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BY THE • / 


*' I oonsider JoxATHAH Edwards the greatest of the sons of men. He ranks with the 
brightest luminaries of the Christian Church, not excluding any country, or any age, 
since the apostolic. " Robert Hall. 

*' This remarknble man, fAcmotaphjmician of America. .... His power of subtile ar- 

of the ancient Mystics, with a character which raised his piety to fervour." 

Sir James Mackinto6S. 

"Edwards comes ne:iror Bishop Butler as a philosophical divine than any other theo- 
logian with whom we are acquainted. " Robert Morshsad. 





\'V':\ • • -f^^ ^--''^ 

■ 175:>46 

.*> ! 



1. Facsimiles, {jirefixed to title-page.) 

2. Dedication, ....... 9 

3. Introduction, .11 

4. Treatise on Grace, . . .17 

Chap. I. — [Shewing] that Common and Saving Grace diflfer, 

not only in Degree, but in Nature and Kind, . .19 

Chap. II. — Shewing wherein all Saving Grace does summarily 

consist, . . . . . .30 

Chap. III. — Shewing how a Principle of Grace is from the 

Spirit of God, .39 

5. Annotations on Passages op the Bible,* . .57 

6. Directions for Judging of Persons* Experiences, .181 

7. Sermons — 

I. Matthew vii. 14—" Few there be that find it," . 189 

II. 2 Timothy iii 16 — "All Scripture is given by inspira- 
tion of God," . . . . .191 
III. and IV. Romans v. 1 — " We have peace \s'ith God,'' 196 
V. and VI. Acts xxiv. 2r>— « Felix trembling," . 200 
VII. and VIII. 1 Peter iii 19, 20—" The spirits in prison," 203 

* It hafi not been deemed necessary to insert here a list of the texta, (upwards of 
three hundred, beeidefl others incidentally noticed), seeing they are given in th« 
reg\ilar order of the Books as arranged in our English Bible. — 0. 


No. 1. Page from Sermon. 

*^* It will be noticed that this is written on a fragment of an 
unsent letter to Edwards's publisher, concerning his life of 
Brainerd. Nearly all the MSS. are on similar bits of paper. 

No. 2. Page from Treatise on Grace. 



Bom at Wiudiior, Connecticut 5th Oct. 1703 

His fiBither was the Rev. Timothy Edwards, pastor of a church in 

Windsor for sixty years. 

Became a Student of Yale College, Ncwhaven, in 1716 

Graduated B.A 1719-20 

''Licensed*' as a Minister of the Gospel 1722 

^ Preached" for eight months to a congregation of English Pres- 
byterians, in the years 1722-23 

Returned to Windsor and passed M. A. at ** Yale "... 1723-24 

<'Tutor"at Yale I724teq. 

** Accepted** a ** call" to be *• Colleague*' with his maternal Grand- 
father, at Northampton, Mass 1726 

Ordained 1727 

Married Miss Sarah Pierpoiit 1727 

Left Northampton 1750-51 

Removed to StockbnJge, Mass., where he preached to the Indians 

and a few white settlers 1751-52 

His treatise on " The Will " published in 1754 

Chosen to be President of the College of New Jersey, Princeton . 1757 

Died 22d March n^iS 














Ten years ago I crossed the Atlantic in order to consult and arrange 
with the representatives of Jonathan Edwards, about a complete 
and really worthy edition of the Works, published and unpublished, 
of that " master in Israel.'* Commissioned by Publishers of position 
and chaiacter thereto, and the way having been prepared by corre- 
spondence, I had immediate access given me to all the Manuscripts 
of Edwards, . . . these having been committed to the keeping of the 
Rev. Tryon Edwards, D.D., of New London, Connecticut, "as sole 
permanent trustee, by all the then surviving grandchildren of their 
author." * Very pleasant, if onerous, was the labour of examining 
the numerous MSS. ; which were found to embrace, — besides papers 
of rare biographical interest and value, — the originals of some of the 
works already published, and a mass of his ordinary " sermons," in part 
fully written out, in larger part half-written out, and in largest part 
in simple "notes,*' — these three classes being of very various worth. 
The treasure of the whole proved to be a Treatise on Grace, carefully 
finished and prepared for the press : and second to it, if second, an 
interleaved Bible, containing numerous annotations. Circumstances, 
which it is not at all needful to state here, have hitherto prevented 
the carrying out of the scheme of a complete collective edition of the 
Works : but a forloin hope is indiJged, that if the deplorable Civil 
war were ended, it may yet be achieved under the joint-editorship of 
the above Rev. Dr Tryon Edwards and myself. 

Meantime, in response to very frequent and urgent requests ad- 
dressed to me, 1 have personally transciibed from the original MSS. 
now in my possession, the contents of the present volume. 

* Introduction to Edwards's " Charity and it» Fruits ; or, Chriatiau Love as mani- 
fe«ted in tlie Heart and Life." Edited from the Original MSS. by Tryon Edwards, 
D.I). (London : Niubet & Co. 1852. 8vo.), page iv. : an inestimable book. 


With a collective edition of the Works in possible prospect, I did 
not deem myself at liberty to publish anything ; but there seems no 
valid objection to the printing of a limited impression for subscribers 
only, willing and wishful to share the cost with the Editor. 

I may briefly notice the several portions of our Selections. 

I. Tkeatise on Grace. — This Manuscript was found by itself, 
carefully placed within folds of thick paper, and tied up with a silk 
ribbon. It proved to be arranged into chapters and sections, all 
paged ; and, in short, precisely as now printed. Our facsimile pre- 
fixed to the title-page, shews the size and appearance of the original. 
Many of the pages have interlineations and erasures ; but there can 
be no doubt that the Manuscript was intended for publication. 

It is possible that I may have the usual bias of a discoverer and 
editor. But I shall be surprised if this Treatise do not at once take 
rank with its kindred one, on " the Religious Affections." There is 
in it, I think, the massive argumentation of his great work, on " The 
Will ; " but there is, in addition, a fineness of spiritual insight, a holy 
fervour not untinged with the pathetic "frenzy" of the English 
Mystics, as of Peter Sterry and Archbishop Leighton, and — especially 
toward the close — a rapturous exultation in the "excellency and 
loveliness " of God, a glow in iteration, of the wonder and beauty 
and blessedness of Divine Love, and a splendour of assertion of the 
CLAIMS, so to speak, of God the Holy Spirit, which it would be diflScult 
to over-estimate 

II. Annotations on the Bible. — I give an account of the copy 
of Holy Scripture whence these Annotations are drawn, in the Note 
prefixed to them. It is perhaps necessary to explain that not one of 
these has been hitherto printed. In the " Works" as supplemented 
by Mr Robert Ogle of Edinburgh,* there is a series of " Notes on the 
Bible," and in the ** Works" as now in circulation in America,f a few 
pages (seven in all) are occupied with " Observations upon Particular 

* This supplement is titled volume IX. and volume X. of the Works, intending 
thereby to range with Williams's edition in 8 vols, royal 8vo, and the American bel^w. 
The former contains, I. Notes on the Bible, (pp. 397 ;) and, II. Types of the Messiah. 
The latter, I. Miscellaneous Observations ; II. Seventeen Occasional Sermons. Those 
who have Williams's edition ought to possess themselves of these ; and those also who 
have the American edition, inasmuch as none of their contents are in the one, and 
only a comparatively small part in the other. Messrs Ogle & Murray, South Bridge, 
Edinburgh, are the present publishers, and few copies remain. 

t 4 vols. 8vo, vol. iii. pp. 547-553. See footnote at end of this Introduction. 


Passages of Scripture," the former omitting the latter, and the latter, 
strange to say, omitting the former, as well as other equally important 
portions of Edwards's writings. But the present is a wholly independ- 
ent aeries, — ^the old Bible having been in the possession of one of 
the grandchildren until the general committing of all in 1849-50 to 
Dr Tryon Edwards, as stated ante. In the " Notes on the Bible " 
mentioned above, there are various references to " the Blank Bible," 
which were not understood, but now are, in the light of our recovery 
of the present Annotations. 

Students of Edwards have always prized "above rubies" the 
"Notes" and "Observations" already extant; and I run no great 
hazard in anticipating that those now for the first time printed, will 
be equally valued. They seem to us to be of a more richly experi- 
mental character than the others, while there is the same acumen, 
quickness in discernment of Scriptural harmonies and parallelisms, 
soundness of interpretation of difficulties, happy accommodation, 
sweetness and tenderness of enforcement, overshadowed at times with 
solenm appeal, and rare ingenuity of " improvement," — as the Puritans 
were wont to call it 


come upon this searching and very precious MS. since the issuing of 
my Proposals. It evidently formed the author's guide in his test- 
conversations with enquirers during the great Awakenings or Re- 
vivals. This — as well as eight instead of two sermons — is substi- 
tuted for specimens of the original MS. of the treatise on " The Will," 
as explained onwards. 

rv. Sermons. — As stated, the great mass of the Edwards's MSS. 
consists of his " Sermons." From among these a noble volume might 
be gathered, that is, of fully written out and magnificent Discourses : 
and another of equal weight and value, consisting of select passages 
from those less perfect, and, as a whole, of ordinary type, together with 
what clerics know as "skeletons" or "sketches," — many of them, as 
No. 2 of our selection wiU shew, mammoth-boned. I have given eight 
Sermons : Nos. 3 and 4, 5 and 6, and 7 and 8, consisting of two Ser- 
mons in each case from one text — in place of Uuo Sketch-sermons only, 
as originally designed and announced — to illustrate the usual style of 
preparation by Jonathan Edwards for the pulpit. No. 1 is the more 
frequent example of his preparations ; No 2 is fuller, and is peculiarly 
interesting, as being one of those delivered to the Indians of Stock- 


bridge ; Nos. 3 and 4 are still fuller ; Nos. 5 and G yet more so ; and 
Nos. 7 and 8 elaborate, but, as will be seen, not filled up, so far as the 
wording goes. I have selected the last, as being on a difficult pas- 
sage, — which is at once assumed to mean that which strikes our com- 
mon sense as its only meaning, — and because it furnishes us with a 
well-nigh awsome specimen of the purged and Dantesque style of 
Edwards's grandest preaching, as well as, in its final " Applications ** 
and " Directions," of his unexpected, and pungent, and penetrating 
rebukes of prevalent sin. It should make a fine picture to call up the 
scene of the great Preacher delivering the sennon on " The Word of 
God " to the swarthy Indians, in what was then the outskirts of civil- 
isation, though, as we can testify, a finer landscape now is nowhere 
to be seen ; nor found, a more winsome or kindly Community. 

The common notion is that Edwards was what is called a " Reader" 
of his Sermons. Never was anything more untnie. Having gone over 
every page, line, and word that the great Preacher has left behind 
him, as preserved by Dr Tryon Edwards, I beg to state that the ex- 
ception is to find a fully written-out Sermon. On great occasions^ 
and during " The Revivals," he evidently prepared with fulness and 
verbal accuracy : and the tradition is that the most extraordinary of 
all his sermons, — perhaps the most extraordinary that ever has fallen 
from uninspired lips, find not less so in its momentous results, — " Sin- 
ners in the Hands of an Angry God," was read very closely, amid such 
a hush of awe and silent dropping of tears as we conceive of at the 
base of Sinai*s flaming peaks, and as still thrill in the recollection of 
descendants of the hearers in New England. But his MSS. shew, beyond 
all gainsaying, that his rule — in the proportion of 95 to 100 — was to 
jot down the leading thoughts and illustrations, and trust to the sug- 
gestions of the moment for the recall of previous study, and medita- 
tion, and prayer, and for the language. 

Let not, then, the great name of Jonathan Edwards be adduced 
in support of the practice of invariably " reading" Sermons ; a prac- 
tice that, except in rare instances, quenches all real eloquence, breaks 
the spell of influence, unlooses the links of the electric chain that 
ought to bind a speaker and his audience and pass and repass thriUs 
of feeling, and, above all, leads to frauds of the most damaging and 
perilous sort. 

Our facsimile will shew the thing better than any words. Such 
" Notes," be it kept in mind, compose the great mass of Edwards's 
ordinary and habitual preparations. 


V. Letters. — I have not printed any of Edwards's " Letters," re- 
serving those obtained, and others expected, for his " Life," one day 
to be written ; and than which few comparable have been lived, I 
possess already priceless and hitherto unknown materials for a 
worthy Biography. 

Finally : I had intended adding specimens, with facsimiles, of the 
original Manuscripts of the treatise on " The Will ;*' but a critical ex- 
amination of the MSS. has revealed such valuable unpublished mate- 
rials, sucli remarkable uncoverings of the processes of that master- 
book, such suggestive studies, and such jottings-down, at the moment, 
of profound thinking and speculation, under the heading of " The 
Mind," as should far exceed our limits. It is possible that I may 
prepare an edition of the Treatise, embracing these Studies and 
Preparations. If so, the friends into whose hands I now place this 
present volume may expect to hear of it. 

It only remains to add, that the several MSS. of our Selections are 
given with scrupulous accuracy. Sometimes a word has been 
dropped, and I have inserted it ; but invariably within brackets [ ]. 
I have adhered to the contractions of the age, — e.g., "'tis" for 
"it is," "don't" for '*do not," "'em" for "them,"&c.; because we 
have herein a characteristic which is noticeable in the history of 
language and literature. Sometimes I would fain have corrected, 
what is now regarded as an ungrammatical construction, a clumsy 
phrase ; but that had been to import into the eighteenth, rules of the 
nineteenth century. Another has said, " Edwards's style, like Butler's, 
is very much that of a man thinking aloud ; yet, in both these 
authors, the train of thinking in their own minds is more clearly 
exhibited to us than, perhaps, by any other author, whilst they shew 
us, with great truth and distinctness, what their notions are, and how 
they came by them, with very little concern about the form of expres- 
sion in which they are conveyed. "* 

This Volume is printed uniform in size with, by far the best 
edition extant of, the "Works," — viz., that by Williams, and the 
supplementary volumes by Ogle. Its broad margins will also admit 
of its cutting down to range with the American edition,-!* which, spite 
of its singularly careless omissions and now worn stereotypes, has 

* Encyc. Brit., as before. 

t New York, 4 volumes 8vo., with double indices, 8th edition, 1851 : now the 
property, it is believed, of the Messrs Carter, Broadway, who have done more for the 
higher Uieological literature of America, than, perhaps, any other American publishers. 
As a Scotchman, it may be allowed me to congratulate my " brither Scots," on the 
honourable position they have honourably won for themselves. 


advantages over the others in its full Indices, and is, indeed, the only 
one, (save the somewhat inconvenient two huge volumes bearing the 
imprint of Bohn,) in print '* Charity and its Fruits," noticed ante, 
is unfortunately a small 8vo. 

Alexander B. Grosart. 

l8T MaNSK, 

Kinross, Decetnber 26th, 1804. 


See Introduction I., page 12.— O. 





Such phrases as conimon grace, and special or saving grace, may 
be understood as signifying either diverse kinds of influence of God's 
Spirit on the hearts of men, or diverse fruits and effects of that in- 
fluence. The Spirit of God is supposed sometimes to have some 
influence upon the minds of men that are not true Christians, and 
[it is supposed] that those dispositions, frames, and exercises of their 
minds that are of a good tendency, but are common to them with 
the saints, are in some respect owing to some influence or assistance 
of God's Spirit. But as there are some things in the hearts of true 
Christians that are peculiar to them, and that are more excellent than 
any thing that is to be found in others, so it is supposed that there 
is an operation of the Spirit of God different, and that the value 
which distinguishes them is owing to a higher influence and assist- 
ance than the virtues of others. So that sometimes the phrase, com- 
man grace, is used to signify that kind of action or influence of the 
Spirit of God, to which are owing those religious or moral attain- 
ments that are common to both saints and sinners, and so signifies 
as much as common assistance ; and sometimes those moral or reli- 
gious attainments themselves that are the fruits of this assistance, are 
intended. So likewise the phrase, special or saving gi-ace, is some- 
times used to signify that peculiar kind or degree of operation or 
influence of God's Spirit, whence saving actions and attainments do 
arise in the godly, or, which is the same thing, special and saving as- 
sistance; or else to signify that distinguishing saving virtue itself, 
which is the fruit of this assistance. These phrases are more frequently 
understood in the latter sense, viz., not for common and special assist- 
ance, but for common and special, or saving virtue, which is the fruit 
of that assistance, and so I would be understood by these phrases in 
this discourse. 
"* And that special or saving grace in this sense is not only different 


from common grace in degree, but entirely diverse in nature and 
kind, and that natural men not only have not a sufficient degree of 
virtue to be saints, but that they have no degi*ee of that grace that is 
in godly men, is what I have now to shew. 

1. This is evident by what Chinst says in John iii. 6, where Christ, 
speaking of Regeneration, says — " That which is born of the flesh is 
flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. ' Now, whatever 
Christ intends by the terms flesh and spirit in the words, yet this 
much is manifested and undeniable, that Christ here intends to shew 
Nicodemus the* necessity of a new birth, or anotlier birth than his 
natural birth, and that, from this argument, that a man that has been 
the subject only of the first birth, has nothing of that in his heart 
which he must have in order to enter into the kingdom. He has 
nothing at all of that which Christ calls spirit, whatever that be. 
All that a man [lias] that has been the subject only of a natural birth 
don't go beyond that which Christ calls flesh, for however it may be 
refined and exalted, yet it cannot be raised above flesh. 'Tis plain, 
that by flesh and spirit, Christ here intends two things entirely 
different in nature, which cannot be one from the other. A man 
cannot have anything of a nature superior to flesh that is not born 
again, and therefore we must be " born again." That by flesh and spirit 
are intended certain moral principles, natures, or qualities, entirely 
different and opposite in their nature one to another, is manifest from 
other texts, as particularly: Gal. v. 17 — " For the flesh lusteth against 
the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh : and they are contrary the 
one to the other ; so that ye cannot do the things which ye would ; " 
Ver. 19, " Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these : 
Adultery, fornication," &c. Ver. 22 — " But the fruit of the Spirit is 
love, joy, peace," &c. ; and by Gal. vL 8 — " For he that soweth to 
the flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption : but he that^soweth to the 
Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting." Rom. viii. 6-9 — 
" For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is 
life and peace," &c. 1 Cor. iil 1 — " And I, brethren, could not speak 
unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even,as unto babes in 
Christ." So that it is manifest by this, that men that have been the 
subjects only of the first birth, have no degree of that moral principle 
or quality that those that are new born have, whereby they have a 
title to the kingdom of heaven. This principle or quality comes out 
then no otherwise than by birth, and the birth that it must come by 
is not, cannot be, the first birth, but it must be a new birth. If men 
that have no title to the kingdom of heaven, could have something 
of the Spirit, as well as flesh, then Christ's argument would be false. 
It is plain, by Christ's reasoning, that those that are not in a state of 
salvation, cannot have these two opposite principles in their hearts 
together, some flesh and some spirit, lusting one against the other as 
the godly have, but that they have flesh only. 

2. Thai the only principle in those t/iat are savingly converted, 
whence gracious acts flow, which in the language of Scripture is called 
the SpiHt, and set in opposition to the flesh, is that which oth^s w* 






only have not a sujficient degree of, but have nothing at all of, is fur- 
ther manifest, because the Scripture asserts both negatively, that those 
that have not the Spirit are not Christ* s. Eoin. viii. 9 — *' But ye are 
not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God 
dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is 
none of His ;" and also [positively] that tliose that have the Spirit 
are His. 1 John iii. 24i—** Hereby we know that he abideth in us by 
the Spirit which he hath given us." And our having the Spirit of 
God dwelling in our hearts is mentioned as a certain sign that persons 
are entitled to heaven, and is called the earnest of the future inheri- 
tance, (2 Cor. L 22, and v. 5, Eph. i 14? ;) which it would not be if 
others that had no title to the inheritance might have some of it 
dwelling in them. 

Yea, that those that are not true saints have nothing of the Spirit, 
no part nor portion of it, is still more evident, because not only a hav- 
ing any particular motion of the Spirit, but a being of the Spirit is 
given as a sure sign of being in Christ. 1 John iv. 13 — " Hereby 
know we that we dwell in Him, and He in us, because He hath given us 
of His Spirit** If those that are not true saints have any degree of 
that spiritual principle, then though they have not so much, yet they 
have ofiti and so that would be no sign that a person is in Christ 
If those that have not a saving interest in Christ have nothing of the 
Spirit, then they have nothing ; no degree of those graces that are 
the fruits of the Spirit, mentioned in GaL v. 22 — " But the fruit of 
the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 
meekness, temperance.'* Those fruits are here mentioned with that 
very design, that we may know whether we have the Spirit or no. 

3. Those that are not true saints, and in a state of salvation, not 
only have not so much of that holy nature and Divine principle that 
is in the hearts of the saints, but they do not partake of it, because 
a being ''partakers of the Divine nature** is spoken of as the peculiar 
privilege of true saints, (2 Pet. i. 4.) It is evident that it is the true 
saints that the Apostle is there speaking o£ The words in this verse 
with the foregoing are these : " Accordiug as his Divine power hath 
given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the 
knowledge of Him that hath called us to glory and virtue ; whereby 
are given to us exceeding great and precious promises ; that by these 
ye might be pai takers of the Divine nature ; having escaped the cor- 
ruption that is in the world through lust." The " Divine nature" and 
" lust" are evidently here spoken of as two opposite principles in 
man. Those that are in the world, and that are the men of the 
world, have only the latter principle; but to be partakers of the 
Divine nature is spoken of as peculiar to them that are distinguished 
and separated from the world, by the free and sovefeign grace of 
God giving them all things that pertain to life and godliness, giving 
the knowledge of Him and calling them to glory and virtue, and giv- 
ing them the exceeding great and precious promises of the gospel, 
and that have escaped the corruption of the world of wicked men. 
And a being partakers of the Divine nature is spoken of, not only 


as peculiar to the saints, but as one of the highest privileges of the 

4. That those that have not a saving interest in Christ have no 
degree of tJuit relish and sense of spiritxud things or things of the 
Spirit, oftlieir Divine truth and excellency, which a true saint has, 
is evident by 1 Cor. ii. 14? — "The natural man receiveth not the 
tilings of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him, neither 
can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned" A natu- 
ral man is here set in opposition to a spiritual one, or one that has 
the Spirit, as appears by the foregoing and following verses. Such 
we have shewn already the Scripture declares all true saints to be, 
and no other. Therefore by natural men are meant those that have 
not the Spirit of Christ and are none of His, and are the subjects of 
no other than the natural birth. But here we are plainly taught that 
a natural man is perfectly destitute of any sense, perception, or dis- 
cerning of those things of the Spirit. [We are taught that] by the 
words "he neither does nor can know them, or discern them ;'* so far 
from this they are "foolishness unto him ;" he is a perfect stranger, 
so that he does not know what the talk of such things means ; they are 
words without a meaning to him ; he knows nothing of the matter 
any more than a blind man of colours. 

Hence it will follow, that the sense of things of religion that a 
natural man has, is not only not to the same degree, but nothing of 
the same nature with that which a true saint has. And besides, if a 
natural person has the fruit of the Spirit, which is of the same kind 
with what a spiritual person has, then he experiences within himself 
the things of the Spirit of God ; and how then can he be said to be 
such a stranger to them, and have no perception or discerning of 
them ? 

The reason why natural men have no knowledge of spiritual things 
is, because they have nothing of the Spirit of God dwelling in them. 
This is evident by the context : for there we are told that it is by 
the Spirit that these things are taught, (verses 10-12;) and godly 
persons in the next verse are called spiritual, because they have the 
Spirit dwelling in them. Hereby the sense again is confirmed, for 
natural men are in no degree si)iritual ; they have only nature and 
no Spirit. If they had anything of the Spirit, though not in so great 
a degree as the godly, yet they would be taught spiritual things, or 
things of the Spirit, in proportion to the measure of the Spirit that 
they had. The Spirit that searcheth all things would teach them in 
some measure. There would not be so great a difference that the 
one could perceive nothing of them, and that they should be foolish- 
ness to them, while to the other they appear divinely and remarkably 
wise and excellent, as they are spoken of in the context, (verses 6-9,) 
and as such the apostle spoke here of discerning them. 

The reason why natural men have no knowledge or perception of 
spiritual things is, because they have none of the anointing spoken 
of, (1 John ii. 27 :) " The anointing which ye have received of Him, 
abideth in you, and you need not that any man teach you." This 


anointing is evidently spoken of here, as a thing pecnliar to true 
saints. Ungodly men never had any degree of that holy oil poured 
upon them, and therefore have no discerning of spiritual things. 
Therefore none of that sense that natural men have of things of re- 
ligion, is of the same nature with what the godly have. But to these 
they are totally blind. Therefore in conversion the eyes of the blind 
are opened. The world is wholly unacquainted with the Spirit of 
God, as appears by John xiv. 17, where we read about " the Spirit of 
truth whom the world cannot receive, because it knoweth Him not" 

5. Those tlmt go for those in religion tliat are not true saints and 
in a state of salvation have no charity, as is plainly implied in the 
beginning of the XIII.*^ chapter' of the 1st Epistle to the Corinthians, 
Therefore they have no degree of that kind of grace, disposition, or 
affection, that is so called. So Christ elsewhere reproves the Phari- 
sees, those high pretenders to religion among the Jews, that they had 
not the love of God in them, (John v. 42.) 

6. That tliose that are not true saints have no degree of that 
grace that the saints have is evident^ because they have no connnunion 
or fellowship with Christ. If those that are not true saints partake 
of any of that Spirit, those holy inclinations and affections, and graci- 
ous acts of soul that the godly have from the indwelling of the Spirit 
of Christ, then they would have communion with Christ. The com- 
munion of saints with Christ does certainly very much consist in that 
receiving of His fulness and partaking of His grace spoken of, John 
L 16 — " Of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace ;" 
and in partaking of that Spirit which God gives not by measure unto 
Him. Partaking of Christ's holiness and grace, His nature, inclina- 
tions, tendencies, love, and desires, comforts and delights, must be to 
have communion with Christ. Yea, a believer's communion with 
the Father and the Son does mainly consist in his partaking of the 
Holy Ghost, as appears by 2 Cor. xiiL 14 — " The grace of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy 

But that unbelievers have no fellowship or communion with Christ 
appears, (1.) because they are not united to Christ. They are not in 
Christ. For the Scripture is very plain and evident in this, that those 
that are in Christ are actually in a state of salvation, and are justified, 
sanctified, accepted of Christ, and shall be saved. Phil. iiL 8, 9 — 
" Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of 
the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord : for whom I have sufiered 
the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win 
Christ, and be found in Him** 2 Cor. v. 17 — " If any man be in 
Christ, he is a new creature : old things are pasi?ed away ; behold, all 
things are become new." 1 John il 5 — '' But whoso keepeth His 
word, in him verily is the love of God perfected : hereby know we 
/' that we are in Him;'* and iii. 24 — " He that keepeth His command- 

ments dwelleth in Him, and He in him : and hereby we know that He 
abideth in us, by the Spirit which He hath given us." But those that 
r. are not in Christ, and are not united to Him, can have no degree of 


communion with Him. For there is no communion without union. 
The members can have no communion with the head or participation 
of its life and health unless they are united to it. The branch must 
be united with the vine, otherwise there can be no commiuiication 
from the vine to it, nor any partaking of any degree of its sap, or life, 
or influence. So without the union of the wife to the husband, she 
can have no communion in his goods. (2.) The Scripture does more 
directly teach that it is only true saints that have communion with 
Christ, as particularly this is most evidently spoken of as what belongs 
to the saints, and to them only, in 1 John i. 3, together with verses 
6, 7 — " That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that 
ye also may have fellowship with us : and truly our fellowship is with 
the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ." Ver. 6 — " If we say that 
we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not 
the truth : but if we walk in the light, as He is in the light, we have 
fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son 
cleanseth us from all sin." Also in 1 Cor. L 9 — " God is faithful, by 
whom ye were called unto the fellowship of His Son Christ Jesus our 

7. The Scripture speaks of the actual being of a truly holy and 
gracious principle in the heart, as inconsistent tvith a mans being a 
sinner or a wicked nian, 1 John iii. 9 — " Whosoever is bom of God 
doth not commit sin ; for his seed remaineth in him : and he cannot 
sin, because he is born of God." Here it is needless to dispute what 
is intended by this seed, whether it be a principle of true virtue and 
a holy nature in the soul, or whether it be the word of God as the 
cause of that virtue. For let us understand it in either sense, it comes 
to much the same thing in the present argument ; for if by the seed 
is meant the word of God, yet when it is spoken of as abiding in him 
that is bom again, it must be intended, with respect to its effect, as 
a holy principle in his heart : for the word of God does not abide in 
one that is bom again more than another, any other way than in its 
effect. The word of God abides in the heart of a regenerate person 
as a holy seed, a Divine principle there, though it may be but as a 
seed, a small thing. The seed is a very small part of the plant, and 
is its first principle. It may be in the heart as a grain of mustard- 
seed, may be hid, and seem to be in a great measure buried in the 
earth. But yet it is inconsistent with wickedness. The smallest de- 
grees and first principles of a Divine and holy nature and disposition 
are inconsistent with a state of sin ; whence it is said " he cannot sin." 
There is no need here of a critical inquiry into the import of that 
expression ; for doubtless so much at least is implied through this, 
" his seed being in him," as is inconsistent with his beinir a sinner or 

a wicked man. So that this heavenly plant of true holiness cannot \ 
be in the heart of a sinner, no, not so much as in its fiist principle. '^ 

8. This is confirmed by the things that conversion is repre- ^ 
sented by in the tScriptures, jmrticularly its being represented as a 
work of creation. When God creates He does not merely establisli 
and perfect the things which were made before, but makes wholly and 



immediately something entirely new, either oat of nothing, or out of 
that which was perfectly void of any such nature, as when He made 
luan of the dust of the earth. " The things that are seen are not made 
of things that do appear." Saving grace in man is said to be the new 
man or a new creature, and corrupt nature the old man. If that 
nature that is in the heart of a godly man be not different in its nature 
and kind from all that went before, then the man might possibly have 
had the same things a year before, and from time to time from the 
beginning of his life, but only not quite to the same degree. And 
how then is grace in him, the new man or the new creature ? 

Again, conversion is often compared to a resurrection. Wicked 
men are said to be dead, but when they are converted they are 
represented as being by God's mighty and effectual power raised 
from the dead. Now there is no medium between being dead and 
alive. He that is dead has no degree of life ; he that has the least 
degree of life in him is alive. When a man is raised from the dead, 
life is not only in a greater degiee, but it is all new. 

The same is manifest by conversion being represented as a new 
birth or as regeneration. Generation is not only perfecting what is 
old, but 'tis a begetting from the new. The nature and life that 
is then received has then its beginning : it receives it^ first prin- 

Again, conversion in Scripture is represented as an opening of tlie 
eyes of the blind. In such a work those have light given them that 
were totally destitute of it before. So in conversion, stones are said 
to be raised up children to Abraham : while stones they are alto- 
gether destitute of all those qualities that afterwards render them 
the living children of Abraham, and not only had them not in 
so great a degree. Agreeably to this, conversion is said to be a 
taking away a heart of stone and a giving a heart of flesh. The 
man while unconverted has a heart of stone which has no degree of 
that life and sense that the heart of flesh has, because it yet remains 
a stone, than which nothing is further from life and sense. 

Inference 1. — From what has been said, I would observe that it 
must needs he that conversion is vrrought at once. That knowledge, 
that reformation and conviction that is preparatory to conversion 
may be gradual, and the work of grace after conversion may be 
gradually carried on, yet that work of grace upon the soul whereby a 
person is brought out of a state of total corruption and depravity 
into a state of grace, to an interest in Christ, and to be actually a 
child of God, is in a moment. 

It must needs be the consequence ; for if that grace or virtue that 
a person has when he is brought into a state of grace be entirely 
different in nature and kind from all that went before, then it will 
follow that the last instant before a person is actually a child of God 
and in a state of grace, a person has not the least degree of any real 
goodness and of that true virtue that is in a child of God. 

Those things by which conversion is represented in Scripture hold 
forth the same thing. In creation something is brought out of no- 


thing in an instant. God speaks and it is done, He commands and 
it stands fast. When the dead are raised, it is done in a moment. 
Thus when Christ called Lazarus out of his grave, it was not a 
gradual work. He said, " Lazanis, come forth/' an<l there went life 
with the call. He heard His voice and lived. So Christ, John v. 25 — 
** Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, 
when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God : and they that 
hear shall live," — ^which words nmst be understood of the work of 
conversion. In creation, being is called out of nothing and instantly 
obeys the call, and in the resurrection the dead are called into life : 
as soon as the call is given the dea<l obey. 

By reason of this instantaneousness of the work of conversion, one 
of the names under which conversion is frequently spoken of in 
Scripture, is calling: Rom. viii. 28-30 — " And we know that all things 
work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the 
called according to His purpose. For whom He did foreknow. He also 
did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He 
might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom He 
did predestinate, them He also called : and whom He called, them He 
also justified : and whom He justified, them He also glorified." Acts 
il 37-39 — " Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their 
heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and 
brethren what shall we do ? Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and 
be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the re- 
mission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For 
the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar 
off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call." Heb. ix. 15, (last 
clause) — ** That they which are called might receive the promise of 
the eternal inheritance." 1 Thess. v. 23, 24 — " And the very God of 
peace sanctify you wholly. . . . Faithful is he that calleth you, who 
also will do it." Nothing else can be meant in those places by call- 
ing than what Christ does in a sinner's saving conversion. By which it 
seems evident that it is done at once and not gradually ; whereby 
Christ, through His great power, does but speak the powerful word 
and it is done. He does but call and the heart of the sinner immedi- 
ately comes. It seems to be symbolised by Christ's calling His dis- 
ciples, and their immediately following Him. So when he called Peter, 
Andrew, James, and John, they were minding other things ; but at 
His call they immediately left all and followed Him. Matt iv. 
18-22— Peter and Andrew were casting a net into the sea, and Christ 
says to them as He passed by, Follow me ; and it is said, they 
straightway left their nets and followed Him. So James and John 
were in the ship with Zebedee their father mending their nets, and 
He called them, and immediately they left the ship and their father 
and followed Him. So when Matthew was called : Matt. ix. 9 — " And 
as Jesus passed forth from thence, He saw a man, named Matthew, 
sitting at the receipt of custom : and He saith unto him. Follow me. 
And he arose and followed Him." Now whether they were then con- 
verted or not, yet doubtless Christ in thus calling His first disciples to 


a visible following of Him, represents to us the manner in which He 
would call men to be truly His disciples and spiritually to follow Him 
in all acres. There is something immediately and instantaneously put 
into their hearts at that call that they had nothing of before, that 
effectually disposes them to follow. 

It is very manifest that almost all the miracles of Christ that He 
wrought when on earth were types of His great work of converting 
sinners, and the manner of His working those miracles holds forth 
the instantaneousness of the work of conversion. Thus when He 
liealed the leper, which represented His healing us of our spiritual 
leprosy. He put forth His hand and touched him, and said, *' I will ; be 
thou clean." And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. Matt. viii. 
3 ; Mark i. 42 ; Luke v. 1 3. And so, in opening the eyes of the 
blind, which represents His opening the eyes of our blind souLs, (Matt. 
XX. 30, &c.,) He touched their eyes, and immediately their eyes re- 
ceived sight, and they followed Him. So Mark x. 52 ; Luke xviii. 
43. So when He healed the sick, which represents His healing our 
spiritual diseases, or conversion, it was done at once. Thus when He 
healed Simon's wife's mother, (Mark i. 31,) He took her by the hand 
and lifted her up ; and immediately the fever left her, and she minis- 
tered unto them. So when the woman which had the issue of blood 
touched the hem of Christ's garment, immediately the issue of blood 
stanched, (Luke viiL 44.) So the woman that was bowed to- 
gether with the spirit of infirmity, when Christ laid His hands upon 
her, immediately she was made straight, and glorified God, (Luke 
xiii. 12, 13;) which represents that action on the soul whereby He 
gives an upright heart, and sets the soul at liberty from its bondage 
to glorify Him. So the man at the pool of Bethesda, when Christ 
bade him rise, tike np his bed and walk, (he) was immediately made 
whole, (John v. 8, ) After the same manner Christ cast out devils, 
which represents His dispossessing the devil of our souls in conver- 
sion ; and so He settled the winds and waves, representing His sub- 
duing, in conversion, the heart of the wicked, which is like the 
troubled sea, when it Cimnot rest ; and so He raised the dead, which 
represented His raising dead souls. 

The same is confirmed by tliose things which conver.^jion is com- 
pared to in Scrif)ture. It is often compared to a resurrection. Na- 
tural men (as was said before) are said to be dead, and to be raised 
when they are converted by God's mighty effectual power from the 
dead. Now, there is no medium between being dead and alive ; he 
that is dead has no degree of life in huu, he that has the least degree 
of life in him is alive. When a man is raised from the dead, life is 
not only in a greater degree in him than it was before, but it is all 
new. The work of conversion seems to be compared to a raising the 
dead to life, in this very thing, even its instantaneousness, or its be- 
ing done, as it were, at a word's speaking. As in John v. 25, (before 
quoted) — '* Verily, verily, I say unto you, the hour is coming and now 
is when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they 
that hear shall live." He speaks here of a work of conversion, as 


appears by the preceding verse ; and by the words themselves, which 
speak of the tirae of tliis raising the dead, not only as to come here- 
after, but as what was already come. This shews conversion to be 
an immediate instantaneous work, like to the change made on La- 
zarus when Clirist called him from the grave : there went life with the 
call, and Lazarus was immediately aUve. Immediately before the , 
call sinners are dead or wholly destitute of life, as appears by the 
expression, " The dead shall hear the voice," and immediately after the 
call they are alive ; yea, there goes life with the word, as is evident, 
not only because it is said they shall live, but also because it is said, 
they shall hear His voice. The first moment they have any life is 
the moment when Christ calls, and as soon as they are called, which 
further appears by what was observed before, even that a being called 
and converted are spoken of in Scripture as the same thing. 

The same is confirmed (as observed before) from conversion being 
compared to a work of creation, which is a work wherein something 
is made either out of nothing, or out of that having no degree of the 
same kind of qualities and principles, as when God made man of the 
dust of the earth. Thus it is said, " If any man be in Christ he is 
a new creature ;" which obviously implies that he is an exceeding 
diverse kind of creature from what he was before he was in Christ, 
that the principle or qualities that he has by which he is a Christian, 
are entirely new, and what there was nothing of, before he was in 

Inference 2. Hence we may learn that it is impossible for men to 
convert themselves by their own strength and industry, with only a 
concurring assistance helping in the exercibc of their natural abilities 
and principles of the soul, and securing their improvement For 
what is gained after this manner is a gradual acquisition, and not 
something instantaneously begotten, and of an entirely different 
nature, and wholly of a separate kind, from all that was in the nature 
of the person the moment before. All that men can do by their 
own strength and industry is only gradually to increase and improve 
and new-model and direct qualities, principles, and perfections of 
nature that they have already. And that is evident, because a 
man in the exercise and improvement of the strength and principles 
of his own nature has nothing but the qualities, powers, and perfec- 
tions that are already in his nature to work with, and nothing but 
them to work upon ; and therefore 'tis impossible that by this only, 
anything further should be brought to pass, than only a new modifi- 
cation of what is already in the nature of the soul. That which is only 
by an improvement of natural qualities, principles, and perfections — 
let these things be improved never so much and never so industri- 
ously, and never so long, they'll still be no more than an improve- 
ment of those natural qualities, ])rinciples, and perfections; and 
therefore not anything of an essentially distinct and superior nature 
and kind. 

'Tis impossible (as Dr Clarke observes) " that any effect should 
have any perfection that was not in the cause : for if it had, then that 


perfection would be caused by nothing."* Tis therefore utterly im- 
possible that men's natural perfections and qualities in that exercise, 
and however assisted in that exercise, should produce in the soul a 
principle or perfection of a nature entirely different from all of them, 
or any manner of improvement or modificMion of them. 

The qualities and principles of natural bodies, such as figure or 
motion, can never produce anything beyond themselves. If infinite 
comprehensions and divisions be eternally made, the things must 
still be eternally the same, and all their possible effects can never be 
anything but repetitions of the same. Nothing can be produced by 
only those qualities of figure and motion, beyond figure and motion : 
and so nothing can be produced in the soul by only its internal prin- 
ciples, beyond these principles or qualities, or new improvements and 
modifications of them. And if we suppose a concurring assistance to 
enable to a more full and perfect exercise of those natural principles 
and qualities, unless the assistance or influence actually produces 
something beyond the exercise of internal principle : still, it is the 
same thing. Nothing will be produced but only an improvement and 
new modification of those principles that are exercised. Therefore it 
follows that saving grace in the heart, can't be produced in man by 
mere exercise of what perfections he has in him alre«ady, though never 
80 much assisted by moral suasion, and never so much assisted in the 
exercise of his natural principles, unless there be something more than 
all this, viz., an immediate infusion or operation of the Divine Being 
upon the soul. Gt^ce must be the immediate work of God, and pro- 
perly a production of His Almighty power on the soul. 

• The weU-known a priori argument of tliia eminent thinker, if somewhat uncer- 
tain divine, entitled " A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God." — G. 




The next thing that arises for consideration is, What is the nature of 
this Divine principle in the soul that is so entirely diverse from all 
that is natui-ally in the soul ? Here I would observe, — 

1. That that saving grace that is in the hearts of the saints, that 
within them [which is] above nature, and entirely distinguishes *em 
from all unconverted men, is radically but one — i.e., however various 
its exercises are, yet it is but one in its root; 'tis one individual prin- 
ciple in the heart 

'Tis common for us to speak of various graces of the Spirit of God 
as though they were so many different principles of holiness, and to 
call them by distinct names as such, — repentance, humility, resigna- 
tion, thankfuhiess, &c. But we err if we imagine that these in their 
first source and root in the heart are properly distinct principles. They 
all come from the same fountain, and are, indeed, the various exertions 
and conditions of the same thing; only different denominations accord- 
ing to the various occasions, objects, and manners, attendants and 
circumstances of its exercise. There is some one holy principle in 
the heart that is the essence and sum of all grace, the root and source 
of all holy acts of every kind, and the fountain of every good stream, 
into which all Christian virtues may ultimately be resolved, and in 
which all duty and [all] holiness is fulfilled. 

Thus the Scripture represents it. Grace in the soul is one foun- 
tain of water of life, (John iv. 14,) and not various distinct foun- 
tains. So God, in the work of Eegeneration, implants one heavenly 
seed in the soul, and not various different seeds. 1 John iii. 9 — 
" Whosoever is bom of God doth not commit sin ; for His seed re- 
maineth in him." . . . The Day [that] has arisen on the soul is but 
one. The oil in the vessel is simple and pure, conferred by one holy 
anointing. All is " wrought" by one individual work of the Spirit 
of God. And thus it is there is a consentanation * of graces. Not 
only is one grace in some way allied to another, and so tends to help 
and promote one another, but one is really implied in the other. The 
nature of one involves the nature of another. And the great reason 
of it is, that all graces have one common essence, the original prin- 
ciple of all, and is but one. Strip the various parts of the Christian 
soul of their circumstances, concomitants, appendages, means, and 

♦ Query, = harmony, i.e., from coDBeDtaneoiis ? — (i. 


occasions, and consider that which is, as it were, their soul and 
essence, and all ap{)ears to be the same. [I observe] 

2. That principle in the soul of the* saints, which is the grantl 
Christian virtue, and which is the soul and essence* and summary com- 
prehension of all grace, is a principle of Dimne Love. This is evident, 

(1.) Because we are abunaantly taught in the Scripture that Dimne 
lA>ve is Hie sum of all duty ; and that all that God requires of us is ful- 
filled in it, — i.e.. That Love is the sum of all duty of the heart, and 
its exercises and fruits the sum of all [the] duty of life. But if the 
duty of the heart, or all due dispositions of hearts, are all summed up 
in love, then undoubtedly all grace may be summed up in Love. 

The Scripture teaches us that all our duty is summed up in love ; 
or, which is the same thing, that 'tis the sum of all that is re- 
quiretl in the Law ; and that, whether we tiike the Law as signifying 
the Ten Commandments, or the whole written Word of God. So, 
when by the Law is meant the Ten Commandments : Kom. xiii. 8 — 
" Owe no man anything, but to love ime another : for he that loveth 
another hath fulfilled the law ;" and, therefore, several of these com- 
mandments are there rehearsed. And again, in ver. 10, " Love is the 
fulfilling of the Law." And unless love was the sum of what the Law 
required, the Law could not be fulfilled in Love. A law is not fid- 
filled but by obedience to the sum of what it contains. So the same 
Apostle again : 1 Tim. i. 5 — " Now the end of the commandment is 
charity" [love.] 

If we take the Law in a yet more extensive sense for the whole 
written Word of God, the Scripture still teaches us that Love is 
the sum of what is required in it. [Thus] Matt. xxii. 40. There 
Christ teaches us that on these two precepts of loving God and our 
neighbour hang all the Law and the IVophets, — that is, all the written 
Word of God. So that what was called the Law and the Prophets 
was the whole written Wonl of God that was then extant The 
Scripture teaches this of each table of the Law in particular. 

Thus, the Lawyer that we read of in the X."' chapter of Luke, vv. 
25-28, mentions the love of Goil and our neighbour as the sum of 
the two Tables of the Law ; and Clirist approves of what he says. 
When he stood u]) and tempte<l Christ with this question, " Master, 
what shall I do to inlierit eternal life ? '* Christ asks him what was 
required of him '* in the Law?" He makes answer, " Thou shalt love 
the Lord thy God with all tliy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all 
thy strength, and witii all thy mind, and thy neighbour as thyself;" and 
Christ replies, " Thou hast answered right ; this do, and thou shalt live ;" 
as much as to say, " Do this, then thou hast fulfilled the whole Law." 

So in Matthew xxii., vv. 86-^8, that commandment, '* Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thy mind," is given by Christ himself as the sum of the first 
Table of the Law, in answer to the question of the Lawyer, who 
aN-keil Him, ** Which is the great commandment of the Law?" And 
in the next verse, loving our neighbours as ourselves is mentioned as 
the sum of the second Table, as it is also in Romans xiii. 0, where most 


of the precepts of the second Table are rehearsed over in particular : 
" For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou 
shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not 
covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly compre- 
prehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as 

The Apostle James seems to teach the same thing. James ii. 8 — 
" If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture. Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well.'* 

Thus frequent, express, and particular is the Scripture in teaching 
us that all duty is comprehended in Love. The Scripture teaches 
us, in like manner, of nothing else. This is quite another thing than 
if Religion in general had only sometimes gone under the name of 
the Love of God, as it sometimes goes by the name of the fearing 
of God, and sometimes the knowledge of God, and sometimes feeling 
of God. 

This argument does fully and irrefragably prove that all grace, and 
every Christian disposition and habit of mind and heart, especially as 
to that which is primarily holy and Divine in it, does summarily con- 
sist in Divine Love, and may be resolved into it : however, with 
respect to its kinds and manner of exercise and its appendages, it 
may be diversified. For certainly there is no duty of heart, or due 
disposition of mind, but what is included in the '* Law and the Pro- 
phets," and is required by some precept of that Law and rule which 
He has given mankind to walk by. But yet the Scripture aflfords 
us other evidences of the truth of this. 

(2.) The Apostle speaks of Divine Love as that which is tlie 
essence of all Christianity in the XIII.^ chapter of [the"] \st [Epistle 
to the] Corinthians. There the Apostle evidently means a compari- 
son between the gifts of the Spirit and the grace of the Spirit. In 
the foregoing chapter the Apostle had been speaking of the gifts of 
the Spirit throughout, such as the gift of wisdom, the gift of know- 
ledge, the gift of faith, the gift of healing or working miracles, pro- 
phecy, discerning spirits, speaking with tongues, &c. ; and in the last 
verse in the chapter he exhorts the Corinthians to " covet earnestly 
the best gifts;" but adds, "and yet I shew you a more excellent 
way," and so proceeds to discourse of the saving grace of the Spirit 
under the name of arydTn), love, and to compare this saving grace in 
the heart with those gifts. Now, 'tis manifest that the comparison is 
between the gifts of the Spirit that were common to both saints and 
sinners, and that saving grace that distinguishes true saints; and,' 
therefore, charity or love is here understood by Divines as intending 
the same thing as sincere grace of heart. 

By love or charity here there is no reason to understand the Apostle 
[as speaking] only of love to men, but that principle of Divine Love 
that is in the heart of the saints in the full extent, which primarily 
has God for its object. For there is no reason to think that the 
Apostle doesn't mean the same thing by charity here as he does in 
the VIII."* chapter of the same Epistle, where he is comparing the 


same two things together, knowledi^e an<l charity, as he does here. 
But there he explains himself to mean by charity tlie love of God : 
[?erses 1-3] — " Now, as touching things offei*ed unto idols, we know 
that we all have knowledge. Knowledge putfeth uj), but charity e<li- 
fieth. And if any man think that he knoweth anything, he knoweth 
nothing yet as he ought to know. Rut if any man love God, the 
same is known of Him," &c* 

Tis manifest that Love or charity is here (chap, xiii.) spoken of as 
the veiy essence of all Christianity, and is the very thing wherein a 
gracious sincerity consists. For the Apostle speaks of it as the most 
excellent, the most necessary, and essential thing of all, without which 
all that makes the greatest, and fairest, and most glittering show in 
Bellgion is nothing — ^without which, " if we speak with the tonjrues 
of men and angels, we are become as sounding bniss and tinkling 
cymbals" — and without which, though we have " the gift of prophecy, 
and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and have all faith, so 
that we could remove mountains, and should bestow all our goods to 
feed the poor, and even give our bo<lies to be burneil, we are nothing." 
Therefore, how can we understand the Apostle any otherwise than that 
this is the very thing whereof the essence of all consists ; and that 
he means the same by charity as a gracious charity, as indeed it is 
generally understood. If a man does all these things here spoken, 
makes such glorious prophecies, has such knowledge, such faith, ami 
speaks so excellently, and performs such excellent external acts, and 
does such great things in religion as giving all his goods to the poor 
and giving his body to be burned, what is wanting but one thing ? 
The very quintessence of all Religion, the very thing wherein lies 
summarily the sincerity, spirituality, and divinity of Religion. And 
that, the Apostle teaches us, is Love. 

And further, 'tis manifestly the Apostle's drift to shew how this 
excellent principle does radically comprehend all that is good. For 
he goes on to shew how all essences of good and excellent disi)osition8 
and exercises, both towards God and towards man, are virtually con- 
tained and will flow from this one principle : " Love suffereth long, 
and is kind, envieth not, . . . endureth all things," <S:c. The wonis 
of this last verse especially respects duties to God, as the former did 
duties to men, as I would shew more particularly afterwards.^ 

• The paragraph commenciDg, " In love or charity," down to this, is an after- 
iosertion. — G. 

t In the MS. on this page there is placed a passage within brackets, which it is 
deemed better to rema\'e to a footnote, as interrupting the general argument and line 
of illustration :— 

•*nore it may bo noted, by the way, that by charity 'believing all things, hop- 
ing all things,' the Apostle has undoubtedly respect to the same faith and ho|)e tliat 
in other parts of the chapter are mentioned together and comj Mired with cliarity, 
[as I think might be sufficiently made manifest, if it were proper here to spend time 
upon it] And not believing and hoping, in the case of our neighbour, which the 
Apostle had spoken of before, in the last words of verse 5th, and had plainly summed 
up all parts of charity towards our neighbour in the 6th verse. And then in this 
verse the Apostle proceeds to mention other exercises or fruits of charity quite of 
another kind — viz., patience under suffering, faith and hope, and perseverance." The 
cla\ise placed within [ ] is deleted in the MS. — O. 



Thus the Apostle don't only represent love or charity as the most 
excellent thing in Christianity, and as the quintessence, life and soul 
of all Eeligion, but as that which virtually comprehends all holy 
virtues and exercises. And because Love is the quintessence and 
soul of all grace, wherein the divinity and holiness of all that belongs 
to charity does properly and essentially consist ; therefore, when 
Christians come to be in their most perfect state, and the Divine 
nature in them shall be in its greatest exaltation and purity, and be 
free from all mixtures, stripped of these appurtenances and that 
clothing that it has in the present state ; and [when] it shall lose many 
other of its denominations, especially from the peculiar manner and 
exercises accommodated to the imperfect circumstances of the present 
state, they will be what will remain. All other names will be swal- 
lowed up in the name of charity or love, as the Apostle, agreeably to 
his chapter on this, (1 Cor. chap. xiiL,) observes in verses 8-10 — 
" Charity never faileth. . . . But when that which is perfect is come, 
then that which is in part shall be done away.'* And, therefore, when 
the Apostle, in the last verse, speaks of charity as the greatest grace, 
we may well understand him in the same sense as when Christ speaks 
of the command to love God, &c., as the greatest commandment — 
viz., that among the graces, that is the source and sum of all graces, 
as that commanded is spoken of as the sum of all commands, and 
requiring that duty which is the ground of all other duties. 

It must be because Charity is the quintessence and soul of all duty 
and all good in the heart that the Apostle says that it is " the end of 
the commandment," for doubtless the main end of the commandment 
is to promote that which is most essential in Religion and consti- 
tuent of holiness. 

3. Reason hears witness to the same thing, 

(1 .) Reason testifies that Divine Love is so essential in Religion that 
all Religion is hut hypocrisy and a " vain show " without it What 
is Religion but the exercise and expressions of regard to the Divine 
Being ? But certainly if there be no love to Him, there is no sincere 
regard to Him ; and all pretences and show of respect to Him, whether 
it be in word or deed, must be hypocrisy, and of no value in the eyes 
of Him who sees the heart How manifest is it that without love 
there can be no true honour, no sincere praise ! And how can obedi- 
ence be hearty, if it be not a testimony of respect to God ? The fear 
of God without love is no other than the fear of devils ; and all that 
outward respect and obedience, all that resignation, that repentance 
and sorrow for sin, that form in religion, that outward devotion that 
is performed merely from such a fear without love, is all of it a 
practical lie, as in Psalm Ixvi. 3 — " . . . How terrible art Thou in 
Thy works ! through the greatness of Thy power shall Thine enemies 
submit themselves unto Thee." In the original it is " shall Thine 
enemies lie unto Thee " — i.e., shall yield a feigned or lying obedience 
and respect to Thee, when still they remain enemies in their hearts. 
There is never a devil in hell but what would perform all that many 
a man [has] performed in religion, that had no love to God ; and a 


great deal more if they were in like circumstances and the like hope 
of gain by it, and be as much of a devil in his heart as he is now. 
The Devil once seemed to be religious from fear of torment : Luke 
viil 28 — '* When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before 
Him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with Thee, Jesus, 
Thou Son of Gkxi Most High ? I beseech Thee, torment me not" 
Here is external worship. The Devil is relic^ous; he prays — he 
prays in a humble posture; he falls down before Christ, he lies 
prostrate ; he prays earnestly, he cries with a loud voice ; he uses 
bumble expressions — " I beseech Thee, torment me not ;" he uses 
respectful, honourable, adoring expressions — "Jesus, Thou Son of 
God Most High." Nothing was wanting but Lovk. 

And with respect to duties towards men, no good offices would be 
accepted by men one from another, if they saw the heart, and knew 
they did not proceed from any respect in the heart. If a child carry 
it very respectfully to his father, either from a strong fear, or from 
hope of having the larger inheritance when his father is dead, or from 
the like consideration, and not at all from any respect to his father 
in his heart ; if the child's heart were open to the view of his father, 
and he plainly knew that there was no real regard to him, Would the 
child's outward honour and obedience be acceptable to the parent ? 
So if a wife should carry it very well to her husband, and not at all 
from any love to him, but from other considerations plainly seen, and 
certainly known by the Inisband, Would he at all delight in her out- 
ward respect any more than if a wooden image were contrived to 
make respectful motions in his presence ? 

If duties towards men are [to be] accepted of God as a part of 
Religion and the service of the Divine Being, they must be perfonned 
not only with a hearty love to men, but that love must flow from 
regard to Him. 

(2.) Reason shews that all good dispositions and duties are wholly 
comprehended in, and tvill flow from, Divine Love, Love to God 
and men implies all proper respect or regard to God and men ; and 
all proper acts and expressions of regard to both will flow from 
it, and therefore all duty to both. To regard God and men in our 
heart as we ought, and to have that nature of heart towards them 
that we ought, is the same thing. And, therefore, a proper regard or 
love comprehends all virtue of heart ; and he that shews all proper 
regard to God and men in his practice, performs all that in practice 
towards them which is his duty. The Apostle says, Romans. xiiL 10 — 
" Love works no ill to his neighbour." Tis evident by his reasoning 
in that place, that he means more than is expressed — that love works 
no ill but all good, all our duty to our neighbour : which Reason 
plainly shews. And as the Apostle teaches that love to our neigh- 
bour works no ill but all good towards our neighbour ; so, by a parity 
of reason, love to God works no ill, but all our duty towards God. 

A Christian love to God, and Christian love to men, are not pro- 
perly two distinct principles in the heart. These varieties are ratlically 
the same ; the same principle flowing forth towards different objects. 


according to the order' of their existence. God is the First Cause of 
all things, and the Fountain and Source of all good ; and men are 
derived from Him, having something of His image, and are the objects 
of His mercy. So the first and supreme object of Divine Love is 
God ; and men are loved either as the childi-en of God or His crea- 
tures, and those that are in His image, and the objects of His mercy, 
or in some respects related to God, or partakers of His loveliness, or at 
least capable of happiness. 

That love to God, and a Christian love to men, are thus but one 
in their root and foundation-principle in the heart, is confirmed by 
several passages in the First Epistle of John : chap. iii. verses 16, 17 — 
" Hereby perceive we the love of God, because He laid down His life 
for us : and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. But 
whoso hath this world's goods, . . . how dwelleth the love 
of God in him?*' Chap. iv. 20, 21— "If a man say, I love God 
and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his 
brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not 
seen? And this commandment have we from him, That he who 
loveth God love his brother also." Chap. v. 1, 2 — " Whosoever 
believeth that Jesus is the Christ is bom of God : and every one that 
loveth Him that begat, loveth him also that is begotten of Him. 
By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, 
and keep His commandments." 

Therefore to explain the nature of Divine Love, what is principally 
requisite is to explain the nature of love to God. For this may 
especially be called Divine Love ; and herein all Christian love or 
charity does radically consist, for tliis is the fountain of all. 

As to a definition of Divine Love, things of this nature are not 
properly capable of a definition. They are better felt than- defined. 
Love is a term as clear in its signification, and that does as naturally 
suggest to the mind the thing signified by it, as any other term or 
terms that we can find out or substitute in its room. But yet there 
may be a great deal of benefit in descriptions that may be given of 
this heavenly principle though they all are imperfect. They may 
serve to limit the signification of the term and distinguish this prin- 
ciple from other things, and to exclude counterfeits, and also more 
clearly to explain some things that do appertain to its nature. 

Divine Love, as it has God for its object, may be thus described. 
Tis the soul's relish of the supreme excellency of the Divine nature, 
inclining the heart to God as the chief good. 

The first thing in Divine Love, and that from which everything 
that ap|>ertains to it arises, is a relish of the excellency of the Divine 
nature ; which the soul of man by nature has nothing of. 

