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e 

SELECTIONS 



FROM 



RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

EDITED 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 

BY 

C. H. C. WRIGHT 

A.B. (Harv.), M.A. (OxoN.) 
Assistant Profbssor of Frbncu in Harvard University 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd. 

1903 

A/I rightt reserved. 



Copyright 1903 
By The Macmillan Company 



185624 



• • ' - 

• • ••• 



tTbe DcfntjemAiin prees, Soeton, Aaes. 



TO THE MEMORY 

OF 

FERDINAND b6cHER 
PROFESSOR IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE 



The task of preparing Rabelais for the " edification of 
ingenuous youth" seems daring at first, and doomed 
to disaster. It is, however, perfectly possible to draw 
from the first book a text which may be used by all. In- 
deed, the passages might have been much longer. So, in 
the stately words of the editor of my copy of Sterne, I 
offer these pages " without the least apprehension that the 
perusal of any part of them will be followed by conse- 
quences unfavourable to the interests of society." After 
all, some method ad usum Delphini is the only one of 
making accessible an author hitherto almost impossible 
to read. 

I had originally planned extracts from the five bookS; 
but was urgently advised to confine myself to the first by 
the late Professor Bocher, whose wide knowledge of the 
sixteenth century I was unfortunately unable to call upon 
for any part of my actual work. 

The passages form a narrative of the history of Gar- 
gantua. The text is that of Burgaud des Marets and 
Rathery, which of the various accessible ones seemed the 
least likely to present unnecessary difficulties of spelling 
to the student, who ought to be able to concentrate his 



VI PREFACE 

attention on more important features of a difficult author. 
Much use has been made in the notes of Cotgrave and of 
Urquhart, whose renderings often have an archaic quality, 
helpful in preserving the spirit of the original. 

I wish to thank Professors Sheldon and de Sumichrast 
of Harvard for some valuable suggestions, and Professor 
de Simiichrast for the hospitality of the series in which this 
volume appears. 

C. H. C. Wright. 



CONTENTS 



lOl 

Pagb 

Introduction . ix 

Bibliographical Note xxxi 

Text i 

Notes 67 

List of Recurring Words which require Explana- 
tion 115 



Tu excuseras les f antes de IHmpHmeur j car tous les yeux 
d^ Argus fCy verroient assez clair. 

RONSARD. 



INTRODUCTION 

Rabelais a ct66 les lettres fran9aises. 

Chateaubriand : Mimoires d^ Outre- Tombe. 



No period in literary history is more complicated than the 
French sixteenth century, and no character of that age is 
liable to a wider range of interpretation than Rabelais. The 
first half of the century is marked by the transition from 
the Middle Ages to modem times and the concurrent or 
conflicting developments of the Renaissance, of Humanism 
and of the Reformation. Rabelais is perhaps the best example 
of the man of the Renaissance to be found in France. 
He is also an excellent tjrpe of the humanist, if we assume 
the tendencies of Humanism to be distinct from those of 
the Renaissance ; and, though not distinctly a " reformer " in 
religious matters, he certainly found himself more than once 
at variance with the matiologiens of the Sorbonne, against 
whom he was ready to ^tocttd jusqu^au feu exclusivement. 
These various elements, together with the grotesque quality of 
certain parts of his writings, have afforded opportunity for all 
kinds of inferences and assumptions as to his character by 
friends or foes, which conclusions have undoubtedly often 
masked the truth and have made the more probable interpreta- 
tions seem less natural. 

The first half of the sixteenth century is a time of chaos. 
The " discovery " of Italy has taken place, the Middle Ages 
are being definitely swept away, the student has come in con- 
tact with antiquity, the traveller is daily extending the bounds 



X INTRODUCTION 

of the known world, and the inventor has, by the art of print- 
ing, made more widespread and permanent the record of dis- 
coveries, old and new. Meanwhile, the spirit of the past refuses 
to yield without a vigorous struggle and, indeed, makes its 
stronghold in what we might expect to find the guide to progress 
— the University. Thus the first feature which attracts atten- 
tion is the quarrel between the Old and the New, which New 
we shall soon have to differentiate into its various elements. 

The Old was the spirit of hidebound conservatism grown 
fat and scant of breath after sitting for many centuries on an 
exalted throne of intellectual torpor. Activity there had been ; 
indeed, one may be criticised for calling it torpor instead of 
activity ; but it was rather the activity of the chimera buzzing 
in a void, of which Rabelais himself speaks, than anything 
contributing to the dignity and advancement of learning. The 
external manifestation of the Old showed itself in Thought 
under the form of Scholasticism, in Literature as the verboci- 
nation latiale of the rhitoriqueurs. 

The term Scholasticism is all embracing. It extends beyond 
the contests and squabbles of the Realists, the Nominalists, 
and the Conceptualists until it pervades all portions of the 
intellectual life, from grammar to the supreme mysteries of 
Faith and Religion. 

A complete history of Scholasticism would take us to the 
early Middle Ages. As far back as the eleventh century 
we find great struggles. The Realists, such as William of 
Champeaux, believed that the only real was the Idea, the Uni- 
versal (r6 ica06Xov), existing beyond all things, which are but an 
imperfect copy of it Their theory was one of universalia ante 
rem and to-day, by a queer transformation in the value of epi- 
thets, which though natural seems at first sight to justify the 
charge of logomachy brought against philosophy, they would 
be called Idealists. To them, as to modem Idealists, the Idea 
alone was Real. 



INTRODUCTION XI 

The Nominalists, under leaders like Roscellinus, maintained 
that the universals are non-existent except as mere names 
{merce voces^ flatus vocis), and the only reality lies in what 
modem philosophers call the phenomenon (rh 4>w.v6ii£PO¥), This 
theory was one of universalia post rem. 

A compromise attitude was the Conceptualism of Abelard, 
that of universalia in re; the theory, namely, that the universal 
exists in the individual and that the contact between individuals 
is by means of the concept. 

These easily comprehensible theories became more compli- 
cated in the later centuries of the Middle Ages, when the 
terminology of Aristotle was borrowed to give new vitality to 
an exhausted system of dialectics. The Catholic Church had 
always leaned to the side of Realism, on the ground that itself 
alone is the true Universal, of which earthly things are but im- 
perfect and transitory manifestations. It now incorporated the 
phraseology of the Organon^ and the struggle was renewed 
between two great schools of Conceptualists with strong realist 
proclivities, such as Saint Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus 
on the one hand, and of Nominalists, such as William of Ock- 
ham on the other. The Nominalists are the representatives in the 
late Middle Ages of the true scientific spirit, so far as that then 
existed, but to Rabelais and his associates they were all of the 
same kind, and what Ockham has declared sus les exponibles de 
M, Haultechaussade gets no more mercy from him than the 
qualities, quiddities and haecceities of Scotus — the barbouil- 
lamenta Scoti, 

Scholasticism was, indeed, omnivorous. Though intended as 
a scientific method, inasmuch as it investigated above all 
" Being " it could not be kept separate from Theology. It 
became the philosophical expression of an immutable Catholic 
Church, of which Saint Thomas Aquinas is even to-day the 
logician. The " realities " of a religion prescribing blind faith 
and obedience allowed no chance for doubt and inquiry, the 



XU INTRODUCTION 

essential requisites of scientific progress. Scholasticism even 
laid its hold on secular education. It dealt, on the one hand, 
with the processes of a philosophy investigating by means of 
the syllogism those qualities which made up ideas and things, 
and gave as much truth to the fantastic creation of the imagi- 
nation, the hircocervus^ as to an individual man. It interfered, 
on the other hand, with details, and in traditional text-books, 
never varied and passed on from generation to generation, it 
explained grammar by the Essence of Things, instead of by 
etymology or tradition. In short, logic was the universal 
science, and as all its conceptions were real, the inferences of 
the syllogism became, whatever the validity of the individual 
premises, as true as the observations of nature. And even the 
Nominalists were not free from the clutches of a qualitative 
philosophy based on the investigation of final causes, instead 
of empirical research. 

In the sixteenth century, when Rabelais was a protagonist 
in the fight for the New, this spirit of the Old still held firm 
control of the Sorbonne or Theological Faculty, and of the 
University in general, the nursery of education and so often, in 
Europe at least, the home of conservatism and of tradition. 

In belles-lettres was to be seen the expression of a spirit 
similar to the acrobatic gyrations of minds released from con- 
tact with the concrete world. From a dull collection of prose 
remodelings of earlier poems, of interminable religious plays 
and gross farces, one or two names, principally that of Villon, 
stand out in the fifteenth century. The pride of literature was, 
however, in the achievements of the grands rhitoriqueurs. 
These were authors, mainly of verse, who, like the scholastic 
philosophers, thought much more of form than of matter. 
They had in the course of time and taking their first inspira- 
tion from Guillaume de Machault in the fourteenth century, 
evolved the most wonderful metrical forms of seconde rhdtarique 
(poetry), rimes concatenated, juxtaposed, continuous or equivo- 



INTRODUCTION XUl 

cated, rondeaux and ballades to be read in many ways and 
from different points of the compass with equal sense or non- 
sense. Such were the horripilating achievements of verse- 
builders like Meschinot, Molinet and Crdtin (the Raminogrobis 
of Rabelais) . Their language, too, was a " despuming " of 
Latin verbocination, a copying of Latin speech by those who 
prided themselves on learning rather than on knowledge, who 
had no conception of harmony, dignity, grace in writing. 
Theirs is the style which Rabelais imitates in the language of 
his dcoUer Itmousin, oblivious of the fact that, as a representa- 
tive of the chaotic New, his own language is often an example 
of both Latin and Hellenic verbocination as well. 

For the new spirit, which Rabelais personifies, was similar 
in many respects and in many dissimilar. It still acted on the 
French mind, and so was influenced by past traditions, but it 
was also the expression of another thought which rejected tra- 
dition, or rather was in search of a new authority and tradition 
to take the place of the old one. The conflict may be seen in 
some of the poets of the first half of the sixteenth century 
who, like Marot, are partly of the Old and partly of the New, 
-but it is more interesting to study those who are entirely cham- 
pions of the new cause. The effect of the Italian revival of 
learning has reached France and there, too, has produced the 
inevitable revolution. People now read the Latin authors with 
a new understanding and appreciation. They also sometimes 
read Greek authors and a few turn to Hebrew. For all litera- 
ture is now accessible through the dissemination of printed 
books. Some men, worried by the condition of the Church, i 

turn for inspiration and guidance to primitive Christianity and 
become the Reformers, with whom, after all, we have but little ' 

here to do. Others, of intellectual tastes but interested in 
human rather than divine matters, seek their model in the 
Qassics and, by means of a loving knowledge of antiquity 
tempered by art, become the Humanists. During the first half 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

of the sixteenth century these are mostly philologists or scholars, 
such as Bud^ and Dolet. A third group, much the largest one, 
interested more in enjoyment of the present than in thought of 
the past or the hereafter, gives itself up to the sensuous enjoy- 
ment of its release from the chains of medievalism. This is 
the spirit of the French Renabsance, standing, not for the 
perverted viciousness of the contemporary Italian corruption 
but, at least in Rabelais* time, for the full-blooded vigour of 
an animal mind, freed from all imperatives of inhibition in 
morals and in religion, convinced of the goodness of nature, 
the rights* of the senses, and as lustful of unbounded knowledge 
as insatiate of the pleasures of the flesh. In so far as Rabelais 
stands for hostility to the past (Scholasticism and Rhetoric), he 
embodies the three elements : Renaissance, Humanism and, at 
any rate in his subliminal consciousness, a velleity towards 
Reform, though he is soon disgusted with the excesses of 
Calvinism. As an original thinker, if we are to seek a system 
in his writings, he personifies Humanism and the Renaissance, 
particularly the latter. Indeed, he is in France the type of the 
Man of the Renaissance. 



II 

Francois Rabelais was bom at Chinon, in Touraine, at a 
date placed by some as early as 1483, but more probably about 
1490 or 1495, being one of the many sons of a local apothecary 
or perhaps inn-keeper. He was first sent to school at the abbey of 
Seuilly,! which he mentions so much in his writings, and after- 
wards at the monastery of la Baumette or la Basmette, near 
Angers. A few years later he was at Fontenay-le-Comte, in a 
dreary part of Poitou, where he completed his noviciate and 
took orders as a cordelier^ remaining until 1524. Here he 
undoubtedly devoted himself to serious study, not only of the 

xSeuill^, Solly, SeoUy, Soill^, S^yill6. 



INTRODUCTION XV 

literature of his own land, but also of the literatures of Rome 
and Greece, to the intense dissatisfaction of the narrow-minded 
monks about him. But there was one exception, Pierre Lamy, 
himself learned in Greek, through whom Rabelais became 
acquainted with the greatest Hellenist of the age, Guillaume 
Bud^. Rabelais and Lamy fled from the monastery in 1524, 
in consequence of the persecution which their love of learning 
brought upon them. 

Through the influence of friends Rabelais' transfer was 
authorized to the Benedictine order, then, indeed, not so 
devoted to learning as now, and he entered, as canon, the abbey 
of Maillezais. But here again he became dissatisfied and 
went forth into the world as a wandering friar, visiting his old 
playmate GeofEroy d' Estissac, bishop of the same diocese of 
Maillezais, at Ligug^, near Poitiers. He became interested in 
natural sciences and medicine and in 1 530 appears as a student 
at Montpellier, in the south of France. He was not a regular 
physician until some years later, though meanwhile he practised 
in the important literary centre Lyons, where he began to write 
his books, both learned and light. 

Soon after, in 1534 and in 1535-6, he made two trips to Italy 
in the suite of Cardinal Jean du Bellay, an old schoolmate of la 
Baumette* In 1537 he is again at Montpellier teaching, as a 
member of the Faculty, with great success. The following 
year he travelled about, giving instruction in various southern 
cities, becoming again in 1 539 canon as well as physician in the 
abbey of Saint-Maur-les-Foss^s at Paris. There were also new 
trips to Savoy and to Italy and probably to many places in 
France. 

After the death, in 1547, of Francis I, who had protected 
Rabelais against his religious foes, in spite of the freedom of his 
attacks on the Sorbonne, he withdrew to Metz and probably 
went again to Italy. In 1551 he became rector or priest 
of Saint-Martin at Meudon, near Paris, but held the post a 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

year only, dying soon after his resignation, between 1552 and 

1554.' 

Did time permit to examine more in detail the various stages 
of Rabelais* career, thus briefly summarized, it would be seen 
that the guiding principles of his thought and action were 
great intellectual activity, combined with an intense restlessness 
of disposition. As a result he could never remain long in one 
place or in one position, and he was constantly investigating 
new theories and laughing at prevailing ideas. At the same 
time, he was no militant revolutionist, preaching a crusade 
against beliefs. His satire was a good-natured one, growing 
bitter only against what had actually made him suffer, such as 
the ignorant monks among whom he had passed his youth, or 
the monastery bells which had disturbed his study and slumber. 
He did not possess the subtle wit of the modem Frenchman, 
cruel and unmerciful, fed on wormwood, but the boisterous 
guEaw of a healthy peasant, full of animal spirits and of 
animal, but not unnatural, instincts. At the same time he was 
a peasant whose mind had been enlightened by the nobler things 
of Oassical learning. In other words, Rabelais is one of the 
best examples of what the French call the esprit gaulois^ the 
natural humour of the untutored race, in this case brought into 
contact with a new type which it has not had time thoroughly 
to assimilate. The esprit gaulois may be personified as that of a 
fat and heavy being, somewhat selfish and fond of ease, delight- 
ing in heavy feeding and deep drinking, without intoxication, fond 
of contes grivois and strong stories, looking upon the cheerful 
side of life and ready to do a good service, if not at the risk of 
too greatpersonal inconvenience ; at the same time fully conscious 
of his interests and far-sighted in furthering them. Imagine such 
a person in flesh and blood and you have the embodiment of 
countless well-to-do French rustics. Imagine what their wit 
and humour would be and you have the esprit of Rabelais. 

I Cf. H. Potez and A. Lefranc in the Revut dea Etudes rabeiaisienma (No. I). 



INTRODUCTION XVU 

But rustic and peasant though he was, the man of culture 
may find him a better companion than many of his kind. The 
esprit gaulois before his time, in the farces and comic works of the 
Middle Ages, had been intolerably filthy. In the writings of 
Rabelais there is plenty of filth, but it can be easily differen- 
tiated from the crass attacks of almost every fableau upon 
women and priests which merely revolt, and the unnatural 
perversions of neurasthenic erotomania which are to be found 
in too many French writers today. One can read Rabelais 
unabridged and emerge unharmed from the proceeding. More- 
over, the proportion of filth in his writings is less than people 
imagine and the task of excision is not such a difficult one. 
And there is one thing to be borne steadily in mind : In the 
sixteenth century the freedom of conversation was unlimited, 
and even as pure-minded and religious a woman as Margaret of 
Navarre could write things which seem scandalous to people 
of today. Can we not, without justifying Rabelais as a modem 
writer, find some excuse for him in his time ? Life is to him 
not "on visionary dreams fancy-fed," but rather on grasses 
tripes, vin pineau and other hamois de gueule. Woman is no 
worse than man, but no better, and both are pretty good. Let 
us live happily and follow our inclinations, for Nature is Good, 
says the Renaissance. " N'est que honneur et gloire d'estre 
dit et repute bon gaultier et bon compagnon." 

At the same time, Rabelais had the level-headedness of 
the French peasant, already mentioned. Though he spent a 
large part of his life in transgressing his religious duties and in 
neglecting his tasks, though he espoused heretical causes and 
brought down on his head all the hatred of influential con- 
servatism, yet he managed to ingratiate himself with strong 
protectors and lived under the aegis of bishops, cardinals, king 
and even pope. 

It must by this time be obvious that there were two distinct 
elements in Rabelais* character : the peasant and the scholar. 



XVm INTRODUCTION 

And it is the presence of these two elements in his writings 
which has made possible such divergent interpretations of his 
works, as the appreciations were written by friends or foes. 
To some he was but a sot with befuddled brain, hating an un- 
filled can as Sir Toby Belch. His life was that of a buffoon, 
and his biography is full of apocryphal tales such as the stories 
of the quart d'heure de Rabelais; that of his last request, to be 
buried in a domino (because of the words Beati qui in Domino 
moriuntur) ; of his last sayings, " Tirez le rideau, la farce est 
jou^e," and " Je vais k la recherche d'un grand peut-^tre." To 
others he is the profound philosopher devoted to the unselfish 
and heroic task of freeing the human mind from the shackles 
of mediaeval superstition, the promoter of reform in religion and 
education. 

The truth, as usual, lies in a compromise. Rabelais had the 
disposition of a joker. He had also a powerful intellect, which 
distinguished the real cause of the discomforts he had experi- 
enced and attacked them. In consequence, the germ of many 
a practical reform is to be found in Rabelais. But he did not 
seek to be an inspired prophet 

In fact, Rabelais began his tale as a " pot-boiler." While in 
Lyons he had more than once found out that learned works are 
often unprofitable to author and publisher, whereas trifling pro- 
ductions are favoured by a public asking only to be amused. 
To earn a little money he prepared some almanacs, and then 
rewrote and amplified an old legend popular among the non- 
literary classes, which he called Les grandes et inestimables 
Croniques du grant et enorme geant Gargantua (about 1 532). 
This had great success. "More were sold in two months," 
says Rabelais, "than Bibles will be bought in nine years." 
Then, his ambition growing with his success, he undertook a 
more elaborate work and wrote the first Book of Pantagruel. 
This finished, he took a step backward and rewrote his earlier 
work, which, as Gargantua^ occupies its genealogical position 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

before PantagrueL^ Then followed in succession the third 
and fourth Books (second and third of Pantagruel)^ and, after 
Rabelais' death, a fifth one appeared, now always published 
among his works, but as to the authorship of which there is 
considerable dispute. It is probable that Rabelais left it at his 
death in a fragmentary condition and it was finished by 
another hand. 

Ill 

Gargantua was a young giant, the son of Grandgousier and 
of Gargamelle. His early education was a failure, because of 
the ignorance and stupidity of his tutors, Thubal Holofeme and 
Jobelin Bridd, followers of the old scholastic methods. Grand- 
gousier was in despair, when he heard from a friend, Philippe 
des Marays, viceroy of Papeligosse, of the great progress made 
by a young page named Eudemon under the tuition of Pono- 
crates. After investigation Grandgousier entrusted his son to 
this tutor, who took him to Paris. Arriving there he sat down 
to rest on the towers of Notre Dame, and, admiring the bells, he 
carried them off to use for his mare's neck. The Parisians 
sent to recover them a learned member of the Faculty, Master 
Janotus de Bragmardo, who made a marvellous speech which 
much amused Gargantua, although the latter had already given 
back the bells. 

Gargantua's education now began. But Ponocrates first let 
him follow for a time the old methods, in order to show how 
vicious they were. Then he applied his own with great success. 

Meanwhile grievous events were taking place at home in 
Grandgousier's kingdom near Chinon. Some shepherds were 
protecting the vineyards from the depredations of birds. There 
passed some cake-makers or bun-makers of Lem^, and a dispute 
arose between the two bands, in which the bun-makers were 
thrashed. They complained to their king, Picrochole, who de- 

' There are other theories. 



XX INTRODUCTION 

clared war on Grandgousier and pillaged everything until he 
came to the abbey of Seuilly. There wonderful feats were 
performed by Friar Jean des Entommeures. Grandgousier 
sent to Paris for Gargantua to return home, and unavailingly 
dispatched a messenger to Picrochole to attempt a reconcilia- 
tion. Gargantua started on his return journey, with sundry ad- 
ventures on the way, including the accidental engulfing of six 
pilgrims hidden under a salad which he ate. Arriving at home 
he and Friar Jean took charge of the war against Picrochole, 
and finally defeated him. Gargantua treated the vanquished 
army with clemency and rewarded his followers, establishing 
for the particular benefit of Friar Jean the abbey of Thd^me. 

The plan of the second Book is, in many respects, like that 
of the first, but it is less successfully developed. In this we 
can see an argument in favor of its being an earlier and im- 
mature composition. The hero changes. He is now Panta- 
gruel, son of Gargantua.' He starts off to travel and study, 
and visits much of France. Once, near Orleans, he has the 
famous interview with the icolier limousin^ who, like the Latin 
tutor in the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table ^ mixes with his 
speech countless Latin terms. He is a sample of the pedants 
of all ages, and reminds us in particular of the rhitoriqueurs. 
Arriving in Paris, Pantagruel visits the library of Saint-Victor, 
and here Rabelais takes delight in making out a list of prepos- 
terous titles, in mockery of real books or prevalent foibles. 
Nevertheless, encouraged by a letter from his father, Panta- 
gruel studies faithfully. 

One day, while on an excursion near Paris, Pantagruel met 
a man of good appearance, but evidently in sore distress. In 
answer to inquiries, he began to speak almost every language 
under the sun, and others more unfamiliar still, before finally 
replying in French. This was Panurge, soon to be Pantagruel's 

> In the mediaeval poems the deeds of varioos members of a family are often told 
in turn. Rabelais probably is following old custom. 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

inseparable friend. He was a great spinner of yams ! he had 
had wonderful adventures among the Turks and elsewhere. He 
was a great inventor of practical jokes and full of wiles, by 
which he defeated in silent argument an English clerk named 
Thaumaste, who came to hold forth against Pantagruel.' 

While Pantagruel was in Paris he learned that his father had 
been spirited away to Fairyland, and that during his absence 
the Dipsodes (Thirsty) had invaded his kingdom of Utopia, 
and besieged the city of the Amaurotes (d/uivp6s, obscure). 
Pantagruel started for his kingdom, apparently no longer in 
Touraine, but at the end of a long sea-journey beyond the 
Cape of Good Hope. After tremendous adventures on the part 
of Pantagruel and his companions Panurge, Carpalim, Eus- 
thenes, and Epistemon, he captured Anarch e, king of the Dip- 
sodes, and entered the city of the Amaurotes. He planned to 
continue his fight against the Dipsodes, but, freed from their 
king, they now welcomed him as a friend. 

The third Book was not published until thirteen years later 
(1546). A change has come over Rabelais' spirit, and he em- 
phasizes more than ever the serious element of his work, with- 
out, however, forgetting the grotesque quality. 

Pantagruel is now king of the Dipsodes. Panurge is lord of 
Salmigondin in Dipsodie, which estate he squanders away. 
He wants to marry, and the Book is largely taken up by his 
consultations, the sortes Virgilianae^ the Sibyl of Panzoust, the 
poet Raminagrobis (Cretin), Her Trippa (Cornelius Agrippa), 

' Pantagruel 's companion is one of die most contemptible characters in fiction, 
and rarely has the semblance of a good feelmg. The versatility of his bad qualities 
is seen by the number of knaves and fools he has suggested to different critics. The 
list is long and includes Mascarille, Gil Bias, Giboyer, Ragotin, Pangloss, Patelin, 
Lazarillo de Tonnes, Falstaff, Sancho Panza, Geoi:ges Dandin, Sganarelle, Brid'oi- 
son. Sterne, copying Rabelais, certainly improved on Panurge in making one of 
his chief characters good Uncle Toby. Panurge was undoubtedly partly suggested 
to Rabelais by the Cingar of Folengo and the giants of the Italian poems of the 
Renaissance. Motteux makes him out to be the bishop of Valence, Monluc (brother 
of Blaise de Monluc), and takes him as the starting-point of his whole key to the 
characters. 



XXU INTRODUCTION 

the theologian Hippothad^e, the physician Rondibilis, the phi- 
losopher Trouillogan, and Triboulet, the buffoon of Francis I. 
(There is a long digression on the judge, Bridoye.) Unsuccess- 
ful in their attempts to obtain a clear answer, Pantagruel 
finally decides to take a long journey and consult the oracle of 
the iUve Bouteille. They make their preparations and lay in a 
supply of pantagruelion (hemp).' 

In the fourth Book Pantagruel and Panurge start on their 
expedition to consult the oracle Bacbuc. They are accompanied 
by Friar Jean des Entommeures, Epistemon, Gymnaste, Eus- 
thenes, Rhizotome, Carpalim, and Xenomanes. They embark 
at the port of Thalasse, which, instead of being in Utopie, is 
apparently in France, so that by an inconsistency they are again 
starting from home. And Rabelais is apparently himself one 
of the party. 

First they came to the isle de Medamothi. There they met 
a vessel bearing a sheep-dealer, Dindenault, with whom Panurge 
had a dispute. In revenge Panurge insidiously tricked the 
trader into selling a sheep, which he threw into the sea. Im- 
mediately the rest of the flock followed it, and the dealer him- 
self, while trying to save his property, was drowned. The party 
then visited in turn the isle Ennasin or isle des Alliances y where 
the inhabitants made des alliances de mots; the isle de Cheli^ 
land of friendly demonstrations ; the land of Procuration^ home 
of contentiousness and chicanery ; the isles de Tohu et Bohu, 
home of the giant Bringuenarilles, who lived on windmills, and 
beyond which a severe storm was experienced; the isle des 
Mctcreons, or long-lived men ; the isle de Tapinois^ where dwelt 
a wretched Lenten creature, named Quaresmeprenant, who 
lived on fish ; the isle Farouche^ home of the Andouilles, foes of 
Quaresmeprenant and enemies of Lent; the isle de Ruach, 
where people lived on wind ; the isle de Papefiguiere^ home of 

> This M. Moland calls a " sorte de Saint-Graal mat^rialiste, oppos^ aux mythea 
des vieux romans.'' 



INTRODUCTION XXIU 

those who sneer at the Pope ; the isie des Papimanes^ where 
ruled the bishop Homenas, who showed the travellers the 
Uranopetes Deere tales, letters written by the Popes to the 
faithful ; the isle de Caster^ greatest of inventors ; the isle de 
Chanephy home of hypocrites; the isle de GanaMn^ home of 
thieves. 

The fifth Book was posthumous, appearing in 1564. It is 
the most outspoken of all and, if genuine, as a large part prob- 
ably is, Rabelais may have done well to leave it until after his 
death. 

The travellers first reached the isle Sonnante, where was con- 
stantly heard the sound of bells. It was now inhabited by a 
hermit, Albian Camar, guardian of the island, but had once 
been the abode of the Siticines, since changed to birds. They 
were known as Clergaux, Clergesses, Monagaux, Monagesses, 
etc., with but one Papegaut. They were all birds of passage. 
Next was visited the isle des Ferrements^ a deserted island, 
bearing peculiar trees on which grew implements all adapted 
to their final causes ; the isU de Cassade^ home of deceit ; the 
isle de Condamnation^ where lived judges called Chats fourrds, 
chief of whom was the cruel Grippeminaud, who, like the 
Sphinx, asked a riddle, which Panurge guessed. Then came 
the isU des Apedeftes^ ignorant men with long fingers and 
hooked hands ; Outre, where the inhabitants were fat and dis- 
tended ; Quinte, where PantagruePs ship ran aground, and the 
kingdom of dame Quinte Essence or Ent^ldchie, who effects 
most wonderful cures and represents philosophy. Thence they 
sailed to the Odoi, where the roads move and carry you along 
(moving sidewalks are nothing new); the isle des Esclots, where 
lived the brotherhood of Fredons, who spoke only in monosyl- 
lables; the land of Satittj a wonderful place full of all the 
strange animals of legend and home of Ouy dire. 

At last they reached the pays des Lantemois, inhabited by 
lanterns. And hear by was the island containing the sought 



XXIV INTRODUCTION 

for oracle. In a strange and marvellous temple was the pries- 
tess Bacbuc. She led the travellers to the sacred Bottle, which 
at last uttered the word Trinck^ i. e. " Drink." 



IV 

All these incidents, and the many subsidiary ones which it 
has been impossible to bring into a brief summary, have been 
the object of philosophical or allegorical exegesis. It is to be 
noted, however, that to an important degree the philosophical 
interpretations depend on the disputed fifth Book. If that is 
rejected, much of Rabelais as the deep and subde builder of 
symbols and allegories must go too. 

There remains, however, a very distinct innovation due to 
him, or emphasized by him, at least so far as French literature 
is concerned. This is the conception of the individual, both 
in the development of personality and in his relations with 
society. 

The theory takes its start from the conception, which we 
have already seen, of Nature as good : people have by nature 
" un instinct et aiguillon qui tousjoursles pousse k faits vertueux, 
et retire de vice." Yet though the tendencies of Nature be 
good, so that no wrong can come from the indulgences of a 
healthy appetite, still it is essential that Reason guide the 
training of youth. For, if we permit a debased education to 
lay hold upon it, then we shall fall into the vices of the suffi- 
sance pure livresque^ which annoyed Montaigne, or be in the 
plight of poor Chr3'sale, in a place " ou le raisonnement bannit 
la raison." Moreover (and this fact is neglected by most stu- 
dents of Rabelais), the body is, after all, only part of man. 
The soul has its claims and must be brought to the heavenly 
happiness of bonne doctrine. 

The education should begin early and continue systemati- 
cally, so that no time is wasted. It is to be a training wherein 



INTRODUCTION XXV 

every function is made supple, the body by manly exercise and 
athletic sport, the mind by patient study and ordered reading. 
There is to be no College de MontaigUy with its dirty beds and 
rotten eggs, which made Erasmus sick ; no dinning of worn-out 
syllogisms into one's ears ; no beating of wretched boys with 
blood-stained birches, as in the mediaeval <l>povTurr'^pia where 
dSucos X670S held sway. Above all, the mind must not be dark- 
ened by the murky logic of the schools, for Rabelais is one of 
those to whom logica is an anagram of caligp. It is rather by 
kindly means that the youth is attracted to learning, so that 
with an appetite infatigable et strident he masters all knowledge 
and becomes in good truth an abysme de science. 

In all these much-lauded theories of Rabelais and in the 
similar passages of Montaigne there is less novelty than one at 
first imagines. The whole description of the early education ot 
Gargantua and of Pantagruel is an assimilation of views 
expressed before Rabelais' time by the more noble humanists 
of the Italian Renaissance, such as Guarino da Verona and 
Vittorino da Feltre. This need not, however, detract from 
Rabelais' credit as being, next to Erasmus, the leader of thought 
in the sixteenth century. 

When the training of the individual has reached a certain 
stage and the boy has become a youth or man, he is fit for 
social intercourse and training with his fellow-beings, men and 
women. In Rabelais' social ideal, at least so far as it is 
expressed in the first Book, he is again deeply influenced by 
Italian theories, which were becoming more and more prevalent 
in France, as a result of works like Castiglione's Cortegiano. 
Curiously enough, there are not a few traces, in one who has 
been accused of violent materialism, of social Platonism and 
the courtly life where fine lords and ladies meet and talk. The 
University at which both sexes meet, though there are no set 
tasks to be fulfilled, is the Abbaye de Thdl^me. 

