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Prpfessor of Church History in the Union Theological 
Seviinary^ Ne-M York. 

Principal of King's College, 









Copyright, 1894, 
By the christian LITERATURE COMPANY. 


S. CYRIL, Archbishop OF Jerusalem : Catechetical Lectures i 

By Edward Hamilton Gikford, D.D., Formerly Archdeacon of London, and Canon 

OF S. Paul's. 

S. GREGORY NAZIANZEN, Archbishop of Constantinople: 

Select Orations 203 

Letters 437 

By Charles Gordon Browne, M.A., Rector of Lympstone, Devon ; and James Edward 
Swallow, M.A., Chaplain of the House of Mercy, Horbury. 

Note. — S. Cyril is issued under the Editorial supervision of Dr. Wace, and S. Gregory Nazianzeii under 
that of the translators. 










Vf)i,. vir. 


The present translation of the Catechetical Lectures of S. Cyril of Jerusalem is based 
on a careful revision of the English translation published in the " Library of the Fathers 
of the Holy Catholic Church," with a most interesting Preface by John Henry Newman, 
dated from Oxford, The Feast of St. Matthew, 1838. 

In his Preface Mr. Newman stated with respect to the translation " that for almost the 
whole of it the Editors were indebted to Mr. Church, Fellow of Oriel College." Mr. Church 
was at that time a very young man, having taken his First Class in Michaelmas Term, 1836 ; 
and this his first published work gave abundant promise of that peculiar felicity of expression, 
which made him in maturer life one of the most perfect masters of the English tongue. 
Having received full liberty to make such use of his translation as I might deem most 
desirable for the purpose of the present Edition, I have been obliged to exercise my own 
judgment both in preserving much of Dean Church's work unaltered, and in revising it 
wherever the meaning of the original appeared to be less perfectly expressed. 

In this constant study and use of Dean Church's earliest work I have had always before 
my mind a grateful and inspiring remembrance of one whose friendship it was my great 
privilege to enjoy during the few last saddened years of his saintly and noble life. 

In the notes of this EcHtion one of my chief objects has been to illustrate S. Cyril's 
teaching by comparing it with the works of earlier Fathers to whom he may have been 
indebted, and with the writings of his contemporaries. 

In the chapters of the Introduction which touch on S. Cyril's doctrines of Baptism, 
Chrism, and the Holy Eucharist, I have not attempted either to criticise or to defend his 
teaching, but simply to give as faitliful a representation as I could of his actual meaning. 
The Eastern Church had long before S. Cyril's day, and still has its own peculiar Sacramental 
doctrines, which, notwithstanding the efforts of rival theologians, can never be reduced to 
exact conformity with the tenets of our own or other Western Churches. 

The Indices have been revised, and large additions made to the lists of Greek words, 
and of texts of Scripture. E. H. G. 

26 May, 1893. 



Chapter I. Life of S. CvRTt, i 

Chapter II. Catechetical Instruction. 

§ I. Catechesis xi 

§ 2. Catechist xii 

^ 3. Catechumens , xiii 

§ 4. Candidates for Baptism xv 

§ 5- The name ^eoTi^o/xei'ot xvii 

Chapter III. Special Preparation for Baptism. 

§ I. Penitence xviii 

§ 2. Con/essioit ib. 

§ 3. Exorcism xix 

Chapter IV. Ceremonies of Baptism and Chrism. 

§ I. Reminciation xxi 

§ 2. Profession of Faith ib. 

§ 3. First Unction xxii 

§ 4. Baptism xxiii 

§ 5. Trins Immersion xxiv 

§ 6. Chrism ib. 

Chapter V. Eucharistic Rites. 

§ I. First Comiminion xxvi 

§ 2. The Liturgy ib. 

Chapter VI. Effects of Baptism and Chrism. 

§ I. Baptism xxx 

§ 2. Chrism xxxiii 

Chapter VII. Eucharistic Doctrine xxxv 

Chapter VIII. Place of S. Cyril's Lectures xli 

Chapter IX. Time and Arrangement of S. Cyril's Lectures. 

§ I. The Year xliii 

§ 2. The Days xliv 

§ 3. Arrangement xlvi 

Chapter X. The Creed of Jerusalem : Doctrine of the Holy Trinity. 

§ I. The Creeds of Jerusalem and Niccca xlvi 

§ 2. Doctrine of the Holy Trinity xlvii 

Chapter XI. S. Cyril's Writings. 

§ I. List of Works '. ]iii 

§2. Authenticity of the Lectures ib. 

§ 3. Early Testimony Hv 

§ 4. Editions ib. 

§ 5. Manuscripts Ivi 

§ 6. Versions Ivii 


Life of S. Cyril. 

The works of S. Cyril of Jerusalem owe much of their peculiar interest and value to 
the character of the times in which he wrote. Born a few years before the outbreak of 
Arianism in a.d. 318, he lived to see its suppression by the Edict of Theodosius, 380, 
and to take part in its condemnation by the Council of Constantinople in the following year. 

The story of Cyril's life is not told in detail by any contemporary author ; in his 
own writings there is little mention of himself; and the Church historians refer only to 
the events of his manhood and old age. We have thus no direct knowledge of his early 
years, and can only infer from the later circumstances of his life what may probably have 
been the nature of his previous training. The names of his parents are quite unknown ; 
but in the Greek Menaea, or monthly catalogues of Saints, and in the Roman Martyrology 
for the 1 8th day of March, Cyril is said to have been "born of pious parents, professing 
the orthodox Faith, and to have been bred up in the same, in the reign of Constantine." 

This account of his parentage and education derives some probability from the fact 
that Cyril nowhere speaks as one who had been converted from paganism or from any 
heretical sect. His language at the close of the vii^'' I^ecture seems rather to be inspired 
by gratitude to his own parents for a Christian education : *' The first virtuous observance in 
a Christian is to honour his parents, to requite their trouble, and to provide with all his 
power for their comfort : for however much we may repay them, yet we can never be 
to them what they as parents have been to us. Let-them enjoy the comfort we can give, and 
strengthen us with blessings." 

One member only of Cyril's family is mentioned by name, his sister's son Gelasius, 
who was appointed by Cyril to be Bishop of Caesarea on the death of Acacius, a.d. 366 circ. 

Cyril himself was probably born, or at least brought up, in or near Jerusalem, for it 
was usual to choose a Bishop from among the Clergy over whom he was to preside, 
a preference being given to such as were best known to the people generally^. 

That Cyril, whether a native of Jerusalem or not, had passed a portion of his childhood 
there, is rendered probable by his allusions to the condition of the Holy Places before they 
were cleared and adorned by Constantine and Helena. He seems to speak as an eye-witness 
of their former state, when he says that a few years before the place of the Nativity at 
Bethlehem had been wooded % that the place where Christ was crucified and buried was 
a garden, of which traces were still remaining 3, that the wood of the Cross had been 
distributed to all nations*, and that before the decoration of the Holy Sepulchre by 
Constantine, there was a cleft or cave before the door of the Sepulchre, hewn out of the 

* Bingham, The Antiquities of the Christian Church, Book II. c. lo, § 3. ^ Cat. xii. 20. The wood had been cleared 

away about sixteen years before this Lecture was delivered. 3 Cat. xiii. 32 ; xiv. 5. 

4 Cat. iv. 10 ; X. ig : xiii. 4. Grsgor. Nyss. Baptism of Christ, p. 520, in this Series : " The wood of the Cross is of saving 
efficacy for all men, though it is, as I am informed, a piece of a poor tree, less valuable than most trees are." 

VOL. VII. b 


rock itself, but now no longer to be seen, because the outer cave had been cut away for 
the sake of the recent adornments s. 

This work was undertaken by Constantine after the year 326 a.d. ^; and if Cyril 
spoke from remembrance of what he had himself seen, he could hardly have been less 
than ten or twelve years old, and so must have been born not later, perhaps a few years 
earlier, than 315 a.d. 

The tradition that Cyril had been a monk and an ascetic was probably founded upon 
the passages in which he seems to speak as one who had himself belonged to the order 
of Solitaries, and shared the glory of chastity?. We need not, however, suppose that the 
"Solitaries" (/ioi/dfoi/rts) of whom he speaks were either hermits living in remote and desert 
places, or monks secluded in a monastery : they commonly lived in cities, only in separate 
houses, and frequented the same Churches with ordinary Christians. To such a life 
of perpetual chastity, strict asceticism, and works of charity, Cyril may probably, in accord- 
ance with the custom of the age, have been devoted from early youth. 

A more important question is that which relates to the time and circumstances of his 
ordination as Deacon, and as Priest, matters closely connected with some of the chief troubles 
of his later life. 

That he was ordained Deacon by Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 334 
or 335, may be safely inferred from the unfriendly notice of S. Jerome, Chron. ann. 349 
(350 A.D.) : " Cyril having been ordained Priest by Maximus, and after his death permitted 
by Acacius, Bishop of Csesarea, and the other Arian Bishops, to be made Bishop on 
condition of repudiating his ordination by Maximus, served in the Church as a Deacon : and 
after he had been paid for this impiety by the reward of the Episcopate {Sacerdotii), he by 
various plots harassed Heraclius, whom Maximus when dying had substituted in his own 
place, and degraded him from Bishop to Priest." 

From this account, incredible as it is in the main, and strongly marked by personal 
prejudice, we may conclude that Cyril had been ordained Deacon not by Maximus, but by 
his predecessor Macarius ; for otherwise he would have been compelled to renounce his 
Deacon's Orders, as well as his Priesthood. 

Macarius died in or before the year 335 ; for at the Council of Tyre, assembled in that 
year to condemn Athanasius, Maximus sat as successor to Macarius in the See of Jerusalem ^. 
This date is confirmed by the fact that after the accession of Maximus, a great assembly of 
Bishops was held at Jerusalem in the year 335, for the dedication of the Church of the Holy 
Resurrection 9. 

It thus appears that Cyril's ordination as Deacon cannot be put later than 334 or the 
beginning of 335. 

Towards the close of the latter year the Bishops who liad deposed Athanasius at the 
Council of Tyre proceeded to Jerusalem "to celebrate the Triceitnalia of Constantine's 
reign by consecrating his grand Church on Mount Calvary*." On that occasion "Jerusalem 
became the gathering point for distinguished prelates from every province, and the whole 

city was thronged by a vast assemblage of the servants of God In short, the whole of 

Syria and Mesopotamia, Phoenicia and Arabia, Palestine, Egypt, and Libya, with the dwellers 
in the Thebaid, all contributed to swell the mighty concourse of God's ministers, followed as 
they were by vast numbers from every province. They were attended by an imperial escort, 
and officers of trust had also been sent from the palace itself, with instructions to heighten 
the splendour of the festival at the Emperor's expensed" Eusebius proceeds to describe 

S Cat. xiv. 9. « Eusebius, VHa Const, iii. 29 ff. 7 Cat. xii. i, 33, 34. Compare iv. 24, note 8 

8 Hefcle, History o/Councils, ii. 17 ; Sozom. HE. ii. 25. 9 Euseb. Vita Const, iv. 43. 

' Robertson, Prolegomena to Athanasius, p. xxxix. 2 Euseb. V.C. iv. 43. 



the splendid banquets, the lavish distribution of money and clothes to the naked and 
destitute, the offerings of imperial magnificence, the " intellectual feast " of the many Bishops' 
discourses, and last, not least, his own " various public orations pronounced in honour of 
this solemnity." Among the Clergy taking part in this gorgeous ceremony, the newly 
ordained Deacon of the Church of Jerusalem would naturally have his place. It was 
a scene which could not fail to leave a deep impression on his mind, and to influence 
his attitude towards the contending parties in the great controversy by which the Church 
was at this time distracted. He knew that Athanasius had just been deposed, he had seen 
Arius triumphantly restored to communion in that august assembly of Bishops "from every 
province," with his own Bishop Maximus, and Eusebius of Cassarea, the Metropolitan, at 
their head. It is much to the praise of his wisdom and steadfastness that he was not 
misled by the notable triumph of the Arians to join their faction or adopt their tenets. 

In September, 346, Athanasius returning from his second exile at Treves passed through 
Jerusalem. The aged Bishop Maximus, who had been induced to acquiesce in the con- 
demnation of Athanasius at Tyre, and in the solemn recognition of Arius at Jerusalem, had 
afterwards refused to join the Eusebians at Antioch in 341, for the purpose of confirming the 
sentence passed at Tyre, and now gave a cordial welcome to Athanasius, who thus describes 
his reception 3 : " As I passed through Syria, I met with the Bishops of Palestine, who, when 
they had called a Council at Jerusalem, received me cordially, and themselves also sent me 
on my way in peace, and addressed the following letter to the Church and the Bishops*." 
The letter congratulating the Egyptian Bishops and the Clergy and people of Alexandria on 
the restoration of their Bishop is signed first by Maximus, who seems to have acted without 
reference to the Metropolitan Acacius, successor of Eusebius as Bishop of Caesarea, and 
a leader of the Arians, a bitter enemy of Athanasius. Though Cyril in his writings never 
mentions Athanasius or Arius by name, we can hardly doubt that, as Touttee suggests s, 
he must at this time have had an opportunity of learning the true character of the questions 
in dispute between the parties of the great heresiarch and his greater adversary. 

We have already learned from Jerome that Cyril was admitted to the Priesthood by 
Maximus. There is no evidence of the exact date of his ordination : but we may safely 
assume that he was a Priest of some years' standing, when the important duty of preparing 
the candidates for Baptism was intrusted to him in or about the year 348 ^ There appears 
to be no authority for the statement {Did. Chr. Antiq. "Catechumens," p. 319 a), that 
"the Catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem were delivered by him partly as a Deacon, partly as 
a Presbyter 7." 

At the very time of delivering the lectures, Cyril was also in the habit of preaching 
to the general congregation on the Lord's day^, when the candidates for Baptism were 
especially required to be present 9. In the Church of Jerusalem it was still the custom 
for sermons to be preached by several Presbyters in succession, the Bishop preaching last. 
From Cyril's Ho7nily on the Paralytic (§ 20) we learn that he preached immediately before the 
Bishop, and so must have held a distinguished position among the Priests. This is also 
implied in the fact, that within three or four years after delivering his Catechetical Lectures 
to the candidates for Baptism, he was chosen to succeed Maximus in the See of Jerusalem. 

The date of his consecration is approximately determined by his own letter to Constantius 
concerning the appearance of a luminous cross in the sky at Jerusalem. The. letter was 
written on the 7th of May, 351, and is described by Cyril as the first-fruit of his Episcopate. 
He must therefore have been consecrated in 350, or early in 351. 

3 Analog, contra Arian. § 57. < Cf. Athan. Hist. Arian. § 25. 

S Introductory note to Cyril's Letter to Constantius, § x. * On the exact date of the Lectures, see below, ch. ix. 

7 See more below on the office of " Catechist," ch. i;. § 2. ^ Cat. x. 14. 9 Cat. i. 6. 

b 2 


Socrates and Sozomen agree in the assertion that Acacius, Patrophilus the Arian Bishop 
of Scythopoh's, and their adherents ejected Maximus and put Cyril in his place 9*. But ac- 
cording to the statement of Jerome already quoted 9'' Maximus, when dying, had not only 
nominated Heraclius to be his successor, which, with the consent of the Clergy and people, 
was not unusual, but had actually established him as Bishop in his stead {in suum locum 
sttbsiituerat). The two accounts are irreconcileable, and both improbable. Touttee argues 
not without reason, that the consecration of Heraclius, which Jerome attributes to Maximus, 
would have been opposed to the right of the people and Clergy to nominate their own 
Bishop, and to the authority of the Metropolitan and other Bishops of the province, by 
whom the choice was to be confirmed and the consecration performed, and that it had 
moreover been expressly forbidden seven years before by the 23rd Canon of the Council of 

Still more improbable is the charge that Cyril had renounced the priesthood conferred 
on him by Maximus, and after serving in the Church as a Deacon, had been rewarded by 
the Episcopate,- and then himself degraded Heraclius from Bishop to Priest. As a solution 
of these difficulties, it is suggested by Reischls- that Cyril had been designated in the lifetime 
of Maximus as his successor, and after his decease had been duly and canonically consecrated, 
but had incurred the calumnious charges of the party opposed to Acacius and the Eusebians, 
because he was supposed to have bound himself to them by accepting consecration at their 
hands. This view is in some measure confirmed by the fact that "in the great controversy 
of the day Cyril belonged to the Asiatic party, Jerome to that of Rome. In the Meletian 
schism also they took opposite sides, Cyjil supporting Meletius, Jerome being a warm 
adherent of PauHnus %" by whom he had been recently ordained Priest. It is also worthy 
of notice that Jerome's continuation of the Chronicle of Euseblus was written at Con- 
stantinople in 380 — 381, the very tinpe when the many injurious charges fabricated by 
Cyril's bitter enemies were most industriously circulated in popular rumour on the eve of 
a judicial inquiry by the second general Council which met there in 381, under the presidency 
of Meletius, Cyril, and Gregory of Nazianzum ^ Had Jerome written of Cyril a year or two 
later, he. must have known that these calumnies had been emphatically rejected by the Synod 
of Constantinople (382) consisting of nearly the same Bishops who had been present at the 
Council of the preceding year. In their Synodical letters to Pope Damasus they wrote : "And 
of the Church in Jerusalem, which is the Mother of all the Churches, we notify that the most 
reverend and godly Cyril is Bishop : who was long ago canonically appointed by the Bishops 
of the Province, and had many conflicts in various places against the Arians." 

The beginning of Cyril's Episcopate was marked by the appearance of a bright Cross in 
the sky, about nine o'clock in the morning of Whitsunday, the 7th of May, 351 a.d. 
Brighter than the sun, it hung over the hill of Golgotha, and extended to Mount Olivet, being 
visible for many hours. The whole population of Jerusalem, citizens and foreigners, Chris- 
tians and Pagans, young and old, flocked to the Church, singing the praises of Christ, and 
hailing the phenomenon as a sign from heaven confirming llic truth of the Christian religion. 

Cyril regarded the occasion as favourable for announcing to the Emperor Constantius the 
commencement of his Episcopate ; and in his extant letter described the sign as a proof of 
God's favour towards the Empire and its Christian ruler. The piety of his father Constantine 
had been rewarded by the discovery of the true Cross and the Holy places : and now the 
greater devotion of the Son had won a more signal manifestation of Divine approval. 

9» Socr. II. E. ii. 38 ; Soz. iv. 20. The Rishops of Palestine, except two or three, had received Atlianasius most cordially a fc\» 
years before (Athan. Hist. Arian. % 25). p^ p. ii. 9= Vol. I. p. xli. note. 

« Diet. Chr. Biogr. " Cyrillus," p. 761 : and for the Meletian Schism, see " Meletius," " Paulinus," " Vitalius." 
- Mefele, ii. 344. 3 Thcodoret, His/. Eccl. v. 9. 


The letter ends with a prayer that God may grant to the Emperor long to reign as the 
protector of the Church and of the Empire, " ever glorifying the Holy and Consubstantial 
Trinity, our true God." The word Sfiooiaiov, it is alleged, had not at this time been 
accepted by Cyril, and its use has therefore been thought to cast doubt upon the genuineness 
of this final prayer, which is nevertheless maintained by the Benedictine Editor 4. The letter 
as a whole is certainly genuine, and the phenomenon is too strongly attested by the historians 
of the period to be called in question. While, therefore, we must reject Cyril's explanation, 
we have no reason to suspect him of intentional misrepresentation. A parhelion, or other 
remarkable phenomenon, of which the natural cause was at that time unknown, might well 
appear "to minds excited by the struggle between the Christian Faith and a fast-declining 
heathenism to be a miraculous manifestation of the symbol of Redemption, intended to 
establish the Faith and to confute its gainsayers s." 

The first few years of Cyril's episcopate fell within that so-called "Golden Decade," 
346 — 355, which is otherwise described as "an uneasy interval of suspense rather than o^ 
peace V Though soon to be engaged in a dispute with Acacius concerning the privileges of 
their respective Sees, Cyril seems to have been in the interval zealous and successful in 
promoting the peace and prosperity of his own Diocese. 

We learn from a letter of Basil the Great that he had visited Jerusalem about the year 
357, when he had been recently baptized, and was preparing to adopt a life of strict asceticism. 
He speaks of the many saints whom he had there embraced, and of the many who had fallen 
on their knees before him, and touched his hands as holy?, — signs, as Touttee suggests, of a 
flourishing state of religion and piety. Cyril's care for the poor, and his personal poverty, 
were manifested by an incident, of which the substantial truth is proved by the malicious use 
to which it was afterwards perverted. "Jerusalem and the neighbouring region being visited 
with a famine, the poor in great multitudes, being destitute of necessary food, turned their 
eyes upon Cyril as their Bishop. As he had no money to succour them in their need, he sold 
the treasures and sacred veils of the Church. It is said, therefore, that some one recognised 
an offering of his own as worn by an actress on the stage, and made it his business to inquire 
whence she had it, and found that it had been sold to her by a merchant, and to the merchant 
by the Bishop ^." 

This was one of the charges brought against Cyril in the course of the disputes between 
himself and Acacius, which had commenced soon after he had been installed in the Bishopric* 
of Jerusalem. As Bishop of Ctesarea, Acacius exercised Metropolitan jurisdiction over the 
Bishops of Palestine. But Cyril, as presiding over an Apostolic See, " the Mother of all the 
Churches," claimed exemption from the jurisdiction of Cassarea, and higher rank than its 
Bishop. It is not alleged, nor is it in any way probable, that Cyril claimed also the juris- 
diction over other Bishops. The rights and privileges of his See had been clearly defined 
many years before by the 7th Canon of the Council of Nicgea: "As custom and ancient 
tradition shew that the Bishop of Aelia ought to be honoured, let him have precedence in 
honour, without prejudice to the proper dignity of the Metropolitical See." ' Eusebius9, in 
reference to a Synod concerning the time of Easter, says : " There is still extant a writing of 
those who were then assembled in Palestine (about 200 a.d.), over whom Theophilus, Bishop 
of Csesarea, and Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem, presided." If one Synod only is here meant, 
it would appear that the Bishop of Csesarea took precedence of the Bishop of Jerusalem, 
which would be the natural order in a Synod held at Csesarea. Bishop Hefele, however, takes 
a different view ' : " According to the Synodicon, two Synods were held in Palestine on the 

4 Ej>ist. ad Constantium — Monitvim, § x. 5 Diet. Chr. Biogr. p. 761. 6 Gwatkin, p. 74. 7 Epist. iv. p. ix 

8 Sozom. H.E. iv, 35. 9 Hist. Eccl. v. 23. ' History of the Christian Councils, Book I. Sec. ii. c 



subject of the Easter controversy : the one at Jerusalem presided over by Narcissus, and 
composed of fourteen Bishops ; and the other at Caesarea, comprising twelve Bishops, and 
presided over by Theophilus." In confirmation of this view we may observe that when 
next Eusebius mentions Narcissus and Theophilus, he reverses the previous order, and names 
the Bishop of Jerusalem first. 

However this may have been, Acacius, who as an Arian was likely to have little respect 
for the Council of Nicsea, seems to have claimed both precedence and jurisdiction over 
Cyril, From ^ Socrates we learn that Cyril was frequently summoned to submit to the 
judgment of Acacius, but for two whole years refused to appear. He was therefore 
deposed by Acacius and the other Arian Bishops of Palestine on the cliarge of having 
sold the property of the Church, as before mentioned. Socrates, who confesses that he 
does not know for what Cyril was accused, yet suggests that he was afraid to meet the accu- 
sations 3. But Theodoret, a more impartial witness, says* that Acacius took advantage 
of some slight occasion (dcpopixds) and deposed him. Sozomens also describes the accu- 
sation as a pretext (eVJ npocpaa-fi TuioSe), and the deposition as hastily decreed, to forestall 
any countercharge of heresy by Cyril {(})6nvei KadiXav). The deposition was quickly followed 
by Cyril's expulsion from Jerusalem, and a certain Eutychius was appointed to succeed him^ 
Passing by Antioch, which at this time, 357 — 358, was left without a Bishop by the recent 
decease of the aged Arian Leontius Castratus?, Cyril took refuge in Tarsus with its Bishop 
the " admirable Silvanus," " one of the Semi-Arians, who, as Athanasius testifies, agreed 
almost entirely with the Nicene doctrine, only taking offence at the expression oiioova-ios, 
because in their opinion it contained latent Sabellianism^." Cyril now sent to the Bishops who 
had deposed him a formal notice that he appealed to a higher Court {i^'iCov eTre/caXeVaro 
SiKaarfjpiov}, and his appeal was approved by the Emperor Constantius 9. Acacius, on learn- 
ing the place of Cyril's retreat, wrote to Silvanus announcing his deposition. But Silvanus 
out of respect both to Cyril, and to the people, who were delighted with his teaching, still 
permitted him to exercise his ministry in the Church. Socrates finds fault with Cyril for his 
appeal : " In this," he says, " he was the first and only one who acted contrary to the custom 
of the Ecclesiastical Canon, by having recourse to appeals as in a civil court." The reproach 
implied in this statement is altogether undeserved. The question, as Touttee argues, is not 
whether others had done the like before or after, but whether Cyril's appeal was in accord- 
ance with natural justice, and the custom of the Church. On the latter point he refers to the 
various appeals of the Donatists, of Marcellus of Ancyra, and Asclepas of Gaza, and to the 
case of the notorious heretic Photinus, who after being condemned in many Councils appealed 
to the Emperor, and was allowed to dispute in his presence with Basil the Great as his 
opponent. Athanasius himself, in circumstances very similar to Cyril's, declined to appear 
before Eusebius and a Synod of Arian Bishops at Cmsarea, by whom he was condemned 
A.D. 334, and appealed in person to Constantine, requesting either that a lawful Council of 
Bishops might be assembled, or that the Emperor would himself receive his defence '." 

In justification of Cyril's appeal it is enough to say that it was impossible for him to 
submit to the judgment of Acacius and his Arian colleagues. They could not be impartial 
in a matter where the jurisdiction of Acacius their president, and his unsoundness in the 
Faith, were as much in question as any of the charges brought against Cyril. He took the 
only course open to him in requesting the Emperor to remit his case to the higher juris- 

3 lb. 

4 lb. ii. 26. 

a //is/. Eccl. ii. 40. 

5 HE. iv. 25. 

6 There is much uncertainty and confusion in the names of the 
liishops who succeeded Cyril on the three occasions of his being 
deposed. His successor in 357 is said by Jerome to have been 
a certain Eutychius, probably the same who was afterwards ex- 

communicated at Seleucia {Diet. Chr. Biogr. Eutychius 13). Th« 
subject is discussed at length by Toutt(5e {Diss. I. vii.). 

7 See the account of his remarkable career in the Diet. Chr. 
Biogr. 8 Athan. De Synodis, c. xii.; Hefele, ii. 263. 

9 Socrates, H.E. ii. 40. 

• Athan. contr. Arianos Apol. c. 36: Hefele, Ii. p. 27, note. 



diction of a greater Council, and in giving formal notice of this appeal to the Bishops who 
had expelled him. 

While the appeal was pending, Cyril became acquainted with "the learned Bishop, Basil 
of Ancyra " (Hefele), with Eustathius of Sebaste in Armenia, and George of Laodicea, the 
chief leaders of the party " usually (since Epiphanius), but with some injustice, designated 
Semi-Arian^" One of the charges brought against Cyril in the Council of Constantinople 
(360, A.D.) was, as we shall see, that he held communion with these Bishops. 

Cyril had not long to wait for the hearing of his appeal. In the year 359 the Eastern 
Bishops met at Seleucia in Isauria, and the Western at Ariminum. Constantius had at 
first wished to convene a general Council of all the Bishops of the Empire, but this 
intention he was induced to abandon by representations of the long journeys and expense, 
and he therefore directed the two Synods then assembled at Ariminum and at Seleucia " the 
Rugged " to investigate first the disputes concerning the Faith, and then to turn their 
attention to the complaints of Cyril, and other Bishops against unjust decrees of deposition 
and banishment 3. This order of proceeding was discussed, and after much controversy 
adopted on the first day of meeting, the 27th of September 1 On the second day Acacius 
and his friends refused to remain unless the Bishops already deposed, or under accusation, 
were excluded. Theodoret relates that "several friends of peace tried to persuade Cyril 
of Jerusalem to withdraw, but that, as he would not comply, Acacius left the assembly s." 
Three days afterwards, according to Sozomen, a third meeting was held at which the demand 
of Acacius was complied with ; " for the Bishops of the opposite party were determined that 
he should have no pretext for dissolving the Council, which was evidently his object in order 
to prevent the impending examination of the heresy of Aetius and of the accusations which 
had been brought against him and his partisans ^." A creed put forward by Acacius having 
been rejected, he refused to attend any further meetings, though repeatedly summoned to 
be present at an investigation of his own charges against Cyril. 

In the end Acacius and many of his friends were deposed or excommunicated. Some of 
these, however, in defiance of the sentence of the Council, returned to their dioceses, as did 
also the majority who had deposed them. 

It is not expressly stated whether any formal decision on the case of Cyril was adopted by 
the Council : but as his name does not appear in the lists of those who were deposed or ex- 
communicated, it is certain that he was not condemned. It is most probable that the charges 
against him were disregarded after his accuser Acacius had refused to appear, and that he re- 
turned, like the others, to his diocese. But he was not to be left long in peace. Acacius and 
some of his party had hastened to Constantinople, where they gained over to their cause the 
chief men attached to the palace, and through their influence secured the favour of Con- 
stantius, and roused his anger against the majority of the Council. But what especially stirred 
the Emperor's wrath were the charges which Acacius concocted against Cyril : " For," he said 
that " the holy robe which the Emperor Constantine of blessed memory, in his desire to 
honour the Church of Jerusalem, had presented to Macarius, the Bishop of that city, to be 
worn when he administered the rite of Holy Baptism, all fashioned as it was with golden 
threads, had been sold by Cyril, and bought by one of the dancers at the theatre, who had put 
it on, and while dancing had fallen, and injured himself, and died. With such an 
ally as this Cyril," he said, " they undertake to judge and pass sentence upon the rest of the 
world 7." 

Ten deputies who at the close of the Council of Seleucia had been appointed to report its 

2 Robertson, Prolegomena ad Athanas. ii. § 8 (2) C. S Soz. iv. 17. 4 Socrat. ii. 39. S H.E. ii. 26. 

6 Sozom. iv. 22. Theodoret, H.E. ii. 23, 


proceedings to the Emperor, " met, on their arrival at the Court, the deputies of the Council 
of Ariminum, and likewise the partisans of Acacius^. After much controversy and many 
intrigues, a mutilated and ambiguous Creed adopted at Ariminum in which the ofxoova-ios of 
Nicsa was replaced by "like to the Father that begat Him according to the Scriptures," 
and the mention of either "essence" (oiaia) or "subsistence" (woaraa/s) condemned 9, was 
brought forward and approved by the Emperor. "After having, on the last day of the 
year 359, discussed the matter with the Bishops till far into the nighty he at length extorted 
their signatures .... It is in this connexion that Jerome says : Ingemuit totus orbis, et Aria- 
num se esse miratiis esP." Early in the following year, 360 a.d., through the influence of 
Acacius a new Synod was held at Constantinople, in which, among other Semi-Arian Bishops, 
Cyril also was deposed on the charge of having held communion with Eustathius of Sebaste, 
Basil of Ancyra, and George of Laodicea. Cyril, as we have seen, had become acquainted 
with these Bishops during his residence at Tarsus in 358, at which time they were all zealous 
opponents of Acacius and his party, but differed widely in other respects. 

George of Laodicea was a profligate in morals, and an Arian at heart, whose opposition 
to Acacius and Eudoxius was prompted by self-interest rather than by sincere conviction. 
He had been deposed from the priesthood by Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, both on the 
ground of false doctrine, and of the open and habitual irregularities of his life. Athanasius 
styles him "the most wicked of all the Arians," reprobated even by his own party for his grossly 
dissolute conduct 3. 

Basil of Ancyra was a man of high moral character, great learning, and powerful intellect, 
a consistent opponent both of the Sabellianism of Marcellus, and of every form of Ariau 
and Anomcean heresy, a chief among those of whom Athanasius wrote +, " We discuss the 
matter with them as brothers with brothers, who mean what we mean, and dispute only about 
the word {o^ioovaioi). . . . Now such is Basil who wrote from Ancyra concerning the Faith " 
(35S A.D., the same year in which Cyril met him at Tarsus). 

Eustathius is described as a man unstable in doctrine, vacillating from party to party, 
subscribing readily to Creeds of various tendency, yet commanding the respect even of his 
enemies by a life of extraordinary holiness, in which active benevolence was combined with 
extreme austerity. " He was a man," says Mr. Gwatkin s, " too active to be ignored, too 
unstable to be trusted, too famous for ascetic piety to be lightly made an open enemy." 

S. Basil the Great, when travelling from place to place, to observe the highest forms of 
ascetic life, had met with Eustathius at Tarsus, and formed a lasting friendship with a man 
whom he describes as " exhibiting something above human excellence," and of whom, after 
the painful dissensions which embittered Basil's later life, that great saint could say, that 
from chiklliood to extreme old age he (Eustathius) had watched over himself with the greatest 
care, the result of his self-discipline being seen in his life and character^. 

Of any intimate friendship between Cyril and these Semi-Arian leaders, we have no 
evidence in the vague charges of Acacius : their common fault was that they condemned him 
in the Synod of Selcucia. The true reason of Cyril's deposition, barely concealed by the 
frivolous charges laid against him, was the hatred of Acacius, incurred by the refusal to ac- 
knowledge the Metropolitan jurisdiction of the See of Caesarea. The deposition was confirmed 
by Constantius, and followed by a sentence of banishment. The place of Cyril's exile is not 
mentioned, nor is it known whether he joined in the protest of the other deposed Bishops, 
described by S. Basil, ^T/Zj/. 75. His banishment was not of longer continuance than two 
years. Constantius died on the 3rd of November, 361, and the accession of Julian was soon 

8 Sozom. iv. 23. 9 Ailian. ^c Syn. S 30, where this Creed is given in fulL « S. Hilar, ii. Num. 700. 

^ Hefclc, Coumi/s, ii. 371. 3 Dkt. Chr. ISiogr. 4 De Synodis, § 41. 5 The Arian Controversy, p. 135. 

6 basil, Epist. 244. Compare Newman, Pre/ace to Catechetical Lectures, p. iv. 


followed by the recall of all the exiled Bishops, orthodox and heretical, and the restoration 
of their confiscated estates 7, Julian's object, according to Socrates, was " to brand tlie 
memory of Constantius by making him appear to have been cruel towards his subjects." An 
equally amiable motive imputed to him is mentioned by Sozomen : " It is said that he issued 
this order in their behalf not out of mercy, but that through contention among themselves 
the Church might be involved in fraternal strife^." Cyril, returning with the other Bishops, 
seems to have passed through Antioch on his way home, and to have been well received by 
the excellent Bishop Meletius. 

It happened that the son of a heathen priest attached to the Emperor's Court, having 
been instructed in his youth by a Deaconess whom he visited with his mother, had secretly 
become a Christian. On discovering this, his father had cruelly scourged and burnt him with 
hot spits on his hands, and feet, and back. He contrived to escape, and took refuge with 
his friend the Deaconess. *' ' She dressed me in women's garments, and took me in her 
covered carriage to the divine Meletius. He handed me over to the Bishop of Jerusalem, 
at that time Cyril, and we started by night for Palestine.' After the death of Julian, this 
young man led his father also into the way of truth. This act he told me with the rest 9." 

The next incident recorded in the life of S. Cyril is his alleged prediction of the failure of 
Julian's attempt to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. " The vain and ambitious mind of 
Julian," says Gibbon, "might aspire to restore the ancient glory of the Temple of Jerusalem. 
As the Christians were firmly persuaded that a sentence of everlasting destruction had been 
pronounced against the whole fabric of the Mosaic law, the Imperial sophist would have 
converted the success of his undertaking into a specious argument against the faith ot 
prophecy and the truth of revelation." Again he writes : " The Christians entertained 
a natural and pious expectation, that in this memorable contest, the honour of religion 
would be vindicated by some signal miracle '." That such an expectation may have been 
shared by Cyril is not impossible : but there is no satisfactory evidence that he ventured to 
foretell any miraculous interposition. According to the account of Rufinus^, "lime and 
cement had been brought, and all was ready for destroying the old foundations and laying 
new on the next day. But Cyril remainedtundismayed, and after careful consideration either 
of what he had read in Daniel's prophecy concerning the 'times,' or of our Lord's predictions 
in the Gospels, persisted that it was impossible that one stone should ever there be laid upon 
another by the Jews." This account of Cyril's expectation, though probable enough in itself, 
seems to be little more than a conjecture founded on his statement {Cat. xv. 15), that 
" Antichrist will come at the time when there shall not be left one stone upon another 
in the Temple of the Jews." That doom was not completed in Cyril's time, nor did 
he expect it to be fulfilled until the coming of the Jewish Antichrist, who was to restore 
the Temple shortly before the end of the world. It was impossible for Cyril to see in Julian 
such an Antichrist as he has described; and therefore, without any gift or pretence ot 
prophecy, he might very well express a firm conviction that the attempted restoration at that 
time must fail. Though Gibbon is even more cynical and contemptuous than usual in his 
examination of the alleged miracles, he does not attempt to deny the main facts of the story 3; 
with their miraculous character we are not here concerned, but only with Cyril's conduct 
on so remarkable an occasion. 

In the same year, a.d. t^^^i, Julian was killed in his Persian campaign on the 26th of 
June, and was succeeded by Jovian, whose universal tolerance, and personal profession 
of the Nicene faith, though discredited by the looseness of his morals, gave an interval 

7 Socr. H.E. iii. i. 8 Sozom. H.E. v. c. 5. Compare Gibbon, Ch. xxlii. : " The impartial Ammianus has ascribed this 

afifected clemency to the desire of fomenting the intestine divisions of the Church." 9 Theodoret, H.E. iii. 10. 

I Gibbon, c. xxiii. 2 Hist. i. 37. 3 See Gibbon's remarks on the testimony of Ammianus, "a contemporary and 

a Pagan, ' and on the explanation from natural causes suggested by Michaelis. 


of comparative rest to the Church. In his reign Athanasius was recalled, and Acacius 
and his friends subscribed the Nicene Creed, with an explanation of the sense in which 
they accepted the word Sunova-inv*, As Cyril's name is not mentioned in any of the records 
of Jovian's short reign of seven months, we may infer that he dwelt in peace at Jerusalem. 

Jovian died on the 17th of February, 364, and was succeeded by Valentinian, who in the 
following March gave over the Eastern provinces of the Empire to his brother Valens. 
During the first two years of the new reign we hear nothing of Cyril : but at the beginning of 
the year 366, on the death of his old enemy Acacius, Cyril assumed the right to nominate his 
successor in the See of Csesarea, and appointed a certain Philumenus s. Whether this 
assumption of authority was in accordance with the 7th Canon of Nicaea may be doubted: 
Cyril's choice of his nephew was, however, in after times abundantly justified by the conduct 
and character of Gelasius, who is described by Theodoret as a man "distinguished by the 
purity of his doctrine, and the sanctity of his life," and is quoted by the same historian as 
" the admirable," and " the blessed Gelasius ^." 

Epiphanius relates 7 that "after these three had been set up, and could do nothing on 
account of mutual contentions," Euzoius was appointed by the Arians, and held the See until 
the accession of Theodosius in a.d. 379, when he was deposed, and Gelasius restored. In the 
meantime Cyril had been a third time deposed and driven from Jerusalem, probably in the 
year 367. For at that time Valens, who had fallen under the influence of Eudoxius, the Arian 
Bishop of Constantinople, by whom he was baptized, *' wrote to the Governors of the provinces, 
commanding that all Bishops who had been banished by Constantius, and had again assumed 
their sacerdotal offices under the Emperor Julian, should be ejected from their Churches V 
Of this third and longest banishment we have no particulars, but we may safely apply to it the 
words of the Synod at Constantinople, 382, that Cyril " had passed through very many contests 
with the Arians in various places." 

The terrible defeat and miserable death of Valens in the great battle against the Goths at 
Adrianople (a.d. 378) brought a respite to the defenders of the Nicene doctrine. For Gratian 
" disapproved of the late persecution that had been carried on for the purpose of checking the 
diversities in religious Creeds, and recalled all these who had been banished on account of 
their religion 9." Gratian associated Theodosius with himself in the Empire on the 19th of 
January, 379; and "at this period," says Sozomen % "all the Churches of the East, with 
the exception of that of Jerusalem, were in the hands of the Arians," Cyril, therefore, had 
been one of the first to return to his own See. During his long absence the Church of 
Jerusalem had been the prey both of Arianism and of the new heresy of ApoUinarius, which 
had spread among the monks who were settled on Mount Olivet. Egyptian Bishops, banished 
lor their orthodoxy, having taken refuge in Palestine, there found themselves excluded from 
communion. Jerusalem was given over to heresy and schism, to the violent strife of rival 
factions, and to extreme licentiousness of morals. 

Gregory of Nyssa, who had been commissioned by a Council held at Antioch in 378 to 
visit the Churches in Arabia and Palestine, " because matters with them were in confusion, and 
needed an arbiter," gives a mournful account both of the distracted state of the Church, and 
of the prevailing corruption. " If the Divine grace were more abundant about Jerusalem 
than elsewhere, sin would not be so much the fashion among those who live there ; but as it 
is, there is no form of uncleanness that is not perpetrated among them ; rascality, adultery, 
theft, idolatry, poisoning, quarrelling, murder, are rife." In a letter ^^ written after his return 

4 Socr. iii. 25 ; Sozom. vi. 4. S Epiphanius, Htpr. 73, S 37. * //«/. Ecc!. V. 8 ; Dialog:, i. iii. 

7 H<eres. Ixxiii. § 37. 8 Sozom. vi, 12. Cf. Tillemont, Mcmoires, Tom. vili. p. 357 : " As Cyril was, no doubt, tlien per- 

lecutcd only on account of his firmness in the true Faith, the title of Confessor cannot be refused to liirn." 
9 Soz. viL I. « lb. a. 2 Greg. Nyss. Epist. xvii. in this Series. 



to C^sarea in Cappadocia he asks, "What means this opposing array of new Altars? Do we 
announce another Jesus ? Do we produce other Scriptures ? Have any of ourselves dared 
to say " Mother of Man " of the Holy Virgin, the Mother of God ? 

In the year a.d. 381 Theodosius summoned the Bishops of his division of the Empire to 
meet in Council at Constantinople, in order to settle the disputes by which the Eastern 
Church had been so long distracted, and to secure the triumph of the Nicene Faith over the 
various forms of heresy which had arisen in the half-century which had elapsed since the first 
General Council. Among the Bishops present were Cyril of Jerusalem, and his nephew 
Gelasius, who on the death of Valens had regained possession of the See of Cassarea from the 
Arian intruder Euzoius. Cyril is described by Sozomen3 as one of three recognised 
leaders of the orthodox party, and, according to Bishop Hefele^, as sharing the presidency 
with the Bishops of Alexandria and Antioch. This latter point, however, is not clearly 
expressed in the statement of Sozomen. Socrates writes that Cyril at this time recognised the 
doctrine of ofioovcriov, having retracted his former opinion : and Sozomen says that he had at 
this period renounced the tenets of the Macedonians which he previously helds. Toutte'e 
rightly rejects these reproaches as unfounded : they are certainly opposed to all his teaching 
in the Catechetical Lectures, where the doctrine of Christ's unity of essence with the Father 
is fully and frequently asserted, though the term 6/iooilo-ios is not used, and the co-equal Deity 
of the Holy Ghost is everywhere maintained. 

We find no further mention of Cyril in the proceedings of the Council itself. As 
consisting of Eastern Bishops only, its authority was not at first acknovvledged, nor its 
acts approved in the Western Church. The two Synods held later in the same year 
at Aquileia and at Milan, sent formal protests to Theodosius, and urged him to summon 
a General Council at Alexandria or at Rome. But instead of complying with this request, 
the Emperor summoned the Bishops of his Empire to a fresh Synod at Constantinople; and 
there in the summer of 382 very nearly the same Bishops were assembled who had been 
present at the Council of the preceding year. Their Synodical letter addressed to the Bishops 
assembled at Rome is preserved by Theodoret^, and in it we read as follows: "Of the 
Church in Jerusalem, the Mother of all the Churches, we make known that Cyril the most 
reverend and most beloved of God is Bishop ; and that he was canonically ordained long 
ago by the Bishops of the province, and that he has very often fought a good fight in various 
places against the Arians." Thus justice was done at last to one whose prudence, modera- 
tion, and love of peace, had exposed him in those days of bitter controversy to undeserved 
suspicion and relentless persecution. His justification by the Council is the last recorded 
incident in Cyril's life. We are told by Jerome that he held undisturbed possession of his 
See for eight years under Theodosius. The eighth year of Theodosius was a.d. 386, and 
in the Roman Martyrology, the i8th of March in that year is marked as "The birthday 
('Natalis,' i.e. of his heavenly life) of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, who after suffering many 
wrongs from the Arians for the sake of the Faith, and having been several times driven 
from his See, became at length renowned for the glory of sanctity, and rested in peace : 
an Ecumenical Council in a letter to Damasus gave a noble testimony to his untarnished 


Catechetical Instruction. 

§ I, Catechests. The term "Catechesis" in its widest sense includes instruction by word 
of mouth on any subject sacred or profane \ but is especially appUed to Christian teaching, 

3 H.E. vii. 7. 4 Councils, ii. 344. 5 Socrat. v. 8; Sozom. vii. 7. « H.E. v. 9. 

' Acts xviii. 25 ; xxi. 21, 24; Rom. ii. 18 ; Gal. vi. 6. Cf. Clem. Alex. Fragtn. § 28 : ovk ecTi irKJ-revo-ai avev KarnxriiTeiat. 


whether of an elementary kind appropriate to new converts, or, as in tlie famous Catechetical 
School of Alexandria, extending to the higher interpretation of Holy Scripture, and the 
exposition of Christian philosophy. 

The earliest known example of a Catechetical work is the " Teaching of the Twelve 
Apostles^'' which Athanasius names among the "books not included in the Canon, but 
appointed by the Fathers to be read by those who are just recently coming to us, and 
wish to be instructed in the word of godliness (Karrjxe'ia-din ruv ttj^ fvae^eias Xoyov) ^" This 
use of the Didache for the instruction of recent converts from Paganism agrees with 
its original purpose as stated in the longer title, " Teaching of the Lord thfot/gh the Tivelve 
Apostles for the Gentiles^ The first six chapters are evidently adapted for those who need 
elementary instruction, more particularly for Catechumens of Gentile descent, as distinct 
from Jewish candidates for Baptisms. The remaining chapters of the Didache relate 
chiefly to the administration of Baptism, to Prayer, Fasting, and the services of the Lord's 
Day, and to the celebration of the Agape and Eucharist 4. This same division of subjects 
is observed in the two classes of S. Cyril's Catechetical Lectures : the first class, including 
the Procatechesis, consists of XIX Lectures addressed to candidates for Baptism, and these 
are followed by five " Mystagogic " Lectures, so called as being explanations of the Sacra- 
mental Mysteries to the newly-baptized. 

The Didache was taken as the basis of other manuals of instruction, as is evident from 
the fact that the greater part of the first six chapters is imbedded in " The Apostolical 
Church Order," supposed to date from Egypt in the third century. The Greek text, with an 
English translation, of the part corresponding with the Didache, is given in "The oldest 
Church Manual" as Document V. 

A further development of the Didache, " adapted to the state of the Eastern Church in 
tlie first half of the fourth century," is contained in the Seventh Book of the Apostolical 
Constitutions of Pseudo-Clement of Rome, chs. i.-xxxii. " Here the Didache is embodied 
almost word for word, but with significant omissions, alterations, and additions, which betray 
a later age. . . . The Didache was thus superseded by a more complete and timely Church 
Manual, and disappeared." Dr. SchaiT has appended this document also to his edition of the 
Didachd, noting the borrowed passages on the margin, and distinguishing them by spaced 
type in the Greek text, and by italics in the English translation. 

In this work the directions concerning the instruction of Catechumens and their Baptism 
are addressed to the Catechist and the Minister of Baptism. They contain only a short out- 
line (c. xxxix.) of the subjects in which the Catechumens are to be instructed, most if not all 
of which are explained at large in Cyril's Lectures : and in the directions concerning Baptism, 
Chrism, and the Eucharist, the similarity is so close, that in many passages of the Constitu- 
tions the author seems to be referring especially to the use of the Church of Jerusalem. 

From this close afifinity with earlier works we may be assured that in the Catecheses of 
Cyril we have trustworthy evidence of the great care which the Church had from the 
beginning bestowed on the instruction and training of converts, before admitting them to the 
privilege of Baptism ; but beyond this, Cyril's own work has a peculiar value as the earliest 
extant example of a full, systematic, and continuous course of such instruction. 

§ 2. Catechist. The duty of catechizing was not limited to a class of persons permanently 
set apart for that purpose, but all orders of the Clergy were accustomed to take part in the 
work. Even laymen were encouraged to teach children or new converts the first elements of 
religion, as we learn from Cyril's exhortation : *' If thou hast a child according to the flesh, 
admonish him of this now ; and if thou hast begotten one through catechizijig, put him also on 

* Festal Epist, 39. Compare Clem. Alex. Strom. V. c. x. § 67. riAo \Liv rj Kanixic'S oiocei. wpuirri yf^XV^ rpo^Tj vorjB'qa'tTau 
3 SchafT, Oldest Church Manual, p. 15. 4 lb. p. 36, 



his guards." That this remark was addressed not to the Catechumens, but to such of the 
Faithful as happened to be present among his audience, appears from what he says elsewhere, 
*' So thou likewise, though not daring before thy Baptism to wrestle with the adversaries, yet 
after thou hast received the grace, and art lienceforth confident in the armour of righteousness^ 
must then do battle, and preach the Gospel, if thou wilt ^." 

The more systematic instruction of those who had been already admitted to the order of 
Catechumens was entrusted to persons appointed to this special duty. Thus Origen " was in 
his eighteenth year when he took charge of the Catechetical School at Alexandria," which 
" was entrusted to him alone by Demetrius, who presided over the Church ^ : " and S. Au- 
gustine's Treatise, De Catechizandis jRudibus, was addressed to Deogratias, who being a Deacon 
at Carthage, and highly esteemed for his skill and success as a Catechist, felt so strongly the 
importance of the work and his own insufficiency, that he wrote to Augustine for advice as to 
the best method of instructing those who were brought to him to be taught the first elements 
of the Christian Faith. 

The final training of the <5a)rifo/xei/ot, or candidates for Baptism, was undertaken in part by 
the Bishop himself, but chiefly by a Priest specially appointed by him. Of the part taken by 
the Bishop mention is made by S. Ambrose in a letter to his sister Marcellina {Ep. xx.) : " On 
the following day, which was the Lord's day, after the Lessons and Sermon, the Catechumens 
had been dismissed, and I was delivering the Creed to some candidates {Compeientes) in the 
Baptistery of the Basilica." 

Of this " delivery of the Creed," which was usually done by a Presbyter, we have examples 
in S. Augustine's Sermons In traditione Symboli, ccxii. — ccxiv. , each of which contains a brief 
recapitulation and explanation of the several articles of belief. In Serm. ccxiv., after a short 
introduction, we find the following note inserted by the preacher himself. S^'' After this preface the 
wlwle Creed is to be recited, without interposing a7iy discussion. ' / believe in God the Fa ther 
Almighty^ and the rest that follows. Which Creed, thou knowest, is not wont to be written : 
after it has been said, the following discussion {disputatio) is to be added."] 

From the opening words of Sermon ccxiv., and of ccxvi., " ad Competentes," it is evident 
that these were delivered by S. Augustine as the first-fruits of his ministry very soon after he 
had been reluctantly ordained Priest (a.d. 391). Two other examples of addresses to Can- 
didates for Baptism are the Catecheses L, XL, tt/jos toii? /lifXXoj/ras (pariCfadai, delivered at Antioch 
by S, Chrysostom while a Presbyter. 

Another duty often undertaken by the Bishop was to hear each Candidate separately 
recite the Creed, and then to expound to them all the Lord's Prayer^. 

§ 3. Catechumens. The term Catechumen denoted a person who was receiving in- 
struction in the Christian religion with a view to being in due time baptized. Such persons 
were either converts from Paganism and Judaism, or children of Christian parents whose 
Baptism had been deferred. For though the practice of Infant-Baptism was certainly common 
in the Early Church ', it was not compulsory nor invariable. " In many cases Christian 
parents may have shared and acted on the opinion expressed by Tertullian in the second 
century, and by Gregory Nazianzen in the fourth, and thought it well to defer the Baptism of 
children, cases of grave sickness excepted, till they Avere able to make answer in their own 
name to the interrogations of the baptismal rite ^." 

S Cat. XV. 18. 6 Cat. iii. 13. 7 Euseb. H.E. vi. 3. 

8 S. August. Serm. Iviii. et ccxv. 

' Cf. Iren. II. c. xxii. §4: " Omnes enim venit per semet 
ipsum salvare ; omnes, inquam, qui per eura renascuninr'iw Deuni, 
infantes, et parvulos, et pueros, et juvenes, et seniores. Cf. Concil. 
Carthag. iii. Epist. Synod. (Cypriani Ep. lix. vel Ixiv. Routh. 
R. S. iii. p. 98.) 

» Bid. Chr. Antiq. " Baptism," § loi. Tertull. De Baptismo, 
c. xviii. " And so, according to the circumstances, and disposi- 
tion, and even age of each individual, the delay of Baptism is 
preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children.' 
Cf. Gregor. Naz. Orat. 40 De Baptismo, quoted by Bingham, 
xi. c. 4, § 13. 



It is stated by Bingham 3, but without any reference to ancient authors, that " the children 
of believing parents, as they were baptized in infancy, were admitted Catechumens as soon as 
they were capable of learning." Though the title " Catechumen " was not usually applied to 
those who had been already baptized, it is probable that such children were admitted to the 
Lectures addressed to Catechumens both in the earlier and later stage of their preparation : 
for it seems to be implied in the passage quoted above from Cat. xv. i8, that admission was 
not limited to the candidates for Baptism. 

To believe and to be baptized are the two essential conditions of membership in Christ's 
Church 4: but for the admission of new converts to the class of Catechumens nothing more 
could be required than evidence of a sincere desire to understand, to believe, and ultimately 

to be baptized. 

We know that unbelievers, Jews, and Heathens were allowed in the Apostolic age to be 
present at times in the Christian assemblies S; and in Cyril's days they stood in the lower 
part of the Church {vcipBr]^) to hear the Psalms, Lessons, and Sermon 6. 

Any persons who by thus hearing the word, or by other means, were brought to believe in 
the truth of Christianity, and to wish for further instruction, were strictly examined as to their 
character, belief, and sincerity of purpose. The care with which such examinations were con- 
ducted is thus described by Origen : " The Christians, however, having previously, so far as 
possible, tested the souls of those who wish to become their hearers, and having previously 
admonished them in private, when they seem, before entering the community, to have made 
sufficient progress in the desire to lead a virtuous life, they then introduce them, having 
privately formed one class of those who are just beginners, and are being introduced, and 
have not yet received the mark of complete purification ; and another of those who have 
manifested to the best of their ability the purpose of desiring no other things than are approved 
by Christians 7." Such as were thus found worthy of admission were brought to the Bishop or 
Presbyter, and received by the sign of the Cross ^, with prayer and imposition of hands, to the 
status of Catechumens. 

We have a description by Eusebius 9 of some of these ceremonies in the case of Con- 
stantine: When the Emperor felt his life to be drawing to a close, "he poured forth his 
supplications and confessions to God, kneeling on the pavement in the Church itself, in 
which he also now for the first time received the imposition of hands with prayer." Soon 
after this the Bishops whom he had summoned to Nicomedia to give him Baptism, " performed 
the sacred ceremonies in the usual manner, and having given him the necessary instructions 
made him a partaker of the mystic ordinances." 

Another ceremony used in the admission of Catechumens, at least in some Churches, is 
mentioned by S. Augustine ' : *' Sanctification is not of one kind only : for I suppose that 
Catechumens also are sanctified in a certain way of their own by the sign of Christ's Cross, 
and the Prayer of the Imposition of Hands ; and that which they receive, though it be not 
the Body of Christ, is yet an holy thing, and more holy than the common food which sustains 
us, because it is a sacrament." From this passage it has been inferred that consecrated bread 

3 Antig. X. i. 8 4. 

4 Mark xvi. 16 ; Acts xviii. 8. Si Cor. xiv. 43. 

(> Apostolic Constitutions. VI 1 1, i. § 5 : " And aficr the readinq; 
of the Law and the Prophets, and our Epistles, and Acts, and 
Gospels, let him that is ordained . . . speak to the people the 
word of exhoitation, and when he has ended his ^discourse of 
doctrine, all standing up, let the Deacon ascend upon some high 
seat, and proclaim. Let none of the hearers, let none of the ««- 
beiievcrs ^\.3.y: and silence being made, let him say, Ye Cate- 
ckuinens, pray, and let all the Faithful pray for them." 

7 Contra Cehum, iii. c. 51. Cf. Const. Apost. viii. 32 : " Let 

them be examined as to the causes wherefore they come to the 
word of the Lord, and let those who bring them inquire exactly 
about their character, and give them their testimony. Let their 
manners and their life be inquired into, and whether they be slaves 
or free,' &c. 

8 S. Aug. De Symbolo, Serin, ad Cateehumenos, 81: " Ve 
have not yet been born again by holy Baptism, but by the sign of 
the Cross ye have been already conceived in the womb of your 
mother the Church." 

9 Vita Const, iv. c. 60. 

' De Peccatorum merilis, ii. 43' 


{fv\oyiai, panis benedictus), taken out of the oblations provided for the Eucharist, was given to 
the Catechumens, — an opinion which seemed to have some support in the comparison between 
"that which the Catechumens receive," and "the food which sustains us." But Bingham 
maintains => that S. Augustine here refers only to the symbolical use of salt, of which he says in 
his Confessions, I. xi., that while yet a boy he "used to be marked with the sign of His Cross, 
and seasoned with His salt." The meaning of this so-called "Sacrament of the Catechumens" 
was that by the symbol of salt " they might learn to purge and cleanse their souls from 

In the African Church in the time of S. Augustine it was customary to anoint the new 
convert with exorcised oil at the time of his admission, but in the Eastern Church there seems 
to have been no such anointing until immediately before Baptism. 

Persons who had been thus admitted to the class of Catechumens were usually regarded as 
Christians, but only in a lower degree, being still clearly distinguished from the Faithful. 
*' Ask a man, Art thou a Christian ] If he is a Pagan or a Jew, he answers, I am not. But if 
he say, I am, you ask him further. Catechumen or Faithful ? If he answer, Catechumen, he 
has been anointed, but not yet baptized 3." Augustine, like Tertullian, complains that among 
heretics there was no sure distinction between the Catechumen and the Faithful + : and 
according to the second General Council, Canon 7, converts from certain heresies to the 
orthodox Faith were to be received only as heathen : " On the first day we make them 
Christians, on the second Catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by three times breath- 
ing on them on the face and on the ears ; and so we instruct them {KaTrjxoi^iei), and make 
them frequent the Church for a long time, and listen to the Holy Scriptures, and then we 
baptize them." 

Whether Cyril calls his hearers Christians before they had been baptized is not very clear : 
in Cat. X. § 16, he seems to include them among those who are called by the "new name;" 
but in § 20 of the same Lecture he assumes that there may be present some one who " was 
before a believer {nia-Ttk)," and to him he says "Thou wert called a Christian ; be tender of 
the name;" and in Lect. xxi. i, speaking to those who had now been baptized, he says, 
" Having therefore become partakers of Christ, ye are properly called Christs. Now ye have 
been made Christs by receiving the antitype of the Holy Ghost," that is, Chrism. 

§ 4. Candidates for Baptism. Bingham, who himself makes four classes or degrees of 
Catechumens, acknowledges that " the Greek expositors of the ancient Canons," and other 
writers, " usually make but two sorts 5." These were (i) the imperfect {arikkvrepoi), called also 
hearers (aKpoayfifvoi, audientes), because in Church they were only allowed to remain till the 
Holy Scriptures had been read, the Sermon preached, the special prayers of the Cate- 
chumens said, and the blessing given to each by the Bishop in the words of the "prayer of 
the imposition of hands ^." After this the Deacon says, " Go out, ye Catechumens, in peace." 
(2) After the Energumens also have been dismissed, the more perfect {rf'KeioTepo', (pjo- iy>fievoL) remain 
on their knees in prayer (yowKXivovTes, evxopevoi). Then the Deacon is to cry aloud, " Ye that 
are to be illuminated, pray. Let us the faithful all pray for them. And being sealed to God 
through His Christ, let them bow down their heads, and receive the blessing from the 
Bishop." The "Prayer of the Imposition of hands" is then pronounced over them by the 

The period of probation and instruction varied at different times and places : according to 
Canon 42 of the Synod of Elvira, 305, it was to be two years : " He who has a good nam.e, 

■ Antig. X. ii. § 16. 3 S. August. In Joh. Evang. Tract, xliv. § 2. 

4 Serm. xlvi. de Pas/oribns, c. 13: Tertull. de PrcE^criftione Hieret. c. 41 : " Imprimis quis Catechumenus, 'quis Fidelis, in 
certum est." 5 Ant. X. ii. i — 5. The Council of Nicjea, Canon xiv,, seems to speak only of two classes. 

fi Const. Apost. viii. § 6. 


and wishes to become a Christian, must be a Catechumen two years: then he may be 
baptized 7." After this probation had been satisfactorily passed, the Catechumens were 
invited to give in their names as Candidates for Baptism. This invitation, described by 
Cyril as a call to military service (^kX^o-j? o-rpaTflas) ^, appears to have been often repeated on 
the approach of Lent. Thus S. Ambrose, in his Commentary on S. Luke, v. 5 ; We have 
toiled all flight a}id have taken nothing, complains, "I too, Lord, know that for me it is night, 
when I have not Thy command. No one yet has given his name : with my voice I have cast 
the net throughout Epipliany, and as yet I have taken nothing." 

This preliminary "call to service " must be distinguished from the actual enlistment in 
the Christian army at Baptism, in anticipation of which Cyril prays for his hearers that God 
"may enlist them in His service, and put on tliem the armour of righteousness 9." The same 
metaphorical language in reference to the Christian warfare recurs in many passages '. 

The next step for those who responded to the call was 'the registration of names 
(uvofiaToypacjiln) ^ It appears from passages of Dionysius Pseudo-Areopagites, quoted by 
Bingham 3, that the Bishop, after laying his hand on each Catechumen's head, commanded 
his Presbyters and Deacons to register his name, together with that of his sponsor (ladSoxos) 
in the Diptychs of the living. This ceremony took place at Jerusalem at the beginning 
of Lent, as we learn from Frocat. § i : " Thou hast entered, been approved ; thy name 
inscribed. ... A long notice is allowed thee ; thou hast forty days for repentance." 
Those who had been admitted as candidates for Baptism were in most Churches still 
reckoned among the Catechumens, being distinguished as avvanolvTe^^, " competentes." But 
from Cyril's language in several passages it appears that in the Church of Jerusalem 
they ceased to be regarded as Catechumens, and were reckoned among the Faithful. "Thou 
wert called a Catechumen, while the word echoed round thee from without. Think not that 
thou receivest a small thing: though a miserable man, thou receivest one of God's titles. 
Hear S. Paul saying, God is faithful. But beware, lest thou have the title of '■faithful,' but 
the will of the faithless *." "Thou receivest a new name which thou hadst not before. 
Heretofore thou wast a Catechumen, but now thou wilt be called a Believer (riia-r<!s) s." 

Again, " How great a dignity the Lord bestows on you in transferring you from the order 
of Catechumens to that of the Faithful, the Apostle Paul shews, when he affirms, God is 

faithful^ r 

Two passages in S. Cyril have been thought to imply that the newly-admitted Candidates 
for Baptism carried lighted torches in procession, perhaps on the first Sunday after the 
registration. He speaks of their having received " torches of the bridal procession ^ ; " 
and on this expression the Benedictine Editor observes that "Wax tapers" were perhaps 
given to the Illuminandi to carry, a custom which may also be indicated in the words, 
" Ye who have lately lighted the torches of faith, guard them carefully in your hands 
unquenclied ^." 

Others are of opinion that the custom of carrying torches or tapers was observed only 
in the procession of the newly-baptized from the Baptistery to the Church 9, and that here 
Cyril means by the "bridal lamps," those motions of the Holy Ghost, and spiritual instruc- 
tions, which had lighted their way to Christ, and to the entrance to His Kingdom ^°. This 
latter interpretation is rather vague and far-fetched, and it is evident that the words, " Ye who 
have lately lighted the torches of faith," gain much in clearness and force, if suggested by the 
visible symbolism of a ceremony in which the Jlhtminandihdid just borne their part. The 

7 Hefele, Councits, i. p. 155. Const. Afiost. viii. 32 : " Let him thnt is to be instructed be a catechumen three years." 

8 Procal. § I. 9 lb. § 17. ' See Cat. i. 3 ; iii. 3, 13 ; iv. 36 ; xvii. 36 ; xxi. 4. * Procat. §1. 3 Antiq. X. ii. § 6. 

4 Procat- 5 6. 5 Cat. i. 4. * lb. v. i. 7 Aa/xiraSes mni^ayuiyiat, Procat, § x. ^ Cat. i. § I. 

» Bingham, Ant. X. ii. § 15. '^ Diet. Chr. Antiq. Vol. ii. p. 995, note. 


lighted torches would be a significant symbol both of the marriage of the soul with Christ, 
and of its enlightenment by faith. 

§ 5. ^a>TiCi'fi€voi. In the first words of his Introductory Lecture Cyril addresses his 
hearers as oi (fxoTi^dfievoi, "Ye who are being enlightened," and from the Titles of the 
Catechetical Lectures i.-xviii., we see that this name was constantly used to distinguish 
the candidates preparing for immediate Baptism. 

The Verb (pcoTi^a is frequently used by the LXX., both in a physical and in a spiritual 
sense. In the New Testament it is found but rarely in the physical sense ', being generally 
applied to the light of spiritual truth, and to Christ as its source ^ 

In two passages of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Aorist (^wrirr^fVray) marks "the decisive 
moment when the light was apprehended in its glory 3," from which the thought easily passes 
on to the public profession of the truth thus received, that is, to Baptism, 

That the word began Very early to be used in this new sense, is evident from Justin 
Martyr's explanation of it in his First Apology, c. 61 ; where, after speaking of instruction in 
Christian doctrine, of the profession of faith, and the promise of repentance and holy living, 
as the necessary preparations for Baptism, he thus proceeds : " And this washing is called 
Illumination ((^cBTta/^dy), because they who learn these things are illuminated in their under- 
standing*." The same transition of the meaning from instruction to Baptism is clearly 
implied by Clement of Alexandria : " Among the barbarian philosophers also to instruct and 
to enlighten is called to regenerates ; " and again: "For this reason the teaching, which 
made manifest the hidden things, has been called illumination (^wno-^o's-) ^." 

That this is the sense in which Cyril uses the word is placed beyond doubt by a passage 
of the Lecture delivered immediately before the administration of Baptism : " that your soul 
h€\x\g previously ilbiminated (Trpo^on^u/^e'i j^j) by the word of doctrine, ye may in each particular 
discover the greatness of the gifts bestowed on you by God 7." 

We thus see that the Present Participle ((^confJ/xej'ot) describes a process of gradual illumi- 
nation during the course of instruction, to be completed in Baptism, a sense which is well 
expressed in the Latin Gerundive " Illuminandi." And as we have seen that the candidates 
are addressed as oX (fxoTiCoufvm even before the course of instruction has commenced, the quasi- 
Future sense " follows necessarily from the context ^." 

The spiritual " Illumination," of which Baptism was to be the completion and the seal, 
thus became by a natural development one of the recognised names of Baptism itself. On 
the contrary, tlie inverse process assumed by the Benedictine Editor is entirely unnatural. 
Starting from the later ecclesiastical use of ^wnXo) and ^(uncr/xo's as connoting Baptism, he 
supposes that this was the first application of those terms, and that they were transferred 
to the previous illumination acquired by instruction in Christian truth, only because this was 
a necessary preparation for Baptism. He therefore maintains that (fjcoTi^ofievoi throughout the 
Catechetical Lectures is another term for jBanTiCoixei'oi : and as a decisive proof of this he refers 
to Cat xvi. 26 : niXXei Se kol tVi ae rbv ^arTTi^oixivov (^Oavuv jj x"/''^? ^^^ observing that the grace 
is to come upon "the person being baptized" at a time still future. This meaning of 
the passage is made absolutely certain by the words which immediately follow, — " But 
in what manner I say not, for I will not anticipate the proper season." We may conclude, 
therefore, that in Cyril's Lectures the term oI (^wn^oVei/ot refers to the preparatory course 
of enlightenment rather than to Baptism. At the same time we must remember that in Cyril's 
day, and long before, 0cori^co, <po>TicriJ.6s, and (pwnana were constantly used to denote Baptism 

» Luke xi. 36 ; Apoc. xviii. i. ' Joh. i. 9 ; i Cor. iv. 5 ; 2 Cor. iv. 4, 6 ; Eph. L 18 ; iii. 9 ; 2 Tim. i. 10 ; Apoc. xxi. 23 ; xxii. 5. 

3 Westcott, " Hebrews," vi. 4 ; x. 32. 4 us (^loTtfo^teVtoi/ tt\v Sidvoiav rHiv ravra. )j,av0a.v6vTuiv, 5 Strom. V.c. 2, § 15 : 

TO KaTr}XT)<Tai tc Kal (|)<07tcrat avaysvi'rjaai Kiyerai, * Strom. V. c. X. § 65. Cf. V. c. viii, § 49. 7 Cat. xviii. § 3a. 
* Cf. Winer, Gratmnar 0/ N.T. Greek, Sect xl. 2r, note 3. 




itself, as being the time of special illumination by the grace of the Holy Spirit then given. 
Thus Clement of Alexandria writes : " In Baptism we are illuminated. . . . This work is 
variously called grace, and illumination ((poonafia), and perfection, and washing : . . . illumi- 
nation, by which that holy light of salvation is beheld, that is, by which we see God clearly 9." 
Gregory Nazianzen speaks in the same way : " We call it gift, grace, baptism, chrism, 
illumination, garment of incorruption, washing of regeneration, seal, all that is precious '°." 

Spfxial Preparation for Baptism. 

§ I. Pen!te}rce. The candidate for Baptism, having been duly admitted and registered, was 
required not only to be diligent in attending the course of Catechetical instruction S but also 
to enter at once upon a course of strict devotion and penitential discipline. " Those who are 
coming to Baptism," says Tertullian, " must be constantly engaged in prayers, fastings, kneel- 
ings, and watchings, together with confession of all past faults ^" 

On these subjects Cyril's teaching is earnest, wise, and sympathetic : he seeks to lead to 
repentance by gentle persuasion, and pleads for self-discipline as needful for the good of the 
soul 3. One whole Lecture is devoted to the necessity of thorough repentance for all past 
sins, and forgiveness of all offences*: another to the sure efficacy of repentance for the 
remission of sins s. 

§ 2. Confession. "E^o^ioXoyrja-ts. Great stress is laid by Cyril on the necessity not only of 
sincere inward repentance, but also of open confession. The words e^o/ioXoyelo-^at, t^ofioXoyrja-is 
have a twofold meaning and a wide application. 

(i.) In the Septuagint they occur very frequently, especially in the Psalms, in the sense of 
"giving thanks or praise" (Heb. ni^n) 6^ a meaning which is also found in the New Testa- 
ment?. Perhaps the earliest instance in an Ecclesiastical writer is in 'Rerma.s, Manda/. X. 
iii. 2 : i^o^xoXnyoijievos roS Sew. I have not found any instance of this meaning in Cyril. 

S. Chrysostom, commenting on the words, " I will give thanks unto Thee, O I.ord^,'' says, 
"There are two kinds of exoiuologesis ; for it is either a condemnation of our own sins, or 
a giving of thanks to God." The hnk between these two ideas is seen in Joshua's exhortation 
to Achan, My son, give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord, the God of Israel, and make confession 9 
unto Him. R. V. Margin. Or, give praise. 

(2.) In the sense of "confessing" sins, the Verb is not uncommon in the N. T. ', and in 
the early Fathers ^ Tertullian adopts the Greek word, and calls exomologesis "the handmaid 
of repentance 3," adding that it will extinguish the fire of Gehenna in the heart, being a second 
remedy for sin, after Baptism. 

Again, speaking of the outward act of repentance, he says : "This act, which is more usually 
expressed and commonly spoken of under a Greek name, is iio\iok6yy]ai^, whereby we confess our 
sins to the Lord, not indeed as if He were ignorant of them, but inasmuch as by confession 
satisfaction is appointed, and of confession repentance is born, and God appeared by repent- 
ance. Accordingly exomologesis is a discipline for man's prostration and humiliation, enjoining 
a demeanour calculated to move mercy. With regard also to the very dress and food, it 
commands (the penitent) to lie in sackcloth and ashes ... to know no food and drink but such 

9 Pttdag. I. vi. § 23. (Syllb. 41). '<> Oral. xl. § 4. 

« Procat. § 9 : " Let thy feet haste to the Catecliisings," § 10 : 
"Abide thou in the Catechisings : though our discourse be long, 
let not thy mind be wearied out." Cf. Cat. i. 5. 

a De Bixptiiino, c. 20. Cf. Justin M. Apol. I. c. 61 ; Const. 
Apost. vii. 2a. 

3 Compare his teaching on Prayer, Procat. § 16 : Cat. ix. 7 : 
and on Fasting Cat. iv. 27, 37 ; xviii. 17. 

4 Cat. i. S Cat. ii. 

* Ps. xHi. 5 ; xliii. 4, 5 (efo/noXoyjitrofioi) ; and Ps. c. 4 (it 
efo/io.\oyi)o-«i). 7 Matt. xi. 25 ; Phil. ii. II. 

8 Ps. ix. I : 'Efo|UoXoy»)(70/xai' <70i, Kupie. 

9 Joshua vii. 19, Sept. cfo/ioAdyTjo-ii'. 

' Matt. iii. 6 ; Mark i. s ; James iii. 16. 

» Irenaeus, I. xiii. § 5 ; III. iv. 8 3 ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. ii 
§ 41 : t'fo/xoAoyoO^/Tai oi ha.lyi.ovi'i Ti);' yaaTpiiiapyiav T>JV avraic* 
3 £>e Paniteniia, c. xii. 


as is plain, — to feed prayers on fastings, to groan, to weep and roar (jnugire) unto the Lord 
God ; to roll before the feet of the presbyters, and kneel to God's dear ones, to enjoin on all 
the brethren embassies of intercession on his behalf All this exomologesis does, that it may 
enhance repentance ">, &c." 

In this highly rhetorical description of the ecclesiastical discipline so dear to Tertullian 
there are many features of extreme severity to which Cyril makes no allusion ; yet he 
frequently and very earnestly insists on the necessity and the efficacy of confession. '' The 
present is the season of confession : confess what thou hast done in word or in deed, by night 
or by day ; confess in an acceptable time, and in the day of salvation receive tlie heavenly 
treasures." "Tell the Physician thine ailment: say thou also, like Dsiv\d, I said, I will confess 
me my sin unto the Lord ; and the same shall be done in thy case, which he says forthwith, 
and Thou forgavest the wickedness of my heart ^." " Seest thou the humility of the king? Seest 
thou his confession ? . . . . The deed was quickly done, and straightway the Prophet appeared 
as accuser, and the offender confessed his fault; and because he candidly confessed, he 
received a most speedy cure 7." 

" Ezekias prevailed to the cancelling of God's decree, and cannot Jesus grant remission of 
sins? Turn and bewail thyself, shut thy door, and pray to be forgiven, pray that He may 
remove from thee the burning flames. For confession has power to quench even fire, power 
to tame even lions ^." 

The confession to which Cyril attaches so high a value, whether made in the privacy of 
solitude; or openly before the Ministers of the Church and the Congregation, is a confession 
to God, and not to man. " Having therefore, brethren, many examples of those who have 
sinned and repented and been saved, do ye also heartily make confession unto the Lord 9." 
Elsewhere he expressly disclaims the necessity of private confession to man : " Not that thou 
shouldest shew thy conscience to me, for thou art not to be judged of man's judgment ; but 
that thou shew the sincerity of thy faith to God, wJio trieth the reins and hearts, and knoweth 
the thoughts of men \" He also limits the season of confession and repentance to this pre- 
sent Ufe : " Therefore the just shall then offer praise ; but they who have died in sins have no 
further season for confession ^" 

§ 3. Exorcis7n. One of the earliest ceremonies, after the registration of names, was 
Exorcism, which seems to have been often repeated during the Candidate's course of prepar- 
ation. " Receive with earnestness the exorcisms : whether thou be breathed upon or exorcised, 
the act is to thee salvation 3." 

The power of casting out devils, promised by our Lord ■♦, and exercised by Apostles s, and 
by Philip the Deacon and Evangelist^, was long regarded in the early Church as a direct gift 
still bestowed by the Holy Ghost, apart from any human ordinance. Justin Martyr 7, Ter- 
tullian ^, Origen 9, all speak of exorcism as being practised by laymen, even by soldiers, and 
women, by means of prayer and invocation of the name of Jesus. Accordingly "an Exorcist 
is not ordained, for it is a gift of the spontaneous benevolence and grace of God throu"h 
Christ by visitation of the Holy Ghost. For he who has received the gift of healing is 
declared by revelation from God, the grace which is in him being manifest to all '." Wlien 
the extraordinary gift was found to have been withdrawn, exorcists are mentioned among the 
inferior officers of the Church, after readers and subdeacons ^ From an early period certain 
set formulae, such as the Divine names, " The God of Abraham, and God of Isaac, and God 

4 De Poenitentia, c. ix. 5 Cat. i. § s. ^ Vo % 6. 
7 lb. § II. 8 Cat. ii. 15. For similar statements, see 

Cat. i. 2 ; ii. 19, 20, &C. 

9 Cat. ii. § 20. I lb. V. § 2. a lb. xviii, 14. 

3 Procat. § 9. 4 Mark xvi. 17 ; Luke ix. i ; x. 17. 

5 Acts V. 16 ; xvi. 18 ; xix. 12. * Acts viii. 7. 

7 Apologln I. §§ 6, 8; Tryfh. Ixxxv. 

8 De Idolol. c. xi. ; de Corona Mil. xi. ; de Anima, Ivii. 
de S/cctac. xxvi. ; de Priescript. Hceret, xli. 

9 Contra Celsiim. vii. c. 57. » Const. Apost. viii. 26. 

2 Euseb. H.E. vi. 43; Syn. Antioch. in Encsniis, Can. 10: 
Syn. Laod. Can. 24. 

C 2 


of Jacob," "The God of Israel," "The God who drowned the king of Egypt and the 
Egyptians in the Red Sea," were frequently invoked against demons and certain wicked 
persons 3. 

Accordingly, when an exorcist was ordained the Bishop was directed to give him the book 
in which the exorcisms were written, with the words, "Receive thou these, and commit them 
to memory, and have thou power to lay hands upon the Energumens, whether they be 
baptized or only Catechumens l" Though this Canon speaks only of exorcising Ener- 
gumens, or such persons as were supposed to be possessed by evil spirits, we must remember 
that the power of such spirits was believed to extend to the whole world outside the 
Christian Church. Thus all converts from Paganism and Judaism, and even the children of 
Christian parents were exorcised before being baptized. The practice was closely connected 
with the doctrine of original sin, as we see in many passages of S. Augustine, and is declared 
by him to be very ancient and universal s. In expounding the Creed to candidates for 
Baptism, he says : " Therefore, as you have seen this day, and as you know, even little 
children are breathed on and exorcised, that the hostile power of the devil may be driven 
out of them, which deceived one man in order that he might get possession of all men^." 

We find accordingly that Cyril enforces the duty of attending the Exorcisms on all 
the candidates alike, and from his use of the Plural (Exorcisms) we see that the ceremony 
was often repeated for each person. Thus in the Clementine Homilies Peter is represented 
as saying, " Whoever of you wish to be baptized, begin from to-morrow to fast, and each day 
have hands laid upon you ?," the imposition of hands being one of the ceremonies used 
in exorcism^. From expressions in the Introductory Lecture, "When ye have come in before 
the hour of the exorcisms 9," and again, "when your exorcism has been done, until the 
others who are to be exorcised have come '," it seems that before each Catechizing the 
candidates were all exorcised, one by one-, and that the earlier, after returning from their own 
exorcism, had to wait for those who came later. The catechizing was thus frequently 
delayed till late in the day, and Cyril often complains of the shortness of the time left at 
his disposal 3. 

At Antioch, the Catechizing preceded the Exorcism, as we learn from S. Chrysostom : 
" After you have heard our instruction, they take off your sandals, and unclothe you, and send 
you on naked and barefoot, with your tunic only, to the utterances of the Exorcists t." Cyril 
says nothing of this unclothing, but mentions another ceremony as practised at Jerusalem : 
" Thy face has been veiled, that thy mind may henceforward be free, lest the eye by roving 
make the heart rove also. But when thine eyes are veiled, thine ears are not hindered from 
receiving the means of salvations." The veil may also have been a symbol of the slavery 
and darkness of sin, as S. Augustine regards the removal of the veil on the octave of Easter 
as symbolising the spiritual liberty of the baptized ^. Of this meaning Cyril make^ no express 

In the Greek Euchologion, as quoted by Kleopas, the act of the Exorcist is thus described : 
" And the Priest breathes upon his mouth, his forehead, and his breast, saying. Drive forth 
from him every evil and unclean spirit, hidden and lurking in his heart, the spirit of error, the 
spirit of wickedness 7, &c." 

3 Origen. Contra Cels. iv. c. 34 (p. 184). 

4 Fourth Council of Carthage, Can. 7 (a d. 398). 

5 De Nupt. ct Coiiciiji. II. 8 33 : de Pecc. Orig. % 45 ; contra 
nulian Pelag. VI. g ti ; Op. Imperf. c. Julian. I. 8 50; III. 
§ 144, &c. 6 Dc Symbolo, § a. Cf. Cat. xx. {Myst. ii.) § ». 

1 Horn. iii. c. 73. 

produceremini." This may possibly refer only to the final ex- 
orcism immediately before Baptism. 

3 Cat. xiii. 8 : xv. 33 ; xviii. 16, &c. 

4 Ad llluminandos, Cat. i. g 2. 1 S Procnt. § 9. 
6 S. Aug. Serm. 376. " Hodie octavae dicuntur Infantium ; 

revclaiula sunt capita eorum, quod est indicium libertaiis. Habet 

8 Orig. in Josu. xxiv. g i : " exorcistarum manus impositione." j enim libertatem ista spirilualis nativitas, propria; autem carnis 

9 Procat. g 13. I lb. § 14. nativitas scrvitvuem." 
= Aug. Sermo de Symb. ii. g i : " ut ex locis secretis singuli ! 7 Procat. § 14. 


Besides such invocations of the names of God, as we have mentioned above, the Exorcist 
used set forms of prayer " collected out of the Holy Scriptures." Their effect, as described 
by Cyril, is to " set the soul, as it were, on fire," and scare the evil spirit away ; and his 
meaning may be illustrated by a passage of Tertullian, who says^: "All the authority and 
power we have over them is from naming the name of Christ, and recalling to their memory 
the woes with which God threatens them at the hands of Christ as Judge. ... So at our 
touch and breathing, overwhelmed by the thought of those judgment-fires, they leave 
the bodies they have entered, at our command, unwilling and distressed, and before 
your very eyes put to an open shame." 

The Exorcisms were performed in the Church ; where also the Lectures were delivered 
Catechumens of the lower order being excluded, "and the doors looking towards the city 
closed 9, while those which looked towards the Holy Sepulchre, from which the ruins of 
the ancient Temple, Golgotha, and the old city could be seen, were left open '°." 

Ceremonies of Baptism and Chrism. 

§ I. RemmciaHon. We have seen that Cyril's last Catechetical Lecture was delivered 
in the early dawn of the Great Sabbath, Easter Eve. The additional instructions then 
promised ^ concerning the behaviour of the Candidates were given on the same day, pro- 
bably in the evening, when they were all assembled immediately before the administration 
of Baptism. The most important pares of the Baptismal ceremony are described by Cyril 
in the first Atystagogic Lecture, deUvered on the Monday of Easter week. Thus in § i he 
says, " Li-t us now teach you these things exactly, that ye may know the significance of the 
tilings done to you on that evening of your Baptism." 

The first act was the renunciation of the Devil and all his works. This, as described by 
Tertullian, was done first in the Church "under the hand of the Bishop," and again imme- 
diately before entering the water ". Cyril speaks of the latter occasion only. " First ye 
entered into the outer chamber of the Baptistery, and there facing towards the West (as the 
region of darkness) ye heard the command to stretch forth your hand, and as in the presence 
of Satan to renounce him 2." For the formula of renunciation in the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions, see note 2 on Mystag. i. § 8 ; it corresponds closely with Cyril's, except that this is 
addressed to Satan as if personally present: "I renounce thee, Satan 3, and all thy works 4, 
and all thy pomp 5, and all thy worship^." 

§ 2. Profession of Faith. After the renunciation of Satan the Candidate immediately turned 
to the East and said, " And I associate myself {avvra(Tao\iai) with Christ." Cyril does not give 
the words, but seems to allude to the custom, when he speaks of the Candidates " turning 
from the West to the East, the place of light'." 

Then, still facing the East, the Candidate was bidden to say, " I believe in the Father, 
and in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost, and in one Baptism of repentance ^" We have 
seen that in Cat. xviii. 22, 32, Cyril intimated to his Candidates that they would be required 
to profess publicly the Creed which he had delivered to them and which they had repeated 
after him. This public profession of faith ('O/ioXoyt'a, " Redditio Symboli ") was in some 
Churches made on Holy Thursday, according to Canon 46 of the Synod of Laodicea : 
"Those to be baptized must learn the Creed by heart, and recite it to the Bishop or 

8 Apologet. c. 23. 9 Procai. % 9. »o Cat. xiii. 23 : " Thou seest this spot of Golgotha? Thou answerest with a shout of 

praise, as if assenting." ' Cat. xviii. § 32. "^ De Cor. Mil. c. 3. 

a Myst. i. § 2. 3 § 4. 4 § 5. 5 § 6. « § 8. 7 § 9, note > 

8 Compare xviii. 22 : " One Baptism of repentance for the remission of sins." 



Presbyters on the fifth day of the week." But in the Apostolic Constitutions, c. xli., the 
Candidate is required to recite the wliole Creed immediately after the Renunciation : " And 
after his renunciation let him in his consociation (o-ui/rno-o-o/xeros) say : ' And I associate myself 
to Christ, and believe and am baptized into One Unbegotten Being, the Only True God 
Almighty, the Father of Christ, .... and into the Lord Jesus Christ .... and I am baptized 
into the Holy Ghost, .... into the resurrection of the flesh, and into the remission of sins, 
and into the kingdom of heaven, and into the life of the world to come.' And after this vow, 
he comes in order to the anointing with oil." / 

Such appears to have been the custom of the Eastern Churches in general and of Jerusalem 
in Cyril's time, although he mentions only those articles of the Creed which were commonly 
held to be indispensable to a valid profession of Christian belief. 

Dr. Swainson9 represents the matter somewhat differently: "When we come to the 
profession of his own personal faith which was made at Jerusalem by the Candidate for 
Baptism, w^e find that this was far briefer not only than the collection of ' necessary things ' 
(Cat. iv.), but also than the Creed of the Church of Jerusalem." Then after quoting the 
short form in Cyril, Myst. i. § 9, "I believe in the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy 
Ghost, and in one Baptism of repentance," Dr. Swainson adds : " The words are clear and 
definite. In these words each answered the question of which we read elsewhere, ' Did he 
believe in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit?' In this his reply the 
Candidate 'confessed' what Cyril called 'the saving confession.'" 

It is evident that two separate parts of the Baptismal Service are here confused: the 
question to which Dr. Swainson alludes, and "the saving confession" of which Cyril speaks 
in Mystag. ii. § 4, belong, as we shall presently see, to a later stage of the ceremony. 

§ 3. First Unction. On passing from the outer to the inner chamber of the Baptistery, the 
Candidate who had made his renunciation and profession barefoot and wearing his tunic 
(Xiro)!') ' only, now put off this inner garment also, as an emblem of putting off the old 
man with his deeds =*. A further significance is ascribed by Cyril to this unclothing of the 
Candidate, as being an imitation both of Christ, who hung naked 3 on the Cross, and by His 
nakedness put off from Hitnself the principalities and the powers, and " of the first-formed 
Adam, who was naked in the garden, and was not ashamed." 

" Then, when ye were stripped, ye were anointed with exorcised oil, from the very hairs of 
your head to your feet 3'*." The consecration of the " exorcised oil " is thus described * : " Now 
this is blessed by the chief-priest for the remission of sins, and the first preparation for 
Baptism. For he calls thus upon the Unbegotten God, the Father of Cln-ist, the King of all 
sensible and intelligent natures, that He would sanctify the oil in the name of tl.j Lord Jesus, 
and impart to it spiritual grace and efficacious strength, the remission of sins, and the first 
preparation for the confession of Baptism, that so the Candidate for Baptism, when he is 
anointed may be freed from all ungodliness, and may become worthy of initiation, according 
to the command of the Only begotten." 

Bingham's observation, that Cyril describes this first unction as used "between the re- 
nunciation and the confessions" is not cjuite accurate: in fact it came between two con- 
fessions, the one made, as we have seen, immediately after the renunciation in the outer 

9 Creeds of the Church, p. 17. 

' Pseudo-Dionysius Areopag. Eccl. Hierarch. iU. 

' Mystag. ii. § 2. 

3 This passage has recently (1891) acquired a interest 
from the controversy concerning Mr. Calderon's picture, repre- 
senting St. Elisabeth of Hungary as kneeling naked before the 
altar. The word " naked " (yvMi'ds, nudus) is not in itself de- 
cisive, but here in St. Cyril's account of Baptism absolute naked- 

ness seems to be implied ; for though women sometimes wore 
an under-tunic (xiTiii/toi-), men had nothing beneath the tunic 
proper (xiTiii'), which is here said to be put off. According to 
Thtiophylact, on Matt. v. 40, the cliiton was properly to n-ap" rjixiv 
keyofxevov uttokojuktoc. Sec Dictionary 0/ Biblical Antiquities, 
"Baptism," § 48. 

3* lb. § 3- 4 Const. .Apost. vii. c. 4a. 

5 Ant. XI. c. 9, Jl. 


chamber, the other at the very time of immersion. Chrysostom ^ clearly distinguishes two 
Confessions, but places one before Baptism, and the other after : " What can be more beautiful 
than the words by which we renounce the devil? Or those by which we associate ourselves 
with Christ? Than that confession which comes before the washing? Or that which comes 
after the washing? " 

This first unction is not mentioned by Tertullian, nor in any genuine work of Justin 
Martyr, but in the Responsiones ad Orthodoxos, a work which thf)ugh still early is regarded as 
certainly spurious, we find the question put, " Wliy are we first anointed with oil, and then, 
having performed the before-mentioned symbolic acts in the Laver, are afterwards sealed with 
the ointment, and do not regard this as done in opposition to what took place in our Lord's 
case, who was first anointed with ointment and then suffered??" And in the answer it is stated 
that "We are anointed with the simple oil that we may be made Christs (x/)iffroi), but with 
the ointment in remembrance of our Saviour Christ, who regarded the anointing with ointment 
as His burial, and called us to the fellowship of His own sufferings and glory, typically in the 
present life but truly in the life to come." 

Cyril attributes to this " exorcised oil " the same power as to Exorcism itself, " not only to 
burn and cleanse away the traces of sin, but also to chase away all the invisible powers of the 
evil one ^." 

According to the directions concerning this first unction in the Apostolical Consfifiitions^, 
the Bishop was first to anoint the head only, the anointing of the whole body being then 
completed by the Deacon or Deaconess. 

§4. Baptism. After this anointing the Candidates were *' led by the hand to the sacred 
pool of Holy Baptism ^." This pool (Ko'KvfilSi'jdpa) was supplied with water raised from the 
reservoirs, of which, as we shall see, the Bordeaux Pilgrim speaks in his description of the 

As great multitudes both of men and women were baptized at the special seasons, the 
Baptisteries were large buildings outside the Church, such as the Baptistery of the Lateran, 
said to have been originally built by Constantine. The font itself also was large enough for 
several persons to be baptized at the same time. In some places the men were baptized first, 
and then the women: in others diff"erent parts of the Baptistery were assigned to them, and 
curtains were hung across the Font itself-. 

The consecration of the water is not mentioned in the Didaclie or Justin Martyr; but 
Tertullian thus describes its effect : " The waters after invocation of God acquire the 
sacramental power of sanctification ; for immediately the Spirit comes down from heaven 
upon the waters, and rests upon them, sanctifying them from Himself, and they being thus 
sanctified imbibe a power of sanctifying 3." 

In the prayer of consecration given in the AposfoJic Constitutions the Bishop is directed 
first to offer adoration and thanksgiving to the Father and Son, and then to call upon 
the Father and say : " Look down from heaven, and sanctify this water, and give it 
grace and power, that so he that is to be baptized, according to the command of Thy 
Christ, may be crucified with Him, and may die with Him, and may be buried with Him, 
and may rise with Him to the adoption which is in Him, that he may be dead to sin, 
and live to righteousness +." 

Cyril ascribes the like eff'ect to the consecration of the water, as imparting to it a new 
power of holiness by " the invocation of the Holy Gliost, and of Christ, and of the Father 5." 

W^hile standing in the water the Candidate made what Cyril calls " the saving con- 

* Efics.\.\\om.\.%-i. T QiicFstio ^zi- ^ Mystas.n.%%. 9 Lib. iii. c. 15. 

« Mystag. ii. § 4. « Bingham, Aitt. VIII. c. 7, 5 2 ; XI. c. 11, § 3. 'i De BaJ>thmo, c. iv. 

4 VII. c. 43. 5 Cat. iii. § 3. See also Introduction, ch. vi. § 2. 


fession^." The whole Creed having been already recited {Reddttio SyniboH) in the outer 
chamber immediately after the Renunciation, a short form was now employed containing 
only the necessary declaration of faith in the Holy Trinity, and in the Baptism of Repentance 
for the remission of sins. 

§ 5. Trine Immersio7i. This short confession appears to have been " made by way of 
question and answer thrice repeated. "Thou wast asked, Dost thou beHeve in God the 
Father Almighty? Thou saidst, I believe, and dippedst thyself, that is, wast buried. Again 
thou wast asked. Dost thou believe in our Lord Jesus Christ and in _ His Cross? Thou 
saidst, I believe, and dippedst thyself; therefore thou wast buried with Christ also: for 
he who is buried with Christ, rises again with Christ. A third time thou wast asked. 
Dost thou believe also in the Holy Ghost? Thou saidst, I believe, a third time thou 
dippedst thyself; that the threefold confession might absolve the manifold fault of thy 
former life 7." But Cyril of Alexandria, as quoted by Bingham 2, " makes these answers 
not only to be a confession of the three Persons of the Trinity, but a triple confession 
of Christ ; which implies a repetition of the Creed (the shortened form ?) three times over." 

In which of these ways the threefold interrogation (" usitata et legitima verba in- 
terrogationis ") was made at Jerusalem, is not quite certain from Cyril's words : " Each 
was asked, Dost thou believe in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of tlie 
Holy Ghost, and ye made that saving confession, and went down thrice into the water 9." 
The Didache ^ enjoins baptism simply into the names of the Three Persons of the Holy 
Trinity. Justin Martyr = adds a i^w words only to the names "of God the Father and 
Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit ; " and 
Tertullian 3 observes that " Wherever there are three, that is, the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Spirit, there is the Church, which is a body of three." The trine immersion 
had reference not only to the Trinity, but was also a symbol of the three days of our 
Saviour's burial 4. The use of the three Holy Names was made more strictly indispensable 
as heresies were multiplied: thus the 49th Apostolic Canon, which, Hefele says, "must 
be reckoned among the most ancient Canons of the Church," orders that " If any Bishop 
or Presbyter does not baptize, according to the Lord's command, into the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, but into three Beings without beginning, or into three Sons, or three 
Comforters, he shall be deprived." 

We see here that the power of administering Baptism was not restricted to the Bishop : 
and Cyril speaks of it as possessed by " Bishops, or Presbyters, or Deacons," assigning as the 
reason the great increase of believers, "for the grace is everywhere, in villages and in 
cities, on them of low as on them of high degree, on bondsmen and on freemen s." 

Thus the rule of Ignatius^, that "it is not lawful either to baptize or to hold a love-feast 
apart from the Bishop (;^a)pt? rov iniaKUTrov)" must be understood to mean " without the 
authority and permission of the Bishop." 

Of certain minor ceremonies connected with Baptism, such as the "Kiss of peace," 
and the taste of milk and honey administered to the neophyte 7, no mention is made by Cyril. 

§ 6. Chrisvi. The custom of anointing the baptized with consecrated ointment is 
regarded by Cyril as a sacramental act representing the anointing of Jesus by the Spirit 
at His Baptism. " As the Holy Ghost in substance lighted on Him, like resting upon like, 
so, after you had come up from the pool of the sacred waters, there was given to you an 
unction the counterpart {to avrirvnov) of that wherewith He was anointed, and this is the Holy 
Cihosts." As " He was anointed with a spiritual oil of gladness, that is with the Holy Ghost, 

« Mystni^. ii. § 4. 7 Pseudo-Ambros. ife Sacraiiieittis, II. c. 7. 8 Ant. XI. c. 7, § 11. 9 Mvstng. iii. § 4. 

' Cap. viL » Apolog. I. c. 3 De Baptisnio, c. vi. 4 Mystag. ii. § 4, nole 3. 5 Cat. xvii. 35. 6 AdSmyrn. c. viiL 

7 Bingham, Ant. XII. c. 4, §§ 5, 6. 8 Mystag. iii. § i. 


called oil of gladness, because He is the author of spiritual gladness, so ye were anointed with 
ointment, and made partakers and fellows of the Christ 9." The ceremony was very ancient : 
there is probably a reference to it in the words of Theophilus of Antioch ' (c. a.d. 170) : 
"We are called Christians, because we are anointed with the oil of God." Tertullian, a little 
later, after speaking of Baptism, says : " Immediately on coming out of the Laver we are 
thoroughly anointed with a consecrated unction^ ;" and again, "After that, the hand is laid 
upon us in benediction, invoking and inviting the Holy Ghost 3." In another passage* 
he mentions also the sign of the Cross : "The flesh is washed, that the soul may be cleansed ; 
the flesh is anointed that the soul may be consecrated ; the flesh is signed [with the Cross] 
that the soul also may be guarded ; the flesh is overshadowed by imposition of the hand, that 
the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit." 

The consecration of the ointment is compared by Cyril to the consecration of the 
Eucharist ; after the invocation of the Holy Ghost it is no longer simple or common ointment, 
but a gift (Xapifffin) of Christ, and by the presence of the Holy Ghost is able to impart 
of His Divine Nature. And this ointment is symbolically applied to thy forehead, and thy 
other organs of sense s." 

The ears, nostrils, and breast were each to be anointed, and Cyril explains the symbolical 
meaning in each case by appropriate passages of Scripture ^. 

