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Full text of "Selections from the Old English Bede, with text and vocabulary on an early West Saxon basis, and a skeleton outline of Old English accidence"

Selections from the 
Old English Bede 



Published by the University of Manchester at 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS (H. M. MCKECHNIE, Secretary) 

12, Lime Grove, Oxford Road, Manchester. 

LONGMANS, GBEEN & Co. 
London : 39, Paternoster Row 

New York : 443-449, Fourth Avenue and Thirtieth Street 
Chicago : Prairie Avenue and Twenty-fifth Street. 

Bombay : Hornby Road 
Calcutta : 6, Old Court House Street 
Madras : 167, Mount Road 



SELECTIONS'IFROM THE 

OLD ENGLISH BEDE 

WITH TEXT AND VOCABULARY ON AN EARLY 

WEST SAXON BASIS, AND A SKELETON OUTLINE 

OF OLD ENGLISH ACCIDENCE 



BY 



W. J. SEDGEFIELD, Lirr.D., 

Professor of English Language in the University 



MANCHESTER 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONGMANS, GREEN & 
London, New York, Bombay 
1917 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 
No. CX. 



/J7 



PREFATORY NOTE. 

The study of Old English has hitherto been rendered 
unnecessarily confusing and difficult for beginners by the 
fact that whereas the early West Saxon dialect of King 
Alfred has been adopted as the standard for grammars, 
vocabularies and dictionaries, the actual texts employed in 
teaching have usually been printed practically as they occur 
' in the MSS., representing no one dialect in a pure form. 
Thus the student has from the beginning had to reconcile 
the conflict of practice with precept. 

In the present selections the student is spared this 
conflict, and will find many examples of what he has 
learned in his grammar. He will also, it is hoped, find the 
selections interesting in themselves. 

The normalising on a West Saxon basis has not been 
carried out quite rigidly. A reference to Sweet's Student^ 
Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon will show that in a very large 
number of instances there may occur two (or even three) 
Early West Saxon forms of the same word, and in these 
selections the student will find occasional exemplifications 
of this absence of complete uniformity. The brief summary 
of O. E. accidence will enable the book to be used by itself 
as a means of learning Old English. It should be borne in 
mind that the O. E. version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History 
shows the influence of L the Latin, not only in its vocabulary 
but also occasionally in its syntax. 

Except for a few omissions the text has been very little 
tampered with. 

W. J. SEDGEFIELD. 

THE UNIVERSITY, 
MANCHESTER, 

joth January \ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Early British History - - I 

Anecdotes - 37 

Vocabulary - 71 

Skeleton Outline of O.E. Accidence - - - 94 



131 

6*5 

Selections from the O.E. Bede. 



I. EARLY BRITISH HISTORY. 



Bede's Preface. 

Ic, Beda, Cristes f eow and maessepreost, sende gretan 
f one leofestan cyning Ceolwulf. And ic f e sende f aet 
spell f aet ic niwan awrat be Angelf eode and Seaxum, f e 
selfum to rsedanne and on semettan to smeageanne, and 
eac on ma stowa to writanne and to lasranne. And ic 
getreowie on fine geornfulnesse, forfon f u eart swicte 
giemende and smeagende ealdra manna cwidas and dseda 
and ealra swiSost fara maerra wera Ore f eode. For)?on 
pis gewrit o35e hit god sagaf be godum mannum, and se 
\>e hit gehierej?, he onhierej? fsem, o<35e hit yfel sagaj? be 
yfelum mannum, and se l?e hit gehiere}?, he fliehj? J?aet 
and onscuna}?. ForJ?on hit is god godne to herianne and 
yfelne to leanne, J?aet se gej?eo se J?e hit gehiere. Gif se 63er 
nolde, hu wier)? he elles gelsered ? For )?mre fearfe and 
for J?inre J?eode ic fis awrat ; forfon J?e God to cyninge 
geceas, J?e gedafenaj? fine feode to Iseranne. And faet 
J?y lass tweoge hwaeSer J?is soj? sie, ic cy9e hwanon me 
fas spell comon. 

^rest me waes fultumiend and lareow se arwierSa 
abbud Albmus, se waes wide gefaren and gelsered, and 
wses betst gelsered on Angelcynne. SwiSost he me 
saegde of peodores gemynde, se waes biscop on Cantwara 
byrig, and Adrianus abbud, forf on he swiQost waes mid 
him gelsered. Eall faet he on Cantwara mseg3e and eac 
on fcem f eodlandum f e f aer to gef Tedde wseron, call f aet 
he o53e on gewritum o35e on ealdra manna segenum 
ongeat o55e fram leornungcnihtum faes eadgan papan 
Sancte Gregories, fa he me ealle fa fe gemyndwierSe 
wseron, furh Nofhelm fone sefestan maessepreost on 



2 BEDE'S PREFACE 

LundenbyrigoSSe hine to me sende, o53e on stafum awrat 
and me sende. Fram fruman J?issa boca oj? J?a tid J?e 
Angelcynn Cristes geleafan onfeng, of ealdra manna 
segenum oj? J?as andweardan tid, swldost we geleornedon 
J?aet we her writaj? of leornungcnihtum J?aes eadgan 
papan Sancte Gregories; under hwelcum cyninge )?aet 
fonne geworden wass, }>urh Alblnus myndgung }>aes 
abbudes and furh Nofhelmes airendu and gesegene. 
SwiSe fela hie me saegdon fram gehwelcum biscopum and 
hwelcum cyninga tldum Eastseaxe and Westseaxe and 
Eastengle and NorSanhymbre )?sere giefe onfengon 
Cristes geleafan. f>urh AlbTnus swiSost ic gejmstlsehte 
faet ic dorste fis weorc onginnan, and eac mid Danieles 
myndgunge }?33S arwierSan Westseaxna biscopes, se nu 
glet libbende is. Fela me he sa^gde ymb Sufseaxe and 
ymb Westseaxe, and eac ymb Wiht f aet legland swl5ost 
he me sende on gewritum. And J?urh Ceadde J?one 
arwierSan Miercna biscop and Ceaddan ymb Miercna 
J?eode and Eastseaxna, and ymb fara biscopa Iff and 
forj?fore we geascedon fram J?em bro5rum )?aes mynstres, 
J?e hie self astemnedon, ]?e Lasstinga ea is nemned, 
J)a J?ing J?e on Eastenglum gewordene wseron, sume we 
fa of ealdra manna gewritum oSSe segene metton, sume 
we mid Isses gesegene J?ass arwierSan abbudes 
geleornedon. And J?aet on Lindesse geworden waes 
ymb Cristes geleafan, }?urh gesegene J?aes arwier3an 
biscopes Cynebeorhtes and ]?urh his serendgewritu and 
65erra libbendra swi5e getriewra we geleornedon. Eac 
faet we on Nordanhymbrum geascedon ymb Cristes 
geleafan o}> ]?isne andweardan dasg, nalaes mid anes 
mannes gefeahte ac mid gesegene manigra geleaffulra 
witena, ]?a )?e fa f ing wiston and gemundon, and si55an 
faet ic self ongeat, ne let ic faet unwriten. paet ic be 
fajm halgan faeder Cufbeorhte wrat o59e on J?isse bee 
o55e on oSerre, J?a dasda his llfes, sume ic serest nam of 
faem gewritum f e ic awriten gemette mid fsem broSrum 
fsere ciricean aet Lindesfarena Te, sumu, J?a J?e ic self 
ongietan meahte furh swlcte getriewra manna gesegene, 
ic tolecte. And fone leornere ic nu ea5modllce bidde and 



DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN 3 

healsie, gif he hwast ymb fis on 65re wisan gemete o56e 
gehiere, fast he me fast ne astwite. 

Britain and its Early History. 

Breten is garsecges legland fast wass geo geara Albion 
haten ; is geseted betweoh norf dasle and westdasle, 
Germanic and Gallic and Hispanic fasm masstum daslum 
Europe micle fasce ongean. past is norf eahta hund mila 
lang, and tu hund mila brad. Hit hafaf fram suf dasle fa 
masgSe ongean fe man hatef Gallia Belgica. Hit is 
welig fis legland on wasstmum and on treowum 
missenlicra cynna ; and hit is gescrepe on lasswe sceapa 
and neata ; and on sumum stowum wmgeardas growaf . 
Swelce eac feos eor5e is berende missenlicra fugla and 
saswihta, and her beof oft fangene seolas and hranas and 
mereswm ; and her beof oft numene missenlicra cynna 
weolocscielle and muscle, and on f asm beo5 oft gemette 
fa betstan meregreotan aslces hiwes. And her beof 
swl3e genyhtsume weolocas, of fasm bif geworht se 
weolocreada telg, f one ne masg sunne blascean ne ne regn 
wierdan ; ac swa he bif ieldra, swa he fasgerra bif. Hit 
hafaf eac, fis land, sealtseaSas; and hit hafaf hat waster 
and hat badu aslcre ieldo and hade f urh todaslde stowa 
gescrepe. Swelce hit is eac berende on wecga orum ares 
and Isernes, leades and seolfres. Her bif eac gemeted 
gagates : se stan bif blase gimm ; gif man nine on fyr def , 
f onne fleof fasr nasdran onweg. Wass fis legland eac 
geo geweordod mid fasm as3elestum ceastrum, anes wana 
f nttigum, fa fe wasron mid weallum arid torrum and 
geatum and fasm trumestum locum getimbrede, butan 
manigum 65rum lasssum ceastrum. And forfon fe fis 
legland under fasm selfan norfdasle middangeardes 
niehst ligef , and leohte niht on sumera hafaf, swa fast 
oft on middre nihte geflit cymef fasm behealdendum, 
hwas3er hit sle f e asfenglomung f e on morgen dagung 
is on fon sweotol fast fis legland hafaf micle lengran 
dagas on sumera, and swa eac niht on wintra, f onne fa 
suf daslas middangeardes. 



4 INHABITANTS OF BRITAIN 

i 

On fruman Merest wseron J>isses leglandes blgengan 
Brettas ane, fram J>sem hit naman onfeng. Is J?aet saegd, 
J?aet hie comon fram Armoricano J?sere rcuegSe on 
Bretene, and \>a su)?dselas pisses leglandes him gesaston 
and geagnedon. pa gelamp asfter J?on fastte Peohta 
J?eod com of Scy5<5ia lande on scipum and J>a ymbaerndon 
call Bretene gemseru, j?agt hie comon on Scotland up, and 
}?3er gemetton Scotta J?eode, and him bsedon setles and 
eardungstowe on hiera lande betweoh him. Andswaredon 
Scottas J?aet hiera land ne wsere to }>ass micel J>aet hie 
meahten twa feoda gehabban. Ac cwsedon : ' We 
magon eow sellan halwende ge]?eahte, hwset ge don 
magon. We witon heonon nauht feorr 63er legland 
eastrihte, J?ast we magon oft leohtum dagum geseon. Gif 
ge ]>ddt secean willa)?, ]?onne magon ge J?ser eardungstowe 
habban ; o53e gif hwelc eow wij?standej?, J?onne 
gefultumiaS we eow. pa ferdon Peohtas on Bretene and 
ongunnon eardian \>a norj>dablas J?isses leglandes; and 
Brettas, swa we ser cwa^don, fa suj?daelas. Mid J?y 
Peohtas wif naefdon, bsedon him fram Scottum. pa 
gefafedon hie fsere arsednesse, and him wif sealdon, J?set 
f ser seo wise on tweon cume, J?aet hie J>onne ma of fy&m 
wifcynne him cyning curen fonne of fasm wsepnedcynne 
paet giet todseg is mid Peohtum healden. 

pa, forj?gangenre tide, aefter Brettum and Peohtum, 
J>ridde cynn Scotta Bretene onfeng on Peohta daele, J?a 
wseron cumene of Hibernia Scotta Teglande mid hiera 
heretogan, Reada hatte. Hie hwilum mid freondscipe 
hwilum mid gefeohte him selfum betweoh hie setl and 
eardungstowe geagnedon, J?a hie nu giet habbaj?. paet 
cynn nu todaeg Dalreadingas sind hatene. 

Hibernia Scotta legland ge on braedo his stealles ge on 
halwendnesse ge on smyltnesse lyfta is betere micle ]? onne 
Bretene land, swa )?aet j?ser seldan snaw leng ligef J?onne 
frle dagas. And J?ser nainig mann for wintres ciele on 
sumera hieg ne mawej?, ne scipene his neatum ne timbre)? 
Ne )?er man senigne snlcendne wyrm ne settrenne 
gesiehj? ; ne fser senig nsedre libban ne maeg. Forfonof 
Bretene nsedran on scipum Isedde wseron ; sona swa hie 



BRITAIN UNDER THE ROMANS 5 

faes landes lyft gestuncon, swa swulton hie. Ealle fa 
f ing f e f anon cumaf , wif aslcum attre magon. paet to 
tacne is, fast sume menn gesawon, fa fe wseron fram 
naedran geslaegene, faet man scof fara boca leaf fe of 
Hibernia comon, and fa sceaffan dyde on waster and 
sealde drincan f aim mannum ; and sona waes faet attor 
ofernumen, and hie waeron gehaelde. Is faet legland 
welig on meolcum and on hunige ; and wingeardas 
weaxaf on sumum stowum. And hit is fiscwielle and 
fugolwielle, and msere on huntunga heorta and rana. 

Eis is agendlice Scotta e5el ; heonon com seo f ridde f eod 
cotta, swa we ser cwaedon eac be Brettum and Peohtum 
on Bretene. 

Britain under the Romans. 

Waes Bretene legland Romanum uncuf , of fast Gaius 
se casere, 65re naman lulius, hit mid fierde gesohte and 
geeode siextigum wintra ser Cristes cyme. J>a asfter f on 
Claudius se casere, se waes feowerSa fram Augusto, eft 
fierde gelaedde on Bretene and fasr butan hefigum 
gefeohte and blodgyte micelne dsel faes landes on 
anweald onfeng. Swelce he eac Orcadas fa legland, fa 
wasron ut on garsecge butan Bretene, to Romwara rice 
gef ledde, and f y siextan mon5e f e he hider com he eft 
to Rome hwearf. J>eos fierd waes getogen f y feowerSan 
geare his rices, faet gear waes fram Cristes hidercyme 
faet siexte eac feowertigum. Fram fasm ilcan casere 
Claudie waes sended Uespassianus on Bretene, se aefter 
Nerone ricsode. Se geeode Wiht faet legland and 
Romana anwealde underf ledde. past is f rittiges mila 
lang east and west, and twelf mila brad suf and norf . 
J)a feng Neron to rice Defter Claudie faem casere. Se 
nauht fremlices ongann on f aere cynewisan, ac betweoh 
oderra unrim yfla Romwara rices, faet he Bretene rice 
forlet. 

The Romans leave Britain. 

pa waes ymb feower hund wintra and seofone aefter 
Dryhtnes menniscnesse ; feng to rice Honorius se casere, 



6 ROMANS ABANDON BRITAIN 

se waes feower5a eac feowertigum fram Augusto j?sem 
casere, twaim gearum ser Romaburg abrocen and 
forhergod waes. Seo hergung waes J?urh Alaricum 
Gotena cyning geworden. Waes Romaburg abrocen 
fram Gotum ymb Jmsend wintra and hundteontig and 
feower and siextig J?aes }?e heo geworht waes. Of J?aere 
tide Romane blunnon ricsian on Bretene. Haefdon hie 
Bretene rice feower hund wintra and J?aes fiftan 
hundseofontig, J?aes fe Gaius, 63re naman lulius, se 
casere faet ilce legland gesohte. And ceastre and torras 
and straata and brycge on hiera rice geworhte wseron, J?a 
we todaeg sceawian magon. Eardedon Brettas binnan 
faem dice to suj^daele J?e we gemyndgedon J?aet Seuerus 
se casere het )?weores ofer J?aet legland gedician. 

J>a ongunnon twa J?eoda, Peohtas norSan and Scottas 
westan, hie onwinnan and hiera sehta niman and hergian ; 
and hie fela geara iermdon and hiendon. pa on fsere 
unstillnesse onsendon hie aerendwrecan to Rome mid 

fewritum and wependre bene : him fultumes baedon and 
im geheton ea5mode hiernesse and singale underj?eod- 
nesse, gif hie him gefultumeden J?aet hie meahten hiera 
fiend oferwinnan. pa onsendon hie him micelne here to 
fultume. And sona faes J?e hie on )?is legland comon, )?a 
campedon hie wif hiera feondum and him micel wael 
ongeslogon, and of hiera gemaerum adrifon and 
afliemdon, and Iserdon faet hie faesten worhten him to 
gebeorge wij? hiera feondum ; and swa mid micle sige 
ham foron. 

pa J?aet }?a ongeaton J?a aerran gewinnan J?aet se 
Romanisca here waes onweg gewiten, J?a comon hie sona 
mid sciphere on hiera landgemaeru and slogon eall and 
cwealdon J?e hie gemetton ; and swa swa ripe ierj? 
fortreddon and fornamon, and hie mid ealle foriermdon. 
And hie \>a eft sendon aarendwrecan to Rome and 
wependre stefne him fultumes baedon, }>ast J?aet earme e5el 
mid ealle ne fordilgod ne wsere, ne se nama faere 
Romaniscan J>eode fram fremdra feoda ungefwsernesse 
fornumen and fordilgod beon scolde. pa waes eft here 
hider sended, se waes cumende on ungewenedre tide on 



PICTS AND SCOTS RAVAGE BRITAIN 7 

haerfeste. And hie sona wif hiera feondum gefuhton, 
and sige haefdon, and ealle fa fe fone deaf beswician 
meahton ofer fone see norf afliemdon, fa fe asr selce 
geare ofer fone saa hlo3edon and hergedon. f>a 
gessegdon Romane on an Brettum fast hie no ma ne 
meahton for hiera gescieldnesse swa gewinnfullicum 
fierdum swencte beon. Ac hie manedon and Iserdon f set 
hie him waapnu worhten and modes strengf u namen faet 
hie campeden and wifstoden hiera feondum. And hie 
him fa eac to rsede and to frofre fundon J?aet hie 
gemsenellce fassten geworhten him to gescieldnesse, 
stsenenne weall rihtre stige fram eastsal to westsaa, 
J>ser Seuerus se casere geo het dician and eorfweall 
gewyrcean. pone man nu todaeg sceawian ma2g eahta 
fota bradne and twelf fota heanne. Swelce eac on J?aes 
saas waro5e to sufda^le, fanon J?e hie sciphere on becom, 
torras timbredon to gebeorge )?aes saas. pa sona J?ses fe 
fis faastenn geworht waes, }?a sealdon hie him bisne 
manige hu hie him waspen wyrcean scoldon, and hiera 
feondum wifstandan. And hie J?a gretton and him 
cyodon J?a3t hie naefre ma hie secean woldon ; and hie 
sigefaeste ofer sse ferdon. J)a J?aet fa Peohtas and Scottas 

feascedon, faet hie ham gewitene wasron, and eac fast hie 
ider no eft ma hie secean ne woldon, fa waeron hie f y 
bealdran gewordene, and sona ealne norfdael fisses 
leglandes of fone weall genamon and gesetton. Wif 
f issum stod on f sem faestenne ufanweardum se earga fe5a 
Bretta and faer forhtiendre heortan wunode daeges and 
nihtes. pa sohton hiera gewinnan him searwas and 
worhton him hocas, and mid f aem tugon hie earmllceaduh 
of fsem wealle. And hie wseron sona deade swa hie 
eor3an gesohton. Hie fa forleton fone weall and hiera 
burg, and flugon onweg ; and hiera gewinnan hie ehton 
and slogon and on wael fieldon. Waas fis gefeoht 
waelgrimre and strengre eallum fsem sergedonum. 
Forf on swa swa sceap fram wulfum and wildrum beof 
fornumene, swa fa earman ceasterwaran toslitene and 
fornumene waeron fram hiera feondum, and hiera aehtum 
benaemde and to hungre gesette. 



8 MISERY OF THE BRITONS 

The Coming of the Angles and Saxons. 

Swelce eac J?issum tldum com micel hunger on 
Constant! nopolim Creca ealdorburg ; and sona wol waes 
aefterfolgiende. Ge eac manige weallas mid seofon and 
fiftigum torrum gehruron and gefeollon, and swelce eac 
maniga 63ra ceastra tohrorene wseron. And se hungor 
and se wolberenda stenc J?sere lyfte manigu J?usendu 
manna and neata fordilgode and fornam. Com se 
foresprecena hungor eac swelce hider on Brettas and hie 
to J?on swlde swencte J?aet hiera manige hiera feondum on 
hand eodon ; and glet ma waes )?e ]?aet don ne woldon ; ac, 
J?a him aelc mennisc fultum blann, J?aet hie ma on 
godcundne fultum getreowedon. And J>a ongunnon 
aerest wi}? hiera fiend feohtan, J?a fe manige gear ser hie 
onhergedon and hloSedon. And hie him J?a micel wael 
ongeslogon, and hie ham bedrifon, and sige ahton. 
yfter fissum com god gear and swa eac miclu 
genyhtsumnes waestma on Bretene land, swa nsenig 
aefterieldo si53an gemunan ma3g. Mid \>y J?a ongann 
firenlust weaxan ; and sona wol ealra manna samod 
gehradode, fast waes waelhreownes and soj>faestnesse 
feoung, and seo lufu lyges and leasunga. And nalaes 
J?aet an J?aet J?as J?ing dydon weoruldmenn ac eac swelce 
J?aet Dryhtnes eowde and his hierde. And hie 
druncennesse and oferhygdu and geclde and geflite and 
aefeste and 6c5rum manum fisses gemetes wseron hiera 
sweoran underj?ledende, onweg aworpenum Crlstes geoce 
J?em leohtan and J?sem swetan. Betweoh J?as J>ing J?a 
com semninga micel wol and grimm ofer J?a gehwierfdan 
modes menn. And se on hraednesse swa micle menigeo 
hiera fornam and gefielde J?aette J?a cwican no 
genyhtsumedon J?aet hie J>a deadan bebyrigdon. Ac 
hwaeSre )?a J?e libbende waeron for )?sem ege J?aes deaSes 
nauht J?on sel woldon, ne fram hiera sawle deaSe aclegde 
beon ne meahton. ForJ?on nalass aefter miclum faece 
grimmre wraec faere firenfullan J?eode J?aes grimman 
manes waes aefterfolgiende. J>a gesamnedon hie gemot 
and |?eahtedon and rseddon hwast him to donne wsere, 



ARRIVAL OF ANGLES AND SAXONS 9 

hwair him wasre fultum to secanne to gewearnianne and 
to wifscufanne swa re3re hergunga and swa gelomlicre 
fara norf feoda. And fa gelicode him eallum mid hiera 
cyninge, Wyrtgeorn waes haten, fast hie Seaxna feode 
ofer f aim saslicum daelum him on fultum geclegden and 
gela3oden. paet cuf is fast fast mid Dryhtnes meahte 
gestihtod wses, fast yfel wrasc come ofer fa wif corenan, 
swa on f asm ende fara wisena sweotolllce astlewed is. 

J)a wass ymb feower hund wintra and nigon and 
feowertig fram ures Dryhtnes menniscnesse, J?aet 
Martianus casere rice onfeng and seofon gear haefde. Se 
waes siexta eac feowertigum fram Augusto \>3zm casere. 
pa Angel J?eod and Seaxna wass gelaSod fram fsem 
foresprecenan cyninge, and on Bretene com on }mm 
miclum scipum ; and on eastda^le J?isses leglandes 
eardungstowe onfeng furh J?aes ilcan cyninges bebod, 
J>e hie hider gela5ode, ]?aet hie scolden for hiera edle 
campian and feohtan. And hie sona campedon wi|? hiera 

fewinnum, J?e hie oft aer noroan onhergedon ; and Seaxe 
a sige geslogon. J)a sendon hie ham serendwrecan and 
heton secgan fisses landes wasstmbsernesse, and Bretta 
iergj?o. And hie j?a sona hider sendon maran sciphere 
strengra wigena ; and waes unoferswi5endlic werod, J?a hie 
togaedere geJ?Tedde wseron. And him Brettas sealdon 
and geafon eardungstowe betweoh him J?aet hie for sibbe 
and hselo hiera e51es campoden and wunnen wij? hiera 
feondum, and him andleofne and are forgeafon for hiera 
gewinne. Comon hie of Jmm folcum fasm strengestum 
Germanic, fast is of Seaxum and of Angle and of Geatum. 
Of Geata fruman sindon Cantware, and WihtsaMan ; 
fast is seo J?eod ]?e Wiht J?aet legland oneardaf. Of 
Seaxum, fast is of J?aem lande J?e man hate3 Ealdseaxe, 
comon Eastseaxe and Sufseaxe and Westseaxe. 
And of Angle comon Eastengle and Middelengle and 
Mierce and eall Norfhymbra cynn ; is fast land f e 
Angulus is nemned, betweoh Geatum and Seaxum ; is 
saegd of fsere tide fe hie fanon gewiton of todaeg, faet 
hit weste wunie. Wasron fa asrest hiera latteowas and 
heretogan twegen gebroSru Hengest and Horsa. Hie 



10 ANGLES AND SAXONS RAVAGE BRITAIN 

waeron Wihtgisles suna, faes faeder waes Witta haten, }?aes 
faeder waes Wihta haten and faes Wihtan faeder waes 
Woden nemned, of J?aes striende manigra maegfa 
cyningcynn fruman laedde. Ne waes J?a ieldung to )?on 
J?aet hie heapmaelum comon maran werode of J?aam 
}?eodum J?e we aer gemyndgedon. And J?aet folc, J?e hider 
com, ongann weaxan and miclian to J?on swide j?aet hie 
wseron on miclum ege ]? aem selfum landbigengum J>e hie 
aer hider laSedon and ciegdon. 

yfter J?issum hie J>a geweredon to sumre tide wi)> 
Peohtum, )?a hie aer }mrh gefeoht feorr adrifon. And \>a 
waeron Seaxe secende intingan and towyrde hiera 
gedales wij? Brettas. CySdon him openlice and saegdon, 
buton hie him maran andleofne sealden, )>aet hie woldon 
him selfe niman and hergian, j?air hie hit findan meahten. 
And sona J?a beotunge daedum gefyldon ; baerndon and 
hergedon and slogon fram eastsae oj? westsae ; and him 
naenig wifstod. Ne waes ungelic wraec J?aem J?e geo 
Chaldeas baerndon Hierusaleme weallas and fa cynelican 
getimbru mid fyre fornamon for J?aes Codes folces 
synnum. Swa ]?onne her fram faere arleasan J?eode, 
hwaeSre rihte Godes dome, neah ceastra gehwelce and 
land forhergode waeron. Hruron and feollon cynelicu 
getimbru and anliepigu ; and gehwaer sacerdas and 
maessepreostas betweoh weofedum waeron slaegene and 
cwielmde; biscopas mid folcum buton ^enigre are 
sceawunga aetgaedere mid iserne and liege fornumene 
waeron. And ne waes aenig se J?e bebyrignesse sealde 
faem )?e swa hreowlice acwealde waeron. And manige 
faere carman lafe on westennum fangene waeron and 
heapmaelum sticode. Sume for hungre hiera feondum 
on hand eodon and ecne feowdom geheton, wi)> J?on J?e 
him man andleofne forgeafe ; sume ofer sae sargiende 
gewiton ; sume forhtiende on e51e gebidon, and J?earfiende 
Hf on wuda and on westennum and on heaum cliofum 
sorgiende mode simle dydon. 

And J?a aefter ]?on J?e se here waes ham hweorfende and 
hie haefdon utamserede J?a bigengan J?isses Teglandes, ]?a 
ongunnon hie styccemaelum mod and maegen manian; 



MISSIONARIES FOB BRITAIN 11 

and forj? eodon of }>em dleglum stowum, )>e hie ser in 
behydde wseron, and ealra anmodre gefafunga heofon- 
rlces fultumes him wasron biddende, J?aet hie oj> forwyrd 
seghwaar fordilgode ne wseren. Waes on fa tid hiera 
heretoga and latteow Ambrosius haten, 65re naman 
Aurelianus. Wass god mann and gemetfaest, Romanisces 
cynnes mann. On fisses mannes tid mod and maegen 
Brettas onfengon ; and he hie to gefeohte forj? geclegde 
and him sige gehet ; and hie eac on fasm gefeohte }?urh 
Godes fultum sige onfengon. And J?a of fasre tide 
hwilum Brettas, hwllum eft Seaxe sige geslogon o\> ]?set 
gear ymbsetes J?aere Beadonescan dune, ]?a hie micel wael 
on Angelcynne geslogon, ymb feower and feowertig 
wintra Angelcynnes cymes on Bretene. 

The Coming: of St. Augustine to Britain. 

"pa waes aefter forfiernendre tide ymb fif hund wintra 
and tu and hundnigontig wintra fram Cristes hidercyme ; 
Mauricius casere feng to rice and J?aet haefde an and 
twentig wintra. Se waes feower3a eac fiftigum fram 
Augusto. f>.aes caseres rices }>y teoSan geare Gregorius 
se halga wer, se waes on lare and on daede se hlehsta, feng 
to biscophade fsere Romaniscan ciricean and )?aes 
apostolican setles, and )?aet heold and reahte freotlenu 
gear and siex monaj? and tlen dagas. Se waes mid 
godcundre onbryrdnesse manod )?y feowertigeSan geare 
J?aes ilcan caseres, ymb flftig wintra and hundteontig 
Angelcynnes hidercymes on Bretene, J?aet he sende 
Augustinum and 65re manige munecas mid hine 
Dryhten ondr^edende bodian Godes word Angelfeode. 
pa hlersumedon hie faes biscopes bebodum to J?em 
gemyndgedan weorce, and feran ongunnon and sumne 
dail ]?aes weges gefaren haefdon. J)a ongunnon hie 
forhtian and ondrsedan him )?one sl)?faet, and fohton faet 
him wlslicre and geh^ledre wsere J?aet hie ma ham 
cierden, fonne hie ]?a elreordan feode and J?a re5an and 
|?a ungeleafsuman, \>ara )?e hie fur3um gereorde ne cu3on, 
gesecean scolden. And \>is gemaenellce him to raede 



12 ST. AUGUSTINE ARRIVES 

curon. And fa sona sendon Augustinum to fasm papan, 
f one f e he him to biscope gecoren haefde, gif hiera lar 
onfangen wasre, fast he scolde eaQmodlice for hie f ingian, 
fast hie ne forften on swa frecne si f fast and on swa 
gewinnfulneandon swa uncuSe elfeodignesse faran. pa 
sende Sanctus Gregorius asrendgewrit him to, and hie 
trymede and lasrde on fasm gewrite fast hie eaSmodigllce 
ferden on fast weorc f ass Godes wordes and getreowden 
on Godes fultum ; and fast hie ne fyrhten fast gewinn 
fass siffastes ne wiergcwedolra manna tungan ne 
bregden ; ac fast hie mid ealre geornfulnesse and mid 
Godes lufe fa god gefremeden )?e hie furh Godes fultum 
don ongunnon ; and faet hie wisten fset ]?set micle gewinn 
mare wuldor eces edleanes aefterfyligde. And he 
aslmihtigne God baed fast he hie mid his gife gescielde ; 
and fast he him selfum forgeafe fast he moste fone 
wasstm hiera gewinnes on heofena rices wuldre geseon, 
for fon he gearu wasre on fasm ilcan gewinne mid him 
beon, gif him leafnes seald wasre. pa wass gestrangod 
Augustinus mid trymnesse f ass eadgan fasder Gregorius 
mid fasm Crlstes f eowum, fa f e mid him wasron ; and 
hwearf eft on fast weorc Godes word to lasranne and com 
on Bretene. 

Conversion of the Angles and Saxons. 

pa wass on fa tid ^3elbeorht cyning on Centrice, and 
he hasfde rice of gemasru Humbre streames, se toscadef 
suffolc Angelfeode and norffolc. ponne is on 
eastweardre Cent micel legland Tenet, fast is siex hund 
hlda micel asfter Angelcynnes eahte. past legland 
toscadef Wantsumu stream fram fasm togefieddan 
lande. Se is f reora furlanga brad ; and on twam stowum 
is oferfernes, and asghwasSer ende Hf on sas. On f issum 
leglande com up se Godes feow Augustinus and his 
geferan ; wass he feowertiga sum. Namon hie eac swelce 
him wealhstodas of Franclande mid, swa him Sanctus 
Gregorius bebead. And fa sende to ^Selbeorhte 
asrendwrecan and onbead fast he of Rome come and f aet 



ST. AUGUSTINE'S MISSION 13 

betste serende laedde ; and se J?e him hiersum beon wolde, 
buton tweon he genet ecne gefean on heofenum and 
toweard rice buton ende mid }?one soSan God and J>one 
libbendan. f>a he ]?a se cyning J?as word gehierde, J>a 
het he hie bldan on J?aem leglande )?e hie up comon ; and 
him J?ider hiera fearfe forgeafon, oj? )?aet he gesawe hwaet 
he him don wolde. Swelce eac air }>aem becom hlisa to 
him \>azre cristnan sefaestnesse, for ]>on he cristen wif 
haefde, him gegiefen of Francna cyningcynne, Beorhte 
Wees haten. past wif he onfeng fram hiere ieldrum fsere 
arsednesse J?set heo his leafnesse haefde ]?ast heo ]?one 
J?eaw J?aes cristnan geleafan and hiere sefaestnesse 
ungewemmedne healdan moste mid \>y biscope, J?one J?e 
hie hiere to fultume J?aes geleafan sealdon, ]?aes nama waes 
Leodheard. 

pa waes aefter manigum dagum )?,aet se cyning com to 
J?33m leglande, and het him ute setl gewyrcean ; and het 
Augustinum mid his geferum J?ider to his spraece cuman. 
Wearnode he him J?y laes hie on hwelc hus to him 
ineoden ; breac ealdre halsunga, gif hie hwelcne drycraeft 
haefden J?,aet hie hine oferswl5an and beswican scolden. 
Ac hie nalaes mid deofolcraefte ac mid godcunde maegene 
geweligode comon ; baeron Cristes rode tacn, seolfren 
Cristes mael, mid him and anlicnesse Dryhtnes Haelendes 
on brede afaegde and awritene, and wseron haligra naman 
rimende and gebedu singende ; samod for hiera selfra 
ecre haelo and fara J?e hie to comon to Dryhtne |?ingedon. 
pa het se cyning hie sittan, and hie swa dydon ; and hie 
sona him lifes word aetgaedere mid eallum his geferum 
J?e J?aer aet waeron, bodedon and laardon. J)a andswarode 
se cyning and J?us cwaej? : ' Faeger word J?is sindon and 
gehat J?e ge brohton and us secgaj?. Ac forfon hie niwe 
sindon and uncuoe, ne magon we nu gen J?aet }?afian 
J?aet we forlaeten J?a wisan ]>e we langre tide mid ealle 
AngelJ>eode heoldon. Ac for fon ]?e ge hider feorran 
elj?eodige comon and, J?aes }>e me gefuht is and gesewen, 
J?a ]?ing, J?a J?e ge soj? and betst geliefdon, faet eac swelce 
wilnedon us J?a gemaensumian, nella}> we for J?on eow 
hefige beon. Ac we willa)? eow eac fremsumlice on 



14 MISSIONARIES SETTLE AT CANTERBURY 

giestllf nesse onfon and eow andleofne sellan and eowre 
f earfe forgiefan. Ne we eow beweriaf fast ge ealle, fa 
fe ge maegen, furh eowre lare to eowres geleafan 
sefsestnesse gef leden and gecierren. pa sealde se cyning 
him wunenesse and stowe on Cantwara byrig, seo wses 
ealles his rices ealdorburg, and swa swa he gehet, him 
andleofne forgeaf and woruldj>earfe ; and eac swelce 
leafnesse sealde fast hie mosten Cristes geleafan bodian 
and Iseran. pa waes sona fses fe hie ineodon on fa 
eardungstowe J?e him allefed waes on J?aire cynelican 
by r ^> V& ongunnon hie J?set apostolice lif J?a3re 
frymfelican ciricean onhyrian, }?aet is, on singalum 
gebedum and on wasccum and on fsestennum Dryhtne 
feowedon ; and llfes word fasm hie meahton bodedon and 
Iserdon, and call J?ing }?isses middangeardes swa fremde 
forhogedon. pa }?ing an, fa )>e hiera andleofne nied- 
fearflicu gesewen wasron, hie onfengon fram J?aim )?e 
hie Iserdon. ^Efter f>on ]?e hie Icerdon hie selfe ]?urh eall 
lifdon, and hie haefdon gearu mod J?a wioerweardan ge 
eac swelce deaj? selfne to f rowianne for fasre soffaestnesse 
]?e hie bodedon and Iserdon. Ne waes J?a ieldung faette 
manige gellefdon and gefulwode waeron ; waeron 
wundriende fa bilewitnesse faes unsceoSendan llfes and 
swetnesse hiera f sere heofonlican lare. Waes be eastan 
f sere ceastre wel neah sumu cirice on are Sancti Martini 
geo geara geworht, mid fy Romane fa glet Bretene 
geeodon. On fsere ciricean seo cwen gewunode hiere 
gebiddan, f e we SQT cwsedon f set heo Crlsten wsere. On 
fisse ciricean serest fa halgan lareowas ongunnon hie 
samnian and singan and gebiddan and msessesang don 
and menn laeran and fulwian, of faet se cyning to geleafan 
gecierred waes, and maran leafnesse onfengon ofer eall to 
Iseranne and ciricean to timbranne and to betanne. 

pa gelamp f urh Godes gife faet se cyning eac swelce 
betweoh oore ongann lustfullian faet clsenoste lif haligra 
mid hiera fsem swetestum gehatum. And hie eac 
getrymedon faet fa sof wseron mid manigra heofonlicra 
wundra setlewnesse ; and he fa gefeonde wses gefulwod. 
pa ongunnon manige daeghwamllce efstan and scyndan 



ST. GREGORY AND THE ANGLES 15 

to gehieranne Godes word ; and haectennesse f eaw 
forleton and to f sere annesse hie gef leddon f urh geleafan 
falire halgan Cristes ciricean. J)ara geleafan and 
gehwierfednesse is saegd faet se cyning swa wsere 
efenblissiende faet he nsenne hwae3re niedde to Cristes 
geleafan, ac fa fe to geleafan and to fulwihte cierdon, 
fast he fa inweardlicor lufode, swa swa hie wseren him 
efenceasterwaran faes heofonlican rices. Forfon he 
geleornode fram his lareowum and fram faem ordfruman 
his hailo fastte Cristes J?eowdom scolde beon wilsumlic, 
nalaes geniededlic. And he fa se cyning geaf and sealde 
his lareowum gerisne stowe and setl hiera hade on his 
ealdorbyrig, and fair to sealde hiera niedfearfe on 
missenlicum sehtum. 