This episode is one of the least understood parts of Rabelais. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION 

To those who have never read the book, who think the name 
of the author synonymous with bestiality, and who have perhaps 
heard of the jolly monks of Medmenham and their motto Fay 
ce que voudras^ the abbey of Thd^me stands for irreligion and 
licentiousness. Nothing could be more incorrect. 

The abbey is, indeed, in a way at variance with all monasteries 
and deserves the name given to it of anti-moniist^re. The 
religion has a social ideal, that of courteous intercourse between 
men of gentle birth and ladies dainty and learned. There is 
no need of the cruel and arbitrary restrictions of monastic life, 
for vices are unknown. Freedom means harmony : men and 
women seek to please each other by sympathy in games and 
studies, even in costume and colour of dress. And all is guided 
by the ladies' will. 

The abbey is a magnificent palace of noble architecture, 
with spacious libraries and halls, with gay purlieus and pleasaun- 
ces. Here men and women lead a happy life. And if true 
love arises between a lord and a lady, they go forth from 
Thd^me and live in fond wedlock as righteously as they had 
lived at Thd^me in sympathetic friendship. 



It results from what has been said that Rabelais, when 
studied in the right way, becomes much less complex, while at 
the same time he rises in dignity. We begin by eliminating the 
buffoon, for all the stories of his drunkenness and silly jokes 
are quite devoid of truth. We find that he was a very human 
person, of plebeian origin and habits, not more given to prudish- 
ness of language than his fellow-beings in a free-spoken age. 
He was an eager but restless student, unwearied in the pursuit 
of learning, and fiercely hostile to those who thwarted its prog- 
ress. For very prosaic reasons he undertook, at a certain 
period of his life, to write a story, and chose for his subject a 



INTRODUCTION XXVll 

giant, hero of popular legend. Into the framework of his tale 
he threw pell-mell the results of voluminous reading. He prob- 
ably never had any intention of portra3dng in detail contempo- 
rary characters or of interpreting his own fooling in the light 
of a deeper meaning, though there may be hints of such things 
all through his writings. 

But as the work progressed he did evolve a philosophy, both 
practical and theoretical. In the former of these two aspects 
it became the portrayal of the life of honesty and good inten- 
tions, though, lest he be taken too seriously, Rabelais adds as 
a foil the character of Panurge, sneak and boaster, contemp- 
tible in every respect, unredeemed by a single good quality. 

In its theoretical aspect the philosophy of Rabelais becomes 
the doctrine of Pantagruelisme^ which progresses from mere 
living in peace and happiness with plenty of good cheer to a 
deeper meaning — " certaine gayet^ d'esprit conficte en mespris 
des choses fortuites." ^ 

And the book is a gallimaufrey formed of all elements. 
Rabelais has drawn upon all the stores of his learning: 
mediaeval traditions and poems, medical lore, Greek, Roman, 
and Italian literature. The characters are at times giants, at 
times they are no bigger than men ; at times they are kings 
and princes, at times mere common people. Now they are 
silly, now wise ; now they are unspeakably coarse in language 
and thought, now refined and pure. At moments Rabelais' 
laugh is loud and boisterous ; at others he is a pince-sans-rire. 
And posterity played on him just such a trick as he would 
have been delighted to play on others, when it put nearly all 
heaven and earth into his philosophy. 

The style of Rabelais is most remarkable. It is primarily 
characterized by a flow of words. In fact, he takes such de- 
light in the wealth of his vocabulary that he is almost unable 

I Cf . the series of definitions as brought together in Marty-LaTeaox' edition, Vol. 
IV, p. 58. Compare with Rabelais' Pantagruelism the Shandeism of Steme, which 
is derived from it. 



XXVIU INTRODUCTION 

to say anything simply, but must needs repeat every synonym 
that can be imagined. Such lists extend sometimes over 
several pages. Victor Hugo is the only Frenchman who can 
equal him in this respect. 

But it would be unjust to confine an account of Rabelais' 
style to this one feature. It has deeper qualities, which, again, 
express his nature : it has the learning and outlook on life of 
the student and humanist ; it has the humour of the cheerful 
rustic. Learning has, indeed, often been a hindrance to him. 
His least successful passages are apt to be those where he tells 
of ancient customs and cites authorities. Quotations and 
references may be to the point ; just as often they are wide 
of it. 

As a result the best part of Rabelais is to be found in his 
earlier books, before he has become so consciously learned 
when he is describing what is based on the experiences of his 
early life, those of the rustics of Touraine and Poitou. For he 
takes us among the games and sports of peasants, their jokes 
and quarrels. And throughout he is helped by the spirit of 
health and cheerfulness. Gluttony, intoxication, selfishness, 
and lechery are all portrayed in his pages, and Panurge is the 
most contemptible scoundrel an author can describe. But 
Grandgousier and Gargantua are good and love their fellow- 
men : much may be forgiven them. 

The cheerfulness of Rabelais is expressed in his humour, to 
use the word which M. Stapfer has made popular. He is, like 
many another cheerful animal of the sixteenth century, a Roger 
Bontemps. Do not seek in him any of the sentiment that 
Sterne added to his imitation of Rabelais ; do not look for any 
communing with the varied moods of nature or a poetic inter- 
pretation of its charms. The Romanticism of Du Bellay, or 
the descriptions of rippling streams and waving woods which 
appealed even to the courtier Ronsard, are unknown to this 
son of the soil. He cares more for popular sayings or the 



INTRODUCTION XXIX 

balvvemes zxA plaisantes mocquettes told over a bumper of wine : 
" lors flaccons d'aller, jambons de trotter, goubelets de voler, 
breusses de tinter." 

And the quality of Rabelais' literary art seems largely due 
to the grotesque, or to unexpected contrast There could be 
no better example of this than the oration of Janotus de Brag- 
mardo, or, in the second Book, the first interview of Pantagruel 
and Panurge. Here, too, Rabelais' learning comes not amiss, 
as when he describes the Paris theologian or the icolier 
limousin. 

In short, Rabelais as a stylist is a mixture of the Marot of 
the epigrams and of the galimatias pindarique of Ronsard. 
And in what he says he puts more life and human nature than 
do either of his contemporaries. Or, rather, he sees more 
deeply into life and human nature. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 



rHib note does not aim at oompletenen. It merely indicates the most asefol 
•oorces.] 



CHIEF EDITIONS. 

First Book : The earliest dated edition of Gargantua is of 1535, 
published at Lyons by Fian9ois Juste. There is» however, an un- 
dated edition in the Bibliothique nationale, which belongs, according 
to Brunet, to 1534. 

Second Book : The first edition, bearing a date, of the first book of 
Pantagnul belongs to 1533, published at Lyons by Fran9ois Juste. 
Of this, too, there is an undated edition, which may be of 1532. 
On the priority of PatUagruel cf. Marty-Laveaux* edition, Vol. IV, 
pp. 15-21. 

Third Book: 1546. 

Fourth Book: 1552. 

Complete Works : The first complete edition (comprising, however, 
four books only) appeared in 1553, probably at Paris. 

Fifth Book: After Rabelais' death, there appeared in 1562 an in- 
complete edition (sixteen chapters) of the last book. The first 
complete edition of this part is dated 1564. 
Of the modem editions the most important are : 

17 1 1. Jacques Le Duchat (Amsterdam) : This edition in five volumes, 
though rarely seen now, is the basis of most modem commentaries 
of Rabelais. It was the first attempt to annotate the author, and 
many of the notes of this and of later editions through the century 
still hold good. 

1823-6. Esmangart, Eloi Johanneau: This Edition variorum, in 
nine volumes, abounds in notes of an extraordinarily unscientific 
character and in remarkable interpretations. However, it does con- 
tain, hidden among the rubbish, a great deal of useful information. 



XXXU BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

1840. Jacob : Edition edited by the bibliophile Jacob. 

1857. Bnrgand dei Karets, Rathery: One~ of the most usefuL 
The text, which is the basis of the present volume, does not follow 
slavishly each first edition, but is scientifically constructed to be 
consistent throu^out. The annotation is uneven : some explana- 
tions are repeated many times. On the other hand, many impor- 
tant things are left without discussion. The introduction is the 
first destructive criticism of the Rabelais legend. 

1868. Anatole de Montaiglon, Looia Lacour. 

1870-1903. Ch. Marty-Laveauz. An important edition in six 
volumes. The notes (Vol. IV) contain many parallel passages. 
The last two volumes consist mainly of an elaborate index, invalu- 
able to the advanced student. M. Marty-Laveaux died before the 
last volumes were issued, and certain parts of the work had to be 
confined to closer limits. 

1873. Pierre Jannet. 

1874--5. A.-L. Sardon : This edition in three volumes, published at 
San Remo (J. Gay et fils) and printed at Turin, is known to very 
few. Only five hundred numbered copies were printed. It is, 
however, one of the most useful and convenient for the general 
reader. The notes (elucidations of the vocabulary) are useful, 
though laying no claim to originality. 

188 1. L. Moland : A students* edition in one volume, containing a 
vast amount of information packed away in a small space. 
The works of Rabelais have been illustrated by Gustave Dor^ and 

by A. Robida. Dora's drawings are the better known, but are in 

every respect far inferior as interpretations of the spirit of Rabelais 

to those of Robida. 



ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS. 

The translation by Urquhart and Motteux has been published 
among Bohn's ** Extra Volumes,'' 2 volumes, 1863 ; by Lawrence and 
BuUen, 1892; also in the "Tudor Translations," introduction by 
Charles Whibley, 1900 (D. Nutt). Sir Walter Besant, Sir Theodore 
Martin, and Mr. W. F. Smith are among the English people who have 
worked at Rabelais. 



meap 
icthuh 



)fl IDS 



^ BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE XXXUl 

^^ BIOGRAPHIES AND CRITICISMS. 

the MS 
i .,, J. Flenry : Rabelais et ses auvres^ 1877, 2 volumes. An elaborate dis- 

^^. cnssion of the subject-matter of Rabelais' works, his life, and 
numberless topics suggested directly or indirectly. 
£mile Gebhart : Rabelais^ la Renaissance et la RSfarme, First edi- 
tion, 1877 ; reprinted with many modifications, 1895. 
Alfred Ma3rrargiies : Rabelais, 1868. 
Reii6 Millet: Rabelais, 1892. A useful little monograph in the 

series of the Grands Ecrivains Frangais, 
Bag^ne Noel : Rabelais et son ceuvre, 1870. 
^*T Paul Stapfer: Rabelais, sa personne, son ginie, son csuvre, 1889. 
' , An apotheosis of Rabelais. The author lays great stress on his 

, , humour. 

Note. — Two of the earliest biographical articles, used as sources, 

are those of Niceron in Vol. XXXII of his Mimoires pour servir d 

i2t Vhistoire des homines illustres, and of Chaufepie, in his Dictionary. 

erf Among modem articles it is sufficient to mention those of Sainte- 

js, Beuve, Causeries du lundi. Vol. Ill; also Du Roman au XVI* siicle 

1/ et de Rabelais in his Tableau de la poisie fran^aise au XVI* silcle ; 

Emile Faguet, Etudes, XVI* siicle ; Ferdinand Bruneti^re, ^««^ ^(?j 

DeuX'Mondes, Aug. i, 1900; Marty-Laveaux, in Petit de JuUeville, 

Histoire de la littirature fran^aise. Vol. III. 



SPECIAL TOPICS. 

Fr. Ang. Amstadt : Francois Rabelais und sein Traiti ct Education, 

Leipzig, 1872. Cf. a review by Gaston Paris in the Revue critique, 

Nov. 9, 1872. 
J.-C. Brunet : Recherches bibliographiques et critiques sur les Editions 

originales des cinq livres du roman satirique de Rabelais, 1852. 
Randle Cotgrave: Cotgrave*s Dictionary (161 1) may well be classed 

here. It is full of references to Rabelais and is invaluable for a 

study of his language. 
6ingueil6: De Tautoriti de Rabelais dans la rSvoluHon prisente 

(1791 ; reprinted 1879). 
Arthur Henlhard : Rabelais, ses voyages en Italic, son exil d Metg, 



XXXIV BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

1 89 1. Fully illustrated with useful drawings and reproductions, 
including a reconstruction of the Abbaye de Th^l^me (cf . infra^ 
Lenormant). 

Edmond Huguet : Etude sur la syntaxe de Rabelais ^ 1894. Very use- 
ful ; of great help to the editor of this volume. 

Bibliophile Jacob : Catalogue de la Bibliothique de r Abbaye de Saint- 
Victor ^ 1862. 

Adolf Klett : Lexikographische Beitrage zu Rabelais* Gargantua, 
Diss. Heidelberg, 1890. 

Ch. Lenormant : Rabelais et Parchitecture de la Renaissance. Resti- 
tution de V Abbaye de Thillme^ 1840. (The same topic was con- 
tinued in 1 84 1 by C^sar Daly in the Revue d* architecture,) 

Hermann Ligier: La Politique de Rabelais^ 1879. 

Joh. Mattig : Ueber den einfluss der heimiscken volkstUmlichen und 
litterarischen Litteratur auf Rabelais. Diss. Leipzig, 1900. 

Poey-d'Avant : De r Influence du langage poitevin sur le style de 
Rabelais^ 1855. 

Ft. Ed. Schneegans: Die Abtei Thilime in Rabelais^ Gargantua. 
Neue Heidelberger fahr backer t Vol. VHI. 

Pietro Toldo : Varte italiatta nelP opera di Rabelais. Archivfur das 
Studium der neuren Sp. und Lit. •, 1SI98. 
Note. — The question of the authenticity of Book V does not 

come within the scope of this volume. Nevertheless, reference may 

be made to two articles, which both argue that it is not by Rabelais. 

Ad. Birch-Hirschfeld : Das funfte Buck des Paniagruel und sein 
Verhdltniss zu den authentischen Bilchern des Romans. Prog. 
Leipzig, 1 90 1. 

Ferdinand Braneti^re: Sur un buste de Rabelais^ in Questions de 
critique. 
Cf . also Marty-Laveaux* edition, Vol. IV. 



The study of Rabelais will henceforth be promoted by the new 
Sociiti des Etudes rabelaisiennes (founded 1903), which issues a 
quarterly Revue des Etudes rabelaisiennes. 



GARGANTUA" 

LA VIE TRES HORRIFIQUE DU GRAND GARGANTUA, PERE DE 

PANTAGRUEL,9 JADIS COMPOS^E PAR M. ALCOFRIBAS,4 

ABSTRACTEUR DE QUINTE ESSENCE.* 



AUX LECTEURS 

Amis lecteurs, qui ce livre lisez, 
Despouillez vous de toute affection,^ 
Et, le lisant, ne vous scandalisez : 
II ne contient mal ny infection. 
Vray est qu'icy peu de perfection 
Vous apprendrez, sinon en cas de rire : f 
Autre argument * ne pent mon coeur elire. 
Voyant le dueil qui vous mine et consomme,' 
Mieulx est de ris que de larmes escrire : 
Pource que rire '*> est le propre de Phomme. 

VIVEZ JOYEUX 



PROLOGUE' DE L'AUTEUR 

• 

'* Beuveurs * tres illustres (car k vous, non k autres, sont 
dedids mes escrits), Alcibiades, au dialogue de Platon, 
intituld le Banquety louant son precepteur Socrates, sans 
controverse prince des philosophes, entxe autxes paroles le 
dit estre semblable es Silenes.3 Silenes estoient jadis 
petites boites, telles que voyons de present es boutiques 
des apothicaires, peintes au dessus de figures joyeuses et 
frivoles, comme de harpies, satyres, oisons bridds,4 lievres 
comuz, canes bastfes,s boucs volans, cerfs limonniers, et 
autres telles peintures contrefaites k plaisir, pour exciter le 
monde k rire : quel fut Silene, maistre du bon Bacchus : 
mais, au dedans, Pon reservoit les fines drogues, comme 
baume, ambre gris, amomon, muse, civette, pierreries, et 
autres choses precieuses. Tel disoit ^ estre Socrates : par 
ce que, le voyans au dehors, et Pestimans par Pexterieure 
apparence, n'en eussiez donnd un coupeau 7 d'oignon, tant 
laid il estoit de corps, et ridicule en son maintien ; le nez 
pointu, le regard d'un taureau, le visage d'un fou, simple 
en mceurs, rustique en vestemens, pauvre de fortune, in- 
fortund en femmes, inepte^ k tous offices 9 de la republique ; 
tousjours riant, tousjours beuvant d'autant k un chascun," 
tousjours se gabelant," tousjours dissimulant son divin 
savoir. Mais, ouvrans ceste boite, eussiez au dedans trouvd 
une celeste et impreciable" drogue, entendement plus 
qu'humain, vertu merveilleuse, courage invincible, sobresse 
non pareille, contentement certain, asseurance parfaicte. 



PROLOGUE DE L'AUTEUR 3 

deprisement * incroyable de tout ce pourquoy les humains 
tant veillent, courent, travaillent, naviguent et bataillent. 

A quel propos, en vostre advis, tend ce prelude et coup 
d'essay? Par autant que vous, mes bons disciples, et quel- 
ques autres fous de sejour,* lisans les joyeux tiltres d'aucuns 
livres de nostre invention, comme Gargantua^ Fantagruel, 
Fessepinthe^ des Pois au lard^ cum commentOy etCy jugez 
trop facilement n'estre au dedans traictd que mocqueries, 
folateries, et menteries joyeuses: veu que Tenseigne ex- 
terieure (c'est le tiltre), sans plus avant enquerir, est com- 
munement receue k derision et gaudisserie.^ Mais par 
telle legieretd ne convient estimer les oeuvres des humains : 
car vous mesmes dictes que Thabit^ ne fait point le moine: 
et tel est vestu d'habit monachal qui au dedans n'est rien 
moins que moine; et tel est vestu de cappe espagnole qui, 
en son courage, nuUement affiert^ k Espagne. C*est pour- 
quoy fault ouvrir le livre, et soigneusement peser ce que y 
est deduict. Lors cognoistrez que la drogue dedans con- 
tenue est bien d'autre valeur que ne promettoit la boite. 
C'est k dire que les matieres icy traictdes ne sont tant fo- 
lastres, comme le tiltre au dessus pretendoit. 

Et posd le cas qu'au sens literal vous trouvez * matieres 
assez joyeuses, et bien correspondantes au nom, toutesfois 
pas demourer Ik ne fault, comme au chant des sirenes: 
ains k plus haut sens interpreter ce que par adventure 
cuidiez9 dit en gaiet^ de cceur. Crochetastes vous onques 
bouteilles? CaisgneP° Reduisez k memoire la contenance 
qu'aviez. Mais vistes vous onques chien rencontrant 
quelque os meduUare ? C'est, comme dit Platon, lib. II de 
JP^.," la beste du monde plus philosophe. Si veu Pavez, 
vous avez peu noter de quelle devotion il le guette, de 



4 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

quel soing il le garde, de quel ferveur' il le tient, de quelle 
prudence il Pentomme, de quelle affection il le brise, et de 
quelle diligence il le sugce. Qui Tinduict h. ce faire? 
Quel est Tespoir de son estude ? Quel bien pretend il ?* 
Rien plus qu'un peu de moelle. Vray est que ce peu 
plus est delicieux que le beaucoup de toutes autres,3 pource 
que la moelle est aliment elabourd k perfection de natiure, 
comme dit Galen. Ill Facult naty et XI, De usupartium. 

A Texemple d'iceluy vous convient estre sages, pour 
fleurer,4 sentir et estimer ces beaux livres de haute gresse,s 
legiers au prochaz,^ et hardis k la rencontre. Puis, par 
curieuse legon et meditation frequente, rompre Tos, et 
sugcer la substantifique moelle, c'est k dire ce que j'entends 
par ces symboles Pythagoriques, avec espoir certain d'estre 
f aits escors 7 et preux k ladite lecture ; car en icelle bien 
autre goust trouverez, et doctrine plus absconse,® laquelle 
vous revelera de tres hauts sacremens et mysteres horrifi- 
ques, tant en ce que conceme nostre religion, que aussi 
Testat politicq et vie oeconomicque. 

Croyez vous en vostre foy qu'onques Homere,9 escrivant 
Iliade et Odyssfe, pensast es allegories lesquelles de luy 
ont belut^'° Plutarche, Heraclides Ponticq," Eustatie," 
Phomute,^3 et ce que d'iceux Politian ** a desrobd ? Si le 
croyez, vous n'approchez ny de pieds ny de mains '5 ^ mon 
opinion, qui decrete icelles aussi peu avoir est^ songdes 
d'Homere que d'Ovide, en ses Metamorphoses ^ les sacre- 
mens de PEvangile, lesquelz un frere lubin,'^ vray croque- 
lardon,'7 s'est efforc^ demonstrer, si d*adventure il rencon- 
troit gens aussi fous que luy, et (comme dit le proverbe) 
couvercle digne du chaudron. 

Si ne le croyez, quelle cause est pourquoy autant n'en 



PROLOGUE DE L»AUTEUR 5 

ferez de ces joyeuses et nouvelles chroniques? combien 
que, les dictant, n'y pensasse en plus que vous, qui par 
adventure beuviez comme moy. Car, h la composition de 
ce livre seigneurial, je ne perdis ny employay onques plus 
ny autre temps que celuy qui estoit estably k prendre ma 
refection corporelle, savoir est, beuvant et mangeant. 
Aussi est ce la juste lieure d'escrire ces hautes matieres 
et sciences profondes. 

Comme bien faire savoit Homere, paragon de tous phi- 
lologes,' et Ennie, pere des poetes latins, ainsi que tes- 
moigne Horace,* quoy qu'un malautru ait dit que ses 
carmes sentoient plus le vin que I'huile. 

Autant en dit un tirelupin 3 de mes livres. L'odeur4 du 
vin 6 combien plus est friant, riant, priant,5 plus celeste et 
delicieux que d'huile 1 Et prendray autant k gloire qu'on 
die de moy que plus en vin aye despendu qu'en huile, que 
fist Demosthenes quand de luy on disoit que plus en huile 
qu'en vin despendoit.^ A moy n'est que honneur et gloire 
d'estre dit et repute bon gaultier 7 et bon compagnon : en 
ce nom, suis bien venu en toutes bonnes compagnies de Pan- 
tagruelistes. A Demosthenes fut reprochd par un chagrin® 
que ses oraisons sentoient comme la serpilliere d*un hord 9 
et sale huilier. Pourtant,'** interpretez tous mes faits et mes 
diets en la perfectissime partie, ayez en reverence le cer- 
veau caseiforme " qui vous paist de ces belles billes vezdes, 
et k vostre pouvoir tenez moy tousjours joyeux. 

Or esbaudissez vous, mes amours, et gaiement lisez le 
reste, tout h. Taise du corps et au profit des reins. Mais 
escoutaz," vietzdazes, que le maulubec vous trousque: vous 
souvienne de boire k my pour la pareille; et je vous 
plegeray '3 tout ares metys.H 



ENFANCE DE GARGANTUA 

Le bon homme Grandgousier,' beuvant et se rigollant » 
avec les autres, entendit le cry horrible que son filz avoit 
fait entrant en lumiere de ce monde, quand il brasmoit^ 
demandant A boire, k boire, k boire 1 dont il dist : Que 
GRAND TU AS, (supple<) le gousier. Ce que oyans les assis- 
tans, dirent que vrayement il devoit avoir par ce le nom 
Gargantuay puisque telle avoit est^ la premiere parole de 
son pere k sa naissance, k I'imitation et exemple des an- 
ciens Hebreux. A quoy fut condescendu par iceluy, et 
pleut tres bien k sa mere. Et, pour Tappaiser, luy donne- 
rent k boire k tirelarigot,5 et fut port^ sus les fonts, et Ik 
baptist, comme est la coustume des bons chrestiens. 

Et luy furent ordonndes dix et sept mille neuf cens treize 
vaches de Pautille et de Brehemond,^ pour Talaicter ordi- 
nairement. 

En cest estat passa jusques k un an et dix mois ; onquel 
temps, par le conseil des medecins, on commenga le porter, 
et fut faite une belle charrette k boeufz, par Pinvention de 
Jean Denyau. Dedans icelle on le pourmenoit par cy, par 
Ik, joyeusement : et le f aisoit bon voir, car il portoit bonne 
troigne et avoit presque dix et huit mentons, et ne crioit 
que bien peu. 

Luy estant en cest aage, son pere ordonna qu*on luy fist 
des habillemens k sa livrde, laquelle estoit blanc et bleu. 
De fait, on y besoigna, et furent faits, taillfe et cousus k 
la mode qui pour lors couroit. 

6 



ENFANCE DE GARGANTUA 7 

Les couleurs de Gargantua furent blanc et bleu, comme 
cy dessus avez peu lire. Et, par icelles, vouloit son pere 
qu'on entendist que ce luy estoit une joye celeste. Car le 
blanc luy signifioit joye, plaisir, delices et resjouissance j 
et le bleu, choses celestes. 

Gargantua, depuis les trois jusques k cinq ans, fut nourry 
et institu^ ' en toute discipline ^ convenente, par le com- 
mandement de son pere : et celuy temps passa comme les 
petits enfans du pays, c'est assavoir, k boire, manger et 
dormir ; h. manger, dormir et boire ; k dormir, boire et 
manger.3 

Le bon homme Grandgousier fut ravy en admiration, 
considerant le haut sens et merveilleux entendement de 
son filz Gargantua. 

Et dist k ses gouvemantes : Philippe, roy de Macedone, 
cogneut le bon sens de son filz Alexandre, k manier 4 dex- 
trement im cheval. Car le dit cheval estoit si terrible et 
eflFrend que nul ne osoit monter dessus, parce qu*k tous ses 
chevaucheurs il bailloit s la saccade, k Tun rompant le cou, 
k I'autre les jambes, k Pautre la cervelle, k Pautre les 
mandibules.^ Ce que considerant Alexandre en Phippo- 
drome (qui estoit le lieu oU Pon promenoit et voltigeoit 7 
les chevaux), advisa que la fureur du cheval ne venoit que 
de ffayeur qu*il prenoit k son ombre. Dont, montant des- 
sus, le fit courir encontre le soleil, si que Pombre tomboit 
par derriere ; et, par ce moyen, rendit le cheval doux k son 
vouloir. A quoy cogneut son pere le divin entendement 
qui en luy estoit, et le fit tres bien endoctriner par Aris- 
toteles, qui pour lors estoit estimd sus tous philosophes de 
Grece. 

Mais je vous dis qu'en ce seul propos que j'ay presente- 



8 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

ment devant vous tenu k mon filz Gargantua, je cognois 
que son entendement participe de quelque divinity ; tant 
je le voy agu,' subtil, profond et serain.* Et parviendra k 
degr^ souverain de sapience,^ s'il est bien institu^. Par 
ainsi, je veulx le bailler k quelque homme savant, pour 
Tendoctriner selon sa capacity Et n'y veulx rien espar- 
gner. 

De fait, Ton luy enseigna un grand docteur en theologie, 
nomm^ maistre Thubal Holofeme,* qui luy apprit sa 
charte,s si bien qu'il la disoit par coeur au rebours : et y 
f ut cinq ans et trois mois : puis luy leut le Donat,^ le Facet,^ 
Theodolet,® et Alanus in Parabolis,9 et y fut treize ans six 
mois et deux sepmaines. 

Mais notez que, ce pendant, il luy apprenoit k escrire 
gothiquement, et escrivoit tous ses livres. Car Tart ^° d'im- 
pression n'estoit encores en usage. 

Et portoit ordinairement un gros escritoire," pesant plus 
de sept mille quintaulx, duquel le galimart " estoit aussi 
gros et grand que les gros pilliers d'Enay : '^ et le comet y 
pendoit k grosses chaines de fer, k la capacity d'un ton- 
neau de marchandise. 

Puis luy leut I?e modis significandi^^^ avec les commentz 
de Hurtebise, de Fasquin, de Tropditeux, de Gualehaut, 
de Jehan le Veau, de Billonio, Brelinguandus, et un tas 
d'autres : et y fut plus de dix huit ans et unze mois. Et le 
sceut si bien qu*au coupelaud,'s il le rendoit par coeur k 
revers. Et prouvoit sus ses doigts, k sa mere, que de modis 
significandi non erat scientia^^ 

Puis luy leut le Compost ^^^ oli il fut bien seize ans et 
deux mois, lors que son dit precepteur mourut. Aprds, en 
eut un autre vieux tousseux, nomm^ maistre Jobelin Brid^,i8 



ENFANCE DE GARGANTUA 9 

qui luy leut Hugutio,* Hebrard* Grecisme, le Doctrmal,3 
les Pars,* le Quid esf,s le Supplemenium^ Marmotret/ de 
tnoribus in mensa servandis^ Seneca,9 de quatuor virtutibus 
cardinalibusy Fassavantus '° cum commento^ et Dormi se- 
cure^^^ pour les festes ; et quelques autres de semblable 
farine," k la lecture desquelz il devint aussi sage qu'onques 
puis ne foumeasmes nous.'3 

A tant son pere apperceut que vrayement il estudioit 
tres bien, et y mettoit tout son temps ; toutesfois qu'en 
rien ne profitoit, et, que pis est, en devenoit fou, niays, 
tout resveux et rassotd. De quoy se complaignant k don 
Philippe des Marays, viceroy de Papeligosse,'* entendit que 
mieulx luy vaudroit rien n'apprendre, que telz livres, sous 
telz precepteurs, apprendre. Car leur savoir n'estoit que 
besterie ; et leur sapience n'estoit que moufles,'S abastardi- 
sant les bons et nobles esprits, et corrompant toute fleur 
de jeunesse. Et qu'ainsi soit, prenez, dist il, quelqu*un de 
ces jeunes gens du temps present, qui ait seulement estudid 
deux ans ; en cas qu'il n*ait meilleur jugement, meilleures 
paroles, meilleur propos que vostre filz, et meilleur entre- 
tien et honnestet^ '^ entre le monde, reputez moy k jamais 
un taille bacon '7 de la Brene.*^ Ce que k Grandgousier 
pleut tres bien, et commanda qu'ainsi fust fait. 

Au soir, en soupant, ledit des Marays introduict un sien 
jeune page de Villegongis,'9 nommd Eudemon,^ tant*' bien 
testonn^,** tant bien tird,'3 tant bien espoussetd, tant hon- 
neste** en son maintien, que trop *5 mieulx ressembloit quel- 
que petit angelot qu*un homme. Puis dist k Grandgousier : 

Voyez vous ce jeune enfant ? il n*a encores seize ans : 
voyons, si bon vous semble, quelle difference y a entre le 
savoir de vos resveurs mateologiens ^ du temps jadis et les 



10 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

jeunes gens de maintenant. L'essay pleut k Grandgou- 
sier, et commanda que le page proposast.' Alors Eude- 
mon, demandant cong^ de ce faire audit viceroy son 
maistre, le bonnet au poing, la face ouverte, la bouche 
vermeille, les yeulx asseur^s, et le regard assis sus Gar- 
gantua, avec modestie juvenile, se tint sus ses pieds, et 
commenga le louer et magnifier, premierement de sa vertu 
et bonnes moeurs, secondement de son Savoir, tiercement 
de sa noblesse, quartement de sa beautd corporelle. Et, 
pour le quint, doucement Pexhortoit k reverer son pere en 
toute observance, lequel tant s'estudioit k bien le faire in- 
struire ; en fin le prioit quHl le voulsist * retenir pour le 
moindre de ses serviteurs. Car autre don pour le present 
ne requeroit des cieulx, sinon qu'il luy fust fait grace de 
luy complaire en quelque service agreable. 

Le tout fut par iceluy profer^ avec gestes tant propres, 
prononciation tant distincte, voix tant eloquente, et langage 
tant om6 et bien latin, que mieulx ressembloit un Grac- 
chus, un Ciceron ou un Emilius du temps pass^, qu'un 
jouvenceau de ce siecle. Mais toute la contenance de 
Gargantua fut qu'il se prit k pleurer comme une vache, et 
se cachoit le visage de son bonnet, et ne fut possible de 
tirer de luy une parole. 

Dont son pere fut tant courroussd, qu'il voulut occire 
maistre Jobelin. Mais ledit des Marays Pengarda par 
belle remonstrance qu'il luy fit ; en maniere que fut son 
ire 3 moder^e. Puis commanda qu*il fust payd de ses 
gages, et qu'on le fist bien chopiner theologalement ♦ ; ce 
fait, qu'il allast k tous les diables. Au moins, disoit il, 
pour le jourd'huy ne coustera il gueres k son hoste, si 
d'adventure il mouroit ainsi sou 5 comme un Anglois. 



