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SELECTIONS 

FJIOM 

OVID AND VIRGIL 



SHORTER HANDBOOK OF LATIN 
POETRY. 

WITH NOTES AND GRAMMATICAL REFERENCES. 



BY 

J. H. HANSON, 

PRINCIPAL OF THE CLASSICAL INSTITUTE, WATERVILLE, MB. 



LFE, 

MASTER OF THE HIGH SCHOOL, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



^VT j.^feo: 



BOSTON: ;V.' .v 

CROSBY AND AINSWORTH. 

NEW YORK: O. S. FELT. 
1866. 



'■-T-Hc KE'W ^*-'KK 

Ipubl:: library| 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by 

J. H. HANSON AND W. J. ROLFE, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



University Press: Welch, Bigelow, & Co., 
Cambridge. 



PREFACE. 



The marked favor with which the Handbook of Latin 
Poetry has already been received, and the deske ex- 
pressed by many teachers, who have no occasion for the 
Horace, that a smaller and cheaper edition, containing 
only the Ovid and Virgil, might be published, will suffi- 
ciently explain the appearance of tiie Shorter Handbook 
of Latin Poetry. 

The abridgment is in all respects like the correspond- 
ing parts of fhe complete work, the same plates being 
used in printing both. This will explain the slight irregu- 
larity of the paging, which will cause no inconvenience in 
using the book, as nothing in the notes and references is 
affected by it. The occasional references to the Horace 
are of little practical importance, as they are mostly on 
historical or mythological points: the teacher, however, 
should have the complete work. 

It is earnestly recommended to those teachers who are 
preparing students for college, to take their classes over a 
portion at least of the Ovid before entering upon the 
Virgil. The latter is a difficult author : his style is ornate 
and artificial, his sentences are often long and involved, 
their structure complicated, and the sense sometimes ob- 
scure. Ovid, on the other hand, is a comparatively easy 
author : his stories are brief and interesting, their structure 



I 



IV PREFACE. 

simple, and the style narrative and loose. Besides, the 
notes on Ovid are specially intended for elementary drill. 
By adopting this course, the transition, always more or 
less difficult, from prose to poetry, is rendered much more 
gradual and easy ; and, at the same time, the student is 
learning something of a valuable Latin classic, with which 
otherwise he might never become acquainted. 

J. H. HANSON, 
April 15, 1866. W. J. ROLFE. 



CONTENTS. 



OVID. 

Page 
The Metamorphoses: Selections from Books I. -VI., VIII., 

X., and XI i 

The Tristia : Book IV., Elegy lo 6i 

VIRGIL. 

The Bucolics: Eclogues L, III., IV., V., VII., and IX. . 65 

The Georgics : Books I. and II 83 

The Aeneid : Books I. - VI 113 

NOTES. 

List of Abbreviations 364 

The Life of Ovid . » 365 

Notes on Ovid 369 

The Life of Virgil 427 

Notes on Virgil 432 



p. OVIDII NASONIS 

METAMORPHOSES. 

LIBER I. 



AuREA prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nuUo, 

Sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. 90 

Poena metusque aberant, nee verba minantia fixo 

Aere legebantur, nee supplex turba timebat 

Judicis ora sui, sed erant sine judice tuti. 

Nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem, 

Montibus in liquidas piuus descenderat undas, 9s 

NuUaque mortales praeter sua litora norant. 

Nondum praecipites eingebant oppida fossae ; 

Non tuba direeti, non aeris comua flexi, 

Non galeae, non ensis erat : sine militis usu 

MoUia seeurae peragebant otia gentes. 100 

Ipsa quoque immunis rastroque intacta, nee ullis 

Saueia vomeribus, per se dabat omnia tellus ; 

Contentique eibis nullo cogente creatis, 

Arbuteos foetus montanaque fraga legebant, 

Comaque et in duris haerentia mora rubetis, 105 

Et quae deeiderant patula Jovis arbore glandes. 

Ver erat aetemum, placidique tepentibus auris 

Mulcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores. 

Mox etiam firuges tellus inarata ferebat, 

Nee renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis ; no 

Flumina jam lactis, jam flumina neetaris ibant, 

Flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella. 



2 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Postquam, Saturno tenebrosa in Tartara misso, 

Sub Jove mundus erat, subiit argentea proles, 

Auro deterior, fulvo pretiosior acre. "5 

Jupiter antiqui contxaxit tempora veris, 

Perque hiemes aestusque et inaequales autumnos 

Et breve ver spatiis exegit quatuor annum. 

Turn primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus 

Canduit, et ventis glacies adstricta pependit. 120 

Turn primum subiere domos : domus antra fuere 

Et densi frutices et vinctae cortice virgae. 

Semina turn primum longis Cerealia sulcis 

Obruta sunt, pressique jugo gemuere juvenci. 

Tertia post illas successit ahenea proles, 125 

Saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promtior arma, 

Non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima ferro. 

Protinus irrupit venae pejoris in aevum 

Omrie nefas ; fugere pudor verumque fidesque ; 

In quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolique 130 

Insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi. 

Vela dabant ventis, nee adhuc bene noverat illos 

Navita ; quaeque diu steterant in montibus altis, 

Fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae. 

Communemque prius, ceu lumina solis et aurae, 135 

Cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor. 

Nee tantum segetes alimentaque debita dives 

Poscebatur humus ; sed itum est in viscera terrae, 

Quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, 

Effodiuntur opes, irritamenta malorum. 140 

Jamque nocens ferrum, ferroque nocentius aurum 

Prodierat ; prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, 

Sanguineaque matiu crepitantia concutit arma. 

Vivitur ex rapto : non hospes ab hospite tutus, 

Non socer a genero ; fratrum quoque gratia rara est. 145 

Imminet exitio vir conjugis, ilia mariti ; 

Lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae ; 

Filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. 



METAMORPH. UR r. 3 

Victa jacet pietas, et Virgo caede madentes, 

Ultima coelestum, terras Astraea rf liquit. 150 

Neve foret terris securior arduus aether, 

Aflfectasse ferunt regnum coeleste Gigantas, 

Altaque congestos struxisse ad* sidera montes. 

Turn pater omnipotens misso perfregit Olympum 

Fulmine, et excussit subjecto Pelion Ossae. 15$ 

Obruta mole sua quum corpora dira jacerent, 

Perfusam multo natorum sanguine Terram 

Immaduisse ferunt calidumque animasse cruorem, 

Et, ne nulla suae stirpis monumenta manerent, 

In faciem vertisse hominum. Sed et ilia propago x6o 

Contemtrix superum saevaeque avidissima caedis 

Et violenta fuit : scires e sanguine natos. 

Quae pater ut summa vidit Satumius arce, 

Ingemit et, facto nondum vulgata recenti, 

Foeda Lycaoniae referens convivia mensae, 165 

Ingentes animo et dignas Jove concipit iras, 

Conciliumque vocat : tenuit mora nulla vocatos. 

Est via sublimis, coelo manifesta sereno ; 

Lactea nomen habet, candore notabilis ipso : 

Hac iter est superis ad magni tecta Tonantis it© 

Regalemque domum. Dextra laevaque deorum 

Atria nobilium valvis celebrantur apertis ; 

Plebs habitat diversa locis ; a fronte potentes 

Coelicolae clarique suos posuere penates. 

Hie locus est, quem, si verbis audacia detur, 17s 

Haud timeam magni dixisse Palatia coeli. 

Ergo ubi marmoreo superi sedere recessu, 

Celsior ipse loco sceptroque innixus ebumo 

Terrificam capitis concussit terque quaterque 

Caesariem, cum qua terram, mare, sidera movit 180 

Talibus inde modis ora indignantia solvit : 

Non ego pro mundi regno magis anxius ilia 

Tempestate fui, qua centum quisque parabat 

Injicere anguipedum captivo brachia coelo : 



4 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Nam, quanquam ferus hostis erat, taraen illud ab uno 185 

Corpore et ex una pendebat origine bellum. 

Nunc mihi, qua totum Nereus circumsonat orbem, 

Perdendum est mortale genus. Per flumina juro 

Infera, sub terras Stygio labentia luco, 

Cuncta prius tentata : sed immedicabile vulnus 190 

Ense recidendum est, ne pars sincera trahatur.. 

Sunt mihi Semidei, sunt rustica numina, Nymphae 

Faunique Satyrique et monticolae Silvani : 

Quos quoniam coeli nondum dignamur honore, 

Quas dedimus, certe terras habitare sinamus. 195 

An satis, O superi, tutos fore creditis illos, • 

Quum mihi, qui fulmen, qui vos habeoque regoque, 

Struxerit insidias notus feritate Lycaon ? 

Contremuere oranes, studiisque ardentibus ausum 

Talia deposcunt. Sic, quum manus impia saevit 200 

Sanguine Caesareo Romanum exstinguere nomen, 

Attonitum tanto subitae terrore ruinae 

Humanum genus est totusque perhorruit orbis ; 

Nee tibi grata minus pietas, Auguste, tuorum, 

Quam fuit ilia Jovi. Qui postquam voce manuque 205 

Murmura compressit, tenuere silentia cuncti. 

Substitit ut clamor, pressus gravitate regentis, 

Jupiter hoc iterum sermone silentia rupit : 

Ille quidem poenas — curam banc dimittite — solvit ; 

Quod tamen admissum, quae sit vindicta, docebo. 210 

Contigerat nostras infamia temporis aures ; 

Quam cupiens falsam, summo delabor Olympo 

Et deus humana lustro sub imagine terras. 

Longa mora est, quantum noxae sit ubique repertum, 

Enumerare : minor fuit ipsa infamia vero. 215 

Maenala transieram, latebris horrenda ferarum, 

Et cum Cyllene gelidi pineta Lycaei ; 

Arcados hinc sedes et inhospita tecta tyranni 

Ingredior, traherent quum sera crepuscula noctem. 

Signa dedi venisse deum, vulgusque precari 220 



METAMORPH. LIB. L 5 

Coeperat ; irridet primo pia vota Lycaon, 

Mox ait, Experiar, deus hie, discrimine aperto. 

An sit mortalis, nee exit dubitabile verum. 

Nocte gravem somno nee opina perdere morte 

Me parat : haee illi placet experientia veri. ms 

Nee contentus eo, missi de gente Molossa 

Obsidis unius jugulum muerone resolvit, 

Atque ita semineees partim ferventibus artus 

Mollit aquis partim subjeeto torruit igni. 

Quos simul imposuit mensis, ego vindiee flamma 230 

In dominum dignosque everti teeta Penates. 

Territus ipse fugit, naetusque silentia ruris 

Exululat frustraque loqui conatur : ab ipso 

Colligit OS rabiem, solitaeque eupidine caedis 

Vertitur in peeudes ; et nunc quoque sanguine gaudet. 235 

In villos abeunt vestes, in crura laeerti ; 

Fit lupus, et veteris servat vestigia formae : 

Canities eadem est, eadem violentia vultus. 

Idem oeuli lucent, eadem feritatis imago. 

Occidit una domus ; sed non domus una perire 2^ 

Digna.fuit : qua terra patet, fera regnat Erinnys ; 

In facinus jurasse putes. Dent oeius omnes, 

Quas meruere pati — sic stat sententia -7- poenas. 

Dicta Jovis pars voce probant stimulosque frementi 

Adjiciunt ; alii partes assensibus implent 245 

Est tamen humani generis jaetura dolori 

Omnibus, et, quae sit terrae mortalibus orbae 

Forma futura, rogant ; quis sit laturus in aras 

Tura? ferisne paret populandas tradere terras? 

Talia quaerentes — sibi enim fore cetera curae — 250 

Rex superum trepidare vetat, sobolemque priori 

Dissimilem populo promittit origine mira. 

Jamque erat in totas sparsurus fulmina terras ; 

Sed timuit, ne forte sacer tot ab ignibus aether 

Conciperet flammas, longusque ardeseeret axis. 355 

Esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur, affore tempus, 



6 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Quo mare, quo tellus correptaque regia coeli 

Ardeat et mundi moles operosa laboret 

Tela reponuntur manibus fabricata Cyclopum : 

Poena placet diversa, genus mortale sub undis 260 

Perdere et ex omni nimbos dimittere coelo. 

Protinus Aeoliis Aquilonem claudit in antris 

Et quaecumque fugant inductas flamina nubes, 

Emittitque Notum. Madid is Notus evolat alis, 

Terribilem picea tectus caligine vultum ; 265 

Barba gravis nimbis, canis fluit unda capillis, 

Fronte sedent nebulae, rorant pennaeque sinusque. 

Utque manu late pendentia nubila pressit, 

Fit fragor : hinc densi funduntur ab aethere nimbi. 

Nuntia Junonis varios induta colores, 270 

Concipit Iris aquas alimentaque nubibus aifert. 

Stemuntur segetes, et deplorata colonis 

Vota jacent longique perit labor irritus anni. 

Nee coelo contenta suo est Jovis ira ; sed ilium 

Caeruleus frater juvat auxiliaribus undis. 275 

Convocat hie amnes : qui postquam tecta tyranni 

Intravere sui, Non est hortamine longo ^ 

Nunc, ait, utendum : vires effundite vestras — 

Sic opus est — aperite domos, ac mole remota 

Fluminibus vestris totas immittite habenas. 280 

Jusserat : hi redeunt, ac fontibus ora relaxant, 

Et defrenato volvuntur in aequora cursu. 

Ipse tridente suo terram percussit ; at ilia 

Intremuit motuque vias patefecit aquarum, 

Exspatiata ruunt per apertos flumina campos, 285 

Cumque satis arbusta simul pecudesque virosque 

Tectaque, cumque suis rapiunt penetralia sacris. 

Si qua domus mansit potuitque resistere tanto 

Indejecta malo, culmen tamen altior hujus 

Unda tegit, pressaeque latent sub gurgite turres. 290 

Jamque mare et tellus nullum discrimen habebant : 

Omnia pontus erat ; deerant quoque litora ponto. 



METAMORPH. LIB. I. ^ 

Occupat hie coUem ; qrmba sedet alter adunca 

Et ducit remos illic, ubi nuper ararat ; 

Ille super segetes aut mersae culmina villae 295 

Navigat ; hie summa piseem deprendit in ulmo. 

Figitur in viridi, si fors. tulit, aneora prato, 

Aut subjeeta terunt curvae vineta earinae ; 

Et, modo qua graeiles gramen earpsere eapellae, 

Nune ibi deformes ponunt sua eorpora phocae. 300 

Mirantur sub aqua lueos urbesque domosque 

Nereides, silvasque tenent delphines et altis 

Ineursant ramis agitataque robora pulsant 

Nat lupus inter oves, fulvos vehit unda leones, 

Unda vehit tigres, nee vires fulminis apro 305 

Crura nee ablato prosunt veloeia eervo, 

Quaesitisque diu terris, ubi sistere possit, 

In mare lassatis volucris vaga deeidit alis. 

Obruerat tumulos immensa licentia ponti, 

Pulsabantque novi montana caeumina fluetus. 310 

Maxima pars unda rapitur ; quibus unda pepercit, 

lUos longa domant inopi jejunia vietu. 

Separat Aonios Oetaeis Phoeis ab arvis. 
Terra ferax, dum terra fuit, sed tempore in illo 
Pars maris et latus subitarum eampus aquarum. 31s 

Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus astra duobus, 
Nomine Pamasus, superatque eacumine nubes. 
Hie ubi Deucalion — nam eetera texerat aequor — 
Cum eonsorte tori parva rate veetus adhaesit, 
Corycidas Nymphas et numina montis adorant 320 

Fatidieamque Themin, quae tunc oracla tenebat. 
Non illo melior quisquam nee amantior aequi 
Vir fuit, aut ilia metuentior uUa deorum. 
Jupiter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem, 
Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unum, 325 

Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unam, 
Innocuos ambos, cultores numinis ambos, 
Nubila disjecit, nimbisque aquilone remotis 



8 p. OVIDII NASQNIS 

Et coelo terras ostendit et aethera terris. 

Nee maris ira manet, positoque tricuspide telo 330 

Mulcet aquas rector pelagi, supraque profundiim 

Exstantem atque humeros innato murice tectum 

Caeruleum Tritona vocat, conchaeque sonanti 

Inspirare jubet fluctusque et flumina signo 

Jam revOcare dato. Cava buccina sumitur illi 335 

Tortilis, in Jatum quae turbine crescit ab imo, 

Buccina, quae medio concepit ubi aera ponto, 

Litora voce replet sub utroque jacentia Phoebo. 

Tunc quoque, ut ora dei madida rorantia barba 

Contigit et cecinit jussos inflata receptus, 340 

Omnibus audita est telluris et aequoris undis, 

Et quibus est undis audita, coercuit omnes. 

Jam mare litus habet, plenos capit alveus amnes, 

Flumina subsidunt coUesque exire videntur, 

Surgit humus, crescunt loca decrescentibus undis, 345 

Postque diem longam nudata cacumina silvae 

Ostendunt limumque tenent in fronde relictum. 

Redditus orbis erat. Quem postquam vidit apertum, 
Et desolatas agere alta silentia terras, 
Deucalion lacrimis ita Pyrrham affatur obortis : 350 

O soror, O conjux, O femina sola superstes, 
Quam commune mihi genus et patruelis origo, 
Deinde torus junxit, nunc ipsa pericula jungunt, 
Terrarum, quascumque vident occasus et ortus, 
Nos duo turba sumus : possedit cetera pontus. 355 

Haec quoque adhuc vitae non est fiducia nostrae 
Certa satis : terrent etiam nunc nubila mentem. 
Quid tibi, si sine me fatis erepta fuisses. 
Nunc animi, miseranda, foret ? Quo sola timorem 
Ferre modo posses ; quo consolante doleres ? 360 

Namque ego — crede mihi — si te quoque pontus haberet, 
Te sequerer, conjux, et me quoque pontus haberet. ' 
O utinam possem populos reparare patemis 
Artibus, atque animas formatae infimdere terrae ! 



MSTAMORPH. LIB. I. 9 

Nunc genus in nobis resta^ mortale duobus — 365 

Sic visum ^uperis — hominumque exempla manemus. 

Dixerat, et flebant Placuit coeleste precari 

Numen, et auxilium per sacras quaerere sortes. 

Nulla mora est : adeunt pariter Cephisidas undas, 

Ut nondum liquida$ sic jam vada nota secantes. 370 

Inde ubi libatos irroravere liquores 

Vestibus et capiti, flectunt vestigia sanctae 

Ad delubra deae, quorum fastigia turpi 

Pallebant musco, stabantque sine ignibus ante. 

Ut templi tetigere gradus, procumbit uterque 375 

Pronus humi gelidoque pavens dedit oscula saxo, 

Atque ita, Si precibus, dixerunt, numina justis 

Victa remoUescunt, si flectitur ira deorum, 

Die, Themi, qua generis damnum reparabUe nostri 

Arte sit, et mersis fer opem, mitissima, rebus. 380 

Mota dea est, sortemque dedit : Discedite templo, 

Et velate caput cinctasque resolvite vestes, 

Ossaque post tergum magnae jactate parentis. 

Obstupuere diu, rumpitque silentia voce 

Pyrrha prior jussisque deae parere recusat, 385 

Detque sibi veniam, pavido rogat ore, pavetque 

Laedere jactatis matemas ossibus umbras. 

Interea repetunt caecis obscura latebris 

Verba datae sortis secum inter seque volutant : 

Inde Promethiades pladdis Epimethida dictis 390 

Mulcet et, Aut fallax, ait, est sollertia nobis, 

Aut pia sunt nullumque nefas oracula suadent 

Magna parens terra est, lapides in coipwe terrae 

Ossa reor dici : jacere hos post terga jubemur. 

Conjugis augurio quanquam Titania mota est, 395 

Spes tamen in dubio est : adeo coelestibus ambo 

Diffidunt monitis j sed quid tentare nocebit ? 

Discedunt, velantque caput tunicasque recingunt, 

Et jussos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt 

Saxa — quis hoc credat, nisi sit pro teste vetustas ? — 490 



10 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem, 

Mollirique mora mollitaque ducere formam. 

Mox, ubi creverunt naturaque mitior illis 

Contigit, ut quaedam sic non manifesta videri 

Forma potest hominis, sed, uti de marmore coepta, 405 

Non exacta satis rudibusque simillima,signis. 

Quae tamen ex illis aliquo pars humida suco, 

Et terrena fuit, versa est in corporis usum ; 

Quod solidum est flectique nequit, mutatur in ossa ; 

Quae modo vena fuit, sub eodem nomine mansit. 410 

Inque brevi spatio superorum numine saxa 

Missa viri manibus faciem traxere virorum, 

Et de femineo reparata est femina jactu. 

Inde genus durum sumus experiensque laborum, 

Et documenta damus, qua simus origine nati. 415 



LIBER II. 

^Regia Solis erat sublimibus alta columnis, 
Clara micante auro flammasque imitante pjrropo, 
Cujus ebur nitidum fastigia summa tenebat, 
Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvae. 
Materiem superabat opus : nam Mulciber illic 
Aequora caelarat medias cingentia terras, 
Terrarumque orbem, coelumque quod imminet orbi. 
Caeruleos habet unda deos, Tritona canorum, 
Proteaque ambiguum, balaenarumque prementem 
Aegaeona suis immania terga lacertis, 
Doridaque et natas, quarum pars nare videntur, 
Pars in mole sedens virides siccare capillos, 
Pisce vehi quaedam ; facies non omnibus una, 
Nee diversa tamen : qualem- decet esse sororum. 
Terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque 



METAMORPH. LIB. II. II 

Fluminaque et nymphas et cetera numina ruris. 

Haec super imposita est coeli fulgentis imago, 

Signaque sex foribus dextris totidemque sinistris. 

Quo simul acclivo Clymeneia limite proles 

Venit, et intravit dubitati tecta parentis, 20 

Protinus ad patrios sua fert vestigia vultus, 

Consistitque procul : neque enim propiora ferebat 

Lumina. Purpurea velatus veste sedebat 

In solio Phoebus clans lucente smaragdis. 

A dextra laevaque Dies et Mensis et Annus 25 

Saeculaque et positae spatiis aequalibus Horae, 

Verque novum stabat cinctum florente corona ; 

Stabat nuda Aestas et spicea serta gerebat ; 

Stabat et Autumnus calcatis sordidus uvis, 

Et glacialis Hiems, canos hirsuta capillos. 30 

Inde loco medius rerum novitate paventem 

Sol oculis juvenem, quibus adspicit omnia, vidit, 

Quaeque viae tibi causa ? quid hac, ait, arce petisti. 

Progenies, Phaethon, baud infitianda parenti ? 

Ille refert : O lux immensi publica mundi, 35 

Phoebe pater, si das hujus mihi nominis usum 

Nee falsa Clymene culpam sub imagine celat, 

Pignora da, genitor, per quae tua vera propago 

Credar, et hunc animis errorem detrahe nostris. 

Dixerat ; at genitor circum caput omne micantes, 40 

Deposuit radios propiusque accedere jussit, 

Amplexuque dato. Nee tu meus esse negari 

Dignus es, et Clymene veros, ait, edidit ortus ; 

Quoque minus dubites, quodvis pete munus, et illud 

Me tribuente feres : promissi testis adesto 45 

Dis juranda palus, oculis incognita nostris. 

Vix bene desierat, cumis petit ille paternos 

Inque diem alipedum jus et moderamen equorum. 

Poenituit jurasse patrem, qui terque quaterque 

Concutiens illustre caput, Temeraria, dixit, 50 

Vox mea facta tua est. Utinam promissa liceret 



12 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Non dare ! Confiteor, solum hoc tibi, nate, negarem. 
Dissuadere licet. Non est tua tuta voluntas. 
Magna petis, Phaethon, et quae nee viribus istis 
Munera conveniunt nee tam puerilibus annis. 55 

Sors tua mortalis : non est mortale, quod optas. 
, Plus etiam, quam quod superis contingere fas est, 
Nescius affectas. Placeat sibi quisque licebit ; 
Non tamen ignifero quisquam consistere in axe 
Me valet excepto. Vasti quoque rector Olympi, 60 

Qui fera terribili jaculatur fulmina dextra, 
Non agat hos currus : et quid Jove majus habemus ? 
Ardua prima via est et qua vix mane recentes 
Enituntur equi. Medio est altissima coelo ; 
Unde mare et terras ipsi mihi saepe videre 65 

Fit timor, et pavida trepidat formidine pectus. 
Ultima prona via est, et eget moderamine certo. 
Tunc etiam, quae me subjectis excipit undis, 
Ne ferar in praeceps, Tethys solet ipsa vereri. 
Adde quod assidua rapitur vertigine coelum, 70 

Sideraque alta trahit celerique volumine torquet. 
Nitor in adversum, nee me, qui cetera, vincit 
Impetus, et rapid o contrarius evehor orbi. 
Finge datos currus. Quid ages? Poterisne rotatis 
Obvius ire polis, ne te citus auferat axis ? 75 

Forsitan et lucos illic urbesque deorum 
Concipias animo delubraque ditia donis 
Esse. Per insidias iter est formasque ferarum. 
Utque viam teneas nuUoque errore traharis. 
Per tamen adversi gradieris cornua Tauri, 80 

Haemoniosque arcus, violentique ora Leonis, 
Saevaque circuitu curvantem brachia longo 
Scorpion, atque aliter curvantem brachia Cancrum. 
Nee tibi quadrupedes animosos ignibus iilis, 
Quos in pectore habent, quos ore et naribus efflant, 85 
In promtu regere est : vix me patiuntur, ubi acres 
Incaluere animi, cervixque repugnat habenis. 



METAMORPH. LIB. II. 1 3 

At tu, funesti ne sim tibi muneris auctor, 

Nate, cave, dum resque sinit, tua corrige vota. 

Scilicet, ut nostro genitum te sanguine credas, 90 

Pignora certa petis : do pignora certa timendo, 

Et patrio pater esse metu prober. Adspice vultus 

Ecce meos, utinamque oculos in pectora posses 

Inserere et patrias intus deprendere curas ! 

Denique quicquid habet dives, circumspice, mundus, 95 

Eque tot ac tantis coeli terraeque marisque 

Posce bonis aliquid : nullam patiere repulsam. 

Deprecor hoc unum, quod vero nomine poena, 

Non honor est Poenam, Phaethon, pro munere poscis. 

Quid mea colla tenes blandis, ignare, lacertis ? 100 

Ne dubita : dabitur — Stygias juravimus undas — 

Quodcumque optaris ; sed tu sapientius opta. 

Finierat monitus ; dictis tamen ille repugnat, 
Propositumque premit flagratque cupidine currus. 
Ergo, qua licuit, genitor cunctatus, ad altos 105 

Deducit juvenem, Vulcania munera, currus. 
Aureus axis erat, temo aureus, aurea summae 
Curvatura rotae, radiorum argenteus ordo ; 
Per juga chrysolitlii positaeque ex ordine gemmae 
Clara repercusso reddebant lumina Phoebo. no 

Dumque ea magnanimus Phaethon miratur opusque 
Perspicit, ecce vigil rutilo patefecit ab ortu 
Purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum 
Atria. DifFugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit 
Lucifer et coeli statione novissimus exit. 115 

At pater, ut terras mundumque rubescere vidit 
Comuaque extremae velut evanescere Lunae, 
Jungere equos Titan velocibus imperat Horis. 
Jussa deae celeres peragunt, ignemque vomentes, 
Ambrosiae suco saturos, praesepibus altis 120 

Quadrupedes ducunt, adduntque sonantia frena. 
Turn pater ora sui sacro medicamine nati 
Contigit et rapidae fecit patientia flammae, 



14 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Imposuitque comae radios, praesagaque luctus 

Pectore sollicito repetens suspiria dixit : "s 

Si potes his saltern monitis parere parentis, 

Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris : 

Sponte sua properant ; labor est inhibere volentes. 

Nee tibi directos placeat via quinque per arcus. 

Sectus in obliquum est lato curvamine limes, 130 

Zonarumque trium contentus fine polumque 

Effugit australem junctamque aquilonibus Arcton. 

Hac sit iter ; manifesta rotae vestigia ceraes. 

Utque ferant aequos et coelum et terra calores. 

Nee preme nee summum molire per aethera currum : 13s 

Altius egressus coelestia tecta cremabis, 

Inferius terras ; medio tutissimus ibis. 

Neu te dexterior tortum declinet ad Anguem, 

Neve sinisterior pressam rota ducat ad Aram : 

Inter utrumque tene. Fortunae cetera mando, 140 

Quae juvet et melius quam tu tibi consulat, opto. 

Dum loquor, Hesperio positas in litore metas 

Humida nox tetigit Non est mora libera nobis ; 

Poscimur, et fulget tenebris Aurora fugatis. 

Corripe lora manu, vel, si mutabile pectus 145 

Est tibi, consiliis, non curribus utere nostris, 

Dum potes et solidis etiam nunc sedibus adstas, 

Dumque male optatos nondum premis inscius axes. 

Quae tutus spectes, sine me dare lumina terris. 

Occupat ille levem juvenili corpore currum, 150 

Statque super manibusque datas contingere habenas 

Gaudet, et invito grates agit inde parenti. 

Interea volucres, Pyroeis, Eous, et Aethon, 

Solis equi, quartusque Phlegon, hinnitibus auras 

Flammiferis implent pedibusque repagula pulsant. 155 

Quae postquam Tethys, fatorum ignara nepotis, 

Repulit, et facta est immensi copia mundi, 

Corripuere viam, pedibusque per aera motis 

Obstantes scindunt nebulas, pennisque levati 



METAMORPH. LIB. II. 1 5 

Praetereunt ortos isdem de partibus Euros. iCo 

Sed leve pondus erat, nee quod cognoscere possent 

Solis equi, solitaque jugum gravitate carebat ; 

Utque labant curvae justo sine pondere naves, 

Perque mare instabiles nimia levitate feruntur, 

Sic (mere assueto vacuus dat in aera saltus 1O5 

Succutiturque alte similisque est currus inani. 

Quod simulac sensere, ruunt tritumque relinquunt 

Quadrijugi spatium, nee, quo prius, ordine cumint. 

Ipse pavet, nee qua commissas flectat habenas, 

Nee scit qua sit iter, nee, si seiat, imperet illis. 170 

Turn primum radiis gelidi ealuere Triones, 

Et vetito frustra tentarunt aequore tingi ; 

Quaeque polo posita est glaeiali proxima Serpens, 

Frigore pigra prius nee formidabilis ulli, 

Inealuit sumsitque novas fervoribus iras. 175 

Te quoque turbatum memorant fugisse, Boote, 

Quamvis tardus eras et te tua Plaustra tenebant 

Ut vero summo despexit ab aethere terras 

Infelix Phaethon penitus penitusque jaeentes, 

Palluit et subito genua intremuere timore, 180 

Suntque oeulis tenebrae per tantum lumen obortae. 

Et jam mallet equos nunquam tetigisse patemos ; 

Jam eognosse genus piget, et valuisse rogando ; 

Jam Meropis diei eupiens, ita fertur, ut aeta 

Praeeipiti pinus borea, eui vieta remisit 185 

Frena suus reetor, quam dis votisque reliquit. 

Quid faeiat ? Multum eoeli post terga relietum. 

Ante oeulos plus est : animo metitur utrumque, 

Et modo, quos illi fatum eontigere non est, 

Prospieit oeeasus, interdum respieit ortus ; 190 

Quidque agat ignarus, stupet, et nee frena remittit 

Nee retinere valet, nee nomina novit equorum ; 

Sparsa quoque in vario passim miraeula eoelo 

Vastarumque videt trepidus simulaera ferarum. 

Est loeus, in geminos ubi brachia eoneavat areus 195 



1 6 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Scorpios, et cauda flexisque utrimque lacertis 

Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum. 

Hunc puer ut nigri madidum sudore veneni 

Vulnera curvata minitantem cuspide vidit, 

Mentis inops gelida formidine lora remisit. 200 

Quae postquam summo sensere jacentia tergo, 

Exspatiantur equi, nulloque inhibente per auras 

Ignotae regionis eunt, quaque impetus egit, 

Hac sine lege ruunt, altoque sub aethere fixis 

Incursant stellis rapiuntque per avia currum, 205 

Et modo summa petunt, modo per decliva viasque 

Praecipites spatio terrae propiore feruntur. 

Inferiusque suis fratemos currere Luna 

Admiratur equos, ambustaque nubila fumant ; 

Corripitur flammis, ut quaeque altissima, tellus, 2x0 

Fissaque agit rimas et sucis aret ademtis ; 

Pabula canescunt, cum frondibus uritur arbos, 

Materiamque suo praebet seges arida damno. 

Parva queror : magnae pereunt cum moenibus urbes, 

Cumque suis totas populis incendia gentes 215 

In cinerem vertunt. Silvae cum montibus ardent : 

Ardet Athos Taurusque Cilix et Tmolus et Oete, 

Et tunc sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide, 

Virgineusque Helicon et nondum Oeagrius Haemos ; 

Ardet in immensum geminatis ignibus Aetne, 220 

Pamasusque biceps et Eryx et Gynthus et Othrys, 

Et tandem Rhodope nivibus caritura, Mimasque 

Dind)miaque et Mycale natusque ad sacra Cithaeron ; 

Nee prosunt Scythiae sua frigora ; Caucasus ardet, 

Ossaque cum Pindo majorque ambobus Olympus, 225 

Aeriaeque Alpes et nubifer Apenninus. 

Tum vero Phaethon cunctis e partibus orbem 

Adspicit accensum, nee tantos sustinet aestus, 

Ferventesque auras velut e fomace profunda 

Ore trahit, cumisque suos candescere sentit ; 230 

Et neque jam cineres ejectatamque favillam 



METAMORPH. LIB. II. 1 7 

Ferre potest, calidoque involvitur undique fumo ; 

Quoque eat aut ubi sit, picea caligine tectus 

Nescit, et arbitiio volucrum raptatur equorum. 

Sanguine tunc credunt in corpora summa vocato 235 

Aethiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorem ; 

Tunc facta est Libye raptis humoribus aestu 

Arida ; tunc Nymphae passis fontesque lacusque 

Deflevere comis : quaerit Boeotia Dircen, 

Argos Amymonen, Ephyre Pirenidas undas. 240 

Nee sortita loco distantes flumina ripas 

Tuta manent : mediis Tanais fumavit in undis, 

Peneosque senex Teuthranteusque Caicus 

Et celer Ismenos cum Psophideo Erymantho, 

Arsurusque iterum Xanthus flavusque Lycormas, 245 

Quique recurvatis ludit Maeandros in undis, 

Mygdoniusque Melas et Taenarius Eurotas ; 

Arsit et Euphrates Babylonius, arsit Orontes, 

Thermodonque citus Gangesque et Phasis et Ister ; 

Aestuat Alpheos, ripae Spercheides ardent ; 250 

Quodque suo Tagus amne vehit, fluit ignibus, aurum ; 

Et, quae Maeonias celebrabant carmine ripas, 

Flumineae volucres medio caluere Caystro. 

Nilus in extremum fugit perterritus orbem, 

Occuluitque caput, quod adhuc latet : ostia septem 255 

Pulverulenta vacant septem sine flumine valles. 

Fors eadem Ismarios, Hebrum cum Strymone, siccat 

Hesperiosque amnes, Rhenum Rhodanumque Padumque, 

Cuique fuit rerum promissa potentia, Thybrin. 

Dissilit omne solum, penetratque in Tartara rimis 260 

Lumen et infemum terret cum conjuge regem ; 

Et mare contrahitur, siccaeque est campus arenae 

Quod modo pontus erat, quosque altum texerat aequor, 

Exsistunt montes et sparsas Cycladas augent. 

Ima petunt pisces, nee se super aequora curvi 265 

Tollere consuetas audent delphines in auras. 

Corpora phocarum summo resupina profundo 



1 8 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Exanimata natant. Ipsum quoque Nerea fama est 

Doridaque et natas tepidis latuisse sub antris. 

Ter Neptunus aquis cum torvo brachia vultu 270 

Exserere ausus erat, ter non tulit aeris ignes. 

Alma tamen Tellus, ut erat circumdata ponto, 

Inter aquas pelagi contractosque undique fontes, 

Qui se condiderant in opacae viscera matris, 

Sustulit omniferos coUo tenus arida vultus, 275 

Opposuitque manum fronti, magnoque, tremore 

Omnia concutiens paullum subsedit et infra, 

Quam solet esse, fuit, siccaque ita voce locuta est : 

Si placet hoc meruique, quid o tua fulmina cessant, 

Summe deum ? Liceat periturae viribus ignis 280 

Igne perire tuo, clademque auctore levare. 

Vix equidem fauces haec ipsa in verba resolvo : — 

Presserat ora vapor : — tostos en adspice crines, 

Inque oculis tantum, tantum super ora favillae. 

Hosne mihi fructus, hunc fertilitatis honorem 285 

Officiique refers, quod adunci vulnera aratri 

Rastrorumque fero, totoque exerceor anno, 

Quod pecori frondes, alimentaque mitia, fruges, 

Humano generi, vobis quoque tura ministro ? 

Sed tamen exitium fac me meruisse : quid undae, 290 

Quid meruit frater ? Cur illi tradita sorte 

Aequora decrescunt et ab aethere longius absunt ? 

Quod si nee fratris nee te mea gratia tangit, 

At coeli miserere tui. Circumspice utrumque : 

Fumat uterque polus ; quos si vitiaverit ignis, 295 

Atria vestra ruent. Atlas en ipse laborat, 

Vixque suis humeris candentem sustinet axem. 

Si freta, si terrae pereunt, si regia coeli. 

In chaos antiquum confundimur. Eripe flammis, 

Si quid adhuc superest, et rerum consule summae. 300 

Dixerat haec Tellus ; neque enim tolerare vaporem 

Ulterius potuit nee dicere plura ; suumque 

Retulit OS in se propioraque manibus antra. 



METAMORPH. LIB. II. 1 9 

At pater omnipotens superos testatus et ipsum, 

Qui dederat cumis, nisi opem ferat, omnia fato 305 

Interitura gravi, summam petit arduus arcem, 

Unde solet nubes latis inducere terns, 

Unde movet tonitrus vibrataque fulmina jactat. 

Sed neque, quas posset terris inducere, nubes 

Tunc habuit, nee, quos coelo dimitteret, imbres. 310 

Intonat, et dextra libratum fulmen ab aure 

Misit in aurigam, pariterque animaque rotisque 

Expulit, et saevis compescuit ignibus ignes. 

Consternantur equi, et saltu in contraria facto 

Colla jugo eripiunt abruptaque lora relinquunt 315 

Illic frena jacent, illic temone revulsus 

Axis, in hac radii fractarum parte rotarum, 

Sparsaque sunt late laceri vestigia currus. 

At Phaethon, rutilos flamma populante capillos, 

Volvitur in praeceps longoque per aera tractu 320 

Fertur, ut interdum de coelo Stella sereno, 

Etsi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. 

Quem procul a patria diverso maximus orbe 

Excipit Eridanus, fumantiaque abluit ora. 

Naides Hesperiae trifida fumantia flamma 325 

Corpora dant tumulo, signant quoque carmine saxum : 

Hie situs est Phaethon, currus auriga patemi : 

Quem si non tenuit, magnis tamen excidit ausis. 

Nam pater obductos, luctu miserabilis aegro, 

Condiderat \'ultus ; et si modo credimus, unum 330 

Isse diem sine sole ferunt. Incendia lumen 

Praebebant, aliquisque malo fuit usus in illo. 

At Clymene, postquam dixit quaecunque fuerunt 

In tantis dicenda malis, lugubris et amens 

Et laniata sinus totum percensuit orbem, 335 

Exanimesque artus primo, mox ossa requirens, 

Reperit ossa tamen peregrin a condita ripa, 

Incubuitque loco, nomenque in marmore lectum 

Perfudit lacrimis et aperto pectore fovit. 



20 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Nec minus Heliades fletus et, inania morti 340 

Munera, dant lacrimas, et caesae pectora palmis 
Non auditurum miseras Phaethonta querelas 
Nocte dieqiie vocant, adsteraunturque sepulcro. 
Luna quater junctis implerat cornibus orbem : 
Illae more suo — nam morem fecerat usus — 345 

Plangorem dederant. E quis Phaethusa, sororum 
Maxima, quum vellet terrae procumbere, questa est 
Diriguisse pedes ; ad qua^m conata venire 
Candida Lampetie, subita radice retenta est ; 
Tertia, quum crinem manibus laniare pararet, 350 

Avellit frondes ; haec stipite crura teneri, 
Ilia dolet fieri longos sua brachia ramos. 
Dumque ea mirantur, complectitur inguina cortex, 
Perque gradus uterum pectusque humerosque manusque 
Ambit, et exstabant tantum ora vocantia matrem. 355 

Quid faciat mater, nisi, quo trahat impetus illam, 
Hue eat atque illuc, et, dum licet, oscula jungat? 
Non satis est : truncis avellere corpora tentat 
Et teneros manibus ramos abrumpit ; at inde 
Sanguineae manant tanquam de vulnere guttae. 3<5o 

Parce, precor, mater, quaecunque est saucia clamat, 
Parce, precor : nostrum laceratur in arbore corpus. 
Jamque vale. — Cortex in verba novissima venit. 
Inde fluunt lacrimae, stillataque sole rigescunt 
De ramis electra novis, quae lucidus amnis 365 

ilxcipit et nuribus mittit gestanda Latinis. 

Aflfuit huic monstro proles Sthenelei'a Cygnus, 
Qui tibi matemo quamvis a sanguine junctus, 
Mente tamen, Phaethon, propior fuit Ille relicto — 
Nam Ligurum populos et magnas rexerat urbes — 370 

Imperio ripas virides amnemque querelis 
Erid^num implerat silvamque sororibus auctam ; 
Quum vox est tenuata viro, canaeque capillos 
Dissimulant plumae, collumque a pectore longe 
Porrigitur digitosque ligat junctura rubentes, 375 



METAMORPH. LIB. III. 21 

Penna latus velat, tenet os sine acumine rostrum. 

Fit nova Cygnus avis, nee se coeloque Jovique 

Credit, ut injuste missi memor ignis ab illo : 

Stagna petit patulosque lacus, ignemque perosus, 

Quae colat, elegit contraria flumina flammis. 380 

Squalidus interea genitor Phaethontis et expers 
Ipse sui decoris, qualis, quum deficit orbem. 
Esse solet, lucemque odit seque ipse diem que, 
Datque animum in luctus, et luctibus adjicit iram, 
Officiumque negat mundo. Satis, inquit, ab aevi .385 

Sors mea principiis fuit irrequieta, pigetque 
Actorum sine fine mihi, sine.honore, laborum. 
Quilibet alter agat portantes lumina currus. 
Si nemo est, omnesque dei non posse fatentur, 
Ipse agat, ut saltern, dum nostras tentat habenas, 390 

Orbatura patres aliquando fulmina ponat. 
Turn sciet, ignipedum vires expertus equorum, 
Non meruisse necem, qui non bene rexerit illos. 
Talia dicentem circumstant omnia Solem 
Numina, neve velit tenebras inducere rebus, 395 

Supplice voce rogant ; missos quoque Jupiter ignes 
Excusat, precibusque minas regaliter addit. . 
CoUigit amentes et adhuc terrore paventes 
Phoebus equos, stimuloque dolens et verbere saevit ; 
Saevit enim, natumque objectat et imputat illis. 400 



LIBER III. 

Jamque deus posita fallacis imagine tauri 
Se confessus erat, Dictaeaque rura tenebat ; 
Quum pater ignarus raptam perquirere Cadmo 
Imperat, et poenam, si non invenerit, addit 
Exsilium, facto pius et sceleratus eodem. 



22 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Orbe pererrato — quis enim deprendere possit 
Furta Jovis ? — profugus patriamque iramque parentis 
Vitat Agenorides, Phoebique oracula supplex 
Consulit et, quae sit tellus habitanda, requirit 
Bos tibi, Phoebus ait, solis occurret in arvis, 
Nullum passa jugum curvique immunis aratri : 
Hac duce carpe vias et, qua requieverit herba, 
Moenia fac condas, Boeotiaque ilia vocato. 
Vix bene Castalio Cadmus descenderat antro, 
Incustoditam lente videt ire juvencam. 
Nullum servitii signum cervice gerentem. 
Subsequitur pressoque legit vestigia gressu, 
Auctoremque viae Phoebum taciturnus adorat. 
Jam vada Cephisi Panopesque evaserat arva : 
Bos stetit et, toUens spatiosam comibus altis 
Ad coelum frontem, mugitibus impulit auras, 
Atque ita, respiciens comites sua terga sequentes, 
Procubuit teneraque latus submisit in herba. 
Cadmus agit grates, peregrinaeque oscula terrae 
Figit et ignotos montes agrosque salutat. 
Sacra Jovi facturus erat : jubet ire ministros 
Et petere e vivis libandas fontibus undas. 
Silva vetus stabat, nulla violata securi, 
Et specus in medio, virgis ac vimine densus, 
Efficiens humilem lapidum compagibus arcum, 
Uberibus fecundus aquis : ubi conditus antro 
Martins anguis erat, cristis praesignis et auro ; 
Igne micant oculi, corpus tumet omne veneno, 
Tresque vibrant linguae, triplici stant ordine dentes. 
Quem postquam Tyria lucum de gente profecti 
Infausto tetigere gradu, demissaque in undas 
Uma dedit sonitum, longo caput extulit antro 
Caeruleus serpens horrendaque sibila misit. 
Effluxere umae manibus, sanguisque reliquit 
Corpus et attonitos subitus tremor occupat artus. 
lUe volubilibus squamosos nexibus orbes 



METAMORPH. LIB. III. 23 

Torquet, et immensos saltu sinuatur in arcus, 

Ac media plus parte leves erectus in auras 

Despicit omne nemus, tantoque est corpore, quanto, 

Si totum spectes, geminas qui separat Arctos. 45 

Nee mora ; Phoenicas, sive illi tela parabant 

Sive fugam, sive ipse timor prohibebat utrumque, 

Occupat ; hos morsu, longis amplexibus illos, 

Hos necat afflati funesta tabe veneni. 

Fecerat exiguas jam sol altissimus umbras : s© 

Quae mora sit sociis miratur Agenore natus, 
Vestigatque viros. Tegimen direpta leoni 
Pellis erat, telum splendenti lancea ferro 
Et jaculum, teloque animus praestantior omni. 
Ut nemus in^ravit, letataque corpora vidit, 55 

Victoremque supra spatiosi corporis hostem 
Tristia sanguinea lambentem vulnera lingua, 
Aut ultor vestrae, fidissima corpora, mortis 
Aut comes, inquit, ero. Dixit, dextraque molarem 
Sustulit, et magnum magno conamine misit. 60 

Illius impulsu cum turribus ajrdua celsis 
Moenia mota forent ; serpens sine vulnere mansit, 
Loricaeque modo squamis defensus et atrae 
Duritia pellis, validos cute repulit ictus. 
At non duritia jaculum quoque vicit eadem : 65 

Quod medio lentae spinae curvamine fixum 
Constitit, et totum descendit in ilia ferrum. 
lUe, dolore ferox, caput in sua terga retorsit 
Vulneraque adspexit, fixumque hastile momordit, 
Idque, ubi vi multa partem labefecit in omnem, 70 

Vix tergo eripuit ; ferrum tamen ossibus haesit 
Tum vero, postquam soKtas accessit ad iras 
Causa recens, plenis tumuerunt guttura venis, 
Spumaque pestiferos circumfluit albida rictus, 
Terraque rasa sonat squamis, quique halitus exit 75 

Ore niger Stygio vitiatas inficit herbas. 
Ipse modo immensum spiris facientibus orbem 



24 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Cingitur ; interdum longa trabe rectior exstat ; 

Impete nunc vasto, ceu concitus imbribus amnis 

Fertur, et obstantes proturbat pectore silvas. so 

Cedit Agenorides pauUum, spolioque leonis 

Sustinet incursus, instantiaque ora retardat 

Cuspide praetenta, Furit ille, et inahia duro 

Vulnera dat ferro, figitque in acumine dentes. 

Jamque venenifero sanguis manare palato 85 

Coeperat, et virides adspergine tinxerat herbas ; 

Sed leve vulnus erat, quia se retrahebat ab ictu 

Laesaque coUa dabat retro, plagamque sedere 

Cedendo arcebat nee longius ire sinebat : 

Donee Agenorides conjectum in gutture femim 90 

Usque sequens pressit, dum retro quercus eunti 

Obstitit, et fixa est pariter cum robore cervix. 

Pondere serpentis curvata est arbor, et imae 

Parte flagellari gemuit sua robora caudae. 

Dum spatium victor victi considerat hostis, 95 

Vox subito audita est : neque erat cognoscere proratum, 

Unde ; sed audita est : Quid, Agenore nate, peremtum 

Serpentem spectas ? Et tu spectabere serpens. 

Ille, diu pavidus, pariter cum mente colorem 

Perdiderat, gelidoque comae terrore rigebant. 100 

Ecce, viri fautrix, superas delapsa per auras 

Pallas adest, motaeque jubet supponere terrae 

Vipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri. 

Paret et, ut presso sulcum patefecit aratro, 

Spargit humi jussos, mortalia semina, dentes. 105 

Inde, fide majus, glebae coepere mov^ri, 

Primaque de sulcis acies apparuit hastae, 

Tegmina mox capitum picto nutantia cono ; 

Mox humeri pectusque onerataque brachia telis 

Exsistunt, crescitque seges clypeata virorum. no 

Sic, ubi tolluntur festis aulaea theatris, 

Surgere signa solent, primumque ostendere vultus 

Cetera paullatim, placidoque educta tenore 



METAMORPH. LIB. III. 2$ 

Tota patent, imoque pedes in margine ponunt. 
Territus hoste novo Cadmus capere araia parabat : "s 

Ne cape, de populo quem terra creaverat unus 
Exclamat, nee te civilibus insere bellis ! 
Atque ita terrigenis rigido de fratribus unum 
Cominus ense ferit ; jaculo cadit eminus ipse. 
Hie quoque, qui dederat leto, non longius illo 120 

Vivit, et exspirat, modo quas acceperat, auras ; 
Exemploque pari furit omnis turba, suoque 
Marte cadunt subiti per mutua vulnera fratres. 
Jamque brevis vitae spatium sortita juventus 
Sanguineam trepido plangebant pectore matrem, 125 

Quinque superstitibus, quorum fuit unus Echion. 
Is sua jecit humi monitu Tritonidis arma, 
Fratemaeque fidem pacis petiitque deditque. 
Hos operis comites habuit Sidonius hospes, 
Quum posuit jussam Phoebeis sortibus urbem. 130 

* « « « « 

lUe metu vacuus, Nomen mihi, dixit, Acoetes, 

Patria Maeonia est, humili de plebe parentes. 

Non mihi, quae duri colerent, pater, arva juvenci, 

Lanigerosve greges, non uUa armenta reliquit : 585 

Pauper et ipse fuit, linoque solebat et hamis 

Decipere et calamo salientes ducere pisces ; 

Ars illi sua census erat. Quum traderet artem, 

Accipe quas habeo, studii successor et heres, 

Dixit, opes, moriensque mihi nihil ille reliquit 590 

Praeter aquas : unum hoc possum appellare patemum. 

Mox ego, ne scopulis haererem semper in isdem, 

Addidici regimen dextra moderante carinae 

Flectere, et; Oleniae sidus pluviale Capellae 

Taygetenque Hyadasque oculis Arctonque notavi, 595 

Ventorumque domos et portus puppibus aptos. 

Forte petens Delon, Chiae telluris ad oras 

Applicor, et dextris adducor litora. remis, 

Doque leves saltus udaeque immittor arenae. 



26 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Nox ubi consumta est — Aurora rubescere primum 600 

Coeperat — exsurgo, laticesque inferre recentes 

Admoneo, monstroque viam quae ducat ad undas. 

Ipse, quid aura mihi tumulo promittat ab alto 

Prospicio, comitesque voco repet^que carinam. 

Adsumus en ! inquit sociorum primus Opheltes, 60s 

Utque putat, praedam deserto nactus in agro, 

Virginea puerum ducit per litora forma. 

IllCj mero somnoque gravis, titubare videtur, 

Vixque sequi. Specto cultum faciemque gradumque : 

Nil ibi, quod credi posset mortale, videbam ; 610 

Et sensi, et dixi sociis : Quod numen in isto 

Corpore sit, dubito ; sed corpore numen in isto est 

Quisquis es, o faveas nostrisque laboribus adsis ; 

His quoque des veniam ! — Pro nobis mitte precari ! 

Dictys ait, quo non alius conscendere summas 615 

Ocior antennas, prensoque rudente relabi. 

Hoc Libys, hoc flavus, prorae tutela, Melanthus, 

Hoc probat Alcimedon et, qui requiemque modumque 

Voce dabat remis, animorum hortator Epopeus, 

Hoc omnes alii. Praedae tam caeca cupido est. 630 

Non tamen banc sacro violari pondere pinum 

Perpetiar, dixi : pars hie mihi maxima juris. 

Inque aditu obsisto. Furit audacissimus omni 

De numero Lycabas, qui Tusca pulsus ab urbe 

Exsilium dira poenam pro caede luebat. 625 

Is mihi, dum resto, juvenili guttura pugno 

Rupit ; et excussum misisset in aequora, si non 

Haesissem, quamvis amens, in fune retentus. 

Impia turba probat factum. Tum denique Bacchus — 

Bacchus enim fuerat — veluti clamore solutus 630 

Sit sopor aque mero redeant in pectora sensus. 

Quid facitis ? Quis clamor ? ait. Qua, dicite, nautae, 

Hue ope perveni ? Quo me deferre paratis ? — 

Pone metum, Proreus, et quos contingere portus 

Ede velis, dixit : terra sistere petita. 635 



METAMORPH. LIB. III. 27 

Naxon, ait Liber, cursus advertite vestros : 

Ilia mihi domus est ; vobis erit hospita tellus. 

Per mare fallaces perque omnia numina jurant, 

Sic fore, meque jubent pictae dare vela carinae. 

Dextera Naxos erat : dextra mihi lintea danti, 640 

Quid facis, o demens ? Quis te furor, inquit, Acoete, 

Pro se quisque, tenet ? laevam pete ! Maxima nutu 

Pars mihi significat, pars, quid velit, aure susurrat. 

Obstupui, Capiatque aliquis moderamina ! dixi, 

Meque ministerio scelerisque artisque removi. 645 

Increpor a cunctis, totumque immurmurat agmen ; 

E quibu§ Aethalion, Te scilicet omnis in uno 

Nostra salus posita est ! ait, et subit ipse meumque 

Explet opus, Naxoque petit diversa relicta. 

Turn deus illudens, tanquam modo denique fraudem 650 

Senserit, e puppi pontum prospectat adunca, 

Et flenti similis, Non haec mihi litora, nautae, 

Promisistis, ait ; non haec mihi terra rogata est. 

Quo merui poenam facto ? Quae gloria vestra est. 

Si puerum juvenes, si multi fallitis unum ? 655 

Jamdudum fiebam ; lacrimas manus impia nostras 

Ridet, et impellit properantibus aequora remis. 

Per tibi nunc ipsum — neque enim praesentior illo 

Est deus — adjuro, tam me tibi vera referre, 

Quam veri majora fide : stetit aequore puppis 660 

Haud aliter, quam si siccum navale teneret. 

lUi admirantes remorum in verbere perstant, 

Velaque deducunt, geminaque ope currere tentant : 

Impediunt hederae remos, nexuque recurvo 

Serpunt et gravidis distringunt vela corymbis. 665 

Ipse, racemiferis frontem circumdatus uvis, 

Pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam ; 

Quem circa tigres simulacraque inania lyncum 

Pictarumque jacent fera corpora pantherarum. 

Exsiluere viri ; sive hoc insania fecit, 670 

Sive timor ; prirausque Medon nigrescere pinnis 



28 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Corpore depresso, et spinae curvamina flecti 

Incipit Huic Lycabas, In quae miracula, dixit, 

Verteris ? et lati rictus et panda loquenti 

Naris erat, squamamque cutis durata trahebat. 675 

At Libys, obstantes dum vult obvertere remos, 

In spatium resilire manus breve vidit, et illas 

Jam non esse manus, jam pinnas posse vocari. 

Alter, ad intortos cupiens dare brachia funes, 

Brachia non habuit, truncoque repandus in undas 680 

Corpore desiluit ; falcata novissima cauda est, 

Qualia dimidiae sinuantur cornua lunae. 

Undique dant saltus, multaque adspergine rorant, 

Emerguntque iterum redeuntque sub aequora rursus, 

Inque chori ludunt speciem lascivaque jactant 685 

Corpora, et acceptum patulis mare naribus efflant 

De modo viginti — tot enim ratis ilia ferebat — 

Restabam solus. Pavidum gelidumque trementi 

Corpore, vixque meum firmat deus, Excute, dicens, 

Corde metum, Diamque tene ! Delatus in illam 690 

Accessi sacris Baccheaque festa frequento. 



LIBER IV. 

* * # « « 

Pyramus et Thisbe, juvenum pulcherrimus alter, 55 

Altera, quas Oriens habuit, praelata puellis, 
Contiguas tenuere domos, ubi dicitur altam 
Coctilibus muris ciiixisse Semiramis urbem. 
Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit, 
Temporie crevit amor : taedae quoque jure coissent ; 60 
Sed vetuere patres. Quod non potuere vetare. 
Ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo. 
Conscius omnis abest : nutu signisque loquuntur ; 



METAMORPH. LIB. IV. 29 

Quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis. 
Fissus erat temii rima, quam duxerat olim, 65 

Quum fieret, paries domui communis utrique : 
Id vitium nulli per saecula longa notatum — 
Quid non sentit amor ? — primi vidistis amantes, 
Et vocis fecistis iter, tutaeque per illud 
Murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant. 70 

Saepe, ut constiterant hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc, 
Inque \dces fuerat captatus anhelitus oris, 
Invide, dicebant, paries, quid amantibus obstas ? 
» Quantum erat, ut sineres nos toto corpore jungi ; 
Aut hoc si nimium, vel ad oscula danda patetes ! 7s 

Nee sumus ingrati : tibi nos debere fatemur. 
Quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures. 
Talia diversa nequicquam sede locuti, 
Sub noctem dixere vale, partique dedere 
Oscula quisque suae, non pervenientia contra. 80 

Postera noctumos Aurora removerat ignes, 
Solque pruinosas radiis siccaverat herbas ; 
Ad solitum coiere locum. Turn murmure parvo 
Multa prius questi, statuunt, ut nocte silenti 
Fallere custodes foribusque excedere tentent, 85 

Quumque domo .exierint, urbis quoque claustra relinquant ; 
Neve sit errandum lato spatiantibus arvo, 
Conveniant ad busta Nini, lateantque sub umbra 
Arboris : arbor ibi, niveis uberrima pomis, 
Ardua moms erat, gelido contermina fonti. go 

Pacta placent, et lux, tarde discedere visa, 
Praecipitatur aquis, et aquis.nox surgit ab isdem. 
Callida per tenebras versato cardine Thisbe 
Egreditur fallitque suos, adopertaque vultum 
Pervenit ad tumulum, dictaque sub arbore sedit 95 

Audacem faciebat amor. Venit ecce recenti 
Caede leaena boum spumantes oblita rictus, 
Depositura sitim vicini fontis in unda. 
Quam procul ad lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe 



30 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Vidit, et obscurum timido pede fugit in antram, * loo 

Dumque fugit, tergo velamina lapsa reliquit. 

Ut lea saeva sitim multa compescuit unda, 

Dum redit in silvas, inventos forte sine ipsa 

Ore craentato tenues laniavit amictus. 

Serius egressus vestigia videt in alto 105 

Pulvere certa ferae totoque expalluit ore 

Pyramus. Ut vero vestem quoque sanguine tinctam 

Reperit : Una duos, inquit, nox perdet amantes : 

E quibus ilia fuit longa dignissima vita ; 

Nostra nocens anima est ; ego te, miseranda,* peremi, no 

In loca plena metus qui jussi nocte venires, 

Nee prior hue veni. Nostrum divellite corpus, 

Et scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu, 

O quicumque sub hac habitatis rupe, leones ! 

Sed timidi est optare necem ! — Velamina Thisbes "5 

Tollit, et ad pactae secum fert arboris umbram ; 

Utque dedit notae lacrimas, dedit oscula, vesti, 

Accipe nunc, inquit, nostri quoque sanguinis haustus ! 

Quoque erat accinctus, demisit in ilia ferrum. 

Nee mora, ferventi moriens e vulnere traxit, rao 

Et jacuit resupinus humi : cruor emicat alte, 

Non aliter quam quum vitiato fistula plumbo 

Scinditur et tenui stridente foramine longas 

Ejaculatur aquas, atque ictibus aera rumpit. 

Arborei fetus adspergine caedis in atram 125 

Vertuntur faciem, madefactaque sanguine radix 

Puniceo tingit pendentia mora colore. 

Ecce metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem, 

Ilia redit, juvenemque oculis animoque requirit, 

Quantaque vitarit narrare pericula gestit ; 130 

Utque locum et visam cognovit in arbore formam — 

Sic facit incertam pomi color — haeret, an haec sit. 

Dum dubitat, tremebunda videt pulsare omentum 

Membra solum, retroque pedem tulit, oraque buxa 

Pallidiora gerens exhomiit aequoris instar, 13s 



METAMORPH. LIB. IV. 3 1 

Quod fremit exigua quum summum stringitur aura. 

Sed postquam remorata suos cognovit amores, 

Percutit indignos claro plangore lacertos, 

Et, laniata comas amplexaque corpus amatum, 

Vulnera supplevit lacrimis fletumque cruori ,^0 

Miscuit, et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens, 

Pyrame, clamavit, quis te mihi casus ademit? 

Pyrame, responde : tua te carissima Thisbe 

Nominat ! Exaudi, vultusque attolle jacentes ! 

Ad nomen Thisbes oculos jam morte gravatos ms 

Pyramus erexit, visaque recondidit ilia. 

Quae postquam vestemque suam cognovit, et ense 

Vidit ebur vacuum, Tua te manus, inquit, amorque 

Perdidit, infelix. Est et mihi fortis in unum 

Hoc manus, est.et amor ; dabit hie in vulnera vires. 150 

Persequar exstinctum, letique miserrima dicar 

Causa comesque tui ; quique a me morte revelli 

Heu sola poteras, poteris nee morte revelli. 

Hoc tamen amborum verbis estote rogati, 

O multum miseri, meus illiusque, parentes, 155 

Ut, quos certus amor, quos hora novissima junxit, 

Componi tumulo non invideatis eodem. 

At tu, quae ramis arbor miserabile corpus 

Nunc tegis unius, mox es tectura duorum, 

Signa tene caedis, pullosque et luctibus aptos !&> 

Semper habe fetus, gemini monumenta cruoris. 

Dixit, et aptato pectus mucrone sub imum 

Incubuit ferro, quod adhuc a caede tepebat. 

Vota tamen tetigere deos, tetigere parentes : 

Nam color in pomo est, ubi permaturuit, ater ; 165 

Quodque rogis superest, una requiescit in uma. 

* # « « # 

Sed tamen ambobus versae solatia formae 
Magna nepos dederat, quem debellata colebat 605 

India, quem positis celebrabat Achaia templis. 
Solus Abantiades ab origine cretus eadem 



32 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Acrisius superest, qui moenibus arceat urbis 

Argolicae, contraque deum ferat arma, genusque 

Non putet esse deum : neque enim Jovis esse putabat 6io 

Persea, quern pluvio Danae conceperat auro. 

Mox tamen Acrisium — tanta est praesentia veri — 

Tam violasse deum, quam non agnosse nepotem, 

Poenitet : impositus jam coelo est alter ; at alter, 

Viperei referens spolium memorabile monstri, 615 

Aera carpebat tenerum stridentibus alis. 

Quumque super Libycas victor penderet arenas, 

Gorgonei capitis guttae cecidere cruentae ; 

Quas humus exceptas varios animavit in angues : 

Unde frequens ilia est infestaque terra colubris. 620 

Inde per immensum ventis discordibus actus. 

Nunc hue, nunc illuc, exemplo nubis aquosae 

Fertur, et ex alto seductas aethere longe 

Despectat terras, totumque supervolat orbem. 

Ter gelidas Arctos, ter Cancri brachia vidit ; 625 

Saepe sub occasus, saepe est ablatus in ortus ; 

Jamque cadente die veritus se credere nocti 

Constitit Hesperio, regnis Atlantis, in orbe, 

Exiguamque petit requiem, dum Lucifer ignes 

Evocet Aurorae, cursus Aurora diumos. 630 

Hie, hominum cunctos ingenti corpore praestans, 

lapetionides Atlas fuit. Ultima tellus 

Rege sub hoc et pontus erat, qui Solis anhelis 

Aequora subdit equis et fessos excipit axes. 

Mille greges illi totidemque armenta per herbas 635 

Errabant, et humum vicinia nulla premebant ; 

Arboreae frondes auro radiante nitentes 

Ex auro ramos, ex auro poma tegebant. 

Hospes, ait Perseus illi, seu gloria tangit 

Te generis magni, generis mihi Jupiter auctor ; , 640 

Sive es mirator rerum, mirabere nostras : 

Hospitium, requiemque peto. Memor Hie vetustae 

Sortis erat : Themis hanc dederat Pamasia sortem : 



METAMORPH. LIB. IV. 33 

Tempus, Atla, veniet, tua quo spoliabitur auro 

Arbor ; et hunc praedae titulum Jove natus habebit. 645 

Id metuens, solidis pomaria clauserat Atlas 

Moenibus et vasto dederat servanda draconi, 

Arcebatque suis extemos finibus omnes. 

Huic quoque, Vade procul, ne longe gloria rerum, 

Quas mentiris, ait, longe tibi Jupiter absit ! 650 

Vimque minis addit, manibusque expellere tentat 

Cunctantem et placidis miscentem fortia dictis. 

Viribus inferior — quis enim par esset Atlanti 

Viribus ? — At quoniam parvi tibi gratia nostra est, 

Accipe munus ! ait, laevaque a parte Medusae 65s 

Ipse retroversus squalentia protulit ora. 

Quantus erat, mons factus Atlas : nam barba comaeque 

In silvas abeunt ; juga sunt humerique manusque ; 

Quod caput ante fuit, summo est in monte cacumen ; 

Ossa lapis fiunt ; turn partes auctus in omnes 660 

Crevit in immensum — sic Di statuistis — et omne 

Cum tot sideribus coelum requievit in illo. 

Clauserat Hippotades aetemo carcere ventos, * 
Admonitorque operum coelo clarissimus alto 
Lucifer ortus erat : pennis ligat ille resumtis 665 

Parte ab utraque pedes, teloque accingitur unco, 
Et liquidum motis talaribus aera firidit. 
Gentibus innumeris circumque infraque relictis, 
Aethiopum populos Cepheaque conspicit arva. 
Illic immeritam matemae pendere linguae 670 

Andromeden poenas in Justus jusserat Hammon. 
Quam simul ad duras religatam brachia cautes 
Vidit Abantiades, — nisi quod levis aura capillos 
Moverat, et trepido manabant lumina fietu, 
Marmoreum ratus esset opus — trahit inscius ignes 675 

5t stupet, et, visae correptus imagine formae, 
Paene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. 
Ut stetit, O, dixit, non istis digna catenis, 
Sed quibus inter se cupidi junguntur amantes, 
3 



34 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Pande requirenti nomen terraeque tuumque, 680 

Et cur vincla geras. Primo silet ilia, nee audet 

Appellare virum virgo ; manibusque modestos 

Celasset vultus, si non religata fuisset. 

Lurhina, quod potuit, lacrimis implevit obortis. 

Saepius instanti, sua ne delicta fateri 685 

Nolle videretur, nomen terraeque suumque, 

Quantaque matemae fuerit fiducia formae, 

Indicat ; et, nondum memoratis omnibus, unda 

Insonuit, veniensque immenso bellua ponto 

Eminet et latum sub pectore possidet aequor; 690 

Conclamat virgo : genitor lugubris et una 

Mater adest, ambo miseri, sed justius ilia ; 

Nee secum auxilium, sed dignos tempore fletus 

Plangoremque ferunt, vinctoque in corpore adhaerent. 

Quum sic hospes ait : Lacrimarum longa manere 695 

Tempora vos poterunt ; ad opem brevis hora ferendam est. 

Hanc ego si.peterem Perseus Jove natus et ilia, 

Quam clausam implevit fecundo Jupiter auro, 

Gorgonis anguicomae Perseus superator, et alls 

Aetherias ausus jactatis ire per auras, . ?«> 

Praeferrer cunctis certe gener : addere tantis 

Dotibus et meritum — faveant modo numina — tento. 

Ut mea sit, servata mea virtute, paciscor. 

Accipiunt legem — quis enim dubitaret ? — et orant 

Promittuntque super regnum dotale parentes. 70s 

Ecce, velut navis praefixo concita rostro 

Sulcat aquas, juvenum sudantibus acta lacertis. 

Sic fera, dimotis impulsu pectoris undis : 

Tantum aberat scopulis, quantum Balearica torto 

Funda potest plumbo medii transmittere coeli, 710 

Quum subito juvenis, pedibus tellure repulsa, 

Arduus in nubes abiit. Ut in aequore summo 

Umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram. 

Utque Jovis praepes, vacuo quum vidit in arvo 

Praebentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem, 71s 



METAMORPH. LIB. IV. 35 

Occupat aversum, neu saeva retorqueat ora, 
Squamigeris avidos figit cervicibus ungues ; 
Sic celeri missus praeceps per inane volatu 
Terga ferae pressit, dextroque frementis in armo 
Inachides ferrum curvo tenus abdidit ham.o. ?» 

Vulnere laesa gravi modo se sublimis in auras * 
Attollit, modo subdit aquis, modo mote ferocis 
Versat apri, quem turba canum circumsona terret 
Ille avidos morsus velocibus effiigit alis, 
Quaque patent, nunc terga cavis super obsita conchis, 725 
Nunc laterum costas, nunc qua tenuissima cauda 
Desinit in piscem, falcato verberat ense. 
Bellua puniceo mixtos cum sanguine fluctus 
Ore vomit' Maduere graves adspergine pennae ; 
Nee bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus 730 

Credere, conspexit scopulum, qui vertice summo 
Stantibus exstat aquis, operitur ab aequore moto : 
Nixus eo rupisque tenens juga prima sinistra, 
. Ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum. 
Litora cum plausu clamor superasque deorum 735 

Implevere domos : gaudent generumque salutant, 
Auxiliumque domus servatoremque fatentur 
Cassiope Cepheusque pater. Resoluta catenis 
Incedit virgo, pretiumque et causa laboris. 
Ipse manus hausta victrices abluit unda ; 740 

Anguiferumque caput nuda ne laedat arena, 
Mollit humum foliis natasque sub aequore virgas 
Sternit, et imponit Phorcynidos ora Medusae. 
Virga recens bibulaque etiamnum viva medulla 
Vim rapuit monstri, tactuque induruit hujus, 74^ 

Percepitque novum ramis et fronde rigorem. 
At pelagi Nymphae factum mirabile tentant 
Pluribus in virgis, et idem contingere gaudent, 
Seminaque ex illis iterant j aetata per undas. 
Nunc quoque curaliis eadem natura remansit, 750 

Duritiam tacto capiant ut ab aere, quodque 



36 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Vimen in aequore erat fiat super aequora saxum. 
Dis tribus ille focos totidem de cespite ponit, 
Laevum Mereurio, dextrum tibi, bellica Virgo ; 
Ara Jovis media est Mactatur vacca Minervae, jss 

Alipedi vitulus, taurus tibi, summe deorum. 
Protinus Andromeden et tanti praemia facti 
Indotata rapit : taedas Hymenaeus Amorque 
Praecutiunt ; largis satiantur odoribus ignes, 
Sertaque dependent tectis, et ubique Ijo-aeque 760 

Tibiaque et cantus, animi felicia laeti 
Argumenta, sonant ; reseratis aurea valvis 
Atria tota patent, pulchroque instructa paratu 
Cephenum proceres ineunt convivia regis. 
Postquam epulis fiincti generosi munere Bacchi * 765 

Diffudere animos, cultusque genusque locorum 
Quaerit Abantiades : quaerenti protinus unus 
Narrat, Lyncides, moresque habitumque virorum. 
Quae simul edocuit. Nunc, o fortissime, dixit, 
Fare precor, Perseu, quanta virtute quibusque 770 

Artibus abstuleris crinita draconibus ora. 
Narrat Agenorides, gelido sub Atlante jacentem 
Esse locum, solidae tutum munimine molis, » 

Cujus in introitu geminas habitasse sorores 
Phorcidas, unius sortitas luminis usum ; • 77s 

Id se sollerti furtim, dum traditur, astu 
Supposita cepisse manu, perque abdita longe 
Deviaque et silvis horrentia saxa fragosis 
Gorgoneas tetigisse domos, passimque per agros 
Perque vias vidisse hominum simulacra ferarumque 780 
In silicem ex ipsis visa conversa Medusa ; 
Se tamen horrendae clypei, quod laeva gerebat, 
Aere repercusso formam adspexisse Medusae,- 
Dumque gravis somnus colubras ipsamque tenebat, 
Eripuisse caput coUo ; pennisque fugacem 78s 

Pegason et fratrem matris de sanguine natos 
Addidit, et longi non falsa pericula cursus. 



METAMORPH. LIB. V. 37 



Quae freta, quas terras sub se vidisset ab alto, 
Et quae jactatis tetigisset sidera pennis. 



LIBER V. 

« « « « « 

Prima Ceres unco glebam dimovit aratro, 
Prima dedit fruges alimentaque mitia terris, 
Prima dedit leges ; Cereris sunt omnia munus : 
nia canenda mihi est. Utinam modo dicere possem 
Carmina digna dea ! Certe dea carmine digna est. 345 
Vasta Giganteis injecta est insula membris 
Trinacris, et magnis subjectum molibus urget 
Aetherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes. 
Nititur ille quideni pugnatque resurgere saepe ; 
Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subjecta Peloro, 35° 

Laeva, Pachyne, tibi, Lilybaeo crura premuntur, 
Degravat Aetna caput : sub qua resupinus arenas 
Ejectat flammamque fero vomit ore Typhoeus. 
Saepe remoliri luctatur pondera terrae, 
Oppidaque et magnos devolvere corpore montes. 355 

Inde tremit tellus, et rex pavet ipse silentum, 
Ne pateat latoque solum retegatur hiatu, 
Immissusque dies trepidantes terreat umbras. 
Hanc metuens cladem tenebrosa sede tyrannus 
Exierat, curruque atrorum vectus equorum 360 

Ambibat Sfculae cautus fundamina terrae. 
Postquam exploratum satis est, loca nulla labare, 
Depositique metus, videt hunc Erycina vagantem 
Monte suo residens, natumque amplexa volucrem, 
Arma manusque meae, mea, nate, potentia, dixit, 365 

Ilia, quibus superas omnes, cape tela, Cupido, 
Inque dei pectus celeres molire sagittas. 



38 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Cui triplicis cessit fortuna novissima regni. 

Tu superos ipsumque Jovem, tu numina ponti 

Victa domas ipsumque., regit qui numina ponti. 370 

Tartara quid cessant ? Cur non matrisque tuumque 

Imperium prefers ? Agitur pars tertia mundi. 

Et tamen in coelo, quae jam patientia nostra est, 

Spemimur, ac mecum vires minuuntur Amoris. 

Pallada nonne vides jaculatricemque Dianam 375 

Abscessisse mihi ? Cereris quoque filia virgo. 

Si patiemur, erit : nam spes aflfectat easdem. 

At tu, pro socio si qua est tibi gratia regno, 

Junge deam patruo. Dixit Venus ; ille pharetram 

Solvit, et arbitrio matris de mille sagittis 380 

Unam seposuit, sed qua nee acutior uUa 

Nee minus incerta est, nee quae magis audiat arcum ; 

Oppositoque genu curvavit flexile comum, 

Inque cor hamata percussit arundine Ditem." 

Haud procul Hennaeis lacus est a moenibus altae, 385 
Nomine Fergus, aquae ; non illo plura Caystros 
Carmina cygnorum labentibus audit in undis ; 
Silva coronat aquas, cingens latus omne, suisque 
Frondibus, ut velo, Phoebeos submovet ignes ; 
Frigora dant rami, varios humus humida flores ; 390 

Perpetuum ver est. Quo dum Proserpina luco 
Ludit et aut violas aut Candida lilia carpit, 
Dumque puellari studio calathosque sinumque 
Implet, et aequales certat superare legendo, 
Paene simul visa est dilectaque raptaque Diti : 39s 

Usque adeo properatur amor. Dea territa maesto 
Et matrem et comites, sed matrem saepius, ore 
Clamat, et, ut summa vestem laniarat ab ora, 
CoUecti flores tunicis cecidere remissis ; 
Tantaque simplicitas puerilibus affuit annis, 400 

Haec quoque virgineum movit jactura dolorem. 
Raptor agit currus et nomine quemque vocatos 
Exhortatur equos, quorum per coUa jubasque 



METAMORPH. LIB. V. 39 

Excutit obscura tinctas ferrugine habenas, 

Perque lacus altos et olentia sulfure fertur 405 

Stagna Palicorum, rupta ferventia terra, 

Et qua Bacchiadae, bimari gens orta Corintho, 

Inter inaequales posuerunt moenia portus. 

Est medium Cyanes et Pisaeae Arethusae, 
Quod coit angustis inclusum comibus, aequor : 410 

Hie fiiit, a cujus stagnum quoque nomine dictum est, 
Inter Sicelidas Cyane celeberrima Nymphas. 
Gurgite quae medio summa tenus exstitit alvo, 
Agnovitque deam. Nee longius ibitis : inquit, 
Non potes invitae Cereris gener esse : roganda, 4«5 

Non rapienda fuit. Quod si componere magnis 
Parva mihi fas est, et me dilexit Anapis ; 
Exorata tamen nee, ut haec, exterrita nupsi. 
Dixit, et in partes diversas brachia tendens 
Obstitit Haud ultra tenuit Satumius iram, 4*0 

Terribilesque hortatus equos, in gurgitis ima 
Contortum valido sceptrum regale lacerto 
Condidit : icta viam tellus in Tartara fecit, 
Et pronos currus medio cratere recepit. 
At Cyane, raptamque deam contemtaque fontis 435 

Jura sui maerens, inconsolabile vulnus 
Mente gerit tacita, lacrimisque absumitur omriis, 
Et, quarum fuerat magnum modo numen, in illas 
Extenuatur aquas. Molliri membra videres, 
Ossa pati flexus, ungues posuisse rigorem ; 430 

Primaque de tota tenuissima quaeque liquescunt, 
Caerulei crines digitique et crura pedesque : 
Nam brevis in gelidas membris exilibus undas 
Transitus est Post haec humeri tergumque latusque 
Pectoraque in tenues abeunt evanida rivos ; 435 

Denique pro vivo vitiatas sanguine venas 
Lympha subit, restatque nihil quod prendere possis. 

Interea pavidae nequicquam filia matri 
Omnibus est terris, omni quaesita profundo. 



40 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Illam non udis veniens Aurora capillis 440 

Cessantem vidit, non Hesperus ; ilia duabus 
Flammiferas pinus manibus succendit ab Aetna, 
Perque pniinosas tulit irrequieta tenebras ; 
Rursus, ubi alma dies hebetarat sidera, natam 
Solis ad occaaus solis quaerebat ab ortu. 445 

Fessa labore sitim coUegerat, oraque nulli 
Colluerant fontes, quum tectam stramine vidit 
Forte casam, parvasque fores pulsavit : at inde 
Prodit anus, divamque videt, lymphamque roganti 
Dulce dedit, tosta quod coxerat ante polenta. 450 

Dum bibit ilia datum, duri puer oris et audax 
Constitit ante deam, risitque avidamque vocavit. 
Offensa est, neque adhuc epota parte loquentem 
Cum liquido mixta perfiidit diva polenta. 
Combibit os maculas, et, qua modo brachia gessit, 455 

Crura gerit ; Cauda est mutatis addita membris ; 
Inque brevem formam, ne sit vis magna nocendi, 
Contrahitur, parvaque minor mensura lacerta est. 
Mirantem flentemque et tangere monstra parantem 
Fugit anum, latebramque petit aptumque colori 460 

. Nomen habet, variis stellatus corpora guttis. 

Quas dea per terras et quas erraverit undas, 
Dicere longa mora est : quaerenti defuit orbis. 
Sicaniam repetit, dumque omnia lustrat eundo, 
Venit et ad Cyanen. Ea, ni mutata fuisset, 465 

Omnia narrasset ; sed et os et lingua volenti 
Dicere non aderant, nee quo loqueretur habebat. 
Signa tamen manifesta dedit, notamque parenti, 
Illo forte loco delapsam in gurgite sacro, 
Persephones zonam summis ostendit in undis. 470 

Quam simul agnovit, — tanquam tum denique raptam 
Scisset, — inomatos laniavit diva capillos, 
Et repetita suis percussit pectora palmis. 
Nee scit adhuc ubi sit ; terras tamen increpat omnes, 
IngrataSque vocat nee frugum munere dignas, 475 



MSTAMORPH. LIB. V. 4 1 

trinacriam ante alias, in qua vestigia damni 

Repent. Ergo illic saeva vertentia glebas 

Fregit aratra manu, parilique irata colonbs 

Ruricolasque boves leto dedit, arvaque jussit 

Fallere depositum, vitiataque semina fecit 489 

Fertilitas terrae, latum vulgata per orbem, 

Cassa jacet : primis segetes moriuntur in herbis, 

Et modo sol nimius, nimius modo corripit imber ; 

Sideraque ventique nocent, avidaeque volucres 

Semina jacta legunt ; lolium tribulique fatigant 485 

Triticeas messes et inexpugnabile gramen. 

Tum caput Eleis Alpheias extulit undis, 

Rorantesque comas a fronte removit ad aures, 

Atque ait : O toto quaesitae virginis orbe 

Et frugum genitrix, immensos siste labores, 490 

Neve tibi fidae violenta irascere terrae. 

Terra nihil meruit, patuitque invita rapinae. 

Nee sum pro pataria supplex : hue hospita veni : 

Pisa mihi patria est, et ab Elide ducimus ortus ; 

Sicaniam peregrina colo, sed gratior omni 495 

Haec mihi terra solo est : hos nunc Arethusa penates, 

Hanc habeo sedem, quam tu, mitissima, serva. 

Mota loco cur sim tantique per aequoris undas 

Advehar Ortygiam, veniet narratibus hora 

Tempestiva meis ; quum tu curisque levata sa> 

Et vultus melioris eris. Mihi pervia tellus 

Praebet iter, subterque imas ablata cavernas 

Hie caput attoUo desuetaque sidera cemo. 

Ergo, dum Stygio sub terris gurgite labor. 

Visa tua est oculis illic Proserpina nostris. 50s 

Ilia quidem tristis nee adhue interrita vultu, 

Sed regina tamen, sed opaei maxima mundi, 

Sed tamen infemi pollens matrona tyranni. 

Mater ad auditas stupuit, ceu saxea, voces, 
Attonitaeque diu similis fuit. Utque dolore sw 

Pulsa gravi gravis est amentia, curribus auras 



42 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Exit in aetherias. Ibi toto nubila vultu 

Ante Jovem passis stetit invidiosa capillis, 

Proque meo veni supplex tibi, Jupiter, inquit, 

Sanguine, proque tuo. Si nulla est gratia matris, s^s 

Nata patrem moveat, neu sit tibi cura, precamur, 

Vilior illius, quod nostro est edita partu. 

En ^quaesita diu tandem raihi nata reperta est ; 

Si reperire vocas amittere certius, aut si 

Scire ubi sit reperire vocas. Quod rapta, feremus ; 53° 

Dummodo reddat earn : neque enim praedone marito 

Filia digna tua est, si jam mea filia non est. 

Jupiter excepit : Commune est pignus onusque 

Nata mihi tecum; sed, si modo nomina rebus 

Addere vera placet, non hoc injuria factum, 525 

Verum amor est ; neque erit nobis gener ille pudori : 

Tu modo, diva, velis. Ut desint cetera, quantum est 

Esse Jovis fratrem ! Quid, quod non cetera desunt, 

Nee cedit nisi sorte mihi ? — Sed tanta cupido 

Si tibi discidii est, repetet Proserpina coelum : 530 

Lege tamen certa, si nuUos contigit illic 

Ore cibos : nam sic Parcarum foedere cautum est. 

Dixerat ; at Cereri certum est educere natam. 

Non ita fata sinunt, quoniam jejunia virgo 

Solverat et, cultis dum simplex errat in hortis, s3s 

Puniceum curva decerpserat arbore pomum, 

Sumtaque pallenti'septem de cortice grana 

Presserat ore sup. Solusque ex omnibus iilud 

Ascalaphus vidit — quem quondam dicitur Orphne, 

Inter Avernales haud ignotissima Nymphas, 540 

Ex Acheronte suo furvis peperisse sub antris — 

Vidit et indicio reditum crudelis ademit. 

Ingemuit regina Erebi, testemque profanam 

Fecit avem, sparsumque caput Phlegethontide lympha 

In rostrum et plumas et grandia lumina vertit. S4S 

Ille sibi ablatus fulvis amicitur ab alis, 

Inque caput crescit longosque reflectitur ungues, 



METAMORPH. LIB. VI. 43 

Vixque movet natas per inertia brachia pennas ; 

Foedaque fit volucris, venturi nuntia luctus, 

Ignavus bubo, .dirum mortalibus omen. 550 

Hie tamen indicio poenam linguaque videri 
Commeruisse potest ; vobis, Acheloides, unde 
Pluma pedesque avium, quum virginis ora geratis ? 
An quia, quum legeret vemos Proserpina flores, 
In comitum numero mixtae, Sirenes, eratis ? sss 

Quam postquam toto fhistra quaesistis in orbe, 
Protinus, ut vestram sentirent aequora curam, 
Posse super fluctus alarum insistere remis 
Optastis, facilesque deos habuistis, et artus 
Vidistis vestros subitis flavescere pennis. 560 

Ne tamen ille canor, mulcendas natus ad aures, 
Tantaque dos oris linguae deperderet usum, 
Virginei vultus et vox humana remansit. 

At medius fratrisque sui maestaeque sororis 
Jupiter ex aequo volventem dividit annum. 565 

Nunc dea, regnorum numen commune duorum, 
Cum matre est totidem, totidem cum conjuge menses. 
Vertitur extemplo facies et mentis et oris : 
Nam, modo quae poterat Diti quoque maesta videri, 
Laeta deae frons est : ut Sol, qui tectus aquosis 570 

Nubibus ante fuit, victis ubi nubibus exit. 

* # * 4f . # 



LIBER VI. 



Lydia tota fremit, Phrygiaeque per oppida facti 
Rumor it et magnum sermonibus occupat orbem. 
Ante suos Niobe thalamos cognoverat illam, 
Tunc quum Maeoniam virgo Sipylumque colebat ; 



44 P- OVIDII NASONIS 

Nec tamen admonita est poena popularis Arachnes, 150 

Cedere coelitibus verbisque minoribus uti. 

Multa dabant animos : sed enim nec conjugis artes 

Nec genus amborum magnique potentia regni 

Sic placuere illi — quamvis ea cuncta placerent — 

Ut sua progenies. Et felicissima matrum 155 

Dicta foret Niobe, si non sibi visa fuisset 

Nam sata Tiresia, venturi praescia, Manto 

Per medias fuerat, divino concita motu, 

Vaticinata vias : Ismenides, ite frequentes, 

Et date Latonae Latonigenisque duobus 160 

Cum prece tura pia, lauroque innectite erinem I 

Ore meo Latona jubet. Paretur, et omnes 

Thebaides jussis sua tempora frondibus oraatit, 

Turaque dant Sanctis et verba precantia flammis. 

Ecce, venit comitum Niobe celeberrima turba, 165 

Vestibus intexto Phrygiis spectabilis auro, 

Et, quantum ira sinit, formosa movensque decoro 

Cum capite immissos humerum per utrumque capillos, 

Constitit ; utque oculos circumtulit alta superbos, 

Quis furor auditos, inquit, praeponere visis 170 

Coelestes ? Aut cur colitur Latona per aras, 

Numen adhuc sine ture meum est ? Mihi Tantalus auctor, 

Cui licuit soli superorum tangere mensas ; 

Pleiadum soror est genitrix mea ; maximus Atlas 

Est avus, aetherium qui fert cervicibus axem ; 175 

Jupiter alter avus ; socero quoque glorior illo. 

Me gentes metuunt Phrygiae ; me regia Cadmi 

Sub domina est, fidibusque mei commissa mariti 

Moenia cum populis a meque viroque reguntur. 

In quamcumque domus adverto lumina partem, xSo 

Immensae spectantur opes. Accedit eodem 

Digna dea facies. Hue natas adjice septem 

Et totidem juvenes, et mox generosque nurusque. 

Quaerite nunc, habeat quam nostra superbia causam ! 

Quoque modo audetis genitam Titanida Coeo 1S5 



METAMORPH. LIB. VI. 45 

Latonam praeferre mihi, cui maxima quandam 
Exiguam sedem pariturae terra negavit ? 
Nee coelo nee humo nee aquis dea vestra recepta est ; 
Exul erat mmidi, donee, miserata \'agantem, 
Hospita tu terns erras ; ego, dixit, in undis ! 190 

Instabilemque locum Delos dedit. Ilia duorum 
Facta parens : uteri pars haec est septima nostri. 
Sum felix : quis enim neget hoc ? felixque manebo. 
Hoc quoque quis dubitet ? Tutam me copia fecit : 
Major sum, quam cui possit Fortuna nocere ; 195 

iiMultaque ut eripiat, multo mihi plura relinquet 
Excessere metum mea jam bona. Fingite demi 
Huic aliquid populo natorum posse meorum, 
Non tamen ad numerum redigar spoliata duorum 
[Latonae. Turba quae quantum distat ab orba?] aoo 

Ite sacris, properate sacris, laurumque capillis 
Ponite ! — Deponunt et sacra infecta relinquunt, 
Quodque licet, tacito venerantur murmure numen. 
Indignata dea est, summoque in vertice Cynthi 
Talibus est dictis gemina cum prole locuta : aos 

En ego, vestra parens, vobis animosa creatis, 
Et nisi Junoni nuUi cessura dearum, 
An dea sim, dubitor, perque omnia secula cultis 
Arceor, o nati, nisi vos succmritis, aris. 
Nee dolor hie solus : diro convicia facto • aio 

Tantalis adjecit, vosque est postponere natis 
Ausa suis, et me, quod in ipsam recidat, orbam 
Dixit, ex exhibuit linguam scelerata paternam. 
Adjectura preces erat his Latona relatis ; 
Desine : Phoebus ait, poenae mora longa querela est ais 
Dixit idem Phoebe ; celerique per aera lapsu 
Contigerant tecti Cadmeida nubibus arcem. 
Planus erat lateque patens prope moenia campus, 
Assiduis pulsatus equis, ubi turba rotarum 
Duraque mollierat subjectas ungula glebas. aao 

Pars ibi de septem genitis Amphione fortes 



46 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Conscendunt in equos, Tyrioque rubentia suco 

Terga premunt auroque graves moderantur habenas. 

E quibus Ismenos, qui matri sarcina quondam 

Prima suae fuerat, dum certum flectit in orbem 225 

Quadrupedis cursus spumantiaque ora coercet, 

Hei mihi ! conclamat medioque in pectore fixus 

Tela gent, frenisque manli moriente remissis 

In latus a dextro pauUatim defluit armo. 

Proximus, audito sonitu per inane pharetrae, 230 

Frena dabat Sipylus, veluti quum praescius imbris 

Nube fugit visa pendentiaque undique rector 

Carbasa deducit, ne qua levis effluat aura. 

Frena tamen dantem non evitabile telum 

Consequitur, summaque tremens cervice sagitta 235 

Haesit, et exstabat nudum de gutture ferrum. 

Ille, ut erat pronus, per colla admissa jubasque 

Volvitur, et calido tellurem sanguine foedat 

Phaedimus infelix et aviti nominis heres 

Tantalus, ut solito finem imposuere labori, 240 

Transierant ad opus nitidae juvenile palaestrae ; 

Et jam contulerant arto luctantia nexu 

Pectora pectoribus, quum tento concita nervo, 

Sicut erant juncti, trajecit utrumque sagitta. ) 

Ingemuere simul, simul incurvata dolore 24s 

Membra solo posuere, simul suprema jacentes 

Lumina versarunt, animam simul exhalarunt. 

Adspicit Alphenor laniataque pectora plangens 

Advolat, ut gelidos complexibus allevet artus, 

Inque pio cadit ofi&cio ; nam Delius illi 250 

Intima fatifero rupit praecordia ferro ; 

Quod simul eductum est, pars est pulmonis in hamis 

Eruta, cumque anima cruor est effusus in auras. 

At non intonsum simplex Damasichthona vulnus 

Afiicit : ictus erat, qua cms esse incipit et qua 255 

MoUia nodosus facit internodia poples, 

Dumque manu tentat trahere exitiabile telum, 



METAMORPH. LIB. VI. 47 

Altera per jugulum peiinis tenus acta sagitta est. 

Expulit hanc sanguis, seque ejaculatus in altum 

Emicat et longe terebrata prosilit aura. s6o 

Ultimus Ilioneus non profectura precando 

Brachia sustulerat, Dique o communiter omnes, 

Dixerat, ignarus non omnes esse rogandos, 

Parcite ! Motus erat, quum jam revocabile telum 

Non fiiit, Arcitenens ; minimo tamen occidit ille . 265 

Vulnere, non alte percusso corde sagitta. 

Fama mali populique dolor lacrimaeque suorum 

Tarn subitae matrem certam fecere ruinae, 

Mirantem potuisse, irascentemque quod ausi 

Hoc essent superi, quod tantum juris haberent. 270 

Nam pater Amphion ferro per pectus adacto 

Finierat moriens pariter cum luce dolorem. 

Heu, quantum haec Niobe Niobe distabat ab ilia, 

Quae modo Latois populum submoverat aris 

Et mediam tulerat gressus resupina per urbem, 275 

Invidiosa suis ! At nunc miseranda vel hosti 

Corporibus gelidis incumbit, et ordine nuUo 

Oscula dispensat natos suprema per omnes. 

A quibus ad coelum liventia brachia tendens, 

Pascere, crudelis, nostro, Latona, dolore, 280 

[Pascere, ait, satiaque meo tua pectora luctu,] 

Corque ferum satia ! dixit : Per funera septem 

Efferor : exsulta, victrixque inimica triumpha ! 

Cur autem victrix ? Miserae mihi plura supersunt, 

Quam tibi felici : post tot quoque funera vinco. 285 

Dixerat ; et sonuit contento nervus ab arcu, 

Qui praeter Nioben unam conterruit omnes ; 

Ilia malo est audax. Stabant cum vestibus atris 

Ante toros fratrum demisso crine sorores. 

E quibus una, trahens haerentia viscere tela, 290 

Imposito fratri moribunda relanguit ore. 

Altera, solari miseram conata parentem, 

Conticuit subito, duplicataque vulnere caeco est, 



48 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Oraque non pressit, sibi postquam spiritus exit. 

Haec frustra fugiens collabitur, ilia sorori 29$ 

Immoritur ; latet haec, illam trepidare videres. 

Sexque datis leto diversaque vulnera passis. 

Ultima restabat ; quam toto corpore mater 

Tota veste tegens, Unam minimamque relinque ! 

De multis minimam posco, clamavit, et unam. 3«> 

Dumque rogat, pro qua rogat, occidit. Orba resedit 

Exanimes inter natos natasque virumque, 

Diriguitque malis : nullos movet aura capillos, 

In vultu color est sine sanguine, lumina maestis 

Stant immota genis, nihil est in imagine vivum. 305 

Ipsa quoque interius cum* duro lingua palato 

Congelat, et venae desistunt posse moveri ; 

Nee flecti cervix, nee brachia reddere gestus, 

Nee pes ire potest ; intra quoque viscera saxum est. 

Flet tamen, et validi circumdata turbine venti 3x0 

In patriam rapta est : ubi fika cacumine montis 

Liquitur, et lacrimas etiam nunc marmora manant 



LIBER VIII. 

*^ * ^ * * 

Daedalus interea Creten longumque perosus 
Exilium, tactusque soli natalis amore, 
Clausus erat pelago. Terras licet, inquit, et undas 185 
Obstruat, at coelum certe patet : ibimus iliac ! 
Omnia possideat, non possidet aera Minos ! 
Dixit, et ignotus animum dimittit in artes, 
Naturamque novat : nam ponit in ordine pennas 
A minima coeptas, longam breviore sequente, 190 

Ut clivo crevisse putes. Sic rustica quondam 
Fistula disparibus paullatim surgit avenis. 



METAMORPH. LIB. VIII. 49 

Turn lino medias et ceris alligat imas, 

Atque ita compositas parvo curvamine flectit, 

Ut veras imitetur aves. Puer Icarus una 195 

Stabat et, ignarus sua se tractare pericla, 

Ore renidenti modo, quas vaga moverat aura, 

Captabat plumas, flavam modo poUice ceram 

MoUibat lusuque suo mirabile patris 

Impediebat opus. Postquam manus ultima coeptis 200 

Imposita est, geminas opifex libravit in alas 

Ipse suum corpus, motaque pependit in aura. 

Instruit et natum, Medioque ut limite curras, 

Icare, ait, moneo, ne, si demissior ibis, 

Unda gravet pennas ; si celsior, ignis adurat. 205 

Inter utrumque vola ! Nee te spectare Booten 

Aut Helicen jubeo strictumque Orionis ensem ; 

Me duce carpe viam ! Pariter praecepta volandi 

Tradit, et ignotas humeris accommodat alas. 

Inter opus monitusque genae maduere seniles 210 

Et patnae tremuere manus. Dedit oscula nato 

Non iterum repetenda suo, pennisque levatus 

Ante volat, comitique timet, velut ales, ab alto 

Quae teneram prolem produxit in aera nido 

Hortaturque sequi damnosasque erudit artes, 2x5 

Et movet ipse suas et nati respicit alas. 

Hos aliquis, tremula dum captat arundine pisces, 

Aut pastor baculo stivave innixus arator 

Videt et obstupuit, quique aethera carpere possent, 

Credidit esse deos. Et jam Junonia laeva 220 

Parte Samos fuerant Delosque Parosque relictae, 

Dextra Lebynthos erat fecundaque melle Cal)rmne, 

Quum puer audaci coepit gaudere volatu 

Deseruitque ducem, coelique cupidine tactus 

Altius egit iter. Eapidi vicinia solis 225 

Mollit odoratas, pennarum vincula, ceras. 

Tabuerant cerae : nudos quatit ille lacertos, 

Remigioque carens non ullas percipit auras ; 



5© p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Oraque caerulea patrium clamantia nomen 
Excipiuntur aqua, quae nomen traxit ab illo. 230 

At pater infelix, nee jam pater, Icare ! dixit, 
Icare, dixit, ubi es ? Qua te regione requiram, 
Icare ! dicebat : pennas conspexit in undis, 
Devovitque suas artes, corpusque sepulcro 
Condidit ; et tellus a nomine dicta sepulti. 235 

* * # # « 

Immensa est finemque potentia coeli 
Non habet, et quicquid superi voluere, peractum est. 620 
Quoque minus dubites, tiliae contermina quercus 
Collibus est Phrygiis, modico circumdata muro. 
Ipse locum vidi : nam me Pelopeia Pittheus ' 

Misit in arva, suo quondam regnata parenti. 
Haud procul hinc stagnum, tellus habitabilis olim ; 625 
Nunc celebres mergis fulicisque palustribus undae. 
Jupiter hue specie mortali, cumque parente 
Venit Atlantiades positis caducifer alis. 
Mille domos adiere, locum requiemque petentes ; 
Mille domos clausere serae. Tamen una recepit, 630 

Parva quidem, stipulis et canna tecta palustri ; 
Sed pia Baucis anus parilique aetate Philemon 
Ilia sunt annis juncti juvenilibus, ilia 
Consenuere casa, paupertatemque fatendo 
EfFecere levem nee iniqua mente ferendam. 635 

Nee refert, dominos illic famulosne requiras : 
Tota domus duo sunt, idem parentque jubentque. 
Ergo ubi coelicolae parvos tetigere penates, 
Submissoque humiles intrarunt vertice postes, 
Membra senex posito jussit relevare sedili, 640 

Quo superinjecit textum rude sedula Baucis. 
Inde foco tepidum cinerem dimovit, et ignes 
Suscitat hestemos, foliisque et cortice sicco 
Nutrit, et ad flammas anima producit anili, 
Multifidasque faces ramaliaque arida tecto 645 

Detulit, et minuit parvoque admovit aheno ; 



METAMORPH. LIB. VIII. ' 51 

Quodque suus conjux riguo coUegerat horto, 

Truncat olus foliis. Furca levat ille bicomi 

Sordida terga suis, nigro pendentia tigno, 

Servatoque. (Jiu resecat de tergore partem 650 

Exiguam, sectamque domat ferventibus undis. 

Interea medias fallunt sermonibus horas, 

Sentirique moram prohibent. Erat alveus illic 

Fagineus, dura clavo suspensus ab ansa : 

Is tepidis impletur aquis, artusque fovendos 655 

Accipit. In medio torus est de mollibus ulvis, 

Impositus lecto, sponda pedibusque salignis : 

Vestibus hunc velant, quas non nisi tempore festo 

Sternere consuerant ; sed et haec vilisque vetusque 

Vestis erat, lecto non indignanda saligno. 660 

Accubuere dei : mensam succincta tremensque 

Ponit anus ; mensae sed erat pes tertius impar : 

Testa parem fecit. Quae postquam subdita clivum 

Sustulit, aequatam mentae tersere virentes. 

Ponitur hie bicolor sincerae bacca Minervae, 665 

Conditaque in liquida corna autumnalia faece, 

Intubaque et radix et lactis massa coacti, 

Ovaque non acri leviter versata favilla : 

Omnia fictilibus. Post haec caelatus eodem 

Sistitur argento crater, fabricataque fago 670 

Pocula, qua cava sunt, flaventibus illita ceris. 

Parva mora est, epulasque foci misere calentes. 

Nee longae rurfus referuntur vina senectae, 

Dantque locum mensis paullum seducta secundis. 

Hie nux, hie mixta est rugosis carica palmis, 675 

Prunaque et in patulis redolentia mala canistris, 

Et de purpureis coUectae vitibus uvae ; 

Candidus in medio favus est. Super omnia vultus 

Accessere boni, nee iners pauperque voluntas. 

Interea toties haustum cratera repleri eso 

Sponte sua per seque vident succrescere vina : 

Attoniti novitate pavent, manibusque supinis 



52 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Concipiunt Baucisque preces timidusque Philemon, 

Et veniam dapibus nullisque paratibus orant 

Unicus anser erat, minimae custodia villae, 685 

Quern dis hospitibus domini mactare parabant 

Ille celer penna tardos aetate fatigat, 

Eluditque diu, tandemque est visus ad ipsos 

Confugisse deos. Superi vetuere necari, 

Dique sumus, meritasque luet vicinia poenas C90 

Impia, dixerunt, vobis immunibus hujus 

Esse mali dabitur : modo vestra relinquite tecta 

Ac nostros comitate gradus, et in ardua montis 

Ite simul ! Parent et, dis praeeuntibus, ambo 

Membra levant baculis, tardique senilibus annis 695 

Nituntur longo vestigia ponere clivo. 

Tantum aberant summo, quantum semel ire sagitta 

Missa potest : flexere oculos, et mersa palude 

Cetera prospiciunt, tantum sua tecta manere. 

Dumque ea mirantur, dum defient fata suorum, 7«> 

Ilia vetus, dominis etiam casa parva duobus, 

Vertitur in templum : furcas subiere columnae, 

Stramina flavescunt aurataque tecta videntur, 

Caelataeque fores adopertaque marmore tellus. 

Talia tum placido Satumius edidit ore : 70s 

Dicite, juste senex et femina conjuge justo 

Digna, quid optetis. Cum Baucide pauca locutus, 

Judicium Superis aperit commune Philemon : 

Esse sacerdotes delubraque vestra tueri • 

Poscimus ; et quoniam Concordes egimus annos, 710 

Auferat hora duos eadem, nee conjugis unquam 

Busta meae videam, neu sim tumulandus ab ilia. 

Vota fides sequitur : templi tutela fuere. 

Donee vita data est Annis aevoque soluti 

Ante gradus sacros quum starent forte loeique 71s 

Narrarent casus, frondere Philemona Baucis, 

Baucida eonspexit senior frondere Philemon : 

Jamque super geminos erescente caeumine vultus, 



METAMORPH. LIB. X. 53 

Mutua, dum licuit, reddebant dicta, Valeque, 

conjux ! dixere simul, simul abdita texit 790 

Ora frutex. Ostendit adhuc Tyaneius illic 

Incola de gemino vicinos corpore truncos. 

Haec mihi non vani — nee erat cur fallere vellent — 

Narravere senes ; equidem pendentia vidi 

Serta super ramos, ponensque recentia dixi : 725 

Cura pii Dis sunt, et, qui coluere, coluntur. 



.LIBER X. 

Inde per immensum croceo velatus amictu 

Aera digreditur Ciconumque Hymenaeus ad oras 

Tendit, et Orphea nequicquam voce vocatiu-. 

Affuit ille quidem ; sed nee sollennia verba 

Nee laetos vultus nee felix attulit omen ; 

Fax quoque, quam tenuit, laerimoso stridula fumo 

Usque fuit nuUosque invenit motibus ignes. 

Exitus auspicio gravior : nam nupta per herbas 

Dum nova Naiadum turba comitata vagatur, 

Oceidit in talum serpentis dente recepto. 

Quam satis ad superas postquam Rhodopeius auras 

Deflevit vates, ne non tentaret et umbras, 

Ad Styga Taenaria est ausus deseendere porta, 

Perque leves populos simulaeraque funeta sepulcris 

Persephonen adiit inamoenaque regna tenentem 

Umbranim dominum, pulsisque ad earmina nervis 

Sie ait : O positi sub terra numina mundi. 

In quem decidimus quicquid mortale ereamur, 

Si licet et falsi positis ambagibus oris 

Verbaf loqui sinitis, non hue, ut opaea viderem 

Tartara, descendi, nee uti villosa eolubris 

Tema Medusaei vineirem guttura monstri : 



54 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Causa viae conjux, in quam calcata venenum 

Vipera difFudit crescentesque abstulit annos. 

Posse pati volui, nee me tentasse negabo ; 25 

Vicit Amor. Supera deus hie bene notuS in ora est ; 

An sit et hie, dubito, sed et hie tamen auguror esse ; 

Famaque si veteris non est mentita rapinae, 

Vos quoque junxit Amor. Per ego haec loca plena timoris, 

Per chaos hoc ingens vastique silentia regni, 30 

Eurydices, oro, properata retexite fata ! 

Omnia debemur vobis, paullumque morati, 

Serius aut citius sedem properamus ad unam. 

Tendimus hue omnes, haec est domus ultima, vosque 

Humani generis longissima regna tenetis. 35 

Haec quoque, quum justos matura peregerit annos. 

Juris erit vestri ; pro munere poscimus usum.. 

Quod si fata negant veniam pro conjuge, certum est 

Nolle redire mihi : leto gaudete duorum. 

Talia dicentem nervosque ad verba moventem 40 

Exsangues flebant animae : nee Tantalus undam 

Captavit refugam, stupuitque Ixionis orbis, 

Nee carpsere jecur volucres, umisque vacarunt 

Belides, inque tuo sedisti, Sisyphe, saxo. 

Tunc primum lacrimis victarum carmine fama est 4s 

Eumenidum maduisse genas ; nee regia conjux 

Sustinet oranti nee, qui regit ima, negare, 

Eurydicenque vocant. Umbras erat ilia recentes 

Inter, et incessit passu de vulnere tardo. 

Hanc simul et legem Rhodopeius accipit heros, 50 

Ne flectat retro sua lumina, donee Avernas 

Exierit valles ; aut irrita dona futura. 

Carpitur acclivis per muta silentia trames, 

Arduus, obscurus, caligine densus opaca. 

Nee procul abfuerant telluris margine summae : 55 

Hie, ne deficeret, metuens, avidusque videndi 

Flexit amans oculos ; et protinus ilia relapsa est, 

Brachiaque intendens, prendique et prendere captans. 



METAMORPH. LIB. XI. 55 

Nil nisi cedentes infelix arripit auras. 

Jamque iterum moriens non est de conjuge quicquam 60 

Questa suo : quid enim nisi se quereretur amatam ? 

Supremumque vale, quod jam vix auribus ille 

Acciperet, dixit, revolutaque rursus eodem est. 

Non aliter stupuit gemina nece conjugis Orpheus, 

Quam tria qui timidus, medio portante catenas, cs 

Colla canis vidit : quemvnon pavor ante reliquit, 

Quam natura prior, saxo per corpus oborto ; 

Quique in se crimen traxit voluitque videri 

Olenos esse nocens, tuque, o confisa figurae 

Infelix Lethaea tuae, junctissima quondam 70 

Pectora, nunc lapides, quos humida sustinet Ide. 

Orantem frustraque iterum transire volentem 

Portitor arcuerat ; septem tamen ille diebus 

Squalidus in ripa Cereris sine munere sedit : 

Cura dolorque animi lacrimaeque alimenta fuere. 75 

Esse deos Erebi crudeles questus, in altam 

Se recipit Rhodopen pulsumque Aquilonibus Haemon. * 



LIBER XI. 

Carmine dum tali silvas animosque ferarum 
Threicius vates et saxa sequentia ducit, 
Ecce nurus Cicommi, tectae lymphata ferinis 
Pectora velleribus, tumuli de vertice cemunt 
Orphea percussis sociantem carmina nervis. 
E quibus una, levem jactato crine per auram, 
En, ait, en hie est nostri contemtor ! et hastam 
Vatis ApoUinei vocalia misit in ora, 
Quae foliis praesuta notam sine vulnere fecit. 
Alterius telum lapis est, qui missus in ipso 
Acre concentu victus vocisque lyraeque est, 



S6 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Ac veluti supplex pro tarn furialibus ausis 
Ante pedes jacuit. Sed enim temeraria crescunt 
Bella, modusque abiit insanaque regnat Erinnys. 
Cunctaque tela forent cantu mollita, sed ingens 
Clamor et inflato Berecyntia tibia comu 
Tympanaque et plausus et Bacchei ululatus 
Obstrepuere sono citharae. Turn denique saxa 
' Non exauditi rubuerunt sanguine vatis. 
Ac primum attonitas etiamnum voce canentis 
Innumeras volucres anguesque agmenque ferarum 
Maenades Orphei titulum rapuere theatri ; 
Inde cruentatis vertuntur in Orphea dextris, 
Et coeunt, ut aves, si quando luce vagantem 
Noctis avem cemunt, structoque utrimque theatro 
Ut matutina cervus periturus arena 
Praeda canum est ; vatemque petunt, et fronde virentes 
Conjiciunt thyrsos non haec in munera factos. 
Hae glebas, illae direptos arbore ramos, 
Pars torquent silices. Neu desint tela furori, 
Forte boves.presso subigebant vomere terram, 
Nee procul hinc, multo fructum sudore parantes, 
Dura lacertosi fodiebant arva coloni : 
Agmine qui viso fugiunt operisque relinquunt 
Arma sui, vacuosque jacent dispersa per agros 
Sarculaque rastrique graves longique ligones. 
Quae postquam rapuere ferae, comuque minaces 
Divellere boves, ad vatis fata recurrunt, 
Tendentemque manus atque illo tempore primum 
Irrita dicentem nee quicquam voce moventem 
Sacrilegae perimunt ; perque os — pro Jupiter ! — illud, 
Auditum saxis intellectumque ferarum 
Sensibus, in ventos anima exhalata recessit. 
Te maestae volucres, Orpheu, te turba ferarum, 
Te rigidi silices, tua carmina saepe secutae 
Fleverunt silvae ; positis te frondibus arbos 
Tonsa comam luxit ; lacrimis quoque fiumina dicunt 



METAMORPH. LIB. XL 57 

Increvisse suis, obscuraque carbasa pullo 

Naides et Dryades passosque habuere capillos. 

Membra jacent diversa locis. Caput, Hebre, lyramque 50 

Excipis, et — minim — medio dum labitur amne, 

Flebile nescio quid queritur lyra, flebile lingua 

Murmurat exanimis, respondent flebile ripae. 

Jamque mare invectae flumen populare relinquunt, 

Et Methymnaeae potiuntur litore Lesbi : 53 

Hie ferus expositum peregrinis anguis arenis 

Os petit et sparsOs stillanti rore capillos. 

Tandem Phoebus adest morsusque inferre parantem 

Arcet, et in lapidem rictus serpentis apertos 

Congelat, et patulos, ut erant, indurat hiatus. fc 

Umbra subit terras et, quae loca viderat ante, 

Cuncta recognoscit, quaerensque per arva pioruiA 

Invenit Eurydicen cupidisque amplectitur ulnis. 

Hie modo conjunctis spatiantur passibus ambo, 

Nunc praecedentem sequitur, nunc praevius anteit 65 

Eurydicenque suam jam tuto respicit Orpheus. 

Non impune tamen scelus hoc sinit esse Lyaeus ; 
Amissoque dolens sacrorum vate suorum, 
Protinus in silvis matres Edonidas omnes, 
Quae videre nefas, torta radice ligavit. 70 

Quippe pedum digitos, in quantum est quaeque secuta, 
Traxit et in solidam detrusit acumine terram. 
Utque suum laqueis, quos callidus abdidit auceps. 
Cms ubi commisit volucris sensitque teneri, 
Plangitur, ac trepidans adstringit vincula motu : 75 

Sic, quaecunque solo de fixa cohaeserat harum, 
Exstemata fugam frustra tentabat ; at illam 
Lentja tenet radix exsultantemque coercet. 
Dumque ubi sint digiti, dum pes ubi, quaerit, et ungues, 
Adspicit in teretes lignum succedere suras, ^ 80 

Et conata femur maerenti plangere dextra, 
Robora percussit ; pectus quoque robora fiunt, 
Robora sunt humeri, porrectaque brachia veros 
Esse putes ramos et non fallare putando. 



S8 P. OVIDII NASONIS 

Nec satis hoc Baccho est : ipsos quoque deserit agros, ^5 

Cumque choro meliore sui vineta Tymoli 

Pactolonque petit, quamvis non aureus illo 

Tempoire nec caris erat invidiosus arenis. 

Hunc assueta cohors, Satyri Bacchaeque, frequentant ; 

At Silenus abest Titubautem annisque meroquc 9^ 

Ruricolae cepere Phryges, vinctumque coronis 

Ad regem duxere Midan, cui Thracius Orpheus 

Orgia tradiderat cum Cecropio Eumolpo. 

Qui simul agnovit socium comitemque sacrorum, 

Hospitis adventu festum genialiter egit 95 

Per bis quinque dies et junctas ordine noctes. 

Et jam stellarum sublime coegerat agmen 

Lucifer undecimus, Lydos quum laetus in agros 

Rex venit, et juveni Silenum reddit alumnd. 

Huic deus optandi gratum, sed inutile, fecit 100 

Muneris arbitrium, gaudens altore recepto. 

Ille, male usurus donis, ait : EfRce, quicquid 

Corpore contigero, fulvum vertatur in aurum. 

Annuit optatis, nocituraque munera solvit 

Liber, et indoluit quod non meliora petisset. 103 

Laetus abit gaudetque malo Berecyntius heros, 

Pollicitique fidem tangendo singula tentat. 

Vixque sibi credens, non alta fronde virentem 

nice detraxit virgam ; virga aurea facta est. 

ToUit humo saxum ; saxum quoque palluit auro : ; no 

Contigit et glebam ; contactu gleba potenti 

Massa fit : arentes Cereris decerpsit aristas ; 

Aurea messis erat : demtum tenet arbore pomum ; 

Hesperidas donasse putes : si postibus altis 

Admovit digitos, postes radiare videntur. us 

Ille etiam liquidis palmas ubi laverat undis, 

Unda fluens palmas Danaen eludere posset. 

Vix spes ipse suas animo capit, aurea fingens 

Omnia. Gaudenti mensas posuere ministri, 

Exstructas dapibus nec tostae frugis egentes. 120 

Turn vero sive ille sua Cerealia dextra 



METAMORPH. LIB. XI. 59 

Munera contigerat, Cerealia dona rigebant ; 

Sive dapes avido convellere dente parabat, 

Lamina fulva dapes admoto dente premebat. 

Miscuerat puris auctorem muneris undis ; 125 

Fusile per rictus aurum fluitare videres. 

Attonitus novitate mali, divesque miserque 

Effugere optat opes et, quae modo voverat, odit. 

Copia nulla famem relevat ; sitis arida guttur 

Urit, et inviso meritus torquetur ab auro. 130 

Ad coelumque manus et splendida brachia tollens, 

Da veniam, Lenaee pater ! Peccavimus ; inquit, 

Sed miserere, precor, speciosoque eripe damno ! 

Mite deum numen, Bacchus peccasse fatentem 

Restituit, factaque fide data munera solvit. 13s 

Neve male optato maneas circumlitus auro, 

Vade, ait, ad magnis vicinum Sardibus amnem, 

Perque jugum ripae labentibus obvius undis 

"Carpe viam, donee venias ad fluminis ortus ; 

Spumigeroque tuum fonti, qua plurimus exit, 140 

Subde caput, corpusque simul, simul elue crimen. 

Rex jussae succedit aquae. Vis aurea tinxit 

Flimien et humano de corpore cessit in amnem. 

Nunc qudque jam veteris percepto semine venae 

Arva rigent, auro madidis pallentia glebis. 14s 

lUe, perosus opes, silvas et rura colebat 
Panaque montanis habitantem semper in antris. 
Pingue sed ingenium mansit ; nocituraque, ut ante, 
Rursus erant domino stolidae praecordia mentis. 
Nam freta prospiciens, late riget arduus alto 150 

Tmolus in adscensu, clivoque extentus utroque, 
Sardibus hinc, illinc parvis finitur Hypaepis. 
Pan ibi dum teneris jactat sua carmina Nymphis, 
Et leve cerata modulatur arundine carmen, 
Ausus Apollineos prae se contemnere cantus, 155 

Judice sub Tmolo certamen venit ad impar. 
Monte suo senior judex consedit, et aures 



6o P. OVIDII NASONIS METAMORPH. LIB. XL 

Liberat arboribus : quercu coma caerula tantum 

Cingitur, et pendent circum cava tempora glandes. 

Isque deum pecoris spectans, In judice, dixit, iGo 

Nulla mora est. Calamis agrestibus insonat ille, 

Barbaricoque Midan — aderat nam forte canenti — 

Carmine delenit. Post hunc sacer ora retorsit 

Tmolus ad os Phoebi : vultum sua silva secuta est. 

Ille, caput fla\aim lauro Parnaside vinctus, 1G5 

Verrit humum Tyrio saturata murice palla, 

Distinctamque lyram gemmis et dentibus Indis 

Sustinuit laeva, tenuit manus altera plectrum. 

Artificis status ipse fuit. Tum stamina docto 

Pol lice sollicitat : quorum dulcedine captus 170 

Pana jubet Tmolus citharae submittere cannas. 

Judicium sanctique placet sententia montis 

Omnibus ; arguitur tamen atque injusta vocatur 

Unius sermone Midae. Nee Delius aures 

Humanam stolidas patitur retinere figuram ; 175 

Sed trahit in spatium, villisque albentibus implet, 

Instabilesque imo facit et dat posse moveri. 

Cetera sunt hominis ; partem damnatur in unam, 

Induiturque aures lente gradientis aselli. 

Ille quidem celat, turpique onerata pudore iSo 

Tempora purpureis tentat velare tiaris ; 
Sed solitus longos ferro resecare capillos 
Viderat hoc famulus. Qui quum nee prodere visum 
Dedecus auderet, cupiens efferre sub auras, 
Nee posset reticere tamen, secedit humumque iSs 

Effodit et, domini quales adspexerit aures, 
Voce refert parva, terraeque immurmurat haustae ; 
Indiciumque suae vocis tellure regesta 
Obruit, et scrobibus tacitus discedit opertis. 
Creber arundinibus tremulis ibi surgere lucus 190 

Coepit et, ut primum pleno maturuit aevo, 
Prodidit agricolam : leni nam motus ab Austro 
Obruta verba refert dominique coarguit aures. 



p. OVIDII NASCNIS 

TRISTIUM LIBER IV. 

ELEGIA X. 

ILLE ego, qui fuerim, tenerorum lusor amorum, 

Quern legis, ut noris, accipe, posteritas. 
Sulmo mihi patri^ est, gelidis uberrimus undis, 

Millia qui novies distat ab Urbe decern : 
Editus hinc ego sum ; nee non, ut tempora noris, $ 

Quum cecidit fato consul uterque pari ; 
Si quid id est, usque a proavis vetus ordinis heres, 

Non modo Fortunae munere factus eques. 
Nee stirps prima fui ; genito sum fratre creatus, 

Qui tribus ante quater raensibus ortus erat. lo 

Lucifer amborum natalibus affuit idem ; 

Una celebrata est per duo liba dies. 
Haec est anniferae festis de quinque Minervae, 

Quae fieri pugna prima cruenta solet. 
Protinus excolimur teneri, curaque parentis is 

Imus ad insignes Urbis ab arte viros. 
Frater ad eloquium viridi tendebat ab aevo, 

Fortia verbosi natus ad arma fori. 
At mihi jam puero coelestia sacra placebant, 

Inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus. 20 

Saepe pater dixit : Studium quid inutile tentas ? 

Maeonides nullas ipse reliquit opes. 
Motus eram dictis, totoque Helicone relicto, 

Scribere conabar verba soluta modis : 



62 p. OVIDII NASONIS 

Sponte sua carmen numeros veniebat ad aptos, 25 

Et, quod tentabam scribere, versus erat 
Interea tacito passu labentibus annis, 

Liberior fratii sumta mihique toga est, 
Induitutque humeros cum lato purpura clavo ; 

Et studium nobis, quod fuit ante, manet. 30 

Jamque decem vitae frater geminaverat annos, 

Quum perit, et coepi parte carere mei. 
Cepimus et tenerae primos aetatis honores. 

Deque viris quondam pars tribus una fui. 
Curia restabat ; clavi mensura coacta est : 35 

Majus erat nostris viribus illud onus. 
Nee patiens corpus nee mens fuit apta labori, 

SoUicitaeque fugax ambitionis eram ; 
Et petere Aoniae suadebant tuta Sorores 

Otia, judicio semper amata meo. ^ 

Temporis illius colui fovique poetas, 

Quotque aderant vates, rebar adesse deos. 
Saepe suas volucres legit mihi grandior aevo, 

Quaeque necet serpens, quae juvet herba, Macer ; 
Saepe suos solitus recitare Propertius ignes, as 

Jure sodalitii qui mihi junctus erat 
Ponticus heroo, Bassus quoque clarus iambo, 

Dulcia convictus membra fuere mei ; 
Et tenuit nostras numerosus Horatius aures, 

Dum ferit Ausonia carmina culta lyra. 50 

Virgilium vidi tantum ; nee amara TibuUo 

Tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae. 
Successor fuit hie tibi, Galle, Propertius illi ; 

Quartus ab his serie temporis ipse fui. 
Utque ego majores, sic me coluere minores, 55 

Notaque non tarde facta Thalia mea est 
Carmina quum primum populo juvenilia legi, 

Barba resecta mihi bisve semelve fuit 
Moverat ingenium totam cantata per Urbem 

Nomine non vero dicta Corinna mihi. 60 



TRISTIUM LIB. IV. ELEG. X. 6$ 

Multa quidem scrips! ; sed, quae vitiosa putavi, 

Emendaturis ignibus ipse dedi. 
Tunc quoque, quum fugerem, quaedam placitura cremavi, 

Iratus studio carminibusque meis. 
MoUe, Cupidineis nee inexpugnabile telis 65 

Cor mihi, quodque levis causa moveret, erat. 
Quum tamen hie essem, minimoque accenderer igne, 

Nomine sub nostro fabula nulla fuit. 
Paene mihi puero nee digna nee utihs uxor 

Est data, quae tempus per breve nupta fuit. 70 

Illi successit quamvis sine crimine conjux, 

Non tamen in nostro firma futura toro. 
Ultima, quae mecum seros permansit in annos, 

Sustinuit conjux exsulis esse viri. 
Filia me mea bis prima fecunda juventa, js 

Sed non ex uno conjuge, fecit avum. 
Et jam complerat genitor sua fata, novemque 

Addiderat lustris altera lustra novem. 
Non aliter flevi, quam me fleturus ademtum 

lUe fuit. Matri proxima justa tuli. 80 

Felices ambo, tempestiveque sepulti. 

Ante diem poenae quod periere meae ! 
Me quoque felicem, quod non viventibus illis 

Sum miser, et de me quod doluere nihil ! 
Si tamen exstinctis aliquid nisi nomina restat, 85 

Et gracilis structos efiugit umbra rogos ; 
Fama, parentales, si vos mea contigit, umbrae, 

Et sunt in Stygio crimina nostra foro ; 
Scite, precor, causam — nee vos mihi fallere fas est — 

Errorem jussae, non scelus, esse fugae. 90 

Manibus hoc satis est. , Ad vos, studiosa, revertor, 

Pectora, quae vitae quaeritis acta meae. 
Jam mihi canities, pulsis melioribus annis, 

Venerat, antiquas miscueratque comas, 
Postque meos ortus Pisaea vinctus oliva 9S 

Abstulerat decies praemia victor equus, 



64 P. OVIDII NASONIS TRISTIUM LIB. IV. ELEG. X. 

Quum maris Euxini positos ad laeva Tomitas 

Quaerere me laesi Principis ira jubet. 
Causa meae cunctis nimium ^uoque nota ruinae 

Indicio non est testificanda meo. xoo 

Quid referam comitumque nefas famulosque nocentes ? 

Ipsa multa tuli non leviora fuga. 
Indignata malis mens est succumbere, seque 

Praestitit invictam viribus usa suis ; 
Oblitusque mei ductaeque per otia vitae, 105 

Insolita cepi temporis arma manu ; 
Totque tuli terra casus pelagoque, quot inter 

Occultum stellae conspicuumque polum. 
Tacta mihi tandem longis erroribus acto 

Juncta pharetratis Sarmatis ora Getis. no 

Hie ego, finitimis quamvis circumsoixer armis, 

Tristia, quo possum, carmine fata levo. 
Quod quamvis nemo est cujus referatur ad aures, 

Sictamen absumo decipioque diem. 
Ergo, quod vivo durisque laboribus obsto, ns 

Nee me sollicitae taedia lucis habent, 
Gratia, Musa, tibi : nam tu solatia praebes ; 

Tu curae requies, tu medicina venis : 
Tu dux et comes es ; tu nos abducis ab Istro, 

In medioque mihi das Helicone locum. 120 

Tu mihi, quod rarum, vivo sublime dedisti 

Nomen, ab exsequiis quod dare fama solet ; 
Nee, qui detrectat praesentia, livor iniquo 

UUum de nostris dente momordit opus. 
Nam tulerint magnos quum secula nostra poetas, 125 

Non fuit ingenio fama maligna meo ; 
Quumque ego praeponam multos mihi, non minor illis 

Dicor, et in toto plurimus orbe legor. 
Si quid habent igitur vatum praesagia veri, 

Protinus ut moriar, non ero, terra, tuus. 130 

Sive favore tuli, sive hanc ego carmine famam 

Jure, tibi grates, candide lector, ago. 



p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

BUCOLICON LIBER. 



ECLOGA I. 

TITYRUS. 

MELIBOEUS. TITYRUS. 
MELIBOEUS. 

TiTYRE, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi 
Silvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avena ; 
Nos patriae fines et dulcia linquimus arva ; 
Nos patriafn fugimus ; tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra 
Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas. 

TITYRUS. 

O Meliboee, deus nobis haec otia fecit. 
Namque erit ille mihi semper deus ; illius aram 
Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. 
Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum 
Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti. 

MELrBOEUS. 

Non equidem invideo ; miror magis : undique totis 
Usque adeo turbatur agris. En, ipse capellas 
Protinus aeger ago ; banc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. 
Hie inter densas corylos modo namque gemellos, 
Spem gregis, ah ! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. 
Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeva fuisset, 
De coelo tactas memini praedicere quercus. 
[Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice cornix.] 
Sed tamen, iste deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis. 

5 



66 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

TITYRUS. 

Urbem, quam dicunt Rom am, Meliboee, putavi 20 

Stultus ego huic nostrae similem, quo saepe solemus 

Pastores ovium teneros depellere fetus. 

Sic canibus catulos similes, sic matribus haedos 

Noram, sic parvis componere magna solebam. 

Venrni haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25 

Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi. 

MELIBOEUS. 

Et quae tanta fuit Romam tibi caussa videndi ? 

TITYRUS. 

Libertas ; quae sera, tamen respexit inertem, 

Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat ; 

Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit, 30 

Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit. 

Namque, fatebor enim, dvmi me Galatea tenebat, 

Nee spes libertatis erat, neccura peculi. 

Quamvis multa meis exiret victima saeptis, 

Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi, 35 

Non umquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibat. 

MELIBOEUS. 

Mirabar, quid maesta deos, Amarylli, vocares, 

Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma : 

Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae te, Tityre, pinus, 

Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant. 40 

TITYRUS. 

Quid facerem ? neque servitio me exire licebat. 

Nee tam praesentes alibi cognoscere divos. 

Hie ilium vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quot annis 

Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. 

Hie mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti : 4s 

Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri, submittite tauros. 

MELIBOEUS. 

Fortunate senex, ergo tua rura manebunt, 

Et tibi magna satis, quamvis lapis omnia nudus 

Limosoque palus obducat pascua junco I 



BUCOLICA. ECL. I. 67 

Non insueta graves tentabunt pabula fetas, s© 

Nee mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent. 

Fortunate senex, hie, inter flumina nota 

Et fontes sacros, frigus captabis opacum ! 

Hinc tibi, quae semper, vicino ab limite, saepes 

Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti, ss 

Saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro ; 

Hinc alta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras ; 

Nee tamen interea raucae, tua cura, palumbes, 

Nee gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo. 

TITYRUS. 

Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi, 60 

Et freta destituent nudos in litore pisces, 

Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, exsul 

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim, 

Quam nostro illius labatur pectore vultus. 

MELIBOEUS. 

At nos hinc alii sitientes ibimus Afros, 65 

Pars Scythiam et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen, 

Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. 

En umquam patrios longo post tempore fines. 

Pauperis et tuguri congestum caespite culmen. 

Post aliquot, mea regna videns, mirabor aristas ? 70 

Impius haec tam culta novalia miles habebit ? 

Barbarus has segetes ? En, quo discordia cives 

Produxit miseros ! en, quis consevimus agros ! 

Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros, pone ordine vites. 

Ite meae, felix quondam pecus, ite capellae. 7s 

Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro, 

Dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo ; 

Carmina nulla canam ; non, me pascente, capellae, 

Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 

TITYRUS. 

Hie tamen banc mecum poteras requiescere noctem 80 
Fronde super viridi : sunt nobis mitia poma, 
Castaneae moUes, et pressi copia lactis ; 



68 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Et jam summa procul villarum culmina fumant, 
Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae. 



ECLOGA III. 
PALAEMON. 

MENALCAS. DAMOETAS. PALAEMON. 
MENALCAS. 

Die mihi, Damoeta, cujum pecus ? an Meliboei ? 

DAMOETAS. 

Non, verum Aegonis ; nuper mihi tradidit Aegon. 

MENALCAS. 

Infelix o semper, oves, pecus ! ipse Neaeram 
Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi praeferat ilia, veretur, 
Hie alienus oves custos bis mulget in hora, 
Et sucus pecori et lac subducitur agnis. 

DAMOETAS. 

Parcius ista viris tamen objicienda memento. 
Novimus, et qui te, transversa tuentibus hircis, 
Et quo — sed faciles Nymphae risere — sacello. 

MENALCAS. 

Tum, credo, quum me arbustum videre Miconis 
Atque mala vites incidere falce novellas. 

DAMOETAS. 

Aut hie ad veteres fagos quum Daphnidis arcum 
Fregisti et calamos : quae tu, perverse "Men alca, 
Et, quum vidisti puero donata, dolebas, 
Et, si non aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses. 

MENALCAS. 

Quid domini faciant, audent quum talia fures ! 
Non ego te vidi Damonis, pessune, caprum 
Excipere insidiis, multum latrante Lycisca ? 
Et quum clamarem : Quo nunc se proripit ille ? 
Tityre, coge pecus ; tu post carecta latebas. 



BUCOLICA. ECL. III. 69 

DAMOETAS. 

An mihi cantando victus non redderet ille, 
Quem mea carminibus meruisset fistula caprum ? 
Si nescis, meus ille caper fuit ; et mihi Damon 
Ipse fatebatur : sed reddere posse negabat. 

MENALCAS. 

Cantando tu ilium ? aut umquam tibi fistula cera 25 

Juncta fuit ? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas 
Stridenti miserum stipula disperdere carmen ? 

DAMOETAS. 

Vis ergo, inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim 
Experiamur ? ego banc vitulam — ne forte recuses, 
Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fetus — 30 

Depono : tu die, mecum quo pignore certes. 

MENALCAS. 

De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum : 

Est mihi namque domi pater, est injusta noverca ; 

Bisque die numerant ambo pecus, alter et haedos. 

Verum, id quod multo tute ipse fatebere majus, 35 

Insanire libet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam 

Fagina, caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis : 

Lenta quibus tomo facili superaddita vitis 

Diffusos hedera vestit pallente corymbos. 

In medio duo signa, Conon, et — quis fuit alter, ^^ 

Descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem, 

Tempora quae messor, qilae curvus arator haberet ? 

Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita servo. 

DAMOETAS. 

Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, 

Et molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho, 45 

Orpheaque in medio posuit silvasque sequentes. 

Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita servo. 

Si ad vitulam spectas, nihil est, quod pocula laudes. 

MENALCAS. 

Nunquam hodie efFugies ; veniam, quocumque vocaris. 
Audiat haec tantum — vel qui venit, ecce, Palaemon. 50 



/ 



70 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

. Efficiam posthac ne quemquam voce lacessas. 

DAMOETAS. 

Quin age, si quid habes, in me mora non ierit uUa, 
Nee quemquam fugio : tantum, vicine Palaemon, 
Sensibus haec imis — res est non parva — reponas. 

PALAEMON. 

Dicite, quandoquidem in moUi consedimus herba. ss 

Et nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis partiuit arbos ; 
Nunc frondent silvae ; nunc formosissimus annus. 
Incipe, Damoeta ; tu deinde sequere, Menalca. 
Alternis dicetis ; amant alteraa Camenae. 

DAMOETAS. 

Ab Jove principium, Musae ; Jovis omnia plena ; , 60 
Ille colit terras j illi mea carmina curae. 

MENALCAS. 

Et me Phoebus amat ; Phoebo sua semper apud me 
Munera sunt, lauri et suave rubens hyacinthus. 

DAMOETAS. 

Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella, 

Et fugit ad salices, et se cupit ante videri. 65 

MENALCAS. 

At mihi sese ofFert ultro, mens ignis, Amyntas, 
Notior ut jam sit canibus non Delia nostris. 

DAMOETAS. 

Parta meae Veneri sunt munera : namque notavi 
Ipse locum; aeriae quo congessere palumbes. 

MENALCAS. 

Quod potui, puero silvestri ex arbore lecta 70 

Aurea mala decem misi ; eras altera mittam. 

DAMOETAS. 

O quoties et quae nobis Galatea locuta est ! 
Partem aliquam, venti, divum referatis ad aures I 

MENALCAS. 

Quid prodest, quod me ipse animo non spemis, AmyntB,, 
Si, dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo ? 75 



BUCOLICA. ECL. III. 7 1 

DAMOETAS. 

Phyllida mitte mihi : meus est natalis, lolla ; 
Quum faciam vitula pro fnigibus, ipse venito. 

MENALCAS. 

Phyllida amo ante alias ; nam me discedere flevit, 
Et longum Formose, vale, vale, inquit, lolla. 

DAMOETAS. 

Triste lupus stabulis, maturis fnigibus imbres, so 

Arboribus venti, nobis Amaryllidis irae. 

MENALCAS. 

Dulce satis humor, depulsis arbutus haedis, 
Lenta salix feto pecori, mihi solus Amyntas. 

DAMOETAS. 

PoUio amat nostram, quamvis est rustica, Musam : 
Pierides, vitulam lectori pascite vestro. 8s 

MENALCAS. 