St. Gregory and the Angles. 

Nis us fonne se hlisa to forswigianne J?e be fsem 
eadgan Gregorie J?urh ieldra manna segene to us becom, 
for hwelcum intingan he manod wsere \>3&t he swa 
geornfulle giemenne dyde ymb fa haelo Ore feode. 
Secgaf hie faet sume daege fider niwan comen ciepemenn 
of Bretene and manig clepe f ing on ceapstowe brohten, 
and eac manige comen to bycganne fa f ing. pa gelamp 
faette Gregorius betweoh 65re eac fider com, and fa 
geseah betweoh 65er f ing clepe cnihtas f asr gesette. J)a 
Wceron hwltes llchaman and fasgres andwlitan menn and 
aeSellice gefeaxe. J)a he fa hie geseah and beheold, fa 
fraegn he of hwelcum lande o35e of hwelcre feode hie 
brohte warren. Saegde him man faet hie of Bretene 
Teglande brohte waeren and faes Teglandes bigengan 
swelcre anslene menn waeren. Eft he fraegn hw^edre fa 
ilcan landleode crlstne waaren fe hie fa gen on 
hae^ennesse gedwolan lifden. Cwaef him man to and 
saegde faet hie haeSne wseren ; and he fa of inneweardre 
heortan swiSe sworette and fuscwagf : ' Wala wa, fa^t is 
sarlic faette swa faeger feorh and swa leohtes andwlitan 
menn scyle agan and besittan flestra ealdor.' Eft he 
frasgn hwast seo feod nemned waere fe hie of comon. 



16 ST. GREGORY'S INTEREST IN THE ENGLISH 

Andswarode him man faet hie Angel nemnde wseren. 
Cwaef he : * Wei faet swa maeg, for f on hie angelice* 
ansiene habbaf , and eac swelce gedafenaf faet hie engla 
efenierfeweardas on heofenum slen.' pa giet he furdor 
fraegn and cwasf : ' Hwaet hatte seo maegf f e fa cnihtas 
hider of Isedde waeron.' pa andswarode him man and 
cwaef faet hie Dere nemnde wasren. Cwaef he : * Wei 
faet is cweden Dere, de ira eruti ; hie sculon of Codes ierre 
beon abrogdene and to Crlstes mildheortnesse geclegde.' 
pa giet he ascode hwast hiera cyning haten waere ; and 
him man andswarode and cwaej? Jjastte he ^11 haten 
waire. And J?a plegode he mid his wordum to J?em 
naman and cwasj? : ' Alleluia, J> aet gedafenaj) J>agtte Godes 
lof ures scieppendes on }>aem dselum sungen sie.' And 
he }?a sona code to ]?em biscope and to faem papan J?aes 
apostolican setles, for J?on he selfa ]?a giet naes biscop 
geworden. Basd hine )?aet he Angelfeode onsende on 
Bretene hwelchwugu lareowas, J?aette J?urh fa hie to 
Criste gecierde waeren ; and cwaej? J?aet he selfa gearu 
wsere mid Godes fultume J?aet weorc to fremmanne, gif 
J?em apostolican J?aet Hcode, and fast his willa and his 
leafnes wa^re. pa ne wolde se papa faet fafian ne )?a 
burgware J?on ma, faette swa aeSele wer and swa 
gefungen and swa gelasred swa feorr fram him gewite. 
Ac he sona hraoe, )?aes }>e he biscop geworden waes, faette 
he gefremede ]?aet weorc faet he lange wilnode, and fa 
halgan lareowas hider onsende, fe we aer beforan sasgdon. 
And he Sanctus Gregorius mid his trymnessum and mid 
his gebedum waes gefultumiende fast hiera lar wasre 
wasstmberende to Godes willan and to rasde Angelcynne. 
pa waes asfter fissum faet Augustinus Bretene 
aercebiscop gehalgode twegen biscopas; 63er waes 
Mellitus haten, 65er lustus. pone Mellitum he sende 
Eastseaxum to bodianne godcunde lare ; fa sindon 
Temese streame toscadne fram Centlande and to eastsas 
gefledde. Is hiera ealdorburg nemned Lundenceaster, 
on ofre geseted f aes foresprecenan streames ; and seo is 
manigra folca ceapstow of lande and of sas cumendra. 

* Read angelice for sake of pun (MS. anlice). 



DEATH OF AUGUSTINE 17 

On J?aere feode waes on fa tid Ssebeorht cyning, 
^ESelbeorhtes sweostorsunu and his hierra. pa onfeng 
Eastseaxna feod soffaestnesse word and Crlstes geleafan 
furh Mellitus lare faes biscopes. pa het ^ESelbeorht 
cyning on Lundenceastre ciricean getimbran, and fa 
gehalgian Sancti Pauli faem apostoli, fast he on fsere 
stowe biscopsetl haefde and his aefterfylgende. pone 
lustum he on Cent selfre to biscope gehalgode to 
Hrofesceastre. Seo is fram Cantwara by rig on feower 
and twentigum mila westrihte. On fsere ceastre eac 
swelce ^Eoelbeorht cyning het ciricean getimbran and }?a 
gehalgian Sancte Andreas J?em apostoli. And se cyning 
seghwae3rum fissa biscopa his giefe sealde and bocland 
and aehte him to brucanne mid hiera geferum. ^Efter 
J?issum J?a forj?ferde Gode se leofa faeder Augustinus; 
and his lichama waes ute bebyrged neah ciricean j?ara 
eadigra apostola Petrus and Paulus, J?e we aar gemy ngedon, 
for }?on heo J?a glet naes fulllce geworht ne gehalgod. 
Sona )?aes fe heo gehalgod waes fa dyde man his 
lichaman on, and on faere ciricean norfportice waes 
bebyrged gedaeftlice. On )?aem eac swelce ealra fara 
aefterfylgendra aercebiscopa lichaman sindon bebyrgede 
buton twegra, f aet is peodoris and Beorhtwealdes ; hiera 
lichaman sindon on fsere ciricean selfre gesette, for j?on 
on fone forecwedenan portic ma ne meahte. Is wel neah 
on middre fsere miclan ciricean weofod geseted and on 
Sancte Gregorius naman gehalgod. Is awriten on 
Sancte Augustinus byrgenne fissesgemetesgewrit : ' Her 
restej? domne Augustinus se seresta biscop Cantwara 
burge, se geara hider fram faem eadgan Gregorie faare 
Rpmaniscan burge biscope sended waes, and fram Gode 
mid wundra weorcnesse awreood wass. ^Eoelbeorht 
cyning and his J?eode fram deofolgielda ongange to 
CrTstes geleafan he gelsedde, and on sibbe gefylldum 
dagum his fegnunga forffered waes, ]?y daege septima 
Kalendas lunias on ]?aes ilcan cyninges rice.' 



18 CEFI THE HEATHEN PRIEST 

Conversion of King Eadwine of Northumbria, 

pa cwaej? Eadwine cyning NorSanhymbra J>aet he 
eghwae3er ge wolde ge scolde fsem cristnan geleafan 
onfon. Cwaej? hwae3re faet he wolde mid his freondum 
and mid his witum gesprec and gej?eaht habban, J?aet gif 
hie mid hine )?aet gefafian wolden, J?aet hie ealle aetsamne 
on Hfes wiellan Criste gehalgode waeren. pa dyde se 
cyning swa swa he cwaej?, and se biscop J?aet gefafode. 
pa haefde he se cyning gesprec and gej?eaht mid his 
witum and syndriglice waes fram him eallum frignende 
hwelc him J?uhte and gesewen wsere feos niwe lar and 
fsere godcundnesse begang J?e ]>SQT laired waes. Him J?a 
andswarode his ealdorbiscop, Cefi wass haten : ' Geseoh 
j?u, cyning, hwelc J?eos lar sle J?e us nu bodod is. Ic 
\>e so}?lice andette f>set ic cufllce geleornod hsebbe fast 
eallunga nauht maegenes ne nyttnesse hafaj? seo aefaestnes 
J?e we oj? J?is haefdon and beeodon. For J?on naenig J?Tnra 
)?egna neodlicor ne gelustfullicor hine selfne underfledde 
to ura goda begange J?onne ic ; and nauht ]?on Ises manige 
sindon fa ]?e maran giefe and fremsumnesse aet )?e 
onfengon )?onne ic, and on eallum fingum maran 
gesynto haefdon. Hwaet, ic wat, gif ure godu aenige miht 
haefden, )?onne wolden hie me ma fultumian, for )?on ic 
him geornllcor feowde and hierde. For j?on me fync]? 
wislic, gif jm geseo J?a J?ing beteran and strengran j?e us 
nlwan bodod sindon, fast we J?em onfon.' paes wordum 
65er cyninges wita and ealdormann gej?afunge sealde, 
and to fsere sprsece feng and J?us cwasj? : ' pyslic me is 
gesewen, j?u cyning, )?is andwearde lif manna on eordan 
to wifmetennesse J?aire tide J?e us uncuj? is, swelc swa \>u 
aet swaesendum sitte mid fmum ealdormannum and 
fegnum on wintertlde, and sle fyr onaaled and J?m heall 
gewiermed, and hit rine and sniwe and styrme ute ; cume 
an spearwa and hraedllce )>aet hus J>urhfleo, cume Jmrh 
65re duru in, furh 65re ut gewite. Hwaet, he on J?a tid 
J>e he inne bi)?, ne bij? hrinen mid J>y storme J>aes wintres; 
ac fast bij? an eagan bearhtm and J?aet Iseste faec, ac he 
sona of wintra on }?one winter eft cymej?. Swa fonne 



CEFI DESTROYS HIS FALSE GODS 19 

f is manna Hf to medmiclum fagce aetlewf ; hwaet f agr 
foregange, o35e hwaet fagr aefterfylge, we ne cunnon. 
For fon gif feos lar auht cuflicre and gerisenlicre 
brenge, fags wier5e is faet we fagre fylgen.' pissum 
wordum gelicum 68re ealdormenn and fags cyninges 
gefeahteras sprsecon. pa gen toaetiecte Cefi and cwaef 
faet he wolde Paulinus f one biscop geornlicor hieran be 
f sem Code sprecendne, f agm f e he bodode. pa het se 
cyning swa don. pa he fa f is word gehlerde, fa clipode 
he and f us cwaef : ' Geare ic J?set ongeat J?cet J?aet nauht 
wags, )?agt we beeodon. For J?on swa micle swa ic 
geornlicor on J?em begange J?aet selfe so|? sohte, swa ic 
hit lags mette. Nu fonne ic openlice andette J?aet on )?isse 
lare J?agt selfe sof seine]?, J?aet us maeg |?a giefe sellan 
ecre eadignesse and eces lifes haglo. For J?on ic fonne 
nu lagre, cyning, )?agt \>a tempi and J?a weofodu, )?a J?e 
we butan waestmum agnigre nytnesse halgedon, J?aet we 
\>a hra5e forleosen and fyre forbaernen.' Hwagt, he \>a 
wags se cyning openlice andettende fsern biscope and him 
eallum faet he wolde faestlice faem deofolgieldum 
wifsacan and Cristes geleafan onfon. Mid \>y J?e he J?a 
se cyning fram fagm foresprecenan biscope sohte and 
ascode hiera halignesse )?e hie agr beeodon, hwa J?a 
weofodu and J?a heargas J?ara deofolgielda mid hiera 
hiwum )?e hie ymbsette wseron, hie agrest aidlian and 
toweorpan scolde, )?a andswarode he : ' Efne ic. Hwa 
maeg ]?a nu lej?, )?e ic lange mid dysigrtesse beeode, to 
bisene 69erra manna gerisenlicor toweorpan J?onne ic 
selfa J?urh J?a snytro J?e ic fram ]?agm so5an Gode 
onfeng ?' And he J?a sona fram him awearp fa Idlan 
dysignesse J?e he agr beeode, and J?one cyning baed faet 
he him wagpen sealde and stodhors, faet he meahte on 
cuman and deofolgield toweorpan. For )?on fagm 
biscope hiera halignesse ne waes aliefed J?aet he moste 
wagpen wegan, ne ellicor butan on mleran rldan. J>a 
sealde se cyning him sweord, fagt he hine mid gyrde; 
and he nam his spere on hand and hleop on fags cyninges 
stedan and to fagm deofolgieldum ferde. pa faet folc 
hine fa geseah swa gescierpedne, fa wendon hie faet he 



20 BISHOP A1DAN 

tela ne wiste, ac fast he wedde. Sona faes fe he 
nealsecte to f sem hearge, fa sceat he mid f y spere f set 
hit sticode faeste on f aim hearge, and waes swiSe gefeonde 
faere ongietennesse faes so5an Codes beganges. And 
he fa het his geferan toweorpan ealne f one hearg and 
fa getimbru and forbasrnan. Is seo stow giet aetiewed 
f ara deofolgielda, nauht feorr east fram Eoforwicceastre 
begeondan Deorwentan faere Te, and gen todaeg is 
nemned Godmundingaham, fasr se biscop J?urh J?aes 
soSan Codes onbryrdnesse towearp and fordyde fa 
weofodu \>e he selfa asr gehalgode. 



Bishop Aidan and Lindisfarne. 

pa he fa Oswald cyning, sona j?ass fe he rice onfeng, 
lufode and wilnode fast eall seo feod fe he fore waes 
mid f asre giefe f ass cristnan geleafan gelasred wasre ; f aes 
geleafan cyfnesse he swT3ost onfeng on sigegefeohtum 
elreordra cynna. J>a sende he to Scotta ealdormannum 
aerendwrecan, betweoh fa f e he langre tide wreccea waes, 
and fram faem he fulwihtes gerynu onfeng mid his 
f egnum f e him mid wasron. Basd he f set hie him biscop 
onsenden, faes lare and fegnunga Angelfeod, fe he 
reahte, faes Dryhtenlican geleafan giefe leornode and 
fasm geryne onfenge fulwihtes bae3es. And hie him 
lustlice ti5edon and him biscop sendon, Aidan waes haten, 
micelre manfwsernesse and arfaestnesse and gemetfaest- 
nesse mann ; and he hasfde Codes ellenwodnesse and his 
lufe micle. 

J>a he fa se biscop to fsem cyninge com, fa sealde he 
him stowe and biscopsetl on Lindisfarena Te, faes he selfa 
baed and wilnode. And he se cyning his manungum 
eaf modlice and lustlice on eallum f ingum hlersum waes ; 
and he Cristes ciricean on his rice geornlice timbrede and 
rserde. And oft faegre wasferslen gelamp, fa se biscop 
godcunde lare laerde, se fe Englisc fulllce ne cu5e, faet 
he se cyning selfa, se f e Scyttisc fulllce geleornod haefde, 
his ealdormannum and his f egnum f sere heofonlican lare 
wass wealhstod geworden. Of fasre tide manige comon 



CONVERSION OF WESSEX 21 

daeghwamlice of Scotta lande on Bretene; and on j?aem 
maegQum Angelfeode, J?e Oswald ofer cyning waes, mid 
micelre wilsumnesse Cristes ge leaf an bodedon and 
lairdon. And fa J?e sacerdhades wseron, him fulwihte 
j?egnedon. J)a waaron eac ciricean timbrede on manigum 
stowum, and j?ider gefeonde comon Angelcynnes folc 
Codes word to gehieranne, \>e hie bodedon and laerdon. 
And se cyning him geaf and sealde aehte and land 
mynster to timbranne ; and Scottas laerdon geonge and 
ealde on regollicne feodscipe, for J?on J?e faet munecas 
wseron, J>a J?e hider comon to laeranne. Waes eac munuc 
se ilca biscop Aidan ; waes he sended of faem leglande 
and of fsem mynstre \>e Hi is nemned. J>aet mynster on 
eallum Norfscottum and eallum Peohta mynstrum 
micelre tide ealdordom and heanesse onfeng ; ac hwaeSre 
hit Peohtas sealdon and geaf on Scotta munecum, for J?on 
fe hie air }mrh hiera lare Cristes geleafan onfengon. 

Conversion of Wessex. 

psere tide J?a Westseaxna feode mid Cynegilse hiera 
cyninge Cristes geleafan onfengon. Bodode him and 
Iserde Codes word Birinus biscop, se mid Honorius 
gefeahte J?aes papan com on Bretene. Gehet he him J?aet 
he wolde on )?sem fierrestum dselum Angelcynnes, }> asr 
naenig lar aer com, J?a saed sawan }?aes halgan geleafan. 
t>a het se papa hine to biscope gehalgian, and hine on 
Bretene sende. J>a com he serest up on Westseaxum and 
hie J?32r hsedne gemette ; J?a )?uhte him nyttre and betre 
faet he J?air Codes word bodode and laerde, J?onne he fierr 
on Bretene feran scolde. And he J?a swa dyde; Iserde 
J?aer godcunde lare and }?one cyning to Cristes geleafan 
gecierde, and hine gecristnode, and hine eft aefter faece 
mid fulwihtes baeSe afwoh mid his feode Westseaxum. 
pa gelamp on selfan tid, }>a man J?one cyning fulwode, 
J?aet J?ser waes se halgesta and se sigefaesta cyning 
NorSanhymbra Oswald andweard. Haefde he his 
dohtor him to wife beweddod. J>a onfeng he him and 
nam aet fulwihtes baede and aet J?aes biscopes handa him 



22 BISHOP ^EGELBEORHT'S ANGER 

to godsuna. pa sealdon and geafon fa cyningas begen 
faem biscope eardungstowe and biscopsetl on Dorcot- 
ceastre. And he J>ser se biscop Code lifde and ciricean 
worhte and halgode ; and mid his arfaeste gewinne manig 
folc to Dryhtne gecierde. And he faer his dagas 
geendode and to Dryhtne ferde, and on J?sere ilcan 
ceastre bebyrged w.aes. And eft aefter manigum gearum 
Haedde biscop het his lichaman up adon and liedan to 
Wintaceastre ; and on ciricean j?ara eadigra apostola 
Petrus and Paulus arwierjrlice geseted is. 

^Efter )>issum J?a forfferde Cynegils se cyning, and his 
sunu Caenwealh feng to his rice. Se wij?soc faet he 
geleafan onfenge and J?aem geryne J?aes heofonlican 
cyninges; and sona aefter medmiclum fasce J?a miht 
forleas faes eorflican rices, pa teah Penda cyning hine 
fierd on and here and hine his rices benam. J>a gewat 
he to Eastengla cyninge, se waes Anna haten. 

Mid )?em he ]?reo gear waes wreccea, and he faer ongeat 
soffaestnesse geleafan and onfeng and gefulwod waes. 
For J?on J?e se cyning )>e he mid wreccea waes, waes god 
waepnedmann and godes tuddres and halges gesaelig. 

Mid J?y J?e he eft Caenwealh on his rice geseted waes, 

J?a com on Westseaxe sum biscop of Ibernia Scotta 

Teglande, J?aes nama waes ^gelbeorht. Waes he Gallia 

cynnes, ac for leornunga haligra gewrita he wses micelre 

tide on Ibernia wuniende. And he J?a wilsumlice hine 

efledde to J?aem cyninge and hine godcunde lare laerde. 

a he J?a se cyning his gelserednesse and his geornful- 

nesse geseah, baed he hine J?3et he gewunode on his J?eode 

and hiera biscop waere, and he him wolde arlic biscopsetl 

gesceawian. And he his benum gej?afode ; and he manig 

fear J?sere ilcan )?eode on biscoplicum anwealde fore waes. 
a aet niehstan se cyning, se J>e Seaxna gereord an cu5e, 
waes afroten his elreordre spraece; aspeonn \>a on 
Westseaxe oSerne biscop, se J?e his gereord cu5e ; se waes 
Wine haten, and se wses on Gallia rice gehalgod. And 
he }?a todaelde on twa biscopscire Westseaxna maegSe, 
ond )?aem Wine gesealde biscopsetl on Wintaceastre. pa 
waes ^gelbeorht swi3e abolgen, for }?on se cyning butan 



BISHOP ^GELBEOBHT RELENTS 23 

his gefeahte swa dyde ; gewat ]?a of Bretene and hwearf 
eft on his agene leode on Gallia rice. And J?aer he 
onfeng his agenre ceastre biscopscire, Parisiace hatte ; 
and he J?aer eald and godra dseda full forfferde. pa waes 
aefter nauht manigum gearum aefter his onweggewiten- 
nesse of Bretene faette Wine waes adrifen fram J?aim 
ilcan cyninge of his biscopsetle. pa gewat he to 
Wulfhere Miercna cyninge ; and mid feo gebohte aet 
him faet biscopsetl aet Lundenceastre, and his biscop waes 
oj? his daga ende. And swa Westseaxna maegj? micelre 
tide waes butan biscope. 

paare selfan tide J?a eac swelce se foresprecena cyning 
faere J?eode mid J?aem hefigestum wanungum his rices 
gelomlice fram his feondum swenced waes. pa com him 
aet niehstan to gemynde J?aet hine aer his getreowleasnes 
of his rice adraf and eft, J?a he Cristes geleafan ongeat, 
J?aet he his rice onfeng. And fa eac ongeat ]?aet he 
haefde on J?weorh gedon, J?aette seo maegj? waes butan 
biscope, and J?aet heo aetgaedre mid J?y godcundan fultume 
forteeten waes. For )?on he J?a sende aerendwrecan on 
Gallia rice to ^gelbeorhte )?aem biscope and mid 
eafmodre j?ingunga and bene hine baed )?aet he hwurfe to 
J?sem biscopsetle his J>eode. pa ladode he hine and cwaej? 
J?aet he ne meahte hider cuman, for J?on he onfangen 
haefde his agenre ceastre biscopscire. And hwaeSre for 
his geornlicum benum, ]?aet he him fultum sohte, he him 
sende to Leutherium maessepreost, his nefan. Cwaef }?aet 
he fone meahte, gif he wolde, him to biscope gehadian, 
and he hine J?aes wierfne wisse on his lifes geearnungum. 
And sona waes fram J>aem cyninge and fram eallum 
his leodum arwierj?lice onfangen. And J?a baedon 
Theodorum, J?one }?e waes aercebiscop Cantwara burge 
ciricean j?aet he hine to biscope gehalgode. And he fa 
swa dyde ; gehalgode hine on J?sere ilcan ceastre ; and he 
ana manig gear fone biscophad mid micle gerece heold 
and reahte Westseaxna feode. 

pa waes ymb siex hund wintra and feowertig wintra 
fram Dryhtnes menniscnesse faette Eadbeald Cantwara 
cyning gewat of fissum life ; and Erconbeorht his sunu 



24 CONVERSION OF OTHER KINGDOMS 

feng to his rice and J>aet eaflice heold and stierde feower 
and twentig wintra and sumne monaj?. pes cyning Merest 
Angelcyninga on eallum his rice het deofolgield 
toweorpan and fasstlice forlaetan ; and swelce eac mid his 
ealdorlicnesse behead fast feowertiglice faesten healden 
beon aer Eastrum be witerasdenne. pass cyninges dohtor 
Ercongote waes micelra maegena fsemne, swa fast swa 
aeoelum ealdre geras. Waes heo seo faemne Dryhtne 
J?eowiende on J?aem mynstre ]?e on Franclande waes 
getimbred fram J?aere aeSelan abbudessan }>e Fara hatte, 
on }?a3re stowe J?e cweden is on Brige. ForJ?on on J?a tid 
\>a giet ne wseron manig mynster getimbred on 
Angelfeode, and forj?on manige gewunedon of Bretene 
for intingan munuclifes secean Francna mynster and 
Gallia. Swelce eac cyningas and rice menn sendon hiera 
dohtor fider to laeranne and to gefiedanne J?aem 
heofonlican brydguman, and swiSost on fissum 
mynstrum on Brige and on Cale and on Andelegum. 

Conversion of the other Kingdoms. 

pissum tidum Middelengle mid Peadan Pendan sunu 
}?aes cyninges Cristes geleafan and soj?faestnesse geryne 
onfengon. Waes he Peada geong as9eling god and 
cyninges naman and hades wel wieroe; se faeder him 
for }?on rice gesealde faere J?eode. pa com he to Oswie 
Noroanhymbra cyninge and baed J?aet he him Ealhflaede 
his dohtor to wife gesealde. Ne hine man on 65re wisan 
his bene ti3ian wolde, nemne he Cristes geleafan onfenge 
mid J?a J?eode J?e he cyning ofer wass. pa he J?a gehierde 
soffaestnesse bodunge and lare and J?aet gehat )?aes 
heofonlican rices and asriste hyht and J?a toweardan 
undeaflicnesse, )?a andette he faet he lustlice wolde 
Cristen beon, feah J?e he na fur3um fa faemnan onfenge. 
And he wass swiSost gespannen to onfonne Cristes 
geleafan fram Oswies suna ]? aes cyninges, J?aes nama waes 
Ealhfri]?. Se waes his maig and freond; haefde his 
sweostor to wife, seo waes haten Cyneburg, Pendan 
dohtor J?aes cyninges. pa waes he gefulwod fram Finano 



CONVERSION OF MERCIA 25 

f aem biscope mid eallum his geferum f e mid him comon, 
and cyninges f egnum and eallum hiera f eowum, on f aem 
maeran tune cyninges, se is nemned aet Wealle. And he 
onfeng, and se cyning him sealde feower maessepreostas, 
fa scoldon his f eode fulwian and Iseran, fa wseron ge on 
gelaerednesse ge on hiera life micle and gode ; and he 
mid micle gefean swa waes eft ham hweorfende. Waeron 
fa maessepreostas f us hatne : Cedd and Adda and Bete 
and Deoma. Se niehsta waes Scyttisces cynnes ; fa 6(5re 
wseron Englisces. Waes se Adda Uttan bro3or faes 
mseran maessepreostes and abbudes faes mynstres fe 
nemned is aet Raegeheafde. pa hie J?a J?a gemyndgedan 
sacerdas on f>a maegSe comon mid Peadan J?one cyning 
and fser Godes word bodedon and laardon, and hie 
lustlice gehlerde wseron, and daeghwamllce ge ae3ele 
ge unaeSele wi)?s6con J?sere unsyfernesse deofolgielda and 
mid fulwiht-bae6e fram synnum ajwegene wseron. Ne 
bewerede Penda se cyning )?on ma, gif hwelce menn 
wolden on Miercna cynne Godes word laeran, j?aet hie ne 
mosten. Ac gen ma J?aette he forseah and on hete haefde 
\>a J?e he ongeat ]?aet hie on Crlstes geleafan gelserde 
wasron and ]?a weorc J?aes geleafan habban ne woldon, 
and cwae}? faet hie fracoSe and earme wseren, J?aet hie 
ne woldon hiera Gode hieran J?one " hie geliefdon. 
Waeron fas J>ing ongunnen twaem gearum ser Pendan 
deaSe )?33S cyninges. Ac fa he ofslaegen waes, and Oswio 
se cristna cyning to his rice feng, J?a waes Deoma biscop 
geworden Middelengla and eac Miercna samod ; forfon 
seo feanes niedde fara sacerda faette an biscop scolde 
beon ofer tu folc. And he fa on medmicelre tide micel 
folc Dryhtne begeat and gestriende furh his lare. J>a 
feng aefter him to biscophade Ceolloh, se wags eac Scotta 
cynnes. Se sefter medmicelre tide forlet fa biscopscire; 
hwearf eft on his e5el to Hi f sem leglande, f aer manigra 
mynstra heanesse and heafod Scottas haefdon. pa feng 
aefter him to f asm biscophade Trumhere aefaest mann and 
god, se waes on munuclife gelaered ; waes Englisces 
cynnes, ac he waes fram Scottum to biscope gehalgod. 
paere tide eac swelce Eastseaxe f one geleafan, f e hie 



26 ROMAN ORTHODOXY RECOGNISED 

geara awurpon \>a hie Mellitum ]?one biscop ut ascufon, 
mid geornfulnesse Oswies fass cyninges eft onfengon. 
ForJ?on se cyning fsere ilcan ]?eode Sigebeorht waes 
freond Oswies fees cyninges, and he gelomlice to him 
com and hine sohte on NorQanhymbra msegde. 

End of Irish Church Influence. Roman Orthodoxy 
Recognised. 

pissum tidum Angelcyningas fa aedelestan Oswio 
NorSanhymbra cyning and Ecgbeorht Cantwarena 
cyning haefdon between him spraice and gefeahte, hwaet 
to donne wsere be fasm stealle Angelcynnes ciricean. 
ForJ?on Oswio so]?lice ongeat, }?eah ]?e he fram Scottum 
afeded and gelsered wsere, faette seo Romanisce cirice 
and seo apostolice waes rihtgellefed. f>a gecuron hie 
and genamon mid gefafunga faere halgan ciricean 
AngelJ?eode godne wer and gejmngenne to biscophade 
maessepreost sumne, J?.ses nama wass Wigheard, of 
geferscipe ]?aes biscopes Deusdedit. And hie hine ]?a to 
Rome sendon, J?set hine man scolde J?ser to biscope 
gehalgian, fast he faar onfenge aercebiscopes hade and 
rihtgeliefede biscopas J?urh ealle Bretene Angelcynnes 
ciricum si)?}?an hadian meahte. Swelce hie eac \>a 
cyningas begen aetgasdere sendon fsem apostolican papan 
micle giefe on manigum goldfatum and seolforfatum ; 
and baedon J?aet he Wigheard Angelcynnes ciricum to 
aercebiscope gehalgode. pa he J?a to Rome com, \>a waes 
on J?a tid Uitalius papa J?aes apostolican setles ealdor- 
biscop. ^fter fon J?e he J?one intingan his siffaetes 
J>sem papan gecy3ed haefde, J?a Defter medmicelre tide se 
Wigheard and lytesna ealle his geferan, J?a )?e mid him 
comon, J?y ofercumendan wole fordilgode wseron. pa 
haefde se papa gefeaht be J?issum J?ingum and georne 
sohte hwelcne aercebiscop he onsendan meahte Angel- 
J>eode ciricum. pa wass on Niridano J?sem mynstre, }>aet 
is unfeorr faare byrig Neapoli on Campanie J?sere maigde, 
Adrianus abbud. Waes se mann on halgum gewritum 
and on mynsterlicum feodscipum and on ciriclicum wel 
gelsered, and weorflice getyd ge on Laedenisc gereord 



THEODORE COMES TO CANTERBURY 27 

ge on Crecisc. pa het se papa J?one mann to him 
gelaSian, and het ]?aet he biscophade onfenge and to 
Bretene ferde. pa andswarode he him and cwae)? J?aet he 
waere swa micles hades unwierSe; and cwaej> faetjie 
meahte 69erne getaecnan J?e biscophades wierSra waere 
ge on gelserednesse ge on his lifes geearnunga ge on 
gedefre ieldo. Taehte J?a J?sem biscope on J?sem 
neahnunnmynstre sumne gedefne munuc, faes nama waes 
Andreas. Ac J>a wifstod his lichamlicu untrumnes }>aet 
he biscop beon ne meahte. Eft se papa nledde J?one 
abbud Adrianus J?aet he biscophade onfenge. pa baed he 
hine ieldenne and firstes, hwaeoer he asfter faece meahte 
65erne findan j?e man to biscope hadian meahte. Waes 
on )?a tid sum munuc on Rome, se waes cuj? Adriane 
}>a2m abbude, J?aes nama waes Theodorus. Se waes 
acenned on Tarso Cilicio; waes se mann ge on 
woruldgewritum ge on godcundum, ge on Crecisc ge on 
Laeden wel gelaered ; and he gecoren waes on his J?eawum 
and arwierSre ieldo, ]?aet is f aet he haefde siex and siextig 
wintra. pisne mann Adrianus se abbud J?aem papan 
cyQde, and saggde fast he to biscope gehalgod beon 
meahte ; and he J?aet gefafode. And hwaedre J?is arseddon 
betweonum him, J?aet he se abbud his latteow beon scolde 
on Bretene, forfon )?e he aer twiwa J?a dselas Gallia rices 
for missenlicum intingum geferde and gesohte, and 
forfon \>e him se weg J?aes siffaetes genog cup waes, and 
eac swelce )?aet he waes on his agnum geferscipe wel 
gemannod ; and fonne gen eac faette he scolde his 
fultumend beon on godcundre lare, and )>set he geornlice 
behealdan scolde J?aet he nauht wiSerweardes J?sere 
soffaestnesse ]?aes geleafan Creca J?eawe on Angelcynnes 
ciricean inn gelaedde, J?e he ofer beon scolde. pa waes 
he serest to subdiacone gehalgod, and )?a bad feower 
monaj?, oj?]?aet him feax geweoxe, faet he to preoste 
bescoren beon meahte, for}?on J?e he aer scare hsefde 
eastleoda J?eawe Sancte Paule j?aes apostoles. pa com he 
Theodor biscop to his ciricean in Cantwara byrig J?y 
aefterran geare halgunga J?y siextan daege Kalendarum 
luniarum. And he sona furhferde eall Bretene legland, 



28 CHURCH PROSPERS IN BRITAIN 

swa hwider ymb swa Angelfeode drohtedon and 
wunedon ; and he lustlice fram eallum onfangen wags, 
and his word geornlice gehierdon. And he rihte 
endebyrdnesse llfes aetiewde, and rihte Eastran to 
weorSianne Iserde. And him Adrianus se abbud mid 
ferde, and to eallum rihte fultumode. Waes he serest 
aercebiscopa, J?aet him call Angelcynn hiernesse gefafode. 
And for}>on hie begen wseron ge se biscop ge 
se abbud wel gelasred ge on godcundum gewritum 
ge on woruldcundum, and hie gesamnedon micelne 
freat discipula; and hie betweoh halige bee and 
ciriclicne J?eodscipe on metercrseft and on tungolcraeft 
and on grammaticcraeft tydon and Iserdon. Waes J?aet 
sweotol tacn, J?sette hiera discipulas wseron wel gelserde 
ge on Crecisc gereord ge on Laedenisc ; and him fa swa 
cu5e wasron swa hiera agen J?e hie on fedde wseron. 
Ne wseron her aefre, sij?)?an Angelcynn Bretene gesohte, 
gesaeligran tida ne faegerran. Wseron her strange 
cyningas and wel cristne and eallum elreordum cynnum 
ut on miclum ege ; and ealra willa hlinode to gehieranne 
J?a gefean J?aes heofonlican rices; and swa hwelce menn 
swa swa wilnedon J?aet hie on halgum leornungum tyde 
wseren, hie haefdon gearwe magistras, ]>a J?e hie laardon 
and tydon. Swelce eac sonas to singanne in ciricean, 
J?a fe oj> fast in Cent anre menn cuoon, of fasre tide 
ongunnon menn leornian Jmrh ealle ciricean Angel- 
cynnes. And arrest, buton lacobe )?sem sangere, be 
fsem we beforan ser saegdon, waes sanges magister 
Nordanhymbra ciricean JEdde haten, faes freonama waes 
Steffanus. Waes se aspannen fram Cent fram Wilfercte 
J>aem arwierdan biscope, se Merest betweoh biscopum, \>a 
J?e of Angelfeode wseron, regollicne )>eaw to libbanne 
Angelcynnes ciricum saegde and Iserde. 