ENFANCE DE GARGANTUA II 

Maistre Jobelin party de la maison, consulta Grandgou- 
sier avec le viceroy quel precepteiir Pon luy pourroit 
bailler, et fut advisd entre eux qu'k cest office seroit mis 
Ponocrates,' pedagogue de Eudemon ; et que tous ensemble 
iroient k Paris, poiu: cognoistre quel estoit Testude des jou- 
venceaux de France pour iceluy temps. 



VOYAGE A PARIS. — GARGANTUA ET 
LES CLOCHES 

En ceste mesme saison, Fayoles, quart * roy de Numidie, 
envoya du pays d'Afrique k Grandgousier une jument la 
plus enorme et la plus grande que* fust onques veue, et la 
plus monstrueuse (comme assez savez que Afrique apporte 
tousjours quelque chose de nouveaus): car elle estoit 
grande comme six oriflans,* et avoit les pieds fendus en 
doigts, comme le cheval de Jules Cesar, les oreilles ainsi 
pendantes comme les chevres de Languedoc. Au reste, 
avoit poil d'alezan toustade,5 entreilliz^^ de grises pom- 
melettes. Mais sus tout avoit la queue horrible. Car elle 
estoit poy7 plus poy moins grosse comme la pile saint 
Mars* aupr^s de Langes, et ainsi carrde, avec les bran- 
cars 9 ny plus ny moins ennicroch^s que sont les espicz au 
bled. 

Si de ce vous esmerveillez, esmerveillez vous davantage 
de la queue des beliers de Sc)rthie, que pesoit plus de 
trente livres; et des moutons de Surie, esquelz fault (si 
Tenaud '° dit vray) affuster une charrette, pour la porter, 
tant elle est longue et pesante. Et fut amende par mer en 
trois carraques " et un brigantin, jusques au port de Clone " 
en Thalmondois. Lors que Grandgousier la vit : Voicy, 
dist il, bien le cas pour porter mon filz k Paris. Or 9a, de 
par Dieu, tout ira bien. II sera grand clerc au temps ad- 
venir. Si n'estoient messieurs les bestes, nous vivrions 
comme clercs.*3 

12 



GARGANTUA ET LES CLOCHES 13 

Au lendemain, aprds boire (comme entendez), prin- 
drent chemin Gargantua, son precepteur Ponocrates et ses 
gens : ensemble eux Eudemon, le jeune page. Et, parce 
que c'estoit en temps serain et bien attremp^,' son pere luy 
fit f aire des bottes f auves * : Babin les nomme brodequins. 
Ainsi joyeusement passerent leur grand chemin, et tous- 
jours grand chere, jusques au dessus d*Orleans. Auquel 
lieu estoit une ample forest, de la longueur de trente et 
cinq lieues, et de largeur dix et sept, ou environ. Icelle 
estoit horriblement fertile et copieuse en mousches bovines 
et freslons; de sorte que c'estoit une vraye briganderie 
pour les pauvres jumens, asnes et chevaux. Mais la ju- 
ment de Gargantua vengea honnestement tons les oultrages 
en icelle perpetrdes sus les bestes de son espece, par un 
tour duquel ne se doubtoient mie. Car soudain qu^lz 
f urent entrds en ladite forest, et que les freslons luy eurent 
livr^ I'assault, elle desgaina sa queue ; et si bien, s'escar- 
mouchant, les esmoucha,^ qu'elle en abatit tout le bois: 
k tors, k travers, de gk, de Ik, par cy, par Ik, de long, 
de large, dessus, dessous, abatoit bois comme un fau- 
scheur fait d'herbes. En sorte que, depuis, n*y eut ne 
bois ne freslons. Mais fut tout le pays reduict en cam- 
pagne. 

Quoy voyant Gargantua, y prit plaisir bien grand, sans 
autrement s'en vanter. Et dist k ses gens: Je trouve 
beau ceA Dont fut depuis appell^ ce pays la Beauce; 
mais tout leur desjeuner fut par baisler.s En memoire de 
quoy, encores de present, les gentilz hommes de Beauce 
desjeunent de baisler, et s'en trouvent fort bien, et n'en cra- 
chent que mieulx. Finalement, arriverent k Paris. Au- 
quel lieu se ref raichit deux ou trois jours, f aisant chere lye ^ 



14 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

avec ses gens, et s*enquestant quelz gens savans estoient 
pour lors en la ville, et quel vin on y beuvoit. 

Quelques jours apr^s qu41z se furent refraichis, il visita 
la ville, et fut veu de tout le monde en grande admiration.' 
Car le peuple de Paris est tant sot, tant badaut, et tant 
inepte de nature, qu'un basteleur, un porteur de rogatons,* 
un muletavec ses cymbales,^ un vielleux* au milieu d'un 
carrefour assemblera plus de gens que ne feroit un bon 
prescheur evangelique. Et tant molestement le poursuivi- 
rent qu'il fut contrainct soy reposer sur les tours de Peglise 
Nostre Dame. 

Ce fait, considera les grosses cloches qui estoient es 
dites tours, et les fit sonner bien harmonieusement. Ce 
que faisant, luy vint en pensde qu'elles serviroient bien de 
campanes s au col de sa jument, laquelle il vouloit renvoyer 
k son pere, toute charg^e de fromages de Brye^ et de 
harans frais. De fait, les emporta en son logis. 

Ce pendant vint un commandeur jambonnier 7 de Saint 
Antoine, pour faire sa queste suille^: lequel, pour se faire 
entendre de loing, et faire trembler le lard au charnier,9 les 
voulut emporter furtivement. Mais par honnestet^ les 
laissa, non parce qu*elles estoient trop chauldes, mais 
parce qu'elles estoient quelque peu trop pesantes k la 
port^e. Cil ne fut pas celuy de Bourg.'® Car il est trop 
de mes amis. 

Toute la ville fut esmeue en sedition, comme vous savez 
qu'k ce ilz sont tant faciles, que les nations estranges s'es- 
bahissent de la patience ou (pour mieulx dire) de la stupi- 
dity " des rois de France, lesquelz autrement par bonne 
justice ne les refrenent, veus les inconveniens qui en 
sortent de jour en jour. Pleust k Dieu que je sceusse 



<i*7i. 



GARGANTUA ET LES CLOCHES 1$ 

Pofficine en laquelle sont forgds ces schismeset monopoles,' 
pour les mettre en evidence es confrairies de ma paroisse I 
Croyez que le lieu auquel convint le peuple, tout folfr^ * et 
habelin^,3 fut Sorbonne,4 oii lors estoit, maintenant n'est 
plus Toracle de Leucece.s Lk fut propose le cas, et 
remonstr^ Pinconvenient des cloches transport^es. 

Aprds avoir bien exgoX.6pro et contrayhxtconclvid en ba- 
ralipton^ que Ton envoiroit le plus vieux et suffisant de la 
faculty theologale^ vers Gargantua, pour luy remonstrer 
rhorrible inconvenient de la perte d'icelles cloches. Et, 
non obstant la remonstrance d'aucuns de PUniversit^, qui 
allegoient que ceste charge mieulx competoit k un orateur 
qu'k un theologien,* fut k cest affaire esleu nostre maistre 
Janotus de Bragmardo. 



JANOTUS DE BRAGMARDO 

Maistre Janotus, tondu k la cesarine,' vestu de son lyri- 
pipion ' theologal, et bien antidotd Pestomac de coudignac 3 
de four et eau beniste de cave, se transporta au logis 
de Gargantua, touchant devant soy trois vedeaux* k rouge 
museau, et trainant apr^s cinq ou sbc maistres inertes,s 
bien crottds h profit de mesnage.^ A Pentr^e les rencontra 
Ponocrates, et eut frayeur en soy, les voyant ainsi desgui- 
sds; et pensoit que fussent quelques masques hors du 
sens. Puis s'enquesta k quelqu'un desdits maistres inertes 
de la bande que queroit^ ceste mommerie? II luy fut 
respondu qu'ilz demandoient les cloches leur estre rendues. 

Soudain ce propos entendu, Ponocrates courut dire les 
nouvelles k Gargantua, afin qu'il fust prest de la response, 
et deliberast sur le champ ce que estoit de f aire. Gargan- 
tua, admonestd du cas, appella k part Ponocrates son 
precepteur, Philotime son maistre d'hostel, Gymnaste son 
escuyer, et Eudemon ; et sommairement confera avec eux 
sus ce qu'estoit tant k f aire que k respondre. Tous f urent 
d'advis qu*on les menast au retraict du goubelet,^ et Ik on 
les fist boire theologalement ; 9 et, afin que ce tousseux 
n'entrast en vaine gloire, pour '° k sa requeste avoir rendu 
les cloches, Pon mandast (ce pendant qu'il chopineroit) 
querir le prevost de la ville, le recteur de la faculty et le 
vicaire de Peglise, esquelz, d'avant que le theologien eust 
propose sa commission, Pon delivreroit les cloches. Apr^s 
ce, iceux presents, Pon oyroit sa belle harangue. Ce que 

i6 



JANOTUS DE BRAGMARDO 17 

fut fait : et, les susdits arrivfe, le theologien ' fut en pleine 
salle introduict, et commenga ainsi que s'ensuit, en 
toussant. 

Ehen, hen, hen,* Mna dies? monsieur, Mna dies. Et 
vobisy messieurs. Ce ne seroit.que bon que nous rendissiez 
nos cloches, car elles nous font bien besoing. Hen, hen, 
hasch.4 Nous en avions bien autresfois refus^ de bon 
argent de ceuxS de Loi^dres en Cahors, sy avions nous de 
ceux de Bourdeaux en Brye,^ qui les vouloient acheter, 
pour la substantifique quality de la complexion elementaire 
qui est intronifiqu^e 7 en la terrestreit^ * de leur nature 
quidditative 9 pour extraneizer '° les halotz" et les tur- 
bines " sus nos vignes, vrayement non pas nostres, mais 
d*icy auprds. Car, si nous perdons le piot,'3 nous perdons 
tout, et sens et loy. 

Si vous nous les rendez k ma requeste, je y gaigneray 
dix pans '* de saulcisses, et une bonne paire de chausses 
qui me feront grand bien k mes jambes ; ou ilz 's ne me 
tiendront pas promesse. Ho, par Dieu, Domine^ ime 
paire de chausses est bonne, et vir sapiens non abhorrebit 
eam?^ Ha, ha, il n'a pas paire de chausses qui veult. Je 
le S9ay bien, quant est de moy.'7 Advisez, Domine^ il y a 
dix huit jours que je suis k matagraboliser '^ ceste belle 
harangue : Reddite que sunt Cesaris Cesari, et que sunt Dei 
Deo.^^ Ibi jacet lepus,^ Par ma foy, Domine^ si voulez 
souper avec moy in camera,^^ par le corps Dieu, charitatis^ 
nos faciemus bonum cherubin. Ego occidi unum porcum^ 
et ego habet bonus vina?^ Mais, de bon vin, on ne pent 
faire mauvais latin. Or sus, de parte Dei^^^ date nobis 
clochas nostras. Tenez, je vous donne, de par la Faculty, 
un ^ sermones de Utino,^^ que utinam vous nous baillez nos 



1 8 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

cloches. Vultis etiam pardonos f Per diem ' vos habebitiSy 
et nihil pay abitis. 

O, monsieur, Dotniney clochi dona minor nobis,^ Dea 1 
est bonum urbisfi Tout le monde s'en sert. Si vostre 
jument s'en trouve bien, aussi fait nostre Faculty, que 
comparata est jumentis insipientibus^ et similis facta est 
eis,^ Psalmo nescio quo^ si Pavois je bien quott^ en mon 
paperat ; s et est unum bonum Achilles,^ Hen, hen, ehen 
hasch. 5*» i^ v^^s prouve que me les devez bailler. 
Ego sic argumentor, Omnis clocha clochabiliSy in clocherio 
clochandOy clochans clochativOy clochare facit clochabiliter 
clochantes. Farisius habet clochasJ Ergo glue? Ha, ha, 
ha, c'est parld, cela. II est in tertio prime? en Darii^ ou 
ailleurs. Par mon ame, j'ay veu le temps que je faisois 
diables de arguer. Mais de present je ne fais plus que 
resver, et ne me fault plus dorenavant que bon vin, bon 
lict, le dos au feu, le ventre k table,'® et escuelle bien 
profonde. Hay, Domine^ je vous prie, in nomine Patris^ 
et Filii et Spiritus Sanctis Anien^ que vous rendez" nos 
cloches: et Dieu vous gard de mal et Nostre Dame de 
Sant^," qui vivit et regnat per omnia secula seculorum. 
Amen, Hen hasch, hasch, grrenhen hasch. 

Verum enim verOy quando quidem, dubio procul^ Edepol, 
quoniam, ita^ certe, meus deusfidius^^^ une ville sans cloches 
est comme un aveugle sans baston, un asne sans cropiere, 
et une vache sans cymbales. Jusques k ce que nous les 
ayez rendues, nous ne cesserons de crier apr^s vous comme 
un aveugle qui a perdu son baston, de braisler '^ comme un 
asne sans cropiere, et de bramer comme une vache sans 
cymbales. Un quidam latinisateur, demeurant prds Thos- 
tel Dieu,'s dist une fois, allegant Pautorit^ d'un Taponnus 



JANOTUS DE BRAGMARDO IQ 

(je faulx, c'estoit Pontanus"), poete seculier,^ qu'il desiroit 
qu'elles f ussent de plume, et le batail 3 fust d'une queue de 
renard ; pour ce qu'elles luy engendroient la chronique ♦ 
aux tripes du cerveau, quand il composoit ses vers carmini- 
formes.s Mais, nac petetin petetac, ticque, torche lorgne,^ 
il fut declare heretique. Nous les faisons comme de cire.7 
Et plus n'en dist le deposant.* Valete etplaudite,^ Cale- 
pinus recensui^^ 

Le theologien " n'eut si tost achev^, que Ponocrates et 
Eudemon s'esclafferent " de rire, tant profondement que 
en cuiderent '3 rendre Pame k Dieu ; ny plus ny moins que 
Crassus,'-* voyant un asne qui mangeoit des chardons, et 
comme Philemon, 's voyant un asne qui mangeoit des figues 
qu'on avoit aprestd pour le disner, mourut de force de rire. 
Ensemble eux commenga rire maistre Janotus, k qui mieulx 
mieulx, tant que les larmes leur venoient es yeulx, par la 
vehemente concution de la substance du cerveau, \ laquelle 
furent exprimdes ces humiditds lachrymales,et transcoulldes 
jouxte les nerfs optiques. En quoy par eux estoit Demo- 
crite '^ heraclitizant et Heraclite democritizant represent^. 

Ces rys du tout sed^s,'7 consulta Gargantua avec ses 
gens sur ce qu'estoit de faire. Lk fut Ponocrates d'advis 
qu'on fist reboire ce bel orateur : et, veu qu'il leur avoit 
donnd du passetemps, et plus fait rire que n'eust fait 
Songecreux,'^ qu'on luy baillast les dix pans de saulcisses 
mentionn^s en la joyeuse harangue, avec une paire de 
chausses, trois cens de gros bois de moulle,'9 vingt et cinq 
muiz de vin, un lict k triple couche de plume anserine,'® et 
ime escuelle bien capable et profonde : lesquelles disoit 
estre k sa vieillesse necessaires. 

Le tout fut fait ainsi qu'avoit est^ deliber^. 



Etudes et jeux de gargantua 

Les premiers jours ainsi passes, et les cloches remises 
en leur lieu, les citoyens de Paris, par recognoissance de 
ceste honnestet^,' s'offrirent d'entretenir et nourrir sa ju- 
ment tant qu'il luy plairoit. Ce que Gargantua prit bien 
h gr6. Et Tenvoyerent vivre en la forest de Biere.* Je 
croy qu'elle n'y soit plus maintenant. 

Ce fait, voulut de tout son sens estudier k la discretion 
de Ponocrates. Mais iceluy, pour le commencement, 
ordonna qu'il feroit k sa maniere accoustumde, afin d'en- 
tendre par quel moyen, en si long temps, ses antiques 
precepteurs Pavoient rendu tant fat, niays et ignorant. 

Quand Ponocrates cogneut la vicieuse maniere de vivre 
de Gargantua, delibera autrement Tinstituer en lettres; 
mais, pour les premiers jours, le tolera, considerant que 
nature 3 n'endure mutations soudaines sans grande vio- 
lence. 

Pour done mieulx son ceuvre commencer, supplia un sa- 
vant medecin de celuy temps, nomm^ maistre Theodore,* 
k ce qu'il considerast si possible estoit remettre Gargantua 
en meilleure voie. Lequel le purgea canoniquement s avec 
elebore de Anticyre,^ et, par ce medicament, luy nettoya 
toute Talteration et perverse habitude du cerveau. Par ce 
moyen aussi, Ponocrates luy fit oublier tout ce qu'il avoit 
appris sous ses antiques precepteurs, comme faisoit Timo- 
thde 7 k ses disciples, qui avoient est^ instruicts sous autres 
musiciens. 

20 



6TUDES ET JEUX DE GARGANTUA 21 

Pour mieulx ce faire, rintroduisoit es compagnies des 
gens savans qui 1^ estoient, k Pemulation desquelz luy 
creust ' I'esprit et le desir d'estudier autrement, et se faire 
valoir. 

Aprds, en tel train d'estude le mit qu'il ne perdoit heure 
quelconques du jour : ains tout son temps consbmmoit en 
lettres et honneste savoir. S'esveilloit done Gargantua 
environ quatre heures ^ du matin. Ce pendant qu*on le 
frottoit, luy estoit leue quelque pagine de la divine Escri- 
ture, hautement et clairement, avec prononciation compe- 
tente h la matiere ; et k ce estoit commis un jeune page 
natif de Basch^,3 nomm^ Anagnostes.4 Selon le propos et 
argument de ceste legon, souventesfois s'adonnoit k reverer, 
adorer, prier et supplier le bon Dieu, duquel la lecture 
montroit la majesty et jugemens merveilleux. 

Ce fait, estoit habilld, peign^, testonnd, acoustrd et par- 
fum^, durant lequel temps on luy repetoit les legons du 
jour d*avant. Luy mesmes les disoit par coeur, et y fon- 
doit quelques cas pratiques concemens I'estat humain; 
lesquelz ilz estendoient aucunes fois jusques deux ou trois 
heures ; mais ordinairement cessoient lors qu*il estoit du 
tout 5 habill^. Puis, par trois bonnes heures, luy estoit 
faite lecture. 

Ce fait, issoient ^ hors, tousjours conferens des propos 
de la lecture, et se desportoient en Bracque,^ ou es pr^s, 
et jouoient k la balle, k la paulme,^ k la pile trigone,^ 
galantement '° s*exerceans les corps comme ilz avoient les 
ames auparavant exerc^. Tout leur jeu n'estoit qu'en 
liberty : car ilz laissoient la partie quand leur plaisoit ; et 
cessoient ordinairement lors que suoient parmy le corps, 
ou estoient autrement las. Adonc estoient tres bien essu^s " 



/ 



22 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

et frott^s, changeoient de chemise, et, doucement se pour- 
menans, alloient voir si le disner estoit prest. Lk atten- 
dans, recitoient clairement et eloquentement quelques sen- 
tences ' retenues de la le9on. 

Ce pendant monsieur Tappetit venoit, et, par bonne 
opportunity, s'asseoient k table. Au commencement du 
repas, estoit leue quelque histoire plaisante des apciennes 
prouesses, jusques k ce qu'il eust pris son vin. Lors (si 
boh'sembloit) on continuoit la lecture, ou commengoient k 
deviser * joyeusement ensemble, parlans, pour les premiers 
moys, de la vertu, propriety, efficace et nature de tout ce 
que leur estoit servy k table : du pain, du vin, de I'eau, du 
sel, des viandes, poissons, fruictz, herbes, racines, et de 
Tapprest d^celles. Ce que faisant, apprit en peu de temps 
tous les passages k ce competens 3 en Pline,4 Athende,5 
Dioscorides,^ Julius Pollux,^ Galen, Porphyre,* Opian,9 
Polybe,'° Heliodore," Aristoteles, Elian," et autres. Iceux 
propos tenus, faisoient souvent, pour plus estre asseur^s, 
apporter les livres susdits k table. Et si bien et entiere- 
ment retint en sa memoire les choses dites, que, pour lors, 
n'estoit medecin qui en sceust k la moiti^ tant comme il 
faisoit. Aprds, devisoient des legons leues au matin, et, 
parachevans leur repas par quelque confection de cotoniat,'^ 
s'escuroit les dents avec un trou de lentisce,'^ se lavoit les 
mains et les yeulx de belle eau f raiche, et rendoient graces 
k Dieu par quelques beaux cantiques f aits k la louange de 
la munificence et benignitd divine. 

Ce fait, on apportoit des chartes,'s non pour jouer, mais 
pour y apprendre mille petites gentillesses et inventions 
nouvelles. Lesquelles toutes issoient de arithmetique. 
En ce moyen, entra en affection d'icelle science numerale, 



Etudes et jeux de gargantua 23 

et, tous les jours aprds disner et souper, y passoit temps 
aussi plaisantement qu*il souloit ' es dds ou es chartes. A 
tant sceut d*icelle et theorique et practique, si bien que 
Tunstal,* Anglois, qui en avoit amplement escrit, confessa 
que vrayement, en comparaison de luy, il n'y entendoit que 
le haut alemant.3 

Et non seulement d'icelle, mais des autres sciences mathe- 
matiques, comme geometric, astronomic et musique. Car, 
attendans la concoction et digestion de son past,* ilz fai- 
soient mille joyeux instrumens et figures geometriques, et 
de mesmes pratiquoient les canons astronomiques. Aprds, 
s'esbaudissoient k chanter musicalement k quatre et cinq 
parties, ou sus un theme, k plaisir de gorge.5 Au regard 
des instrumens de musique, il apprit jouer du luc,^ de 
respinette,7 de la harpe, de la flutte d'alemant, et h. neuf 
trous ; de la viole, et de la saqueboutte.^ 

Ceste heure ainsi employee, la digestion parachevde, se 
remettoit k son estude 9 principal par trois heures ou da- 
vantage ; tant k repeter la lecture matutinale qu'k pour- 
suivre le livre entrepris, que aussi k escrire, bien traire " et 
former les antiques et romaines lettres. 

Ce fait, issoient hors leur hostel; avec eux un jeune 
gentilhomme de Touraine, nommd Tescuyer Gymnaste, le- 
quel luy monstroit Tart de cheyalerie." Changeant done 
de vestemens, montoit sus un coursier, sus un roussin," 
sus un genet, '3 sus un cheval barbe,'* cheval legier ; et luy 
donnoit cent quarrieres'S; le faisoitvoltiger en rair,franchir 
le foss^, saulter le palis,'^ cour toumer en un cercle, tant k 
dextre comme k senestre.'^ lA rompoit, non la lance (car 
c*est la plus grande resverie^^ du monde dire : J'ay rompu 
dix lances en toumoy, ou en bataille ; un charpentier le 



24 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

feroitbien), mais louable gloire est d'une lance avoir rompu 
dix de ses ennemis. De sa lance done asser^e,' verde, et 
roide, rompoit un huis,* enfon9oit un hamois,3 acuUoit* une 
arbre, enclavoit s un anneau, enlevoit une selle d'armes, un 
aubert,^ un gantelet. Le tout f aisoit, arm^ de pied en cap, 

Au regard de fanfarer,^ et f aire les petits popismes * sus 
un cheval, nul ne le fit mieulx que luy. Le voltigeur de 
Ferrare9 n'estoit qu'un cinge en comparaison. Singuliere- 
ment estoit appris k saulter hastivement d'un cheval sus 
Tautre sans prendre terre (et nommoit on ces chevaux de- 
sultoires "), et, de chascun cost^, la lance au poing, monter 
sans estrivieres ; et, sans bride, guider le cheval k son 
plaisir. Car telles choses servent k discipline militaire. 

Un autre jour, s'exergoit k la hascheTlaquelle tant bien 
croulloit," tant verdement de tous pics" reserroit, tant 
soupplement avalloit en taille ronde,'3 qu*il fust pass^ 
chevalier d'armes en campagne, et en tous essays. 

Puis bransloit la picque, sacquoit '^ de Tespde k deux 
mains, de Tespde bastarde,'s de Tespagnole, de la dague, et 
du poignard ; arm^, non arm^, au bonder,'^ k la cappe,'^ 
k la rondelle.'^ 

Couroit le cerf, le chevreuil, Pours, le daim, le sanglier, 
le lievre, la perdrix, le faisant, Totarde.'^ Jouoit h. la grosse 
balle, et la faisoit bondir en Pair, autant du pied que du 
poing. 

Luctoit, couroit, saultoit, non h trois pas un sault, non k 
cloche pied, non au sault d'Alemant^° (car, disoit Gymnaste, 
telz saults sont inutiles, et de inul bien en guerre), mais 
d'un sault pergoit un foss^, voUoit sus une haye, montoit 
six pas encontre une muraille, et rampoit en ceste fa9on k 
une fenestre de la hauteur d'une lance. 



Etudes et jeux de gargantua 25 

Nageoit en profonde eau, h Tendroit, h. Tenvers, de 
cost^, de tout le corps, des seuls pieds, une main en Pair, 
en laquelle tenant un livre, transpassoit toute la riviere de 
Seine sans iceluy mouiller, et tirant par les dents son 
manteau, comme faisoit Jules Cesar': puis d'une main 
entroit par grande force en un basteau, d'iceluy se jettoit 
derechef en Teau la teste premiere : sondoit le parfond, 
creusoit les rochiers, plongeoit es abysmes et goufres. Puis 
iceluy basteau toumoit, gouvemoit, menoit hastivement, 
lentement, h. fil d*eau, contre cours, le retenoit en pleine 
escluse, d'une main le guidoit ; de I'autre s'escrimoit avec 
un grand aviron, tendoit le vele,^ montoit au matz par les 
traicts,3 couroit sur les branquars,* adjustoit la boussole, 
contreventoit les boulines,5 bandoit le gouvernail. 

Issant de Teau roidement, montoit encontre la mon- 
tagne, et devalloit aussi franchement; gravoit es arbres 
comme un chat, saultoit de Tune en Pautre comme un 
escurieux,^ abatoit les gros rameaux comme un autre 
Milo7: avec deux poignards asserts et deux poinsons 
esprouv^s montoit au haut d'une maison comme un rat, 
descendoit puis du haut en bas, en telle composition des 
membres que de la cheute n'estoit aucunement grev^. Jet- 
toit le dard, la barre,^ la pierre, la javeline, Pespieu, la 
halebarde; enfon9oit Pare, bandoit es reins les fortes 
arbalestes de passe,9 visoit de Parquebouse k I'ceil, affeu- 
stoit le canon, tiroit k la butte, au papeguay, du bas en 
mont, d'amont en val, devant, de cost^, en arriere, comme 
les Parthes.'° 

On luy attachoit un cable en quelque haute tour, pendant 
en terre : par iceluy avec deux mains montoit, puis deva- 
loit si roidement et si asseurement que plus ne pourriez 



26 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

parmy un pr^ bien egalM. On luy mettoit une grosse 
perche appuy^e h. deux arbres ; h. icelle se pendoit par les 
mains, et d'icelle alloit et venoit sans des pieds h, rien 
toucher, qu'k grande course on ne Feust peu aconcevoir.' 

Et, pour s'exercer le thorax et poulmons, crioit comme 
tous les diables. Je I'ouy une fois appellant Eudemon, 
depuis la porte Saint-Victor jusques h, Montmartre. Sten- 
tor * n*eut onques telle voix k la bataille de Troye. 

Et, pour galentir3 les nerfs, on luy avoit fait deux 
grosses saulmones 4 de plomb, chascune du pois de huit 
mille sept cens quintaulx, lesquelles il nommoit alteres.s 
Icelles prenoit de terre en chascune main, et les eslevoit 
en Pair au dessus de la teste ; les tenoit ainsi sans soy re- 
muer trois quarts d'heure et davantage, que estoit une 
force inimitable. 

Jouoit aux barres^ avec les plus forts. Et quand le 
point advenoit, se tenoit sus ses pieds tant roidement qu*il 
s'abandonnoit es plus adventureux, en cas qu'ilz le fissent 
mouvoir de sa place, comme jadis faisoit Milo. A Pimita- 
tion duquel aussi tenoit une pomme de grenade en sa main, 
et la donnoit h. qui luy pourroit oster. 

Le temps ainsi employ^, luy frottd, nettoy^, et refraichy 
d'habillemens, tout doucement s'en retoumoient, et, passans 
par quelques pr& ou autres lieux herbus, visitoient les 
arbres et plantes, les conferens avec les livres des anciens 
qui en ont escrit, comme Theophraste,^ Dioscorides, Ma- 
rinus,* Pline, Nicander,9 Macer " et Galen ; et en empor- 
toient leurs pleines mains au logis; desquelles avoit la 
charge un jeune page nomm^ Rhizotome " ; ensemble des 
marrochons," des pioches, cerfouettes, beches, tranches, et 
autres instrumens requis k bien arborizer.'s 



Etudes et jeux de gargantua 27 

Eux arrives au logis, ce pendant qu'on aprestoit le sou- 
per, repetoient quelques passages de ce qu'avoit est^ leu, 
et s'asseoient k table. Notez icy que son disner estoit 
sobre et frugal ; car tant seulement mangeoit pour ref rener 
les aboys de Testomac : mais le souper estoit copieux et 
large. Car tant en prenoit que luy estoit de besoing h soy 
entretenir et nourrir. Ce que est la vraye diette, prescrite 1 
par Tart de bonne et seure medecine ; quoy qu'un tas de/ 
badaux medecins, herselds ' en I'officine des Arabes, con-j 
seillent le contraire. 

Durant iceluy repas estoit continude la le9on du disner, 
tant que bon sembloit ; le reste estoit consomm^ en bons 
propos, tous lettr& et utiles. Apr^s Graces rendues, 
s'adonnoient h. chanter musicalement, k jouer d'instrumens 
harmonieux, ou de ces petits passetemps qu'on fait es 
chartes, es dds, et goubelets * : et Ik demeuroient faisans 
grand chere, s'esbaudissans aucunes fois jusques h. I'heure 
de dormir ; quelquef ois alloient visiter les compagnies des 
gens lettrds, ou de gens qui eussent veu pays estranges. 

En pleine nu)rt, devant que soy retirer, alloient, au lieu 
de leur logis le plus descouvert, voir la face du ciel ; et \k 
notoient les cometes si aucunes estoient, les figures, situa- 
tions, aspects, oppositions et conjonctions des astres. 

Puis, avec son precepteur, recapituloit brievement, k la 
mode des Pythagoriques, tout ce qu'il avoit leu, veu, sceu, 
fait et entendu au decours de toute la journ^e. 

Si prioient Dieu le createur en Tadorant, et ratifiant leur 
foy envers luy, et le glorifiant de sa bont^ immense : et, 
luy rendans grace de tout le temps pass^, se recomman- 
doient k sa divine clemence pour tout Padvenir. Ce fait, 
entroient en leur repos. 



28 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

S*il advenoit que Pair fust pluvieux et intemper^, tout le 
temps d'avant disner estoit employ^ comme de coustume, 
except^ qu*il faisoit allumer un beau et clair feu, pour cor- 
riger rintemperie de Pair. Mais, apr& disner, en lieu 
des exercitations, ilz demouroient en la maison, et, par 
maniere d'apotherapie,' s'esbatoient h boteler ^ du foin, k 
f endre et scier du bois, et k battre les gerbes en la grange. 
Puis estudioient en Part de peinture et sculpture ; ou revo- 
quoient en usage Pantique jeu des tales,3 ainsi qu'en a 
escrit Leonicus,4 et comme y joue nostre bon amy Lascaris.5 

En y jouant, recoloient les passages des auteurs anciens 
esquelz est faite mention ou prise quelque metaphore sus 
iceluy jeu. Semblablement, ou alloient voir comment on 
tiroit les metaulx, ou comment on fondoit Partillerie: ou 
alloient voir les lapidaires, orfevres, et tailleurs de pierre- 
ries; ou les alchymistes et monoyeurs; ou les hautelis- 
siers,^ les tissotiers,^ les veloutiers, les horologiers, miral- 
liers,® imprimeurs, organistes,9 taincturiers, et autres telles 
sortes d*ouvriers, et, par tout donnans le vin,'° apprenoient 
et consideroient Pindustrie et invention des mestiers. 