The first effect that is produced in the soul, whereby it is carried 
above what it has or can have by nature, is to cause it to relish or 
tast« the sweetness of the Divine relation. That is the first and 
most fundamental thing in Divine Love, and that from which every- 
thing else that belongs to Divine Love naturally and necessarily pro- 
ceeds. When once the soul is brought to relish the excellency of the 



Divine nature, then it will naturally, and of course, incline to God 
every way. It will incline to be with Him and to enjoy Him. It 
will have benevolence to God. It will be glad that He is happy. It 
will incline that He should be glorified, and that His will should be 
done in all things. So that the first effect of the power of God in the 
heart in Regeneration, is to give the heart a Divine taste or sense ; 
to cause it to have a relish of the loveliness and sweetness of the 
supreme excellency of the Divine nature ; and indeed this is all the 
immediate effect of the Divine Power that there is, this is all the 
Spirit of God needs to do, in order to a production of all good effects 
in the soul. If God, by an immediate act of His, gives the soul a 
relish of the excellency of His own nature, other things will follow 
of themselves without any further act of the Divine power than only 
what is necessary to uphold the nature of the faculties of the soul. 
He that is once brought to see, or rather to taste, the superlative love- 
liness of the Divine Being, will need no more to make him long after 
the enjoyment of God, to make him rejoice in the happiness of God, 
and to desire that this supremely excellent Being may be pleased and 
glorified.* And if this be true, then the main ground of true love to 
God is the excellency of His own nature, and not any benefit we have 
received, or hope to receive, by His goodness to us. Not but that 
there is such a thing as a gracious gratitude to God for mercies be- 
stowed upon us ; and the acts and fruits of His goodness to us may 
[be,] and very often are, occasions and incitements of the exercise of 
tnie love to God, as I must shew more particularly hereafter. But 
love or affection to God, that has no other good than only some benefit 
received or hoped for from God, is not true love. [If it be] without 
any sense of a delight in the absolute excellency of the Divine nature, 
[it] has nothing Divine in it. Such gratitude towards God requires 
no more to be in the soul than that human nature that all men are 
born with, or at least that human nature well cultivated and im- 
proved, or indeed not further vitiated and depraved than it naturally 
is. It is possible that natural men, without the addition of any fur- 
ther principle than they have by nature, may be affected with grati- 
tude by some remarkable kindness of God to them, as that they 

* In the MS. the followiog is placed within brackets at this place, and so again it 
interrupts the argument and illustration. It is transferred to this footnote : — 

" Love is commonly distinguished into a love of complacence and love of benevo- 
lence. Of these two a love of complacence is first, and is the foundation of the other, 
— i.e., if by a love of complacence be meant a relishing a sweetness in the qualifications 
of the beloved, and a being pleased and delighted in his excellency. This, in the 
order of nature, is before benevolence, because it is the foundation and reason of it. A 
person must first relish that wherein the amiableness of nature consists, before he cau 
wish well to him on the account of that loveliness, or as being worthy to receive good. 
Indeed, sometimes love of complacence is explained something differently, even for 
that joy that the soul has in the presence and possession of the beloved, which is 
different from the soul's relish of the beauty of the beloved, and is a fruit of it, as 
benevolence is. The soul may relish the sweetness and the beauty of a beloved ob- 
ject, whether that object be present or absent, whether in possession or not in posses- 
sion ; and this relish is the foundation of love of benevolence, or desire of the good of 
the beloved. And it is the foundation of love of affection to the beloved object when 
absent ; and it is the foundation of one's rejoicing in the object when present ; and 
so it is the foundation of eveiy thing else that belongs to Divine Love."— G. 



should be so affected with some great act of kindness of a neighbour. 
A principle of self-love is all -that is necessary to both. But Divine 
Love is a principle distinct from self-love, and from all that arises 
from it. Indeed, after a man is come to relish the sweetness of the 
supreme good there is in the nature of God, self-love may have a 
hand in an appetite after the enjoyment of that good. For self-love 
will necessarily make a man desire to enjoy that which is sweet to 
him. But God*s perfections must first savour appetite and [be] sweet 
to men, or they must first have a taste to relish sweetness in the per- 
fection of God, before self-love can have any influence upon them to 
cause an appetite after the enjoyment of that sweetness. And there- 
fore that divine taste or relish of the soul, wherein Divine Love doth 
most fundamentally consist, is prior to all influence that self-love can 
have to incline us to God ; and so must be a principle quite distinct 
from it, and independent of it. 




I. That this holy and Divine principle, which we liave sltewn does 
radicaUy and Huvunarily consist in Divine Love, canies into existence 
in the soul by the power of God in tlie influences of the Holy Spirit, 
the Thii^d Person in the blessed Trinity, is abundantly manifest 
frmn the Scriptures, 

Regeneration is by the Spirit: John iii 5, 6 — " Verily, verily, I say 
unto thee, Except a man be bom of water, and of the Spirit, he can- 
not enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh 
is flesh ; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit*' And verse 
8 — " The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound 
thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it gocth : 
so is every one that is born of the Spirit." 

The renewing of the soid is by the Holy Ghost : Titus iii 5 — 
" Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according 
to His mercy He saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and re- 
newing of the Holy Ghost." A new heart is given by God's putting 
His Spirit within us : Ezekiel xxxvi. 26, 27 — " A new heart also 
will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you ; and I will 
take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an 
heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to 
walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments and do theuL** 
Quickening of the dead soul is by the Spirit : John vi. 63 — " It is the 
Spirit that quickeneth." Sanctification is by the Spiiit of God : 2 
Thess. ii 13 — " God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation 
through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth." Romans 
XV. 16 — " That the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, 
being sanctified by the Holy Ghost." 1 Cor. vi. 11 — "Such were 
some of you : but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are 
justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our 
God." 1 Peter i. 2 — " Elect according to the foreknowledge of God 
the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and 
sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ." All grace in the heart 
is the fruit of the Spirit : GaL v. 22, 23—** But the fruit of the 
Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 
meekness, temperance." Eph. v 9 — " The fruit of the Spirit is in 
all goodness, and righteousness, and truth." Hence the Spirit of God 
is called the Spirit of grace, (Heb. x. 29.) 

This doctrine of a gracious nature being by the immediate influ- 
ence of the Spirit of God, is not only taught in the Scriptui-es, but 
is irrefragable to Reason. Indeed there seems to be a strong disposi- 


tion in men to disbelieve and oppose the doctrine of true disposition, 
to disbelieve and oppose the doctrine of immediate influence of the 
Spirit of God in the hearts of men, or to diminish and make it as 
small and remote a matter as possible, and put it as far out of sight 
as may be. Whereas it seems to me, true virtue and holiness would 
naturally excite a prejudice (if I may so say) in favour of such a 
doctrine ; and that the soul, when in the most excellent frame, and 
the most lively exercise of virtue, — ^love to God and delight in Him, — 
would naturally and unavoidably think of God as kindly communi- 
cating Himself to him, and holding communion with him, as though 
he did as it were see God smiling on him, giving to him and con- 
versing with him ; and that if he did not so think of God, but, on 
the contrary, should conceive that there was no immediate communi- 
cation between God and him, it would tend greatly to quell his holy 
motions of soul, and be an exceeding damage to his pleasure. 

No good reason can be given why men should have such an in- 
ward disposition to deny any immediate communication between God 
and the creature, or to make as little of it as possible. 'Tis a strange 
disposition that men have to thrust God out of the world, or to put 
Him as far out of sight as they can, and to have in no respect im- 
mediately and sensibly to do with Him. Therefore so many schemes 
have been drawn to exclude, or extenuate, or remove at a great dis- 
tance, any influence of the Divine Being in the hearts of men, such as 
the scheme of the Pelagians, the Socinians, &c. And therefore these 
doctrines are so much ridiculed that ascribe much to the immediate 
influence of the Spirit, and called enthusiasm, fanaticism, whimsy, and 
distraction ; but no mortal can tell for what. 

If we make no diflficulty of allowing that Grod did immediately 
make the whole Universe at first, and caused it to exist out of no- 
thing, and that every individual thing owes its being to an immediate, 
voluntary, arbitrary* act of Almighty power, why should we make a 
diflSculty of supposing that He has still something immediately to do 
with the things that He has made, and that there is an arbitrary* in- 
fluence still that God has in the Creation that He has made ? 

And if it be reasonable to suppose it with respect to any part of 
the Creation, it is especially so with respect to reasonable creatures, 
who are the highest part of the Creation, next to God, and who are 
most immediately made for God, and have Him for their next Head, 
and are created for the business wherein they are mostly concerned. 
And above all, in that wherein the highest excellency of this highest 
rank of beings consist, and that wherein he is most conformed to God, 
is nearest to Him, and has God for his most immediate object. 

It seems to me most rational to suppose that as we ascend in the 
order of being we shall at last come immediately to God, the First - 

Cause. In whatever respect we ascend, we ascend in the order of \ I fi 
time and succession. ^4 

II. The Scinpture speaks of this holy and Divine principle in the 
heart as not only from the Spirit, but as being spiritual. Thus 

• and * That is = self choice, uncontrolled. — G. 



saving knowledge is called spiritual understanding: Col. i. 9 — "We 
desire that ye might be filled with the knowledge of His will in 
all wisdom and spiritual understanding." So the influences, graces, 
and comforts of God*s Spirit are called spiritual blessings : Eph. i. 
3 — " Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in 
Christ." So the imparting of any gracious benefit is called the im- 
parting of a spiritual gift : Rom. i. 1 1 — "For I long to see you, that 
I may impart unto you some spiritual gift." And the fruits of the 
Spirit which are offered to God are called spiritual sacrifices : 1 Peter 
ii. 5 — " A spiritual priesthood to offer up spiritual sacrifices, accept- 
able to God by Jesus Christ." And a spiritual person signifies the 
same in Scripture as a gracious person, and sometimes one that is 
much under the influence of grace: 1 Cor. ii. 15 — "He that is 
spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man;" and 
iii. 1 — " And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual 
but as unto carnal." Gal. vi. 1 — *'If a man be overtaken in a fault, ye 
which are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness." 
And to be graciously minded is called in Scripture a being spiritually 
minded : Rom. viii. 6 — " To be spiritually minded is life and peace." 

Concerning this, two things are to be noted. 

1. Thxit this Divine principle in the heart is not called spiritual, 
because it has its seat in the soul or spintual part of man, and not 
in his body. It is called spiritual, not because of its relation to the 
spirit of man, in which it is, but because of its relation to the Spirit 
of God, from which it is. That things are not called spiritual because 
they appertain not to the body but the spirit of man is evident, be- 
cause gracious or holy understanding is called spiritual understand- 
ing in the forementioned passage, (Col. i. 9.) Now, by spiritual 
understanding cannot be meant that understanding which has its 
seat in the soul, to distinguish it from other understanding that 
has its seat in the body, for all understanding has its seat in the 
soul ; and that things are called spiritual because of their relaticm 
to the Spirit of God is most plain, by the latter part of the 2d 
chapter of 1st Corinthians. There we have both those expressions, one 
immediately after another, evidently meaning the same thing : verses 
13, 14— "Which things also we speak, not in the words which mans 
wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth ; comparing 
spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not 
the things of the Spirit of God." And that by the spiritual man is 
meant one that has the Spirit is also as plainly evident by the con- 
text: verses 10-12 — "God hath revealed them unto us by His 
Spirit : for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of 
God. For what man knoweth the things of a man," &c. Also ver. 
15 — " He that is spiritual judgeth all things," by which is evidently 
meant the same as he that hath the Spirit that " searcheth all things," 
as we find in the foregoing verses. So persons are said to be 
spiritually minded, not because they mind things that relate to the 
soul or spirit of man, but because they mind things that relate to the 


Spirit of God : Romans viii. 5, 6 — " For they that are after the flesh 
do mind the things of the flesh ; but they that are after the Spirit the 
things of the Spirit. For to be carnally minded is death ; but to be 
spiritually minded is life and peace." 

2. It must he observed that where this holy Divine principle of 
saving grace wrought in the mind is in Sculpture called spiritvai, 
what is intended by the expressian is not merely nor chiefly that 
it is from the Spirit ofOod, but that it is of the nature of the Spirit 
of Ood. There are many things in the minds of some natuiid men 
that are from the influence of the Spirit, but yet are by no means 
spiritual things in the scriptural sense of the word. Tlie Spirit 
of God convinces natural men of sin, (John xvi. 8.) Natural men 
may have common grace, common illuminations, and common afifec- 
tions, that are from the Spirit of God, as appears by Hebrews vi. 4. 
Natural men have sometimes the influences of the Spirit of God in 
His common operations and gifts, and therefore God's Spirit is said to 
be striving with them, and they are said to resist the Spirit, (Acts vii. 
51 ;) to grieve and vex Grod's Holy Spirit, (EpL iv. 30 ; Isaiah Ixiii 10 ;) 
and God is said to depart from them even as the Spirit of the Lord 
departed from Saul : 1 Sam. xvi 14 — **But the Spirit of the Lord 
departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him." 

But yet natural men are not in any degree spiritual The great 
diSerence between natural men and godly men seems to be set forth 
by this, that the one is natural and carnal, and the other spiritual ; 
and natural men are so totally destitute of that which is Spirit, that 
they know nothing about it, and the reason given for it is be- 
cause they are not spiritual, (1 Cor. ii. 13-15.) Indeed sometimes 
those miraculous gifts of the Spirit that were common are called 
spiritual because they are from the Spirit of God ; but for the most 
part the term seems to be appropriated to its gracious influences and 
fruits on the soul, which are no otherwise spiritual than the common 
influences of the Spirit that natural men have, in any other respect 
than this, that this saving grace in the soul, is not only from the 
Spirit, but it also partakes of the nature of that Spirit that it is from, 
which the common grace of the Spirit does not. Thus things in 
Scripture language are said to be earthly, as they partake of an earthly 
nature, partake of the nature of the earth ; so things are said to be 
heavenly, as they in their nature agree with those things that are in 
heaven ; and so saving gi*ace in the heart is said to be spiritual, aTtti^ 
therein distinguished from all other influences of the Spirit, that it is > 
of the nature of the Spirit of God. It partakes of the nature of that 
Spirit, while no common gift of the Spirit doth so. 

But here an enquiry may be raised, viz. : — 

Enq. How does saving grace partake of the nature of that Spirit 
that it is from, so as to he called on that account spiritual, thus es- 
sentially distinguishing it from all other effects of the SpiHt ? for 
every effect has in some respect or another the nature of its cause, 
and the common convictions and illuminations that natural men have 
are in some respects [of] the nature of the Spirit of God ; for there 



is light and understanding and conviction of truth in these common 
illuminations, and so they are of the nature of the Spirit of God — that 
is, a discerning spirit and a spirit of truth. But yet saving grace, by 
its being called spiritual, as though it were thereby distinguished 
from all other gifts of the Spirit, seems to partake of the nature of 
the Spirit of God in some very peculiar manner. 

Clearly to satisfy this enquiry, we must do these two things : — 
1. We must bear in mind what has already been said of the nature of 
saving grace, and what I have already shewn to be that wherein its 
nature and essence lies, and wherein all saving grace is radically and 
summarily comprised — ^viz., a principle of Divine Love. 2. We must 
consider what the Scripture reveals to be in a peculiar manner the 
nature of the Holy Spirit of God, and in an enquiry of this nature I 
woidd go no further than I think the Scripture plainly goes before 
me. The Word of God certainly should be our rule in matters so 
much above reason and our own notions. 

And here I would say — 

(1.) That I think the Scripture does sufficiently reveal the Holy Spirit 
as a proper Divine Person ; and thus we ought to look upon Him as 
a distinct personal agent. He is often spoken of as a person, revealed 
under personal characters and in personal acts, and it speaks of His 
being acted on as a person, and the Scripture plainly ascribes every 
thing to Him that properly denotes a distinct person ; and though 
the word person be rarely used in the Scriptures, yet I believe that 
we have no word in the English language that does so naturally repre- 
sent what the Scripture reveals of the distinction of the Eternal 
Three, — Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, — as to say they are one God 
but three pei-sons. 

(2.) Though all the Diviiie perfections are to he attributed to ea^h 
person of tJie Trinity, yet tlte Holy Ghost is in a peculiar manner 
called by the name of Love — jiyaTrrj, the same word that is translated 
charity in the XIII."* chapter of 1st Corinthians. The Godhead or 
the Divine essence is once and again said to be Love : 1 John iv. 8 — 
" He that loveth not, knoweth not God ; for God is love." So again, 
ver. 16 — " God is love ; and he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, 
and God in him." But the Divine essence is thus called in a peculiar 
manner as breathed forth and subsisting in the Holy Spirit ; as may 
be seen in the context of these texts, as in the 1 2th and 1 3th verses 
of the same chapter — " No nuin hath seen God at any time. If we 
love one another, God dwelleth in us, and His love is perfected in us. 
Hereby know we that we dwell in Him, and He in us, because He hath 
given us of His Spirit." It is the same argument in both these 
verses: in tlie 12th verse the apostle argues that if we have love 
dwelling in us, we have God dwelling in us ; and in the 13th verse he 
clears the face of the argument by this, that this love which is 
dwelling in us is God's Spirit. And this shews that the foregoing 
argument is good, and that if love dwells in us, we know God dwells 
in us indeed, for the Apostle supposes it as a thing granted and 
allowed that God's Spirit is God. The Scripture elsewhere does 


abundantly teach us that the way in which God dwells in the saints 
is by His Spirit, by their being the temples of the Holy Qhost Here 
this Apostle teaches us the sarae thing. He says, " We know that He 
dwelleth in us, that He hath given us His Spirit ;" and this is mani- 
festly to explain what is said in the foregoing verse — viz., that God 
dwells in us, inasmuch as His love dwells in us ; which love he had 
told us before — ver. 8 — is God himself. And afterwards, in the 1 6th 
verse, he expresses it more fully, that this is the way that God dwells 
in the saint — viz., because this love dwells in them, which is God. 

Again the same is signified in the same manner in the last verses 
of the foregoing chapter. In the foregoing verses, speaking of love 
as a true sign of sincerity and our acceptance with God, beginning 
with the 18th verse, he sums up the argument thus in the last verse : 
" And hereby we know that He abideth in us, by the Spirit which He 
hath given us. 

We have also something very much like this in the apostle Paul's 

Gal. V. 13-16 — "Use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, 
but by love serve one another. For all the law is fulfilled in one 
word, even in this. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. But if 
ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed 
one of another. This I say then. Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not 
fulfil the Inst of the flesh." Here it seems most evident that what the 
apostle exhorts and urges in the 13th, 14th, and loth verses, — viz., 
that they should walk in love, that they might not give occasion to the 
gratifying of the flesh, — he does expressly explain in the 16th verse by 
this, that they should walk in the Spirit, that they might not fulfil the 
lust of the flesh ; which the great Mr Howe takes notice of in his 
" Sermons on the Prosperous State of the Christian Interest before the 
End of Time," p. 185, published by Mr Evans. His words are, 
" Walking in the Spirit is directed with a special eye and reference 
unto the exercise of this love ; as you may see in Galatians v., the 14th, 
16th, and 16tli verses compared together. All the law is fulfilled in 
one word, (he means the whole law of the second table,) even in this. 
Thou shjjt love thy neighbour as thyself. But if ye bite and devour 
one another, (the opposite to this love, or that which follows on the 
want of it, or from the opposite principle,) take heed that ye be not 
consumed one of another. This I say then, (observe the inference,) 
Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh. To walk 
in the Spirit is to walk in the exercise of this love." 

So that as the Son of God is spoken of as the wisdom, understanding, 
and ^0709 of God, (Proverbs viiL ; Luke xi. 49 ; John i., at the begin- 
ning,) and is, as Divines express things, the personal Wisdom of God ; 
so the Spirit of God is spoken of as the Love of God, and may with 
equal foundation and propriety be called the personal Love of God. 
We read in the beloved disciple's writings of these two — ^40709 and 
^Ayairq, both of which are said to bo God, (John i. 1 ; 1 JoVn 
iv. 8-16.) One is the Son of God, and the other the Holy Spirit. 
There are two things that God is said to be in this First Epistle of 


Jolm — flight and love: chap. i. 5 — "God is light." This is the 
Son of God, who is said to be the wisdom and reason of God, and the 
brightness of His glory ; and in the 4th chapter of the same epistle he 
says, " God is love," and this he applies to the Holy Spirit 

Hence the Scripture symbol of the Holy Ghost is a dove, which is 
the emblem of love, and so was continually accounted (as is well 
known) in the heathen world, and is so made use of by their poets ind 
mythologists, which probably arose partly from the nature and man- 
ner of the bird, and probably in part from the tradition of the story 
of Noah*s dove, that came with a message of peace and love after such 
terrible manifestations of God's wrath in the time of tlie deluge. This 
bird is also made use of as an emblem of love in the Holy Scriptures ; 
as it was on that message of peace and love that God sent it to Noah, 
when it came with an olive-leaf in its mouth, and often in Solomon s 
Song: Cant. i. 15— "Thou hast doves' eyes:" Cant. v. 12— "His 
eyes are as the eyes of doves :" Cant v. 2 — "Open to me, my love, 
ujy dove," and in other places in that song. 

This bird, God is pleased to choose as the special symbol of His 
Holy Spirit in the greatest office or work of the Spirit that ever it has 
or will exert — viz., in anointing Christ, the great Head of the whole 
Church of saints, from which Head this holy oil descends to all the mem- 
bers, and the skirts of His garments, as the sweet and precious ointment 
that was poured on Aaron's head, that great type of Christ As God the 
Father then poured forth His Holy Spirit of love upon the Son without 
measure, so that which was then seen with the eye — viz., a dove descend- 
ing and lighting upon Christ — signified the same thing as what was at 
the same time proclaimed to the Sen — viz., This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased. This is the Son on whom I pour forth all 
my love, towards whom my essence entirely flows out in love. See 
Matt iii. 16, 17 ; Mark i. 10, 11 ; Luke iil 22 ; John i. 32, 33. 

This was the anointing of the Head of the Church and our great 
High Priest, and therefore the holy anointing oil of old with which Aaron 
and other typical high priests were anointed was the most eminent 
type of the Holy Spirit of any in the Old Testament This holy oil, 
by reason of its soft-flowing and diffusive nature, and its unparalleled 
sweetness and fragrancy, did most fitly represent Divine Love, or that 
Spirit that is the Deity, breathed forth or flowing out and softly fall- 
ing in infinite love and delight It is mentioned as a fit representa- 
tion of holy love, which is said to be like the precious ointment on 
the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, that went 
down to the skirts of his garments. It was from the fruit of the olive- 
tree, which it is known has been made use of as a symbol of love or 
peace, which was probably taken from the olive-branch brought by the 
dove to Noah in token of the Divine favour ; so that the olive-branch 
and the dove that brought it, both signified the same thing — viz., love, 
which is specially typified by the precious oil from the olive-tree. 

God's love is primarily to Himself, and His infinite delight is in 
Himself, in the Father and the Son loving and delighting in each 
other. We often read of the Father loving the Son, and being well 


pleased in the Son, and of the Son loving the Father. In the in- 
finite love and delight that is between these two persons consists the 
infinite happiness of God : Prov. viiL 30. — " Then I was by him, as 
one brought up with him : and I was daily his delight, rejoicing 
always before him ; " and therefore seeing the Scripture signifies that 
the Spirit of God is the Love of God, therefore it follows that Holy 
Spirit proceeds from or is breathed forth from, the Father and the 
Son in some way or other infinitely above all our conceptions, as the 
Divine essence entirely flows out and is breathed forth in infinitely pure 
love and sweet delight from the Father and the Son ; and this is that 
pure river of water of life that proceeds out of the throne of the 
Father and the Son, as we read at the beginning of the XXIL* chapter 
of the Revelation ; for Christ himself tells us that by the water of 
life, or living water, is meant the Holy Ghost, (John vii 38, 39.) This 
river of water of life in the Revelation is evidently the same with the 
living waters of the sanctuary in Ezekiel, (Ezek. xlvii. 1, &c.;) and 
this river is doubtless the river of God's pleasure, or of God's own in- 
finite delight spoken of in Ps. xxxvi. 7-9 — " How excellent is thy lov- 
ing-kindness, God ! therefore the children of men put their trust 
under the shadow of thy winga They shall be abundantly satisfied 
with the fatness of thy house ; and thou shalt make them drink of the 
river of thy pleasures. For with thee is the fountain of life." The 
river of God*s pleasures here spoken of is the same with the foun- 
tain of life spoken of in the next words. Here, as was observed be- 
fore, the water of life by Christ's own interpretation is the Holy 
Spirit. This river of God's pleasures is also the same with the fat- 
ness of God's house, the holy oil of the sanctuary spoken of in the next 
preceding words, and is the same wi^h God's love, or God's excellent 
loving-kindness, spoken of in the next preceding verse. 

I have before observed that the Scripture abundantly reveals that 
the way in which Christ dwells in the saint is by His Spirit's dwell- 
ing in them, and here I would observe that Christ in His prayer, in 
the XVII.*^ chapter of John, seems to speak of the way in which He 
dwells in them as by the indwelling of the love wherewith the Father 
has loved Him : John xviL 26 — " And I have declared unto them thy 
name, and will declare it ; that the love wherewith thou hast loved 
me may be in them, and I in them." The beloved disciple that wrote 
this Gospel having taken [such] particular notice of this, that he after- 
wards in his first epistle once and again speaks of Love's dwelling in the 
saints, and the Spirit's dwelling in them being the same thing. 

Again, the Scripture seems in many places to speak of love in 
Christians as if it were the same with the Spirit of God in them, or at 
least as the prime and most natural breathing and acting of the Spirit 
in the souL So Rom. v. 5 — '* Because the love of Grod is shed abroad 
in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is givei* unto us :" CoL L 8 — 
" Who also declared unto us your love in the Spirit :" 2 Cor. vL 6 — 
" By kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned :" Phil. iL 1 — 
" If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of 
love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies, fulfil 


ye my joy, that ye be like-niinde<i, having the same love, being of one 
accord, of one inin<l." 

The Scripture therefore leads us to this conclusion, thouorh it be in- 
finitely above us to conceive how it should be, that yet as the Son of God 
is the personal word, idea, or wisdom of God, begotten by God, being an 
infinitely perfect, substantial image or idea of Himself, (as might be very 
plainly proved from the Holy Scripture, if here were proper occasion for 
it ;) so the Holy Spirit does in some ineffable and inconceivable manner 
proceed, and is breathed forth both from the Father and the Son, by 
the Divine essence being wholly poured and flowing out in that in- 
finitely intense, holy, and pure love and delight that continually 
and unchangeably breathes forth from the Father and the Son, pri- 
marily towards each other, and secondarily towards the creature, and 
80 flowing forth in a different subsistence or person in a manner to 
us utterly inexplicable and inconceivable, and that this is that person 
that is poured forth into the hearts of angels and saints. 

Hence *tis to be accounted for, that though we often read in Scrip- 
ture of the Father loving the Son, and the Son loving the Father, yet 
we never once read either of the Father or the Son loving the Holy 
Spirit, and the Spirit loving either of Them. It is because the Holy 
Spirit is the Divine love itself, the love of the Father and the Son. 
Hence also it is to be accounted for, that we very often read of the 
love both of the Father and the Son to men, and particularly their 
love to the saints ; but we never read of the Holy Ghost loving them, 
for the Holy Ghost is that love of God and Christ that is breathed 
forth primarily towards each other, and flows out secondarily towards 
the creature. This also will well account for it, that the apostle Paul 
so often wishes grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father, and 
from the Lord Jesus Christ, in the beginning of his epistles, without 
even mentioning the Holy Ghost, because the Holy Ghost is Himself 
the love and grace of God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. He 
is the Deity wholly breathed forth in infinite, substantial, intelligent, 
love : from the Father and Son first towards each other, and second- 
arily freely flowing out to the creature, and so standing forth a dis- 
tinct personal subsistence. 

Both the holiness and happiness of the Godhead consists in this 
love. As we have already proved, all creature holiness consists essen- 
tially and summarily in love to God and love to other creatures ; so 
does the holiness of God consist in His love, especially in the perfect 
and intimate union and love there is between the Father and the Son. 
But the Spirit that proceeds from the Father and the Son is the bond 
of this union, as it is of all holy union between the Father and the 
Son, and between God and the creature, and between the creatures 
among themselves All seems to be signified in Christ's prayer in the 
XVII.'*' chapter of John, from the 21st verse. Therefore this Spirit 
of love is the '*bond of perfectness" (Col. iiL 14) throughout the 
whole blessed society or family in heaven and earth, consisting of the 
Father, the Head of the family, and the Son, and all His saints that 
are the disciples, seed, and spouse of the Son. The happiness of God 



doth also consist in this love ; for doubtless the happiness of God 
consists in the infinite love He ha3 to, and delight He has in Himself ; 
or in other words, in the infinite delight there is between the Fatlier 
and the Sou, spoken of in Prov. viii 80. This delight that the Father 
and the Son have in each other is not to be distinguished from Their 
love of complacence one in apother, wherein love does most essentially 
consist, as was observed before. The happiness of the Deity, as all 
other true happiness, consists in love and society. 

Hence it is that the Spirit of God, the third person in the Trinity, 
is so often called the Holy Spirit, as though '* Holy " were an epithet 
some way or other peculiarly belonging to Him, which can be no other 
way than that the holiness of God does consist in Him. He is not 
only infinitely holy as the Father and the Son are, but He is the 
holiness of God itself in the abstract The holiness of the Father 
and the Son does consist in breathing forth this Spirit. Therefore 
He is not only called the Holy Spirit, but the Spirit of holiness : 
Eom. i. 4 — " According to the Spirit of holiness." 

Hence also the river of " living waters," or waters of life, which 
Christ explains iti the VH.^*^ [chapter] of John, of the Holy Spirit, is 
in the forementioned Psalm [xxxvi. 8] called the ** river of Gad's 
pleasures;" and hence also that holy oil with which Christ was 
anointed, which I have shewn was the Holy Ghost, is called the 
" oil of gladness : " Heb. i. 9 — " Therefore God, even thy God, hath 
anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." Hence we 
learn that God's fulness does consist in the Holy Spirit. By ful- 
ness, as the term is used in Scripture, as may easily be seen by 
looking over the texts that mention it, is intended the good that any 
one possesses. Now the good that God possesses does most imme- 
diately consist in His joy and complacence that He has in Himself. 
It does objectively, indeed, consist in the Father and the Son ; but it 
doth most immediately consist in the complacence in these elements. 
Nevertheless the fulness of God consists in the holiness and happiness 
of the Deity. Hence persons, by being made partakers of the Holy 
Spirit, or having it dwelling in them, are said to be " partakers of the 
fulness of God " or Christ Christ s fulness, as Mediator, consists in 
His having the Spirit given Him "not by measure," (John iiL 34.) 
And so it is that He is said to have " the fulness of the Godhead," 
[which] is said " to dwell in Him bodily," (Col. ii. 9.) And as we, 
by receiving the Holy Spirit from Christ, and being made partakers 
of His Spirit, are said '* to receive of His fulness, and grace for 
grace." And because this Spirit, which is the fulness of God, con- 
sists in the love of God and Christ ; therefore we, by knowing the 
love of Christ, are said " to be filled with all the fulness of God,*' 
(Eph. iii. 19.) For the way that we know the love of Christ, is by 
having that love dwelling in us, as 1 John iv. 13 ; because the ful- 
ness of God consists in the Holy Spirit Hence our communion 
with God the Father and God the Son consists in our possessing of 
the Holy Ghost, which is Their Spirit For to have communion or 
fellowship with either, is to partake with Them of Their good in 


Their fulness in union and society with Them. Hence it is that we 
lead of the saints having fellowship and communion with the Father 
and with the Son ; but never of their having fellowship with the 
Holy Ghost, because the Holy Ghost is that common good or 
fulness which they partake of, in which their fellowship consists. 
We read of the communion of the Holy Ghost ; but not of com- 
munion with Him, which are two very different things. 

Persons are said to have communion with each other when they 
partake with each other in some common good ; but any one is said to 
have communion of anything, with respect to that thing they partake 
of, in common with others. Hence, in the apostolical benediction, he 
wishes the " grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God the 
Father, and the communion or partaking of the Holy Ghost" The 
blessing wished is but one — viz., the Holy Spirit To partake of the 
Holy Ghost is to have that love of the Father and the grace of the 

From what has been said, it follows that the Holy Spirit is the 
8ummum of all good. Tis the fulness of God. The holiness and 
happiness of the Godhead consists in it; and in communion or par- 
taking of it consists all the true loveliness and happiness of the 
creature. All the grace and comfort that persons here have, and all 
their holiness and happiness hereafter, consists in the love of the 
Spirit, spoken of Eom, xv. 30 ; and joy in the Holy Ghost, spoken of 
Bom. xiv. 17; Acts ix. 31, xiii. d"!. And, therefore, that which in 
Matt vii 11 — " If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts 
unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in 
heaven, give good things to them that ask Him?" — is in Luke xi 13, 
expressed thus : — '* If ye then, being evil, know how to give good 
gifts unto your children ; how much more shall your heavenly Father 
give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him V* Doubtless there is an 
agreement in what is expressed by each Evangelist : and giving the 
Holy Spirit to them that ask, is the same as giving good things to 
them that ask ; for the Holy Spirit is the sum of all good. 

Hence we may better understand the economy of the Persons of 
the Trinity as it appears in the part that each one has in the affair 
of Kedemption, and shews the equality of each Person concerned in 
that affair, and the equality of honour and praise due to each of Them. 
For that work, glory belongs to the Father and the Son, that They so 
greatly loved the world. To the Father, that He so loved the world, 
that He gave His only-begotten Son, who was all His delight, who is 
His infinite objective Happiness. To the Son, that He so loved the 
world, that He gave Himself. But there is equal glory due to the 
Holy Ghost on this account, because He is the Love of the Father 
and the Son, that flows out primarily towards God, and secondarily 
towards the elect that Christ came to save. So that, however 
wonderful the love of the Father and the Sou appear to be, so much 
the more glory belongs to the Holy Spirit, in whom subsists that 
wonderful and excellent love. 

It shews the infinite excellency of the Father thus : — That the Son 



SO delighted in Him, and prized His honour and glory, that when He 
had a mind to save sinners, He came infinitely low, rather than men's 
salvation should be the injury of that honour and glory. It shewed 
the infinite excellency and worth of the Son, that the Father so 
delighted in Him, that for His sake He was ready to quit His own ; 
yea, and receive into favour those that had deserved infinitely ill at 
His hands. Both shews the infinite excellency of the Holy Spirit, 
because He is that delight of the Father and the Son in each other, 
which is manifested to be so great and infinite by these things. 

What has been said shews that our dependence is equally on 
each Person in this affair. The Father approves and provides the 
Redeemer, and Himself accepts the price of the good purchased, and 
bestows that good. The Son is the Redeemer, and the price that is 
offered for the purchased good. And the Holy Ghost is the good 
purchased; [for] the Sacred Scriptures seem to intimate that the 
Holy Spirit is the sum of all that Cbrist purchased for man, (Gal. 
iiL 13, 14) 

What Christ purchased for us is, that we might have communion 
with God in His good, which consists in partaking or having com- 
munion of the Holy Ghost, as I have shewn. All the blessedness of 
the redeemed consists in partaking of the fulness of Christ, their 
Head and Redeemer, which, I have observed, consists in partaking 
of the Spirit that is given Him not by measure. This is the vital 
sap which the creatures derive from the true vine. This is the holy 
oil poured on the Head, that goes down to the members. Christ 
purchased for us that we should enjoy the Love : but the love of God 
flows out in the proceeding of the Spirit; and He purchased for 
them that the love and joy of God should dwell in them, which is by 
the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. 

The sum of all spiritusd good which the saints have in this world, 
is that spring of living water within them which we read of, (John iv. 
10 ;) and those rivers of living waters flowing from within them which 
we read of, (John viL 38, 39,) which we are there told is the Holy 
Spirit. And the sum of all happiness in the other world, is that 
river of living water which flows from the throne of God and the 
Lamb, which is the river of God's pleasures, and is the Holy Spirit ; 
which is often compared in Sacred Scripture to water, to the rain 
and dew, and rivers and floods of waters, (Isa. xliv. 3, xxxiL 15, 
xli 17, 18, compared with John iv. 14, xxxv. 6, 7, xliiL 19, 20.) 

The Holy Spirit is the purchased possession and inheritance of the 
saints, as appears, because that little of it which the saints have in 
this world is said to be the earnest of that purchased inheritance, 
(Eph. i. 13, 14 ; 2 Cor. i. 22., v. 5.) Tis an earnest of that which 
we are to have a fulness of hereafter. The Holy Ghost is the great 
subject of all gospel promises, and therefore is called the Spirit of 
promise, (Eph. i 13.) He is called the promise of the Father, (Luke 
xxiv. 49.) 

The Holy Ghost being a comprehension of all g[)od things pro- 
mised in the gospel, we may easily see the force of the Apostle's 



inquiry : GaL iii. 2 — " This only would I know, Received ye the Spirit 
by the works of the Law, or by the hearing of faith ? " So that in the 
offer of Redemption 'tis of God of whom our good is pui-cliased, and 
'tis God that purchases it, and 'tis God also that is the thing pur- 
chased. Thus all our good things are of God, and through God, and 
in God, as Rom. xL 36 — " For of Him, and through Him, and to Him, 
and in Him, [as ek is rendered in 1 Cor. viii. 6,] are all things : to whom 
be glory for ever." All our good is of God the Father, and through 
God the Son, and all is in the Holy Ghost, as He is Himself all our 
good. And so God is Himself the portion and purchased inherit- 
ance of His people. Thus God is the Alpha and Omega in this affair 
of Redemption. 

If we suppose no more than used to be supposed about the Holy 
Ghost, the honour of the Holy Ghost in the work of Redemption is 
not equal in any sense to the Father and the Son's ; nor is there an 
equal part of the glory of this work belonging to Him. Merely to 
apply to us, or immediately to give or hand to us blessing purchased, 
after it is purchased, is subordinate to the other two Persons, — is 
but a little thing to the purchaser of it by the paying an infinite 
price by Christ, by Christ's offering up Himself a sacrifice to procure 
it ; and 'tis but a little thing to God the Father's giving His in- 
finitely dear Son to be a sacrifice for us to procure this good. But 
according to what has now been supposed, there is an equality. To 
be the wonderful love of God, is as much as for the Father and the 
Son to exercise wonderful love ; and to be the thing purchased, is as 
much as to be the price that purchases it. The price, and the thing 
bought with that price, answer each other in value ; and to be the 
excellent benefit offered, is as much as to offer such an excellent bene- 
fit For the glory that belongs to Him that bestows the gospel, arises 
from the excellency and value of the gift, and therefore the glory is 
equal to that excellency of the benefit. And so that Person that is 
that excellent benefit, has equal glory with Him that bestows such 
an excellent benefit. 

But now to return : from what has been now observed from the 
Holy Scriptures of the nature of the Holy Spirit, may be clearly 
understood why grace in the hearts of the saints is called spiritual, 
in distinction from other things that are the effects of the Spirit in 
the hearts of men. For by this it appears that the Divine principle 
in the saints is of the nature of the Spirit ; for as the nature of 
the Spirit of God is Divine Love, so Divine Love is the nature and 
essence of that holy principle in the hearts of the saints. 

The Spirit of God may operate and produce effects upon the minds 
of natural men that have no grace, as He does when He assists natu- 
ral conscience and convictions of sin and danger. The Spirit of God 
may produce effects upon inanimate things, as of old He moved on 
the face of the waters. But He communicates holiness in His own 
proper nature only, in those holy effects in the hearts of the saints. 
And, therefore, those holy effects only are called spiritual ; and the 
sainls only are called spiritual persons in Sacred Scripture. 


Men's natural faculties and principles may be assisted by the 
operation of the Spirit of God on their minds, to enable them to 
exert those acts which, to a greater or lesser degree, they exert 
naturally. Biit the Spirit don't at all communicate Himself in 
it in His own nature, which is Divine Love, any more than when He 
moved upon the face of the waters. 

Hence also we may more easily receive and understand a doctrine 
that seems to be taught us in the Sacred Scripture concemincr grace 
in the heart — viz., that it is no other than the Spirit of God itself 
dwelling and acting in the heart of a saint, — which the consideration 
of these things will make manifest : — 

(1.) That the Sacred Scriptures don't only call grace spiritual, but 

(2.) That when the Sacred Scriptures call grace spirit, the Spirit of 
God is intended ; and that grace is called " Spirit " no otherwise than 
as the name of the Holy Ghost, the Third Person in the Trinity is 
ascribed to it. 

1. This holy principle is often called by the name of "spirit" in 
Sacred Scripture. So in John iii. 6 — " That which is bom of the 
Spirit is spirit." Here by flesh and spirit, we have already shewn, are 
intended those two opposite principles in the heart, corruption and 
grace. So by flesh and spirit the same things are manifestly in- 
tended in Gal. v. 17 — " For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, end 
the spirit against the flesh : and these are contrary the one to the 
other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would." This that 
is here given as the reason why Christians cannot do the things that 
they would, is manifestly the same that is given for the same thing 
in the latter part of the YIV^ chapter of the Romans. The reason 
there given why they cannot do the things that they would is, that 
the law of the members war with [and] against the law of the mind ; 
and, therefore, by the law of the members and the law of the mind 
are meant the same as the flesh and spirit in Galatians. Yea, they 
are called by the same name of the flesh and spirit there, in that con- 
text, in the continuation of the same discourse in the beginning of 
the next chapter: — "Therefore there is no condemnation to them 
that are in Christ Jesus, that walk not after the flesh, but after the 
Spirit" Here the Apostle evidently refers to the same two opposite 
principles waning one against another, that he had been speaking of 
in the close of the preceding chapter, which he here calls flesh and 
spirit as he does in his Epistle to the Galatians. 

This is yet more abundantly clear by the next words, which are, 
" For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free 
from the law of sin and death." Here these two things that in the 
preceding verse are called '* flesh and spirit," are in this verse called 
"the law of the spirit of life" and "the law of sin and death," 
evidently speaking still of the same law of our mind and the law of 
sin spoken of in the last verse of the preceding chapter. The 
Apostle goes on in the VIII*ii chapter to call aversation* and grace by 

* Sic. Query .... opposition ? or = turning from ? — O. 


the names of flesh and spirit, (verses 4-9, and again verses 12, 13.) 
These two principles are called by the same names in Matt xxvi. 41 — 
'• The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." There can be no 
doubt but that the same thing is intended here by the flesh and spirit 
as (compare what is said of the flesh and spirit here and in these places) 
in the VII*J» and VIII*ii chapters of Romans, and Gal. v. Again, these 
two principles are called by the same words in GaL vi. 8. If this 
be compared with the 18th verse of the foregoing chapter, and with 
Bomans viii. 6 and 13, none can doubt but the same is meant in 
each place. 

2. If the Sacred Scriptures be duly observed, where grace is called 
by the name of " spirit,*' it will appear that 'tis so called by an 
ascription of the Holy Ghost, even the Third Person in the Trinity, 
to that Divine principle in the heart of the saints, as though that 
principle in them were no other than the Spirit of God itself, united 
to the soul, and living and acting in it, and exerting itself in the use 
and improvement of its faculties. 

Thus it is in the VIII*^ chapter of Romans, as does manifestly ap- 
pear by verses 9-16 — "But you are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, 
if so be the Spirit of God dwell in you," &c. " Now, if any man 
have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His,'* &c. 

Here the Apostle does fully explain himself what he means when 
he so often caUs that holy principle that is in the hearts of the saints 
by the name "spirit." This he means, the Spirit of God itself 
dwelling and acting in them. In the 9th verse he calls it the Spirit 
of God, and the Spirit of Christ in the 10th verse. He calls it Christ 
in them in the 11th verse. He calls it the Spirit of Him that raised 
up Jesus from the dead dwelling in them ; and in the 14th verse he 
calls it the Spirit of God. In the 16th verse he calls it the Spirit 
itself. So it is called the Spirit of God in 1 Cor. ii. 11, 12. So that 
that holy. Divine principle, which we have observed does radically 
and essentially consist in Divine Love, is no other than a commimica- 
tion and participation of that same infinite Divine Love, which is 
God, and in which the Godhead is eternally breathed forth ; and 
subsists in the Third Person in the blessed Trinity. So that true 
saving grace is no other than that very love of God — that is, God, in 
One of the Persons of the Trinity, uniting Himself to the soul of a 
creatuie, as a vit^l principle, dwelling there and exerting Himself by 
the faculties of the soul of man, in His own proper nature, after the 
manner of a principle of nature. 

And we may look back and more fully understand what the 
apostle John means when he says once and again, " God is Love," and 
" He that dwelleth in Love dwelleth in God, and God in him," and 
" If we love one another, God dwelleth in us," and " His Love is 
perfected in us," [and] " Hereby we know that we dwell in Him and 
He in us, because He has given us of His Spirit." 

By this, also, we may understand what the apostle Peter means 
in his 2d Epistle i. 4, that the saints are made " partakers of the 
Divine nature." They are not only partakers of a nature that may, 


in some sense, be called Divine, because *tis conformed to the nature 
of God ; but the very Deity does, in some sense, dwell in them. 
That holy and Divine love dwells in their hearts, and is so united to 
human faculties, that 'tis itself become a principle of new nature. 
That love, which is the very native tongue and spirit of God, so 
dwells in their souls that it exerts itself in its own nature in the 
exercise of those faculties, after the manner of a natural or vital 
principle in them. 

This shews us how the saints are said to be the " temples of the 
Holy Ghost'' as they are.* 

Bj^ this, also, we may understand how the saints are said to be 
made '* partakers of God's holiness," not only as they partake of holi- 
ness that God gives, but partake of that holiness by which He him- 
self is holy. For it has been already observed, the holiness of God 
consists in that Divine Love in which the essence of God really flows 

This also shews us how to understand our Lord when He speaks 
of His joy being fulfilled in the saints: John xvii 13 — "And now 
I come unto thee ; and these things I speak in the world, that they 
might have My joy fulfilled in themselves." It is by the indwelling 
of that Divine Spirit, which we have shewn to be God the Father's 
and the Son's infinite Love and Joy in each other. In the 13th verse 
He says He has spoken His word to His disciples, *' that His joy 
might be fulfilled ;" and in verse 26th He says, *' And I have declared 
unto them Thy name, and will declare it ; that the love wherewith 
Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them." 

And herein lies the mystery of the vital union that is between 
Christ and the soul of a believer, which orthodox Divines speak so 
much of, Christ's love — that is. His Spirit is actually united to the 
faculties of their souls. So it properly lives, acts, and exerts its 
nature in the exercise of their faculties. By this Love being in them, 
He is in them, (John xvii. 26 ;) and so it is said, 1 Cor. vL 17 — ** But 
he that is joined to the Lord is one spirit." 

And thus it is that the saints are said to live, "yet not they, but 
Christ lives in them," (Gal. ii. 20.) The very promise of spiritual life 
in their souls is no other than the Spirit of Christ himself. So that 
they live by His life, as much as the members of the body live by the 
life of the Lord, and as much as the branches live by the life of the 
root and stock. "Because I live, ye shall live also," (John xiv. 19.) 
"We are dead : but our life is hid with Christ in God," (Col. iii. 3.) 
'• When Christ, who is our life, shall appear," (Col. iii. 4.) 

There is a union with Christ, by the indwelling of the Love of 
Christ, two ways. First, as 'tis from Christ, and is the very Spirit 
and life and fulness of Christ ; and second, as it acts to Christ. For 
the very nature of it is love and union of heart to Him. 

Because the Spirit of God dwells as a vital principle or a principle 
of new life in tlie soul, therefore 'tis called the " Spirit of life," (Rom. 
viii. 2 ;) and the Spirit that "quickens." (John vi. 63.) 
♦ 1 Cor. ui. 16, 17, vi. 19; 2 Cor. vi. 16.— G. 


The Spirit of God is a vital principle in the soul, as the breath of 
life is in the body : Ezek. xxxvii. 5 — "Thus saith the Lord God unto 
these bones, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live ; " 
and so verses 9, 10 

That principle of grace that is in the hearts of the saints is as much 

a proper communication or participation of the Spirit of God, the Third 

Person in the Trinity, as that breath that entered into these bodies is 

represented to be a participation of the wind that blew upon them. 

The prophet says, " Come from the four winds, breath, and breathe 

upon these slain that they may live," is now the very same wind and 

fche same breath ; but only was wanted to these bodies to be a vital 

principle in them, which otherwise would be dead. And therefore 

Christ himself represents the communication of His Spirit to His 

disciples by His breathing upon them, and communicating to them 

His breath, (John xx. 22.) 

We often, in our common language about things of this nature, 
speak of a principle of grace. I suppose there is no other principle 
of grace in the soul than the very Holy Ghost dwelling in the soul 
and acting there as a vital principle. To speak of a habit of grace as 
a natural disposition to act grace, as begotten in the soul by the first 
communication of Divine light, and as the natural and necessary 
consequence of the first light, it seems in some respects to carry a 
wrong idea with it. Indeed the first exercise of grace in the first 
light has a tendency to future acts, as from an abiding principle, by 
/2^race and by the covenant of God ; but not by any natural force. 
The giving one gracious discovery or act of grace, or a thousand, has 
no proper natural tendency to cause an abiding habit of grace for the 
future ; nor any otherwise than by Divine constitution and covenant. 
But all succeeding acts of grace must be as immediately, and, to all 
intents and purposes, as nmch from the immediate acting of the 
Spirit of God on the soul, as the first ; and if God should take away 
His Spirit out of the soul, all habits and acts of grace would of them- 
selves cease as immediately as light ceases in a room when a candle 
is carried out And no man has a habit of grace dwelling in him 
any otherwise than as he has the Holy Spirit dwelling in him in his 
temple, and acting in union with his natural faculties, after the 
manner of a vital principle. So that when they act grace, 'tis, in the 
language of the Apostle, "not they, but Christ living in them." 
Indeed the Spirit of God, united to human faculties, acts very much 
after the manner of a natural principle or habit. So that one act 
makes way for another, and so it now settles the soul in a disposition 
to holy acts ; but that it does, so as by grace and covenant, and not 
from any natural necessity. 

Hence the Spirit of God seems in Sacred Scripture to be spoken of 
as a quality of the persons in whom it resided. So that they are 
called spiritual persons ; as when we say a virtuous man, we speak 
of virtue as the quality of the man. Tis the Spirit itself that is the 
only principle of true virtue in the heart. So that to be truly virtuous 
is the same as to be spiritual. 


And thus it is not only with respect to the virtue that is in the 
hearts of the saints on earth, but also the perfect virtue and holiness 
of the saints in heaven. It consists altogether in the indwelling and 
acting of the Spirit of God in their habits. And so it was with man 
before the Fall ; and so it is with the elect, sinless angels. We have 
shewn that the holiness and happiness of God consist in the Holy 
Spirit; and so the holiness and happiness of every holy or truly 
virtuous creature of God, in heaven or earth, consist in the com- 
munion of the same Spirit 





Thk following is the title-page of the Bible from whence these ** Notes '* are drawn : 
— '* Verbum Dei. The Holy Bible, Containing the Old Testament and the New ; 
Newly translated out of the originall Tongue; and with the former translations 
diligently compared and revised : London : Printed by the Companie of Stationers. 
1652. Cor mundum circa in me Deus, Psalm 51." 4 to. On a flyleaf there is the 
signature of a former possessor of the Bible, thus : " Benjamin Pierpont, BAb Book 
AD: 1728." This was probably a son of the Rev. James Pierpont of New Haven, 
New England, whose third wife, Mary, grand-daughter of the famous Thomas 
Hooker, was mother of the wife of Jonathan E<lwards. Of " Benjamin " himself 
nothing seems to be known. Immediately underneath the other is, " Jonathan 
Edwards his Book 1748." Mr Pierpont records, on the reverse of the title-page, that 
the interleaving paper consisted of " 432 leaves," and the volume itself of '* 896 
leaves." He has also interspersed a few commonplace observations. Edwards's head- 
ing for his " Notes" is, ''Miscellaneous Observations on the Holy Scriptures." — G. 



1. Geii. ii. 3 — "And God blessed the seventh day, and 
sanctified it," &c.] It is rendered very probable by Bedford in his 
•'Scripture Chronology,"* that this first Sabbath being the first day of 
Adam's life, and so the first day from whence he began to reckon 
time, was the first day of his week ; and so, that the first day of the 
week was the day that God sanctified to be kept by all nations and 
ages, excepting the change that was made of the day of the Sabbath 
for the Israelitish nation after the conjing out of Egypt, till the 
resun-ection of Christ; and also that the " deep sleep " that was fallen 
on Adam in which God took from him one of his ribs and made Eve 
of it, was on the night before. If so, then as Christ rose from the 
dead on the first day of the week, so Adam on the same day rose 
from his first sleep. As Ciirist on that day rose from that death that 
He died, by which He purchased and obtained the Church, being by 
that means created anew ; so Adam rose from that ** deep sleep " that 
he slept, which made way for her formation, and by which he obtained 
her. As when Adam arose from his deep sleep, God brought the 
woman to him, whose being, his deep sleep had made way for, and 
gave her to him ; so when Christ rose from the dead, God brought 
the Church to Him : it was gathered and brought home to Christ in 
an extraordinary manner, soon after His resurrection. As Adam 
rose and received his wife, ** bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh," 
and taken out of himself, from near his heart ; so CTirist received His 
Church that is '* of his flesh and of his bones," (Eph. v. 30,) and as 
the product of His most dear dying love. As this day was a day 
wherein God was refreshed, and rejoiced in beholding His works, and 
a day of rejoicing to Adam in that he then received his wife, and a 
day of rejoicing to Eve, being then first received into union with her 
companion ; so the day of Christ's resurrection was a day of rejoicing 
to God the Father, to Christ, and also to the Church, which was then 
begotten again to a living hope by the resurrection. 

2. Gen. ii. 17 — "In the day," &c.] It does not seem to me 

* 1730 folio.— G. 


necessary that we should understand this, that death should be exe- 
cuted upon him in that day when he ate. But that it may be 
understood in the same manner as Solomon's words to Shimei, 
(1 Kings ii. 37.) Death was executed upon Shimei many days after 
he had done that thing. The thing that God would signify to Adam 
by this expression seems to me to be, that if he but once presumed 
to taste that fruit, he should die. You shall not be waited upon to 
see whether you will do it again, but as soon as ever you have eaten, 
that very day shall death be made sure to you, you shall be bound to 
die, given over to death without any more waiting upon you ; as that 
was what Solomon would signify to Shimei ; that if he but once 
went over the brook Kedron, he should die ; (see note on 1 Kings ii. 
37,) and so these words signify that perfect obedience was the con- 
dition of God's covenant that was made with Adam, as they signify 
that for one act of disobedience he should die. See Ezek. xxxilL 12 
— [" Thou shalt die."] (See Pool, Synop. in he) * 

3. Gen iii. 15 — "I will put enmity between thee and the wo- 
man, and between thy seed and her seed : it shall bruise thy head, 
and thou shalt bruise his heel.''] Here the pronoun "he," the 
verb "bruise," and the afl&x "his" are all of the singular number, as 
Bedford observes in p. 166 of his "Scripture Chronology," + which 
shews that by " seed " is meant a particular person, and not her 
posterity in general ; which observation is agreeable to that which 
the apostle Paul makes, (GaL iii. 16,) referring to what is said in 
Gen. xxiL 17, 18, where the singular pronoim or aflBx "his," and 
the singular verb " possess/* is in like manner used when speaking of 
that "seed of Abraham," who should "possess the gate of his enemies," 
and "in whom all the families of the earth should be blessed." Bedford 
in his " Scripture Chronology " says the Jewish Paraphrasts express 
this text thus : " There shall be a remedy to mankind : but there 
shall be no remedy to thee the serpent. But there shall be a remedy to 
them in the latter age of the world, even in the days of King Mes- 
siah, who shall remember what thou didst in the beginning of the 
world ; " and says, that Maimonides, a learned Jew, justly admires 
[= wonders] that the seed of the woman should be only mentioned, 
and not of Adam, without whom she could have no seed, and which 
must therefore be his seed ; and that it should be said of " her seed," 
not of " his," that it bruised the serpent's head. " This," saith he, 
" is one of the passages in Scripture which is most wonderful, and 
not to be understood according to the letter, but contains great 
wisdom in it." In the old Creation, the woman was taken out of the 
man ; in the new Creation, the man is taken out of the woman. 
God in the new creation honours the inferior ; as man, the inferior 
nature, is honoured above the angels. 

4. Gen. iii. 21 — "Coats oi shinsy^ Our first parents, who were 
become naked, were clothed at the expense of life. Beasts were slain, 

• The well-known '* Synopaia Criticorum," filling five large folios. Best edition is, 
Utrecht, 1684.— G. 

t Ab before under Gou. ii. 3.— G. 


and resigned up their lives to afford them clothing to cover their 
nakedness. The skin signifies the life, as in Job iL 4 — " Skin for 
skin'' — i.e., life for life. These beasts typified Jesus Christ. Probably 
they were beasts slain in sacrifice ; but if not, if they were slain by 
God on purpose to clothe Adam and Eve, the type is no less lively. 
See Exod. xxxvi. 14?. 

5. Gen. iv. 23, 24 — "And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and 
Zillab, here my voice ; ye wives of Lamech, . . I have slain a man," &c.] 
The probable design of the Holy Spirit in relating this, is to shew the 
great increase of the depravity and corruption of the world of Cain's 
posterity, and those that adhered to them at that day, in the genera- 
tion next to the Flood. This is shewn iu the particular instance of 
Lamech, the chief man of Cain's posterity in his day. Lamech had 
been guilty of murder, he had slain some man that he had had a 
quarrel with, and he justifies himself in it, and endeavours to satisfy 
his wives that he shall escape with impunity, from the instance of 
Cain, whose life God had protected, and even took especial care that 
no man should kill him ; and had declared if any man killed him, 
vengeance should be taken on him sevenfold, though the man he 
slew was his brother and a righteous man, and had done him no 
injury. But this man he had slain in, or for his wounding, (as the 
words are interpreted by some learned men, (see Pool, Synop. in 
loc.) See instance Joshua xxiv. 32, HD^top HKM for an hundred 
pieces of silver,) — i.e., the man he had slain had injured and wounded 
him ; and therefore if Cain should be avenged sevenfold, doubtless 
he seventy and sevenfold. By this speech to his wives he shews his 
impenitence, presumption, and great insensibility. When Cain had 
slain his brother, his conscience greatly troubled him ; but Lamech, 
with great obduracy, shakes oflf all remorse, and as it were bids 
defiance to all fear and trouble about the matter. That he should 
set the price of his Ufe so high ; that he should imagine that the 
vengeance due to the man that should take it away ought to be so 
vastly beyond that which was threatened for the killing of Cain, 
must be owing to a prodigious pride of heart, esteeming himself a 
man of such great value, and accounting it so heinous a thing for 
any to hurt or wound him ; and then it shews a vile abuse of God's 
goodness, long-sufiering, and forbearance, in the instance of Cain, 
which ought to have led men to repentance. But instead of this, that 
instance of God's forbearance probably was so abused as to be one 
great occasion of that violence that the earth was filled with in 
Lamech's days. The sins for which the old world was destroyed were 
chiefly sensuality, pride, violence, presumption, a stupid, seared con- 
science, and abusing God's patience, of each of which Lamech (the 
head of that wicked world) is here set forth [as] an example, in his 
polygamy and his murder, (which probably was some way occasioned 
by his polygamy,) and in this speech to his wives about what he 
had done. It need not be wondered at that Lamech should express 
his mind to his wives any more than that Ahab and Haman should 
express the wicked workings of their hearts to their wives, [1 Kings 


xxi. 5, 6 ; Eph. v. 10-14; ;] and it is the less to be wondered at in 
Lainech's case, for it is natural to suppose that his wives, knowing 
what he had done, were full of fear lest the friends of the persons 
murdered would avenge themselves on him and his family, and that 
they themselves should lose their lives by the means ; which would 
be more natural still if the quarrel he had had with the young man 
that was slain, was about his wives, as is probable. This may well 
account for the earnestness of Lamech's speech to his wives, as we 
may well suppose it would require some pains to remove their fears 
in such a ca^e. 

6. Gen. iv. 25 — **Hath appointed me*' &c.] Eve does not say, 
God hath appointed us another seed, but hath appointed me. She 
speaks of Abel and Seth, the righteous children of Adam and Eve, as 
her seed ; and so the Church, or generation of the righteous which 
was to proceed from Seth, she cafls her seed, doubtless with respect 
to the promise, (chap. iii. 15.) 

7. Gen. iv. 26— *'And to Seth, to him also," &c.] The right 
translation probably is, " Then began men to call by the name of the 
Lord," or " in the name of the Lord,'* — i.e., then they began to call 
themselves and their children by or in His name, signifying that then 
the people of God, — of whom Seth was the principal man, and, as it 
were, their head leader and chief priest, being with his posterity ap- 
pointed another seed (seed or generation of God) instead of Abel, — I 
say," then the people of God, openly to distinguish themselves from 
the wicked apostate world of the posterity of Cain and those that 
joined with them, began to appear in a visibly distinct society, 
being called the children of God, when the others were called the 
children of men. The children and posterity were looked upon as 
being in the name of the father and upholding his name. See Numb, 
xxvii. 4; Deut ix. 14, xxv. 7; 1 Sam. xxiv. 21; 2 Sam. xiv. 7, 
xviii 18; Ruth iv. 5; Job xviiL 17; Isa. xiv. 22; Gen. xlviii. 16, 
compared with Numb. vi. 27. On the birth of Enos, it probably first 
began to be a custom for parents openly to dedicate their children to 
God and call them by His name, and, as it were, insert them into His 
name by bringing them to the place of public worship, the transac- 
tion being performed by the parents' solemn declaration and covenant, 
attended with prayer and sacrifice. See Pool, Synop. in loc. 

8. Gen. v. 20—" Shall comfort us."] How Noah would comfort 
the Church of God, we may be led to understand by the manner in 
which the like expression is used in Ezek. xiv. 22. 

