Skip to main content

Full text of "Selections from the Greek Lyric Poets ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

'Edb^^r WW. V| , ViTs" 


Harvard College 



3 2044 102 849 445 


/"/ia^ /'"^^ii--^^ 















By Ginn and Heath. 


J. S. Gushing & Co., Printers, Boston. 


The present edition of Selections from the Greek 
Lyrio Poets has been prepared with the desire to do 
something toward filling what seems to be a great 
chasm in the field of Greek literature as explored in 
our American colleges. We study Greek poetry, leav- 
ing out those very species of song which have most to 
do with the common life of the common people. 

I have followed very largely in my selections the 
German edition of Professor Buchholz. I have also 
to acknowledge my obligations for his excellent notes, 
which have been used with great freedom, though never 
without an attempt to verify his statements from other 
authorities. The text is generally that of Bergk; 
though in some exceptional cases, especially referred 
to in the notes, other authorities have been followed. 

The original plan of the book included some selec- 
tions from Pindar's Epinician Odes. I found, however, 
that another American editor was at work upon a 
plan similar to my own. I have to express my ob- 
ligations that, in the consequent division of the field, 
so generous a portion was relinquished to myself. 


References will be found to Smith's Classical Dic- 
tionaries, to Goodwin's Greek Moods and Tenses, and 
to Professor White's new edition of Schmidt's Rhyth- 
mic and Metric of the Classical Languages (S.). I 
regret that the first part of my book was sent to the 
publisher before I had time for a complete eicamination 
of this last work. The references are made as far as 
possible to the Grammars of Professoi's Goodwin (G.) 
and Hadley (H.)- 

In the Historical Introduction I have endeavored 
briefly to trace the growth of the Greek poetic art, 
with the desire to compensate in some slight degree 
for the fragmentary nature of the text. It has been 
my purpose to make the notes as brief as possible 
without too greatly exposing myself to tlie charge of 
meagerness. Discussions have been uniformly avoided. 

This book has already greatly increased the interest 
of one student in the fragments of Greek Lyric poe- 
try. That it may do as much for othere is my high- 
est ambition for its success. 


Smith College, July 22, 1879« 




Callinus 3 


mimnermu8. 10 

Solon 12 

Xenophanes 19 

Theoonis 22 


Archilochus 65 

SiidONiDEH of Amoroos 59 


Sappho 67 

Alcjsus . 71 

Anacreon 75 

Anacreontea 79 



NOTES 125 




Callinus of Ephesus enjoys the reputation of being the 
oldest of the Greek elegiac poets. The date of his life can 
with difficulty be determined, though probably his writing 
commenced about 730 b. o. He is full of patriotic feeling and 
fiery earnestness. 

Asia Minor seems from early ages .to have been ravaged by 
the inroads of Cimmerians, wild barbarians supposed to issue r 
from the regions north of the Euxine sea (cf. Herod, i. 6, 15, 
103; iy. 12). From this scourge Asia Minor was not finally 
delivered until the reign of Alyattes (b. c. 618 - 566). It was 
probably in connection with the threatening of these invad- 
ers that Callinus wrote the following elegy to rouse the Ephe- 
sians to defend their homes. We have a line and a half of 
another, in which he beseeches Zeus to pity his countrymen. 

The Elegiac Distich, used by the Elegiac Poets, is com- 
posed of an ordinary heroic hexameter consisting of two dac- 
tylic tripodies with caesura (S. § 19, 2, iii.) ; and of a catalectic 
dactylic hexameter with syncope in the third measure (S. § 11, 
6, ni.).. This second verse is usually, but erroneously, called 
pentameter^ a name founded on the mistaken division of the 
verse into five measures, the third of which was always a spon- 
dee and the fourth and fifth anapaests. See S. § 28, 2 ; G. 295, 
5 ; H. 911. 

MexpL^ T€v KaTOKeLaOe ; kot okKLfiov i^ere dvfiov, 
& v€oi / ov8* alheiaO* afi<f>Lir€pLKTLOva^, 


Jjcdai, arap iroXe/ios yalav awoba'av €)(€i. 

* * * 

s icat rt? aTrodvijcrKtov varar* aKovTiaaTfo, 
TLfirjei/ r€ yap iari koX ayXaov avhpl fidxeo'dai, 

yjjs nepi koL 7raCh(oy KovpLhCrfS r* aXo^ov 
hvafitvio'iv' ddvaro^s 8c tot ccrtrcrat, ottttot^ k€v 8>/ 
MolpaL iinK\(0(roi)(r , dXXa rts i0v^ lto) 
10 €y)(o<s ava(r)(Ofi€vos Kal vir* dcnriho^s akKifiov rJTop 
€k(ra<:, to irpSnov fiiyvvpAvov ttoXc/jlov. 
ov yap KCD^ OavaTOv yc ^vyeiv eifiapiMO/ov icTCv 

avhp, ou8' el irpoyovoDV y yevo^ ddavaTtav. 
TToXXa/ct ^ioTrJTa ^vyci}v koX hovirov aKOVTOiv 
15 cp^CTOt, iv 8' otKO) fioipa kI)(€v davaTOV 
dXX' 6 /x,€i^ ov/c cfiiras StJiko (f>C\o^ ovSe wodeLvo^, 
Tov 8' oXtyo? aT€vd)(€L Kal ficya^, rjv tl wddri • 
XaoJ yap crv/JLiravTi iroOo^ KpaT€p6<f>povof; dvSpo^ 

OmjcTKOVTO^. ^(OODV 8' d^LO^ 'qiiidioiv • 

ao Siairep ydp fiiv irvpyov iv o<^da\fLOia'iv op!a<riv • 
€/)8€t ydp TToWwiV d^ia fiovpos ifi^v. 


The story of Tyrtaeus is almost too familiar to require repe- 
tition. According to tradition he was a lame schoolmaster, 
sent by the unwilling Athenians to the disappointed Spartans, 
who in obedience to the oracle sought a leader to rescue them 
from their misfortune in the second Messenian war. But the 
Athenians were in turn disappointed, and the Spartans were 
made jubilant, for he so inspired them with ardor by his songs 


that complete victory crowned their efforts. Almost all mod- 
ern critics look upon the story with great suspicion, but m 
any case the question arises how to account for the origin of 
the tradition, and how to explain its meaning. It is perhaps 
safe to accept the evidence that the poet was by birth and 
parentage a foreigner, but by his mental and moral superior- 
ity, evinced both in the inspiring power of his poetry and in a 
talent for organization which marked him as a statesman, he 
became a leader, and, at length, a citizen in the Dorian state. 
The effect of his songs was so highly estimated that it was 
customary for the armed soldiers to sing them in front of the 
king's tent before entering upon any military expedition. 

The date of the second Messenian war would mark him as 
flourishing from about 685-665 b. c. For language his poems 
make use of the Epic dialect, with occasional Doric forms aris- 
ing from local influence. 

In the *E/x)8aT^piov (p. 9) the metre is an anapaestic tripody 
(paroemiac). See S. § 31, 3, 1 ; G. 297, 3 ; H. 913, e. 



I. (10.)* 

TeOvdfieuaL yap Kokov iwl 'irpofidxpio'i nccroma 

ap8p* ayadov irepX y warpChi fiappdfia/ov, 
rrjv S* avTov TrpoXnrovra rroXiv koI irlova^ aypov<s 

«^ irXa^ofievov crvv fiTjTpl <l>C\ri kol irarpl yepovrt 
Trawrt re avv fiiKpoi^ Kovpihijj r' dXo^oi. 
€)(6po^ fi€v yap roZo'i iieTeaaeraL, ots k€p licrfTai 

^(pTfcriJLoa'vpri r' €lk(ov kol (rrvyepQ TrepCj/, 
ato7(WCt T€ yivo<;, Kara S' dyXaov elSo? iXeyxei^ 
«o Traaa 8' dTLfiLa /cat KaKorr)^ hrerai. 

€L o ovra)9 apopo^ rot aKcofievov ovoefii (oprf 

* The figures in parentheses give the numbering of Bergk*s edition. 


ytyverai, ovr auko^ ovt oirt? ovt €A€o?, 
0vfjL(p y7? TTcpl TTJO'Se fia)((oiie0a koI nepl naiBcjp 

15 2 vioiy dXXa iid^ead^, Trap* aXXi^Xoicri fxevovre^, 

dXka fieyav TroL^lade /cat okKifiov eu (fipeal dvyu&v, 

[irjBk (f}iXo}lw)(€lT* avBpdo'L fiapvaiiepot * 
Toifs 8c TToXaioTepov^, S}v ov/ceri yow/ar* ika(f>pd, 
» fiTj /caraXciirouTC? (f>€vyeT€, Toif^ yepapow ' 
alaxpov yap ^ tovto fiera irpoiid^oKri Trccrdura 

KeurOaL irpotrde vioxu avBpa irakaLorepov, 
tJSt) XevKov €)(ovra Kaprf iroXiw tc yeveiov, 

dviiov dnoTTveCovT* dXici/xov iv Kovijf, 
«5 aifMaToevT* atSota <^tXai9 ci/ ^€p(rw €)(ovTa — 

alcr)(pa rd y* 6<f>6aXiiOL^ /cat v^fieayjTOP tScti/ — 
/cat XP^^ yviivo}6ivra • vioiai hk irdvT* cttcoi/cci/, 

o<^p* iparfj^ Tjfiri^ dyXabu dv6o^ eyjj • 
dvhpdai fikv OrjrjTo^ iheip, cparo? 8c yvvai^iv, 
V ^ct>o? cc5i/, KaXo$ 8* €1/ npofidxpLO'L ireo'cjp. 
dXkd Ti9 cv 8ta^d9 fia/iTO} iroaXv dii^oTepoKTiv 

(rT7)pv)(dei^ iirX y^9, ^ciXo? oSoScrt Sa/ccj|/. 

II. (11.) 

'AXX' 'HpaicX'^o? ydp dviKrJTov yipo% iare, 
dapaeiT^y ov no) Zcv? avj^ci'a Xo^i/ e^ct • 

t^v? o ct? npofiaxpv^ ao-irto omjp ^cro), 
€)(dpav fi€v ^Inj^TjP diiievo^, davdrov Sc /xcXatva? 


Krjpa^ 6/jt6>9 avyai^ rfekiou) (f>Cka^. 
fcTTC yap '^ApTfos woXvBaKpvov epy* (USi^Xa, 

c5 8* opryrjv ihdyfT* apyaXiov ttoXc/aov, 
Kal daiia ff>€vy6vT<op T€ Stftiicdi/ra)!/ tc yeycvcffe, 
lo S i/eot, dii<f>oT€pa)v h* €19 Kopov rjkdaaT€. 
0% fi€v yap ToKiiSi(ri irap* aXXtjXoio-i [lepovre^ 

€5 T* aiyro(r)(<^hiy)v /cat Trpop,a)(ov^ ia^at, 
Travporepoi dvrjo'KOva'L, craovcri Sc Xao^' omo'a'O) • 
TpecadvTwv 8* dphpSiv irdcr* aTrdXcoX' dpenj, 
15 ovhel^ dv noT€ ravra Xeyoov dvvceiei/ eKacra, 
o<ra'*, 7jP al<r)(pd ndOj), yiyverai dvhpl ica/ca. 
dpyaXeop yap oirnrde. fi€Tdxf>p€Pov cotI 8a't^€ii/ 

di/8po9 (f>€vyopTo^ Stjlo) iv TroXifKo • 
al<r)(p6s 8' €otI i/€/cv9 KaKKeCfievo^ iv KovijjO'iv, 
» v&Tov oiTKrO* ai^Qiy 8ovpo? iKrjXaiiepo^. 
dXXa ri9 eS Biafid^ fiePCTO) Troalv d/jL(f>oT€poi»a'u/ 

aT7ipf,)(0el^ inl yfj^, x^tXo? 68OS0-1 8aiccui/, 
firipoih T€ Kvrjiia% re /caro) Kal CTepva Kal (S/tovs 
dcnrt8os evpeCrf^ yaoTpl KoXxAffdfievo^ • 
as Se^LTepg 8* ci/ x^^P^ TLPaaaeTO) ofifiptiiov cyyo^, 
icii/ctro) 8€ \6<f>op Becvop virkp K€(f}aXrj^ • 
6p8€ii/ 8* ofifipifia €pya BiSacKdaOa) noXefii^mv, 

firfS* €/cT09 fiekecjv ecrTdTO) d(nrih* €)((op, 
dXkd T19 iyyvs lo}v avroa^eBop €y)(€L fiaKp^ 
30 7) gi<f>€i ovraCfiiv otjlop avop eAcrci) • 

/cat 7rd8a Trap iroSl Oev; koX iir dcrnCBo^ dxririS* 
iv 8c \6<f>ov re \6<f>(o /cat Kvperjv Kweg 
Kal aripvov arepvio ireirki^pdvo^ di/hpl iia)(€a'6o}y 


^ ^C<f>€o^ Ktairqv fi hopv fiaKpov eXa>i/. 
35 Vfi€t9 S*, 5 yvfipfJT€S, xm* axrtr&o^ dXkoOev dkkos 
TTTcio-crouTcs /leydkoL^ fiaXkere ;(€pfiaStoi9, 
hovpaai T€ ^eoTouTLP aKOPri^ovre^ €? avrovs, 
TOtcrt iraraTrXotcrt TrXriciop icTd/iepoL, 

III. a2.) 

Out* Ai^ fiPTicraCfirjp ovt* €p \6y^ avhpa Tideifirjv 

ovre noBZp dpcr^? ovrc Trakaicrfiocrwrjs, 
ov8* €1 KvKkamwv {ikv €)(oi fUyedos re fiCrjv t€, 
PLK<^ Se dio}v ^prjiKLOP Boper/p, 
5 ovh* €1 Tl6(opolo ifwTfp ^apidoTepos ctiy, ^ 

irkovTOLTj Sc MiScct) /cat Kt^vpeo) fidkiop, ^^f 
ov8* ct TaKToXiSco) lUkoiros ^acrtXcurcpo? ciiy, 

yXaio"<rai^ 8' ^A^pijoTOV ii€iKv)(6yy)pvp ^ot, 
ovo CI wacrap €)(oi oogap irXrjP uovpioo^ a/ucqs, 
,0 — ov yap dpjfp dyaOo^ yiyperai ev noXefio) — 
€1 fiTj rerXaCri fiep opwp <f>6pop alfiaroepra 
/cat hnrjMP opeyoLT* iyyvdep icrTd/i€PO^. 
170 apenjy too aeuKop €P apupconoLau/ apuarop 
KoXKiaTop T€ <l>€peLP yiyperai dpBpl i/cicp. 
X5 ^vpop 8 * icrdXop rovTO iroXrft re iraPTi T€ StJ/jlo), 
o? T15 ai/i7p 8ta^a9 a/ wpoiidxpicri p^py 
pcAe/jLeo)^, alcrxpcis 8c <f>vy7J^ inl trdy^ XdOr/Tai,, 

^yyiP K(u dvfiop TXrjiiopa wapOefiepo^, 
Oapcrvpy 8' eneaLP top irXrjaiop dpSpa Trapeards 
» OVT09 OLPrfp dyados yiyperai ip iroXifKo • [j\^ 
au/ra 8c Bva-fi€p4oi>p dphpS>p erpexffe (f>dXayyas 



TpTf^eCa^, OTTTovSg T* ^(T\€d€. KVfia fJ'CixV^' 
avT05 8* iv npofiaxpLO'L Trccraii^ <f>CKoP (oXece dviiov 

aarv T€ /cat Xaov^ kol irarep* cvicXctcra^, 
25 TToXXa 8ta cTTipvouo Kai dcrirtSos 6/x^aXo€or<r>;» 

/cat 8ta dwpr)KO^ npoadev ikrjXafiepo^ • 
TOP 8' 6\o<f>vpovTaL fih/ 6/xa)S v€ol rjhe yepovres, 

apyakiif re n60(p iraaa K€Krj8e nokis' 
/cat TVfifios /cat 7rat8€? iv dv9p(onoL^ apicrri/iOL 
30 /cat 7rat8ct>i^ TratSc? /cat ycVo? c^omcroi. 

ov8c TTore /cXcos ecr^Xoi' airoXXi/rat ov8' opo/i avTou, 

aXX' viro y^s vep imp yiyverai aGdvaro^y 
6v TLV dpiarevovra iiivovrd re fiapvdfi^vov re 

yi75 Trept /cat 7rat8a)i^ dovpo<; ^Aprj^ okicrxi* 
35 €t 8e <^vy27 /^^^ 'ci^pa rai^Xeycb^ davdroiOt 

PLKijaa^ 8* at;(/Lti9? ayXaoj' cS^o^ eXi;, . 
irame^ fiip TifiSiaiv ofiw vioi rihk TraXatot, 

TToXXa 8c repirvd iradaiv epxeraL eU ^AiSirjv • 
yrjpdcTKojp acrrotcrt /xeraTrpeTrct, ov8e rt? avTov 
40 fiXdiTTcip ovT* at8ov9 ovrc 8t/ci7? iOikeL, 

TrdvTd 8 ei' OcaKOLaiP o/to)? i/cot ot T€ /car* avro^ 

eiKova €K x^PV^ ^^ "^^ TraXatorcpot. 
ravTT;? i/Si/ rt9 dvfjp dpcrrj^; eU aKpov iKiadai 

neipacOo) 0v[i^, firj /xedtet? Trokd/iov. 


IV. (16.) 

Aycr , 2 Xirdpra^ ivdvhpov 
Kovpoi 7raT€p(oy TToXtT^rai', 


ov yap waTpUiP rq, Xirdprq.. 


MiMNEBMUs was bom apparently at Smyrna, and flour- 
ished according to some authorities from about 635 b. c, while 
others place his literary activity in the following century. 
The facts of his life are but little known to us, though the 
date is to a certain degree fixed by the fact that Solon ad- 
dresses him as a contemporary. He was the first to employ 
the elegiac verse for plaintive mournful compositions, and so 
receives the honor of introducing to the Greeks a new inven- 
tion in song, more especially as the character which he im- 
pressed upon the elegy became a distinguishing trait of that 
style of poetry forever after. Abandoning the themes of war 
he sung of the trials and disappointments of life, exalting love 
as the only compensation left to poor mortality. A beautiful 
maiden named Kanno, the preeminent subject of his song, was 
immortalized by his elegies addressed to her. 

The dialect of Mimnermus was the Epic, though with some 
forms like icorc and ic(u9 imitating the later Ionic. 


I. (1.) 

It? oc pto9> Ti 0€ repirvov arep \pvcrr)^ A(ppoovT7)^ ; 

redpaCrjv, ore fioi [17ik€Tl ravra pjiKoi, 
KpvirraSirj (f>LkoT7i^ Kot /leCkL^a B&pa koX eifinj * 

el yjPnr)<; avOea yLyverai OLpiraXea 


5 oMOpaxriv i)06 yvvai^iv • cTret o oowrfpop etreKtrg 
yrjpw, o T aiaxpov OfiZs kclL KaKov avhpa TiOel, 
aUi flip if^peva^ diiffjl icaicat reipovci /xcpt/Jtvat, 

ov8* avya? irpocopZp rdpirerai '^eXxov, 
dXX* exOpo^ pip Traiaiv, dn/icurro5 8c yvvai^iv • 
lo ourois apyaXiov yijpa^ ediiKe dto^, 

II. (2.) 

'H/ici? 8' Ota re <^i;XXa <^v€i noXvapOeos &pj) 

eapo^, or aii/r ^^077^ avgerat i^cAiov^ 
TOts ticcXot 7nj)(yLOV inl ^ovov avdecriv rjfiri^ 

T€pn6p,€0a, irp05 ^CcSl/ €i8oT€9 OVTC KaKOV 

5 our* ayadov • Kijpe^ 8c wapeanJKaxri p4kaivai. 
If p,kv exovaa riko^ yqpauo^ d/oyaXebv; 
71 8* €r€/wy davdroio • p^ivwda ^ yiyverai rffiyj^ 

Kapno^, ocov r* cttI y^i' fci8varai rjikio^ • 
avrdp iirrjp 817 rovro rcXos irapapev^erai iprj^, 
10 avTiKa T^dvdpai fiiXriov ^ fiioro^ • 

iroXXd ydp 6i/ ^v/ji^ icaicd yiyverai * dXXore oTkos 

rpv^oSrat, irei/vq^ 8* Ipy* 6Bvvr)pd ttcXci • 
dXXo$ 8* av 7rat8o>i/ 6irt8€verai, 5i/ re poKioTa 
ipeCpCDP /card yrjs epx^Tai els *Ai8i^i/ • 
13 dXXo^ i/oOoroi/ e)^€t 0vpo(f}66pop • ov8€ rt? corti/ 
dpdpomwp, £ Zevs pr) /ca/cd iroXXd 8t8ot. 

III. (6.) 

AvTiKa /xot fcard /tei/ xpoi'^v /Sect do'ircros t8pd>9> 
irroixapai 8' iaopSiP dpdos oprjkiKirjs 


TepTTPOP 6/jta)9 Kol KoXop, CTTcl ttXcov (o<f>€K€P etpai • 
dXX* okiyoxpopiop yiyperai &<r7rep opap 
5 17)817 Tt/Ai^ccrcra • to S* apyaiKiiop Kal afJLOp(f>op 
yyjpa^ vnep Ke(f>aXrj^ a\yrL\ vvepKpefMaTai, 

l)(dpop 6ixS>^ Kal aTLiiop, o r dypcDCrTOv Tt^ct ophpa, 
^Xairrct S* 6<^^aXfiov9 Kal poop ap,if>i)(y0ip, 

IV. (12.) 

*HlXto9 /i€i/ KapT €ka\€P iropop rjfiaTa wdpra, 

ovSc iroT* afiwavcTL^ yiyperai ovBefiia 
hnroiirip re. /cat avroJ, cttci pohohaKTvKo^ *Ha)5 

'flK€ai/oi/ 7rpoXt7roC<r* ovpapop eiaapafi^ • 
5 Toi/ /i€i/ yap 8ta Kv/x,a <^lp€i iroKvrjparos emnj 

Kodkri, 'H(f>aLaT0v ^epaXp iKyjkapApT) 
Xpvaov TifiTJepTo^;, vnoTrrepo^;, aKpop iif) vScup 

€voop0* apnaXkcD^ )((opov d(f>' '^crnepiBtop 
yatai/ €9 Aidiovtop, Ipa 817 Ooop apfia Kal linroL 
10 eaTOLO'*, 6(f>p* *Ha)5 rjpiyepeui ftoXt} • 
cj'o' cirepTj €T€pci}p o)(e(op TnepLOPOS vlos* 


Solon was an Athenian citizen of noble birth, tracing his 
lineage back to Codrus, the last king of Athens. His mother 
was also cousin to the mother of Peisistratus. His naturally 
meditative mind was rendered more thoughtful by observation 
at home and extended travel abroad, so that he became known 
as one of the s^ven sages of Greece, 

SOLON. 13 

His age was one of peculiar interest in the history of his 
fatherland. Bom about 638 b. c, he grew up to find the 
state suffering from widely extended discontent, and in 594 
he was elected Archon with unlimited power to introduce the 
needed reforms. 

The little oratory and philosophy of that age was almost en- 
tirely poetic, and Solon's work as a statesman was performed 
largely through this same instrumentality; he addressed the 
people in poetry. Athens had for many years been troubled 
with an old dispute with the Megarians over the possession of 
the island of Salamis. Hegara had gained the superiority in 
the contest, and the Athenians in despair had given up their 
undertaking, even passing a law forbidding writing or saying 
anything to urge the people to reopen the conflict. Solon, 
however, was indignant at such a result, so that he finally 
even feigned himself mad, and, after the report of his irre- 
sponsibility had been sufficiently circulated, rushed in among 
the citizens and delivered a poetic address, bidding them 
retrieve their disgrace and repossess the lovely Salamis. The 
appeal was sustained by the ardor of the younger citizens, 
war was recommenced, and Salamis was recovered. 

This was the commencement of Solon's prominence as a 
poet and politician, but he never relinquished his fondness for 
this method of bringing his thoughts before the people. He 
is said even to have written a metrical version of his laws, and 
certainly composed a number of shorter poems, generally of a 
hortatory character- The basis of Solon's dialect was the 
Epic, though with some peculiarities which remind us of the 
later Attic. 


I. (1.) 

Avro? Kijpv^ '^\6op a<f> liieprr}^ SoXa/xti/o^^ 
Koafiop ineoiv (oSrjv avr* dyoprj^s Okfievo^^ 


11. (2, 3.) 

Eiiyi/ 817 TOT * eyw ^o\€ydvhpio^ ^ XiKWiJTyf^ 
can't y* *A^iyi/aw)v, warpih* dfiei,\jfaii€Po^ • 

aliffa yap &v ^Ti% 178c iier* avOpc^iroicn ykvoiTo • 
'ATT1/C05 ovTO? din^p Tcii/ ^(ikafiipa(f>€TCt}p. 
5 *Io/A€i/ €19 SaXa/x.ii/a> ixa^Tfa'oiiepoL nepl vijaov 
IfiepTT]^, ^aXeirov t* aTo-^os dir(ocr6/i€Poi. 


III. (4.) 

*H/xcT€/>a Se irdXt? /caTa /i,ev A109 ov ttot' oXctTat 

alcrai/ icai /xaKoipcjv 0€&p (f>p€Pa^ ddavdrtav * 
roCrj yap fieyddviio^ iwiaKono^ ofifipifioirdTpTj 

IlaXkd^ ^Xdifvalif xeipa^ vwepdev e)(€t • 
5 avTol 8c (f>0eip€LP iieydkrjv ttoKlv d^pahixjo'iv 

d(TTo\ jSovXovrai xprjiLaai neiOofievoi, 
Sjjfiov 0* 7ff€.iwv(ov dhiKo^ voo^y oXo'iv Itoiiiov 

v/3pL0^ eK fieydXr]^ dXyea iroXXa nadelp • 
ov yap inicTTapTaL Kari^^ip Kopop ouSc wapovcra^ 

zo €V(f>poavpa^ Koaiielp hatros ip 'f)<Tvx^XI' 

« « « 

TrkovTovaiP 8* dBiKOL^ j^pyfiaai irei66ii€POi 
« « « 

ovd^ iepaip KTcdpcjp ovre ri Srj/ioo'icjp 
(f>€LS6ii€P0L KKeiTTovaip i(f>* dpirayjj aXkoOep aXXos 
ovBe ^vkdao'OPTai crefipd Od/ieOXa Aitcri^, 

15 ^ (TiySia'a crwot8c to, ytypofiepa npo t* iopra, 

Tc3 Se 'xp6p(o TrdpTO)^ ^\d* dnoTKroixepyf. 

SOLON. 16 

Tovr rjSjj irdcrg nokei €p)(erai cXkos axf>vKTOP • 

€15 8c Katcr/v Ta)(€a}s rj\v0€ hovkocrvvYjv, 
rj crdcrLv €ii(f>v\op noXtfiov 0* cvSour* cTrcyctpct, 
ao 09 iroW&p €pari)v wXecrev rfXLKLTjv • 

eK yap hvciiepecov Ta)(ecD^ woXvijpaTOP aarv 

Tpv)(€rai iv (Twohoi^ rot? dSiicovcrt <^tXai$. 
ravra p,€v €v 8njfia) a'Tp€<f>€TaL icaica* tgJi/ Be n€PL)(p<ov 
LKVovvraL iroWol yaiav €9 oXkoSanTJv 
25 npadivre^ Secfioicri r' deiKcXtOKri Sc^cWc?, 

/cat /ca/cd SouXocrvwy? arvyva ff^epovcTL fiCa.^^ 
ovTO) SrjfiocTLOv KaKOv €p)(€TaL oucoS* eicdoTO), 

avXeioi 8' €T* €\€LV ovK idikovai dvpai, 
v^rjkov 8* xmkp ipKo^ virepOopa/, €vpe 8c irdpTw^, 
30 €t Kai Tt? (f>€uy(op iv liv^^ ^ daXdfiov, 
ravra 8i8d^ai dvfio^ *AdripaCov^ /le KeKevei, 

&>? /ca/cd TrXcicrra ttoXci Svavofiia Trape^et, 
evvofiia 8* evKocfia koi dpria iravr* dno<f>aCv€i, 
/cat da/id rot? d8ticot9 dfi(f}LTidr)a'L 7rc8a? • 
35 rpa)(€a Xctati^ct, Travct Kopov, vfiptv dfiavpoZ, 
avaivei 8* dri;? apOea (f>v6fi€Pa, 
evdvpcL Be 8t/cas cr/coXtd^ vTr€pTJ<f>apa r epya 

npavpet, iravei 8' c/>ya Bi^ocrTaa-LTf^, 
Travel 8* dpyaXer)^ epcSo^ -^okop, ecTi 8* vtt* avr^9 
40 ndpTa /car* dp0p<airov^ apTia /cat 7rti/vrd. 

IV. (6.) 

Arjfio} fi€P yap eBtoKa rocrop Kpdro^, oacrop enapKel, 
TLfirjs ovT d(l>eka}p ovr ewope^d/jLepos * 


oi 8* etxov hwafiLV Koi ^prifiao'iv ^aav ayrjToC, 
Kai Tot9 iff^pao'diiTiv ixrjSh/ detfCC9 ^€6i/ * 
5 eoTrjv h* aii<f^ifiaXo}v Kparepov colko^ afufHyrepouriv^ 
piKov h* oifK etaxr ovherepow d8iicai9. 

V. (11.) 

Et 8c wenovOare Xvypd 8C vfMeTtprfv KaKorrfra, 

liTj TL 6€o2s TOVTCJP fioipap iTTafiiffepeTe • 
auroi yap rovrovs rjv^aare pvjiara 8duT€s, 

Kai 8ta ravra Kaiofv €cr)(€T€ hovkoaniprfp • 
vfi€(ov 8' et? ii€P €icaaT09 aXcoweKo^ l^veaL fiaiv€L, 

crvinraaiv 8' vpHv kov^o^ €P€<m voos • 
€19 yap ykZcrcai/ opare Kai 6t9 Itto? aloXov aa/Zpo^, 

ct? ipyov 8' ovhep yiyvo/iepop fiXcnere. . 


VI. (13.) 

MprffioavPTj^ Kai Zrjvo^ *0\v/JL7riov dyXqia TCKva, 
MovcraL TIicpiBe^, icXvrc fiot ^vyopJvta • 

oXjSov fioi npb^ OeSiv fiaKapwv 86t€ koX irpo^ 
dv0p(OTrcDV aiel Bo^av €X€lv dyadrjv • 

cTi/ai 8e ykvKvv £8c <^iXois> ixOpoUri 8c nLKpov, 


Xprjliara 8' l/jLeipo) [ikv c^cti/, d8iica)9 8c TreirajrOai 

ovK idiXcD ' irdvro)^ varepov '7j\0e BCKrj. 
ttXovtop 8* ov fih/ BcjCL 0€oi, napayiyverai dvhpL 

SOLON. 17 

OV 8* avS/9€9 TLflfOCU^ V<f> vfiptO^, OV KOlTOL KOCflOP 

epxerai, dXX* dSt/coi9 epyfiaa TreL06/i€i/os 
ovK iOikfOP ineraL • ra^^clw? 8' ai/a/xtcryerat any • 
^PX^ 8* €^ okiyov yiyv€Tai &(rT€ irvpo^, 
15 if>kavp7i [ih/ TO np&TOP, avufprj Be rekcvr^. 
OV yap S^p 6vr)rol^ v/3pLo^ ^P7^ ttcXci. 
aXXa Zcv9 irdprcop i<f>opa riko^, i^airivrj^ 8c 

war avejio^ v€<f>eXas ati/ra 8i€0-/c€Sa(rei^ 
'qptvos, o9 vovTov iroXvKv/iopo^ arpvyirouo 
» TTudfiepa Kivrja'a^y yfjv Kara irvpo<f^6pov 
8jj(ocra^ KoXa ipya, de&v I809 ainvv iKavei 
ovpavovy aWpLifv 8* avOi^ edrjKG/ Ihetv* 
kdjjLTrei, 8' TjekCoLo ii4vo^ Kara iriova yaiav 
KoKoVs arap v€<f>€(i}p ovoep cr eaTiv lo^lp • 
»5 TOLavrrj Zt/po^ ^ireXeraL Tt<ri9, ov8* i<f> cicacrro) 
cjairep 6pr)T0^ oanjp, yiyperai 6iv)(o\o^*^/ 
aUl 8* OV i kikride 8iafi7r€/3€9> ocrrt? aXiTpop 

Ovfiop e^ct, TrdpT(o<: 8* c? reXo? i^€(f>dpri. 
aAA. o /xci/ auTt/c eTcaep, o o vcrrepop" fjp oe (pv 
30 avroiy /JLTjSe Oecjp fioip* cirtovcra KL)(jg, 
rjXvOe ndpTfos avdi^ • dpairioi epya tlpovcip 

^ 7rat8€9 TovTO)^' 7j yepo^ i^oirCcra). 
dpTjTol 8* (oSe poeviiep o/icj^ dyados re KaKOS tc* 
heLprjP ct5 avToS So^ap licacrro? c;(€i, 
a5 Trpti' ri iradeip* t6t€ 8* avriic bhvperai* dxpi 8c 


)(do'KOPTes Kov^at9 cXtticti Tepnofieda. 


^(SoTis /iiv vowroicru^ in apyaXegcn iriearO^, 

a>5 vyvTj^ ccrrat, tovto KaT€ff>pdcraTO • 
aXXo9 SeiXo^ iatp ayaOos hoKcl cfifiei^at avijp, 
40 ical icoiXo9» ikop^riv ov x^pUinrav ej^coi/ • 
€1 §€ rts axp'qfKop, veviTi^ 8c ftti/ €/oya fiiaTai, 

KTijcraardai, 7rai/Tco9 xpyjiiara iroXXa Soicci. 
o-TTCuSci 8* SXKod&f aXXo9* 6 /x^i/ Kara iroinov 
€1/ prfvalv XPO^^^ oiKa&e K€p^^ ay€w 
45 IxOvocPTy aa^€iJLOL<ri <f>op€Vfi€PO^ apyoKeoio'i^i 
(f}€L8o}\rjP ^lfV)(7J^ ov8e/uai/ Ocfiepo^ * 
aXXo9 yfjv Tipviav irokvhivhpeov cts iviavrov 

Xarpcvci, Tourw/ Kafi7rv)C aporpa [ickei ' 
aXXo? *K0jfvavq^ re Kal *H<^atoTov 7roXvr€;(V€6> 
50 €/aya 8ael9 xeipoiv ^XXeyerat fiiorop • 

aXXo9 'OXv/i,?ria8c(>^ Movcreto^ irdpa Bcipa SiBa^deC^, 

iliepTTJ^ a'o<f>L7)^ yATpov iincrrdfiepo^ • 
aXkop /laPTiP WrjKa/ oipa^ kKwepyo^ 'AttoXXcov, 
eyi/a> 8* a^8/Dl kukop rqkoOev ip^ofiepop, 
55 ^ avpofjLapTija'wcri 0€oi • ra 8c fiopaLfia wdpro)^ 
ovT€ Tis ouoi/o? pvcrcrai ou^* icpa. 
aXXoi nato>i^9 TrokixfHipiidKOV epyop €)(opt€^ 

IrjTpoL • ical 7015 oi;8€i/ eirecrTi* riXo^ • 
TToXXaict 8 c^ oXtyrj? 68vi/7j? fUya ylyperai aXyo5, 
6o /covic dp Ti? Xvo'atr ifTria if^dp/iaKa Boik, 
TOP 8c KOKal^ povcoLCTL KVKCjfiepop dpyoLkiaL^ T€ 

ojjfdiiepo^ ')(€LpOLP alxjia TWrfC* vyvfj. 
MoLpa 8c roi 9prjTolcrL KaKOP if^epei rfBk kol icrdXop • 
BS}pa 8 * d<f>VKTa dtcip yiyperai ddopdrtop. 

iL „-.,' (c^:.( v'.-.-..w '/ A.. ■< ^ >'^" 



*5 iTQjcTi hi Toi KLvSvvos ctt' cfyyfiaaLv, ovSe ns oTSo', 
y fieXKeL (r)(J)(r€iv xprifiaTO^i dpxo^a^ov, 
aXX' 6 /xci/ €v epheLP Trctpco/xci/o? ou TrpovoTjaa^ 

€is fLeyakqv arqp /cat ^(aXeTr^i' iweo'ep, 
T(fi hk KOKOis iphopTi ^€09 iTcpl ndpTa SiBoXTLP 
70 (rvpn/xCrjP dyadijpy IkKvcip a(f>poa'VP7j^ • 

'»rXovrov 8* ovSci/ T€pfia 'n'€(f>aafi€POP dphpdai /ccirai* 

o? yap i/Si/ Tjfiefdp irXeurrop expyai fiiop, 
8tirXa<rtct>9 <rireu8ov<ri • rt? ai/ Kopeaeifv dirapra^s ; 
KepBed Toi OptjtoI^ wnaaop addparoi • 
75 any 8* €^ avTCjp opaif^aipeTaL, fjp owotop Zeus 
wifi^ Turofiiprjp, aXXorc aXXo? €)(€l, 

VII. as.) 

JloXXol yap n\ovT€vai KaKoi, dyadoi 8c mpoPTai* 

dXX' i7/i,€r? avT0t9 ov 8ia/ui€ti/rd/i,€0a 
•1^9 apcT-^? Tw ttXovtoi/, €7rci TO jiev efin^Sop aUi, 

XpTJfiara 8* opOpdirtop aXXorc aXXo? ej^ct. 


Xenophanes was the distinguished Eleatic philosopher, 
horn at Colophon, though very little that is definite can he 
determined with regard to the time of his hirth. He flour- 
ished during the latter half of the 6th century b. c, estahlish- 
ing himself in the Phocsean colony of Elea, in Italy, haying 
heen for some reason hanished from his native city. He was 
the author of a numher of poems, of which his elegies are 
those hest known to us. He uses the style of poetry rather 


in the manner of Mimnermus than in that of the earlier writ- 
ers, heing however more positive and didactic, and less melan- 
choly. He upholds the dignity of philosophy against the 
excessive admiration of the Greeks for athletic strength, while 
at the same time he sharply chides the lonians for their grow- 
ing luxury and effeminacy. He reeommenoa that at the haii- 
quets the praises of virtue rather than the prowess of giants 
should he sung. 

The dialect of Xenophanes corresponds in general to the 
Epic, with a few individual peculiarities. 


I. (1.) 

tivv yap 8rj [fiineSov Kadapov koX yi^oe^ airdmtop 

Kal Kv\LKe<s ' 7r\€KTov<; 8' afi^LTidei crr€<f>dvov^, 
aXkos 8* cvQ)8€? fivpov iv ^laKjj irapo'^^ivei • 

KpaTTjp 8* iaTrjKO/ fiearos iv^pocrvvrj^ • 
5 aXXo9 8* oXvo^ eroLiio^, 09 ov irore <f>r]0'l npoBcoceLV, 

li€i\i)(o^ iv KepdfjLOL^, avOeo^ 6cr8o/xci/o5 • 
ip 8c ftecrot? dyvrjv oSfirjv kifiapajTo^ lyjaiv, 

ilfvxpov 8' ear IV vSwp kol yXvKv koI Kadapov • 
irdpKeivrai 8* dprot ^avdol yepaprj re rpdne^a 
'o Tvpov Kal ixiktTo^ Triovo% d)(dofievYj • 

fito/xo^ 8' dvOeatv dv to /lecrov ndvrrj TTCirv/cacrrat, 

fioknri 8* dfi<fn^ cj(ct Sd/iara Kal dakiy). 
Xprj he TTpwTOv fjLev deov v/iveiv ev<f>povas dvBpa^ 

ev(f>'q[iOLS {ivOoi^ KoX KadapoTxri Xoyot?. 
'5 aTTeicravTa^ 8c icat ev^ajxevovs rd hiKaLa ^vvaaOai 

TrpTJacei^v — ravra yap Zv ecTi irpoyeiporepovy 
ovx vjSpts, — iriveiv biroaov Kev €)(Oiv a^iKOio 




oiKaS^ai/€v irponoXov, firf irdvv yrjpaXdo^* 
avSpciv S' aiveiv tqvtop, 09 iadXa iruav ai/affxuvei, 
ao 0)9 oi fLVTjfioa'vv p, icat TOV9 09 ani<f> apevfj^, 
ovTL fidx^a^ Steiret TlttJvcjv ovSc TiyavroiVj 

ovhk TO, Kevravpcov, nXdafiara twv irporipiav, 
Tj ardo'ia^ cr^cSam9' Tot9 ovSev yfi7)a'Tov eveoTiv 

dewv Sc npofirjdeLrjV aUv €)(€lv dyadov. 

II. (2.) 

'AXX' €i fi€v rayyrfJTi rroSatv vlktjv Tt9 apovro 

fj frevradXevwv, ivda Ato9 T€fi€vo<s 
trap YLio'ao poy^ iv 'OXv/xirtjy, etre fraXaicop, 

rj Kal rrvKTocrvvrfv dXyivoecraav €)(<ov, 
5 ctrc TO SeLvov dedkov, o irayKpdT:.ov Ko^ovtru/^ 

doTouriv k ctij KvSporepo^ irpoaopdv, 
Kai Ke rrpoeSpirjv (f)aveprii/ cv dycjcrtv dpoiroj 

Koi K€l/ (TLT eiTj SrfflOO'LCJV KTedviov 

€ic iroX€a)9 Kal Swpov, o oi KctfnjXiov etrf • 
»o ctT€ icat hnroKTiVi ravrd y^ dnavra Xa^ot, 
ovK i(ov a^M)9, cjo'Trep iyd • p(Ofir)<s yap dii€Lvo}V 
yjpLi/hpS}v i)S' hnroiv 7)fi€T€prj a'0(f)iri. 
dXX^ eiKjj yxaXa tovto vofiL^erai • ovSe StKaiov 
TrpoKpCvetv ptofjLrjP rrj^ dyaOrj^ a'o<f)iri^. 
15 ovT€ yap ci rrvKTrj^ dyadov Xaourt fiereLyj, 
ovT ei TrevradXeiv, ovre rraXaio'p.oa'vviqPi 
ovhk fiev ei Ta)(yrfJTL troSwv, to Trip iari rrportfiov 

pcifir/^; oaa di/Spwv epy* iv dywvi ireket, 
TOVP€Kev av 817 fiaWov iv eifvofiiy 7roXi9 eirf • 


(TyiiKpov S* av rt TroXet ^a/o/xa yei/ovr eirX toJ, 
ov yap maCvei ravra ijlv)(ovs irdXecu?. 


