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Full text of "Selections from the Tell El-Amarna letters"

LaAsy 



_L-^_ 

jns from the 
-1-Amarna Lei 






TEXTS FOR STUDENTS. No. 16. 



SELECTIONS FROM THii 

TELL EL-AMARNA 
LETTERS 



BY 



PERCY HANDGOGK. M.A 



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TEXTS FOR STUDENTS. No. 16 

GENERAL EDITORS: CAROLINE A. J. SKEEL, D.LlT. ; 
H. J. WHITE, D.D. ; J. P. WHITNEY, D.D., D.C.L. 



SELECTIONS FROM 

THE TELL EL-AMARNA 
LETTERS 



BY 
PERCY HANDCOCK, MA. 

BARRISTER- AT-I.AW 

FORMERLY ASSISTANT TO THJE KKBPBK OF BGVPTIAN AND ASSYKIAN 
ANTIQUITIES, BRITISH MUS'.UM 




LONDON 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING 

CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE 

NEW YORKi THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

1920 



SELECTIONS FROM THE 
TELL EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



INTRODUCTION 

IN 1887, some fellahin, digging at a spot called Tell El- 
Amarna, about 170 miles south of Cairo, the site of 
Ajjetaton (Horizon of Aton), the new capital built by 
Amenhetep IV. of the Eighteenth Dynasty, in honour of 
the sun-god, came upon a chamber containing several 
hundred clay tablets inscribed with cuneiform characters 
Unhappily, the value of this discovery was not at the time 
realised, and a number were carried in sacks to Luxor to be 
hawked about among the dealers, and were largely broken 
or damaged on the way. The remainder, some 290, found 
their way into museums or private collections, and on 
examination were found to form part of the official 
archives of Amenhetep III. (c. 1411 B.C.) and his successor, 
Amenhetep IV. (c. 1375 B.C.), and to consist, for the most 
part, of letters addressed to these kings by local rulers, 
and by the independent rulers of the Kingdoms of Western 
Asia. 

The latter, numbering about forty, are mainly from 
the Kings of Karduniash (i.e., Babylonia), Assyria, the 
Hittites, the Mitanni, and Alashia (i.e., Cyprus), and are 
essentially diplomatic in character, the writers' principal 
object in each case being to preserve friendly relations 
with the King of Egypt. 

3 



SELECTIONS FROM THE 



The letters from the local rulers in Canaan are of im- 
mense value for the history of Syria during the latter part 
of the fifteenth and the early part of the fourteenth 
centuries B.C., and reflect the causes and circumstances 
which led up to the disintegration of the Egyptian Empire 
in Western Asia. They reveal a country seething with 
intrigue and faction, which the Egyptian Government was 
either unable to suppress, or the serious consequences of 
which it utterly failed to realise. 

The trouble partly arose from the activity of the 
Hittites, an Anatolian people of whom comparatively little 
is at present known, who were pressing their way into 
Northern Syria ; another contributing oause being the pre- 
datory operations of the Habiru in the south, to whom 
Abdi-b,iba of Jerusalem refers so frequently, and for pro 
tection against whom he implores the King of Egypt so 
earnestly (see pp. 6, 8 f.). 

So far as can be gathered, Abdi b,iba, the Governor of 
Jerusalem, maintained his loyalty to Egypt, but in this 
respect he appears to have been almost unique. His letters 
indicate the danger as both widespread and imminent. 
He entreats the King of Egypt to send troops, and adds 
that if no troops arrive " this year," all the countiies of 
the king will be utterly destroyed. 

The identification of the name HabirQ, with Hebrews has 
been largely canvassed of late years, and the theory has 
gained a good deal of support among scholars. Whether 
this theory will ultimately be substantiated beyond all 
reasonable doubt or not remains to be seen, but the identi- 
fication of the Habiru with the Hebrews, who sojourned 
in Egypt and made good their escape at the Exodus, is 
very precarious, even assuming the identification of the 
names, and involves the repudiation of the Biblical tradi 
tion which in the main there is no reason to suspect but 
every reason, archaeological and otherwise, to accept. 



TELL EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



Assuming the identification of the names, then the 
Habiru, or Hebrews, mentioned in these letters must refer 
to tribes which had either stayed behind at the time of ^he 
Israelite immigration into Egypt, or else had made their 
way from Egypt some two hundred years or so before. 