9. Gen. v. 24— *' Enoch walked," &c.] That Enoch and Elias 
were translated, shews, that it is not because the redemption of Christ 
was not suflicient, that the saints are not wholly freed from death, so 
as never to taste it. God saw fit that there should be these instances 
of it, probably partly for this end, to manifest this. If all mankind 
had died without one exception, it would have been ready to lead us 
to think it absolutely necessary that the justice or truth of God 
required, and that these didn't allow of one being redeemed from it ; 
and that the redemption of Christ in that point failed of sufficiency. 


What is absolutely universal, we are ready to look upon as absolutely 
necessary ; and the translation of these saints is the more credible, 
because at the end of the world all the saints that are found living 
when Christ comes, shall be translated without dying. If all shall be 
translated, why not one or two before ? 

1 0. Gen. vii. 2, 3 — " Of clean beasts and clean fowls by sevens."] 
Three couples for breed [ing,] and the seventh for sacrifice, (chap, 
viii. 20,) as in the distribution of the days of the week. See Henry 
in loc. 

11. Gen. ix. 12-14.] Such a promise of God that He would no 
more destroy the earth by a flood of waters, and such a token of this 
covenant^ was very necessary for the comfort of Noah and his sons, 
after they had been so terrified by such an awful dispensation of Grod. 
For probably before the Flood they had never seen any such thick 
clouds and such showers of rain as are common since. The air and 
fluids of the earth being then so much purer, as not to be disposed 
thus to such thick and dark condensing of vapours. God's way of 
watering the ground seems to be that mentioned in Gen. il 6, of 
causing a mist to go up and descend in gentle dews. The rainbow 
here seems to be a new thing, which it would not have been if there 
had been such clouds and showers before the Flood as since. Noah 
and his sons, therefore, would have been likely to have been put into 
a terrible consternation from time to time, when they saw the heavens 
all covered with thick and dark clouds, and the water descending in 
great showers of rain, for fear the world was going to be drowned 
again with a flood ; but God having told Noah^ as in these verses, 
their seeing the rainbow, as was common after showers, especially 
great showers, would be a great comfort to them. That beautiful 
pleasant appearance, the rainbow, was a token of the covenant. So 
God's covenant with His people is represented by the staff called 
beauty in Zech. xi. 10. 

12. Gen. xii 1 4 — " For ever."] Such a phrase sometimes signifies 
no longer than " till tbe year of jubilee ;" so Exod. xxi. 6. But if this 
phrase is lindted by the year of jubilee, which came at the end of 
every fifty years, no wonder that it should be spoken of as what 
should be continued for ever, which was to last to the end of 
the ages of that dispensation, till the coming of Christ, and the 
introduction of the glorious gospel-day, the great thing typified by 
the jubilee. There were some ordinances which were only for one 
particular time ; so were several in the XII*^ chapter of Exodus, such 
as eating the paschal lamb with their staflf in their hand, &c., and their 
sprinkling the blood on the door-posts. Many ordinances were only 
occasional precepts to be observed on the occasion of God's appearance 
at Mount Sinai, and the occasion of building the tabernacle, the 
occasion of setting apart the tribe of Levi and the family of Aaron, 
consecrating the tabernacle, altar, &c. The occasion of the destruc- 
tion of Eorah and his company ; the occasion of their being plagued 
with fiery serpents ; the occasion of their passing through Jordan ; 
the occasion of the siege of Jericho, &c. Some ordinances were in 


force only daring their continuing in the wilderness, as the ordin- 
ances concerning their encampments and marches, their gathering 
and disposing of the manna, their bringing all the beasts they killed 
to eat to the door of the tabernacle, &c. It is in contradistinction 
to these that the ordinances that were to be continued throughout 
the ages of their dispensation and of the Jewish state in Canaan, are 
called perpetual or everlasting statutes ; and in this view, and ss com- 
pared with those transitory and temporary statutes, they might well 
be so called. 

13. Gen. xiv. 5, 6.] Thus God is pleased to honour His servant 
Abraham. First, He orders that in Providence, that shews the great 
strength of the enemy, by giving the victory over so many people and 
those that were so mighty. They subdue the race of the giants that 
were in these lands ; and then He gives them an easy prey to 
Abraham and his family, His little flock, and shews that the weakness 
of God is stronger than the greatest strength of men, when hand 
joins in hand and mighty princes are combined together. Abraham 
takes them in their greatest glory, and just after they had taken their 
richest prize, that which they took from that wealthy country of the 
plain of Sodom. In their highest pride and exaltation and triumph, 
they are suddenly brought down as Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar 
were. Thus God often deals with man. There seems to be a special 
hand of God with them to enable them to conquer those giants from 
the favour He bore to His servants Abraham and Lot, and to evacuate 
those countries of them that He designed to give to their posterity 
for a possession. See Deut. ii 18, 19, &c. They gave not God the 
glory of this great victory, but took it to themselves, as Nebuchad- 
nezzar did the building of Babylon ; therefore God destroyed them. 
That race of giants that were in and about Canaan, was probably the 
only race of giants upon eartL God had long war with them, and 
they were all destroyed ; for the sake of His people, the race was 
entirely extirpated. They seemed to have been raised up for that 
end, that they might be types of the devils, and that their being 
destroyed before His people, might be a type of the victory Christ 
obtains over the devils for the sake of His people. See Josh. x. 

14. Gen. xv. 1.] In what God says to Abraham, He has respect 
to what is related in the foregoing chapter. There, it is related how 
wonderfully God had protected him from his enemies, and given him 
the victory over them; and therefore God on this occasion bids 
Abraham not to '' fear," and tells him that He is his shield. In the 
preceding chapter it is also related how that Abraham had refused 
the reward that the King of Sodom had offered him ; and therefore 
God here tells him that He is his exceeding great reward, which He 
was sufficient for, being the possessor of heaven and earth, as 
Abraham on that occasion observed, in verses 19th and 22d of fore- 
going chapter. 

15. Gen. xvii. 12 — "And he that is eight days old," &c.] One 
reason why they were not to be circumcised till they were eight days 
old, was because the child was legally impure till then. It was bom 


impure, being defiled with bloo<], and it was seven days before it was 
clean ; both the mother and child were unclean seven days on that 
account, they being both defiled with that blood, as Levit. xii 2, 3. 

16. Gen. xvii 14 — "That soul shall be cut off from his people."] 
This and other parallel texts in the Law of Moses are not necessarily to 
be understood of death. It is very agreeable to the use of such expres- 
sions elsewhere, that he that is excommunicated, deprived, either by 
the judgment of ecclesiastical judges or by the immediate judgment 
of God, of all union or communion with the congregation or Church 
of God's people, should be said to be cut ofl[' from His people and cut 
off from the congregation of the Lord. Joshua says to the Gibeonites, 
Joshua ix. 23. . . . In the original it is " There shall not be cut off 
from you a bondsman." (The word "cut off'* in the original being 
the same as in the other case) — i.e., no one of you shall be separated 
from the rest of your company, so as not to partake with him or have 
communion with him in servitude. So God says, Num. iv. 18 — 
i.e.y let them not be separated from them and from a participation in 
their privileges. Here, again, the word in the original is the same : 
as it also is Zech. iv. 2, where it is implied that not only those that 
are dead, but those who are separated from the inhabitants and 
benefits of the city by captivity, are cut off from the city. So divorce- 
ment in Scripture is " cutting off," the word being from the same root 
in the original, (Deut. xxiv. 1, 3; Isa. 1. 1.) However, God's de- 
priving His people of church privileges, or of the privileges of His 
visible people, is compared to this very thing. 

17. Gen. xviii. 18, 19.] By these verses it is manifest — 

(1.) That absolute promises already made may yet, in a sort, 
depend on future conditions ; for the promise here mentioned had 
been made already absolutely over and over. But yet Abraham's 
future commanding his children and his household after him, is 
mentioned as the condition of it ; and then after that [there] re- 
mains another condition — viz., that they keep the way of the Lord 
to do justice and judgment. 

(2.) That the promise is absolutely made before the performance 
of all the conditions, because the performance of the future conditions 
is so certainly connected with what was already found in Abraham, 
that it was certainly consequent, and taken as already fulfilled. This 
may illustrate the dependence of a sinner's salvation on his future 
universal obedience and perseverance, though it be already absolutely 

(3.) Hereby it is manifest that, ordinarily, a thorough care and 
endeavour in the education of children will be successful 

(4.) That when God admits children into covenant with their 
parents, and so admits them to be the subjects of the visible seal of 
the Covenant, it is, as it were, on a dependence on the future religion 
and piety of the children, as so ordinarily consequent on it that it may 
be looked upon as virtually included in it 

1 8. Gen. xix. 1 — " And Lot sat in the gate of Sodom."] Where he 
probably sat exhorting and reproving the people ; for the gate of 



the city seems of old to be the place of resort on all public occasions, 
not only the place the judges sat to judge the people, but where their 
teachers sat to instruct and reprove them, (Isa. xxix. 21 ; Amos v. 
10.) The judges might properly do this, but others might also do it 
who did not take upon themselves the oflSce of judges. If Lot was 
now reproving the people, and striving to persuade them to repent 
and reform, he thus [shewed that he] had " no fellowship with 
the unfruitful works of darkness,** but rather reproved them ; and 
God rewarded bis withstanding and resisting the stream of the 
general wickedness of that people, by sending angels on a most kind 
and merciful errand to him, while in the exercise of his fortitude and 
opposition ; and it is observable that just before the destruction of 
the people, God used extraordinary means to reclaim them by Lot's 
reproofs, (who was a preacher of righteousness as well as Noah, 
2 Pet. ii. 5-9,) and their destruction came upon them just on the 
manifestation of the highest and most desperate degree of obstinacy 
in them, in their despising his reproofs, and most horrid wickedness 
towards Lot and the angels immediately after. Lot having lately 
been reproving the people in the gate, the place of judgment, made 
them the more ready to say, as they do in ver. 9 — " This fellow came 
in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge." 

19. Gen. xxiL 8—*' God will provide Himself a lamb."] Fuldlled in 
Christ. We may observe here an instance of the harmony between 
the Old and New Testaments, in that it is according to the Old Testa- 
ment, as well as in that it is not unreasonable, that God Himself 
should provide the sacrifice by which sins against Himself should be 
atoned for, and His own anger appeased. Abraham did not only 
tell his son that God would provide Himself, but He actually did pro- 
vide a ram for Abraham, to offer up as a burnt-offering. Again, we 
may observe here that which may confirm us, that the prophecies of 
the prophets often, according to the mind of the Holy Ghost, had 
respect to those things which the prophets themselves had no thought 
of. For Abraham, when he said *' God will provide Himself a lamb," 
had no thought of any other than that Isaac was to be the lamb 
that was to be offered and that God had provided for Himself. See 
John xi. 51. 

20. Gen. xxiv. 1 2.] Abraham's servant obtained a wife for his 
master's son, not merely by delivering his message, but by prayer 
joined with it. So the ministers of Christ win souls, not only by 
preaching, but by earnest prayer to God for their conversion. 

21. Gen. xxvi. 5.] If God had such respect to Abraham's righteous- 
ness and obedience, and particularly to his offering up his son in 
obedience to God, as to give the earthly Canaan to his seed, much 
more will God have such a respect to the righteousness of Christ, and 
His offering up Himself in obedience to God, as for the sake of this 
to give His seed the heavenly Canaan. 

22. Gea xxvii. 4.] It was probably the manner, in those days, for 
parents, when they grew old and expected to die in a little time, to 
make a feast and to eat and drink with their children, when they gave 


them their blessing and their dying charges, and so did, as it were, 
make their WilL Their dying testament, or blessing, was something 
like a Covenant ; but it was the manner of those, when they made a 
Covenant with any, to make a feast and eat and drink together, (chap, 
xxvi. 30, xxxi. 46.) When they gave their children the blessing, they 
then, as it were, took their leave of them. And when near friends 
took their leave one of another, they were wont to eat and drink 
together. So Rebekah's friends took their leave of her, (Gen. xxxiv. 
54.) So did the Levite's father-in-law take leave of him and his 
daughter, the Levite's wife, in Judges xix. So God, when He makes 
His testament or covenant with us, doth it, as it were, at a feast Of 
old, when the people entered into solemn covenant with God, they 
were wont to make a feast and feasted before the Lord ; and almost 
all solemnities were attended with feasting. The Patriarchs thus 
blessing their children before their death, exhibits to us a proof of 
the covenant of grace, which is, as it were, Christ s Last Will and 
Testament to His people. 

23. Gen. xxviii 11 , 12.] There seems to be a double representation 
in this story. It seems to be a type that has respect to two things. 

(1 .) By Jacob sleeping and having heaven opened to him, and God 
appearing in heaven as his covenant-God, and the angels of God 
ascending and descending on him, seems to be represented Christ, 
which is confirmed by what Christ says, (John i 51,) in which 
Christ plainly alludes to what is said here in ver. 12 ; and Jacob's 
sleep here, seems to represent the death of Christ. As Jacob in his 
sleep has the gate of heaven opened and a ladder set on the earth, on 
the land of Canaan, whose top reached to heaven, and the angels of 
God ascending and descending on it, and God appearing in heaven 
revealing Himself as the covenant-God of him and his seed, and pro- 
mising that his seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and that in him 
and his seed all the families of the earth should be blessed. So 
Christ, by His death, procmred that the gate of heaven should be opened 
towards the earth, and that there shoidd be a union between heaven 
and earth, and that there should be a way from heaven to the earth 
procured, as it were, a ladder, by which there might be an ascent 
from this sinful miserable world to heaven. Christ procured this 
way to heaven for His covenant people, for His spiritual posterity, 
and therefore the foot of the ladder is set on the land of Canaan, 
the land of His people, on Jacob's land, or the land of Jacob's 
posterity ; and Christ, by His death, procured that the angels of God 
might ascend and descend to and from the land of Canaan, in and 
through His mediation, or on His ladder, to be ministering spirits to 
the inhabitants of Canaan, (Heb. L 14.) So through the death of 
Christ, God appears as the covenant-God of Him and His seed, pro- 
mising to give heaven to Him and His seed, as in ver. 14 He pro- 
mises to give Canaan to Jacob and his seed, and also, as bound in 
Covenant, to multiply His seed as the dust of the earth, as here to 
Jacob, (Isa. liii. 10 ;) and promising to give Him the Gentiles in all 
parts of the world, or from the four winds of heaven, to be His 


seed, (which was accomplished soon after the death of Christ,) as here 
He promises to Jacob that he should spread abroad to the west, and 
to the east, and to the north, and to the south, and as promising that 
*' in him all the families of the earth should be blessed." Not« that 
Christ is evidently called by the name of Israel, one of the names 
of Jacob, in Isa. xlix. 3, which renders it more probable that Jacob 
is here a type of Christ. 

(2.) Jacob here represents a believer, or rather believers collec- 
tively, as the Church is spiritual Israel, of whom Jacob, or Israel, is 
the father; and the stone that he slept or rested upon represents 
Christ, who is from time to time compared to a stone; and that 
Christ is represented by this stone seems more evident, because he 
anointed it, (ver. 18.) Thereby He is represented — that is, Christ, or 
the anointed, and is called so, not only as He is anointed of God, but 
abo as anointed by His people, (see Dan. ix. 25 ; Mark xiv. 3 ;) 
and another thing that confirms that this stone is a type of Christ, is 
what Jacob says of it in ver. 22, for Christ is the house of God, " in 
Whom dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily." It was He 
that was signified by the Tabernacle and Temple, as is evident by what 
Christ says of His own body, for, says He, " destroy," &c. ; and the 
Lamb is said to be the temple of the New Jerusalem, (Rev. xxL 22.) 
And it is still further evident by the use that he put it to, for he set it 
up for a pillar — i.e., for an altar, (see Exod. xxiv. 4.) For the oil that 
Jacob poured on it was to consecrate it as an altar, and was also 
as an offering to God on the altar, as the precious ointment that 
Mary poured on the head of Christ was an offering to Christ and to 
God through Him. And this will be more evident if we compare what 
is said here with chap. xxxv. 14, where we have an account that 
Jacob in the same place set up a pillar of stone (and probably it was 
the same stone) and poured a drink-offering thereon, and poured oil 
thereon. What we are told of, chap. xxxv. 7 — " And he built there 
an altar, and called it El-beth-el : because there God appeared unto 
him, when he fled from the face of his brother." This altar prob- 
ably (as I have observed) is the same spoken of in ver. 14, on 
which he poured a drink-offering and oil — viz., the stone which he 
set up for a pillar, which was probably the same stone that is spoken 
of in this place, or that that stone at least was a principal stone in 
the altar. But this he calls El-beth-el, — i.e., the God of Bethel, — ^because 
it represented the God of Bethel, or Jesus Christ, who is that Qod. 
Jacob promises, at the end of this chapter, that when God should 
return him again into his own land in peace, that this stone which he 
had set up for a pillar should be God's house — i.e., this very place 
shall be that which I will make the place of worship, (and therefore 
he set up the stone that he slept on for a pillar or monument 
whereby to remember the place ;) and this very stone shall be the 
altar on which I will worship and offer offerings to God: as we 
are told of David, when he had built an altar in the threshing-floor of 
Oman the Jebusite, in the place where the angel appeared to him ; 
(1 Chron. xxiL 1,) which accordingly was the place where the Temple 


was built. And therefore, when Jacob was returned to Canaan and 
seemed to be negligent of his promise, God put him in mind of it, 
and commanded him to go and dwell there and make that the place 
of his worship, (Gen. xxxv. 1 ;) and therefore, doubtless, the stone 
that he set up when he came there, that we have account of, (verses 
14, 15,) was in the very same place, and, we have all reason to think, 
the same stone. There God talked with him again then, and we have 
an account (ver. 13) that God went up from him in the place He 
talked with him, which denoted that place where God appeared. 
There was the gate or entrance into heaven, as he says this place is, 
and so doubtless was the same spot. Besides that, we find Jacob 
calls it by the same name, ver. 15. . . . Hence we may learn that 
their altars of old were types of Christ, especially in His Divine 
nature. They represented Him who is the "rock" of Israel, (see 
Judges xiii. 19.) An^ therefore it was the manner of the heathen to 
set up pillars or small altars instead of images, as Bedford in his 
" Scripture Chronology," and other historians have observed : which 
was strictly forbidden to the children of Israel, (Levit. xxvi. 1 , and so 
Dent. xvL 22 ;) and the children of Israel were i:equired to destroy the 
pillars of the people of the land, (Deut. viL 5, and xil 3 ;) and hence 
the children of Israel were strictly forbidden to have any other altar 
but one, — no other but the altar of the Lord, because God was one, 
and Christ was one, and because altars represented Christ. This is not 
the only place where the name of God is given to an altar. We have 
the like in Exod. xviL 15. Jacob's sleeping or resting on this stone, 
(for this stone, we are told, was his pillow,) typifies God's people 
believing in or resting on Christ. Christ invites the weary to come 
to Him, and promises that in Him they shall have rest. Jacob, while 
resting on this stone, has heaven's gate opened to him, and a ladder 
reaching from him to God in heaven ; so it is by faith in Christ that 
God's people have heaven's gate opened to them, and have a way pre- 
pared for them to ascend and come to God in heaven. Jacob, while 
resting on this stone, has God appearing to him as his covenant-God ; 
so it is through faith in Christ that God becomes their covenant-God, 
and whereby they become interested in the promises of that covenant 
of grace, and it is by faith that they become related to heaven and 
have the privilege of the ministration of angels. Jacob's sleep here 
represents both death and rest. If we look on Jacob here as a 
type of Christ, his sleep is a type of death. If as a type of the 
Church, or of the Israel of God, then it represents spiritual rest. 
But let us take the type which way we will, we may observe that the 
great privilege and blessing is obtained, of having heaven's gate 
opened and a way to heaven from the earth, and the ministration of 
angels is enjoyed in Bethel, in the house of God, — i.e., in God's Church, 
— and in the improvement of the ordinances of His house. 

24j. Gen. xxix. 27 — " Fulfil her week."] By this it is evident that 
then, in those days, their time was divided out into weeks, or parcels 
of seven days, as it is now, by which may rationally be argued that the 
Sabbath was then observed among them, that it was an institution 


for the times before Moses, and that the remembrance of the institu- 
tion was kept up in the world throughout the ages that preceded the 
Mosaic Dispensation. For the weekly division of time had its rise 
from the appointment of one day in seven to be observed as a Sab- 
bath, and it was the observing the Sabbath that upheld this divi- 

25. Gen. xxx. 1.] It is an observation in the fulfilling of Scripture, 
that when God's people have an immediate desire and pressing after 
an outward thing, they have their design sometimes answered, but 
therewith a sharp reproof from God ; and usually find small satisfac- 
tion in their enjoying that about which they were so unsober in their 
pursuit. " Give children," &c., said Rachel : she got children, and 
she died in bringing one of them forth. 

26. Gen. xxxi. 24 — " Good or bad."] i.e., Say nothing at all to 
him to compel him, to oblige him to return again, or to bring him 
again under thy service, or to oblige him to resign to thee any of 
his wives, or cattle, or substance. Say nothing that has such a 
tendency, or with any such view, whether it seem right and just to 
you or wrong, good or evil. I leave not you to judge of the Tight- 
ness of what you shall say with this view, but charge thee to say 
nothing at all in the least to infringe on his liberty or his possessions. 
Laban came out after Jacob with such intentions, and he was now 
meditating what he would say to this purpose. His head was 
exceeding full of matter, but God charges him to suppress all, and 
not say one word tending to the design on which he was pursuing 
Jacob, however right and reasonable it might appear to him. God 
knew the heart of Laban, and He speaks to his heart. He knew how 
ready he would be to plead that the design he was upon was just, 
and that what he had meditated to say to Jacob was good and just. 
But God prevents him, by charging him to say nothing to the pur- 
pose he was pursuing, let it be good or bad. 

27. Gen xxxii. 31.] Jacob goes away with a blessing, but yet 
halting on his thigh. God commonly, when He bestows some extra- 
ordinary spiritual blessing and peculiar favour, also at the same 
time brings some temporal affliction or difficulty, as Paul when 
admitted to the third heavens had a thorn in the flesh at the same 
time, lest he should be exalted above measure. Jacob's halting on 
his thigh represents the saints getting along with difficulty and 
trouble, disappointment of their temporal aims, and their failing in 
the steps they take, as wliat nature aims at and desires. Jacob's 
lameness after he had the blessing, made him lean more on his staff, 
so the saints* afflictions they meet with in the world, make them live 
more by faith, (see ver. 10, and Num. xxi. 18.) Jacob himself when 
he had the blessing had with it that kind of lameness of which his 
halting on his thigh was a type, and so he had ever since he first stole 
the blessing from EsaiL He presently upon it suffered banishment, 
went away poor and solitary, with nothing but his staff, to Padan- 
ai-am. There he met with crosses and disappointments : he was 
cheated with Leah in^tca^l of Rachel, for whom he served seven 


years, and was forced to serve another seven years. Eachel, his most 
beloved wife, was a great while barren, and after he had suffered 
twenty years' exile from his father's house, and hard service and a 
great deal of trouble from his father-in-law, he was forced to steal 
away, and his journey was attended with great difficulty and peril : 
he was in great danger first from Laban, and then from Esau, and 
was forced to purchase safety from him with the loss of great part of 
his substance. He made him a present of five hundred and eighty of 
his cattle, and was forced greatly to bow and cringe besides ; and 
then his daughter Dinah was defiled, which doubtless was a very 
sorrowful thing to him ; and then he had more sorrow by the cruelty 
and treachery of Simeon and Levi's two sons, which made him to 
stink in the nostrils of the inhabitants of the country, so that he was 
in fear of his life from them ; and then Eachel, his most beloved 
wife, died in bringing forth her second child ; and then Beuben, his 
first-bom son, was guilty of incest with one of his own concubines, 
which must needs be a great grief to him ; and then he had most 
bitter affiction in the loss of his beloved son Joseph ; and then, 
doubtless, had a great deal of sorrow from the great sins and calamities 
there were in Judah and his family ; and then there was a sore 
famine, and Jacob and his family were put to a great deal of trouble 
to get provision to support themselves, and he had much exercise, 
perplexity, and distress in the affair managed between Joseph and 
his brethren ; and then he and all his family [had] as it were a second 
banishment from the land of Canaan, the land promised to him in 
Egypt, an idolatrous country, and never returned any more alive. 
That Jacob, who was so often blessed of God, and to whom God so 
frequently ministered such abundant favours to, should yet meet with 
so much trouble and sorrow in this life is a great evidence of a future 
state. The same may be observed concerning David. Halting is 
put elsewhere for affliction or adversity : Ps. xxv. 15 — "But in mine 
adversity they rejoiced ; " in the original, " in my halting," (Micah iv. 
6,7; Zeph.iii 19.) 

28. Gen. xxxvii. 24.] The pit was empty, there was no water in it. 
Joseph's brethren intended to famish him, or kill him with hunger 
and thirst, and it was so ordered afterwards that they would have 
died with famine had not they come and bowed down to Joseph to 
the earth for relief. 

29. Gen. xxxvii. 31-33.] Joseph's brethren deceive Jacob their 
father by the blood of a kid instead of his son Joseph's, his best be- 
loved son ; as he, being Esau's brother, had deceived Isaac his father 
with the flesh and skin of a kid, instead of his son Esau's skin and 
his venison, who was Isaac's best beloved sou. Thus is Jacob 
punished by God's providence, (see xxix. 25.) 

30. Gen. xlL 40, &c.] This signifies the Father's investing of 
Christ the Mediator with the government of the Church and the 
world. Joseph was exalted out of the dungeon to be a prince and a 
ruler over all the land. So Christ was exalted from being a prisoner 
of vindic[a]tive justice out of the grave, and as it were out of the pit of 


hell, to be a prince, and to have all tilings put under Hiui. Pharaoh 
set Joseph over his own house. So God exalted Christ, and set Him 
over His Church, which is the house of God, (Heb. iii. 6,) and made 
Him King of heaven itself, which is the place of God. According to 
Joseph's word Pharaoh's people were to be ruled, only on the throne 
Pharaoh was to be greater than he. So Christ is made ilie head 
and ruler of angels and men ; but yet God the Father is greater than 
Christ as Mediator ; as Christ says, " My Father is greater than I," 
He is greater in His economical office than the Son, in that He is the 
person that sustains the dignity and maintains the right of the Deity. 
Pharaoh took off his ring from off his hand and put it upon Joseph's 
hand. So God the Father invested Christ with His own honour and 
dignity, that all men should honour the Son as they honour the 
Father, and they cried before Him, " Bow the knee," as it is said con- 
cerning Christ, " Let all the angels of God worship Him ; " and 

agreeable to this it is said, PhiL ii. 8-10 Joseph was thus exalted 

as a reward for his being the means of saving the people from famine 
and death. So Christ is exalted to God's right hand, and all things 
put under His feet in reward for His working out the work of re- 
demption. Pharaoh exalted Joseph and made him head over Egypt, 
and put the people and all the land into his hand, that he himself 
might have the immediate disposal and ordering of that office of 
saving the people from famine that he had laid the foundation for. 
So Christ is exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour, to dispose of the 
affairs of the actual applying and accomplishing that redemption that 
He had purchased ; all things were committed to Him of the Father, 
that He might give eternal life to as many as God had given Him. 
The food of the land by which the people were to be saved from 
famine was committed to Joseph's hands, that he might be the im- 
mediate dispenser of it. So the purchased blessings are committed to 
Christ. He has received gifts for men. When He ascended on high, 
He had the purchased blessings given to Him, that He Himself 
might bestow them on those that He purchased them for. He re- 
ceived the promise of the Father, even the Holy Ghost, without 
measure, to shed down on believers, as Joseph had corn brought into 
him in immense quantities, (ver. 49.) Joseph had a vast flock in his 
hand. This signifies the sufferings of Clirist for the supply of the 
wants of His people. Joseph was advanced thus to be a saviour to 
his brethren and kindred. So Chiist was exalted to be the Saviour of 
men, whom He became related to by His incarnation, becoming the 
brother of believers. The saints are Christ's near relations. He that 
hears the word of God and keeps it, the same is His mother, and 
sister, and brother. Joseph, by his exaltation in Egypt, made way 
for his brethren's reception there. He there prepared a place for 
them in Goshen, and made way for their reception there, by taking 
his brethren and presenting them to the king, and interceding with 
him for them, (chap. xlviL) Pharaoh gave them the best of the land 
by giving it to Joseph for them, (chap, xlvii. 6,) and Joseph nourished ~ 
his brethren in Egypt. So Christ, by His exaltation in heaven, made 


way for their coming there, prepared, &c. Joseph saved his brethren, 
though they had been enemies, yea, though they had been his mortal 
enemies, though they would have put him to death, though they 
"sold" him. He saved them, by his banishment [and] those very 
sufterings which their sin, their enmity, brought upon him, as it was 
with Christ ; and he saved them from famine. He first humbled them 
before he made himself known to them ; he exercised them with a 
variety of dispensations, hopes, fears, disappointments, confusions, 
perplexities, to humble them before he made himself known to them. 
They bring their money with them to buy corn, whereas that was 
not their way to obtain it of Joseph ; he would not accept of their 
money. So we must come to Christ for spiritual food, without our 
own righteousness, *' without money and without price." Joseph at 
first made himself strange unto them, and spoke roughly to them ; 
charges them with not coming as friends, but as enemies, and there- 
by he makes them sensible of their guilt in their former treatment of 
him. So when the elect are under convictions, and are first stirred 
up to seek to God for salvation, God is wont, as it were, to frown upon 
them, to express His anger, as though He looked upon them as ene- 
mies ; thereby to bring their sins to remembrance, and make them 
sensible of their guilt in their former treatment of Him. Joseph 
insists on it that he should look upon them as enemies till they 
delivered up their younger brother, that one brother that they kept 
back ; that they were tender of as a child ; that they pitied and 
spared, and looked upon it that it would be too hard for him to be 
brought out of the family, and rent from the {irms of his father and 
delivered up to another lord. So oftentimes sinners, when they 
begin to seek salvation, keep back something that is dear and tender 
in their eyes, and flatter themselves that they are not obliged to 
deliver it up ; they think it is too hard and cruel for them so to 
expose such an enjoyment or possession ; but God will surely look 
upon them as enemies till all is delivered up and nothing kept back. 
Joseph put them all together in ward three days. So God for a 
while holds sinners prisoners under conviction ; they are shut up as 
condemned creatures ; exposed to the execution of God's wrath. 
Joseph pities them, and weeps with compassion for them at the same 
time that he treats them thus roughly. So God oftentimes pities sin- 
ners under conviction at the same time that He seems terribly to 
frown on them. While they were backward to deliver up Benjamin, 
Joseph took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes. 
So while persons keep back some dear lust, God takes away some of 
their enjoyments from them. Before Joseph made known himself 
unto them, they did not understand his language ; for he spoke to 
them by an interpreter. So sinners before their conversion don't 
understand God's language, and they therefore need the help and 
advice of ministers under their convictions, as interpreters for 
them. For a while they seem to have obtained their end ; to have 
obtained food for their money ; but this food lasts them but a little 
while before it was sj)cnt. So the false comfort that sinners obtain 


under conviction by their own righteousness lasts them but a little 
while before it is all spent. For a while they hoped their money was 
accepted ; but they soon find it rejected, to their great disappointment 
and confusion. They come back to their father in the land of Canaan, 
who in this case represents the first Adam, or [the] nature which men 
have from him by their parents; the father whose tenderest and dearest 
child Benjamin was that was kept back ; they consult with their father 
under this difficulty, as men nnder convictions in their difficulties are 
wont to consult nature. Their father blames them for yielding to the 
lord of the land so far as they had done, and greatly objects against 
delivering up Benjamin. He cries out, ''AH these things are against 
me,'' as persons under convictions often do in a kind of discourage- 
ment ; but, however, he at length is forced to it by sore famine. So 
men are, as it were, forced to deliver up their dearest lusts, that it grieves 
them to part with, by sore famine, by a sense of the extreme neces- 
sity of their case. He is brought to it by the possessions of Reuben 
and Judah. Eeuben here represents the family of reason, which is 
the eldest child of man's nature. Jacob in his blessing calls Beuben 
" excellency of dignity,'* and the " excellency of power." The stand- 
ard of the camp of Reuben bore the image of a man. Reuben never 
consented to the selling of Joseph. Man s reason never consents to 
his sin. Judah, the progenitor of Christ, the Word of God, the 
other brother that persuaded Jacob to deliver up Benjamin, signifies 
the word of God: or Judah represents the ministers of the word who 
preach the word of Christ ; and therefore he rehearses the words of 
Joseph, and particularly declares his threatenings and solemn declara- 
tions, to persuade Jacob to deliver up Benjamin. Jacob, after dis- 
puting with Judah, delivers up Benjamin, the right-hand son, as the 
name signifies. So nature, after it has long hung back, and much 
disputing v^ith the word of God, and objecting against it, by the word 
being earnestly set home, at last yields to cut ofi' and deliver up the 
beloved lust and right-hand sin. Jacob, being at length forced by 
the extreme necessity of the case, delivers up that one son that he 
was most fond of, [if it must be so now, says he ;] he is brought, as 
it were, to yield up the case as to the enjoyment of his chUdren. " If 
I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved." So sinners must be 
brought, as it were, to yield up the case as to the enjoyment of their 
sins. Natiure must be brought to yield up the case as to the enjoy- 
ment tf natural enjoyments. But now although the former price 
that Jacob sent to Joseph for com was rejected, yet he, having de- 
livered up Benjamin, is still for purchasing com with his own price, 
and therefore sends the best fruits that his land afibrded and double 
money. So sinners under conviction, after they have been seeking 
salvation by their own righteousness, and have trusted in it for a 
while, have had comfort in it, and then are disappointed, and find to 
their surprise that God rejects the price they have offered before 
their thorough reformation ; yet after they have more thoroughly 
reformed and proceeded further in i-eligion, they make a new attempt, 
though the price they offered before failed ; yet they hofie, by doub- 


ling their price and offering the best fruits of nature's land, and by 
delivering up Benjamin, to prevail Now again Joseph's brethren 
have new perplexities and discoui*agements, they are ready to look 
on their case as desperate ; they thought they were taken prisoners, 
(Gen. xliii. ]8.) So it often is with sinners under convictions. 
After this distress they had a great deal of comfort and peace in 
hope of the acceptance of their present. The steward, who here 
represents conscience, says to them, "Peace be to you, fear not." 
They seem to be well accepted and very kindly treated in Joseph's 
house, and they enjoyed a feast But this peace and joy of theirs 
soon vanishes again and comes all to nothing, and, to their great 
confusion, their double money is found rejected. For now Joseph, 
that they thought had accepted them, and, treated them so kindly 
for their present, appears more angry than ever with them, and 
sends a dreadful messenger after them, and lays a heavy charge upon 
them ; fastens the imputation of being enemies more fully than ever 
upon them, lays their vile treatment of him upon them as deserving 
death ; yea, and by opening their sacks to their view makes the jus- 
tice of the charge to appear, after they themselves had acknowledged 
that, if they were guilty as they were charged, death was a just 
punishment, (chap. xliv. 9.) So sinners under conviction oftentimes, 
after going far in religion, and after many perplexities and troubles, 
have at last great peace and joy in their own righteousness, vainly 
thinking that God accepts them and loves them for their presents 
that they offer ; and they have a feast of false joy : but all soon 
vanishes, and God appears more angry than ever with them, and a 
messenger of death is as it were sent to seize them, even Conscience. 
He that before said to them, *' Peace be to you, fear not," and that 
invited them into Joseph's home, and there made a feast for them, 
now charges them with enmity and treason, and condemns them to 
death ; and their hearts are laid open by conscience to let them see 
what is there, even as the steward opened the men's sacks to shew 
them the stolen cup and money ; and they are made to own that the 
crime deserves death. Upon this Joseph's brethren are seized and 
carried before Joseph, the lord they had sinned against, and there 
their lord sets the heinousness of their crime before them, and they 
lire brought down to his feet, to lie on the ground before him. Their 
mouths are stopped, and they confess their iniquity, (chap. xliv. 16,) 
and are brought to resign themselves into Joseph's hands, to yield 
that he should be their sovereign and they his servants, but yet to 
plead for mercy, and then they were prepared for comfort ; then 
Joseph reveals himself to them as their brother; then they are received 
indeed as friends and brethren, with great and lasting comfort. Then 
Joseph reveals to them the whole mystery of their salvation from 
famine, by their selling him, and his humiliation and exaltation in 
Egypt. And Joseph gives them an inheritance in Goshen, and 
then they see that it was their brother, and understood his voice, 
(chap. xlv. 12.) And hereupon they are accepted of Pharaoh, 
whose deputy Joseph was in the kingdom ; and he, even Pharaoh, the 


original king of Egypt, gives them inheritance in the land, and 
Joseph bids them not regard their stuff, their former possessions, for 
all the land of Egypt (in this case a type of heaven) was before 
them ; and now they are all clothed with changes of raiment, and 
they had suflScient provision given them to support them by the way 
till they came to Egypt, to Goshen, their inheritance, and he charges 
them not to fall out by the way. When the king exalted Joseph, he 
gave him a new name. So Christ in the Bevelation speaks of His 
" new name," by which is meant that new honour and glory which 
He received at His exaltation. Joseph's new name, Zaphnath-paaneah, 
signifies " revealer of secrets." Christ was the greater revealer of 
secrets (John i. 18) who came out of the bosom of the Father, and was 
the great prophet of bring to light mysteries that had been kept 
secret since the world began. Some translate Joseph's new name " the 
saviour of the world," [see Pool, Syn.] Joseph was in some respect 
exalted over the whole world ; the whole earth was brought into a 
dependence on him for life. For it is said, (verses 56, 57,) all came 
bending to him, as Joseph's brethren did. So Joseph was in a sense 
the saviour of the world, and to him every knee bowed, not only 
in Egypt, but throughout the whole earth. Men were saved by 
Joseph's word, as we are saved by the word of Christ. It was his 
predictions, his warnings, his counsels that saved Egypt, and saved 
the world. 

31. Gen. xliiL 34] Thus he that is last is first, and the first last ; 
the last is the greatest. He that is but as a little child, is most exalted ; 
so he that is spiritually least, and most like a little child, is greatest in 
the kingdom of heaven, (Matt, xviii. 4.) 

32. Gen. xlvii. 31 .] The bowing here spoken of is a bowing of 
adoration, or a bowing to worship God, as is confirmed by what is 
said of David, parallel to this, 1 Kings i. 47, 48, and also by Heb. 
xi. 21. 

33. Gen. xlviii. 22— " Which I took out of the hand of the 
Amorite."] This he speaks in the language of a prophet, according 
to which a prophet is often said to do that which he foretells shall be 
done, (see Jer. L 1 0.) And they often speak of future events in the past 
tense ; or he may speak of himself as taking the land by conquest, 
because his posterity should do it. To call them himself is agree- 
able to the limguage of almost all his own prophecies. This passage 
is much illustrated by the next cliapter, ver. 7, and chap, xxvii. 37. 

34. Gen. xlix. 22— "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even," &c.] The 
word which is translated ** branches," properly signifies " daughters," 
and the word which is translated " wall," signifies both a " wall" and 
an "enemy;" so that the words maybe translated either, "whose 
branches run over the wall," or, " whose daughters go over to the 
enemy." But let it be translated either of the ways, the event re- 
ferred to, doubtless, is the tribe of Benjamin's being supplied with wives. 
For their wives that they were supplied with from Jabesh-Gilead 
were of this tribe, for Jabesh-Gilead was in the half-tribe of Manasseh ; 
and the daughters of Shiloh, which they catched when they came out 


ill dances, were of the tribe of Ephraim, for Shiloh was in that tribe. 
Thus their daughters went over to the enemy, or tribe of Ben- 
jamin, who were enemies to the other tribes of Israel, in that war in 
which their women and most of the men were destroyed. Thus, 
also, the branches or daughters of this fruitful bough or vine ran over 
the wall As the whole people of Israel are several times in Scrip- 
ture compared to a vineyard, so here a particular tribe in Israel seems 
to be compared to a distinct enclosure of fruit-trees or vineyard that 
was walled in, (as vineyards were wont to be,) and so separated from 
other vineyards. Joseph is compared here to an exceeding iSourishing 
bough or vine, whose daughters or branches run over the wall and 
get out of the enclosure and run into another vineyard. In that it is 
said his branches run over the wall, and the same word that signifies 
branches, also signifying (and more properly signifying) daughters ; it 
seems to shew which way his branches shall run over the wall — viz., 
by his daughters breaking over the' enclosure or limits of the tribe 
and going to another tribe. 

35. Gen. xlix. 24 — "But his bow," &c.] This was remarkably 
verified in Joshua and Gideon, who were of this tribe, as appears 
with respect to Joshua by Num. xiii. 8, and with respect to Gideon 
by Judges vi. 11, with Joshua xvii. 2, and Judges vi. 35. They were 
wonderful instances of those whose bow abode in strength, and the arms 
of whose hands were strengthened by the hands of the mighty God 
of Jacob, who were strengthened, and succeeded by immediate help 
from God, as appears by their whole story. Jephthah the Gileadite 
was also of Joseph, being of the tribe of Manasseh : — [" from thence 
is the Shepherd, the stone of Israel"] These words seem to have a 
remarkable fulfilment in Joshua, who was, as it were, the " shepherd 
of Israel," who led them into Canaan to their pasture, and conquered 
their enemies for them, and was, in a subordinate sense, the *'rock" 
of Israel's salvation, who bore the name of Christ. Joshua is Jesus 
or the Saviour, and was a remarkable type of Christ, and who had 
Christ with him, and acted by His influence, and fought by His 
strength, and had His Spirit to guide him. It may also have respect 
to the ark and tabernacle being kept at Shiloh, as it was till the 
days of Samuel, for Shiloh was in the tribe of Ephraim, (Ps. IxxviiL 
GO, 67.) The ark was the type and symbol of Christ, the Shep- 
herd and Rock of Israel ; and the Tabernacle and the mercy-seat 
over the ark was the place of His presence. ["From thence," 
&c.] — i.e., from the mighty Grod of Jacob, mentioned in the im- 
mediately preceding words. It seems, evidently, to be explained by 
the words immediately following — "From the God of thy father, 
and He will help thee." For so the words are, literally translated : 
" The arms of his hands wer0 made strong " (thus He helped thee) 
" by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob," (who was Joseph's 
father:) "from thence is the Shepherd, the stone of Israel: even 
from the God of Jacob thy father, and He*' (the Shepherd, the 
stone of Israel) "will help thee, and by Him shall the arms of 
their hands be made strong." He the Messiah, the hand or' the 


arm of the Lord, (as He is sometimes called,) which shall strengthen 
thine arms. [See Pool, Syuop., on ver. 25.] 


36. Exod. ill 2, 3 — " And the angel of the Lord appeared," &c.] 
That is, Christ — who is often so called — appeared, &c. This bush 
represents — 

(1.) The human nature of Christ, whose name is "the branch." 
This bush well represented the human nature of Christ, because it was 
the growth of the earth. Though Christ, with regard to His Divine 
nature, be the Lord from heaven, yet, with respect to His human 
nature, He was the growth of the earth ; He was of earthly descent, 
of the race of mortal mankind. And upon the account of its low 
and humble stature ; it was a bush or bramble, as the word in the 
original signifiea This well represented Christ's state of humiliation, 
and also His meekness and lowliness of heart. And also upon the 
account of its tenderness and liableness to be destroyed. What more 
easily crushed or consumed than a bramble-bush ? This bush, upon 
each of these accounts, well represented what is spoken of Christ in 
Isa. liii. 2. This bush was " a root out of a dry ground," (see Hosea 
xiii. o ; Deut. viiL lo,) for it was a bush that grew on Mount Horeb, 
as ver. 1, which was so called from the remarkable dryness of the 
place, for the word Horeb signifies dryness. The Son of God, the 
Second Person of the Trinity, His appearing in this bush is a type of 
His being manifest in the flesh. Christ is said (Deut. xxxiii 16) to 
have dwelt in the bush ; hereby was typified His dwelling in flesh. 
As the bush burned with fire and was not consumed, so Christ, in 
the human nature, sufiered extremely; He endured the wrath of 
God, but was not overcome, perished not, was not consumed. He rose 
again from the dead, and did not see corruption. Though His human 
nature was but a bush or tender plant, in itself easily capable of being 
consumed, and though the fire spent all its force upon it ; yet, because 
of the Divinity that dwelt in it, it was impossible that it should be 
consumed. The power of God "was made perfect in weakness." 
Satan could not prevail against Christ ; though he cast Him into the 
fire, yet he could not destroy Him. 

(2.) This bush represents the Church, the mystical body of Christ ; 
as it was with Christ, so it was with the Church. It is a tender plant. 
It is a branch of the earth ; and oftentimes is in the fire. But God 
will not sufier it to be consumed ; but it always survives the flames ; 
the gates of hell never prevail against it ; her enemies are not sufiered 
to swallow her up ; God has promised that, when she goes through the 
fire, she shall not be burnt, neither shall the flames kindle upon her. 
But, doubtless, a special respect is herein had to the Church, now in 
her suffering state in Egypt, where her enemies had laboured to 
destroy her, but were not able ; the more they afflicted them, the more 


they raultiplieA God always carried them on eagle's wings out of 
their enemies' reach, and when they had well-nigh swallowed them up 
at the Red Sea, God delivered them. 

37. Exod. iii. 3 — "Moses said, I will now tuni aside, and see this 
great sight, why the bush is not burnt."] The great sight that Moses 
here said he would turn aside to see, and that he did turn aside to see 
as he said, as we have an account in next verse, was not that the 
bush was not bunit, for this Moses had seen already, which was the 
occasion of his earnestly desiring to know further, and his turning 
aside to see something further. But what the great sight he turned 
aside to see was. why the bush was not burnt, or upon what account, 
or for what reason, as the word in the original signifies. Moses seems 
to have spoke these words after he had stood a while with astonishment 
beholding the bush burn, and when he after a while perceived the 
bush notwithstanding was not burnt, he then considered it must be 
some great and very extraordinary thing that must preserve the bush 
as in the midst of the flames. By the sight is meant the thing to 
be seen: it is as much as if he had said, *' I will turn aside and see 
tliis great thing, on the account of which the bush was not burnt." 
This great thing was that God dwelt in the bush, (Deut. xxxiiL 16.) 
It is probable Moses was sensible that there was something divine 
in the case ; he might probably see some token of Divine glory there 
present, some extraordinary lustre or effulgence that had an appear- 
ance of exceeding awful majesty, and also surprising sweetness and 
pleasantness, — like that which Peter describes, (2 Pet. i. 16, 17,) 
speaking of what he saw on the Mount of Transfiguration, — which 
Moses saw in the time that the bush was burning, and also said to 
continue there after the flame was out, and concluded that the bush's 
being preserved was by reason of that divine thing that he there 
beheld. This Moses seems to have respect to when he says, " I will 
turn aside and see this great sight." This appearance was so divinely 
excellent and ravishing, that it seems to have left an everlasting 
impression on Moses's mind, and probably made him the more 
earnestly desirous to see God's glory afterwards, (Exod. xxxiii. 18,) 
and he remembers it when he blesses Joseph, (Deut xxxiii. 16.) 
And Moses had now a mind to come nearer to behold this great and 
sweet and wonderful sight, the glory of God united to and dwelling 
in the bush. This great sight that Moses speaks of represents two 
things, — (1.) The Incarnation of Christ, which was represented by 
God's dwelling in the bush ; (2.) The death and sufferings of Christ, 
which were represented by God's appearing and dwelling in the burn- 
ing bush, and in the bush when all on fire ; which two things were 
the greatest sight that ever was seen by angels or men. 

38. Exod. iii. 13 — "And they shall say to me. What is his name? 
what shall I say unto them?"] They would be the more apt to 
enquire this, because they had now been so long in Egypt, where 
they had served other gods, that they had in a great measure for- 
gotten the God of their fathers. Had it not been for God's mercy 
to them in thus renewedly making Himself known to them, the 


case would soon have been with them as it was with other nations, 
who soon after the Flood forgot the true God and degenerated to 
the worship of idols, (see Ezek. xx. 5.) God chose them, they did 
not choose Him. He remembered them, and His covenant with 
their fathers when they had forgot Him. Israel was a people that 
God formed for Himself ; He took them when they were (the body 
of them) idolaters and ignorant of Him, and made them His people. 
He redeemed them from the gods of Egypt, from their idolatry as 
well as from their taskmasters ; and that was the most glorious redemp- 
tion. Here is a notable instance of the Church's being hidden and 
obscured, as it was under antichrist before the Reformation. There 
were, doubtless, left amongst them some true worshippers of God 
thinly sown among them, as it was under the tyranny of that city 
which is spiritually called Sodom in Egypt. The Church was now 
in the wilderness as it was then, (see Ezek. xx. 7-10 ; 2 Sam. vii. 
23 ; Levit. xvii. 7 ; Joshua xxiv. 14 ; Ezek. xxiii. 3-8, xix. 21-27.) 
We have another remarkable instance of the like nature in the time 
of the Jews' captivity in Babylon, another great type of the Anti- 
christian Church, (see Jer. xvi. 1 3.) 

39. Exod. vi. 3— "And I appeared," &c.] God Almighty= 
all-suflScient, (see Gen. xvii 1, xxviii. 3,) ["but by my name 
Jehovah," &c.]. God, when He appeared unto Abraham, and pro- 
mised that He would do such and such things for his seed. He 
appeared as God all-sufficient, a God suflScient to accomplish the 
things that He then promised. Now the time is come for the 
accomplishment of them, now He appears as Jehovah, as He that 
18 what He luaSy or " is that He is" not only suflBcient to fulfilling, 
but actually fulfilling ; the same in accomplishing, that He was in 

40. Exod. vii. 5 — " The Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, 
when I stretch forth My hand.'*] The first time that Moses and 
Aaron went to Pharaoh, they told him that Jehovah, the God of 
Israel, commanded that he should let His people go, as in the begin- 
ning of chap. V. Pharaoh then took it in great disdain to be told of 
such a command from Jehovah the God of Israel, a poor abject 
people, a company of slaves ; and, by the character they bear, he 
concludes that He made no better figure among the gods than His 
people did among the nations. He makes answer, " Who is Jehovah, 
that I should obey His voice to let Israel go ? I know not Jehovah." 
Jehovah was a hard name to him that he never heard of before, but 
he resolves that it shall be no bugbear to him. Jehovah! who is 
that ? says Pharaoh in disdain. Now God tells Moses that He will 
make him know who He is — " He shall know that I am Jehovah when 
I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of 
Israel from among them." 

41. Exod. viil 1 — " Let My people go, that they may serve Me."] 
As the children of Israel were redeemed out of Egypt that they 
might serve God, so are we redeemed by Jesus Christ, not that we 
might be at liberty to sin, but that we might serve God. They were 


delivered from serving their old masters the Egyptians, that so they 
might serve God. So we are redeemed from the service of sin, that 
we might henceforth serve God ; being made free from sin, we are 
become the servants of righteousness, as Rom. vi. throughout ; GaL ii. 
1 7-20. " Christ gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from 
all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a peculiar people, zealous of 
good works," (Tit. iL 14 ; Heb. ix. 14 ; Luke L 74, 75 ; 2 Cor. v. 

42. Exod. ix. 10.] The Egyptians had oppressed Israel in the 
furnaces in which they burnt their bricks, and now the ashes of 
these furnaces were made as much of a terror to them as ever they 
had been to the Israelites. These furnaces were a type of helL Gtod 
sends upon the wicked those plagues that are some participation of 
the misery and destruction of hell, are as a sprinkling of the ashes 
of that furnace upon them. Their consciences are scalded with the 
hot embers of hell-fire. Their boils and blisters were exceeding 
grievous, probably attended with extreme smart, like the continual 
scalding of the hot embers of a furnace. Therefore it is said the 
magicians could not stand before this plague. This sort of boil is 
called the botch of Egypt, (Deut xxviiL 27.) 

43. Exod. xi. 2, 3.] With so high a hand did God bring out the 
children of Israel, that He did not only set them at liberty from their 
slavery to the Egyptians, but He also took care that they should 
be well paid by the Egyptians for their first service as they went 
ofi*. So that, after all the Egyptians' obstinacy in refusing to part 
with their future service, God at last made them in effect part 
with the benefit both of their future service and past service too, 
(chap, xii 36.) 

44. Exod. xii. 22.] The striking or sprinkling the blood of the 
lamb with a bunch of hyssop on the two side-posts and lintel of 
the door signifies the cleansing of our conversation by the blood of 
Christ, which is, in the language of Sacred Scripture, called " our 
going out and coming in/* (1 Sam. xxix. 6.) Surely, &c. : 2 Sam. iii. 
25. Thou knowest, &c. : 2 Kings xix. 27. I know, &c. : Isaiah 
xxxvii. 28 ; Ps. cxxi. 8. The Holy Spirit probably has respect to 
this very type of the going and coming being cleansed by the 
blood of the Paschal Lamb in 1 Pet. xviiL 19, where the Apostle 
speaks of our being redeemed from our vain conversation by the 
precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without 
spot. The destroying angel passed by none but those who had the 
blood of the Lamb on their door-posts, signifying that when God comes 
to proceed with men as a judge He will judge every one according 
to his works, and will save none but those whose conversation has 
been cleansed by the blood of Christ, [see ver. 7.] 

45. Exod. xii 35, 36.] The Hebrew word which our translators 
have rendered " borrow " is skaai, which does not signify to " bor- 
row," but to "ask one to give." It is the very word used: Ps. ii. 
8 — ''Ask of me, and I will give Thee the heathen for Thine 
inheritance," &c. [Shuckford's " Connection," vol. ii. p. 340.] The 



same word is used in chap. iii. 22, xi. 2. That to "ask to give/' or 
to "beg," and not to ** borrow," is the proper English of the word 
according to the sense in which it is commonly used in Scripture, 
is abundantly evident by Buxtorf, (Lexicon, sttb voce.) To lend is 
to "give" in 1 Sam. v. 28. It is probable that when the Egyp- 
tians urged the people to be gone, they mentioned to them their 
poverty, and the difficulty of undertaking such a journey without 
such and such supplies, i)articularly that they should need many 
things to offer to God and serve Him with. The Egyptians were 
not unacquainted with costliness in worship, and therefore would 
not think it strange that the great God that had wrought such 
wonders among them required a lasting service. The Egyptians 
were now made sensible how much it concerned them to reconcile 
themselves to this God, and so to obtain the favour of this people 
who were such peculiar favourites of His, and whom they had hereto- 
fore so greatly injured, and thereby so much provoked their God ; even 
Pharaoh himself is now brought to desire their prayers. The wills 
of the king and people were now broke, and their frame now was to 
be kind to them, as heretofore it had been to afflict and destroy them. 
They were now engaged with vehemence of spirit to counteract their 
former ill-treatment of the people. They were brought to be will- 
ing, as it were, without hesitation or delay, to yield and resign up 
anything to save their lives, fearing they should very speedily be all 
destroyed. They were in a great terror and great conviction of 
mind, and like the sea, which after a very high and strong flood, 
when it comes to ebb, returns with the greater impetuosity. Mr 
Henry observes, "The Egyptians by their gifts probably intended 
to make atonement that the plagues might be stayed, as the Philis- 
tines when they returned to the ark sent a present with it for a 
trespass-offering, having an eye to this precedent," (1 Sam. vL 6, 
taken with the context.) 

46. Exod. xiii 21 — " And by night in a pillar of fire, to give them 
light* ; to go by day and night"] Here in the camp of Israel was 
something of a resemblance and image of what is said of new 
Jerusalem, (Rev. xxi. 23.) The glory of the Lord did lighten, for 
here the Shekinah, which was commonly called the "glory of the 
Lord," gave them light ; and in ver. 25 — " There shall be no night 
there," the like of which was said of Zion, (Isa. Ix. 20,) and of the Church 
in her glorious state, (Zech. xiv. 6, 7.) Here is some resemblance, 
for the camp of Israel had always light, both day and night ; nor was 
it a dim light that they had in the night, but a light sufficiently clear 
well to direct that vast multitude in travelling in the wilderness, so 
that night was, in a great degree, turned into day amongst them, (see 
Num. ix. 21 ; Deut. i. 33; Neh. ix. 12, 19; Ps. kxviii 14, cv. 39.) 
The congregation of Israel, in all their travels, were in the form of an 
army. They went up by their armies, (chap. xiL 61,) and they went 
up harnessed, (ver. 1 8.) They were in military order in their camp 
and in their marches, and the pillar of cloud and fire was their grand 
•* ensign," lifted up in the view of the whole army as the ensign which 


tliey should follow and the standard by which they should abide ; and 
as the pillar of cloud and fire was the symbol of the presence of 
Christ, so here was represented that which is spoken in Isa. xi. 10. 
As here this " ensign," the pillar of cloud and fire, was to lead the 
people to their rest, so ver. 12 — "And He shall set up an ensign for 
the nations." . . . 

47. Exod. xiv. 20 — "And it was a cloud," &c.] In like manner as 
the gospel and the discoveries God makes of Himself in and by Christ 
are a mere cloud, and darkness and foolishness, " a stone of stumbling 
and rock of offence," a " snare and gin," " a savour of death unto 
death" unto some, while it is a most glorious light, the "power of 
God and the wisdom of God," a "savour of life unto life" unto 

48. Exod. xiv. 30 — "Dead upon the sea-shore."] The E^ptians 
were very nice and curious in embalming and preserving the bodies 
of their great men, [and erecting stately sepulchres and monuments 
for them;] but here the utmost contempt is poured upon all the 
grandees of Egypt. See how they lie heaps upon heaps, as the dung 
upon the face of the earth. The beasts and birds of prey are called 
to eat the flesh of captains and mighty men, (Isa. Ixvi. 24.) Prob- 
ably the Israelites stripped the slain and now got arms from them. 

49. Exod. xvi. 10 — " The glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud."] 
The Shekinah that now appeared, and that appeared afterwards in the 
Tabernacle and Temple, was called the " glory of the Lord," not only 
because of that outward brightness that appeared, but especially 
because that brightness was the symbol of the Son of God as there 
manifesting Himself, who is the brightness of God's glory. The Glory 
of God is spoken of as a Person in Isa. iil 8. See Rev. xxi. 23. 

50. Exod. xviti. 2-5.] What is here related, if that clause in 
2d verse, "after he had sent her back," had not been inserted, 
would have been much such a difficulty as there is in some other 
parts of the Scripture hi8tx)ry through the brevity of the relation. 
We have an account that Moses, when he went from Jethro into Egypt, 
took his wife and his children with him ; and yet here we have an 
account of Jethro's bringing of them to him in the wilderness from 
his own hotise, as if Moses had not taken them with him when he 
went away. We should have been ready to suspect that this was a 
blunder in the Historian, had it not been here hinted that Moses had 
at some time sent her back, for we have no account of her being 
sent back anywhere else. We may ^ere observe the remarkable self- 
denial Moses subjected himself to; whereby he was fitted for those 
privileges he afterwards received of God, and which was rewarded by 
these privileges. First, he refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's 
daughter ; he renounced the wealth and glory and pleasures of the 
kingdom of Egypt, that he might have had as the heir of Pharaoh's 
crown, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God. 
All this he forsook for a share with God's people. And then he met 
with another great trial ; he was banished away from those whose 
company he preferred to all the glory of Egypt ; yet he might not 


enjoy that, but was driven away alone into the wilderness, wandering 
in a poor disconsolate, desolate condition, he knew not whither ; and 
now, after he had dwelt forty years in the land of Midian, in the 
family of Jethro, into which lie had married, and had a family and a 
place of rest there, he was called on God's errand to forsake his wife 
and children without ever expecting to see them any more, and once 
more to leave all that he had to follow Christ. 

CoroL Hence we may learn that ministers, in order to fit them 
for the service of Christ, should be brought to be willing to be cast 
oflf even by their own people, by saints, by those to whose good espe- 
cially they are ministers. Moses was cast oflf by his brethren the 

51. Exod. xix., XX.] As there was a trumpet at the giving of the 
Law, so a great trumpet will sound when the Law comes to be 
executed at the day of judgment. As then Mount Sinai was in a 
conflagration, [so] at the day of judgment the whole earth will be in 
a conflagration, and the other appearances will be proportionably 
greater, the trumpet louder, the appearing majesty of Gid greater, 
the fire more terrible, the thunder and lightning more dreadful. 
How miserable will those be that then shall feel the Almighty ven- 
geance of that Being whose wrath will be proportionable to those 
appearances of His (keadfulness ! See Ps. Ixviii. 8, 9. 