Theognis was a native of Megara, about twenty miles west- 
ward across the bay and the island of Salamis from Athens. 
He flourished from about 550 until as late as 490 b. c. His 
birth would therefore apparently fall as early as b. c. 570. 

For a long time previous to the birth of Theognis his native 
city had suffered from a series of revolutions which threw the 
control of the state back and forth between the oligarchs and 
the commons, or more frequently tyrants who usurped the 
power in their name. Theognis belonged by birth end by 
sympathy to the nobles, and his poems naturally reflect his 
feeling of indignation over the misfortunes of his friends, and 
his thorough hatred of their political opponents. His senti- 
ments were greatly intensified by his personal losses, as his 
property was confiscated, and he was sent forth an exile, home- 
less and almost friendless. He found at last a resting-place 
and obtained the rights of citizenship in Megara, in Sicily. 
It was the natural result of his experiences that all his 
thoughts were colored by his political feeling. In his writings 
the nobles are always the ayajSot and iarOXoC^ and the common 
people are kokol and SctXoi, so that these words, as they occur 
in his poems, are always to be taken as having at least much 
of this political signification. 

Theognis has left to us an extended collection of apothegms, 
and is therefore far better known to us than any other author 
as a writer of gnomic poetry. His verses were addressed to 
one Kurnos the son of Polypas, of whom nothing further is 


known than Theognis suggests. His lines contain frequently 
very excellent moral maxims^ and for this reason were studied 
in the Greek schools as part of the moial training of the 
young. He was, however, a disappointed, imbittered man, 
and his feelings are constantly coming into sight. He could 
not he satisfied with the times in which he lived, nor with the 
actions of his countrymen. 

There are other fragments of the poetry of Theognis, hut 
they are less deserving of attention. The edition of Bergk 
gives some fourteen hundred lines of his elegiacs ; only a por- 
tion has been selected as sufficient to give an illustration of 
the Greek gnomic poetry. 

The dialect in which Theognis wrote was the Epic, with 
some modifications from the Ionic, and some forms also Doric, 
as Megara was a Dorian state. 

'^fl ai^a, Ar/Tov^ vU, A to? t€ko^, ovrrore creio 
Xijcrofiai dp)(Ofi€vos ovS' anorravofjievo^, 

aXk* aUl irptarov ae koX vararov ev re fiicroio'tv ■ 
detcro) * crv Se fioi kXv0l koL io'dXa BiSov, 

5 ^oifie oLJ'af, ore fUv a€ dea reVce ^rrorvta At/tco, 5* 
<l>OLj/iKo<; pahtvrj^ ^epaXv c<^ai/^a/utCKi7, 
adavoLTitiv KoXkiaTOv, iirX rpoy(0€ihei Xifurg, 

rraaa fiev i'nr\ij(r0r) ArjXo^ arretpeo'Lr] 
oBfifj^ afiPpociri^, iyekaaae 8e yala trekcipri, 
10 yrjdy)(r€v hk fiadifs irovros 0X09 rrokirjS' » 

"Aprefii 0r)po(f)6vri, Ovyarep Aid?, ^v ^Aya/xe/ivcDV 
elwad^ or €9 Tpoirjv cTrXec vrjval doal^, 

♦ The figures on the right give the numbering of Bergk's edition. 


f.V)(OfJLepq) fioL k\v0i, KaKas S' gltto tcrjpas aXaXic€ 
aol fikv rovTOi ^ca, afiiKpov, i/xol Sc /tcya. 


■5 Movcai Koi Xdpire^, Kovpai A109* aX wore KaS/xov 

C9 ydfiou iKdovaai koXov detcraT* Itto? • le 

oTTt KaAov, 91X01/ €(rrf to o ov KaKov ov <I>lKov 

iariv • 

TovT* erros ddapdrcov r]\0€ Sta (rTOfjLdrwp. 

KvppCy ao(l>i^oiievq} fiev ifiol (r(f)pr^l^ imKeCcrOco 
ao TOCO'S* eTrecLv, XTJaet 8* oimoTe KXeirTOfxepa. «> 
ovSc' TL<s dXXafet KdKLOV TovcrdXov Trapeovro^, 
cyoc 0€ Tra? Tt? c/o€t • vyevyPLOo^ earip eirrf 
70V Meyapeo)^' irdvra^ h\ Kar dpdpcorrov^ opo- 
daTOLO'LP Srj ov tto) iracriv dScii^ SvpafiaL • 
*5 ovokv daviiacrrovy noXvTratSrj • ovSI ydp 6 Z€V9 »5 
ovC/ v(t}v TravTecro' apoavei ovr ape)(0}p. 

Xol S* iyci) ev (f)pov€<op ifnrodrjO'oiiaL, old nep avTOS, 

Kvpp , awo To>v ayauoyp Trats eT coiv e/xauop. 
Trenvvo, ftrjS' al<r)(po7(TtP iir epyfiaa ftiyS* dSi- 


30 Tt/id? ftijS* d/0€Tas cX/ceo /itjS ' a<\>epo^, 30 

TavTa /x€i/ ovto)? lo-^i • KaKOicri- Sk fir/ frpocrofiiXei 
dpSpdcLP, dXX' atel Toiv ayadiop e^co • 

/cat Trapd to'lo'lp rrtpe koi ecrOte, KaL fiera tolclp 
l^ff Koi dp^ave Tots, S)p fieydXrj Bvpafits. 


35 iaOkiov fikv yap im iaOXa fiaOijcreai,' fjp 8c ica- 

crvfiiiCaYiis, aTroXet? kol tov iovra vqop. 
Tavra fiadwu ayaOolcriP 6/LtiXc€, Kai wore ^crets 

Kvpve, KV€L iroKt^ rioe, oeootKa 06 /lit) refcg avopa 
¥> evOvPTTJpa Kaicfj^ vfiptos rifiereprj^. ¥> 

aoTOL fi€P yap eu oioc crao<f)poves9 rjyeiioves oe 
TCT/oa<^aTat TroXkrjv €9 KaKorryra Trccrcii'. 

OvSefiiav rro), Kvpp*, dyadol troXiv wXeaav dvSpe^ • 
dXX' orav vfipitjew rolai. KaKoiaiv dhjj, 
45 819/xoi/ T€ (f)0€ipa}a'L, Stfca9 T* dSi/coto't SiSciicrii^ 45 
oiKeCcjv KepBecop etpeKa Kal Kpdreos, 
ekTreo fir) Sr/pov KeCvriv iroXtv aTpefiieiadat, 

/Lt>yS* ci vvp Keirai noXKy iv yiav^iiiy.. 
evr av rotci KaKotai <^tX' dvhpdai ravra yo^rat, 
50 KcpBea hr^fioaifo avv KaK(o ip)(6fieva. sp 

iK Tcjv yap ardcrii^ re /cat €/i<^vXo6 (f>6voi dvhpS^v. 
jy;^V fiovvapxos 8c toXci /xtjttotc r^Sc aSot. 

Kvpve, itoXl^ fiev €0* rjSe rrokt^, Xaol Sc Si) d\ko 

ot irpocrd^ ovT€ St/cas ^Sctrai', ovrc vofiov^;, 

55 dXX* dfi<^t TrXevprjcTL Sopd<s alytov Karirpifiov, 55 

€g:a) o fticrr eAacpoi ttjso evefiovro rroKeo^ • 

/cat wi/ cto"* dyadoL, TloXviraiSTj • 01 8c Trptj/ 


oXXi^Xovg 8' dwaTZcLv eir aXKrjkoiai ycXc!>i^c9# 
ak ovr€ kokSw yvdfias €t8ore9 ovr aya6&v. fo 

Mrjheva TwvSe (l>ikov iroL€v, Ilo\v7rcd87j, aoTciv 

CK dvfiov, XP^^V^ €iP€Ka iirjhefjiir}^ * 
dXXa hoKei fiev iraxriv oltto yXcucrcn/s ^tXo9 eu^at, 

XPVH*^ ^ ^^H'l*'^^^ ftiySo/l ffci/8' ortoOi/ 
65 cTTTOvSaibi' * yvdirg yap oi^vpHv i\>peva^ avSpciv, 65 

ft>9 cr^ii' eir' tpyoiaiv ttio'ti^ en oiBcfiCa, 
dXka SoXov9 T* awdra^ re iroXinrXo#cia9 r* i<l>Ckrj(rav 

ovT(o^3 C09 avSpcs iirfKCTL (rcoj^ofiei^OL, 

nwrro9 dv^/a xpvcov tc ical apyvpov avrepvcacrdai 
70 d^to9 CI' xaXeTT];, Kvpve, 8i)(oo'TacrC'g, 7« 

nav/t)0V9 evpTJaei^, IloXinratSi;, avhpas kralpov^ 79 
7rt(rrov9 ci' j(aXciror9 irpTJypxLa'i yivofievov^^ 

ol Tiv€^ av ToXfiaiev, 6ii6i\>pova Ovfiov e^oi^€9, 
laov tSjv ayaOSiv rtov Te KaKwv fierexeLv. 


75 Ou Td(ro"ov9 X* €vpot9 Si^pjfievos ovS* 6irl rravras 83 
av6p(orrov^, ov9 1^01)9 ff^ ftta rrdvra^ dyoi, 
otaip irrl yXdatrg t.c /cat 6(f>da\fiota'iv cneo'TLV 
ai06>^> ovo aiiTXpov XRVH* ^^* Kcpoo^ ayct. 

Mtj /x* enecTLP fieu aripye, voov S* e^c icat (f>piva<; 

dXXa9> ^ 

80 ct /xc <f)L\ei^ Koi col itlcttos eveoTi voo^. 

d^d <f}i\€L Kadapop Oifievos voov, ij fi diroeifTTW 

, "yHEOGNIS. 27 

€)(Oaipt OLfi^aBCrjv peiKos aeipdiiepo^. 
OS Se fiL'g ykdcirg St;^' cj^ct voov, ovro^ iralpos 

heikos, Kvpv, ex^po? jSeXre/oo? '^ <l>Ckos (av. 
85 Hi' Tt9 iirawrjiTji ae rotrov ^ovov occrov opifrfs, w 

voo'^itrOw S* aXXi^i' ykuitra-av tpo"t Kaicjp, 
TOLOvTos rot €ra(/)09 dKi7/> <f>C\os ovri fiaX* icrdkos, 

OS K cZttj; yXcoo'crj; Xola, ^^povy 8' irepa, 

*AXX' €ti; TOiouTos €/iol if^Ckos, OS TOP krolpov 97 
90 yivda-Kiiiv opyriv Kal fiapvv ovra <l>€p€i 

<uTt Kaa-iyinjrov • oru 8c /iot, ^iX6> raOr* ci'l ^v/i^ 
^pd^€o, KaC TTOT ifiov /imfcreac i$owCcra>. 

MrjSeis cr* dvOpwircov ircio^ KaKOV avhpa (l>LKfjcrat, «» 
Kv/)i/€ ' n 8* co"r 6(l>€kos 861X69 avfip <f)i\os c5i/ ; 
95 ovT av <T Ik ^(aXcTrotb irovov pvo'airo koX arris, 
ovT€ K€v icrdXop €xo}v Tov fieraBovp lOikoi. 

A6iXov9 cS 6/9801^1 ixaTatOTaTr) X^P^^ ia-riv • 195 

laop Kal o'lreCp^Lv irovrov 0X09 ttoXi'^s. 

ovT€. yap iiv rrovTov crireipiov fiaOv krjiov a/x^s, 
100 ovT€ KaKOifS ev hpS>v eS nakiv avTikd^ois- 

aTrktioTov yap e^ovcrt KaKoX voov. fjvh' ev afidprgs, 
tZp irpoadtv Trdvrwv eKKeyvrai ^tXo7^9. 

01 8* dyaOoX TO fieyiCTOP iXa^^pitpvo'i rradovreSy 
fivfjfia 8* €Xpv(T dyadcjv Kal X^P^^ i^oma'CD. 


»«» Kij88>jXov 8* di'8/)69 yv(avai ^dkerrdTepov ovoa/, 117 
Kvpvy ov8' €v\afiLris cart ttc/oI /rXcoi^o9. 


Kpycov KtjSSi/Xoio koI apyvpov ava^ero^ arrf, 119 

Kvpve^ KoX i^evpclv pifSiov avSpi co^. 
€i 8e ^CKov voos avSpo9 €vl anjOcao'i Xehjffri 
kio ^Spo9 i(op, SdXiov S' €1/ <l)peaiv ^rop e)(ji, 
TOVTo ^€09 KiPBr/XoraTOv iroCrjo'e fipoTouriv, 

KoX yvSi^at iravr<av tovt aviriporarov, 
ov yap av ctScti/^ av8po^ voov ovSc yvvaiKO^t 

irpiv TreiprjdeCrj^ ciairep vno^vyCov • 
ns ovSc K€v ciKao'crat? cjawep iror €9 cSvioi^ iXddv • 

iroXXaKt yap yi/dfiriv i^airaTwa tSeat. 

OvS€y a^ avOpdmoLO'L irarpo^ koX /xrjTpo^ apstwov 131 
cirXcTO, roi% ocCrj, Kvpve, itefirjke StKi;. 

Ov8€i9* KvpUf arrf^ koX K€p8€0^ alru)^ avro9> 'as 
xM dXXa deol tovtcdv hcaropes ani^oTep<av * 
ovhi Ti9 avdpwnoiv ipyatfiraiy iv ^pecli^ €i8a»9 

€9 T€Xo9 ctr ayadop ytvcrat €tT6 KaKou. 
TToXXaici yap Sokcoii^ d'qcrcLv KaKov, iadkov idrfKep' 

KaC T€ hoK&u 6'qcreLV icrdXov, edrjK^ KaKOU, 
1*5 ovSc r^ ia^dpomfov wapaytyveTai, oca"* idik'go'iP' 

l<r)(€L yap xaKerrijs TreCpar afirjxapiri^. V>*^^^ 
ap0p<arroL 8k iiaraia vofii^oixev, ci8dT€9 ovSa/* v-jlV-Auv. _ 

deol §€ Kara (r^Tepov irdvra reXoGcrir vooi'. 

Ov86t9 TTft) ^eipov, HoXvircdSTj, i^airanjo-a^ w 

130 ovS* iKcrrfv dvrjrZv aOavarov^ ekadev. 

BouXeo 8* exxTefiediv 6Xtyot9 crui/ ^prqiiao'iv oiK€U/. 445 
17 TrXovretJ/, dSi/ccu? xpyJi^tdTO, 7ra(7"a^x€i/09. 


1^1 c? U ^ y r- 

iv 8c Siicatoo"vi^ crvXKrjfiSrjv iracr* ap^rq criv, 
ira% 0€ T ounj/o ayaC/09, Kvpi/e, oiicaio^ €a>i/. 

135 ^prjiiara fikv haifKov koX rrayKaKco avBpl 8lS(o(Tlv, 149 
Kvpv* • dpcT^9 8' 6Xiyot9 avSpdat fiotp* errerai- 
MtjnoTe rot irepirfv dvfio<l>66pov dpBpl ^oXco^cts, 155 

ft7/8' d)(firjiiO(ruvriv ovkopAvr)v frp6<l>€p€. 
Zeifs ydp roL to Tokavrop iTnpperrei aXXore aX\co9, 
i^ aXXore fiev TrXovrcti/, aXXorc iiTjhh/ c;(€n/. 

Mi^worc, "Kvpvt dyopacdai ewo^ /xeya* oTSc yap 
dvdp(o7r(ov o Ti TO^ XVH^PV ^i^Spl rcXct. 

*AXX' aXXo) KaKov ccrrt, to 8' drpcKCs oX^ios ovScts »*7 
dp0p(on(ov, oiroaov^ rjikix}^ Kadopa. 

145 *Oi^ 8c ^€ol TifiZfr, OP Koi fi(t}fi€vp,€PO^ alp^Z. xcg ; <^ 
apopos 0€ (rtrovOTj yti^crai ovoc/ita. 

B6019 €V)(OVy U€OL^ eOTLP CTTi KpaTOS' OV TOl aT€p 

Oetop X71 

ytVcTai dp0p<orroLS ovr dyaff ovre #ca/ca. 

"ApBp* dyaOop rrepCrj ndprcjp hdfii^o-i ftaXtora, 173 
ISP Kol yrjp(a<s woXtov, Kvppe, kol iqirtaXov, 
TjP 817 \py) <f>€vyopra kol c9 fiaOvKTjTca ttoptop 

pitrreiPj Koi rreTpdcop, Kvppe, Kar rfXtfidrcop, 
Kai yap dprjp nepiif heSfirjfiipos ovt€ ^i elTrelp 

ovO* ep^ai 8waTat, yXcScrcra 8c oi 5€'8cTau 


iss Xp^ yap Ofiio^ inl yfjv re kcu evpea vwa ^aXacr- 

hi^rja-Oai -^aXcmj^, Kvpv€, \v<riv iTG/vq^. 

Kpioif^ pxv KoX ovow Si,(;}jfi€da, Kvppe, koX Imrovs >>3 

cvy€i/ca9, Koi Tt9 jSovXcrai cf ayaOoiv 
fiijo'eo'dai • yfjfiai, Se Kaicrfv KaKov ov jxeKeSoupeL 
xte icdXo^ oarrjp, rjv oi )(p7JfiaTa TroKKa StSoi. 
ovSe yvvTj KaKOV avSpo^ avaxpeTaL ctvai aKoiTis 

rrXovaiov, dXX' a<f>V€ov jSovXerat avT ayadov, 
^rjiiara yap TLfxcia'L • Kal cic icaicoS ccr^Xo? eyrjiiep, 

Kal KaKO^ i^ ayadov • 7rXovro9 Cfttfe y4vo^. 
165 ovrco /ii7 davjial^^ yci/09, IIoXvTratSiy, aoTa>i' 

jjLavpova'dai • crvj/ yap fiLayerab icrOXa KaKOi^. 

AvT09 Tot Tavrr/v eiSa)9 KaKonarpiv iovcav 193 

ct? 01/COV9 aycrat, ;(/9Tj/iacri rreiOofievo^, 
€vSofo9 KaKoho^ov, cTTct KpaTCpij fiiv avdyKTf 

170 ivTV€l, Tj t' CU^8/t)09 TkljflOPa 0rJK€ voov. 

XT ^ ^>A ^A'/l \\^/ >5^^' 

Xprffia o , o fiev aioueu Kai (rvv OLtcg auopi yeprj- 
rat 197 

Kal Ka0apa}^, aUl rrapfiovLfiov rekidei, 
€t o aot/co)? trapa Kaipov airqp (piKoKepoei uvfi^ 
icnjcrerat, eld* opK(o rrap ro hiKaiov iXdv, 
175 avTiKa fiev rt <f)€p€iv KcpSo^ Sok€l, c9 Sc rcXcvn7i' 
a5^t9 eyci^o KaKOP, Oewp S* U7r€pc(rj(€ 1^009. 
aXXa raS* opOpdrrcop dirar^ yoov ou yap cir* avrov 
TiPOPTCu fiaKape^ irpijyfiaTO^ dfirrXaKLa^ • 


aXX* 6 /Ltcv avro9 cTto"€ KaKOv xpio^ ovSc ^iKoktiv 
««o arqv i^onCafo waicrlp xmepKpifiaxrG/ • 

aXXoi/ 8* ov Karefiapxlfe Bi/crj * ddvaros yap ai/aiSi}s 
irpoaOev hrl fi\€<f>dpoL^ li^€TO ic^/oa (l>€po}v, 

Kvpve, <f>Ckov^ Kara iravra^ eirCcrTp€<f>€ troiKikov 

^6q^, ai3 

opyrjv arvfifiUryfOP rjvrtv cicacrTO? ^€t. 

185 TJovXvirov opyrjp MT^e ttoXvttXoicov, 05 itotI ircrp'g, «5 
rp npocrofxiXijaTij 70109 tSc«/ iffxiprj, 
vw pJkv rgS* i(l>€7rov, tot€ 8* aXXoib? xpoa yCvov. 
Kpio'tnav tol cro<l>i7] yivtrai arpoirirj^, 

"OoTt? TOi 8oK€€4 TOI/ vXtjcCoV t8/i€l^ai OV^V, »« 

190 dXX' avros fioSi^o? ^oticiXa Si/i^e' €)(€iv, 

Keivos y* a^pcov icrl, voov ^pkamiivos icrdXov, 

Icro)^ yap irdvT€^ TrotictX* imcTafieBa, 
aXX* 6 /Lt€v ovic edcXei KaKOKepBtjja-ip €rr€(rdai, 

TO) 8€ 8oXoirXoiciai uaXXov airio'Toi ahov, 

X95 Sol /jL€i/ eyoi irrip* eBooKa, crvv 61s iir dweCpova 

iroVTOV a37 

iraynjaji Koi yfjv iracrav deipdfiepos 
pTjiBCcDS • 0oCpjis Se Kal etkamirrjcrL irapicaji 

iv irdaai^y TroXXcai^ Kei/iepos iv o'TOfiao'iv • 
Kal o"€ avv avkicKoicri \iyvf\>06yyois vioi avSpes 
coo 6vicd0'/to)9 iparol Kokd re Kal \iyia 

q.o'ovTai • Koi Stop hpo(l>€p7Js virb Kevdecri ycur/s 

' ^ < \ , f • ' ^ .A ■ 


fig^ irokvKfoicvTOW €19 'AtSao ho/iov^, 
ovSe TOT ovSe davoiv drrokei^ #cX€09> aXXa /jLeX>;cret9 
a<l>diTOV wdpcjiroL^ alkv e^cov ovofia, 
■P5 Kvpp€, Kad* 'EXXaSa y^i^ arpoiifxaiitifo^ -^S* ai/a 
i)(6v6€PTa irepSip irovrov err arpvyerov, 

dyXaa Movcractiv Soipa loaTe^vcDP • 
Traci yctp, otcrt ficfirjXe, ical iKraofia/OKrvp dotSi^ 

aio 60-07; 6^6)94 ^^P' &1' 27 y^ T€ Kttl '^6Xl09 * 

avrap iycjv oXiyrf^ rrapa aev ov Tvy)(ap(a alBovs, 
dXX* wairep fiiKpov TratSa Xoyot9 //»* airarq.^, 

KdXXco'Toi' TO hiKaioTarov • X^arov S* vyiaiveiv • ass 
Trprjyiia 8c TepTTV&rarov, tov tls ip^y to rvxeiv. 

ai5*Io"G)9 Tot TOL fiep dXXa ^€ot 6pr)roL^ apdpwirois m 
yyjpdf; t oiikofievop koX veovrfr iSoaop • 
Ta)v TrdpTojv Se KaKiarov iv ap0pamoi^, Oovdrov re 

KoX rraaecjp povcrwv iarl iropripoTarop, 
7rai8a9 cttcI dpe^ato Kal apfiepa irdpra 7rapdcr)(0i^, 
aao -^TJfiara S' iyKarad^^, wdXX* dpvqpa waddv 
TOP traTep i)(0aipovcrL, KaTaptom'ai 8' drroXeo'dai, 
Kol aTvyiovKT wairep 7rT0})(OP i7rep)(6fi€POP. 

\ 9 

Toi KaKOL ov rraPT(o<s KaKOi eK yacTpos yeyopaaip, 305 
dXX' dphpeaai kukoI^ (rvpdefiepot i\>i\iyiP 
««5 Ipya T€ SctX' efiaOop kol cthj Svcnfyvjiia Kai vfipip, 
iXnofiepot KeCpovs ndpTa Xeyetp Irv/xa. 


/\ - ' ■ T ' . . . V 


Kvpv*, ayado^ jxh/ avyfp yvdiirjv e^ct ifiweBop at€t, 3x9 

ToXfia 8' €P TC KaKol^ Keifiepos €v r* dyaOol^ • 
€1 Se ^€09 KaK^ dvSpl fiCop Koi rrXovTov owdafrg, 
230 d<f)paCp(ov KaKLTjv ov Svvarai KaT€)(eiv. 

iJirj TTOT cirt (TjiiKp^ 7rpo<l>d(r€i (f>i\ov dvhp diro- 
Xecrcrat 3*3 

ireiOofievos xc^Xcirp, Kvppe, SLatfioXiy. 
el Tt9 dfiapTwXyo'i ^iXcov itrl rram'l )(oX&ro, 
ov TTOT Slv aXX>^Xot9 dpOfikoi ovhk ^iXoi 
ns etev • d/xaproiXat ydp iv dvOpdiroKriv hrovrai 
dvrfTOL^, Kvpp€ • Oeol 8' ovic i6iXovcrL i\>4peiv. 

"Htrv^o?, axnrep eyo), fiecrairjv oSov ^p)(€o ttoccCv, 33* 
/xTj8* kripoicri 8180 V9, Kiipve, tol t&v ircpoi^v. 

Mrjhkv dyav ctttcvScw^* Ttavrtav fxecr dpiara* koX 

OVTQ}^ 335 

840 €^€t9, Kvpv\ dperriv^ rfv t€ XajSeti^ x^Xcttoi/. 

Zev? ftot rail/ T€ t^CXxav hovq tlctlv, ol [le <f>LX€vo'LV, 337 
Tcii' T lx6p(av fieitpvj Kvpve, Bwricroiiei^ov, 

j(OVTa}S av BoKeoifii fier dvOp^iroi^ ^609 eli^at, 
€1 ^* drroTicrdiiepov fiolpa Ki^ot davdrov. " 

«45 *AXXd Zc3 rcXco"w ftot *OXv/Lt7rt€ Kaipiov ehyrjv* 341 
809 8€ /not d^ri KaKCjp Kai ri nadelu dyadov. 
T€0vaL7]v 8*y €t /xi} ri KaKWP dfirraviia iiepLfU^aiv 
evpoifirjv, SoCr/v 8* dvT dviatv dvias ' 


alera yap ovT<a^ iarC * riai^ S' ov ifniiperai '^fiu/ 
ifB avSp&v, ot rofia XpnrJiMLT* €)(oucri fiCg 

<ru\ija'am€^ • eya> 8k KViav impr/ira \apaZpnnv, ^ 

-ffeifiappf^ TTora/i^ wavr aTroaeia-diiei/o^ * ^<i \ 
T&v €iri nikav a^a iri€iv * iiri r icrdXo^ opoiro 

haCiuov, 69 Kat ifwv vow reXeo'ete raSe. 

issToX/jLa, Kvpvc, kokoutiv^ ivti KOfrOXoicrLv expn" 

p€9* 355 

cSrc a"c icat tovtchv {loip iirefiaXKev exeiv 
C09 Se wep ii dyaOZv ikafie^ KaKOP, &s 8e icat 
€#cSwai 7r€ipS), d^ouTiv in€V)(6fi€vo^. 

OvSo^a drjcravpov waurlv KaTa$ij(rg afieCvoi 409 
aiOov9> 1) T ayaCrot9 avopaaL, Kvpv , eirerai. 


OvSevo^ avOpioTTOiv KaKicov SoKei etvai iToxpo^, 411 
£ Yud/xri d* errtTai, Kvppe, koL ^ SvvafiL^, 

Ovo€P o/xouip €fioi ovvafiai oiQqfLevo^ evpetv 4x5 
rrLarop iToipop, oro) fiij rts ivetrrL 86\o^' 
«65 C9 fido'avov 8* ikBiov TrapaTpCfiofiai ware /ioXt)8So> 
)(pv(r6^, vwepTepCr)^ 8* a/x/xtv eveKTri \6yo^, 

noXXoi? dvOpdrrwv y\(0(T(rg dvpai ovk iirU 

K€WTai 431 

apii68iai, Kcd (T(f>iv iroKk* dfiikiqTa /xeXet* 
TToXXa/ci ya/o ro KaKOv KaTaKeifievov evSop a/jLeivov, 
vjfo, iaOXov 8' i^e\6ov XcoCov fj ro KaKov. 


HdvTfov fiiy fiTj <l>waL i7n)(dopioLa'tv apiOTov, 435 

lirjo €a'iO€iv avya^ ogeo^ i)6Atov* 
<l>wTa 8' o7ra>9 cuKtora TrvXa? 'AtSao wepfja'ai, 

Koi K€la0ai, TroXkrjp yfjv JTr a/iria'dfiei/ ov, 

»7s ^va-aL Kal Ope^at pq,ov fipoTov, ^ <f)p€va^ icdXa^ 4>9 
ivdiiitv ovheC<: 7r(o tovto y' iir^.^patraroy 
& Tt? o'(i<f>pov* iOrjKe rov a<l>pova, kolk KaKov 
€1 8* 'AcKkriTTuibaL^ TOVTO y* eScJicc ^€09, 
laadai KaKorr/Ta Kal drrjpas i\>p€i/a^ di/Spcav, 
»8j 7roXXov9 &v fiicrOov^ koX fieyaKov^ €<l>epov • 
ct 8* ^v TTOirjTOv T€ Kol ivOeTou dvSpl porjiia, 

ov WOT* i,p i^ dyadov waTpo^ eyePTO KaKO^, 

neidofiepo^ fivOoLo-i a'a6<f>poo'LP' dXKd SiSacrKcov 

ov woTe 7roti;crct9 top k€lkop ap8p* ayadop. 

■85 Ml/ TTor' iw^ dtrpriKroia'i poop ?j(€, iir)hk jxepoipa, 461 
XP'^P'O.CTLy T<op opvai^ yiperai ovScfiia, 

'A^<^' ap€Ty Tpifiov, Kai (tol tol BiKaia ^tX' co"Tca, 465 
fti^Se ere piKaTio Kcpho^y o t ai<rxpop eg. 

^ MrfSdpa to^pS^ aeKOPTa [lepetp KaT€pvK€ Trap' tifitp. 467 
agtt ^TjSe dvpatfi Kikev^ ovk iOekoPT^ tcvat, 

ILTjh^ €vhopT^ ineyetpe, XificDpCSri, op tip' &p rui&p 

dci}pjf)^dipT ' oti^o) iLokdaKo^ vnpo^ cXjj, 
ft>;TC TOP dypvTTpiopTa kekev^ dcKOPTa ica^cuSeti/' 471 
TTcU' yap di/ayKatoi/ XPVt*'^ dpvqpbp e^v 

— r 


S9S r^ iripeiv S* idikovri irapaaTaJSov oh/0)(0€LT<a * 

ov iracra9 vvicra9 yiverax afipa naOelp' 
airap eyoi — yuirpov yap ^o) fieXti^Seo^ oivov — 

imvov XvcucaKOv /ivijo'oiiaL oticoS ' loiy, 
ijfco 8' (09 ot»^o9 ](api€OTaTO^ ai/Spl yreiToqrdai' 
300 ovr€ rt yap injifKo, oire Xirfv fiedvoi. 

o9 8' &i/ vvrepfidKkji noao^ pArpov, ovkctl k€uh}^ 

rrj^ avTov yXcei<r<n/s Kapr€p6^ ovSc i/6ov* 
p,v0€LTaL B\am'd\ap,va, ra vrj^ova-^ etSerai alo'xpai'' 

atoeirat o epotav ovoev, orcu^ P^^vxtq, 
90S TO irpiv ici}v (r(i<f>p(t>v, t6t€ vjjvios* aXKa aif ravra 

yivda-KdiiP, p,r) irlv^ oli/ov xnrepfioka^rjVi 
aXX' fi irpw p^Oveu/ xnTavlaTaa-o — p.7J <rc fiidaffcj 

yaoTTJp, (SoTC KaKW Xdrpiv i(f>7jp.€piop — , 
fj irap^oiv fH9 irlvt* <rv 8' eyyjee Toxno pjdraiov 
310 icctiTiXX6i9 aUi' ToweKa toi, p^0V€L^. 

ri ykv yap ij>iperai ^iKorrjaio^, 17 hk vpoKeirai, 
. rrjv 8c 0€ol<: cnevBei^, rffp 8' inl x^^Xo? ayct?* 
apveio'Oai 8' ov/c oI8a9' dvCicrjTo^ 8c rot o5ro5, 

S9 iroXXa9 mi/aii' /at; rt pAraiov ipel. ^ . 

315 El/ irv/oc ftci/ ^pvQ-ov r€ Kai apyvpov lopve^ av- 
8pc$ 499 

yiv(o(TKoy(T\ hvBpofs 8' otvo^ cSct^c i/doi/, 
/cat fidka vep nipxrrov, tov vwep fierpov yjpaTO m- 

(SoTc KaraiirxypaL Kal irpXv eovra a'o<f>6i/. 

OTi/09 iTivoyievo^ irovkv^ KaKov ^v he rt? avrov sn 
3«> irivj) iTnaTapAvoi}^, ov KaKOv aXX* dyadov. 


Spa, 5S5 

irpo9 re OeZv alrew iK\v(ri,v adavdroiv. 

KeicX'^crdai 8* €9* Saira, vape^ecOaL Se irap 
i(Td\6v 563 

dvhpa ^pwvy (To^i'qv irao'av iirioTci/ievov, 
385 Tov (Twieiv, oiTorav ri ^^yy a'o<fi6p, o^pa 8iSa^d^9 
/cat TovT* €C9 oTkov K€p8o^ €)(<m}v dirvg^. 

ToXfidv XPV* ''"^ StSovat ^cot OvrfToio'i* fiporoZ- 

aw, 591 

prj'CBUo^ Se <f>€p€ii/ dii<f>or€pQ}p to Xa^09* 
/xT^re KaKolo'Lv daco ri Xit^v (f>p€Pa, fnjr* dyoBoixriv 
330 T€p<fi0y^ i^avLvri^, irpiv Ti\o<; aKpov tSeu/. 

IloXXa) roc TrXeoi^a^ XifioS Kopo^ (SXecrei^ i^Sr^ fios 
dpSpa^, o<roc fioiprj^ vXelop €)(€ip ideXop. 

*^PXO ^'^^ ^cv8pv5 fi.^Kprj xdpi^' C5 8c reXcvn/i' 
alcxpop 8rf K€pho^ koX KaKOp, dfKJ^orepop, 
335yti^cTaf ovSc Ti /caXoi^, orw.i/rcvSo? irpoaofiapT^ 
dpSpl Kot i^ikO'Q Trpanop diro (TTOfiaro^. 

OvTL fioK* dpOpcoTTOL^ KaTaOvfiia irdpra TcXccraf 616 

iroXXct) yap dpyjT(ap Kpeacrope^ dddparoi. 
Ha? Tt9 irXovatoi' dpBpa rCei, cltUl 8c ncpixpop • «» 
340 irdaiv 8* dpOpdvoL^ avro9 epeari, poo^. 


BovXcuov Sis Kcu rpi^y o rot k* iiri top voop ikffy 633 
drripo^ yap rot Xaj3po9 ianjp Tekddei. 

*EXiri9 KoX kCpBvpo^ iv opOpcmourip o/AoZbt* 637 

oSrot yap xoikeirol haifiope^ a/A^or€/K>i. 

34S IloXXaici nap 86^ap re icat iXniBa yiperai c2 peip 
€/:yy opopiap, povkai,^ o ovk eireyePTo reXo^. 

IIoXXol nap KpTjrrjpi <f>i\oi yipoprai eratpot, 643 

€P §€ (rnovSaup npijyiiaTi navporepoi. 

Yiavpov% icqheiLOPa^ niOTov^ evpoi^ k€p eraCpov^ 
390 KeCfiepo^ iv iLeyakji Ovfiop ap^yi^apij). 

*A SeiX^ n€Pi7), ri ifiok inucei/iepri cjfioi,^ C49 

(rZfia KaTa^cr)(yP€i^ kol poop -qfierepop ; 
atxrxpoL Se fi* ovk idiXopra fiij) icaica TroXXa 8iSa- 

iaOka fi€T* ap0p(on(op Kal Kdk* ennTTafLepop. 
395 MtjSci/ ayap xoXeirourw' aaSi <f>pipa fiijS* ayadoi- 

(TIP «57 

;(at/o*, eircl edr' ii'Spo? ndpra j>ep€ip ayaBov. 

Ec fi^ XPVH'^'''* ^o'f^'-' StftftW'tiSi;, ola irep jfScti^, 667 

OVK Aj' hpuip/qp Tol^ ay aOoici trvpcip* 
pvp hi fi€ yiPcocTKOpra napepxoPT \ ct/xl 8 * dtfxapo^ 
3fio XPiJ/AOcrvi^, noKkZp ypow nep afitivop ere. 

r< Lti S ^ lyCt^tMS U "KCii't y\. VtX^Ufv 1 ; 

W. ^S.«- X , ' k t'« » I f < / » ^ . 

THEOGNIS. ' ' 39 


oweica pw ff>€p6ii€(T6a Kad^ iarCa Xcvica Pa\6pT€^ 

iarrXew 8* ovic iOekovtriv imepfiakXei Be daXacrcra 
afi(f>oT€p(ov ToC)(a>v' ^ /laka ri9 x^^^^^^ 
365 aeo^erai, oV ipSovai - KvfiepPTJrtiv fiev iiravo'ap 

\pjjfiaTa 8* apnatfivo'i, fiig, koc/jlo^ 8' anoXoiXev, 

8a<r/bio9 8* ovK€T* l(ro^ yiverai €S to fiecrou, 
j^opryjyoX 8' ap^ovo'i, KaKoX 8* hyadtov KaOwrep^ 

370 BeLfiaivo}, fiij irai9 yavi^ icara icv/ta ttij^ 

ravra ftot '^vix^( o K€Kpvfifi€va roi9 i/yadoio'iv 
ywdaKOk 8 ' ai^ rts icat ica«co9» '^y <roff>os ^. 

IIoXXol 'irXoSro)^ exovctv oASpie^' oi Se to, KoXa m 

C'qTova'i.v xaXeiry reipofiei/oi Trevin. 
375 ipSew 8* hiiffK)ripoi,(Tiv afi7i)(ai/i7) Trapa^etrac* 

€tjpyet ya/o rous ft^i' xpn^fiara, tov^ 8c 1/005. 
Ou/c coTW^ dinjrdi(Ti irpo% aOavaTov^ iia^iaacrOai 

ovhk SCktjv elveiv* ovBevl tovto Oiyn^. 

IIoXXqi;$ rot Kopo% avhpa^ b/rraiiKea'ep i^paivov' 

TW 693 

380 yu&vai yap xoKenov ii€Tpov, ot icOXa irapQ. 
E3 /iiy expvro^ i/iov iroXXot ^iXot* ^v he rt 

SeiVOV 6g7 

(TvyKvpaji, TravpoL irurrov ixovcri, voov. 

' ./• 


nXi/^Ci S* iaSpmnav hperri fiia yCverai rjBe, 
nXotrreu^* rZv S* oKkmv oiheu ap* ^v o^€Xo9» 
aas oifS^ ct (na^poavmfv fiev <^ot9 *PaSafu£vdi;o9 au- 
irX€toi/a 8' €i8€ti;9 Xurvifxiv AloXtSeo). 
ooT€ ical €^ 'AfSeoi noXviBpiya'a^ ia^Xda/, 

ireCaa^ Jl€p<r€<f>6vriv atfivXtourt Xoyoi9, ^ 
'^Tc fipoTols 7rapi)(€i Xt^^tyi', fiXdirrova'a vooio — 
390 aXXo9 8* ovna) rts touto y' hre^pdiraTO, 
ovTiva h/q Oavdroi^ fjuikop v^k>^ aiM<f>iKaXv^rQ, 

ekOji 8* €9 (TKiepov x^pop hno<f>0iiUv(ov, 
KV(wia% T€ iruXa9 irapafieC^eraL, aire dawvrcov 
\lw)(a^ €ipyovq'LV Kainep hvaivofieifa^' 
395 aXX' apa koX KeWev Trdkiv tJ\v0€ %i<rv(f>o^ 7Jp<o^ 
€9 (f>do^ rjekCov (Tif^ci iro\v<f>po<rvvaLS' — 
ov8' 6i t/revSea fiei^ iroioi^ ervfiOKriv ofiola, 

yXZcraav e)((ov hyadrju NecTTo/aos hmiOiov, 
cjKvrepo^ 8* elrj(r0a iroBa^ Taxecju^ApTrvLa^v 
400 /cal 7rai8(ui/ Bopeo), Toiv a<^ap eurl '7ro8€9* 
aXXa )(pri irdvTa<: yv(ofi7)i/ Tavrrjv KaraOiaOai, 
i}^ itXovto^ TrXeio'Trji/ Traaiv c^ct BwafiLP. 

^povriBe^ apdpdircjv ekaxov Trrepa tto t/ctX' Ij^oi^- 
fivpofievai ^vxyi^ eiveKa koI fiiorov. 

< "^^ 

405 ZcO vdrep, eWe yivovro O€ol<s <f>i\a roT? ftci/ aXt- 

rpOL^ 731 

vfipiv dheiVy Kai (T<f^iv Tovro yh/oiro <f>iXov 

THEOGNIS. ^.,;,' / 41 


0vfiM, oxirKuL epya fieTa <f>p€(rh/ ooTt5 kO^iprj^ 

avTov eiT€ira iraXw TuraL KaKoi, firfhe r* 6ma'(ra> 
4x0 TTarpos krafrOaXioL Trawrl yivoivTO KaKov • 
TraiSe? S' oir' dSiicoi; irar/009 ra Siicata vociWe? 

c^ apx^^ ''"^ Sticata /i€T* aoToiaiv <^tXeoi/TC9, 
/jtTj TW'* virepPacrC'qv camrivetv varepcop, 
4x5 ravr' eii) fiaKapeinrL deol^ ^tXa* i^ui^ 8' 6 iikv 
iK(f>evy€L, TO kokw S' aXXo9 €ir€iTa tf^epei. 