The consecration of the chrism could be performed by none but the Bishop, and he 
alone could anoint the forehead ?, Presbyters being allowed to anoint the breast, but only 
with chrism received from the Bishop ^. The several ceremonies are thus explained in the 
Apostolical Constitutions "i : "This baptism is given into the death of Jesus: the water is 
instead of the burial, and the oil instead of the Holy Ghost; the seal instead of the Cross; 
the ointment is the confirmation of the Confession '." 

In like manner the chrism is explained again, "The ointment is the seal of the 
covenants %" that is, both of God's promises, and of the Baptismal vows. 

The members to be anointed were not the same in all Churches, but everywhere the 
chief ceremony was the anointing of the forehead with the sign of the Cross. This is what 
Cyril calls "the Royal Sign 3," and "the Royal Seal to be borne upon the forehead of Christ's 
soldiers '^," and again, " The Seal of the fellowship of the Holy Ghost s." 

These last were probably the very words pronounced by the Bishop in making the sign 
of the Cross on the forehead ; for by Canon 7 of the Second General Council at Antioch 
(381), converts from heretical sects were to be "sealed or anointed with the holy ointment 
on the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, and ears. And in sealing them we say, * The seal 
of the gift of the Holy Ghost.' " 

An additional prayer to be said by the Bishop is given in the Apostolical Constitutions^: 
" O Lord God, the Unbegotten, who hast no Lord, who art Lord of all, who madest the odour 
of the knowledge of the Gospel to go forth among all nations, grant also now that this 
ointment may be efficacious upon him that is baptized (/3a7rri^o/xeVa)), that the sweet odour of 
thy Christ may remain firm and stable in him, and that having died with Him, he may arise 
and live with Him." 

The whole ceremony was called by the Greeks " Chrism," the " Unction " being regarded 
by them as the chief part. In the Latin Church the name Confirmation is of later date, and 
indicates that greater importance was then attached to the " Laying on of Hands " with 

9 Mystag.'\\\.%i, ^ Ad Autofycutn.'u ' De Ba^t. c. j. 3 lb. c. 8. * De Resurr. Carnis, c. Z. 5 lb. § 3. 

6 Myst. iii. § 4. 7 Apost. Const, iii. § 16 : " Let the Bishop anoint those that are baptized with ointment (/itu'pv)-" 

8 See the authorities in Bingham, Ant. xii. c. 2, §§ i, 2. 9 iii. 17. i Const. Apost. vii. c. 22. a lb. vii. c. 43. 

Cf. Cat. iii. 17, 3 Cat. iv. § 14. 4 lb. xii. § 8. 5 lb. xviii. 33. 6 vii. c. 44. 


Another ceremony, not alluded to by Cyril, was the saying of the Lord's Prayer by the 
neophyte, standing up, and facing towards the East 7, after which he was also to pray, "O 
God Almighty, the Father of Thy Christ, Thine Only-begotten Son, give me a body undefiled, 
a clean heart, a watchful mind, an unerring knowledge, the influence {eTrKpoiTrjaLv) of the Holy 
Ghost for attainment and full assurance of the truth, through Thy Christ, by whom be glory 
to Thee in the Holy Ghost for ever. Amen." 


EucHARisTic Rites. Liturgy. 

§ I. Fi'rsf Communion. When the rites of Baptism and Chrism were completed, the new- 
made Christians, clothed in white robes {Myst. iv. 8), and bearing each a lighted taper in his 
hand, passed in procession from the Baptistery into the great " Church of the Resurrection.'' 
The time was still night, as we gather from the allusion in Frocat, § 15 : " May God at length 
shew you that night, that darkness which shines like the day, concerning which it is said. The 
darkness shall not be hidden from t/iee, and the night shall be light as the day'' As the newly- 
baptized entered the church, they were welcomed in the words of the 32nd Psalm. " Even 
now," says Cyril {Frocat., § 15), "let your ears ring, as it were, with that glorious sound, 
when over your salvation the Angels shall chant, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, 
and wliose sins are covered ; when like stars of tlie Church you shall enter in, bright in the 
body and radiant in the soul." During the chanting of the Psalm the neophytes seem to 
have stood in front of the raised 'bema' or sanctuary, as we learn from Cyril's eloquent con- 
temporary, Gregory Nazianzen, Oral. XL. §46 : " The station in which presently after Baptism 
thou wilt stand before the great sanctuary prefigures the glory from yonder heaven ; the 
psalmody, with which thou wilt be welcomed, is a prelude of those heavenly h)mns; the 
lamps, which thou wilt light, are a mystic sign of the procession of lights, with which bright 
and virgin souls shall go forth to meet the Bridegroom, with the lamps of faith burning 


From the Syriac "Treatise of Severus, formerly Patriarch of Alexandria (Antioch), con- 
cerning^ the rites of Baptism and of Holy Communion (Synaxis) as received among the 
Syrian Christians" (Resch, Agrapha, § 12, p. 361;, we learn that it was the custom "to lift up 
the newly-baptized to the altar, and after giving them the mysteries the Bishop {Sacerdos) 
crowned them with garlands." 

The white garments {Frocat., § 2 : Mystag., iv. 88) were worn until the Octave of Easter, 
Low Sunday, Dominica in Albis (Bingham, XII. c. iv. § 3). 

§ 2. The Liturgy. In Cyril's last Lecture, Mystagogic V., he reminds his hearers of 
what they had witnessed at their first Communion on Easter-day, and thus gives a most 
valuable testimony to the prescribed form of administering the Holy Eucharist in the Eastern 
Church in the middle of the fourth century. 

Passing over all the preparatory portion of the Liturgy, he tells us first that the Deacon 
brings water to the Bishop or Priest (tw tfpel) and to the Presbyters who stand round the 
altar, that they may wash their hands in token of the need of purification from sin ; a cere- 
mony which evidently had reference to the words of the Psalmist, " I will wash mine hands 
in innoccncy ; so will I compass Thine altar, O Lord '." In some Churches, perhaps also at 
Jerusalem, the words were actually chanted during the ablution ^. 

"Then the Deacon cries aloud, Receive ye one another: and let us salute (do-n-a^wA'f^*') 
one another." In the Clementine Liturgy 3 the "Kiss of Peace" precedes the "Ablution." 

7 Const. Apost. vii. c. 44. » Mystag. v. 8 a. » Diet. Chr. Ant. " Lavabo." S Apost. Const, viii. c. n. 


Sometimes these two sentences are combined : " Salute ye one another with the holy- 
kiss 4." In the Liturgy of S. James there are two separate rubrics, one immediately after the 
dismissal of the Catechumens, ** Take knowledge one of another," and a second after the 
Creed, " Let us embrace (dyanrjaconev) one another with a holy kiss." 

" After this the Priest {Upfvs) cries aloud, Lift up your hearts. Then ye answer, "We lift 
them up unto the Lords." 

The meaning of this Preface, as explained by Cyril, is an exhortation by the Priest, or 
Bishop when present, and a promise by the people, to raise all their thoughts to God on 
high, in preparation for the great Thanksgiving to which they were further invited : " Let 
us give thanks unto the Lord," — " It is meet and right ^." 

Then follows a very brief summary of the Eucharistic Preface, and after that the Trisagion 7, 
corresponding in part to the long Thanksgiving in the Apostolic Constitutions for all God's 
mercies in creation, providence, and redemption ^ 

It is important to observe how S. Cyril in this and the following sections associates the 
people with the Priest, using throughout the Plural "We." That this is intentional and 
significant, we may learn from a passage of S. Chrysostom 9 which is so interesting that we 
may be allowed to translate it at length : " Sometimes moreover no difference is made 
between the Priest and those over whom he presides, as for example when we are to partake 
of the awful mysteries ; for we are all alike deemed worthy of the same privileges : not as in 
the Old Covenant some parts were eaten by the Priest, and others by the governed (6 apxafuvos), 
and it was not lawful for the people to share in what the Priest partook of. It is not so now : 
but one Body is set before all, and one Cup. And in the prayers also one may see the laity 
contributing much. For the prayers on behalf of the Energumens, and on behalf of those in 
Penitence are offered in common both by the Priest and by themselves ; and all say one 
prayer, a prayer that is full of compassion. Again, after we have excluded from the sacred 
precincts those who are unable to partake of the Holy Table, there is another prayer to be 
made, and we all alike lie prostrate on the floor, and all alike rise up. When again we are to 
receive and give a kiss of peace, we all alike embrace each other. Again even amid the 
most tremendous Mysteries the Priest prays over the people, and the people over 
the Priest : for the formula, " \Vith Thy Spirit," is nothing else than this. The words of 
the Thanksgiving again are common : for he does not give thanks alone, but also the whole 
people. For having first got their answer, and they agreeing that ' It is meet and right so to 
do,' he then begins the thanksgiving. And why wonder that the people sometimes speak 
with the Priest, when even with the very Cherubim and the Powers on high they send up 
those sacred hymns in common. Now all this I have said in order that each of the common 
people {twv apxopiVMv) also may be vigilant, that we may learn that we are all one Body, 
having only as much difference between one and another, as between members and members, 
and may not cast the whole work upon the Priests, but ourselves also care for the whole Church 
even as for a common Body." 

It is remarkable that in Cyril's account of the Eucharistic rites in this Lecture there is not 
the slightest reference to the words of Institution, though these hold so prominent a place 
before the Invocation both in the Clementine Liturgy and in the Liturgy of S. James. But 
we cannot justly assume, from a mere omission in so brief a summary, that the Commem- 
oration of the Institution had no place in the Liturgy then in use at Jerusalem. It seems 
more probable that Cyril did not think it necessary, after his repeated references to the Insti- 
tution in the preceding Lecture, to make further mention of a custom so well known as the 
recitation of Christ's own words in the course of the Prayer preceding the Invocation. On 

4 Afiost. Const ■\\n. c. ii. Compare Justin M. Apolog. I. c. 65. S Mystag. v. § 4. ^ § 5- 7 § 6. 8 Apost. Const, viii. c. 12. 
See the Eucharistic Preface of the Liturey 01 S. James in note 4 on Mystag. v. § 6. 9 In Epist. II. ad Cor. Homil. xviii. § 3. 



the previous day he had quoted S. Paul's account of the Institution, with the remark, " Since 
then He Himself has declared and said of the Bread, This is My Body, who shall dare doubt 
any longer? And since he has Himself affirmed and said, This is My Blood, who shall ever 
hesitate, saying that it is not His Blood ' ?" The like efficacy he again ascribes to " the Lord's 
declaration " concerning both the Bread and the Wine, that they are " the Body and Blood of 

Christ ^" 

In the Didach^, which gives the oldest elements of an Eucharistic Service, there is neither 
the Commemoration nor the Invocation, but only two short and simple forms of Thanksgiving 
"for the Holy Vine of David," and *' for the broken Bread 3." 

lustin Martyr seems to imply that the consecration is effected by the Commemoration of 
Christ's own words in the Institution : " We have been taught," he says, " that the food which 
is blessed by the prayer of the word which comes from Him (ti]v 8i eix'7^ \6yov rov nap' ai/rov 
fvxaptaTtjenaav Tpo(pi]v), and by which our blood and flesh are by transmutation nourished, is the 
Flesh and Blood of that Jesus who was made Flesh." He gives no separate Invocation of the 
Holy Ghost, but this may have been supplied in the "praise and glory" or in the "prayers 
and thanksgivings " sent up " to the Father of all through the name of the Son and of tlie Holy 
Ghost 4." 

Iren^eus is apparently the earliest writer who represents the Invocation of the Holy Ghost 
as the immediate act of consecration : " We make an oblation to God of the bread and 
the cup of blessing, giving Him thanks for that He has commanded the earth to bring forth 
these fruits for our nourishment. And then, having completed the oblation, we call forth 
(eKKaXovfiev) the Holy Spirit, that He may exhibit this sacrifice, both the bread the Body of 
Christ, and the cup the Blood of Christ, in order that the partakers of these antitypes may 
obtain the remission of sins and life eternal s." 

Mr. Hammond writes that, " By the Oriental Churches an Invocation of the Holy Spirit is 
considered necessary to complete ihe consecration. In the three Oriental Families of Litur- 
gies such an Invocation is invariably found shortly after the Words of Institution ^." 

It is in accordance with this statement that, we find Cyril so frequently declaring that the 
elements which before the Invocation are simple bread and wine, become after the 
Invocation the Body and Blood of Christ?. In the first of the passages referred to below 
he speaks of " the Holy Invocation of the Adorable Trinity," m the others of the Holy Spirit only. 

Cyril next describes the Invocation as " completing the Spiritual Sacrifice, the bloodless 
Service," and then gives a summary of the " Great Intercession " as made " over that 
Sacrifice of the Propitiation." The Intercession, as represented by Cyril, is not simply 
a prayer, but an offering of the Sacrifice ^ and this is in accordance with the usual language 
of the Liturgies. " We offer to Thee, O Lord, on behalf also of Thy holy places, which 
Thou hast glorified by the Theophany of Thy Christ, and by the visitation of Thine 
All-Holy Spirit : especially on behalf of glorious Sion, the Mother of all the Churches, 
and on behalf of Thy Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church throughout the whole world ^" 
In the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom, as now commonly used in the Orthodox Eastern Church, 
we find the fuller phrase, " We offer unto Thee this reasonable Service on behalf of the 
world, on behalf of the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church ^" 

In some particulars Cyril's summary agrees most nearly with the Clementine Liturgy, 
as, for example, in the prayer "for the King and those in authority, and for the whole 
army, that they may be at peace with us 3." In others he follows the Liturgy of S. James, 

» Mystag. iv. § i. » lb. § 6 : see also § 7. 3 Capp. ix., x. 4 Apol. I. cc. 65 — 67. 

5 Frag, xxxvii}. * Liturgies, p. 38a. 7 Mystag. v, i. § 7 ; iii. § 3 ; v. § ?• 

8 Mystag. V. 8 8 : rair^v Trpo(T<t>epoiJ.ev -niv Ovaiar. i Hammond, Liturgy 0/ S. James, p. 43. 

» lb. p. IIS. 3 lb. p 18. 


as in the intercession for " every Christian soul afflicted and distressed, that stands in 
need of Thy pity and succour 4." 

Cyril next describes the commemoration of departed Saints, and " of all who in 
past years have fallen asleep among us," that is, in the bosom of the Church, and states 
his belief " that it will be a very great benefit to the souls, for whom the supplication is 
put up while that holy and most awful Sacrifice is presented s." He refers to objections 
against this belief, and brings forward in defence of it a reason applicable only to sinners : 
"When we offer," he says, "our supplications for those who have fallen asleep, though 
they be sinners, we offer up Christ sacrificed for our sins, propitiating our merciful God 
for them as well as for ourselves^." His language on this subject seems in fact to shew 
an advance in doctrine beyond the earliest Liturgies. In those of S. James and S. Basil 
we find prayers that the offering may be acceptable as a propitiation "for the rest of the 
souls that have fallen asleep aforetime;" and again, "that we may find mercy and grace 
with all the Saints who have ever been pleasing in Thy sight from generation to generation, 
forefathers, fathers. Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, Confessors, Teachers, holy 
men, and every righteous spirit made perfect in the faith of Thy Christ." 

There is nothing here, nor in the Clementine Liturgy, nor in that of S. Mark, cor- 
responding to the purpose which Cyril ascribes to the commemoration, " that at their 
prayers and intercessions God would receive our petition," In the Anaphora of S. Chrysos- 
tom contained in the later form of the Liturgy of Constantinople we find, apparently for 
the first time, this prayer added to the commemoration of all Saints, " at whose supplications 
look upon us, O'God." 

There was much controversy on the subject of prayers for the dead in Cyril's time, 
and the objections which he notices were brought into prominence by Aerius, and rebuked 
by Epiphanius 7. 

From the commemoration of the departed Cyril passes at once to the Lord's Prayer^, 
omitting the Preface which is found in the Liturgies of S. James and 8. Mark. In the 
Clementine Liturgy, contrary to general use, the Lord's Prayer is not said at all. Cyril adds 
an exposition of each petition, and gives an unusual explanation of eViovo-tof, for which see the 
footnote : he also explains tov novrjpov as referring to " the wicked one," following in this the 
Embolismus of S. James, " deliver us from the wicked one and from his works." 

"After this the Bishop says. Holy things for holy men 9," Chrysostom explains this as 
being both an invitation to the Faithful in general to communicate, and a warning to the 
unholy to withdraw. " The Bishop, with loud voice and awe-inspiring cry, raising high his arm 
like a herald, and standing on high in sight of all, above that awful silence cries aloud, inviting 
some and repelling others, and doing this not with his hand, but with his tongue more clearly 
than with the hand For when he says. Holy things for the holy, he means this : Who- 
soever is not holy, let him not draw near^" 

In regard to the doctrinal significance of the formula. Dr. Waterland's remarks should be 
consulted ^ 

The response of the people to the " Sancta Sanctis " is given by Cyril 3 in accordance with 
the Liturgy of S. James and the Clementine : " One is Holy, One is the Lord, Jesus Chiist : " 
but he does not mention the " Gloria in excelsis " nor the •' Hosanna," both of which follow 
here in the Clementine. 

"After this," says Cyril, "ye hear the chanter inviting you with a sacred melody to the 
Communion of the Holy Mysteries, and saying, O taste and see that the Lord is good^. This 

4 Hammond, Liturgy of S.James, p. 44. S § 9. * § 10. 7 Hcpres. Ixxv. § 7. Cf. Bingh. Ant. XV. c. 3, 

S 16 ; Diet. Chi: Biog. " Aeriiis." 8 Mysiag. V. § ii. 9 lb. § 19. ' Horn. xvii. in Hebr. These Homilies were 

edited after Chrysostom's death. ^ A Review 0/ the Doctrine of the Eueharizt, c.-x.. 3 § 19. 4 § 20. 


agrees with the Clementine rubric : " Let the 33rd Psalm be sung while all the rest are par- 
taking." In the Liturgy of S. James, while the Bishop is breaking the Bread and dipping it 
in the Wine, the " Agnus Dei " and several Psalms were sung : but of these there is no 
mention in the Clementine Liturgy or in Cyril. 

On Cyril's directions for receiving the Bread and the Cup with due reverence, see the foot- 
notes on the passages s. 

His final injunction to remain for the prayer and thanksgiving is taken from that in the 
Clementine Liturgy : " Having partaken of the precious Body and the precious Blood of 
Christ, let us give thanks to Him who hath counted us worthy to partake of His holy Mys- 
teries" The thanksgiving, benediction, concluding prayers, and dismissal, vary much in the 
different Liturgies. 

Effects of Baptism and of Chrism. 

§ I. Baptism. When we try to ascertain the exact relation between Baptism and the 
Unction or Chrism which immediately followed, we find that Cyril's teaching on the subject 
has been understood in very different senses. By some he is thought to regard the Unction 
as being merely an accessory rite of the one great Sacrament of Baptism ; to others he seems 
to draw a clear distinction between them, assigning to each its proper grace and efficacy. 

The former view is stated by the Oxford editor, Milles, in his note on the words : " And in 
like manner to you also, after you had come up from the pool of the sacred waters, there was 
given an unction, a figure {avTLTvrtov) of that with which Christ was anointed ; and that is the 
Holy Ghost ^" " It is evident," says Milles, " from his words here, that the Chrism of which 
Cyril treats in this Lecture is not to be referred to the Unction which is administered by the 
Romanists in Confirmation. For every one sees that by Unction in this passage a ceremony 
of Baptism is indicated. The ancients employed two Unctions in Baptism, the first before 
the immersion in the water, of Avhich he spoke in the preceding Lecture ; the second imme- 
diately upon ascending from the water, of which he speaks in this Lecture." 

This opinion is elaborately discussed by the Benedictine editor, Touttee, Dissertatio iii. 
c. 7, who argues that the Unction described by Cyril is a Sacrament distinct from Baptism, 
that it has for its proper grace the gift of the Holy Spirit, and further that this gift is not 
conferred in Baptism. Of these assertions the first and second appear to represent Cyril's 
view correctly : the last is an exaggeration and a mistake, the tendency of which is to identify 
the Chrism of the Eastern Church with that which is used in Confirmation by the Roman 
Church, and to exalt the rite of Confirmation as a proper Sacrament distinct from Baptism, 
and even superior to it. A view differing in some respects from both of these has been 
recently put forward by a learned and devout writer of our own Churcli, who has fully dis- 
cussed the teaching of Cyril and other Eastern Fathers, and gives the result of his investigation 
in the following " Summary =^:" "For very many centuries the Christians of the East have 
never been forced to define to themselves at all clearly the position of a person baptized but 
unconfirmed. Their mode of administering Confirmation {Chrism}) by the hands of the 
baptizing Presbyter — though among the Greeks and some others with chrism prepared by the 
Bishop — relieves them from the necessity which weighs upon us Westerns, of teachino^ 
Christian children what their status is between the two rites. Confirmation {C/irism}) is for 
them, far more than it has been for a long while in the West, a factor in Baptism. Only 

S §8 21, 22. I Mysiag. iii. § i. 

= A. J. Mason, D.D., Tlu Relation of Confirmation to ISaptism, p. 3S9. Though I find myself compelled to differ widely from 
my friend Canon Mason in the interpretation of Cyril's teaching on this subject, I cannot refrain from expressing my sincere 
admiration of the tone and purpose of his treatise, and of the learning and research which it exhibits. 


a more or less conscious desire not to fall behind Western teachers in honouring the per- 
fecting Unction can have led their later authorities to treat that Unction as a sacrament 
numencally distinct from Baptism. To all the early doctors of the East the two things are 
one, and Baptism culminates in the Unction. The tendency among Oriental Christians was, 
not TO attribute to Baptism in our modern sense the gift of the Holy Ghost, but rather to 
consider Baptism by itself as a bare rite, benefiting the body alone, and dependent for its 
spiritual efficacy upon other actions, after and before. Not that this tendency has its full way. 
The Greek Fathers may be said certainly on the whole to trace the forgiveness of sins, the 
preparatory cleansing, to the baptismal Laver ; the gift of the Holy Ghost, for the ordinary 
purposes of Christian Hving, they trace, like S. Chrysostom, to that act which comes " im- 
mediately after Baptism, and before the Mysteries." 

When we come to inquire how far these several theories agree with the teaching of Cyril 
himself, we must in the outset put aside altogether the name Confii 7natio7i : for as applied to 
the Unction used in the Eastern Church it is only confusing and misleading. In the early 
ages of the Church Confirmation was not known even by name. In the Latin Church "neither 
Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, nor any of the Latin Fathers, makes mention 
of Confirmation in this sense. Nor have the Greeks any word to answer to this Latin terms." 
So far, therefore, Milles appears to be perfectly right in refusing to connect the Clirism of 
which Cyril treats with the Unction used in Confirmation by the Roman Church. 

We may add that in Cyril's account of Chrism it is wholly unconnected with Confirmation, 
both in its symbolic reference and in its outward form. Chrism, he says, is the antitype of 
the Unction of Christ by the Holy Ghost at His Baptism : Confirmation is universally ad- 
mitted to have been a following of the Apostles in their laying on of hands. But in that 
Apostolic rite there was no unction, and in Chrism there was no such laying on of hands. 

In several passages Cyril clearly distinguishes the outuard form of Baptism from the 
spiritual grace. 

" If thy body be here, but not thy mind, it profiteth thee nothing. Even Simon Magus 
once came to the Laver : he was baptized, but was not enlightened ; and though he dipped 
his body in water, he enlightened not his heart with the Spirit : his body went down and came 
up, but his soul was not buried with Christ, nor raised with Him t" 

It is impossible here to regard " the Spirit " as referring to the grace of Unction : for 
(i) Baptism was not accompanied by Unction in the time of the Apostles, and (2) we should 
thus make a false antithesis between the outward part of the one rite ("he dipped his body in 
water"), and the i?nvard part of the other. Here, therefore, Cyril attributes enlightenment of 
the heart by the Spirit to Baptism apart from Unction, and at the same time lays stress upon 
the difference between the worthy and unworthy recipient of the outward form. 

The importance of this difference is further enforced throughout the next two sections, and 
at the close of § 4 the distinction between the outward sign and inward grace of Baptism, 
strictly so called, is again asserted, " though the water will receive thee, the Spirit will not 
accept thee." 

" Some might suppose," it is said, " from these words that Cyril thought of water and the 
Spirit as the sign and the thing signified in Baptism respectively, and a passage in a later 
Lecture upon the subject of the Sacrament (of Baptism) at first confirms that impressions." 

To suppose that Cyril had any other thought in the former passage, seems to me 
impossible for any ordinary reader; and the later passage, not only at first, but more fully 
the longer it is considered, confirms that impression beyond all doubt. The whole quotation, 
including Cat. iii. §§ 3, 4, is too long to repeat here, but may be read in its proper place. 

> Suicer, Thesaurus, Xpia-fia. * Prccat. § a. S Mason, tdisuj:?:, p. 337. 


It will be sufficient to give the passages which are of chief importance in the question before 
us, according to Canon Mason's translation. 

Cat. iii. § 3. " Do not attend to the laver as mere water, but to the spiritual grace given 
along with the water " . , . " the mere water, receiving the invocation of the Holy Ghost, and 
of Christ, and of the Father, acquires a power of sanctity. For since man is a two-fold being 
composed of soul and body, the cleansing element also is two-fold, the incorporeal for the 
incorporeal, the bodily for the body. And the water cleanses the body, but the Spirit seals 
the soul, in order that having our hearts sprinkled by the Spirit, and our bodies washed with 
pure water, we may draw nigh to God. When, therefore, you are about to go down into the 
water do not pay attention to the mere nature of the water, but expect salvation by the 
operation of the Holy Ghost. For without both it is impossible for thee to be perfected." 

No words could state more clearly the distinction between the outward sign and the 
inward grace of Baptism, and the absolute necessity for both. There is no posssible reference 
to Unction, but " the operation of the Holy Ghost " in cleansing and sealing the soul is 
unmistakably connected with Baptism as " the grace given with the water" (ixera toC uSotoj), 
and below, as " the seal by water " (ri^v St' vSaroi acjipayldn), the latter phrase shewing that 
Baptism by water is the signiitn efficax of the grace in question. 

Cyril then quotes our Lord's words. Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he 
cannot enter into the kingdom of God, and explains them thus : " On the one hand he who is 
being baptized (/SaTrn^o'/iet/os) with the water, but has not had the Spirit vouchsafed to him 
(KaTa§i(,i6eU), has not the grace in perfection : on the other hand, even if a man be dis- 
tinguished for virtue in his deeds, but does not receive the seal bestowed by means of water 
{ti)v St' vSaTos (TcppaylSa), he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven." Canon Mason, 
Avhose translation I have followed, finds here a reference both to Baptism and to Unction as 
"the first baptismal act and the second," and in support of this interpretation gives a second 
and more emphatic version : " He who is in course of being baptized with the water, but has 
not yet had the Spirit vouchsafed to him, has not the grace in perfection." This introduction 
of the word "jet," in order to represent a distinction between two separate acts, is not 
justified either by the reading of the older editions (oi8e t^ vtan ^cnrTiCo^ievos firj Kara^iadns: 
Se Toi) UvfiifiaTos), nor by that of Codices Monac. Roe, Casaub. adopted by Reischl (ovre 
6 (if^anTiTp.ivoi K.T.X.), nor by the Benedictine text (oifre 6 ISanri^nfifvos k.t.X.). The obvious 
meaning of the passage, with either reading, is that " the man who in Baptism did not receive 
the Holy Spirit, has not the grace (of Baptism) complete." The Benedictine Editor in his 
elaborate argument for regarding Chrism as a distinct sacrament s", does not even refer to 
this passage. 

A statement which is important in this connexion is found in Mystag. ii. § 6 : "Let no 
one then suppose that Baptism is the grace of remission of sins only, or further of adoption, 
as the Baptism of John conferred only remission of sins ; but as we know full well that 
it cleansas from sins and procures a gift of the Holy Spirit, so also it is a counterpart 
{JivtItv-hov) of the sufferings of Christ." 

Here besides "the remission of sins, which no man receiveth without the Holy Spirit^," 
we find "a gift of the Holy Ghost," and the fellowship of Christ's Passion distinctly attributed 
to Baptism. 

If the " adoption " mentioned at the beginning of this passage were identical (as Touttee 
thinks) with the "gift of the Holy Ghost," it would by no means follow that Cyril here means 
to include Unction in Baptism. For the grace which beyond all others is exclusively attaclied 
to Baptism, and not to Unction, is the new birth, and this is " the new birth into freedom 

5» Dissert, iii. c. 8, « Hooker, E.V. V. Ixvi. § 6, 


and adoptiom^^ In fact Cyril's teaching on this point is in strict accordance with that 
of St. Paul in Gal. iv. 4-6, that we first receive the adoption of sons (vlodealav), and then 
" because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, 
Father" So again in Rom. viii. 15, 16, he says-, *' Ye received the Spirit of adoption, whereby 
we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit Himself beareth witness with our spirit that 7ve are 
ttie children of God.'' In botli passages St. Paul clearly distinguishes two things, " the 
adoption" itself, and the witness of it by "the Spirit of adoption." Cf. Bengel on v. 4: 
" Prius adoptionem, deinde Spirittcm adoptionis accepimus;" and on v. 6 : " Filiorum statum 
sequitur inhabitatio Spiritus Sancti, non banc ille." The adoption itself belongs to Baptism 
strictly so called, in which we are made children of God and joint heirs with Christ (cf. 
Cat. iii. 15) : the witness of the indwelling Spirit of adoption is the special grace ascribed 
to Chrism in the Eastern Church, and to Confirmation in the Western. There are many 
other passages in which Cyril ascribes to Baptism itself, as distinct from Chrism, a gift 
of the Spirit, such as the following : " But He trieth the soul : He casteth not His pearls 
before the swine : if thou dissemble, men will baptize thee now, but the Spirit will not 
baptize thee^." 

"The Lord, preventing us according to His loving-kindness, has granted repentance 
at Baptism, in order that we may cast off the chief — nay, rather the whole burden of 
our sins, and having received the seal by the Holy Ghost, may be made heirs of eternal life 9." 

Again, after speaking of " the invocation of grace having sealed the soul," he adds : 
" Having gone down dead in sins, thou comest up quickened in righteousness. For if 
thou hast been united with the likeness of the Saviour's death, thou slialt also be deemed 
worthy of His Resurrection '." The benefits ascribed to Baptism in these several passages 
without any allusion to Chrism, are brought together with rhetorical effect in the Introductory 
Lecture, § 16 : " Great is the Baptism that lies before you ; a ransom to captives, a remission 
of offences, a death of sin, a new birth of the soul, a garment of light, a holy indissoluble 
seal, a chariot to heaven, the delight of Paradise, a welcome into the kingdom, the gift of 

From such language it is clear beyond question that in Cyril of Jerusalem, not to speak 
of other Oriental Fathers, the tendency is not " to consider Baptism by itself as a bare 
rite, benefiting the body alone, and dependent for its spiritual efficacy upon other actions 
after and before," but as depending on the power of the Holy Ghost, and the sincerity 
of repentance and faith in man. 

If further proof were needed, a glance at the Index under the word "Baptism" will 
shew the extraordinary richness, variety, and precision of Cyril's teaching, as to the gifts 
of the Holy Ghost conferred therein. 

§ 2. Chrism. When spiritual blessings so many and so great have been ascribed to 
Baptism, in what light, it may be asked, does Cyril regard the Unction which follows? Does 
he treat it as being merely an additional ceremony subordinate to Baptism, or as having for 
its own i)roper grace some special gift of the Holy Ghost ? We find no answer to this ques- 
tion in the earlier course of Lectures ^ But that Chrism was not regarded by Cyril as a mere 
accessory to Baptism, as Milles thought 3, may be safely inferred from the fact that in announc- 
ing the subjects of his Mystagogic Lectures, he mentions first Baptism, then "the seal of the 
fellowship of the Holy Ghost," and then " the Mysteries at the altar of the New Covenant * : " 
and this inference is fully confirmed by his language elsewhere : " Ye have heard enough 
of Baptism, and Chrism, and partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ s." A mere additional 

7 Cat. i. 9. 8 lb. xvii. § 36. 9 lb. iv 37. » lb. i:i. § 12. » Upon the supposed allusion to Chrism 

in Cat. xvi. § 26, see below, p. xxxiv. 3 Note on Mystn^. iii. §1. 4 Cat. xviii. § 33. 5 Mj/siag. v. § i. 

VOL. VII. d 


ceremony of Baptism could not have been so indepeaidently placed between the two great 
Sacraments, and, as it were, in the same rank with them. 

The importance thus attached to Chrism is further shewn in the fact that Cyril uses the 
very same language in reference to the consecration of the ointment of Chrism, and of the 
water of Baptism, and of the Eucharistic elements. "The bread and wine of the Eucharist 
before the Invocation of the Holy and Adorable Trinity are simple (Xtro's) bread and wine, but 
after the Invocation the Bread becomes the Body and the Wine the Blood of Christ^." 
" Regard not the Laver as simple (Xirw) water, but rather regard the spiritual grace that is given 
with the water?." '*The simple water having received the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, and 
of Christ, and of the Father, acquires a new power of holiness ^." 

•' But see thou suppose not this to be plain (\jri\ov) ointment. For as the Bread of the 
Eucharist, after the Invocation of the Holy Ghost is no longer simple (Xltos) bread, but the 
Body of Christ; so also this holy ointment is no longer plain (^^i\6i>) ointment, nor, as one 
might say, common, after Invocation, but Christ's gift of grace (xdpia-fia), and is made effectual 
to impart the Holy Ghost by the presence of His own Godhead 9." 

The spiritual benefits which Cyril ascribes to the Unction are set forth in the same 
lecture. *'This holy thing is a spiritual safeguard of the body, and salvation of the soul" 
(.^ 7) : it sanctifies all the organs of sense : " the body is anointed with the visible ointment, 
and the soul is sanctified by the Holy and Life-giving Spirit " (§ 3). After being anointed the 
Christian is now entitled to that name in its fullest sense ' ; he is clothed with the whole 
armour of the Holy Ghost, that he may stand against the power of the adversary : he may say, 
"lean do all thhigs in Christ who strengtheneth me " (§ 4). 

In regard to the supposed identity of Chrism and Confirmation, it is important to notice 
carefully how Cyril speaks of the laying on of hands in the only passage where he men- 
tions it^ 

He first illustrates the freedom of the Spirit, and His independence of human agency, by 
the gift of prophecy to the seventy elders, including Eldad and Medad : he then refers to the 
gift of the spirit of wisdom to Joshua by the laying on of Moses' hands 3, and adds, " Thou 
seest everywhere the figure (rvnov) in the Old Testament, and in the New the same. In Moses' 
time the Spirit was given by laying on of hands (xfipodecna), and Peter gives the Spirit by laying 
on of hands * : and upon thee also, who art to be baptized, the grace is about to come ; but 
the manner (t6 ttws-) I tell thee not, for I do not forestall the time." 

From this passage it has been inferred (i) that Cyril alludes to a gift of the Spirit by laying 
on of hands in immediate connexion with Baptism and Unction s, and (2) that he refers this 
gift of the Spirit not to Baptism itself, but to the laying on of hands, or to the Unction 
as a figure that answers to it ^. 

(i) The first of these inferences is opposed to the fact that Cyril neither mentions the 
laying on of hands as part of the actual ceremonial in Baptism or Unction, nor as the analogous 
rite in the old Testam.ent, but on the contrary expressly says 7 that the symbol (ro crvpfioXov) of 
this holy Chrism in the Old Testament lies in the consecration of Aaron to be High Priest, 
when Moses, "after the washing in water anointed him, and he was called ^ afioinkd,' evidently 

from this figurative unction {tuv XP'O-iiaros drjXaSr] rov rvniKov)." 

(2) In support of the second inference the argument offered is as follows : "That the Spirit 
was to come upon them in the course of their Baptism is here again clearly stated ; but that 
Cyril did not intend them to suppose that Baptism itself would convey the gift is equally clear. 
Again and again in earlier Lectures, as well as in the words actually before us, Cyril has taught 
them to expect the gift in Baptism ; if therefore the immersion itself were to be the means of 

6 Mystag. i. S 7. 7 Cat. iii. § 3. 8 HUhvt. 9 Mystag. iii. 3. » lb. iii. §1. « xvi. §§ 25, 26. 

3 Deut. x.wiv. 9 4 Acts viii. 17. 5 Touttce. * Mason, p. 341, with note. 7 Mystag. iii. 6. 


receiving it, he has already told them his secret. Yet now he says that he will not tell them 
'how' they are to receive it. That remains for a future occasion^." The mistake, as 
I venture to consider it, lies in the words which I have marked with italics. For of the 
mysteries which were to be concealed from the unbaptized ((J/nvrjT-ot) the first was the man?ier 
of administering Baptisjn itself, and the second, the unction of Chrism ; and in the preceding 
Lectures Cyril has no more told the secret of the one than of the other. " Baptism, the 
Eucharist, and the oil of Chrism, were things that the uninitiated (dixhTjToi) were not allowed 
to look upon 9." 

"We bless," says S. Basil', "both the water of Baptism and the oil of the Chrism, and 
moreover the baptized {fBrnmCo^jifvov) himself. From what written commands ? Is it not from 
a secret {a-Konaiiiivqi) and mystical tradition ? Again, the very anointing with the oil, what 
word of Scripture taught that? And the dipping the man thrice, whence came it? And all 
the other accompaniments of Baptism, the renunciation of Satan and his angels, from what 
Scripture came they ? Come they not from this unj^ublished and secret teaching, which our 
fathers guarded in a silence with which no prying curiosity might meddle, having been well 
taught to preserve the sanctity of the mysteries by silence ? For how could it have been right 
to publish in writing the doctrine of these mysteries, which the unbaptized are not even 
allowed to look upon ? " 

As these secret ceremonies of Baptism and Unction are revealed by Cyril only in the 
Mystagogic Lectures, the supposed reason for saying, that in Cat. xvi. 26, the promised gift of 
the Spirit refers not to Baptism but only to Unction, at once falls to the ground. 

The true state of the case is well expressed by Bingham ^, " Though the ancients acquainted 
the Catechumens with the doctrine of Baptism so far as to make them understand the spiritual 
nature and design of it, yet they never admitted them to the sight of the actual ceremony, nor 
so much as to hear any plain discourse about the manner of its administration, till they were 
fitted and prepared for the actual reception of it," — or rather, till they actually received it. 

There is in fact no reason to exalt the benefits of Unction, or Confirmation, by robbing 
Baptism of its proper grace. " It was this Unction, as the completion of Baptism, to which 
they ascribed the power of making every Christian in some sense partaker of a royal priesthood. 
To it they also ascribed the noble effects of confirming the soul with the strength of all spiritual 
graces on God's part, as well as the confirmation of the profession and covenant made on 
man's parts." We may well be satisfied that the doctrine of the early Church has been so 
fully retained in essential points in our own Office of Confirmation, recalling as it does by the 
ratification of the baptismal vows the immediate connexion of the ancient Unction with 
Baptism, and in its Prayers invoking the same gifts of the Holy Spirit, — "Strengthen them, we 
beseech Thee, O Lord, with the Holy Ghost the Comforter, and daily increase in them Thy 
manifold gifts of grace; the spirit of wisdom and understanding; the spirit of counsel and 
ghostly strength ; the spirit of knowledge and true godliness ; and fill them, O Lord, with the 
spirit of Thy holy fear, now and for ever. Amen." 

EucHARisTic Doctrine. 

We have seen that Cyril makes the consecration of sacramental elements in every case 
consist in the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, after which the water of Baptism is no longer 

8 Mason, p. 341. 9 Basil, a/iud Bingham, X. 5, § 4- * -O"? S^iriiu S. c. xxvii. « Ant. X. v. § 4. 

3 Eingh. XII. iii. § 3. Cf. A/>ost. Const. III. c. 17. " This Baptism therefore is into the death of Jesus : the water is instead 
of the burial, and the oil instead of the Holy Ghost ; the seal instead of the Cross ; tke ointment is the confirmation 0/ the Con- 
fession." VII. 22: " that the anointing withx>il may be the participation of the Holy Spirit, and the water the symbol of the death, 
and the ointment the seal of the covenants.'' 

d 2 


mere simple water % the ointment no longer plain ointment *, the bread and the wine no longer 
plain bread and wine, but the Body and Blood of Christ 3. 

Upon these statements an argument against Transubstantiation has been founded by Bishop 
Cosin ■», and adopted both by Dr. Pusey s and Dean Goode ^. It being universally admitted 
that the substance of the water and of the ointment remains unchanged, it is argued from the 
identity of the language employed in each case that, according to Cyril, no subsfatitial ch?iX\gQ 
takes place in the Bread and Wine. Bishop Cosin quotes the following passage, of which the 
original is given below : '* Take heed thou dost not think that this is a mere ointment only. 
For as the bread of the Eucharist after the invocation of the Holy Ghost is no longer ordinary 
bread, but is the body of Christ ; so this holy ointment is no longer a bare common ointment 
after it is consecrated, but is the gift or grace of Christ, which, by His Divine Nature, and 
the coming of the Holy Ghost, is made efficacious ; so that the body is anointed with the 
ointment, but the soul is sanctified by the holy and vivifying Spirit 7." 

Bishop Cosin proceeds to argue thus: "Can anything more clear be said? Either the 
ointment is transubstantiated by consecration into the spirit and grace of Christ, or the bread 
and wine are not transubstantiated by consecration into the Body and Blood of Christ. 
Therefore as the ointment retains still its substance, and yet is not called a mere or common 
ointment, but the Chrism or grace of Christ : so the bread and wine remaining so, as to their 
substance, yet are not said to be only bread and wine common and ordinary, but also the Body 
and Blood of Christ." 

Notwithstanding the great authority of Bishop Cosin, and the assent of Theologians of such 
opposite schools as Dr. Pusey and Dean Goode, it must be admitted that the argument, even 
as against Transubstantiation, is pressed beyond its just limits. The identity of language 
extends only to two points, (i) the mode of consecration by Invocation, (2) the effect 
negatively stated, that the material element in each case is no longer simply a inaterial element. 
A change, therefore, of some kind has taken place, and we have still to inquire how the change 
in each case is described by Cyril. " The water acquires a power of sanctity," otherwise 
described as " the spiritual grace given with the water ^." 

" The ointment is Christ's gift of grace (Xflpitr/io), and becomes effectual to impart by the 
presence of the Holy Ghost His Divine Nature 9." " The Bread becomes the Body and 
the Wine the Blood of Christ \" 

There is here no such identity of language as would justify the assertion that the change 
described is of the same nature in each case, that because it leaves the substance of the water 
and the ointment untouched, therefore the substance of the Bread also must, according to 
Cyril, remain unchanged : this must be proved by other arguments. We must also remember 
that if this argument based upon the identity of the language used on the two sides of a com- 
parison is trustworthy, there is another passage in Cyril to which it may be applied : " He 
once, in Cana of Galilee, changed the water into wine akin to blood {niKfiov a'^iaTi)^, and is it 
incredible that He changed wine into blood?" The change of the water into wine was 
a change of substance : are we then prepared to agree with the Roman Church that the change 
of the bread also is a change of substance ? Nay further, would the Roman Church itself 
accept the principle of the argument ? For observe that in fact Bishop Cosin himself, when he 
comes to deal with this passage, gives up his former argument, and distinctly rejects it. 

' Cat. 111. 83. » Mystag. iii. § 3. | 6 apros tJjs ivxa-pi.<Tria.^ fieri Tr\v eTrixXria-iv tov ayCov nrev/aoTO! 

3 Mystag. iii. § 3. In the same Lecture, § 7, the consecration 
of the bread and wine is said to follow " the Invocation of tlie 
Holy and Adorable Trinity." 

4 The History of Popish Transubstantiation, Ch< v. § 14. 

5 The Doctrine o/tlie Real Presence, pp. 277 — 281. 

6 Tlie Nature 0/ Christ's Presence in the Eucharist, p. 483. 

7 'AAA* opa ^i!) vnroi'0^<rjjs fKiivo TOiivpov ij/i\ov flvai. Cxritfp yip 

OVK en aprot Aitos, aAAi triotio. XpiaTOi", oi)T<o Kal to ayiov toiSto 
fjivpov OVK in i^iAoi', oiiS' ws av eijrot Tts koivov flex' en-t/cAijTii', 
oAAi XpiiTToO \a.pi<rii.(i, koX IX^v/aaTOS iyt'ov jropov<7i(f rij? avTOV 
SeoTijTOS erepyijTiKbr yu'o/nei'oi'. 8 Cat. iii 3. 

9 Mystag. iii. 3. On the translation see note on the passage. 

' lb. i. S 7- 

* On this reading, see Mystag. iv. § 2, note 4. 


" Protestants," he says, " do freely grant and firmly believe that the wine, in the sense already 
often mentioned, is changed into the Blood of Christ ; but every change is not a transubstan- 
tiation ; neither doth Cyril say that this change {i.e. of the wine) is like that of the water, for 
then it would appear to our senses ; but that He who changed the water sensibly can also 
change the wine sacranientally, will not be doubted by any 3." Again, in describing the act 
of consecration, Cyril says : " We beseech the merciful God to send forth His Holy Spirit 
upon the gifts lying before Him, that He may make the bread the Body of Christ, and the 
wine the Blood of Christ, for certainly whatsoever the Holy Ghost has touched, is sanctified 
and changed {fjy'iacrrai Ka\ iierafif^XriTai.) 4." Here again, as in the passage quoted from Myst. 
iii. § 3, a sacramental change of some sort is asserted, but its specific character is not defined. 
There is, however, a passage which throws some light on Cyril's conception of the change in 
Myst. iv, § 3 : " In the figure of Bread is given to thee His Body, and in the figure of Wine 
His Blood ; that thou by partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ mightest be made of the 
same body and the same blood with Him. For thus we come to bear Christ in us, His Body 
and His Blood being distributed to our members {ch ra fjnerepa dva8t8oiifvov fJLeXrj)." Several 
good MSS. read dvadfbeyfxevot, which would give the meaning, " having received of His Body 
and of His blood into our members." This does not alter the general sense of the passage ; 
but the reading araStSo/^xeVow is supported by another passage, Myst v. § 15: "Our common 
bread is not substantial (eVtoiVios) : but this Holy Bread is substantial, that is, appointed for 
the substance of the soul. This Bread goef/i not info the belly and is not cast out into the 
draught, but is distributed (draStSora/) into thy whole system for the benefit of body and soul." 

In order to accommodate these passages to the Roman doctrine of Transubstantiation 
the Benedictine Editor here introduces the idea of species, the outward forms or accidents of 
the bread. " We must not suppose," he says, " that Cyril thought the Body of Christ to be 
divided and digested {digeri) into our body ; but by a customary way of speaking he attributes 
to the Holy Body what is suitable only to the species which conceal it. And he does not 
deny that the species pass into the draught, but only that the Body of Christ does so." 

But Cyril draws no such distinction between the species and the Body of Christ" : to him the 
Bread and Wine after consecration are the Body and the Blood of Christ. For how could it 
be said that the species, which in Transubstantiation are the mere outward accidents of bread 
and wine, are distributed into the whole system for the benefit of body and soul? 

In whatever sense the bread and wine become by consecration the Body and Blood of 
Christ, in that same sense the Body and Blood of Christ are, according to Cyril, distribute,d to 
our whole system. 

This was no new doctrine: Ignatius, Ephes. xxi., speaks of Christians as "breaking one 
Bread, which is the medicine of immortality, and the antidote that we should not die, but live 
for ever in Jesus Christ." This is perhaps the earliest expression of the belief that the resur- 
rection of the body is secured by the communion of the Body of Christ in the Eucharist. The 
manner in which this communion is effected is described by Justin Martyr {Apolog. I. § 66) in 
language which shews clearly what Cyril meant : " We do not receive these things as common 
bread and common drink : but in the same way as Jesus Christ our Saviour was made flesh by 
the Word of God, and took both flesh and blood for our salvation, so we have been taught 
that the food over which thanksgiving has been made by prayer in the word received from 
Him {Tr)v 8C fvx^s Xo'you rod nap" aiiTov (vxapiTTr]6fl.(Tav Tpo(p!]v), from which (food) our blood and 
flesh are by transmutation (n-ara ixfTa^o\i]v) nourished, is both the Flesh and Blood of Him the 
Incarnate Jesus." 

Here it is plainly taught that by consecration the Bread and Wine have become the 
Flesh and Blood of Christ, and that as such they nourish our " blood and flesh " (observe the 

3 0/ TratisubstantiatioH, Ch. vi. § 14. ♦ Mystag. v. § 7. 


inverted order) by undergoing a change : in other words, the Eucharistic Body and Blood of 
Christ are changed into nourishment of our blood and flesh, by being distributed (as Cyril 
says) to all our members, that is by being subjected to the natural processes of digestion and 
assimilation. The unusual order of the words "our blood and flesh" is not accidental, but 
answers to the process of assimilation, in which the digested food first nourishes the blood, 
and then the blood nourishes the flesh. 

The meaning is, as Otto says in his note, "that the divine food passes away into our 
bodies entire, so that nothing remains:" and Dr. Pusey seems to take the same view, in his 
note on the words, " from which (food) through transmutation our blood and flesh are 
nourished :" " /.^. the material parts are changed into the substance of the human body s." 

Thus then, according to Cyril, the Eucharistic Body and Blood of Christ are distributed to 
all our members ; His Flesh and Blood pass by a change into our blood and flesh, and we 
thereby become "of the same body and the same blood with Him^:" and " this Bread does 
not pass into the belly, and is not cast out into the draught 7," but wastes away as the body 
itself wastes ^ 

However much this view of the Sacramental mystery may diff'er from later theories, it was 
certainly held by many of the Greek Fathers. Irenaeus, for example, in addition to those 
already mentioned, thus writes: "When therefore both the mingled cup and the created bread 
receive the Word of God, and the Eucharist becomes the Body of Christ, and from these the 
substance of our flesh increaseth and consisteth, how say they that the flesh is incapable of the 
gift of God which is eternal life, that flesh which is nourished from the Body and Blood of 
the Lord, and is already (vmipxovn-n) a member of Him ? — even as the blessed Paul saith, that 
we are members of His Body, of His Flesh, and of His Bones ^^" 

That this was also the teaching of Cyril's contemporaries is clear from the famous passage 
of Gregory of Nyssa, in wliich this doctrine is fully developed. It will be sufficient to 
quote here the latter part of the passage, in which Gregory is speaking of the Wine. " Since 
then that God-containing flesh partook for its substance and support of this particular 
nourishment also, and since the God who was manifested infused Himself into perishable 
humanity for this purpose, viz. that by this communion with Deity mankind might at the same 
time be deified, for this end it is that, by dispensation of His grace, He disseminates Himself 
in every believer through that flesh whose substance comes from bread and wine, blending 
Himself with the bodies of believers, to secure that, by this union with the immortal, man too 
may be a sharer in incorruption. He gives these gifts by virtue of the benediction through 
which He transelements the natural quality of these visible things to that immortal things." 

In another remarkable passage " Cyril gives a further explanation of the eflfect of conse- 
cration : " In the New Testament there is heavenly Bread and a Cup of salvation, sanctifying 
soul and body : for as the Bread corresponds to the body, so also the Word (6 Aoyos) is 
appropriate to the soul." With this language of Cyril we may compare further what is said by 
Gregory of Nyssa in the context of the passage already quoted : " Just then, as in the case of 
ourselves, as has been repeatedly said already, if a person sees bread he also in a kind of way 
looks on a human body, for by being within this it becomes this, so in that other case the Body 
into which God entered (ro 6€i,?>6xov aafia), by partaking of the nourishment of breatl was in 
a certain sense the same with it, since that nourishment, as we have said, is changed into the 
nature of the body : for that which is proper to all men is acknowledged also in the case of 

5 Real Presence, p. 144. See note 8, below. 

6 Mystag. iv. §§ i, 3. 7 II). v. § 15. 

S See Pusey, A'. P. p. 151, note 3: "Dr. Gaisford, on my 
applying to him, kindly answered me.,—'\iaKiaea.i. It 

not thrown off like ordinary food, but that they become blended 
or assimilated to the body, and waste away as the body wastes 
away.' Mr. Field gives the same meaning." 8a y. ii. § 3. 

9 Oratio Caiechetica, c. xxxvii. The whole chapter should 

appears to me that this word can only be explained by a peri- be read with the Rev. W. Moore's notes in this Series, Vol. V. 
phrasis. The writer appears to me to mean that the elements are I pp. 504—506. « I^Iystag. iv. § 3. 


That Flesh, namely, that That Body too was maintained by bread ; which Body also by the 
indwelling of God the Word was changed into the dignity of Godhead. Rightly then do we 
believe that now also the bread which is sanctified by the Word of God is changed into the 
Body of God the Word. For even that Body was once virtually (t^ dvn'ifiei) bread, but has 
been sanctified by the inhabitation of the Word that tabernacled in the flesh." 

In this passage we have the full explanation of what Irenseus meant when he said that the 
elements " by receiving the Word of God become the Eucharist," and what Cyril meant by 
saying that " as the Bread corresponds to the body, so also the Word is appropriate to the 
soul." Their common doctrine is, that besides the Body and Blood of Christ, that is. His 
Humanity offered upon the Cross for our redemption, His Divine Nature, the Word, is also 
present, and that it is by receiving the Divine Word that the Bread is made the Body of 
Christ. " The fathers," says Touttee, " often play upon the ambiguity of the term, saying at 
one time that the Divine Word, at another that the word and oracles of God nourish our soul. 
Both are true. For the whole life-giving power of the Eucharist is derived from the Divine 
Word united with the flesh which He assumed : and the whole benefit {fnictus) of Eucharistic 
eating consists in the union of our soul with the Word, by meditation on His mysteries and 
words, and conformation thereto ^" O si sic omnia / 

In this view the Bread and Wine are signs or figures of the natural Body of Christ 
crucified ; but they are also much more, they are endued by the Divine Word, and through 
the operation of the Holy Ghost, with the life-giving power of the same Body and Blood of 
Christ, — a power which being imparted to the faithful recipient makes him to be " of the same 
body and the same blood with Christ," thereby assuring him of the resurrection of the body to 
eternal life, and at the same time strengthening and refreshing the soul by its being united 
through fixith with the Word, and being thus made '■^partaker of the Divine nature.''^ 

This is not the language of the Western Church, whether Roman, Lutheran, or Anglican, 
but it is the language of the earliest Greek Fathers, and of Cyril, as is partly and reluctantly 
admitted by so cautious a writer as Dr. Waterland. After referring to the passage quoted 
above from Justin Martyr {Aj>ol. i. 66) he proceeds : " There is another the like obscure hint 
in Irenceus, which may probably be best interpreted after the same way. He supposes the 
elements to become Christ's body by receiving the word (Word). He throws two considerations 
into one, and does not distinguish so accurately as Origen afterwards did between the 
symbolical food and the true food.''' The elements, Waterland adds, "are made the repre- 
senlative body of Christ ; but they are at the same time, to worthy receivers, made the means 
of their spiritual union with Christ Himself; which Irenaeus points at in what he says 
of the bread's receiving the Logos, but should rather have said it of the communicants them- 
selves, as receiving the spiritual presence of Christ, in the worthy use of the sacred symbols 3." 

Again, in c. vii., he says more explicitly of Irenaeus, what is equally true of Cyril ; " Least 
of all does he favour the fgurists or memorialists ; for his doctrine runs directly counter to 
them almost in every line : he asserts over and over, that Christ's body and blood are eaten 
and drunk in the Eucharist, and our bodies thereby /e'^/ and not only so, but z>^fz^/-^^/ thereby 
for a happy resurrection : and the reason he gives is, that our bodies are thereby made or 
continued members of Christ's body, flesh, and bones" 

From this view of Cyril's doctrine concerning the Sacramental elements we can easily 
understand in what sense he applies the terms " type " and " antitype " to the Eucharistic 
elements. " The Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist having two parts, an outward and an 
inward, and the outward part having been instituted by our Blessed Lord with a certain 
relation to the inward, and gifted with a certain significance of it, nothing is more natural than 
that the titles, type, antitype, symbol, figure, image, should be given to the outward part*." 

» Mystag. iv. note 4. 3 Review of the Doctrine of the Eucharist, c. V. ♦ Pusey, R. P. p. 94. 


Add to this that, according to Cyril's doctrine as already explained, the bread after the 
Invocation, without ceasing to be bread, not only signifies but also is the Body, and we see 
how natural it was for him to say in one passage that " His Body bore the figure of bread s," and 
in another that "in the figure of bread the Body is given ^." The Body which "is given" 
cannot be an absejit Body of our Lord, but must be that Sacramental Body, of which Cyril 
goes on to say in the same sentence that it is " distributed to our members." Thus the Bread 
broken is a type or figure of Christ's Body as crucified for us; and by virtue of its union with 
the Divine Word it becomes the life-giving Body, which makes the faithful recipient to be, in 
Cyril's words, " of the same body and same blood with Christ." 

Another term applied by Cyril and other Greek Fathers to the sacramental elements is 
" antitype." 

In Mystag. ii. § 6, where Baptism is called " the counterpart {avtljvKov) of Christ's suffer- 
ings," the meaning is clearly explained by the context : for in § 5 the reality of Christ's 
sufferings is emphatically and repeatedly contrasted with the figurative representation of the 
same ; and this figurative representation no less emphatically contrasted with the real and 

actual bestowal of the grace of salvation : e'l' (Ikwi t] fiinTja-LS, fV aXTjdfia 6e ij (7<orr;pi'a, . , , . iva rfi 
lxifjrj(Tfi TU)V TtaOripLciTcov avTov KoivcovrjcravTes, aXrjdela rrjV crcorrjptav KfpdrjCTconev. 

We have thus a clear distinction of (1) the 'res sacramenti,' Christ's Death and Resurrec- 
tion, (2) the ' sacramentum ' or ' sign,' the outward form of Baptism, and (3) the ' virtus sacra- 
menti,' our real participation in the benefits of Christ's Passion, "a death unto sin, and a new 
birth unto righteousness." Thus, as Cyril adds at the end of the section. Baptism "has the 
fellowship by representation of Christ's true sufferings," it is the spiritual counterpart in us of 
that which was actual in Him, 

In Mystag. iii. § i, speaking of the Chrism, Cyril says, "Now ye have been made Christs 
(XpifTot) by receiving the antitype of the Holy Ghost, and all things have been wrought in you 
by imitation, because ye are images of Christ:" and again, "there was given to you an 
Unction, the antitype of that wherewith Christ was anointed, and this is the Holy Ghost." 

Here again we have (i) the ' res sacramenti,' the anointing of Christ with the Holy Ghost 
at His Baptism, (2) the sacramental sign or figure, the anointing of the baptized, and (3) the 
spiritual benefit received in the gift of the Holy Ghost, for, as Cyril adds at tlie end of § 3, 
"while Thy body is anointed with the visible ointment, thy soul is sanctified by the Holy and 
Life-giving Spirit." In these passages we see a distinction between rvnos and uvt'itvitos. The 
former is simply the outward sign or figure ; the latter includes with the sign the spiritual 
counterpart in us of the thing signified, the benefits of Christ's Passion in the one case, the gift 
of the Holy Ghost in the other. 

It only remains to inquire whether there is the same distinction in the meaning of the words 
as applied to the Holy Eucharist. 

In Mystag, v. § 20, Cyril informs us that during the Administration the words, "O taste 
and see that the Lord is good," were sung : and in reference to that passage he adds, " In 
tasting we are bidden to taste not bread and wine, but the antitypical Body and Blood of 
Christ." To taste " the antitypical Body" is therefore to taste "that the Lord is good," whence 
it clearly follows that " the antitypical Body " is not the mere sign or figure of Christ's own 
natural Body, but the sacramental and spiritual counterpart of it, by which those who faithfully 
receive it are so united to Him, that their spirit, and soul, and body, are to be presetted entire 
ivithout blame at His coming ^ 

5 Cat. xiii. § 19 : TO <ri/ia ovtov (tari to evayyAioi- tva-oi/ i^eptv aprov. 6 jlfj's/a^. iv. § 3 : fy rvrrw yap aprov SiSoraC <roi to a-Cina. 

7 I Thess. V. 23, quoted at the end oi J\lystag. v. $ 23- 


Place of S. Cyril's Lectures. 

We have seen in a passage already quoted ' that at Milan S. Ambrose exponncTed the 
Creed to Catechumens in the Baptistery. But whatever may have been the custom in other 
places, it is certain from numerous passages in Cyril's Lectures that they were delivered 
in the great Basilica, or Church of the Resurrection, built by Constantine on the site of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and consecrated, as we have seen, with great splendour in the year 335 ^ 
In a passage 3 where Cyril is speaking of the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of 
Pentecost, he says, " as we discourse on Christ and Golgotha here in Golgotha, so it were 
most fitting that we should also speak concerning the Holy Ghost in the Upper Church ; 
yet since He who descended there jointly partakes of the glory of Him who was crucified 
here, we here speak concerning Him also who descended there." It appears from a passage 
in the Introductory Lecture '^ that it was delivered in the Church itself before the whole 
congregation, after that portion of the daily Service to which Catechumens were usually 
admitted : " Dost thou behold this venerable constitution of the Church ? Dost thou view 
her order and discipline, the reading of Scripture, the presence of the Ordained, the course 
of instruction ? " The same custom was retained in Jerusalem in the time of John, Cyril's 
successor in the Bishopric, who in writing to Jerome says, "The custom with us is that 
we deliver the doctrine of the Holy Trinity publicly during forty days to those who are to be 
baptized 5." 

The Mystagogic Lectures were delivered not in the Church, but after the conclusion 
of the public Service "in the Holy Place of the Resurrection itself V that is, in tlie small 
Chapel which contained the Holy Sepulchre, and to which the name " Anastasis " more 
properly belonged. Happily we are not required by the purpose of this work to enter into 
the disputed questions concerning the Holy Places. Whether the cave re-fashioned and 
adorned by Constantine was the actual sepulchre in which our Lord's body was laid, and 
whether the present Churches occupy the same site as the Basilica and Anastasis of 
Constantine, are matters still under discussion, and awaiting the result of further researches. 
What more properly concerns us is to collect the chief passages in which Cyril refers to 
these localities, and to try to give a fair representation of his testimony, comparing it with 
that of earlier or contemporary writers. 

Next to Eusebius, and the Bordeaux Pilgrim who visited Jerusalem in ;^23j Cyril is the 
earliest and most important witness as to the site of Constantine's Churches. 

In Cat. xiv. § 5, he says, " It was a garden where He was crucified. For though it has 
now been most highly adorned with royal gifts, yet formerly it was a garden, and the signs 
and the remnants of this remain." From this it is evident that the traces of a garden close 
to the Church were still visible both to Cyril and his hearers. Twice again in § 11 he 
mentions the garden, which he had most probably himself seen in its former state, before 
the ground was cleared at the time of the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre in 326. 

On this point it may be well to quote the words of Mr. Walter Besant, Honorary Secretary 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund, who, in an article on " The Holy Sepulchre " in the 
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, writes as follows : " While the temple of Venus with its 
foundations was being cleared away, there might have been, and most probalbly was present, 
a Christian lad, native of Jerusalem, eleven years of age, watching the discovery, which 
did as much as the great luminous cross which appeared m the sky four (? twenty-four) years 
later to confirm the doubtful and strengthen the faithful, that of the rock containing the 

« Ch. n. g 2. 2 See above, Ch. L p. 2. Cf. Cat. iv. 10; x. ig ; xiii. 4, 22, 39 ; xiv. g, 14, 23, &c. 3 Cat. xvi. § 4. 

♦ Procat. § 4. 5 Hicron. £/. 61 (al. 38). The passage is quoted more fully below on p. xliv. 6 Cat. xviii. § 33. 



sacred tomb. It was Cyril, afterwards Bishop of Jerusalem. One must not forget that he 
is the third eye-witness who speaks of these things ; that though he was a boy at the time of 
the discovery, he hved in Jerusalem, and must have watched, step by step, the progress of 
the great Basilica ; that he was ordained before the completion and dedication of the 
buildings, and that many, if not all, of his lectures were delivered in the Church of the 
Anastasis itself" 

That Cyril's testimony concerning the Holy Places was in full accordance with the general 
belief of his contemporaries is clear from the fact that he so frequently points to the traditional 
sites as bearing witness to the truth of the Crucifixion and Resurrection. He speaks of 
Golgotha in eight separate passages, sometimes as near to the Church in which he and his 
hearers are assembled 7, and sometimes as standing up above in their sight ^. In one place 
he asks, "Seest thou this spot of Golgotha?" and the hearers answer with a shout of 
approvals. In other passages he speaks as if the Church itself was in or rather on Golgotha % 
the same Preposition (eV) being repeated when he mentions " Him who was crucified 

In explanation of these different modes of speaking, the Benedictine Editor comments 
thus 2 : "The Church of the Resurrection was built on part of the hill Golgotha {intra 
montem G.) : but the actual rock on which our Lord was crucified was not within the 
limits of the Church, yet not far off, namely about "a stone's throw," as the author of the 
ferusakm Itinerary says. For the Church had been built on the site of the Sepulchre. 
Some think that the place of Crucifixion was included in the vast area which was enclosed 
with colonnades between the Sepulchre and the Basilica, . . . that Golgotha was midway 
between the Basilica of the Crucifixion, and the Anastasis or Sepulchre. But the area 
in question Constantine paved with stones, and it must therefore have been flat, as we learn 
from Eusebius3; Golgotha, on the contrary, stood up high 4, and moreover shewed a cleft 
made there at Christ's deaths^ which would either have been a hindrance to the paving 
or covered up by it. In addition to this, from the doors of the Basilica there seems to have 
been a view of the Sacred Tomb ^. This would have been obstructed if Golgotha had been 
between them." 

The cleft in the rock of Golgotha is mentioned in a fragment of the defence made before 
Maximinus in 311 or 312 by Lucian the Martyr of Antioch? : " If yet you believe not, I will 
also offer you the testimony of the very spot on which the thing was done. The place itself 
in Jerusalem vouches for these facts, and the rock of Golgotha broken asunder under the 
weight of the Cross : that cave also, which when the gates of hell were burst, gave back the 
Body in newness of life" On this passage Dr. Routh remarks that Maundrell,yi?«r«^>'y>w« 
Aleppo to Jerusalem, at Easter, 1697, '* shews that the rock had been rent not by any instru- 
ment, but by the force of an earthquake. Also it is related by Eusebius in his Theophania, 
a book now recovered, that there was one cave only in this cleft of the rock." 

According to Eusebius in the passages of the Life of Constantine already referred to, 
the Emperor first beautified the monument or sepulchre with rare columns, then paved 
with finely polished stone a large area open to the sky, and enclosed on three sides with 
long colonnades, and lastly erected the Church itself " at the side opposite to the cave, 
which was the Eastern side," 

7 xui. § 4 : OVTO? 6 roAyofla? oJ 7rA7](7tor vvv 7rai/7e9 TTdpf<Tixci\ 

8 X. S 19 : 6 r. 6 ayios oJto? 6 i>Trepa»'€<rTijituJS fnaprvptl lj)a^v6• 
ftevos. Cf. xiii. 19. 

9 xiii. § 83 : 'Opas ToO Vo\yo6a rov tottoi' ; 'Em|3oa5 fTraiyw (is 

' IV. §10: 6 ^laKcipio? oiiTOS r. iv a> vvv Sia rov ev auTui 
<rTavpw0€v7a avyKeKpor^l^c&a. Cl". § 14 : 6 fv T(J T. touto* orau- 
pioOeCs. xiii. § 22 : xvi. 4 ; ic tu> T tovtu \eyoixi.v. 

3 yii. Const, iii. c. 35. 
S xiii. § 39. 

» Cat. xiii. § 4, note i. 
4 Cat. X. § 19 ; xiii. § 39. 

6 Eus. yu. Const, iii. c. 36. 

7 The fragment is added by Rufinns to his Latin tr.insl.ition 
of Euselnus, Hist. Eccl. ix. 6, and is also given in Routh, Rell. 
Sao: iv. p. 6. > 


The following is the statement of the Bordeaux Pilgrim : " From thence (the Palace 
of David) as you go out of the wall of Sion walking towards the gate of Neapolis, on the 
right side below in the valley are walls where the house or Prcctorium of Pontius Pilate was : 
here our Lord was tried before His Passion. On the left hand is the little hill {»iofiiiciiius) 
of Golgotha, where the Lord was crucified. About a stone's throw from thence is a vault 
(crypto) wherein His body was laid, and rose again on the third day. There by commanil 
of the Emperor Constantine has now been built a Basilica, that is to say, a Church of 
wondrous beauty, having at the side reservoirs {exceptorid) from which water is raised, 
and a bath behind in which infants are washed (baptized)." Neapolis was the name given 
by Vespasian to the ancient city of Shechem, now Nabulus : the '•' porta Neapolitana " 
therefore was in the North wall of Sion. 

In reference to the passage quoted above, Mr. Aubrey Stewart says : "The narrative 
is clear and connected, and it is hardly possible, for any one who knows the ground, to read 
it without feeling that the Pilgrim from Bordeaux actually saw Constantine's buildings 
standing on the site now occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre ^." 

From these earlier testimonies, compared with the several passages already quoted from 
Cyril, we may safely draw the following inferences, (i) The Anastasis properly so called, 
or Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in which the five Mystagogic Lectures were delivered, 
was built by Constantine over the cave which, according to the evidence then existing, was 
fully believed to be the Burial-place of our Lord. (2) The Great Basilica, called also 
the Church of the Holy Cross, in which the Catechetical Lectures were delivered, was 
erected on the East of the Anastasis, and separated from it by a large open area. (3) The 
hill of Golgotha (on which at a later period there was built a third Church, called the Church 
of Golgotha, of Holy Calvary, or of Cranium) stood about a stone's throw on the North side 
of Constantine's two Churches, and about equidistant from them. 


The Time and Arrangement of S. Cyril's Lectures. 

§ I. The Year. The incidental notes of time in the Catechetical Lectures are sufficient 
to determine with considerable probability the exact year in which they were delivered. 

In Cat. xiv. 14, Cyril speaks in the Plural of the Emperors then reigning (ot vvv ^acn'Ke'is) 
as having completed the building {i^eipyaanvTo) and embellishment of the great Church 
of the Resurrection. This can only apply to the sons of Constantine, Constans and 
Consiantius ; and as Constans died early in 350, the Lectures must have been delivered 
.before that year. 

In Cat. XV. § 6, Cyril asks, " Is there at this time war between Persians and Romans, 
or no?" The time thus indicated was apparently that of the campaign which ended in 
the disastrous defeat of Constantius at Singara, 348, the battle being soon followed by 
a suspension of hostilities '. 

The Benedictine Editor tries to find another proof of the date of the Lectures in Cyril's 
description of the state of the Church in Cat. xv. § 7 : " If thou hear that Bishops advance 
against Bishops, and clergy against clergy, and laity against laity, even unto blood, be not 
troubled." Touttee refers this account to the fierce dissensions which followed the Synod of 
Sardica, where Athanasius and Marcellus were declared innocent and received into com- 
munion, while the Encyclical of the dissentient Bishops, who had withdrawn to Philippopolis, 
condemned them both. But it is now ascertained that the Synod of Sardica was held not in 
347, as Touttee supposed, but in 344^ : and Cyril's description may unhappily be applied to 

8 The Bordeaux Pilgrim, Introd. p. ix. » See Gibbon, c. xviii. vol. ii. p. 370. » Diet. Chr. Bio^r. " Athanasius," 

p. 190, note ; Hefele, Councils, §§ 58, 66, 67. 


the state of the Church at almost any time from the Council of Tyre, by which Athanasius 
had been deposed in 335, until long after any date which can possibly be assigned to 
Cyril's Lectures. 

There is a much more definite note of time in Cat. vi. § 20, where speaking of Manes 
Cyril says : " The delusion began full seventy years ago." If we may assume that the 
outbreak of this heresy is to be dated from the famous disputation between Archelaus 
and Manes in 2773, it follows that Cyril must have made this statement in 347 or 348. 
And further, if Dr. Routh '^ is correct in fixing the date of the Disputation between July 
and December 277, the Lent in which the Lectures were delivered must have been, as 
Toutt^e decides, that of 348, not of 347, as Tillemont had supposed. 

§ 2. The days. It is expressly stated by Sozomen s that " the interval called Quadra- 
gesima " was made to consist of six weeks in Palestine, " whereas it comprised seven weeks 
in Constantinople and the neighbouring provinces." 

It is certain the Catechetical Lectures i.-xviii. were all delivered in these six weeks, being 
preceded by the Procatechesis, which was addressed to the candidates before the whole 
congregation at the public Service on Sunday (§ 4). In the same context Cyril says, " Thou 
hast forty days for repentance," and again in Cat. i. § 5, " Hast thou not forty days to be free 
for thine own soul's sake?" It thus appears probable that the first of the eighteen Cate- 
chetical Lectures was delivered on the Monday of the first week of the Fast, the forty days 
being completed on the night preceding the Great Sabbath, that is to say, the night of Good 
Friday, when the fast was brought to an end at a late hour. 

With regard to the date of Cat. iv., which contains a brief preliminary statement of 
all the articles of the Creed, we may obtain some evidence from an incident recorded 
in a letter of Jerome^ to Pammachius. John, who had then succeeded Cyril as Bishop 
of Jerusalem, had on a certain occasion discoursed on the Creed and all the doctrines 
of the Church in the presence of Epiphanius and the whole congregation. Jerome, being 
ignorant of the peculiar custom of the Church of Jerusalem, rebukes the supposed pre- 
sumption of the Bishop, "that a man deficient in eloquence should in one discourse in 
Church discuss all the doctrines concerning the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Crucifixion, 
the descent into hell, the nature of angels, the state of departed souls, the Resurrection 
of Christ, and of ourselves, and other subjects." The rebuke calls out a statement from John : 
" The custom among us is that for forty days we publicly deliver the doctrine of the Holy and 
Adorable Trinity to those who are to be baptized." This being the custom at Jerusalem 
in Cyril's time, we may conjecture that Cat. iv., which corresponds closely to the descrip- 
tion of John's discourse, was delivered, like that, on a Sunday before the whole congregation : 
and this is in fact suggested by Cyril's own words in § 3 : "Let those here present, whose' 
iiabit of mind is mature, and who have their senses already exercised to discern good and evil, 
endure patiently to listen to things fitted rather for children." That this could not have been 
later than the Sunday following that on which the Procatechesis was delivered, is shewn by 
the mention in the same section of "the long interval of the days of all this holy Quadra- 
gesima," an expression which could not well have been used later than the second Sunday 
in Lent. 

In Cat. iv. § 32, Cyril speaks of having discoursed on Baptism "the day before yesterday," 
that is, on the Friday. 

In Cat. V. we have first a discourse on the nature of faith, and then towards the end, 
between § 12 and § 13, the actual words of the Creed are for the first time recited by Cyril 
to the candidates alone. In the next four Lectures there are no marks of time, except that 

3Cat. vi. §27. * Rell. Sac. v.^. 12. S His i. EccUs. vii. c. 19. 6 £■/. 6i (al. 38). C(. Ben.E.d. PraeUq. ad 

Cat. iv. pp 49, $0. 


vi., vii., viii., were delivered on successive days, as is proved by the word "yesterday" 
(rrj x^fs w^'i'a) in vii. § i, and Viii. § i. It thus appears probable that the five Lectures, v. — ix., 
belong to the five days, Monday to Friday inclusive, of the second or third week. 

In Cat. X. § 14 Cyril reminds his hearers that he had preached on the words affer the order 
of Mekhizedck at the public Service on the Lord's day. As he does not here employ his 
usual phrase "yesterday," we may infer that Cat. x. was delivered not earlier than the 
Tuesday following the 4th Sunday in Lent, the Epistle for that Sunday in the Eastern 
Church being Heb. vi. 13 — 20, which ends with the words on which Cyril had preached. 
The next two Lectures followed Cat. x. immediately on successive days, Wednesday and 
Thursday, the word "yesterday " recurring in xi. § i, and xii. § 4. 

Cat. xiii., which is occupied with the Crucifixion and Burial, seems to have followed them 
immediately on the Friday : it certainly came a few days only before Cat. xiv. § i. For 
speaking there of the preceding Lecture, Cyril says, " I know the sorrow of Christ's friends 
in these past days ; because, as our discourse stopped short at the Death and the Burial, and 
did not tell the good tidings of the Resurrection, your mind was in suspense to hear what you 
were longing for." Now we know that Cat. xiv. was delivered on the Monday after Passion 
Sunday: for the Epistle for that 5th Sunday in Lent was Heb. vi. 11 — 14, referring to the 
Ascension?: and in § 24 Cyril says, "The grace of God so ordered it, that thou heardest 
most fully concerning it, so far as our weakness allowed, yesterday on the Lord's day, since 
by the providence of divine grace the course of the Readings (afayjcoor/xuroui/) in Church 
included the account of our Saviour's going up into the heavens." 

In Cat. XV. there is no note of time to determine on what day it was spoken ; but 
i'^ § ZZ Cyril speaks as if his course of teaching was to be interrupted for a little wliile : 
" If the grace of God should permit us, the remaining Articles also of the Faith shall be in 
good time {Kara Kaipov) declared to you." We may therefore assign Cat. xv. to the early part of 
Passion week, and the three remaining Catechetical Lectures to the week before Easter, This 
arrangement seems to be confirmed by Cat. xvii. 34, where Cyril speaks of the two Lectures 
on the Holy Spirit, xvi. and xvii., as "these present Lectures," distinguishing them from "our 
previous discourses." In the same section he refers to "the fewness of the days," and in § 20 
speaks of "the holy festival of the Passover" as being close at hand. We may therefore 
probably assign xvi. and xvii. to two consecutive days in the earlier part of the week 
before Easter. 

Cat. xviii. contains many indications from which we may conclude with certainty that it 
was delivered either on the night of Good Friday, or in the early hours of the morning of the 
"Great Sabbath." Thus in § 17 he speaks of "the weariness caused by the prolongation 
(vnepeeaeai) of the fast of the Preparation (Friday), and the watching." In § 21 he calls upon 
the Candidates to recite the Creed, which he had dictated to theai, and which they would 
be required to repeat more publicly immediately before their Baptism, as we learn from § 32 : 
"Concerning the holy Apostolic Faith which has been delivered to you to profess {ds inay- 
yikiav), we have spoken through the grace of the Lord as many Lectures as was possible in 
these past days of Lent. . . . But now the holy day of the Passover is at hand, and ye, beloved 
in Christ, are to be enlightened by the washing of regeneration. Ye shall therefore again be 
taught what is requisite if God so will; with how great devotion and order you must enter in 
when summoned, for what purpose each of the holy mysteries of Baptism is performed, and 
with what reverence and order you must go from Baptism to the holy altar of God, and enjoy 
its spiritual and heavenly mysteries." The additional instructions here promised were to be 
given on the same day as the last Lecture, Cat. xviii., that is on Easter Eve immediately 
before Baptism. For it was forbidden to reveal the mysteries of Baptism, Chrism, and the 

1 Diet. Chr. Antiq. '" Lectionary," p. 958 b. 


Holy Eucharist to the uninitiated, and yet it was necessary that the Candidates should 
not come wholly unprepared to perform what would be required of them. The full 
explanation of the various ceremonies and ol the doctrines implied in them was re- 
served for the Mystagogic Lectures, which were to be delivered on Ea*er Monday and 
the four following days, after the public Service, not in the great Basilica, but in the 
Holy Sepulchre itself. 

§ 3. Arrangement. The Lectures of S. Cyril have a peculiar value as being the first and 
only complete example of the course of instruction given in the early centuries to Candidates 
seeking admission to the full privileges of the Christian Church. " The Great Catechetical 
Oration" of Gregory of Nyssa is addressed not to the learner but to the teacher, in accordance 
with the opening statement of the Prologue, that "The presiding ministers of the mystery of 
godliness have need of a system in their instructions, in order that the Church may be 
replenished by the accession of such as should be saved, through the teaching of the word of 
Faith being brought home to the hearing of unbelievers." As an instruction to the Catechist 
how he should refute the opponents of Christianity, it is an apologetic work rather than 
a Catechism. S. Augustine's treatise De catechizandis rudihus is also addressed to the teacher, 
being an answer to Ueogratias, a Deacon of Carthage, who on being appointed Catechist had 
written to Augustine for advice as to the best method of discharging the office. S. Augustine's 
Sermons De tradUione Symboli, and Be redditione Symboli, are not a connected series, bi;f 
single addresses to Catechumens consisting of brief comments on a few chief articles of thfe 
Creed. Cyril's Lectures thus remain unique in character. 

After the Procatechesis, which is simply an introductory exhortation to the newly admitted 
Candidates, he devotes three Lectures to the need of a sincere purpose of mind, the efficacy 
of repentance, and the general nature and importance of Baptism. The fourth Lecture gives 
"a short summary of necessary doctrines," stating with admirable clearness and brevity ten 
chief points of the Faith, and the arguments on each point, which are to be developed in the 
remaining Catechetical Lectures v. — xviii. He thus traverses the whole ground of Theology 
as expressed in the Creed of Jerusalem, of which the exact language is given in the titles 
of the successive Lectures. These instructions to the ' lUuminandi ' {(pcoTi^ofifi/cov) were followed 
on Easter-day by the administration of Baptism, Chrism, and Holy Communion : and on the 
following days of Easter-week the ceremonies and doctrines proper to each of these Sacraments 
were explained in the five Lectures on the Mysteries (Muoraycoyint) to the newly-baptized {npos 
Tovi Neo0wWo-Touy). These Mystagogic Lectures thus form a most important record of the 
Sacramental Rites and Doctrines of the Eastern Church in the fourth Century, the most critical 
period of Ecclesiastical History. 


The Creed of Jerusalem : Doctrine of The Holy Trinity". 

§ r. T/ie Creed. The ancient Creed which was used by the Church of Jerusalem in the 
middle of the fourth Century, and which Cyril expounded in his Catechetical Lectures, was 
recited by him to the Catechumens at the end of the fifth Lecture, to be committed to memory, 
but not to be written out on paper (§ 12). Accordingly it is not found in any of the MSS., but 
instead of it the Nicene Creed with the Anathema is there inserted in Codd. Roe, Casaub. 
This could only have been added after Cyril's time, when the motives for secrecy had ceased. 

The Creed which Cyril really taught and expounded may be gathered from vaiious passages 
in the Lectures themselves, and especially from the Titles prefixed to them. 

With the Creed of Jerusalem thus ascertained, it will be instructive to compare the Nicene 
formula, and for this purpose we print them in parallel columns. 





Ylicrrfvoiiev fls era Gfdi/ *, 
Tlarepa ^ YlavroKparopa 3, 
UoiriTiji' ol pavov yijf 
OpaToiV T€ TtdvTwv Koi aopdrayv *• 

Kai els ei'a Kvpiov ^Irjcrovv XptorJv ', 

Tov Yiou Toi/ Qeoii 

Tov Movoyfi'Ti, 

TOV eK TOV riaTpbs yev\i]6ivTaf 

Qeov dXr/ftrov 

TTpo ndvTcou Tu>v aicji'cov, 

8l ov TO. ndpTU eyii'fTO ^, 

TOV crapKaOiVTa koi crarBpccwijcravTa ^, 

(TTavpwBivTa Kn\ Tafpivra °, 

Ka\ dvaa-TiivTa eK veKpwv tij Tplrr] r/fiepoi, 

Kcii diieXdovTa en tovs ovpuUuvs, 

Koi KadiauvTa eK Be^icou tov JJaTpos ', 

Kol Trd\tv fp)(^6pevov ev dd^r] 

Kplvai ^mvTas kol uexpovs, 

ov TTjs ^aaiXelas ovk earai. reXos** 

Kat els ei> ayiov livevp-a 

Tov UaitdKXrjTOV, 

TO \akijaai' kv toIs npoCJiriTais '• 

Kat els ei' ^d7rTiap.a peTavoias els a(f>ecriv dpapTiZv ^, 
Koi (Is piav dyiav KadnXiKijv €K/cX'j(7tai', 
Kai tls aapKos dvddTaviVf 
(cai' els ^o}i]v ludiviov '^. 

I Cat. vi. tit. * vii. tit. ; § 4. 3 viii. tit. 4 ix. tit. ; 5 4. 

5 X. tit. ; vii. 4. ^ xi. tit. ; § 21. 7 xii. tit. 8 xiii. tit. 

9 xiv. tit., cf. § 27 ; XV. 3. ' xv. tit. ; § a. ' xvi. tit. ; xviii. 3. 

3 xviii. 22. 4 xviii. tit. ; § 23. 

From S. Athanasius, De Decretis Fidei 


Uicrrevopev els era Qeou, 
IlaTepa navTiiKpuTopUf 
ndvTwv 6paTo)v re 
Kai dopdTuiv noiljTrjV, 

Kai eis eva Kvpiov 'irjarovv ypicrrop, 

TOV Yiov TOV Qeov, 

yevvr]devTa e/c tov Uarpos povoyevr], 

TOvrecTTiv (k rrjs ovaias tov Uarpos, 

Qeuv SK Qeov, (pios (K (fiHros. Beov d}^r]dtv6v eK Qeov 

yevvrjOevTa ov noiTjderTa, 6p,oo{icnov tco Ilarpi, 
bi ov TCI ndvTa eyeveTO, 
Ta Tf fv TO) ovpai'co K(U Ta en\ Ttjs yiJS, 
TOV 81 Tjpds TOVS uvBpuinovs (cat 8ia ttjv fjpeTepnv 

acoTrjplav ' 
KareXdovra Ka\ aapKmdeVTa, sravOpcajrijcraVTa, naddvTa. 
Kai dvacTTdvra tij TpiTj] I'lpepa, 
aveXdovTa els ovpavovs, 
Ka\ ep^opevuv 
Kp'ivai ^avTas Kai veKpovSy 

Kat ets TO dyiov Hvevpa. 

Tovs 6e XeynvTos- rjv nore ore ovk ^v, koi irp'r 
yevvr]6r)rai ovk rjv, Kai ort e^ ovk orrcov eyevero. 
7] e^ ere'pas vnoiTrdn e(xis t] ovaias (pdaKovras elvai 

T] KTlaTOV 7] TpeTTTUV Tj aAXotCOrc')!/ TUV YiuV TOV QeoL. 

dvatepaTi^ei t] KadoXiKrj (KKXrjaia. 

» Cyril, Cat. iv. 9 ; xii. 3 ; Mystag. ii. 7. 

§ 2. Doctrhie of the Holy Trinity. The doctrinal position of S. Cyril is admirably described, 
and his orthodoxy vindicated by Cardinal Newman in the following passage of his Preface to 
the Lectures in the Library of the Fathers. "There is something very remarkable and even 
starthng to the reader of S. Cyril, to find in a divine of his school such a perfect agreement, 
for instance as regards the doctrine of the Trinity, with those Fathers who in his age were 
more famous as champions of it. Here is a writer, separated by whatsoever cause from what, 
speaking historically, may be called the Athanasian School, suspicious of its adherents, and 
suspected by them ; yet he, when he comes to explain himself, expresses precisely the same 
doctrine as that of Athanasius or Gregory, while he merely abstains from the particular 
theological term in which the latter Fathers agreeably to the Nicene Council conveyed it. 
Can we have a clearer proof that the difference of opinion between them was not one ot 
ecclesiastical and traditionary doctrine, but of practical judgment? that the Fathers at Nicsea 
wisely considered that, under the circumstances, the word in question was the only symbol 
which would secure the Church against the insidious heresy which was assailing it, while 
S. Cyril, with Eusebius of Coesarea, Meletius and others shrank from it, at least for a while. 


as if an addition to the Creed, or a word already taken into the service of an opposite heresy, 
and Hkely to introduce into the Church heretical notions? Their judgment, which was 
erroneous, was their own ; their faith was not theirs only, but shared with them by the 
whole Christian world '." 

In regard to the doctrine of the Trinity in general the two great heresies which distracted 
the Church in S. Cyril's day were Sabellianism and Arianism, the one "confounding the Per- 
sons," the other " dividing the substance " of the indivisible Unity of the Godhead. Both these 
opposite errors Cyril condemns with equal energy: "Do thou neither separate the Son from 
the Father, nor by making a confusion believe in a Son-Fatherhoods" Again he says : "Our 
hope is in Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost. We preach not three Gods ; let the Marcionites 
be silenced ; but with the Floly Ghost through One Son we preach One God. The Faith 
is indivisible; the worship inseparable. We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some 
(that is the Arians) ; nor do we, as Sabellius, work confusion 3." " He says not, I am the 
Father, but the Father is in Me, and I am in the Father. And again He said not, I and the 
Father am one, but, 7 and the Father are One, that we should neither separate them, nor make 
a confusion of Son-Father 4." 

In the sequel of this last passage Cyril proceeds to argue that this unity of the Father and 
the Son lies in their Nature, "since God begat God," in their Kingdoms, in their Will ^, and 
in their joint Creation 7, thus at each step rejecting some prominent heretical tenet. 

The question, however, of Cyril's orthodoxy depends especially upon his supposed oppo- 
sition to the Creed of Nicsea, of which no evidence is alleged except his attendance at the 
Council of Seleucia, and the absence from his Lectures of the word oi^oov^mov. 

The purpose of Cyril's attendance at Seleucia was to appeal against his deposition by 
Acacius, and there is apparently no evidence of his having taken part in the doctrinal 
discussions, or signed the Creed of Antioch^. What is certain is that Cyril's bitterest enemies 
who refused to sit with him in the Council were Acacius and his Arian allies, who expressly 
rejected both ofxoovaioi and ofioiova-ios and "altogether denied the Nicene formula and censured 
the Council, while the others, who were the majority, accepted the whole proceedings of the 
Council, except that they complained of the word 'Co-essential,' as obscure, and so open to 
suspicion 9." It thus appears that Cyril's friends at Seleucia were partly those who approved 
the word "Co-essential," and pardy those of whom Athanasius speaks as "brothers, who 
mean what we mean, and dispute only about the word'." It needed in fact the profound 
insight of an Athanasius to foresee that in the end that word must triumph over all opposition, 
and be accepted by the Universal Church as the one true safeguard of the Christian Faith. 
Meanwhile it was the standard round which debate, and strife, and hatred, and persecution, 
were to rage for fifty years with unexampled fury. 

Was C\ ril to be blamed, ought he not rather to be commended, for not introducing such 
a war-cry into the exposition of an ancient Creed, in which it had no place, the Creed, of his 
own Church, the Mother of all the Churches, whose Faith he as a youthful Presbyter was 
commissioned to teach to the young Candidates for Baptism? 

But if we compare his doctrine with that of the Nicene formula, we shall find that, 
as Dr. Newman says, " His own writings are most exactly orthodox, though he does not in 
the Catechetical Lectures use the word 6/:iooi o-tof =." 

The first point to be noticed in the comparison is the use of the title " Son of God." 

I Pr/face, p. ix. 2 Cat iv. S 8. 

3 Cat. xvi. § 4. See the notes on tliis and the preceding 
passage. 4 Cat. xi. § 16. s Cat. xv. § 27, note 3. 

6 Athan. Contra Arian. Or. ii. § 31, i : "For the Word of 
God is Framer and Maker, and He is the Father's Will. Cf. 
Or. iii. g 63 fin. 

7 lb. Or. iii. S 11, 3 : "Such then being the Son, therefore 
when the Son works, the Father is the Worker." 

8 There is, I believe, no extant list o< signatures: "Whether 
the few Homousians and Hilary were among those who signed 
is not said" (Hefele, Councils, II. p. 264). 

9 Athan. De Synod, c. 12. ' lb. c. 41. ^ Preface, p. 14. 


For this Eusebius in his Creed had substituted " Word of God." Athanasius explains 
the significance of the change: "Uniting the two titles, Scripture speaks of 'Son' 
in order to herald the natural and true offspring of His essence (ova-Las) ; and on the 
other hand that none may think of the offspring as human, in again indicating His essence 
it calls Him Word, and Wisdom, and Radiance ; for from this we infer that the generation 
was impassible (dmiOes), and eternal, and becoming to God 3." 

Cyril is here in full accord with Athanasius : in his Creed he found "Son of God," and 
in his exposition he states that the Father is "by nature and in truth Father of One only, 
the Only-begotten Son 4 : " " One they are because of the dignity pertaining to the Godhead, 
since God begat God s ; " " The Son then is Very God, having the Father in Himself, not 
changed into the Father^." When he says that the Son is in all things like (u/dOLos ii> naa-iv) 
to Him who begat Him ; begotten Life of Life, and Light of Light, Power of Power, God 
of God, and the characteristics of the Godhead are unchangeable («7rapuAAa/<rot) in the Son 7," 
he is using in all good faitli the very words of the orthodox Bishops at Nicrea, " o/xotw re kuI 

iiTTapdWaKTOv avTov Kara iravra T'2 Uarpl , 

The further significance which Athanasius ascribes to the title " Logos," is also expressed 
fully and repeatedly by Cyril : " Whenever thou hearest of God begetting, sink not down in 
thought to bodily things, nor think of a corruptible generation, lest thou be guilty of 
impiety 9." 

The " passionless generation," to which so much importance was attached at Nicasa and 
by Athanasius, is also asserted by Cyril when he says that God " became a Father not 
by passion {ov nddfi narrjp yevdnevos) '." The eternal generation is most empliatically declared 
again and again: the Son, he says, "began not His existence in time, but was before 
all ages eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father; the Wisdom, and the Power 
of God, and His Righteousness personally subsisting-:" "Throughout His being (f| ovnep i]u), 
a being by eternal generation, He holds His royal dignity, and shares His Father's seat 3." 
" Believe that of One God there is One Only-begotten Son, who is before all ages God the 
Word ; not the uttered word diffused into the air, nor to be likened to impersonal words ; 
but the Word, the Son, Maker of all who partake of reason, the Word who heareth the 
Father, and Himself speaketh l" 

The importance of such language is better understood when we remember that Marcellus, 
"another head of the dragon, lately sprung up in Galatias," entirely rejected the word 
"Begotten," as implying a beginning, and ''contradicting the eternity of the Logos, so 
distinctly proclaimed by S. John." An eternal generation, as stated by Athanasius and others, 
was to him unimaginable. The Logos in His pre-existence was unbegotten, and could not 
be called Son, but only the Logos invested with human nature was Son of God and be- 
gotten ^." These heretical opinions of Marcellus had been ccTndemned in several Councils 
within a few years preceding Cyril's Lectures. 

The next supposed proof of Cyril's opposition to the Nicene doctrine is that he has not 
adopted in his Lectures the phrases " of the essence (oiio-ia?) of the Father," and " of one 
essence {(')p.oov(jiov) with the Father." This omission is the chief ground of the reproaches 
cast upon the memory of Cyril by the writers of Ecclesiastical History ; for this he was 
described by Jerome as an Arian, and by Rufinus as a waverer, while his formal acceptance 
of the terms used at Nicsea is called by Socrates and Sozomen an act of repentance. By 
others he was denounced as ^ \peiai'6(ppu)v because he had addressed his letter to Constantius 
as " the most religious king," and never used the word Sfioovaiov in his Lectures. 

3 Contra Arianos, Or. i. 28. 4 Cat. vii. § 5. 5 lb. xi. § 16. 6 lb.. § 17. 7 lb. § 18. 8 Athan. De Decretis, c. lo. 

9 Cat. xi. § 7. ■ lb. vii. 5 : see note there. 2 Jb. iv. 7. 3 lb. 4 lb. iv. § 8. 5 lb. xv. § 27. 

6 Zahn, Marcellus ofAncyra, as quoted by Hefele, Councils, II. p. 31, slightly abridged. See also Hefele, p. 1S6. 

VOL. VII. e 


We shall be better able to estimate the justice of these reproaches, if we consider first the 
history of these words ovaia and Sfxoova-ioi, and the reasons which Cyril may have had for not 
employing them in the instruction of youthful Candidates for Baptism. 

It is strange to find that seven hundred years before the great controversy at Nic?ea on 
the introduction of the word oiaia into the Creed, it had been the war-cry of almost as fierce 
a conflict between rival schools of philosophy. 

"There appears," says Plato in the person of the Eleatic stranger, " to be a sort of war 
of the giants going on between them because of the dispute concerning ovala. Some of them 
are dragging all things down from heaven and from the invisible to earth, grasping rocks and 
oaks in their hands ; for of all such things they lay hold, in obstinately mamtaining that what 
can be touched and handled alone has being (fluai), because they define ' being ' and ' body ' 
as one; and if any one else says that what is not a body has being, they altogether despise 
him, and will hear of nothing but body. . . . Therefore their opponents cautiously defend 
themselves from above out of some invisible world, mightily contending that certain in- 
telligible and incorporeal ideas are the true essence (ova-iav) 7." 

It is apparently to this passage of Plato that Aristotle refers in describing the ambiguity of 
the word ovaia^ : " Now Ouala seems to belong most manifestly to bodies : wherefore animals 
and plants and their parts we say are ovaUn, also natural bodies as fire and water and earth and 
all such things, and all either parts of these, or products either of parts or the whole, as the 
heaven and its parts, stars, moon, and sun. But whether these are the only ova-tut or there are 
others also, or none of these but others of a different kind, is a matter for inquiry. Some think 
that the boundaries of bodies, as a surface, and a line and a point and a unit (fiovds), are nialai, 
even more so than body and solid. Further, one class of persons thinks that besides things 
sensible there is no ovala, and another that there are many things, and these more enduring 
(dt'Sta), as Plato thinks that the ideas {(Utj) and the mathematical elements are two kinds 
of ovaia, and that the olaia of sensible bodies is a third." 

In proceeding to define the term, Aristotle says that ovala is used in four senses if not 
more : the essential nature (t6 ri rjv dvai), the universal {t6 Kad6\ov) the genus, and a fourth 
the subject {t6 vTroKelfievov). Under this fourth sense he proceeds to discuss the application 
of the term oiaia to the matter, the form, and the resulting whole. Without going further 
we may see that the use of the word in philosophy was full of difficulty and ambiguity. 

The ambiguity is thus expressed by Mr. Robertson 9 : " We may look at a concrete term 
as denoting either this or that individual simply (t6^( n), or as expressing its nature, and so 
as co7nmo}i to more individuals than one. Now properly (Trpcircos) olala is only appropriate 
to the former purpose. But it may be employed in a secondary sense to designate the latter, 
in this sense species and genera are hivnpai ovalai, the wider class being less truly ovalai than 
the former," Perhaps the earliest use of ovala in Christian writings is in Justin M. \ where he 
describes the Logos as "having been begotten from the Father, by His power and will, 
but not by abscission (aTroTOfi^v), as if the ovala of the Father were divided, as all other things 
when divided and cut are no longer the same as before." His e.xample was fire, from which 
other fires are kindled, while it remains undiminished and unchanged. Accordinu to 
Dr. Newman^, ovala here means " substance, or being." 

In Clement of Alexandria 3, ovala means a "nature" common to many, for he speaks 
of the Gnostic Demiurge as creating an irrational soul 6fioovaiov with the soul of the beasts;" 
and again as implanting in man " something co-essential (onoovaiof) with himself, inasmuch 
as he is invisible and incorporeal; his essence {ovalai') he called "the breath of life," but 
the thing formed (fiop^xoiiiv) became "a living soul," which in the prophetic Scriptures he 

7 Plato, Sophist. % 246. " The pass.ige is quoted by Theodoret, Grcrcarum affectionem Cin-at.'o, ii. p. 732." (Heindorf.) 
8 Metaph. vi. § a. 9 Athanasius, Prolcg. p. xxxi., in this Series. ' Tryph. c. 128 •. » Atians, p. 186. 3 Fragm. §50. Sylb. 341. 


confesses himself to be. Again in § 42 of the same Fragment, according to the Valentinians, 
"the body of Jesus is co-essential {ofinova-iov) with the Church." 