PoUio et ipse facit nova carmina : pascite taururo, 
Jam comu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam. 

DAMOETAS. 

Qui te, PoUio, amat, veniat, quo te quoque gaudet, 
Mella fluant illi, ferat et rubus asper amomum. 

MENALCAS. 

Qui Bavium non odit, amet tua carmina, Maevi, 90 

Atque idem jungat vulpes et mulgeat hircos. 

DAMOETAS. 

Qui legitis flores et humi nascentia fraga, 
Frigidus, o pueri, fugite hinc, latet anguis in herba. 

MENALCAS. 

Parcite, oves, nimium procedere : non bene ripae 
Creditur; ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. 9s 

DAMOETAS. 

Tityre, pascentes a flumine reice capellas : 
Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo. 

MENALCAS. 

Cogite oves, pueri ; si lac praeceperit aestus, 
Ut nuper, frustra pressab^'mus ubera palmis. 



72 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

DA.MOETAS. 

Heu, heu, quam pingui macer est mihi taurus in ervo ! loo 
Idem amor exitium pecori pecorisque magistro. 

MENALCAS. 

His certe neque amor caussa est ; vix ossibus haerent. 
Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos. 

DAMOETAS. 

Die, quibus in terns — et eris mihi magnus Apollo — 
Tres pateat coeli spatium non amplius ulnas. 105 

MENALCAS. 

Die, quibus in terns inscripti nomina regum 
Nascantur flores, et Phyllida solus habeto. 

PALAEMON. 

Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere lites. 

Et vitula tu dignus, et hie, et quisquis amores 

Aut metuet dukes, aut experietur amaros. no 

Claudite jam rivos, pueri ; sat prata biberunt 



ECLOGA IV. 

POLLIO. 

SiCELiDES Musae, paulo majora canamus ! 
Non omnes arbusta juvant humilesque myricae ; 
Si canimus silvas, silvae sint Consule dignae. 
Ultima Cumaei venit jam carminis aetas ; 
Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo. 
Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Satumia regna : 
Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto. 
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primum 
Desinet ac toto surget gens aurea mundo, 
Casta fave Lucina : tuus jam regnat Apollo. 
Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te Consule, inibit, 
PoUio, et incipient magni procedere menses ; 
Te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, 
Irrita perpetua solvent formidine terras. 



BUCOLICA. ECL. IV. 73 

Ille deum vitam accipiet divisque videbit is 

Permixtos heroas et ipse videbitur illis, 
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem. 
At tibi prima, puer, nullo munuscula cultu 
Errantes hederas passim cum bacchare tellus 
Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho. so 

Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae 
Ubera, nee magnos metuent armenta leones. 
Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores. 
Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni . 
Occidet ; Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. 25 

At simul heroum laudes et facta parentis 
^ Jam legere et quae sit poteris cognoscere virtus, 
Molli paulatim flavescet campus arista, 
Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, 
Et durae quercus sudabunt roscida mella. 30 

Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 
Quae tentare Thetim ratibus, quae cingere muris 
Oppida, quae jubeant telluri infindere sulcos. 
Alter erit tum Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 
Delectos heroas ; erunt etiam. altera bella, 3s 

Atque iterum ad Trojam magnus mittetur Achilles. 
Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit aetas, 
Cedet et ipse mari vector, nee nautica pinus 
Mutabit merces : omnis feret omnia tellus. 
Non rastros patietur humus, non vinea falcem ; 40 

Robustus quoque jam tauris juga sol vet arator ; 
Nee varios discet mentiri lana colores, 
Ipse sed in pratis aries jam suave rubenti ' 
Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto ; 
Sponte sua sandyx pascentes vestiet agnos. 45 

Talia saecla, suis dixerunt, currite, fusis 
Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcae. 
Aggredere o magnos — aderit jam tempus — honores, 
Cara deum suboles, magnum Jovis incrementum ! 
Adspice convexo nutantem pondere mundum, 50 



74 P- VIRGILII MARONIS 

Terrasque tractusque maris coelumque profundum, 

Adspice, venture laetantur ut omnia saeclo ! 

O mihi tam longae maneat pars ultima vitae, 

Spiritus et, quantum sat erit tua dicere facta : 

Non me carminibus vincet nee Thracius Orpheus, ss 

Nee Linus, huic mater quamvis atque huic pater adsit, 

Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo. 

Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si judice certet, 

Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se judice victum. 

Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem : 6© 

Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses ; 

Incipe, parve puer : cui non risere parentes, 

Nee deus hunc mensa, dea nee dignata cublli est. 



ECLOGA V. 
DAPHNIS. 

MENALCAS. MOPSUS. 
MENALCAS. 

Cur non, Mopse, boni quoniam convenimus ambo, 
Tu calamos infiare leves, ego dicere versus. 
Hie corylis mixtas inter considimus ulmos ? 

MOPSUS. 

Tu major ; tibi me est aequum parere, Menalca, 
Sive sub incertas Zeph)n:is motantibus imibras, 
Sive antro potius succedimus. Adspice, ut antrum 
Silvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis. 

MENALCAS. 

Montibus in nostris solus tibi certat Amyntas. 

MOPSUS. 

Quid, si idem certet Phoebum superare canendo ? 

MENALCAS. 

Incipe, Mopse, prior, si quos aut Phyllidis ignes, 
Aut Alconis habes laudes, aut jurgia Codri. 



BUCOLICA. ECL. V. 75 

Incipe ; pascentes servabit Tityrus haedos. 

MOPSUS. 

Immo haec, in viridi nuper quae cortice fagi 

Carmina descripsi et modulans alterna notavi, 

Experiar : tu deinde jubeto ut certet Amyntas. 15 

MENALCAS. 

Lenta salix quantum pallenti cedit olivae, 
Puniceis humilis quantum saliunca rosetis, 
Judicio nostro tantum tibi cedit Amyntas. 

MOPSUS. 

Sed tu desine plura, puer ; successimus antro. 

Exstinctum Nymphae crudeli funere Daphnim 20 

Flebant ; vos coryli testes et flumina Nymphis ; 
Quum complexa sui corpus miserabile natl 
Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater. 
Non ulli pastes illis egere diebus 

Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina ; nulla nee amnem 25 
Libavit quadrupes, nee graminis attigit herbam. 
Daphni, tuimi Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones 
Interitimi montesque feri silvaeque loquuntur. 
Daphnis et Armenias cumi subjimgere tigres 
Instituit, Daphnis thiasos inducere Bacchi 30 

Et foliis lentas intexere moUibus hastas. 
Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uvae, 
Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis, 
Tu decus omne tuis. Postquam te fata tulerunt, 
Ipsa Pales agros atque ipse reliquit Apollo. 35 

Grandia saepe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis, 
Infelix lolium et steriles nascuntur avenae ; 
Pro moUi viola, pro purpureo narcisso, 
Carduus et spinis surgit paliurus acutis. 
Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbras, 40 

Pastores ; mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis ; 
Et tumulum facite, et tiunulo superaddite carmen : 
Daphnis ego in silvis, hinc usque ad sidera notus, 
Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse. 



76 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

MENALCAS. 

Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poeta, 45 

Quale sopor fessis in gramine, quale per aestum 

Dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguere rivo. 

Nee calamis solum -aequiparas, sed voce magistrum. 

Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo. 

Nos tamen haec quocumque modo tibi nostra vicissim 50 

Dicemus, Daphnimque tuum tollemus ad astra ; 

Daphnin ad astra feremus : amavit nos quoque Daphnis. 

MOPSUS. 

An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus ? 

Et puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista 

Jam pridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis. 55 

MENALCAS. 

Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi 

Sub pedibusque *^idet nubes et sidera Daphnis. 

Ergo alacris silvas et cetera rura voluptas 

Panaque pastoresijue tenet Dryadasque puellas. 

Nee lupus insidias pecori, nee retia cervis 60 

Ulla dolum meditantur ; amat bonus otia Daphnis. 

Ipsi laetitia voces ad sidera jactant 

Intonsi montes ; ipsae jam carmina rupes, 

Ipsa sonant arbusta : deus, deus ille, Menalca ! 

Sis bonus o felixque tuis ! en qvtfittuor aras : 65 

Ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duas altaria Phoebo. 

Pocula bina novo spumantia lacte quot annis 

Craterasque duos statuam tibi pinguis olivi, 

Et multo in primis hilarans convivia Baccho, 

Ante focum, si frigus erit, si messis, in umbra, 70 

Vina novum fund^m calathis Ariusia nectar. 

Cantabunt mihi Damoetas et Lyctius Aegon ; 

Saltantes Satyros imitabitur Alphesiboeus. 

Haec tibi semper erunt, et quum sollemnia vota 

Reddemus Nymphis, et quum lustrabimus agros. 75 

Dum juga mentis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit, 

Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicadae, 



BUCOLICA. ECL. VII. 77 

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt. 

Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota quot annis 

Agricolae facient ; damnabis tu quoque votis. 80 

MOPSUS. 

Quae tibi, quae tali reddam pro carmine dona ? 
Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus austri, 
Nee percussa juvant fluctu tam litqra, nee quae 
Saxosas inter decurrunt flimiina valles. 

MENALCAS. 

Hac te nos fragilt donabimus ante cicuta. £5 

* Haec nos, Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim, 
Haec eadem docuit, Cujimi pecus ? an Meliboei ? 

' MOPSUS. 

At tu sume pedum, quod, me quum saepe rogaret, 
Non tulit Antigenes — et erat tum dignus amari — 
Formosum paribus nodis atque aere, Menalca. 90 



ECLOGA VII. 

MELIBOEUS. 

BfELIBOEUS. CORYDON. THYRSIS. 

MELIBOEUS. 

Forte sub arguta consederat ilice Daphnis, 

Compulerantque greges Corydon et Th)n:sis in unum, 

Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas, 

Ambo florentes aetatibus. Arcades ambo, 

Et cantare pares, et respondere parati. 

Hue mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore myrtos, 

Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat ; atque ego Daphnim 

Adspicio. lUe ubi me contra videt : Ocius, inquit. 

Hue ades, o Meliboee I caper tibi salvus et haedi ; 

Et, si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra. 

Hue ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci ; 



78 P> VIRGILII MARONIS 

Hie virides tenera praetexit anindine ripas 

Mincius, eque sacra resonant examina quereiL 

Quidfacerem? neque ego Aleippen, nequePhyllidahabebam, 

Depulsos a lacte domi quae clauderet agnos ; 15 

Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum. 

Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo. 

Altemis igitur contendere versibus ambo 

Coepere ; altemos Musae meminisse volebant. 

Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis. 20 

CORYDON. 

Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides, aut mihi cannen, 
Quale meo Codro, concedite ; proxima Phoebi 
Versibus ille facit ; aut, si non possumus omnes. 
Hie arguta sacra pendebit fistula pinu. 

THYRSIS. 

Pastores, hedera nascentem ornate poetam, 35 

Arcades, invidia rumpantur ut ilia Codro ; 
Aut, si ultra placitum laudarit, bacchare firontem 
Cingite, ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro. 

CORYDON. 

Saetosi caput hoc apri tibi, Delia, parvus 

Et ramosa Micon vivacis comua cervi. , 30 

Si proprium hoc fuerit, levi de marmore tota 

Puniceo stabis suras evincta cothumo. 

THYRSIS. 

Sinum lactis et haec te liba, Priape, quot annis 
Exspectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti. 
Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus ; at tu, 35 

Si fetura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto. 

CORYDON. 

Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae, 

Candidior cycnis, hedera formosior alba, 

Quum primum pasti repetent praesepia tauri, 

Si qua tui Coiydonis habet te cura, venito. 40 

THYRSIS. 

Immo ego Sardoniis videar tibi amarior herbis, 



BUCOLICA. ECL. VIL 79 

Horridior rusco, projecta vilior alga, 

Si mihi non haec lux toto jam longior anno est. 

Ite domum pasti, si quis pudor, ite juvenci. 

CORYDON. 

Muscosi fontes et somno mollior herba, 45 

Et quae vos rara viridis tegit arbutus umbra, 
Solstitium pecori defendite ; jam venit aestas 
Torrida, jam laeto turgent in palmite gemmae. 

THYRSIS. 

Hie focus et taedae pingues, hie plurimus ignis 
Semper, et adsidua postes fuligine nigri ; s© 

Hie tantum Boreae curamus frigora, quantum 
Aut niimerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas. 

CORYDON. 

Stant et juniperi et castaneae hirsutae ; 
Strata jacent passim sua quaque sub arbore poma ; 
Omnia nunc rident ; at si formosus Alexis ss 

Montibus his abeat, videas et flumina sicca. 

THYRSIS. 

Aret ager ; vitio moriens sitit aeris herba ; 

Liber pampineas invidit collibus umbras : 

Phyllidis adventu nostrae nemus omne virebit, 

Juppiter et laeto descendet plurimus imbri. 60 

CORYDON. 

Populus Alcidae gratissima, vitis laccho, 
Formosae myrtus Veneri, sua laurea Phoebo ; 
Phyllis amat corylos ; illas dum Phyllis amabit. 
Nee myrtus vincet corylos, nee laurea Phoebi. 

THYRSIS. 

Fraxinus in silvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortis, 65 

Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus altis ; 
Saepius at si me, Lycida formose, revisas, 
Fraxinus in silvis cedat tibi, pinus in hortis. 

MELIBOEUS. 

Haee memini, et victum frustra contendere Thyrsim. 

Ex illo Corydon Corydon est tempore nobis. 70 



8o P. VIRGILII MARQNIS 

ECLOGA IX. 

MOERIS. 

LYCIDAS. MOERIS. 
LYCIDAS. 

Quo te, Moeri, pedes ? an, quo via ducit, in urbem ? 

MOERIS. 

O Lycida, vivi pervenimus, advena nostri, 
Quod numquam veriti sumus, ut possessor agelli 
Diceret : Haec mea sunt ; veteres migrate coloni. 
Nunc victi, tristes, quoniam Fors omnia versat, 
Hos illi — quod nee vertat bene — mittimus haedos. 

LYCIDAS. 

Certe equidem audieram, qua se subducere colles 
Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo, 
Usque ad aquam et veteres, jam fracta cacumina, fagos 
Omnia carminibus vestrum servasse Menalcan. 

MOERIS. 

Audieras, et fama fuit ; sed carmina tantum 
Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantum 
Chaonias dicunt aquila veniente columbas. 
Quod nisi me quacumque novas incidere lites 
Ante sinistra cava monuisset ab ilice cornix, 
Nee tuus hie Moeris, nee viveret ipse Menalcas. 

LYCIDAS. 

Heu, cadit in quemquam tantum scelus ? heu, tua nobis 
Paene simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca ? 
Quis caneret Nymphas ? quis humiim florentibus herbis 
Spargeret, aut viridi fontes induceret umbra ? 
Vel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper, 
Quum te ad delicias ferres, Amaryllida, nostras ? 
"Tityre, dum redeo — brevis est via — pasce capellas, 
Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum 
Occursare capro — comu ferit ille — caveto." 



BUCOLICA. ECL. IX. 8 1 

MOERIS. 

Immo haec, quae Varo necdum perfecta canebat : 
" Vare, tuum nomen, superet modo Mantua nobis, 
Mantua, vae, miserae nimium vicina Cremonae, 
Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni." 

LYCIDAS. 

Sic tua Cymeas fugiant examina taxos, 30 

Sic cytiso pastae distendant ubera vaccae, 

Incipe, si quid habes. Et me fecere poetam 

Pierides ; sunt et mihi carmina ; me quoque dicunt 

Vatem pastores ; sed non ego credulus illis. 

Nam neque adhuc Vario videor, nee dicere Cinna 35 

Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores. 

MOERIS. 

Id quidem ago et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse voluto. 
Si valeam meminisse ; neque est ignobile carmen. 
" Hue ades, o Galatea ; quis est nam ludus in undis ? 
Hie ver purpm-eum, varios hie flumina circum 40 

Fundit humus flores, hie Candida populus antro 
Imminet, et lentae texunt umbracula vites ; 
Hue ades ; insani feriant sine litora fluctus." 

LYCIDAS. 

Quid, quae te pura solum sub nocte canentem 
Audieram? numeros m^mini, si verba tenerem. 45 

MOERIS. 

" Daphni, quid antiques signorum suspicis ortus ? 

Ecce Dionaei processit Caesaris astrum, 

Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo 

Duceret apricis in coUibus uva colorem. 

Insere, Daphni, piros ; carpent tua poma nepotes." so 

Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque : saepe ego longos 

Cantando puerum memini me condere soles : 

Nunc oblita mihi tot carmina ; vox quoque Moerim 

Jam fugit ipsa ; lupi Moerim videre priores. 

Sed tamen ista satis referet tibi saepe Menalcas. 55 

6 



82 p. VIRGILII MARONIS BUCOLICA. ECL. IX. 

LYCIDAS. 

Caussando nostros in longum ducis amores. 

Et nunc omne tibi stratum silet aequor, et omnes, 

Aspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae ; 

Hinc adeo media est nobis via ; namque sepulchrum 

Incipit apparere Bianoris : hie, ubi densas 60 

Agricolae stringunt frondes, hie, Moeri,. eanamus ; 

Hie haedos depone, tamen veniemus in urbem. 

Aut si, nox pluviam ne coUigat ante, veremur, 

Cantantes licet usque — minus via laedit — eamus ; 

Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo. 65 

MOERIS. 

Desine plura, puer, et quod nunc instat agamus ; 
Carmina tum melius, quum venerit ipse, canemus. 



p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

GEORGICA. 

LIBER I. 

Quid faciat laetas segetes, quo sidere terrain 
Vertere, Maecenas, ulmisque adjungere vites 
Conveniat, quae cura boum, qui cultus babendo 
Sit pecori, apibus quanta experientia parcis, 
Hinc canere incipiam. Vos, o clarissima mundi 
Lumina, iabentem coelo quae ducitis annum ; 
Liber et alma Ceres, vestro si munere tellus 
Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista, 
Poculaque inventis Acheloia miscuit uvis ; 
Et vos, agrestum praesentia numina, Fauni, 
Ferte simul Faunique pedem Dryadesque puellae : 
Munera vestra cano. Tuque o, cui prima frementem 
Fudit equum magno tellus percussa tridenti, 
Neptune ; et cultor nemorum, cui pinguia Ceae 
Ter centum nivei tondent dumeta juvenci ; 
Ipse, nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycaei, 
Pan, ovinm custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae, 
Adsis, o Tegeaee, favens, oleaeque Minerva 
Inventrix, uncique puer monstrator aratri, 
Et teneram ab radice ferens, Silvane, cupressum, 
Dique deaeque omnes, studium quibus arva tueri, 
Quique novas alitis non ullo semine fruges, 
Quique satis largum coelo demittitis imbrem ; 
Tuque adeo, quem mox quae sint habitura deorum 
Concilia, incertum est, urbesne invisere, Caesar, 



84 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Terrarumque velis curam, et te maximus orbis 

Auctorem frugum tempestatumque potentem 

Accipiat, cingens matetna tempora mjnto, 

An deus immensi venias maris, ac tua nautae 

Numina sola colant, tibi serviat ultima Thule, 30 

Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis, 

Anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus addas, 

Qua locus Erigonen inter Chelasque sequentes 

Panditur ; ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens 

Scorpios, et coeli justa plus parte reliquit ; 35 

Quidquid eris, — nam te nee sperant Tartara regera, 

Nee tibi regnandi veniat tam dira cupido ; 

Quamvis Elysios miretur Graecia campos, 

Nee repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem — 

Da facilem cursum, atque audacibus adnue coeptis, 40 

Ignarosque viae mecum miseratus agrestes 

Ingredere, et votis jam nunc adsuesce vocari. 

Vere novo, gelidus canis quum montibus humor 
Liquitur et Zephyro putris se glaeba resolvit, 
Depresso incipiat jam tum mihi taurus aratro 4S 

Ingemere, et sulco attritus splendescere vomer. 
Ilia seges demum votis respondet avari 
Agricolae, bis quae solem, bis frigora sensit ; 
Illius immensae ruperunt horrea messes. ' 
At prius ignotum ferro quam scindimus aequor, 50 

Ventos et varium coeli praediscere morem 
Cura sit ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum, 
Et quid quaeque ferat regio et quid quaeque recuset. 
Hie segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae ; 
Arborei fetus alibi, atque injussa virescunt 55 

Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores, 
India mittit ebur, moUes sua tura Sabaei, 
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus 
Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epiros equarum ? 
Continuo has leges aeternaque foedera certis 60 

Imposuit natura locis, quo tempore primum 



GEORGICON LIB. I. 85 

Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbem, 

Unde homines nati, durum genus. Ergo age, terrae 

Pingue solum primis extemplo a mensibus anni 

Fortes invertant tauri, glaebasque jacetites 6s 

Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus aestas ; 

At si non fuerit tellus fecunda, sub ipsum 

Arcturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco : 

Illic, officiant laetis ne frugibus herbae, 

Hie, sterilem exiguus ne deserat humor areham. 70 

Altemis idem tonsas cessare novales, 
Et segnem patiere situ durescere campum ; 
Aut ibi flava seres mutato sidere farra, 
Unde prius laetum siliqua quassante legumen 
Aut tenuis fetus viciae tristisque lupini 7S 

Sustuleris fragiles calamos silvamque sonantem. 
Urit enim lini campum seges, urit avenae, 
Urunt Lethaeo perfusa papavera somno : 
Sed tamen altemis facilis labor ; arida tantum 
Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola, neve 80 

Eflfetos cinerem immundum jactare per agros. 
Sic quoque mutatis requiescunt fetibus arva, 
Nee nulla interea est inaratae gratia terrae. - 
Saepe etiam steriles incendere profuit agros 
Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urere flammis : 85 

Sive inde occultas vires et pabula terrae 
Pinguia concipiunt ; sive illis omne per ignem 
Excoquitur vitium, atque exsudat inutilis humor ; 
Seu plures~ calor ille vias et caeca relaxat 
Spiramenta, novas veniat qua sucus in herbas ; 90 

Seu durat magis, et venas adstringit hiantes, 
Ne tenues pluviae, rapidive potentia solis 
Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabile frigus adurat 

Multum adeo, rastris glaebas qui frangit inertes 
Vimineasque trahit crates, juvat arva ; neque ilium 95 

Flava Ceres alto nequidquam spectat Olympo ; 
Et qui, proscisso quae suscitat aequore terga. 



86 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

RuTsus in obliquum verso perrampit aratro, 
Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imperat arvis. 

Humida solstitia atque hiemes orate serenas, loo 

Agricolae ; hibemo laetissima pulvere farra, 
Laetus ager : nullo tantum se Mysia cultu 
Jactat et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messes. 
Quid dicam, jacto qui semine comminus arva 
Insequitur cumulosque ruit male pinguis arenae, xos 

Deinde satis fluvium inducit rivosque sequentes, 
Et, quum exustus ager morientibus aestuat herbis, 
Ecce supercilio clivosi tramitis undam 
Elicit ? ilia cadens raucum per levia murmur 
Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva. no 

Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis, 
Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herba, 
Quum primum sulcos aequant sata ? quique paludis 
Collectum humorem bibula deducit arena, 
Praesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans ns 

Exit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo, 
Unde cavae tepido sudant humore lacunae ? 

Nee tamen, haec quum sint hominumque boumque labores 
Versando terram experti, nihil improbus anser 
Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intuba fibris no 

Officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi 
Haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem 
Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda, 
Nee torpere gravi passus sua regna vetemo. 
Ante Jovem nuUi subigebant arva coloni ; 125 

Ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 
Fas erat : in medium quaerebant, ipsaque tellus 
Omnia liberius, nullo poscente, ferebat. 
Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris, 
Praedarique lupos jussit, pontumque moveri, 130 

Mellaque decussit foliis, ignemque removit, 
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit, 
Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artes 



GEORGICON LIB. I. 87 

Paulatim, et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam, 

Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem. 135 

Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas ; 

Navita turn stellis numeros et nomina fecit, 

Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton ; 

Turn laqueis captare feras, et fallere visco 

Inventum, et magnos canibus circumdare saltus. 140 

Atque alius latum funda jam verberat amnem, 

Alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida Una. 

Tum ferri rigor atque argutae lamina serrae, — 

Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum — 

Tum variae venere artes. Labor omnia vicit 14s 

Inprobus et duns urguens in rebus egestas. 

Prima Ceres ferro mortales vertere terram 

Instituit, quum jam glandes atque arbuta sacrae 

Deficerent silvae et victum Dodona negaret. 

Mox et fiiimentis labor additus, ut mala culmos 150 

Esset robigo segnisque horreret in arvis 

Carduus ; intereunt segetes, subit aspera silva, 

Lappaeque tribulique, interqiie nitentia culta 

Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenae. 

Quod nisi et assiduis herbam insectabere rastris, 155 

Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci 

Fake premes lunbram, votisque vocaveris imbrem, 

Heu, magnum alterius frustra spectabis acervum, 

Concussaque famen in silvis solabere quercu. 

Dicendum et, quae sint duris agrestibus arma, i6o 

Quis sine nee potuere seri nee surgere messes : 
Vomis et inflexi primum grave robur aratri, 
Tardaque Eleusinae matris volventia plaustra, 
Tribulaque, traheaeque, et iniquo pondere rastri ; 
Virgea praeterea Celei vilisque supellex, 165 

Arbuteae crates et mystica vannus lacchi. 
Omnia quae multo ante memor provisa repones, 
Si te digna manet divini gloria ruris. 
Continuo in silvis magna vi flexa domatur 



88 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

In burim et curvi formam accipit iilmus aratri. 170 

Huic ab stirpe pedes tamo protentus in octo, 

Binae aures, duplici aptantur dentalia dorso. 

Caeditur et tilia ante jugo levis, altaque fagus 

Stivaque, quae cursus a tergo torqueat imos ; 

Et suspensa focis explorat robora fumus. 17s 

Possum multa tibi veterum praecepta referre, 
Ni refugis tenuesque piget cognoscere curas. 
Area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro 
Et vertenda manu et creta solidanda tenaci, 
Ne subeant herbae, neu pulvere victa fatiscat. 180 

Turn variae illudant pestes : saepe exiguus mus 
Sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit ; 
Aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae ; 
Inventusque cavis bufo, et quae plurima terrae 
Monstra ferunt ; populatque ingentem farris acervum 185 
Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica senectae. 
Contemplator item, quum se nux plurima silvis 
Induet in florem et ramos curvabit olentes : 
Si superant fetus, pariter frumenta sequentur, 
Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore ; 190 

At si luxuria foliorum exuberat umbra, 
Nequidquam pingue$ palea teret area culmos. 
Semina vidi equidem multos medicare serentes 
Et nitro prius et nigra perflmdere amurca, 
Grandior ut fetus siliquis fallacibus esset, 195 

Et, quamvis igni exiguo, properata maderent. 
Vidi lecta diu et multo spectata labore 
Degenerare tamen, ni vis humana quot annis 
Maxima quaeque manu legeret. Sic omnia fatis 
In pejus mere, ac retro sublapsa referri ; 200 

Non aliter, quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum 
Remigiis subigit, si brachia forte remisit, 
Atque ilium in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni. 

Praeterea tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis 
Haedorumque dies servandi et lucidus Anguis, 205 



GEORGICON LIB. I. 89 

Quam quibus in patriam ventosa per aequora vectis 

Pontus et ostriferi fauces tentantur Abydi. 

Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horas, 

Et medium luci atque umbris jam dividit orbem, 

Exercete, viri, tauros, serite hordea campis, aio 

Usque sub extremum brumae intractabilis imbrem ; 

Nee non et lini segetem et Cereale papaver 

Tempus humo tegere, et jamdudum incumbere aratris, 

Dum sicca tellure licet, dum nubila pendent. 

Vere fabis satio ; tum te quoque, Medica, putres 2x5 

Accipiunt sulci, et milio venit annua cura, 

Candidus auratis aperit quum comibus annum 

Taurus, et adverse cedens Canis occidit astro. 

At si triticeam in messem robustaque farra 

Exercebis humtim solisque instabis aristis, 220 

Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abscondantur 

Gnosiaque ardentis decedat Stella Coronae, 

Debita quam sulcis committas semina, quaraque 

Invitae properes an^i spem credere terrae. 

Multi ante occasum Maiae coepere ; sed illos 225 

Exspectata seges vanis elusit aristis. 

Si vero viciamque seres vilemque phaselum 

Nee Pelusiacae curam aspernabere lentis, 

Haud obscura cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes : 

Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas. . 230 

Idcirco certis dimensum partibus orbem 
Per duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra. 
Quinque tenent cbelum zonae ; quarum una corusco . 
Semper sole rubens et torrida semper ab igni ; 
Quam circum extremae dextra laevaque trahuntur, 2^5 

Caerulea glacie concretae atque imbribus atris ; 
Has inter mediamque duae mortalibus aegris 
* Munere concessae divum, et via secta per ambas, 
Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo. 
Mundus, ut ad Sc)rthiam Rhipaeasque arduus arces 240 
Consurgit, premitur Libyae devexus in austros. 



9© P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Hie vertex nobis semper sublimis ; at ilium 

Sub pedibus Styx atra videt Manesque profundi. 

Maximus hie flexu sinuoso elabitur Anguis 

Cireum perque duas in morem fluminis Arctos, 245 

Aretos Oeeani.metuentes aequore tingui. 

Illie, ut perhibent, aut intemp^sta silet nox 

Semper, et obtenta densantur noete tenebrae, 

Aut redit a nobis Aurora diemque redueit, 

Nosque ubi primus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis, 250 

Illie sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper. 

Hine tempestates dubio praediseere coelo 

Possumus, hine messisque diem tempusque serendi, 

Et quando infidum remis impellere marmor 

Conveniat, quando armatas dedueere elasses, 255 

Aut tempestivam silvis evertere pinum : • 

Nee frustra signorum obitus speeulamur et ortus, 

Temporibusque parem diversis quattuor annum. 

Frigidus agrieolam si quando eontinet imber, 
Multa, forent quae mox eoelo properanda sereno, 260 

Maturare datur : durum proeudit arator 
Vomeris obtunsi dentem, cavat arbore lintres, 
Aut pecori signum aut numeros impressit aeervis. 
Exaeuunt alii vallos fureasque bicomes, 
Atque Amerina parant lentae retinaeula viti 265 

Nune faeilis rubea texatur fiseina virga ; 
Nune torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite saxo. 
Quippe etiam festis quaedam exercere diebus 
Fas et jura sinunt : rivos dedueere nulla 
Religio vetuit, segeti praetendere saepem, 270 

Insidias avibus moliri, ineendere vepres, 
Balantumque gregem fluvio mersare salubri. 
Saepe oleo tardi eostas agitator aselli 
Vilibus aut onerat pomis, lapidemque revertens 
Incusum aut atrae massam picis urbe reportat 27s 

Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna 
Felices operum. Quintam fuge : pallidus Orcus 



GEORGICON LIB. I. 9 1 

Eumenidesque satae ; turn partu Terra nefando 

Coeumque lapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, 

Et conjuratos coelum rescindere fratres. 280 

Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam 

Scilicet, atque Ossae frondosum involvere Olympum ; 

Ter Pater exstructos disjecit fulmine montes. 

Septima post decimam felix et ponere vitem, 

Et prensos domitare boves, et licia telae 285 

Addere ; nona fugae melior, contraria furtis. 

Multa adeo gelida melius se nocte dedere, 
Aut quum sole novo terras irrorat Eous. 
Nocte leves melius stipulae, nocte arida prata 
Tondentur ; noctes lentus non deficit humor. 290 

Et quidam seros bibemi ad luminis ignes 
Pervigilat, ferroque faces inspicat acuto ; 
Interea longum cantu solata laborem 
Arguto conjux percurrit pectine telas, 
Aut dulcis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem 29s 

Et foliis undam trepidi despumat aeni. 
At rubicunda Ceres medio succiditur aestu, 
Et medio tostas aestu terit area fruges. 
Nudus ara, sere nudus ; hiems ignava colono. 
Frigoribus parto agricolae plerumque fiiiuntur, 300 

Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant ; 
Invitat genialis hiems curasque resolvit : 
Ceu pressae quum jam portum tetigere carinae, 
Puppibus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Sed tamen et quemas glandes tum stringere tempus 305 
Et lauri baccas oleamque cruentaque myrta ; 
Tum gruibus pedicas et retia ponere cervis, 
Auritosque sequi lepores ; tum figere damas, 
Stuppea torquentem Balearis verbera fundae, 
Quum nix alta jacet, gldciem quum flumina trudunt 310 

Quid tempestates autumni et sidera dicam, 
Atque, ubi jam breviorque dies et moUior aestas, 
Quae vigilanda viris ? vel quum ruit imbriferum ver, 



92 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Spicea jam campis quum messis inhorruit, et quum 

Frumenta in viridi stipula lactentia turgent ? 315 

Saepe ego, quum flavis messorem induceret arvis 

Agricola et fragili jam stringeret hordea culmo, 

Omnia ventorum concurrere proelia vidi, 

Quae gravidam late segetem ab radicibus imis 

Sublimem expulsam eruerent ; ita turbine nigro 3*0 

Ferret hiems culmumque levem stipulasque volantes. 

Saepe etiam immensum coelo venit agmen aquarum, 

Et foedam glomerant tempestatem imbribus atris 

Collectae ex alto nubes ; ruit arduus aether, 

Et pluvia ingenti sata laeta boumque labores 325 

Diluit ; implentur fossae, et cava flumina crescunt 

Cum sonitu, fervetque fretis spirantibus aequor. 

Ipse Pater media nimborum in nocte corusca 

Fulmina molitur dextra ; quo maxima motu 

Terra tremit, fugere ferae, et mortalia corda 330 

Per gentes humilis stravit pavor ; ille flagranti 

Aut Athon, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo 

Dejicit ; ingeminant austri et densissimus imber ; 

Nunc nemora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangunt. 

Hoc metuens, coeli menses et sidera serva, 335 

Frigida Satumi sese quo Stella receptet, 

Quos ignis coeli Cyllenius erret in orbes. 

In primis venerare deos, atque annua magnae 

Sacra refer Cereri laetis operatus in herbis, 

Extremae sub casum hiemis, jam vere sereno. 340 

Tum pingues agni, et tum mollissima vina ; 

Tum somni dulces densaeque in'montibus umbrae. 

Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret, 

Cui tu lacte favos et miti dilue Baccho, 

Terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges, 345 

Omnis quam chorus et socii comitehtur ovantes, 

Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta ; neque ante 

Falcem maturis quisquam supponat aristis, 

Quam Cereri torta redimitus tempora quercu 



GEORGICON LIB. I. 93 

Det motus incompositos et carmina dicat 350 

Atque haec ut certis possemus discere signis, 
Aestusque, pluviasque, et agentes frigora ventos, 
Ipse Pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna moneret ; 
Quo signo caderent austri ; quid saepe videntes 
Agricolae propius stabulis armenta tenerent. 355 

Continue, ventis surgentibus, aut freta ponti 
Incipiunt agitata tumescere et aridus altis 
Montibus audiri fragor, aut resonantia longe 
Litora misceri et nemorum increbrescere murmur. 
Jam sibi tum a curvis male temperat unda carinis, 360 

Quum medio celeres revolant ex aequore mergi 
Clamoremque ferunt ad litora, quumque marinae 
In sicco ludunt fulicae, notasque paludes 
Deserit atque altam supra volat ardea nubem. 
Saepe etiam Stellas, vento impendente, videbis 36s 

Praecipites coelo labi, noctisque per umbram 
Flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus ; 
Saepe levem paleam et frondes volitare caducas, 
Aut summa nantes in aqua coUudere plumas. 
At Boreae de parte trucis quum fulminat, et quum 370 

Enrique Zephyrique tonat domus, omnia plenis 
Rm-a natant fossis, atque omnis navita ponto 
Humida vela legit. Numquam imprudentibus imber 
Obfuit : aut ilium sm-gentem vallibus imis 
Aeriae fugere grues, aut bucula coelum 375 

Suspiciens patulis captavit naribus auras, 
Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit hirundo, 
Et veterenx in limo ranae cecinere querelam. 
Saepius et tectis penetralibus extulit ova 
Angustum formica terens iter, et bibit ingens 380 

Arcus, et e pastu decedens agmine magno 
Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis. 
Jam varias pelagi volucres, et quae Asia circum 
Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri, 
Certatim largos humeris infundere rores, 385 



94 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Nunc caput objectare fretis,, nunc currere in undas, 

Et studio incassum videas gestire lavandi. 

Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce 

Et sola in sicca secum spatiatur arena. 

Ne nocturna quidem carpentes pensa puellae 390 

Nescivere hiemem, testa quum ardente viderent 

Scintillare oleum et putres concrescere fungos. 

Nee minus ex imbri soles et aperta serena 
Prospicere et certis poteris cognoscere signis : 
Nam neque tum stellis acies obtunsa videtur, 39s 

Nee fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna, 
Tenuia nee lanae per coelum vellera ferri ; 
Non tepidum ad solem pennas in litore pandunt 
Dilectae Thetidi alcyones, non ore solutos 
Immundi meminere sues jactare maniplos. 40° 

At nebulae magis ima petunt campoque recumbunt, 
Solis et occasum servans de culmine summo 
Nequidquam seros exercet noctua cantus. 
Apparet liquido sublimis in acre Nisus, . 
Et pro purpureo poenas dat Scylla capillo ; 405 

Quacumque ilia levem fugiens secat aethera pennis, 
Ecce inimicus, atrox, magno stridore per auras 
Insequitur Nisus ; qua se fert Nisus ad auras, 
Ilia levem fugiens raptim secat aethera pennis. 
Tum liquidas corvi presso ter gutture voces 410 

Aut quater ingeminant, et saepe cubilibus altis, 
Nescio qua praeter solitum dulcedine laeti, 
Inter se in foliis strepitant ; juvat imbribus actis 
Progeniem parvam dulcesque revisere nidos ; 
Haud, equidem credo, quia sit divinitus illis 415 

Ingenium aut rerum fato prudentia major ; 
Verum, ubi tempestas et coeli mobilis humor 
Mutavere vias et Juppiter uvidus austris 
Denset, erant quae rara modo, et quae densa, relaxat, 
Vertuntur species animorum, et pectora motus 420 

Nunc alios, alios, dura nubila ventus agebat, 



GEORGICON LIB. I. 95 

Concipiunt : hinc ille avium concentus in agris, 
Et laetae pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvi. 

Si vero solem ad rapidum lunasque sequentes 
Ordine respicies, numquam te crastina fallet 4=5 

Hora, neque insidiis noctis capiere serenae. 
Luna, revertentes quum primum colligit ignes, 
Si nigrum obscuro comprenderit aera cornu, 
Maximus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber ; 
At si virgineum suffuderit ore ruborem, 430 

Ventus erit ; vento semper rubet aurea Phoebe. 
Sin ortu quarto, namque is certissimus auctor, 
Pura neque obtunsis per coelum cornibus ibit, 
Totus et ille dies, et qui nascentur ab illo 
Exactum ad mensem, pluvia ventisque carebunt, 435 

Votaque servati solvent in litore nautae 
Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae. 
Sol quoque et exoriens, et quum se condet in undas, 
Signa dabit ; solem certissima signa sequuntur, 
Et quae mane refert, et quae surgentibus astris. 440 

Ille ubi nascentem maculis variaverit or4^m 
Conditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbe, 
Suspecti tibi sint imbres ; namque urguet ab alto 
Arboribusque satisque Notus pecorique sinister. 
Aut ubi sub lucem densa inter nubila sese 445 

Diversi rumpent radii, aut ubi pallida surget 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile, 
Heu, male tum mites defendet pampinus uvas : 
Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando. 
Hoc etiam, emenso quum jam decedit Olympo, 450 

Profueritr meminisse magis ; nam saepe videmus 
Ipsius in vultu varios errare colores ; 
Caeruleus pluviam denuntiat, igneus Euros ; 
Sin maculae incipient rutilo immiscerier igni. 
Omnia tum pariter vento nimbisque videbis 45s 

Fervere. Non ilia quisquam me nocte per altum 
Ire, neque a terra moneat convellere funem. , 



96 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

At si, quum referetque diem condetque relatum, 

Lucidus orbis erit, frustra terrebere nimbis, 

Et claro silvas cernes Aquilone moveri. 460 

Denique, quid vesper serus vehat, unde serenas 

Ventus agat nubes, quid cogitet humidus Auster, 

Sol tibi signa dabit. Solem quis dicere falsum 

Audeat ? Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus 

Saepe monet, fraudemque et operta tumescere bella 46s 

Ille etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam, 

Quum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit, 

Impiaque aeteraam timuerunt saecula noctem. 

Tempore quamquam illo tellus quoque et aequora ponti, 

Obscenaeque canes, importunaeque volucres 470 

Signa dabant. Quoties Cyclopum effervere in agros 

Vidimus undantem ruptis fomacibus Aetnam, 

Flammarumque globos liquefactaque volvere saxa ! 

Armorum sonitum toto Germania coelo 

Audiit ; insolitis tremuenint motibus Alpes. . 475 

Vox quoque per lucos vulgo exaudita silentes, 

Ingens, et simulacra modis pallentia miris 

Visa sub obscurum noctis ; pecudesque locutae, 

Infandum ! sistunt amnes, terraeque dehiscunt, 

Et maestum illacrimat templis ebur, aeraque sudant. 480 

Proluit insano contorquens vertice silvas 

Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes 

Cum stabulis armenta tulit. Nee tempore eodem 

Tristibus aut extis fibrae apparere minaces, 

Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit, et altae 485 

Per noctem resonare lupis ululantibus urbes. 

Non alias coelo ceciderunt plura sereno • 

Fulgura nee diri toties arsere cometae. 

Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis 

Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi ; 490 

Nee fuit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostro 

Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. 

Scilicet et tempus veniet, quum finibus illis 



GEORGICON LIB. II. 97 

Agricola, incurvo terrain molitus aratro, 

Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila, 49s 

Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes, 

Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris. 

Di patrii, Indigetes, et Romule Vestaque mater, 

Quae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana Palatia servas, 

Hunc saltern everso juvenem succurrere saeclo 500 

Ne prohibete ! Satis jam pridem sanguine nostro 

Laomedonteae luimus perjuria Trojae ; 

Jam pridem nobis coeli te regia, Caesar, 

Invidet, atque hominum queritur curare triuraphos ; 

Quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas : tot bella per orbem, 505 

Tarn multae scelerum facies ; non ullus aratro 

Dignus honos ; squalent abductis arva colonis, 

Et curvae rigidum fakes conflantur in ensem. 

Hinc mo vet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum ; 

Vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes sio 

Arma ferunt ; saevit toto Mars impius orbe ; 

Ut quum carceribus sese effudere quadrigae, 

Addunt in spatia, et frustra retinacula tendens 

Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas. 



LIBER II. 

Hactenus arvorum cultus et sidera coeli. 
Nunc te, Bacche, canam, nee non silvestria tecum 
Virgulta et prolem tarde crescentis olivae. 
Hue, pater o Lenaee ; tuis hie omnia plena 
Muneribus, tibi pampineo gravidus autumno 
Floret ager, spumat plenis vindemia labris ; 
Hue, pater o Lenaee, veni, nudataque musto 
Tingue novo mecum dereptis crura cothurnis. 

Principio arboribus varia est natura creandis. 
Namque aliae, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipsae 
7 



9S p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Sponte sua veniunt camposque et flumina late 
Curva tenent, ut moUe siler, lentaeque genestae, 
Populus et glauca canentia fronde salicta ; 
Pars autem posito surgunt de semine, ut altae 
Castaneae, nemorumque Jovi quae maxima frondet 
Aesculus, atque habitae Graiis oracula quercul 
Pullulat ab radice aliis densissima silva, 
Ut cerasis ulmisque ; etiam Parnasia laurus 
Parva sub ingenti matris se subjicit umbra. 
Hos natura modos primum dedit ; his genus omne 
Silvarum fruticumque viret nemorumque sacrorura. 

Sunt alii, quos ipse via sibi reperit usus. 
Hie plantas tenero abscindens de corpore matrum 
Deposuit sulcis ; hie stirpes obruit arvo, 
Quadrifidasque sudes, et acuto robore vallos ; 
Silvarum que aliae presses propaginis arcus 
Exspectant et viva sua plantaria terra ; 
Nil radicis egent aliae, summumque putator 
Haud dubitat terrae referens mandare cacumen ; 
Quin et caudicibus sectis — mirabile dictu — 
Truditur e sicco radix oleagina ligno ; 
Et saepe alterius ramos impune videmus 
Vertere in alterius, mutatamque insita mala 
Ferre pirum, et prunis lapidosa rubescere coma. 

Quare agite o, proprios generatim discite cultus, 
Agricolae, fructusque feros moUite colendo, 
Neu segnes jaceant terrae. Juvat Ismara Baccho 
Conserere, atque olea magnum vestire Taburnum. 
Tuque ades, inceptumque una decurre laborem, 
O decus, o famae merito pars maxima nostrae, 
Maecenas, pelagoque volans da vela patenti. 
Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto, 
Non, mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, 
Ferrea vox ; ades, et primi lege litoris oram ; 
In manibus terrae ; non hie te carmine ficto 
Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo. 



GEORGICON LIB. II. 99 

Sponte sua quae se tollunt in luminis oras, 
Infecunda quidem, sed laeta et fortia surgunt ; 
Quippe solo natura subest Tamen haec quoque, si quis 
Inserat, aut scrobibus mandet mutata subactis, 50 

Exuerint silvestrem animum, cultuque frequenti 
In quascumque voces artes baud tarda sequentur. 
Nee non et sterilis, quae stirpibus exit ab imis, 
Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros ; 
Nunc altae frondes et rami matris opacant, 55 

Crescentique adimunt fetus, uruntque ferentem. 
Jam, quae seminibus jactis se sustulit arbos. 
Tarda venit, seris factura nepotibus umbram, 
Pomaque degenerant sucos oblita priores, 
Et turpes avibus praedam fert uva racemos. 60 

Scilicet omnibus est labor impendendus, et omnes 
Cogendae in sulcum, ac multa mercede domandae. 
Sed truncis oleae melius, propagine vites 
Respondent, solido Paphiae de robore myrtus ; 
Plantis et durae coryli nascuntur, et ingens 65 

Fraxinus, Herculeaeque arbos umbrosa coronae, 
Chaoniique patris glandes ; etiam ardua palma 
Nascitur, et casus abies visura marines. 
Inseritur vero et nucis arbutus horrida fetu, 
Et steriles platan i malos gessere valentes ; 70 

Castaneae fagus, omusque incanuit albo 
Flore piri, glandemque sues fregere sub ulmis. 

Nee modus insereue atque oculos imponere simplex. 
Nam, qua se medio trudunt de cortice gemmae 
Et tenues rumpunt timicas, angustus in ipso 75 

Fit nudo sinus : hue aliena ex arbore germ en 
Includunt, udoque docent inolescere libro. 
Aut rursum enodes trunci resecantur, et alte 
Finditiu: in solidum cuneis via, deinde feraces 
Plantae immittuntur : nee longum tempus, et ingens 80 
Exiit ad coelum ramis felicibus arbos, 
Miraturque novas frondes et non sua poma. 



4Dhvr^'> 



100 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Praeterea genus baud unum, nee fortibus ulmis, 
Nee saliei lotoque, neque Idaeis eyparissis ; 
Nee pingues unam in faeiem nascuntur olivae, 8s 

Orehades, et radii, et amara pausia baeea, 
Pomaque et Aleinoi silvae ; nee sureulus idem 
Crustumiis Syriisque pins gravibusque volemis. • 
Non eadem arboribus pendet yindemia nostris, 
Quam Methymnaeo earpit de palmite Lesbos ; 90 

Sunt Thasiae vites, sunt et Mareotides albae, 
Pinguibus hae terris habiles, levioribus illae ; 
Et passo Psithia utilior, tenuisque Lageos, 
Tentatura pedes olira vineturaque linguam ; 
Purpureie, preeiaeque ; et quo te earmine dieam, 95 

Rhaetica ? nee eellis ideo contende Falernis. 
Sunt et Aminaeae vites, firmissima vina, 
Tmolius adsurgit quibus et rex ipse Phanaeus ; 
Argitisque minor, eui non eertaverit uUa 
Aut tantum fluere aiit totidem durare per annos. 100 

Non ego te, Dis et mensis aeeepta seeundis, 
Transierim, Rhodia, et tumidis, Bumaste, raeemis. 
Sed neque, quam multae speeies, nee, nomina quae sint, 
Est numerus ; neque enim numero eomprendere refert ; 
Quem qui seire velit, Libyei velit aequoris idem 105 

Diseere quam multae Zephyro turbentur arenae, 
Aut, ubi navigiis violentior ineidit Eurus, 
Nosse, quot lonii veniant ad litora fluetus. 

Nee vero terrae ferre omnes omnia possunt 
Fluminibus saliees erassisque paludibus alni no 

Naseuntur, steriles saxosis montibus orni ; 
Litora myrtetis laetissima ; denique apertos 
Baeehus amat eolles, aquilonem et frigora taxi. 
Adspiee et extremis domitum eultoribus orbem, 
Eoasque domes Arabuto pietosque Gelonos. ns 

Divisae arboribus patriae : sola India nigrum 
Fert ebenum, solis est turea virga Sabaeis. 
Quid tibi odorato referam sudantia ligno 



GEORGICON LIB. II. lOI 

Balsamaque et baccas semper frondentis acanthi ? 

Quid nemora Aethiopum, molli canentia lana? 120 

Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres ? 

Aut quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos, 

Extremi sinus orbis, ubi aera vincere summum 

Arboris baud uUae jactu potuere sagittae ? 

Et gens ilia quidem sumptis non tarda pharetris. 125 

Media fert tristes sucos tardumque saporem 

Felicis mali, quo non praesentius ullum, 

Pocula si quando saevae infecere novercae 

Miscueruntque herbas et non innoxia verba, 

Auxilium venit, ac membris agit atra venena. 130 

Ipsa ingens arbos faciemque simillima lauro, 

Et, si non alium late jactaret odorem, 

Laurus erat ; folia baud ullis labentia ventis ; 

Flos ad prima tenax ; animas et olentia Medi 

Ora fovent illo et senibus medicantur anhelis. 135 

Sed neque Medorum silvae, ditissima terra, 
Nee pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus 
Laudibus Italiae certent, non Bactra, neque Indi, 
Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis arenis. 
Haec loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem 140 

Invertere satis immanis dentibus hydri. 
Nee galeis densisque virum seges horruit hastis ; 
Sed gravidae fruges et Bacchi Massicus humor 
Implevere ; tenent oleae armentaque laeta. 
Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert ; 14s 

Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges et maxima taurus 
Victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro, 
Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos. 
Hie ver adsiduum atque alienis mensibus aestas ; 
Bis gravidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos. 150 

At rabidae tigres absunt et saeva leonum 
Semina, nee miseros fallunt aconita legentes, 
Nee rapit immensos orbes per humum, neque tanto 
Squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis. 



I02 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborem, 155 

Tot congesta raanu praeruptis oppida saxis, 

Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros. 

An mare, quod supra, memorem, quodque alluit infra ? 

Anne lacus tantos, te, Lari maxime, teque, 

Fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens Benace marino ? 160 

An memorem portus Lucrinoque addita claustra 

Atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequor, 

Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso 

Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur aestus Avemis ? 

Haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla 165 

Ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit. 

Haec genus acre virum, Marsos, pubemque Sabellam, 

Adsuetumque malo Ligurem, Volscosque verutos 

Extulit, haec Decios, Marios, magnosque Camillos, 

Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maxime Caesar, 170 

Qui nunc extremis Asiae jam victor in oris 

Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 

Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 

Magna virum ; tibi res antiquae laudis et artis 

Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis, 17s 

Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen. 

Nunc locus arvorum ingeniis, quae robora cuique, 
Quis color, et quae sit rebus natura ferendis. 
Difficiles primum terrae collesque maligni, 
Tenuis ubi argilla et dumosis calculus arvis, 180 

Palladia gaudent silva vivacis olivae. 
Indicio est tractu surgens oleaster eodem 
Plurimus et strati baccis silvestribus agri. 
At quae pinguis humus dulcique uligine laeta, 
Quique frequens herbis et fertilis ubere campus — 185 

Qualem saepe cava montis convalle solemus 
Despicere ; hue summis liquuntur rupibus amnes, 
Felicemque trahunt limum — quique editus austro, 
Et filicem curvis invisam pascit aratris : 
Hie tibi praevalidas olim multoque fluentes 190 



GEORGICON LIB. II. IO3 

Sufficiet Baccho vites, hie fertilis uvae, 
Hie latieis, qualem patens libamus et auro, 
Inflavit quum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras 
Laneibus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta. 
Sin armenta magis studium vitulosque tueri, 195 

Aut fetus ovium, aut urentes eulta eapellas, 
Saltus et saturi petito longinqua Tarenti, 
Et qualem infelix amisit Mantua eampum, 
Paseentem niveos herboso flumine eycnos : 
Non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramina deerunt, »» 

Et, quantum longis earpent armenta diebus, 
Exigua tantum gelidus ros nocte reponet. 
Nigra fere et presso pinguis sub vomere terra, 
Et eui putre solum, — namque hoe imitamur arando — 
Optima frumentis ; non ullo ex aequore eernes 205 

Plura domum tardis decedere plaustra juveneis ; 
Aut unde iratus silvam devexit arator 
Et nemora evertit multos ignava per annos, 
Antiquasque domos avium eum stirpibus imis 
Emit ; illae altum nidis petiere relietis ; > aio 

At rudis enituit impulso vomere eampus. 
Nam jejuna quidem elivosi glarea ruris 
Vix humiles apibus easias roremque ministrat ; 
Et tofiis seaber, et nigris exesa ehelydris 
Creta negant alios aeque serpentibus agros 215 

Duleem ferre eibum et eurvas praebere latebras. 
Quae tenuem exhalat nebulam fumosque volueres, 
Et bibit humorem, et quum vult, ex se ipsa remittit, 
Quaque suo semper viridis se gramine vestit, 
Nee seabie et salsa laedit robigine ferrum, 320 

Ilia tibi laetis intexet vitibus ulmos, 
Ilia ferax oleae est, illam experiere eolendo 
Et faeilem peeori et patientem vomeris unei. 
Talem dives arat Capua et vicina Vesevo 
Ora jugo et vacuis Clanius non aequus Aeerris. 225 

Nune, quo quamque modo possis cognoscere, dicam. 



104 P- VIRGILII MARONIS 

Rara sit an supra morem si densa requires, 

Altera frumentis quoniam favet, altera Baccho, 

Densa magis Cereri, rarissima quaeque Lyaeo ; 

Ante locum capies oculis, alteque jubebis 230 

In solido puteum demitti, omnemque repones 

Rursus humum, et pedibus summas aequabis arenas. 

Si deerunt, rarum, pecorique et vitibus almis 

Aptius uber erit ; sin in sua posse negabunt 

Ire loca et scrobibus superabit terra repletis, ^35 

Spissus ager ; glaebas cunctantes crassaque terga 

Exspecta, et validis terram proscinde juvencis. 

Salsa autem tellus et quae perhibetur amara — 

Frugibus infelix ea, nee mansuescit arando, 

Nee Baccho genus, aut pomis sua nomina servat — 240 

Tale dabit specimen : tu spisso vimine qualos, 

Colaque prelorum fumosis deripe tectis ; 

Hue ager ille malus dulcesque a fontibus undae 

Ad plenum calcentur ; aqua eluctabitur omnis 

Scilicet, et grandes ibunt per vimina guttae ; 245 

At sapor indicium faciet manifestus, et ora 

Tristia tentantum sensu torquebit amaro. 

Pinguis item quae sit tellus, hoc denique pacto 

Discimus : baud umquam manibus jactata fatiscit, 

Sed picis in morem ad digitos lentescit habendo. 25° 

Humida majores herbas alit, ipsaque juste 

Laetior. Ah nimium ne sit mihi fertilis ilia, 

Neu se praevalidam primis ostendat aristis ! 

Quae gravis est, ipso tacitam se pondere prodit, • 

Quaeque levis. Promptum est oculis praediscere nigram, 255 

Et quis cui color. At sceleratum exquirere frigus 

Difficile est : piceae tantum taxique nocentes 

Interdum aut hederae pandunt vestigia nigrae. 

His animadversis, terram multo ante memento 
Excoquere et magnos scrobibus concidere montes, 260 

Ante supinatas aquiloni ostendere glaebas, 
Quam laetum infodias vitis genus. Optima putri 



GEORGICON LIB. II. 105 

Arva solo : id venti curant gelidaeque pruinae 

Et labefacta movens robustus jugera fossor. 

At, si quos baud ulla viros vigilantia fugit, 265 

Ante locum similem exquirunt, ubi prima paretur 

Arboribus seges, et quo mox digesta feratur, 

Mutatam ignorent subito ne seminamatrem. 

Quin etiam coeli regionem in cortice signant, 

Ut, quo quaeque modo steterit, qua parte calores 270 

Austrinos tulerit, quae terga obverterit axi, 

R.estituant : adeo in teneris consuescere multum est. 

Collibus an piano melius sit ponere vitem, 

Quaere prius. Si pinguis agros metabere campi, 

Densa sere ; in denso non segnior ubere Bacchus ; 275 

Sin tumulis acclive solum collesque supinos, 

Indulge ordinibus, nee secius omnis in unguem 

Arboribus positis secto via limite quadret. 

Ut saepe ingenti bello quum longa cohortes 

Explicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen aperto, 280 

Directaeque acies, ac late fluctuat omnis 

Aere renidenti tellus, necdum horrida miscent 

Proelia, sed dubius mediis Mars errat in armis ; 

Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa viarum ; 

Non animum modo uti pascat prospectus inanem, 285 

Sed quia non aliter vires dabit omnibus aequas 

Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt se extendere rami. 

Forsitan et scrobibus quae sint fastigia quaeras. 
Ausim vel tenui vitem committere sulco. 
Altior ac penitus terrae defigitur arbos, 290 

Aesculus in primis, quae, quantum vertice ad auras 
Aetherias, tantimi radice in Tartara tendit. 
Ergo non hiemes illam, non flabra, neque imbres 
Convellunt ; inmota manet, multosque nepotes, 
Multa virum volvens durando saecula vincit ; 295 

Tum fortes late ramos et brachia tendens 
Hue illuc, media ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram. 

Neve tibi ad solem vergant vineta cadentem ; 



I06 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Neve inter vites corylum sere ; neve flagella 

Summa pete, aut summa defringe ex arbore plantas ; 300 

Tantus amor terrae ; neu ferro laede retunso 

Semina ; neve oleae silvestris insere truncos : 

Nam saepe incautis pastoribus excidit ignis, 

Qui, furtim pingui primum sub cortice tectus, . 

Robora comprendit, frondesque elapsus in altas 305 

Ingentem coelo sonitum dedit ; inde secutus 

Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat, 

Et totimi involvit flammis nemus, et ruit atram 

Ad coelum picea crassus caligine nubem, 

Praesertim si tempestas a vertice silvis 310 

Incubuit, glomeratque ferens incendia ventus. 

Hoc ubi, non a stirpe valent caesaeque reverti 

Possunt atque ima similes revirescere terra ; 

Infelix superat foliis oleaster amaris. 

Nee tibi tam prudens quisquam persuadeat auctor 3^5 
Tellurem Borea rigidam spirante movere. 
Rura gelu tunc claudit hiems, nee semine jacto 
Concretam patitur radicem affigere terrae. 
Optima vinetis satio, quum vere rubenti 
Candida venit avis longis invisa colubris, 32© 

Prima vel autumni sub frigora, quum rapidus Sol 
Nondum hiemem contingit equis, jam praeterit aestas. 
Ver adeo frondi nemonmi, ver utile silvis, 
Vere tument terrae et genitalia semina poscunt 
Tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether 325 

Conjugis in gremium laetae descendit, et omnes 
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, fetus. 
Avia tum resonant avibus virgulta canoris, 
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebus ; 
Parturit almus ager, Zephyrique tepentibus auris 330 

Laxant arva sinus ; superat tener omnibus humor ; 
Inque novos soles audent se gramina tuto 
Credere ; nee metuit surgentis pampinus austros 
Aut actimi coelo magnis aquilonibus imbrem. 



GEORGICON LIB. IL 10 7 

Sed tnidit gemmas et frondes explicat omnes. 335 

Non alios prima crescentis origine mundi 

lUuxisse dies aliumve habuisse tenorem 

Crediderim : ver illud erat, ver magnus agebat 

Orbis, et hibernis parcebant flatibus Euri : 

Quum primae lucem pecudes hausere, virumque 340 

Ferrea progenies duns caput extulit arvis, 

Immissaeque ferae silvis et sidera coelo. 

Nee res hunc tenerae possent perferre laborem. 

Si non tanta quies iret frigusque caloremque 

Inter, et exciperet coeli indulgentia terras. 345 

Quod superest, quaecumque premes virgulta per agros, 
Sparge fimo pingui, et multa metfior occule terra, 
Aut lapidem bibulum, aut squalentes infode conchas, 
Inter enim labentur aquae, tenuisque subibit 
Halitus, atque animos tollent sata ; jamque reperti, 350 
Qui saxo super atque ingentis pondere testae 
Urguerent ; hoc eflfusos munimen ad imbres. 
Hoc ubi hiulca siti findit Canis aestifer arva. 

Seminibus positis, superest diducere terram 
. Saepius ad capita, et duros jactare bidentes, 355 

Aut presso exercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa 
Flectere luctantes inter vineta juvencos ; 
Turn leves calamos et rasae hastilia virgae 
Fraxineasque aptare sudes, furcasque valentes, 
Viribus eniti quarum et contemnere ventos 3^0 

Adsuescant, summasque sequi tabulata per ulmos. 

Ac dum prima novis adolescit frondibus aetas, 
Parcendum teneris, et, dum se laetus ad auras 
Palmes agit laxis per purum immissus habenis. 
Ipsa acie ndndum falcis tentanda, sed uncis 36s. 

Carpendae manibus frondes, interque legendae : 
Inde ubi jam validis amplexae stirpibus ulmos 
Exierint, tunc stringe comas, tunc brachia tonde ; 
Ante reformidant femim ; tum denique dura 
Exerce imperia, et ramos compesce fluentes. 370 



I08 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

« Texendae saepes etiam et pecus omne tenendum, 
Praecipue dum frons tenera imprudensque laborum ; 
Cui super indignas hiemes solemque potentem 
Silvestres uri adsidue capreaeque sequaces 
Illudunt, pascuntur oves avidaeque juvencae. 375 

Frigora nee tantum cana concreta pruina, 
Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus aestas, 
Quantum illi nocuere greges, durique venenum 
Dentis et admorso signata in stirpe cicatrix. 
Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omnibus aris 330 

Caeditur et veteres ineunt proscenia ludi, 
Praemiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circum 
Thesidae posuere, atque inter pocula laeti 
Mollibus in pratis unctos saluere per utres. 
Nee non Ausonii, Troja gens missa, coloni 3S5 

Versibus incomptis ludunt risuque soluto, 
Oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis, 
Et te, Bacche, vocant per carmina laeta, tibique 
Oscilla ex alta suspendunt moUia pinu. 
Hinc omnis largo pubescit vinea fetu, 300 

Cpmplentur vallesque cavae saltusque profundi, 
Et quocumque deus circum caput egit honestum. 
Ergo rite suum Baccho dicemus honorem 
Carminibus patriis lancesque et liba feremus, 
Et ductus cornu stabit sacer hircus ad aram, 39s 

Pinguiaque in veribus torrebimus exta colurnis. 

Est etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alter, 
Cui numquam exhausti satis est : namque omne quot annis 
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glaebaque versis 
Aeternum frangenda bidentibus ; omne levandum 400 

Fronde nemus. Redit agricolis labor actus in orbem, • 
Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus. 
Ac jam olim seras posuit quum vinea frondes 
Frigidus et silvis aquilo decussit honorem, 
Jam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annum 405 

Rusticus, et curvo Saturni dente relictam 



GEORGICON LIB. II. 109 

PersequituT vitem attondens fingitque putando. 

Primus humum fodito, primus devecta cremato 

Sarmenta, et vallos primus sub tecta referto ; 

Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingruit umbra ; 410 

Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus herbae ; 

Durus uterque labor : laudato ingentia rura, 

Exiguum colito. Nee non etiam aspera rusci 

Vimina per silvam, et ripis fluvialis arundo 

Caeditur, incultique exercet cura salicti. 41s 

Jam vinctae vites, jam falcem arbusta reponunt, 

Jam canit effectos extremus vinitor antes : 

SoUicitanda tamen tellus, pulvisque movendus, 

Et jam maturis metuendus Juppiter uvis. 

Contra non ulla est oleis cultura ; neque illae 420 

Procurvam exspectant falcem rastrosque tenaces, 
Quiun semel haeserunt arvi3 aurasque tulerunt ; 
Ipsa satis tellus, quum dente recluditur unco, 
Sufficit humorem et gravidas cum vomere fruges ; 
Hoc pinguem et placitam Paci nutritor olivam. 435 

Poma quoque, ut primum truncos sensere valentes 
Et vires habuere suas, ad sidera raptim 
Vi propria nituntur opisque haud indiga nostrae. 
Nee minus interea fetu nemus omne gravescit, 
Sanguineisque inculta rubent aviaria baccis : 430 

Tondentur cytisi, taedas silva alta ministrat, 
Pascunturque ignes noctumi et lumina fundunt : 
Et dubitant homines serere atque impendere curam ? 
Quid majora sequar? salices humilesque genestae, 
Aut illae pecori frondem aut pastoribus umbras 43s 

Sufficiunt, saepemque satis et pabula melli. 
Et juvat undantem buxo spectare Cytorum 
Naryeiaeque picis lucos, juvat arva videre 
Non rastris, hominum non ulli obnoxia curae. 
Ipsae Caucasio steriles in vertice silvae, 440 

Quas animosi Euri adsidue franguntque feruntque, 
Dant alios aliae fetus, dant utile lignum 



no p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrumque cupressosque ; 
Hinc radios trivere rotis, hinc tympana plaustris 
Agricolae, et pandas ratibus posuere carinas ; 445 

Viminibus salices fecundae, frondibus ulmi, 
At myrtus validis hastilibus et bona bello 
Comus ; Ituraeos taxi torquentur in arcus ; 
Nee tiliae leves aut tomo rasile buxum 
Non formam accipiunt ferroque cavantur acuto ; 450 

Nee non et torrentem undam levis innatat alnus, 
Missa Pado ; nee non et apes examina condunt 
Corticibusque cavis vitiosaeque ilicis alveo. 
, Quid memorandum aeque Baccheia dona tulerunt? 
Bacchus et ad culpam caussas dedit : ille furentes 4ss 

Centauros leto domuit,.Rhoetumque Pholumque 
Et magno Hylaeum Lapithis cratere minantem. 

O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 
Agricolas, quibus ipsa, procul discordibus armis, 
Fundit humo facilem victum justissima tellus ! 460 

Si non ingentem foribus domus alta superbis 
Mane salutantum totis vomit aedibus undam, 
Nee varios inhiant pulchra testudine postes, 
lUusasque auro vestes, Ephyreiaque aera, 
Alba neque Assyrio fucatur lana veneno, 46s 

Nee casia liquidi comimpitur usus olivi : 
At secura quies et nescia fallere vita, 
Dives opum variarum, at latis otia fundis, 
Speluncae, vivique lacus, at frigida Tempe, 
Mugitusque boum, moUesque sub arbore somni 470 

Non absunt ; illic sahus ac lustra ferarum, 
Et patiens operum exiguoque adsueta juventus, 
Sacra deum, sanctique patres ; extrema per illos 
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit 

Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musae, 475 

Quarum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore, 
Accipiant, coelique vias et sidera monstrent, 
Defectus solis varios, lunaeque labores, 



GEORGICON LIB. II. Ill 

Unde tremor terns, qua vi maria alta tumescant 

Objidbus ruptis rursusque in se ipsa residant, 480 

Quid tantum Oceano properent se tinguere soles 

Hiberai, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet. 

Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partes, 

Frigidus obstiterit circum praecordia sanguis, 

Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes ; 485 

Flumina amem silvasque inglorius. O, ubi campi 

Spercheusque, et virginibus bacchata Lacaenis 

Taygeta ! o, qui me gelidis convallibus Haemi 

Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra ! 

Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere caussas, 490 

Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum 

Subjecit pedibus strepitumque Acheron tis avari ! 

Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agtestes, 

Panaque Silvanumque senem Nymphasque sorores ! 

Ilium non populi fasces, non purpura regum 495 

Flexit et infidos agitans discordia fratres, 

Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab Histro, 

Non res Romanae perituraque regna ; neque ille 

Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti. 

Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura 500 

Sponte tulere sua, carpsit, nee ferrea jura 

Insanumque forum aut populi tabularia vidit 

SoUicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque 

In femim, penetrant aulas et limina regum ; 

Hie petit exscidiis urbem miserosque Penates, 505 

Ut gemma bibat et ^arrano dormiat ostro ; 

Condit opes alius, defossoque incubat auro ; 

Hie stupet attonitus Rostris ; hunc plausus hiantem 

Per cuneos geminatus enim plebisque patrumque 

Corripuit ; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum, 5«> 

Exsilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant, 

Atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole jacentem. 

Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro : 

Hinc anni labor, hinc patriam parvosque Penates 



112 P. VIRGILII MARONIS GEORGICON LIB. II. 

Sustinet, hinc armenta boum meritosque juvencos. 5x5 

Nee requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus, 

Aut fetu pecorum, aut Cerealis mergite culmi, 

Proventuque oneret sulcos atque horrea vincat 

Venit hiems : teritur Sicyonia bacca trapetis, 

Glande sues laeti redeunt, dant arbuta silvae ; 5«> 

Et varies ponit fetus autumnus, et alte 

Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis. 

Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati, 

Casta pudicitiam servat domus, ubera vaccae 

Lactea demittunt, pinguesque in gramine laeto 525 

Inter se adversis luctantur comibus haedL 

Ipse dies agitat festos, fususque per herbam, 

Ignis ubi in medio et socii cratera coronant, 

Te, libans, Lenaee, vocat, pecorisque magistris - 

Velocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo, 530 

Corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae. 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, 

Hanc Remus et frater, sic fortis Etruria crevit 

Scilicet, et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma, 

Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. 535 

Ante etiam sceptrum Dictaei regis, et ante 

Impia quam caesis gens est epulata juvencis. 

Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat : * 

Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum 

Impositos duns crepitare incudibus enses. 540 

Sed nos immensum spatiis confecimus aequor, 
Et jam tempus equum fumantia solvere coUa. 



p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

AENEIS. 

LIBER I. 

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris 
Italiam, fato profugus, Lavinaque venit 
Litora, multum ille et terris jactatus et alto 
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram, 
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem, 
Inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum 
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae. 4 

Musa, mihi caussas memora, quo numine laeso, 
Quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus 
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores 
Impulerit Tantaene animis coelestibus irae ? y 

Urbs antiqua« fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni, ^ 
Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe 
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli ; 
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 
Posthabita coluisse Samo ; hie illius arma, 
Hie eumis fuit ; hoe regnum dea gentibus esse, 
Si qua fata sinant, jam tum tenditque fovetque. 
Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci 
Audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces ; 
Hine populum late regem belloque superbum 
Venturum exscidio Libyae : sic volvere Parcas. 
Id metuens veterisque memor Satumia belli, 
Prima quod ad Trojam pro caris gesserat Argis — 

8 



114 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Necdum etiam caussae irarum saevique dolores 25 

Exciderant animo : manet alta mente repostum 

Judicium Paridis spretaeque injuria formae, 

Et genus invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores ; 

His accensa super jactatos aequore toto 

Troas reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli, 30 

Arcebat longe Latio, multosque per annos 

Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum. 

Tantae molis erat Roman am condere gentem. 

Vix e conspectu Siculae telluris in altum 
Vela dabant laeti, et spumas salis aere ruebant, 35 

Cum Juno, aetemum servans sub pectore vulnus, 
Haec secum : Mene incepto desistere victam, 
Nee posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ? 
Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere classem 
Argivum atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto, 40 

Unius ob noxam et furias Ajacis Oilei ? 
Ipsa, Jovis rapidum jaculata e nubibus ignem, 
Disjecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis, 
Ilium exspirantem transfixo pectore flammas 
Turbine corripuit scopuloque infixit acuto ; 45 

Ast ego, quae divum incedo regina, Jovisque 
Et soror et conjux, una cum gente tot annos 
Bella gero. Et quisquam numen Junonis adorat 
Praeterea, aut supplex aris imponit honorem ? 

Talia flammato secum dea corde vplutans 50 

Nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austris, 
Aeoliam venit. Hie vasto rex Aeolus antro 
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras 
Imperio premit ac vinclis et carcere frenat. 
lUi indignantes magno cum murmure montis ss 

Circum claustra fremunt ; celsa sedet Aeolus arce 
Sceptra tenens, moUitque animos et temperat iras ; 
Ni faciat, maria ac terras coelumque profundum 
Quippe ferant rapidi secum verrantque.per auras. • 
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris, 60 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. IIS 

Hoc metuens, molemque et montes insuper altos 
Imposuit, regemque dedit, qui foedere certo 
Et premere et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas. 
Ad quem turn Juno supplex his vocibus "usa est : 

Aeole, namque tibi divum pater atque hominum rex 65 
Et mulcere dedit fluctus et toUere vento, 
Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor, 
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penates : 
Incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes, 
Aut age diversos et disjice corpora ponto. 70 

Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae, 
Quarum quae forma pulcherrima Deiopea, 
Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo, 
Omnes ut tecum mentis pro talibus annos 
Exigat et pulchra faciat te prole parentem. 75 

Aeolus haec contra : Tuus, o regina, quid optes, 
Explorare labor ; mihi jussa capessere fas est. 
Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Jovemque 
Concilias, tu das epulis accumbere divum, 
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem. &> 

Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem 
Impulit in latus : ac venti, velut agmine facto. 
Qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant. 
Incubuere mari, totiunque a sedibus imis 
Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis 85 

Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus. 
Insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum. 
Eripiunt subito nubes coelumque diemque 
Teucrorum ex oculis ; ponto nox incubat atra. 
Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus aether, 90 

Praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem. 
Extemplo Aeneae solvuntur frigore membra ; 
Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad sidera palmas 
Talia voce refert : O terque quaterque beati, 
Quis ante ora patrum Trojae sub moenibus altis 95 

Contigit oppetere ! o Danaum fortissime gentis 



Il6 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Tydide ! mene Iliads occumbere campis 
Non potuisse tuaque animam hanc eflfundere dextra, 
Saevus ubi Aeacidae telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens 
Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis xoo 

Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit ? 

Talia jactanti stridens Aquilone procella 
Velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera toUit. 
Franguntur remi ; turn prora avertit, et undis 
Dat latus ; insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons. 105 
Hi summo in fluctu pendent ; his unda dehiscens 
Terram inter fluctus aperit ; furit aestus arenis. 
Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet — 
Saxa vocant Itali mediis quae in fluctibus Aras — 
Dorsum immane mari summo ; tres Eurus ab alto no 

In brevia et Syrtes urguet — miserabile visu — 
Illiditque vadis atque aggere cingit arenae. 
Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten, 
Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus 
In puppim ferit : excutitur pronusque magister 115 

Volvitur in caput ; ast illam ter fluctus ibidem 
Torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat aequore vertex. 
Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto, 
Arma virum, tabulaeque, et Troia gaza per undas. 
Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Achatae, xio 

Et qua vectus Abas, et qua grandaevus Aletes, 
Vicit hiems ; laxis laterum compagibus omnes 
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. 

Interea magno misceri murmure pontum, 
Emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus et imis 123 

Stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus : et alto 
Prospiciens, summa placidum caput extulit unda. 
Disjectam Aeneae toto videt aequore classem, 
Fluctibus oppressos Troas coelique ruina, 
Nee latuere doli fratrem Junonis et irae. 130 

Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehinc talia fatur : 

Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri ? • 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. II7 

Jam coelum terramque meo sine numine, Venti, 

Miscere, et tantas audetis tollere moles ? 

Quos ego — ! Sed motos praestat componere fluctus. 135 

Post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis. 

Maturate fiigam, regique haec dicite vestro : 

Non illi imperium pelagi saevumque tridentem, 

Sed mihi sorte datimi. Tenet ille immania saxa, 

Vestras, Eure, domos ; ilia se jactet in aula 140 

Aeolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet 

Sic ait, et dicto citius tumida aequora placat, 
Collectasque fugat nubes solemque reducit. 
Cymothoe simul et Triton adnixus acuto 
Detrudunt naves scopulo ; levat ipse tridenti ; 14s 

Et vastas aperit Syrtes, et temperat aequor, 
Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas. 
Ac veluti magno in populo quum saepe coorta est 
Seditio, saevitque aniihis ignobile vulgus, 
Jamque faces et saxa volant — furor arma ministrat — 150 
Tum, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem 
Conspexere, silent arrectisque auribus adstant j 
IllO' regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet : 
Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, aequora postquam 
Prospiciens genitor coeloque invectus aperto 155 

Flectit equos curruque volans dat lora secundo. 

Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursu 
Contendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras. 
Est in secessu longo locus : insula portum 
Efficit objectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto x6o 

Frangitur' inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos ; 
Hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique minantur 
In coelum scopuli, quorum sub vertice late 
Aequora tuta silent ; tum silvis scena coruscis 
Desuper horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbra ; 165 
Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrum, 
Intus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxo, 
Nympharum domus : hie fessas non vincula naves 



Xl8 P. VIRGILII MAROKIS 

Ulla tenent, unco non alligat ancora morsu. 

Hue septem Aeneas collectis navibus omni 170 

Ex numero subit ; ac magno telluris amore 

Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena 

Et sale tabentes artus in litore ponunt. 

Ac primum silici scintillana excudit Achates 

Succepitque ignem foliis atque arida circum 175 

Nutrimenta dedit rapuitque in fomite flammam. 

Turn Cererem corruptam undis Cerealiaque anna 

Expediunt fessi rerum, frugesque receptas 

Et torrere parant flammis et frangere saxo. 

Aeneas scopulum interea conscendit et omnem 180 

Prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quem 
Jactatum vento videat Phrygiasque biremes, 
Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caici. 
Navem in conspectu nullam, tres litore cervos 
Prospicit errantes ; hos tota armenta sequuntur 185 

A tergo, et longum per valles pascitur agmen. 
Constitit hie, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas 
Corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Achates, 
Ductoresque ipsos primum, capita alta ferentes 
Cornibus arboreis, sternit, turn vulgus, et omnem 190 

Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam ; 
Nee prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victor 
Corpora fundat humi et numerum cum navibus aequet 
Hine portum petit, et soeios partitur in omnes. 
Vina bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acestes 195 

Litore Trinacrio dederatque abeuntibus heros, 
Dividit, et dictis maerentia pectora muleet : 

O socii, — neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum — 
O passi graviora, dabit deus his quoque finem. 
Vos et Scyllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantes «» 

Aceestis scopulos, vos et Cyclopia saxa 
Experti : revocate animos, maestumque timorem 
Mittite : forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit 
Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. II9 

Tendimus in Latium, sedes ubi fata quietas aos 

Ostendunt ; illic fas regna resurgere Trojae. 
Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis. 

Talia voce refert, curisque ingentibus aeger 
Spem vidtu simulat, preinit altum corde dolorem. 
lUi se praedae accingunt dapibusque futuris : axo 

Tergora deripiunt costis et viscera nudant ; 
Psurs in frusta secant veribusque trementia figunt ; 
Litore aena locant alii, flammasque ministrant. 
Tiirn victu revocant vires, fusique per herbam 
Implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque ferinae. 2x5 

Postquam exempta fames epulis mensaeque remotae, 
Amissos longo socios sermone requirunt, 
Spemque metumque inter dubii, seu vivere credant, 
Sive extrema pati nee jam exaudire vcx^atos. 
Praecipue pius Aeneas nunc acris Oronti, aao 

Nunc Amyci casum gemit et crudelia secum 
Fata Lyci, fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum. 

Et jam finis erat, quum Juppiter aethere summo 
Despiciens mare veHvolum terrasque jacentes 
Litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice coeli aas 

Constitit et Libyae defixit lumina regnis. 
Atque illimi tales jactantem pectore curas 
Tristior et lacrimis oculos sufiusa nitentes 
Alloquitur Venus : O qui res hominumque deumque 
Aetemis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres, 230 

Quid mens Aeneas in te committere tantum. 
Quid Troes potuere, quibus, tot fimera passis, 
Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis ? 
Certe hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annls, 
Hinc fore ductores, revoeato a sanguine Teucri, 235 

Qui mare, qui terras onmi ditione tenerent, 
Pollicitus, quae te, genitor, sententia vertit ? 
Hoc equidem occasimi Trojae tristesque ruinas 
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens ; 
Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 340 



I20 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Insequitur. Quern das finem, rex magne, laborum ? 

Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivisj 

Illyricos penetrate sinus atque intima tutus 

Regna Liburaorum, et fontem superare Timavi, 

Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure mentis »4s 

It mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti. 

Hie tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit 

Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit 

Troia, nunc placida compostus pace quiescit : 

Nos tua progenies, coeli quibus adnuis arcem, 250 

Navibus — infandum ! — amissis, unius ob iram 

Prodimur atque I talis longe disjungimur oris. 

Hie pietatis honos ? sic nos in sceptra reponis ? 

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum 
Vultu, quo coelum tempestatesque serenat, 255 

Oscula libavit natae, dehinc talia fatur : 
Parce metu, Cytherea, manent immota tuorum 
Fata tibi : cemes urbem et promissa Lavini 
Moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera coeli 
Magnanimum Aenean ; neque me sententia vertit. a6o 

Hie tibi — fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet, 
Longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo — 
Bellum ingens geret Italia populosque feroces 
Contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, 
Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas, ^5 

Temaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. 
At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen lulo 
Additur, — Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno — 
Triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbes 
Imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 270 

Transferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. 
Hie jam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 
Gente sub Hectorea, donee regina sacerdos 
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 
Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 275 

Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. 121 

Moenia Romanesque suo de nomine dicet 

His ego nee metas rerum nee tempora pono ; 

Imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Juno, 

Quae mare nunc terrasque metu coelumque fatigat, 280 

Consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit 

Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatara. 

Sic placitum. Veniet lustris labentibus aetas, 

Quum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 

Servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis. 285 

Nascetur pulchra Trojanus origine Caesar, 

Imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris, 

Julius, a magno demissum nomen lulo. 

Hunc tu olim coelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 

Accipies secura ; vocabitur hie quoque votis. 290 

Aspera tum positis mitescent secula bellis ; 

Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 

Jura dabunt ; dirae ferro et compagibus artis 

Claudentur Belli portae ; Furor impius. intus 

Saeva sedens super arma et centum vinctus aenis 295 

Post tergum nodis fremet horridus ore cruento. 

Haec ait, et Maia genitum demittit ab alto, 
Ut terrae, utque novae pateant Karthaginis arces 
Hospitio Teucris, ne fati nescia Dido 
Finibus arceret Volat ille per aera magnum 300 

Remigio alarum, ac Libyae citus adstitit oris. 
Et jam jussa facit, ponuntque ferocia Poeni 
Corda volente deo ; in primis regina quietum 
Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam. 

At pius Aeneas, per noctem plurima volvens, 305 

Ut primum lux alma data est, exire locosque 
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras. 
Qui terieant, nam inculta videt, hominesne feraene, 
Quaerere constituit, sociisque exacta referre. 
Classem in convexo nemorum sub rupe cavata 310 

Arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris 
Occulit j ipse uno graditur comitatus Achate, 



122 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro. 

Cui mater media sese tulit obvia silva, 

Virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma, 315 

Spartanae, vel qualis equos Threissa fatigat 

Harpalyce volucremque fuga praevertitur Hebrum. 

Namque humeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum 

Venatrix, dederatque comam diffundere ventis, 

Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentes. 320 

Ac prior, Heus, inquit, juvenes, mdnstrate, mearum 

Vidistis si quam hie errantem forte sororum, 

Succinctam pharetra et maculosae tegmine lyncis, 

Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem. 

Sic Venus ; et Veneris contra sic filius orsus : 32s 

Nulla tuarum audita mihi neque visa sororum, 
O — quam te memorem, virgo ? namque baud tibi vultus 
Mortalis, nee vox hominem sonat : o, dea certe ; 
An Phoebi soror ? an Nympharum sanguinis una ? 
Sis felix, nostrumque leves, quaecumque, laborem, 330 

Et, quo sub coelo tandem, quibus orbis in oris 
Jactemur, doceas : ignari hominumque locorumque 
Erramus, vento hue vastis et fluctibus acti : 
Multa tibi ante aras nostra cadet hostia dextra. 

Tum Venus : Haud equidem tali me dignor honore ; 33s 
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram, 
Purpureoque alte suras vincire cothumo. 
Punica regna vides, Tyrios et Agenoris urbem j 
Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello. 
Imperium Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta, 340 

Germanum fugiens. Longa est injuria, longae 
Ambages ; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum. 
Huic conjux Sychaeus erat, ditissimus agri 
Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore, 
Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque jugarat 345 

Ominibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat 
Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnes. 
Quos inter medius venit furor. lUe Sychaeum 



AENEIDOS Lia I. 1 23 

Impius ante aras atque auri caecus amore 

Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum 350 

Germanae ; factumque diu celavit, et aegram, 

Multa malus simulans,* vana spe lusit amantem. 

Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago 

Conjugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris ; 

Cnideles aras trajectaque pectgra ferro 35s 

Nudavit, caecumque domus scelus omne retexit 

Tum celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, 

Auxiliumque viae veteres tellure recludit 

Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. 

His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat 3^ 

Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni 

Aut metus acer erat ; naves, quae forte paratae, 

Corripiunt, onerantque auro ; portantur avari 

Pygmalionis opes pelago ; dux femina facti. 

Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cemis 365 

Moeriia surgentemque novae Karthaginis arcem, 

Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, 

Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. 

Sed vos qui tandem, quibus aut venistis ab oris, 

Quove tenetis iter ? Quaerenti talibus ille 370 

Suspirans imoque trahens a pectore vocem : 

O dea, si prima repetens ab origine pergam, 
Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laborum, 
Ante diem clauso componat Vesper Olympo. 
Nos Troja antiqua, si vestras forte per aures 373 

Trojae nomen iit,- diversa per aequora vectos 
Forte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris. 
Sum plus Aeneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates 
Classe veho mecum, fama super aethera notus. 
Italiam quaero patriam et genus ab Jove summo. 380 

Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus aequor, 
Matre dea monstrante viam, data fata secutus ; 
Vix septem convulsae undis Euroque supersunt 
Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyae deserta peragro, 



124 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Europa atque Asia pulsus. Nee plura querentem 385 

Passa Venus medio sic interfata dolore est : 

Quisquis es, baud, credo, invisus coelestibus auras 
Vitales carpis, T)niam qui adveneris urbem. 
Perge mode, atque hinc te reginae ad limina perfer. 
Namque tibi reduces socios classemque relatam 300 

Nun tic et in tutum versis aquilonibus actam, 
Ni frustra augiuium vani docuere parentes. 
Ad spice bis senos laetantes agmine cycnos, 
Aetheria quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales aperto 
Turbabat coelo ; nunc terras ordine longo 395 

Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur : 
Ut reduces illi ludunt stridentibus alis, 
Et coetu cinxere polum, cantusque dedere, 
Haud aliter puppesque tuae pubesque tuorum 
Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit ostia velo. 400 

Perge modo, et, qua te ducit via, dirige gressum. 

Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refulsit, 
Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere, pedes vestis defluxit ad imos, 
Et vera incessu patuit dea. Ille ubi matrem 405 

Agnovit, tali fugientem est voce secutus : 
Quid natum toties, crudelis tu quoque, falsis 
Ludis imaginibus ? cur dextrae jungere dextram 
Non datur ac veras audire et reddere voces ? 
Talibus incusat, gressumque ad moenia tendit 410 

At Venus obscuro gradientes aere saepsit, 
Et multo nebulae circum dea fudit amictu, 
Cernere ne quis cos, neu quis contingere posset, 
Molirive moram, aut veniendi poscere caussas. 
Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit, sedesque revisit 415 

Laeta suas, ubi templum illi, centumque Sabaeo 
Ture calent arae sertisque recentibus halant 

Corripuere viam interea, qua semita monstrat. 
Jamque ascendebant coUem, qui plurimus urbi 
Imminet adversasque adspectat desuper arces. 4*0 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. 12$ 

Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam, 

Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum. 

Instant ardentes Tyrii, pars ducere muros 

Molirique arcem et manibus subvblvere saxa, 

Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco ; 4*5 

Jura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatum ; 

Hie portus alii effodiunt : hie alta theatri 

Fundamenta loeant alii, immanesque eolumnas 

Rupibus exeidunt, seenis deeora alta futuris. 

Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura 430 

Exereet sub sole labor, quum gentis adultos 

Educunt fetus, aut quimi liquentia mella 

Stipant et dulei distendunt neetare cellas, 

Aut onera aeeipiunt venientum, aut agmine faeto 

Ignavum fueos peeus a praesepibus arcent : 435 

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. 

O fortunati, quorum jam moenia surgunt 1 

Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspieit urbis. 

Infert se saeptus nebula — mirabile dietu — 

Per medios, miseetque viris, neque eemitur ulli. 440 

Lucus in urbe fuit media, laetissimus umbrae, 
Quo primum jaetati undis et turbine Poeni 
Eflfodere loeo signiun, quod regia Juno 
Monstrarat, caput aeris equi : sic nam fore bello 
Egregiam et faeilem vietu per saeeula gentem. 445 

Hie templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido 
Condebat, donis bpulentum et numine divae, 
Aerea cui gradibus surgebant limina nexaeque 
Aere trabes, foribus eardo stridebat aenis. 
Hoe primum in lueo nova res oblata timorem 450 

Leniit, hie primum Aeneas sperare salutem 
Ausus et afflictis melius eonfidere rebus. 
Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 
Reginam opperiens, dum, quae Fortuna sit urbi, 
Artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem 45s 

Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas 



126 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Bellaque jam fama totum vulgata per orbem, 

Atridas, Priamumque, et saevum ambobus Achillen. 

Constitit, et lacrimans, Quis jam locus, inquit, Achate^ 

Quae regio in terns nostri non plena laboris ? 460 

£n Priamus. Sunt hie etiam sua praemia laudi ; 

Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt 

Solve metus ; feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem. 

Sic ait, atque animum pictura j^scit inani, 

Multa gemens, largoque humectat flumine vultum. 46s 

Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum 

Hac fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventus, 

Hac Phryges, instaret curru cristatus Achilles. 

Nee procul hinc Rhesi niveis tentoria velis 

Agnoscit lacrimans, prime quae prodita somno 470 

Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus, 

Ardentesque avertit equos in castra, prius quam 

Pabula gustassent Trojae Xanthumque bibissent 

Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis, 

Infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli, 47s 

Fertur equis, curruque haeret resupinus inani, 

Lora tenens tamen ; huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur 

Per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. 

Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant 

Crinibus Iliades passis peplumque ferebant, 480 

Suppliciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis ; 

Diva solo fixos 6culos aversa tenebat. 

Ter circum Iliacos raptaverat Hectora muros, 

Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles. 

Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo, 485 

Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici, 

Tendentemque manus Priamum conspexit inermes. 

Se quoque principibus permixtum agnovit Achivis, • 

Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 

Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 490 

Penthesilea furens, mediisque in milibus ardet, 

Aurea subnectens exsertae cingula mammae, 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. 12 J 

Bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere virgo. 

Haec dum Dardanio Aeneae miranda videntur, 
Dum stupet, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno, . 495 

Regina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido, 
Incessit, magna juvenum stipante caterva. 
Qualis in Eurotae ripis aut per juga Cynthi 
Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutae 
Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ; ilia pharetram 500 
Fert humero, gradiensque deas supereminet omnes ; 
Latonae tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus : 
Talis erat Dido, talem se laeta ferebat 
Per medios, instans operi regnisque futuris. 
Turn foribus divae, media testudine templi, S05 

Saepta armis, solioque alte subnixa resedit. 
Jura dabat legesque viris, operumque laborem 
Partibus aequabat justis, aut sorte trahebat : 
Quum subito Aeneas concursu accedere magno 
Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum, 5x0 

Teucrorumque alios, ater quos aequore turbo 
Dispulerat penitusque alias avexerat oras. 
Obstupuit simul ipse simul perculsus Achates 
Laetitiaque metuque ; avidi conjungere dextras 
Ardebant ; sed res animos incognita turbat 515 

Dissimulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti. 
Quae fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquant, 
Quid veniant ; cunctis nam lecti navibus ibant, 
Orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebant. 

Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi, s^ 

Maximus Ilioneus placido sic pectore coepit : 
O Regina, novam cui condere Juppiter urbem 
Justitiaque dedit gentes frenare superbas, 
Troes te miseri, ventis maria omnia vecti, 
Oramus, prohibe infandos a navibus ignes, 52* 

Parce pio generi, et propius res adspice nostras. 
Non nos aut ferro Libycos populare Penates 
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere praedas ; 



128 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Non ea vis animo, nee tanta superbia victis. 

Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt, 530 

Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glaebae j 

Oenotri coluere viri ; nunc fama, minores 

Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem. 

Hie cursus fuit : 

Quum subito adsurgens fluetu nimbosus Orion 53s 

In vada eaeea tulit, penitusque proeaeibus austris 

Perque undas, superante salo, perque invia saxa 

Dispulit ; hue pauci vestris adnavimus oris. 

Quod genus hoe hominum? quaeve hune tam barbaramorem 

Permittit patria ? hospitio prohibemur arenae ; 540 

Bella eient, primaque vetant eonsistere terra. 

Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, 

At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi. 

Rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo justior alter. 

Nee pietate fuit nee bello major et armis. 54s 

Quem si fata virum servant, si veseitur aura 

Aetheria, neque adhue erudelibus oeeubat umbris, 

Non metus ; officio nee te eertasse priorem 

Poeniteat. Sunt et Sieulis regionibus urbes 

Armaque,Trojanoque a sanguine clams Acestes. 550 

Quassatam ventis liceat subducere classem, 

Et silvis aptare trabes et stringere remos. 

Si datur Italiam, sociis et rege recepto, 

Tendere, ut Italiam laeti Latiumque petamus, 

Sin absumpta salus, et te, pater optime Teuerum, 555 

Pontus habet Libyae, nee spes jam restat luli. 

At freta Sicaniae saltem sedesque paratas, 

Unde hue advecti, regemque petamus Acesten. 

Talibus Ilioneus ; cuneti simul ore fremebant 

Dardanidae. 560 

Tum breviter Dido, vultum demissa, profatur : 
Solvite corde metum, Teucri, seeludite curas. 
Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt 
Moliri, et late fines custode tueri. 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. 1 29 

Quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem, 5^5 

Virtutesque virosque, aut tanti incendia belli ? 

Non obtunsa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, 

Nee tain aversus equos Tyria Sol jungit ab urbe. 

Seu vos Hesperiam magnam Satumiaque arva, 

Sive Erycis fines regemque optatis Acesten, s?© 

Auxilio tutos dimittam, opibusque juvabo. 

Vultis et his mecum pariter considere regnis ? 

Urbem quam statuo, vestra est ; subducite naves ; 

Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. 

Atque utinam rex ipse Noto compulsus eodem 575 

Aflforet Aeneas ! Equidem per litora certos 

Dimittam et Libyae lust rare extrema jubebo, 

Si quibus ejectus silvis aut urbibus errat. 

His animum arrecti dictis et fortis Achates 
Et pater Aeneas jamdudum erumpere nubem 580 

Ardebant. Prior Aenean compellat Achates : 
Nate dea, quae nunc animo sententia surgit ? 
Omnia tuta vides, classem sociosqu^ receptos. 
Unus abest, medio in fluctu quem vidimus ipsi 
Submersum ; dictis respondent cetera matris. 585 

Vix ea fatus erat, quum circumfusa repente 
Scindit se nubes et in aethera purgat apertum. 
Restitit Aeneas claraque in luce refulsit, 
Os humerosque deo similis ; namque ipsa decoram 
Caesariem nato genetrix lumenque juventae S7«> 

Purpureum et laetos oculis afflarat honores : 
Quale manus addunt ebori decus, aut ubi flavo 
Argentum Pariusve lapis circimidatur auro. 
Tum sic reginam alloquitur, cunctisque repente 
Tnprovisus ait : Coram, quem quaeritis, adsum, sos 

Troius Aeneas, Libycis ereptus ab undis. 
O sola infandos Trojae miserata labores, 
Quae nos, reliquias Danaum, terraeque marisque 
Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omnium egenos, 
Urbe, domo, socias, grates persolvere dignas 600 



130 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Non opis est nostrae, Dido, nee quidquid ubique est 

Gentis Dardaniae, magnum quae sparsa per orbem. 

Di tibi, si qua pios respectant numina, si quid 

Usquam justitia est et mens sibi conscia recti, 

Praemia digna ferant. Quae te tam laeta tulerunt 605 

Saecula ? qui tanti talem genuere parentes ? 

In freta dum fluvii current, dum montibus umbrae 

Lustrabunt convexa, polus dum sidera pascet. 

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt, 

Quae me cumque vocant terrae. Sic fatus, amicum 610 

Ilionea petit dextra, laevaque Serestum, 

Post alios, fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum. 

Obstupuit primo adspectu Sidonia Dido, 
Casu deinde viri tanto, et sic ore locuta est : 
Quiste, nate dea, per tanta pericula casus 615 

Insequitur ? quae vis immanibus applicat oris ? 
Tune ille Aeneas, quem Dardanio Anchisae 
Alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam ? 
Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire 
Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem 620 

Auxilio Beli ; genitor tum Belus opimam 
Vastabat Cyprum, et victor ditione tenebat. 
Tempore jam ex illo casus mihi cognitus urbis 
Trojanae nomenque tuum regesque Pelasgi. 
Ipse hostis Teucros insigni laude ferebat, 625 

Seque ortum antiqua Teucrorum ab stirpe volebat. 
Qmare agite, o tectis, juvenes, succedite nostris. 
Me quoque per multos similis fortuna labores 
Jactatam hac demum voluit consistere terra. 
Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco. 630 

Sic memorat ; simul Aenean in regia ducit 
Tecta, simul divum templis indicit honorem. 
Nee minus interea sociis ad litora mittit 
Viginti tauros, magnorum horrentia centum 
Terga suum, pingues centum cum matribus agnos, 635 

Munera laetitiamque dei. 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. I3I 

At domus interior regali splendida luxu 

Instniitur, mediisque parant convivia tectis : 

Arte laboratae vestes ostroque superbo, 

Ingen3 argentum mensis, caelataque in auro 640 

Fortia facta patnim, series longissima rerum 

Per tot ducta viros antiquae ab origine gentis. 

Aeneas — neque enim patrius consistere mentem 
Passus amor — rapidum ad naves praemittit Achaten, 
Ascanio ferat ha6c, ipsnmque ad moenia ducat ; 645 

Omnis in Ascanio cari stat cura parentis. 
Munera praeterea, Iliacis erepta minis, 
Ferre jubet, pallam' signis auroque rigentem, 
Et circumtextum croceo velamen acantho, 
Omatus Argivae Helenae, quos ilia Mycenis, 650 

Pergama quum peteret inconcessosque Hymenaeos, 
Extulerat, matris Ledae mirabile donum : 
Praeterea sceptrum, Ilione quod gesserat olim, 
Maxima natarum Priami, colloque monile 
Baccatum, et duplicem gemmis auroque coronam. 655 

Haec celerans iter ad naves tendebat Achates. 

At Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore versat 
Consilia, ut faciem mutatus et ora Cupido 
Pro dulci Ascanio veniat, donisque furentem • 
Incendat reginam, atque ossibus implicet ignem ; 660 

Quippe domum timet ambiguam Tyriosque bilingues ; 
Urit atrox Juno, et sub noctem cura recursat. 
Ergo his aligerum dictis afFatur Amorem : 
Nate, meae vires, mea magna potentia solus, 
Nate, patris summi qui tela Typhoia temnis, 665 

Ad te confiigio et supplex tua numina posco. 
Frater ut Aeneas pelago tuus omnia circum 
Litora jactetur odiis Junonis iniquae, 
Nota tibi, et nostro doluisti saepe dolore. 
Hunc Phoenissa tenet Dido blandisque moratur 670 

Vocibus ; et vereor, quo se Junonia vertant 
Hospitia ; haud tanto cessabit cardine rerum. 



13 i P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Quocirca capere ante dolis et cingere flamma 

Reginam meditor, ne quo se numine mutet, 

Sed magno Aeneae meciim teneatur amore. 675 

Qua facere id possis, nostram nunc accipe mentem : 

Regius accitu carl genitoris ad urbem 

Sidoniam puer ire parat, mea maxima cura, 

Dona ferens, pelago et flammis restantia Trojae ; 

HunC ego sopitiim somno super alta Cythera 63© 

Aut super Idalium sacrata sede recondam, 

Ne qua scire dolos mediusve occurrere possit. 

Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam 

Falle dolo, et notos pueri puer indue vultus, 

Ut, quum te gremio accipiet laetissima Dido 685 

Regales inter mensas laticemque Lyaeum, 

Quum dabit amplexus atque oscula dulcia figet, 

Occultum inspires ignem fallasque veneno. 

Paret Amor dictis carae genetricis, et alas 

Exuit, et gressu gaudens incedit luli. 690 

At Venus Ascanio placidam per membra quietem 

Irrigat, et fotum gremio dea tollit in altos 

Idaliae lucos, ubi mollis amaracus ilium 

Floribus et dulci adspirans complectitur umbra. 

Jamque ibat dicto parens et dona Cupido (os 

Regia portabat Tyriis, duce laetus Achate. 
Quum venit, aulaeis jam se regina superbis 
Aurea composuit sponda mediamque locavit. 
Jam pater Aeneas et jam Trojana juventus 
Conveniunt, stratoque super discumbitur ostro. 700 

Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque canistris 
Expediunt, tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis. 
Quinquaginta intus famulae, quibus ordine longam 
Cura penum struere, et flammis adolere Penates ; 
Centum aliae totidemque pares aetate ministri, 70s 

Qui dapibus mensas onerent et pocula ponant. 
Nee non et Tyrii per limina laeta frequentes 
Convenere, toris jussi discumbere pictis. 



AENEIDOS LIB. I. 1 33 

Mirantur dona Aeneae, mirantur Tulum 

Flagrantesque dei vultus simulataque verba, 710 

Pallamque et pictum croceo velamen acantho. 

Praecipue infelix, pesti devota futurae, 

Expleri mentem nequit ardescitque tuendo 

Phoenissa, et pariter puero donisque movetur. 

lUe ubi complexu Aeneae colloque pependit 7*5 

Et magnum falsi implevit genitoris amorem, 

Reginam petit. Haec oculis, haec pectore toto 

Haeret et interdum gremio fovet, inscia Dido, 

Insideat quantus miserae deus. At memor ille 

Matris Acidaliae paulatim abolere Sychaeum 720 

Incipit, et vivo tentat praevertere amore 

Jam pridem resides animos desuetaque corda. 

Postquam prima quies epulis, mensaeque remotae, 
Crateras magnos statuuntet vina coronant. 
Fit strepitus tectis, vocemque per ampla volutant 7*5 

Atria ; dependent lychni laquearibus aureis 
Incensi, et noctem flammis funalia vincunt. 
Hie regina gravem gemmis auroque poposcit 
Implevitque mero pateram, quam Belus et omnes 
A Belo soliti ; tum facta silentia tectis : 730 

Juppiter, hospitibus nam te dare jura loquuntur, 
Hunc laetum Tyriisque diem Trojaque profectis 
Esse velis, nostrosque hujus meminisse minores. 
Adsit laetitiae Bacchus dator, et bona Juno , 
Et vos, o, coetum, Tyrii, celebrate faventes. 73s 

Dixit, et in mensam laticum libavit honorem, 
Primaque, libato, summo tenus attigit ore ; 
Tum Bitiae dedit increpitans ; ille impiger hausit 
Spumantem pateram, et pleno se proluit auro; 
Post alii proceres. Cithara crinitus lopas 740 

Personat aurata, docuit quem maximus Atlas. 
Hie canit errantem lunam solisque labores ; 
Unde hominum genus et pecudes ; unde imber et ignes ; 
Areturum pluviasque Hyadas geminosque Triones ; 



134 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Quid tantum Oceano properent se tinguere soles 745 

Hiberni, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet 

Ingeminant plausu Tyrii, Troesque sequuntur. 

Nee non et vario noctem sermohe trahebat ' 

Infelix Dido, longumque bibebat amorem, 

Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa j 750 

Nunc, quibus Aurorae venisset filius armis, 

Nunc, quales Diomedis equi, nunc, quantus Achilles. 

Immo age, et a prima die, hospes, origine nobis 

Insidias, inquit, Danaum, casusque tuorum, 

Erroresque tuos ; nam te jam septima portat 755 

Omnibus errantem terns et fluctibus aestas. 



LIBER 11. 



CoNTicuERE onines, intentique ora tenebant 
Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto : 

Infandum, Regina, jubes renovare dolorem, 
Trojanas ut opes et lamentabile regnum 
Eruerint Danai ; quaeque ipse miserrima vidi, 
Et quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando 
Myrmidonum Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulixi 
Temperet a lacrimis ? et jam nox humida coelo 
Praecipitat, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos. 
Sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros 
Et breviter Trojae supremum audire laborem, 
Quamquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit, 
Incipiam. Fracti bello fatisque repulsi 
Ductores Danaum, tot jam labentibus annis, 
Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte 
Aedificant, sectaque intexunt abiete costas ; 
Votum pro reditu simulant ; ea fama vagatur. 
Hue delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim 



AENEIDOS L;B. II. I35 

Includunt caeco lateri, penitusque cavemas 

Ingentes uterumque armato milite complent » 

Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama 
Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant, 
Nunc tantum sinus et static male fida carinis ; 
Hue se provecti deserto in litore condunt. 
Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas. as 

Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu. 
Panduntur portae ; juvat ire et Dorica castra 
Desertosque videre locos litusque relictum.' 
Hie Dolopum manus, hie saevus tendebat Achilles; 
Classibus hie locus ; hie acie certare solebant 30 

Pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae 
Et molem mirantur equi ; primusque Thymoetes 
Duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari, 
Sive dolo, seu jam Trojae sic fata ferebant. 
At Cz^ys, et quorum melior sententia menti, 35 

Aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona 
Praecipitare jubent, subjectisque urere flammis, 
Aut terebrare cavas uteri et tentare latebras. 
Scinditur incertum studia in contraria vulgus. 

Primus ibi ante omnes, magna comitante caterva, 40 
Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce, 
Et procul : O miseri, quae tanta insania, cives ? 
Creditis avectos hostis ? aut ulla putatis 
Dona carere dolis Danaum ? sic notus Ulixes ? 
Aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achivi, 45 

Aut haec in nostros fabricata est machina muros 
Inspectura domos venturaque desuper urbi, 
Aut aliquis latet error ; equo ne credite, Teucri. 
Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes. 
Sic fatiis validis ingentem viribus hastam 50 

In latuS inque feri curvam compagibus alvum 
Contorsit. Stetit ilia tremens, uteroque recusso 
Insonuere cavae gemitumque dedere cavemae. 
Et, si fata deum, si mens non laeva fuisset, 



136 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Impulerat ferro Argolicas foedare latebras, 55 

Trojaque, nunc stares, Priamique arx alta, maneres. 

Ecce, manus juvenem interea post terga revinctum • 
Pastores magno ad regem clamore trahebant 
Dardanidae, qui se ignotum venientibus ultro, 
Hoc ipsum ut stnieret Trojamque aperiret Achivis, 60 

Obtulerat, fidens animi, atque in utrumque paratus, 
Seu versare dolos, seu certae occumbere morti. 
Undique visendi studio Trojana juventus 
Circumfusa ruit, certantque illudere capto. 
Accipe nunc D^inaum insidias, et crimine ab uno 65 

Disce omnes. 

Namque ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis, 
Constitit atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit : 
Heu, quae nunc tellus, inquit, quae me aequora possunt 
Accipere ? aut quid jam misero mihi denique restat, 70 
Cui neque apud Danaos usquam locus, et super ipsi 
Dardanidae infensi poenas cum sanguine poscunt ? 
Quo gemitu conversi animi, compressus et omnis 
Impetus. Hortamur fari ; quo sanguine cretus, 
Quidve ferat, memoret, quae sit fiducia capto. ?» 

[lUe haec, deposita tandem formidine, fatur :] 

Cuncta equidem tibi, Rex, fuerit quodcumque, fatebor 
Vera, inquit ; neque me Argolica de gente negabo ; 
Hoc primum ; nee, si miserum Fortuna Sinonem 
Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba finget. 80 

Fando aliquod si forte tuas pervenit ad aures 
Belidae nomen Palamedis et incluta fama 
Gloria, quem falsa sub proditione Pelasgi 
Insontem infando indicio, quia bella vetabat, 
Demisere neci, nunc cassum lumine lugent : 85 

Illi me comitem et consanguinitate propinquum 
Pauper in arma pater primis hue misit ab annis. 
Dum stabat regno incolumis regumque vigebat 
Consiliis, et nos aliquod nomenque decusque 
Gessimus. Invidia postquam pellacis Ulixi — 50 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. I37 

Haud ignota loquor — superis concessit ab oris, 

Afflictus vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam, 

Et casum insontis mecum indignabar amici. 

Nee tacui demens, et me, fors si qua tulisset, . 

Si patrios umquam remeassem victor ad Argos, 95 

Promisi ultorem, et verbis odia aspera movi. 

Hinc mihi prima Inali labes, hinc semper Ulixes 

Criminibus terrere novis, hinc spargere voces 

In vulgum ambiguas, et quaerere conscius arma. 

Nee requievit enim, donee Calchante ministro — xoo 

Sed quid ego haec autem nequidquam ingrata revolvo ? 

Quidve moror, si omnes uno ordine habetis Achivos, 

Idque audire sat est ? Jamdudum sumite poenas ; 

Hoc Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur Atridae. 

Turn vero ardemus scitari et quaerere caussas, 105 

Ignari scelerum tantorum artisque Pelasgae. 
Prosequitur pavitans, et ficto pectore fatur : 

Saepe fugam Danai Troja cupiere relicta 
Moliri et longo fessi discedere bello ; 
Fecissentque utinam ! saepe illos aspera ponti no 

Interclusit hiems, et terruit Auster euntes. 
Praecipue, quum jam hie trabibus contextust acernis 
Staret equus, toto sonuerunt aethere nimbi. 
Suspensi Eurypylum scitantem oracula Phoebi 
Mittimus, isque adytis haec tristia dicta reportat : 1x5 

Sanguine placastis ventos et virgine caesa, 
Quum primum Iliacas, Danai, venistis ad oras ; 
Sanguine quaerendi reditus, animaque litandum 
Argolica, Vulgi quae vox ut venit ad aures, 
Obstupuere animi, gelidusque per ima cucurrit lao 

Ossa tremor, cui fata parent, quem poscat Apollo. 
Hie Ithacus vatem magno Calchanta turaultu 
Protrahit in medios ; quae sint ea numina divimi, 
Flagitat. Et mihi jam multi crudele canebant 
Artificis scelus, et taciti ventura videbant. 125 

Bis quinos silet ille dies, tectusque recusat 



138 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Prodere voce sua quemquam aut opponere mortL 

Vix tandem, magnis Ithaci clamoribus actus, 

Composito rumpit vocem, et me destinat arae. . 

Adsensere omnes, et, quae sibi quisque timebat, 110 

Unius in miseri exitium conversa tulere. 

Jamque dies infanda aderat ; mihi sacra parari, 

Et salsae fruges, et circum tempora vittafe. 

Eripui, fateor, leto me, et vincula rupi, 

Limosoque lacu per noctem obscurus in ulva 135 

Delitui, dum vela darent, si forte dedissent 

Nee mihi jam patriam antiquam spes uUa videndi, 

Nee dulces natos exoptatumque parentem ; 

Quos illi fors et poenas ob nostra reposcent 

Efiugia, et culpam hanc miserorum morte piabunt 240 

Quod te per superos et conscia numina veri, 

Per, si qua est, quae restet adhuc mortalibus usquam 

Intemerata fides, oro, miserere laborum 

Tantorum, miserere animi non digna ferentis. 

His lacrimis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultro. 14s 
Ipse viro primus manicas atque arta levari 
Vincla jubet Priamus, dictisque ita fatur amicis : 
Quisquis es, amissos hinc jam obliviscere Graios ; 
Noster eris, mihique haec edissere vera roganti : 
Quo molem hanc immanis equi statuere ? quis auctor ? ijo 
Quidve petunt ? quae religio ? aut quae machina belli ? 
Dixerat. Ille, dolis instructus et arte Pelasga, 
Sustulit exutas vinclis ad sidera palmas : 
Vos, aeterni ignes, et non violabile vestrum 
Testor numen, ait, vos arae ensesque nefandi, 15s 

Quos fugi, vittaeque deum, quas hostia gessi : 
Fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere jura. 
Fas odisse viros, atque omnia ferre sub auras. 
Si qua tegunt ; teneor patriae nee legibus ullis. 
Tu modo promissis maneas, servataque serves 160 

Troja fidem, si vera feram, si magna rependam. 

Omnis spes Danaum et coepti fiducia belli 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. I39 

Palladis auxiUis semper stetit. Impius ex quo 

Tydides sed enim scelerumque inventor Ulixes, 

Fatale aggressi sacrato avellere templo 165 

Palladium, caesis summae custodibus arcis, 

Corripuere sacram effigiem, manibusque cruentis 

Virgineas ausi divae contingere vittas, 

Ex illo fluere ac retro sublapsa referri 

Spes Dafiaum, fractae vires, aversa deae mens. 170 

Nee dubiis ea signa dedit Tritonia monstris. 

Vix positum castris simulacrum : arsere coruscae 

Luminibus flammae arrectis, salsusque per artus 

Sudor iit, terque ipsa solo — mirabile dictu — 

Emicuit, parmamque ferens hastamque trementem. 175 

Extemplo tentanda fiiga canit aequora Calchas, 

Nee posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis, 

Omina ni repetant Aigis, numenque reducant. 

Quod pelago et curvis secum avexere carinis. 

Et nunc, quod patrias vento petiere Mycenas, . x8o 

Anna deosque parant comites, pelagoque remenso 

Improvisi aderunt Ita digerit omina Calchas. 

Hanc pro Palladio moniti, pro numine laeso 

Effigiem statuere, nefas quae triste piaret. 

Hanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem 185 

Roboribus textis coeloque educere jussit, 

Ne recipi portis, aut duci in moenia possit, 

Neu populum antiqua sub religione tueri. 

Nam si vestra manus violasset dona Minervae, 

Tum magnum exitium — quod di prius omen in ipsum 190 

Convertant ! — Priami imperio Phrygibusque futurum ; 

Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem, 

Ultro Asiam magno Pelopea ad moenia bello 

Venturam, et nostros ea fata manere nepotes. 

Talibus insidiis perjurique arte Sinonis 195 

Credita res, captique dolis lacrimisque coactis, 
Quos neque Tydides, nee Larissaeus Achilles, 
Non anni domuere decem, non mille carinae. 



I40 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Hie aliud majus miseris multoque tremendum 
Objicitur magis, atque improvida pectora turbat «» 

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos, 
SoUemnes taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras. 
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta — 
Horresco referens — immensis orbibus angues 
Incumbunt pelago, pariterque ad litora tendunt ; 205 

Pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta jubaeque * 
Sanguineae superant undas ; pars cetera pontum 
Pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga. 
Fit sonitus spumante salo ; jamque arva tenebant, 
Ardentesque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni, 210 

Sibila lambebant Unguis vibrantibus ora. 
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo 
Laocoonta petunt ; et primum parva duorum 
Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque . 
Implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus ; 2x5 

Post ipsum, auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem, 
Corripiunt, spirisque ligant ingentibus ; et jam 
Bis medium amplexi, bis collo squamea circum 
Terga dati, superant capite et cervicibus altis. 
Ille simul manibus tendit divellere nodos, 220 

Perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno, 
Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit : 
Quales mugitus, fugit quum saucius aram 
Taurus et incertam excussit cervice securim. 
At gemini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones 225 

Efifugiunt saevaeque petunt Tritonidis arcem, 
Sub pedibusque deae clipeique sub orbe teguntur. 
Tum vero tremefacta novus per pectora cunctis 
Insinuat pavor, et scelus expendisse merentem 
Laocoonta ferunt, sacrum qui cuspide robur 230 

Laeserit et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam. 
Ducendum ad sedes simulacnmi orandaque divae 
Niunina conclamant. 
Dividimus muros et moenia pandimus urbis. 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 141 

Accingunt omnes operi, pedibusque rotanim 235 

Subjiciunt lapsus, et stuppea vincula'collo 
Intendunt. Scandit fatalis machina muros, 
Feta armis. Pueri circum innuptaeque puellae 
Sacra canunt, funemque manu contingere gaudent 
Ilia subit, mediaeque minans illabitur urbi. 240 

O patria, o divum domus Ilium, et incluta bello 
Moenia Dardanidum ! quater ipso in limine portae 
Substitit, atque utero sonitum quater arma dedere ; 
Instamus tamen immemores caecique furore, 
^ Et monstrum infelix sacrata sistimus arce. . 245 

Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris 
Ora, del jussu non umquam credita Teucris. 
Nos delubra deum miseri, quibus ultimus esset 
Ille dies, festa velamus fronde per urbem. 

Vertitur interea coelum et ruit oceano Nox, 250 

Involvens umbra magna terramque polumque 
Myrmidonumque dolos ; fusi per moenia Teucri 
Conticuere ; sopor fessos complectitur artus. 
Et jam Argiva phalanx instructis navibus ibat 
A Tenedo, tacitae per amica silentia lunae 255 

Litora nota petens, flammas quum regia puppis 
Extulerat, fatisque deum defensus iniquis 
Inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim 
Laxat claustra Sinon. Illos patefactus ad auras 
Reddit equus, laetique cavo se robore promunt «6o 

Thessandrus Sthenelusque duces et dims Ulixes, 
Demissum lapsi per funem, Acamasque, Thoasque, 
Pelidesque Neoptolemus, primusque Machaon, 
Et Menelaus, et ipse doli fabricator Epeus. 
Invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepultam ; 265 

Caeduntur vigiles, portisque patentibus omnes 
Accipiunt socios atque agmina conscia jungunt 

Tempus erat, quo prima quies mortalibus aegris 
Incipit et dono divum gratissima serpit. 
In somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector 270 



142 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Visus adesse mihi, largosque eflfundere fletus, 

Raptatus bigis, ut quondam, aterque cruento 

Pulvere, perque pedes trajectus lora tumentes. 

Hei mihi, qualis erat ! quantiun mutatus ab illo 

Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli, 375 

Vel Danaum Phiygios jaculatus puppibus ignes ! 

Squalentem barbam et concretois sanguine crines 

Vulneraque ilia gerens, quae circuin plurima muros 

Accepit patrios. Ultro flens ipse videbar 

Compellare virum et maestas expromere voces : aSo 

O lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima Teucrum, 

Quae tantae tenuere morae ? quibus Hector ab oris 

Exspectate venis ? ut te post multa tuorum 

Funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores 

Defessi adspicimus ! quae caussa indigna serenos 285 

Foedavit vultus ? aut cur haec vulnera cemo ? 

lUe nihil, nee me quaerentem vana moratur, 

Sed graviter gemitus imo de pectore ducens, . 

Heu fuge, nate dea, teque his, ait, eripe flammis. 

Hostis habet muros ; ruit alto a culmine Troja. 290 

Sat patriae Priamoque datum : si Pergama dextra 

Defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent : 

Sacra suosque tibi commendat Troja Penates : 

Hos cape fatorum comites, his moenia quaere 

Magna, pererrato statues quae denique ponto. 295 

Sic ait, et manibus vittas Vestamque potentem 

Aeternumque adytis effert penetralibus ignem. 

Diverso interea miscentur moenia luctu, 
£t magis atque magis, quamquam secreta parentis 
Anchisae domus arboribusque obtecta recessit, 300 

Clarescunt sonitus, armorumque ingruit horror. 
Excutior somno, et summi fastigia tecti 
Ascensu supero, atque arrectis auribus adsto : 
In segetem veluti quum flamma furentibus austris 
Incidit, aut rapidus montano flumine torrens 305 

Stemit agros, stemit sata laeta boumque labores, 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 143 

Praecipitesque trahit silvas, stupet inscius alto 

Accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor. 

Turn vero manifesta fides, Danaumque patescunt 

Insidiae. Jam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam 3x0 

Vulcano superante domus, jam proximus ardet 

Ucalegon ; Sigea igni freta lata relucent. 

Exoritur clamorque virum clangorque tubarum. 

Arma amens capio ; nee sat rationis in armis ; 

Sed glomerare manum bello et concurrere in arcem 315 

Cum sociis ardent animi ; furor iraque mentem 

Praecipitant, pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. 

Ecce autem telis Panthus elapsus Achivum, 
Panthus Othiyades, arcis Phoebique sacerdos, 
Sacra manu victosque deos parvumque nepotem 3^0 

Ipse trahit, cursuque amens ad limina tendit. 
Quo res summa loco, Panthu ? quam prendimus arcem ? 
Vix ea fatus eram, gemitu quum talia reddit : 
Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus 
Dardaniae. Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens sas 

Gloria Teucrorum ; ferus omnia Juppiter Argos 
Transtulit : incensa Danai dominantur in urbe. 
Arduus armatos mediis in moenibus adstans 
Fundit equus, victorque Sinon incendia miscet 
Insultans. Portis alii bipatentibus adsunt, 330 

Milia quot magnis umquam venere Mycenis ; 
Obsedere alii telis angusta viarum 
Oppositi ; Stat ferri acies mucrone corusco 
Stricta, parata neci ; vix primi proelia tentant 
Portarum vigiles, et caeco Marte resistunt. 33s 

Talibus Othryadae dictis et numine divum 
In flammas et in arma feror, quo tristis Erinnys, 
Quo fremitus vocat et sublatus ad aethera clamor. 
Addunt se socios Rhipeus et maximus armis 
Epytus, oblati per lunam, Hypanisque D)rmasque, 340 

Et lateri agglomerant nostro, juvenisque Coroebus, 
Mygdonides. lUis ad Trojam forte diebus 



144 P- VIRGILII MARONIS 

Venerat, insano Cassandrae incensus amore, 

Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat, 

Infelix, qui non sponsae praecepta furentis 34s 

Audierit 

Quos ubi confertos audere in proelia vidi, 

Incipio super his : Juvenes, fortissima frustra 

Pectora, si vobis audentem extrema cupido 

Certa sequi, quae sit rebus fortuna videtis : 350 

Excessere omnes, adytis arisque relictis, 

Di, quibus imperium hoc steterat ; succurritis urbi 

Incensae ; moriamur, et in media arma ruamus. 

Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem. 

Sic animis juvenum furor additus. Inde, lupi ceu 35s 

Raptores atra in nebula, quos improba ventris 

Exegit caecos rabies, catulique relicti 

Faucibus exspectant siccis, per tela, per hostes 

Vadimus baud dubiam in mortem, mediaeque tenemus 

Urbis iter ; nox atra cava circumvolat umbra. 360 

Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando 

Explicet, aut possit lacrimis aequare labores ? 

Urbs antiqua ruit, multos dominata per annos ; 

Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim 

Corpora perque domos et religiosa deorum 36s 

Limina. Nee soli poenas dant sanguine Teucri ; 

Quondam etiam victis redit in praecordia virtus 

Victoresque cadunt Danai. Crudelis ubique 

Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago. 

Primus se, Danaum magna comitante caterva, 370 

Androgeos offert nobis, socia agmina credens 
Inscius, atque ultro verbis compellat amicis : 
Festinate, viri. Nam quae tam sera moratur 
Segnities ? Alii rapiunt incensa feruntque 
Pergama ; vos celsis nunc primum a navibus itis. 375 

Dixit, et extemplo, neque enim responsa dabantur 
Fida satis, sensit medios delapsus in hostes. 
Obstupuit, retroque pedem cum voce repressit. 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 1 45 

Improvisum aspns veluti qui sentibus anguem 

Pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit 380 

Attollentem iras et caerula coUa tumentem ; 

Haud secus Androgeos visu tremefactus abibat. 

Imiimus, densis et circumfundimur araiis, 

Ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos 

Stemimus. Adspirat primo fortuna labori. 38s 

Atque hie successu exsultans animisque Coroebus, 

O socii, qua prima, inquit, fortuna salutis 

Monstrat iter, quaque ostendit se dextra, sequamur : 

Mutemus clipeos, Danaumque insignia nobis 

Aptemus. Dolus an virtus, quis in hoste requirat ? 390 

Arma dabunt ipsi. Sic fatus, deinde comantem 

Androgei galeam clipeique insigne decorum 

Induitur, laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. 

Hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omnisque juventus 

Laeta facit ; spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 39s 

Vadimus immixti Danais haud numine nostro, 

Multaque per caecam congressi proelia noctem 

Conserimus, multos Danaum demittimus Oreo. 

Difiugiunt alii ad naves, et litora cursu 

Fida petunt : pars ingentem formidine turpi 400 

Scandunt rursus equum et nota conduntur in alvo. 

Heu nihil invitis fas quemquam fidere divis ! 
Ecce trahebatur passis Priameia virgo 
Crinibus a templo Cassandra adytisque Minervae, 
Ad coelum tendens ardentia lumina frustra, 405 

Lumina, nam teneras arcebant vincula palmas. 
Non tulit hanc speciem furiata mente Coroebus, 
Et sese medium injecit periturus in agmen. 
Consequimur cuncti et densis incurrimus armis. 
Hie primum ex alto delubri culmine telis 410 

Nostrorum obruimur, oriturque miserrima caedes 
Armorum facie et Graiarum errore jubarum. 
Tum Danai gemitu atque ereptae virginis ira 
Undique collect! invadunty acerrimus Ajax, 



146 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Et gemini Atridae, Dolopumque exercitus omnis ; 4*5 

Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 

Confligunt, Zephyrusque Notusque et laetus Eois 

Eurus equis ; stridunt silvae, saevitque tridenti 

Spumeus atque imo Nereus ciet aequora fundo. 

Illi etiam, si quos obscura nocte per umbram 4» 

Fudimus insidiis totaque agitavimus urbe, 

Apparent ; primi clipeos mentitaque tela 

Agnoscunt, atque ora sono discordia signant 

liicet obruimur numero ; primusque Coroebus 

Penelei dextra divae armipotentis ad aram 425 

Procumbit ; cadit et Rhipeus, justissimus unus 

Qui fuit in Teucris et servantissimus aequi ; 

Dis aliter visum ; pereunt Hypanisque Dymasque 

Confixi a sociis ; nee te tua plurima, Panthu, 

Labentem pietas nee Apollinis infiila texit. 430 

Iliaci cineres et flamma extrema meorum, 

Tester, in occasu vestro nee tela nee uUas 

Vitavisse vices Danaum, et, si fata fuissent, 

Ut caderem, meruisse manu. Divellimur inde, 

Iphitus et Pelias mecum, quorum Iphitus aevo 43s 

Jam gravior, Pelias et vulnere tardus Ulixi ; 

Protinus ad sedes Priami clamore vocati. 

Hie vero ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam 

Bella forent, nulli tota morerentur in urbe. 

Sic Martem indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta ruentes 440 

Cemimus obsessumque acta testudinie limen. 

Haerent parietibus scalae, postesque sub ipsos 

Nituntur gradibus, clipeosque ad tela sinistris 

Protecti objiciunt, prensant fastigia dextris. 

Dardanidae contra turres ac tecta domorum 445 

Culmina convellunt ; his se, quando ultima ceraimt, 

Extrema jam in morte parant defendere telis ; 

Auratasque trabes, veterum decora alta parentum, 

Devolvunt ; alii strictis mucronibus imas 

Obsedere fores ; has servant agmine denso. ' 450 



X 



ABNEIDOS LIB. II. I47 

Instaurati animi, regis succurrere tectis, 

Auxilioque levare viros, vimque addere victis. 
Limen erat caecaeque fores et pervius usus 
Tectorum inter se Priami, postesque relicti 
A tergo, infelix qua se, dum regna manebant, 455 

Saepius Andromache ferre incomitata solebat 
Ad soceros, et avo puerum Astyanacta trahebat 
Evado ad summi fastigia culminis, unde 
Tela manu miseri jactabant irrita Teucri. 
Turrim in praecipiti stantem summisque sub astra 460 

Eductam tectis, unde omnis Troja videri 
Et Danaum solitae naves et Achaia castra, 
Aggressi ferro circum, qua summa labantes 
Juncturas tabulata dabant, convellimus altis 
Sedibus impulimusque ; ea lapsa repente ruinam 46s 

Cum sonitu trahit et Danaum super agmina late 
Incidit. Ast alii subeimt, nee saxa, nee uUum 
Telorum interea cessat genus. 

Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine P3mrhus 
Exsultat, telis et luce coruscus aena ; 470 

Qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus, 
Frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat, 
Nunc, positis novus exuviis nitidusque juventa, 
Lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga 
Arduus ad solem, et Unguis micat ore trisulcis. 475 

Una ingens Periphas et equorum agitator Achillis, 
Armiger Automedon, ima omnis Scyria pubes 
Succedunt tecto, et flammas ad culmina jactant 
Ipse inter primos correpta dura bipenni 
Limina pemimpit, postesque a cardine vellit 480 

Aeratos ; jamque excisa trabe firma cavavit 
Robora, et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram. 
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt ; 
Apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum, 
Armatosque vident stantes in limine primo. 48s 

At domus interior gemitu miseroque tumultu 



148 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Miscetur, penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes 

Femineis ululant ; ferit aurea sidera clamor. 

Turn pavidae tectis matres ingentibus errant, 

Amplexaeque tenent postes atque oscula figunt. 490 

Instat vi patria Pyrrhus ; nee claustra, neque ipsi 

Custodes sufferre valent ; labat ariete crebro 

Janua, et emoti procumbunt cardine postes. 

Fit via vi ; rumpunt aditus, primosque trucidant 

Immissi Danai, et late loca milite complent. 495 

Non sic, aggeribus ruptis quum spumeus amnis 

Exiit oppositasque evicit gurgite moles, 

Fertur in arva furens cumulo, camposque per omnes 

Cum stabulis armenta trahit. Vidi ipse furentem 

Caede Neoptolemum geminosque in limine Atridas ; 500 

Vidi Hecubam centumque nurus, Priamumque per aras 

Sanguine foedantem, quos ipse sacraverat, ignes. 

Quinquaginta illi thalami, spes tanta nepotum, 

Barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi, 

Procubuere ; tenent Danai, qua deficit ignis. 503 

Forsitan et, Priami fuerint quae fata, requiras. 
Urbis uti captae casum convulsaque vidit 
Limina tectorum et medium in penetralibus hostem, 
Arma diu senior desueta trementibus aevo 
Circumdat nequidquam humeris, et inutile ferrum 510 

Cingitur, ac densos fertur moriturus in hostes. 
Aedibus in mediis nudoque sub aetheris axe 
Ingens ara fuit juxtaque veterrima laurus, 
Incumbens arae atque umbra complexa Penates. 
Hie Hecuba et natae nequidquam altaria circum, 515 

Praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbae, 
Condensae et divum amplexae simulacra sedebant. 
Ipsum autem sumptis Priamum juvenalibus armis 
Ut vidit. Quae mens tam dira, miserrime conjux, 
Impulit his cingi telis ? aut quo mis ? inquit. 520 

Non tali auxilio nee defensoribus istis 
Tempus eget ; non,.si ipse meus nunc afiforet Hector. 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 1 49 

Hue tandem concede ; haec ara tuebitur omnes, 

Aut moriere simul. Sic ore effata recepit 

Ad sese et sacra longaevum in sede locavit 525 

Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de caede Polites, 

Unus natorum Priami, per tela, per hostes 

Porticibus longis ifugit, et vacua atria lustrat 

Saucius. Ilium ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus 

Insequitur, jam jamque manu tenet et premit hasta. 530 

Ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentum, 

Concidit, ac multo vitam cum sanguine fudit. 

Hie Priamus, quamquam in media jam morte tenetur, 

Non-tamen abstinuit, nee voci iraeque pepercit : 

At tibi pro scelere, exclamat, pro talibus ausis, 535 

Di, si qua est coelo pietas, quae talia curet, 

Persolvant grates dignas et praemia reddant 

Debita, qui nati coram me cemere letum 

Fecisti et patrios foedasti funere vultus. 

At non ille, satum quo te mentiris, Achilles 540 

Talis in hoste fuit Priamo ; sed jura fidemque 

Supplicis erubuit, corpusquC' exsangue sepulchro 

Reddidit Hectoreum, meque in mea regna remisit. 

Sic fatus senior, telumque imbelle sine ictu 

Conjecit, rauco quod protinus aere repulsum 545 

Et summo clipei nequidquam umbone pependit. 

Cui Pyrrhus : Referes ergo haec et nun tins ibis 

Pelidae genitori ; iUi mea tristia facta 

Degeneremque Neoptolemum narrare memento. 

Nunc morere. Hoc dicens altaria ad ipsa trementem sso 

Traxit et in multo lapsantem sanguine nati, 

Implicuitque comam laeva, dextraque coruscum 

Extulit ac lateri capulo tenus abdidit ensem. 

Haec finis Priami fatorum ; hie exitus ilium 

Sorte tulit, Trojam incensam et prolapsa videntem 555 

Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum 

Regnatorem Asiae. Jacet ingens litore truncus, 

Avulsumque humeris caput, et sine nomine corpus. 



150 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

At me turn primum saevus, circumstetit horror. 
Obstupui j subiit can genitoris imago, 560 

Ut regem aequaevum crudeli vulnere vidi 
Vitam exhalantem ; subiit deserta Creusa, 
Et direpta domus, et parvi casus lull 
Respicio, et, quae sit me circum copia, lustro. 
Deseruere omnes defessi, et corpora saltu 565 

Ad terram misere aut ignibus aegra dedere. 

[Jamque adeo super unus eram, quum limina Vestae 
Servantem et tacitam secreta in sede latentem 
T3mdarida adspicio : dant clara incendia lucem 
Erranti passimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. 570 

Ilia sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucros 
Et poenas Danaum et deserti conjugis iras 
Praemetuens, Trojae et patriae communis Erinnys, 
Abdiderat sese atque aris invisa sedebat. 
Exarsere ignes animo ; subit ira cadentem 575 

Ulcisci patriam et sceleratas sumere poenas. 
Scilicet haec Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas 
Adspiciet ? partoque ibit regina triumpho, 
Conjugiumque, domumque, patres, natosque videbit, 
Iliadum turba et Phrygiis comitata ministris ? 580 

Occident ferro Priamus ? Troja arserit igni ? 
Dardanium toties sudarit sanguine litus ? 
Non ita. Namque etsi nullum memorabile nomen 
Feminea in poena est nee habet victoria laudem, 
Exstinxisse nefas tamen et sumpsisse merentes 585 

Laudabor poenas, animumque explesse juvabit 
Ultricis flammae, et cineres satiasse meorum. 
Talia jactabam, et furiata mente ferebar,] 
Quum mihi se, non ante oculis tam clara, videndam 
Obtulit et pura per noctem in luce refulsit 590 

Alma parens, confessa deam, qualisque videri 
Coelicolis et quanta solet, dextraque prehensum 
Continuit, roseoque haec insuper addidit ore : 
Nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat iras ? 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 151 

Quid furis ? aut quonam nostri tibi cura recessit ? 595 

Non prius adspicies, ubi fessum aetate parentem 

Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjuxne Creusa, 

Ascaniusque puer ? quos omnes undique Graiae 

Circumerrant acies, et, ni mea cura resistat, 

Jam flammae tulerint inimicus et hauserit ensis. 600 

Non tibi T)nidaridis fades invisa Lacaenae 

Culpatusve Paris, divum inclementia, divum, 

Has evertit opes stemitque a culmine Trojam. 

Adspice — namque omnem, quae nunc obducta tuenti 

Mortales hebetat visus tibi et humida circum 605 

Caligat, nubem eripiam ; tu ne qua parentis 

Jussa time, neu praeceptis parere recusa — 

Hie, ubi disjectas moles avulsaque saxis 

Saxa vides mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum, 

Neptunus muros magnoque emota tridenti 610 

Fundamenta quatit totamque a sedibus urbem 

Emit Hie Juno Scaeas saevissima portas 

Prima tenet, sociumque furens a navibus agmen 

Ferro accincta vocat 

Jam summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas 615 

Insedit, nimbo efiulgens et Gorgone saeva. 