Kal TovT*, hOavaTOiv fiactXev, irio^ iarl BUaLov, 743 

€py<ov ocrrt? dvrj/o c/cro? coii/ dSi/ccoi/, 
/it; Tii/' xm^pfiao'vqv Karixp^v fnjB* opKOv akirpov, 
420 dXXd Siicaco9 eoi)/ /Jti9 ra Sticata irddy; ^ 

TC9 07; ic€v pporo^ aAA09* op(ui^ 7rpo9 TovTOv, eveira 

aiCoiT^ dOavdrov^, koI riva Ovfiov €X(ov, 
OTTTTOT* di/rfp dBiKO^ Kal aTd(T0(iko^, oure rev ii^ 
ovT€ T€v dOavdTdiv iirjvw aXevofievo^i 
43 v/SpCCjl 'n'\ovT(i} K€KopT)ii€Vo^, ol 8c Siicatot 
Tpv)(ovTaL ')(a\€'irg reipofievoL Trei/vg; 

Tavra fiaOcov, (f>Ck* iralpe, Stic(ua)9 )(pfjjfiaTa 
iroiov, 753 

ac^pova Ovphv €)((oi/ iicro^ drao'daki'q^, 
aiel rZvS* iirecov fiefivr/fia^o^* €9 8c r^kevnjv 
430 alv7Ja'€L^ fivd<a (rQ)<f>povi veido/ieuo^. 


Zcvs fih^ rJ/crSc iroXi^ vweipexoiB cidepi vau^v, 
otet Se^iTepvfP x^lp^ iir^ a/irqfjuoavvjiy 

aXXoi r' a^ai^rot lAOxape^ 0€oC' avrap *An6\X(ou 
opdiaa'ai ykoHra'av kcX vqov "qpArepov. 
43S <f>6piiiy( 8' aS <f>0eyyoid^ Upop iiiko^ ^Se koI 

i7/jtci9 §€ (nrovSd$ dtolo't^ apea-a-diievoi 
mvoifiep, ^apievra /ler ' aXXi^Xo4<ri Xeyoi/r€9« 

/iTjSkp TOP M7JB(0P 8€t8idr€9 irdXcfio)^. 
£8* en; K€p a/ieu/op* iv^popa dvfiop exppra^ 
440 p6(r<f>i fiepifipoxop €v^po<rvpo}% Bidyeip 

Tepnofiepovs, njXoS 8€ #caica9 airo Krjpa^ ofivpaiB 
yrjpd^ T* ovXd/x€i/o)^ koI doLpdrou) riko^. 

^olfie dpa^y auro9 ft^ CTrv/oyoKra? TrdXti^ aKpr/p, m 

*A\Ka06(p neXoiro^ '7rai8l xapi.l^6fL€PO^* 
445 avro$ 8€ arparop vPpurTrjp MijBcop diripvKt 

7190-86 irdXei;9» ii/a crot Xaol 6i^ €V(f>po(rvpjf 
^po9 inepxafiepov icXetra? 7re/i7r<oa'* iKaTOfi/Sa^, 

T€pTr6fi€Poi Kiddpy Kot iparg da\iiji,(j? ^ 
Traidpiap rt ^poi^ lax^ci T€ crop irepl ^(o/iop. 
450 ^ yap eyor/^ 8c8ot/c* dxf>pahir)p itropZp 

Kol ardaip ^EKhjpoip \ao(f>06pop' aXXa crv, ^oT)8c, 

tXao9 riiierip'qp TijpSe <f>v\aa'a'€ ttoXlp. 

HkOop fiep yap eyoiyc kol ct5 2c/ccXtji/ ttotc yalaPt 783 

i^Xdoi^ 8* RvfioCri^ afin^koep ireSCop 
455 ^irdprrfP t* EvpcuTa hopaKorp6<f>ov dykaop aarv* 
Kol fi i(f>Ck€VP irpo<l>p6p(oq irdpT€% iwep^ofiepop* 


ovTO)^ ovSev ap* Jjv (f>L\T€pop oXXq wdrprj^. 

OvSel? dvOpeoncav ovr* ccrcrcrat ovt€ iri^vKtv, «ox 
460 o(TTi% irdo'iv ahiiv Sucrerat 6I9 'AlSeo)* 

ovSc ya^ 05 dvrfToio'L koI ddai/dTOLo-iv dpao'cei, 
Zeus KpovCSrf^, 6vy)roi^ irdo'iv dheiv hvvarai. 

Toppov Kal (rTddfirf^ kol yv(aiiovo^ apBpa Otiapov 
€vdvT^pov XPVH'^^» Kvpp€, (f>v\a(r(T€ii€Pait 
465 oJ Tipi K€P TlvOZpi 0€ov ^rjO'aa'* Upeia 
ofitfy^p (Trjfnjvjj movo^ cf dSvrov 

ovre Tt yap irpofrOel^ ovBdv k* en <f>dpiiaKOv cv- 

oSr' d(f>€\o)p 7r/oo9 deoi)^ dpmkaKii)v irpo<f>vyoi,^. 

Kvpv*, efiTTTi^ Tt fioipa iradeu/, ovk iad* vTra^ 
Xv^at' 817 

470 orrt 8e fioipa iraOelv, ovri SehoiKa iradeiv. 

Ot 8' aTTO yripda-KOvra^ drtfid^ovo'i roidja^, 8ai 

TouTO)!/ roc y' (5p7j, Kvpp*, oKiyrf rekeOet, 

*A\X* OTTorav KaOwrepOep icjp virivepOe ycmyrat, 843 
TovTct/cts oticaS' t/ici/ wavtrdiiepoi Trdcrto?. 

475 Aa^ iwifta Sijiuo K€P€6<l>poPL, rvirre Se /cc^rpoi «47 
ofct, ical ^cvyX^ji/ SuaXoc^oi/ a/x^iridei* 
ov yap c^ * evpTJaei^ ^fiov <^tXo8c(r7roTOi/ SSe 
dvdpfowcDP, OTTOtrov^ i)cXtos KaOopd. 



Zcvs cu^' cfoXccreici^ 'OXi;fiirco9» &9 roi^ ertupov 
^ fboX^fluca fcci^TiXXaiv i^awarw idikei. 

T£y S^ if>tKoi}v et /tci^ ri9 6/>^ /xc rt SciXov ^oi^ra, 857 
av)(€i^* anoarpe^a^ ovB* iaopav iOeker 

^v hi tC fioi no0€i/ i(r0k6p,a navpaKi yiverai avSpC, 
iroXXov9 ao'iracfiov^ koX ff^iXonriTa^ exfa. 

4Ss noXXot9 axpijoTouTL Oeo^ StSoI av^paaiv oXjSoi/ 865 
icdXov, 6$ ovT* avT6> PiXrepo^ ovBh/ i<ov 
ovrc <^tXot$* 0^67199 Sc fieya kkeo^ ovnor* oXecrat* 
atxfii;7^9 yap aanip yrjv re koL aarv (rajoZ 

^Ei' /xot ewctra maoi fieya^ ovpavo^ evpvs virepBev 
490 ^oXiceo^j avdp(aiT<ov htip,a x^fiatyevewv, 
el fiTj eyoi roi(riv pjev inapK€(T<o 01 fie <f>Lk€V(Tip, 
rots S* €)(6poi^ dvLTj Koi fieya rrrjiL etrofiau 

"H^a fiot, ^iXc ^vftc" rax* av tw^cs aXXot ceroid 
rat 877 

avSpes eyai Sc Oaviav yaia fiiKaiv €<rofiai. 

495 n ti/ * o^oj', rov cftot Kopv<f>7]^ ano TTjiJyeroto 879 
afiireXot rji/eyKav, ra? c<^iJrcvcr* 6 yepcou 

oj;/oeo9 ei' fifjo'a^a'i, Oeoiiri ^1X09 Ocort/ios, 
€ic TrXarai'tcrrovi/ro? ^vyfiov vB<op iirdycjp. 

Tov irivoiv OLTTO fiev ^aXcTra^ cric€Sa<ret9 /xeXeSc^ 

soo Owprjx^el^ 8' cacat ttoXXoi/ i\(uf>poTep(o^. 


^IfyrjvTf KoX Tr\ovTo^ i)(OL woXlp, otf^pa fier* aWcov 
KO}/id(pL/iL' KaKOV h* OVK epafiat TToXifiov, 

^Eariv 6 fiev ^tiptov^ o 8' afieCvcjp epyou eKatrrov 901 
ovSeU 8' avOpdncov avro^ airavra cro<^os. 

505 Mrj TTor' iwaivijarji^, irpXv av €iS^9 avSpa (Taif>7f' 

opyrjv KoL pvdfiop /cat rpcnrov oort? av y, 
TToXXot roi KCfiSrjXov hriKkoTTOv rjdo% €)(ovt€^ 

KpvTJTova'*, ivOc/ievoL dv/iou i^yfp,4piov, vC.i«<^ 
TovTcov 8* e/c<^aiv€i TrdvT(o^ xpovo^ ^^05 CKacrrou. 
5x0 KoX yap eyo) yi/cofirj^ iroWoi/ dp' c/cro? efirfv 
i(f)d7]v aiinjaas irpiv aov Kara iravra hai]vai 

rjuca. vvv o rjorj vavs au cica? oie^co. 

Ou8cls di/dpdwcjv, ov TT/oaJr' inl yala KaXu^jj 973 
CIS T* *E/)c)8o5 Karafirj, Sdfiara llep(r€(f)6vrj^, 
515 rc/oTTcrat ourc Xvpr]^ ovt* avXrjTrjpo^; aKovcjv, 
ovT€ ^Liovvo'ov Scjp* iaaeLpdfiepo^. 
ravT* i(TopS}v KpaSirjp ev ireiaofiaL, o(f>pa r* 

yowara kclL Ke<f>aXy)v drpefieo)^ 7rpo<f)€po}. 

Mtj iioL avrjp cnj yXdaa^ (f>iXo^, dXXd Koi €py(o. 
5» xepaiv re (mcvSov XPVH'^^^ ^*> dix(f)6T€pa' 
fiT/Se irapd Kprjvfjpi, XoryoicTLi/ ifirjv (fipeva deXyous, 
oXX* ep8(op i^aivoC, cf rt 8wat', dyadov. 


^ ^ A Ct /I ^ / 

*Hfi€i9 8' ei^ OaKijio'i <f>Ckov KaTiidd/ieda Ovfiov, 

o^p' ert T€piro)Xi/s €/»y' ipareu/a ^^epg. 
5«5 ati/ra yap cSorc vor/iia irapkp\erai dyXao5 ij^Siy • 

ovS* Ittitcdv opfiTj yiverai cjKvripri, 
cure avaicra ^poviri hopvo'coov €S iroi'oi' avopcav 

\d/3p(os, 7rup6<f>6p(p T€pir6ii€i/ai weBUp. 

Siwoi/ 8' avdpfoiroi^ v7ro0TJ(ToiJLai, o^pa tls 
^fir,<! »»7 

590 ayXaov dvOo^ €)((ov koI (f>p€(rli/ icOXd vo^y 
rtov avTov icredi/cop ev Tratrxifiev ov yap dprf/SSii/ 

81^ TrlXcrat 7r/oo5 deZv ov8c \v<ri^ davdrov 
OvYfToi^ dvOpcoiroKTi. KaKOv 8' iifi yrjpa^ cXcy^ci 
ovXofievou, /c6<^aX7}9 8' dnrerai oKpordTrj^' 
535*P>7t8i7j roi irprj^L^ iv dvOptonoi^ KaKorrjros' xo«7 

Tov 8 * dya^ov ^(aXcTn;, Kvpve, ircXct wakdfirf. 

ToXfia Ovfic KaKoLcriv o/ko^ drX^jra ir€7rov0co^* 

0€l\(ov tol Kpahir) yiv^rai o^vriprj, 
/irjSe (TV y* dirp-qKroicriv iir* • ^pyfiaaiv dXyo9 

540 oj^^ct, ftT78* d)(dov, fiTfSe (f>iKov^ dvia, 

firjS* €)(0poL^ €V(f)paLi/€. 0€ojp 8* clfiapiieva Scopa 

ovic ai' ptjiSlo}^ dvqro^ dvy)p irpo^vyoi, 
ovT^ av TTop^vpky)^ KaraSv^ e? nvOfieva Xifivrj^, ^ >" 
ovd^ oTav avTov exo T^dprapo^ rjcpoei^. \r -y 
545 "Xvhpa TOL icTT* dyadov xoXcTrajraroi/ cf aTrar^o-at, 
(09 ev €/iol yv(0fi7j^ Kvpve, TrdXai KeKpirau 


A(f>pov€^ avdpamoL Koi vrjiTLOi, oiTive^ olvov 
liy} 7nvov(r* acrTpov koI kwo^ ap^opAvov. 

Nvi/ pkv wwoPT€<: TepTraSp^eOa, koXcl Xcyoi/rc? • x<m6 
550 aa-aa o ctretT ccrrac, ravra d^olai peXei. ,^ 

Sot 8* eyai ota T€ TraiSi TraTT^p vvoOija'op.aL avro? 
iaOXd* aif 8* €1/ dvpS koI (f^peal Tavra fidXev 
p,ij iroT* cir€iyo/xci/o9 npTJ^t; KaKov, oKKa j^aOei'g 
ay (fipevL fiovXevaai ctg) t* ayadov Tt wg). 
555 ToJi/ yap p^aivop^ivcav irirerai 6vp6^ t€ wo? Te, 
povXrj 8* €19 dyadov /cat i/ooi^ iaOXov dye^. 

Tipayopa, iroXkcjv opyrjp avdrepOev opSnni 1059 

yivdcKeiv j^aXcTTw, Kaiwep lovri (To<j>w. 
ot fiep yap KaKovqra KaraKpvijfapre^ €)(ov(tiv 
560 ttXovtg), rot 8* dpenfv ov\op,evg Trevijj, 

^A(f>pov€^ dvdpcovoL Kai vijinoi, oitc dauovra^ 1069 
icXatova*, ov8* I7)8>y9 dvdo^ d7ro)sXvp,€vov. 

Ou8ci/a t£i/ €)(0pZv}p/rj( icrOXop iovra, 1079 
ov86 /Jiei^ aipTJo'a} SeiKoi/ iovra ^ikov, 

565 Ourw ^17 Tw y * icdXoi/ iwiarpiiliaPTa voripa 1083 
€p/Trehov aiev €)(eiv C9 reXo? dv8pi ^i^ct). 

KdoTop Koi TloXvSevKe^ ot a/ AaiceSat/jioi/t Bij) 1086 

vaUr* err* Evpcura /caXXtpoo; irorapJo, 
ct TTore PovXevtraip.L <f>LX(o KaKov, avro^ €^oi/if 
570 €t 8c Tt Kelvos ipoi, 8t9 Toaov avTO<; e)(OL, 


^TfipL^ KoX Maym^a? airciXc(r€ Kal KoXoffMva «qs 
Kal Xiivpyqv, vca^o^i Kvpve, koX vfifi* daroXeZ 

Kvpv*t ot irpocrO* ayadol vw av kokol, ot Se Kaxol 
npiv "99 

vw ayadol* rU k€i^ ravr* ave)(ovr* i(r6pwi^, 
575 Toif^ aya6ov% fih/ ar^/JLorepov^, KaKiov^ Se \a)(oirra^ 
TLfijj^ ; fivrjoTeveL 8* iK KaKOv icrOXos avrjp. 
aXXt^Xou^ 8* d7raTaii/T€9 eTT* dXXTjXowri yeKtacru/, 
ovT* ayadwv iivrjp,i)v eiSdre^ owe KaxZu. 

UXovre, deZv icdWicrre icat ifiepodarare iroi^ 

^ aifv <rol Kal /caK09 &v ytveTai icrOXo^ avrjp, 

"HPnrj^ fierpop €)(olixl, ^iXoi 8c [le ^01/809 ^AiroXKiav 
AtjtocStj? kol Zev^, adapdrcDV fiacriXew, 

6<f>pa fiiov ^(ooLfii KaKOiv eKToaOev anavrcov, 
rj/Sji Koi ir\ovT(o Ovfiov laLPOfievo^, 

5«5 Mtj fie KaKCJi/ fiifii/yio'Ke* ^irinovda rot otd r' OSvcr* 

OCT* *At8ca) /xeya Soi/ji* rikvdev i^avaBv^, 
09 817 /cal fiVTjG'TYJpa^ aveCkero vrjkei dvfi^ 
TlrjueKoTrr/^ €fi(f>p(ov, KovpiSiTi^ aK6)(ov, 
rj fiLv S^0* virefieLve <f)L\(o wapa 7rai8l /xci/ovcra, 
590 o(f>pa T€ yfj^ eTrefiri SeifiaXeov^; re /utv^ov?. 

*EXirt9 iv av6pamoi% /lovvrf 0€O^ icrffkri evearw. "35 
dXXot 8* OvXvfwrwS* iKirpoXtirovre^ ifiav* 

THEOGHia 49 

Xoiif^potrvvri' Xapire^ t*, & tf^Xe, yrjv ikivov* 
sgs opKOL 8' ovK€TL TTtoTOt €v avOpamoLQ-L BiKaioi, 
ovhk deoif^ ovSeU a^erai ddcu/arov9* 

ovKeri ytvdo'KOva'* ovSe /lev €v<re/8ta$. 
aXX* 6<f>pa rt9 ^cuet icat 6p^ ^aos ^eXioto, 
600 evae/iea^v wepi 0€ow, *E\mha irpo€rii€V€TUk, 
€vx!^a'6(o Be Oeourij koI ayXaa firipia Kauov 

'EXmSt T€ irpwrg koL Trviiarg ^iiero). 
if>pal^4(r6<a 8* olSlkcov avBpcjv (tkoXiJov \6yop atet, 

605 aio^ €ir' aXXor/9toc9 KTedvoi,^ hrexova-i voi/fia, 
ai07(pa /caicot9 epyoi^ cvfifioka dTrjKdfiei/Qi. 

Mt/ TTorc TOP TTopeovra fiedeh ^£kov oXXoi^ ipevva, 
Seik&v dvdpdireov prijfia(rL neidofiei/o^. 

OvK epafiat, TrXovrelv ov8* €V)(Ofiat, akXd fioL €17/ zzss 
610 ^rjv diro r&v oXiyeov, fir/Sep expvri KaKOv. 

Ov8«'a Orjaavpov Karadrjirew iraKTiv afieivov* xxfii 
aiTOV(rLV 8' dya0oi^ dv^pdav, Kvpve, 8i8ov. 

Tvdfiriv, Kvpvtj deol ^lojrourt ScSoOcrtv apurrov un 
dvdpdiroL^ • yvdifiri ireipaTa iravro^ ^'^^' 
Sis £ /xcucap, ootc^ S17 fit)^ e)(€t ^pea-iVt ri irokv KpeicP' 

vfipio^ ovXoiianj^ XevyaXeot; re Kopov 
ioTi* KaKQv 8c fipoTourL fcopo9» r6>y ovrt kokuov * 
^a(ra yap ^/c rovroiv, Kvpve, TreXet KaKdrrf^. 


£4 K* cig^ €py(ov ajUr)(pSiv arrad^^ koL a€py6^, 


Kvpve, 0€ov^ aiSov koX SetStdt* rovro yap avhpa 

Ltipjo^yov Se rvpavvov, o7r<a^ iOike^^, /caTaicXtpat 

tasOuri^ airoiva 8i8ov9 ddvaTov <f>vyoi ouSe ^a- 
pelav 1187 

BvaTV)(irjv, el fi^ fidip* iirl Tepfia fiakoi. 
ovS* &v Bva'<f>poa'vi/as, ore 817 0€O^ akyea irefivoi, 
dvrfro% dvrip Scipoi^ fiovkofiei^o^ irpo<f>vyoi. 

OvK cpafiat K\L(Tfi£ fiao'Lkrjta} eyicaraiceur^ai 
^ Te0v€<o^, iXXa rC ftot ^cjpti yivoiT* dyadov* 
axTTraKoBoi Be TdnrjO'LP ofiolop (TTptofia Oavovri* 
TO ^v\ov ^ (TKXrjpov ylverai, ^ fiakaKov. 

Mij Tc deov^ hriopKov hropjnjdi* ov yap dv^Ktov 
iL0aim,Tov% Kpvxjfai x/>€ib9 6<f>€L\6p€vov. 

e35*O/0Kt^o5 <}>(i)vqv, IIoXvTratSTj, 6^ fiodcrrj^ "97 

TjKOvcr*, rJT€ fiporol^ ayycXo? i^X^* dpoTov 
Q)paCov Kai /Jtot Kpahiqv indra^e fieXaivav, 

oTTi> fiOL evavdel^ aXXoi e^ovcrty hypow, 
ovhi fioi Tjfuovoi, KVifxov* ekKovciv dp6rpov» 
^ T^5 fiaka /jLLcrrjT^^ elveKa vavriKlrj^. 

— H 

(^^ ~^^, 


Mij /A ' a<^€Xct>9 Trai^ova-a <^tXov9 Scio'a^c rotcrja^, »" 

*ApYvpi* aol fiev yap SovXlov ^fiap lirt, 
rjfiLV o akka [jlcp €crrt> yvvaL, scaKa iroAA €irei €k 

<l}€vyoii€P, dpyaXerj 8' ov^ €iri 8ovXoo"vi^, 
645 ov8' i}/xa9 irepvaaL. iroXt9 yc /X6v ccrri zeal 17/10^ 

Ov8eV, Kvpv*, opyrj^ aBiKdrcpop, ^ roi' c^oi/ra laaa 
wruiaivei, dvfi^ Seika ^api^ofievrj. 

OuSei/, Kvpv\ dya07J^ yXvKepcoTepov core yvi^aiKO?* 
650 fidpTV^ iyd, (TV 8' i/iol yivov dh^doavvr}^. 






Abchilochus of Paros flourislied the latter part of the 
eighth and the earlier part of the seventh century, b. g. He 
enjoys the distinction of heing the inventor of iamhic verse, 
which means, probahly, that he introduced definite principles 
into this style of writing. The ancients lavish upon him 
their praises from every side, comparing him with all the 
•immortal leaders of Greek song, and sometimes giving him 
the supremacy among them all. He was descended from a 
priestly family of noble standing, hut connected himself promi- 
nently with a colony which between 710 and 700 emigrated 
from Paros to Thasos. The expedition ended, however, in 
thorough disappointment, and he at length, after many wan- 
derings, returned to his native island. He lost his life in an 
engagement between the Parians and the people of the island 
of Naxos. It is said that a curse was pronounced by the Del- 
phic oracle upon the man who killed him, as having ^' slain 
the servant of the Muses." 

The history of Archilochus is manifestly incomplete without 
the story of Lycambes and his daughters, not because we can 
vouch for the details of the narrative, but because it illustrates 


the Greek feeling with regard to the poet's power. The poet 
was betrothed to one of the daughters, Neobule, but suddenly 
the father turned against him, and rejected his alliance with 
scorn. The indignation of the poet found utterance in his 
verses, and he turned bis satire? without mercy against the 



offending family, until they all sought refuge in voluntary 

The chief distinction of Aichilochus, as we have suggested^ 
was the invention or development of Iambic verse* Such are 
the Iambics which follow in I. and 11., and the tetrameters 
III. — VI. For the soK»lled Iambic trimeter^ see S. pp. 32, 84 ; 
G. 293, 4 ; H. 906. For the trochaic tetrameter, see S. p- 84 ; 
G. 291, 2 ; H. 899, L See further on iambus and trochee, 
S. pp. 24> 26, 30. He wrote also elegies as well as other 
forms of poetry. His dialect was Ionic 


''HSc S' cuot' ow)v P^X^^ 

ov yap TV icaXo9 x^P^^ ^^^* i^iiiepo^ 
ovo eparo^y oto9 a^Kpt z«tpto9 poa^. 

Ov fioi, Ta rvycfii rov iroXvxpvcov fUKei,, 

ov8* elKe ird [le Cv^os, ovB* aycdofiai 

deZv epya, ftcyaXtj? 8' ovk ipeo) rvpayviho^* 

aironpodev yap iariv 6<f>0aKfict}v ifi&v. 


III. (38.) 

Tofe 6^ol% rid^iv dirai/ra' TToXXa/ct^ fto' Ik KaK&i^ 
avBpa^ opOovaw /leKcdirg k€hl4vov^ iin xdoi/i, 
7roXXaict9 8* avarpenoviTi koX /xoX' cv fiefiriKora^ 
vTTTtov? K\ipov<r • cTTCtra iroXXa yiyverai KaKa, 
5 Kal jBiov XPVFO '^^(^^^'^^^ '^tt^ voov irapijopos* 

IV. (60.) 

Ov <f>t\€co pJyav crpaTrfyov ovhe BtaireirXiyfiipoi/, 
ovSc ^oarrpvxpicrL yavpov ov8* vne^vprffievop, 

-> ' ■ 


dXXa /tot (r/iiKpos rt9 en; zeal ^cpl Kinj/ia^ IBelv 
poiKO^, aaifxxXeaiS fiePr/KOiS iro<r(rL, KapBirjS irXeo^. 

V. (68.) 

ai^a Se, hvcfLO^v 8' dXd^ev irpocficiKoiiv ivavriov 
a-repvop, iv hoKourLv €\0p(ov trkyjiriov KaraaradeC^ 

dXXa ^apTola-Cv re X^P^ '^^^ KOJCoUriv a<r)(£ka 
[irj kirjv yiyvcjCKe S* olbs pvafio^ av0p(oirov^ 

CY€l. , \ ^. 

VI. (76.) '^ ' ** o\>. V . 

Xpi^lidrcov a^kwrov ovSe^ corw^ ovS* aTTcu/Aoroi//' 
ovSc Oaviidciov, iirei^ Zcv? Trarrjp 'OXv/xmcop 
6^ [letrqiifipiyis idriKe vvkt airoKpwftas (fxio^ 
Tjkiov Xa/jwroi/ros' Xvypov S* -^X^' ctt' dvOpdirovs 

5CK Sc Tov Kal irtora irai/ra /caTrtcX^ra yiyvtrai 
ai/Spdo'LV' firiBel^ i6* vficjp eicopSiv davfia^eTO), 
/A17S* orav SeXifno'L drjpes dvTafieiilfCJPTai, vofLov 
ivdXiov Koi c^iv doXacro^s i^x^o^a Kv/iara 
<I>[Kt€p ' '^ireCpov ycinyrat, rotcri S' ijSv '^i' opo9« 


VII. (1.) 

El/At 8' eyoi depdnoiv [lev 'Ei^voXtoto ai^aicro9» 

Koi Movadwu iparov Bwpov hna-rdfievo^. 

VIII. (2.) 

Ov ydp fJLOL irevCri irarpdlio^y ov8' dno Trdmnav 


I2L (8.) 
*Ei^ So^l fLtv fioi iia^jCL jiet iayiuv n, iv hopl S* 6tt/as 

X. (5.) 

'AXX* ay€» <rvi^ Ktadiavi Oorjs 8ta aekfiara vr/o^ 

<f>oiTa KoX KoCka>p va^iar* a^Xice icaSoii/, 
ayp€i B* otpov ipvdpov ano rpvyos- ovSe ya/> 


XL (6.) 

'AcrmSt /x€i/ Souuv ri9 dyaXXerat* '71/ irapa ddfjui^^ 
evTo^ afi(o[ii^Tov KoXkiirov ovk idiktav 

avT05 S' i^€<f>vyop OoLvdrov tcXo?- dcTTrls iK€unj 
ipp€T(o' i^avTL^ KTijcro/tat ov KaKuo. 


XII. (9.) 

KijSea fikv cTovoevra, IlepCKkees, ovre ris da-rS^v 

fiefi<l>6fi€vof; daKiji^ rip\^erai ovSc trokiv 
Toiovs yap Kara KVfxa iroXv<^Xoicr^oto 6akd(r<rq^ 
€K\va'€v, otSaX€bv9 8* dfi<^' oSvrps €;(o/a€i/ 
5 uvevfiovas' aXXd ^col ydp dvrjKeo'TOLa'L KaKolav, 
& <^tX', €7rl Kpareprjv rh^iioavvrjv eOeaav 
<f>dpiiaKov dXXorc 8' dXXos €;(ct roSc i^Si^ fici' C9 
irpdwed*, aifiaroev 8* eXicos ai/aa'T€i/oii€P, 
c^avTt? 8' Irepov^ CTraficu/rerai' aXXd rd^KTra 
10 tXt^tc ywaLKelov irivOo^ dircoadiievoi^ 


•XIII. (10.) 


XIV. (13.) 

Ovrc Ti yap kkaicjv hjaofiai ovre koIkiqu 
07J(r(o TepncjXas Kal Oakias i<f>€iTQ)v. 


SiHONiDES of Amorgos was a native of Samos, but, like Ar- 
cliilochuSy left his native island with a colony, which, settling 
in the island of Amorgos, gave to the poet his designation. 
His life belongs to the first half of the seventh century b. c. 

The poetry of Simonides was written very largely in the 
style of Archilochus, as their lives also bore a marked similar- 
ity to each other. The former is, however, more fond of moral- 
izing and dealing in maxims, performing in spirit something 
of the office of the gnomic poets. The poem upon the origin 
of the different classes of women has always been justly re- 
garded as an interesting curiosity. The dialect of Simonides, 
like that of Archilochus, is Ionic. In the arrangement of his 
measures synizesis is not uncommon. 

The metre is the common iambic trimeter. , 


iravT(i}v o<r ^ari, /cat riuyja' owq ueKei • 
i/6o^ 8* ovK iir* avOpdiroKTiv' aXX' i<fyijii€poi 
a 817 fioT* aiel tfinia/, ovhkv €i8dTC9, 


s oirci>9 eKaoTov ciCTcXcvnycrct ^cd?. 

airprjicTov opfioLVOvra^* oi fiev rjfieprjv 
fjuivovaw ikOeZv, oi B* ircoiv TrepiTponas. 

V€(OTa O OV0619 OOTl^ OV OOI(€€t ppOTtOV 

to ttXovt^ T€ Kiyadouriv i^ccr^ai i^Cko^' av 
<l>0dv€i he TOP fi€i/ yrjpa^ a^r/Xov Xafioi/, 
irpXv T€pii tiojTai' Tovs Sc Svonyi^oi voo'ol 
<f>0€ipova'i Oprjr&v roif^ S' "Apei ScSfii^/xei/ov^ 
ir€/x7r€t fieKaii/rjs *AfSiys viro )(6ov6^' 

xs 01 8' ei/ dakdaairi XeuXa^t Kkovevfievoi 
Kat Kyfiaaiv iroXXoio't irop<f>vp7J^ 0X09 
dvi^cKovo'LVp cSr* Ai/ /x-^ Svi/ijcrcui/rat ^ocu^* 
01 8* dyxovrjv oAJfavro Sv<rr>yi^^ p^p(f> 
KavrdyperoL XctTrovcriv 17X10V <f>do^, 

» ovTco KaKciv an ovSeV* aXXa fivpiai 
fipoToiai fcrjpes Kavem^paoToi Si/at 
fcal TTTjfiaT ioTiv* €t 8' c/xol TnOoiaro, 
ovK Slv KaKQiv ip^fi€P, ovS* €7r* ctXyccrti' 
KaKOL^ €)(oi*Tes Ovfiov alKL^oCfieOa* 

\ /' 

n. (7.) 

Xcupi^ yvi^atico? ^€09 iTroirjo-ev i/ow 
ra TrpZra' rfjp fiev i^ vo^ ravvrpi^o^, 
Ty irdvT dv oiKOv fiopfiopo) 7re<f>vpfi€Pa 
aKoafia Kelrai, koI /cvXii^Setrai ^a/xai* 
Tavrrj 8' dXot;T09 aTrXvTot? t* ip eifiaaLv 
cv KOirpCycriv rifieur) maiverai. 

T17V 8' cf aKirpy\% d^o^ idr/K aXcoireico^ 


yvpoLKa, irdvroiv Ihpiv ovSe fLW KaKcov 

KiKtid^v ovhei/y ovBk rcjv afieu/ovcav, 
xo TO jxkv yap avTciv elirc iroXXa/ci9 KaKOP, 

TO 8* icOXop* opyrjv S* dXXor' aWoiriP e)(€i. 
Trjv S' CK Kvi/69 XiTovpyo v, avroinJTopOj 

") Trarr a^ovcrat, ncun'a o eioevai uekei,, 

Trdvrrj Sc Trairraivova'a koI TrXavKOfiemrj 
X5 Xekr/Kep, ^v kol firfS^.p* avOpcoircau 6p^. 

7ravo"ctc 8* ai/ /aw' ovt* direihija'a^ ainjp, 

ov8' ct ^oXctidcW i^apd^€Lep \i0<^ 

68oKra9> ov8' &i^ fi€tXt^Q>9 fivdevfievo^, 

ovS* ct Trapa ^eivoKriu rjfiii/rj rv)(oi* 
ao aXX e/x7r€8ct>9 airpriKTOv avoinju ej(€t. 

Ti^i/* 8c 7rXao"ai/T€9 yrfiyrji/ 'OXv/x7rtot 

th<t}Kav A,u8pl TTqpov • ovrc yap KaKOP, 

ovr eauKov ovoev oLOe roiavny yvvrj' 

epyov 8c fiowov iadUiv hrio'TaTai' 
25 /cou8' ^i' KaKOV x^iixZva nonjajj ^€05, 

piyZcra hi^pov aao'ov cXKcrai irvpos^ 

T17V 8* cic ddkdo'airjs* rj Bv^ iv (f^pea-lv poel' 

Tr)v [lev ycXa re ical yeyrjOeu riii€p7)v, 

innLLpio'eL {iiv f cw/os & 8d/xot9 t8coi/ • 
35 **Ou#c eoTTLv aXX^} n70"8c Xcuicui/ yvvi^ 

CI/ iraariv at/dpcjiroicru/, ovSe /caXXuui/." 

TTjU O OVK aV€KTO^ OVO €1/ 0<f>UaAllOLS LO€LV, 

ovT atTfTOV €AU€LP, akka /xaii/crai roTe 
anXriToVy cjoirep dfufn riKyoiaw KVfav. 
35 aficiXt^o9 8c iraxTi KaTrodv/iiri 
i)(0pourLP Tcra /cat <^tXotcrt yiyperai. 

* '• 


ciairep Oakaxraa woKKokls fi€v arpefjLijs 
loTfiK OLTnjfuov, ^(apfia vavrgaLv fieyoLj 
dkpeos €P <apQ9 iroXXaKi9 Sc fiaxperai 
40 fiapvKTvtrouru icifiaau/ ^pevpivq * 
Tavrjj fuxXtoT* ioiK€ roiavrif ywij 
opyqv* il>vrfp 8c ttovto^ aKKoCtfu €)(€v. 

^ (Tvv T* ai/dyicg avv r G/LTrgaw fioyis 

45 earep^ei^ &v airavra koX irovfjo'aTo 
ipeaToi • T6<f>pa 8' ifrOUi iiev iv iiV)((S 
irpovv^y irpoTjiiap, icdieL S in ia^apji • 
6/xa)9 8c Koi irpo9 epyov a<f>po8i(ri.ov 
i\06v0* eraipov ovtlvcjv cSifaro. 

50 Trfv 8 ' c#c yaX-^?, SvaTrivoy ol^vpov yivo^. 

KeCvji yap ov rt /caXoi/ ov8' iiri/iepov 
irpocreoTiv, ovBk repiruou, ov8* ipdafiiov 
evvfj<: 8' d8iyi/ij5 cor ti/ a<l>pohLcriris, 
TOP 8' avhpa TOP Trapopra pavo'Cy 81801* 

55 /cXcVrovcra 8 €/)8€t TroXXa yeiropa^ KaKa, 
aOvara 8* tpa TroXXa/cts Kareo'dUi.J 

TrjP 8' iTTTTOs a^/>i7 xairi^cra* cyctvaro, 
-^ 8ovXt' c/oya koX Byrfp irepLTpdirei' 
KovT OP fivky]^ ilfavcreiep, ovre koctku/op 

60 dp€i€P, ovTC Konpop i^ OLKOV fidXoi, 
ovT€ wpos iiTPOP, AarfiohriP oKtviUprf, 
ItpiT' dpdyKy 8' dpSpa irotcirai <f>i\op' 
Xovrai 86 Trd(rrj^ rjfieprj^ dno pvnop 
8i9» aXXorc r/)t9> koX fivpoi^ dXctf^crai* 

^5 aiel 8c xairjjp iKTePKriietnjp ^p^t. 

\ .^ \ P V X' C^V .iL^^ .*.^,v i 


fiaBeuuf, auO^fioia-tv hTKUKTfiGrqv. 
Kohhv ii4v &v deqfia rof,avrrj yvvrj 
aXXourt* r^ S' expvTi yiyveraL KaK6v, 
fjv fii] Tt9 yj Tvpauvoi, fj cnoyirroSj^os ^. 
70 ocm9 Totovrots dvfiov ayXot^erat. 

Trfv S' CK VL01JKOV rovTO Srj hicucpLBov 
Zeus iv^pdcw iieyLOTov Synaaev KaKov. 
OLLaxLcrTa fikv irpoatatra • roiaun; yvvrj 
^taiv hi aqT€09 naaiv av6p<oiroi^ y€Xai9 

amryoSf auroKcuXo?. 2 roXa^ ai^/3> 
ooTi? KaKov ToiovTov ayKoXitjerai* 
hrjvea Sc irdvra Koi Tpoirovs inCaTaraL, 
cicirep m07)Ko^, ovSc ot yekcj^ /xeXct*^^ 
•0 ovS* av Tiu^ €v ip^eiev, aXXa roC^ 6p^, 
Kol TovTo iraaap rjiikpyjv ^SovXeverat, 
0^0)9 Tti^' W9 fieyioTov ep^euv KaKOV, 

KeCvg yap oly fiZ/jLos ov irpoci^dvei' 
•5 ^ctXXci S' VTT* avrrj^ KajraA^erai fiio^ • 

<l>i\rf he crifv <f>L\€WTL yrfpacKCi irocrct, 

T€KOvcra KoXov KovvofKaKkvrov ykvo^ • 

KapLTrpeTTTi^ /lev iv yvpaiii yCyverai 

TraxrgcrL, deirj 8' aii<l>Lhi8po[i€P \api^* 
90 ovh* iv yvvaiilv i78€rai KaOi^iiejrrjy 

oKov XeyovcTLV d<^po8icrtov9 Xoyov^. 

rota9 yw/aiKas dv8pdcnp ^apltjerai 

Z€V9 Ta9 dpLoTa^ koX ^oXv<^pa8co"raTa9. 
Ta 8* aXXa <^OXa ravra p^yfX^^ A 109 

►'• « %. 


n €(mv r* hr* arj^ jcot nap' i^hpaucrw {uueL 
Zzh% yap fjuiyiarov rovr' eiroiqcrei^ kojcSv, 
ywauca^* riv ri jcal Sojcoioriv oi^cXcu^ 
^)(ovtC rot /JLoXiara yiyverai KaKov. 
ov yap KOT* €wf>paiP JUkipTjv hvkpyeTai 

MJ airaaciPt oortv avv ywaiKl mXcrat* 
ovS* aX%f$a Xi/ioi^ olKirf^ airoiorcrai, 
i)(0poy crvvoiKr/rrfpa, Bvcrpjet^ia deov. 
avr)p o OTOM fMiAiora uviiriO€w ooicg 
Kar* oXkop tj Oeov fioipai^ ^ oj/dpamov \apiVt 

los tvpowa luajjuov €9 t^o^yyiv KOpvararerau ^ ' 
oicov yvioj yap iartv, ovS* €9 oiKvqv 
fcivov /ioXoi^' &i^ vpo<f>p6v(o^ hexpCaro. -. ^^ . 
17x19 oe rot /xaXicrra araxboopeLv hoKeZ 

MO K€)(r]p6To^ yap dv8po^ — oi Sc yeirov^i; 
XaCpova- ' op&vT€% koI tov, c&9 afiaprdvei • 
7171^ •^i' S eKao'To^ au/eaei ficfivrifiivo^ 
yvvcuKa, ttjv 8c roxnipov ficDfiTJcerai' 
l(rr)v 8 c;(OKr€9 fiolpai/ ov yLypdcKOfiev. 

"5 Zcv9 yap fiiyiOTov tovt* iiroCyfirev KaKov, 
KoX Seafiov dfi<f>i0rjK€U dpptjKTOv nChrq^t 
i^ ovT€ TOV9 [xev *At8779 ihi^aro 
yvvaiKQ^ elveK dfiifiLSrjpKafitvov^, 

,iy ■■ ■■'■ 




Sappho was bom on the island of Lesbos, in Mytilene or 
Eresos, and began her poetic work about the commencement 
of the sixth century b. c. She was married, according to tra- 
dition, to one Cercolas or Cercylas, of Andros, but his wife was 
all that saved him from oblivion. Very little is known of the 
particulars of her life; she lived principally in her native 
island, though there is testimony of her once fleeing to Sicily. 

The life of the iSolian women seems to have been peculiarly 
free. Sappho became the centre and leader of a society of 
her countrywomen, who, like herself, were devoted to the 
Muses. She was ardent in temperament, and impulsive in 
her affections, and this characteristic has given her the repu- 
tation of being immoral in her private life. It is however fair 
to record that there does not exist a particle of well-sustained 
evidence that her character was impure, and the existing frag- 
ments of her poetry are thought by many critics entirely to 
contradict the charge. (See Historical Introduction.) 