So Hippolytus't speaks of the Son Incarnate as being " at one and tlie same time Infinite 
God and finite Man, having the nature {ola-lav) of eacli in perfection : " and again, " There 
has been effected a certain inexpressible and irrefragable union of the two (the Godhead and 
the Manhood) into one subsistence {v-oaTaaw).^' 

In Origen we find the two words olcrUi (essence, or substance) and un-oVrao-is (individual 
subsistence) accurately distinguished. Quoting the description of Wisdom, as being the 
breath (dr^ir) of the power of God, and pure effluence {djroppoia) from the glory of the 
Almighty, and radiance (dTravyaana) of the Eternal Light 5," he says that " Wisdom proceeding 
from Him is generated of the very substance of God," and adds that "these comparisons 
most manifestly shew that there is community of substance between Father and Son. For 
m effluence appears to be 6iiuovai.os, that is, of one substance with that body from which it is 
an effluence or vapour." 

On the other hand he writes, " We worship the Father of the Truth, and the Son who is 
the Truth, being in subsistence (t,^ vjro>rT,iafi) tivo^." On this passage Bishop Bull remarks : 
" The words vTroaraa-is and oicria in ancient times were variously used, at least by the 
Christians. That is to say, sometimes vnoaTaa-is was taken by them for what we call ovaia, 
and vice versa, oia-la for what we call vTT6(TTa(ris : some'.imes the ancients even before the 
Council of Nicsea used vnoaraais for what we now call 'person' or ' subsistence 7.' " This 
Bishop Bull presently explains again as "an individual thing subsisting by itself, which 
in rational beings is the same a.s J>ersofi." 

For examples of these interchanges of meaning, we may notice that the Synod of Antioch 
(a.d. 269), in the Epistle addressed to Paul of Samosata before his deposition, speaking 
of the unity of Christ's Persoti, says that " He is one and the same in His uvala ^." On this 
passage Routh remarks that "The words ovala and (^Lai^ are sometnnes employed by the 
ancients for a personal subsistence (^persona subsistente), as is plainly testified by Photius." 

In the earlier part 9 of the same Epistle the Son is described as " being before all ages, 
not in foreknowledge, but in essence and subsistence (ec ov^rla Kal iJTrooTaaei)." 

The confusion arising from the uncertainty in the use of these two words is well illustrated 
in the account which Athannsius' himself gives of this same Synod of Antioch : "They who 
deposed the Samosatene, took Co-essential {pyioovcnos.) in a bodily sense, because Paul had 
attempted sophistry and said, ' Unless Christ has of man become God, it follows that He is 
Co-essential with the Father; and if so, of necessity there are three essences (olaiai), one the 
previous essence, and the other two from it;' and therefore guarding against this they said 
with good reason, that Christ was not Co-essential (ofioovaiovy Athanasius then explains on 
what grounds the Bishops at Nicaea " reasonably asserted on their part, that the Son was Co- 
essential " Athanasius himself states that, in giving this explanation of the rejection of 6no- 
ovaiov by the Bishops who condemned the Samosatene, he had not their Epistle before him 2; 
and his statement, that Paul used the term not to express his own view, but to refute that of 
the Bishops, is thought to be opposed to what Hilary says 3, " Male ojioovo-lov Samosatenus 
confessus est : sed numquid melius Ariani negaverunt ? " 

That the statement of Athanasius himself is not free from difficulty is clear from the way 
in which so great a Theologian as Bishop Hefele endeavours to explain it: "Athanasius says 
that Paul argued in this way : If Christ is 'Ofxoovinos with the Father, then three subsistences 
(ovaiai) must be admitted — one first substance (the Father), and two more recent (the Son and 

4 AJz/. Beron. ei Hel. Fragm. i. S Wisdom of Solomon, vii. 25, quoted by Origen, Fragm. in Episi,. ad Hehmos, Lommatzsch, 
V. p. 300. 6 Contra Cetsiirn, viii. p. 386. 7 De/. Fid. Nic. II. c. 9, § 11. . * Routh, ReL. Sacr., III. p. 299 

9 lb. p. 2901 « De Synodis, c 45, p. 474, in this Series. ^ ib. c. ^3. 3 Liber de Synodis, 513, 


the Spirit) ; that is to say, that the Divine Substance is separated into three parts *." The 
logical subtlety of Paul was better understood by Basil the Great s : " For in truth they who 
met together about Paul of Samosata found fault with the phrase, as not being distinct ; for 
they said that the word ofioovaio^ gave the idea of an olirla and of those derived from it, 
so that the title 6jioov(nov assigned the ovalu separately to the subjects to which it was 
distributed : and this notion has some reason in the case of copper and the coins made 
from it ; but in the case of God the Father, and God the Son, there is no substance 
conceived to be antecedent and superior to both : for to say and to think this surpasses 
all bounds of impiety." 

The confusion arising from the uncertainty in the use of these words had been the cause 
of strife throughout the Christian Church for more than twenty years before the date of Cyril's 
Lectures ; and though it was declared at the Council of Alexandria (362) to be but a con- 
troversy about words 5", it had long been and long afterwards continued to be a fruitful cause 
of dissension between men who, when forced to explain their meaning, were found to be in 
substantial agreement. That Cyril abstained from introducing into his elementary teaching 
terms so provocative of dangerous controversy, is a reason for commendation, not for censure. 
But if it is alleged that he denied or doubted or failed to assert the essential Godhead of 
the Son, the suspicion is unfounded and easily refuted. To the many passages already 
quoted concerning the eternal generation of the Son, it will be enough to add one single 
sentence which ought to dispel all doubt of his orthodoxy. "The Only-begotten Son, 
together with the Holy Ghost, is partaker of the Godhead of the Father {tt]s QioTrjros rrjs 
UaTinKTjs Koipdivos)." The. word chosen by Cyril to express the Divine Essence (dtorris) 
common to the three Persons of the Godhead is at least as appropriate as ola-ia. 

If we now look at the particular errors mentioned in the Anathema of the Nicene 
Council, we shall find that every one of them is earnestly condemned by Cyril. 

" Once He ivas not ('Hf Trore ore ovK rjv). This famous Arian formula is expressly rejected 
in Cat. xi. § 17 : "Neither let us say. There was a time when the Son was not." The 
eternity of the Son is asserted again and again, in reference, for instance, to His generation *, 
His Priesthood 7, and His throne^. 

^^ Before His generation He was not" {7rp\v yevvi)6r]vai ovk rji'). Compare with this Cyril's 
repeated assertions that "the Son is eternally begotten, by an inscrutable and incom- 
prehensible generation 9," " the Son of God before all ages, without beginning \" that 
" time intervenes not in the generation of the Son from the Father 2." 

*^ He came to be fro?n nothing" (e^ ovk ovrav fyeiero). Cyril's language is emphatic: "As 
I have often said, He did not bring forth the Son from non-existence (e/c roO fxij ovtos) into 
being, nor take the non-existent into Sonship 3." 

" T/iat He is of other siibsistcfice or essence" (e| kripns v-nouraonxis: i} nvtrias). It is certain 
that Cyril has given no countenance to the error or errors condemned in this clause, but is 
in entire agreement with the Council. 

On the question whether i/roorno-tj and oia-ia have in this passage the same or different 
meanings, see Bull, Def Fid. Nic. II. 9, 11, p. 314 {Oxf. Ed.). Athanasius expressly states 
that they are perfectly equivalent : " Subsistence (j^n-oo-Tao-is) is essence (ova-ia), and means 
nothing else but very being, which Jeremiah calls existence (v7rnp|is)." Basil distinguishes 
them, and is followed by Bishop Bull, whose opinicm is controverted by Mr. Robertson 
in an Excursus on the meaning of the phrase, on p. 77 of his e.lition of Athanasius in this 
Series. The student who desires to pursue the subject may consult m addition to the works 

4 Councils, I. p. 124. S F/isi. 300 (al. 52), quoted by Hull, D.F.N, ii. i, § 11. S» Atli.iu. Toiitus ad Aiiiwchenos, 

SI 5, 6. 6Cat. iv. §7. 7lb. X. §14. 8 1b. xlv. §27. 9 Cat. xi. § 4. '§5- =* S 7- 

3 § 14. Cf. S. Alex. Epist. afttd Thcodoret, § 4 : " That the Son of God w.ts not m.^dc ' fi-om things which are not,' and that 
' there was no time when He was not,' the Evangelist John sunficiently shews" (Ante-Nic. Library). 


just named, and the authorities therein mentioned, Dr. Newman's Arians of the Fourth 
Centuiy, especially chap. v. sect. i. 3, and Appendix, note iv., on "the terms oWia and 
ijrdo-Tao-tf as used in the early Church ; " Mr. Robertson's Prolegomena, ch. ii. §3 (2) (b); and 
the Rev. H. A. Wilson's Frole^oinena to Gregory of Nyssa, ch. iv., in this Series. 


S. Cyril's Wkitings. 

§ I. List of Works. Besides the Catechetical and Mystagogic Lectures translated in this 
volume, the extant works of S. Cyril include (i) the " Letter to the Emperor Constantius 
concerning the appearance at Jerusalem of a luminous Cross in the sky:" (2) "The 
Homily on the Paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda : " and (3) Fragments of Sermons on 
the Miracle of the water changed into wine, and on Joh. xvi. 28, "I go to My Father." 

Another work attributed by some authorities to Cyril of Jerusalem and by others to Cyril 
of Alexandria is a Homily De Occursu Domini, that is, On the Presentation of Christ in the 
Temple, and the meeting with Symeon, called in the Greek Church 17 'YnanavTrj. 

The other Fragments and Letters mentioned in the Benedictine Edition have no claim to 
be considered genuine. 

§ 2. Authenticity of the Lectures. The internal evidence of the time and place at which the 
Lectures were delivered has been already discussed in chapters viii. and ix., and proves beyond 
doubt that they must have been composed at Jerusalem in the middle of the fourth century. 
At that date Cyril was the only person living in Jerusalem who is mentioned by the Ecclesi- 
astical Historians as an author of Catechetical Lectures : and S. Jerome, a younger contem- 
porary of Cyril, expressly mentions the Lectures which Cyril had written in his youth. 
In fact their authenticity seems never to have been doubted before the seventeenth century, 
when it was attacked with more zeal than success by two French Protestant Theologians 
of strongly Calvinistic opinions, Andrew Rivet {Critic. Sacr. Lib. iii. cap. 8, Genev. 1640), and 
Edmund Aubertin {De Sacramento Eucharistice, Lib. ii. p. 422, Ed. Davent., 165/1). Their 
objections, which were reprinted at full length by Milles at the end of his Edition, were 
directed chiefly against the Mystagogic Lectures, and rested on dogmatic rather than on 
critical grounds. The argument most worthy of notice was that in a MS. of the Library of 
Augsburg the Mystagogic Lectures were attributed to John, Bishop of Jerusalem. This 
is admitted by Milles, who gives the title thus : Mvo-mycoytKai KaTT]xr}(Tei,s nenre 'icodwov 

'ETTtcr/coTroii '\epoaokv}i.u)V, ivepi ^arrTicrfiaTos, ;^pt(T/xaro?, (roifxaroi, Kah atfJ-aros 'KpicrTov. 

I do not find this Codex Augustinus mentioned elsewhere by any of the Editors under 
that name: but the Augsburg MSS. were removed to Munich in 1806, and in the older 
Munich MS. (Cod. Monac. i), the title of the first Mystagogic Lecture is Muo-raywyia Ttpd^rrj 
'loidvvov ema-Konov 'Upoa-oKvfioiv. Also in Codd. Monac. 2, Ottobon. there is added at the 
end of the Title, rov avrov KvpiWov Kal 'laxlfvov inia-KOTTov. That John, Cyril's successor, did 
deliver Catechetical Lectures, we know from his own correspondence with Jerome : and this 
very circumstance may account for his name having been associated with, or substituted for 
that of Cyril. 

To Rivet's objection Milles makes answer that if the mistakes of a transcriber or the 
stumbling of an ignorant Librarian {imperiti Librarii cczspitationes) have in one or two MSS. 
"ascribed the Lectures to John or any one else, this cannot be set against the testimony of 
those who lived nearest to the time when the Lectures were composed, as Jerome and 
Theodoret. Also the internal evidence proves that the Lectures could not have been delivered 
later than the middle of the fourth century, whereas John succeeded Cyril about 386. 

Moreover it is quite impossible to assign the two sets of Lectures to different authors. 


In Cat. xviii. § ^3 the author promises, as we have seen, that he will fully explain the 
Sacramental Mysteries in other Lectures to be given in Easter week, in the Holy Sepulchre 
itself, and describes the subject of each Lecture ; to which description the Mystagogic 
Lectures correspond in all particulars. Other promises of future explanations are given in 
Cat. xiii. § 19, and xvi. § 26, and fulfilled in Mysf. iv. § 3, and ii. § 6, and iii. § i. On the 
other hand the author of Mysf. i. § g, after quoting the words, " I believe in tlie Father, and 
in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost, and in one Baptism of repentance," adds, " Of which 
things I spoke to thee at length in the former Lectures." 

By these and many other arguments drawn from internal evidence Touttee has shewn 
convincingly that all the Lectures must have had the same author, and that he could be 
no other than Cyril. 

§ 3. Early Testimony. Under the title " Veterum Testimonia de S. Cyrillo Hierosolymi- 
tano ejusque Scriptis," Milles collected a large number of passages bearing on the life and 
writings of S. Cyril, of which it will be sufficient to quote a few which refer expressly to his 

S. Jerome, in his Book of lUusti-ious Men., or Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers, composed 
at Bethlehem about six years after Cyril's death, writes in Chapter 112: "Cyril, Bishop of 
Jerusalem, having been often driven out from the Church, afterwards in the reign of 
Theodosius held his Bishopric undisturbed for eight years : by whom there are Catechetical 
Lectures, which he composed in his youth." 

Theodoret, born six or seven years after the death of Cyril, in his Dialogues (p. 211 
in this Series) gives the "Testimony of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, from his fourth Catechetical 
Oration concerning the ten dogmas. Of the birth from a virgin, " Believe thou this, &c." 

'i'heophanes (575 circ.) Chronographia, p. 34, Ed. Paris, 1655, defends the orthodoxy of 
Cyril, as follows : " It was right to avoid the word biioovaio^, which at that time offended 
most persons, and through the objections of the adversaries deterred those who were to be 
baptized, and to explain clearly the co-essential doctrine by words of equivalent meaning : 
which also ihe blessed Cyril has done, by expounding the Creed of Nicsea word for word, and 
proclaiming Him Very God of Very God." 

Gelasius, Pope 492, De duabus in Christo naturis, quotes as from Gregory Nazianzen the 
words of Cyril, Cat. iv. § 9 : AittXoCs fjv 6 XpiaTos, k,t.\. 

Leontius Byzantinus (610 circ), Contra Nestor, et Eutychem, Lib. I. quotes the same 
passage expressly as taken "From the 4th Catechetical Oration of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem." 

Many other references to the Catecheses as the work of Cyril are given by Touttee, 
pp. 306—315. 

§ 4. Editions. 1. Our earliest information concerning the Greek text and translations of 
S. Cyril's Lectures is derived from John Grodecq, Dean of Glogau in Bohemia. 

From his statement it appears that Jacob Uchanski, Archbishop of Gnessen and Primate 
of Poland, had obtained from Macedonia a version of the Catecheses in the Slavonic dialect, 
and had translated it into the Polish language some years before 1560. 

2. In that year Grodecq himself published at Vienna an edition of the Mystagogic 
Lectures, thus described in the catalogue of the Imperial Library : — 

" S. Cyril's Mystagogic Lectures to the newly baptized, which now for the first time are 
edited in Greek and Latin together, that he who doubts the Latin may have recourse to the 
Greek, and he who does not understand Greek well may read the Latin, translated by John 

Nothing more is known of this edition : Fabricius, Milles, Touttee, and Reischl, all say 
that they have been unable to find any trace of it. Uchanski about this time sent to 
Grodecq his Slavonic and Polish versions, in order that they might be compared with the 


Greek original. The result according to Grodecq was that the fidelity of both versions Avas 
clearly shewn, and " there could not possibly remain any doubt that these Lectures of Cyril 
are perfectly genuine." 

Whether Uchanski's book was written or printed is unknown, as no trace of it has 
hitherto been found. 

3. S. Cyrilli Hier. Catecheses ad Illuminandos et Mystagogicse. Interpretatus est Joannes 
Grodecius. Romje 1564. 8°. 

Grodecq had come to Rome in the suite of Stanislaus Hosius, Cardinal Legate at the 
Council of Trent, who in the year 1562 had published in the Confession of Petricow the 
4th and part of the 3rd Mystagogic Lectures from a Greek MS. belonging to Cardinal Sirlet. 
From this MS. Grodecq made his Latin translation, using also the work of Uchanski before 
mentioned. The preface is dated from Trent, on the 9th of July, 1563. The translation 
was published in the following year at Rome, Cologne, Antwerp, and Paris, and often 
elsewhere until superseded by the new Latin Version of Touttee in the Benedictine Edition. 

4. In the same year, 1564, the Mystagogic Lectures and Catecheses iv., vi., viii. — x., xv., 
xviii. were published at Paris by William Morel, the King's Printer, under the following title: — 

" S. Cyrilli Hier. Catecheses, id est institutiones ad res sacras, Graece editse, ex bibliotheca 
Heniici Memmii, cum versione Latina. Cura Guil. Morellii. Paris. G. Morel., 1564. 
4" min." 

The Greek text depending on de Mesme's one MS., and that mutilated and faulty, is 
said by Touttee to have many faults and omissions, but to have been nevertheless very useful 
to him in correcting the text. The MS. itself had entirely disappeared. The Latin version, 
appended to the copy in the Royal (National) Library at Paris, but not always attached to 
the Greek, is said by Touttee to be a careful and elegant version, independent of Grodecq's. 

A copy of Morel's Edition which formerly belonged to Du Fresne, containing various 
readings in the margin from two other MSS., was lent to Touttee from the Library of 
S. Genevieve (Genovef.). 

Reischl describes the MS. as "Cod. Mesmianus (IMontf. I. 185). Sec. xi." 

5. " S. Cyrilli H. Catecheses Grasce et Latine ex interpretatione Joan. Grodccii nunc 
primum editEe, ex variis bibliothecis, pra^cipue Vaticana, studio et opera Joan. Prevotii. Paris. 
(Claude Morellus), 1608." This was the first complete edition of the Greek text. Prevot, 
a native of Bordeaux, states in the Dedication to Pope Paul V., that by the help of MSS. 
" melioris not?e " found in the Vatican, he had both corrected the text of the Lectures 
previously published by Morel, and carefully transcribed the rest. He made, according 
to Touttee, many useful emendations, but did not mention the number, age, nor various 
readings of the MSS. employed. 

6. "S. Cyrilli Hier. Arch, opera quae supersunt omnia; quorum qusedam nunc primum 
ex Codd. MSS. edidit, reliqua cum Codd. MSS. contulit, plurimis in locis emendavit, Notis- 
que illustravit Tho. Milles S.T.B. ex yEde Christi. Oxonise, e Theatro Sheldoniano, Impensis 
Richardi Sare Bibliopol. Lond. mdcciii." 

The author of this fine Edition gives us in his Preface the following description of his work : — 
*' In the first place I wished to amend more thoroughly the text of J. Prevot, which, 
as I said, he himself largely corrected and supplied froiii MSS. in the Vatican, and which 
I have printed in this Edition : I have therefore compared it with all the other Editions that 
I could collect, and in this manner have easily removed many errors both of the printers and 
of Prevot himself. Afterwards I carefully compared all the Catecheses and the Epistle to 
Constantinus with two MSS. and some with three, namely iv., vi., viii. — x., xv., xvi., xviii. The 
first Codex, written on parchment apparently six hundred years ago, I found among those 
MSS. which Sir Tho. Roe, our first Ambassador from King James I. to the Great Mogul, 
brought from the East, and presented to the Bodleian Library. The second we owe to the 


diligence of Isaac Casaubon, who collated the Catecheses and Epistle to Constantius with 
a MS. which he chanced to find, I think, in some Library in France, and carefully noted 
all the various readings in the margin. This copy of Casaubon's the Right Reverend 
Father in Christ, John Bishop of Norwich, very kindly lent to me out of his well-furnished 
Library, and of his great love for learning did not disdain to shew the highest favour to 
ray slight endeavours." 

Toutt^e thinks that the MS. from which Casaubon drew his various readings was 
C. Roe itself, or that one of the two MSS. had been copied from the other, or both from 
the same. 

7. " S. Cyrilli Arch. Hier, opera quag exstant omnia et ejus nomine circumferuntur, ad 
MSS. codices necnon ad superiores Editiones castigata, Dissertationibus et Notis illustrata, 
cum nova interpretatione et copiosis indicibus. Cura et studio Domni Antonii-Augustini 
Touttei, Presbyteri et Monachi Benedictini e Congregatione S. Mauri. Paris. Typis Jac 
Vincent. 1720, fol. (Recusa Venet. 1763)." 

Of the Greek text the Editor says, " I have collated it as carefully as I could with 
Grodecq's translation. Morel's and Prevot's Editions, and with MSS. to be found in this City. 
The various readings of the Roman MSS. I have obtained by the help of friends : those which 
Milles had collected from the English Codices I have adopted for my own use." 

8. "S. Cyrilli Hier. Arch. opp. quae supersunt omnia ad libros MSS. et impressos 
recensuit Notis criticis commentariis indicibusque locupletissimis illustravit Gulielm. Car. 
Reischl S. Th. D. et Reg. Lycei Ambergensis Professor. Vol. I. Monac. m dccc xlviii." 

The Editor says in his Preface that he has altered the Benedictine text only when the 
evidence was very weighty, and has then given all the various reading's in the critical notes. 
The exegetical commentary was to be reserved for the 2nd Volunte, but this Dr. Reischl did 
not live to complete. 

The Prolegomena contain (i) Toutt^e's inordinately long "Life of Cyril," (2) a Disser- 
tation on the general character and authenticity of the Catecheses, and (3) an "Apparatus 
Litterarius," to which I have been indebted. 

Vol. ii., containing Catecheses xii. — xviii., Myst. i.-v., and the other works, genuine and 
spurious, attributed to Cyril, was published by J. Rupp at Munich, 1S60. 

The MSS used in revising the text of this, the best critical edition, will be noticed below. 

9. An Edition of the Catecheses only was published at Jerusalem in 1867, having been 
commenced in 1849 at the request of the Archbishop, Cyril II., by Dionysius Kleopas, 
Principal of the Theological School of Jerusalem, and, after his death in iS6r, continued 
by his successor Photius Alexandrides, "Archdeacon of the Apostolic and Patriarchal See 
of Jerusalem, and Principal of the Theological School." 

The Editor gives in the Preface an interesting account of the life of Kleopas, and of 
the work which he left unfinished. 

§ 5. Manuscripts. From the preceding account of the various Editions of S. Cyril we 
may obtain the following list of authorities which have been hitherto used in revising the Text. 

1. Codex Sirletianus, known only by Grodecq's Latin version, Rome, 1564. Cf. § i. 3. 

2. C. Mesmianus, known only in Morel's edition, Paris, 1564. Cf. § i. 4. 

3. Vatican MSS. used by Prevot,.i6o8, but not identified. Cf § i. 5. 

4. C. Roe, Bibl. Bodleian. Oxon. "Codex membranaceus in folio, flf. 223, sec. xi., binis 
columnis bene exaratusj" [ol. 271]. 

5. C. Casaubon. On this and the preceding MS. see Milles as quoted above, § i. 6. 

6. C. Ottobonianus (1) ol. Rom. iv. membran. sec. xi. " Continet Catecheses omnes 
et Epist. ad Constantium. Multas habet insignes ab editis varietates." 

C. Ottob. (2), " Chartaceus et recens est, nihil fere ab editis discrepans.** 
These are the Roman MSS. mentioned by Touttde : see above, § i. 7. 


7. C. Coislin. 227 (ol. loi). Membran. Saec. xi. circ. "From this came many 
important emendations" (Toutte'e, NoHtia Codiatm MSS.). 

In the descriptions of the following MSS. of the National Library at Paris there is so 
much discrepancy between Touttee and Reischl, that it is better to quote both. 

8. " Catecheses xii., xiii., xiv., xv., comparavi cum Codice Reg. bibliothecas num. 2503 
Scriptus est in bombycina charta an. 1231, quam anni notam apposuit calligraphus " (Touttee, 
Not. Codd. MSS.). 

Reischl has no notice of a MS. at all answering to this description. 

9. Cod. Reg. alter, "ol; 1260, nunc 1824, qui S. Basilii opera complectltur, sub ejus 
nomine Procatechesin continet " (Touttee, iV^/. Cod4. MSS.) : a/i7er, "Cod. Reg. ol. 260, nunc 
1284, pag. 254, qui duodecimi circiter est sseculi, in quo habetur Procatechesis haec sub 
nomine S. Basilii " (Id. Monit. in Frocatecheshi). 

" Cod. Reg. 467 (apud Toutteum, 1824) Fonteblandensis, chartac. fol. sec. x. Continet 
sub S. Basilii nomine Ot-atione/n de Bapiismo, quae est S. Cyrilli Hier. Procatechesis. 
C. Reg. Touttei " (Reischl). 

10. " Cod. Reg. 969 (ol. Mazarin.) Epistolarum S. Basilii. 4°. Sec. xiv. Exhibet sub n. 7 
Basilii homiliam quo (sic) ostenditur Deum esse incoviprehensibiUm, quae non S. Basilii, sed 
Cyrilli est Procatechesis" (Reischl). 

This description agrees in substance with Touttee's. 

11. C. Colbert. "Catecheses iv., vi., viii., ix., x., xv., xviii., contuli cum cod. Colbert 
Biblioth. chartaceo et recenti 4863 notato ... In omnibus pene cum Morelliana editione 
consentit" (Touttee, Notitia Codd. MSS.). 

Reischl makes no mention of this MS. 

12. C. Colbert, alter, "membran. sign. 1717, Sec. xiii. diversas Patrum homilias continet, 
et Cat. xiii. exhibet sub nomine Cyrillianae in Crucem et Porasceven homiHse" (Touttee, 

This is described by Reischl as "Cod. Reg. 771 (ol. 1717) Colbertinus. Membran. fol. 
scculi xiii. — xiv." 

The following MSS have been used in Editions later than the Benedictine. 

13. " C. Monacensis I. 394 membran, fol., titulis et initialibus miniatis, f. 261 nitidissime 
uncialibus minutis circiter seculo decimo in Oriente scriptus.'' 

This was regarded both by Reischl and by Rupp as the most important authority for the 
text : it is much older than Codd. Roe, Casaub., and seems to be related to Codd. Ottobon. 

C. Mon. 2 of the i6th Century is of little value. 

14. " C. Vindobonensis, 55, membran. fol antiquissimus, sed incerto sgeculo '* 

A full account is given by Rupp in the Preface to Vol. ii. It was collated by Joseph 
Miiller, 1848, and contains all Cyril's Lectures, except the Procatechesis. 

15. Codex A, found by Kleopas in the Library of the Archbishop of Cyprus, and used 
as the basis of his text, sometimes stands alone in preserving the true reading. 

§ 6. Versions. Besides the Latin Translations published with the Greek text, as 
mentioned above, Reischl mentions the first three of the following : — 

{a) Les catecheses de Sainct Cyrille. Traduit par Louis Ganey. Paris, 1564. 

ip) Cyrill's Schriften libersetzt unci mit Anmerkungen versehen von J. Mich. Feder. 

Bamberg, 1786. 
if) Cyrilli Hier Catecheses in Armen. Linguam versae. Viennae, 1832. 
{d) The Catechetical Lectures of S. Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem, Translated, 

with Notes and Indices (Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church.) 

Parker, Oxford, 1838. See Preface. 
VOL. VI r. f 


{e) S. Cyril on the Mysteries. (The five Mystagogic Lectures.) H. de Romestin. 

Parker, Oxford, 1887. 
(/) On Faith and the Creed. C A Heurtley, D.D , Margaret Professor of 

Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Parker, 3rd Ed., 1889. 

Contains, with other Treatises, the Fourth Catechetical Lecture of S. Cyril. 

In the present volume the translation given in the Oxford "Library of Fathers" has 
been carefully revised throughout. Where it has been found necessary to depart from the 
Benedictine text, the Editor has consulted the readings and critical notes of Milles, Reischl, 
and Rupp, and the Jerusalem edition of Kleopas and Anaxandrides. 

A few additions have been made to the Index of Subjects : the Indices of Greek Words 
and of Scripture Texts have been much enlarged, and carefully revised. For any errors which 
may have escaped observation the indulgence of the critical reader will not, it is hoped, 
be asked in vain. i£. H. G. 








Or, Prologue to tlie CatecTietic^l Lectures of our Holy Father, Cyril, ArcTibiiTiop of Jerusalem I 

First Catechetical Lecture : — 
To those who are to be enlightened : with a Reading from Isaiah i. l6 6 

Lecture IL 
On Repentance and Remission of Sins, and Concerning the Adversary : Ezekiel xviii. 20—23 8 

Lecture IIL 
On Baptism : Romans vi. 3, 4 14 

Lecture IV. 
On the Ten points of Doctrine : Colossians ii. 8 19 

Lecture V. 
On Faith : Hebrews xi. i, 2 29 

Lecture VI. 
Concerning the Unity of God. On the words, I believe in one God. Also concerning Heresies: 

Isaiah xlv. 16, 17 (Sept.) 33 

Lecture VII. 
The Father: Ephesians iii. 14,15 44 

Lecture VIII. 
Almighty : Jeremiah xxxix. 18, 19 (Sept.) 48 

Lecture IX. 
On the words, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of all things visible and invisible: 

Job xxxviii. 2, 3 5' 

Appendix to Lecture IX 55 

Lecture X. 
On the Words, And in one Lord Jesus Christ: i Corinthians viii. 5, 6 57 

Lecture XI. 
On the words. The Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Fatiier Very God before 

ALL AGES, By Whom all things were made : Hebrews i. i, 2 64 



Lecture XII. 
On the words, Incarnate, and made Man : Isaiah vii lo — 14 72 

Lecture XIII. 
On the words, Crucified and Buried: Isaiah liii. i — 7 S2 

Lecture XIV. 
On the words, And rose again from the dead on the third day, and ascended into the 

Heavens, and sat on the right hand of the Father: i Corinthians xv. i — 4 94 

Lecture XV. 
On the words. And shall come in glory to judge the quick and the dead; of whose 

KINGDOM there SHALL BE NO END: Daniel vii. 9 — 14 104 

Lecture XVI. 
On the words, And in one Holy Ghost, the Comforter, which spake in the Prophets : 

I Corinthians xii. I — 4 115 

Lecture XVII. 
Continuation of the Discourse on the Holy Ghost : i Corinthians xii. 8 124 

Lecture XVIII. 
On the words, And in One Holy Catholic Church, And in the Resurrection of the Flesh, 

And the Life Everlasting: Ezekiel xxxvii. i 134 

Five Catechetical Lectures to the Newly Baptized : — 

Lecture XIX. 
First Lecture on the Mysteries. With a Lesson from the First General Epistie of Peter v. 8 — 14 144 

Lecture XX. 
On Baptism : Romans vi. 3 — 14 147 

Lecture XXI. 
On Chrism : i John ii. 20—28 149 

Lecture XXII. 
On the Body and Blood of Christ : i Corinthians xi. 23 151 

Lecture XXIII. 
On the Sacred Liturgy and Communion : i Peter ii. I 153 

Indices : — Subjects 161 

Greek Words I75 

Texts of Scripture 178 





r. Already there is an odour of blessedness 
upon you, O ye who are soon to be enlight- 
ened' : already ye are gathering the spiritual ^ 
flowers, to weave heavenly crowns : already the 
fragrance of the Holy Spirit has breathed upon 
you : already ye have gathered round the 
vestibule of the King's palace 3 ; may ye be led 
in also by the King ! For blossoms now have 
appeared upon the trees *; may the fruit also be 
found perfect ! Thus far there has been an 
inscription of your names 5, and a call to 
service, and torches^ of the bridal train, and a 
longing for heavenly citizenship, and a good 
purpose, and hope attendant thereon. For 
he lieth not who said, that to them that love 
God all things work together for good. God 
is lavish in beneficence, yet He waits for each 
man's genuine will : therefore the Apostle 
added and said, to them that are called ac- 
cording to a purpose T. The honesty of purpose 
makes thee called : for if thy body be here 
but not thy mind, it profiteth thee nothing. 

2. Even Simon Magus once came to the 
Laver ^ : he was baptized, but was not enlight- 
ened ; and though he dipped his body in water, 
he enlightened not his heart with the Spirit : his 

> The "blessedness" is the grace of Baptism, the hope of 
which is as a fragrant odour already home towards the Candi- 
dates. These were called no longer Catechumens, but ^mtk^o- 
fLevo', as already on the way " to be enlightened." Comp.ire xvi. 
26, tiie last sentence, and see Index, " enlighten." 

2 voTjTa. The word is much used by Plato to distinguish 
things which can be discerned only by the mind from the objects 
of sight and sense. Here " the spiritual (or, mental) flowers" are 
the Divine truths in which "the fragrance of tlie Holy Spirit" 

3 By "the vestibule" is meant "the outer hall of the Bap- 
tistery" (.\i.\'. 2), and by "the King's Palace" the Baptistery 
itself, which Cyril calls "the inner chamber" (xx. i) and "' the 
bride-chamber '(iii. 2 ; -xxii. 2). See Index, " Baptistery." Here 
the local terms have also an allegorical sense, Baptism being 
regarded as the marriage of the Soul to Christ. 

4 Another allegory, from the season of Spring, when the Lec- 
tures were delivered. 

5 6i'Oju.aTOYpa</jta. See Index. 

6 That the Candidates on their first admission carried torches 
or lighted tapers in procession is a conjecture founded on this 
passage and Lect. I. i : "Ye who have just lighted the torches 
of faith, preserve them in your hands unquenched." But see 
Index, " Lights." 

7 Rom. viii. 28. In S. Paul's argument the "purpose" is 
God's eternal purpose of salvation through Christ (Eph. i. 11 ; 
iii n): but Cyril applies it here to sincerity of purpose in coming 
to Baptism. * Acts viii. 13. 

body went down and came up, but his sou! was 
not buried with Christ, nor raised with Him?. 
Now I mention the statements ' of (men's) falls, 
that thou mayest not fall : for these things 
happened to them by way of example, and 
they are zvritten for the admonition ^ of those 
who to this day draw near. Let none of you 
be found tempting His grace, lest any root of 
bitterness spring up and trouble you ^. Let none 
of you enter saying. Let us see what the faith- 
ful 4 are doing : let me go in and see, that I 
may learn what is being done. Dost thou 
expect to see, and not expect to be seen ? 
And thinkest thou, that whilst thou art search- 
ing out what is going on, God is not searching 
thy heart ? 

3. A certain man in the Gospels once pried 
into the marriage feasts, and took an unbe- 
coming garment, and came in, sat down, and 
ate : for the bridegroom permitted it. But 
when he saw them all clad in white ^, he ought 
to have assumed a garment of the same kind 
himself: whereas he partook of the like food, 
but was unlike them in fashion and in purpose. 
The bridegroom, however, though bountiful, 
was not undiscerning : and in going round to 
each of the guests and observing them (for his 
care was not for their eating, but for their 
seemly behaviour), he saw a stranger 7iot 
having on a wedding garment, and said to him, 
Frie?td, hoiv earnest thou in hither? In what 
a colour 7] With what a conscience! What 
though the door-keeper forbade thee not, be- 
cause of the bountifulness of the entertainer? 
what though thou wert ignorant in what fashion 
thou shouldest come in to the banquet ? — thou 

9 Rom. vi. 4 ; Col. ii. 12. 

1 Greek, vwoypa<^rj, meaning either an "indictment," or a de- 
scriptive ''sketch." For the former meaning, see Plato, Theaet. 
172, E. \i-noypo.<\yt\v . • . T\v avTu>ixo(riav /caAoOtrii'. 

2 I Cor. X. II. 3 Heb. xii. 15. 

4 "The faithful" are those who have been already baptized, 
and instructed in those mysteries of the Christian Faith which 
were reserved for the initiated. See Index, " Faithful." 

5 Matt. xxii. 12. 'ihe same passage is applied to Baptism in 
Cat. iii. 2. 6 See Cat. xxii. 8. and Index, "White." 

7 The Greek word (,\pcifia) is used by Ignatius in the begin- 
ning of his Epistle to the Romans of a discolouring st.iin. 




didst come in, and didst see the glittering 
fashions of the guests : shouldest thou not have 
been taught even by what was before thine 
eyes? Shouldest thou not have retired in 
good season, that thou mightest enter in good 
season again ? But now thou hast come in 
unseasonably, to be unseasonably cast out. 
So he commands the servants. Bind his feet, 
which daringly intruded : bind his hajids, which 
knew not how to put a bright garment around 
him : a7id cast him into the outer darkness ; for 
he is unworthy of the wedding torches ^. Thou 
seest what happened to that man : make thine 
own condition safe. 

4. For we, the ministers of Christ, have 
admitted every one, and occupying, as it 
were, the place of door-keepers we left the 
door open : and possibly thou didst enter 
with thy soul bemired with sins, and with a 
will defiled. Enter thou didst, and wast 
allowed : thy name was inscribed. Tell me, 
dost thou behold this venerable constitution of 
the Church ? Dost thou view her order and 
discipline 9, the reading of Scriptures ', the pre- 
sence of the ordained % the course of instruc- 
tion 3? Be abashed at the place, and be taught 
by what thou seest 1 Go out opportunely 
now, and enter most opportunely to-morrow. 

If the fashion of thy soul is avarice, put 
on another fashion and come in. Put off thy 
former fashion, cloke it not up. Put oft', I 
pray thee, fornication and uncleanness, and 
put on the brightest robe of chastity. This 
charge I give thee, before Jesus the Bridegroom 
of souls come in and see their fashions. A 
long notices is allowed thee; thou hast forty ^ 
days for repentance : thou hast full oppor- 
tunity both to put off, and wash, and to put 
on and enter. But if thou persist in an evil 
purpose, the speaker is blameless, but thou 
must not look for the grace : for the water 
will receive, but the Spirit will not accept thee t. 
If any one is conscious of his wound, let 

8 Compare § i, note 6. 

9 The Greek word (f7rio-T7J/j.i)) which commonly means "know- 
ledge" or "understanding," is applied here an.l in vi. 35 to the 
intelligence and skill di.-played in the arrangement of the public 
services of the Church. Compare Apostolic Constitutions, ii. 57, 
where the Bishop is exhorted to have the assemblies arranged 
fxcTa ■!!a<n]'; t ttict^^ii)!. 

» In the same passage of the Apostolic Constitutions precise 
directions are given for reading a Lesson from the Old Testament, 
singing the Psalms, and reading the Epistle and Ciuspel. 

- By "the ordained" {KavuviKu>v) arc meant all whose names 
were registered as bearing olTice in the Church, Priests, Deacons, 
Deaconesses, Monks, Virgins, Widows, all having their appointed 
places and proper duties. Apost, Canon. 70, ei rts tn-iVKon-o?, ri 
TrpetrjSuTepos, ■>) StaKovo^, r} oAws Toi* KaraXoyov riiiv KKriptKutVy 


3 Compare Af/ost. Const, as above : " Let the Presbyters one 
by one, not all together, exhort the people ; and the liishop last, 
as being the cummander." 

4 S. Aug. de Civit. Dei, ii. 28 : " Though some come to mock 
at such admonitions, all their insolence is either humbled by a 
sudden conveision (immutalio) or suppressed by Icar or shame." 

5 Greek, npoQiania. Compare Gal. iv. 2 : " the time appointed 
of the father." At Athens it meant a " limitation." or fixed period 
within which a de'.<t must be claimed or paid, or an action com- 
menced. 6 Index, " Lent." 7 Compare xvii. j6. 

him take the salve ; if any has fallen, let him 
arise. Let there be no Simon among you, 
no hypocrisy, no idle curiosity about the 

5. Possibly too thou art come on another 
pretext. It is possible that a man is wishing 
to pay court to a woman, and came hither 
on that account ^ The remark applies in 
like manner to women also in their turn. A 
slave also perhaps wishes to please his master, 
and a friend his friend. I accept this bait for 
the hook, and welcome thee, though thou 
earnest with an evil purpose, yet as one to be 
saved by a good hope. Perhaps thou knewest 
not whither thou wert coming, nor in what kind 
of net thou art taken. Thou art come within 
the Church's nets 9 : be taken alive, llee not : 
for Jesus is angling for thee, not in order to 
kill, but by killing to make alive : for thou 
must die and rise again. For thou hast heard 
the Apostle say, Dead indeed nnto sin, but living 
unto righteousness ^ Die to thy sins, and live to 
righteousness, live from this very day. 

6. See, I pray thee, how great a dignity Jesus 
bestows on thee. Thou wert called a Cate- 
chumen, while the word echoed ^ round thee 
from without ; hearing of hope, and knowing 
it not ; hearing mysteries, alid not understand- 
ing them ; hearing Scriptures, and not knowing 
their depth. The echo is no longer around 
thee, but within thee; iox the indivelling Spirit^ 
henceforth makes thy mind a house of God. 
When thou shalt have heard what is written 
concerning the mysteries, then wilt thou 
understand things which thou knewest not. 
And think not that thou receivest a small 
thing : though a miserable man, thou receivest 
one of God's titles. Hear St. Paul saying, 
God is faithful''. Hear another Scripture say- 
ing, God is faithful and Just ^. Foreseeing this, 
the Psalmist, bi cause men are to receive a title 
of God, spake thus in the person of God : 
/ said, Ye are Gods, and are all sons of the 
Most Hi^fi ^. But beware lest thou have the 
title of 'faithful,''' hut the will of the faithkss. 
Thou hast entered into a contest, toil on 
through the race : another such opportunity 
thou canst not have 7. Were it thy wediling- 
day before thee, wouldest thou not have dis- 
regarded all else, and set about the prepara- 
tion for the feast? And on the eve of con- 
secrating thy soul to the heavenly Bridegroom, 
wilt thou not cease from carnal things, that 
thou mayest win spiritual ? 

8 S. Ambrose on the 119th Psalm, Serin, xx. g 48, .speaks 
of some who pretended to be Christians in order to marry one 
whose parents woidd not give her in marriage to a heathen. 

9 Matt. xiii. 47. ' Rom. vi 11, 14. 

* S. Cyril plays upon the word " Catechumen," which has 
the same root as " echo." 

3 Koni. viii. g, u. 4 t Cor. i. 9. Si Jolm i. 9. 

6 Ps lxx»» <». 7 Compare xvii. 36. 


7. We may not receive Baptism twice or 
thrice ; else it might be said, Though I have 
failed once, I shall set it right a second time : 
whereas if thou fail once, the thing cannot be 
set right ; for there is one Lord^ and one faiJh, 
and o7ie baptism ^ .• for only the heretics are re- 
baptized 9, because the former was no baptism. 

8. For God seeks nothing else from us, save 
a good purpose. Say not, How are my sins 
blotted out? I tell thee. By willing, by 
believing \ What can be shorter tht^n this? 
But if, while thy lips declare thee willing, thy 
heart be silent, He knoweth the heart, who 
judgeth thee. Cease from this day from every 
evil deed. Let not thy tongue speak unseemly 
words, let thme eye abstain from sin, and from 
roving 2 after things unprofitable. 

9. Let thy feet hasten to the catechisings ; re- 
ceivewith earnestness the exorcisms 3 : whether 
thou be breathed upon or exorcised, the act 
is to thee salvation. Suppose thou hast gold 
unwrought and alloyed, mixed with various 
substances, copper, and tin, and iron, and 
lead : we seek to have the gold alone ; can 
gold be purified from the foreign substances 
without fire ? Even so without exorcisms the 
soul cannot be purified ; and these exorcisms 
are divine, having been collected out of the 
divine Scriptures. Thy face has been veiled '^, 
that thy mind may henceforward be free, lest 
the eye by roving make the heart rove also. 
But when thine eyes are veiled, thine ears are 
not hindered from receiving the means of 
salvation. For in like manner as those who 
are skilled in the goldsmith's craft throw in 

their breath upon the fire through certain 

our sins, and impart to us good hopes of our 
estate, and grant us repentance tliat bringeth 
salvation. God hath called, and His call is 
to thee. 

10. Attend closely to the catechisings, 
and though we should prolong our discourse, 
let not thy mind be wearied out. For thou art 
receiving armour against the adverse power, 
armour against heresies, against Jews, and 
Samaritans s and Gentiles. Thou hast manv 
enemies ; take to thee many darts, for thou 
hast many to hurl them at : and thou hast 
need to learn how to strike down the Greek, 
how to contend against heretic, against Jew 
and Samaritan. And the armour is ready, and 
most ready the sword of the Spirit^ ; but thou 
also must stretch forth thy right hand with 
good resolution, that thou mayest war the Lord's 
warfare, and overcome adverse powers, and 
become invincible against every heretical at- 

1 1. Let me give thee this chirge also. Study 
our teachings and keep them for ever. Think 
not that they are the ordinary homilies?; for 
though they also are good and trustworthy, yet 
if we should neglect them to-day we may study 
them to-morrow. But if the teaching concern- 
ing the laver of regeneration delivered in a 
consecutive course be neglected to-da}'^, when 
shall it be made right? Suppose it is the 
season for planting trees : if we do not dig, and 
dig deep, when else can that be planted 
rightly which has once been planted il 

Suppose, pray, that the Catechising is a kind 

of building : if we do not bind the house 

together by regular bonds in the building, 

delicate instruments, and blowing up the gold | lest some gap be found, and the building 

become unsound, even our former labour is of 
no use. But stone must follow stone by 
course, and corner match with cor.ier, and by 

which is hidden in the crucible stir the flame 
which surrounds it, and so find what they are 
seeking ; even so when the exorcists inspire 
terror by the Spirit of God, ahd set the soul, 
as it were, on fire in the crucible of the 
body, the hostile demon flees away, and there 
abide salvation and the hope of eternal life, 
and the soul henceforth is cleansed from 
its sins and hath salvation. Let us then, 
brethren, abide in hope, and surrender our- 
selves, and hope, in order that the God of 
all may see our purpose, 

8 Eph. iv. 5. 

9 This sentence is omitted in one MS. (Paris, 1824), but pro- 
bably only through the repetition of the word '' baptism." On the 
laws of the Church against the repetition of Baptism, and con- 
cerning the re-bapti^m of heretics, see Tertull. de Baptismc, c. xv. : 
Apost. Const. XV. : Bingham, xii. 5 : Hefele, Councils, Lib. I. c. 2 ; 
Dictionary Christian Antiq. I. p. 167 a. 

' Rufmus, in the Exposition of the Creed, on the Re- 
mission of sins : " The Pagans are wont to say in derision of us, 
that we deceive ourselves in thinking that crimes which have been 
committed in deed can be washed out by words." 

2 The reading in the Benedictine Edition, firjSe 6 vov^ <70v 
pefj.pea-6iii, has little authority, and is quite unsuitable. See below, 
TO ^A€'/u,/ia piixBofxet'ou. 3 Index, " Exorcism." 

4 Index, "Vedmg" 

our smoothing off inequahties the building 
must thus rise evenly. In like manner we are 
bringing to thee stones, as it were, of know- 
ledge. Thou must hear concerning the living 
God, thou must hear of Judgment, must hear 
of Christ, and of the Resurrection. And many 
things there are to be discussed in succession, 
which though now dropped one by one are 
and cleanse us from • afterwards to be presented in harmonious con- 
nexion. But unless thou fit them together in 
the one whole, and remember what is first, and 
what is second, the builder may build, but thou 
wilt find the building unsound. 

12. When, therefore, the Lecture is delivered. 

5 The Samaritans are frequently mentioned by Epiphanius and 
other writers of the 4th centiry among the chief adversaries 
of Christianity. "In their humble synagogue, at the foot of the 
mountain (Gerizim), the Samaritans still worship, the oldest and 
the smallest sect in the world. ' (Stanley, Sinai and Pa/esiine, 
p. 240.) 

6 Eph. vi. 17. 7 See above, § 4, note 3- 

B 2 


if a Catechumen ask thee what the teachers have 
said, tell nothing to him that is without ^. For 
we deliver to thee a mystery, and a hope of 
the life to come. Guard the mystery for Him 
who gives the reward. Let none ever say 
to thee, What harm to thee, if I also know 
it? So too the sick ask for wine ; but if it be 
given at a wrong time it causes delirium, and 
two evils arise ; the sick man dies, and the 
physician is blamed. is it also with the 
Catechumen, if he hear anything from the 
believer : both the Catechumen becomes 
delirious (for he understands not what he has 
heard, and finds fault with the thing, and scoffs 
at what is said), and the believer is condemned 
as a traitor. But thou art now standing on 
the border : take heed, pray, to tell nothing 
out ; not that the things spoken are not worthy 
to be told, but because his ear is unworthy to 
receive. Thou wast once thyself a Catechu- 
men, and I described not what lay before thee. 
When by experience thou hast learned how 
high are the matters of our teaching, then thou 
wilt know that the Catechumens are not worthy 
to hear them. 

13. Ye who have been enrolled are become 
sons and daughters of one Mother. When ye 
have come in before the hour of the exorcisms, 
let each one of you speak things tending to 
godliness : and if any of your number be not 
present, seek for him. If thou wert called to 
a banquet, wouldest thou not wait for thy 
fellow-guest ? If thou hadst a brother, wouldest 
thou not seek thy brother's good ? 

Afterwards busy not thyself about unprofit- 
able matters : neither, what the city has done, 
nor the village, nor the King 9, nor the Bishop, 
nor the Presbyter. Look upward ; that is what 
thy present hour needeth. Be still^°, and know 
that I am God. If thou seest the believers 
ministering, and shewing no care, they enjoy 
security, they know what they have received, 
they are in possession of grace. But thou 
standest just now in the turn of the scale, 
to be received or not : copy not those wiio 
have freedom from anxiety, but cherish fear. 

14. And when the Exorcism has been done, 
until the others who are being exorcised have 
come ", let men be with men, and women with 
women. For now I need the example of 
Noah's ark : in which were Noah and his sons, 

8 On the Disciplina Arcani, or rule against publishing the 
Christian Creed and Mysteries to Catechumens and Gentiles, see 
Index, " Mysteries." 

9 The tide " Kin^ " (Bao-iAeus) is used in the Greek Liturgies 
and Fathers of the Roman Emperjr, as in the Clementii e Liturgy : 
vnep Toi) /3ao"iAfaj?, Kai Ttoy €v VTrcpoxjj, where it is t:ikcn truni 
I Tim. ii. 2. Compare Cat. xiv. 14, and 22 : KcoKrTa^nVou toO 

'■J Ps. xlvi. to. Sept. trxoAoo-are, "give attention freely." 
" From S. Auuu^line, tfe Symbolo, i. i (Migne T. vi. p. 930), 
we learn tliat tlie C.indidat<.s were brou'ht in he ore the Con- 
gregation one by one for exorcism ; and so, as Cyril here shew?, 
they had to wait outside till the others returned. 

and his wife and his sons' wives. For though 
the ark was one, and the door was shut, yet 
had things been suitably arranged. If the 
Church is shut, and you are all inside, yet let 
there be a separation, men with men, and 
women with women ' : lest the pretext of 
salvation become an occasion of destruction. 
Even if there be a fair pretext for sitting near 
each other, let passions be put away. Fur- 
ther, let the men when sitting have a useful 
book ; and let one read, and another listen : 
and if there be no book, let one pray, and 
another speak something useful. And again 
let the party of young women sit together in 
like manner, either singing or reading quietly, 
so that tlieir lips speak, but others' ears catch 
not the sound : for I szifter not a woman to 
speak in the Churdf^. And let the married 
woman also follow the same example, and 
pray ; and let her lips move, but her voice be 
unheard, that a Samuel 3 may come, and thy 
barren soul give birth to the salvation of 
" God who hath heard thy prayer ;" for this 
is the interpretation of the name Samuel. 

15. I shall observe each man's earnestness, 
each woman's reverence. Let your mind be 
refined as by fire unto reverence ; let your soul 
be forged as metal : let the stubbornness of 
unbelief be hammered out : let the superfluous 
scales of the iron drop off, and what is pure 
remain ; let the rust of the iron be rubbed off, 
and the true metal remain. May God some- 
time shew you that night, the darkness which 
shines like the day, concerning which it is 
said. The dark7iess shall not be hidden from thee, 
and the night shall shine as the day t Then 
may the gate of Paradise be opened to every 
man and every woman among you. Then may 
you enjoy the Christ-bearing waters in their 
fragrance s. Then may you receive the name 
of Christ^, and the power of things divine. 
Even now, I beseech you, lift up the eye of the 

' Chrys. in Matt. Horn. Ixxiv. § 3: "You ought to have 
within yuu the wall that separates yni from the women: but 
since ye will n jt, our fathers have thought it necessary to separate 
you at least by these boards ; for I have heard from my elders 
that there wcie not these walls in old times." These barriers had 
not yet been introduced at Jerusalem, or Cyril's admonition would 
have been needless. Comp.ire Apostolic Constitutions, IL 57. 

2 I Cor. xiv. 34 ; i Tim. ii. 12. 

3 1 Sam. i. i^, 20. On the various interpretations of the name 
Samuel, see Diet. Bib. "Samuel," and Driver on the passage. 
Cyril adopts the meanirig "heard of God." 

4 Ps. cxxxix. 12. On Easter Eve the Church was full of lights 
which were kept burning all night, r.nd the newly-baptized carried 
torches. Gregory of Nyssa, preaching on the ResurtL-ction 
(prixt. iv.), describes the scene: "This brilliant night, by ming- 
ling the flames of torches with the nioriiin.; rays ol the sun, has 
made one continuous day, not divided by the i.iterposition of 

5 (Jr, as the Benedictine Editor conjectures, " the waters 
wh'ch have a Christ-bearing (xpiarocjinpoi') fragrance." On the 
epilliet xpicTTo^opQ'i, see Bishop Lightfnot's note on Ignat. ad 
Ep'i. § I and § 9. Its meaning, as well as that of ©eo<i)opos is 
defined in the answer of Igjiatius to 'Irajan, 'O Xpiaroi' i\uiv 
iv <ni(ivoi.'i{Matiyr. Igii. Ant. § ■z). 

6 Cat. xxi. \: "made partakers therefore of Christ, ye are 
rightly called Christs." 



mind : even now imagine the choirs of Angels, 
and God the Lord of all there sitting, and His 
Only-begotten Son sitting with Him on His 
right hand, and the Spirit present with them ; 
and Thrones and Dominions doing service, 
and every man of you and every woman 
receiving salvation. Even now let your ears 
ring, as it were, with that glorious sound, when 
over your salvation the angels shall chant, 
Blessed are they 7vliose iniquities are foj-givefi, 
and ivJiose sins are covered t : when like stars 
of the Church you shall enter in, bright in the 
body and radiant in the soul. 

1 6, Great is the Baptism that lies before 
you ^ : a ransom to captives ; a remission of 
offences ; a death -of sin ; a new-birth of the 
soul ; a garment of light ; a holy indissoluble 
seal; a chariot to heaven; the delight of 
Paradise ; a welcome into the kingdom ; the 
gift of adoption ! But there is a serpent by 
the Avayside watching those wlio pass by : 
beware lest he bite thee with unbelief He 
sees so many receiving salvation, and is seeking 
whom he may devour'^. Thou art coming in 
unto the Father of Spirits, but thou art going 
past that serpent. How then mayest thou 
pass him ? Have thy feet shod zcith the pre- 
paration of the gospel of peace ' / that even if he 
bite, he may not hurt thee. Have faith in- 
dwelling, stedfast hope, a strong sandal, that 
thou mayest pass the enemy, and enter the 
presence of thy Lord. Prepare thine own 
heart for reception of doctrine, for fellowship 
in holy mysteries. Pray more frequently, that 
God may make thee worthy of the heavenly 
and immortal mysteries. Cease not day nor 
night : but when sleep is banished from thine 
eyes, then let thy mind be free for prayer. 
And if thou find any shameful thought rise up 
in thy mind, turn to meditation upon Judgment 
to remind thee of Salvation. Give thy mind 
wholly to study, that it may forget base things. 
If thou find any one saying to thee, Art thou 
then going in, to descend into the water ? 
Has the city just now no baths ? take notice 
that it is the dragon of the sea ^ wlro is laymg 

7 Ps. xxxii. I, which verse is still chanted in the Greek Church 
as soon as the Baptism is completed. 

8 S. Basil has a passage in praise of Baptism almost the same, 
word for word, with this. It is more likely to have been borrowed 
from Cyril by Basil and other Fathers, than to be a later interpo- 
lation here. 

9 I Pet V. 8. ' Eph vi. 15. a Is. xxvii. i. 

these plots against thee. Attend not to the 
lips of the talker, but to God who worketh in 
thee. Guard thine own soul, that thou be not 
ensnared, to the end that abiding in hope thou 
mayest become an heir of everlasting salvation. 
17. We for our part as men charge and 
teacli you thus : but make not ye our build- 
ing hay and stubble and chaff, lest we suffer 
loss, from our 7vork being burnt up : but 
make ye our work gold, and silver, and pre- 
cious stones '^ ! For it lies in me to speak, but 
in thee to set thy mind + upon it, and in God to 
make perfect. Let us nerve our minds, and 
brace up our souls, and prepare our hearts. 
The race is for our soul : our hope is of things 
eternal : and God, who knoweth your hearts, 
and observeth who is sincere, and who a 
hypocrite, is able both to guard the sincere, 
and to give faith to the hypocrite : for even to 
the unbeliever, if only he give his heart, God is 
able to give faith. So may He blot out the 
handivriting that is against you ^, and grant you 
forgiveness of your former trespasses ; may He 
plant you into His Church, and enlist you in 
His own service, and put on you the armour of 
righteous7iess ^ : may He fill you with the 
heavenly things of the New Covenant, and 
give you the seal of the Holy Spirit indelible 
throughout all ages, in Christ Jesus Our Lord : 
to whom be the glory for ever and ever ! 

{To the Reader 7.) 

These Catechetical Lectures for those who 
are to be enlightened thou mayest lend to 
candidates for Baptism, and to believers who 
are already baptized, to read, but give not at 
all ^, neither to Catechumens, nor to any others 
who are not Christians, as thou shalt answer to 
the Lord. And if thou make a copy, write 
this in the beginning, as in the sight of the 

3 1 Cor. iii. 12, 15. 

4 Greek npoa-6iuiia.i, Sept. Deut. xiii. 4, "cleave unto Him." 
Compare Josh, xxiii. 12; Ps. Ixii. 10, "Set not your heart upon 
them." 5 Col. ii. 14. 6 o Cor. vi. 7 ; Rom. vi. 13. 

7 It is doubtful whether this caution preceded from Cyril him- 
self when issuing a written copy of his Lectures, or from some 
later editor. Eusebius (E.H. v. 20) has preserved an adjuration 
by Irenaius at the end of his treatise, On the Ogdoad: I adjure 
thee, who mayest transcribe this book, by Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and by His glorious advent, when He cometh to judge the quick 
and the dead, to compare what thou hast written and correct it 
carefully by this copy, from which thou hast transcribed it ; this 
adjuration also thou snalt write in like manner, and set it in the 

** Gr. TO (TuVoAoi'. Plat. Leg. 654 b ; Soph. 220 B. 






AN Introductory Lecture to those who had come forward for Baptism * : 


Wash you, make you dean ; put aivay yoiir iniquities from your souls, from before 

mine eyes, and the rest^. 

1. Disciples of the New Testament and 
partakers of the mysteries of Christ, as yet by 
caUing only, but ere long by grace also, make 
you a new heart and a netv spirit 'i, that there 
may be gladness among the inhabitants of 
heaven : for if over one sijiner that repenteth 
there is joy, according to the Gospel "•, how much 
more shall the salvation of so many souls move 
the inhabitants of heaven to gladness. As ye 
have entered upon a good and most glorious 
path, run with reverence the race of godliness. 
For the Only-begotten Son of God is present 
here most ready to redeem you, saying. Come 
unto Me ail that labour and are heavy laden, and 
I will give you rest=. Ye that are clothed with 
the rough garment^ of your offences, who are 
holden with the cords of your oion sins, hear 
the voice of the Prophet saying. Wash you, 
make you dean, put away your iniquities from 
before Mine eyes^ : that the choir of Angels 
may chant over you, Blessed are they whose 
iniquities are forgiven, and 7vhose sins are 
covered^. Ye who have just lighted the torches 
of faith 9, guanl them carefully in your hands.. 
unquenched ; that He, who erewliile on this 
all-holy Golgotha opened Paradise to the 
robber on account of his faith, may grant 
to you to sing the bridal song. 

2. If any here is a slave of sin, let him 
promptly prepare himself through faith for the 
new birth into freedom and aclojjtion ; and 
having put off the miserable bondage of his 
sins, and taken on him the most blessed 

' The title prefixed to this Lecture is given in full. In the 
following Lectures the form will be abbieviated. See Index, 
ai'ayi'co(Tt9 and axe5iaa^tio"a, 

2 Is. i. i6. 

3 L/ek. xviii. 31. 4 Luke xv. 7. S Matt. xi. 28. 

t" Compare XV. 25. 7 Is. i. 16. 8 Ps. xxxii. x. See 

Procat. 15. 9 Procat. t, note 6. 

bondage of the I>ord, so may he be counted 
worthy to inherit the kingdom of heaven. 
Put off, by confession ', the old man, which 
7vaxeth corrupt after the lusts of deceit, that ye 
may put on the ne7v man, which is renewed 
according to kncrwledge of Him that created 
him 2. Get you the earnest of the Holy Spirit^ 
through faith, that ye may be able to be 
received inU the everlasting habila'ions ">. 
Come for the mystical Seal, that ye may be 
easily recognised by the Master ; be ye num- 
bered among the holy and spiritual flock of 
Christ, to be set apart on His right hand, and 
inherit the life prejxired for you. For they to 
whom the rough garments of their sins still 
clings are found on tlie left hand, because 
they came not to the grace of God which 
is given through Christ at the new birth of 
Baptism : new birth I mean not of bodies, 
but the spiritual new birth of the soul. For 
our bodies are begotten by parents who are 
seen, but our souls are begotten anew through 
faith : for the Spirit blotveth where it listcth^ : 
and then, if thou be found worthy, thou 
mayest hear, ]Vdl done, good and faithful 
servantT, when thou art found to have no de- 
filement of hypocrisy in thy conscience. 

3. For if any of those who are present 
should think to tempt God's grace, he de- 
ceives himself, and knows not its power. 
Keep thy soul free from hy})ocrisy, O man, 
because of Him who sea7xhcth hearts and 
reins^. For as those who are going to make 
a levy for war examine the ages and the bodies 

I See Index, "Confession." 

« Kph. iv. 22 ; Col. iii. 10. 3 2 Cor. i. 22. 4 Luke xvi. 

5 Compare xv. 25. 6 John iii. 8. 7 Matt. xxv. 21. 

8 Ps. vii. 10. 


of those who are taking service, so also the 
Lord in enHsting souls examines their pur- 
pose: and if any has a secret hypocrisy, He 
rejects the m;in as unfit for His true service ; 
but if He fiiuls one worthy, to him He readily 
gives His grace. He gives not holy things to 
the dogs9 ; but where He discerns tlie good 
conscience, there He gives the Seal of salva- 
tion, that wondrous Seal, which devils tremble 
at, and Angels recognise ; that the one may 
be driven to flight, and the others may watch 
around it as kindred to themselves. Those 
therefore who receive this spiritual and saving 
Seal, have need also of the disposition akin 
to it. For as a writing-reed or a dart has 
need of one to use it, so grace also has need 
of believing minds. 

4. Thou art receiving not a perishable but 
a spiritual shield. Henceforth thou art planted 
in the invisible^ Paradise. Thou receivest a 
new name, which thou hadst not before. Here- 
tofore thou wast a Catechumen, but now thou 
wilt be called a Believer. Thou art trans- 
planted henceforth among the spiritual^ olive- 
trees, being grafted from the wild into the 
good olive-tree ^, from sins into righteousness, 
from pollutions into purity. Thou art made 
partaker of the Holy Vinc^. Well then, if 
thou abide in the Vine, thou growest as a 
iruitful branch ; but if thou abide not, thou 
wilt be consumed by the fire. Let us therefore 
bear fruit worthily. God forbid that in us 
should be done what befell that barren fig- 
tree 5, that Jesus come not even now and curse 
us for our barrenness. But may all be able to 
use that other saying, ^/// / am like a fruitjul 
olive-tree in the house of God : I have trusted 
in the mercy of God for ever^, — an olive-tree 
not to be perceived by sense, but by the mind 7, 
and full of light. As then it is His f)art to 
plant and to water ^, so it is thine to bear fruit : 
it is God's to grant grace, but thine to receive 
and guard it. Despise not the grace because 
it is treely given, but receive and treasure it 

5. The present is the season of confession : 
confess what thou hast done in word or in 
deed, by night or by day ; confess in an 
acceptable time, and in the day of salvation 9 
receive the heavenly treasure. Devote thy 
time to the Exorcisms : be assiduous at the 
Catechisings, and remember the things tliat 
shall be spoken, for they are spoken not for 
thine ears only, but that by faith thou mayest 

9 Matt. vii. 6. 

I Or. voriTov, i.e. the true Paradise, to be seen by the mind, 
not bv the eye, Apoc. xii. 7, 17. ^ See pre:eding note. 

3 Rom. XI. 24. 4 Juhn xv. i, 4, 5. 5 Matt. xxi. 19. 

* Ps. Hi. 10. 7 voqTT], see note i, above. 

^ I Cor. iii. 6. When Paul plants and Apollos waters, it is God 
Himself who works through His ministers. 9 2 Cor. vi. 2. 

seal them up in the memory. Blot out from 
thy mind all earthly ' care : for thou art running 
for thy soul. Thou art utterly forsaking the 
things of the world : little are the things which 
thou art forsaking, great what the Lord is 
giving. Forsake things present, and put thy 
trust in things to come. Hast thou run so 
many circles of the years busied in vain about 
the world, and hast thou not forty days to be 
free (for prayer-), for thine own soul's sake? 
Be still 2, and kno7v that I am God, saith the 
Scripture. Excuse thyself from talking many 
idle words: neither backbite, nor lend a willing 
ear to backbiters; br,t rather be prompt to 
prayer. Shew in ascetic exercise that thy 
heart is nerved ■♦. Cleanse thy vessel, that thou 
mayest receive grace more abundantly. 'For 
though remission of sins is given equally to 
all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is 
bestowed in proportion to each man's faith. 
If thou hast laboured little, thou receivest 
little ; but if thou hast wrought much, the 
reward is great. Thou art running for thyself, 
see to thine own interest. 

6. If thou hast aught against any man, 
forgive it : thou comest here to receive for- 
giveness of sins, and thou also must forgive 
him that hath sinned against thee. Else with 
what face wilt thou say to the Lord, Forgive 
me my many sins, if thou hast not thyself 
forgiven thy fellov-servant even his little sins. 
Attend diligently the Church assemblies s ; not 
only now when diligent attendance is required 
of thee by the Clergy, but also after thou hast 
received the grace. For if, before thou hast 
received it, the practice is good, is it not also 
good after the bestowal? ii before thou be 
grafted in, it is a safe course to be watered 
and tended, is it not far better after the 
planting? Wrestle for thine own soul, espe- 
cially in such days as these. Nourish thy soul 
with sacred readings ; for the Lord hath pre- 
pared for thee a spiritual table ; therefore say 
thou also after the Psalmist, The Lord is my 
shepherd, and I shall lack nothing: in a place 
of grass, there hath He made me rest ; I/e hath 
fed me beside the waters of comfort. He hath 
converted my soul°: — that Angels also may 
t share your joy, and Christ Himself the great 
i High Priest, having accepted your resolve, 
1 may present you all to the Father, saying, 
I Behold, I and the children whom God hath 
\ given Me^. May He keep you all well-pleasing 
in His sight ! To whom be the glory, and 
j the power unto the endless ages of ecernity. 
I Amen. 

j » Literally 'human." 

2 Some MSS. omit tj) irpotrevx?) after (rxoAd^ftj. 
I 3 Ps. xlvi. 10: (TxoAacraT-e Coinfiare Procat. 13. 
! 4 Compare Procat. 17 : xviii- i. S See Index', avva^i^- 

6 Ps. xxiii. I — 3. 7 Is. viii. 18 ; Heb. ii. 13. 


On Repentance and Remission of Sins, and concerning the Adversary. 

EzEKiEL xviii. 20 — 23. 

The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the 7tnckedness of the wicked 
shall be upon him. But if the wicked will turn from all his sius, &^c. 

1. A FEARFUL thing is sin, and the sorest dis- 
ease of the soul is transgression, secretly cut- 
ting its sinews, and becoming also the cause 
of eternal fire ; an evil of a man's own choos- 
ing, an offspring of the will '. For that we sin of 
our own free will the Prophet says plainly in 
a certain place : Yet I planted thee a fruitful 
vine, zaholly true : how art thou turned to bit- 
terness, {and become) the strange vine ^ ? The 
planting was good, the fruit coming from the 
will is evil; and therefore the planter is blame- 
less, but the vine shall be burnt with fire ; 
since it was planted for good, and bore fruit 
unto evil of its own will. For God, according 
to the Preacher, made man upright, and they 
have themselves sought out many inventions 3. 
For 7ve are His workmanship, says the Apostle, 
created unto good 7vorks, which God afore pre- 
pared, that 2ve should 7valk in them ^. So then 
the Creator, being good, created for good 
works ; but the creature turned of its own 
free will to wickedness. Sin tiien-is, as we 
have said, a fearful evil, but not incurable ; 
feaiful for him who clings to it, but easy of 
cure for him who by repentance puts it from him. 
For suppose that a .man is holdmg fire in his 
hand; as long as he holds fast the live coal he is 
sure to be l)urned, but should he put away the 
coal, he would havecastaway tlie flame also with 
it. If however any one thinks that he is not being 
burned when sinning, to him the Scripture 
saith. Shall a man 7i'7-ap up fire /« his bosom, 
and not burn his clothes^? For sin burns the 
sinews of the soul, [and breaks the spiritual 
bones of the mind, and darkens the light of 
the heart ^]. 

2. But some one will say, What can sin 
be? ~ ■ 

Is it a living 

thing ? 

Is it an angel ? 

I For references to Cyril's doctrine of Free-will, see Index, 
" Sovil." 2 Jer. ii. 21. 3 Ecclcs. vii. 29. 

4 Eph. ii. 10. 5 Prov. vi. 27. 

6 JNlillcs and the Pienedictine Editor omit these clauses, but the 
more recent editions of Reischl and Alexandrides insert them 
on the authrr-''.y of the Munich, Jerusalem, and other good MSb. 

Is it a demon ? What is this which works 
within us? It is not an enemy, O man, that 
assails thee from without, but an evil shoot 
growing up out of thyself. Look right on with 
thine eyes T, and there is no lust. [Keep thine 
own, and ^] seize not the things of others, and 
robbery has ceased 9. Remember the Judg- 
ment, and neither fornication, nor adultery, 
nor murder, nor any transgression of the law 
shall prevail with thee. But whenever thou 
forgettest God, forthwith thou beginnest to 
devise wickedness and to commit iniquity. 

3. Yet thou art not the sole author of the 
evil, but there is also another most wicked 
prompter, the devil. He indeed suggests, but 
does not get the mastery by force over those 
who do not consent. Therefore saith the 
Preacher, If the spirit of him that hath power 
rise up against thee, quit not thy place ^. Shut 
thy door, and put him far from thee, and he 
shall not hurt thee. But if thou indifferently 
admit the thought of lust, it strikes root in 
thee by its suggestions, and enthrals thy mind, 
and drags thee down into a pit of evils. 

But perhaps thou sayest, I am a believer, 
and lust does not gain the ascendant over me, 
even if I think upon it frequently. Knowest 
thou not that a root breaks even a rock by 
long persistence? Admit not the seed, since 
it will rentl thy faith asunder : tear out the 
evil by the root before it blossom, lest from 
being careless at the beginning thou have 
afterwards to seek for axes and fire. W^hen 
thine eyes begin to be diseased, get them 
cured in good time, lest thou become blind, 
and then have to seek the physician. 

4. The devil then is the first author of sin, 
and the father of the wicked : and this is the 
Lord's saying, not mine, that the devil sinneth 

7 Prov. iv. 25. 
best MSS. 

' Eccles. X. 4. 
the devil." 

8 Omitted by recent editors with the 
9 Gr. (ceKoiVirai, "has fallen asleep." 
Compare Eph. iv. 27 ; " Neither give pl.^ce to 


from the beginnitig'^ : none sinned before him. 
But he sinned, not as having received neces- 
sarily from nature the propensity to sin, since 
then the cause of sin is traced back again to 
Him that made him so ; but having been 
created good, he has of his own free will 
become a devil, and received that name from 
his action. For being an Archangel 3 he was 
afterwards called a devil from his slandering : 
from being a good servant of God he has be- 
come rightly named Satan; for "Satan" is 
interpreted the adversary^. And this is not my 
teaching, but that of the inspired prophet 
Ezekiel : for he takes up a lamentation over 
him and says, Thou wast a seal of likeness, and 
a crozvn of beauty ; in the Paradise of God wast 
thou born s / and soon after, 27iou wast born 
blameless in thy days, from the day in ivhich 
thou wast created, until thine iniquities were 
found in thee. Very rightly hath he said, wei-e 
found in thee ; for they were not brought in 
from without, but thou didst thyself beget the 
evil. The cause also he mentions forthwith : 
Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty : 
for the multitude of thy sins wast thou wounded, 
afid I did cast thee to the ground. In agree- 
ment with this the Lord says again in the Gos- 
pels : / beheld Satan as lightning fall fvjn 
heaven ^ Thou seest the harmony of the Old 
Testament with the New. He when cast out 
drew many away with him. It is he that puts 
lusts into them that listen to him : from him 
come adultery, fornication, and every kind of 
evil. Through him our forefather Adam was 
cast out for disobedience, and exchanged a 
Paradise bringing forth wondrous fruits of its 
own accord for the ground which bringeth 
forth thorns. 

5. What then ? some one will say 

havQ been beguiled and are lost. Is 



Is it 


then no salvation left ? We have fallen 
not possible to rise again ? We have 
blinded : May we not recover our sight ? We 
have become crippled : Can we never walk up- 
right? In a word, we are dead : May we not 
rise again ? He that woke Lazarus who was 
four days dead and already stank, shall He 
not, O man, much more easily raise thee who 
art alive ? He who shed His precious blood 
for us, shall Himself deliver us from sin. Let 
us not despair of ourselves, brethren ; let us 
not abandon ourselves to a hopeless condition. 

» I John iii. 8 ; John viii. 44. 

3 On Cyril's doctrine of the Angels, see Index, "Angels." 

4 I Kings V. 4, &c. 

5 Ezek. xxviii. 12 — 17, an obscure passage, addressed to the 
Prince of Tyre, and meaning that he was "the perfect pattern" 
of earthly glory, set in a condition like that of Adam in Paradise, 
and, seeming]'-, blameless as Adam before his fall. Cyril seems 
to regard the Prince of Tyre as an embodiment of Satan, because 
he was deified as the object of national worship: V. i, "Thou 
hast said, I am a God, I sit in the seat of God." 

6 Luke X. 18. 

For it is a fearful thing not to believe in a hope 
of repentance. For he that looks not for sal- 
vation spares not to add evil to evil : but to 
him that hopes for cure, it is henceforth easy 
to be careful over himself. The robber who 
looks not for pardon grows desperate ; but, 
if he hopes for forgiveness, often comes to re- 
pentance. What then, does the serpent cast 
its slough 7^ and shall not we cast oft" our sin ? 
Thorny ground also, if cultivated well, is 
turned into fruitful ; and is salvation to us ir- 
recoverable ? Nay rather, our nature admits of 
salvation, but the will also is required. 

6. God is loving to man, and loving in no 
small measure. For say not, I have com-' 
mitted fornication and adultery : I have done 
dreadful things, and not once only, but often : 
will He forgive? Will He grant pardon? 
Hear what the Psalmist says : Hoiv greet 
is the multitude of Thy goodness, Lord ^ / 
Thine accumulated offences surpass not the 
multitude of God's mercies : thy wounds sur- 
pass not the great Physician's skill. Only 
give thyself up in faith : tell the Physician 
thine ailment : say thou also, like David : / 
said, I will confess me my sin unto the Lord : 
and the same shall be done in thy case, which 
he says forthwith : A7id thou forgavest the 
wickedness of my hearts. 

7. Wouldest thou see the loving-kindness of 
God, O thou that art lately come to the 
catechising ? Wouldest thou see the loving- 
kindness of God, and the abundance of Piis 
long-suffering ? Hear about Adam. Adam, 
God's first-formed man, transgressed : could 
He not at once have brought death upon 
him ? But see what the Lord does, in His 
great love towards man. He casts him out 
from Paradise, for because of sin he was 
unworthy to live there ; but He puts him to 
dwell over against Paradise ' ,• that seeing 
whence he had fallen, and from what and into 
what a state he was brought down, he might 
afterwards be saved by repentance. Cain the 
first-born man became his brother's murderer, 
the inventor of evils, the first author of 
murders, and the first envious man. Yet 
after slaying his brother to what is he con- 
demned ? Groani7ig and trembling shall thou 
be upon the earth ^. How great the oft'^ence, the 
sentence how light ! 

8. Even this then was truly loving-kindness 
in God, but little as yet in comparison with 
what follows. For consider what happened 
in the days of Noe. The giants sinned, and 

7 Literally, "its old age" (to yijpas). Compare iii. 7, and 
Diet. Chr. Biogr., Jilacaritts, p. 770 a. 

8 Ps. xxxi. 20. 9 Ps. xxxii. 5. 

1 This is the reading of the Septuagint instead of— "He placed 
at the east of the garden of Eden." 

2 Gen. iv. 12 : "A fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be upon 
the earth. 



much wickedness was then spread over the 
earth, and because of this the flood was to 
come upon them : and in the five liundredth 
year God utters His threatening ; but in the 
six hundredth He brought the flood upon the 
earth. Seest thou the breadth of God's loving- 
kindness extending to a hundred years? Could 
He not have done immediately what He did 
then after the hundred vears ? But He ex- 
tended (the time) on purpose, granting a 
respite .or repentance. Seest thou God's 
goodness ? And if the men of that time had 
repented, they would not have missed the 
loving-kindness of God. 

9. Come with me now to the other class, 
those who were saved by repentance. But 
perhaps even among women some one will 
say, I have committed fornication, and adul- 
tery, I have defiled my body by excesses of all 
kinds : is there salvation for me? Turn thine 
eyes, O woman, upon Rahab, and look thou 
also for salvation; for if she who had been 
openly and publicly a harlot was saved by 
repentance, is not she who on some one 
occasion before receiving grace committed 
fornication to be saved by repentance and 
fasting? For inquire how she was saved : this 
only she said : For your God is God ifi heaven 
and upon earth 3 . Your God ; for her own she 
did not dare to say, because of her wanton 
life. And if you wish to receive Scriptural 
testimony of her having been saved, you have 
it written in the Psalms : I will make mention 
of Rahab and BabyloJi among them that knoiu 
me''. O the greatness of God's loving-kindness, 
making mention even of harlots in the Scrip- 
tures : nay, not simply I ^anll make mention of 
Rahab and Babylon, but with the addition, 
among them that know me. There is then in 
the case both of men and of women alike 
the salvation which is ushered in by repent- 

10. Nay more, if a whole people sin, this 
surpasses not the loving-kindness of God. 
The people made a calf, yet God ceased not 
from His loving-kindness. Men denied God, 
but God denied not Himself s. These be thy 
gods, O Israel'', they said : yet again, as He 
was wont, the God of Israel became their 
Saviour. And not only the people sinned, 
but also Aaron the High Priest. For it is 
Moses that says: And the anger of the Lord 
came upon Aaron : and I prayed for him, saith 
he, a7id God forgave him 7. VVliat then, did 
Moses praying for a High Priest that sinned 

3 Josh. 11. II. 

4 Ps. Ixxxvii. 4. " Rahab" is there a poetical name of Egypt, 
and the passage has notliinii to do with Raliab tlie harlot, "l lie 
Benedictine Editor rightly disregards S. Jerome's suggestion, that 
Rahab is, like Egypt, a type of the Gentile Cluirch. 

5 2 Tim. ii. 13. o jix. xxxii. 4. 7 Dcut. ix. 20. 

prevail with God, and shall not Jesus, His 
Only-begotten, prevail with God when He 
prays for us? And if He did not hinder 
Aaron, because of his offence, from entering 
upon the High Priesthood, will He hinder 
thee, who art come out from the Gentiles, 
from entering into salvation? Only, O man, 
repent thou also in like manner, and grace is 
not forbidden thee. Render thy way of life 
henceforth unblameable ; for God is truly 
loving unto man, nor can all time ^ worthily 
tell out His loving kindness ; nay, not if all 
the tongues of men unite together will they be 
able even so to declare any considerable part 
of His loving-kindness. For we tell some 
part of what is written concerning His loving- 
kindness to men, but how much He forgave 
the Angels we know not : for them also He 
forgives, since One alone is without sin, even 
Jesus who purgeth our sins. And of them 
we have said enough. 

1 1. But if concerning us men thou wilt have 
other examples also set before thee 9, come on 
to the blessed David, and take him for an ex- 
ample of repentance. Great as he was, he 
fell : after his sleep, walking in the eventide 
on the housetop, he cast a careless look, and 
felt a human passion. His sin was completed, 
but there died not with it his candour con- 
cerning the confession of his fault. Nathan 
the Prophet came, a swift accuser, and a 
healer of the wound. The Lord is ivroih, he 
says, and thou hast sinned '. So spake the sub- 
ject to the reigning king. But David the king ^ 
was not indignant, for he regarded not the 
speaker, but God who had sent him. He was 
not pufted up 3 by the array of soldiers standing 
round : for he had seen in thought the angel-host 
of the Lord, and he trembled as seeing Him ivho 
is invisible ^ ; and to the messenger, or r^^ther 
by him in answer to God who sent him, he said, 
/ have sinned against the Lord ^, Seest thou the 
humility of the king? Seest thou his confession? 
For had he been convicted bv anv one ? Were 
many privy to the matter ? The deed was 
quickly done, and straightway the Prophet 
appeared as accuser, and the offender con- 
fesses the fault. And because he candidly 
confessed, he received a most speedy cure. 
For Nathan the Prophet who had uttered the 
threat, said immediately. The Lord also haih 
put aivay thy sin. Thou seest the swift re- 
lenting of a merciful God. He says, however. 
Thou hast greatly provoked the enemies of the 

8 For "all time," the reading of the best MSS., the Benedic- 
tine text '' all mankind." 

9 The Benedictine has, " But if tho\i wilt I will set before 
thee other examples also of our stat.? Come on to the blessed 
Uaviil.'" I 2 Sam. xii. 

2 Bened. "The king, the wearer of the purple." 

3 Bened. "blinded." ■♦ Heb. xi. 27. 5 2 Sam. xii. 13. 


1 1 

Lord. Though thou hadst maffy enemies 
because of thy righteousness, thy self-control 
protected thee ; but now that thou hast surren- 
dered thy strongest armour, thine enemies are 
risen up, and stand ready against thee. 

12. Thus then did the Prophet comfort him, 
but the blessed David, for all he heard it said, 
The LORD hatliputmcay thy sin, did not cease 
from repentance, king though he was, but put 
on sackcloth instead of purple, and instead of 
a golden throne, he sat, a king, in ashes on 
the ground ; nay, not only sat in ashes, but 
also had ashes for his food, even as he saith 
himself, / hcjve eaten ashes as it ive?-e bfTad^. 
His lustful eye he wasted away witli tears, 
saying, livery nigJii will I wash my couch, and 
water my bed with my tears 7. When his officers 
besought him to eat bread he would not 
listen. He prolonged his fast unto seven 
whole days. If a king thus made confession, 
oughtest not thou, a private person, to confess ? 
Again, after Absalom's insurrection, though 
there were many roads for him to escape, he 
chose to flee by the Mount of Olives, in 
thought, as it were, invoking the Redeemer 
who was to go up thence into the heavens ^. 
And when Shimei cursed him bitterly, he said, 
L^et him alone, for he knew that "to him that 
forgiveth it shall be forgiven 9." 

13. Thou seest that it is good to make 
confession. Thou seest that there is salva- 
tion for them that repent. Solomon also fell : 
but what saith he? Afterwards L repented ^°. 
Ahab, too, the King of Samaria, became a 
most wicked idolater, an outrageous man, the 
murderer of the Prophets ", a stranger to godli- 
ness, a coveter of other men's fields and vine- 
yards. Yet when by Jezebel's means he had 
slain Naboth, and the Prophet Elias came and 
merely threatened him, he rent his garments, 
and put on sackcloth. And what saith the 
merciful God to Elias? Llast thou seen how 
Ahab is pricked in the heart before Me ^ ? as if 
almost He would persuade the fiery zeal of the 
Prophet to condescend to the penitent. For 
He saith, / will not bring the evil in his days. 
And though after this forgiveness he was sure 
not to dei)art from his wickedness, neverthe- 
less the forgiving God forgave him, not as 
being ignorant of the future, but as granting 
a forgiveness corresponding to his present 

S Ps. cii. 10. 

7 lb. vii. 7. 

2 Sam. xvi. lo, ii. 

i o. ^Li. Lyj. I Aij. vii. 7, " z oarn. xvi. lo, il. 

9 Resch. {AgraftJia, p. 137) (iiunes various forms of ihis SLiying 
from early writers, and reyarcis it as a fr;igment of an extra- 
canonical Gospel. But see LiLthtloot, C/em. Kom. c. xiii. 

" Prov. xxiv. 32, Sept. Heb. " Set my heart." The passage 
has no reference to repentance : it means, " I considered tlie 
field of the slothfnl." Hilary, Ps. Hi. ; Ambrose, Apolng. \, Pro- 
pjtrta: David, c. iii. and other Fathers affinn the repentance of 
Solomon. Augustine {c. p'aitslum. Lib. xxii. c. SS) niaintnins 
that Scripture says nutliing ot his repentance or forgiveness. See 
Uante, I'aradiso, Canto x, 109. 

» 1 I.ings xviii. 4. a lb. xxi. 29, 

season of repentance. For it is the part of a 
righteous judge to give sentence according to 
each case that has occurred. 

14. Again, Jeroboam was standing at the 
altar sacrificing to the idols : his hand became 
withered, because he commanded the Prophet 
who reproved him to be seized : but having 
by experience learned the power of the man 
before him, he says, Entreat the face of the 
Lord thy God^; and because of this saying his 
hand was restored again. If the Prophet 
healed Jeroboam, is Christ not able to heal 
and deliver thee from thy sins ? Manasses 
also was utterly wicked, who sawed Isaiah 
asunder 4, and was defiled with all kinds of 
idolatries, and filled ferusalem 7uith iftnocent 
blood^ ; but having been led'captive to Babylon 
he used his experience of misfortune for a 
healing course of repentance : for the Scripture 
saith that AJanasses humbled himself before the 
Lord, and prayed, and the Loi'd heard him, and 
brou'^ht him back to his kingdom. If He who 
sawed the Prophet asunder was saved by re- 
pentance, shalt not thou then, having done no 
such great wickedness, be saved ? 

15. Take heed lest without reason thou 
mistrust the power of repentance. Wouldst 
thou know what power repentance has ? 
AV'ouldst thou know the strong weapon of 
salvation, and learn what the force of confes- 
sion is? Hezekiah by means of confession 
routed a hundred and fourscore and five 
thousand of his enemies. A great thing verily 
was this, but still small in comparison with 
what remains to be told : the same king by 
repentance obtained the recall of a divine 
sentence which had ah-eady gone forth. For 
when he had fallen sick, Esaias said to him. 
Set thine house in order ; for thou shall die. and 
not live ^. What expectation remained, what 
hope of recovery, when the Prophet said, for 
thou shalt die? Yet Hezekiah did not desist 
from repentance ; but remembering what is 
written, IVhen thou shalt turn and lament, then 
shalt thou be savedT, he turned to the wall, and 
from his bed lifting his mind to heaven (for 
thickness of walls is no hindrance to prayers 
sent up with devotion), he said, " Remember 
me, O Lord, for it is sufficient for my healing 
that Thou remember me. Thou art not sub- 
ject to times, but art Thyself the giver of the 
law of life. For our life depends not on a 

3 1 Kings xiii. 6. 

4 Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Tryfiho, % 120, charges the 
Jews with having cut out a passage reterr...g to the death of 
Isaiah. Theophylact commenting on Heb. xi 37, says: "They 
were sawn asunder, as Isai.ih by Manasses : and they say that ne 
was sawn with a wooden saw, that his punishment might be the 
more painful to him from being prolonged." Jerome on Is. i. 10, 
says that he was slain because of his calling the Jews "princes of 
.Sodom and people of Gomorra." and because he said, "I saw the 
Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up." 

5 2 Chron. xxxiii. 12, 13. 6 3 Kings xx. i. 7 Is. xxx. 15. 



nativity, nor on a conjunction of stars, as some 
idly talk ; but both of life and its duration, 
Thou art Thyself the Lawgiver according to 
Thy Will." And he, who could not hope to 
live because of the prophetic sentence, had 
fifteen years added to his life, and for the sign 
the sun ran backward in his course Well 
then, for Ezekias' sake the sun turned back, 
but for Christ the sun was eclipsed, not re- 
tracing his steps, but suffering eclipse ^, and 
therefore shewing the diflerence between them, 
I mean between Ezekias and Jesus. The 
former prevailed to the cancelling of God's 
decree, and cannot Jesus grant remission of 
sins ? Turn and bewail thyself, shut thy door, 
and pray to be forgiven, pray that He may 
remove from thee the burning iiames. For 
confession has power to quench even fire, 
power to tame even lions 9. 

1 6. But if thou disbelieve, consider what 
befel Ananias and his companions. What 
streams did they pour out^? How many 
vessels 2 of water could quench the flame that 
rose up forty-nine cubits high 3 ? Nay, but 
where the flame mounted up a little* too high, 
faith was there poured out as a river, and there 
spake they the spell against all ills s : Righteous 
art Thou^ O Lord, in all the things that Thou 
hast done to us : for we have sinned, ajid tra?is- 
gressed Thy law ^. And their repentance quelled 
theflames?. Ifthou believestnotthatrepentance 
is able to quench the fire of hell, learn it from 
what happened in regard to Ananias^. But 
some keen hearer will say, Those men God 
rescued justly in that case : because they 
refused to commit idolatry, God gave them 
that power. And since this thought has 
occurred, I come next to a different example 
of penitence 9. 

17. What thinkest thou of Nabuchodonosor ? 

8 Isaiah xxxviii. 8. 

9 From this point the MSS. differ so widely that the Bene- 
dictine Editor gives two complete recensions of tlie whole Lecture, 
The Codd. Coislin, Ottob. 2, and Grodec, with the editions of 
Prevot and Milles, forming as it were one family of MSS., con- 
stitute the leceived text. On the other hand the older Munich 
Codex, with Codd. Roe and Casaubon, exhibit a recension of 
the Lecture differing from the editions. ReischI wishing to retain 
the received text unaltered, though preferring the other in par- 
ticular passages, intended to append the other recension complete, 
but having leit his work half finished, failed to do so. The chief 
variations are given in the following notes, 

» Roe and Casaubon (R. C.) add : " into the furnace of fire." 

" R. C. " What measure." 3 Song of the Three Children, 

V. 24. 4 R. C. "Much." 

5 R,C, "A great stream of repentance was poured forth, when 
they said, For Thou art righteous," iJc. 

*> Song of the Three Children, v. 4. 

7 R, C, " Did then repentance quench the flames of the furnace, 
and dost thou disbelieve that it is able also to quench the fire 
of hell?" 

8 The Gospel only says, " Tliere was darkness over all the 
land." An eclipse of the sun was impossible at tlie time of the 
Paschal full moon. 

9 R. C. " That the narrative is not appropriate to those who 
are here present. For it was because Ananias and his companions 
refused to worship the idol, that God gave them that marvellous 
power. Adapting myself, therefore, to such a liearer, and lo jking 
to the profusion ol instances, I come next to a dillercnt example of 

Hast thou not heard out of the Scriptures that 
he was bloodthirsty, fierce', lion-like in dis- 
position ? Hast thou not heard that he 
brought out the bones of the kings from their 
graves into the light ^ ? Hast thou not heard 3 
that he carried the peojjle away captive ? 
Hast thou not heard that he put out the eyes 
of the king, after he had already seen his 
children slain 4 ? Hast thou not heard that he 
brake in pieces s the Cherubim ? I do not 
mean the invisible^ beings ;— away with such a 
thought, O man 7, — but the sculptured images, 
and the mercy-seat, in the midst of which God 
spake with His voice ^. The veil of the Sanc- 
tuary 9 he trampled under foot: the altar of 
incense he took and carried away to an idol- 
temple ^ : all the offerings he took away : the 
Temple he burned from the foundations'^. How 
great punishments did he deserve, for slaying 
kings, for setting fire to the Sanctuary, foi 
taking the people captive, for setting the 
sacred vessels in the house of idols ? Did he 
not deserve ten thousand deaths? 

1 8. Thou hast seen the greatness of his evil 
deeds : come now to God's loving-kindness. 
He was turned into a wild beasts, he abode in 
the wilderness, he was scourged, that he might 
be saved. He had claws as a lion* ; for he was 
a ravager of the Sanctuary. He had a lion's 
mane : for he was a ravening and a roaring 
lion. He ate grass like an ox : for a brute 
beast he was, not knowing Him who had given 
him the kingdom. His body was wet from the 
dew ; because after seeing the fire quenched by 
the dew he believed nots. Andwhat happened^? 
After this, saith he, /, Nabuchodonosor, lijted up 

* R.C. " most impious, and most fierce in temper." 

2 Jer. viii, i ; Buruch ii. 25. 3 " Knowest thou not . . ." 
4 2 Kings XXV. 7. 5 R. C. "carried off." 

6 (■or;7<i. R, C. add "and heavenly." 7 Omitted by R. C. 

8 R C. " But those which had been constructed in the Temple, 
which were over the mercy-seat of the Ark." Besides the two 
Cherubim of solid gold which Moses placed on the two ends of the 
Mercy-seat (Ex. xxxvii. 7 ff.), Solomon set "within the oracle" 
two Cherubim of olive wood overlaid with gold, ten feet high 
with outstretched wings overshadowing the Ark(i Kings vi. 23 — 
26 ; viii, 6, 7). All these were either carried off or destroyed, 
when Nebuchadnezzar took away " all the treasures of the house 
of the Lord " and "cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which 
Solomon, King of Isr.ael, had made in the Temple of the Lord" 
(2 Kings xxiv. 13 : I Esdras i. 54 ; 2 Esdras x- 22). The Bene- 
dictine editor is concerned because Cyril has paid no attention 
to the strange fiction in 2 .Mai cabces ii. 4, that Jeremy the Prophet 
"commanded the Tabernacle and the Ark to go with him" to 
Mount Horeb, and there hid them, with the Altar of Incense, 
in a hollow cave, to remain "unknown until the time that God 
gathers His jieople again together." 

9 The Greek word rendered "Sanctuary" is t\ a.-^ii>i<rovr\, 
literally " the holiness," 

» 2 Chron. xxxvi. 7. 

* R. C. " The veil of the Sanctuary he tore down, he overturned 
the altar, and took all the vessels and caft'ied them away to an 
idol temple. The Temple itself he burned." 

3 R. C. Aftenvards he was turned into a wild beast: "he 
who was like .a wild beast and most cruel in diNpo>ilion ; but 
he was turned into a wild beast, not that he might perish, but that 
by rejjentance he might be saved," 

4 R. C. " of birds." See Dan, iv, 33. 

5 R, C. " after the midst of the lurnace had become to Ananias 
and his comjianions as the tinkling breath of rain, he saw and 
believed not." 

6 R. C. " But afterwards he came to his senses and repented, 
as he says himself." 



mine eyes unto heaven, and I blessed the Most 
High, and to Him thai liveth for ever I gave 
praise and glory t. When, therefore, he recog- 
nised the Most High 8, and sent up these words 
of thankfulness to God, and repented himself for 
what he had done, and recognised his own 
weakness, then God gave back to him the 
honour of the kingdom. 

19. What then 9? When Nabuchodonosor, 
after having done such deeds, had made con- 
fession, did God give him pardon and the 
kingdom, and when thou repentest shall He 

7 Dan. iv. 34. 

8 R. C. '■ And after he had been scourged many years, he gave 
praise to Him that liveth for ever, and acknowledged Him that had 
given him the i<ingdom, and recognised the King of kings. And 
though he had often sinned in deeds, on making confession only in 
words, he received the benefit o) God's unspeakable loving-kindness. 
He who was of all men most wicked, by the Divine judgment and 
loving-kindness oi God who chastised him, crowned himself again 
with the royal diadem, and recovered his imperial throne." 

9 R. C. " If then there is present among you any from among the 
Heathen who has ever spoken evil against Christians, or in times 
of persecution plotted against the Holy Churches, let him take 
Nabuchodonosor as an example of salvation : let him confess in 
like manner, that he may also find the like forgiveness. If any 
has been defiled by lust and passions, let him take up the repent- 
ance of the blessed David : if any has denied like Peter, let him 
die like him for the sake of the Lord Jesus. For He who to 
his tears begrudged not the Apostleship, will not refuse thee 
the gospel mysteries. And for women let Rahab be a pattern 
unto salvation, and for men the manifold examples mentioned 
of the men of old times. 

not give thee the remission of sins, and the 
kingdom of heaven, if thou live a worthy life ? 
The Lord is loving unto man, and swift to 
pardon, but slow to punish. Let no man 
therefore despair of his own salvation. Peter, 
the chiefest and foremost of the Apostles, 
denied the Lord thrice before a little maid : 
but he repented himself, and wept bitterly. 
Now weeping shews the repentance of the 
heart : and therefore he not only received 
forgiveness for his denial, but also held his 
Apostolic dignity unforfeited. 

20. Having therefore, brethren, many ex- 
amples of those who have sinned and repented 
and been saverl, do ye also heartily make con- 
fession unto the Lord, that ye may both 
receive the forgiveness of your former sins, and 
be counted worthy of tlie hea\enly gift, and 
inherit the heavenly kingdom with all the 
saints in Christ Jesus ; to Whom is the glory 
for ever and ever. Amen ^ 

« R.C. "Andbeye all of good hope, having regard to the loving- 
kindness of God ; not that we may fall back into the same sins, 
but that having had the benefit ol redemption, and lived in a 
manner worthy of His grace, we n)ay be able to blot out the hand- 
writing that is against us l)y good works ; in the power of the 
Only-begotten, the Son of God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, with 
whom be glory to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, both now and 
ever, and unto all the ages of eternity. Amen." 


On Baptism. 

Romans vi. 3, 4. 
Or knciv ye not thtt all we who wsre baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized info His deathl 
were buried therefore with Him by our baptism irtto deaths d^c. 