Cuthbert. 

J>y selfan geare J?e EcgferJ? cyning llfes ende onfeng, 
gedyde he faet man J?one halgan wer and J?one arwier3an 
Cu)?beorht to biscope gehalgode J?aere ciricean aet 



CUTHBERT 29 

Lindesfarena le. Se aer on medmiclum leglande, J?aet is 
Fame nemned, ancerlif Isedde }?urh manig gear on 
micelre forhasfdnesse Hchaman and modes. Is faet 
legland fram faere ilcan ciricean feorr ut on garsecge 
geseted, huhwega on nigon milum. And he se halga 
Godes mann fram faere aerestan ieldo cnihthades simle 
barn on gelise and on geornfulnesse aefaestes Hfes ; ac J?a 
he geweaxen waes, fa wilnode he and onfeng munuchade. 
And arrest eode on Mailros }?aet mynster, f>aet is geseted on 
ofre Twidon streames. paet mynster }?a heold and rihte 
Eata biscop, se waes milde wer and manfwa^re, and se 
asfter w^es geworden biscop on Haegstealdes le and on 
Lindesfarena le, swa swa we beforan gemyndgedon. 
J?aes mynstres prafost and regolweard wass on }?a tid 
Boisel, se waes micelra masgena maessepreost and 
wltedomes gastes. pisses discipulhade Cufbeorht waes 
ea3modlice under]? ledd ; and wisdom haligra gewrita and 
godra weorca bisene fram him nam. ^Efter )?on J?e he 
\>a to Dryhtne gewat, J?a waes Cufbeorht J?aes ilcan 
mynstres regolweard geworden ; and he manige 
seghwaeoer ge mid ealdorlicnesse his lareowdomes ge mid 
bisene his gesewenlicra daeda to regollicum life gesette 
and ontimbrede ; and nalaes )?aet an J?aet he faem mynstre 
anum regollices Hfes manunga and samod his bisene 
gearwode, ac swelce eac fast ymbsette folc feorr and wide 
fram faem life J?aes dyselican gewunan to lufe J?ara 
heofonlicra giefa georne glemde to gehwierfanne. 
ForJ?on ]>e manige J?one geleafan, }?e hie haefdon, mid 
unrihtum weorcum Idledon, and swelce eac manige on 
J?a tid J?aes miclan woles and manncwieldes glemeleasedon 
J?aem gerynum J?aes halgan geleafan mid faem hie gelaerde 
wseron, and to faem dwoliendum laecedomum deofolgielda 
efston and scyndon. J>a w.aes se Godes mann ut 
gangende of J>sem mynstre gelomlice ; hwllum waes on 
horse sittende, ac oftor on his fotum gangende. For to 
J?em ymbsettum tunum and fsem dwoliendum soffaest- 
nesse weg bodode and Iserde. paet selfe eac swelce Boisel 
his magister on his tide gewunelice dyde. Waes on ]>a 
tid J?eaw Angelcynnes folcum J?aet, fonne maessepreost 



30 CUTHBERT'S LABOURS 

oJ?J?e 65er in tun com, j?aet hie ealle to his bebode 
gesamnedon Godes word to gehieranne, and fuslice 
gehlerdon j>a J?e him gelserde waeron, and eac swelce 
neodlice mid daedum Iseston j?a )>e hie ongietan meahton. 
J>onne waes J?aem Godes menn Cufbeorhte swa miclu 
getydnes and gelserednes to gesprecanne and swa miclu 
lufu godcundre lare J?e he Iseran ongann, and swelc leoht 
engellices andwlitan him ofscan, faette nsenig )>ara 
andweardra his heortan diegelnessa him helan dorste, ac 
ealle openlice hiera daeda J?urh andetnesse forfbseron. 
For}?on fe hie tealdon and him Jmhte J?ast hine }>a ane 
miSe J?e he )?a hiera diegelnessa witan ne giemde ; and 
hie }>a geandettan synne mid medemum wasstmum so3re 
hreowe gebetton swa he bebead. And gewunode he 
swiSost J?a stowe geondfaran and on Jjaam tunum 
godcunde lare bodian J?a J?e on heaum morum and on 
re5um feorr gesette wseron and oSrum on gryre wseron to 
neosianne, and geghwaeSer ge mid fearfendnesse ge mid 
hiera ungelairednesse J?ara lareowa fore hea5oredon ; \>a 
he hwseSre mid arfaeste gewinne mid micelre geornful- 
nesse heofonlicre lare lustfulllce beeode. And of faem 
mynstre he uteode oft anwealge wucan, hwilum twa 
o3Se J?reo ; swelce eac oft ealle m6naj> J?aet he ham ne 
hwearf, ac wunode on faem morlandum and J?aet 
ungelaerde folc samod ge mid worde his lara ge mid 
weorce his maagena to \>3zm heofonlican cleopode and 
Iac5ode. 

Mid }?y he J>a manig gear on ancerlife Dryhtne 
}>eowode, ]?a gelamp J?aet man micelne sino5 gesamnode 
be Alnes streame on J?a3re stowe )>e is cweden JEt 
Twleforde under andweardnesse Ecgfric5es J?ass cyninges. 
J)aem sinoSe on ealdordome foresaet )?sere eadgan 
gemynde peodor asrcebiscop ; and he se halga CuJ?beorht 
)?ser waes mid anmodre gej?afunga eallra |?ara witena to 
biscope gecoren faere ciricean ast Lindesfarena le. And 
hie hine hwae3re naenige finga of his wicum and of his 
stowe to him gela3ian ne meahton. J>a aet nlehstan se 
foresprecena cyning self and se halga biscop Trumwine 
mid him and manige 65re aefasste weras and rice lidon 



ENGLISH MISSIONARIES ON THE CONTINENT 31 

on faet legland; and eac swelce manige fara broSra of 
Lindesfarena le efncomon to him and ealle hiera cneo 
biegdon and tearas guton and hine f urh f one libbendan 
Dryhten healsedon and basdon, of faet hie hine eac 
swelce teara fullne of his fsem swetum dlegelnessum 
atugon and to faem sinoSe gelseddon. Mid fy he fa 
fider com, feah fe he swi3e wifwinnende wsere, mid 
anmode willan hiera eallra he waes oferswided and 
genledd to onfonne fa f egnunga biscophades. Forf ferde 
se arwierSa faeder Cufbeorht on Fame J?em Teglande; 
and he swi3e georne waes ]?a broSor biddende )?aet he 
\>3br eac swelce bebyriged beon moste, )?ser he micle tid 
for Dryhtne campode. And hwaeSre set niehstan J?aet he 
waes mid hiera benum oferswi5ed, fast he gefafode J?aet 
man his lie laedde to Lindesfarena le and faer in ciri- 
cean geseted waere. 

English Missionaries on the Continent. 

On fa tid se arwierSa Cristes ]?eow and sacerd 
Ecgbeorht se halga, fone j?e we aer beforan saegdon fast 
he on Hibernia lande on elfeodignesse lifde for faem 
ecean e51e on heofenum to betanne, foresette he and fohte 
on his mode faet he wolde manigum brycsian, fast is f aet 
he wolde fast apostolice weorc onhyrian, sumum fara 
f eoda Codes word and godspell lasran and bodian f aem 
f e hit fa glet ne gehlerdon. J>ara cynna manig he wiste 
in Germania wesan, fanon Angle and Seaxe cumene 
waeron, f e nu Bretene eardiaf . Wseron Friesan, Rugine, 
Dene, Hune, Ealdseaxe, Boructuare. Wseron eac 65er 
folc manig on fsem ilcum daelum, fa gena hseSnum 
feawum feowiende, to faern se foresprecena Cristes 
cempa utan cuman wolde, gif wen wasre fast he faer 
hwelce meahte deofle of gripan and to CrTste gecierran ; 
of f e gif fast beon ne meahte, f urh fast he wolde Rome 
gesecan and fa halgan stowa fara eadigra apostola and 
Cristes martyra seon and him f asr gebedian. Ac him fa 
uplican onwrigennessa and weorc samod wif stodon, fast 
nahwasder fissa gefremede ne furhteah. pa faet se 



32 ENGLISH MISSIONARIES ON THE CONTINENT 

Codes wer Ecgbeorht geseah fast he ne wass forlasten 
feodum godcunde lar to bodianne, ac fast he wass hasfd 
for odre nyttnesse fasre halgan ciricean, be fasre he 
foremanod wass mid godcundre onwrigennesse, fa 
ongann he fa gena on fast weorc godcundre lare sendan 
halige weras and geornfulle twelfe, f ara ealdormann wass 
Willbrord, micelre geearnunga masssepreost. Mid fy 
hie fa f ider comon on land, fa cierdon hie asrest to 
Pipine Francna cyninge and fancweorf lice wasron fram 
him onfangene. And for)? asm fe he mwan geeode fa 
fierran Friesan, and J?anon Rasdbedd J?one cyning adraf, 
sende hie J?a fider, fast hie scolden fasr Godes word 
bodian and lasran. And he eac swelce hie wass 
gefultumiende mid his cynelicre ealdorlicnesse, fast him 
man nauht hefiges ne laSes gedon dorste, and mid 
manigum fremsumnessum fa geweorSode, fa f e Cristes 
geleafan onfon woldon. panon wass geworden furh 
Dryhtnes giefe and fultum fast hie manige hrasdlice fram 
deofolgieldum to Cristes geleafan gecierdon. f>issa 
bisene wasron fylgende sume twegen maessepreostas of 
Angelcynne, fa in Hibernia fasm leglande micelre tide 
for heofena rices lufe on elfeodignesse lifdon. Comon 
hie to Ealdseaxna masgSe, gif wen wasre fast hie fasr 
asnige furh hiera lare Criste begietan meahten. Wasron 
hie begen ane naman nemned, swa hie eac swelce anre 
willsumnesse wasron. Wass hiera asghwasSer Heawald 
nemned. Wass fis toscaden hwasSre, fastte for hiera 
missenlice feaxes hiwe 63er wass cweden se blaca 
Heawald, 63er se hwita Heawald. Wass hiera asghwasSer 
sefasstlice gelsered ; wass se blaca Heawald hwasdre ma on 
wisdom haligra gewrita getyd. pa hie fa on Ealdseaxe 
comon, fa eodon hie on sumes tungerefan giestasrn and 
hine b^don fast he hie onsende to fasm ealdormenn fe 
ofer hine wass ; sasgdon fast hie hasfden nytt asrende and 
nyttne intingan sumne fe hie him Isedan scolden. 
Forf on hie fa ilcan Ealdseaxe nasfdon agenne cyning ; 
ac manige ealdormenn wasron feode foresette. And 
fonne sie tid gewinnes and gefeohtes, comon f onne hie 
mid tanum to fasm ealdormannum, and swa hwelcne 



MURDER OF ENGLISH MISSIONARIES 33 

hiera swa him se tan aetlewde, fonne gecuron hie fone 
him to heretogan and to latteowe, and fone fylgdon and 
him hlerdon. ponne faet feoht and faet gewinn geendod 
waes, fonne waeron hie eft efenrice, waeron ealdormenn. 
pa onfeng hie se tungerefa and him waes gehatende faet 
he hie wolde to his ealdormenn onsendan, swa swa hie 
baedon ; and he hie fa hwelce hwugu dagas mid hine 
gehaefde. Mid fy hie fa fa elreordigan ongeaton faet 
hie wasron 65erre aefaestnesse, forfon hie simle hiera 
salmas sungon and on halgum gebedum Gode f eowedon, 
daeghwamllce Gode asaegdnesse baeron and maessan 
sungon haefdon hie mid him gehalgodu fatu and 
gehalgodne tabul on weofodes gewrixle \>a waeron J?a 
hseSnan betweoh him feahtiende and sprecende : ' Gif 
hie to faem ealdormenn becomen and mid hine sprecende 
wasren, faet hie hine fram hiera godum acierden and to 
J?aere niwan se faes Cristes geleafan gehwierfden ; swa 
styccemaelum ealla hiera maegSa geniedde waaren fast hie 
hiera eald begang forleten and faat niwe beeoden.' 
Genamon J?a semninga J?a Godes menn and ofslogon ; 
j?one hwitan Heawald hie hraSe mid sweorde ofslogon ; 
J?one blacan Heawald hie lange cwielmdon and Jmrh limu 
witnedon. pa hie )?a ofslasgene waeron, J?a wurpon hie 
hiera lichaman ut on Rme fa ea. pa fast fa gehierde se 
ealdormann, hu hie gedon ymbe fa menn haefdon, fa fe 
geseon and secgean woldon, fa waes he swi5e ierre ; 
sende fa werod fider and het fone tunscipe ealne 
ofslean and fone tun forbagrnan. Mid fy fe Pipin se 
cyning Francna fas fing gehierde and geascode, fa 
sende he werod and het hiera lichaman to him gelaadan 
and hie mid micle wuldre and weorf myndum bebyrigan 
in ciricean Colone fasre ceastre be Rme. Sona fasm 
aerestum tldum, f aes fa lareowas comon on Friesena land 
and Willbrord fram fsem cyninge leafnesse onfeng faet 
he faer lasran moste, fa wolde he hraedllce to Rome 
cuman, fa waes biscop faes apostolican setles Sergius 
papa, faet he wolde mid his leafnesse and mid his 
bletsunge faet wilsume weorc onginnan and gefyllan 
faem feodum godspell to laeranne. And samod he 



34 WILLBRORD AS MISSIONARY 

wilnode fram him onfon J?ara eadigra apostola reliquias 
and Cristes martyra, }>aet mid J?y he deofolgield towurpe 
and ciricean timbrede and rserde on faere feode J>e he 
laerde, ]?aet he faer gearwe haefde haligra reliquias on to 
settanne, and he gerisenlice meahte on \>ara haligra are 
syndriga stowa gehwelce haligra halgian \>e hiera 
reliquias fair on wseron. Swelce eac manige 65re 
intingan he sohte and wilnode oj?)?e J>aer leornian oj?}?e 
fanon onfon. paere tide J?a bro5or, j?a )?e on Friesum 
wseron mid hine on )>aere j?egnunga j?ass Godes wordes, 
gecuron hie of hiera rime gemetfsestne mann on his 
feawum and mannjjwserne heortan Swlj?beorht, J?set se 
him gehalgod wsere to biscope. pa he )>a haBfde 
biscophade onfangen, J?a ferde he eft of Bretene and aefter 
medmiclum faece he gewat to faere feode Boructuarorum 
and manige hiera J?urh his lare to so)?faestnesse wege 
gecierde. Ac J>a aafter nauht langre tide seo ilce ]?eod 
waes oferwunnen fram Ealdseaxum ; and ]>a geleafsuman 
menn, \>a j>e Godes worde onfengon, waeron wide 
todrifene. And se biscop mid his geferum sumum sohte 
Pipin Francna cyning ; and him J?a geserendode BlifryJ? 
his cwen, J?aet he him wunnesse stowe gesealde on sumum 
feglande be Rlne, J?aet is on hiera gereorde gecleged and 
nemned In Litore ; on J?em he mynster getimbrede, J?aet 
nu gen o]> }>is agon his ierfeweardas. ^fter )?on }?e hie 
pa sum gear godcunde lare laerdon on Friesena rice, J?a 
J?e mid hine comon, pa sende Pipin mid eallra hiera 
gej?afunga |?one arwierSan wer Willbrord to Rome to 
Sergie J?sem papan, and baed J?aet he hine Friesena J?eode 
to aercebiscope gehalgode ; and he swa dyde swa he baed. 
Waes he gehadod on ciricean faere halgan faemnan and 
martyres See. Cecilian J?y daege J?e hire gemynddaeg 
waes ; and se papa hine nemde freonaman Clemens. And 
sona )?aes )?e he gehadod waes, j?aet is aefter feowertiene 
dagum J?aes )?e he on Romaburg com, J?aet he hine eft 
sende to his biscopsetle. Sealde him and forgeaf Pipin 
biscopsetl on his J?aere mseran byrig, seo ealde worde 
J?3ere }>eode is nemned Wiltaburg; Galleas nemnaj? 
Traiectum ; we cwe5aj? ^Ettreocum. Be J?sere se arwier3a 



INHABITANTS OF BRITAIN IN BEDE'S DAY C5 

biscop ciricean getimbrede and feorr and wide Codes 
word ymb Cristes geleafan bodode and lasrde, and 
manige waes clegende fram hasctennesse gedwolan hiera 
llfes. And he manig mynster and ciricean on J?sem lande 
getimbrede, and aefter faece manige 65re biscopas fair 
gesette and gehalgode of fara bro9ra rime, J?a J?e mid 
hine o\>\>e aefter him comon godcunde lare to bodianne. 

Picts, Scots, and Britons in Bede's Day. 

Peohta cynn on fas tid hafaj? sibbe and wasre mid 
Angelfeode, and eac fsere rihtgeliefedan sibbe and soj>- 
faestnesse mid ealre Codes ciricean gefeh]? daelnimende 
beon. Scottas, J?a fe Bretene eardiaj?, waeron fancfulle 
hiera gemserum, and hie ne sastunge ne gestrodu wif 
Angelfeode sierwaj?. Brettas J?onne, J?eah }?e hie of 
miclum dasle mid inlice hete and fenge AngeljJeode and 
J?one steall ealre rihtgeliefedre Codes ciricean, ge on 
gehealde unrihtra Eastrena ge on ungecostum J?eawum 
afeohten, hwaeSre him is ge mid godcunde maegene ge 
mid mennisce wij?standen, fast hie nahwae5rum hiera 
wilnunga habban ne furhteon magon. And f eah J?e hie 
sind of miclum daele hiera selfes anwealdes, hwaeSre of 
miclum dalle hie sindon Angelcynnes feowdome betalhte 
and underfledde. pissa tlda sibbe and smyltnesse nu 
manige on NorSanhymbra feode ge aeSele ge unae5ele 
hie selfe and hiera beam ma giernaf on mynster and on 
Codes feowdomhad to sellanne fonne hie sien 
begangende woroldlicne camphad. Seo wise hwelcne 
ende hasbbende sie, seo aefterre ieldu gesiehj? andsceawaj?. 
f>is is nu on andweardnesse gesteall ealre Bretene ymb 
tu hund wintra and fif and hundeahtatig Angelcynnes 
cymes on Bretene legland. 

Bede's Account of Himself. 

pas J?ing be stsere Angelfeode ciricean on Bretene, 
swa swa geo of manna gewritum oJ>J?e of ealdra gesegene 
oj>f>e of minre selfre cy33e J?e ic gewitan meahte, mid 
Dryhtnes fultume gedyde ic Beda Cristes J?eow and 



36 BEDE'S ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF 

maessepreost J?aes mynstres J?ara eadigra apostola Petrus 
and Paulus, J?ast is set WiramuSan and on Gierwum. 
Waes ic acenned on sundorlande J?aes ilcan mynstres. 
Mid J?y ic waes seofonwintre, )?a waes ic mid giemenne 
minra maga seald to fedanne and to Iseranne fsem 
arwierc5an abbude Benedicte and Ceolfer3e a3fter J?on. 
And siJ?J?an ealle tid mines Hfes on )?aes ilcan mynstres 
eardunga ic waes donde, and ealle geornnesse ic sealde 
to leornianne and to smeageanne haligu gewritu. And 
betweoh gehield regollices J>eodscipes and fa daaghwam- 
lican glemenne to singanne on ciricean me simle swete 
and wynsum wees, J?aet ic oJ?J?e leornode o}>J>e Iserde o]?j7e 
write. And J?a J?y nigonteo3an geare mines Hfes j>aet 
ic diaconhade onfengand J?y J?ritigoSanni33ssepreosthade, 
and eghwse3erne j?urh fegnunga J?5es arwierSan biscopes 
Johannes J?urh hasse and bebod Ceolfer5es abbudes. Of 
fasre tide J?aes J?e ic maessepreosthade onfeng oj? nigon 
and fiftig wintra mmre ieldo ic maniga bee for mmre 
nied]?earfe and minra freonda of geweorcum arwierdra 
faedera wrat and sette, ge eac swelce to maegwlite 
andgietes and gastlicre gerecennesse ic toaetlecte. 



ST. ALBAN 37 

II. ANECDOTES. 
St. Alban. 

Waes he Albanus haeSen J?a giet, )?a )?ara treowleasra 
cyninga bebodu wij? cristnum mannum grimsedon. pa 
gelamp J?aet he sumne Godes mann preosthades, se waes 
J?a reSan ehteras fleonde, on giestli5nesse onfeng. And 
mid \>y J?e he hine fa geseah on singalum gebedum and 
waeccum daeges and nihtes beon abysgodne, J?a waes he 
semninga mid faere godcundan giefe gemiltsod. And 
he sona bisene his geleafan and arfaestnesse onhyrian 
ongann ; and swelce eac styccemaalum his J>2em 
halwendum trymnessum waes gelaared, faet he forlet j>a 
J?Iestru deofolgielda and of inneweardre heortan cristen 
waes geworden. Mid \>y \>a se foresprecena Godes mann 
fela daga mid him waes on giestliSnesse, J?a becom J?set to 
earan J?aes manfullan ealdormannes J>aet Albanus haefde 
J?one Cristes andettere diegellice mid him. pa het he 
hra6e his }>egnas hine secean and acsian. J>a sona J?aes 
J?e hie comon to j?aes martyres huse, J?a Sanctus Albanus 
for faem cuman J?e he gefeormode gegyrde hine J?a his 
munucgegierelan, and eode him on hand, and hie hine 
gebundenne to him laeddon. pa gelamp hit on J?a ilcan 
tid, J?e Albanus to him gelaeded waes, )?aet he se dema 
stod aet his godgieldum and deoflum onsaegdnesse baer. 
Mid J?y J?e he geseah Albanus, )?a waes he sona ierre 
geworden, forj?3em he mid his selfes willum ge|?rTstode 
J?aet he hine selfne on geweald sealde swelcre frecednesse 
for faem cuman J?e he on giestliftnesse gefeormode. Het 
hine J?a teon and Isedan to faem deofolgieldum \>e he aet 
stod; cwaej? him )?us to: " ForJ?on J?e \>u \>one 
mangengan and J?one wij?feohtend and |?one forhycgend 
ura goda me helan woldest swl(5or fonne minum J?egnum 
secgan, fonne wite \>u faet }m scealt faem ilcan wite onfon 
)?e he geearnode, gif J?u gewitan J?encest fram fsem 
begange Ore aefestnesse." And Albanus J?a mid his selfes 
willan cy5de and openode )?3em ehterum Godes geleafan 



38 ALBAN AND THE GOVERNOR 

J>aet he cristen waere. And he ne waes ondraedende pa 
beotunge J?ags ealdormannes, ac he begyrded waes mid 
wsepnum )?ass gastlican camphades, and he openlice 
saegde J?aet he his bebodum hiersumian ne wolde. pa 
cwaej? se ealdormann and se dema him to : " Saga me 
hwelces hiredes and hwelces cynnes Jm sie." And pa 
andswarode him Albanus : " Hwaet limpej? J?ass to pe of 
hwelcum wyrtruman ic acenned sie. Ac gif pu wille 
gehieran J?aat soj> minre sefestnesse, J?onne wite Jm me 
cristen beon, and ic cristnum )?egnungum )?eowian 
wille." J?a cwsej? he se dema, ierre geworden : " Gesaga 
me )?mne naman, hwagt }>u haten sie." pa cwaaj> he: 
" Albanus ic eom gecleged fram minum ieldrum ; and 
pone so3an God and j?one libbendan, se gescop heofon and 
eor3an and ealle gesceafta, ic simle begange, and me to 
him gebidde." J)a waes he se dema ierre geworden; 
cwaej? him to : " Gif )?u wille )?isses Hfes ges^elignesse mid 
us brucan, ne ield jm J?set J?u J^sem miclum godum mid us 
onsecge." pa andswarode Albanus : " pa onsaggdnesse, 
pa pe fram eow deoflum wasron agoldene, ne magon hie 
J?sem under}?ieddum gefultumian, ne hiera lustas ne hiera 
willan gefyllan. Ac giet soSre is, swa hwelc man swa 
fissum anlicnessum and deofolgieldum onsaegdnesse 
bire}>, se forfaem mede onfehj?, ]?aet is ecum tintregum 
helle wites." pa se dema pas word gehlerde, pa waes he 
mid miclum wielme and ierre onstyred ; het pa and 
bebead hrac5e swingan and tintregian J?one Godes 
andettere. Tealde and wende )?aet he mid swingellum 
scolde pa bieldo and pa anraednesse his heortan 
ahnescian, pa he mid wordum ne meahte. pa he pa mid 
grimmum swingellum and tintregum wseced waes, and he 
ealle pa witu J?e him man dyde gej?yldelice and gefeonde 
for Dryhtne abaer and araefnde. pa se dema faet pa 
oncneow and pa ongeat J?aet he hine mid tintregum and 
mid swingellum oferswiSan ne meahte ne fram p&m 
begange }?aere cristnan aefestnesse acierran, pa het he 
hine heafde beceorfan. Mid py he pa to dea3e gelaeded 
waes, pa com he to swij?strlemre ea, seo flowe)? neah J?ere 
ceastre wealle. And he geseah p&r micle menigeo 



ALBAN SAVED FROM DEATH 39 

manna aeghwaeSeres hades ; and waeron missenlicre ieldo 
and gefingfe menn. Seo menigeo manna butan tweon 
mid godcundre onbryrdnesse waes gecieged to fegnunga 
J?aes eadgan martyres. And hie swa )?aes streames brycge 
abysgode waeron, j?aet hie hwene aer aefenne oferfaran 
ne meahton ; and, neah fon eallum utagangendum, J?aet 
se dema butan fegnunga abad on faere ceastre. And J?a 
Albanus, on J?aem waes biernende wilsumnes modes, J?aet 
he recenost to frowunga become, code }?a to J?aere burnan 
fe ic aer saegde and his eagan ahof up to heofenum, \>a 
sona adrugode se stream and beag for his fotum, swa 
fast he meahte dryge ofergangan. pa fis wundor \>a 
geseah betweoh 63re se self a cwellere )?e hine slean scolde, 
J?a waes he sona mid godcundre onbryrdnesse innan 
manod, J?aet he wearp J>aet sweord onweg J?e he on handa 
hasfde and him to fotum feoll, and he geornlice basd and 
wilnode fast he mid )?one martyr o35e for hine f rowian 
moste )?e he ser slean scolde. f>a waes J?es mann J?urh 
Godes giefe of ehtere geworden soffaestnesse freond and 
Cristes geleafan. And )?a astag se arwierctesta Godes 
andettere mid J?a menigeo on |?a dune up, seo wass J?a 
tidllce grene and faeger and mid missenlicum blostmum 
wyrta afaegd and gegiered aeghwider ymbutan. Wses 
fast ]?aes wier3e J?aet seo stow swa wlitig and swa faeger 
wsere, ]?e eft scolde mid \>y blode )?aes eadgan martyres 
geweorSod and gehalgod weordan. On J?isse dune 
ufanweardre baed Sanctus Albanus fram Gode him waeter 
seald beon to sumre his fegnunga, and J?a sona hraSe 
beforan his fotum wass wiell up iernende, J?aet ealle menn 
ongietan meahton J?aet faet waeter to his J?egnunga sended 
w,aes J?e he aer to Gode wilnode. And nu seo wielle and 
}>aet waeter, gefylledre wilsumnesse and J?aere ]?egnunga 
faes eadgan martyres, waes forlaetende fa cySnesse faere 
fegnunga and hwearf eft to gecynde. Waes seo stow 
hwaethwugu on healfre mile fram J? sere ceastre wealle and 
fram faere burnan fe he aer drygum fotum ofereode. 

King Oswald's Crucifix. 
On faere gebedstowe aefter J?on manig maegen and haelo 



40 KING OSWALD'S CRUCIFIX 

tacn gefremed waeron to tacnunga and to gemynde faes 
cyninges geleafan. And manige gen todaeg of faem 
treo faes halgan Cristes maeles sponas and scafo3an 
nimaf , and fa in waeter sendaf , and f aet waster on adlige 
menn o55e on neat stregdaf oSSe drincan sellaf ; and 
hie sona haelo onfof . Is seo stow on englisc genemned 
Heofonfeld. Waes geo geara swa nemned for tacnunge 
fara toweardra wundra, forfon fe faer faet heofonlice 
sigebeacen arsered beon scolde, and fair heofonlic sige 
faim cyninge seald waes, and faer gen todasg heofonlice 
wundor msersode beoj?. Nis for]?on ungerisene ]?aet we an 
maegen and an wundor of manigum asecgen, J?e set 
|>issum halgan Cristes msele geworden wses. Wass sum 
Godes J?eow of J?^em broSrum fsere ciricean aet 
Hagostealdes ea, faas nama waes Bothelm. pa eode he 
sume nihte on ise unwaerllce, J?a gefeoll he semninga on 
his earm ufan, and ]?one swicte gefrseste and gebraec, and 
mid J?a hefignesse J>a3s gebrocenan earmes swl5e 
geswenced wses, swa )?aet he for J?y sare ne meahte 
fur3um his hand to mu9e gedon. pa gehierde he sumne 
fara broSra sprecan }?aet he wolde feran to fasm halgan 
Cristes maele ; J>a basd he hine ]?aet he him faes arwierSan 
treos hwelcnehwugu dsel brohte )?onne he eft ham come ; 
cwae}? faet he geliefde J?aet he ]?urh J?aet meahte hailo 
onfon \> urh Dryhtnes giefe. J>a eode se bro3or, swa swa 
he hine baed, and com eft on asfenne ham, j?a }>a bro3or 
aet beode saeton ; J?a brohte him sumne dsel ealdes meoses 
|?e on faem halgan treo aweaxen waes. f>a saet he aet 
beode, naefde )?a aet handa hwaer J?aet brohte lac 
gehealdan scolde ; sende J?a on his bosm. pa he to reste 
eode, }?a forgeat he )?aet he on oQerre stowe J>aet geheolde ; 
let for]? on his bosme awunian. pa waes aet middre nihte, 
fa he waeccende waes, fa ne wiste he hwaet he gefelde 
ealdes aet his sidan licgan ; cunnode fa mid his hand 
and sohte hwaet f aet waere. pa gemette he his earm and 
his hand swa hale and swa gesunde swa him naefre bryce 
ne daru gedon waere. 



MIRACLES OF KING OSWALD 41 

The Holy Oswald. 

Haefde he Oswald llchamlicre ieldo seofon and Jmttig 
wintra, ]?a hine man slog J?y fiftan daege Agustus monSes. 
Hwelc )?aes cyninges geleafa and modes wilsumnes on 
Gode waere, J?aet sefter his dead"e mid maegena wundrum 
waes gecy<5ed. ForJ?on on J?sere stowe J?e he for his e51e mid 
his leodum campode, and fram fsern hseftnum ofslaegen 
waes, o\> J?isne andweardan daeg J?aet J?aer haelo untrumra 
manna and neata maersod sindon. J>anon gelamp faette 
J>a selfan moldan ]?aer his lichama gefeoll manige menn 
nimende waeron and on waster dydon and sealdon hiera 
untrumum mannum and neatum drincan ; and him sona 
wel waes. And J>et menn to J?on gelomlice dydon 
styccemaelum }?aet hie ]?a moldan namon, o]? ]?aet ]?3er 
wass deop sea)? adolfen, )?aette waepnedmann meahte oj? 
his sweoran inn standan. Gelamp nauht micelre tide 
aefter his siege J>astte sum mann rad be faere stowe. pa 
ongann his hors semninga werigian and gestandan and 
his heafod on eordan hielde ; and ]?a fam of Jjaem mu6e 
code and J?aet unmaete sar weox and miclode, oJ?J?aet hit 
on eor5an hreas. f>a lihte se eoredmann and )?aet gebsete 
of ateah and J?aer hwile bad hwonne his hors bet wurde 
oj?)?e he hit fasr dad forlete. J>a waes hit lange mid 
hefigum sare swi5e swenced and on missenlice daslas hit 
wand and J>raeste, J?a semninga becom hit on J?a stowe 
J?ser se gemyndgoda cyning ofslaegen waes. Ne waes J?a 
ieldenn ]?aette )?aet sar gestilled waes; and hit blann fram 
unhalum styrenessum J?ara lima and ]?y gewunelican 
feawe horsa aefter werignesse ongann wealwian and on 
aeghwaeSre sidan hit gelomlice oferwearp, and sona aras 
J?urh eall hal and gesund, and ongann giferllce )?aet gaers 
etan. pa he \>a se mann }?aet geseah, J?a ongeat he mid 
scearpre gleawnesse hwaethwugu wundorlicre halignesse 
on J?a3re stowe beon J?aer his hors swa hra5e gehaeled waes. 
And he ]?aer tacn asette and ]?a stowe gemearcode and on 
his hors hleop and rad }?ider he aer mynte. J)a he \>a com 
to j?sem menn J?e he secean wolde, J?a gemette he J?ser 
fsemnan ; waes nift J?aes higna ealdres J?e he sohte ; waes 



42 MIRACLES OF KING OSWALD 

mid langre adle legeres swiSe gehefigod. pa ongunnon 
J?a higan beforan him seofian be J?aere grimman 
untrumnesse J?sere fcemnan, J?a ongann he secgan be )?aere 
stowe \>3tr his hors gehasled waes. Hwaet, hie gearwedon 
sona waegn and asetton }?a fsemnan on and laaddon to 
faere stowe and hie fair asetton. pa heo )?a on j?asre 
stowe geseted waes, \>a waes heo werig ; onslep J?aer hwon. 
Sona J?aes J?e heo onwoc, J?a gefelde heo faet heo waes 
gehseled fram hiere lichaman untrumnesse and hiere 
waeteres baed, and hie J?woh and hiere feax gersedde and 
hie mid sciete besweop and mid J>aim mannum J?e hie }?ider 
laiddon on hiere fotum hal and gesund ham hwearf and 
code. 

Swelce eac on }?a ilcan tid com 65er mann sum ; saegdon 
menn \>3dt he wasre Bretta geleod. Ferde he be J?aere 
ilcan stowe, on j?asre J?3et foresprecene gefeoht geworden 
waes. pa geseah he anre stowe faec J?aem 63rum felda 
grenre and faegerre. pa ongann he mid gleawum mode 
J>encean and raeswan )?2et naenig 65er intinga waere }?33re 
stowe grennesse and faegernesse nemne J?aet J?a^r sum halig 
mann hwelchwugu }?aem 63rum werode ofslaegen wsere. 
Genam J?a J?aere moldan dael on J?aere stowe, geband on 
his sceate, fohte faet seo lice molde to laecedome and to 
haelo geweorSan meahte untrumra manna; and he eft 
forfeode on his weg. pa com he to sumum huse on 
aefentid and eode in J?aet hus, )?aer fast ham call to symble 
gesamnod waes. Waes he onfangen fram )?aem hlaforde 
}?aes huses, and him man setl taehte, and he saet mid him 
aet J?aem symble. Aheng he J?one sceat mid }?aere moldan 
J?e he brohte on ane studu J?aes wages. Waes micel fyr 
onaeled on middum )?aem huse. Mid \>y hie J?a lange 
symbledon and druncne waeron, and J?a spearcan up 
flugon on }>aes huses hrof, se waes mid gierdum awunden 
and mid faece befeaht, J?a gelamp J?aet J?aet hus call 
ongann semninga biernan. pa )?aet \>a gebeoras 
gesawon, J?a flugon hie forhte ut, and naenige helpe J?aem 
biernendan huse gedon meahton ; ac hit claene forbarn, 
nemne seo studu an J?e seo molde on hangode, seo gesund 
and ungehrinen fram )?sem fyre astod and awunode. 