Her expressions of love are full of marvelous intensity 
and ardor. According to ancient tradition she was enamored 
of a youth named Phaon, and in her passionate feeling even 
threw herself from the Leucadian cliff ; but the name does not 
appear in her poems, and the whole story seems to be utterly 
without foundation. For gracefulness of diction and impetu- 
osity and unrestraint of feeling she has never had an equal. 
We have only fragments of her poetry left, but they are mar- 
velous exhibitions of her power in the use of words, and of 
her unparalleled intensity of emotion. 


She is said to have written nine books of lyric poems, as 
also epigprams, elegies, iambi, hymeneal songs, etc. 

Her dialect is, of course, the iEolic. 

In giving the meters of these short poems, we are confronted 
by considerable difficulties, from the fact that not only is the 
metrical system of the Greeks imperfectly understood, but the 
text is often exceedingly uncertain. I have given them gen- 
erally upon the authority of Bergk or Hartung. It will be 
noticed from the references to S., that his forms for the scan- 
ning are often essentially different from those which have 
been in use. The meter of I., II., III., IV., and V. is the 
recognized Sapphic verse (Sapphics and Adonics). S , p. 104 ; 
H. 917, r and a. (See also Latin Grammars, Allei^ and 
Greenough, 372, 2; Harkness, 700, II.) VI. is Alcaic. 
S. pp. 72, 102 ; H. 917, «. VII. and VIII. are Asclepiadean. 
S. p. 97 ; H. 920, /. (See also Latin Grammars.) IX is a 
hexameter. ^/ , , ^ ,^ " ij>'^ ^^ : > v4^ 

\. (1.) 

HoiKiKodpov^t adavaT^ *A<f>p6hira, 
TTai Ato9, SoXonXoKe, \i(T(Toiiai (re, 
ILTj fi acratcrt fiijr* opiato't hdfjo/a, 

noTPta, Ovfiov* 
5 dXXa TvtS* ekd*, al nota Kariptara 
ras €/xa$ avh<a^ atoiaa Trrjkvi 
€k\v€^, irdrpo^ Sc So/jlov Xwrotcra, 

Xpvo'cop ^Xde^ 
apfi vTToC.evgata'a' icaAot 0€ <r ayov 
lo a)ic€€9 crrpovdoi irepX ya? /uLcXatVa? 
irvKva hivevvT€^ irrip an* oipdpio aWc- 

pos Sta fieo'co). 
aTi/ra S* i^cKOPTO • rif S', & fiaKaipa, 


/uL€t8uurat(r' adavdrtf irpocrdyirtpt 
cx^k^^ X5 r^2^ * OTTi SiySrc iriirovda kottl 

Si/3r€ Kakyifii, 
KOTT^ ifu^ /ioXtoTa dikco y4v€ar0ai 
fiaivoXq^ dvyja* rCva Si/Src Ilct^ft) J^ 
/uLat9 ayi^i^ €$ crai' ^tXdrara, Tt5 cr*, 3 

Kal yap at ^cvyct, ra^^ew? Stoi^ci, 
at 0€ Ooipa fL'^ 0€ic€T » aAAa ocexrct, 
at §€ fLi9 i^tXct, raxecDS (f>i\yja'€i 

KOiVK iOikoto'a. 
«5 cX^€ /uLOt icat i/Ci^, ^ttXcTTai^ 8c \v(rov 
€K ixepLfjivav, oaca 8c /xot rcXccrcrat 
uvfio^ ifieppei, TeKeaov av o aura 

aviMfMaxo^ lacro. 

II. (2.) 

^aiverai fioi idjvos lo'os dCotatv 
ifjifiep itiVYjp, ooTt9 Ivavrio^ rot 
t£ai^€t, #cat TrXacrtoi/ a8v (fxaveC- 
era? urraicovet 
5 icat ycXatcra? i/Mepoev, to fioi fiav 
KaphCav iv oTrjd^o'iv inToacev 
0)9 yap evtSov fipo)(i(o^ ae, <f><ava^ 

OVO€P €T CtlCCf 

dXXa Ka/JL fjLev yXoKraa eaye, Xiirrov 8* 
xo avrtica XP^ '^^P v^o-^^SpofjiaKev, 
- oTnrdreo'a'L 8* oi58€i^ opnqii, imppopr 

fi^lCTL 8' aKovdi. 
aZk fJi ISpct)^ KaK\i€Tai, rpofio^ he 

ft J' 

/ ^ /*<'./' V. 


voUrav ay p€L, y\(apoTkpa Se iroia^ 
IS €/i/it, T€0vdK7iv S' oXtyco WtBeVTfV 
(f>aivofiaL (aXXa). 
aXXa vai^ roX/jiarov, [iirei Kal minora]. 

III. (3.) 

^AoT€p€9 fjikv dfi<f>l Kokav aekapca^ 

4^^ ^frOKpVVTOLOri (f>d€WOV €l8o9» 

omroT* av TrXyjdoKra /laXurra Kdfiirg 
(apyvpea) avyai/. 

IV. (4.)' 

*Ap<fn Se ^vypov iceXaSet 8t* vcrSoii^ 

fiaXii^CDV, aidvacropAvaiv 8e <f>vXkQ^v 

K&fia Karappel, 


V. (6.) 

.... *EX^€, Kvirpt, 
\pvaiaia'i,v iv KykiK^aaiv afiptos 
(rvfifi^iivypivov dakiaiai vexrap 

oivo\o€V(ra. ^ "" 

VI. (29.) 

Ai S' "^X^^ €a\(ov Ifiepop fj KoKtov 
Kal p/rj T4 Feim^v yXaJcrcr* €KVKa KaKoy 
a'!h(a% Ke <r * oi5 Ki^avev OTTTrar', 
dXX* cXeye? Trepi rSt Sticatoi. 

VII. (136.) 

'AXX" ov yap dkpi^ iv povaowoKatv B6p(p 
dpfjpop eppepat, * ovk appt Trpenci raSc. 


To dvaa-Keiv KaKov* ovto) KeKpiKaat deoC' 
eOuacKou yap av einep koXov Jjv roSc, 

ALC^US. 71 


^EcTTTcpc, irdvra <f>ep€L^ oo-a ^atVoXi9 

ecKeoaLO' avce>9> 
atya (rif ou/ re <f>€p€t^, aif <f>€pcL^ 

Koi {laripi ira&a. 


Algjsus of Mytilene was a contemporary of Sappho, living 
in the seventh and sixth centuries b. c. Mure places his 
active life as heginning 611 ; at all events, mention is made 
of his brother at that time, and there is a reference to a mili- 
tary campaign by himself five years later. He was by birth a 
noble, by sympathy an aristocrat, and by taste and disposition 
both a warrior and a poet. He lost his arms in the battle 
between his countrymen and the Athenians for the possession 
of Sigeum, yet in spite of this misfortuneihe seems to have 
retained his reputation as a valiant soldier. His valor and his 
genius were alike made tributary to his political party, and he 
fought in behalf of the nobles against successive tyrants, as 
also against the excellent government of Pittacus, who by his 
righteous rule was restoring peace to the suffering Lesbians. 
The latter part of the poet's life was spent in foreign lands. 

There were ten books of songs ascribed to Alcaeus, among 
which the patriotic and martial odes were the most celebrated. 
His full-souled vitality was a most important element in form- 
ing the character of his life, as also of his poems. He betrayed 
his love of activity, his admiration for forceful energy^ in all 
that he did or said. His poems have unfortunately almost en- 
tirely disappeared, being lost perhaps the sooner because, being 
written in the -^olic dialect, they could not be thoroughly 
known and universally appreciated by the Greek public. 


The meter of fragment I. is marked at the beginning as it 
is given by Buchholz. For fuller account, see S. pp. 43, seq. 
(notice form as given p. 44) ; 6. 301 ; H. 916. The sign H 
marks the basis (G. 288 ; H. 916). Selections U., III., VI., 
and VII. are the common Alcaic stanza which we have so 
frequently in Horace. For the scheme, see S. pp. 72, 102 ; 
H. 917, s. (Also the Latin Grammars, Allen and Greenough, 
372, 1 ; Harkness, 700, I.) Fragment VIII. is the well- 
known Sapphic and Adonic. S. p. 104; H. 917, r and a. 
(Compare also the Latin Grammars.) The meter of IV., 
IX , X., and XI. is Asclepiadean. S. p. 97 ; H. 920,/. (See 
also Latin Grammars.) 

I. (15.) 

MapfiaCpei Se jiiya% hofjLo^ ^aXico) * iraca S* ^Api/ 

K^Kocfiyirai oreya 
Xd/jLirpaLO'iv KVPiaLCi, KaTTav \evKOi KaOvnepOep 

ImrioL \6<l>OL 
vevoiaiVy Ke^^aiav avhpmv dyak/iaTa, ^^aXictat 

§€ 7ra(r<raXot9 
Kpyirroiaiv irepiKei/jLevai \dfjLirpai, KvdfiiJ^e^, gpico g 

taxvpoD fiekevs, 
5 6(ipaK€^ re veoi, Xtrcu icouXot re #car danihe^ 

nap 8c XoXictSiicat cirddai, nap Sc ^(ofiara noKKd 

Kal KvndTTiSe^* 
T&v ovK io'Tt Xddeaff*, ineiSrj npatricd* vno ipyov 

icTafiei/ ToSc. 

ALC-^US. 73 

II. (18.) 

'Acrvrcriy/xi toj/ avefKOP (rrdo'Lu* 
TO fjiev yap evdcp KVfia KvkLpBerai, 
TO S' evOep* dfifie^ B' av to iLiaaov 
vai <f>opTJfJL€0a avv fiekaCvif,, 

TTcp fiev yap avT\os la-TOTrihav €;(Ci, 
\al(f}o<: 8c irdv l^d8rj\ov yjir/ 

Kol Xaict8c9 fieyaXat icar' avTo* 
^dXjx^cri B* dyKvpai. 

III. (20.) 

Nvp xprj /jLeOva-OrfP Kal x'^ova irpo^ fiL(w 
KpovTjv, intiSri KaTOave MvpciXo^, 

IV. (33.) 


HXOes CK irepaTtav yas, iKe^avTivav 
\d/3ap TO) ^c<f>€o^ ypvaoherav €)(a)P. 
inei^Sr) [xeyav adXov BafivXaiPiOL^ 
<rviJLfid)(€i<; TcXcVas, pvcao t' cic nopoiv 
5 KTevvai^ dvhpa fiaxaiTav, ^acrtXijicui/ 
Tra\aL<TTav diroXevTrovTa /jlopov fiiav 
ira)(€a)P airif wefiircjp. 

V. (66,) ^^ , a ; i. I - • . ' 

loTrXo^' dypa /xc^Xi^o/uLCiSc ^dir<f>oi,, 
diko} Tt FeCmiP, dXkd /le iccoXvet 



VI. (34.) 

''Tct fih 6 Zev^, iK 8' opdvo} /leyas 
X€t/uoi/, TTVirdyaaiv 8' vSarioi^ />oat. 

KafifiaXKe roy x^^t^^^\ ^nl iiev tl0€l^ 
irvp\ iv 8c Kipvat.^ oXvov a^€c8€a>s 
5 fi€k(,xpov, avrap dii<f>l Kopcrq. 
fidXdaKov ia-a-dfiepos yv6(f>akKov. 

VII. (36.) 

Ov xpv tcdKOuri dvfiov iinTpeTnjv* 
npoKo^oiia/ yap ovSev hadfievoi, 
(o BvK^i, <f>dpfiaKoy 8' apiarov 

oXvov ipetKa/xevot,^ fieOvarOyjp. 

« J 


VIII. (36.) 

AXX* avjJTQ) fi€P irepl rats Scpato-tv 
nepdero) nXeKTats viroOvfitBdq tls, 
KaS 8€ x^vdroD fivpov S8v icar t2 
arrfd^o^ dfifii, 

IX. (87.) 

Toi' KaKoirdrpiSa 
liiTTaKov irok^ia^ ra? axoXcu Kai fiapvBaCfiovo^ 
io-rda-avTo rvpawov iiey* iiraiviovTe^ d6>Xee^. 

X. (41.) 

UCpwfia/' tC TO Xvxvov fidvo/xep : 8a#crvXo$ dfiepa. 
icaS 8* deipe tcvXCxPat^ fieydXcus, atra, iroiKikaL^* 
oIpov yap Xc/ULcXas Kai At05 vlo^ XaOtKdSea 
avOpdiroKriv cSwic'* cy^^^ Kipvaii iva Kai 8vo 


s TrXcat9 KaK K€<f>aka^, a 8' irepa rav eripav Kvkt( 

MrjSev aXXo <f>vT€V(rgs irporepop BevSpiop d/iTreXoi. 


Anacbeon was a native of Teos^ an Ionian city, on the coast 
of Asia Minor. When, however, this city was taken by Harpa- 
gus, the general of Cyrus, he removed, with a large portion of 
his fellow-townsmen, to Abdera in Thrace. This took place 
about 540 b. c. Somewhat later in life, he was prominent at the 
court of Polycrates at Samos. After the death of his patron 
he was brought, in a galley of fifty oars sent especially for his 
conveyance, to Athens, to join the coterie of poets whom Hip- 
parchus, the son of Pisistratus, had gathered about himself. 
He died at the age of eighty-five, choked, as tradition says, 
by a grape-stone. His death took place, apparently, about 
478 B.C. 

Anacreon lived a voluptuary, in the midst of the greatest 
luxury which his age could boast. Polycrates and the sons of 
Pisistratus labored alike to make their capitals the envy of the 
surrounding world for their prosperity and magnificence, while 
their courts were celebrated for the brilliant pleasures with 
which they encompassed themselves. Here he lived to enjoy 
all that was enjoyable, and to sing the delights of wine and 

Five books of songs were known as attributed to him among 
the ancients ; but only a few fragments have been preserved 
for us to read. The dialect in which he writes is the Ionic ; 
but, in imitation of the u^olic, he uses, in some cases, d instead 
of Tf, Some other ^olisms appear as peculiarities of his 


The meter is Glyoonic, with Pherecratic verses inserted 
(S. p. 70 ; G. 300 ; H. 917, / and rf; also, 921). This is the 
meter of the first five fragments. The sixth, seventh, and 
eighth are ionic. The ionic a minore is two short followed by 
two long. For the long syllables of one foot, taken with the two 
short of the next, two trochees may be substituted (anaclasis) 

(H. 925, a). The scheme is, therefore : ww — w — w-j: :• 

In YIL the alternate verses are iambic. 


I. a.) 

Tovvoviicu (t\ ika^fioKe, 
^av07f iral Aios, aypLcav 
hicTToiv^ '^ApT€fii 071 pZp* 
Ikov vvv CTTt ArjOaCov 
5 BCi^o't,' OpacvKaphicDP 
avhpwv ir/Kadopa irokiv 
j(aipov(r^' ov yap aurniipovs 


II. (2.) 

ilva^, ^ SaiJLaXrf^ ^Epcus 
KOI NvfjL<f}aL KvavdirtSe^ 
nop<f)vp€r] t' *A<f}po8LTTj 
crvfnraL^ov(rLV' iTTicTTpi^^ai 8' 
5 vxfrrjXZp Kopv<f)a^ opemv, 
yovuovfjLai <r€* <rv 8* eifieirjj^ 
ekd* rjfuv, Ke^apicriieviq^ 8' 


€V)(a}\7J^ iiraKovew. 
K\evfiov\{o 8' ayado^ yiuev 
10 cruft^SovXos* rov ifiov 8' epcDt*, 
& /^evinjo-e, 8cx€<r^at. 

III. (3.) 

KXevfiovXov fi€P eycry* ipat, 
KXcu^ouX^ 8' iinfjLaLuoiJLaL, 
K\€v/3ov\op 8c 8ioa'ic€co. 

IV. (4.) 

12 TTat irapOevLou fiXeiroiP, 
oc^rilJLaC <r€, <rv 8' ov ictct? 

V. (14.) 

^<f}aipiD 8rivT€ /utc irop(f}vp€i[i 
fidX\ct)V xpva-OKOfjLrjq *Epo)5 
i^i^4 TTOLKiXoa-afifidka) 
(rvfiiraL^etv irpoKaXeirai* 
5 7) o 9 caTLP yap an €vktctov 
Aearpov, rfjp fiev ifirjv Koynrfv, 
Xevtcrj yap, icara/x6/x<^erat, 
7rpo5 8' dXXrjv Ttvd ^dcK^i. 

VI. (44.) 
IloXtol fikv rjfilp rjBri 
Kpora^oi Kaprj t€ XevKOv, 
XCLpi^a-a-a 8' ovKeO^ rj^rf 
irdpa, yyjpdXeoL 8' oSovre^. 'f 


5y\vK€pov 8* ovKeri iroXXo? 
jSiOTOv xpovo^ XcXciirrai* 
ia ravT ca^aaToKvifi} 
doLfia Tdprapop ScSotKcus* 
'AtScoi yap eoTt Setra? 

ica^oSo?* ical yap erot/uLov 
KaTafidpTL firj cafafirjvai. 


VII. (48.) 

MeyaXoi hrqZri fi* *Epfii$ 

TTcXe^iccc, )(€Lfl€pvg 

8' ekovo'eu h/ X^P^^PV' 

VIII. (64.) 

Aye o>/, <pcp >)fLii^^ 0) irat, 
KeXefirjP, okcd^ dfivartv 
irpoTTiio, ra fiev 8cic' eyj^cas 
vSaros, ra nepre, 8' oo^ov 
5 KvdOovs, co$ dvufipLOTi 

Slpol Brivre fiaaaapija'a). 

« * * * 

*Ay€ 8'>jSr€ ixrjKeff^ ovto) 
Trardytp re icdXaXi^r^ 
^KvdtKrjp irocTLP nap* olp<j» 
xo fieXeroifiep, dXXa icaXot? 
VT^OTripopre^ ip vupoi^. 



These songs have long borne the name, of Anacreon^ being 
written with much of his spirit ; but by the best critics they 
are regarded as spurious. They receive little recognition from 
the ancients, and represent different ideas from those found in 
the undoubted poems of Anacreon. They differ also in their 
meter, which is usually iambic dimeter catalectic (G. 293, 2 ; 
H. 904, e). The Ion. a min. with anaclasis will be recog- 
nized, X., XI., etc. For fuller accounts of these meters, see 
S. pp. 107-111. 

L (6.) 

Aeyovo'LV at ywai/ccs, 
^AuaKpicjv, yepojv et' 
XajSo)!^ eaoTTTpov adpei 
KOfia^ fih/ ovK€T* ov<ra9, 
5 tjfLkov 8c (rev iLeTianov. 
eyo) oe ra? #co/xa5 fiei^, 

€LT eKTlV, €LT aTT7f\UOV, 

ovK oioa- Tovro o oloa, 
a>5 TO) yepovTi fiaXkov 
10 TTpiireL TO repirva iraC^eiv, 
o(r(o irikas ra MoCprjs, 

II. (7.) 


Ov fioL fiiXei ra Tvyeo), 
Tov XapBCiov avaKTO^* 


ov8* ciXc ircj fie ^tJXo9» 

OVO€ (f>0OV(O TVpdvPOL^. 

5 ifiol fiiXei fivpounv 

KaTaaTi(f>€Lv Koipyjva, 

TO (njfiepov fieket [iol, 

lo TO 8' avpiov Ti9 oXSev ; 

0)9 OW €T €VOL COTLV, 

Koi inv€ KoX Kvfieve, 
Koi (rnii/he to) Avaio), 
firj vova-o^, rjv Tt5 ekOji, 
«5 Xeyj; <rc /a^ Set iriveiv, 

III. (8.) 


A^C9 /AC, TOV5 ^cov? <roi, 
irieiv TTieZv d/AvcrTr 
^cXo) ^eXo) iLavrjvai. 
ifiaiveT *A\Kfiai(t}v T€ 
5 xd) XevKOTTOv^ ^Opdo'Trf^, 
ras firiT€pa<; KTovome^' 
cyo) oc ii7)0€va /era?, 


0€\o} OeXco /Jiai/rjvaL. 
ocii^i/ icXoi^oii^ (f}apeTprji/ 

Koi TO^OV ^I(f>LT€LOV, '^•^ 



iliaivero jfpiv Atas 
fier^ d<r7rt8o5 Kpahaivtav 
IS Ty)v "Etcropo^ fidxaipav' 
eyo) 8* ej^oiy icvTrcXXov 
KoX arefifia tovto xcttrai?. 
ov To^ovj, ov fidxai'poi^f 
0€ko} 0€k(a fiavtjvaL. 

IV. (9.) 

Ti <roi deXet^ ironf<ra>, 

Ti o"ot, XaX-jy ^cXiSoi^ ; 

ra Taped aev ra KOV(f>a 

O^Xeiq \aficbv i/raXilo) ; 
5 ^ fxaXKov €vhodiv (rev 

Trjv ykSiO'a'aVt co5 6 Trjpev^ 

iK€LVO^, iK0epi^(ti; 

TL fieu Kokeou oveipcov 

xmopOpiaKTi (fxavai^ 
10 d<f}r]p7ra(ras UdOvWov; 

V. (10.) 

^Epoira KTjpLvov Tt9 
verjVLTj^ incoXey 
eyo) 8c oi irapaard^, 
iroarov dikei^, e^rfv, coC 
5 TO Tv\dkv iKirpCtofiaL ; 


kdfi* aifTov omroaov X^9* 
oirai9 S' ia/ iKfidOyq irav, 
ovK el/il KapoT€xva^' 

10 aXX' ov dikxa awoiKtiv 
*E/>ftiri iravropdKTq.. 
oo^ ow, oo^ avTov rjfiLv 
^pa)(/i7J^, KoXov (Twevpop. 
*Epa>9, (TV 8* €v04<a^ fie 

15 irvp(a(rov* ei 8c /jw;, crv 
icara <^Xoyo9 TaKij(rg. 

VI. (11.) 


Oi fikp Kokriv KvfiTjfiyjv 
TOP rjfiLOrjXvv "Xttiv 
iv ovpeaiv Joanna 
kiyovaiv iKfxavfjvai,. 

5 oi 8c Kkdpov Trap* o^Oai^ 
Sa(f>P7j(f>6poLO ^oifiov 
\aKov TTLovre^ vBcjp 
fiep/qvoTes fioSiaiv, 
eyo) be rov Avaiov 

10 KOL Tov fivpov KopeadeU 
Koi rrj^ ifirj^ kraipyf^ 
Oekfo Oikco iiavTfvai. 


VII. (12.) 
EI2 EPflTA. 

iy^ 8* ^011/ voTjfia 
dfiovXov ovK eireLo-driP. 
s 6 8* €vdv To^ov dpa^ 
Kal ^pvaeqv ^apcTfyrjv 
H*^XO M*^ vpovKoXeLTo. 

lo Kal Bovpa Kal fioeCrfv, 
iliapvdfiriv ^Epayru 
c)8aXX*, eyoi 8* €^€vyov 


iJcrxaXXci/* clr* eauroi/ 
15 a(f)7JK€v €19 fitkeiivov^ 
fieao^ hk KophCrf^ /xcv 

IMrrjv 8* ^6> fioeLyjv* 
TL yap fidXiOfiev e^o), 
» iidyyj^ ccroi fi* €)(ov<rq^ ; 

VIII. (18.) 


El <^vXXa irdvra BeuBpwv 
CTTtcrracrat icarciTrca^, 
€i KVfiaT* ot8a9 evpeiv, 
rd rj^ oXi;« ddKaa-OTiSi 


s (re T&v ificiv ipdn^av 

fiovov noZ Xoyicmjv. 
TrpSnov fiep cf ^kdrfv&v 
eptoTa^ eiKoaiv 6k^ 
KoX 7r€VT€Kou^K* aXXov^* 
lo eneira 8' c#c KoptvOov 
0€^ opfiadov^ ip(OT(ov' 
'A^at>y9 yap i<mv, 
oirov fcaXat yvvaiKe^. 
Tidei 8c AeafiCov^ fioi 

Kai Kapiri^ *Pd8ov T€ 

hL(r\t\iovs epcjTa^. 

TL <fyg^: iKrjpicoOr)^ ; 

ovncj Xvpov^ ike^a, 
9o ovno} noOov^ Kavdfiov, 

ov ttJ? anavT* €)(ov(T7j^ 


*Epa)S iTTopyidtjeL. 

TL cot ^c\ci5 apiOyietv 
as KoX Tov^ Vaheip(i}v eKTo^;, 

Tov^ BaKTpieou re Kivhw 

^VXV^ €/atJ9 CjpcDTas; 

IX. (14.) 

^Epaa/iCrf irikeia, 
iroOev TToOev Trcracrai; 
nod^v fivpciiv roaovTiav 


' ' '' eiox 

CTT 776/005 ueovaa 
5 irviei^ T€ KoX i/reica^cis; 
T15 cT; Tt crot /xeXet Sc; 
^AvaKpiwv fi* €ir€ii}l$€i/ 
irpo^ ira&a, npo^ BdOvkkov, 
Tov apri tZv airdvroxv 
10 Kparovvra koX rvpavvov. 
irenpaKe [i rj Kvdyjprj 
XajSovo'a fiLKpov vpvov* 
eyo) o AvaKpeovTL 
SuLKOPci Toaavra* 
IS fcai 10)1/9 6p^^, iKeivov 

CTTtOToXds KOflitfii* 

KaC (f>ria'Lv evOeo)^ [le 
iXevOeprjv iroLTJo'eiv. 
eyo) 0€, KTjv aupjf fie, 

90 SovXtj fievZ Trap* avT(f* 
ri yap /le Set irerao'dai 
oprj T€ Kal KttT* aypow, 
KoX hevhpeo'iv KaBCl^eiv 
^ayovaav aypiov ri; 

•5 ravvv cSo) fih^ apTov 
a(f>ap^da'axra ^eipSiv 
KvaKpeovro^ airrov* 
TTieLV 0€ /Liot oioaxrti' 
TOV oXvov, ov irpoirtv€i* 

80 TTLova'a S' &v -)(opeva'(o, 
Kal Sea'woTrjv yepovra 
wr€pol(ri avyKoKv^u^^ 


as e)(Ct9 airoi^*' aireXde* 
XaX tarsal' /bi' €^ica9» 
apdp(air€, Kal Kopmrtf^. 


X. (16.) 


Aye, tfiyypdi^v apLorre, 
ypd(f>€9 l(fir/pdj^v a/OMrrc, 
*Po8m79 KoCpave riyyyj^t 
aireova'av, d)s &i/ eLW(o» 
5 ypd<f>€ TTjv ifirjv eraipijv* 
ypd^€ fioL rpCxcL^ to TrpSkov 
airaXa9 re koX ficXatva?* 
6 8c KTjpo^ iiv hwrqrai, 
ypaL<f>€ Kal /ivpov -nvcoucra^. 
lo ypd<f>€ 8* c£ oXiy9 irapeii)^ ^-* 
VTTO TTOp^vpcuai ^aiTai^ 
ik€<f>dvTivov /jueTamov. 
TO /lecoifypvov he fiij fioL 

hcdKOTTTe, IX7JT€ fiLcye* 

IS e^CTO) 8*, oiro)^ €ic€ti^, 
TO XcXt^^oto)? (rwo<l>pw 
fi\e(f>dp(i)v LTvv Kekaarrjv, 
TO 8c fiXefifia vvv akrjOS}^ 
airo Tov TTvpos noirjo'ov, 

ao a^a yXavicw, a>9 *A.drjvrjs» 
ofia S* vypQVt m KvOjjprj^. 

-'' .* ' 


ypd<l>€ pwa KoX irapeid^, 
poha T^ ydkaKTL fiC^a^. 
ypa(f>€ ;(€iXo9> ola IlctdoO^f 
as npoKaXovfievov ^Ckqiia. 

TpV(f>€pOV 8* €(70} y€P€LOV 

irepl XvyStVy Tpa)(ij\(i) 
Xapires Trkroivro iracrai. 
(TToKurov TO \oinTOv avnjv 
30 v7roirop(f>vpoLa'L ireirXois* 
8La(f>aLP€T(o Se (rapKwv 
oXiyov, TO (T&ii* iXeyxop. 
amx€L' BXeiroi yap avrqp. 
Ta)(a KT/pe Koi XaXrjo'ei,^. 

XI. (17, 18.) 

' . i 

AoTC fioi, 8oT*, Z ywoLKeSi 
UpofiLov irieiv dfivaTi' 
airb KovfiaTo^ yap rjSr) 
irpohoOel^ avaa'T€vaXfii, 
5 ooTe 8* ai/dkmv iKciuov 
<rTc<^ai^ov9, OIOV9 irvfca^w 
Ta /x€ro>7ra /utov Viiccuct. 

TO 8c KaVfia TCJV *lS,pd)T(i)V, 

KpahCr], tCvl (TKeiraXfi} ; 
lo Ilapa T171/ (TKvfiv Bo^^vXXov 
KofiKTOv* Ka\ov to hevSpov 
Q,iraXa% 8* eo'eio'e ^aira^ 


[laXaKayraTfp icXaSuric^. 
irapa 8* avrov ip^Oitfii 
«s frtfyr) peovca Ilci^oi)?* 
Tts iv oiv opwiV irapeKdoi 
Karaycryiov toiovto ; 

XII. (19.) 
£12 EPOTA. 

At MoOcrat rov ^Epoira 
8i7(ra(rai (rre^voKriv 
T^ KoXXet TTapeSoiicai^. 
icat i^vi^ 17 Kv0€peLa 
5 ^T^TCt Xvrpa <l>€pova'a 
Xva'aaOaL rov ^E/xura. 
icai' Xvor^ Se Tt9 avrov, 
ovic eg€i(rt, [levei oe * 
SovXcveti/ SeSiSaicrai. 

XIII. (21.) 

'H yrj fxiXaiva Trivei, 
irii^ei 0^ o€vop€ av yr/v. 
VLvei daXao'ca 8' aitpas- 
6 8' 17X105 daXao'O'av, 
5 Tov 8* i^Xtoi^ cekijvTj. 
rC fiOL fia^eaff*, iraipoL, 



xiy. (22.) 

£12 KOPHN. 

*H TavToKov iror* ccmy 

\i0os ^pjryZv ep oxdaL^, 

Kal irai? nor* opvi^ iim/ 

Tlavhiovo^ )(€\iJ8<op. 
5 eyoi 8 * iaoirrpov etrip, 

oirai9 act fi^iirg^ fie • 

eyo) ^LTcav yei/oCfiyjVf 

07rct)9 a€i (l>ofyg^ [le. 

vS(op deko) yeveaOai, 
w> o7ro)9 0"c )(pa}Ta Xovo'a) • 

fivpov, yw/ai, ya/oliirjv, 

07ro>9 eyo) (r aAciYrai. 

ical Tau/LTi 8k /xacrraJi/, 

ical fiapyapov T/oa^i^Xy. 
15 ical crai^SaXoi^ yevoliirfv* 

fiovov iroaXv irarei fie. 

XV. (28.) 

©cXo) Xcyctv *AT/oci8a9, 
^cXoi §€ KaSfiov aSeii^* 
a /Sap^LTO^ Sc ^^opSai^ 
EpcjTa fiovvov '^x^^' 
5 rjfxeLxIfa vevpa wpcirjv 
Kal rfjv Xvpyjv dTra(rav, 


*H/>aicX€OV9* \vfyri §€ 
c/>aiTa9 ai^eff>(ip€L. 
lo ^cu/>oiT€ XotTTOi/ rfiuy, 
7Jp(0€^' Tj Xvprj yap 

XVI. (24.) 

Averts KepaTa TavpoLs, 

TTohiaKiifV XaycDot?, 
Xcovcrt XOLcrii * 68oWa>i^, 

5 TOt^ ixdvO'lV TO VTjKTOV, 

TOi5 opveois neraaOai, 
roL^ aa/hpaaiv ^poyrnia. 
yvvai^Xv ovK cr' €T;(cv. 
ri oSi^ SiSoxri ; icaXXo9 

lo a^r acnrtoo)!^ anaa'av, 
cW €y)(€a}v airavTtov. 
vLKa §€ icat (TiSrjpov 
KoX irvp koXtJ ri9 oScrcu 

XVII. (26.) 

iTTfO'Cri /xoXovcra 


^E/30)9 8' act irXe/cei ficv 

€V KaphvQ koXliJp* 

Hodo^ 8* 6 fio' irrtpovrai, 

6 8* WW COTty OKflTJv, 

lo 6 8* i7fitX€7rro9 1781;. 
^8017 8c yCyP€r* aUl 
KeyyfvoTOiv veoca&p. 

'Ep6)ri8cr9 8c [ILKpOV^ 

oi fitiCoves Tp€<l>ova'iP* 

15 Ot 8c Tpa<f)eVT€$ €V0V^ 

irdXiv Kvovau/ aXXov9. 

tC /a'^X^^ ^^^ ykvy)Tai; 
oi yap (rdivQ) roaovTOV^ 
^Epowas iK/Sorja-ai. 

XVni. (26. A.) 


tif /xcv Xeyci9 ra Bijfiris, 
o o at; ^pvyiav avras* 
eya> 8* c/xa? dXcucrct?. 
ovx WTTTO? ftJXccrcv ftc, 
5 ov 7rc^09, ovxi l^C9 • 
oTpaTo^ hk Kaivo^ aXXo5 
dir* ofi/iaTCiiV fic jSaXXwv. 


XIX. (27. A.) V ^ ^ 


irapa ArjfxvCaLS Ka/iLvoi,^ 
Ta fieXrj ra t(ov 'EpwTtov 
inoei \afiQ}v (rlhr^pov. 

5 d#ciSa9 8* efiaiTTe Kvirpts 
(lekL TO yXvKV Xa)8ov<ra' 
o 8* *Epo)5 xoXi7i^ e/iLoyeu. 
o o ApjjS TTOT eg avrrj^ 
CTiPapov 86pv KpaSaivcav 

lo )8c\o9 iqvTekil^^ "EpcDTO^ • 
o o Epa>9, TOO ecTTiv, eiirev, 
fiapv* ireipda-as votjctci?. 
eXajSev /Seke/iyou '^Apr/s • 

»5 o 8' *ApTj9 oj/acrreud^a^, 
/3apv, (f}7ja'LP' apov avTo. 
6 8* *E/oa)5, €;(* avTo, if>7ja'iv. 

XX. (30.) 
EPOTIKON. ^-vlA"^^ 

Etti fivpaCvaLs repeCvai^, 
ink Xa>Tii/ai9 re Troiai? 
(TTopeora^ dekco irpOTriveiv. 
o 8* *E^o)? ^(trwi^a Sijcra? 
5 vrreo av^eVos ItOLTrvpoi 


fieOv fiOL Sta/comrca. 

T/oo^o? apfiaTo^ yap ola 

/SCoTo^ Tp€)(€i KyXiadeLS* 

oklyjf 8c KeKrofiearOa 
lo Kovi^ ooTetav XvOivra^v. 

TL (re Set \l9ov pvpitjELV ; 

TL 8c yg X^^^^ fiaTaia; 

ifie fiaXkop, <U9 crt ^at, 

fivpiaov^ pd8oi9 8c Kpara 
15 irvKaaov, KoXet 8' kraipiqv, 

irplv ipo)^ ex^L ft* aTreXdew 

inro vepTepcjv ^o/3Cia9, 

(ric€8a(rat dcXo> iiepifiva^. 

XXI. (31.) 

Mccroi/vicTiots ttot cjpai^, 

aTp€(f>eTaL or* ^Apicros -^Si; 

/cara X^^'P^ ''^^ Bocorov, 

fieponcav 8c <^SXa irdvra 
5 iccarat icotto) Ba/iem'a, 

TOT* Epois iina'TaOeLS fiev 

dvpeoiv CKOTTT* ox^as. 

719, er^T^i^, dvpa^ apdcrcrei; 

Kara fiev (rxil^ei^ ovetpov^, 
10 6 8* Epct)9» avoLye, ^rfcriv • 

l5p€(f>o^ elfiC, fiTf <f}6/57i(raf 

fipexpfiai Sc Kaa-ikrjpov 


Kara vvicra wtTrXavrffiai. 
iKi-qaa ravr* dicovcras. 
IS dra 8* tvdi) \v)(yov di/^as 

iaopio <l>€poirra ro^ov 
nripvyds re Kai ^apirpriVt 
irapa 8* iaTLrjP Kaffifra 
9o TToXd/ubaiS r€ x^V^^^ avroS 
apddaXTTOv, €K 8c xairq^ 
airiOXiPov vypop vBtap, 

6 8*, CTTcl KpVOS ll€0rJK€V, 

<l>€p€, ifyrfciy ireipaatoiiei/ 

as Td8€ TO^OPy CI Tt /LtOt I^VV 

/SXdfieraL fipax^^o-a pevp-q. 
Topvei Be Koi /xc tutttci 
[leaop ^nap, oianep ourrpor 
di^d 8' dXXcTat Ka^atfiiP, 
2P iep€ 8*, cTttc, {TvyxapTjOL* 
K€pa^ afiXafik^ yukp icTLP, 
<rif 8c KaphLTjp woPTja'€L^. 

XXII. (32.) 


MaKapCipiMep crc, T€ttl^, 
ore O€pop€0i}p €ir aKptop 
okiyyjp Bpoaop irc7rct>icct>9 
)8acrtXcv9 oirct>9 &ct8cts' 
s crd ydp ccrri Kcti/a Tropra, 


onocra fikeirei^ iv aypol^, 

aif hk <f>iXLa yecjfyyZv, 
OTTO iJLTfBepo^ Tt pKaiTTfav. 

dipeo^ yXvicvs npoffyqTrfs* 
<f}Lkieova'i /icp (r€ Movtrai, 

Xiyvpfjv 8* eSoiKCv oiiirfp* 
15 TO 8c yyjpas ov crc rtipei, 
a-oifie, yriY^PTJ^, f^iXv/utvc, 
aTradijs, avaifioo'aLpKt* 
ax^Sop ct deoi^ o/xotos* 

XXIII. (83.) 

*E/!>a>9 iroT* & /ooSoicrti^ 


ovK eTSep, dXX* cTpdOrj 
TOP BaKTvkop' waTaxdeC^ 
s ra? ^ctpas (oXoXv^ci^' 
hpafiwp he Koi Treracr^cftS 
7rpo9 T171' KaXiyj' Kvdyjprjp, 
oXcoXa, fiaTep, elirep, 
oXci^Xa KanodpTJa'KCD' 

irrc/jowds, Sv KoXovcrti^ 
fukiTTOP 01 yecopyoL 


d 8' etir€v* ^i to Kevrpov 
nov€i r6 ras fiekirras, 
15 TToaov 8oK€ts irovovo'iv, 
*Epa>9, ocrovs crv ^aXXcis; 

XXIV. (84.) 

*0 ir\ovTo% €1 ye ^va-ov 
TO t^rjv Trap€LX€ dviqTot^, 
eKapTepovv ^vXarrcDV, 
Lv\ av daveiv iTrekOji, 

5 XajSjy Tt Koi irapekdj). 
el 8* ovv TO ixTf irpiaadai 
TO l^rjv ipecTi dirqrol^, 
Tt xpvao^ oi^eXei /xc ; 
0av€LU yap el neTrpajTat, 

10 Tt Kttt fiaTTjP (TTevatfi} ; 
ri /cat ydovs TrpoTrefiTro) ; 
ifiol yevoiTo iriveiv, 


ifiol^ <^tXot9 (Tvveivaiy 
IS eu B* (XTraXatcrt Koirai^ 
re\eiv rav * X^pohirav. 



SiMONiDES of Ceos excelled in various branches of Ljrric 
poetry, but has become especially well known for his innumer- 
able famous Epigram?. He was bom 556 b. c. His father 
had an official position in the worship of Dionysus, and the son 
seems to have been brought up in the study of music and poetry, 
as in preparation for a regular profession. In his younger 
years he was one of the favorites at the court of Hipparchus 
at Athens, where he still retained his interest after the death 
of the tyrant. In his advanced age he found an honorable 
home at the court of Hiero at Syracuse. He died 467 b. c. 

It would seem to have been not very long after the death of 
the Pisistratidae that Simonides was for a time in Thessaly, in 
connection with the noble families of the Aleuadse and the 
Scopadse, of whom we are obliged to confess that they are 
known for few noble virtues, except that they entertained him. 
If we are to place any trust in the story which tradition has 
preserved to us, his life was spared only through divine inter- 
vention, when their injusticefand impiety brought down calam- 
ity upon them. (Cf. Cicero de Oratore, ii, 86 ; also, Smith's 
Diet. Biog.) 

Simonides was a most voluminous writer, and was one of the 
most popular of the Greek poets. He was celebrated for the 
sweetness and harmony of his poetry. He so excelled in the 
expressiveness of his words and figures that all ages have 
repeated in admiration some of his beautiful verses. His 
dialect is the Epic, with some Doric, and possibly some iEolic 
forms. The scheme of the meters is that given by Bergk. 

. I. (4.) 

Jl :_ v-'v-' v-'-, 

..^KJ \J .^ KJ \J Ji^ \J ^ 

__..i.\^ \y \J \J i- KJ KJ KJ \J ^ 


$ — \J JL. \J \j v/ u\j ^ 

Ji ._yj V/ — V/ \J ^\J^KJ 

0T1CT09 «ratvo5' 

€VTdxf>iov 8c Totovrov ovr* eifpto^, 
5 ov^* 6 irav8afiaraip afiaypdaei ^)(p6vo^. 
QVOp<op o ayau<av ooe oifKO^ oiicerai^ ei/oogioi' 
'£XXa8o$ etXero* fiaprvpel 86 ical A€a)i^i8a9 
6 2ira/:>ra$ jSacriXeik, operas yAyav XeXoiTTcSs 
Kotryiov aJvaj&v t€ kXcos. 