1 . Rejoice^ ye heavens, and let the earth be glad ', 
for those who are to be sprinkled with hyssop, 
and cleansed with the spiritual^ hyssop, the 
power of Him to whom at His Passion drink 
was offered on hyssop and a reed 3. And while 
ihe Heavenly Powers rejoice, let the souls that 
are to be united to the spiritual Bridegroom 
make themselves ready. For the voice is heard 
of one crying in the wildertiess, Prefiare ye the 
ivay of the Lord^. For this is no light matter, 
no ordinary and indiscriminate union accord- 
ing to the flesh 5, but the All-searching Spirit's 
election according to faith. For the inter- 
marriages and contracts of the world are not 
made altogether with judgment: but wherever 
there is wealth or beauty, there the bridegroom 
speedily approves : but here it is not beauty of 
])erson, but the soul's clear conscience ; not 
the condemned Mammon, but the wealth of the 
soul in godliness. 

2. Listen then, O ye children of righteous- 
ness, to John's exhortation when he says. Make 
straight the way of the Lord. Take away all 
obstacles and stumbling-blocks, that ye may 
walk straight onward to eternal life. Make 
ready the vessels^ of the soul, cleansed by un- 
feigned iaith, for reception of the Holy Ghost. 
Begin at once to wash your robes in repentance, 
that when called to the bride-chamber ye may 
be found clean. For the Bridegroom invites 
all without distinction, because His grace is 
bounteous ; and the cry of loud-voiced heralds 
assembles them all : but the same Bridegroom 
afterwards separates those who have come 
in to the figurative marriage. O may none 
of those whose names have now been en- 
rolled hear the words. Friend, hoiv earnest 

thou iti hither, not 





' Ps. xcvi. II. 

» The invisible or (lorjrdi) hyssop is the cleansing 
power of the Holy Gliost in llaptisni. ComiKirc Ps. li. 7. 

3 S Cyiil here, and still moie empliaticnlly in ,\iii. 39, dis- 
tinguishes the hyssop (Jolin xix. 29) from the ieJcl(.Mart.x.\vii. 48), 
irnplying that tlu: sponge fillcj with vinegar was Ijound roinni 
with hyssop, and then fixed on a reed. Another opinion is tliat 
the reed itself was that of hyssop. See Dictionary of the Uible, 
" Hyssop." 4 Js. xl. 3. 5 trw/iia.Tioi'. 

'^ So in 8 15, the soul is regarded as a vessel lor receiving grace. 

vient 7 ? But may you all hear. Well done, good 
and faithful servant ; thou faithful over 
a few things, I will set thee over many ihifigs : 
enter thou into the joy of thy lord^. 

For now meanwhile thou standest outside 
the door : but God grant that you all may say, 
The King hath brought 7ne into His chamber 9, 
Let my soul rejoice in the Lord : for He hath 
clot.-ed me with a garment of salvation, and 
a robe of gladness : He hath crowned me with 
a garland as a bridegroom ', and decked me with 
ornaments as a bride : that the soul of every one 
of you may be found not having spot or wrinkle 
or any such tiling'^ ; I do not mean before you 
have received the grace, for how could that be ? 
since it is for remission of sins that ye have 
been called ; but that, when the grace is to be 
given, yourconscience being found uncondemned 
may concur with the grace. 

3. This is in truth a serious matter, brethren, 
and you must approach it with good heed. Each 
one of you is about to be presented to CJod be- 
fore tens of thousands of the Angelic Hosts : 
the Holy Ghost is about to seal 3 your souls : ye 
are to be enrolled in the army of the Great 
King. Therefore make you ready, and equip 
yourselves, by putting on I mean, not bright 
appareH, but piety of soul with a good 
conscience. Regard not the Laver as simple 
water, but rather regard the spiritual grace 
tliat is given with the water. For just as 
the offerings brought to the heaihen altars s, 
though simple in their nature, become clefilecl 
by the invocation of the idols ^, so contrariwise 

7 Matt. xxii. 12. 8 Matt. xxv. 12. 9 Cant. i. 4. 

' Is. l.\i. n. Compare Cant. iii. ir : Go forth, O ye daughters 
flfZion and behold King; So/01/ioit, with the crown ivherewith his 
mother hath crowned liiin in the day 0/ his es/>0!tsals. In the 
psssage of Isaiuli the bridegiojni's crown is liUencd to tlie priestly 
mitre. a Eph. v. 7. 

3 See Index, "Seal." 4 Index, ''White." 

5 Puiixol^ ii.scd of heathen altars only, in Septnagint and'N.T. 

* Ijoth here and ni xix. 7, Cyril speaks of tilings offcied to 
idols jnst as S. Paul in i Cor, x. 20. The Benediction of the water 
of Baptism is found in the A/'Ostolic Constitutions vii. 43 : '' Look 
down from heaven, and .sanctiiy this water, and give it grace and 
power, tliat so he that is to he Ijaptized accuidiiig to the command 
ol Thy Oirist. may be crucified with Him, ami may die with Him, 
and he buried with Him and may rise with Him to the adoption 
wliich is in Him, that he may be dead to sin and live to righteous- 



the simple water having received the invoca- 
tioji of the Holy Ghost, and of Christ, and of 
the Father, acquires a new power of holiness. 

4. For since man is of twofold nature, 
soul and body, the purification also is two- 
fold, the one incorporeal for the incorporeal 
part, and the other bodily for the body : the 
water cleanses the body, and the Spirit seals 
the soul ; that we may draw near unto God, 
having onr heart sprinkled by the Spirit, and our 
body washed with pure 7vaterT. When going 
down, therefore, into the water, think not of the 
bare element, but look for salvation by the 
power of the Holy Ghost : for without both 
thou canst not possibly be made perfect ^. It 
is not I that say this, but the Lord Jesus 
Christ, who has the power in this matter : 
for He saith, Except a man be born anew (and 
He adds the words) of water and of the Spirit, 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of God^. N either 
doth he that is baptized with water, but not 
found worthy of the Spirit, receive the grace in 
perfection ; nor if a man be virtuous in his 
deeds, but receive not the seal by water, shall 
he enter into the kingdom of heaven. A bold 
saying, but not mine, for it is Jesus who hath 
declared it : and here is the proof of the state- 
ment from Holy Scripture. Cornelius was 
a just man, who was honoured with a vision of 
Angels, and had set up his prayers and alms- 
deeds as a good memorial ' before God in 
heaven. Peter came, and the Spirit was 
poured out upon them that believed, and they 
spake with other tongues, and prophesied : and 
after the grace of the Spirit the Scripture saith 
that Peter coinmatided them to be baptized in the 
name of Jesus Christ^: in order that, the soul 
having been born again by faith 3^ the body 
also might by the water partake of the grace. 

5. But if any one wishes to know why the 
grace is given by water and not by a different 
element, let him take up the Divine Scrii>tures 
and he shall learn. For water is a grand thing, 
and the noblest of the four visible elements of 
the world. Heaven is the dwelling-place of 
Angels, but the heavens are from tlie waters'*: 
the earth is the place of men, but the earth is 
from the waters : and before the whole six days' 
formation of the things that were made, the 
Spirit of God moved upon the face of the ivafer^. 
The water was the beginning of the world, 

7 Heb. X. 22. 

8 See tlie note on " the twofold grace perfected by water and 
the Spirit, '■ at the end of this Lecture. _ 9 John iii. 3. 

' (rn)Aij, Sept. A pillar of stone, bearing an inscription, was 
a common form of memorial among the Israelites and other ancient 
nations. See Dictionary of the Bible, " Pillar." 

2 Acts .X. 48. 

3 S. Cyril considers that Cornelius and his friends were regene- 
rated, as the Apostles were, apart from Baptism ; as August. 
Seriii. 269, K. 2, and Chrysost. in Act. Apost. Horn. 25, seem to 
do. R. W. C. 

4 Compare ix. 5. 5 Gen. i. a. 

and Jordan the beginning of the Gospel tid- 
ings : for Israel deliverance from Pharaoh was 
through the sea, and for the world deliverance 
from sins by the ivashing of water with the word^ 
of God. Where a covenant is made with any, 
there is water also. After the flood, a cove- 
nant was made with Noah : a covenant for 
Israel from Mount Sinai, but ^vith ivater, and 
scarlet 7vooi, and hyssopT. Elias is taken up, 
but not apart from water : for first he crosses 
the Jordan, then in a chariot mounts -the 
heaven. The high-priest is first washed, 
then offers incense; for Aaron first washed, 
then was made high-priest : for how could 
one who had not yet been purified by water 
pray for the rest? Also as a symbol of Bap- 
tism there was a laver set apart within the 

6. Baptism is the end of the Old Testament, 
and beginning of the New. For its author 
was John, than whom was tione greater amonk^ 
tliem that are born of women. The end he was 
of the Prophets : for all the Prophets and the 
law were tintil JoJui ^: but of the Gospel history 
he was the first-fruit. For it saith, The begin- 
ning of the Gospel of Jestis Christ, &c. : 
John came baptizing in the wilderness'^. You 
may mention Ehas the Tishbite who was taken 
up into heaven, yet he is not greater than 
John : Enoch was translated, but he is not 
greater than John : Moses was a very great 
lawgiver, and all the Prophets were admirable, 
but not greater than John. It is not I that 
dare to compare Prophets with Prophets : but 
their Master and ours, the Lord Jesus, declared 
it : Among them that are born op women there 
hath not risen a greater than John '^ : He saith 
not " among them that are born oi virgins," but 
of women'^. The comparison is between the 
great servant and his fellow-servants : but the 
pre-eminence and the grace of the Son is 
beyond comparison with servants. Seest thou 
how great a man God chose as the first 
minister of this grace? — a nian possessing 
nothing, and a lover of the desert, yet no 
hater of mankind : who ate locusts, and winged 
his soul for heaven 3; feeding upon honey, and 
speaking things both sweeter and more salutary 
than honey : clothed with a garment of camel's 
hair, and shewing in himself the pattern of 
the ascetic life ; who also was sanctified by 
the Holy Ghost while yet he was carried in his 
mother's womb. Jeremiah was sanctified, but 

6 Ephes. V. 26. 7 Heb. ix. 19. 8 Matt. xi. 13. 

9 Mark i. i, 4. ' Matt. xi. 11. 

2 From the Clementine Recognitions, I. 54 and 60, we learn 
that there were some who asserted that John was the Christ, and 
not Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was 
greater than all men. and all Prophets. The answer is there given, 
That Jolin was greater than all who are born of women, yet not 
greater than the Son of Man. 

3 The locust being winged suggests the idea of growing wings 
for the soul. Is. xl 31 ; ■aitpo^Mnaovauv us a^roi. 



did not prophesy, in the womb*: John alone 
while carried in the womb leaped for joys, and 
though he saw not with the eyes of flesh, knew 
his Master by the Spirit: for since the grace 
of Baptism was great, it required greatness in 
its founder also. 

7. This man was baptizing in Jordan, and 
there went out unto him all Jerusalem ^, to enjoy 
the fiist-fruits of baptisms : for in Jerusalem 
is the prerogative of all things good. But 
learn, O ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, how they 
that came out were baptized by him . confess- 
ing their sins, it is said 7. First they shewed 
their wounds, then he applied the remedies, 
and to them that believed gave redemption 
from eternal fire. And if thou wilt be con- 
vinced of this very point, that the baptism of 
John is a redemption from the threat of the 
fire, hear how he says, O generation of vipers, 
who hath warned yon to flee jrom the wrath to 
come'^1 Be not then henceforth a \'iper, but as 
thou hast been formerly a viper's brood, put 
off, saith he, the slough 9 of thy former sinful 
life. For every serpent creeps into a hole and 
casts its old slough, and having rubbed off the 
old skin, grows young again in body. In like 

. manner enter thou also through the strait and 
narrow gate'^ : rub off thy former self by fasting, 
and drive out that which is destroying thee. 
Put off the old man with his doings ^, and quote 
that saying in the Canticles, I have put off my 
coat, hotv shall I put it on 3? 

But there is perhaps among you some hypo- 
crite, a njan-p!easer, and one who makes a 
pretejice of piety, but believes not from the 
heart ; having the hypocrisy of Simon Magus ; 
one who has come hither not in order to 
receive of the grace, but *to spy out what is 
given : let him also learn from John : And 
noiv also the axe is laid tint the root of the trees, 
Every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good 
fruit is hewn down, and cast i?i/o the fire'^. 
The Judge is inexorable ; put away thine 

8. V.'hat then must you do ? And what are 
the fruits of repentance % Let him that hath 
t7vo coats give to him that hath noiie^ : the 
teacher was worthy of credit, since he was also 
the first to practise what he taught : he was 
not ashamed to speak, for conscience hindered 
not his tongue : and he that halh meat, let 
him do likewise. W'ouldst thou enjoy the grace 
of the Holy Spirit, yet judgest the poor not 

4 Jer. i. s. 5 Luke i. 44. * Matt. iii. 5. 

7 Matt. iii. 6. 8 H,. iii. 7. 

9 The Cireek word (viTroarao'is) is used by Polybiiis (xxxiv. q) 
for the deposit of silver irom crushed ore, and liy J lipijocrate-. for 
any sediment or deposit Here it means, as the context clearly 
shews, the old skin cast by a snake. Conripa-e ii. 5. 

' Matt. vii. 13, 14. 2 Col. iii. 9. 

3 Cant. V. 3. In the Song, this saying is an excuse for not 
rising Irom bed. S. Cyril applies it in a dilferent way. 

4 Matt. iii. 10. 5 Luke iii. 11. 

worthy of bodily food ? Seekest thou the 
great gifts, and impartest not of the small ? 
Though thou be a publican, or a fornicator, 
have hope of salvation : the publicans and 
the harlots go into the kingdo7?i of God before 
you ^. Paul also is witness, saying, Neither 
fornicators, nor adulterers, nor the rest, shall 
inherit the kingdom of God. And such were 
some of you : but ye were washed, hit ye 
were sanctified''. He said not, such are some of 
you, but such were sotne of you. Sin committed 
in the state of ignorance is pardoned, but 
persistent wickedness is condemned. 

9. Thou hast as the glory of Baptism the 
Son Himself, the Only-begotten of God. For 
why should I speak any more of man ? John 
was great, but what is he to the Lord ? His 
was a loud-sounding voice, but what in com- 
parison with the Word? Very noble was the 
herald, but what in comparison with the 
King ? Noble was he that baptized with 
water, but what to Him that baptizeth 7vith 
the Holy Ghost and with fire ^ ? The Saviour 
baptized the Apostles with the Holy Ghost 
and with fire, when suddenly there came a sound 
from heaven as of the rushing of a mighty wind, 
and it filled all the house where they were 
sitting. And there appealed utito them clovcfi 
tongues like as of fire: and it sat upon each one 
of them, and they were all filled with the Holy 
Ghost 9. 

10. If any man receive not Baptism, he hath 
not salvation ; except only Martyrs, who' even 
without the water receive the kingdom. For 
when the Saviour, in redeeming the world by 
His Cross, was pierced in the side, He shed 
forth blood and water ; that men, living in 
times of peace, might be baptized in water, 
and, in times of persecution, in their own 
blood. For martyrdom also the Saviour is 
wont to call a baptism, saying, Can ye drink 
the cup which I drink, and be baptized with the 
baptism that I am baptized with ' ? And the 
M artyrs confess, by being made a spectacle unto 
the world, and to Angels, and to mc?i ^; and thou 
wilt soon confess : — but it is not yet the time 
for thee to hear of this. 

11. Jesus sanctified Baptism by being Him- 
self baptized. If the Son of God was baptized, 
what godly man is he that despiseth Baptism ? 
But He was baptized not that He might 
receive remission of sins, for He was sinless; 
but being sinless. He was baptized, that He 
might give to them that are baptized a divine 
antl excellent grace. For since the children are 
partakers of flesh and blood. He also Himself 
likavise partook of the same'i, that having been 

6 Matt. xxi. 31. 
9 Acts ii. 2 

7 I Cor. vi. 9, 10. 
I M.irk X. 38. 
3 Heb. ii. 14. 

8 Matt. iii. 11. 
I Cor. iv. 9. 



made partakers of His presence in the flesh, 
we might be made partakers also of His Divine 
grace : thus Jesus was baptized, that thereby 
we again by our participation might receive 
both salvation and honour. According to 
Job, there was in tae waters the dragon that 
draiae'/i up Jordan into his mouth *. Since, 
therefore, it was necessary to bre:ik the heads of 
the drciiron in pieces 5, He went down and bound 
the strong one in the waters, that we might 
receive power to tread upon serpents and 
scorpions^. The beast was great and terrible. 
No fishing-vessel tvas able to carry one scale of 
his tail^ : destruction ran before hmi ^, ravaging 
all that met him. The Life encountered him, 
that the mouth of Death might henceforth be 
stopped, and all we that are saved might say, O 
deaths where is thy sting 'I O grave, where is thy 
victory 9 / The sting of death is drawn by 

12. For thou goest down into the water, 
bearing thy sins, but the invocation of grace % 
having sealed thy soul, suffereth thee not after- 
wards to be swallowed up by the terrible 
dragon. Having gone down dead in sins, thou 
comest up quickened in rigiiteousness. For if 
thou hast been united with the likeness of the 
Saviour's death ^, thou shalt also be deemed 
worthy of His Resurrection. For as Jesus 
took upon Him the sins of the world, and died, 
that by putting sin to death He might rise 
again in righteousness ; so thou by going 
down into the water, and being in a manner 
buried in the waters, as He was in the rock, 
art raised again walking in newness of life 'i. 

13. Moreover, when thou hast been deemed 
worthy of the grace. He then giveth thee 
strength to wrestle against the adverse powers. 
For as after His Baptism He was tempted forty 
days (not that He was unable to gain the 
victory before, but because He wished to do 
all things in due order and succession), so 
thou likewise, though not daring before thy 
baptism to wrestle with the adversaries, yet 
after thou hast received the grace and art 
henceforth confident in the armour of righteous- 
ness^, must then do battle, and preach the 
Gospel, if thou wilt. 

14. Jesus Christ was the Son of God, yet 
He preached not the Gospel before His Bap- 
tism. If the Master Himself followed the right 
time in due order, ought we, His servants, to 

•♦ Job xl. 23. S Ps. Ixxiv. 14. fi Luke x. 19. 

7 Job xl. 26. in the Sept. in place of xli. 7: Canst thou fill his 
skin witli barbed irons, or his head with fish spears? (A.V. and 

8 Job xli. 13, Sept. but in R.V. xli. 22 : And terror danceth 
before him. 9 i Cor. xv. 55. 

' Compare III. 3, and see Index, " Baptism." ^ Rom. vi. 5. 

3 Rom. vi. 4. Iii--tead of " mi'jht rise again " (Roe. Casaub. 
Mon.), the older Editions have "might raise thee up," which 
is less appropriate in this part of the sentence. 

4 2 Cor. vi. 7. 

venture out of order? From that time Jesus 
began to preach 5, when the Holy Spirit had de- 
scended upon Him in a bodily shape, like a dove^ ; 
not that Jesus might see Him first, for He 
knew Him even before He came in a bodily 
shape, but that John, who was baptizing Him, 
might behold Him. For /, saith he, kneiv 
Him not : but He that sent me to baptize with 
watc; , He said unto me. Upon ivhomsoever thou 
shalt see the St)irit descetiding and abidi?tg on 
Him, that is HeT. If thou too hast unfeigned 
piety, the Holy Ghost cometh down on thee 
also, and a Father's voice sounds over thee 
from on high — not, " This is Afy Son,'^ but, 
'•This has now been made My son ; " for the 
"«" belongs to Him alone, because In the 
bennnino tuas the Word, and the IVord was 
7i.iiih Gi'd, and the Word was God^. To Him 
belongs the " is,''' since He is always the Son 
of God : but to thee " has now been made :" 
since thou hast not the sonship by nature, but 
receivest it by adoption. He eternally "u;" 
but thou receivest the grace by advancement. 

15. Make ready then the vessel of thy soul, 
that thou mayest become a son of God, and 
an heir of God, and joint-heir with Christ 9; if, 
indeed, thou art preparing thyself that thou 
mayest receive ; if thou art drawing nigh in 
faith that thou mayest be made faitnful ; if of 
set purpose thou art putting off the old man. 
For all things whatsoever thou hast done shall 
be forgiven thee, whether it be fornication, or 
adultery, or any other such form of licentious- 
ness. What can be a greater sin than to 
crucify Christ ? Yet even of this Baptism can 
purify. For so spake Peter to the three thou- 
sand who came to him, to those who had 
crucified the Lord, when they asked him, say- 
ing. Men and brethren, ivhat shall we do ' ? 
For the wound is great. Thou hast made us 
think of our fall, O Peter, by saying, Ye killed 
the Prince of Life ^ What salve is there for so 
great a wound ? What cleansing for such 
foulness ? What is the salvation for such per- 
dition ? Repent, saith he, and be baptized every 
one of you in the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, 
for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the 
gift of the Holy Ghosts. O unspeakable 
loving-kindness of God ! They have no hope 
of being saved, and yet they are thought worthy 
of the Holy Ghost. Thou seest the power of 
Baptism ! If any of you has crucified the 
Christ by blasphemous words ; if any of you 
in ignorance has denied Him before men ; if 
any by wicked works has caused the doctrine 
to be blasphemed ; let him repent and be of 
good hope, for the same grace is present even 

S Matt. iv. 17. 6 Luke ill. 2a. 7 John i. 33. 8 lb. i. r, 
9 Rom. viii. 17. » Acts ii. 37. * lb. iii. 15. 3 lb. ii. 58. 





1 6. Be of good courage, O Jerusalem; the 
Lord will take away all thine iniquities *. The 
Lord will wash atvay the filth of LLis sons and 
of LLis daughters by the Spirit of judgment^ and 
by the Spirit of burning s. LLe will sprinkle clean 
7vater upon you, and ye shall be cleansed from all 
jour sin ^. Angels shall dance around you, and 
say, IVho is this that cometh up in white array, 
leaning upon her beloved t ? For the soul that 
was formerly a slave has now adopted her 
Master Himself as her kinsman : and He ac- 
cepting the unfeigned purpose will answer : 
Behold, thou art fair, my love ; behold, thou art 
fair : thy teeth are like flocks of sheep new shorn, 
(because of the confession of a good con- 
science : and further) which have all of them 
twins ^ ; because of the twofold grace, I mean 

4 Zeph. iii. 14, 15. 5 Is. iv. 4. 6 Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 

7 Cant. viii. 5, Gr. dSeA<^i6d>', " brother," " kinsman." 

8 lb. iv. I, 2. 

that which is perfected of water and of the 
Spirit 9, or that which is announced by the Old 
and by the New Testament. And God grant 
that all of you when you have finished the 
course of the fast, may remember what I say, 
and bringing forth fruit in good works, may 
stand blameless beside the Spiritual Bride- 
groom, and obtain the remission of your sins 
from God ; to whom with the Son and Holy 
Spirit be the glory for ever. Amen. 

9 The Fathers sometimes speak as if Baptism was primarily the 
Sacrament of remission of sins, and upon that came the gift of the 
Spirit, which notwithstanding was but begun in Baptism and com- 
pleted in Confirmation. Vid. Tertullian. de Bapt. 7, 8, supr. i. s 
Jin. Hence, as in the text, Baptism may be said to be macie up of 
two gifts. Water, which is Christ s blood, and the Spirit. There is 
no real difference between this and the ordinary way of speaking 
on the subject ; — Water, which conveys both gifts, is considered as 
a type of one especially, — conveys both remission of sins through 
Christ's blood and the grace of the Spirit, but is the type of one, 
viz. the blood of Christ, as the Oil in Confirmation is of the other 
And again, remission of sins is a complete gift given at once, sanc- 
tification an increasing one. (R. W. C.) See Index, " Baptism." 


On thk Ten' points of Doctrine. 


Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of 

men, after the rudiments of the world, ^'c. 

1. Vice mimics virtue, and the tares strive 
to be thought wheat, growing like the wheat 
in appearance, but being detected by good 
judges from the taste. The devil also trans- 
figures himself into an angel of li;fit '^ ; not that 

he may reascend to where he was, for having 
made his heart hard as an anvil "^^ he has 
henceforth a will that cannot repent ; but in 
order that he may envelope those who are 
living an Angelic life in a mist of blindness, 
and a pestilent condition of unbelief. Many 
wolves are going about i7i sheeps' clothitrg 4, 
their clothing being that of sheep, not so their 
claws and teeth : but clad in their' soft skin, 
and deceiving the innocent by their appear- 
ance, they shed upon them from their fangs 
the destructive poison of ungodliness. We 
have need therefore of divine grace, and of a 
sober mind, and of eyes that see, lest from eat- 
ing tares as wheat we suffer harm from ignor- 
ance, and lest from taking the wolf to be 
a sheep we become his prey, and from suppos- 
ing the destroying Devil to be a beneficent 
Angel we be devoured : for, as the Scripture 
saith, he goeth about as a roaring lion, seeking 
whotn he may devour^. This is the cause of 
the Church's admonitions, the cause of the 
present instructions, and of the lessons which 
are read. 

2. For the method of godliness consists of 
these two things, pious doctrines, and virtuous 
practice : and neitb-^r are the doctrines accept- 
able to God apart from good works, nor does 

1 The number " ten" is confirmed by Theodoret, who quotes 
the article on Christ's ' Birth of the Virgin" as from Cyril's fourth 
Catechetical Lecture '' On the ten Doctrines." The MSS. v.iry 
between ''ten" and ''eleven," and ditier also in the special titles 
and numeration of the separate Articles. 

2 2 Cor. .\i. 14. 

3 Job xli. 24, Sept. ; xli. 15 : 17 KapSia avrov . . e<rTriKev Sxritep 
aK/onoi/ oi/ijAaTOS. These statements concerning the Devil seem to 
be directed against Ori^en's opinion {De Principiis I. 2), that the 
Angels "who have been re.noved from their primal stateof blessed- 
ness have not been removed irrecoverably." The question is 
d scussed, and the opinions of several P'athers quoted, by Huet, 
Origeniana, II. c. 25. 

4 Matt. vii. 15. The same text is applied to Heretics by 
Ignatius, Philndelph. ii., and by Irenaeus, L. I. c. i. § 2. 

5 I Pet. V. 8. 

God accept the works which are not perfected 
with pious doctrines. For what profit is it, 
to know well the doctrines concerning God, 
and yet to be a vile fornicator? And again, 
what profit is it, to be nobly temperate, and 
an impious blasphemer? A most precious 
possession therefore is the knowledge of doc- 
trines : also there is need of a wakeful soul, 
since there are many that make spoil through 
philosophy and vain deceit^. The Greeks on 
the one hand draw men away by their smooth 
tongue, for honey droppethfrom a harlofs lips i : 
whereas they of the Circumcision deceive those 
who come to them by means of the Divine 
Scriptures, which they miserably misinterpret 
though studying them from childhood to oil age ^, 
and growing old in ignorance. But the chil- 
! dren of heretics, by their good words and 
\ smooth tongue, deceive the hearts of the innocejit 9, 
j disguising with the name of Christ as it were 
with honey the poisoned arrows '° of their im- 
I pious doctrines : concerning all of whom to- 
Igether the Lord saith, Take heed lest any 
man mislead you '. This is the reason for the 
' teaching of the Creetl and for expositions 
upon it. 

3. But before delivering you over to the 
Creed ^, I think it is well to make use at present 
of a short summary of necessary doctrines ; 
that the multitude of things to be spoken, and 
the long interval of the days of all this holy 
Lent, may not cause forgetfulness in the mind 
of the more simple among you ; but that, 
having strewn some seeds now in a summary 
way, we may not forget the same when after- 
wards more widely tilled. But let those here 
present whose habit of mind is mature, and 

6 Col. ii. 8. 7 Prov. v. 3. 

8 Is. xlvi. 3. Sept. TratSeuo/xei'ot ex n-atSiou iiji<i yrjpb}^, 

9 Rom. xvi. 17. Cyril has euyAoiTTias in place of euAoyi'a?. 

10 Compare Ignatius, Trail, vi. ' M.Ttt. xxiv. 4. 
* Compare Rom. vi. 17: " that form 0/ teaching wkeieunto 

ye were delivered'' The instruction of Catechimiens in the Arti- 
cles of the Faith was commonly called the " Traditio Symboli," 
or " Delivery of the Creed." 

C 2 



who have their senses already exercised to discern 
good atid evil^, endure patiently to listen to 
things fitted rather for children, and to an in- 
troductory course, as it were, of milk : that at 
the same time both those who have need of the 
instruction may be benefited, and those who 
have the knowledge may rekindle the remem- 
brance of things which they already know. 

L Of God. 

4. First then let there be laid as a founda- 
tion in your soul the doctrine concerning God; 
that God is One, alone unbegotten, without be- 
ginning, change, or variation'*; neither begotten 
of another, nor having another to succeed Him 
in His life ; who neither began to live in time, 
nor endeth ever : and that He is both good and 
just ; that if ever thou hear a heretic say, that 
there is one God who is just, and another who 
is goo 1 5, thou mayest immediately remember, 
and discern the poisoned arrow of heresy. For 
some have impiously dared to divide the One 
God in their teaching: and some have said 
that one is the Creator and Lord of the soul, 
and another of the body ^ : a doctrine at once 
absurd and impious. For how can a man 
become the one servant of two masters, when 
our Lord says in the Gospels, No man can 
serve two mastersT 1 There is then One Only 
God, the Maker both of souls and bodies : 
One the Creator of heaven and earth, the 
Maker of Angels and Archangels : of many 
the Creator, but of One only the Father before 
all ages, — of One only, His Only-begotten 
.Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom He 
made all things visible a7id invisible ^. 

5. This Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is 
not circumscribed in any placed, nor is He less 
than the heaven ; but the heavens are the works 
of His fingers ^°, and the whole earth is held in 
His grasp " .• He is in all things and around all. 
Think not that the sun is brighter than He ', or 

3 Heb. V. 14. 

4 Compare Hermn<:, Mandnt. i. Athan. E/ist. de Decreiis 
Nic. Syn. xxii. : oiiruj Kal to drpeTTTOi/ (cal ui/oAAot'wToi' auToi' 
Avoj. <r<o9i)<r€Tai. So Aristotle {Metrt/>/iys. XI. c iv. 13) de- 
scribes the First Cause as on-a^c? koX avaWoCuirov. 

5 Irenseus, I. c. xxvii. says that Cerdo taught that the God 
of the Law and the Prophets was not the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ : (or that He is known, but the other unknown, and 
the one is just, but the other good. Also IlL c. 25, § 3 : "' Marcion 
himself, therefore, by dividing (!od into two, and calling the one 
good, and the other judicial, on both sides puts an end to Deity." 
Compare Tertullian, c. Marcion. \. 2, and 6; Origen, c. Cels. 
iv. 54. 

o This tenet was held by the Manichaeans and other heretics, 
and is traced back to the A|)Ostolic age by I'.'shop Pearson {Ex- 
position of the Creed, Art. i. p. 79, note c). Cumpaie Atlianasius 
ic. Apollinarium, L 21 ; II. 8 ; c. Gentcs, ^ 6; de Incaruattone, 
8 2, in this series, and Augustine (f. Faitstuin, xx. 15, 21, and 
xxi. 4). 

7 Matt. vi. 24 ; Luke xvi. 13. ^ John i. 3 ; Col. i. 16. 

9 S. Auj. in Vs. Ixxv. 6 : Si in aliquo loco e~set, non csset Deus. 
Sermo 312: Duus habitando continct non continetur. Origen, 
c. Cels. vii. 34 : •' God is of too excellent a nature for any plai e : 
He holds all ihini^s in His power, and is Hiinscll n(>t confined by 
anything whatever.' Compare the quotation from Sir I^aac New- 
ton's Principia, in the note on Cat. vi. 8. '" Ps. viii. 3. 

" Is. xl. 12. ' See Cat. xv. 3, and note there. 

equal to Him : for He who at first formed the 
sun must needs be incomparably greater and 
brighter. He foreknoweth the things that shall 
be, and is mightier than all, knowing all things 
and doing as He will ; not being subject to any 
necessary sequence of events, nor to nativity, 
nor chance, nor fate ; in all things perfect, and 
equally possessing every absolute form^ of virtue, 
neither diminishing nor increasing, but in mode 
and conditions ever the same ; who hath 
prepared punisliment for sinners, and a crown 
for the righteous. 

6. Seeing then that many have gone astray 
in divers ways from the One God, some having 
deified the sun, that when the sun sets they 
may abide in the night season without God ; 
others the moon, to have no God by day 3; 
others the other parts of the world 4 ; others the 
artsS; others their various kinds offood^; others 
their pleasures? ; while some, mad after women, 
have set up on high an image of a naked wo- 
man, and called it Aphrodite^, and worshipped 
their own lust in a visible form; and others daz- 
zled by the brightness of gold have deified it? and 
the other kinds of matter; — whereas if one lay as 
a first foundation in his heart the doctrine of the 
unity'° of God, and trust to Him, he roots out 
at once the whole crop ' of the evils of idolatry, 
and of the error of the heretics : lay thou, there- 
fore, this first doctrine of religion as a founda- 
tion in thy soul by faith. 

Of Christ. 

7. Believe also in the Son of God, One and 
Only, our Lord Jesus Christ, Who was be- 

2 iSe'ai'. Cyril uses the word in the Platonic sense, as in the 
next sentence he adopts the formula, h hich Plato commonly uses 
in describing the "idea:" ael Kara to. avra. Kal cocravrus ex*"** 
Phaed. 78 c. 

3 Job xxxi. 26, 27. The worship of Sun and Moon under 
various names was almost universal. 

4 Gaea or Tellus, the earth ; Zeus or Jupiter, the sky ; rivers, 
fountains, Arc. 

5 Mu>ic, Medicine, Hunting, War, Agriculture, Metallurgy, 
><'c., represented by Apollo, Aesculapius, Diana, Mars, Ceres, 

Herodotus, Book II., describes the Egyptian worship of 
various birds, fishes, and quadrupeds. Leeks and onions also 
were held sacred : Porrum et caepe nelas viulare, Juv. Sat. xv. 9. 
Compare Clement of Alexandria, Protrcpt. c. ii. § 39, Klotz. 

7 Eros, Dionysus. 

8 Clement of Alexandria {Protrepi. c. iv. § 53, Klotz) states 
that the courtesan Phryne was taken as a model for Aphrodite. 
" Praxiteles when fashioning the statue of AphroiUte of Cnidus 
made it like the form of Cratine his paramour." Ibid. 

9 Plutus. 

10 TTJs /iovapxtas Tou Oeov. See note on the title of Cat. VI. 
Praxcas made use of the term "Monarchy" to exclude the Son 
(and the Spirit) from the Godhead. Tertullian in his treatise 
against Praxeas maintains the true doctrine that the Son is no 
obstacle to the " Monarchy," because He is of the substance of 
the Father, does nothing without the Father's will, and has re- 
ceived all po'ver 'rom the Father, to Whom He will in the end 
deliver up the kiiigcjoin. In this sense Dionysius, Hishopof Rome, 
speaks of the Divine Monarchy as "'that most sacred doctrine of 
tiie Chinch of tjod. " Compare .Athanas. de Decretis, Nic. SyJi. 
c. vi. § 3. and Dr. Newman's note. In Orat. iv. c. Arian. p. 606 
(617). Atlianasius derives the term from apx'i. in the sense of 
" beginning : " ovtws fica ap\ij Scottjto? /cat oil &vo apxai, '66(v 
Kvpiui<; (cai ^l.ovapxi■o■ icrriv. See the full discussion of Momr- 
chlanism in At/iiin,)sius, p. xxiii. ff. in this series, and Newman s 
Introduction to Athan. Or. iv. 

1 For 4>opdi' (liened.) many MSS. read <j>$opav, " corruption." 



gotten God of God, begotten Life of Life, be- of reason, the Word who heareth the Faih 

gotten Light of Light % Who is in all things hke^ 
to Him that begat, Who received not His be- 
ing in time, but was before all ages eternally 
and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father: 
The Wisdom and the Power of God, and His 
Righteousness personally subsisting 4 ; Who sit- 
teth on the right hand of the Father before all 


and Himself speaketh. And on these points, 
should God permit, we will speak more at 
large in due season ; for we do not forget our 


For the throne at God's right hand He re- 
ceived not, as some have thought, because of 
His patient endurance, being crowned as it 
were by God after His Passion ; but through- 
out His being,— a being by eternal genera- 
tion 5, — He holds His royal dignity, and shares 
the Father's seat, being God and Wisdom and 
Power, as hath been said; reigning together 
with the Father, and creating all things for the 
Father, yet lacking nothing in the dignity of 
Godhead, and knowing Him that hath be- 
gotten Him, even as He is known of Him 
that hath begotten ; and to speak briefly, re- 
member thou what is writteii in the Gospels, 
that none knoiveth the Son but the Father, neiiher 
knoweth any the Father save the Son ^. 

8. Further, do tliou neither separate 7 the 
Son from the Father, nor by making a con- 
fusion believe in a Son-Fatherhoocl ^ ; but 
believe that of One God there is One Only- 
begotten Son, who is before all ages God the 
Word ; not Uie uttered 9 word diffused into the 
air, nor to be likened to impersonal words ' ; 
but the Word the Son, Maker of all wlio partake 

present purpose to 
duction to the Faith. 

give a summary mtro- 

* Compare xi. 4, 9, 18. 

3 Tov d^ioioi' Kara TravTa Ttjj yevvrnTavTi. On the meaning and 
history of this phrase, propu-sLcJ by the Semi-Aiians at the Cuuncil 
of Ariminum as a substitute ior 6iJ.oovai.ov, see Athan. de Syn. § 8 

4 f run-do-TaTos. Cf. xi 10 ; Athan. c. Afollinar. I. 20, 2t. 

5 The MSS. vary much, but I have followed the Benedictine 
text. 6 Matt. xi. 27; John x. 15 ; xvii. 25. 

7 This was a point earnestly maintained by tlio orthodox Bi- 
shops at Nicnea, that the Son begotten of the substance of the 
Father is ever mseparably ui the Father. Athan. de DecretU 
Syn. c. 20 : Tertullian c. Marc. IV. c. 6. Cf. I.unat. ad Trail, vi. 
(Long Recension) : -rov fi.iv yap XpicTTOi/ dAAoTpiojcri. toO llarpos. 

8 vio.TaTopia. A term nf derision applied tj the doctrine of 
Sabellius. Compare Atl an is. Ex/ositio Fidei, c. 2: ''neither 
do we imagine a Son-Fatuer, as the Sabelli.ins." See index, 


9 Adyos TTpoi^opiKos, the term used by Paul of Samosata, implied 
that the Word was impersonal, being conceived as a particular 
activity of God. See burner, Person oj Christ, Div. I. vol. ii. 
p. 436 (English Tr.): and compare Athanasius, K-xpositio Fidei, 
C. I ; vCov k< TOV IlaTpo? ava.p\u)^ Kat aidiuis yeyei'i Jj/xeVop, Aoyoc 
6i ov 7rpo0opiKoi/, ovK erUdtleTOf. Carainal Newman (Athan. 
c. Ariancs, I. 7, note) observes that some Christian writers of ihe 
2nd century " ^eeni to speak of the Divine generation as taking 
place immediately before the creation ol the world, that is, as 
if not eternal, though at the same time they teach that our Lord 
existed before that generation. In other words they seem to teach 
t4at He was the Word from eternity, and became the Son at the 
beginning of all things; some of them expressly consider ng Him, 
(irst as the Koyoi ii'SiMeroi, or Reason, in the Father, or (as may 
be speciously lepresented) a mere attribute; next, as the Aoyos 
^potftapiKc;, or Word. ' 

The terms Adyoj cVStdfleTos, or 'word conceived in the mind,' 
and Aoyos !rpo(|)jptK6;, or ' word expressed ' (emissuin, or prola- 
rtvinit), were 111 use among the Gnostics {J ren. IL c. 12, g 5). 
As applied to the Son both terms, though sometimes used in 
a right sense, were condemned as inadequatu. Compare xi. 10. 

■ ai/un-ocrrdrot? Aovois. Aihan. c. Arianas Orat. iv. c. 8: 
Tra\Lv OL Ae'yoi'Tes fjioyov oi'o/i.a etfat vloif, duovaiov dk Kal dt/viro- 
(TTaTov cLi/cu Toi/ vlov TOV ©eoii, /c. r.A. 

Concerning His Birth of the Virgin. 

9. Believe then that this Only-begotten Son 
of God for our sins came down from heaven 
upon earth, and took upon Him this human 
nature of like passions^ with us, and was be- 
gotten of the Holy Virgin and of the Holy 
Ghost, and was made Man, not in seeming 
and mere show 3, but in truth ; nor yet by pas- 
sing through the Virgin as through a channel*; 
but was of her made truly Hesh, [and truly 
nourished with milk s], and did truly eat as 
we do, and truly drink as we do. For if the 
Incarnation wa.s a phantom, salvation is a 
phantom also. The Christ was of two natures, 
Man in what was seen, but God in what was 
not seen ; as Man truly eadng like us, for He 
had the like feeling of the flesh with us ; but 
as God feeding the five thousand from five 
loaves ; as Man truly dying, but as God 
raising him that had been dead four dnys ; 
truly sleeping m the ship as Man, and walking 
upon the waters as God. 

Of the Cross. 

lo. He was truly crucified for our sins. 
For if thou wouldest deny it, the place refutes 
thee visibly, this blessed Go.gotha^ in which 
we are now assembled for the sake of Him 
who was here crucified ; and the whole world 
has since been filled with pieces of the wood of 
the Cross ?. But He was crucified not for sins 
of His own, but that we might be delivered 
from our sins. And though as Man He was 
at that time despised oJ men, and was buffeted, 
yet He was acknowledged by the Creation as 
God : for when the sun saw his Lord dis- 
honoured, he grew dim and trembled, not 
enduring the sight. 

2 oixoionaSy]. Compare Acts xiv. 15 ; Jas. v. 17. 

3 On the origin of tiie Docetic heresy, see vi. 14. 

4 Valentinus the Gnostic taught that God produced a Son of 
an animal nature who '' passed through Mary just as water through 
a tube, and that on him the Saviour descended at his Baptism." 
irenaeus, L vii. 2. 

5 The words which the Benedictine Editor introduces in 
brackets are lo-ind in Theodoret, and adopted by recent Editors, 
with Codd. M.A. 

6 Kusebius, I-i/e o/Constantine, iii. 28. 

7 The discovery of the "True Cross" is related with many 
marvellous particulars by Socrates, Ecctes. Hist. i. 17 ; and Sozo- 
men, E.H . li. i. A portion was said to have been left by Helena 
at Jerusalem, enclosed in a silver case ; and another portion sent 
lO Constantinople, where Coustantine privately enclosed it in his 
own statue, to be a safeguard to the city. Eusebius, Life n/ 
CoHsiantine, iVi. 25 — 30, gives a long account of the discovery 
of the Holy Sepulcure, but makes no mention of the Cross. Cyril 
seems to have been the first to record it, 23 years after. Cf. Greg. 
Nyss. Bapt. Christi{p. 519). 


Of His Burial. 

11. He was truly laid as Man in a tomb 
of rock ; but rocks were rent asunder by terror 
because of Him. He went down into the 
regions beneatli the earth, that thence also 
He might redeem the righteous^. For, tell 
me, couldst thou wish the living only to 
enjoy His grace, and that, though most of 
them are unholy ; and not wish those who 
from Adam had for a long while been im- 
prisoned to have now gained their liberty? 
Esaias the Prophet proclaimed with loud 
voice so many things concerning Hmi ; 
wouldst thou not wish that the King should 
go down and redeem His herald ? David was 
there, and Samuel, and all the Prophets 9, John 
himself also, who by his messengers said, Art 
thou He that should come, or took we for 
another "-"^ U'ouldst thou not wish that He 
should descend and redeem such as these % 

Of the Resurrection. 

12. But He who descended into the regions 
beneath the earth came up again ; and Jesus, 
who was buried, truly rose again the third 
day. And if the Jews ever worry thee, meet 
them at once by asking thus : Did Jonah 
come forth from the whale on the third 
day, and hath not Christ then risen from the 
earth on the third day % Is a dead man raised 
to life on touching the bones of Elisha, and is 
it not much easier for the Maker of man- 
kind to be raised by the power of the Father? 
Well then. He truly rose, and after He had 
risen was seen again of the disciples : and 
twelve disciples were witnesses of His Resur- 
rection, who bare witness not in pleasing words, 
but contended even unto torture and death 
for the truth of the Resurrection. What then, 
shall every word be established at the mouth oj 
t7vo or three witnesses ', according to the Scrip- 
ture, and, though twelve bear witness to the 
Resurrection of Christ, art thou still incredu- 
lous in regard to His Resurrection ? 

Concerning the Ascension. 

13. But when Jesus had finished His course 
of patient endurance, and had redeemed man- 
kind nom their sins. He ascended again into 
the heavens, a cloud receiving Him up: and 
as He went up Angels were beside Him, and 
Apostles were beholding. But if any man 
disbelieves the words which I speak, let him 
believe the actual power of the things now 
seen. All kings when they die have their 

8 Compare xiv. 18, 19, on the Descent into Hades. 

9 The same Old IVstament saints are named in xiv. 19, as 
redeemed by Chnsi in Hades. 'o M.Ttt. xi. 3. 

' Dcut. xix. 15. 

power extinguished with their life : but Christ 
crucified is worshipped by the whole world. 
We proclaim The Crucified, and the devils 
tremble now. Many have been crucified at 
various times ; but of what other who was 
crucified did the invocation ever drive the 
devils away ? 

14. Let us, therefore, not be ashamed of 
the Cross of Christ ; but though another hide 
it, do thou openly seal it upon thy forehead, 
that the devils may behold the royal sign and 
flee trembling far away^ Make then this sign 
at eating and drinking, at sitting, at lying 
down, at rising up, at speaking, at walking : 
in a word, at every act 3. For He who was 
here crucified is in heaven above. If after 
being crucified and buried He had remained 
in the tomb, we should have had cause to be 
ashamed; but, in fact. He who was crucified 
on Golgotha here, has ascended into heaven 
from the Mount of Olives on the East. For 
after having gone down hence into Hades, and 
come up again to us, He ascended again from 
us into heaven. His Father addressing Him, 
and saying, Sit Thou on My right hand, until 
I ??iake Thine enemies Thy footstool ^^ 

Of Judgment to come. 

15. This Jesus Christ who is gone up shall 
come again, not from earth but from heaven : 
and I say, " not from earth," because there 
are many Antichrists to come at this time 
from earth. For already, as thou hast seen, 
many have begun to say, / am the Christ s .• and 
the abomination of desolation^ is yet to come, 
assuming to himself the false title of Christ. 
But look thou for the true Christ, the Only- 
begotten Son of God, coming henceforth no 
more from earth, but from heaven, appearing to 
all more bright than any lightning and bril- 
liancy of light, with angel guards attended, 
that He may judge both quick and dead, 
and reign in a heavenly, eternal kingdom, 
which shall have no end. For on this point 
also, I pray thee, make thyself sure, since there 
are many who say that Christ's Kingdom 
hath an end 7. 

2 Justin M. Dialo<;iie with Trypho, 247 C : We call Him 
Helper and Redeemer, the power of whose Name even demons 
do fear; and at this day, when exorcised in ihe name of Jc>us 
Christ, crucified under Pontius Pilate, Governor of Juda;a, they 
are overcome. 

3, de CoronA, 3 : At every forward step and move- 
ment, at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and 
shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we lieht the 
lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life," 
we trace upon the forehead the Sign. If for these, and other such 
rules, you insist upon havinu positive Scripture injunction, you 
will find none. Tradition will be hold forth to you as the ori- 
ginator of them, custom as their strengthener, and laith as their 

4 Ps. ex. I. 5 Matt. xxiv. 5. 

6 Malt. xxiv. 15. Compare Cat. xv. 9, 15. 

7 Compare XV. 27, where the tuUowers of Marcellus of Ancyra 
are indicated as holding this opinion. 



Of the Holy Ghost. 

16. Believe thou also in the Holy Ghost, 
and hold the same opinion concerning Him, 
which thou hast received to //^/^ concerning the 
Father and the Son, and follow not those who 
teach blasphemous things of Him ^, But learn 
thou that this Holy Spirit is One, indivisible, 
of manifold power ; having many operations, 
yet not Himself divided ; Who knoweth the 
mysteries. Who searcheth all things, even the deep 
things of God^ : Who descended upon the Lord 
Jesus Christ in form of a dove; Who wrought 
in the Law and in the Prophets ; Who now 
also at the season of Baptism sealeth thy soul ; 
of Whose holiness also every intellectual 
nature hath need : against Whom if a7iy dare 
to blaspheme, he hath no forgiveness, neither ifi 
this world, nor in that which is to come^ : " Who 
with the Father and the Son together = " is 
honoured with the glory of the Godhead : of 
Whom also thrones, and dominions^ princi- 
palities, and powers have need 3. For there is 
One God, the Father of Christ; and One 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of 
the Only God ; and One Holy Ghost, the 
sanctifierand deifier of alM, Who spake in the 
Law and in the Prophets, in the Old and in 
the New Testament. 

17. Have thou ever in thy mind this seals, 
which for the present has been lightly touched 
in my discourse, by way of summary, but shall 
be stated, should the Lord permit, to the best 
of my power with the proof from the Scriptures. 
For concerning the divine and holy mysteries 
of the Faith, not even a casual statement must 
be delivered without the Holy Scriptures; 
nor must we be drawn aside by mere plausi- 
bility and artifices of speech. Even to me, 
who tell thee these things, give not absolute 
credence, unless thou receive the proof of the 
things which I announce from the Divine 
Scriptures. For this salvation which we believe 
depends not on ingenious reasoning^, but on 
demonstration of the Holy Scriptures. 

Of the Soul. 

18. Next to the knowledge of this vener- 
able and glorious and all-holy Faith, learn 

8 In xvi. 6 — 10, Cyril gives a long list of heresies concerning 
the Holy Ghost. 

9 I Cor. ii. 10. I Matt. xii. 32. 

2 This clause is not in the Creed of Nicjea, but is added in the 
Creed of Constantinople, a.d. 381. 3 Col. i. 16. 

4 ffeoTrotov is omitted in Cudd. Roe, Casaubon, and A. 

5 The Benedictine Editor argues from Cat. i. 5, "that thou 
mayest by faith seal up the things that are spoken ;" and xxiii. 18 : 
"sealing up the Prayer by the Amen," that Cyril means by " this 
seal " the firm belief of Christian doctrine. Compare John iii. 33. 
But Milles understands by the "seal" the Creed itself, which 
agrees better with the following context. 

* n a-iorppia yap oi/Ti) t^s Tri'tTTeajs rj/jLuiv, which might be ren- 
dered, "this our s.dvation by faith," or, with Milles, "this safety 
of our Faith." For the rendering in the text, compare Heb. iii. i : 
apX'epf'a nis OfioAoyias riiJ.(ov. On evpecriKoyia, see Polybius xviii. 
29, § 3 : Sia ri}i Trpos oAAijAovs evpe<j-i\oyCai. 

further what thou thyself art : that as man thou 
art of a two-fold nature, consisting of soul and 
body ; and that, as was said a short time ago, 
the same God is the Creator both of soul and 
body 7. Know also that thou hast a soul self- 
governed, the noblest work of God, made 
after the image of its Creator^: immortal be- 
cause of God that gives it immortality; a living 
being, rational, imperishable, because of Him 
that bestowed these gifts : having free power 
to do what it willeth 9. For it is not according 
to thy nativity that thou sinnest, nor is it by 
the power of chance that thou committest 
fornication, nor, as some idly talk, do the 
conjunctions of the stars compel thee to give 
thyself to wantonness ^ Why dost thou shrink 
from confessing thine own evil deeds, and 
ascribe the blame to the innocent stars ? Give 
no more heed, pray, to astrologers ; for of 
these the divine Scripture saith, Zet the star- 
gazers of the heaven stand up and save thee, 
and what follows : Behold, they all shall be 
consumed as stubble on the fire, and shall not 
deliver their soul from the fiame ^. 

19. And learn this also, that the soul, before 
it came into this world, had committed no sin 3, 
but having come in sinless, we now sin of our 
free-will. Listen not, I pray thee, to any one 
perversely interpreting the words. But if I do 
that which I would not ■^: but remember Him 
who saith. If ye be willing, and hearken unto 
Me, ye shall eat the good things of the land : 
but if ye be not willing, neither hearken unto 
Me, the stvord shall devour you, ^c. s : and 
again. As ye presented your jnenibers as servants 
to uncleanness afid to iniquity imto iniquity, even 
so no7v present your members as servants to 
righteousness u?ito sanctift cation^. Remember 
also the Scripture, which saith, Eve?i as they 
did not like to retain God in their knowledge 7 : 
and, That which may be known of God is mani- 

7 IV. 4. 

8 In the Clementine Homily xvi. i6, the soul having come forth 
from God, clothed with His breath, is said to be of the same sub- 
stance, and yet not God. In Tertull. c. Mnrcion II. c. 9, the soul 
is the afflatus (iri'or) not -nvivii-a) of God, i.e the image of the 
Spirit, and inferior to it, though possessing the true lineaments 
ot divinity, immortality, freedom, its own mastery over itself. 

9 Tertull. c. Marc. H. 6: It was proper that he who is the 
image and likeness of God should be formed with a free will, and 
a mastery of himself, so that this very thing, namely freedom 
of will and self-command, might be reckoned as the image and 
likeness of God in him. 

1 Compare Aug. de Civ. Dei. v. i, where he says that the 
astrologers (Mathematicl) say, not merely such or such a position 
oi Mars signifies that a man will be a murderer, but makes him 
a murderer. See Diet, of Christian Antiq., "Astrology." 

2 Is. xlvii. 13. 

3 "The Orphic poets were under the impression that the soul 
is suffering the punisliment of sin, and that the body is an ei • 
closure or prison in which the soul is incarcerated and kept 
(o-wferai) as the name <ru);ua implies, until the penalty is paid." 
Plato, Cratyl. 400. Clement of Alexandria {Strom. III. iii. 17), 
after referring to this passage of Plato, quotes Philolaus the Pytha- 
gorean, as saying : " The ancient theologians and soothsayers also 
testify that the soul has been chained to the body for a kind of 
punishment, and is buried in it as in a tomb." * Rom. vii. 16. 

5 Is. i. 19, 2o. 6 Rom. vi. 19. 7 Rom. i. 2S. 



feat in them^ ; and again, their eyes they have 
closed'^. Also remember how God again ac- 
cuseth them, and saith. Yet I planted thee 
a fniifful vine, wholly true: how art thou 
turned to bitterness, thou the strange vine ' ? 

20. The soul is immortal, and all souls are 
alike both of men and women ; for only the 
members of the body are distinguished-. 'I'here 
is not a class of souls sinning by nature, and 
a class of souls practising righteousness by 
nature 3 : but both act from choice, the sub- 
stance of their souls being of one kind only, 
and alike in all. I know, however, that I am 
talking much, and that the time is already 
long : but what is more precious than salva- 
tion ? Art thou not willing to take trouble in 
getting provisions for the way against the 
heretics ? And wilt thou not learn the bye- 
paths of the road, lest from ignorance thou 
fall down a precipice? If thy teachers think 
it no small gain for thee to learn these things, 
shouldest not thou the learner gladly receive 
the multitude of things told thee ? 

21. The soul is self-governed: and though 
the devil can suggest, he has not the power to 
compel against the will. He pictures to thee 
the thought of fornication : if thou wilt, thou 
acceptest it; if thou wilt not, thou rejectest. 
For if thou wert a fornicator by necessity, then 
for what cause did God prepare hell ? If thou 
wert a doer of righteousness by nature and 
not by will, wherefore did God prepare crowns 
of ineffable glory ? The sheep is gentle, but 
never was it crowned for its gentleness : since 
its gentle quality belongs to it not from choice 
but by nature. 

Of the Body. 

22. Thou hast learned, beloved, the nature 
of the soul, ns far as there is time at present : 
now do thy best to receive the doctrine of the 
body also. Suffer none of those who say that 
this body is no work of God*: for they who 
believe that the body is independent of God, 
and that the soul dwells in it as in a strange 
vessel, readily abuse it to fornication s. And 
yet what fault have they found in this wonder- 
lul body? For what is lacking in comeliness? 

8 Rom. i. 19. 9 Matt. xiii. 15. ' Jer. ii. 21. 

2 Ap'-lks, tiie heretic, attributed ihe difference of sex to llie 
sou), which ex SI in;; belure the body impressed its sex upon it. 
'rf;rtiill. On the Soul, c. xxxvi. 

3 Ireiia:us 1. vii. 5: " They (the Valentinians) conceive of three 
kinds of men, spiritual, maten:il. and animal.... Ttioe tliree natures 
are no longer found in one person, but constitute various kinds of 
men. . . And again subdividing the animal souls themselves, they 
say that some are by nature good, and others by nature evil." 
CJriireti on. Romans, Lib. VJII. §10: "1 know not how those who 
loine from the School of Valentinus and Uasilides . . . suppose 
that there are souls of one nature which nre always safe and never 
[icrish, anil others which always perish, and are never saved." 

■1 .See iv. 18. 

5 On the impure practices of the Manichees, see vi. 33, 34. 

And what in its structure is not full of skill? 
Ought they not to have observed the luminous 
construction of the eyes? And how the ears 
being set obliquely receive the sound unhin- 
dered ? And how the smell is able to distin- 
guish scents, and to perceive exhalations ? 
And how the tongue ministers to two purposes, 
the sense of taste, and the power of speech ? 
How the lungs placed out of sight are un- 
ceasing in their respiration of the air? Who 
imparted the incessant pulsation of the heart? 
Who made the distribution into so many veins 
and arteries? Who skilfully knitted together 
the bones with the sinews ? Who assigned 
a part of the food to our substance, and 
separated a part for decent secretion, and hid 
away the unseemly members in more seemly 
places? Who when the human race must 
have died out, rendered it by a simple inter- 
course perpetual ? 

23. Tell me not that the body is a cause of 
sin ^, For if the body is a cause of sin, why 
does not a dead body sin ? Put a sword in 
the right hand of one just dead, and no 
murder takes place. Let beauties of every 
kind pass before a youth just dead, and no 
impure desire arises. Why ? Because the 
body sins not of itself, but the soul through 
the body. The body is an instniment, and, as 
it were, a garment and robe of the soul : and if 
by this latter it be given over to fornication, it 
becomes defiled : but if it dwell with a holy 
soul, it becomes a temple of the Holy Ghost. 
It is not J that say this, but the Apostle Paul 
hath said, Know ye not, that your bodies are the 
temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you 7 ? Be 
tender, therefore, of thy body as being a 
temple of the Holy Ghost. Pollute not thy 
flesh in fornication : defile not this thy fairest 
robe : and if ever thou hast defiled it, now 
cleanse it by repentance : get thyself washed, 
while time permits. 

24. And to the doctrine of chastity let the 
first to give heed be the order of Solitaries^ and 
of Virgins, who maintain the angelic life in 
the world ; and let the rest of the Church's 
people follow them. For yoLi, brethren, a 
great crown is laid up : barter not away a great 
dignity for a petty pleasure : listen to the 
Apostle speaking: Le^t there be any fornicator 
or profane person, as Esau, w J 10 for one mess of 

6 Fortunatus, the Manichee, in August. Disptit. ii. 20. contra 

Foftnuat. is represented as saying, Wiiat we assert is this, that 
the soul is compelled to sin by a sub.«tance of contmry nature. 

7 I Cor. vi. 19. 

8 y.ovu.CpvTi'i. Compare xii. 33 ; xvi. 22. The origin of Monas- 
ticism is usually traced to the time of the Decian persecution, tlie 
middle of the third century. Previously "there were no monks, 
but only ascetics in the Church ; from that time to the reign of 
Constanline, Monachism was conhiifd to the anchorets living in 
private cells in the wilderness : hut when Pachomius had erected 
monasteries in Egypt, other couniries presenily followed the ex- 
ample. . . . Hilanon, who was scholar to Anlonius.iwas the hrst 
monk that ever lived in Palestine or Syria." Bingham, VII. i. 4. 



meat sold Ins own birthright '^. Enrolled hence- 
forth in the Angelic books for thy profession 
of chastity, see that thou be not blotted out 
again for thy practice of fornication. 

25. Nor again, on the other hand, in 
maintaining thy chastity be thou puffed up 
against those who walk in the humbler ])ath of 
matrimony. For as the Apostle saith, Lei 
marriage be had in honour among ad, and let the 
bed be tmdefiled'^. Thou too who retainest thy 
chastity, wast thou not begotten of those who 
had married ? Because thou hast a posses- 
sion of gold, do not on that account reprobate 
the silver. But let those also be of good 
cheer, who being married use marriage law- 
fully ; who make a marriage according to 
God's ordinance, and not of wantonness for 
the sake of unbounded license \ who recog- 
nise seasons of abstinence, that they may give 
themselves unto prayer-' ; who in our assem- 
blies bring clean bodies as well as clean 
garments into the Church ; who have en- 
tered upon matrimony for the procreation of 
children, but not for indulgence. 

26. Let those also who marry but once ! 
not reprobate those who have consented j 
to a second marriage 3 : for though con- j 
tinence is a noble and admirable thing, yet it | 
is also permissible to enter upon a second 
marriage, that the weak may not fall into 
fornication. For it is good for than, saith the 
Apostle, if they abide even as /. But if they 
have not continency, let them marry : for it is 
better to marry than to burn'-. But let all the 
other practices be banished afar, fornication, 
adultery, and every kind of licentiousness : and 
let tne body be kept pure for the Lord, that 
the Lord also may have respect unto the body. 
And let the body be nourished with food, that 
it may live, and serve without hindrance ; not, 
however, that it may be given up to luxuries. 

9 Heb. xii. i6. ' Heb. xiii. 4. ^ i Cor. vii. 5. 

3 The condemnation 01 a second marriage, which the Bene- 
dictine Editor and others import into this passage, is not to be 
found in it. Toi/s Seurepo) ya^f cru^nreptei'e;^SeVras neither means 
'■ qui ad secundas nupiias ultro se dejeceie," nor even " wlio 
have involved themselves" (R.W.C), but simply "who have 
consented to," — or, "'consented together in — a second mar- 
riage, ' without any intimation of censure. See V. 9; VI. 13; 
Ecclus. XXV. i; yvvr\ Kal aj'Tjp eavrot? (rv/LiTr€pt{/)ep6/iei'oi j ; 
2 Mace. ix. 27; Euseb. HE. ix. 9, 7: dj'efcKOKfc); Ka.<. <jv\i.\xi- 
Tpojs (Tv/jLTrepiipipoivTO aiiTOis ; Zeno, a/. Diog. Lnert. vii. 18 ; 
TO (7Vii.TrepL<j):psa6ai rois (|)i.'Aois. Diog. Lacrl. vii. 13 : eu- 
<rvfi.nepi(}>opo<;. Polyb. IV. 35, § 7, and II. 17, § 12. The gentle- 
ness with which Cyril here speaks of second marriages is in 
striking contrast with the passionate vehemence ol Tertulban in ' 
the treatise di Monogainia. and elsewhere. Aug. cie Hceresibus. 
cc. 26, 38, reckons tne condemnation of second marriage among 
the heretical doctrines of the Montanists and Cathan. In the i 
\.xe.2X\%^de Bono Viduitatis, c. 6, he argues thai a second marriage 
is not to be condemned, but is less honourable than widowhood, 
and severely rebukes the heretical teaching on this point of 
TerluUian, the Moatanists, and the Nnvatians. De Bono Con- 
jugali, c. 21 : Sacramenium nuptiarum ti mporis nostri sic ad 
unum virum et unam uxorem redacttmi est, ut Ecdesiae dispen- 
satorem non 1 ceat ordinare nisi unius uxoris virum. On the 
practice 01 the Chin-ch .it various times see Bingham, IV. v. 

I — 4 ; Suicer, Thesaur. Aiyajuia. 

4 I Cor.* vii. 8, 9. 

Concerning Meats. 

27. And concerning food let these be your 
ordinances, since in regard to meats also many 
stumble. For some deal indifferently with 
things offered to idols s, while others discipline 
themselves, but condemn those that eat : and 
in different ways men's souls are defiled in the 
matter of meats, from ignorance of the useful 
reasons for eating and not eating. For we 
fast by abstaining from wine and flesh, not 
because we abhor them as abominations, but 
because we look for our reward; that having 
scorned things sensible, we may enjoy a 
spiritual and intellectual feast ; and that 
having now sown in tears we may reap in joy ^ 
in the world to come. Despise not therefore 
them that eat, and because of the weakness of 
their bodies partake of food: nor yet blame 
those who use a little wine for their stomach's 
sake and their often infrmitiesT : and neither 
condemn the men as sinners, nor abhor the flesh 
as strange food ; for the Apostle knows some of 
this sort, when he says : forbidding to marry, 
and commanding to abstain from meats, which 
God created to be received with thanksgiving by 
them that believe'^. In abstaining then trom 
these things, abstain not as from things 
abominable 9, else thou hast no reward : but 
as being good things disregard them for the 
sake of the better spiritual things set before 

28. Guard thy soul safely, lest at any time 
thou eat of things offered to idols : for con- 
cerning meats of this kind, not only I at 
this time, but ere now Apostles also, and James 
the bishop of this Church, have had earnest 
care : and the Apostles and Elders write a 
Catholic epistle to all the Gentiles, that they 
sliould abstain first from things offered to idols, 
and then Jrom blood also and from things 
strangled^. For many men being of savage 
nature, and living like dogs, both lap up 
bloody in imitation of the manner of the 

5 The Nicolaitans (Apocal. ii. 14, 20) ; and the Valentinians, 

of whom IrenjEus (II. xiv. 5), says that they derived their opinion 
as to the indifference of meats from the Cynics. See also Irenseus 
I. vi. 3 ; and xxvi. 3. 

6 Ps. cxxvi. 5. 7 I Tim. v. 23. 8 i Tim. iv. 3, 
9 The various sects of Gnostics, and the IVIanichees, 

considered certain meats and drinks, as fle-h and wine, to 
be polluting. Vid. Iren. Hcer. i. 28. Clem. Pied. ii. 2. p. 186. 
Epiph. //<?r. xlvi. 2, xlvii. i, &c.,*&c. Augu.^t. HiBr. 46, vid. 
Canon. Apast. 43. "' If any Bishop, &c., abstain Irom marriage, 
flesh, and wine, not for discipline St acrxTjcrii') but as abhorring 
them, forgetting that they are, all very good, &c., and speaking 
blasphemy against the creation, let him amend or be depo.sed," &c. 
R. W. C. 

1 Acts XV. 20. 29. The prohibition of blood and things stran> 
gled has continued to the present day in the Eastern Church, 
though already disregarded by the Latins in the lime of S. Augus- 
tine (c. Fanstum. xxxii. 13). 

2 Tertullian (^Apoiogeticus, c. 9) speaks of those " who at the 
gladiator shows, for the cure of epilepsy, quaff with greedy thirst 
the blood of criminals slain in the arena," and of others "who 
make meals on the llesh of wild beasts at the place of combat : " 
and contrasts the habits of Christians, who abstain Irom thing* 
strangled, to avoid pollution by the blood. 



fiercest beasts, and greedily devour tilings 
strangled. But do thou, the servant of 
Christ, in eating observe to eat with rever- 
ence. And so enough concerning meats. 

Of Apparel. 

29. But let thine apparel be plain, not for 
adornment, but for necessary covering: not 
to minister to thy vanity, but to keep thee 
warm in winter, and to hide the unseem- 
liness of the body : lest under pretence of 
hiding the unseemliness, thou fall into another 
kind of unseemliness by thy extravagant dress. 

Of the Resurrection. 

30. Be tender, I beseech thee, of this 
body, and understand that thou wilt be raised 
from the dead, to be judged with this 
body. But if there steal into thy mind any 
thought of unbelief, as though the thing were 
impossible, judge of the things unseen by what 
happens to thyself. For tell me ; a hundred 
years ago or more, think where wast thou 
thyself: and from what a most minute and 
mean substance thou art come to so great 
a stature, and so much dignity of beauty 3. 
What then? Cannot He who brought the 
non-existent into being, raise up again that 
which already exists and has decayed + ? He 
who raises the corn, which is sown for our 
sakes, as year by year it dies, — will He 
have difficulty in raising us up, for whose 
sakes that corn also has been raised s? 
Seest thou how the trees stand now for many 
months without either fruit or leaves : but 
when the winter is past they spring up whole 
into life again as if from the dead ^ : shall not 
we much rather and more easily return to 
life? The rod of Moses was transformed 
by the will of God into the unfamiliar nature 
of a serpent : and cannot a man, who has 
fallen into death, be restored to himself 
again ? 

31. Heed not those who say that this body 
is not raided ; for it is raised : and Ksaias is 
witness, when he says : The dead shall arise, 
and they that are in the tombs shall awakeT : 
and according to Daniel, Many of them that 
sleep ill the dust of the earth shall arise, some to 
e!>erlasting life, and some to everlasting shame ^. 
But though to rise again is common to all 
men, yet the resurrection is not ahke to all : 
for the bodies received' by us all are eternal, 
but not like bodies by all : for the just receive 
them, that through eternity they may join 

3 XVIII. 9. 

4 Comp.ire xviii. 6, 9 ; Athenagoras, On the Resitrrection of 
the Dead, c. 3. 

5 XVIII. 6. John xii. 24 ; I Cor. XV. 36. 6 XVIII. 7. 
7 Is. xxvi. 19. 8 Dan. xii. 2. 

the Choirs of Angels ; but the sinners, that 
they may endure for ever the torment of their 

Of the Laver. 

32. For this cause the Lord, preventing us 
according to Flis loving-kindness, has granted 
repentance at Baptisms, in order that we may 
cast off the chief — nay rather the whole burden 
of our sins, and having received the seal 
by the Holy Ghost, may be made heirs of 
eternal life. But as we have spoken suffi- 
ciently concerning the Laver the day before 
yesterday, let us now return to the remaining 
subjects ot our introductory teaching. 

Of the Divine Scriptures. 

33. Now these the divinely-inspired Scrip- 
tures of both the Old and the New Tes- 
tament teach us. For the God of the two 
Testaments is One, Who in the Old Tes- 
tament foretold the Christ Who appeared in 
the New ; Who by the Law and the Prophets 
led us to Christ's school. For before faith came, 
we were kept in ward under the law, and, the 
law hath been our tutor to bring us unto 
Christ^. And if ever thou hear any of the 
heretics speaking evil of the Law or the 
Prophets, answer in the sound of the Saviour's 
voice, saying, Jesus came not to destroy the 
Law, but to fulfil it^. Learn also diligently, 
and from the Church, what are the books of 
the Old Testament, and wdiat those of the 
New. And, pray, read none of the apocry- 
phal writings 3 : for why dost thou, who knowest 
not those which are acknowledged among all, 
trouble thyself in vain about those which are 
disputed? Read the Divine Scriptures, the 
twenty-two books of the Old Testament, these 
that have been translated by the Seventy-two 

9 Gr. AoWTpoD ixeTa-voiav. Other readings are Mrpov n-eravoCa^, 
" retlomplioii by repentance," and KovTp'ov /leTaroias ''a laver 
(baptism) of r<.pent:iiice." 

' iii. 24. The naifiayuyo; is described by Clement of 
Alexandria {Paedag. i. 7) as one wlio botli conducts a boy to 
school, and helps to teach him,— an usher: "under-master" 
(Wicliff). 2 Matt. V. 17. 

3 riov anoKpv^uiv. The sense in which Cyril uses this term 
may be learned from Rufinus (^Expositio Symboli, % 38), who 
disaiiguisbes thrc, classes of books : (i) The Canoiiic.d BooUs 
01 the Old and New Testaments, which alone are to bo Used 
in proof of doctrine: (2) Ecclesiastical, which may be read in 
Churches, iiichiding Wisdom, Ecclesi.iticus. Tobit, Judiih, and 
the Books of the IVlaccabces, in the Old Testament, and The 
Shepherd o\ Hcrmas, and Tlie iivo Ways in the New Test imeiii. 
(3) The other writings they called " .Apociyphal, ' which they 
would not have road in Chuiches. The distinction is useliil, 
though the second class is not complete. 

4 The original source of this account of the Septuagint version 
is a letter purporting to have been written by Aristcas, or Aris- 
tseus, a confidential minister of Ptolemy Phihuielphus, to his 
brother Philocrates. Though the letter is not rcgardetl as genuine 
its statements are in part admitted to be true, being confirmed 
by a fr.igiiient, preserved by Kusel)in>i (^/'riypayniio Evan^elica, 
ix. 6). of a work of Aristobulus. a Jewish philosopher who wrote in 
the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, iSi — 146, B c. Upon the>e 
testimonies it is generally admitted that " the whole Law," i.e. the 
Pentateuch was translated into Greek at Ale.\andria Ri the reign 



34. For after the death of Alexander, the 
king of the Macedonians, and the division of 
his kingdom into four principalities, into Baby- 
lonia, and Macedonia, and Asia, and Egypt, 
one of those' who reigned over Egypt, Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, being a king very fond of learn- 
ing, while collecting the books that were in 
every place, heard from Demetrius Phalereus, 
the curator of his library, of the Divine Scrip- 
tures of the Law and the Prophets, and judged 
it much nobler, not to get the books from the 
possessors by force against their will, but 
rather- to propitiate them by gifts and friend- 
ship ; and knowing that what is extorted is 
often adulterated, being given unwillingly, 
while that v/hich is willingly supplied is freeiy 
given with all sincerity, he sent to Eleazar, who 
was then High Priest, a great many gifts for the 
Temple here at Jerusalem, and caused him to 
send him six interpreters from each of the 
twelve tribes of Israel for the translation s. 
Then, further, to make experiment whether 
the books were Divine or not, he took precau- 
tion that those who had been sent should 
not combine among themselves, by assign- 
ing to each of .the interpreters who had 
come his separate chamber in the island called 
Pharos, which lies over against Alexandria, 
and committed to each the whole Scriptures to 
translate. And when they had fulfilled the 
task in seventy-two da}s, he brought together 
all their translations, which they had made in 
different chambers without sending them one 
to another, and found that they agreed not 
only in the sense but even in words. For the 
process was no word-craft, nor contrivance of 
human devices : but the translation of the 
Divine Scriptures, spoken by the Holy Ghost, 
was of the Holy Ghost accomplished. 

35. Of these read the two and twenty books, 
but have nothing to do with the apocryphal 
writings. Study earnestly these only which we 
read openly in the Church. Far wiser and 
more pious than thyself were the Apostles, and 
the bishops of old time, the presidents of the 

either of Ptolemy Soter (323 — 285, b.c.)> or of his son Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (285 — 247, B.c.)i under the direction of Demetrius 
Phalereus, curator of the King s librarj'. 

5 Up to this point Cyril's account is based upon the statements 
of the Pseudo-Aristeas. The fabulous incidents which follow, 
concerning the separate cells, the completion of the whole version 
by each tran-lator, the miraculous agreement in the very words, 
proving a Divine inspiration, are found in Philo Judaeus, Life 0/ 
Moses, II. 7. Josephus, Antiquities., XII. c. ii. 3 — 14, loUowing 
the letter of Aristeas, gives long descriptions of the magniticent 
presents sent by Philadelphus to Jerusalem, and of his splendid 
hospitality to the translators, but makes no allusion to the separate 
cells or miraculous agreement. On the contrary he represents 
the 72 interpreters as meeting together for consultation, agreeing 
on the text to be adopted, and completing their joint labours in 
72 days. The slightest comparison of the Version with the 
original Hebrew must convince any reasonable person that the idea 
of divine inspiration or supernatural assistance, borrowed by 
Justin Martyr, Irenseus, and other Fathers, apparently I rom Philo, 
is a mere invention of the imagination, disproved by the tacts. 
Compare the article "Septuagint" in Murray's Dictionary of the 

Church who handed down these books. 
Being therefore a child of the Church, trench ^ 
thou not upon its statutes. And of the Old 
Testament, as we have said, study the two 
and twenty books, which, if thou art desirous 
of learning, strive to remember by name, as 
I recite them. For of the Law the books of 
Moses are the first five, Genesis, Exodus, 
Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. And next, 
Joshua the son of Nave 7, and the book of 
Judges, including Ruth, counted as seventh. 
And of the other historical books, the first 
and second books of the Kings ^ are among the 
Hebrews one book ; also the third and fourth 
one book. And in like manner, the first and 
second of Chronicles are with them one 
book ; and the first and second of Esdras are 
counted one. Esther is the twelfth book ; and 
these are the Historical writings. But those 
which are written in verses are five, Job, and 
the book of Psalms, and Proverbs, and Eccle- 
siastes, and the Song of Songs, which is the 
seventeenth book. And after these come the five 
Prophetic books : of the Twelve Prophets one 
book, of Isaiah one, of Jeremiah one, including 
Baruch and Lamentations and the Epistle?; 
then Ezekiel, and the Book of Daniel, the 
twenty -bticond of the Old Testament. 

36. Then of the New Testament there are 
the four Gospels only, for the rest have false 
titles' and are mischievous. The Manicheeans 
also wrote a Gospel according to Thomas, 
which being tinctured with the fragrance of 
the evangelic title corrupts the souls of the 
simple sort. Receive also the Acts of the Twelve 
Apostles ; and in addition to these the seven 

6 The rendering "trench not" (R.W.C.) agrees well with the 
etymology ol the verb {Tiapaxa-pdcra-ia). its more usual signaica- 
tiun seems to be " counterteit," "forge." The sense required 
here, apart from any metaphor, is " transgress" (Heurtlcy). 

7 ine name " Nun " is represented by " Nave " iu the ijeptua- 
gint, which Cyril used. 

* The two books of Samuel. 

9 The Epistle of Jeremy, which now appears in the Apocrypha 
as the last chapter of Baruch. On the number and arrangement 
of the Books of the Old and New Testaments the student should 
consult an interesting Essay by Processor Sanday {Stitdta Biiiica, 
vol. iii.), who traces the introduction of a fixed order to the time 
when papyrus roils were superseded by codices, in which the 
sheets of ski. i were folded and bound together, as in printed books. 
This ch.tnge had commenced belore tlie Diocletian persecution, 
A.D. 303, when among the sacred books taken from the Christians 
codices were much more numerous than rolls. On the contents 
of the Jewish Canon, see Dictionary of the Bible, "Canon." 
B.F.W. "Josephus enumerates 20 books 'which are justly believed 
to be divine.'" One or" the earliest attempts by a Christian to 
ascertain correctly the number and order of the Books ot the O.T. 
was made by Melito, Bishop ol Sardis, who travelled lor this 
purpose to Palestine, in the latter part of the 2nd Century. His 
list is as follows: — "Of Mo^es five (books); Genesis, Exodus, 
Niimbers, Leviticus. Deuteronomy, Jesus son of Nave, Judges, 
Ruth, four Books of Kmgs, two ol Chronicles, Psalms of David, 
Solomon's Proverbs, whicn is also called Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, 
Song of Songs, Job, Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Twelve 
in one Book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." (Eusebius, H.E. 111. 
cap. TO, note i, in this series.) Cyril's List agrees with that of 
Athanasius {Festal Jipistle, 373 A.D.), except that Job is placed 
by Ath. alter Canticles instead ot before Psalms. 

1 Gr. ijjev&e7rCypa(j>ai. For an account of the many Apocryphal 
Gospels, see the article by Lipsius in the '•' Dic'ionary o/Christian 
Biography ," Smith and Wace, and the English translations in 
Clark's Aiite-Nicene Library. 



Catholic Epistles of James, Peter, John, and 
Jude; and as a seal upon them all, and the 
last work of the disciples, the fourteen Epistles 
of Paul ^ But let all the rest be put aside in 
a secondary rank. And whatever books are 
not read in Churches, these read not even by 
thyself, as thou hast heard me say. Thus 
much of these subjects. 

37. But slum thou every diabolical opera- 
tion, and believe not the apostate Serpent, 
whose transformation from a good nature 
was of his own free choice : who can over- 
persuade the willing, but can compel no 
one. Also give heed neither to observa- 
tions of the stars nor auguries, nor omens, 
nor to the fabulous divinations of the Greeks 3. 
Witchcraft, and enchantment, and the wicked 
practices of necromancy, admit not even to 
a hearing. From every kind of intemper- 
ance stand aloof, giving thyself neither to 

» Cyril includes in this list all the hooks which we receive, 
except the Apocalypse. See Bishop Westcott's Article, '' Canon," 
in the Dictionary of the Bible, and Origen's Catalogue in Euseb. 
Hist. vi. 25 (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. i.). 

3 Compare xix. 8. where all such acts of divination are said to 
be service of the devil. 

gluttony nor licentiousness, rising superior to 
all covetousness and usury. Neither venture 
thyself at heathen assemblies for public spec- 
tacles, nor ever use amulets in sicknesses ; 
shun also all the vulgarity of tavern-liaunting. 
Fall not away either into the sect of the 
Samaritans, or into Judaism : for Jesus Christ 
henceforth hath ransomed thee. Stand aloof 
from all observance of Sabbaths 4, and from 
calling any indifferent meats covinion or un- 
clean. But especially abhor all the assem- 
blies of wicked heretics ; and in every way 
make thine own soul safe, by fasting.s, prayers, 
almsgivings, and reading the oracles of God ; 
that having lived the rest of thy life in the 
flesh in soberness and godly doctrine, thou 
mayest enjoy the one salvation which flows 
from Baptism ; and thus enrolled in the armies 
of heaven by God and the Father, mayest also 
be deemed worthy of the heavenly crowns, in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom be the glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

4 Compare Gal. iv. lo, " Ye olseive days." 


Of Faith. 

Hebrews xi. i, 2. 

Now faith IS the stil stance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. 
For by it the elders obtained a good report. 

1. How great a dignity the Lord bestows on 

you in transferring you from tlie order of Cate- 
cinnnens to that of the Faithful, the Apostle 
Paul shews, when he affirms, God is faithful, 
by Whom ye were called into the fellowship of 
His Son Jesus Christ^. For since God is called 
Faithful, thou also in receiving this title 
receivest a great dignity. For as God is 
called Good, and Just, and Almighty, and 
Maker of the Universe, so is He also called 
Faithful. Consider therefore to what a dignity 
thou art rising, seeing thou art to become 
partaker of a title of God ^. 

2. Here then it is further required, that 
each of you be found faithful in his con- 
science : for a faithful man it is hard to 

find^: not that thou shouldcst shew thy 
conscience to me, for thou art not to be 
judged of ?nan's judgnienf^ ; but that thou 
shew the sincerity of thy faith to God, who 
trieth the reins and hearts^, and kno^veth the 
thoughts of men ^. A great thing is a faithful 
man, being richest of all rich men. For to 
the faithful tnan belongs the 7vhole ivorld of 
7t>ealth 7, in that he disdains and tramples on it. 
For they who in appearance are rich, and have 
many possessions, are poor in soul : since tlie 
more they gather, the more they pine with 
longing for what is still lacking. But the 
faithful man, most strange paradox, in poverty 
is rich : for knowing that we need only to have 
food and raiment, and being there^vith content^, 
he has trodden riches under foot. 

3. Nor is it only among us, who bear the 
name of Christ, that the dignity of faith is 
great 9 : but likewise all things that are accom- 

» 1 Cor. i. 9. s See Procatfchesis 6, and Index, Faithful. 

3 Prov. XX. 6. 4 I Cor. iv. 3. See Index, Confession. 

5 Ps. vii. 9. 6 Ps. xciv. 11. 

7 This sentence is a spurious addition to the text of the Septua- 
Eint, variously placed after Prov. xvii. 4, and xvii. 6. The thought 
IS there completed by the antithesis, btit to the faithless not even j 
an obol. The origin of the interpolation is unknown. 

8 I Tim. vi. 8. 

9 It was a common objection of Pagan philosophers that the 
Christian religion was not founded upon reason but only on faith. 

Cyril's answer that faith is necessary in the ordinary aflairs 

plished in the world, even by those who are 
aliens ' from the Church, are accomplished b\- 

By faith the laws of marriage yoke together 
those v;ho have lived as strangers : and because 
of the faith in marriage contracts a stranger is 
made partner of a stranger's person and 
possessions. By faith husbandry also is sus- 
tained, for he who believes not that he shall 
receive a harvest endures not the toils. By 
faith sea-faring men, trusting to the thinnest 
plank, exchange that most soHd element, the 
land, for the restless motion of the waves, 
committing themselves to uncertain hopes, and 
carrying with them a faith more sure than any 
anchor. By faith therefore most of men's 
affairs are held together : and not among us 
only has there been this belief, but also, as I 
have said, among those who are without ^ 
For if they receive not the Scriptures, but 
bring forward certain doctrines of their own, 
even these they accept by faith. 

4. The lesson also which was read to-dav 
invites you to the true faith, by setting before 
you the way in which you also must please God : 
for it affi'ms that luithout faith it is impossible to 
please Him^. For when will a man resolve to 
serve God, unless he believes that He is 
a gi7>er of rewai-d 1 When will a young woman 
choose a virgin life, or a young man live 
soberly, if they believe not that for chastity 
there is a crown thatjadeth not away 3 ? Faith is 
an eye that enlightens every conscience, and 

of life is the same which Origen had employed against Celsus 
(I. ii): "Why should it not be more reasonable, since all human 
affairs are dependent upon faith, to believe God rather than men? 
For who takes a voyage, or marries, or begets children, or casts 
seeds into the ground, without believing that better things will 
result, although the contrary might and sometimes does happen? ' 
See also Arnobius, adverstts Gentes, II. 8 ; and Hooker's allusion 
to the scornful reproach of Julian the Apostate, " The highest 
point of your wisdom is belie'oe" {Eccles. Pol. V. Ixiii. i.). 

I By " aliens from the Church," and " those who are without," 
S. Cyril here means Pagans : so Tertullian, de Idololatria, c. xiv. 
But the latter term is applied to a Catechumen in Procatechesis, 
c. 12, and was also a common description of heretics: see Ter- 
tullian, de Ba^tismo, c xv. * Heb. xi. 6. 

3 I Pet. V. 4. 



imparts understanding ; for tlie Prophet saith, 
And if ye believe not, ye shall not miderstafid ^. 

Faith stoppeth the mouths of lions ^, as in 
Daniel's case : for the Scripture saith concern- 
ing him, that Daniel was brought up out of the 
den, and no manner of hurt was foimd upon him, 
because he believed in his God^. Is there any- 
thing more fearful than the devil ? Yet even 
against him we have no other shield than faith t, 
an impalpable buckler against an unseen foe. 
For he sends forth divers arrrows, and shoots 
do7vn in the dark night ^ those that watch not ; 
but, since the enemy is unseen, we have faith 
as our strong armour, according to the saying 
of the Apostle, In all things talcing the shield of 
faith, 70 herewith ye shall be able to quench all the 
fiery darts of the wicked one'). A fiery dart of 
desire of base indulgence is often cast forth 
from the devil : but faith, suggesting a picture 
of the judgment, cools down tb.e mind, and 
quenches the dart. 

5. There is much to tell of faith, and the 
whole day would not be time sufficient for 
us to describe it fully. At present let us be 
content with Abraham only, as one of the 
examples from the Old Testament, seeing that 
we have been made his sons through faith. 
He was justified not only by works, but also 
by faith ' : for though he did many things well, 
yet he was never called the friend of God 2, 
except when he believed. Moreover, his every 
work was performed in faith. Through faith 
he left his parents ; left countr)'-, and place, and 
home through faiths. In like manner, there- 
fore, as he was justified be thou justified also. 
In his body he was already dead in regard to 
offspring, and Sarah his wife was now old, and 
there was no hope left of having children, 
(jod promises the old man a child, and 
Abraham without being weakened in faith, 
though he considered his own body now as good 
as dcad'^, heeded not the weakness of his body, 
but the power of Him who promised, because 
he counted Him faithful who had promised '=, and 
so beyond all expectation gained the child 
from bodies as it were already dead. And 
when, after he had gained his son, he was com- 

4 Is. vii.g, according to the Septiiagint. Rut A.V. and R.V.both 
render : 1/ ye wiU not believe, surely ye shall not be established. 

5 Heb. xi. 34. * Dan. vi. 23. 

7 I Pet. V. 9 : Whom resist, sted/ast in the/aith. 

8 Ps. xi. 2, that they may shoot in darkness at the uprisht 
in heart (R.V.). The Hebrew word ^f^J.}, signifyinR deep dark- 
ness (Job iii. 6 ; X. 22) is vigorously rendered by the Seventy 
o-KOTOnrjri), which is exp!.^incd by the SchoUost on Homer (Od. 
xiv. 457 : Ni>f 6' ap" (TT-ffkiii (caxi) aKOToy.r\vi.os) to be the deep dark- 
ness of the night preceding the new moon. 

9 Eph. vi. 16. ,_■ 1. • r J ■ 

» James ii. zi. Casaubon omitted /loi'ov, which is fomid in 
every MS., thus making the meaning to be, " He was jnsiified 
not l.y works b\it by faitli," winch directly contradicts the state- 
ment of S. James, and is inconsistent with the following context in 

2 James ii. 23 ; 2 Chron. xx. 7 ; Is. xli. 8 ; Oen. xv. 6. 

3 Heb. xi. 8—10. 4 Rom. iv. 19. 5 Heb. xi. 11, 12. 

manded to offer him up, although he had 
heard the word, In Isaac shall thy seed be called^, 
he proceeded to offer up his son, his only son, to 
God, believing that God is able to raise up even 
from the deadT. And having bound his son, and 
laid him on the wood, he did in purpose offer 
him, but by the goodness of God in delivering 
to him a lamb instead of his child, he received 
his son alive. Being faithful in these things, 
he was sealed for righteousness, and received 
circumcision as a seal of the faith 'ioliich he had 
while he was in uncircumcision ^, having received 
a promise that he should be the father of many 
nations 9. 

6. Let us see, then, how Abraham is the 
father of many nations ^ Of Jews he is con- 
fessedly the father, through succession accord- 
ing to the fiesh. But if we hold to the suc- 
cession according to the flesh, we shall be 
compelled to say that the oracle was false. 
For according to the flesh he is no longer 
father of us all : but the example of his faith 
makes us all sons of Abraham. How? and 
in what manner? With men it is incredible 
that one should rise from the dead ; as in like 
manner it is incredible also that there should 
be offspring from aged persons as good as 
dead. But when Christ is preached as having 
been crucified on the tree, and as having died 
and risen again, we believe it. By the like- 
ness therefore of our faith we are adopted into 
the sonship of Abraham. And then, following 
upon our faith, we receive like him the spiritual 
seal, being circumcised by the Holy Spirit 
through Baptism, not in the foreskin of the 
body, but in the heart, according to Jeremiah, 
saying, And ye shall be circumcised ufito God in 
the foreskin of your heart ^ : and according to 
the Apostle, in the circumcision of Christ, 
having been buried with Him in baptism, and 
the rest 3. 

7. This faith if we keep we shall be free 
from condemnation, and shall be adorned with 
all kinds of virtues. For so great is the 
strength of faith, as even to buoy men up in 
walking on the sea. Peter was a man like 
ourselves, made up of flesh and blood, and 
living upon like food. But when Jesus said. 
Come 4, he believed, and walked upon the 
waters, and found his faith safer upon the 
waters than any ground ; and his heavy body 
was upheld by the buoyancy of his faith. 
But though he had safe footing over the 
water as long as he believed, yet when he 
doubted, at once he began to sink : for as 

6 Gen. xxi. 12 ; xxii. 2. 7 Heb. xi. 19. 

8 Uoni. iv. II. 9 C.en. xvii. 5. • Rom. iv. 17, t8. 

2 Jer. iv. 4 : Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take au<a.y 
the foreskins 0/ your heart. The Siptuagint agrees closely with 
the Hebrew, but Cyril quotes freely from memory. 

3 Cul. ii. II, 12. 4 Matt. xiv. 29. 



his faith gradually relaxed, his body also was 
drawn down with it. And when He saw 
his distress, Jesus who remedies the distresses 
of our souls, said, O thou of Utile faith, lahere- 
fore didst thou doubt ^1 And being nerved again 
by Him who grasped his riglit hand, he had 
no sooner recovered his faith, than, led by the 
hand of the Master, he resumed the stime 
walking upon the waters : for this the Gospel 
indirectly mentioned, saying, wJicn they were 
gone up into the ship ^. For it says not that 
Peter swam across and went up, but gives us 
to understand that, after returning the same 
distance that he went to meet Jesus, he went 
up again iiito the ship. 

8. Yea, so much power hath foith, that not 
the believer only is saved, but some have been 
saved by others believing. The paralytic 
in Capernaum was not a believer, but they 
believed who brought him, and let him down 
through the tiles?: for the sick man's soul 
shared the sickness of his body. And think 
not that I accuse him without cause : the 
Gospel itself says, tvhen Jesus sa7v, not his 
faith, but their faith. He saith to the sick of the 
palsy, Arise^ / The bearers believed, and the 
sick of the palsy enjoyed the blessing of the 

9. Wouldest thou see yet more surely that 
some are saved by others' faith ? Lazarus 
died 9 : one day had passed, and a second, and 
a third ; his sinews ^ were decayed, and cor- 
ruption was preying already upon his body. 
How could one four days dead believe, and 
entreat the Redeemer on his own behalf? 
But what the dead man lacked was supplied 
by his true sisters. For when the Lord was 
come, the sister fell down before Him, and 
when He said, Where have ye laid him 'f and 
she had made answer. Lord, by this time he 
stiiiketh ; for he hath been four days dead, the 
Lord said, If thou believe, thou shalt see the 
glory of God ; as much as saying. Supply thou 
the dead man's lack of faith : and the sisters' 
faith had so much power, that it recalled the 
dead from the gates of hell. Have then 
men by believing, the one on behalf of the 
other, been able to raise- the dead, and shalt 
not thou, if thou believe sincerely on thine 
own behalf, be much rather profited ? Nay, 
even if thou be faithless, or of little faith, the 
Lord is loving unto man ; He condescends 
to thee on thy repentance : only on thy part 
say with honest mind. Lord, I beli:ve, help thou 
inijie unbelief 'i. But if thou thinkest that thou 

S Mark xiv. 31. 6 lb. 32. 

7 Mark ii. 4. 8 Matt. ix. 2, 6. 9 John xi. 14 — 44. 

' veOpa. "Sinews" is the original meaning, the application 
to " nerves," as distinct organs of sen'iation, being later, 

' For ava.<jTr[va.i , retained by the Benedictine Editor and 
Reischl, read\(ja.i, with Roe, Casaubon, and Alexundrides. 

3 Mark ix. 24, 

really art faithful, but hast not yet the fulness 
of faith, thou too hast need to say like the 
Apostles, Lord, increase our faith'' : for some 
part thou hast of thyself, but the greater part 
thou receivest from Him. 

10. For the name of Faith is in the form of 
speech s one, but has two distinct senses. For 
there is one kind of faith, the dogmatic, in- 
volving an assent of the soul on some particular 
point : and it is profitable to the soul, as the 
Lord saith : He that heareth Aly words, and 
believeth Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life, 
and Cometh not into judgment ^ : and again, He 
that believeth in the Son is not judged, but hath 
passed from death unto lifcT. Oh the great loving- 
kindness of God ! For the righteous were 
many years in pleasing Him : but what they 
succeeded in gaining by many years of well- 
pleasing ^, this Jesus now bestows on thee in 
a single hour. For if thou shalt believe that 
Jesus Christ is Lord, and that God raised Him 
from the dead, thou shalt be saved, and shalt 
be transported into Paradise by Him who 
brought in thither the robber. And doubt not 
whether it is possible ; for He who on this 
sacred Golgotha saved the robber after one 
single hour of belief, the same shall save thee 
also on thy believing 9. 

11. But there is a second kind of faith, 
which is bestowed by Christ as a gift of grace. 
For to one is given through the Spirit the word 
of wisdom, and to another the word of know- 
ledge according to the sa7ne Spirit: to another 
faith, by the satne Spirit, and to another gijts 
of healing^. This faith then which is given of 
grace from the Spirit is not merely doctrinal, 
but also worketh things above man's power. 
For whosoever hath this faith, shall say to 
this ?nountain, Remove hence to yonder place, 
and it shall 7-emove =. For whenever any one 
shall say this in faith, believing that it cometh 
to pass, and shall not doubt in his heart, 
then receiveth he the grace. 

And of this faith it is said, If ye have faith 
as a grain of mustard seed'^. For just as the 
grain of mustard seed is small in size, but 
fiery in its operation, and though sown in a 
small space has a circle of great branches, 
and when grown up is able even to shelter 
the fowls 4 ; so, likewise, faith in the swiftest 
moment works the greatest effects in the 

4 Luke xvli. 5. 

5 Kara Tr\v irpocnj-yopiaf . Compare Aristotle, Ciitegories, V. 30 : 
Tw (TX'\V-°-''<- '■'i^ TTpotTTj-yopias. Cyril's description of faith as two- 
fold, and of dogmatic faith as an assent (cruyKaTciyeo-is) of the soul 
to something as credible, seems to be derived from Clement uf 
Alexandria, Strom. II. c. 12. Compare by all means Pearson 
on the Creed, Art. I. and his Notes a, b, c. 

6 John V. 24. 7 lb. iii. 18 ; v. 24. 

8 evapeo-T>;o-eaj?, Bened. and Reischl, with best MSS. Milles 
and the earlier editions have epeuinio-eios, " searching.'' 

9 Luke xxiii. 43 ; the argument is used again in Cat. xiii. 31. 

« I Cor. xii. 8, 9. * Mark xi. 23. 3 Matt. xvii. 20. 

4 Matt. xiii. 32. 



soul. For, when enlightened by faith, the soul 
hath visions of God, and as far as is possible 
beholds God, and ranges round the bounds of 
the universe, and before the end of this world 
already beholds the Judgment, and the payment 
of the promised rewards. Have thou therefore 
that faith in Him which cometh from thine own 
self, that thou mayest also receive from Him 
that faith which worketh things above man 5. 

12. But in learning the Faith and in profess- 
ing it, acquire and keep that only, which is 
now delivered^ to thee by the Church, and 
which has been built up strongly out of all the 
Scriptures. For since all cannot read the Scrip- 
tures, some being hindered as to the knowledge 
of them by want of learning, and others by 
a want of leisure, in order that the soul may 
not perish from ignorance, we comprise the 
whole doctrine of the Faith in a few lines. 
This summary I wish you both to commit to 
memory when I recite it 7, and to rehearse 
it with all dihgence among yourselves, not 
writing it out on paper ^, but engraving it by 
the memory upon your hearts, taking care 
while you rehearse it that no Catechumen 
chance to overhear the things which have 
been delivered to you. I wish you also to 
keep this as a provision ' through the whole 
course of your life, and beside this to receive 
no other, neither if we ourselves should change 
and contradict our present teaching, nor if an 

5 S. Chrysostom (Horn. xxix. in i Cor. xii. 9, 10) in like 
manner distinguishes dogmatic faith from the faith which is "the 
mother of miracles." The former S. Cyril calls our own, not 
meaning that God's help is not needed for it, but because, as he 
has shewn in § 10, it consists in the mind's assent, and voluntary 
approval of the doctrines set before it : but the latter is a pyre 
gift of grace working in man without his own help. Compare 
Apostolic Co7istitutions, VIII. c. i. 

6 This Lecture whs to be immediately followed by a first reci- 
t.-.tion of the Creed. See Index, Creed. 

7 k-n av-riji ngs Xe'feio5. "in ipsa lectione" (Milles): " ipsis 
verbis" (Bened.): " in the very phrase" (R. \V. C.). See below, 
note 4. 