One of the tablets, of which a translation is given 
below (p. 12), is of exceptional interest, as it was found ,it 
Lachish, and obviously belongs to the Tell El-Amarna 
series. Mention is made therein of Zimrida, Governor of 
Lachish, who in one of the Tell El-Amarna letters professes 
loyalty to the Egyptian king, and is also referred to in one 
of Abdi-hiba's letters (see p. 9). 

One of the most interesting features about these letters 
is that they are all written in the cuneiform script, and it 
is not merely that a Babylonian king himself uses the 
Babylonian script and language 1 in corresponding with 
the King of Egypt, but kings of the Mitanni and Cyprus, 
and the local Egyptian Governors in Palestine, do likewise, 
which shows clearly that Babylonian was the lingua franca 
of the Near East at that time a striking testimony to the 
enduring influence of Babylonian culture in Canaan and 
the neighbouring countries. 

But although written in the Babylonian language, there 
are sporadic occurrences of Canaanite words, sometimes by 
themselves, and sometimes added by way of explanation of 
the Babylonian equivalent, and these Canaanite words arc 
almost identical with Hebrew. 

The translations given below in the main follow those of 
J. A, Knudtzon (Die El-Amarna Tafeln), which takes the 
place of Hugo Winckler's edition (Kcilinschriftliche Billio- 
(h/k, v., 1896) as the standard edition. 

P. H. 

1 A Semitic language allied to Hebrew but not identical with it. 



SELECTIONS FKOM THE 



From Abdi-hiba of Jerusalem to the King (Bolin, VA. 
Th. 1644). 1 

To the king, my lord, hath spoken Abdi-hjba, thy servant: 
Ab the feet of my lord seven times and seven times do 
I fall. I h&ve heard all the words which the king, my 
lo r d, has sent. . . . [Behold] the deed, which . . . has 
,*JI\G . . . what shall I ... news . . . brought to the 
city Kilti. Let the king know that all lands have leagued 
in hostility against me j let the king therefore care for 
his land. Behold, the territory of Gazri, the territory of 
Ashkelon, and the city of La[chish], have given them oil, 
food, and all their necessaries. Let the king therefore 
care for the troops ! Let him send troops against the 
people who have committed a crime against the king, my 
lord ! If in this year there are troops here, then will the 
land and the local ruler[s] remain to the king, my lord ; 
but if there are no troops here, then there will remain no 
lands and no local rulers to the king. 

Behold this land of Jerusalem neither my father nor 
my mother gave it to me ; the mighty hand of the king 
gave it to me. Behold, this deed is the deed of Milkilu, 
and the deed of the sons of Labaya, who have given the 
land of the king to the Habirii. Behold, king, my lord, 
I am innocent as regards the Kashi. Let the king ask the 
officers if the house is very mighty (f). Indeed, they have 
aspired to perpetrate a very wicked crime; they have 
taken their implements and . . . sent to the land . . . 
servant ; let the king take heed to them, that they support 
the lands with their hand. Let the king demand for them 
much food, much oil, and many garments, until Pauru, the 
king's officer, goes up to Jerusalem. 

1 Published by Abel and Winclder, Der Thontafelfund von El- 
Amarna, No. 103. Translated by Winckler, Keilinschriftliche niblio- 
thek, V., No. 180 ; and by Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, No. 287. 



TELL EL-AMARNA LETTERS 



Adaja is in revolt together with the garrison, the 
officer . . . the king. Let the king know that Adaja 
said to me : " Behold, let me depart, but do thou not 
leave it (the city)." In this year send me a garrison, send 
the officer of the king. ... I sent to the king, my lord, 
5,000 asiru . . . 318 (?) bearers for the caravans of the 
king; they were taken in the fields of Ajalon. Let the 
king, my lord, know that I am unable to send caravans to 
the king, my lord this for thy information. Behold, the 
king has set his name in the land of Jerusalem for ever, 
therefore he cannot leave the land of Jerusalem in the 
lurch. 

To the scribe of the king, my lord, hath spoken Abdi- 
h^ba, thy servant : At thy feet I fall. I am thy servant. 
Bring clearly before the king, my lord, these words. An 
officer of the king am I. I am. . . . And an evil deed 
has been done against me by the people of Kash. I was 
all but slain by the people of Kash in my house. Let the 
king ask . . . seven times and seven times . . . the king, 
my lord, to me. 