II. (6.) 

-l-^V-' V-'^ ^ V-' 

^\J ^l^KJ KJ Ved-I-W \J ^ 


Srp. a. 

*AvBp* hyadov fiep akadeat^ ytifitrdax 
\aXenhv ^f^ptrw re koX irocri kol vo^ rerpaycavovy 
av€v ^oyov Tervyfidvov 

triirdkw hiKav 
vyvYi<i avrip {ioTiv) • ov {iiv eyco 
5 /^(Ofiijaoiiai* r&v yap rjkidiaiv 
dneiptov yeviffka. 
irdma roi KaXa« rourt r' aUr)(pd /i^ fi€fiiicrat. 

OvSc /Liot iiifiekia)^ to Ilirraiccioi/ 

v€fi€Tai, Kairoi tro^ov irapa <f}(oro^ elprjiUvov* ^a- 

Xcirov f^ciT* ccr^Xov ifiixevai. 
lo ^€09 Ai' pjovo^ TOVT* €)(oi y€pa^' avBpa 8* ovic citrrt 

/x^ ov KaKov CfiiievaL, 
ov a/idxcu/os (rvfi^opd Kadekig. 
irpd^ai^ yap eS ird^ aiv^p dyados, 
KaK09 S*« €t KaKa>9* icat 
TOWiirXcMTTOi' dpiaroL, roif^ d€ol ^iKeoiaip. 

15 TowcKCv oviroT* eyo) to fi^ ycvccr^at 
Svvaroi^ hi^'qiievo^, Kev^dv es dnpaKTOv ikmSa fioZ^ 

pap aiSivo^ jSaXeca, 
Travd/Koiiov ai/dpcjirov, evpveSovs ocrot Kapirov alvv- 

li€0a ^dovo^* 


eiri r vuliliv evpwv aTrayyeXeo). 
» iKa}p ooTts ^pSy 

III. (37.) 



-U\J \^ \J KJ \J \J l^ KJ \J 

-:^ \J \^ — \j Kj \j \j \j w_i.v^^ 

5 _i_ W W \J )i^ 

\j Kj ^ \j \j ^ i^Kj \j :^\j \j «^ 

-i-\j \j — v-/ i^\j v^_::_ ^ ^ 

10 \J \J -:. :_v-/vy KJ \j 

,2^\j \j : 

-i-ww t.\j \j — \j c7k^ ^ w i^ 

. Epode. 

-:_w L.WW v^ 

IS^\^ -i Ct> v^' _ v^' _::_ v^ vy 

Ot€ \dpvaKi iv haiZoKia 


SeCfiaTL rjpLnev, our' dStapraccrt rrapeiai^, 

d/ji<^t T€ Ilepaei l3aXk€ <f>i\av x^P*' ^'^^ ^*' ^ T€ko^, 
5 olov €)(io irovov* 

(TV 8* a6>T€i9 yoKaOriv^ r' TjTopi, Kvcocrcret? ci' 

Sovpari ^aXKeoyoiKfxj} 

vvKTiXaiiTrei Kvai^o) re Svoifxfi o'TaXcfe* 

avoXeav 8* vnepOev reav KOfiav /Sadetca^ 
«o irapiovTos KVfiaTo^ ovk dXeyets, 

ovS* apejMOV <f}06yyoi)P, 

K€Lix€PO^ iv wop<f>vp€q, ;(Xai't8t, KaXoi/ wpoo'wwov, 

Et 8c Tol 8€ii/oi' TO ye 8€»'0i/ ^v, 
icat /c€J/ e/ioii/ prjiidroiiv kenrov vn€i)(€<s o?a$. 
15 Kekofiai 8* €v8€ fipd^o^, evSerto 8c ttovto^, 
cv8crct> 8' aixerpov KaKOV 
fieraifiokia 8c rt9 ^avcCrj, ZcO Trdrcp, cic crco • 
on 8c dapo'aKiov etro^ 
eixofiai, T€Kv6<fn StKav (Tvyyvoidl /iot. 


IV. (58.) 
_i. w v-/ ^ 

:_w v-/— ._:_v-/ w_i_v^-_ 

«i_vy '^\J \J ^-V-' — ^ 

5 i^\j \j \J \J 


I * • 


*EoTt rt5 \6yos 

TOJ/ aperap vai^w 8v(ra/UL^arot9 eirl nirpcu^, 
iyvav 8c iiLv deop x&pop ayvov aiiA^irtiv. 
ovZk irimoiiv fi\e<f>dpois OvarZv itrofrros, 
5^ liTf Bojcedviio^ ihpo}^ 
ivhodep iJLokg, licrfrai t* e$ axpop 



I. (90.) 

ACp<f>vo^ iSfi'^drjiieu vno im/x'i, (rfjiia 8* i<f>* 'q/iiv 
iyyv0€P EvpCTTov S7jiio(rC<i, K€)(yTai, 

ovK clBCkcd^s • iparffp yap atr(o\iea'aiJL€P p^oTrira 
rpTjx^iap TToXc/iov he^dfiepoi p€^\7)p. 

II. (91.) 

*E\\rjP(ap 7rpoiMa)(pwT€^ ' AdrjpaiOL MapaOcipL 
Xpv(ro^6pwp MrjhojiP iaTopetrav Bwa/iiv. 

III. (92.) 

Mvpiaavp irork rgSc rpifiKoaiai^ ifiaxpi^o 
€K Jl^Koiroppda-ov ;((,Xux8€9 rerope^, 

IV. (94.) 

MpTJjjia ro8c kXcipolo MeyioTia, ov nore Mrj^oi 
XTrepx^LOP TTOTajMOP KTelpop dfieLiffdixepoL, 

fidpTLo^, OS t6t€ Krjpa^ hr^pxpyL^pa^ a'd<f>a €i8cu9 
oifK ^tXtj XirdpTtj^ ijyc/ioi/as Trpokiir^p, 


V. (95.) 

Et TO KoXZ^ 0vrja'K€u/ aperrj^ fUpo^ io'Tt [liyiaTOP, 
rjfup CK irdmwv rovr* aneveiiic TV)(rf • 

'EXXaSt yap cmev^vre^ iktvdepirfp ir^pidtivai 
Kei/ieO* ayripdvT(fi xpdfiepoL evKoyijj. 

VI. (96.) 

*Ao-)8c<rroj' kXco^ oi!8c ^Ckrj wepl irarp&i dkvrt^ 

Kvdv€OP Oavdrov dfi<l>€/3dkoin'o ve^s * 
ovSc T€0paa'i 0av6pT€S, inci a^* apcr^ xaOvnep- 


Kvhaipova^ apdyei Sci/xaros €^ 'AiSeoi. 

VII. (97.) 

EvicXea^ a7a KtKevOe^ AetopiBa, ot fiera treio 

T^8* €0apop, Xirdprri^ €vpv}(opov jSacrtXci), 
TrkeioTwp 817 ro^top T€ koI ol}KV7r6ha)P adepo^ 


MrjSeCfoP r* apSpZp Be^djMepoi, noXififo. 

VIII. (100.) 

*fl ^€ip*, €vvBp6p TTOT* tpaCoixep aoTv KopipOov, 
pvp 8* ififi* AtaPTO^ mcro9 ^ct 2aXa/it9* 

p€ia Be <f>OLPLa'a'a^ prja<s koI Ilepcra^ ekopre^ 
Kal MijBov^ iepap * EXXaSd pvirdfieda* 

IX. (101.) 

*Aic/Lia9 iaraKvlap im fupoO * EXXa8a TroLorap 
rats avT&p i/fv;(at9 Keifieda pvcdixepoi 



SovXocrwas* Ilcpcrais 8c ir^pl xf>p€<rl mjfiaTa iraan-a 
rjiffaiiev, apyakiris /xnfftara vavyLOxfa^' 
5 ocrrea S* ifi/iiv e^ei XaXafiis' naTpl^ he K6piP0os 
OPT* ewpyetrirf^ M^/^* i'freOrjKe rdSc. 

X (103.) 

* EXXas iXevdepCa^ dii<l)€0eTo arkt^avov. 

XI. (102.) 

IlatSe^ *kdyjvai(av Hepo'cjp (rrparov i^okeaavre^ 
TlpKefTav apyoKkrjv warpiSi BoyXoavvr/v. 

XII. (107.) 

*E^ ov r* 'Evpcoirrfv *Acria9 Si^a 7rdi/ro9 epetiiei/, 

KOL TToXta? dvyfTuyv dovpo^ ^Kpr^i €<^C7rci, 
ovhevL TTCD koXKlov hn-)(dovi(av yiver avhpiov 
ipyov iv riTreiptf koL Kara ttovtov ofiov. 
5 otSc yap Iv yaiTj 'iirjhwv ttoXXov? oXcVai^c? 
^olpIkcjv eKarov pav^ Ikov iv irekdyei 
apopcjv TrKyjuovaa^, fieya o earepep Aai^ vtt av 
irkiffaia afi^orepat,^ ^epai, Kparei irokipjov. 

XIII. (113.) 

SripSip p,€P KcipTio'To^ eyciS, 0paT&p 8', oj' eya> pvp 
^povpS), ro>8€ ra<^6> Xati^^ e/xjScjSaais* 

dXX ct /i'^ Ovp^op ye KeoiP ep^op, ovpopd r* eT^ep, 
OVK OP eyo) Tvp/Sco tSS* eiredrjKa iroha^. 


XIV. (122.) 

Xcafia [lev akXoBaini K€v0ei kopl^, kv Se ere novrtf, 
7r\a^6fi€i/ov ' y\vK€pov Sc ii€\L<f>popos otfcaSe vo- 


TJfi7r\aK€s ovS* Ik€v Xiov €9 afi<f}ipvTriv. 


Toil/ avrov rt? cicaoro? dTroXXvficVct)!/ di^taTat^ 
NticoSticov he (jyCKoL kol irdXts Tjhed* okrj. 


rioXXd TTtoii/ icai iroXXd <f}aycap koI woXka KaK* el- 
dp0p(onovs KeCfiai TifioKpicjp 'PdStos. 





The history of Greek poetry is a history of Greece. The 
whole growth of the nation is pictured to us in the nation's 
songs. Whatever the people thought, or planned, or did, flowed 
as simply and naturally into verse, as in a school of artists all 
fancies clothe themselves in form. And so the language be- 
came full of poetry which was a perfect reflection of Greek 
nature, with all that marvelous variety of form and expression 
which were so characteristic of the products of the Greek mind. 
The Hellenic people would not tolerate a dull uniformity in 
thought or language. Nowhere was the Athenian disposition 
to see and hear new things more systematically illustrated than 
in the growth of the national literature. But, what is even more 
wonderful, this Greek fertility did not trespass beyond the 
limits which Greek taste had marked out. Each new develop- 
ment came to fulfill appropriately a well-defined purpose. The 
growth went on with a perfect propriety of progress, as if there 
were some system of landscape-gardening which could control 
it to adapt each form and color to the place which it was des- 
tined to occupy. It was natural, but with a naturalness which 
anywhere else, especially with imitators, would be, and be felt 
to be, artificial. Greek songs, like the rainbow, had infinite 
different hues, yet all grouped under well-marked divisions of 
color. There was a prodigal abundance, yet no confusion. 

I quote, because they are much better than anything which 
I can say, the words of Mr. Mure with regard to the interesting 
variety in Greek song : " From Olympus down to the work- 
shop or the sheepfold, from Jove and Apollo to the wandering 


mendicant, every rank and degree of the Greek community, 
divine or human, had its own proper allotment of poetical cele- 
bration. The gods had their hymns, nomes, paeans, dithyrambs ; 
the great men, their encomia and epinicia; the votaries of 
pleasure, their erotica and symposiaca ; the mourner, his thre- 
nodia and elegies. The vine-dresser had his epilenia; the 
herdsmen, their bucolica; even the beggar his iresione and 
chelidonisma. The number of these varieties of Grecian song 
recorded under distinct titles, and most of them enjoying a 
certain benefit of scientific culture, amounts to upwards of 


The progress of the art of singing from the more simple to 
the more complex forms was of course only gradual. There is 
a long period in which, as far as we can trace the history, the 
hexameter occupied the whole field of Greek literature. This 
was the only form of composition which they regarded worthy 
of their ears, or upon which they cared to bestow their interest 
or study. But the same condition of popular feeling which 
had brought forth the Iliad and the Odyssey could not remain 
forever. As must be the case in any advancing society, the 
Homeridae passed away and the HesiodsB appeared. It is said 
that the father of Hesiod emigrated from ^olis, in Asia Minor, 
to the little village of Ascra, under the afternoon shadow of 
Mt. Helicon, where the poet was born. We might almost find 
an allegory in the story, to represent the literary life of the 
people. Homer had sung of national topics, but, after all, the 
scenery, the locality, the life, were all foreign. With Hesiod, 
the people forsook their wars in Asia, and their wanderings 
round the whole world, and came back to the fresh hills of 
Greece to be at home. The *' Works and Days," the most 
characteristic of the writings of this school, a volume of frugal 
maxims for country life, was of inestimable value for its en- 
couragement to the simpler virtues, and remains to us now to 
mark the progress which the Greeks were making in their 
home life. 


There is yet another change which, we notice in the progress 
of this literature, was taking place with great rapidity among 
the people. In Homer, the chiefs were all, the commons were 
nothing. Homer without his heroes would be absolutely with- 
out occupation, — there- would be no one for whom to write. 
Hesiod, on the contrary, writes for the multitude. We have 
here the delightful evidence that that marvelous progress of 
the race which lifted the common people up to the cultured 
democracy of Athens had already begun. The contrasts be- 
tween Homer and Hesiod are a most striking illustration how 
truly national, universal to all classes, was the artistic talent 
of the Greeks. 

In the latter part of the eighth century before Christ, 
we begin to trace the development of elegiac verse. It is a 
simple modification of the ordinary hexameter by varying 
each alternate line, but it springs into prominence to fulfill 
a mission which reminds us of the oratory of democratic 
days. Callinus pleads with the recreant people of Ephesus ; 
Tyrtaeus rouses the enthusiasm of the warlike Spartans ; Solon 
exhorts the Athenians to be both valorous and law-abiding; 
and for them all the elegiac distich was the appropriate form. 
The shortness of its sentences, the unvaried limitation of the 
stanzas, was like a continual reminder to the poet to be brief 
and sententious and vigorous, and his thoughts were naturally 
oompressed and intensified until they became peculiarly stirring 
and effective. 

But this very sententiousness of' the elegiac verse adapted 
it even more peculiarly for another purpose. It is a most 
natural progress for every one who exhorts or teaches, to 
express himself more and more in the language of maxims, 
especially as there is an innate fondness among all men for' 
this form of instruction. This tendency of the verse to be- 
come a vehicle of didactic thought, shows itself in a great 
variety of ways : Solon is inclined to moralize, while Theognis 
makes bis whole poem a collection of sage remarks for the 


guidance of human conduct. A large part of the epigrams 
partake of this character, and this was the favorite verse in 
which to compose them. This fondness for the statement of 
truths in maxims (gnomes), has given to Solon and Theognis, 
together Mrith Phocylides and Simonides of Ceos, the title of 
gnomic poets. Mimnermus, on the other hand, moralizes in a 
more continuous, meditative style, reflecting with sadness upon 
the frailties of human life. Here in the moumfulness of the 
song is the commencement of the modern idea of the elegy, 
or, as the feeling seeks relief in such pleasures as are within 
reach of human striving, there is a natural transition to the 
love-songs and sentimental poems which, in later times, were 
written in this form. This last tendency of the elegy is es- 
pecially well illustrated in the Latin composers of the Augustan 

But there was yet another province for poetry to occupy 
which was entirely distinct from those to which we have re- 
ferred. The branches of song which we have noticed have 
been ideal in their representations, didactic in their aim. 
They give us pictures of imagination, dreams, aspirations, 
hopes ; there are no representations of men of every-day life, 
as they actually are. The pictures are paintings, never photo- 
graphs. The poet is largely a preacher ; he writes, not what 
men are, but what they ought to be. In the same period in 
which Callinus began to write elegies, Archilochus entered upon 
this new method of song. Unfortunate in his origin, being 
born of a slave woman, unhappy in his disposition, bitterly dis- 
appointed in his life, he suffered with cruel keenness, and it was 
a suffering which it was not his nature to repress. His feel- 
ings burst forth to blaze like a fire which finds the air. All 
his grief and anger and hatred he brings into his verses, to 
poison the shafts of vengeance which he thus showers upon 
his enemies. His verses are full of spiteful passion, but we 
are made conscious that it is just such passion as the world 
brings forth ; it is no fancy picture with artificial varnishing 


and coloring which he presents ; its vivid; outspoken reality 
chills one at the sight. It is hecause he is a good hater that 
he is especially appropriate to his age. Just what he was, and 
frail men ahout him were, that was what he put into his poems. 
Hq proved his originality and greatness in heing as frank in 
condemnation of himself as of any one. It was natural that 
for his purpose he should adopt and regulate hy rule the con- 
versational iamhi) and so prepare the vehicle for the dramatic 
authors of after days. 

The work of Archilochus marks a most important era in the 
history of Greek thought. He rouses a complete rebellion 
against the traditional past. The old times had been full of 
the conception of the divine right of kings and nobles; he 
proved that even to the despised commoner there was open an 
appeal to a public sentiment, which could touch and humble 
even the proudest prince. He questioned and criticised every- 
where with extreme boldness, and thus pricked the bubbles 
which had long been floating before the popular eyes, and 
made men look at things as they really are. The old sentiment 
had branded one who iled in battle as a coward, baser than the 
basest in society ; Archilochus sings with the utmost noncha- 
lance of the loss of his armor, ^^Let the shield go, I'll find 
another just as good." The conservative military Spartans 
would not sufEer such a poisoner of morals to come into their 
city, but the Greek nation, as a whole, honored him as one 
who helped to enlarge their thought. 

The ancients could never express suiHcient admiration for 
the splendid originality of Archilochus. He is placed side 
by side with Homer as pre-eminent in his art, — almost the 
inventor of a new art. It was the tradition that, before he 
was born, the promise was made to his parents that they 
should have an immortal son, while over the man who slew him 
Apollo through his oracle uttered this terrible sentence : " Go 
forth from the temple ; you slew the servant of the Muses." 
And so, through all antiquity, his reputation for power never 


The poetry which we have thus far considered is peculiarly 
simple in its form. When, on the other hand, we come to 
notice that which is more distinctly Lyric, we find an almost 
endless variety of versification. How could it be otherwise?. 
Lyric poetry is made up of songs and hymns, and these n^ust 
seek variety as the human mind changes in its feelings. 
These poems may be divided into two great classes. The 
.^k>lians of the island of Lesbos were the first cultivators of 
Greek song, and naturally made their singing a part of tlieir 
joyous life. They laughed away the merry hours in easy 
contentment, cultivating social life and meeting with especial 
delight in the banquet-hall. Their songs of love and mirth 
and festivity attained to an elegant carelessness of expression 
which has never been surpassed and probably never equaled. 
They set the example for the merrymakers of all future ages. 
On the other hand, the Dorians were the Puritans of the 
ancient Greeks, distinguished for the faithfulness and dignity 
of their worship. They cultivated the religious hymns, and 
trained their choruses to sing them with most effective power. 
They placed their impress so thoroughly upon this style of 
poetry that even in the Attic tragedy the choruses cast their 
solemn thoughts in the form of the Doric dialect. And so 
like two sisters, one gay and careless, the other thoughtful and 
grave, these two great branches of the Greek family brought 
forth each its peculiar style of music and poetry, and handed 
down its influence to the ages which were to follow. 

It was through the talent, or genius, or inspiration, or re- 
ceptivity of the iSolians of the island of Lesbos, that this new 
musical impulse was first communicated to the Greeks. Lesbos 
was, from its position, peculiarly adapted to furnish a point of 
contrast for the traditional principles of the Pierian bards, and 
the more artificial methods of Asiatic composers. The wild- 
ness and fancif ulness of the Phrygians and Lydians were caught 
by the quick ear of the Greeks, but were taken by them only 
to be reformed and reconstructed^ remodulated to satisfy the 


Greek taste. So the new art was from abroad, and yet it was 
their own. The commencement of this new Greek music is 
with Terpander. He took the ancient tetrachord whose un- 
varied notes had furnished the only accompaniment, or rather 
prolude, for the recitation of the ancient poems, and added 
three strings, giving it the compass of an octave, though with 
one omitted note. The especial benefit of his improvements is 
to be found in their fertility. He opened a field which his 
quick-witted countrymen hastened to cultivate with an ardor 
which gathered riches to be transmitted even to us. 

Terpander carried his art from his native Antissa, in Lesbos, 
to Sparta, and founded the first of the Spartan schools of music. 
He was followed in his adopted city, within the same genera- 
tion, by two other masters, Thaletas of Crete, and Alcman, a 
Lydian, apparently from Sajdis. It was a central article of 
the inborn faith of the Greeks, that the proper balance of 
character could be obtained only through the refining yet up- 
lifting influence of art. So these three poets, all of them 
foreigners, like Tyrtaeus, who belonged to the same age, were 
brought to Sparta to do a work for society without which 
Spartan discipline and Dorian valor were recognized as help- 
less. The development of this art was made as earnest work 
as the carrying out of the constitution of Lycurgus; music 
stayed-^ the plague, propitiated the gods, healed the popular 
disorders, inspired the halting mind, was a necessary part of 
healthy life. Thus it was that the solemn Greek choruses re- 
ceived their character of impressive grandeur. 

It is almost impossible for us to comprehend what an element 
this choral song became in the life of the ancient Dorians. It 
is, moreover, difficult to say which was reckoned by the popular 
mind more worthy of admiration, the dignified flow of the 
poet's thoughts and words, the modulated cadence of the har- 
monizing voices, or the stately tread of the worshiping chorus 
as it danced about the altar of Apollo. Dancing, because it 
helped to train the body while it also exhibited its vigor and 


graceful nesS) was held in high estimation among this people of 
muscular religpion, and especial honor was given to Thaletas 
for the instruction which he gave in this manly art. Alcman 
helped to hring in a greater variety of form, even develop- 
ing the idea of the strophe and antistrophe, to be written in 
the same meter, but to be sung corresponding to alternate 
movements of the chorus, first from right to left, then from 
left to right. A still further advance in the same direction 
was afterward made by Stesichorus of Himera, in Sicily, who 
udded the epode to be sung while standing before the altar, 
after the strophe and antistrophe. Stesichorus was a veritable 
Dorian, not merely by birth, but in his principles. His songs 
were full of dignity and grandeur, and all his influence worked 
in harmony with Dorian manners, although he belonged to the 
same age as Alcseus and Sappho.% 

The island of Lesbos, which gave birth to Terpander, and 
sent him to be a leader for the Spartan choruses, was itself to 
become the centre of another school of even more striking 
brilliancy and glory. So pre-eminent was its influence upon 
the musical schools of Greece that, at the risk of some repetition, 
I will again call attention to the characteristics of its inhabitants. 
Almost at the eastern frontier of the Greek-Speaking people, 
it was the first to catch the suggestions and inspiration to be 
gained from the older, and in some respects more advanced, 
civilization of the East ; it seized the new ideas, and improved 
upon them with a readiness and progressiveness which were 
peculiarly Greek. The island was not deficient in fertility, 
but the population was naturally impelled to maritime pur- 
suits, and the result of this was a large development of mer- 
cantile enterprise. It is only by scattered hints that we are 
informed of the extent of this tendency, but we gain suffi- 
cient information to know that Lesbian enterprise reached out 
after wide conquests. The brother of Alcffius appears among 
the courtiers of the king of Babylon ; the brother of Si^pho 
seeks his fortune among the Egyptians, and receives the re- 


proaches of his sister for bringing home from there a noted 
courtesan. These instances are illustrations that the Lesbians 
were coming in contact with people in remote quarters of the 

These ^olians were thus quick-witted, commercial, wealthy, 
even luxurious in their tastes, developing also with great ra 
pidity those versatile qualities of character which would come 
from contact with the world. They would become intensely 
fresh and individual in their sentiments, impatient of each 
other, eager for something new, — full of large plans, only a 
small portion of which could, by any possibility, be carried out. 
The character of Greek citizens was such, especially in the 

. seaboard towns, that each state was almost sure to come to a 
point where its circumscribed limits could scarcely contain the 
convulsions which were engendered. There was everywhere 
too much bursting activity for the fields which were open. 
Thus it was that Mytilene was torn with civil dissensions in 
connection with new questions of progress and old questions 
of family and rank, which were always so rife in early Greek 
society, until the people, in despair, placed the supreme power 
in the hands of Pittacus, that a strong government might give 
them peace. 

There is, however, another point of great consequence in the 
character of the people of Lesbos. They were not, like the 
Dorians, of stately and solemn disposition. The religious ele- 
ment was not pre-eminent in their constitution. Choral songs 
would have been too serious to express their most ardent feel- 
ing. They were a luxurious, pleasure-seeking people; they 

' loved their festivals and banqueting-halls far better than their 
temples. They could have dispensed with the gods better than 
with their feasts. And so their poetry was the reflection of 
their character, calling forth its highest powers, not for wor- 
ship, but to celebrate the delights of the sensuous life. The 
intensity of personal feeling would thus furnish the motive 
force in this the typical Melic poetry of the Greeks. The 


Dorian hjmn was the emotion of the whole people, breathing 
through the swelling cadences of the poet ; the .^lolian song 
was but the feeling of the individual, interpreting his own 
thought to ask the sympathy of the listeners. The Dorians 
were grandly communistic ; the i^lians were strikingly indi- 
vidual. Alceus was a politician, a partisan, in intention a 
patriot ; and he used his poetry to make others feel his feel- 
ing. In this respect his art would trace its lineage back to 
Archilochus and his fierce iambics, while in the increased 
variety in thought and form we see the evidence of growth in 
culture and of the development of the art of music on which 
the poetry leaned. 

The Lesbian poetry adopted a form which was suited to its 
aim. It was composed generally in simple measures, with the 
verses arranged in stanzas of moderate length, so as to lend 
a pleasing variety, and furnish a convenient resting-place for 
the singer's voice, since they were rendered as solos com- 
monly in connection with the feasts. The form and the spirit 
is admirably illustrated in the Odes of Horace, which were 
largely imitations of these Greek songs. 

Of the two great composers of Mytilene, Sappho is by far the 
better representative of the art. With an intensity which 
makes one almost shrink back from her burning words, she 
furnishes thoughts as exquisite and graceful as pictures 
formed by the fancy in the wreathing flames of the evening 
fire. She is intensely personal ; her imagination is all her 
own ; her songs are all of herself; and yet, with the instinct 
of a true poet, she never deserts the listener, — you are carried 
with her. She has apparently the perfect openness of a true 
lyric poet, and yet she is Greek, and with Greek skill she 
weaves her thoughts into a wonderful web-work of words and 
pictures and figures of speech, so that, while appearing to tell 
everything, she perhaps tells little or nothing. She seems to 
confess all her inward feeling, — to be as open, in her exposure 
of herself and those about her, as ever Archilochus could havt 


been ; and yet, with all her apparent frankness, the world of 
scholars has never been able to settle the question whether she 
was pure enough to be an adornment in any home, or corrupt 
enough to disgrace any society. If we ask how this can be, 
we answer. It is her art — her poet's art itnd her woman's art, 
the perfection of art — which hides the line between fiction 
and reality, and conceals deformity even from the keenest eye. 
It would be of interest to me to know the character of Sappho; 
but it is even more interesting that no one can make her tell 
more than she has intended to. 

Sappho presents to us the best picture of the dominant char- 
acteristics of the iS)olian school, because she shows such marvel- 
ous power in the delineation of sensuous feeling. In the whole 
history of the world, no other author has represented so vividly 
the sensations of human nature. She was a wonderful out- 
growth of a peculiar society. The i^lians lived in the feel- 
ings and enjoyments of the day. Sappho was the j^olian of 
the j^olians ; in her their feelings were magnified and inten- 
sified beyond description. Yet all her writing is with consume 
mate art. In the utmost frenzy of her sensation, she does not 
shock your taste, nor hardly violate your sense of propriety. 
You read feeling that in every line there are two marvels : 
first, that she could venture to say so much; second, that in 
those times, with her surroundings, she could say it all with so 
little offense to the most exacting taste. 

The iEolians made the poetic art simply tributary to their 
physical and social enjoyment. Songs were to help their pleas- 
ures, and add to the enthusiasm of their feasts. The tendency 
which had been nourished and fostered by these bards of the 
island of Lesbos was of far-reaching influence among the 
Greeks, especially of the maritime towns. The islands of 
the iSgean had grown old in experience of luxury, and often 
of vice, while Sparta and Arcadia and almost all the mainland 
were still wrapped in the innocence of their natural simplicity- 
The product of a longer growth of this spreading plant of 


Greek loxmy is presented to us in the Ionian Anacreon. He 
was bom at Teos, on the coast of Asia Minor, but his life 
really belongs to the two courts of Samos and Athens, where 
he was a favorite of the wealthy and luxurious tyrants. Poly- 
crates and Hipparchus. He was devoted to pleasure, not with 
a peculiar, superhuman sensitiveness, like Sappho, but with a 
common love for all physical gratification, such as shows itself 
everywhere in human nature, if it is encouraged to come to 
light Anacreon represents to us the degeneracy of Greek 
life. He furnished the models for drinking songs for all suc- 
ceeding time. He lavished his artistic praises upon the joys of 
dissipation with a fervor which will insure him the sympathy 
of drunkards and debauchees to the end of time. There is, in 
fact, a sort of sincerity and earnestness in his dissipation, 
which few modern imitators would be able to preserve. 
Through all his verses, there is an air of elegance, which you 
cannot but admire, yet you feel it is only his birthright as a 
Greek artist which restrains him from becoming insufferably 
coarse. It is a striking testimony as to the estimate which 
was placed upon him, both with reference to his talent and 
liis character, that long afterward so many songs, like the 
Anacreontea which we publish, imitated his style and tone, and 
were attributed to his genius. 

Anacreon was an Ionian, but we are not to conclude that 
he represented the only tendency of that of the Greek 
race. The Dorians, as we have noticed, were especially re- 
markable for their reserve, their conservatism, their faith. 
Tlie ^olians showed far more freedom in their social life, 
a fact which is especially illustrated in the position occupied 
by their women, who were left untrammeled by any such mass 
of regulations and traditions as held sway among the Dorians. 
Sappho's school of young women would have been an utte? 
impossibility in the close air of Spartan tradition. The 
lonians were like a compromise between these two, showing 
sometimes more liberty than the i^lians, and more strictness 


tban the Dorians, and yet with a capacity for well-balanced pro- 
gress which was peculiarly their own. So it was in their poetry. 
In Anacreon, they out-i^lized the i^lians. At the same court 
of Hipparchus, they presented in Simonides of Ceos a man 
of Dorian power and purity, yet with a gracefulness and ele- 
gance combined with depth of thought and feeling which were 
all his own. He was almost as peculiarly a disciple of the 
Dorians as was Anacreon of the iSolians. He loved the grand 
form of the Dorian chorus in which to express his thoughts, 
and excelled especially in the composition of the dithyramb, or 
Dionysiac chorus, and of epinician odes and encomia. His 
elegies were also noted for their beauty, and as a composer of 
epigrams (and the epigram was child of the elegy) he was 
most widely celebrated. His short but grandly expressive 
verses in hono&of heroic men are likely to be remembered as 
long as the Greek language has any remains. Among his 
friends were the prominent citizens both of Sparta and 
Athens, and his sentiments were loved and admired in both 
these cities. 

The poetical activity of the Greeks must have grown at this 
time to be enormous. Not merely was it true that in the 
chief cities there were poetical contests, calling out numerous 
competitors, but every town had its composers/ its choruses, 
and leaders, — every village had its own musicians. Certain 
families kept alive the poetic art, handing it down from father 
to son, gaining renown not only for themselves, but for the 
community to which they belonged. The impulse was felt 
among all the branches of the Greek race. The three great 
families vied with each other in the pursuit of this beautiful 
art, each bringing its peculiar characteristics into its prosecu- 
tion of the work. The different varieties of hymn and song 
had grown up with well-marked distinctions. The psean, in 
honor of Apollo, was as old as the Homeric poems, but had 
been cultivated with peculiar ardor wherever the Dorian race 
was found. The dithyramb, in praise of Dionysus, was known 


before the age of Archilochiu, had received new attention from 
the genius of Arion, and was rapidly advancing to that per- 
fection of development where it was to give birth to the Athe- 
nian tragedy. Parthenia, or processional hymns of the Dorian 
maidens, had been popular since the days of Alcman ; hypor- 
chems, dancing songs^ always accompanied by mimetic per- 
formances, had a history from the time of Thaletas ; the 
threnoi, or songs of mourning, traced their pedigree up to 
the bard Olympus ; the erotica and symposiaca had been be- 
loved by all the .^lolians, and the former could, perhaps^ trace 
a well-authenticated relationship with the pensive elegies of 
Mimnermus and his school. Scolia, songs of individual ban- 
queters succeeding each other about the table, had been long 
cultivated with peculiar beauty ; while the ringing melody of 
the comus was soon to develop into the beautiful* epinician odes 
of Pindar. These and a multitude of other forms, sacred and 
profane, prove to us that all Greece was full of poetry. The 
brilliant lines which we prize as beautiful and precious beyond 
description, are but the sparkling spray-drops from what was 
then a full river of exquisite song. 

Then it was that Pindar appeared ; with these surroundings 
he cultivated the poet's art ; upon these foundations he built 
his power. With Pindar we reach the culmination of Greek 
lyric poetry. He loved especially the highly developed form 
of the Dorian choruses, but he learned from all the schools, 
and improved upon them with an originality all his own. And 
so almost five hundred years before the Christian era Lyric 
poetry in Greece had gained its highest perfection, we might 
almost say, the utmost of which it was capable. The later 
development was in new fields, with new methods. We have 
referred to the diversity of Greek poetry, its magnificent range, 
its contrasts and variety. Now we notice the time over which 
its growth extended, the centuries which were filled up with 
continual development, and we are amazed anew at the mar- 
velous intellectual vigor of the favored Hellenic race. We can 


mark off periods, not merely by years, or decades, but by cen- 
turies, and multiplied centuries, in which they were not only 
supreme in the literary world, but were sending forth produc- 
tions which were to be masterpieces for all the ages yet to 
come. We have, assuredly, reason enough for enthusiastic 
admiration for Greek literature when we think with how much 
mind we come in contact when we open this storehouse of 
thought. And nowhere are the Greeks better interpreted and 
understood than in the poetry which is the natural breathing 
forth of their own active and artistic thought. 




^The poem is an exhortation to the indolent Ephesians to rouse them- 
selves, and fight for their lives against the advancing enemy. 

LiHE 1. lUxP^ - ^^^ ^'^''^ ^ ^P^^> ^^^ unhomeric before a con- 3 
sonant. It reappears in later Qreek. The Attic form is without 
the -f . Tfv = Tivo^, K^XP^ ''''^ : ^^ long f KaTcuccurOc : the isaTd 
strengthens the meaning of the verb, lie inactive. Of. Kaff^adai. 

2. d|i^iirfpiKTCova« : the neighboring people of the coast, who had 
been to a considerable degree held in subjugation by the Greeks, by 
whom it was requisite that Greek valor should be re8i)ected, and who 
would naturally look to the citizens for defense. 

5. KaV^ K. r. X. : Even when dyhvgj let ea/ih one for Uic last time hurl 4 
his javelin, &iro6W|o^ciV is largely used of violent death, as passive of 

6. dv8p( : depends upon ripJfi&f and irfKoAif (G. 184, 3 ; H. 697, 1). 

8. 8vr|&ci4o%v : depends on /Mix6<r^ai (G. 186, N. 1 ; H. 602, 1). Awr- 
IJL£if4ffw is a strong word, implying personal hostility. It is much used 
by Tyrtaeus : indeed, this poem is by some attributed to Tyrtaeus. The 
word would seem to have been a favorite one in early days of violent 

9. Moipcu : Fates. Homer refers generally to but one Moira. (For 
the only exception, see II. XXIV. 49.) Hesiod conceived of them as 
three, which was thereafter the recognized number. 

10. im* dcnrCSos, k. r. X. : confinning the valiant heart beneath the 
shield whenfirU the battle is Joined. 

12. oi -ydp Ktts . . . krriv : for it is not possible. 

13. cl : nJsed by the poets, where Attic prose would use dy. dvSpa : 
snb. of ^vytiv. 

15. An apparent allusion to Agamemnon. 

16. & Ikhr . . . T^v hi \ the one ... the other. 

126 NOTES. 

17. 4*^ T% vAIq : the ezpressioii is euphemistic, commonly referring 
to death. 

19. (^LOt : drrd^tot is genenUy used with this significance : liv- 
ing^ he is honored like a demigod. Notice the emphatic contrast of 
l^tnr and 0»^yi w i>TO f , pbiced thus close together. As in all early war- 
fare, it is the individual hero who is of most C4>n8equeuce. This is the 
kind of courage which the poet seeks to rouse. 


The poem is an exhortation to the Spartan youth to the defense of 
their fatherland, representing the different motives which should inspire 
them to valor. 

Like 1. TcOyd|MVCu, from its emphatic position, is made the centre 5 
of thought for the first lines. The arrangement is throughout quite 
admirable. irpo|idxoi(n : the foremost warriors were the hoplites, who 
were most honorable, both as soldiers and citizens. 

2. inpC with dative is frequent in Homer, but rare in prose ; here, 
in behalf of. 

8. avToi^ = lavroO. 

4. irT«»xcv«v, to beg; Sk very strong word; more so than rey^i]^ 
below. Even with straitened means one is like an enemy ; how much 
worse to have nothing ! 

8. ctK«»v : driven by, 

9. Kard, join with ^Xfyxct : degrades the beatUi/ul form, 

13. 9v|M^ : toith courage. 6 

14. ^vx^v is equivalent to tunfi. 

16. ^vyfjsCG. 171, 1; H. 574,b). ^ifhv: flight. This is the earlier 
meaning of the word ; the later signification was /6ar, but differed from 
d^oi as referring more to the expression of fear. 

18. |iT|8i ^iXo^vxctrf : be regardless of life. 

19. wv, K, r. \. : whose limbs are no longer nimhU, 

20. KaraXcCirovTfs : the Kard in composition greatly emphasizes the 
meaning of the word. T^papbin, as an expression of honor, repeats the 
idea of ToXaioripomy pointing out with additional emphasis their claim 
to respect. The word properly refers to the dignified appearance of age, 
though later it was used like yepaibs. 

21. aUrxpdv : a word of strong meaning, in an emphatic position ; 


toOto anticipates KfurOtu. y^urd, among, used with dative only iu 
poetry ; mostly coniined to epic poetry. 
22. vImv (6. 182, 2 ; H. 589). 

25. Covering with modest hand his bleeding wound* The line is 
incapable of translation. ^CKot was nsed by the ancient Greeks as a 
stronge/ possessive prononn, somewhat as the modem German uses the 
adjective Xith, 

26. vi|ifO'i|Ttfv, though singular, is nsed with rd, ld€iif depends upon 
it, and the two words form one idea. 

27. XP^ YVfiVM^rra : loith body stripped. Connect with ix^yra, 
wdyra : altogether. 

28. < 4p* • ^^^* ^CD • understand ret, from vioiai. 

29. dvSpdo^ : for men to behold wUh admiration, but women with 

81. cS SiCLpdt : standing firm, 


Line 1. 'AXXoL . . . ^dp : the conjunctions are joined, as if to direct 
the thought to an implied exhortation preceding : Never yield, but be 
bold, for. 'HpaicXf|os : the Dorians occupied Sparta under the lead- 
ership of the Heraclidae. 

2. o^ vw, jc. r. X. : Zeus has not yet vnthdraion his favor, 

3. ^oP^Ur^ (cf. 1, 16). 

5. Ix%>dv • considering life your enemy ^ and counting dark death your 
friend (cf. John's Gospel, xii. 25, 6 /luriap r^jv yf^vx¥)» 

7. dtSi|Xa : destroying, 7 

8. l8di|Tt : aor. pass, from Sdw. 

9. ^cirytfvTtiv . . . Sumc^vtwv (G. 171, 2 ; H. 574) : you have had 
frequent experience of flight and pursuit. 

10. cU K^pov, K, T. X. : you have been in them to satiety. Liddell and 
Scott translate, "To push till disgust ensues." 

11. ^dp : refers back to the direct exhortation of verse 4. 

13. vaupdnpoi. Notice force of comparative, contrasted with the 
following mau : fewer die but they save from death the people behind 

14. Tpco'irdvTwv : the verb rpita means usually to tremble with fear. 
Among the Spartans, 6 rpiaas was the inglorious title of the runaway. 

15. o^Vs, jc. r. X. : no one could ever complete the list, repeating all 
the evils which befall a man, if he suffers disgrace. 

17« (hrur0c, used as an adverb ; as preposition, it governs the genitive. 
8at(civ : connect with ipyaXeoy : grievous it is, if one ufounds him. 

128 NOTES. 


20. w«rrw (G. 160, 1 ; H. 649). 

28. |ii|po^ «. T. X. : the shield, as used in the oarliest times, was 7 
laige enough to cover the whole man (cf. Diet. Ant., art Clipbus). 

24. ^00^1 : the hollow of the shield. 

25. 8i|i'r^ : the employment of the left hand has heen pointed 
out in line 24. h x«V^ : the use of the preposition, rather than a mere 
dative of instrument, strengthens the idea of graspiTig. 

26. X^v : the crest of the helmet was formed commonly of horse- 
hair, arranged so as to look imposing and terrible (cf. Hom. XL VI. 469,. 

and III. 837). 