8 Compare S. August. Serm. ccxii., " \t the delivery of the 
Creed," and Index, Creed. 

9 Compare Aeschylus, Proynethevs V. 789 : y\v iyypd<j>ov aii 
txtn'jfioatu de'ATOt? (fipevojy, 

' i(j>6Stov, yiaticuin, i.e. provision for a journey, and here for 
the journey through this life. It is applied metaphorically by 
other Fathers (a) in this general sense, to the reading of Holy 
Scripture, Prayer, and Baptism, and (b)in a special sense to the 
Holy Eucharist when administered to the sick and dying, as 
a preparation for departure to the life after death. Council of 
Nicaea (a.d. 325'), Canon xiii. "With respect to the dying, the 
old rule of the Church should continue to be observed, which 
forbids that any one who is on the point of death should be 
deprived of the last and most necessary viaticum (e^oSiovJ." 

adverse angel, trans-formed into an angel of lii^^hf^, 
should wish to lead you astray. For though 
we or an angel from heaven preach to you any 
other gospel than that ye have received, let him 
be to you anathema 3. So for the present listen 
while I simply say the Creed 4, and commit it 
to memory ; but at the proper season expect 
the Confirmation out of Holy Scripture of each 
part of the contents. For the articles of the 
Faith were not composed as seemed good to 
men ; but the most important points collected 
out of all the Scripture make up one complete 
teaching of the Faith. And just as the mus- 
tard seed in one small grain contains many 
branches, so also this Faith has embraced in 
few words all the knowledge of godliness in 
the Old and New Testaments. Take heed 
then, brethren, and hold fast the traditions^ 
which ye now receive, and write them on the 
table of your heart ^. 

13. Guard them with reverence, lest per 
chance the enemy despoil any who have 
grown slack ; or lest some heretic pervert any 
of the truths delivered to you. For faith is 
like putting money into the bank?, even as 
we have now done ; but from you God requires 
the accounts of the deposit. / charge you, as 
the Apostle saith, before God, 7uho quickeneth 
all things, and Christ Jesus, who before Pontius 
Pilate -loitnessed the good confession, that ye keep 
this fLiith which is committed to you, without 
spot, 7/ntil the appearing of our Lord Jesus 
Christ^. A treasure of life has now been com- 
mitted to thee, and the Master demandeth the 
deposit at His appearing, which in His own 
times Be shall shew, Who is the blessed and only 
Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords ; 
Who only hath iininortality, dtuelting in light 
which no man can opproach unto ; Whom no 
man hath seen nor can see. To Whofn be 
glory, honour^ atid power ^ for ever and ever. 

a 2 Cor. xi. t4. 3 Gal. i. 8, 9. 

4 eir' aviTijs Tij? Xe'ffco?. (Bened. Reischl. with best MSS.>. 
TauTT|5 TT^s Ae'feius, '"this my recitation,"_(JMilles). 

5 2 Thess. ii. 15. Compare Cat. xxiii. 23. 

6 Prov. vii. 3. Note o, above. 

7 Matt. XXV. 27 ; Luke xix. 23. See note on Catech. vi. 36 : 
" Be th"U a good banker." 

8 t Tim. V. 21 ; vi. 13, 14. • i Tim. vi. 15, 16. 


Concerning the Unity of God'. On the Article, I Believe in One 

God. Also concerning Heresies. 

Isaiah xlv. i6, 17. (Sept.) 

Sanctify yourselves unto Me, O islands. Israel is saved by the Lord with an everlasting 
salvation ; they shall not be ashamed, neither shall they be confounded for ever, &=€. 

1. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord 
fesus Christ^. Blessed also be His Only-begot- 
ten Son 3. For with the thought of God let 
the thought of Father at once be joined, that 
the ascription of glory to the Father and the 
Son may be made indivisible For the Father 
hath not one glory, and the Son another, but 
one and the same, since He is the Father's 
Only-begotten Son ; and when the Father is 
glorified, the Son also shares the glory with 
Him, because the glorv of the Son hows from 
His Father's honour : and again, when the Son 
is glorified, the Father of so great a bless- 
ing is highly honoured. 

2. Now though the mind is most rapid in its 
thoughts, yet the tongue needs words, and a 
long recital of intermediary speech. For the 
eye embraces at once a multitude of the 

' Ilept 0COU Moi'ttpyias. The word fxovapxia, as used by Plato 
{Polii. 291 c), Aristotle {^Polit. III. xiv. ii. tlSos \i.ovapxia.^ 
^aijiAtK-q?), Philo Judaeus i^de Circumcisione, § 2 ; a'^ Monarchia, 
Titul.), means "sole government." Compare TertuUian (adv. 
Praxean. c. iii.): "If I have gained any knowledge of either 
language, I am sure that 'Hiovapxia. has no other meaning than 
'single and individual rule."' Athanasius (de Decretis Niccenip 
Synadi, § 26) has preserved part of an Epistle of Dionysius, Bishop 
ot Rome (259 — 269, A.D.), against the Sabellians : "It will be 
natural for me now to speak against those who divide, and cut into 
pieces, and destroy that most sacred doctrine of the Church of God, 
the Monarchia, making it, as it were, three powers and divided 
hypostases, and three Godheads :" {ibid.) : " It is the doctrineof the 
presumptuous Marcion to sever and divide the Monarchia into 
three origins (cipxas)." We see here the sense which Tsiovapxi-a 
had acquired in Christian Theology : it meant the " Unity of God," 
as the one principle and origin of all things. " By the Monarchy 
is meant the doctrine that the Second and Third Persons in the 
Ever-ble.ssed Trinity are ever to be referred in our thoughts to the 
First, as the Fountain of Godhead" (Newman, Athanas. de De- 
cretis Nic. Syn. § 26, note h). Justin Martyr (Euseb. H.E. IV. 
18), and Irenaius (ibid. V. 20), had each written a treatise Trepl 
Moi/apxt'as. On the history of Monarchianism see, in this Series, 
Aihanasius, Prolegomena, p. xxiii. sgq. 2 2 Cor. i. 3. 

3 This clause is omitted in some MSS. Various forms of the 
Doxology were adopted in Cj'ril's time by various parties in the 
Church. Thus Theodoret [Hist. Bccles. II. c. 19) relates that 
Leontius, Bishop of Antioch, a.d. 318 — 357, observing that the 
Clergy and the Congregation were divided into two parties, the 
one using the form '•and to the Sun, and to the Holy Ghost," the 
other "through the Son, in the Holy Ghost," used to repeat the 
Doxology silently, so that those who were near could hear only 
"world without end." 

The form which was regarded as the most orthodox, and adopted 
in the Liturgies, ran thus : "Glorv to the Father, and to the Son 

and to the Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to the ages of the ages." 
See Suicer's Thesaurus, AofoAo-yi'o. 

' Starry quire ; ' but when any one wishes to 
describe them one by one, which is the Morn- 
ing-star, and which, the Evening-star, and 
which each one of them, he has need of many 
words. In like manner again the mind in the 
briefest moment compasses earth and sea and 
all the bounds of the universe ; but what it 
conceives in an instant, it uses many words to 
describe ■*. Yet forcible as is the example I 
have mentioned, still it is after all weak and 
inadequate. For of God we speak not all we 
ought (for that is known to Him only), but so 
much as the capacity of human nature has 
received, and so much as our weakness can 
bear. For we explain not what God is 
but candidly confess that we have not exact 
knowledge concerning Him. For in what 
concerns God to confess our ignorance is 
the best knowledges. Therefore magnify the 
Lord with me, and let 7(s exalt His Name 
together'^, — all of us in common, for one alone is 
powerless ; nay rather, even if we be all united 
together, we shall yet not do it as we ought. 
I mean not you only who are here present, 
but even if all the nurslings of the whole 
Church throughout the world, both that which 
now is and that which shall be, should meet 
together, they would not be able worthily to 
sing the praises of their Shepherd. 

3. A great and honourable man was Abra- 

4 Irenaeus II. xxviii. 4 : " But since God is all mind, all re.i.son, 
all active Spirit, all light, and always exists as one and the same, 
such conditions and divisions (of operation) cannot fittingly be as- 
cribed to Him. For our tongue, as heing made of Hesh, is not 
able to minister to the rapidity of man's sense, because that is 
of a spiritual nature ; for which reason our speech is restrained 
(suffocatur) within us, and is not at once expressed as it has bean 
conceived in the mind, but is uttered by successive efforts, just as 
the tongue is able to serve it." 

5 TertuUian, Apologeticiis, § 17 : '' That which is infinite is 
known only to itself. This it is which gives some notion of God, 
while yet beyond all our conceptions — our very incapacity of fully 
grasping Him affords us the idea of what He really is. He is 
presented to our minds in His transcendent greatness, as at once 
known and unknown." Cf. Phil. Jud. de Monarch. I. 4 ; Hooker, 
Eccles. Pol. I. ii. 3 : "Whom although to know be life, and joy 
to make mention of His name ; yet our soundest knowledge is to 
know that we know Him not as He is, neither can know Him." 

6 Ps. xxxiv. 3. 





ham, but only great in comparison with men ; 
and when he came before God, then speaking 
the truth candidly he saith, / am earth and 
ashesT. He did not say ^ earth,' and then 
cease, lest he should call himself by the name 
of that great element ; but he added ' and 
ashes,' that he might represent his perishable 
and frail nature. Is there anything, he saith, 
smaller or lighter than ashes? For take, saith 
he, the comparison of ashes to a house, of 
a house to a city, a city to a province, a pro- 
vince to the Roman Empire, and the Roman 
Empire to the whole earth and all its bounds, 
and the whole earth to the heaven in which it 
is embosomed ; — the earth, which bears the 
same proportion to the heaven as the centre 
to the whole circumference of a wheel, for the 
earth is no more than this in comparison with 
the heaven^: consider then that this first 
heaven which is seen is less than the second, 
and the second than the third, for so far 
Scripture has named them, not that they are 
only so many, but because it was expedient 
for us to know so many only. And when in 
thought thou hast surveyed all the heavens, 
not yet will even the heavens be able to 
praise God as He is, nay, not if they should 
resound with a voice louder than thunder. 
But if these great vaults of the heavens can- 
not worthily sing God's praise, when shall 
' earth and ashes,' the smallest and least of 
things existing, be able to send up a worthy 
hymn of praise to God, or worthily to speak 
of God, that sitteth iip07i the circle of the earth, 
and holdeth the inhabitants thereof as grass- 
hoppers 9. 

4. If any man attempt to speak of God, let 
him first describe the bounds of the earth. 
Thou dwellest on the earth, and the limit of 
this earth which is thy dwelling thou knowest 
not: how then shalt thou be able to form 
a worthy thought of its Creator? Thou be- 
holdest the stars, but their Maker thou be- 
holdest not : count these which are visible, 
and then describe Him who is invisible, Who 
telleth the number of the stars, and calleth 
them all by their names \ Violent rains lately 
came pouring down upon us, and nearly 
destroyed us : number the drops in this city 
alone : nay, I say not in the city, but number 
the drops on thine own house for one single 
hour, if thou canst : but thou canst not. 
Learn then thine own weakness ; learn from 
this instance the mightiness of God : for He 

7 Gen. xviii. 27. 

8 'I'he opinion of Aristarchus of Samos, as stated by .\rchimedes 
(^Arenarius, p. 320, Oxoii), was that the sphere of the fixed stars 
was so large, that it bore to the earth's orbit the same proportion 
as a sphere to its centre, or more correctly (as Archimedes ex- 
plains) the same proportion as the earth's orbit round the sun to 
the earth itself. Compare Cat. xv. 24. 

9 Is. xl. 22. * Ps. cxlvii. 4. 

hath numbered the drops of rain ^, which have 
been poured down on all the earth, not only 
now but in all time. The sun is a work of 
God, which, great though it be, is but a spot 
in comparison with the whole heaven ; first 
gaze stedfastly upon the sun, and then curiously 
scan the Lord of the sun. Seek not the things 
that are too deep for thee, neither search out the 
things that are above thy strength : what is com- 
manded thee, think thereupon 3. 

5. But some one will say. If the Divine 
substance is incomprehensible, why then dost 
thou discourse of these things ? So then, 
because I cannot drink up all the river, am 
I not even to take in moderation what is 
expedient for me ? Because with eyes so 
constituted as mine I cannot take in all the 
sun, am I not even to look upon him enough 
to satisfy my wants ? Or again, because I 
have entered into a great garden, and cannot 
eat all the supply of fruits, wouldst thou have 
me go away altogether hungry? I praise and 
glorify Him that made us ; for it is a divine 
command which saith, Let every breath praise 
the Lord^. I am attempting now to glorify 
the Lord, but not to describe Him, know- 
ing nevertheless that 1 shall fall short of 
glorifying Him worthily, yet deeming it a work 
of piety even to attempt it at all. For the Lord 
Jesus encourageth my weakness, by saying, 
No man hath seeyi God at any time s. 

6. What then, some man will say, is it 
not written, The little ones' Angels do always 
behold the face of My Father which is in heavefi^ 1 
Yes, but the Angels see God not as He is, but 
as far as they themselves are capable. For it 
is Jesus Himself who saith, Not that any man 
hath seen the Father, save He which is of God, 
He hath seen the Father ?. The Angels therefore 
behold as much as they can bear, and Arch- 
angels as much as they are able ; and Thrones 
and Dominions more than the former, but yet 
less than His worthiness : for with the Son 
the Holy Ghost alone can rightly behold Him : 
for He searcheth all things, and kno7ucth even the 
deepthingsofGod^: as indeed the Only-begotten 
Son also, with the Holy Ghost, knoweth the 
Father fully : For neither, saith He, kno:oeth 
any man the Father, save the Son, and he to 
whom the Son will reveal Him 9. For He 
fully beholdeth, and, according as each can 
bear, revealeth God through the Sjiirit :. since 
the Only-begotten Son together with the Holy 
Ghost is a partaker of the Father's Godheaa, 

8 Job xxxvi. 27 : (ipiS/ni)Tai Se avTw oTayoi/c? vctov. R.V. For 
He drau'cth up tin: diops of water. 

3 Kfcli;s. iii. 21, 22. 4 Ps. cl. 6. 

5 John i. 18. They are the Evangelist's own words. 

6 Matt, xviii. 10. 7 John vi. 46. ^ i Cor. ii. 10. 

9 Matt. xi. 27. 



He, who' was begotten knoweth Him who 
begat; and He Who begat knoweth Him who 
is begotten. Since Angels then are ignorant 
(for to each according to his own capacity 
doth the Only-begotten reveal Him through 
the Holy Ghost, as we have said), let no 
man be ashamed to confess his ignorance. 
I am speaking now, as all do on occasion : 
but how we speak, we cannot tell : how then 
can I declare Him who hath given us speech? 
I who have a soul, and cannot tell its distinc- 
tive properties, how shall I be able to de- 
scribe its Giver ? 

7. For devotion it suffices us simply to 
know that we have a God ; a God who is 
One, a living 2, an ever-living God ; always 
like unto Himself 3 ; who has no Father, none 
mightier than Himself, no successor to thrust 
Him out from His kingdom : Who in name 
is manifold, in power- infinite, in substance 
uniform! For though He is called Good, 
and Just, and Almighty and Sabaoth s, He 
is not on that account diverse and various ; 
but being one and the same, He sends forth 
countless operations of His Godhead, not 
exceeding here and deficient there, but being 
in all things like unto Himself. Not great 
in loving-kindness only, and little in wisdom, 
but with wisdom and loving -kindness in 
equal power : not seeing in part, and in part 
devoid of sight ; but being all eye, and all 
ear, and all mind^: not like us perceiving in 
part and in part not knowing ; for such a 
statement were blasphemous, and unworthy 
of the Divine substance. He foreknoweth 
the things that be ; He is Holy, and Almighty, 
and excelleth all in goodness, and majesty, 
and wisdom : of Whom we can declare neither 
beginning, nor form, nor shape. For je have 
neither heard His voice at any time, ?ior seen 
His shape 7, saith Holy Scripture. Wherefore 
Moses saith also to the Israelites : And take 
ye good heed to your own souls; for ye saia no 
similitude^. For if it is wholly impossible to 

' The Benedictine and earlier printed texts read 6 yivvyfie\% 
[aTraSii; irpb tmv xpoi'ioi' a.\{oiiu>v\ : but tile words in brackets are 
not found in the best MSS. The false grammar betrays a spurious 
insertion, which also interrupts the sense. On the meaning of the 
phrase 6 •yei'i'Tjdets aTTu^to?, see note on vii. 5 : ou TrdSet irarijp 
yet'o^evos. ^ Gr. oi'Ta, del oi/ra. 

3 Iren. II. xiii. 3 : " He is altogether like and equal to Him- 
self ; since He is all sense, and all spirit, and all feeling, and all 
thought, and all reason, and all hearing, and all ear, and all eye, 
and all light, and all a fount of every good, — even as the religious 
and pious are wont to speak of God." 

4 (jLoi/oeiOTJ. A Platonic word. PfuEiio, 80 B : Tip ^j-iv Sfi'u) ical 
d0a^'dTa» Kui, votjtoj Kat \i.ovoti^i1 k<x\. dStaAuro) Kat del wtrauraj? 
Kurd rd aurd e;(oi'TC eauTip b^LoidraTOC eij'at 'ifv\'\v. See Index, 

5 Iren. II. xxxv. 3 : "If any object that in the Hebrew lan- 
guage different expressions occur, such as Sabaoth, Eloe, Adonai, 
and all other such terms, striving to prove Irom these that there 
are different powers and Gods, let them learn that all e.vpressions 
of this kind are titles and announcements ot one and the same 

See the passages cf Irenaeus quoted above, § 2 note 4, and § 7 
note 3. 7 John v. 37. 8 Deut. iv. 15. 

imagine His likeness, how shall thought come 
near His substance ? 

8. There have been many imaginations by 
many persons, and all have failed. Some 
have thought that God is fire ; others that He 
is, as it were, a man with wings, because of a 
true text ill understood, Thoti shalt hide me 
under the shadow of Thy wings 9. They forgot 
that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten, 
speaks in like manner concerning Himself to 
Jerusalem, Hoiv often would I have gathered 
thy children together, even as a hen doth gather 
her chickens under her wings, and ye would 
not '°. For whereas God's protecting power was 
conceived as wing.s, they failing to understand 
this sank down to the level of things human, 
and supposed that the Unsearchable exists in 
the likeness of man. Some again dared to say 
that He has seven eyes, because it is written, 
seven eyes of the Lord looking upon the wJiole 
earth '. For if He has but seven eyes surround- 
ing Him in part, His^seeing is therefore partial 
and not perfect : but to say this of God is 
blasphemous ; for we must believe that God 
is in all things perfect, according to our 
Saviour's word, which saith. Your Father in 
heaven is perfect^ : perfect in sight, perfect in 
power, perfect in greatness, perfect in fore- 
knowledge, perfect in goodness, perfect in 
justice, perfect in loving-kindness : not circum- 
scribed in any space, but the Creator of all 
space, existing in all, and circumscribed by 
none 3. Heaven is His throne, but higher is He 
that sitteth thereon : and earth is His footstool'^, 
but His power reacheth unto things under the 

9. One He is, every where present, beholding 
all things, perceiving all things, creating all 
things through Christ : For all things were 
made by Him, and 7vithout Him was not 
anything niade^. A fountain of every good, 
abundant and unfailing, a river of blessings, an 
eternal light of never-failing splendour, an 
insuperable power condescending to our in- 
firmities : whose very Name we dare not hear^ 
Wilt thou find a footstep of the Lordl saith 
Job, or hast thou attained unto the least things 
which the Almighty hath made t 1 If the least of 
His works are incomprehensible, shall He be 

9 Ps. xvii. 8. '° Matt, xxiii. 37. 

I Zech. iv. 10. 2 Matt. v. 48. 

3 Philo Judseus [Leg. Alleg. I. 14, p. 52). ©eoO ydp ov5e o 
(nJ/x7ras koct/lio? dftor av tlf) x^P^^^ '^^'- ^i'6tatrTj/xa, ejrel avro"; 
iavTiZ -r^TTos. So Sir Isaac Newton, at the end of the Principia, 
asserts t"at God by His eternal and infinite existence constitutes 
Time and Space: " Non est duratio vel spatium, sed durat et 
adest, et existendo semper et ubique spatium et durationem con- 
stituit." 4 Is. Ixvi. I. 5 John i. 3. 

6 The sacred name (flin^) ^^^ °°' pronounced, but Adonai 
was substituted. 

7 Job xi. 7 (R.V.): Canst thou by searchitig find out God'? 
Canst thoiifind out tJie Almighty tinto perfection ? Cyril seems 
to have understood to. ecrxcxra as " the least," not as "' the utmost." 

D 2 



comprehended who made them all ? Eye hath 
not see/i, and ear hath fiot heard, neither have 
entered into the heart of man, the thins^s zvhich 
God hath prepared for them that love Him ^. If 
the things which God hath prepared are 
incomprehensible to our thoughts, how can we 
comprehend with our mind Himself who hath 
prepared them ? O the depth of the riches, and 
wisdom, and knoickdge of God! Ho%v Ufi- 
searcliable are His judgments, and His ways 
past finding out "^ I saith the Apostle. If His 
judgments and His ways are incomprehensible, 
can He Himself be comprehended? 

ID. God then bemg thus great, and yet 
greater, (for even were 1 to change my whole 
substance into tongue, I could not speak His 
excellence : nay more, not even if all Angels 
should assemble, could they ever speak His 
worth), God being therefore so great in good- 
ness and mnjesty, mnn hath yet dared to say to 
a stone that he hath graven, Thou art my God ^° J 
O monstrous blindness,, that from majesty 
so great came down so low ! The tree which 
was planted by God, and nourished by the 
rain, and afterwards burnt and turned into 
ashes by the fire, — this is addressed as God, 
and the true God is despised. But the 
wickedness of idolatry grew yet more prodigal, 
and cat, and dog, and wolf' were worshipped 
instead of God : the man-eating lion ^ also was 
worshipped instead of God, the most loving 
friend of man. The snake and the serpent 3, 
counterfeit of him who thrust us out of 
Paradise, were worshipped, and He who 
planted Paradise was despised. And I am 
ashamed to say, and yet do say it, even onions * 
were worshipped among some. Wine was given 
to make glad the heart of man^ : and Dionysus 
(Bacchus) was worshipped instead of God. 
God made corn by saying, Let the earth bring 
forth grass, yielding seed after his kind and after 
his likeness °, that bread 7nay strengthen man's 
heart T : why then was Demeter (Ceres) wor- 

8 I Cor. ii. 9. 9 Rom xi. 33. 'o Is. xliv. 17. 

' The cat was sacred to the goddess Pasht, called by the 
Greeks Bui aslis, and identified by Herodotus (ii. 137) with Ar- 
temis or Diana. Cats were embalmed after de.itli, and their 
mummies are found at various places, but especially at Bubastis 
{/fercd. ii 67). 

" 'ri.e Oogs are interred in the cities to which they belonir, 
in sacred burial-places" {Herod, ii. 67), but chiefly at Cyiiopolis 
("City of Dogs") where the dog-heuded deity Anubis was wor- 

Mummies of wolves are found in chambers excavated in the 
rocks at Lycopolis, where Osiris was worshipped under the symbol 
of a wolf. 

■ The lion was held sacred at T.eontopolis (Strabo, xvii. p. 812). 

3 " In the neighbourhood of Thebes there are sacred serpents 
perfectly harmless to man. These they bury in the temple of 
Zeus, the god to whom they are sacred " {//erod. ii. 74.) 

At Epidaurus in Argolis the serpent was held sacred as the 
symbol of Aesculapius. Clement of Alexandria {Exhort, c. ii.) 
givedf a fuller list of animals worshipped by various nations. Com- 
pare also dement. Recogn, V. 20. 

4 Juvenal Sat. xv. 7. 

Illi: aeluios, hie piscem fluminis, illic 
f)ppi<la tota canem veno—intur, nemo Dianam. 
Possum et cacpe nefas xio'are et Irangere niorsu. 

5 Ps. civ. IS. * Gen. i. 11. 7 Ps. civ. 15. 

shipped ? Fire cometh forth from striking stones 
together even to this day : how then was 
Hephaestus (Vulcan) the creator of fire? 

11. Whence came the polytheistic error of 
the Greeks ^? God has no body : whence then 
the adulteries alleged among those who are by 
them called gods ? I say nothing of the trans- 
formations of Zeus into a swan : I am ashamed 
to speak of his transformations into a bull : for 
bellowings are unwortliy of a god. The god 
of the Greeks has been found an adulterer, yet 
are they not ashamed : for if he is an adul- 
terer let him not be called a god. They tell 
also of deaths 9, and falls', and thunder- 
strokes 2 of their gods. Seest thou from how 
great a height and how low they have fallen ? 
Was it without reason then that the Son of 
God came down from heaven ? or was it 
that He might heal so great a wound ? 
Was it without reason that the Son came ? 
or was it in order that the Father might 
be acknowledged ? Thou hast learned what 
moved the Only-begotten to come down 
from the throne at God's right hand. The 
Father was despised, the Son must needs 
correct the error: for He THROUGH 
must bring them all as offerings to the Lord 
of all. The wound must be healed : for what 
could be worse than this disease, that a stone 
should be worshipped instead of God ? 

Of Heresies. 

12. And not among the heathen only did 
tlie devil make these assaults ; for many of 
those wlio are falsely called Christians, and 
wrongfully addressed by the sweet name of 
Christ, have ere now impiously dared to 
banish God from His own creation. I mean 
the brood of heretics, those most ungodly men 

8 The early Creeds of the Eastern Churches, like that which 
Eusebius of Csesarea proposed at Nica;a, expressly declare the 
unity of God, in opposition both to the heathen Polytheism, and to 
the various heresies which introduced two or more Gods. See 
below in this Lecture, §§ 12 — 18 ; and compare Athan. (contra 
Cen.'es, § 6, sqg.). 

9 Clement of Alexandria {Exhort, cap. ii. § 37), quotes a pas- 
sage Irom a hymn of Callimachus, implying the death of Zeus : 

'• For even ihy tomi), O king, 
The Cretans fashioned." 
Adonis, or "Thammuz yearly wounded," was said to live and 
die in alternate years. 

1 By the word "falls" (a7r07rT<i<rcis) Cyril evidently refers to 
the s;ory of Hcphsestus, or Vulcan, to which Milion alludes 
{Paradise Lost,!. ^40): — 

" Men call'd him Mulcibcr, and how he fell 
From heaven they fabled, thrown by an^^ry Jove 
Sheer o'er the crystal battlements : from morn 
To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve, 
A summer's day." 

2 The "thunder-strokes" refer to "Titan heaven's firstborn, 
With his enormous brood" {Pa7: Lost, I. 510). Cf. Virgil, 
AcK. vi. 580 : — 

" Hie crenns antiquum Terras, Titania pubes, 
Fulmine dejecti fundo volvuntur in imo." 
Ibid. ». 585:— 

" Vidi et crudeles dantem Salmonea poenas, 

Dum flammas Jovi- et sonitus imitatur Olympi." 
Clem. Alex. (Exhort. II. § 37) : — "' Aesonlaiiius lies struck with 
ligtitning in the regions uf Cynosuris." Cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 770 ss. 



of evil name, pretending to be friends of 
Christ but utterly hating Him. For he who 
blasphemes tiie Father of the Christ is an 
enemy of the Son. These men have dared to 
speak of two Godheads, one good and one 
evils! O monstrous blindness ! If a Godhead, 
then assuredly good. But if not good, why 
called a Godhead? For if goodness is an attri- 
bute of God ; if loving-kindness, beneficence, 
almighty power, are proper to God, then of 
two things one, either in calling Him God let 
the name and operation be united ; or if they 
would rob Him of His operations, let them 
not give Him the bare name. 

13. Heretics have dared to say that there 
are two Gods, and of good and evil two 
sources, and these unbegotten. If both are 
unbegotten it is certain that they are also 
equal, and both mighty. How then doth 
the light destroy the darkness? And do 
they ever exist together, or are they separ- 
ated ? Together they cannot be ; for what 
fellowship hath light with darkness ? saith 
the Apostle-*. But if they are far from each 
other, it is certain that they hold also each his 
own place ; and if they hold their own separate 
places, \ve are certainly in the realm of one 
God, and certainly worship one God. For 
thus w'e must conclude, even if w^e assent 
to their folly, that we must worship one 
God. Let us examine also what they say 
of the good God. Hath He power or no 
power? If He hath power, how did evil arise 
against His will? And how dolh the evil 
substance intrude, if He be not willing? For ^ 
if He knows but cannot hinder it, they charge ; 
Him with want of power ; but if He has the 
power, yet hinders not, they accuse Him of 
treachery. Mark too their want of sense. At 
one time they say that the Evil One hath no 
communion with the good God in the creation 
of the world , but at another time they say 
that he hath the fourth part only. Also they 
say that the good God is the Father of Christ , 
but Christ they call this sun. If, therefore, 
according to them, the world was made by the 
Evil One, and the sun is in the world, how is 
the Son of the Good an unwilling slave in the 
kingdom of the Evil ? We bemire ourselves 
in speaking of these things, but we do it lest 
any of those present should from ignorance 
fall into the mire of the heretics. I know 
that I have defiled my own mouth and the 

3 The theory of two Gods, one good and the other evil, was 
held by Cerdo, and Marcion (Hipp;.ilytiis, Refut. omnium Hcer. 
VII. cap. 17 : Ireiisus, III. .xxv. 3, quoted in note on Cat. iv. 4). 
The M.michees also held that the Creator of the world was dis- 
tinct from the Supreme God (Alexander Lycop. de Maniclueorum 
^enientiis, cap. iii.). 

4 2 Cor. vi. 14. Cyril's description applies especially to the 
heresy of Manes. See § 36, noie 3, at the end of this Lecture; 
also Cat. xi. 21. and Cat. xv. 3. 

ears of my listeners : yet it is expedient. 
For it is much better to hear absurdities 
charged against others, than to fall into them 
from ignorance : far better that thou know 
the mire and hate it, than unawares fall into it. 
For the godless system of the heresies is a 
road with many branches, and whenever a man 
has strayed from the one straight way, then he 
falls down precipices again and again. 

14. The inventor of all heresy was Simon 
Magus 5 : that Simon, who in the Acts of tlie 
Apostles thought to purchase with money the 
unsaleable grace of the Spirit, and heard the 
words. Thou hast neither part ?ior lot in this 
matter'^, and the rest : concerning whom also it 
is written, Thej went out fro ?n us, but they were 
not of us; for if they had beeti of us, they would 
have remained with ust. This man, after he 
had been cast out by the Apostles, came to 
Rome, and gaining over one Helena a harlot^, 
was the first that dared with blasphemous 
mouth to say that it was himself who appeared 
on Mount Sinai as the Father, and afterwards 
appeared among the Jews, not in real flesh 
but in seeming9, as Christ Jesus, and afterwards 
as the Holy Spirit whom Christ promised to 
send as the Paraclete '°. And he so deceived 
the City of Rome that Claudius set up his 
statue, and wrote beneath it, in the language 
of the Romans, " Simoni Deo Sancto," which 
being interpreted signifies, " To Simon the 
Holy God \" 

5 So Irenaeus (I. xxiii. 2) says that "from this Simon of Samaria 

all kinds of heresies derive their origin." 

6 Acts viii. 18 — 21. 7 I John ii. 19. 

8 Irenaeus (I. xxiii. 2): " Having purchased from Tyre, a city 
of Phoenicia, a certain harlot named Helena, he used to carry lier 
about with him, declaring that this woman was the tirst conception 
of his mind, the mother of all, by whom in the beginning he 
conceived in his mind the creation of Angels and Archangels." 

5 Cf. Epiphan. {Hceres. p. 55, B) : " He said that he was the 

Son, and had not really s\iffered, but only in appearance (ooKrjaei)." 

•t' Irena;us (I. xxiii. i): " He taught that it was himself who 

appeared among the Jevvs as the Sou, and descended in Samaria 

as the Father, but came to other nations as the Holy Spirit. ' 

Cyril here departs from his authority by substituting Mount 
Sinai for Samaria, and thereby falls into error. Simon had first 
appeared in Samaria, being a native of Gitton : morei^ver in claim- 
ing to be the Father he meant to set himself far above the inierior 
Deity who had given the Law on Sinai, saying that he was " the 
highest of all Powers, that is the father who is over all." 

• "Justin Martyr in his tirst Apology, addressed to Antoninus 
Pius, writes thus (c. 26) : ' There was one Simon a Samaritan, 
of the village called Gitton, who in the reign of Claudius Ca;sar, 
and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty feats 01 magic by the 
art of daemons working in him. He was considered a god, and 
as a god was honoured among you with a statue, which statue 
was set up in the river Tiber between the two bridges, and hears 
this inscription in Latin : 

Simoni Deo Sancto; 
which is, 

To Simon the holy God. 

"The substance of this story is repeated by Irenseus (^adv. 
Hcer. I. xxiii. i), and by Tertullian ' Apol. c. 13), who reproaches 
the Romans for installing Simon Magus in their Pantheon, and 
giving him a statue and the title ' Holy God.' 

'' In A.D. 1574, a stone, which had formed the base of a statu;, 
was dug up on the site described by Justin, the Island in the Tioer, 
bearing an inscription — 'Seinoni Sanco Deo Fidio Sacrum, Arc' 
Hence it has been supposed that Justin mistook a statue of the 
Sabine God, ' Semo Saucus,' for one of Simcn JNIagus. See the 
notes in Otto's Justin Martyr, and Stieren's Iiena;us. 

" On the other hand Tillemont {Memoires, t. ii. p. 482) maintains 
that Justin in an Apology addressed to the emperor and written 
in Rome itself cannot reasonably be supposed to have fallen into 



15. As the delusion was extending, Peter 
and Paul, a noble pair, chief rulers of the 
Church, arrived and set the error right ^j and 
when the supposed god Simon wished to shew 
himself off, they straightway shewed him as a 
corpse. For Simon promised to rise aloft to 
heaven, and came riding in a daemons' chariot 
on the air ; but the servants of God fell on 
their knees, and having shewn that r.greement 
of which Jesus spake, that If two of you shall 
agi'ee conceniifig anything that they shall ask, 
it shall be done unto them 3, they launched the 
weapon of their concord in prayer against 
Magus, and struck him down to the earth. 
And marvellous though it was, yet no marvel. 
For Peter was there, who carrieth the keys of 
heaven 4 : and nothing wonderful, for Paul was 
there 5, who was caught up to the third heaven, 
and i7ito Paradise, and heard unspeakable words, 
7ohich it is not lawful for a man to utter ^. 
These brought the supposed God down from 
the sky to earth, thence to be taken down to 
the regions below the earth. In this man first 
the serpent of wickedness appeared; but when 
one head had been cut off, the root of wicked- 
ness was found again with many heads. 

1 6. For Cerinthus? made havoc of the Church, 
and Menander^, and Carpocrates^, Ebionites' 
also, and Marcion ^, that mouthpiece of ungod- 
liness. For he who proclaimed dift'erent 
gods, one the Good, the other the Just, 
contradicts the Son when He says, O righteous 

so manifest an error. Whichever view we takeof Justin's accuracy 
concerning the inscription and the statue, there is nothing im- 
probable in his statement that Simon Magus was at Rome in the 
reign of Claudius." (Extracted by permission from the Speaker's 
Commentary, Introduction to the Efiistle to the Romans, p. 4.) 

2 "Justin says not one word about St. Peter's alleged visit 
to Rome, and his encounter with Simon Magus." But " Eusebius 
in his Ecclesiastical History (c. a.d. 325), quotes Justin .Martyr's 
story about Simon Magus (E.H. ii. c. 13), and then, without re- 
ferring to any authority, goes on to assert (c. 14) that ' immedi- 
ately in the same reign of Claudius divine Providi-nce led Peterthe 
great Apusile to Rome to encounter this great destroyer of life,' 
and that he thus brought the light of the Gospel froiii the East to 
the West ' {ibitlein). 

Eusebius probably borrowed this story " from the strange fictions 
of the Clementine Recognitions and Homilies, and Apostolic Con- 
stitutions." See Recogn. III. 63-65; Horn. I. 15; III. 58; 
Apost. Constit. VI. 7, 8, 9. Cyril's account of Simon's death 
is taken from the same untrustworthy sources. 

3 Matt. .wiii. ig. 4 II). ,\vi. 19. 

5 It is certain that S. Paul was not at Rome at this time. This 
story of Simon Magus and his ' fiery car' is told, with v.irialions, 
by Arnobius (adv. Gentes, II. 12), and in Apost. Constit. VI. 9. 

6 2 Cor. .\ii. 2, 4. 

7 Cerinthus taught that the world was not made by the supreme 
God, but by a separate Power ignorant of Him. See Ircnxus, 
Har. I. -vxvi., Euseb. E.H ■ iii. 28, with the notes in this .Series. 

8 Menanderis first mentioned l<y Justin M (Apolo^. I. cap. 26): 
" Menander, also a Samaritan, of the town Cappareta:a, a disciple 
of Simon, and inspiied by devils, we know to have deceived many 
while he was in Antioch by his magical art. He persuaded those 
who adhered to him that they should never die." Irena;us 
(I. xxiii. 5) adds that Menander annoimced himself as the Saviour 
sent by the Invisibles, and taught that the world was created by 
Angels. See also Tertullian {de Animd, cap. 50.) , 

9 Carpocraies, a Platonic philosopher, who taught at Alexandria 
(k25 .\.u circ), held that the world and all things in it were made 
by Angels far inferior to the unbcgotten (unknown) Fatlier \Iren. 
I. XXV. I ; Tertullian, Adv. Ha-r. cap. 3). 

1 Irena;us. I. 26 : "Those who are called Ebionitcs agree that 
the world was made by God: but their opinions with respect 
to the Lord are like those of Cerinthus and Carpocrates." 

2 On Marcion, see note 5, on Cat. iv. 4. 

Father 'i. And he who says again that the 
Father is one, and the maker of the world 
another, opposes the Son when He says, If 
then God so clothes the grass of the field 7vhich 
to-day is, and to-morrow is cost into the fuj'uace 
of fire'' ; and. Who makcth His sun to rise on 
the evil and 07i the good, and sendcth rain on the 
just and on the unjusf^. Here again is a second 
inventor of more mischief, this Marcion. 
For being confuted by the testimonies from 
the Old Testament which are quoted in the 
New, he was the first who dared to cut those 
testimonies out^, and leave the preaching of 
the word of faith without witness, thus effacing 
the true God : and sought to undermine the 
Church's faith, as if there were no heralds 
of it. 

17. He again was succeeded by another, 
Basilides, of evil name, and dangerous cha- 
racter, a preacher of impurities 7. The contest 
of wickedness was aided also by Valentinus^, a 
preacher of thirty gods. The Greeks tell of but 
few : and the man who was called — but more 
truly was not — a Christian extended the delu- 
sion to full thirty. He says, too, that Bythus the 
Abyss (for it became him as being an abyss of 
wickedness to begin his teaching from the 
Abyss) begat Silence, . and of Siience begat 
the Word. This Bythus was worse than the 
Zeus of the Greeks, who was united to his 
sister : for Silence was said to be the child of 
Bythus. Dost thou see the absurdity invested 
with a show of Christianity ? Wait a little, 
and thou wilt be shocked at his imj)iety ; for 
he asserts that of this Bythus were begotten 
eight Aeons ; and of them, ten ; and of them, 
other twelve, male and female. But whence 
is the proof of these things? See their silli- 
ness from their fabrications. Whence hast 
thou the proof of the thirty Aeons ? Because, 
saith he, it is written, that Jesus was baptized, 

3 John xvii. 25. * Luke xii. 2S. 5 Matt. v. 45. 

' Marcion accepted only St. Luke's Gospel, and mutilated that 
(Terlullian, Adv. Marcion. iv. 2). He thus got rid of the testi- 
mony ol the Apiisilcs and eye-witnesses, Matthew and John, and 
represented the Law and the Gospel as contradictory revelations 
of two different Gods. For this Cyril calls him ' a second inventor 
of mischief,' Simon Magus (§ 14) being the first. 

7 Basilides was earlier than Marcion, being the founder of 
a Gnostic sect at Alexandria in thir reign of Hadrian (a.d. 117 — 
138). His doctrines are described by Ircna;us (I. xxvii. 3 — 7), 
and very fully by Hippolytus \Re/tit. o)nn. Hter. VJI. 2 — 15). 
The charge of teaching licentiousness att.iches rather to the later 
followers of Basilides than to Inmself or his son Isidorus (Clem. 
Alex. Stromal. III. cap. i). Basilides wrote a Commentary on 
the Gospel in 24 books (E.vfcetica), of which the 23rd is quoted 
by Clement of Alexandria {Stromal. IV. cap. 12), and against 
which .^.grippa Castor wrote a refutation. Origen (Horn. i. in 
Lucatn.) .says that Basilides wrote a Gospel bearing his own 
name. See Routh. Rell. Sacr. I., p. 85; V. p. 106 : Westcott, 
History 0/ Canon 0/ N. T. -v. § 3. 

» " The doctrines of Valeiitinus are described fully by Irenaius 
(I. cap. i.), from whom S. Cyril takes ibis accoimt. '' Valentinus, 
and Basilides, and Bardesanes, and Harnionius, and those of their 
company admit Christ's conception and birth of the Virgin, but 
say that God the Word received no addition frotn the Virgin, but 
made a sort of passage through her, as through a tube, and made 
use of a phantom in appearing to men." (Theodoret, Efist. 145.) 



being thirty years old'^. But even if He was 
baptized when thirty years old, what sort of 
demonstration is this from the thirty years ? 
Are there then five gods, because He brake 
five loaves among five thousand ? Or because 
he had twelve Disciples, must theie also be 
twelve gods ? 

1 8. And even this is still little compared with 
the impieties which follow. For the last of the 
deities being, as he dares to speak, both male 
and female, this, he says, is Wisdom '. What 
impiety ! Y ox the Wisdovi of God^ is Christ His 
Only-begotten Son : and he by his doctrine de- 
graded the Wisdom of God into a female ele- 
ment, and one of thirty, and the last fabrication. 
He also says that Wisdom attempted to behold 
the first God, and not bearing His brightness 
fell from heaven, and was cast out of her thirtieth 
place. Then she groaned, and of her groans 
begat the Devil 3, and as she wept over her fall 
made of her tears the sea. Mark the impiety. 
For of ^^'isdom how is the Devil begotten, and 
of prudence wickedness, or of light darkness? 
He says too that the Devil begat others, some 
of whom created the world : and that the 
Christ came down in order to make mankind 
revolt from the Maker of the world. 

19. But hear whom they say Christ Jesus to 
be, that thou mayest detest them yet more. 
For they say that after Wisdom had been cast 
down, in order that the number of the thirty 
might not be incomplete, the nine and twenty 
Aeons contributed each a little part, and 
formed the Christ 4 ; and they say that He also 
is both male and female^. Can anything be 
more impious than this? Anything more 
wretched? I am describing their delusion to 
thee, in order that thou mayest hate them the 
more Shun, therefore, their impiety, and do 
not even give greeting /<? ^ a man of this kind. 

9 Luke iii. 23. ' Irenseus I. ii. 2. 21 Cor. 1. 24. 

3 IrenjEus, 1. c, and Hippolytus, who gives an elaborate ac- 
count of the doctrines of V;ilentinus {L. VI. capp. xvi. — xxxii.), 
both represent Sophia, " Wisdom," as giving birth not to Satan, 
but to a shapeless abortion, which was the origin of matter. 
According to Irenseus (I. iv. 2), Achamoth, the enthymesis of 
Sophia, gave birth to the Demiurge, and " from her tears all that 
is of a liquid nature was formed." 

In Tertullian's Treatise against the Valeiitinians chap, xxii., 
Achamoth is said as by Cyril to have given biith to Satan : but 
in chap, xxiii. Satan seems to be identified (or interchanged) with 
the Demiurge. 

4 The account in Iren:Eus (I. ii. 6) is rather different: "The 
whole Pleroma of the Aeons, with one design and desire, and with 
the concurrence of the Christ and the Holy Spirit, their Father 
also setting the seal of His approval on their conduct, brought 
together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty 
and preciousness ; and uniting all these contributions so as skil- 
fully to blend the whole, they produced, to the honour and glofy of 
Bythus, a being of most perfect beauty, the very star of the 
Pleroma, and its perfect Iruit, namely Jesus." 

Tertullian, Against the Vateutinians, chap. 12, gives a sar- 
castic de>cription of this strange doctrine, deriving his facts 
(chap. 5) from Justin, Miltiades, " Irenaeus, that very exact 
inquirer into all doctrines," and Proculus. 

5 This statement does not agree with Irenaeus (I. vii. i), who 
says that the Valentiniaiis represented the Saviour, that is Jesus, 
as becoming the bridegroom of Achamoth or .Sophia. 

* 2 John 10, II : " Neither bid him God speed" (.\.V.) : "give 
him no greeting " (RV). 

lest thou h^e fellowship with the unfruitful 
7vorks of darkness 7 .• neither make curious in- 
quiries, nor be willing to enter into conversa- 
tion with them. 

20. Hate all heretics, but esiecially him 
who is rightly named after mania ^, who arose 
not long ago in the reign of Probus 9. Por the 
delusion began full seventy years ago % and 
there are men still living who saw him with 
their very eyes. But hate him not for this, 
that he lived a short time asjo ; but because of 
his impious doctrines hate thou the worker 
of wickedness, the receptacle of all filth, who 
gathered up the mire of every heresy ^ For 
aspiring to become pre-eminent among wicked 
men, he took the doctrines of all, and having 
combined them into one heresy filled with blas- 
phemies and all iniquity, he makes havoc of 
the Church, or rather of those outside the 
Church, roaming about like a lion and devour- 
ing. Heed not their fair speech, nor their 
supposed humility : for they are serpents, 
a generation of vipers'^. Judas too said Hail I 
Master''^ even while he was betraying Him. 
Heed not their kisses, but beware of their 

21. Now, lest I seem to accuse him without 
reason, let me make a digression to tell who 
this Manes is, and in part what he teaches : for 
all time would fail to describe adequately the 
whole of his foul teaching. But for help in 
time of need ^, store up in thy memory what I 
have said to former hearers, and will repeat to 
those now present, that they who know not 
may learn, and they who know may be 
reminded. Manes is not of Christian origin, 
God forbid ! nor was he like Simon cast out of 
the Church, neither himself nor the teachers 
who were before him. For he steals other 
men's wickedness, and makes their wickedness 
his own : but how and in what manner thou 
must hear. 

22. There was in Egypt one Scythianus^, a 

7 Ephes. V. II. 

8 Eusebius in his brief notice of the Manichean heresy (///.<■/'. 
Eccles. vii. 31) plays, like S. Cyril, upon the name Manes as well 
suited to a madman. 

9 Marcus Aurelius Probus, Emperor a.d. 276 — 282, from being 
an obscure Illyrian soldier came to be universally esteemed the 
best and noblest of the Roman Emperors. 

1 Routh (R. S. V. p. 12) comes to the conchision that the 
famous disputation between Manes and Archelaus took place 
betvveen July and December, A.D. 277. Accordingly these Lec- 
tures, being "full 70 years" later, could not have been delivered 
before the Spring of A.D. 348. 

2 Leo the Great (Serin, xv. cap. 4) speaks of the madness of 
the later Manichees as including all errors and impieties: "all 
profanity of Paganism, all blindness of the carnal Jews, the illicit 
secrets of the magic art, the sacrilege and blasphemy of all 
heresies, flowed together in that sect as into a sort of cess-pool 
of all filth." Leo summoned those whom they called the " elect," 
both men and women, before an assembly of Bishops and Pres- 
byters, and obtained from these witnesses a full account of the 
execrablepracticesof the sect, in which, as he declares, " their law 
is lying, their religion the devil, their sacrifice obscenity." 

3 Matt. iii. 7. 4 lb. xxvi. 49. 5 Heb. iv. 16. 

6 Cyril takes his account of Manes from the "Acta Archelai 
et Manetis Disputationis," of which Routh has edited the Latin 



Saracen? by birth, having nothing in common 
either with Judaism or with Christianity. This 
man, who dwelt at Alexandria and imitated 
the life of Aristotle ^, composed four books 9, 
one called a Gospel which had not the acts of 
Christ, but the mere name only, and one other 
cal'ed* the book of Chapters, and a third of 
Mysteries, and a fourth, which they circulate 
now, the Treasure ^ This man had a disciple, 
Terebinthus by name. But when Scythianus 
purposed to come into Judrra, and make havoc 
of the land, the Lord smote him with a deadly 
disease, and stayed the pestilence ^ 

23. But Terebinthus, his disciple in this 
wicked error, inherited his money and books 
and heresy 3, and came to Palestine, and be- 
coming known and condemned in Judsea-* he 
resolved to pass into Persia : but lest he 
should be recognised there also by his name, 
he changed it and called himself Buddas s< 
However, he found adversaries there also in 
the priests of Mithras ^ : and being confuted in 
the discussion of many arguments and con- 
troversies, and at last hard pressed, he took 
refuge with a certain widow. Then having 
gone up on the housetop, and summoned the 
daemons of the air, whom the Manichees to 
this day invoke over their abominable cere- 
mony of the fig 7, he was smitten of God, and 
cast down from the housetop, and expired : 
and so the second beast was cut oft'. 

24. The books, however, which were the 
records of his impiety, remained ; and both 
these and his money the widow inherited. 
And having neither kinsman nor any other 

translalion, together with the Fragments of the Greek preserved 
by Cyril in thio Lecture and by Epiphariiiis. There is an English 
translation of the whole in Clark's "Ante-Nicene Christian Li- 

7 The Saracens are mentioned by both Pliny and Ptolemy. 
See Diet, of Greek and Rntnati Geography. 

** There is no meniiou of Aristotle ni the Acta Archelai, but 
Scythianus is stated (cap. li.) to have founded the sect in the 
time of the Apostles, and to have derived iiis duality of Gods 
from Pythagoras, and to have learned the wisdom of the Egyp- 

9 These four books are stated by .'Vrchelaus (Acta, cap. Hi.), 
to have been written for Manes by his disciple Terebinthus. 

1 In allusion to this name the history of the Disputation is 
called (Ada, cap. i.) " The true Treasure." 

2 The true reading of this sentence, Trpoaipovjiiei'Oi' toi/ 2ku- 
Oiavov, instead ol toi/ TrpoetpTj/ne'ioi' 2k., has been restored by 
Clcopas from the MS. in the Archiepiscopal library at Jerusalem. 
This reading agrees with the statement in Acta Arckel. cap. li. : 
"Scythianus thought of making an excursion into Judsea, with 
the purpose of meeting all those who had a reputation there as 
teachers; but it came to pass that he suddenly departed this life, 
without having been able to make any progress." 

3 This statement agrees with the reading of the Vatican MS. 
of the Acta Arclietai, '" omnibus quaecunque ejus fuerunt congre- 

4 In the Acta there i.s no mention of Palestine, but only that 
he "set out for Babylonia, a province whicli is now held by the 

5 Clem. PiX(tx.(Stro7n. i. 15): " Some also of the Indians obey 
the precepts of Boutta, and honour him as a god lor his extra- 
ordinary sanctity." 

* Cf Acta Arch, cap. Hi.: "A certain Parens, however, 
a prophet, and Labdacus, son of Mithras, charged him with 
falsehood." On the names Parous and Labdacus, see Diet. Chr. 
Bioj^r., " Barcabbas," and on the Magian worship of the Sun-god 
Mithras, see Raulinson (iY<'r<7a'<7^. Vol. I. p. 426). 

7 See below, § 33. 

friend, she determined to buy with the money 
a boy named Cubricus ^ : him she adopted 
and educated as a son in the learning 
of the Persians, and thus sharpened an evil 
weapon against mankind. So Cubricus, the 
vile slave, grew up in the midst of philo- 
sophers, and on the death of the widow 
inherited both the books and the money. 
Then, lest the name of slavery might be a 
reproach, instead of Cubricus he called him- 
self Manes, which in the language of the 
Persians signifies discourse^. For as he thought 
himself something of a disputant, he surnamed 
himself Manes, as it were an excellent master 
of discourse. But though he contrived for 
himself an honourable title according to the 
language of the Persians, yet the providence of 
God caused him to become a self accuser even 
against his will, that through thinking to 
honour himself in Per.sia, he might proclaim 
himself among the Greeks by name a maniac. 

25. He dared too to say that he was the 
Paraclete, though it is written. But whoso- 
ever shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, 
hath no forgiveness'^. He committed blas- 
phemy therefore by saying that' he was the 
Holy Ghost : let him that communicates 
with those heretics see with whom he is en- 
rolling himself. The slave shook the world, 
since by three thi/igs the earth is shaken, and 
the fourth it catinot bear, — if a slave become a 
king^. Having come into public he now began 
to promise things above man's power. 'I'he 
son of the King of the Persians was sick, and 
a multitude of physicians were in attendance : 
but Manes promised, as if he were a godly 
man, to cure him by prayer. With the de- 
parture of the physicians, the life of the child 
departed : and the man's impiety was detected. 
So the would-be philosopher was a prisoner, 
being cast into prison not for reproving the 
king in the cause of truth, not for destroying 
the idols, but for promising to save and lying, 
or rather, if the truth must be toUl, for com- 
mitting murder. For the child who might 
have been saved by medical treatment, was 
murdered by this man's driving away the 
physicians, and killing him by want of treat- 

26. Now as there are very many wicked 
things which I tell thee of him, remember first 
his blasphemy, secondly his slavery (not that 
slavery is a disgrace, but that his pretending 
to be free-born, when he was a slave, was 
wicked), thirdly, the falsehood of his promise, 
fourthly, the murder of the child, and fifihly, 

8 Cf. Acta Arch. cap. liii. "A boy about seven years old, 
named Corbicius." 

9 See a different account in Diet. Chr. B.'o^r., " Manes." 
' Mark iii. 29. ' Prov. xxx. 21, 22. 



the disgrace of tlie imprisonment. And there 
was not only the disgrace of the prison, but 
also the flight from prison. For he who called 
himself the Paraclete and champion of the 
truth, ran away: he was no successor of Jesus, 
who readily went to the Cross, but this man 
was the reverse, a runaway. Moreover, the 
King of the Persians ordered the keepers of 
the prison to be executed : so Manes was the 
cause of the child's death through his vain 
boasting, and of the gaolers' death through his 
flight. Ought then he, who shared the guilt 
of murder, to be worshipped ? Ought he not 
to have followed the example of Jesus, and 
said, If y^ seek Ale, let these go their way'^l 
Ought he not to have said, like Jonas, Take 
me, and cast me into the sea : for this storm is 
because of nie'< ? 

27. He escapes from the prison, and comes 
into Mesopotamia: but there Bishop Archebus, 
a shield of righteousness, encounters him ^ : 
and having accused him before philosophers as 
judges, and having assembled an audience 
of Gentiles, lest if Christians gave judgment, 
the judges might be thought to shew favour, — 
Tell us what thou preachest, said zArchelaus 
to Manes. And he, whose mouth rcas as an 
open sepulihre^, began first with blasphemy 
against the Maker of all things, saying. The God 
of the Old Testament is the author of evils, 
as He says of Himself, I am a consuming fireT. 
But the wise Archelaus undermined his blas- 
phemous argument by saying, " If the God of 
the Old Testament, as thou sayest, calls Him- 
self a fire, whose Son is He who saith, I catne 
to send fire on the earth ^ .? If thou findest fault 
with Him who saith, The Lord ki/kth, and 
maketh alive^, why dost thou honour Peter, who 
raised up Tabitha, but struck Sapphira dead ? 
If again thou tindest fault, because He pre- 
pared fire, wherefore dost thou not find fiiult 
with Him who saith, Depart from Me into 
everlasting fir e^ ? If thou findest tault with Him 
who sailh, / am God that make peace, and create 
evil^, explain how Jesus saith, / caffie not to 
send peace but -a sword '^. Since both speak 
alike, of two things one, either both are good, 
because of their agreement, or if Jesus is 
blameless in so speaking, why blamest thou 
Him that saith the like in the Old Testa- 
ment? " 

28. Then Manes answers him : " And what 

3 John xviii. 8. ... * Jonah i. 12. 

5 The account of the discussion in this and the two following 
chapters is not now found in the Latin Version of the "Dis- 
putation," but is regarded by Dr. Routh as having been derived 
by Cyril from some different copies of the Greek. The last para- 
graph of § 29, "These mysteries, &c.," is evidently a caution 
addressed to the hearers by Cyril himself (Routh, KeU. Sac. V. 

6 Ps. V. 9. 7 Deut. iv. 24. ° Luke \u. 49. 
9 I Sam. ii. 6. i Matt. xxv. 41. = Is. xlv. 7. 

3 Matt. X. 34, 

sort of God causes blindness? For it is Paul 
wlio saith. In ivhom the God of this world hath 
blinded the minds of them that believe not, lest 
the light of the Gospel shojild shine 7into them 4." 
But Archelaus made a good retort, saying, 
" Read a little before : But if our Gospel is 
veiled, it is veiled in them that are perishing'^. 
Seest thou that in them that are perishing it 
is veiled? For it is not right to give the things 
which are holy unto the dogs^. Again, Is it 
only the God of the Old Testament that hath 
blinded the minds of them that believe not? 
Hath not Jesus Himself said. For this cause 
speak I unto them in parables, that seeing 
they may Jiot see 7 ? Was it from hating them 
that He wished them not to see ? Or because 
of their unworthiness, since their eyes they had 
closed^. For where there is wilful wickedness, 
there is also a withholding of grace: for to him 
that hath shall be given; but from him that 
hath not shall be taken even that which he 
seemeth to have 9. 

29. " But if some are right in their interpre- 
tation, -we must say as follows ' (for it is no 
unworthy expression) — If indeed He blinded 
the thoughts of them that believe not, he 
blinded them for a good purpose, that they 
might look with new sight on what is good. 
For he said not. He blinded their soul, but, 
the thoughts of them that believe nof^. And tlie 
meaning is something of this kind : ' Blind the 
lewd thoughts of the lewd, and the man is 
saved : blind the grasping and rapacious 
thought of the robber, and the man is saved.' 
But wilt thou not understand it thus ? Then 
there is yet another interpretation. The sun 
also blinds those whose sight is dim : and they 
whose eyes are diseased are hurt by the light 
and blinded. Not that the sun's nature is to 
blind, but that the substance of the eyes is 
incapable of seeing. In like manner un- 
believers being diseased in their heart cannot 
look upon the radiance of the Godhead. Nor 
hath he said, ' He hath blinded their thoughts, 
that they should not hear the Gospel : ' but, 
that the light of the glory of the Gospel of our 
Lord fesus Chritt should not shine u7iio them. 
For to hear the Gospel is permitted to all : but 
the glory of the Gospel is reserved for Christ's 

4 2 Cor. iv. 4, voijjittTa, " thoughts." S 2 Cor. iv. 3. 

6 Matt. vii. 6. 

7 Mart. xiii. 13. Both A.V. and R.V. follow the better reading : 
"because seeing they see nut, *:c." 

8 Malt. xiii. 15. 9 lb. xxv. 29 : Luke viii. 18. 

« Instead of the reading ol the Benedictine and earlier editions, 
ei 6e Set Ka.\ ois Tives efrjyouvTat touto eiTret^, the MSS. Roe and 
Casaubon combine Set icat ojs into the one word SiKaiio;, which is 
probably the right reading. Something, however, is still wanted 
to complete the construction, and Petrus Siculus {circ. a.d. 870) 
who quotes the passage in his History 0/ the Manicliees, bold y 
conjectures ecrri xai ourws etTrei^. A simpler emendation would 
be — ei 5e StKai'u)? Tii'e? efTjyoOi'Tai, 6ei touto eiTTcii' — which both 
completes the construction and explains the reading Set koc ois. 

2 i/o7J/iaTa, 2 Cor. iv. 4. 



true children only. Therefore the Lord spake 
in parables to those who could not hear 3 : but 
to the Disciples he explained the parables in 
private ■♦ : for the brightness of the glory is for 
those who have been enlightened, the blinding 
for them that believe not." These mysteries, 
which the Church now explains to thee who 
art passing out of the class of Catechumens, it 
is not the custom to explain to heathen. For 
to a heathen we do not explain the mysteries 
concerning Fadier, Son, and Holy Ghost, nor 
before Catechumens do we speak plainly of 
the mysteries : but many things we often speak 
in a veiled way, that the behevers who know 
may understand, and they who know not may 
get no hurt 5. 

30, By such and many other arguments the 
serpent was overthrown : thus did Archelaus 
wrestle with Manes and threw him. Again, 
he who had fled from prison flees from this 
place also : and having run away from his 
antagonist, he comes to a very poor village, 
like the serpent in Paradise when he left Adam 
and came to Eve. But the good shepherd 
Archelaus taking forethought for his sheep, 
when he heard of his flight, straightway hast- 
ened with all si)eed in search of the wolf 
And when Manes suddenly saw his adversary, 
he rushed out and fled : it was however his 
last flight. For the officers of the King of 
Persia searched everywhere, and caught the 
fugitive : and the sentence, whicli he ought to 
have received in the presence of Archelaus, 
is passed upon him by the king's officers. This 
Manes, wliom his own disciples worship, is ar- 
rested and brought before the king. The king 
reproached him with his falsehood and his flight : 
poured scorn upon his slavish condition, 
avenged the murder of his child, and con- 
demned him also for the murder of the 
gaolers : he commands him to be flayed after 
the Persian fashion. And while the rest 
of his body was given over for food of wild 
beasts, his skin, the receptacle of his vile 
mind, was hung up before the gates like a 
sack^. He that called himself the Paraclete 
and professed to know the future, knew not his 
own flight and capture. 

31. This man has had three disciples, 
Thomas, and Baddas, and Hermas. Pet none 
read the Gospel according to Thomas ^ : for it is 
the work not of one of the twelve Apostles, but 

3 Matt. xiii. 13. 4 Mark iv. 34. 

5 See the note at the end of the Procatechesis. 

6 Dihpiit. § 55. Compare the account of Manes in Socrates, 
Ecclcs. Hist. I. 22, in this series. 

7 The Gospel of Thomas, an account of the Childhood of Jesus, 
is extant in three forms, two in Gieek and one in Latin : these are 
all translated in Clark's Ante-Nicene Library. The work is 
wrongly attributed by Cyril to a disciple of Manes, being men- 
tioned long before by Hippolytus(^^/<i'rt//V;« o/all Heresies, V.2) 
and by Origeii (Hoin. i. in Liicam): "There is extant also the 
Gospel according to Thomas." 

of one of the three wicked disciples of Manes. 
Let none associate with the soul-destroying 
Manicheans, who by decoctions of chaff coun- 
terfeit the sad look of fasting, who speak evil 
of the Creator of meats, and greedily devour 
the daintiest, who teach that the man who 
plucks up this or that herb is changed into it. 
For if he who crops herbs or any vegetable is 
changed into the same, into how many will 
husbandmen and the tribe of gardeners be 
changed ^? The gardener, as we see, has used 
his sickle against so many : into which then is 
he changed ? Verily their doctrines are 
r'diculous, and fraught with their own con- 
demnation and shame! The same man, being 
the shepherd of a flock, both sacrifices a sheep 
and kills a wolf Lito what then is he 
changed ? Many men both net fishes and 
lime birds : into which then are they trans- 
formed ? 

32. Let those children of sloth, the Mani- 
cheans, make answer ; who without labouring 
themselves eat up the labourers' fruits : who 
welcome with smiling faces those who bring 
them their food, and return curses instead of 
blessings. For when a simple person brings 
them anything, "Stand outside a while," saith 
he, " and I will bless thee." Then having 
taken the bread into his hands (as those who 
have repented and left them have confessed), 
" I did not make thee," says the Manichee to 
the bread : and sends up curses against the 
Most High ; and curses him that made it, and 
so eats what was made 9. If thou hatest the 
food, why didst thou look with smiling 
countenance on him that brought it to thee ? 
If thou art thankful to the bringer, why dost 
thou utter thy blasphemy to God, who created 
and made it ? So again he says, " I sowed 
thee not : may he be sown who sowed thee ! 
I reaped thee not with a sickle : may he be 
reaped who reaped thee ! I baked thee not 
with fire : may he be baked who baked thee I" 
A fine return for the kindness ! 

33. These are great faults, but still small in 
comi)aris()n with the rest. Their Baptism I 
dare not describe before men and women '. 
I dare not say what they distribute to their 
wretched communicants '■'.... Truly we pollute 

8 In the Disputation, P 9, Turbo describes these transforma- 
tions : "Reapers must be transformed into hay, or beans, or 
barley, or corn, or vegetables, that they may be reaped and cut. 
Again if any one eats bread, he must become bread, and be eaten. 
If one kills a chicken, he will be a chicken himself. If one kills 
a mouse, he also will be a mon>ie." 

9 See Turbo's confe-.sion, Disput. 89:" And when they are 
going to eat bread, they first pray, speaking thus to the bread ; 
' 1 neither reaped thee, nor ground thee, nor kneaded thee, nor 
cast thee into the oven : but another did these things, and brought 
thee to nie, and I am not to blame for eating thee.' And when he 
has said this to himself, he says to the Catechumen, ' I have 
prayed for thee,' and so he goes away." 

' On the rites of I'aptism and Eucharist employed by the 
Manichees, see Diet. Chr, IJiogr,, Maiticheans. 

' The original runs; Oii ToAfi<i eijrtii', tivi e^i/SoTTTOVTeS ttjv 



our mouth in speaking of these things. Are 
the heathen more detestable than these ? Are 
the Samaritans more wretched ? Are Jews 
more impious ? Are fornicators more impure 3? 
But the Manichee sets these offerings in the 
midst of the aUar as he considers it*. And 
dost thou, man, receive instruction from 
such a mouth ? On meeting this man dost thou 
greet him at all with a kiss ? To say nothing 
of his other impiety, dost thou not flee from 
the defilement, and from men worse than pro- 
fligates, more detestable than any prostitute? 

34. Of these things the Church admonishes 
and teaches thee, and touches mire, that thou 
mayest not be bemired : she tells of the 
wounds, that thou mayest not be wounded. 
But for thee it is enough merely to know 
them : abstain from learning by experience. 
God thunders, and we all tremble ; and they 
blaspheme. God lightens, and we all bow 
down to the earth ; and they have their 
blasphemous sayings about the heavens 5. 
These things are written in the books of the 
Manichees. These things we ourselves have 
read, because we could not believe those wdio 
told of them : yes, for the sake of your salvation 
we have closely inquired into their perdition. 

35. But may the Lord deliver us from such 
delusion : and may there be given to you a 
hatred against the serpent, that as they lie in 
wait for the heel, so you may trample on their 
head. Remember ye what I say. What 
agreement can there be between our state 
and tlieirs ? What communion hath light with 
darkness^ ? What hath the majesty of the 
Church to do with the abommation of the 

ta^aSa, 5t5daa"t Tot9 aSAtot?. 5ta trvo'o'^/u.uji' 5e }x6vov STyAoucr^tu. 
ai»6pes yap Ta iv TOis ervn-i'iacrjaois tv^viJ-eiaSuidiv, KoX yufalKes to. 
iv aif}€Spois. Miaii' aATj^u.? to (jTO/xa k.t.A. 

3 'O fjucu yap 7ropi/evo"a9, Trpb? fxioii' tupai/ 6 cmBviJiLav reAet ttjv 
Trpa^ti'' KaTayLvui-jKtov 6k t»}s Trpa^eojs aj5 /Ltiai'^eis ot5e Aourpou'o?, Kai yiviiajK^i ttJ? irpd^ews to /luaapoi/. 'O 5e Mai't- 
XQios SvaiauTT}picv /u.fVoi', ov voy-i^ei, Ti6-qcri TauTa, (cal fj-iaim 
Kci TO CTOjiia (Cat Tr]v yKumav. napa TOtouTOU (TTOjitaTOS, avBptune 


4 ov uoixi^ii. The Manichees boasted of their superiority to 
the Pagans in not worshipping God with altars, temples, images, 
victims, or incense (August, contra Fausiuin XX. cap. 15J. Vet 
they used the names, as Augustine affirms {I.e. cap. i8> : '• Never- 
theless I wish you would tell me why you call all those things 
which you approve in your own case by these names, temple, altar, 

5 KaKeii'Ot Trept ovpaviov Tas Sv<r<^rjixov? exov(Ti vAoKTcra?, 
Iijaovs Aeyet Trepl tou TraTpb? auTOu, 'Oo'tl? toi/ TJAtoi/ avrov 

avare'AAet ent StKaCovs KaL a6tVou9, Kat ^pk\€t CTrt jrofijpou? Kal 
ayat^ous. KaKeti'ou Aeyovcrii', OTt ot V€tol e^ ^pto-iKrj^ fiavCa^ yt- 
vovToi^ Kal ToA/xwcrt Aeyeti/, OTt ecTTt Tis TrapyeVo? ei/ oi'pai^cij euttbij? 
fi€Ta veaviaKOv evetSou?, Ka'i Kara Tr]v Ttoi/ Ka^riKuiv i} Av/cwi/ Katpbvj 
T0U9 TTJs aLcrxpa? eTrt^UjULta? /caipovs ^X^'^» '^"■^ Kara ttjv tov xetjua>- 
vos Kaip'ov, fiaviiaSCji avTOv ejriTpe'xeiv TJj TrapfJeVco, Kal ttji' piiv 
i^euyeii/ (^acrt, toi/ de e7rtTpe;\eti', etra €7rtTpe';^oi/Ta ISpovVy anu 
&k 7WV iSpuiTiou avrov eli-ai tov v^tov, TavTa ye'ypaJTTat iv Tots 
Titiv 'M.avi\aiuiv ^l^Aiots■ TauTa T}H,tli ayiyvioiiey, K.T.A. 
' 2 Cor. vi. 14. 

Manichees ? Here is order, here is discipline 7, 
here is majesty, here is purity : here even to look 
np07i a 7voman to lust dfter her^ is condem- 
nation. Here is marriage with sanctity 9, here 
stedfast continence, here virginity in honour 
like unto the Angels : here partaking of food 
with thanksgiving, here gratitude to tlie Creator 
of the world. Here the Father of Christ is 
worshipped ■ here are taught fear and trem- 
bling before Him who sends the rain : here we 
ascribe glory to Him who makes the thunder 
and the lightning. 

36. Make thou thy fold witli the sheep : flee 
from the wolves . depart not from the Church. 
Hate those also who have ever been suspected 
in such matters : and unless in time thou 
perceive their repentance, do not rashly trust 
thyself among them. The truth of the Unity 
of God has been delivered to thee : learn 
to distinguish the pastures of doctrine. Be an 
approved banker', holding Jast thai which is 
good, abstaining from every form ofeinl^. Or if 
thou hast ever been such as they, recognise 
and hate thy delusion. For there is a way of 
salvation, if thou reject the vomit, if thou from 
thy heart detest it, if thou depart from them, 
not with thy lips only, but with thy soul also : 
if thou worship the Father of Christ, the God 
of the Law and the Prophets, if thou acknow- 
ledge the Good and the Just to be one and the 
same God 3. And may He preserve you all, 
guarding you from faUing or stumbling, stab- 
lished m the Faith, in Christ Jesus our Lord, 
to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

7 Gr. e7ri(TT^/ai). See note on Introductory Lect. § 4. 

8 Matt. V. 28. 

9 (Tip-voraTOi; is the reading of the chief MSS. B\it the printed 
editions have trejoii'OTTjTos, comparing it with such phrases as UTOfia 
a^eOTTjro? (vi. 15). and ^CTaj/ota ttJs (rtorripia^ (xiv. 17)- 

1 i'his saying is quoted three times in the Clementine Homilies 
as spoken by our Lord. See Hom. II. § 51 ; III. § 50; XVIII. 
S 20: "Every man who wishes to be saved must be.ome, as the 
Teacher said, a judge of the books written to try us. For thus He 
spake : Btcoine exfericnced bankers. Now the need of bankers 
arises from the circumstance that the spurious is mixed up with 
the genuine." 

On the same saying, quoted as Scripture in the Apostolic Con- 
stitutions (II. § 36), Cotelerius suggests that in oral tradition, 
or in some Apocryphal book, the proverb was said to come from 
the Old I'e^tamcnt, and was added by some transcriber as a gloss 
in the margin of Matt. xxv. 27, or Luke xix. 23. Dionysius of 
Alexandria", Epist. VII., speaks of "the Apostolic word, which 
thus urges all who are endowed with greater virtue, ' Be ye skillul 
monev-changers,' " reierring apparently as here to i Thess. v. 21, 
22, "'try all things, lx.c." (See Euseb. E.H. VII. ch. 6 in this 
series: Suicer. Tliesaurus, Tpan-eiin); : and Resch. {Agrapha, 
pp. 233—239.) 

2 I Thess. V. 21, 22. 

3 Compare § 13 ot this Lecture, where Cyril seems to refer 
especially to the heresy of Manes, as described iri the Disputano 
Archelai, cap. 6 : "If you are desirous of being instructed in the 
faith of Manes, hear it briefly from me. That man worships two 
gods, unbegotten, self-originate, eternal, opposed one to the othe'-. 
The one he repre^-ents as good, and the other as evil, naming ih^ 
one Light, and the other Darkness." 


The Father. 

Ephesians iii. 14, 15. 

For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father, . . , of whom all fatherhood in heaven and 

eafih is named, &=€. 

1. Of God as the sole Principle we have 
said enough to you yesterday^ : by "enough" 
I mean, not what is worthy of the subject, (for 

^to reach that is utterly impossible to mortal 
nature), but as much as was granted to our 
infirmity. I traversed also the bye-paths of 
the manifold error of the godless heretics : 
but now let us shake off their foul and soul- 
poisoning doctrine, and remembering what 
relates to them, not to our own hurt, but to 
our greater detestation of them, let us come 
back to ourselves, and receive the saving doc- 
trines of the true Faith, connecting the dignity 
of Fatherhood with that of the Unity, and be- 
lieving IN One God the Father : for we must 
not only believe in one God ; but this also let 
us devoutly receive, that He is the Father 
of the Only-begotten, our Lord Jesus Christ. 

2. For thus shall we raise our thoughts 
higher than the Jews^, who admit indeed by 
their doctrines that there is One God, (for 
what if they often denied even this by their 
idolatries ?) ; but that He is also the Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, they admit not ; being 
of a contrary mind to their own Prophets, who 
in the Divine Scriptures affirm, The Lord said 
unto 77ie, Thou art My Son, this day have I be- 
gotten thee^. And to this day they rage and 
gather themselves together against the Lord, 
and against His Anointed'^, tliinking that it is 
possible to be made friends of the Father 
apart from devotion towards the Son, being ig- 
norant that no man cometh unto the Father but 
by^ the Son, who saith, / am the JDoor, and 
/ am the IVay^. He therefore that refuseth 
the Way which leadeth to the Father, and he 
that denieth the Door, how shall he be deemed 

» See Lecture VI. i, and $. 

* " In Athaiiasius, Quifstio i. tui Aniiochiim, torn. II. p. 331, 
Monarchia is opi)osed to Polytheism : ' It we worship One God, it 
is manifest that we agree with the Jews in believing in a Mon- 
archia : biit if We uorship three gods, it is evident that we fuUow 
the Greeks by introducing Polytheism, instead of piously wor- 
shipping One Only God.'" (Suicer, Thesaurus, Morapxia) 

3 Ps. ii. 7. 4 lb. ii. 2. 5 John xiv. 6. 6 lb. x. 9. 

worthy of entrance unto God? They contra- 
dict also what is written in the eighty-eighth 
Psalm, He shall call Me, Thou art my Father, 
my God, and the helper of ?ny salvation. And 
L will make him my first-bor?t, high atnong the 
kings of the earth T. For if they should insist 
that these things are said of David or Solomon 
or any of their successors, let them shew how 
the throne of him, who is in their judgment 
described in the prophecy, is as the days of 
heaven, and as the sun before God, and as the 
moon established for ever^. And how is it also 
that they are not abashed at that which is 
written. From the womb before the morning-star 
have / begotten thee 9 .• also this. He shall endure 
with the sun, and before the moon, from genera- 
tion to gc7ieration '. To refer these passages to 
a man is a proof of utter and extreme insen- 

3. Let the Jews, however, since they so 
will, suffer their usual disorder of unbelief, both 
in these and the like statements. But let us 
adopt the godly doctrine of our Faith, worship- 
ping one God the Father of the Christ, (for to 
deprive Him, who grants to all the gilt of gene- 
ration, of the like dignity would be impious) : 
and let us believe in One God the Father, 
in order that, before we touch upon our teach- 
ing concerning Christ, the faith concerning the 
Only-begotten may be implanted in the soul 
of the hearers, without being at all interrupted 
by the intervening doctrines concerning the 

4. For the name of 'the Father, with the 
very utterance of the title, suggests the 
thought of the Son : as in like manner one 
who names the Son thinks straightway of the 
Father also ^ For if a Father, He is certainly 

7 Ps. Ixxxix. 26, 27. 8 j/j,. 2g. 36, 37. 

9 Ps. ex. 3: ''From the womb of the morning thou hast the 
dew of thy youth" (R. v.). ' Ps. Ix.xii. 5. 

2 Compare Athana^ius (de Sententiii Dionysii, § 17) : " Each 
of the names I have mentioned is inseparable and indivisible from 
that next to it. I spoke of the Father, and before bringing in the 



the Father of a Son ; and if a Son, certainly 
the Son of a Father. Lest therefore from our 
speaking thus, in One God, the Father Al- 
mighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and 
OF all things visible and invisible, and from 
our then adding this also, and in One Lord 
Jesus Christ, any one should iiTeverently sup- 
pose that the Only-begotten is second in rank 
to heaven and earth, — for this reason before 
naming them we named God the Father, 
that in thinking of the Father -vve might at the 
same time think also of the Son : for between 
the Son and the Father no being whatever 

5. God then is in an improper sensed the 
Father of many, but by nature and in truth 
of One only, the Only-begotten Son, our Lord 
Jesus Christ; not having attained in course 
of time to being a Father, but being ever the 
Father of the Only-begotten t. Not tliat being 
without a Son before, He has since by change 
of purpose become a Father : but before every 
substance and every intelligence, before times 
and all ages, God hath the dignity of Father, 
magnifying Himself in this more than in His 
other dignities ; and having become a Father, 
not by passion s, or union, not in ignorance, not 
by effluence^, not by dinn'nution, not by altera- 
tion, for eve}-}' good gift and every perjed gift is 
from above, coming down from the Father oj 
lights, with whom can be no variation, neither 
shadow of tiirningT. Perfect Father, He begat 
a perfect Son, and delivered all things to Him 
who is begotten : (for all things, He saith, are 
delivered unto Me of Afy Father^:) and is 
honoured by the Only begotten: iox, I honour 
My Father 'i, saith the Son ; and again, i5j'f« as 
I have kept Afy Father's commandments, and 

Son, I designated Him also in the Father. I brought in the Son, 
and even it' I had not previously mentioned tiie Father, in any 
wise He would have been presupposed in the Son." 

3 KaTaxpYjTTiKw?. A technical term in Grammar, applied to 
the use ot a word in a derived or metapho:ical sense Sec Aris- 
totle's descriptiun of the various kinds of metaphor, Poet. § xxi. 
7 — -16. The opposite to Karaxpio'TtKa)? is »cupiaj5, as used in 
a pa-allel passage by Athanasius, Oratio i. contra Arianns, g 21 
fin. " It belongs to the Godhead alone, that the Father is properly 
(/cupi'ws) Father, and the Son properly Son." 

4 "And in Them, and I'hem only, does it hold, that the 
Father is ever Father, and the Son ever Son." (Athan., as above.) 

5 Compare vi. 6 : 6 yevvT)3ci^ airaSdis. The importance at- 
tached to the assertion of a " passionle-s generation" arose from 
the objections olTered by Eusebius o! Nicomedia and others to 
the word o/ioovaios when proposed by Constantine at Nicaea. 
We learn from Eusebius of Ca;sarea [Epist. ad suee paroecice 
hnitines, % 4) that the Emperor himself explained that the word 
was used "not in the sense of the .affections (TrdSij) of bodies," 
because "the immaterial, ancf intellectual, and incorporeal nature 
could not be the subject of any corporeal afl'eccion." Again, in 
§ 7, Eusebius admits that " there ar6 grounds for saying that the 
Son is 'one in essence' with the Father, not in the way ot boiies, 
nor like mortal beings, for He is not such by division of essence, 
or by severance, no, nor by any affection, or alteiation, or chang- 
ing of the Father's essence and power." (See the next note.) 

* Athanasius [Expos. Eidei, § i) : " Word not pronounced nor 
mental, nor an etflnence of the Perfect, nor a dividing of the 
pas>,innless nature." Also (de Dtxretis, § 11): "God being 
witliout parts is Father of the Son without partition or passion ; 
for there is neither effluence ol the Immaterial, nor influx from 
without, as among men." 

7 Ja^nes i. 17. 8 Matt. xi. 27. 9 John viii. 49. 

abide in His love '. Therefore we also say like 
the Apostle, Blessed be the God and Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of inercies, and 
God of all consolation ^ .• and, Af'V bo7v our knees 
unto the Father, from avhom all fatherhood in 
heaven and on eat ch is najned^: glorifying Him 
with the Only-begotten: for he that denieth the 
Father, denieth the Son also'^: and again, JPe 
that confcsseth the Son, hath the Father also s ,• 
knowing that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory 
of God the Father^. 

6. We worship, therefore, as- the Father of 
Christ, the Maker of heaven and earth, the 
God of Abi-aham, Lsaac, and Jacob"! • to whose 
honour the former temple also, over against us 
here, was built. For we shall not tolerate the 
heretics who sever the Old Testament from 
the New^, but shall believe Christ, who says 
concerning the temple, Wist ye not that L must 
be in My Fathers house')? and again. Take 
these things hence, and make not my Father's 
house a house of merchandise^ : whereby He most 
clearly confessed that the former temple in 
Jerusalem was His own Father's house. But 
if any one from unbelief wishes to receive yet 
more proofs as to the Father of Christ being 
the same as the Maker of the world, let him 
hear Him say again. Are not two sparrows sold 
for a farthing, and not one of them shall fall on 
the ground without My Father ivhich is in 
heaven"^ ; this also, Behold the jo'ivls of the heaven 
that they spw not, ?ieiiher do they reap, nor 
gather into barns ; and your heavenly Father 
feedeth them^ ; and this, My Father worketh 
hitherto, and L work ■*. 

7. But lest any one from simplicity or per- 
verse ingenuity should suppose that Christ is 
but equal in honour to righteous men, from 
His saying, L ascend to My Father, and your ^ 
Father, it is well to make this distinction 
beforehand, that the name of the Father is one, 
but the power of His operation^ manifold. 
And Christ Himself knowing this has spoken 
unerringly, L go to My Father, and your Father : 
not saying ' to our Father,' but distinguishing, 
and saying first what was proper to Himself, to 
My Father, which was by nature ; then adding, 
and your Father, which was by adoption. 
For however high the privilege we have re- 
ceived of saying in our prayers. Our Father, 

1 John XV. 10. » 2 Cor. i 3. 3 Eph. iii. 14, 15. 

4 I John ii. 22 : " This is the Antichrist, even he that denieth 
the Father and the Son" (R v.). 

5 V. 23, bracktted in the A.V. as spurious, but rightly restored 
inR.V. ^^ ^ . 

6 Phil. ii. II. 1 Ex. lii. 6. ° Compare Lect. iv. 33. 
9 Luke ii. 49- ' John ii. 16. 

2 Matt. X. 29. S. Cyril instead of " your Father" writes " my 
Father which is in heaven :" so Origeu and Athanasius. 

3 Malt. vi. 26. 4 John v. 17. 

5 John XX. 17. On this text, quoted again in Cat. xi. 19, see 
the three Sermons of Bishop Andrewes On the Resurrection. 

6 ii'to-i-i r. meaning here, the operation of God, by nature in 
begetting His Son, by adoption in making many sons. 



which art in heaven, yet the gift is of loving- 
kindness. For we call Him Father, not as having 
been by nature begotten of Our Father which 
is in heaven ; but having been transferred from 
servitude to sonship by the grace of the Father, 
through the Son and Holy Spirit, we are permit- 
ted so to speak by ineffable lovingdsindness. 

8. But if any one wishes to learn how we 
call God " Father," let him hear Moses, the 
excellent schoolmaster, saying. Did not this 
thy Father Hiinself buy thee, and make thee, and 
create thee^ 1 Also Esaias the Prophet, And 
now, O Lord. Thou art our Father : and we 
all a?-e clay, the 7uorks of Thine hands ^. For 
most clearly has the prophetic gift declared 
that not according to nature, but according to 
God's grace, and by adoption, we call Him 

9. And that thou mayest learn more exactly 
that in the Divine Scriptures it is not by any 
means the natural father only that is called fa- 
ther, hear what Paul says : — For though ye should 
have ten thousand tutors i7i Christ, yet have ye 
not many fathers : for in Christ /es2is I begat 
you through the Gospel^. For Paul was father 
of the Corinthians, not by having begotten 
them after the flesh, but by having taught and 
begotten them again after the Spirit. Hear 
Job also saying, I zvas a father of the needy '^ : 
for he called himself a father, not as having 
begotten them all, but as caring for them. 
And God's Only-begotten Son Himself, when 
nailed in His flesh to the tree at the time of 
crucifixion, on seeing Mary, His own Mother 
according to the flesh, and John, the most 
beloved of His disciples, said to hirn. Behold 1 
thy mother, and to her. Behold I thy Son^ : 
teaching her the parental affection due to him 3, 
and indirectly explaining that which is said in 
Luke, and Idis father and His mother marvel- 
led at Him'- : words which the tribe of heretics 
snatch up, saying that He was begotten of a 
man and a woman. For like as Mary was 
called the mother of John, because of her 
parental affection, not from having given him 
birth, so Joseph also was called the father of 
Christ, not from having begotten Him (for he 
knew her not, as the Gospel says, until she had 
brought forth Jwr first-born Son^), but because 
of the care bestowed on His nurture. 

10 Thus much then at present, in the way 
of a digression, to put you in remembrance. 
Let me, however, add yet another testimony in 
[)roof that God is called the Father of men in 
an improper sense. For when in Esaias God 

7 Deut. xxxii. 6. 8 Is. Jxiv. 8. 9 i Cor. iv. 15. 

■ Job xxix. 16. = Jolm xix. 26, 27. 

3 (ptXoa-Topyia might be .ipplied to the mutual afJection of 
mother and son, but the context shews that it refers here to 
parental love only; see Polybius, V. § 74, 5 ; Xenoph. Cyro/>.l. 
S 3. =• ■» I-ulic ii. 33. 5 Matt. i. 25. 

is addressed thus, For Thou art our Father, 
though Abrahafn be ignorant ofus^, and Sarah 
travailed not 7in'th ust, need we inquire further 
on this point ? And if the Psalmist says, Let 
them be troubled from His countenance, the Father 
of tJie fatherless, and Judge of the widows^, is it 
not manifest to all, that when God is called 
the Father of orphans who have lately lost 
their own fathers. He is so named net as 
begetting them of Himself, but as caring for 
them and shielding them. But whereas God, 
as we have said, is in an improper sense the 
Father of men, of Christ alone He is the Father 
by nature, not by adoption : and the Father 
of men in time, but of Christ before all time, 
as He saith. And tiow, O Father, glorify IViou 
Me with Ihine 07cin self, 7vith the glofj which 
L had 7i.'ith Thee before the world was 9. 

11. We believe then in one God the Fa- 
ther the Unsearchable and Ineffable, Whom no 
man hath seen % hwlthe Only-begotten alone hath 
decla7-ed Him -. For He which is of God, He 
hath seen God^: whose face the Angels do 
alway behold in heaven ^, behold, however, 
each according to the measure of his own rank. 
But the undimmed vision of the Father is 
reserved in .its purity for the Son with the 
Holy Ghost. 

12. Having reached this point of my dis- 
course, and being reminded of the passages 
just before mentioned, in which God was ad- 
dressed as the Father of men, I am greatly 
amazed at men's insensibility. For God with 
unspeakable loving-kindness deigned to be 
called tlie Father of men, — He in heaven, they 
on earth, — and He the Maker of Eternity, they 
made in time, — He who holdeth the earth 
in the hollo7t> of His hand, they upon the 
earth as grasshoppers^. Yet man forsook 
his heavenly Father, and said to the stock, 
Thou art 7ny father, and to the stone, Thou hast 
begotten me^. And for this reason, methinks, 
the Psalmist says to xwix^xvi^. Forget also thine 
oivn people, and thy father's houseT , whom thou 
hast chosen for a father, whom thou hast 
drawn upon thyself to thy destruction. 

13. .And not only stocks and stones, but even 
Satan himself, the destroyer of souls, have 
some ere now chosen for a father ; to whom 
the Lord said as a rebuke. Ye do the deeds of 
your father^, that is of the devil, he being the 
father of men not by nature, but by fraud. 

6 Is. Ixiii. 16. 7 lb. Ii. 2. 

8 Ps. Ixviii. 5. Cyril quotes as usual from the Septuagint 
(Ps. Ixvii. 6), where the clause Topa^fTJcroi'Tai an-b irpoaMnov avrov, 
answering to notliing in the Hebrew, is evidently an interpolation, 
and may have crept in from a marginal quotation of Is. Ixiv. 2. 

9 John xvii. 5. • i Tim. ii. 16. = John i. 18. 

3 John vi. 46 : He hath seen the Fattier. The weight cif 
authority is against the reading (jhv 6e6v) which Cyril lollows. 
■» Matt, xviii. la 5 Is. xl. 12 and 22. 6 J^r. ii. 27. 

7 Ps. xlv. 10. 8 John viii. 41. 



For like as Paul by his godly teaching came to 
be called the father of the Corinthians, so the 
devil is called the father of those who of their 
own will consent unto him 9. 

For we shall not tolerate those who give a 
wrong meaning to that saying, Hereby know 
we the children of God, and the children of the 
devil'^, as if there were by nature some men to 

. be saved, and some to be lost. Whereas we 
come into such holy sonship not of necessity 
but by choice : nor was the traitor Judas 
by nature a son of the devil and of perdition ; 
for certainly he would never have cast out devils 
at all in the name of Christ: for Satan casteth fiot 
out Satan ^ Nor on the other hand would Paul 
have turned from persecuting to preaching. 
But the adoption is in our own power, as 
John saith, But as many as received Hitn, to 
them gave He power to become the children of 
God, even to them that believe in His name'i. 
For not before their believing, but from their 
believing they were counted worthy to become 
of their own choice the children of God. 

14. Knowing this, therefore, let us walk 
spiritually, that we may be counted worthy of 
God's adoption. For as many as are led by 
the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God*. 
For it profiteth us nothing to have gained the 
title of Christians, unless the works also fol- 
low ; lest to us also it be said, If ye were Abra- 
ham^ s cliildren, ye would do the works of Abra- 
ham 5. For if we call on Him as Father, who 
7C'ithoi(t respect of persons fudgeth according to 
erery marl's work, let us pass the time of our 
sojourning here in fear ^, loving not the world, 
neither the things that are in the world : for if 
any man love the world, the love of the Father is 
not in him 7. Wherefore, my beloved children, 
let us by our works offer glory to our Father 
which is in heaven, that they may see our good 
works, and glorify our Father which is in 
heaven^. Let us cast all our care upon Him, 

jor our Father knoweth what things we have 
need of'^. 

9 Ps. 1. 18. ' 1 John Hi. 10. 

3 John i. 12. 4 Rom. viii. 14. 

6 I Pet. i. 17. ^ I John ii. 15- 

9 I Pet. V. 7 ; Matt. vi. 8. 

* Mark iii. 23. 
5 John viii. 39. 
* Matt. V. x6. 

15. But while honouring our heavenly 
Father let us honour also the fathers of our 

flesh '^ : since the Lord Himself hath evidently 
so appointed in the Law and the Prophets, 
saying, Honour thy father and thy mother, that 
it may be well ivith thee, and thy days shall be 
long in the lajid^. And let this commandment 
be especially observed by those here present 
who have fathers and mothers. Children, obey 
your parents iii all things : for this is well 
pleasing to the Lord^. For the Lord said not. 
He that loveth father or mother is not worthy 
of Me, lest thou from ignorance shouldest 
pervert^ely mistake what was righdy written, 
but He added, more than Me''. For when our 
fathers on earth are of a contrary mind to our 
Father in heaven, then we must obey Christ's 
word. But when they put no obstacle to god- 
liness in our way, if we are ever carried away 
by ingratitude, and, forgetting their benefits to 
us, hold them in contempt, then the oracle 
will have place which says. He that curseth 
father or mother, let him die the death s. 

16. The first virtue of godliness in Chris- 
tians is to honour their parents, to requite the 
troubles of those who begat them ^, and with all 
their might to confer on them what tends to 
their comfort (for if we should repay them 
ever so much, yet we shall never be able to 
return their gift of life ^), that they also may 
enjov the comfort provided by us, and may 
confirm us in those blessings which Jacob the 
supplanter shrewdly seized ; and that our 
Father in heaven may accept ^ our good pur- 
pose, and judge us worthy to shine amid the 
righteous as the sun ifi the kingdom of our 
Father^: To whom be the glory, with the 
Only-begotten our Saviour Jesus Christ, and 
with the Holy and Life-giving Spirit, now and 
ever, to all eternity. Amen. 

I Heb. xii. 9. = Deut. v. 16. 3 Col. iii. 20. 

4 Matt. X. 37. 5 Ex. xxi. 17 ; Lev. xx. 9 ; Matt. xv. 4. 

6 Compare lor the thought Euripides, Medea, 1029— 1035- 

7 a.vTiyf:Vvr]cra.i. Jeremy Taylor {Vuctor Dubitantiimi, Book 
III. cap. ii. § 17) mentions several stories in which a parent is 
nourished from a daughter's breast, who thus ' saves the li;'e she 
cannot give.' 

8 On the change of Moods, see Jelf, Greek Grammar, % 809. 
The second verb ((caxaf iwcrctei') expresses a wish and a consequence 
which might follow, if the first (o-TTjpifuxric) wish be realized, 
as it probably may be. Cf. Herod, ix. 51. « Matt, xii'u 43. 



Jeremiah xxxix. i8, 19 (Septuagint). 

The Great, the strong God, Lord of great Counsel, and mighty in His works, the Great God, 

the Lord Ahnighty and of great name '. 

I. By believing in One God we cut off all | there is nothing higher than heaven, and it 
misbelief in man}^ gods, using this as a shield 
against Greeks, and every opposing power of 
heretics ; and by adding, in One God the 

Father, we contend against those of the cir 
cumcision, who deny the Only-begotten Son 
of God. For, as was said yesterday, even 
before explaining the truths concerning our 
Lord Jesus Christ, we made it manifest at 
once, by saying " The Father," that He is the 
Father of a Son : that as we understand that 
God is, so we may understand that He has 
a Son. But to those titles we add that He is 
also " Almighty ; "' and this we affirm because 
of Greeks and Jews ^ together, and all heretics. 
2. Foi' of the Greeks some have said that 
God is the soul of the world 3 : and others that 
His power reaches only to heaven, and not to 
earth as well. Some also sharing their error, 
and misusing the text which says, "And Thy 
truth unto the clouds^," have dared to circum- 
scribe God's providence by the clouds and the 
heaven, and to alienate from God the things 
on earth ; having forgotten the Psalm which 
says, If I go up into heaven. Thou art there : 
if I go down into hell. Thou art present s. For if 

« The text is translated from the Septuagint, in which S. Cyril 
found the title Almighty (naz/roKpaTtop), one of the usual equiva- 
lents in the Septuagint for Lord of Hosts (Snbaotk). In the 
English A. v. and R.V. the passage stands thus: Jer. xxxii. 18, 
19: The Great, the Mighty God, the LOKD oJ Hosts, is His 
name. Great in counsel, and mighty in work. 

" '"For even the Je.vish nation had wicked heresies: for of 
them were . . . the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners 
to fortune and fale ; and the Basmotheans, who deny providence 
and say that the world is made by spontaneous motion "(/}/t'j/. 
C<;«i/. VI. 6). Compare Euseb. (£.//. IV. 22.) 

3 Cicero, De Natura Deorum, Lib. I. 27: "Pythagoras 
thought that God was the soul pervading all nature." The doc- 
trine was accepted both by Stoics and Platonists, and became very 
general. Cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 221 : 

Deum namque ire per omnis 

Tcrrasqiie, tractusque maris, caelumqne profundum. 
and Aen. vi. 726: 

Spiiiliis intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 
Mens agitat moleni, et niagno se corpore miscet. 

4 Ps. xxxvi. 5. Cyril appears to have borrowed this statement 
from Clement of Alcxandiia, who states (Stromnt. V. xiv. $ 91) 
that from this Psalm the tlioiight occurred to Aristotle to let 
Providence come down as far as to the Moon. 

5 i's. cxxxix. 8. 

hell is deeper than the earth. He who rules 
the lower regions reaches the earth also. 

3. But heretics again, as I have said before, 
know not One Almighty God. For He is 
Almighty who rules all things, who has power 
over all things. But they who say that one 
God is Lord of the soul, and some other of 
the body, make neither of them perfect, be- 
cause either is wanting to the other ^. For how 
is he almighty, who has power over the soul, 
but not over the body? And how is he al- 
mighty who has dominion over bodies, but no 
power over spirits ? But these men the Lord 
confutes, saying on the contrary, Rather fear 
ye Him 7uhich is able to destroy both soul and 
body in helP. For unless the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ has the power over both, 
how does He subject both to punishment? 
For how shall He be able to take the bodv 
which IS another's and cast it into hell, except 
He first bind the strong man, and spoil his 
goods ^ ? 

4. But the Divine Scripture and the doc- 
trines of the truth know but One God, who 
rules all things by His power, but endures 
many things of His will. For He rules even 
over the idolaters, but endures them of His 
forbearance : He rules also over the heretics 
who set Him at nought, but bears with them 
because of His long-suffering : He rules even 
over the devil, but bears with him of His 
long-suffering, not from want of power, as if 
defeated. For he is the beginning of the Load's 
creation, made to be mocked9^ not by Himself, 

6 See note on Lect. IV. 4. 7 Matt. x. 28. 

8 lb. xii. 29. 