Ipse Pater Danais animos viresque secundas 

Sufficit, ipse deos in Dardana suscitat arma. 

Eripe, nate, fugam, finemque impone labori. 

Nusquam abero, et tutum patrio te limine sistam, 6ao 

Dixerat, et spissis noctis se condidit umbris. 

Apparent dirae facies inimicaque Trojae 

Numina magna deum. 

Tum vero omne mihi visum considere in ignes 
Ilium et ex imoverti Neptunia Troja ; 625 

Ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus omum 
Quum ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instant 
Eruere agricolae certatim ; ilia usque minatur 
Et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat, 
Vulneribus donee paulatim evicta supremum 630 



IS2 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Congemuit traxitque jugis avulsa minam. 
Descendo, ac ducente deo flammam inter et hostes 
Expedior ; dant tela locum, flammaeque recedunt. 

Atque ubi jam patriae perventum ad limina sedis 
Antiquasque domos, genitor, quem tollere in altos 635 

Optabam primum montes primumque petebam, 
Abnegat excisa vitam producere Troja 
Exsiliumque pati. Vos o, quibus integer aevi 
Sanguis, ait, solidaeque suo stant robore vires, 
Vos agitate fugam. 640 

Me si coelicolae voluissent ducere vitam, 
Has mihi servassent sedes. Satis una superque 
Vidimus exscidia et captae superavimus urbL 
Sic o, sic positum afifati discedite corpus. 
Ipse manu mortem inveniam ; miserebitur hostis 6^3 

Exuviasque petet ; facilis jactura sepulchri. 
Jam pridem invisus divis et inutilis annos 
Demoror, ex quo me divum pater atque hominum rex 
Fulminis afflavit ventis et contigit igni. 

Talia perstabat memorans, fixusque manebat. €$:> 

Nos contra effusi lacrimis conjuxque Creusa 
Ascaniusque omnisque domus, ne vertere secum 
Cuncta pater fatoque urguenti incumbere vellet 
Abnegat, inceptoque et sedibus haeret in isdem. 
Rursus in arma feror, mortemque miserrimus opto, 055 

Nam quod consilium aut quae jam fortuna dabatur ? 
Mene efFerre pedem, genitor, te posse relicto 
Sperasti, tantumque nefas patrio excidit ore ? 
Si nihil ex tanta Superis placet urbe relinqui, 
Et sedet hoc animo, perituraeque addere Trojae ' cco 

Teque tuosque juvat, patet isti janua leto, 
Jamque aderit multo Priami de sanguine Pyrrhus, 
Natum ante ora patris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras. 
Hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignes 
Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus, utque 665 

Ascanium patremque meum juxtaque Creusam 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 153 

^terum in alterius mactatos sanguine cemam } 

"^Hna, viri, ferte arma ; vocat lux ultima victos. 

K^eddite me Danais ; sinite instaurata revisam 

Proelia. Numquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti. 670 

Hinc ferro accingor rursus clipeoque sinistram 
Insertabam aptans meque extra tecta ferebam. 
Ecce autem complexa pedes in limine conjux 
Haerebat, parvumque patri tendebat lulum : 
Si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecum ; 675 

Sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem ponis in armis, 
Hanc primum tutare domum. Cui parvus lulus, 
Cui pater et conjux quondam tua dicta relinquor ? 
Talia vociferans gemitu tectum omne replebat, 
Quum subitum dictuque oritur mirabile monstrum. 63o 

Namque manus inter maestorumque ora parentum 
Ecce levis summo de vertice visus luli 
Fundere lumen apex, tactuque irinoxia moUes 
Lambere flamma comas et circum tempora pasci. 
Nos pavidi trepidare metu, crinemque flagrantem 685 

Excutere et sanctos restinguere fontibus ignes. 
At pater Anchises oculos ad sidera laetus 
Extulit, et coelo palmas cum voce tetendit : 
Juppiter omnipotens, precibus si flecteris ullis, 
Adspice nos ; hoc tantum ; et, si pietate meremur, 690 

Da deinde auxilium, pater, atque haec omina firma. 
Vix ea fatus erat senior, subitoque fragore 
Intonuit laevimi, et de coelo lapsa per umbras 
Stella facem ducens multa cum luce cucurrit. 
Illam, summa super labentem culmina tecti, 695 

Cemimus Idaea claram se condere silva 
Signantemque vias ; tum longo limite sulcus 
Dat lucem, et late circum loca sulfure fumant. 
Hie vero victus genitor se tollit ad auras, 
Affaturque deos et sanctum sidus adorat : . 700 

Jam jam nulla mora est ; sequor, et, qua ducitis, adsum. 
Di patrii, servate domum, servate nepotem. 



154 P* VIRGILII MARONIS 

Vestrum hoc augurium, vestroque in numine Troja est 
Cedo equidem, nee, nate, tibi comes ire recuse. 

Dixerat ille ; et jam per moenia clarior ignis 705 

Auditur, propiusque aestus incendia volvunt. 
Ergo age, care pater, cervici imponere nostrae ; 
Ipse subibo humeris, nee me labor iste gravabit ; 
Quo res cumque cadent, unum et commune periclum, 
Una salus ambobus erit. Mihi parvus lulus 7x0 

Sit comes, et longe servet vestigia conjux. 
Vos, famuli, quae dicam, animis advertite vestris. 
Est urbe egressis tumulus templumque vetustum 
Desertae Cereris, juxtaque antiqua cupressus 
Religione patrum multos servata per annos. 715 

Hanc ex diverso sedem veniemus in unam. 
Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque Penates ; 
Me, bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti, 
Attrectare nefas, donee me flumine vivo 
Abluero. 720 

Haec fatus, latos humeros subjectaque coUa 
Veste super fulvique instemor pelle leonis, 
Succedoque oneri ; dextrae se parvus lulus 
Implicuit sequiturque patrem non passibus aequis ; 
Pone subit conjux, Ferimur per opaca locorum ; 725 

Et me, quem dudum non uUa injecta movebant 
Tela neque adverso glomerati ex agmine Graii, 
Nunc omnes terrent aurae, sonus excitat omnis 
Suspensum et pariter comitique onerique timentem. 

Jamque propinquabam portis, omnemque videbar 730 
Evasisse viam, subito cum creber ad aures 
Visus adesse pedum sonitus, genitorque per umbram 
Prospiciens, Nate, exclamat, fuge, nate ; propinquant 
Ardentes clipeos atque aera micantia cemo. 
Hie mihi nescio quod trepido male numen amicum 73s 
Confusam eripuit mentera. Namque avia eursu 
Dum sequor et nota excedo regione viarum, 
Heu ! misero conjux fatone erepta Creusa 



AENEIDOS LIB. II. 15S 

Substitit, erravitne via, seu lassa resedit, 

Incertum ; nee post oculis est reddita nostris. 740 

Nee prius amissam respexi animumque reflexi, 

Quam tumulum antiquae Cereris sedemque sacratam 

Venimus; hie demum eolleetis omnibus una 

Defuit, et eomites natumque virumque fefellit 

Quem non incusavi amens hominumque deorumque, 745 

Aut quid in eversa vidi erudelius urbe ? 

Aseanium Anehisenque patrem Teuerosque Penates 

Commendo sociis et curva valle recondo ; 

Ipse urbem repeto et cingor fulgentibus armis. 

Stat casus renovare omnes, omnemque reverti 750 

Per Trojam, et nirsus caput objectare periclis. 

Principio muros obscuraque limina portae, 
Qua gressum extuleram, repeto, et vestigia retro 
Observata sequor per noctem et lumine lustro. 
Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. 75s 

Inde domum, si forte pedem, si forte tulisset. 
Me refero. Imierant Danai, et tectum omne tenebant. 
I licet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento 
Volvitur ; exsuperant flammae, furit aestus ad auras. 
Procedo et Priami sedes arcemque reviso. 7^ 

Et jam porticibus vacuis Junonis asylo 
Custodes lecti Phoenix et dims Ulixes 
Praedam adservabant Hue undique Troia gaza 
Incensis erepta adytis, mensaeque deorum, 
Crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis 765 

Corigeritur. Pueri et pavidae longo ordine matres 
Stant circum. 

Ausus quin etiam voces jactare per umbram 
Implevi clamore vias, maestusque Creusam 
Nequidquam ingeminans iterumque iterumque vocavi. 770 
Quaerenti et tectis urbis sine fine furenti 
Infelix simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creusae 
Visa mihi ante oculos et nota major imago. 
Obstupui, steteruntque comae et vox faucibus haesit. 



156 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Turn sic affari et curas his demere dictis : 775 

Quid tan turn insano juvat indulgere dolori, 

O dulcis conjux ? non haec sine numine divum 

Eveniunt; nee te hine comitem asportare Creusam 

Fas aut ille sinit superi regnator 01)aiipi. 

Longa tibi exsilia, et vastum maris aequor arandum, 780 

Et terram Hesperian! venies, ubi Lydius arva 

Inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris : 

Illic res laetae regnumque et regia conjux 

Parta tibi. Lacrimas dilectae pelle Creusae : 

Non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbas 7^5 

Adspiciam, aut Graiis servitum inatribus ibo, 

Dardanis, et divae Veneris nurus ; 

Sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris. 

Jamque vale, et nati serva communis amorem. 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem 790 

Dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in auras. 

Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circum : 

Ter frustra comprensa manus efifugit imago, 

Par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno. 

Sic demum socios consumpta nocte reviso. 795 

Atque hie ingentem comitum affluxisse novorum 
Invenio admirans numerum, matresque, virosque, 
Collectam exsilio pubem, miserabile vulgus. 
Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati. 
In quascumque velim pelago deducere terras. 800 

Jamque jugis summae surgebat Lucifer Idae 
Ducebatque diem, Danaique obsessa tenebant 
Limina portarum, nee spes opis ulla dabatur ; 
Cessi et sublato montes genitore petivi. 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 157 



LIBER III. 

PoSTQUAM res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem 

Immeritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum 

Ilium et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troja, 

Diversa exsilia et desertas quaerere terras 

Auguriis agimur divum, classemque sub ipsa s 

Antandro et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae, 

Incerti, quo fata ferant, ubi sistere detur, 

Contrahimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat aestas, 

Et pater Anchises dare fatis vela jubebat ; 

Litora quum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo xo 

Et campos, ubi Troja fuit. Feror exsul in altum 

Cum sociis natoque Penatibus et magnis dis. 

Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis, 
Thraces arant, acri quondam regnata Lyciu-go, 
Hospitium antiquum Trojae sociique Penates, 15 

Dum fortuna fuit. Feror hue, et litore curvo 
Moenia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis, 
Aeneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo. 

Sacra Dionaeae matri divisque ferebam 
Auspicibus coeptorum operum, superoque nitentem 20 

Coelicolum regi mactabam in litore taurum. 
Forte fuit juxta tumulus, quo cornea suramo 
Virgulta et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus. 
Accessi, viridemque ab humo convellere silvam 
Conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras, as 

Horrendum et dictu video mirabile monstrum. 
Nam, quae prima solo ruptis radicibus arbos 
Vellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttae 
Et terram tabo maculant. Mihi frigidus horror 
Membra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. 30 

Rursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen 
Insequor et caussas penitus tentare latentes : 
Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis. 



158 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Multa movens animo Nymphas venerabar agrestes 

Gradivumque patrem, Geticis qui praesidet arvis, 35 

Rite secundarent visus omenque levarent. 

Tertia sed postquam majore hastilia nisu 

Aggredior genibusque adversae obluctor arenae — 

Eloquar, an sileam ? — gemitus lacrimabilis imo 

Auditur tumulo, et vox reddita fertur ad aures : 40 

Quid miserum, Aenea, laceras ? jam parce sepulto ; 

Parce pias scelerare nanus. Non me tibi Troja 

Externum tulit, aut cruor hie de stipite manat. 

Heu ! fuge crudeles terras, fuge litus avarum. 

Nam Polydorus ego. . Hie confixum ferrea texit 4s 

Telorum seges et jaculis increvit acutis. 

Turn vero ancipiti mentem formidine pressus 
Obstupui, stetenmtque comae et vox faucibus haesit 
Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno 
Infelix Priamus furtim mandarat alendum 50 

Threicio regi, quum jam diffideret armis 
Dardaniae cingique urbem obsidione videret 
lUe, ut opes fractae Teucrum, et Fortuna recessi^ 
Res Agamemnonias victriciaque anna secutus, 
Fas omne abrumpit ; Polydorum obtruncat, et auro ss 

Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis, 
Auri sacra fames ? Postquam pavor ossa reliquit, 
Delectos populi ad proceres primumque parentem 
Monstra deum refero, et, quae sit sententia, posco. 
Omnibus idem animus, scelerata excedere terra, 60 

Linqui poUutum hospitium, et dare classibus austros. 
Ergo instauramus Polydoro funus : et ingens 
Aggeritur tumulo tellus ; stant Manibus arae, 
Caeruleis maestae vittis atraque cupresso, 
Et circum Iliades crinem de more solutae ; 65 

Inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte 
Sanguinis et sacri pateras, animamque sepulchro 
Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus. 

Inde, ubi prima fides pelago, placataque venti 
Dant maria et lenis crepitans vocat auster in altum, t> 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 1 59 

Deducunt socii naves et litora complent. 

Provehimur portu, terraeque urbesque recedunt 

Sacra man colitur medio gratissima tellus 

Nereidum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo, 

Quam pius Arcitenens oras et litora circum 7s 

Errantem Mycono e celsa Gyaroque revinxit, 

Immotamque coli dedit et contemnere ventos. 

Hue feror ; haec fessos tuto placidissima portu 

Accipit Egressi veneramur Apollinis urbem. 

Rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phoebique sacerdos, 80 

Vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro, 

Occurrit ; veterem Anchisen agnoscit amicum. 

Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus. 

Templa dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto : 
Da propriam, Thymbraee, domum ; da moenia fessis 85 
Et genus et mansuram urbem ; serva altera Trojae 
Pergama, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli. 
Quem sequimur? quove ire jubes? ubi ponere sedes? 
Da, pater, aiigurium, atque animis illabere nostris. 

Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repente, 90 

Liminaque laurusque dei, totusque moveri 
Mons circum, et mugire adytis cortina reclusis. 
Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertiu* ad auras : 
Dardanidae duri, quae vos a stirpe parentum 
Prima tulit tellus, eadem vos ubere laeto 95 

Accipiet reduces. Antiquam exquirite matrem. 
Hie domus Aeneae cunctis dominabitur oris, 
Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis. 
Haec Phoebus ; mixtbque ingens exorta tumultu 
Laetitia, et cuncti, quae sint ea moenia, quaerunt, xoo 

Quo Phoebus vocet errantes jubeatque reverti ? 
Tum genitor, veterum volvens monumenta virorum, 
Audite, o proceres, ait, et spes discite vestras : 
Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula ponto ; 
Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrae. 105 

Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna j 



l6o p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Maximus unde pater, si rite audita recorder, 

Teucrus Rhoeteas primum est advectus ad oras, 

Optavitque locum regno. Nondum Ilium et arces 

Pergameae steterant ; habitabant vallibus imis. no 

Hinc mater cultrix Cybelae Corybantiaque aera 

Idaeumque nemus ; hinc fida silentia sacris, 

Et juncti currum dominae subiere leones. 

Ergo agite, et, divum ducunt qua jussa, sequamur; 

Placemus ventos et Gnosia regna petamus. us 

Nee longo distant cursu ; modo Juppiter adsit, 

Tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in- oris. 

Sic fatus, meritos aris mactavit honores, 

Taurum Neptuno, taurum tibi, pulcher Apollo, 

Nigram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam. 120 

Fama volat pulsum regnis cessisse paternis 
Idomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretae, 
Hoste vacare domos, sedesque adstare relictas. 
Linquimus Ortygiae portus, pelagoque volamus, 
■ Bacchatamque jugis Naxon viridemque Donysam, 125 

Olearon, niveamque Paron sparsasque per aequor 
Cycladas et crebris legimus freta consita terris. 
Nauticus exoritur vario certamine clamor ; 
Hortantur socii ; Cretam proavosque petamus. 
Prosequitur siu'gens a puppi ventus euntes, 130 

Et tandem antiquis Curetum allabimur oris. 
Ergo avidus muros optatae molior urbis, 
Pergameamque voco, et lactam cognomine gentem 
Hortor amare focos arcemque attoUere tectis. 
Jamque fere sicco subductae litore puppes ; 135 

Connubiis arvisque no vis operata juventus ; 
Jura domosque dabam : subito quum tabida membris, 
Comipto coeli tractu, miserandaque venit 
Arboribusque satisque lues et letifer annus. 
Linquebant dulces animas, aut aegra trahebant 140 

Corpora ; tum steriles exurere Sirius agros ; 
Arebant herbae, et victum seges aegra negabat - 



I 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. l6l 

Rursus ad oraclum Ortygiae Phoebumque remenso 
Hortatur pater ire man, veniamque precari : 
Quam fessis finem rebus ferat ; unde laborum 145 

Tentare auxilium jubeat ; quo vertere cursus. 

Nox erat, et terris animalia somnus habebat : 
Effigies sacrae divum Phrygiique Penates, 
Quos mecum a Troja mediisque ex ignibus urbis 
Extuleram, visi ante oculos adstare jacentis 150 

In somnis, multo manife.sti lumine, qua se 
Plena per insertas fundebat luna fenestras ; 
Turn sic aflfari et curas his demere dictis : 
Quod tibi delate Ortygiam dicturus Apollo est, 
Hie canit, et tua nos en ultro ad limina mittit. 155 

Nos te, Dardania incensa, tuaque arma secuti, 
Nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus aequor. 
Idem ventures tollemus in astra nepotes, 
Imperiumque urbi dabimus. Tu moenia magnis 
Magna para, longumque fugae ne linque laborem. x6o 

Mutandae sedes. Non haec tibi litora suasit 
Delius aut Cretae jussit considere Apollo. 
Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt, 
Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glaebae ; 
Oenotri coluere viri ; nunc fama minores x6s 

Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem : 
Hae nobis propriae sedes ; hinc Dardanus ortus, 
lasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum. 
Surge age, et haec laetus longaevo dicta parentt 
Haud dubitanda refer : Corythum terrasque requirat 170 
Ausonias. Dictaea negat tibi Juppiter arva. 
Talibus attonitus visis et voce deorum — 
Nee sopor illud erat, sed coram agnoscere vultus 
Velatasque comas praesentiaque ora videbar ; 
Tum gelidus toto manabat corpore sudor — 175 

Corripio e stratis corpus, tendoque supinas 
Ad coelum cum voce manus, et munera libo 
Intemerata focis. Perfecto laetus honore 



1 62 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Anchisen facio certum, remque ordine pando. 

Agnovit prolem ambiguam geminosque parentes, iSo 

Seque novo veterum deceptum errore locorum. 

Turn memorat : Nate, Iliacis exercite fatis, 

Sola mihi tales casus Cassandra canebat 

Nunc repeto haec generi portendere debita nostro, 

Et saepe Hesperiam, saepe Itala regna vocare. 185 

Sed quis ad Hesperiae ventures litora Teucros 

Crederet ? aut quem turn vates Cassandra moveret ? 

Cedamus Phoebo, et moniti meliora sequamur. 

Sic ait ; et cuncti dicto paremus ovantes. 

Hanc quoque deserimus sedem, paucisque relictis 190 

Vela damus, vastumque cava trabe currimus aequor. 

Postquam altum tenuere rates, nee jam amplius ullae 
Apparent terrae, coelum undique et undique pontus, 
Turn mihi caeruleus supra caput adstitit imber, 
Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhomiit unda tenebris. 195 
Continue venti volvunt mare magnaque surgunt 
Aequora ; dispersi jactamur giirgite vasto ; 
Involvere diem nimbi, et nox humida coelum 
Abstulit ; ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes. 
Excutimur cursu, et caecis erramus in undis. 2«o 

Ipse diem noctemque negat discern ere coelo, 
Nee meminisse viae media Palinurus in unda. 
Tres adeo incertos caeca caligine soles 
Erramus pelago, totidem sine sidere noctes. 
Quarto terra die primum se attollere tandem 105 

Visa, aperire procul montes, ac volvere fumum. 
Vela cadunt, remis insurgimus ;. baud mora, nautae 
Adnixi torquent spumas et caerula verrunt. 

Servatum ex undis Strophadum me litora primum 
Accipiunt ; Strophades Graio stant nomine dictae, 210 

Insulae lonio in magno, quas dira Celaeno 
Harpyiaeque colunt aliae, Phineia postquam 
Clausa domus, mensasque metu liquere priores. 
Tristius baud illis monstrum, nee saevior ulla 



AENEIDOS LIR III. 165 

testis et ira deiim Stygiis sese extulit undis. ais 

^iiginei volucrum vultus, foedissima ventris 

I^roluvies, uncaeque manus, et pallida semper 

Ora fame. 

liuc ubi delati portus intravimus, ecce 

Laeta boum passim campis armenta videmus 2so 

Caprigenumque pecus nullo custode per herbas. 

Irruimus ferro, et divos ipsumque vocamus 

In partem praedamque Jovem ; tum litore curvo 

Exstmimusque toros dapibusque epulamur opimis. 

At subitae horrifico lapsu de montibus adsunt 225 

Harpyiae et magnis quatiunt clangoribus alas, 

Diripiuntque dapes contactuque omnia foedant 

Immmido ; tum vox tetrum dira inter odorem. 

Rursum in secessu longo sub rupe cavata, 

Arboribus clausi circum atque horrentibus umbris, 230 

Instruimus mensas arisque reponimus ignem : 

Rursum ex diverso coeli caecisque latebris 

Turba sonans praedam pedibus circumvolat uncis, 

Polluit ore dapes. Sociis tunc, arma capessant, 

Edico, et dira bellum cum gente gerendum. 23s 

Haud secus ac jussi faciunt, tectosque per herbam 

Disponunt enses et scuta latentia condunt. 

Ergo ubi delapsae sonitum per curva dedere 

Litora, dat.signum specula Misenus ab alta 

Aere cavo. Invadunt socii, et nova proelia tentant, 240 

Obscenas pelagi ferro foedare volucres. 

Sed neque vim plumis ullam nee vulnera tergo 

Accipiunt, celerique fuga sub sidera lapsae 

Semiesam praedam et vestigia foeda relinquunt. 

Una in praecelsa consedit rupe Celaeno, 245 

Infelix vates, rumpitque banc pectore vocem : 

Bellum etiam pro caede boum stratisque juvencis, 

Laomedontiadae; bellumne inferre paratis 

Et patrio Harpyias insontes pellere regno ? 

Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta. 250 



1 64 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Quae Phoebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phoebus Apollo 

Praedixit, vobis Furiarum ego maxima pando. 

Italiam cursu petitis, ventisque vocatis 

Ibitis Italiam, portusque intrare licebit ; 

Sed non ante datam cingetis moenibus urbem, 255 

Quam vos dira fames nostraeque injuria caedis 

Ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas. 

Dixit, et in silvam pennis ablata refugit. 

At sociis subita gelidus formidine sanguis 

Deriguit ; cecidere animi ; nee jam amplius armis, 260 

Sed votis precibusque jubent exposcere pacem, 

Sive deae, seu sint dirae obscenaeque volucres. 

Et pater Anchises passis de litore palmis 

Numina magna vocat, meritosque indicit honores : 

Di, prohibete minas ; di, talem avertite casum, 265 

Et placidi servate pios ! Turn litore funem 

Deripere, excussosque jubet laxare rudentes. 

Tendunt vela Noti ; fugimus spumantibus updis, 

Qua cursum ventusque gubernatorque vocabat. 

Jam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthos 270 

Dulichiumque Sameque et Neritos ardua saxis. 

Effiigimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna, 

Et terram altricem saevi exsecramur Ulixi. 

Mox et Leucatae nimbosa cacumina montis 

Et formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo. 275 

Hunc petimus fessi et parvae succedimus urbi ; 

Ancora de prora jacitur, stant litore puppes. 

Ergo insperata tandem tellure potiti 
Lustramurque Jovi votisque incendimus aras, 
Actiaque Iliacis celebramus litora ludis. aSo 

Exercent patrias oleo labente palaestras 
Nudati socii ; juvat evasisse tot urbes 
Argolicas mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostes. 
Interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum, 
Et glacialis hiems aquilonibus asperat undas. 285 

Aere cavo clipeum, magni gestamen Abantis, 



AENEIDOS LIR III. 1 65 

^^^tibus adversis figo, et rem carmine signo : 

Aeneas haec de danais victoribus arma. 

Linquere turn portus jubeo et considere transtris. 

Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt. 290 

Protinus aeriajs Phaeacum abscondimus arces, 

Litoraque Epiri legimus portuque subimus 

Chaonio et celsara Buthroti accedimus urbem. 

Hie incredibilis rerum fama occupat aures 
Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes, 293 

Conjugio Aeacidae Pyrrhi sceptrisque potitum, 
Et patrio Andromachen iterum cessisse marito. 
Obstupui, miroque incensum pectus araore, 
Compellare virum et casus cognoscere tantos. 
Progredior portu, classis et litora linquens, 300 

SoUemnes quum forte dapes et tristia dona 
Ante urbem in luco falsi Simoentis ad undam 
Libabat cineri Andromache Manesque vocabat 
Hectoreum ad tumulum, viridi quem caespite inanem 
Et geminas, caussam lacrimis, sacraverat aras. 305 

Ut me conspexit venientem et Troia circum 
Arma amens vidit, magnis exterrita monstris 
Deriguit visu in medio, calor ossa reliquit ; 
Labitiu*, et longo vix tandem tempore fatur : 
Verane te facies, verus mihi nuntius affers, 310 

Nate dea ? vivisne ? aut, si lux alma recessit, 
Hector ubi est ? Dixit, lacriraasque effudit et omnem 
Implevit clamore locum. Vix pauca furenti 
Subjicio et raris turbatus vocibus hisco : 
Vivo equidem, vitamque extrema per omnia duco ; 31s 
Ne dubita, nam vera vides. 
Heu ! quis te casus dejectam conjuge tan to 
Excipit ? aut quae digna satis fortuna revisit 
Hectoris Andromachen ? Pyrrhin' connubia servas ? 
Dejecit vultum et demissa voce locuta est : 320 

O felix una ante alias Priameia virgo, 
Hostilem ad tumulum Trojae sub moenibus altis 



1 66 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Jussa mori, quae sortitus non pertulit ullos, 
Nee victoris heri tetigit eaptiva cubile ! 
Nos, patria incensa diversa per aequora vectae, 
Stirpis Achilleae fastus juvenemque superbum, 
Servitio enixae, tulimus ; qui deinde, seeutus 
Ledaeam Hermionen Lacedaemoniosque hymenaeos, 
Me famulo famulamque Heleno transmisit habendam. 
Ast ilium, ereptae magno inflammatus amore 
Conjugis et scelerum Funis agitatus, Orestes 
Excipit incautum patriasque obtruncat ad aras. 
Morte Neoptolemi regnorum reddita cessit 
Pars Heleno, qui Chaonios cognomine campos 
Chaoniamque omnem Trojano a Chaone dixit, 
Pergamaque Iliacamque jugis banc addidit arcem. 
Sed tibi qui cursum venti, quae fata dedere ? 
Aut quisnam ignarura nostris deus appulit oris ? 
Quid puer Ascanius ? superatne et vescitur aura, 
Quern tibi jam Troja — 
Ecqua tamen puero est amissae cura parentis ? 
Ecquid in antiquam virtutem animosque viriles 
Et pater Aeneas et avunculus excitat Hector ? 
Talia fundebat lacrimans longosque ciebat 
Incassum fletus, quum sese a moenibus heros 
Priamides multis Helenus comitantibus affert, 
Agnoscitque suos, laetusque ad limina ducit, 
Et multum lacrimas verba inter singula fundit. 
Procedo, et parvam Trojam simulataque magnis 
Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine rivum 
Agnosco, Scaeaeque amplector limina portae. 
Nee non et Teucri socia simul urbe fruuntur. 
lUos porticibus rex accipiebat in amplis ; 
Aulai medio libabant pocula Bacchi, 
Impositis auro dapibus, paterasque tenebant. 

Jamque dies alterque dies processit, et aurae 
Vela vocant tumidoque inflatur carbasus austro. 
His vatem aggredior dictis ac talia quaeso :* 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 167 

Trojugena, interpres divum, qui numina Phoebi, 

Qui tripodas, Clarii laurus, qui sidera sentis 360 

Et volucrum Unguas et praepetis omina pennae, 

Fare age — namque omnem cursum mihi prospera dixit 

Religio, et cuncti suaserunt numine divi 

ItaKam petere et terras tentare repostas ; 

Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celaeno 36s 

Prodigium canit, et tristes denuntiat iras, 

Obscenamque famem — quae prima pericula vito ? 

Quidve sequens tantos possim superare labores ? 

Hie Helenus caesis primum de more juvencis 

Exorat pacem dhrum, vittasque resolvit 370 

Sacrati capitis, meque ad tua limina, Phoebe, 

Ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit, 

Atque haec deinde canit divino ex ore sacerdos : 

Nate dea, — nam te majoribus ire per altum 
Auspiciis manifesta fides : sic fata deum rex 375 

Sortitur, volvitque vices ; is vertitur ordo — 
Pauca tibi e multis, quo tutior hospita lustres 
Aequora et Ausonio possis considere portu, 
Expediam dictis ; prohibent nam cetera Parcae 
Scire Helenum ferique vetat Saturnia Juno. 380 

Principio Italiam, quam tu jam rere propinquam 
Vicinosque, ignare, paras invadere portus, 
Longa procul longis via dividit invia terris. 
Ante et Trinacria lentandus remus in unda, 
Et salis Ausonii lustrandum navibus aequor, 385 

Infemique lacus Aeaeaeque insula Circae, 
Quam tuta possis urbem componere terra. 
Signa tibi dicam ; tu condita mente teneto : 
Quum tibi soUicito secreti ad fluminis undam 
Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus 390 

Triginta capitum fetus enixa jacebit, 
Alba, solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati, 
Is locus urbis erit, requies ea' certa laborum. 
Nee tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros : 



1 68 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Fata viam invenient aderitque vocatus Apollo. ^ 

Has autem terras, Italique hanc litoris oram, 

Proxima quae nostri perfunditur aequoris aestu, 

Eflfuge ; cuncta malis habitantur moenia Graiis. 

Hie et Narycii posuerunt moenia Locri, 

Et Sallentinos obsedit milite campos 4«> 

Lyctius Idomeneus ; hie ilia ducis Meliboei 

Parva Philoctetae subnixa Petelia muro. 

Quin, ubi transmissae steterint trans aequora classes 

Et positis aris jam vota in litore solves, 

Purpureo velare comas adopertus amictu, 405 

Ne qua inter sanctos ignes in honore deofUm 

Hostilis facies occurrat et omina turbet. 

Hunc socii morem sacrorum, hunc ipse teneto ; 

Hac casti maneant in religione nepotes. 

Ast ubi digressum Siculae te admoverit orae, 410 

Ventus et angusti rarescent claustra Pelori, 

Laeva tibi tellus et longo laeva petantur 

Aequora circuitu ; dextrum fuge litus et undas. 

Haec loca vi quondam et vasta convulsa ruina — 

Tantum aevi longinqua valet mutare vetustas — 415 

Dissiluisse ferunt, quum protinus utraque tellus 

Una foret ; venit medio vi pontus et undis 

Hesperium Siculo latus abscidit, arvaque et urbes 

Litore diductas angusto interluit aestu. 

Dextrum Scylla latus, laevum implacata Charybdis 420 

Obsidet, atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos 

Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras 

Erigit altemos et sidera verberat unda. 

At Scyllam caecis cohibet spelunca latebris. 

Ora exsertantem et naves in saxa trahentem. 425 

Prima hominis facies et pulchro pectore virgo 

Pube tenus, postrema immani corpore pristis, 

Delphinum caudas utero commissa luporum. 

Praestat Trinacrii metas lustrare Pachyni 

Cessantem, longos et circumflectere cursus, 430 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 1 69 

Quam semel informem vasto vidisse sub antro 

Scyllam et caeruleis canibus resonantia saxa. 

Praeterea, si qua est Heleno prudentia, vati 

Si qua fides, animum si veris implet Apollo, 

Unum illud tibi, nate dea, proque omnibus unum 435 

Praedicam, et repetens iterumque iterumque monebo : 

Junonis magnae primum prece numen adora ; 

Junoni cane vota libens dominamque potentem 

Supplicibus supera donis : sic denique victor 

Trinacria fines Italos mittere relicta. 440 

Hue ubi delatus Cumaeam accessexis urbem 

Divinosque lacus et Avema sonantia silvis, 

Insanam vatem adspicies, quae rupe sub ima 

Fata canit foliisque notas et nomina mandat. 

Quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, 445 

Digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit. 

Ilia manent immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt ; 

Verum eadem, verso tenuis quum cardine ventus 

Impulit et teneras turbavit janua fi*ondes, 

Numquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo, 450 

Nee revocare situs aut jungere carmina curat : 

Inconsulti abeunt, sedemque odere Sibyllae. 

Hie tibi ne qua morae fiierint dispendia tanti, 

Quamvis increpitent soeii, et vi cursus in altum 

Vela voeet possisque sinus implere seeundos, 4S5 

Quin adeas vatem preeibusque oracula poseas 

Ipsa canat, voeemque volens atque ora resolvat. 

Ilia tibi Italiae populos venturaque bella, 

Et quo quemque modo fiigiasque ferasque laborem, 

Expedietj cursusque dabit venerata seeundos. ^ 

Haee sunt, quae nostra liceat te voce moneri. 

Vade age, et ingentem factis fer ad aethera Trojam. 

Quae postquam vates sic ore efFatus amieo est, 
Dona dehinc auro gravia sectoque elephanto 
Imperat ad naves ferri, stipatque earinis 46 

Ingens argentum, Dodonaeosque lebetas, 



170 P. VIRGILII BiARONIS 

Loricam consertam hamis auroque trilicem, 

£t conum insignis galeae cristasque comantes, 

Arma Neoptolemi. Sunt et sua dona parent!. 

Addit equos, additque duces ; 470 

Remigium supplet ; socios simul instruit armis. 

Interea classem velis aptare jubebat 
Anchises, fieret vento mora ne qua ferentl 
Quem Phoebi interpres multo compellat honore : 
Conjugio, Anchise, Veneris dignate superbo, 475 

Cura deum, bis Pergameis erepte minis, 
Ecce tibi Ausoniae tellus ; hanc arripe velis. 
Et tamen hanc pelago praeterlabare necesse est ; 
Ausoniae pars ilia procul, quam pandit Apollo. 
Vade, ait, o felix nati pietate. Quid ultra 480 

Provehor et fando surgentes demoror aiistros ? 
Nee minus Andromache, digressu maesta supremo, 
Fert picturatas auri subtemine yestes 
Et Phrygiam' Ascanio chlamydem, nee cedit honori, 
Textilibusque onerat donis, ac talia fatiu* : 485 

Accipe et haec, manuum tibi quae monumenta mearum 
Sint, puer, et longum Andromachae testentur amorem, 
Conjugis Hectoreae. Cape dona extrema tuorum, 
O mihi sola mei super Astyanactis imago. 
Sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic ora ferebat ; 49a 

Et nunc aequali tecum pubesceret aevo. 
Hos ego digrediens lacrimis afFabar obortis : 
Vivite felices, quibus est fortuna peracta 
Jam sua ; nos alia ex aliis in fata vocamur. 
Vobis parta quies ; nullum maris aequor arandum, 495 

Arva neque Ausoniae semper cedentia retro 
Quaerenda. Effigiem Xanthi Trojamque videtis, 
Quam vestrae fecere manus, melioribus, opto, 
Auspiciis, et quae fuerit minus obvia Graiis. 
Si quando Thybrim vicinaque Thybridis arva 500 

Intraro gentique meae data moenia cemam, 
Cognatas urbes olim populosque propinquos, 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 171 

^piTO, Hesperia, quibus idem Dardanus auctor 

Atque idem casus, unam faciemus utramque 

Trojam animis ; maneat nostros ea cura nepotes. 505 

Provehimur pelago vicina Ceraunia juxta, 
Unde iter Italiam cursusque brevissimus undis. 
Sol ruit interea et montes umbrantur opaci. 
Stemimur optatae gremio telluris ad undam, 
Sortiti remos, passimque in litore sicco 510 

Corpora curamus ; fessos sopor irrigat artus. 
Necdum orbem medium Nox horis acta subibat : 
Haud segnis strato surgit Palinurus et omnes 
Explorat ventos, atque auribus aera captat ; 
Sidera cuncta notat tacito labentia coelo, 513 

Arcturum pluviasque Hyadas geminosque Triones, 
Armatumque auro circumspicit Oriona. 
Postquam cuncta videt coelo constare sereno, 
Dat clarum e puppi signum ; nos castra movemus, 
Tentamusque viam et velorum pandimus alas. s** 

Jamque rubescebat stellis Aurora fugatis, 
Quum procul obscuros coUes humilemque videmus 
Italiam. Italiam primus conclamat Achates, 
Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant 
Tum pater Anchises magnam cratera corona 523 

Induit implevitque mero, divosque vocavit 
Stans celsa in puppi : 

Di maris et terrae tempestatumque potentes, 
Ferte viam vento facilem et spirate secundi. 
Crebrescunt optataai aurae, portusque patescit 530 

Jam proprior, templumque apparet in arce Minervae. 
Vela legunt socii, et proras ad litora torquent 
Portus ab Euroo fluctu curvatus in arcum ; 
Objectae salsa spumant adspergine cautes ; 
Ipse latet ; gemino demittunt brachia muro sas 

Turriti scopuli, refugitque ab litore templum. 
Quatuor hie, primum omen, equos in gramine vidi 
Tondentes campum late, candore nivali. 



172 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Et pater Anchises : Bellum, o terra hospita, portas ; 

Bello armantur equi, bellum haec armenta minantur. S4^ 

Sed tamen idem olim cumi succedere sueti 

Quadrupedes, et frena jugo concordia ferre ; 

Spes et pacis, ait. Turn numina sancta precamur 

Palladis armisonae, quae prima accepit ovantes, 

Et capita ante aras Phrygio velamur amictu ; 545 

Praeceptisque Heleni, dederat quae maxima, rite 

Junoni Argivae jussos adolemus honores. 

Haud mora, continue perfectis ordine votis, 

Comua velatarum obvertimus antennarum, 

Grajugenumque domos suspectaque linquimus arva. 550 

Hinc sinus Herculei, si vera est fama, Tarenti 

Cemitur ; attollit se diva Lacinia contra, 

Caulonisque arces et navifragum Scylaceum. 

Tum procul e fluctu Trinacria cemitur Aetna, 

Et gemitum ingentem pelagi pulsataque saxa 555 

Audimus longe fractasque ad litora voces, 

Exsultantque vada, atque aestu miscentur arenae. 

Et pater Anchises : Nimirum haec ilia Charybdis : 

Hos Helenus scopulos, haec saxa horrenda canebat 

Eripite, o socii, pariterque insurgite remis. 560 

Haud minus ac jussi faciunt, primusque rudentem 

Contorsit laevas proram Palinurus ad undas ; 

Laevam cuncta cohors remis ventisque petivit. 

Tollimur in coelum curvato gurgite, et idem 

Subducta ad Manes imos desedimus unda. 565 

Ter scopuli clamorem inter cava saxa dedere ; 

Ter spumam elisam et rorantia vidimus astra. 

Interea fessos ventus cum sole reliquit, 

Ignarique viae Cyclopum allabimur oris. 

Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus et ingens 570 

Ipse ; sed horrificis juxta tonat Aetna minis, 
Interdumque atram prommpit ad aethera nubem. 
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, 
Attollitque globos flammamm et sidera lambit ; 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 1 73 

^^terdum scopulos avulsaque viscera mentis S7S 

^tigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras 
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. 
Fama est Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus 
Urgueri mole hac, ingentemque insuper Aetnam 
Impositam ruptis flammam exspirare caminis ; 580 

Et fessum quoties mutet latus, intremere omnem 
Murmure Trinacriam, et coelum subtexere fumo. 
Noctem illam tecti silvis immania monstra 
Perferimus, nee, quae sonitum det caussa, videmus. 
i^ Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nee lucidus aethra 58s 
Siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila coelo, 
Et lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat. 
Postera jamque dies primo surgebat Eoo, 
Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram, 
Quum subito e silvis, macie confecta suprema, 590 

Ignoti nova forma viri miserandaque cultu 
Procedit supplexque manus ad litora tendit. 
Respicimus. Dira illuvies immissaque barba, 
Consertimi tegumen spinis ; at cetera Graius, 
Et quondam patriis ad Trojam missus in armis. 595 

Isque ubi Dardanios habitus et Troia vidit 
Anna procul, 'paulum adspectu conterritus haesit, 
Continuitque gradum ; mox sese ad litora praeceps 
Cimi fletu precibusque tulit : Per sidera testor. 
Per superos atque hoc coeli spirabile lumen, 600 

Tollite me, Teucri ; quascumque abducite terras ; 
Hoc sat erit. Scio. me Danais e classibus unum, 
Et bello Iliacos fateor petiisse Penates. 
Pro quo, si sceleris tanta est injuria nostri, 
Spargite me in fluctus, vastoque immergite ponto. 60s 

Si pereo, hominum manibus perisse juvabit. 
Dixerat, et genua amplexus genibusque volutans 
Haerebat. Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus, 
Hortamur ; quae deinde agitet fortuna, fateri. 
Ipse pater dextram Anchises, baud multa moratus, 610 



174 P- VIRGILII MARONIS 

Dat juveni, atque animum praesenti pignore firmat 

Ille haec, deposita tandem formidine, fatur : 

Sum patria ex Ithaca, comes infelicis Ulixi, 

Nomen Achemenides, Trojam genitore Adamasto 

Paupere — mansissetque utinam fortuna ! — profectus. 615 

Hie me, dum trepidi crudelia limina linquunt, 

Immemores socii vasto Cyclopis in antro 

Deseniere. Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis, 

Intus opaca, ingens. Ipse arduus, altaque pulsat 

Sidera — Di, talem terns avertite pestem ! — 620 

Nee visu facilis nee dictu aflfabilis ulli. 

Visceribus miserorum et sanguine vescitur atro. 

Vidi egomet, duo de numero quum corpora nostro 

Prensa manu magna medio resupinus in antro 

Frangeret ad saxum, sanieque exspersa natarent 625 

Limina ; vidi atro quum membra fluentia tabo 

Manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus. 

Haud impune quidem ; nee talia passus Ulixes, 

Oblitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto. 

Nam simul expletus dapibus vinoque sepultus 630 

Cervicem inflexam posuit, jacuitque per antrum 

Immensus, saniem eructans et frusta cruento 

Per somnum commixta mero, nos, magna precati 

Numina sortitique vices, una undique circum 

Fundimur, et telo lumen terebramus acuto, 63s 

Ingens, quod torva solum sub fronte latebat, 

Argolici clipei aut Phoebeae lampadis instar, 

Et tandem laeti sociorum ulciscimur umbras. 

Sed fugite, o miseri, fugite, atque ab litore funem . 

Rumpite. 64© 

Nam qualis quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro 

Lanigeras claudit pecudes atque ubera pressat, 

Centiun alii curva haec habitant ad litora vulgo 

Infandi Cyclopes et altis montibus errant 

Tertia jam lunae se comua lumine complent, 645 

Quum vitam in silvis inter deserta ferarum 



AENEIDOS LIB. III. 1 75 

Lustra domosque traho, vastosque ab rupe Cyclopas 

l^rospicio, sonitumque pedum vocemque tremisco. 

Victum infelicem, baccas lapidosaque corna, 

Dant rami, et vulsis pascunt radicibus herbae. 653 

Omnia collustrans, banc primum ad litora classem 

Conspexi venientem. Huic me, quaecumque fiiisset, 

Addixi : satis est gentem effiigisse nefandam. 

Vos animam banc potius quocumque absumite leto. 

Vix ea fatus erat, summo quum monte videmus 655 

Ipsum inter pecudes vasta se mole moventem 
Pastorem Polyphemum et litora nota petentem, 
Monstnunhorrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum. 
Trunca manu pinus regit et vestigia firmat; 
Lanigerae comitantur oves ; ea sola voluptas 660 

Solamenque mali. 

Postquam altos tetigit fluctus et ad aequora venit, 
Luminis effossi fluidum lavit inde cruorem, 
Dentibus infrendens gemitu, graditurque per aequor 
Jam medium, necdum fluctus latera ardua tinxit. 665 

Nos procul inde fugam trepidi celerare, recepto 
Supplice sic merito, tacitique incidere fiinem ; 
Verrimus et proni certantibus aequora remis. 
Sensit, et ad sonitum vocis vestigia torsit. 
Verum ubi nulla datur dextra afFectare potestas, 670 

Nee potis lonios fluctus aequare sequendo, 
Clamorem immensum tollit, quo pontus et omnes 
Contremuere undae, penitusque exterrita tellus 
Italiae, curvisque immugiit Aetna cavemis. 
At genus e silvis Cyclopum et montibus altis 675 

Excitum ruit ad portus et litora complent. 
Cernimus adstantes nequidquam lumine torvo 
Aetnaeos fratres, coelo capita alta ferentes, 
Concilium horrendum : quales quum vertice celso 
Aeriae quercus, aut coniferae cyparissi 680 

Constiterunt, silva alta Jovis, lucusve Dianae. 
Praecipites metus acer agit quocumque rudentes 



176 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Excutere, et venti^ intendere vela secundis. 

Contra jussa monent Heleni, Scyllam atque Charybdim 

Inter utramque viam leti discrimine parvo 68^ 

Ni teneant cursus ; certum est dare lintea retro, 

Ecce autem Boreas angusta ab sede Pelori 

Missus adest Vivo praetervehor ostia saxo 

Pantagiae Megarosque sinus Thapsumque jacentem. 

Talia monstrabat relegeris errata retrorsus 690 

Litora Achemenides, comes infelicis Ulixi. 

Sicanio praetenta sinu jacet insula contra 
Plemyrium undosum ; nomen dixere priores 
Ortygiam. Alpheum fama est hue Elidis amnem 
Occultas egisse vias subter mare ; qui nunc 695 

Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis. 
Jussi numina magna loci veneramur ; et inde 
Exsupero praepingue solum stagnantis Helori. 
Hinc altas cautes projectaque saxa Pachyni 
Radimus, et fatis numquam concessa moveri ?<» 

Apparet Camarina procul campique Geloi^ 
Immanisque Gela fluvii cognomine dicta. 
Arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima longe 
Moenia, magnanimum quondam generator equorum ; 
Teque datis linquo ventis, palmosa Selinus, 70s 

Et vada dura lego saxis Lilybeia caecis. 
Hinc Drepani me portus et illaetabilis ora 
Accipit. Hie, pelagi tot tempestatibus actus, 
Heu genitorem, omnis curae casusque levamen, 
Amitto Anchisen. Hie me, pater optime, fessum 710 

Deseris, heu, tantis nequidquam erepte periclis! 
Nee vates Helenus, quum multa horrenda moneret, 
Hos mihi praedixit luctus, non dira Celaeno. 
Hie labor extremus, longarum haec meta viarum, 
Hinc me digressum vestris deus appulit oris. 71s 

Sic pater Aeneas intentis omnibus unus 
Fata renarrabat divum, cursusque docebat. 
Conticuit tandem, factoque hie fine quievit 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. 177 



LIBER IV. 

At regina gravi jamdudum saucia cura 

Vulnus alit venis, et caeco carpitur igni. 

Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat 

Gentis honos ; haerent infixi pectore vultus 

Verbaque, nee placidam membris dat cura quietem. 5 

Postera Phoebea lustrabat lampade terras 

Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram, 

Quum sic unanimam alloquitur male sa^a sororem : 

Anna soror, quae me suspensam insomnia terrent ! 

Quis novus hie nostris sueeessit sedibus hospes, 10 

Quem sese ore ferens, quam forti pectore et armis ! 

Credo equidem, nee vana fides, genus esse deorum. 

Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu, quibus ille 

Jaetatus fatis ! quae bella exhausta canebat ! 

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet, 15 

Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali, 

Postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefellit, 

Si non pertaesum thalami taedaeque fuisset, 

Huic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae. 

Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sychaei so 

Conjugis et sparsos fraterna caede Penates, 

Solus hie inflexit sensus, animumque labantem 

Impulit. Agnosco veteris vestigia flammae. 

Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiseat, 

Vel Pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras, 25 

Pallentes umbras Erebi noctemque profundam, 

Ante, Pudor, quam te violo, aut tua jura resolvo. 

Ille meos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores 

Abstulit ; ille habeat seeum servetque sepulchro. 

Sic efFata sinum lacrimis implevit obortis. 30 

Anna refert : O luce magis dilecta sorori, 
Solane perpetua maerens earpere juventa. 



178 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Nec dulces natos, Veneris nee praemia noris ? 

Id cinerem aut Manes credis curare sepultos ? 

Esto, aegram nulli quondam flexere mariti, 35 

Non Libyae, non ante Tyro ; despectus larbas 

Ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis 

Dives alit : placitone etiam pugnabis amori ? 

Nec venit in mentem, quorum consederis arvis ? 

Hinc Gaetulae urbes, genus insuperabile bello, 40 

Et Numidae infreni cingunt et inhospita Syrtis ; 

Hinc deserta siti regio, lateque furentes 

Barcaei. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam, 

Germanique minas ? 

Dis equidem auspicibus reor et Junone secunda 45 

Hunc cursum Iliacas vento tenuisse carinas. 

Quam tu urbem, soror, banc cernes, quae surgere regna 

Conjugio tali ! Teucrum comitantibus armis 

Punica se quantis attoUet gloria rebus ! 

Tu modo posce deos veniam, sacrisque litatis so 

Indulge hospitio, caussasque innecte morandi, 

Dum pelago desaevit hiems et aquosus Orion, 

Quassataeque rates, dum non tractabile coelum. 

His dictis incensum animum inflammavit amore, 
Spemque dedit dubiae menti, solvitque pudorem. 55 

Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras 
Exquirunt ; mactant lectas de more bidentes 
Legiferae Cereri Phoeboque patrique Lyaeo, 
Junoni ante omnes, cui vincla jugalia curae. 
Ipsa, tenens dextra pateram, pulcherrima Dido 60 

Candentis vaccae media inter comua fundit, 
Aut ante ora deum pingues spatiatur ad aras, 
Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis 
Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta. 
Heu vatum ignarae mentes ! Quid vota furentem, 65 

Quid delubra juvant ? Est molles flamma medullas 
Interea, et taciturn vivit sub pectore vulnus. 
Uritur infelix Dido totaque vagatur 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. 1 79 

TJrbe furens, qualis conjecta cerva sagitta, 

Quam procul incautam nemora inter Cresia fixit 70 

Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum 

Nescius ; ilia fuga silvas saltusque peragrat 

Dictaeos ; haeret lateri letalis arundo. 

Nunc media Aenean Secum per moenia ducit, 

Sidoniasque ostentat opes urbemque paratam ; 75 

Incipit eflfari, mediaque in voce resistit ; 

Nunc eadem labente die convivia quaerit, 

Iliacosqiie iterum demens audire labores 

Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore. 

Post, ubi .digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim 80 

Luna premit suadentque cadentia sidera somnos, 

Sola domo maeret vacua, stratisque relictis 

Incubat. Ilium absens absentem auditque videtque, 

Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta, 

Detinet, iwfandum si fallere possit amorem. 85 

Non coeptae adsurgunt turres, non arma juventus 

Exercet, portusve aut propugnacula bello 

Tuta parant ; pendent opera intemipta minaeque 

Murorum ingentes aequataque machina coelo. 

Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri 90 

Cara Jovis conjux, nee famam obstare furori, 
Talibus adgreditur Venerem Satumia dictis ; 
Egregiam vero laudem et spolia ampla refertis 
Tuque puerque tuus, magnum et memorabile nomen, 
Una dolo divura si femina victa duorum est. 9s 

Nee me adeo fallit veritam te moenia nostra 
Suspectas habuisse domos Karthaginis altae. 
Sed quis erit modus, aut quo nunc certamine tanto ? 
Quin potius pacem aetemam pactosque hymenaeos 
Exercemus ? habes, tota quod mente petisti : 100 

Ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem. 
Communem hunc ergo populum paribusque regamus 
Auspiciis ; liceat Phrygio servire marito, 
Dotalesque tuae Tyrios permittere dextrae. 



l8o P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Olli — sensit enim simulata mente locutam, xps 

Quo regnum Italiae Libycas averteret oras — 
Sic contra est ingressa Venus : Quis talia demens 
Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello, 
Si modo, quod memoras, factum fortuna sequatur ? 
Sed fatis incerta feror, si Juppiter unam no 

Esse velit Tyriis urbem Trojaque profectis, 
Miscerive probet populos, aut foedera jungi. 
Tu conjux ; tibi fas animum tentare precando. 
Perge ; sequar. Turn sic excepit regia Juno ; 
Mecum erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat, ns 
Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo. 
Venatum Aeneas unaque miserrima Dido 
In nemus ire parant, ubi priraos crastinus ortus 
Extulerit Titan radiisque retexerit orbem. 
His ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum, 120 

Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine cingunt, 
Desuper infundam, et tonitru coelum omne ciebo. 
DifFugient comites et nocte tegentur opaca : 
Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem 
Devenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 12s" 

Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo. 
Hie hymenaeus erit. — Non adversata petenti 
Adnuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis. 

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit 
It portis jubare exorto delecta juventus ; 130 

Retia rara, plagae, lato venabula ferro, 
Massylique ruunt equites et odora canum vis. 
Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi 
Poenorum exspectant, ostroque insignis et auro 
Stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit 135 

Tandem progreditur magna stipante caterva, 
Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo. 
Cui pharetra ex auro, crines nodantur in aurum, 
Aurea purpuream subnectit fibula vestem. 
Nee non et Phrygii comites et laetus lulus 140 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. l8l 

Incedunt Ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnes 

Infert se socium Aeneas atque agmina jungit. ♦ 

Qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique fiuenta 

Deserit ac Delum matemam invisit Apollo 

Instauratque choros, mixtique altaria circum 145 

Cretesque Dryopesque freraunt pictique Agathyrsi ; 

Ipse jugis Cynthi graditur, moUique fiuentem 

Fronde premit crinem fingens atque implicat auro ; 

Tela sonant humeris : haud illo segnior ibat 

Aeneas ; tantum egregio decus enitet ore. 150 

Postquam altos ventum in montes atque invia lustra, 

Ecce ferae, saxi dejectae vertice, caprae 

Decurrere jugis ; alia de parte patentes 

Transmittunt cursu campos atque agmina cervi 

Pulverulenta fuga glomerant montesque relinquunt. 155 

At puer Ascanius mediis in vallibus acri 

Gaudet equo, jamque hos cursu, jam praeterit illos, 

Spumantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis 

Optat aprum, aut fulvum descehdere monte leonem. 

Interea magno raisceri murmure coelum x6o 

Incipit ; insequitur commixta grandine nimbus ; 
Et Tyrii comites passim et Trojana juventus 
Dardaniusque nepos Veneris diversa per agros 
Tecta metu petiere ; ruunt de montibus amnes. 
Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem 165 

•Deveniunt. Prima et Tellus et pronuba Juno 
Dant signum ; fulsere ignes et conscius aether 
Connubiis, summoque ulularunt vertice Nymphae. 
lUe dies primus leti primusque malorum 
Caussa fuit ; neque enim specie famave movetur 170 

Nee jam furtivum Dido meditatur amorem ; 
Conjugiura vocat ; hoc praetexit nomine culpam. 

Extemplo Libyae magnas it Fama per urbes, 
Fama, malum qua non aliud velocius uUum ; 
Mobilitate viget, virisque acquirit eundo ; 175 

Parva metu primo ; mox sese attoUit in auras, 



l82 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit 

Illato Terra parens, ira irritata deorum, 

Extremam, ut perhibent, Coeo Enceladoque sororem 

Progenuit, pedibus celerem et pemicibus alis, xSo 

Monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui, quot sunt corpore plumae, 

Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu. 

Tot linguae, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit aures. 

Nocte volat coeli medio terraeque per umbram, 

Stridens, nee dulci declinat lumina somno ; 185 

Luce sedet custos aut summi culmine tecti, 

Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes. 

Tarn ficti pravique tenax, qiiam nuntia veri. 

Haec turn multiplici populos sermone replebat 

Gaudens et pariter facta atque infecta canebat : xgo 

Venisse Aenean, Trojano sanguine cretum, 

Cui se pulchra viro dignetur jungere Dido ; 

Nunc hiemem inter se luxu, quam longa, fovere 

Regnorum immemores turpique cupidine captos. 

Haec passim dea foeda virum diffundit in ora. 19s 

Protinus ad regem cursus detoiiquet larban, 

Incenditque animum dictis atque aggerat iras. 

Hie Hammone satus, rapta Garamantide Nympha, 
Templa Jovi centum latis immania regnis. 
Centum aras posuit, vigilemque sacraverat ignem, 200 

Excubias divum aeternas, pecudumque cruore 
Pingue solum et variis florentia limina sertis. 
Isque amens animi et rumore accensus amaro 
Dicitur ante aras media inter numina divum 
Multa Jovem manibus supplex orasse supinis : 205 

Juppiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis 
Gens epulata toris Lenaeum libat honorem, 
Adspicis haec ? an te, genitor, quum fulmina torques, 
Nequidquam horremus, caecique in nubibus ignes 
Terrificant animos et inania murmura miscent ? 210 

Femina, quae nostris errans in finibus urbem 
Exiguam pretio posuit, cui litus arandum 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. 1 83 

• 

Cuique loci leges dedimus, connubia nostra 

Repulit ac dominum Aenean in regna recepit 

Et nunc ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu, ais 

Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem 

Subnexus, rapto potitur : nos munera templis 

Quippe tuis ferimus, famamque fovemus inanem. 

TaJibus orantem dictis arasque tenentem 
Audiit omnipotens, oculosque ad moenia torsit aao 

Regia et oblitos famae melioris amantes. 
Turn sic Mercurium alloquitur ac talia mandat : 
Vade age, nate, voca Zephyros et labere pennis, 
Dardaniumque ducem, Tyria Karthagine qui nunc 
Exspectat, fatisque datas non respicit urbes, aas 

Alloquere et celeres defer mea 'dicta per auras. 
Non ilium nobis genetrix pulcherrima talem 
Promisit Graiumque ideo bis vindicat armis ; 
Sed fore, qui gravid am imperiis belloque frementem 
Italiam regeret, genus alto a sanguine Teucri 230 

Proderet, ac totum sub leges mitteret orbem. 
Si nulla accendit tantarum gloria rerum 
Nee super ipse sua molitur laude laborem, 
Ascanione pater Romanas invidet arces ? 
Quid struit ? aut qua spe, inimica in gente, moratur, 235 
Nee prolem Ausoniam et Lavinia respicit arva ? 
Naviget : haec summa est ; hie nostri nuntius esto. 

Dixerat. Ille patris magni parere parabat 
Imperio ; et primum pedibus talaria nectit 
Aurea, quae sublimem alis sive aequora supra 240 

Seu terram rapido pariter cum flamine portant ; 
Tum virgam capit ; hac animas ille evocat Oreo 
Pallentes, alias sub Tartara tristia mittit, 
Dat somnos adimitque, et lumina morte resignat. 
Ilia fretus agit ventos, et turbida tranat 24s 

Nubila ; jamque volans apicem et latera ardua cemit 
Atlantis dun, coelum qui vertice fulcit, 
Atlantis, cinctum adsidue cui nubibus atris 



184 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri ; 
Nix humeros infusa tegit ; turn flumina mento 250 

Praecipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba. 
Hie primum paribus nitens Cyllenius alis 
Constitit ; hinc toto praeceps se corpore ad undas 
Misit, avi similis, quae circum litora, circum 
Piscosos scopulos humilis volat aequora juxta. 255 

Haud aliter terras inter coelumque volabat, 
Litus arenosum Libyae ventosque secabat 
* Matemo veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles. 
Ut primum alatis tetigit magalia plantis, 
Aenean fundantem arces ac tecta novantem 260 

Conspicit : atque illi stellatus iaspide fulva 
Ensis erat, Tyrioque ardebat murice laena 
Demissa ex humeris, dives quae munera Dido 
Fecerat et tenui telas discreverat auro. 
Continuo invadit : Tu nunc Karthaginis altae 265 

Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem 
Exstruis?-heu regni rerumque oblite tuarum! 
Ipse deum tibi me claro demittit 01)anpo 
Regnator, coelum et terras qui numine torquet ; 
Ipse haec ferre jubet celeres mandata per auras : 270 

Quid struis ? aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terns ? 
Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum 
Nee super ipse tua moliris laude laborem, 
Ascanium surgentem et spes heredis luli 
Respice, cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus 275 

Debentur. Tali Cyllenius ore locutus 
Mortales visus medio sermone reliquit, 
Et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram. 
At vero Aeneas adspectu obmutuit amens, 
Arrectaeque horrore comae, et vox faucibus haesit. 280 

Ardet abire fuga dulcesque relinquere terras, 
Attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum. 
Heu quid agat ? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem 
Audeat affatu ? quae prima exordia sumat ? 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. 1 85 

Atque animum nunc hue celerem, nunc dividit illuc, 285 

In partesque rapit varias perque omnia versat. 

Haec alternanti potior sententia visa est : 

Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat fortemque Serestum, • 

Classem aptent taciti sociosque ad litora cogant, 

Arma parent, et, quae rebus sit caussa novandis, ago 

Dissimulent ; sese interea, quando optima Dido 

Nesciat et tantos rumpi non speret amores, 

Tentaturum aditus, et quae mollissima fandi 

Tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. Ocius omnes 

Imperio laeti parent ac jussa facessunt. 29s 

At regina dolos — quis fallere possit amantem ? — 
Praesensit, motusque excepit prima futures, 
Omnia tuta timens. Eadem inipia Fama furenti 
Detulit armari classem cursumque parari, 
Saevit inops animi, totamque incensa per urbem 300 

Bacchatur, qualis commotis excita sacris 
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho 
Orgia noctumusque vocat claihore Cithaeron. 
Tandem his Aenean compellat vocibus ultro : 

Dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantuih .305 

Posse nefas, tacitusque mea decedere terra ? 
Nee te noster amor, nee te data dextera quondam. 
Nee moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido ? 
Quin etiam hiberno molifis sidere classem, 
Et mediis properas aquilonibus ire per altum, 310 

Crudelis ? Quid ? si non arva aliena domosque 
Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua maneret, 
Troja per undosum peteretur classibus aequor ? 
Mene fugis ? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te — 
.Quando aliud mihi jam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui — 315 
Per connubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. 
Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quidquam 
Dulce meum, miserere domus labentis et istam, 
Oro, si quis adhue precibus locus, exue mentem. 
Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni 320 



1 86 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Odere, infensi Tyrii ; te propter eimdem 

Exstinctus pudor et, qua sola sidera adibam, 

Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes ? 

Hoc solum nomen quoniam de conjuge restat. 

Quid moror ? An mea Pygmalion dum moenia frater 32s 

Destruat, aut captam ducat Gaetulus larbas ? 

Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset 

Ante fugam suboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula 

Luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret, 

Non equidem omnino capta ac deserta viderer. 330 

Dixerat. Ille Jovis monitis immota tenebat 
Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat. 
Tandem pauca refert : Ego te, quae plurima fando 
Enumerare vales, numquam, Regina, "negabo 
Promeritam ; nee me meminisse pigebit Elissae, 33s 

Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus. 
Pro re pauca loquar. Neque ego banc abscondere furto 
Speravi, ne finge, fugam, nee conjugis umquam 
Praetendi taedas aut haec in foedera veni. 
Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam 340 

Auspiciis et sponte mea componere curas, 
Urbem Trojanara primum dulcesque meorum 
Reliquias colerem, Priami tecta alta manerent, 
Et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis. 
Sed nunc Italiam magnam Gryneus Apollo, 345 

Italiam Lyciae jussere capessere sortes ; 
Hie amor, haec patria est. Si te Karthaginis arces, 
Phoenissam, Libycaeque adspectus detinet urbis, 
Quae tandem, Ausonia Teucros considere terra, 
Invidia est ? Et nos fas extera quaerere regna. 350 

Me patris Anchisae, quoties humentibus umbris 
Nox operit terras, quoties astra ignea surgunt, 
Admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago ; 
Me puer Ascanius capitisque injuria cari, 
Quem regno Hesperiae fraudo et fatalibus arvis. 355 

Nunc etiam interpres divum, Jove missus ab ipso — 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. 187 

Tester utrumque caput — celeres maijdata per auras 
Detulit ; ipse deum manifesto in lumine vidi 
Intrantem muros,xVOcemque his auribus hausi. 
Desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis ; 360 

Italiam non sponte sequor. 

Talia dicentem jamdudum aversa tuetur, 
Hue illuc volvens oculos, totumque pererrat 
Luminibus tacitis, et sic accensa profatur : 
Nee tibi diva parens, generis nee Dardanus auctor, 363 
Perfide ; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens 
Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera tigres. 
Nam quid dissimulo ? aut quae me ad majora reserve ? 
Num fletu ingemuit nostro ? num lumina flexit ? 
Num lacrimas victus dedit, aut miseratus amantem est? 370 
Quae quibus anteferam ? Jam jam nee maxima luno. 
Nee Saturnius haec oculis pater adspicit acquis. 
Nusquam tuta fides. Ejectum litore egentem 
Excepi et regni demens in parte locavi ; 
Amissam classem, socios a morte reduxi. 375 

Heu furiis incensa feror ! Nunc augur Apollo, 
Nunc Lyciae sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso 
Interpres divum fert horrida jussa per auras. 
Scilicet is Superis labor est, ea cura quietos 
Sollicitat. Neque te teneo, neque dicta refello ; 380 

I, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas. 
Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt, 
Supplicia hausurum scopulis, et nomine Dido 
Saepe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens, 
Et, quum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus, 385 

Omnibus umbra locis adero. Dabis, improbe, poenas. 
Audiam, et haec Manes veniet mihi fama sub imos. 
His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit, et auras 
Aegra fugit, seque ex oculis avertit et aufert, 
Linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem 390 
Dicere. Suscipiunt famulae, collapsaque membra 
Marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt. 



1 88 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

At plus Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem 
Solando cupit et dictis avertere curas, 
Multa gemens magnoque animum labefactus atriore, 395 
Jussa tamen divum exsequitur, classemque revisit 
Turn vero Teucri incumbunt et litore celsas 
Deducunt toto navis. Natat uncta carina, 
Frondentesque ferunt remos et robora silvis 
Infabricata, fugae studio. 4<» 

Migrantes cernas, totaque ex urbe ruentes. 
Ac velut ingentem formicae farris acervum 
Quum populant, hiemis memores, tectoque reponunt ; 
It nigrum campis agmen, praedamque per herbas 
Convectant calle angusto ; pars grandia trudunt 405 

Obnixae frumenta humeris ; pars agmina cogunt 
Castigantque moras ; opere omnis semita fervet 
Quis tibi turn. Dido, cernenti talia sensus, 
Quosve dabas gemitus, quum litora fervere late 
Prospiceres arce ex summa, totumque videres 410 

Misceri ante oculos tantisclamoribus aequor? 
Improbe amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis ? 
Ire iterum in lacrimas, iterum teritare precando 
Cogitur, et supplex animos submittere amori, 
Ne quid inexpertum frustra moritura relinquat. 4x5 

Anna, vides toto properari litore ? Circum 
Undique convenere ; vocat jam carbasus auras, 
Puppibus et laeti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem, 
Et perferre, soror, potero. Miserae hoc tamen uniim 4«> 
Exsequere, Anna, mihi ; solam nam perfidus ille 
Te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus ; 
Sola viri molles aditus et tempora noras ; 
I, soror, atque hostem supplex affare superbum : 
Non ego cum Danais Trojanam exscindere gentem 425 
Aulide juravi, classemve ad Pergama misi. 
Nee patris Anchisae cinerem Manesve revelli : 
Cur mea dicta negat duras demittere in aures ? 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. 189 

Quo ruit ? extfemum hoc miserae det fnimus amanti : 
ffixspectet facilemque' fugam ventosque ferentes. 430 

Non jam conjugium antiquum, quod prodidit, ofo, 
Nee pulchro ut Latio careat regnumque relinquat ; 
Tempus inane peto,* requiem spatiumque furori, 
Dum mea me victam doceat fortuna dolere. 
Extremam banc oro veniam — miserere sororis — 435 

Quam mihi quum dederis, cumulatam morte remittam. 

Talibus orabat, talesque miserrima fletus 
Fertque refertque soror. Sed nullis ille movetur 
Fletibus, awt voces ullas tractabilis audit ; 
Fata obstant, placidasque viri deus obstruit aures. 440 

Ac velut annoso validaTO quum robore quercum 
Alpini Boreae nunc hinc nunc flatibus iHinc 
Eruere inter se certant ; it stridor, et altae 
Constemunt terram concusso stipite frondes ; 
Ipsa haeret scopulis, et, quantum vertice ad auras 44s 

Aetherias, tantum radice in Tsutara tendit : 
Haud secus adsidais hinc atque hinc vocibus heros 
Tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas ; 
Mens immota manet ; lacrimae volvuntur inanes. 

Tum vero infelix fatis exterrita Dido 450 

Mortem orat ; taedet coeli convexa tueri. 
Quo magis inceptum peragat lucemque relinquat, 
Vidit, turicremis quum dona imponeret aris — 
Horrendum dictu — latices nigrescere sacros 
Fusaque in Obscenum se vertere vina cruorem. 45s 

Hoc visum nuUi, non ipsi efFata sorori. 
Praeterea fuit in tectis de marmore teraplum 
Conjugis antiqui, miro quod honore colebat, 
Velleribus niveis et festa fronde revinctum : 
Hinc exaudiri voces et verba vocantis 4^ 

Visa viri, nox qutim ten^as obscura teneret ; 
Solaque culminibus ferali carmine bubo 
Saepe queri et longas in flettjm ducere voces ; 
Multaque praeterea vatum praedicta priorum 



190 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Terribili monitu horrificant Agit ipse furentem 46s 

In somnis ferus Aeneas ; semperque relinqui 

Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur 

Ire viam et Tyrios deserta quaerere terra : 

Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina Pentheus, 

Et solem geminum et duplices se ostendere Thebas ; 470 

Aut Agamemnonius scenis agitatus Orestes 

Armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus atris 

Quum fugit, ultricesque sedent in limine Dirae. 

Ergo ubi concepit furias evicta dolore 
Decrevitque mori, tempus secum ipsa modumque 475 

Exigit, et, maestam dictis aggressa sororera, 
Consilium vultu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat : 
Inveni, germana, viam, — gratare sorori — 
Quae mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantem. 
Oceani finem juxta solemque cadentem 480 

Ultimus Aethiopum locus est, ubi maximus Atlas 
Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum : 
Hinc mihi Massylae gentis monstrata sacerdos, 
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi 
Quae dabat et sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 485 

Spargens humida mella soporiferumque papaver. 
Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, 
Quas velit, ast aliis duras immittere curas ; 
Sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retro ; 
Noctumosque ciet Manes ; mugire videbis 490 

Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus omos. 
Testor, cara, deos et te, germana, tuumque 
Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artes. 
Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras 
Erige, et arma viri, thalamo quae fixa reliquit 495 

Impius, exuviasque omnes, lectumque jugalem, 
Quo perii, superimponant ; abolere nefandi 
Cuncta viri monumenta juvat, monstratque sacerdos. 
Haec effata silet ; pallor simul occupat ora. 
Non tamen Anna novis praetexere funera sacris so© 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. I9I 

Germanam credit, nee tantos mente furores 
Concipit, aut graviora timet quam morte SychaeL 
Ergo jussa parat. 

At regina, p)rra penetrali in sede sub auras 
Erecta ingenti taedis atque ilice secta, 505 

Intenditque locum sertis et fronde coronat 
Funerea ; super exuvias ensemque relictum 
Effigiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri. 
Stant arae circum, et crines effusa sacerdos 
Ter centum tonat ore deos, Erebumque Chaosque 5x0 

Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianae. 
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Avemi, 
Falcibus et messae ad Lunam quaeruntur aenis 
Pubentes herbae nigri cum lacte veneni ;' 
Quaeritur et nascentis equi de fronte revulsus 515 

Et matri praereptus amor. 
Ipsa mola manibusqiie piis altaria juxta, 
Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recincta, 
Testatur moritura deos et conscia fati 
Sidera ; turn, si quod non aequo foedere amantes 520 

Curae numen habet justumque memorque, precatur. 

Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa soporem 
Corpora per terras, silvaeque et saeva quierant 
Aequora, quum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, 
Quum tacet omnis ager, pecudes pictaeque volucres, 525 
Quaeque lacus late liquidos, quaeque aspera dumis 
Rura tenent, somno positae sub nocte silenti 
[Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum]. 
At non infelix animi Phoenissa, nee unquam 
Solvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem 530 

Accipit : ingeminant curae, rursusque resurgens 
Saevit amor, magnoque irarum fluctuat aestu. 
Sic adeo insistit, secumque ita corde volutat : 
En, quid ago ? rursusne procos irrisa priores 
Experiar, Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 53s 

Quos ego sim toties jam dedignata maritos ? 



192 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Iliacas igitur classis atque ultima Teucrum 

Jussa sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos, 

Et bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ? 

Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet, ratibusve superbis 540 

Invisam accipiet ? Nescis heu, perdita, necdum 

Laomedonteae sentis perjuria gentis ? 

Quid turn? sola fuga nautas comitabor ovantes? 

An Tyriis omnique manu stipata meorum 

Inferar, et, quos Sidonia vix urbe revelli, 545 

Rursus agam pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo ? 

Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. 

Tu lacrimis evicta meis^ tu prima furentem 

His, germana, malis otieras atque objicis hostL 

Non licuit thalami expertem sine crimine vitam 550 

Degere, more ferae> tales nee tangere curas ! 

Non servata fides, cineri promissa Sychaeo J 

Tantos ilia suo rumpebat pectore questus. 

Aeneas celsa in puppi, jam certus eundi, 
Carpebat somnos, rebus jam rite paratis. 555 

Huic se forma dei vultu redeuntis eodem 
Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est, 
Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque coloremque 
Et crines flavos et membra decora juventa : 
Nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos, 560 

Nee, quae te circum stent deinde pericula, cernis, 
Demens, nee Zephyros audis spirare secundos? 
Ilia dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat, 
Certa mori, varioqu« iraxura :fluctuat aestu. 
Non fugis hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas ? 565 
Jam mare turbari trabibus, saevasque videbis 
CoUucere faces, jam fervere litora flammis, 
Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. 
Eja age, rumpe -moras, Varium et mutabile semper 
Femina. Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae. 570 

Tum vero Aeneas, subitis exterritus umbris, . 
Corripit e somno corpus sociosque fatigat ; 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV., I93 

Praecipites vigilate viri, et considite transtris ; 

Solvite vela citi. Deus aethere missus ab alto 

Festinare fugam tortosque incidere funes S7S 

Ecce iterum stimulat Seqjiimur te, sancte deonim, 

Quisquis es, imperioque iterum paremus ovantes. 

Adsis o placidusque juyes, et sidera coelo 

Dextra feras. Dixit, vaginaque eripit ensem 

Fulmineum, strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. sSo 

Idem omnis simul ardor habet, rapiuntque ruujatqiue ; 

Litora deseruere ; latet sub classibus aequor j 

Adnixi torquent spumas et caerula verrunt. 

Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile. 585 

Regina e speculis ut primum albescere lucem 
Vidit et aequatis classem procedere velis, 
Litoraque et vacuos sensit sine remige portuSj 
Terque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum 
Flaventesque abscissa comas, Pro Juppiter ! ibit 590 

Hie, ait, et nostris illuserit adverja regnis ? 
Non arma expedient, totaque ex urbe sequentur, 
Deripientque rates alii navalibus ? Ite, 
Ferte citi flammas, date tela, impellite remos ! — 
Quid loquor ? aut ubi sum ? Quae mentem insania mutat ? 595 
Infelix Dido ! nunc te facta impia tangxmt ? 
Tum decuit, quum sceptra dabas. — En dextra fidesque, 
Quem secum patrios aiunt portare Penates, 
Quem subiisse humeris confectum aetate parentem ! — 
Non potui abreptum divellere corpus et undis 600 

Spargere ? non socios, non ipsum absumere ferro 
Ascanium, patriisque epulandum ponere mensis ? -^ 
Verum anceps pugnae fueret fortuna. — Fuisset; 
Quem metui moritura ? Faces in castra tulissem, 
Implessemque foros flammis, natumque patremque 60s 

Cum genere exstinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem..^- 
Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras, 
Tuque harum interpres curarum et conscia Juno, 

13 



194 P' VIRGILII MARONIS 

Noctumisque Hecate triviis ululata per urbes, 

Et Dirae ultrices, et di morientis Elissae, 6io 

Accipite haec, meritumque malis advertite numen, 

Et nostras audite pieces. Si tangere portus 

Infandum caput ac terris adnare necesse est, 

Et sic fata Jovis poscunt, hie terminus haeret : 

At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis, 615 

Finibus extorris, complexu avulsus luli, 

Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum 

Funera ; nee, quum se sub leges pacis iniquae 

Tradiderit, regno aut optata luce fruatur ; 

Sed cadat ante diem mediaque inhumatus arena, 620 

Haec precor, banc vocem extremam cum sanguine fundo. 

Tum vos, o Tyrii, stirpem et genus omne futurum 

Exercete odiis, cinerique haec mittite nostro 

Munera. Nullus amor populis, nee foedera sunto 

Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor, 625 

Qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, 

Nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore vires. 

Litora li'toribus contraria, fluctibus undas 

Imprecor, arma armis ; pugnent ipsique nepotesque. 

Haec ait, et partes animum versabat in omnes, 630 

Invisam quaerens quam primum abrumpere lucem. 
Tum breviter Barcen nutricem affata Sychaei ; 
Namque suam patria antiqua cinis ater habebat : 
Annam cara mihi nutrix hue siste sorbrem ; 
Die corpus properet fluviali spargere lympha, 63s 

Et pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat ; 
Sic veniat ; tuque ipsa pia tege tempora vitta. 
Sacra Jovi Stygio, quae rite incepta paravi, 
Perficere est animus, finemque imponere curis, 
Dardaniique rogum capitis permittere flammae. 646 

Sic ait Ilia gradum studio celerabat anili. 
At trepida, et coeptis immanibus effera Dido, 
Sanguineam volvens aciem, maculisque trementes 
Interfusa genas, et pallida morte futura, 



AENEIDOS LIB. IV. I95 

Interiora domus irrumpit limina, et altos 645 

Conscendit furibunda rogos, ensemque recludit 

Dardanium, non hos quaesitum munus in usus. 

Hie, postquam Iliacas vestes notumque cubile 

Conspexit, paulum lacrimis et mente morata, 

Incubuitque toro, dixitque novissima verba : 650 

Dulces exuviae, dum fata deusque sinebat, 

Accipite banc animam, meque his exsolvite curis. 

Vixi, et, quern dederat cursum fortuna, peregi ; 

Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago. 

Urbem praeclaram statui ; mea moenia vidi ; 655 . 

Ulta virum, poenas inimico a fratre recepi ; 

Felix, heu nimium felix, si litora tantum 

Numquam Dardaniae tetigissent nostra carinae ! 

Dixit, et, OS impressa toro, Moriemur inultae ? 

Sed moriamur, ait. Sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras. 660 

Hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto 

Dardanus, et nostrae secum ferat omina mortis. 

Dixerat ; atque illam media inter talia ferro 

Collapsam adspiciunt comites, ensemque cruore 

Spumantem, sparsasque manus. It clamor ad alta 665 

Atria ; concussam bacchatur Fama per urbem. 

Lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu 

Tecta fremunt ; respnat magnis plangoribus aether. 

Non aliter, quam si immissis mat hostibus omnis 

Karthago aut antiqua Tyros, flammaeque furentes 670 

Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deorum. 

Audiit exanimis, trepidoque exterrita cursu 

Unguibus ora soror foedans et pectora pugnis 

Per medios ruit, ac morientem nomine clamat : 

Hoc illud, germana, fuit ? me fraude petebas ? 675 

Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes araeque parabant ? 

Quid primum deserta querar ? comitemne sororem 

Sprevisti moriens ? Eadem me ad fata vocasses ; 

Idem ambas ferro dolor, atque eadem hora tulisset. 

His etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 680 



196 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Voce deos, sic te ut posita crudelis abessem? 

Exstinxti te meque, soror, populumque patresque 

Sidonios urbemque tuam. Date vulnera lymphis, 

Abluam, et, extremus si quis super halitus errat, 

Ore legam. Sic fata gradus evaserat altos, 685 

Semianimemque sinu germanam amplexa fovebat 

Cum gemitu, atque atros siccabat veste cruores. 

Ilia, graves oculos conata attollere, nirsus 

Deficit ; infixum stridit sub pectore vulnus. 

Ter sese attollens cubitoque adnixa levavit ; 690 

Ter revoluta toro est, oculisque errantibus alto 

Quaesivit coelo lucem, ingemuitque reperta. 

Turn Juno omnipotens, longum miserata dolorem 
Difficilesque obitus. Trim demisit Olympo, 
Quae luctantem animam nexosque resolveret artus. 695 

Nam quia nee fato, merita nee morte peribat, 
Sed misera ante diem, subitoque accensa furore, 
Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem 
Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Oreo. 
Ergo Iris croceis per coelum roscida pennis, 700 

Mille trahens varios adverso sole colores, 
Devolat, et supra caput adstitit : Hunc ego Diti 
Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo. 
Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat ; omnis et una 
Dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit 70s 



LIBER V. 

Interea medium Aeneas jam classe tenebat 
Certus iter, fluctusque atros aquilone secabat, 
Moenia respiciens, quae jam infelicis Elissae 
CoUucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit ignem, 
Caussa latet ; duri magno sed amore dolores 
Pollute, notumque, furens quid femina possit, 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 1 97 

Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt. 

Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nee jam amplius ulla 
Occurrit tellus, maria undique et undique coelum, 
OUi caeruleus supra caput adstitit imber, w 

Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhomiit unda tenebris. 
Ipse gubemator puppi Palinurus ab alta : 
Heu ! quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi ? 
Quidve, pater Neptune, paras ? Sic deinde locutus 
CoUigere arma jubet validisque incumbere remis, is 

Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur ; 
Magnanime Aenea, non, si mihi Juppiter auctor 
Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere coelo, 
Mutati transversa fremunt et vespere ab atro 
Consurgunt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aen 20 

Nee nos obniti contra, nee tendere tantum 
Sufficimus. Superat quoniam Fortuna, sequamur, 
Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nee litora longe 
Fida reor fraterna Erycis portusque Sicanos, 
Si modo rite memor servata remetior astra. 2s 

Turn pius Aeneas : Equidem sic poscere ventos 
Jamdudiun et frustra cerno te tendere contra. 
Flecte viam velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla^ 
Quove magis fessas optem demittere naves, 
Quam quae Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten, 30 

Et patris Atichisae gremio complectitur ossa ? 
Haec ubi dicta, petunt portus, et vela secundi 
Intendunt Zephyri ; fertur cita gurgite classis, 
Et tandem laeti notae advertuntur arenae. 

At procul excelso miratus vertice mentis 35 

Adventiun sociasque rates occurrit Acestes, 
Horridus in jaculis et pelle Libystidis ursae, 
Troia Crimiso conceptum flumine mater 
Quem genuit. Veterum non immemor ille parentum 
Gratatur reduces et gaza laetus agresti 40 

Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis* 

Postera quum primo Stellas Oriente fugarat 



198 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Clara dies, socios in coetum litore ab omni 

Advocat Aeneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur : 

Dardanidae magni, genus alto a sanguine divum, 4s 

Annuus exactis completur mensibus orbis, 

Ex quo reliquias divinique ossa parentis 

Condidimus terra maestasque sacravimus aras. 

Jamque dies, nisi fallor, adest, quern semper acerbum, 

Semper honoratum — sic di voluistis — habebo. so 

Hunc ego Gaetulis agerem si Syrtibus exsul, 

Argolicove mari deprensus et urbe Mycenae, 

Annua vota tamen soUemnesque ordine pompas 

Exsequerer, strueremque suis altaria donis. 

Nunc ultro ad cineres ipsius et ossa parentis, 55 

Haud equidem sine mente reor, sine numine di\'um, 

Adsumus et portus delati intramus amicos. 

Ergo agite, et laetum cuncti celebremus honorem ; 

Poscamus ventos, atque haec me sacra quot annis 

Urbe velit posita templis sibi ferre dicatis. 60 

Bina boum vobis Troja generatus Acestes 

Dat numero capita in naves ; adhibete Penates 

Et patrios epulis et quos colit hospes Acestes. 

Praeterea, si. nona diem mortalibus almum 

Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem, 65 

Prima citae Teucris ponam certamina classis ; 

Quique pedum cursu valet, et qui viribus audax 

Aut jaculo incedit melior levibusque sagittis, 

Seu crudo fidit pugnam committere caestu, 

Cuncti adsint, meritaeque exspectent praemia palmae. ' 70 

Ore favete omnes, et cingite tempora ramis. 

Sic fatus velat materna tempora myrto. 
Hoc Helymus facit, hoc aevi maturus Acestes, 
Hoc puer Ascanius, sequitur quos cetera pubes. 
Ille e concilio multis cum milibus ibat 75 

Ad tumulum, magna medius comitante caterva. 
Hie duo rite mero libans carchesia Baccho 
Fundit humi, duo lacte novo, duo sanguine sacro, 



AENEIDOS UB. V. 1 99 

Purpureosque jacit flores, ac talia fatur : 
Salve, sancte parens, iterum : salvete, recepti 80 

Nequidquam cineres, animaeque umbraeque paternae. 
Non licuit fines Italos fataliaque arva. 
Nee tecum Ausoniura, quicumque est, quaerere Thybrim. 
Dixerat haec, adytis quum lubricus anguis ab irais 
Septem ingens gyros, septena volumina traxit, 85 

Amplexus placide tumulum lapsusque per aras, 
Caeruleae cui terga notae maculosus et auro 
Squamam incendebat fulgor ceu nubibus arcus 
Mille jacit varies adverse sole colores. 
Obstupuit visu Aeneas. Ille agmine longo 90 

Tandem inter pateras et levia pocula serpens 
Libavitque dapes, rursusque innoxius imo 
Successit tumulo, et depasta altaria liquit 
Hoc magis inceptos genitori instaurat honores, 
Incertus, Geniumne loci famulumne parentis 9s 

Esse putet ; caedit binas de more bidentes, 
Totque sues, totidem nigrantes terga juvencos ; 
Vinaque fundebat pateris, animamque vocabat 
Anchisae magni Manesque Acheroute remissos. 
Nee non et socii, quae cuique est copia, laeti 100 

Dona ferunt, onerant aras, mactantque juvencos ; 
Ordine aena locant alii, fusique per herbam 
Subjiciunt veribus prunas et viscera torrent. 
Exspectata dies aderat nonamque serena 
Auroram Phaethontis equi jam luce vehebant, 105 

Famaque finitimos et clari nomen Acestae 
Excierat ; laeto complebant litora coetu, 
Visuri Aeneadas, pars et certare parati. 
Munera principio ante oculos circoque locantur 
In medio, sacri tripodes viridesque coronae "o 

Et palmae pretium victoribus, armaque et ostro 
Perfusae vestes, argenti aurique talentum ; 
Et tuba commissos medio canit aggere ludos. 
Prima pares ineunt gravibus certamina remis 



200 P. VIROILII MARONIS 

Quatuor ex omni delectae classe carinae. 115 

Velocem Mnestheus agit acri remige Pristim, 
Mox Italus Mnestheus, genus a quo nomine Memmi, 
Ingentemque Gyas ingenti mole Chknaeram, 
Urbis opus, triplici pubes quam Dardana versu 
Impellunt, temo consurgunt ordine remi ; 220 

Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen, 
Centauro invehitur magna, Scyllaque Cloanthus 
Caerulea, genus unde tibi, Romane Cluenti. 

Est procul in pelago saxum spumantia contra 
Litora, quod tumidis submersum tunditur olim 125 

Fluctibus, hiberni condunt ubi sidera Cori ; 
Tranquillo silet, immotaque attollitur unda 
Campus et apricis statio gratissima mergis. 
Hie viridem Aeneas frondenti ex ilice metam 
Constituit signum nautis pater, unde reverti 13© 

Scirent et longos ubi circumflectere cursus. 
Tum loca sorte legunt, ipsique in puppibus auro 
Ductores longe effiilgent ostroque decori ; 
Cetera populea velatur fronde juventus 
Nudatosque humeros oleo perfusa nitescit. 135 

Considunt transtris, intentaque brachia remis ; 
Intenti exspectant signum, exsultantiaque haurit 
Corda pavor pulsans laudumque arrecta cupido. 
Inde ubi clara dedit sonitum tuba, finibus omnes, 
Haud mora, prosiluere suis ; ferit aethera clamor 14* 

Nauticus, adductis spumant freta versa lacertis. 
Infindunt pariter sulcos, totumque dehiscit 
Convulsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 
Non tam praecipites bijugo certamine campum 
Corripuere ruuntque efiusi carcere currus, 14s 

Nee sic immissis aurigae undantia lora 
Concussere jugis pronique in verbera pendent 
Tum plausu fremituque vinma studiisque faventum 
Consonat omne nemus, vocemque inclusa volutant 
Litora, pulsati colles clamore resultant. xs© 



AENEtDOS LIB. V. ^OI 

Effugit ante alios primisque elabitur undis 

Turbam inter fremitumque Gyas; quem deinde Cloanthus 

Consequitur, melior remis, sed pondere pinus 

Tarda tenet. Post hos aequo discrimine Pristis 

Centaurusque locum tendunt superare priorem ; 155 

Et nunc Pristis habet, nunc victam praeterit ingens 

Centaunis, nunc una ambae junctisque feruntur 

Frontibus et longa sulcant vada salsa carina. 

Jamque propinquabant scopulo metamque tenebant, 

Quum princeps medioque Gyas in gurgite victor 160 

Rectorem navis compellat voce Menoeten : 

Quo tantum mihi dexter abis ? hue dirige gressum ; 

Litus ama, et laevas stringat sine palmula cautes ; 

Altum alii teneant. Dixit ; sed caeca Menoetes 

Saxa timens proram pelagi detorquet ad undas. 165 

Quo diversus abis? iterum, Pete saxa, Menoete ! 

Cum clamore Gyas revocabat ; et ecce Cloanthum 

Respicit instantem tergo, et propiora tenentem. 

Ille inter navemqtie Gyae scopulosque sonantes 

Radit iter laevum interior, subitoque priorem 170 

Praeterit et metis tenet aequora tuta relictis. 

Turn vero exarsit juveni dolor ossibus ingens, 

Nee lacrimis caruere genae, segnemque Menoeten, 

Oblitus decorisque sui sociumque salutis, 

In mare praecipitem puppi deturbat ab alta ; 175 

Ipse gubemaclo rector subit, ipse magister, 

Hortaturque viros, clavumque ad litora torqu^t. 

At gravis, ut fundo vix tandem redditus imo est, 

Jam senior madidaque fluens in veste Menoetes 

Summa petit scopuli iiccaque in rupe resedit. xSo 

Ilium et labentem Teucri et risere natantem, 

Et salsos rident revomentem pectope fluetus. 

Hie laeta extremis spes est accensa duobus, 

Sergesto MneJtheique, Gyan superare morantem. 

Sergestus capit ante locum scopuloque propinqu^t, 185 

Nee tota tamen ille prior praeeunte carina ; 



202 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Parte prior ; partem rostro premit aemula Pristis. 

At media socios incedens nave per ipsos 

Hortatur Mnestheus : Nunc, nunc insurgite remis, 

Hectorei socii, Trojae quos sorte suprema xgo 

Delegi comites ; nunc illas promite vires, 

Nunc animos, quibus in Gaetulis Syrtibus usi 

lonioque mari Maleaeque sequacibus utidis. 

Non jam prima peto Mnestheus, neque vincere certo ; 

Quamquam o ! — Sed superent, quibus hoc, Neptune, dedisti; 

Extremes pudeat rediisse ; hoc vincite, cives, 196 

Et prohibete nefas. OUi certamine summo 

Procumbunt ; vastis tremit ictibus aerea puppis, 

Subtrahiturque solum ; tum creber anhelitus artus 

Aridaque ora quatit ; sudor fluit undique rivis. 200 

Attulit ipse viris optatum casus honorem. 

Namque furens animi dum proram ad saxa suburguet 

Interior spatioque subit Sergestus iniquo, 

Infelix saxis in procurrentibus haesit. 

Concussae cautes, et acuto in murice remi »os 

Obnixi crepuere, illisaque prora pependit. 

Consurgunt nautae et magno clamore morantur, 

Ferratasque trudes et acuta cuspide contos 

Expediunt, fractosque legunt in gurgite remos. 

At laetus Mnestheus successuque acrior ipso 210 

Agmine remorum celeri ventisque vocatis 

Prona petit maria et pelago decurrit aperto. 

QuaUs spelunca subito commota columba, 

Cui domus et dulces latebrosQ in pumice nidi, 

Fertur in arva volans, plausumque exterrita pennis 215 

Dat tecto ingentem, mox aere lapsa quieto 

Radit iter liquidum, celeres neque commovet alas : 

Sic Mnestheus, sic ipsa fuga secat ultima Pristis 

Aequora, sic illam fert impetus ipse volantem. 

Et primum in scopulo luctantem deserit alto aao 

Sergestum brevibusque vadis fru;straque vocantem 

Auxilia et fractis discentem currere remis. 



AENEIDOS LIB. V.. 203 

Inde Gyan ipsamque ingenti mole Chimaeram 

Consequitur ; cedit, quoniam spoliata magistro est 

Solus jamque ipso superest in fine Cloanthus ; 225 

Quein petit, et summis adnixus viribus urguet. 

Turn vero ingeminat clamor, cunctique sequentem 

Instigant studiis, resonatque ftagoribus aether. 

Hi proprium decus et partum indignantur honorem 

Ni teneant, vitamque volunt pro laude pacisci ; 230 

Hos successus alit : possunt, quia posse videntur. 

Et fors aequatis cepissent praemia rostris, 

Ni palmas ponto tendens utrasque Cloanthus 

Fudissetque preces, divosque in vota vocasset : 

Di, quibus imperium pelagi est, quorum aequora curro, 235 

Vobis laetus ego hoc candentem in litore taurum 

Constituam ante aras, voti reus, extaque salsos 

Porriciam in fluctus et vina liquentia fundam. 

Dixit, eumque imis sub -fiuctibus audiit omnis 

Nereidum Phorcique chorus Panopeaque virgo, 240 

Et pater ipse manu magna Portunus euntem 

Impulit ; ilia Noto citius volucrique sagitta 

Ad terram fugit, et portu se condidit alto. 

Tum satus Anchisa, cunctis ex more vocatis, 

Victorem magna praeconis voce Cloanthum 245 

Declarat, viridique advelat tempora lauro ; 

Muneraque in naves temos optare juvencos 

Vinaque et argenti magnum dat ferre talentum. 

Ipsis praecipuos ductoribus addit honores : 

Victor! chlamydem auratam, quam plurima circum 250 

Purpura Maeandro duplici Meliboea cucurrit, 

Intextusque puer frondosa regius Ida 

Veloces jaculo cervos cursuque fatigat, 

Acer, anhelanti similis, quem praepes ab Ida 

Sublimem pedibus rapuit Jovis armiger uncis ; 255 

Longaevi palmas nequidquam ad sidera tendunt 

Custodes, saevitque canum latratus in auras. 

At qui deinde locum tenuit virtute secundum, 



204 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

• 

Levibus huic hamis consertam auroque trilicem 

Loricam, quam Demoleo detraxerat ipse 260 

Victor apud rapidum Simoenta sub Ilio alto, 

Donat habere viro, decus et tutamen in armis. 

Vix illam famuli Phegeus Sagarisque ferebant 

Multiplicem, connixi humeris ; indutus at olim 

Demoleos cursu palantes Troas agebat. 265 

Tertia dona facit geminos ex aere lebetas, 

Cymbiaque argento perfecta atque aspera sigtiis. 

Jamque adeo donati omnes opibusque superbi 

Puniceis ibant evincti tempora taeniis, 

Quum saevo e scopulo multa vix arte revulsus, 270 

Amissis remis atque ordine debilis uno, 

Irrisam sine honore ratem Sergestus agebat. 

Qualis saepe viae deprensus in aggere serpens, 

Aerea quern obliquum rota transiit, aut gravis ictu 

Seminecem liquit saxo lacerumque viator, 275 

Nequidquam longos fugiens dat corpore tortus. 

Parte ferox, ardensque oculis, et sibila coUa 

Arduus attollens ; pars vulnere clauda retentat 

Nexantem nodis seque in sua membra plicantem : 

Tali remigio navis se tarda movebat ; 280 

Vela facit tamen, et velis subit ostia plenis. 

Sergestum Aeneas promisso munere donat, 

Servatam ob navem laetus sociosque reductos. 

Olli serva datur, operum baud ignara Minervae, 

Cressa genus, Pholoe, geminique sub ubere nati. . aSs 

Hoc pius Aeneas misso certamine tendit 
Gramineum in campum, quern collibus undique curvis 
Cingebant silvae, mediaque in valle theatri 
Circus erat ; quo se multis cum milibus heros 
Consessu mediuni tulit exstructoque resedit 290 

Hie, qui forte velint rapido contendere cursu, 
Invitat pretiis animos, et praemia ponit. 
Undique conveniunt Teucri mixtique Sicani, 
Nisus et Euryalus primi, 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 205 

Euryalus forma insignis viridique juventa, 29s 

Nisus amore pio pueri ; quos deinde secutus 
Regius egregia Priami de stirpe Diores ; 
Hunc Salius simul et Patron, quorum alter Acaman, 
Alter ab Arcadip Tegeaeae sanguine gentis ; 
Tum duo Trinacrii juvenes, Helymus Panopesque, 300 

Adsueti silvis, comites senioris Acestae ; 
Multi praeterea, quos fama obscura recondit 
Aeneas quibus in mediis sic deinde locutus : 
Accipite haec animis, laetasque advertite mentes : 
-*♦ Nemo ex hoc numero mihi non donatus abibit 30s 

Gnosia bina dabo levato lucida ferro 
Spicula caelatamque argento ferre bipennem ; 
Omnibus hie erit unus honos. Tres praemia primi 
Accipient, flavaque caput nectentur oliva. 
Primus equum phaleris insignem victor habeto ; 310 

Alter Amazoniam pharetram plenamque sagittis 
Threiciis, lato quam circumplectitur auro 
Balteus, et tereti subnectit fibula gemma ; 
Tertius Argolica hac galea contentus abito. 
Haec ubi dicta, locum capiunt, signoque repente 31s 

Corripiunt spatia audito, limenque relinquunt, 
Effusi nimbo similes, simul ultima signant. 
Primus abit longeque ante omnia corpora Nisus 
Emlcat, et ventis et fulminis ocior alis ; 
Proximus huic, longo sed proximus intervallo, 320 

Insequitur Salius ; spatio post deinde relicto 
Tertius Euryalus ; 

Euryalumque Helymus sequitur ; quo deinde sub ipso 
Ecce volat calcemque terit jam calce Diores, 
Incumbens humero ; spatia et si plura supersint, 325 

Transeat elapsus prior, ambiguumque relinquat 
Jamque fere spatio extremo fessique sub ipsam 
Finem adventabant, levi quum sanguine Nisus 
Labitur infelix, caesis ut forte juvencis 
Fusus huraum viridesque super raadefecerat herbas. 330 



2o6 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Hie juvenis jam victor ovans vestigia presso 

Haud tenuit titubata solo, sed pronus in ipso 

Concidit immundoque fimo sacroque cruore, 

Non tamen Euryali, non ille oblitus amorum ; 

Nam sese opposuit Salio per lubrica surgens ; 33$ 

Ille autem spissa jacuit revolutus arena. 

Emicat Euryalus, et munere victor amici 

Prima tenet, plausuque volat fremituque secundo. 

Post Helymus subit, et nimc tertia palma Diores. 

Hie totum eaveae eonsessum ingentis et ora 340 

Prima patrum magnis Salius clamoribus implet, 

Ereptumque dolo reddi sibi poseit honorem. 

Tutatur favor Euryalum, lacrimaeque deeorae, 

Gratior et pulehro veniens in eorpore virtus. 

Adjuvat et magna proclamat voee Diores, 345 

Qui subiit palmae, frustraque ad praemia venit 

Ultima, si primi Salio reddantur honores. 

Tum pater Aeneas, Vestra, inquit, munera vobis 

Certa manent, pueri, et palmam movet ordine nemo ; 

Me lieeat easus miserari insontis amici. 350 

Sic fatus tergum Gaetuli immane leonis 

Dat Salio, villis onerosum atque unguibus aureis. 

Hie Nisus, Si tanta, inquit, sunt praemia vietis, 

Et te lapsoTum miseret, quae munera Niso 

Digna dabis, primam merui qui laude coronam, * 35s 

Ni me, quae Salium, fortuna inimica tulisset ? 

Et simul his dietis faeiem ostentabat et udo 

Turpia membra fimo. Risit pater optimus olli, 

Et clipeum efferri jussit, Didymaonis artes, 

Neptuni sacro Danais de poste refixum. 360 

Hoe juvenem egregium praestanti munere donat 

Post, ubi confecti eursus, et dona peregit : 
Nunc, si cui virtus animusque in pectore praesens, 
Adsit, et evinetis attollat braehia palmis. 
Sic ait et geminum pugnae proponit honorem, 365 

Vietori velatum auro vittisque juveneum, 



AENEIDOS LIR V. 207 

Ensem atque insignem galeam solatia victo. 

Nee mora ; continuo vastis cum viribus effert 

Ora Dares, magnoque virum se murmure tollit ; 

Solus qui Paridem solitus contendere contra, 370 

Idemque ad tumulum, quo maximus occubat Hector, 

Victorem Buten, immani corpore qui se 

Bebrycia veniens Amyci de gente ferebat, 

Perculit et fulva moribundum extendit arena. 

Talis prima Dares caput altum in proelia tollit, 375 

Ostenditque humeros latos, altemaque jactat 

Brachia protendens, et verberat ictibus auras. 

Quaeritur huic alius ; nee quisquam ex agmine tanto 

Audet adire virum manibusque inducere caestus. 

Ergo alacris, cunctosque putans excedere palma, 380 

Aeneae stetit ante pedes, nee plura moratus 

Tum laeva taurum comu tenet, atque ita fatur : 

Nate dea, si nemo audet se credere pugnae. 

Quae finis standi ? quo me decet usque teneri ? 

Ducere dona jube. Cuncti simul ore fremebant 385 

Dardanidae, reddique viro promissa jubebant 

Hie gravis Entellum dictis castigat Acestes, 

Proximus ut viridante toro consederat herbae : 

Entelle, heroum quondani fortissime frustra, 

Tantane tam patiens nuUo certamine tolli 390 

Dona sines ? Ubi nunc nobis deus ille magister 

Nequidquam memoratus Eryx ? Ubi fama per omnem 

Trinacriam, et spolia ilia tuis pendentia tectis ? 

Ille sub haee : Non laudis amor, nee gloria cessit 

Pulsa metu ; sed enim gelidus tardante senecta 39s 

Sanguis hebet, frigentque effetae in corpore vires. 

Si mihi, quae quondam fuerat, quaque improbus iste 

Exsultat fidens, si nunc foret ilia juventas, 

Haud equidem pretio inductus pulchroque juveneo 

Venissem, nee dona moror. Sic deinde locutus 400 

In medium geminos immani pondere caestus 

Projecit, quibus acer Eryx in proelia suetus 



208 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Ferre manum duroque intendere brachia tergo. 

Obstupuere animi : tantorum ingentia septem 

Terga bourn plumbo insuto ferroque rigebant. 405 

Ante omnis stupet ipse Dares, longeque recusat ; 

Magnanimusque Anchisiades et pondus et ipsa 

Hue illuc vinclorum immensa volumina versat. 

Turn senior tales referebat pectore voces : 

Quid, si quis caestusipsius et Herculis arma 410 

Vidisset tristemque hoc ipso in litore pugnam ? 

Haec germanus Eryx quondam tuus arma gerebat ; — 

Sanguine cemis adhuc sparsoque infecta cerebro — 

His magnum Alciden contra stetit ; his ego suetus, 

Dum melior vires sanguis dabat, aemula necdura 4»5 

Temporibus geminis canebat sparsa senectus. 

Sed si nostra Dares haec Troius arma recusat, 

Idque pio sedet Aeneae, probat auctor Acestes, 

Aequemus pugnas. Erycis tibi terga remitto ; 

Solve metus ; et tu Trojanos exue caestus. 420 

Haec fatus duplicem ex humeris rejecit amictum, 

Et magnos membrorum artus, magna ossa lacertosque 

Exuit, atque ingens media consistit arena. 

Tum satus Anchisa caestus pater extulit aequos, 

Et paribus palmas amborum innexuit armis. 425 

Constitit in digitos extemplo arrectus uterque, 

Brachiaque ad superas interritus extulit auras. 

Abduxere retro longe capita ardua ab ictu, 

Immiscentque manus manibiis, pugnamque lacessunt. 

Ille pedum melior motu, fretusque juventa, 430 

Hie membris et mole valens ; sed tarda trementi 

Genua labant, vastos quatit aeger anhelitus artus. 

Multa viri nequidquam inter se vulnera jactant, 

Multa cavo lateri ingeminant et pectore vastos 

Dant sonitus, erratque aures et tempora circum 435 

Crebra manus, duro crepitant sub vulnere malae. 

Stat gravis Entellus nisuque immotus eodem, 

Corpore tela modo atque oculis vigilantibus exit 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 209 

Ille, velut celsam oppugnat qui molibus urbeni, 

Aut montana sedet circum castella sub armis, 440 

Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, omnemque pererrat 

Arte locum, et variis adsultibus irritus urguet. 

Ostendit dextram insurgens Entellus et alte 

Extulit : ille ictum venientem a vertice velox 

Praevidit, celerique elapsus coq^ore cessit : 44s 

Entellus vires in ventum effudit, et ultro 

Ipse gravis graviterque ad terram pondere vasto 

Concidit : ut quondam cava concidit aut Erymantho, 

Aut Ida in magna, radicibus eruta pinus. 

Consurgunt studiis Teucri et Trinacria pubes ; 450 

It clamor coelo, primusque accurrit Acestes, 

Aequaevumque ab humo miserans attollit amicum. 

At non tardatus casu neque territus heros 

Acrior ad pugnam redit, ac vim' suscitat ira. 

Tum pudor incendit vires et conscia virtus, 45s 

P?-aecipitemque Daren ardens agit aequore toto, 

Nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra ; 

Nee inora, nee requies : quam multa grandine nimbi 

Culminibus crepitant, sic densis ictibus heros 

Creber utraque manu pulsat versatque Dareta. 460 

Tum pater Aeneas procedere longius iras 

Et saevire animis Entellum baud passus acerbis ; 

Sed finem imposuit pugnae, fessumque Dareta 

Eripuit, mulcens dictis, ac talia fatur : 

Infelix, quae tanta animum dementia cepit ? 465 

Non vires alias conversaque numina sentis ? 

Cede deo. Dixitque et proelia voce diremit. 

Ast ilium fidi aequales, genua aegra trahentem, 

Jactantemque utroque caput, crassumque cruorem 

Ore ejectantem mixtosque in sanguine dentes, 470 

Ducunt ad naves ; galeamque ensemque vocati 

Accipiunt ; palmam Entello taurumque relinquunt. 

Hie victor, superans animis tauroque superbus : 

Nate dea, vosque haec, inquit, cognoscite, Teucri, 



2IO P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Et niihi quae fuerint, juvenali in corpore vires, 47s 

Et qua servetis revocatum a morte Dareta. 

Dixit, et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci, 

Qui donum adstabat pugnae, durosque reducta 

Libravit dextra media inter cornua caestus, 

Arduus, effractoque illisit in ossa cerebro. 480 

Sternitur exanimisque tremens procumbit humi bos. 

I lie super tales efiundit pectore voces : 

Hanc tibi, Eryx, meliorem aniraam pro morte Daretis 

Persolvo ; hie victor caestus artemque repono. 

Protinus Aeneas celeri certare sagitta 4S5 

Invitat qui forte velint, et praemia ponit, 
Ingentique manu malum de nave Seresti 
Erigit, et volucrem trajecto in fune columbam, 
Quo tendant ferrum, malo suspendit ab alto. 
Convenere viri, dejectamque aerea sortem 490 

Accepit galea ; et primus clamore secundo 
Hyrtacidae ante omnes exit locus Hippocoontis ; 
Quem modo navali Mnestheus certamine victor 
Consequitur, viridi Mnestheus evinctus oliva. 
Tertius Eurytion, tuus, o clarissime, frater, 495 

Pandare, qui quondam, jussus confundere foedus, 
In medios telum torsisti primus Achivos. 
Extremus galeaque ima subsedit Acestes, 
Ausus et ipse manu juvenum tentare laborem. 
Tum validis flexos incurvant viribus arcus 500 

Pro se quisque viri, et-depromunt tela pharetris. ^ 
Primaque per coelum nervo stridente sagitta 
Hyrtacidae juvenis volucres diverberat auras ; 
Et venit, adversique infigitur arbore mali. 
Intremuit malus, timuitque exterrita pennis 505 

Ales, et ingenti sonuerunt omnia plausu. 
Post acer Mnestheus adducto constitit arcu, 
Alta petens, pariterque oculos telumque tetendit 
Ast ipsam miserandus avem contingere ferro 
Non valuit; nodos et vincula linea rupit, s»o 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 211 

Quis innexa pedem malo pendebat ab alto ; 

Ilia notos atque atra volans in nubila fugit. 

Turn rapidus, jamdudum arcu contenta parato 

Tela tenens, fratrem Eurytion in vota vocavit, 

Jam vacuo lactam coelo speculatus, et alis s^s 

Plaudentem nigra figit sub nube columbam. 

Decidit exanimis, vitamque reliquit in astris 

Aetheriis, fixamque refert delapsa sagittam. 

Amissa solus palma superabat Acestes ; 

Qui tamen aerias telum contendit in auras, 520 

Ostentans artemque pater arcumque sonantem. 

Hie oculis subitum objicitur magnoque futurum 

Augurio monstrum ; docuit post exitus ingens, 

Seraque terrifici cecinerunt omina vates. 

Namque volans liquidis in nubibus arsit arundo, 525 

Signavitque viam flammis, tenuesque recessit 

Consumpta in ventos ; coelo ceu saepe refixa 

Transcurrunt crinemque volantia sidera ducunt. 

Attonitis haesere animis, Superosque precati 

Trinacrii Teucrique viri ; nee maximus omen 53© 

Abnuit Aeneas ; sed laetum amplexus Acesten 

Muneribus cumulat magnis, ac talia fatur : 

Sume, pater ; nam te voluit rex magnus Olympi 

Talibus auspiciis exsortem ducere honorem. 

Ipsius Anchisae longaevi hoc munus habebis, 535 

Cratera impressum signis, quem Thracius olim 

Anchisae genitori in magno munere Cisseus 

Ferre sui dederat monumentum et pignus amoris. 

Sic fatus cingit viridanti tempora lauro, 

Et primum ante omnes victorem appellat Acesten. 54© 

Nee bonus Eurytion praelato invidit honori, 

Quamvis solus avem coelo dejecit ab alto. 

Proximus ingreditur donis, qui vincula rupit, 

Extremus, volucri qui fixit arundine malum. 

. At pater Aeneas, nondum certamine misso, 54s 

Custodem ad sese comitemque impubis luli 



212 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Epytiden vocat, et fidam sic fatur ad aurem : 
Vade age, et Ascanio, si jam puerile paratum 
Agmen habet secum, cursusque instruxit equorum, 
Ducat avo turmas, et sese ostendat in armis, 
Die, ait. Ipse omnem longo decedere circo 
Infusum populum, et campos jubet esse patentes. 
Incedunt pueri, pariterque ante ora parentum 
Frenatis lucent in equis, quos omnis euntes 
Trinacriae mirata fremit Trojaeque juventus. 
Omnibus in morem tonsa coma pressa corona ; 
Cornea bina ferunt praefixa hastilia ferro ; 
Pars leves humero pharetras ; it pectore summo 
Flexilis obtorti per collum circulus auri. 
Tres equitum numero turmae, ternique vagantur 
Ductores ; pueri bis seni quemque secuti 
Agmine partito fulgent paribusque magistris. 
Una acies juvenum, ducit quam parvus ovantem 
Nomen avi referens Priamus, tua clara, Polite, 
Progenies, auctura Italos ; quem Thiacius albis 
Portat equus bicolor maculis, vestigia primi 
Alba pedis frontemque ostentans arduus albam. 
Alter At}r's, genus unde Atii duxere Latin i, 
Parvus Atys, pueroque puer dilectus lulo. 
Extremus, formaque ante omnes pulcher, lulus 
Sidonio est invectus equo, quem Candida Dido 
Esse sui dederat monumentum et pignus amoris. 
Cetera Trinacriis pubes senioris Acestae 
Fertur equis. 

Excipiunt plausu pavidos, gaudentque tuentes 
Dardanidae, veterumque agnoscunt ora parentum. 
Postquam omnem laeti consessum- oculosque suorum 
Lustravere in equis, signum clamore paratis 
Epytides longe dedit insonuitque flagello. 
Olli discurrere pares, atque agmina terni 
Diductis solvere choris, rursusque vocati 
Convertere vias infestaque tela tulere. 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 213 

Iiide alios ineunt cursus aliosque recursus 

Adversi spatiis, alternosque orbibus orbes 

Impediunt, pugnaeque cient simulacra sub armis ; 58s 

Et nunc terga fuga nudant, nunc spicula vertunt 

Infensi, facta pariter nunc pace feruntur. 

Ut quondam Creta fertur Labyrinthus in alta 

Parictibus textum caecis iter, ancipitemque 

Mille viis habuisse dolum, qua signa sequendi 590 

Falleret indeprensus et irremeabilis error ; 

Haud alio Teucnim nati vestigia cursu 

Irapediunt, texuntque fugas et proelia ludo, 

Delphinum similes, qui per maria huraida nando 

Carpathium Libycumque secant [luduntque per undas]. 595 

Hunc morem cursus atque haec certamina primus 

Ascanius, Longam muris cum cingeret Albam, 

Retulit et priscos docuit celebrare Latinos, 

Quo puer ipse modo, secum quo Troia pubes ; 

Albani docuere suos ; hinc maxima porro 600 

Accepit Roma, et patrium servavit honorem ; 

Trojaque nunc pueri, Trojanum dicitur agmen. 

Hac celebrata tenus sancto certamina patri. 

Hie primum Fortuna fidem mutata novavit. 
Dum variis tumulo referunt sollemnia ludis, 605 

Irim de coelo misit Saturnia Juno 
Iliacam ad classem, ventosque adspirat eunti, 
Multa movens, necdum antiquum saturata dolorem. 
Ilia, viam celerans per mille coloribus arcum, 
Nulli visa cito decurrit tramite virgo. 6io 

Conspicit ingentem concursum, et litora lustrat, 
Desertosque videt portus classemque relictam. 
At procul in sola secretae Troades acta 
Amissum Anchisen flebant, cunctaeque profundum 
Pontum adspectabant flentes. Heu tot vada fessis 615 
Et tantum superesse maris ! vox omnibus una. 
Urbem orant ; taedet pelagi perferre laborem. 
Ergo inter medias sese haud ignara nocendi 



214 P- VIRGILII MARONIS 

Conjicit, et faciemque deae vestemque reponit ; 

Fit Beroe, Ismarii conjux longaeva Dorycli, 6ao 

Cui genus et quondam nomen natique fuissent ; 

Ac sic Dardanidum mediam se matribus infert : 

O miserae, quas non manus, inquit, Achaica bello 

Traxerit ad letum patriae sub moenibus ! O gens 

Infelix, cui te exitio Fortuna reservat ? 625 

Septima post Trojae exscidium jam vertitur aestas, 

Quum freta, quum terras omnes, tot inhospita saxa 

Sideraque emensae ferimur, dum per mare magnum 

Italiam sequimur fugientem, et volvimur undis. 

Hie Erycis fines fraterni, atque hospes Acestes : 630 

Quis prohibet muros jacere et dare civibus urbem ? 

O patria et rapti nequidquam ex hoste Penates, 

Nullane jam Trojae dicentur moenia ? Nusquam 

Hectoreos amnes, Xanthum et Simoenta, videbo ? 

Quin agite et mecum infaustas exurite puppes. 63s 

Nam mihi Cassandrae per somnum vatis imago 

Ardentes dare visa faces : Hie quaerite Trojam ; * 

Hie domus est, inquit, vobis. Jam tempus agi res. 

Nee tantis mora prodigiis. En quatuor arae 

Neptuno ; deus ipse faces animumque ministrat. 640 

Haec memorans prima infensum vi corripit ignem, 

Sublataque procul dextra connixa coruscat, 

Et jacit. Arrectae mentes stupefactaque corda 

Iliadum. Hie una e multis, quae maxima natu, 

Pyrgo, tot Priami natorum regia nutrix : 645 

Non Beroe vobis, non haec Rhoeteia, matres. 

Est Dorycli conjux ; divini signa decoris 

Ardentesque notate oculos ; qui spiritus illi. 

Qui vultus, vocisque sonus, vel gressus eunti. 

Ipsa egomet dudum Beroen digressa reliqui 650 

Aegram, indignantem, tali quod sola careret 

Munere, nee meritos Anchisae inferret honores. 

Haec effata. 

At matres primo ancipites, oculisque malignis 



AENEIDOS Lia V. 215 

Ambiguae spectare rates miserum inter amorem. 655 

Praesentis terrae fatisque vocantia regna : 

Quum dea se paribus per coelum sustulit alis 

Ingentemque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 

Turn vero attonitae monstris actaeque furore 

Conclamant, rapiuntque focis penetralibus ignem ; 660 

Pars spoliant aras, frondem ^c virgulta facesque 

Conjiciunt. Furit immissis Vulcanus habenis 

Transtra per et remos et pictas abiete puppes. 

Nuntius Anchisae ad tumulum cuneosque theatri 

Incensas.perfert naves iEumelus, et ipsi 665 

Respiciunt atram in nimbo volitare favillam. 

Primus et Ascanius,,cursus ut laetus equestres 

Ducebat, sic acer equo turbata petivit 

Castra, nee exanimes possunt retinere magistri. 

Quis furor iste novus ? Quo nunc, quo tenditis, inquit, 670 

Heu miserae cives ? Non hostem inimicaque castra 

Argivum, vestras spes uritis. En, ego vester 

Ascanius! — galeam ante pedes projecit inanem, 

Qua ludo indutus belli simulacra ciebat 

Accelerat simul Aeneas, simul agmina Teucrum. 675 

Ast illae diversa metu per litora passim 

Diffiigiunt, silvasque et sicubi concava furtim 

Saxa petunt ; piget incepti lucisque, suosque 

Mutatae agnoscunt, excussaque pectore Juno est. 

Sed non idcirco flammae atque incendia vires 680 

Indomitas posuere ; udo sub robore vivit 

Stuppa vomens tardum fumum, lentusque carinas 

Est vapor, et toto descendit corpore pestis. 

Nee vires heroum infusaque flumina prosunt 

Turn pius Aeneas humeris abscindere vestem, 685 

Auxilioque vocare deos, et tendere palmas : 

Juppiter omnipotens, si nondum exosus ad unum 

Trojanos, si quid pietas antiqua labores 

Respicit humanos, da flammam evadere classi 

Nunc, Pater, et tenues Teucrum res eripe leto. 690 



2l6 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Vel tu, quoa superest, infesto fulmine morti, 
Si mereor, demitte, tuaque hie obrue dextra. 
Vix haec ediderat, quum effusis imbribus atra 
Tempestas sine more furit, tonitnique tremescunt 
Ardua terrarum et campi ; ruit aethere toto 695 

Turbidus imber aqua densisque nigerrimus austris ; 
Implenturque super puppes ; semiusta madescunt 
Robora ; restinctus donee vapor omnis, et omnes, 
Quatuor amissis, servatae a peste carinae. 

At pater Aeneas, casu concussus acerbo, 700 

Nunc hue ingentes, nunc illuc pectore euras 
Mutabat versans, Siculisne resideret arvis, 
Oblitus fatorum, Italasne capesseret oras. 
Turn senior Nautes, unum Tritonia Pallas 
Quem docuit multaque insignem reddidit arte — 705 

Haec responsa dabat, vel quae portenderet ira 
Magna deum, vel quae fatorum poseeret ordo — 
Isque his Aenean solatus vocibus infit ; 
Nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque, sequamur ; 
Quidquid erit, superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est 710 
Est tibi Dardanius divinae stirpis Acestes : 
Hunc cape eonsiliis socium et eonjunge volentem ; 
Huic trade, amissis superant qui navibus, et quos 
Pertaesum magni incepti rerumque tuarum est ; 
Longaevosque senes ac fessas aequore matres, 715 

Et quidquid tecum invalidum metuensque pericli est, 
Delige, et his habeant terris sine moenia fessi ; 
Urbem appellabunt permisso nomine Acestam. 

Talibus incensus dictis senioris amici, 
Tum vero in curas animo diducitur omnes. 720 

Et Nox atra polum bigis subvecta tenebat : 
Visa dehinc coelo facies delapsa parentis 
Anchisae subito tales ef!undere voces : 
Nate, mihi vita quondam, dum vita manebat, 
Care magis, nate, Iliacis exereite fatis, 72s 

Imperio Jovis hue venio, qui classibus ignem 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 217 

t>q)ulit, et coelo tandem miseratus ab alto est. 

Consiliis pare, quae nunc pulcherrima Nautes 

Dat senior ; lectos juvenes, fortissima corda, 

Defer in Italiam ; gens dura atque aspera cultu 730.. 

Debellanda tibi Latio est. Ditis tamen ante 

Infemas accede domos, et Avema per alta 

Congressus pete, nate, meos. Non me impia namque 

Tartara habent tristesve umbrae, sed amoena piorum 

Concilia Elysiumque colo. Hue casta Sibylla 735 

Nigrarum multo pecudum te sanguine ducet 

Turn genus omne tuum, et quae dentur moenia, disces. 

Jamque vale ; torquet medios Nox humida cursus, 

Et me saevus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis. 

Dixerat, et tenues fugit, ceu fumus, in auras. 740 

Aeneas, Quo deinde ruis ? quo proripis ? inquit, 

Quem fugis ? aut quis te nostris complexibus arcet ? 

Haec memorans cinerem et sopitos suscitat ignes, 

Pergameumque Larem et canae penetralia Vestae 

Farre pio et plena supplex veneratur acerra. 745 

Extemplo socios primumque arcessit Acesten, 
Et Jovis imperium et cari praecepta parentis 
•Edocet, et quae nunc animo sententia constet. 
Haud mora consiliis, nee jussa recusat Acestes. 
Transcribunt urbi matres, populumque volentem 750 

Deponunt, animos nil magnae laudis egentes. 
Ipsi transtra novant, flammisque ambesa reponunt 
Robora navigiis, ^.ptant remosque rudentesque, 
Exigui numero, sed bello vivida virtus. 
Interea Aeneas urbem designat aratro 755 

Sortiturque domos ; hoc Ilium et haec loca Trojam 
Esse jubet Gaudet regno Trojanus Acestes, 
Indicitque forum et patribus dat jura vocatis. 
Tum vicina astris Erycino in vertice sedes 
Fundatur Veneri Idaliae, tumuloque sacerdos 760 

Ac lucus late sacer additur Anchiseo. 

Jamque dies epulata novem gens omnis, et aris 



2l8 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Factus honos : placidi straverunt aequora venti, 
Creber et adspirans rursus vocat Auster in altum. 
Exoritur procurva ingens per litora fletus ; 763 

. Complexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur. 
Ipsae jam matres, ipsi, quibus aspera quondam 
Visa maris facies et non tolerabile nomen, 
Ire volunt, omnemque fugae perferre laborem. 
Quos bonus Aeneas dictis solatur amicis, 770 

Et consanguine© lacrimans commendat Acestae. 
Tres Eryci vitulos et Tempestatibus agnam 
Caedere deinde jubet, solvique ex ordine funem. 
Ipse, caput tonsae foliis evinctus olivae, 
Stans procul in prora pateram tenet, extaque salsos 77s 

Porricit in fluctus ac vina liquentia fundit 
Prosequitur surgens a puppi yentus euntes. 
Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt. 

At Venus interea Neptunum exercita curis 
Alloquitur, talesque effundit pectore questus : 7S0 

Junonis gravis ira nee exsaturabile pectus 
Cogunt me, Neptune, preces descendere in omnes ; 
Quam nee longa dies, pietas nee mitigat ulla, 
Nee Jovis imperio fatisque infracta quiescit. 
Non media de gente Phrygum exedisse nefandis 785 

Urbem odiis satis est, nee poenam traxe per onmem : 
Reliquias Trojae, cineres atque ossa peremptae 
Insequitur. Caussas tanti sciat ilia furoris. 
Ipse mihi nuper Libycis tu testis in undis 
Quam molem subito excierit : maria omnia coelo 790 

Miscuit, Aeoliis nequidquam freta procellis, 
In regnis hoc ausa tuis. 
Per scelus ecce etiam Trojanis matribus actis 
Exussit foede puppes, et classe subegit 
Amissa socios ignotae linquere terrae. 795 

Quod superest, oro, liceat dare tuta per undas 
Vela tibi, liceat Laurentem attingere Thybrim, 
Si concessa peto, si dant ea moenia Parcae. 



AENEIDOS LIB. V. 219 

^Tum Satumius haec domitor maris edidit alti : 

Fas omne est, Cytherea, meis te fidere regnis, soo 

Unde genus ducis. Menii quoque; saepe- furores 

Compressi et rabiem tantam coelique marisque. 

Nee minor in terns, Xanthum Simoentaque testor, 

Aeneae mihi cura tuL Quum Troia Achilles 

Exanimata sequens impingeret agmina muris, 805 

Milia multa daret leto, gemerentque repleti 

Amnes, nee reperire viam atque evolvere posset 

In mare se Xanthus, Pelidae tunc ego forti 

Congressum Aenean nee dis nee vjribus aequis 

Nube cava rapui, cuperem quum vertere ab imo 810 

Structa meis manibus peijurae moenia Trojae. 

Nunc quoque mens eadem perstat mihi ; pelle timorem. 

Tutxis, quos optas, portus accedet Avemi. 

Unus erit tantum, amissum quem gurgite quaeres ; 

Unum pro multis dabitur caput 815 

His ubi laeta deae permulsit pectora dictis, 

Jungit equos auro Genitor, sp^imantiaque addit 

Frena fens, manibusque omnes efFundit habenas. 

Caeruleo per summa levis volat aequora curru ; 

Subsidunt undae, tumidumque sub axe tonanti 820 

Stemitur aequor aquis, fugiunt vasto aethere nimbi 

Tum variae comitum facies, immania cete, 

Et senior Glauci chorus, Inousque Palaemon, 

Tritonesque citi, Phorcique exercitus omnis ; 

Laeva tenet Thetis, et Melite, Panopeaque virgo, 825 

Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque. 

Hie patris Aeneae suspensam blanda vicissim 
Gaudia pertentant mentem ; jubet ocius omnes 
Attolli malos, intendi brachia velis. 

Una omnes fecere pedem, pariterque sinistros, 830 

Nunc dextros solvere sinus ; una ardua torquent 
Comua detorquentque ; ferunt sua flamina classem. 
Princeps ante omnes densum Palinurus agebat 
Agmeh ; ad hunc alii cursum contendere jussL 



220 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Jamque fere mediam coeli Nox humida metam 835 

Contigerat ; placida laxabant membra quiete 

Sub remis fusi per dura sedilia nautae : 

Cum levis aetheriis delapsus Somnus ab astris 

Aera dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit umbras, 

Te, Palinure, petens, tibi somnia tristia portans 840 

Insonti ; puppique deus consedit in alta, 

Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore loquelas : 

laside Palinure, ferunt ipsa aequora classem ; 

Aequatae spirant aurae ; datur hora quieti. 

Pone caput, fessosque pculos furare labori. • 845 

Ipse ego paulisper pro te tua munera inibo. 

Cui vix attollens Palinurus lumina fatur : 

Mene salis placidi vultum fluctusque quietos 

Ignorare jubes ? mene huic confidere mcJnstro ? 

Aenean credam quid enim fallacibus auris * 850 

Et coeli toties deceptus fraude sereni ? 

Talia dicta dabat, clavumque affixus et haerens 

Nusquara amittebat, oculosque sub astra tenebat. 

Ecce deus ramum Lethaeo rore madentem 

Vique soporatum Stygia super utraque quassat 855 

Tempora, cunctantique natantia lumina solvit. 

Vix primos inopina quies laxaverat artus : 

Et superincumbens cum puppis parte revulsa 

Cumque gubernaclo liquidas projecit in undas 

Praecipitem ac socios nequidquam saepe vocantem ; 860 

Ipse volans tenues se sustulit ales ad auras: 

Currit iter tutum non secius aequore classis, 

Promissisque patris Neptuni interrita fertur. 

Jamque adeo scopulos Sirenum advecta subibat, 

Difficiles quondam multorumque ossibus albos, 865 

Tum rauca adsiduo longe sale saxa sonabant : 

Quum pater amisso fluitantem errare magistro 

Sensit, et ipse ratem noctumis rexit in undis, 

Multa gemens, casuque animum concussus amici : 

O niraium coelo et pelago confise sereno, 870 

Nudus in ignota, Palinure, jacebis arena. 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 221 



LIBER VI. 



Sic fatur lacrimans, classique immittit habenas, 

Et tandem Euboicis Cumarum allabitur oris. 

Obvertunt pelago proras ; turn dente tenaci 

Ancora fundabat naves, et litora curvae 

Praetexunt puppes. Juvenum manus emicat ardens s 

Litus in Hesperium ; quaerit pars semina flammae 

Abstnisa in venis silicis, pars densa ferarum 

Tecta rapit silvas, inventaque flumina monstrat. 

At pius Aeneas arces, quibus altus Apollo 

Praesidet, horrendaeque procul secreta Sibyllae, lo 

Antrum immane, petit, magnam cui mentem animumque 

Delius inspirat vates aperitque fiitura. 

Jam subeunt Triviae lucos atque aurea tecta. 

Daedalus, ut fama est, fugiens Minoia regna, 
Praepetibus pennis ausus se credere coelo, ^^ h 

Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos, i 

Chalcidicaque levis tandem super adstitit arce. 
Redditus his primum terris, tibi, Phoebe, sacravit 
Remigium alarum, posuitque immania templa. 
In fdribus letum Andrc^eo ; tum pendere poenas so 

Cecfopidae jussi — miserum ! — septena quot annis 
Corpora natorum ; stat ductis sortibus uma. 
Contra elata man respondet Gnosia tellus : 
Hie crudelis amor tauri, suppostaque furto 
Pasiphae, mixtumque genus prolesque biformis 25 

Minotaurus inest, Veneris monumenta nefandae ; 
Hie labor ille domus et inextricabilis error ; 
Magnum reginae sed enim mi$eratus amorem 
Daedalus, ipse dolos tecti ambagesque resolvit. 
Caeca regens filo vestigia. Tu quoque magnam 30 

Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes. 
Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro ; 



222 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Bis patriae cecidere manus. Quin protinus omnia 

Periegerent oculis, ni jam praemissus Achates 

Afforet atque una Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos, 35 

Deiphobe Glauci, fatur quae talia regi : 

Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit ; 

Nunc grege de intacto septem mactare juvencos 

Praestiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentes. 

Talibus affata Aenean — nee sacra morantur 40 

Jussa viri — Teucros vocat alta in templa sacerdos. 

Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, 
Quo lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum ; 
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibyllae. 
Ventum erat ad limen, quum virgo, Poscere fata 45 

Tempus, ait ; deus, ecce, deus I Cui talia fanti 
Ante fores subito non vultus^ non color unus, 
Non comptae mansere comae ; sed pectus anhelum, 
Et rabie fera corda tument ; majorque videri. 
Nee mortale sonans, afflata est numine quando 50 

Jam propiore dei. Cessas in vota precesque 
Tros, ait, Aenea, cessas ? Neque enim ante dehiscent 
Attonitae magna ora domus. Et talia fata 
Conticuit Gelidus Teueris per dura cueurrit 
: Ossa tremor, fimditque preces rex pectore ab imo : ss 

Phoebe, graves Trojae semper miserate labores, 
Dardana qui Paridis direxti tela manusque 
Corpus in Aeaeidae, magnas obeuntia terras 
Tot maria intravi duce te penitusque repostas 
Massylum gentes praetentaque Syrtibus arva, 60 

Jam tandem Italiae fugientis prendimus oras ; 
Hae Trojana tenus fuerit fortuna secuta. 
Vos quoque Pergameae jam fas est parcere genti, 
Dique deaeque omnes, quibus obstitit Ilium et ingens 
Gloria Dardaniae. Tuque,, o sanctissima vates» 65 

Praescia venturi, da — non indebita posco 
Regna meis fatis — Latio considere Teucros 
Errantesque deos agitataque numina Trojae; 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. .223 

Turn Phoebo et Triviae solido de marmore templum 
Institnam, festosque dies de nomine Phoebi. 70 

Te quoque magna manent regnis penetralia nostris. 
Hie ego namque tuas sortes arcanaque fata, 
Dicta meae genti, ponam, lectosque sacrabo, 
Alma, viros. Foliis tantum ne carmina manda, 
Ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ventis ; ^ 75 

Ipsa canas oro. Finem dedit ore loquendi. fC\ 

At, Phoebi nondum patiens, immanis in antro 
Bacchatnr vates, magnum si pectore possit 
Excussisse deum ; tanto magis ille fatigat 
Os rabidum, fera corda domans, fingitque. premendo. 80 
Ostia jamque domus patuere ingentia centum 
Sponte sua, vatisque fenint responsa per auras : 
O tandem magnis pelagi defuncte periclis ! 
Sed terrae graviora manent. In regna Lavini 
Dardanidae venient ; mitte banc de pectore curam ; 8s 
Sed non et venisse volent Bella, horrida bella, 
Et Thybrim multo spumantem sanguine cemo. * 
Non Simois tibi, nee. Xanthus, nee Dorica castra 
Defuerint ; alius Latio jam partus Achilles, 
Natus et ipse dea ; nee Teucris addita Juno 90 

Usquam aBer^t ; quum tu supplex in rebus egenis 
Quas gentis I^um aut quas non oraveris lU'bes ! 
Caussa mall tanti conjux iterum hospita Teucris 
Extemique iterum thalamL 

Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito, 95 

Quam tua te Fortuna sinet. Via prima salutis, 
Quod minime reris, Graia pandetur ab urbe. 

Talibus ex adyto dictis Cumaea Sibylla 
Horrendas canit ambages antroque remugit, 
Obscuris vera involvens : ea frena furenti 100 

Concutit, et stimulos sub pectore vertit Apollo, y 
Ut primum cessit furor et rabida ora quierunt, ^ 
Incipit Aeneas heros : Non ulla laborum, 
O virgo, nova mi facies inopinave surgit ; 



224 P. VIRGILII MARONIS __ 

Omnia praecepi atque animo mecum ante peregL xos= 

Unum oro : quando hie infemi janua regis 

Dicitur et tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso, 

Ire ad conspectum carl genitoris et ora 

Contingat ; doceas iter et sacra ostia pandas. 

Ilium ego per flammas et mille sequentia tela no 

Eripui his humeris, medioque ex hoste recepi ; 

I lie meum comitatus iter maria omnia mecum 

Atque omnes pelagique minas coelique ferebat, 

Invalidus, vires ultra sortemque senectae. 

Quin, ut te supplex peterem et tua limina adirem, "s 

Idem orans mandata dabat. Natique patrisque, 

Alma, precor, miserere — potes namque omnia, nee te 

Nequidquam lucis Hecate praefecit Avernis — 

Si potuit Manes areessere conjugis Orpheus, 

Threicia fretus cithara fidibusque canoris, 120 

Si fratrem Pollux alterna morte redemit, 

Itque reditque viam toties. Quid Thesea, magnum 

Quid memorem Aleiden ? et mi genus ab Jove summo. 