52. Exod. xix. 10, 11 — "Sanctify them to-day and to-morrow,*' 
&c.] The third day here spoken of, or the day on which God came 
down on Mount Sinai, was the first day of the week, as is evident, 
because the feast of Pentecost, which was appointed in commemora- 
tion of this, was appointed to be always on the first day of the week, 
as appears by Lev. xxiiL 15, &c., so that the days wherein the Jews were 
to sanctify themselves in order to this day were the sixth and seventh 
days of the week ; but chiefly the seventh, for there was only a part of 
the sixth remaining when God gave the order ; and probably but a 
little part, considering the antecedent transactions of the day which 
we have here account of. So that the Jewish sabbath was to be spent in 
prepaiing themselves for the day following — ^viz., the first day of the 
week, the day on which God descended and gave the Law on Mount 
Sinai in honour to this day, being the day on which Christ was to 
rise from the dead and on which God would descend more gloriously 
on His Apostles, to reveal the glorious gospel. Thus this day is, by 
God's own direction, set above the day of their sabbath ; the day of 
the Christian is honoured above the Jewish sabbath by Grod's ap- 
pointing tlie Jewish sabbath to be a day of preparation for it, as the 
Jewish Dispensation was a preparation for the Christian. The Law 
is a handmaid to the Gospel, and is " our schoolmaster to bring us 
to Christ,'* (Gal. iii 24.) 

53. Exod. XX. 3-7.] The three first commandments. The first 
commandment respects the object of worship ; and especially forbids 
those things in worship that are against Ood the Father. The second 
commandment respects the means of worship ; and especially forbids 
those things in worship that are against Ood the San, that it should 


not be by other lords and mediators instead of Christ, the Lord our 
God, who is, as it were, the hasband of His people, and is a jealous 
God, a jealous husband, that will not bear spiritual adultery. This 
commandment forbids our making use of other images in our worship- 
ping God besides Christ, who is " the image of the invisible God, the 
brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person,'* by 
which image alone God makes known Himself and sets forth Himself, 
and shews His glory as the fit object of our worship ; for we behold 
" the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ" The Heathen had 
images that they might have something present with them as repre- 
sentatives of the Deity that was absent ; but Christ only is our 
Immanuel or "God with us." The third commandment forbids 
those things in worship that are especially against the Holy Ohost, 
even the unholy manner of worship. We ought, when we come to 
God to worship Him, to come by the Son, that we may come by right 
means ; and we ought to come by the Holy Spirit, that we may 
worship with a right spirit and in a holy manner. These sins against 
the Holy Spirit are represented as peculiarly exposing persons to 
Divine vengeance without forgiveness, agreeable to what we are taught 
in the New Testament. 

54. Exod. XX 4 — " Any likeness of any thing that is in heaven 
above '*] — i.e., the likeness of sun, moon, or stars, or any bird ; [or 
*' that is in the earth beneath "] — i.e., of any man, woman, beast, or 
creeping thing ; [or " that is in the water under the earth "] — i.e., any 
fish. This interpretation is evident from Deut. iv. 16-18. That the 
second commandment has respect to worshipping the true God by 
images, see Deut. v. 7, 8. 

55. Exod. XX. 8 — ** Remember."] This expression "remember" 
was probably the rather used because this was not the first institution 
of the Sabbath ; it had been too much forgotten, especially while the 
children of Israel were in Egypt. The Sabbath had also been re- 
newedly commanded, (chap, xvi.) God here charges them to take 
notice of His institution of the Sabbath, and not to forget it as they 
formerly had done. 

56. Exod. xxiii 20-23.] God says of this Angel, " My name is in 
Him." God had a little before, from this same Mount Sinai, declared 
to Moses with very great solemnity that He might thereby make Him 
known to the children of Israel (who were become very ignorant of 
Him) what His name was — viz., " I Am that I Am," and " Jehovah," 
(Exod. iii 13, 14, and again chap. vi. 2, 3;) and again, very lately 
after the children [of Israel] were come to that Mount Sinai where 
God revealed Himself to Moses and told him His name, to declare it 
to the children, the people heard God speak from thence Himself in 
a most solemn and awful manner, with a great voice declaring the 
same name, chap. xx. 2 — " I am Jehovah," &c., which were the first 
words of God that they heard from Mount Sinai when He spoke to 
them from thence, when " the mountain burnt with fire," &c. This 
was at most but a few days before God said this that He does con- 
cerning His Angel, and perhaps it was the same day. So that when 


He says, "My name is in Him," they would naturally understand no 
other than that name that He had lately revealed Himself by, which 
was in an eminent manner His name, even *' I Am that I Am," or 
" Jehovah," which being in an eminent manner God's name, above all 
other names expressing His nature ; and it having been a common 
thing in those days from the beginning of the world to give names to 
express the nature of things, they naturally must understand it that 
Ood s nature was in Him, and that as His name Jehovah belonged to 
Him, they must naturally understand it that the thing expressed by 
that name was in Him. And that the children of Israel understood 
it so, is also confirmed by this — that here God commits the care of 
the congregation to this His angel, that He might go before them 
as their Captain, and lead them and bring them into the land of 
Canaan, and figlit for them and po.ssess them of the land ; and 
therefore when the Angel appeared to Joshua with a sworti drawn in 
His hand, (Joshua v. 13,) and told them that as the Captain of the 
Lord's host He was come, Joshua seems to understand Him to be this 
Angel, and therefore immediately falls on his face, and the Angel 
teaches Joshua to pay Him divine respect by taking off his shoes be- 
cause the ground was holy, as Moses was commanded when Jehovah 
appeared to him at the Bush, and he obeyed ; and afterwards in tlie 
process of the story this Angel is called JeTiovah, as in the next 
chapter, ver. 2., by the penman of the history. What is said of tlie 
Messiah, Micah v. 5, is parallel with this — " And He shall stand," &c. ; 
Prov. xxi. 24 — '* Proud and haughty," «&c. — i.e., that is His true 
nature and character. The saying, " My name is in Him," evidently 
implies as much as that my Divine essence and character is in Him. 
By God's name is plainly meant His internal nature and essence, iu 
Prov. XXX. 4. Why should it be there represented that none can tell 
what Gk)d's name is when God had so plainly and expressly declared 
it to Moses, and told him that His name was Jehovah and I Am 
that I Am ? Therefore the meaning might be that none could com- 
prehend that infinitely perfect nature signified by that name. " None 
by searching can find out God ;" His nature **is high as heaven ; 
what can we do ? deeper than hell ; what can we know," (Job 
xi. 8.) 

57. Exod. xxviiL 15 — " Of judgment."] So called because they 
were wont to make use of it U) inquire of God in judgment, or in 
determining causes and controversies. For when the people had 
controversies among themselves, or causes to be judged, they were 
wont to come to inquire of God. See Exod. xviii. 15, 16 ; Lev. xxiv. 
12 ; Num. xv. 34 ; Deut. xvii. 8, 9, &c. 

58. Exod. xxxii. 1 9 — " And brake them."] Moses's breaking the 
tables seems to signify the following things : — 

(1.) That sin breaks the Law, and particularly that it breaks it as 
a covenant of works. The tables were the tables of the Covenant. 
The ten commandments contained a new revelation of the covenant 
of works, of which two ways of fulfilment were ])roposed. One was 
by mere man, the other was by Christ. These tables of the Law 


were the workmanship of God, without any hewing of Moses's, as the 
tables of the heart of man in innocency, wherein the Law was 
written, were aheady prepared by God, and needed not any work of 
the Law or hewing of legal conviction to prepare it 

(2.) Another thing signified by Moses's breaking the table was 
Grod*s breaking His Covenant between Him and the people, and so 
were threatened to be cast off from being His Covenant people, (for 
there were the tables of the Covenant between God and the people,) 
agreeable to God's threatening, (verses 9, 10 ; see chap, xxxiv. 1.) 

59. Ibid,] God, as it were, brake the tables in pieces, as disannul- 
ling all hopes of men's ever obtaining life in that way. Now this 
second time the tables are made by the ministration and instrumen- 
tality of Moses, who herein is a type of the gospel ministry. God 
commanded that the second tables should be committed to the ark to 
preserve them, that they might not be broken as the first were, (compare 
Deut. ix. 16, 17, with x. 1, 2.) Thus the afiair of the preservation of 
the hearts of God's people in holiness is committed to the keeping 
of Christ. The delivering of the tables of stone this second time is 
spoken of as the making of a New Covenant, (Exod. xxxiv. 10.) 
When Moses came down from the Mount with these new tables it 
was with his face shining, and not with wrath in his face as before. 
It was this Covenant that was renewed in Deuteronomy. This was 
a lively type of what we read of in Jer. xxxL 31, 32, (see place, and 
Heb. viii. 9.) What is said in these places would lead one to think 
that Moses's breaking these tables signified the breaking or God's 
setting aside, not only the Covenant of works, but that old federal 
Dispensation by which God was as a husband to that people Israel, 
because of its proving insufficient through their sins to make way 
for a better Covenant ; a federal Dispensation to be introduced by 
Christ, and in Him to be fulfilled and confirmed, and made an ever- 
lasting Covenant, as the second tables made instead of these were 
secured and kept safe in the ark. 

60. Exod. xxxiv. 1.] Moses was commanded to hew two tables 
of stone like the first that were broken, signifying that after man 
had broken the Law which God wrote at first on the tables of his 
heart in innocency, which was God's own workmanship, that in order 
to the Law's being written on the table of the heart again after the 
Fall, the heart needs to be first prepared by being hewed by Moses 
— i.e., hewed by the Law of Moses, or by legal convictions, but that 
the Law can go no further than this. It can prepare the heart, but it 
is Christ's work, and His only, to write the Law in the heart : Rom. 
viii. 3, 4 — *' What the law could not do," &c. Moses was commanded 
to prepare these second tables to bring them with him that He might 
write the Law on them, when He should cause all His goodness to 
pass before him, and proclaim His sovereign mercy in forgiving ini- 
quities, &c., which should preserve these tables from being broken as 
the first were, would prevent a final breach of Covenant between 
God and the people, (compare chap, xxxiii. 19, xxxiv. 1-7, 10; Jer. 
xxxi. 31-33, and 32, 40.) There is this in the nature of the case 


that confirms that the breaking of the first table was a type of the 
breaking of the first Covenant, and the utter impossibility of men's 
obtaining life by the Law. Moses himself in all probability cast away 
the tables and broke them beneath the Mount when he came to see the 
golden calf, under a strong apprehension that was impressed on his 
mind by what he then saw, that it was not worth the while to carry 
this holy Law to such a people under any notion of the keeping it, 
and so obtaining God's favour by that means. The ten command- 
ments at first were given with thunder and lightning and earth- 
quake ; but now the second time with a gracious proclamation of 
mercy, long-suffering, abundant goodness and truth, and forgiveness 
of iniquity, transgression and sin, yet mercy perfectly consistent with 
infinite holiness and strict justice, " which will by no means clear the 
guilty." When the children of Israel had broken the Covenant, 
Moses cast it away and broke the tables in pieces, which represents 
God's utterly casting away that Covenant made at first with man- 
kind as now entirely useless, the obtaining life in that way being now 
utterly and everlastingly to be despaired of, (see chap, xxxii. 19, and 
xxxiv. 1.) 


61. Lev. J. 9.] The inwatds and the legs were to be washed to 
represent purity of heart and " walk" 

62. Lev. X. 1, 2.] This awful destruction of two of the priests, 
the sons of Aaron, happened on the eighth or last day of the conse- 
cration of Aaron and his sons, by which the Levitical priesthood was 
first introduced, or on the first day of Aaron and his sons ofiiciating 
as priests. That it was on this day appears, because it was on this 
day they offered the goat (Lev. ix. 3, 15) which was burnt, because on 
this day such things had befallen Aaron that he was not fit to eat 
thereof, as in the 1 6-20 verses of this chapter. Thus the service of the 
Levitical priesthood was begun with the woeful death of two of the 
priests that were consumed by the Divine wrath, [and] thus it pleased 
God to shew the insufiiciency of the Levitical priesthood at the first 
setting of it up. He observed that they were so insufScient to make 
atonement for others that they were liable to the Divine wrath them- 
selves for their own sins, [see Pool, Synop. in loc, ;] and this was 
also so ordered to impress on the minds of the priests a sense of the 
sacredness of their work, and the infinite holiness and majesty of 
that Being with whom they had to do in their office, as ver. 3. . . . 
There is no temptation visible that Nadab and Abihu should have to 
offer " strange fire " rather than the " holy fire '* that had descended 
from heaven. But the case with them seems to have been this — that 
day being the first day that ever they had officiated in the priest's 
office, and a day of rejoicing and feasting, wherein they fed on their 


peace-offerings ; and it seems that these two young men had in this 
Feast in a measure intoxicated themselves with strong drink, whereby 
they either became unable to keep exactly to the points of the Law in 
the execution of their office and to distinguish between holy and pro- 
fane, or at least made less careful so to do ; so that while they were 
elevated with drink they did not distinguish between holy fixe and 
common fire, which seems to be the special reason of God's appoint- 
ing that Law, which he does in verses 8-11 ; for that Law seems to be 
given on this occasion. It was given on the same day that Nadal) 
and Abihu died, as appears on comparing the beginning of the IX*** 
chapter with the latter end of this ; and it was immediately upon it, 
for it was while the affair of their offering the sacrifices of the day 
were under consideration, as appears by ver. 128eq. — CoroL By this it 
is manifest that persons are responsible before God for those crimes 
they commit when drunk. 

Another thing observable concerning Nadab and Abihu*s death is 
this. We have an account in the latter verse of a fire coming out 
from before the Lord and consuming the sacrifices on the altar. 
Here we have an account of fire in like manner coming out from the 
Lord and consuming not the sacrifices offered, but the persons that 
offered, because they had not respect to and did not trust in that fire 
from the Lord consuming the sacrifice, but offered strange fire, fire of 
man*s kindling, whereby we seem to be taught that they that come 
to God and do not trust in the Atonement for sin, made by Christ's 
being consumed in the fire of God's wrath, shall be consumed by that 
fire of Qod's wrath themselves. They that come to God offering 
strange fire, and dare to appear before Him in their own righteous- 
ness. He will be a consuming fire to them. They will be exposed to 
all the fierceness of the flame of God's vindictive justice, having no 
benefit of the execution of it on Christ the great sacrifice for sin. 

63. Lev. xiv. 12-18.] The sacrifice was to be offered to God with 
oil. They were to be waved together before the Lord, and after the 
Lamb was slain, and his blood shed before the Lord, the Priest was 
to sprinkle of the oil seven times before the Lord. So the sacrifice 
of Christ was offered up to God with the Spirit, with Divine love, 
love to God and love to men, which sanctified the sacrifice and made 
it effectual. Both the blood and the oil were first offered to God 
before they were applied to the leper. So not only is Christ's blood 
first presented to God before it is applied to the sinner, but the spirit 
of love that He had without measure first flows out to God, before it 
flows out to the sinner, and be communicated to him in sanctification. 
In th^ application, both the blood and oil are applied to the right 
ear of him that was to be cleansed, to cleanse the ear, by which men 
hear and listen to the commands and counsels of God, and the offers 
and invitations of the gospel ; and the thumb, the chief part of the 
right hand, to cleanse the hands by which we work; and to the chief 
part of the right foot, to cleanse the feet by which we walk. The 
application of the blood is to cleanse from the guilt of sins of the 
ear or heart, and of the hands or works of the hands, and of the feet 


as the way to walk. The application of the oil which followed 
signifies the sanctification of them by the Holy. Spirit. The blood 
and oil were first applied to the ear, hand, and foot, and then after- 
wards oil was poured on the head of the leper, to signify that per- 
sons are first justified, then sanctified, and then glorified, as pouring 
oil on the head was used as a token of initiation to some high and 
honourable office and great dignity, as that of prophet, priest, or 
king, as the saints when glorified are made kings and priests unto 
God ; and as the ear is sanctified to hear God's commands, and the 
hands to do God's work, and the feet to walk in God's way before 
the pouring oil on the head, it shews that a holy conversation is the 
only way to glory. 

64 Lev. xix. 14.] Though the fear of these deaf and blind will 
not restrain you, because they cannot hear or see you, yet God hears 
and sees. . . . 

65. Lev. xxiii. 3 — "Convocation."] By this it appears that 
although the children of Israel were obliged to meet together at the 
Temple but three times in the year, yet the weekly sabbath among 
them was from the beginning a day for their meeting together for 
some sort of religious public worship, which is confirmed from 2 
Kings iv. 23; Isa. IxvL 23; Ezek. xlvi. 3. Whence it may be argued 
that the people had something like synagogues among them long 
before the captivity in Babylon, which is confirmed by Ps. Ixxiv. 
8. The word translated " synagogue " signifies a convention, con- 
gregation, or meeting together. See also Ps. Ixxxiii. 9. 

66. Lev. xxiii 10.] The sheaf was to be ofifered to God on the 
first day of the week after the Passover, on the same day that Christ 
rose. It was the first-fruits of all the seed sown. So Christ was 
"the first-fruits of them that slept." The body that dies and is 
buried is compared to the seed of bread, com sown in the earth, (1 
Cor. XV. 36, 37 ;) and Christ's resurrection in particular is compared 
to this, (John xii. 24,) and the end of the world, the time of the 
resurrection, is represented by the harvest, (Matt. xiii. 39.) Things 
rising in the Spring, after all seemed to be dead in winter, is a 
lively image of the resurrection. This sheaf was the first-fmits of 
the earth that they had in the Spring ; and it is to be noted that the 
time when this sheaf of the first-fruits was offered was not only on 
the same day of the week, but at same time of year, the first day of 
the week after the Passover, as that was. 


67. Num. X. 35, 36.] The ascending of the ark out of the 
wilderness into Canaan, " the land flowing with milk and honey," 
typified the same thing with the ark afterwards ascending into 
Mount Zion, even the ascension of Chiist into heaven ; and there- 


fore the same words were uttered by David on that occasion that 
were uttered by Moses on this, (Ps. Ixviii 1,) and therefore, also, 
David on that occasion speaks of this marching of the ark through 
the wildeniess, (Ps. Ixviii. 7.) In these words that Moses spake on the 
occasion of taking up the ark in order to its ascending into Canaan, — 
viz., *' Ilise up," &c., — respect seems to be had to the glorious victory 
and triumph Christ had over His enemies that He had been conflict- 
ing with, in His resurrection and ascension spoken of, (Ps. Ixviii. 
18 ;) and in those words which Moses uttered when the ark rested, — 
*' Return, Lord,*' &c., — respect is had to Christ's returning again to 
the earth, after His ascension, by His Spirit, (agreeable to His pro- 
mises, John xiv. 18-23, and xvi. 16,) whereby the number of His 
people was so vastly increased, agreeable to Ps. ex. 1-3. 

68. Num. xi. 29.] This wish of Moses was fulfilled in the Chris- 
tian Church, after Christ's ascension; according to the prophecy of 
Joel ; (chap. ii. 28, &c.,) God put His Spirit in His extraordinary gift 
upon the saints in general throughout the world. 

69. Num. xiii 30.] According to Caleb's faith so was it done 
unto him. The people were discouraged with that report of the 
spies, that there they saw giants, the sons of Anak, and that they 
were in their own sight as grasshoppers, and so they were in their 
sight, (verses 28, 33.) Caleb was confident that they were well able 
to overcome them, and therefore God gave Caleb Hebron for his pos- 
session, which was the chief seat of these giants, as appears by ver. 
22; (Joshua xi. 21, and xiv. 12, 15.) God enabled Caleb himself 
to drive the giants thence, (Joshua xiv. 12, and xv. 13, 14.) 

70. Num. xxvii. 18, 19, 23.] By what is here said it is manifest 
that it is proper, in ordaining or appointing a person to an oflSce in 
the name of God, to give a charge with the laying on of hands. 


71. Deut. iv. 21, 22.] In this Moses was a type of Christ. God 
was angiy with Moses for their sakes. So God was, as it were, 
angry with CTirist for our sakes. He bore the wrath of God for our 
sakes. Our iniquities were laid upon Christ. Our guilt lay upon 
Him, and so He in some respect partook of our guilt. So Moses 
partook of the guilt of the children of Israel when by their rebellion 
they provoked his spirit, so that he "spake unadvisedly with his 
lips." And Moses was, as it were, a sacrifice for them ; he died in 
the wilderness, and they lived and went out to possess the good 
land, as in ver. 22. Moses mentions this as an instance of God's 
mercy to the people, as is evident by the foregoing verse, and by 
ver. 22 — " But ye" &c. God was pleased so greatly to testify His 
displeasure against Moses s sin, though he but lightly partook of the 


sin of the congregation^ as utterly to refuse to suflTer him to go over 
and possess the good land, and yet to suffer them, the children [of 
IsraeJ] of that evil generation, who partook more largely of their 
fathers* sin, to go over. God insisted on having a great outward 
manifestation of His displeasure against the sin of that congregation. 
The death of so great a person and so holy a person as Moses, the 
head of the congregation, (who only was nearly related to them, and 
lightly partook of the evil of that degenerate time,) was so ; as God, 
in a time of public judgment, is pleased sometimes to slay the 
righteous with the wicked, whereby there is so much greater and 
more awful testimony of His displeasure to the world, (Ezek. xxi. 3, 
4.) God thus slaying Moses and not suffering him to go in to the 
good land, God looked on the outward manifestation of wrath by 
this means to be sufficient without slaying the congregation, and so 
the younger generation were spared, and suffered to go in to the 
good land. Thus Moses's death was a kind of atonement for the 
congregation as to temporal judgment and manifestation of God*s 
wrath in this world, and so he was an eminent type of Christ. 

72. Deut. iv. 32-34.] That which is here mentioned is spoken of 
as the wonder of wonders — that a people should hear God speaking to 
them out of the midst of the fire, such a devouring fire that was so 
terrible to behold, that had such peculiar manifestations of God's 
awful majesty and His consuming justice and vengeance, (see chap, 
v. 25,) and "yet live." It is not to be supposed that God would 
speak of this as so exceedingly and beyond all parallel wonderful, but 
that He had in His eye that which is indeed the wonder of wonders, 
and which is often spoken of as such by the prophets, which God's 
people are the subjects of through Jesus Christ Through Him we 
hear God speaking to us out of the midst of the fire. God manifests 
Himself to us in all His dreadful majesty and most terrible and strict 
justice, and yet we live ; we are safe ; God appears to us as a strict 
judge and terrible revenger of all sin, and yet as our Saviour and a 
fountain of life to us. God is just, and yet the justifier of him 
that believes on Jesus. Although this that the children of Israel 
were the subjects of at Mount Sinai is here spoken of as so exceed- 
ing wonderful, yet this which is accomplished by Christ is spoken of 
as so much more wonderful. These things which God did for the 
children of Israel, when He brought them out of Egypt, are repre- 
sented as no more worthy to be mentioned or remembered after (Jod 
had wrought this, (Jer. xvL 14, 15, and xxiii 7, 8 ; and Isa.xliii 18, 
19.) Balaam does in effect say that these things that Grod wrought 
for Israel, when He brought them out of Egypt, are typical of that 
wonderful, astonishing thing which He would work for them in the 
latter days : Num. xxiii 23—" According to this time [or agreeable 
to what God has done at this time] it shall [hereafter] be said of 
Jacob and of Israel, What hath God wrought ! ' See also Micah vii 
15. The context is a full proof that this was what God had in His 
eye when God spake to the children of Israel from Mount Sinai in so 
terrible a manner. It was in giving the Law ; and thus God's people 


hear God speaking to them from Mount Sinai in all ages ; for they 
all hear God's voice in His holy, strict Law. God's appearing at that 
time as a *' consuming fire," without doubt was a representation of 
the thing spoken of here in ver. 24? — '* The Lord thy Qod is a con- 
suming fire, even a jealous God ;" and the words of the text we are 
upon are brought in as an evidence of what is spoken of in the im- 
mediately preceding verses — viz., God's forbearing to execute justice 
on the people for their wickedness and His forgiving their iniquities, 
in the exercise of His great mercy, and His faithfulness to the Covenant 
of grace made with their Fathers. 

73. Deut. V. 7, 8.] That this first commandment has respect to 
worshipping other gods ; but the second has respect to worshipping 
the true God by images, is confirmed by chap. iv. 16-18. The people 
were in danger of representing God by some image of bird or beast, 
or some other animal, because the Egyptians, that were a neighbour- 
ing nation, and a people among whom they had dwelt, represented 
all invisible things by images or hieroglyphics. 

74. Deut. V. 26.] These words, with the context, lead us to suppose 
that the apprehension that seemed to be so generally fixed in the 
minds of God's people of old came from a tradition handed down 
from the ancient patriarchs, that sinful man could not have immediate 
access to God, and intercourse with Him who is a consuming fire ; 
and that the presence of God, and to have to do with Him directly 
without a Mediator, would be the sinful creature's immediate destruc- 
tion. See Exod. xxxiiL 20 ; Gen. xxxii. 30 ; Exod. xxiv. 1 1 ; Judges xiiL 
22,23. See Pool, Synop. on Exod. xxxiii 20. See ver. 24 of this chap- 
ter, and Deut. iv. 33 ; Judges vii. 22, 23. From Judges xiii. 22, 23, . . 
it appears that this notion was not from an apprehension that death 
would be the natural consequence of so great and terrible a sight, but 
that sinful men in such a case would be exposed to be slain by the 
anger of God. 

75. Deut. ix. 21 — " And I cast the dust thereof into the brook that 
descended out of the mount."] This brook in all probability was the 
water out of the rock, for that rock was in Mount Horeb, (Exod. xviL 
1-8,) the mount that is here spoken of in ver. 8. If there had been 
any other brook there before, it would not be said that there was no 
water to drink, as Exod. xvii. 1. There would have been no such 
murmuring for want of water, nor would there have been occasion to 
fetch water out of the rock. From the dryness of the place the moun- 
tain was called Horeb, which signifies dryness. This brook that came 
forth out of the rock, and that descended out of the mount of God, 
was a type of the Holy Spirit ; the same with Ezekiel's waters that 
came out of the Temple, and the same with the pure river of water of 
life that proceeded out of the throne of God and the Lamb, and the 
same with those rivers of " living water" spoken of, John vii. 38, 39, 
which, we are there told, is meant of the Holy Spirit The idol of 
the children of Israel is ground to powder, and the dust of it cast into 
this brook, to signify that it is by God's Spirit that Qod consumes 
idols and destroys the kingdom of Satan. llie same seems to be sig- 


nified by Hezekiah's casting the idolatrous altars into the brook that 
watered Jerusalem, God*s holy city, (2 Chron. xxx. 14, and also 
2 Chron. xxix. 16.) We are told (Exod. xxxii. 20) that Moses 
made the children of Israel drink of the water ; but that was no 
otherwise than as he strewed the dust on that brook which the con- 
gregation wholly depended on for drink, and so were obliged to drink 
of it. Their drinking that water in which their idol was consumed 
was a type of repentance, in which men are made partakers of, and 
have the influences of that Spirit that destroys those sins and con- 
sumes those idols that they formerly were devoted and addicted to. 
There is another thing also, that perhaps is more especially intended 
by that which we have here an account of. There seems to be a spe- 
cial respect to this (Ps. xcix. 8) speaking of Moses and Aaron — 
"Thou answeredst them, Lord our God: Thou wast a God that 
forgavest them, though Thou tookest vengeance of their inventions," 
which is agreeable to the history of this affair in chap, xxxii. of Exodus, 
where we have an account of God's pardoning the people on Moses's 
intercession ; but vengeance was taken on the calf they had made. 
The idols of the people are called " their inventions," so Ps. cvL 28, 
29, and verses 38, 39. They sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan, and 
the land was polluted with blood. Thus they were defiled with their 
own works, and went a-whoring with their own inventions. God's 
fierce wrath and vengeance was typically executed to the full on the 
golden calf; three things were done to it that are made use of to 
signify the merciless executions of God's wrath in the perfect destruc- 
tion of him that is under guilt. Moses burnt it with fire, and stamped 
and ground it to powder, beat it very small, even till it was as small 
as dust ; and that brook that this dust was mixed with signified the 
blood of Christ, for it was as it were the bleeding of the Rock that 
had been wounded by the rod that smote it, and "that rock was Christ." 
The calf, in thus having vengeance executed upon it, being cast in its 
utter destruction into this brook, signifying that the sin of those who 
are pardoned of GU)d has full vengeance taken on it in the blood of 
Christ. Their calf is here called " their sin." The water of this brook 
was the drink of the children of Israel, with this destroyed and ruined 
calf in it ; and thus it is that believers do by faith drink the blood of 
Christ — viz., as an atonement for their sins, or as that in which their sin 
is fully punished and perfectly destroyed, and justice fully satisfied. 

76. Deut. xi. 24.] The land was not given in this extent, but a 
small part of it, till David's time. Then first the people had given 
them the promised land fully, though the people probably expected 
immediately upon their entry into the land [to "possess" it.] This 
is an instance of the gradual fulfilment of the promises that God 
makes to His Church. So the promises made to God's people when 
they should return from Babylon, in the main things contained in 
them, were not fulfilled till Christ came, and will not have their fullest 
accomplishment till the last calling of the Jewa So the blessings 
that are so often promised should come by the Messiah are principally 
deferred till after the destruction of Antichrist. 


77. Dent. xiL 5.] God forbore to choose Him a place in Israel for 
His settled habitation to place His name there till the days of David, 
which was a manifestation of the displeasure of God against that 
people for their frequent transgressions and apostasies. He refused 
to settle His abode among them as long as they remained so unsteady 
in His service and so perverse in their ways ; but walked in a tent and 
in a tabernacle as ready to depart, or at least undetermined whether 
to stay with them or not, and yet in His great goodness loath to 
leave them ; but at last He did actually depart from them, when He 
forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh. But remembering His covenant 
with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, He returned again, but then stayed 
in the border of the land, as though it were to see whether they would 
reform or no before He would again enter in amongst them. But 
when on long trial it proved tliat they never were like to appear 
worthy that He should be with them, at length David, a great typical 
Mediator, appeared. God for his sake came into the midst of the 
land, and chose Him a place in Israel " to put His name there," and 
took up His settled abode there, and instead of a tent dwelt in a 
temple. God speaks of it to David as an instance of His peculiar 
favour to him, that He now at length consented to settle His abode ; 
that He had never moved any such thing before. David had spoken 
of having a house built for him, (2 Sam. viL,) and God there declares 
that for his sake He would shew favour to Israel, and would plant 
them that they might dwell in a place of their own, &c. ; and it is 
often mentioned afterwards as the reason why He did not cast off Israel. 
This is another instance of God's deferring the accomplishment of that 
which, by the manner of prediction, was expected to be accomplished 
immediately upon their being settled in their own land, (see note on 
chap. XL 24, supra,) for David seemed to expect an immediate accom- 
plishment of the glorious things that were to be brought in by the 
Messiah on the return of the Jews from Babylon, (see Deut ix. 23, 
24.) So the primitive Christians seemed to expect Christ's last com- 
ing to accompany the destruction of Jerusalem. 

78. Deut XV. 9 — " Sin unto thee."] Sin here is put for calamity, 
misery, or ruin, because that is the consequence of sin. Thus the 
word sin is often used in Scripture. So Deut. xxiv. 15, xxiiL 21, 22 ; 
1 Kings xii. 30, xiii. 13, 34 ; Ps. cix. 7; Prov. x 16. So probably it 
is to be understood, Prov. xxiv. 9 ; see also Hosea viii. 11. So ini- 
quity is a word often used in like manner in Scripture to signify both 
sin and its punishment, both moral evil and natural evil, or misery 
and destructioa 

79. Deut xviL 14, 1 5.] In what is said here about a king we have 
a plain instance of God's suffering the people to do that which yet He 
did not approve of, parallel to the instance Christ mentioned. Matt 
xix. 8. For when the people did the very thing here spoken of, when 
they said, " I will set,'' &c., God manifested His great disapprobation 
of it, (1 Sara. viiL 6-8, and xii. 16-19.) 

80. Deut XX. 19—" For the tree of the field is man's life," &c.] It 
might have been rendered much more agreeable to the original, '* For 


man is a tree of the field." It was God's will that a fruitful tree 
should not be cut down, but only trees that yielded no meat. Be- 
cause trees with respect to their bareness or fruitfulness represented 
man, and therefore he would have men deal with them as He deals 
with men. This is an argument in the Law of Moses itself^ that its 
commands were given from some typical respect 

81. Deut xxi. 23.] The manner of the Israelites in pursuance of 
this institution used to be to let them hang till the sun was down, and 
then to take the bodies down and bury them, as is evident by Joshua 
viiL 29, and x. 26, 27. God did not see meet that that which was a 
curse and execration should remain in open sight for an abomination 
to the pure eyes of the God that dwelt in that holy land. They were 
therefore to remove such abominable things out of God's sight, that 
God might dwell and walk in the land, and not withdraw from it, 
(see Deut xxiil 13, 14.) But it is very probable that one reason why 
those that were hanged and accursed were to be taken down and 
buried as soon as the sun was down, was that the sun was a type of 
Christ, and in setting was a type of that death of Christ, (Luke xxiii. 44.) 
The curse was to be removed and buried as soon as tiie sim was set, 
to signify that the curse is removed by the death of Christ ; for He in 
dying was made a curse for us, and that curse by His death is taken 
from the earth, or at least from the land of Israel, or the land of the 
Church, so that that land is not defiled. God's people have not the 
curse remaining amongst them to render them abominable to God, 
and to cause Him to depart from them. Their sins and abominations 
are buried for ever out of His sight by Christ's death. Indeed it was 
so ordered that the body of Christ, though it was hanged on a tree, was 
taken down and buried before sunsetting; the Jews took it down 
before, that it might not remain in the open air on the sabbath-day, 
(John viiL 31.) This seems to be so ordered, because Christ, though 
made a curse, was not such a curse as was removed by what was 
typified by the setting of the sun, but He was the antitype itself. 

82. Deut xxxiL 2.] Grod here speaks to the people quite in a 
diflferent manner firom what He did at Mount Sinai, when He spake 
to them out of the midst of the fire, with a great and terrible voice 
that was not suited to their tender frame, and that exceedingly 
terrified them, and was ready to destroy them. Grod's word then was 
like thunder and lightning and devouring fire, overbearing and con- 
suming so frail and tender a creature as man, who is like the grass 
and flower of the field. God*s voice is now gentle, delivered in a 
pleasant song ; and instead of being like lightning to destroy and con- 
sume, is like the gentle showers and refreshing dew to the tender 
grass, instructing, reproving, warning, revealing not only His wiU, 
but His great mercy, in a manner adapted to man's tender frame. 
There is mach of the glorious gospel in this song, and even the 
warnings and tbreatenings that are in it are delivered in an evan> 
gelical manner, much in the same way that they were delivered l^ 
the gende voiceof the giorioos Messiah. AU the songs of Scripture 
are the voice of the gospd. The ^orious things of the gospel are 


their foundation and subject-matter, and therefore in them God's 
word drops as the rain, &c. 

83. Deut. xxxii 5 — "Their spot," &c.] In all probability here 
is a reference had to those spots mentioned in Lev. xiii., where are 
rules for the trials of spots, whether they were leprous spots or no. 
There are many spots there mentioned that something resembled the 
leprosy, notwithstanding which the diseased person was to be pro- 
nounced clean, and might still be looked upon as of the congregation 
of Israel, and allowed the privileges of such. But if the spot was 
upon trial found to be a leprosy, he was to be separated from the 
congregation, — his spot was not the spot of God's people, and he was 
not to be looked upon as one of them. 

84. Deut. xxxil 14.] It is a further evidence that God intended 
wine, which is the juice of the grape squeezed or pressed out, to be 
a type of the blood of Christ shed under His extreme sufferings as a 
sacrifice, that the word used in Gen. xl. 11 for pressing grapes in 
order to get thence wine, is the same that is used for killing or sacri- 
ficing. The chief butler, relating his dream, says he sweated or 
pressed the grapes into Pharaoh's cup. Thus the word DHt^ signifies 
to sacrifice, or to cut the throat, as they did in sacrificing, and is 
everywhere so used, as appears by the Hebr. Con., and this text is 
mentioned as the only exception where it is used to squeeze or press 
grapes, which is a good argument that the pressing of grapes was a 
type of the sufferings of Christ, [which were] the antitype of the 
sufferings and deaths of their sacrifices of old. 

85. Deut. xxxiii. 2 — " From His right hand went a fiery Law for 
them."] The words seem to be something wronged in the translation. 
The word ' went ' is not in the original, but is supplied, and if the 
word 'proceeded' or 'come' had been supplied, it might more naturally 
have led us to what Moses had respect, which seems to be Gtod's 
writing the Law with His right hand on the two tables of stone, and 
then delivering them with His right hand thus engraven, to be for 
the people, as He did the two first tables that were the workmanship 
of God ; and also the other two that Moses had made were delivered 
to Moses out of God's hand after He had written the Law on them. 
But the sense seems to be wronged in the translation more in render- 
ing the words, a "fiery Law for them :" the words in the original 
are " a fire of Law for them " — i.e., to be for a hght to them, or 
as a fire to enlighten, as the pillar of fire was for a light to them in 
the night ; for " the commandment is a lamp, and the Law is a light" 
The same seems to be meant here as is expressed in Isa. li 4 — " For 
a Law shall proceed from me, and I will make my judgment to rest 
for a light of the people." This last agrees with the foregoing words, 
wherein it is said that God "shined from Mount Paran ;" and it is 
more natural to understand it thus, for it is said to be " for them." 
It was a light to enlighten them ; it is more natural to say it is " for 
them " than if it were a fire threatening to consume them. And this 
sense much the best agrees with the following verses, and their evi- 
dent connexion with these words which speak of God's great love atid 



grace in giving them this Law, and how it was given as an inheritance 
to them, and with what pleasure and delight they received it : " Yea, 
He loved the people ; all His saints are in Thy hand : and they sat 
down at Thy feet ; eveiy one shall receive of Thy words. Moses com- 
manded us a Law, even the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob." 

86. Deut xxxiiL 7.] So David was brought to his people as their 
prince after being driven out and banished by Saul, and again after 
he was driven out by Absalom. Solomon was brought to his people 
after he was excluded by Adonijah. Christ was brought to His people 
to be their King after the family of David had long been excluded 
from the throne by the power of the four monarchies and by other 
enemies. Christ, after He was thrown away by the Jews, was brought 
to have a place in the building, and to be the head of the comer. 
He will be brought to His people again, after He has been long as it 
were driven away by Antichrist, and He will come to His people at 
the end of the world for their most complete and eternal salvation, 
after being driven out by Satan operating on Gog and Magog, and 
after all the instances of His expulsion and exclusion by all His 
enemies through all ages of the world. 

87. Deut. xxxiii 8.] Here Christ is evidently called Levi's " holy 
one." Aaron, the high priest of that tribe, was Levi's holy one in 
some sense ; but it was not Aaron but Christ that was tempted at Mas- 
sah and Meribah. (1 Cor. x. 9.) Moses was of that tribe, and might 
also be called their holy one ; but neither was he the person there 
tempted, yea, both Moses and Aaron there rather concurred in the 
temptation, (Num. xx. 10-L3 ;) and the great antitype of Moses and 
Aaron, the true High Priest, that was the substance and end of all the 
ancient sacrifices and offerings, and of all the peculiar ministrations 
of the high priest of the tribe of Levi, according to Jer. xxxiii. 17-22. 
Christ may well be called Levi's *' holy one ;" for it is there repre- 
sented as though the great honour and privilege of Levi, in its having 
the oflSce of the priesthood, should be upheld and completed in Christ. 
For all the honour and privilege which there ever was in having 
the priesthood of their tribe, arose from the relation of that priest- 
hood to Christ, and the glorious things which He should accomplish 
in His sacrifice and intercession, and the eternal benefits He should 
procure ; and therefore the actually existing and appearing of Christ, 
the great and true High Priest, and actually accomplishing those 
glorious things, and procuring those eternal benefits, are the sum and 
substance and perfection of all the honour and privilege which be- 
longed to their oflSce. And therefore this is properly mentioned in 
Moses's blessing of this tribe. For it shews this privilege above all 
other things, inasmuch as herein it appears that their priesthood was 
no vain thing. It was unspeakably valuable, and of infinitely good 
efiect, as it stood in relation to the priesthood of Christ, and should 
be brought to its glorious and infinitely blessed efiect in Him. It 
was by the Thummim and Urim that the high priest was especially 
furnished with to enter into the holy of holies, to make atonement 
and intercession for the people there once a year, and was enabled 



to teach the people, and reveal the mind and will of God to them. 
But this typical Thummim and Urim were nothing but as they relate 
to and were typical of the perfections, merits, light, and glory that 
were in Chiist. In Christ having this perfection, glory, and merit, 
and this suflSciency to bo the light of the world, Levi's Thummim 
and Urim were fulfilled, and so honoured and magnified. That 
spoken of and promised concerning the priests, the Levites, in Jer. 
xxxiii. 17-22, is manifestly the chief of all blessings of God's Covenant 
with that tribe; as that which was promised in the first place con- 
cerning the house of David is the chief thing promised in God's 
Covenant with David, which is a thing that much confirms that this 
is the great thing here intended in Moses's blessing of this tribe. 

88. Deut. xxxiii. 12.] i.^., Benjamin, being the beloved of the 
Lord, shall dwell in safety by the Lord. Paul the great Apostle 
was of this tribe, who perhaps was above all mere men the beloved 
of the Lord. 

89. Ibid.] Which seems to allude to a custom of parents carry- 
ing their children on their backs or between their shoulders, agree- 
able to the custom of the Indians here in America. The same thing 
seems to be alluded to again in Isa. xlix. 22, and perhaps also in the 
parable of the lost sheep in Luke xv. 5. 

90. Deut. xxxiii. 18, 19.] This seems to have respect to the 
calling of the Gentiles by the preaching of the Apostles, who were 
of Galilee, and probably chiefly of the tribe of Zebulon, which was 
that part of Galilee where Christ was chiefly conversant. It is 
evident the mountain here meant is the mountain of the House of 
the Lord, the place of ofifering sacrifice ; and the event referred to 
by their calling the people to the mountain seems to be that prophe- 
sied of, Isa. ii. 2, and xxvii. 13. The great trumpet shall be blown, 
and the offering sacrifices of righteousness, &c., is the same with that 
spoken of, Isa. Ix. 7, 20 ; and this seeking the abundance of the sea 
and treasures hid in the sand, seems to have reference to what is fore- 
told in Isa. Ix. 5, 9, 16, and Ixvi. 12. The success of the Apostles was 
chiefiy in gathering the people that dwelt in the sea, or beyond the 
sea, called in prophecy the islands of the sea ; and therefore as they 
were fishermen before their calling, and gathered the fulness of the 
sea for their food, so Christ, when He called them, told them He 
would make them '' fishers of men " to gather the multitudes of men, 
that were, as it were, the inhabitants of the sea. 

91. Deut. xxxiii 26.] The universe is the chariot in which God 
rides and makes progress towards the last end of all things on the 
wheels of His providence ; and the place of the chariot on which 
God has His seat is the highest heavens, as in Ps. Ixviii. 33, and also 
ver. 4 ; the pavement of the chariot, above which God's throne is, is 
the firmament or the sky, as Ezek. i. 25, 26. Therefore this verse 
signifies as much as that God governs the whole world for the good 
of His Church ; the wheels of the chariot of the universe move for 
them, and the progress that God makes therein on His throne above 
the firmament, the pavement of His chariot, is for them, and every 



event in the universe is in subserviency to their help and benefit. — 
Corel. Hence it was meet that Christ, when He came to be invested 
with the government of the universe, as Head over all things to the 
Church, to govern the motions of this chariot, and make progress 
on it for their help and salvation, should ascend into the highest 
heavens above its pavement, to sit on the throne of this chariot ; and 
therefore in Ps. Ixviii., which is on the subject of Christ's ascension, 
mention is made once and again of God's riding on the heavens, as 
in verses 4 and 33. The underpart of the wheel of a chariot seems 
to run backward, but it is not so ; the whole Inachine is constantly 
moving forward towards the journey's end. So when the Church of 
God is brought low in the world, it is like that part of the wheel 
that is brought next the ground. The course of things seems to be 
backward and away from the proposed and promised end ; but it 
is a mistake, God is still constantly making progress towards the 
Church's promised glory. 

92. Deut. xxxiii 29 — "Thine enemies,'* &c.] — ie., liars in their 
boastings and menaces; f'and thou shalt tread," &c.] — i.e., their 
fortresses built upon high rocks and steep places — that is, thou 
shalt conquer and take their strongest places, and take possession of 
them. God is said to be a high place, (Ps. ix. 9, and xlvi 7,) — t.e., 
a fortress or refuge. 

93. Deut. xxxiv. 5.] Moses brought the children of Israel into 
the wilderness and to the very border of Canaan, but carried them 
no further ; there he left them, and it was not Moses, but Joshua or 
Jesus, that carried them over Jordan and brought them into Canaan, 
to the promised rest, and gave them possession of the land flowing 
with milk and honey, which seems to signify to us that we can never 
obtain heaven or saving blessings by the Law. Moses, who gave the 
Law, seems here to signify the Law ; the Law brings persons into the 
wilderness, — ^that is, can bring souls under conviction, — and so leads 
them on into the wilderness. It carries along in that work — that is, 
preparatory to saving grace aAd comfort — even till they are brought 
to a next preparation for conversion and comfort, but there it leaves 
them. It can bring them no further ; it cannot bring them over 
Jordan into a state of salvation, that must be done by Jesus or the 
spiritual Joshua. All the use of the Law is to lead men on in their 
wilderness travel, and when it has done that, and brought them to the 
border of Canaan, and to a next preparedness for a state of salvation, 
there it dies. John says, "The Law was given by Moses, but grace 
and truth came by Jesus Christ.' (John 117, and Heb. vii 19.) 


94. Joshua i. 2.] As soon as ever Moses is dead, God commands 
Joshua or Jesus to lead the people over Jordan. So as soon as ever 


men through the Law are dead to the Law, they are fitted for the 
comforts of Canaan. When Moses or the Law, our first husband, is 
dead, we are at liberty to be married to a risen Saviour, and so to be 
brought to the possession of Canaan, that is His inheritance. 

95. Joshua ii 18, 19.] Faith is made the condition of Eahab's 
kindred, as well as her own. They were to retire to Eahab's house, 
and not stir out, which they would not have done unless they had 
believed that Grod would indeed deliver that city and Land into the 
hand of the children of Israel as He had said^ and would destroy 
their enemies and save their friends. As in the old world they that 
believed that God would destroy the world as He had said, fled to 
the ark ; and in Egypt they that believed that God would accom- 
plish what He had said concerning the hail and fire, retired to their 
houses beforehand and were saved. And in Jerusalem they that 
believed what Christ had said about Jerusalem's destruction fled out 
at the signal that Christ gave them, and were saved. And in Jeru- 
salem's first destruction they that believed that God would destroy 
the city, as He had said by the prophet Jeremiah, went and sub- 
mitted themselves to the king of Babylon, and were saved. Sahab, 
as she was the [type of the] mother of Christ, so her house in this 
case was a type of the Church, or of the house, the habitation and 
fortress of the Church, Christ Jesus, where the righteous dwell in 
safety, and where they must hide themselves till the indignation be 
overpast, and from whence they must not depart, but must be found 
in Him at the hour when judgment comes, in order to tlieir being 
saved. Ver. 20. It was needful that Bahab should keep counsel in 
this matter, lest they should be betrayed when they were gone, or 
lest others should tie scarlet lines in their windows. 

96. Joshua iv. 1 6.] The Lake of Sodom, into which Jordan emptied 
itself, was a type of hell on many accounts. The fire by which 
Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbouring cities were destroyed 
is expressly called eternal fire. The river Jordan, (that was a swift 
river,) whose waters were constantly and swiftly flowing into that 
Lake, represents the continued flowing of multitudes (that are in 
Scripture often called 'waters ') into hell. The Lake of Sodom was 
never full though these waters incessantly flowed into it So hell is 
never satisfied. The waters must be supposed to have some subter- 
raneous passage from that Lake, by which they were, as it were, 
sucked down into the lower parts of the earth, and, as it were, into 
hell, which makes the type more lively. These waters shall be in a 
great measure cut off when our Jesus or Joshua comes to bring His 
spiritual Israel into Canaan at the latter day, by that work which 
was an antitype of this work of Joshua that we have an account of 
in this Book. Then shall the great stream that constantly flowed 
down to hell fail This shall be at the time of God's spiritual harvest, 
spoken of in Rev. xiv. As Joshua's bringing the people through 
Jordan was at the time of harvest, just before the waters were thus 
cut off by Joshua, [when they] flowed in more than ordinary plenty, 
it being a time when Jordan overflowed all its banks. So just before 


Christ shall do this for His Church in the latter day, it will be a time 
of great wickedness and depravacy. Secondly, These sweet waters of 
Jordan represent the means of grace, which was one thing repre- 
sented by Ezekiel's waters of life. So [also] the waters of Jordan re- 
presented [this] in healing Naaman's leprosy. And the Lake of Sodom 
in this case represents the same as those ' miry places and marshes ' in 
Ezekiel's vision that were given to salt, never to be healed by the 
living waters, however constantly and plentifully flowing by them. 
Therefore the waters being cut off when Joshua comes, represents 
the awful judgment of God on reprobates who had long abused 
means of grace ; when Christ shall come, these means which they 
have enjoyed shall be taken from them. They shall be miserably 
destroyed, and all streams of mercy shall be cut off from them. 
Lastly, This river flowing into the Lake of Sodom represents the 
supplies of the kingdom of Satan, and especially the Church of 
Rome, that is spiritually called Sodom, and so represents the same 
that the river Euphrates did in old Babylon. These shall be dried 
up when the spiritual Joshua shall coma Thus the sixth vial was 
poured out on the great river Euphrates, and the waters thereof were 
dried up, that the way of the kings of the East might be prepared. 
As there the river Euphrates represents two things that the literal 
river Euphrates was to old Babylon — ^viz., its supply and defence — 
so here Jordan, to Sodom and the Land about, used formerly to be a 
supply when it was well watered everywhere, as the ** garden of the 
Lord," and now was a supply to the Lake of Sodom ; but to Jericho, 
another type of the kingdom of Satan, it was a defence. It is evi- 
dent that the destruction of Jericho was a remarkable type of the 
destruction of Satan's kingdom by the spiritual coming of Christ 
in the latter days. The dividing Jordan therefore, to make way for 
the enemies of Jericho to come from the East and destroy, was 
eminently a type of the same thing that is accomplished by pouring 
out the sixth vial. 

97. Ver. 17 — " And the city shall be a thing devoted, even it and 
all that is therein, to the Lord."] So the words might have been 
rendered. This was the first city that was taken, the first-fruits of 
their conquest, and therefore fitly devoted to God. Hereby the 
whole land was consecrated to God. For " if the first-fruits be holy, 
the lump is also holy," (Rom. xi 16.) 

98. Joshua v. 2.] This was the second general circumcision of the 
congregation. The first was probably before the Passover they kept 
in Egypt while they had peace in Egypt, (as Mr Henry says, " They 
doubtless," &c., down to " was interrupted.") But before the Pass- 
over, the night before they went out of Egypt they were doubtless 
generally circumcised, because it was then most strictly commanded 
that no uncircumcised person should eat the Passover. As now, this 
general circumcision in Gilgal was at the same time of year, just be- 
fore they kept the Passover. (See chap. iv. 19, and the 10th verse of 
this chapter.) 

99. Joshua v. 4, 6, 7 — Concerning their not circumcising the chil- 


dren that were bom in the wilderness.] ConsideriDg the plainness of 
the precept of circumcision and the strictness of the injunction, and 
that no great stress was laid upon it, and that it was so expressly 
commanded that no uncircumcised person should eat of the Passover, 
which was with great strictness and often commands required most 
watchfully and diligently and without fail to be kept every year, 
and considering that the congregation in the wilderness was under 
Moses's government, — I say, considering these things, it is unaccount- 
able that all the children that were bom for thirty-eight years together 
should not be circumcised, unless it was omitted by Divine direction. 
Some think God favourably dispensed with the omission on con- 
sideration of the unsettledness of their state and their frequent re- 
moves, and that stirring the children might be dangerous to them 
while they were sore. This reason is generally acquiesced in, but 
does not seem to be satisfactory. For sometimes they stayed a year 
in a place, (Num. ix. 22), if not much longer, and in their removes 
their little children though sore might be wrapped so warm and carried 
so easy as to receive no damage, and might certainly be much better 
accommodated than the mothers in travail or lying in. Therefore it 
rather seems to have been a continued token of God's displeasure 
against them. Circumcision was originally a seal of the promise of 
tlie land of Canaan. But when God had swom in His wrath con- 
cerning the men of war that came out of Egypt that they should be 
consumed in the wilderness and never enter Canaan, as that sentence 
is here repeated, (ver. 6,) relation being thereunto had, (it seems to 
be here brought in as giving the reason of the omission.) As a 
further ratification of that sentence, and to be a constant memorandum 
of it to them, all that fell under that sentence and were to fall by it 
were forbidden to circumcise their children ; (or rather, I should 
think, Moses, as the prophet of God, immediately imder the Divine 
direction, was restrained from putting them upon it, was ordered to 
let them alone and leave them to their own negligent and disobedient 
hearts in this affair.) '' This was such a significant indication of 
God's wrath as the breaking of the tables of the Covenant was, when 
Israel had broke Covenant by making the golden calf," [Henry.] It 
is probably they who generally omitted keeping the Passover from 
the pronouncing of the sentence in Num. xiv. imtil now; for they 
never would have been tolerated in keeping the Passover from year 
to year in uncircumcision. The keeping of the Passover here seems to 
be mentioned as being now a new thing among them as well as cir- 
cumcision. This gives light unto what is said in ver. 9. God suffering 
them judicially to continue in uncircumcision for so long a time Hke 
the Egyptians, where their fathers for a long time had many of them 
lived in uncircumcision for their hankering after Egypt, and going 
about to make them a captain to return to Egypt, was a continuing of 
them under the reproach of Egypt, which reproach was now rolled 
away. Moses had told them, while they were in the plains of Moab, 
(Deut xii 8,) that when they came into the land of Canaan they 
should not do as they did then, every man what was right in his own 


eyes, which confirms that the omission of circumcision, the Passover, 
and other Divine institutions, was not from a Divine prohibition, but 
rather from a judicial leaving them to themselves, (Amos v. 25.) 

100. Joshua vii. 1 2.] God had often made absolute promises of the 
Land of Canaan, but yet here the fulfilment of these promises is sus- 
pended upon the condition of obedience. So eternal life is absolutely 
promised to believers, but yet we often find the fulfilling of that 
promise suspended on their persevering obedience. 

101. Joshua X. 12.] Oibeon was the place that the sun appeared 
to stand over at that time in the place where Joshua then was ; and 
the valley of Ajalon the place which the moon, which was also then 
visible, appeared standing over. Now was a remarkable fulfilment of 
those words of Job, chap. ix. 7 — " Which commandeth the sun, and 
it riseth not, and sealeth up the stars ;" which words are a confirma- 
tion that the sun, moon, and stars all stopped as to their diurnal 
motion by the staying the revolution of the earth about its axis. In 
the song of Deborah it is said the " stars in their courses fought 
against Sisera.'' The angels are called stars. Christ is often com- 
pared to the sun. Here we have all the heavenly hosts — the sun, 
moon, and all the stars — standing still to fight against the enemies of 
God's people, representing that Christ and all the heavenly host of 
saints (constituting the heavenly Church represented by the moon) 
and all the angels are fighting against the enemies of the Church. 
Hereby is typified that which is represented in prophecy. (Rev. xix.) 

The moon's standing stilL This proves the truth of the history, 
for a circumstance of the sun's standing still being caused by staying 
the earth-s diurnal revolution is mentioned, though the occasion of such 
a circumstance must be wholly unknown in those days to the Jews, 
which argues the tnith of the fact ; for nothing but Uie real fact (the 
means of which was wholly unknown) could have put this into the 
head of the historian. 

102. Joshua XV. 32.] And yet here are thirty-eight names. The 
probable reason why in the suumiing them up they are reckoned but 
twenty-nine is this: — The other nine were afterwards set off to 
another tribe — viz., the tribe of Simeon — viz., Beersheba, Maladah, 
Hazar-shual, Azem, Eltolad, Hormah, Ziklag, Bemmon, and Eder or 


103. Judges V. 14.] This shadows forth the great hand that 
authors shall have in the great and last battle that the Church shall 
have with her enemies, of which that about which is this song, was a 

104. Judges ix. 45.] The end of sowing the place with salt was 
not to make it barren, for it was a city not a field that is spoken of. 


But this action seems to have been used in those days as symbolical 
to signify the curse of being perpetually desolate. It was an open 
solemn declaration that they devoted the place thus sowed with salt 
to everlasting desolation and emptiness. Probably it came to be 
thus used from what was observed of the providence of God with re- 
spect to Sodom and the cities and country round about, that were 
effectually devoted to perpetual desolation by being covered with the 
Dead Sea. 

105. Judges XL 24.] The land which the Amorites now possessed 
was a land that they had taken from others — viz., from the Zamzum- 
mims. (Deut. iL 20, 21.) They had been extraordinarily assisted to 
prevail against and drive out this people, though a very mighty and 
gigantic people. This they ascribed to Chemosh their god, and they 
therefore thought they had a good title to the land, seeing their god 
had given it to them. 

106. Judges xiiL 18 — " Why askest thou thus after my name, 
seeing it is secret?" (= wonderful.)] This argues that this is the 
same person spoken of in chap. ix. of Isa. ver. 6 — " To us a child," 
&c., " Wonderful'* which is the same word in the original that is 
here rendered * secret ;' and what is said in ver. 20 further argues 
it. [See note on Isa. ix. 6.] What is here said about the name of this 
person, compared with Prov. xxx. 4, argues that it was the Son of 
God. (See also Rev. xix. 12; Gen. xxxil 29.) 


107. Ruth iv. 14 — " Kinsman.^ The kinsman here meant is the 
cliild now born, as appears by this and next verse, especially the 
last word of the next verse, and by the name they gave the child — 
Obed, (ver. 17,) signifying serving. 


108. 1 Sam. ii. 8.] It is probable that what was especially called 
the throne of glory was the throne of God in the Tabernacle and 
Temple, on which the glory of the Lord abode and where it appeared. 
Christ who dwelt there was the glory of the Lord, and was called 
simply 'glory,' (1 Sam. iv. 21, 22 ; Ps. Ixxxv. 9 ; Hagsjai ii 7 ; Jer. 
xvii 12.) In the original it is "a high throne of glory." 

109. 1 Sam. iii. 1.] Henry in foe, " There." From this time it 
began to be otherwise. There was " open vision." " And all Israel, 
from Dan even to Beersheba, knew that Samuel was established to be 
a prophet of the Lord," (ver. 20, chap. iv. 1.) 


1 10. 1 Sam. V. 4.] The Bible and other remains of the true religion 
that were kept in the Church of Rome, the Antichristian Church, 
will at length be the occasion of the fall of their Dagon and of the 
breaking of his head and hands. When Antichrist falls there will be 
a remainder of him yet ; but he shall be utterly despoiled of strength 
and glory. He will be like a stump without head or handa 

111. 1 Sam. xii. 11.] This Bedan seems to be the same with Jair 
the Gileadite of whom we read, (Judges x. 3, 4,) for this Bedan was 
a Gileadite, as appears by 1 Chron. vii. 17. But Jair was the only 
Gileadite that judged Israel, except Jephthah, who judged Israel next 
to him, and is mentioned next to him in this verse. 

112. Ibid,, ver. 15.] There is in this and the foregoing verse an 
opposition between being after the Lard, as in the foregoing, — i.e., 
having God going before them and leading them as their Captain 
and Saviour, — and God's being their enemy, or the hand of God, its 
being against them. 

113. 1 Sam. XXV. 26.] The sense is, as the Lord liveth, and as thy 
soul liveth, seeing the Lord Himself hath withholden thee from 
coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thine own 
hand, God Himself will certainly avenge thee and will take him away, 
as I desire that God would take away all thine enemies. It is a 
strong expression of assurance concerning a future event such as we 
have in the next chapter ver. 10. 

114. 2 Sam. i. 17.] David's behaviour on occasion of the death 
of Saul his (see verses 11, 12) grand persecutor, who long sought his 
life, and whose death was so much to his advantage, together with 
the spirit he shewed on other occasions of love and meekness and 
forgiveness towards those that injured him, do greatly confirm that 
the imprecations we have in his Psalms on his persecutors, of whom 
Saul was the chief, are not the expression of a spirit of private re- 
venge, but imprecations he put up in the name of Christ as Head of 
the Church against His and His Church's enemies, and what he spake 
as a prophet in the name of the Lord. Observe, also, his behaviour 
with respect to the death of Abner and Amasa. By this also we 
may see what is the spirit of true religion, how it disposes persons to 
overlook and hide the worst faults of their worst enemies, and [to] 
speak the best of them and lament their calamities. See note on 
Ps. lix. 13, and on Job xxxi. 30. 