Alloient ouir les legons publiques, les actes solennelz, 
les repetitions," les declamations, les plaidoids des gentilz 
advocatz, les concions " des prescheurs evangeliques, 

Passoit par les salles et lieux ordonnds pour Pescrime : 
et Ik, contre les maistres, essayoit de tons bastons,^3 et leur 
monstroit par evidence qu'autant, voire plus, en savoit 
qu'iceux. 

Et, au lieu d*arboriser, visitoient les boutiques des dro- 
gueurs, herbiers, et apothicaires, et soigneusement conside- 
roient les fruictz, racines, feuilles, gommes, semences, 
axunges peregrines, '4 ensemble aussi comment on les adul- 



Etudes et jeux de gargantua 29 

teroit. AUoit voir les basteleurs, trejectaires,' et theria- 
cleurs,* et consideroit leurs gestes, leurs ruses, leurs sou- 
bressaults et beau parler: singulierement de ceux de 
Chaunys 3 en Picardie, car ilz sont de nature grands ja- 
seurs, et beaux bailleurs de baillivemes en matiere de 
cinges verds.4 

Eux, retoumfe pour souper, mangeoient plus sobrement 
qu'es autres jour, et viandes plus desiccatives et extenuan- 
tes, afin que Pintemperie humide de Pair, communiqu^e au 
corps par necessaire confinitd, fust par ce moyen corrigde, 
et ne leur fust incommode par ne soy estre exercitfe, 
comme avoient de coustume. 

Ainsi fut gouvem^ Gargantua, et continuoit ce proems 
de jour en jour, profitant comme entendez que pent faire 
un jeune homme selon son aage de bon sens, en tel exer- 
cice, amsi continue. Lequel, combien que semblast pour 
le commencement difl&cile, en la continuation tant doux 
fut, legier et delectable, que mieulx ressembloit un passe 
temps de roy que Pestude d'un escolier. Toutesfois, Po- 
nocrates, pour le sejourners de ceste vehemente intention 
des esprits, advisoit une fois le mois quelque jour bien 
clair et serain ; auquel bougeoient au matin de la ville, et 
alloient ou k Gentilly, ou k Bologne, ou k Montrouge, ou 
au pont Charanton, ou h Vanves, ou h Saint Clou. Et Ik 
passoient toute la journde k faire la plus grande chere dont 
ilz se pouvoient adviser: raillans, gaudissans, beuvans 
d'autant : jouans, chantans, dansans, se voytrans ^ en quel- 
que beau prd, denigeans^ des passereaux, prenans des 
cailles, peschans aux grenouilles et escrevisses. 

Mais encores qu'icelle joumfe fust passde sans livres et 
lectures, point elle n'estoit pass^e sans profit. Car, en beau 



30 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

pr^, ilz recoloient par coeur quelques plaisans vers de / 
r Agriculture ' de Virgile, de Hesiode,* du Rustique 3 de 
Politian ; descrivoient quelques plaisans epigrammes 4 en 
latin, puis les mettoient par rondeaux et ballades ^ en 
langue frangoise. En banquetant, du vin aisgud^ sepa- 
roient Teau, comme Penseigne Caton De re rust, et Pline/ 
avec un goubelet de lierre ; lavoient le vin en plein bassin 
d'eau, puis le retiroient avec un embut^; faisoient aller Peau 
d'un verre en autre, bastissoient plusieurs petits engins au- 
tomates, c'est k dire soy mouvens eux mesmes. 



LES FOUACIERS DE LERNfi ET LES 

BERGERS — ORIGINES DE LA GUERRE 

CONTRE PICROCHOLE 

En cestuy temps, qui fut la saison de vendanges au 
commencement d'automne, les bergiers de la contrde es- 
toient h, garder les vignes, et empecher que les estoumeaux 
ne mangeassent les raisins. En quel temps, les fouaciers ^ 
de Lem^ * passoient le grand carroy,3 menans dix ou douze 
charges de fouaces k la ville. Lesdits bergiers les requi- 
rent courtoisement leur en bailler pour leur argent, au pris 
du march^. 

A leur requeste ne furent aucunement endings les foua- 
ciers, mais (que pis est) les oultragerent grandement. 

Auquel oultrage un d'entre eux, nommd Forgier, bien 
honneste homme de sa personne, et notable bacchelier,4 
respondit doucettement : Depuis quand avez vous pris les 
comes,s qu'estes tant rogues devenus ? Dea, vous nous en 
souliez voluntiers bailler, et maintenant y refusez? Ce 
n'est fait de bons voisins, et ainsi ne vous faisons nous, 
quand venez icy acheter nostre beau froment, duquel vous 
faites vos gasteaux et fouaces: encores par le march^ 
vous eussions nous donn^ de nos raisins; mais, par la 
merd^,^ vous en pourrez repentir, et aurez quelque jour 
affaire de nous : lors nous ferons envers vous k la pareille, 
et vous en souvienne. 

Adonc Marquet, grand bastonnier de la confrairie des 
fouaciers, luy dist : Vrayement tu es bien acrest^ 7 ^ ce ma- 

31 



32 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

tin, tu mangeas hersoir ' trop de mil. Vien ^a, vien 9a, je 
te donneray de ma fouace. Lors Forgier en toute sim- 
plesse approcha, tirant un unzain* de son baudrier, pen- 
sant que Marquet luy deust deposcher 3 de ses fouaces : 
mais il luy bailla de son fouet h. travers les jambes, si rude- 
ment que les noudz y apparoissoient ; puis voulut gaigner 
k la fuite, mais Forgier s'escria au meurtre, et k la force, 
tant qu*il peut ; ensemble luy jetta un gros tribard 4 qu'il 
portoit sous son escelle,s et Tattainct par la joincture coro- 
nale de la teste, sus Tartere crotaphique, du cost^ dextre ; 
en telle sorte que Marquet tombit^ de dessus sa jument, 
mieulx semblant homme mort que vif. 

Ce pendant les mestaiers, qui Ik auprds challoient 7 les 
noix, accoururent avec leurs grandes gaules, et frapperent 
sus ces fouaciers comme sus seigle verd.® Les autres 
bergiers et bergieres, ouyans le cry de Forgier, y vindrent 
avec leurs fondes9 et brassiers,'° et les suivirent k grands 
coups de pierres, tant menus qu'il sembloit que ce fust 
gresle. Finalement, les aconceurent, et osterent de leurs 
fouaces environ quatre ou cinq douzaines ; toutesfois ilz 
les payerent au pris accoustumd, et leur donnerent un cent 
de quecas " et trois paner^es de francs aubiers ; " puis les 
fouaciers aiderent k monter k Marquet, qui estoit villaine- 
ment bless^, et retoumerent k Lem^, sans poursuivre le 
chemin de Pareilld : ^3 menassans fort et ferme les bouiers, 
bergiers et mestaiers de Senilis et de Sinays. 

Ce fait, et bergiers et bergieres firent chere lye avec ces 
fouaces et beaux raisins : et se rigoUerent ensemble au son 
de la belle bouzine,^ se mocquans de ces beaux fouaciers 
glorieux, qui avoient trouv^ male encontre, par faulte de 
s'estre seign^s de la bonne main '5 au matin, Et, avec gros 



LA GUERRE CONTRE PICROCHOLE 33 

raisins chenins,' estuverent * les jambes de Forgier mignon- 
nement, si bien qu'il fut tantost3 guery. 

Les fouaciers, retoum^s h. Lern^, soudain, d'avant boire 
ny manger, se transporterent au Capitoly,4 et Ik, davant 
leur roy, nomm^ Picrochole,5 tiers ^ de ce nom, propose- 
rent leur complainte, monstrans leurs paniers rompus, 
leurs bonnetz f oupis,^ leurs robes dessir^es,^ leurs fouaces 
destrouss&s, et singulierement Marquet blessd enorme- 
ment, disans le tout avoir est^ fait par les bergiers et 
mestaiers de Grandgousier, prds le grand carroy, par dela 
SeuUl^. 

Lequel incontinent entra en courroux furieux, et, sans 
plus oultre se interroger quoy ne comment, fit crier par son 
pays ban et arriere ban 9 ; et que un chascun, sur peine de 
la hart, convint en armes en la grande place devant le chas- 
teau, h. heure de midy. Pour mieulx confermer son entre- 
prise, envoya sonner le tabourin k I'entour de la ville : luy 
mesmes, ce pendant qu'on aprestoit son disner, alia faire 
affuster son artillerie, desployer son enseigne et oriflant,'** 
et charger force munitions, tant de hamois " d'armes que 
de gueulles. 

£n disnant, bailla les commissions : et fut, par son edict, 
constitud le seigneur Trepelu" sus Tavantgarde, en laquelle 
furent compt^s seize mille quatorze haquebutiers,'3 trente- 
cinq mille et unze adventuriers. A I'artillerie fut commis 
le grand escuyer Touquedillon ; en laquelle furent comp- 
t^es neuf cens quatorze grosses pieces de bronze, en ca- 
nons, doubles canons, baselics,H serpentines, coulevrines, 
bombardes, faucons, passevolans, spiroles, et autres pieces. 
L'arriere garde fut baill^e au due Raquedenare.'S En la 
bataille '^ se tint le roy et les princes de son royaume. 



34 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

Ainsi sommairement acoustr^s, d'avant que se mettre en 
voye, envoyerent trois cens chevaux legiers sous la con- 
duite du capitaine Engoulevent,' pour descouvrir le pays, 
et savoir si embusche aucune estoit par la contx^e. Mais * 
avoir diligemment recherche, trouverent tout le pays k 
Tenviron en paix et silence, sans assembl^e quelconque. 
Ce que entendant Picrochole, commanda qu*un chascun 
marchast sous son enseigne hastivement. Adonc, sans 
ordre et mesure, prindrent les champs les uns parmy les 
autres ; gastans et dissipans tout par oil ilz passoient, sans 
espargner ny pauvre ny riche, ny lieu sacr^ ny prophane : 
emmenoient bceufz, vaches, taureaux, veaux, genisses, 
brebis, moutons, chevres et boucs; pouUes, chappons, 
pouUets, oisons, jards, oyes, pores, truies, gorets 3 ; abatans 
les noix, vendangeans les vignes, emportans les seps, 
croullans ♦ tous les fruictz des arbres. C'estoit un desor- 
dre incomparable de ce qu'ilz faisoient. Et ne trouverent 
personne qui leur resistast : mais un chascun se mettoit k 
leur mercy, les suppliant estre traict^s plus humainement, 
en consideration de ce qu'ilz avoient de tous temps est^ 
bons et amiables voisins ; et que jamais envers eux ne 
commirent exces ne oultrage, pour ainsi soudainement 
estre par iceux mal vexds, et que Dieu les en puniroit de 
brief. 5 Esquelles remonstrances rien plus ne respondoient, 
sinon qu'ilz leur vouloient apprendre k manger de la 
fouace. 

Tant firent et tracasserent, pillant et larronnant, qu*ilz 
arriverent k Senilis, et detrousserent hommes et femmes, 
et prindrent ce qu*ilz peurent : rien ne leur fut ny trop 
chaud ny trop pesant Combien que la peste y fust par 
la plus grande part des maisons, ilz entroient par tout, 



LA GUERRE CONTRE PICROCHOLE 35 

ravissoient tout ce qu'estoit dedans, et jamais nul n en prit 
dangler. Qui est cas assez merveilleux. Car les cur^s, 
vicaires, prescheurs, medecins, chirurgiens, et apothicaires, 
qui alloient visiter, penser,' guerir, prescher et admonester 
les malades, estoient tous mors de Tinfection; et ces 
diables pilleurs et meurtiers onques n'y prindrent mal. 
Dond vient cela, messieurs ? pensez y, je vous prie. 

Le bourg ainsi pill^, se transporterent en Pabbaye avec 
horrible tumulte: mais la trouverent bien reserrde et 
ferm^e : dont Tarm^e principale marcha oultre vers le gu^ 
de Vede, except^ sept enseignes de gens de pied, et deux 
cens lances qui Ik resterent, et rompirent les murailles du 
clos, afin de gaster toute la vendange. 

Les pauvres diables de momes ne savoient auquel de 
leurs saints se vouer. A toutes adventures firent sonner 
ad capitulum capitulantes? Lk fut decret^ qu*ilz feroient 
une belle procession, renforc^e de beaux preschans et 
letanies contra hostium insidiasy et beaux responds pro 
pace. 



\ 



FRfiRE JEAN DES ENTOMMEURES 

En Pabbaye estoit pour lors un moine claustrier,^ nommd 
frere Jean des Entommeures,^ jeune, gallant, frisque,3 de 
hait,4 bien h. dextre,5 hardy, adventureux, deliber^, haut, 
maigre, bien fendu de gueule, bien advantage en nez, beau 
despescheur d'heures,^ beau desbrideur 7 de messes, beau 
descroteur * de vigiles ; pour tout dire, un vray moine si 
onques en fut, depuis que le monde moinant moina de> 
moinerie ; au reste, clerc jusques es dents en matiere de 
breviaire. 

Iceluy, entendant le bruit que faisoient les ennemis par 
le clos de leur vigne, sortit hors pour voir ce qu'ilz faisoient. 
Et, advisan^igu'ilz vendangeoient leur clos, auquel estoit 
leur Doite^d^out Pan fondle, retoume au coeur de Teglise 
oil estoient les autres moines, tous estonn^s comme fon- 
deurs de cloches,'** lesquelz voyant chanter, $m, im^pe, e, e, 
e, e, ey tum^ urn, /«, /, «/, i, mi, co, o, o, o, o, o, rum, urn : 
C'est, dist il, bien chants. Vertus Dieu," que ne chantez 
vous : Adieu paniers, vendanges sont f aites ? Je me donne 
au diable s'ilz ne sont en nostre clos, et tant bien couppent 
et seps et raisins, qu'il n'y aura par le corps Dieu de quatre 
ann^es que halleboter " dedans. Ventre saint Jacques, que 
boirons nous ce pendant, nous autres pauvres diables? 
Seigneur Dieu, da mthipotum. 

Lors dist le prieur claustral : Que fera cest ivrogne icy ? 
qu'on me le mene en prison. Troubler ainsi le service 
divin 1 Mais, dist le moine, le service du vin '3 f aisons tant 

36 



FRfeRE JEAN DES ENTOMMEURES 37 

qu'il ne soit troubld ; car vous mesmes, monsieur le prieur, 
aimez boire du meilleur. Si fait tout homme de bien. 
Jamais homme noble ne hayst le bon vin ; c*est un apoph- 
thegme monachal. Mais ces responds que chantez icy ne 
sont par Dieu point de saison. 

Pourquoy sont nos heures ' en temps de moissons et 
vendanges courtes, en Padvent et tout h)rver tant longues ? 
Feu, de bonne memoire, frere Mac^ Pelosse,* vray zela- 
teur (ou je me donne au diable) de nostre religion, me dist, 
il m'en souvient, que la raison estoit afin qu'en ceste saison 
nous facions bien serrer et faire le vin, et qu'en hyver nous 
le humions. 

Escoutez, messieurs, vous autres : qui aime le vin, le 
corps Dieu sy me suive. Car hardiment que saint Antoine 
m'arde 3 si ceux tastent du piot qui n'auront secouru la 
vigne. Ventre Dieu, les biens de TEglise ? Ha non, non. 
Diable, saint Thomas PAnglois * voulut bien pour iceux 
mourir: si j'y mourois, ne serois je saint de mesmes ? Je n'y 
mourrai ja pourtant: car c*est moy qui le fais es autres. 

Ce disant, mit bas son grand habit, et se saisit du bas- 
ton de la croix, qui estoit de coeur de cormier, long comme 
une lance, rond k plein poing, et quelque peu sem^ de 
fleurs de lys toutes presque effacfes. Ainsi sortit en beau 
sayon,5 mit son froc en escharpe, et de son baston de la 
croix donna si brusquement sus les ennemis, qui sans ordre 
ny enseigne, ny trompette, ny taborin, parmy le clos ven- 
dangeoient. Car les porteguidons et portenseignes avoient 
mis lexu-s guidons et enseignes Porde ^ des murs, les ta- 
bourineurs avoient defonc^ leurs tabourins d'un costd, 
pour les emplir de raisins ; les trompettes estoient charges 
de moussines,7 chascun estoit desray^.* 



38 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

II chocqua done si roidement sus eux, sans dire gare, 
qu'il les renversoit comme pores, frappant k tors et k 
travers k la vieille eserime. Es uns escarbouilloit la eer- 
velle,' es autres rompoit bras et jambes, es autres deslo- 
ehoit ^ les spondiles du eoul, es autres demoUoit 3 les reins, 
avalloit le nez, posehoit les yeulx, fendoit les mandibules, 
enfongoit les dents en la gueuUe, deseroulloit 4 les omo- 
plates, sphaeeloit s les greves,^ desgondoit les isehies,^ de- 
bezilloit * les faueilles.9 

Si quelqu'un sp vouloit eaeher entre les seps plus espes," 
k ieeluy froissoit toute Tareste du dos, et Tesrenoit " eomme 
un ehien. 

Si aueun sauver se vouloit en fuyant, k ieeluy faisoit 
voler la teste en pieees par la eommissure lambdoide." 
Si quelqu'un gravoit en une arbre, pensant y estre en 
seuretd, ieeluy de son baston empaloit. 

Si quelqu'un de sa vieille eognoissanee luy crioit, Ha, 
frere Jean mon amy, frere Jean, je me rends; II t'est, 
disoit il, bien foree; mais ensemble tu rendras Tame k 
tous les diables. Et soudain luy donnoit dronos.'3 Et si 
personne tant fut espris de temeritd qu'il luy voulust 
resister en faee, Ik monstroit il la foree de ses museles ; 
ear il leur transpergoit la poietrine par le mediastine '+ et 
par le eoeur : k d'autres, donnant sus la faulte des eostes,'5 
leur subvertissoit Testomae, et mouroient soudainement 
Croyez que e'estoit le plus horrible speetaele qu'on vist 
onques. 

Les uns erioient, Sainte Barbe ; les autres. Saint George ; 
les autres, Sainte Nytouehe; '^ les autres, Nostre Dame de 
Cunault,'7 de Laurette, de Bonnes Nouvelles, de la Lenou, 
de Riviere. Les uns se vouoient k saint Jaeques, les autres 



FRfeRE JEAN DES ENTOMMEURES 39 

au saint suaire de Chambery : mais il brusla trois mois 
aprds, si bien qu'on n'en peut sauver un seul brin : les 
autres k Cadouyn, les autres h. saint Jean d'Angely; les 
autres k saint Eutrope de Xainctes, k saint Mesmes de 
Chinon, k saint Martin de Candes, k saint Clouaud de 
Sinays, es reliques de Jaurezay, et mille autres bons petits 
saints. Les uns mouroient sans parler, les autres parloient 
sans mourir, les uns se mouroient en parlant, les autres 
parloient en mourant. Les autres crioient k haute voix, 
Confession, confession, Confiteor^ miserere^ in manus, 

Tant fut grand le cry des navr^s,' que le prieur de Tab- 
baye avec tous ses moines sortirent. Lesquelz, quand ap- 
perceurent ces pauvres gens ainsi ruds * parmy la vigne et 
blessfe k mort, en confesserent quelques uns. Mais, ce 
pendant que les prestres s'amusoient k confesser, les petits 
moinetons coururent au lieu o\x estoit frere Jean, et luy 
demanderent en quoy il vouloit qu'ilz luy aidassent 

A quoy respondit qu'ilz esgorgetassent ceux qui estoient 
portds par terre. Adonc, laissans leurs grandes cappes 
sus une treille, au plus pr^s, commencerent esgorgeter et 
achever ceux qu'il avoit desja meurtris. Savez vous de 
quelz ferremens ? 3 A beaux gouetz,4 qui sont petits demy 
cousteaux, dont les petits enfans de nostre pays cement 
les noix. 

Puis, k tout son baston de croix, gaigna la bresche qu'a- 
voient fait les ennemis. Aucuns des moinetons emporte- 
rent les enseignes et guidons en leurs chambres pour en 
faire des jartiers. Mais quand ceux qui s'estoient confes- 
ses vouleurent sortir par icelle bresche, le moine les as- 
sommoit de coups, disant : Ceux cy sont confds et repen- 
tans, et ont gaign^ les pardons : ilz s'en vont en paradis 



40 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

aussi droit comme une f aucille, et comme est le chemin de 
Faye.' Ainsi, par sa prouesse, furent desconfits tous ceux 
de Tarmfe qui estoient entrds dedans le clos, jusques au 
nombre de treize mille six cens vingt et deux, sans les 
f emmes ^ et petits enfans, cela s'entend tousjours. Jamais 
Maugis3 hermite ne se porta si vaillamment k tout son 
bourdon contre les Sarrasins, desquelz est escrit es gestes 
des quatre filz Aymon, comme fit le moine k Pencontre des 
ennemis avec le baston de la croix. 

Ce pendant que le moine s'escarmouchoit, comme avons 
dit, contre ceux qui estoient entr^s le clos, Picrochole, k 
grande hastivet^, passa le gud de Vede avec ses gens, et 
assaillit la Roche Clermaud, auquel lieu ne luy fut faite 
resistance queconque ; et, parce qu'il estoit ja nuyt, delibera 
en icelle ville se heberger soy et ses gens, et refraichir de 
sa cholere pungitive.4 Au matin, prit d'assault les bouUe- 
vars et chasteau, et le rempara tres bien : et le pourveut de 
munitions requises, pensant \k faire sa retraicte, si d'ail- 
leurs estoit assailly. Car le lieu estoit fort, et par art et 
par nature, k cause de la situation et assiette. 



GRANDGOUSIER FAIT VENIR GARGANTUA 

Or laissons les Ik, et retournons k nostre bon Gargantua, 
qui est k Paris, bien instant h I'estude de bonnes lettres et 
exercitations athletiques ; et le vieux bonhomme Grandgou- 
sier * son pere, qui, aprds souper, se chauffe k un beau, 
clair et grand feu ; et, attendant graisler * des chastaignes, 
escrit au foyer avec un baston brusld d'un bout, dont on 
escharbotte 3 le feu, f aisant k sa f emme et f amille de beaux 
contes du temps jadis. 

Un des bergiers qui gardoient les vignes, nomm^ Pillot, 
se transporta devers luy en icelle heure, et raconta entiere- 
ment les exces et pillages que faisoit Picrochole, roy de 
Lemd, en ses terres et dommaines ; et comment il avoit 
pilld, gastd, saccag^ tout le pays, except^ le clos de Seuilld, 
que frere Jean des Entommeures avoit sauv^ k son honneur, 
et de present estoit ledit roy en la Roche Clermaud, et IJt, 
en grande instance, se remparoit luy et ses gens. 

Holos, holos,* dist Grandgousier, qu'est cecy, bonnes 
gens ? Songe je, ou si vray est ce qu'on me dit ? Picrochole, 
mon amy ancien, de tout temps, de toute race et alliance, 
me vient il assaillir ? Qui le meut ? qui le poinct ? qui le 
conduict? qui Pa ainsi conseilld? Ho, ho, ho, ho, ho, 
mon Dieu, mon Sauveur, aide moy, inspire moy, conseille 
moy k ce qu'est de faire. Je proteste, je jure devant toy, 
ainsi me sois tu favorable, si jamais k luy desplaisir, ne k 
ses gens dommage, ne en ses terres je fis pillerie : mais, 
bien au contraire, je Pay secouru de gens, d'argent, de 

41 



42 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

faveur, et de conseil, en tous cas qu*ay peu cognoistre son 
avantage. Qu'il m'ait done en ce point oultrag^, ce ne 
peut estre que par Tesprit maling. Bon Dieu, tu cognois 
mon courage,' car k toy rien ne peut estre cel^. Si par 
cas il estoit devenu furieux, et que, pour luy rehabiliter 
son cerveau, tu me Teusse icy envoy^, donne moy et 
pouvoir et savoir le rendre au joug de ton saint vouloir 
par bonne discipline. 

Ho, ho, ho. Mes bonnes gens, mes amis, et mes feaux 
serviteurs, fauldra il que je vous empesche ^ k m'y aider ? 
Las I ma vieillesse ne requeroit dorenavant que repos, et 
toute ma vie n'ay rien tant procures que paix. Mais il 
fault, je le voy bien, que maintenant de hamois je charge 
mes pauvres espaules lasses et foibles, et en ma main 
tremblante je prenne la lance et la masse, pour secourir 
et garantir mes pauvres subjects. La raison le veult ainsi : 
car de leur labeur je suis entretenu, et de leur sueur je 
suis nourry, moy, mes enfans et ma famille. Ce non 
obstant, je n'entreprendray guerre que je n'aye essay^ 
tous les ars et moyens de paix ; Ik je me resouls. 

Adonc fit convoquer son conseil, et proposa Paifaire^ 
tel comme il estoit. Et fut conclud qu'on enverroit quel- 
que homme prudent devers Picrochole, savoir pourquoy 
ainsi soudainement estoit party de son repos, et envahy 
les terres esquelles n'avoit droit quiconques. Davantage, 
qu'on envoyast querir Gargantua et ses gens, afin de 
maintenir le pays, et defendre k ce besoing.s Le tout 
pleut k Grandgousier, et commanda, qu'ainsi fust fait. 
Dont sus rheure envoya le basque ^ son laquays querir k 
toute diligence Gargantua. Et luy escrivoit comme s'ensuit: 

La ferveur de tes estudes requeroit que de long temps 



GRANDGOUSIER FAIT VENIR GARGANTUA 43 

ne te revocasse de cestuy philosophique repos, si la con- 
fiance de nos amis et anciens confederfe n'eust de present 
frustrd la seuretd de ma vieillesse. Mais, puis que telle 
est ceste fatale destin^e que par iceux sois inquiet^ esquelz 
plus je me reposois, force m'est te rappeller au subside ' 
des gens et biens qui te sont par droit naturel affi^s.* Car, 
ainsi comme debiles sont les armes au dehors si le conseil 
n*est en la maison ; aussi vaine est Pestude, et le conseil 
inutile qui, en temps oportun, par vertus n'est execute, et 
k son effect reduict. 

Ma deliberation n'est de provoquer, ains d'apaiser ; d'as- 
saillir, mais de defendre ; de conquester, mais de garder 
mes feaux subjects et terres hereditaires. Esquelles est 
hostilement entr^ Picrochole, sans cause ny occasion, et 
de jour en jour poursuit sa furieuse entreprise, avec exces 
non tolerables k personnes liberes. 

Je me suis en devoir mis pour moderer sa cholere tyran- 
nique, luy offrant tout ce que je pensois luy pouvoir estre 
en contentement : et par plusieurs fois ay envoy^ amiable- 
ment devers luy, pour entendre en quoy, par qui et com- 
ment il se sentoit oultrag^ : mais de luy n'ay eu response 
que de volontaire deffiance, et qu'en mes terres pretendoit 
seulement droit de bien seance.3 Dont j*ay cogneu que 
Dieu etemel Pa laiss^ au gouvernail de son franc arbitre 
et propre sens, qui ne peut estre que meschant, si par 
grace divine n'est continuellement guid^ : et pour le con- 
tenir en office et reduire k cognoissance, me Pa icy envoyd 
k molestes enseignes.4 

Pourtant, mon filz bien aim^, le plus tost que faire pour- 
ras, ces lettres veues, retourne k diligence s secourir, non 
tant moy (ce que toutesfois par piti^ naturellement tu 



44 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

doibs) que les tiens, lesquelz par raison tu peux sauver et 
garder. L'exploit sera fait k moindre effusion de sang 
qu'il sera possible. Et, si possible est, par engins ' plus 
expediens, cauteles,* et ruses de guerre, nous sauverons 
toutes les ames, et les envoyerons joyeux k leurs domi- 
ciles. 

Tres cher filz, la paix de Christ nostre redempteur soit 
avec toy. Salue Ponocrates, Gymnaste, et Eudemon, de 
par moy. Du vingtiesme de septembre. 

Ton pere, 

Grandgousier. 



GRANDGOUSIER ET PICROCHOLE 

Les lettres dict^es et sign^es, Grandgousier ordonna que 
Ulrich Gallet, maistre de ses requestes,' homme sage et 
discret, duquel en divers et contentieux affaires il avoit 
esprouv^ la vertu ^ et bon advis, allast devers Picrochole, 
pour luy remonstrer ce que par eux avoit estd decret^. 
En celle heure partit le bon homme Gallet, et, passd le 
gud, demanda au meusnier de Pestat de Picrochole : lequel 
luy fit response que ses gens ne luy avoient laissd ny coq, 
ny geline,3 et qu'ilz s'estoient enserrds en la Roche Cler- 
maud ; et qu'il ne luy conseilloit point de proceder oultre, 
de peur du guet : car leur f ureur estoit enorme. Ce que 
facilement il creut, et pour celle nuyt hebergea avec le 
meusnier. 

Au lendemain matin, se transporta avec la trompette k 
la porte du chasteau, et requist es gardes qu'ilz le fissent 
parler au roy, pour son profit. Mais Picrochole k tous ses 
propos ne respond autre chose, sinon : Venez les querir, 
vgjjfizJeajiiierir. Ilz vous brayeront de la fouace. Adonc 
retourne 4 vers Grandgousier, lequel trouva k genoux, teste 
nue, ending en un petit coing de son cabinet, priant Dieu 
qu'il voulsist amoUir la cholere de Picrochole, et le mettre 
au point de raison, sans y proceder par force. Quand vit 
le bon homme de retour ; il luy demanda : Ha, mon amy, 
quelles nouvelles m'apportez vous ? 

II n'y a, dist Gallet, ordre : cest homme est du tout hors 
du sens et delaissd de Dieu. Voire mais, dist Grandgousier, 

45 



46 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

mon amy, quelle cause pretend il de cest exces ? II ne m'a, 
dist Gallet, cause queconques exposd, sinon qu'il m'a dit en 
cholere quelques motz de fouaces. Je ne s^ay si Ton n*au- 
roit point fait oultrage k ses fouaciers. Je le veulx, dist 
Grandgousier, bien entendre devant qu'autre chose de- 
liberer sur ce que seroit de faire. Alors manda savoir de 
cest affaire ; et trouva pour vray qu'on avoit pris par force 
quelques fouaces de ses gens, et que Marquet avoit receu un 
coup de tribard sur la teste ; toutesfois, que le tout avoit 
est^ bien pay^, et que le dit Marquet avoit premier bless^ 
Forgier de son fouet par les jambes. Et sembla k tout son 
conseil qu'en toute force il se devoit defendre. 

Ce non obstant, dit Grandgousier, puisqu'il n'est ques- 

/tion que de quelques fouaces, j'essayeray le contenter : car 
il me desplaist par trop de lever guerre. Adonc s'enquesta 
combien on avoit pris de fouaces, et, entendant quatre ou 
cinq douzaines, commanda qu'on en fist cinq charret^es en 
icelle nuyt ; et que Pune fust de fouaces f aites k beau beurre, 
beaux moyeux' d'oeufz, beau saffran, et belles espices, 
pour estre distributes k Marquet; et que, pour ses interestz, 
il luy donnoit sept cens mille et trois philippus * pour payer 
les barbiers qui Tauroient pensd^ : et d'abondant^ luy don- 
noit la mestairie de la Pomardiere, k perpetuity franche 
pour luy et les siens. 

Pour le tout conduire et passer fut envoyd Gallet. Le- 
quel, par le chemin, fit cueillir pr& de la saulsaye 5 force 
grands rameaux de Cannes et rouzeaux, et en fit armer 
autour leurs charrettes, et chascun des chartiers. Luy 
mesmes en tint un en sa main ; par ce voulant donner k 
cognoistre qu'ilz ne demandoient que la paix, et qu'ilz 
venoient pour Tacheter. 



GARGANTUA ET PICROCHOLE 47 

Eux, venus k la porte, requirent parler k Picrochole de 
par Grandgousier. Picrochole ne voulut onques les laisser 
entrer, ny aller k eux parler ; et leur manda qu'il estoit 
empesch^, mais qu'ilz dissent ce qu'ilz voudroient au capi- 
taine Touquedillon, lequel affustoit quelque piece sus les 
murailles. Adonc luy dist le bon homme : Seigneur, pour 
vous rescinder toute ance ^ de debat, et oster toute excuse 
que ne retournez en nostre premiere alliance, nous vous 
rendons presentement les fouaces dont est la controverse. 
Cinq douzaines en prindrent nos gens : elles furent tres 
bien payees : nous aimons tant la paix, que nous en ren- 
dons cinq charrett^es: desquelles ceste icy sera pour 
Marquet, qui plus se plainct Davantage, pour le con- 
tenter entierement, voyla sept cens mille et trois philippus 
que je luy livre ; et, pour Pinterest qu'il pourroit pretendre, 
je luy cede la mestairie de la Pomardiere, k perpetuity, 
pour luy et les siens, possedable en franc alloy : ^ voyez 
^ ci le contract de la transaction. Et pour Dieu vivons dore- 
navant en paix, et vous retirez en vos terres joyeusement : 
cedans ceste place icy, en laquelle n'avez droit quelconques, 
comme bien le confessez. Et amis comme par avant. 