From Abdi-hiba of Jerusalem to the King (Berlin, VA. 
Th. 1642). 1 

To the king, my lord, hath spoken Abdi-bjba, thy servant : 
At the feet of my lord, the king, seven times and seven 
times do I fall. What have I done to the king, my lord ? 
They have slandered me before the king, my lord [saying] : 
" Abdi-Jiiba has revolted from the king, his lord." Behold^ 
as for me, neither my father nor my mother appointed me 
in this place. The mighty hand of the king introduced me 

1 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thontafelfund von El- 
Amarna, No. 102. Translated by Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, 
No. 286 ; and by A. Uugnad inGrcssmann, Altorientalische Texte und 
Bilder zum Allen Testament, pp. 132-3. 



SELECTIONS FROM THE 



into my father's house. Why should I commit an offence 
against the king, my lord ? So long as the king, my lord, 
lives will I say to the officer of the king, my lord : " Why 
do you like the IJabini and hate the local rulers 1" For 
this reason they slander me before the king, my lord. 
Because I say : " The territory of the king, my lord, will 
be ruined," therefore am I slandered before the king, my 
lord. Let the king, my lord, know that the king, my 
lord, had established a garrison, but . . . Eenhamu has 
taken it. ... Egypt . . . king, my lord . . . there is 
no garrison there. May the king care for his land ! May 
the king care for his land ! The lands of the king, my 
lord, have all fallen away. Ilimilku is destroying the entire 
land of the king. May the lord care for his land ! I 
say : " I will go before the king, my lord, and see the eyes 
of the king, my lord." But the enemies are powerful 
against me, and I am unable to go before the king, my 
lord. So may it seem right to the king to send garrison- 
troops, and I will go and see the eyes of the king, my 
lord ! So long as the king, my lord, lives, when an officer 
goes forth, I shall say : " The lands of the king, my lord, 
are going to ruin." But you do not listen to me. All the 
local governors are lost ; there remains not one local 
governor to the king, my lord. 

Let the king turn his face to the troops, and let the king, 
my lord, send troops ! No territory remains to the king, 
my lord. The Habirii are devastating all the lands of the 
king. If there be troops in this year, then the lands will 
remain the king's, my lord's ; but if no troops arrive, the 
lands of the king, my lord, are lost. To the scribe of the 
king, my lord : Abdi-hiba, thy servant. Bring clearly 
before the king, my lord, [these] words : All the hinds of 
the king, my lord, are going to ruin. 



TELL EL-AMARNA LETTERS 9 

From Abdi-hiba of Jerusalem to the King (Berlin, VA. 
Th. 1643). 1 

To the king, my lord, my sun, hath spoken thus Abdi- 
Ijiba, thy servant. At the feet of the king, my lord, seven 
times arid seven times do I fall. Behold, the king, my 
lord, hath set his name upon the East and upon the West. 
It is a wickedness which they have wrought against me. 
Behold, I am not a local ruler, I am an officer 3 of the king, 
my lord. Behold, I am a shepherd of the king, and one 
who brings tribute to the king. Neither my father, nor 
my mother, [but] the mighty hand of the king, hath 
established me in my father's house . . . came to me. . . . 
I gave him ten slaves into his hand. When Shuta, the 
officer of the king, came to me, I gave him twenty-one 
maidservants and eighty (?) asiru . . . gave I into the 
hand of Shuta, as a present for the king, my lord. Let 
the king care for his land ! The whole land of the king 
will be lost. They have assumed hostilities against me (?) 
As far as the territory of Sheri, as far as Ginti-kirmil, it 
goes well with all the local rulers (?), and hostility prevails 
against me. If one could see ! 3 But I do not see the eyes 
of the king, my lord, because hostility is established 
against me. When there was a ship on the sea, and the 
mighty hand of the king held Nahrima and Kapasi. But 
now the PJabirii hold the cities of the king. There is no 
local ruler left to the king, my lord ; all are lost. Behold, 
Turbazu has been slain in the gate of Zilft ; yet the king 
does nothing. Behold, Zimrida of Lachish, his servants 
have slaughtered him . . . the Habiru, Iaptih,-Adda, has 

1 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thonlafelfund von El- 
Amarna, No. 104. Translated by Knudtzon, Die El-Amama Tafeln, 
No. 288 ; and by Ungnad in Gressmann, Altorientalische Texte und 

;/<I,T, ]>. 133. 

2 An Egyptian word. 

3 The meaning of this line is very dubious. 



10 SELECTIONS FliOM THE 

been slain in the gate of Zilu ; yet the king does nothing. 
. . .* Let the king take care for his land, and let the king 
give his attention in regard to troops for the land of 
tribute (?) ! For if no troops come in this year, all the 
lands of the king, my lord, will be destroyed and in ruins. 
They must not say before the king, my lord, that the land 
of the king, my lord, is destroyed, and all the local rulers 
are destroyed. If no troops arrive in this year, then let 
the king send an officer to take me to thee with my 
brothers, and we will die with the king, my lord. 

