quae is the 
relative, not the interrogative, and 
the ind. would be regular. — dant, 
impute. 17. proinde . . . vicerint, 
just as if they had really demon- 
strated. 18. agam astute, quibble. 



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96 CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 

istum gradum sapientiae n5n pervenisse. Neque enim 

20 Caesarem in dissensi5ne civlll sum secutus^ sed amicum, 
quamquam re offendebar, tamen non deserui neque 
bellum umquam civile aut etiam causam dissensionis 
probavl, quam etiam nascentem exstingul summe stu- 
dul. Itaque in victoria hominis necessaril neque hon5ris 

25 neque pecuniae dulcedine sum captus, quibus praemils 
reliqul, minus apud eum quam ego cum possent, immo- 
derate sunt abusl. Atque etiam res familiaris mea lege 
Caesaris deminuta est, cuius benefici5 plerlque qui Cae- 
saris morte laetantur remanserunt in civitate. Civibus 

30 victis ut parceretur aeque ac pr5 mea salute laboravl. 
Possum igitur, qui omnis voluerim incolumis, eum a qu5 
id impetratum est perlsse non indlgnari, cum praesertim 
Idem homines illl et invidiae et exitio f uerint ? * Plecte- 
ris erg5/ inquiunt, * quoniam factum nostrum improbare 

35 audes/ O superbiam inaudltam, ali5s in facinore gl5- 
riarl, alils ne dolere quidem impunlte licere! At haec 
etiam servis semper libera fuerunt, ut timerent, gaude- 
rent, dolerent suo potius quam alterius arbitri5, quae 
nunc, ut quidem isti dictitant llbertatis auctores, metu 

40 n5bls extorquere conantur. Sed nihil agunt. NuUlus 
umquam pericull terrdribus ab offici5 aut ab humanitate 



19. gradum, height, 21. re, his 
action, 23. summe, zealously. 
27. lege : this regulated the in- 
vestment of capital. 28. cuius, sc. 
legis. 33. illi, i.e. Caesari ; the 
very men whose treatment at Cae- 
sar's hands had made him unpopu- 
lar with his own followers {invidiae^ 



conspired to murder him {exitio"). 
— Plecteris, you shall smart for it. 
36. impunite, = impune. 39. ut . . . 
dictitant, to judge front ivhat ihey 
say. — metu, intimidation. 40. ni- 
hil agunt, they effect nothings it is 
of no use. 41. ab . . . deaci- 
scam, swerve from the path of. 



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A FAITHFUL FRIEND. 97 

desciscam. Numquam enim honestam mortem fugien- 
dam, saepe etiam oppetendam putavl. Sed quid mihi 
suscensent si id opt5, ut paeniteat eos sul fact! ? Cupio 
enim Caesaris mortem omnibus esse acerbam. *At 45 
debed pro civlli parte rem publicam velle salvam.* Id 
quidem me cupere, nisi et ante acta vita et reliqua mea 
spes tacente me probat, dicendo vincere non postula 
Qua re mai5rem in modum te rog5 ut rem potiorem 
6rati5ne ducas mihique, si sentis expedire recte fieri, 50 
credas nuUam communi5nem cum improbis esse posse. 
An quod adulescens praestiti, cum etiam errare cum 
excusatione possem, id nunc aetate praecipitata com- 
mutem ac me ipse retexam ? Non faciam neque quod 
displiceat committam, praeterquam quod hominis mihi ss 
coniunctissimi ac virl amplissimi doleo gravem casum. 
Quod si aliter essem animatus, numquam quod facerem 
negarem, ne et in peccand5 improbus et in dissimuland5 
timidus ac vanus existimarer. * At lud5s quos Caesaris 
vict5riae Caesar adulescens fecit curavL* At id ad pri- 60 
vatum officium, non ad statum rel publicae pertinet. 
Quod tamen munus et hominis amicissimi memoriae 
atque honoribus praestare etiam mortui debul et opti- 
mae spel adulescenti ac dlgnissim5 Caesare petenti ne- 



46. pro civili parte, as a citizen, 

47. reliqua,/»/- the future. 50. ex- 
pedire recte fieri, it is expedi- 
ent that the right should prevail. 
53. praecipitata, is drawing to a 
close, 54. me ipse retexam, be- 
come another man. 58. improbus, 
timidus, vanus, a knave^ a coward, 