9 Job xl. 14, toiJt* €(TTiv apxrj 7rAao"fi.aT09 Kvpiov, ire-jTOirjjxfyou 
eyKaTa7rai^€<T6ai vtto liov avycAoji/ avToO. In this tlcscnjjliun of 
EehLinoth the Septuagint differs much from the Hebrew, which 
is thus rendered in our English Versions, xl 19 : He is tJie clii</ 
of the ways of God: he {only, R.V.) that made hivi can mnhe 
his sword to nfproach unto him. Compare Job x!i. 5 : IVilt thou 
flay with him as with a bird? and Ps. civ. 26: There is that 
Leviathan wliom thou hast /oriiied to flay therein (Sept. to take 
tliy pastime v<ith him). See Baruch lii. 17, with the note in the 
Speaker's Commentary. 



for that were unworthy of Him, but by the 
Angels whom He hath made. But He suffered 
him to hve, for two purposes, that he might 
disgrace himself the more in his defeat, and 
that mankind might be crowned with victory. 
O all wise providence of God ! which takes 
the wicked purpose for a groundwork of sal- 
vation for the faithful. For as He took the 
unbrotlierly purpose of Joseph's brethren for 
a groundwork of His own dispensation, and, 
by permitting them to sell their brother from 
hatred, took occasion to make him king 
whom He would ; so he permitted the devil 
to wrestle, that the victors might be crowned ; 
and that when victory was gained, he might 
be the more disgraced as being conquered 
by the weaker, and men be greatly honoured 
as having conquered him who was once an 

5. Nothing then is withdrawn from the power 
of God ; for the Scripture says of Him, for 
all things are Thy servants '°. All things alike 
are His servants, but from all these One, His 
only Son, and One, His Holy Spirit, are ex- 
cepted ; and all the things which are His 
servants serve the Lord through the One Son 
and in the Holy Spirit. God then rules all, 
and of His long-suffering endures even mur- 
derers and robbers and fornicators, having 
appointed a set time for recompensing every 
one, tliat if they who have had long warning 
are still impenitent in heart, they may re- 
ceive the greater condemnation. They are 
kings of men, who reign upon earth, but not 
without the power from above : and this 
Nebuchadnezzar once learned by experience, 
when he said ; Fof His kingdom is an ever- 
lasting kingdoin, and His power from generation 
to generation '. 

6. Riches, and gold, and silver are not, as 
some think, the devil's^ : for the whole world of 
riches is for the faithful man, but for the faithless 
not even a penny 3, Now nothing is more faith- 
less than the devil ; and God says plainly by 
the Prophet, The gold is Afine, and the silver is 
Mine, and to whomsoever I will I give it*. 
Do thou but use it well, and there is no fault 
to be found with money : but whenever thou 

»° Ps. cxix. 91. I Dan. iv. 34. 

' On this doctrine of the Manicheans see Archelaus (^Dis- 
fiutatio, cap. 42), Epiphanius (Hceres. Ixvi. § 81). Compare 
Clement. Horn. xv. cap. 9: "To all of us possessions are sins." 
Plato {Laws, V. 743): "I can never agree with them that the 
rich man wUl be really happy, unless he is also good : but for one 
who is eminently good to be also extremely rich is impossible." 

3 Prov. xvii. 6, according to the Septuagint. See note on 
Cat. V. 2, where the same passage is quoted. Clement of Alex- 
andria (.S/r^Pwai?. II. s) refers to it in connexion with the passage 
of Plato quoted in the preceding note. S Augustine also quotes 
and explains it in Eptst. 153, § 26. 

4 The former clause is from Haggai it. 8; the latter, taken 
from the words of the Tempter in Luke iv. 6, is quoted Ijoth 
by Cyril and by other Fathers as if from Haggai. Chrysostom 
{Horn, xxxiv. § 5, in i Cor. xiii.) treats the use which some made 
of the misquotation as ridiculous. 

VOL. VII. ] 

hast made a bad use of that which is good, 
then being unwilling to blame thine own 
management, thou impiously throwest back 
the blame upon the Creator. A man may 
even be justified by money: / was hungry, 
and ye gave Me meat^: that certainly was 
from money. I was naked, and ye clothed Me : 
that certainly was by money. And wouldest 
thou learn that money may become a door 
of the kingdom of heaven ? Sell, saith He, 
that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou 
shall have treasure in heaven ^. 

7. Now I have made these remarks because 
of those heretics who count possessions, and 
money, and men's bodies accursed ?. For I nei- 
ther wish thee to be a slave of money, nor to 
treat as enemies the things which God has given 
thee for use. Never say then that riches are 
the devil's : for though he say. All these tvill I 
give thee, for they a7-e delivered unto me ^, one 
may indeed even reject his assertion ; for we 
need not believe the liar : and yet perhaps 
he spake the truth, being compelled by the 
power of His presence : for he said not. All 
these will I give thee,iox they are mine, but,y^/" 
they are delivered unto me. He grasped not 
the dominion of them, but confessed that he 
had been entrusted 9 with them, and was for 
a time dispensing them. But at a proper time 
interpreters should inquire whether his state- 
ment is false or true '. 

8. God then is One, the Father, the Almighty, 
whom the brood of heretics have dared to 
blaspheme. Yea, they have dared to blaspheme 
the Lord of Sabaoth^, who sitteth above the. 
Cherubim 3 .• they have dared to blaspheme the 
Lord Adonai4 : they have dared to blaspheme 
Him who is in the Prophets the Almighty 

S Matt. XXV. TS, 36. _ fi lb. xix. 21. 

7 The connexion of awfiara with money and possessions sug- 
gests the not uncommon meaning "slaves." See Pulyb. xviii. 18, 
§ 6 '. KoX ry]V ei^SovxCav aTTcSoi'TO /cat ra (jw/xara, Koi <tvv toutoi.? 
ert Ttj/as twi' Krqatiav, "household furniture, and slaves, and 
besides these some also of their lands." See Dictionary 0/ 
Christian Antiquities, " Slavery," where it is shewn that Chris- 
tians generally and even Bishops still posse.ssed slaves throughout 
the 4th Century. 

But here it is perhaps more probable that Cyril refer.?, as before, 
Cat. iv. 8 23, to the Manichean doctrine of the body as the root of 

8 Matt. iv. 9 ; Luke iv. 6. 

9 For eyKexetpijcffai, the reading of all the printed Editions, 
which hardly yields a suitalile sense, we should probably sub- 
stitute eyxexeipio-flai. A similar confusion of the two verbs occurs 
in Polybius (Hist. VIII. xviii. 61; the proper use of the latter 
is seen in Job. Damasc. {De Fide Orthod. II. 4, quoted by 
Cleopas), who speaks of Satan as being "of these Angelic powers 
the chief of the earthly order, and entrusted by God with the 
guardianship of the earth" (tijs yTJs ir\v <j)v\aKriv €yxfLpia0ei<; 
Trapd ©eov). 

' On this point compare Irena;us (ffcer. V. xxi. — xxiv.), and 
Gregory of Nyssa (Orat. Catec/i. § 5). . 

2 The reference is to Manes, ot whom his disciple Turbo .snvs 
(Archelai Dispnt. % 10), " The name Saliaoth which is honourable 
and mighty with you. he declares to be the nature of man, and tlie 
parent of lust : for which reason the simple, he says, worship 
lust, and think it to be a god." 

3 Ps. Ixxx. I. 

4 'Khiavo.1, Heb. "(^IS' " '^^ Lord," an old form of the 


Plural of majesty, used of God only. 


Gods. But worship thou One Go5 the Al- vianiellotcs without number^, z.x\A^ For all these 

mighty, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, things iho-e is honour fro7n the AlmightyT : to 

Flee from the error of many gods, flee also Whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen, 

from every heresy, and say like Job, But I will 

call upon the Almighty Lord, which doeth great * Job v. 8, 9. Cyiil's quotation agrees with the Codex Alex^- 

,, ■ J 111 I ■ J? ■ 1 andrinus of the Septuaeint, which has jrai'TOKpaTopa, " Almighty, 

tlUngS and miSearChatne, glorious things arid while the Vatican and other MSS. read xbi-Trd.'Ta.^aeo-irorTir. 

7 Job xxxvii. 23 : Goa hnth upon Him terril'le majesty {^.V .')^ 

I ' The Vatican and Alexandrine MSS- of the Septuagint re:id ewl 

5 iravTOUcpaTOpa, Heb. "1^JJ7 ?^' El-Shaddai, " God Al- TOiiroi? /ne-.'aATj r\ 56Ja »cat Ti/ar) Trai'TOicpaTopos. (_For these things 

„ ... great is the, ^lory and honour 0/ the Almighty.) But Cyril's text 

iighty. is tiie same as the Aldine and Complutensian. 


On the words, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. 

Job xxxviii. 2 — 3. 

Who is this that hideth counsel frotn Me, and keepeth 7ciords in his hearty 
afid thinketh to hide them from Me ' 1 

1. To look upon God with eyes of flesh is 
impossible : for the incorporeal cannot be 
subject to bodily sight : and the Only begotten 
Son of God Himself hath testified, saying, No 
man hath seen God at any time ^. For if accord- 
ing to that which is written in Ezekiel any one 
should understand that Ezekiel saw Him, yet 
what saith the Scripture ? He saw the likeness of 
the glory of the Lord^ ; not the Lord Himself, 
but the likeness of His glory, not the glory 
itself, as it really is. And when he saw merely 
the likeness of the glory, and not the glory 
itself, he fell to the earth from fear. Now 
if the sight of the likeness of the glory 
brought fear and distress upon the prophets, 
any one who should attempt to behold God 
Himself would to a certainty lose his life, 
according to the saying, No man shall see Afy 
face and live'-. For this cause God of His 
great loving-kindness spread out the heaven 
as a veil of His proper Godhead, that we 
should not perisix The word is not mine, but 
the Prophet's • Jf Than shall rend the heavens, 
tremlding will take hold of the mountains at 
sight of Thee, and they 7vill flow down s. 
And why dost thou wonder that Ezekiel fell 
down on seeing the likeness of the glory 1 
when Daniel at the sight of Gabriel, though 
but a servant of God, straightway .shuddered 
and fell on his face, and, prophet as he 
was, dared not answer him, until the Angel 
transformed himself into the likeness of a son 
of man^. Now if the appearing of Gabriel 
wrought trembling in the Prophets, had (iod 
Himself been seen as He is, would not all have 
perished ? 

2. The Divine Nature then it is impossible 
to see with eyes of flesh : but from the works, 

1 The Septimcint, from which Cvril quotes the text, difTers much 
from the Hebrew, .ind Irom the English Versions: Who /s this 
that dnrkeneth counsel by words zvitho-iit knoioled^e ? Giid up 
now thy toins like a man : for I will demand of thee, and an- 
swer thou Me. 

2 John i. 18. 3 Ezekiel i. 28. 4 Exod. xxxiii. 20. 
5 Is. Ixiv. I, Septuagint. R.V. Oh that Thou wouldest rend 

the hemjens, that Thou wouldest come down, that the mountains 
might flow down, 6 Dan. x. 9, 16, 18. 

which are Divine, it is possible to attain to 
some conception of His power, according to 
Solomon, who says, For by the greatness and 
beauty of the creatures proportionably the Maker 
of them is seen t. He said not that from 
the creatures the Maker is seen, but added 
proportionably. For Ciod appears the greater 
to every man in proportion as he has grasped 
a larger survey of the creatures : and when his 
heart is uplifted by that larger survey, he gains 
withal a greater conception of God. 

3. Wouldest thou learn that to comprehend 
the nature of God is impossible ? The Three 
Children in the furnace of fire, as they hynm the 
praises of God, say Blessed art thou that behold- 
est the depths, and sitUst vf'on the Cherubitn ^. 
Tell me what is the nature of the Cherubim, 
and then look upon Him who sitteth upon 
them. And yet Ezekiel the Prophet even made 
a description of them, as far as was possible, 
saying that every one has four faces, one of 
a man, another of a lion, another of an eagle, 
and another of a calf ; and that each one had 
six wings 9, and they had eyes on all sides ; and 
that under each one was a wheel of four sides. 
Nevertheless though the Prophet makes the ex- 
planation, we cannot yet understand it even as 
weread. But if we cannotunderstand the throne, 
which he has described, how shall we be able 
to comprehend Him who sitteth thereon, the 
Invisible and Inetfable God? To scrutinise 
then the nature of God is impossible : but it is 
in our power to send up praises of His glory 
for His works that are seen. 

4. These things I say to you because of the 

7 Wisdom xiii. s- Compare Theophilus of Antioch To Auto- 
Ivcus, I. 5, 6 : " God cannot indeed he seen by human eyes, but is 
beheld and perceived through His providence and works. . . . He 
is not visible to eyes ol flesh, since He is incoraprehensibie." 

8 Song of the Three Children, 32. 

9 In Ezekiel i. 6— 11. the four living creatures have eachyowr 
wings, as also in x. 21 according to the Hebrew. But in the latter 
passage, according to the Vatican text ol the Septungint. each 
has eight wings, as Codd. R. and Casaiib. read here. _ Cyril seems 
to have confused the number in Ezekiel with that in Is. vi. 2: 
each one had six wings. By "a wheel of four sides" Cyril ex 
plains Ez. i. 16 : a wheel in the midst of a wheel, as meaning two 
circles set at right angles to each other, like the equator and 
meridian on a globe. 

E 2 



following context of the Creed, and because we 
say, We believe in One God, the Father 
Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, 


in order that we may remember that the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ is the same as He 
that made the heaven and the earth ', and that 
wc may make ourselves safe against the wrong 
paths of the godless heretics, who have dared 
to speak evil of the Allwise Artificer of all 
this world 2, men who see with eyes of flesh, but 
have the eyes of their understanding blinded. 

5. For what fault have they to find with the 
vast creation of God ? — they, who ought to 
have been struck with amazement on beholding 
the vaultings of the heavens : they, who ought 
to have worshipped Him who reared the sky 
as a dome, who out of the fluid nature of the 
waters formed the stable substance of the 
heaven. For God said, Let there be a firma- 
Tiicnt in the midst of the water 3. God spake once 
for all, and it stands fast, and falls not. The 
heaven is water, and the orbs therein, sun, 
moon, and stars are of fire : and how do the 
orbs of fire run their course in the water % But 
if any one disputes this because of the opposite 
natures of fire and water, let him remember the 
fire which in the time of Moses in Egypt 
flamed amid the hail, and observe the all-wise 
workmanship of God. For since there was 
need of water, because the earth was to be 
tilled, He maiie the heaven above of water, 
that when the region of the earth should need 
watering by showers, the heaven miglit from its 
nature be ready for this purpose. 

6. But what ? Is there not cause to wonder 
when one looks at the constitution of the sun ? 
For being to the sight as it were a small body 
he contains a mighty power ; appearing from 
the East, and sending forth his light unto the 
West : whose rising at dawn the Psalmist de- 
scribed, saying : And he cometh forth out of 
his chamber as a bridegroom'^. He was de- 
scribing the brightness and moderation of his 
state on first becoming visible unto men : for 
when he rides at high noon, we often flee 
from his blaze : but at his rising he is wel- 
come to all as a bridegroom to look on. 

Observe also his arrangement (or rather not 
his, but the arrangement of Him who by an 
ordinance determined his course), how in 
summer he rises higher and makes the days 
longer, giving men good time for their works : 

> Comp:ire Cat. iv. 4. IrenEPus (I. x. 1): "The Church, 
though dispersed throughout tiie whole world, even to the ends 
of the earth, yet received from the Apostles and their disciples 
the Faiili in One God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and 
earth, and the sea and all that therein is." Tertullian {lie Pice- 
scriptione tlaret. cap. xiii.) "'i'he rule of faith is that whereby 
we believe that there is One God only, and none other than the 
Creator of the world, who brought forth all things out of nothing 
throuiih His own Word lirst of all sent forth." 

=* Compare Cat. vi. 13, 27. 3 Gen. i. 6. * Ps. xix. 5. 

but in winter contracts his course, that the 
period of cold may be increased, and that the 
nights becoming longer may contribute to 
men's rest, and contribute also to the fruiiful- 
ness of the products of the earths. See also 
how the days alternately respond each to other 
in due order, in summer increasing, and in 
winter diminishing ; but in spring and autumn 
granting equal intervals one to another. And 
the nights again complete the like courses ; so 
that the Psalmist also says of them, Day unto || 
day utiereth sfeech, and flight u?ito night pro- 
claim eth kno7v ledge ^. For to the heretics who 
have no ears, they all but cry aloud, and by 
their good order say, that there is none other 
God save the Creator who hath set them their 
bounds, and laid out the order of the Universe ?. 
7. But let no one tolerate any who say that 
one is the Creator of the light, and another ot 
darkness^: for let him remember how Isaiah 
says, / am the God who made the light, and 
created darkness 'i. Why, O man, art thou vexed 
thereat] Why art thou offended at the time 
that is given thee for rest'? A servant would 
have had no rest from his masters, had not the 
darkness necessarily brought a respite. And 
often after wearying ourselves in the day, how 
are we refreshed in the night, and he who 
was yesterday worn with toils, rises vigorous in 
the morning because of the night's rest ^ ? And 
what more helpful to wisdom than the night 3 ? 
For herein oftentimes we set before our minds 
the things of God ; and herein we read and 
contemplate the Divine Oracles. And when 
is our mind most attuned to Psalmody and 

5 The common reading iVa firj tov ^v\ov<; irAeicoi' yiirtfrax 6 
XP<>''05, aAA' \vo. aX i-uKTes, k.t.A. gives a meaning contrary to 
the facts. The transl.ition follows the MSB. Roe, Casaubon, 
which omit \x.-i] and for aAAct read nai. Compare Whewell's 
Astronomy, p. 22: "I'he length of ihe year is so determined 
as to he adapted to the constitution of most vegetables : or 
the construction of vegetaliles is so adjusted as to Ije suited 
to the length which the year really has, and unsuited to a 
duration longer or shorter by any considerable portion. The 
vegetable clock-work is so set as to go for a year." Idici. p. 34: 
" The terre-.trial day, and consequently the length of the cycle 
of light and darkness, being what it is, we find various parts of 
the constitution both of animals and vegetables, which have a 
periodical character in their functions, corresponding to the diurnal 
succession of e.xternal conditions, and we find that the length 
of the period, as it exists in their constitution, coincides with the 
length 01 the natural day." 

6 Ps. xix. 2 Compue a beautiful passage of Theophihis ofAn- 
tioch {To Autolyciis, vi.). 

7 Lucretius, v. 1182: 

" They saw the skies in constant order run. 
The varied seasons and the circling sun, 
Apparent rule, with unapparont cause. 
And thus they sought in gods the source of laws." 

8 See note 3 on Cat. iii. 33. 

9 Is. xlv. 7. Compare the Homily of Chrysostom on this text. 

1 Wbewoli, Astivnoiiiy. p. 38 : "Animals also have a period in 
their functions and habits; as in the habits of waking, sleeping, 
eating, i-'c, and their well-being appears to depend on the coin- 
cidence of this period with the length of the natural day." 

2 Chrysostom, VI. p. 171 : "As the day brings man out to his 
work, so the night succeeding releases him from his countless toils 
and llioughts, and lulling his weary eyes to sleep, and closing their 
lids, piepares him to welcome the sunbeam again with his force 
in full vigovir." 

3 Clement of Alexandria {Stromat. IV. 22, E. Tr.) : " And in 
this way they seem to have calk-d the night Euphrone, sinc:e then 
the soul released from the perceptions of sense turns in on itself, 
and has a truer hold of intelligence (<^pdi/7)o-is) " 



Prayer? Is it not at night? And when have 
we often called our own sins to remembrance ? 
Is it not at night 4? Let us not then admit 
the evil thought, that another is the maker of 
darkness : for experience shews that this also 
is good and useful. 

8. They ought to have felt astonishment 
and admiration not only at the arrangement 
of sun and moon, but also at the well-ordered 

• choirs of the stars, their unimpeded courses, 
and their risings in the seasons due to each : 
and how some are signs of summer, and 
others of winter; and how some mark the 
season for sowing, and others shew the com- 
mencement of navigation s. And a man sitting 
in his ship, and sailing amid the boundless 
waves, steers his ship by looking at the stars. 
For of these matters the Scripture says well, 
And let them be Joi- signs^ and for seasons, and 

for years ^, not for fables of astrology and 
nativities. But observe how He has also 
graciously given us the light of day by gradual 
increase : for we do not see the sun at once 
arise; but just a little light runs on before, in 
order that the pupil of the eye may be enabled 
by previous trial to look upon his stronger 
beam ; see also how He has relieved the dark- 
ness of the night by rays of moonlight. 

9. Who is the father of the rain ? And who 
hath begotten the drops of dew 7 7 Who con- 
densed the air into clouds, and bade them 
carry the waters of the rain^, now bringing 
golden-tinted clouds from the north 9, now chang- 
ing these into one uniform appearance, and 
again transforming them into manifold circles 
and other shapes ? Who can tiuniber the clouds 
in wisdom ' 1 Whereof in Job it saith, And He 
hioweth the separations of the clouds'^, and hath 

4 Chrysostom (Tom. II. p. 793) : "We usually take the reckon- 
ing of our money early in the morning, but of our actions, of all 
that we have said and done by day, let us demand of ourselves the 
accoiMit after supper, and even after nightfall, as we lie upon our 
bed, wi:h none to trouble, none to disturb us. And if we see 
anything done amiss, let us chastise our conscience, let us rebuke 
our mind, let us so vehemently impugn our account, that we may 
no more dare to ri-.e up and bring ourselves to the same pit of sin, 
being mindful of the scourging at night." 

5 Clem. Alex. {Stroincit. VI. 11;: "The same is true also of 
Astronomy, for being engaged in the investigation of the heavenly 
bodies, as to the form of the universe, and the revolution of the 
heaven, and the motion of the stars, it brings the soul nearer 
to the Creative Power, and teaches it to be quick in perceiving 
the seasons of the year, the changes of the atmosphere, and the 
risings of the stars; since navigation also and husbandry are full 
of benefit from this science." Compare Lactantius {De IrA Dei, 
cap. xiii.). 6 Gen. i. 14. 7 Job xxxviii. 28. 

8 Whewell, Astyonoiny, p. 83: " Clou'is are produced by 
aqueous vapour when it returns to the state of water." p. 89 : 
"Clouds produce rain. In the form;ition of a cloud the pre- 
cipitation of moisture probably forms a fine watery /y7«r/f>-, which 
remains suspended in the air in consequence ot the minuteness 
of its particles : but if from any cause the precipitation is collected 
in larger portions, and becomes drops, these descend by their 
weight and produce a shower." Compare Aristotle, Meieorologica, 
I. IX. 3 : Ansted, Physical Geog}'aJ>hy, p. 210. 

9 Job ,xxxvii.22 : ■' Out of the north Cometh golden splendour" 
(R.V.). I Job xxxviii. 37. 

2 Job xxxvii. 16: "Dost thou know the balancings of the 
clouds?" In the Septuagint &iaKpi(Ti.v veil>u>v inay mean "the 
separate path of the clouds" (Vulg. " semitas nubium,") or " the 
dissolving," as in Aristotle {i\Jeteorol. I. vii. 10: fiioKpii/eo-Sat koX 

bent down the heaven to the earth 3 .• and, He who 
7iumhercth the clouds in wisdom : and, the cloud 
is not 7'etit under Him ■♦. For so many measures 
of waters lie upon the clouds, yet they are not 
rent : but come down with all good order upon 
tlie earth. Who bringeth the winds out of their 
treasuries s ? And who, as we said before, is he 
that hath begotten the drops of dew ? Atid 
out of whose womb cometh the ice ^ 1 For its 
substance is like water, and its strength like 
stone. And at one time the water becomes 
snow like wool, at another it ministers to Him 
who scattereth the mist like ashes 7, and at 
another it is changed into a stony substance ; 
since He governs the waters as He will^. Its 
nature is uniform, and its action manifold in 
force. Water becomes in vines wine that 
7naketh glad the heart of man : and in olives 
oil that maketh man^s face to shine: and is 
transformed also into bread that strenglheneth 
man's heart 9^ and into fruits of all kinds which 
He hath created '. 

lo. What should have been the effect of 
these wonders? Should the Creator have been 
blasphemed? Or worshipped rather? And 
so far I have said nothing of the unseen works 
of His wisdom. Observe, I pray you, the 
.spring, and the flowers of every kind in all 
their likeness still diverse one from another ; 
the deepest crimson of the rose, and the purest 
whiteness of the lily : for these spring from the 
same rain and the same earth, and who makes 
them to differ ? Who fashions them ? Observe, 
pray, the exact care : from the one substance 
of the tree there is part for shelter, and part . 
for divers fruits : and the Artificer is One. 
Of the same vine part is for burning 2, and part 
for shoots, and part for leaves, and part for ten- 
drils, and part for clusters. 

Admire also the great thickness of the knots 
which run round the reed, as the Artificer hath 

SiaXvecrBai ro Si.drf.i.i^ov tivpoi/ iiro Toi! 7rAv;9ou5 ttjs 6epiJ.rj^ ai/aOu- 
jattttrew?, oxrre t^q (TvuitrTatrdat. paSiio? ei? i;6tup. ** The moist 
vapour is separated and dissolved by the great heat of the evapor- 
ation, so that It does not easily condense into water." Cf. Plato, 
SoJ>hisies 243 B ; Staxpiaei.; xai. (TuyKpiVfi!- 

3 Job xxxviii. 37 (according to the Septuagint): "And who is 
he that numberetii the clouds by wisdom, and bent down the 
heaven to the earth?" A.V., R.V. "Or who can pour out the 
bottles of heaven?" 

4 Job xxvi. 8 : " He bindeth up the waters in His thick clouds ; 
and the cloiul is not rent under them." 

5 Ps. cxxw. 7. 6 Job xxxviii. 28. 

7 Ps. cxlvii. 16: "He scattereth the hoar frost like ashes." 
The Hebrew ^i^3 is rendered by iraxm, "hoar frost," in Job 

xxxviii. 29, but here by hfi.t.-x\-r], " mist." 

8 Job xxxvii. 10: "the breadth of the waters is straitened" 
(Marg. R.V. "congealed"). The word oiawtfei in the Septuagint 
means to " steer," Lat. "gubernare " to " turn as by a helm." 

9 Ps. civ. 15. 

1 There is a similar passage on the various efi'ects of water in 
Cat. xvi. 12. Chrysostom {de Siatuis, Horn. xii. 2), Epiphanius 
{Ancoratus, p. 69), and other Fathers, appear to reproduce both 
the thoughts and words of Cyril. 

2 For KaDcrti', "burning," Morel and Milles, with Cod. Coisl., 
read Kava-nv, a rare word explained by Hesychiusas the "growth " 
or "foliage" of the vine: but this is tully expressed in what 
follows, and the reading KOLva-iv is confirmed by Virgil {Georg. ii. 
408): " Primus devecta cremato sarmenta" (Reischl). 



made them. From one and the same earth 
come forth creeping things, and wild beasts, 
and cattle, and trees, and tbod ; and gold, and 
silver, and brass, and iron, ami stone. The 
nature of the waters is but one, yet from it 
comes the substance of fishes ami of birds ; 
whereby 3 as the former swim in the waters, 
so the birds fly in the air. 

1 1 . This great and wide sea, thej-ein are 
things creeping inniunerabie^. Who can describe 
the beauty of the fishes that are therein ? 
Who can describe the greatness of the whales, 
and the nature s of its amphibious animals, how 
they hve both on dry land and in the waters? 
Who can tell the depth and the breadth of the 
sea, or the force of its enormous waves ? Yet 
it stays at its bounds, because of Him who 
said. Hitherto shalt thou come, and no further, 
but within thyself shall thy waves be broken ^. 
Which sea also clearly shews the word of the 
command imposed upon it, since after it has 
run up, it leaves upon the beach a visible 
line made by the waves, shewing, as it were, 
to those who see it, that it has not passed 
its appointed bounds. 

12. Who can discern the nature of the 
birds of the air? How some carry with them 
a voice of melody, and others are variegated 
with all manner of painting on their wings, and 
others fly up into mid air and float motion- 
less, as the hawk : for by the Divine com- 
mand the hawk spreadeth out his wings afid 

floateth motionless, looking towards the south t. 
What man can behold the eagle's lolty flight? 
Jf then thou canst not discern the soaring of 
the most senseless of the birds, how wouldest 
thou understand the Maker of all ? 

13. Who among men knows even the names 
of all wild beasts? Or who can accurately 
discern the physiology of each ? But if 
of the wild beasts we know not even the 
mere names, how shall we comprehend the 
Maker of them ? God's command was but 
one, which said, Let the earth bring forth wild 
beasts, and cattle, and creeping things, after their 
kinds'^ : and from one earth 9, by one command, 
have si)rung diverse natures, the gentle sheep 
and the carnivorous lion, and various instincts ^ 
of irrational animals, bearing resemblance to 
the various characters of men ; the fox to 
manifest the craft that is in men, and the 
snake the venomous treachery of Iriends, and 

3 For the construction of iVa with tlie Indicative tirTaiTat, 
see Heinliaidy, Sytitax, p. 401. Winer (Cram. N. /'. 111. sect, 
xli. c), 4 Ps. civ. 25. 

5 Gr. v-naaratTW, literally " subbtance." 

6 Job xxxviii. 11. 7 lb. xx.vix. 26. ^ Gen. i. 24. 

9 Instead of i^iui'tjs (Miiles), or 7rr)-)/ij5 (Rened. Roe, Casaiib.) 
the recent Editors have restored T17S "yjjs with the Jerusalem and 
Munich MSS., and Basil. 

' Gr. Kn-r/crci? "movements," "impulses." Aristotle (//«/<);-/(i 
Aniiiialiuiii. IX. vii. t) remarks that many imitations of man's 
mode of life may be observed in the habits of other animals. 

the neighing horse the wantonness of young 
men % and the laborious ant, to arouse the 
sluggish and the dull : for when a man passes 
his youth in idleness, then he is instructed by 
the irrational animals, being reproved by the 
divine Scripture saying. Go to the ant, thou 
sluggard, see aiui emulate her ways, and become 
wiser than she^. For when thou seest her 
treasuring up her food in good season, imitate 
her, and treasure up for thyself fruits of good 
works for the world to come. And again. Go 
to the bee, and learn how industrious she is * .- 
how, hovering round all kinds of flowers, she 
collects her honey for thy benefit : that thou 
also, by ranging over the Holy Scriptures, 
mayest lay hold of salvation for thyself, and 
being filled with them mayest say. How S7veet 
are thy words imto my throat, yea sweeter than 
honey and the honeycomb unto my mouth 5. 

14. Is not then the Artificer worthy the 
rather to be glorified? For what? If thou 
knowest not the nature of all things, do the 
things that have been made forthwith become 
useless? Canst thou know the efficacy of all 
herbs ? Or canst thou learn all the benefit 
which proceeds from every animal ? Ere now 
even from venomous adders have come anti- 
dotes for the preservation of men ^. But thou 
wilt say to me, " The snake is terrible." Fear 
thou the Lord, and it shall not be able to 
hurt thee. " A scorpion stings." Fear the 
Lord, and it shall not sting thee. " A lion is 
bloodthirsty." Fear thou the Lord, and he 
shall lie down beside thee, as by Daniel. But 
truly wonderful also is the action of the 
animals : how some, as the scorpion, have the 
sharpness in a sting ; and others have their 
power in their teeth ; and others do battle 
with their claws ; while the basilisk's power is 
his gaze ?. So then from this varied work- 
manship understand the Creator's power. 

2 Jer. V. 8. 

3 I'rov. vi. 6. Instead of the epithet "laborious" (yetopyi- 
TaT05) some M SS . have ' ' agile " or " restless " (yopyoTaro;). 

4 After the description of the ant, Prov. vi. 6—8, there follows 
in the Septuagiiit a similar refererce to the bee: "(Jr go to the 
bee, and learn how industrious she is, and how comely she makes 
her work, and the produce of her labours kings and commons 
adopt for health, and she is desired and esteemed by all, and 
though feeble in strength has been exalted by her regard for 
wisdom." The interpolation is supposed to be of Greek origin, as 
containing " idiomatic tJreek expressions which would not occur 
to a translator from the Hebrew " (Uelitzsch). 

5 Ps. cxix. 103. 

6 Compare Bacon [Natural Hist, t^d^: "I would have trial 
made of two other kinds of bracelets, for comforting the heart and 
spirits: one of the trochisch of vipers, made into little pieces of 
beads: for since they do great good inwards (especially for 
pestilent agues), it is like they will be efi'ectual outwards, where 
they may be applied in greater quantity. There would be trochisch 
likewise made of snakes ; whose fle^h dried is thought to have 
a veiy good opening and cordial virtue." ]b. 969 : " Tlie writers 
of natural magic commend the wearing of the spoil of a snake, 
for preserving of health." Thomas Jackson (On the Creed, VIII. 
8, § 4) : " The poisonous bitings of the scorpion are usually cured 
by the oil of scorpions." 

7 Shakespeare '^Richard III. Act. I. Sc. ii.) . 

Glo. " Thine eyes, sweet lady, have infected mine." 
Anne. "'Would they were basilisks to strike thee dead." 



15. But these things perhaps thou knowest 
not : thou wouldest have nothing in common 
with the creatures which are without thee. En- 
ter now into thyself, and from thine own nature 
consider its Artificer. What is there to find fault 
with in the framing of thy body? Be master of 
thyself, and -nothing evil shall proceed from 
any of thy members. Adam was at first with- 
out clothing in Paradise with Eve, but it was 
not because of his members that he deserved 
to be cast out. The members then are not 
the cause of sin, but they who use their mem- 
bers amiss ; and the Maker thereof is wise. 
Who prepared the recesses of the womb for 
child-bearing? Who gave life to the lifeless 
thing within it ? Who knitted us with sineivs 
and bones, and clothed us with skin and flesh ^, 
and, as soon as the child was born, brought 
streams of milk out of the breasts ? How 
grows the babe into a boy, and the boy into 
a youth, and then into a man ; and, still the 
same, passes again into an old man, while no 
one notices the exact change from day to day? 
Of the food, how is one part changed into 
blood, and another separated for excretion, 
and another part changed into flesh ? Who 
gives to the heart its unceasing motion ? Who 
wisely guarded the tenderness of the eyes with 

Compare Bacon (Z>.' Ate^inentis, VII. cap. ii.): " The fable goes 
of the Dasilisk, that if he see you first, you die for it, but if you 
see him first, he dies." Bacon lefers to Pliuy ^Nat. I/tni. viii. 33). 
8 Job X. II. 

the fence of the eyelids 9 ? For as to the com- 
plicated and wonderful contrivance of the eyes, 
the voluminous books of the physicians hardly 
give us explanation. Who distributes the 
one breath to the whole body? Thou seest, 
O man, the Artificer, thou seest the wise 

1 6. These points my discourse has now 
treated at large, having left out many, \ea, ten 
thousand other things, and especially things 
incorporeal and invisible, that thou mayest 
abhor tiiose who blaspheme the wise and 
good Artificer, and from what is spoken and 
read, and whatever thou canst thyself discover 
or conceive, froni the greatness and beauty of 
the creatures mayest pivporticnably see the maker 
of them % and bending the knee with godly 
reverence to the Maker of the worlds, the 
worlds, I mean, of sense and thought, both 
visible and invisible, thou mayest with a 
grateful and holy tongue, with unwearied lips 
and heart, praise God and say, How tvonderful 
are Thy works, O Lord ; in ivisdom hast Thou 
madet'hem all^. For to Thee belongeth honour, 
and glory, and majesty, both now and through- 
out all ages. Amen. 

9 Xenophon {Memor. Socratis. I. cap iv.): "And moreover 
does not this also seem to thee like a work of providence, that, 
whereas the sight is weak, the Creator furnished it with eyelids 
for doors, which are opened whenever there is need to use the 
sight, but are closed in sleep." 

« Wisdom xiii. 5. » Ps. civ. 34. 


Note. — In the manuscripts which contain 
this discourse under the name of " A Homily 
of S. Basil on God as Incomprehensible," some 
portions are changed to suit that subject : but 
the conclusion especially is marked by great 
addition and variation, which it is well to re- 
produce here. Accordingly in place of the 
words in §15 : ti ^le^nrTov, "What is there to 
find fault with ? " and the following, the nianu- 
scrijjts before mentioned have it thus : 

" What is there to find fault with in the fram- 
ing of the body? Come forth into the midst 
and speak. Control thine own will, and nothing 
*evil shall proceed from any of thy members. 
For every one of these has of necessity been 
made for our use. Chasten thy reasoning unto 
piety, submit to God's commandments, and 
none of these members sin in working and serv- 
ing in the uses for which they were made. If 
thou be not willing, the eye sees not amiss, the 
ear hears nothing which it ought not, the hand 
is not stretched out for wicked greed, the foot 
walketh not towards injustice, thou hast no 

strange loves, committest no fornication, covetest 
not thy neighbour's wife. Drive out wicked 
thoughts from thine heart, be as God made 
thee, and thou wilt rather give thanks to thy 

Adam at first was without clothing, faring 
daintily in Paradise : and after he had received 
the commandment, but failed to keep it, and 
wickedly stretched forth his hand (not because 
the hand wished this, but because his will 
stretched forth his hand to that which was for- 
bidden), because of his disobedience he lost 
also the "ood things he had received. Thus 
the members are not the cause of sin to those 
who use them, but the wicked mind, as the 
Lord says. For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, 
fornications, adulteries, envyings, and such like. 
In what things thou choosest, therein thy limbs 
serve thee ; they are excellently made for the 
service of the soul : they are provided as ser- 
vants to thy reason. Guide them well by the 
motion of piety; bridle them by the fear of 
God ; bring them into subjection to the desire 



of temperance and abstinence, and they will 
never rise up against thee to tyrannise over 
thee ; but rather they will guard thee, and help 
thee more mightily in thy victory over the 
devil, while expecting also the incorruptible and 
everlasting crown of the victory. Who openeth 
the chambers of the womb ? Who, &c." 

At the end of the same section, after the 
words " Wise Creator," this is found : " Glorify 
Him in His unsearchable works, and concerning 
Him whom thou art not capable of knowing 
inquire not curiously what His essence is. It 

is better for thee to keep silence, and in faith 
adore, according to the divine Word, than dar- 
ingly to search after things which neither thou 
canst reach, nor Holy Scripture hath delivered 
to thee. These points my discourse has now 
treated at large, tliat thou mayest abhor those 
who blaspheme the wise and good Artificer, 
and rather mayest thyself also say. How won- 
derful are Thy woi'ks O Lord ; in wisdom /lent 
Thou made them all. To Thee be the glory, 
and power, and worship, with the Holy Spirit, 
now and ever, and throughout all ages. Amen." 


On the Clause, And in one Lord Jesus Christ, with a reading from 
THE First Epistle to the Corinthians. 

For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaveii or on earth ' / yet to us there is One 
God, the Father, of whom are all things, afid we in Him; and One Lord Jesus Christ, 
through 7vhom are all things, and we through Him. 

1. They who have been tauglit to believe 
*iN One God the Father Almighty," ought 

also to believe in His Only-begotten Son. 
For he that denieth the Son, the same hath not 
the Father'^. lam the Door^, saith J esu s ; iio one 
Cometh unto the Father but through Ale''. For 
if thou deny the Door, the kno\Yledge concern- 
ing the Father is shut off from thee. No man 
kr/otveth the Father, save the Son, and he to 
whomsoever the Son shall reveal Him s. For if 
thou deny Him who reveals, thou remainest in 
ignorance. There is a sentence in the 
Gospels, saying, He that beiia^eth not on the 
Son, shall not see life ; but the wrath of God 
abideth on him ^ For the Father hath indig- 
nation when the Only-begotten Son is set at 
nought. For it is grievous to a king that 
merely his soldier should be dishonoured; and 
when one of his nobler officers or friends is 
dishonoured, then his anger is greatly increased : 
but if any should do despite to the king's only- 
begotten son himself, who shall appease the 
father's indignation on behalf of his only- 
begotten son ? 

2. If, therefore, any one wishes to shew 
piety towards God, let him worship the Son, 
since otherwise the Father accepts not his 
service. The Father spake with a loud voice 
from heaven, saying, This is My beh~<ed Son,tn 
whom I am well p'easedT. The Father was 
well pleased ; unless thou also be \\ell pleased 
in Him, thou hast not life. Be not thou 
carried away with the Jews when they craftily 
say, There is one God alone ; but with the 
knowledge that God is One, know that there 
is also an Only-begotten Son of God. I am not 
the first to say this, but the Psalmist in the 
person of the Son saith. The Lord said unto 

• I Cor. vlii. 5, 6. Cyril omits the clause : as thtre be gods 
many and lords tiiany. ^ i John ii. 23. 3 lb. x. 9. 

* lb. .\iv. 6. 5 Matt. xi. 27. 6 John iii. 36. 
7 Matt. iii. 17. 

Me, Thou art My Son^. Heed not therefore 
what the Jews say, but; what the Prophets say. 
Dost thou wonder that they who stoned and 
slew the Prophets, set at nought the Prophets' 
words ? 

3. Believe thou in One Lord Jesus Christ, 
THE Only-begotten Son of God. For we 
say " One Lord Jesus Christ," tJiat His Son- 
ship may be " Only-begotten :" we say " One," 
that thou mayest not suppose another : we 
say " One," that thou mayest not profanely 
diffuse the many names 9 of His action among 
many sons. For He is called a Door ' ; but 
take not the name literally for a thing of wood, 
but a spiritual, a living Door, discriminating 
those who enter in. He is called a Way=, not 
one trodden by feet, but leading to the Father 
in heaven ; He is called a Sheep 3, not an irra- 
tional one, but the one which through its 
precious blood cleanses the world from its 
sins, which is led before the shearers, and 
knows when to be silent. This Sheep again is 
called a Shepherd, who says, / ajn the Good 
Shepherd ■^ : a Sheep because of His manhood, 
a Shepherd because of tlie loving-kindness of 
His Godhead. And wouldst thou know that 
there are rational sheep ? the Saviour says to 
the Apostles, Behold, I send you as sheep in the 
midst ofzc'olres^. Again, He is called a Lion ^, 
not as a devourer of men. but indicating as it 
were by the title His kingly, and stedfast, 
and confident nature : a Lion He is- also 
called in opposition to the lion our adver- 

8 Ps. ii. 7. 

9 TO jroAuuJj'u/xov, a word used by the Greek Poets of their gods, 
as by Homer (//;!';«» io Deinetet, i8, 32) ol Zeus, Kporou jroAu^- 
vu/ios 11105. Cf. Sopli. Ant. 1115 ; Aeschyl. Prom. V. 210. 

' John X. 7, 9. Cyril calls Christ a " spiritu.-i!," or "rational 
(AoytK^) door, ' and applies the same term to Hi.s sheep, below. 
Origen (/?« Evaiig. J oh. Tom. i. cap. 29): ©upa 6 Sioirjp amye- 
ypaiTTat. ibid. </)tAai'0pw7ro? 5e ttiv . . . Tioi/HT/t/ yti/erat. 

2 John xiv. 6. 3 lb. i 29 ; Is. liii. 7, 8; Acts viii. 32. 

4 John X. II 5 Wait. x. 10, 16. ' Gen. xlix. 9 ; 

Apoc. V. 5. 



sary, who roars and devours tliose who have 
been deceived t. For the Saviour came, not as 
having changed the gentleness of His own 
nature, but as the strong Lion of the tribe of 
fudah ^, saving them that beheve, but treading 
down the adversary. He is called a Stone, 
not a lifeless stone, cut out by men's hands, 
but a chief comer-stone'^, on whom whosoever 
believeth shall not be put to shame. 

4. He is called Christ, not as having been 
anointed by men's hands, but eternally an- 
ointed by the Father to His High-Priesthood 
on behalf of men '. He is called Dead, not 
as having abode among the dead, as all in 
Hades, but as being d\o\\tfree among the dead^. 
He is called Son of Man, not as having had 
His generation from earth, as each of us, 
but as coming upon the clouds to judge 
BOTH Quick and Dead 3. He is called 
Lord, not improperly as those who are so 
called among men, but' as having a natural 
and eternal Lordship 4. He is called Jesus by 
a fitting name, as having the appellation from 
His salutary healing. He is called Son, not as 
advanced by adoption, but as naturally be- 
gotten. And many are the titles of our 
Saviour ; lest, therefore. His manifold appel- 
lations should make thee think of many sons, 
and because of the errors of the heretics, who 
say that Christ is one, and Jesus another, and 
the Door another, and so on s, the Faith secures 
thee beforehand, saying well, In One Lord 
Jesus Christ: for though the titles are many, 
yet their subject is one. 

5. But the Saviour comes in various forms 
to each man for his protit^. For to those who 
have need of gladness He becomes a Vine ; 
and to those who want to enter in He stands 
as a Door ; and to those who need to offer 
up their prayers He stands a mediating High 

8 Ps. 

cxviii. 22. 

9 Is. xxviii. t6; 

7 I Pet. V. 8. 

I Pet. ii. 4—6. 

' The reading of the earlier Editions vnep avOpdniov is free 
from all difficulty, and so the more likely to have been substituted 
tor what is at lirst sight more difficult virep aySpian-ov, the reading 
of Cod. Coislin. adopted by the Benedictine and subsequent 
Editors. The idea ot' a super-human Pricstliood to which the 
Son in His Divine nature was anointed by the Father from 
eternity is repeated by Cyril in § 14 ot this Lecture, and in Cat. xi. 
I, 14. See Index, " Priesthood, " and the reference there given to 
a fuller consideration of the subject in the Introduction. 

* Ps. Ixxxviii. 5. 

3 John V. 27. Comparing what Cyril says here with Cat. iv. 15, 
and XV. 10, we see that he means to explain why Christ is called 
the "Son of Man" when "He cometh again from heaven." and 
"no more from earth." The preceding clause refers to His first 
coming in the flesh, as differing in the manner of His conception 
and birth Irom other men. 

4 Cf, Athanas. (c: Avian. II. xv. 14), "That very Word who 
was by nature Lord, and was then made man, luah by means 
of a servant's form I een made Lord of all and Christ." 

5 Cf. lrena;us (III. xvi. 8): "All therefore are outside the 
Dispensation, who under pretence of knowledge understand that 
Jesus was one, and Christ another, and the Only-bcgot!en another 
(from whom again is the Word), and the Saviour another." The 
Corinthians, Ehionites, Ophites, and Valentinians are mentioned 
by Irendeus as thus separatiiij^ the Christ Irom Jesus. 

'' Cf. Athanas. (/•.//>/. X.): "Since He is rich and manifold, 
lie varies Himscli according to the individual capacity of each 

Priest. Again, to those who have sins He 
becomes a Sheep, that He may be sacrificed 
for them. He is made all things to all ?ncm, 
remaining in His own nature what He is. For ■ 
so remaining, and holding the dignity of His I 
Sonship in reality unchangeable. He adapts 
Himself to our infirmities, just as some ex- 
cellent physician or compassionate teacher ; 
though He is Very Lord, and received not the 
Lordship by advancement^, but has the dignity 
of His Lordship from nature, and is rot called 
Lord improperly 9, as we are, but is so in verity, 
since by the Father's bidding' He is Lord of His 
own works. For our lordship is over men of 
equal rights and like passions, nay often over 
our elders, and often a young master rules over 
aged servants. But in the case of our Lord 
Jesus Christ the Lordship is not so ; but He is 
first Maker, then Lord ^ : first He made all 
things by the Father's will, then, He is Lord of 
the things which were made by Llim. 

6. Christ the Lord is He who was born in 
the city of David ^. And wouldest thou know 

7 I Cor. ix. 22. 

8 cK TrpoKorrrjs. We learn from Athanasius (c. Avian. J. 37, 38, 
40;, that from St. Paul's language Pkili/'/i. ii. 9: "Wherefore 
also God highly exalted Him, i-'c," and from Ps. xlv. 7 : " Thou 
hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity : therefore God, thy 
God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy 
fellows," the Arians argued that Christ first received Divine 
honour as Son and Lord as the reward of His obedience as Man. 
Athanasius replies (c. 40) : " He was not from a lower state pro- 
moted ; but rather, existing as God, He took the form of a ser- 
vant, and in taking it was not promoted but humbled Himself. 
Where then is there liere any reward of virtue, or what advance- 
ment (ttpokotti)) and promotion in humiliation?" 

The same doctrine had been previously held by the disciples 
of Paul of Samosata, who said that Christ was not originally God, 
but after His Incarnation was by advance («'«: npoKOjrrji) made 
God, from being made liy nature a mere man : see Athanas. 
{tie Decveiis, § 24, c. Avian, i. 38). S. Cyril refers to the error, 
and uses the same word, in xi. i, 7, 13, 15, 17, and .\iv. 27. 

9 icaTaxp>)o-TiK(I)5, i.e. in a secondary or metaphorical sense. 
Cf. vii. 5. 

1 vevixaTL, " command" or "bidding," as expressed by nodding 
the head. 

2 Oilmen {De Prittcipiis, I. ii. 10) had argued that "even 
God cannot be called Omnipotent, unless there exist those over 
whom He may exercise His power," and therefore creation must 
have been eternal, or God could not have been eternally Omni- 
potent. In other passages Origen declares it an impiety to hold 
that matter is co-eteinal with God (De Princip. 11. i. 4), and yet 
maintains that there were other worlds before this, and that there 
was never a time when there was no world existing. 

iVlethociius, in a fragment of his work On things Created, pre- 
served by Photius, and quoted by Bishop Bull {DcJ. Fid. Nic. II. 
xiii. 9), argues against these theories of Origen. that in John i. 2 
the Words ''The same was in the beginning with God" indicate 
the authority (to efoucnao-TiKor) of the Word which He had with 
the Father before the world came into exisience; since from all 
eternity God the Father, together with His Word, possessed the 
Almighty power whereby whenever He would He could create 
worlds to rule over. 

Dean Church remarks that "On the other hand TertuUian, 
contra Hevmog. 3, considering the attributes in question to be- 
long not to the Divine Nature, but Office, denies that God was 
Almighty (Lord?) from eternity; while the Greeks affirmed this 
(vid. Cyril Alex, in Jonnn. x\ii. S. p. ^63 ; Ailian. Oral. ii. 12—14), 
as understanding by the term the inherent but latent attribute 
of doing what He had not yet done, to ii-ovaia.aTiKov ." 

Cleopas, the Jerusalem Editor, regards the' passage as directed 
against Paul of Samosata, who asserted that Christ had become 
God, and received His kingdom and Lordship only after His In- 
carnation, and remarks : — " S. Cyril evidently ieg^r,is the I.ordsh p 
of Jesus Christ as twolold : one that which iroin eternity be- 
longed to llim as God, which he calls natural, according to which 
' He was ever both Lord and King, as being by nature God' 
(Cyril Alex, in Joliatin. cap. xvii.); and the other the Lordship 
in time relative to the creatures, by which He exercises domi- 
nion over the works created by Him, as being their Maker." 

3 Luke ii. 11. 



tliat Christ is Lord with tlie Father even before 
His Incarnation ^j that thou mayest not only 
accept the statement by faith, but mayest also 
receive proof from the Old Testament ? Go 
to the first book, Genesis : God saith, Let its 
make man, not 'in My ima^^e,' but, in Our 
imaged. And after Adam was made, the sacred 
writer says, And God created man; in the 
image of God created He him ^. For he diet not 
limit the dignity of the Godhead to the Father 
alone, but included the Son also : that it might 
be shewn that man is not only the work of 
God, but also of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is 
Himself also Very God. This Lord, who 
works together with the Father, wrought with 
Him also in the case of Sodom, according 
to the Scripture : And the Lord rained tipon 
Sodom and Gomorrah fire and brimstone from 
the Lord out of heaven 7. This Lord is He who 
afterwards was seen of Moses, as much as he 
was able to see. For the Lord is loving unto 
man, ever condescending to our infirmities. 

7. Moreover, that you may be sure that this 
is He who was seen of Moses, hear Paul's testi- 
mony, when he says. For they all drank of a 
spiritual ?-ock that foUoiced the?n ; and the ivck 
was Christ ^. And again : By faith Moses forsook 
Egypt '^^ and shortly after he says, accounting 
the reproach of Christ greater riches than the 
treasures in Egypt '^. This Moses says to Him, 
Sheiv me Thyse/f Thou seest that the 
Prophets also in those times saw the Christ, 
that is, as far as each was able. Sheici me Thy- 
self that L may see Thee with understanding ^. 
But He saith. There shall no man see My face, 
and live^. For this reason then, because no 
man could see the face of the Godhead and 
live, He took on Him the face of human 
nature, that we might see this and live. And 
yet when He wished to shew even that with a 
little majesty, when His face did shine as the 
sun*, the disciples fell down aftVighted. If 
then His bodily countenance, shining not in 
the full power of Him that wrought, but 
according to the capacity of the Disciples, 
aflVighted them, so that even thus they could 
not bear it, how could any man gaze upon the 
majesty of the Godhead? 'A great thing,' 
saith the Lord, ' thou desirest, O Moses : and I 
approve thine insatiable d^', ajid I will do 

4 Among those who denied the Divine prae-existence of Christ 
Cleopas enumerates Ebion, Caipocrates, Theodotus, Artemon, 
Paul of Saniosata, Maicellv.s. and Photinus. 

5 Gen. i. 26. 6 lb i. 27. 7 lb. xix. 24. 
8 I Cor. X. 4. 9 Heb. xi. 27. 

' Heb. xi. 26. Quoting from memory Cyril mistakes the order 
of the two sentences. 

'^ Ex. xxxiii. 13. Cyril means that even before His Incarna- 
tion Christ was seen as far as was possible by Piophets such as 
Moses. This view was held by many ot the Bathers before Cyril. 
See Justin M. (7Vj//z. § 56 ff.); TertuU. {adv. Praxean, % 16); 
Euseb. (De}Hi»tsir. hvajig. V. 13 — 16). 

3 Ex. xxxiii. 20. 4 Matt. xvii. 2. 

this things for thee, but according as thou art 
able. LJehold, L will put thee in the clift of the 
rock^ : for as being little, thou shalt lodge in a 
little space.' 

8, Now here I wish you to make safe what 
I am going to say, because of the Jews. For 
our object is to prove that the Lord Jesus Christ 
was with the Father. The Lord then says to 
Moses, L will pass by before thee with My glory ^ 
and wfll p7-oclaim the name of the Lord before 
theeT. Being Himself the Lord, what Lord 
doth He proclaim ? Thou seest how He was co- 
vertly teaching the godly doctrine of the Father 
and the Son. And again, in what follows it is 
written word for word : And the Lord desce7ided 
in the cloud, and stood with him there, and pro- 
claimed the name of the Lord. And the Lord 
passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, 
the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, 
both keeping righteousness and shewing mercy 
unto thousands, taking away iniquities, and 
transgressions, and sins ^. Then in what follows, 
Moses boivcd his head and worshipped'^ before 
the Lord who proclaimed the Father, and said : 
Go Thou then, U Lord, in the midst ofus^. 

9. This is the first proof: receive now a 
second plain one. The Lord said unto my 
Lord, sit Thou on My right hand'^. The Lord 
says this to the Lord, not to a servant, but to 
the Lord of all, and His own Son, to whom 
He put all things in subjection. But ivhen LLe 
saith that all things are put under LLim, it is 
manifest that He is excepted, which did put all 
things under LLim, and what follows ; that God 
may be all in all^. The Only-begotten Son is 
Lord of all, but the obedient Son of the 
Father, for He grasped not the Lordship'', 
but received it by nature of the Father's 
own will. For neither did the Son grasp it, 
nor the Father grudge to impart it. He it is 
who saith. All things are delivered unto Me of My 
Father^; "delivered unto Me, not as though 

S Ex. xxxiii. 17. Gr. Adyoi/, " word," in imitation 01 tho 
Hebrew idiom. 
^ Ex. .\,\xiii. 22. 

7 Ex. xxxiii. 19. Literally " will call in the name of the Lord 
(Jehovah):" compare Gen. iv. 26. 

8 Ex. xxxiv. 5 — 7. For "keeping righteousness and shewing 
mercy," the Hebrew has only " keeping mercy." 

9 Ex. xxxiv. 8. ' lb. xxxiv. 9. 

2 Ps. ex. I. Heb. "An oracle of Jehovah unto my lord." 
Cyril's argument is based upon the comreou mistake of supposing 
that Kiipios represents the same Hebrew woril in both pans 
of the sentence. 3 i Cor. xv. 27, 28. 

4 Cyril evidently alludes to Philipp. ii. 6, " Who being in the 
form of God thought it not a pnz= to be on an equality wiih 
God:" for the right interpretation of which passage, see Dean 
Gwynn's notes in the Speaker s Cojiimentnry. 

5 Matt. xi. 27 ; Luke x. 22. On this text Athanasius wrote 
a special treatise (jn Hind ' Omnia' 6r>c.), against the argumentj. 
of Arius, Lusebius, and their fellows, who said, — " If all things 
were delivered (meaning by ' all' the Lordship of Creation), there 
was once a time when He had them not. Hut it He had them 
not, He is not of tne Father, for ii He were, He would on that 
account have had them always." 

Again {contr. Arian. Oral. III. cap. xxvii. §36), Athanasius 
argues; "Lest a man, perceiving that the Son lias all that tli'- 
Father hath, from the exact likeness and identity of what l.e 



I had them not before; and I keep them well, 
not robbing Him who hath given them." 

lo. The Son of God then is Lord : He is 
Lord, who was born in Bethlehem of Judaea, 
according to the Angel who said to the 
sliejjherds, I bring you good tidings of great Joy, 
that unto you is born this day in the city of 
David Christ the Lord^ : of whom an Apostle 
says elsewhere. The 7i'ord which God sent unto 
the children of Israel, preaching tJie gospel of 
peace by Jesus Christ : He is Lord of allT . But 
when he says, of all, do thou except nothing 
from His Lordship : for whether Angels, or 
Archangels, or principalities, or powers, or 
any created thing named by the Apostles, 
all arp under the Lordship of the Son. Of 
Angels He is Lord, as thou hast it in the 
Gospels, Then the Devil departed from Him, 
and th" Angels came and ministered unlo Him ^ ; 
for the Scripture saith not, they succoured 
Him, but they ministered unto Him, that is, 
like servants. When He was about to be 
born of a Virgin, Gabriel was then His servant, 
having received His service as a peculiar 
dignity. When He was about to go into 
Egypt, that He might overthrow the gods of 
Egypt made with hands 9, again an Angel 
appeareth to Joseph in a dream ^ After He had 
been crucified, and had risen again, an Angel 
brought the good tidings, and as a trustworthy 
servant said to the women. Go, tell His disciples 
that He is i isefi, and gocth befo?-e you into Gali- 
lee; lo, I have told you ^ : almost as if he had 
said, " I have not neglected my command, I 
protest that I have told you ; that if ye dis- 
regard it, the blame may not be on me, but on 
those who disregard it." This then is the One 
Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the lesson just 
now read speaks : For though there be many 
that are called gcds, whether in heaven or in 
earth, and so Qx\,yet to us there is One God, the 
Father, nf quhom are all things, and we in Him ; 
and One Lord, Jesus Christ, through who?n are 
all things, and we thtvugh Him 3. 

II. And He is called by two names, Jesus 
Christ; Jesus, because He saves, — Christ, be- 

hnth, should wander into the impiety of Sabclliiis, considering 
Him to be the Father, therefore He has said, H^as giTcn unto Me, 
and / received, and Were delwered to Me, only to shew that He 
is not the Father, but the Father's Word, and the Kternal Son, 
who, because of His likeness to the Father, has eternally wliat 
He has from Him, and, because He is the Son, has from the 
Father what eternally He hath." 

6 Luke ii. lo, ii. 7 Acts x. 36. * Matt. iv. 11. 

9 Isa. xi.'v. I. ■' Behold, the LoxD rideth upon a swift cloud, 
and comelh imto Ejjypt : and the idols of Egypt .shall be moved 
at H s pie^ence." The prophecy was suppjsed by many of the 
r.ithers to have been fulfilled by the tiight into lCj;>pt. Cf. 
Athanas. (/•"/. LXI. ad Alaximutn, §4): '" As a child Me came 
down to Egypt, and brought to nought its idols ma.le with hands : " 
/nd {de Incarii. § 36) ; " Which of the righteous men or kijigs 
went duwn into Egypt, so that at his coming the idols ol Egypt 
fell '!" On l!ie pa,..sage of Isaiah see Delitzsch, and Kay {S/ea/cer's 

» Matt. li. i»- a lb. xxviii. 7. ^ i Cor. viii. 5, 6. 

cause He is a Priest •♦. And knowing this the in- 
spired Prophet Moses conferred these two titles 
on two men distinguished above all s : his own 
successor in the government, Auses ^, he re- 
named Jesus ; and his own brother Aaron he 
surnanied Christ 7, that by two well-approved 
men he might represent at once both the High 
Priesthood, and the Kingship of the One Jesus 
Christ who was to come. For Christ is a High 
Priest like Aaron ; since He glorified not Him- 
self to be made a High Priest, but He that spake 
u7ifo Him, Thou art a Priest for ever after the 
order of Melchizedek'^. And Jesus the son of 
Nave was in many things a type of Him. For 
when he began to rule over the people, he 
began from Jordan 9, whence Christ also, after 
He was baptized, began to preach the gospel. 
And the son of Nave appoints twelve to divide 
the inheritance'; and twelve Apostles Jesus 
sends forth, as heralds of the truth, into all the 
world. The typical Jesus saved Rahab the 
harlot when she believed : and the true Jesus 
says. Behold, the publicans and the harlots go 
before you into the kingdom of God^. With only 
a shout the walls of Jericho fell down in the 
time of the type : and because Jesus said, There 
shall not be left here one stone upon afiother 3, the 
Temple of the Jews opposite to us is fallen, the 
cause of its fall not being the denunciation 
but the sin of the transgressors. 

12. There is One Lord Jesus Christ, a won- 
drous name, indirectly announced beforehand 
by the Prophets. For Esaias the Prophet says, 
Behold, thy Saviour cometh, having His own re- 
ward +. Now Jesus in Hebrew is by interpreta- 
tion Saviour. For the Prophetic gift, foreseeing 
the murderous spirit of the Jews against their 
Lords, veiled His name, lest from l<nowing it 
plainly beforehand they might plot against 
Him readily. But He was openly called Jesus 
not by men, but by an Angel, who came not 
by his own authority, but was sent by the power 
of God, and said to Joseph, Fear fwt to take 
unto thee Mary thy wife ; for that which is con- 

4 Compare Eu'iebius {Eccl. Hist. I. cap. iii.), a passage which 
Cyril seems to have followed in his explanation of the names 
' Jesus ' and ' Christ." 

5 For the common reading eyicpiTOit irduTtov Cod. Mon. I. has 
eKKpiTOis IT. which is rcqtiircd Loth by the construction and the 
sense. I'he change may have been caused by the occurrence 
of eyKpiTuif just below. 

<> Eusebius (le.s.): "His successor, therefore, who had not 
hitherto borne the name Jesus, but h.-id been called by another 
name, Auses, which had been given him hy his parent>, he now 
called Jesus, bestowing the name upon him as a gift of honour 
far greater than any kingly diadem." Auses is a common cor- 
ruption of the name Oshea. See the note on the passage of 
Eusebius in this series. 

7 Eusebius: "He consecrated a man high-priest of God, in 
so far as that was po>sihle, and him he called Christ." Cf. Lev. iv. 
S, i6 ; vi. 22 : 6 lepivi 6 Xpiords. 

s Heb. V. 4, 5. 6. Cyril omits from his quotation the reference 
to Ps. ii. 7 : " Tliou art My Son : this day have I begotten Thee.' 

9 Josli. iii. 1. » lb. xiv. i. = Matt. xxi. 31. 

3 Matt. xxiv. 2. 

4 Isa. Ixii. 11: "Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his 
reward is with him." 5 to KvpiOKToyov Tuif 'lov&aituv. 



ceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall 
bring forth a Son, and thou shall call His name 
Jesus^. And immediately he renders the reason 
of this name, saying, for He shall save His 
people from their sins. Consider how He who 
was not yet born could have a people, unless 
He was in being before He was born 7. This 
also the Prophet says in His person, Froin the 
bozvels of my rnother hath He jnade mention of 
My name^ ; because the Angel foretold that He 
should be called Jesus. And again concerning 
Herod's plot again he says, And under the 
shadow of His hand hath He hid Me^. 

13. Jesus then means according to» the 
Hebrew " Saviour," but in the Greek tongue 
" The Healer ; " since He is physician of 
souls and bodies, curer of spirits, curing the 
blind in body', and leading minds into light, 
healing the visibly lame, and guiding sinners' 
steps to repentance, saying to the palsied, Sin 
no more, and, Take up thy bed and icalk '^. For 
since the body was palsied for the sin of 
the soul, He ministered first to the soul that 
He might extend the healing to the body. If, 
therefore, anyone is suffering in soul from sins, 
there is the Physician for him : and if any one 
here is of little faith, let him say to Him, 
Help Thou tnine unbeliefs. If any is encom- 
passed also with bodily ailments, let him not be 
faithless, but let him draw nigh ; for to such 
diseases also Jesus ministers ■*, and let him learn 
that Jesus is the Christ, 

14. For that He is Jesus the Jews allow, but 
not further that He is Christ. 'I'herefore saith 
the Apostle, Who is the liar, but he that denieth 
that Jesus is the Christ^ ? But Christ is a High 
Priest, whose priesthood passes not to another ^, 
neither having begun His Priesthood in time 7, 
nor having any successor in His High-Priest- 
hood : as thou heardest on the Lord's day, when 
we were discoursing in the congregation^ on 

* Matt. i. 20. 

7 The Anathema appended to the Creed of NiceCa condemns 
those who said irplv yevy-qdijuai ovk rjv On this Eusebius of 
Cffisarea (£■/;> ^. § 9) remarks: "Moreover to anathematize ' Be- 
fore His generation He was not,' did not seem preposterous, in 
that it is coniessed by all, that the Son of God was before the 
generation accoiding to the flesh." 

8 Isa. xlix. I. 9 lb. xlix. 2. i TV({>\iav alcr0riT<t>v. 
» John V. 14, 8. 3 Mark ix. 24. 

4 Compare the fragment of the Apology of Quadratus pre- 
sented to Hadrian 127 a.d., preserved by Eusebius(j'/.£. IV. iii.) : 
"But the works of our Saviour were always present, for they were 
genuine : — those that were healed, and those that arose from the 
dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when 
they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely 
while the Saviour was on earth, but also alter His death they 
were alive for a long while, so that some of them survived even to 
our times." See the notes on the passage of Eusebius, in this 

5 I John ii. 22. 6 Heb. vii. 24. 

7 On the opinion that Christ was from all eternity the true 
High Priest. ot the Cieation, see Index, Friestlwod, and the 
relerence there given to the Introduction. Cf. x. 4 : xi. i. Athan. 
(c. Arian. Or. ii. 12, /.//.. V.). 

8 The word 'synaxis' was used by the early Christians to 
distinguish their assemblies from the Jewish 'synagogue,' a word 
formed from the same root and more regularly. ' Synaxis' came 
to be used more especially of a celebration of the Eucharist. See 
Suicer, Thesaurus, ^vvafts. 

the phrase. After the Order of Mclchizcdek. He 
received not the High-Priesthood from bodily 
succession, nor was Pie anointed with oil 
prepared by man 9, but before all ages by the 
Father ; and He so far excels the others as 
with an oath He is made Priest : For they are 
priests without a?i oath, but He with a?i oath by 
Him that said. The Lord sware, and will not 
repenf^. The mere purpose of the Father was 
sufficient for surety : but the mode of assur- 
ance is twofold, namely that with the purpose 
there follows the oath also, that by two immu- 
table things, in which it ivas impossible for God 
to lie,we might have strong encouragement^ for our 
faith, who receive Christ Jesus as the Son of 

15, This Christ, when He was come, the 
Jews denied, but tlie devils confessed. But 
His forefather David was not ignorant of Him, 
when he said, / have ordained a la?np for 
mine Anointed^ : which lamp some have inter- 
preted to be the brightness of Prophecy ^, others 
the flesh which He took upon Him from the 
Virgin, according to the Apostle's word, But 
we have this treasure in earthen vessels s. The 
Prophet was not ignorant of Him, when He 
said, and amiounceth unto men His Christ^. 
Moses also knew Him, Isaiah knew Him, and 
Jeremiah ; not one of the Prophets was ig- 
norant of Him. Even devils recognised Him, 
for He rebuked them, and the Scripture says, 
because they knew that He was ChristT. The 
Chief-priests knew Him not, and the devils 
confessed Him : the Chief Priests knew Him 
not, and a woman of Samaria proclaimed Him, 
sa\ing, Come, see a man 7vhich told me all things 
that ever J did. Is not this the Christ^ 1 

16. This is Jesus Christ who came a High- 
Priest of the good things to come 9/ who for the 
bountifulness of His Godhead imparted His 
own title to us all. For kings among men 
have their royal style which others may not 
share : but Jesus Christ being the Son of God 
gave us the dignity of being called Christians. 
But some one will say. The name of "Chris- 
tians " is new, and was not in use aforetime ' : 
and new-fashioned phrases are often objected to 

9 (Txeuao-To!, Ex. xxx. 22 — 25: "a perfume compounded i/u.vpe- 
^^Kav) after the art of the perfumer" (R.V.). 
I Heb. vii. 2t. . = lb. vi. iS. 

3 Ps. cxxxii. 17. The " l.imp for the Anointed " was commonly 
applied by the Fathers to John the Baptist. Compare John v. 35, 
and Bishop Westcott's note there. 

4 2 Pet. i. 19. The supposed reference in the Psalm to the 
lamp of prophecy is mentioned by Eusebius {DemoKstr, Evang. 
IV. cap. 16). 

5 2 Cor. iv. 7. The reference of the ' lamp' to Christ's Incarna- 
tion is mentioned by Eusebius (u.s.) and other Fathers. 

6 Amos. iv. 13 : ''and declareth unto man what is his thought." 
For "jnii^TID' ' what is his thought,' the LXX. read "in^tiid 

' His Anointed,' rav Xptorbf airToC. 

7 Luke iv. 41. 8 John iv. 29. _ 9 Heb. ix. 11. 

I oiiK c7roAi7ei/6TO, "was not in citizenship," "not naturali-^ed." 
Cf. Sueton. Nero. cap. 16 : '' Christiani, genus hominum super- 
stitionis novae et maieficae." 



on the score of strangeness^ The prophet made 
this point safe beforehand, saying, But upon 
My sei'vants shall a new name be called, 7vhich 
shall be blessed upon the earth 3. Let us question 
the Jews : Are ye servants of the Lord, or 
not ? Shew then your new name. For ye 
were called Jews and Israehtes in the time of 
Moses, and the other prophets, and after the 
return from Babylon, and up to the present 
time : where then is your new name ? But 
we, since we are servants of the Lord, have 
that new name : 7iew indeed, but the netv 
name, which shall be blessed upon the earth. 
This name caught the world in its grasp : for 
Jews are only in a certain region, but Chris- 
tians reach to the ends of the world : for it is 
the name of the Only-begotten Son of God 
that is proclaimed. 

17. But wouldest thou know that the 
Apostles knew and preached the name of 
Christ, or rather had Christ Himself within 
them ? Paul says to his hearers, Or seek ye a 
proof of Christ that speaketh in me ^ ? Paul pro- 
claims Christ, saying. For we preach not our- 
selves, but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves 
your semants for Jesus' sake 5. Who then is this ? 
The former persecutor. O mighty wonder ! 
The former persecutor himself preaches Christ. 
But wherefore ? Was he bribed ? Nay there 
was none to use this mode of persuasion. 
But was it that he saw Him present on earth, 
and was abashed ? He had already been 
taken up into heaven. He went forth to per- 
secute, and after three days the persecutor is a 
preacher in Damascus. By what power ? 
Others call friends as witnesses for friends : 
but I have presented to you as a witness the 
former enemy : and dost thou still doubt ? 
The testimony of Peter and John, though 
weighty, was yet of a kind open to susi)icion : 
for they were His friends. But of one who 
was formerly his enemy, and afterwards dies 
for His sake, who can any longer doubt the 
truth ? 

18. At this point of my discourse I am 
truly filled with wonder at the wise dispen- 
sation of the Holy Spirit ; how He confined 
the Epistles of the rest to a small number, but 
to Paul the former persecutor gave the pri- 
vilege of writing fourteen.. For it was not 
because Peter or John was less that He re- 
strained the gift ; God forbid ! But in order 
that the doctrine might be beyond question, 
He granted to the former enemy and per- 
secutor the privilege of writing more, in order 

' TO tivov. 

3 Isa. Ixv. IS, 16. The LXX. here depart from the meaning 
of the Heljrew : " He s/iall call His servants by another vavie : 
^so that he who hUsselh himself in the earth shall bless himseifin 
the God 0/ truth " (R. V.). 

4 3 Cor. xiii. 3. S lb iv. 5. 

that we all might thus be made believers. For 
all were amazed at Paul, and said, Is not this he 
that was formerly a persecutor *" ? Did he not 
come hither, that he might lead us away bound 
to Jerusalem? Be not amazed, said Paul, I 
know that it is hard for me to kick against the 
pricks : I know that I am fiot ^vorthy to be called 
an Apostle, because I persecuted the CJmrch oj 
GodT ; but I did it/;/ ignorance^ : for I thought 
that the preaching of Christ was destruction of 
the Law, and knew not that He came Himself 
to fulfil the Law and not to destroy it 9. But the 
grace of God was exceeding abundant in me '. 

19. Many, my beloved, are the true testimonies 
concerning Christ. The Father bears witness 
from heaven of His Son : the Holy Ghost 
bears witness, descending bodily in likeness 
of a dove : the Archangel Gabriel bears wit- 
ness, bringing good tidings to Mary : the 
Vircfin Mother of God^ bears witness: the 
blessed place of the manger bears witness. 
Egypt bears witness, which received the Lord 
while yet young in the body 3 ; Symeon bears 
witness, who received Him in his arms, and 
said. Now, Lord, Idtest Thou Thy servant de- 
part in peace, according to Thy word ; for 7nifie 
eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast 
prepared before the face of all people*. Anna 
also, the prophetess, a most devout widow, of 
austere life, bears witness of Him. John 
the Baptist bears witness, the greatest among 
the Prophets, and leader of the New Cove- 
nant, who in a manner united both Cove- 
nants in Plimself, the Old and the New. 
Jordan is His witness among rivers ; the sea 
of Tiberias among seas : blind and lame bear 
witness, and dead men raised to life, and 
devils saying, JVhat have we to do with Thee, 
Jesus ? we know Thee, who Thou art, the Holy 
Cine of God ^. Winds bear witness, silenced at 
His bidding: five loaves multiplied into five 

* Acts ix. 21. 7 I Cor. XV. 9. _ ^ 1 Tim. i. 13. 

9 Matt. V. 17. ' I Tim. i. 14. 

2 r) BfOTOKOi—Dei^ara. Gibbon (Chap, xlvii. 34) says, " It is 
not easy to fix the invention of this word, which La Croze {Chris- 
tianisnte des Indes, torn. i. p. 16) ascribes to Eusebius of Ca;sarea 
and the Arians. The orthodox testimonies are produced by Cyril ■ 
(of Alexandria) and Petavius {Dog-viat. Theolog. tom. v. L. v. 
cap. 15, p. 254, &c.), but tlie veracity of the Saint is questionable, 
and the epithet of OiOToKO% so easily slides from the margin to 
the text of a Catholic MS." This passage is jiistly descriued 
as "Gibbon's calumny'' by Dr. Newman: see his notes on the 
title eeoTOKos {A than. c. Arian. Or. ii. cap. 12, n. ; Or. iii. 
capp. 14, 29, 33). The word is certainly used by Origen (Deut. 
xxii. 13, Lommatzsch. Tom. x. p. 378): "She that is already 
betrothed is called a wife, as al.-.o in the case of Joseph and 
the Thcotokos." Cf. Archelaus (Dis/ut. cum Mane, cap. xxxiv. 
"qui de Maria Dei Genetrice natus est"); Eusebius [de Vita 
Constantini, III. cap. 43: '"rhe pious Empress adorned with 
rare memorials the place of the travail of the Theotokos"). For 
other examples see Suicer's Thesaurus, deoroKos, Pearson, Creed, 
Art. iii. notes 1, m, n, o, and Routh, Reliq. Sacr. ii. p. 332. 

3 '• Chrysostom describing the flourishing state of the Church 
in Egypt in tliose times, says: ' Egypt welcome* and saves Him 
when a fugitive and plotted against, and receives a beginning as 
it were of its appropriation to Him. in order that when it sliall 
hear Him proclaimeil by the Apostles, it may in their day also 
be honoured as having been first to welcome Him ' " (Cleopas). 

4 Luke ii. 29, 30. S Mark i. 24. 



thousand bear Him witness. The holy wood 
of the Cross bears witness, seen among us to 
this day, and from this place now almost 
filling the whole world, by means of those who 
in faith take portions from it °. The palm-tree ^ 
on the ravine bears witness, having supplied 
the palm-branches to the children who then 
hailed Him. Gethsemane ^ bears witness, still 
to the thoughtful almost shewing Judas. Gol- 
gotha 9, the holy hill standing above us here, 
bears witness to our sight : the Holy Sepulchre 
bears witness, and the stone which lies there ' 
to this day. The sun now shining is His 
witness, which then at the time of His saving 
Passion was eclipsed^: the darkness is His 
witness, which was then from the sixth hour 
to the ninth : the light bears witness, which 
shone forth from the ninth hour until evening. 
The Mount of Olives bears witness, that holy 
mount from which He ascended to the Father : 
the rain -bearing clouds are His witnesses, 
having received their Lord : yea, and the 
gates of heaven bear witness [having received 
their Lords], concerning which the Psalmist 
said, Lift tcp your doors, O ye Princes, and be 

fi See Cat. Iv. lo, note 7. 

7 The Borde.*ux Pilgrim, who visited the Holy Places of Jeru- 
salem, a.d. 333, c. speaks of this palm-tree as still existing. The 
longevity of the palm was proverbial : cf. Aristot. {De Loigitu- 
dine Vitae, c. iv. 2). 

8 The same Pilgrim (as quoted by the Benedictine Editor) 
say<!, "There is also the rock where Judas Iscariot betrayed 
Christ." Compare Cat. xiii. 38. 9 See Index, Golgoiha. 

1 See the passage ot the Introduction referred to in Index, 

2 See Cat. ii. 15, note 8, and xiii. 25, 34, 38. On the super- 
natural character of the darkness mentioned in the Gospels see 
Meyer, Commentary, Matt, xxvii. 45. An eclipse of the sun 
was of course impossible, as the moon was full. Mr. J. R. Hind 
(^Historical Eclipses, "Times," 19th July, 1872) states that the 
solar eclipse, mentioned by Phlegon the freedman of Hadrian, 
which occurred on Nov. 24, a.d. 29, and was partial at Jerusalem, 
is "the only solar eclips ■ that could have been visible at Jerusalem 
during the period usually fixed for the ministry of Christ." He 
adds, "The Moon was eclipsed on the generally received date 
of the Crucifixion, 3 April, a.d. 33. I find she had emerged from 
the earth's dark shadow a quarter of an hour before she rose at 
Jerusalem (6.36 p.m.), but the penumbra continued upon her disc 
for an hour afterwards." Thus the "darkness from the sixth hour 
unto the ninth" cannot be explained as the natural effect of an 
eclipse either solar or lunar. 

3 This clause is omitted in Codd. Mon. i, 2, Roe, Casaub., and 
is probably repeated from the preceding line : such repetitions, 
however, are not uncommon in Cyril's style. 

ye lift up. ye everlasting doors ; and the King of 
Glory shall come in*. His former enemies bear 
witness, of whom the blessed Paul is one, 
having been a litUe while His enemy, but for 
a long time His servant: the Twelve Apostles 
are His witnesses, having preached the truth 
not only in words, but also by their own 
torments and deaths : the shadow of Peter ^ 
bears witness, having healed the sick in the 
name of Christ. The handkerchiefs and aprons 
bear witness, as in like manner by Christ's 
power they wrought cures of old through Paul ^. 
Persians 7 and Goths ^, and all the Gentile con- 
verts bear witness, by dying for His sake, 
whom they never saw with eyes of flesh : the 
devils, who to this day 9 are driven out by the 
faithful, bear witness to Him. 

20. So many and diverse, yea and more 
than these, are His wit7iesses : is then the 
Christ thus witnessed any longer disbelieved? 
Nay rather if there is any one who formerly 
believed not, let him now believe : and if any 
was before a believer, let him receive a greater 
increase of faith, by believing in our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and let him understand whose 
name he bears. Thou art called a Christian : 
be tender of the name ; let not our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, be blasphemed through 
thee : but rather let your good works shine be- 
fore me?i ' that they who see them may in Christ 
Jesus our Lord glorify the Father which is in 
heaven : To whom be the glory, both now and 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

4 Ps. xxiv. 7. The first clause is mistranslated by the LXX. 
from whom Cyril quotes. 

5 Acts V. 15. 6 lb. xix. 12. 

7 The persecution of the Christians in Persia by Sapor II. 
is described at length by Sozomen {E.H. II. cc. ix. — xv., in this 
Series). It commenced in a.d 343, and was going on at the date 
of these Lectures and long after. "During fifty years the Cross 
lay prostrate in blood and ashes" {Diet. Bib. ' Sassanida; '). Com- 
pare Neander. Church History, Tom. III. p. 14S, Bohn.) 

8 The Goths here mentioned are the Gothi minores dwelling 
on the north of the Danube, where Ulfilas, "the Apostle of the 
Goths" (311 — 381), converted many of his countrymen to Chris- 
tianity. After suffering severe persecution, he was allowed by 
Constantius to take refuge with his Arian converts in Moesia and 
Thrace. This migration took place in 348 a.d., the same year 
in which Cyril's Lectures were delivered. 

9 See Index, Exorcism. ' Matt. v. 16. 


On the words, The Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Father Very 
God before all ages. By Whom all things were made. 

Hebrews i. i. 

God, who at sundry times and in divers manner's spake in times past unto the Fathers 
by the Prophets, hath in these last days spokefi ufito us by His Son. 

1. That we have hope in Jesus Christ has 
been sufficiently shewn, according to our 
ability, in what we delivered to you yesterday. 
But we must not simply believe in Christ 
Jesus nor receive Him as one of the many 
who are im])roperIy called Christs'. For they 
were figurative Christs, but He is the true 
Christ; not having risen by advancement ^ from 
among men to the Priesthood, but ever having 
the dignity of the Priesthood from the Fathers. 
And for this cause the Faith, guauling us be- 
forehand lest we should suppose Him to be 
one of the ordinary Christs, adds to the pro- 
fession of the P'aith, that we believe In One 
Lord Jesus Christ, The Only-Begotten 
Son of God. 

2. And again on hearing of a "Son," think 
not of an adopted son but a Son by nature 4, 
an Only-begotten Son, having no brother. 
For this is the reason why He is called 
"Only-begotten," because in the dignity of 
the Godhead, and His generation from the 
Father, He has no brother. But we call Him 
the Son of God, not of ourselves, but because 
the Father Himself named Christs His Son '^ : 
and a true name is that which is set by 
fathers upon their children 7. 

3. Our Lord Jesus Christ erewhile became 

* Compare x. ii, 15 ; xvi. 13 : xxi, i. 

» cK wpoKOTT^. See X. 5, note 8. 

3 Compare x. 14, note 9. 

4 eeror. Ailiaiiasiiis {de SentcntiA Diottysii, % 23), represents 
Anus as saying the Word "is not by nature (^ari ./-io-u.) 
ana in truth Son of God, but is called Son, He too, by adoption 
(Kara eto-ir) as a cre.iture." Ayain (r. Arian. Oral. iii. ,g) 
he says, 1 his is the true God and the Life etL-rnal. and wc are 
made sons through Him by adoption and grace (eeVe. Ka.X yaptrO." 
Cf. vu. 10, and § 4, below. '^ ' 

5 The MSS. nil read auTbi/ Xpio-roV which might mean " Christ 
and no othei. But Xpiarav is probably a glos.-, introduced from 
the margin. 

6 Compare the passages in which Cyril quotes Ps. ii. 7. as 
Cat. vii. 2 ; X. 2 ; xi. 5 ; xii. 18. 

1 "It W..S orie of the especial rights of a father to choose the 
names for his children, and to alter them if he pleased" (Dici 
Greek ami Romtin Anti<f. " Nomen. 1 Greek.") The , i"ht to the 
name given by the father is the subject of one of the Private 
Orations of Demosthenes (Hpis Boiiutov n-epi Toii 6v6^a.T0i) 

I Man, but by the many He was unknown. 
Wishing, therefore, to teach that which was not 
known, He called together His disciples, and 
asked them, Whom do men say that I, the Son of 
Man, am ^ ?— not from vain-glory, but wishing 
to shew them the truth, lest dwelling with 
Govi, the Only-begotten of God 9, they should 
think lightly of Him as if He were some mere 
man. And when they answered that some 
said Elias, and some Jeremias, He said to 
them, 'J'hey may be excused for not knowing, 
hut ye. My Apostles, who in My name cleanse 
lepers, and cast out devils, and raise the 
dead, ought not to be ignorant of Him, 
through whom ye do these wondrous works. 
And when they all became silent (for the 
matter was too high for man to learn), Peter, 
the foremost of the Apostles and chief herald ' 
of the Church, neither aided by cunning in- 
vention, nor persuaded by human reasoning, 
but enlightened in his mind from the Father, 
says to Him, Thou art the Christ, not only so, 
but the Son of the living God. And there fol- 
lows a blessing upon his speech (for in truth 
it was above man), and as a seal upon what 
he had said, that it was the Father who had 
revealed it to liim. For the Saviour says, 
BJessed art thou, Simon Barjona, for flesh and 
blood hath not revealed it to thee, but My Father 
which is in heaven ^ He therefore who acknow- 
ledges our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, 
partakes of this blessedness ; but he who de- 
nies the Son of God is a poor and miserable 

4. Again, I say, on hearing of a Son, under- 

8 Matt. xiii. 16. 
^^ 9 Compare iv. 7: "God of God begotten:" xiii. 3, and 13: 
God the Son of God." Here, however, the MSS. vary, and the 
reading of Cod. Coisl. Yiw 0eoO ixovoyeval is ajiproved by the 
Benedictine Editor, though not adopted. The confusion of Yiip 
and ©tui is like that in John i. 18. 

' o 7rp(oTooTaT»)9 tCiv 'Attoo'toAuj' koX tVJs 'EKKAi)(rtat Kopu^aiof 
(cn'pv^. Cf. ii. 19. 3 Matt. xvi. 17. 



stand it not merely in an improper sense, but 
as a Sou in truth, a Son by nature, without 
beginning 3; not as having come out of bondage 
into a higher state of adoption '>, but a Son 
eternally begotten by an inscrutable and 
incomprehensible generation. And in like 
manner on hearing of the First-born 5, think 
not that this is after the manner of men ; for 
the first-born among men have other brothers 
also. And it is somewhere written, Israel is 
My sofi, My first-born^. But Israel is, as Reuben 
was, a first-born son rejected : for Reuben went 
up to his father's couch ; and Israel cast his 
Father's Son out of the vinevard, and crucified 

To others also the Scripture says, Ye are the 
sojis of the Lord your GodT : and in another 
place, / have said, Ye are gods, and ye are ail 
sons 0/ the Most High^, J have said, not, " I 
have begotten." 'I'hey, when God so said, 
received the sonship, which before they had 
not : but He was not begotten to be other 
than He was before ; but was begotten from 
the beginning Son of the Father, being above 
all beginning and all ages, Son of the Father, 
in all things like 9 to Him who begat Him, 

3 Athanasiiis (de SynodU, § 15) quotes a passage from the 
Thalia of Arius, in which he says : " We praise Him as without 
beginning, because of Him who has a beginning : and adore Him 
as eternal, because of Him who in time has come to be. He who 
is without beginning made the Son a beginning of things created." 

It is important, therefore, to notice the sense in which Cyril 
here calls the Son ai-ap^o;. The word has two meanings, which 
should be clearly distinguished, (i) nnoriginate, (ii) 7vithoiit begin- 
ning in time. The former referring to origin, or cause, can 
properly be applied to the One true God, or to God the Father 
only, as it is used by Clement of Alexandria {Protre/>t. cap. v. 
§ 65 : Toz/ Trdi/Ttoi/ TrotT^TTji* , . . ayvoovvTC'Sj toi' avap)(^ov 0edr. 
[Strojn. IV. cap- xxv. § 164 : 6 ©eb; 8e avap\oi OiPX') '''"'' o^<^v 
TravTeAT)? apxiis iroiijTiKos]. [Stromat. V. cap. xiv. § 142 : i^ ap\7J? 
avapxavY Methodius {ob. 312 a.d. circ.) in a fragment (On 
things created , § 8, English Trans. Clark's Ante-Nic. Libr.) com- 
ments thus on Job. i. i — 3 : " And so at'ter the peciitiar icnbegin- 
ning beginiiing, who is the Father, He (the Word) is the beginning 
ol other things, ' by whom all things are made.' " 

In this sense Cyril has said (iv. 4) that God alone is " unbegotten, 
unoriginate :" and in xi. 20 he explains this more fully, — "Suflfer 
none to speak of a beginning of the Son in time (\poi/iKr)i' i.pxr\v), 
but as a timeless beginning acknowledge the Father. For the 
Father is the beginning of the Son, timeless, incomprehensible, 
without beginning." From a confusion of the two meanings the 
word came to be improperly applied in the sense of " unorigiiiate" 
to the Son, and to the Spirit ; and this improper usage is con- 
demned in the 49th Apostolic Canon, which Hefele regards as 
amongst the most ancient Canons, and taken from ihe Apostolic 
Constitutions, vi. 11 : "If any Bishop or Presbyter shall baptize 
noi according to our Lord's ordinance into the Father, and Son, 
and Spirit, but into three Unoriginates, or tiiree Sons, or three 
Paracletes, let him be deposed." (ii.) Athanasius frequently calls 
the Son avap-^o^ in the sense of timeless,' as being the co-eternal 
brightness (d;rau'ya(7/ia) of the Eternal Light : see de Sent. Dionys. 
§§ 15, 16, 22 ; " God is the Eternal Light, which never either began 
or shall cease : accordingly the Brightness is ever before Him, 
and co-exists with Him, without beginning and ever-begotten 
'^ Kac detyei^e's)." 

4 et? Trpo/coTTiji' uto^eo'ta?. Cf. § 2, note 4. 

5 npcoTOTOKOv. The word ocoirsin Heb. i. 6, which had been 
read in the Lesson before this Lecture. The exact dogmatic 
sense of the word is carefully explained by .^th.^nasius (<r. Arian. 
Or. ii. 62): "The same cannot be both Only-begotten and First- 
born, except in different relations ; — that is, Only-begctten, be- 
cause of His generation from the Father, as has been said ; and 
First-born, because of His conde.scension to the creation, and 
His making the many His brethren." See Mr. Robertson's dis- 
cussion of the word TrpuToroKos {Athan. p. 344, in this series), and 
Bp. Bull {Def. Fid. Nic. iii. 5— 8)._ 

6 Ex. iv. 22. 7 Deut. xiv. i. 8 Pj, Ixxxii. 6. 

9 kv ttolCiv 0^0109. See the note on iv. 7. That the phrase 
was not equivalent to 6/ioov<r40s> and did not adequately express 


eternal of a Father eternal, Life of Life be- 
gotten, and Light of Light, and Truth of 
Truth, and Wisdom of the Wise, and King of 
King, and God of God, and Power of Power'. 

5. If then thou hear the Gospel saying, The 
book of the generation of Jesus Christ., the Son of 
David, the Son of Abraham ^, understand " ac- 
cording to the flesh." For He is the Son of 
David at the end of the ages 3, but the Son of 
God BEFORE ALL AGES, without beginning 4. 
The one, which before He had not, He re- 
ceived ; but the other, which He hath, He 
hath eternally as begotten of the Father. 
Two fathers Lie hath : one, David, according 
to the flesh, and one, God, Flis Father in 
a Divine manners. As the Son of David, 
He is subject to time, and to handling, 
and to genealogical descent : but as Son ac- 
cording to the Godhead^, He is subject neither 
to time nor to place, nor to genealogical 
descent : for His generation zvho sha/l declare^ ? 
God is a Spirit^ ; Lie who is a Spirit hath 
spiritually begotten, as being incorporeal, an 
inscrutable and incomprehensible generation. 
The Son Himself says of the Father, 21ie Lora 
said unto Me, Thou art My Son, to-day have I 
begotten Thee^. Now this to-day is not recent, 
but eternal : a timeless to-day, before all ages. 
From the womb, before the morning star, have 
I begotteti Thee '. 

6. Believe thou therefore on Jesus Christ, 
Son of the living God, and a Son Only- 
Begotten, according to the Gospel which 

the relation of the Son to the Father is clearly shewn by Athana- 
sius (de Synodis, cap. iii. § 53). 

1 The additions which the Benedictine Editor has here made 
to the earlier text, as represented by Milles, may be conveniently 
shewn in brackets. aAAd Yibs [roi) Harpb?]* ef <'^px^]% kyevvififi, 
[vTTcpdi'to naar]^ apxij? Kai alwuu}!/ Tvyxdvtou] *, Ylos roi) Harpos 
[ev TTa(j(.v]i b;iioi05 Tw ■yc-yei/crjKOTi" [difiios ef aiSCov IlaTpo;,]* 
^ojTj CK faj»J5 yeyevvriiJ.ivos .... jcai ©ebs £k &eov, [xal iu'i/a/xis 

* Codd. Coisl. Ottob. Mon. 2. t Coisl. Ottob. Roe, Casaub 
Mon. I, 2. I Coisl. Ottob. Mon. i, 2. 

2 Matt. i. 1, 3 Heb. ix. 26. 4 See S 4. note 3. 

5 0eiKco9. 

6 TO /LL6I' Kara. Tor Ao^i'S .... to 5e Kara rijx/ ©eoTTjra. 

7 Isa. liii. S. Compare § 7, below. 8 John iv. 24. 
9 Ps. ii. 7. 

' Ps. ex. 3. "From the womb of the morning thou hast the 
dew of thy youth'' iR.V.). There is a remarkable various reading 
in Codd Roe, Casaub. To d <tv, aypoyou Koi aiSiop' rb Se trq- 
Ik^pov Trp6(r<j>aTQv, aW' ovK dt6ior, OiKeiovfj-ei^ov rov IlaTpb? Kai 
Tr}v KOLTio yeVi'TjO'ii'. Ka't 7rd\tu Aeyef 'Ek yaaTpo'; irpo ew<70opov 
yeyivvYiKO. ere' TOtiTO ixoi'Of ttjs ©ebrrjros* ITt(TTeucror, k.t.K. The 
words " Thoi4 art My Son," are thus referred to the eternal 
generation, and " 'J'his day" to the birth in time : whereas in the 
received text, followed in our translation, crqixepov refers to the 
timeless and eternal generation of the Son. The former inter- 
pretation of Ps. ii. 7 is found in many Fathers, as for example 
in Tertullian (adv. Prnx. vii. xi.), and Methodius (Coiiviv. 
Virg. VIII. cap. ix.) : " He says ' Thou art,' and not ' Tliou hast 
become,' shewing that He had not recently attained to the position 
of Son. . . . But the expression, 'This day have I begotten Thee,' 
signifies that He willed that existing already befurt' the agts 
in heaven He shoidd also be begotten for the world, that is that 
He who was belore tmknown should be made knovvn." Thj same 
interpretation was held by many Fathers, some referring a-iiiJipoy 
to the Nativity, as Cyprian (adv. J udipos Testiin. li. 8), others to 
the Baptism (Justin AL Dialog, cap. Ixxxviii. ; Tertullian. adv. 
Marcion. iv. 22). Athanasius (c. Arian. iv. § 27), has a long 
discussion on the question whether Ps. ex. 3, (k yaarpb? vrpb 
ea)cr<#)6pou yey eyvrfKo. ere, refers to the eternal geneiatiou of the 
Son, or to His Nativity. 



says, For God so loved the world, that He gave 
His Only-hegotten Son, that whosoever belicveth 
on Him should not perish, but have everlasting 
life^. And again, He that believeth on the Son 
is not judged, but hath passed out of death into 
life 3. But he that believeth not the Son shall not 
see life, but tJie wrath of God abideth on him 4. 
And John testified concerning Him, saying, 
And we beheld His glory, glory as of the only- 
begotten from the Father,^full of grace and 
truth '^ : at whom the devils trembled and said. 
Ah I what have- we to do with Thee, Jesus, Thou 
Son of the living God^, 

7. He is then the Son of God by nature 
and not by adoption ?, begotten of the Father. 
And he that loveth Him that begat, loveth Him 
also that is begotten of Him ^ / but he that 
despiseth Him that is begotten casts back the 
insult upon Him who begat. And whenever 
thou hear of God begetting, sink not down in 
thought to bodily things, nor think of a cor- 
ruptible generation, lest thou be guilty of 
impiety. God is a Spirit 9, His generation is 
spiritual : for bodies beget bodies, and for the 
generation of bodies time needs must inter- 
vene ; but time intervenes not in the genera- 
lion of the Son from the Father. And in our 
case what is begotten is begotten imperfect : 
but the Son of God was begotten perfect ; for 
what He is now, that is He also from the 
beginning ', begotten without beginning. We 
are begotten so as to pass from infantine 
ignorance to a state of reason : thy generation, 
O man, is imperfect, for thy growth is pro- 
gressive. But think not that it is thus in His 
case, nor impute infirmity to Him who hath 
begotten. For if that which He begat was 
imperfect, and acquired its perfection in time, 
thou art imputing infirmity to Him who hath 
begotten ; if so be, the Father did not bestow 
from the beginning that which, as thou sayest, 
time bestowed afterwards ^. 

8. Think not therefore that this generation 
is human, nor as Abraham begat Isaac. For 
in begetting Isaac, Abraham begat not what 
he would, but what another granted. But in 
God the Fathers begetting there is neither 
ioinorance nor intermediate deliberation 3. For 

» John iii. i6. 3 lb. iii. i8 ; v. 24. * lb. iii. 36. 

5 lb. i. 14. 6 Luke iv. 34. 

7 <^v<T(L KoX ov fleVet. Cf. § 2, note 4. 

* 1 John V. I. 9 John iv. 24. Cf. § S« 

» yeyeryriijieyo'; avdpxto';. Cf. § 5, note 4. 

a o xpoi'os. Bened. c. Codd. Roe, Casaub. Coisl. & xpo*''"^ 
Ottob. Mon. I. 2. A. With the latter reading, the meaning will 
be — "if He did not bestow from the beginning, a.s thoii .->, 
what He bestowed in after times." Cyril does not here address 
his auditor, but an imaginary opponent, — "O inan." 
Co npare Athan. {de Synodis, g 26). 

3 The Arians appear to have made use of a dilemma: If God 
he^at with will and purpose, these preceded the begetting, and so 
ifV TTOTt- ore ovK ffv, there was a time when the Son was not : if 
without will and purpose, then He begat in ignorance and ol 
necessity. The answer is fiilK' given by Athanasius (f. Aiian. iii. 
58 — 67, pp. 423 — 431 in this Series). 

to say that He knew not what He was be- 
getting is the greatest impiety; and it is no 
less impious to say, that after deliberation in 
time He then became a Father. For God 
was not previously without a Son, and after- 
wards in time became a Father ; but hath the 
Son eternally, having begotten Him not as 
men beget men, but as Himself only knoweth, 
who begat Him before all ages Very God. 