MIRACLES OF KING OSWALD 43 

Is aeSele mynster on Lindesse, is nemned Beardan ea ; 
faet mynster Osfryf Miercna cwen mid hiere were 
^ESelrede swiSe lufode and arweorSode and beeode. On 
faem heo wilnode gehealdan fa arwierSan ban hiere 
faederan. Mid f y se waegn fa com f e fa ban on landed 
wseron in fset foresprecene mynster, fa ne woldon fa 
higan him, fe on fsem mynstre wseron, lustlice onfon. 
Forf on f eah f e hie hine haligne wisten, hwseQre forf on f e 
he of oderre msegcte wses and ofer hie rice onfeng, ealdum 
feoungum hine eac swelce deadne ehton. f>a waes 
geworden faette fsere selfan nihte J?a brohtan ban ute 
awunedon, nemne man geteld ofer abrsedde. Ac seo 
aetiewnes heofonlices wundres geopenode hu arwierSHce 
hie wseron to underfonne eallum geleafsumum. Forfon 
ealle J?a niht stod swelce beorht sunbeam fram J?cem 
waegne up oj? heofon heah, J?one man meahte lytesna of 
ealre Lindesse stowum sweotole geseon. pa hit fa waes 
on morgenne dasg geworden, fa ongunnon fa broSor f aes 
mynstres, fa f e zer wif socon, geornlice biddan f aette mid 
him fa halgan reliquias and Gode fa leofan gehealdne 
beon mosten. And hie fa fa ban onfwogon and on 
cieste gedydon and on ciricean aefter gerisenre are 
gesetton. 

Gelamp faet aefterfolgiendre tide, mid fy seo fore- 
sprecene cwen wass wuniende on fsem ilcan mynstre, 
fa com sum arwierSe abbudesse to hiere, seo waes haten 
^ESelhild. Mid fy heo fa to fsere cwene com and hie 

g^sprecen haefdon and betweoh 65er spraecon hie be 
swalde, cwaef heo seo abbudesse faet heo gesawe f aere 
niht f set leoht ofer his banum up of heofon heah. Cwaef 
heo seo cwen f aette of fsere moldan f aes flores, on f aem 
faet wseter his bana f weales goten waes, manige untrume 
gehselede wseron. And heo fa baed faet hiere man sumne 
dsel fsere halwendan moldan sealde ; and hiere man swa 
dyde ; and heo fa on claSe beband and on cieste dyde and 
hiere ham ferde. J)a aefterfolgiendre tide sif f an heo on 
hiere mynstre waes, f aette f ider com sum cuma, se waes 
nihtlicum tidum semninga fram unclsenum gaste hefiglice 
swenced. J)a wses he fremsumlice onfangen, and sefter his 



44 THE MADMAN CURED 

sefengereorde hine gerestan wolde. pa waes he semninga 
fram deofle gerisen ; ongann clipian and hlydan and mid 
histodumgristbitian,and J?a fam of his muoe ut eode, and 
he missenlicum styrenessum ongann his limu fraestan. 
pa hine \>a naenig mann ne gehabban ne gebindan 
meahte, J?a arn sum J?egn and slog tacn ast geate and 
Scegde faere abbudessan. And heo sona )?aet geat 
faes mynstres ontynde and eode mid ane hiere flnenna 
to fasre waipnedmanna stowe and gehet ]?one 
maessepreost to hiere, faet he scolde mid hie gan to faem 
untruman menn. pa hie J?a fider comon, J?a gesawon 
hie j?a5r manige menn aet him beon, J?a J?e georne 
ongunnon J?aet hie his wedenheortnesse gestilden ; ac hie 
ne meahton. Sang he se maessepreost and raedde 
orationem, J>a }?e wip faere adle awritene waaron, and J?a 
}?ing dyde J?e he selest wij? J?sem c03e ; and he hwae9re 
nauht on }?on fremede. Mid J?y hiera ]?a naenig ainige 
helpe him findan meahte, J?a com semninga fsere 
abbudessan on gemynd seo foresprecene molde. f>a het 
heo sona hiere finenne gan and J?a cieste hiere to gefetian 
J?e seo molde in waes. f>a heo J?a mid fa cieste on ]?one 
cafortun eode J?aes huses J?e se feondseoca mann in 
J?rsested w^es, J?a geswigode he semninga and his heafod 
onhielde, swa swa he slsepan wolde, and his limu on 
stilnesse gesette. J)a swigedon hie eac ealle and stille 
wseron, and sorgiende bidon to hwon ]?is )?ing weordan 
scolde. J)a waes aefter medmicelre tide faece )?aet he up 
asaet and hefigllce asworette and cwae)? : " Nu ic wat tela, 
and ic onfeng gewit mines modes." And hie J?a 
geornllce acsedon hu faet gelumpe. Cwae]? he : " Sona 
mid J>y J?e seo faemne mid faere cieste ]?e heo baer 
genealasete J?aem cafortune J?aes huses, }>a gewiton ealle fa 
wlergan gastas onweg, J?a fe me swencton and frycton, 
and me forleton and nahwaer siffan aetiewdon." pa 
sealde seo abbudesse him sumne dael fsere moldan, and 
he }?a niht ealle hal and gesund hine reste. And siffan 
of faere tide J?a awlergedan gastas hine mid naenigum 
ege ne mid geswencnesse gretan dorston. 

Nallaes J?aet an faette se hllsa fisses aeSelan weres call 



FAME OF KING OSWALD'S MIRACLES 45 

Bretene gemaeru geondscine, ac swelce eac be sudan sse 
on Germania and eac samod \>a daalas Hibernia Scotta 
Teglandes se hlisa wundra becom. ForJ?on Acca se 
arwierSa biscop gewunode oft secgan, J?a he to Rome waes 
ferende and mid Wilbrord J>one halgan biscop Friesena 
wags wuniende, J?aet he hine gelomllce hierde secgan on 
faere msegd'e be J?aem wundrum J?e set J?aem banum faes 
arwierSan cyninges gedon waeron. Swelce he eac 
saegde, se biscop, mid )?y he J?a gena maessepreost waes 
on Hibernia and J?aer for heofena rices lufe on el- 
feodignesse lifde, J?aet he J?aer on J?em leglande J?one 
hlisan his halignesse feorr and wide gelomllce hierde 
secgan. Saegde he J?aat on J>a tld ]?aes miclan woles and 
manncwieldes }?e Bretene Tegland and Hibernia mid 
miclum wasle fornom and forhergode, J?a waes geslaegen 
betweoh 6c5re manige mid \>y waele J?aes ilcan woles sum 
leornungmann on scole Scotta cynnes. Waes se mann 
wel gelaered on gewritum, ac ymb ]?a giemenne his ecre 
hselo waes to saene and to receleas. pa he J?a geseah faet 
he waes neah dea3e, ]?a ongann he forhtian and him 
ondraedan {>aet he, sona J?aes J?e he dead waere, for 
geearnungum his synna to helle locum gelaeded beon 
scolde. ' Clipode me fa and ciegde, mid J?y ic waes him 
on neawiste, and betweoh }?a untruman sworettunge he 
forhtiende and wependre stefne J?us waes sprecende and 
seofiende to me, and cwaej? : "Hwaet, J?u gesiehst )?aet feos 
adl and J?eos hefignes mines Hchaman swi5e weaxef, J?aet 
ic eom nieded faet ic sceal hra3e deaj? underhnigan. Ne 
tweo ic J?onne me nauht aefter )?aes Hchaman deaQe hrade 
gelseded beon to fiem ecean dea5e mlnre sawle and hel- 
le tintregum underfieded beon. For]?on micelre tide 
betweoh gelisu J?aere godcundan leornunga ic ma synnum 
and leahtrum )?eowde J?onne Godes bebodum. Me is nu 
faestlice on mode, gif seo uplice arfaestnes me aenig faec 
to libbanne forgiefan wille, faet ic wille mine leahtorfulle 
j?eawas forlaetan and to bebode faes godcundan willan 
call min mod and mm Hf faestlice gecierran. Ic for soj? 
wat faet J?aet nis mlnre geearnunga )?aet ic ieldenne onfo 
to libbanne, oJ?J?e ne getriewe me onfonde beon, nemne 



46 KING OSWINE 

God me earmum and unwier5um gemiltsian wille \> urh 
J?ara fultum and bene )>e him getreowllce )?eowdon. We 
gehierdon, and se mseresta hlisa is, faette wsere on 
eowerre J?eode wuldorlicre halignesse cyning, Oswald 
hatte ; }?ses cyninges geleafan and maegenes heanes aefter 
deaSe eac swelce mid gelomlicra wundra wyrcnesse scan 
and bierhte. Bidde ic J?e la, gif Jm senige his reliquias 
hasbbe mid ]?e, J?aet Jm me selle. EaSe maeg faet me 
Dryhten f>urh his geearnunge miltsian wille." pa 
andswarode ic him : " Ic haebbe J?aes treowes dsel ]?e his 
heafod on aseted waes, J?a he ofslaggen waes. And gif J?u 
mid trumre heortan gellefest, fonne maeg seo godcunde 
arfaestnes J?urh geearnunge swa miclesmannesseghwasder 
ge lengre faec J?isses Hfes fe forgiefan ge J?e J?aes ecean 
lifes inganges wierSran gedon." Ne waes he J?a ieldende 
ac sona andswarode and cwsej? fast he on fissum haefde 
fsestne geleafan and anwealgne. f>a gehalgode ic waeter 
and scafoSan dyde on ]?ass foresprecenan treowes and 
sealde faem untruman drincan, and sona J?aet him waes 
bet and he hine getrumode and gewierpte fram J>sere 

untrymnesse. 

^ 

King Oswine. 

Waes he Oswine se cyning ge on ansiene faeger ge on 
bodige heah ge wynsum on gespraece and on 
J>eawum manjjwalre; and he waes eallum rumgiefa ge 
aeSelum ge unseSelum. panon gelamp J?aette for his 
cynelicnesse ge modes ge ansiene and his geearnunga 
wierdnesse J?ast he waes fram eallum mannum lufod. 
And seghwanon lytesna of eallum jMssum bifylcum to his 
folgaSe and his J?enunga ]?a asSelestan menn comon. 
pisses cyninges betweohoSer maegen and gemetf^stnesse 
and syndriglicre bletsunga wuldor eac swelce is saegd J?aet 
he wasre J?aere m^estan ea5modnesse, swa swa we magon 
on anre bisene sweotole oncnawan. Geaf he and sealde 
J>aet betste hors and )?aes faegerestan hiwes Aidane faem 
biscope, }?eah J?e he gewuna wasre J?aet he ma eode fonne 
he ride, J>aet he hwae5re on J?aem meahte forda oferridan 
J>onne he to hwelcre le come, oJ?J?e gif hwelc nied 



AIDAN AND KING OSWINE 47 

gelumpe fast he hraedlicor feran scolde. pa waes aefter 
medmicelre tide, fa he on f aem horse saet, f aet him com 
sum f earfa togeanes and him aelmessan baed. pa lihte 
he sona and het f aem f earfan f aet hors sellan mid f aem 
cynelicum gebaetum f e him on stodon. Forf on he waes 
swic5e mildheort and f earfena bigenga and swa swa faeder 
earmra. pa f is fa waes f aem cyninge gesasgd, cwaef he 
to faem biscope, fa hie waeron to hiera swaesendum 
gangende : " Hwaet, woldest J?u, mm domne biscop, J?aet 
cynelice hors J?sem J?earfan sellan )?e J?e gedafenode agen 
to habbane ? Ac ne haefdon wit manig 65er uncymre 
hors and 65res hiwes, J?aet wit meahton fearfum to tl5e 
sellan, )?eah }?u J>aet hors him ne sealde j?aet ic J?e 
synderlice to sehte geceas?" Ipa andswarode se biscop 
him sona and cwaej? : " Hwaet spriest )?u, cyning ? 
Cwist J?u faet fe sie leofra J?aere mieran sunu J?onne J?aet 
Godes beam?" f)a hie J?a fis sprsecon, fa eodon hie 
in to swaesendum, and se biscop code ge sset on his stowe 
on his setle. Se cyning fonne, forj?on he of huntaSe 
com, gestod set J?3em fyre and hine wiermde mid his 
fegnum. And J?a semninga betweoh J?a wierminge 
gemunde fast word J?e se biscop him air to cwae|? ; 
ongyrde hine fa his sweorde and sealde his fegne and 
stop ofostlice toforan biscope and feoll to his fotum and 
baed faet he him blide waere, and cwaef : " Naefre ofer 
J?is ic awiht ma sprece of fe deme hwaet of fe hu micel 
of uncrum feo fu Godes bearnum selle." pa se biscop 
fa geseah fa eaSmodnesse f aes cyninges swa micle, fa 
ondred he him swTSe and sona aras him togeanes and 
hine up ahof, and gehet fast he him swi5e bli3e waere, and 
georne basd fast he eode to his setle sittan to his 
swaesendum and unrotnesse of his heortan asette. Mid 
f y he fa se cyning be f aes biscopes haese and bene blisse 
onfeng, fa ongann he se biscop ongean f on unrot wesan, 
and swa unrot waes faet he ongann wepan hluttrum 
tearum. pa fraegn hine and acsode his maessepreost on 
his agene gef eode, f e se cyning ne cude ne his hlwen, 
for hwon he weope. Cwaef he : " ic wat f aette f es 
cyning aefter f issum nauht lange ne leofaf, forfon ic 



48 AIDAN SAVES THE VOYAGERS 

naifre ser f issum geseah ea5modne cyning. Forfon ic 
ongiete faet he hraedllce of f issum life forfferan sceal; 
and nis feos feod wierSe faet heo swelcne reccend and 
cyning hagbbe." Ne waes fa lang faec agfter faette se 
grimma witedom fags biscopes waes gefylled, fagt man 
laSlicum dea3e fone cyning acwealde, swa we ser 
beforan saggdon. 

Bishop Aidan. 

Wags sum arwierSe maessepreost, f aes nama wags Utta ; 
waes micelre gestag55ignesse and sof faestnesse wer, and 
he forfon eallum ge J?isse worulde ealdormannum waes 
leof and wierSe. Wags he sended on sume tid to Cent, 
J?agt he scolde Oswio ]?agm cyninge wif fetian Eanflede 
Eadwines dohtor J?ags cyninges, seo waes agr }?ider 
gelagded, J?a hiere fagder ofslaegen wags. f>a gestihte he 
and funde ]?aet he wolde landfierde J?ider gefaran, and eft 
on sciplade mid J?agre fagmnan ham hweortan. f>a eode 
se magssepreost to Aidane J>agm biscope ; bagd hine }?aet 
he for hine gebagde and for his geferan, and for hiera 
gesynto to Gode fingode, \>a hie swa micelne si]?faet 
feran scoldon. pa dyde he swa; gebaed hie fore and hie 
gebletsode and Gode bebead ; sealde eac swelce fagm 
maessepreoste gehalgodne ele. Cwae}? him to : " Ic wat 
sona," cwagj? he, " paes J?e ge on scip astlgaj?, J?agt ofer 
eow cymej? micel storm and hreones, and wiSerweard 
wind astigej?. Ac gemyne J?u )?agt J?u J?isne ele, J?e ic 
J?e nu selle, sende on J>a sag; and sona instaepe se wind 
gestille]? and sags smyltnes aefterfolgaj?, and eow eac blide 
on eowerne wilsif ham forlsete)?." And ealle )?as J?ing, 
swa se biscpp forecwagj?, of endebyrdnesse gelumpon and 
gefylde wseron. And sona Merest fags }>e hie on scip 
eodon and ut leton f^ette astigon wiSerwearde windas 
and fa y5a weollon and weddon f aes sags, pa ongunnon 
fa niedlingas and fa scipmenn fa ancras up teon and on 
f one sag sendon ; woldon f aet scip mid gefaestnian. And 
feah fe hie f is dydon, nauht hie on fon fremedon, ac 
fa y5a weollon and ymbsweopon and seghwanon fast 
scip fyldon, faet hie him naenigra gesynta wendon, ac 



AIDAN SAVES BAMBOROUGH 49 

hie ealle deaf selfne him andweardne gesawon. pa aet 
niehstan gemunde se maessepreost faes biscopes word; 
genam his ampellan and sumne dael faes eles sende on 
fone sae. And sona instaepe, swa hit forecweden waes, 
gestilde se sae fram faem wielme. And swa waes 
geworden f aette se Godes wer f urh witedomes gast fone 
storm toweardne foreseah and furh faes ilcan gastes 
maegen, fa he up cumen wags, faet he hine aswefede and 
gestilde, f eah f e he Hchamlice fair aefweard waere. 

paet gelamp on fa tid his biscophades J?aette Penda 
Miercna cyning gelasdde here on NorSanhymbra land, 
and hit feorr and wide mid arleasum waele hy5de and 
hergode. pa becom he aat niehstan to j?ere cynelican 
byrig, seo is nemned Bebbanburg. pa he J?a geseah j?aet 
seo burg waes to J?on f^est J?aet he ne meahte ne mid 
gefeohte ne mid ymbsete hie abrecan ne gegan, J?a wolde 
he mid fyre forbaernan. Aslat fa )?a tunas ealle ymb J?a 
burg onweg )?e he fasr on neawiste gemette, and to 
J?a3re byrig gewaeg, and micelne ad gesamnode on 
beamum and on raeftrum and on wagum and on watolum 
and on fasccum ; and mid fissum J?a burg mid micelre 
heanesse ymbsealde fram faam daele J?e heo lande 
gej>ieded is. pa hit ]?a waes wel gewinde on J?a burg, 
J?a onbasrnde he J?one ad and \>a burg forbaernan wolde. 
pa on J?a selfan tid wass se arwier3a biscop Aidan on 
Fame j? aem leglande, J?aet is on twsem milum fram J?aere 
byrig ut on sse. Waes his gewuna J?aet he \>a stowe 
gelomllce sohte for intingan stilnesse and his diegelra 
gebeda, and man maeg gen todaeg J?a stowe his setles 
on fsem ilcan leglande sceawian. pa he |?a se biscop 
geseah swapendum windum J?one Heg )?aes fyres and J?one 
rec ofer fsere burge weallas ahaefenne, is saegd fast he 
his eagan mid his handum to heofenum hofe and mid 
tearum ]?us cwaede : " pu Dryhten, geseoh hu micel yfel 
Penda wyrcej?." And fa sona instaepe oncierde se wind 
fram f sere byrig and se Heg and seo haeto rsesdon on fa 
selfan f e f aet fyr aeldon and baerndon, and manigne mann 
swT5e gewierdledon ; and hie ealle afyrhte onweg flugon 
and blunnon fa burg afeohtan, fa hie ongeaton faet heo 
godcundlice gescielded waes. 



50 BAEKING DURING THE PLAGUE 



The Monastery at Barking. 

Mid \>y seo hreones J?aes oft cwedenan woles feorr and 
wide call waes forhergiende and fornimende, J?a com he 
eac swelce on J?one dsel j?aes mynstres ]?e J?a wsepnedmenn 
in wairon, and daeghwamllce gehwaer of worulde to 
Dryhtne genumene wseron. f>a waes seo abbudesse and 
seo modor ]?a2re gesamnunga behygdig and sorgiende, on 
hwelce tid J?one dail j?aes mynstres J?e se freat J>ara Codes 
}>eowa on wifhade in waes, J?aet ilce wlte gehrine, )?a 
ongann heo gelomlice on gesamnunga ]?ara sweostra 
secean and ascian, on hwelcre stowe j?aes mynstres hie 
woldon J?aet hiera Hctun geseted wsere, j?agt hie man 
bebyrigan meahte, J?onne }?a3t gelumpe |?cet hie of 
middangearde genumene wseren J?y ilcan gehrore J?e hie 
on 6(5rum gesawon. Mid }>y heo J?a nsenige cu3e 
andsware findan meahte, J?eah J?e heo georne sohte aet 
J?em sweostrum, ]?a gelamp }?aet heo selfe mid eallum 
J?em sweostrum ]?a cuSestan andsware J?sere uplican 
foreseonesse onfeng. ForJ?on sumre nihte, \>a se 
sealmsang gefylled waes faes uhtlican lofsanges, J?a 
wseron J?a Cristes ]?eowe utgangende of ciricean to 
byrgenne J?ara broSra fe hie of J?issum leohte foreeodon, 
and J?ser )?a wunelican lofsangas Dryhtne sungon. pa 
waes J?aer semninga heofonlic leoht onsended and com ofer 
hie ealle and swa swa miclu sclete hie ealle oferbraedde and 
hie mid swa micelre fyrhto and wafunga gesloh fast hie 
J>one sang J?e hie sungon forhtiende forleton. Waes seo 
beorhtnes J?aes onsendan leohtes mare J?onne sunnan leoht 
bij? aet middan daege. f>a waes aefter medmiclum faece 
faet hit waes up ahaefen of fsere stowe and gewat on 
suSdael ]?aes mynstres, )?aet is be westan faere ciricean, and 
J^aer ]>a sum faec wunode and him \>a stowe waes 
ontynende )>e hie aer ymb feahtedon, and swa eallum 
geseondum up on heofenas gewat, )?aette nsenigum hiera 
tweo waes )?aette ]?aet selfe leoht J>a sawla J?ara Cristes 
J?eowa waes gel^edende and onfonde on heofenas, J?aette 
]?aet eac swelce J?a stowe him a^tlewde fser hiera llchaman 
restan scoldon and ariste daeges bidan. pass leohtes 



STORIES OF THE PLAGUE 51 

scima waes swa micel, swa swa sum eald br6(5or on 
morgenne saegde, se J?e on J?a ilcan tid on )?aere ciricean 
mid 63rum geongan breSer aet gebede waes, J?aet hit J?urh 
}>a cinan J?aere dure and J?urh \>a eagj?yrel in code, and 
ealle beorhtnesse daeghwamlices leohtes oferswidde. 

Waes on J?aem ilcan mynstre cnihtcild sum ; ne waes 
ieldre J?onne jmwintre ; waes his nama ^Esica, se for faere 
cildlican ieldo \>a gena waes on J?ara faemnena mynstre 
Gode gehalgodra feded and laered. pa waes he gehrinen 
mid J?a foresprecenan adle. J>a he J?a to J?aem ytemestan 
daege becom, J?a clipode he J?riwa and ane of faem 
gehalgedum faemnum Criste hiere agnum naman clegde, 
swa swa he hiere andweardre to spraece, and cwaej? : 
" EadgyJ?, Eadgy]?, EadgyJ? " ; and swa waes geendiende 
J>is hwilwendlice lif, and on J?aet ece ineode. And sona 
J?a seo faemne ]?e he sweltende clegde, on j?aere stowe )?e 
heo waes, faere ilcan untrymnesse waes gehrinen and, J? y 
self an daege )?e heo gecleged waes, of J>issum leohte waes 
atogen. 

Eft sumu of )?aem ilcum Godes )?eowum mid J?a 
foresprecenan adle waes gestanden and to J?aem ytemestan 
daege gelaeded. J)a ongann heo semninga on midde niht 
clipian faem J?e hiere fegnedon ; baed faet hie J>aet blacern 
and J?aet leoht adwaescten, faet J?aer inne onbaerned waes ; 
and }>aes heo gelomlice baed and manode, and hiere naenig 
hwaeSre hieran wolde. pa aet niehstan cwaej? heo : " Ic wat 
J>aet ge wenaj? )?aet ic ungewitgum mode sprece. Ac 
hwaeSre witaj? ge J?aet hit swa nis. Forfon ic eow soj? 
secge, J?aet ic geseo fis hus mid swa miclum leohte 
gefylled J?aette J?aet eower blacern and leoht me is 
eallunga fiestre gesegen." And ne J?a gena, J?eah |?e 
heo J?us spraece, hiere senig andswarode o]?]?e gefafian 
wolde. Cwae}? heo eft : " BaernaJ? nu eower blacern and 
leoht swa lange swa ge willen. WitaJ? ge hwae3re )?aet 
J?aet nis mm, forj?on mm leoht me to cymej? J?onne hit 
dagian onginnej?." Ongann him J?a secgan J?aet hiere 
aetiewde sum halig wer, se J?y ilcan geare for}?ferde, and 
hiere^cwaede to, J?onne dagunga tid come, J?aet heo waere 
to J?aem ecean leohte ferende. paere gesihj?e so)? waes 



52 TORTGYTH'S VISION 

hra3e gecyded and geseSed ymb faes daeges upryne on 
f aere fasmnan deaSe and forf fore. 

Mid fy fa eac seo "arfaeste modor Gode faere leofan 
gesamnunga ^Edelburg abbudesse waes of middangearde 
to gewitanne, fa astiewde sweostor wundorlicu gesihf, 
fasre nama waes Tortgyf . Seo manig gear on f asm ilcan 
mynstre wuniende wass and heo simle on ealre 
eaSmodnesse and on hluttornesse and on clasnnesse 
geornlice Gode f eowode ; and wass fultumiend regollices 
feodscipes ]?aere ilcan modor and abbudessan, and fa 
giengran Iserde and claensode ge mid lare ge mid lifes 
bisene. Waes heo seo sweostor semninga gehrinen mid 
hefigre untrymnesse Hchaman and furh nigon gear full 
mid J?a arfaestan foreseonesse ures aliesendes swide 
swenced waes. peos sweostor sumre nihte, fa hit dagian 
ongann, waes Qtgangende of hiere cleofan fe heo in 
wunode. pa geseah heo sweotole swa swa mannes 
Hchaman mid sceatan bewundenne, se wxs beorhtra 
fonne sunne, on heanesse boren beon. Waes he Merest 
up ahasfen of faem huse J?e J?a sweostor in reston. Mid 
\>y heo fa geornlicor behealdende waes, hu se wlite f aes 
wuldorlican Hchaman up ahaefen waere, fe heo sceawiende 
wass, fa geseah heo swa swa mid gyldnum rapum he on fa 
uplican ahaefen wasre, of faet he on fa heofenasingelasded 
wass and ma fram hiere gesegen beon ne meahte. pa 
f ohte heo be f asre gesihfe, and hiere nsenig tweo waes 
f aette hwelchwugu hra9e of f asre gesamnunga sweltende 
wasre, f aere sawol f urh fa godan weorc and fa sclnendan 
fe heo dyde swa swa f urh gyldne rapas to heofenum 
ahaefen beon scolde. past fa so3Hce swa gelamp. 
Forfon nallass aefter manigum dagum Gode seo leofe 
modor fasre gesamnunga of hefignesse Hchaman alasded 
wass, and hiere seo halige sawol faes heofonlican e31es 
ingang gestag. 

pa asfterfolgode ^Eoelburge on abbudessan fegnunga 
seo wilsume Godes feowe, fasre nama waes Hildelid. 
And heo manig gear, fast is of fa ytemestan ieldo, 
f asm ilcan mynstre fremlice fore waes eghwae3er ge on 
fara f inga foresceawunga, fa fe to gemsenum brycum 



THE BLIND MADE TO SEE 3 

belumpon, ge eac on gehielde regollices feodscipes. pa 
licode hiere for nearonesse j?aere stowe J?e )?aet mynster on 
getimbred is, fast heo wolde J?a ban up adon J?ara Cristes 
J?eowa ]?e faer bebyrgede waeron, and on ciricean gesettan 
faere eadgan faemnan Sancta Marian and J?aer on anre 
stowe healdan. And faer swiSe oft si]?j?an beorhtnes 
heofonlices leohtes aetiewde ; and eac oft miclu swetnes 
wundorlices stences becom and manig 63er tacn and 
wundor aetlewdon ; ]?a maeg on J?aere bee gemetan, swa 
hwelc swa hie raede]?, ]?e we )?as of alseson. J)onne is 
sum wundor hselo fe us nis to forlsetanne |?e seo ilce 
boc sagaj? J?aette a3t lictune geworden wsere Gode J?sere 
leofan gesamnunga. Waes sum geslj? fasr on neawiste. 
pa gestod his wif untrymnes on hiere eagum ; and fa 
J?urh dagas J?aet hie hefigedon and feostredon, J?aet heo 
aet niehstan nsenigne dael leohtes sciman geseon meahte. 
Mid }>y heo J?a sum fasc on Jnsse blindnesse waes, J?a ,waes 
sumre nihte faer heo betyned wunode, faette hiere becom 
on mod gif heo to J?aem mynstre gelasded waere Godes 
}>ara gehalgodra faemnena, and heo faer aet }?ara haligra 
reliquium hiere gebaede, ]?aet heo meahte fast forlorene 
leoht eft onfon. Ne heo J?a ne ielde, ac sona gefylde |?aet 
hiere on mod becom. pa waes heo gelaeded fram hiere 
J?eowum and fignennum to fsem mynstre, J?e faer neah 
waes. paer heo waes andettende J?aet heo haefde anwealgne 
geleafan hiere haelo. pa waes heo gelaeded to lictune J?ara 
Godes feowa, and mid \>y heo J?aer lange gebiegdum 
cneowum hiere gebaed, sona geearnode J?aet hiere bene 
gehierde waeron. And sona J?aes }?e heo fram J?sem 
gebede aras, ser J?on J?e heo of J?aere stowe code, )?aet heo 
onfeng giefe faes bedenan leohtes. And seo )?e aer hiere 
J?eowa handum J?ider gelaeded waes, heo \>a freo on hiere 
iota gangum bliSe ham hweorfende waes, efne J>on 
gelicost swa swa heo to J?on faet hwilwendlice leoht 
anforlete, }?aet heo on hiere haelo aetiewde hu micel leoht 
Cristes }?a halgan on heofenum ahten and hwelce giefu 
hiera maegenes waere. 



54 WILFEBTH FEEDS THE PEOPLE 

Bishop Wilferth. 

And fa Wilferf biscop on faare feode godcunde lare 
Iserde, nallaes f aet an f aette fram iermSum ecre niSerunga 
ac swelce eac fram fasm manfullan waele hwilwendlicre 
forwyrde generede. Forfon f rim gearum air his cyme 
on fa msegSe fast fer nsenig regn on f aim stowum com ; 
and fanon se grimmesta hungor faet folc waes waicende 
and hie mid arleasre cwale fielde wseron. past is to 
tacne : secgaj? menn fsette oft feowertig manna oj?}?e 
fiftig samod, J?a ]?e mid }?y hungre gewsecte waaron, }?ast 
hie earmlice be handum namon and ealle a3tgaedere of 
saes of re ut feollon and woldon hie selfe o]?]?e offiellan 
oj?}?e adrencean. And ]?a ]>y selfan daege )?e seo J?eod 
Cristes geleafan onfeng and fulluhte, }>a astag and com 
smolt regn and micel and genyhtsum, and )?a land 
greowon and blostmedon and aefter com god gear and 
waestmberende. And swa awurpon J?a ealdan dysignesse 
and deofolgield onscunedon and ealra hiera heortan and 
Hchaman wynsumedon on j?one libbendan God ; and 
]?one ongeaton se ]?e so}? God is, and faet hie selfe wseron 
ge on fasm nearrum godum ge on )?aem uterrum mid 
heofonlice giefe geweligode. Forj?on se biscop, mid \>y 
]?e he on }?a maegSe com and swa micel wlte hungres J?ser 
geseah, laerde he J?a ]?aet hie on fiscnaSe him andleofene 
sohten, forfon f>e aeghwaeSer ge seo sae ge hiera ea fiscum 
genyhtsumode. Ac seo J?eod |?one craeft J>aes fiscnaSes ne 
cude, nemne to aelum anum. pa gesamnedon fa 
biscopes menn J?a aelnett aeghwanon f e hie meahton and 
sendon on fone sae, and seo godcunde giefu him 
gefultumode fast hie sona gefengon freo hund 
fisca missenlicra cynna. And fa on freo todseldon, 
hundteontig hie sealdon fearfum, hundteontig faem fe 
fa nett ahton, hundteontig hie him selfum to nytte 
dydon. paere fremsumnesse se biscop ealra hiera 
heortan on his lufe gecierde, and f y neodllcor hie f urh 
his lare fa heofonlican god gehyhton, faes fenunga hie 
fa hwllwendlican god namon and onfengon. 



ETHELDREDA'S TOMB 65 

Queen Etheldreda. 

Secgaf menn be faere halgan ^Edelf ry5e, sif fan heo 
mynster gesohte, f aet heo naeire linenum hraeglum brucan 
wolde ac wyllenum. And seldan on hatum badum heo 
baSian wolde buton faem hiehstum symbelnessum and 
tidum ; and f onne heo serest f urn hiere f enunge and 
hiere f ignenna fa 65re Cristes f eowas, fa f e f aer wseron, 
onf waegen haefde, f onne wolde heo ealra nlehst hie baSian 
and f wean, and seldan bQton marum symbelnessum and 
tidum o]?J?e maran niedfearfe ma J?onne anum side on 
dasg J?aet heo wolde mete ficgan, and simle, gif hiere 
hefigre untrymnes ne bewerie, of J?^re tide uhtsanges o)> 
hluttorne daeg on ciricean on haligum gebedum stod. 
Sume menn eac swelce saegdon J?aet heo J?urh wltedomes 
gast J?a adle forecwasde ]?e heo on forj?ferde ; and swelce 
eac }>ara Godes }?eowa rim J?a J?e of hiere mynstre of 
middangearde wa^ron forj? to feranne, faet heo sw r eotollice 
eallum cySde. J)a gewat heo to Dryhtne on middum 
hiere higum aefter seofon gearum J?ass }?e heo abbudessan 
had onfeng. And mid J>y heo waes siextiene gear 
bebyrged, )?a licode ]?sere abbudessan hiere magan )?cet 
heo hiere ban up adyde and on niwe J?ruh gesette and 
on ciricean gedyde. pa het heo sume brodor faran and 
J?one stan secean, fset man meahte fa \>ruh of geheawan 
and gewyrcean. pa eodon hie on scip, forjmn Eligland 
is seghwanon mid wastrum and mid fennum ymbseald, ne 
hit micle stanas hafaj?. pa comon hie to sumre ceastre 
gehrorenre nauht feorr fanon, seo is on Englisc 
Grantaceaster gecieged, and hie sona gemetton be J?aere 
ceastre w T eallum J?ruh of hwitum stane faegere geworhte, 
and seo waes swelce eac gerisenlice gehlidod mid gelicum 
stane. pa ongeaton hie sona J?ast hiera asrende waes and 
hiera sl{?faet fram Dryhtne selfum gehradod and 
gesundgod, and hie J?aes Gode fane sasgdon and J?a 
J?ruh to J?sem mynstre gelseddon. Mid )?y fa se Hchama 
fsere halgan fsemnan and fsere Cristes bryde of 
faere byrgenne wses forf on leoht gelaeded, fa waes he 
gemeted swa ungebrosnod and swa ungewemmed, swa 



56 THE PHYSICIAN'S STORY 

heo fy ilcan dasge forffered and bebyrged wasre ; swa 
swa se foresprecena biscop Wilferf and manige 65re, 
fa fe hit cu3on, cySdon and saegdon, ac hwasSre 
cudran gewitnesse Cyneferf lasce, se ast hiere wass fa heo 
forfferde and eft fa hiere lichaman man of byrgenne 
uphof. Wass his gewuna fast he sasgde, fa heo 
untrumu wass fast heo hasfde micelne swyle on hiere 
sweoran : " fa het me man," cwasf he, "fast ic fone 
swyle gesticode, f astte seo sce33ende waste ut fleowe, seo 
J?asr in wass. Mid }>y ic j?ast J?a dyde, J?a wass heo 
gesegen Jmrh twegen dagas j?ast hiere leohtor and wel 
wasre, swa J?astte manige tealdon fast heo gehasled beon 
meahte fram fasre untrymnesse. pa fy friddan dasge 
heo wass eft hefigod mid j?asm asrrum sarum and sona 
wass gerisen and genumen of middangearde and eal fast 
sar and fone deaf mid ecre haslo and life onwende. 
Mid fy fa asfter swa manigum gearum hiere lichama 
wass of byrgenne up ahasfen, fa afenedon hie and 
aslogon geteld ofer, and eall seo gesamnung bro5ra and 
sweostra on twa healfe singende ymbstodon. And seo 
abbudesse in fast geteld eode and fea manna mid hie, fast 
hie fa ban woldon up adon and onfwean and 
gefeormian asfter manna gewunan. J>a semninga 
gehlerdon we fa abbudessan inne hludre stefne clipian : 
"Sie wuldor," cwasf heo, " Dryhtnes naman." J)a asfter 
medmiclum fasce fa clipode me man and ciegde in. 
Onwrigon fa duru f ass geteldes ; fa geseah ic lichaman 
fasre halgan Godes fasmnan up ahasfenne of byrgenne 
and on bedde gesetedne, and he wass slaspendum menn 
gelicra fonne deadum. pa onwrigon hie eac hiere 
andwlitan and Tewdon me fa wunde f ass snides f e ic geo 
asr dyde. J)a wass heo fasstlice gehasled, fastte wundor- 
licum gemete for openre wunde and giniendre mid fa 
heo bebyrged wass, fa seo f ynneste dolgswasf and seo 
lasste astlewde ; ge eac ealle fa scietan f e se lichama mid 
bewunden wass swa anwealge and swa niwe and swa 
clasne astiewdon swa swa hie f y selfan dasge hiere fasm 
clasnum limum ymbsealde wasren. Secgaf eac menn, fa 
heo f rycced wass and swenced mid swyle and sare hiere 



IMMA THE THANE 57 

sweoran, faet heo waere swiQe lustfulliende fisse 
untrymnesse cynne and heo gewunellce cwsede oft : " Ic 
wat cuQlice faet ic be gewyrhtum on minum sweoran here 
fa byr3enne fisse adle and fisse untrymnesse, on faem 
ic geman me geo beran, fa ic geong waes, fa idlan 
byrSenne gyldenra sigla. And ic geliefe faette me for 
fon seo uplice arfaestnes wolde me hefigode beon mid 
sare mines sweoran, faet ic swa waere onllesed f sere scylde 
J?3ere swTSe idlan leasnesse, mid ]>y me nu for golde and 
for gimmum of sweoran forfhlifaj? seo readnes and bryne 
J?aes swyles and weorces." 