Touquedillon raconta le tout k Picrochole, et de plus en 
plus envenima son courage, luy disant : Ces rustres ont 
belle peur. Je suis d'opinion que retenons ces fouaces et 
I'argent, et au reste nous hastons de remparer icy et pour- 
suivre nostre fortune. Mais pensent ilz bien avoir affaire 
k une duppe, de vous paistre de ces fouaces ? Voyla que 
c'est, le bon traictement et la grande familiarity que leur 
avez par cy devant tenue vous ont rendu envers eux con- 
temptible. Oignez villain,3 il vous poindra. Poignez 
villain, il vous oindra. 



48 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

Qa, 5a, 5a, dist Picrochole, saint Jacques ilz en auront : 
faites ainsi qu'avez dit. D'une chose, dist Touquedillon, 
vous veulx je advertir. Nous sommes icy assez mal avi- 
taillds, et pourveus maigrement des hamois de gueule. 
Si Grandgousier nous mettoit siege, des h. present m'en 
irois faire arracher les dents toutes, seulement que trois 
me re§];assent; autant k vos gens comme k moy; avec 
icelles nous n'avangerons ' que trop k manger nos muni- 
tions. Nous, dist Picrochole, n'aurons que trop mange- 
ailles. Sommes nous icy pour manger ou pour batailler ? 
Pour batailler, vrayement, dist Touquedillon ; mais de la 
pause vient la danse,* 

£t oil faim regne, force ezule.' 

Tant jaser, dist Picrochole. Saisissez ce qu'ilz ont amen^. 
A done prindrent argent, et fouaces, et bceufz, et char- 
rettes, et les renvoyerent sans mot dire, sinon que plus 
n'approchassent de si pr^s, pour la cause qu'on leur diroit 
demain. Ainsi sans rien faire retoumerent devers Grand- 
gousier, et luy conterent le tout : adjoustans qu*il n'estoit 
aucun espoir de les tirer k paix, sinon k vive et forte 
guerre. 



RETOUR DE GARGANTUA— GARGANTUA 
ET LES PfeLERINS 

En ceste mesme heure Gargantua, qui estoit issu de Pa- 
ris, soudain les lettres de son pere leues, sus sa grande ju- 
ment venant, avoit ja passd le pont de la Nonnain, luy, 
Ponocrates, Gjonnaste et Eudemon ; lesquels pour le 
suivre avoient pris chevaux de poste: le reste de son 
train venoit k justes joumdes, amenant tous ses livres et 
instrument philosophique. 

Issus de la rive de Vede, peu de temps aprds aborderent 
au chasteau de Grandgousier, qui les attendoit en grand 
desir. A sa venue, ilz le festoyerent k tour de bras ; ja- 
mais on ne vit gens plus joyeux : car supphmenium supple- 
menti chronicorutn dit que Gargamelle y mourut de joye : 
je n'en sgay rien de ma part, et bien peu me soucie ny 
d'elle ny d'autre.' 

Le propos requiert que racontons ce qu'advint \ six 
pelerins qui venoient de Saint Sebastien prds de Nantes, 
et, pour soy heberger celle nuyt, de peur des ennemis, s'es- 
toient musses ^ au jardin dessus les poyzars,3 entre les 
choux et lectues.4 Gargantua se trouva quelque peu alterd, 
et demanda si Ton pourroit trouver des lectues pour faire 
une sallade. 

Et, entendant qu'il y en avoit des plus belles et grandes 
du pays, car elles estoient grandes comme pruniers ou 
noyers, y voulut aller luy mesmes, et en emporta en sa 
main ce que bon luy sembla; ensemble emporta les six 

49 



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de 



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Vd«;!^">'^«us 



. "* ''^sseren^ ' Par k, ^ 



TSZX 



<^ost^ 



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Pc^da 



Puy,3 



JUS- 






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^^«ij«iis,t - '*'^" 



*--^^i4' 




VICTOIRE DE GARGANTUA S3 

cousteaux, dont les Gargantuistes se retirerent au val, pour 
mieulx donner lieu k Partillerie. Ceux de la ville defen- 
doient le mieulx que pouvoient, mais les txaicts passoient 
oultre par dessus, sans nul ferir. 

Aucuns de la bande, sauv^s de Partillerie, donnerent 
fierement sus nos gens, mais peu profiterent : car tous fu- 
rent receuz entre les ordres, et Ik ru^s par terre. Ce que 
voyans, se vouloient retirer: mais ce pendant le moine 
avoit occupy le passage. Parquoy se mirent en fuite sans 
ordre ni maintien. Aucuns vouloient leur donner la chasse, 
mais le moine les retint, craignant que, suivans les fuyans, 
perdissent leurs rangs, et que, sus ce point, ceux de la ville 
chargeassent sus eux. Puis, attendant quelque espace, et 
nul ne comparant k Pencontre, envoya le due Phrontiste ' 
pour admonester Gargantua k ce qu*il avanceast pour 
gaigner le cousteau k la gauche, pour empescher la re- 
traicte de Picrochole par celle porte. Ce que fit Gar- 
gantua en toute diligence, et y envoya quatre legions de 
la compagnie de Sebaste ^ : mais si tost ne peurent gaigner 
le haut qu'ilz ne recontrassent en barbe Picrochole, et 
ceux qui avec luy s'estoient espars. 

Lors chargerent sus roidement: toutefois grandement 
furent endommag^s par ceux qui estoient sus les murs, en 
coups de traict et artillerie. Quoy voyant Gargantua, en 
grande puissance alia les secourir, et commenga son artil- 
lerie k hurter sus ce quartier de murailles, tant que toute 
la force de la ville y fut evocqu^e. Le moine, voyant ce- 
luy cost^ lequel il tenoit assieg^, denud de gens et gardes, 
magnanimement tira vers le fort : et tant fit qu'il monta 
sus, luy et aucuns de ses gens, pensant que plus de crainte 
et de frayeur donnent ceux qui surviennent k un conflict. 



54 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

que ceux qui lors k leur force combattent. Toutesfois ne 
fit onques effroy, jusques k ce que tous les siens eussent 
gaign^ la muraille, except^ les deux cens hommes d'armes 
qu'il laissa hors pour les hasars. 

Puis s'escria horriblement, et les siens ensemble : et 
sans resistence tuerent les gardes d*icelle porte, et la 
ouvrirent es hommes d*armes : et en toute fieret^ coururent 
ensemble vers la porte de Torient, ou estoit le desarroy.* 
Et par derriere renverserent toute leur force. 

Voyans les assieg^s de tous costds les Gargantuistes 
avoir gaign^ la ville, se rendirent au moine k mercy. Le 
moine leur fit rendre les bastons et armes, et tous retirer 
et resserrer par les eglises, saisissant tous les bastons des 
croix, et commettant gens es portes pour les garder de 
issir. Puis, ouvrant celle porte orientale, sortit au secours 
de Gargantua. Mais Picrochole pensoit que le secours 
luy venoit de la ville, et par oultrecuidance se hazarda 
plus que devant: jusques k ce que Gargantua s'escria: 
Frere Jean, mon amy, frere Jean, en bon heur soyez venu. 
Adonc cognoissant Picrochole et ses gens que tout estoit 
desesper^, prindrent la fuite en tous endroits." Gargan- 
tua les poursuivit jusques prds Vaugaudry, tuant et mas- 
sacrant, puis sonna la retraicte. 

Picrochole ainsi desesper^ s'en fuit vers Tisle Bouchart, 
et, au chemin de Riviere,3 son cheval bruncha par terre ; 
k quoy tant fut indign^ que de son esp^e le tua en sa 
chole,* puis, ne trouvant personne qui le remontast,5 voulut 
prendre un asne du moulin qui Ik aupr^s estoit ; mais les 
meusniers le meurtrirent tout de coups et le destrousserent 
de ses habillemens, et luy baillerent pour soy couvrir une 
meschante sequenye.^ Ainsi s'en alia le pauvre cholerique ; 



VICTOIRE DE GARGANTUA 55 

puis, passant I'eau au Port Huaulx, et racontant ses males 
fortunes, fut advisd par une vieille lourpidon' que son 
royaume luy seroit rendu h. la venue des cocquecigrues : * 
depuis ne salt on qu'il est devenu. Toutesfois, Ton m'a 
dit qu'il est de present pauvre gaigne denier s k Lyon, 
cholere comme davant. Et tousjours se guemente 4 k tous 
estrangiers de la venue des cocquecigrues, esperant cer- 
tainement, selon la prophetie de la vieille, estre h. leur 
venue reintegrd en son royaume. 

Aprds leur retraicte, Gargantua premierement recensa 
ses gens, et trouva que peu d'iceux estoient peris en la ba- 
taille ; savoir est quelques gens de pied de la bande du capi- 
taine Tolmere,5 et Ponocrates, qui avoit un coup de har- 
quebouze en son pourpoint. Puis les fit refraichir chascun 
par sa bande, et commanda es thresoriers que ce repas 
leur fust defray^ et payd, et que Ton ne fist oultrage quel- 
conque en la ville, veu qu'elle estoit sienne : et, aprds 
leur repas, ilz comparussent en la place devant le chas- 
teau, et 1^ seroient payds pour six mois. Ce que fut fait. 



UABBAYE DE THfiLfeME 

Restoit seulement le moine h, pourvoir, lequel Gargantua 
vouloit faire abb^ de SeuilM: mais il le refusa. II luy 
voulut donner Tabbaye de Bourgueil, ou de Saint Florent,* 
laquelle mieubc luy duiroit,* ou toutes deux s'il les prenoit 
k grd. Mais le moine luy fit response peremptoire que, de 
moines, il ne vouloit charge ny gouvemement. Car com- 
ment, disoit il, pourrois je gouvemer autruy, qui moy 
mesmes gouvemer ne s^aurois? Si vous semble que je 
vous aye fait et que puisse h, I'advenir faire service agreable, 
octroyez moy de fonder une abbaye k mon devis. La 
demande pleut k Gargantua, et offrit tout son pays de 
Theleme 3 jouxte la riviere de Loire, k deux lieues de la 
grande forest du Port Huault. Et requist k Gargantua 
^u'il instituast sa religion au contraire de toutes autres. 

Premierement done, dist Gargantua, il n'y fauldra ja 
bastir murailles au circuit ; car toutes autres abbayes sont 
fierement mur^es. Voire, dist le moine, et non sans cause : 
oil mur y a, et devant, et derriere, y a force murmur,4 envie, 
et conspiration mutue. Davantage, veu que, en certains 
convens de ce monde, est en usance, que, si femme aucune 
y entre ( j'entends des preudes et pudiques) , on nettoie la 
place par laquelle elles ont passd, fut ordonnd que, si reli- 
gieux ou religieuse y entroit par cas fortuit, on nettoiroit 
curieusement ^ tous les lieux par lesquelz auroient pass^. 
Et, parce que, es religions de ce monde, tout est com- 
passd, limits, et reigl^ par heures, fut decretd que Ik ne 

56 




VUE DE L'ABBAYE DE TH^ 




:l£:M£, d*aprh Ck. Ltn^rmant, 



L'ABBAYE DE TH^LfeME 5/ 

seroit horologe, ny quadrant aucun. Mais, selon les 
occasions et opportunitds, seroient toutes les oeuvres 
dispenses. Car, disoit Gargantua, la plus vraie perte du 
temps qu'il sceust, estoit de compter les heures. Quel bien 
en vient il ? Et la plus grande resverie du monde estoit 
soy gouverner au son d'une cloche, et non au dict^ de bon 
sens et entendement. 

Item, parce qu'en iceluy temps on ne mettoit en religion 
des femmes, sinon celles que estoient borgnes, boiteuses, 
bossues, laides, defaites, foUes, insensdes, malefici&s, et 
targes ; ny les hommes, sinon catarrhs, mal n6s, niais, et 
empesches de maison (A propos, dist le moine, une femme 
qui n'est ny belle, ny bonne, k quoy vault toile ? ' A mettre 
en religion, dist Gargantua. Voire, dist le moine, et k faire 
des chemises), fut ordonnd que \k ne seroient receuz, sinon 
les belles, bien formdes, et bien naturdes ; et les beaux, bien 
formes, et bien natures. 

Item, parce que es convens des femmes n'entroient les 
hommes, sinon k TembMe,* et clandestinement, fut decret^ 
que jk 3 ne seroient 1^ les femmes, au cas que n*y fussent 
les hommes ; ny les hommes, au cas que n'y fussent les 
femmes. 

Item, parce que tant hommes que femmes, une fois re- 
ceuz en religion, aprds I'an de probation, estoient forces 
et astraincts y demourer perpetuellement leur vie durante, 
fut estably que tant hommes que femmes Ik receuz sor- 
tiroient quand bon leurs sembleroit franchement et entiere- 
ment. 

Item, parce que ordinairement les religieux f aisoient trois 
voeux, savoir est de chastet^, pauvretd, et obedience, fut 
constitud que Ih, honorablement on peult estre mari^, que 



5 8 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

chascun fust riche, et vesquist en liberty. Au regard de 
Taage legitime, les femmes y estoient receues depuis dix 
jusques k quinze ans ; les hommes depuis douze jusques h, 
dix et huit. 

Pour le bastiment et assortiment ' de Pabbaye, Gargantua 
fit livrer de content ^ vingt et sept cens mille huit cent 
trente et un moutons k la grand laine,3 et, par chascim an, 
jusques k ce que le tout fust parfaict, assigna, sur la recepte 
de la Dive,4 seize cent soixante et neuf mille escus au 
soleil,s et autant 2t Pestoille poussiniere. Pour la fondation 
et entretenement d'icelle, donna k perpetuity vingt trois 
cent soixante neuf mille cinq cens quatorze nobles k la 
rose,^ de rente fonciere, indemn^s,7 amortis et solvables 
par chascun an k la porte de Tabbaye. Et de ce leur 
passa belles lettres. Le bastiment fut en figure exagone, 
en telle fa^on qu'k chascun angle estoit bastie une grosse 
tour ronde, k la capacity de soixante pas en diametre. 
Et estoient toutes pareilles en grosseur et protraict.^ La 
riviere de Loire decouUoit sus Taspect de Septentrion. 
Au pied d'icelle estoit une des tours assise, nomm^e 
Arctice. Et tirant vers Porient estoit ime autre, nomm^e 
Calaer.9 L'autre ensuivant, Anatole ; " Pautre, aprds, Me- 
sembrine;" Pautre apr^s, Hesperie;" la demiere, Criere.'^ 
Entre chascune tour estoit espace de trois cens douze pas. 
Le tout basty k six estages, comprenant les caves sous 
terre pour un. Le second estoit voultd k la forme d'une 
anse de panier. Le reste estoit embrunchd h de guy '^ de 
Flandres 2t forme de culz de lampes.'^ Le dessus convert 
d'ardoise fine, avec Pendoussure '7 de plomb h, figures de 
petits manequins,'^ et animaux bien assortis et dords ; avec 
les goutieres que issoient hors la muraille entre les croisdes, 



L»ABBAYE DE TH^LfeME 59 

peintes en figure diagonale d'or et azur, jusques en terre, 
oh finissoient en grands eschenanx,' qui tous conduisoient 
en la riviere par dessous le logis. 
^ Ledit bastiment estoit cent fois plus magnifique que n'est 
^ Bonivet, ne Chambourg, ne Chantilly : car en iceluy es- 
toient neuf mille trois cens trente et deux chambres, chas- 
cune garnie de arriere chambre, cabinet, garderobe, cha- 
pelle, et issue en ime grande salle. Entre chascune tour, 
au milieu dudit corps de logis, estoit une viz* brisde 
dedans iceluy mesme corps. De laquelle les marches 
estoient part de porphyre, part de pierre numidique,3 part 
de marbre serpentin ;4 longues de vingt et deux pieds ; 
Tespesseur estoit de trois doigts, Passiette par nombre de 
douze entre chascun repos. En chascun repos estoient 
deux beaux arceaux d'antique, par lesquelz estoit re^ue 
la clartd: et par iceux on entroit en im cabinet fait k 
claire voye, de largeur de ladite viz ; et montoit jusques au 
dessus la couverture, et Ik finoit en pavilion. Par icelle 
viz on entroit de chascun cost^ en une grande salle et des 
salles es chambres. 

Depuis la tour Arctice jusques k Criere estoient les belles 
/ grandes libraries s en grec, latin, hebrieu, fran^ois, tuscan 
et espagnol, disparties par les divers estages selon iceux 
langages.^ Au milieu estoit une merveilleuse viz, de 
laquelle I'entr^e estoit par le dehors du logis en un arceau 
large de six toises. Icelle estoit faite en telle symmetrie 
et capacity, que six hommes d'armes la lance sus la cuisse 
pouvoient de front ensemble monter jusques au dessus de 
tout le bastiment. Depuis la tour Anatole jusques k 
Mesembrine estoient belles grandes galeries, toutes peintes 
Ides antiques prouesses, histoires, et descriptions de la terre. 



6o RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

Au milieu, estoit une pareille montde et porte, comme 
avons dit du cost^ de la riviere. 

Au milieu de la basse court estoit une fontaine magnifi- 

' que, de bel alabastre. Au dessus, les trois Graces, avec 
comes d'abondance.' Le dedans du logis sus ladite basse 
court estoit sus gros pilliers de cassidoine* et porphyre, k 
beaux arcs d'antique. Au dedans desquelz estoient belles 
galeries longues et amples, orn^es de peintures, de comes 
de cerfs, licomes, rhinoceros, hippopotames, dents de ele- 
phants, et autres choses spectables.3 Le logis des dames 

icomprenoit depuis la tour Arctice jusques k la porte Mesem- 
brine. Les hommes occupoient le reste. Devant ledit 
logis des dames, afin qu'elles eussent I'esbatement, entre 
les deux premieres tours au dehors, estoient les lices, 
rhippodrome, le theatre, et natatoires, avec les bains miri- 
fiques4 k triple solier,5 bien garnis de tous assortimens, et 
foison d'eau de myrte. 

Jouxte la riviere estoit le beau jardin de plaisance. Au 
milieu d'iceluy, le beau labirynthe. Entre les deux autres 
tours estoient les jeux de paulme et de grosse Halle. Du 
costd de la tour Criere estoit le vergier, plein de tous 
arbres fructiers, toutes ordonndes en ordre quincunce. Au 
bout estoit le grand pare, foisonnant en toute beste sau- 
vagine. Entre les tierces tours estoient les butes pour Tar- 
quebuse. Tare, et Tarbaleste. Les offices hors la tour 
Hesperie, h simple estaige. L'escurie au delk des offices. 
Lafauconnerie au devant d'icelles,gouvemde par asturciers^ 
bien expers en Part. Et estoit annuellement foumie par 
les Candiens, Venitiens, et Sarmates7 de toutes sortes 
d'oiseaux paragons,* aigles, gerf aux, autours, sacres, laniers, 
faucons, esparviers, emerillons, et autres ; tant bien faits. 



L'ABBAYE DE TH^LfeME 6 1 

et domestiqu^s que, partans du chasteau pour s'esbatre es 
champs, prenoient tout ce que rencontroient. La venerie 
estoit un peu plus loing, tirant vers le pare. 

Toutes les salles, chambres et cabinetz estoient tapiss^s 
en diverses sortes, selon les saisons de I'ann^e. Tout 
le pav^ estoit couvert de drap verd. Les lictz estoient de 
broderie. 

En chascune arriere chambre estoit un miroir de cristal- 
lin, enchass^ en or fin, autour gamy de perles ; et estoit 
de telle grandeur qu'il pouvoit veritablement representer 
toute la personne. A Tissue des salles du logis des dames 
estoient les parfumeurs et testonneurs: par les mains 
desquelz passoient les hommes, quand ilz visitoient les 
dames. Iceux foumissoient par chascun matin les chambres 
des dames, d'eau rose, d*eau de naphe,^ et d*eau d'ange : 
et k chascune la precieuse cassolette vaporante de toutes 
drogues aromatiques. 

Mais telle sympathie estoit entre les hommes et les fem- 
mes, que, par chascun jour, ilz estoient vestuz de semblable 
parure. Et, pour k ce ne faillir, estoient certains gentilz 
hommes ordonnds pour dire es hommes, par chascun matin, 
quelle livr^e les dames vouloient en icelle joumde porter. 
Car le tout estoit fait selon Tarbitre des dames. En ces 
vestemens tant propres, et accoustremens tant riches, ne 
pensez que ny eux ny elles perdissent temps aucun : car les 
maistres des garderobes avoient toute la vesture tant preste 
par chascun matin ; et les dames de chambre tant bien 
estoient apprises, qu'en un moment elles estoient prestes 
et habill&s de pied en cap. 

Et, pour iceux accoustremens avoir en meilleur oppor- 
tunity, au tour du bois de Theleme estoit un grand corps 



62 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

de maison, long de demie lieue, bien clair et assorty : en 
laquelle demouroient les orfevres, lapidaires, brodeurs, 
tailleurs, tireurs d'or, veloutiers, tapissiers, et haultelissiers ; 
et Ik oeuvroient chascun de son mestier : et le tout pour 
les susdits religieux et religieuses. Iceux estoient foumis 
de matiere et estoffe par les mains du seigneur Nausiclete,* 
lequel, par chascun an, leur rendoit sept navires des isles 
de Perlas, et Canibales,* chargdes de lingotz d'or, de soye 
crue, de perles et pierreries. Si quelques unions 3 tendoient 
h. vetustd, et changeoient de naive 4 blancheur, icelles par 
leur art renouvelloient en les donnant k manger k quelques 
beaux coqs, comme on bailie cure 5 es faucons. 
M Toute leur vie estoit employee, non par loix, statutz ou 
reigles, mais selon leur vouloir et franc arbitre. Se levoient 
du lict quand bon leur sembloit : beuvoient, mangeoient, 
travailloient, dormoient, quand le desir leur venoit. Nul 
ne les esveilloit, nul ne les parfor^oit ny k boire, ny k 
manger, ny k faire chose autre quelconques. Ainsi I'avoit 
estably Gargantua. En leur reigle n'estoit que ceste clause : 

FAIS CE QUE VOUDRAS.® 

Parce que gens liberes, bien nds, bien instruicts, con- 
versans7 en compagnies honnestes, ont par nature un 
instinct et aiguillon qui tousjours les pousse k faits vertu- 
eux, et retire de vice : lequel ilz nommoient honneur. Iceux, 
quand par vile subjection et contraincte sont deprim^s et 
asservis, detournent la noble affection par laquelle k vertu 
franchement tendoient, h, deposer et enfraindre ce joug de 
servitude. Car nous entreprenons tousjours choses defen- 
dues, et convoitons ce que nous est denid. 

Par ceste liberty, entrerent en louable emulation de faire 



L'ABBAYE DE TH^LfeME 63 

tous ce qu*k un seul voyoient plaire. Si quelqu'un ou 
quelqu'une disoit Beuvons, tous beuvoient. S*il disoit 
Jouons, tous jouoient. S'il disoit: Allons k Pesbat es 
champs, tous y alloient. Si c'estoit pour voler,' ou chasser, 
les dames, montdes sus belles haquen^es, avec leur palefroy 
gorrier,* sus le point mignonnement enganteW portoient 
chascune ou un esparvier, ou un laneret, ou un esmerillon : 
les hommes portoient les autres oiseaux. 

Tant noblement estoient appris qu'il n'estoit entre eux 
celuy ny celle que ne sceust lire, escrire, chanter, jouer 
d'instrumens harmonieux, parler de cinq et six langages, 
et en iceux composer, tant en carme que en oraison solue.3 
Jamais ne furent veus chevaliers tant preux, tant gallans, 
tant dextres k pied et k cheval, plus verds,4 mieulx remuans, 
mieulx manians tous bastons, que \k estoient. 

Jamais ne furent veues dames tant propres, tant mignon- 
nes, moins fascheuses, plus doctes, k la main, k Pagueille, 
k tout acte muliebre 5 honneste et libere, que Ik estoient. 

Par ceste raison, quand le temps venu estoit que aucun 
d'icelle abbaye, ou h. la requeste de ses parens, ou pour 
autres causes, voulust issir hors, avec soy il emmenoit une 
des dames, celle laquelle Pauroit pris pour son devot, et 
estoient ensemble mari^s. Et, si bien avoient vescu k 
Theleme en devotion et amiti^, encores mieulx la conti- 
nuoient ilz en mariage, et autant s'entreaimoient ilz k la 
fin de leurs jours comme le premier de leurs nopces. 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



The most frequent abbreviations used are the following : B. des M., Edition 
Burgaud des Marets et Rathery ; Cot., Cotgrave's Dictionary ; O.F., old French ; 
Sar., Sardou's edition ; U., Urquhart's translation. 

Page 1. — z. Gargantua. Rabelais' fanciful etymology of this 
name is given in the text : " Que grand tu as," i e. U gosier. The 
author of the Grandes Croniques says : " Adonc le nomma Gaigantua 
(le quel est ung verbe grec) o^x vault autant a dire : comme tu as ung 
beau filz/' The real etymology is unknown : in Spanish garganta = 
'throat*; in O.F. garganton^=gl<n4ton\ cf. also Oxford Diet, imder 
" Garget." Gargantua was the hero of legends known before Rabelais' 
time, but made popular by him. Charles Bourdign^, in the Ligende 
de Pierre Faifeu (1526), speaks of " Gargantua qui a chepueulx de 
piastre." There are various places in France bearing Gargantua's 
name, but it is impossible to say whether they preceded or followed 
the renown of Rabelais' work. In the keys Gargantua becomes 
Francis I, or Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre. Cf. As You Like It, 
Act III, Sc. ii: "You must borrow me Gargantua's mouth first: 
'tis a word too great for any mouth of this age's size." 

2. *A.ya6i t&x,V' A formula of invocation, * Good luck ' (Latin, 
fuod bene vortat or quod felix faustumque sit), 

3. Pere de Pantagruel. This expression is considered a proof that 
Gargantua was written after the first book of Pantagruel. Why call 
him Pantagruel's father, unless Pantagruel were already known ? 

4. Alcofribas. Alcofribas Nasier was the anagram of Fran9ois 
Rabelais. Such anagrams were highly popular in the sixteenth 
century. Thus Pierre de Ronsard was called Jiose de Pindare (not 
a perfect one); Nicolas Denisot became the Comte d*Alsinois. 
People much admired Loyse de Savoye =3 /<c7y se desavoye, if we 
admit this as an anagram at aU. 

67 



68 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

5. Quinte Easence. In old science supposed to be a fifth and 
purest essence, neither earth, air, fire nor water. Hence, by ex- 
tension, the purest and most perfect part of any physical body or 
intellectual doctrine. To give this latter is Rabelais' aim, leading 
the hearer to knowledge. In Book V, Chap, xxii, Queen Quinte 
Essence makes Pantagruel and his hsLnd A Bstracigurs, saying: "Voyez, 
entendez, contemplez k vostre libre arbitre, tout ce que ma maison 
contient, vous peu k peu emancipans du servage d'ignorance." But 
this Quinte Essence of the fifth Book, god-child of Aristotle, 
and spinster many centuries old and sovereign of the land of £n- 
telechie {ivreXix^tajf is a satire of Scholasticism, and not the purer 
conception which is found elsewhere, e. g. in Du Bellay's Contre Us 

Pitrarquistes : 

Quelque autre encor la terre d^daignant 
Va du tiers ciel les secrets enseignant, 
£t de I'amour, oi!i il se va baignant 

Tire une quinte essence ; 
Mais, quant ^ moi, qui plus terrestre suis, 
£t n'aime rien que ce qu'aimer je puis, 
Le plus subtil qu'en amour je poursuis, 

S'appelle jouissance. 

6. Affection. A passion or perturbation of the mind or body 
[flffectio = ammi aut corporis commutatioy says Cicero), involving a 
condition or relation with other things, either favourable, as in 
Ronsard, " Rdchauffez-moy Paffection " (Ode d. Michel de I* Hospital, 
Strophe XVI) ; or, as here, unfavourable. Translate, * prejudice.* 

7. En cas de rire. ** In point of mirth" (U.). 

8. Argument. Argumentum, subject ; as the " argument " of a 
play. 

g. Consomme = consume, 

zo. Pour ce que rire, etc. B. des M. says : << L'auteur a ici en vue 
la definition de Thomme attribuee k Platon, ^(aov ye\cLa'Tuc6iff animal 
dou^ de la faculty de rire." But this definition comes from Sextus 
Empiricus, Pyrrhonianae Institutiones (Book II, Chap, xvi, on De- 
finitions) : fcSoi' YeXajTTiiciy, xXaruc^wxoi', ivurT'fuATjs toXitiktjs dcKTiKhw, 
Plato does not differentiate " man " from " animal " in this way, for 
he says (Laws, 791 E.) that he is affected by the inclination to weep 
more than any other animal. Nor does the modern Frenchman 



NOTES 69 

who says : ^ Rire comme une baleine 1 " Montaigne, in his essay I?^ 
Democriius et Heraclitus (Book I, Chap. 1), says : « Democritus et 
Heraclitus ont est^ deux philosophes, desquels le premier, trouvant 
vaine et ridicule Thumaine condition, ne sortoit en publicque 
qu'avecques un visage moqueur et riant ; Heraclitus, ayant piti^ et 
compassion de cette mesme condition nostre, en portoit le visage 
continuellement triste, et les yeulx chargez de larmes : 

Alter 
Ridebat, qaoties a limine movent unum 
Frotuleratque pedem ; flebat contrarius alter. 

I'aime mieulx la premiere humeur; nonparce qu'il e&X plus plaisant 
de rire que de plorery mais parce qu*elle est plus desdaigneuse, et 
qu'elle nous condamne plus que Taultre ; et il me semble que nous 
ne pouvons iamais estre assez mesprisez selon nostre merite." For 
Democritus and Heraclitus in Rabelais, cf. p. 19. 

Page 2. — z. Prologue. This preface of Rabelais, informing the 
reader of the value of the contents of his book, maybe compared with 
the " allegory " at the beginning of Lesage's Gil Bias and the story 
of the " soul " of the licencii Pierre Garcias. A direct imitation by 
Sterne, who is full of Rabelais, is to be found in the *< Author's 
Preface," which follows Chapter xx of the third Book of Tristram 
Shandy: **Now, my dear Anti-Shandeans, and thrice able critics and 
fellow-labourers, (for to you I write this Preface) — and to you, 
most subtle statesmen and discreet doctors," etc. 

2. BeuTenrs = buveurs. In the sixteenth centuiy eu in some 
words or locally wavered in pronunciation. Thus we find such 

rimes as: 

Si qu'eux, en ayant un peu 
Prins du nectar et repeu, etc. 

(Ronsard : Ode h MicM dt PHo^Ual, ^pode vii.) 

The rime of eu and u was particularly a Gascon one. On the 
pronunciation of eu in the sixteenth century, cf. an article by A. 
Darmesteter, Romania^ Vol. V, p. 394, ff. and Thurot's PrononciaHon 
franfoise. In modem French Eughu is constantly pronounced by 
the uneducated Ughu, 

3. Silenes. " I say that he is exactly like the busts of Silenus, 
which are set up in the statuaries' shops, holding pipes and flutes in 



yo RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

their mouths ; and they are made to open in the middle, and have 
images of gods inside them." — Symposium 215 (Jowett*s Plato^ I, 
p. 586). M. Bruneti^re reminds us that Rabelais may have known 
this allusion through Erasmus' Silent Alcibiadis in the Adages (Ed. 
Le Clerc. II, p. 770). But he knew Plato. Cf. Lefranc, Le Platim 
de Rabelais in the Bulletin du Bibliophile^ 1901. 

4. Olsons brides. Oison bridi becomes, by extension, synony- 
mous with *■*' sot, ass, gull, ninny, noddy " (Cot.). So we also become 
acquainted in the pages of Rabelais with Jobelin Bride. In a later 
book there is a judge named Bridoye, who decides cases by casting 
dice. He is the ancestor of Beaumarchais' idiotic judge Brid'oison. 
Oisons bridis are found among the mediaeval carvings in cathedral 
choirs and in external decorations. 