9. For the Father being Very God begat 
the Son like unto Himself, Very God 4 ; not as 
teachers beget disciples, not as Paul says to 
some. For in Christ Jesus I begat you through 
the Gospel^. For in this case he who was not 
a son by nature became a son by discipleship, 
but in the former case He was a Son by 
nature, a true Son. Not as ye, who are to be 
illuminated, are now becoming sons of God : 
for ye also become sons, but by adoption of 
grace, as it is written, But as many as received 
Him, to them gave He the right to become 
children of God, even to them that believe on 
His name: which were begotten ?iot of blood, 
nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of 
man, butof God^. And we indeed are begotten 
of water and of the Spirit, but not thus was 
Christ begotten of the Father. For at the 
time of His Baptism addressing Him, and 
saying, This is My Son 7, He did not say, " This 
has now become My Son," but, This is My 
Son ; that He might make manifest, that even 
before the operation of Baptism He was a 

10. The Father begat the Son, not as among 
men mind begets word. For the mind is sub- 
stantially existent in us ; but the word when 
spoken i^ dispersed into the air and comes to 
an end ^. But we know Christ to have been 
begotten not as a word pronounced 9, but as a 
Word substantially existing' and living; not 
spoken by the lips, and dispersed, but be- 
gotten of the Father eternally and ineffably, in 
substance ^. For, In the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word ivas with God, and 
the Word was God^, sitting at God's right 

4 Athanasius {nd Episcopos AigyW, % 13), referring to 1 John 
V. 20, This is the true (aAijeird?) God, writes: '' But these men 
(the Arians), as if in contradiction to this, allege that Christ is not 
the true God, but that He is only called God, as are other 
creatures, in regard of His participation in the Divine nature." 
Again [c. At-iaii. iii. 9), "He gave us to know that of the true 
Father He is the true Offspring {kKi\6ivov y€vvriij.a). 

5 I Cor. iv. 15. o John i. 12, 13. 7 Matt. iii. 17. 

8 Compare Athanasius (de SententiA Dionysii, § 23): "the 
mind creates the word, being manifested in it, and the word 
shews the mind, having originated therein." Tertullian (adv. 
Prax. vii.) : " You will say what is a word but a voice and sound 
of the mouth, and (as the Grammarians teach) air when struck 
against, intelligible to the ear, but for the rest a sort of void, 
e.iiptv, and incorporeal thing." Cf. Athan. (de Sytwdis, §12): 

9 n-poc^opiKoi/. See Cat. iv. 8, note p. _ 

» ii'U jroa-TttToi'. ibid. So the Spirit is described in Cat. xvii. 5 
" not uttereil or breathed by the mouth and lips of the Father and 
the S'in, nor dispersed into the air, but personally subsisting 
(e i/un-ooTaTOf I . " 

' kv iiTToo'Tacret. 3 John i. i. 



hand ; — the Word understanding the Father's 
will, and creating all things at His bidding : 
the Word, which came down and went up ; 
for the word of utterance when spoken comes 
not down, nor goes up; the Word speaking 
and saying, The things ivhich I have seen with 
My Father, tliese I speak + .• the Word possessed 
of power, and reigning over all things : for the 
Father hath committed all things ufito the Son s. 

11. The Father then begat Him not in such 
wise as any man could understand, but as 
Himself only knoweth. For we profess not to 
tell in what manner He begat Him, but we 
insist that it was not in this manner. And not 
we only are ignorant of the generation of the 
Son from the Father, but so is every created 
nature. Speak to the earth, if perchance it may 
teach thee^ : and though thou inquire of all 
things which are upon tlie earth, they shall 
not be able to tell thee. For the earth cannot 
tell the substance of Him who is its own 
potter and fashioner. Nor is the earth alone 
ignorant, but the sun also ^ : for the sun was 
created on the fourth day, without knowing 
what had been made in the three days before 
him ; and he who knows not the things made 
in the three days before him, cannot tell forth 
the Maker Himself. Heaven will not declare 
this : for at the Father's bidding the heaven 
also tvas like smoke established^ by Christ. Nor 
shall the heaven of heavens declare this, nor the 
waters ivJiich are above the heavens^. Why then 
art thou cast down, O man, at being ignorant 
of that which even the heavens know not? 
Nay, not only are the heavens ignorant of this 
generation, but also every angelic nature. For 
if any one should ascend, were it possible, into 
the first heaven, and percei,ving the ranks of 
the Angels there should approach and ask 
them how God begat His own Son, they would 
say perhaps, "We have above us beings greater 
and higher; ask them." Go up to the second 
heaven and the third ; attain, if thou canst, to 
'1 hrones, and Dominions, and Principalities, 
and Powers : and even if any one should reach 
them, which is impossible, they also would 
decline the explanation, for they know it not. 

12. For my part, I have ever wondered at 
the curiosity of the bold men, who by their 
imagined reverence fall into impiety. For 
though they know nothing of Thrones, and 
Dominions, and Principalities, and Powers, 
the workmanship of Christ, they attempt to 

4 John viii. -8. 5 Matt. xi. 27 ; John v. 22. 

6 Job xii. 8." 

7 In saying that the earth, the sun, and the heavens know not 
their Maker, Cyril is simply using li?urative language like that of 
the passage ol Job just quoted. There is no reason to suppose 
that he accepted Origeu's theory (cie Princi/>i!s, II. cap. 7), that 
the heavenly bodies are living and rational beings, capable of 

® Isa. 11. 6 : ihe heavens shall vanish away like smoke. 
9 Ps. cxlviii. 4. 

scrutinise their Creator Himself Tell me first, 
O most daring man, wherein does Throne 
differ from Dominion, and then scrutinise what 
pertains to Christ. Tell me what is a Prin- 
cipality, and what a Power, and what a Virtue, 
and what an Angel : and then search out their 
Creator, for all things were made by Him \ But 
thou wilt not, or thou canst not ask Thrones 
or Dominions. What else is there that knorcc/h 
the deep things of God^, save only the Holy 
Ghost, who spake the Divine Scriptures? But 
not even the Holy Ghost Himself has spoken 
in the Scriptures concerning the generation of 
the Son from the Father. Why then dost thou 
busy thyself about things which not even the 
Holy Ghost has written in the Scriptures ? 
Thou that knowest not the things which are 
written, busiest thou thyself about the things 
which are not written ? There are many 
questions in the Divine Scriptures ; what is 
written we comprehend not, why do we busy 
ourselves about what is not written? It is 
sufficient for us to know that God hath be- 
gotten One Only Son. 

13. Be not ashamed to confess thine ig- 
norance, since thou sharest ignorance with 
Angels. Only He who begat knoweth Him 
who was begotten, and He who is begotten of 
Him knoA'eth Him who begat. He who 
begat knoweth what He begat : and the 
Scriptures also testify that He who was be- 
gotten is God 3. For as the Father hath life in 
Himself so also hath He given to the Son to 
have life in Himself^ ; and, that all men should 
honour the Son, even as they honour the Father s / 
and, as the Father quickeneth whom He will, 
even so the Son quickeneth whom He will^. 
Neither He who begat suffered any loss, nor 
is anything lacking to Him who was begotten 
(I know that I have said these things many 
times, but it is for your safety that they are 
said so often) : neither has He who begat, 
a Father, nor He who was begotten, a brother. 
Neither was He who begat changed into the 
Son 7, nor did He who was begotten become 
the Father 3, Of One Only Father there is One 

• John i. 3. 2 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. 

3 I have followed the reading of Codd. Coisl. Roe, Casaub. 
Mon. A , which is approved though not adopted by the Bene- 
dictine Editor. The common text is manifestly interpolated : 
"And the Holy Spirit of God testifies in the Scriptures, that He 
who was begotten without beginning is God. For what man 
knoweth, &-V." This insertion of 1 Cor. ii. 11 interjupts the 
argument, and is a useless repetition of the allusion to the same 
passage in J 12. 

4 John V. 26, S lb. v. 23. * lb. v. 21. 

7 See iv. 8, note 8, on the Sabellian doctrine, and Athanas. 
[de Syiodis, § 16, note 10 in this series). 

8 The doctrine of Sabellius might be expressed in two forms, 
either the Father became the Son, or the Son became the Father. 
Both forms are here denied. The Jerusalem Editor thinks there 
is an allusion to the Arian argument mentioned by Athanasius 
(c. Arian. Or. I. cap. vi. 22): '' II the Son is the Father's off- 
spring and Image, and is like in all things to the Father, then 
it necessarily holds that as He is begotten so He begets, and He 
too becomes father of a son." But the close connexion of the two 
clauses is in favour of the reference to the Sabellian uioTraropta. 

F 2 



Only-begotten Son : neither two Unbegotten 9, 
nor two Only-begotten ; but One Father, Un- 
begotten (for He is Unbegotten who hath 
no father); and One Son, eternally begotten 
of the Father ; begotten not in time, but 
before all ages ; not increased by advance- 
ment, but begotten that which He now is. 

14. We believe then In The Only-Begot- 
ten Son of God, who was begotten of the 
Father Very God. For the True God be- 
getteth not a false god, as we have said, nor 
did He deliberate and afterwards beget ' ; but 
He begat eternally, and much more swiftly 
than our words or thoughts • for we speaking 
in time, consume time ; but in the case of the 
Divine Power, the generation is timeless. And 
as I have often said. He did not bring forth 
the Son from non existence into being, nor 
take the non-existent into sonship ^ : but the 
Father, being Eternal, eternally and ineffably 
begat One Only Son, who has no brother. 
Nor are there two first principles ; but the 
Father is the head of the Son^ ; the beginning is 
One. For the Father begat the Son Very 
God, called Emmanuel ; and Emmanuel bemg 
interpreted is, God 7vith i/s ■*. 

15. And wouldest thou know that He who 
was begotten of the Father, and afterwards 
became man, is God? Hear the Prophet 
saying. This is our God, none other shall be 
accounted of iti comparisofi ivith I Jim. He hath 
foutid out every way of knowledge, and given it to 
Jacob His servant, and to Israel His beloved. 

Ajterwards He was seen on earth, and conversed 
among men 5. Seest thou herein God become 
man, after the giving of the law by Moses ? 
Hear also a second testimony to Christ's Deity, 
that which has just now been read. Thy throne, 
O God, is for ever and ever^. For lest, because 
of His presence here in the flesh. He should 
be thought to have been advanced after this to 
the Godhead, the Scripture says plainly. There- 
fore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee 
with the oil of gladness above Thy frlhnvsT. 
Seest thou Christ as God anointed by God 
the Father ? 

16. Wouldest thou receive yet a third tes- 
timony to Christ's Godhead ? Hear Esaias 

9 ayeVerjTOi. The context shews that this, not ayeViji-ot, is 
here the right form. Athanasius seems to have used ayeVi'TjTos 
in both senses " Un-begotien," as here, and " unoriginate." Thus 
(c. Arian. Or. i. cap. ix. § 30) he says of the Arians : " 'J'heir 
further iiuestion ' whether the Unoriginate be one or two,' shews 
how false are their views." Compare Bp. Liglitfoot's Excursus on 
Ignatius, f.phes. § 7, and Mr. Robertson's noles on Athauasius 
in this Series. ' S^e above, § 8, note 3. 

* .\than. (c. Arian. I. ix. 31) ''speaking against the Lord, 
' He is of notliing,' and ' He was not before His generation.'" 

3 I Cor. xi. 3. 4 Matt. i. 23. 

5 Baruch iii. 35 — 37. The last verse was understood by Cyril, 
as by many of the Greek and Latin Fathers, to be a prophecy 
of the Incarnation: but in reality it refers to ''knowledge" 
(,k^Tl.(T^^^l.^\, V. 36), and should be translated "she was seen upon 
earth." See notes on the pa-^^sage in the Speaker's Connuentary. 

* Heb. i. 8. 7 lb. i. 9. See x. 14, note 9. 

saying, Egypt hath laboured, and the merchan- 
dise of Ethiopia : and soon after. In Thee shall 
they make supplication, because God is in Thee, 
a?id there is tio God save Thee. For Thou art 
God, and we knetv it not, the God of Israel, the 
Saviour^. Thou seest that the Son is God, 
having in Himself God the Father: saying 
almost the very same which He has said in 
the Gospels : The Father is in Me, and I am 
in the Father'^. He says not, I am the Father, 
but the Father is in Me, a fid I am in the Father. 
And again He said not, I and the Father am ' 
one, but, / a7td the Father are one, that we 
should neither separate them, nor make a con- 
fusion of Son-Father 2. One they are because 
of the dignity pertaining to the Godhead, 
since God begat God. One in respect of their 
kingdom ; for the Father reigns not over these, 
and the Son over those, lifting Himself up 
against His Father like Absalom : but the 
kingdom of the Father is likewise the kingdom 
of the Son. One they are, because there is 
no discord nor division between them : for 
what things the Father willeth, the Son willeth 
the same. One, because the creative works of 
Christ are no other than the Father's ; for the 
creation of all things is one, the Father having 
made them through the Son : For He spake, 
and they were made ; He commanded, and they 
were created, saith the Psalmists. For He 
who speaks, speaks to one who hears; and 
He who commands, gives His commandment 
to one who is present with Him. 

17. The Son then is Very God, having the 
Father in Himself, not changed into the 
Father; for the Father was not made man, 
but the Son. For let the truth be freely 
spoken 4. '1 he Father suffered not for us, but 
the Father sent Him who suffered. Neither 
let us say. There was a time when the Son 
was not ; nor let us admit a Son who is the 
Father s : but let us walk in the king's highway ; 
let us turn aside neither on the left hand nor 
on the right. Neither from thinking to honour 
the Son, let us call Him the Father ; nor from 

8 Isa. xlv. 14, 15: "They shall mike supplication unto thee, 
saying, surely God is in tliee." 1'he woids are addr^^ssed to 
Jerusalem as the city ol God. Cyril appUes them to tiie Son, 
misled by the Septuagint. 9 John xiv. ii. 

' Athanasius (c. Arian. Or. iv. § 9), arguing for the o/noovtrtoi' 
says : " There are two, because there is Father and Son, that 
is the Word ; and one, because one God. For if this is not so, 
He would have said, I am the Father, or, I and the Father am." 

2 See iv. 8, notes 7 and 8. 

3 Pss. xxxiii. 9 ; cxlviii. 5. S. Cyril explains the creative 
" Fiat " in Gen. i. as addressed by the Father to the Son. 

4 We learn from Socrates \Eccl. H isl . I. 24), that after 
the Nicene Council "those who objected to the word ojioouaios 
conceived that those who approved it favoured the opinion o( 
Sabellius." Marccllus of Arrcyra, who was deposed on a charge 
of Sabellianism, and who did not in fact make clear the distinct 
personality of the Son, had been warmly supported by tlie Iriends 
of Athanasius. Cyril apparently tears to incur their censure, if 
he too strongly condeuined the Sabellian view. 

5 Cyiil here rejects both the opposite errors, Arianism, "There 
was a time when the Son was not," and Sabellianism, " a Sou 
who is the Father." 



thinking to honour the Father, imagine the 
Son to be some one of the creatures. But let 
One Father be worshipped through One Son, 
and let not their worship be separated. Let 
One Son be proclaimed, sitting at the riglit 
hand of the Father before all ages : sharing 
His throne not by advancement in time after 
His Passion, but by eternal possession. 

1 8. He who hath seeii the Son, hath seen the 
Father^: lor in all things the Son is like to 
Him who begat Him ^ ; begotten Life of Life, 
and Light of Light, Power of Power, God of 
God ; and the characteristics of the Godhead 
are unchangeable^ in the Son ; and he who is 
counted worthy to behold Goihead in the 
Son, attains to the fruition of the Father. 
This is not my word, but that of the Only- 
begotten : Have I been so long tune with you, 
and hast thou not know?i Me. Philip ? He that 
hath seen Ale, hath seen the Father "i. And to 
be brief, let us neither separate them, nor 
make a confusion ^ : neither say thou ever that 
the Son is foreign to the Father, nor admit 
those who say that the Father is at one time 
Father, and at another Son : for these are 
strange and impious statements, and not the 
doctrines of the Church. But the Father, 
having begotten the Son, remained the Father, 
and is not changed. He begat Wisdom, yet 
lost not wisdom Himself; and begat Power, 
yet became not weak : He begat God, but 
lost not His own Godhead : and neither did 
He lose anything Himself by diminution or 
change ; nor has He who was begotten any 
thing wanting. Perfect is He who begat. Per- 
fect that which was begotten : God was He 
who begat, God He who was begotten ; God of 
all Himself, yet entitling the Father His own 
God. For He is not ashamed to say, I ascend 
unto My Father and your Father, and to My 
God and your God ^. 

19. But lest thou shouldest think that He 
is in a like sense Father of the Son and of the 
creatures, Christ drew a distinction in what 
follows. For He said not, " I ascend to our 
Father," lest the creatures should be made 
fellows of the Only-begotten ; but He said, 
My Father and your Father ; in one way 
Mine, by nature ; in another yours, by adop- 
tion. And again, to my God a?id your God, in 
one way Mine, as His true and Only-begotten 
Son, and in another way yours, as His work- 
manship 3. The Son of God then is Very God, 

6 John xiv. 9. 7 See above, § 4, note 9. 

8 The word was used by the Orthodox Bishops 
at Nicaea, who said that " the Word must be described as the 
True power and Image of the Father, in all things like the Father 
and Himself incapable of change." See the notes of Dr. New- 
man and Mr. Robertson on Athanasius (de Deoetis, § 20). 

9 John xiv. 9. • See iv. 8, note 8. 
' John XX. 17. 

3 Compare Cat. viL 7. The Jerusalem Editor observes that 

ineffably begotten before all ages (for I say 
tlie same things often to you, that it may be 
graven upon your mind). This also believe, 
that God has a Son : but about the manner be 
not curious, for by searching thou wilt not 
find Kxalt not thyself, lest thou fall : think 
upon those things only which have been com- 
maiided thee ■♦. Tell me first what He is who 
begat, and then learn that which He begat ; 
but if thou canst not conceive the nature of 
Him who hath begotten, search not curiously 
into the manner of that which is begotten. 

20. For godliness it sufficeth thee to know, as 
we have said, that God hath One Only Son, One 
naturally begotten ; who began not His being 
when He was born in Bethlehem, but Before 
All Ages. For hear the Prophet Micah 
saying. And thou, Bethlehem, house of Ephrata, 
art little to be among the thousands of Judah. 
Out of thee shall come forth unto Me a Ruler, 
zvho shall feed My people Israel: attd His goings 
forth are from the beginning, from days of 
eternity^. Think not then of Him who is now 
come forth out of Bethlehem^, but worship 
Him who was eternally begotten of the Father. 
Suffer none to speak of a beginning of the Son 
in time, but as a timeless Beginning acknow- 
ledge the Father. For the Father is the Be- 
ginning of the Son, timeless, incomprehensible,- 
without beginning 7. The fountain of the river 
of righteousness, even of the Only-begotten, is 
the Father, who begat Him as Himself only 
knoweth. And wouldest thou know that our 
Lord Jesus Christ is King Eternal? Hear 
Him again saying. Your father Abraham rejoiced 
to see My day, and he saiu it, and was glad^. 
And then, when the Jews received this hardly. 
He says what to them was still harder. Before 
Abraham was, I am^. And again He saith to 
the Father, And noiu, Father, glorify Thou Me 
with Thine own self, tvith the glory which I had 
with Thee before the world was'^. He says 
plainly, " before the world was, I had the 
glory which is with Thee." And again when 

the expression " My God" is understood by the Fathers generally 
as spoken by Christ in reference to His human nature, but Cyril 
applies this, as well as the other expression " My Father," to the 
Divine nature. So Hilary {de Trinit. iv. 53): " idcirco Deus 
ejus est, quia ex eo natus in Deum est." Compare Epiphanius 
{Hcer. Ixix. 55). 4 Ecclus iii. 22. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

5 Micah v. 2 ; on the various readings oAyioorbs ei, ^l.r^ oA, ei, 
oir/c oA. et, found in the MS^j. of Cyril, see the Commentaries on the 
quotation of the passage in Matt. ii. 6. 

6 Codd. Roe, Casaul). have a different reaaing— " Think not 
then of His having now been born in Bethlehem, and (nor) suppose 
Him as the Son of Man to be altogether recent, but wuisuip, &c." 
This is rightly regarded by the Benedictine ana other Editors 
as an interpolation intended to avoid the appaient tendency of 
Ci'ril's language in the received text to separate the Virgin's Son 
from the Eternal Word. Had Cyril so written afier the Nestorian 
controversy arose, he would have appeared to f.jvour the Nestorian 
formula that " Mary did not give birth to the Deity." Compare 
Swainson iNicene Creed, Ch. ix. § 7.) What Cyril really means is 
that we are not to think of Christ simply as man, but to worship 
Him as God. 

7 Compare § 4, note 3. 8 John viii. 56. » lb. vui- 58. 
' lb. xvii. s- 



He says, For Thou lovedst Me before the founda- 
tion of the world'', He plainly declares, "The 
glory which I have with thee is from eternity." 
2 1. We believe then In One Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, 
Begoiten of His Father Very God before 

ALL worlds, by whom ALL THINGS WERE MADE. 

For whether they be thrones, or dominions, or 
principalities, or potvers, all things were made 
through Him 3, and of things created none is 
exempted from His authority. Silenced be 
every heresy which brings in different creators 
and makers of the world ; silenced the tongue 
which blasphemes the Christ the Son of God ; 
let them be silenced who say that the sun is 
the Christ, for He is the sun's Creator, not the 
sun which we see ♦. Silenced be they who say 
that the world is the workmanship of Angels s, 
who wish to steal away the dignity of the Only- 
begotten. For whether visible or invisible, 
whether thrones or dominions, or anything 
that is named, all things were made by Christ. 
He reigns over the things which have been 
made by Him, not having seized another's 
spoils, but reigning over His own workman- 
ship, even as the Evangelist John has said. 
All things ive7-e fnade by film, and without Him 
was not anything made ^. All things were made 
by Him, the Father working by the Son. 

2 2. I wish to give also a certain illustration 
of what I am saying, but I know that it is 
feeble ; for of things visible what can be 
an exact illustration of the Divine Power ? 
But nevertheless as feeble be it spoken by the 
feeble to, the feeble. For just as any king, 
whose son was a king, if he wished to form 
a city, might suggest to his son, his partner in 
the kingdom, the form of the city, and he 
having received the pattern, brings the design 
to completion ; so, when the Father wished to 
form all things, the Son created all things at 
the Father's bidding, that the act of bidding 
might secure to the Father His absolute 
authority?, and yet the Son in turn might have 
authority over His own workmanship, and 
neither the Father be separated from the 
lordship over His own works, nor the Son rule 
over things created by others, but by Himself. 
For, as I have said, Angels did not create the 
world, but the Only-begotten Son, begotten, as 
I have said, before all ages, Bv whom all 

* John xvii. 24. 3 Col. i. 16. 

4 Compare Cat. vi. 13, and xv. 3 : " Here let converts from the 
Manichees gain i[istriiciion, and no longer make those lights their 
gods ; nor impiously think that this sun which shall be darkened 
is Christ." 

5 The creation of the world was ascribed to Angels by the 
Gnostics generally, e.g-. Iiy Simon Magu-. (Iren-iius, aih>. //ofres. I. 
xxiii. § 2), Menander (Hid. § 5), Saturninus (ibid. xxiv. i), Basi- 
lides (ibid. § 3), Carpocrates (ibid. xxv. i). 6 John i. 3. 

7 On the doctrine of Creation by the Son as held by Cyril, see 
the reference to the Introduction in the Index, Creation. 

THINGS WERE MADE, nothing having been 
excepted from His creation. And let this 
suffice, to have been spoken by us so far, by 
the grace of Christ. 

23. But let us now recur to our profession 
of the Faith, and so for the present finish our 
discourse. Christ made all things, whether 
thou speak of Angels, or Archangels, of Do- 
minions, or Thrones. Not that the Father 
wanted strength to create the works Himself, 
but because "He willed that the Son should 
reign over His own workmanship, God Him- 
self giving Him the design of the things to be 
made. For honouring His own Father the 
Only-begotten saith, The Son can do nothing of 
Himself, but what He seeth the Father do ; for 
what things soever He doeth, these also doeth the 
Son likewise^. And again. My Father w or keth 
hitherto, andlwork'^, there being no opposition 
in those who work. For all Mine are Thine, 
and Thine are Mine, saith the Lord in the 
Gospels '. And this we may certainly know 
from the Old and New Testaments. For He 
who said. Let us make man in our image and 
after our likeness'^, was certainly speaking to 
some one present. But clearest of all are the 
Psalmist's words. He spake and they were 7nade; 
He commanded, and they were created 'i, as if the 
Father commanded and spake, and the Son 
made all things at the Father's bidding. And 
this Job said mystically, Which alone spread 
out the heaven, and walketh upon the sea as on 
firm ground^; signifying to those who under- 
stand that He who when present here walked 
upon the sea is also He who aforetime made 
the heavens. And again the Lord saith, Or 
didst Thou take earth, and fashion clay into 
a livi?ig being ^1 then afterwards, Are the gates 
of death opened to Thee through fear, and did the 
door-keepers of hell shudder at sight of Thee ^ ? 
thus signifying that He who through loving- 
kindness descended into hell, also in the begin- 
ning made man out of clay. 

24. Christ then is the Only-begotten Son of 
God, and Maker of the world. For He was in 
the world, and the world was made by Him ; 
and He came unto His own, as the Gospel 
teaches us 7. And not only of the things which 
are seen, but also of the things which are not 
seen, is Christ the Maker at the Father's bid- 
ding. For in Him, according to the Apostle, 
-d'ere all things created that are in the hcave^is, 
and that are upon the earth, things visible and 
invisible, ivhether thrones, or dominions, or prin- 
cipalities, or po^i'trs : all things have been created 
by Him atidfor Him ; and He is before all, and 

8 John V. 19, 
2 tJen. i. 26. 
5 I j. xxxviii. 14. 

9 lb. V. 17. 
3 Ps. cxlviii. 5. 
6 lb. xxxviii. 17. 

» lb. xvii. 10. 

4 Job ix. 8. 

7 John i. 10, II. 



in Htm a// thitigs consist^. Even if thou speak 
of the worlds, of these also Jesus Christ is the 
Maker by the Father's bidding. For in these 
last days God spake unto us by His Son, whom 

8 Col. i. 16 17. 

He appointed heir of all things, by whom also 
He made the worlds^. To whom be the glory, 
honour, might, now and ever, and world with- 
out end. Amen. 

S> Heb. i. -a. 


On the words Incarnate, and made Man, Isaiah vii. lo — 14. 

"And the Lord spake again unto Ahaz, saying, Ask thee a sign, &^c. :" and '■^Behold! 
a virgin shall co?iccive, and bear a son, and shall call His name EnunaJiiiel, dr'c." 

I. Nurslings of purity and disciples of chas- 
tity, raise we our hymn to the Virgin-born God ' 
with lips full of purity. Deemed ' worthy to 
partake of the flesh of the Spiritual Lamb 3, let 
us take the head together with the feet'^, the 
Deity being understood as the head, and the 
Manhood taken as the feet. Hearers of the 
Holy Gospels, let us listen to John the Divine -\ 
For he who said. In the begi?ining was the 
IVord, and the Word was ivitk God, and the 
Word was God^, went on to say, and the 
Word was made fleshT. For neither is it 
holy to worship the mere man, nor religious 
to say that He is God only without the 
Manhood. For if Christ is God, as indeed 
Fie is, but took not human nature upon Him, 
we are strangers to salvation. Let us then 
worship Him as God, but believe that He 
also was made Man. For neidier is there any 
profit in calling Him man without Godhead, 
nor any salvation in refusing to confess the 
Manhood together with the Godhead. Let us 
confess the presence of Him who is both 
King and Physician. For Jesus the King 
when about to become our Physician, gi?-ded 
Himself 2oilh the linen of humanity ^, and healed 
that which was sick. The perfect Teacher 

' This passage supplies a complete answer to the suspicion 
of a qiiasi-Nestorian tendency relerred to in note 6, on xi. 20. 
See X. 19, note 2, on the title ©eoTOKo;. 

* The Present Participle (KaTaftov/iei/ot) means that the Can- 
didates lor Baptism were already on the way to be admitted to 
Holy Communion. Compare Cat. i. i, where the same Candidates 
arc addressed as "partakers of the mysteries of Christ, as yet 
by calling only, but ere long by grace also." 

3_Aubertin remarks on this passage that "this spiritual Lamb, 
consisting of head and feet, can be received only by the spiritual 
mouth." This explanation, however true in itstif, cannot fairly 
be held to express fully the meaning of Cyril. See the section 
of the Introduction referred to in the Index, " Kucharist." 

4 Ex. xii. ^: tlie head with the feet. The same figurative 
interpretation is given by Eusebius {Eccl. Hist. I. ii. § i): "In 
Christ there is a twofold nature ; and the one — in so far as He is 
thought of as God — resembles the head of the body, while the 
other may be compared with the feet, — in so far as He, for the 
^-.!ce of our salvation, put on human nature with the same passions 
as our own." 

5 'liaavvji Tu OeoXoyco. The title is given to Moses by Philo 
Judseus (jK/Za Mas. III. § 11), to I'rophcts by Eusebius (Z>f;//i7i/r. 
Evang. li. 9), to Apostles by Athanasius Qie incartt. § 10 : lijiv 
aiiToO ToO 2coTrjpo9 flioAoyioi/ kvhfiuiv), and especially to St. John, 
because the chief purpose of his Gospel was to set forth the Deity 
of Christ. See note on Revel, i. i, ia Speakers Coinmentary, 
and Suicer, Thesaurus, ©eoAdyos. 

6 John i. I. 7 lb. i. 14. 8 lb. xiii. 4. 

of babes 9 became a babe among babes, 
that He might give wisdom to the foolish. 
The Bread of heaven came down on earth ' 
that He might feed the hungry. 

2. But the sons of the Jews by setting at 
nought Him that came, and looking for him 
who cometh in wickedness, rejected the true 
Messiah, and wait for the deceiver, themselves 
deceived ; herein also the Saviour being found 
true, who said, / am come in My Father's 
name, and ye receive Me not : but if aiiother 
shall come in his ozufi name, him ye will receive ^. 
It is well also to put a question to the Jews. 
Is the Prophet Esaias, who saith that Em- 
manuel shall be born of a virgin, true or false 3? 
For if they charge him with falsehood, no 
wonder : for their custom is not only to charge 
with falsehood, but also to stone the Prophets. 
But if the Prophet is true, point to the Em- 
manuel, and say. Whether is He who is to 
come, for whom ye are looking, to be born of 
a virgin or not ? For if He is not to be born of 
a virgin, ye accuse the Prophet of falsehood : 
but if in Him that is to come ye expect this, 
why do ye reject that which has come to pass 
already ? 

3. Let the Jews, then, be led astray, since 
they so will : but let the Church of God be 
glorified. For we receive God the Word made 
Man in truth, not, as heretics say*, of the will 
of man and woman, but of the Virgin 
and the Holy Ghosts according to the 

9 Rom. ii. 20. ' John vi. 32, 33, 50. * lb. v. 43. 

Cf. 2 John 7. 3 Isa. vii. 14. 

4 Carpocrates, Cerinthus, the Ebionites, &c. See Irenieus 
{Hier. I. XXV. § i ; xxvi. §§ i, 2). 

5 Dr. Swainson (Creeds., Chap. vii. § 7), speaking of the Creed 
of Cyril of Jerusalem, says that " the words aapKniQivia. koX evav- 
BpioTrrjo-avra are found in it, but no reference whatever is made 
to the birth from the Virgin." The present passage, and that 
in Cat. iv. §9, " begotten of the Holy Virgin and the Holy Ghost," 
seem to shew that such a clause formed part of the Creed which Cyril 
was expounding. The genuineness of both passages is attested 
by all the MSS., and Dr. Swainson was mistaken in charging the 
Editors of the Oxford Translation with having omitted to " men- 
tion that Touttee was himself doubtful as to the words within the 
brackets " [e/c IlapSeVou Kai UvtvfjLaTOi 'Ayiov]. The brackets are 
added by Dr. Swainson himself, and Touttee had no doubt of the 
genuineness of the words : on the contrary he lielieved them to be 
part of the Creed itseli. His note is as follows : " The words 
0/ the Virgin and Holy Ghost I have caused to be printed in 
larger letters as if taken from the Symbol : although they are 



Gospel, MADE Man ^, not in seeming but 
in truth. And that He was truly Man made 
of the Virgin, wait for the proper time of 
instruction in this Lecture, and thou shalt 
receive the proofs 7 ; for the error of the 
heretics is manifold. And some have said 
that He has not been born at all of a virgin ^ : 
others that He has been born, not of a virgin, 
but of a wife dwelling with a husband. Others 
say that the Christ is not God made Man, 
but a man made God 9. For they dared to say 
that not He — the pre-existent Word — was made 
Man ; but a certain man was by advancement 

4. But remember thou what was said yester- 
day concerning His Godhead. Believe that 
He the Onlv-begotten Son of God — He Him- 

■J O 

self was again begotten of a Virgin. 'Believe 
the Evangelist John when he says, And the 
Word was 7nade flesh, and dwelt amotigus'^. For 
the Word is eternal, begotten of the Father 
BEFORE ALL WORLDS : but the flesh He took on 
Him recently for our sake. Many contradict 
this, and say : " What cause was there so great, 
for God to come down into humanity? And, 
is it at all God's nature to hold intercourse 
with men? And, is it possible for a virgin to 
bear, without man ?" Since then there is much 
controversy, and the battle has many forms, 
come, let us by the grace of Christ, and the 
prayers of those who are present, resolve each 

5. And first let us inquire for what cause 
Jesus came down. Now mind not my argu- 
mentations, for perhaps thou mayest be misled : 
but unless thou receive testimony of the Pro- 
phets on each matter, believe not v.hat I say : 

wanting in the Title of this Lecture and in § 13, where the third 
Article of the Creed is referred to. But they are read in nearly all 
the Latin and Greek Symbols, and are referred to in Cat. iv. § 9." 

* iva.v9(iu>TTri!TavTa. The word occurs in the true Nicene for- 
mula, where, as Dr. Swainson thinks, it is " scarcely ambiguous," 
'"it is defective." Both the Verb and the Substantive et-aytipui- 
wrjcTL'; are constantly used by Athanasius to denote the Incarnation 
in a perfectly general way, without any indication of ambiguity or 
defect. In the Creed proposed by Eusebius of C^sarea instead 
of evav6p(OTrr}o'0Lvra we tind ev apOpuiTroLS TToKn^Vfjafxevov ; and in 
the Exposiiio Fidei ascribed to Athanasius, but of somewhat 
doubtful authenticity, the Incarnation is described thus e/c Tijs 
o-xpa-vjov TTapd4i>ov MapLa9 Tov T]ii.€TGpov ai'CL\ii<f)iEV afOpuiTTov 
Xpto-rbi/ 'l-qiTovv. In the ApoUinarian controversy the attempt 
was made to interpret evTqi'6pu>nricrev as meaning not that " He 
became Man," but that " He assumed a man," i.e. that " the man 
was first formed and then assumed" (Gregory, Epist. ad Cledon. 
quoted by Swainson, p. 83), or else merely that " He dwelt among 
men." But the conte.\t of the passages in which Cyril uses the 
word (iv. o; xii. 3) clearly shews that he employed it in the 
perfectly orthodox sense which it has in the Nicene Formula and 
111 Athanasius. 

7 See below, § 21 flf. Cyril means that the direct proof cannot 
be given at once, because there are many errors to be set aside 
first. Compare the end of § 4. 

^ See Cat. iv. 9, notes 3, 4. 

9 Athanasius {contra Arian. Or. I. § 9) quotes as from Arius, 
Thalia, "Christ is not Very God, but He, as others, was made 
God (edeojT-oi>j0r)) by participation." The Eusebians in the Con- 
fession of Faith called Macrostichos (a.d. 344) condemned this 
view as being held by the disciples of Paul of Samosata, " who 
say that after the incarnation He was by advance made God, 
from being made by nature a mere man." The orthodox use of 
the word 06O7roier<r8ai is seen in Athan. de Incarnat. % 54 : aiiTOS 
eci)i'9pu)7nj<ref, ii/a lifieis deo7roi))9u)/xei'. ' John i. 14. 

unless thou learn from the Holy Scriptures 
concerning the Virgin, and the place, the time, 
and the manner, receive not testimony fro/n nian^. 
For one who at present thus teaches may 
possibly be suspected : but what man of 
sense will suspect one that prophesied a thou- 
sand and more years beforehand ? If then 
thou seekest the cause of Christ's comintr, co 
back to t-he first book of the Scriptures. In 
six days God made the world : but the workl 
was for man. The sun however resplen-lent 
with bright beams, yet was made to give light 
to man, yea, and all living creatures were 
formed to serve us : herbs and trees were 
created for our enjoyment. All the works of 
creation were good, but none of these was 
an image of God, save man only. The sun 
was formed by a mere command, but man 
by God's hands : Let us make man after our 
image, afid after our likeness^. A wooden image 
of an earthly king is held in honour; how 
much more a rational image of God ? 

But when this the greatest of the works of 
creation was disporting himself in Paradise, 
the envy of the Devil cast him out. The 
enemy was rejoicing over the fall of him whom 
he had envied: wouldest thou have had the 
enemy continue to rejoice? Not daring to 
accost the man because of his strength, he 
accosted as being weaker the woman, still 
a virgin : for it was after the expulsion from 
Paradise that Adam knezv Eve his zvife*. 

6. Cain and Abel succeeded in the second 
generation of mankind : and Cain was the first 
murderer. Afterwards a deluge was poured 
abroad because of the great wickedness of 
men : fire came down from heaven upon the 
people of Sodom because of their transgression. 
After a time God chose out Israel : but Israel 
also turned aside, and the chosen race was 
wounded. For while Moses stood before God 
in the mount, the people were worshipping 
a calf instead of God. In the lifetime of 
Moses, the law-giver who had said, Thou shalt 
not commit adultery, a man dared to enter 
a place of harlotry and transgress 5. After 
Moses, Prophets were sent to cure Israel : 
but in their healing office they lamented that 
they were not able to overcome the disease, so 
that one of them says, Woe is 7ne f for the godly 
man is perished out of the earth, and there is 
nofie that doeth right among men^ : and again, 
They are all gone out of the way, they are together 
become utiprof table ; there is none that doeih 
good, no, not oneT : and again. Cursing afid steal- 
ing, and adultery, and murder are poured out 
upon the land ^. Their sons and their daughters 

' John V. 34. 
S Numb. XXV. 6. 
Rom. iii. 12. 

3 Gen. i. 26. 

6 Micah vii. 2. 
^ Hosea iv. a. 

4 lb. iv. I. 
7 Ps. xiv. 3 


they sacrificed ttnto devils^. They used auguries, fcet^. For His coming down from heaven was 
and e7ichantme7its,atid divinations'^. Andagaifi, not known by men. 

they fastened their garments ivitlj, cords, afid\ 9. Afterwards Solomon hearing his father 

tnade hangi?tgs attached to the altar '^. David speak these things, built a wondrous 

7. Very great was the wound of man's house, and foreseeing Him who was to come 

nature ; y)'!?/// the feet to the head there zvas fto into it, said in astonishment, IViil God in very 

soundness in it ; none could apply mollifying 
ointment, neither oil, nor bandages 3. Then be- 
wailing and wearying themselves, the Prophets 
said, Who shall give salvation out of Sion^? 
And again. Let Thy hand be upon the man 
of Thy right hand, a7id upon the son of jnan 
zvhofn Thou madest strong for Ihyself : so will 
not we go back from Thee 5. And another of the 
Prophets entreated, saying, Boiv the heavens, 
O Lord, and come dozvn ^. The wounds of man's 
nature pass our heahng. They slew Thy Pro- 
phets, and cast down Thine altars t. The evil 
is irretrievable by us, and needs thee to re- 
trieve it. 

8. The Lord heard the prayer of the Pro- 
phets. The Father disregarded not the 
perishing of our race ; He sent forth His 
Son, the Lord from heaven, as healer: and 
one of the Prophets saith, The Lord whojn ye 
seek, Cometh, and shall suddenly come^. Whither ? 
The Lord shall come to LLis oivn tejtiple, where 
ye stoned Him. Then another of the Pro- 
phets, on hearing this, saith to him : In 
speaking of the salvation of God, speakest 
thou quietly? In preaching the good tidings of 
God's coming for salvation, speakest thou in 
secret? O thou that hringest good tidings to 
Zion, get thee up into the high mountai?t. Speak 
to the cities of Judah. What am I to speak ? 
Behold our God I Behold t the Lord cometh 
2vith strength'^ I Again the Lord Himself saith, 
Behold I L come, and L tvill dwell in the midst 
of thee, saith the Lo?-d. And many nations 
shall fice unto the Lord ^ The Israelites rejected 
salvation through Me : / C07ne to gather all 
nations and tongues ^. For LLe came to LLis ozvn, 
and Llis oivn received LLim not^. Thou comest, 
and what dost Thou bestow on the nations ? 
/ come to gather all natiojis, and L will leave on 
them a sign t For from My conflict upon the 
Cross I give to each of My sokhers a royal 
seal to bear upon his forehead. Another also 
of the Prophets said, LLe bowed the heavens also, 
and catne down ; and darkness was ufider LLis 

9 Ps. cvi. 37. X 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6. 

2 Amos ii. 8 : thi"]/ lay tJtewselves down beside every altar 
iipon clothes taken in filcdge (R.V.). 

3 Isa. i. 6. 4 Ps. xiv. 7. S lb. Ixxx. 17, 18. 

* Ps. cxiiv. 5. 7 I Kings xix. 10. ^ Mai. iii. r. 

9 Isa. xl. 9, 10. » Zech. ii. 10, 11. » Isa. Ixvi. 18. 

3 John i. 11. 

4 Isa. Ixvi. iQ, a pa«isage interpreted by the Fathers of the sign 
of the Cross. Eusebiiis (Deitinnstr. Evang. vi. 25): "Who, on 
seeing that all who have believed in Christ use as a seal the 
symbol of salvation, would not reasonably be astonished at hearing 
the Lord's saj ing of old time, And they shall come, and see My 
glory, and I will leave a sign u/>on them ?" Cf. Cat iv. 14 ; 
xiii. 36. 

deed dive II with mejt on the earth ^ 1 Yea, saith 
David by anticipation in the Psalm inscribed 
For Solomon, wherein is this, LLe shall come 
do2vn like rain ijito a fleece ? .• rain, because of 
His heavenly nature, and into a fleece, because 
of His humanity. For rain, coming down into 
a fleece, comes down noiselessly : so that the 
Magi, not knowing the mystery of the Nativity, 
say, Where is Lie that is born King of the Jeivs^l 
and Herod being troubled inquired concerning 
Him who was born, and said. Where is the 
Christ to be born 9 1 

10. But who is this that cometh down ? He 
says in what follows, And ivith the sutt LLe en- 
dureth, and befo7-e the 77ioon ge7ierations of ge7ie- 
7-ations'^. And again another of the Prophets 
saith, Rejoice g7-eatly, O daughter of Sio7i, shout, 
O daughter of Je7~usale7n. Behold I thy King 
cometh u7ito thee, fust and having salvatio7i ^. 
Kings are many : of which speakest thou, O 
Prophet ? Give us a sign which other Kings 
have not. If thou say, A king clad in purple, 
the dignity of the ai>parel has been anticipated. 
If thou say, Guarded by spear-men, and sitting 
in a golden chariot, this also has been anti- 
cipated by others. Give us a sign peculiar to 
the King whose coming thou announcest. And 
the Prophet maketh answer and saith, Behold I 
thy Ki7ig cometh unto thee, fust, and having 
salvatio7i : LLe is 7/ieek, a7id ridi7ig up07i a7i ass 
a7id a yoimgfoal, not on a chariot. Thou hast 
a unique sign of ih£ King who came. Jesus 
alone of kings sat upon an unyoked 3 foal, 
entering into Jerusalem with acclamations as 
a king. And when this King is come, what 
doth He? Thou also by the blood of the covenant 
hast sent forth thy priso7iers out of the pit 
zvhe7-ein is no water '•. 

11. But He might perchance even sit upon a 
foal: give us rather a sign, where the King 
that entereth shall stand. And give the sign 
not far from the city, that it may not be 
unknown to us : and give us the sign plain 
before our eyes, that even when in the city we 
may behold the place. And the Proj^het 
again makes answer, saying : And LLis feet shall 
sta7id in that day upo7i the Mount of Olives 
which is before Jerusale/n on the east^. Does 

5 Ps. xviii. p. The "feet, ' interpreted allegorically, mean the 
Humanity, and the "darkness" the mystery of the Incarnation. 
See Euseb. Dononstr. Evaiig. vi. i, § 2. 

* I Kings viii. 27 ; 2 Chron. vi t8. 7 Ps. Ixxii. Title, 
and V. 6. 8 Matt. ii. 2. 9 lb. ii. 4. ' Ps. Ixxii. 5. 

* Zech. ix. 9. 3 o<roYT), a rare word, formed from trciyij, 
"harness." 4 Zech. ix. 11. 

5 Zech. xiv. 4. " There is an excellent view from the city 



any one standing within the city fail to behold 
the place ? 

12. We have two signs, and we desire to 
learn a third. Tell us what the Lord doth 
when He is come. Another Prophet saith, 
Behold! our God, and afterwards, He will come 
and save us. Then the eyes of the blind shall be 
opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear : the7i 
shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the 
tongue of the stammerers shall be distinct^. But 
let yet another testimony be told us. Thou 
sayest, O Prophet, that the Lord cometh, and 
doeth signs such as never were : what other 
clear sign tellcst thou ? T/ie Lord Himself 
entereth into judgment with the elders of His 
people, and tvith the princes thereof t. A notable 
sign ! The Master judged by His servants, 
the elders, and submitting to it. 

13. These things the Jews read, but hear 
not : for they have stopped the ears of their 
heart, that they may not hear. But let us believe 
in Jesus Christ, as having come in the flesh and 
been made Man, because we could not receive 
Him otherwise. For since we could not look 
upon or enjoy Him as He was, He became what 
we are, that so we might be permitted to enjoy 
Him. For if we cannot look full on the sun, 
which was made on the fourth day, could we 
behold God its Creator^? The Lord came 
down in fire on Mount Sinai, and the people 
could not bear it, but said to Moses, Speak 
thou ivith us, and we will hear ; and let not 
God speak to us, lest we die^ .• and again, J^or 
ivho is there of all fesh that hath heard the voice 
of the living God speaking out of the midst of 
the fire, and shall live ^ .? If to hear the voice of 
God speaking is a cause of death, how shall not 
the sight of God Himself bring death ? And 
what wonder? Even Moses himself saith, / 
exceedifigly fear and quake ^. 

14. What wouldest thou then? That He 
who came for our salvation should become a 
minister of destruction because men could not 
bear Him ? or that He should suit His grace 
to our measure? Daniel could not bear the 
vision of an Angel, and wert thou capable of 
the sight of the Lord of Angels ? Gabriel 
appeared, and Daniel fell down : and of what 
nature or in what guise was he that appeared ? 
His countenance was like lightning^; not like 
the sun : and his eyes as lamps of fire, not as a 
furnace of fire : and the voice of his zvords as the 
voice of a multitude, not as the voice of twelve 

of the Mount of Olives wbicli stands up over against it, especially 
from the height of Gulgotha where Cyril was delivering his Lec- 
tures " (Cleopa,s). t> Isa. XXXV. 4 — 6. 7 lb. iii. 14. 

8 Cf. Epist. Barnab. § 13: "For had He not come in flesh, 
how could we men have been safe in beholding Him? For in 
beholding the Sun, which being the work of His hands shall cease 
to be, men have no strength to iix their eyes upon him." 

9 Exod. XX. 19. « Deut. v. 26. * Heb. xii. ai. 
3 Dan. X. 6. 

legions of angels ; nevertheless the Prophet 
fell down. And the Angel cometh unto him, 
saying, Fear not, Daniel, stand upright : be of 
good courage, thy words are heard^. And Daniel 
says, / stood up trembling'^: and not even so 
did he make answer, until the likeness of a 
man's hand touched him. And when he that 
appeared was changed into the appearance of 
a man, then Daniel spake : and what saith he? 

my Lord, at the vision of Thee my inward 
parts were turned within me, and no strength 
remaineih in vie, neither is there breath left 
in fne ^. If an Angel appearing took away the 
Prophet's voice and strength, would the ap- 
pearance of God have allowed him to breathe ? 
And until there touched me as it were, a vision 
of a man 7, saith the Scripture, Daniel took 
not courage. So then after trial shewn of our 
weakness, the Lord assumed that which man 
required : for since man required to hear from 
one of like countenance, the Saviour took on 
Him the nature of like affections, that men 
might be the more easily instructed. 

15. Learn also another cause. Christ came 
that He might be baptized, and might sanctify 
Baptism : He came that He might work won- 
ders, walking upon the waters of the sea. 
Since then before His appearance in flesh, the 
sea saiv Him and fled, and Jordan was turned 
back ^, the Lord took to Himself His body, that 
the sea might endure the sight, and Jordan re- 
ceive Him without fear. This then is one cause; 
but there is also a second. Through Eve yet 
virgin came death ; through a virgin, or rather 
from a virgin, must the Life appear : that as 
the serpent beguiled the one, so to the other 
Gabriel might bring good tidings 9. Men for- 
sook God, and made carved images of men. 
Since therefore an image of man was falsely 
worshipped as God, God became truly Man, 
that the falsehood might be done away. The 
Devil had used the flesh as an instrument 
against us ; and Paul knowing this, saith. But 

1 see another law in my tnembers warring against 
the laiv of my mind, and bri?iging me itito captiv- 
ity ', and the rest. By the very same weapons, 
therefore, wherewitii the Devil used to van- 
quish us, have we been saved. Tne Lord 
took on Him from us our likeness, that He 
might save man's nature : He took our like- 
ness, that He might give greater grace to 
that which lacked ; that sinful humanity 
might become partaker of God. For where 
sin aboimded, grace did much 7nore abound"^. It 

4 Dan. X. 12. 5 lb. x. ir. 

6 lb. X. 16, 17. 7 lb. X. 18. 8 Ps. cxiv. 3. 

9 Justin M. (^Tryph. % 100) : " Eve, when she was a virgin and 
imdehled, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought forth 
disobedience and death : but the Virgin Mary received taith and 
joy, when the Angel Gabriel announced the gcoJ tidings to her." 

I Rom. vii »3. ' lb. v. 20. 



behoved the Lord to suffer for us; but if the 
Devil liad known Him, he would not have 
dared to approach Him. For had they knowti it, 
they tvould not have crucified the Lord of Gloty 3. 
His body therefore was made a bait to death, 
that the dragon 4, hoping to devour it, might 
disgorge those also who had been already 
devoured 5. For Death prevailed and devoured ; 
and again, God wiped away every tear from off 
every face ^. 

1 6. Was it without reason that Christ was 
made Man ? Are our teachings ingenious 
phrases and human subtleties? Are not the 
Holy Scriptures our salvation ? Are not the 
predictions of the Prophets ? Keep then, I 
pray thee, this deposit ^ undisturbed, and let 
none remove thee : believe that God became 
Man. But though it has been proved possible 
for Him to be made Man, yet if the Jews still 
disbelieve, let us hold this foith to them: 
What strange thing do we announce in saying 
that God w'as made Man, when yourselves say 
that Abraham received the Lord as a guest ^ ? 
What strange thing do we announce, when Jacob 
says, For J have seen God face to face, mid my 
life is preserved'^? The Lord, who ate with 
Abraliam, ate also with us. What strange thing 
then do we announce ? Nay more, we produce 
two witnesses, those who stood before the 
Lord on Mount Sinai : Moses was in a clift of 
the rock ', and Elias was once in a clift of the 
rock^: they being present with Him at His 
Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, spake to the 
Disciples of His decease tvhich He should ac- 
compiish at Jerusalem^. But, as I said before, it 
has been proved possible for Him to be made 
man : and the rest of the proofs may be left 
for the studious to collect. 

17. My statement, however, promised to de- 
clare ^ also the time of the Saviour's advent, 
and the place : and I riiust not go away con- 
victed of falsehood, but rather send away the 
Church's novices s well assured. Let us there- 
fore inquire the time when our Lord came : 
because His coming is recent, and is disputed ; 
and because Christ /es?is is the sa?ne yesterday, 
and to-day, and for ever^. Moses then, the 

3 I Cor. ii. 8. 

4 Deith is here called "the dragon," as in xiv. 17 he is called 
" the invisible whale," in allusion to the case of Jonah. 

5 On Christ's descent into Hades compare iv. 11 ; xiv. 19; and 
Eusehius (Dem. Evant^. x. 50). and Athaiiasius (c. Arinn. Or. iii. 
56) : " The Lord, at Whom the keepers of hell's gates shuddered 
and set open hell. The Lord, Whom death as a dragon flees." 

6 Isa. XXV. 8. The first clause. He hatk swaUowed up death 
for ever ;R V.), is mistransl.ited in tlie Septuagint. 

7 Ta.\)-n\v TT)!- irafiaKaTaBqKriu. 1 Tim. vi. 20 ; 2 Tira. i. 

8 Gen. xviii. i flf. 9 lb. xxxii. 30. 
» Ex. xxxiii. 22. 2 I Kin-s xix. 8 

3 Luke ix. 30, 31. On the tradition that J\It. Tahor was the 
place of the Transfiguraticm, accepted by S. Jerome and other 
Fathers, compare Lightfoot i//ar. Hcbr. in Marc. ix. 2). 

4 Cat. xii. 5. For fupeii/ the recent Editors with MSS. A.R.C. 
and Grodecq. have ipi'iv. S i/erjAuSas' 

6 Heb. xiii. 8. Cyril is supposed to refer to two objections 


prophet, saith, A Prophet shall the Lord your 
God raise up U7ito you of your brethren, like 
tmto ineT : but let that "like unto me" be re- 
served awhile to be examined in its proper 
place ^. But when cometh this Prophet that is 
expected? Recur, he says, to what has been 
written by me : examine carefully Jacob's pro- 
phecy addressed to Judah : Judah, thee fnay thy 
brethren praise, and afterwards, not to quote 
the whole, A prince shall 7iot fail out of Judah, 
nor a ruler from his loins, u?itil He come, for 
tt'hom it is reserved ; and He is the expectation, 
not of the Jews but of the Gentiles'^. He gave, 
therefore, as a sign of Christ's advent the ces- 
sation of the Jewish r ile. If they are not now 
under the Romans, the Christ is not yet come : 
if they still have a prince of the race of Judah 
and of David ', he is not yet come that was 
expected. For I am ashamed to tell of their 
recent doings concerning those who are now 
called Patriarchs = among them, and what their 
descent is, and who their mother : but I leave 
it to those who know. But He that cometh 
as the expectation of the Gentiles, what further 
sign then hath He ? He says next. Binding 
his foal unto the vine'i. Thou seest that foal 
which was clearly announced by Zachariaht 

18. But again thou askest yet another testi- 
mony of the time. The Lord said u?ito Me, 
Thou art My Son ; this day have L begottefi 
Thee: and a few words further on. Thou shall 
rtile them tvith a rodofiro7i^. I have said before 
that the kingdom of the Romans is clearly 
called a rod of iroti ; but what is wanting con- 
cerning this let us further call to mind out of 
Daniel. For in relating and interpreting to Ne- 
buchadnezzar the image of the statue, he tells 
also his whole vision concerning it : and that 
a stone cut out of a mountain without hands, 
that is, not set up by human contrivance, 
should overpower the whole world : and he 
speaks most clearly thus ; And in the days oj 

to the Incarnation, one founded on the lateness of Christ's coming, 
the other on the Divine immutability. But the meaning of the 
passage is not clear, and the construction of the second sentence 
is incomplete. 

7 Deut. xviii. 15 ; Acts vii. 37. 

8 i^tra^onevov. a clear instancp of the Gerundive, or quasi- 
Future, sense of the Present Participle, common in Cyril. " This 
intention is not fulfilled in the .sequel of these Lectures " (R.W.C.X 

9 Gen. xlix. 8, 10. 

' According to CyriJ (§ ig, below) and other Fathers, the 
continuance of Jewish rulers ceased on the accession of Herod 
an Idumean. Compare Justin hl.{Try/>'ie»i. §§52, 120): Kusebuis 
(^Devwnstr. Evans;. VI IL i). On modern interpretations ot the ■ 
passage see Deliizsch {N^ew Commentary on Genesis), Briggs 
{Messianic Prophecy, p. 93), Cheyne [Isaiah, Vol. II. p. 189), 
Driver ( Journal 0/ Philology, No. 27, 1885J. 

* A full and interesting account of the Jewish Patriarchs of 
the West established at 'J'iberias from the time of Antoninus Pius 
till the close of the 4th century is contained in Dean Mihnan's 
llislory 0/ the Jeivs, Vol. III. Compare Epiphanius {I lares, xxx. 
§ 3 (f.). 3 Gen. xlix. 11. 

■» Zechar. ix. 9, quoted above, § to. 

5 Ps. ii. 7, 9. I'he passage is interpreted by Cyril (xi. s) 
of the eternal generation of the Son: liere it refers to His Incar- 
nation, or perhaps is meant only to identify the Son of God with 
hira who " shall rule with a rod of iron." 



those kingdoms the God of heaveti shall set np 
a kingdom, which shall 7iever he desti-oyed, and 
His kingdom shall not be left to another people^. 
ig. But we seek still more clearly the proof 
of the time of His coming. For man being 
hard to persuade, unless he gets the very- 
years for a clear calculation, does not be- 
lieve what is stated. What then is the season, 
and what the manner of the time? It is 
when, on the faikne of the kings descended 
from Judah, Herod a foreigner succeeds to 
the kingdom ? 'J'he Angel, therefore, who 
converses with Daniel says, and do thou now 
mark the words. And thou shall knoiv and un- 
derstand : From the going forth of the word for 
making answer"!, and for the building of Jerusa- 
lem, until Messiah the Prince are seven weeks 
and three score and two weeks ^. Now three 
score and nine weeks of years contain four 
hundred and eighty-three years. He said, 
therefore, that after the building of Jerusalem, 
four hundred and eighty-three years having 
passed, and the rulers having failed, then 
Cometh a certam king of another race, in whose 
tiuTe the Christ is to be born. Now Darius 
the Mede9 built the city in the sixth year of 
his own reign, and first year of the 66th Olym- 
piad accorch'ng to the Greeks. Olympiad is 
the name among the Greeks of the games cele- 
brated after four years, becailse of the day 
whicli in every four years of the sun's courses 
is made up of the three ^ (supernumerary) hours 
in each year. And Herod is king in the i86th 
Olympiad, in the 4th year thereof Now from 
the 66th to the iS6th Olympiad there are 120 
Olympiads intervening, and a little over. So 
then the 120 Olympiads make up 480 years : 
for the other three years remaining are perhaps 
taken up in the interval between the first and 
fourth years. And there thou hast the proof 
according to the Scripture which saith, From 
the going forth of the word that Jerusalem be 
restored and built until Messiah the Prince are 
seven iveeks and sixty-tivo tveeks. Of the times, 
therefore, thou hast for the present this proof, 
although there are also other different inter- 

6 Dan. ii. 44. 

7 Sept. Tou cLTT0Kpi9T\va.i, a frequent meaning of the Hebrew 
3^ti?rt /! ^y \\'hich the Greek Translators understood the answer 

of Darius to the letter of Tatnai and his companions. Both A.V. 
and R. V. render the word " to restore." 

8 Dan. ix. 25. 

9 Darius the Mede (Dan. v. 31) succeeded Belshazzar as 
king in Babylon B.C. 538, the date assigned in Dan. i.\. i to the 
prophecy of the 70 years. But "Darius the king" in whose 
6th year Ib-C. 516) the Temple was finished (Ezra vi. 15) was 
Darius Hystaspis, king of Persia, whom Cyril here confounds with 
''Darius the Mede." He also fails to distinguish the rebuildijig 
of the Temple, B.C. 516, (rom the rebuilding of the City by per- 
mission of Arta.\er.\es Longinianus, B.C. 444 {Nehcmiah, ii. i). 

' In speaking of three supernumerary hours in the year instead 
of nearly six, Cyril seems to follow the division of the diurnal 
period into twelve parts, not twenty-four. The Jews had derived 
this division either from the Egyptians, or more probably from the 
Babylonians: see Herodotus, II. 109. 

pretations concerning the aforesaid weeks of 
years in Daniel. 

20. But now hear the place of the promise, 
as Micah says, And thou, Bethlehem, house of 
Eph7-alhah, art thou little to be among the thou- 
sands of Judah ? For out of thee shall come 
forth U7ito Me a ruler, to be governor in Israel : 
and His goiiigs forth are from the begiiifiing, 
from the days of eternity '^. But assuredly as to 
the places, thou being an inhabitant of Jeru- 
salem, knowest also beforehand what is written 
in the hundred and thirty-first psalm. Lot 
we heard of it at Ephrafhah, we found it in the 
plains of the tvood'i. For a few years ago the 
place was woody *. Again thou hast heard 
Habakkuk say to the Lord, When the years d?-azu 
nigh, thou shall be made knoivn, when the time 
is come, thou shall be shewn s. And what is the 
sign, O Prophet, of the Lord's coming? And 
presently he saith, Iti the midst of two lives shall 
thou be knoivn^, plainly saying this to the Lord, 
" Having come in the flesh thou livest and 
diest, and after rising from the dead thou livest 
again." Further, from what part of the region 
round Jerusalem cometh He? From east, or 
west, or north, or south ? Tell us exactly. 
And he makes answer most plainly and says, 
God shall come from Teman ^ (now Teman is by 
interpretation ' south ') and the Holy One from 
Mount Paran^, shady, tvoody : what the Psalmist 

* Micah V. 2, quoted also in Cat. xi. 30, where see note. 

3 Ps. cxxxii. 6. The Psalmist refers to the recovery of the 
Ark, but Cyril interprets the passage mystically of Christ, and the 
place of His Nalivity. 

4 The Benedictine Editor thinks that in calling the place 
"woody" Cyril refers to a grove planted by Hadrian in honour of 
Adonis, which had been destroyed about sixteen years before, when 
Helena built the Church at Betlilehem : see Eusebius, Life of 
Constantine, III. 43. But Cyril evidently means that the wood 
of which the Psalmist speaks had remained till a few years before. 
Ephrathah is the ancient name of Bethlehem (Gen. x.xxv. 19 ; 
xlviii. 7), and by "the fields of the wood" is probably meant 
Kirjath-Jearim, " the city of woods," where the Ark was found by 
David (2 Sam. vi. 2 ; i Chron. xiii. 6). 

5 Hab. iii. 2 : (R.V.) O Lord, revive Thy ivork in the midst 
of the years, in the midst 0/ the years make it knoivn. The 
Septuagint gives a different sense : In the inidst of two lives 
(or, living beings') shall Tliou be known : when the years draiu 
7ii^h Thou shall be recognised : when the time is come. Thou 
shall be shewn. The two latter clauses seem to be different 
renderings of the same Hebrew words. 

6 efvjs. This clause comes before the preceding quotation : 
Cyril misplaces them. In the Vatican and other MSS. of the 
Sept. and in some Fathers ^iomv ("living creatures") is found in 
place of iuitov " lives ;" but the latter reading is evidently required 
by the interpretation which follows in Cyril. Origen (de Prin- 
ci/>iis, I. 4), who recognises both readings ("In medio vel duo- 
rum animalium, vel duarum vitarum, cognosceris,") interprets the 
"two living beings" of the Son and the Spirit. Eusebius 
{Demoiistr. Ez'ong. VI. 15) observes that ^wiui/ is to be read 
as perispomenon from the Singular ^coij, and interprets it of Christ's 
life with God, and life on earth. Theodoret says, in commenting 
on the passage, "To me it seems that the Prophet means not 
"living beings" (fwa) but "lives" (fujas), the present life, and 
that which is to come, between which is the appearance of the 
Righteous Judge." 

7 Hab. iii. 3. Cyril interprets the word ©ot/xai/ (Heb. ^J^**^) 

as a common Noun meaning " South," and the Vulgate has here 
" ab Austro veniet." The prophecy is thus referred to Bethlehem, 
as lying to the South of Jerusalem. Eusebius (^Dem. Evang. VI. 
15) mentions this as the rendering ol Theodotion in his Greek 
Version, about 180 a.d. As a proper name Teman denotes a dis- 
trict and town in the southern part of Idumea, so called from 
a grandson of Esau (Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15, 42 ; Jer. xlix. 7, 20 ; 
Ezjk. XXV. 13 ; Amos i. 12 ; Obad. 9). 

8 The following note is slightly abridged from the Edition 



spake in like words, We found it in the plains 
of the wood. 

21. We ask further, of whom cometh He 
and how? And this Esaias tells us : Behold! 
the virgin shall conceive in her womb, and shall 
bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name 
Em??ia?mel'i. This the Jews contradict, for of 
old it is their wont wickedly to oppose the 
truth : and they say that it is not written " the 
virgin," but " the damsel." But though I as- 
sent to what they say, even so I find the truth. 
For we must ask them, If a virgin be forced, 
when does she cry out and call for helpers, 
after or before the outrage ? If, therefore, the 
Scripture elsewhere says. The betrothed damsel 
cried, and there zvas none to saz'e her^, doth it 
not speak of a virgin ? 

But that you may learn more plainly that 
even a virgin is called in Holy Scripture a 
"damsel," hear the Book of the Kings, speak- 
ing of Abishag the Shunaraite, And the damsel 
2vas very fair ^: for that as a virgin she v.'as 
chosen and brought to David is admitted. 

22. But the Jews say again. This was said 
to Ahaz in reference to Hezekiah. Well, then, 
let us read the Scripture : Ask thee a sign of the 
Lord thy God, iti the depth or iti the height 3. And 
the sign certainlymustbe sometliing astonishing. 
For the water from the rock was a sign, the sea 
divided, the sun turning back, and the like. 
But in what I am going to mention there is 
still more manifest refutation of the Jews. 
(I know that I am speaking at much length, 
and that my hearers are wearied : but bear 
with the fulness of my statements, because it 
is for Christ's sake these questions are moved, 
and they concern no ordinary matters.) Now 
as Isaiah spake this in the reign of Ahaz, and 
Ahaz reigned only sixteen years, and the pro- 
phecy was spoken to him within these years, 
the objection of the Jews is refuted by the 
fact that the succeeding king, Hezekiah, son 

of Alexandrides of Jernsalem. "Previous Editions read If opous 
•^apav KarauKiov iao-e'os. This reading is found in Cod. Vat. 
and other MSS. of the Septuagiiit, but *apdi/ is omitted in the 
Aldine and majiy other copies nor was it read in the MSS. of the 
Sept. in Jerome's time, as is clear from his comments on tlie 
passage. In the MSS. of Cyril, Ottob. R.C. V. Monac. 1. and II. 
it is wanting. Paran is the name of the desert towards the S. 
of Palestine lying between it and Egypt (Gen. .\xi. 21 ; Num. i. 12). 
There was also a Mount Paran (Deut. x.wiii. 21. But since 
Cyril applies the prophecy to Bethlehem, and the '' shady thickly- 
wooded mountain" of Habakkuk is identified with "the plains 
of the wood "_ of David, we may safely conclude that Cyril did not 
read ^apav in his copies of the Septua.^int, nor write it in his 
Lecture : but the rending crept in from the later copyists, accus- 
tomed to the rcr\dii)g 'Papdv in the Septu.Tgint. ' 

9 Isa. vii. 14. The objection of the Jews that the Hebrew 
word "Alniah" means "a young woman," whether married or 
not, is mentioned by Justin M. (Jftyfih. 43, 67, 71), and by Euse- 
bius(Z>f;«. Evang. VII. i. 315). "' iJeut. x.\ii. 27. 

' I Kings i. 4. Cyril's argument is fully justified by the 
actual usage of "Almah," which certainly rel'ers to unmarried 
women in Gen. xxiv. 43 ; Ex. ii. 8 ; Cant. i. 3. The same is 
probably the meaning in Ps. Ixviii. 25 : " in the mid-t were the 
dam^els playing with the timbrels." "There is no pa.ssagc in which 
the word can be shewn to mean a married woman. 

3 Isa. vii. II. 

of Ahaz, was twenty-five years old when he 
began to reign : for as the prophecy is con- 
fined within sixteen years, he must have been 
begotten of Ahaz full nine years before the 
prophecy. What need then was there to utter 
the prophecy concerning one who had been 
already begotten even before the reign of his 
father Ahaz + ? For he said not, hath conceived, 
but " the virgin shall conceive^' speaking as with 

23. We know then for certain that the 
Lord was to be born of a Virgin, but we 
have to shew of what 'family the Virgin 
was. The Lord sware i?i truth unto David., 
and will 7iot set it aside. Of the fruit of thy 
body ivilll set upon thy throfie^ : and again. His 
seed 7vill I establish for ever, and his throne as 
the days of heaven ?. And afterwards, Once have 
I sworn by My holiness that I will not lie unto 
David. His seed shall endiire for ever, and his 
throne as the sun before Me, and as the ?noon 
established for ever^. Thou seest that the dis- 
course is of Christ, not of Solomon. For Solo- 
mon's throne endured not as the sun. But if any 
deny this, because Christ sat not on David's 
throne of wood, we will bring forward that say- 
ing, The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses^ 
seat^ : for it signifies not his wooden seat, but 
the authority of his teaching. In like manner 
then I would hkve you seek for David's throne 
not the throne of wood, but the kingdom itself 
Take, too, as my witnesses the children who 
cried aloud, Hosanna to the Son of David % 
blessed is the King of Israel'^. And the blind 
men also say, So7i of David, have mercy on us^. 
Gabriel too testifies plainly to Mary, saying. 
And the Lord God shall give unto Him the 
thi-one of His father David*. Paul also saith, 
Remendm' Jesus Christ raised from the dead, oj 
the seed of David, according to my Gospel^: and 
in the beginning of the Epistle to the Romans 
he saith, Which was made of the seed of David 
according to the flesh ^. Receive thou therefore 
Him that was born of David, believing the 
prophecy which saith, And in that day there 
shall be a root of /esse, and He that shall rise 
to rule over the Gentiles : in Him shall the Gen- 
tiles trust T. 

24. But the Jews are much troubled at 
these things. This also Isaiah foreknew, say- 
ing, And they shall wish that they had been 
burnt with fire : for unto us a child is born (not 
unto them), unto us a Son is given ^. Mark thou 

4 Compare J\istin M. {Tryph. % 77), Euseb. {Detno*s(r. Evang. 
L. VII. c. i. 317). 

5 In the Hebrew the word >ised is a Participle, and describe! 
what Isaiah sees in a prophetic vi:,ion ; "Behold, the davisel — 
luith child." 

6 Ps. cxxxii. II. 7 lb Ixxxix. 33. 8 7,-,. ^5 — jy. 
9 Matt, xxiii. 3. • lb. xxi. 9. » Joh xii. 13. 
3 Matt. XX. 30. 4 Luke i. 32. 5 2 Tim. ii. 8. 

' Rom. i. 3. 7 Is. xi. 10; Rom. xv. 13, * Isa. ix. 5, 



that at first He was the Son of God, then was 
given to us. And a little after he says, And 
of His peace there is no bound 'i. The Romans 
have bounds : of the kingdom of the Son of 
God there is no bound. Ihe Persians and 
the Medes have bounds, but the Son has no 
bound. Then next, upon the throne of David, 
and upon his kingdom to order it. The Holy 
Virgin, therefore, is from David. 

25. For it became Him who is most pure, 
and a teacher of purity, to have come forth 
from a pure bride-chamber. For if he who 
well fulfils the office of a priest of Jesus ab- 
stains from a wife, how should Jesus Himself 
be born of man and woman ? For thou, saith 
He in the Psalms, art He that took Ale out of the 
womb ^ Mark that carefully. He that took Me out 
of the womb, signifying that He was begotten 
without man, being taken from a virgin's womb 
and flesh. For the manner is dift'erent with 
those who are begotten according to the course 
of marriage. 

26. And from such members He is not 
ashamed to assume flesh, who is the framer 
of those very members. But then who telleth 
us this ? The Lord saith unto Jeremiah : Be- 
fore I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee : and 
before thou earnest forth out of the womb, I sanc- 
tified thee ^. If, then, in fashioning man He was 
not ashamed of the contact, was He ashamed 
in fashioning for His own sake the holy Flesh, 
the veil of His Godhead ? It is God who 
even now creates the children in the womb, 
as it is written in Job, Hast thou not poured 
me out as milk, and curdled fne like cheese 1 
Thou hast clothed me ivith skin and flesh, and 
hast knit me together with bones and sinews'^. 
There is nothing polluted in the human frame, 
except a man defile this with fornication and 
adultery. He who formed Adam formed Eve 
also, and male and female were formed by 
God's hands. None of the members of the 
body as formed from the beginning is polluted. 
Let the mouths of all heretics be stopped who 
slander their bodies, or rather Him who 
formed them. But let us remember Paul's say- 
ing, Knozv ye not that your bodies are the temples 
of the Holy Ghost which is in you •♦ ? And again 
the Prophet hath spoken before in the person 
of Jesus, My flesh is from them 5 .• and in another 
place it is written, Therefore zvill He give them 
up, until the time that she bringeth forth ^. And 
•what is the sign ? He tells us in what follows, 

She shall bring forth, and the remnant of their 

9 V. 7. X Ps. xxii. 9. _ » Jer. i. 5. 

3 Job X. 10, ir. 4 I Cor. vi. 19. 

5 Hos. ix. 12. R. V. IVoe also to them, when I depart from 
them. The Seventy mistook >~l?)ii72) " ^' ^^ departure," for 
^nii73, " my flesh.* 6 Mic v. 3 

brethren shall return. And what are the nup- 
tial pledges of the Virgin, the holy bride ? And 
Twill betroth thee unto Me in faithfulnessT . And 
Elizabeth, talking with Mary, speaks in like 
manner : And blessed is she that believed ; for 
there shall be a performance of those things which 
ivere told her from the Lord^. 

27. But both Greeks and Jews harass us 
and say that it was impossible for the Christ 
to be born of a virgin. As for the Greeks we 
will stop their mouths from their own fables. 
For ye who say that stones being thrown were 
changed into men 9, how say ye that it is im- 
posssible for a virgin to bring forth ? Ye who 
fable that a daughter was born from the brain ', 
how say ye that it is impossible for a son to 
have been born from a virgin's womb ? Ye 
who falsely say that Dionysus was born from 
the thigh of your Zeus^, how set ye at nought 
our truth ? I know that I am speaking of 
things unworthy of the present audience : but 
in order that thou in due season mayest rebuke 
the Greeks, we have brought these things 
forward answering them from their own fables. 

28. But those of the circumcision meet thou 
with this question : Whether is harder, for an 
aged woman, barren and past age, to bear, 
or for a virgin in the prime of youth to con- 
ceive ? Sarah was barren, and though it had 
ceased to be with her after the manner of 
women, yet, contrary to nature, she bore a 
child. If, then, it is against nature for a barren 
woman to conceive, and also for a virgin, 
either, therefore, reject both, or accept both. 
For it is the same God 3 who both wrought the 
one and appointed the other. For thou wilt 
not dare to say that it was possible for God in 
that former case, and impossible in this latter. 
And again : how is it natural for a man's hand 
to be changed in a single hour into a dift'erent 
appearance and restored again ? How then 
was the hand of Moses mace white as snow, 
and at once restored again ? But thou sayest 
that God's will made the change. In that 
case God's will has the power, and has it then 
no power in this case ? That moreover was a 
sign concerning the Egyptians only, but this 
was a sign given to the whole world. But 
whether is the more difficult, O ye Jews ? For 
a virgin to bear, or for a rod to be quickened 
into a living creature? Ye confess that in the 
case of Moses a perfectly straight rod became 

7 Hos. ii. 20. 8 Luke i. 45. 

9 See the story of Pyrrha and Deucalion in Pindar, 01. ix. fo : 
anp 6" eui/as KTrjadcrBav KiOivov yovov, and in Ovid. Metam. \. 
260 ff. 

1 Athena was said to have sprung armed from the head of 
Zeus ; Pindar, Ol. vii. 65 : Kopvi^av kolt' axpay avopovtraLcr' oAa- 
Ka ev v7r€pixdK€L fioa, Cf. Hes. Tlteog, 924. 

2 Eiirip. Biccluie. 295 ; Ovid. Metam. iv. 11. 

3 Codd. Mon. i. A: 6 yap avrb? ®eo«. Bened. o ydp ©e>< 



like a serpent, and was terrible to him who 
cast it down, and he who before held the rod 
fast, fled from it as from a serpent ; for a ser- 
pent in truth it was : but he fled not because 
he feared that which he held, but because he 
dreaded Him that had changed it. A rod had 
teeth and eyes like a serpent : do then seeing 
eyes grow out of a rod, and cannot a child be 
born of a virgin's womb, if God wills ? For I 
say nothing of the fact that Aaron's rod also 
produced in a single night what other trees 
produce in several years. For who knows not 
that a rod, after losing its bark, will never 
sprout, not even if it be planted in the midst 
of rivers ? But since God is not dependent on 
the nature of trees, but is the Creator of their 
natures, the unfruitful, and dry, and barkless 
rod budded, and blossomed, and bare almonds. 
He, then, who for the sake of the typical high- 
priest gave fruit supernaturally to the rod, 
would He not for the sake of the true High- 
Priest grant to the Virgin to bear a child ? 

29. These are excellent suggestions of the 
narratives : but the Jews still contradict, and 
do not yield to the statements concerning the 
rod, unless they may be persuaded by similar 
strange and supernatural births. Question them, 
therefore, in this way : of whom in the begin- 
ning was Eve begotten? What mother con- 
ceived her the motherless? But the Scripture 
saith that she was born out of Adam's side. 
Is Eve then born out of a man's side without a 
mother, and is a child not to be born without 
a father, of a virgin's womb? This debt of 
gratitude was due to men from womankind : for 
Eve was begotten of Adam, and not conceived 
of a mother, but as it were brought forth of man 
alone. Mary, therefore, paid the debt of grati- 
tude, when not by man but of herself alone in 
an immaculate way she conceived of the Holy 
Ghost by the power of God. 

30. But let us take what is yet a greater 
wonder than this. For that of bodies bodies 
should be conceived, even if wonderful, is never- 
theless possible : but that the dust of the 
earth should become a man, this is more won- 
derful. Tliat clay moulded together should 
assume the coats and splendours of the eyes, 
this is more wonderful. That out of dust of 
uniform appearance should be produced both 
the firmness of bones, and the softness of lungs, 
and other different kinds of members, this is 
wonderful. That clay should be animated and 
travel round the world self moved, and should 
build houses, this is wonderful. That clay 
should teach, and talk, and act as carpenter, 
and as king, this is wonderful. Wlience, then, 
O ye most ignorant Jews, was Adam made? Did 
not God take dust from the earth, and fashion 
this wonderful frame ? Is then clay changed 

into an eye, and cannot a virgin bear a son. 
Does that which for men is more impossible 
take place, and is that which is possible never 
to occur ? 

31. Let us remember these things, brethren : 
let us use these weapons in our defence. Let 
us not endure those heretics who teach Christ's 
coming as a phantom. Let us abhor those 
also who say that the Saviour's birth was of 
husband and wife ; who have dared to say 
that He was the child of Joseph and Mary, 
because it is written. And he took nnfo him his 
wife''. For let us remember Jacob, who before 
he received Rachel, said to Laban, Give me 
my wife^. For as she before the wedded state, 
merely because there was a promise, was called 
the wife of Jacob, so also Mary, because she 
had been betrothed, was called the wife of 
Joseph. Mark also the accuracy of the Gospel, 
saying, And in the sixth month the Angel 
Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, 
named Nazareth, to a virgin esp02ised to a man 
whose name ivas Joseph^, a.x\c\ so forth. And 
again when the census took place, and Joseph 
went up to enrol himself, what saith the Scrip- 
ture? And Joseph also went up from Galilee, 
to enrol himself with Mary who 2vas espoused 
to him, being great ivith child t. For though she 
was with child, yet it said not " with his wife," 
but with her who zvas espoused to him. For God 
sent forth Bis Son, says Paul, not made of 
a man and a woman, but made of a woman ^ 
only, that is of a virgin. For that the virgin 
also is called a woman, we shewed before 9. 
For He who makes souls virgin, was born 
of a Virgin. 

32. But thou wonderest at the event: even 
she herself who bare him wondered at this. 
For she saith to Gabriel, Hoiv shall this be to 
me, since I knoiv not a man 1 But he says, 
The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the 
pozver of the Highest shall overshadow thee: 
wherefore also the holy thittg which is to be born 
shall be called the Son of God^. Immaculate 
and undefiled was His generation : for where 
the Holy Spirit breathes, there all pollution is 
taken away : undefiled from the Virgin was the 
incarnate generation of the Only-begotten. And 
if the heretics gainsay the truth, the Holy Ghost 
shall convict them : that overshadowing power 
of the Highest shall wax wroth : Gabriel shall 
stand face to face against them in the day of 
judgment: the place of the manger, which 
received the Lord, shall put them to shame. 
The shepherds, who then received the good 
tidings, shall bear witness ; and the host of the 
Angels who sang praises and hymns, and said, 

4 Matt. i. 24. 
7 lb. ii. 4, 5. 
■ Luke i. 34, 35. 

5 Gen. xxix. 2i, 
8 Gal. iv. 4, 

6 Luke i. 26, 27. 
9 See above, § 2t. 



Glory to God hi the hii:^hest, and on earth peace 
among men of His good pleasure'^ : the Temple 
into which He was then carried up on the 
fortieth day : the pairs of turtle-doves, which 
were offered on His behalf 3 : and Symeon who 
then took Him up in his arms, and Anna the 
prophetess who was present. 

2^2)- Since God then beareth witness, and 
the Holy Ghost joins in the witness, and 
Chiist says, Why do ye seek to kill me, a ma}t 
who has told you the truths? let the heretics 
be silenced who speak against His humanity, 
for they speak against Him, who saith. Handle 
me, and see ; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, 
as ye see tne have s. Adored be the Lord the 
Virgin-born, and let Virgins acknowledge the 
crown of their own state : let the order also 
of Solitaries acknowledge the glory of chastity ; 
for we men are not deprived of the dignity of 
chastity. In the Virgin's womb the Saviour's 
period of nine months was passed : but the 
Lord was for thirty and three years a man : 
so that if a virgin glories ^ because of the 

» Luke ii. 14. 

3 lb. ii. 24. Tn Lev. xii. 8 one pair only of turtles is pre- 
scribed, to be offered for the mother, not for the child. But the 
reading ra ^eiiyj) in Cyril is confirmed by that in St. Luke, Toil 
Ka6api.crti.ov avrCov. See the authorities in Tischendorf. 

4 John vii. 19 ; viii. 40. 5 Luke xxiv. 39. 

6 crejaciii'eTai. Rivet, misled by a double error in the old Latin 
version, '"' veneratur," accused Cyril of approving the worship 
af the Virgin Mary. 

nine months, much more we because of the 
many years. 

34. But let us all by God's grace run the 
race of chastity, young men and maide7is, old 
men and children t; not going after wantonness, 
but praising the name of Christ. Let us not 
be ignorant of the glory of chastity : for its 
crown is angelic, and its excellence above man. 
Let us be chary of our bodies which are to 
shine as the sun : let us not for short pleasure 
defile so great, so noble a body : for short and 
momentary is the sin, but the shame for many 
years and for ever. Angels walking upon earth 
are they who practise chastity : the Virgins have 
their portion with Mary the Virgin. Let all 
vain ornament be banished, and every hurtful 
glance, and all wanton gait, and every flowing 
robe, and perfume enticing to pleasure. But in 
all for perfume let there be the prayer of sweet 
odour, and the practice ^ of good works, and 
the sanctification of our bodies: that the Virgin- 
born Lord may say even of us, both men who 
live in chastity and women who wear the crown, 
I will dwell in them ; and walk in them, and 
I will be their God, and they shall be My people 9. 
To whom be the glory for ever and ever. 

7 Ps. cxlviii. 13. ^ r\ raiv ayaOStv npa^is. Cod. A. 

9 a Cor. vi. i6. 

VOL. vrr. 


On the Words, Crucified and Buried. 

Isaiah liii. i, 7. 

Who hath believed our report 1 and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ? 

brought as a lamb to the slaughter, ^'c. 

He is 

1. Every deed of Christ is a cause of 
glorying to the Catholic Churcli, but her 
greatest of all glorying is in the Cross ; and 
knowing this, Paul says, But God forbid that 
I should glory, save in the Cross of Christ^. 
For wondrous indeed it was, that one who 
was blind from his birth should receive 
sight in Siloani=^; but what is this compared 
with the blind of the whole world ? A great 
thing it was, and passing nature, for Lazarus 
to rise again on the fourth day ; but the grace 
extended to him alone, and what was it com- 
pared with the dead in sins throughout the 
world ? Marvellous it was, that five loaves 
should pour forth food for the five thou- 
sand ; but what is that to those who are 
famishing in ignorance through all the world ? 
It was marvellous that she should have been 
loosed who had been bound by Satan eighteen 
years : yet what is this to all of us, who were 
fast bound in the chains of our sins? But the 
glory of the Cross led those who were blind 
through ignorance into light, loosed all who 
were held fast by sin, and ransomed the whole 
world of mankind. 

2. And wonder not that the whole world 
was ransomed ; for it was no mere man, but 
the only-begotten Son of God, who died on its 
behalf Moreover one man's sin, even Adam's, 
had power to bring death to the world ; but if 
by the trespass of the one death reigned over the 
world, how shall not life much rather reign by 
the righteousficss of the One^? And if because 
of the tree of food they were then cast out of 
paradise, shall not believers now more easily 
enter into paradise because of the Tree of 
Jesus? If the first man formed out of the 
earth brought in universal death, shall not He 
who formed him out of the earth bring in 
eternal liie, being Himself the Life ? If 

' Gal. vi. 14. a C. Athana?,. {lie Iruurn. § i8, 49X 

3 Koin. V. 17, 18. 

Phinees, when he waxed zealous and slew the 
evil-doer, stayed the wrath of God, shall not 
Jesus, who slew not another, but gave up 
Himself for a ransom'-, put away tlie wrath 
which is against mankind? 

3. Let us then not be ashamed of the Cross 
of our Saviour, but rather glory in it. For the 
word of the Cross is unto Jews a stumbling-block, 
and unto Gentiles foolishness, but to us salva- 
tion : and /^ them that are berishing it is fool- 
ishness, but unto us which are being saved it is 
the pocuer of God^. For it was not a mere man 
who died for us, as I said before, but the Son 
of God, God made man. Further ; if the 
lamb under Moses drove the destroyer ^ far 
away, did not much ratlier the Lamb of God, 
ivhich taketh away the sin of the worldT, deliver 
us from our sins? The blood of a silly sheep 
gave salvation ; and shall not the Blood of the 
Only-begotten much rather save? If any dis- 
believe the power of the Crucified, let him ask 
the devils ; if any believe not words, let him 
believe what he sees. Manv have been cru- 
cified throughout the world, but by none of 
these are the devils scared ; but when they see 
even the Sign of the Cross of Christ, who was 
crucified for us, they shudder ^. For those men 
died for their own sins, but Christ for the sins 
of others ; for He did fio sin, nei/her 7vas guile 
found in Llis mouth'^. It is not Peter who says 
this, for then we might suspect that he was 
partial to his Teacher ; but it is i^s n'as who 
says it, who was not indeed present with Him 
in the flesh, but in the Spirit foresaw His 
coming in the flesh. Yet why now bring the 
Prophet only as a witness? take for a wit- 
ness Pilate himself, who gave sentence upon 
Him, saying, L find no fault ifi this Alan ' .• and 
when he gave Him up, and had washed his 

4 I Tim. ii. 6. Si Cor. i. 18, 23. ^ Ex. xii. 23 

7 John i. 29. 8 Cf. Car. i. 3; xvii. 35, 36. 

9 I Pet- ii- 22, quoted from Isa. liii. 9. » Luke xxiii. 14. 



hands, he said, I am innocent of the blood of this 
just person'^. There is yet another witness of 
the sinlessness of Jesus, — the robber, the first 
man admitted into Paradise ; who rebuked his 
fellow, and said, " We receive the due reward of 
our deeds; but this man hath done nothing 
amiss ^; for we were present, both thou and 
I, at His judgment." 

4. Jesus then^ really suffered for all men ; 
for the Cross was no illusion ^, otherwise our 
redemption is an illusion also. His death was 
not a mere show s, for then is our salvation 
also fabulous; If His death was but a show, 
they were true who said. We remember that 
that deceiver said, white He was yet alive. After 
three days I rise agaifi ^. His Passion then 
was real : for He was really crucified, and we 
are not ashamed thereat ; He was crucified, 
and we deny it not, nay, I rather glory to 
speak of it. For though I should now deny 
it, here is Golgotha to confute me, near 
which we are now assembled ; the wood of 
the Cross confutes me, which was afterwards 
distributed piecemeal from hence to all the 
world 7. I confess the Cross, because 1 know 
of the Resurrection; for if, after being cruci- 
fied, He had remained as He was, I had not 
perchance confessed it, for 1 might have con- 
cealed both it and my Master ; but now that 
the Resurrection has followed the Cross, I am 
not ashamed to declare it. 

5. Being then in the flesh like others. He 
was crucified, but not for the like sins. For 
He was not led to death for covetousness, 
since He was a Teacher of poverty ; nor was 
He condemned for concupiscence, for He 
Himself says plainly, Whosoever shall look upoti 
a ivoman to lust after her, hath conimiited 
adultery ivith her already^; not for smiting or 
striking hastily, for He turned the other cheek 
also to the smiter ; not for despising the Law, 
for He was the fulfiller of the Law ; not for 
reviling a prophet, for it was Himself who was 
proclaimed by the Prophets ; not for defrauding 
any of their hire, lor He ministered without 
reward and freely ; not for sinning in words, or 
deeds, or thoughts, He 7vho did tio sin, neither 
was guile found in His nunith ; who when He 
was reviled, reviled not again; when He stif 

' Matt, xxvii. 24. 

3 Luke xxiii. 41. Cf. Cat xili. 30, 31. The Benedictine 
Editor remarks, "We know not whence Cyril took the notion 
that the two rii'bbers were present at the trial of Jesus." He may 
have inferred from the words ev rto avT(Z /cpiMiTithat the sentence 
of crucifixion was pronounced on them at the same time as on 

4 firiKijtri?. Cf. Ignat. Smym. § 2: "He siififered truly, as 
also He raised Himself truly : not as certain unbelievers say, 
that He suffered in semblance (to fioKeti/ a.\n'ov irenovOevai)." See 
§ 37, below. 

5 (frai'TacrtciSj);. Athanas. c. Aftolli>iar. § 3 : " Supposing the 
exhibition and the endurance of the Passion to be a mere show 

Matt, xxvii. 63. 7 Cf. iv. 10 ; x. 19. 8 Matt. v. 28. 

fered, threatened not^ ; M'ho came to His pas- 
sion, not unwillingl)', but willingly; yea, if 
any dissuading Him say even now, Be it far 
from Thee, Lord, He will say again, Get thee 
belwid Me, Satan '. 

6. And wouldest thou be persuaded that 
He came to His passion willingly? others, 
who foreknow it not, die unwillingly ; but He 
spake before of His passion : Behold, the Son 
of man is betrayed to be crucified"^. But knowest 
thou wherefore this Friend of man shunned 
not death ? It was lest the whole world should 
perish in its sins. Behold, we go up to Jeru- 
salem, and the Son of tnati shall be betrayed, 
and shall be crucified'^ ; and again. He stedfisily 
set His face to go to Jerusalem 4. And wouldest 
thou know certainly, that the Cross is a glory 
to Jesus? Hear His own words, not mine. 
Judas had become ungrateful to the Master of 
the house, and was about to betray Him. 
Having but just now gone forth from the 
table, and drunk His cup of blessing, in return 
for that draught of salvation he sought to shed 
righteous blood. He who did eat of His bread, 
was lifting up his heel agaitist Him 5 / his hands 
were but lately receiving the blessed gifts ^, and 
presently for the wages of betrayal he was 
plotting His death. And being reproved, and 
having heard that vvord. Thou hast saidT, he 
again went out : then said Jesus, The hour 
is come, that the Son of man should be glori- 
fied^. Seest thou how He knew the Cross to 
be His proper glory? What then, is Esaias 
not ashamed of being sawn asunder 9, and 
shall Christ be ashamed of dying for the 
world ? Nojv is the Son of niaji glorified '. Not 
that He was without glory before : for He was 
glorified zvith the glory which was before the 
Joundalion of the world^. He was ever glorified 
as God ; but now He was to be glorified in 
wearing the Crown of His patience. He gave 
not up His life by compulsion, nor was He 
put to death by murderous violence, but of 
His own accord. Hear what He says : I have 
power to lay down My life, and I have power to 
take it again ^: I yield it of My own choice to 
My enemies ; for unless I chose, this could 

9 I Pet. ii. 22, 23. * Matt. xvi. 22, 23. 2 lb. xxvi. 2. 

3 lb. XX. 18. 4 Luke ix. 5. S Ps. xli. 9. 

* "to? cuAoyios. The word has this meaning in Chrysostom 
and Cyril of Alexandria also; afterwards it came to sianify con- 
secrated bread, distinct from that of the Eucharist. Vid. Bing- 
ham. Antiq. XV. 4, § 3." (R. W. C.) 

Tl e custom of sending the bread of the Eucharist was for- 
bidden in the latter part of the 4th century by the Synod of 
Laodicea, Canon 14: "At Eas'er the Host shall no more be sent 
into foreign dioceses as eulogiae" Bp. Hefele {Councils II. 
p. 308) says — " It was a custom in the ancient Church, not indeed 
to consecrate, but to bless those of the several breads of the same 
form laid un the altar which were not needed for the Communion, 
and to employ them partly for the maintenance of the Clergy, 
and partly lor distributing them to those of the faithful who did 
not communicate at the Mass." See Eusebius {Hist. JSules. V. 
24), with the note thereon in this Series. 

7 Matt. xxvi. 25. 8 John xii. 23. 9 See Cat. ii. 14, 

note4. ' John xiii. 31. * lb. xvii. J. 3 lb. x. 18. 

G 2 



not be. He came therefore of Ilis own set 
purpose to His passion, rejoicing in His noble 
deed, smiling at the crown, cheered by the 
salvation of mankind ; not ashamed of the 
Cross, for it was to save the world. For it 
was no common man who suffered, but God in 
man's nature, striving for the prize of His 

7. But the Jews contradict this'^, ever ready, 
as they are, to cavil, and backward to believe ; 
so that for this cause the Prophet just now 
read says, Lord, ivho hath believed our report^ ? 
Persians believe^, and Hebrews believe not; 
they shall see, to who:n He was not spoken of, 
and they that have not heard shall understand'^, 
while they who study these things shall set at 
nought what they study. They speak against 
us, and say, " Does the Lord then sufter ? 
What ? Had men's hands power over His sove- 
reignty ?" Read the Lamentations; for in 
those Lamentations, Jeremias, lamenting you, 
wrote what is worthy of lamentations. He saw 
your destruction, he beheld your downfall, he 
bewailed Jerusalem which then was ; for that 
which noiv is^ shall not be bewailed ; for that 
Jerusalem crucified the Christ, but that which 
now is worships Him. Lamenting then he 
says. The breath 0/ our countenance, Christ the 
Lord was taken in our corruptions'^. Am I then 
stating views of mv own? Behold he testifies 
of the Lord Christ seized by men. And what 
is to follow from this ? Tell me, O Prophet. 
He says, Of whom we said, Under Llis shadow 
ive shall live among the nations'^. For he signi- 
fies that the grace of life is no longer to dwell 
in Israel, but among the Gentiles. 

8. But since there has been much gainsaying 
by them, come, let me, with the help of your 
prayers, (as the shortness of the time may 
allow,) set forth by the grace of the Lord some 
few testimonies concerning the Passion. For 
the things concerning Christ are all put into 
writing, and nothing is doubtful, for nothing 
is without a text. All are inscribed on the 
monuments of the Prophets ; clearly written, 
not on tablets of stone, but by the Holy Ghost. 
Since then thou hast heard the Gospel speak- 
ing concerning Judas, oughtest thou not to 

4 There is so close a resemblance between the remainder of 

this Lecture and the explanation of the same Article of the Creed 

by Ruriniis, that " I have no doubt," says the Benedictine Editor, 

' that Riifinus drew from Cyril's fountains." Cf. Rufm. de Sym- 

bolo, § 19. sgq. 5 Isa. Hi. 15. 

" Cf. Acts ii. 9 : Parthians and Medes and Elamites. These 
Jewish converts of the day of Pentecost would naturally be the 
lirst heralds of the Gospel iu their respective countries. On the 
dispersion of ihe Apostles, "P.irthia, according to tradition, was 
al.oUed to Thomas as his field of l.ibour" (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 
III. I ; cf. I. 13). An earlier notice of the tradition is found in 
the Cteinentine Recognitions, L. IX. c. 29, where the Pseudo- 
Clement professes to have received a letter from " Thomas, who is 
preaching the Gospel among them." 

7 Rom. XV. 21, quoted from Isaiah, u s. ^ G^]. iv. 25. 

9 Lam. iv. 20: The brcatli oj our nostrils, tlic anointed 0/ the 
Lord, was taken in tlieir pits. ' Ibid. 

receive the testimony to it ? Thou hast heard 
that He was pierced in the side by a spear ; 
oughtest thou not to see whether this also is 
written ? Thou hast heard that He was cruci- 
fied in a garden ; oughtest thou not to see 
whether this also is written ? Thou hast heard 
that He was sold for thirty pieces of silver ; 
oughtest thou not to learn what prophet spake 
this? Thou hast heard that He was given 
vinegar to drink ; learn where this also is 
written. Thou hast heard that His body was 
laid in a rock, and that a stone was set over 
it ; oughtest thou not to receive' this testimony 
also from the prophet ? Thou hast heard that 
He was crucified with robbers ; oughtest thou 
not to see whether this also is written? Thou 
hast heard that He was buried ; oughtest thou 
not to see whether the circumstances of His 
burial are anywhere accurately written ? Thou 
hast heard that He rose again ; oughtest thou 
not to see whether we mock thee in teaching 
these things ? For our speech and our preaching 
is not in persuasive words ofman^s wisdom'^. We 
stir now no sophistical contrivances ; for these 
become exposed ; we do not conquer words 
with words 3, for these come to an end ; but we 
preach Christ Crticifed'', who has already been 
preached aforetime by the Prophets. But do 
thou, I pray, receive the testimonies, and seal 
them in thine heart. And, since they are 
many, and the rest of our time is narrowed 
into a short space, listen now to a it\y of the 
more important as time permits ; and having 
received these beginnings, be diligent and seek 
out the remainder. Let not thine hand .be 
only stretched out to receive, but let it be also 
ready to worK s. God gives all things freely. 
For if any of you lack ivisdotn, let him ask of 
God ivhogiveth ^C^'*), and he shall receive. May 
He through your prayer grant utterance to us 
who speak, and faith to you who hear. 

9. ]^et us then seek the testimonies to the 
Passion of Christ : for we are met together, 
not now to make a speculative exi)osition of 
the Scriptures, but rather to be certified of the 
things which we already believe. Now thou 
hast received irom me first the testimonies 
concerning the coming of Jesus; and concern- 
ing His walking on the sea, for it is written. 
Thy way is in the sea ^. Also concerning divers 

» I Cor. ii. 4. The simple style of the New Testament is 
defended by Origen, c. Celsum, iii. 68, and in many other pas- 

3 Cyril alludes to the same proverb in the Homily on the 
Paralytic, c. 14 : "Word resists word, but a deed is irresistible." 
The Jerusalem Editor refers to Gregory Nazianzen (I'oni. II. 
p. 596) : Aoyo) jraAatei was Adyoi. 

4 I Cor. i. 23. 

5 Ecclus. iv. 31 : Let not thine hand be stretched out to 
receive, and shut when thou shouldest re/'ay. I'he pas.sage is 
quoted in the Didache, c. iv., Barnab. Epist. c. xix., and Constit. 
Apost. VII. II. 5(i"-) James i. 5. 