COR. OF CIC. — 7 



a liar, 59. ludos : the Ludi Victo- 
riae Caesaris or Ludi Veneris Ge- 
netricis had been vowed by Julius 
Caesar at Pharsalus, and were cele- 
brated this year by Octavian ( Caesar 
adulescens^. 64. dignissimo Cae- 
sare : Matius was thinking of Octa- 
vian as Caesar's adopted son and 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



6s gare non potul. VenI etiam consulis Ant5nT domum 
saepe salutandi causa, ad quem qui me parum patriae 
amantem esse existimant rogandl quidem aliquid aut 
auf erendl causa frequentis ventitare reperies. Sed quae 
haec est adrogantia, quod Caesar numquam interpella- 

70 vit quln quibus vellem atque etiam quos ipse non dllige- 
bat tamen ils uterer, eos qui mihi amicum eripuerunt 
carpend5 me efficere conari ne quos velim dlligam? 
Sed non vereor ne aut meae vltae modestia parum vali- 
tura sit in posterum contra fals5s rumores, aut ne etiam 

75 ii qui me n5n amant propter meam in Caesarem con- 
stantiam non malint mel quam sul similis amicos habere. 
Mihi quidem si optata contingent, quod reliquum est 
vltae in otio RhodI degam ; sin casus aliquis interpella- 
rit, ita er5 Romae ut recte fieri semper cupiam. Tre- 

80 batio nostra magnas ago gratias, quod tuum erga me 
animum simplicem atque amicum aperuit et quod eum 
quem semper libenter dllexl qu5 magis iure colere atque 
observare deberem fecit Bene vale et me dllige. 



LII. TIRO TURNS FARMER 
(from Fam, 16. 21. 7). 

Emisse te praedium vehem enter gaude5 fellciterque 
tibi rem istam evenire cupio. H5c loc5 me tibi gratu- 



heir. 65. Veni etiam, they make 
ii a ground of complaint also that 
I visit. 69. quod . . . uterer, paren- 
thetical, quod having for its ante- 
cedent eos , . , diligam, which is 
explanatory of adrogantia : while 
Caesar never stood in the way of 



my associating with whom I pleased, 
72. carpendo me, by traducing me, 
81. simplicem, sincere, 83. Bene 
vale, for the Ciceronian vale. 

LII. From a letter from the 
young Marcus to Tiro. i. prae- 
dium, farm. 2, Hoc loco, i.e. at 



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THE COMPANY MAKES THE DINNER. 



99 



larl noli mirari, e5dem enim fere loco tu quoque emisse 
te fecisti me certiorem. Habes. Dep5nendae tibi sunt 
urbanitates; rusticus R5manus factus es. Quo modo 5 
ego mihi nunc ante oculos tuum iucundissimum con- 
spectum pr5pono? Videor enim videre ementem te 
rusticas res, cum vllico loquentem, in lacinia servantem - 
ex mensa secunda semina. 



LIII. THE COMPANY MAKES THE DINNER 
{Fam, 9. 24. 2, 3). 

Te ad cenas itare deslsse moleste fer5, magna enim 
te delectatione et voluptate privasti; deinde etiam ve- 
reor — licet enim verum dicere — ne nesci5 quid illud 
quod solebas dediscas et obllvlscare, cenulas facere. 
Nam si tum cum habebas quos imitarere non multum 
pr5ficiebas, quid nunc te f acturum putem ? Spurinna 
quidem, cum el rem demonstrassem et vltam tuam 
superi5rem exposuissem, magnum perlculum summae 
rel publicae dem5nstrabat, nisi ad superi5rem c5nsue- 
tudinem tum cum Favonius flaret revertisses ; hoc tem- 