5. Bast6es. Wearing a bSit^ or saddle. 

6. Disoity i. e. Alcibiades (understood). 

7. Coiipeau. The ends removed from an onion when it is peeled, 
or the peelings themselves. So, nowadays, copeaux de bois^ " shav- 
ings," " chips " (derived from couper). 

8. Inepte. Now used without any object; then had more of the 
influence of its participial origin. 

g. Offices. Officiay duties. 

zo. Beuyant d'autant k un chascun. Holding his own against 
everyone in drinking. Boire d^autant when used absolutely = boire 
beaucoup. So, for instance, in Montaigne, Book II, Chap, ii: 
" Josephe recite qu'il tira le ver du nez ^ un certain ambassadeur 
que les ennemis lui avaient envoy^, I'ayant faict boire d'autant." Ra- 
belais uses the expression frequently. So too Regnier in his tenth 

satire : 

Au reste, i manger peu, Monsieur beuvoit d'autant, 
Du vin qu'i la taveme on ne payoit contant. 

11. Gabelant. Connected with the old words ^a^^- and ^a^, as 
used, for instance, in the Pelerinage de Charlemagne ct Jirusalem, 
The gabs there are jesting boasts, and the verb implies the idea of 
• to mock,' * to make fun of.' 

12. Impreciable. Invaluable; above any price. 
Page 3 . — I . Deprisement, * contempt.' 

2. Sejour. " Fol de sejour, an idle fellow, one that hath little to 



NOTES 71 

do." (Cot.) Sejour often meant repos, Cf. Montaigne, Book II, 
chap, xii, " Le soleil bransle, sans sejour, sa course ordinaire." 

3. Fessepinthe. '*A tipler, bibber, quaffer, can-killer, pot- 
whipper, faithful drunkard." (Cot.) 

4. Pois au lard. This book is found in the mock Catalogue of 
the Biblioth^que de Saint- Victor (Rabelais, Book II, Chap. vii). It 
is probably without meaning, but the Bibliophile Jacob, in his study 
of the Catalogue (Paris, 1862, p. 116), thought it a parody of the 
Sententiarum libri IV of Peter Lombard (scholastic magister of the 
twelfth century), of which a bound copy might be stamped P» Lard 
cum commento (i. e. with a commentary, commentario), 

5. Gaudisserie, * joking.* Thus in Villon's Jargon : " Contres de 
la gaudisserie," i. e. '* enfants de la rejouissance " (£d. Lognon, p. 
155). So the Farce du Gaudisseur qui se vanU de ses faictz et un sot 
(VioUet le Due, Ancien thiAtre frangais^ Vol. II). 

6. L'habity etc. This proverb is as old as the Roman de la Rose, 
and probably older. 

7. Affierti * has to do with.' From verb afirir (ad-ferire\ of 
which there remains the legal term affhrent^ " reverting to." 

8. Trouyez. The plural of the subjunctive present of the first 
conjugation in Rabelais often ends in -ons and -ez. The verbal 
endings -iens and -iez^ later -ions^ -iez^ begin early. The original end- 
ings are really unknown for the first and second persons plural. For 
the first conjugation the oldest are perhaps -ons (unoriginal, how- 
ever, as being analogical) and -eiz^ whence, later, -ez and -iez, 

g. Cuidiez. Cuider (from cogitare) has disappeared from modem 
French, except in derivatives such as outrecuidance, etc. Note the 
use of the personal form without a pronoun. 

xo. Caisgne. Fem. of chien, or rather from a different language 
or dialect (cagna)^ used as an interjection. '^Tushl Gods met 
Gogs my wounds! Is it possible." (Cot.) 

iz. Lib. II de Rep. " And surely this instinct of the dog is very 
charming; — your dog is a true philosopher.'* (Rep. 376, Jowett's 
Plato, III, p. 58.) 

Page 4, — I. Ferveur. Note gender. The change of gender of 
nouns in orem wos perhaps (not certainly) due to the influence of 
feminines in uram. Rabelais here goes back to the etymology, but 
in other passages he makes the word feminine. 



72 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

a. Pretend il. Used actively. 

3. Toutes autreSy i. e. chases, 

4. Fleiirer, * to enjoy the scent of.' 

5. Haute gresse. Important, valuable, rich in substance, as 
though deep with fat. 

6. Prochaz. Pursuit. Cf. modiexii paurchasser, 

7. EscorSy ' skilled ' (cf. scorti in Italian). 

8. Absconse, * concealed ' (cf. abscondere), 

g. Homere. Cf. Montaigne, Book II, Chap, xii, " Est il possible 
qu' Homere ayt voulu dire tout ce qu'on lui faict dire ? " etc. 

10. Belut6y i. e. * to sift,' * to hunt out.' Cf . Montaigne, Book II, 
Chap, xii : ** II y a d'aultres sublets qu'ils ont beluttez, qui \ gauche, 
qui k dextre," etc. Other reading, calfreti, 

iz. Heraclides Ponticq. Heraclides Ponticus, a native of Pontus 
who became a pupil of Plato. Among the works attributed to him 
were the AWifyopfat 'OfiripiKaL 

12. Bustatie. Eustathius, Archbishop of Thessalonica in the 
twelfth century, to whom were attributed the IIa/>6ic/3oXal eis r^y 
*0m^P0v IXtd^a Kal 'OdvaaelaK 

13. Phomute. Probably L. Annseus Comutus or Phumutus, a 
philosopher who lived in Rome in the first century A.D., teacher 
and friend of the poet Persius. 

14. Politlan. Poliziano, the great humanist of the Italian Renais- 
sance (1454-1494). Rabelais here repeats a charge of plagiarism 
made by his friend Bud^. 

15. Ny de pieds ny de mains. Cf. the Latin jurist's technical 
terms, pedibus ire in senteniiam alicuiusy "to take sides with one." 

z6. Frere lubin. Referred by the commentators to an English 
Dominican monk, Thomas Waleys, author of a work known in 
France as the Bible des pontes. The name FrSre lubin ("gulligut 
friar." — U.) had become familiar since Marot's ballade d double 
refrain on Fr^re Lubin, a literary descendant of Faulx Semblant in 
the Roman de la Rose (cf . Guy, De fontibus dementis MaroH poeta^ 

1898,?. 57): 

Pour faire plus tost mal que bien, 
Frere Lubin le fera bien ; 
£t si c'est quelque bon affaire, 
Frere Lubin ne le peult faire. 



NOTES 73 

Cf . also next note. 

17. Croquelardon. *'A smell-feast, a lickorous fellow ; a waste- 
ful glutton, a greedy eater ; and (most properly) one that picks the 
lard out of meat, as it roasts." (Cot.). — One of the volumes which 
Pantagruel finds in the Biblioth^que de Saint- Victor (Book II) is 
Reverendi patris frairis Lubini^ promncialis Bavardie^ de croquendis 
lardonibus libri tres. 

Page 5 • — I . Philologes. The ^ was not necessarily followed by 
u to represent the guttural sound. So this Prologue is in some edi- 
tions given as Prologe^ and Alain Chartier's work is called both the 
Quadriloge and Quadrilogue invectif, 

2. Horace. 

Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Homenu ; 
Eimiofl ipse pater numquam nisi potus ad aima 
Prosiluit dicenda. 

(Epistles, Book I, xix, 1. 6 ff .) 

3. Tirelupin. *' A catch-bit, or captious companion ; a scoundrel 
or scurvy fellow." (Cot.) 

4. Odeur. Note gender, from odorem (cf. supra note onferveur), 

5. Priant. * Inviting,* rather than * qui a du prix.' In Marot are 

the lines: — 

La blanche colombelle beUe 
Souvent je voys priant criant : 
Mais dessoubz la cordelle d'elle 
Me jecte un ceil friant, riant, etc. 

6. Despendoit. This is a modified allusion to the biography of 
the Pseudo-Plutarch : Urropown S'ws o^8i \&x.^^ f<r/3eo'ev, &xp^ vevrij- 
Kovra h-Qv ^ivero, BuiKpi^Qv to^s \6yovs. The reference below as 
to Demosthenes* orations smelling like an huilier is from Plutarch's 
life: Pytheas told him that his arguments smelled of the lamp, 
whereupon Demosthenes replied : ** Yes, indeed, but your lamp and 
mine are not conscious to the same labours." For these and similar 
references, cf. Blass: Die Attische Beredsamkeit (biography of 
Demosthenes). 

7. Bon gaultier, * good fellow.* A proper name used for a whole 
class. Cf. the American colloquialism, a ** Smart-Aleck," or the 
English " *Arry.** A Franc Gautier, or Franc Gontier, was in the 
Middle Ages a sort of Robin Hood, or free man, then a bon vivant 



74 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

(also Martin Gautier). Les ditz de Franc -GonHer was a poem by 
Philippe de Vitry, praising the delights of rustic life. 

8. Chagrin = esprit chagrin, 

g. Hord = ord = dirty {horridus), Cf. ordure, 

lo. Pourtanty * consequently.' 

iz. Caseiforme. Shaped like a cheese. 

I a. BscoutaZy etc. Gascon words: "Ecoutez, nigauds, que le 
chancre vous ronge." Maulubecy mayloubet^ or malubec ^ mauloubet 
or mal loubety i. e. the Wolf, or as it now called, Lupus (Loubet = 
petit loupy louveteau, Cf. the name of President Loubet). In the 
Prologue of Pantagruel, Rabelais says <*le maulubec vous trous- 
que." 

13. Plegeray. " To pledge." In a morality called La Condamna- 
Hon des Banquets by Nicolas de la Chesnaye (1507), two of the 
characters are Je-bois-li-vous and Je-pleige-d'autant. , 

14. Tout ares metys » tout de suite. Southern expression, per- 
haps from ad horam metipsam. 

Page 6. — z. Grandgousier = Grand and gosier, Rabelais tells 
us elsewhere that he was " bon raillard en son temps, aimant \ boire 
net, autant que homme qui pour lors fust au monde." To the com- 
mentators Grandgousier is Louis XII or Jean d'Albret, King of 
Navarre. " Le bonhomme Grandgousier, pere de Gargantua, grand- 
p^re de Pantagruel, repr^sente specialement la raison amie de la 
paix, oppos^e k la turbulence guerri^re et a la folle ambition de 
Picrochole." (Stapfer, Rabelais ^ p. 239.) 

2. Rigollant. JRigoler, meaning s^amuser^ is now somewhat 
slangish. Cf. also the modem slang rigolo, " C'est rigolo." 

3. Brasmoit = brailler = * to bellow.* Now local or old fash- 
ioned for the cry of animals, but bramer is still used technically for 
the cry of the deer. 

4. Supple, i. e. * understand ' (Latin imperative). U. misinter- 
preted this and said, " Que grand tu as et souple le gousier." 

5. Tirelarigot. Larigot= a sort of flute; also, in older French, 
the throat. Hence the definition of Cot. for larigau : ** The head 
of the windpipe or throat, consisting of three gristles; the instru- 
ment of receiving, and letting out breath ; also a Fluter or Pipe is 
called so by the clowns in some parts of France. Boire d tire larigau. 



NOTES 75 

To drink till his throat crack withal." " A tire gosier " (Sar.). Littr^ 
compares the modem slang Jii^^r, " to drink." 

6. Brehemond. Pautille and Brehemond, villages near Chinon. 

Page 7. I. Institu^y * instructed.' Cf. instituteur, and Mon- 
taigne on the Institution des enfans, 

2. Discipline. Cf. the Latin disciplina. So here instruction/ 
' training.' 

3. Manger. Cf. Montaigne, Book II, Chap, ziii : " Songe com- 
bien il y a que tu foys mesme chose, manger, boire, dormir, et 
manger : nous rouons sans cesse en ce cercle." 

4. A manier. By his (Alexander's) skilful management of a 
horse (Bucephalus). 

5. Bailloit = donnait. 

6. Mandibules, *jaws.' Cf. La Fontaine, Book V, no. 8: 

L'autre qui s'en doutait, lui ISche une made ' 
Qui vous lui met en marmelade 
Les mandibules et les dents. 

In modem French very familiar; e. g. jouer des mandibules 
ss= manger, 

7. Voltigeoit. To make a horse go through the voltige^ a term 
of horsemanship, i. e. " to curvet," " to prance in a circle." Now 
used more generally, ** to flit about," etc. ; but only intransitively. 

Page 8. — I. Agu. Acutus, * clever,' * shrewd.' Cf. "cute" 
(U. S.). 

2. Serain, * calm,' * peaceable.' 

3. Sapience. Obsolete for sagesse, 

4. Thubal Holofeme. This person has been variously inter- 
preted as standing for Gregorio Tifemas, one of the early Greek 
teachers in the fifteenth century; Castiglione, the author of the 
Cortegiano; Jacques Colin of Auxerre, secretary of Francis I, a 
great friend of Jean and of Clement Marot, and mentioned by the 
latter in his poems : 

Ce que voyant le bon Janot mon pere, 

Voulut gaiger ^ Jaquet son compere 

Contre un veau gras deux aignelletz bessoos, etc. 

{Eghgug au roy.) 

5. Charte. The alphabet, so called because usually pasted on a 
board or cardboard. 



76 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

6. Donat. Donatus, a Latin grammarian of the fourth century, 
author particularly of a work De octo partibus orationis, used as a 
grammar. 

7. Facet. An ethical treatise loquens de pr<ucepHs et moribus 
(Moribus et vita quisquis vult esse facetusj L e. urbanus, " cultivated "). 
The author was perhaps Reinerus Alemanni (d. 12 12); perhaps 
Johannes de Garlandia, an English scholar of the eleventh century. 
Cf. Romania, XV, 192 ff., 224 ff. (A. Morel-Fatio) and Grober's 
Grundriss, II, i, 383, 384. 

8. Xheodolet. The Ecloga Theoduliy an allegorical conversation 
in verse between Truth and Wisdom against Falsehood. 

9. Alanus in Parabolis. The writings of Alanus de Insulis 
(Alain de Lisle), a twelfth -century theologian and preacher. These 
writings were favorite text-books in the schools. The last three 
were part of the Auctores octo morales^ published at Lyons at the 
end of the fifteenth century. 

10. Art. Both masculine and feminine in the sixteenth century. 
iz. Escritoire. Note gender. It is, however, given as feminine 

even in Palsgrave, acquiring that gender through the influence of 
the ending in mute e. " Pen and inkhorn " (U.). 

Z2. Galimart or galemary * pencase,' * writing case.* Forms used 
later than the sixteenth century, but now obsolete, calmar and cale- 
mar (calamarium). 

13. £nay. The abbey of Ainay, near Lyons. 

14. De modis significandi. A treatise on logic by Johannes de 
Garlandia. The names of commentators which follow are of Rabe- 
lais' invention and often suggest the effect they are intended to pro- 
duce. But they are not so fantastic as one might imagine. French 
papers of April 8, 1903, reported the arrest at le Mans of '*M. 
Heurtebise, sous-caissier I. la Caisse d'^pargne, inculp^ de d^tourne- 
ments s'^levant k la somme de 20,700 francs et de nombreux faux 
en Ventures publiques." 

15. Coupelaud. Cf. coupelle, "testing-vessel." Hence *on ex- 
amination.' 

16. De modis, etc. * There was no science of the modes of 
signifying.' 

17. Compost, or Compute computing tables for the calendar. 



NOTES 77 

Perhaps Liber Aniani^ qui Computus nuncupatur^ cum commento 

(1493). 

18. Jobelin Brid^, L e. < muzzled dolt' (U.). Cf. oison bridi^xA 
Rabelais* Judge Bridoye. The expression is used by Roger de Col- 
lerye (1470 -about 1536) with the meaning of a deceived husband. 
In Villon's time Jobelin was the name of thieves' jargon or slang, to 
take in the unwary, enjobeliner. The word, like the modem slang 
equivalent jobard (fool) and its shorter form job, is probably con- 
nected with the old French y^^^, having the same meaning. 

Page 9* z. Hugutio. Author of a grammar and dictionary in 
the thirteenth century, the Liber derivationum. 

a. Hebrard. The Graedsmus of Hebrard, Evrard, or Eberhard 
of B^thune, a poem in hexameters, written about 11 24, on the 
figures and parts of speech. There is a modem edition by Wrobel : 
Eberhardi Bethuniensis Graecismus, Uratislaviae, 1887. 

3. Doctrinal. The Doctrinale puerorum, or rudiments of Latin, 
by Alexandre de Villedieu (thirteenth century). This work, a rhymed 
discussion of points of grammar, was, as well as the Grecisme, a fa- 
vorite text-book until well into the sixteenth century, when they were 
succeeded in popularity by ih^ Rudiments of Jean Despautere, which is 
quoted even in Moli^re. For information about the early works, cf . 
the writings of Charles Thurot, De Alexandri de Villa-Dei Doctri- 
noli, ^usque fortuna ; V organisation de Venseignement dans V Univer- 
sity au moyen-Age ; Histoire des theories grammaticales au moyen-dge, 

4. Pars. Study of the " parts " of speech. 

5. Quid est. An elementary grammatical treatise in the form of 
questions and answers, like a catechism. 

6. Supplementum. A supplement to some learned treatise ; by 
some said to refer to the Supplementum Chronicorum of Philip of 
Bergamo (1434-1518 or 1520). 

7. Marmotret. Mammetractusy sive expositio in singulis libris 
Bibliae (1470). In reprints the title became often Mamotractus and 
Mamotrectus, Rabelais makes it Marmotret {marmot » monkey), 
and in the Biblioth^que de Samt- Victor it becomes Marmotretus de 
baboinis et cingis, 

8. De moribna, etc. A treatise on children's deportment by 
Sulpitiiis Verulanos, an Italian writer of the fifteenth century. 



78 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

9. Seneca. A pseudo-Seneca, Martinus Bracarensis or Martin, 
bishop of Braga, in Portugal, and Mondonedo, in the sixth century, 
author of this work, De quatuor virtutibus cardinalibtts^ or Formula 
honestae vitae^ sive de differentiis quatuor virtutum cardinalium, 

zo. Passavantus. Passavante, a Dominican monk of Florence 
(d. 1357), author of Lo Specchio della vera penitenta. Rabelais may 
have in mind that Passavantus suggests pas savant, 

1 1 . Dormi secure. A collection of ready-made sermons published 
at the end of the Middle Ages : so called because the preacher could 
sleep soundly and not worry about the preparation of his addresses. 

za. Semblable farine, i. e. de mime acabit, " of the same kidney," 
as in Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor : ** A man of my kidney, 
— think of that, — that am as subject to heat as butter." (Act iii, 
Sc. V.) The French also use the Latin form, ejusdem farinae. The 
word was used in post-Augustan Latin to denote the general 
quality of anything: Cum fueris nostrae paulo ante farinae. (Per- 
sius, 5, 115.) 

13. Ne f oumeasmes nous. Variously interpreted : (i) "It means 
that Gargantua, after three score and odd years* study, was no wiser, 
nor his bread better baked (to use Rabelais* metaphor), than ours, 
who set it but yesterday " (U.) ; (2) he had reached the perfection 
of wisdom, " dans le m6me sens que nous dirions : Apr^s lui, il faut 
tirer I'^chelle." (B. des M.) Cf. Book III, Chap, xii: "Par la 
response qu'il nous donne, je suis aussi sage que onques puis ne 
fourneasmes nous " ; i. e. as wise as before. 

14. Papeligosse. Where the people se gaussent (" make fun ") du 
pape, Cf . the Papefigues, who also make fun of the Pope and, on 
the other hand, the Papimanes. 

15. Moufles, * nonsense.' Connected either with '''■Mouffle, a 
winter mittain ; also as moufle " (Cot.), hence clumsy and misshapen 
like a woollen mitten (so Godefroy) ; or with moufle^ " snout," hence 
"fat," "chubby," "with big jowls," i. e. foolish. In modem col- 
loquial French, mufle (corrupted into muf or mufe) means what the 
English call a ** bounder " and Americans a " chump " ; which brings 
us back to the same idea as " leur sapience n'estoit que moufles." 

z6. Entretien et honnestet6y < carriage and civility ' (U.). 

17. Taille bacon. A "ham-slasher," i. e. a "boaster" ("un 



NOTES 79 

bailleur de balivemes "). Here is an instance of an old French word 
more like English than the modem French equivalent. Cf. the old 
TailU vents f for a boaster. 

z8. Brene. In Touraine. 

zg. Villegongis. Village near Ch&teauroox in Berry. 

ao. Sndemon. 'Ev5a</uiiy, << happy." 

21. Tant = j«. 

aa. Testonn^y i. e. caiffe. 

23. Tii^. Cf . * tiri h quatre ipingles^ ** to look as if one came 
out of a bandbox." 

24. Honneste, 'civil/ 'courteous.' In the seventeenth century, 
honnhe homme becomes equivalent to "gentleman." The French 
still say : " Vous 6tes trop honndte" = " You are very courteous " 
(familiar). 

25. Trop = beaucoup. Used in this sense before the compara- 
tives mieux and meilleur, and sometimes plus, 

26. Mateologiens. Mdratos and X67of, 'empty talkers.' Rabe- 
lais had probably in mind such people as Noel B^da, the theologian 
and principal of the College de Montaigu, which Erasmus and he 
attack. 

Page 10. — z. Proposast. To enunciate the propositions of a 
discussion. 

2. VOttlsist =s vouim (imp. subj.). 

3. Ire. Another case in which the older French word is more 
like the English than modern French. Cf. p. 9, n. 17. 

4. Theologalement. Reading of late editions, sophistiquement. 

5. Sou =: soUL We read in the Adages of Erasmus (ed. Le Clerc, 
Vol II, p. 471), under the heading, Syracusana mensa^ the follow- 
ing: "Unde Faustus Andrelinus Foroliviensis Poeta, non solum 
laureatus, verum etiam regius, atque etiam (si Diis placet) Regineus, 
vetus congerro mens, qui plus quam triginta jam annos in celeber- 
rima Parisiorum Academia Poeticen docet, in carmine quod de Pavi- 
mento Parisiensi inscripsit, adagionem in Anglos derivavit : 

' Mensa/ inqaiena, ' Britanna placet.' 
Et hand scio unde natum sit hoc vulgatissimum apud Gallos pro- 
verbium, ut cum hominem vehementer cibo distentum velint intel- 
ligi, dicant : Tam satur est quam Anglus. Verum iidem, ut illis 



80 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

attribuunt wo\v4>aylaPy ita nobis xdkuwofflap adscribunt." — For the 
comparison, cf . the modem " soiil comme un Polonais ** (because of 
the verse of Frederick the Great on Augustus II, elector of Saxony 
and King of Poland : " Lorsque Auguste buvait, la Pologne ^tait 
ivre '*) ; " soiil comme une grive " (because the thrush is supposed to 
get drunk on the ripening grapes) ; " ivre comme une soupe " (soaked 
with wine as bread is soaked in soup; we say *' soaked"). — Rabe- 
lais is fond of saying: '*boire comme un templier'* (the expression 
is still used). Bretons and Swiss were also then types of heavy 
drinkers. Cf . Du Bellay*s Regrets (cxxvii) : 

lis boivent nuit et jour, en Bretons et Suisses, 
lis sent gras et refaits, et mangent plus que trois. 
Voili les compagnons et correcteurs des rois, 
Que le bon Rabelais a sumomm^s Saucisses. 

Montaigne (Book I, Chap, xxv), tells of the French ambassador to 
Germany who got drunk there three times " pour la necessite des 
affaires du roy." 

Page 11. — z. Ponocrates. From lehvoiy labour, and Kpar^Wf I 
conquer. 

Page 12. — z. Quart = qtuitriime^ as m Moli^re's Tartuffe (Act 
I, Sc i) : " Et Ton y sait m^dire et du tiers et du quart." 

2. Que. From quern or quod: ought to be used only as object, at 
least for persons. But Rabelais is not alone in making it subject, 
for persons and things. 

3. NOttveau. Cf. the Latin saying: Quid novi fert Africa ? The 
origin of this is attributed to the interest of the Romans in the 
achievements of their armies in Africa. But we find in Aristotle 
(Hist Animal,, VIII, 28) : * Ac£ AijSiJi; 4>4p€i tl Koivbv, " AfiFrique, 
dist Pantagruel, est coustumiere toujours choses produire nouvelles 
et monstrueuses." (Book V, Chap, iii.) 

4. Oriflans. A form of the older olifanty from elephanius. 

5. Toostade. <* Toustade. Alezan toust. A burnt sorrel ; a dark- 
red colour like wood scorched, or metal burnt in the fire " (Cot.) ; 
O.F. tester^ but ade implies a foreign source. Cf . Span, tostado and 
Eng. " toasted." 

6. Sntreilliz^y < mingled with.' * Intergrated, thick-lettised, cross- 
barred ' (Cot). Cf. « trellis." 



NOTES 8 I 

7. Poy pins poy moins sa plus ou moins. Doubtless O.F. poi^ 
meaning /^». 

8. Pile saint Mars. The Pile de Cinq- Mars, a solid square tower 
on the Loire, near Langeais. No satisfactory explanation of its 
building is known, though it was probably a beacon like the Tour 
des Brandons at Ath^, and the Lanteme de Rochecorbon. It is 
ninety-five feet high and fifteen feet across. 

g. Brancara. From Prov. brancalyixoTa irancOf "hTdJich.** So 
here the " branches " or " shafts," i. e. the " hairs " of the tail, which, 
the author goes on to say, are as " hooked " or " entangled " as " les 
espicz au bled." Cf. caurait sur les branquars, p. 25. 

zo. Tenand. There is said to have been a book by Jehan Tenaud 
or Thenaud, called Voyage et itiniraire de outre-mer. This story 
about the carts of the Syrian sheep is first told by Herodotus, Book 
III, Chap, cziii : <* They have two kinds of sheep worthy of interest, 
which exist nowhere else. The one species have tails not less than 
three cubits long, which if they were allowed to drag along, would 
be made sore by friction against the ground. Now each shepherd 
knows at least enough carpentering to make little wagons, which 
they tie under their tails, fastening the tail of each animal on a 
separate little wagon. The other kind of sheep have broad tails, 
even as wide as a cubit." 

zi. CarraqneSy *Carricks.* Cf. La Fontaine, Le Singe et le 

Uopard: 

Votre serviteor Gille, 
Coosin et gendre de Bertrand, 
Singe du pape en son vivant, 
Tout frakhement, en cette ville, 
Arrive en trois bateaux ezpr^ pour vous parler. 

A person of extraordinary importance would need an escort of 
ships as well as the vessel he is in, himself. In modem French 
slang, " arriver par le dernier bateau " = " to be in the latest style " ; 
" monter un bateau " = " to deceive." 

Z2. Olone. Les Sables d*01onne, a small sea-town in the west 
of France (Poitou). 

13. Clercs. French proverb transposed: *<Si n'estoient mes- 
sieurs les *clercs, nous vivrions comme bestes." But contrast the 
proverbs quoted by Le Roux de Lincy, Livre des proverbes franfois : 
** Les meilleurs clercs ne sont pas les plus sages," and : 



82 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

On dit commun^ment en villes et Tillages, 
Que les grands dercs ne sont pas les plus sages. 

Cf . also Regnier : 

N'en d^laise aux docteurs, cordeliers, jacobins, 
Pardieu t les plus grands dercs ne sont pas les plus fins. 

(Sat. III.) 

Rabelais says in Book I, Chap, xxxix : Magis magnos clericos non 
sunt magis magnos sapUnteSy which Montaigne quotes, Book I, Chap, 
xxiv. Cf. also Chaucer's "The grettest clerkes beth not wisest 
men." . 

Clerc =s a scholar, one who has clergie^ i. e. science or knowledge : I 

" Un loup, quelque peu clerc," La Fontaine, Les Animaux malades 
de la peste. 

Page 13. — z. Attremp^, ' mild.' 

a. Bottes fauyes. Of yellow leather. Cf. Villon, Grant Testa- 
menty 1. 1974 : " Chaussans sans meshaing fauves botes." Nothing 
is known as to Babin ; he was perhaps a shoemaker of the time at 1 

Chinon. Cf. Revue des Etudes rab.. No. i, p. 80. 

3. Ssmoncha. Esmaucher^ here s « to drive away flies." I 

4. Beau ce. The genealogical mania and the search for epony- i 
mous heroes, as well as fanciful geographical etymologies, were rife 

in the sixteenth century. Rabelais is making fun of the practice of 
which we find such extraordinary examples in Le Maire de Belges's 
Illustrations des Gaules. They remind one of the etymologies of 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin (from the Indian chief who expressed his 
discontent at his large family of daughters by announcing each birth 
as " Ugh 1 she-boy 'gain " 1) and of Cordova, Illinois (from the 
Mississippi steamer which took on a load of wood and had a ** cord 
over"). 

5. Baisler. " To gape," as one may do when one has nothing to | 
eat The idition variorum quotes the proverb : 

C'est un gentilhomme de Beauce, 

Qui est au lit quand on refait ses cfaausses. 

6. Chere lye, " good cheer.' lAe^ dialect form of li^e, O.F. fem. 
of li^, from laetus. 

Page 14. — z. Admiration. Rabelais says also in Book II, 
Chap, vii : '* Vous savez bien que le peuple de Paris maillotinier est 



NOTES 83 

sot par natnre, par bequarre et par bemol.*' Cf. Montesquieu, Let- 
ires persanesj No. xxx : " Les habitants de Paris sont d*une 
curiosity qui va jusqu'a Textravagance. Lorsque j'arrivai, je fus 
regard^ comme si j'avais ^t^ envoy^ du del : vieillards, hommes, 
femmes, enfants, tous voulaient me voir. Si je sortais, tout le monde 
se mettait aux fenStres ; si j'^tais aux Tuileries, je voyais aussitdt 
un cercle se former autour de moi; les femmes m€mes faisaient un 
arc-en-ciel nuanc^ de mille couleurs qui m'entourait. Si j'etais aux 
spectacles, je trouvais d'abord cent lorgnettes dress^es contre ma 
figure : enfin jamais homme n*a tant ^t^ vu que moi." — The Paris- 
ians still have the reputation of being badauds and gobeurs. 

2. Porteur de rogatons. Marty-Laveaux quotes Henri Estienne 
to prove that this is a monk who peddles relics " qui mesmement 
sont appelez porteurs de rogatons, pyource qu*ils ne vivent que des 
aumosnes des gens de bien " (Apologie pour Hlrodote., Chap. xxii). 
He maintains, also, that there is an opposition between porteur de 
rogaton and prescheur evangeliquey which he takes for " Protestant 
pastor." Rabelais speaks also of porteurs de rogatons^ as poor people, 
in Chapter i. 

3. Cymbales, * bells.* 

4. Vielleux, * fiddler.* 

5. Campanesy < bells.* 

6. Fromages de Brye. Still a famous French cheese. 

7. Commandeur jambonnier. '* A master beggar of the friars of 
Saint Anthony ** (U.). One who begs for hams. In painting and 
in sculpture Saint Anthony is represented with a pig at his feet. 

8. Snille. Suillus — " pertaining to swine.** 

g. Chamier. " // fera trembler le lard au charnier. He will do 
wonders ; or, he will terrifie them wonderfully. (Ironically)** (Cot.). 
— And Leroux de Lincy, Liifre des proverbes fran^ais (II. p. 200), 
defines it : *' Etre grand mangeur.** These definitions show the ap- 
propriateness of Marty-Laveaux* quotation from Du Fail (II, p. 
138): '*Ces gens de bien . . . faisans leurs questes & visites aniver- 
saires, par chacun an deux & trois fois, savent si dextrement en- 
dormir ces pauvres femmes . . . qu*il n*y a andouille H la chemin^e, 
ne jambon au chamier, qui ne tremble k la simple pronontiation & 
vois d*un petit & harmonieux Ave Maria,* 



84 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

zo. Bonrg. Perhaps Antoine de Saix, Saxanus, tutor of the 
duke of Savoy in 1532. 

zz. Stupidity. The clause ioWormng patience, i. e. <*ou (pour 
mieulx dire) de la stupidity," was suppressed after 1535. 

Page 15. — z. MonopOles, ' Intrigues.' 

2. Folfr^. The Edition variorum calls this a contraction of fol 
effari, but the etymology and definition are uncertain. 

3. Habelin6. " Distempered " (Cot.). Origin uncertain. 

4. Sorbonne. In editions after 1535 replaced by Nesle, i. e. the 
h6tel de Nesle. Rabelais attacks, as boldly as he dares, the Sor- 
bonne as the stronghold of conservatism and religious ignorance and 
prejudice. 