To the scribe of the king, my lord, thus Abdi-hiba, thy 
servant : At thy feet I fall down. Bring these words 
clearly before the king, my lord. . . . Thy son and thy 
servant am I. 

From Abdi-hiba of Jerusalem to the King (Berlin, VA. 
Th. 1645). 2 

To the king, my lord, hath spoken thus, Abdi-hiba, thy 
servant. At the feet of the king, my lord, seven times and 
seven times I fall. . . . Behold, hath not Milki-lim re- 
volted to Labaya's sons and to Arzaya's, so as to claim the 
land of the king for them 1 A prince who has done this 
deed why does not the king call him to account ? Behold 
Milki-lim and Tagi, the deed which they have done is this : 
After having taken the city Rubuda, they are now seeking 
to take Jerusalem. If this land belongs to the king, why 
(delay till) the IJazati are at the king's disposal 1 Behold 
the land of Grinti-kirmil belongs to Tagi, and the people of 
Ginti form a garrison in Betsani ; and the same will befall 
us now that Labaya and the land of Shakmi have given 
everything to the yabiru. Milki-lim has written to Tagi 
and his sons : " As two are . . . 3 , give to the people of 

1 The meaning of this line is very dubious. 

2 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thontafdfund von El- 
Amama, Nos. 105 and 199. Translated by Knudtzon, Die El- 
Amarna Tafeln, No. 289. 8 mimulat. 






TELL EL-AMARNA LETTERS 11 

Kilti all their hearts' desire." Shall we, then, let Jerusalem 
go ? The garrison-troops which thou has sent by the hand 
of ^aya, the son of Miare, hath Addaya taken and placed 
in his house in ^azati, and twenty men hath he sent 
to Egypt. 

Let the king take heed that there is no garrison of the 
king with me ! Such is the case as the king liveth. Puuru 
his ... He has departed from me and is in Hazati. 
Let the king keep this before him, and let the king send 
fifty garrison-men to protect his land ! The whole land of 
the king is in revolt. Send Ji'enhamu, and let him take 
heed for the land of the king. 

To the scribe of the king, my lord, thus speaketh Abdi- 
hiba, thy servant. Bring these words clearly before the 
king. I am in highest degree ... to thee, thy servant 
am I. 

From Abdi-hiba of Jerusalem to the King (Berlin, VA. 
Th. 1646). 1 

To the king, my lord, hath spoken thus Abdi-hiba, thy 
servant : At the feet of the king, seven times and seven 
times I fall. Behold the deed which Milldlu and Shuardatu 
have done against the land of the king, my lord. They 
have . . . the soldiers (or people) of Gazri, the soldiers 
of Gimti, and the soldiers of Kilti, and have taken the 
territory of Rubute. The land of the king is lost to the 
Habiru. And now indeed a city of the territory of 
Jerusalem, called Bet-Ninib, has been lost to the people of 
Kilti. Let the king listen to Abdi-hiba, thy servant, and 
send troops, that I may restore the king's land to the 
king ! But if there are no troops, the land of the king will 

1 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thoitiqfelfund von El- 
Amarna, No. 106. Translated by Knudtzon, Die El-Amama Tafeln, 
No. 290 ; and by Ungnad in Gressmann, Altorientaliscfie Ttxie uiul 
llilder, p. 134. 



12 SELECTIONS FROM THE 

be lost to the Habiru. This is the deed of ... Milkilu 
. . . Shuardatu . . . and let the king take care for his land ! 

From Abdi-hila of Jerusalem to the King (Berlin, VA. 
Th. 1601). 1 

To the king [my lord, thus hath spoken] Abdi-|iiba, thy 
servant. [At] the feet [of the king, my lord], seven times 
and seven times I fall. Behold, I am not a [local ruler] ; 
an officer am I to the [king, my lord]. Why has the king 
. . . not sent a messenger ... 1 Under such circum- 
stances Eenhatnu has sent. . . . Let the king [hearken] to 
Abdi-fciba, his servant! [Behold], there are no troops. 
Let the king, my lord, send an officer, and let him take the 
local rulers with him ! The lands of the king . . . and 
people . . . who are . . . and Addaya, the officer of the 
king, [has] their house. . . . 