Talibus orabat dictis, arasque tenebat. 
Cum sic orsa loqui vates : Sate sanguine divum, "s 

Tros Anchisiade, facilis descensus Avemo; 
Noctes atque <}ies patet atri janua Ditis ; 
Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras, 
Hoc opus, hie labor est. Pauci, quos aequus amavit 
Juppiter, aut ardens evexit ad aethera virtus, 130 

Dis geniti potuere. Tenent media omnia silvae, 
Coeytosque sinu labens circumvenit atro. 
Quod si tantus amor menti, si tanta cupido est. 
Bis Stygios innare laeus, bis nigra videre 
Tartara, et insano juvat indulgere labori, 13s 

Accipe, quae peragenda prius. Latet arbore opaea 
Aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, 
Junoni infernae dietus sacer ; hune tegit omnis 
Lucus et obscuris elaudunt eonvallibus umbrae. 
Sed non ante datur telluris operta subire, i¥> 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 225 

Auricomos quam qui decerpserit arbor^e fetus. 

Hoc sibi pulchra suum ferri Proserpina munus 

Instituit. Primo avulso non deficit alter 

Aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo. 

Ergo alte vestiga oculis, et rite repertum ms 

Carpe manu ; namque ipse volens facilisque sequetur, 

Si te fata vocant ; aliter non viribus ullis 

Vincere, nee duro poteris convellere ferro. 

Praeterea jacet exanimum tibi corpus amici — 

Heu nescis^— totamque incestat funere classem, 150 

Dum consulta petis nostroque in limine pendes. 

Sedibus hunc refer ante suis et conde sepulchro. 

Due nigras pecudes ; ea prima piacula sunto. 

Sic demum lucos Stygis et regna invia -vivis 

Adspicies. Dixit, pressoque obmutuit ore. . 15s 

Aeneas^ maesto defixus lumina vultu 
Ingreditur, linquens antrum, caecosque volutat 
Eventus animo secum. Cui fidus Achates 
It comes, et paribus curis vestigia figit. 
Multa imer smSvaiTp seipione se^ebant, 160 

Quem sbcium exanimem vates, quod corpus humandum 
Diceret Atque illi Misenum in litore sicco, 
Ut vepere, vident indigna morte peremptum, 
Misenum Aeoliclen, quo non praestantior alter 
Aere ciere vires, Martemque accendere cantu. 165 

Hectoris hie magni fuerat comes, Hectora circum 
£t lituo pugna3 insignis obibat et hasta. 
Fostquam illimi vita victor spoliavit Achilles, 
Dardanio Aeneae sese fortissimus heros 
Addiderat socium, non inferiora secutus. 170 

Sed turn, forte cava dum personat aequora concha, 
Demens, et cantu vocat in certamina divos, 
Aemulus exceptum Triton, si credere dignum est. 
Inter saxa virum spumosa immerserat unda. 
Ergo omnes magno circum clamore fremebant, 17s 

PraecipuJB pius /Aeneas. Tunyjussa Sipyllae, 



226 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Haud mora, festinant flentes, aramque sepulchri 
Congerere arboribus coeloque educere certant. 
Itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta ferarum, 
Procumbunt piceae, sonat icta securibus ilex, zto 

Fraxineaeque trabes cuneis et fissile robur 
Scinditur, advolvunt ingentes montibus oraos. 
Nee non Aeneas opera inter talia primus 
Hortatur socios, paribusque accingitur armis. 
Atque haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat, 185 

Adspectans silvam immensam, et sic voce precatur : 
Si nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus 
Ostendat nemore in tanto ! quando omnia vere 
Heu nimium de te vates, Misene, locuta est. 
Vix ea fatus erat, geminae quum forte columbae xgo 

Ipsa sub ora viri coeli venere volantes, 
Et viridi 3edere solo. Tum maximus heros 
Matemas agnoscit aves, laetusque precatur : 
Este duces, o, si qua via est, cursumque per auras 
Dirigite in lucos, ubi pinguem dives opacat 195 

Ramus humum. Tuque, o, dubiis ne defice rebus. 
Diva parens. Sic eflfatus vestigia pressit, 
Observans, quae signa ferant, quo tendere pergant 
Pascentes illae tantum prodire volando, 
Quantum acie possent oculi servare sequentunL aoo 

Inde ubi venere ad fauces graveolentis Avemi, 
Tollunt se celeres, liquidumque per aera lapsae 
Sedibus optatis geminae super arbore sidunt, 
Discolor unde auri per ramos aura refulsit. 
Quale solet silvis brumali frigore viscum 005 

Fronde virere nova, quod non sua seminat arbos, 
Et croceo fetu teretes circumdare truncos : 
Talis erat species auri frondentis opaca 
nice, sic leni crepitabat bractea vento. 
Corripit Aeneas extemplo avidusque refringit axo 

Cunctantem, et vatis portat sub tecta Sibyllae. 
Nee minus interea Misenum in litore Teucri 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 227 

Klebant, et cineri injg^o suprema ferebant 

Principio pinguem iJiftlS'^^robore secto 

iDgentem struxere pyram, cui frondibus atris 2x5 

Intexunt latera, et ferales ante cupressos 

Constituunt, decorantque super fulgentibus armis. 

Pars calidos latices et aeria undantia flammis 

Expediunt, corpusque lavant frigentis et unguunt. 

Fit gemitus. Turn membra toro defleta reponunt, 220 

Purpureasque super vestes, velamina nota, 

Conjiciunt Pars ingenti subiere feretro, 

Triste ministerium, et subjectam more parentum 

Aversi tenuere facem. Congesta cremantur. 

Turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo. 225 

Postquam collapsi cineres et flamma quievit, 

Reliquias vino et bibulamjavere favillam, 

(Jssiqfee lectk cadqlteiit Coiyhaeife aeno. 

Idem ter socios pUra circumtillit unda, 

Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae, 230 

Lustravitque viros, dixitque novissima verba. 

At plus Aeneas ingenti mole sepulchrum 

Imponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque, 

Monte sub aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 

Dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 23s 

His actis propere exsequitur praecepta Sibyllae. 
Spelunca alta fuit vastoque immanis hiatu, 
Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris, 
Quam super baud ullae poterant impune volantes 
Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris 240 

Faucibus effiindens supera ad convexa ferebat : 
[Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Aomon.] 
Quatuor hie primum nigrantes terga juvencos 
Constituit frontique invergit vina sacerdos, 
Et summas carpens media inter cornua setas 24s 

Ignibus imponit sacris, libamina prima, 
Voce vocans Hecaten, Coeloque Ereboque potentem. 
Supponunt alii cultros, tepidumque cruorem 



228 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Suscipiunt pateris. Ipse atri velleris agnam 

Aeneas matri Eumenidum magnaeque sorori aso 

Ense ferit, sterilemque tibi, Proserpina, vaccam. 

Turn Stygio regi nocturnas inchoat aras, 

Et solida imponit taurorum viscera flammis, 

Pingue super oleum infundens ardentibus extis. 

Ecce autem, primi sub lumina solis et ortus 25s 

Sub pedibus mugire solum et juga coepta moved 

Silvarum, visaeque canes ululare per umbram, 

Adventante dea. Procul o, procul este, profani, 

Conclamat vates, totoque absistite luco ; 

Tuque invade viam, vaginaque eripe ferrum ; 260 

Nunc animis opus, Aenea, nunc pectore firmo. 

Tantum effata, furens antro se immisit aperto ; 

lUe ducem baud timidis vadentem passibus aequat 

Di, quibus imperium est animarum, Umbraeque silentes 
Et Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte tacentia late, 265 

Sit mihi fas audita loqui ; sit numine vestro 
Pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas. 

Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram, 
Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna : 
Quale per incertam lunam sub luce maligna 270 

Est iter in silvis, ubi coelum condidit .unibra 
Juppiter, et rebus nox abstulit atra colorem. 
Vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci 
Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae ; 
Pallentesque habitant Morbi, tristisque Senectus, 275 

Et Metus, et malesuada Fames, ac turpis Egestas, 
Terribiles visu formae, Letumque, Labosque ; 
Turn consanguineus Leti Sopor, et mala mentis 
Gaudia, mortiferumque adverso in limine Bellum, 
Ferreique Eumenidum thalami, et Discordia demens, 280 
Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. 

In medio ramos annosaque brachia pandit 
Ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem Somnia vulgo 
Vana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 229 

Multaque praeterea varisuTim monstra ferarum aSs 

Centauri in foribus stabulant Scyllaeque biformes 
Et centumgeminus Briareus ac belua Lernae, 
Ilorrendum stridens, flammisque armata Chimaera, 
Gorgones Harpyiaeque et forma tricorporis umbrae. 
Corripit hie subita trepidus formidine femim 290 

Aeneas, strictamque aciem venientibus oifert, 
Et, ni docta comes tenues sine corpore vitas 
Admoneat volitare cava sub imagine formae, 
Irruat, et fnistra ferro diverberet umbras. 

Hinc via, Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas. 295 
Turbidus hie caeno vastaque voragine gurges 
Aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat arenam. 
Portitor has horrendus aquas et fiumina servat 
Terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento 
Canities inculta jacet, stant lumina flamma, 300 

Sordidus ex humeris nodo dependet amictus. 
Ipse ratem conto subigit, velisque ministrat, 
Et ferruginea subvectat corpora cymba, 
Jam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus. 
Hue omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat, 305 

Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita 
Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 
Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum : 
Quam multa in silvis autumni fiigore primo 
Lapsa cadunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto 310 

Quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus 
Trans pontum fugat et terris immittit apricis. 
Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum, 
Tendebantque manus ripae ulterioris amore. 
Navita sed tristis nunc hos nunc accipit illos, 315 

Ast alios longe submotos arcet arena. . 
Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu 
Die, ait, o virgo, quid vult concursus ad amnem ? 
Quidve petunt animae ? vel quo discrimine ripas 
Hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt } 320 



230 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Olli sic breviter fata est longaeva s^cerdos : 

Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles, 

Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem, 

Di cujus jurare timent et fallerc numen. 

Haec omnis, quam cemis, inops inhumataque tiirba est ; 3= 

Portitor ille Charon ; hi, quos vehit unda, sepulti. 

Nee ripas datur horrendas et rauca fluenta 

Transportare prius, quam sedibus ossa quierunL 

Centum errant annos volitantque haec litora circum ; 

Tum demuih admissi stagna exoptata revasunt. 330= 

Constitit Anchisa satus et vestigia pressit, 

Multa putans, sortemque animo miseratus iniquam. 

Cernit ibi maestos et mortis honore carentes 

Leucaspim et Lyciae ductorem classis Oronten, 

Quos simul, a Troja ventosa per aequora vectos, 335 

Obruit Auster, aqua involvens navemque virosque. 

Ecce gubemator sese Palinurus agebat, 
Qui Libyco nuper cursu, dum sidera servat, 
Exciderat puppi mediis effusus in undis. 
Hunc ubi vix multa maestum cognovit in umbra, 340 

Sic prior alloquitur : Quis te, Palinure, deorum 
Eripuit nobis, medioque sub aequore mersit ? 
Die age. Namque mihi, fallax baud ante repertus, 
Hoc uno responso animum delusit Apollo, 
Qui fore te ponto incolumem, finesque canebat 345 

Venturum Ausonios. En haec promissa fides est ? 
Ille autem : Neque te Phoebi cortina fefellit, 
Dux Anchisiade, nee me deus aequore mersit 
Namque gubemaclum multa vi forte revulsum, 
Cui datus haerebam custos cursusque regebam, 350 

Praecipitans traxi mecum. Maria aspera juro 
Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, 
Quam tua ne, spoliata armis, excussa magistro, 
Deficeret tantis navis surgentibus undis. 
Tres Notus hibemas immensa per aequora noctes 355 

Vexit me violentus aqua ; vix lumine quarto 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 23 1 

Prospexi Italiam summa sublimis ab unda. 

Paulatim adnabam terrae ; jam tuta tenebam, 

>Ji gens crudelis madida cum veste gravatum 

Prensantemque uncis manibus capita aspera mentis 360 

Ferro invasisset, praedamque ignara putasset 

Nunc me fluctus habet, versantque in litore venti. 

Quod te per coeli jucundum lumen et auras, 

Per genitorem oro, per spes surgentis luli, 

Eripe me his, invicte, malis : aut tu mihi terram 3^5 

Injice, namque potes, portusque require Velinos ; 

Aut tu, si qua via est, si quam tibi diva creatrix 

Ostendit — neque enim, credo, sine numine divum 

Flumina tanta paras Stygiamque innare paludem — 

Da dextram misero, et tecum me tolle per undas, 370 

Sedibus ut saltern placidis in morte quiescam. 

Talia fatus erat, coepit quum talia vates : 

Unde haec, o Palinure, tibi tam dira cupido ? 

Tu Stygias inhumatus aquas amnemque severum 

Eumenidimi adspicies, ripamve injussus adibis ? 375 

Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando. 

Sed cape dicta memor, duii solatia casus. 

Nam tua finitimi, longe lateque per urbes 

Prodigiis acti coelestibus, ossa piabunt, 

£t statuent tumulum, et tumulo sollemnia mittent, 380 

Aetemumque loCiis Palinuii nomen habebit. 

His dictis curae emotae, pulsusque parumper 

Corde dolor tristi ; gaudet cognomine terra. 

Ergo iter inccptum peragunt fluvioque propinquant 
Navita quos jam.inde ut Stygia prospexit ab unda 385 

Per taciturn nemus ire pedemque advertere ripae, 
Sic prior aggreditur dictis, atque increpat ultro : 
Quisquis es, annatus qui nostra ad flumina tendis. 
Fare age, quid venias, jam istinc, et comprime gressum. 
Umbraruia hie locus est, Somni Noctisque soporae ; 39«» 
Corpora viva ne&s Stygia vectare carina. 
Nee vero Alcidea me sum laetatus euntem 



232 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Accepisse lacu, nee Thesea Pirithoumque, 

Dis quamquam geniti atque invicti viribus essent 

Tartareum ille manu custodem in vincla petivit, 395 

Ipsius a solio regis, traxitque trementem ; 

Hi dominam Ditis thalamo deducere adorti. 

Quae contra breviter fata est Amphrysia vates : 

NuUae hie insidiae tales ; absiste moveri ; 

Nee vim tela ferunt ; lieet ingens janitor antro ' 

Aetemum latrans exsangues terreat umbras, 

Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen. 

Troius Aeneas, pietate insignis et armis, 

Ad genitorem imas Erebi descendit ad umbras. 

Si te nulla movet tantae pietatis imago, ^^^ 

At ramum hune — aperit ramum, qui veste latebat — 

Agnoscas. Tumida ex ira turn corda residunt 

Nee plura his. Ille admirans venerabile donum 

Fatalis virgae, longo post tempore visum, 

Caeruleam advertit puppim, ripaeque propinquat. 4»^ 

Inde alias animas, quae per juga longa sedebant, 

Deturbat, laxatque foros ; simul aeeipit alveo 

Ingentem Aenean. Gemuit sub pondere cymba 

Sutilis, et multam aeeepit rimosa paludem. 

Tandem trans fluvium ineolumis vatemque virumque 415 

Informi limo glaucaque exponit in ulva. 

Cerberus haee ingens latratu regna trifauei 
Personat, adverso reeubans immanis in antro. 
Cui vates, horrere videns jam eolla colubris, 
Melle soporatam et medieatis frugibus oflfeim 420 

Objicit. Ille fame rabida tria guttura pandens 
Corripit objeetam, atque immania terga resolvit 
Fusus humi, totoque ingens extehditur antro. 
Occupat Aeneas aditum eustode sepulto, 
Evaditque eeler ripam irremeabilis undae. 425 

Continuo auditae voces vagitus et ingens 
Infantumque animae fientes in limine primo, 
Quos dulcis vitae exsortes et ab ubere raptos 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 233 

Abstulit atra dies et funere mersit acerbo. 

Hos juxta falso damnati crimine mortis. 430 

"Nee vero hae sine sorte datae, sine judice, sedes : 

Quaesitor Minos urnam movet ; ille silentum 

Conciliumque vocat vitasque et crimina discit 

Proxima deinde tenent maesti loca, qui sibi letum 

Insontes peperere manu, lucemque perosi 435 

Projecere animas. Quam vellent aethere in alto 

Nunc et pauperiem et duros perferre labores ! 

Fas obstat, tristique palus inamabilis unda 

AUigat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet. 

Nee procul hinc partem fusi monstrantur in omnem 440 

Lugentes carapi ; sic illos nomine dicunt. 

Hie, quos durus amor crudeli tabe peredit, 

Secreti celant calles et myrtea circum 

Silva tegit ; curae non ipsa in morte relinquunt. 

His Phaedram Procrimque locis, maestamque Eriphylen, 44s 

Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera, cernit, 

Evadnenque et Pasiphaen ; his Laodamia 

It comes, et juvenis quondam, nunc femina, Caeneus, 

Rursus et in veterem fato revoluta figuram. 

Inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido 450 

Errabat silva in magna ; quam Troius heros 

Ut primum juxta stetit agnovitque per umbram 

Obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense 

Aut videt, aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam, 

Demisit lacrimas, dulcique aflfatus amore est : 455 

Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo 

Venerat exstinctam, ferroque extrema secutam ? 

Funeris heu tibi caussa fui ? Per sidera juro, 

Per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est, 

Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi. 460 

Sed me jussa deum, quae nunc has ire per umbras. 

Per loca senta situ cogunt noctemque profundam, 

Imperiis egere suis ; nee credere quivi 

Hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem. 



234 P- VIRGILII MARONIS 

Siste gradum, teque adspectu ne subtrahe nostro. 46s 

Quem fugis ? extremum fato, quod te alloquor, hoc est 

Talibus Aeneas ardentem et torva tuentem 

Lenibat dictis animum, lacrimasque ciebat. 

Ilia solo fixQS oculos aversa tenebat, 

Nee magis'incepto vultum sennone movetur, 470 

Quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes. 

Tandem corripuit sese, atque inimica refugit 

In nemus umbriferum, conjux ubi pristinus illi 

Respondet curis aequatque Sychaeus amorem. 

Nee minus Aeneas, casu concussus iniquo, 475 

Prosequitur lacrimans longe, et miseratur euntem. 

Inde datum molitur iter. Jamque arva tenebant 
Ultima, quae bello clari secreta frequentant 
Hie illi occurrit Tydeus, hie inclutus armis 
Parthenopaeus et Adrasti pallenfi? imago ; 4&> 

Hie multum fleti ad superos belloque caduci 
Dardanidae, quos ille omnes longo ordine cemens 
Ingemuit, Glaucumque Medontaque Thersilochumque, 
Tres Antenoridas, Cererique sacrum Polyphoeten, 
Idaeumque, etiam currus, etiam arma tenentem. 485 

Circumstant animae dextra laevaque frequentes. 
Nee vidisse semel satis- est ; juvat usque morari, 
Et conferre gradum, et veniendi discere caussas. 
At Danaum proceres Agamemnoniaeque phalanges 
Ut videre virum fulgentiaque arma per umbras, 490 

Ingenti trepidare metu ; pars vertere terga, 
Ceu quondam petiere rates ; pars tollere vocem 
Exiguam : inceptus clamor frustratur hiantes. 

Atque hie Priamiden laniatum corpore toto 
Deiphobum videt et lacerum crudeliter ora, 49s 

Ora manusque ambas, populataque tempora raptis 
Auribus, et truncas inhonesto vulnere nares. 
Vix adeo agnovit pavitantem et dira tegentem 
Supplicia, et notis compellat vocibus ultro : 
Deiphobe armipotens, genus alto a sanguine Teucri, $oa 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 235 

ira crudeles optavit sumere poenas ? 
itum de te licuit ? Mihi fama suprema 
tulit fessum vasta te caede Pelasgum 
misse super confusae stragis acervum. 
jgomet tumulum Rhoeteo in litore inanem 50s 

tui, et magna Manes ter voce vocavi. 
I et arma locum servant ; te, amice, nequivi 
■cere et patria decedens ponere terra. 
le Priamides : Nihil o tibi amice relictum ; 
Deiphobo solvisti et funeris umbris. 510 

t fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacaenae 
irsere malis ; ilia haec monumenta reliquit 
le ut supremam falsa inter gaudia noctem 
lus, nosti ; et nimium meminisse necesse est 
fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit 515 

la et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo, 
iprum simulans, evantes orgia circum 
at Phrygias ; flammam media ipsa tenebat 
em, et summa Danaos ex arce vocabat. 
le, confectum curis somnoque gravatum, 520 

habuit thalamus, pressitque jacentem 
et alta quies placidaeque simillima mortL 
1 interea conjux arma omnia tectis 
:t, et fidum capiti subduxerat ensem ; 
ecta vocat Menelaum, et limina pandit, 525 

: id magnum sperans fore munus amanti, 
am exstingui veterum sic posse malorum. 
icJror ? -Irrumpunt thalamo ; comes additur una 
or scelerum Aeolides. Bi, talia Graiis 
ate, pio si poenas ore reposco. 530 

qui vivum casus, age, fare vicissim, 
int Pelagine venis erroribus actus, 
nitu divum ? An quae te fortuna fatigat, 
tes sine sole domos, loca turbida, adires ? 
,ce sermonum roseis Aurora quadrigis . 535 

edium aetherio cursu trajecerat axem ; 



236 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Et fors omne datum traherent per talia tempus ; 

Sed comes admonuit breviterque afFata Sibylla est : 

Nox ruit, Aenea ; nos flendo ducimus horas. 

Hie locus est, partes ubi se via findit in ambas : 54° 

Dextera quae Ditis magni sub moenia tendit, 

Hac iter Elysium nobis ; at laeva malonim 

Exercet poenas, et ad irapia Tartara mittit 

Deiphobus contra : Ne saevi, magna sacerdos ; 

Discedam, explebo numerum, reddarque tenebris. 543 

I decus, i, nostrum ; melioribus utere fatis. 

Tantum eflfatus, et in verbo vestigia torsit. 

Respicit Aeneas ^ubito, et sub rupe sinistra 
Moenia lata videt, triplici circumdata muro, 
Quae rapidus fiammis ambit torrentibus amnis, 550 

Tartareus Phlegethon, torquetque sonantia saxa. 
Porta adversa, ingens, solidoque adamante columnae, 
Vis ut nulla virum, non ipsi exscindere bello 
Coelicolae valeant ; stat ferrea turns ad auras, 
Tisiphoneque sedens, palla succincta omenta, sss 

Vestibulum exsomnis servat noctesque diesque. 
Hinc exaudiri gemitus, et saeva sonare 
Verbera ; turn stridor ferri, tractaeque catenae. 
Constitit Aeneas, strepi tuque exterritus haesit 
Quae scelerum facies ? o virgo, effare ; quibusve 560 

Urguentur poenis ? quis tantus plangor ad auras ? 
Turn vates sic orsa loqui : Dux inclute Teucrum, 
Nulli fas casto sceleratum insistere limen ; 
Sed me quum lucis Hecate praefecit Avemis, 
Ipsa deum poenas docuit, perque omnia duxit. s^s 

Gnosius haec Rhadamanthus habet, durissima regna, 
Castigatque aiiditque dolos, subigitque fateri. 
Quae quis apud superos, furto laetatus inani, 
Disfulit in seram commissa piacula mortem. 
Continuo sontes ultrix accincta flagello st© 

Tisiphone quatit insultans, torvosque sinistra 
Intentans angues vocat agmina saeva sororum. 



AENEIDOS LIB. VL 237 

demum horrisono stridentes cardine sacrae 

intur portae. Cernis, custodia qualis 

)ulo sedeat ? facies quae limina servet ? 575 

[iiaginta atiis immanis hiatibus Hydra 

>r intus habet sedem. Turn Tartarus ipse 

Ltet in praeceps tantum tenditque sub umbras, 

tus ad aetherium coeli suspectus Olympum. 

enus antiquum Terrae, Titania pubes, 580 

ne dejecti fundo volvuntur in imo. 

t Abidas geminos immania vidi 

»ra, qui manibus magnum rescindere coelum 

ssi, superisque Jovem detrudere regnis. 

it crudeles dantem Salmonea poenas, 585 

flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur OlympL 

or hie invectus equis et lampada quassans 

raium populos mediaeque per Elidis urbem 

►vans, divumque sibi poscebat honorem, 

ns ! qui nimbos et non imitabile fulmen 590 

et comipedimi pulsu simularet equorum. 

ter omnipcxtens densa inter nubila telum 

rsit, non ille faces nee fumea taedis 

la, praecipitemque immani turbine adegit. 

on et Tityon, Terrae omniparentis alunmum, 595 

re erat, per tota novem eui jugera corpus 

;itur, rostroque iiAmanis vultur obunco 

tale jeeur tondens fecundaque poenis 

:a rimaturque epulis habitatque sub alto 

re, nee fibris requies datur ulla renatis. 600 

memorem Lapithas, Ixiona Pirithoumque ? 

super atra silez jam jam lapsura cadentique 

let adsimilis ; lucent genialibus altis 

. fulcra toris, epulaeque ante ora paratae 

CO luxu ; Furiarum maxima juxta 605 

»at, et manibus prohibet contingere mensas, 

gitque facem attoUens, atque intonat ore. 

uibus invisi fratres, dum vita manebat, 



238 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti, 

Aut qui divitiis soli incubuere repertis, ^^ ^" 

Nee partem posuere suis, quae maxuma txurba est, 

Quique ob adulterium caesi, quique arma secuti 

Impia nee veriti dominorum fallere dextras, 

Inclusi poenam exspectant Ne quaere doceri, 

Quam poenam, aut quae forma viros fortunave mersit fi^ -^5 

Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisque rotarum 

Districti pendent ; sedet, aetemumque sedebit, 

Infelix Theseus ; Phlegyasque miserrimus omnes 

Admonet et magna testatur voce per umbras : 

Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere divos.vJ 6«o 

Vendidit hie auro patriam, dominumque potentem 

Imposuit ; fixit leges pretio atque refixit ; 

Hie thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeos ; 

Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti; 

Non mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum, 625 

Ferrea vox, omnes scelerum comprendere formas, 

Omnia poenarum percurrere nomina possim. 

Haec ubi dicta dedit Phoebi longaeva sacerdos : 
Sed jam age, carpe viam et susceptum perfice munus ; 
Acceleremus, ait ; Cyclopum educta caminis 630 

Moenia conspicio atque adverso fomice portas, 
Haec ubi nos praecepta jubent deponere dona. 
Dixerat, et pariter, gressi per opaca viarum, 
Corripiunt spatium medium, foribusque propinquant 
Occupat Aeneas aditum, corpusque recenti 6ss 

Spargit aqua, ramumque adverso in limine figit 

His demum exactis, perfecto munere divae, 
Devenere locos laetos et amoena virecta 
Fortunatorum nemorum sedesque beatas. 
Largior hie campos aether et lumine vestit 64c 

Purpureo, solemque suum, sua sidera norunt 
Pars in gramineis ezercent membra palaestriSy 
Contendunt ludo et fulva luctantur arena ; 
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicunt 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 239 

Nec non Threicius longa cum veste sacerdos 645 

Obloquitur numeris septem discrimina vocum, 

Jamque eadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat'eburno. 

Hie genus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, 

Magnanimi heroes, nati melioribus annis, 

Ilusque Assaracusque et Trojae Dardanus auctor. 650 

Arma procul cumisque virum miratur inanes. 

Stant terra defixae hastae, passimque soluti 

Per campum pascuntur equL Quae gratia curruum 

Armorumque fuit vivis, quae cura nitentes 

Pascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos. 655 

Conspicit, ecce, alios dextra laevaque per herbam 

Vescentes laetumque choro Paeana canentes 

Inter odoratum lauri nemus, unde supeme 

Plurimus Eridani per silvam volvitur amnis. 

Hie manus ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi, 660 

Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita manebat, 

Quique pii vates et Phoebo digna locuti, 

Inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artes, 

Quique sui memores alios feeere merendo ; 

Omnibus his nivea cinguntur tempora vitta. 665 

Quos circumfusos sic est afi&ta Sibylla, 

Musaeum ante omnes ; medium nam plurima turba 

Hunc habet, atque humeris exstantem suspieit aids : 

Didte, felices animae, tuque, optime vates. 

Quae regio Anchisen, quis habet locus ? illius ergo 670 

Venimus et magnos Erebi tranavimus amnes. 

Atque huic responsum paucis ita reddidit heros : 

Nulli certa domus ; lucis habitamus opacis, 

Riparumque toros et prata recentia rivis 

Incolimus. Sed vos, si fert ita corde voluntas, 675 

Hoc superate jugum ; et facili jam tramite sistam. 

Dixit, et ante tulit gressum, camposque nitentes 

Desuper ostentat ; dehinc summa cacumina linquunt 

At pater Anchises penitus convalle virenti 
Inclusas animas superumque ad lumen ituras 680 



240 p. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Lustrabat studio recolens, omnemque suorum 

Forte recensebat numerum carosque nepotes, 

Fataque fortunasque virum moresque manusque. 

Isque ubi tendentem adversum per gramina vidit 

Aenean, alacris palmas utrasque tetendit, 68s 

Effusaeque genis lacrimae, et vox excidit ore : 

Venisti tandem, tuaque exspectata parent! 

Vicit iter durum pietas ? datur era tueri, 

Nate, tua, et notas audire et reddere voces ? 

Sic equidem ducebam animo rebarque futurum, 690 

Tempora dinumerans, nee me mea cura fefellit 

Quas ego te terras et quanta per aequora vectum 

Accipio ! quantis jactatum, nate, periclis ! 

Quam metui, ne quid Libyae tibi regna nocerent * 

Ille autem : Tua me, genitor, tua tristis imago, 695 

Saepius occurrens, haec limina tendere adeg^t ; 

Stant sale Tyrrheno classes. Da jimgere dextram, 

Da, genitor, teque amplexu ne subtrahe nostro. 

Sic memorans largo fletu simul ora rigabat 

Ter conatus ibi coUo dare brachia circum, 7«> 

Ter frustra comprensamanus efiugit imago. 

Par levibus ventis volucrique similliraa somno. 

Interea videt Aeneas in valle reducta 
Seclusum nemus et virgulta sonantia silvis, 
Lethaeumque, domos placidas qui praenatat, amnem. 705 
Hunc circum innumerae gientes populique volabant 
Ac velut in pratis ubi apes aestate serena 
rioribus insidunt variis, et Candida circum 
Lilia funduntur ; strepit omnis murmure campus. 
Horrescit visu subito, caussasque requirit 7«o 

Inscius Aeneas, quae sint ea fiumina porro, 
Quive viri tanto compleriht agmine ripas. 
Tum pater Anchises : Animae, quibus altera feto 
Corpora debenture Lethaei ad fluminis undam 
Secures latices et longa obltvia potant. t^s 

Has equidem memorare tibi atque ostendere coram. 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 24 1 

Jampridem banc prolem cupio enumerare meorum, 

Quo magis Italia mecum laetere reperta. 

O pater, anne aliquas ad coelum hinc ire putandum est 

Sublimes animas, iterumque ad tarda reverti 720 

Corpora ? Quae lucis miseris tam dira cupido ? 

Dicam equidem, nee te suspensum, nate, tenebo ; 

Suscipit Anchises, atque ordine singula pandit. 

Principio coelum ac terras camposque liquentes 

Lucentemque globum lunae Titaniaque astra 725 

Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 

Mens agitat molem et magno se corpore miscet. 

Inde hominum pecudumque genus vitaeque volantum 

Et quae marmoreo fert monstra sub aequore pontus. 

Igneus est ollis vigor et coelestis origo 730 

Seminibus, quantum non noxia corpojra tardant 

Terrenique hebetant artus moribundaque membra. 

Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque, neque auras 

Dispiciunt clausae tenebris et carcere caeco. 

Quin et supremo quum lumine vita reliquit, 73s 

Non tamen omne malum miseris nee funditus omnes 

Corporeae excedunt pestes, penitusque necesse est 

Multa diu concreta modis inolescere miris. 

Ergo exercentur poenis, veterumque malorum 

Suppliciaexpendunt : aliae panduntur inanes 740 

Suspensae ad ventos ; aliis sub gurgite vasto 

Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni ; 

Quisque suos patimur Manes ; cxinde per amplum 

Mittimur Elysium, et pauci laeta arva tenemus ; 

Donee longa dies, perfecto temporis orbe, 74s 

Concretam exemit labem, purumque relinquit 

Aetherium sensum atque aural simplicis ignem. 

Has omnes, ubi mille rotam volvere per annos, 

Lethaeum ad fiuvium deus evocat agmine magno, 

Scilicet immemores supera ut convexa revisant 750 

RuTSus et incipiant in corpiwa velle reverti. 

Dixerat Anchises, natumque unaque Sibyllam 
16 



242 P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Conventus trahit in medios turbamque sonantem, 
Et tu^iulum capit, unde omnes longo ordine possit 
Adversos legere, et venientum discere vultus. 755 

Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 
Gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotes, 
Illustres animas nostnimque in nomen ituras, 
Expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 
Ille, vides, pura juvenis qui nititur hasta, 760 

Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad auras 
Aetherias Italo commixtus sanguine surget, 
Silvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles, 
Quem tibi longaevo serum Lavinia conjux 
Educet silvis regem regumque parentem, 765 

Unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 
Proximus ille Procas, Trojanae gloria gentis, 
Et Capys, et Numitor, et qui te nomine reddet 
Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis 
Egregius, si umquam regnandam acceperit Albam. 770 

Qui juvenes ! quantas ostentant, adspice, vires, 
Atque umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu ! 
Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam, 
Hi CoUatinas imponent montibus arces, 
Pometios Castrumque Inui Bolamque Coramque. 775 

Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 
Quin et avo coraitem sese Mavortius addet 
Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater 
Educet. Viden', ut geminae stant vertice cristae, 
Et pater ipse suo superum jam signat honore ? 780 

En, hujus, nate, auspiciis iUa incluta Roma 
Imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo, 
Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 
Felix prole virum : qualis Berecyntia mater 
Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 785 

Laeta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 
Omnes coelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes. 
Hue geminas nunc flecte acies, banc adspice gentem 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 243 

Romanosque tuos. Hie Caesar et omnis luli 

Progenies, magnum* coeli ventura sub axem. 790 

Hie vir, hie est, tibi quern promitti saepius audis, 

Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea eondet 

Saecula qui rursus Latio regnata per arva 

Satumo quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 

Proferet imperium ; jaeet extra sidera tellus, 795 

Extra anni solisque viasj ubi eoelifer Atlas 

Axem humero torquet stellis afdentibus aptum. 

Hujus in adventum jam nune et Caspia regna 

Responsis horrent divum et Maeotia tellus, 

Et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 800 

Nee vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 

Fixerit aeripedem eervam licet, aut Erymanthi 

Paearit nemora, et Lemam tremefeeerit arcu ; 

Nee, qui pampineis victor juga fleetit habenis. 

Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigres. 80s 

Et dubitamus adhue virtutem extendere faetis, 

Aut metus Ausonia prohibet eonsistere terra ? 

Quis proeul ille autem ramis insignis olivae 

Sacra ferens ? Nosco crines incanaque menta 

Regis Romani, primam qui legibus urbem 810 

Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 

Missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 

Otia qui rumpet patriae residesque liiovebit 

Tullus in arma viros et jam desueta triumphis 

Agmina. Quem juxta sequitur jaetantior Aneus, 815 

Nune quoque jam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 

Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam 

Ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos ? 

Consulis imperium hie primus saevasque secures 

Accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventes 820 

Ad poenam pulchra pro libertate voeabit, 

Infelix ! Utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 

Vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa eupido. 

Quin Decios Drusosque proeul saevumque securi 



244 P* VIRGILII MARONIS 

Adspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camillum. a* ^ 

Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cemis in armis, 

Concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 

Heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 

Attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt ! 

Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci s^.^ 

Descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois. 

Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 

Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires ; 

Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 

Projice tela manu, sanguis meus ! — 8s ^ 

Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho 

Victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis. 

Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, 

Ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli, 

Ultus avos Trojae, templa et temerata Minervae— ^ f4'^ 

Quis te, magne Cato, taciturn, aut te, Cosse, relinquat ? 

Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 

Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoqtie potentqm 

Fabricium, vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem ? 

Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii ? tu Maximus ille es, 845 

Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 

Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 

Credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore vultus, 

Orabunt caussas melius, coelique meatus 

Describent radio et surgentia sidera dicent : . 850 

Tu regere imperio populos, Roraane, memento ; 

Hae tibi erunt artes ; pacisque imponere morem, 

Parcere subjectis, et debellare "superbos. 

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit : 
Adspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis 855 

Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes ! 
Hie rem Roman am, magno turbante tumultu, 
Sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem, 
Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino. 
Atque hie Aeneas ; una namque ire videbat 860 



AENEIDOS LIB. VI. 245 

Egregium forma juvenem et fulgentibus armis, 
Sed frons laeta parum, et dejecto lumina vultu : 
Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem ? 
Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotimi ? 
Quis strepitus circa comitum ! quantiun instar in ipso ! 865 
Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra. 
Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis : 
O nate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum ; 
Ostendent terris himc tacntum fata, neque ultra 
Esse sinent Nimium vobis Romana propago 87^ 

Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent 
Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 
Campus aget gemitus ! vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 
Funera, quimi tumulum praeterlabere recentem ! 
Nee puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 875 

In tantum spe toilet avos, nee Romula quondam 
Ullo se tantum tellus jactabit alumno. 
Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 
Dextera ! Non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 
Obvius armato, seu quum pedes iret in hostem, 880 

Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 
Heu, miserande puer ! si qua fata aspera rumpas, 
Tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date lilia plenis, 
Purpureos spargam flores, animamque nepotis 
His saltem accumulem donis, et fungar inani 885 

Munere. — Sic tota passim regione vagantur 
Aeris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant. 
Quae postquam Anchises natum per singula duxit, 
Incenditque animum famae venientis amore, 
Exin bella viro memorat quae deinde gerenda, 890 

Laurentesque docet populos urbemque Latini, 
Et quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem. 
Sunt geminae Somni portae, quarum altera fertur 
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus Umbris ; 
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto, 89s 

Sed falsa ad coelum mittunt insomnia Manes. 



J 



246 p. VIRGILII MARONIS AEiNEIDOS LIR VI. 

His ubi turn natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam 
Prosequitur dictis, portaque emittit ebuma, 
Ille viam secat ad naves sociosque revisit; 
Turn se ad Caietae recto fert litore portum. 
Ancora de prora jacitur ; stant litore puppes. 



N OTES. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



A., Aeneid. 

A. P., Ars Poetica. 

A. & S., Andrews and Stoddard's Latin 

Grammar* 
C. (Carmina), Odes. 
Cf. (confer), compare. 
Con., Conington. 
C. S.» Carmen Seculare. 
Dillenb., Dillenbuiger. 
Dod., Dbderlein. 
£., Eclogue, Epistles. 
Eleg., Elegy. 
Ep., Epodes. 
Ex., Exception, 
foil., following. 
Fori)., Forbiger. 
G., Geoigics. 
Gr., Harkness's Latin Grammar. 



Horn., Homer. 

Hor., Horace. 

IL, Iliad. 

lit., literal, literally. 

M., Metamorphoses. 

N., Note. 

Od., Odyssey. 

Ov., Ovid. 

Jl., Remaik. 

6., Satires. 

Sc. {scilicet\ supjdy. 

Sp., Spohn. 

Trist, Tristia. 

v., w., verse, verses. 

Viig., ViigU. 

Wr., Wagner. 

Wch., Wmiderlich. 

Z., Zumpt's Latin Grammar. 



Abbreviations of grammatical terms, as gen., dat., sing., pres., infin., etc., and 
many of a miscellaneous character, as 6. C, A. U. C, MSS., etc., need no exi^ana- 
tion. 



THE LIFE OF OVID. 



In the Tenth Elegy of the Fourth Book of his Tristia^ our poet has 
Mmself given us a minute account of his life and fortunes. In other 
f^oems, he often speaks of himself, so that there are few writers of 
^3icient times with whose history we are better acquainted. Several 
'^iograpliies of him have come down to us ; but they add little of im* 
^ortance to what we thus learn from his own writings. 

PuBLius OviDius Naso was born of an ancient and noble family, 
^t Sulmo (now Sulmona), in the country of the Peligni, March 26, 
^. c. 43. At an early age, he was sent to Rome to be educated, and 
studied with some of the most eminent teachers of the day, among 
whom he mentions Arellius Fuscus and Porcius Latro. He was de- 
signed by his father for the bar, and seems to have made commend- 
able proficiency in the preliminary studies of the profession. The 
elder Seneca speaks highly of his declamations, and has preserved an 
extract from one of them. He remarks, however, that Ovid's oratory 
resembled a soltitum carmen^ and Ovid himself tells us that whatever 
he attempted to write took the fbrm of verse sponte sua. His father 
endeavored to wean him from this tendency to poetical pursuits, warn- 
ing him that poetry was the direct road to poverty ; but, after a brief 
struggle against the ruling passion, he 3aelded to his destiny, aban- 
doned the profession for which he was intended, and devoted himself 
to the service of the Muses. He mentions several of the leading 
poets of the day as among the number of his friends at this time ;. 
Macer, Propertius, Bassus, and Horace. Virgil and TibuUus, both 
of whom died when he was but twenty-four, he knew less intimately. 
He seems to have been most familiar with Propertius, who, like him- 
self, had relinquished forensic for poetical pursuits, and who occa- 
sionally read to him his elegies, which naturally excited the admira- 
tion and the emulation of the youthful listener. Ovid, like Proper- 
tius, had attempted epic poetry ; but the failure of his friend in this 
species of writing, and his brilliant success in elegy, appear to have 
determined his own hesitating muse. His first published work^ the 
Amores, was the result, and the fa¥or with which it was received en- 
couraged him to persevere in the career on which he had entered. 



366 THE LIFE OF OVID. 

The life of Ovid, like that of most literary men, exhibits few prom- 
inent incidents. From himself we learn that he was thrice married. 
His first marriage took place when he was very young, and was soon 
dissolved as a low and unworthy connection. His second wife was 
also divorced, though he makes no charge against her. The third, to 
whom he seems to have been tenderly attached, remained with him 
until his banishment, in which she was forbidden by Augustus to ac- 
company him. He studied at Athens, as was customary with the 
young men of his time. He held the judicial offices of triumvir, of 
centumvir, and of decemvir. Till his fiftieth year, he continued to 
reside at Rome, where he had a house near the Capitol. He not 
only enjoyed the friendship of a large circle of distinguished men, 
but was honored with the favor of Augustus and the imperial family. 

Meanwhile he had given to the world the second edition of the 
Amores ; the Heroides^in which the most tragic love-stories of an- 
cient legend are versified under the form of epistles ; a tragedy, Medea^ 
only two lines of which have come down to us, but which was esteemed 
by contemporary critics as his masterpiece ; the Ars Amatoria^ or De 
Arte Amandi ; the Remedia Amoris ; and some minor poems. He 
had been engaged for some ten years on his great work, the Meta- 
morphoses^ which was nearly ready for publication. He had collected 
the materials for the Fasti, a poetical version of the pontifical ritual, 
and may have made some progress in the composition of "that work. 
"While thus engaged, he was suddenly commanded by an imperial 
edict to transport himself to Tomi, a town on the Euxine, near the 
mouth of the Danube, on the very frontiers of the empire. A few 
hours only were allowed him to prepare for the journey which was to 
remove him forever from his home, his friends, and his family. He 
was exiled, unheard and unarraigned, and the cause of his banish- 
ment was only vaguely indicated by a complaint against the perni- 
cious tendency 6f the Ars Amaioria^ which had been published ten 
years previous. Had he been exiled at the time of its publication, it 
might not have seemed extraordinary, since the poem tended directly 
to subvert all those measures for the regulation of public morals 
which Augustus was taking singular pains to enforce ; but Ovid was 
never molested on the ground of the licentiousness of his writings 
until an event occurred, which is now hidden in impenetrable mys- 
tery, although it is evident that it was no secret at the time. This 
event was the real ground of the banishment, for which the poem was 
made the pretext. 

It is much easier to show what the offence was not than what it 
was. " It seems to have been of a nature which Augustus could not 
venture to declare openly ; had it been an offence against public mo- 
rality, he would have claimed merit for making it the subject of a 



THE LIFE OF OVID. 367 

public arraignment Though the sufferer bows to his sentence, and 
acquiesces discreetly in the charge which he knows to be fictitious, 
his allusions point plainly to some other cause, well known to Augus- 
tas and himself, the possession apparently, and possibly, as he pro- 
tests, the innocent possession of some fatal secret The conjectures 
which have b^en made regarding it may be readily dismissed as 

groundless It seems natural to surmise that Ovid, though no 

public man himself, got unwittingly implicated in the political in- 
trigues of the time, and suffered as an accomplice in projects, of the 
scope of which he was perhaps actually unconscious. " * 

After a night of inexpressible distress, which the poet could never 
recall without tears, a night spent in taking leave of his wife and of 
two firiends who remained with him to the last, (his daughter was in 
Africa,) by early morning he was afloat on a tempestuous sea, the 
gloomy image of his future life on the Getic coast It was nearly a 
year before he reached Tomi ; but he beguiled the time by writing, 
several of his pieces having been written on shipboard. 

" From the scene of his punishment, on the verge of the inhospi- 
table Dobrudscha, dreary and pestilential now, but then alternating 
the frosts of the Neva with the fevers of the Niger, the wretched vic- 
tim poured forth his misery in verses of grace and sweetness, though 
of little power : he murmured at the loss of every friend and amuse- 
ment, at the rudeness of the people, and hostility of their savage 
neighbors, while he shuddered at the sight of the frozen Euxine, or 
shivered in the agues of the Danubian marshes. A gleam of reviving 
cheerfulness induced him at more favorable moments to cultivate the 
hospitality of the natives, and to flatter them by cultivating their lan- 
guage, and even writing verses in it ; but neither lamentations nor 
industry availed to soothe the bitterness of his sorrows, which were 
only for a moment allayed by anticipations of future celebrity ; and he 
continued in vain to solicit with abject humiliation the compassion of 
the offended emperor. Though his punishment was not strictly 
exile (exiliu7n)t but only the milder form of relegation {rclegatio)^ which 
allowed him to retain his fortune and his citizenship, and admitted 
the hope of eventual pardon, he never obtained remission of his sen- 
tence, though he survived Augustus three years. '^t 

Ovid died, a. d. 18, in the sixtieth year of his age, and the tenth of 
his exile. His constitution, never robust, gradually gave way under 
the burden of his sorrow^s. The severity of the climate, the want of 
home comforts and of good medical advice, doubtless hastened his 
decline ; but it is probable that this last chapter of the sad story is 
briefly comprehended in the simple words of one of his biographers ; 
*' he died of a broken heart" 

* Merivale, History of the Romans under the Empire^ Vol. IV. p. 260. 
t Merivale, loc. cit. 



368 * THE LIFE OF OVID. 

The works of Ovid up to the time of his exile have already l)een 
enumerated. To these are to be added the five books of elegies 
called Trisiiay written during the first four years of his banishment, 
and the four books of Epistolae ex FontOy written subsequently, in the 
same measure as the Trisiia^ and, like that work, made up of descrip- 
tions of his afflicted condition and petitions for mercy. There is also 
a satirical poem called Ibisy written in exile, and several other pieces, 
whose genuineness is more or less doubtful. Of the twelve books of 
the Fasti, only six have come down to us, and some have thought 
that only six were ever written. The Metatnor phases, which the poet 
burnt on going into exile, was complete in its plan, though it had not 
received its last touches, and copies of it were already in the hands 
of friends, through whom it was preserved. 

" If Ovid, as a man, was unfortunate, as a poet he cannot be alto- 
gether so regarded. He was bom at the happiest time for the exhi- 
bition of his chief excellence, skill in the mechanical structure of his 
language. Even in the Julian Age he would scarcely have developed 
this, nor, if he had, would it have been duly appreciated ; and imme- 
diately after his decease a new school had arisen. Of the mutual 
adaptation of his time and his genius he was fully sensible ; and he 
made good use of his opportunities. When we speak, however, of 
Ovid's elegance as his principal distinction, it is only because his suc- 
cess in this respect is so transcendent. He was, in imaginative power, 
perhaps, superior to all other Latin poets ; and Milton hesitates not 
to affirm, that, but for the influence of misfortune on his genius, he 
would have surpassed Virgil in epic achievement The Metamor- 
phosesy though in part indebted to Greek originals for form and mate- 
rial, are yet a marvellous work of fancy. Some of the stories are 
exuberant with creative force ; and the subtle thread which connects 
the diverse materials in one harmonious and beautiful whole is not 
less admirable than the structure itself .... Ovid was the only 
writer of eminence who prolonged the golden age of Latin poetry be- 
yond the time of Horace." * 

" His various compositions," sajrs another writer, from whom we 
have already quoted, " comprehend many pieces of unsullied purity 
and grace, which a^^ still the first pages of antiquity we put into the 
hands of our children, and among the last on which we tiun the retro- 
spect of our own declining years. .... His amatory poems were 
principally the work of his earlier years, and the maturity of his powers 
was devoted sedulously, nor with less felicity, to subjects of wider 
scope and higher interest" t 

* Thompson, History of Roman Literature. 
t Merivale. 



NOTES 



ON THE 



SELECTIONS FROM OVID. 



METAMORPHOSES. Book I. 

THE FOUR AGES. [vv. 89-162.] In regard to the number 
of these Ages, the poets do not agree. Hesiod reckons five, adding 
the heroic after the brazen ; Ovid, four ; Aratus, three ; Virgil (G. I. 
I25 fdl.) and Tibullus mention two. There was also a prophecy 
trhat, after the present, age is ended, these ages are to repeat them- 
^Ives in inverse order. See Virg. E. IV. 

89. Prima — est = first began. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (^). 
^indioe nuUo = with no magistrate to punish crime. Gr. 431. 
A.& S.257, R. 7 (tf). — 90. Spoute. Gr. 134. A. & S. 94. Rec- 
tum. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2). Colebat. Gr. 469. II. 
A & S« 145, II. I. — 92. Aere = brazen tablets; on which, in early 
times, the laws were set up for public view. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 622. 
Gr. 422. I. 2). A. & S. 254, R 3. Supples turba = the accused 
and their fiiends. — 93. Erapt. Gr. 461. i. A. & S. 209, R. 11 & 
(2). TuH Gr. 438. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 3. — 94. Suia = its na- 
tive. Feregrinum .... orbem = foreign lands. Viseret. 
Gr. 481. II. I ; 491. A. & S. 258. I. 2 ; 262. — 95. Pinus. Gr. 
705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Uadas. Gr. 435. i. A. & S. 235 (2). On 
w. 94, 95, c£ Virg. E. IV. 32 -3a — 96. Norant Gr. 234. 2 ; 
297. 2. A. & S. 162. 7 («) ; 183, N. 3. — 97. As yet there were no 
wars. Praecipites = deep. — 98. The tuba was straight, and 
used by infantry ; the cornu, curved, used by cavalry. Aeris. Gr. 
3961 IV. A. & S. 211, R. 6.-99. Erat Gr. 463 I. A. & S. 209, 
R. 12 (3). Sine — usu = without need of soldiery. — 101. Cf. 
Virg. G. L 94. Immunis is, literally, fi-ee from taxes; here = 
ntUlo cogentey v. 103. Rastro. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. —102. 
Per ae = spontaneously. Omnia Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 
(2K — 103. Content!; sc homines. Cibis. Gr. 419. IV. A. & 
S. 244. Nullo. Gr. 431 ; 457. 2. A. & S. 257, R. 7 {a) ; 207, R. 31 (4 
— 104. Arbuteoa foetua = the fruit of the strawberry-tree (Arbu- 
24 



370 NOTES ON OVID. 

ttis unedo)y which grows wild in Italy. Montana fraga = common 
strawberries, which are abundant on wooded hills. — 105. Coma 
= the fruit of the wild cornel -tree. Homer mentions it as the food 
of swine. C£ Virg. A. III. 649. Mora = blackberries, the fruit of the 
rtibeta, Rubetifl. Gr. 435. i. A. & S. 235 (2). —106. Arbore == 
the oak, sacred to Jupiter, as the laurel to Apollo, the poplar to Her- 
cules, the olive to Minerva, etc Gr. 425. A. & S. 242. — 107. Au- 
ris. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 108. Sine semine = without 
cultivation. — 109. Prugea. Gr. 133. 2. A. & S. 94. So mella, v. 
112. — 110. Nee renovatUB ager = et agcr non renauatus ; i. e. 
without having been renewed by lying fallow. — 112. C£ Virg. E. 
IV. 30. Viridi = evergreen.— 113. Satnmo. Gr. 431. A. & S. 
257. Saturn, the father of Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, was driven 
from his kingdom by his sons, and banished to Tartarus. The golden 
age was during his reign. Hence Virgil (G. II. 538) calls him aureus 
Saturntis. ^IIA. Subiit. The last syllable is lengthened by the 
arsis. Gr. 660. A. & S. 308 (2). — 115. Auro. Gr. 417. A. & S. 
256, R. I. Deterior = worse, with reference to good ; pejor^ with 
reference to bad. Gr. 166. A. & S. 126. i. Auro and acre for aurea 
and aenea (sc proky or aetate). — 116. Contrazit. Gr. 248. I. 
A. & S. 171. I. — 117. AspottdaicWiiQ. Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 310. I. i. 
Inaequales = changeable. Cf. incertis ; Virg. G. I. 115. — 118. 
Spatiis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Exegit = completed. 
Some critics make it = measured, or divided. — 119. Pervoribus. 
Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. I. So ventisy v. 120. — 120. Adstricta, or 
asiricta = congealed. Adstringere is used with reference to the cold 
of Winter, as solvere (Cf. Hor. C. I. 4. i) to the warmth of Spring. 
Pependit, from pendere. — 121. Domos. Gr. 117. i ; 371. 4. i). 
A. & S. 89 ; 233 (3) and N. — 123. Cerealia. Ceres, the daugh- 
ter of Saturn and Vesta, first taught men the arts of agriculture and 
bread-making. See Met. V. 343 foil, and Virg. G. I. 147. Seniina 
Cerealia = corn. Cf. Virg. A. I. 177. Sulcis. Gr. 422. i. 2). 
A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 125. The Brazen Age is described very briefly. 
The poet may have intended to amplify and complete the passage, in 
the final revision of the work, which he never made. See Life. — 
126. Ingeniis. Gr. 429. A. &S. 250. i. lSLornA.^-= saeva. Some 
explain it as = horrentiay bristling. — ^127. UltdnuL Gr. 166. A. & 
S. 126. I. — 129. Verum. An adjective used as an abstract noun. 
Gr. 441. — 131. Insidiae. Gr. 131. i. 4). A. & S. 96. Amor 
habendi = love of gain, or covetousness. Cf. Virg. A. III. 56 : 
auri sacra fames. Gr. 563. A. & S. 275. III. R. i. — 132. Ventls. 
Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. — 133. Steterant = had stood ; L e. as 
trees.— 134. Pluctibus. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Insultavere 
= bounded over ; I e. contemptuously. C£ Hor. C. I. 3. 24. Tibul- 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK I. 37 1 

lus (L 3. 37) uses coniemftere in the same way : Nondiim caeruleas 
pinus contemserat undas, Carinae. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. 
— 135. Lumina . . . aurae ; sc. sunt (communia). — 137. Segetes. 
Gr. 374. I. A. & S. 234. I. Debita = due ; i. e. which men have a 
right to expect as a return for their labor. — 138. Itnim est. Gr. 
301.3. A. & S. 184.2. — 139. Recondiderat ; sc. ilia = terra. 
Stygiis = Stygian ; i. e. infernal. The Styx, one of the rivers of 
the lower world, is often put for the lower world itself. — 140. Irri- 
tamenta. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 and R. 3. — 141. Ferro. Gr. 
417. A. &. S. 256, R. I. —142. Prodierat. Gr. 295. 3 ; 338. 
I. A. & S. 182, R. 3 ; 196, I. 13. Utaroque = auro et ferro ; 
i. e. nummis et armis. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 144. Vivi- 
tur. See on ittmt est^ v. 138. Ex rapto = by rapine. Gr. 
58a A. & S. 162. 22 ; 247, R. 3. — 145. Quoque. Gr. 602, 
III. A. & S. 279. 3 (^).— 146. Exitio. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 
Vir := maritus, — 147. Aconita ; a poisonous plant, found in 
Pontus and sometimes in Italy. It is called lurida from its effect on 
the color of its victims. Cf. Virg. G. II. 128. — 148. He consults 
the astrologers to find out how soon his father will die. Pataios. 
Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4 («). On ante diem cf. Virg. A. IV. 697. 
150. Ultima. See on v. 127. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (/>). 
Coelestum. Gr. 158. 3. A. & S. 114, Ex. 3. Astraea; the god- 
dess of justice, who was driven from the earth by the impiety of the 
iron age, and became the constellation Virgo in the zodiac. Cf. on 
Virg. E. IV. 6. —151. Poret Gr. 297. III. 2; 311. 5; 489. 
A. & S. 154, R. 3 ; 198. 8 ; 262, R. 5. Terris. See on auro, v. 115. 
— 152. Affectasse. Gr. 234; 551. I. A. & S. 162. 7. [a)\ 272. 
Fenint. Gr. 367. 2. 2). A. & S. 209, R. 2. (2). Gigantas. Gr. 98. 
A. &. S. 85. Ex. 2. The Giants were the sons of Earth, who, at the 
instigation of their mother, attacked the Gods in their own abode, to 
avenge the overthrow of the Titans. — 153. Congestos. Gr. 579. 
A. & S. 274.3. (^).— 155. Fulmine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Ossae. 
Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2. Olympus, Ossa, and Pelion are moun- 
tains of Thessaly. Cf. on Virg. G. I. 281, 282. —156. Sua mole ; 
i. e. the mountains which they themselves had heaped up. Jaoerent. 
Gr. 518. II. A. & S. 263, R. 2. — 158. AnimasBe. See on affec- 
iasse, v. 152. — 159. Ne — manerent = lest no remnant of that 
race of hers should survive. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262, R. 5. —160. 
Sed et ilia propago = But that race also. — 161. Superum. 
Gr. 45. 5. 4) ; 441. 3. A. & S. 53 ; 205, R. 7. —162. Scires — 
ik3Xo/A==Scires eos (referring to propago) e sanguine natos esse, Gr. 
486. 4 ; 551. I. A. & S. 260, R. 2 ; 272. 

THE TRANSFORMATION OF LYCAON. [vv. 163-243.] 
This fable is introduced in illustration of the impious and blood- 



372 NOTES ON OVID. 

thirsty character of the race sprung from the blood of the Giants. — 
163. Pater Satumin8= Jupiter, the son of Saturn. See on v. 
113. Arce; sc. coeli. — 164. Facto . . . recent! = since the deed 
was recent. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. R. 7 {a). The order of translation 
is, Et ref evens (= calling to mind) foeda coiwvvia Lycaoniae (Gr. 398. 
2. A. & S. 211, R. n^ mensae nondum vulgata^ facto recently concipU 
animo iras ingentes et dignas ycrve, etc. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. — 
167. Tennit =retinuit. — 169. Lactea; used as a noun in ap- 
position with nonien. For its gender, see Gr. 35. III. 2. A. & S. 
34. 3 & 4 ; for the construction, Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 8 
(r), where a similar expression is explained. Candore. Gr. 414. 
2. A. & S. 247. I. — 170. Hac; sa via. Superis. See second rc£ 
on V. 161. On the case, Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Tonanti8 = the 
Thunderer ; i. e. Jupiter. — 171. Deztra laevaque ; sc. manu, — 
IlI^. Celebraiitur = are thronged; as the vestibules of the houses 
of the Roman patricians by the crowds of their clients. The dii ito- 
biles here are the higher of the two classes of Roman gods, the dii 
majonim gentium and the dii minorum gentium. The latter are the 
plebs of V. 173.— 173. Locis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. So loco, v. 
178. A fronte = in the front. — ^174. Fen2tteB=^dofnos; literally, 
household gods. — 175. Detur. Gr. 503. III. A. & S. 261. 2.-176. 
Timeam. Gr. 486. i. A. & S. 260, R. 4. Dixisse. Gr. 542. 2. 
A. & S. 268, R. 2. Falatia ; the palace of Augustus on the Palatine 
hill.— 177. RecesBu. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 178. 
Ipse = Jupiter. Sceptre. Gr. 419. II. A. & S. 245. II. i.— 180. 
Cum. Gr. 187. 2. A. & S. 241, R. i. 182. Magis aiudus; sc. 
^uam nunc. — 183. Tempestate. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. The 
order of translation is, qua qitisque anguipednm parahat injicere cen- 
tum brackia captwo coeio. Captivo is used "by anticipation}^ and = 
which they hoped to seize. For the case of coelo see Gr. 386. A. & S. 
224.— 185. Erat Gr. 516. I. A. & S. 263. 2 (4).— 186. Cor- 
pore; a collective noun; as, in English, a body of men. — 187. Mi- 
hl Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. Nereus ; a sea-god, here put for 
the sea itsel£ He was the son of Oceanus and Terra, and had fifty 
daughters called Nereides. Orbezn. Gr. 371. 4. 2). A. & S. 233. — 
188. Perdendumest. Gr. 229. A. & S. 162. 15. So reddendum 
esty V. 191. Fliunina infera = the Styx. See on v. 139 and cf. 
Virg. A. VI. 323, 324. — 189. Luco. See on recessUy v. 177. — 190. 
Tentata. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272 and 270, R. 3. — 191. Ense. 
Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. Trahatiir = should be infected. Gr. 
491. A. & S. 262, R. 5.— 192. Mihi Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Semi- 
dei = literally, half-gods ; " heroes," intermediate between gods and 
men. Nyxnphae ; female deities of low rank and of several classes, 
the Nereids (see on v. 187), the Naiads, Dryads, Oreads, etc. — 193. 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK I. 373 

Fanniqne Satjrzique = Fauns and Satj-rs, rural deities, having the 
cars, legs, and feet of goats, and, the rest of the body human. Sil- 
van! Silvanus (from siiva) was the god of the woods. The name 
is here plural, instead of the usual singular form. The last syllable 
of Fauniqt4€ is lengthened by the arsis. See on v. 114. The line is 
spondaic. See on v. 117. — 194. Dignamur honore. Gr. 520; 
419. V. 2. A. & S. 244, R. I.— 195. SinamuB. Gr. 486. III.; 
551. II. I. A. & S. 260. II. ; 273. 4.— 196. Fore. Gr. 297. III. ; 
551. I. A. & S. 154, R. 3 ; 272, and R. 6. — 197. Mihi Gr. 384. 
IL A. & S. 223. — 198. Stxuserit. Gr. 517. I. A. & S. 263. 5. 
Ferltate. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 199. Ausum= him who had 
dared Gr. 221. 2; 272. 3. A. & S. 142. 2; 162. 17. — 200. De- 
poBCiint; sc. ad supplicium. Gr. 254. 5. A. & S. 163, E. i. Sae- 
yit = saevik = saevivit, Gr. 234. I. A. & S. 162. 7 (^Z). Somoilit^v. 
22^, — 201. Sanguine Caesareo. Some commentators refer this to 
the assassination of Julius Caesar; others, to some conspiracy against 
Augustus. On Caesareoy see Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4. — 204. 
TibL Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. i. So Joviy v. 205. Tuorum. 
Gr. 441. I. A. & S. 205, R. 7. N. i. — 205. Qui Gr. 453. A. & S. 
206 (17). —210. AdmiBSum = crime. Sit Gr. 525. A. & S. 
265. So sit, V. 214. — 212. Quam. Gr. 551. 11. A. & S. 271, R. 4. 
Olympo. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 {b). — 214. Longa mora 
est . . . enumerare = it is tedious to tell. Noxae = of crime. 
Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (3). ' A. & S. 212, R. 3 and (^). — 216. Maenala, 
Cyllene, Lycaei; mountains in Arcadia. Transieram. Gr. 234. 
A. & S. 162. 7 {b), Latebris. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i. — 217. 
Pineta. Gr. 317. 2. A. & S. 100. 7. —218. Arcados; adjective 
with tyranni. Gr. 68. 2. A. & S. 68. i. The use of the word here 
is an instance of prolepsis (anticipation), since Arcadia took its name 
from Areas, the grandson of Lycaon. — 219. Traherent. Gr. 518. 
L A. & S. 263. 5, R. 2. On Ingredior, see Gr. 467. III. A. & S. 
259. I (tf). — 220. Venisse. Gr. 551. I. 3. A. & S. 272. N. i. — 
22L Irridet = derides ; here transitive. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 
(2). — 222. DeuB hie ... an sit mortalis = whether he is a god 
or a mortal. Gr. 526. II. 2. A. & S. 265, R. 2. Discrimine = 
test — 224. Nocte. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253, and N. i.' — 225. JUL 
Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2.-226. Bo. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 
244. Molossa. The Molossi were a people of Epirus. — 228. 
Atque itB, = quo facto, or postea. — 229. MoUit. See on v. 200. • 
—230. Quos . . mensis. Gr. 386. i. A. & S. 224. N. i. Simid 
= simul ac. Vindice flanuna = with avenging flame ; i. e. light- 
ning. Penates. The household gods were responsible for what 
was done in the house. — 233. Ezululat = howls fortk. Ex is in- 
tensive here. Ab ipso ; i. e. from his own ferocious nature. Hence 



374 NOTES ON OVID. 

also solitaey in next line. — 235. Vertltur = he turns (himself. The 
word is used reflexively, like th.&- middle voice in Greek. San- 
guine. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. I (2). —236. Abeont = fVM/i/f/- 
tur, — 238. Est. (sc ei) = he has. — 239. Idem = iidem. — 240. 
Non . . una = not one alone. Pexira Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 244, 
R. 2 {b) and 270, R. i (^). — 241. Erlnnys. The Furies were 
Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone. They were employed by the gods 
to punish the impious, both on the earth and in the lower world. — 
242. Jurasse. See on v. 152. Gr. 551. 1. A. & S. 272, N. i. Pu- 
tes. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 260. II. Dent Gr. 487. A. & S. 260, 
R. 6. OciuB. Gr. 444, i. A. & S. 122, R. 3.-243. Sententia; 
sc. niea. 

THE DELUGE AND^THE STORY OF DEUCALION AND 
PYRRHA. [vv. 244-415.] — 244. Probant Gr.461. i. A. & S. 
209, R. II. Prementi; sc. ei. Gr. 386. i. A. & S. 224, N. i. — 245. 
Partes — implent = fulfil their part by assent; an allusion to the 
Roman senate. — 246. DolorL Gr. 390. L A. & S. 227. — 247. 
Sit fatura. Gr. 481. III. i. ; 525. A. & S. 260, R. 7 (2) ; 265. 
Mortalibus. Gr. 399. 5. 3). A. & S. 250. 2 (i). — 249. Feiis. 
Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. Paret See on sit, v. 247. — 250. Sibi . . . 
curae. See on dolori, v. 246. Pore depends on the vcrbitm dicendi 
implied in vetat. Gr. 530. II. i. A. & S. 270, R. 2 [b), — 251. 
Trepidare vetat. Gr. 551. IL i. A. & S. 273, 2 (rz). — 252. Po- 
pulo. Gr. 391. A. & S. 222, R. i. Origine mira = of miracu- 
lous origin. — 253. Erat . . . sparsurus. Gr. 228. A. & S. 162. 
14. — 254. Sacer == sacred ; because it is the home of the gods. 
— 255. Conciperet Gr. 492. 4. i). A. & S. 262, R. 7. Axis; 
for heaven itself. — 256. Esse. The clause, affore, etc., is the sub- 
ject of esse. Gr. 551. I. 3. A. & S. 239, R. 4; 272, N. i. Esse in 
fatis = that it is fated ; i. e. the Fates had decreed. The three Fates, 
or Farcae,' WQTQ the supreme arbiters of the destinies, not only of 
men, but of the gods themselves. Even Jupiter must submit to 
them. Their names were Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. — 258. 
Ardeat. Gr. 501. 1. A. & S. 264. 6 and N. i. Laboret = shall per- 
ish. — 259. Cyclopum. The Cyclopes were the workmen of Vulcan, 
(see on II. 5,) and made the thunderbolts of Jupiter. Cf. Virgil, A. 
III. 569 foil, and Horace, C. I. 4. 7. — 261. Perdere is in apposition 
with poena. Gr. 553. II. A. & S. 204, R. 9 ; 273, N. 9, where this 
use of the infin. should be added. — 262. Aeoliis . . . antria = in 
the caves of Aeolus. The Aeolian (now Lipari) islands, near Sicily, 
were the abode of the winds, over whom Aeolus was king. C£ 
Virg. A. I. 52 foil. Aquilonem = the north wind ; which, in Italy, 
generally brings dry weather. Cf. v. 328. — 263. Inductaa ; sc 
coelo, — 264. Notum = the south wmd ; which brings rain. — 265. 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK I. 375 

Vnltnin. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. and R. i. —266. CapiUlB. Cr, 
422. 2. A. & S. 25^, R. 3 {d), — 267. Fronte ; poetic abl. of place. 
See on V. 92. SiniiBque = and the folds of his robe. — 270. Ju- 
nonia. Juno was the sister and wife of Jupiter, and the queen of 
heaven. Iris, daughter of Thaiimas (whence she is called Thauman- 
tkts) and Electra, was the goddess of the rainbow, and the attend- 
ant and messenger of Juno. Colores. Gr. 374, 7. A. & S. 234, 
R. I (tf). — 271. Concipit = draws up. Nubibus. Gr. 386. i. 
A & S. 224, N. I. —272. Colonls. Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 
5 (i). — 274. Coelo. See on v. 226. — 275. Prater = Neptune, 
brother of Jupiter, and god of the sea. See on v. 113. — 277. 
Hortamine. Gr. 419. 1. A. & S. 245. I. — 278. Utendum ; sc 
mihu Gr. 301. 2 ; 388. I. A. & S. 184. 3 ; 225. III. and. R. i. — 
279. Domos = fountains. The source of the stream was the home 
of the river-god. Mole = literally, the dam or barrier ; here, what- 
ever confines or restrains the river. — 280. Fluminibus. Gr. 386. 
I. A. & S. 224. Totas — habenas = give loose reins. — 281. 
FontibuB. Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (i). — 282. Volvun- 
tiir. See on veriitur^ v. 235. — 286^ Satis = crops. — 287. 
Penetralia ; the inmost part of the house, the shrine of the Penates ; 
here = temples. Sacris = the images of the gods. — 288. Qua. 
Gr. 190. I & 2. A. & S. 137, R. (3). Mansit Gr. 508. A. & S. 
261, R. I. — 289. Malo. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 290. 
Pressae = submerged. — 292. Erat Gr. 462. 2. A. & S. 209, 
R. 9. Some editions have erant Fonto. Gr. 386. 2. A. & S. 
226, R. 2. — 293. Btlc ; sa homo, Cymba ; poetic abl. of place. 
See on v. 92. —294. Ducit = plies. Ararat Gr. 234. A. & S. 
162. 7 (a).— 296. Summa. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17.— 
297. Pigitur. See on mansity v. 288. — 302. Nereides. See on 
v. 192. —303. Ramis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Agitata. See 
on congestosy v. 153. — 305. Fulminis ; a common metaphor in de- 
scriptions of the boar. Apro. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. So 
quihus, v. 311.— 307. Terris. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Fossit 
Gr. 486. III. A. & S. 264, R. 3. — 311. Fars ; sc. hominum. — 
312. Inopi victu = by want of food. — 313. Aonios (sc. agros) == 
Aonia, or Boeotia, a district of Greece, N. W. from Attica. Oetaeis 
= Thessalian j Oeta being a mountain range of Thessaly. Fhocia, 
a district lying west of Boeotia, on the Corinthian gulf. The prose 
order is, Fhocis, terra ferax^ dum terra fuit, Aonios ab Oetaeis arvis 
separat, — 314. Tempore. Gr. 426. 2. — 316. Verticibus. Gr. 
428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 317. Nomine. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 
I. Pamasus, or Parnassus, was sacred to Apollo and the Muses. — 
318. Denoalion; son of Prometheus, and King of Phthia, in 
Thessaly. — 319. Consorte tori: his wife Pyrrha, daughter of 



376 NOTES ON OVID. 

Epimetheus and Pandora. — 320. Coxyoldas == Coryciaft ; tcom 
a caye in Parnasus. Numina ; sc cet^a. — 321. Theaiin. Or. 
93. 2. A. & S. 80 and Ex. 2. Themis, the daughter of Coelus and 
Terra, was the goddess of right, or justice, and held the Delphic 
oracle (tunc oracla tenebat) as the successor of Terra and previous to 
Apollo. OxKcSiA'^ syncopated ioTca. oi oraczda, — 322. Illo = Deu- 
calion. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. So ilia (=Pyrrha) in next line. 
Aequi Gr. 399. 2. i) ; 441. A. & S. 205', R. 7 (2) ; 213.-324; 
Stagnare = to be overflowed. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272. So 
superesse. — 325. Ovid is fond of repetitions like this. TTnuxn ; sc. 
hominem, — 326. Unam ; sc. feminam. — 328. NimbiB. Gr. 
431. A. & S. 257. So telo^ V. 330, and signo^ v. 334. — Aqnilona 
Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 329. Aetheta. Gr. 93. i. A. & S. 80, 
R. So aera-y v. 337. — 330. Telo = tridente. See v. 283. — 331. 
Pelagi Gr. 47. II. A. & S. 51. — 332. Humeros. Gr. 38a 
A. & S. 234- II. Innato murice = with native purple. Murex, a 
shell-fish from which a purple dye was obtained. — 333. Tritona 
= Triton, son of Neptune and Amphitrite, and herald of the sea- 
gods. Conchae. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 334. luspirare. Gr. 
551. II. I. A. & S. 273. 2 (^). — 335. nii Gr. 388. 3. A. & S. 
225. II. — 336. In — imO'= which increases in width fi-om the 
end of the cone ; i. e. the mouth-piece. On imoy see Gr. 441. 6. 
A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 337. Concepit aera = has received the air ; 
has been blown. — 338. Voce replet = fills with its blast. Bub 
— Fhoebo = under each Phoebus ; i. e. fi-om the east to the west. 
Phoebus (the Bright) is the title of Apollo as the Sun-god. — 339. 
Tunc quoque refers back to v. 281 ; as they had then obeyed, so 
now also. A. & S. 306. — 340. Cecinit receptus = sounded the 
retreat. In prose we have cecinit receptui. — 341. Undis. Gr. 388W 
4. A. & S. 225. II. The waves are personified, — 342. Quibus. 
Gr. 445. 8. A. & S. 206 (3). Omnes; sc. undcLs. — 345. Undia. 
Gr. 431. A. & S. 257.-346. Diem. Gr. 120. A. & S. 90. i. N. 
Nudata ; sc aquis^ not foliis ; as shown by fronde in next line. 
Some, however, make fronde = ramis. — 348. Redditus . . . 
erat = had reappeared. Apertum; sc esse. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 
272. — 349. Terras, subject, silentia, object, of agere. — 351. O 
Boror, o conjuz ; i. e. thou who art my all. — 352. Fatruelis 
oxlgo. See on w. 318, 319. Prometheus and Epimetheus were sons 
of Japetus. — 353. Deinde is here, as often in verse, a dissyllable. 
See on dei, v. 339. — 354, 355. Terrarum . . . tnrba = the whole 
population of the earth. — 356, 357. Haec — aatiB = we have 
not yet sufficiently certain assurance of our lives. — 358. Tibi 
Gr. 387 ; 204. I. A. & S. 226 and R. 2. Si . . . erepta fuiaciea. 
Gr. 510. A. & S. 261. X. So haberet, v. 361. — 359. Animi Gr. 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK I. 377 

396. ni. 2. 3), (3). A.. & S. 212, R. 3. — 360. Posses. Gr. 486. 
ll. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Qno — doleres? = who would console you 
in your grief? Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 361, 362. See on v. 325. 
— 363. O utdnam. Gr. 669. I. 2. A. & S. 305 (i). Possem. 
Gr. 488. I & 2. A. & S. 263. I ftH. Paternis artibus = by my 
fether's art ; as my father, Prometheus, made men of clay, and ani- 
mated them with fire stolen from heaven. — 364. Terrae. See on 
conchae, v. 333. — 366. Visum; sc. est. — 367. Plactiit (sc its) 
= it pleased them ; they resolved. — 366. Sortea = oracle. — 
369>. CepMsidas ; Greek form of the ace. pi. 3d decl. See Gr. 98. 
A. & S. 85, Ex. 2, which apply to adjectives as well as nouns. The 
Cephisus, or Cephissus, was the chief river of Phocis, flowing past 
Pamasus and Delphi. There was a large river of the same name in 
Attica, and several of less note in other parts of Greece. Undas. 
Gr. 386. 3. A. & S. 233 (3). — 370. Ut — seoantes = which, 
though not yet clear, were flowing in their wonted channel. — 371. 
Inde ^= ex Cephiso, Libatos — liquores = they had sprinkled 
the consecrated waters ; as an act of purification before entering the 
Temple. — 372. Vestibus. Gr. 386. i. A. & S. 224.-373. 
Deae = Themis. See v. 321. — 374. Pallebant = were foul. 
Pallere is used of any unnatural, sickly color. — 376. Humi = on 
the ground. Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 221, R. 3. — 378. Remollescunt 
Gr. 508. A. & S. 261, R. I. — 379. Die. Gr. 237. A. & S. 162. 4. 
nieml Gr. 94- i. A. & S. 81, R.— 380. Sit Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. 
Per. See on dic^ v. 379. Mersls = ruined. Rebus = fortunes. 
Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. — 381. Templo. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 
255, R. 3 {b). — 383. pEurentis limits ossa. — Z^S. Prior. Gr. 
443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (^). Jussis. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, 
K 2.-386. Det Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4.-387. Jac- 
tatL See on congestos^ v. 153. — 388. Caecis — latebris = in- 
volved in dark mystery. — 390. Prometkiades. Gr. 316. A. & S. 
100. I {a) and {b). So Epitnetkiday on which see also Gr. 93. i. 
A. & S. 80. I. — 391. Aut fallaz — nobis = either my penetra- 
tion is at fault. NobiSy for tnihi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. — 394. 
Did Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272. — 395. Augurio = interpretation, 
(explanation. Titauia = Pyrrha, who was the granddaughter of 
Japetus, one of the Titans. Mota est. Gr. 516. I. A. & S. 263. 
2 (4). — 396. Spes — est = but her hope is mingled with fear. — 
397. Monitis. See on fussisy v. 385. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 
232 (3). — 399. Sua post vestigia =/<7j/ terga sua. — 400. Cre^ 
dat Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Nisi — vetustaa = if an- 
tiquity were not witness for it ; i. e. if it had not been believed- for ages. 
On sit, see Gr. 509. A. & S. 261, R. 3. — 402. Mora = gradually ; 
^er a titiie. Ducere fotmam = to take shape ; to assume a new 



378 NOTES ON OVID. 

form. — 403. nils ; dat with contigit, — 404 - 407. Ut — Eigniflk 
The English order is, Ut qtioedam forma hoviinis potest viderif^natt 
sic manifesta, sed uti coepta de niarmore, non satis exacta^ simillimaque 
rudibtis signis. Cf. v. 370. De xnarmore coepta = just begun in 
marble. Simillima. Gr. 163. ?. A. & S. 125.2. Sigiiis = j^/- 
uis. Gr. 391. 1. A. & S. 222, R. i. —407, 408. Quae — uaum = 
whatever part of them was moist with any fluid and eai'thy, was 
changed into flesh ; literally, for the use of the body. Corpus = caro. 
Versa est ; sc. ea pars. — 410. Vena = the vein in the stone. — 
411. Spatio. See on tempore^ v. 314. ITumine. Gr. 414. 2. 
A. & S. 249. II. — 412. Faciexn — virilem = took the form of 
men. — 413. Et — 3actu = and woman (the female race) was re- 
stored by the throwing of the woman ; i. e. from the stones thrown 
by Pyrrha. — 414. Inde — sumua ; imitated from Virgil, G. I. 63. 
Laborum. Gr. 399. 2. i). A. & S. 213. — 415. Simus. Gr. 525. 
A. & S. 265. Origine. Gr. 425. 3. i). A. &.S. 246. 



METAMORPHOSES. Book II. 



THE STORY OF PHAETHON. — Phaethon was the son of Phoe- 
bus, or Apollo, and the nymph Clymene, the daughter of Occanus. 
Hid divine origin having been called in question by Epaphus, the son 
of Jupiter and lo, he appeals to his mother, who, after assuring him 
that he is the son of Phoebus, advises him to go to the god himself 
for proof of the truth of her story. He sets out at once, and Ovid 
here tells us the result of his visit to his father. 

1. Columnis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. — 2. Pyropo. Pliny 
makes the pyropus an alloy of copper and gold. Flammas iniitans 
is a literal translation of its Greek name. — 3. The prose order is, 
Cujtis fastigia sutnma ebur nitidum tenebat, Cujus refers to regia, — 
5. Mulciber= Vulcan, the Roman god of fire, identified with the 
Greek Hephaistos^ son of Jupiter and Juno, or, according to later 
traditions, of Juno alone. His father, in a fit of anger, kicked him 
out of heaven, and after falling a whole day, he alighted on the island 
of Lemnos, which became his favorite abode. Other volcanic islands 
also, as Lipara, Imbros, and Sicily, are called his abodes, or work- 
shops. Homer places his workshop in a splendid palace on Olym- 
pus. The palaces of all the gods were built by him, and the ancient 
poets abound in descriptions of marvellous and beautiful things which 
he made for gods and men. — The ancients derived the name Mulci- 
ber from mtUceret to soften, and ferrum^ iron. — 6. Caelarat. Gr. 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK II. 379 

234. A. & S. 162. 7 {a) — 7. Orbi Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 8. 
Trltona. See on I. 333. — 9. Protea. Proteus, the son of Oce- 
anus and Tethys, kept the flocks of Neptune. He had the gift of 
prophecy and the power of changing himself into any shape ; and he 
was famous for taking advantage of the latter, to avoid being com- 
pelled to exercise the former. Homer places his residence in the 
island Pharos; Virgil, in Carpathos, between Crete and Rhodes. 
Hence, Milton {Comus) calls Proteus "the Carpathian wizard." — 10. 
Aegaeona. Aegaeon is here a sea-god. Homer identifies him 
with Briareus, the hundred-handed son of Uranus. In the earliest 
legends, he and his brothers assist Zeus (Jupiter) in his war with the 
Titans ; in some of the later ones, he is one of the giants who at- 
tacked Olympus. See I. 152 foil. Prementem terga= insidentem 
tergis, — 11. Dorida. Doris was the daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, and the wife of Nereus. See on I". 187. For the form of 
the word, see Gr. 93. i. A. & S. 80. I. Nataa = the Nereids, the 
fifty, daughters of Nereus and Doris. Videntur. Gr. 461. i. 
A. & S. 209, R. II. — 12. Mole = a rock. Virides, like caeruleos 
(v. 8), is a frequent epithet of the sea-gods. Siccare and vehi, like 
«ar^, depend on videntur, — 13. Omnibus. Gr. 387. A. & S. 
226. J?upply est — 14. Qualexn; scfaciem. Decet Gr. 556. I. 
A. & S. 229, R. 7 (fine print), and 269, R. 2. — 18. Signa = signs 
of the Zodiac. Foribus. Gr. 133 ; 422. i. 2). A. & S. 94 ; 254, 
R. 3. — 19. Simul = simul ac^ as often in poetry^ Clymeneia 
proles = the son of Clymene. — 20. Dubitati ; since his pater- 
nity had been questioned by Epaphus. — 21. Vultus ; pL for sing. 
vultum, as often in Ovid. — 25. Dies, Mensis, etc., are not divin- 
ities, but mere personifications of the divisions of time, introduced by 
the poet as attendants upon the Sun. So Horae here seem to be 
the hours, and not, as usual, the seasons^ which are separately men- 
tioned and described in vv. 26-30. — 27. Plorente = flowery. — 
30. Capillos. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 31. Loco medius 
= in the centre. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Novitate. Gr. 414. 2. 
A. & S. 247. I (2). — 33. Quaeque. The que does not belong to 
the address of Phoebus, but to the narration : Et ait: quae, etc Tibi 
See on omnibus^v, 13. Arce. See on foribus, v. 18. — 34. FarentL 
Gr. 388. 1. A. & S. 225. III. — 36. Si das. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261, 
R. I. — 37. Falsa . . . sub imagine = under a false pretence. — 
38. Propago. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. — 39. Credar. Gr. 50a 
A. & S. 264. 5. Animis. Gr. 425. A. & S. 242. — 42. Amplezo. 
Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. So me, v. 45. Negari See on perire, I. 
240. — 43. Veros * . . edidit ortus = has declared your true pater- 
nity. — 44 Quoque = and that. Dubites. Gr. 490 ; 497. A. & S. 
262 and R. 9. — 45, 46. Promissi — palus = Let the stream (u e. 



38q notes on OVID. 

the Styx), by which the gods swear, be witness of the peoiak»' 
Cf. Virgil. A. VI. 323 : Stygiamqtte palttdem, Di cujus jurare timem 
etfallere nutnen, Dis. See on v. 34. — Ooulis. Gr. 391. A. & & 
222. 3.-49. Foenituit Gr. 556. I. A. & S. 215, R. and 229, R. 
6. Jurasse =juravisse. — 51. Tua; sc voce. My promise has been 
proved rash by your request Liceret. Gr. 488. i and 2. A. & S. 
263. I and R. — 52. Dare. Gr. 556. I. A. & S. 269, R. 2. So dii^ 
suadere, next line. Negarem. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. — 54. 
Viribus. Gr. 384- 1. A. & S. 223. So annis, next line. Istis. Gr. 
450. A. & S. 207, R. 25. — 55. Munera is to be joined with magna 
as well as with the relative clause. — 56. Non est mortale (sc ii\ 
= is not for mortals ; i. e. is beyond mortal powers. — 57. Superifl. 
Gr. 387. A. & S. 226.-58. Placeat — Ucebit = Let each (of 
the gods) think what he pleases of himself; i. e. I care not what the 
other gods flatter themselves they can do ; no one but I can drive 
the chariot of the sun. On placeat^ see Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 
4. — 59. Aze = curru. — 60. Me. See on amplexu^ v. 42. — 62 
Agat Gr. 485. A. & S. 260, R. 4. Jove. Gr. 417. A. & S. 
256. 2. — 63. Prima. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. So medio^ 
next line, and ultima, v. 67. — 64. Bmtxmtiir = climb up. Altis- 
Bima; sc. via, Coelo. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3.— 
65. Ipsi Gr. 452. A. & S. 207, R. 28. M1M. Gr. 390. II. 2. 
A. & S. 227, R. 4- — 66. Pit Gr. 549. A. & S. 209, R. 3 (5). 
Pectus, sc. meum, Gr. 447. A. & S. 207, R. 36 (<:). — 67. Mod- 
eramine certo = " a firm rein." Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2 (2). 
— 68. Subjectia = lying below. — 69. In praeceps = headlong. 
On ferar, see Gr. 492. 4- i* A. & S. 262, R. 7. Tethys ; the vAit 
of Oceanus, and the greatest of the sea-goddesses. — 70. Adde 
quod. Gr. 554. IV. A. & S. 273, N. 8. Assidua — vertigme = 
is hurried round with continual whirl. — 71. Celerique volumine 
= with swift revolution. — "72. Cetera; sc. sidera. The sphere of 
the heavens, with the stars, revolves from west to east, while the sun 
makes his way in the opposite direction {nitor in adversum and con- 
trarius evehor), from east to west. — 73. Orbi. Gr. 391. A. & S. 
222, R. I. — 74, 75. Finge = suppose (like fac). Gr. 558. IV. 2. 
A. & S. 273, N. 3. Poterisne — axis = Can you resist the revolu- 
tion of the heaven, so that its swift motion shall not bear you away ? 
The critics generally either do not explain the passage, or make 
axis = currus. Haupt explains citus axis as " die Schnelligkeit der 
sick umdrehenden Himmelsaxe^"* the swiftness of the revolving axis 
of the heavens, which seems to us the only possible meaning. Au- 
ferat Gr. 491. A. & S. 262, R. 5. — 77. Ck>noipias. Gr. 486. 
I. A. & S. 260, R. 4. Donis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 2 (i). — 78. 
Esse. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272. — Formas ferarum; I e. the 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK II. 38 1 

constelladons of the zodiac, eight of which represent animals. See 
vv. 80-83.— 79. Teoeas. Gr. 516. II. A. & S. 262, R. 2. — Ad- 
▼exBi (sc tibi) = fronting yotu The head of Taurus is turned to 
the east 80. Haemonioaque arcus = the Haemonian bow ; i. e. 
Sagittarius. Chiron, the Centaur, of Thessaly (or Haemonia)^ was 
changed into this constellation, according to some legends. — 83. 
£kK>rpiozL Gr. 46. i. A. & S. 54. Aliter = in the opposite di- 
rection.— 84. Tibi Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 222, R. 8,N. Ignibus. 
Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. I. — 85. Ore. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 242. — 
86. In promptu = easy. — 87. Habenia. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, 
R. 2 — 88. Sim. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. So credos, v. 90. — 89. 
Dum re8que = ^/ dum res, ^91. Timendo = by my fears for 
you. Gr. 566. I. A. & S. 275, R. 4.-92. Esse. Gr. 549. 4. 
A. & S. 271, R. 2.-93. Posses. Gr. 488. i and 2. A. & S. 263. 
I and R. — 94. Deprendeie = cogjioscere, — 98. Nomine. Gr. 
429. A. & S. 250. I. — 100. Ignare. Cf. nesdus, v. 58. — 101. 
Ne. Gr. 53^ i and 2. A. & S. 267, R. i. • Undas. Gr. 371. 3. 
A. & S. 232 (2). See on v. 46. — 103. Dictis. See on v. 87. 
nie = Phaethon. — 104. Cupidine cuiTUS = with desire for the 
chariot — 105. Qua. = guatenus, — 106. Vulcania. Gr. 398. 2. 
A. & S. 211, R. 4. See on v. 5. MunersL Gr. 363. A. & S. 

204. — 107. Summae rotae = of the rim of the wheel. Gr. 441. 
6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 108. Radiorum ordo==the range of 
spokes. — 109. Ex ordine = in order. — 111. Magnanimus = 
ambitious, aspiring. — 114, 115. Agmina cogit and coeli sta- 
tione are metaphors drawn from military life. Novissimus = last. 
Cf. nauissimum agmen (Caes.) = the rear. — 116 - 118. Pater . . . 
Titan = Phoebus. Helios, or Sol, the god of the sun, was the son 
of the Titan Hyperion, and hence is often called Titan. Later, he 
became identified with Phoebus, or Apollo ; but it was not until after 
the time of Virgil that the identification was completely carried out, 
and Apollo was said to drive the chariot of the sun. For similar 
separation of nominatives, see Virgil, A. I. 195, 196, 411, 412, 717, 
718; II. 403, 404; IV. 91, 92, etc. Bxtremae = fading. Jungeret. 
Gr. 551. II. I and 2. A. & S. 273. 2, N. 4 {a) and {b), Horis. 
See on v. 87. — 119. Celeres = ce/eriier. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 

205, R. 15 {a). Vomentes; vf \th guadritpedes, —120. Suco. Gr. 
148. 3. 2); 399. 5. 3). A. & S. 105, R. I ; 213, R. 5 (3). Prae- 
sepibiis. Gr. 145; 422. 2. A. & S. 99 ; 255, R. 3 (<5). — 121. 
Frena.. 143. 2. A. & S. 92. 5. — 123. Rapidae — £lammae = 
made it (his face) able to endure the fierce flame. Gr. 399. 2. i). 
A. & S. 213, R. I (2). On rapidae, cf. Virg. G. I. 92.-124. 
Comae. Gr. 386. i. A. & S. 224, N. i. Luctus. Gr. 399. 2. 2). 
A. & S. 2J3, R. I (3). — 125. Pectore. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, 



382 NOTES ON OVID. 

I^* 3 (^). — 126. Potea. Gr. 508 and 2. A. & S. 261, R. z. Monitis. 
See on v. 87. So stimulis, next line. — 127. Farce Btimnliii = 
spare the whip. LoriB = frenis, Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. — 
128. Inhibere. Gr. 549. i. A. & S. 209 (5). — 129 - 132. 
DirectOB is opposed to obliquuziL The five direct circles are the 
equator, the tropics, and the polar circles ; the oblique path is the 
ecliptic, which, cutting the equator and touching the tropics on eitb«r 
side, is zpnanun trium contentus fine, confined within the 
boundaries of three zones, i. e. the torrid and the two temperate. 
CC Virg. G. I. 238. Junctam — Arcton = the north pole. See on 
I. 262. Arcton is, literally, the constellation of the Bear {Ursa Major 
or Minor) ^ near the north pole. For the form, see Gr. 46. i. A. & S. 
54- — 133. Hac ; sc parte ^=^\vi this direction ; i. e. along the ecliptic 
Sit Gr. 488. II. A. & S. 260, R. 6, — 134. Ferant Gr. 4891 
A. & S. 262. — 135. Nee — currum = neither drive too low, nor 
urge the chariot through the uppermost air. On Bummuin, see Gr. 
441. 6. A. & S. 205, 'R. 17. AethersL Gr. 93. i. A. & S. 80, R. 
— 136,137. Altius = too high. Gr.444-1. A. & S. 122, R. 3. 
So inferiuB = too low. — 138. Dezterior ; sc. rota. Gr. 163. i. 
A. & S. 125. 4. Declinet See on sit, v. 133. So ducaty next line. 
Anguem = the Snake or Dragon, the constellation Drctcoj which 
winds between the Bears. C£ III. 45 and Virg. G. I. 244. — 139. 
Aram = the Altar, a constellation in the southern hemisphere, near 
Scorpio. It is called pressam^ because, in northern latitudes, it is 
never seen far above the horizon. — 140. Inter — tene (sc. cursum) 
= hold your course between the two. — 141 Juvet. Gr. 50a 
A. & S. 264 and 5. So consulat — 142. Hesperio — metas = 
the goal fixed on the western shore ; i. e. of the Atlantic, where day 
and night in turn finish their course. — 143. Libera nobis = per- 
mitted me. Gr. 391. I. A. & S. 222, R. i. — 144. Foscinmr = I 
am called for ; I must go. Aurora was the goddess of the dawn, 
daughter of Hyperion and Thia, or, according to Ovid, of Pallas. 
She announced the coming of the sun to the gods as well as to mor- 
tals. — 146, 147. Tibi Gr.398. 5. A. & S. 222, R. 8, N. Consiliis 
and curribns. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. 1. Sedibus. Gr. 386. 
A. & S. 224. —149. Spectea. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. i {b). Sine 
= permit. Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 273. 4. — 150. Levem. C£ 
V. 161. Corpore. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i (i). — 152. Grates 
agit ^=gratias agit. The former is the more solemn, and therefore 
more poetical, expression. Inde ; i. e. from the chariot. — 153, 154. 
The names of the horses are Greek : Pyroeis, or PyroiSy t\i& fiery one; 
Eousy the early (from Eosy dawn) ; AetkoHy the bicrning ; and Pklegon^ 
the flaming. — 155, Repagiila=the barriers, which were placed to 
keep the horses from starting before the proper time. — 156. Tethya 



METAMORPHOSES. fibOK II. 383 

See on v. 69. Kepotis = Phaethon. Clymene was the daughter of 
Tcthys.— 157. Repulit Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 307, 2 (i) and (2). 
Facta — mundi =e full scope of the boundless heavens was allowed, 
them. — 158. Coxxipuere viaxu = sped on their way. Cf. Virg. A. 
L 41& A6ra; a preek form. See on aethera^ v. 135. — 160. Isdem 
= iisdem, Gr. p. 61, foot note, and 669. II. A. & S. 306. i (i). — 161. 
Neo — poBsent = and not such as they could feel. Gr. 501. 1. A. 
& S. 264. I (a) and {b), — 162. Juguxn = «/rr«j. Qravitate. Gr. 
419. mi A. & S. 250 (2). — 163. Utque = and as j correlative to j/V, 
¥. 165. JuBto — pondere. Gr. 352. 4. A. & S. 202. I. 2.— -164. 
Levitate; with inatabiles. See on corporey v. 150. — 165. Onere. 
Gr. 399. 5. 3). A. & S. 250. 2. In aera. Some editions have in aere. 
— 166. Inani; sc. currui. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. i. — 167, 
168. Tritum spatium = the beaten' path. Quo prlus (sc. air- 
rebant) = in which they ran before. — 169, 170. Flectat and sit 
Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Sciat and imperet Gr. 509. A. & S. 
261, R. 3. — 171, 172. Triones (or Septem triones) = the Oxen, 
seven bright stars in the constellation Ursa Major, known also as 
" Charles's Wain " (cf. the ancient Plaustra) and " the Dipper." 
Here, as in Virg. A. I. 744, the two Bears may be meant. Vetito . . . 
aequore. Juno asked Oceanus and Tethys not to allow Callisto, 
who had been changed into the constellation Ursa Major, to set in 
the sea. C£ Virg. G. I. 246. — 173. Quaeque . . . Serpens = 
and the Dragon, which, etc. See on v. 138. Polo. See on inani, 
V. 166. — 174. Prigore pigra = sluggish with cold. Ulli Gr. 
391. A. & S. 222, R. I (r). —176. Boote ; literally, the driver of 
oxen (see on v. 171), a constellation near Ursa Major, also called 
Arcturus and Arctophylax, the guard of the Bear. It is now known 
as Bootes,, and its brightest star as Arcturus. On ftigisse, see Gr. 
551. L A. & S. 272. — 177. Tardus = slow ; because near the 
pole «ind therefore describing a smaller circle about it. Plaustra 
= the Triones, See on v. 171. — On eras, see Gr. 516. II. 3. A. & S. 
263. 2 (2). — 178. Aethere. Gr. 434. i. A. & S. 242, R. i. —179. 
Penitns penitusque jacentes = lying far, far below. The repe- 
tition is emphatic — 182. Mallet := he would rather. Gr. 486. I. 
A. & S. 261, R. 4. — 183. Cognosse. Gr. 234. 2. A. & S. 162. 7 
{a), Piget; sc. ewn. Gr. 410. 6. A. & S. 1215, R. Valuisse 
rogando = to have prevailed by his entreaties. Gr. 566. 1. A. & S. 
275, R. 4. — 184. Meropis; sc. f/ius. Gr. 397. 1(1). A. & S. 211, 
R. 7 (i). Merops was the husband of Clymene, and king of the 
Ethiopians. Dlci = to be called. Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 271, R. 4. 
— 185. Praecipiti = rapido ; literally, headlong. Pinus = ntwis. 
C£L95. Cui Gr. 384. A. & S. 223 and N. — 186. Quam refers 
to pinus, Votis ; i. e. of the pDot (rector) or the sailors. — 187. 



384 WoTES ON OVID. 

Faciat Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Multom coeli Gr. 396. 
III. 2. 3) (3). A. & S. 212, R. 3. — 189, 190. Modo . . . inter- 

dum = modo . . . modo = now . . . now. Gr. 360. i. A. & S. 277, R. 8. 
QuoB — est := which it is not permitted him to reach ; literally, not 
fated for him. —191. Agat Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 192. Novit 
= knows. Gr. 297. I. 2. A. & S. 183, N. 3. —193. Vario = di- 
versified (with constellations). Miracula = monsters ; the simulacra 
of the next line. 

195. Concavat = curvt^t, — 19 6» Scorpios = the Scorpion, 
one of the constellations of the zodiac. See on v. 78 and v. 83. — 197. 
At first, the Scorpion occupied the space of two constellations ; later, 
the place held by its claws was assigned to Libra, Cf. Virg. G. I. 
32-35. — 199. Cuspide; sc. caudae, Gr. 414 4 A. & S. 247. 3. 
— 200. Mentis. Gr. 399. 2. 2) (3). A. & S. 213, R. i (3). —201. 
Summo. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. Tergo. Gr. 422. i. 2). 
A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 202. Ezspatiantur = they leave the road. 
Nullo. Gr. 431-; 457. 2. A. & S. 257 ; 207, R. 31 (r). — 205. 
Stellis. See on ramis, I. 302. — 206. Summa ; sc. loca. So 
decliva, a rare form for dedivia. So above, v. 19, acclivus for the 
usual acclvuis, — 208, 209. Luna = Diana, the sister of Phoebus 
and goddess of the moon, who drives her chariot round the earth in 
a smaller circle, and who wonders now to see her brother's horses 
running below (inferius) her own. Suis; sc. cquis. Gr. 417. 
A. & S. 256. 2. Currere. Gr. 551. III. A. & S. 273, N. 7. Pra- 
ternos. Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4 (a). — 210. Ut quaeque 
altdssima = according as each (part) is highest. — 211. A git 
rimas = it cracks. Sucis. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 213. Damno. 
Gr. 384 II. A. & S. 223, N. — 215. Gentes = /frnzj , or, as 
some explain it, tribes \vith the nations (poptilis) of which they form 
a part — 217 - 226. In this list of mountains there is no regard to 
geographical order. The Greek forms of most of the names are given. 
Athos; a mountain of Macedonia, now Monte Santo. Taurus 
Ciliz ; a great range in Asia, a portion of which borders on Cilicia. 
Tmolus ; in Lydia. Cf. Virg. G. I. 56. Oete ; on the ^southern 
boundary of Thessaly. Ide ; in the vicinity of Troy. Helicon ; 
in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses ; hence Virgineus. Haemos ; in 
Thrace, not yet called Oeagrian^ from Orpheus, son of Geager. See 
Book XI. Aetne ; in Sicily, which now burns in inunensTun, i. e. 
furiously, and geminatis ignibus, with redoubled fires. Parnasus. 
See on I. 316. Eryx; in Sicily. Cf. Virg. A. V. 759. Cynthus; 
in the island of Delos. Othrys; in Thessaly. Rhodope; in 
Thrace, covered with perpetual snows. Mimas ; in Ionia. Din- 
dyma ; in Phrygia, on the frontiers of Galatia. Mycale ; on the 
coast of Ionia, with a city of the same name. Cithaeron ; in Boeo- 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK II. 385 

tia, sacred to Bacchus, Jupiter, and the Muses ; hence natus ad sacra, 
C£ Virg. A. IV. 303. Scythiae ; the general name given by the 
poets to the cold regions to the north, little known to the Greeks and 
Komans. Caucasus; a mountain chain between the Euxine and 
Caspian seas. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 367. Ossa and Olympus. See 
on I. 154. Findus ; a range between Thessaly and Epirus. Alpea 
and Apenninus are the Alps and Apennines as known to us. On 
jjiff, V. 224, see Gr. 449. 2. A. & S. 208 (7) {a). On ambobus, v. 225, 
see Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2.. V. 226 is a spondaic line. Gr. 672. 3. 
A. & S. 310. I. I. — 228. Nee sustiuet = nor can he bear. — 231. 
Cineres = ashes ; favillam = hot ashes. — 233. Quoque — sit= 
and whither he is going or where he is. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 
j^234. Arbitrio= at the will. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 249. II. —235, 
236. Corpora sunima = the surface of their bodies. Gr. 441. 6. 
A. & S. 205,11.17. Traxisse = acquired. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 
272. ^— 237. Libye = Libya, or the African desert. Humoribus. 
Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. So sanguine^ v. 235 above. Aestu. Gr. 
414. A. & S. 247. — 238. Fassis = dishevelled ; from pandere. — 
239. Quaerit — Dircen = Boeotia misses Dirce ; a fountain near 
Thebes. — 240. Argos ; sc. quaerit. Argos is here put for Argolis, 
of which it was the chief city. Amymone ; a fountain near Lerna, 
in Argos. Ephyre; sc. qtmerit ; the old name of Corinth. The 
fountain Pirene^ sacred to the Muses, had its source on the mountain 
{Acrocorinthus) which served as the citadel of Corinth. — 241. Nec 
— ripas = nor do even the broad rivers ; literally, those which have 
obtained by lot banks far apart. Loco. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 
242L Tanais ; now the Don. — 243 - 253. Feneos ; in Thessaly. 
Senez ; since the river-gods are generally represented as aged in 
appearance. Caicus; in Mysia, called Teuthranteus from Mount 
Teuthras, where it rises. Ismenos ; in Boeotia. • Erymanthus ; 
in Arcadia, flowing past the city Psophis, Xanthus ; near Troy. 
Iterum ; because destined to be set on fire by Vulcan, during the 
Trojan war. Lycormas ; in Aetolia, afterwards called Evenus. 
Maeandros; rising in Phrygia and flowing between Lydia and 
Caria, famous for its windings. Hence our word meander. Melas ; 
one of several rivers of the name in one of several districts called 
Mygdonia, it is hard to decide which. Eurotas ; in Laconia, empty- 
ing into the sea near the promontory of Taenarus. Euphrates ; the 
well-known river of Mesopotamia. Orontes ; in Syria. Thermo- 
don; in Pontus, flowing into the Euxine. Qanges; in India. 
Phasis ; in Colchis. Ister ; the Danube. Alpheos ; in Elis. The 
Spercheos was in Thessaly. Tagus \ in Spain. Caystro = the 
Caystery in Lydia, or Maeonia^ famous for its swans. Cf Virg. G. I. 
383 foil. V. 247 is spondaic, the last syllable of Taenarius being 
as 



386 NOTES ON OVID. 

lengthened by the arsis, Celehrabant, v. 252, = frequented, thronged, 
[Haupt C£ I. 172] or, as generally translated, made resound. — 
254 - 259. Niliis = the Nile. Eztremum. See on summa, v. 

235. Quod adhuc latet ; and this has been true even down to our 
own day. Cf. Horace, C. IV. 14. 45 : fonttum qui celat origines^ Nilus ; 
and Tibullus, I. 7. 24 : Nile pater ^ quanam possum te dicere causa^ Aut 
quibus in terris, occuluisse caput ? Valles. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 
Isxnaxios = Thracian (rivers), from Ismarus, a mountain of Thrace, 
near the Strymon and Hebrus. Hesperiosque — Padtunqne 
= and the rivers of the west, the Rhine, Rhone, and Po. Cnl = to 
which river ; i. e. to Rome built on its banks. Renizn potentia= 
the sovereignty of the world. Thybrin = Tiberim^ the Tiber ; the 
Greek fortti, as the more poetical. Gr. 93. 2. A. & S. 80. IL — 
260. Tartara; sing. Tartarus. Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. i. RlmiB. 
414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 261. Regem = Pluto, the king of the 
lower world. See on I. 113. Conjuge = Proserpina. See Book 
V. — 263. FontuB. Gr. 362. 2. i ). A. & S. 2 10. — 264. Ezistunt 
= emergunt. Sparsas — augent = increase the number of islands. 
The Cyclades^ a cluster of islands in the Aegean sea, are put for 
islands in general. — 265. Ima (sc /<7ra) = the bottom. — 267. 
Summo - . . profundo = on the surface of the deep. See on v. 
235.-268, 269. Nerea . . . Doridaque. See on v. 11. Lata- 
isae. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272, N. i. — 270. Aquis. Gr. 422. 2. 
A. & S. 242.-272. Ponto. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 249. I. 274. In 
. . . viacera. The accusative is used because condiderant includes 
the idea of retiring into^ as well as hiding, 275. Collo. Gr. 434. 4. 
A. & S. 241, R. I. 276. Tremore. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. 
So voce, V. 278. — 277. Infra = inferius. — .279 - 281. Si placet 
hoc memique = if this seems good (to thee) and I have deserved 
it. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261, R. i. Qtiid. Gr. 380. 2. A. &.S. 232 (3). 
Deum. Gr. 45. 5. 4) ; 396. III. 2. 3) (2). A. & S. 53 ; 212, R. 2 (3). 
Liceat Gr. 488. 1. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Peritnrae ; sc. mihi, Gr. 
385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. ViribuB. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1 (2). 
So igne, Perire. Gr. 545. 2. 2) ; 549. A. & S. 269, R. 2 and R. 5. 
Auctore = by its author ; i. e. by the thought of the greatness of 
its author. — 285, 286. Hosne — refers = Is this the reward, this 
the recompense you give, etc. — 287. Anno. Gr. 378. t. A. & S. 

236. — 288, 289. Allmenta. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. On pecoxi, 
generi, and vobis, see Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. — 290. Pac = 
suppose. Gr. 237 ; 558. IV. 2. A. & S. 162. 4 ; 273, N. 3. ITn- 
dae ; sc meruerunt — 291. Prater ; sc. tuus = Neptune. Sorte ; 
when the three brothers divided the world among themselves by lot 
See on I. 1 13. — 293. Quod — gratia = but if regard neither for 
your brother nor for me. Pratris. Gr. 396. II. A. & S. 211 and 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK II. 387 

R 2, Mea. Gr. 398. 3. A. & S. 21 1, R. 3 (c), Tangit = moves. 
Gr. 508 and 2. A. & S. 261, R. i.— 294. Coeli. Gr. 406. I. 
A. & S. 215 (i). ITtrumque ; sc poium. Gr. 371. 4. 2). A. & i\ 
^33 (3)- "~ 295. Vitlaverit = viohwerit^ which is the reading of 
some editors. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261, R. i. — 296. Atlas; a high 
raowitain in Africa, whose top was said to support the heavens. C£ 
Virg. A. IV. 246. Its introduction here is an anachronism, for the 
transformation of Atlas (see IV. 657) had not yet taken place.- 
Laborat = is hard pressed. — 298. Pereunt See on v. 295. — 

299. Chaos antiquum ; i. e. the chaotic confusion previous to the 
creation of the world. Flammis. Gr. 425. 2. 2.) A. & S. 242. — 

300. Superest See on v. 295. Rerum summae = for the uni- 
verse ; literally, for the totality of things. Gr. 384. 1. A. & S. 223. — 
303. Mambus = to the Manes ; i. e. the lower world. Gr. 391. i. 
A. & S. 222, R. I. For tetulit^ see on repulit, v. 157. — 304. Pater 
=- Jupiter. Superos = the gods. Ipsum = Phoebus. — 305. 
Ferat. Gr. 509 and 533. 3. A. & S. 261. 2. —306. Interitura; 
sc. esse, Gr. 228. A. & S. 162. 14- Summam — £u:cem = as- 
cending, he seeks the topmost • point of heaven.. — 307. Tezris. 
Gr. 386. I. A. & S. 224, N. I. — 309. Posset Gr. 501. i. 
A. & S. 264. 7. So dtmitteret, next line. — 310. Coelo. Gr. 422. 2. 
A. & S. 255, R. 3 {b). — 311. Libratum . . . ab aure ; i. e. poised 
in his upraised hand before hurling it — 312. Animaque — rotis- 
quo. Gr. 425 ; 704- I. 2. A. & S. 242 ; 323. i (2). — 313. Igni- 
bus. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 314. Saltu. Gr. 431. A. & S. 

257. So Jlamma^ v. 319. — 315. Jugo. Gr. 425. A. & S. 242. — 
316. Texnone. Gr. 425. A. & S. 251. — 320. Tractu = train. 
Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 322. Cecidit Gr. 515. III. A. & S. 
263. 2 (4). Cecidisse. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272. Videri ' Gr. 552. 
A. & S. 271. — 323. Orbe = part of the earth. Gr. 422. i. 2). 
A. & S. 254, R. 3.-324. Eridanus = the Padusy or Po. See v. 

258. Some have supposed it to be the Rhine. See on Virg. G. I. 
482. — 325. Naides = Naiades ; the Naiads, or water-nymphs. 
Hesperiae = western, or Italian. The Greek poets called Italy Hes- 
perian or the western land. See on Virg. A. I. 569. — 372. AurigSL 
Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. — 328. 1?enuit Gr. 508. A. & S. 261, R. 
I. So credimus^ v. 330. Magnis is emphatic. — 329. Luctu. 
Or. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. I. — 331.1sse; for ivisse ^=^ praeterisse. 
Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272.-335. Binus. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. 
IL So pectoraj v. 341. 'PexoenAmt=^ pererravit. Orbem. Gr. 
371. 4. I). A. & S. 233 (3). — 337. Reperit See on L 157. 
Tamen = indeed. Ripa. See on v. 323. — 338. Loco. Gr. 386. 
A. & S. 224. — 339. Aperto = nudo, — 340. Heliades = the 
daughters of Helios, or Phoebus, sisters of Phaethon. Tnania =s 



388 NOTES ON OVID. 

non profuiura, MoiH = moriuo. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. I. 
— 341. Munera. Gr. 363. A. & S. 2{>4. Palmis. Gr. 414. 4. 
A. & S. 247. 3. — 342. AuditunuxL Gr. 573 ; 577. A. & S. 274, 
R. 6 {b), — 343. Adatemuntur = prostrate themselves upon ; 
used reflexively, like the middle voice in Greek. — 344. Luna — 
orbexn ; i. e. four months had passed. — 345. More. Gr. 414. 2. 
A. & S. 249. II. — 346. Quia. Gr. 187. i. A. & S. 136, R. 2. 
Phaethusa ; the feminine form of Phaethon. — 347. 'M'a-gninq ; sc 
naiu. Gr. 168. 3. A. & S. 126, R. i. Vellet Gr. 518. II. i. 
A. & S. 263, R. 2. Terrae. Gr. 424. 3. 2). A. & S. 221, R. 3 (4). 
Some critics make it a dative. Gr. 384. 2. i). A. & S. 225. IV., 
R. 2. 348. DiriguisBe. Gr. 551. III. A. & S. 273, N. 7. — 349. 
Lampetie ; from a Greek verb, meaning to shine. — 350. Tertia ; 
sc. soror. Her name was Phoebe ; or, according to some authorities, 
Aegle, or Pasiphae. Pararet See on vellet^ v. 347. — 351. Te- 
neri ; sc. dolet. See on v. 348. — 352. Ramos. Gr. 362. A. & S. 
210.— 353. Ea. Gr. 371. 3. i). A. & S. 232 (2). —356. Faciat 
Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Trahat Gr. 486. III. A. & S. 

260. II. Impetus = impulse. — 357. Eat Gr. 509. A. & S. 

261. 2. So jungat — 358. Truncis. Gr. 425. 2. 2). A. & S. 242, 
or 251. So manibusy next line. — 361. Parce = forbear. — 363. 
Novissima = the last. — 364. Stillata ; here passive. Sole. 
Gr. 414- 2. 2). A. & S. 248. II. — 365. Electra = amber. Am- 
nis; i.e. the Eridanus. — 366. Nuribus = women. GKestauda 
= to be worn ; i. e. as necklaces, bracelets, etc — 367. Monstro 
= prodigy. See on v. 338. Proles Stheneleia = the son of 
Stheneleus. Cygnus ; or Cycnus^ as often written. — 369. Mente. 
Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. Propior ; sc. tibi. — 370. Ligurum ; in 
the northwestern part of Italy. — 371. Imperio. Gr. 431. A. & S. 
257. — 372. Sororibus = by his sisters ; who had been transform- 
ed into trees, as just related. — 373. Viro. Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 21 1, 
R- 5 (i). — 374. Dlssimulant = i?^/'^^^/, celanU — 375. Juno- 
tura = a web ; i. e. the skin between the toes of the swan. — 376. 
Os ; accusative. Rostrum ; nominative. — 377. Jovi = aeri^ as 
often. Cf. Virg. G. I. 418; II. 419, and Hor. C. I. i. 25. — 378. J%^ 
inB=fulminis, Gr. 399. 2. 2). A. & S. 213, R. i (3). — 380. Colat 
Gr. 500. I. A. & S. 264. 5. Flam mis. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. 

I. — 381. Squalidus = clothed in mourning; sorrowing. — 382. 
Decoris. See on v. 378. Deficit Gr. 518. 3. A. & S. 263. 5. 
Deficit orbem = is eclipsed ; literally, forsakes (or, fails) the world. — 
384. Luctibus. See on v. 338. — 385. OfGLclumque negat = 
and refuses his service. — 387. Mihi. Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 225. II. 
Laborum. Gr. 410. III. A. & S. 215. — 388. Agat Gr. 488. 

II. A. & S. 260, R. 6. So in v. 390. — 389. Est See on tenuity 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK 111. 389 

^- 328. ' Posse. Gr. 545. 2. i) A. & S. 239, R. 2. — 391. Or- 

^^tura patres; a bitter sarcasm. Fonat. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262, 

^^^d R. I. — 393. Memisse ; sc. aim, Gr. 545. 2. 2) ; 453. 2. 

A-- & S. 206 (4). Rexerit Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. i. — 395. 

^^«lit. Gr. 492. 3. A. & S. 262. The nez'e serves to connect cir- 

^^^^nstant with rogant, and rogant with velit ; and they beg that he \vill 

^^o/, etc. Rebus. See on v. 307.. So precibus^ v. 397. — 396. 

"^^oce. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 397. Regaliter = ;;;^r<r 

>-<-^j. — 398. Terrore. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i. — 399. Do- 

Xens =^ propter dolor em. SUmulo et verbere. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 

^47' 3' — *^0. Natum ; i. e. mortem nati. Ulis. See on v. 307. 



METAMORPHOSES. Book III. 

THE STORY OF CADMUS AND THE DRAGON, [vv. 
I -130.] 

1. Dens = Jupiter, who, under the disguise of a bull, had carried 
Europa, the daughter of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, from her native 
country to Crete. Imagine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. So orbe^ v. 6. 
— 2. Se; sc. esse Jovem, Diotaea = Cretan ; from the mountain 
Dicte, on which Jupiter was said to have been brought up, whence 
his surname, Dictaeus. — 3. Pater = Agenor. Ignarus ; i. e. igno- 
rant of the fate of Europa, to whom raptam refers. Cadmo = 
Cadmus, son of Agenor. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2, — 4. Im- 
perat. Gr. 467. III. ; 518. 3. A. & S. 145. I. 3 ; 263. 5. Invene- 
rit is the fiit perf. — 5. Facto. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Pius ; 
i. e. in filiam. Sceleratus ; (crudelis) in filium. — 6. Pos- 
sit Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. — 8. Agenorides. Gr. 316. 
A & S. 100. I. — 9. Sit . . . habitanda. Gr. 229 ; 525. A. & S. 
162. 15; 2^5.— 10. Tibi. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Solis = j^//. 
tariis^ desertis, — 11. Aratrl See on decoris^ II. 382. — 12. Hao 
dace. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a) and {])), Carpe vias = 
take your way. Herba. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 13. 
Pac condas = See tl^t you build. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. 
— 14. Castalio . . . antro ; i. e. the cave in Mount Parnasus which 
was the seat of the Delphic oracle, and which Ovid here calls Cos- 
talian^ from the neighboring fount of that name, sacred to Apollo 
and the Muses. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 {b\ — 16. Cervice. 
See on herba, v. 12. — 17. Presso = tarda. Cf. Livy, XXVIII. 
14 : Hispanos presso gradu incedere jubet, — Auctorem. Gr. 363. 



390 NOTES ON OVID. 

A. & S. 204. —19. Vada. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 233, R. i. CepbteL 
See on I. 369. Panopes = of Panope, a city of Phocis. See on L 
313. —20. Comibus. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 21. MagitibiiB. 
Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. Impalit = set in motion, shook.— 
24. Agit grates. See on II. 152. Terrae. Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 
223. So J<wi, V. 26.-26. Ire. Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 273. 2 {d), 

— 27. Libandas = for a libatton. Gr. 565. 3. 2). A. & S. 274, R. 7 
(«). The water for such a purpose must be taken from a running 
stream. — 28. Seciiri Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 30. Effloi- 
ens — arcum ^ forming a low arch with stones joined together. 

— 31. Aquis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Antxo. See on v. 16. — 
32. MartiLus. Some say that the dragon was the son of Mars and 
Tilphossa, the Fury ; others, that it was sacred to Mars. Cristis 
. . . et auro = cristis aureis. Gr. 704. II. 2. A. & S. 323. 2 (3). — 
35. Tyria. Tyre was a city of Phoenicia. See on v. i. — 36. 
GradiL Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 37. Antro. See on v. 14. 
So nianibus, v. 39. — 42. Sinuatur = winds himself. See on II. 343. 

— 43. Media — parte ; sc. corporis = more than half his length. — 
44. Corpora Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Quanto; sc. is est 
See on II. 138.— 45. Spectes. Gr. 503. III. A. & S. 261. 2.— 
Arctos. See on II. 132 and 171. — 46. Fhoenicas. Gr. 98. 
A. & S. 85, Ex. 2. Farabant Gr. 474, and 2. A. & S. 259, R. 4 (3). 

— 48. Occupat = attacks. 

51. Sit. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Sociis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. 
Agenore. Gr. 425. 3. i). A. & S. 246.-52. Leoni Gr. 385. 4. 
A. & S. 224, R. 2. — 53. Erat ; sc. ei = he had. Perro. See on 
corpore, v. 44. — 54. Telo. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256, R. i. — 56. Cor- 
poris. Gr. 396. IV. A. & S. 211, R. 6.-57. Lingua. Gr. 414. 4. 
A. & S. 247. 3. So dextra (sc manu\ v. 59. — 60. Magnum magno. 
Gr. 596. A. & S. 279. 4. — 62. Mota forent = would have been 
moved. Gr. 297. III. 2 and foot-note ; 486. I. A. & S. 154, R. 3 ; 
261, R. 4. — 64. Repulit; with antepenult lengthened. See on II. 
157- — 65. Quoque. Gr. 602. III. A. & S. 279. 3 {d). — 66. Cur- 
vamine. See on cervice^ v. 16. — 68. Dolore. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 
247. I (i). — 71. Tergo. See on v. 37. Ossibua Gr. 384- I. 
A. & S. 223. — 76 Ore. See on v. 37. Stygio. See on I. 139. — 
77, 78. Ipse — cingitur = Now he winds himself into a great coil ; 
literally, with coils making a great circle. See on II. 343. Trabe. 
See on v. 54. Ezstat = extends himself. — 79. Impete ; for im- 
fetUy which is not admissible before a consonant in hexameter verse. 
Gr. 133. A. & S. 94. — 81. Spolio = the skin. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 
247. 3. — 84. Perro. Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. — 85. Falato. 
Gr. 422. I. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3.-88. Dabat retro = drew 
back ; like retrahebcU. Gr. 469. II. A. & S. 145. II. i. Sedere = 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK III. 39I 

to' pierce deeply, or penetrate. Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S.»25i, R. 2. 
So ire. — 89. Cedendo. Gr. 566. I. A. & S. 275, R. 4. — 90. In 
g tt tt uxe ^ in guttura ; the reading of some editions.. 91. Euntd; 
sc serpenti. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 94. Gemuit ; sc. arbor. 
Sua robora; subject oi flagellari. Gr. 551. III. A. & S. 273, N. 7. 
— 95. Dmn — hoatiB = while the victor is contemplating the mag- 
nitade of his vanquished foe. On trictor victi, see on v. 60. — 

97. Unde = whence (it came). The warning came from Mars (see 
on ▼. 32), by whom Cadmus and his wife Harmonia, or Hermione, 
were afterwards changed to serpents. Agenore. See on v. 51. — 

98. Serpens. Gr. 362. 2. 2). A. & S. 210. On tu see Gr. 367. 2. i). 
A. & S. 209, R. I {b), — 100. Terrore. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 
I (2). — 101. Fautriz. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. So incrementa, v. 
103, and semina, v. 105. — 102. Pall€LS ; or Minerva, the goddess of 
wisdom. Motae = ploughed. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 {b). Ter- 
rae. See on v. 91. — 103. Vipereos = of the serpent. Gr. 398. 2. 
A. & S. 211, R. 4 (tf). — 104. PreBBO = held down ; pressed into 
the earth. — 105. Huml Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 221, R. 3. Mor- 
talia = of men. See on v. 103. — 106. Fide majus = (a wonder) 
beyond belief. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. — 107. Prima Gr. 443. 2. 
A. & S. 205, R. 15 {b). Acies = the point. —108. Tegmina 
capitum := helmets. Picto cono = with painted crest. Gr. 414. 
3. A. & S. 247. 2.-111. Aulaea In the Roman theatre, the 
curtain was wound round a roller under the stage, and was let down 
at the beginning, and raised at the end, of the play. C£ Horace E. 
II. I. 189. As it was raised, the upper part of the figures (signa) 
painted on it would appear first. — 113. Placidoque — tenore = 
drawn up with gentle and even motion. — 114. Margine ; sc. au- 
laeorum, — 115. HoBte. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i . — 116. Cape; 
scarwa.— 117. Nec. Gr. 538. i. A. & S. 267, R. i and N. 
Bellis. See on v. 91. CiviUbuB = inter fr aires. — 119. Perit ; 
i. e. unus^ v. 1 16. Ipse refers to the same person, and eum which is 
to be supplied as object of dederat ; also illo. — 121. Modo = just 
now. Auraa = the breath ; the life. — 122, 123. Suo Marte = 
in fight with one another. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. Subiti = 
suddenly bom ; just sprung from the earth. — 124. JuventuB==;«z/^- 
nes, — 125. Trepido — pectore = lay with palpitating breasts ; 
i. e. dying. Matxem = /^rcw. Cf terrigenis^ v. 118. — 126. 
Qninqne. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). —127. Humi See on 
v. 105. Trltonidis = Minerva. Some derive the name from Lake 
Tritonis in Libya, near which she was said to have been bom ; 
others, from the stream Triton, in Boeotia, where she was worship- 
ped ; others, from rpira), head, because, according to some traditions, 
she sprang from the head of Jupiter. —128. Fidem = a promise, a 



392 NOTES ON OVID. 

pledge. — 129. Sidonius hoapea = the Sidonian stranger ; I e. 
Cadmus. Sidon was the chief city of Phoenicia. — 130. Quum — 
urbem = when he built the city commanded by the oracle of Phoe- 
bus. See on v. 103. 

THE STORY OF BACCHUS AND THE SAILORS, [w. 
582-691.] Pentheus, king of Thebes, was the son of Echion and 
Agave, daughter of Cadmus. He endeavored to prevent his sub- 
jects from paying divine honors to Bacchus ; and, while the Theban 
women \^ere celebrating the orgies of the god, he ordered his ser- 
vants to seize the pretended deity and bring him before him. They 
cannot find Bacchus, but return with Acoetes, one of his priests. 
Pentheus is enraged, and threatens to kill Acoetes, but bids him 
first tell his story; which he does in the extract here given. 

582. MetiL Gr. 399. 5. 3). A. & S. 250. 2 (i). Mihi Gr. 387. 
A. & S. 226 and R. i. — 583. Maeonia = Maeonian ; usually = Ly- 
dian, but here = Tyrrhenian, or "Etrurian. The Lydians are said to 
have colonized Etruria. — 584. The order in prose would be : Pater 
mihi arva non reliquit quae duri Jtwenci colerent On colerent, see 
Gr. 500. A. & S. 264, R. 5. — 586. Lino. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 
247.3. So hamis and calamo. — 587. Ducere = to draw out. 

— 588. nil See on mihi, v. 582. Cenaus = wealth, estate. Cf. 
Hor. C. II. 15. 13. Traderet Gr. 518. II. i. A. & S. 263, R. 2. 

— 589. Studii = of my employment, or trade, — 591. Fatemum 
= my patrimony. — 592. Haererem. Gr. 491. A. &. S. 262 and 
R. 5. Jadem. = iisdem. Gr. p. 61, foot-note, and 669. II. A. & S. 
306 (i). — 593, 594. Addidici regimen . . . flectere = I learned 
also to turn the helm. Carinae = of the ship. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 
324. 3. — 594. Oleniae Capellae = of the Olenian goat. The 
goat Amalthea, which suckled Jupiter, was rewarded by being 
placed among the stars, on the shoulder of Auriga, the Charioteer. 
It was called Olenian, firom the town Olenus, in Achaia (or, as some 
say, fi^om the town of the same name in Aetolia), near which it was 
bom. Pluviale ; because its rising was in the rainy season. — 595. 
Taygeten ; one of the Pleiades, " the Seven Stars " in the constel- 
lation Taurus. They were daughters of Atlas (hence called Atlan- 
tides), and are said to have been changed into stars on account of 
their grief at the death of their sisters, the Hyades, or at the fate of 
their father. Hyadas = the Hyades, five (or seven) sisters of the 
Pleiades, forming another familiar group in the same constellation, 
placed there by Jupiter in compassion for their grief at the death of 
their brother Hyas. They are called pluviae by Virgil, A. I. 744, 
III. 516, and tristes by Horace, C. I. 3. 14. The fables concerning 
the Pleiades and the Hyades are many and various. Arcton = the 
Bear. See on II. 132 and 171, and cf. Virgil, G. I. 138. Taygeten, 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK III. 393 

ffyadas^ and Arcton are Greek forms. So Delon, v. 597. — 596. 
Domos ; i. e. the quarters of the sky from which they come. Cf 
Virgil, G. I. 371. Puppibus ^ ships. See on v. 593. See also 
Or. 391! I. A. & S. 222, R. I. — 597. Delon = Delos; an island 
in the Aegean Sea, one of the Cyclades (see on II. 264), famous as 
the birth-place of Apollo and Diana, and as one of the chief seats of 
their worship. It was also a great commercial centre. Chiae tel- 
Inris =: Chios ; one of the largest and most noted of the islands in 
the Aegean. — 598. Litora. Gr. 374. 6. A. & S. 233 (i). Re- 
miB. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 599. Do saltus = salio^ as 
dedit sonitum, v. 37 = sonuit. Arenae. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 
601, 602. LaHceaque — admoneo = and I order my crew to 
take in fresh water. Gr. 558. VI. and 3. A. & S. 218, R. 2 ; 273. 
2 and {h\ Ducat Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5. TJnda8 = the 
springs, or fountains, whence the supply was to be got. — 603. Quid 
aura promittat ^ what the wind may promise ; i. e. what weather 
to expect. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 607. Forma. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 608. Mero. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i 
(i). — 609. Vix = with difficulty. Cultum = dress. — 610. Pos- 
set. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. 7. — 612. Sit See on v. 603. — 
613. Faveas. Gr. 488. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Laborlbus. 
Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 614. His = to these ; i. e. the sail- 
ors who had seized him. Mitte = cease. — 615. Quo. Gr. 417. 
A. & S. 256. 2. Conscendere. Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. i 
(tf). — 616. Ocior. Gr. 166. A. & S. 126. i. — 617. Prorae tu- 
tela,=prorefa ; who had charge of the fore-part of the ship. — 618. 
Qui — rexnis = who with his voice kept time (or marked time) for 
the rowers. He is called animorum hortator, because by his 
singing he cheered them in their labor. — 621. Violari. Gr. 551. 
II. I. A. & S. 273. 4 {a). Pinum. Cf. I. 95.-^622. Mihl 
See on v. 582. Juris = of authority. — 625. Ezsilium — luebat 
= was paying the penalty of exile for a dreadful murder. — 626. 
Mihl. Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (i). Pugno. Gr. 414.4. 
A. & S. 247. 3. — 627. Ru^it = struck violently. Excussum ; 
sc na7/t\ from the ship. Misisset Gr. 510. A. & S. 261. i. Si 
non = nisi ; which would be required in prose. — 628. Aniens = 
senseless, stunned. 

629. Bacchus ; the son of Jupiter and Semele", and the god of 
wine, which he invented and taught men to make. — 630, 631. 
Solutus sit. Gr. 503. II. and 506. A. & S. <263. 2(1). A mero = 
from the wine ; i. e. from intoxication. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. 
— 632, 633. Quae ope = by what means. — 634. Froreus ; i. e. 
Melanthus. See v. 617 and note. It is the subject of dixit. — 635. 
Velis. See on v. 603. Terra — petlta = you shall be landed on 



394 NOTES ON OVID. 

the desired shore. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 636. Nax- 
on = Naxos ; an island in the Aegean, the largest of the Cyclades, 
famed for its fertility, its wines, its marble, and, one of the chief seats 
of the worship of Bacchus. C£ Virg. A. III. 125. Gr. 379. 3. 2). 
A. & S. 237, R. 5 (d). Liber; a name often given to Bacchus, 
probably from liberare^ and = he who frees from care. — 637. Mihi 
See on v. 582. Vobii. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. i. — 638. 
Fallacea ; sc nautae, — 639. Sic fore = that so it shall be. Gr. 
297. III. 2; 551. I. A. & S. 154, R. 3 ; 272. Dare. Gr. 551. IL 
and I. A. & S. 273. 2 [d), Carinae. See on v. 593. -:- 640. 
Deztera = on the right. Gr. 148. 3. i). A. & S. 106. Deztra; 
sc. manu = to the right hand. Some editors give dextra (abl.) in- 
stead of dextera. The vessel was bound from Chios to Delos (see 
V. 597), and Naxos lay to the right of its course. — 641, 642. Quia — 
tenet. The order of translation is : " Quis te furor tenets Acoete ? " 
pro se quUque inquit. Some read : " Quis te furor " — , inquU 
OphelteSj " Fro se quisque timet : laevam pete ! " making quis te furor 
— , an instance of aposiopesis. See Gr. 704. I. 3. A. & S. 324. 33. 
The passage is probably corrupt Nuto. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 
3. — 643. Velit. See on v. 603. Aure = in aurem, — 644. Capi- 
atque . . . dixi = et dixi : Capiat^ etc Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, 
R. 6. Aliquis = some one else. — 645. Ministerio. Gr. 425. 2. 
2). A. & S. 251. Arti8 = the fraud; but some consider it = my 
office. C£ Virgil, A. II. 106. — 647. Scilicet = forsooth ; marking 
the irony. Gr. 705. IV. A. & S. 324. 4.— 649. Nazo. Gr. 431. 
A. & S. 257. Petit diveraa (sc. loca) etc. = he steers in a differ- 
ent direction, leaving Naxos ; i. e. the way to Naxos. — 651. Sen- 
serit Gr. 503. II. ; 506. A. & S. 263. 2(1). — 653. Mihi Gr. 388. 
3. A. & S. 225. II. — 655. PaUitia. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261, R. i. — 
656. Lacrimas. Gr. 371. 3. i). A. & S. 232 (2) and N. i. — 
658. Per. The separation of the preposition from the accusative is 
very common in oaths. Praesentior = more present ; i. e. of more 
immediate power, either to reward or punish. C£ Virg. E. I. 42. 
Hlo. See on quo, v. 615.— 659, 660. Tarn — fide = that I am 
telling you things as true as they are incredible ; or, as they surpass 
what one would believe to be true. Aequore. Gr. 422. 1.2). A. & S, 
254, R. 3. — 661. Siccum navale = a dry dock. The ships of 
the ancients, when not in use, were drawn up on shore. Teneret. 
Gr. 503. II. ; 506. A. & S. 263. 2 (i). — 663. Deducunt = draw 
down (from the antennae^ or yards), i. e. spread them to the wind. 
Geminaque ope ; L e. with both oars and sails. — 664. The ivy 
(which was sacred to Bacchus) impedes the oars by twining about 
them. — 665. Distringunt = stretch ; i. e. weigh down ; or, as 
some editors translate it, occupy, frlL CorTmbiB. Gr. 414.4. A.&Sb 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK IV. 395 

247. 3. — 666. Frontem. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. So curva- 
mina, v. 672. — 667. Haatam ; i. e. the thyrsus^ a staff twined with 
ivy and vine leaves, which Bacchus is generally represented as bear- 
ing. C£ XI. 7, 28. — 668. The animals named were sacred to Bacchus. 
Simulacra inaxiia= empty images, or phantoms. — 669. Fictaruxn 
= spotted. — 672. Depress© = flattened (into a fish) ; or, as some 
translate it, bowed down ; i. e. no longer erect in human form. — 
674; Loquenti ; sc « = while he was speaking. Gr. 387. A. & S. 
226.-676. Obstantes. C£ v. 664. — 678. Mantis. Gr. 362. 3. 
I). A. &S. 2io(^). ^opinnas, Bsse. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272. 
VooarL Gr. 552. i. A. & S. 271. — 681. Corpore. Gr. 414. 3. 
A. & S. 247. 2. Novlssima = ^jf/r^»«fl. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, 
R. 17. — 682. Sinuantur = are curved. — 683. Dant saltns. 
See on v. 599. — 685. Inque — speciem = and sport like a com- 
pany of dancers. Cf. Virg. A. V. 594. — 686. Naribus efflant = 
spout firom their nostrils. Gr. 422. .2. A. & S. 242. — 688, 689. 
Pavidum ; sc. me. Corpore. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Vixque 
metun = and. scarcely myself. — 690. Corde. See on v. 686. 
Tene = hold your course towards ; steer for. Diam ; an old name 
of Naxos. — 691. Saoris. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 



METAMORPHOSES. Book IV. 

THE STORY OF PYRAMUS AND THISBE. [w. 55-166.] 
This story is found in no other ancient writer whose works have come 
down to us. 