The Story of Imma. 

On }?sem foresprecenan gefeohte be Treontan J?sere 
ea, J?a ^Elfwine J?a3s cyninges bro5or ofslsegen waes, 
waes sumu gemyndelicu wise geworden, seo nis to 
forswigianne, ac heo brycaj? manigra hselo gif heo asaegd 
bi|?. Waes J?aer ofslaegen on J?aem gefeohte betweoh 63re 
sum geong cyninges fegn Ecgfri9es, ]?aes nama waes 
Imma. Mid )?y he J?a }> y daege and j?aere aefterfylgendan 
nihte betweoh J?ara 65erra ofslaegenra lie gelic deadum 
laeg, J>a aet niehstan onfeng he gaste and wear]? 
geedwierped and up asaet and selfa his wunde wra]?, swa 
swa he meahte. And aefter J?on he hine gereste medmicel 
faec, J?a ahof hine up and ongann onweg gan, gif he 
hwaer senigne freond metan meahte J?e his glemenne dyde 
and his wunda lacnian wolde. J)a he fa J>aet dyde, fa 
waes he gemeted and genumen fram faem mannum f aes 
feondlican werodes ; and fa laeddon hine to hiera 
hlaforde, faet waes ^ESelredes geslf faes cyninges. pa 
fraegn hine se hwaet he wsere ; fa ondred he andettan faet 
he cyninges fegn wsere, ac saegde faet he folclic mann 
waere and fearfiende and gewlfod haefde, and faette he 
forf on on fa fierd come faet he scolde cyninges f egnum 
hiera andleofene and mete laadan mid hiera gemacum. 
pa onfeng se gesif hine and his glemenne dyde 
and his wunda het lacnian. pa he fa ongann trumian 
and halian, fa bebead he faet hine man gebunde, fy 



58 IMMA CANNOT BE BOUND 

laes he on niht onweg fluge and bestaele. pa ne meahte 
hine man gebindan ; forfon sona J?aes J>e hie onweg 
eodon, j?a }>e hine bundon, ]?onne toslupon J?a bendas and 
tollesde waeron. Haefde he agenne broSor maessepreost, 
j?aes nama waes Tunna; se waes abbud on j?aem mynstre 
and on )?aere ceastre, seo nu oj? ]?is is nemned fram his 
naman Tunnanceaster. Mid }>y he hine hierde on J?aem 
gefeohte ofslaegenne beon, }>a com he and sohte fser 
his He, hwseSer he hit findan meahte. f>a funde he 
oSerne J?urh call }>ing him ]?one gellcestan ; \>a tealde he 
}?3et he hit wa^re. Bser hine )?a to his mynstre and arlice 
bebyrigde, and for allesnesse his sawle gelomlice 
ma^ssesang dyde. pasre masrsunga waes geworden }?aet 
ic ser cwae]?, ^aat hine naenig mann meahte gebindan ac 
sona instaepe J?a bendas toslupon, and he onliesed waes. 
Betweoh )?a }?ing }?a eac se gesi]?, se )?e hine hsefde, 
ongann wundrian and hine frignan for hwon hine man 
gebindan ne meahte, and hine ascode hwaed'er he J?a 
aliesendlican rune cu5e and f>a stafas mid him awritene 
hsefde, be swelcum menn leas spell secgaj? and sprecaj?, 
]?a2t hine man forj?on gebindan ne meahte. J?a 
andswarode he J?ast he nauht swelcra craefta ne cu5e. 
"Ac ic haebbe," cwaej? he, "on minre maegSe mlnne 
bro5or maessepreost, and ic wat J?aet he me ofslaegenne 
talaj? and for me gelomlice maessan dej? ; and gif ic nu on 
65rum life waere, fonne wsere mm sawol J^aer furh his 
fingunge fram J?em ecum bendum and witum onliesed. 
Mid ]?y he }>a hwelce hwugu tid mid J?one gesT]? haefd 
wses, }?a ongeaton hie, J?a hine geornlicor sceawedon, of 
his andwlitan and on gebserum and eac swelce on his 
wordum J?ast he ne waes of fearfiendum folce, swa swa he 
saegde, ac J?aet he waes aeSeles striendes. pa geciegde se 
gesi]? hine diegellice to him ; fraegn hine J?a geornllce 
hwanon he waere, and him waes gehatende J?aet he him 
nauht Ia5es ne yfeles gedon wolde gif he him J?aet 
hluttorllce gecy5an wolde hwaet he waere. J)a dyde he 
swa ; andette him and saegde J?aet he waere cyninges )>egn. 
pa andswarode he him and cwaej? : " purh syndriga )?ine 
andswara ic ongeat and oncneow )?aet ]>u ne waere swa 



IMMA RETURNS HOME 59 

folclic mann swa fu saegdest, and ic fe nu secge faet 
f u eart wif me deaSe scyldig, forfon ealle mine brodor 
and mine magas on faem gefeohte wseron ofslaegene ; 
and hwaeQre ic f e ne wille ofslean, f y laes ic mm gehat 
and mine treowe forleose." f>a he fullice getrumod waes, 
fa bebohte he hme on Lundene to sumum Friesan. 
]?a wolde se hine bindan, ac he fram him, fa he f ider 
Iseded waes, ne meahte senige finga gebunden beon, 
f eah f e his feond hine on sette 65er benda cynn and eft 
oSer ; and oftost his bendas toslupon and onliesde waeron 
fram underntide, J?onne man maessan oftost singe]?, pa 
fa faet fa geseah se f e hine gebohte, f aet he mid bendum 
ne meahte geheaderod beon, forgeaf him fa liefnesse f aet 
he moste mid feo hine aliesan, gif he meahte. And he 
him a5as sealde faet he hine eft gesohte of fe his feoh 
him onsende. J)a com he to Cent to HloSere fsem 
cyninge, se wass sweostor sunu yE5elf ry5e faere cwent. 
be f sere bufan saegd waes, forf on he geo f aere ilcan cwene 
fegn waes. Baed hine fa faet he him faet weorf his 
aliesnesse gesealde ; and he him getTSode and his hlaforde 
for hine onsende, swa swa he gehet. And he fa aefter 
f issum waes hweorfende to his e31e, and to his bre5er 
becom and him eall aefter endebyrdnesse saegde, ge 
hwelce wi5erweardnesse ge eft hwelce frofre on faem 
wi5erweardnessum hine becomon. And he gecneow 
f urh his gesegene faette faem tldum swiSost fa bendas 
onliesde waeron faem f e for hine fa symbelnessa maessena 
maersode waeron. 



Adamnanus the Irishman. 

Waes on faem mynstre, faet man nemnef ALt Collides 
byrig, sum wer of Scotta feode, se waes Adamnanus 
haten. Lifde se mann his Hf on micelre forhaefdnesse 
and on halgum gebedum Code swi5e wilsumlice, 
swa faet he naefre mete onfeng ne swaesendu feah, 
buton fy Dryhtenlican daege and fy fiftan wicdaege, 
and oft anwealge nihte f urh waeccan on halgum gebedum 
astod and awunode. Seo fearlwisnes faes heardan llfes 



60 ADAMNANUS AND THE PRIEST 

him serest of niede becom for bote his synna, ac aefter 
forfgangendre tide he J>a nled on wunan gecierde. 
Gelamp him on his geogofhade J?aet he sume mandaed 
gefremede. pa seo scyld \>a to his heortan hwearf, J?a 
onscunode he hie hefiglice and him ondred faet he for 
faare stranglice wftnod beon scolde fram faem fearlwisan 
deman. Eode J?a to sumum rnaessepreoste, fram faem he 
wende fast him haelo weg aetiewed beon meahte ; andette 
him J?a his scylde and baed J?aet he him gefeaht sealde hd 
he meahte befleon fram J?sem toweardan ierre. pa he J?a 
his scylde gehlerde, J?a cwasj? he : " Miclu wund behofaj? 
micles Isecedomes, and forfon, swa swiSe swa J?u maege, 
aetfeolh }>u J?inum fasstenum and sealmsangum and ge- 
bedum, J?aette J?u sie forecumende Dryhtnes ansiene on 
andetnesse and J?u geearnie hine }?e mildne gemetan." 
And he }?a Adamnanus, fa he wilnode J?aet he hra3e 
aliesed waere fram J?sem inlicum bendum ]?ara synna J?e 
he mid hefigod waes, cwaej? to faem maessepreoste : " Swa 
hwaet swa J?u me onsetest and bebeodest to donne, faet 
ic halsie on }?aem Dryhtnes dasge, eall ic J?aet eaQlice abere, 
feah }>e J?u me hate ealle niht waeccendne on gebedum 
standan, and J?eah ]?e ic scolde ealle wucan faestan, ic J?33t 
leoflice do." Cwasj? he se masssepreost : " Micel faet is 
}?aet J?u ealle wucan bQton andleofene Hchaman awunie, ac 
twidaeglic faesten o]?J?e Jmdaeglic faesten is genog to 
healdanne. Do J?is," cwaej? he, " oj?)?aet ic eft aefter tide 
to J?e cume and J?e J?onne fullicor aetiewe hwaet J?u don 
scyle and hu lange J?u on hreowe awunian scyle." pa 
ferde se maessepreost fram him. pa gelamp for sumum 
intingan J?ast he semninga gewat on Hibernia Scotta 
legland, J?anon he aer com ; ne he eft ma to him hwearf 
aefter hiera gecwide. Waes he hwaeQre gemyndig his 
bebodes and eac his gehates; and he on hreowe tearum 
and on haligum waeccum and on micelre forhaefdnesse 
Dryhtne feowode, swa j?aet he naefre oftor gereorde ne 
swsesendu }?eah J?onne )?y Dryhtenlican daege and ]>y 
flftan wicdaege, swa swa ic fore cwaej? ; oSrum dagum 
he swa faestende awunode. Mid J?y he fa gehlerde fone 
maessepreost gewitan on Hibernia and J?aer forfferende 



ADAMNANUS PROPHESIES 61 

beon, he simle of f aere tide fast gemyndgode gemet f asre 
forhajfdnesse heold and teeste; and faette for intingan 
f aes godcundan eges anum sl5e for his scylde onbryrded 
ongann, swa he eft for intingan faere godcundan lufan 
lustfulliende f aem ecum medum faestlice forf Iseste. Mid 
f y he f aet fa langre tide forf heold and dyde, fa gelamp 
sumum daege f aet he waes fram f sem mynstre for sumum 
f inge fierr gangende, and wass an f ara bro5ra his gefera 
and him mid code. pa hie fa haefdon hiera siffaet 
geferedne, fa hwurfon hie eft to ham. And mid f y hie fa 
fsem mynstre nealsecton and hie gesawon )?a getimbru 
heahlice areaht and ahaefen, )?a geswearc se Codes mann 
semninga and ongann hatllce and biterlice wepan and ]>a 
unrotnesse his heortan mid his andwlitan tacnunge ypte 
and cySde. pa )?33t fa se his gefera geseah and ongeat, 
\>a frasgn he hine and ascode hwaet him waere and 
forhwon he swa gebaerde. pa cwaef he : *' Eall J?as 
getimbru )?e J?u her gesiehst and sceawast, ge J?a maran 
ge \>a msetran, neah is }>aet hie call fyr nimej? and on 
ascan gehwierfej?." pa se bro5or J?a3t J?a gehierde, sona 
J?ags J?e hie on J?aet mynster eodon, ]?a cy5de he hit and 
saegde J?sere meder J?sere gesamnunga J?ere abbudessan, 
seo wass ^bbe haten. pa waes heo be gewyrhte swi5e 
gedrefed be swelcum witedome and forht geworden ; 
gehet fa to hiere J?one Codes mann and geornlice hine 
fraegn and ascode hwanon he fa wisan cu3e and ongeate. 
Cwaef he : Ic wass ungeara on niht abysgod on 
waeccum and on sealmsange and on gebedum ; fa 
geseah ic semninga me aetstandan sumne mannan 
uncu3es andwlitan. pa wags ic for his andweardnesse 
swiSe afyrhted, fa frefrede he me and cwaef f aet ic me ne 
ondrede. And swa swa he cuSre stefne waes to me 
sprecende : " Wei f u dest," cwaef he, " fast f u on fisse 
tide nihtlicre stilnesse nallaes fe slaepe forgiefest, ac ma 
woldest waeccum and gebedum aetfeolan." Cwaef ic : 
" Ic wat fast me faes is micel fearf, faet ic halwendum 
wasccum aetfeole and for minum gedwolum and 
synnum geornlice Dryhten bensie." Cwaef he, se fe 
mid me spraec : " Sof fu sagast," cwaef he, ^aeghwae3er 



62 ADAMNANUS RELATES HIS VISION 

ge f e f ass is f earf ge manigum, fast hie hiera synna mid 
godum weorcum aliesen and fonne hie blinnen fram 
gewinne hwilwendlicra f inga, fast hie fonne for willunga 
fara ecra goda fy freolsllcor winnen. Ac fis hwas5re 
fea ane dof . Sof ic secge, fast ic nu eall f is mynster 
f urh endebyrdnesse geondferde and syndrigra hus and 
bedd geseah ; and nasnigne of eallum buton f e ic gemette 
ymb his sawle haslo abysgodne beon ; ac ealle ge 
wsepnedmenn ge wlfmenn oj?}?e hefige slaepe sindon oJ?J?e 
to synnum wacedon. And J?a hus, J?a )?e in to 
gebiddanne and to leornianne geworhte wseron, J>a sindon 
nu on hus gehwierfed oferseta and druncennesse and 
leasspellunga and oSerra unaliefedicra scylda. And eac 
swelce }>a f asm nan, ]?a J?e Gode gehalgode wasron, swa oft 
swa hie asmettan habbaj?, wefaj? and wyrca]? smalu hraegl, 
mid fsem hie o]?J?e hie selfe fraetwa]? on bryda onllcnesse 
oJ?J?e utwaspnedmanna freondscipes him tiliaj?. For)?on 
be gewyrhte ]?isse stowe and hiere eardiendum hefig wrasc 
of heofenum grimsiendum Hegum is gegearwod." 
CwaeJ? seo abbudesse to him : " Forhwon ne woldest fu 
sona hraSe J?a diegelnesse me cySan and secgan." J)a 
andswarode he and cwsej? : *' Ic ondred for flnre 
arwierSnesse J?aet fu scolde to swl5e gedrefed and 
afyrhted beon ; and hwaeSre fas frofre fu hafast, fast on 
flnum dagum fis wlte ofer fas burg ne cymef." {>a 
f eos gesihf fa wass gemasred, fa wass hwelchwugu faec 
fast fa blgengan fasre stowe ongunnon him ondrasdan 
and hie selfe clasnsian and mandasde forleton. 



Cuthbert. 

pa se halga Godes mann Cuf beorht, fa he fast legland 
secean wolde, fast is Fame nemned, wass fasm broSrum 
cldende and f us cwasf : " Gif me seo godcunde giefu on 
fasre stowe forgiefen beon wile, fast ic libban mote be 
minum handgewinne, ic fasr lustllce wunie. Gif hit 
hwaet elles bif , ic hrasdllce mid Godes willan eft to eow 
hweorfe." Wass seo stow ge wasteres wasdla ge 
eorf wasstma ge treowa, ac fasr wass werigra gasta werod 



CUTHBERT PLANTS THE WILDERNESS 63 

and eardungstow and aeghwelcre menniscre eardunga 
ungescrepe. Ac fa to willan faes Godes weres heo 
eardiendlic waes geworden, and sona for his cyme fa 
wergan gastas fanon onweg gewiton. And fa mid f y 
f e fa fiend onweg gewitene waeron, fa gesohte he him 
nearu wic and wunenesse and fa mid dice and mid 
eorf wealle utan ymbsealde and gefaestnode, and on f aem 
fa niedfearflican hus mid fara broQra handa and 
fultume, faet is, ciricean and gemaene eardunghus 
getimbrede. And he fa het fa bro3or on faes ilcan 
huses flore him sea)? adelfan. Waes seo eorSe to J>aes 
heard and to )?aes staniht }?aet fasr naanig wiht 
wiellspringes beon meahte on gesewen . f>a hie fa broSor 
faet dydon to geleafan and to benum J?aes Godes feowes, 
J>a 65rum daege waes se seaf waeteres full gemeted. f>aet 
ilce waeter of f isne andweardan dasg eallum faem f ider 
cumendum genyhtsumnesse fegnaf . J)a baed se Godes 
mann faet him man isengeloman mid hw r aste fider 
brohte faet land mid to tawianne. pa fast land fa 

fetawod waes, and he on gerisene tid mid hwsete hit seow, 
a ne com f ser naenig grownes up ne waestm, ne furSum 
brordes of sumera tid. J>a neosedon hie eft fa bro5or 
and sohton, swa hiera f eaw waes ; fa het he him beressed 
brengan, gif wen wsere f aet f aet weaxan wolde of f e f aere 
eorSan gecynd waere, offe willa waes fass uplican 

fiefendes f aet f aes waestmes ssed faer waere up iernende. 
a him fa f aet saed broht waes ofer ealle tid to sawanne 
and ofer ealne hyht waestm to beranne, he on fsem ilcan 
lande seow ; fa gearn f aer sona up genyhtsumlic ierf and 
waestm, and fa wilnedan gereordnesse fsem Godes were 
gegearwode his agnes handgewinnes. 

Waes on f aem foresprecenan mynstre sum bro3or, f aes 
nama waes Beadof egn, se waes lange tid cumena arf egn 
fara fe faet mynster sohton. J)a eode fes broSor 
sumum daege, faet he wolde his reowan and his hwltlas, 
faem fe he on cumena bure brucende waes, on sae 
wascan and feormian. pa he fa eft ham hwearf, fa 
wearf he semninga on middum faem sif faete mid hefigre 
adle gehrinen and gestanden, swa faet he hreas and feoll 



64 CURED AT CUTHBERT'S TOMB 

on eor5an and lang faec forf heald licgende waes, and fa 
aet nlehstan hwon aras. pa he arisende waes, fa gefelde 
he his llchaman healfne dael fram f aem heafde of fa fet 
mid fa adle geslaegene beon f e Crecas nemnaf paralysis 
and we cweSaf lyftadl ; and he mid f y maestan gewinne 
mid his crycce hine wreSiende ham becom. Weox seo 
adl styccemaelum and sona on faere ilcan niht hefigre 
waes geworden, swa j?cet }?a daeg com he uneaSe J?urh 
hine selfne arisan o]?J?e gan meahte. f>a waes he mid 
i> aere adle gewaeced and geswenced, fa gefohte he on his 
mode nytte gefeahte J?aet he wolde swelcum gemete swa 
he meahte to ciricean cuman and to byrgenne J?aes 
arwierSan faeder Cufbeorhtes, and f ser his cneow blegan 
and eafmodlice fa uplican arfaestnesse biddan, of f a3t he 
fram fsere adle genered waere, offe gif he mid fa 
godcundan foreseonesse leng mid fa adle claensod beon 
scolde, f aet he f aet sar meahte gef yldigllce mid smoltum 
mode aberan and araefnan. J)a dyde he swa he on his 
mode gehogode, and his fa untruman limu mid his 
crycce wreSiende code on ciricean ; and hine waes on 
gebed streccende aet llchaman f aes Godes weres and mid 
arfaestre ingehygde furh his fultum waes Dryhten 
biddende faet he him arfaest and milde waere. And fa 
betweoh his gebedu and bene faet he hwon onslep. J)a 
gefelde he, swa swa he selfa aefter saegde, swa swa miclu 
hand and brad his heafod gehrine on faem daele fe faet 
sar and seo adl on waes, and mid f sere ilcan gehrinenesse 
ealne fone dael his llchaman, fair he mid faere adle 
gehefigod waes. J>a f is f us geworden waes, sona f aes f e 
he onwoc, fa aras he hal and gesund. 

Bishop John. 

On f isse tid onfeng Johannes biscophad faere ciricean 
aet Heagostealdes Te. Be fsem biscope gewuniaf secgan 
manig wundor gastlicra maegena fa fe hine hiwiscllce 
cu3on and ealra swi5ost se arwier3a wer and se sof faesta 
Berhthun, se waes his diacon and eft waes abbud faes 
mynstres faet is gecieged In Dera Wuda. J)uhte us 



BISHOP JOHN CUBES THE DUMB 65 

gerisne J?set we J?a wundor sumu on ]?isse bee gemynd- 
goden. Sindon sumu dlegle wic mid wealle and mid 
bearwe ymbsealde, nauht feorr fram J?aere ciricean 
Heagostealdes ea, ]?aet is huhwugu on ooerre healfre mile 
feece ; flowef Tine seo ea betweonan. Habbaj? J?a wic 
gebedhus and ciricean on }?em se Godes wer oft mid 
feawum broorum his geferum stille gewunode to 
beganne his leornunge and haligu gebedu. pa he J?a 
sumre tide on foreweard Easterfaesten fider com to 
wunianne, ]>a het he his geferan ]?aet hie sohten sumne 
earmne )?earfan, se J>e waere micelre untrumnesse and 
waedelnesse hefigod, faet hie meahten on j?aem dagum 
mid him healdan and mid him aelmessan don. Forfon 
his gewuna waes J?set he simle swa dyde. pa waes on 
sumum tune nauht feorr sum geong jiearfa, se waas ge 
dumb ge hreof ; se waes fsem biscope cuj>, forfon he oft 
aer fore hine com and his aelmessan feng. Se naefre 
a^nig word gecwe5an meahte, ac swa micle hreofle and 
scurf on his heafde haefde )?aet him naefre naenig feax 
on J?aem uferran dsele ]?aes heafdes acenned beon meahte, 
ac on ymbhwyrfte stodon angrislicu hair. J>a bebead se 
biscop fisne to him laedan and on his cafortune het him 
medmicel hus gewyrcean, ]?aet he in wunian meahte and 
his daeghwamlice andleofne onfon. Mid )?y hit }?a an 
wuce J?aes faestenes gefylled waes, J?a waes J?y aefterran 
Dryhtenlican daege faet he het J?one J?earfan in gangan. 
pa he ]?a inne waes, J?a het he his tungan for)? don of 
his muoe and him lewan ; genam hine )?a be his cinne 
and mid tacne }?sere halgan rode hie gesegnode. pa het 
he teon eft in muj? and het hine sprecan, and )?us cwaej? : 
f< CweJ? hwelchwugu word, cwej? nu ge." pa sona 
instaepe waes se bend onllesed his tungan and he cwaej? 
J?aet he haten waes. Tolecte se biscop and hine het stafa 
naman cweoan. " CweJ? nu A." CwaeJ? he A. " CweJ? 
nu B." Cwae}? he J?aet. Mid J?y he syndrige naman 
J?ara stafa aefter faem biscope cwae)?, ]?a het he se biscop 
him syllabas and word fore cwe5an, and on eallum he 
him gerisenlice andswarode. pa bebead he }?aet him man 
lengran cwidas beforan cwaede, and he simle gedaeftllce 



66 THE HORSE-RACE 

aefter cwaej?, and ofer J?aet eallum J?y daege ne ablann and 
|?aere aefterfolgiendan nihte, J?a hwile J?e he wacian 
meahte, J?aet he a hwaethwugu spraece and 63rum mannum 
aetiewde J?a diegelnesse his willan and his gefohta. paet 
he naefre aer }?on gedon meahte. J>a waes se biscop 
gefeonde his haelo, and behead his laece J?aet he scolde 
eac swelce haelan and lacnian J?a hreofle his heafdes. 
And he swa dyde, and waes gefultumod mid J?aes biscopes 
bletsunga and gebedum, faet se geonga wass geworden 
hal on Hchaman and gearowyrde on gespraece and haefde 
crispe loccas faegere, se }>e aer waes unwlitig, fearfa and 
hreof and dumb. 

Nis J?aet wundor to forswigianne J?ast Herebeald se 
Cristes J?eow sasgde fram him. Waes he J?a on his 
geferscipe drohtiende and eft wass abbud on feem 
mynstre aet faam gemyndgedan Tine streame. CwaeJ? 
he : '* Waes ic on J?a aerestan tid mines geogo}? hades on 
his geferscipe drohtiende and him befaested waes to J>on 
J?aet ic scolde aeghwae3er ge sang ge bee leornian ; ac fa 
gena ic ne waes mm mod fullfremedlice beweriende J>sem 
geogoflicum unaliefednessum. Gelamp sumum daege, 
J?a we ferende wszron mid hine, faet we becomon on 
smeSne feld and rumne, and waes gescrepe aerneweg. pa 
ongunnon J?a geongan biddan J?one biscop, J?a J?e mid 
hine w^ron, and swiSost l^ewde, J?aet he him aliefde J?aet 
hie aernan mosten and gecunnian hwelc hiera swiftost 
hors haefde. J)a wifsoc se biscop aerest and cwae}> faet 
}?aet Idel and unnyt waere, J?aet hie baedon and wilnedon. 
Ac J>a aet niehstan mid anmodum willan manigra J?aet he 
waes oferswiSed. CwaeJ? he : 'Do]? swa, gif ge willen, 
and hwaedre, >aet Herebeald eallunga hine fram J?aem 
geflite ahaebbe.' f>a abaed ic geornllce and healsode J?aet 
me waere eac aliefednes seald to aernanne and to flltanne 
mid him, forfon ic getriewde mmum horse wel J?aem 
betstan, J?aet me biscop sealde. And J?eah J?e ic georne 
b^de, ne meahte nsengum J?inga aliefednesse abiddan. 
Mid )?y ic J?a gelomlice hider and ]?ider me hwierfde and 
se biscop me a beheold, }?a geaerndon hie sume frage and 
eft hwurfon. And ic waes mid gaegliscum mode 



THE RIDER IS THROWN 67 

oferswi9ed, fast ic me ne meahte bewerian, J?eah J?e me 
se biscop bewerede, ac ic me to faem plegan gemengde 
and ongann samod aernan mid him. Mid }?y ic J?set dyde, 
J?a gehierde ic J>one biscop me on baeclinge mid 
geomrunga cweSan : ' Eala, hwaet, J?u me micel yfel and 
laj? dest mid flnre aerninga.' And ic }?a word gehierde 
and nauht J?on ser J?aere aerninge blann. Ne waes J?a 
ieldenn ; mid J>y J>aet hors swiSost am and onaalde hine, 
waes )>aet hit sume sloh on faem wege swidran raise 
oferhleop and oferstielde. pa wear)? me slide and him of 
afeoll and ic sona waes aswolten, and mm gewitt and ealle 
mine styrenesse forleas. Waes on J?aere ilcan stowe sum 
Stan fsere eordan gelic mid ]?ynre tyrf bewrigen and 
nsenig 65er stan on eallum faem felda gemeted beon 
meahte. pa gelamp mid )?a godcundan foreseonesse 
J?ere synne to witnunga minre unhiersumnesse, faet ic 
hreosende waas, and mid \>y heafde and mid handa com 
on J?one stan drifan. And se J?uma gebrocen waes and 
eac swelce seo gefeodnes J?ass heafdes tobrocen waes and 
toliesed, and swa swa ic cwasj?, fast ic waes deadum gelic 
and nan lim onstyrian meahte. J>a slogon hie geteld ofer 
me, on J?sem ic laeg. Waes hit huhwugu seo seofoSe tid 
daeges, J?aet is an tid ofer midne daeg ; fram J?aere tide oj? 
fen ic stille laeg and swa dead wunode. J>a hit sefen 
waes, J>a acwicode ic hwon and mine geferan me ham 
baeron, and ic swigiende ealle ]?a niht awunode and blode 
spaw, forfon mine innoSas on fasm fielle tolocene wseron. 
And se biscop hefigllce sargode be faem fielle and be 
minre forwyrde, forj?on J?e he me mid syndrigre lufe 
lufode ; ne he wolde J?aere nihte aefter his feawe mid his 
geferum wunian, ac he ana on gebedum stod and }?a niht 
ealle wacode. Ic wene J?set he waere bensiende J?a 
uplican arfaestnesse minra gesynta and he sona on 
aermorgen eode in to me, and sang orationem ofer me 
and nemde me minum naman. J>a waes ic sona swa ic 
of hefigum slaepe aweaht waere. pa fraegn he me hwae5er 
ic wiste hwa f aet wsere, se J?e to me sprecende waes. pa 
ontynde ic mine eagan, locode on hine, and cwaej? : ' Ic 
wat geare J?aet )?u eart mm se leofesta biscop.' Cwae]? 



68 HIS HURTS ARE HEALED 

he : ' pyncef f e, maege f u libban ?' Cwaef ic : ' Ic maeg 
f urh eowru gebedu, gif Dryhten wile/ pa sette he his 
hand on mm heafod and me segnode and bletsode and 
hwearf eft to his gebede, and aefter medmiclum faece 
neosode he mm eft and cunnode. pa gemette he me 
sittendne, and ic sprecan meahte. pa ongann he me 
ascian and frignan hwae3er ic wiste hwaeQer ic on riht 
buton incan gefulwod waere. Andswarode ic him and 
cwaef f aet ic buton tweon wiste mid fulluhtbaeoe on synna 
forlaetennesse afwaegen beon, and faes maessepreostes 
naman him nemde, fram faem ic wiste J?ast ic gefulwod 
wass. CwasJ? he, se biscop : ' Gif J?u fram fissum 
ma^ssepreoste gefulwod wasre, J?onne ne eart J?u full- 
fremedlice no on riht gefulwod. Forfon ic hine cu3e J?a 
he to maessepreoste gehalgod waes and he nsefre fram 
ungleawnesse and for his unscearpnesse fa J?enunge to 
cristnianne oj?]7e to fulwianne on riht geleornian meahte. 
And ic him forj?on }?a fenunge forbead, forfon he rihtlice 
gefyllan ne meahte.' f>a he J?is cwae}>, sona on fa ilcan 
tid fa cristnode he me. J)a waes geworden, faes f e he 
on mmre andwlitan bleow, fa sona instsepe gefelde ic me 
batiendne and wierpendne. f>a het he Isece to him and 
him bebead fast he fa toliesdan gefeodnesse mmre 
heafodwunde gesette and awri5e. And sona faes fe ic 
his bletsunge haefde, fa getrumode ic me and gestrangod 
waes, swa f aet ic on morgen hleop on mm hors and ferde 
mid hine on 65re stowe to oorum hame. 



A Memorable Miracle. 

pissum tidum gemyndelic wundor and ealdum 
wundrum gelic on Bretene waes geworden. Forf on f e to 
aweahtnesse libbendra manna of sawle deaSe sum mann 
waes sum faec dead and eft to life lichaman aras and 
manig f ing gemynde wieroe saegde, fa he geseah. 

Waes sum hiwscipes faeder and higna ealdor on 
feodlande Nor5anhymbra, faet is gecieged On 
Cununingum ; lifde he sefaestlice his lif mid his hirede. 
pa wearf he Hchamlicre untrumnesse gehrinen and 



A MIRACULOUS VISION 69 

gestanden ; and seo daeghwamlice weox, oJ?J>aet he to }?aem 
ytemestan daege gelseded waes, and on foreweardre niht 
forj?ferde. Ac on dagunga he eft acwicode and semninga 
up heah asset; and ealle J?a ]?e aet his lichaman wepende 
saeton mid unmaetum ege geslaegene waeron and ut flugon 
buton his wif an, J?e hine swiQost lufode ; seo an inne 
awunode, )?eah \>e heo swiQe forht waere and bifiende. 
f>a frefrede he hie and cwaej? : " Ne ondraed J?e, forfon )?e 
ic soflice fram dea3e aras and eom forlaeten mid mannum 
libban, nallaes hwaeSre J?y life J?e ic aer lifde, ac swiSe 
ungelice of fisse tide me is to libbanne." And ]?a sona 
aras and eode to fsere ciricean J?ass tunes and o}> hlut- 
orne daeg on gebede stod. And sona agfter J?on ealle his 
aehte on j?reo todaelde; aenne dael he his wife sealde, 
pSerne his bearnum ; J?one ]?riddan, }>e him gelamp, he 
instaepe gedaelde, and aefter medmiclum faece eall 
woruld|?ing forlet and to Mailros faem mynstre com. 
And he J?er Codes J?eowhad and scare onfeng and on 
diegle ancerstowe eode J?e se abbud him foreseah, and 
J?a!r oj> J?one daeg his dea5es on swa miclum gedrecced- 
nessum and forhaefdnessum modes and lichaman 
aheardode and awunode, faette menn meahton ongietan 
J?aet he manig fing ge egeslicu ge wilsumlicu geseah J?e 
65re mi5on ; feah J?e seo tunge swigode, J?aet his lif wass 
sprecende. Saegde he fys gemete J?aette he geseah and 
cwaej?, *' Leohtre gesihf e and ansiene and beorhtum 
gegierelan waes se \>e me laldde. Eodon wit swigiende, 
j?aes J?e me J?uhte and gesegen waes, ongean nor)?eastrodor, 
swa sunnan upgang bij? aet middum sumera. Mid J?y wit 
J?a hwile eodon, becomon wit to sumre dene, seo waes 
micelre braedo, deopnesse and ungeendodre lenge ; waes 
unc on J?a winstran healfe geseted. O3er dael waes 
weallendum liegum full, swiSe egesfullice, 65er waes 
nauhte J?on laes unaraefnedlic ciele haegles and snawes. 
Waes gehwaeSer manna sawla full, fa wrixendlice on twa 
healfe gesegene waeron, swa swa mid unmaetnesse micles 
stormes, worpene beon. ponne hie )?aet maegen }?aere 
unmaetan haeto araefnan ne meahton, f onne stieldan hie 
eft earmllce on middel J?aes unmaetan cieles; and mid J?y 



70 PASSING THROUGH THE FLAMES 

hie fair naenige reste gemetan meahton, fonne stieldon 
hie eft on middan j?aes biernendan fyres and J>aes 
unadwsescedan lieges. Mid \>y hie \>a feorr and wide, 
swa geseon meahton, butan firstmearce asnigre reste mid 
J>a unriman menigeo sweartra gasta j?raeste wseron, J?a 
ongann ic J?encean and wende J?aet hit hell wsere. J>a 
andswarode he minum gefohte se mm latteow, se pe me 
foreeode, and J?us cwaej? : " Nis J?is seo hell, swa j>u talast 
and wenest." Mid J?y ic j?a waes mid J?isse angrislican 
waMersiene swiSe gefyrhted and gebreged, J?a lajdde he 
me styccema^lum for)? on fierre land, pa geseah ic 
semninga beforan unc onginnan J?eostrian J?a stowe and 
miclum fiestrum eall gefylled. Mid ]?y wit J?a on J?a 
fiestro ineodon, and hie styccemselum swa miclu and 
swa ficcu wasron fast ic nauht geseon meahte, nemne 
fset seo ansien scan and J?a his hraegl leoht wseron, se 
j?e me lasdde, and mid \>y wit }?a forfgangende wseron 
under faBm scuwan J?sere fiestran nihte, J?a astiewdon 
semninga beforan unc manige heapas sweartra Hega, J?a 
wseron up astlgende swa swa of miclum seaSe, and eft 
wa3ron feallende and gewltende on fone ilcan sea}?. Mid 
J?y ic J?a fider gelseded wass, j?a ne wiste ic semninga 
hw3er mm latteow becom, and he me forlet on middum 
J?sem fiestrum and fsere angrislican gesihfe. And mid 
J?y J?a ilcan heapas )?ara fyra butan blinne hwilum up 
astigon on heanesse, hwilum niSer gewiton on J?a 
neowolnesse J?ass seaQes, geseah ic and sceawode : ealle 
}>a heanessa f ara upastigendra Hega fulle waeron manna 
gasta, J?a on onlicnesse upastigendra yslena mid rece, 
hwilum on heanesse beo}? up worpene, hwilum eft wgeron 
eft aslidene on neowolnesse and on grund. Swelce eac 
unarasfnedlicu fulnes waes mid fass fyres frosme 
aweallende, and ealle )?a stowe }?ara fiestra gefylde. 