5. Lencece. No satisfactory explanation of this reference has 
been given. Commentators upon the reading Nesle tried to explain 
the oracle as an idol of Isis which remained in the abbey of Saint- 
Germain-des-Pr^s, near the h6tel de Nesle, until the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It should be borne in mind, however, that the reference was 
originally to the Sorbonne. 

6. Baralipton. The mnemonic verses intended to facilitate the 
study of the moods of the syllogism first appeared in the Summulae 
Logicales of Petrus Hispanus, afterwards Pope John XXI (d. 1277). 
In their early form they ran as follows : 

Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferio, Baralipton, 
Celantes, Dabitis, Fapesmo, Frisesomorum, 
Cesare, Camestres, Festino, Baroco, Darapti, 
Felapton, Disamis, Dadsi, Bocardo, Ferison. 

The major and minor terms and the conclusion are denoted by the 
vowels in these words : A stands for a universal affirmative proposi- 
tion (All men are mortal), £ for a universal negative (No men are 
mortal), I for a particular affirmative (Some men are mortal), O for 
a particular negative (Some men are not mortal). Barbara is the 
most familiar mood and the type of all syllogism : 

All men are mortal. 
All kings are men, 
. * . All kings are mortal. 

Baralipton (the vowel in the syllable pton does not count) is an 



NOTES 8S 

indirect mood of the first figure by which a particular affirmative 
conclusion is drawn from two universal affirmative premises : 

All cats are animals, 
All animals are mortal beings, 
. * . Some mortal beings are cats. 

Two of the most notorious moods of the syllogism are Baroko and 
Bokardoy because they cannot, under ordinary circumstances, be 
reduced like the other moods to the first figure except by Permuta- 
tion or per impossibile. Hence the old prison in Oxford was called 
Bokardo or Bocardo, because of the difficulty of getting out of it 
except per impossibile^ and some people have derived the French ad- 
jective baroque from Baroko^ which reminds one of Sidney Smith's de- 
rivation of " grotesque " from Mrs. Grote, the wife of the historian. — 
English logicians generally give a different list of mnemonic verses : 

Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferioque prions ; 
Cesare, Camestres, Festino, Baroko secundae ; 
Tertia Darapti, Disamis, Datisi, Felapton, 
Bokardo, Ferison habet. Quarta insuper addit 
Bramantip, Camenes, Dimaris, Fesapo, Fresison. 

This classification creates a fourth figure, not used by Aristotle, to 
whom the moods were but inversions of the first figure, and not 
much used before the beginning of the last century: A transposition 
of the premises of the fourth figure gives the arrangement of the 
first, in everything but the arrangement of major and minor terms, 
which is inverted. Baralipton here becomes, therefore, Bramantip. 
— Rabelais never tires of making fim of logic in general and the 
syllogism in particular ; as, for instance, in Book I, Chap. xx. But 
a more amusing case is Gargantua's perturbation at the simultaneous 
death of his wife and birth of Pantagruel (Book II, Chap. iii). He 
does not know whether to laugh or cry : " D*un cost^ et d'autre, il 
avoit argumens sophistiques qui le suffoquoient; car il les faisoit 
tres bien in modo et figura^ mais il ne les pouvoit souldre. Et, par 
ce moyen, demeuroit empestre comme la souris empeig^e, ou un 
milan pris au lacet.' This is undoubtedly a satire of the i.7copia, 
known as the dne de Buridan, of the ass equidistant between a 
bundle of hay and a pail of water, and dying of hunger in conse- 
quence. — Montaigne says, in his essay De P Institution des En/ants: 



86 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

'* La plus ezpresse marque de la sagesse, c*est une esiouissance con- 
stante ; son estat est, comme des choses au dessus de la lune, tous- 
iours serein: c'est Baroco et Baralipton qui rendent leurs supposts 
ainsi crottez et enf umez ; ce n'est pas elle : ils ne la cognoissent que 
par ouyr dire." For his general views on logic cf. also De PArt de 
Confirer: " Qui a pris de Pentendement en la logique ? ou sont ses 
belles promesses ? nee ad melius vivendum, nee ad commodius dis- 
serendum, Veoid on plus de barbouillage au caquet des harengieres, 
qu'aux disputes publicques des hommes de cette profession ? I'aime- 
rois mieulx que mon fils apprinst aux tavernes k parler, qu'aux 
escholes de la parlerie." — Moli^re also makes fun of the figures of 
the syllogism. Cf. Le Mariage forci^ Sc. iv : " Je vous prouverai, 
. . . par arguments in Barbara que vous n'8tes et ne serez jamais 
qu'une p^core." Also, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme. Act II, Sc. iv : 
" Qui sont-elles ces trois operations de Tesprit ? — La premiere, la 
seconde et la troisi^me. . . La troisi^me, de bien tirer une conse- 
quence par le moyen des figures Barbara., Celarent^ Dariiy Ferio, 
Baralipton,^* 

7. Theologale. Suppressed after 1535. 

8. Theologian. After 1535 replaced by sophiste. 

Page 16. — z. Cesarine. With hair cut like that of Caesar, and 
brushed forward to hide the baldness of the head. 

2. Lyripipion. A graduate's hood. Theologal; after 1535, h 
Pantique. 

3. Coudignac. Coudignac or cotignac =» quince marmelade. In 
Poitou quinces are still called coudaings (Poey d'Avant). Coudigntu 
difour ^ " bread." Eau beniste de cave = " wine." 

4. Vedeaox. Pun on vedeau (— bedeau^ "beadle") and vedeau 
(= vedel^ veaut " calf "). The word toucher suggests the idea of driv- 
ing cattle, as in * toucher des boeufs.' 

5. Inertes, pun suggesting in artes (for in artibus) and " inert." 

6. A profit do mesnage. " Soundly, throughly, with a witness, 
without jeasting or dalliance, to some purpose " (Cot.). 

7« Quaroiti *what was the meaning of.' 

i« Ratralct du goabelet, " The buttery" (Cot.) ; as the term is 
u««d In KixgUah coM©g©». i, «, the place to keep bottles or liquors 
(mod«ii\ *' butJwy " i 0»F, AimtH/lerie), 



NOTES 87 

9. TheolOgalement. Later reading, rustrement, 

zo. Pour = ' because.' Preposition indicating not purpose, but 
cause : '* That the bells had been returned at his request." 

Page 17. — z. Theologian. Later reading, sophiste, 

a. Shen, hen. This sermon is supposed to be a parody of the 
popular discourses of preachers like Menot and Maillard. (It is 
denied by some that the sermonnaires spoke a mixture of Latin and 
French, though Janotus's address seems a proof.) Maillard was 
said to mark in his sermons the places for effective coughs. On 
Maillard see Samouillan's thesis : Olivier Maillard, — For an identi- 
fication of Janotus with a certain Joannes Antonius Campanus, cf. 
Revue des Etudes rab.^ No. I, p. 83. 

3. Mna dies = bona dies, 

4. Hasch. A sneeze. 

5. Cenz, i. e. " the people of," etc. 

6. Brye. There are actual villages of Londres and Bordeaux in 
the districts named, but the whole matter is more probably a mere 
coincidence. 

7. IntFonifiqn^e, * enthroned.' 

8. Terrestreit^y i. e. * materiality.' 

9. Quidditatiye. The essential nature. Scholastic philosophy 
discussed not only the " quality " but the " quiddity " of things. 

zo. Sxtraneizer. *'To chase, drive, or banish into a forrein 
Countrey" (Cot.). 

iz. Halotz. ** Halotf as Bruine, An hot and blasting mist" 
(Cot.) ; i. e. a burning frost. 

12. Tnrbine. A whirlwind or tempest. Cf. the modem " tur- 
bine-wheels," and turbiner (slang) " to work hard." 

Z3. Plot. 'Drink.' In Book II, Chap, i, Rabelais speaks of 
" ceste nectareique, delicieuse, precieuse, celeste, joyeuse et deificque 
liqueur qu'on nomme le plot." 

14. Pans. A span. Sausages were formerly measured, not 
weighed. So in old French fairy-tales, like those of Perrault. 

15. Ilz, i. e. those who sent him to Gargantua. 

16. Vir sapiens, etc. " A wise man will not despise it." 
z7. Quant est de moi = quant d moi. 

z8. Matagraboliser. A burlesque word which may contain the 



88 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

Greek /jdraios, " foolish," and /SdXXw, " I throw." Used in Book IV, 
Chap. bdii. In Book II, Chap, x, Rabelais uses the e3q>ression 
' philogrobolis^s du cerveau.' 

zg. Reddite, etc. C£. Luke xx : 25 : " Render therefore unto 
Cesar the things which be Cesar's, and unto God the things which 
be God's." 

20. Ibi jacet lepiis. <* There lies the hare." <' Savoir oh git le 
li^vre " = To know the important facts of the case. So the English 
" gist " (the gist of the matter), from O.F. £ist, the older form of ^. 

21. Camera. Camera charitatis = the chamber where mendicants 
made good cheer with the titbits given them out of charity. (U.) 

22. Ego occidi, etc. This "hog Latin" was all too common in 
the Universities and Courts of Law in those days. A legend to 
explain the ordonnance de VillerS'CotUrets{\t^y^y'pt^cfAi\i!i%Yxt!M^ 
in the Courts, was that even Francis I was disgusted at hearing of 
Pierre lizet's debotamus et debotavimus ("d^boutons et avons 
d^bout^ "). 

23. De parte Dei = " de par Dieu." 

24. Un, i. e. ' a copy of.' 

25. Sermones de Utino. The sermons of Leonard of Udine, a 
Dominican monk (fifteenth century), with anticipation of utiftam, 
* would that,* which follows. 

Page 18. — z. Per diem, instead oiper Deum, 

2. Clochi dona, etc. In some editions: "Clochi donaminor." 
So in U. : " Bellagivaminor nobis," i. e. " give us our little bell." 

3. Est bonum nrbis. *It is the city's property.* 

4. Que comparata est, etc. Suggested by the Vulgate form of 
Psalm xlix : 20 : " Man that is in honour and understandeth not, is 
like the beasts that perish." " Et homo, cum in honore esset, non 
intellexit ; comparatus est jumentis insipientibus et similis f actus est 
eis." 

5. Paperat, * rough draft.' 

6. Unnm bonum Achilles. An irrefutable argument. The drop^ 
of Achilles and the tortoise was used by Zeno the Eleatic to prove 
the impossibility of motion. The slow tortoise cannot be overtaken 
by the «-65as ^k^% 'AxtXXei^s if it has once made a step in advance of 
him. " For in order to overtake the tortoise, Achilles must first 



NOTES 89 

reach the point where the tortoise was when he started; next the 
point to which it had progressed in the interval, then the point which 
it attained while he made this second advance, and so on ad infini- 
tum. But if it be impossible that the slower should be overtaken by 
the swifter, it is, generally speaking, impossible to reach a given end, 
and motion is impossible." (Zeller, Pre-Socraiic Philosophy^ 

7. Omnis clocha, etc. This fantastic phraseology is almost un- 
translatable. "Toute cloche clochable, clochant dans le clocher 
clochativement, fait clocher clochablement les clochants. Paris a 
des cloches." 

8. Glue. " A word used by the scholars of Paris, in derision of 
an absurd conclusion. Well concluded, Roger; wisely brother 
James." (Cot). 

g. Tertio prime. The third form of the first figure of the 
syllogism: Barbara, celarent, dariiy etc. A particular affirmative 
is drawn from a universal affirmative and a particular affirmative. 

xo. Le dos au feu, le ventre It table. This seems to have been 
a favourite saying at all periods. B. des M. gives some parallel pas- 
sages from Cretin and the Adages of Pierre Grosnet, which are, how- 
ever, not very significant. Alexandre's Musie de la Conversation 
(under the word dos) quotes from a sixteenth-century almanac (La 
prenostication de maistre Albert Songecreux bisscain) the line * Doz 
au feu, la panse k la table.' To these references I may add the 
opening Unes of Marot's Epigram cclxxi {Remide contre la peste) : 

Recip^, assis sus un banc 
De M^ance le bon jambon, 
Avec la pinte de vin blanc, 
Oa de clairet, maia qu'il soit bon ; 
Boire souvent de grand randon, 
Le dos au feu, le ventre k table, 
Avant partir de la maison, 
C'est opiate prouffitable. 

Also the modem song. La Barque a Caron : 

Ah ! que Tamour est agr^able I 
II est de toutes les saisons : 
Un bon bourgeois dans sa maison, 
Le dos au feu, le ventre k table, 
Un bon bourgeois dans sa mabon 
Caressait un jeune tendron. 



90 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

zz. Rendez. A subjunctive. 

Z2. Notre Dame, etc. Janotus makes an equivocation. We 
understand both " Our Lady of Health," and " Our Lady keep you 
from health." 

Z3. Verum, etc. A fantastic collection of adverbs, interjections, 
etc. 

14. Braisler = * to bray.* 

Z5. Hostel DieUy L e. ' hospital.* The hospital of Paris. It was 
built in the twelfth century and demolished in 1878, when it was 
transferred to the other side of the lU de la Citi, It originally stood 
on the southern side of the Parvis Notre-Dame, along the smaller 
branch of the Seine, and was connected with the Annex, still stand- 
ing, by the Pont Saint-Charles. The existing H8tel-Dieu, begun in 
1868, was completed in 1878. With the term " H6tel-Dieu ** cf. the 
English " Godshouse ** (an almshouse) and " God*s-acre '* (a burial- 
ground). 

Page 19, — z. Pontanus. Taponnus ( = tapon^ tampon^ bouchon) 
is a fling at Pontanus, the Italian poet (i 426-1 503), and an anagram. 

a. Seculier. One who had left the aridities of the schools for 
pure literature. Cf. clergi rigulier and clergi siculier, 

3. Batail, * clapper.* 

4. Chronique. A periodic or chronic illness. Here " la chronique 
aux tripes du cerveau ** == migraine. 

5. Carminiformes. Shaped like a verse. Vers carminiformes 
is, therefore, a pleonasm. 

6. Nac petetin, etc. Meaningless ejaculations, but giving the 
idea (particularly torche lorgne) of hitting and striking. Cf. Book 
II, Chap, xxix : '* Puis Pantagruel, ainsi destitu^ de baston, reprit 
le bout de son mast, en frappant torche lorgne dessus le geant.** Cf. 
also Book IV, Chap. Ivi. Regnier copies the expression in his tenth 
satire. 

7. Cire, i. e. easily moulded and easily burned like heretics. 

8. Deposant. '*And further the deponent saith not,** as in a 
legal docimient. 

9. Valete et plaudite. The concluding formula of a Latin 
comedy. 

"Nunc plaudiU I " the student cried. 
When he had finished ; " now applaud, 



NOTES 91 

As Roman actors used to say 

At the conclusion of a play " ; 

And rose, and spread his hands abroad, 

And smiling bowed from side to side. 

As one who bears the palm away." 

Longfellow, 7Vi^« of a Wayside Inn, 

zo. Calepinus recensui. A signature such as would be placed at 
the end of a copy of a manuscript. There may perhaps be an al- 
lusion (by contrast with the ignorant speaker) to the learned Cale- 
pinus, the famous lexicographer (1435-15 11), whose name has given 
the modem calepin^ ** note -book." 

zz. Theologien. Later reading, sophiste, 

Z2. S'esclafferent, ** burst out laughing." 

Z3. Cuiderent =/^«j^r^«/. 

Z4. Crassns. This was P. Crassus, the grandfather of the trium- 
vir, sumamed Agelastus ('A^Aao-Tos), because he never laughed 
(Pliny, Nat, Hist., Book VII, Chap, viii) ; or, according to Cicero 
(De Fin., Book V, Chap, xxx), not the less entitled to the designa- 
tion though Lucilius reports that he laughed once in his life. Cf. 
in Rabelais, Book V, Chap, xxiv : " Crassus Tayeul tant agelaste." 

Z5. Philemon. The Athenian poet of the New Comedy, who 
lived in the reign of Alexander. His death was by some ascribed 
to laughing at a ridiculous incident ; according to others he died of 
joy at obtsdning a victory in a dramatic contest. 

z6. Democrite. The legend was current among the ancients that 
Heraclitus wept constantly and that Democritus laughed at every- 
thing. Cf. supra p. I, n. 10. For references to authorities cf. Zeller*s 
Pre-Socratit Philosophy (£ng. translation). Vol. II, p. 4, note. 
Democritus did not laugh from cheerfulness but as a pessimist, 
because he saw the follies of other mortals. So Robert Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy is signed " Democritus Junior," because the 
author planned to analyze melancholy as Democritus dissected 
black bile. — At the beginning of the prologue to Rabelais' second 
book, in a poem addressed to the author by Hugues Salel, are the 

lines: 

Je le cognois, car ton entendement 
En ce livret, sous plaisant fondement, 
L'utilit^ a si tres bien descrite. 
Qu*il m'est advis que voy un Democrite 
Riant les faits de nostre vie humaine. 



92 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

Victor Hugo says in the Priface de Cromwell: "A force de 
m^diter sur Pezistence, d'en f aire ^clater la poignante ironie, de jeter 
H flots le sarcasme et la raillerie sur nos infirmit^s, ces hommes qui 
nous font tant rire deviennent prof ond^ment tristes. Ces D^mocrites 
sont aussi des H6raclites. Beaumarchais ^tait morose, Moli^re ^tait 
sombre, Shakespeare m^lancolique." 

17. 8ed^, * quieted down.' 

z8. Songecreux. An idle dreamer. Name of a comic character 
in some of the Soties, So Gringore, who himself wrote the Cantredits 
de Songecreux. Gargantua, in childhood, songeoit creux (Book I, 
Chap. xi). 

19. BoIb de moiille. " Billets, or logs, of a certain size ; or which 
have been assized by the Mouleur " (Cot.). Mouleur = measurer. 

ao. Anserine. Cf . Latin anserinus. 

Page 20, — I. Honnestet^y * courtesy,* cf. p. 9, n. 24. 

a. Biere. Perhaps the forest of Bievre near Paris ; perhaps the 
forest of Fontainebleau, once known by that name. 

3. Nature. Natura nihil facit per saltum, 

4. Theodore. Before 1535 ^^^ reading was Seraphin Calobarsy, 
which is an anagram of Phrangois Rabelays. 

5. Canoniquement, * according to rule.* 

6. Anticyre. Hellebore from Anticyra was supposed to be a 
cure for madness, or, at any rate, to clear the brain. 

Si tribus Andcyris caput insanabile nonquam 
Tonsori Lidno commlserit. 

Horace, Arspoet, 300. 

Plus on drogue ce mal et tant plus il s'empire ; 
II n'est point d'elebore assez en Antidre. 

Regnier, Satire xv. 
Ma commire, il vous faut purger 
Avec quatre grains d'ell^bore. 

La Fontaine, Lt lihtrt et la tortut, 

7. Timoth^e. A Greek musician who charged double rates to 
the pupils who had had previous teachers, because they had so much 
to unlearn. (Quintilian II, Chap. 3) : " Ferunt duplices ab iis, quos 
alius instituisset, exigere merces.*' This Timotheus is not to be 
confused with the musician and poet, the contemporary of Euripides, 
whose ode on the Persians at Salamis has recently been discovered. 



NOTES 93 

The one mentioned here was a flute-player of Thebes nnder Alex- 
ander the Great, and to him Dryden alludes in his Alexander's 

Feast: 

Timotheas placed on high 

Amid the tuneful quire 

With flying fingers touched the lyre : 

The trembling notes ascend the sky 

And heavenly joys inspire. 

Page 21. — I. Creust. Yxomcrottre, 

2. Quatre heures. This -was not astoundingly early. People rose 
and went to bed much earlier then than now. Breakfast was soon 
after sunrise, the second meal between eight and eleven, the third 
between three and six. 

3. Basch^. A village in Touraine. 

4. Anagnostes. 'Avaypt^ffrriSy reader. 

5. Da tout == complitement 

6. Issoient. From issir = sortir, Cf . issu, 

7. Bracque. Perhaps a tennis-court at Paris, Au Chien Brogue^ 
where is now the comer of the rue des Fosses-Saint- Jacques and 
the rue Lhomond; or the Carrefour de Braque near by, now the 
Place de TEstrapade, because under Francis I the Protestants under- 
went there the estrapade (a military punishment, though inflicted 
occasionally on civilians as well). 

8. Paulme. The game of tennis was one of the oldest and most 
popular games in France. Originally the ball was thrown by the 
hand, which was protected by a glove, on the principle of the more 
violent Italian pallone. The racket was invented in the fifteenth 
century. The game was usually played in inclosed courts, which 
were favourite resorts. When the game declined in popularity, in 
the early part of the seventeenth century, these tennis courts were 
frequently turned into playhouses. 

g. Pile trigone. "A triangle piece of iron to be thrown at a 
ring, through which he that throws it wins the game " (Cot.). An- 
other interpretation is, a triangular game of balL 

ID. Galentement. One of the numerous cases in Rabelais of an 
adverb formed from an adjective having one form for masculine and 
feminine, by analogy with adjectives having two forms. Cf. Huguet, 
La Syntaxe de Rabelais ^ p. 229. 



94 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

XX. Zwa6B ^ ^ssuy/j. 

Page 22. — X. Sentences. Striking or pithy sayings. Cf. ILatis 
lenUntia, 
a. Deyiser, * cUscuss.' 

3. CompetenSy 'pertaining to.' 

4. Pline. Pliny the Elder (23-79 A. D.), whose NaturcU History 
is full of miscellaneous information. Seven books are devoted to 
medical science (xx-xxvii). 

5. Athenfe. Athenseus, a Greek author of the third century after 
Christ, whose work, the Deipnosopkistae (Aeur KM-o^urraQ, contains facts 
and discussions of all kinds, particularly on eating and cooking. 

6. Dioscorides. A Greek physician of the second century after 
Christ, author of a treatise on Materia Medica, in five books, irepl 
vS!rfl laTpiKTJs. 

7. Julius Pollux. A late Byzantine writer, author of a history 
of the world from the creation until about the tenth century. 

8. Porpliyre. Porphyrins, Greek philosopher of the Neo- Platonic 
school (third century). 

9. Opian. Oppianus, a Greek writer of the second century, author 
of a mediocre poem on Fishing ('AXtevrticd), to whom was also at- 
tributed a poem on Hunting {Kvpriyerucd)^ probably really written by 
another Oppianus. 

zo. Polybe. Polybius, the great Greek historian of the second 
century before Christ. 

XI. Heliodore. A poem of Heliodorus, on the wonders of Italy 
('IraXiicd 0aifMTa)f of which a fragment remains, describing the hot 
springs of Puteoli. 

Z2. £lian. Claudius ^lianius, an Italian of the third centary of 
the Christian era who wrote in Greek; author of misceUaneous 
works, such as the Viaria historia (IIotK^i; 2(rrop£a) and the De 
Animalium Natura (Uepl Zc^wi' ISi&rrrroi), 

13. Cotoniat = coudignac^ cotignac^ * quince.' Cf. p. 16, n. 3. 

14. Tron de lentisce. Toothpicks of lentisk or mastic wood, 
favourites with the Romans. 

15. Chartes = cartes. 

Page 23* i. Sonloient, from souloir (solere\ an old and defec- 
tive verb. 



NOTES 95 

a. Tunstall. Cuthbert Tunstall or Tonstall (1475-1 559), bishop 
of Ix>ndon and Durham, author of De arte supputandi, libri IV, 

3. Alemant. "*Tis Greek unto him, he understands no part of 
it, he is never a whit the wiser by it " (Cot.). Rabelais uses the ex- 
pression several times. Cf. Brant6me (ed. Lalanne, Vol. II, p. 241- 
242) : " J'entendz autant le grec comme le hault allemand." For in- 
stances in Moli^re and other authors cf . Livet*s Lexique de Moliire. 

4. Pasty * meal.' Latin pastus. 

5. A plaisir de gorge, ' as it pleased them.' 

6. Luc, Mute.* 

7. Espinette. Spinet, harpsichord, a pair of virginals. 

8. Saquebontte. Sackbut, a wind-instrument with a movable 
slide, like a trombone. 

9. Bstude. Usually masc. until the seventeenth century. So 
Christine de Pisan's Ckemin de long estude, 

xo. TldAst = tracer, 

X X . Cheyalerie, * riding.* 

X2. Roussin. Also roncin^ * roadster.* 

X3. Genet. A jennet or Spanish horse. 

14. Cheyal barbe. An Arabian or Barbary horse. Cf . the races 
of barberi horses {corsa de* barbert), once so marked a feature of the 
Carnival season in Rome. 

15. Quarrieres, ** course ** on horseback. Cf. the modem se don- 
ner carriire, 

16. Palis. Palissade. 

17. Senestre, * left.* 

18. Resyerie, * folly.' Cf . English " to rave,'* the origin of which 
is, however, disputed. 

Page 24. — x. Assert = ac^ie. 

a. Hois, *■ door * ; from ostium, Cf . French huissier and English 
"usher.** 

3. Hamois, 'armour.* 

4. AcuUoit nne arbre, * uprooted a tree.' Arbre is feminine be- 
cause of arbor in Latin. Rabelais makes the word of either gender 
and Huguet (La Syntaxe de Rabelaisy p. 31) refers to the passage 
found on p. 60, 1. 21, where we read "tous arbres f metiers, toutes 
ordonn^es." 



96 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

5. Snclaroit = ^»//aiV. 

6. Anbert = haubert^ hauberk, coat of mail. 

7. Fanfarer. To prance and flourish; horn /an/are, a flourish of 
. trumpets. Cf, /an/aron 3Lnd/an/aronnadf, 

8. Popismes. "The popping, or smacking sound wherewith 
Riders incourage or cherish their horses " (Cot.). The annotators 
connect it with the Greek ir6inrv<r/Mi and ironrvirfjiM (Latin poppysma 
zxi6. poppysmuSf a clucking with the tongue). 

9. Voltigenr de Ferrare. This may refer to somebody Rabelais 
saw in Italy. 

zo. Cheyanx desultoires. " Two horses (tied together) from the 
one whereof an active rider leaps upon the other, in a full careere ; 
also, horses that be led, and kept afresh for the use of ^ouldiers, 
which in a fight have tired those they served on." (Cot.) The first 
meaning is required here. Latin desultorius ; from desultory circus- 
rider. A " desultory " conversation is one which leaps from subject 
to subject. 

IX. Croulloit, * shook.* 

12. Pics. Thrusts with a sword or axe {coups de pointe), 

13. Ayalloit en taille ronde. To cut down with a circular sweep. 
Avaller — abaisser ; from h and val. We have kept divaler with 
its primitive value. With avaler^ cf . : 

By that the welked Phcebus gan availe 
His weary waine. 

Spenser : Shepheard^s Calender (January). 

The meaning of avalery " to swallow," is a specialized one. Rabe- 
lais plays on it in Book I, Chap, v : "Si je montois aussi laen comme 
j 'availe, je fusse pieja haut en Pair." 

14. Sacqnoit, * brandished' the two-handed sword, i.e. lifted with 
both hands. Cf . saccade, 

15. Esp^ bastarde. According to Cot. a short sword; accord- 
ing to Le Duchat, a big sword. 

16. BovLCltl = boucUer. 

17. A la cappe. The arm wrapped in a cloak. 

18. Rondelle, * target.* A round buckler or rondache, 

19. Otarde = outarde. 

20. Saiilt d'Alemant. Amstadt, p. 232, defines it : Vom Bett 



NOTES 97 

zum Tisch (Schwabensprang). Cf. Book II, Chap, ix: " En sorte 
qu'il ne fit que trois pas et un sault du lict k table." 

Page 25. — i. Cesar. This allusion comes from Suetonius 
(Life of Csesar, Chap. 64) : "Alexandriae circa oppugnationem pon- 
tis eruptione hostium subita conpulsus in scapham, pluribus eodem 
praecipitantibus, cum desilisset in mare, nando per ducentos passus 
evasit ad proximam navem, elata laeva, ne libelli quos tenebat madi- 
fierent, paludamentum mordicus trahens, ne spolio poteretur hos- 
tis." Plutarch tells the same anecdote in his Life of Caesar. — Philip 
Gilbert Hamerton, in his Autobiography (Chap, viii), says: "In 
course of time I did swim, and many years afterwards, from daily 
practice in the longer and warmer summers of France, I became an 
expert, able to read a book aloud in deep water, whilst holding it up 
with both hands, or to swim with all my clothes on and a pair of 
heavy boots, using one hand only and carrying a paddle in the other, 
whilst I drew a small boat after me." 

a. Vele= voi/e, sail. 

3. Traicts, * shrouds.* 

4. Branquars. "The edge of the deck of a ship" (Cot). Ac- 
cording to other commentators, "yards." 

5. Contreyentoit les bonlines. "Tackled the bowlines." (U.) 

6. Bscurieux = dcureuil. 

7. Milo, of Crotona, the athlete. 

8. Barre. Throwing a bar which was to stand upright. Cf. the 
Scottish game " tossing the caber." 

9. Arbalestes de passe. The stiffest kind of cross-bow, stretched 
or bent by means of a wheel and ratchet. 

10. Parthes. We call a Parthian shaft a parting shot, just as 
the retreating Parthians shot as they turned then: backs to retreat. 
Cf. Book IV, Chap, xxxiv: "Vous faictes pareillement narr^ des 
Parthes, qui par darriere tiroient plus ingenieusement que ne fai- 
soient les autres nations en face." Cf. also Rodogune^ Act III, 
Scene v : " EUe f uit, mais en Parthe, en nous per9ant le coeur." 

Page 26. — z. AconcevoiTy * %o catch up with * {adconcipere), 

2. Stentor. 

^T^PTopi elffafUvrj fji£ya\'fyropi xa^Kco0c6y^, 

6s rbcov a^di^ffaax** ^^^ AXXot irepT'^KOVTa, lUad, V, 785-6. 



98 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

3. Oalentiry 'to strengthen; 

4. Sanlmonea. Blocks of pig-lead. Still used in modem French 
(saumon). 

5. Alteres = haltiresy dumb-bells, leaping-weights. 

6. Borres. Prisoners' base. The expression //wr^^^rr^j, from 
this game, is often used. 

7. Theophraste. The Greek philosopher Theophrastus (d. 287 
B. C.) wrote one of the earliest works on botany. 

8. Mariniui. A Greek geographer of the second century of the 
Christian era, a predecessor of Ptolemy. 

9. Nicander. A Greek poet, granmiarian and physician of the 
second century before Christ, author of the OijpuiKd and AXc^t^p/Mica. 

zo. Macer. Aemilius Macer of Verona, author of didactic poems 
in the manner of Nicander, on birds, animals and plants. The name 
Macer is also given (perhaps with reference to Aemilius Macer) to 
a composition in hexameters of the Middle Ages by a French phy- 
sician Odo Magdunensis, De naturis herbarum, 

zz. Shizotome. *Pi^6/tos, a herbalist. 

za. Marrochons. A small mattock or hoe, used for weeding, con- 
nected with the old marroche and with marre, still used in some . 
French dialects, and by Rabelais himself (from marra). 

Z3. Axh^lluit =^ htrboriser. 

Plage 27. — z. HerseUs. IlarceUr = <<to harass.'* Hence, 
those who have been harassed (?) or who have toiled and moiled in 
the workshop of Avicenna, the Arabian philosopher and physician. 
Cf. Book I, Chapter xl: "Un cinge en une famille est tous jours 
mocqu^ et herself." 

a. Qoubelets. Cups and balls. In the genealogy of Pantagruel 
(Book II, Chap, i) one of the ancestors is *£rix, lequel fut inven- 
teur dtt jeu des gobeletz.' 

Page 28. — z. Apotherapie. 'Airo^paireK a restorative treat- 
ment after fatigue. Rabelais borrows the term from Galen. 

a. Boteler. To make into bottes or bundles. Cf . the older Eng- 
Unh word "bottle** and " to look for a needle in a bottle of hay*' (in 
America "haystack**), 

3» Talat. Some game with dice, or a form of cockal, a game 
p)«)^ with the ankle*bones of sheep instead of dice. Latin, tali. 



NOTES 99 

4. Leonicns. Professor at Padua (d. i53i)» lecturer on Plato and 
Aristotle, author of philosophical works and translations, including 
a dialogue Sannutus^ sive de ludo talario, 

5. Lascaris. John or Janus Lascaris (1445-153 5), Greek scholar, 
diplomatist, humanist, in the service of several European rulers. 
Rabelais knew him in the circle of Bud^'s friends. Lascaris was 
one of the important influences in the development of Hellenism in 
France. 