30. oMC^mv : fighting hand-to-hand, 

32. h 84, adverbial: mtn-woer. This adverbial use of prepositions 
is common in Homer, but grows more rare as we approach the Attic 
standard. They are very commonly joined with W. X6^ (H. 544, b). 

85. yy^vi(m : Ivght-armed troops. At Sparta they were made up 8 
from the Helots, who furnished servants, attendants, and light-armed 
soldiers. Their protection seems to have been made merely from skins, 
or leather, or even cloth; they fought with darts, stones, bows and 
arrows, or slings. The hoplites, on the contrary, were drawn up in the 
form of a phalanx, with swords and long spears. 

37. a^ovs : the enemy. 

38. irav^irXoko% : TX170-/OV is more commonly joined with the geni- 
tive. The dative seems to be used as implying not merely neaniess, but 

Theme : Only bravery deserves honor. 

Line 1. |ivi|oxkC|&i|v : the conditional clause appears in vers&ll. Iv 
X^^ Tl0c<r6ou = ivaMfCLv. 

2. ApcT^s (G. 173, 1 ; H. 577, a). 

3. KvkXmttwv : ancient mythology gives various accounts of the 
Cyclops ; but whether treated as the Titans, sons of O^pavSs and Fata, 
or as the giant shepherds of the Odysseyf sprung from Poseidon, they 
are always recognized as monsters of great power. 

4. 6^v : to be swift of foot was an heroic accomplishment among 
the Greeks. 

4. 0pT|tKiov Bopli|v : Boreas was said to dwell in a cave on Mount 
Haemus, in Thrace. 

6. Tk6a)voto : Tithonus was the beautiful lover of *H(6s, at whose 
prayer he was endowed by Zeus with immortality, ^uijv : properly 
growth, generally used of the human figure. 



6. MCScM : the fabled king of Plirygia, whoae wealth was proverbial 8 
through all antiquity. KtviSpMi : a king of Cyprus, to whom Apollo 
gave great riches. |tdXiov — fiSWop. 

7. Pelops could be regarded as excelling in all the chief attributes 
of royalty, — an origin on both sides traced immediately from the gods ; 
vast wealthy which he was supposed to have brought with him from the 
East ; extensive dominion, which resulted in Ms giving a name to the 

8. 'ASfWjoTov : the adventures of the heroes who fought against 
Thebes were only less famous in Greek poetry than the struggles before 
the walls of Troy. Among the Seven who first undertook this far- 
famed expedition, and again among their sons, the 'Rrlyonfoi, who re- 
trieved the disaster of their fathers, Adrastns was the leading spirit ; at 
once the Agamemnon and the Nestor of the invaders. It was through 
his persuasion that the sons of the unfortunate heroes who perished in 
the first war undertook the second expedition. 

9. 0oiSpi8os : the masculine form of the adjective Bovpos is especially 
an epithet of Ares (cf. 1. 34) ; the feminine form, as here, is especially 
frequent with dXic^f intensifying the idea of eneigetic physical force. 

10. Introduced as anticipating 1. 20, q. v. 

11. T«rX(Ui| . . . &p«if : rXdca is generally followed by an infinitive. 
Here, however, as usually in such cases, where a double construction is 
admissible, there is a difference in the meaning. The infinitive con- 
nects itself more closely Mdth the verb, in which case rXdw takes a 
meaning which requires the subordinate verb to complete ; as to verUuref 
to undertaJce, The participle throws its force more on the subject of the 
verb, and TerXcUrj has a complete meaning by itself; Le, to stand fasi^ to 
keep one* 8 courage, 

12. 6pfyoiTo : aitack. The Ibrce of fiii continues. 

13. &6Xov: the value of the prize at the Greek games is well 

^ 14. ^^iv : the infinitive with an adjective is quite common in Greek 
and is used in the active or middle, even in cases where the passive 
would seem more natural (cf. Greek Moods and Tenses, 93, 2). 

16. 8s ns &W|p = iiviip ns 6i. Stands : staTiding firm. jUrg : Av 
is omitted (H. 769). 

17. lirC : join Mdth Xd^iyrat. 

18. irope^iMvos : hazarding (cf. Horn. Od. II. 237 ; IX. 255). 

20. ylyveraif from its radical meaning of becoming, gains with ad- 
jectives like &ya06Sf koKos, k, t. X., the signification of proving one* 8 
8elf. It is thus largely used in Herodotus. 

180 NOTES. 


81. I f p tjw : gnomic aorist (G. 205, 2 ; H. 707). 

22. f^x^ • cheda, an aor. form (v. L, A 8,, anb ^xHArn), 9 

25-26. The good soldier has his annor where it belongp, and is 
amitten through his mail and through his breast. voXXd • • • &f|Xo- 
^vot : tiTuck tPttA many hlowB, 

26. wpii9%w : in front. Token of bravery, as the wound in the 
back was always the sign of the coward. 

28. nlKi|8i, perf. with pres. signification : U distreaaed, 

29-80. As attention to the rites of burial was one of the most sacred 
duties among the Greeks, so honors to the heroic dead were paid with 
double carefulness. The mounds and sepulchres, the funeral orations, 
and the representations of art, were all employed to call attention to the 
glory of a patriotic death. The honor of the brave pan descended to 
his heirs ; so the rt^/i/Sot and roiSct represent the two elements of the 
Greek conception of enduring fame and influence. 

85. Tain|Xrylot : long-lamented (v. Autenrieth*s Homeric Die, sub 
voc.; cf. Horn. II. VIII. 70, ^6o xripe rcuniSgyioi daydroio; so Odys. 
II. 100. It is always an epithet of Biparot. 

36. alxi^i|f c^os : glory in battle, 

38. nuOtfv : having enjoyed, rdax^f to get this meaning, must be 
joined as here with another word suggesting it. 

40. pXdirrtkv : to defraud. 

41. ol KaT^ avTov : his equals^ — kox^ suggesting similarity. 

42. ftkouo*' km X**P^S • ^^^ place. To give place to the aged was 
one of the most prominent moral laws at Sparta. There was therefore 
especial honor in receiving respect from one's elders. 


Line 2. iroXii|Tav : The warrior class, that is, men of pure Dorian 
descent, made up the citizens at Sparta. 

4. Supply 8c(k$ 8^ corresponding to Xeuf luh. 10 



Ndwtt : a beautiful flute-player, the object of his passion. The frag- 
ment characterizes a life without love as utterly gloomy, and ending in 
a burdensome old age. 



Line 1. XP^*^^ • ^^® epithet is borrowed from Homer (v. IL III. 10 
64 ; Od. VIII. 387). 

2. Observe the use of optative, suggesting an idea which it is not 
eji^secUd will be realized. The opt. expresses a wish [G. 251, 1 ; 
H. 721, 1 ; V. Moods and Tenses, 82 ; and for /i^fXoi, 84, 1 (a. ) j. 

4. cl has a causal force. 

6. aitrxphv nal kouc^v : ugly and wretched. No trial was greater 11 
to a Greek than the loss of all beauty. 

7. &|ik^ : connect with relpovci, 

10. Mt, without the article : a thoroughly monotheistic form of 

II. T^ Threatening Shortness of Life. 

Line 2. Ai^it : dative. a^{|eroi : subject is ^i/XXo. 

8. wifx^aov h\ xp^vov : fir a span (cf. St. Matthew vi 27). 

4. clS^Ttt, K. r. X. : knoufing neither the evil nor the good which the 
gods have in ttarefir us, irpbi joined with the gen. has an extensive 
use with personal nouns to denote authorship, or to signify those from 
whom or at whose hands we receive any thing. 

5. Kijptt : the Fates presiding over man's destiny, differing from 
Moc/Mi, as being always associated with evil ; so generally referring to 
death, and especially associated with violent death. Thus Achilles 
speaks of his two K^/Mt (II. IX. 411). 

7. |ilvvv9a : adv. used for pred. a^j. 

8. The youth-time vanishes like the passing away of the sunbeam, 

9. impofiftifnrou, for irapafuL^lr/rrai, ^tpii« : a season, and so a 
season or period in life ; thus it came to be used for youth as the 
spring or prime of life, ri Xos &pit\% : the end of spring-time. 

10. (Cf. Herodotus, I. 81, dUSe^d re h ro&rouri 6 dc^s, (hi Afjieipop ctrj 
iM$p<Jlnrtfi reOudvai, fxaXKop ij j^^Jktv,) reBvwfu is used as expressing com- 
pleted action, to denote the state of death ; tobe dead. 

12. irfv(i|s : not properly extreme poverty, which is ivSeia, or ttw- 
X^to,, but, like Latin paupertas, narrow meaiis. 

13. JXXot 8^ refers back to 1. 11, dWore, with which /ih is 

14. 'At8t|v: the use of the word, as here, referring to a place, 
belongs to the later Greek. Homer uses the noun simply as name of 
a person, the place being represented by the gen. with otcot understood. 
Gradually it became established as simply the name of a place. 

16. |i^ 8i8ot (Moods and Tenses, 62, N. 2). 

132 NOTES. 

III. The Shortness of the Season of Youth. 


Line 2. «Tout|Aai: 1 am dismayed. The word expresses both 11 

excitement and fear. 

8. Ivil, K, T,\.\ hut would that it continued longer. 12 

4. iKiy9Xpii¥ioi¥ (6. 138 (c).; H. 522). The proximity of limp 

helps to attract it into the neuter. 

7. Tiftit : renders ; for form, v. H. 401, D. h. 

8. dfi^x^*^ ' ag^'e^ with yvpas. 

IV. Sympathy of the Poet for the Toiling Sun, because of 

HIS Unceasing Labors. 

In this, in connection with the other fragments, the reader will 
notice at once the characteristics and tendency of Mimnermus: pen- 
siveneas ; sadness ; a sort of moral indolence, shrinking from pres- 
ent evils and future fears, — these are his prominent traits. 

Line 6. Not even the night brings rest. It was the theory of the 
ancients that the sun rode back in the night behind the horizon, to 
recommence in the morning his daily movement over the earth. His 
journey by night was said to be made in a golden boat, the work of 
Hephaestus. By other authorities, he was spoken of as accomplish- 
ing this journey slumbering in a golden bed (ei^trfj) (Athenaeus, 
XL 469-70). 

6. KoitXi| = KotXrjt as 6fio?oi has a kindred form, 6fwuos. 

7. Xf"**"*^! gfi"- of material (G. 167, 4 ; H. 560). firoirr^»os : with 
vnngSf instead of sails. &Kpov v8«p : the surface of the water. 

8. 'EorircplSoiv : they dwelt on an island on the western edge of the 

9. Al6i<Sir«»v : they dwelt partly in the extreme East and partly in 
the extreme West (Od. 1. 23). 

10. 6^pa : until. 

11. 6%i»v : the wagon in which he drives his daily courae. 


L Sal AM IS. 

Line 1. Solon feigned himself mad, and recited this poem, repre- 
senting himself as a herald from Salamis, summoning the people to 

SOLON. 133 

recover the island. Avt6% is used in manifest reference to his bold- 12 
ness in undertaking the work, and venturing to appear before the 

2. Faahioning wUh arrangemetU of vwrdB a aong, instead of a IZ 


The bitterness of the conflict through which they had passed, and 
the disorganized condition of Athens, can be well imagined from the 
circumstances which are referred to. 

Line 1. rto : if Salamis toere relinquished, 14 

2. ^oXIyavSpos and SUkivos were two small islands in the south- 
em part of the .£gean, north of Crete. 

5. Coftcv : the mode-vowel is shortened, and the stem-vowel length- 
ened by a sort of transfer of quantity, to form a dactyL 

III. Admonitions to the Athenians. 

An address to the Athenians, apparently belonging to the early 
years of Solon's political activity, lamenting the peril of the State, 
through the selfishness and injustice of the citizens. 

Line 1. icafd . • . aXauv : the words together form a common 

3. ToSot agreeing, as here, with the adjective, intensifies its mean- 
ing (cf. Hom. II. y. 828; Od. II. 286). Mokovos : guardian deity, 

5. luydXtiv : the city was great, had marked elements of success 
and power, even in Solon's time. d^poSC^otv : the dative plural is 
Homeric, as he employs only that case, except that he once introduces 
the dat. sing., and once also we have 6i* a^paditf^, Od. 19, 523. 

6. xpu^yMO-i irtiOtf|MVOk : tempted by liist for gain. ireMfievoi sug- 
gests the idea of yielding to persuasion. The great danger which had 
to be met was the oppression of wealthy classes, — aoroi. 

7. olo%v, If. r. X. : to whom it remaiiis to suffer many woes, for their 
unhridled wantonness. 

10. SoiTos: connect with iftrvxCQ. At Athens, according to 
Xenophon, there were more festivals tliau in all the rest of Greece. 
Through the arrangement of the liturgies, they were a means of sat- 
isfying the poor at the expense of the nch. The feasts become a pow- 
erful influence for keeping the people contented, as they were also an 
instrument of bribery in the hands of the demagogues (cf. Smith's 
Diet, of Ant, art. Hestiasis; also, art. Erani;. 

134 NOTES. 


IS. I4>' ttfv«YJ : «M» to rcbbery, M expresses the extent to which 1 4 
it is carried. 

Id. Tf %fi6¥9f : in time; at lad, 4^X01 : gnomic aor. (G. 205, 2 ; 
H. 707). 

20. iI^ik(i|V : the civil war was especially destractiye to the yonth. 15 
(cf. Horace, *' Sara Javentus,** Lib. I. car. ii. 24). 

21. 4k Svo>ii4iiy : by these hostile parties, ix, as usual, marks the 
source. 8vfffU¥4ia¥ refers to the individuals whose selfish ambition was 
threatening the safety of the state. 

22. ovvtfSois : societies formed for social and political purposes, 
such as were quite abundant at Athens. They were often abused for 
unjust purposes. 

23. o^rpl^cTOi : are rife. Bi : moreover, 

24. The severity of the law, before Solon's reformation of the code, 
was so great as to give the creditor unlimited power. The poor citi- 
zens were being sold and driven into foreign lands. 

26. pi^ : perforce. ^ 

27. oCkoS' iKdory : home to each one. 

28. No longer wUl the house-doors keep it oiU. 
30. cl (G. 223, N. 2 ; H. 747, b, and 874, 1). 

36. a^vfi, jc. r. X. : catises the buds of mischief to wither in their 
growth. The benefits of cUvo|L(a, here referred to, will be better appre- 
ciated as we remember how often the Greek cities had to call in the 
priest or bard to allay excitement and disorder. 

lY. Defence of the Author's Laws. 

Line 1. A^)up: the commous, the mass of the people, in contra- 
distinction from the dyrrroly referred to afterward. IwopKct : is suffi- 
cient = dxapKct. 

2. lirop€£d|uvo« : nor adding anything, 

3. XP4|i<^ (^- 138, N. 1 ; H. 609). 16 

4. &cuc^ 4c^^ ' ^^^ ^^y '''^y ^^''-ff^'"' Clothing unseemly. 

V. Written to the Athenians after Pisistratus Had 


Lin£ 1. KaicoTi|Ta : baseness. 

2. Do not ascribe any part in these to the gods. 

3. Tovrovs : i.e. tyrants. ^^|&aTa : the body-guard given to Pisia- 
tratus by the citizens. 

SOLON. 136 

5. i ^4m i¥j jr. r. X. : etu^ one of you by himself walks as cautiously 16 
OS afoXy arid yet in your common action your understanding comes to 
naught, dX^ircxos : the fox was, if possible, more thoroughly the 
symbol of cunning among the ancients than in our times. The phrase 
is manifestly proverbiaL 

7. 6pdrf : contrasted with filKhretM : you are looking cU . . . you do 
not regard at all (pCdi¥), 


1. Mvi||&oa^nnf|s : the goddess of memory was according to Greek 
imagination the mother of the Muses. 

2. |io( : the use of the dative gives to the verb the idea of compli- 
ance : hear and yield to. 

5. cImu ykvK^Vt '^' ^- ^M depends upon bine. This sentiment reap- 
pears frequently in Greek authors as representing the received standard 
of righteousness. Cf. Matt. v. 43 : "Ye have heard 7Aa^ it hath been 
saitij Thou shalt love thy neighbor and hate thine enemy." 

6. To these an object of reverence, to those of terror, 

8. 8Cici|: righteous penalty. 

9. irXo^Tov : inverted assimilation or attraction (G. 153, N. 4 ; 
H. 817). 

10. Ik vcdrov, jc. r. X. : from lowest depth to highest summit. 17 

11. ^' vPpios : ifwb is thus used with active verbs where a passive 
is to be supplied, i.e. which men honor because led by riotous /ec^in^. 

12. &XX', K. T. X. : The figure is a striking one. Wealth gained by 
unjust deeds is like an unwilling slave always ready to break away 
and disappear. irti06|icvo$ : the passive of TeiOia strengthens its nat- 
ural significance, to be persuaded, and means to be obedieni to, to be 
under the sioay of 

13. &Ti| : evil. This word is really incapable of translation, as its 
personified use among the Greeks gave it a vast variety of associated 
ideas. "Any became the goddess of mischief, hurled from heaven for 
injuries done to Zeus himself, and making herself the author or aggra- 
vator of all the blind and rash actions, and largely even of the suffer- 
ings, of mankind (cf. Hom. II. XIX. 91 and IX. 502). &va|&C(rycTcu 
governs t$ 7r\o&rtp understood. 

14. Apx^ ' supply Ulttis. 

15. ^Xa^ipi| : insignificant, 

16. 8^v : adverb in predicate instead of adjective. 

17. ^*But Zeus looks to the end of each life, and sudde^ily scatters the 

136 NOTES. 

evU-domrsaatketrindo/tprvngqiUeklyaocUterstkeekn^ SiCoidSavitv 17 
belongs in translating to both clauses. 

22. lli|Mr, like iu9K4dtur€¥, gnomic aorist 

25. Towini refers back to Orrt. ovS' ^^', ir. r. X. : Not in each 
ecue does he prove, like a itufrUU, "quick to anger." We have here 
the evidence of thought on the old problem of the delay of punish- 
ment for the wicked. 

27. 8u4a.«^p^ : strengthens aUl : ** forever and aye" (cf. Liddell and 
Scott, sub w) 

28. irdmiti k, r, \. : he is at length eagfpoaed exactly as he is, 

32. If the father should escape, the curse remained for the children 
and children's children. This doctrine was very prominent in Greek 
theology, being brought out with still greater distinctness in the 

d5. &XP^ To^rrov : up to this point : tUl then, 

37. X^^^^^i^^ ■ '^^ ^TLi. 18 

41. vfvlT|s : like Latin paupertas, narrow means, not abject 

42. rnfow^ : The following passage illustrates very strikingly 
the eagerness for wealth already existing in Athens, a fact which is 
proved even more fully by the troubles which led to the establishment 
of Solon's government and constitution. We have still another sug- 
gestion of the estimate placed upon wealth in the fact that Solon 
divided the people into classes according to their income. 

43. icard irtfvrov : some idea of the naval condition of Athens at 
this time may be gathered from the fact that Solon obliged each nau- 
crary (old divisions, probably local, forty-eight in number) to provide 
one ship of war. 

45. Ix^v^cvT* : connect with irhyTov, 

46. ^ctS^^v: this word, or rather 0eid(6, its original, is used 
cs]»ecially of property ; he spares not his life that he may have wealth 
to spare. 0ei8«XiJi' with dcfievot is a simple periphrasis for <p€iS6fAevos. 

47. AXXos, K. T. X. : here, as in the following clauses, ^ correla- 
tive with tUv (1. 43) is omitted. 

48. Tolo'iV = oXffofy those who, 

49. *A07fifoUfj and "H^urros divided between them the lighter and 
lieavier arts. 

61. 8«pa : (G. 197, N. 2 ; H. 568, a). 

62. vo^r\9^Jrpov: *^ perfect wisdom," l|Mf>Tf|«: "with charming 

63. l9t|Kcv : makes or appoints. 

66. f , K. T. X. : the gods work with him to fulfil his words. 



57. nauMH>s the god of healing (IL Y. 89 : in Homer 9). The name 18 
is used later as surname of Asclepius, and as an epithet of Apollo. 

58. These reach no sure resuU, 

61. £tU touching toUh the hamda one who is afflicted ivith grievous 
and tr(mblesome disease, he restores him at once to health. The argu- 
ment is simply summed up with the strong comparison, pointing back 
to 1. 37. The labors of prudence may all fail, the blessing of heaven 
may give an unexpected relief. 

66. 'jj = TOi. Nor does any one know from the commencetnent of his 19 
undertaking where it wUl end, 

67. ct : the proper meaning of eff l^p^w is that of eJJ itowlv rather 
than of €5 Tpdatreiy, and it should be retained here : seeking to be of 
advantage, oi irpovo^«ra« : withoiU anticipating it falls, &c. 

71. irf^airiavov : stated, fixed. The danger lies in the success 
itself, never gaining satisfaction, but leading to wantonness (l^/ns). 

72. pu>v : wealthy abundance of living, 

75. afr«iv : sc KepiCsv, Compare the iiftmiliar New Testament 
maxim, 1 Tim. vi. 10. 

76. dXXoTc AXXos txci* • i«e. it wanders from one to another. 


It illustrates the manner in which the lines of these gnomic poets 
were confused as to their authorahip, in their extended use in the 
schools, that these lines also appear in the elegiacs of Theognis. 

Line 3. apcTi|s : gen. of price with 8iafJL€i\l/6fjie$a : verb of ex- 


I. The Symposium. 

Line 1. It was after the dinner that the Greeks were in the habit of 
enjoying their wine. (See Diet. Ant. art. Symposium.) The poet in- 
troduces us to the scene just at the time when the drinking is about to 
begin. The selection is of especial interest as illustrating hbw Greek 
taste was being cultivated to the higher standard where improving 
conversation was especially valued in connection with the symposium. 

2. &|i4^TtOck for afA4fHrl07fai, as if from rt^^o;. Supply subject AXXos 20 
fiiv, correlative with AWos di. o-rc^vovs, the garlands and ointments 
were an essential element in the ancient feast. 

138 NOTES. 


5. 4UJL«t : aside from that which is in the upar'^ 6t oK, ir.r.X., 20 
**wkkhpnnniau wit to fail,** 

6. Avitot: (0. 171, 2 ; H. 676). It thus represents the part which 
causes the odor. The i9$9t is the bead or crust of the win& 
6y8^ H€ »o t for di(6^icyot. 

7. ^T^ • socrerf ; so called because the Xifiuwrin was so generally 
employed for incense burning in religious service. 

8. Mtip : the wine was universally mixed with water before drink- 
ing, and even to take half wine was considered iigurious ; to drink it 
without mixing was regarded as barbarous. The water was commonly 
though not universally cold, and sometimes the wine was artificially 
cooled in the ^rnjyi. 

9. {avM : a most peculiar epithet for (kproKf but it was a favorite 
adjective with the Greeks. It was perhaps borrowed as being an epithet 
of Aif/ii^i)p. Y^cif^ Tpd«4<S ^^'^ ofhofMr, 

11. pi»|iot: an altar decked with flowers for the libations. &v for 

12. &fL^Vilx<^: lit., to enomnpasSf to JUL The prominent idea in 
luikwii is dancing, and it therefore signifies joy and merriment. 

14. |Lif0oit . • . X/^YOiff: iw0ot is applied to poetic thought and ex- 
pression; X^of to historic statement. 

16. rairro, k, r. X. : for this trvZy (fiv) is the more natural duty. 

17. irCvtw depends upon xp"^* !• 13; so also a6^t>. 

18. vpoireXov: the attendant servant, {t^ irdw ^iipaXte: if not 21 
too far advanced in age, 

19. 6t io^d, K. r. X. : who talks of excellent things over the loine. 
Moral and political topics, rather than ancient fables, should be the 
subject of conversation. The philosopher. appears here in our author, 
branding the old myths as a meaningless creation of antiquity. 

23. Tois : demonstrative, neuter. It is not until we reach the Attic 
that the use of the article becomes fully established. 

24. M¥ irpo|iT|6i(T|v: respect for the gods, 


The poem is a warning against the danger of over-estimating phy- 
sical qualities at the expense of more noble traits. 

Line 1. raxvrijfn woSwv : the Greek stadium was originally ar- 
ranged simply for the foot-race, and this always continued to be the 
prominent feature of the games. 



2. irfyraOXc^v: the pentathlon derived its name as consisting 21 
of five distinct games in one. There is not perfect agreement among 
authorities as to the combination, but the following has been accepted 

by very prominent scholars, viz. : 1, dX^, leaping; 2, Spdfios, the foot- 
race ; 3, SiffKos, throwing the discus ; 4, Ax^tais, throwing the spear ; 
5, wdXij, wrestling. The pentathlon became thus the centre of special 
interest in the festivals, and the xim-aBXoi were considered the best 
developed of all the athletes. Ai^ T<|ifvos, the sacred field of Zeas. 

3. nCo-oo : nom. niaip, a small stream near Olympia. 'OXviiwCd: 
there was no town there: it was a sacred grove, within and around 
which were the temples, and near by was the celebrated stadium where 
the great games were celebrated. 

i, %X!uv: understandiiig. 

5. MXov: contest, sc. ixav. imYcpdnov: combination of wrestling 
and boxing, a contest which was an especially severe tax upon the 
physical strength and endurance, hence dtiy&v, 

6-9. KvSp^Tcpos . . . irpoc8pCT|v . . *. ctra . . . 8cSpov : the victor 
in any of the great games was rewarded with an accumulation of 
honors : he was publicly crowned ; his statue was in many cases erected 
in an honorable position among those of the great men of the state; he 
entered his native city in triumph; they even broke down their walls 
to give him entrance, in token that his prowess was better than fortifi- 
cations ; he was awarded a front seat (wpocdpla) in all the public games 
and spectacles, and received a seat at the public table in the Pr3rta- 
neum, being still further rewarded by Solon's laws with a gift of five 
hundred drachmae. It is a significant fact that Greek invention was 
hardly more severely taxed for any other pui-pose than to invent ade- 
quate honors for the conqueror in the Greek games. 

10. tinrouriv: the allusion to this method of gaining the victory is 
placed last, both because it was esteemed honorable, — a contest in 
which only princes and nobles could engage, — and still more because 
it emphasizes the contrast which he wishes to present to the mind. 
£ven though with horses one should gain these honors, he is not so 
worthy as I. (Compare Plato Apol. of Soc. Chap. XXVI.) 

13. &XX' cUfj : but it is very inconsiderately that the judgment is 
formed, i.e. giving such honor to the physical. 

15. iHiicn)f . • . irfVTaOX«Cv . . . iraXai(r)JMo-vvi|v . . . raxvrEJTi: 
the construction changes with poetic freedom and license; all depend 
upon dya06s. 

17. r6 : though neuter, refers, to raxwr^t (G. 138, N. 4 ; H. 628). 

18. ^|JiT|f : connect with dydoi^t. 

22. |ivxot5s, the secret hidden apartments, so treasure chambers. 22 

140 NOTES. 



Thi poem, it will be found, includes many passages which doubt- 22 
less belong to other authors. These verses were probably combined 
for study in the schools, being valuable for their moral instruction. 

Like 1. Ava: voc. for Ava{. This form is exceptional, used only as 23 
here in phrase 4 Ava (cont. &i«) and Zcv Am, and only as an address 
to the gods. 

2. The final syllable of iipx&yi/opat receives the ictus of the verse 
as if long. 

5. ^ospc : Apollo, as pre-eminently the central divinity of Dorian 
worship, and apparently standing in a peculiar relation to Megara, is 
first and especially invoked. 

6. i^CnKos : (G. 171; H. 574, b). It was under a palm-tree, beside 
the circular lake Qdfumi) of Delos, ttiai Apollo and Diana were bom ; 
the sacred palm-tree seems therefore always to have been preserved at 
Delos (cf. Hom. Od. YI. 163). The palm-tree had male and female 
forms, hence ^oSiKfjs, fem. 

8. &irapco'(T| : literally boundless. Buchholz interprets it as re- 
ferring to the circular form of the island ; it is perhaps better rendered 
with an adverbial signification : teas filled in its complete circuit, 

9. ihy,i^ : (G. 172, 1 ; H. 575). hfiifurm 8i yoXa : the same 
expression appears in Homer in connection with the description of the 
marshalling of the Greeks (II. XIX. 362). 

yiXoffffe di Toura ircpi x^^ 
XaXicoD inrb arepow^s. 

The figure is also not unfamiliar to the Homeric Hymns (cf. Cer. 14 ; 
ApoU. 118). 

11. Ot|po^vt| : compound adjectives are generally declined with 
two terminations : hei'e by exception we have a regular feminine 
form, fjv • • . ^Lauro refers to the setting up of the statue of the 
goddess, and the establishment of her worship in Megara. This was 
done by Agamemnon on his way to Troy. According to one form of 
the story he took Calchas, the seer, from Megara. 

13. |u>C : (cf. Solon VI. 2, N. ). 24 

15. XdpiTis : goddesses invoked as presiding over festive joy, and 

lending beauty to all social and moral life. They were regarded as 

intimately associated with the Muses. Kd8|u>v : after the series of 

trials which befell Cadmus, Harmon ia was given to him by Zeus as 



his wife, and the Olympian deities honored the marriage with their 24 

16. dfCo^Tc : for iaarc. 

17. ttrri KoXtfv, ^Xov io^C : This was apparently a proverhial 
maxim of considerable popularity. We find it again in Euripides : 
Bti Kokby ipiXw del, Bacchae, 881. 

19. oH>^i;o|ft^ : speaking wisely, o^tiyCs : the danger of suffer- 
ing from plagiarism was even greater among the ancients tlian now. 
It perhaps refers particularly, as Hartung suggests, to the form of 
address, the name K6pv€ appearing in the verses ; this was to be the 
standing proof of the authorship : perhaps to the whole introductory 

21. To^crOXoG : (G. 178 ; H. 678, b). 

22. Scv^viSos : Ionic for QeiyviSos. 

25. IIoXviratSTi : son o/Polypas; patronymic referring to Ki/p^os. 
27. c9 ^ovimv : prudently. 

29. ir^irwo : for T^Tvwro, perf. imp. fr. t^tvu/mk. atorxpoM^v ktt' 
fpYfUuri : by disgraceful deeds, 

30. IXkco : gather for yourself. 

32. rSv A.'yaOwv : the good in the eyes of Theognis are, generally 
speaking, only the noble : his political prejudice against the multi- 
tude is very strong. It is still further to be noticed that in this early 
age these adjectives had only partially obtained their later moral 
meaning. ix€o, cling to it, governs the gen. (see H. 574, b). 

34. 8vva|us : 7noral strength, i.e. that kind of power which he felt 
belonged to the higher class. 

35. MIKm depends on dxd following. 25 
39. The personal feeling of Theognis comes out plainly in his 

remarks upon the state. In the strife of factions he had been 

41. 6/rroL : the use of the word seems peculiar, for we are accus- 
tomed to find it more broad in its meaning than ol dyaOol or even 
ol ToXirac Here, however, it must refer to the nobles : the commons 
were too low to be reckoned by Theognis. 

45. 8£Ka8 &8CKOioa 8i8«o-iv : they surrender the law into the hands 
of the unjust. 

49. dlr &v : whevvever. 

50. K^pSca : gains which can he acquired only in connection with 
public misfortune. 

63. Only a short time before Theognis, the condition of the Mega- 
rian peasantry had been very low. They had at length, however, in 
connection with the convulsions of which Theognis complains, made 

142 NOTES. 


theniselTes felt in the state. This was quite onendaiable to the aris- 25 
tocratic notions of the poet. 

55. Sopdt mXymn the ii^^pa is frequently alluded to by Greek 
authors as the common dress of country people. 

* 56. IKa4^ : suggesting not only their uucouthness, but their 

57. iynlM : Le. because they govern the state. 

62. 4k 0v|Aoi) : contrasted with dwb yXibaffrp. 26 

66. h^ = ix€<m. 

68. |ii|iclTi o^lofftcvoi : past recovery. 

69. xpvvo^ Tf KoXf K. T. X.: io be valu&d as highly as gold and 

72. TivofUvovt : proving themselves ; a frequent meaning of yiypofuu 
with an adj. 

76. ov« . . . fji^ : not 90 many (hat one ship toould not carry them 

78. Notice that idpSot is the subject. 

79. ixc : read as if (x'^ • y^hile you have. 
81. M|&cvos : making. 

83. hi\(ak : used like an indeclinable adjective, doubtful. 27 

87. froS^ dW|p ^CKo9 : companion and friend. 

90. ^pYijv : ace. of spec, with PapOv, unpleasant in character. 

92. KcU iroT^, K. r. X. : and some time in the future you will rem^m- 
her me, i.e. have good cause to think of me. 

94. 5^cXos : (of) what use ? This noun is used only in the nomi- 
native. This is the ordinary construction of the earlier Greek, with 
64>€\ot in apposition with the subject ; later the genitive depending 
upon it was much used. 

96. f(r0Xov : good luck, tov = airrov. imtoSovv : for fijeraSoOycti, 
neither wovJd he he willing to share it. 

97. It is an idle favor for one to do well for (he hoM. l^>Sciv is 
construed as usual with accusative of person, though sometimes it has 
a dative. 

98. tirov : like, (he same as. ir^vrov, k. t. X. : the toaters qf the 
hoary sea. 

103. {Xo^Cj^oiMri : make light of. 

104. |Jiv{j|Jia = fu^i/ifMrjyt memory. 

106. ciXopCtis = eOXd^eias : twUiiiig else is of more consequence 
than caution. 

113. oi Y&f> &v clScCtis : for you cannot tell. The optative with 28 
Ay is closely allied to the future in significance. 

114. irp\v irci.pT|Oc£t|s. TpLv takes the mode of a conditional rela- 


tive (6. 240, 2 ; Moods and Tenses, 67). Tplv is thus used with the 28 
subjunctive and optative almost entirely after negative expressions. 

115. wffir^, K. r. X. : just as when you go to market* You cannot 
judge of men as of salable wares. 

116. I8lcu: ouivoard appearance, 

118. To5s (G. 184, N. 1 ; H. 596) : /or (hose who care for holy right, 
122. Y(vtT(u : is coming to, 

125. 8ov' IMX<Qoxv : conditional relative, with dy omitted (G. 234 ; 
H. 759). 

126. x<>^^^**4s» f^* '^' ^' • ^ limiJt, of burdensome helplessness. Ob- 
serve that velpara is the subject. 

130. OmfiTMv : depends on o^Belt, IfXaStv : aor. to deny a single 
instance, — no mortal ever escaped notice, 

131. povXco : choose rather, 

132. iraird|&cvos : from TdofMi, to acquire, 

133. «rvXX^p8T|v : in brief 29 

134. dyaOos : we can thus trace how a larger moral significance 
was finding its way into this word. 

138. irp6^cp€ : reproach with, 

139. rdXavTov : the scale with which Zeus weighed out the fates of 
men : for Zeus causes the balance to fall now in one way and a^ain in 
another. This is a sentiment which constantly recurs. The Greeks, 
from the violence of their i)olitical changes, and their peculiar sensi- 
tiveness, suffered intensely from these sudden changes of fortune. 

141. fji^irorc . • • &7opa4r6ai, «r. r. X. : never speak boaMingly, 
143. th 8' ArpcK^s : exactly^ completely, 

145. 5v Ka\ : ^v is here demonstrative. 

146. oiSfffcCa : ofnoa^xouiU. 

150. Ka\ y4p^^ • ^^^ ^'^^^ ^^^ hoary age. Supply iwXKov from 
the preceding /idXto-ra. 

152. ^Cirrciv : understand iavrov, 

156. 8Ci;T|a0ai : we can notice how strongly the mercantile idea was 30 
getting hold of the Greeks. The fortune was not to be retrieved at 
home, but in trade and commerce abroad. This new sentiment grows 
up, partly causing and partly caused by the influx of wealth. 

158. KcU Tif , K. r. X. : and each one wishes they should be connected 
with excellent breeds. 

159. Koitiiv KOKov : base-bomdaughter of base-bom man. Koicfyv^ as 
also eo^A<$c, is used with reference to the social rank of the parties. 

160. 8i8f : refers for its subject to KaK-fjiv, 

168. Ik KttKoi) : (he noble takes a wifefrmn a boM-bom family. 
167. ^"Mi : a general case stated as a pai*ticular, tlie man himself 

144 NOTES. 

168. v»MtMvot : (cf. Solon VI. 12, note). 30 

170. Iirrvd |uv : urges him on. 

171. We have here a revelation of the hope of the old nobles of 
these times that the suddenly accomulated wealth of the plebeians 
would vanish as rapidly as it had been gained. 

172. Ka9af«»s : without guilt, 

173. vofA Kcup^ . violating right, trapd^ from its signification 
of passing by, gains also the meaning of going beyond, and so of 

176. iyeno : Epic and Doric for iyipero (G. 206, 2 ; H. 707). 
innpiayji : keqM the control. 

177. t48c refers forward to the idea suggested in the following 
lines (H. 679). jir' airpG . . . irp^TfiaTos : in iinmedicUe connection 
toUh the deed itself. 

179. One pays the penalty himself; another dies too soon, but 31 
leaves the curse upon his children. 

183. iroiKCXov ^Oos: it is to be remembered that the elegiacs of 
Theognis were a prominent subject of study in the Greek schools. 
The marked variety of moral precepts contained in them is certainly^ 
noticeable, especially as we are reminded how versatile were the talents 
which the Greeks thus developed. In this connection it Ls not unin- 
teresting to compare Juvenal's description of the Greek at Rome (Sat. 
III. 75, ff.). 

185. IlovXvirov: the polypus was a sea animal of changeable color. 

186. ISctv : depends upon rotos. 
189. SoK^ci: thinks. 

195. The poet enters here upon a prophecy of the fame which he 
will give to Kumos by his poetry. It reminds one very forcibly of 
similar verses by Horace. 

199. aiXfo-Kourt : the natural accompaniment of the elegies was 
the pipe. 

200. ciKo<rfM»s modifies the adj. : lovely in gracefulness. 
204. a4>0iTov : connect with 2Ivo|mi. 

208. lo<rrc^v«v: in Homer, an epithet of Aphrodite. B2 

209. doiS^ : pred. with i<r<Tri^ and may also be taken as furnishing 
Che subject for fidfirjXe. 

211. Theognis was unfortunate and complaining, and evidently felt 
wronged by a lack of attention and respect on the i>art of Kumos. 

213. It is suggested that this is an epigram from the temple at 
Delphi. It seems evident that it was a well-known quotation. 

215. Xa^t9 TcL [kkv oiXXa : in other respects vnth equality. 

217. Oavdrov . . . vovtrav : these genitives are used as if dependent 


on a comparative, but finally Twripdraroif is made superlative, to cor- 82 
respond with Kducurrw. 

220. l^draOjt : the subjunctive following thus in close connection 
with the optative is unusual, but it enlivens the expression by im- 
porting a suggestion of probability, and so of reality; Tiay, even; you 
inay amass weaZth. 

222. imofxpv : we mark the change from an ancient, perhaps tra- 
ditional state of society, when strangers and beggars were from Zeus ; 
cf. Od. VI. 208. 

223. Ik yturr^ : froAi infancy, 
226. KcCvovs : sc. dydpat kuko^s, 
228. ToX|fc$: keeps his courage, 

230. kokCiiv . . . icaTlxc*'^ • restrain his bad temper, xaxla is the 83 
cowardice and baseness considered appropiiate to an ignoble life. 

231. &iroXltnnu : not to be taken literally, but with reference to 
feeling. Do not be mortally offended, 

235. Ivovrai : belong naturally to. 

236. The gods punish transgressions : men must endure them. 
238. We have here an evident reference, with some bitterness, to 

the democratic leaders, at whose hands Theognis and his friends had 
suffered. There was a constant redistribution of property in connec- 
tion with these political conflicts of the Greeks. 

241. rUriv: ability to reward. o% |if ^iXctoav, simply epexegetical 
of fplXuy. 

242. SwricoiMVOV : for infinitive, and to be more povoerful than my 

244. AiroTivAiuvov : when I had fully repaid all, 

245. KoCptov : here an adj. of two terminations. 

246. clvrX kokmv : in place of and in return for my troubles, 

248. 8o£t|v, k, T,\.\letme give trouble in retunifor my troubles, 

249. atira seems to be used like /rar* a7(raK, fitting, ria^^ . . 34 
&v8pMv : vengeance upon the men, 

251. Kv«»v : the simile is evidently used as well known in popular 
language for an emphatic expression of destitution. 

253. TMV (sc. <Tv\tiaijn(av) Ay\ : would it toere possible / 

255. Koucoto'iv supply x^P^ty (G. 188, 1 ; H. 611, a). 

256. To^w : (G. 170, 2 ; H. 574). 

257. i{ : out of, and so denoting transition, instead of, 

258. iKSfh^oi: intrans. 2d aor. inf. from iKSOta or Mi^ptt, to corns 
out, to escape. 

261. OiScv^ &vO|Hiirc»v kokCwv : inferior to no man, i.e. better 
than any other. 

146 NOTES. 


265. |fcoX(p8y xpva^ : as gold by the side of lead. Gold wss thus ^3 
tried by robbing it upon the Lydian stone (so called because found in 
Lydia), which was known as pdaaiwt. The metal was judged by the 
marks which it left on this touchstone. 

266. i«^pnp(i|f • • . \i6yo% =s vrepreplri : pre-eminetux. 

267. Mpoi • . • Af p^SiOi : the doors in Greek houses were made, 
almost without exception, in the folding form, so that the words re- 
ferring to them are generally pluraL 

268. d|UXi|Ta : for which they ought not to care, 

269. rb KCMC^v KaroKc^iuvov : used instead of the infinitive and im- 
personal construction : for often it is better that evil should be treas- 
ured up within, but that which is good it is better should cotne forth than 
that which is evil. 