115. 2 Sam. viL 10.] God's ceasing to walk in a tent and taber- 
nacle, and dwelling in a temple, was a great token of mercy to 
the children of Israel ; for while God dwelt in a movable tabernacle, 
He dwelt as a wayfaring man, as one that was not fixed in His abode, 
was ready to depart, that is, to stay but a little while, or that is un- 
determined whether to stay or no. But when He came to dwell in a 
temple, — that is, a fixed habitation, — it was a token for good several 
ways. It was a token that God would dwell among them, and make 
His settled abode among them, and that He would not lead them forth 
out of the Land, but continue them in the possession of it, for they 
were to go where the tabernacle went before them ; but now dwel^^^v 


in an immovable temple, it was a token that they should no more be 
removed. It was a token that God would not cast them off from 
being His people ; for if He should do so, He would remove them out 
of that Land, for the Land was His Land^ a Land that He had chosen 
to be a holy Land. 

116. 2 Sam. viL 20.] i.e., What can he desire more of Thee, or 
pray for more to Thee ? — that this is the meaning is evident by 1 
Chron. xvii. 18, where it is thus expressed, "What can David," &c., — 
[" for Thou, Lord," &c.] — i.e., Thou hast chosen Thy servant. God's 
knowledge is here put for election, as often elsewhere. God's election 
is mentioned as the ground of these great and admirable favours. 
The words that follow in the next verse confirm this verse. 

117. 2 Sam. vil 21 — "For Thy wobd*s sake, and according to 
Thine own heait."] In 1 Chron. xvii 19 it is, "For Thy servant's 
sake, and according to Thine own heart," which confirms that by the 
" word" here is meant Christ, who appeared in the form of a servant, 
and is often, by way of eminency, called God's ' servant.' [See Pool, 
Synop. in loc] 

118. 2. Sam. x. 16.] Which armament is 7000 men, ten to a chariot, 
so this place is reconciled with 1 Chron. xix. 18, (see Pool on 1 Chron. 
xix. 18.) 


119. 1 Kings ii. 37.] This may help us to understand God's threat- 
ening to Adam, when He said, *'In the day," &c. When Solomon 
thus threatened Shimei, we cannot naturally understand any more by 
it than that death should be certain to him from that day : he should 
stand guilty of death, obliged to die by a fixed unalterable establish- 
ment. We cannot suppose that Solomon concluded that, if he did go 
over the brook Kedron, he should hear of it so as to execute this 
threatening on that very day. As it proved that he did not, it seems 
to have been some time after before the threatening was executed. 
See note on Gen. ii. 17. 

120. 1 Kings viii 56.] So long was it before God fully gave Israel 
that rest in Canaan which He had promised them by the hand of 
Moses, which may make us the less to wonder that many of those 
great things that were promised by Christ to His Church, and spoken 
of by His Apostles relating to the kingdom of heaven, and the glory 
that Church should receive at Christ's coming in that kingdom, as to 
their more full accomplishment should be so long delayed. 

121. 1 Kings xL 5-7.] It does not appear that Solomon did him- 
self worship these strange gods. But what his wives persuaded him 
to, was to build high places for them to worship their gods in : he 
probably went after other gods only as he honoured them so far as 
to build places for their public worship in the land of Israel, wherein 


his wives and their attendants might worship them. For it is said in 
ver. 8 he did this " for his wives," &c. He might possibly think it 
but reasonable that his wives should be allowed the exerdse of their 
own religion and the worship of their own gods, and might think it 
hard, seeing he had brought them out of their own country, to deny 
them high places and tdtars at which they might worship them 
in his country. 

122. 1 Kings xiii. 31, 32.] The old prophet orders that his corpse 
might be laid in the sepulchre of the man of Grod, and his bones by 
that prophet's bones, that so they might not be disturbed, and burnt 
on the altar of Bethel by Josiah. This is implied as the reason he 
gives himself in ver. 32, and so the event was : the bones that were 
laid in that sepulchre were not disturbed by Josiah, (2 Elings 
xxiii. 17.) 

123. 1 Kings xiv. 14, 15.] It is God's manner in Scripture, when 
threatening the wicked for their sins, to pass from those judgments 
that are soon to be inflicted, and are the more immediate, and which 
are the occasion of God's sending a messenger to threaten them, to 
some great remote judgments, of which perhaps the judgments more 
immediately threatened are images or forerunners. Thus when God 
first sent Moses to Pharaoh, He sent him with a threatening of the 
last and greatest plague ; and the other foregoing plagues are all 
omittei (Exod. iv. 22, 23.) So in chap. ix. ver. 15, God again 
threatens the last plague and Pharaoh's own destruction, that was 
accomplished in the Bed Sea; though there was the plague of hail, 
and locusts and darkness afterwards, before the plague of pestilence. 
So here, when the wife of Jeroboam comes to the prophet to enquire 
whether her son shall live, the prophet passes from a threatening of 
his death and judgment suddenly to be inflicted on his family, to the 
captivity of the ten tribes, though it was to be long after Jeroboam's 
death. So also it is the manner of the prophets, when sent on some 
particular occasions to promise some mercy to God's people, to insist 
on some greater mercy that is remote, and that is to be bestowed on 
God's people in after generations. Thus when Isaiah was sent to 
Ahaz, when Bezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, son of Bemaliah, were 
combined against him, to comfort him by foretelling the disappoint- 
ment of their enemies and deliverance of Judah, he comes to Ahaz 
with Shear-jashub, his son, that signifies the " remnant shall return," 
to foretell the return from the captivity to Babylon, as in Isa. 
vii. And it is very frequent with the prophets, when foretelling 
lesser mercies that God has to bestow on His people, to pass to and 
insist upon that greatest of all mercies, the coming of Christ. So did 
Isaiah, when He came to Ahaz on the forementioned occasion. (Isa. 
viL 14.) So the prophets, when foretelling the return from the Baby- 
lonish captivity, often insist on the redemption of Christ, of which 
this is a type. So do the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, when sent 
to encourage the people to build the Temple, with promises of mercies 
therein, insist chiefly on the prosperity that God will give the Church 
in the times of the gospel. 


12^. 1 Kings xviii. 33-35.] Elijah's sacrifice, in the time wherein 
it was offered, was attended with the greatest obstacles to its being 
consumed by fire. God, who has more ends than one in what He 
does, probably did not only intend by this to shew His power beyond 
that of Baal, bnt to represent what came to pass with respect to the 
sacrifice of Christ, the great antitype of all the ancient sacrifices, 
Whose last Suffering was attended with such circumstances as 
seemed to tend in the highest degree to hinder His going on to offer 
Himself, in the heavenly flames of Divine charity, and voluntarily 
presenting Himself to suffer the flanaes of Divine wrath. Such was 
God's hiding of His face from Him, and dealing with Him in some 
respects as if He had been an enemy, which was a great trial of His 
love to the Father, and tending like floods of water to quench the fire 
of Divine love in His soul, and to prevent that great degree of it 
which was necessary to carry Him through the extreme sufferings 
that were before Him ; and also the extraordinary view which Christ 
had then given Him of the unworthiness of mankind for whom He 
died, the hateful nature of their sin that He was about to expiate 
by His extreme sufferings, and their great enmity against Him, 
which was then set before Him and exercised towards Him, in the 
contempt and cruelty of His enemies. And some of them the very 
persons that He was about to die for ; and the ingratitude of His 
own disciples, that had already received the saving benefits of His 
death, in their coldness towards Him in the times of His agony, — 
their being unwilling to watch with Him one hour — ^their all forsak- 
ing Him when He was apprehended — Peter denying Him with oaths 
and curses. These were like floods of great waters that were then 
thrown upon Him to quench His love, and to prevent His going on 
to endure those extreme torments in the fire of God's wrath ; as was 
also that extraordinary view that was given Him beforehand of the 
cup He was to drink, which made His soul exceeding sorrowful, even 
unto death. But " many waters could not quench His love, nor 
could the floods drown it." (Song of Solomon viii. 7.) 

125. 1 Kings xix. 20, 21.] See Matt. xxiv. 17, 18. The truth 
with respect to what is related in these verses probably was thus : — 
Elijah was directed by the Spirit of God to cast his mantle on Elisha; 
but Elijah had not the design of God in it fully made known to him, 
supposing it to be intended as a sign that Elisha should be a prophet 
after him, agreeable to what God had said to him at Mount Sinai. 
But God had a further meaning in it, which was intimated by His 
Spirit, which went with Elijah's mantle to Elisha — viz., that he should 
immediately forsake all and follow him, and devote himself to the 
work of the ministry in the business of a prophet. Elisha, supposing 
Elijah had this design of Grod made known to him, and had been 
directed to cast his mantle on him with this view, and finding at 
first a reluctance and desire of Elisha that he by his prayers would 
obtain leave of God that he should first kiss his father and mother ; 
Elijah, surprised at this request, as is natural, supposing him thus 
ignorant, says, '' Go back : for what have I done that should hinder 


it?" However, Elisha, who understood the mind of God, soon re- 
covered from his reluctance and went no further back than to his 
oxen, and took them and the instruments and offered up all to God, 
signifying by this action his full consent to forsake all and make a 
sacrifice of ail this world's possessions and concerns to the great and 
infinitely important designs of his ministry. 

126. 1 Kings xxii. 11) — " And all the host of heaven standing by 
Him.' ] Here we may observe that they under the Old Testament 
were sensible of a multitude of inhabitants in the heavenly world as 
well as now, since another world has been more fully revealed by the 

127. 2 Kings ii. 9.] Elijah was now about to leave the world, 
and as parents, when they are leaving the world, are wont to be- 
queath portions to their children, so Elijah asks Elisha what he shall 
bequeath to him. Elisha was as it were his child, and calls him 
father. (Ver. 12.) That portion that he desires to inherit from his 
father is his spirit, and he desires a double portion of it — i,e,, a much 
larger portion than the rest of his children, as it was ordained that the 
eldest son should inherit a double portion. (Deut. xxi. 17.) It was his 
birthright to have the best share of his father's estate. Elijah had 
many other children besides Elisha. There were many sons of the 
prophets that were under Elijah's care and instruction, so that he was 
as it were a father among them as afterwards Elislia was, as is evident 
by chap. iv. 38, and chap. vi. 42. Now what Elisha desires is that 
he may be distinguished from all the rest of the children by having a 
double portion of his spirit bequeathed to him. For Elijah's estate 
did not consist in silver and gold, but in those gifts of the Spirit 
which he possessed. So that he was about to give something he 
mii^lit say of as Peter. (Acts iii. 6.) He asked a double portion 
of this, and to be made the main heir of those blessed spiritual gifts 
which he had, which was accordingly granted him. 

1 28. 2 Kings v. 17—'* Two mules'," &c.] See Bedford, "Scripture 
Chron.," p. 627. Thus though he would not allow before that the 
waters of Israel were better than the waters of Damascus, yet, having 
been convinced by experience of his error in that, he now easily con- 
ceives that the earth of the land of Israel is better than that of 

129. 2 Kings xxi 10-15.] It is evident by this, and many other 
passages of Scripture, that the first destruction of Jerusalem was 
principally for the sins of Manasseh and the wickedness that the 
people were guilty of in his reign, (see chap, xxiii. 2(j, 27, and xxiv. 
;], 4, and Jer. xv. 4;) and yet the first captivity in Jehoiakiui's time 
was not till about forty-four years after Manasseh 's death, and the total 
destruction of Jerusalem in Zedekiah's time not till about fifty-five 
years after his death. Hence I would observe that it is no argument 
against the dreadful destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, its 
being an evident token of God's wrath against the j)eople for their 
rejecting and crucifying Christ, that that (lestruction happened about 
forty years after Christ's crucifixion. 



130. 1 Chron. xi. 39— "Zelek the Ammonite.''] Here one of 
Davids worthies is said to be an * Ammonite/ and another of them 
(ver. 4t)) a Moabite, and yet in Deut. xxiii. 3 it is forbidden in the 
Law of Moses that an Ammonite or Moabite should ever enter into 
the congregation of the Lord. So Ruth was a Moabitess, but yet 
was received. By this it appears that evident piety prevailed for per- 
sons' admission notwithstanding the Law. When the case was so, 
tliey were no longer Ammonites or Moabites in the eye of the Law. 
By these things and many others, it appears that evangelical qualifi- 
cations always prevailed over legal ones. So in the case of them 
that were legally unclean, that yet kept the Passover in Hezekiah's 
time. (2 Chron. xxx. 17-20.) 

131. 1 Chron. xxiii. 26.] Thus the Ceremonial Law was in part 
altered before Christ's time. The service of the Levites by the 
Law of Moses consisted much in carrying the tabernacle, and vessels 
and instruments of it, (Num. iii. and iv.;) but when the Temple 
Avas built this service ceased, and was abrogated by David, there 
then ceasing to be occasion any longer for that work, and therefore 
David gave them new ordinances, and appointed them new work, 
which shews that the Ceremonial Law was alterable. If it may 
be altered in part, it may be altered in the whole ; if David might 
abrogate some ordinances, Christ, the true David, might abrogate 
all, (Jer. iii. 16, 17, and Isa. IvL 3, 4.) In 2 Chron. xxiii. 18, 
the ordinances of David are mentioned as of parallel validity with 
those of Moses, as a rule for their public worship. See note on 
Isa. li. 4. 

132. 2 Chron. xii. 8.] %.e., That they may know the difference 
between my service and theirs. So the forbidden tree in Eden was 
called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, because the experi- 
ence of the one illustrated and shewed the value of the other. Grod 
would hereby let Judah know by their experience how much better 
His service was that they had forsaken and cast off, than the service 
of the kingdoms of the countries whose gods they had chosen. 

133. 2 Chron xv. 17 — "But the high places were not taken 
away."] i.e., Those that were used in the service of the true God, 
for Asa took away those which were used in idolatrous worship. 
(Chap. xiv. 3, 4.) 

134. 2 Chron. xxxiL 31— "That He might know all that was in 
his heart"] By this, together with verses 25, 26, it appears that 
Hezekiah had much sin in his heart, though, as he pleads with God 
in the time of his sickness, he had walked before God in truth and 
with a perfect heart. See also 2 Kings xviii. 3, 5, 6. 



135. Esther v. 2 — ''Sceptre."] Favour was offered by the king 
by holding out to her the golden sceptre ; but it was expected that 
she, in order to a title and interest in the offered favour, should 
draw near and touch the top of the sceptre as an expression of her 
joyful acceptance of the favour, submission to the royal dominion 
and power, of which the sceptre was the ensign, and her dependence 
on the king's free, sovereign but offered favour. The acts and benefits 
of saving faith in Christ may be compared to this act of Esther 
towards Ahasuerus, her king, her husband, and in this affair, and in 
what followed, her saviour. 


136. Job vi. 6.] Job was reduced to such necessity that he was 
forced to content himself with such insipid unsavoury morsels. This 
is the meaning, as appears by the next verse. 

137. Job xiv. 22.] It is not unlikely that the Spirit of God in 
this has some respect to the misery of wicked men in a future state, 
when both soul and body shall be cast into hell. See Eccles. xL 10. 

138. Job xix. 25 — " I know that my Eedeemer liveth."] Though 
I shall die, and my flesh shall be destroyed with worms, [and that 
He shall stand at the latter day upon the earth.] In the original it 
is, ' He shall stand over the dust,' "^?J^-*?3J The word ' earth ' is 
very often used in the Book of Job, and the word is everywhere 
' eretZy and nowhere this word that properly signifies * dust.' And it 
is not true that at the day of judgment Christ will properly stand on 
the earth. The meaning is this : — Christ will stand over the dust of 
the dead saints. [" My Redeemer."] The word also as it was used 
among the Hebrews signified * near kinsman,' as in Ruth iii. 1 2 — "And 
now it is true that I am thy near kinsman, [Goel,] howbeit there is a 
kinsman [goel] nearer than [I] [Goel.]" Ver. 13, "Tarry tliis night, 
and it shall be in the morning, that if he will perform unto thee the 
part of a kinsman, [or if he will redeem thee,] well ; let him do the 
kinsman's part : but if he will not do the part of a kinsman to thee, 
then I will do the part of a kinsman to thee." So the word is the 
same, 1 Kings xvi. 11 — "As soon as he began to reign, he slew all 
the house of Baasha ; he left none of his kinsfolks." There were 
four things the ' goel ' was to do for his kinsman unable to act for 
to himself : (1.) He was to marry the widow of the deceased kinsman 
raise up seed to his brother, as Christ marries the elect Church that 
was left a widow by the first Adam, the first surety, and by the Law 
or first covenant, the first husband, having no seed, (Rom. vii. 3, 4.) 
(2.) He was to redeem the inheritance of his poor kinsman, (Lev. 


XXV. 25.) So Christ redeems the inheritance which we sold (3.) 
He was to ransom his poor kinsman in bondage, paying the price of 
his redemption. (Lev. xxv. 47, 48, 52.) Thus does Christ redeem us 
from bondage after we have sold ourselves. (4.) He was to avenge 
the blood of his slain kinsman on the slayer. Thus does Christ 
avenge our blood on Satan. 

139. Job XX. 11.] Both these expressions import the same thing, 
and are as much as to say the sins of his youth remain with him 
after he is dead : his sin shall lie down with him in his grave, and 
shall remain in his dead corpse there when his flesh is putrefied and 
turned to dust. Then his iniquity shall still remain in his bones : 
his bones shall be full of them ; which signifies that his sins shall for 
ever remain with him after he is dead : he shall never get rid of 
them, but they shall to all eternity lie upon him. (See Ezek. xxxii. 

140. Job xxiv. 23.] The words more literally translated are, 
*' Though it be given him to be in safety, and he depends upon it, 
yet his eyes are upon their ways" — i.e., though God gives those wicked 
men that are so unjust to be in safety, and they, because God pro- 
tects and preserves them for the present, depend on future safety, as 
though God took no notice of their wickedness and would never 
punish it, yet God's eyes are upon their ways. 

141. Job xxvi. 13— "His hands have formed the crooked ser- 
pent."] It might have been translated, " His hands have wounded 
or tormented the crooked serpent" — i.e., the devil The word trans- 
lated "formed" is the same that is used in ver. 5 — "Dead things 
are ' formed ' from under the waters," [see in toe] That the de^, 
that old serpent, that great leviathan, should be meant, agrees with 
the foregoing verse — " He divideth the sea with His power ; by His 
understanding He smiteth through the proud," which was remark- 
ably fulfilled in dividing the sea and destroying Pharaoh, compared 
to leviathan, the water-monsters that are especially to be found in 
the waters of Egypt : Pa Ixxiv. 13, 14 — " Thou didst divide the sea 
by Thy strength : Thou brakest the heads of the dragon in the waters. 
Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces," where he is spoken of as 
the image of the devil ; and this leviathan is called the " crooked ser- 
pent" in Isa. xxvii. 1 — "In that day," &c., " the piercing serpent," [as the 
serpent Ijring across like a bar, nahash bariach, the very same name 
used here,] "even leviathan that crooked serpent; and He shall slay the 
dragon that is in the sea." This is fitly subjoined to the former part 
of the verse — "By His Spirit He hath garnished [or beautified] the 
heavens." For at the same time that God cast Satan down to hell 
He purged and also beautified heaven, increasing the holiness and 
happiness of His elect angels ; and at every time of Christ's remark- 
ably overcoming Satan and bruising his head, is a beautifying heaven 
and advancing His holiness and happiness, as when He rose from the 
dead and ascended into heaven, and when He shall destroy Anti- 
christ, and at the end of the world ; and it is not incredible that 
Job should here speak of such mysteries, for it is evident he now 



speaks under the influence of the Spirit of prophecy, by what he says 
in the preceding verse concerning the dividing of the sea, &c., ful- 
filled aftenvaj'ds. This interpretation is confirmed by ver. 5 — ** Dead 
things," &c. Mr Henry observes that some ancient versions render 
the words thus: "Behold, the giants groan under the waters, and those 
that dwell with them ; " or the words ought to liave been rendered : 
''Eephaim are wounded and pierced through under the waters," 
agreeable to the original. (See Buxtorf.) "From under the water" 
seems to allude to the waters of the Flood, under which the giants 
were destroyed in God's terrible wrath, which deluge of water was a 
remarkable type of the deluge of God's wrath which comes on the 
ungodly in another world. The observing this is to Job's purpose, 
for, as Mr Henry says, " is there anything in which the majesty of 
God appears more dreadful than in the eternal ruin of the ungodly, 
and the groans of the inhabitants of the land of wickedness ? " Ver. 
12 confirms this interpretation, and also ver. 13. 

142. Job xxviii. 5 — " Under it is turned up as it were fire"] — i.e., 
that which shines like fire, as in Deut. xxxiii 2. The Law of God, 
because it, as it were, shines and gives light, is called a " fiery Law." 

143. Job XXX. 24 — "Howbeit He will not stretch out His hand to 
the grave"] — i.e., to rescue men from death. Every man must die 
and be retained in the grave, — "the redemption of the life is pre- 
cious, and it ceaseth for ever ;" — God will recover man from thence to 
live again in this world, [though they cry in His destruction,] though 
they dread death never so much when death comes, and would never 
so earnestly cry to be delivered from the grave. 

144. Job xxxi. 34 — " Did I fear ?" &c.] In these early days great 
account was made of men's pedigree, and they were kept with care ; 
and when men s lives were so long, great numbers of the dependents 
of one living ancestor were alive at once, so that those who were 
called a family were commonly a great multitude. Job declares that 
he was not deterred from doing justice in his office of a judge through 
fear of the great multitude that were of the family of him that was to 
be condemned or displeased in the judgment. 

145. Job xxxiv. 20.] Remarkably fulfilled when the first-bom were 
slain : as there are several tilings in this Book in which the Spirit that 
in the general directed in the iforming of the speeches of Job and his 
friends, — either in them or others, which they answered these sayings 
from, — had respect to those great things which were accompUshed 
when the children of Israel were brought out of Egypt and led toCanaau, 
(see chap. xxvi. 12, xxxviii. 22, 23, ix. 7.) [At midnight,] (see ver. 
25, and chap. xxxvL 20, xxvil 20 ; Matt. xxv. 6 ; 1 Thess. v. 2.) . . . 

146. Job xxxvL 27, to end of the next chapter.] Elihu concludes 
his discourse with observations and improvements of God's wondrous 
works in the clouds — rain, lightning, and thunder. It appears to me 
probable that the occasion of it was the appearance, at a tlistance, of 
the clouds and lightning and thunder of the storm that was then 
approaching, out of which God spake to Job. There was nothing in 
Elihu's foregoing discourse that seemed to lead him to it. It is true 


that he was, in the foregoing verses, speaking of the greatness of God 
and His works ; but there seems nothing that led him thus suddenly 
to begin about the clouds and rain in this 27th verse. But if there 
then appeared to them a thunder-storm arising, that will easily 
account for it, why he, when speaking of God*s greatness, should 
insist on this rather than any other of God's works. The 30th verse 
of the XXXVI*^ chapter seems to confirm this — ["Behold," &c.] 
The manner of expression, his calling on Job to 'behold,' agrees 
with the supposition that the thing was then appearing that he was 
speaking of, and the description here given, * He spreadeth His light 
upon it, and covereth the roots of the sea,' as it is in the original, 
agrees exactly with the appearance of a thunder-storm appearing as 
arising above the horizon ; for the top of the clouds, in such cases, is 
commonly all spread over with an exceeding bright light. Thus God 
spreads His light upon it ; and the lower part of a storm that appears 
thus rising, seems to cover the utmost confines and extreme parts of 
the sea that are next the horizon, that are here called the " roots of the 
sea," which may elegantly be so called according to the notion they 
then had of the world as being a flat, and that there was first the 
land and after that the sea, which they supposed was bounded by the 
horizon, or at the meeting of the firmament with the waters. Ho 
certainly here speaks of a thunder-storm as it is [seen] when rising 
and approaching, whether there was then one approaching or no. 
By the 30th and also the 32d and 33d verses, having first observed 
how the cloud appears on the top of it covered with light, and how 
the bottom covers the roots of the sea, he next observes how it is, as It 
advances higher and comes nearer, how the cloud interposes between 
the sun and the earth and hides its light, and how the thunder-storm 
grows louder, and the notice the cattle seem to shew of it ; and in the 
beginning of the next chapter, Elihu seems to speak of what then 
appeared — " At this also my heart trembleth, and is moved out of its 
place," &c. ; and it was not the only instance of God's speaking out of 
a storm of thunder, for so He did at Mount Sinai, (Ps. Irviii 8.) 
Pool, Sjmop. on chap, xxxviii 1. 

147. Ibid., ver. 29, 30.] Here the clouds are represented as being 
spread out over the concave of the heavens as the covering of a taber- 
nacle, which come down as curtains and cover the utmost edge of 
the sea, which is the uttermost part of the pavement or ground of the 
tabernacle. Here the clouds are represented as one covering and the 
light another, spread out upon it, as in the Tabernacle built in the 
wilderness there were various coverings one without another. Elihu 
probably has respect to the cloud as it now appeared. The clouds of 
a thunder-storm, when rising, appear at top spread over with a bright 
light, and at the bottom covering the utmost ends of the earth or 

148. Job xl. 2-4.] Since Job had undertaken to find fault with 
God and His dispensations, and to desire an opportunity to dispute 
with Him, that he might argue the matter of the erroneousness of 
His dispensations with him, he is now called upon by God to 


' answer ' to what He had said, and speak in his turn. Bat now Job 
declines it and owns he has nothing to answer — " Behold, I am vile," 


149. Job xlL 11 — " Who hath prevented Me, that I should repay 
him?"] These words are a great evidence that leviathan is here 
spoken of as a type of the devil. For no other leviathan was ever 
subject to God's moral government, or ever rebelled against Him, 
that God should repay him. 


150. Ps. xi. 6 — " Snares."] i.e., This destruction shall come sud- 
denly and unexpectedly upon them, while they are saying peace and 
safety, while they are eating and drinking, marrying and giving in 
marriage, and gratifying their lusts — ^as a bird that is securely feed- 
ing on the sweet bait, suspecting no harm nigh, and is suddenly 
caught in the snare. (Luke xxi. 34, 35 ; see also Matt. xxiv. 36-39, 
and 1 Thess. v. 6, and Eccles. ix. 12.) 

151. Ps. xxiii. 6 — " I will dwell," &c.] Being there not merely as 
a servant^ or as a guest kindly entertained for a little while, but as a 
child adopted into the family. For, as Christ says, " The Son abideth 
in the house for ever." 

152. Ps. xxxix. 12.] David asks mercy as a stranger, having re- 
ference to the Law often repeated in the Pentateuch, of shewing mercy 
to strangers, (" a sojourner with Thee,") alluding to that which is said 
in Lev. xxv. 23. 

153. Ps. lix. 13—" Consume them," &c.] The title of the Psalm 
shews that the occasion of David s penning this Psalm was Saul's 
persecuting of him. Here seems, therefore, to be an imprecation of 
God's wrath on Saul to consume and cut him off from the earth ; and 
yet, when Saul was cut off from the earth, how did he rend his 
clothes, and mourn and weep and fast for Saul as well as Jonathan, 
[2 Sam. i. 11, 12,] and how did David revenge his death on the 
Amalekite that slew him, and how did he lament Saul's death as the 
death of one that he greatly loved and [who] was very dear to him, in 
his elegy; which is a great evidence that David's imprecations of 
God's vengeance on his enemies, in the Book of Psalms, are not the 
expressions or breathings of his own spirit, but prophecies uttered ; 
prophetical curses denounced by the Spirit of God. (See note on 
David's Elegy, 2 Sam. i. 17.) 

154. Ps. bcxii. 15.] It might have been rendered — "Prayer also 
shall be made through Him continually, and daily shaU He be 
blessed." The word rendered 'praised' is that which is commonly 
rendered * blessed,' when speaking of an act of worship towards God ; 
and the word translated 'for' is sometimes used for 'through,' as 


Joshua ii. 13 — " ' Through' the window." If we hold the translation 
* for Him/ then it must be understood of the saints praying for the 
Father's accomplishment of His promises made to the Son in the 
covenant of redemption, that His kingdom may come. His name be 
glorified, and that He may see His seed, and that the full reward may 
be given Him for liis sufferings, and so that He may receive the joy 
that was set before Him. 

155. Ps. Ixxiv. 25 — "Flood."] God, in dividing Jordan, did not 
only divide the water that ordinarily belonged to the river, or the water 
which came from its fountains, but also Uie extraordinary additional 
waters by the great rains a little before harvest So God cleaved 
both the fountain — i.e., the fountain water — and the flood. 

156. Ps. Ixxxiv. 9— "Behold, God, our shield.''] [For this 
use of the] word 'behold,' see- 2 Chron. vi. 42, and Ps. cxxxiL 10. 

157. Ps. Ixxxix. 15.] There is the dreadful and there is the joy- 
ful sound. The dreadful sound was at Mount Sinai The joyful 
sound is from Mount Sion. When the people heard the former they 
were far from beholding the glory of God's face. Moses only was 
admitted to see His ' back-parts ;* the people were kept at a distance^ 
and the light of God's glory that they saw was so terrible to them, 
that they could not abide it. But they that know the ''joyful 
sound," they shall be admitted near, nearer than Moses, so as to see 
the glory of God's face or brightness of His countenance, and that 
not only transiently, as Moses saw Qod!s back-parts, but continually. 
The light of God's glory shall not be terrible to them, but easy and 
sweet, so that they may dwell in it and walk in it; and it shall be to 
them instead of the light of the sun ; for the sun shall no more be 
their light by day, nor the moon by night, but God shall be their 
everlasting light. Compare this with Isa. ii. 5, and Bev. xxi 23, 24, 
and xxii 4, 5. 

158. Ps. cxvL 10, 11 — " Spoken ; was greatly afflicted ; I said in 
my haste, All men are liars."] The meaning seems to be this — I 
spake as I have declared, (ver. 4,) because I trusted in God. I was 
greatly afflicted, I was in extreme (Ustress, (as I declared before ;) I was 
in great astonishment and trembling, (as the word rendered 'haste' 
signifies trembling as well as haste, as it is rendered in Deut. xx. 3 ;) 
and in these circumstances I did not trust in man ; I said, all men are 
liars — ie,y not fit to be trusted in ; those that will fail and deceive 
the hopes of them who trust in them, agreeably to Psalm Ixii. 8, 9. 
See Pool, Synop. on ver. 11. 

159. Ps. cxxxvL] This Psalm confirms me that an ultimate end 
of the creation of the world, and of all God's works, is His goodness, 
or the communication of His good to His creatures. For this Psalm 
sufficiently teaches that all God's works, from the beginning of the 
world to the end of it, are works of mercy to His people, yea, even 
the works of His vindic[a]tive justice and wrath, as appears by verses 
10, 15, 17-22. 

160. Ps. cxliv. 5 — "Bow thy heavens, O Lord, and come down."] 
This was never so remarkably fulfilled as in the incaniAtion of Jesiia 


Christ, when heaven and earth were as it were brought together. 
Heaven itself was as it were made to bow that it might be united to 
the earth. God did as it were come down and bring heav^i with 
Him. He not only came down to the earth, but He brought heaven 
down with Him to men and for men. It was a more strange and 
wonderful thing. But this will be more remarkably fulfilled still by 
Christ's second coming, when He will indeed bring all heaven down 
with Him — ^viz., all the inhabitants of heaven. Heaven shall be left 
empty of its inhabitants to come down to the earth ; and then the 
mountains shall smoke, and shall indeed flow down at His presence, 
as in Isa. Ixiv. 1. 


161. Prov. xi. 18 — "The wicked worketh a deceitful work '*] — %.e., 
a work that will deceive him, or that he is greatly deceived in the 
consequences of. The work that he does, as he views it, seems to 
promise fair for happiness : his work looks to him as that which 
yields him a great benefit ; but his work deceives him, and he will 
find himself miserably deceived in it. From the seed that he sows 
he promises himself a crop of pleasant fruit ; but it will deceive him, 
for the fruit that it will yield will be gall and wormwood, and will 
prove the most deadly poison. That this is the sense is evident by 
the words that follow in the latter part of the verse. 

1G2. Prov. xvi. 4.] The wise man, in the expression, " hath made 
all things," has not respect merely to the works of creation, but also to 
the works of Providenpe : making and creating is commonly under- 
stood in this large sense in Scripture for bringing to pass; yea, bring- 
ing to pass, though not by an immediate effecting, but only by 
permitting, ordering, and disposing, is called ' making ' in Scripture. 
The making the wicked, here mentioned, is a work of Providence. 
God makes men wicked in the same sense as He is said, in Eom. ix., 
"to make them vessels of wrath," to "harden them," and "fit them 
to destruction " — ^viz., by so disposing and ordering things in His 
providence, that they, in consequence of His disposals, especially in 
His permission, or withholding restraints, do continue in wickedness 
or are hardened in it. They are distinguished from others in being 
impenitently and obstinately wicked, and are suffered to multiply 
wickedness and heap up wrath ; and God's end in it is to glorify 
Himself in the day of their evil or ruin. God makes wicked men in 
no other sense than He creates darkness, which is not by any positive 
efficiency, but only ordering, withholding light ; for darkness is only 
a negative. (Isa. xlv. 7.) These things that are here said to be 
formed, made and created, are all works of Providence ; and some of 
them brought to pass by no positive eflSciency, because negative only. 



Works of Providence are said to be created, (Num. xvi. 30 ; Isa. 
Ivii. 19, and xU. 20, and xlv. 8, and xlviii. 7, and ILv. 16 ; Jer. xxxi. 
22,) so that it does not appear that this Scripture will justify such 
an expression as that God made some men to damn them. It is most 
probable that the wise man, by '* making the wicked," has respect to 
something that God doth respecting the wicked or reprobates, that is 
distinguishing and peculiar to them. God's distinguishing dealing 
towards mankind might be expressed thus — that God maketh both 
the righteous and the wicked in the same sense — %.e., whom He will 
He has mercy on and makes righteous, and whom He will He hardens 
and leaves to wickedness. But if the wise man had respect only to 
the bringing men into being, having guilt and corruption, this is com- 
mon to all. All, in this sense, are made wicked alike. It is probable 
that by making the wicked, here is intended the same as is expressed 
in Rom. xi. 7-10 ; 2 Thess. ii. 11, 12 ; Ps. Ixxxi. 12 ; Isa. vi. 9, 10, 
which is a judicial proceeding and a punishment of sin, though it be 
a mere sovereign proceeding in God that He distinguishes some by 
not executing this punishment upon them. 

163. Prov. XXV. 25.] Good news from our friends at a distance, 
who have been gone long from us. Heaven is a far country — a far 
country especially to sinners, who have gone far oflf from God to the 
very borders, and seems to be a far country indeed to an awakened 
convinced sinner. The gospel is "glad tidings" from thence. 
Abraham's servant brought to Rebekah good news from a far country. 
Joseph's brethren, when they returned to Canaan, to their kindred 
there, after Joseph had made himself known to them in Egypt, and 
Joseph sent by them an account of his being alive, and his riches 
and glory, and plentiful supplies for them, and invited them to come 
down to him and partake of his wealth and glory, they brought good 
news from a far country to them who before were sorrowful, and 
ready to perish with famine. Moses brought to the children of Israel 
in Egypt, who were in great affliction there, and almost worn out with 
cruel bondage, good news from Mount Sinai, near the land of Midian. 
The spies, when they brought an account of the exceeding fertility of 
the land of Canaan, brought good news from a far country to them 
that were faithful in Israel. Cyrus sent good news from the Persian 
court to the poor captive Jews in Chaldea^ as we have an account 
in Ezra i Darius's messengers brought good news from the 
same court to the Jews in Judea, (Ezra iv.) Ezra came with 
good news to Jerusalem, when he brought from thence Artaxerxes*s 
commission and decree, (Ezra vii) Nehemiah came to Jeru- 
salem with good news from the same court, (Neh. i.) Esther's 
messengers brought good news from Shushan to the Jews in Judea 
and in all the distant provinces of Esther, and Mordecai's advance- 
ment, and of great salvation for the Jews. Naomi, when in the land 
of Moab, heard good news from Canaan, when she heard how the 
Lord had visited His people in giving them bread, (Ruth i. 6.) 
All these are types of the good news sent us from heaven in the 
gospel of Jesus Christ, which gospel was good news from a far country; 


also, in another sense — yiz,, it is preached to the Gentiles who were 
far off — ^aliens and strangers — far off from the Chnrch of Gtod and sent 
from Jerusalem and the land of Canaan to the remote parts of the world. 

164. Prov. xxviL 7.] This is to shew that there is not so much 
difference between the rich and the poor, as to comfort in outward 
enjoyments, as the world is ready to imagine. (Eccles. v. 12.) 

165. Prov. XXX. 19, 20.] The way of a man with a maid, and the 
way of an adulterous woman, are here distinct instances. In the 
criminal intercourse of a man with a maid, the maid was liable to a 
discovery by some effects that were left in her body, at least it is so 
generally. But the man might conceal his wickedness — ^it might be 
hid as much as the way of a serpent on a rock ; and when a married 
woman is guilty of adultery, then the woman may conceal her wicked- 
ness, as well as the adulterer his. See Pool, Synop. 


166. Eccles. ill 11.] Instead of heart, it should have been trans- 
lated middle. God hath set the world in the middle of things. God 
has not set us at the beginning, nor at the end of things. We see 
but the middle of God's works, not the beginning of them ; we should 
have seen how wisely and beautifully t^ey were contrived in the 
Divine counsels — ^how He made everything beautiful in its time. 
We see not the end and final issue of things. Then we should see 
the excellent and glorious issue ; that all was order, most fitly and 
beautifully. The same word is used for middle or midst : Jonah ii. 
3 — '' Midst of the sea." So again the same word for the midst of the 
sea in Exod. xv. 8, and the same word is used in 2 Sam. xviiL 14 — 
** In the midst of the oak" 

167. Ecclea vL 10 — ** That which hath been is named already, and 
it is known that it is man."] There is a certain sphere in which God 
hath placed man, certain limits by which his attainments in the world 
and the degree of his worldly happiness are circumscribed, which 
limits men have come to in time past, and it is a vain imagination 
for any to expect to exceed those limits. Whatever men attain to, 
still they are but men. He that made him gave him his name, 
' Adam,' which implies that he is dust ; and let him be never so 
greedy, aspiring, busy, and restless and grasping in his pursuits, and 
vast in his expectations, he never will be any more. Man in his first 
transgression was ambitious of getting above his limits, of being as a 
god ; and this disposition is common among men : but He that is 
mightier than man hath set his limits, and it is in vain to contend 
with Him, as it follows — [** Neither may he contend with Him that is 
mightier than he."] God will make it to be known that men are 
but men, (Ps. ix. 20.) 

168. Eccles. viii. 1 — " Who is a wise man? and who knoweth the 


interpretation of a thing?"] The word translated 'thing' is daiher, 
which previously signifies ' word/ The meaning seems to be — Who 
is a wise man ? A man who has a right understanding of the Word 
of God. 

169. Eccles. viii. 2-5.] There is a remarkable agreement between 
what is said in these verses and that which is said by the Apostle in 
Eom. xiiL 1-5. Here ver. 2 agrees with Rom. xiii 5 ; verses 3 and 
4 agree with Bom. xiil 2 and latter part of ver. 4 ; and here the 
former part of ver. 5 agrees with Rom. xiiL and the former part of 
ver. 4 

170. Eccles. z. 5.] ie., To Jerusalem, eminently called the City : 
the city to which all Israel was to go three times a year to worship 
God, and wait on Him for His blessings in the Temple. The meaning 
of the Spirit of God probably is this — that although there be in- 
numerable kinds of sinners that are intending to go to heaven, and 
endeavouring to find out ways of their own thither, consistent with 
their wickedness and the foUy that reigns in them, and innumerable 
such ways are invented, yet they all labour in vain. " Strait is the 
gate," &C. *' Many there be that seek," &c. 


171. SoL Song V. 2 — " I sleep, but my heart waketh."] It may be 
well explained by these words of Christ to His disciples : Matt. xxvi. 
41 — " The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." 


172. Isa. iil 10, 11.] What is contained in the^ two verses seems 
to be an introduction to what follows. Through the former part of 
this book, Isaiah proceeds in his preaching, to the end of chap, xxxv., 
agreeably to the direction given him of God in this verse, — ^inter- 
changeably threatening terrible judgments to the wicked that were 
in I^ael, and revealing glorious promises to the righteous among 
them ; as from hence to the end of this chapter the prophet says to 
the wicked it shall be ill with him ; in the next chapter he says to 
the righteous it shall be well with him. In the first twelve verses of 
the YI^ chapter he again says to the wicked it shall be ill with him ; 
and chap. vL 13, and vii. 1-16, he says to the righteous it shall be 
well with him ; but ver. 8 is a threatening to the wicked, ver. 17 to 
end to the wicked ; chap, viii 1-8, to the wicked ; verses 9, 10, the 
righteous ; ver. 14, part to the righteous and part to the wicked ; 
ver. 15, to the wicked ; verses 16, 17, to the righteous; from thence 


to end, to the wicked ; chap. ix. 1-7, to the righteous ; ver. 8 to 
end, and chap. x. 1-6, to the wicked ; ver. 6 to end, and chaps, xi., xil, 
xiii., and xiv., to the righteous ; chap. xxii. 1-19, to the wicked; ver. 20 
to end, to the righteous ; chap. xxiv. 1-12, to the wicked ; ver. 13 to 
end, and chap. xxv. and xxvi. 1-9, to the righteous; verses 10, 11, 
to the wicked ; ver. 12 to end, and chap, xxvii., to the righteous ; 
chap, xxviii. 1-4, to the wicked ; verses 5, 6, to the righteous ; verses 
7, 8, to the wicked ; verses 9, 10, to the righteous ; verses 11-15, to 
the wicked ; ver. 16, to the righteous ; verses 17-22, to the wicked ; 
ver. 23 to end, to righteous ; chap. xxix. 1-4, to the wicked ; verses 
5-8, to the righteous ; verses 9-16, to the wicked ; ver. 17 to end, to 
the righteous ; chap. xxx. 1-7, to the wicked ; ver. 18 to the end^ to 
the righteous ; chap. xxxL 1-3, to the wicked ; ver. 4 to end, and 
chap, xxxii. 1-8, to the righteous ; verses 9-14, to the wicked ; ver. 
15 to end, and chap, xxxiii. 1-6, to the righteous ; verses 7-14, to the 
wicked ; verses 15-17, to the righteous ; verses 17, 18, to the 
wicked ; ver. 19 to end, and chap, xxxiv. and xxxv. to the righteous. 

173. Isa. ix. 6 — *' Counsellor."] Not only because He is man's 
Counsellor, but God's. See Gen. i 26. 

174. Isa. ix. 6.—" Wonderful"] Which shews that this child that 
was to be bom is the same person with the Angel that spake to 
Manoah, that ascended in the flame of the altar ; for He tells Manoah 
that His name is ' Secret,' (Judges xiii 18.) The word is the same in 
the original that here is translated ' Wonderful,' and that person was 
God, for He is there spoken of as being God, (verses 22, 23 ;) so that 
here is a prophecy of God's being born, which agrees with the names 
that follow — 'The mighty God,' 'The everlasting Father,' and to 
the name that He is called by in the last preceding chapter but one, 
in the 14th verse — viz., 'Emmanuel.' And it also confirms that 
the child here intended is the person that was to be a sacrifice for 
sin, because this person, whose name was Secret and Wonderful, 
ascended before Manoah in the flame of the altar ; and so it argues it 
to be the same person that wrestled with Jacob, for when Jacob en- 
quired after His name He answers, " Wherefore enquirest thou after 
my name ?" in like manner as He answered Manoah when he enquired 
after His name. It argues it also to be that Son of God spoken of 
in Prov. xxx. 4 ; see ako Eev. xix. 12. 

175. Isa. xvi. 2.] The comparison is to be understood of such 
birds as the children of Israel used to keep, as doves particularly, 
which, if they were turned and shut out of their dove-houses, would 
not know what to do nor where to go, no more than Noah's dove 
when sent out of the Ark. As to wUd birds, the diflSculty was not 
such with them which had no particular house or certain fixed home, 
and if they were turned out of one nest could make another. See 
Hosea viL 11, and xi. 11. 

176. Isa. xxx. 8-10.] Such passages as these are a notable evi- 
dence that these books of the prophet were not forged by the Jews, 
and were not received with such respect and made so much of by 
them, but because they were of Divine authority. 



177. Isa xxxiii. 21.] Jerusalem had no considerable river run- 
ning by it, as the royal cities in Egypt and Assyria and Ghaldea and 
most great cities bad ; nothing but the brook Kedron, upon whidi 
account their enemies despised them : nor did the children of Israel 
deal much in ships, as Egypt and Assyria and Ghaldea did, and 
carried on their wars in considerable measure by them. (See chap, xliii. 
14.) But in God there shall be more than an equivalent ; the glori- 
ous Jehovah will be to Jerusalem a ''place of broad rivers and 
streams.'" Thus we read of a river running through the New 
Jerusalem. But if there be "broad rivers" and "streams" in 
Jerusalem may not these yield an easy access to the fleet of the in- 
vader ? No ! These are rivers and streams in which shall go no 
galley with oars or gallant ship. If God Himself be the river, it must 
needs be inaccessible to the enemy. God's people need not fear 
though the earth be removed, for there is a river that makes glad 
the city of God. (Ps. xlvi.) [See Henry.] 

178. Isa. xxxiv. 5.] Reference to the terrible destruction of the 
angels in heaven. 

179. Isa. xxxiv. 16.] The book of the Lord here meant is this 
Book, or the book of this prophecy wherein the things in the two 
foregoing verses are mentioned, as appears by comparing these 
words with the foregoing and following. When it is said here, 
" Seek ye out of the book of the Lord," &c., the meaning is, hereafter, 
when the event shall prove whether this prophecy be true or no, then 
read this book and examine this prophecy and compare it with the 
event and see if anything fails. See if any one of these " doleful 
creatures " fails of posessing Idumea and Bozrah, and every one with 
their mate — i,e., see if the prophecy be not most exactly fulfilled. — 
Corol, Hence the Books of the Prophets should be regarded by the 
Ghurch of God as part of the Ganon of Sacred Scriptures as well as 
the Books of Moses. They are the ''books of the Lord," or 

180. Isa. xxxvii. 38.] God pours contempt not only on this great 
king, but on his god. He had cast great contempt on the God of 
Israel, and made as though He were unable to defend Jenuialem 
from his power, as chap. xxxvL 18-20, and in verses 10-13 of this 
chapter. This God of Israel that he so despised, as though much 
inferior to his god, now shews how unable his god is to defend him, by 
ordering it so that he should be slain in the very temple of his go<l 
in whom he trusted, in his sanctuary and in the secret of his pres- 
ence, and that while be was there worshipping of him and imploring 
his help under his present low and distressed circumstances, and 
slain, too, by his own sons. 

181. Isa. xzxviil 18, 10 — " For the grave canm/t praise Thee," 
&C.1 The death that is here spoken of hi that which i» AfAlh uAti^, 
or IS properly so called. The sUte of death is here nftAum (A slh it 
is originally, and as being still a state fft death, and not am it h^ 
chan^ by redemption from a state td AhaX\i to a state (A Utt, or 
so as to be made a more glorioiis re<ft r/f life. lltzekiMh q^eaks of 




that death wherein men do really die or are truly dead, and not that 
improperly so called, wherein men are a thousand times more alive 
than they were before, and are immortal and beyond a possibility of 
djring. Death as it is originally, and when it is properly death, is a 
state wherein men cannot " praise God " nor " celebrate Him," nor 
'' hope for Bis truth." It is a state of evil without any good : it is, 
Job says, '^ A land of darkness as darkness itself, and the shadow of 
death without any order, and where the light is as darkness." It is 
a state wherein there is no good done, no good enjoyed, no good 
hoped for. It is a state of absolute emptiness of any good or prin- 
ciple, happiness or hope. They that are in hell are in such a state of 
death. Such was death originally. Such was death as it was threat- 
ened to our first parents ; and very commonly when death is spoken 
of in the Old Testament it is in this notion of it. For the change of 
a state of death into a state of more glorious Ufe was not fully 
revealed under the Old Testameut. '*Life and immortality are 
brought to light in the gospel!' It is under this notion that death 
seems to be spoken of in Eccles. ix. 4-6, where it is said that ''a 
living dog is better than a dead lion," and that '' the dead have no 
more a reward," and that " they have no more a portion for ever in 
any thing done under the sun.^' Hezekiah did not mean that they 
that are redeemed from the power of the grave, they that get the 
victory over death and shall never die, (as Christ promises to 
believers,) " shall not praise God, nor hope for His truth.'* We see 
in this instance that the better men are the more terrible would it 
make death if there were no future state. For the better they are 
the more they love God. Good men have found the fountain of 
good. Those men who have a high degree of love to God do greatly 
delight in God. They have experience of a much better happiness 
in Me than others, and therefore it must be more bitter to them to 
have their being eternally extinct by death. Thus this seemed to be 
above all other things the sting of Hezekiah's affliction in his ex- 
pectation of death, that he should no more have any opportunity of 
communion with God, and of worshipping and praising Him, as 
appears by these two verses, together with the 11th and 22d verses, 
there not being at that time a clear and full revelation of a future 
state. Hence we may strongly argue a future state, for it is not to 
be supposed that God would make man such a creature as to be 
capable of looking forward beyond death, and capable of knowing 
and loving and delighting in Him, as the fountain of all good, and 
should make it his duty so to do, which will necessarily increase in 
him a dread of annihilation, and an eager desire of immortality, and 
yet so order it that that desire should be disappointed, so that his 
loving his Creator should in some sense make him the more miser- 

182. Isa. xli. 8 — "Chosen."] This epithet especially belongs to 
Jacob rather than to Isaac or Abraham, because God ' chose ' him 
before Esau his brother, though they were children of the same 
parents and twins in the womb together, and though Jacob was the 


youngest ; and chose them before they were born, or either of them 
bad done good or evil 

183. Isa. xlii. 10-12.] The songs of the Lord of old were very 
much confined to the Temple at Jerusalem. When the Jews were 
in a " strange land " they hung their harps on the willows, and could 
not sing the Lord's song. (Ps. cxxxvii 2-4.) Now the songs of holy 
joy and praise shall be sung all the world over. The GentUe nations 
shall share equally with the Jews in their testament blessings, and 
therefore shall join in the New Testament praises and acts of worship. 
The conversion of the Grentiles is often foretold under this notion of 
their singing praises with God's people, as appears by Bom. xv. 9-11. 
See Isa. xziv. 16. 

184. Isa. zliil 21-28.] In this prophecy of the great gospel sal- 
vation, the freeness of God's grace in it, as not being at all for our 
righteousness, is largely insisted on here in the 21st verse, and also 
in the 4th and 7th and 25th verses, and beginning of chap. xliv. 
The sovereign good pleasure of God and His electing love is repre- 
sented as the grand original of all those blessings, and in the 22d 
and following verses is particularly shewn how it is not and cannot 
be for any sacrifice offered by those that are the subjects of these 
blessings, or any righteousness, or anything given, offered or done by 
them, or anything whatsoever of their own, (ver. 26,) and it is par- 
ticularly shewn that they have nothing of their own but sins either 
in themselves or in their ancestors. When the children of Israel were 
redeemed out of Egypt, and had com given them, which was a great 
type of the gospel redemption, and care was taken to instruct the 
people that it was not for their righteousness. So here when the 
redemption of the children of Israel out of Babylon is spoken of, 
(ver. 14,) another great type of gospel redemption, and that redemp- 
tion is prophesied of under that type ; great care is also taken to in- 
form the Church that it is not for their righteousness. Thus the 
doctrine of justification by free grace without the works of the Law, 
or our own righteousness, is the doctrine both of the Old and New 
Testament, and this confirms it that when the Apostle so much in- 
sists on justification without the works of the Law, he means without 
any moral goodness of ours whatsoever. Justification is the thing 
here especially spoken of, as appears by verses 25, 26. See chap, 
xlviii 9-11, with the context. 

185. Isa. xlvi 1-7.] Bel and Nebo, the gods of Babylon, were 
first carried by men on their shoulders, (ver. 7,) and then afterwards 
when Babylon was destroyed they were carried by the beasts. When 
the Medes and Persians destroyed Babylon they took the cattle of Baby- 
lon, and made them carry the gods of Babylon away into captivity, 
and they were a great burden to the poor cattle, for the images were 
made of gold and silver, (ver. 6,) and they were very great and heavy, 
and these gods of Babylon were not able to deliver either the men or 
so much as the beasts of the city. They were called the protectors 
of both. [But yet they] must go into captivity; yea, they themselves 
must go into captivity. They not only could not preserve the cattle 


from being led away captive, bat they could not deliver them from 
that grievoui) circumstance of their captivity, of carrying them who 
were so heavy a burden to them. . It was quite otherwise with the 
God of Israel. He did not need to be supported and borne by His 
people, much less by their beasts. But, on the contrary. His people 
were supported by Him. He carried them from the womb, and even 
to hoar hairs. (Verses 3, 4.) 

186. Isa. xlix. 23 — " And kings," &c.]— i.e, to nurse thy children, 
thy sons and daughters, (spoken of in the foregoing verse,) that the 
Gentiles shall bring in their arms, and upon their shoulders. It 
is not meant that kings shall stand in the relation of nursing- 
fathers, and queens be nursing-mothers to thee. For that hardly 
will agree to what follows — "They shall bow down,'' &c., which 
does not so well suit with the relation of fathers and mothers as of 
servants. It is meant they shall be thy nourishers and nurses, not 
to thee, hut far thee, to thy children. Tutors and nurses are a sorb 
of servants in great houses ; and that a sort of servants or ministers 
are meant here is confirmed from chap. Ix. 10, 16. 

187. Isa. lii. 15 — "The kings shall shut,"&c.] — ie., they shall be 
silent, attending to His wonderful doctrine and instructions as it 
follows, ** for that which had not been told them," &c. They shall 
shut their mouths as learners, in acknowledgment of His superior 
wisdom, and as a testimony of their desirousness to hear and learn, 
as Job says, chap. xxix. 21, 22. They shall be silent also in token of 
their admiration [= wonder.] 

188. Isa. liii. 11—" By His knowledge.'*] The word for 'knowledge' 
here is very often used for 'righteousness,' ' holiness,' and 'piety.' See 
Job xxi. 22, and icxxiii. 3, and xxxvi. 12 ; Ps. cxix. 66 ; Prov. i. 4, 7, 
22, 29, and ii. 5, 6, 10, and v. 2, and viii 9, 10, and ix. 10, and x. 14, 
and XL 9, and xii 1, and xiii. 15, 16, and xiv. 7, 18, and xv. 7, 14, 
and xviii 15, and xix. 25, 27, and xx. 15, and xxi. 11, and xxiL 12, 
and xxiii. 12, and xxiv. 5, and xxx. 3 ; Eccles. iL 21, and vii 12 ; 
Isa. V. 13, and xi. 2, and xxviii. 9, and xxxiii. 6 ; Jer. iii. 15, and 
xxii. 16 ; Hosea iv. 1, 6, and vi. 6. Besides, many places where the 
verb this noun comes from, is used in an agreeable sense, concerning 
which I have not examined the Concordance ; and other words of 
like signification. But Isa. xlii 19-21, is particularly worthy of 

189. Isa. li. 4 — "Hearken," &c.] Here seems to be a prophecy 
of a new revelation to be made of God's mind and will, and a new 
dispensation or establishment of religion, for any constitution or 
establishment by Divine revelation is called a Law in the Old Testa- 
ment. So that gracious Covenant, and these free promises established 
to Abraham, is called a Law. (Ps. cv. 8, &c.) So the whole of the 
revelation of God's will is called a Law throughout the 119th Psalm. 
Counsel and advice is sometimes called a Law: Prov. i. 8 — "Forget 
not the Law of thy mother," and vi 20, and chap. xiii. 14 — *' The 
Law of the wise is a fountain of life." As the first Law went out of 
Mount Sinai, so the second went out of Mount Sion ; Isa. ' ii 3, and 


il^Iicah iv. 2, speaking of gospel times — "For out of Zion," &e. It 
might as well have been translated "a Law shall go forth out of 
Zion," as here it is said, a Law shall proceed from Me ; for the word 
in both places is without any diversity ; and when it is said, the Law 
shall proceed or go forth out of Zion, it is meant that a Law shall be 
given at Mount Zion in the same manner as it is said in Deut. xxxiii. 2. 
As there it is said, " The Law shined forth from Mount Paran, and 
that from His right hand went a fire of Law for them,** (for so it is 
in the original) — i.e., to enlighten them. (See note in the place.) So 
here it is said, " A Law shall proceed from Me, and I will make My 
judgment to rest for a light of the people." We find that Mount 
Sinai and Mount Sion are opposed one to another by the Apostle in 
this respect^ that as the Law went forth out of the one, so the glorious 
gospel went forth from the other. (Heb. xiL 18-22 and 25-27.) This 
new Law went forth out of Mount Sion or Jerusalem in two respects 
— (1.) As it went forth from the spiritual Mount Sion, from heaven 
and the Church of God, (Heb. xii. 25 ;) and also as it first went forth 
from Jerusalem when the Spirit was poured out on the Apostles on 
the day of Pentecost, which was the same day that the Law was given 
at Sinai, and a day kept in commemoration of that event. See 
1 Chron. xxiii. 26. 

190. Isa. liii. 2.] This verse has respect to Christ's appearance in 
mean and low circumstances, without outward pomp and splendour. 
Great outward glory is in Scripture often compared to a tree growing 
high and large, and flourishing in its pride, (Ps. xxxvii. 35 ; Dan. iv. 
10, &c. ; Isa. X. 33, 34 ; Ezek. xicxi. 3, 4, &c. ; Isa. il 13 with con- 
text, and Job xxix. 19, 20 ;) and therefore Christ's being destitute of 
earthly glory, is [represented] by His being " a root out of a dry 
ground," not like a tree planted on a fat soil or by streams of water, 
that flourishes and grows large, and makes a great show. Christ is 
in Scripture often compared to a root, plant, or branch. The Jews 
expected such a branch as this ; but, on the contrary. He is a root out 
of a dry ground, that grows low and spreads but little and makes no 
gay appearance. It was a low bush, and not a mighty tree, that was 
seen burning on Mount Sinai and was not consumed, which was a 
type of Jesus Christ. The same thing is signified by His being 
" without form, or comeliness, or beauty." Earthly pomp and glory 
of wealth, power, and magnificence is called ' comeliness * in Scrip- 
tare, as Ezek. xxviL 10, and so it is called 'beauty,' (2 Sam. i. 19 ; 
Isa. xiii. 19, xxviii 1 ; Ezek. xxvii. 3, 4, 11, xxviiL 12, 17.) 

191. Addition to Isa. liii. 2.] Particularly we find the pomp and 
magnificence of great earthly princes is compared to the stateliness 
and beauty of a great, tall, spreading, flourishing tree in a fruitful 
soil, with a multitude of waters at the root, (Ezek. xxxi. 2-10 ; com- 
pare Deut. iv. 12 ; Isa. x. 33 ; Ps. xxxvii. 35,) and this stately flourish- 
ing appearance of such a tree, called its beauty or comeliness, (verses 
3, 7-9 ;) and therefore here, when the Messiah is spoken of as being 
not like such a stately flourishing tree, vrith many waters at the root, 
but as a low tree or bush, and weak tender plant, and root out of a 


dry groand, or having no waters at the root, it is natural that we 
should understand that the Messiah should come without this pomp 
and glory of earthly princes ; yea, in a state and with an appearance 
that should be the reverse of it 

192. Isa. Ivi. 3, 4t, &c.] Here is plainly a prophecy of the abro- 
gating of some of the Law of Moses. In gospel times [this shall 
be,] or particularly those in Deut. xxiiL 1-3. See 1 Chron. xxiii. 
6 ; Jer. iii. 16, 17. 

193. Isa. Ixv. 20— "Chad . . . hundred years "]—i.6., though it 
dies in childhood, shall die with the attainments of one a hundred 
years old — a great happiness to be old — the child shaU be fully happy. 
"Accursed," — i.e., though he live till he be a himdred years old, 
though he seems to prosper and be let alone, yet the curse shall over- 
take him. (See Eccles. viiL 12, and vi. 3-6.) 