Let the king take heed for them, and let him send a 
messenger quickly When ... I die. . . . 

Letter from Lachish (Constantinople, W, 219). 2 

[To the] great, thus hath spoken Pabi, at thy feet I fall. 
Thou must know that Shipti-Ba'al and Zimrida are con- 
spiring, and that Shipti-Ba'al hath spoken to Zimrida : 
" My father of the city, Yarami (1) has written to me Give 
me [six] bows, and three doggers, and three swords ! If I 
go forth against the land of the king, and thou dost join 
me, I shall surely conquer. He who makes (?) this plan is 

1 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thontafelfund von El- 
Amarna, No. 174. Translated by Winckler, Die T/iontafeln von 
Tell El-Amarna (Keilinschriftliche EibliotJiel; V.), No. 184 ; and by 
Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, No. 285. 

2 Published by Hilprecht, Expedition of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, vol. i., Old Babylonian Iiiscripti&ns, Part 2, Plate 64, No. 1 17. 
Translated by Winckler, Keilinschriftliche Libliolhck, V., No. 219; 
by Ungnad in Gressmann, Altorientalische Texte und BUder, I., pp 
127-8 ; and by Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, No. 338. 



TELL EL-AMARNA LETTERS 13 

Pabu. Send him before me." Now I have sent Rapi-el. 
He will bring to the great man information about this 
affair (?) 

Letter of Burraburiash to Amcnfyetep IV. (Berlin, VA. 
Th. 152J. 1 

To NaphuVuria, King of Egypt, my brother, thus hath 
spoken Burraburiash, King of Karduniash, thy brother : 
With me it is well ; with thee, with thy land, thy house, 
thy wives, thy children, thy nobles, thy horses, thy 
chariots, may it be exceeding well ! I and my brother 
have spoken friendly with one another, and thus have we 
spoken : " As our fathers were, so will wo also be good 
friends." But now my traders, who came up with 
Ahutabu, remained behind in Kinahhi 2 for business 
reasons. After Ahutabu had gone off to my brother, in 
the city of Hinnatuni of Kinahhi, Shumadda, son of 
Balumme, and Shutatna, son of Sharatum, of Acco, sent 
their men and slew my traders, and carried off their money! 
Azzu (?) . . . I have sent to thee, so ask him and let him 
tell thee. Kinahhi is thy land and its kings are thy 
servants. In thy land violence has been done me. Chastise 
them, and the money which they have taken away, restore ! 
And the men who have slain my servants, slay them, and 
avenge their blood ! But if thou dost not slay these 
people, they will on another occasion slay my caravans or 
thy messengers, and then messengers will cease to pass 
between us. And if they deny it, [know this,] that 
Shumadda cut the feet off one of rny people, and kept him 
prisoner; and that Shutatna of Acco set another on his 
head, and he stands before his face. Cause these men to 
be brought before thee, and take heed to my welfare ! As 

1 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thontafclfund von El- 
Amarna., No. 8. Translated by Ungnad in Cressmann, A Itorientalische 
Texte uiul Bilder, I., p. 129 /. ; and by Knudtzon. Die El-Amarna 
T,tf,'l)i, p. 85 f. 2 x.e. t Canaan. 



14 SELECTIONS FliOM THE 

present I have sent thce one mina of lapis-lazuli. Send 
my messenger back speedily. May I learn of the welfare of 
my brother ! Do not keep my messenger back ! Let him 
come quickly 1 

Letter of Tushralta of Mitanni to Amenhetep III. (British 
Museum, BV. 88-10-13, 78). 1 

To Nimtnuria, King of Egypt, my brother, my son-in-law 
whom I love, and who loves me, thus hath spoken 
Tushratta, King of Mitanni, who loves thee, thy father-in- 
law : With me it is well. With thee may it be well ! 
With thy house ; with Tatuh,epa, my daughter, thy wife 
whom thou lovest, may it be well ! With thy wives, thy 
children, thy nobles, thy chariots, thy horses, thy warriors, 
thy lands, and with everything that is thine, may it be 
very, very, very well ! 

Thus saith Ishtar of Nineveh, the Lady of countries, 
all of them : " To Egypt, the land which I love, will I go, 
and I will wander (?) ! Behold, now I have sent [her], and 
she is gone. . . . Behold, in the time of my father did 
the Lady go to the land, and as, when she formerly dwelt 
there, men honoured her, so may my brother now honour 
her ten times more than in the former days ! May my 
brother honour her, and send her away in joy that she may 
return ! 