271. lvix6ov(ouriv : (G. 184, 8, and 185; H. 597). 35 

274. IvaiMivAiuvov: having gcUhered, seldom used of the dead 
themselves. For the sentiment of these lines compare Cic. Tusc. Dls. 
B. 1, Ch. XLVni. " Affertur etiam de Sileno fabella quaedam, qui, 
quum, a Mida captns esset, hoc ei muneris pro sua missione dedisse 
scribitur: docuisse regem, non nasci homini longe optimum esse; 
proximum autem, quam primum niori/* etc. 

277. f : the antecedent is rovro : how, 

278. 'AoxX,i|Wid8ait : taken from the name of several very early 
Greek physicians, and so was a sort of recognized title for a family, or 
school, of pre-eminent fame in the medical art. 

279. l&o^flu : to cure; in its original meaning the word only applied 
to wounds and external hurts. 

281. iroit|T^v . . . fvOrrov : the verbal in rot denotes possibility, if 
understanding could be 7nanufcu^ured, and 2}laced within a man. 
285. Airp^KTOio^ agrees with x/'^Ma0'(> impossible gains, 

287. Exercise yourself in virtue. 

288. 8 . . .Id: conditional relative, dy omitted. Sri = quod- 
cunqne, si quod. Notice the effect of the subjunctive, marking 
the antecedent as indefinite. 

289. The following passage is in a different style of thought, and 
manifestly does not belong to Theognis. The first eight lines are also 
attributed to Evenus, as line 294 is quoted as his. 

292. OMpTix^vra: this verb had come to be used quite generally in 
popular language as expressive of drunkenness. Even the ottufi was 
often omitted. It must have come into use as suggesting the unmea- 
sured power of wine. AH languages seem to multiply euphemisms 
for drunkenness. 

295. olvoxoclrw: subject unexpressed to give an indefinite force. 36 
Supply oiyoxbof. 


296. 01& irdo^bs Hums 'ylvfnu: it does not happen to him efoery 36 
night, oppd iroO^: to indulge in pleasure, 

299. otvos x<y*^ *^ * * ^ ^ ir t ir o <r< tt i = x<V^^0'raroy olrov TeT60'^a(. 

300. ofrc . • . |u9iM» : excessive drinking was repulsive to Greek 

802. KopT^s: TMLsUr. 

308. &irAXa|iva: impracticable, /oo^is^. fCScroi: M^nu. 

304. A« is ashamed cU nothing when he is drunk. 

308. cMrrc: 2iAr0. Xdrpiv 4^|i^iov: day-laborer, 

309. o-v 8^ «r. r. X. : you always repeat carelessly that customary ea;- 
pression **Fill up." 

811. i^ )iiv, sc. «r(;Xt^ : one ctip is to friendship. This iUiistration 
of the Greek method of drinking and conducting the symposium is 
very suggestive. irp^KCtrat : is agreed upon be/ore, i.e. as part of an 
appointment or a wager. 

817. T^v : sc ofvop, 

319. KCMCov : (G. 138 ; N. 2, c ; H. 522). 

323. KcKX4|oHku . . . irap4|;co^cu : connect with xp^thv. We find 37 
here again a suggestion of the later Greek ideal, that the highest at- 
traction of the symposium should be quiet intellectual conversation. 
Compare Xenophanes (page 21). 

325. onrvictv: old form of pres. inf. from <rwlrifu. rod refers to 
Sydpa ixuTT&fJxvw, 

327. ToX|ulv, K. T. X. : one ought to fneet tvith endurance what the 
gods impose upon meny to hear roith ease the lot of either fortune. 

329. iirw : imp. from Atrdofuu. 

331. Xi|u>G = If \ifi6s. K6po9 denotes satiety, and, in its derived 
significance, the insolence which springs from wealth : it carries its 
double signification here. 

335. Sry &v8pC : that man to whom. 

340. air68 for o avT^s. 

342. ikTiipoi : for the hasty inan becomes t?ie victim of Ate. 38 

343. kCvSwos : hazard^ or apprehension, Hope and fear are singled 
out as the two elements which disquiet the life. 

345. irap' 8^{av Tf Ka,\ IXirCSa : beyond hope and expectation. 

346. povXats 84 : while good plaiis fail to be fulfilled. We are 
constantly reminded that Theognis lived in an age of disappointments, 
and he cannot refrain from being cynical. 

350. Ov|&ov : ace. by synecdoche. 

364. |ieT* &v0p(6ir»v : among men, i.e. in my contact with men. 

356. &v8p<(s : (G. 169 ; H. 572, e). 

357. In the following lines, the condition of the state is described 

148 NOTES. 


under the figure of a ship in distress. It was a favorite illustration in 38 
aucient as in modem times ; we find it in Alcaeos, and again in Hor- 
ace. This selection again (fifteen lines) is also attributed to £yenus. 
oUL W9^ H^y ' ctcecrding to my knowledge. 
359. ««f4pxorrai : so. vl dyaSol. 

861. K«9' (nia . . • poXtfrres : this is an unusual use of icara/SdXXv, 
to denote the lowering of the sail, which is generally expressed by 
KaSeXetp or ^rAXe^r^oi. iraTa^XXai is employed here to suggest haste 
and suddenness. 

862. Mi|X(ov Ik wArrov : the .£gean sea, or rather, that part of it 
above the island of Melos. 

868. &rrX<tv : to bale. The ancient ships were so small that it was 
difficult to keep them from filling in rough weather. 

364. &|ft^oT^«*v TO<x«v: both the sides of the ship. 

365. of fp8ovo% : as they cicty i.e. acting as they do. Kvf^vfyni\v 39 
refers to the oligarchical party collectively, or some representative of 

the aristocrats, whom, though a tyrant, Theognis would esteem as the 
salvation of the state. 

368. 8air|i^: the division of spoils; referring to the property 
which was gained in these revolutions by confiscation, and which be- 
longed to the public, though it was apt to be of especial benefit to a 
few favored ones, ^t rb fUcov, the spoil in war was originally placed 
in the midst of the army to be fairly divided : so these words get the 
meaning of "impartially." 

369. ^of»TT|7oC : the word is very suggestive of aristocratic feeling : 
the <f>ofyrriyol are KaxoL 

370. KaT& . . . v{|| : engulf. 

371. livCxdtt : perf. imp. 3d pers., from aMcirta: let this he spoken 
in a riddle, rots ^'yaOoUriv : for the good, i.e. the nobles. 

373. OiS^: on the other hand, some seek nobility, i.e. the aristo- 
cratic party, who alone had culture, but were reduced to poverty. 

375. Inability (to do) confronts them both. ^iho.v depends on 

376. XP^'^''^ • ^^ ^^^ ^f 'iJi'^ff^' Similarly v6os. 
378. 8Ckt|v clirctv : lUter judg^nent, 

380. Mik& : prosperity. 

383. IIX^9a: in the estimation of the multitude (G. 184; N. 5 ;. 40 
H. 601, 6). 

384. Tuv 8' &XXc»v : t?iere is no advantage in any thing else, ffv is 
used in the imperfect, denoting a fact learned from experience. This 
tense is not unfrequently thus used, especially joined with (Lpa, to sug- 
gest that a previous misconception has been corrected ; cf. Goodwin's 
Moods and Tenses, 11 N. 6. 



385. cM^poo^vii : diacretion. The word describes both the wisdom 40 
and moderation which belongs to the perfect judge. Rhadamanthos, 

for his unswerving justice, was made a judge in the lower regions. 

386. Sisyphus was said before his death to liave requested his wife 
not to bury him. Then, after reaching the lower world, he complained 
to Pluto or Persephone of his wife's neglect, and obtained ^Mirmission 
to return, in order to punish her. Having regained his liberty, he 
refused to return to Hades, until he was forcibly carried back by 

389. }Fko (Persephone) brings forget/ulti^ss to mortals, robbing them 
of their senses. 

391. &|i4ucaX^n^ : sub. dependent on hypothetical relative with* 
out &y (G. 234 ; H. 769). 

393. iraf>a|icCi|rcTiu : subjunctive, with shortened mode vowel. And 
shall pass the dark gates which restrain the souls of the dead, even 
agaitist their urill, 

396. <r^{(ri : from a^^s, dat. plur. fem. 

398. cf. II. I. 247-249, II. 370, VII. 325. 

399. * Aprrviwy : (snatchers) any person who* suddenly disappeared 
was regarded as the prey of the Harpies. In their sudden attacks 
upon mortals, they became emblematic of startling swiftness. 

400. A^ap : sudden, qicick. The use of elfd with an adverb is un- 
usual. The two words must be taken together as forming one con- 

403. &vOp^«if iXax,ov : ivon possession of men. The idea is a 
suggestive one of representing cai-es as winged (Theognia is imitated 
in this by Horace) and as having various hues. 

405. ^(Xa : the plural is used for the singular with the impersonal 
subject, a coiistioiction which is peculiar, but not entirely contrary 
to usage, especially when there are different thoughts in the mind of 
the writer. The thought is marked as twofold : Let wicked men go 
on in their sin, but do not let their punishment descend upon their 
innocent children. 

407. dOcif ^s : the reading is doubtful, and this word is a conjecture 41 
of Bergk. It is from the same root as adcpl^u), to slight, and hence, 
may be rendered vrith haughtiness. 

411. iratScs : is attracted into the relative clause, though it is to be 
read as also subject of duririt^eiv. 

415. 6 . . . IpSwv: the transgressor. 

418. SvTis : the relative is indefinite, and the sentence is therefore 
regaixled as conditional, putting its verb in the subjunctive. 

419. Kdri\av : con > passing, being guilty of. 

160 NOTES. 

426. l y ^ xwu u : indicative, to represent an actual fact. 41 

429. H S^ TdUrri|V| jc r. X. : in the end you will give praise that 
you obey, 

431. 432. iwnpix^ X^4^' ^^^ ^^ hafut over in protection. 42 

432. M denotes puq[K)6e. 

433. Apollo was not merely the especial protector of Megara and 
the Dorian states, but was universally worshiped as the helping god, 
to ward off evils. 

436. rvov8o« OioSo%ir dif«wi4uifoi : making satisfadory offerings 
to the gods, dpiffxta is more usually construed with an ace of per- 
son and dat of thing. 

438. M^SiPV : there are no data by which we can connect this ref- 
erence, or that in line 445, to any particular threatening of the 
Medes. Theognis was a contemporary of Cyrus. 

448. Alcathous, the son of Pelops, restored the walls of Megara, 
and was assbted, according to tradition, by Apollo. ii^Xiv dKf»i|v = 

445. aMt : now also. 

446. vA«vt (Doric) = xSXiot. tva irot, k. r. X.-: the common idea 
of the Greeks with regard to religion, is illustrated here : it is a mat- 
ter of trade, — so much attention, so many offerings, to receive an 
adequate return. 

451. arrdow : the dissensions of the Greeks at this time, as later, 
rendered them liable to be overwhelmed by foreign invaders. 

454. E^Po^Tif : the soil of Eubcea was in many places very rich, and 
especially adapted to vine culture ; cf. iroXv<rrd0i;Xor 'I<rr£aiaj^ (Horn. 
II. II. 537). 

455. E^^&ra (Doric) = Eupiirov. 

456. 4^£Xcw = iiplXovp : entertained with hospitality. 43 

457. IkcCvmv : gen. of source. 

460. wcUriv 48^: having aatisfied everybody. 'AtScv, sc. oIkov 
(H. 509, b.). 

464. XP4H^^ ' ^^^^^ reading is suggested by Bergk as a plural of the 
verb xpfiiu . . . xprju^v ipvXaffffifjLevcUf toe desire thai a $€wp6s should 
be careful. The suggestion seems to imply that Kumos had been ap- 
pointed on such an embassy to the oracle. 

465. nv6wvi= XlvOoi : dat. of place. 

471. dir6 : connect with yiipdoicovTas. 

472. Mpi) : regard. 

473. ^lvi)Tai : supply tU as subject. 

474. Tovrdicif (poetic) = rirt, t|uv : supply Kaipdt iffrip, or some 
similar expression. 



475. These lines are attributed by Hartung to Solon. iir(pa= 43 
iiripri$i, S'^fA^ : comirwn people. The emphasis is on the noun, as 
well as on the adjective. 

477. ^iXo84o-iroTov: slavish. The irritation of Theognis against 
the commons for asserting their rights is thus constantly reappearing. 
He is probably a fair representative of the aristocratic feeling of the 

480. |iaX9aK& k«»tCXX«¥ : coaxing ttrUk soft promises. 44 

481. ^(Xwv : connect with rtt. SciXov : misfortune. 

486. 6s : sc. dX/3ot. oi8^ iwv : worthless in itself. 

487. &perf)s : virtue and valor were synonymous according to the 
conception of the ancients. 

488. orooi = o-t^^cc, from ocl^v. 

490. x^ic<^ • this adjective appears also in Homer as an epithet of 
oupaydsy in connection with the ancient idea of the strength and firm- 
ness of the heavens. 

493. iipa: he joyous; literally, be youthful. 

495. Ttivylroio : Taygetus, between Laconia and Messenia. The 
region was wild and woody, being considered a favorite haunt ofv 

497. 9c6Ti|io8 : apparently a friendly dependant of Theognis, as 
the description hardly fits a slave. 

498. Iirdyttw : i.e. for the vines. 
. , 499. To« : (G. 170, 2 ; H. 674). 

500. -OttfrqxOcfe : cf. I. 292, being filled vrUh wine you will he more 

502. KM|idtoi|Jii is used to express purpose, adapting its mood to the 45 
previous optative. 

503. 6 {aIv ... 6 84 : one man . . . another. 

506. ^pY^v Kol ^vOfi^v Ka\ rpdirov : temperament and disposition 
and habits. 

508. iv04|icyoi Ovp^v k^^wv : having adopted a shifting mind. 

510. For in fact I myself in many cases failed in understanding : I 
praised you hefore I thoroughly understood your lutture. 

511. i^^v (G. 279, 2; H. 801, 5) . . . <ro« : not to be taken 
as referring personally to Kumos, but used to individualize general 

512. v^ 8' IjSt], k. r. X. : Now forthioUh like a ship I fUe away. 
The ship is selected for the figure because of the impression of swift- 
ness and power which its movement gives. 

513. Iirl . . . KaXw|rg. 

514. icarap^ : 5s supplied from (fi^. 

152 NOTES. 


516. k§mmfii^uut : rectimng, Le. drinking, 45 

517. lyXy <l ■rfffoiiai ; / ivi/i «fyoy myself, IXo^pd ^fovvaTa 
and n^flX^ are to be taken aa the symbols on the one hand of active, 
on the other of oooscions, intelligent, life. > ^a n : as long as. 

520. a a iCT ai : impi i|i4*'y strengthens the re . . . re. 

521. «af4 w p urlpt : over the wins. 

523. MiaX|nlB #imfa> : 2«< itf occupy the mind, i.e. rejoice in. 46 

524. 44p1 * *^ tfiVftAf. 

527. 8o y ar« < o» «apvr : toil of war. The noun is used in a per- 
sonified sense ; otherwise the a^jectiTe would be inappropriate, signi- 
fying spear^brandishing. 

528. Ty>o |My fc : refoieing to hasten over. 

529. B«r^ ivorttivfai : to give common advice, make a general 
exhortation. From its origin the verb has nearly the significance of 
Eng. ''suggest'* The meaning is shown in the noun ^oBrfKat. 

531. T«p «,iTo«^ K. T. \. : to get the good of his jwsaesnbiw. &ini|pav 
8lt : to gain a second youth-time. 

532. o4 wflUrcu : His not possible. 

533. M : connect with the verb, — hreXiyx^h brings to dishonor. 

534. AwTcnu : i.e. in whitening the hair. 

536. TM jfc y lo w vaXflS|U| : objective genitive. 7Ae accomplishment 
of good is difficult. 

537. ROKoCvtv : supply iw. 

538. 8ciX«v : base-bom. 6C«t^ : fnore passionate. 

545. ^YoMr : connect with Aw9pa, referring to the noble again as 
being brave and strong, x**^****^ ^ ''^^ • ^^^^ dangerous. 

548. Ao-rpov ical kw^ = Kwdarpov, 47 

549. KoXd XifyoyTft : cf. 1. 323, note. 

550. ivHTa : htrtafUr, by and by. 

553. Do not by your haste get into eviL wpdrria naturally has 
this meaning of passing through a certain condition. 
555. wlrtrai : is feeble, voUUHe. 
557. ^Py4^ • character. 

559. KaTOKptSifamt t\vrtvxv : keep concealed. 

560. To\ 8^ =r o2 d4. 

561. This couplet is entirely in the spirit of Mimnermus, and is 
attiibuted to him by Hartung. 

562. icXa£ovo% : transitive, lament. 

567. KdoTop mil IIoX^Scvkcs ; the Dioscuri were appetded to as 
the helping gods, and also as presiding over laws of hospitality and 

571, 572. Md^miTat, Ko\o^«n«, 2|i«pin|ir. Magnesia may be the 48 


city destroyed by the Cimmerians ; on the other hand, Gyges Lb spoken 48 
of as destroying a Magnesia, perhaps the one on Mt Sipylos. Herodotus 
mentions Gyges as capturing Colophon, and Ardys as conquering 
Smyrna (Her. I. 14, 16). The last named is also referred to in his- 
tory as destroyed by a later king of the same family, and lying deso- 
late for about four centuries. The whole account is however subject 
to many doubts. 

576. Ik KOKoi) : from a hoM-bom family. 

577. W AXX^Xoiox : this is the usual construction with ^eXdw, 
though sometimes that verb is transitive. 

579. nXoirrf : the god of wealth, said to have been rendered blind 
by Zeus, so as to distribute his gifts without regard to merit. 

581. iiirpov : full tneasure, prime. 

583. l»oi|u : cf. 1. 501 . 

586. ijXv9cv ifavoSvt : tperU down and returned, 

588. IIi|vcXiinK c|i^p«v : the two words are brought together as 
implying that his prudence and trustiness were especially proved in 
connection with Penelope. 

590. Y^ • • • P'^xoifs : iwipaiiKa is properly used both with the 
gen. and ace. The case seems to be changed to suggest tlie power 
with which he seized upon the dread apartments of his house. The 
adj. 8ci|iaXlov€ is appropriate, because they were in possession of his 

591. 'EXwCs: personified goddess of hope. Compare the similar 
myth of Pandora and her box. 

593, 594. IKoTis . . . 2ft>^po<rvvi| : these are of course human 49 
qualities personified as divinities. ni<rris is used in the subjective 
sense of reliability, honesty, good faith. aojippoffOvri is the combination 

of those qualities which make a trustworthy man, including moderation 
and prudence, literally sound-mindedness. 

594. XdpiTis : the Gi*aces are the goddesses who lend to life the 
charms of gentleness and culture, with especial reference to social life. 

600. c^cp4«»v vfpC : wUh reverence toward. irpo<r|&cWra} : wait 

603. ^a{l<r0w : let him tnark. o-koXi^v : crooked, unrighteous. 

606. Establishing base covenants for disgraceful deeds. 

611. KaTaO^<rciv: to lay up. 

612. Doing good to noble men, you will get the best treasure. 
614. yv^y\ ircCfxiTa iravr^ ^x^* Understanding holds all issues. 
617. Tw : gen. possess. ; the antecedent is ^porolin : for whom 

there is nothing tvorse. 

620. irctpav |M7£aTi)v fxoiS : you would give the highest pi-oof. 50 
Hartung reads iretpar ^xo*s. 

154 NOTES. 


622. tCpy* l^^t* : |i4 is usually added to ipnfta in the sense of to pre- 50 
vent, before an infinitive. 

624. oi W|uo%t • • • Ylvtrai \ U is no cau$e for anger. This 
phrase is regularly joined with an infinitive (KarakXJipaiy. 

626. d |i^ |M>{jp' ; unless fate shall place a limit to the misfortune. 

628. Po«X^|uvPt : at will. 

681. ijTv6XaB9i: a prickly shrub used sometimes even for tor- 

632. The idea is that it makes no difference whether the couch is 
haM or soft. 

634. Kpvi|rati : should conceal ; Le. should furnish a cloak for our 

637. KoC |ioi icpa8(i|v : and it smote my sad heart, 

640. The readings here are very variable. After considerable hesi- 51 
tation I have adopted that of Hertzberg. Buchholz reads, rip d/t^s 
yanfarrfi, but as hardly two authorities read alike it seems a fair case 
for freedom of choice. Bei^k reads from the codices, rip dXXijr 

642. 'AfryvpC refers to the rich but base plebeian party, crol |Uv, 
K. T. \,i for the slaveys position belongs to you. 

646. Af|6cUy irfS(y : situated in the plain offorgetfubiess; Le. we 
are to be prosperous in foi^tting. 

650. dXf|Oo<rWt|t : connect with fidprvs. 



It was the desire of Archilochus that his countrymen should colo- 
nize in Siris (probably a Thracian locality, see Herodotus VIII. 115, 
and V. 15), but it was their decision to settle in Thasos. The frag- 
ment expresses the disgust of the poet over the appearance of the 

Line 1. p6k\i9 : pro^ierly the ridge along the backbone of a beast 56 
2. -uXf|s : gen. ; depends upon ^uttc^i^, from the idea of fullness. 


This fragment is alluded to by Aristotle (Rhet iii. 17) as contain- 
ing words put into the mouth of Charon, a mechanic of Thasos. No* 
tiling more is known of its connection* 


Line 1. F^y*** • ^78^ dethroned Candaulefi, and sucoeeded him 56 
as king of Lydia (v. Herod, i. 8-1 4). His wealth became proverbial. 

2. t^ot : still refers to ViQyeta ; denre to emulate him. It ia dia- 
tingaiahed from ^^t as denoting a more noble passion. 

3. In the scanning of this line, w in both Mv and (pin are drawn 
together by synizesis. The second foot in the verse is a tribrach. 
TiyayytSot : this is referred to as the earliest known nsage of the word. 
These were the times in which it originated. 


Line 1. Ti0(6v, inf. for imp. : leave all to the gods. The infini- 
tive expresses less of command, but more of conviction and feeling 
than the imperative. 

S. Kal yj6X ci, /:. r. X. : and lay prostraite those who have been well 

5. wXavaTCu : subject is general. One wanders in beggary, be- 
unldered in mind, 


The fragment is descriptive of the desimble military leader, written 
apparently with reference to some unworthy aspirant. 

Line 2. foA^w : exulting in, iin{t^|Uvov : from inn^vpdia, 

3, 4. vfpl kW^iuk . . . ^K^ : bow-legged, 67 


Line 2. AX^cv = dX^^ov. Svo^mvwv, connect with ^rayrfoi^ : pre- 
senting a bold front against the enemy. 
* 3. SoKotoiv: spears, 

6. xoiffrolrvw • . . Kcucotoiy : (G. 188, 1 ; H. 611, a). 

7. Y^-ywiOTCt, If. r,\>\ recognize the conditions in which m£n are 


Line 1. Nothing can be unexpected nor be declared impossible. 
It is suggested that this fragment may be intended to convey the 
words of Lycambes in his annoyance over the attacks of ArchUochus. 
It is so alluded to by Aristotle, Khet. III. 17. 

166 NOTES. 

i. XA|Mrorr»t : this verse uses irregularly a spondee in the third 57 

5. 4ic To9: sc XP^*^* 

6. i|Ufv : gen. part, with fi^'f> ^ n<' o^ ^^t* uxmefsr a< what he 


Line 1. 'EirvoXfoio : a god whose attributes were nearly identical 
with those of 'Aprft, and who was often confounded with him. 
2. Kol : used as correlatiye with fUv. 


Line 1. varp^Kot : Archilochns would have received from his 
father both wealth and position. It was his own unfortunate temper 
which stood in the way of his happiness. 


Line 1. sc. i<rrL i&ata : a cheap barley-cake, a common form of 58 
food for the lower classes. ^A^y^4vr\ : Aristophanes plays (£q. 55) 
upon the similarity of this word to /teftaxi/Ai^s : there is perhaps the 
same thought here. 


Line 1. The k^IOiiv seems to have been a broad-bottomed earthen 
mug or cup, especially popular with soldiera and sailors, aik^ra : 

8. &Ypci : take, draw. 


In a conflict with. the Sui, a Thracian people, the poet confesses 
that he abandoned his shield, and fled to save his Hfe. The frankness 
of the confession is especially characteristic of Archilochns (see His- 
torical Introduction). We might almost conclude that this sort of 
conduct became fashionable among poets, as Alcaeus and Horace each 
make a similar confession. 

Line % o^k lOdXttv-: against my will^ i.e. as being hard-pressed. 
8. Oavdrov WXof : poetic for Odvarov. 

4. I^J^Itw : let it go. This verb is often thus used in the impera- 
tive in expressions of impatience. 




The Pericles who is addressed in the poem, of which we have here 58 

only three short fragments, seems to have been a citizen of Paros. 

The poem is a lamentation over fellow-citizens and friends who had 

perished at sea, and an exhortation to patience as the only solace. 

Line 2. |U|&^|uvPt : bewailing, Mdyfi : in feasts. o48^ : fol- 
lowing o(h^ is unusnal, bnt it gives special emphasis to the second 
member of the clause (H. 859, a), v^it : thfe city at large, the state, 
in contradistinction to (rlt iuarw) any individual citizen. 

3. To(ovs, x. T. X. : for the wave of the loud-resounding sea has 
rolled over those so bound to us, and our breasts are swollen with grief, 

6. M : join with verb. 

7. AXXiOT^ K, T. X. : sometimes one, sometimes anoihery meets vnth 
such sorrow, i^Sc might be taken as referring directly to kv/io, 
though with a more general meaning. 

10. &ir«ord|uyoi : connect with rXfji^ : endure to put tuids, 


Kp^rirTw|MV : exhortation to bury the dead which are washed 59 
ashore (IIoirciSdMvos • • • 8«Spa). 

Line 2. k^kwmv : aUending, 



The subject is the vast variety of dangers which threaten men. 
We can find here something of that same phase of thought which led 
to those grand portrayals of fate which we meet in the later tragedy. 

Line 1. WXot : destiny. 

2. 5in| O^ci : as he vrill; the indicative points to the existing con- 
dition in which he has actually arranged them. 

4. & 8^ : equivalent to oZd di}. This meaning for the relative is not 

158 NOTES. 


6. i«»«iili(i|: eomfidtnct, 60 

7. It is Always the hope that the fature will bring what is desired. 
9. oiScU 6mt oi : everybody, 

12. fici|Tai : the subjunctive contains as usual something of an ex- 
pression of probability ; the object may be gained, but too late for 

U. 'Atti|t : the god of the lower world ; later the euphemistic 
name IIXm^Mr (wealth-giver) was preferred, kwih x^hi¥6% : notice the 
idea of permanence expressed by 6ir6 with gen. He sends them and 
keeps them there. 

18. SvrHlvf : abomiiuMe. The human mind revolts from such 
an end, and it is universally regarded as accursed. 

20. a(rr», ir. r. X. : no M U free from evil. 

21. ic%Mt : fates. Always as evil, generally as Imnging violent 

22. IvtCv : takes singular from neuter w^|MLTa, its nearest subject. 

23. oiK &v . . . Ip^fur : toe uxnUd not be absorbed in (in love with) 
OUT misfortunes^ nor be tormented by having our minds upon our woes, 

24. Ixorrtt: the compound verb ^Wx« is more common in this 
sense, being used with bidi^ouw, ypibfirii', wow, or alone. 


This piece is to be especially valued for the glimpses of ancient life 
which are given in it, especially as it evidently refers to people of the 
middle class, of whom it is most interesting to know, and most difficult 
to obtain information. 1 1 is a somewhat comical composition, arranging 
women in various classes according to their alleged origin. Thus Zeus 
is supposed to have formed them from swine, from foxes, from dogs, 
and from other sources, according to the character which is to be 
found in each. The piece is composed with considerable humor, and 
we must beware of interpreting into it a bitterness which is foreign to 
it, as well as of mixing modem associations with the types which are 

Line 1. X^pCs : of a variable nalure. The adverb is used as an 
indeclinable adjective. 

2. rd vpwTa : in the beginning, 

8. rg : the dative depends on trtCrai : 'wiCk vilwm all things lie 
disordered cibotU the house, covered with filth. 

6. Konrplfjflxv : the use of the plural intensifies the expression : as 
we say, quantities of dirt mafwroi : fattens herself. The word 


carries with it important moral associations, she grows coarse and 60 

7. dXkTp4|f : crafty. It combines the idea both of cunning and of 
wickedness. I0i|kc =: irolifae or iTon/jaaro, 

8. KOKttv . . . rm¥ d|iciy^vtiv : depend upon 9M¥. 61 

10. The one of these (i.e. the good) she calls evU, and the other the 
calls good, ftin : gnomic aorist (6. 206, 2 ; H. 707). 

11. ^pY^v 8', jc. r. X. : a< one time she has one humor ; at another^ 

1 2. t4|v 8 ' : sc. 9c6t tBriK€, aiTO|fc^JTopa : the very mother over again 
(her mother's own child). The dog was the symbol of shameless med- 

15. XIXi|iccr : gnomic perf. with present signification (G. 206, 8). 
^¥ Kol |M|8^*> K. T. X. : even though she sees -not a single soul. 

18. ov8' &v |utXCx«*s |ivM|Mvos: nor by soft words uoovXd he 
check her. The verb ra^aeie is to be supplied 

20. BtU without cessation she keeps up an uncontroUahle howling. 
It will be noticed here, as throughout the whole piece, that women are 
not represented as kept in strict seclusion, but they take part with 
considerable freedom in social life. 

22. mrip^v : stupid. The earthy origin suggests mental heaviness. 

24. Only one kind of icork does she understand, and that is how 
to eat. 

25, 26. She does not know enough even to come to the fire when it 
is cold. 

27. ri[¥ 8* Ik, k. t. X. : and one Ood made from Ike sea; she thinks 
two ways in her mind. 

82. T^V : sc. iifuipav. dvocr^s, k. t. X. : she is unendurable, even 
to the sight, nor can you approach her. The infinitives depend upon 

85, 36. She becomes rude and hateful to all alike, both friends and 

88. dw^fMiv: unharmful. 62 

41. rd^rrg instead of oUrta, corresponding to CMnrep. 

42. dXXoif|v : sometimes one, sometimes another ; variable. 

43. 5vov : the ass is the subject of as many proverbs in Greek as 
in other languages. It symbolized stupidity, clumsiness, and obsti- 
nacy ; sometimes even brutality. 

44-46, 4| «H»v T* dydyiqi, k, t. X. : who from necessity and with 
rebvJces only vrith difficulty contents herself with every thing, and works 
out what is pleasing (i.e. to her husband). 

160 NOTES. 


45. 4v for oiV. wov^rara : the omission of the augment is most 02 
nnnsual in Ionic poetry. 

46. t<4p* ' meanwhile, 

47. «pov4t vpo^fuip : 6y night and by day; cdvjays. 
49. 4rrt»tt» &s drrim oiV : any whalaoever. 

51. Mmp«r : Ionic for i^i/upov, 

56. Mtfrrci : utiomjecra^, as the sacrifice was preliminary to the 

57. fraet : suggestive of pride and display. 

58. ^ 8oiXi* : jA^ ^unw A«r back upon servile work and tail. 

59. |i^i|t : the hand-mill was an indispensable article of furniture 
in the ancient household, and it fell to the women to work it, though 
in the more wealthy establishments the duty was transferred to slaves 
(cf. Od. VII. 104, XX. 105-109 ; Matt. XXIV. 41), It is evidently 
a simple state of society which Simonides presents to u& 

62. Avd'yicg, k, t. X. : she makes her husband show her favor _even 
against his will. 

63. 4vtf : join with Xovrai, 

64. U% AXXon Tp(f : again and again. Usually the Greeks bathed 
before the principal meal of the day. For her the ordinary, washings 
were not enough. 

66. ^oOctav : thick. The lonians, both men and women, seem to 63 
have worn their hair long, and the latter decked it with head-dresses, 
adorned with colors and pieoes of metal. Flowers were for special 
festal occasions. 

65. rf . . . tx<oi¥r\, : her huthand. 

69. r^pawos : a sovereign, r^poivos was the title of the rulers who 
gained absolute power in the Greek states through the dissensions 
between the nobles and the people, generally by alliance with the 
democratic elements. The /3a<riXeiJ$ had hereditary power. 

70. 8<rTis : w?io is dazzled in mind by such attractions. 

71. me^Kov: noted both for its ugliness and trickery. to«to. 
refers to ttJi', but takes the gender of the predicate KaxAf, It is natu-, 
rally somewhat contemptuous. 

76. dmryof, dvr^KCAXot : with no figure, mere skin and bones. 

79. QvSi ol y(ktt9 (UXfk : nor does she care for lau>ghler. 

80. cS Tiva Ip8ckv : to be of advantage to any one. &XXrd. TofiO* 
&pql : but she looks out for this. 

81. Toi)TO, contrary to oi^inary usage, refers to what follows. 
83. Tijv Tis, K. T. X. : any one is fortunate who gets (his one. 

86. OdXXci, K. T.X I (he means of life abound, and grow larger 


through her diligence, BdWei carries with it the idea of rich and flour- 63 
ishing abandaiice. 

86. ^Cki\: loving. 

89. a|k^i8^8po|uv : gnomic perfect, as if pointing to a recognized 
instance. The poem might well have closed at this point, as these 
last t€n lines both in their sentiments and in their general style and 
expression are far superior to all the rest. It has indeed been sug- 
gested that the remainder really belongs to another composition. (See 
Mare. Literature of Aneient Greece, Vol. III. p. 182.) 

96. They ore intended for evil, and will continue to be for evil. 64 

99. 01} T^pt '^- ^' ^* * f^ '^^ver does one pass toith good cheer through 
the whoU day, whoever is united with a tvoman, 

101. ovS' at^ : wiih difficulty, scarcely. 

104. fiotpav . . . x^^ ' ^^* '^^* x^"^ '^^ originally used in 
this way, or in apposition to the sentence, and so gradually assumed 
nearly the province of a preposition, fuitpcuf imitates the construction 
of x^P"'' Translate, by the gift of Qod or the favor of man, 

105. c^^foxi : finding some cause for blame she equips herself for 

110. Kcxt|voTOs : fix)m x"*-^^^ • ^ ^^g^ ^^ freedom from suspicion. 
When, the man suspects nothing. The sentence is unfinished, the 
aposiopesis allowing imagination to suggest the evil. The neighbors 
exult seeing how he also is deceived, 

112. T^v i|v : his own,^ 

117. !£ •fw : sc. xp^pov : from the time when, 

118. <yuvauc^ : i.e, Helen, refemng to the Trojan war. 




Tbb diftlactio pecnliaritiDs of Sapi^o and Alcaeus will receiye brief 
notice M they ooenr. Yon the sake, however, of giving a more complete 
idea of their language^ we insert the followix^ table, pointing out the 
lM>re prominent variations of the Aeolic dialect Some of these inter- 
changea ave bat rarely foand» and the consonants are naturally mdre 
fixed than the vowels. 













Of V. 




d, especially before 



a vowel. 


ov, TT. 


a, o. 




Oi, i|, Oi. % before 



a liquid, which is 



then doubled, c 




c, n. 


r, 8, P, ♦. 


C^ Oi. 




O^ V, cv. 








cv, M, Oi. 


0, ov. 



In the aorist participle, a frequently becomes at ; and ov changes to 
Oi in contractions resulting from dropping v. Accusatives take the ending 
ttif and ois, auri and ouri being used for the dative. Noticeable, also, 
is a fondness for doubling <r and /i, and for the use of the smooth breath- 
ing. When p follows a long vowel or dipththong, this is shortened and 
V is doubled. 

SAPPHO. 168 

I. Odb to Aphrodite. 


LiNB 1. IIoiwX/<<pa»' : suggested, probably, by her throne in the 68 
temple at Mytilene. 

2. toX^Xom : weaving wilu; the acy. ia peenliar t3 this passage. 

8. 9^99un^ from ^ : di&tnst, M«m% » dpuuri. 

4. i9|Mr : notice accent. The Aeolic dialect tended to throw the 
accent back in words of two or more syllables, confining the accented 
ultima to prepositions and conjunctions. 

6. Ti48f (for T%^ ) here = Uvpo. wtfra = «-6re. aMptMna (for 
KoX MpwOi) : at any other Hme, 

6. a^ffiitt: gen. (for ai^ovt) from aitiu ^addi/j, AtoMn»sK dfi»fi0-a. 
v^vi = riyX^c. 

7. f kXimi : you attended to my call. X{«oi9« s Xctoj^o. 

11. Apdvit: foroi^poMv. 

12. ydrcm: tot /iiaov, 
18. r^^ff^. 

14. |utSi&0«Mi^ from fietdiiu : for m^cMw. 

15. IIp^: for^pfoaai)^!/. ^nfin = 5h atre. K&m: andwhy, 69 

16. KcDliiiu : Aeol. for mkiu. 

18. rCra • • . Ilfllit : wfiom do you tmh Peiiho to bring f 

19. i&aCt: iota not subscribed for/ijit. Notice the sudden change 
from Ist to 2d person, and the air of ease and flexibility thus im- 
parted to the style. 

20. ^6m^ : Aeol. forZav^oi. Ak^ = dSiKcl 

21. Kal yap al, x. r. X. : aiid I will bring aid, /or if she flees thee, 
she shall soon pursite, 

28. ^^Xci: notice Aeolic recessive accent. 

24. KMi^ic Wkioiou I even though against her will, 

26. |Mpi|&vav: Aeol. gen. plur. 

27. l|U^i : Aeol. for Ifulpeif as Aeolic forms in general substitute 
epp for €ip in the middle of a word. 

28. iov^ = ta$i. 

II. Address to a Beloved Maiden. 

This poem is translated by Catullus. 

IjNB 1. Kfjvos = Kcccos : it is to be taken in a general, rather 
than a particular, sense. Any one, yet it is used as if with a definite 
application, as the relative clause has the indicative. Co^ot Vloc^iv * 
happy as the gods. 

164 NOTES. 

2. Inm» SB cInu. «Sinf|p 3B 6 Airyt. 69 

5. l{AMi : the Aeolio generally preferred the smooth breathing, or 
the digiunma, in place of the rough. ^wnCo'at and yeXalffas, gen. 
aing. aa if from /u-forma. 

6. r6: dem. This causes my heart to JluUer, 

7. <M«v ss eldor : v ariaes from the digamma {td = Lat. vid Le. 
vid eo). The aorist fonn ia used with a gnomic sense, to repreaent 
a general truth by a particular instance. . fipcix^mt = ppax^*^- ■ 
Tranalate, Forthwith when I look upon thee^ not a sound any longer 
escapes me, 

8. «Cmi ss ^jccc 

9. Ka|fc • . . faYfi from icardyvvfu : teas silenced. 

10. i«ofii8p6|UUCtv = inroS€6p6/iriKeif. 

11. &WKa=xSfxfia. 5pi||u = opdw. kwtpp6^J[kiax: Sdplur. Ajeol. 

13. t 8 pi> t ; feni. in Aeol. 

14. ')f)<m^or4pa : I turn paler than the unthered grass, 7i 
16. T«9vdin)v = TtdvrjKipai. Al^yw *inScilii)v : . Aeol. inf. The verb 

appears otherwise in mid. endei^/Aai. It is here equivalent to tlie 
Attic 6\lyov deiK Many authorities read here ^TiSe^rfif (fut), which 
IB the form given by Liddeil and Scott, but Bergk reads as we have 
given it So also Hartung. 

16. AXXa, i.e. 1^X61^ sa d e m e n s (Bergk). 

17. T^X|MTOV = roX/iifr^. 


Line 2. diroicpvirrourk = dro«rpf^rov7i. 

4. d^ryvp^a : feminine, agreeing with (rtXAya, The reading is quite 
uncertain : the brackets with ipyvp4a are Bergk*8, while Hartung 
omits aHytuf. 


Line 1. ^vxpov = T& ^O^ot; coolness, ta^wv: from a form ikr^^ 
for 6<rbos =* 5^©?. 


Line 1. K^rirpt: a popular name for Aphrodite, because her wor- 
ship was first established in Cyprus, and this island was considered her 
favorite abode. 

3. ov|ik|UfUY|Uvov : joined with. 




This is the reply of Sappho to the address of Alcaens (Alcaeus Y). 70 

Line 1. 4x**^^''x^ 

2. Iic^mi : if your tongue did not feel impelUd to speak some evil. 
4. 4)X IXflytt: InU you would have spoken^ out your honorable 

Line 1. ^^pc^: thou bringesi. 71 

This selection is imitafted by Byrou (Don Juan, Canto III. cviL). 



Desckiption of his hall ornamented with armor. 

Line 1. iroov^ k, r. X.: all the house is adorned in hofnm of 
Ares', ' ^ 

2. ' KvVCauy^ = Kui'^ato'i. Karrav = /ra^'cDy. tinnoi X6^oi: the 
ancient lielmet was surmounted hy a crest, formed usually of horse- 
hair,' which added greatly to the imposing appearance of the warrior. 
Gf. II. Ill: 337, tewhv di \6<f>os KaBj^epSeif Ihevof. 

3. vooro^Ois : Aeol. ace. 

4. Kp^rirroiO^v = Kpinrrawnp : and shining greaves oflronze^ hang- 
itig over pegs, conceal them ft'om sight, Kvd|uSct shortens its penult 
contrary to its usual quantity, t^x^p^ = lox^po^- PA«v$ = j3 Aeof . 

5. . icar : connect with /3ej3Xi}/Acwou. 

6. XoXxCSiKOi : Chalcis, in Euboea, received its name from the 
copper mines in its vicinity. According to a very old tradition among 
the Greeks, copper was first discovered there. tnrdOtu : sufords, 

7. 4ryov : tpar, 


The perils of the state depicted under the figure of a storm-tossed 
ship;*? - 

166 NOTES. 

Link 1. 40^fi4n||u ss d^urer^ : I do not undentand. o^a\¥ : 73 

tke eomdUion, 

2. H |Uv . • • H U : m partjram this skUf • . . tn part/rom thai. 

5. |i«x^'*^'*^*^ • • • I^A^ : 9ore distressed, 

6. mp . • . I^fi, tmesis, «: inrtpix^i ; a/neady t^ looler rims above 
the masi'Stay. 