194. Isa. Ixvi. 1 — " The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my 
footstool."] The mercy-seat in the Temple is no longer Grod's throne ; 
but heaven and the ark and temple are no longer God's footstool, as 
they used to be called. (1 Chron. xxviii 2 ; Ps. xcix. 5, cxxxii. 7, 8 ; 
Lam. ii. 21 ; Isa. Ix. 13.) The glorious times shall come wherein the 
whole habitable world shall be blessed with as honourable tokens of 
God's presence, not only as the Land of Canaan, but as the Temple ; 
yea, as the holy of holies and the ark that had God's glory upon it 
See Jer. iiL 16, 17 ; Isa. Ix. 2, ii 5, 6 ; Rev. xxi. 23, 24 ; also com- 
pare Haggai il 7 ; Isa. vi. 1, 3. 


195. Jer. xviL 16, 18.] What we find in these verses is a con- 
firmation that when the prophet Jeremiah, and other inspired penmen 
of the Old Testament, imprecated judgments on their enemies, those 
parts of their writings are not of private interpretation, or that they 
did therein express their private inclinations and desires ; but spake 
prophetically the mind [of God ;] cursed them in the name of the 
Lord, or foretold that these judgments should come. For here Jere- 
miah, in ver. 16, solemnly appeds to God that he had not desired the 
woeful day. But yet, in ver. 18, he prays that the evil day might be 
brought on his enemies. 

196. Jer. xxvL 9.] That which they persecute the prophet Jere- 
miah for, is the same thing that they charged as a great crime upon 
Stephen, and for which they put him to death. (See Acts vi 13, 

197. Jer. XX. 14, &c.] How great an evidence is to be gathered 
from this, and other like passages of the Old Testament, of a future 
state of reward to the saints. Jeremiah was a man of affliction in 
this life. It is evident that as long as he lived he met with opposition, 
hatred, and continual affliction, so that he wcs heartily weary of life 


and wished he had never been born. This affliction was followed 
with no remarkable alteration from affliction to prosperity, as it was 
in Job ; but while he lived, he lived to see nothing but those things 
that were most grievous to his heart, which made his being in this 
world fEir worse than no being. Now, if there be no future state, 
how is this consistent with the frequent declarations of God in the 
Old Testament, that those that fear Him are blessed and happy ; and 
His promises, that it shall be well with them, that He will be their 
defence and exceeding great reward, &c., which the Old Testament is 
full of ; and with what Gk>d said and promised to Jeremiah in par- 
ticular, (chap, i 8, 18, 19, xv. 11 ;) and also with the promises God 
makes by Jeremiah to the righteous, which he applies to him in this 
very context, (verses 11-13)? 


198. Ezek. vii 12 — " Let not the buyer rejoice, nor the seller 
mourn."] Here it may be asked. What occasion would the seller here 
have to mourn more than the buyer, if there had been no captivity 
approaching? When men make bargains, both buyer and seller aim 
at their own advantage. Answer: The prophet here has respect to 
buyers and sellers of inheritances. Inheritances were not wont to be 
sold in Israel, unless a man was become poor and was obliged to sell 
his inheritance, and it was looked upon as a great calamity to a man 
when he was thus obliged to sell his inheritance ; and therefore God, 
in mercy and tenderness to them, required that the land should not 
be sold for ever, but that a redemption should be granted. (Lev. 
XXV. 23-25.) But at this time, neither had the seller any occasion 
to mourn nor the buyer to rejoice, for it made no alteration in 
the circumstances of one or the other, because the whole Land was 
about to be broken up and left desolate, and they were all to be 
carried away out of it into captivity. 

199. Ezek. ix. 5, 6.] It is a great evidence that infants are guilty 
of sin,* that when these destroying angels were sent on that errand to 
execute God's fury upon the people, (ver. 8,) and that reason was 
given for it, that their iniquity required such terrible vengeance, and 
that it was a just recompense of their sin, (ver. 10,) — I say that when 
these angels came on such an errand, and also had express direction 
to spare some, to avoid them with great care and not come nigh them, 
yet they are directed to smite and slay utterly without pity all the 
rest, young and old, and even little children. Those that they are with 
such great care to except and not come near, are excepted expressly 
because they had approved themselves not partakers in the sins of the 
city ; and therefore who can imagine that at the same time orders 

• Query : Rather involved in the guilt and penalty of the Fall ?— G. 




should be given to smite and slay utterly, without their eye sparing 
or having pity, those that were a great deal more evidently free from 
having any share in the sin of the city, because they are not capable 
of sinning, which is the case of little children if they have no original 
sin ? This order would never, surely, have been given with such cir- 
cumstances, merely for the sin of the parents, if they had no sin that 
was properly their own, as we may be the rather assured, because God 
Himself did so fully and largely declare to this prophet that children 
would not die for the iniquity of the father, nor for any iniquity that 
they were not properly guilty of, in chap, xviii. of EzekieL 

200. Ezek. x. 19.] The Shekinah or 'glory' of the God of Israel 
made four removes : first, to the threshold of the house or Temple, 
(chap. ix. 3 ;) secondly, to the east gate of the court of the Temple, 
which is mentioned here ; thirdly, from hence to the top of Mount 
Olivet, (chap. xi. 23 ;) lastly, from thence into heaven, (ver. 24?.) 

201. Ezek. xiv. l4] This shews that it is no new notion, lately 
first thought of in the world, that one may be favoured of God for the 
sake of another's righteousness. It was old at Ezekiels time, and it 
is not spoken of here as a false or unreasonable notion, as though 
there were no such thing as one's being accepted for the sake of 
another's righteousness ; but only the wickedness of the Land was so 
great that the righteousness of these eminently holy men would not 
be sufficient to avail for them, or at most, that the righteousness of 
men is of so little worthiness that it is not sufficient to recommend 
any more than themselves. But the righteousness of Christ is sufli- 
cient. It is so excellent and worthy in God's account, that it is suflS- 
cient to procure favour for the vilest of sinners. Herein is Christ a 
more excellent and suiBBcient Mediator than Noah, Daniel, or Job, or 
the most holy and eminent of mere men. Noah was in the old world, 
but saved only himself and his family. Daniel was in Babylon when 
it was destroyed, and only saved himself. Job saved only himself by 
his righteousness, when all his children were destroyed. Each lived 
in a very degenerate time. Noah in the old world. Job when all 
nations were falling away to idolatry. Daniel in a most degenerate 
time in Israel. 

202. Ezek. xvi. 6.] Doubtless it is something very remarkable and 
wonderful that God would here signify by this emphatical repetition ; 
and the emphasis lies partly in these words, " when thou wast in thy 
blood," the circumstances that she was in when God shewed mercy on 
her ; and partly in these words, " I said unto thee, Live," shewing the 
wonder fulness and excellency of the favour God shewed her in these 
circumstances. The tiling that God would have so much remarked, 
and to have such special notice taken of, is the absolute freeness and 
sovereignty of His grace in bestowing life upon her. He said to her, 
*' Live," when she was polluted in her blood, while she was in her sin, 
and so not for her righteousness, or in anywise moved by her moral 
purity. God is not moved by this either in converting or justifying 
the sinner, for He both renews and justifies the ungodly. (Titus iiL 
3-7 ; 1 Cor. vi. 11 ; Eph. ii. 1-13 ; Rom. iv. 5.) This also signifies 


Grod's shewing mercy to the sinner when he is helpless, for what is 
more helpless than an infant cast out in its blood? ["I said unto 
thee, Live."] This signifies that life in her was wholly the effect of 
God's power, and wholly the fruit of His mere good pleasure, which 
is further signified by ver. 8 — "Thy time \\as the time of love/' 

203. Ezek. xvL 49 — " Poor and needy."] Hence we learn that the 
poor, though wicked, are the objects of our charity. For it is not 
probable that the poor and needy in Sodom here spoken of were only 
godly persons, where there were scarce any who were righteous, and 
not ten in the whole city, and it may be none but Lot; who was not 
poor but rich. 

204. Ezek. xxiv. 6, 7.] The Law required that they should not 
eat flesh with the blood, but that the blood should be poured on the 
ground and covered with dust. (Lev. xvii. 13.) Flesh dressed and 
eaten with the blood was polluted, abominable flesh. The people of 
Jerusalem are here compared to such flesh in the caldron. Her 
blood is in the midst of her ; she is like a pot whore scum is in the 
midst of it. When bloody flesh is boiled in a pot, the blood rises in 
a scum. The sin of the people is compared in these words to two 
things : (1.) To the blood and scum, which is the pollution and abom- 
ination of bloody flesh. (2.) To the wickedness of those that shed 
blood of men, and did not cover it with earth, as they were required 
to do the blood of beasts, but were so open and daring in it as to set 
it on the top of a rock. 

205. Ezek. xlvi. 15.] Here is mention made of a morning sacii- 
fice, but no evening sacrifice ; because in that glorious time here 
spoken of there will be a continual and unceasing day, but no even- 
ing : intimated by that in Isaiah — " Thy sun shall no more go down," 
&c. ; and that in Zechariah — " It shall be one day ; not day and night : 
but at evening-time it shall be light ;" and typified by the sun's stand- 
ing still in Joshua's time. 


206. Dan. vii. 5—" Three ribs in the mouth of it," &c.] These 
ribs seem to be the bones of his prey. The ribs rather than other 
bones were represented perhaps, because the ribs are those bones 
which are next the vitals, and the sight of them did naturally excite 
the idea of his tearing and devouring the vitals of his prey ; not one 
rib, but three at once are seen in bis mouth, the better to represent 
his extraordinary voraciousness. 



1. ii. 10 — " When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding 
great joy."] The wise men that sought Christ travelled tlirough a 
vast howling wilderness, full of pits and drought and serpents, hide- 
ous rocks and mountains, even the desert of Arabia, before they had 
this *joy' of seeing that star; and soon after they enquired of the 
priests, the star arose — which well represents what commonly is 
before persons have that joy which arises from the discovery of 
the Person represented by this star, even Christ, "the bright and 
morning star." [Rev. xxii. 16, compared with ii. 28.] 

2. ii. 11 — "And when they were come into the house, they saw 
the young child with Mary His mother, and fell down and worshipped 
Him : and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto 
Him gifts ; gold, and frankincense, and myryh.'] Gifts proper to 
be oflFered to a King and a God : gold, such as was wont to be given 
to kings ; frankincense and myrrh, the chief ingredients of the incense 
that was offered to God in the Temple. This was a specimen or 
earnest of the fulfilment of that prophecy, Isa. Ix. 6 — " The multitude 
of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah ; all 
they from Sheba shall come : they shall bring gold and incense ; and 
they shall shew forth the praises of the Lord." [By these * gifts,' too,] 
the charge of their journey into Egypt was provided for. [See Matt. 
ii. 13.] 

3. ii 16 — "Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise 
men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children 
that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years 
old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired 
of the wise men."] Herod's slaying all the young children : this was 
a just punishment of the people of Bethlehem for their treatment of 
the blessed Virgin and her young child, by inhumanly refusing to 
entertain her in their houses when her travail came upon her, thereby 
exposing the life of her child ; and not only refasing to entertain the 
Virgin in travail, but suffering her afterwards to remain in the stable 
with her child. For this treatment of this Divine infant and His 


mother, God, by a terrible judgment, destroys their infants, and dread- 
fully afflicts their mothers. They were inhuman and cruel to the 
blessed Virgin and her young child, and they are justly punished with 
the effects of dreadful inhumanity and cruelty executed on their young 

4. V. 8, 9 — " Blessed are the pure in heart : for^they shall see God. 
Blessed are the peacemakers : for they shall be called the children of 
God."] Christians should be first * pure/ then ' peaceable : ' James 
iii. 17 — " The wisdom that is from above is first pure, tJien peaceable ;" 
. . . [c/] St Mark ix. 29 — " And He said unto them, This kind can 
come forth by notliing, but hy prayer and fasting,'** 

5. V. 9 — '* Blessed are the peacemakers : for they shall be called 
the children of Ood'*] Because they are therein like Christ, * the 
child of God,' the Prince of Peace, and the great Peacemaker ; and 
are of a peaceable spirit, as becomes those that are brethren in God's 

6. V. 1-11 — "And seeing the multitudes. He went up into a 
mountain ; and when He was set. His disciples came unto Him : and 
He opened His mouth, and taught them, saying, Blessed are the poor 
in spirit : for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that 
mourn : for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek : for they 
shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst 
after righteousness : for they shall be filled. Blessed are the mer- 
ciful : for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart : 
for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers : for they shall 
be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted 
for righteousneas' sake : for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed 
are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall 
say all manner of evil against you falsely for My sake.*'] In 
these Beatitudes, Christ seems to have a special design to correct 
those corrupt notions the Jews entertained of the kingdom of heaven, 
or the kingdom that the Messiah was about to erect. As in vcr. 3 
He has respect to the expectation they had in the Messiah's days of 
enjoying great outward wealth, and being made much of by the 
Messiah, as more excellent and honourable and worthy than other 
nations, and so vaunting themselves in these things that should 
greatly gratify their pride and covetousness ; in ver. 4 He has re- 
spect to their expectations of great worldly mirth and pleasure and 
festivity ; in ver. 5, He has respect to an imagination that military 
courage and martial exploits, and fierce revenge on the Romans, and 
other Gentile nations that had injured them, were to introduce their 
glory under the reign of the Messiah ; in ver. 5, (also,) lie has re- 
spect to their carnal desires of worldly possessions and sensitive 
appetites, which they hoped would be abundantly gratified in the 
Messiah's days ; in ver. 6, He has respect to their expectation of 
scenes of slaughter and desolation in the Gentile world, which they 
expected and hoped to see and have a hand in in the Messiah's day ; 
in ver. 8, He has respect to those impure and luxurious delights which 

♦ By » slip tlie reference is giTcn to rer. 30.— -G. 


usually attend worldly victories, and princes' courts, and great and 
flourishing earthly kingdoms, which things they supposed the Messiah 
would introduce ; in ver. 9, He has respect to those desolating wars 
and bloody battles with which they supposed the Messiah would set 
up and propagate His kingdom ; in ver. 10, He has still respect to their 
expectation of nothing but pomps, pleasures, wealth, and triumphs in 
the kingdom of heaven, or of the Messiah ; in ver. 11, He has respect 
to their expectation of being advanced to great honour, as a kind of 
priests and princes, under the Messiah their King, having the Gentiles 
their slaves, and even their kings and great men bowing down and 
licking up the dust of their feet. That Christ has a design in these 
Beatitudes to give them right notions of the kingdom of heaven is 
manifest, for He several times in them makes express mention of the 
kingdom of heaven, as ver. 3 and ver. 10 ; and ver. 5 speaks of inherit- 
ing the earth, which His hearers doubtless understood of that in- 
heritance of the earth and reigning over the world that is promised 
to God s people in the days of the Messiah ; and that being comforted 
which He promises, (ver. 4,) they doubtless understood Him of that 
ancient prophecy, such as Isa. xl. at beginning, and others, [which] 
was commonly called among them the consolation of Israel — viz., 
the comfort that should be introduced by the Messiah; and in the 
promise (ver. 6) of being filled Christ probably has respect to such 
promises made in the Old Testament, concerning what God would do 
for His people in the Messiah's days : that they should be filled as 
bowls and as the corners of the altars, (Zech. ix. 15;) that they should 
be abundantly filled or satisfied with tlie goodness of God's house, and 
that He would make them drink of the river of His pleasures, (Ps. 
xxxvL 8, and Ixv. 4;) that they should get that which is good, and 
delight themselves in fatness : Isa. Iv. 2 — " Wherefore do ye spend 
money for that which is not bread ? and your labour for that which 
satisfieth not ? hearken diligently unto Me, and eat ye that which is 
good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness." That they should 
cat when others wei-e hungry, and drink when others were thirsty: Isa. 
Ixv. 13 — " Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, My servants 
shall eat, but ye shall be hungry : behold, My servants shall drink, 
but ye shall be thirsty : behold. My servants shall rejoice, but ye 
shall be ashamed." That they should be satisfied with God's good- 
ness, and their soul satiated with fatness: Jer, xxxi 14 — '* And I will 
satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, and My people shall be 
satisfied with My goodness, saith the Lord ;" and that He would re- 
plenish every sorrowful soul : Jer. xxxi. 25 — " For I have satiated 
the weary soul, and I have replenished every Jrorrowful souL" That 
bread should be given them : Isa. xxxiil 16 — " He shall dwell on 
high; his place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks; bread 
shall be given him, his waters shall be sure." That their poor should 
be satisfied with bread: Ps. cxxxii. 15 — " I will abundantly bless her 
provision: I will satisfy her poor with bread;" and many other 
parallel prophecies : and in the promise of obtaining mercy, (ver. 7,) 
Christ probably has respect to such promises made to God's people 


in the Messiah's time, as those in Isa. xlix. 10, liv. 10, and k. 10, 
and in other parallel places ; and in the promise of seeing God, in 
ver. 8, Christ probably has respect to snch prophecies concerning the 
glory of the Messiah's times, as tliat then God s glory should be 
revealed. Their eye should see the King in His beauty. They 
should see eye to eye. That they should walk in the light of the 
Lord, and walk in the light of God's countenance, and the like ; and 
God's being their light instead of the sun : and in the promise of 
being the children of God, (ver. 9,) there is great reason to think 
Christ has respect to the many prophecies of the Messiah's kingdom, 
that speak of God's people being then especially owned and treated 
as His children, His sons and daughters. 

7. V. 18 — " For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, 
one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be 
fulfilled."] The manner and style in which Christ taught, as well as 
the way in which He wrought miracles, were diflFerent from that of 
other prophets. Other prophets were wont to say, " Thus saith the 
Lord ; " but Christ used to express Himself thus, '* Verily I say unto 
you," as became the Lord Himself, the Lord that sent and inspired 
the prophets, and in whose name they spake and whose word they 

8. vi. 10, 11 — "Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, 
as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread."] The order 
of these petitions is agreeable to the direction given in ver. 33 — 
" Seek y^ first ilie kingdom of Gody and His righteousness ; and all 
these things shall be added unto you." So here Christ directs, first, 
to pray for *the kingdom of God,' and then to pray for other 

9. viiL 21 — " And another of His disciples said unto Him, Lord, 
sufier me first to go and bury my father"] — ie., let me stay till my 
aged father is dead. He was not willing to follow Him yet, and 
pleads this as an excuse, that his father was old and needed his care ; 
or he was dear to him, and he was loath to leave him while he was 
alive : but after he should be dead, he would be willing to follow 

10. X. 17 — ** But beware of men ; for they will deliver you up to 
the councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues."] To 
understand how this comes in, and how the particle * but ' connects 
it with what went before, it must be observed that Christ here 
explains Himself in what He said in the preceding verse. There He 
told them that He sent them forth as sheep in the midst of wolves ; 
but, says He, beware of men : these are the wolves that I mean. It 
is men, and not wolves, I bid you beware of. 

11. xi. 5 — "The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk ; the 
lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear ; the dead are raised up, and 
the poor have the gospel preached unto them." Tv<I>XjoI dvafiXATrovat, 
Koi ycolkol TrepiTraTovaty 7i£7rpol KaOapi^ovrat, Kal Ka)<f>ol aKovovai, 
v€Kpot iye/povTcu, xal irrmxol evarfyeKi^omrau] By the poor seems 
pretty evidently to be meant "the poor in spirit." In the last effect 


here mentioned the poor are evangelised ; the manner of speaking and 
connexion of the words lead us to suppose there is the like relation 
and opposition between the benefit and character of the subject of 
that benefit, as in the foregoing effects mentioned, such as between 
receiving light and darkness, a being raised up and death. The word 
eifaYycKi^ovrai, 'evangelised,' implies not only being the subject of the 
preaching of the gospel, or the telling the good news, but a being 
encouraged, refreshed, and revived, and made joyful and happy by it ; 
and between such a benefit and a being poor in spirit, of a broken 
heart, or heart mourning, humbled, being wretched, miserable, and 
undone in his own eyes, and despairing in the worid and in himself. 
I say, a being evangelised in the sense mentioned has a like relation 
to such a qualification of the subject as sight has to blindness, light 
to darkness, walking to lameness, life to death. The poor's being 
evangelised is the last effect mentioned, it being that which crowns 
all, representing the main thing which Jesus comes into the world 
for, the blessed effect that He had respect to in all that He said and 
did, and the great thing of which the other things here mentioned 
were but types and representations. In these last words Christ 
has a plain reference to Isa. IxL 1. In Luke iv. 18, Christ cites 
these words thus, " He hath anointed Me to preach the gospel to the 

12. xi. 30 — '*For My yoke is easy, and My burden is light"] 
These words have a relation to the words of the invitation. (Ver. 28.) 
The invitation is to them that labour and are burdened. A yoke is 
what is put on the necks of the cattle in order to their labouring, 
and when Christ says, " My burden is light," the word ' burden ' is 
the noun of the verb or participle translated ' heavy burden.* 

13. xii. 30 — "He that is not with Me is against Me; and he that 
gathereth not with Me scattereth abroad."] The true reason of Christ's 
observing this in this place, where He is reproving the Pharisees* 
saying, that " He cast out devils by Beelzebub," is this, that these 
Pharisees, till now, a[>peared to exercise that kind of prudence, falsely 
so-called, which is commonly to be seen among them that count 
themselves wise and great men, who think it becomes them to let 
matters of religion much alone, and not to appear forward and zealous, 
or apt to shew their minds. When Christ appeared working great 
miracles, with which the multitude appeared much affected, and some 
appeared zealous to commence His disciples and followers, they 
thought it their prudence to hold their tongues till Christ proceeded 
so far in His wonderful works, and the esteem that He gained among 
the people, that they apprehended themselves in apparent danger 
of having their glory eclipsed, and of losing the esteem and honour 
of the people ; and then they could bear it no longer. They openly 
shewed what was in their hearts before — viz., a bitter enmity against 
Christy and that truly they had never been indifferent as they ap- 

14. xii. 49, 50 — " And He stretched forth His hand toward His 
disciples, and said, Behold My mother and My brethren ! For who- 


soever shall do the will of My Father which is in heaven, the same 
is My brother, and sister, and motlier."] The figure of speech Christ 
here uses will appear the more natural and beautiful, if it be con- 
sidered that there were probably then sitting by, not only His male 
disciples, but also Mary Magdalene and Joanna (the wife of Chuza, 
Herod's steward) and Susanna, and many other women that were 
His disciples, who at that time attended Him, ministering to Him 
of their substance, as seems by Luke viii. 1-3, with ver. 21. 

15. xiiL 32 — ** Which indeed is the least of all seeds; but when 
it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so 
that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof."] 
The least of the seeds that they used, or that they were wont to sow, 
in their land. 

16. xiv. 24, 25 — "But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, 
tossed with waves : for the wind was contrary. And in the fourth 
watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea."] This 
which we are told of Christ shews what He was — viz., a Divine person. 
For it is spoken of in Job ix. 8, as a property or act of God, '* that 
He treadeth on the waves of the sea." Christ here not only walks on 
the waters of the sea, but that when it is tossed with high waves, 
He treadeth on its boisterous waves. For it is said here that the 
ship was tossed with waves, and it is said in John vi. 18, that the sea 
arose by reason of a great wind that blew. 

17. xiv. 24-27 — "But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, 
tossed with waves : for the wind was contrary. And in the fourth 
watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And 
when the disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were troubled, 
saying. It is a spirit ; and they cried out for fear. But straightway 
Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer : it is I ; be not 
afraid."] What we have here an account of seems livelily to re- 
present what very frequently comes to pass to persons in the affair 
of their conversion. Christ did not appear unto them till they had 
been long tossed with a great tempest ; the wind arose in the begin- 
ning of the night, and it was against them, and they had been row- 
ing all night, and striving to get to the desired haven, and all to no 
purpose, so that by this time probably they were almost discouraged 
and just ready to yield the case, and see that it was utterly in vain 
for them to strive any more to reach their port. Then Christ in the 
latter post of the night appears to them, and comes to their help, 
and appears as one above their difficulties, walking in the boisterous 
waves that distressed and threatened to destroy them, treading them 
under His feet. So it commonly is with sinners under conviction 
before Christ appears for their help. They are first made sensible 
of their danger and brought unto great exercise and distress, and re- 
duced to the last extremity, and to see that they can never reach the 
haven they seek of themselves. They are brought to yield their 
case as to their own strength, and then Christ appears as one that is 
above their guilt, and above all those evils that threaten to swallow 
them up, as it were treading under His feet those mighty waves that 


encompass them on every side, that they are ready to sink in, and 
upon those raging waves that toss them and are ready to overwhelm 
them. These difficulties the disciples met with were in the night, a 
time of darkness, as Jacob's wrestling was in the nighty signifying tlie 
darkness that persons meet with while under those convictions that 
are preparatory to conversion ; and it is remarkable that the time 
when Christ appeared was near the breaking of the day, for it was 
in the fourth watch, which was the last post of the night. *' Though 
weeping may continue for a night, yet joy comes in the mormng.'' 
It seems to be an emblem of the light that arises to the soul after 
darkness, when Christ appears. This was the time when Christ 
arose from the dead, and this was the time when Jacob obtained the 
blessing after long wrestling. It is also worthy of notice that when 
Christ first appeared they did not know what it was, they were 
troubled at the sight, and said it is a spirit, and cried out for fear. 
So very often, at the first spiritual discoveries that persons have after 
great awakenings and distresses of conscience, they do not know what 
it is, they fear it is only a delusion, and are terribly afraid to receive 
it, as has been often seen in the time of the late extraordinary pour- 
ing out of the Spirit here in Northampton, 

18. xvL 23 — " But He turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind 
Me, Satan ; thou art an ofience unto Me : for thou savourest not the 
things that be of God, but those that be of men."] We are not to 
understand it that Christ here calls Peter, Satan. No ; Christ speaks 
to Satan, that He said had a hand in the matter, and that influenced 
Peter thus to think and speak. He speaks to Peter's indwelling sin, 
which was as it were the Devil in Peter. It was not an instance in 
Christ's severity towards Peter that He thus speaks, but His love 
and grace that He would not impute what Peter says to himself, but 
to Satan. He graciously makes a distinction between His disciple 
Peter and his indwelling corruption, as Paul says, Rom. vii. 20 — ** It 
is no more I, but sin that dwelleth in me." 

19. xvL 26.] Preciousness or value of the soul, or anything above 
other things, will appear by comparing it with other things, consider- 
ing of it either as to be sold for them or to be bought with them. If 
it be considered as to be sold for them, then the preciousness of it 
above them appears in the unprofitableness of the bargain ; if it be 
considered as to be bought with other things, then its superior value 
appears by their insufficiency to buy it. The preciousness of the soul 
is set forth in this verse both these ways, as being more precious than 
the whole world. It is first set forth by the unprofitableness of the 
bargain, in case that it should be sold for the whole world ; and next 
it is set forth by the insufficiency of anything in the world, or of 
the whole world, to buy it or redeem it ; and in that last expression 
— ** What shall a man give ?" &c. In the former part is set forth the 
insufficiency of the whole world to be received, in case that the soul be 
exchanged for other things. In the latter part is set forth the in- 
sufficiency of the whole world to be given, in case other things are to 
be exchanged for the soul. 


20. xvii. 2 — " And was trausfigured before them : and His face 
did shine as the sun, and His raiment was white as the light."] This 
denoted who He was — viz., He that was spoken of in Dan. vii. 9, and 
Ps. civ. 2, 16-18. 

21. xvil 5 — " While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud over- 
shadowed them ; and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, 
This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased ; hear ye Him."] 
This cloud was not bright merely as clouds are oftentimes very bright 
by the reflection of the light of the sun. But there was a more 
excellent and glorious brightness iu it, which is a suitable symbol of 
the Divine presence, such as, perhaps, was in the Shekinah or cloud 
above the mercy-seat in the Tabernacle and Temple. Peter, speaking 
of the glory of this cloud, calls it *' the excellent glory." (2 Pet. L 17.) 
Luke says they feared as they entered into the clou<i ; it was of the 
appearance of Divine majesty and glory that was in the cloud. 

22. xix. 17 — " And He said unto him, Why callest thou Me good 1 
there is none good but one, that is, God : but if thou wilt enter into 
life, keep the commandments."] Probably Christ, who knew what 
was in man, saw that this young man, though he had no notion of 
Christ's being a Divine person, and thought Him but a mere man, 
yet, thinking Him a prophet, came to Him, trusting in Him for 
eternal life in a manner that no mere man is to be trusted on, which 
is the reason why He says that to him, " Why callest thou Me good ? 
there is none good but one, that is, God " — i.e., there is none else who 
has a goodness that is to be depended upon but God. For Christ 
does not find fault simply with any man's being called * good/ for 
He, using the same word, calls some men good. Himself, as Matt. xiL 
25 ; so Luke xix. 17. 

23. XXV. 12 — '* But He answered and said. Verily I say unto you, I 
know you not."] Kom. viil 29 — " For whom He did foreknow, He 
also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son, that 
He might be the first-born among many brethren." To judge of the 
force of this expression, see Matt. xxv. 12 ; Deut. xxxiii. 9 ; Job ix. 
21 ; Ps. xxxi. 7. In Exod. ii. 25 — " God had respect unto them," in 
the original is, *' God knew them." Thus the word in the Hebrew, 
is a kinsman or near friend, and also kindred and affinity, from the 
verb to know. See Job ix. 21, and Pro v. xii. 10 — "'Regardeth' 
the life of his bea'st," in the original is, "'Knoweth' the life of his 

24. xxv. 34 — " Then shall the Khig say unto them on His right 
hand. Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared 
for you from the foundation of the world."] That this has a special 
respect to the decree of election may be argued from Mark x. 40, and 
Matt. XX. 3. See Exod. xxiii. 20. 

25. xxvi. 64 — "Jesus saith unto him. Thou hast said: neverthe- 
less, I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on 
the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven."] 
Christ's answer to the high priest is remarkable. The high priest asks 
whether He be the Son of God. He replies Yes ; but says He, "Never- 


theless, ye shall hereafter see the Son of man sitting/' &c. He did not 
deny Himself to be the Son of man, though He preferred Himself to 
be the Son of God. He teaches the union of the human and Divine 
nature. It was wonderful, and what the high priest could not believe, 
that the Son of God should be arraigned as a criminal before His 
judgment seat ; and Christ tells him he should see another thing 
equally wonderful, and that is the Son of man sitting at the right 
hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven, sitting the Judge 
of the world, and be brought before His judgment-seat. Nevertheless 
though " I be the Son of God, yet ye shall see the Son of mariy sitting 
on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven." 

26. xxvL 65 — " Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying. He 
hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? 
behold, now ye have heard His blasphemy/'] Contrary to that law, 
Lev. XXL 10. Tliis probably foreboded that the Levitical priest- 
hood was soon to be abolished, their priestly garments to be rent, and 
they to be divested of the honours and prerogatives of their offica 

27. xxviii. 9.] It may be pleasant and profitable to consider the 
various passions that these women felt in their hearts on this occasion. 
Christ was a person exceeding dear to them ; and they lately had 
their hearts filled and overwhelmed with sorrow, upon the occasion 
of the cruel and ignominious death that they with their own eyes 
had seen Christ put to. (See chap, xxvii. 55, 56.) And they never 
expected to see Him alive any more ; and they had with great art 
prepared precious ointment to anoint His body, and doubtless were 
much vexed that they could not have opportunity to do it, by the 
reason of the Sabbath coming on, till the third day after His death. 
And now they come very early, — the first day of the week, — greatly 
engaged in their minds to do it. But when they come there they 
find the sepulchre empty ; they could not find the body of Jesus, as 
John informs us, and had the sorrow of the disappointment in their 
design of anointing His body, added to the sorrow for His death ; 
while they stood here disappointed and sorrowful, not knowing what 
to do, two angels appeared to them and told them that Christ was 
risen and was alive. This filled them with surprise and joy. For it 
did not only take away their concern for their disappointment in not 
finding the body of Jesus in the sepulchre, but brought the unex- 
pected and unspeakably joyful news that Christ, their dear Lord, was 
alive again. How suddenly did this turn them from the deepest sor- 
row to overflowing joy ! It is said, in ver. 8. . . . How eager were 
they to impart the joyful news to their fellow-disciples, who were 
sharers in their sorrow for His death ; and as they ran, Christ Himself 
met them, and in a friendly manner salute<l them ; and what a new 
surprise was this ! Now they see with their own eyes the truth of 
what the angels had told them. How did it heighten their joy, now 
to see their dear Lord Himself, whom they had so lately seen put to 
so cruel a death, and never expected to see more, meet them alive^ 
saluting them in a sweet and cheerful manner! and how do they 
express their joy and love to their risen Lord ! They come and hold 


Him by the feet and worship Him. They express their joy, and 
testify their respect to Him, in the most dear, humble, and adoring 


28. vi. 8 — "And commanded them that they should take nothing 
for their journey, save a staff only ; no scrip, no breach, no money in 
their purse.'] See Num. xxi. 18. 

29. vi. 7 — " And He called unto Him the twelve, and began to send 
them forth two by two ; and gave them power over unclean spirits."] 
It was best, on many accounts, that two should go together ; but this 
was probably one end — that their testimony might be valid, for the 
testimony of two witnesses is true. 

30. X. 24-26 — " And the disciples were astonished at His words. 
But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard 
is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God ! 
It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for 
a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. And they were 
astonished out of measure, saying among themselves. Who then can 
be saved?'*] The reasons why they were astonished seem to be 
twofold : (1.) This was contrary to the notions they had of the 
Messiah's kingdom, as a kingdom of great temporal wealth and glory. 
They wondered, therefore, how it should come to pass that riches 
should exclude men out of it ; and (2.) It was very contrary to the 
notion they had been brought up in among the Jews, who had a 
high esteem of rich men. ITiey were their scribes and others that 
were their great men, that were rich, were in highest esteem among 
them, and supposed to be highest in favour with God. As to the 
poorer, meaner sort of people, they were low in esteem. In com- 
parison of these they thought none so likely to be advanced as those, 
and therefore when they hear that those are like to be excluded, 
they say, "Who then can be saved?" Wherefore Christ greatly 
contradicted the notions of the Jews in the parable of the rich man 
and Lazarus, in representing a rich man and child of Abraham as 
going to hell, and not to Abraham's bosom, but seeing there, afar off, 
Lazarus, a poor stranger. 


31. vii. 37 — "And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a 
sinner, when she knew that Je.sus sat at meat in the Pharisee's house, 
brought an alabaster-box of ointment."] This woman seems to have 
been before a common whore, and that precious ointment was what 
she kept to anoint herself with, to render herself agreeable to her 


gallants, and particularly used to anoint her hair with, which was 
accounted the special ornament of women, and that she now makes 
use of as a towel to wipe Christ's feet ; and having, now [that] she 
is brought to repentance, no further use for the costly box in that 
way, nor the precious ointment that is in it, she breaks the box and 
pours the ointment on Christ. 

32. viL 41, 42 — "There was a certain creditor which had two 
debtors ; the one owed five hundred pence, and the other fifty. And 
when they had nothing to pay, he frankly forgave them both. Tell 
me therefore, which of Ihem will love him most ? "] Christ plainly 
intimates that He is the creditor, or that He is the Being against 
whom sin is committed; for He is the person that forgives the 
debtor : verses 48, 49 — '* And He said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven. 
And they that sat at meat with Him began to say within themselves, 
Who is this that forgiveth sins also?" And He is the person the 
debtor loves for forgiveness of the debt : verses 44-47 — " And He 
turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman ? 
I entered into thine house, thou gavest Me no water for My feet : 
but she hath washed My feet with tears, and wiped them with the 
hairs of her head. Thou gavest Me no kiss : but this woman, since 
the time I came in, hath not ceased to kiss My feet. My head with 
oil thou didst not anoint : but this woman hath anointed My feet 
with ointment. Wherefore, I say unto thee. Her sins, which are 
many, are forgiven ; for she loved much : but to whom little is 
forgiven, the same loveth little." And if Christ be the creditor, He 
is God. 

33. viii. 1-3 — ''And it came to pass afterward, that He went 
throughout every city and village, preaching and shewing the glad 
tidings of the kingdom of God ; and the twelve were with Him, and 
certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, 
Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils, and Joanna 
the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, 
which ministered unto Him of their substance.'*] This company of 
women that followed Christ from city to city, ministering to Him of 
their substance, is a little image and resemblance of that blessed 
company of virgins that follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth, 
spoken of in Rev. xiv. 4 — "These are they which were not defiled 
with women ; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the 
Lamb whithersoever He goeth. These were redeemed from among 
men, being the first-fruits unto God and to the Lamb." 

34. xi. 24-26 — " When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, 
he walketh through dry places, seeking rest ; and finding none, he 
saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out And when 
he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished. Then goeth he, and 
taketh to him seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and 
they enter in, and dwell there : and the last state of that man is 
worse than the first.* ] By comparing these verses with what goes 
before, it is confirmed that apostasy is one great inorredient or con- 
stituent of the unpardonable sin. For it is manifest Christ says this 


of those same Pharisees spoken of before, that said He cast out 
devils by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils. It is more manifest still 
by comparing what is said in this place with Matt xii. 22-25. There, 
speaking of the unclean spirit being gone out of a man, and returning 
again, &c., He adds, ''Even so shall it be also unto this wicked 
generation." It seems there was a time when these Pharisees had 
much of the common influences of the Spirit of God, and the unclean 
spirit for a season seemed to be gone out of them ; and this, prob- 
ably, was a consequence of the awakening they were the subjects of 
by John the Baptist's preaching ; but, after the illuminations they 
then had, it seems that their religion greatly degenerated, (though 
they were still very religious in their way.) They were exceedin<rly 
lifted up with spiritual pride, and fell into the condemnation of the 
devil, and at last into the unpardonable sin. Hence it is manifest 
that we nowhere in Scripture have any description of the unpardonable 
sin, but that apostasy is one tiling that constitutes it. 

85. xiv. 26—'* K any man come to Me, and hate not Ijis father, and 
mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and 
his own life also, he cannot be My disciple. "J We must ' bate ' these, 
considered as an exchange for Christ, or as ofiered to us as induce- 
ments to forsake Christ. In the same manner as a just judge is said 
to hate gifts : Prov. xv. 27 — ' He that is greedy of gain troubleth his 
own house : but he that hateth gifts shall live." Are we to * hate' 
father, &c.? It is not meant that the judge should hate gold, or 
silver, or goods, simply considered, but considered as ofiVred as a 
purchase and bias of his judgment. And in the same manner as it 
is said in Cant. viii. 7 — " Many waters cannot quench love, neither 
can the floods drown it : if a man would give all the substance of his 
house for love, it would utterly be contemned," not that it would be 
contemned simply and absolutely, but as ofiered as an exchange for 
those things which love seeks and desires. 

36. xvi. 8 — " And the Loixi commended the unjust steward, be- 
cause he had done wisely : for the children of this world are in their 
generation wiser than the children of light"] The meaning is, that 
the children of this world are wiser in their generation than the 
children of light are in theirs — i.e., the children of this world are 
wiser in the management of their secular afiairs to promote their 
worldly interest, and in contriving and disposing things that apper- 
tain to their generation, — that is, to the children of this world, — than 
the children of light are in the management of special afiairs for their 
special interest. That this is the meaning, and not that the children 
of this world are wiser in temporal matters than the children of light 
are in the same matter, is evident by the following, where Christ 
advises us to be as wise for ourselves in special afiairs as the children 
of this world are in temporal afiairs. 

37. xvi. 9 — " And I say unto you. Make to yourselves friends of 
the mammon of unrighteousness ; that, when ye fail, they may receive 
you into everlasting habitations."] t>.. Make to yourselves friends 
in heaven of your earthly provision and substance ; make God the 


Father, and Christ, and the other inhabitants of the heavenly world, 
your friends, by bestowing the earthly goods that ye are stewards of 
upon them, as the unjust steward made himself friends by bestowing 
the goods that he was steward of upon them. Bestow your earthly 
goods upon them, by bestowing them on the poor, who are God's 
receivers : if it be bestowed on one of the least of Christ's brethren, 
it is bestowed on Christ. Then we shall make God and Christ and 
heavenly angels our friends, which friends will receive us when we 
fail. It is called the mammon of unrighteousness, because it is that 
which in time past we have, as it were, stolen and embezzled, and 
not improved them as God's stewards, but used them as if they were 
our own, as the unjust steward embezzled his lord's goods. It is for 
the sake of these worldly goods that we have been unjust, as the 
steward was unjust for the sake of his master's goods, that he might 
have them for his own and use them for his own private ends. Sin 
consists radically in the love of this world, and it is because this 
world is that which sin or the corruption of nature hath for its object, 
that it is called the mammon of unrighteousness. It is by our thus 
using the world that we come to be turned out of it, and to be separ- 
ated from those worldly engagements by death, as the steward was 
turned out of his stewardship and was deprived of his lord's goods for 
his embezzling them. The sin by which man fell at first, and for 
which our first parents were turned out of the earthly paradise that 
God had committed to their care as stewards, to dress it and to keep 
it, was using it as unjust stewards, putting the goods committed to 
their care to a use contrary to the owner's command, and to serve 
their own private end. This will, therefore, be a wise improvement of 
the mammon by which we have lost our possession and enjoyment of 
all things here below, to make ourselves friends of it, "that they may 
receive us" when we are turned out of our stewardship and taken out 
of the world. Note, that expression, " that, when ye fail, they may 
receive you into everlasting habitations," thus explained, is a clear 
proof of the separate state of souls. 

38. xvi. 12 — "And if ye have not been faithful in that which is 
another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?"] By 
that which is another man's is represented this world's goods. The 
same with the " unrighteous mammon," as it is called in the foregoing 
verse ; and by that which is " our own," is represented the blessings 
and enjoyments of heaven, the same that is called the " true riches" 
in the preceding verse. This world's goods are not our own ; they 
are but lent to us for a little while, and are to be taken from us again 
presently. We are but stewards of them, according to the foregoing 
parable that gave occasion to these reflections. So the possessions of 
the children of Israel in the earthly Canaan are represented as not 
their own, but only what they improve as God's tenants and as 
sojourners with Him, who is their landlord : Lev. xxv. 23 — " The land 
shall not be sold for ever : for the land is Mine ; for ye are strangers 
and sojourners with Me." So here what we have in this world is 
represented as not our own, but God's, and we only as stewards. 


But heavenly blessings are given to us as our proper inheritance, and 
that wherein our happiness consists. They are not lent to us, but 
given to us, never to be taken from us, but to be ours for ever. We 
are but sojourners with God on earth ; but heaven is our proper home. 
Hence we may see the force of the argument. If ye have not been 
faithful in that which is another man's, who will give you that which 
is your own ? If you be not fit to have something only committed to 
your care for a little while, that is quickly to be taken from you again, 
how much less are you fit to be trusted with things for ever ; not 
only to have them lent to you or committed into your hands for a 
little while, but to have them given finally into your everlasting pos- 
session ? If you cannot be trusted with something for only a few 
days, how much less can you be trusted with the eternal possession 
of a thing ? 

39. xvi 1 6 — " The law and the prophets were until John : since 
that time the kingdom of Grod is preached, and every man presseth 
into it."] Here I would observe, that when universal terms are used 
about redemption, they do not prove universal redemption, any more 
than the universal term here used proves that every man, in a strict 
and proper sense, did press into the kingdom of heaven since the 
preaching of John the Baptist. (" Every man presseth into it.") Christ 
is not so much speaking of what had already actually come to pass 
since John's time, as giving a description of that new dispensation 
that John began, and shewing wherein it difiered from the old dis- 
pensation under the Law and the Prophets, as to the much greater 
numbers that are saved, and the multitudes that, under this dispensa- 
tion that John's preaching was the dawning of, flock and press into 
the kingdom of GoA The pouring out of the Spirit in John the 
Baptist's time, was the beginning of a glorious harvest of souls, that 
continued from that time to the end of that age, wherein multitudes 
of all sorts pressed into the kingdom of God. 

40. xvii. 37 — "And they answered and said unto Him, Where, 
Lord ? And He said unto them. Wheresoever the body is, thither will 
the eagles be gathered together."] This is an enigmatical answer to 
their question ; but yet by giving diligent heed to this answer, with 
due care to understand it, together with a diligent observation of 
events to be determined by it, when and where, Christ's answer is 
that these things that He speaks of shall be when and where they shall 
see the eagles gathered about the dead carcase. Now, the Roman 
armies bearing an eagle on their ensign, this might naturally lead 
them to think that the Romans were the eagles Christ spoke of. But 
what should lead them to think that Jerusalem was meant by the 
dead body ? I answer, Because, when Jerusalem was besieged by the 
Roman armies, the city was filled with dead carcases. What in- 
numerable multitudes were there that died in Jerusalem during the 
siege, by famine and by killing one another I When the Roman 
aimies were gathered together about Jerusalem, then was it fulfilkd 
that the eagles were gathered together about the dead carcases : or 
raUier, by the carcase He means His own dead body that was killed at 



Jerusalem. And after this the Jewish nation were like Christ's dead 
carcase, and not His living body as the true Church is ; for His 
Spirit thenceforward left that Church and the Temple and typical 
ordinances of their worship; thenceforward it became as Christ's 
dead body. The Church, with its ordinances of worship, is the body 
of Christ. The Church, with the presence and Spirit of Christ, is His 
living body ; but when deprived of it, His dead body. The Jews, 
therefore, killing Christ's body, killed then their own Church : by this 
means became a dead carcase and a fit prey for eagles. From the 
time the Jews killed Christ the Jewish Church was dead and putrified 
till they became a stinking carcase, before the time of their destruc- 
tion, and their stink called the eagles together upon them. 

41. xix. 12 — "He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a 
far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return."] Such 
a representation in this parable was the more familiar to the Jews 
because this had actually been the case with their late princes, Herod, 
Archelaus, &c. They, in order to receive their kingdom, left Judea 
for a season, and went into a far country — to Rome — to be invested 
with the kingdom by the Eoman emperors, and then returned invested 
and in the exercise of their royal authority. So Christ went into a 
far country, and a greater city than Rome, to be invested with the 
kingdom over the Jews and over mankind in this world, His own 
country, by One infinitely greater than the Roman emperors. 

42. ver. 14 — "But his citizens hated him, and sent a message 
after him, saying. We will not have this man to reign over us."] 
They sent this message to that superior Potentate that was to invest 

43. ver. 17 — " And he said unto him. Well, thou good servant ; 
because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority 
over ten cities."] For now the nobleman was returned virith kingly 
authority over the whole country, and had power to dispose of the 
government of cities. 

44. XXL 31 — " And in the day-time He was teaching in the temple ; 
and at night He went out, and abode in the mount that is called the 
mount of Olives."] By this it is evident that Christ was commonly 
wont to lodge in the open field — He had not where to lay His head 
in Jerusalem : He had no friend there to invito Him in, and He had 
not money to purchase entertainment at an inn, and therefore it was 
His constant manner to go and lodge at a certain place in the mount 
of Olives, which was the place where He and His disciples were found 
when Judas betrayed Him ; and therefore it is said in next chapter, 
ver. 39, that that night ** He came out, and went, as He was wont, to 
the mount of Olives ; and His disciples also followed Him." And 
hence also John xviii. 1, 2. (See also John viii. with viL 33.) Hence 
we may learn that what is spoken of Christ figuratively in Cant. v. 2, 
"I sleep, but my heart waketh: it is the voice of my beloved, 
saying. Open unto me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled : 
for my head is filled with dew, and my locks with the drops of the 
night," was often literally fulfilled while He dwelt here on earth, and 


that He often suffered greatly in being obliged to lodge abroad in the 
cold and rain« 


45. i. 9 — " That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that 
Cometh into the world.''] There is not now, ever was, nor will be, 
any man in the world enlightened but by Jesus Christ. Every man 
that Cometh into the world, that ever is enlightened, is enlightened 
by Him ; or hereby is meant that this Light is not only to enlighten 
the Jews, but that it enlightens indifferently every man, let him be of 
what nation soever. It was fit that the true Light, when He came, 
should be a general light. Moses enlightened only the nation of the 
Jews, because he was not the true light See a very parallel ex- 
pression. Col. L 23 — "If ye continue in the faith grounded and 
settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel, which 
ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is 
under heaven ; whereof I Paul am made a minister." 

46. i. 18 — "J^o man hath seen God at any time; the only-be- 
gotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared 
him."] God under the Old Testament gave the images of things the 
substance and reality of which He gave in the New ; and one in- 
stance of this was, that Christ so often under the Old Testament 
appears in human shape. This was an image and an eaniest of His 
incarnation ; and it is still God's manner to give the image and 
earnest of the glorious things that are to be brought to pass for 
His Church, and in the spiritual world, before He actually ac- 
complishes them ; and it was pleasing to Him to appear in human 
shape, whose ' delights were with the sons of men/ who delighted in 
the human nature, and in the thought of taking the human nature 
and a human body ; He delighted in a human shape, and in the 
resemblance of His future incarnation. 

47. ii. 4 — " Jesus saith unto her. Woman, what have I to do with 
thee? Mine hour is not yet come/H This expression, as it was used 
in those times, carried nothing of disrespect by what was then under- 
stood by the expression and the force that words then bore ; they 
were not looked upon as unsuitable to be used towards one most 
superior. This is evident, because the devil, when through the 
greatness of his fear he feigned himself a humble and earnest sup- 
plicant to Jesus Christ, used this expression : Luke viii. 28 — *' What 
have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God Most High ? I be- 
seech thee, torment me not." 

48. iv. 36, 37 — "And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and 
gathereth fruit unto Ufe eternal : that both he that soweth and he 
that reapeth may rejoice together. And herein is that saying true. 
One soweth, and another reapeth."] He that soweth is Chiist, the 


ministers of the gospel they do but reap the fruit of Christ's 
labours. It is He that has, as it were, ploughed the field and fitted 
the ground, and sowed the seed, and He waters the seed sown. The 
Word, Ordinances, and Spirit, are of His purchasing and bestowing, 
hence ministers are represented as labourers that are sent into the 
harvest only to gather in the harvest — to gather in souls, the founda- 
tion of whose salvation is all already laid by Christ. He that sows 
is the Owner of the field and Lord of the harvest. Ministers are only 
labourers and servants sent forth to gather in His harvest that grows 
in the field, and springs from seed that He has sowed. He that 
sows and he that reaps shall rejoice together, as Christ and the 
seventy did when they returned and told Him of their success : Luke 
X. 17, 18, 21. (Ver. 37.) This was remarkably verified with respect 
to Christ and these His disciples, for Christ, when He dwelt on eai-th, 
sowed, laid all the foundation of His future Church, but the Apostles 
and other ministers gathered in the harvest after His ascension. 

49. xiii 10 — "Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth 
not, save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit : and ye are clean, 
but not all."] Probably Christ may have some respect to the legal 
washings of the priests, who, at their consecration, even washed all 
over : Exod. xxix. 4—'* And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring 
unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash 
them with water ; " but afterwards were required only to wash their 
hands and their feet at the laver. (Chap. xxx. 19-21.) 

50. xiv. 13 — '*And whatsoever ye shall ask in myname, that will 
I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Sou."] Christ speaks 
especially of those works or miracles spoken of in the foregoing verse, 
and therefore it is said ' that will I do,' and not ' that will I give.' 

51. xvii. 24 — "Also.*'] — Query — What doth this particle 'also' 
refer to ? Ans. Christ had before prayed for His own glory. This 
He began with in ver. 1. This He repeats in ver. 5. And this He 
speaks of in the verses immediately preceding, 22, 23, He speaks of 
the glory which God had given. Here He prays that God would not 
only glorify Him, but the disciples also with Him and in His glory. 
He here explains His request that God would glorify Him, signifying 
that He meant not Himself singly, but with His disciples. 


52. vii.] Behearsal of Stephen — to shew how the Jews had of old 
resisted the Holy Ghost in the revelation and promises made. (1.) 
Revealed. (2.) The operation of the Holy Spirit to accomplish them 
within them. Resisted it by Moses and others raised up. Particu- 
larly insists on the promises made to Abraham that He would give 
to his seed Canaan for a possession, and therefore began with account 
of the promise and the circumstances attending it> — how Qod called 


Abraham from his own country in order to making the covenant with 
him, and the bestowing of the blessing on him, and the circum- 
stance.that rendered the promL<ie wonderful [and] demanded Abraham's 
faith in resting in it — viz., that for the present God gave him none 
inheritance in the land, &c., and when he had yet no child — ^how God 
confirmed the promise by the seal of circumcision. Next the step 
God took to the accomplishment of this promise. (1.) Joseph into 
Elgypt to keep them alive in famine, lest Abraham's posterity should 
be extinct and so the promise fail. (Gen. xxxvii. 4.) Joseph, the first 
instrument Gk>d worked by, whom they resisted. Next their fathers 
being buried in Canaan, earnest of fulfilment. Next their miserable 
state. Next Moses — type of Christ Next brought in by Joshua — 
finished in David and Solomon. Never fully accomplished till then. 
Then God trieth them by settled abode. No longer moving about in 
a tabernacle. (2 Sam. xii.) And then Stephen observes that notwith- 
standing God don't dwell in temples made with hands, that Solo- 
mon's temple was not the true temple of God by the account of their 
own prophets, whereby he justifies himself in what they accused him 
of in ver. 14 of chap. vL 

53. viL 37, 38 — "This is that Moses which said unto the chil- 
dren of Israel, A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you 
of your brethren like unto me ; him shall ye hear. This is he that 
was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to 
him in the mount Sinai, and with our fathers : who received the 
lively oracles to give unto us.'*] The things which Stephen observes 
of Moses in these verses serve the more to shew the comparison that 
he makes of the Jews' treatment of Christ with their fathers' treat- 
ment of Moses to be apt and pertinent, and to render the application 
he makes ver. 61 — "Ye stifinecked and uncircumcised in heart and 
eacs, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost : as your fathers did, so 
do ye " — the more convincing ; for here he observes that Moses him- 
self compares the Messiah to him, and says that He shall be a Prophet 
like to him ; and besides, their fathers in rejecting Moses rejected 
Christ, for Moses spake and acted in the name of Christ, and as His 
messenger and instrument, and Christ was with him in what he did 
and said, as Stephen observes, (ver. 38,) that Moses was with the 
angel (i. e,, Christ) in Mount Sinai, and spake to Him, and with our 
fathers, who received the lively oracles to give unto us ; so that Moses 
spake His words, and [so] as that in rejecting Moses they rejected 
Christ's own words, and their murmurings against him and oppo- 
sition to him was really opposition to Christ. 

54. viiL 20-22 — " But Peter said unto him. Thy money perish with 
thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be pur- 
chased with money. Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter : 
for thy heart is not right in the sight of God. Repent therefore of 
this thy wickedness, and pray God, if perhaps the thought of thine 
heart may be forgiven thee."] By what is here said it is evident that 
a man may contract fearful guilt, and may undo himself to all eternity 
by that which he has no great sense of the badness of in the time of 


it, when he commits it does not seem heinous to him ; for Simon, he 
never seems to have had any great sense of any hurt in his proposal 
of buying the gift or power of conferring the Holy Ghost with 
money. He was very bold in his proposal, and in all likelihood it 
was very unexpected to him to meet with such a rebuke. 

55. xiii. 39 — " And by Him all that believe are justified from all 
things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses."] 
This is true in* two senses. (1.) The Law of Moses made no provi- 
sion for the expiation of presumptuous sins : there were no sacrifices 
appointed for such sins : Num. xv. 30 — " But the soul that doeth 
ought presumptuously, (whether he be bom in the land or a stranger,) 
the same reproacheth the Lord ; and that soul shall be cut ofi* from 
among his people." It was so ordered on purpose that man being 
kept in doubt, and their consciences not fully satisfied about their 
presumptuous sins, that when Christ came, and the gospel which de- 
clared the forgiveness of all sin through Him, ought to be the more 
joyful tidings. The forgiveness of sin was never fully revealed till 
Christ came. It is probable that the forgiveness of presumptuous 
sin had been a matter of great question and controversy amongst 
their doctors, and therefore Paul tells them that it is by Christ they 
are justified from those sins. And (2.) the sacrifices of the Law of 
Moses could not fully take away the guilt of any sin. 

56. xvii. 27, 28— "That they should seek the Lord, if haply they 
might feel after Him, and find Him, though He be not far from every 
one of us : for in Him we live, and move, and have our being ; as 
certain also of your own poets have said. For we are also His off- 
spring."] Alluding to the darkness in which the heathen world is 


67. i. 32, 11. 1 — " Who, knowing the judgment of God, that they 
which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, 
but have pleasure in them that do them. Therefore thou art inex- 
cusable, man, whosoever thou art that judgest : for wherein thou 
judgest another, thou condemnest thyself ; for thou that judgest 
doest the same things."] It seems to be a mistake of many that the 
Apostle in what he says of men's wickedness, in chap, i., has respect 
only to the Gentiles, and that in what he says in chap, il he has re- 
spect only to the Jews. It is true that in the first chapter he evi- 
dently has his eye chiefly on the wickedness that prevailed in the 
world, but that is not his professed design in it, only to describe the 
sin of the Pa^an world, but the wickedness of the world of mankind. 
It is all unnghteousness and ungodliness, &c. And in the second 
chapter he has his eye chiefly on the Jews ; but it is not his pro- 
fessed design to speak only of them, as appears by his beginning in 


Ter. 1. — The universal terms that he uses in it — " Therefore thou art 
inexcusable, man," (not, Jews !) *' whosoever thou art" (of man- 
kind, whether Jew or Gentile) " that judgest : for wherein thou 
judgest another, thou condemnest thyself ; for thou that judgest doest 
the same things." In the last verse of the first chapter the Apostle 
speaks of the wickedness of mankind in general, and shews how tliey 
hold the truth in unrighteouavess, as he had said before (ver. 18) — 
"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all un- 
godliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in un- 
righteousness:*' and the special design of that verse is to set forth 
how they are all alike and all agreed in wickedness, and in the same 
kind of wickedness, though they all have that light that is sufScient 
to teach them that those that commit such things deserve the con- 
demnation and wrath of God, and so death and destruction ; which 
they are very ready to acknowledge and declare in the case of others 
when they see their wickedness, their unrighteousness, covetousness, 
maliciousness, envy, murder, debate, depeit, malignity, &c. I say, 
though when they see others guilty of such things they can easily see 
that they are worthy of death, and are forward to express it ; yet they 
do the very same things, and not only so, but they shew plainly that 
they have just such hearts ; they shew a full practical consent to all the 
wickedness of others that they are forward to condemn and to de- 
clare worthy of death. Thus inexorable are they and inconsistent 
with themselves. Thus the beginning of the II. chapter comes in — 
" Therefore thou art inexcusMe, man, whosoever thou art that 
judgest" Thou that art forward to condemn others as worthy of 
death — "for wherein thou judgest another thou condemnest thyself*' — 
thou art very unreasonable and exceeding inconsistent with thyself, — 
"for thou that judgest doest the sam£ things" and shewest that thou 
hast pleasure in their practice. There is at the same time that you 
judge them a full practical consent to, and good liking of, the very 
same practices. So God of old condemned the Jews, for that in this 
practice they had justified Samaria and Sodom, and were a comfort 
to them, and yet had judged them. (Ezek. xvi. 51, 52, 54.) 

58. ii. 21, 22 — "Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest 
thou not thyself ? thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost 
thou steal? thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, 
dost thou commit adulteiy ? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou com- 
mit sacrilege ? "] The Apostle, in these verses, seems to allude to these 
words, in Ps. L 16-18 — "But unto the wickwi God saith. What hast 
thou to do to declare my statutes, or that thou shouldest take my 
Covenant in thy mouth ? Seeing Uiou hatest instruction, and casteth 
my words behind thee. When thou sawest a thief, then thou con- 
sentedest with him, and hast been partaker with adulterers." 

59. iii. 10-18 — "As it is written. There is none righteous, no, not 
one : there is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh 
after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become 
unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Their 
throat is an open sepulchre: with their tongues they have used 


deceit ; the poison of asps is under their lips : whose mouth is full 
of cursing and bitterness : their feet are swift to shed blood : de- 
struction and misery are in their ways : and the way of peace have 
they not known : there is no fear of God before their eyes."] The 
passages here quoted out of the Old Testament are to prove these 
things — (1.) That mankind are universally sinful — that every one is 
corrupt ; that is what is aimed at in verses 10-12. (2.) That every one 
is not only corrupt, but every one totally corrupt in every part ; that 
is aimed at in verses 13-15, where the several parts of the body are 
mentioned. (3.) That every one is not only in every part, but cor- 
rupt throughout in an exceeding degree, in verses 16-18. 