56. Puellis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 58. Coctilibus = of 
brick. Semiramis ; a queen of Assyria, who built Babylon (urbem) 
with all its wonders. The legends concerning her and Ninus, her 
husband, whom she succeeded as sovereign (according to some of 
the myths, she murdered him), are various and conflicting. — 59. 
Oradus ; sc. amoris. 60. Tempore. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. 
Taedae — coissent = they would have been united in marriage. 
Torches were borne before the bride on her way to the house of the 
bridegroom ; hence taeda is often used, by metonymy, for marriage. 
Cfl Virg. A. IV. 339. See Gr. 512. A. & S. 261, R. 4. Here the 
condition is implied in Sed — patres. — 61. Quod. Gr. 445. 7. 
A. & S. 206. (13) {a), — 62. Ex aequo = equally. Captis = cap- 
tivated. — 63. CoDSCius ; used substantively. — 64. Quoque 
magis = and the more. The correlative eo is to be supplied with 
the second magis, — 65. Quam duzerat = which it had got ; had 



396 JCOTES ON OVID. 

come to have. •— 66. Quum fieret = when it was built Gr.5iS. II. 
I. A. & S. 263, R. 2. Domui. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. i. — 67. 
Nulli ; for nemini =hy no one. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. — 68. 
Frimi See on prima^ I. 89. For the gender, see Gr. 439. 2. i). 
A. & S. 205, R. 2 (i), where th^t principle is explained. — 70. Mur- 
mure. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 74. Quantum erat = how 
much it would be ; i. e. how little it would be. Gr. 705. IV. A. & S. 
324. 4. On erat^ see Gr. 475. 4. A. & S. 259, R. 3 and {d), Si- 
neres. Gr. 516. II. and i. A. & S. 262, R. 2. So pateres, next line. 
Corpore. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 75. Danda. Gr. 562; 
565. I. A. & S. 275. II. and R. 3. — 77. Quod. Gr. 554. IV. ; 55^ 
A. & S. 273. 5. Verbis. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. So parti, v. 79. 

— 78. Diveraa aede ; L e. on opposite sides of the wall. — 79. 
Dedere. Gr. 461 and 3. A. & S. 209, R. i.i (4). — 81. Ignea; 
i e. the stars. — 84. Nocte. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. — 85. Ten- 
tent Gr. 491 ; 480 ; 558. II. I. A. & S. 262 ; 258. I.; 273. i, N. I. 
On foribuB, see Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 {b). — 86. Domo. Gr. 
424. 2. A. & S. 255, R. I. Itarierint Gr. 518. II. A. & S. 263. 5 
and R. I. — 87. Neve — arvo = and lest they should miss each 
other while wandering in the broad fields. Sit errandunL Gr. 301. 
2 ; 388. I.; 491. A. & S. 184. 3 ; 262 and R. 5. Arvo. Gr. 422. 

1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 88. Conveniant and lateant are in 
the same construction as tentent and relinquant. Ninl See on v. 
58. His tomb, built by Semiramis, was large and magnificent. — 89. 
Fomis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — PontL See on domui , v. 66. 

— 91. Lux = the sun. — 92. Aquis. Gr. 384 and 2. i). A. & S. 
225. IV. and R. 2. Cf. II. 68. Isdem. See on III. 592. Cf. Virg. 
A. II. 250.— -93. Cardine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Cf. Virg. A. 
III. 448. — 94. SuoB = her firiends. Gr. 441. i. A. & S. 205, R. 7. 
Vultum. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. So rictm, v. 97. — 96. Au- 
dacem ; sc. earn. — 97. Caede = sanguine, Oblita ; (/* short) firom 
oblinere, Gr. 651. 3 ; 654. A. & S. 284, Ex. i (2) {a) ; 285. I. — 98. 
DepoBitura. Gr. 578.V. A. & S. 274, R. 6 (a). Sitim. Gr. 85. III. 

2. A. & S. 79 {b) 2. — 101. Dumque fugit Gr. 467. 4. A: & S. 
259. I {c). Tergo. See on foribus, v. 85. — 103. Dum redit 
See on v. loi. Sine ipsa = without herself; i e. Thisbe. — 106. 
Ore. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i.— 109. Vita. Gr. 419. IV. A.&S. 
244. — 110. Nostra — est^I am guilty. — 111. Venires. Gr. 
492. 2 ; 493. 2. A. & S. 262 and R. 4. — 112. Prior. Gr. 443. 2. 
A. & S. 205, R. 15 {b). —115. TimidL Gr. 401 ; 402. I. A. & S. 
211, R. 8 (3) and (a). Optare. Gr. 549 and i. A. & S. 269, R- 2. 
— 118. Haustus is a noun, object of accipe. -r- 119. Quoque = 
et quo ; referring to ferrum. — 121. HumL Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 
22 1, R. 3. — 122 - 124. Fistula = a water-pipe ; which bursts (scin- 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK IV. 397 

ditar) from a defect in the lead (vitdato pluxnbo) of which it is 
made. Longas aquas = a stream of water. — 125. Arborei 

fetus = the fruit of the tree. Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4 («). 
Caedis. See on v. 97. — 128. Ne fallat = that she may not dis- 
appoint. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262 and R. 5. — 130. Vitarit. Gr. 525. 
A.&S. 265. So «V, y. 132. Narrare. Gr. 552. i. A. & S. 271. — 
131. In arbore is not precisely the same as arboris. What she re- 
cognizes in th€ tree is its form, not the color of its fruit. — 132. In- 
certaxn ; sc. illam, referring to Thisbe. Haeret — sit = she is 
doubtful whether this is the tree. — 133, 134. Tremebunda — 
solum = she sees the quivering body lying on the bloody earth. Gr. 
551. I. I. A. & S. 272 and R. 5. Buzo. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. 
—135. Instar. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 232 (3). — 136. Summum = 
its surface. — 137. Suos amores = her lover. — 138. Indignos ; 
i e. not deserving such treatment. Cleiro plangore = with loud 
blows. — 139. Comas. See on zmUum^ v, ^4. — 140. Cruori Gr. 

385. 5. A. & S. 224, R. 3. —142. Mihi. Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, 
R. 2. — 145. Thisbes. Gr. 43. A. & S. 44. Morte. Gr. 414. 2. 
A. & S. 247. I. —147. Ense. Gr. 399. 5. 3). A. & S. 250. 2(1).— 
148. Ebur = the ivory scabbard. — 149. Mihi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 
226. In unum hoc = for this one deed ; i. e. for death. — 150. 
Est ; sc miAi, Hie — vires = This (i. e. love) will give me strength 
for the death-blow; literally, for wounds. — 154. Hoc . . . estote 
rogati = but grant this ; literally, be ye entreated this. Gr. 374. i. 
A. & S. 234. I. — 155. Meus ilUusque = mine and his ; referring 
to parentes. Gr. 398. 3 ; 369. 2 (or it may be explained by 185). 
A. & S. 211, R. 3 (6), ; 105, R. 3. — 156, 157. TJt . . . non invi- 
deatds == not to refuse. Gr. 493. i. A. & S. 262, R. 5, fine print, 
Novissima=the last. Componi. Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 273. 4(a). 
Tumulo. See on arvo^ v. 87. — 162. Mucrone. Gr. 431. A. & S. 
257. Imtim. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. —163. Ferro. Gr. 

386. A. & S. 224. So ro^'sy V. 166. — 166. Quodque — regis = 
and (their ashes) which remained from the funeral pile. 

THE STORY OF PERSEUS [vv. 604 - 789]. — This story fol- 
lows that of the transformation of Cadmus and his wife Hermione 
into serpents, which had taken place in fulfilment of the prediction 
uttered by Mars when Cadmus killed the dragon sacred to that god. 
See III. 98. 

604. Ambobus ; i. e. Cadmus and Hermione, or Harmonia. 
Formae. Gr. 396. II. A. & S. 21 1 and R. 2. — 605. Nepos ; i. e. 
Bacchus, whose mother, Semele, was the daughter of Cadmus. — 
606. India. In the course of his wanderings in Asia, Bacchus is 
said to have conquered India. Achaia ; a part of Greece, here put 
for the whole. — 607, 608. Abantiades . . . Acrisius = Acrisius, 



J98 NOTES ON OVID. 

the son of Abas ; descended from Belus, the twin brother of Agenor, 
the father of Cadmus : hence, ab oxigine oretos eadem. — Moe- 
nibufl. Gr.425.2. 2). A. &S. 251. Arceat Gr. 501.IL A. &S. 
264. 10. — 609. Argolicae. Acrisius was king of Argos, or Argolisi 
a district of Peloponnesus. The city Argos was its capital. — 610. 
Deum is genitive plural, limiting genua. Or.. 45. 5. 4). A. & S. 55. 
Jovls ; sc genusy or filium, — 611. Fenea = Perseus ; the son of 
Jupiter, by Danae, the daughter of Acrisius. Warned by an orade 
that his grandson would kill him, Acrisius shut Danae up in a brazen 
tower ; but Jupiter entered it in the form of a shower of gold. After 
the birth of Perseus, he and his mother were exposed in an ark, which 
floated to Seriphos, where it was found by a fisherman, who carried 
the mother and child to Polydectes, king of the island. Perseus 
grew up to manhood and performed many wonderful exploits, some 
of which are here related. In the course of his adventures, he came to 
Larissa, and at the public games, accidentally killed an old man, who 
proved to be his grandfather Acrisius. — 612. Fraesentia = the 
power. C£ III. 658. — 613. Violasse. See on 1. 152. So agnosse 
Nepotem = divinam nepotis originem. — 614. Foenitet. Gr. 556. L 
A. & S. 2 1 5, R. (middle). Alter = Bacchus. At alter = Perseus. 
— 615. Monstri = Medusa, the Gorgon. See vv. 769 - 789: — 616. 
Teneruzn = /^;22/ifm, which is the more common epithet. Ali8;ie. 
the wings which Mercury had lent him. See v. 665. — 617. Iiiby- 
cas. See on II. 237. Fenderet Gr. 518. i. A. & S. 263, R. 2. — 
619. Animavit in Bii^eB^^animamtetformaTjit in angues, — 620. 
Infesta colubris ; a form of expression admissible in prose alsa 
Cf Sallust (Jugurtha, 89), infesta serpentibus, Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 
250. 2. — 621. Immensum = caelum, Cf. inane, v. 718 ; edto^ v. 
788, etc. — 622. Ezemplo = like. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2.— 
624. Orbem. Gr. 371. 4. 2). A. & S. 233 (3). — 625. Arctos. 
See on II. 132 and 1 7 1. Cancri See on II. 83. — 628. Heaperio . . . 
orbe = in the western part of the world. Regnis. Gr. 363. A. & S. 
204. — 629. Lucifer. Cf. II. 115. — 630. Bvocet. Gr. 522. II. 
A. & S. 263. 4. Aurora; sc. evoceU See on II. 113. Diumoa; 
i. e. of the sun. 

631. Hominum. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (4). A. & S. 212, R. 2, N. 
6. CunctOB. Some editions have cunctis. Praestare, to excel, 
takes the accusative or the dative, in both prose and poetry. The 
dative is the more common in Ovid. Corpore. Gr. 429. A. & S. 
250. I. — 632. lapetionides ; a Greek form of the patronymic 
Atlas was the son of Japetus, and king of Mauritania. Ultima 
= the farthest to the west. — 634. Cf II. 68. Bquis. Gr. 386 and i. 
A. & S. 224 and N. i . Axes = currum. — 635. HH = of his. Gr. 
398. 5. A. & S. 21 1, R. 5 (i>. C£ Virg. G. L 14, 15. — 636. Frame- 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK IV. 399 

bant = limited. Hiuniim = his lands. — 637. Auro. Gr. 414. 2. 
A. & S. 247. I. — 638. The golden apples of the Hesperides (see on 
XL 144) are here made the property of Atlas himself. — 640. Mihi 
See on v. 635. — 641. Renim ; sc. gestarum, — 643. Themis. See 
on L 321. — 644. Auro. Gr. 425. A. & S. 25 1. — 645. Titulum = 
honor. Praedae. Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. Jove natus ; not Per- 
seus, but Hercules, who killed the dragon and stole the apples. — 647. 
MoenibuB. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. Servanda. Gr. 565. 3. 
2). A. & S. 274, R. 7 {a). — 650. Mentiria = you falsely claim. 
Longe tibi absit = be far from protecting you. Gr. 491. A. & S. 
262 and R. 5. — 652. DictiB. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 
653. Viribus. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. AtlantL Gr. 391. i 
and 2. 4) (2). A. & S. 222, R. i and R. 2 {a) and {b). — 654. Parvi 
Gr. 402. III. I. A. & S. 214, R. I {a) (i). Gratia = friendship. — 
655. MunuB. Gr. 705. IV. A. & S. 324. 4. — 656. Retxo — • 
versos = turning his fece aside ; that he might not himself be 
changed to stone. Squalentia = ^^r2V/<2 ; i. e. bristling with ser- 
pents. — 658. Abeunt = mutantur. Compare the description of 
Atlas, Virg. A. IV. 246 - 25 1. — 659. Siunmo. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 
205, R. 17. — 662. The ancients believed that Atlas supported the 
heavens on his head, or his shoulders. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 247. 

663. Hippotade8 = Aeolus, the son, or, as some say, the grand- 
son of Hippotes, a king of Troy. He was king of the winds. Cf. 
Virg. A. I. 52 foil. — 664. Admonitor operum = who calls men 
to the labors of the day. Cf. v. 629. — 665. Hie = Perseus. Pen- 
nis is here the dative the poetical construction for pennas alligat pedi- 
bus, Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. — 666. Telo = the harpey or short 
curved sword, which Mercury had given him. Cf. v. 727. — 667. Ta- 
laribus = the winged sandals of Mercury. See on v. 616, and cf. 
Virg. A. IV. 239. — 669. Cepheaque = of Cepheus, a king of Aethi- 
opia. It is from Cepheus. The more common form is Cepheia, which 
is found in some MSS. — 670. Matemae = of her mother, Cassi- 
ope, Cassiopea, or Cassiepea, who, by boasting of her beauty, had 
offended the Nereids. They, in revenge, had induced Neptune to 
inundate the territories of Cepheus ; and, to appease them, the or- 
acle of Ammon had directed that Andromeda should be bound to a 
rock and exposed to a sea-monster. Cepheus, Cassiope, and Andro- 
meda were afterwards placed among the stars. Milton, in 11 Pen- 
serosoy speaks of Cassiope as 

that starred Ethiop queen, that strove 

To set her beauty's praise above 

The sea-nymphs, and their powers offended. 

671. Ammon, or Hammotiy was an Ethiopian deity whom the 
Greeks and Romans identified with Zeus, or Jupiter. He had a 



400 NOTES ON OVID. 

famous temple and oracle in the oasis of Ammonium (now Shuah) in 
the Libyan desert See on Virg. A. IV. 198. — 672. Simul = simul 
ac, as often. Brachia. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 673. Abantda.- 
des = Perseus. See on v. 607. — 674. Moverat. Gr. 5 1 1. A. & S. 
261, R. 6. (Cf. 259, N.) — 675. Trahit . . . ignes = he is enamored. 

— 676. CorreptuB = charmed, fascinated. — 678. Catenis. Gr. 
419. IV. A. & S. 244. — 679. QiiibuB ; sc. catenis. Gr. 414. 4.. 
A. & S. 247. 3. — 680. Requirenti; sc mihi. Terra-e = fatriae 
tuae. — 681. Geras. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 683. Celasset. 
See on I. 152. Gr. 510. A. & S. 261. i. — 684. Quod potuit = 
which she catdd do ; i. e. though she could not cover her face. — 685. 
Instant! ; i. e. Perseus. Paterl. Gr. 552. i. A. & S. 271, R. 4. — 
686. Nolle. Gr. 549. 4. i). A. & S. 272, R. 6. Videretur. Gr. 
491. A. & S. 262 and R. 5. — 687. Quantaque — formae = 
*• how much her mother had presumed upon her beauty." See on v. 
681. — 689. Ponto. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (^).-— 690. 
"PoBsidet ^ premitt tenet. — 692. Ambo miseri Gr. 439. 2. i). 
A. & S. 205, R. 2 (i). JustiuB = with the greater reason ; since she 
had been the cause of the calamity. — 693. Tempore. See on v. 
678. — 696. Opem . . . ferendam. Gr. 562 ; 565 and i. A. & S. 
275. II. and R. 3. — 697. Hanc; Le. Andromeda. Peterem. Gr. 
510. A. & S. 261. I. Ilia; i. e. Danae. See on v. 611. — 699. Gor- 
gonis. See on v. 615. Alls. See on v. 616. — 701. Praeferrer 

— gener = I ought surely to be preferred to all (others) as a son-in- 
law. — 702. Dotibus; referring to his heroism and his renown. 
Paveant Gr. 505. A. & S. 263. 2 (i). — 703. lit — paciscor 
= I stipulate that she shall be mine, if saved by my valor. Gr. 578. 
III. A. & S. 274. 3 («). — 704. Dubitaret. Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 
260, R. 5. — 705. Supex = insurer. Dotale = as a dowry. 

707. Juvenum ; i. e. the rowers. — 708. Sic fera = so does the 
monster (plough the waters). TTndis. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 709, 
710. Tantum — coeli = It was as far from the rocks as the dis- 
tance in mid-air (qtmfttum viedii coeli)^ which a Balearic sling can 
traverse with its whirled bullet. The inhabitants of the Balearic 
islands were famous as slingers. Leaden balls were sometimes used 
for slinging. — 711. Tellure. See on undis^ v. 708. — 712. Ardu- 
xis . . . abiit = soared aloft. Gr. 443. 2, A. & S. 205, R. 15 {a) 
and {b). Summo. See on v. 659. — 714. Jovis praepes = the 
eagle of Jove. Vacuo = aperto. — 715. Phoebo = to the sun ; i. e. 
basking in the sunshine. — 716. Occupat aversum = comes upon 
him from behind. Neu = and that (he may) not. Retorqueat. 
Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. — 717. Cervicibua; poetic plural and ab- 
lative ^/» cervice. — 718. Inane. See on v. 621. Volatu. Gr. 
414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2.— 720. Inachides = Perseus ; because he 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK IV. 40I 

was bom at Argos, Inachos was the first king and most ancient hero 
of Argos. — 721. Sublimis. See on ardutcs^ v. 712. — 722. Sub- 
dit ; sc J^ = dives beneath. So versat. Aquis. See on equis^ v. 634. 
— 725. Patent = are exposed ; i. e. terga^costae^ cauda. — 727. Ense. 
See on v. 666. — 729. Graves ; " by anticipation," since it expresses 
the result of adspergine, Fennae ; i. e. of Perseus. — 730. Bibu- 
lis = wet, dripping. * Talaribua. See on v. 665. — 731. Summo 
vextice = with its topmost point. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 
732. Stantibus — moto = rises above the waters when they are 
still, is covered by the sea when disturbed. On aquis, see on v. 689. 
— 733L £0 = thither ; i. e. to the rock. — 734. Repetita = struck 
again and again. Cf. V. 473. — 735. Cum plausu clamor = 
plausus et clamor, Cf. I. 319, and Virg. A. I. 292. — 736. Gene- 
rum; sc. mm, Gr. 373. i and 2. A. & S. 230. So auzilium (sc. 
eum esse) and servatorem. Cf. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272 and 230, 
R. I. — 738. Catenis. Gr. 425. 2. 2). A. & S. 251. —739. Pre- 
tltun and causa. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. — 741. Laedat. Gr. 
491. A. & S. 262. — 743. Phorcynidos = daughter of Phorcys ; 
a sea-god, the father of the Gorgons, the Graeae, the Hesperian 
dragon, and Scylla. See on v. 774. — 744. Recens = just broken off. 
Bibula . . . medulla = the porous pith. — 745. Rapuit expresses 
the suddenness of the transformation. Hujus, in a construction like 
this, is very rarely found without a noun. — 746. Ramis. Gr. 429. 
A. & S. 250. I. — 749. Iterant j aetata =/«r/fl«/ et iterant = thty 
throw again and again, scatter, sow. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 [d). — 
750. Curaliis. Gr. 384. I. A. & S. 223. — 751. Tacto . . . ab 
afire = from the contact of the air. Capiant Gr. 494. A. & S. 
262. So fiat 

753. Dis — ponit = to three gods he erects as many altars of 
turf : to Mercury, who had loaned him the taiaria, the sword, and a 
helmet ; to Pallas, who had furnished him with a shield ; and to 
Jupiter, his father. — 754. Virgo = Pallas, or Minerva, goddess of 
war as well as of wisdom. — 756. Alipedi ; i. e. Mercury, from the 
talarid, Deorum. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (2). A. & S. 212, R. 2 (3). — - 
757. Bt . . . praemia = even the reward ; in apposition with An- 
dromeden. — 758. Indotata = without a dowry ; i. e. without 
thought of the dowry that had been promised. See v. 705. Like 
rapit, it expresses the eagerness of Perseus to make her his own. 
Hymenaeus = Hymen, the god of marriage. He is generally rep- 
resented jis a youth, bearing the nuptial torch. Amor = Cupid. — 
759. Praecutiunt. Torches were carried before the bride as she 
was led to the house of her husband. — 762. Arg;umenta. Gr. 363. 
A. & S. 204. — 764. Cep]ienum = of the Ethiopians ; the people 
of Cepheus. See on v. 669. Convivia. Gr. 371. 4. i). A. & S. 
a6 



402 NOTES ON OVID. 

233 (3)* ^ 76^* Epulifl. Gr. 419. 1. A. & S. 245. 1. Mtmere ; i. e. 
with wine. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 766. Difitidere = cheered, 
exhilarated. Cultosque — locorum = the mode of life and the his- 
tory of the country ; i. e. of the people of the country. — 768. Lyn- 
cides ; in apposition with unus = quidam, — 769. Sixnol = simid 
ac, —770. FeneiL Gr. 94.1. A. & S. 81, R. — 771. Abstuleris. 
Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Cxinita— *ora = the head (of Medusa) 
bristling with serpents. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i. — 772. Age- 
norides. Most of the editors speak of Agenor as the great-grand- 
father of Perseus ; but according to the best authorities, Perseus was 
descended from Belus, the twin-brother of Agenor. His mother, Danae, 
was the daughter of Acrisius, the son of Abas, the son of Lynceos and 
Hypermnestra, the former of whom was the son of Aegyptus, the latter 
the daughter of Danaus ; and Aegyptus and Danaus were twin sons of 
Belus. See on V. 607. Some read A danttades mstcsid of A^enorides; 
some think the inaccuracy a slip of the pen which Ovid would have 
corrected, had he revised the poem. See Life, Perhaps gelido 
Bub Atlante is another slip of the kind. Atlas had been changed to 
stone before this time, it is true, but so recently that Perseus would 
hardly speak of him as a well-known mountain, especially in relating 
events that had taken place previous to his transformation. — 773. 
Molis; i.e. of mountains. — 774, 775. Gteminas — FharcidaB 
= the Graeae, daughters of Phorcys (see on v. 743), who had gray 
hair from their birth, and only one- tooth and one eye in common, 
which they used by turns. There were three of them, but Ovid here 
speaks of but two. 776. Dnxn txaditur= while it is passiag^ Le. 
as one is handing it to the other. — 777. Supposita . . . manu ; L e. 
by putting his hand in the place of that of the sister who was about 
to take the eye. Perseus refused to return the eye until the Graeae 
told him how to find the Gorgons. Cepisse and the other infinitives 
in the passage depend on narrate v. 772. Gr. 551. 1. A. & S. 272. — 

779. Gorgoneaa — domos = he reached the home of the Gorgons ; 
three frightful beings, with snaky hair, brazen claws, and enormous 
teeth. Of the three, Medusa alone was mortal. See on v. 743. — 

780. The last syllable of the verse is cut off by synaloepha. Gr. 
669. I. A. & S. 307. 3. — 781. Us IpsiB \ i. e. from - their natural 
state. — 782. Clypei limits acere ; the brass of the shield, L e. the 
brazen shield. — 783. Repercuaso = reflecting ; as if repercuHentii 
— 786. Fegaaon = Pegasus ; a winged horse, the o&pring of Me- 
dusa. In modem times he has become famous as the horse of the 
Muses ; but with the ancients he had no connection with the Muses 
except producing with his hoof the inspiring fountain Hippocrene. 
His brother was Chrysaor. For the form Pegason, see Gr. 46k i. 
A. & S. 54. — 788. Freta = waters, seas. Alto. See on v. 621. 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK V. 403 



METAMORPHOSES. Book V. 

THJE STORY OF CERES AND PROSERPINA. — A hymn 
in honor of Ceres, which the Muse Calliope sings in a contest with 
the Pierides, the nine daughters of Pierus, king of Emathia. The 
Muses themselves are often called Pierides, from Pieria, near Mount 
Olympus, where they were first worshipped by the Thracians. 

341. Prima. See on I. 89. Ceres, the Greek Demeter, was the 
godde^ of the earth and the protectress of agriculture. She was 
the daughter of Saturn (Chronos) and Rhea. See on I. 123, and cf. 
Virg. G. I. 147. — 342. Mitia = rw//^, cultivated, in distinction from 
that which grows spontaneously. Cf. I. 103. — 343. Leges ; since 
agriculture is the basis of civilization. Hence she is called legifera, 
Cf:Virg.A.IV.58. — 344.Milii Gr.388.1. A. & S. 225. III. Modo 
= only. Possem. Gr. 488. 1, and i. A. & S. 263. i. — 345. Dea 
and carmine. See on IV. 678. — 346. Giganteis. Here the giant 
Typhoeus is represented as buried under Mount Aetna. Homer and 
Virgil (A. III. 578) put Enceladus there. Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, 
R. 4 (a). — 347. Trinacris (or Trinacria) = Sicily, so called from 
its three promontories. — 348. Aetherias — sedes = Typhoeus, 
who dared to aspire to the celestial abodes ; referring to the revolt 
of the giants against the gods. On atisum, see Gr. 577. A. & S. 
274. 3 (fl^)- —349. Resurgere. Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 273. 2 {b), — 
dSO. Peloro = Pelorum, or Pelorus (now Capo di Faro), the pro- 
montory opposite Italy ; hence Ausonian, — 351. Fachyne, the 
southern promontory, now Capo di Passaro, Tibi ; sc. subjecta est. 
Idlybaeo = Lilybaeum, now Capo di Boco or di Marsala, on the 
western coast Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 248. II.— 353. Ore. Gr. 422. 2. 
A. & S. 255, R. 3 (^). So corpore, v. 355, and sede, v. 359. — 356. 
Rez . . . ailenttim = Pluto. Silentium is inadmissible in hexameter 
verse. — 357. Pateat =patescat. Gr. 492. 4 and i). A. & S. 262 
and R. 7. So retegatur and terreat. — 358. Trepidantes ; " by 
anticipation." See on IV. 729. — 361. Ambibat. Gr. 295. 3. 
A. & S. 182, R. 3. Fundamina. Gr. 371. 4. A. & S. 233. — 362. 
Ezploratimi est Gr. 556. I. (i). X. & S. 209 (5). — Labare. Gr. 
549 and I. A. & S. 269 (<5). — 363. Erycina = Venus, who had a 
temple on Mount Eryx, in the northern part of Sicily. Cf. Virg. A. 
^- 759* — 365. Arma, manns, and potentda are in apposition with 
nate. Ovid had in mind Virg. A. I. 664. — 368. In the division 
of the universe among themselves, the first lot fell to Jupiter, the 
second to Neptune, the third (novisaima) to Pluto. See on I. 113. 
— 370. Ipaum = Neptune. — 371. Tartara — cessant = why do 



404 NOTES ON OVID. 

the infernal regions delay (to yield to your power ) ? Tawn. Gr. 
398. 3. A. & S. 211, R. 3 {d). — 372. Frofer8= extend. Agitor= 
is at stake. — 373. Quae — est = " such is now our tameness." 
Gr. 453. 4 A. & S. 206 (18). — 374. Mecum = mets cum viribm = 
as mine is. — 375. Pallas and Diana had made vows of perpetual 
virginity. — 376. AbBcessisse mihi = have withdrawn from me. 
Gr. 385. 4 A. & S. 224, R. I (a). Filia = Proserpina. Virga Gr. 
362. A. & S. 2 10. — 377. Brit = manebiu Nam — easdem = for 
she cherishes the same hopes ; i. e. as Pallas and Diana. — 378. Pro 

— regno = if you have any regard for our common kingdom. On 
tibi, see Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. — 379. Patruo = to her uncle, 
Pluto. Proserpina was the daughter of Jupiter. — 380. Solvit = 
opens. Arbitrio. Gr. 414 2. A. & S. 249. II. — 381. Sed = 
(one only) but (the sharpest). Qua. Gr. 417. . A. & S. 256. 2. — 382. 
Nee minus — arcum = nor surer, nor more obedient to the bow. 
On audiat, see Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264 7. — 383. Cornum ; sec- 
ond decL neut. — 384. Hamata . . . arundine = with the barbed 
arrow. Ditem = Dis, a name of Pluto. 

385. Hennaeis . . . moenibua = the dty Henna, or Enna, in 
the centre of Sicily, famous for a temple of Ceres. — 386. Aquae 
limits lacuB. Nomine. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Bio ; sc lacu, 
Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. CayatroB. See on II. 253. — 389. Ut 
velo = as with an awning, or canopy. Fhoebeoa . . . ig;nes = 
the rays of the sun. — 391. Luco. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 
3. — 393. Studio. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 394. Aequales 
= her companions. Legendo = in gathering (the flowers). Gr. 
566. I. A. & S. 275, R. 4. — 395. DitL Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. 
II. — 396. Usque — amor = so impatient is his love. — 397. 
Matrem. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). — 398. Summa . . . ab 
ora = from the upper border. — 400. Annis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 
—401. Virgineum. Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4 («).— 402. 
Nomine. Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 404. Ferrugina Every- 
thing in the lower world was represented as of a dark color. C£ v. 
360, and Virg. A. VI. 303. — 406. Palicorum = of the Palid; 
Sicilian gods, twin sons of Jupiter (some say of Vulcan), worshipped 
near the city Palice, where were the lake and sulphurous springs here 
alluded to. Perventia = boiling forth. Terra. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. 

— 407. Bacchiadae ; the descendants of Bacchis, king of Corinth. 
Having been banished from that dty, a part of them took refuge 
in Sicily, where they founded Syracuse. Bimari; so called be- 
cause situated on the isthmus between the Corinthian and Saronic 
gulfs. Cf. Hor. C. I. 7. 2. Corintho. Gr. 425. 3. i). A. & S. 246. 

— 408. Portus. Syracuse had two harbors, the Partus Magnus^ 
still called Porto Maggiore^ and the Portus Minora or Laccius, — 409. 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK V. 405 

Affedioin. This adjective may take a partitive genitive plural, or, 
as here, two genitives singular, equivalent to a plural ; midway of 
(the two places) Cyane and Arethusa. These are two fountains near 
Syracuse. On Fisaeae, see v. 493 foil. The final syllable of the 
"word is not elided. — 410. Quod — comibus = which flows in a 
narrow channel, shut in by close promontories; referring to the 
strait between Sicily and Ortygia, a small island on which Syracuse 
"was partly built— 413. Gurgite. Gr. 434.1. A. &S. 242. Summa. 
See on IV. 659. Alvo. Gr. 47. 2. 2). A. & S. 49. i. — 414. Deam 
= Proserpina. Nee — inqiiit = et inquit^ " Non longius ibitis.'*^ — 
4X5. Roganda = she .should have been asked for; i.e. of her 
mother. Gr. 229. A. & S. 162. 15. — 416. Magnis. Gr. 386. i. 
A. & S. 224. — 417. Anapis; the god of the Anapis, a river near 
Syracuse. — 418. Ezorata = wooed. Ezterrita = frightened (in- 
to yielding to his siiit). — 420. Satumius = Pluto, as the son of 
Saturn. — 421. In ima = into the depths of the spring ; i. e. of 
Cyane. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3 (3). A. & S. 205, R. 9, and 212, R. 3. 
N. 4. — Contortum. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 {b), — 424. Medio 
cratere = in the midst of the chasm ; i. e. the opening made by the 
stroke of the sceptre. — 429. Eztenuatur = is dissolved, melts 
away. Videres. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II. R. 2.— 430. Pati 
flezoB = become flexible. FoBuiBse. Gr. 542. 2. A. & S. 268, 
R. 2. — 431. De tota (sc. t/la) = of her whole body. TenuiBBima 
quaeque = whatever was most slender. — 432. CrineB, etc. are in 
apposition with qtiaeque, — 433. MembxiB. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. 
ExilibuB = slender. See on v. 431. — 435. Abeunt See on IV. 
658. — 436. Vitiataa ; i. e. having lost their natural constitution. — 
437. FoBsiB. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. 7. 

438. Matri Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. —439. Profondo ; 
sc mari, Cf. II. 267. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. So terris, 
— 440. UdiB; because rising from the sea. — 441. HeaperuB = 
the evening star. — 442. FinuB = torches of pine. — 444. Hebeta- 
rat = had dimmed. —446. Sitim. Gr. 85. A. & S. 79. 2. Ora . . . 
oolluerant = had wet her lips. — 450. Dulce; used as a noun = 
dulcem potem, Folenta. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 451. 
Oris. Gr. 396. IV. A. & S. 211, R. 6. —453. Neque adhuc=^ 
etnondum, Farte. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. —457. Ne Bit (sc, ei) 
= that he may not have. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. Nocendt Gr. 
563. A. & S. 275. III. R. I and (i). —458. Lacerta. Gr. 417. 
A. & S. 256. 2. — 461. Nomen ; i. e. stellio^ which the poet derives 
from Stella. Corpora. Gr. 38a A. & S. 234. II. Guttia = spots. 
— 462. Erraverit Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 463. Mora. See on 
I. 214. Quaerenti — orbi8 = no part of the world remained for 
her to search. Gr. 386. 2. A. & S. 224, R, i. — 464. Eundo. Gr. 



406 NOTES ON OVID. 

566. 1. A. & S. 275, R. 4. —465. FuiaMt Gr. 510 and i. A. & S. 
261. I. — 466, 467. Volenti (sc et) is equivalent to a dative of 
pessessor, aderant being used for erant Quo loqueretur = tbe 
means of speaking. Gr. 501. i. A. & S. 264. 7. — 469. In = into. 
A. & S. 235 (2), R. 4. —470. Fersephonea is the Greek form for 
Proserpinae, Summis. See on IV. 659. — 471. 8imul=jxV»2// 
ac, as often. Tanquam— scisaet = as if she then at length had 
discovered that her daughter had been carried ofil Gr. 503. II. and. 
506. A. & S. 263. 2 (i). — 473. Repetita = repeatedly. See on 

IV. 734. — 474. Sit Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. —475. Munera See 
on V. 345, and cf. vv. 342, 343. — 477. Reperit See on repulit, II. 
157. Vertentia = (used for) turning. — 479. Leto = destruction- 

— 480. Fallere depoBitum = to betray their trust ; i. e. the seed 
sown. Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 273. 2 {a) and 272, R. 6. Vitiata. 
See on v. 436. — 481. Terrae = Sicily ; which was famous for its 
fertility, in ancient times. — 482. Cassa jacet = lies useless ; i. e. 
avails nothing. Frimis in herbis ; i. e. as soon as they spring up. 

— 484. Sideraque. The final e is lengthened by the arsis, Gr. 
660. A. & S. 308. — 485. Jacta=that have been sown. Fati- 
gant = exhaust, hinder the growth o£ — 486. Gramen is in the 
same construction as lolium and trtbuli. — 487. Alpheias = Are- 
thusa ; a nymph of Elis, beloved by the river-god Alpheus, and 
changed by Diana into a fountain, that she might escape him. But 
he still pursued her ; and when she fled under the sea to Ortygia, he 
followed her, and rose with her on that island. Hence it was said 
that a cup thrown into the Alpheus would appear again in the foun- 
tain of Arethusa in Ortygia. — 489. Virginia is in the same con- 
struction as frugom. — 491. Terrae. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. 

— 492. Nihil ; i. e. no punishment. Rapinae. Gr. 384. I. A. & S. 
223. Cf. V. 419 foil. — 494. Such transition from the singular to 
the plural is sometimes found even in prose. Cf. v. 504 — 496. 
Solo. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. Arethuaa is in apposition with 
the subject of habeo. Fenates. See on i. 174 — 498. Mota — 
aim = why I have been driven from my native land. Gr. 525. A. & S. 
265.-499. Ortygiam. Gr. 379. 3. 2). A. & S. 237, R. 5 {b) and 
{c). Narratibua. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. i. — 500. Curia.^ 
que. Gr. 425. A. & S.251. — 501. Vultua. Gr. 402. III. A.&S. 
211, R. 6. Melioria = more cheerful. Fervia tellua. See on 

V. 487. — 504. Stygio = Stygian ; i. e. beneath the earth, near the 
infernal world. Labor = I flow. — 506. Vultu. Gr. 429. A. & S. 
250. I. — 507. Maxima = domina, 

509. Ceu aa2:ea = as if petrified. — 510. Attonitae = one 
thunderstruck. Gr. 391. i and 2. 4) (2). A. & S. 222, R. i and R. 2 
{b), Utque — amentia = and when her deep stupor was banished 



\ 



METAM0RPH03ES. BOOK V. 407 

iDy de^ grief. — S12. Vultu. See on v. 506. — 513. lavidlOBa is 
used in an active sense = indignant ; full of wrath against Pluto. — 
.515. Matris; objective genitive. Gr. 396. IL A. & S. 211, R. 2. So 
fiUus. — 516. Moveat. Gr. 488. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. So 
Bit. Neu — partu = and do not, I pray, have less regard for her, be- 
cause I am her mother. — 518. Mihi. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. 
IL — 519, 520. Si — certius = if you call it finding to lose more 
certainly. Gr. 373 ; 550. A. & S. 230 and N. 3. So scire and 
the second reperire. On sit, see Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. ^apta; 
sc est. Gr. 558. V. 2. A. & S. 273. 5, R. (3) and N. 6. — 521. 
Reddat. Gr. 505. A. & S. 263. 2 (i). Fraedone. See on v. 
345. Marito. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 and R. i {a). The idea is : 
if my daughter does not deserve such a fate, surely your daughter 
does not — 524. Mihi Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 221, R. i. Si — pla- 
cet (sc tih\ or nodt's) = if you will only call things by their right 
names. — 525. Injuria. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. So amor. — 
526. Nobis . . . pudori = a disgrace to us. Gr. 390. 1. 1). A. & S. 
227. — 527. JTu mode velis = if you will but consent to it ; i. e. 
the marriage. See on reddat^ v. 521. Ut — cetera = were there 
nothing else in his favor. Gr. 516. II. and i. A. & S. 262, R. 2. — 
528. Esse. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269 {b) and R. 2. Quid — desunt 
= but (or, nay) other things are not wanting. " Quid quod often in- 
troduces a new and striking fact, when the literal translation would 
perhaps be : what would you say to the fact that — ? but the idea may 
often be more simply expressed by hayy Ke/s Lat. Gram, § 1454 h, 
— 529. Sorte. See on v. 368. — 530. Discidii = of their separa- 
tion, or divorce. Repetet. See on reddat, v. 521. — 531. Lege = 
condition. Gr. 414 2. A. & S. 249. II. — 532. Nam — est = for 
so it is enjoined by a decree of the Fates. Not even Jupiter could 
change the decrees of the Fates. See on I. 256. — .533. At — est 
= but Ceres is resolved : a construction like Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 
225. II. Educere. Gr. 549 and i. A. & S. 269 and R. 2. 

535. Simplex ; i. e. with no idea of the danger. — 536. Puni- 
cemn . . . pomum = a pomegranate. — 537. Fallenti . . . cprtice 
= its golden rind. Ghrana = the " grains " from which the fruit takes 
its namet pomum granatum. — 538. Ez ommbus. Gr. 398. 4 2). 
A. & S. 212, R. 2, N. 4 So inter Nympl^as. — 540. Avemales 
= infernal ; from the pestilential lake Avernus, in Campania, which 
was supposed to be an entrance to the lower world. C£ Virg. A. VI. 
106, 126, 201, etc — 541. Acheronte = Acheron ; one of the rivers 
of the infernal regions, here spoken of as a god, the father of Asca- 
laphus. Gr. 425 and i. A. & S. 246, R. 2. Purvis. See on v* 404 — 

542. Redituxn (sc. Proserpinae) adexnit = prevented her return. — 

543. Profanam = unhallowed, ill-omened. Some read profanum. 



408 NOTES ON OVID. 

— 544; PUegethontide = of Phlegethon, another of the infernal 
rivers. — 546. Sibi ablatua = taken away from himself ; L e. losing 
his own form. Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2. — 547. Znque — VB- 
gues = his head becomes disproportionately large, and his nails are 
bent into long claws. Both nouns depend on in. — 548. Per = by 
means of Some translate it " on " or " all over." — 549. C£ Virgi 
A. IV. 462. — 552. Vobis ; sc sunt, Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Ache* 
loides = the Sirens, daughters of Achelous. Geratds. Gr. 518. 1. 
A. & S. 263. 5 and R. i. —554; Legeret Gr. 518. i. A. & S. 263, 
R. 2. — 555. In is rarely found with mixius^ which generally takes 
the ablative with or without cum^ or the dative. C£ Virg. A. V. 47a 

— 557. Curam = solicitude ; 1. e. in behalf of Proserpina. — 559. 
Facilesque — habiiistiB = and found the gods favorable (to your 
prayers). — 561. Canor. The songs of the Sirens charmed all wha 

' heard them. Mulcendas. Gr. 562 ; 565. i. A. & S. 275. II. and 
R. 3. — 562. Deperderet. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. — 563. Re- 
mansit Gr. 463. 1. A. & S. 209, R. 12 (3). —564. Medina = as 
mediator between. See on v. 409. — 565. Ez aequo = aequaliter. 
Volventem (sc se) = revolving. — 568. Facies — orlfl = both 
her feelings and her looks. — 569. Diti quoque = even to Pluto ; 
who was the most gloomy of gods. — 570. Ut Sol = as the sun (is 
joyful). 



METAMORPHOSES. Book VI. 

THE STORY OF NIOBE. — Niobe was the daughter of Tantalus 
and Dione, one of the Hyades. [See on III. 595.] She married 
Amphion, king of Thebes, and had seven sons and seven daughters, 
of whom she became so proud as to think herself superior to Latona 
and her two children, Apollo and Diana. How she was punished 
for her insolence the poet here tells us. 

146. Lydia was a district of Asia Minor, in the middle of the 
western side of the peninsula. Fremit = shudders ; i. e. at the pun- 
ishment of Arachne, who had boasted that she could surpass Minervf 
in weaving, and had been changed by the goddess into a spidei 
Fhrygia lay to the east of Lydia. — 148. Ante — illam = befoj 
her own marriage Niobe had known her; i.e. Arachne. — 14' 
Maeoniam = Maeonia, the ancient name of Lydia. Sipylns w 
a mountain of Lydia, and the ancient capital of Maeonia is said 
have had the same name. — 150. Fopularis = her countrywom 
—151. Cedere. Gr. 552. 2. A. & S. 273. 2, N. 4 [a) and {b). 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK VI. 409 

ntL Verbifl minoribus = less arrogant language. Gr. 419. I. 
A. & S. 245. 1. — 152. AnimoB = pride. Sed enim = at vero, 
CSoDJugia == Amphion, who was Yimous for his skill in music — 
15a. GeniUEL See w. 172- 176. — 154. HIL Gr. 385. A. & S. 
223, R. 2. Flaoerent Gr. 515. I. A. & S. 263. 2. —156. Dicta 
loret = dicta esset Gr. 5 10. A. & S. 261. i. Si — fuisset = if she 
had not seemed to herself so (and been vain of it). — 157. Tireaia 
= Tiresias, a celebrated prophet of Thebes. Gr. 425. 3. i). A. & S. 
245. Manto, also called Daphne, inherited her father's skill in 
divination. — 159. Ismenides = Thebaides (v. 163) ; from the 
river Ismenus, which flows through Thebes. — 160. Latona was 
generally worshipped only in conjunction with her children. — 161. 
Lauro. The laurel was sacred to Apollo. Gr. 414 4 A. & S. 247. 3. 
The usual construction would be crinibtisqtie innectite laurum. [Gr. 
386. I. A. & S. 224] — 162. Ore. Gr. 414 4 A. & S. 247. 3. 
Faretur. Gr. 301. 3. A. & S. 184 2 {a) and (^). — 163. Jussis. 
C£ 1. 399 ; III. 105. — 165. Celeberrima = stipata, — 166. Vesti- 
bua. Gr. 414 2. A. & S. 247. i. Auro. Gr. 428. A. & S. 
211, R. 6. — 167. Quantum ira sinit restricts formosa. —169. 
Alta ; L e. haughtily erect — 170. Quia — coeleates = what mad- 
ness is this, to place gods of whom you have only heard before those 
whom you have seen ? — 171. Per here denotes, not the means, but 
the wide extent, and = throughout. — 172. Tantalua, king of Lydia, 
or, as some say, of Argos, was invited to the table of the gods, but, 
having divulged to men the secrets which he heard there, walls pun- 
ished in the lower world by being placed in a lake whose waters re- 
ceded when he tried to relieve his burning thirst, while over his head 
hung tempting fruits which ever eluded his grasp. Hence our word 
tantalize, Auctor =/fl/^. — 173. Cui Gr.385. A. & S. 223, R. 2, 
N. (*). Licuit Gr. 556. 1. A. & S. 269, R. 2. —174. Pleiadum. 
See on III. 595. Some legends make Taygete the mother of Niobe. 
Atlaa. See IV. 632 - 662. — 176. Jupiter was the father of Tan- 
talus. Sooero — illo = I boast him too as my father-in-law. Am- 
phion was a son of Jupiter. Gr. 414 2. A. & S. 247. i. — 177. 
Cadmi = Cadmus, the founder of Thebes. See III. i - 130. — 178. 
Domina. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 Fidibuaque. The walls of 
Thebes had risen to the music of Amphion's lyre. — 181. Accedit 
eodem = to this is added. — 182. Dea. See on V. 345. Hue = 
to this ; moreover. — 183. Habeat Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 185. 
Quoque = et quo, Titanida ; i. e. Latona, daughter of the Titan 
Coeus. Coeo. See on Tiresia, v. 157. — 186. Cui; i. e. Latonae. 
— 187. Fariturae. When Latona was about to become a mother, 
the jealous Juno bound all the countries of the earth by an oath not 
to allow her a resting-place. — 190. Dixit; sc Delos, Neptune 



.4IP NOTES ON OVID. 

provided an asylum for Latona by raising the island Delos, which had 
previously floated under the sea, and making it fast C£ Virgil, A. 

III. 75 foU. — 192. Uteri = offspring. — 193. Neget Gr. 486. IL 
A. & S. 260, R. 5. So dubitet. — 195. Cui See on ////, v. 154. 
PoBsit Gr. 501. IV. A. & S. 264. 4. 196. Eripiat Gr. 515. L ; 
516. II. I. A. & S. 262, R. 2. 197. EzoesBere = have gone be- 
yond ; i e. have precluded. Fixi£;ite — meoram = suppose that 
some part of this multitude of my children may be taken away from 
me. On populo, see Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2. — 199. Spo- 
liata = when thus bereaved. — 200. This line is given up by most 
of the commientators as hopelessly corrupt. Of the many readings^ 
no one is satisfactory, and the conjectures of the critics do not mend 
the matter. Turba — orba may be translated : How ^ does she 
diffSer from the childless multitude ? — 201. Sacris. Gr. 422. 2. 
A. & S. 255, R. 3 {d). So oapillis. — 202. Fonite = deponife, as 
often. — 203. Quodque licet = which is all they can do (after die 
royal prohibition). 

204. Cynthi = of Cynthus ; a mountain in Delos, sacred tt> 
Apollo and Diana. Hence they are often called Cynthius and Cynthia* 

— 206. Vobifl — oreatia = proud of having borne you. Gr. 431. 
A. & S. 257. — 208. Sim. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.— 209. Nati. 
Gr. 439. 2. 1). A. & S. 205, R. 2 (i). — 211. Tantalis = the daughter 
of Tantalus. — 212. Quod = which (childlessness). Reoidat. Gr. 
488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. For the long antepenult, see Gr. 669. V. 
A. & S. 307. 2 (i). — 213. Fatemam. See on v. 172. — 217. 
TectL See on v. 209. Cadmeida. See on v. 177. — 219. Afl- 
siduis. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). — 221. Genitis. See 
on V. 538. Amphione. See on Tiresia, v. 157. — 222. TyxiO 
8UC0 = with the Tyrian juice ; a purple dye, for which the Tyrians 
were famous, obtained from a shell-fish. — 224. Qui — fiierat = 
who had been the first-bom of his mother. — 227. Mihi Qr. 389. 
2. 2). A. & S. 228. 3.-228. Frexiis. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. 
Manu. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (^). — 230. Inane. See on 

IV. 621. Sonitu. See on v. 206. So nubey v. 232. — 232. Rec- 
tor; sc. «aw>. — 233. Effluat Gr. 491. A. & S. 262, R. 5.— 
235. Summa. See on IV. 659. Cervioe. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 
254, R. 3. — 237. Ut — pronus = as he was bent forward. Per 

— admissa = along (or over) the swift neck ; i. e. the neck of the 
swift horse. — 241. Nitidae ; because the bodies of the wrestlers 
were anointed with oil. — 246. Solo. See on cervices v. 235. — 247. 
A spondaic line. Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 310. i and R. i. — 248. La- 
niata; "by anticipation." See on IV. 729. — 250. Deliu8 = 
Apollo; from his native Delos. Uli Gr. 398. 5. A. &S. 211, R. 
5 (i). — 252. Simul == simul ac. Hamis = the barbed point C£ 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK VIII. 4IX 

^.384. — 254; Non modifies aimplez. Daxnasichthona = Da- 
^laiasichthon. Gr. 93. A. & S. 80. L — 255. Qua — poples; Le. 
just below the knee. — 258. Pennis = the feathered part of the 
narrow. Tenus. Gr. 602. 11. A. & S. 241, R. i. — 261. Freoan- 
da Gr. 566. 1. A. & S. 275, R. 4. — 262. Dique . . . dixerat = 
et dixerat : Di, etc — 263. Ignarus — rogandos = ignorant that 
- not all need be propitiated. Gr. 229 ; 552. 3. A. & S. 162. 15 ; 270, 
R. I (a). — 265, Aroitenens = Apollo, the bearer of the bow. Cf. 
Virg. A. III. 75. 

268. Certam fecere ; in prose, certiorem fecerunt, — 269. Mi- 
rantem — 8Uperi= wondering that the gpds could, angry that they 
had dared, do this. Gr. 558. V. i and 2. A. & S. 273. 5 (3) and N. 
7. — 270. Haberent. Gr. 527. A. & S. 266. i. — 272. Luoe = 
vita, — 274. Latois = of Latona. — 275. Reaupina = alta^ v. 169. 

— 276. Invidioaa = envied. C£ ik^'& passive or objective use of the 
word with the active or subjective^ Y, 513. HoBt± Gr. 388. I. 
A & S. 225. III. — 277. CorporibuB. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Or- 
dina Gr. 414. 3. A. & S. 247. 2. — 279. Idventia = livid ; from 
beating. C£ v. 248. — 280. Dolore. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. 

— 281. This line is probably spurious. — 283. HQieror = I am car- 
ried to my grave ; I die in the death of my children. — 284. Mis- 
erae mihl = to me even in my wretchedness. See on corporibus, v. 
277. So/ratn\y.2gi, — 285. Quoque = even. — 289. Dexnisso 
ciiner in token of grie£ — 291. Ore. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 
294: Oraque — presait = did not close her mouth (even in death). 
SibL Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. i. Exit = exiit, Cf. I. 200. — 
296. Videres. Gr. 486 and 4. A. & S. 260. II. and R. 2. —299. 
Mfnimam ; sc. natu. — 303. Diriguit = she became rigid ; i. e. 
petrified. Malis. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i. — 305. Nihil — 
vivtun = there is nothing of life in her appearance. — 307. Con- 
gelat = becomes stone. — 308. Reddere gestus = to move. — 
311. Patriam. See on v. 149. Montis; i. e. Sipylus. — 312. 
Ii8Crima& Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). 



METAMORPHOSES. Book VIII. 

THE STORY OF DAEDALUS AND ICARUS, [w. 183 - 

2351 

Daedalus was an Athenian, distinguished for his skill in sculpture 
and architecture. Being condenmed to death for the murder of his 
nephew Perdix, he fled with his spn Icarus to Crete, where he was 
protected by king Minos, and, among other works, constructed the 



412 NOTES ON OVID. 

famous labyrinth. After a time, he incurred the displeasure of the 
king, who imprisoned him. How he escaped is told in the story 
here given. — C£ Virg. A. VI. 14-33, ^uid Hor. C. I. 3. 34; II. 20. 
13 ; IV. 2. 2. 

184. Birillnni ; i. e. his absence from his native Athens. — 186. 
Obstruat; sc. Minos. Gr. 515. I. A. & S. 263. 2 (i). — 187. 
Omnia poBsideat = even if he possesses everything else. Gr. • 
503. I. A. & S. 260, R. 3. — 189. Natoramqae npvat = he re- 
news nature ; imposes new laws upon nature. — 190. Longam -^ 
sequente = a shorter following a longer one. As he begins with 
the smallest, it would seem more natural to say brevem longiore, — 

191. Ut — pates = so that you may (would) think that they have 
(had) grown by regular ascent. Gr. 494. A. & S. 262 and R. i. — 

192. Avenis. The shepherd's pipe was made of reeds or straws of 
unequal length, joined together with wax. C£ Virg. E. I. 2 ; IIJ. 
25 ; V. 2, etcv — 193. Medias et . . . imas = the middles and the 
ends (of the feathers). Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 195. 
Imitetur. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. — 196. Tractare. Gr. 552. 3. 
A. & S. 270, R. I. Perlcla ; the eifect for the cause. Gr. 705. II. 
A. & S. 324. 2. — 199. MoUibat Gr. 239. i. A. & S. 162. 2. — 
200. Manus ultima = the last touch. — 203. Medio. See on 
V. 193. Curras. Gr. 492. 2. A. & S. 262. So gravet and adurat 

— 204. DemiBsior. Gr.443.2. A. & S. 205, R. 15. So celsior. 

— 206. Inter utmmque = between the two (extremes). Spec- 
tare. Gr. 551. II. I. A. & S. 273. 2 {d). Booten. See on II. 176. — 
207. Helicen. See on II. 132, 171. Orlonis = of Orion, a promi- 
nent southern constellation. Cf. Virgil, A. I. 535 ; III. 517 ; IV. 52. 

— 208. Meduce. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a) and (^). — 213. 
Ante. Gr. 436. A. & S. 235, R. 10. —215. Sequi Gr. 558. VI. 3. 
A. & S. 273. 2 and {b), Damnosas = perilous. — 217. Arundina 
Cf. calamo, III. 587. — 218. Baculo. Gr. 419. II. A. & S. 245. II. i. 
Pastor and arator are in apposition with aliquis. — 219. Possent. 
Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. I. — 220. Junonia ; because it was the 
birthplace of Juno. Cf. Virg. A. I. i6. — 221. Deles. See on III. 
597 and VI. 190. Pares was an island in the Aegean, one of the 
largest of the Cyclades. See on II. 264, and cf. Virg. A. III. 126. — 
222. Deztra is nominative with Lebynthos. C£ III. 640. Le- 
bynthus, or Lebinthus, and Calymne are small islands in the Aegean. 
Melle. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 223. Volatu. Gr. 414 2. A. & S. 
247. I (2). — 224. Cupidine. Gr. 414. 2. 3) (2). A. & S. 247, R. 2 {b). 
225. Rapidi= scorching. The word is derived from rapere, and 
originally is nearly = rapax. Hence it is applied to devouring seas 
and lires, and often, as here, to the, sun. — 228. Remigio. Cf. re- 
migio alarum^ Virg. A. I. 301 ; VI. 19. — 230. The southeastern 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK VIII. 413 

part of the Aegean was called mare Icarium, — 233. Dioebat. Gr. 
469. IL A. & S. 145. II. I. — 235. TelluB ; I e. the island Icarus, 
or Icaria (now Nicaria), in the Aegean, west of Samos. Sepulti ; 
sc. Icari, 

THE STORY OF PHILEMON AND BAUCIS, [w. 619- 
726.] 

Pirithous, the son of Ixion, had refused to believe that the gods 
could change the forms of men ; whereupon Lelex, king of the Lo- 
cri, relates the following story as one for the truth of which he can 
vouch. 

621. Dubitea. Gr. 489. I. and 499. A. & S. 262 and R. 9. — 
623. Felopeia. Pelops was driven out of Phrygia by Ilus, and fled 
to Greece. Fittheus was one of the sons of Pelops. — 624. Par- 
entL Gr. 388. 3. A. & S. 225. II. — 626. Celebres = abounding 
m, frequented by. Cf. VI. 165. — 628. Atlantiades = Mercury, 
whose mother, Maia, was the daughter of Atlas. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 
258, and Hon C. I. 10. i. Caducifer. For a description of the 
caduceusy or wand, of Mercury, see Virg. A. IV. 242-246. Alls. Gr. 
431. A. & S. 257. — 629. Locum = shelter, lodging. — 632. Ae- 
tate. Gr. 42a A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 633. Jirncti = united (in 
marriage). Annis. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. — 634. Fatendo. 
Gr. 566. I. A. & S. 275, R. 4 — 635. Nee — ferendam = and 
not intolerable. — 636. Nee refert = nor matters it. Gr. 408. 2. 
A. & S. 219, R. 4 Requiras. Gr. 525 and 526. II. 2. A. & S. 
265, and R. 2. — 637. Tota — sunt Cf. I. 355. Idem. Gr. p. 
61, foot-note, and 669. II. A. & S. 306, R. i (i). — 638. Penates. 
See on I. 174 — 639. Submissoque — postes=^and with bent 
head (I e. stooping) entered the lowly door. — 641. Quo = on 
which. Teztum = stragulum. — 642. Inde — hesternos = then 
she raked open the warm embers on the hearth, and kindles up the 
remnants of yesterday's fire. — 644. Et — anili = and blew it into a 
flame with her aged (feeble) breath. — 646. Minuit == broke them. 
— 648. Foliis. Gr. 425. 2. 2). A. & S. 251. Levat = takes 
down- — 649. Sordida — suis = a dingy flitch of bacon ; sordida^ 
because hanging in the smoke, which blackens the beam also. 
Tigno. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (3). So clavo^ v. 654 — 651. 
J>OJnat = mollU ; i.e. boils it. — 652. Medias — ' horas = they 
beguile the intervening hours with conversation. — 654. Clavo* . . . 
ab ansa = from a nail by the handle. — 655. Fovendos. Gr. 565. 
3. 2). A. & S. 274, R. 7 (a). — 657. Sponda — salignis. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6.-659. Et = even. — 660. Non indignanda 
= not to be scorned by; i.e. not out of keeping with. Leeto is 
personified. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. — 662. In the Augustan 
age, three-footed tables belong to the furniture of the poor. — 665. 



414 NOTES ON OVID. 

The meal is after the Roman manner, but in the simplest style : first, 
fruit, etc to whet the appetite ; then the meal proper ; and, lastly, 
the dessert. Bacca=the olive, sacred to Minerva. Sincerae= 
chaste. Some understand Minervae = the olive (as Bacchus = vin- 
unif Ceres =frumentumf etc.) and sincercu, agreeing with it in that 
secondary sense = recentis^ fresh, in distinction from oondita = 
preserved. Coma. See on I. 105. Paece = sauce. — 667. Lac- 
tis — coacU = curd. — 668. Ova. The Romans usually began a 
meal with eggs and ended it with fruit ; hence the proverb ab avo 
mala == from the beginning to the end. — 669. Omnia fictUibufl 
= all things in earthem vessels. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. 
Eodem agrees with argento = (humorously) of the same silver ; 
i. e. of clay ; but some consider it the adverb. Eadem argilla is the 

reading of some editors, based on very slight manuscript authority. 

670. Fago; sc. de, — 671. Qua cava Bunt; i. e. on the inside. 
mita. Gr. 651. 3 ; 654. A. & S. 284, Exc. i (2) {a\ and 285. i- 

— 672. Epulas. See vv. 648, 651. — 673. Nee longae senecta^ 
= not very old. The poor could aiford only the cheap new wine. 
Rursus some understand to be merely expletive, like " come bacic 
fl^/«" = " come back," in colloquial English ; others translate, "is 
removed again," having been taken away at the end of the first 
course and brought back during the second. Referuntmr = <z«/2r- 
runtur, — 675. Falmis. See on V. 555. — 679. Boni = kind. 
Nee — voluntas = and a ready and generous good- will. — 68X 
Per ae . . . succreacere = renewing itself — 682. AttonitL 
See on VI. 209. Note the same principle in the use of domlni, v. 
686. — 684. Nullis paratibus = want of preparation. — 685. 
C\iAtod^ = custos ; the abstract for the concrete noun. So tutela^ 
V. 713. — 687. Fenna. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Aetate. Gr. 
414 2. A. & S. 247. I. — 689. Necari See on spectare^ v. 206. 

— 690. Dique . . . 6ui:er}int= et dixerunt : Di, etc. Cf. y. 203 ; 
II. 33, etc — 691,. 692. Impia. See v. 630. ImmunibtiB. Gr. 
547. II. A. & S. 205, R. 6. Esse. 545. 2. 2). A. & S. 239, R. i. 
Mali Gr. 399. 2. 2). A. & S. 213, R. 5 (3). —693. Ardua. Gr. 
396. III. 2. 3) (3). A. & S. 212, R. 3, N. 4 — 694. Ite simul ; so. 
nobiscum, — 695. Levant = support Tardi — annis. C£ v. 
687.-696. Clivo. Gr. 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R.3. — 697. 
Summo; sc w2^«/^ = the summit C£ IV. 709. — 700. ACiran- 
tur. Gr. 522. 1, (i). A. & S. 263. 4 (2). — 701. Ula — duobn8 = 
that old hut (which had been) small even for its two owners. — 702. 
Furcas — columnae = columns took the place of the rude props 
(that had supported the roof). — 703. Stramma=the thatch. — 
704. Adopertaque — tellus = and the ground (within) is paved 
with marble. — 705. SatomitiB = Jupiter. See on V. 420. — 706, 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK X. 415 

Coujnga See on V. 345. — 707. Optetis. Gr. 525. A. & S. 
265. — 710. PosoimiiB = we beg, entreat — 711. Auferat Gr. 
488. L A. & S. 260, R. 6. So ▼ideam and aim tumulandiia. — 
713. Vota — 8equitur = their prayer is fulfilled. Puere = they 
became. — 714. Annis — solutiL = worn out with age. See on 
aetate, v. 687. —715. Starent Gr. 518. II. i. A. & S. 263, R. 2. 
Iiociqae — caeua = and were talking of the history of the place ; 
i. e. the events here related. — 716. Frondere ^= frondescere. — 
718. Cresoente caouxnine = as the tree-top grew. Gr. 431. 
A. & S. 257. — 719. Valeque. See on v. 690. — 721. Tyaneius 
= of Tyana, a town of Cappadocia, — 722. Tnincos = arbores. — 
723. Non ^^oai = veraces. Vellent Gr. 525. A. & S. 265, or 
264. 7, N. 3.-725. Fonensque recentia = and placing fresh 
garlands there myself. — 726. Dis. Gr. 390, and 2. A. & S. 227 
and R. 4. Qui — coluntur = and those who have honored them 
(the gods) are honored. 



METAMORPHOSES. Book X. 



THE STORY OF ORPHEUS AND EURYDICE. — Orpheus 
was the son of Oeagrus, king of Thrace, and the Muse Calliope. 
Presented with the lyre by Apollo, and instructed by the Muses in its 
use, he enchanted with its music not only the wild beasts, but the 
very trees and rocks, which moved from their places to follow the 
sound. The power of his music caused the Argonauts to seek his 
aid, which contributed materially to the success of their expedition. 
He married the nymph Eurydice,.the legend of whose loss and re- 
covery is here given. 

1. Immensum. See on IV. 621. Croceo ; the color invariably 
associated with Hymen, who is called the " yellow-buskined god," 
the "saffron-robed," etc The god is going from the nuptials of 
Iphis and lanthe, in Crete, to those of Orpheus. — 2. Ciconumque 
= of the Cicones ; who lived in Thrace near the Hebrus. Hyme- 
naeus. See on IV. 758. — 3. Orphea = of Orpheus. Gr. 398. 2. 
A.& S. 211, R. 4 {a). — N'eqiiicquam=in vain; since the mar- 
riage was inauspicious. — 4. Hie ; i. e. Hymen. SoUennia verba = 
the customary festive songs. — 6. Fax. See on IV. 758, 759. Stri- 
dula = hissing ; like damp wood that will not bum. — 7. Nullos- 
qne — ignes ; i. c. could not be kindled into a blaze by waving it in 
the air. — 8. / Tioicio. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. Nupta nova 
= Eurydice. — i> Naiadum = the Naiads ; the nymphs of fresh 



4l6 NOTES ON OVID. 

water, whether of rivers, lakes, or springs. — 11. Rliodopeiiis == 
Thracian ; from Rhodope, a mountain of Thrace. — 12. Ne noil 

tentaret = that he might not omit to try. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. 

13. Styga = the Styx; L e. the infernal regions. See on I. 139. 
Taenaria porta = by the Taenarian gate ; a cavern in Mt Tae- 
narum (the promontory now called Cape Matapan\ which was sup* - 
posed to lead to the lower world. — 14. Levea = shadowy, ghostly. 
Sepulcris. Gr. 419. 1. A. &S. 245. I. — 15. Persephonen. Sees 
on V. 470. Adiit See on I. 114. Inamoena = joyless. — 16. 
Dominum = Pluto. Pulsis . . . nervia = striking the harp-strings s 
i. e. as an accompaniment to his song. — 18. Quicquid, in apposi — 
tion with the subject of oreamur, is more general, and therefore 
more emphatic, than the masculine plural would have been. Sc3 
omnia^ v. 32. — 20. Viderem. See on v. 12. So vincirem. — 22t . 
Medusaei . . . monstri = Cerberus ; the three-headed dog, guar- 
dian of the entrance to Hades, called " Medusa-like " from his snaky 
hair. Hercules had bound him and dragged him to the upper worlcl. 
Cf. Virg. VI. 395, 417 - 423. — 24. Creacentesque — annoa = took 
her away in her youth. With abstulit^ supply cui from in qtiam, Gr. 
385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2. — 25. Pati = to bear this, to be re- 
signed. Gr. 552. I. A. & S. 271, N. I and R. 4. Tentaaae. Gr. 
551. I. A. & S. 272, N. I. — 26. Supera. . . ora = in the upper 
world. Deua = Amor^ or Cupid. — 27. An — hie = whether he is 
(known) even here. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Eaae ; sc. ettm. See on 
tentasse, v. 25. — 28. Rapinae; i. e. the carrying away of Proser- 
pina. See V. 341 foil. — 29. Per, in oaths, is often separated from 
its object. Cf. III. 658. — 30. Chaoa. See on II. 299. It is here 
put, as often, for the lower world. — 31. Froperata — fata = un 
ravel the thread of her premature fate. The Parcacy or Fates, wer 
represented as spinning the thread of human destiny. Some mal 
retexite = weave anew. The difference is slight. — 32. Oxnuia. S 
on V. 18. Some read debenture and the weight of authority is, p 
haps, in favor of it ; but we prefer debemur. The change of ger 
in morati is natural enough, though some have wished to ma] 
morata. — 36. Haec; i. e. Eurydice, Juria. Gr. 401 ; 40 
A. & S. 211, R. 8 (2). — 37. Uaum= her society. — 38. Vei 
= this favor. Certum — mihi. I am resolved not to return, 
on V. 533. The use of nolle is akin to that in prohibitions 
535. I. 3). A. & S. 267, R. 3. — 39. Leto. Gr. 414. 2. ^ 
247. I. — 40. Ad (as in v. i6) = in accompaniment to. — 41 
taliia. See on VI. 172. — Captavit = tried to seize. — 4 
onia orbia = the wheel of Ixion, king of the Lapithae, wh< 
tempting to win the love of Juno, was chained in Tartarus to 
which revolved forever. — 43. Jecur = the liver ; i. e. of 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK X. 417- 

who, taving offered violence to Diana, was cast into Tartarus, 
he lay outstretched on the ground, with two vultures devouring 
2r, which grew as fast as it was consumed. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 595 - 
-44. Belides = the Danaides^ daughters of Danaus, the son of 

who, for the murder of their husbands, were doomed to draw 
in sieves to fill a leaky cask. Sisyphus was an avaricious and 
king of Corinth, who was punished in Hades by having to roll 
I a huge stone which rolled back again as soon as it reached 
3. The music of Orpheus wins a respite for all these wretches. 

Eumenidum ; one of the Greek names of the Furies. It 

" the benevolent goddesses " ; a mere euphemism to avoid call- 
; fearful beings by their real name. CoDJuz ; i. e. Proserpina. 

Oranti ; sc ei, Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 50. Rhodo- 
. See on v. 11. — 51. Ne depends on the command implied in 
L Gr. 558. VI. A. & S. 273. 2. — 51. JSLvemaB^^ infernos, 
I V. 540. — 52. Aut = or else ; " in opposition to a condition 
i to, but not completely expressed." Futura ; sc ««/, de- 
ig on the implied ut. — 56. Ne deficeret = lest she should 
om fatigue). Gr. 492. 4 and i). A. & S. 262 and R. 7. Vi- 
- Gr. 563. I. 2). A. & S. 275. III. R. I and (2). — 60. Quic- 
. Gr. 380 and 2. A. & S. 232 (3) and N. 2. — 61. Quere- 
Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Amatam ; sc. esse, Gr. 
II. A. & S. 273, N. 7. — 62. Supremum. Gr. 438. 3. 
. 205, R. 8. — 63. Acciperet = could catch. Gr. 486. III. 
;. 260. II. — 64. Nece. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i (2). — 65. 
3 ; sc collo = his middle neck. — 66. Canis ; L e. Cerberus, 
Hercules dragged him to the upper world. See on v. 22. — 
SQCO. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 68. The second illustration 

of Olenus. Nothing is known of the story excerpt from this 
e. Lethaea seems to have offended the gods by boasting of 
lauty, and her husband to have wished to take the blame upon 
^ and both to have been turned to stone. Quique Olenos = 
am) Olenos (stupuit) qui. So tuque. — 69. Figurae. Gr. 

2). A. & S. 245. II. R. I. — 71. Peotora. Gr. 705. III. 
;. 324. 3. C£ Virg. A. II. 349. Ide. See on II. 218.— 73. 
tor ; i. e. Charon, who ferried shades across the Styx. Cf. 

A. VI. 298 - 304. — 74. Cereris — munere = without food. 

Bsse. See on v. 61. — 77. Aquilonibua. See on I. 262. 
ion. See on II. 219. 



4l8 NOTES ON OVID. 



METAMORPHOSES. Book XL 

THE STORY OF THE DEATH OF ORPHEUS, [w. i - 
84.] After the loss of Eurydice, Orpheus wandered among the woods 
and moimtains, singing of his • bereavement The beasts and the 
birds gathered about him, and even the trees followed him, charmed 
by the magic of his voice and lyre. 

Taie nemus votes etttraxerat, infue ferarum 
CanciUo nudvus turba vobicrumque sedebai. 

At this point, the narrative in the text begins. 

Z.JX'oraA^midieres. Cfn.366. Ciconum. See on X. 2. TajtBL' 
phata = frantic ; i. e. carried away with Bacchic fury. Strictly, it 
means nympholeptic^ or made insane by seeing the image of a nymph 
in the water. Lympha and nympha are origmally the same word. — 
4s. Pectora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 5. FerouaalB — nerviA. 
C£ X. 16, 4a — 7. NostrL Orpheus in his grief had shunned the 
society of women. — 8. ApollineL See on Orphea, X. 3. — 9. 
Foliis. The hasta was a tkyrsusy a. staff twined with ivy and vine- 
leaves, carried by Bacchus and his votaries. See v. 28, and IIL 667. 
— 13. Sed enim. See on VI. 152. — 14s. Abiit; final syllable 
lengthened by the caesura, Ezlimys, or Erinys. See on I. 241. — 
15. Toxent = essent, Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 26a IL or 261, R. 4, 
the condition being implied in Bed, etc — 16. Berecyntia ; from 
Berecyntus, a mountain in Phrygia, sacred to the goddess Cybde. 
C£ Virg. A. VI. 785. The instruments used in her worship were 
adopted in the Bacchic orgies also. The Berecyntian pipe was 
curved like a horn ; hence inflato coma ; sc ejus, — 17. Bacchei; 
the final syllable not elided. C£ Virg. G. I. 281, 436 ; A. IV. 667, 
etc. See on X. 3. — 18. Sono. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Turn 
^LeniquB = turn demum, — 21. See Introduction to this story. — 
22. Maenades = Bcuchantes ; from \uiivo\u3A, to be mad. l^tn- 
lum = gloriam, Rapuere = attacked ; hence cruentatis deztris. 
Theatri ; i. e. the audience of beasts and birds. Theatrum is often 
put for the persons in the theatre. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. — 23. 
Inde. After tearing in pi%ces the animals which had thronged about 
Orpheus, they turn against the minstrel himself Vertuntur ; used 
reflexively, as often. — 24. Luce = by day. Cf. Virg, A. IV. 18& 
— 25. Noctis avem = the night-owl. Structoque — theatre = 
in the amphitheatre ; which, being circular, while the theatre was 
semi-circular, may be described as a " theatre built up on both sides," 
or a double theatre. — 26. Matutina. The fights of wild beasts 
were the morning performance in the Roman theatre. Gr. 443. 2» 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK XI. 4x9 

A. & S. 205, R. 15 {a), CervuB. After cotunff ut, we should ex- 
pect canes as the subject ; but the change of construction does not 
seem to us so " awkward " as some of the critics have considered it. 
— 28. Non — fiiot08 = not made for such a use. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 
647. — 30. Neu — furorl = and that they may not want for weap- 
ons in their frenzy. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. Neu, as often in Ovid, 
^x^etne, — 31. Presso. <:f. depresso arairo, Virg. G. 1. 45. Subige- 
bant C£ L 103 and Virg. G. I. 125. — 32. Fructum; i. e. the 
future harvest — 34. Agmine ; L e. the Bacchantes. — 35. Arma = 
the tools, implements. — 36. Graves. Cf. iniquo pondere and gravi- 
6uSf Virg. G. L 164, 496. For sarculaquey see on I. 114. — 38. 
Divellere = have torn in pieces. Fata = caedem. — 41. Sacri- 
legae ; since Orpheus was of divine descent, and a favorite of Apollo 
and the Muses. — 42. Sasis. Gr. 38& 4- A. & S. 225. II.— 43. 
In ventos. Cf. Virg. A IV. 705. — 47. Comam. Gr. 380. 
A & S. 234 II. Laorimia — suia = were swollen with their own 
tears. — 48. Obscuraque — pullo = their robes (or mantles) 
dark with mourning. Pullo is used as a noun. Carbasa ; the ma- 
terudior the thing made of it. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324 3. — 49. 
Drirades = the wood-nymphs. See on I. 192. Fassoa ; from 
pander e, — 50. Diversa locis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Cf. I. 
173. Hebre. See on X. 2 and II. 257. — 52. Nescioquld = I 
know not what ; i. e. something. The phrase is equivalent to an ac- 
cusative after queritur. Gr. 371. 3. i). A. & S. 234 (2) and N. i. 
• — 54. Invectae ; sc lingua et lyra. Flumen populare = his 
native river; i. e. the Hebrus. — 55. Litore. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 
245. L Lesbi = Lesbos (called Methymncean from Methymna, one 
of its chief cities) ; a large and important island, in the Aegean, off 
the coast of Mysia. Cf. Milton, in Lycidas : 

What could the Muse herself that Orpheus bore. 
The Muse herself, for her enchanting son, 
Whom universal nature did lament, 
When by the rout that made the hideous roar 
His gory visage down the stream was sent, 
Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore ? 

56. AreniB. Gr, 422. i. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 57. Rore = 
aqua, — 58. Tandem = at last ; not earlier, as might have been 
expected. — 60. Congelat is here transitive. Cf VI. 307. — 61. 
Terras. Gr. 371. 4- A & S. 233 (3). Ante = before ; i. e. when 
he had gone thither in search of Eurydice. See X. 13 foil. — 62. 
Arva piomm = the Elysian Fields. — 63. tJlnls 3= arms. See ref. 
on carbasa, v. 48. — 65. Anteit. Gr. 669. II. 2. A. & S. 306. i. — 
66. Tuto; i.e. without fear of losing her. See X. 51 foil. — 67. 
Ljaouft = Bacchus ; i. e. (Auatos) he who frees from care. Cf. JUbery 



420 NOTES ON OVID. 



\ 



III. 636. — 68. Suonim. According to some of the legends, <3t- 
pheus had introduced the orgiastic worship of Bacchus into Thrat-^*^ 

— 69. Edonidas = Thracian ; from the Edoni, or Edones, a peolP^e 
of Thrace, noted for their devotion to Bacchus. — 70. Quae — ne^M 
=who saw (had seen) the impious deed. Several MSS. rt^A/ec^'^e^ 
which is preferred by some modem critics. Radice. Gr. 414^ 4 
A. & S. 247. 3. — 71. In — Becuta = as far as each had pursueci; 
i. e. where each had halted in the pursuit of Orpheus. Some maJre 
it = quotquot secutae sunt, as many as had pursued him. One editcx* 
frankly says that he does not understand the passage ; and another 
shows that he does not by translating : (Fiisse) womit eine jede ihm 
gefolgt war ; i. e. with which (feet) each had followed him! — T2. 
l^azit = lengthened. — 73. The prose order would be ; ^/ «/ volu- 
cris, uH crus suum laqueis, quos callidus attceps abdidit, commisit el 
teneri se sensity plangitur, etc. Laqueis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224.— 
75. Ac — motu = and fluttering tightens the cords by its motion; 

i. e. its efforts to escape. — 78. 'BxA\]ltant&m,==exsultare conanUm. 

— 79. Sint Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 80. Adspicit — suras = 
she sees wood take the place of her rounded limbs. — 82. Fiimt 
Gr. 462. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 9. — 8*. Putes. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 
260. II. and R. 4. So fallare. 

THE STORY OF MIDAS, [w. 85-193.1 — 86. Caioro = 
coharsy v. 89. i. e. train, retinue. Tymoli = Tymolus, or Tmolus, a 
a mountain in Lydia. Sui ; because of the vineta. — 87. Pac- 
tolon = the Pactolus, a river of Lydia, rising on Tmolus, famous for • 
its golden sands. — 88. Invidiosus = envied, or enviable. See on 
VI. 276. Avenis. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. i. — 89. Hone ; i. e. 
Bacchus. Satyri = Satyrs. See on I. 193. Bacchae = Bac- 
chantes. — 90. SileniiB. The older Satyrs were generally called 
Sileniy but one of these is commonly the Silenus, who always attends 
Bacchus, and is said to have been his foster-father. He is described 
as a jovial old man, bald, fat, generally drunk, riding on an ass, or 
supported by other Satyrs. — 92. Regem ; sc Phrygiae, Orpheus. 
See on v. 68. — 93. Cecropio Eumolpo = Athenian Eumolpus ; 
a bard of Thracian birth, who spent much of his life in Attica, where 
he introduced the worship of Ceres and Bacchus. Here, as in some 
other legends, he is associated with Orpheus. There are so many 
conflicting stories about him that some of the ancients supposed that 
there were several Eumolpu The final syllable of Cecropio is not 
elided, and the line is spondaic. See on v. 17, and on I. 117. — Ce- 
cropioy from Cecrops, first king of Attica and founder of Athens. — 
94. Qui ; i. e. Midas. — 95. Adventu. Gr. 414. 2 and 3). A. & S. 
247 and R. 2 (a). — 97. Cf. II. 114. — 98. Lucifer, like Aurora^ 
is often = dies, C£ Virg. A. V. 65. — 99. Alumno = Bacchus, wh<^ 



METAMORPHOSES. BOOK XI. 42 1 

is represented as ever youthful — 100. Hiiic = Midas. Optandi 
Gr. 562 and i. A. & S. 275. II. Inutile =^ pernicious ; as it proved. 
—102. Donis. Gr.419.1. A. & S. 245. I.— 103. Vertatur. Gr. 
493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. — 104. Solvit = bestows. — 105. Petis- 
set Gr. 234. I ; 520. II. A. & S. 162. 7 (a) ; 266. 3. — 106. 
Berec3rntiuB heros; I e. Midas. See on v. 16. —107. Fidem . . . 
tentat = tests the truth. — 108. The order is : non alta ilice vir- 
gam fronde virentem detraxit Fronde. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. 
— HO. Hume. Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 255, R. i. — 112. Massa; sc. 
aurea^ or auri, Cereris = of wheat. Cf. Virg. A. L 1 77. — 114. Hes- 
peridas — putes = you would think that the Hesperides had given 
it to him. The Hesperides were the guardians of the golden apples 
which Terra gave to Juno at her marriage with Jupiter. See on IV. 
637. For putes, see on v. 84. So posset, v. 1 17. — 117. Danaen ; 
an allusion to the golden shower in which Jupiter visited Danae. See 
on IV; 611. — 118. Vix — capit = scarcely can he grasp in thought 
his own hopes. Fingens = as he imagines. 120. Tostae frugis 
= corn roasted (and ground, and made into bread). Gr. 409. i. 
A. &S. 220.3. 'Cf- Virg. G. I. 267; A. I. 179. — 121. Cerealia 
munera. Cf. X. 74.— 123. Dente. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. 
— 124. Dente. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Premebat = covered. — 
125. Auctorem muneris = Bacchus ; i.e. wine. Cf. v. 112, and 
see on VIII. 665. XJndis = rt^w^. See on V. 555.— 126. Vi- 
deres. Gr. 486. 1, and 4. A. & S. 260. II. R. 2, or 261, R. 4. — 128. 
Voverat = had prayed for. —130. Meritus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 
• 205, R. 15. Auro. Gr. 414. 2. 3). A. & S. 247 and R. 2 [a). — 
133. Specioso damno = this splendid wretchedness. — 134. Mite 
deum (= deorum) numen = mitis deus, Cf. Virg. A. II. 623, 777. 
— 135. Restituit = restored him ; i. e. to his former nature. Fac- 
taque — solvit = and revokes the gift he had bestowed in fulfilment 
of his promise. In v. 104, munera solvit means " fulfils his promise 
concerning the gift," or frees himself irom his obligation by bestowing 
it ; here it means " frees Midas from the gift." In both cases solvere 
has its original meaning, "to loosen, unbind, or release." — 136. 
Neve ... ait = ^/ ait: Ne^ etc Cf. I. 151 ; II. 33, etc. Maneas. 
Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. —137. Sardibus = Sardes, or Sardis, the 
capital of Lydia. Amnem ; i. e. the Pactolus. See on v. 87. — 138. 
Perque — viam = and take your way along the height of the bank, 
up the stream. Undis. Gr. 391. A. & S. 222, R. i {b), — 139. 
Venias. Gr. 522. II. A. & S. 263. 4. —140. Fonti. Gr. 386. i. 
A. & S. 224, N. I. Plurimus = maximus, Cf Virg. A. I. 419. — 
141. Corpusque — crimen = while you bathe your body, wash 
away your fault Cf. Virg. A. VI. 741. —142. Jussae. Cf I. 399 ; 
VL 163, etc Vis aurea j I e. the power of changing everything to 



dis ^i"* *U3. 5»St>l*'^ orison '^^ ^cted a* l^^^©. «« ^ 

•^f^r V>-V^' roneP-^^t s»ge«**'\6l ©'•^^^oo; ^«- 

^^ r«oun«i»^ -««V\. & S- .!^'; > *f & 8. ^>\^]^ncti> 

&ot» ^- VI Ya^ Gt. A49- *• o see on ^^i6'J-^*f!,l68. 
•St"** !^o^feil ^=^ \,V»8- ?f^^e«. ^J: cause- V"ess,c« 

^ir^^^-^Si^-'-.^s Sect ^- ;^s-^f ^v.. 

r^6. i^^jT^ -VceJ^: ,^.^^°, rise, ^e - 
Gt. f 9- ^of tW e%P« 



TRISTIA. BOOK IV. 423 

i of whom have written long and dull notes to explain and jus* 
-tify it, while others have wasted their ingenuity on conjectural emen- 
dations, like arcanum, agrkdis, auriculas^ etc. 



TRISTIA. Book IV. 



ELEGY X. In this poem, written during his exile, the author 
gives us a sketch of his life and fortunes. [See Life of Ovid^ p. 

365-1 

For the measure of the poem, see Gr. 676. A. & S. 311. 

1. Ble. Gr. 450. 5. A. & S. 207, R. 24. Qui fuerim depends 
on noris. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Lusor = singer. Amonim ; 
referring to the Amores, etc See Life, — 3. Sulmo ; a town of the 
Peligni, in the country of the Sabines, about ninety miles northeast 
of Rome. It was situated on two small mountain streams, the water 
of which was very cold. Hence gelidis uberrimus undis. — 4. The 
Roman mile was 4,854 English feet, or about nine tenths of the Eng- 
lish mile. — 6. In' the year 43 B.C., the consuls Aulus Hirtius and 
C. Vibius Parisa were sent with Octavianus against Antony, who was 
besieging D. Brutus at Mutina. Pansa was defeated by Antony, arid 
died of a wound received in the battle. Hirtius retrieved this dis- 
aster by defeating Antony, but he also fell while leading an assault 
on the besieger's camp. — 7. Si quid id est = if that is anything ; 
meaning that it is something to boast of. Many passages in his 
poems show that Ovid was proud of his family. Cf. Amor. III. 15. 
5 ; Ep. ex Pont IV. 8. 17. Ordinia ; sc equestris^ implied in the fol- 
lowing eqiies. — 8. Portuna munere ; i. e. by the possession of a 
fortune of 400 sestertia, which under the law of L. Roscius Otho 
(passed A. U. C. 687), entitled a person to equestiian privileges. — 
U. Lncifer — idem ; i. e. we both had the same birthday. See on 
Met XI. 98. — 12. The libum was a cake offered to the Genius 
(the attendant spirit, or " guardian angel," of the person), on birth- 
days. — 13. Haec — solet = this is the first of the five days sacred 
to the warlike Minerva, which is bloody with the fight of gladiators ; 
i. e. the second day of the Quinquatria^ a festival in honor of Miner- 
va, held on the 19th of March and the four following days. Of the 
first day Ovid [Fasti, III. 811) says: Sanguine prima vacat, nee fas 
cancurrere ferro ; but on the others there were shows of gladiators. 
— 16. Insignes ab arte = distinguished for learning. — Eloqui- 
xxm^=eloquentiam, Tendebat = inclined to; had a bent for. — 



424 NOTES ON OVID. 

19. CoeleBtia sacra; I e. the worship of the Muses. — 22. ! 
onides = Homer ; from Maeonia, where he was said to have be^^-^ 

born. See on Met. VI. 149. — 23. Helicona See on II. 219. 

24. Verba — modia = words free from measure ; i. e. prose. — 2^ S 
Liberior toga ; i. e. the to^a virilism for which the boy of noble birtK" iJi 
at about the age of fifteen, exchanged the toga praetexta. He thc^^J 
ceased to be an infansy and entered on the legal rights of manhoo» -^n 

Hence liberior. For the datives, see Gr. 388. 4, A. & S. 225. II. 

29. The latus claims^ or broad purple stripe down the front of th:K! 
tunic, was the badge of senatorial rank. Augustus, however, allow^^ai 
the sons of senators, and, in some cases, of equites whose fortun^^*^ 

equalled that of senators, to wear the latus clavus, when they a s 

sumed the toga virilis. — 32. Cf. Hor. C. II. 17. 5. — 34. Deque 

fui = and I became one of the Triumviri ; i. e. the Triurnvf^n' 
Capitalesj whose duty it was to inquire into all capital crimes, znd 
who had the care of public prisons. — 35. Curia — est = the sen- 
ate was now open to me, but (not desiring to enter it) I laid aside the 
latus clavus. When a young eques was allowed to wear the latus 
claims (see on v. 29), he gave it up on reaching the age when he was 
admissible into the senate, if he did not desire to become a senator, 
and assumed the angustus clavus^ the badge of the equestrian order. 
— 36. Onus ; i. e. the senatorship. — 38. Fugaz, in poetry, some- 
times takes a genitive of the thing which is shunned. — 39. Aoniae 
Borores = the Muses ; since Helicon and Aganippe, their favorite 
haunts, were in Aonia, or Boeotia. See on I. 313. — 40. Otium 
often denotes freedom from the cares of public life. — 44. Macer ; 
i. e. Aemilius Macer, who wrote a poem, or poems, now lost, upon 
birds, serpents, and medicinal plants. He was born at Verona, 
and was a friend of Virgil's. — On the subjunctives, see Gr. 525. 
A. & S. 265. — 45. S. Aurelius Propertius, the poet, was bom 
about B. C. 51. Little is known of his life. As an elegiac poet, he 
ranks very high, and, among the ancients, it was a disputed point 
whether the preference should be given to him or to Tibullus. Ig- 
nes ; i. e. love-poems. — 47. Ponticus ; a poet, less noted, who 
wrote on the Theban War in hexameter (heroo) verse. Bassus ; 
a poet mentioned also by Propertius. Iambo = iambic verse. — 

48. Dulcia — mei ; i. e. were favorites in my circle of friends. — 

49. Numerosus Horatius = the tuneful Horace. — 50. Ausonia 
= Italian. See on Met. V. 350. — 51. Qvid was twenty-four years old 
when Virgil died, but the latter had resided for some years at Naples. 
Albius Tibullus, the elegiac poet, died in the same year with Virgil, 
or soon after. The poetry of his contemporaries shows him to have 
been a gentle and singularly amiable man. — 53. C. Cornelius Cal- 
lus, born about B. C. 66, was an intimate friend of Virgil, Varus, 



TRISTIA. BOOK IV. 425 

Ovid, and other eminent men of his time, and highly esteemed as a 
poet ; but none of his works have come down to us. — 54. The series 
of elegiac poets, according to 0^^d, is, therefore : Gallus, Tibul- 
lus, Propertius, Ovidius. — 56. Thalia mea = my muse. Thalia, 
at least in later times, was " the Muse of comedy and of merry and 
idyllic poetry." — 57. Populo legi ; i. e. in public, either in the 
Forum or the baths. The practice had become a common one at 
the time here referred to. — 60. The real name of the Corinna, 
celebrated in the Amores of Ovid, is not known to us. Sidonius 
Apollinaris says that she was Julia, the daughter of Augustus, and 
some modern scholars think this not improbable. — 63. Qutun fu- 
gerem = when I went into exile. Placitura = which would per- 
haps have pleased. At this time he burned the Metamorphoses, See 
Life, — 64. Studio. Gr. 391. i. A. & S. 222, R. i. 

65. Molle — telia = susceptible and by no means proof against 
the arrows of Cupid. — 66. Moveret See ref. on v. 44. — 67. 
EsBem is subjunctive after quum causal. "Bio = such ; i. e. thus 
susceptible. — 68. Fabula = scandal. — 69 - 72. See Lt/e. — 73. 
Ultixaa. She was connected with the noble house of the Fabii and 
also with the imperial family. — 74. Conjux. Gr. 547. I. A. & S. 
271, N. 2. — 75, 76. Filia — avum ; i. e. his daughter, Perilla, was 
twice married, and had a child by each husband. — 77, 78. Since a 
lustrum is a period of five years, Ovid's father had reached the age 
of ninety. — 79. Me. Gr. 371. 3. i). A. & S. 232 (2) and N. i. 
Some editors read, me . , , adempto, — 80. Prozinia iuBta = the 
last honors. His mother died soon after her husband.' — 83. Me. 
Gr. 381 and i. A. & S. 238. 2. — 84. Nihil. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 
232 (3). — 85. Si — restat ; i. e. if death is not annihilation ; if the 
soul is immortal. — 86. Gracilis = thin, insubstantial. Cf. leves 
populosy Met. X. 14. — 89, 90. Causam jussae fugae = that the 
cause of my banishment. Errorem. Ovid says again and again 
that his offence was an error^ not a crime. See Life. — 91. Studi- 
osa (sc met) = devoted. — 92. Pectora. See on Met. X. 71. It 
would seem from this line that friends had requested him to write this 
sketch of his life. — 94. Antiquas ; i. e. gray. — 95, 96. Pisaea — 
equus ; i. e. ten times had the horses won the prize in the Olympian 
races. The Olympian games were celebrated, once in four years, 
near Pisa^ in Elis. Ovid here (as in Ep. ex Pont. IV. 6. 5, where he 
uses the expression, quijtquennis * Olympias) makes the Olympiad 
equal to the Roman lustrum (see on v. 78). He was fifty-one years 
old at the time of his banishment. 97. — See Life. — 101. Ovid re- 
peatedly complains of the treachery of those about him. Cf. Ep. ex 
Pont. II. 7. 62 : Ditata est spoliis perfida turba meis, — 106. Cepi — 
arma=I took up the arms of my situation; i. e. I met the change 



426 NOTES ON OVID. 

bravely. — 108. The hidden pole is the Southern ; the visible^ t hi 
Northern. Cf. Virg. G. I. 242 folL — YSxT Sarmatis ora = th^^s 

Sarmatian shore. Sarmatia was the general name for the northeast 

em part of Europe and the northwestern part of Asia. The Danub^^s- 
separated it from Thrace, just within whose boundaries the Geta^^ 
lived. — 111. Clrcumsoner. Or. 516. II. and 3. Some editoras 
read circumsonor. Compare guamvis ,.,est,\. 113. 113. Refera — 
tur. Or. 501. I. A. & S. 264. 7. — 116. Lucia = 2///^. — 117 « 
Gratia . . . tibi = is thy favor ; i. e. I owe to thee. The subject of 
the sentence is the clause depending on quod. — 119. Ab Istro = 
from the Danube ; i. e. from this place of exile. For the change of 
number in nos . . . mihi, see Met. V. 517, 518 ; XI. 132, 133, etc. — 
120. Helioone. See on v. 23. — 122. Ab ezsequiia =/osf exse- 
quias, — 123. Detxectat praesentia ; i. e. depreciates the works 
of living authors. — 124. Nostria ; sc. operibus. — 128. Plurlmus. 
See on Met XI. 140. — 130. ProtinuB — tuus ; i. e. though I die, 
I shall not be forgotten. Cf Hor. C. II. 7. 21 ; III. 30. 6. C£ also 
the closing verses of the Metamorphoses : — 

Jamgue opus peregi quod nee Jovis ira nee ignei 

Nee poterit ferrum nee edax abolere vetusias. 

Quum voletJUa dies^quae nil nisi corporis kujus 

yus habety incerti spatium mihifiniat aevi; 

Parte tamen tneliore met super alia perennis 

Astra ferar nomenque erit indelebile nostrum^ 

Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris • 

Ore Ugarpopuliy perque omnia saeculafama^ 

Si quid habent veri vatum praesagia^ vivam t 



THE LIFE OF VIRGIL. 



P. ViRGlLius (or Vergilius) Maro, was born on the 15th of Octo- 
ber, B. C. 70, in the first consulship of Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and M. 
Lidnios Crassus, at Andes, a small village near Mantua in Cisalpine 
Gaul. The tradition, though an old one, which identifies Andes with 
the modem village of Pietola, may be accepted as a tradition, without 
being accepted as a truth. The poet Horace, afterwards one of his 
friends, was bom B. C. 65 ; and Octavianus Caesar, afterwards the 
Emperor Augustus, and his patron, in B. C. 63, in the consulship of 
M. TuUius Cicero. Virgil's father probably had a small estate which 
he cultivated : his mother's name was Maia. The son was educated 
at Cremona and lAediolanum (Milan), and he took the toga virilis at 
Cremona on the day on which he commenced his sixteenth year, in B. 
C. 55, which was the second consulship of Cn. Pompeius Magnus 
and M. licinius Crassus. It is said that Virgil subsequently studied 
at Neapolis (Naples), under Parthenius, a native of Bith3mia, from 
whom he learned Greek ; and the minute industry of the grammarians 
has pointed out the following line (Georg. I. 437) as borrowed from 
his master : 

Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae. 

He was also instructed by Syron, an Epicurean, and probably at 
Rome. Virgil's writings prove that he received a learned education, 
and traces of Epicurean opinions are apparent in them. His health 
was always feeble, and there is no evidence of his attempting to rise 
by those means by which a Roman gained distinction, oratory and 
the practice of arms. Indeed, at the time when he was bom, Cisal- 
^e Gaul was not included within the term " Italy," and it was not 
till B. C. S9 that a Lex Fompeta gave even the Jus Latii to the in- 
habitants of Gallia Transpadana, and the privilege of obtaining the 
Roman cwitas by filling a magistratus in their own cities. The Ro- 
man cwilas was not given to the Transpadani till B. C. 49. Virgil, 
therefore, was not a Roman citizen by birth, and he was above 
twenty years of age before the avUas was extended to Gallia Trans- 
padana. 



428 THE LIFE OF VIRGIL. • 

It is merely a conjecture, though it is probable, that Virgilius r»— mt 
tired to his paternal fiarm, and here he may have written some of tbzf .^ 
small pieces which are attributed to him, the Culex^ Ciris, Morgtunj^-^, 
and others. The defeat of Brutus and Cassius 'by M. Antonius aEr:^-^ 
Octavianus Caesar at Philippi, B. C. 42, gave the supreme power r 
the two victorious generals, and when Octavianus returned to Ital K^^ 
he began to assign to his soldiers lands which had been promise -^s^ 
them for their services. But the soldiers could only be provided wir i^sj 
land by turning out many of the occupiers, and the neighborhood c^ -3 
Cremona and Mantua was one of the districts in which the soldie ^=^ J 
were planted, and from which the former possessors were dislodge ^3^"2 
There is little evidence as to the circumstances under which Vir^^—a 
was deprived of his property. It is said that it was seized by a v^^^^ 
eran named Claudius or Clodius ; and that Asinius Pollio, who wt ^%^ 
then governor of Gallia Transpadana, advised Virgil to apply to O^CZD 
tavianus at Rome for the restitution of his land, and that Octavian^^- (ft 
granted his request. It is supposed that Virgil wrote the Eclog^v^^ 
which stands first in our editions, to commemorate his gratitude ^0 
Octavianus Caesar. Whether the poet was subsequently disturb^</ 
in his possession and again restored, and whether he was not firm/p 
secured in his patrimonial farm till after the peace 6f Brundusium, B. 
C. 40, between Octavianus Caesar and M. Antonius, is a matter which 
no extant authority is sufficient to determine. 

Virgil became acquainted with Maecenas before Horace was, and 
Horace (Sat. I. 5, and 6. 55, etc.) was introduced to Maecenas by Vir- 
gil. This introduction was probably in the year B. C. 38 ; but, since 
the name of Maecenas is not mentioned in the Eclogues of Virgil, we 
may perhaps conclude that it was not until after they were written 
that the poet was on those intimate terms with Maecenas which 
ripened into friendship. Horace, in one of his Satires (Sat I. 5), in 
which he describes the journey from Rome to Brundusium, men- 
tions Virgil as one of the party, and in language which shows that 
they were then in the closest intimacy. The time to which this 
journey relates is somewhat uncertain, but the best authorities agree 
in fixing it in the year B. C. 37. (See Hor. Sat L 5. Introd.) 

The most finished work of Virgil, his Georgica, an agricultural ' 
poem, was undertaken at the suggestion of Maecenas, and it was 
probably not commenced earlier than B. C. 37. ** The tradition that 
Maecenas himself suggested the composition of Georgics may be ac- 
cepted, not in the literal sense which has generally been attached to 
it, as a means of reviving the art of husbandry and the cultivation of 
the devastated soil of Italy ; but rather to recommend the principles 
of the ancient Romans, their love of home, of labor, of piety, and or- 
der; to magnify their domestic happiness and greatness; to make 



THE LIFE OF VIRGIL. 429 . 

^^^n proud of their country, on better grounds than the mere glory 
^^^ its arms and the extent of its conquests. It would be absurd to 
^^-*ppose that Virgil's verses induced any Roman to put his hand to 
^^^:ie plough, or to take from his bailiff the management of his own 
^^ states ; but they served undoubtedly to revive some of the simple 
"^^sstes and sentiments of the olden time, and to perpetuate, amidst the 
'^^ces and corruptions of the empire, a pure stream of sober and inno- 

^:^ent enjoyments To comprehend the moral grandeur of the 

^^eorgicsy in point of style the most perfect piece of Roman literature, 

^^ire must regard it as the glorification of Labor On the labors 

^>f the husbandman, hard and coarse as they seem to the unpurged 
^vision, Virgil throws all the colors of the radiant heaven of the im- 
agination. Labor improbus, incessant, importunate labor, conquers 
all things ; subdues the soil, baffles the inclemency of the" seasons, 
defeats the machinations of Nature, that cruel stepmother, and wins 
the fevor and patronage of the gods."* 

The concluding lines of the Georgiea were written at Naples (Georg. 
IV. 559), but we can hardly infer that the whole poem was written 
there, though this is the literal meaning of the words, 
Haec super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam. 
We may however conclude that it was completed after the battle of 
Actium, B. C. 31, while Caesar was in the East. 

The epic poem of Virgil, the Aeneid, was probably long contem- 
plated by the poet Like Milton, he appears from a very early period 
to have had a strong desire of composing an epic poem, and, like him 
also, to have been long undecided on his subject. He is said to have 
begun a metrical chronicle of the Alban Kings, but afterwards to 
have given it up because of the harshness of the names. After the 
completion of the GeorgicSy or perhaps somewhat earlier, he laid 
down the plan of a regular epic on the wanderings of Aeneas, and 
the Roman destinies ; to form a sort of continuation of the Hiad to 
Roman times, and to combine the features of that poem and the Odys- 
sey. The idea was sufficiently noble, and the poem, long before its 
publication or even conclusion, had obtained the very highest repu- 
tation. While Virgil was at work upon it Propertius wrote with 
generous admiration (Eleg. II. 34, 65) : 

Cedite, Romani scriptores ! cedite, Graii I 

Nesdo quid majus nascitiu: Iliade I 
Augustus, while absent on his Cantabrian campaign, wrote repeat- 
edly to Virgil for extracts from his poem in progress ; but the poet 
declined, on the ground that his work was unworthy the perusal of 
the prince. The correspondence is recorded by Macrobius (Satur- 
nalia, I.), but its genuineness is very questionable. We may infer 
* Merivale, Hist, qfthe Romans under the Empire^ VoL IV. p. 440. 



43© THE LIFE OF VIRGIL. 

from the passage of Propertius just quoted, and firom the allusion in 
the same elegy to the recent death of Gallus, that Virgil was engaged 
on his work in B. C. 24. Propertius appears, from other allusions in 
his elegies, to have been acquainted with the poem of Virgil in its 
progress ; and he may have heard parts of it read. In B. C. 23 died 
Marcellus, the son of Octavia, Caesar's sister, by her first husband ; 
and as Virgil lost no opportunity of gratifying his patron, he introduced 
into the sixth book of the Aendd (v. 883) the well-known allusion to 
the virtues of this youth, who was cut off by a premature death : 

Heu miserande puer 1 si qua fiita aspera nunpas, 

Tu Marcellus eris. 

Octavia is said to have been present when the poet was reciting this 
allusion to her son, and to have £unted from her emotions. She re- 
warded the poet munificently for his excusable flattery. As Marcel- 
lus did not die till B. C. 23, these lines were of course written after 
his death, but Virgil may have sketched his whole poem, and even 
finished in a way many parts in the later books before he elaborated 
the whole of his sixth book. The completion of the great work occu- 
pied the few remaining years of his life ; but it never received the 
finishing touches, and it is said that in his last illness he wished to 
bum it But his friends would not allow the poem to be sacrificed 
to a morbid sensibility. " Augustus placed it in the hands of Varius 
and Tucca for the necessary correction, but strictly charged them to 
make no additions, nor even to complete the few unfinished lines at 
which the hand of the master had paused or faltered. Great, un- 
doubtedly, is the debt we owe him for this delicate consideration. 
The Roman epic abounds in moral and poetical defects ; neverthe- 
less it remains the most complete picture of the national mind at its 
highest elevation, the most precious document of national history, if 
the history of an age is revealed in its ideas, no less than in its events 
and incidents. This is the consideration which, with many of us, 
must raise the interest of the Aeneid above that of any other poem 
of antiquity, and justify the sa)dng of I know not what Virgilian en- 
thusiast, that if Homer really made Virgil^ undoubtedly it was his 
greatest work." * 

When Augustus was returning from Samos, where he had spent 
the winter of B. C. 20, he met Virgil at Athens. The poet, it is said, 
had intended to make a tour of Greece, but he accompanied the em- 
peror to Megara, and thence to Italy. His health, which had been 
long declining, was now completely broken, and he died soon after his 
arrival at Brundusium, on the 22d of September, B. C. 19, not hav- 
ing quite completed his fifty-first year. His remains were transferred 
to Naples, which had been his favorite residence, and placed on the 
* Merivale, ^. ciL VoL IV. p. 448- 



THE LIFE OF VIRGIL. 43 1 

road (Via Puteolana) from Naples to Puteoli (Pozzuoli), between the 
first and second milestones from Naples. The monument now called 
the tomb of Virgil is not on the road which passes through the tun- 
nel of Posilippo ; but if the Via Puteolana ascended the hill of Posilip- 
po, as it may have done, the situation of the monument would agree 
very well with the description of Donatus. 

The following inscription is said to have been placed on the tomb : 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 

Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces. 

From internal evidence it is improbable that it was written by the 
poet, though Donatus says that it was. 

Virgil named as heredes in his testament his half-brother, Valerius 
f*roculus, to whom he left one half of his estate, and also Augustus, 
Maecenas, L. Varius, and Plotius Tucca* The poet had been en- 
riched by the liberality of his patrons, and he left behind him a con- 
siderable property, and a house on the Esquiline Hill near the gar- 
dens of Maecenas. He used his wealth liberally, and his library, 
which was doubtless a good one, was easy of access. He used to 
send his parents money eviery year. His father, who became blind, 
did not die before his son had attained a mature age. Two brothers 
of Virgil also died before him. Poetry was not the only study of 
Virgil: he applied himself to medicine and to agriculture, as the 
Georgica show j and also to what Donatus calls Mathematical per- 
haps a jumble of astrology and astronomy. His stature was tall, his 
complexion dark, and his appearance that of a rustic. He was mod- 
est and retiring, and his character is free from reproach, if we ex- 
cept one scandalous passage in Donatus, which may not tell the truth. 

In his fortunes and his friends Virgil was a happy man. Munificent 
patronage gave him ample means of enjoyment and of leisure, and he 
had the friendship of all the most accomplished men of the day, 
among whom Horace entertained a strong affection for him. He was 
an amiable good-tempered man, free from the mean passions of envy 
and jealousy ; and in all but health he was prosperous. His fame, 
which was established in his lifetime, was cherished after his death 
as an inheritai^ce in which every Roman had a share. No writer 
probably ever exercised so wide an influence either in time or space. 
His works became school-books even before the death of Augustus, 
and have continued such ever since ; they were even translated into 
Greek j they were commented on by a host of grammarians ; they 
were the subject of innumerable epigrams ; they were formed into cen- 
tos ; they were used for the purposes of divination. They have taken 
their place among the imperishable offspring of genius, and, while 
literature lasts, will continue to exercise a powerful influence on the 
poetical taste of successive generations. 



NOTES 



ON THE 



SELECTIONS FROM VIRGIL. 



THE BUCOLICS. 

The ten short poems, called Bucolica were the earliest works of 
Virgil, and probably all written between B. C. 41, and B. C. 37. 
They are not Bucolica in the same sense as the poems of Theocritus, 
which have the same title. They have all a Bucolic form and color- 
ing, but some of them have nothing more. Their chief merit con- 
sists in their versification, which was smoother and more polished 
than the hexameters which the Romans had yet seen, and in many 
natural and simple touches. But as an attempt to transfer the Syra- 
cusan muse into Italy, they are certainly a failure ; and we read the 
pastorals of Theocritus and of Virgil with a' very diflferent degree of 
pleasure. The former are distinguished by a simplicity equally re- 
mote from epic majesty and sordid rusticity. Every charm of the 
country has been rifled to adorn them, and almost every deformity 
carefully concealed. ' Then, too, the Doric dialect, in which they 
were written, was peculiarly adapted to pastoral poetry. It at once 
removed the reader from the town, while it afforded the Muse every 
facility of utterance. The lordly language of Imperial Rome was ill 
suited to convey the unpremeditated effusions of unlettered herds- 
men. If Virgil, therefore, has fallen very far short of his great proto- 
type, the difficulty of his attempt must not be forgotten. Indeed, he 
appears not insensible of it himself; and by the nature of the language 
in which he wrote he has been compelled to abandon his original 
intention, and to attempt loftier flights than the nature of pastoral 
poetry strictly justifies. 

The publication of the Bucolica created a great sensation in literary 
Rome. Honors were publicly lavished on the author. They were 
recited on the stage ; and it is said that, on one occasion, when the 
poet happened to be present, all the spectators rose and paid him 
the same marks of respect which they would have shown to Au- 



THE BtJCOLICS. ECLOGUE I. 433 

g'lstus. Propertius (II. 34) has celebrated the conclusion and pub- 
lication of the Bucolics, and Ovid (Amor. I. 12) has foretold their 
^iJunortality. 

The title Bucolica was probably that given to these poems by 
Virgil himself. It is from a Greek word which signifies pertaining 
^ the shepherd life^ pastoral. The title Ecloga is generally supposed 
to have been added by the critics. It also is from the Greek, and 
^gnifies, a selected piece ; so that Bucolicon Eclogue means, selections 
J>om pcutorcU poemsy Bucolicon being the genitive plural in the Greek 
form. 



ECLOGUE I. — TITYRUS. 

The subject of this Eclogue is Virgil's gratitude to Octavianus for 
the favor shown him in the restoration of his lands. See Life, 

The speakers are two shepherds, one of whom is enjoying rustic 
life, singing of his love, and seeing his cattle feed undisturbed, when 
he is encountered by the other, who has been expelled from his home- 
stead, and is driving his goats before him, with no prospect but a 
cheerless exile. This is simple enough, but it is complicated by an 
unhappy artifice. The fortunate shepherd is represented as a farm 
slave who has just worked out his fi-eedom ; and this emancipation is 
used to symbolize the confirmation of the poet in his property. The 
two events, with their concomitants, are treated as convertible with 
each other, the story being told partly in the one form, partly in the 
other. 

1. Tit3rre ; a name borrowed fi-om Theocritus. Tu . . .noB. Gr. 
446. A. & S. 209, R. I {b). So nos,.,tu,y. 4. — 2, Silvestrem 
Musam = a pastoral tune. The Muse is here put, by metonymy, 
for that over which she presided. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. 
Tentii . . . avena = on a slender reed-pipe. Tenui suggests the 
notion of simplicity and humility, at the same time that it is a nat- 
ural epithet of the reed, like fragili cicuta^ v. 85. Avena by meton- 
ymy for fistula, Meditaris = art practising. The word implies 
care, repetition, and by some critics is translated " art composing." 
— 3. Noa. Gr. 446. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 7 (b). Patriae = of my 
paternal estate, £u:m. Cf. patrios fines^ v. 68. — 4. Fugimus = we 
are banished firom. Lentua = at ease. — 5. Formosam — silvaa 
= thou teaphest the woods to re-echo (the name of) the beautiful 
Amaryllis. Amaryllis is a shepherdess, beloved by Tityrus. Gr. 93. 
I ; 374. 4. A. & S. 8a I. ; 231, R. 3 {p), — 6. Dens; Octavianus. 
This may be mere hyperbole, though this same emperor was actually 
28 



434 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

deified, before his death, by the Roman people. Otla= peace, secu^ 
rity. A. & S. 98. —7. Mihi Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 222, R. 8, N.; 
227, R. 4. IlliuB. Gr. 612. 3. A. & S. 283. I. Ex. 4. — a litt' 
buet; sc sanguine suo, — 9. XhTare = to roam at will, to graze 
at large. It implies security. Ipsuin; sc mey implied in meas^ 
— 10. Quae vellem. Gr. 445. 6 ; 501. I. A. & S. 206 (4) ; 264. 1. 
Permisit Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 273. 4 (a). Calamo; the 
same as avena^ v. 2. — 11. Invideo ; sc. tibi, Mag^ == rather. — 
IZ Usque turbatur = to such a degree does confusion prevail ; 
L e. caused by the veteran soldiers, who are everywhere dispossess- 
ing the people of their lands. This sentence is explanatory of the 
preceding, and the connection of thought may be thus expressed : I 
wonder rather that you enjoy such peace, since there is everjrwhere 
so much confusion. Ipse is contrasted with undique totis agris, — 
13. ProtLnus = forward, before me. Aeger = sad, sick at he^brt 
It may refer also to the state of the body, as consequent upon that 
of the mind. Duco. The rest he drove before him ; this one he 
leads by a cord. — 14. Namque. A. & S. 279. 3 (a) and (^).— 

15. SiUce in nuda ; i. e. with no herbage spread beneath. Con^ 
niza is put for enixa for the sake of the measure, though it has a 
rhetorical force of its own, expressing the difficulty of the labor. -* 

16. Laeva = stupidly perverse. It is better to consider the non 
as qualifying laeva, C£ A. II. 54. Before si mens some such clause 
is implied as quod nos monuisset, — 17. De coelo taotas = struck 
by lightning. The striking of a person ot thing by lightning was an 
omen of evil. Pomponius says, on the authority of the lost works of 
ancient Grammarians, that the blasting of fruit-trees was ominous : 
that of the olive being supposed to forebode barrenness ; that of the 
oak, banishment This would make the malum hoc to be Meliboeus's 
exile, not the loss of the goat's twins. Memini A. & S. 268, R. 
I {a), Z. 589. Praedicere = portended, foreboded. — 18. Prae« 
dixit ; sc malum hoc. This line is generally regarded as spurious. 
It is made up from IX. 15. — 19. Sed tamen. These particles in- 
dicate a stronger opposition than the simple sed or lament and m^k 
a return to a previous thought from which the speaker has digressed. 
Here they recall the mind to the words of Titjrrns, w. 6 - 10, from 
which Meliboeus had turned aside to speak of himsel£ C£ G. I. 79. 
late = that of yours. Gr. 450. A. & S. 207, R. 25. Sit Gr. 525. 
A. & S. 265. Da . . . nobis = tell me. — 20. Urbttn. Instead of 
answering directly, Tit3rrus begins ab ai/o, in rustic fashion, and (tt- 
lates upon the description of Rome itsel£ — 21. Huic nostrae; 
i. e. Mantua, which was about three miles from Andes, Virgil's native 
village. Quo = whither. — 22. Pastores. Gr. 363. 2. A. & S. 
204, R. 4. Dep^ere = to drive away. The de denotes destina* 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE L 435 

)t descent, as Andes was not on a hilL C£ deducerey demittere 
in portum)^ etc Fetus. A. & S. 323. 2 (4). — 24. Com- 
B s= to compare. — 26. Lenta viboma = pliant shrubs. 
hurnum is a low, flexible shrub. It was used for binding 
Tityrus means to say, in effect, that he found the difference 
Q Rome and Mantua to be one, not of degree merely, but of 

Bt sometimes introduces si question with emphasis, marking 
iosity and wonder of the speaker. Romam. Gr. 559. A. & S. 
Tibi Gr.387. A.&S.226.— 28. Libertae. A.&S.204, 
Sera ; sc quidem. The omission of quamqtmm or quidem 
tatnen is not uncommon. Respezit. Libertas is here per- 
1 ; hence the appropriateness of the word respexit Iner- 
c me) = indolent, neglectful ; i. e. to save his little gains with 
to purchase his freedom. It was for this that slaves saved 
*culium (see on v. 33) j and of course the less inertes they were, 
►ner they got the necessary sum. Tityrus, a farm-slave, having 
enough, goes up to buy his freedom firom his owner, and the 
of the estate, who is living at Rome. Nothing can be less 
tiian this allegory in itself except the way in which it is intro- 
in the midst of the reality — the general expulsion of the shep- 
and the exemption of Tityrus through the divine interposition 
avianus — which ought to appear through the allegory and not 
5 side of it — 29. Candidior = growing gray. In v. 47 
I is called serux, Tondenti; sc. mihu Gr. 571 ; 578. A. & S. 
md 3 (fl). Manumitted persons were accustomed to shave their 
, which, while slaves, they had permitted to grow. — 30. Ldiigo 
>re ; L e. a long time compared with the much shorter time in 
slaves were accustomed to obtain their freedom. -7 31. Post- 
. — reliquit = since Amaryllis is holding possession of me 
f my affections), (and) Galatea lefl me ; i. e. since I got rid of 
travagant Galatea and took to the thrifty Amaryllis. These were 
ess successive partners (contubemales) of the slave Tityrus. 
the difference of the tenses joined ^i}a. postquam in w. 29, 31 : 
i^ a continuing act now completed ; habet^ an act still continuing ; 
'/, an act completed at once. — 33. Pectill Gr. 45. 5. i). 
>• 52 ; 322. 5. The peculium was the property acquired by a 
which his master permitted him to consider as his own. — 
[ulta . . . victima = many a victim ; used poetically for mul- 
-Umae, Z. 109, N. Saeptis = enclosures, folds. — 35. The 
m of pinguis before et indicates that it is specially emphatic 
tae ; because it did not pay him for his trouble so much as he 
\A it ought — 36. Tityrus blames the unthrifl of Galatea and 
m recklessness, which made him too careless about making 



436 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

money by his produce, though he took it from time to time to Ma^* 
tua. To suppose that he squandered his earnings directly on Galat^* 
would not be quite consistent with the blame thrown on the twf^' 
V. 3$. — 37. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 235, R. 11. Amaiyll^ 
Gr. 94. A. & S. 81, R. — 38. Sua — in arbore = (each) on i^^ 
own tree. Cf. VII. 54. G. II. 82 and A. VL 206. Amaryllis in h^ ^ 



sorrow had forgotten her careful habits. She left the fruit hangL^^^^^ 
for Tityrus as if no hand but his ought to gather it — 39, 40. Aberat^^ 
The final syllable is made long by caesura. Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309.^'^^ 
2 (i). Ipsae = the very. Pinus . . . fontes . . . arbusta. These^^^ 
called him back, because, depending on his care, they suffered from-^^^ 
his absence. Virgil doubtless meant the passage as a piece of rustic — ^ 
banter.— -41. Facerem. Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. — 41. — 
Fraesentes = powerful to aid. See on Ov. M. III. 658, and cf. M. 
IV. 612. Alibi belongs also to v. 41. Cognosoere = to find : lit 
to become acquainted with. — 43. Juvenem ; Octavianus. He was 
now in his twenty-third year. See on Hor. C. I. 2. 41. Cf. G. L 50a 
44. Bis senoB . . . dies ; i. e. twelve days in the year, probably once 
a month.— Nostra. Gr. 446. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 7 (d). — 45. Re- 
sponsum . . . dedit ; i. e. as a god to those who consult his orade. 
Frimus denotes the anxiety with which the response was sought ; it 
does not imply that any one else could have given it The sense may 
be expressed thus : it was here that he gave me my first assurance. — 
46. Fueri = servi. Submittite = produce, rear. — 47. Toa is a — 
predicate, like magna^ and emphatic, suggesting a contrast betweeik — 
his lot and that of his neighbors. Quamvis — junoo = althougl^^ 
naked stones (lit stone) cover it all, and pools overspread with slim^^ 
rushes the pasture grounds. Paltis is probably the overflowing^' 
of the Mincius. Cf. VII. 13. Omnia must mean the whole farm^^^ 

while the latter part of the description applies only to the p€tscua 

— 50. Non — fetas {^z,pecudes)=ViO unusual food shall injure (lit— 
attack, i. e. with disease) thy pregnant ewes. Graves =gravuiasy in ^ 
A. I. 274. — 51. Mala = malignant — 52. Fluxnina may be th«-^ 

Mincio and the Po, or the smaller streams in the neighborhood. ' 

53. Fontes are called sacros, because each had its divinity. C^^^* 
Hor. C. I. I. 22 and note. — 54. Hino susurro. Construe thus- 
Hinc^ db idcino limite^ saepes Hyblaeis apibus florem salicU d€paste==^ 
saepe tibt levi susurro suadebitf quae semper^ samnum inire. Vloino a — ^ 
limite is explanatory of hinc, and with hirtc = on this side, namel ~^> 
on the side of the neighboring boundary. Cf. III. 12, hie — fagos; ^ ^^ 
II. 18, hue . . . caeco lateri. Quae semper is an elliptical relati — ^^e 
clause in the sense of ut semper ^ like quae proximal litoray A. I. i^^ 7> 
and = as it has ever done. Quae then will be used here for t'^ie 
corresponding adverb quemadmodumy like quo^ A. I. 8, for qtumii^^Of 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE I. 437 

and siqttem^ A. I. 181, for sictM, Hyblaeis ; merely an ornamental 
epithet derived from Hyblay a mountain in Sicily famous for its bees 
and honey. Florexn depaata = fed upon as to the flower of the 
willow. Gr. 380 and i. A. & S. 234. II. and R. i and 2. Salioti; 
abbreviated from salicetiy used poetically for solids, Gr. 317 and 2. 
A. & S. 100. 7. The BQBurruB comes partly from the bees, partly 
from the leaves. 57. Hinc is opposed to hinc in v. 54, and is more 
nearly defined by alta sub rupe, Canet ad auras = shall frll the 
air with his song : lit shall sing to the breezes. Cf. A. VI. 561, 
plangor ad auras. The description points to the month of Augufet, 
from the mention not only of the frondatio, but of the cooing of the 
wood-pigeons during incubation. Pliny makes the latter a sign 
that autumn is coming on. — 58. Tua cura = thy delight. — 59. 
Gemere = to coo. Turtur. The Romans kept turtle-doves on 
their farms. — 60. Ante = sooner. It, with the ante in v. 62, 
which is only a repetition of it, is the correlative of quam in v. 64. 
ZiTgo expresses the ground of his obligations to his master ; namely, 
the favor conferred upon him. Destituent nudos = shall leave 
bare ; i. e. fishes shall live on dry ground. — 62. Pererratis = su- 
peratis. The meaning is, sooner shall the Parthians and the Ger- 
mans change places, each passing to the country of the other ; but 
this they can never do, since the territory of the Romans intervenes, 
whom they must first conquer. Aniborum = of both (nations). 
Ezsul bibet = as an exile shall drink ; i. e. shall make his home 
there. — 63. Ararim. The Arar (now Saone) is a river of Gaul, 
not of Germany ; its source, however, in the high land connected 
with the Vosges (Vogesus) is not very far from Alsace, which was 
then, as now, inhabited by Germans. The ancients, moreover, some- 
times confounded the Germans and the Celts. Gr. 85. III. i. A. & S. 
79. I. ParthuB. The Parthians were a very warlike people of 
Scythian origin, and occupied a large district southeast of the Cas- 
pian Sea. But see on Hor. C. I. 2. 22. Qermania ; by metonymy 
for Germani, See on Musam^ v. 2. — 64. miuB. See on v. 43. 
Labatur= shall pass away, be effaced. — 65. Nob. Gr. 446. A. & S. 
209, R. I (^ ). Nob . . . alii . . . parB. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 10. 
AfrOB ; by metonymy for Africa, Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 [a), 
— 66. Et . . . et correspond to the preceding alii, , ,parsy and are equiv- 
alent to alii , . , alii, Cretae ; a large island (now Candia) in the Med- 
iterranean Sea, south of Greece. Oazen. Of the Oaxes of Crete noth- 
ing is known. — 68 - 70. Bn . . . ariBtaB = inde^, shall I ever, a long 
time afterwards, beholding (again) my paternal fields and the roof of 
my poor cottage built of turf, my (former) domain, (shall I ever) here- 
after see with wonder a few scattering ears of com } The cause of 
wonder is the scantiness of the crop compared with the abundance 



438 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

of former years. En in interrogations adds earnestness and empha- 
sis. Tuguri. Gr. 45. $. i). A. & S. $2 ; 322. 5. Post {^=posthac) is a 
repetition of longo post tempore, Mea regna we prefer to consider in 
apposition to fines and culmen, — 71. NovaUa; properly either fal- 
low grounds, or grounds ploughed for the first time, but here=x 
fields. — 72. Barbaras, alluding to the Gauls and other barbarians 
in the Roman armies. Quo . . . prodmdt = to what a point . . . 
has brought. — 73. Qai« = quibus. Gr. 187. i. A. & S. 136, R. 2. 
— 74. Insere nunc = graft now. Said ironically to himselt — 76. 
Virldi = green (with moss). — 77. Fendere . . . de rupe ; i. e. 
as they would appear on the hillside in the distance. — 78. Me 
pasoente ; i. e. me pastor e, — 79. Cyturas is the arborescent lucerne, 
which is common in Greece and Italy, and a favorite food of cattle 
and bees. — 80. Foteras = you might as well, you had best. Or. 
475. A. & S. 259, R. 3 and {b)\ Z. 518. It seems more pressing 
than the present. As Meliboeus now begins to resume his journey 
\ite capellae^ v. 75), Tityrus calls to him and urges him to stop and 
spend the night with him.' — 81. Nobia. Gr. 446. 2 ; 387. A. & S. 
210, R. 3 (i) ; 226. — 82. MoUes = mealy ; i. e. when they are 
roasted. Fressi lactia = cheese. C£ v. 35. — 83. Culmina fii- 
mant ; i. e. announcing supper-time. 



ECLOGUE III. — PALAEMON. 

This Eclogue is principally occupied by a contest in poetical skill 
between two shepherds, Menalcas and Damon. Such contests,— 
still not uncommon among the improvisatori of Italy, — were carried 
on in verses,. called carmen amoebaeum (rendered by Virgil altemU^ 
or alternis versibus^ v. 59, VII. 18), answering alternately. And in 
them no sequence of ideas was necessary on the part of the chal- 
lenger, but the party challenged was bound to exceed in language 
or ideas the thoughts first expressed. 

1 - 31. M, Whom are you keeping sheep for ? Z>. Aegon. M. 
Poor sheep ! their owner is hopelessly in love, and his hireling steals 
the milk. D, As if you had any right to taunt me ! M, Of course 
not ; I cut Micon's vines. Z>. Broke Daphnis's bow and arrows, you 
mean. M, Well, I saw you steal Damon's goat D, It was mine ; 
I won it at a singiijg match. M, You I when you can 't sing. D, 
I '11 sing against you now for a calf. 

1. Damoeta. Gr. 43. A. & S. 44. Cujum. Gr. 188. 4. A. & S. 
137. 5. The question implies that Damoetas is a mere hireling. An 
implies some such previous question as, num est alius, Gr. 346. 2. 4. 



THE BUCOLICS. ^LOGUE III. 439 

. 19S. II, R. (d). — 2. Tradidit = intrusted. — 3. Peous. 
J. A. & S. 204. Ipse; Aegon. — 4. Povet = courts. — 5. 
18 . . . cnstOB = hireling keeper ; i. e. Damoetas. Bis — in 
Twice a day would have been often enough. The phrase is 
se exaggerated ; but secret milking was a common offence^ 
id by Justinian with whipping and loss of wages. — 6. Sucns. 
igth, vigor. — Pecori Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2. — 7. I8ta 
5 reproaches of thine. — Virls is emphatic ; men, worthy of 
ae. — Tamen involves a tacit admission that the charges are 
ret, says Damoetas, they come with an ill grace from one no 
tfian you. — 8. Qui te; sc corruperit^ or some such word. 
irersa = askance. The neuter plural of the adjective used ad> 
y. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 10. — 9. Quo . . . sacello = in 
ive ; i. e. a cave sacred to the nymphs. PaoUes = easy, good- 
l ; because they did not punish him for the profanation of their 
— 10. Turn ; sc. risere. Credo. Ironical. Menalcas affects 
ge himself with what Damoetas did. — Arbustum, properly 
ard in which the vines were trained on trees, is here the trees 
Ives. — 11. Mala = malicious. The laws of the Twelve Tables 
d a heavy fine for cutting another man's trees. — Novellas is 
ic, as the young vines ought not to have been pruned at alL 
[I. 365. — 12. EQ.0 ; sc. risere. Damoetas recriminates. — Ad 
IS fagos is a more exact definition of hie. See on I. 54, 57. 
Calamos = arrows. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Quae ; 
^m et calamos. Gr. 439. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 2 (2) N. — 14. 
; Daphnis. — 15. Aliqua = in some way. — 16. Quid — 
= what would masters do when thievish servants are so dar- 
Fures\& comic for j^rw. The subj.y&f/aw/ suggests, "What 
:hey do if they were to' come on the scene ? " the case being a 
sd one, the substitution of Aegon for Damoetas. Talia^ then, 
:o what precedes. — 18. Ezcip^e = catch. Lycisca ; the 
f a dog. — 19. Quo — ille = what now is yonder rogue dart- 
More lit, whither now does that fellow rush forth ? Gr. 450. 
207, R 23 («). Damoetas was just rushing out of his ambus- 
-20. Tityre; Damon's shepherd. Coge. The flock was 
I in supposed security. Carecta = the rushes ; properly a 
overed with rushes. Gr. 317 and 2. A. & S. 100. 7. — 21. Ai». 
i. 2. 4). A. & S. 198. II, R. {d). An implies some such pre- 
uestion as, Did I not have a right to the goat ? Non — ille 
not that one to deliver, to hand over ? Gr. 485. A. & S. 260, 
- 22. Quern . . . caprum. Gr. 445, 8. A. & S. 206 (3) {b). 
nibus = by its strains ; referring to the interludes played be- 
he parts of the song. — 23. 8i nescis = ut hoc sciasy if you did 
>wit — 24. Reddere — negabat ; since it would be a con- 



440 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

fession that he was defeated. — 25. Tu ilium; sa vicisse U ais. 
The fistula, or shepherd's pipe, was constructed either of cane 
(arundo), reed (calamus)^ or hemlock (cicuta). In general seven 
hollow stems of these plants, cut to the proper lengths and adjusted 
so as to form an octave, were fitted together by means of wax. — 
26. In triviia ; L e. to vulgar ears. Trrvium^ a place where three 
roads meet, came to mean any place of public resort, especially for 
the lower orders. — 27. Strident! = stridula. Miserum . . . dis- 
perdere carmen = to murder a wretched strain. The tune was a 
bad one, and vilely played at that. Stipula is a single reed, opposed 
to fistula cera juncta. — 28. Vis implies a challenge, while visne 
simply asks for information. Inter nos . . . vicissim. The former 
expresses that there is to be a contest, the latter refers to the kind of 
contest ; i. e. amoebean. Possit = can do. — 29. Ezperiamur. 
Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. Vitulam =juvencam. Recuses. 
Gr. 489 and I. A. & S. 262. — 31. Depone = lay down as a wager, 
stake. — Quo — certes = with what wager thou wilt contend. Or. 
525. A. & S. 265. Quopignore may be taken as an ablative of man- 
ner, or, which is really the same thing, as an ablative absolute. Gr. 
430. A. & S. 257, R. 7. — 32. Non ausim= I dare not Gr. 239. 
4 ; 485. A. & S. 162. 9 ; 260, R. 4. Tecum = like you ; 1. e. as 
you have done. — 33. Mihi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Injusta = 



harsh, severe. The word belongs to hath pater and noverca. See < 
Hor. C. I. 2. I. — 34. Bisque die ; i. e. both morning and evening- 
Alter = one or the other. — 35. Id refers topocula, Tute. Gr. 184—.—. 
3. A. & S. 133, R. 2. — 36. Pocula . . . fagina = a pair of beecheiM i 
cups. Drinking-cups were usually in pairs, one for wine and one foi^^nr 
water. See v. 44. Ponam = deponatn, — 37. Alcimedontis 
Alcimedon is nowhere else mentioned. — 38. Quibus — supera d 
dita = superadded to which by the skilfully handled graving too^^K 
Quibus ; sc. poculis. Torno ; lit. the lathe, for scalpro, — 39. Difiuso 8 

— corymbos = covers (with its foliage) the scattered clustering be^^^* 
ries of the yellow ivy. Both the vine and the ivy were emblems ci=)f 
Bacchus, and so fit ornaments for a drinking cup. Hedera pallente 
probably for hederae pallentis^ a use of the material ablative for 
genitive not uncommon in Virgil. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Soc 
connect the ablative with diffuses, 

40. In medio ; i. e. in the space enclosed by the vine and ivy. 
in V. 46. Conon: a famous astronomer in the time of PtolcMcmy 
Philadelphus, B. C. 283-222. Alter. The other, whose name-«r3ie 
shepherd forgets, was probably Eudoxus, a celebrated astronorxner 
of Cnidus, who lived about B. C. 366. — 41. lladio ; the rod v*ritA 
which the geometrician drew his diagrams upon the sand. C£ A. 
VI. 851. Totum . . . orb0m = the whole circle (of the heavens/ 




THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE III. 44 1 

GentibUB = for mankind. — 42. Tempora quae = (sho^ng) what 
seasons. Cnrvua; i. e. bending over the plough. Haberet = 
should observe. — 45. MoUi = flexible. — 46. Orphea. Gr. 46. 3. 5). 
A. & S. 54. 5 and 86. See on Ovid, M. X. Introduction, p. 415. — 
48. Si — specta8 = if thou (once) lookest at the heifer; i. e. com- 
pared with the heifer, the cups deserve no praise. Gr. 669. I. A. & S. 
305 (4). Nihil . . . laudes. Gr. 501. I. i. A. & S. 264. 7 and N. 
3, — 49. Menalcas, in his turn, insinuates that Damoetas wishes to 
get off. Veniaxn ; i. e. I will come to your terms, whatever they 
may be. — 50. Audeat Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Vel — 
Palaemon. Vel goes rather with qui venit than Palaeinan, Me- 
nalcas begins as if he wished for some particular arbiter, but corrects 
himself, and offers to take the chance of a man just then approach- 
ing, whom he identifies at the end of the verse as Palaemon : " The 
man who is coming up — there !*it is Palaemon." — 51. Posthac; 
with lacessas. Voce lacessaa = challenge in singing ; i. e. chal- 
lenge to sing. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 52. Quin age = come 
on then. Si quid habes = if thou hast an)rthing (to sing), if thou 
canst sing at all. C£ IX. 32 ; V. 10. — 53. Nee — - iugio = nor do I 
shun any one. Some critics make quemqttam mean any opponent ; 
others, any jt^ge, — 54. Sensibus haec imis = these things (i. e. 
which we are about to sing) in thy deepest thoughts. Res — parva 
refers to the importance of the contest rather than to the value of 
the wager, as some make it. Reponas. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, 
R. 6.-55. Dicite = rflw/i?, as often. — 56, 57. Et — annus. Cf. 
G. XL 323, 330. Annus for anni tempus, the season of the year. — 
58. Deinde. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. i and (i). — 59. Alter- 
nis = responsively. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247. 2. Alterna = 
responsive songs. Camenae; Latin deities nearly identical with 
the Muses of the Greeks. — 60. Ab — principium (sc. meicarminis 
sit) \ i. e. I begin with celebrating the praises of Jupiter. Musae is 
the vocative. — 61. Colit = fertilizes. Cf. G. II. 325, 326, and see 
on Hor. C. I. i. 25. Uli — curae ; i. e. because Jupiter cares for 
the earth, and renders it fruitful, therefore those who cultivate the 
earth, and shepherds and their songs, are pleasing to him. Gr. 390. 
A. & S. 227. — 62. Phoebus. Menalcas replies: Apollo, the 
poet's patron, is my friend : for him I rear bays and hyacinths in my 
garden. Phoebo. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Sua; i.e. which are 
pleasing to him. Gr. 449. 2. A. & S. 208 (8). — 63. Suave = 
suaviter, Gr. 335. 4. i). A. & S. 205, R. 10. — 64. Malo me 
petit = throws an apple at me. Apples were sacred to Venus ; 
whence, to throw an apple at one was a mode of flirting. — 65. Se 
cupit videri Gr. 551. II. i. A. & S. 271, R. 4. Ante = before 
(she hides herself). — 66. Ignis = beloved. Cf the English flame. 