6. Hantelissiers. Makers of haute-lisse or hauU-lice^ the richest 
and best kind of tapestry. 

7. Tissotiers, * weavers.* 

8. Miralliers, * makers of looking-glasses.' 

9. Organistes. Those who work organesy instruments with which 
something may be made or done ; not necessarily confined to music. 

10. Vin. A pourboire^ with which to get wine. 

11. Repetitions, 'rehearsals.' 

12. Concions, * addresses.' 

13. Bastons. In the sixteenth century the term was applied to 
any instrument of ofEence or defence, including even a sword. 

14. Axunges peregrines. Foreign ointments or unguents. 
Page 29. — i. Trejectaires, or trajectaires; acrobats or tum- 
blers who leap through hoops, etc. 

2. Theriacletirs. Vendors of nostrums. Thiriaque (cf. Eng. 
"theriac" and "treacle") was the most famous and widely used 
specific in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

3. Chatiny. The acrobats of Chauny were said to be particular- 
ly renowned. Chauny, a town near Laon on the borders of Picardy 
and the He de France. 

4. Cinges yerds. Fantastic stories, as of impossibilities like 
green apes. Sardou compares the modem merle blanc, Cf. Alfred 
de Musset's Histoire (Tun merle blanc and the stories among the an- 
cients of black swans. 

5. S^jonmer, * relieve.' 

6. Voytrans — vautrant 

7. Dtnigtana '^ denuAanl. 

Page 30. —I. Agriculture. The Georg^cs. 
a. Hesiode. The "Epy a KalijfJLipai, 



lOO RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

3. Rnstiqae. The Rusiicus, a Latin poem, the second of the 
Sylva of Poliziano. 

4. Bpigramme. Masculine until towards the end of the six- 
teenth century. 

5. Ballades. The rondeaux and ballades were mediaeval verse 
forms which disappeared with the advent of the Pldiade, the latter 
particularly being replaced by the sonnet. 

6. Aisga6, * mixed with water'; from aigiu an old dialect word 
for water {aqua). Cf. Aigttes-MorUs ; aiguiirey etc* 

7. Pline. The passages explaining how to separate wine and 
water are the following: Cato, De re rustica. Chap, cxi: *<Si voles 
scire in vinum aqua addita sit, necne : vasculum facito de materia 
ederacea. Vinum id quod putabis aquam habere eodem mittito. Si 
habebit aquam, vinum effluet, aqua manebit. Nam non continet 
vinum vas ederaceum." Pliny, Nat. Hist., Book XVI, Chap. Ixiii : 
" Ederae mira proditur natura ad experienda vina : si vas fiat e ligno 
ejus, vina transfluere, ac remanere aquam, si qua fuerit mixta." 

8. Smbnt. A funnel. 

Page 31. — X. Fouaciers. Makers or sellers oi fouaces. Cot 
says 2kf(mace is a thick cake hastily baked, on a hot hearth, by hot 
embers laid on it, and burning coals over them. Poey-d'Avant says : 
" Esp^ce de gdteau compost comme le pain ordinaire, mais auquel 
on ajoute des oeufs et du beurre. II n*est point cuit sous la cendre." 
It may be translated * bun ' or * cake ' (U.). Etymology, focacia. 
Proverbs: "Manger sa fouace sans pain" (Rabelais, Book I, 
Chap, xi), to go almost hungry; "rendre ffeves pour pois et pain 
blanc pour fouace " (La Fontaine), to return more than you get. The 
idition variorum ^ interpreting the war with Picrochole as the Italian 
wars, suggests ih2X fouaces —pdtes d'ltalie and macaroni, etc. Ob- 
serve the process of reasoning of the authors of that edition : Fouace 
— galette = gal^asse, ou galere charg^e de macaroni := Galeazzo 
Sforza = the wars between the kings of France and the Sforzas. Le 
Motteux thought that the bergers ^=pasteurs = Protestant clergy and 
they^TMtf^Vrj- 8= Catholic priests. Consequently, the dibat was the 
dispute of the question of transsubstantiation, the host being a wafer 
cooked between irons like t\iQ fouaces of Poitou. Voltaire thought 
that the war between Grandgousier and Picrochole referred to the 
wars between Francis I and Charles V. 



1 



NOTES .•'• • 10 1 

• •• 

•: ./ . 

a. Lern^. Near Chinon, in Touraine. 

3. Carroy, or quarroy = chetnin (etymology ultnq^feiy from 
carrus). The annotators say it is still used in Touraiift*ind other 
parts of France, as the equivalent of carre/our. Fleury s2iys,fAemin 
charreiier. Charriire is also used in some parts of France (as "^Xr 
mandy), in the sense of chemin. *••*",/ 

4. Bacchelier, * young fellow * ; * springal * (U.). Now confined* tsr* 
one who has taken a University degree. 

5. Comes. Like a grown ram. 

6. Merd6 =» la mire de Dieu. 

7. Acrest^. Arrogant, crest-risen, like a cock. Cf. English col- 
loquial " cocky " and " cockish." 

Page 32. — I. Hersoir = hier soir, 

2. Unzain. A small coin = eleven deniers, U. translates freely 
" sixpence." 

3. Deposcher. To take out of one's poche^ i. e. pocket or bag. 

4. Tribard, *■ cudgel.' 

5. Bscelle ~ aisselle. 

6. Tombit. In the sixteenth century the first conjugation in the 
preterite was often assimilated to the second. For various examples 
cf. Darmsteter et Hatzfeld, Le seiziime sihle^ §113 of the chapter 
on the language. The tendency still exists in uneducated French, 
and B. des M. alludes to a line of the Chanson du compare Guilleri : 

II monta sur un arbre 
Poor voir ses chiena couri, 

Carabi; 
La branche vint k rompre, 
£t Guilleri tombi, 

Carabi, 
Toto carabo. 

7. Challoient. Nearly all the commentators explain this by 
icalery " to shell." But Godefroy is probably correct in translating 
it gauler. According to him it exists also in various patois. 

8. Seigle yerd. Therefore harder to beat. Rabelais uses the 
expression several times. Cf. the modem battre comme plAtre^ which 
is also in Rabelais, Book II, Chap. xxxi. 

9. Fondes =frondest the usual form in the sixteenth century 
(iromfunda). So in Marot's Eglogue au Roy\ " Renforjoys sur le 
genoil les fondes." 



102 / :%|0\BELAIS' GARGANTUA 

xo. Bra^^islkB'. Cot. gives both "cudgel" and "sling." B. des 
M. pre£ef8.*the' former ; but observe the words " et les suivirent k 
grands hoi^s de pierres/' as though the /ondgs and brassiers were 
botlr^sed for throwing stones. 

•{z. ^Qaecas. Cot. says it === quocasy shaled nuts. 
/>**.• Francs anbiers. i. White grapes. 2. Mulberries (U.). 
'•(hiCorrect.) 

'\ '13. Pareill6. Pareille, Seuill^ and Sinays; all near Chinon. 
' • 14. Bonzine. A bagpipe. " A rustical Trumpet, or wind-instru- 
ment, made of pitched bark " (Cot). 
15. Bonne main, i. e., the right hand. 

Page 33. — i. Raisins chenins. " A kind of great red grapes 
fitter for medicines than for meat " (Cot.). It was, however, rather 
a white grape still known as chenin or hlanc-massi in the department 
of Vienne. (Cf. Godefroy.) 

2. Sstnyerent. To bathe in hot water. 

3. Tantost = bientdt. Cf. the modem uses with past and future: 
" Je lui ai parle tant&t " and " je reviendrai tant6t " ; or " ^ tant6t." 

4. Capitoly. The capitol or hall, where met the capitouls or 
magistrates of a city in the south of France. 

5. Picrochole. n{Kp6xoXos, full of bitter bile, splenetic. Accord- 
ing to the idiiion variorum = Maximilian Sforza. Marty- Laveaux 
thinks it may be a personal enemy of Rabelais, a member of the 
Sainte-Marthe family, the grandfather of the poet Sainte-Marthe. 

6. Tiers = troisiime. 

7. Foupis, * rumpled.' Perhaps connected with ^/i>,^//«>. 

8. Dessir6es «= dichiries. 

9. Ban et arriere ban. The ban called to the king's service the 
holders of fiefs ; the arriere-ban summoned the communal soldiery 
or militia. 

zo. Oriflant = orijlamme ; name given to the banner of the king 
of France. 

zz. Harnois, * armour.' Harnois de gueullesy victuals or "belly- 
furniture" (Cot.). 

Z2. Trepelu = trhpoilu. " Lord Shagrag " (U.). 

Z3. Haqnebutiers = arquebusiers. 

Z4. BaselicSy etc. The Basilisk, a long piece of ordnance. The 



NOTES 103 

Serpentine was a smaller form of the Basilisk. The Caulevrine = 
Culverin. Bomdarde = ** A Bumbard, or murthering-piece, a kind 
of mortar " (Cot.). Faucon = Falcon. Passevolan, " The Artillery 
called a Base " (Cot.). Spirole^ the smallest of the forms of artillery 
mentioned here. In the seventeenth century the name passevolant 
was applied to men engaged to take the place, on inspection days, 
of soldiers existing in name only. 

15. Raqnedenare. "A pinch-penny, scrape-good, miserable 
wretch " (Cot.). 

16. Bataille. The main body of the army commanded by the 
general in chief. 

Page 34. — X. BngOttleyent. " Swillwind " (U.). Engouler — \.o 
swallow. The name is older than Rabelais' time. 

2. Uais = aprh, 

3. Gorets. Pigs. Word preserved in Poitou as guorrets (Poey 
d'Avant). 

4. CronUans, ' shaking down.* Crouler used as a transitive verb. 
Cf. the use of tomber'm the modem expression ** tomber un homme " ; 
"JePaitomb^." 

5. De brief, * soon.* 

Page 35 . — i . Penser = panser. 

a. Ad capitttlum capitulantes. Those who have a vote in the 
chapter. 

Page 36. — i. Clanstrier = claustral, clottri. 

2. Bntommenres. Connected by some with Entommeure === en- 
tonnatr, funnel. Hence " Friar John of the Funnels,** a good drinker. 
Or, by others (more probably), with Entamure (from entamer\ a 
cut or incision. Hence " Friar John of the Chopping-knives,** a good 
eater. In Book IV, Chap. Ixvi, FrSre Jean says himself : " Va ladre 
verd, a tous les millions de diables, qui te puissent anatomiser la 
cervelle, et en faire des entommeures.** He has been identified with 
a certain Buinard, prior of Sermaise. He has been compared with 
the Evrard of Boileau*s Lutrin : 

Que m'importe qu'Arnaald mecondamne ou m'approuve? 
J'abats ce qui me nuit partout oii je le trouve : 
C'est li mon sentiment. A quoi bon tant d'appr@ts? 
Du reste, d^jeunons, messieurs, et buvons fnds. 

IV. 201-4. 



104 RABELAIS^ GARGANTUA 

In the account of the achievements of Fr^re Jean Rabelais is merely 
parodying the mediaeval Montages^ such as the Montage Rainouart 
and the Moniage Guillaume, These were poems belonging to the 
cycle of chansons de gestty and relating in lofty terms the achieve- 
ments of heroes who became monks and performed the most won- 
derful feats of prowess, not only in eating and drinking, but also in 
fighting and conquering enemies. Fr^re Jean accomplishes with his 
cross no less than Rainouart with his HneL 

Fr^re Jean is the ancestor of a series of Friar Tucks in French 
literature, some of whom are less sympathetic to the reader than he 
is. The list includes Fr^re Gorenflot of Dumas* La Dame de Mon- 
soreau (" Au nom de Bacchus, de Momus, de Comus, trinite du grand 
saint Pantagruel, dit Gorenflot, je te baptise carpe"); the priest of 
M^rim^e*s Ckronique du rigne de Charles IX; Bridaineand Blazius, 
in Musset*s On ne badine pas avec V amour ; and, in some features, 
even the Abbe Coignard of Anatole France. 

3. Frisque. Cf. "frisky." 

4. De halt, lively.' From de and hait^ *< character," ''disposi- 
tion." Cf. h hait, h grant kait and, in modem French, the parallel 
formation soukait. 

5. A dextre := adroit. 

6. Henres. Prayers ; the various hours, prime, compline, vespers, 
etc. 

7. Desbridenr. One who unbridles, an " unloader." 

8. Descroteur. One who cleans up. 

9. Boite = boisson, 

10. Estonn^s comme fondeurs de cloches. " Much out of coun- 
tenance, as a Bell-founder (whose work miscarries") (Cot.). Cf. 
Book II, Chap, xxix : *' Dont il fut plus estonn^ qu*iin fondeur de 
cloches, et s'escria: Ha, Panurge, oil es tu?" 

11. Vertus Dieu. Modem, vertubleu, 

12. Halleboter. To rake or glean together, after the vintage. 
The word is still used in Touraine. In the opening pages of Balzac's 
Euginie Grandet we read : " Nanon f aisait tout ; elle f aisait la 
cuisine, faisait les bu^es, elle allait laver le linge \ la Loire . . . f aisait 
2l manger \ tous les vendangeurs pendant la r^colte, surveillait les 
kalleboteurs" etc. 



NOTES I OS 

13. Service dn yin. Pun on divin^ above. 
Page 37. — i. Heures. Prayers, as above. 

2. ])Iac6 Pelosse. Ren^ Mac^ of Venddme, Benedictine monk in 
the reign of Francis I ; one of his chroniclers and poets ; continued 
the writings of Cretin. Cf. Book I, Chap. v. 

3. Arde = brUU {ardere). The/eu saint Antoine = erysipelas, or 
shingles. 

4. L'Anglois. Saint Thomas-ii-Becket. 

5. Sayon. Jacket {sagum), 

6. L'or^. By the orSe or edge of the walls. 

7. Moussines. Vines with clusters of grapes clinging to them. 
Also moissine^ etc. 

8. Desray^. Out of order. 

Page 38. — X. Bscarbonilloit la cervelle, * brained.' Cf. modem 
slang, icrabouillery by metathesis. 

2. Deslochoit, * dislocated.' 

3. DemoUoit = demauloit, * spoiled the shape of.' 

4. Descroolloit, ' shook apart.' 

5. Sphaceloit, * bruised.' Connected with <r0dKeXos. 

6. GreyeSy * shins.' Cf. £ng. " greaves," i. e. armour covering the 
front of the legs below the knees. 

7. Desgondoit les ischies, * unhinged then: hips ' (fo-x«>v). 

8. Debezilloit. DebezilUr or debeocilUry "to break apart." In 
older French the form besillier meant " to maltreat," etc. Connected 
etymologically with the English " bezzle " and " embezzle." 

9. Faucilles. The bones of the forearm. 
zo. Seps plus espes = ceps plus {pais, 

II. Bsrenoit. Esrener — to crush the back {reins). The modem 
word, with a weakened meaning, is ireinter, 

Z2. Commissnre lambdoide; because shaped like a Greek 
lambda. 

13. Donnoit dronos, *■ gave thwacks.' Southern expression. Cf. 
Book II, Chap, xiv : * Je luy baillis si vert dronos sur les doigts,' 
etc. 

14. Mediastine. A membraneous partition dividing the chest. 

15. La faulte des costes. The hollow of the ribs. 

16. Sainte Nytouche. A sainte-nitouche is a prim, demure, 



I06 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

sanctimonioas persoiii of whom one can say that butter will not melt 
in her mouth. 

xy. Cnnaulty etc. These are names of places, mainly in Anjou 
and Touraine. 

Page 39. — I. Havrfe = W^j-jj/j. 

a. Ru6b » * overthrown.' 

3. Ferremens. Iron weapons. 

4. Gonetz. A sort of hedging-bill or pruning-hook. 

Pftge 40. — I. Chemin de Faye. A very winding road. " Like 
Crooked-lane at Eastcheap " (U.). 

a. Sans lea f emmes, etc. A Biblical reminiscence, as in Matthew 
xiv. 22 : " And they that did eat were about five thousand men, 
beside women and children." 

3. Mangia. Maugis is a magician, cousin of the guatre fils 
Aymon^ famous heroes of mediaeval legend and the subject of a 
chanson de geste. They accomplish great feats in their encounters 
with their foes and are often helped by the magic arts of Maugis. 
In Ariosto's Orlando furioso the characters of Malagigi and Rinaldo 
go back, though indirectly, to Renaud de Moniauban and the story 
of the quatre fils Aymon, Cf . Boileau, Eptire xi : 

Ne 80up(onnes-ta point qu'agit^ du d^on, 
Ainsi que ce cousin de ces quatre fils Aimon 
Dont tn lis quelquefois la merveilleuse histoire, 
Je rumine en marchant quelque endroit du grimoire ? 

4. Pnngitire, < stinging.' 

Page 41. — X. Grandgousier. Grandgousier is here a good old 
country squire, rather than a giant. 
a. QxdAsltx =: griller. 

3. Sscharbotte. Escarboiter ~ to stir up, to scatter the fire, so 
as to make it burn better. 

4. H0IO8 B hilas, A Southern form. 
Page 42. — X. Conrage = cctur, 

a. Bmpesche. " Empescher, dans la vieille langue du droit (Im- 
pechiare^ in jus vocare, Du Cange), c'est sommer, contraindre. 
Impeachment^ en anglais, signifie accusation." (B. des M.) Cf. the 
Oxford Diet, on appeach, impeach, impeachment, (Etymology im- 
pedicare.) Cf . also the familiar " peach " (to peach on a person). 



NOTES 107 

3. Procnr^, * sought.* 

4. Affaire. Note gender. 

5. A ce besoin, ' in this need.* 

6. Basqne. In the sixteenth century lackeys often were Basques. 
Note that in the seventeenth-century plays servants are named after 
provinces — Champagne, Picard, etc. 

Page 43« — I. Subside, *help.* 

a. Affi^s, ' assigned,* * guaranteed * ; or perhaps * pledged,* * bound * 
(ad/idare). 

3. Bien seance. Privilege of convenience. *^Estre d la bien 
stance (U. To lye fit for; as land, etc.** (Cot.) 

4. Molestes enseignea. To ill purpose (with baneful standards). 
Cf . h bonnes enseignes^ deservedly ; h telles enseignes que^ so much so 
that ; hfausses enseignes y falsely. 

5. A diligence, * speedily.* 
Page 44. — z. BnginSy ' devices.* 
a. Canteles, * deceit.* 

Page 45. — I. Maistre de aea reqnestes. The Masters of Re- 
quests were originally charged with the examination of petitions 
made to the ruler, but they gradually acquired other varied and 
miscellaneous legal functions. 

a. Verta. Commendable qualities. 

3. Geline, ' hen.* 

4. Retoome. The subject is Gallet (understood). 
Page 46. — X. Moyenz, * yolks.* 

2. Philippna. Cf. Louis, Napoleon, names of sovereigns given 
to coins, etc. 

3. Ftn86=pans/. 

4. D'abondant, 'over and besides,* or *over and above' (with 
object). 

5. Saolaaye. A willow-grove. 

Page 47. — i. Ance = anse, i. e. " occasion for.** 

a. Franc alloy ^ franc alien, * freehold.' 

3. Oignez vilain, etc. This proverb has been found as early as 
the thirteenth century. 

Page 48. — X. Ayangerons. Some interpret this as <*to serve 
the turn,*' " to get forward " {avantager). But it is more probably a 



I08 RABELAIS* GARGANTUA 

dialect form of avancer, Cf. also Ital. avanzo for the sense. Cf. 
avenger in Godefroy (who gives another Rabelais passage also) and 
avancier^ in Vol. VIII (Complem.). In this passage the meaning 
may be " we shall have only too much left (in the way of teeth)," or 
simply, " we shall be able (succeed) only too well." 

a. De la panse, etc. When one is weU filled with wine and drink 
one is ready to be merry (saying still in use). 

Car la dance vient de la pance. 

Villon, Grant Ttstameni^ 1. 200. 

3. Szale, * goes into exile.' 

Page 49. — I. Ny d'elle ny d'autre. This is Rabelais* char- 
acteristic attitude towards women. 

2. UtoBsis =^ caches, (Popular Latin, »f«tfwr^; O.F.««fj>r). Cf. 
the English * miche.* 

3. Poyzars. Stems of peas. 

4. Lectues = laittus. 

Page 50. — I. Espies = espions, 

2. Cisteauz. Rabelais should have written Clairvaux (a monas- 
tery of the order of Citeaux), which contained an enormous tun for 
wine. 

3. Vin pineau. A sort of white wine. 

4. Micquelotz. Pilgrims to the Abbey at the Mont Saint-Michel 
in Normandy, who skipped over the quicksands by the use of their 
pilgrim's staffs. The causeway which now allows access to the abbey- 
fortress is of very modem construction. 

5. A sayoir = pour savoir, 

6. Ferut. Yxomfirir. '^ 

Page 51. — I. Noyer grollier. Cotgrave understood this as 
referring to a young walnut tree, " so young or little that it may be 
shaken.'* But it is much more certainly a tree producing big nuts 
at which the grolle or grole (crow) pecks, just as the noyer h coque 
tendre produces the noix tnisange^ eaten by the misange, 

2. Arrapoit, * grabbed,' * caught.* 

3. Fouillonse = bourse. Still used in thieves* cant for purse and 
pocket. 

4. BauSr^ = mangie. In modem French hdfrer. 
Page 52.— I. Complezion, * disposition.* 



NOTES 109 

a. EnseigneSy ' companies.' Each company had its own enseigne 
or colours, even in the later regular army. 

3. Puy. A hill; Ija^hii podium. Cf. Puy de-D6me. 
Page 53. — i. Phrontiste. ^poi^umji, a guardian. 
a. Sebaste. Ze/Sao-r^s, reverend, august. 
Page 54. — I. Desarroy, * hurly-burly' (U.). 
a. En tons endroits, ' in all directions.' 

3. Riviere. Bouchard and Riviere, places near Chinon. 

4. Chole = colire (xoXiJ). Cf. Picrochole. 

5. Remontast. To give a remount to. 

6. Sequenje =» smguenille. 
Page 55. — i. Lourpidon. '^ The name of an old witch, or hag, 

in Amadis ; hence, any such decrepite, and devilish creature " (Cot.). 
Used throughout the Middle Ages to denote a dirty old woman. 

a. Venue des cocquecigrnes ; i.e. never. The coquedgrue is as 
fantastical an animal as the jabberwock. ** Cocklicranes " (U.). 

3. Gaigne denier. A porter, or day-labourer, earning a denier a 
day. 

4. 8e guemente, 'laments,' 'complains'; cf. O.F. gaimentery 
guaimenter {jguai of German origin ; cf. modern German weh). The 
meaning is ' talks in a lamenting way of the time spent in waiting.' 

5. Tolmere. ToX/Ai7p6j, rash. 

Page 56. — i. Saint Florent. All three were real abbeys. 
a. Dniroit = cotwiendrait 
3. Theleme. An early biographer of Rabelais saw in Th^l^me 

an allusion to Fontevrault ; M. C^sar Daly names it an atUi-tnonaS' 
Ure and calls attention to the omission, strange for Rabelais, of all 
reference to a kitchen (in this M. Heulhard, p. 14, finds an argument 
against any allusion to Fontevrault, where the kitchens were enor- 
mous); M. Marty-Laveaux (Vol. Ill, p. 64 of Petit de Julleville's ZT/j/. 
de la litt, fr.) thinks it was suggested by Marguerite's court at 
N^rac ; M. Bourciez (Les mcnirs polies et la litt, de cour sous Henri 
II) takes it as a picture of the court life of the sixteenth century ; 
j Zumbini, in his Studi di lett, stran. (quoted by Schneegans), finds an 

improbable influence of Alcina's isle in Ariosto. A much more cer- 
tain prototype is found in Francesco Colonna's Hypnerotomackia 
Poliphili, with its reaction against asceticism* its descriptions of ar- 



no RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

chitecture, jewelry, costumes, etc., its motto (among others) trior &? 
vwiiv Karik r^v abrod ^6aw, Moreover, one of the characters is 
named Thelemia. (Rabelais mentions the work, Book I, Chap. ix. 
and elsewhere calls the author Pierre (sic) Colonne; Marty-La- 
veaux' edition, Vol. Ill, page 201.) There is, indeed, little of the mon- 
astic about the place. Though each room has its oratory, yet there 
is no common chapel and, as in Girard College, Philadelphia, no 
cleric may be admitted. It is the embodiment of the new spirit of art 
at the time when the Renaissance chateaux were springing up, and 
is designed by one who, though not an architect, yet knew much of 
art. The big towers are remnants of the Middle Ages, but the open 
stairways, the rich decorations, the lavish outbuildings are all modem. 
The earliest editions mention only Bonivet, a chiteau near Ch&telle- 
rault, built from 1513 to 1535. Chambord was not begun until 1536. 
Many likenesses have been traced between Th^l^me and Chambord. 
Th^Ume was certainly not^ as T. A. Cook implies in his O/d Tou- 
rairu (Chap, xxi), a mere parody of the abbeys of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. It belongs to the Renaissance as much as 
Chambord does, and is itself a ch&teau rather than an abbey. 

4. Murmur. Remember the saying, " Le mur murant Paris rend 
Paris murmurant,'* coined when Calonne built, at the expense of the 

fermiers-ginirauxy the high-walled enclosure round Paris, which was 
still unfinished when the Revolution broke out. 

5. Curieasement, * carefully' {curiose), 

Pas^e 57. — I. Toile. A pun made possible by the pronuncia- 
tion of toile {telle). A quoi vaut-elle ? = A quoi vaut toile ? Hence 
the answer. Cf. the use on p. 25 of vele for the modem voile. The 
pronunciation telle was probably from an older form teile^ not from 
toile properly speaking. Of course, both are from the Latin telat but 
belong to different dialects. 

a. A l'embl6e, *by stealth.' 

3. Ji, 'henceforth.' 

Pas:e 58. — i. Assort iment, 'furnishing.' 

a. De content =» comptant 

3. A la grand laine. The moutons were current from the reign 
of Louis IX to that of Charles VII. They were called motions 
(Tor d la grande laine^ and sometimes a la petite laine or agnelets. 



:a notes 1 1 1 

nongode deniers (Tor h Paignely etc. All these gold pieces bore the stamp of 
f tie cfe a lamb. 

Ba^i: 4. Recepte de la Diye. From the income or produce of the 
hnne; k river Dive. The Dive was a stream in Poitou, producing mainly 
httkdi fog or mist. 

;3l^ g 5. BsCttS an soleil. The ^cus au soleil or ecus-sol^ because stamped 
VhMk. ^^ a sun. There were also ecus d la couronne, icus h la salaman- 
\evss: ^^^f ®*^' ^^* ^^® estoille poussinierty the " Hen and Chickens," or 
no-iJE Pleiades, is a coin of Rabelais* fancy. 

m:^- ^* Nobles \ la rose. Rose nobles, coined by Henry VI of £ng- 
^^ land when he occupied a part of France. 
>2^'ec 7* Indemn^s, ' unencumbered.' 

y.^£j- 8. Protraict. Appearance, design. 

^^^;,r 9. Calaer. KaX6s and di^p. 

'^ ID. Anatole. 'AvaroX^, East. 

0; zi. Mesembrine. M€a"nfjLPpip6s, Southern. 

If^, 12. Hesperie. "Ecnrepoi, Western. 

^^. 13. Criere. Kpvep6$, cold. 

14. Embnmch^. Covered (for a ceiling) or wainscoted (for a 
^ wall). Cf. Book II, Chapter xiv: "Incontinent le feu se prit k la 
,^^; paille, et de la paille au lict, et du lict au solier, qui estoit embrunch^ 
^ de sapin, fait k queues de lampes.'' 

15. Guy, * plaster.* 

z6. Culz de lampes. Pendants or brackets. 
■^ 17, Endoussure, ' ridge.' 

^ 18. lllaneqains. (i) Grotesque figures, puppets, "anticks"; or 

, (2) architectural designs of baskets of fruits or flowers. 

: Page 59. — I. Sschenauz, * canals.' 

a. Viz. A winding staircase. Of the Renaissance chateaux Blois 
and Chambord have the most remarkable exterior winding stairs. 

3. Namidique. African marble. 

4. Serpentin, * serpentine ' ; a marble-like green stone. 

5. Libraries, ' libraries ' {bibliothiques), 

6. Langages. No English and no German. 

Pas® 60. — z. Comes d'abondance, < cornucopias' (horns of 
plenty). 
a. Cassidoine, * chalcedony.' 



112 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

3. SpectableSy * remarkable ' (spectahilis), 

4. Mirifiqiies. In modern French usually somewhat humorous. 

5. Solier, 'flight.' *<That is in three stories; on one was a hot 
bath ; on an other, a lukewarm bath ; and, on the third, one qnite 
cold, into each of which, by means of pipes, the water was distri- 
buted just as they would have it." (U.) 

6. AsturcierSi ' falconers ' (modern auioursiers). 

7. SarmateSy Russians (Moscovites). 

8. Paragons. Picked or carefully selected birds. A ' paragon ' 
in English is a model or pattern of excellence. 

Pftge 61 • — I. Eau de naphe. Orange-flower water. 

Page 62. — i. Nausiclete. NavircxXecrifs, famous for ships. 

2. Perlas, at Canibales. Islands of Pearls and of Cannibals. 
The latter probably the West Indies. 

3. Unions, * pearls ' {unto) ; in older English, " union." Cf. Ham- 
let, Act V, Sc. ii : 

The king shall drink to Hamlet's better breath ; 
And in the cup an union shall he throw, 
Ridier than that which four successive kings 
In Denmark's crown have worn. 

4. NaiyBi * natural.* 

5. Cnre, hawk's casting. 

6. Fais ce que youdras. The vicious misinterpretations of these 
famous words of Rabelais are best exemplified in the excesses of the 
Jolly Monks of Medmenham in the eighteenth century. A band of 
drunkards and profligates, led by Francis Dashwood and John 
Wilkes established their Hell Fire Club at Medmenham Abbey, 
near Great Marlow, on the Thames. Here they carried on in the 
liveliest manner, inscribing over the door Fay ce que voudras. One 
of the number was John Hall-Stevenson, the college friend of Lau- 
rence Sterne and, indeed, Sterne was by some accused of being a 
member. At any rate, it is probable that John Hall-Stevenson was 
the source of Sterne's familiarity with Rabelais, of which there are 
so many evidences in Tristram Shandy, His home at Skelton 
Castle was stocked with books, including many works of the French 
sixteenth century, and there Sterne met many boon companions, in- 
cluding the jovial clergyman. Rev. Mr. Lascelles, better known as 
"Panty" (Pantagmel) Lascelles. ^ 



NOTES 113 

7. Conyeraans. Spending the time with {conversart). 
Page 63. — z. Voler. To fly the hawk. 

a. Gorrier. For purpose of display. " Rychely arrayed " (Pals- 
grave, p. 200). Connected with gorre^ " display." 

3. Oraison solue. Prose {oraiio soluta). 

4. VerdSy * sturdy.* 

5. MoliebrOy < womanly.' 



LIST OF RECURRING WORDS 

WHICH REQUIRE EXPLANATION. 



Adonc, adoncq, adoncques, done. 

Ains, mais. Perhaps from the popular Latin anUis, for anUa ; 

perhaps from a form antius^ a comparative of ante. 

Ains Que 7 , ^ 

. . r r avant que, plutot que. 

Ainpoisque > ^ » *- ^ 

A tant, alors. 

A tout, avec. The tout is for emphasis : ^ alone may mean avec. 

Aucttn, quelqu'un. This word, from the Old French alque (alt- 
quem)y was originally positive, as in the modem (Taucuns disent. 
Rabelais uses the word also as an adjective. 

Ce, often used for ceci or cela^ as a direct or indirect object. 

Celuj, celle, etc., used as adjective as well as pronominally. 

Cestuy, ceste, celui ; used as adjective or pronoun. 

Combien que, bien que, quoique, encore que. 

Dont, sur quoi, par suite de quoi, d'oii. 

Es, for elsy en les. 

Iceluy, icelle, etc., used both for celui, celle, and for the personal 
pronoun le, la. 

Jjt, used for d^j^ and as an intensive particle. 

Jonztey iromjuxtay prhs de, aupr^s de, and, figuratively, selon. 

Mesmementy surtout. 

Moult, beaucoup. 

On, a nasal form of ou for el, en le. 

Oncques, from unquaniy jamais, with or without negation. 

Par autant que, parce que, vu que. 

Potir ce que, parce que. 

Pourtant, pour cette raison, c'est pourquoi. 



1 1 6 RABELAIS' GARGANTUA 

Si, from nCf ainsi, aussL 
8i que, de sorte que. 

Tropy used sometimes before mieuz and meillear, with the mean- 
ing of beaucoup. 
Voire, oui. 



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