60. iii. 23 — " For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of 
God.*'] I,e., The glory of the reward, as the phrase signifies, (chap. 
V. 2) — " By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein 
we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God." 

61. iii. 25, 26 — "Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation 
through faith in His blood, to declare His righteousness for the re- 
mission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God ; to 
declare, I say, at this time His righteousness ; that He might be just, 
and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus."] Sins that are past, 
i.e.f that were committed in past ages, before Christ died, as Heb. ix. 
15 — "For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have 
mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion." 
And therefore it follows in ver. 26 — *' To declare, I say, at this time 
His righteousness; that He might be just, and the justifier of him 
which believeth in Jesus." Before, the Apostle was speaking of past 
ages ; the righteousness of God in pardoning their sins then com- 
mitted was not fully declared, then, in the time, but now it is at 
'' this time." 

62. V. 13, 14j — "For until the Law sin was in the world : but sin is 
not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from 
Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the simi- 
litude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of Him that was to 
come."] There are two things the Apostle would prove in these 
words, one of which establishes the other. First, he would prove 
that all mankind were under the law God gave to Adam, that stated 
" death to be the wages of sin." This is evident, because that sin, as 
bringing death, was in the world before there was any other legisla- 
tion or scheme, giving of law to mankind, besides what was to Adam, 
viz., in that space of time that was from Adam to Moses. There 
being sin, therefore, in the world, as bringing death in that space of 
time, before the giving of the Law by Moses, shews that there was a 
Law given of God before that time, threatening death that they were 
under ; but this could be no other than the Law God gave to AdauL 
This proves that Adam was the legal head of mankind ; that mankind 
were under the Law given to him, wherein God threatened death for 
transgression ; and thus God, in this Law given to Adam, saying, 
" When thou sinnest thou shalt die," did not only speak to him, though 
He spoke in the singular number; but in him spoke to posterity also. 



Hereby the Apostle prepares the way for the second thing he would 
prove in these words which he had asserted before, ver. 12—" Where- 
fore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ; 
and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned ;" which 
he mainly aims at the proof, viz., that all mankind sinned and fell 
in Adam. This is evident by Adam's being the legal head of man- 
kind, which is the first thing insinuated. For if God, when He spoke 
to Adam in the singular number, giving him a precept, spoke to him 
as representing posterity, so it will follow that He spoke to him as 
representing his posterity in the threatening ; and this is further evi- 
dent by this, that death did not only reign from Adam to Moses, but 
also reigned over them that had not violated Adam's law themselves 
by their actual personal transgression, as Adam had done. 

63. vii 13 — " Was then that which is good made death unto me ? 
Grod forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me 
by that which is good ; that sin by the commandment might become 
exceeding sinful**] . Thi^ is to be connected with v. 11, with these 
words, and hy it, (i,e., by the Law,) slew me, and so with v. 10, / 
found the Law to be unto death, and that with v. 9, when the com- 
mandment came, sin revived, and I died, and that with the fifth verse, 
" For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which were by 
the Law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death." 

64?. vii. 14—" For we know that the Law is spiritual ; but I am 
carnal, sold under sin.*'] Ahab sold himself to work evil, (1 Kings 
xxi. 20) — " And Ahab said to Elijah, Hast thou found me, mine 
enemy ? And he answered, I have found thee : because thou hast 
sold thyself to work evil in the sight of the Lord.'* He did it of 
choice, he was a willing slave to sin, voluntarily submitted and gave 
up himself to the dominion of this master. But the Apostle Paul 
was sold under sin as a poor captive against his will, as the context 
obliges us to understand. 

65. viL 15 — " For that which I do I allow not : for what I would, 
that do I not ; but what I hate, that do L**] In the original it is 
ov ytwocfcti), " I know not,*' which confirms that the Apostle here 
speaks in the name of a true saint, and not in the name of a wicked 
man. For surely a wicked man knows his sins in the common use 
of such an expression in Scripture for approve, own, as what is near 
to him and belongs to him ; but the Apostle here speaks of his not 
knowing sin in that sense, he disowns and renounces it ; he does not 
approve of it as that which he has any relation to, and accordingly it 
is not in the sight of God approved as what belongs to him. That 
this is the sense is confirmed by v. 17 — " Now, then, it is no more I 
that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me," and v. 20 — " Now if I do 
that I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth 
in me." 

66. viiL 23 — '* And not only they, but ourselves also, which have 
the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, 
waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.**] The 
Apostle, in calling the redemption of saints the redemption of the 


body, probably has in his eye that passage in Hos. xiii. 14—" I will 
ransom them from the power of the grave ; I will redeem theyn from 
death : death, I will be thy plagues ; grave, I will be thy destruc- 
tion : repentance shall be hid from mine eyes." 

67. viii. 29 — " For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate 
to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the first- 
bom among many brethren."] This is the sum of what the elect are 
predestinated to — viz., to be conformed to the image of His Son, to 
be made like His Son, and to have communion with Him in His 
holiness and in His happiness. They are predestinated to be con- 
formed to His Son in His death ; in djring to sin and the world, and 
in His resurrection by being quickened from being dead in trespasses 
and sins : also in their bodies being raised. " Christ the first-fruits, 
and afterwards those that are Christ's at his coming." They are con- 
formed to Christ in His justification. When Christ rose. He was 
justified, and believers in this justification do but partake with Him 
in His justification, in v. 34 — *' Who is he that condemneth ? It is 
Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the 
right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us." They are 
conformed to Christ in His relation to the Father in His Sonship, and 
are made also the children of God, so that they are His children, only 
He is the first-bom among them, as the Apostle here observes. They 
are conformed to Christ in the Father's love to Him, and are made 
partakers with Him in it as members. They are conformed to Christ 
in His being heir of the world, and they are joint-heira They are 
conformed to Christ in His exaltation and glorification, for He and 
they shall be glorified together. They are conformed to Him in 
ascension into heaven ; they shall also ascend They are conformed 
to Him in the glorification of His body, for their bodies shall be 
made like unto His glorious body. They are conformed to Him in 
His enjoyment of the Father in heaven : they by being members of 
Him partake with Him in His enjoyment of the Father's infinite love, 
and in His joy in the Father, His joy is fulfilled in them, and the 
glory which the Father has given Him, He has given them. They 
are conformed to Him in His reigning over the world. They sit 
with Him on His throne, and they have power over the nations, and 
they shall rule them with a rod of iron, and as the vessels of a potter 
shall they be broken to shivers, even as He received of His Father. 
They shall be conformed unto Him in His judging the world, for the 
saints shall judge the world, yea, they shall sit with Christ in judging 
angels. This gloiy, this excellency and happiness that consists in 
the saints being conformed to Christ, is the sum of the good that they 
are predestinated to, and the whole of their conformity to Christ is 
what the Apostle has respect to, and not only their being made like 
Him in conversion and sanctificatioa 

68. ix. 3 — "For I could wish that myself were accursed from 
Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesL" In the 
original it is "that myself were 'anathema* from Christ."] The 
Apostle's meaning probably is, that he was willing that Christ 



slioiild 80 order it that he should in the world be cut off from the 
society and piivil^:es of His visible people, as an ezconnnnnicated 
person, and also be cut off from the earth by an accursed death 
at last^ dying under the hidings of God s face and dreadful fruits 
of His displeasure for a time, as Christ did : and thus to suffer from 
Christ for the Jews, as Christ, who was made a curse for as, suffered 
from God the Father, who was despised and rejected of men, cast 
out of the synagogue as an accursed person while He lived, and at 
last died an accursed death for us. As Christ loved us so the 
Apostle loved his brethren. 

69. ix. 4 — " Who are Israelites ; to whom pertaineth the adoption, 
and the gloiy, and the covenants, and the giving of the Law, and the 
service of Grod, and the promises."] The same glory is doubtless here 
meant^ whose departure was lamented when the ark was taken, when 
it was said by the true friends of Israel, The glory is departed from 
Israel, meaning the ark and the cloud of glory in which God appeared 
above upon it, or rather Jesus Christ, with respect to these tokens of 
His friendly presence. 

70. ix. 22, 2»— " What if God, willing to shew His wrath, and to 
make His power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels 
of wrath fitted to destruction ; and that He might make known the 
riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had afore 
prepared unto gloiy.^] He does not say to shew His justice or 
righteousness, for that is as much observed in God's glorifying and 
making happy the saints, and much more in some respects. Grod's 
justice is more gloriously manifested in the sufferings of Christ for 
the elect, than the damnation of the wicked 

71. X. 3 — " For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and 
going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted 
themselves unto the righteousness ^ God.''] The reason why the 
ri^teousness of Christ, from time to time, is called by the name of 
Ood's righteousness, may probably be this, that the grand difference 
between the righteousness of the two covenants is this that otie is a 
mere human righteousness, the other is a Divine righteousness, or the 
righteousness of a Divine Person ; and not that one is our own per- 
sonal righteousness, and the other the righteousness of Another that is 
our surety. For if Adam had stood, and we had been justified as in 
the way of the first covenant, we that are the posterity of Adam 
should not have been justified by our own personal righteousness, but 
should have been justified as much by the righteousness of another 
as now under the second covenant God, in infinite wisdom, hath so 
ordered things to bring mankind to a greater dependence on God, 
that mankind should not be justified by their own righteousness, that 
is, by the righteousness of mankind, but by the righteousness of God, 
that they should have their happiness, their strength, their wisdom, 
and their righteousness, and their all in God, that God might not 
only be the sum of their objective good or good of enjoyment, (but) 
so (that) He should be the sum of their glory or good of excellency, 
recommending them to that objective good, and so that God should 


be all in all : as there is a great disposition in man to seek his good 
in the creature, and to keep at a distance from God, and in oppo- 
sition to that universal union and dependence on God which is 
the aim of the gospel, so there is a strong inclination in men to 
acquit themselves of guilt, and trust in a mere human righteousness 
and reject the righteousness of God. That this is the reason why 
Christ's righteousness is called Oods righteousness — ^viz., to set it in 
a more clear opposition to the righteousness of men — is confirmed 
from the antithesis in Rom. i. 17, 18 — " For therein is the righteous- 
ness of God revealed from faith to faith : as it is written, The just 
shall live by faith. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven 
against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the 
truth in unrighteousness." Here the righteousness of God is set in 
opposition to the unrighteousness of men, and that is implied why 
the righteousness of One that is above men, the righteousness of God 
is necessary, because the righteousness of men or a mere human 
righteousness is insufficient, or because men have no righteousness or 
there is no human righteousness. This confirms that the righteousness 
we are justified by is called the righteousness of God — ^viz., to set it 
in the clearer opposition to the righteousness of the first covenant^ 
which is the righteousness of mankind. The righteousness that Christ 
provided is properly called the righteousness of God, in opposition 
to the human righteousness of the first covenant, on the following 
accounts — (1.) That whereas the righteousness of the first covenant 
was a mere human righteousness, this is a righteousness of a Person 
infinitely above a mere human person, it is the righteousness of a 
Divine Person ; (2.) It is from His divinity that it derives its value 
whereby it is sufficient to justify us, and so is fit to succeed in the 
room of that human righteousness which we have failed of ; it is as 
it is the righteousness of God, that it is of any avail to our justifica- 
tion ; (3.) As the righteousness of the first covenant was in man 
wrought out by man, we have this righteousness not by our works, 
but wholly and immediately of God, by His gift and imputation, when 
we have none wrought by us or inherent in us. 

The Apostle by Ood's righteousness means the righteousness that 
a Divine Person hath or is the subject of, and is given to believers ; 
and, by God*s rest, the same Apostle means the rest which God or 
Christ hath, and is also given to believers. (Heb. iv. 5.) 

72. xiv. 15 — " But if thy brother be grieved with thy meat, now 
walkest thou not charitably. Destroy not him with thy meat for 
whom Christ died."] That is as much as to say, will [you not in] 
your meat put yourself as much out of the way as to restrain your 
appetite, though you thereby expose your brother to be destroyed, for 
whom Christ put Himself so much out of the way as to die to save 
him from being destroyed ? 



73. i 27 — " But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world 
to confound the wise ; and God hath chosen the weak things to con- 
found the things which are mighty."] God, by this method, shews 
Satan that His understanding and wisdom is of infinitely further 
reach than his. All Satan's strife and contrivances is to get the 
powers and honours and riches and wisdom of the world on his side, 
and to improve them in his interest God shews that His wisdom 
stands in no need of such helps ; but He knows how to order the 
meanest and most despicable means, so and so to contrive things with 
them as to bafSe all the policy of Satan and confound all the strength 
that he has on his side ; as a king would shew his superior policy if 
he should so contrive things as without the trouble of raising armies 
and fleets, and providing arms and ammunition, or taxing his country 
and the like, should successfully carry on a war against a powerful 
enemy with mighty forces, and should baffle and confound them from 
time to time, though they lay out themselves to the utmost, by some 
very inconsiderable means and with very little ado. 

74. iv. 6 — "And these things, brethren, I have in a figure trans- 
ferred to myself and to ApoUos for your sakes ; that ye might learn 
in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of 
you be pufied up for one against another."] That is, above what I 
have just now written in the directions I have given in this Epistle, 
how ye should esteem ministers that plant and water, &c. 

75. xii. 28 — " And God hath set some in the church, first, apostles ; 
secondarily, prophets ; thirdly, teachers ; after that miracles ; then 
gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of tongues."] It being 
so that Christians, in those days, were so generally endued with extra- 
ordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost, it made the case of the Church then 
very different from what it is now. For, then, those that had these 
extraordinary gifts became pastors, in the exercise of those gifts, and 
so far as they were thereby qualified. Thus, any male member of the 
Church that had the gift of prophecy might do the part of a pastor, 
so far as the exercise of that gift extended, or in prophesying. So any 
one that had the word of wisdom or knowledge, or a spirit of revela- 
tion, or doctrine, or exhortation, or gift of tongue, might do the part 
of pastors in the exercise of these gifts. All that had these extra- 
ordinary gifts thereby became a kind of extraordinary officers in the 
exercise of those gifts, and so far as that extended ; and, accordingly, 
used to officiate in the Church. This is evident by this and chap, 
xiv., and also chap, xii to Bomans. So far as any person had a 
miraculous gift by the immediate and extraordinary influence of the 
Spirit of Christ on their minds, so far were they (as Christ, who is 
the head and fountain of all Church-office power, and therefore when 
they were in the exercise of that gift) to be submitted to by the 
Church as if Jesus Christ himself spake and acted. For it was not 
they, indeed, that spake and acted, but Christ in them. Christ, by 


giving to them such a miraculous gift, marked out the person for 
such work in the Church. But it cannot be argued from hence that 
there are so many distinct standing offices in the Church as there 
were extraordinary gifts. A spirit of government, or an extraordinary 
and miraculous qualification for the exercise of that part of the pastor's 
office which consists in judging, reproving, rebulang, admonishing, 
&c. : he that had this gift was authorised to do this part of a pastor's 
work, and the Church submitted to him herein that they had discerned 
had this gift For they had a discerning of spirits — among other gifts 
of the Spirit — among them. But this no more argues that govern- 
ment was a distinct standing office than that exhorting was; for 
some that had a gift of exhorting were in the exercise of that gift 
to do the part of a pastor and no otherwise : Rom. xii 8 — " Or he 
that exhorteth, on exhortation : he that giveth, let him do it with 
simplicity ; he that ruleth, with diligence ; he that sheweth mercy, 
with cheerfulness." 

One had an extraordinary gift of the Spirit in doctrine, another in 
counselling and exhorting, another in reproving, admonishing, and 
judging of offenders, but these are only so many parts of a pastor's 
office, and may indeed all be referred to preaching and declaring the 
word of God. All this is confirmed from Rom. xii. 6-8 — *' Having 
then gifts, differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether 
prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith ; or 
ministry, let us wait on our ministering; or he that teacheth, on 
teaching ; or he that exhorteth, on exhortation : he that giveth, let 
him do it with simplicity ; he that ruleth, with diligence ; he that 
sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness." The Spirit in Christians, which 
they had in an extraordinary manner dwelling in them, sometimes 
directed in judging of offenders. Thus the Apostle, chap. v. 4 — " In 
the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, 
in my Spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ," directs the 
Corinthians to excommunicate the incestuous in the name of His 

76. XV. 21-23 — " For since by man came death, by man came also 
the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in 
Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in his own order : 
Christ the first-fruits ; afterward they that are Christ's at hi3 coming."] 
That is, all that are in Christ The words import no more. For the 
Apostle speaks of no more being made alive in Christ than are in HinL 
The Apostle in these words has respect only to the resurrection of the 
saints, as is evident by the words that follow in the next verse — 
" But every man in his own order : Christ the first-fruits ; afterward 
they that are Christ's at His coming." Indeed this resurrection only 
can well be called a being made alive, for this only is in Scripture 
called a resurrection to life. (John v. 29 ; Dan. xii. 2.) This resur- 
rection to life is alone meant by the word resurrection elsewhere, as 
Luke XX. 35 ; Phil. iii. 11. And it is this resurrection to life the 
Apostle evidently has a special respect to in the foregoing verses ; 

nv TiaTA¥¥TT — I. COUSTHLOSS. 159 

indeed, Unoogfaom tius wiuxe c&apcv, ss Appears bj Teises li^ 

0, 23, 29-3i, ^, and all die foiloving poxt of the chapter, 
uaDj Ter. 4o, taken vith the fi)re^>tng and tolk>wing» and com* 
1 with those words we are now treating of. Therefore those that 
d argue from hence chas Christ, as the second Adam or as man's 
y, procnres the resmrtecuoa of the wicked as well as of the jusl» 
e without fonndation. 

'. XT. 29 — " Else what shall th^ do which are baptiaed for the 
, if the dead rise not at aJ I why are thej then hapdied for the 
1*^ The Apostle uses the third person ploral — "" What shall thej 
tat are baptised for the dead ?" and '* why are they then baptiaed 
be dead 1" becaose he has a special respect to those heretics them* 
s that infested the Church of Corinth, and taught that there was 
esurrection of the dead" They themselves had baptiaed for Christ, 
f Christ be yet dead, what will they do ? and if this be what they 
ire, that Christ is still dead, why should they go to be baptiied 
he dead? How inconsistently did they act with themselves in 
)r if this be the case, their baptism did them no good, '' their 
is yaiD, and they are yet unwashed from their sin&" [Compare] 
. xzL 7 — "* And brought the ass, and the colt» and put on them 
cloUies, and they set Him thereou." The plund number is 
used for the singular. See the original, and compare it with 
Dther evangelista There are instances also in the Old Tes« 
Qt of the plural number being put for the singular : '* Dried 
aighty rivers,'' whereas it was but one river — via.» Jordan, 
ab. iii. 8 — " Was the Lord displeased against the rivers ( was 
anger against the rivers ? was thy wrath against the sea, that 
didst ride upon thine horses, and thy chariots of salvatiimt*' 
another instance in the New Testament not mentioDed before, 
xxvi 8 — " But when His disciples saw it, they had indigna- 
saying. To what purpose is this waste?" When but one dia- 
ls meant — viz., Judas. Mark i. 21 — " On the sabbath- day,** 
3 Greek tov<: adfifiaavv, in the plural number, is in like man- 
)ut for the singular in Matt xii 1, xxviii. 1 ; Acts xiii. 14, 
Iso Matt xxvil 44 ; Gen. xix. 29 ; Judges xii. 7 ; Pa cxxxvil. 1 ; 

1. xxviii. 13 ; (Jen. xxL 7 ; Exod. xxxii. 31 ; 1 Sam. x. 12 ; Oen. 
29. See 1 Sam. xvii. 43 — "That thou coraest to me with 

I '" 1 Sam. xxviii. 13 ; 2 Chron. xxiv. 25 — " And for the blood 
J sons of Jehoiada the priest," when only one son is meant — 
Jecharias, whom we read of, verses 20, 21. (See Pool, Synop, 
on. xxiv. 25, where are quoted several instances from heathen 
•s.) Gen. xxi. 7 — "Who would have said this that Sarah 
i have children suck?" Gen. xlvi. 15 — "All the souls of hla 
and his daughters," when he had but one daughter — viz., Dinah, 
ilso ver. 7.) Gen. xxxvi. 25 — "The children of Anak were 
n." Gen. xlvi. 23 — " And the sons of Dan ; Hushim." 
dd here from Edwards's "Miscellaneous Notea" MS3. No. 20, 
her note on this difficult text : — 


78. 1 Cor. XV. 29. — " ' Else what shall they do which are baptized 
for the dead, if the dead rise not at all ? why are they then 
baptized for the dead ? ' What folly is it to baptize for persons 
that are dead, and are not risen again, nor are (ever) to lise ! 
What folly is it to baptize in the name of such ! but this is 
our case if there is no resurrection of the dead. We are bap- 
tized in the name of a dead man : but why are we, if He is 
not risen, not to rise ? (The Apostle) in the foregoing verses 
is speaking of the resurrection of Christ, as from the 16th 
verse — * For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised.' 
And if so, surely our baptism is also vain, as in this verse 
— ' And why stand we in jeopardy every hour,' if Christ is 
yet dead and so to continue." 
" It is no objection against supposing that by the dead here, the 
Apostle has respect to Christ, who, those that he wrote against sup- 
posed to be a dead man, that the word is in the plural number, as is 
evident by Matt. ii. 20, saying, * Arise, and take the young child and 
his mother, and go into the land of Israel : for they are dead which 
sought the young child's life.' Matt. ix. 8 — * But when the multi- 
tude saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such 
power unto men ;' also John iv. 38 — * I sent you to reap that where- 
on ye bestowed no labour : other men laboured, and ye are entered 
into their labours.' Where, by other men, Christ means Himself, as 
seems plain by the context. John iii. 1 2 — ' If I have told you earthly 
things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of 
heavenly things?' Here is * things,* when only one thing is in- 
tended. It is used in such a sense as here in John xi. 4 ; Rom. i. 
5 ; Phil. L 29 ; Acts v. 41 ; 2 Thess. i 5." 


79. iii 16 — " Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the veil 
shall be taken away."] That is, their heart, (shall turn to the Lord — 
the veil shall be taken away,) in allusion to Moses taking off the veil 
when he turned away from the people to the Lord. (Exod. xxxiv. 
3*S~35.) And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil 
on his face. But when Moses went in before the Lord to speak with 
Him, he took the veil off until he came out And he came 
out, and spake unto the children of Israel that which he was com- 
manded. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the 
skin of Moses's face shone ; and Moses put the veil upon his face 
again, until he went in to speak with Him. Moses, while absent 
from the Lord, was blinded, and his head veiled, but when he turned 
to the Lord, the veil was taken away. So it is with the hearts of men. 




80. iii. 16 — "Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises 
made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many ; but as of one, And to 
thy seed, which is Christ."] The passage in Genesis here referred 
to, is doubtless that Gen. xxiL 17, 18 — " That in blessing I will bless 
thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of 
the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore ; and thy 
seed shall possess the gate of his enemies : and in thy seed shall aU 
the nations of the earth be blessed ; because thou hast obeyed my 
voice." For the promise made to Abraham that the Apostle is here 
speaking of,' is, that all the families of the earth should be blessed, 
and this is expressly predicted of his seed, in anything that God says 
to Abraham, nowhere else but there; and the seed that is there 
spoken of, is spoken of in such a manner that it is most naturally 
understood not as a noun of multitude, or as containing a plurality, 
but only an individual, because the singular word possess, and the 
singular pronoun his, are used — " Thy seed shall possess the gate 
of his enemies," where the same seed is doubtless to be under- 
stood, as in the words immediately following — '*And in thy seed 
shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." It is not usual in 
Scripture that a singular pronoun is thus annexed to the word " seed," 
when it is a noun of multitude. Christ, the seed of Abraham, in 
whom all the families of the earth should be blessed, is spoken of 
elsewhere in the Old Testament as a single pronoun, as in Ps. IxxiL 
17 — " His name shall endure for ever : His name shall be continued 
as long as the sim ; and men shall be blessed in Him : all nations 
shall call Him blessed ;" and the word seed, as used in the Old Testa^ 
ment, is sometimes imderstood of a particular person. Thus Eve 
says, on the occasion of the birth of Seth, (Gen. iv. 25,) ** And Adam 
knew his wife again, and she bare a son, and called bis name Seth : 
for God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, 
whom Cain slew.*' So Hannah says, (1 Sam. L 11,) "And she vowed 
a vow, and said, Lord of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the 
a£9iction of thine handmaid, and' remember me, and not forget thine 
handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I 
will give him unto the Lord all the days of his life, and there shall 
no razor come upon his head." " If thou wilt give thine handmaid 
seed of men," as it is in the original, meaning a man child. 

81. iii. 14 — " That the blessing of Abraham might come on the 
Gentiles through Jesus Christ ; that we might receive the promise of 
the Spirit through faith."] The Spirit from time to time was pro- 
mised of old by the prophets, as the great privilege of the happy 
gospel days which they foretold ; but the promise was made to the 
seed or children of Israel and Abraham. See Isa. xliv. 2, 3 — " Thus 
saith the Lord that made thee, and formed thee from the womb, 
which will help thee ; Fear not, Jacob, my servant ; and thou, 
Jesamn, whom I have chosen. For I will pour water upon him 



that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground : I will pour my 
Spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine oflTspring/' Now 
the prophet puts the Spirit and the blessing together, as the Apostle 
does, in this verse. Again, in that great promise of the Spirit^ Joel 
ii 28; Isa. lix. 20, 21. So, from time to time, the great promises of 
the Spirit, in other places in the prophets, are to God's people Israel 
or Israel's and Abraham's posterity. Hence, a being endowed by the 
Spirit is, by the Apostle, spoken of as evidently being of the sons of 
God. Rom. viiL 14 — " For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, 
they are the sons of God ;" and of Abraham, in this chapter. 

82. iv. 21-23 — " Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do 
ye not hear the law ? For it is written, that Abraham had two sons; 
the one by a bond maid, the other by a free woman. But he who 
was of the bond woman was bom after the flesh ; but he of the free 
woman was by promise.'*] These verses might be paraphrased thus, 
by which the Apostle's reasoning in them will be understood — " Is 
God's giving of the Law to the children, therefore, any way contraiy 
to or inconsistent with the constitution He had before established 
with Abraham, that was by a free promise ? No ; by no meana 
Indeed if the Law that had been given at Mount Sinai could have 
given life, so that justifying the children of Israel could have been 
the real design of it, the children of Abraham would have been jus- 
tified that way, and it would have been inconsistent with the pre- 
ceding constitution of Abraham. But this is not the case, for the 
design of the Law was not to justify the children of Israel, but, on 
the contrary, to conclude them under, to prepare them by faith to 
receive, the promise made to Abraham, &c., and it was not a consti- 
tution inconsistent with the preceding gracious constitution with 
Abraham, but subordinate to it." 

83. V. 17 — " For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit 
against the flesh : and these are contrary the one to the other ; so 
that ye cannot do the things that ye would."] By this, with the con- 
text, it seems that grace in the heart is no other than the Spirit of 
God dwelling in the heart, and becoming a principle of life and action 
there, acting and exalting its nature in the exercise of men's faculties. 
(1.) By the Spirit here spoken of, that lusteth against the flesh, seems 
plainly to be meant grace in the heart, or the gracious nature in man 
or man's regenerated and renewed part, which is opposite to the 
flesh or to the corrupt part. For that by the flesh is meant the cor- 
rupt nature, is most evident by verses 19-21, and Romans vii. 5-18. 
By the Spirit, therefore, is doubtless meant the spiritual or gracious 
nature that is begun in man in his regeneration. Doubtless by the 
flesh and Spirit, that the Apostle says lust one against another, he 
means the same as by the " law of the members and law of the 
mind," that he says war one against another, in the VIP^ of his Epistle 
to the Romans, at the 23d verse — " But I see another law in my 
members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into 
captivity to the law of sin which is in my members ;" which is further 
evident in that the Apostle there, in the continuation of the discourse 


of the same things, he uses the very terras of *' flesh and Spirit " so 
much after the same manner as in this context, as may be seen by 
comparison, that it is most evident that he means the very same 
thing. (2.) That the Spirit spoken of here, and in other parallel texts, 
as signifying the gracious or holy nature in the regenerate, is the 
Spirit of God, seems plain by the context For no doubt but the 
same is meant by the Spirit here, as in verses 16, 18-25 ; but is more 
clearly evident by the VIII"* chapter of Romans, where the Apostle 
is spring of " flesh and Spirit " in like manner as here, and as we 
have shewn already by " flesh and Spirit " he there intends the cor- 
rupt and the gracious nature. And it is evident that the Spirit there 
spoken of is the Spirit of God or Christ, by the 9th, lOth, 11th verses, 
and by the 13th and 14th verses. Those extraordinary principles of 
operation that Christians in those days were endued with, were called 
the spirit of the persons that had them, because they were nothing but 
the Spirit of God dwelling in them, and becoming a principle in them 
of such a sort of operation. (See Note on 1 Cor. xiv. 32.) So the 
principle of grace or gracious nature that all Chiistians have, is 
called the Spirit, because it is nothing but the Spirit of God dwelling 
in them, and becoming in them a principle of gracious and holy exer- 
cises. For the better understanding why the corrupt nature and the 
gracious or regenerate nature are caUed " flesh and Spirit," it is to be 
considered that man, as he was first created, was endued with two 
kinds of principles, natural and spiritual. By natural principles, I 
mean the principles of human nature, as human nature is in this 
world — that is, in its animal state, or that belonging to the nature of 
man as man, or that belonging to his humanity,or that naturally and 
necessarily flow from the inner human nature. Such is a man's love to 
his own honour, love of his own pleasure, the natural appetites that he 
has by means of the body, &c. His spiritual principles were his 
love to God, and his relish of Divine beauties and enjoyments, &c. 
These may be called supernatural, because they are no part of human 
nature. They do not belong to the nature of man as man, nor do 
they naturally and necessarily flow from the faculties and properties 
of that nature. Man can be man without them ; they did not flow 
from anything in the human nature, but from the Spirit of God 
dwelling in man, and exerting itself by man's faculties as a principle 
of action. So that man's entire nature, in his primitive state, was 
constituted of " flesh and spirit," that part of his entire nature that 
consists in the principles of the mere human nature, or that is the 
human nature in its perfect animal state, simply and absolutely con- 
sidered, is flesh. The human nature or humanity, in that animal 
state in which it is in this world, is often called flesh in Scripture — 
Gen. vi 12; Ps. Ixv. 2; Isa. xl. 5, 6, and xlix 26, and kvi. 16; 
Matt. xxiv. 22 ; John i. 14. The human nature, as it is after the 
resurrection, is not called flesh, being then no longer in its animal 
state : 1 Cor. xv. 50— -"Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood 
cannot inherit the kingdom of God ; neither doth corniption inherit 
incorruption." That spiritual nature which he had, consisting in 


those holy principles that he had, was quite a distinct thing, and it 
was only the Spirit of God dwelling in man, and exerting its nature 
by man's faculties. Man's natural principles, or those principles of 
humanity that man had, were in his primitive state very good ; be- 
cause that man's spiritual principles that he had were to that degree 
as the Spirit dwelt and acted in him to that degree, that the natural 
principles were entirely subordinate to them. Then the flesh did 
not lust against the Spirit. These two natures, or two sorts of prin- 
ciples, were, by an entire, an absolut6 subordination of one to the 
other, united, so as to be, as it were, one nature. The spiritual 
principles bare absolute rule, and therefore man was then wholly 
spiritual, because he lived in the Spirit, and walked wholly in the 
Spirit, and the flesh was only a servant to the Spirit. But when 
man fell, then the Spirit of God left him, and so all his spiritual 
nature or spiritual principles ; and then only the flesh was left, or 
merely the principle of human nature in its animal state. They 
were now left alone, without spiritual principles to govern and direct 
them, so that man became wholly carnal, and so wholly corrupt 
For the principles of human nature, when alone and left to them- 
selves, are principles of corruption, and there are no other principles 
of corruption in man but these. Corrupt nature is nothing else but 
the principle of human nature in its animal state, or the flesh (as it 
is called in Scripture) left to itself, or not subordinated to spiritual 
principles; and so far as it is nnsubordinate, so far is it corrupt. 
When a man is regenerate, then again the Spirit is restored to him, 
and spiritual principles in a degree; so then again there is "flesh 
and spirit." But so little of the Spirit is given, that the flesh, or 
principles of human nature, are not absolutely and perfectly subject 
and subordinate, so that the flesh, or the principles of human nature, 
lust against the Spirit. And this is the reason that these two natures 
in the saints, the corrupt nature, and the gracious or regenerate 
nature, are called " flesh and Spirit," — viz., because the corrupt nature 
is only the principles of the human nature, (which is often in Scrip- 
ture called flesh,) yet in great measure not subordinated to spiritual 
principles. And the regenerate, or gracious nature, is only the Spirit 
of God dwelling in the heart, and acting and exerting His own nature 
by man's faculties. There are two things that do confirm that, by 
the "flesh" in this text and parallel places, is meant human nature 
left in a measure to itself The first is, that the natural man and the 
carnal man are evidently synonymous in Scripture. (1 Cor. ii 14, 15.) 
There we find natural and spiritual opposed one to another. " The 
natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God." " But 
he that is spiritual judgeth all things ; " and then in the next verse 
but one — viz., in the first verse of the third chapter — we find carnal and 
spiritual in like manner opposed, and as signifying the same — "And 
I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto 
carnal, even as unto babes in Christ ; " where it is most evident that, 
by carnal and spiiitual, he means the same as he did before by 
natural and spiritual. 1 would argue thus from it, that if natural 


and carnal are synonymous, then nature and flesh are synonymous. 
A natural man is one that has only the principles of human nature ; 
the word y^-vx^co^ in the original seems to hold forth thus much, and 
this is the carnal man. And then, secondly, which strengthens this, 
and is strengthened by it, is that the Apostle in the same context 
explains what he means by carnal — viz., walking as men, or, as it is 
in the original, according to man. (Chap, iii 3,) " Are ye not carnal, 
and walk according to man ? " or according to the humanity, or the 
principles of the human nature in its animal state as the governing 
principles. To the same purpose is that in 1 Pet. iv. 2 — " That he 
no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of 
men, but to the will of God.'* (See note in the place.) Corruption of 
heart is called " flesh " in Scripture, not chiefly because the corruption 
of man's nature in great part consists in the inordinancy of bodily 
appetites, as appears, because the Apostle in Col. ii 18 does call the 
mind fleshly, particularly on account of its being corrupted with the 
other sort of lusts — viz., the lusts of the mind intruding into those 
things that he hath not seen, vainly pufled up by his fleshly mind. 
It is therefore not so much on this account that corruption is called 
flesh, as because it is from human nature left to itself. The Scrip- 
ture does expressly explain itself as to the meaning of the word 
natural — that it is being destitute of the Spirit of God, and so 
having nothing above human nature, (Jude 19) — "sensual, having not 
the Spirit." The word in the original is the same that is translated 
natural in other places. That, by flesh or fleshly, as the words are 
used in the New Testament, as opposite to Spirit and spiritual, 
respect is not only had to those lusts or appetites that are appetites 
of the body or desires of the objects of the external senses, is evi- 
dent, because these terms are applied to pride, the most special of 
all lusts. Col. ii 18 — ** Vainly pufied up by his fleshly mind." So 
1 Cor. iii. 8, 4 — " For ye are yet carnal : for whereas there is among 
you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as 
men? For while one saith, I am of Paul; and another, I am of 
ApoUos; are ye not carnal?" — CoroU. 1. Hence we may learn 
Christ's meaning in what He says to Nicodemus, John iii. 6 — " That 
which is bom of the flesh is flesh ; and that which is bom of the 
Spirit is spirit" There are then two natures in man — the flesh, or 
the mere human nature, and the spiritual nature. The aim of Christ 
is to inform which nature is of the first generation, and which of the 
second. By ** flesh " Christ does not mean only the body, for there 
is more bom by the first generation than that. — Coroll. 2. Hence 
we may learn what is the meaning of the word spiritual as it is often 
used in the New Testament. It is not intended in contradistinction 
from corporeal ; but things are said to be spiritual as relating to the 
Spirit of God, especially as dwelling in the hearts of the saints. 
Thus the godly man is called spiritual because he has the Spirit of 
God dwelling in him, and acting by his faculties, as is evident by 
1 Cor. XV. compared with the context, beginning with the tenth 
verse. (See "Mastricht Theologia de Regeneratione," p. 661, a.) — 



Coroll. 3. Hence we may learn in what sense the body at the resur- 
rection is said to be a spiritual body. 1 Cor. xv. 44! — ** It is sown a 
natural body ; it is raised a spiritusd body. There is a natural body, 
and there is a spiritual body ;" not S[)iritual in opposition to material 
or corporeal — for a spiritual body in that sense would be a contra- 
diction — but spiritual in this sense that has been mentioned in 
coroll. 2 — not in opposition to corporeal, but to natural or animal 
" It is sown a natural body ; it is raised a spiritual body." It is sown 
with animal faculties and appetites suited to the needs and purposes 
of the animal, frail, corruptible nature. But when it shall be raised 
again, it shall be raised withoat these faculties and appetites ; but all 
the faculties and properties that it shall be endowed with shall be 
directly suited and subservient to the purposes of the Spirit, of His 
gracious principle, or of that Divine and holy nature which Gk)d hath 
imparted to His saints. It is evident that the body in its present 
state is called a natural body, and in its future a spiritual body, with 
relation to that animal nature that we derive from the first Adam, 
and that quickening Spirit, or holy and spiritual nature, that we 
derive from the second Adam, by the following verse: — "But if ye 
be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law." 


84. ii. 6 — "And hath raised us up together, and made us sit 
together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus.''] The meaning is not, 
hath made us sit together with one another, but together with Christ ; 
as it is said in the foregoing verse, " He hath quickened us together 
with Christ" as the Apostle goes on in this verse, " He hath raised us 
up together with Him, and hath made us sit together with Him in 
heavenly places." This is more plain by looking at these two verses 
as in the original, avve^(ooiroir}a'e r^ 'xpurr^ — kcu, . . . ^Iff<rov, 
It is here evident that the aw with which each verb is compounded 
has respect to the same thing, and that each one denotes the com- 
munion the saints have with Christ, in being quickened and also 
raised up and set in heavenly places. The import of the original 
would perhaps have been more naturally suggested to us if the trans- 
lation had been thus, " He hath jointly quickened with Christ, and 
jointly raised us up, and jointly set us in heavenly places in Christ ; " 
and when, as in the last cause, there is added '* in Christ Jesus," it is 
to denote that the saints ascend into heaven, and reign in glory there 
with Him, and in Him, which more fully expresses the manner in 
which the saints have communion with Christ in His ascension to 
heaven, and that dignity and glory that He possesses there, as sitting 
with Him on His throne. 

85. ii 12 — " That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens 
from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants 


of promise, having no hope, and without Ood in the world."] The 
first of these things here mentioned is the foundation of all the rest 
that follow. A being without Christ is the foundation of being aliens 
from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenant 
of promise, having no hope. And the last thing here mentioned is 
the sum of all the rest. A being without God in the world is the 
sum of all evil A being without Christ, and aliens from the com- 
monwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenant of promise, and 
without hope, are all summed up in being without God in the world. 

86. V. 18 — " And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess ; but 
be filled with the Spirit."] The Apostle here seems to have reference 
to that in Cant. v. 1 — " 1 am come into my garden, my sister, my 
spouse : I have gathered my myrrh with my spice ; I have eaten my 
honeycomb with my honey ; I have drunk my wine with my milk ; 
eat, friends ; drink, yea, drink abundantly, beloved." He was 
afraid that they would misunderstand that as a liberty to Christ's 
beloved ones to be drunk with wine ; but he explains the meaning 
of it to them. — CorolL Hence we may learn the authority of that book 
of Canticles. 


87. iv. 8 — " Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, what- 
soever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever 
things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are 
of good report ; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, 
think on these things.*'] The Apostle in the immediately preceding 
verses had told them what they should not exercise their thoughts 
about — viz., outward things, things pertaining to their worldly 
interests : ver. 6 — " Be careful for nothing ; but in every thing 
by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests 
be made known unto God." Now he tells them what they should 
think about — what should be the objects of the greatest exercise of 
their thoughtfulness and care. 


88. ii 16 — "Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in 
drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the 
sabbath days."] This does not preclude the Sabbath. The word 
is ioprq " a feast." 

89. ii. 20 — " Wherefore, if ye be dead with Christ from the rudi- 
ments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject 
to ordinances?"] This world is not the contrary of the Church. 


Christ, after He rose from the dead, was no longer a proper inhabit- 
ant of this world, and therefore was no longer subject to the . cere- 
monial Law. So is the Church which is mystical and dead, and 
risen with Christ. Christ is the representative of the Church, and 
therefore the Church has communion with Him in this alteration of 
His state. 

90. ill. 9 — " Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off 
the old man with his deeds."] The stops seem here to be wrong 
made, which make it more difficult to understand the sense. The 
stop that is made at end of the preceding verse ought rather to have 
been at the end of these words, *' lie not one to another." For this 
is one of those disuniting sins mentioned, of which the words in this 
and the two next verses are mentioned as a common reason why we 
should avoid them — viz., because in the new man the disuniting 
distinctions by which the carnal world is divided are abolished, and 
Christ Ls all in all. 

91. iii. 17 — "And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in 
the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father 
by Him." Question, Why must we do whatsoever we do in the 
name of Christ? Answer, Because nothing can be acceptable to 
God as from us, but in and through Christ, as Heb. xiii. 21, and 1 
Peter ii. 5. Therefore when we come to God to do anything God- 
ward we must always bring Christ with us, that what we do may be 
accepted — that is, we must have a sense of our unworthiness of 
acceptance in ourselves, and must hope for acceptance on His ac- 
count. Question, But why can't what we do be accepted but by 
Christ ? Answer, (L) We are infinitely ill-deserving creatures, and 
all our good is nothing when put in the scales with our unworthiness ; 
and then (2.) we are condemned creatures, and it is against the Law 
that anything should be accepted from us as we are in ourselves. 
(3.) The third reason why nothing that we do can be accepted but by 
Christ is, because there is nothing that we do but what is in a sense 
corrupt, even the holy actions and gracious exercises of the godly are 
so. They are not merely attended with the exercises of corruption 
that precede and follow them and are nursed with them, but they 
are themselves corrupt. Take them as they are in their dimensions 
and manner of exerting them, even the exercises of grace in a godly 
man are manifestations and expressions of corruption ; the act most 
simply and absolutely considered is good, but consider it in its 
measure and the manner of exertion, and it is an expression of cor- 
ruption. All the godly man's acts of love are defectively corrupt or 
sinfully defective. There is that defect in them that may be called 
the corruption of them. That defect is properly sin, an expression 
of corruption, and what tends to provoke the just anger of God ; not 
because the exercise of love is not proportionable or equal to God's 
loveliness or to His kindness, but because it is so very disproportion- 
ate to the occasion that is given for the exercise of love, considering 
God's loveliness and the manifestation that is made of it, or the mani- 
festation and exercise of His kindness and man's capacity, and the ,^ 


adyantages to be sensible of it, and the like, together. A negative 
expression of corruption may be as truly sin, and as truly odious, 
and as just cause of provocation, as a positive. Thus, if a man, a 
worthy and excellent person, should, from mere generosity and good- 
ness, exceedingly lay out himself, and should with great expense and 
suffering save another s life or redeem him from some extreme 
calamity, and when he had done all, that other persons should never 
thank him for it or express the least gratitude any way, this would 
be a negative expression of his ingratitude and baseness ; but it is 
equivalent to an act of ingratitude or a base unworthy spirit, and is 
as truly an expression of it, and brings as much blame, as if he by 
some positive act had much injured another person, and as it would 
have been in a lesser degree if gratitude was but very small, bearing 
no proportion to the benefit and obligation, or if for so great and 
extraordinary a kindness he had expressed no more gratitude than 
would have been becoming towards a person that had only given him 
a sixpence, or bad done him some such small kindness. If he had 
come to his benefactors to express his gratitude, and had done after 
this manner, he might truly be said to have acted basely, unworthily, 
and odiously ; he would have shewn a most ungrateful spirit, and his 
doing after such a manner would be justly abhorred by all ; and yet 
the gratitude in that little that there was of it, and, so far as it went, 
was good, and so it is with respect to our exercises of love and 
gratitude to Gh>d. They are defectively corrupt and sinful, and 
might justly be odious and provoking to Him, taken as they are, 
upon the like account, and would be so, were it not that the sin and 
corruption of them is hid by Christ. God, as it were, don't see the 
odiousness and iniquity of them, and so accepts them for Christ's 
sake, which out of Him would be worthy of His detestation. — CoroU. 
Hence the saints may be said to be rewarded for their good works 
for Christ's sake, and not for the excellency of their works in them- 
selves considered. For, as we have shewn, as they are in themselves, 
they are odious, and might be just cause of provocation. They 
are not rewardable, therefore, as they are in themselves ; they are 
accepted through Christ, and it is therefore for Christ's sake that 
they are rewarded. For God's rewarding them is a testimony of 
His acceptanca They are rewarded for Christ's sake in this sense 
— viz., that it is for His sake that God looks upon them as fit to be 
accepted and rewarded. 



92. iil 13 — " To the end he may stablish your hearts unblame- 
able in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of our 


Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints."] This and these other paral- 
lel texts — ver. 14 of chap, iv., and Jude 14 — do plainly shew that 
the saints are in heaven with Christ before the resurrection. 


93. i 9 — *' Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous 
man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for 
sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers 
of mothers, for manslayers."] This may be given as a reason why the 
precepts of the moral Law were not expressed by God to our [first] 
parents as well as that positive precept of not eating the forbidden 
fruit. There is not that need of God expressly and particularly for- 
bidding these and other immoralities to one that is perfectly righteous 
in his nature, either for the making known his obligation, or for the 
enforcing it, as to one that is of corrupt nature. 

God, in His infinite wisdom, never would have seen cause expressly 
to reveal the moral Law had it not been for transgressions, or man's 
disposition to sin. 

94. L 19 — " Holding faith, and a good conscience ; which some 
having put away, concerning faith have made shipwreck."] It seems 
that it should rather have been rendered the Faith — that is, concern- 
ing the doctrine of the Gospel ; for in the original it is irepl rf/v 
irZmv, and this last agrees with the metaphor of making shipwreck. 
For herein the gospel, or doctrine of faith, is represented as a trea- 
sure committed to their care as a treasure is committed into a ship, 
and so to the care of the master, to be carried safe to such a port. 
But they, through their unskilfulness and carelessness, have made 
shipwreck of it and lost it: or if by faith is meant an inward 
qualification, doubtless they made shipwreck of it, as Simon Magus 
did, of whom we are told that he believed when others believed, but 
never had a true faith ; for it is plain by what the Apostle Peter says, 
he then remained in the gall of bitterness and bond of iniquity ; and it 
must be such a faith as the stony-ground hearers had, who, at the same 
time that they believed, had no root in themselves, and so were not 
true saints ; and such a faith as those had of whom we are told that 
they believed on Christ, but Christ did not commit Himself to them, 
for He knew what was in man ; He knew that what was in them 
was not true, was not to be depended upon. 

95. V. 11 — "But the younger widows refuse: for when they 
have begun to wax wanton against Christ, they will marry."] It ap- 
pears probable from ver. 1 5, '* For some are already turned aside after 
Satan," that the Apostle here has in his eye some particular instance 
of a strange behaviour of some young widows that had been taken ^ 
into the number ; a regard to which instances very much governs his 
language, as much as to say. If you take in young widows, no wonder 




if they, through a wanton disposition, behave themselves as those 
which you have received of the sort No wonder if they gad about 
from house to house, grow idle, trifling busybodies, and are wanton 
in their behaviour, and marry in a dishonourable manner such as 
they have first been wanton with. It is probable that in the in- 
stances which the Apostle had respect to, or one of them at least, a 
young widow that had been taken into the number, through her 
wantonness, had yielded to the enticements of a heathen man, and 
finally married him, which occasions such a manner of expression as 
" waxing wanton against Christ," and cast off their first faith. 
When the Apostle says, "For when they have begun," &c., the ex- 
pression imparts no more than this : — There will be danger of such 
things happening in young widows. 

96. V. 17 — " Let the elders that rule well, be counted worthy of 
double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doc- 
trine."] What the Apostle probably had in view when he used the 
expression of " double honour " to the elder, was the law that gave 
a double portion to the elder brother. 

97. vL 19 — " Lajring up in store for themselves a good foundation 
against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life."] 
A most beautiful expression for the purpose that the Apostle intended 
it, naturally intimating that they that were rich had much to beat 
them back and to oppose and hinder their coming at so glorious a 
prize. The Apostle therefore would have them use those means he 
here directs to, as an earnest to obtain it, notwithstanding the pe- 
culiar difficulties that were in the way of rich men's obtaining it, if 
by any means they might violently press through the opposition and 
reach forward and lay bold of it. The Apostle probably had in his 
eye what Christ said concerning the difficulty of rich men's obtaining 
eternal life, and might possibly have some reference to what he him- 
self had said just before. (Verses 9, 10,) " But they that will be rich 
fall into temptation, and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful 
lasts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. For the love 
of money is the root of all evil ; which while some coveted after, 
they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with 
many sorrows." The original word seems to have very much the 
same force as our English word '* lay hold," naturally intimating op- 
position to the obtaining a thing, or danger of missing it. So in 
Matt. xiv. 30, 31, where we read that when Peter was sinking in the 
tempestuous sea, Jesus stretched forth His hand and caught him. 
The word in the original is the same. See also how he uses the same 
word, (ver. 12,) where the Apostle speaks of fighting the way through 
to reach this prize, and seems to allude to those that strove for the 
prize in the Olympic Games. 




98. L 6 — " And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into 
the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him."] 
The Apostle has probably here some reference to the XCVIP** Psalm, 
where we have a prophecy of the Messiah's coming into the world, 
on which occasion it is said, ver. 7, " Worship Him all ye gods." 
But the fact, the event (in which that prophecy was fulfilled) was 
what was at Christ's birth, that we have some intimation of in the 
11^ chap, of Luke, where we are told that on that occasion there 
appeared a multitude of the heavenly hosts singing — " Glory to God in 
the highest, and on earth peace, goodwill toward men." At that time 
when the Son of God appeared a poor little infant in a stable and 
manger, when God said, " Let all the angels of God worship Him," 
and then the angels had a great trial of their obedience, greater than 
ever they had before. 

99. ii. 5 — ** For unto the angels hath He not put in subjection the 
world to come, whereof we speat"] The renewed state of things 
brought to pass by Christ, called the new heavens and the new earth, 
is here called the world to come, although already come in its begin- 
nings. Even as the blessings of Christ's kingdom and of this new 
creation are called good " things to come," arfoSa ^XKjovra, (Heb. 
ix. 11, and chap. x. 1.) Though they were already come in their be- 
ginnings, note that the time when Christ came, and offered up Himself 
and ascended into heaven, is called the end of the world, (Heb. ix. 26,) 
<nnneKeCa r&v auovcov, the end of ages, the perishing as it were of 
the old world. So the kingdom of heaven, the new state of things 
that followed, is called the world to come, the new world, the future 
or succeeding ages. 

100. iii. 1 — '* Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly 
calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ 
Jesus."] Not only the Apostle's brethren, but Christ's brethren, as 
in verses 11, 17, of chap, il — "Partakers of the heavenly calling." 
Not only partakers with the Apostle and partakers one with another, 
but partakers with Christ in His heavenly calling as an High Priest. 
" For no man taketh this honour to himself but he that is called of 
God as was Aaron." Christians are spoken of in chap. ii. 17 as the 
brethren of Him who is a merciful and faithful High Priest ; and 
they are not only so, but they are also partakers of His heavenly 
calling as High Ptiest. For they also are priests unto God through 
Him, and as united with Him. (1 Pet. ii. 4, 5, and v. 9 ; so Rev. i. 6, 
and V. 10; and Exod. xix. 5, 6 ; Isa. Ixi. 6.) They are priests with 
Christ as they are partakers of His heavenly calling and His holy 
vocation, 1 John ii. 20 — " But ye have an unction from the Holy One, 
and ye know all things." Believers are followers with Christ in His 
anointing, as in chap. i. of this epistle, ver. 9 — " Thou hast loved right- 
eousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath 


anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellowa" They are 
partakers with Him in His unction, as the precious ointment that 
was poured on Aaron's head ran down to the skirts of his garment 
(Ps. exxxiii. 2.) 

101. iv. 4-6 — " For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day 
on this wise, And God did rest the seventh day from all his works. 
And in this place again. If they shall enter into my rest. Seeing 
therefore it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to 
whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief."] 
That when the Apostle speaks of them who have tasted of the hea- 
venly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, he has a 
special respect to them that had received the extraordinary gifts of 
the Holy Ghost, is evident from this, that the Apostle here has respect 
to the same persons that he speaks of in ver. 2 ; but there he is speak- 
ing of them that had been the subjects of the laying on of hands, 
which was a rite used in conferring the Holy Ghost in His extra- 
ordinary gifts. 

102. vi. 8 — " But that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, 
and is nigh unto cursing ; whose end is to be burned."] The malice 
of those apostates and persecutors who committed the unpardonable 
sin, is with special fitness compared to briers and thoma (See Cant 
ii 2; Ezek. xxviii. 24; Mic. viii. 4; Ez. ii. 6; Isa. x. 17; 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 6, 7.) 

104. vL 11 — "And we desire that every one of you do shew the 
same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end."] Here 
the words "to the end" are not to be joined with the immediately 
preceding words, " the full assurance of hope," but with those going 
before, " shew the same diligence." The Apostle, in the preceding 
verse, had observed the labour and diligence which had appeared in 
them. He here exhorts that this be continued unto the end, in order 
to the full assurance of hope. The Apostle is still pursuing the advice 
he began the chapter with, to avoid apostasy and to go on to perfection. 

105. ix. 14 — " How much more shall the blood of Christ, who 
through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to Gk)d, purge 
your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God."] The 
Apostle is probably led, when speaking of sins in this place, to make 
use of the application " dead" works, from allusion to pollutions by 
dead bodies, to the cleansing from which the ashes of the heifer spoken 
of in the preceding verse were appropriated. (See Num. xiv.) 

106. ix. 26 — " For then must He often have suffered since the 
foundation of the world : but now once, in the end of the world, hath 
He appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself."] At the 
end of the world — at the conclusion of the ages. So a-vvreXela t&v 
auovcDv is most exactly rendered, meaning the last of the dispensations 
God ever intended to give mankind. 

107. X. 1-3 — " For the law having a shadow of good things to 
come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those 
sacrifices, which they offered year by year continually, make the Comers 
thereunto perfect ; for then would they not have ceased to be 


offered ? because that the worshippers once purged should have had 
no more conscience of sins. But in those sacrifices there is a remem- 
brance again made of sins every year."] Concerning the argument 
for the insuflSciency of the ancient sacrifices from their being often 
ofiered. The wise man argues the vanity of all earthly enjoyments, 
and that temporal food is not man's true good from that, that the 
occasions for eating still return. If a roan eats, yet the need of eat- 
ing returns, satisfaction is not obtained ; his need and his appetite 
remains, the demands of nature are not answered so but that still it 
continues demanding, so that after a man has repeated his eating 
from day to day many years, yet he needs and his nature craves as 
much as when he first came into the world, (Eccles. vL 7, and also 
i 3-9) — ** All the labour of man is for his mouth, yet the appetite or 
(as it is in the original) the soul is not filled," with the context The 
argument is of the same sort with that which the Apostle here makes 
use of, to shew the vanity of the ancient sacrifices, and their insuf- 
ficiency to answer the end of a true atonement, that they did not 
satisfy, because the demand of justice still remained, and its appetite 
returned, as in the other case the demands of nature. They were 
never able to make the comers thereto perfect : the occasion of offer- 
ing them returned autumnally ; and therefore if Solomon's argument 
be good, the Apostle's is certainly good also. 

108. xi. 37 — " They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were 
tempted, were slain with the sword : they wandered about in sheep- 
skins and goatskins ; being destitute, afflicted, tomxented."] " They 
were tempted," that is, in the midst of their torments tneir cruel 
persecutors added earnest solicitations, persuasions, fair-tempting 
promises, and the like, if they would desert the cause they suffered 
for, which was verified in Antiochus Epiphanes. 


109. ii. 8 — " If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scrip- 
ture. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well."] 
Probably so called because the law of love was by way of specialty 
the law of Christ the King of the Church. (See Gal. vL 2 ; John 
xiil 34, and xv. 12 ; 1 John iv. 21.) 

1 10. iv. 14 — " Whereas ye know not what shall be on the morrow : 
for what is your life? It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a 
little time, and then vanisheth away.''] Here seems to be an allusion 
to that vapour in the breath, (that is as it were man's life,) sometimes 
while the breath is warm ; but as soon as it is cool, vanishes away as 
it were in a moment. (See Job viL 7, and Ps. Ixxviii. 39.) 



111. L 4-^" To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and 
that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you."] This is pro- 
bably here mentioned because those that the Apostle wrote this 
epistle to were strangers scattered abroad, ver. 1, out of their own 
land — the land of Canaan, not possessing that earthly inheritance of 
old promised to Israel, and cast out by their brethren according to 
the flesh for being Christians. (See Dr Goodwin's Works, vol i, p. 44.) 


112. i. 28 — "Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scrip- 
ture is of any private interpretation."] That is, it is not men's 
speaking their own sense of things or interpreting their own minds, 
but the mind of Ood. That which is their sense is not always the 
sense or interpretaion of Scripture. But that which was the sense 
of the Holy Ghost, the prophets did not always perceive the meaning 
of in their prophecies. 


113. iii. 3 — " And every man that hath this hope in Him purifieth 
himself, even as He is pure."] That is, in God or in Christ, the 
Person spoken of in the foregoing words hraintp. The preposition 
en-l expresses, not the relation of hope to the subject of it, but to its 
object, as in many places of the New Testament. It signifies the 
relation of faith, trust, and hope to this object, as Matt, xxvii. 43 — 
" He trusted in God ;" Luke xi. 22—" Wherein he trusted ;" xviiL 
9 — *• Trusted in themselves ;" Luke xxiv. 25 — " To believe all the 
prophets," &c. ; Acts ix. 42 — " Many believed in the Lord ;" xi. 17 
— " Who believed in the Lord ;" Acts xvi. 31—" Believe in the Lord 
Jesus ;" Rom. iv. 24 — "Believe in Him ;" Rom. ix. 33— " Believeth 
in Him;" x. 11— "Believeth in Him;" 13— "In Him shall the 
Gentiles hope ; " 2 Cor. i. 9 — " Should not trust in ourselves, but in 
God;" ii. 3— "Confidence in you all;" 1 Tim. i. 16— "Believe on 
Him;" iv. 16— "Hoped in the living God;" v. 5— "Hoped in 
God ;" vi. 17 — ** Hope in uncertain riches ;" Heb. ii. 13 — "Trusting 
in Him;" vi 1— "Of faith in God;" 1 Peter ii. 6— "He that be- 
lieveth in Him ;" iii 5 — "Hoped in God." 

114. iii. 6 — "Whosoever abideth in Him sinneth not: whosoever 
sinneth hath not seen Him neither known Him."] See 2 Sam. xii. 