442 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

*-67. Delia is Menalcas's mistress. Damoetas had boasted that he 
was beloved by Galatea, Menalcas replies that he is beloved by two 
persons, and that they each come so often to his cottage that they are 
no longer barked at by his dogs. —68. Veneris beloved. IVota* 
Ti = I observed. — 69. Ipse denotes that he has observed it himself, 
so that he will be sure to remember it Aeriae = high in air. C£ 
I. 59. Congessere; for nidum congessere^ as we say "to build." 
Falumbea. Wood-pigeons were sacred to Venus. — 70. Quod 
potai = what I could ; L e. since I had to pick them from the lofty 
branches of the tree. The expression corresponds to aeriae^ both 
denoting difficulty. It is explanatory of the following sentence. Gr. 
445. 7. A. & S. 206. 13 (a). Puero; Amyntas. Gr. 384. 2. i). 
A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. Silveatri — lecta = picked from a tree in 
the wood. — 71. Aurea; i e. ripe. Altera (sc. decern) =■ a second ten. 
— 73. Partem aliquem = some' small part ; since even that would 
charm the gods themselves. Divuxn. Gr. 45. 5. 4). A. & S. 53. 
Referatia. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. — 74; Quid. Gr.'38o. 2. 
A. & S. 232 (3). Quod— servo. He complains that he is sepa- 
rated from Amyntas, who takes the more attractive and dangerous 
part of the adventure ; and this is opposed to ipse — spernis, " What 
is your affection to me if you will not give me your company ? " Servo 
= obseruo; i.e. to watch for game. — 76. Phyllida. Gr. 93. i. 
A. & S. 80. 1. Phyllis seems to be either the female slave or mistress 
of lollas, whom we may suppose to be a neighboring farmer who has 
joined the company since the musical contest began. Natalia. The 
birthday was a season for merry-making and love ; whereas the fes- 
tival, called Ambarvaliay referred to by quum — frugibusy was a time 
of abstinence from such pleasures. When this shall arrive, he de- 
risively invites lollas to come himself. On the occasion of this fes- 
tival (G. I. 338-350) the victim to be sacrificed was led three times 
round the cornfields before the sickle was put to the corn. It was 
accompanied by a crowd of merry-makers, the reapers and farm ser- 
vants dancing and singing the praises of Ceres, and praying for her 
favor and presence, while they offered her the libations of milk, honey, 
and wine. This festival took place towards the end of April, when 
the harvest in Italy began. — 78. Menalcas retorts in the person of 
lollas. Me— flevit Gr. 551. III. A. & S. 273. $, N. 7.-79. 
Iiongum = in prolonged accents. Longum goes with inquit rather 
than vale^ denoting reluctance to part Y^e, vSld. Gr. 669. 1. % 
and IV. A. & S. 305. i and (2). — 80. Triate. Gr. 438. 4 ; 441. 
A. & S. 204, R. 9 ; 205, R. 7 (2). So dulce, v. 82. C£ A. IV. 569. Da- 
moetas says, " everything in nature has its bane : mine is the wrath of 
Amaryllis." Menalcas replies, ** everything in nature has its delight : 
mine is Amyntas." It will be observed that Damoetas continually 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE III, 443 

changes the subject — 82. Depulsis (sc a //^A?) = weaned. C£ VII. 
15. — 83. Saliz. C£ I. 79. — 84. PoUio (C, Asimus), a distin- 
guished orator, poet, and historian. He was the friend and patron of 
Virgil and Horace and other great writers, and was the first to found 
a public library at Rome. He also had great reputation as a critic. 
" Pollio," says Damoetas, " is my patron, and the prince of critics." 
" Pollio is more," replies Menalcas, striving to outdo his rival, " he is 
the prince of poets." Musam = song, poetry. Cf. I. 2. — 85. 
Pieridea = Muses. See on Ov. M. V. Introduction, p. 403. Vitu- 
Uun . . . tanmxn. ^These may be the prizes of different kinds of 
poetry, the value of the prize rising with the rise from critic and pa- 
tron to poet Some, however, regard them as sacrifices for PoUio's 
welfare. Lectori; Pollio. Vestro; because you (the Muses) in- 
spire the verses which he reads. — 86. Nova carmina. Some 
understand these words to refer to tragedies of a new kind ; i. e. 
whose subjects were not borrowed from the Greek, but taken from 
Roman story. JVoT/a may, however, mean origiftal ; or it may merely 
carry out the notion of ipse ; he makes verses himself, is a poet as 
well as a critic Others, with Heyne, make nova = unrivalled, match- 
less. — 87. Qui . . . petat . . . spargat. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. 
I (d). The relative clauses denote the age of the bull. — 88. Veniat 
— gaudet = may he attain to (the same happy lot) which he rejoices 
that thou also (hast reached). Te; sc pervenisse. Some critics 
understand the happiness to be that of political preferment, others of 
poetic renown ; but it would seem from v. 89 that the allusion is to 
the golden age (cf. IV. 25-30 ; G. I. 131 ; Ov. M. I. 89 foil.) ; and 
that the wish is that Pollio's admirers may enjoy with him the same 
dreamy felicity of the golden age that he enjoys. — 89. Amoxaum ; 
a fragrant oriental shrub ; also the balsam made from it. Here it is 
the latter; in IV. 25, the former. — 90. Baviuxn; i. e. his poems. 
Bavins and Maevius were envious poetasters who attacked Virgil and 
Horace. Amet Gr. 367. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 2, N. 3. Tua — 
AlaevL It is intimated that Maevius is a worse poet even than 
Bavius. Gr. 45. 5. 2). A. & S. 52. — 91. Jungat ; i. e. for ploughing. 
yungere vulpes and mulgere hircos appears to be a sort of comic pur- 
gatory opposed to the paradise of v. 89. — 93. FrigidtiB — herba. 
Gr. 672. 2. A. & S. 310. 2. — 94. Parcite = «£^///^. Non bene 
creditor = it is not safe to trust — 95. Ipse ; i. e. though the most 
wary of the flock. — 96. Tityra See on v. 20. Pascentes ; i. e. 
qua pascuniur, Relce; poetical for rejice, Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 
283. IV. N. I ; 306. I. — 98. Cogite oves = drive the sheep (in- 
to the shade) ; to shelter them from the midday heat Praece* 
perit = shall have dried up ; i. e. before the time of milking. — 
100. Qaam with macer, Pingui = making fat, nutritious. ZSrvo ; 



444 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

a species of tare. — 101. Ezititim pecori Gr. 39a 2. A. & S. 
227, R.4. — 102. Hia; sc agnis, 'NeqfSiB=etiam non, ne , , . qui- 
dem. — 103. Neacio quifl . . . oculuB = some (evil) eye. — 104- 
107. D. " Guess my riddle, and you shall be my Apolio." M. "Guess 
mine, and you shall have Phyllis to yourself." — 104. Apollo was 
the god of divination. Mihl Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 227, R. 4. — 
105. Tree — ^ulnas. According to Servius, Asconius Pedianus heard 
Virgil say that he had intended in this passage to set a trap for the 
critics ; and that the real answer was the tomb of Coelius, a Mantuan 
who had squandered his estate, and left himself only land enough for 
a tomb. This traditional solution is now generally followed, though 
various others have been proposed ; such as a well, an oven, the 
shield of Achilles, the pit called mundus in the Comitium, which was 
opened but three days each year. Coeli^ the poetical form of the geni- 
tive of Coelius^ is the same as the genitive of coeluniy heaven ; but in 
the absence of certain knowledge on the subject, we cannot do better 
than translate it as the latter. Amplius ulnas, Gr. 417. 3; 378. 
A. & S. 256, R. 6 {a) and {b) ; 236. — 106. InBcripti nomina 
regain == having the names of princes inscribed upon them ; lit 
inscribed as to the names of princes. Gr. 380 and i. A. & S. 234. 
II. The flower meant is the hyacinth, which was inscribed with At, At 
(alas! alas!) to express the grief of Apollo at the death of Hya- 
cinthus, whom he accidentally killed with a quoit, or, as others say, 
to express the name of Ajax (Aias), of which they are the first two 
letters ; or according to others, with the letter Y for *Ya/cti/^op (Hya- 
dnthus). — 108. Non nostnim (sc. ^j/) = it is not in my power. 
Gr. 404. 1. A. & S. 211, R. 8 (3) (a). Componere = to decide. — 
109. Vitula. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. Both ultimately wagered 
a heifer. See v. 49. Quisquis — amaros. This is obscure, but the 
general sense no doubt is, as Serv. says, et tu et hie digni estis vitula et 
quicumque similis vestri est; i.e. any one who can feel love as you 
have shown you can, the alarm which attends its enjoyment, and the 
pangs of disappointment. — 111. RivoB = the sluices. This verse 
admits of either a literal or a metaphorical interpretation. Accord- 
ing to the former, Palaemon had gone into the fields in order to direct 
his slaves to open the sluices for irrigating his grounds, when he was 
called upo;i by the two shepherds to act as umpire in their singing 
match ; and now that the contest has ended, he turns his attention to 
the slaves and tells them to close the sluices. According to the latter, 
the allusion is to the stream of bucolic verse. The two interpreta- 
tions may be combined, and the passage may be understood in both 
senses. 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE IV. 445 



ECLOGUE IV.— .POLLIO. 

In the multitude of conjectures regarding the subject of this 
Eclogue, Wagner's views seem preferable. All Italy had been ex- 
posed to dreadful calamities ; first, from the division of the lands, 
sx>oken of in the first Eclogue ; then, from the quarrels between An- 
tony and Octavianus, and the war which ensued, B. C. 41 ; and 
finally, from a most severe famine, the result of the blockade formed 
by the fleets of Antony and Sex. Pompeius. So much the greater 
was the joy occasioned by the treaty of Brundisium, made in the 
autumn of B. C. 40, by which harmony was restored between the 
two contending chiefs. Antony's agent in arranging the peace was 
Virgil's patron, Asinius PoUio. A little afterwards, on his return to 
Rome, PoUio entered on the consulship, and about the same time 
had a son bom to him. There was a common belief at the time that 
a new age was dawning on the world ; and as Italy seemed to have 
escaped from its miseries chiefly through the means of Pollio, Virgil, 
in this Eclogue, congratulates him on his consulship, and does it in 
such a way, as at once to extol him as the harbinger of a new era of 
happiness, and at the same time to augur this, from the birth of his 
son, as an omen of future peace and prosperity. The coincidence 
between Virgil's language and that of the Old Testament prophets in 
relation to the coming of the Messiah is sufficiently striking ; but it 
may be doubted whether Virgil uses any image to which a classical 
parallel cannot be found. This Eclogue was written in the autumn 
of B. C. 40. 

1. Sicelides = Sicilian ; i. e. of Theocritus, pastoral. The- 
ocritus (see Introduction to Bucolics) was a Sicilian. Majora = 
loftier themes ; L e. than the usual subjects of pastoral song. A. & S. 
256, R. 9 {a). — 2. Arbusta . . . m3nicae ; emblems of the lower 
strain of rural poetry. — 3. Silvae is used for pastoral poetry, and 
symbolizes the genus of which myricae is the species. If my theme 
is still to be pastoral, let it rise to the dignity of which a consul need 
not be ashamed. — 4, 5. Ultinia — Ordo. The reference is to the 
Platonic year, a vast period of time, variously estimated by the an- 
cients, but now calculated to require about 26,000 years for its com- 
pletion, when all the heavenly bodies occupy the same places which 
they did at the beginning of the world. In each of these periods it 
was supposed that the cycle of mundane and human history repeated 
•itself. It was divided into four eras, or ages, styled the golden, the 
silver, the brazen, and the iron age : the first being the purest and 
happiest, and the last the most degenerate and corrupt (See Ov, 



> 



446 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

M. I. Introduction, p. 369.) A series of these ages had, according 
to poetic legends, now nearly elapsed, and it had been predicted by 
the Cumaean Sibyl that the great order was to begin anew {oA in- 
^i^^)t the golden age returning first — 4. Cumaei . . . oarminis 
= of the Sibylline prophecy ; the Sibyl of Cumae in Italy being the 
most famous, and delivering her oracles in verse. — 5. SadblomuL 
Gr. 703. 2. A. & S. 322. 4. — 6. Redit — regna = ^ F/>^ a 
Saturnia regna redeunt. The repetition of a noun or verb is some- 
times equivalent to a repetition of the copulative. Virgo ; L e. As- 
traeay or Justiiia = Justice. She was a daughter of Jupiter and 
Themis. See on Ov. M. I. 150, and c£ G. II. 474. Regna. See 
on Ov. M. I. 113* — 7. Nova progenies = a new race; i. e. a bet- 
ter race : called in v. 9 gens aurea, — 8. Tu — puero . . . fove = 
do thou only favor the birth of the boy. See Introduction. Quo = 
under whom. Gr. 426. I. A. & S. 257, R. 9 (2) ; or 253. Fximum 
= at last C£ I. 45. — 10. Lucina; the goddess who presided over 
childbirth. She is sometimes the same as Juno, and sometimes, as 
here, Diana, whom the Romans identified with the Greek Artemis, 
the sister of Apollo; hence iutis Apollo, Cf. Hon C. S. 14- 16k 
TuuB ; sc frater, Apollo is here the same as Phoebus ; i. e. Soly the 
Sun. See On Ov. M. II. 116. According to the Sibylline verses, 
Apollo, i. e. the Sun, was to reign during the last or iron age, after 
which the cycle was to begin anew with the golden age. — 11. 
Adeo, especially with pronouns, gives a rhetorical prominence to 
the word sifter which it is used, and can be best rendered by laying a 
vocal stress on that word. Here the emphasis is increased by the 
repetition of /^. Decus hoc aevi = this glorious age. Inibit = 
shall commence. — 12. Magni — menses; the periods into which the 
magftus annusy i. e. the tnagnus saeclorum ordo^ was divided. Some 
explain it by illustresy memorabiles^ as belonging to the golden age. — 
13. Te duce = under thy guidance, auspices ; L e. as consul. 
Sceleris ; i. e. of the bloody civil wars which were terminated about 
this time by the peace of Brundusium. — 14. Irrita = completely 
effaced, removed. Formidine ; i. e. of the vengeance of the go<^ 
for the scelus, — 15. Ille; the puer of v. 8. Accipiet = shall 
participate in, be the recipient of, enjoy. Divis. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 
245. II. 2 and R. i. Videbit and videbitur express that familiar 
intercourse with the gods on earth which was one of the character- 
istics of the golden age. — 16. Heroas. Gr. 9a A. & S. 86. Blis. 
Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. — 17. Patriis virtutlbus follows 
reget — 18-47. The coming of the golden age will be gradual, 
its stages corresponding to those in the life of the child. Thus its 
infancy is signalized by the production of natural gifts and the re- 
moval of natural evils (w. 18-25) ; in its youth the vegetable world 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE IV. 447 

will actually change its nature (w. 26 - 36) ; in its manhood the 
change will extend to the animals (w. 37-47). Further, the par- 
ticular changes would seem to be adapted to the successive require- 
ments of the child. There are toys and milk for its childhood, which 
18 to be specially guarded from harm ; stronger food for its youth, 
which is not to be without adventure and military glory ; quiet and 
prosperous luxury for its mature age. — 18. At = moreover, and. 
It does not here mark opposition, but simply a transition to a new 
subject Pxima =primo = at first Nullo — cultu = spontane- 
ously. On all these characteristics of the golden age of. Ov. M. L 
S9~ 112. MunuBOula = small gifts ; i. e. for children. They are 
specified in the verses which follow. — 19. Errahtes = spreading ; 
L e. with luxuriance. PasBim ; with fundet What now grows only 
in certain places will then grow everywhere. Bacchare. It is not 
certain what plant is meant It had a fi-agrant root from which an 
dl was extracted. — 20. Colocasia. The Egyptian bean, a plant 
whose root, stalk, and fiiiit were used for food, had just been intro- 
duced into Italy, and was regarded as a valuable rarity. Acantho. 
Virgil mentions two kinds of acanthus ; an herb, as in III. 45, and a 
tree, as here and in G. II. 119. — 21. Ipsae = of their own accord. 
— 23. Ipsa; i. e. sponte ; in the same sense as ipsae^ v. 21, and 
nuUo cultUy V. 18. So Ovid speaks of the earth as fifuitful per se and 
nulla cogenUy and of natos sine setnine flores. — 24. Faliaz; because 
ofits similarity to harmless ones. Cf. G. II. 152. Herba veneni 
= poisonous herb. — 25. Assyrium ; i. e. eastern, oriental, in a 
general sense. The poets use geographical names very loosely. See 
on Hor. C. I. 2. 22 and C. III. 4. 32. Amomum. See on III. 89. 
As a remarkable parallel to this whole passage, compare the prophet 
Isaiah, xxxv. I and xi. 6-8. — 26. Simtil = simul atque, as often. 
Heroum — virtus; i. e. by reading of the glories of his father and 
the heroes of older time, the child will learn to conceive of virtue. — 
28. Molli . . . arista = with waving com. Another interpretation is 
"smooth, beardless." The beard, which protects the grain from 
birds, would not be needed in the golden age. Panlatdm seems to 
mean here spontaneously ; i. e. there will be no process of sowing, 
firom which the springing of the crop can date, but the field will grad- 
ually develop into com. — 30. Roscida = dewy. The ancients 
imagined that honey fell in the shape of dew, and was gathered by 
the bees fi-om leaves. In the golden age it will be so abundant as to 
drop firom the leaves of trees. Cf G. I. 131. So Ovid : Flavaque 
deviridi sHllabant ilice mella, 

31. Before the child becomes a man and the golden age is com- 
pletely restored there will be & repetition of the heroic age, in which 
there will be some traces of ancient wickedness (priscae fraudis),. 



44B NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

and which Virgil identifies by mentioning the two most promi=:^eti^ 
events of that age, the Argonautic Expedition and the Trojan Wa_ ^^.^ 
32. Quae . . . jubeant = which (i. e. such as) shall prompt. Gr. 5c^ 7. i 
A. & S. 264. I {a) and {d), Thetim; a goddess of the sea, pu ■«- fy 
metonymy for the sea itself. She was a daughter of Nereus, the -^sii/e 
of Peleus, and the mother of Achilles. Gr. 85. 4. A. &S. 8o,Ex^ 
— 34. Tiphys ; the helmsman of the ship Argo which sailed m the 
celebrated quest for the golden fleece with Hercules, Jason, and others 
{delectos heroas). — 35. Altera bella; i. e. the old wars over agauu 
36. Achilles ; the son of Peleus, king of the Myrmidones in Phthio^ 
tis in Thessaly, and the Nereid Thetis. From his fether's name \kC 
is sometimes called Pelides (A. II. 548), and jfrom that of his grand- 
father Aeacus, he derived his name Aeacides (A. I. 99). In fifty 
ships he led his hosts of Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achaeans against 
Troy. Here he was the great bulwark of the Greeks, and the wor- 
thy favorite of Minerva and Juno. — 37 - 47. When he shall have 
grown to manhood, the fulness of the blessings of the golden age 
will have come. There will be no need of commerce, for everything 
will grow everywhere. — 38. Bt ipse — vector = even the passen- 
ger himself. Much more the sailor in a ship of war. Marl Gr. 422. 
2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 {a) and {b). — 41. Taiiria may be the dative, 
Gr. 384. A. & S. 223, or the ablative, Gr. 425. 3. 2). A. & S. 251. The 
best authorities are divided. — 42. Mentiri = to counterfeit ; i. e. to 
assume colors by means of dyes. — 43. In pratis conveys the same 
idea as pascentesy v. 45 ; i. e. the live sheep in the field, opposed to 
the fleece in the hands of the dyer. — Jam . . . jam = modo . . . modo. 
Suave. See on III. 63. — 44. Murlce . . . mutabit — luto = will * 
dye his fleece purple.. .. yellow; or more lit. will change (the color 
of) his fleece for purple . . . yellow. Gr. 416. 2. A. & S. 252, R, 5. — 
45. Sandyx = scarlet. — 46. Talia saecla = O blessed ages ! Le. 
such as those just described. Currite = run on ; i. e. without inter- 
ruption. — 47. Concordes — numlne = harmonious in respect to 
the immutable will of the fates. The ages are here spoken of as 
threads spun from the spindles of the Parcae, in strict accord with the 
immutable power which controls their operations. Parcae, three 
sister-goddesses, daughters of Nox : Clotho, who holds the distaff, 
Lachesis, who spins the thread of human life, and Atropos, who 
severs it with scissors. Here each is represented as having her spin- 
dle. See also on Ov. M. I. 256. 49. Deum ; i. e. dei cUicujus ; 
poetical for an indefinite singular. Cf. A. VI; 322. Incrementum 
= progeny ; i. e. the boy being regarded as one more added to Jupi- 
ter's race. Some interpret it as the foster-child, the favorite of Jupiter. 
Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 310. I. — 50. Adapice mundmn = see the 
universe with its convex mass (i. e. the round world) trembling (with 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE V. 449 

joy). Gr. 428. A. & S. 21 1, R. 6. — 51. Terras — profundom ; 
the parts of which the mundus is made up. Terraaque. Gr. 669. 
V. A. & S. 283. IV. Ex. 2, R. 3 ; 323, 2 (2). Adapice . . . lae- 
tantnr ut omnia = see ! how do all things rejoice ! This is an 
emphatic repetition of the substance of w. 50, 51, and thus indicates 
the true meaning of nutantem, — 53. The simple wish is, O mihi tarn 
Idnga sit vita ; but since, from the nature of the case, he would be 
quite aged when the child became a man, he says, pars ultima 
vitaey etc — 54. Spiritus et (sc mihi sit tanttis) = and may my 
poetic inspiration be so great. Tua dicere faota ; a Grecism for ad 
dicenda tua facta, Dicere depends on sat Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, 
R. I. — 55. Non . . . nee . . . neo. Gr. 585. 2. A. & S. 277, R. 5 {a), 
H^Oxpheus. See on Ov. M. X. Introd. p. 415. Cf. III. 46. — 56. Linus ; 
the son of Apollo and one of the Muses. Huio . . . huic = the one . . . 
the other. Adait = assist, aid. — 57. Orphei ; a dissyllable. Gr. 669. 
IL A. & S. 54. 5 ; 306. I. Calliopea, another form of Calliope, 
Gr. 612. 5. A. & S. 283, Ex. 6 (i). —58. Pan. See on Ov. M. 
XL 147. The principal seat of his worship was Arcadia, whence it 
spread over othet parts of Greece. As the god of pastoral life, he 
was fond of music, and the inventor of the syrinx or shepherd's flute, 
which he himself played in a masterly manner. Arcadia ; a moun- 
tainous province in the midst of the Peloponnesus. Gr. 430 ; 705. II. 
A. & S. 257, R. 7 ; 324. 2. — 60. Risu — matrem = by thy smile to 
recognize thy mother ; i. e. to show by thy smile that thou dost rec- 
(^nize her. Some refer it to the smile of the mother. This is at 
least very tame, and does not suit so well the meaning of v. 62. The 
wish is that the child may smile on his mother, in order that he may 
receive her smile in return ; for not to receive a parent's smile was 
accounted a bad omen for a child. Neither does it suit so well the 
meaning of v. 61, which assigns the long period of pain and discom- 
fort preceding his birth as the reason why he should recompense the 
mother by a smile of recognition. — 61. Decern . . . menses ; the 
period of gestation as recognized by the Roman law. Tulemnt. 
Gr. 669. IV. A. & S. 307. I and (2). Pastldia = discomfort. — 
63. Admission to the table of the gods and the hand of a goddess in 
marriage were the peculiar privileges that followed the deification of 
a hero. 



ECLOGUE V. — DAPHNIS. 

Menalcas invites Mopsus, a somewhat younger shepherd, to play 
and sing. Mopsus complies, with a funeral song on Daphnis, the 
ideal shepherd. Menalcas matches it by a corresponding song on 

29 



450 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

the apotheosis of Daphnis. They praise each other and exchange 
gifts. The original Daphnis was a Sicilian hero, and his name occurs 
frequently in the ancient Pastorals. It is supposed that this Eclogue 
was written B. C. 42, in which year public rejoicings throughout Italy 
were ordered to celebrate the deification of Julius Caesar, the month 
of July being also named after him. According to this conjecture, 
which is not improbable, Virgil celebrates Caesar under the name of 
Daphnis, though not carrying the resemblance through all its fea- 
tHres. 

1. Boni = skilled Calamos — leves = in playing on the slen- 
der pipe ; lit. the slender reeds ; i e. of which the pipe was con- 
structed See on III. 25. Ci Ov. M. XI. 161. Inflare and dicere 
depend upon boni, Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. i. Similar Gredsms 
abound in Virgil. Cf. IV. 54, dicer e^ and A. VI. 165, ciere. See also 
on Hor. C. I. i. i& — 3. Corylis. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2 j 
or 245. II. 2. — 4. Major ; sc naiu, — 5. Zephyris motantibtia 
(sc. eas) ; whence the uncertainty of the shade. — 6. AdBpice, ut 
followed by the indicative calls attention to the fact of the action or 
state expressed by the verb ; by the subjunctive, to the manner in 
which it is performed. Indicative : See ! how the wild vine has over- 
spread the cave I Subjunctive : See how the wild vine, etc Cf IV. 52, 
7. Racemis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 8. Tibi certat. Gr. 
385. 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2 and {b), Menalcas compliments Mopsus 
as they walk towards the cave, intimating that Amyntas alone dared to 
contend with him in plajdng on the pipe. — 9. Quid — oertet = what 
if the same should strive. Mopsus is not pleased with the allusion 
to Amyntas, and sneers at his vanity. — 10. Pbyllidis ignes = love 
for Phyllis. These genitives are all objective. — 11. Jurgia Codii 
= invectives against Codrus. — 12. Tityms ; probably a servant of 
one of the others. — 13. Immo haec. Menalcas had suggested 
several subjects, but Mopsus prefers to sing some verses which he 
had lately inscribed on the bark of a tree. — 14. Modulans — no- 
tavi = setting them to music I noted down the alternations (of the 
flute and voice). See on III. 22. He inscribed his verses and then 
set them to music, inscribmg that also. — 15. Tu — Am3rntaB. He 
still feels the mention of Amyntas, and says, derisively : After you have 
heard my song, then, if you will, bid Amyntas to contend with me. 
— 16 - 18. Menalcas reassures him. — 19. Plura may be taken as 
the object of desine, though in translating it is better to render it, " to 
say more." — 20. Daphnim. See Introduction. Funere = tnorte. 
— 21. Nymphis ; sc. fuistis, — 23. Atque . . . atque = et , , , 
et Crudelia; the predicate accusative. Gr. 373. 3. A. & S. 230, 
N. 3. Mater ; Venus, the reputed mother of the gens Julia, — 25. 
Nulla nee . . . nee. Gr. 585. '2. A. & S. 277, R. 5 (a), — 26w 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE V. 45 1 

Ubavit . . . attigit ^ tasted . . . touched ; much less drink or eat 
QramiiiiB herbam ; herba being the generic, and gramen the 
specific term, as in herba frumenti, — 27. Daphni Gr. 94. i (2), 
A. & S. 81, R. Poenos; L e. African. C£ Hor. C. L 22. 15, 
16. — 28. Loqunntur = declare, testify ; like coryli testes^ v. 21. 
— 29. ZSt = etiam, Arxnenias ; since Armenia abounded in ti- 
gers. CnrriL Gr. 116. 4(3). A. &S. 89.3. Daphnis teaching the 
swains the rites of Bacchus is an emblem of the civil reforms of 
Caesar. — 30. Inducere = to introduce. — 31. Foliis — bastas ; 
le. the thyrsus. See on Ov. M. III. 667 and XL 9.-32. Arbori- 
bU8 ; on which the vine is trained. — 34. Tu — tuis ; sc. sic eras, 
Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 227, R. 4. TTilerunt = fl<5j/«//^r//«/. — 35. 
Ipsa . . . ipse. By these words Pales and Apollo are set in opposi- 
tion to te ; i e. such was their grief at Daphnis's death, that they 
themselves left the rural abodes of men. The baneful results of theit" 
departure are described in the following lines. Pales was a Roman 
divinity of flocks and shepherds. Apollo, one of the great divinities 
of the Greeks, was, according to Homer, the son of Zeus and Leta 
The powers ascribed to him are apparently of different kinds, but all 
are connected with one another, and may be said to be only ram- 
ifications of one and the same. They are the following : — i. He 
is the god who punishes and destroys the wicked and overbear- 
ing J 2. The god who affords help and wards off evil ; 3. The god of 
prophecy ; 4. The god of song and music ; 5. The god who protects 
the flocks and cattle ; 6. The god who delights in the foundation 
of towns and the establishment of civil constitutions. It is as 
the rural god of flocks and cattle that he is here mentioned. — 36. 
Qrandia. Large grains were selected for seed. — 37. Infelix = 
infecundum ; L e. useless for food. Avenae = wild oats ; which 
were nothing but weeds. Cf. G. L 154 — 38. Molli is opposed to 
the sharp and prickly thistle and Christ*s-thom, a prickly shrub com- 
mon m the south of Italy. Purpureo. Purpurem is applied not 
only to purple or red, but to any bright color. — 39. Splnis. Gr. 
42S. A. & S. 211, R. 6. —40. Spargite . . . umbras. From IX. 
19, 20 it would seem that foliis should be interpreted " flowers " 
(floreniibus herhis)^ and umbras " trees " (viridi umbra). The 
meaning will then be, sow the turf with flowers, and plant trees be- 
side (overshadowing) the fountains. Tombs were often built near 
fountains and surrounded with trees. — 41. Talia refers to what fol- 
lows as well as to what precedes. Mandat — Daphnis is parentheti- 
caL — 42. Carmen = the (following) poetic inscription. — 43. 
Daphnis — silvis = I am Daphnis (who dwelt) in the woods ; i. e. 
who led the life of a shepherd. — 45. Tale quale. Gr. 438. 4 ; 441. 
A. & S. 204, R. 9; 205, R. 7 (2). —47. Sitim. Gr. 85. III. 2. A. & S. 



452 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

79. 2. Re8tine;uere is the subject of est understood. Gr. 549. 
A- & S. 202. 6. III. 5, R. 2.-48. Sed voce; i.e. sed^ quod ma^ 
jus estf voce, Non (nee) solum . . . sed etiam implies simple enume- 
ration, and makes no distinction in point of force between the two 
members, but non (nee) solum . . . sed implies comparison, and 
makes the latter member the stronger. Magistnim. Some critics 
refer this word to Daphnis ; others, to some shepherd who had 
taught Mopsus music. We prefer the latter view. — 49. Alter ab 
Ulo = secundus post ilium, — 50. Haec . . . nostra ; sc carmine 
Quocumque modo = as well as I can ; lit. in whatever way. — 
51. ToUemuB ad astra = I will praise to the skies. Some think 
it means, "I will celebrate his ascent to heaven," referring to the 
apotheosis of Julius Caesar ; but this sense would rather require in 
astra, though ad is used in the sense of in, A. I. 259. — 52. Daph- 
nln. Gr. 93. 2. A. & S. 80. Ex. i. — 53. Sit Gr. 485 ; 486. 
II. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Tali . . . muuere = than such a 
favor. — 54. Puer ; Daphnis. Ipse = per se. Cantari Gr. 552. 
3. A. & S. 270, R. I and (If) ; 264, N. 6. Ista. Gr. 450. A. & S. 
207, R. 25. — 55. Stimicon ; the fictitious name of some shepherd. 
— 56. The apotheosis of Daphnis begins here, consisting of twenty- 
five lines ; the same number as in the lament of Mopsus. Candi- 
dus = in his (divine) beauty. Olympi ; a mountain 9,700 feet high, 
on the boundary between Macedonia and Thessalia. From its great 
height it was considered the seat of the gods ; hence it is often em- 
ployed by the poets to denote heaven. — 58. All nature, animate 
and inanimate, rejoices at his apotheosis, as it had mourned at his 
death. Cetera nira = fields. Cetera, because rus includes woods, 
as well as woods and pastures. — 59. Pana. See on IV. 58. Dry- 
adas puellas = Dryad maids. See on v. 75. Gr. 98. A. & S. 85, 
Ex. 2 ; 205, R. 1 1 («). — 61. Bonus = benignus, as often of gods. Cfc 
V. 65. Otia. See on 1. 6. — 62. Ipsi ; i. e. etiam, adeo. See on 1. 39. — 
63. Intonsi = unshorn ; i. e. uncleared (of trees). See on Ov. M. 
XI. 158. — 64. Deus — Menalca = that (Daphnis of ours is) a god, 
a god, Menalcas ! This is what the rocks and trees utter. — 65. 
Bonus felizque = kind and propitious. Cf. A. i. 330. Sis. Gr. 
487 ; 488. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Aras. Gr. 381. A. & S. 
238. 2. — 66. Tibi . . . Pboebo ; sc. positas, exstructas, or the like. 
Daphni Gr. 94. i and (2). A. & S. 81, R. Duas altaria = two 
high ones. Ara is the generic term for an altar ; altar e (from cUius^ 
high), the specific kind of altar on which victims were offered to the 
superior deities. Daphnis, as a hero, has only libations of milk, oil, 
and wine offered to him, not victims. Duas agrees with aras under- 
stood, to which altaria is in apposition. Phoebo. Apollo is men- 
tioned because the birthday of Julius Caesar, which, after his deifica- 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE V. 453 

tion, was celebrated with annual rites, fell on the same day (the 12th 
of July) as the festival in honor of Apollo (Ludi Apolli?tares ), But 
as the Sibylline books forbade the rites of any other god to be celc- 
Brated at the same time with those of Apollo, the birthday was kept 
on the preceding day. — 67, 68. Bina ; i. e. two for each altar ; 
duos, two in all, the crater being larger, from which the poctUa might 
"be replenished. Besides the birthday festival, v. 66, two others are 
promised annually to Daphnis; and it is probable that Virgil in- 
tends to rank Caesar among the "Lares worshipped in April, when 
the harvest began, and at the close of the vintage in autumn. To 
the former refer ncrvo lacte and messes ; to the latter, olivi and frigus. 
On both he is to offer libations of wine. Olivi ; poetical for olei, — 
69. In primis = especially. Convivia, the banquets after the 
sacrifices. Baocho = vino. — 71. Vina . . . Ariusia. The wine 
from Ariusia, in the island of Chios, is here called a new kind of 
nectar (novum nectar )y because recently introduced and esteemed 
very choice. Calathis = from wine cups. — 72. Mihi; sc. sacra 
facientiy while sacrificing. LyctiuB = Lyctian ; from Lyctus^ an 
ancient town in the island of Crete. The proper names here are 
those of imaginary shepherds. — 73. Saltantes — imitabitur. 
Forb. says, Saltabit Satyrorum more ; i. e. in a rude manner. Saty- 
ros ; a species of rustic divinity, attendants of Bacchus, of human 
form, with ears and tail of a goat. In character they were frolicsome, 
and given to animal enjoyment. — 75. Nymphis ; a numerous class 
of inferior female divinities. They belonged to the Greek rather than 
to the Roman religion, and were believed to dwell on earth in groves, 
on the summits of mountains, in rivers, streams, glens, and grottos. 
The following are some of the principal classes mentioned in Latin 
poetry : i. Nereides^ sea-nymphs ; 2. Oreades, mountain-nymphs ; 3. 
Napaeae^ dell-nymphs ; 4. Dryadesy wood-nymphs ; 5. Naiades, water- 
nymphs ; and 6. Hamadryades, tree-nymphs, who were born and died 
together with the trees which had been their abode. Lustrabimus 
agroB = we shall lustrate the fields. For a description of this 
lustratio (purification by sacrifice), see on Ambarvaliay III. 76. — 
77. Rore cioadiae. The ancients supposed that the cicada lived on 
dew. It is of the cricket tribe, and sits on the trees in summer, 
chirping away the whole day long. — 78. Repeated A. I. 609. — 79. 
Baccho Cererique. Bacchus and Ceres are mentioned, as being 
the chief patrons of husbandmen. — 80. Damnabis — votis = 
thou also wilt bind (them ; i. e. the agricolae who shall make vows to 
thee) by their vows ; i. e. to keep their vows by granting their pray- 
ers. Gr. 41a 5. 3). A. & S. 217, R. 3 (<5). — 82. Venientis = 
rising. ~ 85. Nos. Gr. 367. 2. i). A. & S. 209, it i {b). Ante 
= first : i. e. before I receive anything from you. Cf. v. 81. Ci- 



454 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

onta. See on III. 25. — 86. N08. Gr. 446. 2. A. & S. 209, 1 
{d), Menalcas appears to represent Virgil himsel£ FQrmn« iiii | ^ 

Aleadm = Corydon ardently loved the beautiful Alexis ; a par 1 0/ 
the first line of the 2d Eclogue, which is omitted in this select=z-:iG^ 
Gr. 374.. A. & S. 231. Alftxlm, Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2^.^ 
87. Cujom — Melifaoei C£ IIL i. — 88. Quum = althoizv^^ 
— 89. Non tulit ; L e. did not get ISt^et tamen or quamqt^aift. 
Turn = in those days ; i. e. whatever he may be now. MxoLSUi 
See on caniariy v. 54. —90. FormOBum — aere. Keightley sajs; 
The crook was usually made of olive-wood, which was knotty, and 
was often adorned with brass rings or studs. Paribus may refer to 
the regularity in the position of the natural knots. 



ECLOGUE VII. — MELIBOEUS. 

This is another singing-match between Corydon and Thyrsis, with 
Daphnis as umpire. Unlike those in Eclogues III. and V., it ends 
decisively in the defeat of Thyrsis. The story is told by Meliboeus, 
who was not present until the terms of the contest had been agreed 
on, so that of them we hear nothing. 

The scenery is, as usual, confused. Arcadian shepherds are made 
to sing in the neighborhood of the Mindus, while neither the ilex (v. 
i), the pine (v. 24), the chestnut (v. 53), nor the flocks of goats (v. 7), 
would seem to belong to Mantua. 

After an introduction of twenty verses, the style is amoebean (s^e 
Introduction to Eclogue III.), the rivals singing four verses each and 
constantly changing the subject. 

1. Arguta = murmuring. Cf. Longfellow : *< the murmuring pines 
and the hemlocks." — 2. Unum; sc. locum, — 3. Distentas; sc 
ubera. — 4. FXorentes aetatibuB = in the bloom of their age, in 
their prime. Aetatibus ; the plural used poetically, each being made 
to have his own aetas. Arcades ; either Arcadians by birth or Ar- 
cadians in musical skill. Gr. 624. 3. i). A. & S. 300- Ex. 2 {d), — 
5. Cantare . . . respondere. See on V. i. Respondere refers to 
the amoebean style of singing. — 6. Hue ; i. e. towards the place 
where they were sitting. — Mihl . . . caper ^ my he-goat. Gr. 
398. 5. A. &. S. 211, R. 5 (i). C£ caper tibi, v. 9. Defendo; le. 
by putting straw about them. The time must be the early spring, 
when the night frost often bit the tender plants in the north of Italy. 
The present tense, for vivacity. — 7. Vir = husband, leader. Ipse 
implies that he was followed by the rest of the flock ; hence et haedu 
V. 9. Deerraverat Gr. 669. 11. A.& S.306. i and (i). Atque; 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE VIL 455 

sc. caprum qwurens, Atqut often introduces a statement not only 
additional, but unexpected. AdeB = vem', — 10. Si — potes = 
if thou canst stop a while. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 232 (3). — 11. IpaL 
See on IV. 21. Fotmn. Gr. 569. A. & S. 276. II. Juvenci; 
not belonging to Daphnis, as some would have it, nor necessarily to 
Mdiboeus, as others ; but rather introduced as a bit of landscape 
painting. — 12. Vixidea. Keightley would read viridis (Mincias), 
Praeteadt = skirts, fringes. C£ A. VL 5. —13. The Mincius 
rises in the Alps, and near Mantua forms the Lake Benacus, thence 
flows on to the Po, in a sluggish stream and with sedgy banks. See 
on L 49. Sacra ; i. e. to Jupiter. — 14. Facerem. Gr. 486. IL A. & S. 
260, R. 5. Alcippen . . . Phyllida ; probably the contubernales re- 
spectively of Corydon and Thyrsis. Meliboeus means that he had no 
one at home, as they had, to attend to his affairs. The ego expressed 
&vors this view. See on I. 31. — 15. Depulsoa a lacte. See on 
IIL 82. Quae clauderet = to shut up. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. i 
(a) and (^). — 16. Corydon cuza Thyraide is connected by a sort 
of loose apposition with certamen. Magnum seems to be a predi- 
cate. — 19. Meminiaae ; sc. eos. As the poets were taught by the 
Muses, they might justly say that they remembered their lyrics. — 21. 
Nymphae ; since they, Hke the Muses, were patronesses of song. 
Amor ; abstract for concrete. Gr. 363. i. A. & S. 204, R. 3. Li- 
bethridea = Libethrian ; i. e. belonging to Libethrus, a fountain with 
a cave in Mount Helicon. Gr. 624. 3. i). A. & S. 300. Ex. 2 (d), — 

22. Codro; either some shepherd, or a wholly fictitious character, 
as in V. 11. Prozima; sc. carmina from the preceding carmen. — 

23. Pacit Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (i). Si non poaaumua; 
i e. to rival Codnis. — 24. Pendebit Those who left any art used 
to hang up the implements by which it was practised as a sacred of- 
fering : here to Pan, to whom the pine was sacred. — 25. Hedera. 
See on Hor. C. 1. 1. 29. Naacentem . . . poetam = the rising poet ; 
i c. Thyrsis himself, as the superior of Codrus. The modesty of 
COTydon is well contrasted with the arrogance of Thyrsis. — 26. In-i 
vidia — Codro = that Codrus may burst with envy. Gr. 398. 5. 
A. & S. 211, R. 5 (i). — 27. Ultra placitum = beyond what is 
pleasing ; i. e. to the gods. Extravagant praise was considered like- 
ly to provoke the jealousy of the gods. Some refer the words to 
Codrus instead of to the gods. Bacchare. This plant was con- 
sidered an antidote for the evil eye, or the evil tongue. — 29. Cory- 
don speaks in the character of Micon, a young hunter, who is dedi- 
cating an offering to Diana in the form of an inscription. Delia, a 
name for Diana, from the island Delos. See on Ov. M. VI. 187 and 
19a ParvuB ^ young. — 30. Micon; sc^dicat Vivacia. Among 
the ancients the stag was proverbially long-lived. — 31. Proprium 



456 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

= lasting, permanent C£ A. VI. 871. Hoc = this (success in 
hunting). Tota = entire 5 i. e. not a mere head or bust — 32L 
Suras. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. The description is that of a 
huntress. Cf. A. 1. 337. — 33. Thyrsis responds with an inscription 
for a statue of Priapus, the god of procreation, and hence of gardens 
and vineyards. He was the reputed son of Bacchus and Venus. Si- 
num must not be confounded with sfnus. Liba; cakes used as offer- 
ings. Cf. Ov. Trist. IV. 10. 12 and note. — 35. Pro tempore = ac- 
cording to our circumstances. — 36. Fetnra = fruitfulness. Statues 
of Priapus were usually made in a coarse way out of wood, but Thyr- 
sis promises the god a golden one, if he gives increase to the flocks. 
ISsto. Gr. 534. II. A. & S. 267 (2). — 37. Nerin^. Gr, 316.4. 
A. & S. 100. 1, {b) R. 3. Galatea ; a sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus 
and Doris. Hyblae. See on t. 55. — 39. Quum — tauri ; I e. in 
the evening. — 40. Venito. See on esto^ v. 36. — 41. Sardoniis . . 
herbis. The plant is the celery-leaved crowfoot It grows abun- 
dantly in Sardinia, (whence its name,) and is celebrated for its bitter- 
ness and its contractile effect on the muscles of the face, so that those 
who chew it seem to laugh ; hence our phrase, sardonic laugh, as ap- 
plied to involuntary or forced laughter. Videar. Gr. 488. I. and 2. 
A. & S. 260, R. 6. — 42. RuBCO ; a low, prickly shrub, indigenous 
in England, and called butcher's-broom. C£ G. II. 413. Projecta 
= thrown (on the shore) ; and which no one cares to take up. — 43. 
Lux = dies, — 44. Si quia pudor = if you have any shame ; as much 
as to say, you ought to be ashamed of yourselves to keep me so long 
from my love. — 45. Somno mollior. Cf. G. II. 470. — 46. Rara; 
because the branches of the arbuttis are not thick and the leaves are. 
small. Arbutus ; the nominative for the vocative. — 49 - 52. As 
an offset to Corydon's picture of a shady retreat from the midday 
heat of summer, his rival sings the comforts of the shepherd's home 
in the winter. — 50. Nigri The ancients had no chimneys, and the 
smoke escaped through a hole in the roof or by the doors. — 51. 
Ta]ituxn = so much only, as little. — 52. Numerum; sc. avium. 
The wolf when attacking the sheep cares not how many there are, 
since he fears them not — 53 - 56. An autumn scene. Stant = 
stand bristling. The word is not simply = sunt. See on Hor. C. I. 
9. I. Juniper! — castaneae. Gr. 669. I. 2. A. & S. 305 (2). 
Hirsutae ; of the prickly husk of the chestnut Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 
310. I. I. — 54. Sua — arbore = its own under each tree. Some 
read quaequcy in which case sua is an ablative, and scanned as a mono- 
syllable. — 56. Abeat, videaci. Gr. 509. A. & S. 261 and 2. 
Et = even. — 57 - 60. The same subject, but the opposite side of 
the picture. — 57. Vitio . . . aeris = by a diseased state of the air ; 
i. e. by excessive heat and drought — 58w Liber; Bacchus. See on . 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE IX. 457 

Ov. M. in. 636. C£ the epithet Lyaetis, explained on Ov. M. XL 67. 
^ii7idlt = has grudged, denied. — 60. Ixippiter =^ aether. The 
^jnage is that of G. II. 325, the marriage of Jupiter and Juno, 
Aether and Earth. C£ also ruit ardutis aether^ G. I. 324, and coeli 
ruinay A. L 129, which is essentially the same picture. C£ G. I. 418 ; 
IL 419 ; Ov. M. II. 377 J Hor. C. L i. 25, etc Laeto = joy-giving ; 
from the eflfect PliirimuB = very abundant Cf. G. 1. 187 ; A. VI. 
659, etc. Gr. 160. A. & S. 122, R. 4. ImbrL Gr. 87. IIL 3 (3). 
A & S. 82, Ex. 5 (tf). — 61. Aloidae ; Hercules, the grandson of 
Alcaeus. Gr. 316. A. & S. 100. i and (a). laccho; a name of 
Bacchus, from iax« to shout. See also on G. I. 166. — 69. Haeo 
meminl Meliboeus here resumes the narrative, and declares Cory- 
don victor. — 70. Corydon — nobis = Corydon, Corydon is (the 
man) for me. The proper name is repeated for emphasis. 



ECLOGUE IX. — MOERIS. 

The historical occasion of this Eclogue has been already adverted 
to in the Life of VirgiL After obtaining a promise of protection, the 
poet is said to have returned to his property, when his entrance was 
resisted and his life menaced by an intruding soldier, whose name is 
variously given as Arrius, Claudius, or Milienus Toro. He sought 
safety in flight, and made a second appeal to the higher authorities, 
which was crowned with more permanent success. Ruaeus conjec- 
tures that this Eclogue was in fact a poetical petition presented to 
Varus or Octavianus. Certainly it is skilfully contrived to interest 
the reader in the poet's favor. Moeris, one of the servants, is going 
to the town (Mantua), to carry part of the farm produce to the usurp- 
ing proprietor, when he is stopped by a neighbor, Lycidas, relates his 
and his master's troubles, and receives a warm expression of sym- 
pathy at the loss which had so nearly fallen on the whole district by 
the death of Menalcas (Virgil), some of the poet's verses being quoted 
to show how great that loss would have been, while it is hinted that 
his successful return will produce further poems. 

1. Pedes ; sc ducunU — 2. Vivi pervenimus = we have lived 
to see, have reached the point alive ; vivi expressing both that they 
might have expected to die before such an outrage, and also that 
death would have been a boon. Advena ; used contemptuously, as 
in A. IV. 591. Nostri . . . agelli = of our (i. e. of my) land ; slaves 
then, as now, speaking of their master's property as their own. The 
involved order of the words seems to indicate the perturbation of 
Moeris. — 3. Ut relates to an omitted eo^ implied in vivi pervenimus. 



45$ NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

— 4. Colon! = inhabitants, owners. — 5. Vlctl = overpowered ; 
i. e. by the veterans. TriBtes ; because vicH. — 6. Quod — bene » 
and may bad luck go with them ; lit and may which not turn out well 
Gr. 445, 7. A. & S. 206 (13). Mittimus. Moerip seemingly speaks 
for his master, who sends him with the present — 7. Certe aud&- 
eram = I for my part had heard for certain (for a fact). Certe adds 
confirmation to the whole sentence, and is to be joined to the verb^ 
while equidem gives assurance to the subject, and is to be joined to 
the pronoun. Qua fagos ; with omnsa, expressing the extent of the 
property. Qim = (from the point) where. Se subducere . . . 
molli — clivo = to decline (more lit to withdraw themselves), and 
to lower the summit by a gentle slope ; jugum demittere being nearly 
=s se subducere, — 9. Aquam ; probably of the Mincius. Jam in- 
dicates that fracta is to be referred to their age. Cacumina. The 
apposition between a thing and a prominent part of itself is not un- 
common. Cf. jttveneSy fortisstma pectora^ A. II. 348. Gr. 363. A. & S. 
204. — 10. Carminibus. By means of his poetry, Menalcas (Vir- 
gil) obtained friends, through whom he had recovered his land. Ves- 
trum; the plural, as Moeris had used it, for the whole house- 
hold. See on nostril v. 2. So nostra^ v. 12. — 13. Chaonlas. Do- 
dona, a city of Epirus, famed for its oracle, the most ancient in 
Greece, was anciently inhabited by the Chaonians. The oracle was 
at first interpreted by men, and afterwards by aged women,, called 
rr^Xotai, i. e. doves, the command to found the oracle having been 
brought, it was said, by doves. Hence Chaonian doves. Tennyson 
speaks of the oak-grove of Dodona as " that Thessalian growth In 
which the swarthy ring-dove sat. And mystic sentence spoke." — 14 
Quod nisi = and if not Gr. 453. 6. A. & S. 206 (14). Qua- 
cumque (sc. via^ ratione) ; i. e. on any terms, as best I could. — 15. 
Sinistra = on the left. Monuiaaet . . . viveret Gr. 51a 
A. & S. 261. I. — 17. Cadit in = does fall to, attach to ; i. e. is any 
one capable of so great wickedness ? — 18. Paene ; alluding to the 
narrow escape of Menalcas (Virgil). Solatia; i. e. his poems, which 
were a joy and solace to all that heard them. Menalca. He apos- 
trophizes the absent poet — 19, 20. Quia — umbra. The allusion 
is probably to V. 20, 40, on which latter see note. Induceret = 
would overspread. Umbra. Gr. 419. 2. A. & S. 249. I. — 21. 
Vel — carmina (sc. quis caneret ea) = or (who would sing those) 
verses which I in silence caught up from you without your noticing 
it (sub) ; i. e. overheard you sing them. Tibi is evidently Menalcas, 
though many of the critics refer it to Moeris. Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 
224, R. 2. — 22. Nostras ; i. e. the delight of all of us ; impl>-ing 
that she was a general favorite. — 23. Dum redeo = while I am on 
my way back : not " till I come back," as some would have it The 



THE BUCOLICS. ECLOGUE IX. 459 

use of the present shows that it is the continuance of the time, not its 
completion, that is thought of. We should have expected dum ab- 
sum ; but the speaker, in asking to be waited for, naturally talks of 
himself, not as absent, but as coming back. — 24. Potiiin=to drink. 
Gr. 569. A. & S. 276. II. Inter agendum = while driving (them). 
Gr. 565. A. & S. 275. III. R. 3.-25. Capra Gr. 386. A. & S. 
224. Verses 23 - 25 are borrowed from Theocritus, after whom sev- 
eral passages in this Eclogue are modelled. — 26. Immo = nay, 
rather : sc. quis caneret Quae — canebat = which, and that 
not finished, he was composing in honor of Varus ; probably Alfe- 
nus Varus, who. was appointed by Octavianus, B.C. 40, to preside 
over Cisalpine Gaul. He appears to have been favorably disposed 
to Virgil, who may flatter him here to induce him to deal leniently 
with Mantua. — 27. Superet Gr. 503. i. A. & S. 263. 2 (i).— 
28. Nimium vioina ; though they were forty miles apart, because 
Mantua suffered for its proximity to its disaffected neighbor. See 
l,ife, — 29. Cycni The Mincius abounded in swans. Cf. G. II. 
199. On the swan as a singing bird, see on Hor. C. IV. 2. 25. — 30. 
Sio — incipe = as you hope that your bees may avoid the Corsi- 
can yews, as you hope that your cows, etc, begin : more lit so may 
your bees, etc, (as you) begin. See on Hor. C. I. 3. i. Lycidas, 
anxious to hear more of the verses of Menalcas, conjures Moeris, by 
what is most to be desired by a farmer, to go on with what he can 
recollect of them. Cymeas ; from Cyrnos^ the Greek name of the 
island of Corsica. Tazos. The yew-tree was prejudicial to bees, and 
the honey made from it was said to be bitter. — 31. Cytiso. Gr. 
414 and 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 32. Si quid habes. See on III. 52. 
Poetam, vatem. Poeta is a technical expression, and denotes a 
poet only as an artist ; votes is an old Latin and religious expression, 
and denotes a poet as a sacred person. Dbd. This distinction, how- 
ever, is not always observed. Here vatem may be rendered " an inspired 
bard." Lycidas claims to be 2ipoeta^ but disclaims the honors of the 
votes. — 33. Pierides. See on Ov. M. V. Introd. — 34. Non — 
Ulis = I do not believe them. Gr. 391. A. & S. 222. 3. — 35. 
Vaxio . . . Cinna ; distinguished Roman poets, contemporaries of 
"N^giL Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. — 36. Argutos — olore8 = to 
cackle like a goose among the tuneful swans. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. 
Anser, according to Servius, is a punning reference to a contempo- 
rary poet of that name, and probably, like Bavius and Maevius, per- 
sonally obnoxious to Virgil. 

37. Id quidem ago = that very thing I am trying to do ; refer- 
ring to the incipe f si quid habes, of v. 32. Ipse. Gr. 452. i. A. & S. 
207, R. 28 {a), — 38. Si valeam = in the hope that I may be able, 
lit if I may be able. — Neque =■ non enim, — 39. Huo ades. See 



460 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

on Vn. 9. Oalatea. See on VII. 37. These verses are from the = 
nth Idyl of Theocritus, and are a part of the address of Polyphemns-aai 
the Cyclops to the sea-nymph Galatea, who was beloved by hhn 
Quis est nam ; by tmesis for quisnam est, A. & S. 323. 4(5). — 40—. 
Pnrpuream. See on V. 38. Circum; merely denoting prozimityi^Ba 

like " about" A. & S. 279. 10 (/). — 42. TTmbracula = a bower. 

43. Feriant. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. — 44. Quid, qiiae== 
what (do you say of those verses), which.; how (about those verse&)^^ 
which. -^ 45. Numeros = the measures, the tune. 8i — tenereo^Hi 

= if I only had the words. Here the conditional clause is not logi 

cally connected with the other, but with something understood ; e. g-..^ 
it might be, numeros meminiy et carmen ipsum revocarem^ si verbc^^ 
tenerem, Cf. Gr. 512. — 46. Daphni Daphnis is addressed as th^ 
representative of the shepherds who watch the stars for agricultural. 
purposes. Cf. G. I. 204 foil. Quid. Gr. 38a 2. A. & S. 235, R- 
II. AntlquoB (long known) is transferred from signorum (constel- 
lations) to ortus, — 47. Dionaei = Dionean, descendant of Dione:^ 
The Julian gens was derived from lulus, the son of Aeneas, who was 
the son of Venus, daughter of Dione. C£ A. I. 286. Processit = 
has risen. Astrum ; the comet which appeared after the death of 
Julius Caesar. See on Hor. C. 1. 12. 47.-48. Quo aegetes. The 
Julian star is to be the farmer's star, as Julius in V. 79 is the farmer's 
god, and Octavianus also (G. I. 24 foil). Quo = by whose agency, 
influence. Gauderent is best rendered by the fiiture. Gr. 50a 
A. & S. 264. I {a) and {b), Frugibus. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247. 
I (2). — 49. Duceret . . . colorem = shall derive color ; L e. shall 
ripen. — 50. Insere piroa ; for this propitious star shall make them 
fruitful for many generations. — 51. Fert = aufert, Cf. V. 34. Ani- 
mum = animi vires, memoriam. His memory failing him, he sud- 
denly stops and sorrowfully adds, omnia fert aetasy etc. — 52. Puerum. 
Gr. 363. 3. A. & S. 204, R. I {a), — 53. ObUta. Gr. 221. 2. A. & S. 
162. 17 (a). Mihi. Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 225. II. — 54. Lupi- 
priorea. The ancient Italians believed that a man meeting a wol/ 
and not catching its eye first would be struck dumb. — 55. Sati 
referet . . . saepe = will repeat often enough. 56. Caussand 
amorea = by feigning excuses thou puttest off for a long time (t* 
gratification of) my desire ; i. e. to hear you sing. — 57. Tibi= 
thee ; i. e. that you may be the better heard Stratum = laid smoc 
— 58. Ventosi . . . xnimnuris = of windy murmur ; for v 
murmurantis, — 59. Hinc — via = from this very point is half 
way (to the town). Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 62. Bian< 
Bianor, or Genus, was a son of Tiberis and Manto, and built the 
of Mantua, which he called after his mother. — 61. Stringunt 
for fodden — 62. Tamen = notwithstanding ; referring to a th 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 461 

not expressed ; though we do stop, we shall, notwithstanding, reach 
the town betimes. — 63. Colligat. Gr. 492. 4. i). A. & S. 262, R. 7. 
The night is said to gather the rain, because as night comes on the 
douds often gather, a prelude of rain. Ante = before (we get there). 
64; Idoet usque . , . eamua = we may go right on ; L e. without 
. stopping. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. Laedit = tires, wearies, 

— 65. Hoc.fasce^of this burden; meaning the kids, which 
may have been carried in some sort of bundle. He intends that 
Moeris shall be the first to sing. Gr. 425. 2. A. & S. 251. — 66. 
Fhira. See on V. 19. Puer. Gf. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (i). 
Inatat = is urgent ; i. e. the carrying of the kids to his new master. 

— 67. Ipse; Menalcas. 



THE GEORGICS. Book I. 

The name Georgics (Georgica) is Greek, rcopytnco, and means 
" agriciiltural affairs." The title Georgicon is the Greek genitive plu- 
ral of georgica. The poem is divided into four books, of which the 
first treats of agriculture, the second, of the cultivation of vmes and 
trees, the third, of raising cattle, and the fourth, of the management 
of bees. For a history of the Georgics, see the Life of Virgil, 

The subject of the First Book is the tillage of the' ground with a 
view to crops, chiefly com. The mention of the uncertainty of the 
weather at different times of the year leads the poet to give a list (rf 
the signs of a storm and of fair weather, which he abridges from the 
Diosemeia of Aratus. From this he passes to the signs of the polit- 
ical storm which had broken over Rome, and shows that external 
nature had been no less eloquent there, while he prays that Octavi- 
anus Caesar may yet be spared to save society. 

ARGUMENT. 

L General subject of the whole poem ; viz. : Agriculture, Book 
I. ; Vines and Trees, Book II. ; Cattle, Book III. ; 
Bees, Book IV. ; (lines 1-4) 
XL Invocation of gods, and of Caesar (5 - 42). 
III. Opening of subject proper. Preparations for sowing ? 

1. Period at which to commence ploughing (43 - 49). 

2. Nature of climate, character of soil, and most suitable 

modes of cultivation, to be ascertained (50-62). 



462 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

3. Minute directions as to the manner and time of ^Aaoiji- 

ing particular kinds of soil (63 - 70). 

4. Means of refreshing the soil (71-93). 

5. Modes of pulverizing the soil (94-99). 
IV. Operations succeeding sowing : 

1. Rendering the soil/«^ (100- 105). 

2. Irrigation of crops (106- no). 

3. Checking of luxuriant growth (in- 113). 

4. Drawing oflf excessive moisture (114- 117). 

5. Drawbacks and annoyances to which the husbandman 

is subject : the means of preventing or of remedy- 
ing them (118- 159). 
V. Agricultural implements and appliances (160- 186). 
VL Indications of the yt'e/d of the ensuing harvest, and artificial 

means of increasing fruitfulness of seed (187-203). 
VII. Proper season for sowing different seeds to be decided by ob- 
servation of the heavenly bodies ; explanation of the 
seasons (204-256). 
VIII. How the husbandman is to employ his leisure time; what 
days are lucky or unlucky for certain transactions ; and 
what operations should be done by night or by day in 
preference (157-310). 
IX. The weather : 

1. Storms of particular seasons (311-334). 

2. Means of guarding against them (335-350). 

3. Prognostics of change of weather (351-463). 

X. political changes even foretold by heavenly bodies ; the death 
of Julius Caesar ; its prognostics, its accompaniments^ 
and its consequences (464-514). 

1. Quid — ' segetea = what may make corn-fields productive ; lit 
joyous. Compare Psalms, Ixv. 13. The sense is substantially the 
same, if we render se^^e^s " com, crops," and lamias " abundant" 
Quo sidere = under what constellation, at what season of the 
year. Gr. 426 and i. A. & S. 253 and N. i. — 2. Vertere; Le. 
to plough. Cf. V. 147. Maecenas (C. Cilnius), the great friend 
and close confidant of Augustus, the enlightened patron of literature 
and art, had first suggested this poem, and to him it is naturally in« 
scribed. See Life of Virgil, — 3. Qui — pecori = what sort of 
treatment (attention, care) may he requisite for preserving the flock ; 
i. e. for "keeping up the stock. Gr. 564. A. & S. 275. III. R. 2 and 
(i). Z. 664. Pecori means small cattle, as sheep and goats, and is 
opposed to bourn. — 4. Apibus ; sc. habendis fi-om the preceding 
habendo, ZLsperientia ; of the bee-keeper, not of the bees. — 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 463 

5. BOno = from this point of time, now. Vos ; subject o^ferte in v. 1 1. 
— 6. Lumina ; L e. Sol et Luna, Labentem ; denoting the noise- 
less pace of time. Ck>elo = along the sky, Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 
254, R. 3.-7. Idber. See on E. VII. 5a Alma is derived from 
alo, Proprie sunt alma quae alunty ut lac, nutrixy Ceres^ et alia ; inde 
quaecumque bona^ benefica^ utilia, jucunda et grata sunt. Hence this 
adj. is used of the cattle and the fields ; of the sun and the light ; of 
water; of nurses ; and of the gods, Ceres. See on Ov. M. V. 341 
and 343. Si = if, since, so surely as. So frequently in adjurations. 
It introduces the reason why the prayer should be granted. — 8. 
Ghaoniam. See on IX. 13. Olandem = mast, acorns ; the food 
of man till he was taught agriculture by Ceres. Arista. Gr. 416. 2. 
A. & S. 252, R. 5.-9. Pocula . . . Acheloia = cups of 'water. 
Achelousy the river flowing between Aetolia and Acarnania, was said 
to be the oldest of all rivers, and consequently is often used by the 
poets for water in general. IT via = vino, Gr. 705. II. ; 385. 5. 
A. & S. 324. 2 ; 245, R. I. — 10. Praeaentla. See on Ov. M. III. 658. 
Cf. E. I. 42. Faiini ; rural deities, represented as half men and half 
goats. — 11. Parte . . . pedem (sc. hue) = come hither, come to my 
aid. Faunl The repetition of Faimi serves as a kind of correction 
of the previous verse, where they alone were mentioned. Dryades. 
See on E. V. 59. — 12. Munera; i. e. corn, wine, herds, flocks, 
trees. The deities thus far mentioned preside over the subjects of 
the first two books ; those next invoked, over the subjects of the last 
two books. Tu . . . et ciiltor ; sc. ferte pedem. Cui = at whose com- 
mand. Prima = primum ; i. e. it was the first horse created. 
Neptune produced the first horse by a stroke of his trident See on 
▼. 18. — 14. Neptune ; the son of Satumus and Ops, and chief deity 
of the sea. He is represented as carrying the trident, or three- 
pronged spear. Amphitrite was his queen. Cf. A. I. 124 foil. 
Grultornemoniin = guardian of woodland pastures. Cultor is by 
some taken here as = incola. The reference is to Aristaeus, the son 
of Apollo and Cyrene, and the guardian of flocks and pastures. 
Cui implies that the process goes on for him, because he is its 
patron and author, thus denoting causation indirectly. Pinguia = 
loznriant Ceae. After the death of his son Actaeon, Aristaeus re- 
tired to Ceos, or Cea (now Zea)y one of the Cyclades, not far from 
Attica, where he delivered the inhabitants from a destructive drought 
by erecting an altar to Zeus. — 15. Ter centoxn ; a definite for an in- 
definite number. Tondent; the present suggesting that the god is 
still guardian of the island. — 16. Ipse expresses marked emphasis ; 
even thou too, who art usually so loath to leave thy own Arcadia 
See on £. IV. 58. Saltiis, same as nemorum in v. 14. Lycaei, 
I ; mountains in Arcadia, the former the birthplace of Pan, 



464 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

the latter his favorite haunt Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. L and i. 8i; 
same as in v. 7. Tibi . . . curae. Gr. 390. A. & S. 227. — IB. 
Adais, Gr. 487 ; 48^ I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Tegeaee » 
Tegean, god of Tegea. Pan is so called, from Tegea, a city in Ar- 
cadia,, where he was specially worshipped. Minerva ; daughter of 
Jupiter, said to have sprung from his forehead completely armed. 
She was goddess of wisdom, war, and the liberal arts, the guardian 
and helper of heroes, and presiding goddess of Athens. When the 
dispute arose between Neptune and Minerva as to which of them 
should have the honor of naming Athens, the gods decided that it 
should receive its name from the one who should bestow upon man 
the most useful gift. Neptune then created the horse, and Minerva 
called forth the olive-tree, for which the honor was conferred upon 
her. Hence she is called o/eae inventrix, — 19. Puer; Triptolemus, 
of Eleusis, the son of Celeus. He was the favorite of Ceres, and the 
inventor of the plough. — 20. Ab radice = torn up by the root ; 
i. e. root and all. Silvane ; an old Roman god of agriculture, cattle, 
boundaries, and forests. He was usually represented as bearing a 
young cypress plant. — 21. Stadium ; sc. est, Gr. 362. A. & S. 
210. QuibuB. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Tueii 
Gr. 549. A. & S. 209, R. 3 (5). — 22. Novas . . fruges = young 
plants. Non ullo aemine = which grow without cultivation ; lit 
having no seed ; opposed to satis in the next- line. Cf. sine semim, 
Ov. M. I. 108. Gr. 42& A. & S. 211, R. 6.-24. Adeo = 
especially. Sint habitura. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 25. Con- 
cilia = the assembly, company. The plural is poetic. Cf. E. I. 
6, 7. Invisere = to oversee, superintend. Iiwisere and curofn 
both have the same grammatical relation to velis, A change in the 
construction from a verb to a noun, and from a noun to a verb, is not 
uncommon. Cf. E. V. 46, 47. — 26. Mazimus orbis (sc terra- 
rum) = the entire earth ; i. e. the inhabitants. — 27. Auctorexn — 
potentem = as the giver of increase to its productions, and the lord 
of its changeful seasons. — 28. Cingens ; sc orbis, A fine image, 
representing the whole human race as uniting to crown Caesar with 
a myrtle wreath. Materna . . . myrta The myrtle was sacred to 
Venus. See on E. VII. 62 and IX. 47. — 29. An — maris = or 
whether thou art to come as (i. e. art to be =Juturus sis) the god 
of the unmeasured sea. — 30. Numina. See on coitcilia, v. 25. 
Thiile ,* the extreme northern point of legendary travel. Some re- 
gard it as one of the Shetland Islands, others as Iceland, others as 
Norway, others still as Jutland. — 31. Genenim. Gr. 373. A. & S. 
230, R. 2. Tethya. See on Ov. M. II. 69. She was the mother of 
the Oceanides. See on E. V. 75. Omnibus undis ; i e. the whole 
sovereignty of the sea. In heroic times, parents used to give large 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK L 465 

dowries with their daughters. — 32. Tardia . . . menaibus ; i. e. the 
summer months, when the days are longest, and therefore the course 
of the sun apparently slowest. This is clear from the position as- 
signed him between Virgo and Scorpio. Sidus = constellation ; 
i.e. one of the signs of the zodiac. — 33. Erigonen. In Virgirs 
time the space between the sign of Virgo (Erigone, or Astraea ; see 
on Ov. M. I. 150) and that of the Scorpion, now occupied by Libra, 
was vacant, or only occupied by the claws (chelas) of the Scorpion. 
Seqnentea = following ; i. e. in the zodiacal order. — 34. Ipse — 
reliqiiit; parenthetical. The Scorpion is represented as readily 
(^^s= of himself) contracting his claws (brachia) to make room for 
his new companion, and as showing his respect for him by yielding 
Sj|mofe than a fair share (justa parte) oi ^^zxx., Ardens = bright, 
Uaiing ; an epithet of the constellation. — 36. Sperant Tartara. 
Gr. 474. A. & S. 259. The honor is really too great for Tartarus to 
hope for. Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. i. Tartarus ; properly the nether 
abode of the wicked, here used of the lower world generally. — 37. 
Veniat. Gr. 485; 486. I. and 2. A. & S. 260. II. Dira= in- 
tense. Cf. A. VI. 373. — 38. Miretur = celebrates, paints in glow- 
ing colors. Gr. 514; 515 and I. A. & S. 263. 2 (i). Graecia. 
Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2.-39. Repetita = recalled. Curet 
= noliL Matrem ; i. e. Ceres. — 40. Facilem cursum = an 
easy (I e. prosperous) course ; a metaphor taken from navigation. 
The sentence begun v. 24 is here completed. Audacibus — coep- 
tis = be fevorable to, smile on, my bold undertaking ; i. e. that of 
being the first to write a Latin poem on agriculture. 

41. Mecum; with miseratus. — 42. Ingredere; i. e. enter upon 
thy career as a god. Jam nunc = even now. — 43. Vere novo. 
The Roman spring began between the Nones and Ides of February, 
when the west wind {Favonius or Zephyrus ; see Hor. C. I. 4. i) be- 
gan to blow, and ended about the middle of May ; but ploughing 
conmienced sometimes even by the middle of January. Gelidiis ; 
from the melting snow. Canis ; because covered with snow. Mon- 
tibns. Gr. 425. 3 (4). A. & S. 255, R. 3 {pY — 44. Zephyro = 
through the agency of, under the influence of, the west wind. Gr. 
414 and 5. A. & S. 247. — 45. Depresso ; i. e. pressed deeply in- 
to the soil. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257. Jam tum = then immediately ; 
emphatic Mihi Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. (a). Connect with in- 
cipiat. It may be interpreted as = if you have any regard for my ad- 
vice. TBMroB^boSfjuvencus ; so elsewhere. The ancients never 
ploughed with bulls. — 46. Ingemere; a consequence of the de- 
presso aratro, — 47. Seges = terra, ager, Avari = eager ; not 
here in a bad sense. — 48. Bis . . . bia. The common practice was 
to plough three times, in spring, summer, and autumn \ but where the 
30 



466 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

soil was hard and heavy there was another ploughing in the automi 
of the previous year. Thus the soil twice felt the chills of aotumn 
(L e. after the first and last ploughings), and twice the heat of sum- 
mer (i. e. after the second and third). — 49. IlUuB ; sc segetis, Riip9- 
nint = are wont to burst The perfect is sometimes used, Kke the 
Greek aorist, to express what is habitual and customary. — 50. I^fno- 
tum ; i. e. whose nature is unknown to us, as having been recently ac- 
quired or not yet tried. Fezro . . . scindimiui = aramus. See ob 
Hor. C. I. I. II. Aequor=the level sur&ce of the field. — 51 
VentOB — coeli . . . morem = the (prevailing) winds and the van* 
ations (lit various nature) of the weather. — 52. Patzioa — locomin 
= both the peculiar modes of cultivation and characteristics of (par- 
ticular) localities. Patrios belongs to habitus as well as Xo adtus. 
There is a hysteron-proteron in cultus and hakiUK^ since the mode 
of cultivation depends upon the character of the ground. Gr. 704. 2. 
A. & S. 323. 4 (2). — 54. Venlunt ^praveniuntf crescunL C£ XL ii. 

— 55. Arborei fetus = fi:uit trees. Injusaa = j^^w iif. Natural 
pastures, where no seed has been sown, are referred to. -r- 56. GrO!- 
oeos . . . odores, for crocum odoratum, Tmolua. See on Ov. M. XL 
217 and XI. 152. —57. Mittit; I e. to Rome. Gr. 525. 6. A. & S. • 
965, R. I. Sua ; i. e. peculiar to their country. Gr. 449. I^ 2. 
A. & S. 208 (8). Babaei; a people of Arabia FeUx. —58. Ghaly- 
bes ; a people in the northern part of Armenia. Their country was 
famous for its iron mines. Nudi = thinly clad ; L e. when working 
at the forge. Virosa . . . oastorea = strong-smelling castor. Cas- 
tor was an animal substance obtained fi'om the beaver, and highly 
valued as a medicine. PontUB ; a country in the extreme northeast 
of Asia Minor, extending along the coast of the Euxine. — 59. Xflia- 
dum palmas equarum = the palms of the mares of £lis ; L e. the 
mares which win palms at the Olympian games in Elis. See on 
Hor. C. II. 16. 35 and C. IV. 2. 17. Epiros; a country in the ex- 
treme northwest of Greece, celebrated for its pastures and ks horses. 
Gr. 46. 1 and 3. A. & S. 54. — 60. Continuo = inmiediately, at 
once. It is to be connected with quo tempore primumf and with these 
words v& = statim illo temporey or eo ipso tempore, quo priminn = 2X 
that very time when first Has. Gr. 439 and i. A. & S. 205, R. 
2. Ex. Foedera = conditions ; i. e. that each country should have 
its peculiar character and productions. — 62. Deucalion — jactavit 
See Ov. M. I. 318 foil., 399 foil. — 63. Durum genua. C£ Ov. M. 
I. 414. 415. Ergo age. The subject of ploughing, interrupted by 
tl^e digression at V. 50, is here resumed. — 64. Pingue is emphatic, 
as also is fortes in the next verse. Where the soil is rich, the plou^- 
ing should be early in the year and deep, thus requiring stout cattle. 

— 65. The rhythm of the line eicpresses the slow and laboring gait oi 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 467 

WBttk Gr. 672. 2, A. & S. 310. 2. Jaoentes = lying exposed. — 
6€. MatOlis =± mature, strong, hot ; i. e. of midsummer heat. — 
67. lion . . . fecunda, opposed to pingi^e in v. 64. Sub ipsiim Arc- 
tonm = toward, just before, the rising of Arcturus ; i. e. the 5th of 
September. See on Ov. M. II. 176. — 68. Tentd . . . suspendere 
Bidoo =ss to raise it with a light furrow (leaving it, as it were, hanging 
m air). -^ 69. lUio = in the former case ; referring to vv. 64 - 66. 
LaetiB. See on v. i. Herbae = weeds. — 70. Hie = in the lat- 
ter ease ; referring to w. 67, 68. Arenam = soil. — 71. Altemia 
(sc. vicibus) = alternately ; i. e. every other year. Idem = at the 
same time, likewise; implying that the rules already given do not 
exhaust the subject Tonaas = reaped. Novales = fallow lands ; 
an instance oiprolepsis (anticipation) ; the adjective representing that 
as already done which in reality is to follow as a consequence of the 
action of the verb on which its substantive depends. Cf. Ov. M. I. 
184. and note. -^ 72. Segnem = inactive, devoid of life, exhausted ; 
L e. by bearing the previous crop. Situ = by lying, by rest Some 
understand it of the scurf (in this case, of the incipient sward) that 
forms on the surface of ground allowed to lie undisturbed Durea- 
oere = to harden ; as the soil naturally does when not cultivated. 
Four methods of reinvigorating the exhausted soil are here men- 
tioned : 1st, by allowing it to rest every second year (v. 71) ; 2d, by 
rotation of crops (v. 73) ; 3d, by manuring (v. 80) ; 4th, by burning 
the stubble (v. 84). — 73. Mutato aidere ; because corn would not 
be sown at the same time of year as pulse. A sign or constellation (see 
on V. i) is said to be changed when one comes in place of another. The 
meaning seems to be, that on the lan^ where leguminous plants 
have been sown in the spring, corn may be sown in the following 
autumn ; though some understand it of the autumn of the following 
year. Farra (lit spelt) may be taken for bread-corn in general. — 
74 Iiaetum ailiqua. See on v. i. Gr. 414. A. & S. 247. 1(1). 
Quaaaante = shaking, rattling. — 75. Tenuia = slender, slight. 
So called because its halm is so slender and its seed so small, com- 
pared with those of the bean or pea. Triatda = bitter. See II. 
126. Lupini; limiting calamoa and ailvam. — 76. Fragilea = 
brittle ; i e. when dry. Calamoa ailvaxnque ; expressing the luxu- 
riance of the crop. Silvam sonsmtem = rattling growth. — 77. 
ITrit = consumes, exhausts. The general sense is that the same 
crop, year after year, will exhaust the soiL Flax, oats, and poppies 
are specified merely as significant instances of this rule. The poet 
then adds that, though this is the tendency of these crops in them- 
selvesT, it is not so when they alternate with each other, if only the 
soil is- renovated after each crop by plentiful manuring. Avenae ; 
sc. segu, *- 78. Lethaeo = Lethean ; derived from Lethet the river 



468 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

of oblivion in the lower regions. It is descriptive of the strond ^^ 

narcotic power of the poppy. — 79. Bed — labor = but still th^ s 

task (of the field ; i e. the strain on the field) will be light (if yoi^^ 
sow) alternately. Altemis. See on v. 71. Arida == parcheAH 
exhausted. Tantuxn ne . . . pudeat = only do not be ashame^H 

Shame restrains fi-om excess in anything. — 82. . Bio quoqne is **'■ 

plained by mutatis fetibus. Rest is gained by a change of crops a s 

well as by leaving the land untilled. — 83. Nee modifies the whol ^ 
sentence, and not nulla alone. Nulla . . . inaratae gratia terra^B 
= the thanklessness of unploughed land ; L e. of land lying falloicr-^ 
Gratia is said of land which repays the labor bestowed on it By- 
rotation of crops, the land, being sown every year, has no period of 
thanklessness, or unproductiveness, as when it lies fallow every other 
year. — 84. Steriles agro ; L e. firom which the com has been taken, 
leaving nothing but stubble. Incendere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. 
Frofiiit See on v. 49. — 85. Atque . . . flamxnis. The dac- 
tylic rhythm expresses the lively crackling of the flames. See on v. 
65. — 86. Sive . . . Bive . . . seu = whether ... or ... or ; the 
various ways in which burning the stubble was supposed to act on 
the soil. The first only is the true one. — 88. Vitium = vicious 
quality. — 89. Flures . . . vias et caeca . . . spiramenta = 
more channels and hidden pores. — 90. Qua = where, by which. 
This relative adverb frequently refers to nouns either of the singular 
or plural number. Cf. A. V. 590. — 91. Durat The object of this 
verb seems to be the land itself rather than the pores. — 92. Tenu- 
68 = subtle, penetrating. Fluviae; sc. adurant {^= noceant) firom 
aduratf which, however, belongs to it in sense only so far as it con- 
tains the general notion of injuring. The figure is called zeugma, 
and is very common. Gr. 704. I. 2. A. & S. 323. i {b) and (2) {a), 
Rapidi = scorching. — 93. Acrior. Gr. 444. i. A. & S. 256, 
R. 9 {a). Penetxabile = penetrating. Frigus adurat. Uro and 
aduro are used of cold as well as heat, because some of its effects are 
analogous to those of heat With frigus the verb may be rendered 
" freeze." — 94. Rastris. Our way, after breaking a field, is to give it a 
good tearing up with a heavy harrow with iron teeth, drawn by oxen 
or horses. The ancients used to break the clods by manual labor with 
a rastrum (a kind of heavy rake with iron teeth) ; and then, to pulver- 
ize it, the men drew over it bush-harrows ( crates J^ nearly the same 
as now in use. Inertes = inactive ; i. e. unproductive (when left to 
themselves). — 96. Plava. This epithet was probably suggested by 
the golden hue of ripening com. — Neque . . . nequidquaxu ; i. e. 
she does not regard him vainly, as if she were an idle spectator, or 
were unable to help. — 97. Et ; sc. multum juvat arva, PrOBCisBO 
— aequore = which he raises in the first breaking up of the field. 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 469 

. J^oscindo is the technical term for the first ploughing. On aequore^ 
see on v. 50. Gr. 430; 431. 2. A. & S. 257 and N. i. Terga = 
the sods, ridges ; i. e. those made by the proscissio, or first ploughing. 
— 98. Rursus — aratro = with turned plough again breaks through 
(the ridges, terga) cross-wise. This cross-ploughing took place in the 
summer or early autumn, five or six months after tht proscissio, — 99. 
Frequens. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 [a), Imperat ; i. e. acts 
like a master, makes his land obey him. — 100. Qo\BXX^?ix=iaestates, 
C£ E. VII. 47. Here begins a new division of the subject. See in- 
troductory Analysis. — lOlr Laetissima. See on v. i. Fulvere. 
Gr. 414 A. & S. 247. I (i). Farra. See on v. 73. — 102. Nullo 
— messes ; i. e. as in a dry winter. M3r8ia ; a most fertile region of 
Asia Minor, on the Hellespont, at the foot of the range (Ida) of which 
Mount Gargarus was the most conspicuous point. Cultu. Gr. 414. 
A. & S. 247. I (2). — 104. Ipsa; i. e. not only is it celebrated by 
all others, but is even itself astonished at its own fertility. Gargara. 
Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. I. — 104. Quid dicam ; sc. de eo: a form of 
enumeration, introducing a subject which is to be treated only curso- 
rily before hastening to another topic. It here implies commendation. 
ComxninuB = in close contest ; i. e. as soon as the seed is sown, at- 
tacking and levelling with the hand or rake the ridges (cumulos) of 
sand. The metaphor is from a soldier throwing his lance, and then 
coming to close quarters sword in hand. Some make copiminus = \m- 
mediately, without delay. — 105. Insequitttr = pursues ; implying 
persevering assiduity. Ruit = levels ; here used transitively. C£ A. 
L 35, 85- Male pinguis = non pingids ; i. e. barren, unfertile. — 
106. Satis = into the sown fields. Gr.386. A.&S. 224 Seqiten- 
Us ; because they follow whithersoever they are led. — 107. Mori- 
entibus — herbis = with its dying herbage is in a glow. Herbis ; 
not the grass, but blades of corn. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257. It would 
seem from vv. io6, 108 that the poet wished to indicate two modes 
of irrigating ; the one, for fields in a level country, where by means of 
a dam the water of a stream is brought in over them ; the other, for 
fields on a declivity, where the water is brought down on them from 
the springs near the summit. — 108. Ecce j at once giving the pic- 
ture and expressing the unexpected relief to the soil. Supercilio. 
Gr. 425. 2 and 3. 4 A. & S. 251. Clivosi tramitis = of its path- 
way down the hill ; i. e. firom the brow of the hill, when used for irri- 
gation. 109. Levia, not ISvia ; implying that the path, or channel, 
has been often thus used. — 110. Ciet = wakes. 8catebris = 
with its bubbling rills. Temperat = tempers, cools, refreshes. — 
111. Quid j sc. dicam de eo. See v. 104 Aristis. Gr. 414 and 2. 
A. & S. 247. I (2). — 113. Quum — sata = as soon as the crops 
render the furrows level \ L e. as soon as the corn in the furrows is 



470 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

as high as that on the ridges between the furrows. Q^que ; sc. 
quid dicam de eo, Paludis =of the pool ; L e. of the stagnant water 
in the furrows. — 114. Arena Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and ^ 
Referring either to ditches leading to a sandy place, where the water 
is absorbed, or to drains half filled with small stones or gravel, which 
take up the water as it passes along. — 115. Inoeitls menBibus; 
the months when the weather is most changeable ; i. e. the spring and 
autumn ; here the spring. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. — 116. Zbdt ; i e. 
from its bed or banks. C£ A. II. 496. Et — lli]io = and over- 
spreads all things far and wide with a coating of mud. Gr. 430 j 
431 and 2. A. & S. 257 and N. i. — 117. Unde — lacunae ; I e. 
if the water is not drawn off before the sun begins to act on it, it- 
might rot the plants. Sudant ; as the water would be drawn up by 
the heat of the sun. Lacunae ; i. e. the furrows, the spaces between 
the ridges. — 118. Nee . . . nihil = somewhat, in some degree. Gr. 
585. A. & S. 277, R. 3. Quum = although. Haec . . . sint . . . 
ezperti = have tried these (expedients). — 119. Versando ; like 
verterey v. 2, with a further notion of frequency. Gr. 566. 3. A. & S. 
275. III. R. 4, N. 2, last sentence. Improbus = greedy, destruc- 
tive. — 120. Strymoniae ; because cranes abounded about the river 
Strymon in Thrace. Intuba = succory. It would be injurious both 
directly as a weed, and indirectly as attracting geese, which are fond 
bf it. — 121. Umbra ; i. e. of trees and useless plants. Pater; Jupiter, 
who was king during the silver age, in which toil began, as Saturn had 
been in the golden. See on E. IV. 5 and 18 foil. — 122. Haud. Gr. 584. 
3. A. & S. 191, R. 3. Primus; sc illorum, qui mundum rexerunU 
— 123. J&xy7it= fecit moveri, arari: as a man is said to do the 
thing that he causes to be done. Mortalia corda = the intellects 
of men. The heart was frequently spoken of as the seat of thought 
and emotion. Acuens ; as we speak of sharpening the intellect. — 
124. Passus ; sc est Sua regna ; i. e. mankind over whom he 
ruled. — 125. Ante Jovem; i.e. ante Jovis regnum ; i. e. in the 
golden age. —126. Ne . . . quidem. Gr. 602. III. 2. A. & S. 191, 
R. 3 {a), Signare ; sc limite. Gr. 549 and i. A. & S. 269 and R. 
2. — 127. In — quaerebant = they made acquisitions for the use 
of all ; i. e. what they acquired they put into a common stock. IpSci. 
See on E. IV. 21 ; 23. —128. Liberius; i. e. than now. It seems 
to include both generosity and freedom from external constraint. 
Nullo pOBcente ; i. e. nullo cogente^ is the cause of the liberius, C£ 
E. IV. 18. —129. Virus. Gr. 47. II. A. & S. 51. Atris = deadly. 
It is a common epithet of serpents, and sometimes it is not easy to 
say whether it has its primitive sense of " black," or its derivative 
meaning of " deadly," though it may include both. C£ E. IV. 24. — 
130. LupoB. Gr. 375. A. & S. 239. Wolves are used here for 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 471 

beasts of prey in general. Mover! = to swell, to be agitated, — 131i 
BSella — ^^foliis ; i. e. so that men could no longer obtain it from that 
source. See on £. IV. 30. Ignemque removit ; i. e. hid it in 
the veins of the flint, so that ingenuity was required to force it out. — 
X32. Fassixn; with currentia, Rivis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 
247. 2. — 133. Ubub = need, necessity. It is virtually personified ; 
whence nieditando^ which is = by reflection, study. — 134. Et. We 
might have expected ut for et here, and et for ut (which is given by 
some MSS.) in the next line : Virgil, however, has chosen to vary 
the expression, coupling a particular fact with a general, and then 
subjoining a second particular, as a co-ordinate clause with the two. 
Sulois i I e. by ploughing. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247. 3. Pru- 
menti . . . herbam. See on E. V. 26. — 135. Venus. Gr. 425. 2. 2). 
A. & S. 251. AbstniSum = that lay concealed (in them); lit. 
thrust away (by Jupiter). Cf. A. VI. 6. Ezcuderet Cf. A. 1. 174. 
— 136. Navigation then began, canoes being made by hollowing 
out trees. Ci Ov. M. I. 94, 95 and notes. SenBere = felt the 
weight of. — 137. Navita tum. The further progress of navigation. 
Stellia — fecit = numbered the stars and gave them their names ; 
i. e. they divided them into constellations. Facere nomen alicm is a 
phrase to which nutneros is here added by a kind of zeugma. Cf. 
Psalms, cxlviL 4. — 138. Pleiadas; seven stars in the neck of 
Taurus, called also Vergiliae, ^*quia vere oriantur.^^ Cf. Hor. C. IV. 14. 
21. They thus marked the beginning of the sailing season. The name 
is derived from irXeftv, to sail. The wprd is here a tetrasyllable. 
Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. For the lengthening of the final syllable, see 
Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (I). — Hyadas. See on Ov. M. III. 595. 
The name is derived from vfti', to rain. — Lyo'aonis. Gr. 397 (i). 
A. & S. 211, R. 7 (i). — Arcton. See on Ov. M. II. 129, 171. 
Callisto, there mentioned, was a daughter of Lycaon, king of Arcadia. 
— 139. Captare . . . fallere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. — Pallere ; 
sc flWJ, implied in the preceding /eras, — 140. luventum ; sc. est, 
— Saltus = forest-pastures ; i. e. the glades or open spaces in 
forests, where cattle pastured and wild beasts wandered. They were 
hedged round in hunting by nets and watchers, to prevent the animals 
from breaking out — 141. Fishing was also invented. Fnnda = 
with the casting-net It was pear-shaped or conical, and was loaided 
with lead to make it sink. It was thrown forcibly into the water ; 
hence the verb verberat = lashes. The English phrase, " whip the 
stream," is similar. — 142. Alta petens = seeking the deep parts ; 
i. e. of the river. Pelago. Gr. 422. i* 2) ; 47, II. A. & S. 254, 
R. 3 ; 51. Lina = drag-net, seine. 

143. Ferri rigor =^ferrum rigidum ; sc. 1;enit {==^ pravenvt^ inven- 
tus est)y from v. 145 ; alluding to the hardening of iron for the manu- 



472 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

facturing of tools. The inversion of syntax, whereby the adjective ^^ 
idea is expressed by a noun of kindred meaning, is very common in^^^ 
all languages, and is frequently used by the poets with great effect '^t' 
as, " the might of Gabriel " (Milton) ; i. e. the mighty Gabriel..— 

Atque = and particularly ; giving a single instance of the imple 

ments that were then invented. This is a frequent practice with f>" i m 
poet. 8errae. The invention of the saw was attributed by some^^ 

to Daedalus, by others to Perdix, his nephew. See on Ov. M. VIII 

Introd. — 144. Frixni ; sc Aomines, — 146. Improbua = exacting^^ 
excessive. Some critics make it = persevering. See on Hon C. III^ 
24. 62. Egestas = want ; especially of food. This leads the poe£=: 
back to his subject. — 147. Prima Ceres. The connection is a^ 
follows : Before the time of Jupiter there was no tillage (v. 125) ; but 
under his reign various arts were invented, and especially that or 
agriculture, by Ceres. See on v. 7. — 148. Glandes. See on v. &. 
Bacrae is explained by Dodona, See on Chaonias^ E. IX. 13. — 
149. Deficerent = began to fail. Bilvae is the genitive limiting 
^andes and arbuta ; though some make it the subject of deficerent, 
Dodon^ famous for its oak groves, is used poetically for the oaks 
themselves. — 150. Bt = even ; to be construed with frumentis. 
Labor = injury, trouble, plagues. As examples of labor used of 
the suflferings of things inanimate, see v. 79, and II. 343, 372. Ad- 
ditus (sc. est) ; i. e. by Jupiter. Mala = baleful, destructive. Cf. 
Y. 129. — 151. Esset Gr. 291 ; 492. A. & S. 181 ; 262. — RobigO 
= blight, mildew. To avert it the Romans worshipped a deity named 
Robigus, or Robigo, whom they propitiated by a festival called Robi- 
galia. Begnis = unfruitful, worthless. — 152. Bubit = comes up 
(in its stead). Bilvk See on v. 76. It is explained by the two 
following nouns. — 154. Infeliz . . . ayenae. See on E. V. 37. — 
155. Quod nisi See on E. IX. 14. Assiduis == assidue, Gr. 
443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 {a), Herbam. See on v. 69. — 157. 
Umbrazn ; i e. the trees and foliage that make the shade. Votifl. 
Vows were paid to Jupiter Pluvius. — 158. Acervmn. Cf.v. 185. — 
159. Concussa . . . quercu = by shaking the oak ; i. e. for acorns. 
— 160. Dicendum ; sc. est mihu Et = etiam, Arma = imple- 
ments, utensils, tools. C£ A. 177. — 161. Quia sine. Gr. 187. 
I ; 602. II. I. A. & S. 136, R. 2 ; 279. lo {a) and (/"). Nec potuere 
= have never been able. For the perfect, see on v. 49. — 162. In- 
flezi is explained by w. 169, 170. — Frimum is often used in the 
beginning of an enumeration without a following deinde or tum^ the 
office of which, however, is often performed by vero^ etiam, autem^ etc 
Ghrave robur = the ponderous and strong ; lit. the ponderous 
strength : robur aratri for robustum aratrum^ like ferri rigor^ v. 143, 
and aeternaque ferri Robora^ A. VII. 609. — 163. Tarda = tarde ; 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 473 

qualifying volventia, Sqq on assiduisy v, 155. Eleusinae matris; 
i. c of Demeter or Ceres, who was chiefly worshipped at Eleusis in 
Attica. She is called matery probably in allusion to her name, De- 
meter, i. e. Mother Earth. — 164. Tribula, traheae ; two kinds of 
threshing-sledge ; the former of .which consisted of a thick wooden 
board, which was armed underneath with pieces of iron or sharp 
flints, and drawn over the corn by a yoke of oxen, either the driver or 
a heavy weight being placed upon it, for the purpose of separating the 
grain and cutting the straw ; the latter, a kind of drag, sometimes 
used, was probably either entirely of stone or made of the trunk of a 
tree. Iniquo = immoderate, very great. Fondere. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6. Rastri See on v. 94. — 166, Virgea . . . su- 
pellez seems to include baskets, colanders, &c., as well as the hur- 
dles and the fan. Celei ; the father of Triptolemus and Demophon, 
and the first priest of Ceres at Eleusis. She instructed him in agri- 
culture and in the making of wicker-work implements. — 166. 
Crates. See on v. 94. Vannus = the winnowing-fen. This was 
a broad basket, into which the corn mixed with chaff was received 
after threshing, and was then thrown in the direction of the wind. It 
is called mystica^ because at the celebration of the Eleusinian myste- 
ries it was carried in the processions in honor of lacchus, the son of 
Demeter and Zeus, sometimes confounded with Bacchus (as in E. 
VII. 61), and sometimes distinguished from him. Bacchus was the 
son of Zeus and Semele. Ceres, Celeus, and lacchus are here in- 
troduced to give a religious dignity to what might otherwise seem 
trivial. — 167. Multo. Gr. 418 and i. A. & S. 256, R. 16 (3). 
Ante ; i. e. before they are needed. Memor provisa = carefully 
(mindfully) provided. Frovisa repones ■=• pravidebi^ et repones. Gr. 
579. A. & S. 274. 3 (^). — 168. Digna = deserved, merited. 
Si msuiet; for si vis^ ut te maneat Divini ruris; either as the 
abode of the rural deities, or, at least, as pleasing to them. — 169. 
Oontinuo in silvis = in the very woods. Contmuo is explained by 
in silvis. The words can only mean that the young elm while yet in 
the woods is bent and made to grow in the required shape, whatever 
may be thought of the possibility of the thing, which Keightley denies. 
— 170. Burim = the plough-beam. Gr. 85. III. and 2. A. & S. 79. 
2. The buris was a piece of strong wood, naturally or artificially 
curved, to one end of which was affixed the pole, to the other the 
dentalii and into it was mortised the stiva. It therefore formed the 
body of the plough. Curvi . . . aratri. As the bttris gave the 
characteristic bend to the plough, it is here called by the plough's 
name, aratri, — 171. Huic ; sc buri, — Ab stirpe = from the lower 
part ; i. e. of the temo. Connect with protentus. Temo = the pole. 
iJc aptatur. It was part of the plough, as well as of the cart or car- 



474 



NOTES ON VmOtL* 



riage. The yoke was listened to the end of it, and by means of it 
the oxen drew. Sometimes the tamo was of the same piece of timber 
with the buris and share-beam {defUale\ though not in the kind of 
plough here described. — 172. Aures = mould-boards. These rose : 
on each side of the share {^omer\ bending outwardly in such a man- - 
ner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been previotisly-^ 




Fig. I. ~i. dentalia; 3. buns; 3. Umoi ^tHoa; 5. mamcula; 6. 
7. Jugum ; a. funiculus ; b. clavus ; c. coUare; A lora SMbjugia. 
Fig. II. — The common ploughshare. 
Fig. IIL — The dentalia alone. 
Fig. IV. — A plough with mould-boards, aratrum aurilum ; 7, 7. €ntres. 

loosened and raised by the share, and were adjusted to the share- 
beam which was made double {duplici dorso) for the purpose of 
receiving them. Duplici . . . dorso. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 
Dentalia = the share-beam ; a piece of wood fixed horizontally 
at the lower end of the buris, and to which the share was fitted. In 
some cases It was itself shod with iron. It is not certain whether it 
was one solid piece of timber, with a space to admit the end of the 
bufis, or two pieces fastened on each side of it and running to a point 
The plural dentalia is used by Virgil in speaking of one plough, but 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 475 

it is probably nothing more than a usual poetic license. — 173. Anta 
See on v. 167. Jugo; a piece of wood, straight in the middle and 
curved towards both ends, which was attached to the end of the pole 
of the plough or .cart, and went over the necks of the oxen. Fagus 
atlvaque ; by hendiadys for stiva fagina. Gr. 704. II. 2. A. & S. 
323. 2 (3). — 174. Btiva = the plough-handle. The stiva was 
originally mortised into the buris^ but it sometimes formed one piece 
■with it. It had a cross piece named manicula^ by which the ploughs 
man held and directed the plough. Cursus . . . imos ^ the lowest 
courses ; referring, perhaps, to the turning of the plough at the end 
of the furrow. Most editors read currus (= carriage). Gr. 500. 
A. & S. 264. 5. — 175t Ezplorat =?= searches (i. e. dries) and tests. 

The above diagrams, illustrating Virgil's plough, are taken from 
the work of Schulz, De Aratri Romani Fornm et Compositione. 

176. Possum . . . nl refugis. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261. R. i, 
Tibi Maecenas is addressed throughout as the ideal reader. — 
177. Refagis ; i. e. from hearing, as in A. II. 12 from speaking. 
Observe the mood and tense : I can repeat . . . but I see you start 
oE — 178. Cum primis = as a matter of the first importance, espe- 
cially. — 179. Vertenda manu. The earth had to be turned up and 
worked, or kneaded, with the hand. This operation really preceded 
the aequanda cylindro^ as the preparation of the floor was the first 
thing. Gr. 704. IV. 2. A* & S. 323. 4 (2). Creta = argilla^ as in 
II. 2.15. The clay was for the purpose of making it harden and bake. 
— 180, Pulvere; for siccitate, effect for cause. —181 Tum = et 
turn ; L e. if the threshing-floor cracks, niudant = may mock ; 
i.e. the threshing-floor and the husbandman's labor. See II. 375* 
where the goats are said to mock^ to disport themselves with the 
young vine. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II, Festes ; as injuring the 
floor and annoying the husbandman. -^ 182. Posuit . . . fecit ; 
aoristic perfects. See on v. 49. — 183. OcuUs capti = blind ; lit 
taken in the eyes. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. The expression seems 
to come from the use of capi^ for to be injured. The mole has eyes, 
though they are very smaU, and much covered over. Talpae. Gr. 
44. Ex. A. & S. 42. 2. — 184. Inventus ; which is found in holes, 
and which therefore is likely to creep into holes. Bufo is said to 
occur nowhere else in the classics. Plurima. Gr. 453. 5. A. & S. 
206 (7) (a) and {pY — 3.85' Monstra = unsightly creatures ; some- 
times, as here, without reference to their size. Farris. Cf. on v. 
73. — 186. Senectae. Gr. 385. 3. A. & S. 223. Ants live but 
for a short time (supposed to be for one year only), so that senectae 
is a poetical expression for hiemi^ which is the old age of their brief 
" existence. It is well known that the ancients were in error about the 
habits of the ant, which has no storehouses, and remains torpid dur- 



476 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

ing the greater part of the winter. — 187. Contemplator. Gr. 537. 
II. A. & S. 267 (3). Ntuc = the walnut-tree. Some understand 
it of the almond-tree. Plurima = abundantly. — 188. Curvabit; 
said by anticipation ; for if the poet uses fetus of the blossoms, or 
embryo fruit, he may likewise speak of these bending the branches. 
— 189. Si — fetus; i.e. if a great number of the blossoms set, as 
the gardeners term it — 190- There will be a very hot summer and 
a great threshing; i. e. an abundant harvest — 191. Foliorttm is 
emphatic, opposed Xo fetus; umbra, general. — 192. Nequidquam. 
Connect with teret, Falea. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2. Teret 
area. The tritura was performed sometimes by the trampling of 
oxen, sometimes by the tribulum or trahea (see on v. 164), sometimes 
by fustes^ flails or sticks. — 193 - 203. Steeping seed-beans is a 
plan often pursued, to make the produce larger and easier to be 
cooked. But the best seeds will degenerate, unless you pick every 
year. It is the tendency of everything in nature, and only man's 
most strenuous efforts can counteract it — 194. Nitro ; not our 
nitre, but a mineral alkali, carbonate of soda, and therefore used in 
washing. Amurca = lees of olive oil. — 196. Siliquis. Gr. 387. 
A. & S. 226. Fallacibus; referring to the general character of the 
pods of beans, which in this particular case are to be less deceptive 
than usual. — 196. Quamvia — maderent = that they might be 
quickly cooked by a fire however small. Properata = propere ; 
lit being hastened. — 198. Vis humana ; i. e. homines. — 199. 
Quaeque. Gr. 458. i. A. & S. 207, R. 35 (b). — 200. Ruere 
. . . referri Gr. 545. i. A. & S. 209, R. 5 and N. 7. Trans- 
late, " are accustomed," etc. Retro — referri = slipping away 
to be borne backward. Retro is often used pleonastically wth 
verbs beginning with re, Ci A. II. 169. — 201. Flumine. Gr. 
431. A. & S. 257. —202. Subigit Cf. A. VI. 302. —203. 
Atque, according to Gellius and Servius, is = statim, but it is 
better to connect it with remisit, and give it its usual significa- 
tion. Virgil does not expressly introduce an apodosis in such 
comparisons, but makes his whole sentence depend on the quam or 
si which follows the non aliter or kaud secus following the simile. C£ 
A. IV. 669. Ilium Is doubtless the lembus^ which is distinguished 
fi-om the rower. Wr. accounts for atque by supplying retro sublapsus 
refertur before it, and making the whole into an apodosis, but he 
quotes no similar instance. Alveus = the current Amni. Gr. 
87. III. 3. A. & S. 82. Ex. 5 (a). —204-207. The husbandman 
must observe the rising and setting of the constellations as atten- 
tively as the sailor. — 204. Arcturi See on Ov. M. II. 176, 
and cf. V. 68. Nobis. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. — 205. 
Haedorum = the Kids, or Goat See on Ov. M. III. 594. An- 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 477 

gnis. See on Ov. M. II. 138. — 206. Quam qnibus = as (by 
those) by whom. Vectis = euntibus. The Latin having no present 
pass, part, the perf. part is sometimes used in a present sense. — - 
207. Fontus; sc. Euxinus. Fauces . . . Abydi; i.e. ffeiles- 
pontus. Abydos was a town on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, 
opposite the European Sestos. Oysters are still found there. — 208. 
Idbra; i. e. the Balance, between Scorpio and Virgo. See on v. 
33. Die. Gr. 119. 4. A. & S. 90. 2. Fares. The sun was in 
Libra at the time of the autumnal equinox, when the days and nights 
were of equal duration, and when the |loman hours were, of course, 
equal too. Fecerit Gr. 473. A. & S. 145. VL — 209. Et — 
orbein=and already divides the globe equally for light and dark- 
ness; ie. gives both the northern and southern hemispheres an 
equal amount of day and night — 210. Tauros = boves, — 211. 
nsqne — imbrem = even to the first rain of the impracticable 
(i. e. when no work can be done) winter solstice. Extremum may 
be used of either end ; here the beginning. —212. Segetem; used 
proleptically for the seed. Cereale ; because sacred to Ceres, who 
was represented with poppies in her hands. She was said to have 
calmed her grief for the loss of her daughter Proserpina by eating its 
seeds. — 213. Hume. Gr. 47. 2. 2) ; 414. A. & S. 49. i ; 247. 
Tegere. Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. i. Jamdudum = at 
once, without delay. Cf A. II. 103. Incumbere; like curvus 
arator, E. III. 42. — 214. Tellure. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 [a). 
Pendent ; i. e. they do not yet come down in rain. — 215. Med- 
ica (sc herba) = lucerne ; introduced into Greece from Media at 
the time of the invasion of Darius. Putres ; because they have lain 
fallow through the winter. — 216. Annua cura; to distinguish it from 
lucerne, which required to be sown only once in ten years. — 217, 
218. A periphrasis for vere. — 217. Csmdidua. The allusion, 
according to Keightley, is to the milk-white bulls with gilded horns 
which appeared in the triumphal processions at Rome. Aperit 
is illustrated by the etymology of Aprilts. Comibus. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6. Whether auratis cornibtis is meant to be taken 
descriptively with taurus, or instrumentally with aperit^ is not clear. 
The former seems more reasonable, as there would be no natural 
propriety in the image of a bull using his horns to open a gate. The 
horns are called auratis^ because there are bright stars at their tips. 
— 218. Canis; \. e. Sirius, a star of the first magnitude in Canis 
Major. This star sets heliacally, i. e. is lost in the effulgence of the 
sun, a few days after he has entered Taurus. It is therefore said to 
give way {cedens) to this sign. Adverse astro; sc Tauro, Gr. 
384. A. & S. 223. The bull is represented as driving the dog be- 
fore him ; the dog, however, keeping his face to the bull. — 219. 



478 NOTES ON VIRGIlT 

RobuBta = hardy. — 220. Soils ; as opposed to the produce joet 
mentioned, w. 2 1 5, 2 16. Aristia = bearded grain. Gr. 386. A^&S 
224. —221. Ante . . . quam. Gr. 523. 2). Eoae= in the loam^ 
ing. AUantides = the daughters of Atlas ; i. e. the Pleiades. See 
on V. 138. Gr. 316. A. & S. loa i and {d). These set ki the 
morning, according to different authorities, from Oct 20 to Nov. 11. 
— 222. OnOBia = Cretan ; from Gnosus, a city of Crete, of 
which island Minos, father of Ariadne, was king. Stella Core* 
nae ; i. e. the constellation Corona Borealisy said to have been 
Ariadne's crown, placed amQng the stars by Bacchus, after he mar« 
ried her. Stella = jiV/w, as in Hor. C, III. 29. 19. — 223. Com- 
mittas . . . propereB. Gr. 523. IX. A. & S. 263. 3. — 22i» In* 
vitae ; because conscious that she is not yet ready to receive the 
seed. — 225. Maiae ; one of the Pleiades, here standing for the 
group, as Taygete m Ov. M. III. 595. — 227. Vilem j <hi account 
of its abundance. — 228. Felusiaoae = Egyptian ; from Pelusium, 
a town at the mouth of the eastern branch of the Nile. Egypt was 
famed for lentils. — 229. Mlttet = ddbit Bootes. See on Or. 
M. II. 176. — 231. Idcirco; i. e. that the seasons should be clearly 
marked for the husbandman. Certis . . . partibus ; referring to the 
twelve divisions of the zodiac Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and % 
Orbem (sc. annuum) = (his yearly) circle. C£ Annuus orbtSy A. V. 
46. — 232. DuodensL = (iuodea'm. The poets often use distribu- 
tive for cardinal numerals. C£ A. I. 393. Regit. Cf. cursus rege* 
bantt A. VI. 350, and Nulla viam fortttna regity XII. 405. Mundi 
. . astra = the constellations of the celestial sphere. — 233. Coe- 
liim ; because the zones of heaven answer to the zones of earth, and 
determine their character. — 234. Ab igni; instead of the ordinary 
abl. of cause. — 235. Eztremae; i.e. the frigid zones. Deztxa. 
Gr. 441. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (i). —236. Glacie. The mention of ice 
seems more appropriate to the earthly than the heavenly zones ; but 
Virgil was doubtless thinking of the sky as the parent of ice. — 237. 
Duae ; i. e. the temperate zones, which alone the ancients supposed 
to be habitable. — 238. Via ; i. e. the ecliptic. Per = inter ; as the 
sun never enters the temperate zones. So v. 245, per diias Arctos, ^- 
239. Obliquus ; with se verier et, Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 («). 
Obliquus ordo is the zodiac, the constellations of which it consists be- 
ing arranged along the ecliptic which cuts the equator obliquely at an 
angle of about twenty-three and a half degrees. Cf. Ov. M. II. 130 
foil. Se . . . verteret = might revolve. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 
5. —240. Mundus. See on v. 232. Scythiam; used for the 
North generally, as often in the poets. Rhipaeaa. The Rhipeam 
mountains were supposed to separate the land of the Hyperboreans 
from the rest of the world. Here these countries are made to stand 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 479 

for the northernmost point, not only of earth, but of the mundane 
system, as Libya for the southernmost Arduus ; referring to the 
deyation of the north pole, as premHur^ etc, does to the depres- 
sion of the south pole. Cf. Ov. Trist IV. 10. 108. — 242. Hio 
vertex; i.e. the north pole, nium; i. e. the south pole. — 243. 
The infernal regions were supposed to be in the centre of the earth ; 
so here they are said to be over the south pole. Sub pedibus is to be 
connected with videt^ the feet being those of Styx and the Manes ; 
but tiidet of course does not mean that the south pole is actually 
visible from the shades. — 244. EQo ; i. e. at the north pole. Flexu. 
Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Anguis. See on v. 205. 
Blabitur= shoots out : not the same as labitur, — 246. Metuen- 
tee — tingui; i e. they never set. See on Ov. M. II. 172. — 247. 
niio; i.e. at the south pole. Ut perhibent; for the southern 
hemisphere was wholly unknown to the ancients. Aut . . , aut; 
i. e. cither the southern regions are in total darkness, or they have 
day when we have night. — 248. Obtenta . . . nocte = by the 
overspreading pall of night — 249. Redircy reducer e, recurrerey re- 
ferred and other words of the sort, are constantly used of the recur- 
ring order of nature. — 250. Primtis. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 
15 (<z). Oriens; sc. SoL Cf. A. V. 739. The horses of the sun 
come panting up the hill, casting their breath, which represents the 
morning air, on 4he objects before them. — 251. Rubens may mere- 
ly mean bright^ or the color of sunset may be naturally transferred to 
the star. Lmnina ; Vesper's own rays, not the light of sunset, as 
V0S8 thinks, taking Vesper generally of evening, nor the other stars, 
as others interpret it. — 252. Hlnc seems to refer to the whole of 
the preceding passage from v. 231, which has been devoted to an ex- 
podtion of certain parts of the mundane system. Virgil now en- 
forces the conclusion : " It is on the strength of this that we know 
beforehand," etc. Tempestates = the changes of the weather. 
Dubio . . . coelo = though the (appearance of the) sky may be 
doubtfril. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 («). —254. Infidum is sig- 
nificant, as showing the importance of knowing when to venture on 
the sea. — 255. Conveniat. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Armatas 
= rigged. Deducere = to launch. Cf. A. III. 71 ; IV. 398. The 
ancients drew their vessels up on the shore during the winter. See 
on Hor. C. I. 4. 2. —256. Tempestivam ; with evertere, Gr. 443. 
A. & S. 205, R. 15 [a), — 257. Vv. 257,' 258 belong to what pre- 
cedes, coming in fact under hincy which is the introduction to the 
whole paragraph. — 258. Temporibus. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. 
Farem is intended to contrast with diversis. The seasons are diverse, 
yet they make the year uniform. 
259. Weather which is bad for oriMnary out-door purposes is good 



480 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

for other things. — 260 Forent . . . properanda = would have to 
be done in a hurry ; contrasted with maturare, to get done in good 
time. Coelo. Gr. 43a A. & S. 257, R. 7 {a), — 261. Matnran. 
Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. Procndit = sharpens by hammering. — 
262. Arbore ; i. e. ex arbore. Gr. 425 and i and 3. 4). Lintrea; 
troughs into which grapes were put after the vintage. — 263. Pa- 
cori aigniim. Branding cattle was done with boiling pitch, gener- 
ally towards the end of January and April. Numeros — acervis 
= puts numbers on the heaps (of corn) ; i. e. to indicate the quantity 
contained in them. Impressit. Gr. 704. I. 2. A. & S. 323. i {h) 
(2) (a). On the tense see on v. 49. — 264. Vallos furcasqae; 
probably intended to support the vines. See II. 359. — 265. Ame- 
rina . . . retinacula= Amerian bands ; i e. willow bands, for tying up 
the vine. Amerina, from Ameria, a town of Umbria, famous for its 
willows, which have a slender red twig. — 266. Facilis = pliant 
Texatur. Gr. 487 ; 488. L A. & S. 260, R. 6. —267. Torretei 
i.e. to make the corn easier to grind. See A. 1. 179. Igni. Gr. 87. 
III. 3. A. & S. 82, Ex. 5 (a). — 268. Quippe = for. The connec- 
tion seems to be thus : You should not be idle on wet days, for even 
on holidays some kinds of work are permitted. — 269. Fas et jura 
= divine and human laws. Rivos deducere ; either to let on the 
water from the reservoirs for the purpose of irrigation, or to draw off 
the superabundant water from the fields. The former is probably 
meant, since it would be a work of daily necessity in hot weather. — 
270. Religio = religious scruple. Vetuit ,* aoristic perfect. See on 
v. 49. Segeti — saepem. Columella says that the pontiffs forbid 
the making of hedges for com on holidays. Forb. and Keightley 
suppose that old hedges might be repaired, though not new ones 
made ; but that does not appear to be Virgil's meaning. — 271. In- 
sidias — moliri seems to refer to snaring mischievous birds, as ordi- 
nary bird-catching would not be a work of necessity. — 272. Balan- 
turn ; i. e. when they are washed. Salubri is emphatic, as the 
washing is to cure disease, not for cleansing the wool, which was not 
allowed on holidays. — 273. Markets were also held on holidays (as 
they are still on Sundays in the south of Europe), at which the coun- 
try-people could sell their farm produce. Agitator aselli ; not the 
asinarius or ass-driver, but the peasant who happens to drive the ass 
to market. — 274. Vilibus. See on v. 227. — 276. Inciisum = in- 
dented ; i. e. that it may crash the com better. Massani picis ; ].e. 
for marking cattle, securing casks, repairing vessels, etc — 276. Of 
lucky and unlucky days. Ipsa — operum=the moon herself has 
made different days favorable in respect of (agricultural) labors in 
different degrees ; i. e. all days are not equally lucky. Ordine. Gr. 
414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.-277. Operiun. Gr. 399. 3. 4). 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 48 1 

A. & S. 213 and R. i (a). Cf. infelix ammi^ A. IV. 529. Qtilntam ; 
8C. tlUm. Gr. 120, Ex. A. & S. 90. I. Orcos ; the same as Hades 
or Pluto, the god of the lower world. He is called pcdlidus on ac- 
count of the ghastliness of death. — 278. Eamenides, also called 
Erinyes f and by the Romans Furiae or DiraCy were originally nothing 
but a personification of curses pronounced upon a guilty criminal. 
Aeschylus calls them the daughters of Night ; and Sophocles, of 
Scotos (Darkness) and Ge. No prayer, no sacrifice, and no tears 
could move them, or protect the object of their persecution. They 
dwelt in the deep darkness of Tartarus, dreaded by gods and men. 
With later writers, though not always, the number of Eumenides is 
limited to three, and their names are Tisiphone, Alecto, and Megaera. 
See also on Ov. M.X. 46. Turn has its ordinary sense. It appears 
to be added here because it, had been omitted in the previous clause. 
279. Coetim lapetumqiie. These were Titans, the sons of Terra 
and Uranus, the number of whom was twelve. Typhoea. See on 
Ov. M. V. 348. The last two syllables are contracted into one in 
scanning. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. i. — 280. Rescindere. Gr. 
552. A. & S. 271, N. 3. Cf on E. V. i. Fratres. See on Hor. C. 
III. 4. 41 - 48. The slowness of movement in this and the following 
line well expresses the efibrts of the giants. The non-elision of the / 
and the and the shortening of the latter are in imitation of the 
Greek rhjrthm, and are appropriate where the subject, as here, re- 
minds us of Greek poetry. — 282. Scilicet = for indeed, truly. 
Agreeably to its etymology (scire licet)y scilicet introduces an expla- 
nation or development. Here it introduceo the details of the con- 
spiracy of the giants. — 283 . Pater ; Jupiter. — 284. Septimam 
poBt deoimam = the seventeenth. Ponere. See on E. V. i. — 
285. PrensoB dovQitaxe=prendere et domitare, Llcia — addere 
= to add the leashes of the woof to the warp ; i. e. to weave. — 286. 
Fugae, referring probably to fiigitive slaves, against the escape of 
whom the husbandman is warned to be on his guard on that day, 
while he need not watch against thieves. — 287. Adeo, like the Greek 
particle y*, adds emphasis to the word to which it is joined. Se 
. . . dedere = allow themselves to be done ; i. e. may be done. See 
on v. 49. — 288. Sole novo = early in the morning, at sunrise. 
Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. E0U8 ; the morning star, put by metonjrmy 
for the morning itself. Stipulae. The' ancients in their reaping 
usually cut off the heads of the com, leaving the straw to be cut 
about a month later. Arida prata ; opposed to those which could 
be irrigated. The reason for these precepts is, that the dew makes 
the straw and grass resist the scythe. — 290. Noctes. Gr. 371. 
A. & S. 229. LentUB expresses the effect of the moisture on the 
grass rather than the nature of the moisture itsel£ — 291. Qoidam *, 
31 



482 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

like est ^i, Hon E. II. 2. 182, as if Virgil knew the man, but did Bot 
choose to name him. Laxninia ; of fire-light ; though some prefer 
to understand it of lamp or torch-light — 292. Inspioat ; L e. makes 
into the form of an ear of com, the end of the wood being cut to a 
point and split into various parts. — 293. Solata = solans. See on 
V. 206. — - 294. PectLne ; the comb, the teeth of which were inserted 
between the threads of the warp, and thus made by a forcible impulse 
to drive the threads of the woof close together. Its office was the 
same as that of the reed or sley among us. — 295. This verse is 
hypercatalectic, the final em being elided by the first vowel of the 
next verse. Gr. 663. III. 4). A. & S. 304 (4) ; 307. 3. Volcano. 
See on Ov. M. II. 5. Vulcattus is often used, as here, for fire. Gr. 
705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. Decoquit. Must was boiled down to 
carenuniy defrutum^ or sapa^ on a night when there waa no moon. — 
296. Folils. Leaves were used, commonly those of the vine, for 
skimming the boiling must, as it was thought that wooden ladles or 
spoons gave it a smoky taste. Trepidi . . . aeni The boiling must 
imparts a quivering motion to the vessel itself. — 297. Ceres ; by 
metonymy for com. Rubicunda. See on v. 96. Medio . . . 
aestu = in the midst of the heat (of summer). Elsewhere in Vir- 
gil it means midday, but since that is precisely the time which the 
reaper would avoid, the rendering we have given seems best here. 
So frigoribus mediis^ K X. 65, means midwinter. — 298. Aestu ; 
not to be connected with tostas. — 299. Nudus ; i. e. without 
the upper garment. Hiems ; the rainy season of about a fort- 
night before and a fortnight after the winter solstice. Colono 
seems to refer strictly to the labors of cultivation, as 6ther works 
for winter follow, v. 305, So perhaps agruolae 4n next verse. 

— 300. Frigoribus ; i, e. hieme, Farto = what has been acquired ; 
I e. in the other seasons of the year. — 302. Genialis. According 
to Italian notions every man had his guardian spirit or Genius, which 
it is difficult to distinguish firom himself When, therefore, he in- 
dulged himself in feasting, etc., he was said to indulge his Genius, 
and whatever was connected with this indulgence was called genial. 
The month of December, as the season of festive enjoyment and re- 
laxation after the year's labors, was held specially sacred to each per- 
son's Genius. Cf. Hon E. II. 2. 187 ; A. P. 210. — 303. Fressae 
ts= heavy laden. — 304. Sailors, on their retum from a successful 
voyage, especially if it was a long and hazardous one, used to put 
garlands on the sterns of their ships when they came into port — 
305* Quemas ; because glans was used oi other firuks than acorns. 
Stringere. Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. i. Cf. tegere^ v. 213. 

— 306. Myrta. Myrtle berries were used for mixing with wine, 
which was called myriUes^ and used medicinally. Cruenta; from 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 48J 

their juice. — 307. Qmibtis. Cranes were a delicacy of the table ; 
bat the husbandman might naturally snare them in self-defence. See 
V. 120. — 308. Auritoa = long-eared. ^ 309. Stuppea . . . verbera 
ss the tow thongs. Torquentem, agreeing with coionuniy the omit- 
ted subject ace. of stringere and all the following infinitives. Balea- 
lUl. See on Ov. M. IV. 709. It is merely an ornamental epithet. 
— > 311. Tempestates seems fixed by sidera to mean weather rather 
than storms, the latter notion being left to be inferred. Sidera. Cf. 
V. 204 foil — 312. Mollior; i. e. less oppressive. — 313. Quae; sc 
dkam» Vigilare aliquid is to bestow wakeful care on a thing. Virifl. 
Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. Vel ; sp. dicam quae vigilanda viris. 
Ruit = comes down. — 314. Spicea . . . messis = the bearded 
harvest. — 317. Culmo. Gr. 428. A. & S. 21 1, R. 6. — 318. Om- 
nia ▼entomxn . . . proelia ; for ^roelia otnnium ventorum ; the 
winds all blowing at once, as in A. I. 85. — 319. Quae ; tanta ut ecu 
Late ; with eruerent — 320. Sublimem. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 
15 {a). Xbcpulsam eruerent ; a hysteron-proteron for expellerent 
erutamt 2caA^= expellerent et eruerent, Gr. 704. IV. 2. A. & S. 323. 4 
(2). Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 {b). Ita (=so, thus) probably in- 
troduces a comparison between the hurricane that roots up the com 
(gramdam segetem) and an ordinary gust which whirls about the stub- 
ble (culmumque levem stipulasque volantes) ; but Wr. and Forb. make 
ferret depend on quae^ and give ita the sense of turn, — 321. Hiems ; 
the winter's storm in opposition to the summer blast just described. 
— 322. Coelo. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. — 323. Foedam — tem- 
pestatem = thicken the foul weather ; or, taking glomerant with 
foedam^ = thicken the weather into foulness, -r- 324. Ex alto = 
from on* high. Some make ex alto = from the deep, but it is more 
probable that Virgil meant to represent the clouds as mustered from 
on high, collectaej like glonierant, keeping up the military associations 
already introduced by agmen. Ruit . . . aether; like aether descendity 
IL 325, coeli ruinaf A. I. 129, an image explained by Lucr. 6. 291 : 
Omnis uti videatur in imbreni vertier aether, **Down crashes the 
whole dome of the firmament." — 325. Sata — labores. Cf. A. 
II. 306. — 326. Cava ; because during the summer ii\ Italy there is 
little or no water in the beds of most of the rivers. — 327. FretiB 
•piraxitibus = in its breathing inlets. The violent heaving of the 
waves against the shore is compared to human breathing. — 328. 
Pater. See on v. 121. Nocte is not to be taken literally. Co- 
rusca goes with dextra and = coruscante, — 329. Molitur generally 
implies effort in the agent or bulk in the object, or both. Quo . . . 
motu I i. e. quibus conimota ; referring to the sense rather than to 
the words of the preceding sentence. A demonstrative or relative 
pronoun is often joined by a kind of attraction to a following substan- 



484 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

tive in such a way that the notion expressed by this substantive ig 
considered as already implied in the foregoing part of the sentence. CC 
Quogemiiut A. IL 73 ; ea signa dedit^ K. II. 171 ; hie nunthis esto, A. 
IV. 237. Gr. 453. A. & S. 206 (17). — 330. Fogere. The perfect 
expresses instantaneousness. Cf. exiitt IL 81. So straviL The rain 
pours down in torrents, the lightning flashes, the earth trembles, and 
instantly, there being no appreciable interval of time between the 
cause and the completion of the effect, the wild beasts have fled, &c— 
331. Humilia qualifies stravit, Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 {a\ 
Some take it with pavor in an active sense and =2 causing humility. 

— 332. Athon ; a high mountain, on the Strymonian Gulf; in Mace- 
donia. Gr. 46 and 3. 2). A. & S. 54. Rhodopen ; a high mountain 
range in Thrace. Gr. 43. A. & S. 44 Ceraimia ; a range of moun- 
tains in Epirus. ' Alta Ceraunia is a half-translation of *AKpoK€pavyia, 
i. e. thunder-peaks. Telo ; I e. a thunderbolt — 333. Ingemi- 
nant. It is observed that the rain and wind increase after a thun- 
derclap. — 334. Flangunt = wail ; intransitively. — 335. Coeli 

— sidera. The months of heaven are the signs of the zodiac, through 
each of which the sun is about a month in passing ; and sidera are 
those other constellations whose rising and setting influenced the 
weather. The next two lines merely give instances of the things to 
be observed. — 336. Frigida ; because of its distance from the sun. 
Sese . . . receptat. Wch. and Forb. take this as strictly literal : 
" returns to the place whence he has just started " ; but it seems to 
refer more generally to the motions of the planet among the stars. 
S'ervius says that Saturn when in Capricorn caused heavy rains, and 
when in Scorpio, hail. Receptat . . . erret Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. 

— 337. Ignis Cyllemiis ; i. e. Mercury ; so called from Cyllene, 
a mountain in Arcadia, the reputed birthplace of the god. Ignis ; firom 
its brilliancy and nearness to the sun, in contrast, perhaps, with fri- 
gida Saturni stella, Coeli ; with orbes ; i. e. the circuit of the planet 
through the heavens. — 338. As another means of averting the in- 
juries caused by the violence of storms, the husbandman is directed 
to attend to the worship of the gods, ^specially Ceres. See on v. 7. 
Annua . . . sacra ; the festival of the Ambarvalia. See on E. IIL 
76. — 339. Refer expresses recurrence. See on v. 249. Opera- 
tus = sacrificing. For the present force of the part, see on v. 293. 

— 340. Eztremae. Gr. 441. 6. . A. & S. 205, R. 17. Sub caaum 
= immediately after the end. — 341. Mollissima = most mellow ; 
i e. with age. — 342. The second clause explains the first ; L e. it is 
pleasant to sleep in the thick shade on the mountains. — 343. Tibi 
Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. {a), Adoret Gr. 488. IL A. & S. 260, 
R. 6. — 344. Baccho. Gr. 705. IL A. & S. 324. 2. — 345. Felix 
= auspicious ; I e. acceptable to the gods. — 346. Chorua et aooii; 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 485 

i e. ckartis sociorum. — 347. In teota = to their houses. Neque 
ante. It is not easy to decide whether this is merely an additional 
admonition to celebrate the Ambarvalia, as an indispensable prelim- 
inary to the harvest, or an injunction to perform a second set of 
rites in summer time. — 349. Tempora. Gr. 380 and i. A. & S. 
234. IL Quercu \ i. e. in memory of man's first food. — 350. In- 
coifipoaitoa = rude, uncouth. — 361. Haeo refers to the nouns in 
the nert line. — 362. Frigora is the important word, and is con- 
trasted with aesttis and plteuias, — 354. Aiistri ; for winds m gen- 
eral. — 366. Stabulia. Gr. 392 and 2. A. & S. 228 and i. — 
356. Ventia aorgentibaa are ihe important words. The prognos- 
tics of wind follow. Freta ponti ; poetically for pontus, — 357. 
Agitata tumeacere = to be agitated into a swell. — 359. Miaceri 
is explained by resonantia^ which serves instead of an abl., like mttr- 
mure, A. I. 124 ; tumultu, A. II. 486. — 360. Jam . . . turn = even 
then. A curvia. For a with tempera cf. A. II. 8. Male = 
scarcely. The storm is close at hand. — 362. Marinae ; opposed to 
in sicca, — 365. Vento impendente ; emphatic, like ventis surgen- 
^f^f*^* V. 356. — 366. Umbram flammanun. Gr. 595. A. & S. 
279. 5- — 367. A tergo = behind them. Albeacere. Gr. 332. II. 
and 2. A. & S. 187. II. 2 and {a), — 368. Volitare. Gr. 332. I. 
and I. A. & S. 187. II. i and {d), — 369. Summa. Gr. 441. 6. 
A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 370. Signs of rain. Boreae . . . Enrique 
Zephyrique ; i. e. when there are thunders and lightnings from all 
parts of the sky, three winds being put for all. — 371. XSurique. Gr. 
669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (i). Domna ; as if each of the winds had 
a home in the quarter of the heavens from which it blows. — 372. 
Foaaia. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 [a). — 373. Humida ; i. e. 
with the rain. Imprudentibna = unwarned ; because the signs 
are so numerous. — 374. Vallibua, with^^r^. Gr. 422 and i. 
A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 376. ASriae; contrasted with vallibus iviis. 
Fugere. See on v. 49. So captavit and the other perfs. in this pas- 
sage. — 377. The swallow is always observed to flylow before rain, 
because the flies and other insects on which she feeds keep at that 
time near the surface of the ground and the water. Arguta = twit- 
tering (as she flies). — 378. Veterem . . . qnerelam = their old 
plaintive note. Veius is here used, just like our old^ of what is re- 
peated in the same unvarying manner ; as we say : " an aid story," 
etc — 379. Tectia penetralibus. Cf. adytis penetralibus, A. II. 
297. — 380. Anguatum . . . iter. C£ ccUle angustOy A. IV. 405. 
Terena is illustrated by saepius, Bibit — aroua. The ancients 
supposed that the rainbow drew up water from the sea, rivers, etc., 
which afterwards fell in rain.— 381. Agmine. Gr.- 414 and 3. 
A. & S. 247 and 2. —382. Denais . . . alia = with crowded wings ; 



486 NOTES ON VI&GIU 

L e. they fly dose togiether. ^ 383. VolnoreB. Gr. 545. A. & Sw 
239. Asia . . . prata = the Asian meads ; a tract of land in Lydia, 
in Asia Minor, on the banks of the Cayster, which often overflowed 
them. Dulcibiis = fresh ; in opposition to those of the sea, just 
mentioned. Circum ; adverbiaL — 384;. Rimantur = try in every 
Chink, search, rummage ; i. e. for food. Caystal ; with stagnis, -r 
386. Infandere. Gr. 551. L and i. A. & S. 272. Rores; I & 
they make it into spray. — 388. In tixidas = into the waves, to 
meet the waves. — 387. IncaMfun =s wantonly. Videas. Gr. 
485. A. & S. 26a II. — 388. Improba = villanous, good for 
nothing ; because the crow invites the rain. — 389. SpatiLatur ex- 
presses the stately, leisurely pace of the crow. The alliteration, as 
in the preceding verse, gives the effect of monotony. — 390. Ne . . . 
quidem. Gr. 602. III. 2. A. & S. 279. 3 [d), — 391. Testa = 
earthen lamp. — 392. Scintillare = to sputter. Futres . . . fun- 
g08 ; the thick snuff which gathers on the wick because of the damp- 
ness of the air. 

393 - 423. Signs of feir weather ; first negatively, vv. 395 -400, 
and then affirmatively, w. 401 - 423. — 393. Ez = after. Solefl 
= sunny days. Serena = serene skies. — 395. Aciea is the 
sharply defined edge, or outline, of the stars, which is not blunted or 
dimmed by floating vapors. — 396. Obnoxia = beholden. — 397. 
Tenuia. Gr. 669. II. and 3. A. & S. 306. i and (3). Lanae . . . 
vellera = fleecy clouds ; lit fleeces of wool. — 398. Non — pan- 
dunt; I e. do not sit on the shore drying their, wings. — 399. Di- 
lectae Thetidi ; possibly because the lovers were changed into Hal- 
cyons by Thetis ; but It is simpler to say " loved by her as sea-birds." 
Gr. 38& 4. A. & S. 225. II. See on E. IV. 32. Solutos . . . jac- 
tare ; i. e. ita utjactando solvantur ; L e. toss them to pieces. — 403. 
Nequidquam = without purpose, aimlessly ; like iitcassum ; i. e. 
a prolonged objectless effort The more common interpretation is : 
** in v^n, to no purpose "j i. e. though an ill-omened bird, the owl 
with all her hooting will not be able to bring foul weather. But it 
seems clear that Virgil intends to mention the screeching of the night- 
owl as a sign of fine weather. — 404. Liquido = clear ; i. e. after 
the storm. Nisus was king of Megara, and on his head there grew a 
purple lock which was the safeguard of his life and of his city. But 
when his daughter Scylla had fallen in love with Minos, king of 
Crete, who was besieging Megara, she cut off the lock firom her 
father's head as he slept, and thus betrayed both him and his city into 
the hands of the enemy. Minos, however, did not reward her as she 
expected, but allowed her to perish miserably. After death Nisus was 
changed into a sea-eagle, or osprey, and Scylla into the «m, a kind 
of lark, or, according to others, a hawk. — 406. Aethera. Gr. 93 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 487 

and i. A. & S. 80 and R. —408. Qua — auraa. Keightley ex- 
plains these words of the greater bird having missed his pounce, and 
thus being obliged to soar into the air in order to make a second, 
while the smaller escapes as fast as it can. — 410. Liquidas = soft, 
dear ; opposed to raucas. As the ravens, by hurrying home, v. 381, 
announced rain, so their remaining at home, cawing and flying about 
their nests, is a sign of fair weather. Preaso . . . gutture ; ap- 
parently opposed to plena voce^ v. 388. — 413. Imbribiis actds = 
jirhen the rain is driven away, when the rain is spent. — 416. An 
allusion to the Pythagorean, Platonist, and Stoic spiritualism, accord- 
ing to which there was a portion of the divine mind in all animated 
beings, and which Virgil here rejects in favor of the Epicurean and Lu- 
cretian materialism, which admitted the existence of nothing but matter 
and its modifications. Divinitua is distinguished from fato^ as the 
poet is evidently alluding to the language of different philosophies, 
fato pointing to the Stoic doctrine. TTIIa. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. 

— 416. Ingenium = an intelligent principle. Renixn — major 
= a deeper (i. e. deeper than men have) insight into things by fate. — 
417. But the true explanation is, that, as the atmosphere is con- 
densed or rarefied, the organs and powers of animals are variously 
affected : in fine weather they become cheerful ; in bad weather the 
reverse. Coeli = of the atmosphere. — 418. Mutavere viaa 
(= have changed their courses) is explained by mobilis, the weather 
and the atmospheric moisture being supposed to shift. Juppiter. 
See on E. VII. 60. . Juppiter tevidus austris denotes the condition of 
the atmosphere before the change. Austris; with ttvidus, — 420. 
Species = phases ; a materialistic word. Keightley and Forb. make 
it => habits, disposition. Motns ; also materialistic — 421. Alios 

— agebat = other sensations than (those which they received) while 
the wind was driving onward the clouds. The second alios is gov- 
erned by concipiebant understood, and the sentence, alios, dum — age- 
bat, is to be construed parenthetically. The change from low to high 
spirits being the point, the second alios is logically = quamy and 
does not denote a co-ordinate difference. — 422. Hie. Gr. 450. 5. 
A. & S. 207, R. 24. 