Ishtar, the Lady of Heaven, may she protect my brother 
and me ! One hundred thousand years and much joy 
may this Lady give us both ! And as is good, so will we 
do. Ishtar is for me, my god ; but for my brother, she is 
not his god. 2 

1 Published by Bezold and Budge, The Tell El-Amarna Tablets in 
Hie British Museum (1892), No. 10. Translated by Ungnad in Gress- 
mann, Altorirntalische Texte und JBilder, I., p. 130-1 ; and by 
Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, No. 23. 

3 The reverse side of this tablet is inscribed with a note of three 
Hues of Egyptian hieroglyphics, written in black ink, and reading : 



TELL EL- AM A KN A LETTERS 15 

Letter of Rib-Adda of Byblus (Berlin, VA. Th. 1239). 1 

ADDA hath spoken to his lord, the king of the lands, 
the great king: May Ba'alat of Gubla 2 give might to the 
king, my lord ! At the feet of my lord, my sun, seven 
times and seven times I fall. Let the king, my lord, know 
that Gubla, the true handmaid of the king, is safe, but 
very strong is the hostility of the Sa Gaz-warriors against 
me, and may the king, my lord, not hold back from 
Sumur, lest it entirely joins the Sa Gaz-warriors ! By the 
officer of the king, who was in Sumur, Gubla has been 
saved. Behold, Pahamnata, the officer of the king, who is 
in Sumur, knows the need which oppresses Gubla. From 
Yarimutta have we procured the means of existence. Very 
powerful has been the hostility against us. Therefore, 
may the king not hold back from his cities ! 

Letter of Rib-Adda of Byblus (British Museum, Bu. 
88-10-13, 58). 3 

RIB ADDA spoke to his lord, the king of the lands, the 
great king : May Ba'alat of Gubla give might to the king, 
my lord ! At the feet of my lord, my sun, seven times and 
seven times I fall. Why hast thou sent me no reply, so 
that I might know the deed which they have done? I 

" Year 36, 4th mouth of the winter, when we were in the southern 
castle Pr H'wt . . . Copy . . , brought by the messenger." 

1 Published by Abel and Winckler, Der Thontafelfund von El- 
Amarna (1889-90), No. 80. Translated by Winckler, Keilinschrift- 
liche Bibliothek, V., No. 88; by Knudtzon, Die El- Amarna Tafeln, 
No. 68 ; and by Ungnad in Gressmann, Altoruntalische Texte und 
Wilder, I., p. 131. 

2 " Gubla" is the Babylonian for " Byblus." 

8 Published by Bezold and Budge, The Tell El-Amarna Tablets in 
the British Museum (1892), No. 14. Translated by Winckler, Keilin- 
schriftliche Bibliothek, V., No. 61; by Knudt/.on, Die El-Amarna 
Tafeln, No. 83 ; and by Ungnad in Gressmann, Altorieiilalische Texte 
und Bildcr, pp. 131-2. 



16 TELL EL-AM ARNA LETTERS 

sent my man before my lord, and his two horses were 
taken, while in regard to another man, the man himself (1) 
was taken and the king's tablet was not given into the 
hand of my man. 

Listen to me ! Why hast thou so held back that thy 
land should be taken 1 Let it not be said : " In the days 
of the overseers the Gaz people have taken all lands," Let 
it not be said in (those) days : " And thou art not able to 
take them again." Further, I have written for garrison- 
troops, and for horses, but they were not granted. Send a 
reply to me ! Otherwise I shall make alliance with Abdi- 
Ashirta, like Yapa-Adda and Zimrida, and I shall be 
saved. Further, if Sumura and Bet-Arha are lost, thou 
must give to me by the hand of Yanhamu. 1 Let him give 
provisions of food for me ! I will protect the city of the 
king for him, and let the king speak the word and send 
my man ! His relations are embittered against me day 
and night, saying : " Thou hast given our son to the king, 
and he should send him back." Two men of Inamta are in 
the house of Yanhamu. Further, say to Yanhamu : " Kib- 
Addi is in thy hands, and everything that is done to him 
rests upon thee." Let not men of destruction (?) fall 
upon me ! And I have written to him : "If thou dost not 
say so, then I will abandon the city and depart. Further, 
if thou sendest me no answer, then I will abandon the city 
and depart with the men who love me. And know, indeed, 
Ummahnu, and Ishkuru her husband, the servant of 
Ba'alat of Gubla, and power ... to Ba'alat." 



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