•the end of my letter. 4. Habes, 
Welly you are now a landed gentle- 
man, 8. vilico, steward y overseer. 
— lacinia, the corner of your toga. 
9. mensa secunda, dessert. The 
dinner among the Romans was di- 
vided into promulsiSf cena proper, 
and secunda mensa. — semina, i.e. 
of the fruit served with the dessert. 
LIII. From a letter to Paetus. 
I. ad . . . desisse, have given over 
your custom of dining out ; itare is 



the freq. of ire. 3. ne . . . facere, 
lest you unlearn and forget the little 
you did know about giving dinners ; 
the tone of raillery results from the 
slighting use of nescio quid and of 
the dim. cenulas. 5. tum . . . imi- 
tarere, i.e. before Caesar's assassi- 
nation, when Hirtius and Dolabella 
were giving dinner parties. 6. Spu- 
rinna, the soothsayer who warned 
Caesar to beware of the Ides of 
March. 10. Favonius, the west 



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CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



pore ferrl posse, si forte tu frigus ferre non posses. 
Sed mehercule, mi Paete, extra iocum moneo te, quod 
pertinere ad beate vivendum arbitror, ut cum viris bonis, 
iucundis, amantibus tui vivas. Nihil est aptius vltae, 

15 nihil ad beate vivendum accommodatius. Nee id ad 

• voluptatem referd, sed ad communitatem vitae atque 

victus remissidnemque animorum, quae maxime ser- 

mone efficitur familiar!, qui est in convlviis dulcissimus, 

ut sapientius nostri quam Graeci. I 111 avfAiroaia aut 

20 aijvhenrva, id est, comp5tationes aut concenationes, n5s 
*convIvia,* quod tum maxime simul vivitur. Vides ut 
te philosophando revocare c5ner ad cenas. Cura ut 
valeas. Id foris cenitando facillime consequere. 



LIV. THE BATTLE AT FORUM GALLORUM 
{Fam, ID. 30). 

^ Galba Cicerdm S. 

A. d. XVII. Kal. Maias, qu5 die Pansa in castrls HirtT 



wind, the herald of spring, also 
called by the Romans by its Greek 
name Zephyrus ; it began to blow 
about Feb. loth. 16. vitae atque 
victus: the former represents life 
in its spiritual aspect, the conduct 
of life ; the latter in its material 
aspect, with reference to the neces- 
sities of life, 19. <rv|i,ir6(ria, <ri»v- 
Sciirva, translated by compotationes, 
concenationes. 

LIV. Written before Mutina, 
April 1 6th, 43 B.C. The writer had 
been a legatus under Caesar in Gaul, 



and later a conspirator against him, 
and was the great-grandfather of 
the Emperor Galba. He was nov^ 
serving under Hirtius, one of the 
consuls for this year, who had un- 
dertaken with Octavian to raise the 
siege of Mutina, where D. Brutus 
was finding it difficult to hold out 
against the forces of Antony. On 
receipt of the news of the ap- 
proach of the other consular array 
under Pansa, Antony had sent a 
detachment to intercept it, and the 
battle described in Galba*s letter en- 



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THE BATTLE AT FORUM GALLORUM. lOI 

erat futurus, cum qu5 ego eram — nam ei obviam proces- 
seram milia passuum centum, qu5 maturius veniret — , 
Antonius legiones eduxit duas^ secundam et quintam 
tricesimam, et coliortis praetorias duas, unam suam, 5 
alteram Silani, evocat5rum partem. Ita obviam venit 
n5bis, quod n5s quattuor legiones tironum habere s5lum 
arbitrabatur. Sed noctu, quo tutius venire in castra 
possemus, legionem Martiam, cui ego praeesse solebam, 
et duas cohortis praetorias miserat Hirtius n5bTs. Cum 10 
equites Anton! apparuissent, continerl neque legi5 Mar- 
tia neque cohortes praet5riae potuerunt, quas sequi coe- 
pimus coacti, quoniam re tin ere eas n5n potueramus. 
Ant5nius ad Forum Gall5rum suas copias continebat 
neque sclrl volebat se legiones habere ; tantum equita- 15 
tum et levem armaturam ostendebat. Postea quam vldit 
se invit5 legionem Ire Pansa, sequI se duas legiones 
iussit tirdnum. Postea quam angustias paludis et silva- 
rum transiimus, acies est Instructa a n5bls xii. cohortium ; 
nondum venerant legiones duae. Repente Ant5nius in 20 
aciem suas c5pias de vico produxit et sine mora concur- 