J)a )?ing and eac 6(5ru, J?e se Dryhtnes wer geseah, 
nallaes eallum mannum asghwser swangrum and hiera 
Hfes ungiemendum secgan wolde, ac J?aim anum, J?a }>e 
o)?}?e for ege tintrega afyrhte wseron o)?J?e mid hyhte }?ara 
ecra gefeana and eadignesse lustfulledon, faem he wolde 
mid arfaestnesse lufe )?a )?ing cy5an and secgan. 



VOCABULARY 



71 



VOCABULARY. 

N.B. For abbreviations see p. 93. 



a adv. ever. 

abbud sm. abbot. 

abbudesse wf. abbess. 

aberan si>4 endure. 

abidan svl remain. 

abiddan sv5 beg, implore. 

abielgan sv3 anger. 

ablinnan sv3 cease. 

abrecan av4 take by storm. 

abregdan sv3 snatch away, rescue. 

abysgian wv. trouble, engross. 

ac but. 

acennan wv. generate, produce; 

acenned, born, 
aciegan wv. call, call away. 
acierran wv. turn away. 
acsian wv. enquire, ask. 
acwellan wv. slay, massacre, 
acwician wv. revive. 
ad sm. pile of wood for burning, 
adelfan sv3 dig. 
adl sf. sickness. 
adlig sick, infirm, 
adon ath. v. up a. take up, 

disinter. 

adrencean wv. drown, 
adrifan svl drive away, 
adrugian wv. grow dry. 
adun down, downwards, 
adwaescan wv. extinguish. 
a} sf. law. 
aefeest pious. 

aefaestnes sf. piety, religion. 
selenn sm. evening, 
aefengereord sn. supper, 
aefenglomung sf. evening glow, 

afterglow, twilight, 
aefentid sf. eventide, evening, 
selest sm. envy. 
setter folgian wv. follow, 
aelterfyligan wv. follow, 
selterlylgend sm. successor, 
sefterieldo sf. succeeding age. 
aefterra compar. following, next, 
aelweard absent, 
aeghwaer everywhere. 
aeghwae3er each (of two). 



aeghwaeSer ge . . .ge both . . . and. 

aghwanon from all sides. 

seghwider in all directions. 

ht sf. possession, property. 

sel sm. eel. 

alan wv. kindle, light. 

aelc each. 

aelmesse wf. alms. 

aslmihtig almighty. 

alnett sn. eel-net. 

aemetta wm. leisure. 

aenig any. 

aenne, see an. 

r prep., adv. before; }>on aer, 
the sooner. 

aercebiscop sm. archbishop. 

aergedon previously done (fought). 

asrende sn. message, errand. 

geJerendian wv. intercede. 

arendwreca wm. messenger, 
envoy. 

a}rest superl. of ser, first, soonest. 

serist sf. resurrection. 

sermorgen sm. early morning. 

aernan wv. gallop, race. 

aerneweg sm. race-course. 

csrning sf. racing. 

arra compar. of ser, earlier, 
former. 

aat at; near; from. 

aetfeolan s^3 adhere, continue in. 

aetgaedere together. 

aatiewan wv. show, reveal ; 
appear. 

aetiewnes sf. showing, manifesta- 
tion. 

aetstandan svG stand near. 

aettren venomous. 

ffittreocuin Utrecht. 

aetwltan svl blame, criticise. 

sedele noble. 

ae3ellic noble. 

alaegan wv. paint, adorn. 

aleallan red. v. fall. 

afedan wv. nurture, bring up. 

aieohtan sv3 attack, oppose. 

aflieman wv put to flight. 



72 



VOCABULARY 



afyrhtan wo. terrify, 
agan pst. prs. v. possess, own. 
agen adj. own. 
agendlice properly, 
agieldan sv3 pay, render. 

feagnian wv. gain possession of. 
golden, see agieldan. 
ahabban wv. abstain, 
aheardian wv. became hardened, 

inured. 

ahebban svQ raise. 
ahnescian wv. make tender, 

soften. 

anon red. v. hang up. 
aidlian wv. [idel] make useless, 

profane. 

alaedan wv. lead away, remove, 
alesan sv5 pick out, select. 
a lie fan wv. grant, permit, 
allesend Redeemer. 
aliesnes sp. release; redemption, 

salvation. 

aliesendlic bond-loosing. 
Smaeran wv. proclaim; ut 

amaerde, banished, 
ampella wm. bottle. 
an one ; alone, 
ancor sm. anchor, 
ancerlif sn. hermit's life, 
ancerstow sf. hermitage. 
Andelegum Andely. 
andetnes sf. confession, 
andettan wv. confess. 
andettere sm. confessor. 
andgiet sn. meaning, sense. 
andleofen sf. maintenance, susten- 
ance. 

andswaru sf. answer. 
andswarian wv. answer, 
andweard, facing; present. 
andweardnes sf. presence ; present 

time. 

andwlita wm. face, 
anforlaetan red. v. relinquish, 
angrislic hideous. 
Angelcynn sn. English race. 
Angelpeod sf. English people, 
angellic angelic. 
angelic angelic. 
anllcnes sf. likeness; picture, 
anliepig individual, private, 
anmod, unanimous. 



annes sf. oneness, unity, 
anrsednes sf. resolution, 
anslen sf. face, aspect; presence, 
anweald sm. power, authority. 
anwealg whole, entire. 
apostolic apostolic. 
ar sn. copper. 
ar sf. honour. 
ariedan wv. arrange, 
arasdnes sf. condition, 
araefnan wv. carry out, accom- 
plish; suffer patiently, endure, 
arseran wv. rear, erect, 
areccean wv. erect. 
arfaest pious ; merciful, kind, 
arisan svl arise. 
arleas ruthless, cruel, 
arlic honourable. 

team, see iernan. 
r]?egn sm. servant, attendant, 

arweordian wv. honour. 

arwierSe honourable, noble. 

arwierdlice honourably. 

asaagdnes sf. sacrifice. 

asce wf. ash, ashes. 

ascian, see acsian. 

asculan sv2 drive away, banish. 

asecgan wv. utter, declare. 

asettan wv. place, set up. 

asittan sv5 sit, sit up. 

aslean svQ geteld a. erect (a 
tent). 

aslldan svl slip, fall. 

aslifan svl cut away, destroy. 

aspannan svQ attract. 

aspeon orig. aspdn see aspannan. 

astandan sv6 stand, stand fast. 

astemnian wv. found, establish. 

astigan svl ascend ; embark ; 
descend. 

aswebban wv. lull. 
^asweltan sv3 die. 

ateon sv2 draw away; entice. 

attor sn. poison. 

a}? sm. oath. 

a >enian wv. stretch, spread. 

a}?reotan sv2 tire, weary. 

aj?wean sv& wash. 

apwegene, see aj?wean. 

auht anything. 

aweahtnes sp. awakening, rous- 
ing. 



VOCABULARY 



73 



iweallan red. v. seethe, 
aweaxan red. v. grow, 
aweccean wv. awaken, 
aweorpan sv3 throw away, reject, 
awierged cursed, 
awindan sv3 plait, 
awiht, see auht. 
awredian wv. support, sustain., 
awritan svl carve, draw; write, 
awridan svl bandage, 
awunian wv. remain. 

baecling, on baeclinge adv. back. 

baed^ see biddan. 

gebaeran wv. behave. 

bc&rnan wv. trs. burn. 

gebaeru pi. n. behaviour. 

baej? S7i. bath. 

gebsete sn. bridle. 

ban sn. bone. 

barn, see biernan. 

batian wv. improve. 

badian wv. bathe. 

badu, see baej?. 

be concerning. 

beag. see bugan. 

beald bold, daring. 

beam sm. tree ; beam. 

bearhtm sm. glance. 

beam sn. child. 

bearo sm. grove, wood. 

Bebbanburg Bamborough. 

bebeodan sv2 order, enjoin; 

commend. 

bebindan sv3 envelop. 
bebod sn. command, 
bebycgean wv. sell, 
bebyrigan wv. bury, 
bebyrignes s/. burial. 
bee, see boc. 
beceorfan sv3 cut off. 
becuman sv4 come, arrive, 
gebed sn. prayer, 
bedd sn. bed. 
beden, see biddan. 
gebedhus sn. oratory, chapel, 
gebedian wv. pray, worship, 
bedrifan svl drive, 
gebedstow s/. place of prayer, 
befsestan wv. make over, entrust, 
befleon si?2 flee. 
beioran prep. adv. before. 



began ath. v. observe ; take care 
of. 

begang sm. observance, worship. 

begangan red. v. worship ; carry 
on, pursue. 

begeondan beyond. 

begietan sv5 obtain. 

begyrdan wv. gird. 

behealdan red. v. behold ; take 
heed 

behoflan wv. need, require. 

behygdig vigilant, careful. 

belimpan si?3 pertain. 

ben_s/. prayer; petition. 

benaeman wv. deprive. 

bend sm. bond. 

beniman sv4 deprive. 

bensian wv. supplicate. 

beod sm. table. 

beon ath. v. be. 

gebeor sm. fellow-beer-drinker, 
boon companion. 

gebeorg sn. defence. 

beorht bright. 

beotung s/. threat. 

beran sv4 bear ; bring. 

beresJed sn. barley seed. 

bescieran sv4 shear, tonsure. 

besittan sv5 inhabit. 

bestelan si;4 steal away, escape. 

beswapan red. v. envelop. 

beswican svl deceive; elude. 

beswician wv. deceive; elude. 

ket_adv. better. 

bet&cean wv. hand over. 

betan wv. amend ; repair. 

betera better. 

betst best. 

between between, among. 

bepeccean wv. roof, thatch. 

betweonan, betweonum between. 

betynan wv. enclose. 

beweddian wv. betrothe. 

bewerian wv. guard; prevent, 
forbid. 

bewindan sv3 wind round, en- 
velop. 

bewreon svl cover. 

bidan svl wait, remain. 

biddan sv5 ask, pray. 

gebiddan sv5 used reflex pray ; 
pray to, worship. 



74 



VOCABULARY 



biegan wv. bend. 

bieldo sf. boldness. 

bierhtan wv. be brilliant. 

biernan st>3 intrs. burn. 

bifian wv. tremble. 

bifylce sn. neighbouring region. 

bigenga wm. inhabitant; bene- 
factor. 

bilewitnes sf. gentleness. 

bindan sv3 bind. 

binnan within. 

biscop sm. bishop. 

biscophad sm. episcopal office, 
episcopacy. 

biscoplic episcopal. 

biscopscir sf. diocese. 

biscopsetl sn. bishop's see; 
bishopric. 

bisen sf. example. 

biterllce bitterly. 

blaca, see blsec. 

blacern sn. lantern. 

bhec black, dark. 

blsecean wv. bleach. 

blann, see blinnan. 

blawan red. v. blow (wind, 
breath). 

bletsian wv. bless. 

bletsung sf. blessing. 

blindnes sf. blindness. 

blinn sm. cessation. 

blinnan sv3 cease. 

bliss sf. happiness. 

bliQe happy; well-disposed. 

blod sn. blood. 

blodgyte sm. bloodshed [geotan]. 

blostma wm. blossom, flower. 

blostmian wv. blossom, flower. 

blowan red. v. blow, blossom. 

boc sf. book. 

bocland sn. freehold land. 

bodig sn. body. 

bodian wv. preach. 

bosm sm. bosom. 

bot sf. remedy ; amendment. 

brad broad. 

braedo sf. breadth. 

brecan sv4 break. 

bred sn. board. 

bregan wv. terrify. 

bregdan av3 move, wag. 

brengan wv. bring. 



Breten Britain. 

Brettas Britons. 

Brige Brie. 

brocen, see brecan. 

brord sm. blade of grass. 

brodor sm. brother. 

gebr69ru pi. brothers. 

brucan sv2 use ; enjoy. 

brugden, see bregdan. 

bryce sm. breaking (brecan). 

bryce sm. profit, use (brucan). 

brycg sf. bridge. 

brycian wv. benefit. 

bryd sf. bride. 

brydguma wm. bridegroom. 

bryne sm. burning, inflammation. 

bufan above. 

bugan sv2 bend, give way. 

gebunden, see bindan. 

burg sf. town, city. 

burne wf. stream, river. 

buton, butan without, except; 

adv. unless. 
bycgean wv. buy. 
byrgenn sf. tomb, 
byrig, see burg, 
byrdenn sf. burden. 

cald cold. 

Gale Chelles. 

calortun sm. court-yard; hall, 

vestibule. 

camphad sm. warfare, 
campian wv. fight. 
cann pst. pres. v. can. 
Cantwara people of Kent. 
casere sm. emperor, ruler, 
ceapstow sf. market. 
ceaster sf. town, city. 
ceasterwara townsmen, citizens, 
cempa wm. warrior. 
Cent, Centrice Kent. 
ceosan sv2 choose; appoint, 
gecid sn. chiding, quarreling, 
cldan wv. chide, 
ciegan wv. call; summon, 
ciele sm. cold, 
ciepe for sale. 
ciepemann sm. merchant, 
gecierran wv. turn ; convert, 
cieste sf. chest, coffin, 
cildlic infant, childish. 



VOCABULARY 



7i 



cine wf. crack, chink. 

cinn sf. chin. 

ciriclic of a church; ecclesiasti 
cal. 

claene clean, pure. 

clajne adv. utterly. 

claennes sf. purity. 

clsensian wv. cleanse, purify. 

clap sm. cloth. 

cleofa wm. chamber, cell. 

clil sn. cliff; hill-side. 

cliolum, see clif. 

clipian wv. call; cry out. 

gecnawan red. v. know, recognise. 

cneo sn. knee. 

cniht sm. boy, young man. 

cnihtcild sn. male child. 

cnihthad sm. boyhood, youth. 

Coludes burg Coldingham in 
Berwickshire. 

gecoren pp. of ceosan, distin- 
guished. 

crseft sm. skill, art. 

Crecisc Greek. 

crisp curly (hair). 

cristen Christian. 

gecristnian wv. christen. 

crycc sf. staff. 

cuma ivm. visitor. 

cuman sv4 come. 

cunnian wv. explore, feel ; test, 
prove. 

Oununingas Cunningham in 8. 
Scotland. 

curen, see ceosan. 

cuj? known, certain. 

cude ps t. of cann. 

cuj?llc certain. 

cuj>llce intimately, familiarly. 

cwaedon, see cwedan. 

cwalu sf. killing, destruction. 

cwellere sm. slayer, murderer. 

cwen sf. queen. 

cwellan wv. kill. 

cwedan sv5 say. 

cwic living. 

cwide sm. saying, utterance. 

cwielman wv. torment, torture; 
slaughter. 

cwist, see cwedan. 

cyme sm. coming. 

cyme]?, see cuman. 



gecynd sfn. nature, natural 

function, 
cyning sm. king, 
cyningcynn sn. royal line, 
cynelic royal. 

cynewise wf. kingship, rule, 
cynn sn. tribe, kind, species, 

race. 

cydan wv. make known, declare, 
cyjmes sf. testimony. 
cyj>}> sf. knowledge. 

dad sf. deed, act. 

gedselthce suitably, properly. 

daeg sm. day. 

daeghwamllce daily. 

dJel_sm. part; region; direction. 

gedaelan wv. divide. 

dalnimend sm. partaker. 

gedalenian wv. befit, suit. 

daga, see daeg. 

dagian wv. dawn. 

dagung sf. dawn. 

gedal sn. separation, division. 

daru sf. injury. 

dead dead. 

dearr pst. pres. v. dare. 

deap sm. death. 

gedefe suitable. 

dema wm. judge. 

deman wv. judge. 

dene sf. valley. 

deofplcraelt sm. devilish practice, 
witchcraft. 

deololgield sm. idol. 

deop deep. 

deopnes sf. depth. 

Deorwenta Derwent. 

Dera Wudu Beverley in E. York- 
shire, near Hull. 

dej?, see don. 

diacon sm. deacon. 

die sm. embankment, rampart. 

gedician wv. dig, construct. 

diegellice secretly. 

diegelnes sf. secrecy, seclusion ; 
secret. 

diegle secret, hidden. 

discipulhad sm. pupilage, train- 
ing. 

dohtor sf. daughter. 

dolgswaej? sf. scar, cicatrix. 



VOCABULAEY 



domne lord, master (dominus). 
don ath. v. put, place ; make, 

cause. 
Dorcotceaster Dorchester in 

Oxfordshire, 
dorste, pst. of dearr. 
gedreccednes sf. affliction, 
drefan wv. perturb. 
drllan svl rush, dash, 
drincan sv3 drink, 
drohtian wv. live, dwell, 
druncen drunk, 
druncennes sf. drunkenness, 
drycraef t sm. sorcery. 
dryge dry. 
Dryhten sm. Lord, 
dryhtenlic of the Lord, divine, 
dumb dumb. 
dun sf. hill. 
duru sf. door. 

gedwola wm. error; superstition. 
dwoliend erring, perverse. 
dyde, see don. 
dyselic foolish. 
dysignes sf. folly. 

ea sf. river. 

eac also; eac swelce, also. 

eadig blessed. 

eadignes sf. blessedness. 

eage wn. eye. 

eagj?yrel sn. window. 

eaht sf. estimate, reckoning. 

eahta eight 

eald old. 

ealdoi sm. chief ; prince, princess. 

ealdorbiscop sm. chief priest. 

ealdorburg sf. chief city. 

ealdordom sm. chief authority. 

ealdorlicnes sf. authority. 

ealdormann sm. chief man, noble- 
man. 

eall all ; ealra swiSost. especially ; 
mid ealle, utterly, entirely. 

eallunga entirely, absolutely. 

eardian wv. dwell, inhabit. 

eardiendlic habitable. 

eardung sf. habitation, dwelling ; 
precincts. 

eardunghus sn. dwelling house. 

eardungstow */. place of abode. 

iare wn. ear. 



earg cowardly. 
earm wretched, 
earm sm. arm. 
earmlice wretchedly, in a pitiable 

manner. 

geearnian wv. deserve, earn, 
geearnung /. merit, reward; 

deserts. 
eastan east. 

Eastengle East Anglians. 
EasterfaBSten sn. Easter fast, 
eastleode pi. eastern people. 
Eastran pi. Easter, 
eastrihte due east, 
eastsae sm. eastern sea. 
Eastseaxe East Saxons, 
eastweard eastern. 
eade easily. 
eaj?mod humble. 

eaf>lice easily, without difficulty. 
eaj?modlice humbly. 
ece eternal. 
edlean sn. reward, 
geedwierpan wv. restore, recover, 
efenblissiend equally rejoicing. 
efenceasterwaru fellow-citizens, 
efencuman sv4 come in a body, 
elenierfeweard sm. joint heir, 
efenrice of equal authority, 
efne adv. even; just. 
elstan wv. hasten. 
eft again. 

ege sm. awe, dread, 
egesfullic awful, terrible, 
egeslic awful. 

ehtan wv. pursue; persecute, 
ehtere sm. pursuer, 
ele sm. oil. 
EHg Ely. 

ellenwodnes sf. zeal, 
elles otherwise, else, 
ellicor otherwise. 
elreord foreign; barbarous, 
elpeodignes sf. foreign life, exile, 
ende sm. end. 
endebyrdnes sf. order, 
geendian wv. end, finish, 
engel sm. angel, 
engellic angelic. 
englisc English. 
eode, see gan. 
Eoforwicceaster York. 



VOCABULAEY 



77 



eoredmann sm. rider, horseman. 

eor5e wf. earth, land. 

eorjjwaestm sm. fruits of the 
earth. 

eor]?weall sm. earth wall, em- 
bankment. 

eowde sn. flock. 

eower your. 

etan sv5 eat. 

edel sm. native land, home. 



lac sn. space; interval of time. 

laeder sm. father. 

faedera father's brother, uncle. 

faeger fair, beautiful. 

faBgere beautifully. 

lamne woman, lady. 

iastan wv. fast. 

lasten sn. fastness, fortified 

place ; fast, fasting. 
lastllce firmly; completely, 
lastnian wv. fasten; make 

strong. 

lat sn. vessel. 
lam sn. foam, 
langene, see Ion. 
laran sv& go, travel. 
iatu, see fast, 
lea few. 
gelea wm. joy. 
leallan red. v. fall, 
ieanes sf. fewness, scarcity. 
leax sn. hair (of head), 
gefeaxe adj. with hair, 
ledan wv. nurture, bring up. 
fela indecl. many, 
lelan wv. feel. 
leld sm. field, 
leng sm. hostility. 
lenn sn. fen, swamp. 
leoh sn. money ; property, 
geleoht sn. fighting. 
feohtan st>3 fight. 
leoll, see leallan. 
eeleon sv5 rejoice, 
leond sm. enemy. 
leondlic of enemy, hostile. 
leondseoc possessed by a devil, 
leorh sn. life; body. 
leormian wv. feed, entertain; 
clean. 



leorr far. 

leorran from afar. 

leoung sf. hatred. 

feower four. 

leowertig forty ; f . sum, one of 

forty. 

feowertiglic lasting fourteen days, 
feowerda fourth, 
gelera wm. companion, 
leran wv. go, journey, 
gelerscipe sm. retinue, 
fetian wv. fetch. 
Ie5a wm. troop, force, 
fiell sm. fall, 
fiellan wv. make to fall, destroy ; 

on wsel f., massacre, 
fiend, see feond. 
fierd sf. army. 
iierr adv. comp. of f eorr. 
fierra comp. adj. farther, 
fierrest sup. adj. farthest. 
fifta fifth. 
filtig fifty. 

lindan sv3 find ; hit upon, devise, 
firenfull sinful, 
firenlust sm. sinfulness. 
first sm. space of time ; respite, 
firstmearc sf. interval, 
lisc sm. fish, 
fiscnaj? sm. fishing, 
liscwielle abounding in fish, 
lleon sv2 flee, 
fliehj?, see lleon. 
^ellit sn. dispute, quarrel; con- 

test. 

llitan svl contest, compete, 
llor sm. floor, 
flowan red. v. flow. 
llugon, see lleon. 
folc sn. people, 
lolclic of the people, 
folga}? sm. retinue, service. 
Ion red. v. seize, catch, 
lor sf. journey. 

lorbaernan wv. destroy by fire, 
lorbeodan sv2 forbid, 
lorbiernan sv3 be destroyed by 

fire. 

lordilgian wv. obliterate. 
lord sm. ford, 
lor don ath. v. destroy. 



78 



VOCABULAEY 



fore prep. adv. before, in front, 
at the head ; foil, case) for. 

lorecuman sv come before. 

forecwedan sv5 foretell; mention 
above. 

foregan ath. v. precede. 

loremanian wv. forewarn. 

foresceawung sf. forethought. 

foreseen sv5 provide. 

foreseones sf. foresight, provi- 
dence. 

foresettan wv. plan. 

foresittan sv5 preside. 

loresprecen above-mentioned. 

foreweard advanced, late; on f., 
in advance. 

forgiefan sv5 give, grant ; forgive. 

forgietan sv5 forget. 

forhaefdnes sf. abstinence. 

forhergian wv. devastate. 

forhogian wv. despise. 

forht afraid. 

forhtian wv. fear. 

iorhycgean wv. despise. 

forierman wv. reduce to misery. 

lorlsetan red. v. abandon, forsake ; 
allow. 

forlsetennes sf. remission. 

forleosan sv2 destroy ; lose, 
forfeit. 

lorniman sv4 destroy. 

forseon sv5 neglect, despise. 

forswigian wv. be silent about, 
ignore. 

lortreddan wv. trample on. 

forj)_forth; henceforth. 

for ?m because ; therefore. 

for ?beran sv4 divulge, reveal.. 

forjrferan wv. depart; die. 

for >for sf. passing away, death. 

forpgangan red. v. go forward, 
go on, proceed. 

forpheald with face underneath. 

forphealdan red. v. continue. 

forj)hlifian wv. stand forth, be 
prominent. 

for]?iernan sv3 elapse. 

forj?l33stan wv. continue. 

forj?on, for)?0n J?e because. 

forwyrd sf. destruction; injury. 

fot sm. foot. 

iracoj? vile, wicked. 



fraegn, see frignan. 
Irastwan wv. adorn, 
fram by ; from ; concerning. 
Francland France, 
frecednes sf. danger, 
frecne dangerous. 
frefran wv. comfort. 
fremde strange, foreign. 
fremlic profitable. 
fremman wv. do, perform; avail, 
fremsumlice kindly. 
fremsumnes sf. benefit, liberality, 
freo free, 
freolslice freely. 

freonama wm. free name, eccle- 
siastical name. 
freond sm. friend, 
freondscipe sm. friendship. 
Friesa wm. Frisian, 
frignan sv3 enquire. 
frofor sf. comfort, consolation, 
fruma wm. beginning, origin, 
frympelic original, early. 
fugol sm. bird. 

fugolwielle abounding in birds, 
fulnes sf. foulness, stench, 
fullice fully. 

fullfremedllce completely, 
fulluht, see fulwiht. 
fultum sm. help. 
gefultumian wv. help, 
fultumend sm. helper, 
fulwian wv. baptise, 
fulwiht, fulluht sn. baptism, 
fulwihtbae}? sn. water of baptiam 
furlang sn. furlong. 
fur9or further. 
furdum adv. even, 
fuslice eagerly. 

fyllan wv. fill; fulfil, complete, 
fyrhto sf. terror, 
fyrhtan wv. terrify. 
fyr sn. fire. 

gaeglisc wanton, forward, 
gaers sn. grass. 
gagates sm. jet. 
gan ath. v. go (on foot), 
gegan ath. v. overrun ; conquer, 
gang sm. going, walking, 
gangan red. v. go, walk, 
garsecg sm. ocean. 



VOCABULARY 



gast sm. spirit, 
gastlic spiritual. 
ge ye. 

ge . . . ge both . . . and. 
gear sn. year. 
geara long ago. 
geare fully, well, 
gearu ready. 

gearowyrde fluent, eloquent, 
gearwian wv. prepare, provide, 
geat 57i. gate. 
gen, gena yet, still. 
geo formerly. 
geoc sn. yoke, 
geomrung sf. melancholy. 
geogo]?had sm. youth, 
geogoplic youthful, 
geondfaran svQ journey over., 
geondferan wv. pass through. 
geondscinan svl shine through- 
out. 

geong young. 

georne earnestly. 

georniulnes sf. zeal, eagerness. 

geornlice earnestly, eagerly. 

geotan sv2 pour, shed. 

giefu sf. gift ; favour, grace. 

gieman wv. care for, attend to. 

giemenn sf. care, charge. 

giemleasian wv. neglect. 

giengran, see geong. 

gegierela wm. dress. 

gierd sf. rod, twig. 

gierwan wv. prepare; adorn. 

giestsern sn. guest-chamber.. 

giestlljmes sf. hospitality. 

glet yet, still. 

gil if. 

giferlice greedily. 

gimm sm. gem, jewel. 

ginian wv. gape. 

gleaw shrewd. 

god sn. god. 

God sm. God. 

god good. 

godcund divine. 

godcundlice divinely. 

godcundnes sf. religion. 

godgield sm. idol. 
Godmundingaham Goodmanham. 

in E. Yorkshire, 
goldfaet sn. gold vessel. 



Gota Goth. 

grammaticcrseft sm. grammar. 

Grantaceaster Grantchester, near 

Cambridge, 
grene green. 

gretan wv. greet, accost, 
grimm fierce, cruel, severe, 
grimsian wv. rage, be fierce, 
gristbitian wv. grind (teeth). 
growan red.v. grow. 
grownes sf. growth, vegetation, 
grund sm. bottom, 
gryre sm. horror, terror, 
gylden golden. 
gyrdan wv. gird on. 

habban wv. have ; hold ; hold 

back. 

gehabban wv. hold in, restrain. 
had sm. rank, office; condition. 

hadian wv. ordain, appoint, 
haegl sm. hail. 

hie Ian wv. heal. 

gehJeled wholesome. 

Hjelend Saviour. 

halo sf. health; healing; salva- 
tion. 

haer sn. hair. 

haerlest sm. harvest, autumn. 

haes sf. command. 

hto sf. heat. 

h5en heathen. 

haeSennes sf. heathendom. 

Hagostealdes ea Hexham in 
Northumberland. 

hal whole; uninjured. 

gehalgian wv. hallow, consecrate. 

halgung sf. consecration. 

halian wv. get well; be cured. 

halig holy. 

halignes sf. holiness; religion. 

halsian wv. be saved. 

halsung sf. divination. 

halwende wholesome. 

halwendnes sf. wholesomeneas, 
salubrity. 

ham sm. home ; house. 

hand sf. hand; on hand eodon, 
gave themselves up. 

handgewinn sn. labour of one's 
hands. 

hangian wv. intr. hang. 



80 



VOCABULARY 



hat hot. 

gehat sn. promise. 

hatan red. v. order; call, name. 

gehatan red. v. promise ; summon. 

hatlice violently, passionately. 

hatte was called. 

healod sn. head. 

heafodwund sf. wound in the 

head. 

Heagostealdes ea, see Hago-. 
heah high. 

heahlice splendidly, nobly, 
geheald sn. holding, observance, 
healdan red. v. hold, keep, 
heali half. 
heall sf. side, 
heall sf. hall. 
healsian wv. implore, 
heanes sf. height; supremacy, 
heanne, see heah. 
heap sm. band; mass. 
heapmjelum in bands, 
heard hard; severe, 
hearg sm. heathen temple, 
headorian wv. restrain, confine ; 

be an obstacle. 
heaum, see heah. 
heawan red. v. cut, hew. 
hebban svG raise, 
heflg heavy; severe, 
hefigian wv. afflict, be afflicted, 
heftglice severely, 
hefigness sf. affliction, 
helan si>4 conceal. 
hell sf. hell, 
help sf. help, 
heofon sm. heaven, 
heofonlic heavenly. 
heofonrice sn. kingdom of heaven. 
heonon hence, from here. 
heorot sm. hart, staer. 
heorte wf. heart, 
her here. 

here sm. host, army, 
heretoga wm. leader, captain, 
hergung sf. raiding, harrying, 
hergian wv. devastate, harry, 
herian wv. praise. 
hete sm. hate. 
Hi lona. 

hid sf. measure of land, hide, 
hider hither. 



hidercyme sm. coming hither, 

advent, 
hieg sn. hay. 
hiehsta superl. of heah. 
gehield 57i. observance. 
hieldan wv. incline, droop, 
hienan wv. humiliate, insult. 
hieran wv. hear ; w. d. obey, 
hierde sm. shepherd, 
hiernes sf. obedience, 
hierra wm. lord, overlord. 
hlersumian wv. obey, 
higa wm. family, household ; 

community. 
higna, see higa. 
hired sm. family; community 

(hiw-rd). 
Hispanie Spain. 

hiw sn. appearance, form ; colour, 
hiwen sn. household. 
hiwisclice familiarly, intimately, 
hiwscipe sm. family, 
hleapan red. v. leap. 
hlidian wv. furnish with a lid. 
hlinian wv. incline. 
hlisa wm. report, rumour, 
hlodian wv. plunder, 
hlud loud. 

hluttor clear, limpid, bright, 
hluttorlice clearly. 
hlydan wv. make a loud noise, 

shout. 

hoc sm. hook. 
hole, see hebban. 
hogode, see hycgan. 
gehradian wv. hasten, expedite, 
hraedlice swiftly, 
hrsegl sn. garment. 
hran sm. small whale. 
hrade quickly. 
hreof leprous, 
hreofl sf. scab, leprosy, 
hreones sf. roughness (weather) ; 

severity. 

hreosan sv2 fall ; be ruined, 
gehreosan sv2 collapse. 
hreow sf. repentance, 
hreowlice miserably, 
hrinan svl touch; attack, 
gehrinenes sf. touch, 
hrof sm. roof. 
Hrolesceaster Rochester. 



VOCABULARY 



81 



gehror sn. ruin. 

gehroren, see hreosan. 

hu how. 

huhwega, huhwugu about, ap- 
proximately. 

bund hundred. 

hundnigontig ninety. 

hundseofontig seventy. 

hundteontig hundred. 

hungor sm. hunger, famine. 

huntaj? sm. hunting. 

huntung sf. hunting. 

hus_sn. house. 

hwjr_where. 

gehwaer everywhere. 

hwiete sm. wheat. 

hwast what ; anything ; excl. lo ! 
behold ! I say ! 

hwaethwugu something ; about, 
approximately. 

hwaeQer whether. 

gehwaeder each (of two). 

hwae9re nevertheless. 

hwanon whence. 

hwelc which, what ; any ; swa 
hwelc . . . swa, whatsoever. 

gehwelc each. 

hwelchwugu some. 

hwene adv. a little, somewhat. 

hweorfan sv3 intrans. return. 

hwierfan wv. turn; convert, 
pervert. 

gehwierfednes sf. conversion. 

nwil sf. time, hour. 

hwilum sometimes. 

hwilwendlic temporary. 

hwit white. 

hwitel sm. rug, blanket. 

hwon adv. a little. 

hwon instr. of hwaet. 

hwonne conj. until. 

hwurle, see hweorfan. 

hycgan wv. purpose. 

hydan wv. hide. 

hyht sf. hope. 

hyhtan wv. hope. 

hydan wv. plunder, ravage. 

id. 

Idel useless, vain ; empty. 
le d. s. of ea. 
legland sn. island. 



ieldan wv. delay. 

ieldenn sf. delay ; respite. 

ieldest superl. of eald. 

ieldra compar. of eald. 

ieldran parents. 

ieldo sf. age ; old age. 

ieldung sf. delay. 

ierfeweard sm. successor. 

ierg]?o sf. slackness, cowardice. 

ierman wv. ill-treat, harass. 

ierm5o sf. wretchedness, misery. 

iernan v3 run ; flow ; spring. 

ierre sf. anger. 

ierre angry. 

ier}? sf. crop, harvest. 

lej? compar. of ea5e. 

iewan wv. show, reveal. 

ilca same. 

ineoden see ingan. 

ingan ath. v. enter. 

ingang sm. entrance. 

ingehygd sf. mind, intention. 

inlic inward. 

innan, inn(e) adv. inside, in. 

inneweard inward, inside. 

innoj? sm. internal organs. 

instaspe sm. entrance; sona 

instsepe, immediately, 
intinga wm. cause, reason; cause 

of complaint; affair, matter, 
inweardllce earnestly, deeply. 
Is sn. ice. 
isen sn. iron, 
isengeloma wm. iron implement. 

la excl. lo ! often not transl. 
lac sn. gift. 

lacnian wv. treat, dress (wound), 
lace sm. physician. 
l&cedom sm. remedy, medicine, 
laedan wv. lead, bring. 
Laedenisc Latin. 
laeran wv. teach, 
gelarednes sf. learning, skill, 
las less ; }?y laes, lest. 
laes sf. pasture, 
laissa smaller, 
laest smallest, least, 
laestan wv. carry out, perform. 
Laestinga ea Lastingham in N. 
_ Yorkshire. 
laetan red. v. let, allow. 