7. Xa t ^o t : saiJ. «&v : AeoL for voir. l6JhjfM¥ ^ 8td8i^» i 

8. XAioStt : supply €lffU>, 

9. xSKokox j= xaXAtf-i : /aiZ. 


1. |Mt)Mi|v =: fietfuo-^^Mu. vp&t p(civ : toi^ /of%«, i.e. with a 

2. Mvpo^Xot : the ffroffuarucd of Alcaens were all directed against 
his political opponents, whom he branded as usurping, or attempting 
to usurp, tyrannical power. Myrsilus was one of these leaders of the 
opposite, or popular, faction. 


Anttmekidas, to whom this poem is written, was the brother of 
Alcaeus, who, after being expelled from his native land, entered the 
service of the king of Babylon. In recognition of his valor Antimeni- 
das there received the sword with ivory hilt inlaid with gold alluded 
to in this fragment. According to the received dates, it would seem 
that the Babylonian king must have been the distinguished Nebu- 

Line 1. IXf^vrtvav, k, r. X.: works of art in gold and ivory be- 
came afterward exceedingly popular among the Greeks. This sword 
would, of course, be taken as a special prize from the wealth of the 
East. The passage, therefore, illustrates the early admiration for this 
kind of work. 

4. o^Pi&iidxAS takes the Aeolic recessive accent. ^vara», sc. a^oGf. 

6. |&£av, sc. raXaUaTOM : ladeing only a single palm of five ciUnts. 


The address of Alcaeus to Sappho, to which Sappho VI. is the 




The fragments which follow seem to have belonged to the class of 78 
odes known as ffK^Kia, They were informal banquet songK, paroenia 
(rapolna), originally extemporized in succession by the feasting poets, 
and deriving their name, (lerhaps, from the freeilom and irregularities 
allowed in the versification. The ode from which this fragment is 
taken was imitated by Horace (Car. I. 9). 

LiNB 1. «» : we see how the more common impersonal use of this 74 
verb arose from the omission, in later Greek, of the subject which is 
here expressed, ^pdvw = ovpopov. 

3. K^^aXXc = xard/SaXc : Horaot renders^ frigus dissolve. 
h\ Ti0tit: heaping up, 

4. Iv 8) Klpvmv =s iyxlppas 94. 

6. 4vwd|&fvot : I have written tlius with Hartung rather than leave 
the line imperfect, as does Bergk : " having prepared soft wool (a etuh' 
ion) for the head." y¥6^aXk9¥ = yvd^Ww or icvdi^Wov, 


Line 1. hnrpiwiiv, Aeol. inf. for hrirphrevf, BvfM» (the recessive 
accent is Acolic), object of iri.Tphryf», 

2. «poM«i|fO|Mv, K, r. X. : for we gain no advantage by troubling 
ofir9elve$, dMfuvM, from dadta. 

3. BvKXi » /3<iicx«. 

4. |U0v<r8ipr = /ie^tKrtf^POi. 


Line 1. M^rm : gen. from drtfrov =: IbnjBov. 8^pcu^iv : from Hp^, 

2, wffMrm = r€p4»4rm. wXirraif = rX^jcrat. 

3. Ti» = rov. 

The weakness of the state in enduring Pittacua. 

Line 2. isjuftkm = d;^6Xou : fneeJt, aulnninive. 
3« ddXXcct : toiih one accord, 


Line 1. X^vov ; it was a viohttion of orderly habits to drink in 
the middle of the day. SdicrvXof &|i^ : **lhe datj is hut a fiwjcrs 
breadth" The ddxri/Xos was the shortest Oi-eek measure of leutcth. 


168 N0T£8. 

8. mS 8' im^ K. r. X.: didribuU ths generous, highly^oroughi 74 
oifMb <^<Mr youth, 4fo» : the trae reading is a mere matter of con- 
jectan, and the editors difier widely. If this reading of Buchholz is 
correct, the 4 mast be shortened from iinfu 

8. X^pA«t :Seniele was daughterof Cadmas» and mother of Diony- .. 

sua. X^tllc48w^ from XaBuniSnt: banuhiMg care. 

i. K(fMut «a Ktp^as* lr» naX Svo ; one part wine and two of wa- 
ter. To drink the mixture as strong even as half and half was con- 
sidered injurious among the Greeks. 

5. wXInit «= rXiat, K^dXo*: rim <^ the cup. & S* MpoL : let 75 
irne cup crowd eloae upon auother. 

Cf. Hor. Car. 1. 18. 


The first fragment is a prayer to Artemis, and perhaps the two fol- * 
lowing belong to the same hymn. 


Line 2. (avO^ : fair-haired. The light auburn, or golden hair, 76 
from its rarity in the South, was highly esteemed as an especial ele- 
ment of beauty. 

4. M : notice the force of the dative with the prep., as signifying 
rest following the motion. At|OaCov : a river, in Asia Minor, flowing 
by Magnesia, and emptying into the Maeander. - Hartuqg rea'ds et ' 
Kov. , . iyKaropfif arguing that Anacreon had no connection with this 
region and that the reference is to a favorite resort of the goddess. 
There are difficulties with either view of the case, but we assuredly 
know too little of the details of Anacreon's life to say positively where 
he may, or may not, have been. So I have not rejected the reading 
of Bergk. 

6. I^KCiMpa . . . x<^^povora : graciously regard. 

8. woifMUvcis : govern, or nUe over. Compare the roc/u^ \autf of 

, ■ ■ ■ n 

Prayer to Dionysus for the favor of Kleobnlus. 


Line 1. <(vat • ^y crasis for Cj Ami^. 76 

2. 8a|ftdXi|s : Anacreon emphasizes, throughout, the power, rather 
than the spoitiveness, of Love. 

3. vop^vp^ : the word is older tlian the Greek use of the color 
which it afterwards came to represent. Its early meaning seems to 
liave been associated with the dark gleaming of the rolling sea. It 
came gradually to be used of brighter colors, and even of the rainbow ; 
we may render it rosy^ or radiaiU. 

4. kwurrpii^Hu : (lit. turn) but, thou art wandei'ing, 

7. hi : Buchholz suggests that 5^ emphasizes ^r^i^fcoi^ti', as used 
imperatively ; it seems, however, also to emphasize KcxapurfU^ns : but 
if the prayer is accepted, grant it, 

9. ^^'cv : Ionic for yiifov ; cf. AciJirvtf'c for ^i^wre, and KXev/3oi}Xy 77 
for K\€ofio6\(fi. 

11. ^xc<r0a& : depends on avfipovXos . . . yi^ev, 


Notice the change of cases in the proper name. 


Line 1. irapMviov pXlirwv : with maidens glance. 

2. ov kCcis : art not nwved. 


Line L S^CpD : The playing at ball together seems to be Used 
as symbolical of love." The expression, therefore, ♦* Eros clialleuges me 
to join in play," signifies drawing together in love. 8ij«Ti = 67 a»Tc. 

3. v^Vi : poetic Ionic for v€6pihi ; the dative de^iends upon trviiirai' 
^€i», irotKiXoiraiipdXy = iroiKiKo&avHKii^ : an Aeolic form. 

5. €vitTlTov = tTie Homeric ivKrlft^voi : well built: applied, as 
here, to an island, the idea is, filed tcith beautiful buifdings. 

7. XfWK^ : gray. 

8. 6XKi\v ; sc. KS/irfi^. wp^ S' 4XXi|v tivA = rpbt 3' AWov ru^ 


Line 4. y*1P^<o*' * ^^^ ^ *^*^^® syllables. 

7. AvooTToX^w : / w^p. 

lOi &f>YaXlT| : three syllables. 78 

11. Kal "Y^ krol^y : for it is certain. 

12. |i^ ivapijvai : synczesis (G. 10 ; H. 69). 

170 NOTES. 



Thb antiquity of this poem as really belonging to Anacreon is 73 
aigned from the conception of Eros being more like that of the early 
ages. In later times, from about the age of Alexander the Great, he ia 
represented usually as a wanton, playfid boy. 


Line 8. «poir(t» : originally to drink before ; then, ** to drink to 
one's health/' or to challenge one in drinking, as they passed the cup 
from one to another. The Germans use the word vortrinken with 
the same sigiiificauce. 

7-10. |it|icli% • • . |uXfrit|i«ir : the imitation by Horace (I. 27, 2) 
will be at once remembered. 

9. SkvOuc^v : the Scythians and Thracians were proverbial for the 
wildness of their revels. 

11. ftPow C royv n *. drinking unih moderation. 



Like 2. 'Avaicplwv : nom. for voc. 

9. fioXXov : supply rwrvOrifi, corresponding to Ar^y ; with &ry sup- 79 
ply fijdXKov again. Y^^om : The yipwf was not in the most extreme 
old age, when he would be called Tp€<rp&rfft, but above fifty, or there- 
abouts, so as to be past the pleasures of youth. 

11. Mo^ was originally goddess of fate, good or evil ; then of 
evil lot ; so pre-eminently of death ; so td MoCpi|f =3 Bdmrot. 


Line 1. vd FvyMi : Gyges was the founder of the royal line of the 
Mermnadae in Lydia ; his riches were proverbial (cf. Herod. I. 14). 
The use of the neuter article with the gen. gives a ver}' indefinite force. 
•£(tf in V&yeta are drawn together by synezesis. 

3. t^Xof : properly differs from ^dvoT as representing a worthy 80 
and noble desire. 


0. inH\vr{V : properly the mustache, or rather the soft down which 80 
first appears upon the upper lip of the youth. Salves and ointments 
and garlands were always, among the Greeks and Romans, favorite 
accompaniments of feasting. 
11. At: CL8 long cu. 

14. vote^t in ancient poetry was always an evil of divine send- 
ing, and the word carries with it, especially here as personified, much 
of this meaning. 


Like 1. 9fo^ : ace. after a verb implied, i.e. BfUfvfUf or one of simi- 
lar meaning, ml : ethical dative (Q. 184, 8, N. 5 ; H. 599, 3). 

4. 'AXk|uiC«v killed his mother, Eriphyle, and became m'ad, being 
persecuted by the Erinnyes. 

5. x^ ass ircU ^ XcvK^wovf : the acy> seems to be used to suggest 
the swift flight of Orestes from the furies. 

10. Ifutlyfi' 'HpaKX.1|t: notice the neglect to aspirate r. There 
are several peculiarities thus to be noticed in these songs. Heracles, 
smitten with madness by Hera, slew with the bow of Iphitus his wife 
Megara and her children. 

11. icXoWfy is to be taken as governing the ace. with a sense simi- 
lar to that of xpadabwif, for while it is not unprecedented for /laivofuu 
to govern the ace. it would be too unnatural here. 

18. ACat , smitten with madness in hia jealousy at losing the armor 81 
of Achilles, finally slew himself with the sword which Hector pre- 
sented to him. 

14. |Mt^ do-iKSoff Kpa8a£vi»v : the shield of Ajaz was especially 
celebrated (cf. Iliad YII. 219). 


Line 1. trot: the dat. of person with Toiita is much less usual 
than the ace. 

8. TOfM^i : mngs ; properly, from the form of the wicker crate, 
something brood and flat ; so the flat extended wing. 

6. Tereus was a king of the Thracians. He cut out the tongue of 
Philomela (who afterwards became, according to different accounts, a 
nightingale or a swallow), in order that she might not be able to betray 
his crime against her sister. 

7. iKctvos : thefatrums Tereus, IkO^((» : properly used of harvest- 
ing ; here to cut out. 

172 NOTES. 


LiMfi 1. "Epim R^Hvoir : refers to waxen images, which were sold 81 
largely among the poorer chisses, who could not afford works of art of 
more costly material Golden statuettes of Eros were popular among 
the wealthy. 

2. M»K» : imp. of attempted action (6. 200, N. 2 ; H. 702). 
4. vtfoov : gen. of price. 

7. X^ : The old verb Xda» is found only in this present form, \Q, 82 
etc., which is Doric for $i\w. 

8. dv : (6. 216, N. 2 ; H. 741). An imperative of a verb of hear- 
ing, or of simikr idea, is to be supplied before ftvws dv. 

15. w^ip«Mxnr : inflajne vnth love. 

16. TOR^v^ '• fat. pass, from n^xw. xard can be joined with it 
and 0Xo76t be considered a gen. of cause. 


Line 1. KvP^Pnv : The mother goddess Rhea, though at length 
a unified conception, had many names (cf. Aesch. Prom. L 210) ; 
among these is Ev/3^17, possibly a modified form from the same root 
as KvfiiXiif more likely a distinct name. Ki;/3iJ/3v is object of fiwarra, 

2. 'Amv : the first priest of Cybele ; from his time onward her 
priests were all eunuchs. 

6. ElXdpos was a town in Ionia where was a spring sacred to 
Apollo, of which the priests drank to become inspired ; hence XdXoir, 
giviv^ pcywer of speech. KXdpov and *o(/3ou can both be taken as con- 
nected with ixOati. 


Line 2. HvJ^ : imp. of attempted action (G. 200, N. 2 ; H. 702). 83 
4. dpovXov ; inconsiderate in courting such an adversary. 

7. (uixil : irpoKakiofxax is used quite as naturally with an inf., 
not unfrequently also with a noun and prep. ; the simple dat, however, 
is not unusual in poetry. irpoKoX<to-6<u : to challenge, 

10. The equipment of the Homeric hero is followed throughout, 
the breastplate, the two spears, and the shield of ox-hide (cf. the de- 
scription of the shield of Ajax, 11. VIL 220). 

14. cIt*: the ordinary aspiration is omitted. 

15. els : expresses purpose ; "he sent himself for a weapon.' 




16. Kap8(i|f : ^jknn governs the gen. from its partitive signiftca- 83 
tion, being equivalent in meaning to iy /tdatp. 

17. IXiioxv . destroyed. 

19. pdXttiacv: deliberative subjunctive (G. 256 ; H. 720, c). 

20. v^xt^ (personified) : *' when the bcUtle already holds me om- 
qtiered vnthin." 


Line 2. Kamintv : to declare ; so to number. 

3. olSat : Ion. and Doric for ohrOa, 

6. «tM* : shortened form for iroiw. 

10. KopCvdov: the Acrocorinthus was consecrated to Aphrodite, 84 
and the city was universally celebrated for the attractions of love and 
beauty by which it tempted strangers. 

12. *Axati|s, K. r. X. : for it (Corinth) belongs to Achaia where the 
women are beautiful 

14. T{Oci: observe the continued action implied in the present. 
AccrpCovs: sc. ipwra,%, 

15. Kal |i4(P^ • ^'^ reaching even as far as. 

16. The inhabitants of Caria were a mixed race ; so Caria and 
Rhodes are taken to represent the very frontiers of Greece. 

18. rC ^xfi • the speaker is interrupted by the wondering Xoyurr"^. 
Iici|pul0i|s : a word whose meaning is hardly fixed ; the idea is that of 
being astonished : are you overwliehned ? 

19. Svpovs : both Syiia and Ganopus on the Nile were fiimous for 
their vicious allurements. 

20. irtfOovs: loves. 

21. &wavr ix^iS^< • ''^ ^'^ <'^l possessions. 

23. lirop^d|;cL : revels. T^<raiy would more regularly have iv. 

25. raSc£fM»v : later Gades. Simu on the one side, and India on 
the other, are taken as the limits of the known world. 

26. BoMTpCtfv : a people of Central Asia, north of the Hindoo Koosh 
mountains ; modem Bokhara. 


Line 2« trmo«i : from Tcrdofuu for TordofMi. 

3. i&vpwv : wy4io, to send forth an odor, is used with a gen. of the 
source of the odor. 

5. 4^Kd|;cis : distill. Used with fidpw, though the genitive is appro- 85 
priate only to wv^eis. 

174 NOTES. 


d. Notice the positioB of M : properly it would be the second word 85 
in the cliroae; it can however be introdnced later when the other 
words form a closely connected idea. 

11. K««V*I : Aphrodite. 

14. T u a i »r» ; lias intensive lorcc. ^»i «o servieeabU. Pigeons 
have been messengers through all historic time, while the character of 
the dove has made it a peculiarly appropriate bearer of love tokens. 

18. It was pecnliaily recognized in the ancient world that the 
highest and most fitting reward for the faithful slave was to restore 
to him his freedom. 

21. wfnw^Bi : from Tira/uu for rirofuu, 

22. 6piti : sc. KUT 6fni. 

30. dv : the use of dy with the future iud was common in Homer, 
and among the earlier ytoets, but went out of ordinar}' use before the 
time of Attic Greek : it represented a shade of meaning between the 
simple fut. and the opt. with dy (G. 208, 2 ; H. 710, b). 

37. K0p4vi|f : gen. after the conip. XaXurr^paif. The crow has 86 
always been famous for his noise, as Hesiod s^ieaks of Xaucipv^ KOfnimi 
(Op. 745). 

The poet*s charge to the painter how to represent his lady. 

Line 3. 'PoSCifs : the Rhodian artists became very distinguished, 
though their fame belongs to a later age than Anacreon himself. 
NoCpavf : master, 

4. €lir» : (G. 232, 3 ; H. 757, 758). 

8. tn^p6t : wax was largely used by the ancients in the preparation 
of their colors, especially so in later times in the encaustic process 
which came into general use after the time of Alexander. (For fuller 
information, cf. Smith's Diet, of Ant. art. Pictura.) The ])articular 
method of painting referred to here can hardly be determined with 
jxjsitiveness, but is probably the encaustic. 

9. |ivpov : gen. of source with rrvtov^wt (cf. IX. 3). 

10. SXifs : the picture being in profile, only one side appears in full : 
this is 8\rf rap€id, 

11. wop^vpato-i : dark (cf. Anacreon II. 8, note). 

15. kxih»t *• ''"• ^- • ^'*^ ^^^ *^ (i-e« f^ pxalxfipvov) have, like herself^ 
the arch of the eyebrows imperceptibly minglvig, 
18. iHw : next ; correlative to rh irpwrw, 1. 6. 
20, 21. &|&a . . . &fia : at once . . . aiuly or partly . . . jmrthj; tlio 



9i suggests an understood /ih in the preceding line, at once gleaming 86 
like the glance of yXavK&ris *A$i/fini and languishing like the tender 
Aphrodite. To represent this characteristic of the goddess of love, her 
statues have the lower eyelid drawn up a little over the eye. 

24. Peitho is referred to by the poets as the daughter (Sappho 135, 87 
Beigk) or the companion of Aphrodite. 

25. ^^i)|ia : TpoKokciaBai is used more commonly with a prep., vp6s 
or €lt ; here, however, with simple ace. ; in YII. 7 it appears with dat. 

31. otipKMV : gen. jmrt. The plural ot this noun is generally used, 
especially by the earlier writers, as representing the different parts or 
muscles of the body. 

82. Mfxpv : participle. 

33. ov^ti : it is m<mgh,for I see her very self; soon tJum wiU even 


Link 2. B^o|fc(«v : epithet of Dionysus, therefore = oti»>v wteTv ; the 
infinitive is thus joined directly with 5/«w/u to express purpose. 

4. vpoSo^Ct : lit betrayed, here esi^usUd, 

5. IkcCvov: sc. Bpoftlov, 

6. wwAlm carries the double idea of entwining and crowning one's 
self. It is more common in these songs in the latter sense, referring 
to the person. 

9. rivi oiccird(» : ?iow can I protect myself? 

10-15. Bta U moves wUh softest branchUts Us delicate foliage, while 
a flowing fountain ofpersuasUm allures to him. 

16. IlciOodt : gen. of connection, is nearly equivalent to an adjec- 
tive, ** persuasive fountain." 


The meter is dimeter Ionic a minore. It has, however, a long syl- 
lable in place of the first two shorts (H. 925). The idea lying at 
the basis of the poem is peculiarly suggestive. Love is made obedient 
to beauty only through the higher power of the Muses. Only mental 
and mond endowments hold an abiding sway. 


Line 2, 3. wtm -yilv . . . ttCim. allpas : that is, the moisture and 
yapors of the earth and air. 



176 NOTES. 



LiNB 1 . *H TavrdXov : Niobe, who was tarned into stone upon Mt. 89 
Sipyltts, in Lydia, originally belonging to Phrygia. 

2. i^X^* * ^^® ^^^^^ ^"^'"^ ^^ masculine ^x^os. 

8, 4. voti IlovStoyot : Procne, wife of Tereiis, changed into a 

5. €ti)v : opt. of wish. It is the desire of the poet that he also 
might undeigo a transformation. 

8. ^op^ : ^p4u diflfers from ^/xn in having a frequentative sense, 
i.e. iheU you might habitually wear. 

10. XP*''^ * ^^® construction is apposition or attraction, the word 
representing the part taking the same case as the whole. 
14. |Ui|ryapov : %tMaM of pearls. 


LiNis 1. Xlyiiir ' celebrate in poetry. 'ArpcCSat : introduced as a 
standard epic subject. 

3. 4 : Doric form for 4. ^Appvros : this instniment liad properly 
a greater number of strings than the lyre, but here seems to be used as 
equivalent to X^pa. The word ap|)ears in these songs far more fre- 
quently than \iipa. 

4. '£p«»Ta : ^x^ governs an ace. of effect. The construction starts 
from a cognate ace ifx^i Hfufov. 

9. IfMrrot dvTf^^&vci : sounded love songs in response. 90 

10. x<^4*^''^» If. T. X. : toe bid you farewell for the future. 


Line 1. nU^ra : a in Homer, later variable ; here long. 

3. XaY»ots : from XayutSs = Xaytbs. 

4. x^^'1'^ ASrfvTwv : yavming jaws. 

5. th yijicTdv : the power of swimming. 
8. For women it had nothing more. 

10. dvimlir : Doric contraction instead of -w. 
12. And one, by beauty, conquers both steel and fire. 


Line 2. ln)o*{t| : every year. It has the force of an adverb. 

5. NctXov . . . M^fi^iv ; eirl goes with both nouns. 91 



8. TL69o% : the personified desire was constantly represented as the 91 
companion of Eros : the one is nearly equivalent to the other. 

9. &K|i^v e= in : awAh/fT is yet in the egg, aiid still atiother now 

13. 'EpMTiScts : a sort of patronymic form from'^pow. 

16. kOoww : bring forth. 

17. Y^Ttti : (6. 256 ; H. 720, c). 

18. 19. For lam not abU, by shoiUing, to frighten away so many 
loves. This meaning for ixfiodta is peculiar, hut it seems the only fit- 
ting one. 


Line 1, 2. O^P^if . • • ^fnryMv : suhjects of Epic verse. The for- 
mer was prominent as the hirth-place of many heroic characters, as 
also for the wars of ** the seven," and of the Epigoni, their descend- 
ants ; the latter is used, referring to the scenes of the Trojan war. 

6. iTTpaT^f : the host of the heloved. 


Line 1. 'O M[p, k, r. X. : Hephaestus, whose favorite dwelling- 92 
place was the island of Lemnos. 

5. ipaim : as savages poison their arrows. 

8. 4( : coming from. It expresses a closely connected circumstance. 

13. Ares takes the shaft, but, tortured by its effects, begs to be 
relieved. This, however, Eros refuses. 


2. irotaif : for t6cus from ir6a, properly grass, but used also for 
small plants. 

3. <rTop^<ra9 : reclining. irpoirCvciV : to drink to another, challeng- 
ing him to drink in return. It was generally done by drinking first 
(irp6), then passing the cup along. 

6. irair<ip4)i : having j^apyrus cord for a girdle. 

7, 8. For, like the loheel of a chariot^ life rolls svnflly^on, 93 

9. ^XCyti : agrees with «f6wj. 

10. ^crHttiv XvO^vTMV : like the 71/ia \i\vvTo of Homer. 

11. XCOov : among the rites in honor of the dead was not merely 
crowning, but anointing the grave and nioniunent. 

12. x^^v : supply xo<^<* lidToio, adv. =ftdTrfv. 

13. c»s : while. 

178 NOTES. 



Link 8. BoAto v : Bootes, or Arctanis, is in immediate pfrozimity 93 

to the Great Bear. The idea then is : as it begins its decline. 

6. KkiTOi, Ion. sss Kcurrtu. 

6. kuivraM% : stopping, 

7. ^X4^ • ^^^ ^^^^ of ^^ ancient house was varionsly equipped 
and ornamented ; for description see Smith's Diet, of Ant., art. Janua. 
The knocking would be made with the metal rings upon the outside ; 
or might perhaps refer to the shaking of the fastenings, to which Ax^^ 
would properly refer. 

8. O^ipat : the form was that of folding-doors. 

9. icard : connect with the verb. 

12. ttikr{ki\V9¥ =s xol do-Aiywr. 

17. lox>p« : pres. to make the description vivid, Lo, ^tpwna * 94 
masc. as if racda, preceded (cf. 6. 188 ; N. 4 ; H. 628). 

19. t«rrCi|v : Ionic for iffrloM. 

20. Ti : re ... re would be nearly equivalent to p/h . . . d^ ; by 
a mixture of expressions, we find re . . . 5^. 

26. ppaxctera: participle. 
28. ifirof : the liver, taken as the seat of feeling. 
31. idpas : my bow. The Greek bow was made of horn (cf. Horn. 
11. IV. 110). 


Line 2. 8cv8p^«v hr Aicpwv : on the tree-tops, 
4. PcMTiXcvs &nm9: as if a king, or as happy as a king, 
7. xt^tr&au = koI 6ir6(ra : the meter of this line is quite transformed, 95 
the two shorts are contracted, and the arsis of the foot is filled by two 

shoiiis, thus : www_^w-i-^* 

9. &irb |ii|8€V^ : instead of dat. of inst, by no means doing harm. 
Tlie cicadae were widely celebrated among the ancients, both in their 
customs and in their songs. The sound of these insects was always 
alluded to as particularly sweet ; the ancient Athenians wore golden 
cicadae as emblematic that they were aMx^oKs, it being granted 
that the insects were yiffti^h, 

4. iranaxOcCs: stwng. 

13. 01 = ^. 96 

1 4. The repetition of r6 makes it more prominent in the mind and 
einpliatic. Notice that the transitive and intransitive meanings of 
iro»4u} aiv brought together : the former is unusual. 



Line 3. licopT^fwuv ^nKAmw: J should keqt paiitntly on ihe9Q 

4. &v 0aWSif MX0g : if death shmld come svdd^nly upon me. 
11. «po«l|un» : send forth, 
16. TfXciv : to aatiafy. 



Link 2. 4=4; a Doric form, though they are very few in the 98 
writings of Simonides. 

8. Their burial mound ia an altar; in place of loud lamsntoHon, 
ihtre is continued remembrance, while the deep ffrief is their public 
praise. The altars of the ancients, especially when they were pre- 
pared for unusual services in the open air, were frequently mounds of 

4. IvrA^iov is appropriate to whatever belongs to the burial ; it 
can be translated wiTiding-sheetf though that will not express all the 
ideas which it suggests. 

6. oIk^v : dweller ; the idea is that they, in their sepulcher, give 
an unending abiding-place for Greek glory. This sepulcher has received 
the glory of Greece to dwell ihere. 

7. |Mi(»Tvpci : the object is the previous sentence. 

9. K^o^&ov: adomm^eiU. 


This ode was written in honor of Scopas, the Thessalian tyrant, to 
celebrate his victory in the chariot race. It is peculiarly celebrated 
as being the poem with which is associated the stoiy of the death of 
Scopas and his friends. The half of the song which, by its reference to 
the Dioscuri, roused the jealousy of the tyrant, has been lost (See 
Smith's Diet, of Biog. art. Simonides.) The morals of the poem are 
so peculiar that one can hardly fail to conjecture that it was arranged 
to fit its subject, though with something very like sarcasm in its sug- 
gestions. The theme is the impossibility of securing and maintaining 

180 KOTES. 

Like 1. iX Mm » iXn^Ck, 99 

2. v9Tp ^ Ym¥ 9¥f K, T.\. : perfect in hand and foot and mind, 
8. clS«t> IT. T. X. : o^ least respecting the law which is for the ad- 
vantage of the state, 

6. rm Y&P> «. r. X. : for the race of fools is wiihout end, 

7. ToM Ti : relative. aUrxpd : thin>gs disgracefully had, 

S, Nor is the saying of FUtaeus held by me to be in harmony, vi/JM 
is here used with the signification of yofdj^w, 

10. Cfod alone would have this prerogcUive : it is impossible for a 
man not to be evil when overwhelming distress comes upon him, 

11. d|idxavot is simply that which leaves no possible device 
open ; so inconceivable, immense, overwhelming. 

12. wp6fya^ (= Tpdias) €6 : in prosperity, 

13. fl : supply a verb for the condition from rpd^s, 

14. ToivMrXcCffTov: "most continuously," or *'to (he greatest 

16-17. Therefore, through desire for that which cannot be, I will 
never devote my allotted period of life to an empty hope, which cam. 
gain no a^xomplishment, namely for a blaineless man among all as 
many of us as emjoy the fruit of the spacious earth, d^^/xai is a word 
which in its origin properly denotes a doubting state of mind (5(s, 
ilto) ; the meaning then becomes that of expectancy or desire. 

16. dupoKTOV may be used in the sense of, that for which noth- 
ing can be done, which cannot be accomplished ; or it may mean, that 
which does nothing, and so vain or idle, 

18. Iirl : connect with cip<&v : lighting upon, discovering, 100 

19. 4iraCvi||u : Aeolic form for iratp4io. 


Danae, with her infant child Perseus, was placed in a chest and 
cast into the sea by her father Acrisius, on account of an oracle which 
declared that the child would kill his grandfather. The ark floated 
to the island of Seriphos, where Danae and Perseus were rescued. 
The poem is the Lament of Danae. 

Line 1. X^vokl : a word of some indefiniteness, used even for 
Deucalion's ark. It means commonly, however, a mere box. 
SaiSoXI^: highly torought, pi'obably suggesting precious metals, 
tlioiij!;h also used of wood. 

2. X(|iiva: vxUers, 

3. 1|piircv : east doum or overwhehned ; this aorist is almost uni- 101 
vei'sally intransitive, but not so here. 


4, ^^av : as in Homer, denotes merely possession. IPl 

6. &«»Tfts : used of quiet restful sleep, f^ropi : used by Homer 

entirely in nom. or ace. 

7. . So^ppoTi : properly a stick of timber, a beam ; here used for the 

whole craft. 

8. WKTiXa|iiircC : it is better to connect this with do^part, a craft 
which only the night illumines ; some, however, render it with 9v6^, 
vToXf Cs : seiU otU or borne along, 

9. PaO^v : referring to the luxuriant beauty of the hair. The 
suggestion comes by tradition that at the time of his exposure Perseus 
was already three or four years old. 

10. 11. K^TOf • . . ^yywv : gen. with dXfyets (G. 171, 2; 
H. 576). 

12. iipd<r«»irov : in apposition with the subject. 

13. Bvl if even thai which is fearful were fearful to thu. Hum 
wovZdst lend a sensitive ear to my toords. 

18. (HrfyvwOC |ioi &n : ** forgive me that.** OopoiaXlov : over- 
confident expressions were supposed especially to draw down the ven- 
geance of the gods. 

19. TfKv^ : gen. TCKifd^^t dUoM : for the sake of the child. 


The number of epigrams left to us by Greek poets is very large, 
and they come from a vast variety of authors, as this type of literature 
always has a place. In large numbers of cases they were written as 
epitaphs, or monumental inscriptions in honor of the dead, in which 
cases they would be especially likely to gain remembrance and widely 
extended fame. Simonides had the fortune to live in the stirring 
period of the great wars of the Greeks with the Persians. His epi- 
grams thus became associated with the grandest efforts and sacrifices 
of his countrymen. 

We cannot always discover where each epigram was inscribed, nor 
be sure that all are attributed to their real authors. They have come 
to us in large classes of cases simply associated with certain names in 
the old collections known as the Greek Anthology. This authority, 
when unsupported, can hardly be relied on as better than a tradi- 
tion, and beyond the name of the author even the tradition gives 
little light. The epigrams of Simonides have, however, the advantage 
of belonging to an age of especial historical interest, and with especial 
sources of information. We give a few of those which are associated 
with his name, especially those relating to the Persian wars; 

182 NOTES. 


Line 1. Atp^nat : Dirphys was a mountain in Enboea. iv^ 102 
frmxC : under the shadow of the goige, or wUhin the gorge. The 
circumstances under which this epigram was written are uncertain. 


Line 2. ^p v m^Apmf : in early times, almost all of the gold of the 
Greeks came from the East, through the Persians. There is no proof 
of a gold coinage in Greece, certainly of any extent, before the time 
of Alexander the Great. 

The following five belong to the Greeks who took part in the 
battle of Thermopylae. 


Line 2. x^^^^^ T^ropct : this includes all the Peloponnesians^ 
who at first guarded the pass, the greater part of them being after- 
wards dismissed by Leonidas (cf. Herod. VII. 202, 221). 


Line 1. MrytrrCa : (Doric gen. ) the soothsayer, an Acamanian 
by birth, who refused to leave Leonidas. A separate monument^ 
with this inscription, was erected to him. 

2. £w^x<^ • ^^ Sperchius is a small stream which enters the 
Sinus Maliacus just north of Thermopylae. 


Line 8. TiOvao% : the verb is used in the perfect with the sense : 108 
to he dead, 


In behalf of the Corinthians who were killed and buried at 

IX. Line 1. dxim • . . Iirl {i^poi^ : a sort of proverbial expres- 
sion, used repeatedly for extreme danger. 

4. 4|t|M4icv : we attached to, loaded upon, 104 



' A8ci|fcdrrofV : Adeimantns was the commander of the Corinthian 104 
fleet, in the war against Xerxes. He was chained by the Athenians 
with cowardly conduct (cf. Herod. VIII. 5, 59, 94), but seems to have 
sustained a good reputation among the most of the Greeks. It is fair 
to say that the Athenian accusation has rather the appeaiance of a 
hostile invention. 


These epigrams are associated with the battle of Euiymedon, in 
which Oimon defeated the Persians, first at sea, and then on the land, 
on the coast of Asia Minor. If the received dates are correct, these 
cannot belong to our Simonides, as these would bring the battle the 
year after his death. Some authorities, however, place the engage- 
ment earlier. 

XII. Line 1. i( ov : sc. xpimv. 

6. Ikot^v : in the first engagement at sea, Cimon captured two 
hundred ships ; he then followed the enemy to the land, and routed 
them, and, according to Plutarch, afterwards defeated a reinforcement 
of eighty Phoenician ships. 


Epitaph upon a certain Leon, upon whose monument was a 
sculptured lion. It has even been conjectured that this was in- 
scribed upon the monument of Leonidas, as Herodotus (YII. 225) 
refers to the lion sculptured there. There is, however, no external 
evidence to sustain this view. There seems to have been a fondness 
among the Greeks for the figure of a lion upon a soldier's monument. 

Line 1. 8v, i.e. rbv Kdprunoif : andlgttard the Wrongest of inortcUs* 


These are satiric epitaphs supposed to belong to Simonides. 

XV. Line 1. tmv afroO • . • diroXXv|UyMV : at the death of one's 105 
own Jriends, 

XVI. Line 2. Timocreon of Rhodes was an athlete, and also 
something of a ix)et. He was a bitter enemy of Themistocles, and 

184 NOTES. 

seems to have exercised his hatred pretty freely, including Simonides 105 
among its objects. dv6p4vovf : c/t(^ governs two accusatives, one 
of the person and the other of the thing (cf. G. 165). xoica cUr^ : 

Presswork by Ginn & Co., Boston. 

Latin Text-Books. 


Allen ft Greenough: Latin Qrammar |ii.2o 

OeBsar f 7 books, with vocabulary ; illustrated) . • • 1.25 
Oicero (13 orations, with vocabulary; illustrated) • • 1.25 

SaUuBt'B OatUlne 60 

Oicero de Senectute 50 

Ovid (with vocabulary) 1.40 

Preparatory Oourse of Latin Proae 1.40 

Latin OompoBitlon z.ia 

Allen • • • New Latin Method 90 

Introduction to Latin Oomposition 90 

Latin Primer . .90 

Latin Lexicon . 90 

Remnants of Barly Latin 75 

Oermania and Afifricola of Tacitus 1.00 

Blackburn . Essentials of Latin Qrammar 70 

Latin Bxercises • 60 

Latin Qrammar and Bxercises (in one volume) . i.oo 

Collar & Daniell: Begrinner's Latin Book i.oo 

Latins Beddenda (paper) 20 

Latine Beddenda and voc. (cloth) 30 

College Series of Latin Authors. 

Greenoufirh's Satires and Epistles of Horace 

(text edition) $o.flo; (text and notes) 1.25 

Crowblii . . Selections ftt>m the Latin Poets 1.40 

Crowell & Richardson : Briof History of Roman Lit. (Bender) i.oo 
Greenough , Vlrgril: — 

Bucolics and 6 Books of iEhieid fwith vocab.) . 1.60 
Bucolics and 6 Books of iESneid (without vocab.) 1.12 
Last 6 Books of iBneid, and Oeorgics (with notes) 1. 12 
Bucolics, iBneid, and Qeorsrics (complete, with notes) 1.60 

Text of Vir£^ (complete) 75 

Vocabulary to the whole of Virgil i.oo 

GiNN & Co. . Olassical Atlas and Oeography (cloth) .... 2.00 

Halsey. . • Btsrmology of Latin and Greek 1.12 

Keep . . . Essential Uses of the Moods in Greek and Latin .25 

King . . . Latin Pronunciation •••••.. 25 

Leighton. . Latin Lessons • 1.12 

First Steps in Latin . 1.12 

Madvig . . Latin Grammar (by Thacher) 2.25 

Parker & Preble : Handbook of Latin Writlngr 50 

Preble. . . Terence's Adelphoe • * 25 

Shumway. . Latin Synonymes 30 

Stickney . ; Cicero de Natura Deorum 1.40 

Tetlow . • Inductive Latin Lessons 1.12 

ToMLiNSON . Manual for the Study of Latin Grammar . . .20 

Latin for Sight BeadinGr i>oo 

White (J. W.) Schmidt's Bhythmic and Metric 2.50 

White (J. T.) Junior Students' Latin-English Lexicon (mor.) 1.75 

Bnglish-Latin Lexicon (sheep) 1.50 

Latin-Engrlish and Engrlish-Latln Lexicon (sheep) 3.00 
Whiton . . Au:dlia Vergriliana ; or. First Steps in Latin Prosody .15 

Six Weeks' Preparation for Beading Orasar . .40 

Co^s sent to Teachers for Examination^ with a view to Introduction^ 

on receipt of Introduction Price, 

GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

Boston, New York, and Chicago. 

Greek Text-Books. 

ABen: Medea of Euripides $1.00 

rlAnr : Hellenic Orations of Demosthenes .... 1.00 

Seven against Thebes • ijQO 

Anaereontics .36 

GoodwlBi Gfeek Orammar L50 

Greek Reader • • 1.60 

Greek Moods and Tenses 1.60 

Selections from Xenophon and Herodotus . L60 

CkKMlwlB A White : Anabasis, with Yocabolary .... L50 

Harding: Greek Inflection : JBO 

Keep: Essential Uses of the Moods .25 

fjelffhton: New Greek Lessons 1.20 

IJddeU A Soott : Abridged Greek-Enelish Lexicon .... 1.90 

Unabridged Gieek-EngUsh Lexicon .... 9.40 

Paraona: Cebes'l^let .75 

Seymour: Seleeted Odes of Pindar 1.40 

Introd. to Language and Verse of Homer, j qi^ 'j^ 

BldiTwidk: Greek Prose Ck>mposition 1.60 

Tarbell: Philippics of Demosthenes LOO 

Tyler; Selections from Greek Lyric Poets .... LOO 

white: First Lessons in Greek • . ' . . .1.20 

Schmidt's Rhythmic and Metric 2.60 

Oedipus Tyrannos of Sophocles 1.12 

Steiirs Dialect of Herodotns 10 

Whiton: Orations of Lysias •••.... IXX) 

Beokwltli: Euripides' Bacchantes. 

Text and Notes, Paper, .80; Cloth, $110; Text only, .20. 
D'Ooge: Sophocles' Antigone. 

Text and Notes, Paper, JS6 ; Cloth, $1.25 ; Text only, .20. 
Dyer : Plato's Apology and Crita 

Text and Notes, Paper, .96; Cloth, $1.26 ; Text only, .20. 
Fowler : Thncydides, Book v. 

Text and Notes, Paper, JB6; doth, $1.25; Text only, .20. 
Humphresra: Aristophanes' Clonds. 

Text and Notes, Paper, .96; Cloth, $1.25; Text only, .20. 
Manatt : Xenophon's Hellenica, Books L-IV. 

Text and Notes, Paper, $1.20 ; Cloth, $1JS0; Text only, .20, 
Morris : Thncsrdides, Book L 

Text and Notes, Paper, $1.20; Cloth, $1JM); Text only, .2a 
Seymour: Homer's Iliad, Books L-HL 

Text and Notes, Paper, JS6 ; Cloth, $1.25; Text only, .20. 
Smitli : Thncydides, Book vu. 

Text and Notes, Paper, .96 ; Cloth, $1.25 ; Text only, .2a 




Arrowemith : Kaegi'sBigveda, (traru/atjon) $1.60 

mwell: Nine Jatakas (Po/t) .60 

Lamnan: Sanskrit Reader 1.80 

Perry: Sanskrit Primer 1.60 

Wbitney: Sanskrit Grammar 2.60 

Ccpiet ieni to Teacherifor KxamituMon, teith a view to IrUroductiont on 

recent of Introduction Price. 

CINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 
Boston, New Tobx, and Chicago.