sued. The last of Cicero's orations 
that has come down to us, the Four- 
teenth Philippic^ was delivered April 
22d, while a motion for a public 
thanksgiving {supplicatio) for this 
victory was being debated in the 
Senate. 2. ctun quo: the antece- 
dent is Pansa i not Hirti, 4. quin- 
tam tricesimam, sc. et, 5. cohor- 
tis praetorias : the cohors praetoria 
was the body guard of a general. 
6. evocatorum, the veterans; the 
term is used of those who having 



served the full time required by law, 
enlist as volunteers. 7. tironum, 
raw recruits, 10. duas cohortis 
praetorias, his own and that of 
Octavian. 14. Forum Gallorum, 
between Mutina and Bononia. 
16. levem armaturam, = velites, 
18. angustias . . . silvarum, the 
defile between the swamp and the 
woods. 19. XII. cohortium, the ten 
of the legio Martia and the two 
cohortes praetoriae. 20. legiones 
duae, sc. tironum. 21. vico, i.e. 



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102 



CORRESPONDENCE OF CICERO. 



rit. Primo ita pugnatum est ut acrius n5n posset ex 
utraque parte pugnarl. EtsI dexterius eornu, in quo 
ego eram cum Martiae legidnis cohortibu's octo, impetu 

as primo fugaverat legidnem xxxv. Antonl, ut amplius 
passus D. ultra aciem, quo loc5 steterat, pr5cesserit. 
Itaque cum equites nostrum cornu circumire vellent, 
recipere me coepi et levem armaturam opp5nere Mau- 
rorum equitibus, ne aversos nostras adgrederentur. In- 

30 terim vide5 me esse inter Antonianos Antdniumque post 
me esse aliquanto. Repente equum immisi ad eam 
legionem tir5num quae veniebat ex castris scuto reiecto. 
Antoniani me TnsequI; nostrl pila conicere velle. Ita 
nescio qu5 fat5 sum servatus, quod sum cito a nostris 

35 cognitus. In ipsa Aemilia, ubi cohors Caesaris praet5- 
ria erat, diu pugnatum est. Cornu sinisterius, quod erat 
mfirmius, ubi Martiae legionis duae cohortes erant et 
cohors praetoria, pedem referre coeperunt quod ab 
equitatu circumibantur, qu5 vel plurimum valet Ant5- 

40 nius. Gum omnes se recepissent nostrl 5rdines, reci- 
pere me novissimus coepI ad castra. Ant5nius tamquam 
victor castra putavit se posse capere; qu5 cum venit, 
compluris ibi amisit nee egit quicquam. 

Audita re Hlrtius cum cohortibus xx. veteranis re- 

45 deunti Ant5ni6 in sua castra occurrit copiasque eius 
omnls delevit fugavitque e5dem loc5 ubi erat pugna- 



Forum Gallorum. 23. dexterius, = 
dextrunty of which it is the compara- 
tive form. 32. castris, sc. Pansae, 
— reiecto, i.e. over the shoulder ; 
this was done to prevent being mis- 
taken by his own men for a foe, or 



to protect his back from the missiles 
of the pursuers. 35. Aemilia, sc. 
via; this crossed Cisalpine Gaul 
from Ariminum to Placentia, and is 
even now in use. 41 . nOYissimus, the 
last of all. 46. delevit, annihilated. 



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THE BATTLE AT FORUM GALLORUM. 103 

turn, ad Forum Gall5rum. Antonius cum equitibus h5ra 
noctis quarta se in castra sua ad Mutinam recepit ; 
Hlrtius in ea castra rediit unde Pansa exierat, ubi duas 
legi5nes reliquerat, quae ab Ant5ni5 erant oppugnatae. 5c 
Sic partem mai5rem suarum c5piarum Antonius amisit 
veteranarum, nee id tamen sine aliqua iactura cohortium 
praet5riarum nostrarum et legi5nis Martiae fieri potuit. 
Aquilae duae, signa lx. sunt relata Antonl. Res bene 
gesta est. A. d. xvi. Kal. Mai. ex castris. ss 

52. nee . . . potuit: Galba appar- 1 received a mortal wound. Hirtius 
ently did not know that Pansa had | was killed in battle a few days later. 



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