VOCABULARY 



ladian wv. excuse. 

laestan wv. perform. 

liewede lay (man). 

laf sf. remnant. 

landbegenga wm. inhabitant. 

landflerd sf. land journey. 

landleode pi. people, natives. 

landgemaere sn. territory. 

lang long. 

lareow sm. teacher. 

lareowdom sm. office of teacher. 

latteow sm. leader. 

la]? hostile; injurious. 

laj> sn. disgust. 

geladian wv. invite. 

ladlic repulsive, horrible. 

lead sn. lead (metal). 

leaf sn. leaf. 

geleafa wm. belief, faith. 

geleaffull credible. 

leaf aes sf. permission. 

geleafsum faithful. 

leahtor sm. vice. 

leahtorfull vicious. 

lean sv6 blame. 

leas false. 

leasnes falseness, deception. 

leasung sf. falsehood. 

leger sn. lying (in bed). 

leng compar. adv. longer. 

lenge sf. length. 

lengra compar. of lang. 

geleod sm. fellow-countryman. 

leode pi. people. 

leol dear, beloved. 

leolaj), see libban. 

leofllce gladly. 

leoht adj. light, bright; easy. 

leoht sn. light, brightness. 

leornere sm. learner, student. 

geleornian wv. learn. 

leornung sf. learning, study. 

leornungcniht, leornungmann sm. 

student, disciple. 
let, see IJetan. 
libban wv. live. 
He sn. body, 
gelic adj. like. 
licgan sv5 lie. 
Hchama wm. body. 
Hchamlic bodily, 
gellcian wv. used impers. please. 



lictun sm. grave-yard. 

geliefan wv. believe. 

liefnes sf. permission. 

lieg sm. flame. 

HI sn. life. 

linende, see libban. 

ligej), see licgan. 

lihtan wv. alight. 

lim sn. limb. 

limpan sv3 matter, concern. 

gelimpan sv3 come to pass. 

Lindesse Lindsey. 

Lindisfarena ea Lindisfarne. 

linen of linen. 

gelise sn study. 

lij>, see licgan. 

Hdan svl journey, sail. 

loc sn. lock ; dungeon. 

locc sm. lock of hair. 

locian wv. look. 

lol sn. praise. 

lolsang sm. song of praise; 

musical service, 
gelomlic frequent. 
lufian wv. love. 
lulu sf. love. 
Lundenburg London. 
Lundenceaster London, 
lust sm. desire. 

lustlullian wv. enjoy, rejoice in. 
gelustlulllce gladly. 
lustlice gladly. 

lylt sf. air, sky; in pi. climate, 
lyltadl sf. paralysis 
lyge sm. lying, falsehood, 
lytesna almost. 

ma adv. more; J>on ma, any 
more. 

gemaca wm. companion. 

maeg pst. pres. v. can. 

maeg sm. kinsman. 

maegen sn. strength, power; 
miracle. 

mieg}? */. tribe, people. 

maBgwlite sm. form, appearance. 

msel sn. crucifix. 

gemieno common, united. 

gemienelice in common, unitedly. 

gemaensumian wv. impart, share. 

maran wv. make known, pro- 
claim. 



VOCABULARY 



83 



masre famous. 

gemsere sn. boundary, territory. 

msersian wv. declare ; celebrate. 

mJersung sf. celebration. 

maesse wf. mass. 

maessepreost sm. mass-priest. 

maessesang sm. singing of the 

mass. 

masst superl. of micel. 
mate small, 
mage wf. kinswoman, 
magister sm. teacher. 
Mailros Melrose. 
man indef. pron. one, people; 

often rendered by passive. 
geman pst. pres. v. remember, 
mandaed sf. sin, crime, 
manful! sinful, 
mangenga wm. evildoer, 
manian wv. exhort, prompt, 
manig many, 
mann sm. man. 
manna wm. man. 
manncwield sm. destruction of 

life, mortality. 
mannian wv. furnish with men, 

to staff. 

manpwaere gentle, kind. 
manjjwaernes sf. gentleness. 
manung sf. exhortation, 
mara, compar. of micel. 
martyr sm. martyr, 
mawan red. v. mow. 
meaht sf. might, power., 
meahte see maeg. 
mearcian wv. mark. 
med sf. reward, 
medeme suitable, due. 
medmicel moderate, small, 
gemengan wv. join, 
menigeo sf . multiude. 
mennisc human, 
menniscnes sf. incarnation, 
meolc sf. milk, 
meos sm. moss. 

meregreota= meregrota wm. pearl, 
mereswln sn. sea-pig, porpoise, 
mergenne, see niorgen. 
gemet sn. measure, degree; 

tenour. 

me tan wv. meet; meet with, 
mete sm. food. 



metercraeft sm. versification. 

gemetfaest moderate. 

gemettaestnes sf. moderation, 
modesty. 

metton, see metan. 

micel great, much. 

micle adv. much. 

miclian wv. increase. 

mid with; mid )?y, when. 

midd adj. middle. 

middangeard sm. earth, world. 

middel sm. middle. 

Mierce pi. Mercians. 

miere wf. mare. 

miht, see meaht. 

mil sf. mile. 

milde mild, gentle. 

mildheort kindhearted. 

mildheortnes sf. kindheartedness. 
mercy. 

miltsian wv. make gentle; have 
mercy. 

min gen. of ic; also poss. adj. 
mine. 

missenlic various. 

midan svl used impers. be con- 
cealed, escape notice. 

mod sn. mind ; heart. 

molde wf. earth, soil. 

mona]? sm. month. 

mor sm. moor. 

morgen sm. morning. 

gemot sn. meeting. 

mot pst. pres. v. may; moste, 
might. 

gemunde, see geman. 

munuc sm. monk. 

munucgegierela wm. monk's 
dress. 

munuchad sm. monastic state. 

munucllf sn. monastic life. 

muscle sf. mussel. 

muj) sm. mouth. 

gemynd sfn. memory. 

gemynddaeg sm. commemoration 
day, festival. 

gemyndelic memorable, note- 
worthy. 

gemyndgian wv. mention. 

myndgung sf. remembrance, 
recollection. 

gymyndig, mindful. 



84 



VOCABULAEY 



gemyndwierSe adj. worthy of 

being remembered, 
gemyne, see geman. 
mynster sn. monastery. 
mynsterlic monasterial. 
myntan wv. intend, propose. 

naeddre wf. snake. 

nlre never. 

naenig no, none; nsenige J>inga, 
in no wise. 

naes = ne wses. 

nahwaeQer neither. 

nahwier nowhere. 

nallass not ; nalses ]?aet an fast . . . 
ac swelce eac, not only . . . but 
also. 

nama wm. name. 

namon, see niman. 

nauht nothing; not. 

neah near; nearly. 

neahnunnmynster sn. neighbour- 
ing convent. 

nealsecean wv. approach. 

nearones sf. limited space, 
cramped position. 

nearrum, see neah. 

nearu narrow, limited. 

neat sn. ox. 

neawist sm. nearness, proximity. 

nela wm, nephew. 

nellan ath. v. not to be willing, 
refuse. 

nemnan wv. name. 

nemne unless, except. 

neodlice eagerly, zealously. 

neosian wv. visit. 

neowolnes sf. depth, abyss. 

nerian wv. rescue, save. 

nied s/. necessity. 

niedan wv. compel ; necessitate. 

geniededlic compulsory. 

niedling sm. slave. 

nied)?earf sf. need, necessity. 

medj>earflic, necessary. 

niehst superl. of neah, nearest, 
^next; last; set niehstan, at last. 

nift sf. niece. 

nigon nine. 

niht sf. night; nihtes, by night. 

nihtlic occurring at night. 

niman st;4 take. 



nis is not. 

nidei downwards. 

niderung sf. humiliation. 

nlwan recently. 

mwe new. 

no not. 

genog sufficiently, quite. 

nolde, see nellan. 

nor}? north. 

nordan from the north. 

Noraanhymbre Northumbrians. 

norpdael sm. northern region. 

norpeastrodor sm. north-east 

quarter of the sky. 
nor]?folc sn. northern peopla 
norpleod sf. northern people, 
norpportic sm. north porch, 
nu now. 

genyhtsum abundant, 
genyhtsumian wv. suffice ; abound, 
genyhtsumnes sf. abundance, 
nytt sf. use, profit, 
nytt profitable, advantageous, 
nyttnes sf. profit, advantage. 

of from; concerning. 

ofer sm. bank, shore. 

Oler_over; after; against. 

olerjet_sm. gluttony. 

oferbraedan wv. overspread. 

ofercumend prevailing. 

oferfaran sv& cross over. 

oferfernes sf. crossing, ford. 

ofergangan red. v. cross over. 

olerhleapan red. v. leap over. 

oferhygd sf. arrogance, pride. 

oferniman su4 overcome, coun- 
teract. 

oferstiellan wv. leap over. 

oferswISan wk. v. and svl over- 
come, surpass; prevail upon, 

olerweorpan sv3 throw over. 

oierwinnan sv3 overcome. 

offiellan wv. destroy. 

ofostlice hastily. 

ofscinan svl shine from. 

olslean sv6 slay. 

olt_ often. 

onselan wv. kindle, light; excite. 

onbsernan wv. set fire to. 

onbeodan sv2 announce. 

onbryrdan wv. inspire. 



VOCABULARY 



onbryrdnes sf. inspiration. 

oncierran wv. turn. 

oncnawan red. v. perceive, under- 
stand. 

ondrsedan red. v. dread, fear. 

oneardian wv. inhabit. 

onleng, see onion. 

onion redv. receive. 

ongang sm. worship. 

ongean opposite; ongean J?on, 
conversely. 

ongietan sv5 perceive, under- 
stand. 

ongietennes sf. perception, under- 
standing. 

onginnan sv3 begin. 

ongyrdan wv. ungird, unbuckle. 

onhergian wv. harass, ravage. 

onhieldan wv. bend down, stoop. 

onhieran wv. imitate, emulate. 

onhyrian wv. imitate. 

onlicnes sf. likeness. 

onliesan wv. release. 

onsaBgdnes sf. sacrifice. 

onscunian wv. shun, avoid; 
loathe. 

onsecgan wv. sacrifice. 

onsendan wv. send. 

onsettan wv. lay upon. 

onslsepan red. v. fall asleep. 

onslean sv& inflict. 

onstyrian wv. move; agitate. 

ontimbran wv. instruct, bring up. 

ontynan wv, open; disclose. 

onbwean svQ wash. 

onwaecnan svQ awake. 

onweg away. 

onweggewitennes sf. departure. 

onwendan wv. turn, change. 

onwinnan st?3 make war on. 

onwoc, see onwaecnan. 

onwreon svl open ; reveal. 

onwrigennes sf. revelation. 

open, open. 

openian wv. reveal, announce. 

openlice openly, publicly. 

ora wm. ore. 

ordfruma wm. originator. 

Ob until; up to. 

Oder other; on o5erre healfre 
mile, a mile and a half. 

obgripan svl wrest away. 



obbaet until. 
o})J?e or. 

papa wm. pope. 
Peohtas pi. Picts. 
plega wm. sport, 
plegian wv. play, jest, 
prafost sm. prior. 
preost sm. priest, 
preosthad sm. priesthood. 

ra wm. roebuck. 

raed sm. counsel, advice; plan. 

rJedan wv. take counsel; read. 

geraedan wv. arrange. 

raefter sm. rafter. 

Rjegeheafod Gateshead. 

raeran wv. rear, erect. 

rsan wv. rush. 

r ass wan wv. conjecture. 

rana g. pi. of ra. 

rap sm. rope, cord. 

readnes sf. redness. 

gerec sn. government, authority. 

rec sm. smoke. 

reccean wv. rule, administer. 

reccend governor. 

receleas negligent. 

gerecennes sf. interpretation. 

recenost superl.adv. most speedily. 

regn sm. rain. 

regollic monastic. 

regolweard sm. director. 

gereord sn. meal, food. 

gereord sfn. speech. 

gereordnes sf. feast. 

reliqium, reliquias relics. 

reowe wf. blanket. 

rest sf. rest. 

restan wv. rest, repose. 

rede fierce, savage. 

rice sn. rule ; kingdom. 

rice powerful, influential. 

ricsian wv. rule. 

ridan svl ride. 

riht sn. right; on rihte, rightly, 

correctly. 

rihtan wv. rule, direct, 
rihtlice rightly, correctly, 
rihtgelieled orthodox. 
rim sn. number, 
riman wv. enumerate. 



86 



VOCABULARY 



Rin Rhine, 
rinan svl rain, 
ripe ripe, 
risan svl rise. 
risan svl tear; take away, 
gerisan svl be fit. 
gerisenlic suitable, 
gerisenlice suitably, properly, 
gerisne proper, suitable. 
r6d sf. cross. 
Romaburg sf. Rome. 
Romanise Roman. 
Romware pi. Romans, 
rum spacious. 
lumgiefa generous. 
run sf. secret, charm, 
geryne sn. mystery. 



sacerd sm. priest, 
sacerdhad sn. priesthood. 
S3d smf. sea. 
SJed sn. seed, 
saegde, see secgan. 
saelic marine. 

geSffilig fortunate, prosperous, 
gesaelignes sf. happiness, 
saene sluggish, inert. 
sat, sieton, see sittan. 
saetung sf. plot, treachery, 
ssewiht sf. sea-creature. 
saga, saga}?, see secgan. 
salm sm. psalm, 
gesamnian wv. assemble, collect, 
gesamnung sf. assembly, com- 
munity. 

samod together; in addition, 
sanct sm. saint. 
sang sm. singing, song. 
Bar sn. pain. 

sargian wv. sorrow, grieve, 
sarlic grievous, sad. 
sawan red. v. sow. 
sawol sf. soul, 
sawon, see seon. 
scalan svQ shave, slice, 
scafopa wm. shaving. 
scaru sf. tonsure. 
gesceait fn. creature ; creation, 
sceal pst. pres. v. shall, must. 
sceap sn. sheep, 
scearp sharp, keen. 



sceat sm., sceata wm. piece of 

cloth, napkin. 

sceawian wv. look at, view, 
gesceawian wv. show. 
sceawung sf. regard, 
sceotan sv2 shoot. 
sce59an svQ and wk. injure, 
gescieldan wv. shield, protect, 
gescieldnes sf. protection. 
scieppan sv6 create, 
scieppend sm. creator. 
gescierped pp. sharpened, excited, 
sciete sf. sheet, cloth. 
scima wm. brilliance, splendour, 
scman svl shine. 
scip sn. ship. 

scipen sf. stall, space for cattle, 
sciphere sm. naval force, fleet, 
sciplad sf. voyage. 
scipmann sm. sailor. 
SCSI sf. school. 
Scott Scot (an Irish race), 
gescrepe suitable, fit. 
scuwa wm. shadow. 
scurf sm. scurf. 
scylen, see sceal. 
scyld sf. guilt; sin. 
scyldig guilty. 
scyndan wv. hurry, hasten. 
Scyttisc Irish, 
se that, the; se, he; se J>e, who, 

which. 

seald, see sellan. 
sealmsang sm. psalm-singing, 
sealtsea]? sm. salt-spring. 
searu sm. device, stratagem, 
sea}?, sm. pit, hole. 
Seaxe Saxons. 

secean wv. seek, seek out, visit, 
secgan wv. say. 
segen g/. statement, story, 
gesegen, see seon. 
gesegnian wv. make sign of 

cross, bless. 

sel compar. adv. better, 
seldan seldom. 
sell self ; very. 
sellan wv. give, 
selest superl. adv. best, 
semninga suddenly. 
sendan wv. send; put, cast, 
seoflan wv. sigh; lament. 



VOCABULARY 



8T 



seolon seven. 

Seoio3a seventh. 

seolfor sn. silver. 

seolforfaet sn. silver vessel. 

seollren of silver. 

seolh sm. seal (animal). 

seon sv5 see. 

seow, see sawan. 

setl sn. seat ; abode, dwelling. 

settan wv. place; expose. 

gesettan wv. direct, train; put 

together, set (fracture). 
sedan wv. prove, confirm, 
gesewen pp. of seon; me is 

gesewen, seems to me. 
gesewenlic visible. 
sibb sf. peace, 
side wf. side, 
sie, see beon. 
sierwan wv. plot, plan, 
siexta sixth, 
siextiene sixteen, 
siextig sixty. 
Sige sm. victory, 
sigebeacn sn. trophy, monument, 
sigefaest victorious. 
sigefeoht sn. victorious campaign, 
sigel sn. brooch, jewel. 
gesihj? sf. vision, apparition, 
simle continually, always. 
sind, sindon, see beon. 
singal continuous, lasting, 
singan si?3 sing, chant, 
sinop sm. synod. 
sittan sv5 sit. 
gesittan sv5 settle in. 
sip sm. time. 

geslj? sm. retainer, royal officer, 
sijjfast sn. journey. 
sij)j?an adv. and conj. afterwards, 

after, since, 
slaepan red. v. sleep. 
Slean svQ strike, smite ; kill ; slog 

tacn, made a signal, 
geslean sv& sige geslogon, won a 

victory. 

Siege sm. murder, 
slide sm, slip, fall. 
slob. sn. slough, mire, 
smael small. 

smeagean wv. meditate, ponder, 
smede flat, level. 



smolt gentle, mild. 

smoltnes sf. calm, tranquillity. 

smyltnes sf. calm, quiet. 

snaw sm. snow. 

snican svl creep, crawl. 

snide sm. incision. 

sniwan svl snow. 

snyttro sf. prudence, wisdom. 

son sm. sound. 

sona immediately, soon; sona 

swa, as soon as. 
SOrgian wv. sorrow, grieve. 
S6J) true, real. 
SO ? sn. truth, fact. 
s6}?faBSt truthful, righteous, 
sojrtaestnes sf. truthfulness, truth. 
S6]?lice truly, indeed, 
spanan svQ attract, induce, 
spearca wm. spark, 
spearwa wm. sparrow, 
spell sn. story, account, 
spere sn. spear, 
spiwan svl spit, vomit, 
spon sm. shaving, chip, 
sprjec sf. speech, 
gesprec sn. speaking, discussion, 
sprecan sv5 speak. 
stasf sm. letter (of alphabet); 

staf as, words, writing. 
stsenen of stone. 
staeppan sv 6 step, go. 
stJer sn. history. 
gestaeddig sedate, serious. 
Stan sm. stone, 
gestandan svQ stand still ; attack, 

assail. 

staniht stony. 

Steall sm. state; institution, 
gesteall sn. condition. 
stefn sf. voice, 
steda wm. steed. 
stenc sm. stench; perfume. 
stician wv. stab, lance; stick, 
stiellan wv. leap. 
stieran wv. guide, govern. 
Stigan sf 1 rise, ascend. 
Stige sf. path ; direction. 
stiht(i)an wv. arrange, 
stillan wv. calm, alleviate; grow 

calm. 

stille quiet, silent, 
stilnes sf. quiet, repose. 



88 



VOCABULARY 



gestincan sv3 smell. 

stodhors sn. stud-horse, stallion. 

Stop, see staeppan. 

stow sf. place. 

street sf. (paved) road. 

strangian wv. strengthen. 

Stranglice severely. 

Stream sm. river. 

streccean wv. stretch. 

Strengjm sf. strength. 

stregdan sv3 strew. 

gestnenan wv. acquire. 

Btriend sm. stock, strain. 

gestrod sn. plunder. 

studu / post. 

styccemgelum gradually. 

styrenes sf. movement. 

Btyrman wv. storm, rage. 

subdiacon sm. subdeacon. 

Bum some; one. 

sumor sm. summer. 

sunbeam sm. sunbeam. 

gesund uninjured. 

Bundgian wv. trans, prosper. 

sundorland sn. private land. 

sunne wf. sun. 

sup south. 

supdail sm. southern part or 

region. 

supfolc sn. southern people. 
Supseaxe South Saxons. 
swa so ; as ; where. 
Bwa hwelc swa whoever. 
swsesendu sn. pi. food, repast, 
swangor sluggish, dull. 
swapan red. v. sweep, rush, 
sweart dark, black. 
swelc such. 

swelce as if, as it were, 
swelce eac likewise; also. 
Bweltan sv3 die, perish. 
swencean wv. trouble, afflict. 
geswencnes sf. affliction. 
sweora wm. neck, 
sweorcan sv3 grow gloomy or 

sad. 

sweord sn. sword. 
Bweostor sf. sister. 
sweostorsunu sm. nephew. 
sweotol clear, manifest. 
sweotollice clearly, manifestly, 
flwete sweet; beloved. 



swetnes */. sweetness, 
swigian wv. grow or be silent, 
swingan svS beat, strike, 
swingell sf. beating. 
swide strongly ; very, exceedingly. 
swI9e, strong, violent. 
SWiSor rather. 

swidost most of all, especially, 
swipstrieme with strong current, 
swulton, see sweltan. 
swyle sm. swelling, tumour, 
symbel sn. feast, festival. 
symbelnes sf. festival, celebra- 
tion. 

symblan wv. feast, 
synderlice specially. 
syndrig special, separate, 
syndriglic individual, special, 
synn sf. sin. 
gesynto sf. welfare ; privilege. 

tabul sm. table. 

tacn sn. sign, token; signal. 

tacnung sf. token. 

getaecnan wv. indicate, betoken. 

tsecean wv. point out; teach. 

talian wv. reckon. 

tan sm. twig. 

tawian wv. prepare, work (land). 

tear sm. tear. 

tela adv. well ; tela ne wiste, was 

not in his right mind, 
telg sm. dye. 
geteld sn. tent. 
tellan wv. reckon. 
Temese Thames. 
teon sv2 draw, lead, 
teon wv. arrange. 
teo8a tenth. 
tid sf. hour; time, 
tidlice seasonably. 
tien ten. 

tilian wv. aim at, strive after, 
timbran wv. build, 
timbrian wv. build, 
getimbre sn. edifice, structure. 
Tine river Tyne. 
tintreg sn. torment, torture, 
tintregian wv. torment, torture, 
tip sf. grant, gift. 
tidian wv. grant; consent. 
t6 to ; from. 



VOCABULAEY 



89 



tdaetiecan wv. make addition, 
add. 

tobrecan sv<l smash. 

todaeg, to daege to-day. 

todaelan wv. separate, divide. 

todrifan svl scatter. 

toforan before, in front of. 

togaedere, together. 

togeanes to meet, towards. 

tohreosan sv2 collapse. 

tolecan wv. add. 

toliesan wv. loosen. 

tolucan sv2 dislocate. 

torr sm. tower. 

toscadan red. v. divide ; differen- 
tiate. 

toslitan svl cut to pieces. 

toslupan sv2 fall away, be loosed. 

tojjledan wv. join; togejnedd, 
adjoining. 

toweard future, impending. 

toweorpan svS cast down, 
destroy. 

towyrd sf. occasion. 

Treonta the Trent. 

treow sn. tree; wood. 

getreowian wv. trust. 

treowleas faithless. 

getreowleasnes sf. faithlessness, 
unbelief. 

getreowlice, faithfully. 

getrlewan wv. believe; have 
confidence in. 

getrlewe faithful, trustworthy. 

trum strong, firm. 

trumian wv. strengthen; grow 
strong. 

trymman wv. confirm ; comfort ; 
exhort. 

trymnes sf. comforting; exhorta- 
tion. 

tu neut. two. 

tuddor sn. progeny. 

tugon, see teon. 

Tuide, Twide Tweed. 

tun sm. enclosure; village, town. 

tunge wf. tongue. 

tungerefa wm. bailiff. 

tungolcraeit sm. astronomy. 

Tunnanceaster Towcester, in 
Northamptonshire. 

turf sf. turf. 



twam, see twegen. 
twegen two. 
twelf twelve. 
tweo wm. doubt, 
tweogean wv. doubt, 
twidaaglic lasting two days. 
Twielord Twyf ord. 
twiwa twice. 
tyde, see tyn. 
getydnes sf. training, 
tyn wv. train, educate. 



J783C sn. thatch. 

pass gen. of Jjaet; to J?aes, to such 

a degree, so. 
J>aer adv. and conj. there; where; 

w. subj. = wherever, if. 
J>aet pron. and conj. what; that. 
Jjaette (J?aet ]?e) that which, what, 
gepafian wv. consent to, approve, 
gepafung sf. consent, approval. 

?anon thence. 

?anc sm. thanks. 

?anclull satisfied. 

jancweorjjlice gratefully. 

?e inded. rel. pron. who, which. 

?e or. 

?eah adv. nevertheless, however ; 

conj. though. 

gepeaht sfn. deliberation ; counsel. 
~>eahtere sm. counsellor. 

?eahtian wv. deliberate. 

?earl sf. need, necessity, want. 

?earfa wm. poor man. 

jearfendnes sf. poverty. 

jearfian wv. suffer need or want. 

?earlw!s severe. 

?eaw sm. mental quality ; virtue ; 

custom, usage. 

J?egn sm. servant ; official ; officer, 
pegnian wv. serve. 
fegnung, penung sf. ministry, 

office. 
J)od sf. people, nation. 

PJ?eod sf. language. 
odland sn. national or public 
land. 

peodnes sf. junction, suture, 
peodscipe sm. community. 
ge]?eon svl prosper. 
feos, see J)es. 



90 



VOCABULARY 



peostrian wv. grow dark, dim. 
peow sm. slave, servant. 
peowdom sm. servitude, subjec- 
tion. 

>eowdomhad sm. service. 
?eowe wf. female servant, 
peowhad sm. service. 
;eowian wv. serve. 
?es this. 

?icc thick, dense, 
ncgan sv5 partake of. 
}ider thither. 
nedan wv. join, annex, 
nestre dark. 
nestro fpl. darkness. 
no. thy, thine. 

ignenn,pmenn sf. maid-servant, 
ring sn. thing; eenige pinga, in 

any way, at all. 
pingian wv. plead, intercede, 
gepingp sf. dignity, rank, 
pingung sf. intercession, 
gepoht sm. thought. 
pon instr. of pact ; to pon, to such 

a degree, so. 

ponne adv. and conj. then, there- 
fore ; when ; than, 
praestan wv. twist, wrench, 
convulse. 

rag sf. time, space of time. 

reat sm. band, group. 

reo see prie. 

ridaeglic lasting three days. 

ridda third, 
me three. 
jrim, see prie. 
mstian_wu. dare, presume, 
rejmstlsecan wv. presume, 
mtigoda thirtieth. 

rittig thirty. 
mwa thrice. 

)riwintre three years of age. 
>rosm sm. vapour, smoke. 
>rowian wv. suffer. 
>rowung sf. suffering, martyr- 
dom. 

})ruh sf. trough, coffin, 
pry ocean wk. v. crush, press ; 

harass. 
J)u thou. 

gepuht pp. of Jjyncean. 
puma wm. thumb. 



gepungen pp. of peon, distin- 
guished. 

purh through ; purh eall, entirely, 
purhfleon sv2 fly through. 
purhteon sv2 carry through; 

accomplish. 
?usend thousand. 
?weal sm. washing. 
?wean svQ wash. 
?weores crosswise, transversely. 
>weorh perverse; on pweorh, 

perversely, wrongly. 
pwoh, see pwean. 
py instr. of paet. Used with 
compar. = the ; mid py, when, 
after; py laes, lest. 
gepyldellce^gepyldiglice patiently, 
pyncean wi, seem, 
pynne thin, 
pyslic such. 

ufan from above, down, 
ulanweard above; topmost, 
uferra comp. upper, 
uhtlic of early morning, of 

matins. 

uhtsang sm. matins. 
unadWcesced unquenchable, 
unaliefednes sf. unlawful conduct, 
unaraefnedlic unendurable. 
unasSele not noble, common, 
ungebrosnod undecayed. 
uncer belonging to us two. 
unclaene unclean, impure, 
ungecost reprobate, bad. 
lineup unknown. 
uncyme not handsome, inferior, 
undeaplicnes sf. immortality, 
underfon red. v. receive, 
underhmgan svl submit to, 

undergo, 
underntld sf. third hour, nine 

o'clock in the morning, 
underpeodnes sf. subjection, 
underpiedan wv. subject. 
uneade with difficulty. 
unfeorr not far. 
ungeara not long ago. 
ungeendod endless, infinite, 
ungehrinen untouched, uninjured. 
ungelJered unlearned, ignorant. 
ungeleafsum unbelieving. 



VOCABULAKY 



91 



ungelic unlike. 

ungiemend careless, heedless. 

ungleawnes sf. stupidity. 

unhal morbid. 

unhiersumnes sf. disobedience. 

unmaBte excessive. 

unnyt useless. 

unoferswidendlic unconquerable. 

ungerisen unfitting. 

unriht wrong, erroneous. 

unrlm countless. 

unrot _sad. 

ungesffllig miserable, unhappy. 

unscearpnes sf. dulness. 

unsceddend harmless, innocent. 

ungescrepe unsuitable. 

unstillnes sf. disturbance, agita- 
tion. 

unsyfernes sf. impurity. 

untrumnes sf. infirmity, disease. 

ungej?waernes sf. discord, hostility. 

unwaerlice heedlessly. 

ungewemmed uninjured. 

ungewened unexpected. 

unwierde unworthy. 

ungewittig mad, delirious. 

nnwlitig not beautiful, hideous. 

unwriten unwritten. 

up up_, upwards. 

upastigan svl ascend. 

upgang am. rising. 

uplic high, heavenly. 

upryne sm. rising, beginning. 

ure our. 

utagangan red. v. go out. 

ute outside. 

uterra compar. outer, external. 

utwaepnedmann sm. man living 
outside. 



wacian wv. wake, be awake, 
waecan wv. weaken. 
waeccan wv. be awake. 
waecce wf. vigil. 
waedelnes sf. destitution. 
waedla destitute, deficient, 
waelersien sf. spectacle. 
waegn sm. carriage, cart. 
wael 57i. carnage, slaughter. 



wselgrimm bloodthirsty, cruel, 
waalhreownes sf. ferocity, cruelty, 
wajpen sn. weapon. 
wapnedcynn sn. male line, 
wsepnedmann sm. warrior; man, 

as contrasted with woman, 
wsere sf. covenant, agreement, 
waestm sm. fruit produce ; profit. 
waestmbJernes sf. fertility. 
waestmberend fruitful, fertile, 
waste sf. liquid, 
water sn. water, 
wafung sf. amazement, 
wag sm, wall, 
waia alas. 
wana wm. want, lack; anes wana 

J>rittigum, twenty-nine. 
wanung sf. diminution, loss, 
waroj? 57i. shore. 
wascan red. v. wash. 
wat ps t. pres. v. know, 
watol sn. wattle ; roofing, 
geweald sn. power, 
wealhstod sm. interpreter, 
weall sm. rampart, wall. 
weallan red. v. boil, seethe. 
Wealle Walbottle. 
wealwian wv. roll, 
wearnian wv. warn, 
gewearnian wv. guard against, 
weaxan red. v. grow. 
wecg sm. lump, mass, 
wedan wv.be or grow mad, rave, 
wedenheortnes sf. raving, 
wefan sv5 weave. 
weg sm. way. 
wegan sv5 bear, carry, 
wel well ; quite ; wel neah, almost, 
welig rich, 
weligian wv. enrich, 
wen sf. expectation, prospect, 
wenan wv. think ; expect, 
weolod sn. altar, 
weolocread whelk-red, i.e. dyed 

red with murex dye. 
weolocsciell sf. shellfish, whelk. 
weorc sn. act, deed, work; effect, 

working ; pain. 
weorcnes sf. performance. 
weorod, werod sn. troop, 
weorpan sv3 throw. 
weor3an sv3 become j be. 



VOCABULARY 



geweordan sv3 come to pass. 

weordian wv. honour, distinguish, 
celebrate. 

weor)? Sri. price. 

weorj?mynd sm. honour. 

weoruld sf. world. 

weoruldcund worldly, temporal. 

weoruldmann sm. layman. 

weoruldpearl sf. worldly need, 
bodily need. 

weoruldgewrit sn. temporal writ- 
ing. 

wepan red. v. weep. 

wer sm. man; husband; hero. 

werian wv. defend. 

werigian wv. grow weary. 

werignes sf. weariness, fatigue. 

werod sn. host, army. 

wesan ath. v. be. 

westan from the west. 

westdael sm. western region. 

weste uninhabited, desolate. 

westenn sn. wilderness. 

westrihte due west. 

westsse sm. western sea. 

Westseaxe West Saxons. 

Wlc sn. dwelling. 

wicdaeg sm. week-day. 

Wide widely, far and wide. 

wiell sm. } wiella wm., wielle wf. 
spring; source. 

wiellspring sm. spring, well. 

wielm sm. boiling; indignation. 

wierdan wv. destroy. 

gewierdlan wv. injure. 

wiergcwedol cursing, grumbling. 

wierig accursed. 

wierman wv warm. 

wierming sf. warming. 

wierpan wv. recover (health). 

wierj), see weordan. 

wierde worth ; worthy ; valued. 

wierjmes sf. worth, value. 

Wlf sn. woman; wife. 

wiflan wv. marry. 

wllcynn sn. female line. 

wlftiad sm. female sex. 

wifmann sm. woman. 

wiga wm. fighter, warrior. 

wigbeod, see weofod. 

Wiht sf. thing, whit. 

Wiht Isle of Wight. 



Wihtsaeta inhabitant of Isle of 

Wight. 

wilder sn. wild beast. 
willa wm. will, desire, 
willan ath. v. will, 
willung sf. desire, 
wilnian wv. desire, 
wilslp sm. favourable journey, 
wilsum desirable, agreeable, 
wilsumlic willing, voluntary ; 

acceptable, 
wilsumnes sf. desire, ambition, 

alacrity. 

windan s-u3 wind, twist, 
gewinde blowing (of the wind) . 
wmgeard sm. vineyard, 
gewinn sn. strife; labour, effort; 

hardship. 

gewinna wm. adversary, 
winnan st>3 fight, struggle. 
gewinnfull toilsome, 
gewinnfullic laborious, difficult, 
winstre wk. fern. adj. left (hand). 
Wintaceaster Winchester, 
winter sm. winter, 
wintertid sf. winter time, 
wise wf. thing, matter; manner, 

fashion. 

wislic wise, prudent, 
wiste, wiston, see wat. 
wit we two. 

wita wm. wise man; counsellor, 
witan, see wat. 
gewitan pst. pres. v. learn, 
gewltan svl depart, 
wlte sn. punishment, 
witedom sm. prophecy, 
witeraedenn sf. punishment; be 

witeraedenne, under a penalty, 
witnes sf. testimony. 
witnian wv. punish; torture, 
wltnung sf. punishment. 
witon, see wat. 
wij? against. 
wipceosan sv2 reject, 
widerweard conflicting, opposed, 

contrary. 

wiSerweardnes sf. obstacle, 
wijrfeohtend sm. opposer, foe. 
wipmetennes sf. comparison, 
wij^sacan svQ renounce, refuse. 
wiJ7SCufan sv2 avert, oppose. 



VOCABULARY 



wipstandan -n'6 withstand, pre- 
vent. 

wij> J?on }?e on condition that. 

wipwinnan st>3 resist. 

gewitt 57i. understanding. 

wlite am. beauty. 

wlitig beautiful. 

WOl STTi. pestilence. 

wolberend pestilential. 

geworden, see weorSan. 

geworht, see wyrcean. 

woruld, see weoruld. 

wraec 571. misery; punishment. 

wreccea wm. exile. 

wre5ian wv. prop, support. 

gewrit sn. writing, letter; litera- 
ture. 

writan svl write. 

wriaan svl bind up. 

wrixendlice alternately. 

gewrixl sn. substitute, exchange. 

wuce, wice wf. week. 

wudu sm. wood, forest. 

wuldor sn. glory. 

wuldorlic glorious. 