18 — " For thou didst it secretly : but I will do this thing before all 
Israel, and before the sun." By this it appears that though David 
was so holy a man, a man after God's own heart, yet his deed was 
properly called sin ; yea, it was mortal sin — sin that deserved death, 
as is implied. See also the terms used Ps. li 1-5, 10, 16. So Job 
was a man that God gloried in, — that was a perfect and an upright 
man, one that feared God and eschewed evil ; or which is the same 
thing, one that sinned not. He held fast his integrity to the end and 
eschewed evil, and made good God's boast of (his) eschewing evil 
under his temptations. And yet Elihu, who spoke by inspiration, 
was in God's stead, and the forerunner of God^ and did not answer as 
his three friends did, but spoke that which was rights and was not 
reproved by God, charges him with sinning, Job xxxiv. 37 — ** For he 
addeth rebellion unto his sin ; he clappeth his hands among us, and 
multiplieth his words against God." See also note on 2 Chron. xxxiL 
31. It won't do to go about to solve the argument from these in- 
stances with the doctrine of falling from grace. This verse that we 
are now upon will not allow of that, (see note on latter part of the 
verse,) and if any should imagine that the kind of operation on the 
hearts of the saints in the New Testament which the Apostle John 
calls a " being born again," is something peculiar to them, and what 
Gk)d's people, under the Old Testament, were not the subjects of, and 
that regeneration is a thing peculiar to New Testament times, 
(though that may easily be disproved — (for) the Old Testament 
saints were circumcised in heart, and had right spirits renewed in 
them, &c., and therefore were born again,) yet we have a remark- 
able instance in one that was said to have followed Christ in the 
regeneration. — (See Matt. xix. 27, 28) — viz., Peter, who denied 
his Lord with oaths and curses. He was one that had been bom 
again, and therefore was one of them that Christ called little children, 
and one that He spoke of : Matt, xviii. G — *'But whoso shall offend 
one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him 
that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were 
drowned in the depth of the sea;" whom He called so on the account 
of their new birth, as it is manifest by the foregoing words, particu- 
larly the third verse of the chapter : — " Verily I say unto you. Except 
ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into 
the kingdom of heaven," which is parallel with what Christ says to 
Nicodemus : "Verily, I say unto you. Except a man be born of water 
and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." The 
Apostle John says, in the latter part of this verse, " Whosoever hath 
not seen Him, nor known Him," but Peter had seen and known his 
Lord, and therefore Christ says to him, " Blessed art thou, Simon 
Barjona, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my 
Father which is in heaven ;" and Christ in His prayer in the XVIP** 
of John speaks of him with others of His disciples expressly as hav- 
ing seen and known Him : ver. 8 — " And this is life eternal, that they 
might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast 
senV' and then says in the 6th to 8th verses, "I have manifested Thy 


name unto the men which Thou gavest Me out of the world : Thine 
they were, and Thou gavest them Me ; and they have kept Thy word. 
Now they have known that all things, whatsoever Thou hast given 
Me are of Thee : for I have given unto them the words which Thou 
gavest Me ; and they have received them, and have known surely 
that I came out from Thee, and they have believed that Thou didst 
send Me." These last words then, by what the Apostle John himself 
says in this epistle, [shew] that Peter was bom of Gk)d : chap. v. 1 — 
" Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ is bom of God : and 
every one that loveth Him that begat, loveth him also that is begotten 
of him." So Eccles. vii. 28 ; 1 Kings viii. 46. So 2 Chron. vi. 36 ; 
Prov. XX. 9 ; John ix. 80, 31, and ver. 20, and ver. 2, 3 ; Ps. xix. 12, 
and cxxx. 3. There is sin in the New Testament saints as well as 
the Old. The wise virgins slumbered and slept ; Rom. vii. — " The 
thing that I hate that I do ; " Heb. xil — " Let us lay aside every 
weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset U5>." James iii. 2. And 
this Apostle John himself in this very epistle several times speaks 
of those that are bom again as liable to sin. It is by the new birth 
that they become as little children ; the Apostle says, chap. ii. 1 — 
" My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. 
And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus 
Christ the righteous." And this is a confirmation that the Apostle 
has not only respect to sins that were committed before regeneration. 
In the words immediately foregoing, *' If we say that we have not 
sinned, we make Him a liar, and his word is not in us." Again, it 
is by the new birth by which Christians are bora of God, this 
epistle speaks of the brethren as liable to sin : 1 John v. 16 — "If 
any man see -his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall 
ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death." 
And yet in the next verse but one, respects that saying that we are 
upon : " We know that whosoever is bom of Qod sinneth not : but 
he that is begotten of Ood keepeth himself, and that wicked one 
toucheth him not," which confirms that the Apostle means, when ho 
says, " He sinneth not," is not that he never is guilty of any sinful 
act Such expressions in Scripture as this in the text, "sinneth" and 
"sinneth not," are not always to be taken for committing a particular 
act of sin, as that in Job, the draught and heat, &c. By them that have 
sinned, is not intended them that are guilty of a particular act of sin. 
That in Eph. ii. 3 — "Fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind," 
in the original wotovirre^y doing the desires of the flesh — that is, mak- 
ing a trade of this. 1 Peter iiL 10 — " If thou wouldst see good days, 
refrain thy tongue from evil, and thy lips that they speak no guile." 
It is not meant that to do one good action is the way to be happy, 
but a man's setting himself in such a course, making a practice and 
business of doing good. How often is the wickedness of the king 
of Israel and Judidi expressed by that, " That they did evil in the 
sight of the Lord." 

115. iii 6 — "Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not: whosoever 
sinneth hath not seen him, neither known him."] The words of the 



next verse are a full confutatioi) of them that from hence would 
argue sinless perfection. " He that doeth righteousness is righteous^ 
even as He is righteoua" There is no more reason to understand the 
Apostle of committing only one act of sin by the expression "sin- 
neth," or " committeth," or '* doeth sin/* than to understand of one 
single act of righteousness, when by the expression, " doth righteous- 
ness," and so to understand the next verse thus : — " He that doeth 
any righteousness at any time is righteous even as God is righteous," 
whereas by doing righteousness the Apostle plainly means practising 
righteousness, or making that his practice in the course of his life. 
So there is equal reason when he speaks here of committing sin to 
understand him of practising sin, or making wickedness his trade or 
practice. See "doing righteousness," &c. 

116. iv. 17 — " Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have 
boldness in the day of judgment : because as He is, so are we in this 
world."] The sense seems to be this— our love is made perfect to give 
us boldness before Him (that is, before Christ) in another world, even 
by our being in this world as He is. Like Him in love, then is our 
love made perfect, when we love one another as He hath loved us. 
For it is that love that the apostle is speaking of in the preceding 
verse — ** We have known and believed the love that God hath to us," 
and what that love is that God hath to us. The Apostle said in the 
preceding verses (9, 10) — viz., God's sending His Son into the world 
to die for us — and then says, ver. 11 — " Beloved, if God so loved us, 
we ought also to love one another ;" that is, we ought to love one 
another as God hath loved us, and as Christ hath loved us, and so we 
shall be as He was, and hereby we shall have assurance, as it follows, 
ver. 13 — *' Hereby know we that we dwell in Him, and He in us, 
because He hath given us of His Spirit " — made us to be of the same 
temper with Himself; and then the Apostle, in verses 14 and 16, 
further insists on the love of God to us in giving His Son ; and in 
the 17th verse, repeatedly mentions our coiSformity to Him in this 
love as what will give assurance, and observes particularly by this 
it will give boldness at the day of judgment, when we appear before 
Christ, that in this world we have been like Him, and behaved our- 
selves as He behaved Himself in the world. 


117. 1 4, 1 5 — " And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied 
of these, saying. Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his 
saints, to execute judgment uj)on all, and to convince all that are 
ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have 
ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly 
sinners have spoken against Him."] Inspii-ed writers of the Old 


Testament, sometimes, when speaking [of things] recorded in Scrip- 
ture histozy many ages after tiieir histories were written, do mention 
particulars not recorded in these histories; as particularly, Asaph 
mentions thunder and lightning that there was in the time when Israel 
passed through the Bed Sea, as Ps. Ixxvii 15, and following verses. So 
David mentions a great shower of rain that there was when God ap- 
peared on Mount Sinai. P& Ixviii. 8 — " The earth shook, the heavens 
also dropped at the presence of Qod : even Sinai itself was moved at 
the presence of God, the God of Israel" So the prophet Habakkuk 
mentions thunder that arose at the conclusion of the twelve hours that 
the sun and moon stood stilL See notes on Hab. iiL 11, and we must 
allow the same to the inspired writers of the New Testament. This 
prophecy of Enoch is probably the rather mentioned as applicable to 
those heretics and apostates he speaks of, because they strenuously 
derided and contemptuously ridiculed [Christ's servants]. 

118. 19 — " These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having 
not the Spirit"] The Apostle uses this form of expression because 
he has reference to some spoken of in the Old Testament, that are 
spoken of as separating themselves Either Ezek. xLv. 7 or Hosea iv. 
14, or ix. 10. 




See Introduction iii., p. 13, ante.^Q, 



^ee to It 

That the operation be rauch upon the Will or Heart, not on the 
Imagination, nor on the speculative understanding or motions of the 
mind, though they draw great affections after 'em as the consequence. 

That the trouble of mind be reasonable, that the mind be troubled 
about those things that it has reason to be troubled about ; and that 
the trouble seems mainly to operate in such a manner, with such a 
Jdnd of trouble and exercise as is reasonable : founded on reasonable, 
solid consideration ; a solid sense and conviction of truth, as of things 
as they are indeed. 

That it be because their state appears terrible on the account of 
those things, wherein its dreadfulness indeed consists ; and that their 
concern be solid, not operating very much by pangs and sudden 
passions, freaks and frights, and a capriciousness of mind. 

That under their seeming convictions it be sin indeed ; that they 
are convinced of their guilt, in offending and affronting so great a 
God: One that so hates sin, and is so set against it, to punish 
it, &c. 

That they be convinced both of sins of heart and life : that their 
pretences of sense of sin of heart ben't without reflection on their 
wicked practice ; and also that they are not only convinced of sin of 
practice, but sin of heart. And in both, that what troubles 'em be 
those things wherein their wretchedness has really chiefly consisted. 

That they are convinced of their spiritual sins, consisting in their 
sinful defects, living without love to Qod, without accepting Christ, 
gratitude to Him, &c. 

That the convictions they have of the insuflSciency and vanity of 
their own doings, ben't only from some sense of wanderings of mind, 
and other sinful behaviour mixed ; but from a conviction of the sinful 
defects of their duties, their not being done from a right principle ; 
and so as having no goodness at all mixed with the bad, but altogether 

That it is truly conviction of sin that convinces them of the 


Jostice of God in their damnation, in rejecting their prayers, disre- 
garding their sorrowful case, and all desires and endeavours after 
deliverance, &c., and not merely any imagination or pang, and melting 
of affection through some real or supposed instance of Divine Gh>odnes3. 

That they be so convinced of sin as not in the inward thought 
and habit of their minds to excuse themselves, and impliedly 
quarrel with God, because of their impotency: for instance, that 
they don't excuse their slight of Christ, and want of love to Him, 
because they can't esteem and love Him. 

That they don't evidently themselves look on their convictions [as] 
great, and ben't taken with their own humiliation. 

That which should be chiefly looked at should be evangelical. If 
this be sound, we have no warrant to insist upon it, that there be 
manifest a remarkable work, purely legal, wherein was nothing of 
grace. So with regard to Convictions and Humiliation ; only seeing 
to it that the mind is indeed convinced of these things, and sees 'em 
[sees] that [which] many Divines insisted should be seen, under a 
purely legal work. And also seeing to it that the convictions there 
are, seem to be deep and fixed, and to have a powerful governing 
influence on the temper of the mind, and a very direct respect to 

&ee to it 

That they have not only pretended convictions of sin ; but a pro- 
per mourning for sin. And also, that sin is burdensome to them, 
and that their hearts are tender and sensible with respect to it . . . 
the object of their care and dread. 

That God and Divine things are admirable on account of the 
beauty of their moral perfection. 

That there is to be discerned in their sense of the sufficiency of 
Christ, a sense of that Divine, supreme, and spiritual excellency of 
Christ, wherein this sufficiency fundamentally consists ; and that the 
sight of this excellency is really the foimdation of their satisfaction 
as to His sufficiency. 

That their conviction of the truth of Divine things be discerned to 
be truly some way or other primarily built on a sense of their Divine 

That their discoveries and illuminations and experiences in general, 
are not superficial pangs, flashes, imagination, freaks, but solid, sub- 
stantial, deep, inwrought into the frame and temper of their minds, 
and discovered to have respect to practice. 

That they long after Holiness, and that all their experiences 
increase their longing. 

Let *em be inquired of concerning their disposition and willingness 


to bear the Cross, sell all for Christ, choosing their portion in 
heaven, &c. 

Whether their experience have a respect to Practice in these 
ways. That their behaviour at present seems to be agreeable to such 

Whether it inclines 'em much to think of Practice, and more and 
more for past ill practice. 

Makes a disposition to ill practices dreadful 

Makes 'em long after perfect freedom from sin, and after those 
things wherein Holiness consists ; and by fixed and strong resolutions, 
attended with fear and jealousy of their own hearts. 

Whether, when they tell of their experiences, it is not with such an 
air that you as it were feel that they expect to be admired and 
applauded, and [whether they] won't be disappointed if they fail of 
discerning in you something of that nature ; and shocked and dis- 
pleased if they discover the contrary. 

Enquire whether their joy be truly and properly joy in God and in 
Christ ; joy in Divine Good ; or whether it ben't wholly joy in them- 
selves, joy in their own excellencies or privileges, in their experiences ; 
what God has done for them, or what He has promised He will do 
for them ; and whether they ben't affected with their own discoveries 
and affections. 


See Introduction iv., pages 13, 14.— G. 



Matt. vii. 14— "Few there be that find it" 
Doc[trine.] 'Tis a hard thing to find the right way to Heaven. 

I. There is a way to Heaven. 
God has opened a door. 

II. There is but one right way. 

IIL 'Tis a hard thing to find this one right way. 
Appears : In that there are so few that find the way. 

Tho[iigh] all have so much need to find. 

Tho[ugh^ so many desire to find and seek after it. 

Tho[ugh] so many think they have found. 

so many are mistaken. 

That many of those that do find it, first take a great deal of pains. 
Some for a long time. 
Many prayers. 
Many difficulties. 
Season : Negatively, not that [God] han't [has not] called us. 

» n very plain in itself 

Many wrong ways. 

like travelling through a great wilderness. 

Full of difficulties . . . dangers .... 

But one right way. 

[A] narrow way. 

Many wrong ways. 

Mention some of the wrong ways. 

Do right in some things 0]dy. 

Outward Seligion only. 

Afiections that go away. 

Seligious out of regsuxl to men. 


Beligious only out of fear of helL 

from self-lova 

Don't love God for Himself. 

Trust in their own righteousness. 

Depend on the good opinion of othera 

Apt to think themselves convicted when they are not 

High pride : apt to think well of themselvea 

A Uttle good looks great 

Don't see what is bad. 

How many things men often think are Convebsion. 

2. Men's own lust blind[s] 'em. 
The way is good and plain. 
Bight way is what men don't like. 

Contrary to all their lusts. 

to their pride. 

to their worldliness. 



Enmity against God. 
Wrong ways are 

3. Devils. 

Blind them and deceive them. 

4. Things of this world blind 'em. 

5. Wicked men implead (?) 'em. 


What a great mercy to have the Word of Gk)d. 

Mercy that God has appointed ministers. 

Great need of Prayer — 

Never without God's help. 

Don't trust . . . v. 22 . . . 

What need of God's power and striving. 


Pray earnestly. 

Not trust [As above, v. 22.] 

Take advice. 

Begin soon. 

Hold on and hold out 

Don't take hope too soon. 

In every thing follow the Word of God. 

You need to be much concerned.* 

* It will be obeerved from the facnmile that the above Sketch of a Sermon ii 
written on the leaf of a letter. Very many of EdwardB*B MSS. are thus written on 
all manner of kinds and scrape of paper. — Q. 

SBBMONa 191 


2 Tim. iiL 16 — "All scripture is given by inspiration of (Joi"* 
Doctrine : The Scripture is the Word of God. 

I. There must be some Word of God. 

'Tis unreasonable to think that God would always keep silence and 
never say anything to mankind. 

God has made mankind and given him Reason and Understanding. 

Has made him the chief of ^ the creatures. 

Given him reason that he might know God and serve Him. 

Did not give the other creatures reason : He did make 'em to 
serve Him. 

Other creatures are made for man. 

Man was made for God : to serve Qod, or else he was made for 

But we may be sure He did not make such a creature as man for 

But how unreasonable is it to think that God would make us for 
Himself and never say anything to us. 

God is the King that rules over all nations. 

But how unreasonable is it to suppose that He should be a King 
and never say anything to His subjects. ... be a King and never 
tell them what His will or what His commands are, that His subjects 
may obey Him. 

Is as a Father : all His Family. 

But will a father be always dumb and silent, &c.? 

God has given mankind speech : so that they are able to speak and 
make known their minds to one another. 

And therefore 'tis unreasonable to think that God never would 
speak to men and make known His mind to them. 

We need to have God teach us as much as a child needs to be 
taught by his father. 

And since God has given mankind understanding He doubtless 
will teach him and instruct him. 

How can we know Him to worship God if we have no Word of 
God to tell us ? 

We should not know what way of worship would please Him .... 
whether to pray to Him or to sing or to keep the Sabbath, or be 
baptized, or come to sacrament, or what else we shall do. 

'Tis certain God has made us for another world. . . . Men but a 
little while here. 

And how shall we know how God will do with us in another 
world ? 

How shall we know how He will punish such as do wickedly in 
another [world] ? 

• In the left-hand corner \b written, *' St :, Ind. Novem. *5S.** See Introduction 
iv., p. 14.— G. 


What He will do for good men in another [world] ? 

Whether He will forgive ns after we have sinned ? 

How shall we know what He expects we should do that we may 
be forgiven ? 

In what He will save .... Whether He will forgive great sins. 

What will men do when they come to die if there be no Word of 
God to tell 'em ? 

How should we ever know how the world was made ? 

How should we know how God made man at first ? 

We see men in this world are very wicked : the world is full of 
wickedness everywhere. 

Certainly God did not make man so. 

How shall we know how mankind came to be so wicked ? 

We see how the world is full of death : full of war and all manner 
of misery. 

How shall we know how misery and death came, &c.? 

And how shall we know what way of salvation there is? 

Where shall we find one to be our Saviour that will stand for us 
... if the Word of God don't tell us ? 

How shall we know what God will do with the world at last ? how 
the world will come to an end ? 

We see that God is kind to mankind : takes care of 'em. 

Therefore He can't leave 'em in darkness and take no care to teach 

We see what necessity mankind stand in, of a Word of God to 
teach 'em when we consider how it is in those countries where they 
have no Word of God. 

They are all in darkness and blindness about God and Divine 

They think there is a God. 

Yet don't know what He is. 

Many think there is [are] a great many gods. 

Worship "graven images" and stones. 

Worship the devil 

Don't know how to serve God. 

Enow nothing how the world was made .... how man was 

Know nothing what God will do with men in another world. 

Don't know how men shall obtain forgiveness of their sin. 

Some think [by] offering their own children. . . . 

Thus we see there must certainly be some Word of God. 

But where is any Word of God if it ben't [be not] in the Bible ? 

The Heathen han't [have not] no Word of God amongst them. 

The Bible therefore is the Word of Gk)d, must be. 

The Bible gives right notions concerning God. 

Tells how God made the world .... made men .... how men 
became wicked .... 

What God will do with men in another world. 

What way we may have the forgiveness of sin. 


What is the way of salvation ? 

What God's mind, and [what His] will. is. 

All the Rules and Commandments in the Bible are holy. 

Here told what man's duty is in many things. 

All sin is forbidden. 

How God will be served. 

The great things God has done for His people through all ages. 

What the Saviour did and suffered : how He ascended into Heaven. 

How the world will come to an end. 

How God will judge the world. 

Another thing that shews that the Scriptures are the Word of God 
is this : — 

That when God told the wise and holy men to write the Bible He 
gave 'em power to work great miracles, to convince men that it 
was His work. 

Moses was a man that wrote all the first part of the Bible. 

And God, to shew that the Word he wrote was His word .... 

And so the other Prophets that wrote other parts. 

Jesus Christ gave us the Scriptures of the New Testament. He 
spoke the Word of God. 

He, to shew that His Word was the Word of God, wrought great 

He told His Disciples to write down what He said .... enabled 
them to do great miracles. 

The Apostle Paul. 

That there was such a man as Christ .... that great miracles 
[were wrought] even His enemies own : none deny it. 

Another thing that shews the Scriptures to be the Word of (Jod 
is that the Scripture foretells a great many things. 

The Old 'J'estament that was given to the Jews a great while 
before Christ was born foretold Christ's coming. 

And a great many things concerning Him. All which are ful- 

The Scriptures of the New Testament foretell a great many things 
.... all came to pass. 

The Jews should become a distinct nation .... that the Pope 
shall arise .... many turn Papists .... just as it is. 

The Scriptures we here read is the same Word that was given 
of old. 

The same Word has been kept all along : it has not been changed. 

Here it still is the same language in which it was written at first. 

It must be the same that the Jews had, and that God's People had 
in Christ's and the Apostle's time. 

It could not be altered since, because it was scattered about a great 
many nations all over the world .... which have had it ever since. 

Therefore the world could not be cheated. 

The Jews, to whom the Old Testament was given : they remain a 
distinct People still, and have had the Old Testament amongst 'em, 
written in their own language. 


194 SEBMO^S. 

They are all over the world and can't alter it. 

The Scripture has all along been among people that have been 
against one another in their OPiNiOKS .... could not agree to alter 
it .... if one altered the other would find it out. 

Another thing that shews that the Scripture is the Word of God 
is this: — 

That the Scripture has been the means of enlightening so many 

Many nations formerly in great darkness : but now . . . 

All the greatest nations of the world . . . 

No people in the world can come to have right notions of Grod and 
of another world any other way than by this Word. 

Another thing that shews [it, is] 

. . . Great opposition ; the Devil and wicked men make against it 

Another thing that shews [that it is] the Word of God is this : it 
has PREVAILED against such great opposition. 

When it first came abroad in the world all the wicked set them- 
selves against it . . . kings . . . armies . . . [Christians] put to 
cruel deaths . . . yet it prevailed . . . overcame all the greatest 
and strongest nations. 

Then there is this thing : those [who] first preached were poor men. 

So many nations never could have been made to believe it if men 
had made it. 

Not only foolish men, little men, but great men and wise men. 

Another thing : no other Word ever was used as the means of 
bringing men to know the true God but the Scriptures. 

Where the Scriptures have come there has been light : all the rest 
of the world has remained in darkness. So 'tis now all over the world. 

Another thing that shews [it] is this : no man could make such a 
Book as the Bible. . . . 

It must be made by wicked men or good men. . . . Wicked men 
would not make it. Good men could not. 

Another thing : no Book reaches the hearts of men so much. No 
word so AWAKENS the conscience. No word is so powerful to change 
the heart. Great many have been made ' new men : ' very wicked men. 

No word so powerful to comfort the hearts of men ... in death 
. . . cruel deaths . . . 

Another : good men all love the Bible. Better they are the more 
they love it . . . the more they are convinced that it is the Word of 
God. The more wicked men [are] the more they are against it. 

Application : 

1. How thankful we should be to God. . . . 

2. Hence we may learn that all the Scripture says to us is cer- 
tainly true. 

God knows . . . God cannot lie . . . God is very angry for sin. 
About another world. There is another world. Grood men die. 
About Hell. The Scripture says there is a furnace of fire. 
God will not hear. No rest. 

SEBMONS. 1 95 

Many are ready to think that it may be there is none. 

About Heaven. About the Day of Judgment : rise again. 

About the sorrowful, miserable condition man is in. 

About the way of salvation. 

Christ is the Son of God. No other Saviour. He will savb all 


About the mysterj* of being * bom again.' 

Some are ready to say in their hearts there is no such thing. 

What we must be in order to go to Heaven — 

Therefore let all men that are not ' bom again' consider these 

All these are not seeking their salvation. 

3. Hence 'tis worth the while to take a great deal of pains to learn 
to read and understand the Scriptures. 

I would have you all of you think of this. 

When there is such a book that you may have, how can you be 
contented without being able to read it ? 

How does it make you feel when you think there is a Book that is 
God's own Word ? That tells . . . 

And you think with yourself that you are not able to read it. . . . 
See and think about it. All that you know is only what others tell 
you ... see nothing with your own eyes. 

Especially I would have you that are young people take notice of 
these things. 

Parents should take care that their children learn . . . 

This will be the way to be kept from the Devil . . . Devil cfln't 
bear [the Bible.] Kept from Hell. To be happy for ever. 

But if you let the Word of God alone, and never use, and you can't 
expect the benefits of it. . . . 

You must not only hear and read, &c., but you must have it sunk 
down into your heart Believe. Be affected. Love the Word of 
God. Written in your heart 

Must not only read and hear, but do the things. Otherwise no 
good ; but will be the worse for it. 

And you should endeavour to understand. To that end to learn 
the English tongue. 

If you had the Bible in your own language, I should not say so 

Endeavour to promote your children's learning English. 

You that can read should often read . . . meditate . . . pray that 
God would enlighten you. 

Consider how much it is worth the while to go often to your Bible 
to hear the great God Himself speak to you. 

There you may hear Christ speak. 

How much better must we think this is than the word of men. 
Better than the word of the wisest man of the world. 

How much wiser is God than man. 

Here all is true ; nothing false. 

Here all is wise ; nothing foolish. 

196 8£RM0I)S. 

This is the OEEAT light God has given to the world. To make 
use of this is the way to walk in the Light ... to have our souls filled 
with Light. If we neglect this we shall walk in darkness. 

"We should value this more than the Ught of the sun. We see the 
light of the sun does a great deal of good . . . gives light . . . plea- 
sant to see . . . 'tis comfortable ... it gives life. 

So Scripture gives light . . . gives life. 

Should hear the Word : come to meeting. 'Tis the way to have 
God's mercy, to seek God in His Word. There we may expect to 
meet with God. God will respect His own Word for the good of men : 
what great good has been done. 

God has often made it a means of great good. Conversion of many 
souls. Great joy of many. Many have been comforted in affliction 
... in death. 

This will be the way to be wise with the most excellent wisdom. 

III. and IV. 

Eom. V. 1 — ..." we have peace with God." * 

Subject : Peace with God. 

1. The nature of it. 

2. How it is brought to pass. 

3. The distinguishing marks of it. 

4. The benefits of it. 

5. The course that should be taken in order to it. 

I. The nature of it. 

Here I would observe that we ought to distinguish between that 
peace which is real and [which is] sensible. 

The one consists in the state of the soul : the other in the sense of 
the soul. The one is the foundation of the other. That peace of 
God which is real or that consists in the state of the soul is the 
ground of that which consists in its sensation or apprehension. Both 
are called in Scripture by the name of Peace ; and are represented 
as the peculiar privileges of God's saints. And therefore I will 
something very briefly consider the nature of each. 

1. That peace with God that is real is that state of a believer 
whereby he is in reconciliation and favour with his Creator. It con- 
sists in two things : — 

1. Something negative — viz., the removal of God's anger and 
displeasure . . . forgiveness of sin . . . total, (Isa. i. 18) — 
' White as snow/ . . . compared to the unrolling of a cloud, 
(Isa. xliv. 22, 23 ;) ... as though they never had been, (Jer. 
1. 20;) 'sought for and shall not be found,' . . . 'depths of 
* See division V. for comxneucement of the second sermon from this text. — G. 

SERMONS. 1 97 

the sea/ (Micah vii. 18;) . . . everlasting, (Jer. xxxi. 34;) 
" make an end of sin/' (Dan. ix. 24.) 
2. Something positive — viz., as being received and treated as 
the objects of God's favour. 
As the expression is used in Scripture [it is] something more than 
merely negative. . . . Title. Manifestation. Treatment. 

Difference between love and favour, though sometimes called by 
the same names — Acceptance. Compliance ... as entitled to a 

2. [That peace with God that is] sensible is that inward, holy 
calm and quietness of soul arising from a sense and apprehension of 
the soul's union with God. 

A sense of this gives an inexpressibly sweet calm. This is usually 
intended by Christ. (John xiv. 27.) 
This is twofold : — 

1. Peace of conscience or a sweet calm from a sense of the pardon 
of sin and acceptance with God as righteous. 

Two things — 

A sense of suflSciency. 

An apprehension of the faithfulness of the promise. 
These things give a sweet rest. 

2. That rest of soul that arises from the sense or feeling of a 
real conformity to and union with [Christ]. 

Peace of confidence consists in a sense of a relative union. 
That is the rest that arises from hope : this from love. 

II. How the children of God come to be made partakers of this 

1. The first and highest source and spring of all is from God's 
etenial foreknowledge. . . . Choosing 'em, the particular persons by 
the Father. 

Jer. xxxi. 3 — " Everlasting love." 

The love of the Father. Giving them to the Son. 

The Son owing them . . . predestinating of them. (Ephes. i. 4.) 

Titus i. 2. 

This is the first foundation. 

2. The purchase of this blessing was made by the offering that 
Christ made to the Father. 

Prince of Peace. (Isa. iv. 6.) Peace on earth. . . . Nigh by the 
Blood. (Ephes. ii. 14.) He is our Peace. In the text, peace with 
God through our Lord Jesus Christ. 

The Way. Great High Priest. Offering is but one ; but it is to 
be variously considered. 

8. The way in which we come to have an interest in this. 

Purchase ; and so to be actually brought into peace with God is by 
being united to Christ. 

Threefold union. 

Most immediately by a legal union. . . , Real union foundation 
of legal. 

1 98 SEBMONS. 

Being in Christ, the believer, as it were, necessarily is a partaker. 

4. The immediate efficient of this union is the Holy Spirit. 
So Clirist is in them, and they in Christ. (Rom. viii. 9, 10.) 

The union is first by a communication from Christ ; and this is 
what is communicated. 

The vine is united by deriving sap : the womb by deriving life. 

Thus the Holy Spirit makes application. In this respect the peace 
with God is from the Holy Spirit. 

5. The work by which the Spirit effects this union. 

The qualification that the Holy Spirit works in the elect by which 
this union is effected is faith. 

This is the uniting act. Therefore God looks on the sinner as one 
with Christ, because He has accepted of him ; and his soul has united 
[itself to Christ]. 

6. The end of this union, by which the soul has sensible peace 
with God, is sanctification of lieart and life . . . including faith and 
all other graces. 

And thus it is that the Spirit of God gives sensible peace. 
This is the seal of the Spirit, (Ephes. i. 13 ;) earnest of the Spirit. 
(2 Cor. L 22.) By this 'tis a spirit of adoption. 

III. Distinguishing marks of it, whereby it may be distinguished 
from the false appearances of it. 

1. In those that have a true peace with God their sensible peace 
has its foundation laid in conviction. 

There is a false peace. 
Preparation . . . legal conviction. 

Immediate foundation : . . . spiritual conviction has its foundation 
in light, and not in darkness . . . encreased by conviction. 

2. In those [that have peace] that quietness and rest of soul they 
have is not only their comfort but their virtue or nature. (?) 

3. Christ is the foundation of all. 

4. In those [that have peace there is] a sense of glory and suffer- 
ing precedes a sense of propriety [= property, possession]. 

A more principal foundation. 

5. ... a rest of choice and love precedes a rest of hope. 

The rest of the faculties of the soul in God is the Church's God 
. . . goes before a rest in Him as our God. ... As a rest in His 

6. In those [that have peace] there is a union of heart with God 
and Christ, attended with a relinquishing all other things. 

7. Attended with an irreconcilable war with God's enemies.* 

* In a smaller character there is added here — 

1. ConvlctioD, . . . legal, . . . spirituaL ... 2. Divided from that in whick it 
sought peace. S. Christ is the foimdation. 4. Union of heart with God and Christ, 
attended with relinquishing [of all else.] 5. An irreconcilable war with sin, ... an 
holy peace and rest. 6. A sight of excellency and suffering procures a sight of rest. 
7. A rest of choice and love precedes a rest of hope. 8. A sweet, humble, peaceable 
frame of life. These are ' Notes ' of a recapitulation of the Discourse thus far, pre- 
liminary to a second, which consisted of the remaining head V., amplified from the 
' Notes.''— G. 


IV. Benefits. 

1. A being infinitely above the reach of everything that might 
make them men. . . . 

I say infinitely above. . . . Infinitely strong defence ... as im- 
possible as to destroy God Himself . . . infinite wisdom . . . infinite 
strength engaged . . . infinite price . . . infinite truth. . . . 

Dwell " on high "... infinitely high. 

Foundation in that which is eternal : from eternity to eternity. . . 

Oath of God. (Heb. vi. 17, 18.) . . . 

2. A being at peace with all God's creatures. In different senses. 
Angels. . . . Saints.' . . . Sun, moon, stars. Beasts. Stones, (Job 

V. 23.) 

Water and fire, (Isa. xliii. 2.) . . . Whole creation ' groans.' 
Poisonous things, (Mark xvi. 18 ; Luke x. 19.) . . . Wicked men 

and devils — All things for them, (1 Cor. iii. 21, 22.) 

3. Communion with God. 

4. An holy and sweet walking and friendly conversing with God. 
Amos iii. 3 — " Two walk together." ... " Called you friends." 

5. More and more conformity and assimilation to God. 

6. Communion with saints, (1 John i. 3-7.) 

7. An irrefragable title to eternal glory. 

8. Steadfastness under the changes of life. Anchor to the soul. 
A steadfast calm in the midst of storms. A steadfast meekness in 

the midst of oppositions. 

9. A strong and conquering support and comfort under the 
troubles of life. . . . Waiting our death. 

] 0. Joy unspeakable. 

y. Course to be taken in order to the obtaining this peace with 
God and enjoying the benefit of it 

1. A sense of the great breach. . . . 

2. A sense of their misery by reason of the breach, and the abso- 
lute necessity of reconciliation. All false rest must be destroyed. 
The world. Own righteousness. 

3. A conviction that God may justly refuse ever to be at peace 
with us.* 

4. An eternal divorce of the heart from that which made and which 
maintains the breach. 

5. The Prince of Peace must be resorted to and embraced. 

6. An high war must be maintained with God's enemies. 

7. A spirit of peace and love must rule in our hearts and lives. 
This is the end of union between God and the souL And this is 

the end of union between Christians, one with another. If we are 
much under the influences of a spirit contrary to this, we can't expect 
to have the sensible peace of God. But if you live in the lively 
exercise [of this] it will be the way to love. 

The feeling of this gives sensible peace, as I observed before. 

* Interlined here — " It is the foundation for spiritual light and knowledge." — G. 


And it tends to give the other sort of sensible peace, that which 
consists in hope. " For perfect peace casts out fear." 

V. and VI 

Acts xxiv. 25 — *' And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, 
and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered. Go thy way for 
this time ; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.*'* 

I. The subject of the Apostle's preaching. 
II. How Felix was affected by it. 
III. How he conducted himself in these circumstances. 

Subject: Sinners delaying in putting off the great concern of 
their souls till a supposed more convenient season. 

1. How sinners oftentimes do delay. 

2. The reasons or causes why sinners do thus. 
a The end of it. 

I. I would briefly observe how sinners do frequently delay and put 
off the great concern of their souls till a supposed more convenient 

(1.) They sometimes put off to certain times they set, when they 
intend. . . . Children sometimes. . . . Shall know more — 
Know better how to pray and perform other duties of Religion that 
grown-up persons perform. 

'Tis a common thing for young people. Till settled in the world. 
"More convenient season:" a better inclination .... not so much 
inclined to mirth and youthful vanities .... fewer temptations .... 
out of the way of young company .... more in the way of those 
who are solid and serious persons. 

They esteem the present season very inconvenient for religion .... 
being so very convenient for other purposes. . . . Now a very con- 
venient time to take liberty in mirth and youthful delights. 

Many that are past their youth put off to a supposed more con- 
venient season .... when got through such and such particular 
affairs wherein they are now involved .... when they hope they 
shall be more at liberty .... or till in this and the other respect 
they are got into more convenient circumstances. 

(2.) There are many that delay and put off without fixing any time 
in their mind .... hoping for a more convenient future time. . . . 

The present time appears peculiarly inconvenient .... feel a 
great opposition .... have many temptations .... hope it will be 

♦ In the left-hand corner is marked, " Novemb. 1749," and a little beyond, " St 
Ind. B Stockbridge Indians, Aug. 1752." See Application for the second sermon. 
— G. 


better with them .... not feel such an aversion .... fewer temp- 
tations. . . . 

Wait to have the Spirit of God strive with them. 

Now a time of general deadness, and very inconvenient on that 
account .... all the talk is of other things .... put off till a 
time of the outpouring of the Spirit of God. . . . 

Or, perhaps, they are hoping for some greater advantage in other 
respects, some better means than now they enjoy, or a better concur- 
rence of circumstances to favour a design of seeking God and their 

II. The cause of persons thus delaying. 

1. Stupidity .... senselessness of their danger and necessity. 
Insensible of the reality .... insensible of the greatness .... 

senseless of the heinousness of their sin .... a brutish stupidity. . . . 

2. The importunity of lust. . . . Job xx. 12 — "Wickedness is 
sweet in his mouth ; he hides it under his tongue ; he spares it, and 
forsakes it not, he keeps it still in his mouth." 

3. Aversion to their duty. 

4. Ignorance of themselves and self-confidence. 

Trust in wisdom .... strength .... steadfastness. . . . 

5. A spirit of self-blinding. . . . The blinding influence of a sin- 
ful self-love .... promise themselves future opportunity .... 
better opportunity .... that God will hear. . . . 

6. The subtile temptations of the Devil. . . . 

III. The evil of it. 

1. 'Tis exceeding wicked. 

Direct disobedience .... wilful, resolved, wickedness .... deter- 
mine to continue in sin, and an allowance of it. . . . 

'Tis not only designedly committing one act of wickedness, but 
deliberately determining on a course of it .... a course of manifested 
wickedness .... neglect of many commands .... gratification of 
many lusts .... horrible ingratitude, abusing the past " long sufier- 
ing" .... horrible presumption on future mercy .... contempt 
of offered mercy. . . . 

2. 'Tis exceeding foolish. . . . Hereby they reject and miss a 
good deal of present good .... wilfully continue in a miserable 
state .... bring a great deal of certain future misery upon 
them. . . . 

They run a dreadful risk .... depend on innumerable uncer- 
tainties .... life continued .... means of grace continued .... 
use of reason .... disposed .... "more convenient season" .... 
given one .... if disposed whether succeed .... whether God 
won't give over to delusion and to hard-heartedness. . . . 

Depend on many things that are not only uncertain, but very im- 
probable .... disposition .... convenient season .... thought 
when they were children .... make their case more and more dan- 
gerous .... depending on greater conveniences they make incon- 


veniences for themselves .... and by this means many thousands are 
actually undone. . . . 

Application:* — 

This may be of warning to sinners not to delay and put off. . . . 

You have heard how common this is. . . . Men are exceeding 
prone to it. . . . Does your own experience confirm what has been 
said in this matter ? And are there not some here who are now doing 
as has been represented ? Have we not reason to think that there are 
many here present that say as Felix, " When . . . ." &c. ? 

Undoubted, by what is everywhere to be seen at such a time of 
general deadness and regardlessness of religion as this is : a good 
evidence of the exceeding proneness to put off. . . . 

Let all take warning. . . . 

You have heard something in general of wickedness and folly ; 
but here consider more particularly — 

1 . What guilt you contract : what a horrible thing it is to live in 
known and wilful disobedience to God ; . . . . what great light ye will 
sin against if you .... 

2. What would you think of your delays if God should say to you, 
*' Thou fool, this night ....?" 

3. If the future time you are putting oflf to should never come, how 
far it will probably be from being a " more convenient season." . . . 

In many respects, far more inconvenient .... God's anger increased 
.... your heart harder, more stupid .... every evil habit esta- 
blished .... sloth .... a carnal, worldly disposition .... an 
habitual making light of things afiecting such awakenings. . . . 
Satan's great opportunity to establish his interest .... commonly 
an increase of inconvenience of outward circumstances .... increase 
of temptations .... commonly many inconveniences arise that 
never would be thought of ... . less likely ever to set «about the 
work .... Satan hath greater advantages if they do ... . more 
likely to be unsteady .... more likely soon to be discouraged .... 
the work is greater and harder that they have to do ... . less time 
to do it. . . . 

4. Others have lamented their folly in delaying .... many when 
under concern .... I who have long been in the work of the 
ministry .... many on a death-bed. 

5. How much otherwise you deal with God, and desire that God 
should deal with you. 

6. If you continue still to delay after the warning you have this 
day, how aggravated your wickedness will be ! 

How have you been warned hereof before .... and how have you 
gone from the meeting-house and still .... 

How can you excuse yourself to go home to-night and do nothing? 
or to do a little this evening, and then to-morrow, or in a few 
days? . . . 

* The text ie again placed aboye " Application," shewing that it formed a second 
sermon.— G. 


Consider how unreasonable this is. . . . 

And if now again, .... and there be a God, .... how may 
you reasonably suppose He will resent it ? 

7. If you still .... what danger that you will be utterly given 
up before the time comes. . . . Giving up a common thing. . . . 

8. Enquire whether you yourself don't believe [that] there are 
many now in Hell through this veiy means ? 

Here some, perhaps, may say, to excuse themselves, and quiet their 
own consciences with respect to this, " I don't delay and put off the 
concern of my soul. I am in a way of seeking my salvation." 

Here I would put two or three questions to such persons. 

1. Whether you are in a way of minding this affair more than all 
others ? " Seeking first the kingdom of God," — *' one thing." . . . 

2. Is your reformation universal ? Sins of omission .... com- 
mission. . . . 

3. [Do you feel] as much pains as ever you take will be needful ? 
Forsaken all practices you think you would need to forsake ? Com- 
plied with all duties? As earnestly? .... Do you intend to 
continue? How has secret, closet religion been with you? How 
have you kept the Sabbath ? Attended the sermons ? If not, . . . 
you are guilty of the forementioned wickedness, . . . wilful disobe- 
dience — guilty of folly. Therefore, if you have any regard to ... . 
think on your mercies, and "turn your feet," .... and whatever 
" your hands find to do." . . . 

VII. and VIII. 

1 Pet. iii. 19, 20 — "By which also he went and preached to the 
spirits in prison," &c. . . .* 

Two things it is my present purpose to observe concerning the 
spirits or souls of those wicked men that Noah preached to. . . . 

1. How long ago they lived. 

2. How those souls are here spoken [of] as to their present state, 
"spirits in prison." 

DocTRrNE. — Those wicked men who lived before the flood, and 
went to Hell in Noah's time, are there still. 

1. I would give some reasons why they have remained in Hell so 

2. Observe in some respects in what circumstances they remain 
there all this while. 

I. Give some reasons. 

1. 'Tis not because Hell has been tolerable to 'em. 

2. 'Tis not because they ben*t convinced of their former folly, . . . 

♦ In left-hand corner, marked " June 1749.** See ' Directions * for second sermon. — G. 

204! SEBMOKS. 

that they have not yet been brought to their right mind or to their 
judgment of things. 

3. Tis not because they are careless about their own welfare and 
ease, and not willing to be at any possible labours or cost in order 
to escape, if there were any hope of deliverance. Not because they 
don't wish and long .... not thoroughly overwhelmed .... not 
because they ben't in earnest .... that they ben't thoroughly en- 
gaged in their spirits .... not yet disposed to own that the courses 
that they went on going weren't good .... not disposed to attend 
to any offer of mercy .... because they begrudge .... would be 
unwilling to lay out themselves .... not because they are covetous 
.... not willing to be shewn. . . . 

4. 'Tis not because they were weaker than the generality of men. 
Many of them were giants. 

5. Not because there is not a great number of those who are dis- 
posed to unite their strength to burst prison. 


1. Their souls are immortal .... made for eternity .... of a 
nature agreeable to this design. . . . 

Though they desire it, they can't return to nothing. " Seek death 
and cannot find it." Extreme torment, but no tendency to an- 
nihilate the soul .... tendency to sink it, but not to reduce it to 
nothing. Tis not with the soul as 'tis with the body in its present 
mortal state .... extreme oppression tends to destroy it. 

2. They are not in a state of probation. 

3. Their debt is what they can't pay. . . . Great debt to Divine 
justice. Have not wherewith. . . . Nothing to pay. . . . Cast into 
prison till they should pay the last mite. . . . 

4. There is no gospel preached in Hell. Christ did not die 
for the damned. . . . Had no respect to that world .... to those 
in this state .... any more than to the devil. No means of grace. 
Means of grace not accommodated to that state. No manner of pro- 
vision made in any respect for their relief. No aid. Preaching of 
the Word don't reach them. The prayers of saints, of godly friends, 
don't reach them. 

5. The place and state they are in was never designed for the 
exercise of mercy. 

God is infinitely merciful ; but the exercises of mercy are not for 
ever. . . . Limited by Wisdom in various respects : has declared 
what the purposes of His wisdom are with respect to the exercises of 
His mercy. As to the kind of beings ; fallen men and not angels. 
. . . His declarations are according to truth. . . , His purposes are 
not altered. . . . 

Hence no mercy in Hell. . . . Though their pain is extreme . . . 
God don't pity 'em. Though their wishes for deliverance are great 
.... though their cries are loud .... though long continued .... 
though it be exceeding intolerable. 

C. By being longer in Hell, they have not become any more fit for 
any other state .... don't make 'em better .... although indeed 

S£»MONS. 205 

their judginents are convinced, yet their hearts are the same. No 
change in their dispositions. There are no conversions in Hell. The 
wrath makes a great change indeed ; but no saving change. The 
wicked in Noah's days were most of them very wicked on earth, yet, 
in some respects, they became worse when they went to Hell. Not 
fit for Heaven. Not fit to come and live in this world. Fit for no 
other place. That is the place provided and fitted for such. 

7. The prison is strong that holds them. Delivered up into the 
hands of Satan .... against whom they have no strength. And his 
cruelty is as strong as his power. And what is much more than 
devils, God confines them .... irreversible sentence binds them. 
Omniscience opposes them. No escape by subtlety unobserved. 
Often here, in this world, persons break prison by stealth .... get 
away by night, when no one observes them. . . . And God's Almighty 
power holds 'em down. And God ever lives. He is unchangeable. 
He never will alter His purpose .... never will forget His own 
Son .... never will forget His righteous sentence. . . . 

II. Observe, in several things, in what circumstances they have 
been in, all this so long a time. 

1 . They have not been in a state of insensibility. " The Rich 
man." Not less their sensibility by long-continued torment and 
misery .... hence not been deprived of the use of reason. 

2. Have had no time of respite all this while. No rest. Rev. xiv. 
1 1 — '* No rest day nor night." Both day and night are mentioned, 
because the night in this world is a time of rest. Have never been 
asleep .... never find any resting-place. Never find out any 
assuaging medicines .... any cool shadows .... cooling green 
.... never found a drop of water .... never found any expedient 
for mitigating their torment. 

They have had much to goad *em, in exercising their invention. 
Necessity is the mother of invention. But their inventions have not 
saved them .... have had nothing to divert them .... no amuse- 
ment to take off their attention. . . . 

3. Have not forgotten things that were so long ago, or when they 
were on earth. " Son, remember." . . . Will remember over all at 
the Day of Judgment. Have not forgotten pleasant circumstances 
they lived in ... . swam in delights .... their lives were long 
.... the wickedness they committed .... the opportunities they 
had .... the warnings .... Noah's preaching .... their folly 
.... the thoughts they had concerning God and His testimony. 

4. Their misery is not grown more tolerable by their being so long 
used to it. 

5. The great additions that have been made to the numbers from 
their time has been no comfort to 'em. 

6. They have had no hope all this while .... have none now 
.... though their torments have been so long continued. 

This is verified concerning all that go down to the pit of Hell. (Isa. 
xxxviiL 19) — "They that go down to the pit cannot hope for Thy 



May be of warning: Let sinners in these days take warning. 
Those that now live in unbelief and impenitence are in danger of the 

1. Let me call upon [you] seriously to consider how long a time 
those who have been spoken of have already worn out [themselves] 
in Hell : they have been there 4000 years. How many ages ? How 
many and great changes, and successions, and transactions ? How 
many generations have passed ? How many successions of those who 
had come into being, gradually grown up, and grown old, and then 

Not only have many generations gradually come upon the stage 
and have died ; but many great and populous nations have come into 
being, and have flourished, and made a great figure in the world for 
many ages, and then by degrees have dwindled and wasted, swallowed 
up by other nations and come to nothing, and nothing of them now 
known but by history. And some of them very ancient and power- 
ful, so that even the very history of them is almost come to nothing 
and vanished ; and all since they have been suffering the flames of 
Hell, without any cessation or rest. The world has been peopled 
.... subdued .... many mighty princes have appeared and made 
a good bustle, and none .... whose memory is now almost for- 
gotten Very great and magnificent cities .... and now 'tis 

hardly to be known where they stood. Many kingdoms, yea, many 

great monarchies Those four monarchies of the world. How 

many things have worn out ! The strongest fortunes .... strongest 
empires .... most durable monuments .... pillars of brass .... 

monuments of marble stone Languages used as the common 

speech of large countries. Such things have gradually perished, and 
length of time worn 'em out ; but yet the torments of the '* spirits 
in prison" yet remains .... not come to nothing .... are as 
fresh and lively and in as great vigour as the first moment. 

The souls who are the subjects of these miseries were sinners, and 
their miseries immortal. Since they have been in Hell there has been 
a long scries of wonderful dispensations of God towards His Church 
and the whole world. After the flood, the nations degenerated .... 
fell oft* to idolatry .... Abraham was * called ' . . . . children of 
Jacob became a great nation .... Christ was foretold of old, from 
time to time .... anciently prefigured .... and in the fulness of 
time Christ actually came into the world .... all these ancient pro- 
phecies and ancient types were fulfilled .... the Jews, God's ancient 
people, rejected .... Gentiles called .... prophecies were given 
.... a mighty change made in the Eoman kingdom .... Anti- 
christ arose .... reigned for long time .... but at length the 

Reformation came During all those mighty changes on earth 

those souls spoken of in the doctrine, continued without ease day or 
night or one minute's respite, wrestling with the mighty torments of 
Hell ; and so they continue still .... torment not abated. These 
great and mighty changes on earth have not affected them to cause 


any change there. There have been many good times on earth : days 
of great good ; but .... 

2. How we may suppose the things which they remember of their 
past lives now affects them .... their worldly enjoyments .... 
the length of the time of their past ease and pleasures .... they 
lived long lives .... their past opportunities .... their long 
warnings .... the preaching they had .... their folly and stu- 
pidity .... obstinacy .... 

3. How many since have followed their steps and have gone to 
Hell in like manner. Tis not the manner of men to take warning by 

those that perish before them Those that are gone before can 

see the folly of those that come after, whom it will do no good. The 
rich man in Hell. Those that went to Hell in Noah's day, see the 
folly of those that come to 'em from generation to generation. But 
those that follow after don't see the folly of those who went before, 
and so they follow them 

4. They that have worn out so many ages in Hell, are never the 
nearer any end of their miseiy. The time is very long that they have 
suffered .... many tedious days .... tedious years .... and 

tedious ages one after another They must wear out another 

space of time as long as this in Hell flames, and another after that. 
.... Soon the time will come when they will actually have worn 

out a million such as ... . yea, a million and millions God 

foresees the time .... knows the particular passage of the day. 
Yea, as many such ages as there are particles of dust on the globe of 

the earth And even then NO mekcy. It will be without end. 

For ever, yea, for ever. Therefore take warning. If you neglect 
to take warning you will go to Hell .... and the time will come 
when you will have been as long as they now have been .... and 
you must also be there millions of millions .... and you will be 
no nearer .... yea, will be in absolute despair as they are .... 
your wishes, and cries, and strength, and entreaties will be in vain. 
You in like manner will reflect on and curse your folly. 

5. The torment that those spoken of in the doctrine have endured 
for so long a time, is but an imprisonment in order to execution. 
" Spirits in prisony *' Chains of darkness.'* There is another day. 
Their misery is great now. We learn by the parable of Dives and 

Lazarus I know nothing by which it can be determined that 

the misery will not be a thousand times as great They 

* tremble.' The chains are strong. There is no hope .... no relief 
to them. 

6. The means and opportunities they enjoyed were nothing to yours. 
Little revelation of a future state. 

7. God has an appointed time to wait on you. * The Spirit will 
not always strive.' 

8. Consider the sudden, unexpected manner in which they were 
destroyed (Luke xvii. 26, 27.) .... You will probably be surprised 
as they were. They had as much reason to flatter themselves as you, 
(Job xxvii. 20) — *• A tempest stealeth him away in the night." 



1. Avoid those things by which the men that went to Hell in 
Noah's time undid themselves .... particularly sensuality, (Gten. 
vi. ; Luke xvii. 27.) .... So it was with Sodom. Violence. 
" Evil imaginations." They would not hearken. They grew hard- 
ened to long-continued calls and warnings .... habitually made 
light. Is there not reason to apprehend that this is the case with 
many here? You must reform your life .... thorough reforma- 

2. You must in this respect be as Noah was in the generation of 
those souls that are " castaways ;" particularly 

1. You must avoid those Uberties of young people that are cus- 

2. Another thing that is apparently become customary, and doubt- 
less is very provoking to God, is pride and extravagance in apparel. 
Not that I condemn all adorning the body. Tis evident by Scripture 
that some moderate degree of this is lawful Oil that makes his 
face to shine, (Eccles. ix. 8 ; Matt. vi. 17 ; Prov. xxxi. 21, 22 ; Exod. 
iii. 22.) But yet *tis apparent that there is a most sinful extravagance 
in this kind, (1 Tim. ii. 9 ; 1 Pet iii. 3, 4 ; Isa. iiL 16, 18, &c) 
Appears to be very provoking to God .... when persons go beyond 
their rank. One end of apparel seems to be to distinguish. (Prov. 
xxxi. 22, 23.) Common people to shew an affectation to be like 
those of high rank ; country towns to affect to be like the metropolis. 
When they go beyond their estate, disable themselves from paying 
their debts ; deprive themselves of other things more necessary and 
more profitable ; disable themselves much from deeds of charity. An 
affectation to distinguish themselves in imitating the fashions of the 
more gay part of the world. Complying with the general customs of 
a country in clothing is not vulgar. On the contrary, 'tis not decent 
to be singular. But some fashions in themselves are ill ... . extra- 
vagance .... very costly .... immodest 

AH this care, and pains, and cost to adorn themselves shews per- 
sons to much affect outward ornament .... seem to shew that they 
make much of themselves .... all that which tends to encourage a 
general excess. Such things as these have been condemned by wise 
men of all nations. 

'Tis a time wlien the nations here have got to a vast excess. The 
land is become exceeding extravagant. More so than in England in 
proportion to our ability and ranks. Prevents great good that might 
be done .... is continually running in debt. The main thing that 
brings our greatest national calamities .... particularly the present 
state the country is in with regard to a medium.f And is the main 
source of that general injustice that has been so long complained of 
.... keeps the country in constant distress .... maintains con- 
stant injustice .... threatens us with ruin We in this 

* Text and Doctrine placed here, shewing a second sermon commenced at this 
point — O. 

t That is, " the currency/' coinage. — 0. 


town * are evidently got to a great excess. Boston is extravagant 
beyond London. And we, considering all things, I think beyond 
them .... how far below we fall short in rank .... state .... 
education and our situation in the world .... far beyond them. 

I had occasion to observe the people at Portsmouth, in both the 
congregations in that place. That is a place very much famed for 
politeness, and is a city much like Boston in many respects. I judged 
the apparel of our congregation was fully as costly. Many things 
that might make it proper for them to go beyond us. 

Such excess in gaiety and costliness of apparel is a manifestation 
of great vanity of mind. It seems to shew a great senselessness of 
our own vileness .... becomes us to go modestly .... modest 
apparel would better become such sinful creatures. Do not con- 
sider the end for which clothing was given .... to hide our 
shame .... that deformity that is the first of sin ... . senseless- 
ness of what our bodies are coming to ... . shews vanity of mind, 
as it shews the heart to be set on that which is exceeding vain and 
empty .... great want of a sense of the worth of those spiritual 
ornaments that are infinitely more valuable. 

If persons had a proper concern for their soul, there surely would 
not appear very much affectation to ... . 

If religion should greatly revive it would undoubtedly make a great 

This is one thing, among others, that tends to prevent its reviving. 

God has of late awfully testified His displeasure for the extravagance 
of the country's manner of living. 

3. You must not only seek, but strive. You must make it a busi- 
ness .... main business .... thorough .... How plain the 
necessity of it ! How often in the Word of God ! How plain by ex- 
perience ! On many accounts necessary .... How much you have 
had to convince you of the necessity ! And are you, after all, in any 
sense awake ? And how can you excuse this folly ? 

4. Be seasonable. 

The sinners of the old world perished by the Flood because they 
were not seasonable. They doubtless, many of them, used means 

afterwards. Had need to make haste So we are directed 

from time to time. " Haste "...." escape for thy Life." On 
many accounts necessary. How many have we reason to think per- 
ish through delay ! 

5. Not only engage in but go through that great work that is 
necessary in order to your escaping eternal damnation. 

Do in this respect as Noah did for the saving himself and his 
house from the Flood. 

6. Don't waste time in halting between two opinions. 

How there seem to be some things that give special encouragement. 
Isa. Iv. 6, 7. 

* Viz., Northampton, New England.— G. 






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much more fuU than any extant, and purged from errors. 

10. Thomas Fullers ''Good Thoughts in Bad Times,'' &c., luith 

Introduction, Notes, and Glossarial Index. (For Macmillan's " Golden Treasury" Series.) 

1 1 . Thomas Fullers " Holy and Profane Stated' with Introdnc- 

tion. Notes, and Glossarial Index. (For Macmillan's "Golden Treasury" Series.) 

12. Thomas Fullers ''David's Hainous Sin^' " Ornithologie', 

and other Minor Pieces. (Camden Hotten, Piccadilly, London, W.) 

%* Persons wishing copies of the privatdy-printcd and tmpiiblished Books — v/2., AV»f. 2, 4, 
and 9 — will please address Mr Grosart, as above. 


13. Small Sins. Third Edition, with Additions, royal i6mo 

cloth anticiue, price is. 6d. Pp. 1 19. 

"There is in it both genius and judgment, good writing, good learning, and good gospel •* — ^Dr John Brown, ««/**r(| 
•• Kab antl his Friends^*' Ss'c.^ &*f., in the Scotsman^ yuru 4, 1863. 

*' Mr Grosart's noble sermon."— Rev. C. H. Spl'rgeon, appended to an extract from it in his ** Illustrated A Irfutnack" fi 

** The theology of the book is puritanic ; the thinking, masculine and weighty ; the illustrations picturesque, and draw 
from a wide range of observation and reading ; and the appeals to the conscience arc often both imexpected and vcty pungcn 
The author's brilliancy (and there is not a little of it) is like a rifle-flash, which tells that a bullet is on its way." — The Freemam.^ 

** With all the writer's brilliant opulence of imagery there is no lack of plain, direct speaking to the conscience."— ^rj^ 
and Foreign Evangelical Revinv, .Quarterly^) yuTy 1863. 

14. yesus Mighty to Save ; or, Christ for all the JVorld, and al 

the World for Christ. Third cd., with Additions, royal i6mo, cl. an., price 23. \In preparatitn 

** Not only is the author an excellent scholar in the languages belonging to his profession, and possessed of more than ord 
nary insight into modem literature, but he appyears to have .ictiuircd a knowledge of the old English and Scottish divinir 
especially of the puritan order, which is as rare as it is rich and profitaUe. 1 ne page ever^here sparkles with diamow 
gathered from these mines. And when you sit down to read his books through, you find that this knowledge is only the rtata 
of a thinking power, worthy of such association, and still more of a spiritual purpose, which endears the writer in&ensibly b 
steadily as you go along." — The Spectator. 

15. The Prince of Light and the Prince of Darkness in Conflict 

or, The Temptation of Jesus. Newly Translated, Explained, Illustrated, and Applied. Cron 
8vo, pp. xxxiv. and 360. Price 5s. [AVw edition in prepartitia 

*' It is exhaustive of the subject, and yet, like every book from an original mind, it is suggestive after all. . . . The wh< 
is treated wi.h full learning, as well as with clear native discernment." — Thomas Aird, Esq. in the Dumfries Herald^ Martk 

"There is nothing like it that we have seen in English literature." — The Baptist Magazine^ March 1864. 

•* It will win for itself a place, and th.nt a FK;rmanent on^." -^British and Foreign Evangelical Revieto^ April XB64. 

" Eminently quickening, and full of teaching, tough thinking, tei demcss, and truth." — The Christian Spectator^ April xU 

" (3ur readers would do well to procure this remarkable work." — The llomilist^ April 1864. 

16. The Lambs A II Safe : or, The Salvation of Children. Thir 

Edition, with considerable Additions. i8mo, cloth antique, price is. 

"A quaint, pithy, and godly little book, on a scriptural h^f\s'*^Ez'angelicitl Christendom. 
"This is a beautiful, a tender, and a precious little treatise." — The Patriot. 

1 7. Drowned: IVhat if it had been Me ? A Sennon in Memorit 

of the Death by drowning in Lochlcven of Mr John Douglas, precentor. Third Editk 
(3000,) crown 8vo, price 4d. 

18. The Blind Beggar by the JVayside ; or, Faith, Asstiram^ 

and Hope. 42mo, third edition, price lid. For enclosure in letters. 

19. Materials for a Ministers Conversations with Intendin^ 

Communicants for the First Time. \Spee^, 

20. Selected Questions and Prayers of the Bible : being Recolh 

tions of Prayer- Meeting Addresses at Kinross and Gaimey Bridge. 

2 1 . Thoroughness. -<^ 

22. Consolation for the " Poor in Spirit!' \^no5. 19 to 23 inprepan^ 



MAY 3 1 193S