424- 460. Prognostics of the weather may be obtained by observ- 
ing the appearances of the sun and moon. — 424. Rapidtim. See 
on v. 92. Sequentes = following (each other). Lunas might be 
either the daily or monthly moons, but primum and oriu quarto favor 
the former meaning.— 425. Ordine. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 
2. —426. Hora = dies, Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Insidiis — 
serenae. Cf. A. V. 851. A night clear at first often terminates in 
rain. — 427. Revertentes = returning (to her); ie. when she be- 
gins to fill aAew.— 428. Aera; the air seen between the horns of 



488 KOTES ON VIRGIL. 

the crescent moon. We should say, "there is a halo round the 
moon." Comu; for comibm, — 429. ▲gricolia pelagoque; for 
agris pelagoque^ or agricolis nautisque, — 430. Virgineuin ; an 
allusion to the virginity of Diana. SnfEnderit ore ruborem; an 
inversion of suffuderit os rubore. On ore^ see Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 
254, R. 3. — 431. Venta See on Zephyro, v. 44. Phoebe (= 
Luna) ; a surname of Diana as the goddess of the moon, the sister 
of Phoebus, the sun. Cf. Ov. M. II. 208. — 432. Auctor = indi- 
cation, presage. — 435. Ezactum ad mensem = to the end of 
the month. — 436. Servati ; I e. that have come safe to port : not 
preserved from peril, as if there had been a stohn. In litore. C£ 
A. V. 236. — 437. Olauco . . . Panopeae. When a long final 
vowel or a diphthong is not elided, it is regularly made short, if in 
the thesis. The exception to this rule in the case of Glauco is a 
license not indulged in by Virgil elsewhere. Gr. 669. I. and 2. 
A. & S. 305 (i) and (2). Glaucus was a Boeotian shepherd, who 
threw himself into the sea from the efifects of an herb which he had 
eaten : he afterwards became a sea-deity. Panopea^ or Panope, was a 
sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus and Doris. Melicertae. Meli* 
certes, a son of Athamas and Ino, who, with his mother, fell into the 
sea, was metamorphosed into a marine divinity, under the name of 
Palaemon. — 439. Sequuntur = attend. — 440. Refert. See on 
V. 249. — 440. Astris. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 441. Nascen- 
tem — ortum = his first rising. — 442. Conditns. Condo \% 
naturally 'constructed here, as in v. 438, as a verb of motion, since 
it means strictly not to hide^ but to throw together or into, C£ 
conjiciOf contorqtteo, IMTedio — orbe = and shall have retired in 
respect to the middle of his disc ; or, and shall have receded from 
the middle of his disc (to the circumference) j i. e. when the centre 
of the disc is covered by clouds and only the edge appears. Gr. 
429, or 425. A. & S. 250. I, or 251. — 443. Tibi Gr. 388. II. 
A. & S. 225. II. Ab alto = from on high; or it may be, from 
the deep. See on ex altOy v. 324. — 445. Sub lucem = just 
after daylight Sese . . . rumpent = erumpent, — 446. Diveni 
= scattered. Tithoni ; a son of Laomedon, and brother of Priam. 
By the prayers of Aurora, who loved him, and carried him off to the 
seats of the immortal gods, he obtained from Jupiter immortality, 
but not eternal youth; in consequence of which he completely 
shrunk together in his old age; whence an old decrepit man was 
proverbially called Tithonus. C£ A. IV. 585. Aurora ; the goddess 
of the morning, who brings up the light of day from the east At the 
close of night she rose from the couch of her beloved Tithonus, and 
on a chariot drawn by swift horses she ascended up to heaven from 
the river Oceanus, to announce the coming light of the sun. See 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 489 

also on Ov. M. II. 144. — 449. Male, See on • v. 360. — 449. 
The rhythm of this verse admirably expresses the rattling of hail 
on the roo£ Gr. 672. 2. A. & S. 310. 2. — 450. Hoc prob- 
ably refers to what goes before ; meaning either generally the 
sun*s significance, or specially the fact just noted, that being 
taken as a type of the others, which are supposed to be yet more 
significant in the evening than in the morning. Olympo. See on 
E. V. 56. — 461. After nam understand ^m = at evening. — 454. 
Maculae must relate to caeruleusj igni to igneus. Immiacexier. 
Gr. 239. 6 ; 703. 6. A. & S. 162. 6 ; 322. 6. — 455. Vento uim- 
bisque. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 456. Pervere, an 
older form thany^r&^r^, of which Virgil is fond. He also uses effervo^ 
strido, 2iAfulgo, Non. Gr. 488. 3. A. & S. 260, R. 6 {b). — 457. 
Moneat. Gr. 488. II. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Convellere ftinem = 
to pluck up the cable with (the anchor). Gr. 558. VI. 2. A. & S. 
273. 2 W. — 458. Condetque relatum = and shall bury it (i. e. 
conceal it, close it) after he has brought it back ; i. e. at his setting. 
— 460. Claro ; because it makes the sky clear and bright. — 461. 
Quid ; i. e. what sort of weather. Unde ; i. e. « qtia coeli parte, 
Serenas . . . agat nubes ; i. e. agat nubes ita ut seremtm sit caelum, 
Serenas is opposed to humidm, — 464. Audeat. Gr. 485. A. & S. 
260, R. 5. Tuinultus has here its political sense of a sudden alarm 
of war, generally in Italy or Cisalpine Gaul, when all citizens were at 
once called out Gr. 558. VI. 2. A. & S. 273. 2 (^).— 465. Frau- 
dein = unseen danger, treachery. — 466. Miseratus ; sc. est; i. e. 
by the friendly warnings which he gave of the evils that were yet to 
come. See on Hor. C. I. 2. Introd. — 467. Femigine ; the dark 
color of the sun under eclipse. An eclipse of the sun occurred in No- 
vember of the year in which Caesar was murdered. — 468. Sae- 
oula = race. — '■ 469. Tellus ; i. e. by earthquakes. See vv. 475, 
479. — 470. Obscenae = ill-omened. Importunae = inauspi- 
cious. — 471. Cyclopum; lit* creatures with round or circular eyes. 
According to the ancient cosmogonies the Cyclopes were the sons of 
Coelus and Terra : they belonged to the Titans, and were three in 
number, and each of them had only one eye on his forehead. In 
the Homeric poems the Cyclopes are a gigantic, insolent, and law- 
less race of shepherds, who lived in the southwestern part of Sicily, 
and devoured human beings. A still later tradition regarded the 
Cyclopes as the assistants of Vulcan. See on Ov. M. II. 5, and Hor. 
C. I. 4. 7, 8. EffervSre. See on v. 456. — 472. Undantem, re- 
ferring to the lava. Pomacibus is suggested by Cyclopum, Join 
iX^'Caeffervere, Gr. 425 and 3. 4). A. & S. 251. —473. Lique. 
facta . . . Baza. Cf A. III. 576. The lava hardens into stone. 
— 474. QemiEUiia ; i. e. the Roman garrisons on the Rhine. These 
garrisons were said to have seen armies of horse and foot fighting in 



490 MOTES ON VIRGIL. 

the 2dr (armorum sonitumj, and to have heard the sound of tmm- 
pets summoning to battle. This portent is explained by some as 
an exaggerated report of the appearance of the aurora boreaiisy whidi 
is often attended with a crackling sound. -:- 475. Motdbus. The 
belief of the ancients that earthquakes took place in the Alps frooi 
time to time, is confirmed by modern experience, though Heyne s«gr 
gests that avalanches may have been mistaken for them, -r 476. 
Per lucoB vulgo ; ideoqueper muUos lucos, LncQB shows that tlie 
voice was divine. — 477. Simulacra) Le. the shades of the de- 
parted. Modis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 478. Ob- 
•curum. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (i). — 479. Infandum (= un- 
utterable horror) calls attention to its peculiar horror. Siatont; 
intransitive. The cause of sistunt amnes is given in terrae dehiscurU^ 
the earthquake. Terrae ; implying that there were numerous 
earthquakes. — 480. Templis. Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 254, R. 3. 
niacrimat . . . audant. The moisture of the atmosphere ex- 
plains both. Ebur, aera ; i. e. ivory and bronze statues. Gr. 705, 
III. A. & S. 324. 3.-482. Fluviorum. Gr. 669. II. 3. A. & S. 
306. I (3). Rex ; because the largest of the rivers of Italy. Exi* 
danus; the Greek name of the Po. — 483. Cum — tulit. C£ A« 
II. 499. — 484. IiZtis. The ancients used to derive auguries from 
the appearance of the exta (i. e. the heart, lungs, and liver) of the 
victim. Fibrae, according to Varro and Servius, are the extreni' 
ities of the liver. — 485. Cessavit Gr. 463. I. A. & S. 209, 
R. 12 (3). — 486. Resonare; sc. non cessaverunt Lupis. Wolves 
entering Rome are several times mentioned by Livy as portents. — 
487. Coelo. Gr. 425 and 3. 4). A. & S. 251. — 488. Cometae. 
Meteors in general are probably meant, as comets do not usually 
appear in numbers. 

489. Ergo ; I e. as foreshadowed by these portents, civil war broke 
out Paribus ; because they were Romans on both sides. — 490. 
Iterum ; with concurrere, Fhilippi'; a city in Macedonia, on the ' 
borders of Thrace, celebrated for the victory gained there in B. C. 42, 
by Augustus and M. Antony over the republican army of Brutus and 
Cassius, and for the fact that it was the first place in Europe where 
St Paul preached the Gospel, in A. D. 53. — 491. Nee — 8uperi8= 
nor was it in the eyes of the gods an undeserved punishment ; i. e. 
for our crimes. Superis. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. — 492. Ema* 
thiam . . . Haemi campos, referring, though not with geographical 
accuracy, to the sites of the two battles of Pharsalia and Philippi. 
Emathia^ originally the name of a district in the southern part of 
Macedonia, and afterwards of Macedonia, is here extended so as to 
cover Thessaly, in the southern part of which was the city of Phar- 
salus, near which Caesar conquered Pompey in B. C. 48. Haemus is 
a range of mountains in Thrace, now called the Great Balkan, 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK I. 49 1 

Haemi campos is intended to include the city of Philippi, which was a 
considerable distance south of the Haemus, — 493. Scilicet et = 
yes, and. — 496. Rfuitris. See on v. 94. — 497. Qrandia . . . ossa. 
It was the opinion of the ancients, at least of the poets, that the gener- 
ations of the human race successively degenerated in size and strength. 
Effosais; i. e. broken into by the plough or harrow. — 498. Dii 
patzli are not the same as Jndigetes, The former are the protecting 
gods of the country, the Lares and Penates, as opposed to those in- 
troduced from foreign nations ; while the latter are Italian heroes 
deified after death, as Picus, Janus, Aeneas, etc. Of the former class 
Vesta is given as an example, and of the latter, Romulus. Et is to 
be supplied. Romule ; the founder and first king of Rome, wor- 
shipped after his death as Quirinus, Vesta ; the goddess of the 
hearth, and also of fire. Her worship was introduced into Italy by 
Aeneas. The fire on the altar in her temple was never allowed to go 
out The priestesses dedicated to her service were called Vestals. — 
499. TuscTim Tiberim; so called because rising in the Apennines, 
in the district of Etruria or Tuscia. Gr. 85. III. i. A. & S. 79. i. 
Palatia. The Palatine was the hill of Romulus and his city ; and 
afterwards Augustus took up his residence there. — 500. Saltern ; 
as the gods had snatched away Julius Caesar. Juvenem ; Octavi- 
anus Caesar, afterwards Augustus, who was then about 27 years of 
age. See on Hor. C. I. 2. 41, Baeclo. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 
902. Luixnua pexjurla. See on Hor. C. III. 3. 22. Laomedonteae 
is used reproachfully, implying guilt C£ A. IV. 542. Iitiimiis . . . 
invldet . . . queritur. Gr. 467. 2. A. & S. 1*45. 1. 2. — 505. Quippe 
— nefEUi = because among them (tibi = apud quos ; sc. homines) 
right and wrong have been inverted ; i. e. have exchanged places. 
Quippe assigns the reason why heaven grudges Caesar to so thankless 
a sphere. Bella . . . facies ; sc sunt, — 506. Aratro. Gr. 387. A. & S. 
226. The abl., however, is possible. — 507. Dignua = fitting, suit- 
able. Abductia ; L e. to serve as soldiers. — 508. Conflantur = 
are forged. — 509. Euphrates ; L e. the Parthians dwelling on the 
banks of the Euphrates, against whom Antonius was then engaged in 
war. See on E. 1. 63. — 510. Ruptia — legibus = breaking the laws 
that bound them together. — 511. Anna fenint = are in arms. 
Impius is emphatic, as most of the wars of the time were connected 
directly or indirectly with the civil conflict — 512. Carceribus. 
The carceres were a range of stalls at the end of the circus, with gates 
of open wood-work, which were opened simultaneously to allow the 
chariots to start — 513. Addunt in 8patia = they give them- 
selyes to the course, bound onward over the course ; supplying sese 
firom the preceding line. The plu. spatia is employed because the 
match included more than one circuit — 514. Cnrrus ; i. e. equi. 



493 MOTES ON VIRGIL. 



THE GEORGICS. Book II. 

The main subject of the Second Book is the culture of trees, 
especially the vine. But there is no great regularity in the mode 
of treatment Virgil opens with an enumeration of the different ways 
of propagating trees, natural and artificial, so as to give some notion 
of the magnitude of the theme ; then shows how art can improve 
upon nature, and recurs again to the manifoldness of his subject, 
dwelling especially on the innumerable varieties of vines. Without 
much relevancy he talks of the trees which are indigenous to different 
countries, and thence digresses into a eulogy of Italy, which he does 
not fit with any practical application. The question of the aptitudes 
of various soils is treated far more widely than .the subject of the 
book requires, embracing the choice of com and pasture land, as 
well as of ground for planting vines and other trees. For the next 
i6o lines the poet seems to be thinking exclusively of the vine, or of 
the trees planted in the arbustum as its supporters. He does not 
distinguish between the different modes of rearing the vine, but in 
general appears to assume that the arbustum will be the means 
adopted. He speaks of the vine and its supporters almost indiffer- 
ently, as objects more or less of the same culture, so that, while 
keeping the former prominently before him, he feels himself at liberty 
to use general language, or even to confine his language to the latter, 
as metrical convenience or poetical variety may suggest ; a manner 
of speaking which renders this part of the book peculiarly difficult 
The olive, which was put prominently forward in the programme of 
the book, is actually disposed of in a very few lines, as requiring 
hardly any culture at all, while the other firuit-trees are dismissed 
even more briefly. The remaining trees receive a very hasty recom- 
mendation to the cultivator, backed however with an assurance that 
they are even more useful to man than the vine. In the celebrated 
digression which concludes the book, the laborious aspect of a 
country life, elsewhere so prominent, is studiously kept out of sight, 
and we hear only of ease, enjoyment, and plenty. 

The beauties of this book have always been admired, and deserv- 
edly so. They are most conspicuous in the digressions ; but the 
more strictly didactic part contains innumerable felicities of expres- 
sion, though it may be doubted whether in general they do not ob- 
scure the practical meaning as much as they illustrate it 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. 493 



ARGUMENT. 



L Subject of Second Book ; and invocation of Bacchus, god of 

the vine and of fruit-trees generally (1-8). 
II. Trees and plants ; their modes of propagation (9-34) : — 

1. Natural mode (10-21), viz. : spontaneous growth 

(10-13); ^y seed (14-16); from root of parent 
trunk (17- 19). 

2. Artificial mode (22 - 34), viz. : by suckers (22 - 23) ; 

by stocks or settings (24, 25) ; by layers (26, 27) ; 

by the trunk cut into "lengths" (30, 31); by en- 

^grafting (32-34). 

HI. Invocation, and detailed directions as to peculiar kinds of 

treatment necessary for different trees and plants 

(35-82):- 

1. Introductory address to husbandmen, and invocation of 

Maecenas (35-46). 

2. Means of improving trees of natural growth (47 - 60). 

3. How to employ artificial means of propagating (61 - 82). 
tV. The differences in trees and plants (83 - 135) : — 

1. Variety of species (83-108). 

2. Soils suited to different kinds (109- 113). 

3. Trees peculiar to certain countries (114- 135). 
V. Episode in praise of Italy (136- 176). 

VI. Soils ; their nature, capabilities, and indices (177-258) : — 

1. Soils suited to the olive (179-183) ; to the vine (184- 

194); to cattle rearing (195-202); to com crops 
(203-211); to almost no production (212-216); 
•to any purpose (217-225). 

2. iQdex to loose or close soil (226-237) ; to salt and 

bitter (238-247) ; to the rich and fat (248-250) ; to 
the moist (251-253) ; to the heavy and light (254, 
255) ; to the black (255) ; to the cold (256-258). 
VIL The vine (259-419) : — 

1. Directions for the preparation of the ground and for 

planting (259-353): trenches (259-264); nursery 
(265 - 268) ; setting of slips (269 - 287) ; depth of 
trenches (288 - 297) ; miscellaneous cautions (298 - 
314 ; time for planting (315 - 322) ; praises of spring 
323-345); manuring and airing of young plants 

(346-353)- 

2. General culture and treatment after planting (354-419) : 

soil at roots to be kept open^ fine, and fresh (354- 



494 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

357); props (358-361); pruning (362-370); hedges 
(371 - 396) ; ploughing of vineyard and other operations 

(397-419). 
VIII. Various other trees and plants (420-457) : the olive (420-425) ; 
fruit-trees (426-428) ; wild forest-trees (429-457). 
IX. Blessings and happiness of a country life (458-542). 

1. Hactenus ; sc. cecinu Arvomm cultns is the general subject 
of Book I. — 2. Bacche. Bacchus had the charge not only of the 
vine, but of fruit-trees generally. SilTestria . . . virgnlta means 
those barren forest-trees, such as the elm, poplar, etc, which were 
planted to act as props whereon to train the vine shoots ; so that 
there may be a special propriety in tecum, Virgulta (for virguleta^ a 
number of twigs, hence applied to bushes, or low or young trees), 
here seem to be taken as the type of such trees as the husbandman 
cultivates. — 4. Hue ; sc veniy from v. 7. Pater is applied to Bac- 
chus as the god of fertility, and because he conferred benefits on man 
with the kindness and generosity of a father. Lenaee ; an epithet 
of Bacchus, signifying god of the wine-press. Tiiis — muneribus. 
Virgil fancies himself surrounded by the gifts of autumn, of which 
he is going to sing. — 5. Tibi = for thee. See on I. 14. Here it 
seems to express the acknowledgment of nature to its author and 
sustainer. Fampineo . . . autumno = with the viny autumn ; i e. 
with the grapes which autumn is 3delding. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 
247 and I. OraviduB. Gr. 669, V.; 672. 3. A. & S. 309 (i); 
310. I. — 6. Floret (= blooms) ; in allusion, according to F<H"b., 
Voss, and Keightley, to the various hues of the grapes and other 
fruits. Vindemia = the vintage. Labris. Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 
254, R. 3, — 7, 8. The poet, in his enthusiasm, represents himself 
and the god as entering the wine-press together and treading out the 
grapes. In the East (see Isaiah Ixiii. i - 3), and in Greece and Italy, 
the grapes were trodden out by men with bare feet The practice 
still prevails in many parts of the south of Europe. — 8. Cothumis. 
Bacchus was usually represented wearing the cothurni or hunting 
buskins. — 9. Arboribus . . . creandis. See on G. I. 3. Naiura 
= the law of nature, the natural mode. — 10. Hominum. Gr. 3961 
III. 2. 3). A. & S. 212, R. 2. Ipaae and sponte sua are a tau- 
tology. .— 11. Veniunt See on I. 54. — 12. Curva, by calling 
attention to the bends of the river, shows that the trees grow aloi^ 
its side. — 13. Canei^tia; in allusion to the white down that covers 
the under side of the leaf. Fronde. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 
Salicta. See on £. I. 55. — 14. Poaito; i e. casually from the 
trees. Surg^ant Gr. 461 and i. A. & S. 209, R. 11. — 15. Ne- 
I40nim == arborum nemoremiitm, Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (2). A. & S. 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. 495 

212, R. 2. Jovi; like //&*, v. 5. The oak was sacred to Jupiter. — 
16. Habitae . . . oracula = regarded as oracles. Graiis. Gr. 
388. II. A. & S. 225. II. Oracula. Gr. 362 and 2. 2). A. & S. 
210, R. 3 (3) {c), Quercus ; the oak-groves at Dodona. See on E. 
IX. 13. — 17. PuUulat, etc. ; propagation by natural suckers. 
AliiB. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. — 18. Pamasia ; because the laurel 
was sacred to Apollo, whose temple of Delphi stood at the foot of 
Meant Parnasus. — 19. Se Bubjicit = shoots up. — 20. Priznum ; 
I. e. before man had tried experiments. . His ; sc piodis. — 22. Alii; 
sc mfftft. Ipse . . . usus ; i. e. experience alorte, without the example 
of nature. Via = by method, by a regular course or process. Voss, 
followed by Forb. and Keightley, personifies usus, and makes via = 
on her way, in her progress. — 23. Plantas = suckers. — 24. De- 
poBtiit. See on I. 49. Stirpes, sudes, and vallos denote the 
same thing differently treated : stirpes^ the stock along with some of 
the root ; sudes and vallos^ rods or larger branches from the parent 
tree set into the ground like stakes, the former split into four parts 
(quadrifidas) at the lower end to form a root, and the latter sharpened 
to a point (acuto robore). — 25. Robore. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, 
R. 6. — 26. Silvanim = arborum. Gr. 396. III. A. & S. 212. 
Arcns ; the bows which the depressed layers form. — 27. Viva ; 
because not separated from the parent stem. Sua . . . terra ; I e. in 
which they themselves grow. — 28. Summum . . . cacmnen; i. e. 
a cutting from the very top of the tree. — 29. Referens = restoring ; 
i. e. to its native earth. — 30. Quin et = nay even. Caudicibus 
sectis. The root and branches were lopped off from the trunk, 
which was then cut across into pieces or " lengths " ; and these were 
planted either whole, or split up before planting. Dictu. Gr. 570 
and I. A. & S. 276. III. — 31. Radix oleagina; a specimen of the 
trees thus grown. — 32. Impune= without damage (to the quality of 
either tree). — 34. Prunis = on plum-trees. Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 
254, R. 3. Coma; cornel cherries, which are of a beautiful red 
color. The epithet lapidosa shows that corna is not put for cornos, as 
some think ; and rubescere^ too, would be inapplicable to a change 
from the redder fruit to the less red. — Quare ; i. e. since art can do 
so much. Generatim = according to their kinds ; i. e. the kinds of 
trees. — 37. Ismara (plu. of Istnarus) ; a mountain in Thrace. Bac- 
clio = vitibus. — 38. Tabiimnxn ; a mountain on the confines of 
Samnium and Campania. — 39. Una ; sc mecum, Decurre = run 
through. A naval metaphor. Laborem. Gr. 371. i. 3). A. & S. 
232 (i). Cf. A. V. 862^ Currit iter tutum. — W. Decus . . . pars. 
Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. --4X. M<»ecena8. See Life of Virgil Gr. 369. 
A. & S. 240. Pelago rs= on flit to) the sea. It may refer metaphori- 
cally to the extent, th« /^ihsfliBSsnesSt of the subject Gr 384 and II. 



496 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

A. & S. 223. — 42. Cuncta= the whole subject — 43. Non; sc 
optem amplectty or amplectar. Sint. Gr. 503 and III. A. & S. 261. 2. 

— 44. Primi — oram = coast along the very edge of the shore; 
since he does not design to go thoroughly into the subject Prim 
litoris Oram =primam lUork oram = the first part of the edge of the 
shore. Littis denotes the shore only as the line which separates the 
land from the sea, i. e. as the strand ; ora, as the space and tract of land 
that borders on the sea, L e. as the coast Litoris ora, is, therefore, ora 
per litus extensa, — 45. In manibus terrae = the land is at hand ; 
carrying out the metaphor of the preceding line. Carmine ficto= 
by feigned strains ; L e. by a mythical poem, such as were then in 
vogue. Ambages — exorsa. He thus designates the length of 
those poems and the involutions of their plots. — 47. A return to the 
threefold division of trees naturally produced (see w. 10 - 19) ; each 
of which kinds is shown to admit of improvement by cultivation. — 
48. Laeta = luxuriant — 49. Quippe — subest refers only to 
laeta et fortia, not to infecunda. Solo. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 
Natura = a natural productive power. Subest = is latent ; lit is 
underneath. Tamen must relate to infecunda^ to which silvestrem 
animum is clearly parallel. — 50. Mutata = transplanted. Sub- 
acids = carefully prepared ; i. e. with the spade. — 51. Ezuexint 
Gr. 473. I ; 511. II. A. & S. 259, R. I (5). Animnm = naturam, — . 
52. Artes = artificial modes of culture. They will learn whatever 
lessons you choose to teach. — 53. SteiiUs ; sc. arbor from v. 57. 
The reference is to a sucker. See v. 17. • Sterilis is the general de- 
scription ; quae stirpibus exit ab imis^ the characteristic Imis. Gr. 
441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 55. Nunc; Le. in its natural state. 

— 56. Crescenti = when growing up. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224, R. 2. 
Fetus =fructus, Ferentem = when bearing (fi^t) ; i. e. wither 
up the productive powers it exerts. — 57. Jam = moreover. This 
use of jam (nearly = praeterea) is not uncommon. Beminibna 
jactis. See on v. 14. — 58. Venit ; as in v. 1 1. Sexis nepotibus. 
C£ V. 294 and E. IX. 50. — 59. Poma; all kinds of fiiiit — €0. 
Tuipes = unseemly. Avibus praedam ; i. e. because no men will 
pick them. XJva; for vitis, — 61. Scilicet = the fsict is. It is ex- 
planatory. Omnibus ; sc arboribus, Cogendae in suloum = 
drilled into the trench ; conveying the notion of training and disci- 
pline. Multa mercede = at great cost ; 1 e. of labor. Gr. 416. 
A. & S. 252. — 63. Tiuncis . . . propamine. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 
247 and 3. Truncis ; answering to the caudicibus sectis of v. 30. — 
64. Solido . . . de robore answers to stirpes^ sudes^ and vcUlos^ w. 
24, 25. Paphiae ; because sacred to Venus, who was worshipped at 
Paphos, a city in the island of Cyprus. Myrtus. Gr. 1 17. 2. A. & S. 
89(^). — 66. Herculeae — ooroiuie; ie» the poplar. See on £. 



THE GEORGIC& BOOK II. 497 

VII. 6i. -^67. Chaonii patxis ; i. e. Jupiter of Dodona in Chaoniju 
• See on E. IX. 13. Glandea = qttercus, Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. 
The oak was sacred to Jupiter. — 68. NaBcitur ; sc. plantis, Abies. 
The fir wis much used for ship-building ; hence casus visura marinos. 
69. Nucis; i. e. the walnut Horxida; from the roughness of the 
stem. Feto. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. — 70. Stexiles; 
opp. to pomifera, GheBsere =gerere Solent, See on I. 49. So in- 
cantiit zsMdiJregere, — 71. Caataneae; sc albo flore, Fagus. Gr. 
669. V. A. & S. 309 (i). It may, however, according to Wr. and 
Forb. be the nom. pi. of the 4th decl. and subject of incanuerunt 
understood, incanuit agreeing with the nearer noun. — 73. Inserere. 
Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. i. See I. 213. Simplez = unus ; 
w i. e. inoculation is distinguished from engrafting ; they are not one, — 
75. TonicaB = the inner coats ; i. e. of the bark : that which is un- 
der the corUx, — 76. Sinus = cavity, slit — 80. Bt Cf. A. III. 9. 
A remnant of primitive simplicity of expression, which sometimes 
gives more force to a passage than the employment of a more formal 
connecting particle. — 81. Exiit. See on I. 330. — 82. Sua. Cf. 
K I. 38. — 83 - 108. There are varieties in each kind of tree, the 
olive, the apple, and the pear, and especially the vine, the diversities 
of which are innumerable. — 84; Que. See on v. 87. Idaeis ; from 
Mount Ida in Crete, whence the cypress was said to have been 
brought into Italy. — 86. Orchades and radii appear to be so 
named fi-om their shape. The orchades are oblong, the radii are long 
like a weaver's shuttle. Pauaia is a kind of olive which requires to 
be gathered before it is ripe : hence amara bacca. Babca. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 87. Que is disjunctive, as often in excited or 
emphatic narrative. Nor are apples, etc., of one sort any more than 
olives. Alcinoi silvae = the orchards of Alcinous. Alcinous was 
king of the Phaeacians, in the island of Corcyra, and is celebrated by 
Homer in the Odyssey for the beauty of his gardens. Silvae = ar- 
bores. See on v. 26. — 88. Crustumiis ; so called from Crustu- 
mcrium or Cnistumium at the conflux of the Allia and the Tiber. 
Servius says they were partly red. Syriis. Servius and Pliny say 
they were black. Pixis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Volemis; so 
named, it 13 said, because they would fill the vola or hollow of the hand. 
— 89. Arboribus. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Arbos^ here 
and in w. 267, 278, 300 is probably the silvestria virgulta of v. 2, on 
which see note. Vindemia = uva. — 90l Methynmaeo ; from 
Methymna, a town in the island of Lesbos, which was &mous for the 
excellence of its wine. — 91. Thasiae ; from Thasos, an island ofif 
the coast of Thrace, celebrated for its com, wine, and mines. Mareo- 
tides ; from Lake Mareotis, near Alexandria in Egypt. -^ 92. Hae 
. . . iUaesKformer . . . latter. Gr. 452. 2. A. & S. 207, R. 23 (b). 



498 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

Habllefli = adapted to. — 93. Passo ; sc vino = vino e passis uvis 
facto, Psitliia . . . Lageos. These terms are Greek, and designate ' 
two diflferent kinds of vine, but their meaning is not well known. Te- 
nuis = subtile, spiritous, intoxicating. — 95. Preciae =: early ripe. 

— 96. RhaetLca ; sc viiis. Rhaetia was a region of the Alps (the 
modem Tyrol), but it was considered to extend into Cisalpine Gaul, 
and it was in the neighborhood of Verona that the grapes grew which 
the poet here praises. Nee = nee tamen, Falemia. The wine of 
the Falemian district, in Campania, enjoyed the highest reputation. 

— 97. Aminaeae. These wines are said by Aristotle to have been 
introduced into Italy by a Thessalian tribe called Aminaei. They 
were cultivated chiefly in the neighborhood of Naples. FirmiBsima 
= very strong. Vina, by a peculiar species of apposition, = pro- 
ducing wines. Cf. fines . . . genus y A. I. 339. — 98. Tmolins — 
PhanaeuB = to which the Tmolian and the Phanaean itself, the prince 
of wines (rex), rise up to pay homage. Virgil speaks in Greek 
fashion, otyos being implied. Tmolius is from Tmolus, a mountain 
in Lydia, producing excellent wine ; Phanaeus, from Phanae, a har- 
bor and promontory in the Isle of Chios, which produced the cele- 
brated Ariusian wine, which is here styled rex. See on K V. 71. 
Some supply mons. — 99. Argitiaque minor. This vine, of 
which there were two kinds, a ma/or and a minor (so named from the 
size of the grapes), is said to derive its name from dpy6sj white, re- 
ferring to the color of the grapes. Ctil Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 223, 
R. 2. Certaverit Gr. 485 ; 486. III. and 2. A. & S. 26a IL 
— 100. Tantum fluere = in yielding so much juice. — 101. Dis 

— secimdia Drinking did not begin till after the first course, 
when it was conmienced by a libation. — 102. Transierini. Gr. 
485; 486. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 4. Rhodia; sc. vitis; the 
vine of Rhodes, a noted island off the coast of Caria. BtunaBte ; 
so called from its producing large grapes. The term is Greek, and 
signifies large-breasted. Raoemia. Gr. 428. A.&S. 211, R. 6.— 
103. Sint Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 104. Neque enim = nor 
indeed. Numero = by a (definite) number. — 105. Velit . . . 
velit Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II. Aequoria = of the plain; ie. 
the desert IdenL Gr. 451. 3. A. & S. 207, R. 27 {a), — 108. 
lonii . . . fluctUB = fluctus lonii maris, — 110. FlaminibuB 
salices. Cf. E. VII. 66. — 111. Steriles. See on v. 70. —112. 
MyrtetiB. Gr. 414 and 2 ; 317: 2. A. & S. 247 and i ; 100. 7. 
ApertOB suggests the idea of apricos, to which aquilonem et frigora 
is opposed. He treats soil and climate together, as in I. 51 folL — 
113. Bacchus ; i. e. vitis, — 114. Extremis — orbem = extremas 
orbis partes cultas. The sentence is closely connected with what fol- 
lows, the sense. being, Look at foreign lands, go as far as you will,. 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. 499 

. you will find each country has its tree. Cnltoribus. Gr. 388. II. 
A. & S. 225. II. —115. PiotOB = tattooed Gelonos; a Scythian 
people, on the Borysthenes (Dnieper), in the district now called 
Ukraine. — 116. Divisae = divided among, apportioned; i.e. each 
tree has its allotted country. Arboribus. Gr. 3S4. A. & S. 223. 
— 117. SabaeiB. See on I. 57. — 118. Quid. Gr. 380 and 2. 
A. & S. 235, R. II ; 232 (3).— 119. Que = also. Baccas = pods. 
Martyn understands it of the globules of gum. Acanthi ; a tree, 
probably the acacia, from which gum arabic is procured. See on E. 

IV. 2a — 120. Nemora Aethiopum; the cotton plant. Lana. 
Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 121. Vellera. It was the 
general belief in Virgil's time, and long after, that silk, which was 
brought to Europe from the East, grew on the leaves of trees in the 
country of the Seres, a people whose abode was supposed to be be- 
tween India and Scythia. Silkworms were not known in the Roman 
empire till the time of. Justinian. Depectant. Gr. 525. A. & S. 
265. Tenuia. Gr. 669. II. and 3. A. & S. 306 and (3).-- 122. 
Ooeano propior is explained by extretni sinus orbis. It seems to 
imply the Homeric notion of the ocean as a great stream, encircling 
the outside of the world. — 123. Eztremi — orbis. India is so 
called as forming the extreme bend or curvature of the oblong habi- 
table earth at the ocean in the East. A6ra summum arboris ; i. e. 
the top of the tree in the air. — 125. Et . . . quidem = et tamen. 
Tarda = inexpert. —126. Tristes. See on L 75. Tarduxn; that 
remains long in the mouth. — 127. Felicia = blessed ; I e. as an 
antidote. Mali ; from malum, the citron. Presentius = more 
efficacious. — 128. Infeceve ; sc. veneno. — 129. Miscuerunt. 
Gr. 669. IV. A. & S. 307. I and (2). Non — verba = incanta- 
tions. — 130. Atra venena. Here, as in I. 129, ater seems to con- 
tain the double notion of black and deadly. The former refers to the 
color of the poison itself (c£ A. IV. 514), or to the color produced 
by iit on the body. — 131. Faciem. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. and 
R. 2. — 133. Brat; for esset. Gr. 511. II. 2. A. & S. 259, R. 4. i 
and {b), Labentia. We should expect labuntur ; but the poets 
sometimes in description use participles or adjectives for finite verbs. 
— 134; Ad prima = in the highest degree, blentia (= fetid) 
applies to animas as well as to ora, — 135. Fovent = correct, 
sweeten. Hlo; sc. malo, Senibus. Gr. 385 and 2. A. & S. 
223, R. 2 and i {a). Anhelis = asth^icatic. — 136. Silvae ; i. e. 
the dtron-groves. Terra. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. See on vina, 

V. 97. — 137. Ganges ; L e. India, of which the Ganges is the prin- 
cipal river. Auro turbidus ; whose mud or sand is gold. Gr. 414 
and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. Hermus; i.e. Lydia, in which the 
river Hermus rolls its golden sands. — 138. Certent Gr. 484. 



SOO NOTES ON VIRGIL, 

A. & S. 260. II. Baetra ; the capital of Bactria, die northern part 
of the Persian empire, put for the countryl — 139. Que ; disjunctive. 
See on v. 87. Panchaia ; the happy island of Euhemerus, here put 
for Arabia, near which his fiuicy placed it. — 140 - 142. The allusion 
in these lines is to the story of Jason ploughing the field with tiie 
fire-breathing bulls of Aeetes, king of Coldiis, and seining, it ^th 
dragon's teeth, whence warriors in armor sprung up. The idea con- 
veyed is, Italy is not inferior to Colchis in fertility, and she is, at die 
same time, fi-ee from those monsters which afilicted that country. — 
141. SatdB. Gr. 580. A. & S. 274, R. 5 {a). Dentibus. Gr. 3S4. 
A. & S. 223. Con. prefers to take it as an abl. abs., and to regard 
the passage as a case of hysteron-proteron. *— 143. Maaaious ; a 
mountain in Campania, celebrated for its excellent wine. Here an 
adjective. — 144. Implevere. See on I. 49. Laeta = prolific. — 
145. Campo. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2..— 146. C^ 
tumne ; a river of Umbria, flowing into the Tiber, whose waters 
were supposed to have a powerfully purifying effect, so that the flodu 
became white, either, according to Pliny, from drinking of it, or, ac- 
cording to Virgil, from bathing in it Maxima ; as being the largest 
victim, or as being offered on the occasion of a triumph. — 147. Sa- 
cro. The god Clitumnus had a temple at the head of the stream. — 
148. Duzere. White bulls from this locality were sacrificed at the 
celebration of triumphs ; and as the victims were led before the tri- 
umphal car, they are here represented as heading the procession. 
See on I. 217. — 149. AUenis mensibus = in months not belong- 
ing (to it) ; i. e. in the winter months. Vier and msUu are used here 
somewhat loosely. — 150. Pomis. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 
and I. It may be a dat =/>omis creandis. — 151. Saeva leonum 
semina; I e. saevi leones, — 152. Nee — legentes; L e. they do 
not, when collecting plants for food, by mistake gather aconite, and 
thus poison themselves. Virgil probably uses aconiia here for poison- 
ous plants in general ; for Dioscorides expressly says that aconite 
grew abundantly in Italy. Legentes is the subst — 153. Tanto 
. . . tractu = with so vast a train ; sc. qtianto in aliis terris, — 155. 
Operumque laborem = and laborious works, mighty works.— 
156. Manu imf lies labor, personal exertion. PraeruptiB . . . 
aaads. Such was the site of many of the ancient Italian towns. 
Gr. 422. I. A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 157. Antiquos — tturos ; i. e. 
the ancient towns built on the b«^ks of streams. There seems to be 
a special reference to the usefulness of the rivers. — 1^8. Mcure . . . 
supra . . . infra; i. e. mare mperum^ or the Adriatic, sttid mare infe- 
rum, or the Tyrrhenian sea* Alluit; sc Italiam, — 159^ Anne; 
pleonastic for an, Larl ; a lake in Gallia Cisalpina, now Lake Como. 
Gr. 45. 5. 2). A. & S. 52. Majdme. Larius is not so liEirge as 



THE GEORGlCSi BOOK II. 50I 

Verhanusy now Lake Maggiore. — 160. Zluctibtis — marino = 
heaving with Ae waves and the roar of ocean. Marino belongs to 
both nouns. Benaca See on E. VII. 13. —161. Portua — 
Avemis. The Avemus and the Lucrinus were two small land- 
locked pools on the Campanian coast between Misenum and Puteoli. 
M. Vipsanius Agrippa, during his consulship in B. C. 37, united 
them, faced the mound which separated the Lucrinus from the sea 
with masonry (to which claustra refers), and pierced it with a channel 
for' the admission of vessels. To this double haven he gave the name 
of Julius in honor of his patron Caesar Octavianus. — 162. ]^dig. 
natam = expressing its indignation ; i. e, at being excluded. — 163. 
RefiiBO = beaten back. — 164i Fretis . . . AvemiB = the channel 
of Avemus ; i. e. between the two lakes, of which Avemus was the 
more inland. — 165. Haec ; sc Italia, RItob ; implying abun- 
dance. Con. says, stream-like threads. Aeria metalla; L e. aes, 
Keightley translates metalla " mines." — 166. O'atendit . . . fluzit 
Pliny says that the senate forbade the working of the mines in Italy ; 
and these perfects may possibly refer to this discontinuance of the 
working, though they need only mean " it has been known to dis- 
play," etc. Venia. Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 254, R. 3. FItiadt = 
has abounded in. — 167. Maraoa ; a warlike and hardy race, dwell- 
ing northeast of Latium. Pubem Sabellam ; i. e. the Samnites. 
— 168. Malo = to hardship. The Ligures occupied the rocky 
and barren country along what is now the Gulf of Genoa. Vol- 
acoa ; a very ancient people of Latium. — 169. All these heroes 
saved Rome in extreme peril, the Dedi from the Latins, Marius 
from the Cimbri, Camillus from the Gauls, the Scipios from Car- 
thage ; and so Octavianus saves her from her enemies in the East 
— 170. Duroa belle = inured to war. Gr. 391. A. & S. 222. 3. 
— 172. Imbellexn ; merely an epithet of national contempt for the 
vanquished. Romania aroibua; Rome itself, "that sat on her 
seven hills." — 173. Satumia tellua. See on E. IV. 6.— 174. 
Magna ; sc parens, Tibi = in honor of thee : the emphatic word. 
Rea = subject. Artia; the art of agriculture. C£ I. 122, primus 
— agros, — 175. Sanctoa . . . fontea ; alluding to the fountains 
sacred to the Muses, from which poets were said to derive their in- 
spiration. Anaua reoludere ; because he was the first Roman who 
ventured to write a treatise on agriculture in verse. — 176. Aacrae- 
nm . . . carmen. Hesiod of Ascra in Boeotia wrote a poem on 
agriculture entitled Works and Days, Hence Virgil styles his agri- 
cultural poem an Ascraeum carmen, 

177. Dicendum est is to be supplied. Robora= z^V^j. Cf. 1. 8)5. 
— 178. Natura. See on v. 49. — 179. Diffioilea . . . mallgni = 
churlish . . . niggardly. Both sffe metaphorical. Difficiles, opp. to 



502 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

facilis in v. 223. —180. Tenuis = lean, hungry. Arvis ; sc. sunL 
Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. — 181. Palladia. See on L i& — 182. Iil- 
dicio. Gr. 390. 1, and 2. A. & S. 227, R. 2 and 3. Oleaster. The 
presence of the wild olive shows that the soil is good for the culti- 
vated. — 183. Plurixnus. See on £. VII. 60. Baccis ; sc. olcastrL 
— 184. Uligine; i. e. the natural moisture of the earth. Gr. 414 
and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 185. Quique and the following qui- 
qt4€f in V. 188, form an apposition to v. 184. — 188. Felicexn. = fer- 
tilizing. Qui — austro = and that which rises to the south. Gr. 
379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. — 189. Aratris. Gr. 388. 11. A. & S. 
225, IL — 190, Fluentes. Cf. on v. 100.— 191. Pertilis; sc 
erit, Uvae. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213. — 192. Pateris ct 
auro = pateris aureis, Gr. 704. II. 2 ; 422. 2. A. & S. 323. 2 (3) ; 255, 
R. 3 (^).— 193. Inflavit — Tyrrhenus. The custom of employing 
pipes at sacrifices was Greek as well as Roman ; but as pipers appear 
to have existed at Rome from the earliest times, it is sufficiently prob- 
able that, like actors, they were imported from Etruria. Finguis ; 
from good-living at the 'altar. Bbur = ivory pipe. — 194. Fandis 
= curved, hollow. FumantLa = reeking ; i. e. from the natural 
heat of the exta, Reddimus = we offer. — 195. Tueri = to keep. 
See on tegere, I. 213. —196. Urentes. The goat was held, either 
by its bite, or by something poisonous in its saliva, to kill crops and 
trees, especially vines and olives. Culta = plantations. — 197. 
Satuii = rich. Longinqua ; sc arva. — 198. Amiait Mantua ; 
i. e. in the assignment of lands mentioned in E. I. and IX. — 199. 
Herboso flumine ; I e. the Mincius. Cycnos. See on K IX. 
29. — 200. Deerunt. Gr. 669. II. 2. A. & S. 306. i and R. 1(1).— 
203. Pere = for the most part, generally speaking. It goes with 
optima frumentis, — 204. Namque — arando ; i. e. this loose, 
crumbling state of the soil is what we seek to effect by ploughing. — 
205. Aequore. See on I. 50. —206. Juvencis might perhaps be 
taken as an abl. of the agent, construing decedere as a neuter passive ; 
but it is better to take it as an abl. of manner or circumstante. — 207. 
Ground lately cleared is another kind of soil which is good for com. 
Aut refers grammatically either to the sentence nigra fercy etc., or to 
non ullo ex aequore^ etc., the sense being the same either way. In the 
one case we s\x^i^\y optima frumentis^ in the other quam ex illo ae- 
quore unde^ etc. Iratus; i. e. at the wood cumbering the ground. 
Devezit = has carted away. Devezit . . . evertit . . ,(et) emit; 
a hysteron-proteron. Gr. 704. IV. 2. A. & S. 323. 4 (2). — 210, 
211. Petiere . . . enituit For the tense, see on I. 49. Cf. nitentia 
culta, I. 153. — 213. Caaia; an aromatic shrub, with leaves like the 
olive. Rorem = rosemary. — 214. Tofus = tufa ; a sort of vol- 
canic sandstone. — 215. Clielydris; a venomous snake of amphib- 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. 503 

ious nature. The andents supposed that serpents ate day. — 215. 
Creta. See on I. 179. Negant alioft = dedare that no other. A 
personification. Aeque ; sc ac ipsi (i. e. tofus et creta) ferunt. It 
goes with praebere as well as withy^r^. The meaning is that the pres- 
ence of tufa and day is a sign that snakes haunt the place. — 216. 
CnrvaB relates to the shape of the snake. — 217. Fuxhob = steam, 
vapor ; the same as nebulam, — 218. Ipsa. Gr. 452 and i. A. & S. 
207, R. 28 {a). Ex se ipsa remittit may refer to exhalations, like the 
preceding verse, or to exudations. — 219. Viridis is to be taken 
dosely with vesHty as if it had been viridem. The common reading is 
viridu — 220. Soabie ; the effect of the robigo, Cf. scabra robigine^ 
I. 495. Salsa ; because the same saltness which would rust iron 
would be unfavorable to produce. See w. 237 foil. — 223. Pa- 
oilexn pecori = well-natured, favorable to cattle. See on difficiles^ 
V. 179. Vomexis. Gr. 399 and 2. i). A. & S. 213 and R. i (2). — 
224; Capua; the chief town of Campania. Vesevo; the same as 
Vestwius, It is properly an adjective. — 225. Vacuis = thinly peo- 
pled. Clanius ; a small river of Campania, which frequently over- 
flowed its banks and did much mischief (hence non aequus) to the 
territory of Acerrae, a town in the neighborhood. It is here put for 
the people of the country through which it flowed. — 226. Quazn- 
que; sc terram,— 221. Supra morem = unusually. Si; with 
requires, — 228. Altera — Lyaeo ; parenthetical. — 229. Magis 
belongs to densa^ answering to rarissima qimeque. Densa . . . rara 
= dose . . . loose. Quaeque. Gr. 458. i. A. & S. 207. R. 35 {b), 

— 229. Lyaeo is here = vino. See on Ov. M. XI. 67. — 230. Ante 
= first Ante — ooulis is explained by in solido, which gives the 
reason for the choice. — 232. Summas . . . arenas = the topmost 
portion of the soil. — 233. Si deenint; i. e. if the earth does not 
fill the hole. Gr. 669. II. and 2. A. & S. 306. i and (i). — 234. 
Uber is a laudatory synonyme for solum. Negabunt ; sc arenae. 
See on v. 215. — 235. Scrobibus ; here used iox puteus. The plu- 
ral for the singular. Superabit = shall be in excess. — 236. 
Cnnctantes = stubborn. Craaaa terga = stiff ridges. — 237. 
Froscinde. See on I. 97. — 239. Frugibus. Gr. 391. A. & S. 
222. 3. Infeliz = infecunda. Arando = aratione. — 240. Nee 

— servat ; i e. the grape and the apple degenerate in such a soil. 
Nomina ; name for character. Sua. Gr. 449. 2. A. & S. 208 (7) 
{a). — 241. Tale . . . specimen = the following proof. Spisso 
Timine = of thickly woven osiers. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 
Qualos appears to be the same thing as the cola^ which is added 
merely for the purpose of explanation. — 242. Fumosis . . . tectls ; 
where they had been hung after the vintage was over to preserve 
them firom dampness and worms. — 243. Ager. The whole ager is 



504 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

virtually the subject of the experiment — 244; Ad plenum = to 
the full ; i e. to the brim. — 245. SoJlioet = you will see, of 
course ; denoting the consequence of the process. — 246. At s 
autem. Manifestus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). — 2V7. 
TiiBtia is proleptic. — 248. Denique = briefly, to be brie£ It 
belongs to hoc pacto, — 249. Jaotata ; I e. worked. — 250. Len- 
tesoit = sticks. Habendo = in handling. Used passively, like 
arandOf v. 239. — 251. Majorca ; i. e. than usual. Ipsa ; i. e. with- 
out manure or irrigation. See on E. IV. 21, 23. Justo laettor 
=: too productive. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. — 252. Kknium bC' 
longs to feriilis, Mihi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. — 253. Primia . . . 
aristis = in its first crop ; i. e. when first under tiHage, implying 
that it will fall off. — 254. Tacitam ; L e. tacitet without further ex- 
periment. — 255. Ooulis. Gr. 414 and 4 A. & S. 247 and 3. 
Fraediscere ; i. e. before cultivation. — 256. Cui = cuique. Pri- 
gOB ; i. e. in the soil. — 257. Pioeae ; the common fir. Taxi no- 
centea. Cf. v. 113 and £. IX. 3a — 258. Pandunt vestigia = 
reveal traces ; i. e. of the cold. — 259. Multo. Gr. 418. A. & S. 
256, R. 16. Ante ; with qtiam, — 260. Ezcoquere = to bake ; 
i e. by exposing it to the sun and weather. Magnos '. . . xnontes; 
a strong, perhaps an exaggerated expression. See on v. 37. Con- 
Oidere = to cut up thoroughly. The lesson to be enforced is that 
of hard and thorough work. C£ I. 65, 66, a passage which is ani- 
mated by the same enthusiasm. — 261. Ante. The repetition is 
emphatic — 263. Solo. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Id . . . cu- 
rant = bring this about ; i. e, ui putri solo sint — 264. Labefocta 
= loosened ; proleptic. — 265. Si — fagit ; i. e. those who are 
very particular. — 266. Ante. See on v. 230. Locum similem 
is in apposition alternately, as it were, with each of the two clauses 
that follow, ubi — seges and qtw feratur ; i. e. a like spot for the nur- 
sery, and a like spot for the vineyard, the two being reciprocally com- 
pared. FiimsL = primumt at first; opp. to mox. Paretur. Gr. 
485 ; 486. III. A. & S. 260. II. —267. Arboribus. See on v. 89. 
Seges = the vine-crop. Digesta feratar = feratur et digeratur, 
— 268. Subito ; with mutaiam, Semina = the young vines. So 
in V. 302. Matrem ; i. e. the earth. — 269. Quin etLam = nay 
even. Coeli regionem; referring to the points of the compass. — 

270. Quo modo . . . qua parte = modum quo . . . partem qua. 
These clauses and the one following are the objects of restiiuant. — 

271. Quae terga = the side which, as a back. Azi = the north 
pole. — 272. Adeo — est = so powerful are habits formed in tender 
age ; in teneris having the force of in terieris annis. — 275. In denso 
s= in loco denso consito. In denso ubere could scarcely mean anything 
but a close or s(iff soil. Non ubere =& not less prolific (than when 



THE GEORGIGS. BOOK II. 505 

planted wide). Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. C£ segnes terrae^ v. 37 ; 
segnis cardutts, I. 151. — 276. TumnllB. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S* 
247 and 2. Solum ; sc metabere, Supinos = gently sloping ; so 
as to present a broad surface. — 277. Indulge ordinibuB ; L e. 
give them room, set them wide. Nee — quadret. The order of 
this passage, which has perplexed the commentators so much, is 
probably : nee secius (quam si densa seras) omnis secto limite via arb<h 
ribus poHHs in -unguem quadret ■=^ yet still (as much as when you plant 
dose) let each avenue with drawn line, as you set your trees, exactly 
tally ; I e, yet still so set your trees that the line of each avenue that 
you draw may exactly tally with the rest Secto via limite then will = 
via secta. Cf. 1. 238, via secta per ambas, where Virgil calls the ecliptic 
via^ while Ovid, M. II. 130, speaking more precisely, calls it limes. 
Nothing more than regularity is prescribed in these two lines so un- 
derstood ; the simile of the legion, which follows, shows that the 
quincimcial order is intended. Via and limes are used in the same 
context again, A. II. 697, apparently without any intended contrast. 
In unguem goes with quadret Limite. Gr. 428. A. & S. 21 1, R. 6. 
ArboribuB. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. See on v. 89.-279. Bello 
may be taken as dat. or abl. Longa is proleptic, since it is only by 
deploying that the legion becomes long. — 280. Agmen is the 
column in Order of march, which deploys into acies^ or line of battle. 

— 281. Aciea ; sc sunt. — 282. Necdum — proelia ; i. e. while 
the regularity of their order is still undisturbed. Iffisoent ; sc. mil- 
ites, — 283, Dubius = in suspense. Mediifl ... in armis = be- 
tween the two armies. — 284. The apodosis of the simile begins with 
this line. Supply sic. Paribus numeris . . . "^arum = into ave- 
nues of equal spaces ; or, into equal and regular avenues. Gr. 414 
and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Viarum may limit omnia^ in which case 
omnia viarum = omnes viae, — 287. Neque — rami ; because other- 
wise the boughs will have no space wherein to spread. 

289. Ausim. Gr. 239. 4 ; 485. A. & S. 162. 9 ; 260. II. Sul- 
QQ = scrobi, — 290. Altior. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 {a), 
Terrae for in terra. ArbOB ; i. e. on which to train the vines. So 
arborey v. 300. — 294. Nepotes = successive generations. -*- 295. 
Multa virum . . . secula, a mere variation of the preceding. Vol-* 
z;^«j== rolling, going through. Durando . . . vinoit = outlasts, out- 
lives. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. — 296. Tum, in this and other 
passages, appears to indicate a point in a narration or description, not 
necessarily a point of time, and generally the last point, so as to be 
nearly =d5r«ir^. C£ A. I. 164, IV. 250, VI. 577.-297. Ipsa; as 
opposed to ramos et brachia. Ipse is sometimes employed to distin- 
guish the whole from a part, or the better part from the remainder. 

— 301. Tantus — terrae ; i. e. so great that when they are £ar from 



506 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

it they are less vigorous. — 303. The wild olive was an unctuous tree, 
and would easily catch fire. FaBtoribus. Gr. 41^ and 2. A. & S. 
247 and I. — 306. Coelo. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. and R. 2. 

— 308. Nemua; I e. the arbustum, Ruit = throws up. — 310. 
A ▼ertice = desuper, ab alto, — 311. Glomerat = thickens, mass- 
es. Ferena = spreading. — 312. Hoc ubi ; sc occidit. Non — 
valent = they (L e. mtes) have no strength from the stock ; L e. their 
stock no more shows life. Caesaeque = nor when cut ; L e. when 
the burnt stock has been cut to make it grow again. Que is disjunc- 
tive. See on v. 87. — 313. Ima . . . terra = fi-om the deep earth 
(at their roots). Similes = like (to what they were before), as be- 
fore. — 314. TnfftHx = infecundus, Superat = solus superesU Po- 
liiB. Gr. 42& A. & S. 211, R. 6. 

315. Nee — persuadeat = nee quisquam tarn prudens habeatur 
ut tibi persuadeat. Movere ; L e. in order to make scrobes, -;- 317. 
Semine. See on w. 268, 302. — 318. Concretam = frozen. 
AfElgere; sc. se. — 319. SatLo ; sc. est, RubentL; L e. with flow- 
ers.— r 320. Candida avis ; i. e. the stork, a bird of passage, said 
to feed on serpents.— 321. Frigora. The force of the plu. may be 
expressed by saying "the cold days." Rapidus. See on I. 92. 

— 322. Hiemem ; i. e. those constellations which the sun enters in 
winter. Praeterit Gr. 704. 1, i. A. & S. 323. i (b) (i). Aestaa 
= the heat of summer. — 323. Adeo. See on £. IV. 11. Nemo- 
nun . . . Bilvis ; cultivated trees, vineyards . . . natural trees, woods ; 
though Con. thinks both mean the trees in the arbustum. — 324 - 
327. The language of this passage is metaphorical and borrowed 
from physical generation. — 325. Fater Aetiier . . . conjngis (i. e. 
Terrae), See on E. VII. 60. Laetae = fruitful — 327. Magnus 
. . . magno. Virgil is fond of such combinations. C£ I. 190. — 328« 
This relates to the loves of the birds. — 329. Repetunt = renew. — 
330. Almus. See on G. I. 7. ZephyrL See on I. 44. — 331. 
Sinus is metaphorical, and substituted for glebam, Superat = 
abounds. Omnibus. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. — 332. Soles ; I e. 
the suns of each day. Novi ; because they are the beginning of the 
warm season. — 336. Crescentis = nascentis. This and the follow- 
ing lines mean that the world was bom in spring. Origine. Gr. 
426. A. & S. 253. — 337. AHum . . . tenorem=a different char- 
acter. — 338. CrediderinL Gr. 485. A. & S. 260, II. and R. 4. 
Ver . . . agebat = was keeping spring-time ; like agere festum, — 
339. Faroebant flatibus ; i. e. forbore to put them forth. ~ 341. 
Caput — arvis. An allusion to the myth that the first men sprang 
from the earth. — 343. Res . . . tenerae are the young plants, buds, 
etc Huno . . . laborem = this hardship ; L e., that plants now ex- 
perience firom the extremes of heat and cold. See on I. 15a — 344. 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. $07 

Tanta quies is explained by hunc labarem, Caloremque. Gr. 663. 
III. I. 4). A. & S. 304. 3 (4). — 346. Inter here not only follows 
its case, which is not unusual in poetry, but stands in a different lifie 
from it. Cf. A. III. 685. Ezciperet. This verb in its most general 
sense seems to imply receiving from or after some one or something 
else. Here the milder skies receive the earth after the severer weath- 
er. — 346. Quod Buperest = as to what remains, for the rest ; i. e. 
to resume and pursue the subject to the end ; a Lucretian transition, 
which occurs several times in Virgil. Premes = thou shalt plant 
Virgulta = cuttings, slips ; i. e. either of the vine or of the trees in 
the arbustum, — Z^l. Memor ocQxjle ^= memento occulere—^^^* 
It would seem necessary to suppose a connecting particle here, for the 
poet surely cannot mean that the stones and shells are to be a sub- 
stitute for the manure and soD. Squalentes = rough. Rough 
shells would leave interstices for the water. — 349. Tenuis. See on 

1. 92. — 350. HalitUB ; from the evaporation of the water. Ani- 
moB tollent = will take courage ; L e. will thrive. Sata ; the same 
as virgulta^ v. 346. Jamque = and before now. Reperti ; sc. sunt 
— 351. Super = desuper. The stone or the potsherd would prevent 
the earth from being washed away, a necessary precaution when the 
vines are on a slope ; and it also would prevent the ground round the 
roots from being parched and made hard. Atque is disjunctive. — 
352. XJrguerent Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. i. Hoc . . . hoc ; a 
repetition, not a distinction. Ad = with a view to, against. — 353. * 
Hiulca ; a proleptic use of the adjective. Canis ; i e. Sirius. — 
354. Diducere=to break and loosen ; lit to separate. — 355. Ca- 
pita = radices. Duros = massive ; i e, the work is thoroughly 
done. Bidentes. The bi€Uns was a very heavy, two-pronged hoe, 
used more like a pickaxe than a hoe, whence /a^tor^. The terms em- 
ployed in this passage, saepius^ duros^ jactare^ presso^ exercerey luctan- 
teSf all point to hard, thorough, unremitting work. — 357. Flectere ; 
i. e. to plough across as well as up and down the lines of vines. — 
358. Materials for training the vines. LeveB ; not l?ves. HaBtilia ; 
because resembling the handle of a spear. — 360. ViribuB. Gr. 
414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Eniti = to cUmb. — 361. Tabu- 
lata (== stories) were the successive branches of the elm to which 
the vines were trained, the intermediate boughs being removed. — 
362. FrondibuB. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.-363. 
TeneriB ; sc vitibus, Gr. 385. A. $ S. 223, R. 2. There are three 
periods: i. When you must leave the young vine entirely alone; 

2. When you may pluck off the leaves but not use the knife ; 3. When 
you may use the knife — 364. LaziB . . . habeniB ; a metaphor ta- 
ken from the driving of horses. Per purum =per aerem, Cf. in 
vacuum^ v. 287. — 365. Ipsa; sc vitis, as distinguished from th^ 



508 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

leaves. — 366. Interque legendae ; by tmesis for interlegendaeque. 

— 369. Tom denique = turn demum. Dura — impexia = main- 
tain a stern government ; a metaphor drawn from military discipline. 
Cf. imperat arvis^ I. 99. 

371. Tenendum (sc. est) = must be shut out — 372. laaborum 
= of trials. See on I. 156. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213. — 373. 
Ctd. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Super = besides ; not " more than." 
The comparison comes in v. 376. Indignas = severe, cruel Solem- 
que potentem. Cf. I. 92. — 374. Uri = buffaloes. Capreae 
sequaces = the persecuting roes. — 375. Fasountur. Gr. 704. L 
I. A. & S. 323. I (i). — 376. Concreta = congealed, stifil — 377. 
Ghravis = oppressive ; with incumbens, Scopulia ; referring to the 
vineyards on the terraced rocks. So in v. 522. — 378. Illl Gr. 385^ 
A. & S. 223, R. 2. It may be taken as nom. with^^^x. Venenum 
dentdB. See on v. 196. — 379. Stirpe. Gr. no. 4. A. & S. 64. 3. 

— 380 - 396. A digression on the Di&nysia^ or festivals of Bacchus, 
in Greece and in Italy. — 381. Caeditur . . . ineunt. Gr. 467. III. 
A. & S. 145. I. 3. Veteres ludi = ancient plays ; i. e. the first 
rude attempts at the drama. Proscenia = the stage. — 382. In- 
geniia = for genius ; i e. for men of genius. — 383. Theaidae ; 
the Athenians : so called from their ancient king Theseus. Gr. 316 
and 2. A. & S. 100. i and (a) (2). Inter pooula laeti ; I e. in their 
drunken jollity. — 384. XJnotOB — utres ; referring to the game of 
dancing on the inflated oiled skin of the he-goat which had been 
sacrificed. The game afforded great amusement to the spectators. 
He who succeeded was victor, and received the skin as a reward. — 
385. Ausonii ; a general name for Italians, and here employed of 
the people of Latium, but the Ausones were properly an ancient tribe, 
occupying the southern part of the Italian peninsula. — 387. Ora= 
masks. Corticibus ; sc. ex. See on 1. 262. — 888. Per carmina 
laeta may be = in the course of, as they sing, glad hjrmns, or = by 
glad hymns. — 389. Oscilla. Oscilluniy a diminutive through os- 
culum from osy meaning a little face, was the term applied to feces or 
heads of Bacchus, which were suspended in the vineyards to be turned 
in every direction by the wind. Whichsoever way they looked they 
were supposed to make the vines in that quarter fruitfiil. From this 
noun came the verb oscillo^ meaning to swing, and hence our word 
oscillate, Mollia = mild, propitious ; of the mild and propitious 
expression of the god's face, Mke^caput honestum. Most take it = mo- 
biliay easily swayed by the wind, waving. — 391. Complentur; sc. 
ubere, — 393. Suum . . . honorem = suas laudes ; I e. ipsi debitas 
laudes, — 394. Patriis ; i. e. handed down from our forefethers. 
Lanoes ; probably for the exta^ as in v. 194. — 395. Saoer =x= de- 
voted. — 397. Alter refers back to v. 371. —398. Cul e»t=^ which 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. $09 

is never satisfied by exhaustion ; i. e. it is endless. Gr. 387. A. & S* 
226. The participle is used substantively. Namque nearly =»m^« 
— 399. Solum sdindendum probably refers to ploughing ; though 
it may be understood of the bidens. See on Hor. C. 1. 1. 11. VeridB 
=» reversed. — 4101. Fronde. Gr. 425. A. & S. 251. Nemus, 
like sihns^ v. 404, and perhaps umbra, v. 410, seems to be used of the 
supporting trees in the arbustum, as in v. 308. Actus in orbem = 
moving in a circle. Actus may, however, = past (labor), and in orbem 
be connected with redit. — 402. Atque. The copulative is sometimes 
used instead of a conjunction denoting a more special connection. 
The relation intended is usually that of time, et or atgue standing in 
the place of quum ; here it is that of accordance, " even as." C£ the 
use of atque in comparisons, in simul atque, etc — 403. Jam olim 
nearly ^ssijam turn, v. 405. Olim is here connected with quum in the 
same way as with ubi, A. V. 125. — 404; Honorem ; L e. the leaves. 
— 405. Jam tum = even then. C£ A. I^ 18. — 406. Curvo — 
dente. Saturn was regularly represented wilh a pruning-knife in his 
hand. Dens is tised of any curved implenjient Relictam ; i. e. 
fructu etfrondibus nudatam, Cf. w. 403, 40^ — 407. Persequitur. 
C£ insectabere, I. 155, and in^quitur, I. 105. Fingit = moulds, forms. 
C£ A. VI. 80. —408. Primus ; i. e. be the first to do it Devecta. 
Cjr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 {b). See on v. 207. —409. Sarmenta ; the 
prunings of the vine. Vallos ; the vine-poles. They were taken up 
and put under cover at the end of the vintage. — 410. Melito ; of 
vines, like seges, serere, semina. Bis ; i. e. in spring and autumn. The 
leaves have to be stripped from the vines twice in the year. — 411. 
Segetem ; for vineam. Herbae ; in a wide sense. — 412. Uterque 
labor ; i. e. of pruning and weeding. — 413 - 415. Rusci . . . arundo 
. . . salictL Butcher's-broom, reeds, and willows are used for tying 
up the vine. SalictL See on E. I. 55. — 416. Reponunt =; re- 
font sinunL — 417. Effectos = completed. Eztremus; i. e. hav- 
ing come to the end of his task. — 418. Fulvisque movendus. 
This appears to have been a distinct process, founded on the belief 
that dust was beneficial to vines. — 419. Juppiter= the weather, 
storms. Metuendus tdvis may mean either an object of terror to 
the grapes, or an object of terror (to the vine-dresser) far .the 
grapes. — 420. Non ulla is an exaggeration. They do not need the 
same constant attention as the vine. — 421. Rastroa. See on I. 94. 
— 422. Haeserunt arvis; i. e. when they have been once trans- 
planted from the seminarium, Aurasque tulerunt; i..e. when 
they are strong enough to weather the breezes. — 423. Ipaa = sua 
sponte. Satis ; put for olives, as for vines, v. 350. Dente ; for 
bidente, not for vomer e, as some make it. — 424. Cum vomere = i e. 
as sure as the ploughshare is put into the ground.^ Cum here ex- 



5IO NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

presses close connection not so much of time as of causation, a sense 
which may be illustrated by the opposite sine. — 425. Hoc = by 
this ; sc. arando; i. e. by this and this only, this will be enough. 
The common interpretation makes ^^=on this account Pinguem 
et placitaxxt Pad seem to express the effect of nutritor / L e. mv- 
tritor utpinguis sit, etc. Nutritor. Gr. 537. A. & S. 267 (2). 

426. Poma; the fruit by metonymy for the trees. Senaera 
The metaphor seems to be taken from an adult man feeling his limbs 
strong under him. — 427. Raptim = rapide, Cf. I. 409.^428. 
OpiB. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213. Que couples the advert»al 
subst vi with the adverbial adj. indiga. Cf. A. VI. 640, Largior — 
Purpurea. — 429. Nee minua ; I e. equally with the trees that have 
been named. Interea ; L e. while man is cultivating the vine, olive, 
etc NemuB ; used generally of the trees of the fofest in their un- 
cultivated state. — 430. Inculta; emphatic. Aviaria. Gr. 317. 
A. & S. 100. C. 8.— 4p31. Tondentur cytisi See on E. 1. 79. 
C£ also I. 15. Taedan; of the pine ; so that alta is appropriate.— 
432. A poetical amplification of taedas ministrat. — 433. The mean* 
ing seems to be : when tiature offers so much to the planter and cul- 
tivator, can man hesitate to plant and .cultivate ? — 434. Majora; 
used in contradistinction to the smaller trees which follow. Se- 
quar. Gr. 486 and II. A. & S. 260, R. 5.-435. Illae = even 
they ; emphatic. — 436. Satis ; including plantations. Pabula 
melli; a poetic combination oi pabula apibus and materiam tnellu 
C£ E. I. 54, 55. — 437. Cytorum. Cytorus was a mountain of 
Paphlagonia, near Amastris, on the southern coast of the Euxine, 
famous for the growth of the box-tree. — 438. Naryciae = Nary- 
cian ; i. e. Locrian. Naryx, or Narycion, was a town of the Opuntian 
Locrians in Greece, and the native city of Ajax. A colony of these 
Locrians came into Italy and founded Locri, near which was a forest, 
famed for its plentiful supply of pitch. Cf. A. III. 399. Arva = 
terras, — 439. Obnoada. See on I. 396. — 440. Caucasio; re- 
ferring to the mountains still known by the name. — 442. Alios 
aliae. Gr. 459. i. A. & S. 207, R. 32 {a). Lignum. Gr. 363. 
A. & S. 204. —443. Navigiis. Gr. 391 and i. A. & S. 222, R. i. 
Cupressosque. Gr. 663. III. i. 4). A. & S. 304. 3 (4}. — 444. 
Hine refers to silvae generally. TiiveTe = tornavere. See on -I. 
49. Tympana ; wheels, either of solid wood or boards, shaped like 
a drum. — 446. Viminibus ; for tying up the vines and for wicker- 
work. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2 (i). FrondibuB ; for food for 
cattle. — 447. The construction is : myrtus et bona bello cornus vaHdis 
hastilibus ; sc. fecundae, Heustilibus ; not the actual spear-shafis, 
but the shoots as they grow on the tree. Cf. A. III. 23. — 448. 
Ituraeos. Ituraea was a region of Palestine east of the Jordan. In 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK II. 5 II 

Virgil's time it was inhabited by Arabs famous for their skill in 
archery. ^ 449. Neo . . . non == nee non. Tome raaile; one 
epithet, like bona bello, — 451. XTndam ; sc. Padi, Gr. 371. 3. 
A. & S. 232 (2). —452. Missa Fade = sped down the Po. Gr. 
414. A. & S. 248. C£ IV. 373.-453. The reference is to bee- 
hives made of bark and of hollow trees. Alveo. Gr. 669. II. 
A. & S. 306. I. — 455. Et = even. Hie furentes, &c. As an. 
illustration of the preceding statement he cites the battle of the Cen- 
tanrs'and Lapithae at the marriage of Pirithous and Hippodamia, 
caused by the excess in wine of the former. — 456. Centauros ; 
a race inhabiting Mount Pelion, in Thessaly, represented as half men 
and half horses. Leto. Gr. 414. A. & S. 247. Rhoetum, Pho- 
Inm, Hylaemn; individual Centauri.— 457. Lapithis. The La- 
pithae were a savage race inhabiting the mountains of Thessaly ; 
Pirithous was their king. Cratere keeps up the notion of a Baccha- 
nalian fray. —458. Norint Gr. 234. 2. A. & S. 162. 7 («). —459. 
A^ricolaB. Gr. 381. A. & S. 238. 2. Ipsa. See on £. IV. 21, 
23. Fundit Gr. 519 and 2. A. & S. 259. — 460. Humo = from 
her soil Juatissinia ; not because she repays labor, but because 
she gives man all he needs. — 461. ForibuB. Gr. 428. A. & S. 
211, R. 6.-462. Mane salutantum ; alluding to the morning 
levees which were customarily held by the rich. Cf. Sail. Cat. 
XXVIII. and Cic. in Cat I. 4. 10. AedibuB. Gr. 422 and 2. 
A. & S. 255, R. 3 {a) and {b\ —463. Varies = variegated. In- 
hiant = (men) gaze at ; or it may refer to the owner and = gloat 
over. Pulclira testudine = with beautiful tortoise-shell. Con- 
nect with varios, — 464. Illiuiaa = fancifully wrought Vestes 
= couch-covers. Ephyreia aera; vessels made of Corinthian 
brass, which were of great value. Ephyra was the ancient name of 
Corinth. — 465. Assyrio is here used loosely for Phoenician or 
Tyrian. — 466. Ceusia is here not the Italian shrub of v. 213, but the 
bsirk of an eastern aromatic tree. Ziiquidi = puri, XTbub olivi 
^ the oil in respect to its use, the service of the oil. — 467. At 
= yet Fallere. Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. i. — 468. Latis; 
opp. to the confinement of the city. Fondis. Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 
254, R. 3. — 469. Vivi = natural, fresh ; opp. to artificial reser- 
voirs, of which there were many at Rome. At is merely a repetition. 
Tempe ; the famous vale in Thessaly, through which the river Pe- 
neus flowed, here put for valleys in general. — 471. Lustra fera- 
mm; i. e. hunting. — 473. Sancti patres ; i. e. old age is revered. 
— 474. JuBtitia. See on E. IV. 6. — 475-489. While my first 
wish is that the Muses would reveal to me the whole system of 
nature's laws, my second, should that be denied, is to lead a country 
life ; my heart leaps up at the thought already. 



512 NOTES ON. VIRGIL. 

475. Ante omnia may be taken either with primum or with dtd- 
cesy but the former best brings out the sense of the whole passage, 
which is : Above all things I would be the poet of philosophy ; if I 
cannot be that, I would be the poet of the country. — 476. Sacra 
fero means either to carry the sacred symbols in procession, or to 
sacrifice as a priest The latter is, perhaps, preferable here, — 477. 
Accipiant ; i. e. may they receive my dedication of myself and assist 
me with their favors. Gr. 487. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Vias et si- 
dera may be taken as a hendiadys for vids siderum, — 478. Defec- 
tU8 and labores both refer to eclipses. Cf. A. I. 740 ; errantetn lu- 
nam solisque labores. — 479. Terris. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Tu- 
mescant Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. The commentators take this of the 
tides ; but it seems to denote something more violent and irregular, 
such as the sudden rise of the sea in an earthquake. — 481. Oceano 
. . . tinguere. The ancients believed that the sun, when he set, de-. 
scended into the ocean. Soles hiberni . . . tardis noctibiiB ; i. e. 
why the days are so short and the nights so long in winter. — 483. 
FoBSim. Gr. 492; 499. i and 2. A. & S. 262 and R. 11. — 484. 
Frigidus . . . sanguia. It was the opinion of some of the ancient 
philosophers that the blood about the heart was the seat of thought, 
and as that was warm or cold the mental powers were vigorous or 
obtuse. — 486. O, ubi canipi = (? essem ubi sunt campi = O {that 
I were) where (are) the plains ! (/bi and gut (v. 488) are relatives, not 
interrogatives. Campi Spercheusque may be taken as a hendiadys 
for Campi Spercheu C£ fagus stivaque, G. I. 173. — 487. Sper- 
chens; a river of Thessaly. Bacchata = revelled on. Gr. 221. 2. 
A. & S. 162. 17 {a). Lacaenis := Laconian, Spartan. — 488. Tay- 
geta (neu. plu., common Latin form Taygetus) ; a ridge of mountains 
in Laconia, terminating in the promontory Taenarum. O, qiii = 
utinam sit^ qui. Haeml See on I. 492. — 489. Sistat. Gr. 501. 1. 
A. & S. 264. 6. — 491. Fatum; i. e. death, regarded as. the fiat of 
nature. Acherontis ; a river of the lower world, here put for the 
lower world itself. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. — 494. Pana 
See on E. IV. 58. Silvanum. See on I. 20. Nymphaa. See 
on E. V. 75. — 495. Populi fasces ; i. e. the consulate at Rome. 
— 496. Flezit = mavit. Fratres is generally taken to refer to one 
of the domestic contests for Eastern thrones, such as that in the fam- 
ily of the Arsacidae between Phraates and Tiridates. See Hor. C. I. 
26, Introd. —497. Conjurato . . . Histro = the conspiring Danube. 
Conjurato is applied to the Danube, by a change very common with 
the poets, to signify that other nations on the Danube joined the Da- 
cians. Descendens ; alluding to their position on the mountains. 
Dacus. See on Hor. C. I. 35. 9.-498. Res Romanae = the 
Roman state. — 499. Habenti = diviti, — 502. Tabnlaxia = ar- 



THE GEORGICS. BOOK IL 513 

chives. — 503 -512. The pursuits of ambition and avarice. — 503. 
I^ta = maria. Caeca = ignota, — 504. Penetrant — regum. 
€£ Hor. Ep. II. 78. — 505. EzBcidiis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 
247 and 3. Penates = homes. — 506. Gtemma ; i. e. e gemma, 
8arrano = Tyrian; from Sarra, a name of Tyre. — 508. Hie; the 
aspirant to eloquence, who is struck dumb with admiration of the 
successful speaker, and the applause which greets him. Rostris. 
Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. Huno; the aspirant (hiantem) 
to poljtical greatness, who is caught and carried away (corripuit) by 
the applause in the theatre (per cuneos) which rewarded popular 
statesmen. — 509. Enim = quidem, — 510. Qaudent ; sc alii, — 
511. BzBilio ; L e. the place of exile. Cf. A. III. 4. — 513. Dimo- 
vit. See on I. 49. — 514. Labor ; sc. est or venit Parvosque 
Penates = little homestead. The common reading is nepotes, — 
516. Qtiin . . . exuberet annus = to the year's abounding. Gr. 
498. A. & S. 262, R. 10 and N. 6. 2. — 519. Sioyonia bacca ; 
I e. the olive, for which Sicyon, a dty near Corinth, was famous. — 
520. Glande. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. Laeti = sat- 
isfied. — 521. Ponit = drops, yields. — 522. See on v. 377. — 524. 
Domos =familia ; here the wife. — 525. Laeto = luxuriant. — 
527. Ipse ; sc agricola, Agitat = celebrates. — 528. Ignis ; I e. 
on the altar. Cratera. Gr. 93. i. A. & S. 80. Coronant ; i. e. 
with a wreath of flowers. C£ A. III. 525. The flagon containing the 
wine for a libation was encircled with a garland. — 529. Lenaee. 
See on v. 4. — 530. Certamlna ponit = Institutes contests. In 
nlmo. The mark was set up in or scored on an elm. — 531. Nu- 
dant ; sc pecoris magistri, — 532. Sabini ; one of the most ancient 
and powerfiil of the indigenous peoples of Central Italy, and one of 
the few who preserved their race unmixed. — 533. Remus ; the twin 
brother of Romulus, the reputed founder of Rome Etruria ; the 
country of the Etrusci or Tusci, in Central Italy, called by the Greeks 
Tyrrhenia. — 534; Scilicet See on I. 282. — 5351 Una = alone ; 
I e. though a single city. AxoeB = montes, colles, — 536. Dictaei 
regis ; i. e. Jupiter, who was said to have been bom on Mount Dicte 
in the island of Crete. — 538. Aureus . . . Satumus. See on Ov. 
M. I. 113. — 539. litiam connects necdum with a?ttet as the former 
etiam connects ante with what precedes. — 541. 8patiis=in its 
courses, circuits ; i e. in its extent Gr. 429. A. & S. 25a I. See 
on I. 513. Aeqaor. Comp. on v. 105 and L sa 



33 



514 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 



THE AENEID. Book I. 

The subject of the Aeneid, as propounded in the opening lines, is 
the settlement of Aeneas in Italy, after years of wandering, and a 
short but sharp final struggle. It is, however, only of the events pre- 
ceding the settlement that the poet really treats, — of the wanderings 
and the war. Accordingly, the poem divides itself into two parts, 
the wanderings being embraced by the first, the Italian war by the 
second. But the two parts naturally involve different modes of treat- 
ment, comprehending as they do periods of time widely differing in 
length, the one seven years, the other apparently a few days. Here 
the poet follows the example of Homer in the Odyssey. The long 
period of wanderings is taken at a point not far fi-om its conclusion ; 
enough is told in detail to serve as a specimen of the whole, and the 
hero is made to narrate the rest of his past adventures to ^e person 
whose relation to him is all the time forming one adventure more. 
This peculiarity of the Homeric story is noticed by Horace (A. P. 
164 foil.) and recommended to epic writers generally. 

The First Book of the Aeneid performs well the objects which it 
was no doubt intended to accomplish, — those of interesting us in the 
hero and introducing the story. After a brief statement of the sub- 
ject, we have a view of the supernatural machinery by which it is to 
be worked out ; and this, though imitated fi-om Homer, is skilfully 
contrived so as to throw a light on the subsequent history of the Ro- 
man descendants of Aeneas, by the mention, even at that early time, 
of their great enemy, Carthage. Like Ulysses, Aeneas is shipwrecked 
in the voyage which was to have been his last, the main difference 
being that the Grecian hero is solitary, having long since lest all his 
companions, while the Trojan is still accompanied by those who fol- 
lowed his fortunes from Troy. The machinery by which the storm is 
allayed is perhaps managed more adroitly by Virgil than by Homer, 
as there seems to be more propriety in representing the inferior god 
of the winds as counteracted by the superior god of the sea, than in 
making a sea-njnnph rescue one whom the god of the sea is seeking 
to destroy. The remaining incidents of the Book are mostly bor- 
rowed firom Homer ; but we may admire the skill with which Virgil 
has introduced varieties of detail, and the art with which a new im- 
pression is produced by a combination . of old materials, in making 
the fiiendly power that receives Aeneas unite the blandishments of 
Calypso with the hospitalities of Alcinous, and so engrafting a tale 
of passion on a narrative of ordinary adventure. 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. . 515 



ARGUMENT. 

After stating the subject of the poem generally (i - 7), addressing 
the Muse (8- 11), and accounting for the resentment of Juno to the 
Trojan race (12 - 33), the poet introduces his hero, Aeneas, the son 
of Anchises and Venus, in the seventh year of his wanderings after 
the destruction of Troy, when he had just started from Sicily, and 
was making for the Italian mainland : a tempest is sent forth against 
him by Aeolus, at the instigation of Juno, which sinks one of the 
ships and drives the rest in a shattered condition on the coast of 
Africa (34-123). Neptune interferes to calm the storm (124- 156). 
Aeneas lands with seven out of twenty ships, slays seven stags of im- 
mense size, gives one carcass to each of the ships, and exhorts his 
companions to patience and hope (157-207). The banquet of the 
ships' crews is described (208-222). Venus pleads the cause of her 
son Aeneas and of the Trojans before Jupiter, and lays all the blame 
of their misfortunes on Juno (223 - 253). The king of the gods, 
moved by the appeal, discloses the decrees of the Fates, and consoles 
his daughter by the assurance of future prosperity and unbounded 
empire to the Trojans in their descendants, the Roman people (254 
- 296). Mercury is sent down to render Dido, queen of Carthage, 
friendly to Aeneas (297 - 304). Satisfied with the declaration of Jupi- 
ter, Venus descends to earth, and in the guise of a huntress presents 
herself to Aeneas, and announces that the ships which he had sup- 
posed lost were safe in port (305-409.) Aeneas proceeds to Car- 
thage, accompanied by Achates, both rendered invisible by the care 
of Venus (410-420). Carthage is described in progress of building 
(421-436). Aeneas visits the temple of Juno, and sees depicted there 
the Trojan wars (437-493). Dido visits the temple (494-508). A 
deputation from the twelve missing ships of the Trojans waits on Dido 
to complain of the outrages of her people and bewail the loss of Ae- 
neas (509 - 560). Dido consoles them, and offers them a settlement 
(561 - 578). Aeneas, freed from the cloud, appears, and addresses 
Dido, who replies kindly, and prepares to entertain him and his fol- 
lowers (579-642). Aeneas sends for Ascanius (643-656). .Venus 
substitutes Cupid for Ascanius (657-698). The banquet is given in 
Dido's palace (699 - 747). Dido asks Aeneas to narrate the downfall 
of Troy and his own wanderings (748 - 756). 

1. This line is preceded in some MSS. by the following verses : 

lUe egOy qui quondam gracUi moduhUus avtna 
Carmen et egressus sUvis vicina coegi 
Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colano^ 
GrcUum opus agricoUs ; at nunc horrentia Mortis, 



5l6 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

The genuineness of these verses is doubtful. By Burmann, Peerl- 
kamp, Heyne, and many other commentators they are condemned as 
unworthy of the genius of Virgil, and inconsistent with the dignity of 
epic podtry, and are assigned to some unknown grammarian ; but Wr., 
Forb., Henry, and others, regard them as genuine, and by no means 
devoid of terseness and elegance. Wr. does not, however, suppose 
them to have formed originally the beginning of the Aeneid, but to 
have been prefixed, as an inscription^ to a few copies of the first book, 
which the poet circulated among private fi-iends, as a sample of the 
whole. They appear to have existed in the time of Servius and Do- 
natus, who say that Nisus the grammarian had heard a story of their 
having been expunged by Tucca and Varius, to whom, after Virgil's 
death, the revision of the Aeneid, preparatory to publication^ was in- 
trusted. See Life, 

They may be translated thus : I (am) that (poet), who formerly 
tuned a lay on a slender reed-pipe (E. I. 2), and, having gone forth 
fi-om the woods (i. e. having abandoned pastoral poetry), taught (i. e. 
in the Georgics) the neighboring fields to obey the husbandman, how- 
ever eager (for harvests), — a work acceptable to cultivators of the 
soil ; but now (I sing) the horrid (arms) of Mars. Horrentia ; sc. 
arma and cano from the first line of the poem. 

Anna = arms, war. The words arma virumque are not a hendi- 
adys, as some have taught, but give first the character of the subject 
and then the subject itself. Trojae ; the chief city of Troas, a dis- 
trict in the northwest corner of Mysia, in Asia Minor. It was called 
Trojoj from Tros, one of its early kings ; also Hium^ HioSy or Ilion^ 
fi-om Ilus, the son of Tros ; Dardania, fi-om Dardanus, the grand- 
father of Tros ; and Teucria, fi*om Teucer, its first king ; whence 
also the Trojans are often called Teucri, It was situated on a rising 
ground, above the plain of the rivers Scamander and Simois. On a 
hill to the east of it rose its acropolis, called Pergamum or Pergama. 
The city was protected by strong and lofty walls, said to have been 
built by Apollo and Poseidon. Frimiui. The earlier commentators 
have found a difiiculty in reconciling primtts with Antenor*s previous 
migration (below, w. 242 foil.), and suggest that Aeneas had first 
reached Italy proper, though Antenor had previously reached Ve- 
netia. On the other hand, He3me and Wr. make primus equivalent 
to olimy thus weakening a word which fi-om its position and its occur- 
rence in the first line of the poem must be emphatic The more -ob- 
vious sense is that Aeneas is so called without reference to Antenor, 
as the founder of the great Trojan empire in Italy. — 2. Italiam. 
Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (f). Fato is a mixture of modal and 
instrumental abl, as in IV. 696 ; VI. 449, 466, etc ; and belongs no 
less to venit than to profugus^ the two words forming one idea, that 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 517 

oi coming as a fugitwe, Frofagns. Gr. 363. A.&S. 204. Lavina 
= Lccvinia^ which is the reading of many editions ; an adj. from 
Lavinium, a town about three miles from the sea, on the Via Appia, 
said to have been founded by Aeneas, and named in honor of his 
wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. Que = even. The phrase 
Lavinaque litora is epexegetical (L e. explanatory and restrictive) of 
lialiam. Cf. Saturmaque arva^ v. 569. — 3. Hie is virtually pleo- 
nastic Cf. v. 457, yi. 593. Grammatically it is in apposition with 
qui; rhetorically it appears to be here = quidem. Jactatus is na- 
turally transferred from wanderings by sea to wanderings by land. 
In such passages as w. 332, 668, we see the point of transition. — 
4; Vi Buperum expresses the general agency, likt fato profugus, 
though Juno was his only personal enemy. Superum. Gr. 45. 5. 
4). A. & S. 53. Memorem = ever-mindful, relentless. Ob iram. 
Cf. unius ob iranty v. 251. — 5. Quoque and et are pleonastic, 
though the former is to be joined with multay and the latter with bello» 
Bt = i?/M!/». Fassus; constructed as a participle, like jactatus. 
Dum conderet = while he was endeavoring to found, in the strug- 
gle to found. Gr. 522. II. A. & S. 263. 4 (i). The clause belongs 
to multa bello passus, rather than to jactatus. XTrbem ; i. e. Laviniuvi. 
— 6. Deoa = Penates, household gods. Latio. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 
-225. IV. R. 2. XTnde may be taken either as qua ex re, or as « qiio 
(sc Aenea\ as in V. 568 ; VI. 766. The latter seems more probable, 
the passage multum — Lcttio being only subsidiary or parenthetic 
Genus Latinum, Albani pcUreSy cUtcu moenia Romae, denote the three 
ascending stages of the empire which sprang from Aeneas : Lavinium, 
Alba, and Rome. — 7. Albani patres ; not our Alban ancestors, 
but the senate, or. rather the noble houses of Alba, of which the Julii 
were one. Altaa Comp. G. I. 485. — 8-11. Why was it. Muse, 
that Juno so persecuted so pious a hero ? — 8. Memora. See on 
E. VII. 19. Quo numine laeso = quomodo laeso ejus numine, how 
in consequence of an offence against her majesty ? For this use of 
the pronoun quo, see on E. I. 54. Numine. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 
247 and I. Laeso. Gr. 580. A. & S. 274, R. 5 {a). The whole 
passage quo — impulerit is epexegetical of caussas. In w. 19-28 
Juno's resentment is referred to two causes : the destined triumph of 
Rome over Carthage, and the insults to which she had been exposed 
from the Trojan race. We may conceive, therefore, that quo numine 
laeso points to the former of these, and quid dolens to the latter. — §. 
Quid. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). Deum. See on superum, v. 4. 
Volvere. See on volvens, G. II. 295. The misfortunes are regarded 
as a destined circle which Aeneas goes through. The infin. with im' 
pello is poetical for ut with subj. Cf. II. 55, 520. — 10. Insignei^ 
pietate. Cf. VL 403. Gr. 414 and 2. A, & S. 247 and i. Pieta 



5l8 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

includes the performance of all duties to gods, parents, kinsmen, 
friends, and country. — 11. Anlmlii. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Zrae,* 
poetic plural for the singular, often used to give variety or vivacity to 
the expression, or because the singular does not suit the measure. 
— 12. Antiqua; with reference to Virgil's own age. Fuit. Gr. 
471. I. A. & S. 259 (2) (a), CI II. 325. TyriL . . . ooloni = 
settlers from Tjrre. For the parenthetical construction, comp. v. 530. 
Qtmm may be supplied. — 13. Contra == over against, opposite. 
Gr. 602. II. A. & S. 279. 10 {a) aiid (/). Longe may be connected 
with contra ; L e. far opposite, or made an adverbial adjunct of ostt'a 
= lon^^ distantiay far away. The latter is a Grecism, but may per- 
haps be supported by the use of super. III. 489. — 14. Opum in- 
cludes all sources of power. Cf II. 22. Gr. 89. 4 ; 399. A. & S. 
83. II. 3, Ex. ; 213. Studiis — belli = and very eager in the pur- 
suits of war, much given to the stem pursuits of war. Gr. 429. A. & 
S. 250. I. — 15. Terris. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. Magis . . . unam 
= far more ; lit alone more ; L e. alone in respect to the degree in 
which Juno cherished it. Unus is often used to strengthen the superl., 
2& justissimus unm, II. 426, but seldom as here the compar. — 16. 
Coluisse ; i. e, as dweller in the temple. Cf. v. 447. The gods were 
supposed to dwell particularly in those places which they took under 
their especial protection : hence coluisse=io have cherished. Samo ; 
an island in the Aegaean sea, separated from the coast of Ionia by a 
narrow strait, scarcely a mile in width, where Juno had a temple of 
great beauty. Observe the non-elision of the 0, Gr. 669. L and 2. 
A. & S. 305. I and (2). Arma. C£ II. 614.— 17. Hoc. Gr. 445. 
4. A. & S. 206 (8). Regnum . . . gentibuB = the capital of the 
nations ; i. e. instead of Rome. Gentibus, Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 
227 and R. 4. 18. Qua (sc rations) = in any way. Cf. VI. 882. 
Fata sinant Cf. IV. 651 ; XI. 701. Jam turn; i.e. in that early 
age, long before it became the actual rival of Rome. See on G. II. 
405. Tenditque fovetque = both strives and fondly cherishes the 
purpose. Tendit determines the construction, the infin. being the 
object of both verbs. Tendo is often followed by an infin., the subject 
being the same as the nominative to the verb, as in II. 220 and Hor. 
E. I. 10. 20. Faveo, on the other hand, takes an accusative. These 
two constructions are here united, the sentence hoc — esse standing in 
the relation of an ordinary infin. to tendtt, and of an accusative to 
fbvet — 19. Sed enim = however, nevertheless. This expression, 
like the Greek o^a yap, is elliptical, something like the following, to 
which the enim refers, being necessary to complete the sense ; sed 
(timebat, ut hoc efficere posset,) audierat enim, Cf. II. 164 ; V. 395 ; 
VI. 28. Duel. The pres. infin. denotes the event as existing in the 
designs of fate. Gr. 541 and i. A. & S. 268. 2 and R. i (a), — 20. 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 519 

TyriaB . arces; i. e. Cart/Utginem a Tyrtis c<mditam. Quae 
VBrteret = to overturn. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5. — 2L Hinc; 
i e. ex hoc Trqjano sanguine. Late. Gr. 583 and I ; 704. III. and I. 
A. & S. 277, R. I ; 323. 3 and (i). Bello. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 
247 and I. &\iperbum,=praeseantem, — 22. Ezscidio Libyae. 
Gr. 39a A. & S. 2^7. Libyae ; i. e. Carthagini: the whole for a 
part, as Asiae for Trojae^ III. i. Volvere. The Parcae (see on E. 

IV. 47) are here said volvere, i. e. volvere vices = to make events roll 
on, or after each other, in the same manner as Jupiter is said to do, 
III. 376. — 23. Veteris and prima are applied to the Trojan war, 
as contrasted with this new antipathy of Juno to the Trojans, caused 
by her anxiety for Carthage, as the former had been caused by her 
love for Argos. Satumia; Juno as the daughter of Satumus. 
24. Prima ; adverbially. See on G. I. 12. Some make it =prius, 
olim ; others, = foremost, chief. Argis ; the capital of Argolis, in the 
eastern part of the Peloponnesus, where Juno was worshipped with 
special honor. — 25. The words from necdum to honores are paren- 
theticaL These caussae irarum are distinguished from the vetus bel- 
lum, in other words from the irae themselves, the bitterness displayed 
in or produced by the war. Virgil had already, v. 24, suggested one 
cause in her love for Argos ; but though this supplies a parallel to 
her present feeling, it scarcely accounts for its existence ; so he goes 
back to show that her old quarrel with Troy had other grounds. 
Etiam; with necdum, Dolores is the pang, put for the affront. It 
is only in the sense of the affront that it can properly be joined with 
exciderant animo (= had been forgotten). — 26. Alta mente = atte 
in menu, Repostum. Gr. 703. 2. A. & S. 322. 4. — 27. Judicium 
Faridis ; which awarded the palm of beauty to Venus, in opposition 
to Juno and Minerva. Spretae — formae = the wrong which con- 
sisted in despising her beauty ; i. e. the unjust depreciation of her 
beauty. The phrase is explanatory of /W/««w, like Lavinaque litora, 

V. 2. — 28. Genus invisum = the hated stock ; referring to the 
birth of Dardanus, who was the son of Jupiter by Electra. Qany- 
medis ; a son of Laomedon, or of Tros, according to some, who, on 
account of his youthful beauty, was forcibly carried off (rapti) by 
Jupiter's eagle fi^om Mount Ida to heaven, and there made Jupiter's 
cup-bearer in place of Hebe, the daughter of Juno. Cf. V. 253 foil, 
and Hor. C. IV. 4. 4. — 29. The construction is resumed after the 
parenthesis with some variation, his accensa super referring to the sub- 
ject-matter of the parenthesis. Super = insuper, Cf. II. 71. 
Jaotatos . . . BXQeh?A=jctctabatetarcebat, oxjactando arcebat. — 30. 
Troaa. Gr. 98. A. & S. 85, Ex. 2. Reliquiaa Danaum = who 
had been left by the Greeks. The Greeks are called Danai from 
Danaus, one of their mythical ancestors. Aobilli Gr. 69, Ex. 5. 



520 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

A. & S. 73, R. — 31. Arcebat Gr. 468. A. & S. 145. II. Mul- 
tos . . . annoB ; i. e. seven. — 32. Acti fatis ; inasmuch as their 
destiny forbids them to rest C£ fato profugus, v. 2. The meaning 
is not that the Trojans were harassed^ driven hither and thither^ by the 
Fates, but simply that tjiey were impelled onward^ or toward Latium^ 
by the Fates ; while at the same time they wefe driven backward, or 
from Latium, by Juno. The result was multos — circum, 33. Molis. 
Gr. 401. A. & S. 211, R. 8 (3). Condere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. 

— 34. Virgil plunges at once in medias res. See Introduction to this 
Book. The departure from Sicily, which occurred in the seventh 
year of Aeneas's wanderings, closes his narrative. III. 715. In altnin 
= for the deep. — 35. Dabant ; sc. ventis, Laeti belongs to both 
verbs, but in construction is to be taken with dabant Sails; for 
maris, Cf. v. 173 ; III. 385 ; V. 848, 866; VI. 697.— Aere; I e. aerata 
nam. See on Hor. C. II. 16. 2 1. Ruebant = were driving (before 
them). See on G. I. 105. — 36. Sub pectore = deep in her breast 

— 37. Haec secum (sc. loquitur) = thus soliloquizes. Me . . . de- 
sistere. Gr. 553. III. i. 2 and 3. A. & S. 270, R. 2 {a), Victam 
= baflaed. — 38. Teucrorum. See on Tro/aey v. i. Avertere= 
to turn back : not merely to turn away, Regem ; Aeneas. — 39. 
Quippe always gives a reason, sometimes with irony, and here with 
indignation. Pallas ; the Greek name of Minerva. See on G. 1. 18. 
Most of the critics make ne = nonne, implying an affirmative an- 
swer ; but Con. says : The use of ne, which implies a negative 
answer, expresses incredulity that Pallas should have done what Juno 
cannot — 40. Argivum ; for Graecorum, as often. Ipsos ; L e. 
Argizfos, the crews, as distinguished from the ships. — 41. ITnius is 
emphatic := of one only, Pallas being friendly to the rest of the Greeks ; 
whereas Juno hated the whole Trojan race. Nozam ; referring to 
the violent dragging of Cassandra from the temple of Minerva, where 
she had taken refuge after the capture of Troy. Cf. II. 403 foU. ; VI. 
840. Et — Oilei is epexegetical of Unius ab noxam. Furias ex- 
presses the infatuation which impels to crime. Ajacis ; Ajax, king of 
the Locrians, called Oilei, son of Oileus, to distinguish him from Ajax, 
king of Salamis, son of Telamon. He went to the Trojan war with 
forty ships, and on his return voyage, when near the Capharean rocks 
on the coast of Euboea, the calamity which is here described is said to 
have occurred. OileL Gr. 397. i (i). A. & S. 211, R. 7 (i). — 44. 
Flammas ; i. e. of the thunderbolt that had pierced his breast — 45. 
Turbine = with the whirling wind, or whirling force, of the thunder- 
bolt Scopulo — acuto = and impaled (him) upon a sharp-pointed 
rock. This is the usual interpretation. But Henry maintains, that in- 
figere never means to fix on, but always to fix in or to fix with, i. e. pierce 
with, that scopulo is an abl., and that the sense is, pierced with a sharp* 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 521 

pointed rock; ie. hurled at him. The construction infigere cUiquem 
alicuii to impale a person upon a thing, is at least unusual, if not un- 
exampled. — 46. Regina. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210 and («). — 47. 
8oror. Jupiter and Juno were children of Satumus. AnnoB. Gr. 
378. A. & S. 236. — 48. Bella ; a continuous struggle, in 'contrast 
with the single blow of Pallas. Gfrero. Gr. 467. 2. A. & S. 145. 1. 2. 
Quisquam. Gr. 457. A. & S. 207, R. 31 (a). Quisquam suggests a 
negative answer ; and the indie, presents, coupled as they are by et 
with bella geroy express wonder and astonishment that under the cir- 
cumstances homage is actually paid to her : I am proving my imbe- 
cility, and yet I have worshippers ! — 49. Fraeterea then will ex- 
press, not so much sequence in time as a logical relation, = after this. 

— 51. Loca. Gr.363. A.&S.204. Austria. Gr. 419. III. A.&S. 
250. 2 (i). — .52. Aeoliam; one of the Lipari islands, which were 
north of Sicily ; probably Lipara. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 {c), 

— 52. Aeolus. See on Ov. M. I. 262. — 54. Premit == rules, 
coerces. — 55. Indig;nantes= impatient. Murmure. Gr. 414 
and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Montis ; with murmure, Cf v. 245. 

— 56. Claustra = fastenings, barriers. Arce = in his citadel; 
neither the summit of the mountain containing the prison of the 
winds, nor an elevated throne in the prison, but, according to the 
most common use of the word, stronghold, castle, citadel, i. e. in the 
immediate vicinity of the mountain and prison ; the natural dwelling 
of a despotic governor. — 57, Soeptra tenens ; i. e. invested with 
regal power, not necessarily holding a literal sceptre, though that may 
be the meaning. For the plural see on irae, v. 1 1. Anixnos = their 
unruly spirits. — 58. Ni faciat . . . ferant . . . verrant Of. II. 
599 ; VI. 293. Gr. 504 and i. A. & S. 261. 2 and R. 3. Maria — 
profondum. Cf. E. IV. 51. — 59. Quippe = for. In prose it 
would precede ni faciat, and should be- translated as if it stood in 
that position. — 60. Speluncis. Gr. 422. A. & S. 254, R. 3. Ab- 
didit = put (them) away ; i. e. apart, by themselves ; not hid, con- 
cealed. — 61. Molem et monies ; hendiadys for molem montium, 
Gr. 704. II. 2. A. & S. 323. 2 (3). Insuper = above ; not, besides. 

— 62. Foedere = lege. — 63. Fremere . . . habenas = to tighten 
the reins. Cf A. XI. 600, pressis habenis. The object of premere 
may be ventos understood. Lazas . . . dare = to slacken (them). 
Jussus = when ordered ; i. e. ^i yove. Join with premere as well as 
with dare, — 66. Mulcere . . . tollere. Gr. 371. 5. A. & S. 229, R. 5. 
Vento ; with mulcere as well as with tollere, — 67. Tyrrhenum . . 
aequor, that part of the Mediterranean sea, situated between Italy 
and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 
232 (2). — 68. nium. See on Trojae, v. i. Gr. 705, 11. A. & S. 
324. 2. Victos ; because they had not been able to protect Troy. 



522 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

— 69. Incute vim ventisss throw fury into the winds. Henry, 
following Serviurf, prefers to consider ventis the instrum. abl. ; attadc 
them (I e. the Trojans) with the winds, SubmeraaB obrue = sub- 
merge et obrue, Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 {b). — 70. I>iverB08 = in 
different: directions ; the crews. — 71. Corpore. Gr. 428. A. & S. 
211, R. 6. — 72. Quanim. Gr. 396. III. 2 and 3) (2). A. & S. 212, 
R. 2. Quae forma pulcherrima ; a circumlocution for pulcherH- 
mam. Forma. Gr. 429. A. & S. 25a i. Deiopea ; in the case 
of quae by attraction, instead of the regular ace, which is found in 
some MSS., but is considered an inferior reading. Gr. 445. 9 : 665. 
A. & ^. 206 (6) {b) ; 301, N. — 73. Comiubio. Gr. 669. II. and 3. 
A. & S. 306. I and (3). Propriamque dicabo = and will make 
her thine forever. See on E. VII. 31. Juno speaks not only as the 
mistress of the nymph, but as the goddess of marriage. It is in the 
same character that she offers to dispose of the hand of Dido, IV. 
126, where this line is repeated. — 75. Fulchra . . . prola Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6. But some prefer to take it -m^faciat as an abL 
of means, and others, as an abl. abs. — 76. He throws the respon- 
sibility on her : thine is the task to examine well what thou askest 
Optes. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.-77. Labor. So Juno, IV. 115. 
Fas est is exculpatory ; I am doing my duty in executing thy com- 
mands. — 78. Tu. Observe the very strong emphasis indicated by 
the expression and repetition of the pronoun. Regni ; with hoc. Gr. 
396. IIL A. & S. 212, R. 2. Sceptra. See on v. 57. Jovem; 
i e. Jupiter's favor, or patronage. — 79. Conciliaa . . . das . . . 
fads ; in the present to express the tenure on which he continues to 
hold his station. Epulis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Accumbere. 
See on mulcere, v. 66. — 80. Nimborum. Gr. 399 and 2. 2) (3). 
A. & S. 213 and R. i (3). 81. Cavum — latua = he pushed the 
hollow mountain on the side with his spear turned towards it ; thus 
opening the claustra, which are to be conceived of as folding-doors 
opening inwards. C£ VII. 620 : Turn regina deum coelo delapsa mo- 
rantes Impulit ipsa manu portas, Convenia ; not inverted, but sim- 
ply turned towards the mountain. Cf. in me — converses, Cicero in 
Cat IV. I. In latua ; not sidewise, nor over on its side, nor into its 
side, making a breach, but on or against its side. Of all the com- 
mentators, Henry alone, whose interpretation Con. adopts, and which 
we have here given, seems to have fully comprehended the sense of 
this passage. — 82. Velut — facto = as if a troop were formed, as 
it were with one accord. — 84. Incubuere = they have fallen for- 
cibly upon. For the perf. see on fugere, G. I. 33a So intonuere, 
v. 90. Marl Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Totum; sc mare, — 85. 
Una; emphatic and repeating the idea expressed in agmine facto. 
Raunt = upheave. See on G. I. 105. Procellls. Gr. 419. IIL 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 523 

A. & S. 250. 2 (i). — 90. Poll = the heavens; i. e. it thunders from 
pole to pole. — 92. Aeneae. Gr. 384; 398. 5. A. & S. 223 ; 211, 
R. 5 (i). Solvuntur = are unnerved, rendered powerless. Fxlgore 
=by chilling fear. — 93. 'Dxip\ioeB=amdas, — 95. Quia. Gr. 187. i, 
A. &. S. 136, R. 2. Ante era patrum probably means, dying with 
the friends for whom they are fighting to cheer them on. — 96. 
Oppetere = to meet death (sc. mortem), — 97. Tydide = son of 
Tydeus ; i. e. Diomedes, king of Argos. In the army of the Greeks 
before Troy, he was, next to Achilles, the bravest among the heroes, and 
engaged in single combat with Hector, Aeneas, and other distinguished 
Trojans. Gr. 316 and 2. A. & S. 100. i and {a) (2). Mene . . . non 
potnisse = that I could not Gr. 553. III. i. 2 and 3. A. & S. 
270, R. 2 (fl). Occumbere ; sc morti, — 98. Tua . . , deztara. 
Aeneas would have beea killed by Diomedes, if Venus had not res- 
cued him. — 99. SaevnB =fortis, Aeacidae. See on E. IV. 36. 
Hector ; the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba^ the husband of An- 
dromache, and the chief hero of the Trojans in their war with the 
Greeks. — 100. Sarpedon ; son of Jupiter and Laodameia, a Lycian 
prince, and in the Trojan war an ally of the Trojans. He distin- 
guished himself by his valor, and was slain by Patroclus. Simois ; 
a river of Troas, rising in Mt Ida, and, united with the Scamander, 
flowing through the plains of Troy into the Hellespont Correpta 
. . . volvit = corripit et volvit Sub undis. Join with correpta, — 
101. Vimm. Gr. 45. 5. 4). A. & S. 53. — 102. Jactaiiti = to 
him ejaculating ; a variety of the ethical dat, to be taken with ferit, 
Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. Stridena Aquilone = howling with 
the north wind. — 103. Adversa = full in front — 104. Tom 
prora avertit; a consequence of tht franguntur remi, Avertit; 
intrans. like avertenSy v. 402. — 105. Cumulo = in a mass, with its 
mass. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Cf. II. 498. Fraenip- 
tUB = precipitous. — 106. Hi ; referring to different ships, not to 
men in different parts of the same. — 107. Purit . . . arenia = raves 
with the sands ; i. e. pulls them violently about with it Cf. III. 557. 
Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 108. Tres; sc naves, No- 
tiia; put for the wind in general So Eurus, v. no, and Auster^ 
v. 536. Abreptas , . . torquet = abripit et torquet, Latentia ; i. e. 
in a storm ; for in a calm they are visible : dorsum immane mart 
summo, Cf. V. 125. — 109. Saza. These are generally supposed 
to be the Aegimuri insulae at the mouth of the bay of Carthage, about 
thirty miles from the city. They were called Arae becatise Cartha- 
ginian priests used to offer sacrifices there to avert shipwrecks on the 
rocks. The order is saxa quae mediis in fluctibus (exstantia) Itali 
vocani Aras, — 110. Dorsum =» ree£ Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 
Mari Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 254, R. 3.— IIL Brevia et Syrtes 



524 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

=Ifrevia SyrUum. See on v. 6i. These were probably the well 
known Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor, on the coast of Africa, south- 
east of Carthage, IV. 41 ; though most of the commentators (for 
what reasons they do not see fit to tell us) refer them to other shoals. 
Miserabile. Gr. 438. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 8. Visu. Gr. 570 and r. 
A. & S. 276. III. — 113. Oronten ; a name invented by Virgil. C£ 
VI. 334 Gr. 93. 3. A. & S. 80. IV. — 114. Ipsius; i.e. Aeneas. 
A vertice. See on G. II. 310. Fontua =fluctus; as we speak of 
"shipping a heavy sea." — 115. In puppim; like in lahiSy v. 82. 
Gr. 85. III. 3. A. & S. 79. 3. Ezcutitur = is knocked off. Magis- 
tfft =■ gubernaior. Compare VI. 353 with 337. — 117. Agens = 
forcing, impelling. — 118. Rarl nantes ; with reference to vasto, 
— 119. Tabulae = planks, boards ; i e. of such fragile parts as the 
benches of the rowers, pilot-house, aplustre^ etc ; for we must not sup- 
pose the vessel to have gone to pieces. Per undas == all over the 
water : emphatic, anil in direct contrast with rari in gurgite vctsto, — 
120. The names of Hioneus and Abas are from Homer, but the per- 
sons are different, both being killed in Hom. Achatae ; Aeneas*s 
most faithful friend and companion. — 121. Aletes ; a fictitious 
name, like Orontes and many others found in the Aeneid. — 122. 
Vicit. The ship of Orontes alone was wholly lost. Hiems = tern- 
fgstas, C£ V. 125. CompagibuB. Gr.431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). 
123. Inibxem. = aqttam, Rimls. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 
and 2. — 124. Magno — murmure. Ci IV. 160. Miscexi . . . 
emissam. Notice the change of tense from incomplete to completed 
action. — 125. Imis . . . vadis, the same as a sedibus imis^ v. 84. Gr. 
422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (^). — 126. Stagna refiisa = the waters 
had been poured back, worked up ; i. e. from the bottom. Qraviter 
commotUB = much disturbed ; a state of feeling not hiconsistent 
with the placidum caput of the next verse. Alto prospiciens = look- 
ing out over the sea ; L e. in order to discover the cause of the dis- 
turbance in his realm. Alto is not the point from which the view is 
taken, nor the object viewed, but the field of view^ the tract of space 
over which Neptune looked. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. 
127. Summa. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. Placidum; as 
becoming the dignity of the sea-god, and as contributing to the res- 
toration of order and tranquillity. — 129. Coelique mina = by the 
downfall of the sky. Se^ on G. I. 324. — 130. Pratrem ; Neptune. 
Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 223, R. 2 (i) (a). — 131. Eamm . . . Zephynim ; 
here used to represent all the winds. Dehinc. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 
306. I and (2). — 132. Generis . . . fiducia vestri = confidence in 
your race ; i. e. in y6ur semi-divine origin, as the sons of the Titan 
Astraeus and Aurora. — 133. Jam = has it come to this, that 
Coelum tezramque . . . miscere, a proverbial expression for uni- 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 52$ 

versal confusion. See another fonn of it, V. 790, 791. Numine=: 
nutu, nod, assent — 134; Moles (sc aquarum) ; L e. fluctus. — 
135. Quos ego. Gr. 704. 1. 3. A. & S. 324. 33. — 136. Poat = 
another time. Non; with similu — 138. Saeviim = stem ; be- 
cause the badge of stern authority. — 139. Sorte. See on Ov. M. 
V. 36& Tenet ille ; i. e. his province is. Immania — domos ; re- 
ferring not exclusively to the cave of the winds, but generally to the 
wild, rocky Aeolia, where the winds had their home, where the cave 
of the winds was. — 140. Vestras ; referring to the whole company, 
though only one is n&med. Ula ... in aula. Ilia plainly refers 
aula to immania saxa and vestras domos ; therefore the aula (or court), 
in which Aeolus is here told to display his power (sejactet)^ is neither 
the celsa arx of v. 56, nor " the cavern of the winds," but simply the 
country of Aeolia. — 141. Clause — carcere. Gr. 431. A. & S. 
257. Clauso is emphatic Let him close the prison of the winds, and 
then let him reign absolute. This is Henry's interpretation, and just 
the opposite of the common one, viz. let him reign absolute in the 
closed prison of the winds ; but it is preferred for three reasons ; ist, 
the command thus interpreted is compatible with the dignity of Nep- 
tune ; 2d, imperatively required by the circumstances of the case ; 
3d, in perfect harmony with the delegated authority of Aeolus, who 
might be as despotic as he pleased among the immania saxa of Aeo- 
lia, provided only he did not open or shut the prison of the winds 
without orders: c£ jussus^ v. 63. — 142. Dicto citius; i. e. before 
he had done his speech. Gr. 417. 6. A. & S. 256, R. 9. — 144. 
Cymothoe ; a Nereid. See on E. V. 75. Triton. See on Ov. M. 
I. 333. Adnizus. Gr. 439. A, & S. 205, R. 2, Ex.— 145. Naves. 
See V. io8w Scopulo. Gr. 421. I. A. & S. 242. Levat ; i. e. so 
that they may float off the rock. — 146. Vastas aperit ; i. e. so that 
the ships (v. 1 10) may get out These words are explained by v. 1 12, 
<^gg^i cingit arenae. The ships are surrounded by the sandbank on 
all sides. — 147. Rotis . . , levibus; i. e. celeri curru, Ci V. 819. 
— 148 - 156. This simile is remarkable as an illustration of Nature 
from man, the reverse of which is the general rule in Virg. as in Ho- 
mer. The image was no doubt suggested by the riots in the Roman 
forum during the political contests of the later republic It is an in- 
stance of a simile where the construction of the sentence is fully 
drawn out. Ac couples the whole with what has gone before. The 
apodosis to veluti is sic (v. 154) ; that to guum would seem to be tt(m 
(v. 151), as it is there that the point of the simile is introduced. — 148. 
Ma£;no in populo = in a concourse of people. Quum saepe = 
guum, ut saepe fit, — 149. Animis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 150. 
Faces, to fire buildings with, were regular arms of a Roman mob. — 
151. Pietate ; general discharge of duty. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 



526 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

247 and I. MexltiB ; services to the state. — 152. Adstant Here 
and in II. 303, ad expresses attention. — 154. Ceoidit . . . flectLt 
For the tenses see on £. I. 31. PoBtquam= as soon as. — 155. 
Oenitor, like pater^ when thus applied, is simply a title of honor. 
See on G. II. 4. Aperto; le. cleared of clouds. — 156. Ciuni. 
Gr. 384 and II. A. & S. 223. Seoundo = easy-gliding ; from sepii, 
to follow. —157. Aeneadaa Gr. 316 and 3. A. & S. loa i and 
(3)« Quae — litora. See on quae semper^ E. I. 54, and quae forma 
pulcherrima, v. 72. The relative supplies the want of an article. 
Cursu = rapide. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 atad 2. — 158. Libyae. 
See on v. 22. — 159. Probably an imaginary description, though some 
have endeavored to identify the spot In secesau longo = in a 
deep recess. Cf. III. 229. — 160. Objectu laterum = «^><:/i> /a- 
teribtiSy by the shelter (lit. opposition) of its sides. — 161. Inque — 
reductos = and parts into the deep hollows of the shore. C£ G. IV. 
420. — 162. Hinc . . . hinc ; L e. on the mainland, two promontories 
of which form the headlands of the harbor. Vastae rupee may be 
taken as the line of cliffs, and scopuli as the peaks at its extremities. 
Gemini implies likeness. Cf III. 535. Minantm: = tower. — 

164. Tuta seems to include the two notions, protected from the 
wind and safe for ships. Silvia scena coruscis = a background 
of waving woods. Scena was the wall which closed the stage behind ; 
here it is that which closes the view, Gr. 428. A. & S. 21 1, R. 6. — 

165. Horrenti = rough, shaggy. Umbra. Gr. 414 and 2. A.&S. 
247 and I. — 166. Fronte sub adversa; i. e. at the head of the 
cove, under the front of the cliffs facing the entrance of the har- 
bor. Scopulis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. So saxo in neit 
verse. — 167. Dulces; of fresh water. G. II. 243. Vivo; not 
hewn, but natural, and as it were growing. See on G. IL 469. — 
169. Unco . . . morsu ; with alltgat, as dente tenaci in the parallel 
passage, VI. 3, with fundabat, — 170. Septem ; i. e. three from the 
reef, three from the sandbank, and his own. — 11\, Axaoxe=^desid- 
erio. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 172. Arena. Gr. 419. 1. 
A. & S. 245. I. Cf. tellure poHti, III. 278. — 173. Sale. See on 
V. 35.— 174. SiUci Gr. 386. 2. A. & S. 224, R. 2.— 175. Suc- 
cepit = caught and kept alive. Foliis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 
247 and 3. —176. Nutrimenta; the same ?& foliis; i. e. additional 
nutriment placed around it to increase it sufficiently for the applica- 
tion of the kindling-wood (fomite), Rapuit = quickly kindled. The 
whole passage describes minutely the different steps in the process of 
making a fire by means of a flint — 177. Cererem ; for frumentum, 
Cerealia arma; L e. the hand-mill and the kneading-trough. See 
on G. I. 160. —178. Rerum = with misfortunes. Gr. 399. 3. 4). 
A. & S. 213, R. 2. Receptas = saved; i e. from the sea. — 179. 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 527 

Torrere. See on G. I. 267. Sazo ; probably the mola, or hand- 
milL —181. Felago. Gr. 392 and i. A. & S. 222, R. 8. See on 
iUio^ V. 126. Anthea. Gr. 46. 3 and 5). A. & S. 80. III. Si quern 
=xsicuhi. See on quo numine laeso^ v. 8, and E. I. 54. Si= in the 
hope that — 182. Phrygias = Trojanasy Troy being included in 
Phrygia Minor. Biremes; for ships in general. It is an anachron- 
ism to speak of biremes, or, as in V. 1 19, of triremes, in the Homeric 
age, as they were not invented till about B. C. 700. — 183. Capyn. 
Gr. 93. 4. A. & S. 80. 11. Arma; to be taken in its strict sense. 
— 185. Errantea. See on £. I. 9. Armenta, though strictly used 
of oxen, is applied. III. 540, to horses, arid by Pliny, 7. 2, to apes. — 
189. Ferentes implies conscious dignity, as in v. 503. — 190. 
Corntbus; with^alta. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. Ar- 
boreis. C£ E. VII. 30. The antlers denote the age and size of the 
stags. — 191. Miacet; i. e. breaks up the array (agmen), Telis; 
with agens^ as in IV. 71. — 192. Victor continues the imagery of a 
battle. — 193. Fundat . . . aequet Gr. 523. II. and i. A. & S. 
263. 3. HumL Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 221, R. 3,-19%. Hinc = 
then, thereupon. — 195. Deinde. The order is deinde dividit vina 
quae, &c Cadis onerarat = had stowed in casks ; instead of the 
usual construction, onerarat cados vinis, Gr. 704. III. and 2. A. & S. 
323. 4 and (3). Cf. III. 465 ; VIII. 180, onerantque canistris Dona, 
Cadis, Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. Acestes was a king of 
Sicily, who assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and who afterwards 
kindly entertained Aeneas when he landed upon the coast of Sicily. 
He was the son of a Trojan woman. — 196. Trhiacria. See on Ov. M. 
V. 347. Heros. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. — 198. Ante malorum= 
praeteritorum malorum, Gr. 583 and 2. A. & S. 205, R. ii {b). 
Crossrau and Con. prefer to join ante with sumusy making it correspond 
to the idiom iroKai €(rfi€v» — 199. O passi graviora. Cf. Hor. C. I. 
7. 30. — 200. Rabiem . . . sonantes ; referring to the dogs with 
which Scylla is encirdjpd in Virg. Ci III. 432. Scylla and Charybdi§ 
are the names of two rocks between Italy and Sicily, and only a short 
distance from one another. In the midst of one of these rocks which 
was nearest to Italy, there dwelt, according to Homer, Scylla, a 
daughter of Crataeis, a fearful monster, barking like a dog, with twelve 
feet, and six long necks and mouths, each of which contained three 
rows of sharp teeth. The opposite rock, which was much lower, 
contained an immense fig-tree, under which there dwelt Charybdis, 
who thrice every day swallowed down the waters of the sea, and 
thrice threw them up again. Both were formidable to the ships which 
had to pass between them. Virgil, in his representation of them, 
differs firom Humer in a few particulars. Penitus; i. e. through 
their caverns. -— 201. Accestia Gr. 234. 3. A. & S. 162. 7 (r). 



528 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

Cyclopia saza. See on G. I. 471. They did not actually enter 
the cave of the Cyclops, but landed on the shore, and so may be said 
to have known it So they did not actually pass Scylla, but they 
came near enough to be in danger. — 204. DiBorixuina rerum = 
res periculosas, — 206. Ostendunt =praedicunt^ promtttunt. Fas. 
Esse fas dicuntur ea^ quae fatis volenHbus et oraculorum monitu fiunt. 
— 207. Durate=hold out C£ G. II. 295. — 208. Curia. Gr. 
414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 209. Viiltu. Gr. 414 and 4 
A. & S. 247 and 3. Premit = holds concealed. C£ IV. 332, where 
it has more force. — 210. Se . . . accingunt ; alluding to the custom 
of wearing long flowing garments, which it was necessary to gird up 
close, when there was work to be done ; hence se aceingere comes to 
signify to prepare for work. — 212. Secant; sc. viscera, Gr. 461 
and I. A. & S. 209, R. ii. Veribix«; pierce withf not stick cw, 
spits. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Trementia (i. e. still 
quivering) shows their eagerness. — 213. .Aena; probably for bath- 
ing before the m^, according to the custom of the ancients. '2H. 
Fusi = stretched. — 215. Implentur = they fill themselves ; like 
the Greek middle voice. See on II. 383. BaccllL Gr. 410. 7. 2)* 
A. & S. 220. 3. See on £. V. 69. Fexinae ; sc camis, Gr. 441. 3. 
A. & S. 205, R. 7 (i). — 216. Menaae remotae is not appropriate 
to this occasion, but is the general phrase for concluding a Roman 
meal. — 217. Requirunt = they utte?: their regret for. — 218. 8ea 
. . . sive, a poetic form for u^rum , » , an, Credant. Gr. 525. A 
& S. 265. — 219. Eaitrema pati It is not necessary to limit the 
meaning of extrema actually to the crisis of death, as in that case 
passos esse would be required here. The expression rather implies 
death as a continuing state, = to b^ lost, to be dead., Neo voca^OB 
= and no longer hear (when) called. Wch. distinguishes between 
the conclamatio which took place at the moment of death and the 
inclamatio which took place after the burial, and of which we have 
instances in III. 68, VI. 231, 506; and he tj^nks that the first is 
deferred to here, on the ground that the Manes were supposed to hear 
the inclamatio. Henry may be right in going further, and supposing 
the words to mean that the conclamatio^ which, as he observes, iww 
originally a means of ascertaining whether a person was really dead, 
actually takes place. — 220. Cf. VI. 176. OrdntL Gr. 69, Ex. 
A. & S. 73, R. — 221. Secum; so as not to sadden and dispirit his 
companions. See v. 209. C£ v. 5a — 223. Et jam = and now at 
last Cf. jamquet III. 135. Finis ; i. e. of the longus sermo, A6- 
there.. Gr. 421. I. A. & S. 242. — 224. Jacentea = lying out- 
stretched (beneath his gaze) ; as glebcts Jacentes (G. I. 65) is the soil 
lying outstretched to the sun. — 225. Sic ; i. e. sic despiciens -— 2^. 
RegiiiB. Gr.386.2. A. ^S. 224, R.i.r-227.1[ale0;Lfi. such a^ Libya 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 529 

and the Trojans suggested. —-228. Tristlor. Gr. 444. 2.- A. & S. 256, 
R.9(«). Ooulos. Gr.38oandi. A.&S.234.II.— 230. Terres. The 
object of this verb is res hominumque deumquey taken in a loose sense 
for the universe. — 231. Quid = what offence. — 233. Ob Italiam ; 
i. e. to prevent their reaching Italy. — 234, Hinc ; L e. a^ his Tro- 
janis, Hinc . . , hinc; better taken as two clauses ; though it may 
be a mere repetition. — ^235. Revocato = revived ; i. e. after the 
national extinction of Troy. Teucri See on Trojoiy v. i. — 236, 
Omni dicione = with complete sovereignty. Ten^rent Gr. 501 
and I. A. & S. 264. i {a) and {b), —237 Pollicitus. The earlier 
construction was pollicitus (es), with a full stop after pollicitus ; but 
most of the later commentators, following Heyne, suppose an anaco- 
^luthon (i. e. a departure, in the close of a sentence, from the syntax 
with which it commenced, arising from the excitement and haste of 
the speaker) ; as if quam sententiam vertisti should have followed, or 
as if pollicitus should have been pollicitutny in agreement with te. For 
this figure of syntax see Gr. 704. III. 4. A. & S. 323. 3 (5). Trans- 
late as if it ^^& pollicitum. Quae is for cur^ or quomodo (see on quo 
numine laeso^ v. 8) ; as appears from v. 260, neque me sententia vertiL 
Te sententia vertit is poetical for tu sententiam vertisti; the opinion^ 
beii\g supposed to change the mind as external persuasion might. 

— 238. Hoc ; sc. promisso, Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. — 
239. Solabar. This verb is applied first to the mind, then to the; 
grief of the mind, and lastly, as here, to the cause of the grief. Fatis 

— rependens == compensating destiny (i. & of the destruction of 
Troy) with opposite destiny (i. e. of reaching Italy) : lit compensat- 
ing opposite destiny with destiny. Contraria expresses the opposi- 
tion between destiny and destiny. Strictly then the epithet would 
2^ee with/x/w, as the latter of the two correlatives, but, by a poeti- 
cal variety, it is joined with fata^ the former. Fatis, Gr. 416. A. & S. 
252. — 242. Antenor ; a Trojan prince, who is said to have led a 
colony of Trojans and of Heneti from Paphlagonia to the head of the 
Adriatic sea, and there to have effected a settlement. — 243. Blyri- 
CO8 ainuB \ the indentations in the coast of Illyricum, an extensive 
country lying along the eastern shore of the Adriatic Penetrare = 
to make (his) way through, past. Intima . . . regna Libumorum ; 
not the interior of the Libumian territory, which Antenor coming by 
sea, would not penetrate, but the kingdom lying far inward in the 
Adriatic : i. e. fer up, near the head of the Adriatic See on Hor. C. I. 
37. 50. — 244. Fontem . . . Timavi = the source of the Timavus ; in 
Venetia, at the northern extremity of the Adriatic. Between this 
(fontem) and the sea (a distance of about a mile) there are subter- 
ranean communications through which the salt water forces its way, 
breaking out at the fountain through seven (Virgil says nine) mouthy 

34 



S30 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

or holes in the limestone rock, and overflowing the channel of the 
river. Superare = to pass beyond. It implies difficulty. — 245. 
Vaato — montiB refers to the sound of the water re-echoing through 
the limestone rock. — 246. Mare ; subject of it, Froruptuin = 
bursting up. — 247. Tamen ; i. e. in spite of all these dangers. 
Patavi; supposed to be the modem Padua. Gr. 45. 5. i) ; 396. V. 
A. & S. 52 ; 204, R. 6. — 248. Arma fizit ; i. e. hung up his arms 
and those of his comrades in token that their sufferings by flood and 
field were oven — 249. Nunc — quiesoit Wr., JForb., and Jahn 
understand these words of the death of Antenor ; but the sense re- 
quired is rather that of a tranquil settlement following on labors. 
Such expressions as componere pacem (VII. 339; XII. 822), ox foedus 
(X. 15), componere bellum foedere (XII. 109), and urbem tuta componere 
terra (III. 387), prove abundantly that the words compostus pace may 
well have been used of the repose of a peaceful life. The antithesis 
between fixit and nunc quiescit merely implies that, after having 
founded his city, named his nation, and hung up his arms forever, he 
entered on a prosperous reign. CoxnpostUB. Gr. 703. 2. A. & S. 
322. 4. — 250. Nos. She rhetorically identifies herself with her son. 
Coeli . . . arcem ; i. e. divine honors. — 251. Infandnm. See on 
G. I. 479. Gr. 381. A. & S. 238. 2. UntuB ob iram recalls v. 4. 

— 252. Prodimur = we are forsaken; Le. by Jupiter. — 253. 
Honoa = reward, as in V. 249, 308. Nos — reponis ; i. e. restore us 
in Italy to the empire we have lost in Troy. For sceptra see on v. 57. 

— 254-296. Jupiter reassures her, telling her what the course of 
the destined Trojan empy-e is to be, beginning with Lavinium, passing 
into Alba, and ending in Rome, whose greatness is to be perfected in 
the golden age of Augustus. — 254. OUi Gr. 186. 3. i). A. & S. 
134, R. I. — 255. Tempestatea = the weather. — 256. Dehina 
See on v. 131. — 257. Metu. Gr. 116. 4. 3) ; 385. A. & S. 89. 3 ; 
223, R. 2. Cytherea ; an epithet of Venus, who was so called fi-om 
Cythera (now Cerigo), an island in the Aegean sea, celebrated for her 
worship, or, according to some traditions, because it was in the neigh- 
borhood of this island that she first rose firom the foam of the sea. 
Tuorum. Gr. 441 and i. A. & S. 205, R. 7(1). — 258. Tibi= to 
your comfort be it said. Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. (a). Urbem — 
moenia; hendiadys. LavinL Gr. 45. 5. i). A. &S. 52. Observe 
the change of quantity in the first syllable from Lavina^ v. 2, a larger 
license being allowed for metrical convenience in proper names than 
in other words. — 259. Sublimem = on high, aloft. Ad sidera ; 
referring to the promise of deification in v. 250. — 260. Bententia 
vertit See on v. 237. — 261. Tibi; the same as in v. 258. Re- 
mordet. The re here expresses fi-equent repetition. — 262. Vol- 
vena is probably a metaphor from a book unrolled. Jupiter says 



THE AENEID. BOOK L 53 1 

that he will open yet further the secrets that lie In the book of fate. 
— 264; Mores conveyed to a Roman many of the notions which 
political institutions and a social system convey to us. Viris = 
for (his) people. — 265. Viderit Gr. 522. I. A. & S. 145. VI.; 
263. 4 (i). Tertia aestas . . . ternaqtie hibema^ trigitUa magnos orbes 
(v. 269), ter centum annos (v. 272), imperium sine fine (v. 279) ; 
i. e. Aeneas is to reign three years after his victory over Turnus and 
the Rutulians, Ascanius thirty, the Alban kings three hundred, but to 
the empire of Rome no limit is fixed. — 266. Tema. Gr. 174. 2. 3). 
A. & S. 120. 4 (a). Rutulia . . . subactis =post Rutulos subactos: 
probably a dat, by a Greek construction, depending upon transierint ; 
though it may very well be the abl. absol. — 267. At marks the 
transition from hic^ v. 261, to Ascaniits, Ascanius ; the son of Ae- 
neas and Creiisa. Itilo. Gr. 387. i. A. & S. 204, R. 8 («). The 
son of* Aeneas was first called Euryleon ; in the flight from Troy he 
received the name of Ascanius ; but he was never called lulus ex- 
cept by the Roman poets in compliment to the Caesars, who belonged 
to the gens Julia^ and who traced their origin to Ascanius. — 268. 
Dmu — regno = while the Trojan state stood with power un- 
broken. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. C£ II. 88. — 269. 
yolvenSdB ^ volventibus, Ct volventibus annis^ V. 234, volvenda 
dUs,Y:L,*j, A. & S. 274, R. 9. Mensibns. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, 
R. 6. Orbes. Cf. annuus orbis, v. 46. — 270. Imperio. Gr. 419. 2. 
A. & S. 249. I. — 271. Longam. It was called Longa, fi-om its 
stretching in a long line down the Mons Albanus towards the lake 
(Lacus Albanus). Mnlta vi muniet = shall build and fortify with 
great power and might. — 272. Jam = at this point in the series of 
events ; contrasting Alba and its long-lived dynasty with the preced- 
ing members of the series. The force of hie jam may be given by 
the phrase and here, — 273. Hectorea = Trojana ; Hector being 
the bravest of the Trojans. Regina. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Sacer- 
doB ; L e* of Vesta. — 274. Q^minam . . . prolem ; i. e. Romulus 
and Remus. Partu dabit = pariet, Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 
and 2. Hia = of Trojan descent ; an epithet applied by the poets 
to Rea Silvia, the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba. See also on 
Hor. C. I. 2. 17. — 275. Tegmine. Gr. 414 and 2. A. &. S. 247 
and I. The allusion is to the myth that the infants Romulus and 
Remus were nourished by a she-wolf. It seems better with Forb. to 
understand the text of his habitually wearing a wolf *s skin, in grateful 
and joyous remembrance of the fostering care of that animal. — 276. 
Rscipiet gentem. See on G. II. 345. The notion here is that of 
succession. Mavortda = of Mars. This word may point at once 
to Romulus as the son of Mars or Mavors, the worship of Mars at 
Rome, and the martial character of the nation. — 278. Metas refers 



S3 2 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

to the bounds of th^ empire [rfrum), tempora to its duratiofu -^ 279. 
Qtiin = nay, even. — 280. Meta rather expresses the alarm wbkh 
Juno feels at the course of destiny {idmetuens^ v. 23) -than the terrtr 
which she spreads through the universe. The latter view, hoirever, 
is the one taken by most of the commentators. Or. 414 and 2. 
A. & S. 247 and i. Fatigat ; i. e. keeps earth, air, and sea astir, by 
constantly traversing them and exciting their powers. — 281. In me- 
lius referet = shall change for the better, amend. — 282. Remm 
= of the world. Togatam. The toga was the peculiar distinction 
of the Romans, who were thence called togati or gens togetUu It was 
forbidden alike to exiles and to foreigners. — 283. Sic placitnin. 
Jupiter is speaking of destiny. Lustxis ; strictly a period of five 
years, here used for time or ages in general. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. 

— 284. ABsarad Assaracus is the ancestor through whom Aeneas 
was related to the royal house of Troy, being the son of Irbs and 
grandfather of Anchises. Cf. VI, 838. Phthia, a city of Thessaly 
and the native place of Achilles, Mycenae, a city of Argolis, and 
of which Agamemnon was king, and Argos (v. 24, note), which 
was ruled by Diomedes, are here put comprehensively for the whde 
of Greece, which Jupiter assures Venus shall become subject to Ro- 
man sway. — 285. Arg;i8. Gr. 131. 3; 421. II. A. & S. 92. 4; 
254.-286. Origine. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Caesar; le. 
Augustus, not Julius Caesar, the dictator, who could hardly be said 
to be laden with the spoils of the East, v. 289. — 287. Qni tenni- 
net ; i. e. destined to bound. Gr. 500 and i. A. & S. 264. 5. — 
288. Julius. He was adopted by Julius Caesar, who was his uncle 
by blood, and therefore by the law of adoption received the gentile 
name Julius, which connected him with lulus. — 289. Coelo. C£ 
Hon C. III. 3. II, 12. Gr. 422. A. & S. 254, R. 3. SpoUis — 
onustnm. Cf. G. II. 171 ; IV. 560 ; A. VI. 792 foil. ; Hor. C. I. 
12, 55, etc. — 290. Secnra = fi-ee fi-om anxiety, alarm; Vccabi- 
tur . . . votis. Cf. E. I. 44 ; G. I. 42. Hie quoque ; I e. as well 
as Aeneas, v. 259. — 291. Aspera bellis ; i. e. the iron age Will 
under the reign of Augustus pass into the golden. Cf. E. IV. 8 ; A. 
VI. 793. — 292. Cana=/«jra, antiqua ; i. e. virtue stem as was 
that of the ancients. C£ Hor. Car. Sec. 57. FideS — Qnirinns. 
These four deities are chosen as typical of the primitive and golden 
age of Rome. Vesta has been mentioned before in a similar connec- 
tion, G. I. 498, Romulus and Remus, G. II. 533. Qtdrinns. See 
on RomuUy G. I. 498. — 293. Dirae — artis = grim with closely- 
welded plates of iron. See on v. 61. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. 