WUll 5771. Wolf. 

gewuna wm. custom; adj. accus- 
tomed. 

wund sf. wound. 
wundor 571. wonder; miracle, 
wundorlic wonderful, 
wundrian wv. wonder. 
gewunelic habitual. 



wunenes sf. dwelling, abode. 
wunian wv. dwell, live, 
gewunian wv. be accustomed, 
wyllen woollen, 
wynsum agreeable. 
wynsumian wv. take pleasure, 

rejoice. 

wyrcnes sf. performance, 
wyrcean wv. make, construct; do. 
gewyrhty be gewyrhtum(-e), 

deservedly; for good reason, 
wyrm sm. reptile, snake. 
wyrt sf. plant. 
wyrtruma wm. root, stock. 



yfel adj. and sb. bad, evil. 

ymb around ; about ; concerning, 

ymbaernan wv. overrun. 

ymbhwyrlt sm. circumference. 

ymbsellan wv. surround. 

ymbset 571. siege. 

ymbsettan wv. surround; )>set 
ymbsette folc, the neighbour- 
ing people. 

ymbstandan svG stand round. 

ymbswapan red. v. sweep, rush 
round. 

ymbutan round about. 

yppan wv. bring out, disclose. 

ysle wf. ashes. 

yj? sf. wave. 

ytemest superl. outermost, last. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



aih. = athematic 
(anomalous). 
/. = feminine. 
m. = masculine. 
.= neuter. 
pp. = past participle. 



pst. =past. 

red. = reduplicating. 

5. = strong. 

v. = verb. 

w. =weak. 



94 O.E. ACCIDENCE 



SKELETON OUTLINE OF O.E. ACCIDENCE 



The grammar of a language may be written according to one of two 
methods, either the practical or the scientific. The practical method 
groups the words capable of inflection in a convenient way with a view 
to simplifying the acquisition of the language whether for reading, 
writing or speaking. It gives 'rules,' and notes 'exceptions,' which it 
does not attempt to explain. Such grammars are in general use for 
learning modern languages. The scientific grammar deals with the 
language for its own sake, and treats it as a member of a speech family. 
Its methods are comparative and historical ; and it seeks to account for 
every apparent anomaly or irregularity. This kind of grammar is not 
suited for the learner of Old English, but is indispensable for the more 
advanced student of English philology. Below is given a condensed 
Bummary of O.E. inflections which, it is hoped, will help the learner to 
decline any noun, pronoun or adjective, and to conjugate any verb met 
with in the course of his reading. 

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

The ' stem ' of a word is that part which remains when the inflection 
is removed. Thus the stems of Jrernman, dagas, dcege, tyn, deed are 
respectively fremm-, dag-, dceg-, ty-, deed-. A stem may be short or long. 
It is short if it has a short vowel followed by one consonant, e.g. dag-. 
It is long if it contains (a) a long vowel, e.g. dcel- of dcelan, or (6) a 
short vowel followed by two or more consonants, e.g. fcest- of fcestan; 
efst- of efstan. In many words the stem-vowel has resulted from the 
modification of the original vowel due to the influence of the palatal 
vowel i or the vowel-consonant (voiced palatal spirant) j in the following 
syllable. This modification is called i (j) ' umlaut ' or ' mutation.' Thus 
the e of bee is the modification of o in an earlier form *boki-, the * 
disappearing and the k being written c. 

' Breaking ' is the name given to the process by which an early a or e 
appear respectively as ea or eo before ' guttural ' h, or I + consonant, or 
r + consonant. Thus eahta is for earlier ahta, eald for old, earm for 
arm, etc. 

NOUNS. 

Nouns are of three genders. Each noun has two numbers and four 
cases. The dative plural ending is the same for all nouns. Masculine 
and neuter nouns have one and the same ending for the genitive 
singular, and one and the same ending for the dative singular. Nouns 
are divided according to their inflections into ' strong ' and ' weak.' 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



95 



I. STRONG NOUNS. 



Masculines. 



Neuters. 



N. beam 
A. beam 



ende deofol 
ende deofol 



a G. beames endes deofles 

j-j D. beame ende deofle 

j N. beamas endas deoflas 

2 A. beamas endas deoflas 

P G. beama enda deofla 

PM D. beamum endum deoflum 



ban god wite waster fast 

daeg ban god wite waster fast 

daeges banes godes wites waeteres faetes 

daege bane gode wite waetere faate 

dagas ban godu witu waster fatu 

dagas ban godu witu waster fatu 

daga bana goda wita waetera fata 

dagum banum godum witum waeterum fatum 



Like beam are all monosyllabic long-stem masculines, as : dfy, cniht, 
ham, storm, stan, etc. Like ende are all dissyllabic and trisyllabic long 
masculine stems ending in -e, as : hierde, Icece, bocere, cwellere, etc. 
Masculine short-stem dissyllables ending in -e often remain unchanged 
in the npm. and ace. plur., as : bryne, dele, cyme, cwide, hryre, lyre, 
slide, snide, stede, swyle, wine, and others. Like deofol are dryhten, 
ealdor, engel, finger and a few others. Like dceg are hwcel, pcc$, stcef. 
Mceg, 'kinsman,' has stem-vowel d in plural. 

Like ban are all monosyllabic long-stem neuters, as : beam, deor, folc t 
gear, horn, hors, hus, land, leaf, lean, lie, mod, sweord, Iping, word, etc. 
Like god are all monosyllabic short-stem neuters, as : geoc, hof, hoi, loc. 
Some short-stem neuters with e or i as stem vowel change the e or * 
in plur. to eo or io respectively; e.g., gebed; plur. gebeodu, g. gebeoda, 
d. gebeodum', thus geset, gesprec. Clif sometimes has plur. cliofu, 
g. cliofa, d. cliofum-, occasionally also geflit, hlid, Urn scip, gewrit* 
Like wite are all long-stem neuters ending in -e, as : cerende, lerre, rice, 
stycce, getimbre, gelpeode, etc. Like fcec are bce}>, bleed, fcec, grcef, swaty, 
\>cec and others. Like wceter are mcegen, weder, werod. 

ANOMALOUS NOUNS. 

Masculine. Neuter. Masculine. Masculine, 

heofon bearu bealu asg sunu feld m6naj> 

heofon bearu bealu asg sunu feld mona]? 

heofones bearwes bealwes asges suna felda monies 

heofone bearwe bealwe age suna felda monbe 

heofenas bearwas bealu aegru suna felda monab 

heofenas bearwas bealu asgru suna felda monaj? 

heofena bearwa bealwa asgra suna felda monj?a 

heofenum bearwum bealwum asgrum sunum feldum monjjum 

Like heofon are the masculines hafoc, heorot, rodor, stapol and some 
others. Like bearu, bealu are cneo and a few others. Like ceg are the 
neuters did, cealf, lamb. Like sunu are wudu (m.), and duru (f.). 
Like feld are hand (f.), and sometimes ford, had, sumor, winter and a 
few others. 

*This change of stem-vowel is called 'back-vowel umlaut,' otherwise 
' t* umlaut ' and ' a/o umlaut.' 



96 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



2 N. gielu 
I A. giefe 
g G. giefe 
w D. giefe 

j N. giela 

3 A. giefa 
g G. giefa 
PL, D. giefum 



Strong Feminines. 
bot sawol 

bote sawle 

bote sawle 

bote sawle 



bota 
bota 
bota 
botum 



sawla 
sawla 
sawla 
sawlum 



braedo, u 
brasde, u, o 
bra}de, u, o 
braede, u, o 



Like giefu are feminine short-stem nouns. Like bot are feminine 
long-stem nouns. Like brcedo or brcedu are certain abstract feminines 
in -o or u, such as strengo, bierhto, hwto, ieldo, hcelo, menigeo, snyttro, 
etc. 

NOTE. Some monosyllabic strong feminines with long stems do not 
add -e in the accus. sing., e.g. ben, deed, fierd, JIMS, mint, nied, scyld, 
tid, win. Niht remains unchanged in nom. and ace. pi. 



UMLAUT (MUTATION) STEMS. 



Masc. 

N. fot 

A. fot 

G. fotes 

D. fet 

N. fet 

A. fet 

G. fota 

D. fotum 



Fern, 
boc 
boc 

bee, bdce 
bee 

bee 
bee 
boca 

bocum 



Fern, 
hnutu 
hnutu 
hnute 
hnyte 

hnyte 
hnyte 
hnuta 
hnutum 



Neuter. 

scrud 

scrud 

scrudes 

scryd 

scrud 
scrud 

scruda 
scrudum 



Like fot is to\. Like boc are the ferns. : ac (uml. cec), burg (uml. 
byrig), cu (uml. cy), gat (umh gcet], gos (uml. ges), mus (uml. mys), 
turf (uml. tyrf), \ruh (uml. Ipryh), etc. 



NOUNS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP. 
pj Masculines. Feminines. 

^ N. br63or fasder dohtor modor sweostor 

g A. brodoz f seder dohtor modor sweostor 

G. broSor faeder* dohtor modor sweostor 

OD D. breder fasder dehter meder sweostor 

A N. broSor* faederas dohtor* modor* sweostor 

A. brodor* faederas dohtor* modor* sweostor 

P G. br65ra faedera dohtra modra sweostra 

put D. brodrum fsederum dohtrum modrum sweostrum 

* Other forms also found are respectively : broSru ; fcederes ; dohtru, 
dohtra ; modru, modra. 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 97 

II. WEAK NOUNS. 

pj Masc. Fern. Neuter. 

N. fruma burne eage 

A. fruman burnan eage 

G. fruman burnan eagan 

M D. fruman burnan eagan 

j N. fruman burnan eagan 

a A. fruman burnan eagan 

G. frumena burnena eagena 

t D. frumum burnum eagum 

Like fruma are all nouns whatever ending in -a. Like burne are 
celmesse, asce, cirice, eorQe, heorte, hlcefdige, mcege, miere, molde, 
naddre, side, sunne, tunge, wcecce, wise. Like eage is eare. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Most adjectives have a ' strong ' form and a ' weak ' form. The weak 
adjective is declined like weak nouns,* and used after a demonstrative 
or a possessive adjective. It is also employed with the nom. sing, of a 
noun used as a vocative, without a demonstrative. The adjectives 
tall, genog, manig and o6er never follow the weak declension. The 
strong form of the adjective has, in the singular masculine and neuter, 
an instrumental case, which is often used instead of the dative, 
especially with prepositions. 

I. STRONG DECLENSION. 





M. 


F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


trum 


trumu 


trum 


blac 


blacu 


bl33C 


9 A. 


trumne 


trume 


trum 


blascne 


blace 


blac 


X G - 


trumes 


trumre 


trumes 


blaces 


blaecre 


blaces 


g D. 


trumum 


trumre 


trumum 


blacum 


blsecre 


blacum 


02 Inst. trume 


trume 


blace 




blace 


ij N. 


trume 


truma 


trumu 


blace 


blaca 


blacu 


d A. 


trume 


truma 


trumu 


blace 


blaca 


blacu 


1 G- 


trumra 


trumra 


trumra 


blaecra 


blaecra 


blaecra 


D. 


trumum 


trumum 


trumum 


blacum 


blacum 


blacum 


tf N - 


blac 


blac 


blac 


heah 


hea 


heah 


3 A - 


blacne 


blace 


blac 


hean(n)e 


hea 


heah 


P G. 


blaces 


blacre 


blaces 


heas 


hear(r)e 


heas 


ID! 


blacum 


blacre 


blacum 


hea(u)m 


hear(r)e 


hea(u)m 


02 Inst 


. blace 




blace 


hea 




hea 


,4 N. 


blace 


blaca 


blac 


hea 


hea 


hea 


3 A. 


blace 


blaca 


blac 


hea 


hea 


hea 


1 G - 


blacra 


blacra 


blacra 


hear (r) a 


hear(r)a 


hear(r)a 


& D. 


blacum 


blacum 


blacum 


hea(u)m 


hea(u)m 


hea(u)m 



* Except g.pl. 



98 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



Like trum are monosyllabic short-stems, also adjectives ending in -lie 
and -sum. Like blcec are glced, beer, hwcet, lost, smcel, WORT (ce retained 
in inflected cases only before two consonants). Like bide are mono- 
syllabic long-stems, such as blind, beorht, rum, etc. Like heah are 
fdh, hreoh, neah, $weorh, woh. 



M. 


F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


rt - N. bliae 


blidu 


bliae 


gearu 


gearu 


gearu 


< A. blI3ne 


blI3e 


bliae 


gearone 


gearwe 


gearu 


g G. bliaes 


blidre 


bliaes 


gearwes 


gearore 


gearwes 


& D. bliaum 


blidre 


bliaum 


gearwum 


gearore 


gearwum 


OQ Inst. blI3e 




bliae 


gearwe 




gearwe 


j N. bliae 


bllda 


blidu 


gearwe 


gearwa 


gearu 


J3 A. blI3e 


blida 


blidu 


gearwe 


gearwa 


gearu 


g G. bliara 
D. bliaum 


blidra 
blidum 


bliara 
bliaum 


gearora 
gearwum 


gearora 
gearwum 


gearora 
gearwum 



Like blide are all long-stem adjectives ending in -e, such as clcene, 
diere, frecne, gemcene, gifre, grene, ierre, lide, mcere, manfywcere, milde, 
niwe, riQe, rice, smede, smylte, swete, Tpiestre, weste, wieroe, wilde, etc. 
Like gearu are fealu, geolu, nearu. 



M. 



F. 



N. 



M. 



F. 



N. 



rt - N. manig manig manig cristen cristenu cristen 

< A. manigne manige manig cristenne cristne cristen 

g G. maniges manigre maniges cristnes cristenre cristnes 

D. manigun? manigre manigum cristnum cristenre cristnum 
02 Inst. manige _?<_ ^manige cristne cristne 

^ N. manige maniga manig cristne cristna cristenu 

S A. manige maniga manig cristne cristna cristenu 

P G. manigra manigra manigra cristenra cristenra cristenra 

pi, D. manigum manigum manigum cristnum cristnum cristnum 

Like manig are bysig, fcegen, fceger, micel, nacod, open, sweotol, yfel, 

and some others 1 But exceptions often occur. Like cristen are dgen, 
bitter, gylden, hceden, hdlig, hluttor, idel, lytel, oQer, snottor, and others. 
Exceptions, however, occur. 



M. 



F. 



II. WEAK DECLENSION. 

N M. F. 



N 



N. truma trume trume .N. truman truman truznan 

d A. truman truman trume g A. truman truman truman 

% G. truman truman truman ^ G. trumra trumra trumra 

00 D. truman truman truman " D. trumum trumum trumum 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

The comparative ends -ra (masc.) -re (fern, and neut.) ; the superlative 
ends in -st (in most cases -ost). 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 99 

EXAMPLES OF ORDINARY COMPARISON. 
halig haligra haligost 

tium trumra trumost 

glasd glaedra gladost 

hwaet hwaetra hwatost 

gearu gearora gearwost 

The following adjectives change their stem- vowel in the comparative 
and superlative* ; their superlative ends in -est (but hlehst) : 

brad braedra braedest heah hierra hlehst 

eald ieldra ieldest lang lengra lengest 

feorr fierra fieriest sceort sciertra sciertest 

geong giengra giengest strang strengra strengest 

great grietra grietest neah nearra niehst 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON. 

god bet(e)ra bet(e)st 

selra selest 

selost 

lytel lae_ssa ijst 

micel mara maest 

ylel wierra wierrest 

wiersa wierst 

Some comparative and superlative adjectives have no positive form, 
but are formed from adverbs or prepositions, and insert m in the 
superlative before the ending -est. Among these are : 

sefter aefterra aeftemest 

fore fyrmest 

inne innerra innemest 

midd midmest 

ufan ulerra yfemest 

lite uterra ytemest 

NUMERALS. 
The cardinal numerals ' two ' and ' three ' are always inflected : 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

N. twegen twa tu (twa) prie }?reo )>reo 

A. twegen twa tu (twa) prie )>reo preo 

Jjreora \ al 
prim / genders. 

iwfm jallgender, 

An is declined like a strong adjective; when it means 'alone* it 
follows the weak declension. Its masculine singular is cenne. The other 
cardinal numerals are occasionally inflected, the nom. ending in -e, the 
gen. in -a, the dat. in -urn. 

* Due to influence of orig. t immediately preceding the r. 



G. tweg(e)a\ ,, , Jjreora all 

twegra ) all g enders - 



100 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



PRONOUNS. 


PERSONAL. 











M. 


F. 


N. 




< 


N. 


ic 


bu 


he 


heo 


hit 




EM 


A. 


me 


be 


hine 


hie 


hit 




1 


G. 


min 


bin 


his 


hiere 


his 




OQ 


D. 


me 


be 


him 


hiere 


him 






N. 


wit 


git 










J 


A. 


unc 


inc 










i 


G. 
D. 


uncer incer 
unc inc 


I 


N. 
A. 
G. 
D. 


we 
us 
ure 
us 


ge 
eow 
eower 
eow 




hie 
hie 
hiera 
him 


Vail genders. 


DEMONSTRATIVE. 






M. 


F 


N. 











N. 


se 


seo 


>at 


J> 


es 


)eos bis 


9 


A. 


bone 


bfi 


?at 


b 


isne 


>as bis 


P 


G. 


bas 


bare 


>as 


> 


is(s)es 


>isse bis(s)es 


O 


D. 


bam 


bare 


?aem 


b 


isjsjum 


>isse J7is(s)un 


OQ 


Inst 






if, bon 






bys 


j 






>a 1 






bas 


\ 


1 






Sra allgenders {*. 


V all genders 


fi 






>am J 






pissui 


a ) 


INTERROGATIVE. 


M. and F. 


N. 




N. hwa 


hwat 




A. hwone 


hwat 




G. hwaes 


hwas 




D. hwasm 


hwam 




Inst. 


hwy, hwon 



VERBS. 

There are two main divisions of verbs : ' Strong ' and ' Weak.' In 
addition, there are four ' anomalous ' or ' athematic ' verbs. The ' principal 
parts ' of a verb are : infinitive, past indicative 1st singular, past 
indicative plural, and past participle. 

I. STRONG VERBS. 

Strong or 'ablaut' verbs may be divided into (a) Ordinary strong 
verbs, (6) Reduplicating, (c) Strong-weak or past-present verbs. Some 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 101 

strong verbs show contraction in the infinitive, the final stem-consonant 
h having been dropped. In West Saxon texts strong verbs, except the 
strong-weak class, very frequently show i umlaut in the 2nd and 3rd 
pers. sing, of the pres. indicative where this is possible. These umlaut 
forms exhibit contraction, due to assimilation and dropping of con- 
sonants, thus: brucan, brycst, bryc\> ; blodan, bletst, biett; bidan, bitst, 
bitl; biddan, bitst, bitt, etc. Uncontracted forms do not show umlaut, 
e.g. brucest, bruce\>. 

A. ORDINARY STRONG VERBS. 

There are six classes of these. There are four stems, corresponding 
to the 'principal parts.' The 2nd pers. sing, of the past indie, has the 
plural stem. 

CLASS I. 

drifan draf drifon drifen 

snidan snap* snidon* sniden 

Like drifan are bidan, bitan, gewitan, glidan, ridan, scinan, 
spiwan, stlgan, swican, wrltan and others. Like sniSan are lidan, 
scriftan. 

CONTEACTED VEBB : 

teont (earlier tihan) tab tigon tigen 

CLASS II. 

beodan bead budon boden 

brucan breac brucon brocen 

Like beodan are creopan, dreogan, fleogan, fleotan, geotan, sclotan 
and a few others. 

NOTE, ceosant ceas curon coren 

Like brucan are bugan, lucan, lutan, scufan, and a few others. 
CONTRACTED VERB : 

teon (teohan) teah tugon togen 

Like teon is fleon. 

CLASS III. 

Containing only strong verbs with two or more consonants following 
the stem-vowel. 

(i) drincan dranc druncon druncen 

* This variation of consonants in the past tense and past participle of 
some strong verbs is called ' grammatical change,' and is due to the 
differing positions of the stress-accent in the primitive Germanic speech 
from which O.E. descended (Varner's 'law'). 

t Meaning ' to accuse ' ; not to be confused with teon, Class II, ' to 
draw.' 

+ This verb shows ' grammatical change.' 



102 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



Like drincan are bindan, blinnan, onginnan, sincan } singan, springan, 
swimman, swingan, windan, winnan and some others. Findan often has 
past indie, sing, funde for all three persons. 

biernan barn burnon burnen 

Like biernan is iernan. 

(ii) helpan healp hulpon holpen 

Like helpan are del/an, gieldan, gielpan } meltan, swelgan, sweltan and 
a few others. 

(iii) weorpan wearp wurpon worpen 

Like weorpan are beorgan, ceorfan, hweorfan, steorfan, sweorcan and 
some others. 
NOTE. weordan wear]? wurdon worden 

(iv) berstan baerst burston borsten 

bregdan brsegd brugdon brogden 

frignan fraegn frugnon frugnen 

murnan mearn murnon 

feohtan feaht fuhton 



Like bregdan is 
spurnan. 



stregdan. Like berstan is Iperscan. 



CLASS IV. 

beran baer bseron 

So : brecan, cwelan, helan, stelan, teran, Tpwer 



NOTE. 
NOTE. 



CLASS V. 

(i) 



scieran 

cuman 
niman 



sprecan 



scear 

c(w)6m 

nom 
nam 

spraec 



scearon 

e(w)omon 

nomon 

namon 

sprascon 



fohten 
Like murnan is 



boren 

scoren 

cunien 
numen 

sprecen 



So : metan, lesan, (ge)nesan, tredan, we/an, wegan, wrecan. 



geaf 

set 

cwaef 



geafon 
seto_n 
cwJedon 
w&ron 

Like etan is fretan. 



giefen 

eten 

cweden 



NOTE. giefan 
etan 
cwedan 
wesan 

Like giefan is -gietan. 

CONTRACTED VEBB : 

seon seah sawon sewen 

(ssegon) (segen) 

(ii) biddan bsed baedon beden 

NOTE. licgan laeg laegon legen 

lagon 

Like biddan is sittan. Like licgan is \icgan (only in poetry, otherwise 
weak). Its past indie, is \eah (or ]?dh), \wgon; pp. pegen. 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 103 

CLASS VI. 

(i) faran for foron faren 

So : dragon, galan, grafan, hladan, scacan, scafan, spanan, wascan and 
some others. 

NOTE. standan stod stodon standen 

wascnan woe wocon wacen 

(ii) hebban hof hofon halen, haelen 

hliehhan hloh hlogon 

sceddan scod scodon 

scieppan scop scopon sceapen 

staeppan stop stopon stapen, stsepen 

swerian swor sworon sworen 

N.B. Sworen is by analogy with verbs of Class IV. 

CONTRACTED VERB : 

slean (slahan) sloh slogon slagen, slaegen 

So : lean, \wlan. 

B. REDUPLICATING STRONG VERBS. 

The past tense form of these verbs is the result of contraction in 
the prehistoric (Primitive Germanic) period. There are two classes of 
these verbs, distinguished by the past stem- vowel. 

CLASS I. 

hatan net heton haten 

Isetan let leton Iseten 

Like Icetan are (on)drcedan } slcepan. Like hatan is Idcan. Blandan 
has blend, blendon, blanden. Sl&pan has generally a weak past slcepte. 

CONTRACTED VERB : 

Ion feng fengon langen 

So hon. 

CLASS II. 

(i) bannan beon(n) beonnon bannen 

So : gangan } spannan. 

(ii) feallan feol(l) feollon feallen 

So : fealdan, healdan, wealcan, wealdan, weallan, weaxan. 

(iii) blawan >bleow bleowon blawen 

So : cnawan, mdwan, sdwan, swdpan. 

(iv) beatan beot beoton beaten 

So : heawan, hleapan. 

(v) blowan bleow bleowon blowen 

So : ftowan, growan, rowan, spowan. 

NOTE, wepan weop weopon 



104 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



beran 

beranne 

berende 



CONJUGATION OF STRONG VERBS. 

INFINITIVE. 
bindan ceosan teon 

GERUND on INFLECTED INFIN. 
bindanne ceosanne teonne 



bindende 



PRES. PART. 

ceosende 



teonde 









PRES. INDICATIVE. 




S.I 


bere 


binde 


ceose 


teo (orig. teohe) 


2 
3 
PI. 1 


bir(e)st 
bir(e)j> 
berab 


(berest) bintst (bindest) ciest (ceosest) 
(bere}>) bint (bindej?) ciest (ceosej?) 
binda]? ceosap 


tlehst (teohest) 
tiehf (teohej>) 
teoj? (orig. teohaj>) 


2 


berap 


blndap 


ceosap 


teoj? 


3 


beraj? 


bindap 


ceosap 


teoj? 








PRES. SUBJUNCTIVE. 




S.I 


bere 


binde 


ceose 


teo (orig. teohe) 


2 


bere 


binde 


ceose 


teo 


3 


bere 


binde 


ceose 


teo 


PL 1 


beren 


binden 


ceosen 


teon (orig. teohen) 


2 


beren 


binden 


ceosen 


teon 


3 


beren 


binden 


ceosen 


teon 








IMPERATIVE. 




S. 


ber 


bind 


ceos 


teoh 


P. 


beraj> 


bindap 


ceosap 


teoj) (orig. teohaj>) 








PAST INDICATIVE. 




S. 1 


baer 


band 


ceas 


teah 


2 


bare 


bunde 


cure 


tuge 


3 


bar 


band 


ceas 


teah 


PL 1 


bseron 


bundon 


curon 


tugon 


2 


bseron 


bundon 


curon 


tugon 


3 


bseron 


bundon 


curon 


tugon 








PAST SUBJUNCTIVE. 




S.I 


bsere 


bunde 


cure 


tuge 


2 


bsere 


bunde 


cure 


tuge 


3 


baere 


bunde 


cure 


tuge 


P1.1 


baaren 


bunden 


curen 


tugen 


2 


baeren 


bunden 


curen 


tugen 


3 


barren 


bunden 


curen 


tugen 








PAST PARTICIPLE. 






boren 


bunden 


coren 


togen 




NOTE. 


The imperative 


of biddan, sittan is bide, 


bidda\>; site, sittcfy. 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 105 

C. PAST-PRESENT OR * STRONG- WEAK ' VERBS. 
These verbs have as their present tense an old strong perfect tense, 
corresponding to Latin novi, or Greek tSa. The infinitive, past tense, 
and present participle were later formations. All these verbs fall under 
the classes of strong verbs (see above), but they show considerable 
deviation. 

Class 1. wat, 2 sing, wast, 3 s. wat; pi. witon; infin. witan; past 
wiste (wisse) ; past p. gewiten. 

ah; 2 s. ahst; 3s. ah; pi. agon, infin. agan; past ante. 

Class II. deah(deah); pi. dugon; infin. dugan; past dohte 
Class III. can(n); 2 s. canst; 3 s. cann; pi. cunnon; infin. cunnan; 
past cude. So : an(n). 

fearf, 2 s. J?earft ; 3 s. pearl ; pi. Jmrfon ; infin. Jmrf an ; past j?ortte. 
dear(r), 2 s. dearst; 3 s. dear(r) ; pi. durron; past dorste. 
Class IV. sceal, 2 s. scealt ; 3 s. sceal ; pi. sculon ; infin. sculan ; past 
scolde 

(ge)man, 2 s. (ge)manst; 3 s. (ge)man; pi. (ge)munon; infin. 
(ge)munan; past (ge)munde. 

Class V. mag ; 2 s. meant ; 3 s. maeg ; pi. magon ; infin. magan ; past 
meahte. 

(ge)neah; pi. (ge)nugon; past (ge)nohte. 

Class VI. m6t ; 2 s. most ; 3 s. mot ; pi. motony past m6ste. 

WEAK VERBS. 

By far the larger number of O.E. verbs belong to the ' weak ' category. 
Weak presents and the weak imperative are inflected as in strong verbs. 
The weak past indie, sing, endings differ from those of strong verbs. 
The past tense is formed by adding -de (or -te after a voiceless con- 
sonant, e.g. s}, -ede, or -ode to the stem. The past participle ends in 
-ed or -od (except where assimilation and contraction take place). Weak 
verbs are divided into three classes : 

Class I. The stem-vowel shows j. umlaut. The infinitive ends in -an 
(some contracted verbs end in -n), except when the stem ends in r, in 
which case it ends in -tan, e.g. nerian. The 'irregular' verbs of this 
class show umlaut in the present stem only. 

Class II. The infinitive always ends in -tan, and the stem- vowel 
never shows t umlaut, e.g. lufian. Verbs of this class, outnumbering all 
others, are formed as a general rule from nouns and adjectives. 

Class III. There are only four verbs in this class, viz., habban, 
libban, secgan, hycgan. 

CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS. 
CLASS I. 

INFINITIVE. 
dselan fremman nerian settan gierwan gretan 



106 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



GERUND OR INFLECTED INFINITIVE. 
dselanne fremmanne nerianne settanne gierwanne gretanne 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 
daelende fremmende neriende settende gierwende gretende 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 



Sing. 1 fdale 


fremme nerie sette 


gierwe grete 


2\ dJel(e)st 


fremest nerest setst 


gierest gret(e)st 


3 [dielje)}? fremej) nerej? sett (sete]>) gierej) grett (grete}?) 


Plur. 1 f 






2] daela]) 


fremmaj? neriaj? settaj? 


gierwap greta]? 




PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 




Sing. 1 f 






2 1 dale 


fremme nerie sette 


gierwe grete 


Plur. 1 r 






2 1 daelen 


fremmen nerien setten 


gierwen greten 


3\ 








IMPERATIVE. 




Sing. 2 dal 


freme nere sete 


giere gret 


Plur. 2 dsela}? 


freinmaj? neriaj? settaj) 


gierwaj? greta]> 




PAST INDICATIVE. 




Sing. 1 / dJelde 


fremede nerede sette 


gierede grette 


$\ dzeldest 


fremedest neredest settest 


gieredest grettest 


3 ( dJelde 


fremede nerede sette 


gierede grette 


Plur. 1 C 






2{ dseldon 
31 


fremedon neredon setton 


gieredon gretton 




PAST SUBJUNCTIVE. 




Sing. 1 r 






2 dselde 
31 


fremede nerede sette 


gierede grette 


Plur. 1 c 






2|dalden 


fremeden nereden setten 


giereden gretten 




PAST PARTICIPLE. 




dated 


fremed nered sett 


giered grett 




(seted) 


(greted) 



NOTES. 

Like dcelan are verbs with a stem not ending in a doubled consonant 
or in t, p, c, x, r. 

Like fremman are verbs with a stem ending in a doubled consonant 
other than t } p t c, x, r. 

Like nerian are derian, gebyrian, erian, ferian, herian, onhyrian, 
styrian, werian. 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 107 

IRREGULAR VERBS OF CLASS I. 

NOTE. The past stem-vowel ea of certain of these verbs is due to 
' breaking ' before A + consonant or I + consonant. 



In fin. 


Past Indie. 


Past Part. 




bycgan 


bohte 


geboht 




cweccean 


cweahte 


gecweaht 




cwellan 


cwealde 


gecweald 




raacean 


rsehte 


geraht 






rahte 






laeccean 


Iffhta 


gelaeht 




secean 


sohte 


gesoht 




reccean* 


rohte 






brengan 


brohte 


gebroht 




)?encean 


polite 


gepoht 




Jjyncean 


puhte 


ge]?uht 




wyrcean 


worhte 


geworht 




Like cweccean are 


dreccean, leccean, 


reccean , streccean, Reccean, 


weccean. Like cwellan 


are dwellan, sellan, 


stellan, tellan. 


Like rcecean 


is tcecean. 









CLASS II. 

Verbs of this class present no difficulty. 

Pres. Indie. Pres. Subj. Past Indie. Past Subj. 

Infin. lufian Sing. 1 lufie lufle lufode lulode 

Ger. iufianne 2 lufast lufodest 

Pres. p. lufiende 3 lulaj> lufode 

Plur. luflab luflen lufedon luloden 

lufedon 

Imperat. Past Part. 

Sing. 2 lufa lufod 

Plur. 2 lufla}) 

NOTE. The past indie, plur. usually ends in -edon instead of -odon; 
compare the declension of the noun heofon above. 

CLASS III. 

INFINITIVE. 
habban libban secgan hycgan 

GERUND. 
habbanne libbanne secganne hycganne 

PEES. PART. 
habbende libbende secgende hycgende 

* Meaning ' care for,' ' reck.' 



108 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 



Sing. 1 haebbe 
haiast 



rhafab 

Plur. habbab 

Sing, haebbe 
Plur. haebben 

Sing. 2 hafa 
Plur. 2 habbab 

Sing. 1 haefde 

2 haefdest 

3 haefde 
Plur. haefdon 

Sing, haefde 
Plur. haefden 

gehaefd 

NOTE. Lib ban 
the second class. 
but it is generally 



PEES. INDICATIVE. 
libbe secge 

liofast /sagast 

\saegst 
liofab fsagab 

\saegb 
libbab secgab 

PBES. SUBJUNCTIVE. 
libbe secge 

libben secgen 

IMPERATIVE. 
liofa saga 

libbab secgab 

PAST INDICATIVE. 
Hide saegde 

lifdest Scegdest 

lifde saegde 

lifdon saegdon 

PAST SUBJUNCTIVE. 
lifde saegde 

lifden saegden 

PAST PARTICIPLE. 
gelifd gesaegd 



hycge 
/hogast 
(nyg(e)st 
jhogab 



hycge 
hycgen 

hoga 
hycgab 

hogde 
hogdest 
hogde 
hogdon 

hogde 
hogden 

gehogod 



and hycgan are often conjugated like weak verbs of 

Fylgean may also be included in the third class, 

conjugated as folgian. Hog ode often occurs for hogde. 



ANOMALOUS VERBS. 

The four verbs cf this class are also known as 'athematic verbs 
verbs in -mi.' Cf. Greek t/zt> efcc., and Latin sum. 

I. The verb * to be.' 



or 



Infin. 
beon 
wesan 

Pres. Indie. 
Sing. 1 beo 

2 bist eart 

3 bib is 
Plur. beob sint 

sindon 

Pres. Subjunct. 
Sing. beo sie 
Plur. beon slei 



Gerund, 
beonne 

wesanne 

Past Indie. 
Sing. 1 waes 

2 ware 

3 waes 

Plur. wseron 



Pres. Part, 
beonde 



Imperat. 

Sing. 2 beo wes 
Plur. 2. beob wesab 



Past Subjunct. 
Sing. ware 
Plur. waeren 



NOTE. It will be seen that this verb has several distinct roots; cf. 
Lat. esse, fuisse. The place of a past participle is supplied by geworden, 
from weor&an. 



O.E. ACCIDENCE 109 

II. 'To do.' 

Infin. Gerund. Pres. part. 

don donne donde 

Pres. Indie. Pres. Subjunct. Past Indie. Past Subjunct. 
Sing. 1 do Sing. do Sing. 1 dyde Sing. dyde 

2 dest Plur. don 2 dydest Plur. dyden 

3 dej? 3 dyde 
Plur. do}> Plur. dydon 

Imperat. Past Part. 

Sing. 2 do geddn 

Plur. 2 do}) 



III. 'To go.' 






Infin. 


Gerund. 


Pres. Part. 






gan 


ganne 




gande 






Pres. 


Indie. 


Pres. 


Subjunct. 


Past Indie. 


Past Subjunct. 


Sing. 1 


ga 


Sing. 


ga 


Sing. 


1 eode 


Sing. 


eode 


2 


gsst 


Plur. 


gan 




2 eodest 


Plur. 


eoden 


3 
Plur. 


g*k 
gaj> 






Plur. 


3 eode 
eodon 






Imperat. 


Past Part. 










Sing. 2 


ga 




gegan 




/ 



Pres. Indie. 
Sing. 1 wille 

2 wilt 

3 wile, wille 
Plur. willa)) 



IV. 'Will.' 


Infin. 
willan 


Gerund. 

willanne 




Pres. Subjunct. 

Sing, wille, wile 
Plur. willen 


Past Indie. 
Sing. 1 wolde 
2 woldest 
3 wolde 
Plur. woldon 


Past Subjunct. 
Sing, wolde 
Plur. wolden 



PE Beda Venerabilis 

137 Selections from the Old 

B43 English Bede 



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