— 294. Belli ; a personification, meaning the divinity who presides 
over war. The allusion is to the closing of the temple of Janus, B. C. 
29, and the existence of peace over the whole Roman world. This 



thS aeneid. book I. 533 

temple, which i?as always k^pt open id time of war, but closed during 
peace, is said to have been shut but four times prior to the Christian 
era. Ci Hor. C. IV. 15. 9. Impius; on account of the civil wars. 
See on G. I. 51 1. — 296. lfodis = catenis, —297. Mala genitum ; 
i. e. Hermes or Mercurius, the son of Jupiter and Maia, the daughter 
of Atlas. He was the messenger of the gods. Gr. 425 and 3. i). 
A. & S. 246. Demittit . . . pateant . . . arceret. Demittit being an 
historical present, the verbs dependent upon it might be either in the 
pres. or imperl Here we have both ; a construction which is occasion- 
ally used. See Caes. B. G. I. 8, communit . . . conarentur . . . possiU 
Ut pateant expresses Jupiter's charge to Mercury, ne arceret, his ob- 
ject' in giving it — 298. Novae ; with Karthaginis, See v. 366. — 

299. Hospitio Teucris = as a place of refuge to the Trojans. Gr. 
39a A. & S. 227. Fati; i.e. the destiny that they were to settle 
in Italy. Dido; called also Elissa, the daughter of Belus, king of 
Tyre (or, according to another account, of Sidon), and the wife of 
Sychaeus, whom her brother Pygmalion murdered for his riches. — 

300. A^ra. Gr. 93. i. A. & S. 80, R. Magnum = expanded. — 

301. Remigio=by the rowing movement, oarage. Adstitit See on 
fugere^ G. 1. 330 — 303. Vblente deo = since the god (wills it) : re- 
ferring probably to Mercury. Quiettim = peaceful. — 304. Accipit. 
Dido passively and unconsciously receives the influence of the god, 
and is thereby prepared to treat the Trojans kindly, when they shall 
arrive. She does not yet know of their presence in her territory, nor 
.even of their existence, and therefore can not entertain feelings or 
thoughts in respect to them. — 305. Volvens = qui volvebat, — 
306. Alma. See on G. I. 7. — 307. Accesserit . . . teneant; 
depending on quaerere, Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 308. Inculta = 
a desert Gr. 441 and 2. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2). Vldet. Gr. 669. 
V. A. & S* 309. 2 (i). —309. ISzacta = the results of his search, 
his discoveries. — 310. In — nemomm = in a place where the 
woody shores (of the cove) narrow : more lit in a narrowing of the 
groves ; i. e. where the forest -crowned shores approach each other, 
forming the head of the cove (v. 164). Convexo ; from conveho, I bring 
together. Cavata = overarching. — 311. HorrentibuB. See on v. 
165. — 312. Comitatus. Gr. 221. 2. A. & S. 162. 17 {a), — 313, Bina. 
Gr. 174. 2. 4). A. & S. 120. 4 (a), Crispana probably expresses 
the motion of the spear merely as carried in the hand in walking. 
Henry interprets it as "grasping, clenching." Ferro. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 314. Cui Gr. 391. A. & S. 222, R. i (b). — 
315. Venus assumes the face and appearance of a virgin and the 
accoutrements of a huntress. — 316, Quails— Harpalyce^ (of 
such a virgin) as the Thracian Harpalyce (is, who, or, when she) tires 
horses > L e. by outrunning them. On the elliptical structure of the 



534 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

sentence, cf. v. 498 and IV. 143. Harpalyce was a daughter of Har- 
palycus, a Thracian king. After the death of her fisither, by whom 
she was trained in all manly exercises, she spent her time in the 
forests as a robher, being so swift in running that horses were unable 
to overtake her. — 317. Fuga ; of rapid movement in generaL He- 
brum ; a river of Thrace, flowing into the Aegean. — 318. Hmnexis. 
Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Habilem = well fitted, well shaped ; i e. for 
the hand. —319. Venatiix. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210, R. 4. Dif- 
fiindera Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 274. 7 (^). — 320. G«nu . . . Biniu. 
Gr. 380 and i. A. & S. 234. II. and R. 2. Nodo. Gr. 414 and 3. 
A. & S. 247 and 2. —321. Prior. Gr. 174, note on primus, A.& S. 
120. 1. Juvenea. See on Hor. C. 1. 2. 41. Monstrate . . . vidis- 
tiB si ; if you have seen . . . point out to me where she is ; not, tell 
me whether you have seen. — 322. Qnam. Gr. 455 and 2. A. & S. 
137. R- (3)- — 323. Tegmine lyncis. This was worn as a chlamys 
or scarf. — 324. Apri cursuxn = aprum currentem ; i. e. a boar 
that has broken covert. Clamore ; sc. canum. — 326. Audita ; (sc 
est) ; not = heard of^ the reference being to clamore, Mihi Gr. 388. 4. 
A. & S. 225. II. — 327. O would have been regularly followed by a 
voc. of her name ; for he is sure that she is a goddess (O dea certe)^ 
though he knows not what goddess. Quaxn te. Gr. 373. A. & S. 
230. Memorem. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260, R. 5. — 328. Hominem. 
Gr. 371. 3. A. & 8.232(2). Certe. Gr. 583. 2. A. & S. 277, R. i. 
329. An . . . an, not = titnim . . . an^ but two separate questions. 
Phoebi ; i. e. Apollo. Soror ; i. e. Diana. This is conjectured 
from her attire as a huntress. Sanguinis ^= generis, — 330. Sia 
feliz. See on E. V. 65. Quaecumque ; i. e. qualiscumgue dea es, 
331. Tandem = pray. In interrogations the word expresses im- 
patience. 332. Locorumque. Gr. 663. III. 4). A. & S. 307. 3. 
In scanning' connect with the next verse. — 334. Multa . . . hostia. 
See on E. I. 34. — 335. Me . . . honora Gr. 419. 2. A. & S. 244, 
R. I. — 336. Virginibus . . . moa. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 
and R. 4. Gestare. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269.-337. Alte ; refer- 
ring to the height of the boot, which rose more than half way to the 
knee, and the object of which was to protect the feet and legs from 
brambles. Cf. E. VII. 32. — 338. Punica. The terms Poeni and 
Punicus point to the Phoenician origin of the Carthaginians. Tyrios ; 
because Dido and her colony were from Tyre. Agenoria urbem, 
Carthage is so called in allusion to the descent of Dido from Agenor, 
the twin brother of Belus and king of Phoenicia. — 339. Fines Li- 
byci; i. e. the country, as distinguished from the city, is a part of Libya. 
Genus ; grammatically in apposition wi^finesy but in sense referring 
to the noun Libyes implied in Libyci, Cf. IV. 4a Bello. Gr. 414 
and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. — 340, Imperium is here the command, 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 535 

not the domain. — 341. It is a long and intricate tale of wrong. — 
342. Sequar = I will recount in order. — 343. Huic conjuz. Gr. 
390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Agri Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 
213 and R. i (3). — 344. Fhoeniouxn. Gr. 396. IIL A. & S. 212, 
R. 2. Miserae; for ab ea misera, Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. C£ 
ly. 31. Amore. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 345. Pa- 
ter; Bel us. See v. 621. Intactam; i. e. not previously married. 
Hence primis ; i. e. the auspices taken when she was married to Sy- 
chaeus, were the first ones. — 346. Ominibus ; the omens of the 
marriage sacrifice, and hence the marriage rite. A mixture of instr. and 
temp, abl — 347. Scelera Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. Immanior. 
The comparative is pleonastic. A. & S. 256, R. 13 {b), — 348. Sy- 
chaeiun. For the variety of the quantity in the first syllable (cf. 
V. 343) see on'v. 258. — 349. Aras; i. e. of the Penates, C£ IV. 21. 
Atqtie couples caecus with impius, — 350. Incautum auperat. Cf. 
III. 332. Amorum. Gr. 399. A. & S. 213. — 352. Malus. Gr. 
443. A. & S. 205, R. 15. — 353. InhumatL Cf VI. 325-328.— 
354. Modia. Join with pallida, Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. 
— 356. Nudavit = disclosed. Dornua scelua = the domestic 
crime ; i. e. as perpetrated by her brother, not as perpetrated before 
the Penates. — 357. Celerare . . . ezcedere. Gr. 558, VI. and 3. 
A. & S. 273. 2. — 358. Auzilium. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 and R. 
I («). Viae. Gr. 396. II. A. & S. 211, R. 2. Tellure = from the 
earth. In her dream the ghost seems to her to open the earth and 
dig out from it the old treasures. — 360. Hia ; i. e. by these revela- 
tions. — 361. Crudele = fierce, savage. — 362. Acer = keen, 
violent ; i. e. such as impels to action. Cf III. 682. Both acer and 
crudele are emphatic — 365. Locos. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 
5 (r). — 366. Novae. See on v. 298. — 367. Mercatd ; sc. sunt, 
Byrsam = (called) Byrsa. This word, whence the legend of the 
bull's hide (Pvpaa in Greek meaning a hide) arose, appears to have 
been the Greek corruption of Bosra, the Phoenician name of the 
citadel of Carthage. — 368. Taurino . . . tergo. The story was that 
they cut the hide so as to make one thong; the bargain being that 
they should have as much ground as they could compass with a bull's 
hide. PoBsent Gr. 485. A. & S. 266. 3. — 369. Tandem. See 
on v. 331. — 370. TalibuB ; probably with quaerenti^ though it may 
go with ille, — 371. Imo. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 372. 
Si — pergaxn; i. e. if I should tell my story throughout, beginning 
at the first Fergam . . . vacet .. . componat Gr. 502 ; 503 and 
III. ; 509. A. & S. 261 and 2. — 373. Vacet = should you have 
leisure. — 374. Ante =i= first; i. e. before I should finish. Diem 
. . . componat = would lay the day to sleep. Vesper ; the god of 
evening, the evening star personified. Clause . . . Olympo = clos- 



536 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

ing the gates of heaven ; i. e. through which the day issues. Gr. 431. 
A. & S. 257. See on E. V. 56. — 375. Trpja; with vectos, — 376. 
Divena per aequora=over various seas. Heyne and Forb. take 
it to mean, " out of our course." -^ 377. Forte sua =^ by its oWn 
chance, casualty ; I e. without any purpose of ours. — 378. Raptos 

— mecttni explains plus, — 380. Patriam ; because his ancestor 
Dardanus was bom in Italy. Genus — sunu^o is epexegetical of 
patriam. Genus ab = (my) ancestry (sprung) from. — 381; Phrj^- 
gium ; i. e. that washes the shores of Troas. See on v. 182. -^382 
Fata = oracles. Cf. IV. 345. The oracle itself is given. III. 94folL, 
by Apollo at Delos. — 383. Euro. See on v. 108. — 384. Ig- 
notus ; i. e. in a land where I am unknown. — 385. Europa — 
pulsus. Cf. w. 232, 333. Querentem ; for queti with sub. ace — 
387. Haud . . . invisus = not odious. Coelestibus. Gr. 391. 
A. & S. 222, R. I. -- 388. Carpis = thou enjoyest, breathest. Ad- 
veneris. Gr. 519. A. & S. 264. 8 (i). — 389. Modo = now. 
Ferfer. Per implies that he is to go on till he reaches the place. — 
391. In tutum = into a safe place. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (i). 
Aquilonibus. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. See on v. 108. — 392. 
Vani ; i. e. ignorant of what they pretended to understand. Cf. II. 
8a She sees the swans, and professes to interpret the omen on the" 
spot by the rules her parents have given her. — 393. Bis sends . . . 
cycnoa The swans were the birds of Venus, and their number is 
that of the missing ships. Laetantes agmina Gr. 414 and 2. 
A. & S. 247 and i. Agmine is opposed to turbabaty and explained by 
ordine longo. Ctagmen in v. 186, contrasted with miscet in v. 191. 

— 394. Aetheria . . . lapsa plaga = swooping from the upper sky ; 
the aetheria plaga being higher than the caelum, Jovia ales; i. e. 
the eagle. Aperto . . . coelo = in the wide air ; harmonizing with 
turbabat=vi2iS scattering, dispersing. — 395. Ordine longo. Gr. 
414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 396. This perplexing line seems to 
answer in structure, and therefore probably in sense, to v. 400. Ca- 
pere has been variously understood either as to settle on or to mark 
out for settling (capere oculis). It seems best on the whole to take 
the former meaning, and to make captas = captas ab altera cycno- 
rum parte ; i. e. some alight, others look down on those which have 
alighted, and already (jam) are preparing to follow them. Coetu 
cinxere polum is no objection to this interpretation, being evidently 
ornamental and only vaguely descriptive. — 398. Cinzerepo]tim== 
have wheeled in circles through the air. — 399. Pubesque tuoruni 
= your companions. Tkiorum is distinguished from tuae merely for 
variety's sake.— 400. Tenet . . . subit Gr. 463 and I. A. & S. 
209, R. 12 (3).— 401. Qua— via. Cf. E. IX. i. — 402. Rosea-^ 
refolsit = with her rosy neck she threw back a brilliant light — 403. 



THE A^NEI1>. BOOK L 537 

Divixmm . . . odorem ; i. e. a fragrance such as the gods dif^se. — 
404; Defltodt Het short hunting-tunic is changed into the flowing 
robe dtaracteristic of a god or goddess. — 405. InoesBU. Cf; v. 46. 
— 408. Ludis = mock. ~ Jungere. Gt. 549. A. & S. 269. — 409. 
Datur. Gr. 640, Ex. A*. & S. 290 («). — Veras; i. e. without dis- 
guise on the one part or mistake on the other. — 411. Obsciiro . . . 
aere = with a dark mist — 412. Multo = thick. — Circum . . . fa- 
dit; a tmesis ior circumfudit Gr. 384^ i. A. &. S. 249, R. 3. — Dea 
(== as a goddess) is added rhetorically, expressing the divine power 
exerted in the action. Cf. w. 691, 692. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. — 
413. Contingere = to injuria. ■— 414. Moliri = to cause. —415. 
Faphum. See on G. II. 64. Gr. 379. A. & S. 237. — Sablimis 
= through the an. — 416. Laeta; probably to be contrasted with 
tristioty V. 228. Templum ; sc. est Sabaeo. See on G. I. 57, 
and compare Milton, Par. Lost, IV. 161 : " Sabaean odors from the 
spicy shores of Araby the blest." — 417. Ture . . . sertis. Gr. 414 
and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 418. Cozriptiere viam. See on Ov. 
M. II. 158. Qua semita monstrat; like qua te dtuitviay v. 401. 
Elsewhere wa and semita are opposed, as a main road and a by-path ; 
here via is general, semita particular. — 419. FluriniUB = of great 
size. — 421. Molexn= massive structures. Magalia=niere huts. 
The contrast is in the poet's own mind, not in that of Aeneas. Gr. 
363. A. & S. 204. — 422. Strata ▼iarum = paved streets. Gr. 396, 
III. A. & S. 212, R. 3, N. 4. The expression is partly partitive and 
partly that of quality. — 423. A semicolon is commonly placed at 
Tyrii; but insto is found with the infin. in II. 627, X. 118. Pars 
. . . para ; i. e. part are at work on the fortifications, part on the 
houses. Cf. E. I. 65, 66. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 10. Ducere 
:= to extend. — 424. Moliri = to build. Arcem ; the citadel 
proper, as' distinguished from the arcesy v. 420. — 425. Optare = to 
choose; i. e. with auspices. Cf III. 132. Sulco is generally 
taken as the trench for the foundations. — 426. Jura— legunt, a 
zeugma iorjura consfiiuUnt magistrafusqtie legutit, Gr. 704. I. 2. A. 
& S. 323. I (2) {a). Sanotnm; the regular epithet of the Roman 
senate. — 427. Effodiunt. The harbor of Carthage was artificial. — 
429. Sbenia . . . luturis = for the future stage. For the strict 
meaning oi scena see on v. 164. The dat limits, not decoray but some 
omitted participle. Gr. 392, 1 5 398, 5. A. & S. 21 1, R. 5, N. -^430. 
Qualia implies some such antecedent clause as talis labor Poenos 
exercet See on v. 316. — Aeatate nova; in the first bright days 
of summer, when the hive, awakened from its Winter torpor, is busiest 
and most like a young colony. The divisions here introduced by quum 
imply, not different times, but difiererit parties, and so are parallel to 
the different occupations of the Carthagiiiians. Cf G. IV. 162- 169. 



53S NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

—432. Idquentia; from liquor^ not /Tfi^i). — 433; Keotare. d'; 
87. IL I. A. & S. 82, Ex. I (^). — 435. Pecua. Gr. 363. A. & S. 
204. — 436. Thymo. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 437. 
The want of a city is the key-jiote of the whole Aeneid. Aeneas 
envies the Carthaginians as he envies Helenus and Andromache, III; 
493 foil. —438. SuBpicit He has now descended the hill. — 439. 
Ikiirabile dictu. See on v. 1 1 1. — 440. Miscet probably borrows 
se from the previous line, as no other instance is quoted of its intran- 
sitive use. Virifl. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245. II. R. i. Ulli Gr. 
38& 4. A. & S. 225. II. 

441-493. Aeneas enters a grove, where a temple is building to 
Juno. There he sees represented the various incidents of the Trojan 
war. — 441. Lucus is a sacred grove. LaetisainiUB = very abun- 
dant ; and therefore causing/Vy/. Umbraa Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 
213 and R. i (3). — 442. Frimum; with e£fodere. — 443. Sig- 
nmu ; the^ not a^ sign ; i. e. the sign which Juno had, in some way 
not here described, taught them to expect — 444. Caput. A horse's 
head is common on Punic coins. C£ III. 539 folL Sic ; L e. by this 
sign. Fore ; sc. monstrarat, Bello. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 
445. Facilem victu = wealthy ; lit easy to live. Some take victu 
from vinco (in which case facilem victu = victorious) ; but cf. G. II. 
460, fundit humo facilem victum jusHssima tellus (of which expres- 
sion this, as Heyne remarks, is only a variety), and VIII. 318, asper 
victu venatus. Bello egregiam et facilem victu thus answers to the two 
characteristics of Carthage, v. 14, dives opum studiisque asperrimn 
belli, —446. Sidonia. Dido is so called from Sidon, the most an- 
cient city of Phoenicia, and the mother-city of Tyre. — 447. DoniB 
— divae = enriched by offerings and by the especial presence of the 
goddess. . It is a zeugma. See on coluisse, v. 16. There was doubt- 
less a statue, though this is implied rather than expressed by numen 
both here and in IV. 204. — 448. The threshold was of brass, with 
steps leading up to it Cui gradibus = from the steps of which. 
Gr. 384 ; 422. 2. A. & S. 223 ; 255, R. 3 (^). Nezaeque aere 
trabes = and doorposts bound (i. e. plated and fastened) with brass. 
Surgebant is to be supplied to trabes^ but so that nexcte aere shall be a 
predicate. See on v. 332. — 449. Foribua — a^nis. Gr. 704. I. i; 
384. A. & S. 323. I {b) ; 223. In translating supply while, 452. 
Rebus. Gr. 385. I. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 453. These representa- 
tions are probably on the doors or external walls of the temple. Sub 
then will express that Aeneas is looking up. Compare the sculptures 
mentioned at G. III. 26 ; A. VI. 2a Singula = the objects one by 
one. — 454. Quae — urbi . . . miratur; for miratur fortunam urbis 
= marvels at the prosperity of the city ; i. e. as shown in the splen- 
dor of its temple. Gr. 445, 8; 485. A. & S. 206 (6) (^) ; 266. 3. — 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 539 

455. ManuB = skill. Inter se = cwnpared with one another. 
Operuxnque laborem^ probably referring to the . magnitude of the 
work rather than to the elaborate detail. — 457. This line gives the 
reason why the battles have been painted, and prepares us for the 
thoughts that follow. — 458. Atridas = the sons of Atreus; i.e. 
Agamemnon and Menelaus. Priammu ; the son of Laomedon, and 
the last king of Troy. AmbobtiB ; i. e. to the sons of Atreus as one 
party, by his wrath on account of Brise'is and his consequent with- 
drawal from the contest ; and to Priam as the other party, in the slay- 
ing of so many of his sons. — 459. Jam = by this time. — 460. La- 
boris = misfortune, sorrow, disaster. — 461. Frlamus. Gr. 367. 3. 
A. & S. 209, R. 13. Sua. Gr. 449. II. 2. A. & S. 208 (7) [a). 
Land! = worth, merit Cfl V. 355. — 462. Rerum. See on v. 178. 
— 463. Haec faxna ; i. e. this knowledge of our glory. — 465. 
Multa. Gr. 371. i. 3) (2). A. & S. 205, R. 10. —466. Utl=how. 
Fergaxna, properly the citadel of Troy, is often used, as here, for 
Troy itself. — 467. Hac = here ; L e. in this part of the picture, or 
of the series of pictures. Fugerent Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. So 
premeret and instaret. — 468. Fhryges. See on v. 182. Cutm. 
Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. — 469. Rhesi; a Thracian 
prince, and an ally of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. 
Niveis — velia. An anachronism similar to that noticed in v. 169. 
The Homeric icXtVtat were huts of planks thatched with grass. In 
the treatment of antiquities, Virgil generally inclines to Roman no- 
tions, and especially to the usages of his own age. Veils. Gr. 428. 
A. & S. 21 1, R. 6. 470. Frimo — somno = which betrayed by the 
first sleep. Whether the first time they slept or the first part of their 
sleep, as being the deepest, is meant, the critics cannot decide. — 471. 
Tydldes. See on v. 97. Caede. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 
2.-472. Avertlt Gr. 467. III. A. & S. 145. 1. 3. Castxa ; I e. 
the Grecian camp. — 473. Guatassent . . . bibissent. Gr. 523. II. 
and I. A. & S. 263. 3. The subj. • denotes the intention of Dio- 
medes. Eustathius and Serv. say that this intention was to prevent 
the accomplishment of an oracle, that if the horses of Rhesiys tasted 
the grass or water of Troy the city should not be taken. Xanthum ; 
a name of the Scamander. See on Simois, v. 100. —474. Farte 
alia ; i. e. of the picture. Troilus ; a son of Priam, slain by Achil- 
les. Armls ; i. e. all but the spear, which he still held (v. 478)., — 
475. Atque couples impar congressus with infelix, I]npar = in 
unequal combat. Achilli Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 476. Fer- 
tur equis ; i. e. is run away 'with. C£ G. I. 513. Curm — inani 
He has fallen backwards from the car (war chariots were made low 
and open behind), but hangs by the reins, which were passed round 
the body, and which he still grasps with his hand. — 477. Hnio. Gr. 



540 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (W. — *78. Hasta; the spear of Troilus* 
479. luterea introduces another scene in the series of paintings* 
Non aequae = unpropitious. — 480. Feplum ; a large shawl, 
often very skilfUlly and richly wrought, an important part of female 
dress. It is here borne as a propitiatory offering. — 481. Peotora. 
Or. 380. A. & S. 234. II. —482. Bole. Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 
254, R. 3.-484. Auro. Gr. 416. A. & S. 252. C£ VI. 621. 
Vendebat ; i. e. to Priam, who came to beg the body of his son, 
bringing as a ransom ten talents of gold. — 486. Bpolia; i. e. of 
Hector. CurruB ; probably of Achilles. — 487. Inemea = un- 
armed ; and so suppliant —488. Frincipibufl. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 
245. II. R. I. — 489. MemnoniB. Memnon, an Ethiopian prince, 
son of Tithonus and Aurora, and nephew of Priam, came with a large 
body of Oriental and Ethiopian troops to assist his uncle in the Tro- 
jan war. He slew Antilochus, the son of Nestor, and was himself 
slain by Achilles in single combat. He is called niger as being an 
Ethiopian. He had arms made by Vulcan. — 490. Amazonidam. 
The Amazons were a warlike race of women said to inhabit the coun- 
try about Mt Caucasus. Towards the end of the Trojan war, they 
came, under their queen Penthesilea, to the assistance of Priam ; but 
the queen was killed by Achilles. Peltia. Gr. 428. A. &S.211, 
R. 6. —491. FentlieaUea. Gr. 612. III. 5. A. & S. 283. I. £& 
6. — 492. Ejcaertae = bare, uncovered. — 493. BeUatrix . . . 
Virgo = as a warrior — though a virgin. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 
Both words are made strongly emphatic by their position. 

494. Dardanio = Trajano, Aeneae. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. 
II. — 495. Obtutu = steady gaze. — 496. Forma. Gr. 429. A. 
& S. 250. I. Incessit conveys a notion of majesty, as incedo in v. 
46. Juvenum. See on G. I. 500. —498. Qualis. The corre- 
sponding talis is found in v. 503. Eurotae ; the principal river of 
Laconia, on the banks of which Sparta stood, where Diana was wor- 
shipped with peculiar honors. • Cyntiii ; a mountain in the island 
of Delos, celebrated as the birthplace of Apollo and Diana. — 499. 
Exercet . . . choros = leads the choral dances. — 500. Ghlonie* 
rantur = are gathered together. Oreades. See on £. V. 75. Hu« 
mero. Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 501. Gradie]>0=a3 
she walks. — 502. Latona; the mother of Apollo and Diana. — 
503. Be ferebat = advanced. See on v. 189. Cf. V. 290. — 504 
Instans — futuris; i. e. urging on the work which was to set up 
her kingdom. — 505. ForibuB — templi = at the gate of tilje god- 
dess, in the centre (lit of the vaulted roof) of the temple. ForHfus 
divae is the gate of the cella^ or chapel, in which was tiie statue of 
the goddess. — 506. Armis ; i. e. of her attendants, body-guards. 
Bplio ; by^ not <m^ the throne. Subnixa mean3 supported from be- 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 541 

neath. — 507. Jura — legeaque = a constitution and laws. Jura 
are principles of law, leges special enactments. — 508. Partibua. 
Gr. 414 and 3, A. & S. 247 and 2. — Borte. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & 
S. 247 and 3. The common phrase is sorUm trahere, — 509. Conr 
cursu ; probably the throng of Carthaginians collecting around them. 
Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 510. Anthea. See on v. 181. 
doantliiim C£ v. 222. Sergesius is mentioned for the first time. 

— 512. Penitus = far away. Oras. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 
5 (r). — 513. Obatupuit — metuque = both he himself and 
Achates were at the same instant struck dumb both with joy and 
fear. Perculstis (for which most editions have percussus) is a partici- 
ple, used as a synonyme of obstupuit, the ablatives referring to both 
words. On simtil . . . simul comp. V. 675. Obstupuit and peroilsm 
refer of course to both subjects. Gr. 463. I. ; 439. A. & S. 209, R. 
12, N. 9} 205, R. 2, Ex. — 514. Avidi should be taken closely 
with ardebant, as if it were oevidf. — 53.5. Hea — incognita is ex- 
plained by the questions in vv. 51 7 foil. — 5.1^. Pi»8iipiilant = they 
repress their emotions. Cava = enshrouding. Speculantur =^ 
they watch (to discover) ; L e. as from a secure place of observation. 

— 517. Fortuna v sc sit — 518. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 232 
(3). — Cunctis . . . navibua ; join with /ecti, — 519. Orante3 
veniam = to su^ for favor ; i. e. for the favors .specified in v. 525. 
The use of the pres. part, to express purpose is unusual. CL scitan- 
Um, II. 114. Gr. 578. V. A. & S. 274, R. 2 («). — 520- Intxp- 
gressi; sc. j2/»/'. — 521. Mazimus; sc tuitu, — 522. Qpndere. 
See on v. 66. — 523. Gtentes . . . auperbas ; i. e. the neighboring 
barbarians of Africa, not the Carthaginians, to whom gentes woulfl 
not be applicable. Maria — veoU = borne over all seas. Maria 
may be governed by per understood, or may be referred to Gr. 380. 
A & S. 234. II. — 525. Infandoaj L e. so horrible as to be unutter- 
able. The Carthaginians were treating the Trojans as pirates. — 526. 
Pic. See oxvptetas, v. 10. Propiua = more closely. — 52^7. Popu- 
lare . . . vertere. Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 271, N. 3. Penate8 = 
homes. Gr. 705. II. A & §. 324. 2. — 528. Raptaa . . . vertere 
= rapere et vertere. See on v. 69. Vertare = avertere, Cf v. 472. -^ 
529. Non — ammo=such violence belongs not to our nature (pio 
generic v. 526). Superbia = audacity, daring. — 530. For the con- 
struction comp. V. 12 and note. Heaperiam. Gr. 373. A. & S. 
230. Cognopiine. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 532. Oienotri; 
said to be so called from Oenotrus, a king of Arcadia, who planted 
a colony in the south of Italy. Fama. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. -r- 
539w Dudaae. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. Ducia ; I e. Italics, a fabu- 
lous king of Italy. Such names, derived from the country, but said 

• to give name to it, are called £ponymous, Gtontem ; the nation, for 



543 NOTES ON yiRGIL. 

the land. — 534. Hio otmufl ftiit = this was our course. Some 
editions have huc^ but it does not rest on so good authority as hie. 
Such unfinished lines are often met with in the Aeneid. See Ufe, 

— 535. Bubito — flucta = rising with a sudden swell. Adsurgem 
is intended to combine the rising of the star and the rising of the wave. 
For adsurgem fluctu in the latter sense comp. G. II. i6o and note. 
Nimboaua ; because the rising, and also the setting, of the constel- 
lation of Orion was believed to be accompanied with storms. The 
rising is about midsummer, which agrees with the time here, v. 756. — 
536. Caeca = latentia. Penitos. See on v. 512. Procaoibns 
= boisterous. Austria ; for veniis. See on, v. 108. — 537. Buper- 
ante sale = the sea overpowering (us). C£ victt hiems, v. 122. — 
53SI Fauci ; i. e. a poor remnant compared with the whole. CC 
VI. 744. Adnavimua = drifted, floated. C£ IV. 613 ; VI. 358. 
Vestris . . . oris is epexegetical of hue. See oii E. I. 54- — 539. 
Quod genua = what sort of a race ; quod inquiring after the char- 
acter rather than the name. Quae . . . tarn barbara . . . permittlt 
See on G. II. 315. Patria morem permitHt is equivalent to terra 
morem sibi proprium permitHt See on G. I. 52. — 540. There is 
a pathetic force in hospitio : we are barred even from the welcome 
refuge which the shore gives the shipwrecked man. — 541. Bella 
cient ; referring to the guards which Dido stationed on the shore to 
prevent strangers from landing. See v. 564. Prima . . . terra = on 
the edge of the land ; i. e. on the shore. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, 
R. 17. — 543. At nefandi = yet at least fear the gods, who re- 
member the righteous and the unrighteous deed. Spero in the sense 
of look for, expect, apprehend, is chiefly confined to poetry. Cf. IV. 
419. There is no occasion to understand yZv^ after deos, Fandi'atqm 
nefandi =^fas atque nefas, — 544. Rez — nobia = Aeneas was our 
king ; not, we had a king called Aeneas ; which would imply that 
Aeneas was unknown. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Quo 

— alter ; sc. neque, Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2.-545. Pietate . . . 
bello. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. So officio, v. 548. — 546. -Veaci- 
tur = enjoys, breathes. Aura aetheria is the upper air as con- 
trasted with the lower world (crudelibus umbris). — 547. ITmbxis. 
Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 548. Non metus; sc est 
nobis ; i^ e. if our king is safe, we have no cause of fear. This inter- 
pretation is in harmony with v. 562. Officio — poeniteat = and 
may you not repent of having taken the lead in the rivalry of good 
deeds. Certasse, like poeniteat^ assumes that Dido has already done 
what Ilioneus asks her to do. — 549. iSt = moreover, besides. It is 
difiicult to determine the exact point of this sentence, as et may mean, 
besides Aeneas, we have other protectors who may receive us and 
repay you, or, besides Carthage, we have other cities where we.ma^ 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 543 

settle, and are not come to intrude on you, or lastly, besides Italy, we 
have another chance if our hopes there are gone. The last would 
accord with the remainder of the speech, which dwells on the two 
courses open to them, that of fulfilling their Italian destiny should 
Aeneas be alive, or that of settling in Sicily should he and his heir 
be dead. — 550. Annaque. Arvaqm is the common reading. — A 
sangoine ; without a participle or word indicating origin, V. 299. 
—551. Liceat = permit (us). Subducere is opposed to deducere, 
to launch. — 552. Silvia.. Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 254, R. 3. 
Striiif;ere remoa; i. e. to clear branches or trees of their leaves 
and twigs for oars. Cf G. II. 368. — 553. Construe ut — petamua 
before si datur, etc Italiam. See on v. 2. — 555. Pater optime. 
Cf. V. 358. — 556. Spea . . . luli ; not the hope of the kingdom en- 
tertained by lulus, but the hope of manhood supplied or afforded by 
lulus. luli is an objective gen. Cf IV. 274 ; VI. 364. — 557. At 
. . . Baltem = yet at least. Sicania; i. e. Sicilia, Sedeaque pa- 
rataa ; opposed to those which they would have yet to build. Cf IV. 
75. — 558. Unde hue advectL See on v. 34. Regem — Acea- 
ten ; i. e. seek a king in Acestes, in place of Aeneas. — 559. Tali- 
bua; sc. verbis. The omission of the verb of saying is so common 
in the Aeneid and the supply is so easily made, that no further notice 
need be taken of it. Cuncti — fremebant ; repeated at V. 385, 
where,- as here, simul means not that they shouted all together, which 
is expressed by cunctiy but that they shouted assent to the speaker. — 
560. Dardanidae ; the Trojans. See on Trcja, v. i. — 561. Vul- 
tum. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 562. Corde. Gr. 425. 3. 2). 
A. & S. 251. — 563. Rea dura = my hard case; i. e. the difficulty 
she had in keeping her ground on a hostile territory, and her fears 
fi"om her brother. — 564. Moliri implies effort See on G. I. 329. 
Here it intimates the reluctance with which she had recourse to such 
expedients. Custode ; for custodibus, as often miieSf equesy pedes, 
remext etc. for their respective plurals. Cf. II. 20, 495. — 565. 
Neaoiat Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5.-566. VirtuteB = 
gallant deeds. — 567. Obtunaa adeo = so dull ; not, unfeeling. 
Pectora = minds ; not hearts. — 568. Nee — urbe. Both this 
and the preceding line are intended to rebut the supposition of igno- 
rance respecting the history of Troy, not of want of feeling. The 
notion seems to be, We do not lie so far out of the pale of the civil- 
ized world, — out of the circuit of the sun and so out of the course of 
fame. Comp. VI. 795. — 569. Heaperiam. See on v. 530 and 
c£ IV. 345. See also on Ov. M. I. 113. Satumiaque arva 
See on E. IV. 6, and cf. VI. 794. See on LaviTtaqiie litoray v. 2. — 
570. Brycis. Eryx is the name of a very ancient king of Sicily, slain 
by Hercules ; of a well-known mountain in the western part of that 



S44 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

island ; and of a tOT^ on the northwestern slope of this mountain. 
Optatis = choose ; not, wish. — 571. Auxilio tutos = protected 
by an escort Tutos is a participle, as in VI. 238. — 572. Bt ; as in 
V. 549. Mecum paxiter = on equal terms with me. — 573. XTr- 
bem. Gr. 445. 9. A. & S. 206 (6) {b), — 574. Mihi See on uUi, 
V. 440. — 575. Noto. Sec on v. 108. — 576. Afforet. Gr. 488. 1. 
I and 2. A. & S. 263. i and R. Certos = trusty messengers. — 578. 
Bi= to see whether ; to see being implied in lustrare. — 579. Ani- 
mum. See on v. 228. ArrecH = excited. — 582. Dea. Gr. 425. 3. i). 
A. & S. 246. — 583. Receptos ; sc. esse, — 584. Unus ; Orontes. 
Cf. vv. 113 foil. ; VI. 334.-585. Dictis . . . matriB. Cf. w. 390, 391. 
— 587. In — apertum= dissolves into clear ether. Pur gat borrows 
se from scindit, — 589. Os. See on v. 228. — 591. Purpureum = 
glowing. See on E. V. 38. Laetos . . . honores = a sparkling 
lustre. — 592. Manua = the artist's hand ; same as artificum manuSf 
V. 455. Aut; sc. ^ua/e decus est — 593. Farlus; from Paros, one 
of the Cyclades, a group of islands in the Aegean sea, celebrated for 
its excellent marble. — 594. Cunctis ; with impromsus. Gr. 391. 
A. & S. 222. 3. — 597. Sola is to be Understood loosely : alone of 
those not allied to Troy, and so excluding Helenus and Acestes. In- 
fandos. See on v. 525. Miaerata. Gr. 577. A. & S. 274. 3 {a), 
Labores. See on v. 460. — 598. Nos . . . urbe — socias = dost 
make us the partners of your city and your home. The construction 
seems to be socias (tibi or tecum) urbe, domo, Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 
247 and 3. Reliquiae Danaum. See on v. 30. — 599. Ex- 
haustOB = attritosy vexatos, Omniiixn ; the only instance in 
which Virgil has used this form of the word. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). 
A. & S. 213 and R. i (3). — 601. Non — nofitrae = it is not with- 
in our means, in our jwwer. Gr. 401 ; 402 and I. A. & S. 211, R. 8 
(3). Nee — Dardaniae = nor (is it in the power) of the Dardanian 
race, whatever of it there is anjrwhere. Join gentis with quidguid, — 
602. Magnum — orbem ; both as fugitives and captives. — 603. 
Qua — numina. Cf. II. 536. V. 688. Quid. Gr. 362. A. &S.2ia 
— 604. Si quid — recti ; i. e. if justice and conscious rectitude be 
of any account anjrwhere on earth. Bibi . . . recti Gr. 391. 5, 
A. & S. 222, R. 3. — 605. Ferant. Gr. 488. 1. A. & S. 260, R. 6. 
Quae — saecula. For the construction cf v. 539. G. II. 315.— 
607. Montibua — conveza = the shadows shall traverse the hol- 
lows of the mountains. Umbrae ; not the shadows of the woods, but 
those cast by the hills themselves. £. I. 84. Lustrabunt ; of the 
shadows moving with the sun. With convexa cf. cowvexo nemorum, 
v. 310, and the word convcdlis, — 609. Repeated from E. V. 78. — 
610. Cumque ; separated from quae by tmesis. — 614. Casu ... 
tanto = at the stupendous disaster. — 615, 616. Quia . . . casua 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. 545 

= quae forhina, C£ v. 24a The meaning seems to be, " How in- 
veterate the ill-fortune that persecutes you ! how savage the violence 
that leads you here ! " the question being one of wonder. In v. 9 he 
is driven through casus ; here the casus drives him. IxnmanibtiB = 
savage; i. e. with reference to the Libyans. AjppViOBt^^appellit^ 
V. 377. — 617. Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 310. i. Notice the non-elision 
of* the 0. — 618. Alma. See on G. I. 7. Phrygii See on v. 182. 

— 619. Teucrum; not the first king of Troy (see on v. i), but a 
son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and Hesione, daughter of Laome- 
don and sister of Priam, and the step-brother of Ajax the elder. See 
on Hon C. I. 7. 21. 622. Cyprum ; a large island in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, off the south coast of Asia Minor, renowned for its firuitful- 
ness and its rich mines of copper. See on Hor. C. III. 29. 60. Di- 
cione. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Cf. v. 236. — 623. Casus 
may mean strictly/?// here and in II. 507. Mlhi . Gr.388. II. A. &S. 
225. II. — 624. Pelasgi ; a name properly applied to the most ancient 
inhabitants of Greece, put poetically for Graeci, — 625. ^Hostis = 
though an enemy. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Ferebat = used to ex- 
tol — 626. Se . . . volebat = gave himself out (to be), gave out 
that he (was) ; L e. being the son of Hesione, the daughter of Laom- 
edon, king of Troy. See on Teucrum, v. 619. — 627. Juvenes. 
See on Hor. C. I. 2. 41. — 628. Per multos . . . labores ; with 
Jactatam. C£ VI. 693.-629. Consistere terra. Cf. VI. 807. 

— 631, 632. Simul . . . simul = at the same time, both . . . and. 
Here, as in II. 220, they couple two verbs with the same subject : 
in V. 513, V. 675, two subjects with the same verb. Templis. Gr. 
422 and I. A. & S. 254, R. 3. Indicit honQrem =7 orders a sacri- 
fice ; L e. in honor of the preservation of Aeneas. — 636. Munera 

— dei= (and) the gifts and joy of the god ; i e. wine. Most of the 
late editors adopt the reading diiy which they make a contraction for 
dieiy and understand the phrase to mean, as gifts and the means of 
rejoicing for the day, construing munera and laetitiam in apposition 
with the preceding accusatives. Dei is said to be the reading of 
almost all the existing MSS., is preferred by Forb. and Henry, and 
adopted by Con., whose text we follow. It is certainly natural that 
wine should form a part of Dido's presents ; and the expression is 
resolvable into munera laetifica dei laetitiae dataris, Cf. v. 734, laetitiae 
Bacchus dator. — SZl, Interior. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. 
Regali — instniitur == is being set out in the splendor of royal 
magnificence. Splendida is proleptic (see on G. II. 353), belonging 
in sense with the predicate, but in construction with the subject 
Liuni ; wi|h splendida, Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 638. 
Mediis . . . tectis is explained by domus interior, — 639. Vestes 
for stragulcte vestes =iCO\&i\&\s, Sc. sunt or instruuntur. So for the 

35 



546 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

Other nominatives. Ostro; with vestes, Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 

— 640. On the table was spread massive silver plate, and vessels of 
gold chased with legends. Ingtns probably includes both massive- 
ness and quantity. The gold seems to bie plate also, cups, etc — 
642. Ducta = traced. — 644. Rapidum explains praetnittit. Acha- 
tes is sent express to bring Ascanius in time for the feast which b 
about to begin. — 645. Ferat = bidding him to report. Ferat . . . 
ducat are perhaps best explained as an oratio obliqua; Ascanio far 
ipsumque due, Gr. 530. II. and 3. 2). A. & S. 266. 2, R. 1 (b), 
praemittit implying a message or command. Haec refers to the inci- 
dents that have just transpired. — 646. Carl = fond. Btat implies 
perpetuity and constancy. — 647. Miinera = as presents ; L e. for 
the queen. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. -— 648. Pallam. The pal/a was 
a long garment or robe worn by women and by persons of (Ugnity, 
especially by the gods. Signia auroque ; for si^ms aurns. Gr. 414 
and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 649. Circumtextum = bordered all 
around. Acantlio; i. e. the figures of the leaves and flowers of this 
herb were interwoven in the border of the garment. — 650. Argivae 
= Graecae. Helenae. Helena, daughter of Jupiter and Leda, and 
wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, was the most beautiful woman of 
her age. In the absence of her husband, Paris, son of king Priam, 
carried her away, which was the cause of the ten years' war against 
Troy, and of the destruction of that city. Mycenia ; put for Greece. 
See on v. 284. — 651. Pergama. See on 466. "Petcret. Gr. 669. 
V. A. & S. 309. 2(1)..— 654. Maxima ; sc natu, CoUo ; dat of 
the remote object after ferre understood. Monile bacoattun = a 
bead necklace. — 655. Duplicem — auroque = double with gems 
and gold ; duplicem probably referring merely to the combination or 
twofold character of the materials of which it was made. Gr. 414 
and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 656. Haec = these commands. Cele- 
rans = celeriter exseqtiens, 

657 - 694. Venus distrusts Dido, and la3rs a plot to secure her affec- 
tions by substituting Cupid for Ascanius, whom she conveys to Idalia. 

— 657. Cytherea. See on v. 257. — 658. Faciem . . . et ora= 
in shape and features. — 659. Donia ; with incendat Gr. 414 and 4 
A. & S. 247 and 3. Furentem incendat = inflame to madness. 
Furentem is proleptic — 660. Ossibus. Ossa is put for the seat of 
feeling, like medullae. — 661. Domum. Cf. v. 284 Ambiguam 
= unreliable. Cf. Junonia hospitia, v. 671, and IV. 96. Bilinguea; 
treacherous : an anticipation of the Roman feeling against Carthage, 
which found expression in the proverbial phrase Punica fides, — 662. 
TTrit = disturbs, disquiets (her). Sub noctem = toward night, as 
night approaches. — 664. Meae — solus ; i. e. (qui) solus (es) 
tneae vires, mea magna potentia, — 665. Tela Typhoia; L e. thun- 



THE AENEID. BOOK I. S47 

derbolts : the missiles are called Typhoean from the giant TyphoetiSy 
whom Jupiter slew with them. — 666. Numina = divine power. — 
668. Jactetur. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 669. Nota ; a Grecism 
for notum, A. & S. 205, R. 8 (<5). Dolore. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 
247 and I. — 671, Quo se . . . vertant ; L e. what may be their issue. 
Jononia; under the influence of Juno. — 672. Cardine = at a 
crisis. Gr, 426 and i. A. & S. 253 and N. i. — 674. Ne — mutet 
= that she may not change through the influence of any divinity ; i. e. 
by Juno*s influence. — 675. Mecum = along with me, as well as I. 
Teneatur ; sc tU fron^ the preceding ne, — 676. Qua ; i. e. qua 
ratione, — 677. Regius . . . puer. C£ rex Aeneas^ v. 544. — 679. 
Pelago. Gr. 422. 2. A, & S. 255, R. 3. {b), Re8tantia= saved. 
— 680. Cythera. See on v. 257. — 681. Idalium ; a mountain 
and town in the island of Cyprus, pre-eminently sacred to Venus, 
who hence bore the surname Idalia. •— 682. Qua. See on v. 18. 
D0I08 = the plot. Mediusne occurrere = to present himself 
in the midst of it ; i. e. to interfere with it — 683. Faciem. See 
on V. 658. — Noctem . . . ampliua. Gr. 378 ; 417. 3. A. & S. 236 ; 
256, R. 6. — 684. Falle dolo =: personate. Notes ; not known to 
Cupid, \iM\ = soUtos. — 686. Laticemque Ijya.evLni=vmum, See 
on G. II. 229. — 688. Fallasque veneno ; i. e. poison her unob- 
served. Veneno; i. e. of love. — 689. Caraa See on v. 646. — 
690. Gressu, with incedit. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. 
Gaudens, like laeius in v. 696, expresses the sly pleasure with which 
he enters into his part Incedit. Cf. w. 46, 405. — 691. Ascanio. 
Gr. 39a 5 ; 392. 1. A. & S. 21 1, R. 5 (i). — 692. Irrigat = diff^uses. 
C£V.854. Gremio. Gr.422. A. & S. 254,11.3. Dea. See on 
v. 412. — 693. Idaliae ; the same as Idalium^ v. 681. — 694. Flori- 
bus . . . umbra ; with complectitur, — 697. Venit Tense ? Au- 
laeis . . . suberbis =with rich tapestries. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, 
R. 6. — 698. Aurea ; here a dissyllable. Composuit . . . locavit 
Gr. 471. I. A. & S. 258, A. Bponda; properly the open side of 
the couch, here the couch itsel£ Mediam = in the centre ; i. e. of 
the triclinium^ or table-couch, which extended on three sides of the 
table. This seems to have been the host's place. — 700. Super- 
may be taken either as a preposition {comg,fronde super viridiy E. L 
81) or adverbially — on purple spread over (the couch), a view sup- 
ported by v. 708. — 701. Cererem; for panem, Ct v. 177. Ca- 
nistris ezpediunt== serve out from baskets. Gr.422. 2. A.&S. 
25S» R- 3 (^)« — 702. Tonsls . . . villis = with shorn nap ; i. e. 
smooth, soft Gr. 428. A. & S. 21 1, R. 6. — 703. Intus ; L e. in the 
inner apartment where the culinary operations were carried on. 
Famulae. Gr. 460. 3. A. & S. 209, R. 4. Quibus ; sc. est, Gr. 
390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Ordine =in turn ; referring to 



J 48 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

the division or course of labor among the servants. C£ V. 102. Gr. 
414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Ordine longo is the common read- 
ing. Longam . . . penum = the long store of food : longam refer- 
ring either to the arrangement of the dishes in long rows ojr to the 
quantity ; i. e. a store that will last for a long time. A passage of 
Ausonius (Idyll. 3. 27) seems to confirm the latter explanation : Con- 
duntur fructus geminum mihi semper in annum. Cut Hon longapenus^ 
huic quoque prompta fames, Serv., too, confirms it in his explanation 
of the difiierence between penus and cellarium. He says that ceUarium 
\spaucorum dierumy penus temporis longL Struere will then have 
nothing to do with the office of structor, the arranger of the dishes, 
but will be the same as instruere= to furnish, or replienish. — 704. 
Cura. Gr. 362. A. & S. 21a FlammJB — Penates probably 
refers to the burning of incense for the worship of the Penates. 
Some understand it of keeping up the fires for cooking. — 706. Qui 
Gr. 439. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 2 (i). Onerent . . . ponant. Gr. 506. 
A. & S. 264. 5. — 708. Toils — pictis is merely a poetical phrase 
for, bidden to the banquet. — 710. Flagra2ites= glowing. — 711, 
Fictum. C£ v. 649. — 712. Pesti = exiHo. Cf. IV. 9a— 713. 
Mentem. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 715. Complezu . . . col- 
loque = in the embrace and on the neck. — 716. Falsi = pretended. 
718. Gremio fovet = cherishes in her bosom. He was probably 
reclining next to her at table. This explains interdum. — 719. In- 
sideat= is resting upon (thee). — 720. Aoidaliae; an epithet of 
Venus, derived fi*om Addalius^ a spring in Boeotia, where the Graces, 
the attendants of Venus, used to bathe. — 721. Praevertere = pre- 
possess. Vivo . . . amore ; i. e. for a living object — 722. De- 
sueta = (long) unused (to it) ; L e. to love. 

723. Mensae = the courses. See on v. 216. — 724. Cratieras. 
Gr. 98. A. & S. 85, Ex. 2. These were vessels in which the wine, 
according to the custom of the ancients, who very seldom drank it 
pure, was mixed with water, and firom which the cups were filled. 
Vina coronant See on G. II. 528. — 725. Fit strepitud. The 
noise (i. e. of conversation and festivity) begins again after the pause 
made by clearing away the food. — 726. Aureis. See on v. 698. — 
727. Funalia appear to be tapers formed of a twist (Junes) of some 
fibrous plant covered with wax. — 728. Hie; of time. C£ 11. 122 ; 
III. 369. Oemmis auroque. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. 
— 729. Quam ; sc. implere mero, — 730. A Belo ; sc. ortL Cf. 
v. 160, G. n. 243. Belus here is not Dido*s father (v. 621), but the 
supposed founder of the Tyrian dynasty. — 733. Velis=s grant 
Gr. 488 and I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Hujus ; sc dieu Gr. 406. II. 
A. & S. 216. — 734. Bona J'lino = Juno, the giver of blessings ; 
sc adsit. Wr. says, join adsit bona. — 735. Coetom . . . celebrate 



TH& AENEID. BOOK- II. 549 

= solemnize the festive gathering. FaventeA. She first bespeaks 
the fevor of the gods, and then of the people. — 736. In mensam; 
the altar, as it were, of Hospitable Jove. Latioum . . . honoi^ein 
= a libation of wine. — 737. Libato (sc. honore) = the libation hav- 
ing been made. Libato may perhaps be the impersonal participle 
used absolutely. Gr. 431. 5. A. & S. 257, R. 9 (i.) [c), Summo 

— ore ; i. e. she barely tasted the remaining contents of the bowl. 

— 738. lucrepitaxiB = challenging ; not implying reproach, but 
merely invitation. Impiger = not slow. Hausit and se proluit are 
opposed to summo terms attigit ore, — 739. Se proluit = drenched 
himsel£ Auro. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324 2.-740. Ctinitus. 
The bards used to wear their hair long, in imitation of Apollo. 

— 741, Personat = fills the hall. Docuit ; not to play the harp, 
but the natural sciences referred to in the following lines. Atlas. 
See on IV. 247. — 742. Labores. See on G. II. 478. — 744. Arc- 
turum. See on Ov. M. II. 176. Hyadaa. See on Ov. M. III. 
595. Geminosque Triones. See on Ov. M. II. 171. —745. 
Tinguere soles. See on G. II. 481. — 747. Ingeminant; abso- 
lute. Cf. G. I. 333. — 751. Aurorae . . . filius. See on v. 489. 
Arxnis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 752. Diomedis. 
See on v. 97. Quantus. The notion of bulk is prominent, but not 
the only one. — 753. Ixnmo = nay rather ; i. e. instead of answering 
more questions in detail, tell us the whole story firom the first. — 754. 
Casus tuorum ; referring to those who perished at Troy. — 755. 
Nam ; I e. you have the experiences of seven years to tell ; it will 
be better, therefore, that we should hear them continuously. 



THE AENEID. Book II. 

The voice of criticism has unanimously fixed on this book, along 
with the Fourth and Sixth, as affording the best evidence of the true 
greatness of Virgil. Donatus says that the poet himself chose these 
three books to read to Augustus as a specimen of his work. This 
may or may not be true, but it indicates at any rate the judgment 
passed by antiquity ; and modem opinion has not been slow to ratify 
the verdict. 

The subject of the present book is the capture and sack of Troy ; 
and its conception is eminently fortunate. Homer had made Ulysses 
tell the story of his wanderings to Aldnous, and so had supplied the 



550 NOTES ON VIRGIU 

canvas on which the younger artist might work ; but the tale of Troy 
taken forms no part of the narrative of the Odyssey ; it is briefly sung 
by a bard, whose strains move the tears of Ulysses, as the Trojan 
portraits of Carthage have moved those of Aeneas ; but that is ail. 
It was open to Virgil to make his hero tell the whole story of the de- 
struction of Troy without trespassing on Homer's ground ; and he 
seized the opportunity. The subject could not ^1 to be most im- 
pressive, and it is introduced with perfect propriety. Dido, it is true, 
knew the main incidents of the siege ; but for that very reason she 
would wish to hear them from the chief living witness on the side of 
Troy. Virgil, too, has shown his wisdom not only in what he has said, 
but in what he has left unsaid. Dido*s curiosity would naturally ex- 
tend over the whole ten years ; but the poet knew that a detail of the 
siege, natural as it might be, would weary his readers. He tells us 
that the queen asked of Priam and Hector, of Diomedes and Achilles ; 
but he does not require us to listen to Aeneas till he can concentrate 
our attention on " the last agony of Troy," the one night in which 
the city was taken and sacked. 



ARGUMENT. 

Aeneas, in compliance with Dido's request, details the particulars 
of the capture of Troy, so far as he had witnessed them. After ex- 
pressing reluctance to fight his disagreeable battles over again, the 
hero goes on to tell of the despondency of the Greeks in the tenth 
year of the war, together with their stratagem of the horse. Lurking 
in Tenedos, they send a cunning fellow, Sinon, to prepare the way 
for the reception of the wooden horse, which they pretended to be a 
return for the stolen Palladium. The Trojans are credulous, and 
believe the whole, but Laocoon sees through the deceit, and exposes 
it. His warnings, however, are vain ; and he is himself slain by two 
serpents sent against him by Minerva (1-249). The Greeks return 
from Tenedos, the horse is opened, and the city is taken (250-267). 
Aeneas is warned by Hector's shade to consult for his safety, but he 
is too valiant to follow the suggestion before he has tried what might 
can do. He makes an attempt, and is for a while successful, till, hav- 
ing assumed the armor of some Greeks, whom they had -slain, his 
associates are mistaken by the Trojans, and many of them killed by 
their own friends (268-437). Then follows the sack of Priam's 
palace, and the murder of the king himself (438 - 558). Aeneas, on 
his way homeward to save his father, is prevented from slaying Helen 
by a vision (559-631). Anchises refuses to seek safety, but at last, 
encouraged by heavenly signs, consents (632 - 704). The flight (705 - 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. 55 1 

735). Creusa, the wife of Aeneas, is lost in the confusion (736- 746). 
Aeneas, returning in search of her to the city, finds it wholly occupied 
by the Greeks (747-767). The ghost of Creusa appears to him, 
consoles, and counsels him to depart (768-794). He returns to his 
father and followers, and takes shelter in Mount Ida (795-804). 

1. Contdcuere . . . tenebant Mark the change of tense, and 
also the intense interest expressed by intenii, — 2. Toro ; the couch 
on which he was reclining at the banquet — 3. Infandmn. See 
on I. 525. Notice the emphatic position of the word. — 4. Ut (= how. 
See on I. 466) follows renovare dolorem, which is practically equiv- 
alent to narrare. Translate : to revive unutterable sorrow by relating 
how, &c Iiamelitabile is proleptic. — 5. Quaeque = and (the 
things) which. The clause is epexegetical of dolorem, which is first 
explained generally by the clause Trojanas . . . Danaiy and then lim- 
ited to the scenes which Aeneas witnessed and those in which he 
took an active part. — 6. Fando = in the course of speaking, while 
uttering. Gr. 566. 3 ; 426 and i. A. & S. 275, R. 4, N. 2 ; 253 and 
N. I. — 7. Myrmidonuxn Dolopumve ; with quis, not miles. The 
Myrmidones and Dolopes were the soldiers of Achilles. So the epi- 
thet duri is intended to mark the soldier by the general.. Ulizi Gr. 
69. 5. A. & S. 73, R. Ulysses, the son of Laertes and Anticlea, 
king of the islands of Ithaca and Dulichium, and the husband of Pe- 
nelope, was distinguished among the Grecian chiefs for superior pru- 
dence and cunning. He is the hero of Homer's Odyssey. 8. Tem- 
peret (sc sibi) = could refrain, Gr. 486. II. ; 476. A. & S. 260, 
R. 5 ; 145, N. 4. Zit jam = and besides already : an additional 
reason for declining the task. Coelo. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 
3 {b), — 9. Praecipitat = is hurrying down ; L e. midnight being 
past The verb is here intransitive. C£ (wertity I. 104,402. — 10. 
Amor = desire. Sc. est tibi. Cf. VI. 133, where amor is immedi- 
ately explained by cupido, Cognosoere . . . audire. Gr. 563. 6, 
A. & S. 275, III. N. I. 11. Laborem. See on I. 460. — 12. 
MemixiiBse = at the remembrance. Horret . . . refagiL Mark 
the change of tense : is shuddering . . . and has already shrunk from 
it through grie£ See on G. I. 330. — 13. Incipiam=I will under- 
take. — 13 - 39. Despairing of reducing Troy by siege, the Greeks 
feign departure, having first built a wooden horse, which they fill with 
armed men, and leave behind them as a pretended offering to Pallas. 
The Trojans pour out of the town, and question what should be done 
with the horse, some being for taking it in, others for destroying it 
— 13k Fracti ; nearly the same as fessi, v. 109, but stronger. Re- 
pulsi ; i. e. beaten back from the attack on Troy. — 14. Labenti- 
bus; not = lapiSf the point of completion not having yet been 



552 NOTES ON VIRGIU 

reached — 15. Instar montis ; with reference to the height rather 
than to the bulk. C£ w. 185, 186* Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Pal- 
ladia. Pallas is selected from the deities favorable to the Greeks as 
the patroness of art See on G. I. 18. — 16. Intexont for Uxuni=^ 
build, construct. Abiete. Gr. 669. II. and 3 ; 414 and 4. A. & S. 
306. I and (3) ; 247 and 3. — 17. Votum (sc esse) = that it is a 
votive offering ; L e. to Pallas for a safe return to their country. Serv. 
says there was an inscription on the horse to this effect — 18. Hue 
. . . caeco later! = into this, namely, within its dark side. See on 
£. I. 54. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Delecta virnm . . . corpora; 
poetically for delectos viros, Sortiti = having cast lots (for thera). — 
19. Penitua; with complent — 20. Milite. See on I. 564. — 21. 
Tenedoa; a small but fertile island in the Aegean sea, opposite 
Troy, and about five miles from the shore. Dives opum. See on 

1. 14. — 23. Tantam sinus = there is only a bay ; i. e. the bay 
being all for which the place was then remarkable. Male fida =: 
hardly safe, unsafe. Cf. G. I. 105. — 24. Huo; with /r^Tw^/r, though 
it may go with condunt — 25. Abiisae rati ; sc. eos sumus, My- 
cenas ; for Graeciam. — 26. Teucria. See on 1. 1. — 27. Dorica ; 
for Graeca. — 29. Tendebat = pitched his tent For the implied 
anachronism see on 1. 469. — 30. Classibus hie locus. The ships 
were drawn up on the shore, and the tents pitched among them. 
The contrast is between classibus and ctcie : here they encamped; 
here they fought with us. Acie. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 

2. — 31. Minervae = to Minerva : the objective gen. The offer- 
ing was made to Minerva as one of the tutelary deities of Troy', whom 
the Greeks had outraged, and as such it was virtually an offering to 
Troy and the Trojans, — a consideration which reconciles the present 
passage with those where it is spoken of as a gift to the Trojans (w. 
36, 44, 49), and accounts for the epithet exitiale. That some sudi 
object was pretended before Sinon came forward to develop the story, 
we have seen in v. 17. — 32. Mirantur. Gr. 461 and i. A. & S. 
209, R. II (2). Thymoetes; one of the eldw« of Troy. A sooth- 
sayer had predicted, that on a certain day a boy should be bom, by 
whom Troy should be destroyed. On that day Paris was bom to 
Priam, and Munippus to Thymoetes. Priam ordered Munippus and 
his mother Cilia to be killed. Hence Aeneas says that it was doubt- 
ful whether Thymoetes, in order to revenge himself, treacherously 
(dolo) advised to draw the wooden horse into the city, or whether he 
was so directed by fate. — 33. Duel — looari Gr. 558. VI. 3. A. 
& S. 273. 2 and {p). — 34. Sen — ferebant = or (because) now at 
last the destiny of Troy thus directed. — 35. Capys ; a companion 
of Aeneas. Cf I. 183. QucMram . . . m^iti = (those) to whose' 
mind ; sc erat, — 36. Aut . . . aut» Two plans sure proposed : one 



THE AENEID. BOOK IL 553 

to destroy, the other to examine the horse. These two propositions 
are separated by aut . . . aut. For the execution of the first plan two 
methods are suggested, — sinking ds^ burning ; some are in favor of 
the one, and some of the other. This view of the case shows the 
propriety of the word g^ue in v. 37, which is the reading of the MSS., 
rather than w, which Heyne introduced, and which several later edi- 
tors have adopted. Pelago. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. 
Insidias; for the horse itself, like dolt, v. 264. — 38. Tentare = 
to search. — 39. Inoertnxn = fickle. Stadia = oj^nions ; imply- 
ing that they maintain their different views with warmth, — 41. 
Laocoon; a priest of Apollo, and at this time acting priest of 
Neptune (v. 201). — 44. Sic notus XTlizes. Has this been your 
experience of Ulysses ? Ulysses is not mentioned as having actually 
been the principal in the plot, which the Trojans could not have 
known, but as the natural author of firaud. C£ V. 164. — 45,46. 
Aut . . . aut. The two cases put in these lines are that the horse 
is a receptacle of soldiers, and that it is a means of scaling the walls. 
In the former case it would be fatal if admitted within the city ; in 
the latter, even if left outside. — 45. AcMvi; for Graecu-^^, In 
=s= for, against — 47. Inap'ectura == to overlook. Gr. 578. V. A. 
& S. 274, R. 6 (a). Ventura — ^urbi=to come down on the city 
from above ; i. e. not the machine, but those in it. Urbi ; for in 
urbem. See on pelago, v. 36. — 48. Aliquis = a//»^ quis, some 
other. Error = deceit. — 49. Bt = ^/lMJ»?. Dona See on v. 31. 

— 51. In alvum ; i. e. the spear pierced through the latus into the 
aJvus, Gr. 47. 2. 2). A. & S. 49. i. TeA = of the beasts Ferus 
is sometimes used of a tame animal. Cf. V. 818. Ck>mpagibUB. 
Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i. — 52. Bla ; i. e. the spear. Re- 
cusso; expressing the shock resulting from the blow. — 53. In- 
Bonuere cavae = sounded as hollow. Oemitum ; merely of the 
hollow noise : not of the arms, as in v. 243 ; much less of those 
within. — 54. Si fata ( sc fmssent) = if the fates had so willed. 
Non laeva* See on £. I. 16. — 55. Impulerat = he had im- 
pelled. See on G. II. 133. Poedare = to mutilate, cut in pieces. 

— 57. Manus. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 59. Ig^otum = a 
stranger. Venientibus. Gr. 386. A. & S. 2^24. "Oltro ; i. e. he 
had purposely thrown himself in their way. — 60. Hbo — strueret = 
to compass this very thing ; i. e. to be brought to the king. — 6I. 
Fidens anlnii = confident of soul. Gr.399.3.4). A. & S. 213 and R. 
I (2). — 62. Versard doloa = to carry out his wily plot. The in- 
finitives are in apposition with utrumque, — 64. Ciroumfusa ruit 
= throng around. Certant = vie with one another. Mark the 
change of number. — 65. Orimine ^ omnes ; i. e. learii from a 
single act of guilt what all of them (the Greeks) are. -^ 68. Oir- 



554 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

omnBpezit. The spondaic termination admirably suits the' sense, 
marking as it does Sinon's cautious gaze. — 69, 70. Nunc . . . jam 
denique = now, at the present time . . .now at last, after alL — 71. 
Super. See on I. 29. — 73. Quo gemitu. See on G. I. 329. — 

74. Sanguine. Gr. 425. 3. i). A. & S. 246. — Cretus; sc. sit — 

75. Quidve ferat= what (information) he brings. Gr. 525. A. & S. 
265. Memoret= (bidding) him telL All after fari is to be taken 
as an oratio obliqua : memora quo sanguine cretus sis, etc See on I. 
645. Quae — capto = what he has to rely on as a captive ; i. e. why 
he should not meet the captive's doom. — 77 - 104. He says his 
name is Sinon, a relation of Palamedes, whose death he resented, 
and thus incurred the enmity of Ulysses. — 77. Fuerit quodcum- 
que = whatever shall come of it, whatever the result shall be, Gr. 
473. I. A. & S. 259, R. I (5). — 78. Vera = truly. It adheres to 
fatebor, — 79. Hoc primum {scfatebor) ; a sort of parenthesis, like 
hoc tantuMy v. 690. " This to begin with." — 80. Finzit is stronger 
thany^«y. C£ VI. 80 ; G. II. 407. Vanum. See on I. 392. Im- 
proba. Observe the position and translate with last clause only : 
malicious as she is, she shall not go so far as to make me a liar. — 81. 
Fando. See on v. 6. Aliquod; for ^/Vi/^/ or ^z//^i/& /^m;/^7r^= any- 
where or at any time. See on £. 1. 54. — 82. Belidae = the descend- 
ant of Belus ; who is said to have been a very remote ancestor of 
Palamedes. Palamedis; the son of Nauplius, king of Euboea. 

83. Falsa sub proditione = under a false discovery, a false infor- 
mation. The editors generally take it to mean, under a false charge 
of treason, a sense which the words will hardly bear, proditio being 
equivalent to indicium. There is no reference whatever to the pre- 
tended treason of Palamedes, though that happened to be the subject 
of the charge. The story goes thus : Agamemnon, Diomedes, and. 
Ulysses, having become envious of his fame, caused a captive Phry- 
gian to write to Palamedes a letter in the name of Priam, and then 
bribed a servant of Palamedes to conceal the letter under his master's 
bed. Hereupon they accused Palamedes of treachery ; they searched 
his tent, found the letter, and caused him to be stoned to death. — 

84. Infando indicio = by an iniquitous disclosure ; referring, like 
falsa sub proditione, to the production of the false letter. Sinon pur- 
posely dwells on the horror of the transaction. — 85. Lumine ; the 
light of day or life. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2 (i). 86. The 
apodosis of the sentence commencing at v. 81 begins here. In case 
you ever heard of Palamedes, I was his companion in arms and near 
kinsman. HI! is the emphatic word. Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 
5. — 87. Pauper may be intended to excite the commiseration of 
the hearers, or, as war was a lucrative calling in Virgil's time, to ac- 
count for his being sent from his early youth (primis ab annis)^ In 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. 555 

aima=to war. — 88. Stabat — incolumis = stood firm in his 
royal dignity. See on 1. 268. Regum . . . consiliia = in the coun- 
cils of the kings ; i. e. of the Grecian leaders. See on v. 83. — 89. 
Bt nos = I also. Nomen = reputation. — 91. Haud — loquor; 
1. e. you doubtless know the story. Superla — oris ; i. e. from the 
world of light and life. — 92. AfDiotus = dashed down (from my 
prosperity). Tenebris = in obscurity. — 94. Me-; with ultorem. 
Tulisset = should bring it to pass. Gr. 533. 4. A. & S. 266. 2, 
R. 4. — 95. Argos ; for Graeciam, — 96. Verbis ; opposed to 
tacm. — 97. Hinc = from this time. Semper seems to confirm this 
interpretation of hinc, Labes = plague-spot, token. — 98. Terrere 
. . . spargere . . . quaerere. Gr. 545. i. A. & S. 209, R. 5.-99. 
Vnlgum. Gr. 47. II. A. & S. 51. Quaerere — arma = began 
to seek allies as a conspirator ; nearly = quaerere arma consciorum^ 
or, qtioerere conscios^ as Wr. gives it Quaerere arma occurs in this 
very sense in XI. 229. That Ulysses sought for allies appears from 
the introduction of Calchas,and from the anticipation of the event, 
V. 124, which argues that his designs were not entirely a secret. — 
100. Nee . . . enim. See on G. II. 104. Calchante ministro. 
See on I. 135. Calchas was the great soothsayer of the Greeks dur- 
ing the Trojan war. — 101. Autexn with sed is colloquial, being pe- 
culiar to the comic writers, and is nearly = tandem, Revolvo = 
unroll, dwell upon. — 102. Quidve moror=or why do I detain 
you? 0no ordine = in one rank, alike. — 103. Id; i. e. that I 
am a Greek, v. 78. Jamdudum = at once, instantly ; the punish- 
ment having been long since due. Ithacus = the Ithacan. See on v. 
7. Velit . . . mercentur. Gr. 485. A. & S. 261, R. 4. Magno. 
Gr. 416. A. & S. 252, R 3. Atridae. See on I. 458. 

106. Pelasgae. See on I. 624. — 107. Prosequitur = pro- 
ceeds. — 109. Molirl See on I. 564.— 110. Fecissent. Gr. 488. 
I. and 2. A. & S. 263. i and R. Saepe = as often ; referring to 
saepe^ v. 108. Ponti . . . hiems = a storm at sea, the stormy state 
of the deep. — 111. Euntes ; not for ituros^ but a rhetorical exaggera- 
tion. — 112. Trabibus. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Acer- 
nis need not be pressed against abiete,, v. 16, or pinea claustra^ v. 258. 
See on v. 577. — 114. Eurypylum ; a hero and soothsayer who 
went to the Trojan war with forty ships. Scitantem = to consult; 
See on I. 519. — 116. Sanguine . . . et virgine caesa ; hendiadys, 
which is expressed, v. 118, by two clauses. The allusion is to the 
detention of the Grecian ships at Aulis, where Iphigenia was sacri- 
ficed. — 118. Litandum (sc. est) ; impersonal. — 120. Ima = in- 
most The marrow was considered the seat of animal heat — 121. 
Fata ; i. e. the oracle. See on I. 382. Parent = ordain (death). 
•The omission of an ace. may be rhetorical, to produce a sense of 



SS6 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

horror. The clause is dependent on tremor^ the shuddering surmise 
being expressed by an indirect question. — 122. Hie. See on I. 72S. 
Magno . . . tumultu is said of Ulysses, not of the multitude. C£ 
V. 128. — 123. Numina = will. Cf. 1. 133. — 124; Flagitat ( = in- 
sists on knowing) is in keeping with magno tumultu, Canebant = 
were foretelling. — 125. Artifiois = of the artful plotter. Tadti 
is not inconsistent with canebant. They privately warned him of his 
danger, and then quietly waited to see the result, not daring to take 
any open or active measures against Ulysses. — 126. Quinos. Gr. 
174. 2. 4). A. & S. 120. 4 {a), Tectus = covered, shut up ; i e. 
in his tent Some make it = cautious, with concealed purpose. — 
129. Composito — vooem = by concert (i e. with Ulysses) he 
breaks his silence. Destinat = dooms. — 130, 131. Quae — tu- 
lere = acquiesced (lit bore) in turning (lit when turned) on one poor 
wretch the fate which each feared for himsel£ — 132. Parari=:were 
preparing.. Hist infin. so called. — 133. Fnxges = mola, meal 
Vittae. Woollen fillets adorned the heads of both priests and vic- 
tims. — 134: Vinoola ; the bonds with which the victim when 
brought up to the altar was fastened till the moment of striking the 
blow. C£ V. 156. — 135. Obsoums in ulva is to be taken to- 
gether, screened by (lit in) the sedge, explaining how he came to be 
concealed in the marsh. — 136. Darent. Gr. 522. II. A. & S. 263. 
4 (i). Si forte dediseent is, according to Wr. whom Forb. fol- 
lows, for si forte daturi essent = if perchance they intended to set 
sail. Con- rejects this, and offers an interpretation suggested by si 
forte tulissety v. 756. viz. in the hope, or on the peradventure rfiat 
they would have sailed ; of which of course there would be a doubt, 
as the necessary condition had not been fulfilled ; i. e. the sacrifice of 
one of their own countrymen. The inconsistency between darent and 
dedissent^ the one implying that Sinon waited while they were getting 
off, and the other that he trusted to their having got off before his 
waiting was over, is hardly an objection, if indeed the confiision might 
nqt be said to have a dramatic propriety. — 137. Antiquain = 
pxistdiiEun. — 139. Quos . . . poenas = of whom (they will de- 
mand) punishment Gr. 374 and 2. 2). A. &. S. 231 and R. i. Et 
= even. — 141. Quod = wherefore. Grammatically it is the cog- 
nate ace after oro. It is often thus used in adjurations. C£ VI. 363. 
Conscia = who are conscious witnesses. Veri Gr. 399 and 2. 2) 
(2). A. & S. 213 and R. I (3). —142. Per. The following clause is 
to be taken as the object of per : if there is any, &c fy that A simi- 
lar construction is foimd at IV. 317 ; VI. 459. .Si qua est, quae restate 
appears to be a pleonasm, not unlike that in VI. 367. — 143. La- 
bbnun . . . animL Gr. 406. 1. A. & S. 215 (i). — 145. Lacxixnis. 
Gr. 384 and IL A. & S. 223. Some prefer to consider it an abl. 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. - 557 

of cause. Ultro = gratuitously. — 146. VIro. Gr. 384. A. & S. 
223. Levari = to be taken away, removed. — 148. AmisBOB . . . 
obliviaoere =f let (them) go and forget (them). See on 1. 69. Amitto 
is here used in its primary and earlier sense of dimitto. — 149. Eria. 
Gr. 535. 3. 2). A. & S. 267, R. 2. Vera = truly, truthfully.— 150. 
Quo = to what end ? Auctor = adviser. — 151. Quae religio = 
what was the religious object ? — 152. Arte Pelasga. C£ v. 106. 
— 154. Aetemi ignes ; of all the heavenly bodies, as ad jsidera 
merely means, to heaven. «VoB et vestrum numen is pleonastic. 
— 156. See on v. 133. — 157. Saorata . . . jura = the rights sanc- 
tioned (by oath) : sacratum jm being equivalent, according to Serv., 
to sacramentum or jti^uranduniy the military oath. Thus Sinon 
successively disclaims all former obligations as a soldier, as a friend, 
as a colleague and confidant, and as a citizen. Resolvere jura, C£ 
IV. 27. — 159. Si qua tegunt = if they conceal any. — 160. Pro- 
iniBsis maneas = abide by thy promises ; more commonly stare 
promissis. In is generally added ; firom which it appears that the 
case is the abl. of place. — 161. Si — rependam = if I shall make 
a large return. Gr. 441 ; 470. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2) ; 145. III. — 
162. Coepti . . . belli = confidence in the undertaking of the war, 
the confidence with which they undertook the war. See on incipiam^ 
v. 13. Gr. 580. A. & S. 274, R. 5 («). — 163. Auadliia . . . Btetdt 
== stood by the aid, was kept up by the aid. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 
247 and I. ImpiuB ; . already impious, as having wounded Venus 
and Mars, and so not pointing forward exclusively, if at all, to the 
seizure of the Palladium. ZSz quo (sc. tempore) = ever since ; cor- 
relative oiex illoy V. 169. — 164. Sed enim. See on I. 19. Soele- 
rum inventor; like artificis sceim, V..125. — 165. Fatale = fate- 
bearing; since the destiny of Troy depended on its preservation. 
Avellere. The Palladium was fastened with chains. — 166. Pal- 
ladium. The story of the Palladium was variously told : the main 
points, however, seem to be that its importance as one of the charms 
which rendered Troy impregnable became known to the Greeks, and 
that Diomedes and tJlysses made their way to the citadel by a secret 
passage, and took the image, quarrelling about it on their road home. 
— 168. Virgineas. The fillets of virgin^ were different from those 
of matrons. — 169. The general notion is that of flowing away, as 
opposed to permanence, stetity v. 163. See on G. I. 200. — 171. Ea 
Bigna= signs of these things. Tritonia. See on Ov. M. III. 127. 
MonBtriB = portents. — 172. Viz is sometimes, as here and in III. 
90, followed by a clause without any connecting particle, sometimes 
by a clause with que or et (v. 692), more frequently by a clause with 
quum. Aniere = flashed. — 173. LuminibuB . . . arreotiB = 
from her raised eyes ; i. e. raised in fury, just as in I. 482 the goddess 



5S8 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

keeps her eyes on the ground in sullen displeasure. — 174; Ipsa s= 
of herself. — 176. Canit = announces ; i. e. as a i^ophetic m- 
junction. — 178. Repetant= they seek again ; referring to the Ro- 
man custom of returning from the camp to the city for fresh auspices 
in case of anything unlucky. Repetere auspicia was the common 
phrase. ArgiB; for Graecia, Gr. 421. II. A. & S. 254. Numea- 
que reduoant (= and bring back the divine will ; i. e. an expres- 
sion or indication of the divine will) is explained by deos parant com- 
ites, V. 181, to refer to the same thing as mnina repetant^ the bringing 
back of fresh auspices from Greece, not to the bringing back of the 
Palladium, which it is eVident from the context they had not carried 
to Greece. For this meaning of numen^ cf. w. 123, 336 ; III. 363 ; 
VII. 1 19 (where it might be exchanged for omen) ; IX. 661 ; XI. 232. 
— 179. Avexere ; from Greece to Troy, at the beginning of the ex- 
pedition. The mode would more regularly have been the subj., but 
Virg. has returned to the oratio recta. 180. Quod = inasmuch as, 
that. — 181. Arma — comitds. See on v. 178. —182. Ixnpro- 
viBiadenint. Serv. well says : VerummetumfalsomeiuabigitfUtdiim 
reversuros timent non timeant ne nan abieriftk — 183. Pro Palladio 
. . . pro nuxnine laeso ; not in exchange for the violated statue, bat 
to make amends for the offence to the divinity. See on I. 8. Monitl; 
by Calchas. —184. Piaret. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5. —185. Im- 
mensam; with attollere, to rear in vast bulk. — 186. RoboribuB; 
with attollere, Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. See on v. 112. 
Coelo. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. — 187. Portia. Gr. 
414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3, or 255. 2. Aut connects duci with 
recipi, as expressing mere varieties of detail, while both are coupled 
with tueri by nm^ to express two different points of view. — 188. 
Antiqua sub religione ; the shelter of the worship of Pallas, as 
securing protection to the worshippers. So when the city is to be 
taken, the gods depart, v. 351. — 189. Violasset Gr. 533. 4. 
A. &. S. 266. 2, R. 4. Dona. See on v. 31. — 190. Prius ; I e. ere 
it reaches you. Omen ; the sign for the thing signified ; i. e. ruin. 
Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2.-191. Convertant Gr. 488 and I. 
A. &. S. 260, R. 6. Imperio. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Futurum. 
Gr. 530 and I. A. & S. 266. 2. — 192. Ascendiaset See on vuh 
lassetf v. 189. — 193. Ultro = voluntarily ; i e. acting not merely 
on the defensive, but offensive. Pelopea ad moenia ; for ad Grae- 
dam : Pelops being the grandfather of Agamemnon and Menelaus. 
The peninsula of Peloponnesus (island of Pelops) was named for him. 
—194. Venturam. See on jfuturum, \. i<)i. Ea fata; I e. the 
magnum exitium of v. 190. Manere nepotes. Cf. III. 505. — 196. 
Capti ; sc. sumus. — 197. Tydides. Cf. 1. 96. Larissaeua ; from 
Larissa, a city of Thessaly, the country of Achilles. — 199. Hia 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. 559 

See on I. 728. Aliud. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2).— 200. 
Improvida refers generally to the blindness of the Trojans, not to 
their inability to foresee this ponent, nor proleptically to its effect in 
making them rush on their doom. C£ v. 54. Pectora. See on I. 
567. — 201. Ductus. C£ our " drawn/* or " drafted." See on v. 
41. — 202. SoUenmes ... ad aras; i. e. the altars where the cus- 
tomary sacrifices took place. — 203. Per alta ; with incumbunt (= 
swim), the notion of movement being supplied from the context — 
206. Arrecta :^ raised. -^ 208. Legit = sweeps, skims. Volu- 
mine. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and* 2. — 209. Salo. Gr. 
414 and 2. A. & S. 248. Arva ; the shore. — 210. Oculos. See 
on I. 228. — 212. Visu may be taken with diffugimus or exsangues. 
It is the cause of both. Cf. v. 382. Agmine oerto = in a direct 
course. — 213. Primum ; opposed to post^ v. 216. — 215. Depas- 
oitur = devours. —216. Aiudlio. Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 227, R. 2. 
Cf. I. 22. «— 118. Medium ; sc eum^ Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 
17. CoUo, 384. 1. A. & S. 249. 1. R. 3. Circum . . . dati ; tmesis. 

— 219. Terga. See on I. 228. Capite et oervicibus ; i. e. of 
the serpents. Gr. 418 ate i. A. & S. 256, R. 16 and (3). — - 220. 
Simul . . . simuL See on I. 631. —221. Atro veneno. See on 
G. II. 130. — 223. Quales mugitus (sc tollit) = (such) bellowings 
as a bull raises. See on I. 316, 430. — 224. Incertam = ill-aimed. 

— 225. Delubra ad suxmna is explained by what follows, saevaeqtie 
petunt Tritonidis arcem, the temple of Minerva being at the top of 
the arXf v. 166. — 226. Effugiunt with iapsu = eldbuntur, Saevae 
= unpropitious ; i e. to the Trojans. C£ 1. 479. — » 227. Deae. There 
seems to hatve been a statue of Pallas in the arx besides the Palla- 
dium, or possibly one was introduced in its place. 228. Cunctis. 
Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (i). — 229. Scelus ; sceleris poenam, 
Merentem ; emphatic. — 231. Laeserit . . . intorserit Gr. 519. 
A. & S. 264. 8 (i). — 232. Sedes (sc. deae) ; i. e. templum, — 233. 
Conclamant. Translate the con, — 234. Moenia -^irbis = we 
lay open the buildings of the city ; i. e. the city itself as distinguished 
from the wall. Moenia appears to be the buildings within the murns 
(c£ VI. 549), so that when a breach was made in the murus (probably 
close to the Scaean gate so as to enlarge it), the moenia would be laid 
open. — 235. Accingo ; intransitive. Virg. has nowhere else used 
it so. Rotarum . . . lapsus ; poetically for rotas, — - 236, CoUo 
intendunt = stretch to the neck. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 237. 
Scandit . . . muros. C£ VI. 515. — 238. Armis ; for armatis^ as 
in I. 506. — 239. Sacra; sc. carmina, — 240. Minans. See on 
L 162. — 242. Dardaniduni. Gr. 42. 3. 3). A. & S. 43. 2. Portae. 
See on v. 234. — 243. Substitit ; i. e. as they were pulling it over 
theteeach. Utero. Gr. 422 and i. A. & S. 254, R. 3.-245. 



560 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

Monstnun; of anything portentous, as of Pdyphemus, III. 65B. 
See also on G. I. 185. Infelix = inauspicious. — .2t6. Sttam ; i e. 
besides our other warnings. Fatia . . . Ititaxis »:= for our impending 
doom ; i. e. for a warning of the future. This is the common inter- 
pretation ; hvX fatis fiiiuris may be an abl. of manner 3= in future 
fates ; i e. in predictions of our future doom. Ctt—andni; a daugh- 
ter of Priam, who obtained from Apollo tiie gift of prophecy, but 
with the condition that her predictions should never be beliered by 
the Trojans. —- 247. Dei; i. e. Apollo^ CSradita agrees witft^a. 
This is evident from the emphatic position of ora ; and besides the 
expression thus taken is mudi more poetical — 2M. Qiiibus — dies 
= though that day was our last (we deck, eta). Gr. 515. II. ; -516. 4. 
A. & S. 264. 2. — 249. Velamus ; for coronamus, ILL 405 ; V. 72, 
etc., the festoons being thick and long, so as to cover the altar. 

250. Ruit = comes up. C£ VI. 559. — 2SaL The spondees ex- 
press solemnity. Gr. 672. 2. A. & S. 31a 2. — ^252. 3*Yiai See on 
L 214. — 254. PhalanjE = the army. InstnictiB »>= having been 
drawn up in order. Jbat The fleet was on its way when the royd 
ship hoisted the signal to Sinon. — 255. A&nioa;i..e. to the Greeks. 
It was a still moonlight night There is a tradition that Troy was 
taken at the time of full moon. — 256. Nota ; because they had 
already been encamped there ten years. Ho|{ia puppis; i. e. 
Agamemnon's. — 257. OBztulerat The plup8r£ in this case has 
the same relation to the imperf. that the perf. of instantaneous action 
has to the present See on G. I. 330. The Ikct was under way, and 
instantly, without any appredable lapse of time, :the royal ship had 
raised the signal. Gr. 508. A. & S. 259, R. i (3). Translate, im- 
mediately hoisted. Iniquis s= hostile ; i. e. to the Trq^uis. — 250. 
Lazat = sets free . . . and opens : a zeugma and a hysteron-pro- 
teron. Gr. 704. 1. 2 and IV. 2. A. & 6. 323. i (3) .(o) and 4 (2).— 
260. Robore. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (^). -«<261. Bnoes; 
as coming out first — 262. Demiaaum — fonem refers to all men- 
tioned, like obloHper lunamt v. 340. — ^263. FeUdeaB3=.the. grandson 
of Peleus; also called Pyrrhus, v. .469. Pximua. The meaning of 
this word has not been satisfactorily ^settled; some taking it =^ifUer 
primosy and others understanding it to mean that he was the first: to 
issue from the horse. The first view is weak, and the last -seems 
hardly tenable, considering the position of the word. — 201. Doli. 
See on insidiasy v. 36. — 266. Portia. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 
and 3, or 285. 2. Oixmea . . . aocioa ; those who have landolfrom 
the ships. — 267. A£;inina — juQgunt ^^jungunt (nU) vgmina 
canscia (doli), — 269. Dono ; with serpit, Gr. 414 and :a. A. A S. 
247 and I. Oratiaaima answers toprima in the former .clause ; > i e. 
sweetest because first and deepest Ci J. 470. '^2192. T 



THE A£NEID. BOOK II. 561 

Cf. I. 483. —273. Lora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. H. ^ 274; l^bi 
Gr. 389. 2. 2). A. & S. 228. 3. Qualis erat =: how he looked ! — 
275. Redlt The present makes the remembrance more vivid, 
EaniviaB. Gr. 374. 7. A. & S. 234. I. R. i (a). Hector had slain 
and spoiled Patroclus,' who wore the armor of Achilles. AchiUL 
See on I. 30.— 276. Jaoulatus; coupled with redi/, like indutus. 
Puppibu8=into the ships (dravm up on the shore). -T-27B. Cbarena ; 
appropriately of an assumed appearance, as in I. 315. See note, -r- 
279. Ultro ; because not previously addressed. See on w. 145, 
193. Cf: IV. 304 ; VI. 499. Flens; with ipse. I too;wept — 283- 
Liiz= defence, safety. Virgil makes Aeneas forget not only the 
circumstances, but the fact of Hector's death. — • 2S3. iSzapectate ; 
, the voc by attraction for the nom. 9t ; with adspicimusy not with 
defessi. It is = ut libenter = how gladly ! — 284. Hoimiiiain la- 
bores; in fight Cf. urHs laborts^ v. 11. — 285. Indigna =?= un- 
seemly, nie n&il ; sc respondet, ^387. Moratnr ; as in V. 40a 
Nor does he regard my vain inquiries. — 290. iMvurga ; ^onphatic 
Alto a onlmine = from her lofty position ; i. e. as a state. — 291.. 
Sat — datimi; i. e. the qkums of your country and king are dis- 
charged. I3leaEti:a=by strength c^ -band ; lit. by the right hand. ->- 
294. C<Mnites. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204- iHUi = for these. Cf. III. 
159. Moenia; for urbem,.2& often. 296. Vittas Vefitaaigfi^; 
L e. Vestam vittatamt a small image of Vesta bound with fillets. It .is 
evident that Virg. means to represent the apparition of Hector ad 
actually bringing out the gods, not merely as appearing to do so. — 
297. Aetemum; because the fires of Vesta were never allowed to 
go out — 298. Diverso=in difterent quarters ; i. e. as tiie disas- 
ter spread through the town. Iiuota = by cries of woe. «— 299. 
Secreta = apart ; i. e. from others. Seareta and obtecta both go 
with recessit as predicates. — 301. Armomm . . . horror = the 
alarm of battle. — 802. Summi — ^supero = I ascend the slope 
of the highest part of the roo£ Fastigia tecHs= tectum fastigatuniy a 
sloping roof. Adscensu supero ^=- adscendo* See on v. 226. — 303. 
Adato. See on I. 152. — 304-808. The comparison is between 
Aeneas listening to the sound of battle from the roof of lus house, 
and a shepherd hearing the roaring of a conflagration or a torrent 
from the top of a crag ; so that it seems best to make stupet the 
apodosis to veluH quum. See on I. 148. — 304. Furentibii8 aus- 
tris = while the winds are rs^ing. Gr. 431. A, & S. 257* — 305. 
Incidit flaxnma ; perhaps of a casual spark, like excidit ignis^ G. II. 
303. Flnmine ; with rapidus, Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. ^7 and i. 
— 807. Inacius ; i. e. not knowing what to make of it ^- 808. 
AccipieiiB (sc auridus) = audims, ^^ 3Q9, Fides =t= the truth. 
MaMt/esta fides is used by livy, VL 131 for a palpable demonstration^ 
36 



562 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

The thing demonstrated is the truth of the vision and its revelations. 
But some refer it ironically to Sinon. — 310. Deiphobi ; a son of 
Priam and Hecuba. C£ VI. 495 folL Dedit . . . niliiam=iell in. 
~ 311. Vuloano. See on G. L 295. ProzimuB ; L e. next to 
the house of Deiphobus. — 312. 0calegon; one of Priam's coun- 
sellors. The man is put for his house, as Apollo for his temple, III. 
275. Sigea ; so called from Sigeum, a promontory of Troas, situ- 
ated at the point where the Hellespont widens out into the Aegean. 
Lata has the force of late, — 314. Armia ; sc capUndis, Aeneas 
was rushing into battle without a sufficiently distinct notion what 
object to aim at —• 315. Bello = ad bellum, Gr. 3S4 and II. A. 
& S. 223. In arcem. The citadel as a rallying-point is his first 
thought See on v. 322. — 317. Pnlohnimque moxl; sc esse. 
Gr. 545 ; 549. 2. A. & S. 239 ; 269, R. 3. — 319. Othiyades = 
son of Othrys. Arois Phoebique; of Apollo in the dtadel, where 
there seem to have been chapels for several of the gods. — 320. 
Saora deosqua CC v. 293. Viotos. See on I. 68. — 321. Ipse 
manu, words which are frequently found together in Virg. seem 
always intended to call attention to the agent, sometimes with direct 
reference to others, sometimes merely as coming forward prominently, 
e. g. where the act is one requiring exertion. Trahit . . . deoa . . . 
nepotem ; a zeugma. Trahit aptly expresses the difficulty experi- 
enced by the child in endeavoring to keep up with his grandfather. 
Umina ; the door of Aeneas, who is just rushing out when he is 
met by Panthus on the threshold, and sallies forth accordingly, v. 
336, after their conversation. Cursu . . . tendit = currit. See on 
w. 226, 303. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 322. Quo — 
Loco = in what condition is the public safety ? Quam — arcem. 
Arz is here used in its proper sense, a citadel, or point of defence, 
though quam seems to show that the word is not meant to be re- 
stricted to Pergamus. See on I. i. Aeneas sees Panthus hurrying 
away from the citadel with his gods and his grandson, and so naturally 
asks, " What citadel are we occupying ? " or ** have we occupied ? " 
{prendimus may be either pres. or perf.) suspecting already that 
Pergamus is no longer tenable. Henry well remarks that Panthus 
answers in effect, "We have no citadel anywhere to defend," and 
that Aeneas, hearing this, rushes out with no definite object in the 
direction of the shouting. Panthii. Gr. 46. 3. 5). A. & S. 54. 5. 
-~ 825. Dardaniae ; probably a dat, like Libyae in I. 22. Fuimus. 
Gr. 471. I. A. & S. 259, R. I (2) (a). — 326. Ferns = iraiusy cm- 
delis, Argoa; for Graeciam. Gr. 379. A. & S. 237. — 330. In- 
sultaiiB ; expressive of joy and insolence. Portia. Gr. 414 and 4. 
A. & S. 247 and 3, or 255. 2. Alii . . . alii = some . . . others. -^ 
332. Angosta viarom. See on I. 422.-333. Oppo8lti = op- 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. 563 

piosing themselves ; i e. to the Trojans coming and trying to escape. 
• Stat refers to the sword firmly grasped in the hand, so as to present 
the point to the enemy. Mucrone. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 
and 2. — 334. Priml = at the entrance ; i. e. those first met on 
entering the gates.— 335. Caeoo Marte = in the dark e;ncounter. 
Caeco Marte might be said of a night encounter, though it happened 
to be moonlight — 336. Nomine divum = by the will of the gods ; 
i e. as intimated by the words of Panthus. A close connection is to 
be supposed between talibus dictis and numine divum, Cf. such 
passages as v. 195 and III. 172. The meaning seems to be that 
Aeneas having heard from Panthus that the gods had declared against 
Troy, and that all hope of rallying his countrymen was over, rushed 
desperately forth. This accords with the view taken in v. 322. — 
337. Brinys^ not the Fury within, but the Fury without, the demon 
of battle. See on G. I. 278. — 338. Aethera See on G. I. 406. 
-r- 340. OblatL See on v. 262. The names are fictitious. — 341. 
Agglomerant ; sc. se from addunt. See on I. 440. Nostro. Gr. 
446. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 7 (^). — 342. Mygdonides. Mygdon was 
a king of Phrygia.p^ 343. Insano ; because it hurried him to his 
ruin. — 344. Gener; with auxilium ferebat: as a son-in-law. — 345. 
Qui non . . . audierit = because he did not heed. Cassandra ad- 
vised him in vain to retire from the war. He was slain by Peneleus, 
v. 425. Gr. 519. A. & S. 264. 8 (i).— 347. Confertps = formed 
into a band; i. e. as Aeneas wished, glomerate m^inumjbelloy v. 315. 
Audere in = to have courage sufficient for. — 348. Super = 
thereupon ; i. e. quia jam audebant, EUa ; sc. dictis, FortisBima 
. . . pectora See on £. IX. 9. Frustra ; because it is now too 
late for valor to avail anything. — 349. Audentem ; sc. me, Ez- 
trema = extreme perils, death. Cupido ; sc est, — 350. Sequi 
See on v. 10. — 352. Quibua . . . steterat See on v. 163. -— 353. 
Incensae is the emphatic word, as in v. 327. Moxlamur et ru- 
amuB is not exactly a case of hysteron-proteron. The first thing 
which Aeneas had to do was to persuade his comrades to die ; the 
next to tell them how to do it — 354. Salus. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. 
— 356. Raptores = prowling. A. & S. 205, R, 11. — 367. Cae- 
cob; i e. to danger. — 359. Mediae . . . urbia. They apparently 
make for the arx as the seat of danger. Cf. v. 240. — 360. Noz 
atra. It is not meant that the night was dark as compared with 
other nights ; the epithet is merely one of night as distinguished from 
day : so that there is no inconsistency between w. 255, 340, and 360, 
397, 420, 621. — 361. Fando ezplicet C£ IV. 333.-362. 
Lacrimis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. — 364. Inertia; 
L e. imbellia, the bodies of the weak and helpless. C£ IV. 158. — 
366. Sanguine. Gr. 414 and 3. A. 247 and 2. — 368. Crudelis 



564 NOTDS ON VXRGIU 

laotiw 3= relentless agdi^. For an «eampl6 of ImHu denoting tlie 
agony of battle, c£ v. 39& Ubtqne . . . ubiqne. . . ptoxiam are 
predicates, plurima b^ng a repetition of uUfue under si different 
form. — 369. Zitiago =«= sigbt Cf. VI. 405. — 373. AttLcbrogeos; 
a Grecian hero, not to be confounded widi die son of die Cretan king 
Minos, VI. 2a Gr^ 46. A. & S. 54. —372. Ultro. See on v. 279. 

— 373. Quae tarn sera. See on G. n. 315. — 379^ Vos. Gr. 
446. A. & S. 209, R. I (3). —'976; Dabantor. Mark tiie tense. 
No satisfactory answer wsis being given, such as Androgeos expected 
to receive at once. — 377. Sensit delapttue is s Grecism. Gr. 547 
and L A. & S. 271, N. 5.-«-d78. Retva. . . reyfereeeit. See on 
G. I. 20a •— 379. Asprie. Gr. 703. 2. A. & S. 32% 4. -^ 380. 
HuinL Gr. 424. 2. A. & 9^ 221, R. 3. lliteiis<; adva^idng with 
effort, because of the briers. -^ 38^1 Zrae ; i e. cApa iratum. Col- 
la. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. IL — 382. Vigu, See on. t. 212. 
Abibat = was beginning to retreat — 383; Civcumfondlmiir ; sc. 
iij. Cf IV. 635. The use of the passive in a middle (or reflexive) 
sense, is common. Cf. w. 393, 401, etc. ArxnlB. Gr. 414 and 3. 
A. & S. 247 and 2. -^ 386. Succeflsa — animie. Gr. 414 and 2. 
A. & S. 247 and i. — 387. Pzima seems to be explained t^ primo 
lahari, v. 385, though it might refer adverbially to monstrai iter, — 
390. Dolus — requirat Who, having to deal with an enemy, 
would draw distinctions between stratagem and hard fighting } la 
hoste. C£ V. 541. Requirat ^^ rogat^ as in v. 506. — 391. De- 
lude ; after a participle, like turn, V. 382. CUpei iOBigiie =s cUpeum : 
lit device of the shield. Gr. 374. 7. A. & S. 234^ R. i (a). — 393. 
luduitur. See on v. 383. — 394; tpBe=etiam.^ — 396. Hand 

— nostro = under a protection not our own : lit. under a god not 
our own : referring to the Grecian armor which they had assumed. 
Virg. meant to say, probably, either that the Grecian arms actually 
carried with them the £ivor of the Grecian deities, or to express in 
theological language the advantage derived from the disguise. It 
seems clear from the context that he did not mean to introduce at this 
point in the narrative anything <^ an un&vorable character^ as this 
would not only interfere with the feeling of triumph, but also spoil 
the effect of the next paragraph, which at v. 402 is ushered in with a 
sudden change of tone. The common explanation therefore, the gods 
being against us, can hardly be cotrect. Gf . 414 and 3. A.. & S. 
247 and 2. — 397. Caeoaan . . . HoetWdk See on w. 335, 36a — 
399. Cuz»u . . . petuixt See on v. 32^1, — 400*. FIda; because their 
^eet was there. — 401. Couduatur^ See on v^ 383. -^ 403^ ZnirttlB 
. . . fidere divls ssi shouM trtst the go^ i^nst their wili; L e. a 
man may not rely on the gods when they have declated against him. 
"Gr.sSS. A*&S.M^i^^ fbomtnaik9i0vitisdMsi&9kiLsb6k^ 



THJS ABNSm. BOOR II. 565 

when the gods are against him, taSidng /iderg absolutely. — 404. Tem^ 
plo ; the temple of Minervia in the citadel See on v. 359 and L 41. 

— 407. Mente. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257; Coroebna See w. 341 
IblL and notes.— 40aPeritiira8. Gr. 578. V. A. & S. 274, R. 6 («). 

— 409. Benada . . . armkL; L e. with closed ranks. Or. 414 and 3. 
A. & S. 247 and 2. C£ 383. -^410; Pzlnram answers to lum, v. 413^ 
and to etmntf v. 42a This was the beginning of our reverses. De- 
lubxl; i. e. of Minerva.— 41]b BCisenihnaavmost pitiable. — 4ia. 
Errore jubarum; i e. the mistake arising from the crests.—^ 
413. Gemitu ; i» e. of indignation. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 
and 2. Ereptae virgini^ao at the rescue of the maiden ; i e. Cas- 
sandra. Gr. s8a A. & S. 274, R. 5 (^.— 4aA. 0ndique; with 
colUcti: they rally from all sides, and ^1 on us. Acerrimtus ; be- 
cause of the loss of his prize. — 415. Dolopmn. See on v. 7. •— 
416. Adversi; predicate with confligunt, Tarbina Gr. 43a 
A. & S. 257.— 418. Equla Gr. 414 and 2. A.& S. 247 and i. 
Cf. Hor. C. IV. 4. 44. Saevitque tridentl Cf. I. 138. -- 419. 
Neretts. See on Ov. M. I. 187. Fundo. C£ I. 84, 125. — 420. 
Obscura nocte. See on v. 360. — 421. Inaldtis = by the strat- 
agem. Cf. V. 387 foil. 0rbe. Gr. 422. i. A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 
422. Pximi = the foremost Mentlta « lying, counterfeiting : not 
passive, counterfeit, as some take it ; for the weapons were actually 
Greek, and so were not counterfeited. It belongs to clipeos as well as 
to tela* — 423. Ora — slgnant ^s they observe (our) speech differing 
in accent (from theirsy. fttnifT, Qxi 470 A^^L^ ^^^* 1.^425. 
Fenelei; an imaginary character. Divae. M^lfenca is- called in 
XL 483, Armipotens praeses belli, — 426. 0nvui =33 the very. See on 
I. 15. --427. Aequi Gr. 399 and 2. i). A. & S. 213 and R. i (2). 

— ^^8. Visum; of the decrees of the gods. III. 2. Not that the 
gods did not think him just, but that they did not deal with him as 
they might have been expected to deal with a Just man. —429. Pan- 
thxL See on v; 322. —430. Infnla. See on v. 221.— 431. Flam- 
ma — meonim is parallel to lUad dneres, as the flames of Troy 
were the funeral flames of Aeneas's countrymen and friends. — 433w 
Vitavisse. Gr. 545. 2. i). A. & S. 239, R. 2. Vices = hand-to- 
hand encounters. Fata foissent. See on v. 54. •*-434l Caderexn. 
Gr. 495. 2. i). A. & S. 273. 2. Meruisse manu. The object of 
tneruisse is ut coder em, Mann ^=si pugnando, Inde; probably of 
time, though it might denote place. —»435. Iphitns — mecum is 
in apposition with the subject of dwellimur. We are forced away 
from the scene of action, Iphitus, Pelias, and I. Quorum; a part 
gen. limiting Iphitus and Pelias. Aevo . . . "vrihiere. Gr. 414 and 2. 
A. & S. 247 and i. —436. See on Achilliy I. 30. —437. Vooati ; 
not a finite verb, but a participle agreeing with the subject oidiutlli' 



566 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

mur. It was the battle-cry at Priam's palace that forced Aeneas and 
his comrades away from the scene where the others met their death. 
— 438. Pugnam; with cermmus. Cetera . . . bella; I e. other 
conflicts that were going on in the town. — 439. Forent Gr. 506. 
A. & S. 263. 2 (i). — 440. Sic answers to ceu, and goes with ruentes 
and obsessum as well as with indomitum. Martem =: the conflict ; 
As in V. 335. Que . . . que = both . . . and. Ad tecta = for the 
roof. — 441. Acta testudine = by a testudo (of shields) which had 
been formed and advanced (against it). Idxnen = the gate. Two 
struggles were going on (Danaosque — ruentes . . , obsessumque — //- 
men) between the assailants and defenders, one about scaling the 
walls of the palace (w. 442 - 444), the other about forcing an entrance 
through the doors (w. 449, 450). The progress of the former is de- 
scribed w. 452 - 468, that of the latter w. 469 foil. — 442. Haerent 
parietibuB = hang on the walls. Gr. 422. i ; 669. II. 3. A. & S. 
254, R. 3; 306. I (3). —443. Oradibus; I e. of the ladders. Gr. 
414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Clipeos . . . objioiunt describes the 
testudo.^^5, Tecta = covered. — 446. Hia ; with telis; i. e. the tiles 
and other parts of the roof torn up. Quando. Cf I. 261. Ultima 
= the end; i. e. that the end has come. — 447. Eztrema in 
morte = in the last death-struggle. — 448. Decora alta. C£ L 
429. — 449. Imas ; opposed to what was going on upon the roof 
The defenders of the doors seem to have stood within, v. 485. — 451. 
Animi; referring to Aeneas and his two companions. His flrst 
thought had been to make for the citadel (v. 315) ; he had afterwards 
become more desperate (vv. 336 foil.) ; now he seems to return to the 
hope of making a regular defence. 

453. Idxnen. Virg. characterizes this secret postern gate in four 
ways : first simply as Hmettf then bringing in the notion of secrecy in 
caecaeforeSf then mpervius usus, etc., explaining the object of this sec- 
ond entry, and lastly in pastes relicti a tergo giving the situation of the 
door, at the back of the building. Pervius usua = thoroughfare, 
free communication. — 454. Tectorum — Priami = connecting the 
apartments of Priam's palace with each other. — 455. Infelix ; 
probably on account of her widowhood. She was the widow and 
Astyanax the son of Hector. — 456. Saepius = quite often. — 457. 
SooeroB ; Priam and Hecuba. So patres^ v. 579, stands iox parentes. 
Puenun . . . trahebat. See on v. 321. — 458. Evade ; of mount- 
ing a height, IV. 685. — 46a Turrlm. Gr. 85. A. & S. 79. 3. In 
praeoipiti = on the extreme edge (of the roof). — Summia . . . 
tectia i i. e. the roof of the tower, not of the palace. Gr. 414 and 3. 
A. & S. 247 and 2. See on III. 134. — 463. Perro ; i e. with iron 
implements as levers. Summa . . . tabulata=the surface floor- 
ings ; i. e. at the base of the tower ; and called summa merely as be- 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. 567 

ing on the roof of the palace. Labantes ^ yieldmg, weak. ~ 464; 
Altls is generally taken = high ; but it may equally well mean deep, 
the tower being overthrown from the bottom. Sedibus will then be 
the foundation. — 465, 466. Mark the dactyls, producing acceler- 
ation of movement — 469. Vestibalum — limine. Cf. VI. 273. 
PyrrhuB. See on v. 263. — 470. Ezsultat = leaps to and fro. — 
471. Qualia ubi . . . ooluber = as a snake when he. In luoem ; 
with convolvit, Virg. is fond of throwing in a word at the beginning 
of a simile to indicate, as it were, the main point and apply generally 
to what follows. C£ I. 148, Ac veluH magno in populo ; VI. 707, Ac 
veluti in pratis. Mala = hurtftil, poisonous. Henry quotes Pliny 
to show that the ancients thought the serpent was ppisonless during 
the winter, and acquired its venom from the food it ate on reviving in 
spring. — 472. Sub terra contrasts with in lucem, — 475. Arduns 
s= erectus. Linguis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Ore. Gr. 
422 and I. A. & S. 254, R. 3. ~ 476. Ingens = gigantic Periphas ; 
mentioned in Homer as the bravest of the Aetolians. — 477. Ar- 
'miger. It is not necessary to suppose with Serv. that Automedoh 
had changed his function and become the armor-bearer of Pyrrhus. 
He may have been both. See on VI. 485. Soyria pubes = the 
young men of Scyros. Pyrrhus had come from Scyros (now Skjrro), 
one of the Cyclades islands, and the kingdom of his maternal grand- 
father Lycomedes. — 478. Teoto = the roof Pyrrhus's comrades 
were attempting to scale the walls, while Pyrrhus himself is battering 
down the door. — 480. Idmina are the doors, as dura shows. The 
presents, perrumpit and vellity describing the general effect of the 
blows, a process still going on, contrast with cavavit and dedity which 
express a single completed act. — 481. Aeratos . . . robora. Ob- 
serve the effect of these words, placed each in the emphatic position 
at the commencement of the verse, and separated from the sequel by 
a pause : tears them down although plated with bronze ; scooped out 
an opening in the door although made of the hardest wood. — 482. 
Ore. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6.-484. Vetenim . . . regum 
adds to the pathos. The august privacy which had been preserved 
inviolate for generations is broken all at once. Armatos ; those al- 
ready mentioned, w. 449, 450. — 487. Cavae ; referring doubtless 
to the sound (see on v. 53), and also to the cavaediumy or atrium^ which 
was a covered court surrounding the impltanumy or uncovered court 
in the centre of a Roman house. — 490. Oscnla figunt. The 
kisses are ferewell kisses. Cf. IV. 659. — 491. Vi patria = with 
his father's violence. — 492. Custodes are the armati of v. 485. 
Sufferre ; sc vim from the preceding vi, Ariete. See on abietey 
V. 16. Crebro ; i. e. with frequent strokes of the ram. — 494. 
Rumpunt aditiis. The ace. after rumpere often expresses not 



568 NOTES OH VXRGIU 

what b bant, but what i» jRodnced by bursting. So rtwi^ef^ vtvemf 
V. 129.-- 495. Miiite oomplent See on v. 20; L 564. — 496u 
Non sic indicates that the illustration is an inadequate one. — 49Z 
Bxttt, See on G. L 116. —498. Cunralo.. See on L 105. Cam* 
poB — trahit C£ G. I. 4J82. — 500; la Umkiftgoes with JVa^ 
Igmum, as well as with Airidas^ but furentem caede had better be con* 
fined to the former. — 501. Gentma nxirtui p meaning; probably, both 
the daughters-in-law and the daughtera of Hecuba, of whom she had 
fifty each. C£v. 503. Per = among. — 504. PtoBtea. For apposi- 
tion of a part to the whole, see on K IX. 9. Aura ■poliiflqti& 
Gr. 414 and 2, A. & S. 247 and i. — 505. Procubnere probably 
applies only to postes, Tonent seems to refer to tkalamos^ It is 
commonly rendered, however^ occupy the places. Cf. ▼. 757* 

506. Reqtiiras. See on v. 390. C£G.II.2Sa Gr.485. A.&S. 
260, R. 4. — 507. Caamn. See on I. 623. ~ 508. Medium in 
penetraHbiis ; ' like mtdiis in peneiraiibus^ v. 665. Cfl I. 348. — &10. 
HumeriBt Gr. 384. i. A. & S. 249, R. 3. FemuiL Gr. 374. 7. 
A. & S. 234, R. I. — 511. See on peritumsrV. 4D& — 512. Aedibns 
in mediis ; i. e. in the impbwiunu See on cccmey v. 487. Aze = 
vault — 514; Compleza = embracing ; i. e. having embraced and 
still cohtinuing to do so. — 516. Praecipite»= driven headlong 
firom the sky. — 517. Axnplezae ; like eomplexa^ v. 514. — 519l 
Mens tain dira=s= purpose so monstrous^ desperate. — 5201 CSngi 
Gr. 545. 2. 2). A. & S. 239, R. I. For the midcUe sense of cir^ 
see oa v. 3S3. — 521. Tali — iatia ; referring not to Priam (such de- 
fenders as you are), but to telis (we have not now to look to arms, but 
to altars and prayers), as the words which follow {non — Hector ^ with 
which compare w, 291, 29^ are sufficient to show. For defensoribus 
applied to an inanimate oljject see Caes. B. G.^ IV. 17. — 522. Non; 
sc egeret fi-om preceding eget for afforeU — 523l Tandem. If you 
have taken the false step of arming yourself, be persuaded at last, 
while there is yet time. Concede = yield and come. — 526. Pyr- 
rhi de caede = from death by Pyrrhus ; like vtUnere Ulixi^ v. 436. 
He had escaped being killed on the spot, thongh with a mortal 
wound.—- 427. Per — boetes; with^/xt^. — 528. PortioilraB— 
lustarat Polites runs through difiierent parts of the house, now wind- 
ing through the cloisters (porticilnis)^ now traversing the atrium, 
round which the cloisters ran. — 529; Infesto vnlnere 3= with a 
deadly aim. — 530. Jam jamqne »= now^ even now, adds greatly 
to the vividness of the description. — 533. Qnannqnam — tenetmr; 
i. e. though death was all about him. — 534. Pepercit. See on G. 
IL 339. — 535. At is the regular particle in imprecations, ejacula- 
tions, etc — 336k PietBft = conmiiseration, justice. This is the 
reciprocal of its ordinary sense- See on L 10. So V.. 688 ;. IV» 3S2. 



TH£ ABNIEim BOOK II. $6^ 

Curet. Gr. 501, 1 A. & &. 264. 6L — 537. Qrate»=«= requital — « 
538. Me cemere. Facia with an a«& with the infim in the signifi- 
cation to cause^ isf poetical. -^5401 Satxun -^ mmntifls^ PHa»i 
means no more than that his nature belies his lineage, as Dido of 
Aeneas, IV. 365. Qua Gr. 425. 3. r^. A. & S. 246. — 541. Iii=a= 
in the case <tf. C£ v. 390. Jura — erubulfcashe respected t*te 
rights and confidence of a suppliant Fidem supplids seems- to in- 
clude the confidence reposed by a suppliant and the return which it 
claims. — 543. Hectoretun ; for Hectoris. Gr. 541. 5. A. & S; 2nr, 
R. 4 (tf). -— 544. Sine icrtn = without inffictmg a wound. — 545i 
ReptdBinn ; sc. est. — 546. Stnnmo-... . itmbo&e = from the top of 
the boss. — 547. Stefbres — ibi». Gr. 535. 3. 2). A. & S. 267, R. 2. 
Ntintitis. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204; —549. DegeAef^em— narrasv^ 
like reduces socios nuntia^ I. 390. There is itt degenerem a sarcastic 
allusion to v. 540. Mementd (=: don't forget) serves to point the 
sarcasm. — 550. !Pre m e a tem ; L e. not with fear, but with age. 
Cf. V. 509.-553. Later! ; for in lotus, Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 2^5. 
IV. R. 2.-564. PkiiB. Gr. 106. 1. A. & S. 63. i (2).— 55& 
Sorte = according to his destiny. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 
and I. Tolit; of fate. See on E. V. 34.-^556. PopoIiB tenia- 
que ; with superbum, Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and I. — 557. 
Aaiae ; I e. the countries in the western part of Asia Minor. G£ 
III. r. Jacet The body was exposed unburied, and so Aeneas 
speaks of it as if it were still lying there. Sec on VI. 1491 ^StXOLm 
OUB . . . caput . . . corpus ; partitive apposition. See on £. IX. 9; 

— 559. Me. Gr. 371. 4. 2). A. & S. 233.-560. SubfiS; sc. 
animum, — 562. Creuaa; the daughter of Priam and wife of Aeneas. 

— 563. Direpta; not as a feet, like the des:olation of Creusa^ but as 
a probability. Caauir luU ; i. e. quid lulo accidere posset. — 564. 
Reajxtcta. Let it be borne in mind that Aeneas is on the roof, and 
that he has been lookhig down into the impluvium of Priam's palace, 
completely absorbed in the scene transacting there. He now with- 
draws his eyes (respicio) fi-ora this scene, and looking about finds him- 
self alone. Copia = force. In this sense, commonly plural. — 566. 
Ignibus — dedere ; i. e. they had dropped in mere weariness into 
the flames from the palace roof, wRere they were standing with Aeneas. 

— 567 - 508. These verses are enclosed in brackets because, like 
the four lines prefixed to the Aeneid, their genuineness iis questioned, 
and because they seem to be inconsistent with VI. 510 foil. — 567. 
Jamque adeo is Virgilian, V. 268, 864, etc, adeo strengthem'ng Jam 
(see on £. IV. it). Super tmua eram; tmesis. Linmia Ves- 
tae. The temple of Vesta, like that of Pallas, appears to have been 
in the arx. — 569. Tyndarlda = the daughter of T3mdarcus ; i. e. 
Helen. She was reaHy the step-daughter of Tyndareus,. being the 



570 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

daughter of Leda, the wife of Tyndareus, by Jupiter. See on L 65a 
— 570. ErrantL Heyne supposes that Aeneas has let hunself down 
to the ground .and is ranging over the palace ; but it may be ques- 
tioned whether he really descends till v. 632. — 571. Evena. Or. 
58a A. & S. 274, R. 5 {a), — 573. Erinys. See on G. I. 27a — 
574. IiiviBa= hated. This seems better (C£ v. 601) than unseen^ 
as some take it It is however to be joined as predicate with sedebat: 
sat crouching, like a hated thing. — 575. Ezsunere — animo ; I e. 
animus ira exarsit, Subit. See on v. 36a Ira = the angry im- 
pulse, resolve. — 576. UlclBCi . . . Bumere. See on amor^ v. la 
Soelerataa . . . poenas = the penalty of her guilt. — Conjugiaxn ; 
for conjugem, Patres ; iot partntes. See on v. 457. — 580. Fliry- 
gilB. See on I. 182. Comitata. See on I. 312. Ministria; 
doubtless male attendants. — 581. Occiderit . . . arsexit . . . bu- 
darit. These iut perfs. are meant to indicate those circumstances 
in the past which make it monstrous that the event spoken of as fu- 
ture, adspiciet^ iinty videbit^ should ever be realized. The sense is : shall 
she return, now that Priam has been murdered, etc So ibit . . . illu- 
serit, IV. 590. — 584. Feminea. See on Hectoreutn^ v. 543.— 
585. EimtinxiBBe . . . BompBiBBe. The ordinary construction 
would be laudabor quod exstinxi^ or qui exsiinxerim, Nefaa ; con- 
temptuously of a person. Merentea . . . poenaa, like sceleratas 
poenasy v. 576. — 587. UltriclB flammae ; for ultionis, Gr. 41a 
7. 2). A. & S. 220. 3. CI I. 215. With cineres meorum cf. Jlamma 
extrema meoruMy v. 431. 

588. Talia jactabam. C£ I. 102. Furiata mente. Cf. V. 
407. — 589. Videndam = ut viderem, — 591. ConfesBa See on v. 
514. Que couples the clause to which it belongs with confessa deam. 
Viderl See on £. IV. 16. — 592. Quanta. The stature of the 
gods was greater than that of men. Frehenaum continuit See 
on I. 69. Venus seizes the hand with which Aeneas was la3ring hold 
of his sword. — 593. Roaeo ... . ore. C£ I. 402. — 595. Noatxi 
. . . cura. Venus identifies herself with the family of which she 
formed a part, and to which Aeneas owed protection. Gr. 396. II. 
A. & S. 211, R. 3 {a). Tibi Gr. 398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (i). — 
596. Frius ; i e. before doing Imything else. — 597. Liqueria 
Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. The real meaning is : where he, whom you 
left at home, may be now. — 598. Omnes may go with quos or 
CLcies, The editors generally prefer the former. — 599. Resistat 
The present expresses that the danger, and consequently the guardi- 
anship, are not over. Gr. 504. i. A. & S. 261, R. 3. Tulerint and 
hauserity on the other hand, for the sake of liveliness, speak of the 
destruction as already a thing of the past — 600. Tulerint. See 
on £. V. 34. Haurire ; of a weapon or other offensive agent, prob- 



THE AENEID. BOOK II. 57 1 

ably as devouring flesh or drinking blood. — 601. Tibi refers to the 
whole sentence, as in I. 261. It is not, cu you think ; or this over- 
throw that you mourn is not caused by, &c. — 602. Culpattui ; i. e. 
whom you and others blame ; used as an adj. Divuxn. In trans- 
lating supply but, — 603. A culmine = from its summit ; i e. from 
top to bottom. See on v. 290. — 605. Bt — caligat = and humid 
spreads a veil of mist around you. — 608. Molea ; the walls and 
buildings. — 609. Piilvere. Gr. 43a A. & S. 257. — 610. Magno 
— ; tridenti belongs really to muros as well as Xo fundamentay though 
grammatically only to the latter. — 612. Scaeas . . . portas. The 
Scaean gate, being the western gate, looked toward the shore, and 
the battle naturally thickened round it — 613. Prima ; because at 
the entrance of the city. See on v. 334. — 615. SuxnmaB arces ; 
referring to the citadel Tritonia. See on v. 171. — 616. Nimbo 

— saeva = refulgent with a storm-cloud and the fierce Gorgon. 
Nimbo is the furious storm-cloud, indicative of her wrath, with which 
she is enveloped ; Gorgone is the frightful Gorgon Medusa, whose 
head Minerva had placed upon her shield ; and both are lighted up 
either by the lurid glare of the conflagration or by the lightnings from 
the cloud. — 617. Pater. See on G. I. 121. Secundas = auspi- 
cious. — 618. In — arma ; L e. against the Trojans who continue to 
ofier resistance. — 619. Eripe . . . fugam ; i. e. flight is the only 
thing now within your grasp, and you may by delay lose the oppor- 
tunity for this. Labor! =3 to the struggle. — 621. Dizerat A. & 
S. 259, R. I (3). — 623. Numina = powers. -^ 624. Turn vero ; 
L e. after his eyes have been opened to see Heaven fighting against 
Troy. Omne; emphatic — 625. Neptoxila. See on G. I. 502. — 
626. Ac veluti = even as. — 627. Quum ; with ac veluH, Ao- 
oisam= which they have begun to fell Crebria. See on crebro, 
V. 492. Instant = are pressing on, striving. — 628. Certatim ; 
with instant. Biinatur ; I e. to fall. — 629. Vertioe. Gr. 414 and 
3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 630. Evlcta ; stronger than Tjicta, Su- 
premnm. Gr. 371, i. 3) (2). A. & S. 232 (3).-- 631. Congemuit 
= has groaned loudly. Traadtque — ruinam = and having been 
torn off (i. e. from the stump), has fallen heavily along the mountain. 

— 632. Descendo. See on v. 57a Ducente dec = under di- 
vine guidance ; the masc. being used in a general sense, though a 
goddess is meant — 633. Ezpedior = I make my way in safety : 
lit I am extricated. —634. Perventom (sc. est) = I arrived. Gr. 
301. 3. A. & S. 1S4. 2. — 636. Primom ; with quern, Montes ; 
i. e. Ida, w. 801 foil. — 638. Integer — aevi = unimpaired t>y age. 
<^r- 399- 3- 4)- A. & S. 213. — 639. Sao; emphatic. Robore. 
For abl. see on regno^ I. 268. — 640. Agitate = hasten forward : 
involving the notion both of preparation and execution. —642. 8ati% 



573 MOTES as VIRGIL. 

etc. In prose we might have had satis superque est quod vidimus^ eta 
The allusion is to the destruction of Troy by Hercules in the reign 
ofLaomedc»L-*648. Supezavlmns. Of. v. 597. UiM Gr. 384. 
A. & S. 223. Una in the form of semel must be supplied to captae 
urbi, — 644. Sic is probably to be taken yi'itli positum : just as I am. 
AfEftti seems to refer to the conclamatio rather than to the inclamatut. 
See on L 219. They are to -treat him as ^ he were already dead, and 
leave him. — 645. ^se manu are eo frequently connected together 
by Virg. in the sense of doing a thing with one's own hand (see on v. 
321), that it seems impossible to give them any other sense here. 
Miserebitur hostis on the other hand is more naturally understood of 
death from an enemy than of an enemy's abstaining from maltreat- 
ing the dead ; and the words of Aeneas, v. 661, rather ^vor the 
same view. Forb. therefore seems right in supposing that Anchises 
means to follow Priam's example, mingling in battle and provoking 
his deadi. C£ Mtmisse manu, v. 434. EaraTiaflqae petet indi- 
cates that ihe enemy might kill him for other reasons than pity. — 
647. Annos demoror 7= have I been delaying the years. Gr. 
467. 2. A, & S. 145. 2. -—649. Ffilininln . . . i^entiB. Virg. may 
have thought of the wind of the thunderbolt^s motion. See on I. 
45. Affiant s= blasted. The story was that Anchises was struck 
wil^ lightning for divulging his intercourse with Venus. — 660. Me- 
moranB 3= dicens, C£ v. 73. 1. 327. — 651. Noa. Gr. 446. 2. A. 
& S. 209, R. 7 [b), Bfihxal (sc sumus) lacxliniB^-Bin tears (began 
to entreat). Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 652. "Vertere. See on L 20. 
653. Fato— inciunbere=to lend his weight to the destiny that 
was bearing us down. ^^Uat depends on ^fusi iacrimky which con- 
tains the notion of orcAimms. — 6SC Peror. See on v. 383. — 666. 
Confdliom . . . fortana =expedient . . . way of safety. — 658. Ne- 
fas =s impiety. — ^660.;Bedet ; of a fixed resolution, IV. 15 ; V. 418. 
etc, sometimes with animo, sometimes with a dat of the person, 
sometimes without a case. Ankno. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 2^ 
and 2. — 661. Isti; i. e. to that death y<ni covet so. —•662. J^on = 
in a moment — 664 Hoc erat . . . quod eripia a= was it for this 
. . . that thou dost rescue. Quod eripis is the subject, *^oc the predi- 
cate, and ut cernam explains hoc. Hoc and quod Bit adverbial or cog- 
nate accusatives. Gr. 380. 2. A. i& S. 232 (3). See on v. 141. The 
tenses are confused, ut cernam depending on hoc erat, — 665. Mediis, 
etc See on v. 508. — 668. Terte arma. We are to suppose -that 
he had taken off -his armor on lietuming home. So Rursus in arma 
feror, v. 655. Luoc itltiina; like summa dies, v. 324. — 669. Re- 
visam. Gr. 493. 2. A. & €. 262, R. 4.- — 671. Accingor. See on 
V. 383. — 672. Inaeirtabain. The strap or handle of the dhield, 
through which the^ann was passed, was techni^Uy denominated in- 



THE AENEI0. BOOK II. 573 

serioHum, — 675. Et 2= alfio. — 676. BizperttiB^ i e. as having 
been already in the battle. — 678. Quondam . . « diota = once 
called. — 681. ManuB inter, etc. £reusa had Ascanius in her 
arms and was pressing him upon Aeneas. This explains tendebal, v. 
674. — 682. Levis . . . apex == a light tapering flame. — 683. 
Tactu. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. i. — 684. Flamma is the same as 
the levis apex. — 685. Xrepidare = began to bustle about Gr. 
545. I. A. & S. 209, R. 5. —-686. Fontibns=with spring water. 

— 688. Coelo; for ad caelum, C£ v. 405. Gr.379. 5, A. & S. 
2i^5. IV. R. 2. —689. Si See on G. I. 7. C£ V. 687 foil. — 690, 
Hoc tantum ; sc rogo. See on v. 79. — 691. Firma. Serv. says 
that it was usual for the Romans to ask for a second omen confirming 
the &rst. — 692. Vix . . . que. See on v. 172. — 693. Laeinim 
= on the left. Thlmder on the left was a good omen in Roman au- 
gury. — > 694. Stella = a meteor. Faoem = a fiery train. Mnlta 
cum Inoe ; vA^facem ducens, Idaea . . . ailva; the woods on Mt 
Ida. — 697. Signantemqne <viaB. The sense seems to be fixed 
by the parallel, V. 526, to the imprinting of the meteor's path along 
the sky. Que couples signantem with labentem, Tom. After the 
disappearance of the meteor any trail that it left would be more per>- 
ceptible. Iiongo limite =in a long path. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 
247 and 2. — 699. Se — auras ; i. e. rises. We may presume fi-om is. 
.644 and the context generally that Anchis«s was stretched on his bed. 
-*- 701 Jam, as elsewhere, = already ; and the repetition strength- 
ens it We may render : " No more, no more delay fi-om me." Ad- 

-flum is- stronger than ibo. Lead me. by what way you will, I am there 
.ahready. — 708. Vestro — eat = Troy ( i. e. tiie Trojan race) is in 
your keeping, under your protection. — 704. Tibi comes ire ar: 
tecum ire, Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227, R. 4. C£ VI. 158. -^ 
706. Aestus; ace. — 707. Imponere. See on v. 3^.— 708. 
Htmieris. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Cf. IV. 599. Iste 
very beautifiilly suggests the reason why the burden will not be op- 
.pressive : it consists of thee. — 709. Quo . . . cumque; tmesis. 

— 710. Mihi. See on tiHj v. 704. -* 712. Dioam ; fut indie 
. Animis advertite ; a variety for tiie common ammos aduertite adea. 
— 713. Urbe egreBsis=as you go out of the city. For the dat 
see on I. 102. — 714. Deaertae == solitary ; because she, x. e. her 
temple, stood in an unfirequented -spot — 7il5. Religione ^^ by the 
religious observance. — 716. Ez diverso =: firom^difierent parts. — 
718. Me . . . attrectare. Gr. 549 and i. A. & S. 269 and R. x 
Caede reoentL We have seen, v. 167, that part of the crime of 
Diomedes and Ulysses was that they toudied the Palladium with 
their blood-stained hands. — 719. Vivo. \ Only numing water could 
be used for. the purification. 



574 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

721. Humeroft. Gr. 38a A. & S. 234. II. — 722. Super ; ad- 
verb. 725. Ferimur. See on v. 383. Opaca locomm. See on 
L 422. — 727. Adverso — Ghrali = Greeks gathered thickly together 
in hostile array. — 729. Comiti ; Ascanius. — 731. SvairiBse = to 
have passed over in safety. See on v. 458. Ci III. 282. Ad aures ; 
with Odessa, as in V. 55. — 735. liDhi. Gr. 386. 2. A. & S. 224, R. a 
Nescio quod = some ; lit I know not what Gr. 525. 4. A. & S. 
265, R. 4. Male amicum. See on v. 23.-736. Coniusam 
eripuit. See on 1.29,69. Ctma. See on I. 157. — 737. Re- 
£;ioiie = line, direction. — 738. Misero — incertmn = whether 
my wife Creusa, torn from me mihappy (one) by fate, stopped, or wan- 
dered from the way, or weary sat down, (is) uncertain. MUero be- 
longs to mihi understood. Erepta fato applies really to all three 
verbs, the meaning being that she was separated finally from Aeneas, 
whatever was the cause. The indicatives are used instead of sub- 
junctives, which we should have naturally expected, like laetantur^ 
E. IV. 52, sparsity E. V. 7, mittity G. I. 57, being regarded as the prin- 
cipal verbs in the sentence, and incertum merely as a sort of qualify- 
ing adverb. Gr. 525. 6. A. & S. 265, R. i. — 739. Seu is used 
co-ordinately with «^, as Tacitus uses svve co-ordinately with an. We 
have already had seu , , , svve after dubiiy I. 218. — 741. Nee — 
quam = nor did I observe that she was lost or turn my mind (tow- 
ards her) before that — 742. Tomulam . . . sedem. Gr. 379. 4. 
A. & S. 237, R. 5 {c), Antlquae refers rather to the temple than to 
the goddess. — 744. Comites = as her companions. Comites simply 
expresses in what respect she played them false, or escaped their 
notice. — 745. Deonimque. Gr. 663. III. i. 4). A. & S. 304 (4) ; 
307. 3. — 749. Cingor. See on v. 383. — 750. Stat with an infin., 
of a fixed resolution, like sedet, C£ v. 66a — 753. Retro — se- 
quor = I observe and trace backward. See on I. 29, 69. — 754. 
Lainine = with the eye. — 755. Si forte = on the chance that 
See on v. 136. — 761. PorticibuB — asylo = in the desolate clois- 
ters, Juno's sanctuary; i. e. temple. — 765. Auro Bolidl = of solid 
gold : lit solid with gold. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and i, — 772. 
Infeliz ; with reference to Aeneas's feeling, not to Creusa's actual 
condition. — 773. Nota = solita. The forms of the shades, like 
those of the gods (see on v. 592), were supposed to be larger than 
human, apparently as being no longer " cabined, cribbed, confined " 
by the body. — 774. Stetenmt; like tullfrunty E. IV. 61. — 775. 
Afl^Eui . . . demere. Gr. 545. i. A. and S. 209, R. 5. — 777. Numine 
= will, purpose. See on v. 123 ; I. 133. Cf. V. 56. — 779. Aut 
. (= nor) connects fas (= destiny) with regnatoTy as one of the sub- 
jects of sinit Hie is peculiarly used of Jupiter, as a title of rever- 
ence. - 780. Tibi Gr. 388. L A. & S. 225. III. Enilia. The 



THE AENEID. BOOK III. 575 

plural has here (as indeed frequently in poetry), a rhetorical force, as 
multiplying the troubles of Aeneas. Arandiun is used strictly with 
atquoTf loosely with exsUia (zeugma), = to be undergone ... to be 
traversed. — 781. Bt = and then. Terrain. See on v. 742. Hes- 
perlam. See on I. 569. Lydius refers to the traditional origin of 
the Etruscans from Lydia, a country in the western part of Asia 
Minor. Arva — virum = through the rich cultivated lands of heroes. 
— • 784. Parta is peculiarly used of things that are virtually, though 
not actually realized. Cf. III. 495 ; VI. 89 ; E. III. 68. Chreusae. 
See on I. 462. — 785. Myrmidoniun — Dolopum. See on v. 7. 

— 786. Aut See on v. 779. Servituxn. Gr. 569. A. & S. 276. 1, 
and II. — 787. Dardanis. Gr. 316. A. & S. 100. i (^). — 788. 
Qenetriz ; Cybele. She was one of the patronesses of Troy, being 
a Phrygian goddess, and worshipped on Ida. Virg. means evidently 
that Creusa is to become one of her attendants, passing from ordi- 
nary humanity into a half-deified state, which agrees with v. 773. — 
789. Serva . . . amorem; i. e. continue to love. — 792. Ibi = /Swm. 
CoUo. Gr. 384. I. A. & S. 249. 1. R. 3.-795. Sic. CC I. 225, 

— 798. Pubem = a band, company. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. It is 
meant to include vaguely the whole body. — 799. Parati ;,sc de<iuci 
or some similar word. — 800. Velinv Gr. 486. III. A. & S. 26a IL 
Pelago. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247. 3 or 255. 2. — 801. Jugifl 
Bnmmae Idae ; i. e. from the summit of Ida. Lucifer. The story 
was that Lucifer, the star of Venus, guided Aeneas to Italy. — 803. 
Spes opia may either be hope of giving aid, or, more probably, 
hope of receiving it, Aeneas identifying himself with the city. 



THE AENEID. Book III. 

In the Third Book Virgil treads yet more closely in the steps of 
Homer, the subject being the wanderings of Aeneas, as that of the 
Ninth and three following books of the Odyssey is the wanderings of 
Ulysses. Yet the only place in which the two lines of adventure 
actually touch is, when they enter the country of the Cyclops; and 
there Virgil has skilfiilly contrived not to rival Homer's story, but to 
appropriate it, and to make Aeneas reap the fruit of Ulysses's ex- 
perience without being obliged to repeat it in his own person. For 
his other incidents he is indebted partly to other portions of the body 
of heroic legend, partly to his own invention. Polydorus is from the 



576 NOTES ON VIRGIL. 

Greek drama ; the bleeding myrtle, however, may be Virgil's own, 
though Heyne gives the credit of it to the Cyclic poets : the adven- 
ture with the Harpies was suggested by Apollonius, who also gave 
hints for the predictions of Helenus and the deliverance of Ache- 
menides : other legends seem to have given the outline of the voy- 
age, indicating the several places touched at The mistakes made in 
searching for the new kingdom, the scene at Delos, the appearance 
of the Penates, the meeting with Andromache, seem all to be more 
or less original 

ARGUMENT. 

Troy, according to the almost universal tradition, was taken in the 
summer. The winter of this year, which counts as the first of the 
seven, is spent by Aeneas in making preparations (1-7). He sails 
in the spring or summer of the second year (8- 12), and spends the 
winter in Thra