6 Ps. U.>:vii. 19. The Benedictine Euitor, wuh no authority 



cures thou hast on another occasion received 
testimony. Now therefore I begin from whence 
the Passion began. Judas was the traitor, 
and lie came against Him, and stood, speaking 
words of peace, but plotting war. Concerning 
him, therefore, the Psalmist says, Afy frietids 
and My neighbours drew near against Me, aftd 
stood K And again. Their words were sofier than 
oil, yet be they spears ^. Hail, Master "^ ; yet he 
was betraying his Master to death ; he was not 
abashed at His warning, when He sa.\d, Jtidas, 
belraxest thou the Son of Man with a kiss ' ? for 
what He said to him was just this. Recollect 
thine own name; Judas means cofifession^; thou 
hast covenanted, thou hast received the money, 
make confession quickly. O God, pass not 
over My praise in silence ; for the 7nouih of the 
wicked, and the ?nouth of the deceitful, are 
opened against Me; they have spoken against 
Me with a treacherous tongue, they have com- 
passed Me about also with zvords of hatred^. 
But that some of the chief-priests also were 
present, and that He was put in bonds before 
the gates of the city, thou hast heard before, 
if thou rememberest the exposition of the 
Psalm, which has told the time and the place ; 
how they ?-eturned at evening, and hungered like 
dogs, and encompassed the city^. 

lo. Listen also for the thirty pieces of 
silver. And I will say to them, If it be good 
in your sight, give me my price, or refuse^, and 
the rest. One price is owing to Me from you 
for My healing the blind and lame, and I 
receive another ; for thanksgiving, dishonour, 
and for worship, insult. Seest thou hovv the 
Scripture foresaw these things ? And they 
weighed for My price thirty pieces of silver ^. 
How exact the prophecy ! how great and un- 
erring the wisdom of the Holy Ghost ! For 
he said, not ten, nor twenty, but thirty, exactly 
as many as there were. Tell also what be- 
comes of this price, O Prophet ! Does he who 
received it keep it? or does he give it back? 
and after he has given it back, what becomes 
of it? The Prophet says then. And I took 
the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them itito the 
house of the Lord, i?ito thefoutidry t. Compare 
the Gospel with the Prophecy : Judas, it says, 
repented himself, and cast down the pieces of silver 
in the temple, and departed^. 

but the Latin version by Grodecq, inserts a quotation of Job be. 8 : 
IV ho Tvalketh on the sea, as on a pavement. Ct. xi. 23. 

7 Ps. xxxviii. 11. 8 Jb. Iv. 21. 

9 Matt. xxvi. 49. * Luke xxii. 48. 

2 Cf. Phil. Jud. de Plantatione Noe, II §33: "And his 
name was called Judah, which being interpreted is "confession 
to the Lord." In Gcii. xlix. 8 the name is difierently interpreted : 
"Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise." Ihe root 
has both senses " t'i confes.=," and "to praise," which are closely 
allied, since to "confess" is to "give God the glory" (Josh, 
vii. 19). 3 Ps. cix. 1 — 3. 

■* Ps. lix. 6. The exposition was probably given in a sermon 
preached to the whole congregation, not in thi-se Lectures. 

5 Zech. xi. 12. 6 lb. 7 lb. xi. 13. 

8 Matt, xxvii. 3, 5. 

ri. But now I have to seek the exact solu- 
tion of this seeming discrepancy. For they 
who make light of the prophets, allege that the 
Prophet says on the one hand, And I cast them 
into the house of the Lord, into the foundry, but 
the Gospel on the other hand, And they gave 
them for the potter's fields. Hear then how they 
are both true. For those conscientious Jews 
forsooth, the high -priests of that time, when 
they saw that Judas repented and said, I have 
sinned, in that I have betrayed innocent blood, 
reply, What is that to us, see thou to that \ Is 
it then nothing to you, the crucifiers? but 
shall he who received and restored the price 
of murder see to it, and shall ye the murderers 
not see to it? Then they say among them- 
selves, // is not latvful to cast them i?ito the 
treasury, because it is the price of blood ^. Out 
of your own mouths is your condemnation ; 
if the price is polluted, the deed is polluted 
also ; but if thou art fulfilling righteousness in 
crucifying Christ, why receivest thou not the 
price of it? But the point of inquiry is this: 
how is there no disagreement, if the Gospel 
says, the potter's field, and the Prophet, the 
foundry? Nay, but not only peojjle who are 
goldsmiths, or brass-founders, have a foundry, 
but potters also have foundries for their clay. 
For they sift off the fine and rich and useful earth 
from the gravel, and separate from it the mass 
of the refuse matter, and temper the clay first 
with water, that they may work it with ease 
into the forms intended. Why then wonderest 
thou that the Gospel says plainly the potter's 
field, whereas the Prophet spoke his prophecy 
like an enigma, since prophecy is in many 
places enigmatical? 

12. They bound Jesus, and brought Him 
into the hall of the High-priest. And wouldest 
thou learn and know that this also is written ? 
Esaias says, Woe unto their soul, for they have 
taken evil counsel against themselves, saying. Let 
us bind the Just, for He is troublesome to us 3. 
And truly, Woe unto their soul I Let us see 
how. Esaias was sawn asunder, yet after 
this the people was restored. Jeremias was 
cast into the mire of the cistern, yet was 
the wound of the Jews healed ; for the sin 
was less, since it was against man. But 
when the Jews sinned, not against man, but 
against God in man's nature, Woe unto their 
soul I — Let us bind the Just ; could He not 
then set Himself free, some one will say ; 
He, who freed Lazarus from the bonds of 
death on the fourth day, and loosed Peter 

9 Matt, xxvii. 3, 7. » lb. v. 4. » lb. v. 6. 

3 Isa. iii. 9 : (R.V.) thty have rewarded ez'il unto themselves . 
Say ye of the righteous, that it shall be veil -with him. In the 
Septtiagint, from which Cyril quotes, there is an evident intei- 
polation of Wisdom ii. 12 : Let us lie in ivait for the righteozii ; 
bei.ause he is not for our turti (SOcrxpiio-Tos, as in Cyril). 



from the iron bands of a prison ? Angels 
stood ready at hand, saying, Le/ us burst their 
bands in sunder'' ; but they hold back, because 
their Lord willed to undergo it. Again, He 
was led to the judgment-seat before the 
Elders ; thou hast already the testimony to 
this, 7 he Lord Himself ivill come into judgment 
with the ancients of His people, and with the 
princes thereof^. 

13. But the High-priest having questioned 
Him, and heard the truth, is wroth ; and the 
wicked officer of wicked men smites Him ; 
and the countenance, which had shone as 
the sun, endured to be smitten by lawless 
hands. Others also come and spit on the 
face of Him, who by spittle had healed the 
man who was blind from his birth. Do ye 
thus requite the Lordt This people is foolish 
and ujnvise'^. And the Prophet greatly won- 
dering, says, Lord, tvho hath believed our 
report T 'i for the thing is incredible, that God, 
the Son of God, and the Arm of the Lord^, 
should suffer such things. But that they who 
are being saved may not disbelieve, the Holy 
Ghost writes before, in the person of Christ; 
who says, (for He who then spake these things, 
was afterward Himself an actor in them,) / 
gave My back to the scourges ; (for Pilate, zvhen 
he had scojirged Him, delivered Him to be 
crucified'^;) atid Afy cheeks to smi/ings ; and My 
face L turned not away from the shame of 
spittings ; saying, as it were, "Though knowing 
before that they will smite Me, I did not even 
turn My cheek aside ; for how should I have 
nerved My disciples against death for truth's 
sake, had I Myself dreaded this?" I said. 
He that loveth his life shall lose it^: if I had 
loved My life, how was I to teach without 
practising what I taught? First then, being 
Himself God, He endured to suffer these 
things at the hands of men ; that after this, 
we men, when we su lifer such things at the 
hands of men for His sake, might not be 
ashamed. Thou seest that of these things 
also the prophets have clearly written before- 
hand. Many, however, of the Scripture testi 
monies I pass by for want of time, as I said 
before ; for if one should exactly search out all, 
not one of the things concerning Christ would 
be left without witness. 

14. Having been bound, He came from 
Caiaphas to Pilate, — is this too written ? yes ; 
And having boufid Him, they led Llim aivay as 
a present to the king of Jarim^. But here some 

5 Isa. iii. 14. 6 Dent, xxxii. 6. 

8 Ibid. ' ■ 9 Isa. 1. 6 ; Matt, xxvii. 26. 

4 Ps. ii. 3. 

7 Isu liii. X. 

' John xii. 25< 

» Hosea x. 6 : (R. V.) It also shall be carried unto Assyria 
for a present to king Jareb. This passage is appliea in the same 
maiuier to Luke x.viii. 7 by Justin M. (Trv/ilt. S 103), TertuUian 
(r. Maicion. iv. 42), and Rufinus (de Syiii/'oto, § 21), who adds, — 
"And rightly Uocs tlie Prophet add the name 'Jarmi,' which 

sharp hearer will object, "Pilate was not a king," 
(to leave for a while the main parts of the 
question,) " how then having bound Him, led 
they Him as a present to the king?" But 
read thou the Gospel ; When Pilate heard that 
Lie was of Galilee, he sent Him to Herod 3 / for 
Herod was then king, and was present at Jeru- 
salem. And now observe the exactness of the 
Prophet ; for he says, that He was sent as 
a present ; for the same day Pilate and Herod 
were made friends together, for before they were 
at enmity''. For it became Him who was on the 
eve of making peace between earth and heaven, 
to make the very men who condemned Him 
the first to be at peace ; for the Lord Himself 
was there present, who reconciles ■> the hearts of 
the princes of the earth. Mark the exactness 
of the Prophets, and their true testimony. 

15. Look with awe then at the Lord who was 
judged. He suffered Himself to be led and car- 
ried by soldiers. Pilate sat in judgment, and 
He who sitteth on the right hand of the Father, 
stood and was judged*^. The people whom He 
had redeemed from the land of Egypt, and 
ofttimes from other places, shouted against 
Him, Azuay ivith Him, azvay zvith Him, crucify 
HimT. Wherefore, O ye Jews? because He 
healed yo n* blind ? or because He made your 
lame to walk, and bestowed His other benefits? 
So that the Prophet in amazement speaks of 
this too. Against whom have ye opened your 
mouth, and against zvhom have ye let loose your 
tongue ^2 and the Lord Himself says in the 
Prophets, Mine heritage became unto Me as 
a lion in the forest ; it gave its voice against 
Me ; therefore have L hated if^. I have not 
refused them, but they have refused Me ; in 
consequence thereof 1 say, L have forsaken My 
house '. 

16. When He was judged. He held His 
peace : so that Pilate was moved for Him, 
and said, Heai-est Thou not zvluit these zvitncss 
against Thee ^2 Not that He knew Him who 
was judged, but he feared his own wife's dream 
which had been reported to him. And Jesus 
held His peace. The Psalmist says. And L 
became as a man that heareth not; and in 
zvhose mouth are no reproofs'^; and again, Bui 
L zvas as a deaf man and heard not ; and as 
a dumb man that openeth not his mouih^. I'hou 

means 'a wild vine,' for Herod was ... a wild vine, i.e. of an 

alien stock." For the various interpret.-.tions of the name see the 
Commentaries on Hosea v. 13, and x. 6 ; Sclirnder, Cuneijotm 
Inscriptions, 11. § 439, Driver, Introduction to O. f. Literaturt, 

3 Luke xxiii. 6, 7. 4 Iljid. xxiii. 12. 

5 Job xii. 24 : (R.V.) He takcth away tlie heart of the chiefs 
of t/te people of the earth. The rendering ''who reconciles" 
(b Si.aKKa.(Taiav. Sept.) is forbidden by the context. 

6 Some MSS. iiave tyrto-xt to or iji-cix^TO, " He submitted to 

7 Josh. xix. 15. 8 I^a Ivii. 4. 

9 Jer. xii. 8. ' Ibid. v. 7. - Matt, xxvii. 13. 

3 Ps. xxxviii. 14. 4 ILid. v. 13. 



hnst before heard concerning this s, if thou re- 

17. But the soldiers who crowd around 
mock Him, and their Lord becomes a 
sport to them, and upon their Master they 
make jests. ll'Vicu they looked on Me, they 
shaked their heads ^. Yet the figure of kingly 
state appears; for though in mockery, yet they 
bend the knee. And the soldiers before they 
crucify Him, put on Him a purple robe, and 
set a crown on His head; for what though 
it be of thorns? Every king is proclaimed by 
soldiers ; and Jesus also must in a figure be 
crowned by soldiers ; so that for this cause 
the Scripture says in the Canticles, Go forth, 
O ye daughters of Jerusalem^ and look upon 
King Solomon in the crown whei'ewith His 
mother crowned Him ?. And the crown itself 
was a mystery ; for it was a remission of sins, 
a release from the curse. 

1-8. Adam received the sentence. Cursed is 
the ground in thy labours ; thorns and thistles 
shall it bring forth to thee ^. For this cause 
Jesus assumes the thorns, that He may cancel 
the sentence; for this cause also was He 
buried in the earth, that the earth which had 
been cursed might receive the blessing instead 
of a curse. At the time of the sin, they 
clothed themselves with fig-leaves ; for this 
cause Jesus also made the fig-tree the last of 
His signs. For when about to go to His 
passion, He curses the fig- tree, not every fig- 
tree, but that one alone, for the sake of the 
figure ; saying, No more let any man eat fruit of 
thee'^; let the doom be cancelled. And because 
they aforetime clothed themselves with fig- 
leaves, He came at a season when food was 
not wont to be found on the fig-tree. Who 
knows not that in winter-time the fig-tree bears 
no fruit, but is clothed with leaves only? Was 
Jesus ignorant of this, which all knew? No, 
but though He knew, yet He came as if seek- 
ing ; not ignorant that He should not find, 
but shewing that the emblematical curse ex- 
tended to the leaves only. 

19. x'^nd since we have touched on things 
connected with Paradise, I am truly astonished 
at the truth of the types. In Paradise was 
the Fall, and in a Garden was our Salvation. 
From the Tree came sin, and until the Tree 
sin lasted. In the evening, when the Lord 
walked in the Garden, they hid themselves ' ; 
and in the evening the robber is brought by 
the Lord into Paradise. But some one will 
say to me, " Thou art inventing subtleties ; 

5 " Perhaps in some Homily" (Ben. Ed.). 6 Ps. cix. 25. 

7 Cant. iii. ii. 

8 Gen. iii. 17, 18. By mistaking one letter in the Hebrew, the 
Seventy give the meaning "in thy labours" instead of "I'or thy 
s.ike." 9 Markxi. i ' Gen. iii. 8. I 

shew me from some prophet the Wood of the 
Cross ; e.xcept thou give me a testimony from 
a prophet, I will not be persuaded. Hear then 
from Jeremias, and assure thyself; / ivas like 
a harmless lamb led to be slaughtered ; did I not 
kno7v if^l (for in this manner read it as a ques- 
tion, as I have read it ; for He who said, Ye 
knoiu that after two days comes the passover, 
a?id the Son of Alan is betrayed to be crucified -, 
did He not know?) Iiuas like a harmless lamb 
led to be slaughtered ; did I not knoiv ill (but 
what sort of lamb ? let John the Baptist inter- 
pret it, when he says. Behold the Lamb of God, 
that taketh aivay the sin of the worlds.) They 
devised aniifist Ale a wicked device, savinp-^, — 
(He who knows the devices, knew He not the 
result of them'? And what said they?) — 
Conifi, and let us place a beam upon His bread^ — 
(and if the Lord reckon thee worthy, thou 
shalt hereafter learn, that His body according 
to the Gospel bore the figure of bread ;) — 
Come then, and let us place a beam upon His 
bread, and cut Him off out of the land of the 
living ; — (life is not cut off, why labour ye for 
nought?) — And His na?ne shall be remembered 
no more. Vain is your counsel ; for before the 
sun His Name7 abideth in the Church. And 
that it was Life, which hung on the Cross, 
Moses says, weeping, And thy life shall be 
hanging before thine eyes ; and thou shalt be 
afraid day and night, and thou shalt not trust 
thy life^. And so too, what was just now read 
as the text, Lord, who hath believed our report 1 
20. This was the figure which Moses com- 
pleted by fixing the serpent to a cross, that 
whoso had been bitten by the living ser- 
pent, and looked to the brasen serpent, 
might be saved by believing 9. Does then 
the brazen serpent save when crucified, and 
shall not the Son of God incarnate save 
when crucified also ? On each occasion life 
comes by means of wood. For in the time 

a Jer. xi. 19 : / was like a tame (R.V. gentle') lamb that is 
led to the slaughter ; and I knew not that they had devised 
devices againsc me. Cyril's interrogative rendering is not ad- 

3 Matt. xxvi. 2. 4 John i. 29. S Jer. xi. 19. 

6 Ibid. R.V. Let us destroy the tree ivith the fruit thereof. 
The word rendered fruit is literally bread. The phrase is evi- 
dently proverbial. The Heljrew word which means " destroy " is 
misinterpreted by ifji^dAujixev in the Greek. Hence arose the 
fanciful application of the passage to the Cross laid on the body of 
Christ to be borne by Him. Justin M. {Tryph. l.'C.sLii.) charges 
the Jews with having recently cut out the passage because of the 
supposed reference to Christ. TertuUian l^adv. Judceos, c. 10) 
writes: "Of course on His body that 'wood' was put; for so 
Christ has revealed, calling His body 'bread.'" He gives the 
same interpretation elsewhere (ijrfz'. Marcion. III. ig ; IV. 40). 
Cf. Cyprian {Testimonia ad Q/iirinum, Lib. II. 15); Athanas. 
i^de [ncarn. § 33). 

7 Ps. Ixxii. 17. 8 Deut. xxviii. 66. 

9 Num. xxi. 9; John Hi. 14. The Jerusalem Editor asks, 
"How did Moses complete the figure by fixing the serpent to 
a cross? First he set up the wood and fixed it in the earth as 
a post : then by putting the brazen serpent athwart {uKayim' , 
he formed a figure of the Cross." Cf. ilarnab. Epist. c. xii. ; 
Justin M. {Ap:>l. i. c. 60); Iren. \,Hieres. IV. c 2); Tertull. jiiii. 
Judieos, c. 10). 



of Noe the preservation of life was by an ark 
of wood. In tlie time of Moses the sea, on 
beholding the emblematical rod, was abashed at 
him who smote it ; is then Moses' rod mighty, 
and is the Cross of the Saviour powerless? 
But I pass by the greater part of the types, to 
keep within measure. The wood in Moses' 
case sweetened the water; and from the side 
of Jesus the water flowed upon the wood. 

2T. The beginning of signs under Moses 
was blood and water ; and the last of ail Jesus' 
signs was the same. First, Moses clianged the 
river into blood; and Jesus at the last gave 
forth from His side water with blood. This 
was perhaps on account of the two speeches, 
his who judged Him, and theirs who cried out 
against Him ; or because of the believers and 
the unbelievers. For Pilate said, I am innocent, 
and washed his hands in water ; they who 
cried out against Him said. His blood be upon 
us^ : there came therefore these two out of His 
side; the water, perhaps, for him who judged 
Him ; but for them that shouted against Hun, 
the blood. And again it is to be understood 
in another way ; the blood for the Jews, and 
the water for the Christians : for upon them as 
plotters came the condemnation from the blood ; 
but to thee who now believest, the salvation 
which is by water. For nothing has been done 
without a meaning. Our fathers who hj^ve 
written comments have given another reason 
of this matter. For since in the Gospels the 
power of salutary Baptism is twofold, one 
which is granted by means of water to the 
illuminated, and a second to holy martyrs, in 
persecutions, through their own blood, there 
came out of that saving Side blood and water 2, 
to contirm the grace of the confession made 
for Christ, whether in baptism, or on occasions 
of martyrdom. • There is another reason also 
for mentioning the Side. The woman, who 
was formed from the side, led the way to sin ; 
but Jesus who came to bestow the grace of 
pardon on men and women alike, was pierced 
in the side for women, that He might undo 
the sin. 

22. And whoever will inquire, will find other 
reasons also ; but what has been said is enough, 
because of the shortness of the time, and that 
the attention of my hearers may not become 
sated. And yet we never can be tired of 
hearing concerning the crowning of our Lord, 

* Matt, xxvii. 24, 25. 

* John xix. 34. Cf. Cat. iii. lo. Origen (/« Lib. Judic. 
Horn. vii. § 2) : " It is the Baptism of bloocl alone that can render 
us purer than the Baptism of water has done." Cf. Origen (/« 
Ell. Matt. Tom. xvi. 6): " If Biptisin promises remission of sins, 
as we have received concerning Baptism in water and the Spirit, 
and if one who has endured the Baptism of Martyrdom receives 
remission of sins, then with good reason martyrdom may be called 
a Baptism " For a summary of the " Patristic Interpretation" 
o( the passage, see Bp. Westcott. Speaker's Commentary^ 

and least of all in this most holy Golgotha. 
For others only hear, but we both see and 
handle. Let none be weary ; take thine armour 
against the adversaries in the cause of the Cross 
itself; set up the faith of the Cross as a trophy 
against the gainsayers. For when thou art 
going to dispute with unbelievers concerning 
the Cross of Christ, first make with thy hand 
the sign of Christ's Cross, and the gainsayer 
will be silenced. Be not ashamed to confess 
the Cross ; for Angels glory in it, saying. We 
knoiv tvJioui ye seek., Jesus the Cnicified 3. Might- 
est thou not say, O Angel, " I know whom ye 
seek, my Master ?" But, " I," he says with 
boldness, " I know the Crucified." For the 
Cross is a Crown, not a dishonour. 

23. Now let us recur to the proof out of 
the Prophets which I spoke of. The Lord 
was crucified ; thou hast received the testi- 
monies. Thou seest this spot of Golgotha ! 
Thou answerest with a shout of praise, as if 
assenting. See that thou recant not in time 
of persecution. Rejoice not in the Cross in 
time of peace only, but hold fast the same 
faith in time of persecution also ; be not in 
time of peace a friend of Jesus, and His foe in 
time of wars. Thou receivest now remission 
of thy sins, and the gifts of the King's spiritual 
bounty ; when war shall come, strive thou 
nobly for thy King. Jesus, the Sinless, was 
crucified for thee ; and wilt not thou be crucified 
for Him who was crucified for thee ? Thou 
art not bestowing a favour, for thou hast first 
received ; but thou art returning a favour, re- 
paying thy debt to Him who was crucified for 
thee in Golgotha. Now Golgotha is interpreted, 
" the place of a skull." Who were they tlien, 
who prophetically named this spot Golgotha, 
in which Christ the true Head endured the 
Cross? As the Apostle says. Who is the Image 
of the Invisible God ; and a little after, and He is 
the Head of the body, the Church'^. And again. 
The Head of every jnan is Christ^ ; and again. 
Who is the Head of all principality and power ^. 
The Head suffered in "the place of the .skull." 
O wondrous prophetic appellation ! The very 
name also reminds thee, saying, " Think not 
of the Crucified as of a mere man ; He is the 
Head of all principality and power. That H ead 
which was crucified is the Head of all power, 
and has for His Head the Father ; for the Head 
of the ma?i is Christ, and the Head of Christ is 
God 7." 

24. Christ then was crucified for us, who 
was judged in the night, when it was cold, and 
therefore z Jire of coals ^ was laid. He was 
crucified at the third hour ; and from the sixth 

3 Matt, xxviii. 5. 4 Col. i. 15, 18. S i Cor. xi. 3. 

6 Col. ii. 10. 7 I Cor. xi. 3. 8 John xviii. 18. 



hour there was darkness until the ?iinth hour 9 / 
but from the ninth hour there was Hght again. 
Are these things also written ? Let us inquire. 
Now the Prophet Zacharias says, And it shall 
come to pass in that day, that there shall not be 
light, and the7-e shall be cold and frost one day ; 
(the cold on account of which Peter warmed 
himself;) Atid that day shall be knoivn unto the 
Lord^ ; (what, knew He not the other days? 
days are many, but this is the day of the Lord's 
patience, which the Lord 7nade^ ;^ — And that 
day shall be known ujito the Lord, not day, and 
not night : what is this dark saying which the 
Prophet speaks ? That day is neither day nor 
night ? what then shall we name it ? The 
Gospel interprets it, by relating the event. 
It was not day ; for the sun shone not .uni- 
formly from his rising to his setting, but from 
the sixth hour till the ninth hour, there was 
darkness at mid-day. The darkness therefore 
was interposed ; but God called the darkness 
niM'i. Wherefore it was neither dav nor night : 
for neither was it all light, that it should be 
called day ; nor was it all darkness, that it 
should be called night ; but after the ninth 
hour the sun shone forth. This also the 
Prophet foretels ; for after saying, JVot day, nor 
?iight, he added, And at evening time it shall be 
light*. Seest thou the exactness of the prophets? 
Seest thou the truth of the things which were 
written aforetime ? 

25. But dost thou ask exactly at what hour 
the sun failed s? was it the fifth hour, or 
the eighth, or the tenth? Tell, O Prophet, 
the exact time thereof to the Jews, who are 
unwilling to hear ; when shall the sun go down ? 
The Prophet iVmos answers, And it shall come 
to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that 
the sun shall go do7t>ti at jwon (for tliere was 
darkness from the sixth hour ;) afid the light 
shall grow dark over the earth in the day"^. 
What sort of season is this, O Prophet, and 
what sort of day ? And L will turn your feasts 
into mourning ; for this was done in tlie days 
of unleavened bread, and at the feast of the 
Passover : then afterwards he says, A?id L will 
make Ldim as the niournim^ of an Only Son, and 
those with LLim as a day of a?iguish 7 / for in the 
day of unleavened bread, and at the feast, 
their women were wailing and weeping, and 
the Apostles had hidden themselves and were 
in anguish. Wonderful then is this pro- 

26. But, some one will say, " Give me yet 

9 Matt xxvii. 45. ' Zech. xiv. 6, 7. » Ps. cxviii. 24. 

3 Gen. i. 5. 

< Zech. xiv. 7. Cf. Eiiseb. {Don. Evang. x. 7) : "It was not 
day, because of the noon-tide darkness : and again it was not 
night, because of the day which followed upon it. which he repre- 
sented by a sign in sa\ing, at evening time there shall be light. 

5 efe'Atjrej/. See Cat. x. 19, note 2. Acta I'ilaii. c. xi. 

' Amos viii. 9. Cf Fuseb. {Dem. Ev. x. 6). 7 Amos viii. 10. 

another sign ; what other exact sign is there 
of that which has come to pass ? Jesus was 
crucified ; and He wore but one coat, and one 
cloak ; now His cloak the soldiers shared 
among themselves, having rent it into four; 
but His coat was not rent, for when rent it 
would have been no longer of any use ; so 
about this lots are cast by the soldiers ; thus 
the one they divide, but for the other they 
cast lots. Is then this also written? They 
know, the diligent chanters ^' of the Church, 
who imitate the Angel hosts, and continually 
sing praises to God : who are thought worthy 
to chant Psalms in this Golgotha, and to say, 
They parted My garments among them, aiid upon 
My vesture they did cast lots'^. The "lots" were 
w^hat the soldiers cast '. 

27. xAgain, when He had been judged before 
Pilate, He was clothed in red ; for there they 
put on Him a purple robe. Is this also 
written ? Esaias saith, iVho is this that cometh 

from Edofti ? the redness of His garments is 
from Bosor^ ; (who is this who in dishonour 
weareth purple ? For Bosor has some such 
meaning in Hebrews.) Why are Thy garments 
red, and Thy raiment as from a trodden wine- 
press 1 But He answers and says. All day long 
have L stretched forth Mine hands unto a dis- 
obedient and gai n say ifig people ">, 

28. He stretcned out His hands on the 
Cross, that He might embrace the ends of 
the world ; for this Golgotha is the very centre 
of the earth. It is not my word, but it is 
a prophet who hath said, Thoti hast wrought 
salvatio7i in the midst of the earth 5. He 
stretched forth human hands, who by His 
spiritual hands had established the heaven ; 
and they were fastened with nails, that His 
manhood, which bore the sins of men, having 
been nailed to the tree, and having died, sin 
might die with it, and we might rise again in 
righteousness. For since by one 7nan came 
death, by One Ma7i cai7ie also life ^ ; by One 
Man, the Saviour, dying of His own accord : 
for remember what He said, / have power to 

8 Synod of Laodicea, Can. xvi. 15: "Besides the appointed 
singers, who mount the anibo and sing from the book, others shall 
not sing in the Church." Hefele thinks that this was not intended 
to forbid the laity to take any part in the Church music, hiit only 
to forbid those who were not cantor.s to take the lead. See Bing- 
ham, Antiquities, III. c. 7 : XIV. c. i. 

9 Ps. xxii 18, quoted in John xix 24. 

1 kAtjpos 6e 7'i' 6 Aa;(^i6s. Bishop Hall. Contemplations, Book 
IV. 32, speaks of the soldiers' ''barbarous sortitions" The tech- 
nicr.l term is " sortilege." Cf. Evang. Pet. § 4 ; Justin M. Dial. 97. 

2 Isa. Ixiii. i, 2. 

3 Bozrah means a "sheepfold," and is the name of a city in 
Idumea. Cyril's interpretation rests on a false deriv.ation. 

4 Isa. Ixv. 2. '' It is a commonplace in patristic literature 
that the Crucifixion was prefigured by Isa. Ixv. 2." (Dr. C. laylor, 
Hennas and the Four Gospels, p. 49.) Cf. Barnab. Epist, c. xii. ; 
Didache xvi. ; Justin M. {Apolog. 1. c. 35 ; Trypli. cc 97, 114); 
Tertull. (co'itra Jud. xii.); Ireiise. IV. xxxiii 12. 

5 Ps. Ixxiv. 12. The pass.age does not refer to Palestine espe- 
cially : " in the midst of the earth" is equivalent to " in the sight 
of all nations." Cf. Orac. Sihyil. vi'i. ^02 : " He shall spread out 
His hands, and span the whole world," quoted by Dr. Taylor, 
" The Teaching," p. 103. * Rom. v. 12, 17. 



lay down My life, atid I have power to take it 
a^aifi 7. 

29. But though He endured these things, 
having come for the salvation of all, yet the 
people returned Him an evil recompense. 
Jesus saith, / thirst^, — He who had brought 
forth the waters for them out of the craggy 
rock ; and He asked fruit of the Vine which 
He had planted. But what does the Vine? 
This Vine, wh'ch was by nature of the holy 
fathers, but of Sodom by purpose of heart ; — 
(for their Vine is of Sodom, and their tendrils of 
GoJnorrah9 ;) — this Vine, when the Lord was 
athirst, having filled a sponge and put it on 
a reed, offers Him vinegar. 7'hey gave Me 
also gall for My meat, and in My thirst, they 
gave Me vinegar to drink '. Thou seest the 
clearness of the Prophets' description. But 
what sort of gall put they into My mouth ? 
They gave Him, it says, wine mifigled zvith 
myrrh^. Now myrrh is in taste like gall, and 
very bitter. Are these things what ye recom- 
pense unto the Lord ? Are these thy offerings, 
O Vine, unto thy Master? Rightly did the 
Prophet Esaias aforetime bewail you, saying. 
My well-beloved had a vineyard in a hill in a 

fruitful place ; and (not to recite the whole) 
/ waited, he says, that it should bring forth 
grapes; I thirsted tliat it should give wine; 
but it brought forth thorns'^ ; for thou seest the 
crown, wherewith I am adorned. What then 
sliall I now decree ? / tvill command the clouds 
that they rain no rain upo7i it^. For the clouds 
which are the Prophets were removed from 
them, and are for the future in the Church ; as 
Paul says, Let the Prophets speak two or three, 
and let the others judge s / and again, God gave 
in the Church, some. Apostles, and some, Pj-o- 
phets ^. Agabus, who bound his own feet and 
hands, was a prophet. 

30. Concerning the robbers who were cru- 
cified with Him, it is written, And He zvas 
numbered ivith the transgressors 7. Both of them 
were before this transgressors, but one was so 
no longer. For the one was a transgressor to 
the end, stubborn against salvation ; who, 
though his hands were fastened, smote with 
blasphemy by his tongue. When the Jews 
passing by wagged their heads, mocking 
the Crucified, and fulfilling what was written, 
When they looked on Me, they sliaked their 

heads^, he also reviled with them. But the 

7 John X. 18. 8 lb. ix. 28. 9 Dent, xxxii. 3a. 

' Ps. Ixix. 21. ' Mark xv. 23. 3 Isa. v. i, 2. 

4 lb. V. 6. Cf. Tertiill. tidv. Murcion. III. c. 23 ; contra 
Jud. c. 13: "The cIoikIs being celestial benefits which were com- 
inatided not to be forthcoming to the house of Israel ; for it ' had 
borne thorns,' whereof that house of Israel had wrought a crijwn 
for Christ." Con.stitt. Apost. VI. § 5 : " He has taken away iroin 
ihein the Holy Spirit, and the prophetic rain, and has replenished 
His Church with spiritual tjrace." 

5 I Cor. .\iv. 29. 6 Eph. iv. ii. 7 Isa. liii. 12. 
>* Ps. cix. 25. 

other rebuked the reviler ; and it was to hira 
the end of life and the beginning of restoration ; 
the surrender of his soul a first share in salva- 
tion. And after rebuking the other, he says. 
Lord, remember me^ ; for with Thee is my 
account. Heed not this man, for the eyes of 
his understanding are blinded ; but remember 
me. I say not, remember my works, for of 
these I am afraid. Every man has a feeling 
for his fellow-traveller; I am travelling with 
Thee towards death ; remember me. Thy 
fellow-wayfarer, I say not, Remember me 
now, but, zvhen Thou contest in Thy kingdom. 

31. What power, O robber, led thee to the 
light ? Who taught thee to worship that de- 
spised Man, thy companion on the Cross? 

Light Eternal, which gives light to them 
that are in darkness ! Therefore also he justly 
heard the words. Be of good cheer '^ ; not that 
thy deeds are worthy of good cheer; but that 
the King is here, dispensing favours. The 
request reached unto a distant time ; but the 
grace was very speedy. Verily L say unto thee, 
This day shall thou be with Me in Paradise ; 
because to-day thou hast heard My voice, and 
hast not hardened thine heart ^. Very speedily 

1 passed sentence upon Adam, very speedily 
I pardon thee. To him it was said, /// the day 
7V herein ye eat, ye shall surely dic'^; but thou 
to-day hast obeyed the faith, to day is thy 
salvation. Adam by the Tree fell away ; thou 
by the Tree art brought into Paradise. Fear 
not the serpent ; he shall not cast thee out ; 
for h.Q \?, fallen from heaven*. And I say not 
unto thee, 'I'his day shalt thou depart, but, 
This day shalt thou be with Me. Be of good 
courage : thou shalt not be cast out. Fear not 
the flaming sword; it shnnks from its Lords. 
O mighty and ineffable grace ! The faithful 
Abraham had not yet entered, but the robber 
enters^! Moses and the Prophets had not yet 
entered, and the robber enters though a breaker 
of the law. Paul also wondered at this before 
thee, saying, Where sin abounded, there grace 
did much more abound t. They who had borne 
the heat of the day had not yet entered ; and 
he of the eleventh hour entered. Let none 
murmur against the goodman of the house, for 
he says, Friend, I do thee no tvrong ; is it not 

9 Luke xxiii. 40 ff. 

' eipo-ec. An addition to the text of Luke xxiii. 43 in Codex 

2 Ps. xcv. 7, 8. 3 Gen. ii. 17. •» Luke x. iS. 

5 Gen. iii. 24. S. Arnbrose {Ps. cxix. Serm. xx. § 12) : " All 
who desire to return to Paradist: must he tried by tire : lor not in 
vain the Scripture saiih, that when Adam and Kve were driven 
out of their abode in Paradise, God placed at the gate of Eden 
a flaming sword which tiirni-d every uay." 

6 Cf. Iren. V. c. 5, § i ; (Expos. Fid. c. i.) : " He 
shewed us .... an entrance into Paradise from which Adam was 
cast out. and into which he entered again by means of the thief." 
S. Leo Or'e Pans. Dom. Serm. II. c. i): "Excedit humaiiam 
conditionem ista promissio : nee tam de ligno Cnicis, quaui de 
throno editur potestatis." 

7 Rom. V. 20. 



law/:: I J or Me to do ivhat TwiUtvith Mine own ^ ? 
The robber has a will to work righteousness, 
but death prevents him ; I wait not exclusively 
for the work, but faith also I accept. I am 
come who feed My sheep among the lilies^, I am 
come to feed them in the gardens. I have 
found a sheep that zvas tost '°, but I lay it on My 
shoulders ; for he believes, since he himself 
has said, / have gone asii-ay like a lost sheep '/ 
Lord, remember me ivhen Thou contest in Thy 

32. Of this garden I sang of old to My spouse 
in the Canticles, and spake to her thus. I am 
come into My garden, My sister, My spouse'' ; 
{now in the place where He was rrucijiid was a 
gardcn'i;) and what takest Thou thence ? I have 
gathei-ed My myrrh; having drunk wine mingled 
with myrrh, and vinegar, after receiving which. 
He said, // is finished^. For the mystery has 
been fullilled ; the things that are written have 
been accomplished ; sins are forgiven. For 
Christ being come an High- Priest of the good 
things to come^ by the greater and more perfect 
tabernacle, not made luith hands, that is to say, 
not of this creation, fior yet by the blood of goats 
and calves, but by His oivn Idood, entered in once 
for all into the holy place, having obtained eternal 
redeinfition ; for if the blood of bulls and op goats, 
and the ashes of an heifer, spritikling the defiled, 
sanclifieth to the purifying of the flesh, hoiv much 
more the blood op Christ^? And again. Having 
therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the 
holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a netv and living 
ivay, 7vhich He hath consecrated for ns, through 
the veil, that is to say. His fiesh ^. And because 
His flesh, this veil, was dishonoured, there- 
fore the typical veil of the temple was rent 
asunder, as it is written, And, behold, the veil 
of the temple ivas rent in twain from the top to 
the bottom 7 ; for not a particle of it was left ; for 
since the Master said, Behold, your house is 
left unto you desolate ^, the house brake all in 

ZZ' These things the Saviour endured, and 
made peace through the Blood of His Cross, for 
things in heaven, and things in earth 9. For we 
were enemies of God through sin, and God 
had appointed the sinner to die. There must 
needs therefore have happened one of two 
things ; either that God, in His truth, should 
destroy all men, or that in His loving-kindness 
He should cancel the sentence. But behold 
the wisdom of God ; He preserved both the 
truth of His sentence, and the exercise of His 
loving-kindness. Christ took our sins in His 
body on the tree, that we by His death might 

8 Matt. XX. 12 ff. 
' Ps. cxix. 176. 

4 lb. 30. 

^ Matt, xxvii. si- 

9 Cant. vi. 3. 
2 Cant. V. I. 
S Heb. ix. II. 
" lb. xxiii. 38. 

•° Luke XV. 5, 6. 
3 John xix. 41. 
* lb. X. 19. 
9 Col. i. 20. 

die to sin, and live u?tto righteousness *. Of no 
! small account was He who died for us ; He 
I was not a literal sheep ; He was not a mere 
man ; He was more than an Angel ; He was 
God made man. The transgression of sinners 
was not so great as the righteousness of Him 
who died for them ; the sin which we commit- 
1 ted was not so great as the righteousness which 
' He wrought who laid down His life for us, — 
^ who laid it down when He pleased, and took it 
I again when He pleased. And wouldest thou 
know that He laid not down His life by 
violence, nor yielded up the ghost against His 
will ? He cried to the Father, saying, Father, 
info Thy hands I commend My spirit ^ / I com- 
mend it, that I may take it again. And having 
said these things. He gave up the ghost ^; but 
not for any long time, for He quickly rose 
again fiom the dead. 

34. The Sun was darkened, because of the 
Sun of Righteousness'^. Rocks were rent, be- 
cause of the spiritual Rock. Tombs were 
opened, and the dead arose, because of Him 
who was free among the dead^ ; He sent forth His 
prisoners out of the pit whereifi is no water ^. Be 
not then ashamed of the Crucified, but be thou 
also bold to say,He beareth our sins, atid endureth 
grief for us, and with His stripes we are healed t. 
Let us not be unthankful to our Benefactor. 
And again ; for the transgression of my people 
ivas He led to death ; and I will give the wicked 
for His burial, and the rich for His death ^. 

Therefore Paul says plainly, that Christ died 
for our sins according to the Scriptures, ajid that 
He was buried, and that He hath risen again the 
third day according to the Scriptures 9. 

35. But we seek to knovv clearly where 
He has been buried. Is Flis tomb made 
with hands? Is it, like the tombs of kings, 
raised above the ground ? Is the Sepulchre 
made of stones joined together? And what is 
laid upon it ? Tell us, O Prophets, the exact truth 
ccncerning His tomb also, where He is laid, 
and where we shall seek Him ? And they say, 
Look into the solid rock which ye have hewn'^. 
Look in and behold. Thou hast in the Gospels 
Ln a sepulchre hewn iti stone, which was hewn 
out of a lock ^. And what happens next ? What 
kind of door has the sepulchre 1 Again another 
Piophet says, They cut off My life in a dungeofi 3, 
atid cast a stone upon Ale. I, who am the Chief 
corner-stone, the elect, the precious^, lie for a little 
time within a stone — I who am a stone of 
stumbling to the Jews, and of salvation to 

» I Pef . ii. 24. ^ Luke xxlii. 46. 

3 Matt, xxvii. 50. * ^la'- iv. 2. 5 Ps. Ixxxviii. 5. 

6 Zech. ix. II. 7 I:;a. liii. 4, 5. 8 lb. vv. 8, 9. 

9 I Cor. XV. 3, 4. ' Isa. Ii. i. 

^ Matt, xxvii. 60 ; jNIark xv. 46 ; Luke xxiii. 50. 
3 Lam. iii. 53: tv Kolkkw, "in a pit," or "well." C-. Jer. 
xxxvii. 16. 4 I Pet. ii. 6. 



them who beheve. The Tree of life ^, there- 
fore, was planted in the earth, that the earth 
which had been cursed might enjoy the bless- 
ing, and that the dead might be released. 

36. Let us not then be ashamed to confess 
the Crucified. Be the Cross our seal made 
with boldness by our fingers on our brow, and 
on everything ; over the bread we eat, and 
the cup? we drink ; in our comings in, and 
goings out ; before our sleep, when we lie 
down and when we rise up ; when we are in 
the way, and when we are still ^. Great is that 
preservative; it is without price, for the sake 
of the poor ; Avithout toil, for the sick ; since 
also its grace is from God. It is the Sign of 
the faithful, and the dread of devils : for He 
triumphed over , he)n in it, having made a shetv 
of them openly T ; for when they see the Cross, 
they are reminded of the Crucified ; they are 
afraid of Him, who ondsed the heads of the 
dragon ^. Despise not the Seal, because of the 
freeness of the gift ; but for this the rather 
honour thy Benefactor. 

37. And if thou ever fall into disputation, 
and hast not the grounds of proof, yet let Faith 
remain firm in thee ; or rather, become thou 
well learned, and then silence the Jews out of 
the prophets, and the Greeks out of their own 
fables. They themselves worship men who have 
been thunderstricken? : but the thunder when 
it comes from heaven, comes not at random. 
If they are not ashamed to worship men thun- 
derstricken ana abhorred of God, art thou 
ashamed to worship the beloved Son of God, 
who was crucified for thee ? I am ashamed to 
tell the tales about their so-called Gods, and I 
leave them because of time ; let those who 
know, speak. And let all heretics also be 
silenced. If any say that the Cross is an illu- 
sion, turn away from him. Abhor those who 
say that Christ was crucified to our fancy ' only; 
for if so, and if salvation is from the Cross, 
then is salvation a fancy also. If the Cross is 
fancy, the Resurrection is fancy also ; but if 
Christ be twt rise?i, we are yet in our sins ^. If 
the Cross is fancy, the Ascension also is fancy; 
and if the Ascension is fancy, then is the 
second coming also fancy, and everything is 
henceforth unsubstantial. 

38. Take therefore first, as an indestructible 
foundation, the Cross, and build upon it the 
other articles of the faith. Deny not the 
Crucified ; for, if thou deny Him, thou hast 

5 Gen. ii. 9; iii. 22. Methodius {Sy/nfos. ix. c. 3): "He 
that hath not believed in Christ, nor hath understood that He is 
the first principle and the Tree ot Life, itc." 

* Cf. Cat. iv. 14, note 3 ; Enseb. {Dem. Ev. ix. 14). 

7 Col. ii. 15. 8 j>s. Ixxiv. 13. 9 See Cat. vi. it, 

note 2. 

« /cara (tavTotrt'ai'. Cf. Ignat. Trail. 9, 10 ; Cat. iv. 9 ; xiii. 4. 

- I Cor. XV. 17. 

many to arraign thee. Judas the traitor will 
arraign thee first ; for he who betrayed Him 
knows that He was condemned to death by the 
chief-priests and elders. The thirty jjieces of 
silver bear witness ; Gethsemane bears witness, 
where the betrayal occurred; I speak not yet 
of the Mount of Olives, on which they were 
with Him at night, praying. The moon in the 
night bears witness ; the day bears witness, 
and the sun which was darkened ; for it en- 
dured not to look on the crime of the con- 
spirators. The fire will arraign thee, by which 
Peter stood and warmed himself: if thou deny 
the Cross, the eternal fire awaits thee. I speak 
hard words, that thou may not experience 
hard pains. Rememl)er the swords that came 
against Him in Gethsemane, that thou feel not 
the eternal sword. The house of Caiaphas^ 
will arraign thee, shewing by its present deso- 
lation the power of Hini who was erewhile 
judged there. Yea, Caiaphas himself will rise up 
against thee in the day of judgment ; the very 
servant will rise up against thee, who smote 
Jesus with the palm of his hand ; they also 
who bound Him. and they who led Him away. 
Even Herod shall rise up against thee : 
and Pilate; as if saying, Why deniest thou 
Him who was slandered before us by the Jews, 
and whom we knew to have done no wrong ? 
For I Pilate then washed my hands. The false 
witnesses shall rise up against thee, and the 
soldiers who arrayed Him in the purple robe, 
and set on Him the crown of thorns, and cruci-. 
ned Him in Golgotha, and cast lots for His 
coat. Simon the Cyrenian will cry out upon 
thee, who bore the Cross after Jesus. 

39. From among the stars there will cry out 
upon thee, the darkened Sun ; among the 
things upon earth, the Wine mingled with 
myrrh ; among reeds, the Reed ; among herbs, 
the Hyssop ; among the things of the sea, the 
Sponge ; among trees, the Wood of the Cross ; 
— the soldiers, too, as I have said, who nailed 
Him, and cast lots for His vesture ; the soklier 
who pierced His side with the spear ; the 
women who then were present ; the veil of the 

3 The house of Caiaphas and Pilate's Praetorium fS 41). and 
Mount Zion itself (Cat. xvi. 18), on which they botli stood, are 
described by Cyril as being in his time ruined and desolate. 
Eiisebius i,Dem. Ev. VIII. 406), referring to the prophecy of 
Micah(iii. 12), repeated by Jeremiah (xxvi. 18), that Zion shall 
be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become henf>s, testifies 
that he had seen with his own eyes the place being ploughed and 
sown by strangers, and adds that in his own time the stones lor 
both public and private buildings were taken from the ruins. 
The Bordeaux Pilgrim (333 a.d.) says, "It is_ evident whore the 
house of Caiaphas the Priest was; and there is still the pillar at 
which Christ was scourged: " this pillar is described by Jerome 
(E/>. 861 as suppoiting the portico of the Church which by his 
time had been built on the spot. Prudentius circ. 400 A.D.) : — 
" Impia blasphemi cecidit domus alta Caiphae .... 

Vinctus in his Dominus stetit sedibus. atque columnae 

Annexus tergum dedit ut servile flagel'.is. 

Perstat adhuc, templumque gerit veneranda columna." 

(Benedictine Editor.) 



temple then rent asunder ; the hall of Pilate, 
now laid waste by the power of Him who was 
then crucified ; this holy Golgotha, which 
stands high above us, and shews itself to this 
day, and displays even yet how because of 
Christ the rocks were then riven ■♦; the sepulchre 
nigh at hand where He was laid ; and the 
stone which was laid on the door, which lies to 
this day by the tomb ; the Angels who were 
then present ; the women who worshipped 
Him after His resurrection ; Peter and John, 
who ran to the sepulchre ; and Thomas, who 
thrust his hand into His side, and his fingers 
into the prints of the nails. For it was for our 
sakes that he so carefully handled Him ; and 
what thou, who wert not there present, wouldest 
have sought, he being present, by God's Provi- 
dence, did seek. 

40. Thou hast Twelve Apostles, witnesses 
of the Cross ; and the whole earth, and the 
world of men who believe on Him who hung 
thereon. Let thy very presence here now per- 
suade thee of the power of the Crucified. For 

4 Cf. Lucian. Antioch. ap. Rufin. Hist. Bed. ix. c. 6 ; " Gol- 
othana rupes sub patibuli onere disrupta." 

who now brought thee to this assembly ? what 
soldiers? With what bonds wast thou con- 
strained? What sentence held thee fast here 
now ? Nay, it was the Trophy of salvation, 
the Cross of Jesus that brought you all 
together. It was this that enslaved the Per- 
sians, and tamed the Scythians ; this that gave 
to the Egyptians, for cats and dogs and their 
manifold errors, the knowledge of God ; this, 
that to this day heals diseases ; that to this 
day drives away devils, and overthrows the jug- 
gleries of drugs and charms. 

41. This shall appear again with Jesus from 
heaven s ; for the trophy shall precede the king : 
thatseeingZT/w whom they pierced'', and knowing 
by the Cross Him who was dishonoured, the Jews 
may repent and mourn ; (but they shall tnourn 
tribe by tribe t , for they shall repent, when there 
shall be no more time for repentance ;) and 
that we may glory, exulting in the Cross, wor- 
shipping the Lord who was sent, and crucified 
for us, and worshipping also God His Father 
who sent Him, with the Holy Ghost : To whom 
be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

5 Cf. Oat. XV. 22. 

* Zech. xii. 10. 

7 lb. V. 12. 


On the words, And rose again from the dead on the third day, and ascended 
INTO the Heavens, and sat on the right hand of the Father. 

I Cor. XV, i — 4. 

Now I make known unto you, brethren, the gospel zvhich /preached unto you . 
He hath been raised on the third day accordi?ig to the Scriptures, dr^c. 

. that 

Rejoice, O Jerusalem, and keep high festival, 
all ye that love Jesus ; for He is risen. Re- 
joice, all ye that mourned before % when ye 
heard of the daring and wicked deeds of 
the Jews : for He who was spitefully en- 
treated of them in this place is risen again. 
And as the discourse concerning the Cross 
was a sorrowful one, so let the good tid- 
ings of the Resurrection bring joy to the 
hearers. Let mourning be turned into glad- 
ness, and lamentation to joy : and let our 
mouth be filled with joy and gladness, because 
of Him, who after His resurrection, said 
Rejoice'^. For I know the sorrow of Christ's 
friends in these past days ; because, as our 
discourse stopped short at the Death and the 
Burial, and did not tell the good tidings of the 
Resurrection, your mind was in suspense, to 
hear what you were longing for. 

Now, therefore, the Dead is risen. He who 
was free among the dead'^, and the deliverer of 
the dead. He who in dishonour wore patiently 
the crown of thorns, even He arose, and 
crowned Himself with the diadem of His 
victory over death. 

2. As then we set forth the testimonies con- 
cerning His Cross, so come let us now verify 
the proofs of His Resurrection also : since the 
Apostle before us^ affirms, He was buried, and 
has been raised on the third day according to the 
Scriptures. As an Apostle, therefore, has sent 
us back to the testimonies of the Scriptures, 
it is good that we should get full knowledge 
of the hope of our salvation ; and that we 
should learn first whether the divine Scriptures 
tell us the season of His resurrection, whether 
it comes in summer or in autumn, or after 
winter; and from what kind of place the 

* Is. Ixvi. TO. 

« Matt, xxviii. 9, "All hail." The usual greeting, Xaipere, 

3 Ps. Ixxxviii. 5 : Cast off among the dead (R. V.) ; Cast away 

4 6 Trapiii/. i.e. in the text. 1 Cor xv. 4. 

Saviour has risen, and what has been an- 
nounced in the admirable Prophets as the 
name of the place of the Resurrection, and 
whether the women, who sought and found 
Him not, afterwards rejoice at finding Him ; 
in order that when the Gospels are read, the 
narratives of these holy Scriptures may not be 
thought fables nor rhapsodies. 

3. That the Saviour then was buried, ye 
have heard distinctly in the preceding dis- 
course, as Isaiah saith. His burial shall be in 
peace ^ : for in His burial He made peace be- 
tween heaven and earth, bringing sinners unto 
God : and, that the righteous is taken out of the 
way of ufirighteousness ^ : and. His burial shall 
be in peace : and, I will give the wicked for His 
burial T. There is also the prophecy of Jacob 
saying in the Scriptures, He lay down atid 
couched as a lioti, atidas a lion^s whelp : who shall 
rouse Him up ^ ? And the similar passage in 
Numbers, He couched, He lay down as a lion, 
and as a lion's ivhelp'^. The Psalm also ye have 
often heard, wliich says. And Thou hast brought 
me down into the dust of death'^. Moreover we 
took note of the spot, when we quoted the 
words. Look unto the rock, which ye have heivn ^. 
But now let the testimonies concerning His 
resurrection itself go with us on our way. 

4. First, then, in the nth Psalm He says. 
For the misery of the poor, and the sighing oj the 
needy, now will I arise, saith the Lord^. But 
this passage still remains doubtful with some : 
for He often rises up also in anger ■*, to take 
vengeance upon His enemies. 

Come then to the 15th Psalm, which says 
distinctly: Preserve Me, O Lord, for in Thee 

5 Is. Ivii. 2 : He entereih into fieace (R.V.). 
' Is. Ivii. I : that the righteous is taken aiuny from the evil to 

7 Is. liii. g : tluy innde His grave with the wiched (R.Y.). 

8 Gen. xli.v. 9. 9 Num. xxiv. 9. ' Ps. .\xii. 15. 

" «7rf<r))^eno<Trifie6a. " noted for ourselves ; " Middle Voice. Is. 
li. I : quoted in Cat. xiii. 35. 

3 Ps. xii. 5. 4 lb. vii. 6 : " Arise, O Lord, in Thine anger. 



have I put my trusts : and after this, their as- 
semblies of I'iood will I tiot join, nor make tnen- 
tion of theirnames behveen my lips^ ; since they 
have refused me, and chosen Caesar as their 
king 7 : and also the next words, I foresaw the 
Lord akvay befoj-e Ale, because He is at My right 
hand, that I fiiay not be moved'^: and soon after, 
Yea and even 7intil flight tny reins chastened me 9. 
And after this He says most plainly. For Thou 
. wilt not leave My soul in hell ' / ?ieither tvilt Thou 
suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption. He 
said not, neither wilt Thou suiTer Thine' Holy 
One to see death, since then He would not 
have died ; but corruption, saith He, I see not, 
and shall not abide in death. Thou hast made 
knoivn to Me the ways of life ^. Behold here is 
plainly preached a life after death. Come 
also to the 29th Psalm, / will extol Thee, 
O Lord, for Thou hast lifted Me up, and hast 
not made My foes to rejoice over Me 3. What is 
It that took place? Wert thou rescued from 
enemies, or wert thou released when about 
to be smitten ? He says himself most plainly, 
O Lord, Thou hast brought up My soul from 
hell''. There he says, Thou wiit not leave, pro- 
phetically : and here he speaks of that which is 
to take place as having taken place. Thou hast 
brought up. Thou hast saved Me from them 
that go doivn into the pit ^. At what time shall 
the event occur? Weeping shall continue for 
the evening, and joy cometh in the morning^ : for 
in the evening was the sorrow of the disciples, 
and in the morning the joy of the resurrection. 
5. But wouldst thou know the place also? 
Again He saith in Canticles, / zvent down into 
the garden of nuts t ; for it was a garden where 
He was crucified^. For though it has now 
been most highly adorned with royal gifts, 
yet formerly it was a garden, and the signs 
and the remnants of tliis remain. A garden 
enclosed, a fomitain sealed'^, by the Jews who 
said, We remember that that deceiver said while 
He ivas yet alive, After three days, L zvill rise : 
command, therefore, that the sepulchre be made 
sure ; and further on. So they went, and fnade 
the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone ivith the 
guard'^. And aiming well at thcse^ one saith, 
a7id in rest Thou shall judge them ^. But who 

5 Ps. xvi. I. 

* lb. xvi. 4 : "their drink-offerings of blood will I not off'er." 
The P^al nist abhors the bloody rites, and the very names of the 
false gods. 

7 John xix 15. Cyril applies to the Jews what the Psalmist 
says concerning those that hasten after another god. 

8 Ps. xvi. 8. 

9 [b. 7. Quoting from memory, Cyril transposes these sen- 

"lb. 10. R.V. IK Sheol, Sept. in Hades. 
2 II). II. 3 lb. XXX. I. 

4 lb. 3. K-Y . from Sheol, Sept.y";«j/« Ha4es. 

5 lb. 3. 6 lb. 5. 7 Cant. vi. ii. 

8 John xix. 41. See Index, Golgotha. 9 Cant. iv. 12. 

« Matt, xxvii. 63, 65. 

* Job vii. 18 : . . . . irjr Aim every moment. Heb. 3,"'2n, " ^ 

is the fountain that is sealed, or who is inter- 
preted as being a well-spring of living water ^1 
It is the Saviour Himself, concerning whom 
it is written, For with Thee is the fountain 0/ 
life 4. 

6. But what says Zephaniah in the person 
of Christ to the disciples? Prepare thyself be 
rising at the dawn : all their gleaning is de- 
stroyed^ : the gleaning, that is, of the Jews, with 
whom there is not a cluster, nay not even 
a gleaning of salvation left ; for their vine is 
cut down. See how He says to the disciples. 
Prepare thyself rise up at dawn: at dawn 
expect the Resurrection. 

And farther on in the same context of Scrip- 
ture He says. Therefore zvait thou for Me, saith 
the Lord, witil the day of My Resurrection at 
the Testimony ^. Thou seest that the Prophet 
foresaw the place also of the Resurrection, 
which was to be surnamed "the Testimony." 
For what is the reason that this spot of Gol- 
gotha and of the Resurrection is not called, 
like the rest of the Churches, a Church, but 
a Testimony? Why, perhaps, it was because 
of the Prophet, who had said, until the day of 
My Resurrection at the Testimony. 

7. And who then is this, and what is the 
sign of Him that rises? In the words of the 
Prophet that follow in the same context. He 
says plainly. For then will L turn to the peoples 
a languageT : since, after the Resurrection, 
when the Holy Ghost was sent forth the gift 
of tongues was granted, that they might serve 
the Lord under one yoke^. And what other 
token is set forth in the same Prophet, that 
they should serve the Lord u?ider one yoke ? 
From beyond the rivets of Fthiopia they shall 
bring me offerings^. Thou knowest what is 
written in the Acts, when the Ethiopian 
eunuch came from beyond the rivers of Ethio- 
pia*. When therefore the Scriptures tell both 
the time and the peculiarity of the place, when 
they tell also the signs which followed the 
Resurrection, have thou henceforward a firm 
faith in the Resurrection, and let no one stir 
thee from confessing Christ risen from the 
dead "". 

8. Now take also another testimony in the 

wink," as in Job xxi. 13, misinterpreted in both passages by the 
LXX. as meaning " rest." 

3 Cant. iv. 15. 4 Ps. xxxvi. 9. 

5 Zeph. iii. 7: they rose early and cot 7-upted all tJteir doings. 
The passage is wholly misunderstood by the Seventy, whom 
S. Cyiil follows. 

6 Zeph. iii. 8 : until the day that I rise up to the prey. For 
•^37^, to tlie prey, the LXX. seem to have read "y377, to the 

testimony. About ten years before these Lecturer were de- 
livered, ¥.\ii&\n\\>, (^Li/e 0/ Constantine, III. c. .xxviii.), speak- 
ing of the discovery of the Holy Sepulchre, a.d. 326, calls it 
" a testimony to the Resurrection of the Saviour clearer than any 
voire could give." 

7 Zep!i. iii. 9 : a pure latiguage. , 
^ \\3. to serve him -a>ith one consent (Marg. shoulder). 

9 lb. V. 10. • Acts viii. 27. * 2 Tim. ii. 8. 



8 7 th Psalm, where Christ speaks in the Pro- 
phets, (for He who then spake came afterwards 
among us) : O Lord, God of My salvation, I 
have cried day and night before Thee, and a Httle 
farther on, / became as it were a man without 
help, free amo?ig the dead^. He said not, I 
became a man without help ; but, as it were 
a man without help. For indeed He was 
crucified not from weakness, but willingly : 
and His Death was not from involuntary 
weakness. / was cotmted with them that go 
dowfi into the pit*. And what is the token ? 
Thou hast put away Mine acquaintance far f-om 
Me^ (for the disciples have fled). Wilt Thou 
shew wonders to the dead^ ? Then a little while 
afterwards : And un.'o Thee have I cried, O 
Lord; and in the morning shall my prayer come 
before TheeT. Seest thou how they shew the 
exact point of the Hour, and of the Passion, 
and of the Resurrection ? 

9. And whence hath the Saviour risen ? He 
says in the Song of Songs : Jiise up, come, Afy 
neighbour^ : and in what follows, /« a cave of the 
rock'^ I A cave of the rock He called the cave 
which was erewhile before the door of the 
Saviour's sepulchre, and had been hewn out 
of the rock itself, as is wont to be done here 
in front of the sepulchres. For now it is not 
to be seen, since the outer cave was cut away 
at that time for the sake of the present adorn- 
ment. For before the decoration of the sepul- 
chre by the royal munificence, there was a cave 
in the front of the rock ^ But where is the 
rock that had in it the cave ? Does it lie near 
the middle of the city, or near the walls and 
the outskirts? And whether is it within the 
ancient walls, or within the outer walls which 
were built afterwards? He says then in the 
Canticles : in a cave of the rock, close to the outer 

10. At what season does the Saviour rise? 
Is it the season of summer, or some other? 
In the same Canticles immediately before the 
words quoted He says, 77ie winter is past, the 
rain is past and gone 3 ; the flowers appear on the 
earth; the time of the pruning is come*. Is not 
then the earth full of flowers now, and arQ they 

3 Ps. Ixxxviii. 1, 4, 5. 4 lb. w. 4. 5 lb. v. 8. 

* lb. t/. lo. 7 lb. V. 13. 

8 Cant. ii. 10 : Rise up, my love, nty /air one . and come aivay. 

9 z/. 14 : in the clefts 0/ the rock. ' See Index, Sepulchre. 

* Cant. ii. 14: in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places 
of the stairs. The Revised Version reads, in the covert 0/ tlie 
steep place. 

3 Cant. ii. 11. In TropijAflei', eiropevflij cauroi the LXX. have 
imitated the pleonastic use of "j^ after verbs of motion, cor- 
responding to our idiom "Go away with you," and to the Dativus 
Ethicus in Greek and Latin. See Gesenius Lexicon on this use 
of "p, and Ewald, Introductory Grammar, § 217, 1. 2. 

■4 Cant. ii. 12 : the sing-Jng 0/ birds. The Hebrev/ word 
(T*ttT) means either "cutting," as in the LXX. toju^s, Sym- 

machus KAa£ev<reu;, and R.V. Marg. "pruning," or as in A.V. 
" singing." 

not pruning the vines? Thou seest how he 
said also that the winter is now past. For 
when this month Xanthicus s is come, it is 
already spring. And this is the season, the 
first month with the Hebrews, in which occurs 
the festival of the Passover, the typical formerly, 
but now the true. This is the season of the 
creation of the world : for then God said. Let 
the earth bring forth herbage of grass, yielding 
seed after his kind and after his likeness ^. And 
now, as thou seest, already every herb is yield- 
ing seed. And as at that time God made the 
sun and moon and gave them courses of equal 
day (and night), so also a few days since was 
the season of the equinox. 

At that time God said. Let us make maii 
after our i7nage and after our likeness''. And 
the itnage he received, but the likeness through 
his disobedience he obscured. At the same 
season then in which he lost th;s the restor- 
ation also took place. At the same season as 
the created man through disobedience was 
cast out of Paradise, he who believed was 
through obedience brought in. Our Salvation 
then took place at the same season as the Fall : 
when the flowers appeared, and the pjunifjg was 

II. A garden was the place of His Burial, 
and a vine that which was planted there : and 
He. hath said, L am the vine^ I He was planted 
therefore in the earth in order that the curse 
which came because of Adam might be rooted 
out. The earth was condemned to thorns and 
thistles: the true Vine sprang up out of the 
earth, that the saying might be fulfilled, Truth 
sprang tip out of the earth, and righteousjiess 

5 Xanthicus is the name of the si.\th month in the Macedonian 
Calendar, corresponding nearly to the Jewish Nisan (Josephus, 
Antiq. II. xiv. 6), and to the latter part of Lent and Easter. 
On the tradition that the Creation took place at this season, see 
S. Ambrose, Hexameron, I. c 4, § 13. 

6 Gen. i. II : grass, the herb yielding seed. 

The LXX. give an irregular construction, 
BoTai'iji' \6pTov (TTrelpov (TTrepfia. 

7 Gen. i. 26. "The ancient Church very accurately distin- 
guished between flKiiov {iinaj^e) and o/noi'iotrts (likeness), and the 
Greek Church does the same in its Confession. The latter phrase 
expresses man's destination, which is not to be regarded as carried 
out at the moment of creation. (Doiner, System of Christian 
Doctrine, E.Tr. II. p. 78). The image lies in the permanent 
capacities of man's nature (Gen. ix. 6: i Cor. xi. 7: Jas. iii. 9), 
the likeness in their realisation in moral conformity with God 
(6^o>)9eiai/ 0€ov, Ignatius, Magnes vi). "The im.-\gc of God is a 
comprehensive thing. . . . To this belongs man's intellective power, 
his liberty of will, his dominion over the other creatures flowing 
from the two former. These make up the to oinmoSes, that part 
of that divine image which is natural and essential to man, and 
consequently can never be wholly blotted out, defaced, or ex- 
tinguished, but still remains even in man fallen. But beside these 
the Church of God hath ever acknowledged, in the fust man, 
certain additional orn.amenls, and as it were complements of the 
divine image, such as immortality, grace, holiness, righteousness, 
whereby man approached more nearly to the siniilitiide and like- 
ness of God. These were (if I may so speak) the lively colouru 
wherein the grace, the beauty, and lustre of the divine image 
princip illy consisted ; these colours faded, yea, were defaced 
and blotted out by man's trajisgression. (Bull, The State 0/ 
Man before the Fa'l, Vol. ii. p. 114, Ox.). Cf. Ireu. (V. vi. § i ; 
xvi. § 2); Tertullian {de Baptismo, c 5) ; Clem. Alex. [Exhort. 
c. 12) ; Origen (c. Cels. IV. 30). 

8 John XV. I. The Benedictine Editor has a different punc- 
tuation : " and the vine which was planted there hath said. 
And / am he Vine.' 



looked dotvn from heaven'^. And what will He 
that is buried in the garden say ? I have gathered 
My myrrh tvith My spices : and again, Myrrh 
and aloes, with all chief spices'^. Now these are 
the symbols of the burying ; and in the Gospels 
it is said, The women came uttto the sepidchre 
bringing the spices which they had prepared^ : 
Nicodemus also bringing a mixture of myrrh and 
aloes'^. And farther on it is written, I did eat 
My bread with My honey '> : the bitter before the 
Passion, and the sweet after the Resurrection. 
Then after He had risen He entered through 
closed doors : but they believed not that it was 
He : for they supposed that they beheld a spirit^. 
But He said, Handle Me and see. Put your 
fingers into the print of the nails, as Thomas 
required. And while they yet believed not for 
joy, and wondered. He said unto the?n, Have ye 
here afiy thing to eat? And they gave Him 
a piece of a broiled fsh and honeycomb^. Seest 
thou liow that is fulfilled, / did eat My bread 
with J\fv hofiey. 

12. But before He entered through the 
closed doors, the Bridegroom and Suitor 7 of 
souls was sought by those noble and brave 
women. They came, those blessed ones, to 
the sepulchre, and sought Him Who had been 
raised, and the tears were still dropping from 
their eyes, when they ought I'ather to have been 
dancing with joy for Him that had risen. Mary 
came seeking Him, according to the Gospel, 
and found Him not : and presently she heard 
from the Angels, and afterwards saw the Christ. 
Are then these things also written ? He says 
in the Song of Songs, On vy bed I sought Him 
whom my soul loved. At what season ? By 
night on my bed I sought Him JVhom my soul 
loved: Mary, it says, catne while it was yet 
dark. On my bed I sought Him by night, I 
sought Him, and I foimd Him not^. And in the 
Gospels Mary says, They have taken away my 
Lord, and I know not where they have laid Him 9. 
But the Angels being then present cure their 
want of knowledge; for they .said, Why seek 
ye the living among the dead^? He not only 
rose, but had also the dead with Him when 
He rose ^ But she knew not, and in her person 
the Song of Songs said to the Angels, Saw ye 
Him Whom my soul loved ? It ivas but a little 
that I passed from them (that is, from the two 
Angels), 2/ntil I found Him Whojn my soul 
loved. I held Him, and would not let Him go 3. 

13. For after the vision of the Angels, Jesus 

9 Ps. IXXXV. II. 

' Cant. V. I ; iv. 14. 

Compare Cat. xiii. 3a. 
* Luke xxiv. i. 3 John xix. 39. 

4 Cant. V. I : my honeycomb ivith my honey. 

5 Luke xxiv. 37. 6 lb. v. 41. 
7 6 eepaTreuT^?. In connexion with '' Bridegroom," and " Him 

whom my soul loveth " the meaning " Suitor " is more appropriate 
than " Phyician." 8 Cant. iii. i : Joh. x.\. i. 

9 John XX. 13. ' Luke xxiv. 5. 2 Matt, xxvii. 52. 

3 Cant. iii. 3, 4. 


came as His own Herald ; and the Gospel 
says, And behold Jesus met them, saying. All 
hail! and they caine and took hold of His feet ^. 
They took hold of Him, that it might be ful- 
filled, / li'ill hold Him, and will not let Him go. 
Though the woman was weak in body, her 
spirit was manful. Many waters quench not 
love, 7ieither do rivers drown it^ ; He was dead 
whom they sought, yet was not the hope of the 
Resurrection quenched. And the Angel says 
to them again. Fear not ye ; I say not to the 
soldiers, fear not, but to you ^ ; as for them, let 
them be afraid, that, taught by experience, 
they may bear witness and say, Truly this tvas 
the Son of GodT ; but you ought not to be 
afraid,7^r perfect love casteth out fear ^. Go, tell 
His disciples that He is risen 9/ and the rest. 
And they depart with joy, yet full of fear ; is 
this also written ? yes, the second Psalm, 
which relates the Passion of Christ, says, Serine 
the Lord zvith far, and rejoice unto Ilifn with 
tremblittg'^; — rej nee, because of the risen Lord ; 
but with trembling, because of the earthquake, 
and the Angel who appeared as lightning. 

14. Though, therefore. Chief Priests and 
Pharisees through Pilate's means sealed the 
tomb ; yet the women beheld Him who was 
risen. And Esaias knowing the feebleness of 
the Chief Priests, and the women's strength of 
faith, says, Ye women, who come from beholding, 
come hither'^; for the people hath no imder stand- 
ing ; — the Chief Priests want understanding, 
while women are eye-witnesses. And when 
the soldiers came into the city to them, and 
told them all that had come to pass, they said 
to them, Say ye, His disciples came by flight, 
and stole Him away while we slept ^1 Well 
therefore did Esaias foretell this also, as in 
their persons. But tell us, and 7-elate to us 
another deceit''. He who rose again, is up, and 
for a gift of money they persuade the soldiers ; 
but they persuade not the kings of our time. 
The soldiers then surrendered the truth for 
silver \ but the kings of this day have, in their 
piety, built this holy Church of the Resurrec- 
tion of God our Saviour, inlaid with silver and 
wrought with gold, in which we are assem- 
bled 5 ; and embellished it with the treasures of 
silver and gold and precious stones. And if 
this come to the governor's ears, they say, we will 
persuade him ^. Yea, though ye persuade the 
soldiers, yet ye will not persuade the world ; 
for why, as Peter's guards were condemned 
when he escaped out of the prison, were not 

4 Matt, xxviii. 9. 5 Cant. viii. 7. 
6 M.itt. xxviii. 5. The emphatic u/ieis is rightly interpreted 

by Cyril as distinguishing the women from the frightened sen- 
tinels. 7 Matt, xxvii. 54. 

^ I John iv. 18. 9 Matt, xxviii. 7. ' Ps. ii. 11. 

2 Isa. xxvii it: The women shnil come ^ and set them O'l fire. 

3 Matt, xxviii. 13. 4 Isa. xxx. lo. 

5 Cf. Euseb. {Life o/Const. IIL 36). 6 M.itt. xxvviii. i.-. 



they also who watched Jesus Christ con- 
demned? Upon the former, sentence was 
])ronounced by Herod, for they were ignorant 
and had nothing to say for themselves ; while 
the latter, who had seen the truth, and con- 
cealed it for money, were protected by the 
Chief Priests. Nevertheless, though but a few 
of the Jews were persuaded at the time, the 
world became obedient. They who hid the 
truth were themselves hidden ; but they who 
received it were made manifest by the power 
of the Saviour, who not onlv rose from the 
dead, but also raised the dead with Himself. 
And in the person of these the Prophet Osee 
says plainly, After two days 'ivill Be revive us, 
and hi the thi?-d day we shall rise again, and 
shall live in His sight 7. 

15. But since the disobedient Jews will not 
be persuaded by the Divine Scriptures, but 
forgetting all that is written gainsay the Resur- 
rection of Jesus, it were good to answer them 
thus : On what ground, while you say that 
Eliseus and Elias raised the dead, do you 
gainsay the Resurrection of our Saviour ? Is 
it that we have no living witnesses now out of 
that generation to what we say ? Well, do you 
also bring forward witnesses of the history of 
that time. But that is written ; — so is this also 
written : why then do ye receive the one, and 
reject tlie other? They were Hebrews who 
wrote that history ; so were all the Apostles 
Hebrews : why then do ye disbelieve the 
Jews ^ ? Matthew who wrote the Gospel wrote 
it in the Hebrew tongue 9 ; and Paul the 
[)rcacher was a Hebrew of the Hebrews ; and 
the twelve Apostles were all of Hebrew race : 
then fifteen Bishops of Jerusalem were ap- 
pointed in succession from among the He- 
brews ^ What then is your reason for allowing 
your own accounts, and rejecting ours, thougli 
these also are written by Hebrews from among 

16. But it is impossible, some one will say, 
that the dead should rise ; and yet Eliseus 
twice raised the dead, — when he was alive, 
and also when dead. Do we then believe, 
that when Eliseus was dead, a dead man who 
was cast upon him and touched him, arose ; 

7 Hos. vi. 2. 

8 Instend of toi« 'louSai'ois the Jerusalem Editor adopts from 
Cod. A. Tois l&ioi<;, " Your own countrymen," a better reading in 
this place, if it had more support from MSS. The Latin in 
Milles has only " Cur is;itur non creditis?" 

9 The statements of Papias, Irenseus, Origen, Eusebius, Epi- 
phanius, and Jerome, concerning' a Hebrew Gospel of S. Matthew 
are ably discussed by Dr. S.\\mon{I nftviitiLtion to N. T. Lect. X.), 
who comes to the conclusion tliat tlie Canonical Ciospel was not 
translated from Hebrew (Aramaic), but originally written in 

' This statement may have been derived either from Eusebius 
(Hist. Eccl. IV. c. 5), or from the " written records " (eyypa(/)tui'), 
from which he had learned that "until the sie.^e of tlie Jews 
which took place under Adrian (135 A.D.), there were fifteen 
bishops in succession there, all of wiiom are said to have been 
of Hebrew descent." See the list of names, and the notes on the 
passage in this Series. 

and is Christ not risen ? But in that case, 
the dead man who touched Eliseus, arose, yet 
he who raised him continued nevertheless 
dead : but in this case both the Dead of whom 
we speak Himself arose, and many dead were 
raised without having even touched Him. For 
many bodies of the Saints which slept arose, and 
they came out of the graves after Ilis Resurrec- 
tion, and wetit into the Holy City'^, (evidently 
this city, in which we now are 3,) and appeared 
7into many. Eliseus then raised a dead man, 
but he conquered not the world ; Elias raised 
a dead man, but devils are not driven away in 
the name of Elias. We are not speaking evil 
of the Prophets, but we are celebrating their 
Master more highly ; for we do not exalt our 
own wonders by disparaging theirs ; for theirs 
also are ours ; but by what happened among 
them, we win credence for our own. 

17. But again they say, "A corpse then 
lately dead was raised by the living ; but shew 
us that one tliree days dead can possibly arise, 
and that a man should be buried, and rise after 
three days." If we seek for Scripture testi- 
mony in proof of such facts, the Lord Jesus 
Christ Himself supplies it in the Gospels, 
saying. For as Jonas was three days and three 
nights in the whale's belly ; so shall the Son 
of man be three days and three nights in the 
heart of the earths. And when we examine the 
story of Jonas, great is the force 5 of the resem- 
blance. Jesus was sent to preach repentance ; 
Jonas also was sent : but whereas the one fled, 
not knowing what should come to pass ; the 
other came willingly, to give repentance unto 
salvation. Jonas was asleep in the ship, and 
snoring amidst the stormy sea ; while Jesus 
also slept, the sea, according to God's provi- 
dence ^, began to rise, to shew in the sequel the 
might of Him who slept. To the one they 
said. Why ai't thou snoring? Arise, call upon 
thy God, that God may save ust ; but in the 
other case they say unto the Master, Lord, save 
us^. Then they said, Call upon thy God; here 
they say, save Thou. But the one says, Tahe 
me, and cast me into the sea ; so shall the sea be 
calm unto you 9 ; the other, Vixmsoli rebuked the 
winds and the sea, and there was a great calm ^. 
The one was cast into a whale's belly : but the 
other of His own accord went down thither, 
where the invisible whale of death is. And 
He went down of His own accord, that death 

» Matt, xxvii. 52, 53. 

3 The Archdeacon of Jerusalem, Photius 
serves that " liy this parenthetic explanation Cy 
to refute the opinion which some favoured that 
slept and were raised entered into the heavenly 
Kuseb. Don. Evan«. IV. 12. * 

5 ■' euepyeia [Forte (vapyeia, Edit.]." This 
Benedictine Editor is recommended by the very 
"distinctness of the resemblance, ' but seems 

<' Kar' o'lKovoiJiCaLV. 7 Jonah i. 6. 

9 Jonah i. 12. 

Alexandrides, ob- 
ril perhaps wished 
these saints which 
Jerusalem." See 
Matt. .\ii. 40. 
conjecture of the 
appropriate sense 
to have no MS. 

8 Matt. viii. 25, 26. 



might cast up those whom he had devoured, 20. Of this our Saviour the Prophet Jonas 
according to that which is written, / ze'/Z/i formed the type, when he prayed out of the belly 
m?(Som them from the power of the grave ; and\ of the whale, and said, / cried in my affliction, 

froJH the hand of death 1 7vill redee?n them 

18. At this point of our discourse, let us con- 
sider whether is harder, for a man after having 
been buried to rise again from the earth, or for 
a man in the belly of a whale, having come 
into the great heat of a living creature, to 
escape corruption. For what man knows not, 
that the heat of the belly is so great, that even 
bones which have been swallowed moulder 
away? How then did Jonas, who was three 
days and three nights in the whale's belly, 
escape corruption ? And, seeing that the 
nature of all men is such that we cannot 
live without breathing, as we do, in air, how 
did he live without a breath of this air for 
three days ? But the -Jews make answer and 
say, The power of God descended with Jonas 
when he was tossed about in hell. Does then 
the Lord grant life to His own servant, by 
sending His power with him, and can He not 
grant it to Himself as well? If that is credible, 
this is credible also ; if this is incredible, that 
also is incredible. For to me both are alike 
worthy of credence. I believe that Jonas 
was preserved, for all things are possible ivith 

and so on ; oitt of the belly of help, and yet he 
was in the whale ; but though in the whale, he 
says that he is in Hades ; for he was a type 
of Christ, who was to descend into Hades. 
And after a few words, he says, in the person of 
Christ, prophesying most clearly, My head went 
down to the chasms of the fnountains ^ ; and 
yet he was in the belly of the whale. What 
mountains then encompass thee ? I know, he 
says, that I am a type of Him, who is to 
be laid in the Sepulchre hewn out of the rock. 
And though he was in the sea, Jonas says, / 
went dowfi to the earth, since he was a type of 
Christ, who went down into the heart of the 
earth. And foreseeing the deeds of the Jews 
who persuaded the soldiers to lie, and told 
them. Say that they stole Him aivay, he says, By 
regarding lying vanities tJiey forsook their own 
mercy 9. For He who had mercy on them came, 
and was crucified, and rose again, giving His 
own precious blood both for Jews and Gen- 
tiles ; yet say they, Say that they stole Him 
away, having regard to lying vanities^. But 
concerning His Resurrection, Esaias also says. 
He ivho brought up from the earth the great 

God"" ; I believe that Christ also was x^ivi^d. Shepherd of the sheep "^ ; he added the word, 
from the dead; for I have many testimonies I ^^m/, lest He should be thought on a level 
of this, both from the Divine Scriptures, and with the shepherds who had gone before Him. 

from the operative power even at this day 3 of 
Him who arose, — who descended into hell 

21. Since then we have the prophecies, let 
faith abide with us. Let them fall who fall 

alone, but ascended thence with a great [ through unbelief, since they so will; but thou 
company ; for He went down to death, and\ hast taken thy stand on the rock of the faith in 
many bodies of the saints which slept arose'' the Resurrection. Let no heretic ever per- 

through Him 

19. Death was struck with dismay on behold- 
ing anew visitant descend into Hades, notbound 
by the chains of that place. Wherefore, O por- 
ters of Hades, were ye scared at sight of Him ? 
What was the unwonted fear that possessed 
you ? Death fled, and his flight betrayed his 
cowardice. The holy prophets ran unto Him, 
and Moses the Lawgiver, and Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob ; David also, and Samuel, 
and Esaias, and John the Baptist, who bore 
witness when he asked. Art Thou He that 
should cotne, or look we for another^ ? All the 
Just were ransomed, whom death had swal- 
lowed ; for it behoved the King' whom they 
had proclaimed, to become the redeemer of 
His noble heralds. Then each of the Just 
said, O death, zvhere is thy victory 1 O grave, 
where is thy sting^ i For the Conqueror hath 
redeemed us. 

I Hosea xiii. 14. * Matt. xix. 26. 3 Cf. Cat. iv. 13 ; 

xiii. 3. 4 Matt, xxvii. 52. 5 lb. xi. 3. 

* I Cor. XV. 55. On the opinion that the Patriarchs, Propliets, 
and Righteous men were redeemed by Christ in Hade.s, compare 

suade thee to speak evil of the Resurrection. 
For to this day the Manichees say, that the 
resurrection of the Saviour was phantom- wise, 
and not real, not heeding Paul who says, Who 
was made of the seed of David according to the 
flesh; and again. By the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ our Lord from the dead ^. And again he 
aims at them, and speaks thus. Say not in 

Irenaeus (fftFr. I. xxvii. § 3 ; IV. xxvii. § 2), Clem. Alex. {Stromat. 
vi. c. 6), Origen (/« Genes. Horn. xv. § 5). 

7 Jonah ii. 2. 

8 lb. V. 6: (R.V.)/ went down to the hottoms of the moun- 
tains : the earth with her bars closed upon me /or ever. 

9 V. 8. 

' By lying vanities are meant in the original " vain idols." 

2 Isa. Ixiii. 11 ; (R.V.), U here is He that brought them up oidoj 
the sea with the shepherds ( Marg. shepherd) of Hisjlock ? Cyril's 
reading, ex tij? v'JS instead ot e/c tij; 6aAi(r<r>)s is found in the 
Alexandrine MS. of the Septuagint. Athanasius [Ad Serapion, 
Ep. i. 12) has the same reading and interpretation as Cyril. By 
" the shepherds " are probably meant JNIoses and Aaron : cf. Ps. 
Ixxvii. 20: IVho leddest Thy people like sheep by the hand of 
Moses and Aaron. * 

Heb. xiii. 20: Notv the God of peace, that brought again 
fro7n the dead otir Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd op the sheep, 
&c. The word " great " is added by the Author of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews not by Isaiah. 

3 Rom. i. 3, 4. Cyril in his incomplete quotation of ?'. 4 
makes 'IijcroO '^pLtnov roi) K. t)/x. depend on dca(7"Ta(reio;. The 
right order and construction is given in R.V., who wns declared 
to be the Son of God . ... by the resurrection of t/ie dead ; et'» 
Jesus Christ our Lord. 

H 2 



thine heart, who shall ascend into heaven; or, 
tvho shall descend into the deep? that is, to 
briftg up Christ from the dead^ ; and in like 
manner warning as he has elsewhere written 
again, Remember Jesus Christ raised frorn the 
dead^ ; and again, And if Christ be not risen, 
then is our preaching vain, and your faith is 
also vain. Yea, and we are found false wit- 
nesses of God ; because we testified of God that\ 
He raised up Christ, whom He raised not up ^. \ 
But in what follows he says, Biit notv is Christ 
risen from the dead, the first fruits of them thai 
are asleep 7 ; — And He was seen of Cephas, then 
of the twelve ; (for if thou believe not the one 
witness, thou hast twelve witnesses;) then He 
was seen of above five hundred brethren at once^ ; 
(if they disbelieve the twelve, let them admit 
the five hundred ; ) after that He was seen of 
James 9, His own brother, and first Bishop of 
this diocese. Seeing then that such a Bishop 
originally' saw Christ Jesus when risen, do not 
thou, his disciple, disbelieve him. But thou 
sayest that His brother James was a partial 
witness ; aftenvards He was seen also of me ^ 
Paul, His enemy ; and what testimony is 
doubted, when an enemy proclaims it? "I, 
who was before a persecutor^, now preach the 
glad tidings of the Resurrection." 

22. Many witnesses there are of the Saviour's 
resurrection. — The night, and the light of the 
full moon ; (for that night was the sixteenth 4 ; ) 
the rock of the sepulchre which received Him; 
the stone also shall rise up against the face of 
the Jews, for it saw the Lord ; even the stone 
which was then rolled aways, itself bears witness 
to the Resurrection, lying there to this day. 
Angels of God who were present testified of 
theResurrection of the Only-begotten : Peter 
and John, and Thomas, and all the rest of the 
Apostles ; some of whom ran to the sepulchre, 
and saw the burial-clothes, in which He was 
wrapped before, lying there after the Resur- 
rection ; and others handled His hands and 
His feet, and beheld the prints of the nails ; 
and all enjoyed together that Breath of the 
Saviour, and were counted worthy to forgive 
sins in the power of the Holy Ghost. Women 

4 Rom. X. 6, 7. 5 2 Tim. il B. * i Cor. xv. 14, 15. 

7 lb. V. 2o. 8 lb. s, 6. 

9 lb. 7. This appearance of Christ to James is not men- 
tioned in the Gospels. Jerome (Crt/a/c!.''- Script. Eccles. p. 170 D) 
mentions a tradition that James had taken an cath that he would 
eat no bread from the hour in which he had drunk the Cup ol the 
Lord, until he should see Him rising from the dead. Wherefore 
the Saviour immediately after He had risen appeared to James 
and commanded him to eat. 

' For ToiouTOU Toivvv eTriiricOTrov irpioroTuiru? c5ovtos_ Coda. 
Roe, Casaub. have tov Toiwu irputTorvnov f jritricoirov jSoiros, 
which gives the better sense — "since therefore the primary 
Bishop saw, &c." On the meaning of napoiKia, and the extent 
of a primitive Diocese, see Bingham. IX. c. 2. 

" I Cor. XV. 8. 3 I Tim. i. 13. 

4 If the Crucifixion took place on the 14th of Nisan, the follow- 
ing night would begin the 15th, and the next night the i6th- 

5 Cf. Cat. xiii. 39. 

too were witnesses, who took hold of His feet, 
and who beheld the mighty earthquake, and 
the radiance of the Angel who stood by : the 
linen clothes also which were wrapped about 
Him, and which He left when He rose ; — the 
soldiers, and the money given to them ; the 
spot itself also, yet to be seen ; — and this 
house of the holy Church, which out of the 
loving affection to Christ of the Emperor 
Constantine of blessed memory, was both 
built and beautified as thou seest. 

23. A witness to the resurrection of Jesus 
is Tabitha also, who was in His name raised 
from the dead 6; for how shall we disbelieve 
that Christ is risen, when even His Name 
raised the dead ? The sea also bears witness 
to the resurrection of Jesus, as thou hast heard 
before 7. The draught of fishes also testifies, 
and the fire of coals there, and the fish laid 
thereon. Peter also bears witness, who had 
erst denied Him thrice, and who then thrice 
confessed Him ; and was commanded to feed 
His spiritual ^ sheep. To this day stands Mount 
Olivet, still to the eyes of the faithful all but 
displaying Him Who ascended on a cloud, 
and the heavenly gate of His ascension. For 
from heaven He' descended to Bethlehem, but 
to heaven He ascended from the Mount of 
Olives?; at the former place beginning His 
conflicts among men, but in the latter, crowned 
after them. Thou hast therefore many wit- 
nesses ; thou hast this very place of the Resur- 
rection ; thou hast also the place of the As- 
cension towards the east; thou hast also tor 
witnesses the Angels which there bore tes- 
timony ; and the cloud on which He went up, 
and the disciples who came down from that 


24. The course of instruction in the Faith 
would lead me to speak of the Ascension also; 
but the grace of God so ordered '_ it, that 
thou heardest most fully concerning it, as far 
as our weakness allowed, yesterday, on the 

6 Acts ix. 41. 7 See S 17, above. _ 8 vovra. 

9 St Luke (xxiv. 50) describes the Ascension as taking place 
at Bethany, but the tradition, which Cyril follows had long since 
fiKcd the scene on the summit of the Mount of Olives a mile 
nearer to Jerusalem ; an<l here the Empress Helena had built the 
Church ol the Ascensiim (Eusebius, Liye 0/ Constantnie, III. 43 ; 
Demonstr. Evang. VI. xviii. 26). 'rhere is nothing in Cyrils 
lancuace to warrant the Benedictine Editors siiggestion that he 
alludes to the legend, according to which the marks ot Christ s feet 
were indelibly impressed on the spot from which He ascended. 
In the next gener.ition St. Aucustine seems to countenance the 
miraculous st.-ry (/« Joh. Evang. Tract xlvii ) : "There are His 
footsteps, now adored, where last He stood, and w-hence He 
ascended into heaven." The supposed trace of one foot is still 
shewn on Mount Olivet ; " the other having been removed by the 
Turks is now to be found in the Chapel of S. Ihecia, which is 
in the Patriarch's Palace " (Jerusalem Ed.). Compare Stanley, 
.Sinai and Palestine, c. xiv. ; Dictionary of Bible, Olives, 

Mount of. . , ■ , L u I 

I ciKO. ouricre. In this word, as also in the phrase below, (tar 
o\Kovo^>.in.v Tij? @aa? x'ip'ro?, Cyril refers to the order of reading 
the Scriptures as part of a dispensation establishLd by D.vine 



Lord's day; since, by the providence of divine 
grace, the course of the Lessons ^ in Church 
included the account of our Saviour's going up 
into the heavens 3 ; and what was then said was 
spoken principally for the sake of all, and for the 
assembled body of the faithful, yet especially 
for thy sake 4. But the question is, didst thou 
attend to what was said ? For thou knowest that 
the words which come next in the Creed teach 
thee to believe in Him " Who rose again 


Father." I suppose then certainly that thou 
rememberest the exposition ; yet I will now 
again cursorily put thee in mind of what was 
then said. Remember what is distinctly 
written in the Psalms, God is oone up. ivitk 
a shout ^;. remember that the divine powers 
also said to one another, Lift up your gates, ye 
Princes^, and the rest ; remember also the Psalm 
which says, He ascended on high, He led cap- 
tivity captive 7 ,• remember the Prophet who said. 
Who buihieth His ascension unto heaven^ ; and 
all the other particulars mentioned yesterday 
because of the gainsaying of the Jews. 

25. For when they speak against the ascension 
of the Saviour, as being impossible, remember 
the account of the carrying away of Habakkuk : 
for if Habakkuk was transported by an Angel, 
being carried by the hair of his heads, much 
rather was the Lord of both Prophets and 
Angels, able by His own power to make His 
ascent into the Heavens on a cloud from the 
Mount of Olives. Wonders like this thou 
mayest call to mind, but reserve the pre-emi- 
nence for the Lord, the Worker of wonders ; 
for the others were borne up, but He bears 
up all things. Remember that Enoch was 
translated'; but Jesus ascended: remember 
what was said yesterday concerning Elias, that 
Elias was taken up in a chariot of fire ^ ; but 
that the chariots of Christ «r<? ten thousandfold 
eveji thousands upon thousands '^ : and that Elias 
was taken up, towards the east of Jordan ; but 

2 avoyvoxrfi.oToH', a term including the portions of Scripture 
(n-epiKOTrai) appointed for the Epistle and Gospel as well as the 
daily lessons from the Old and New Testaments. 

3 The section Luke xxiv. 36 — 53, which in the Eastern Church 
is the Gospel for Ascension Day, is also one of the " eleven 
morning Gospels of the Resurrection (evayycXia avaa-raa-iixa 
ewSti/o), which were read in turn, one every Sunday at Matins.^' 
Dictionary 0/ Chr. Antiq. " Lectionary." This Lecture being 
delivered on Monday, the Section in question had been read on 
the preceding day. 

4 niaAicrra )i.iv . . . tfatpeTois Si. 5 Ps. xlvii. 5. 

* Ps. xxiv. 7 : Ljyt tip, O gates, your heads. The order of the 
Hebrew words nii.->li;d the Greek Translators. 

7 Ps. Ixviii. 18. On the reading ai'e'^rj, found in a few MSS. 
of the Septuagint, see Tischendorf's note on Eph. iv. 8. 

** Artlos ix. 6 : (R.V.) It is He that bttildetk His chatitbers in 
the heaven. (A.V.J His stories. Marg. ascensions, or stlwies. 
Sept. Trji* a.v6.^o.(Tiv auTou. 

9 tiel and the Dragon, v. 33: Compare Ezek. viii. 3. 

' He'.), xi. 5. 22 Kihgs ii. 11. 

3 Ps. Ixviii. 17 : ;^iAiaSes iv&-i\vovvr{j)v. The Hebrew means 
literally " thousands of repetition," i.e. many thousands : eiejji-eii', 
" to abound." 

that Christ ascended at the east of the brook 
Cedron : and that Elias went as into heaven 4y 
but Jesus, into heaven : and that Elias said 
that a double portion in the Holy Spirit should 
be given to his holy disciple ; but that Christ 
granted to His own disciples so great enjoy- 
ment of the grace of the Holy Ghost, as not 
only to have It in themselves, but also, by the 
laying on of their hands, to impart the fellow- 
ship of It to them who believed. 

26. And when thou hast thus WTCStled against 
the Jews, — when thou hast worsted them by 
parallel instances, then come further to the 
pre-eminence of the Saviour's glory ; namely, 
that they were the servants, but He the Son of 
God. And thus thou wilt be reminded of His 
pre-eminence, by the thought that a servant of 
Christ was caught up to the third heaven. For 
if Elias attained as far as the first heaven, but 
Paul as far as the third, the latter, therefore, 
has obtained a more honourable dignity. Be 
not ashamed of thine Apostles ; they are not 
inferior to Moses, nor second to the Prophets ; 
but they are noble among the noble, yea, 
nobler still. For Elias truly was taken up 
into heaven ; but Peter nas the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven, having received the words, 

Whatsoever thou shall loose on earth shall 
be loosed in heaven s. Elias was taken up only 
to heaven ; but Paul both into heaven, and 
into paradise ° (for it behoved the disciples 
of Jesus to receive more manifold grace), and 
heard unspeakable words, ivhich it is not lawful 
for man to utter. But Paul came down again 
from above, not because he was unworthy to 
abide in the third heaven, but in order that 
after having enjoyed things above man's reach, 
and descended in honour, and having preached 
Christ, and died for His sake, he might re- 
ceive also the crown of martyrdom. But I 
pass over the other parts of this argument, 
of which I spoke yesterday in the Lord's-day 
congregation ; for with understanding hearers, 
a mere reminder is sufficient for instruction. 

27. But remember also what I have often 
said 7 concerning the Son's sitting at the right 

4 Sept. (is eU Tov ovpa.vov. In i Mace. ii. 58 the MSS. vary 
between scos and ois, but the latter (says Fritzsche) "is an altera- 
tion made to agree with 2 Kings ii. 11. But there the leference is 
to the intended exaltation of Elijah into heaven, and therefore w? 
is rightly used (Kiihner, Grainin. § 604, note ; Jtlf, § 626, Obs. i), 
while here the thin^ is referred to as an accotnpUshed historical 

fact." The distinction here drawn by Cyril is therefore hyper- 
critical, as is seen below in § 26, where he writes, 'HAi'a; ii.kv yap^ritl>0r^ eis ovpavof. 

5 Matt. xvi. 19. _ ^2 Cor. xii. 2, 4. 

7 See Cat. iv. 7 ; xi. 17. The clause, Kai KaOia-avTa ix S^^iiuv 
Tov narpo?, does not occur in the original form of the Nicene 
Creed, but is found in the Confession of laith contained in Const. 
Apost. c. 41, in the four Ensebian Confessions of Antioch (341, 2 
A.D.), and in the Macrostichos (344 ad.). An equnalent clause 
is found in the brief Confession of Hippolytus (circ. 220 a.d.) 
Contra Hiercs. Noeii, c. i : " koX ovto. iv Se^ia toO llarpos," and 
in Tertullian, £>e I'irgin. Velanii. c. i : " Regula quidem Fidei 

una omnino est, sola immobilis et irreformabilis sedentem 

nunc ad dextram Patris : " de Prcescriptione, c. 13 : " Regula est 



hand of the Father ; because of the next sen- 
tence in the Creed, which says, " And as- 
cended INTO Heaven, and sat down at the 

RIGHT hand of THE FATHER." Let US nOt 

curiously ])ry into what is properly meant by 
the throne ; for it is incomprehensible ; but 
neither let us endure those who falsely say, 
that it was after His Cross and Resurrection 
and Ascension into heaven, that the Son began 
to sit on the right hand of the Father. For 
the Son gained notHisthronebyadvancement^; 
but throughout His being (and His being is by 
an eternal generations) He also sitteth together 
with the Father. And this throne the Prophet 
Esaias having beheld before the incarnate 
coming of the Saviour, says, / saiv the Lord 
sitting on a throne, high and lifted up ^ and the 
rest. For the Father no man hath seen at any 
time ^, and He who then appeared to the Prophet 
was the Son. The Psalmist also says. Thy 
throne is prepared of old ; Thou art from ever- 
lasting'^. Though then the testimonies on this 
point are many, yet because of the lateness of 
the time, we will content ourselves even with 

28. But now I must remind you of a few 
things out of many which are spoken concern- 
ing the Son's sitting at the right hand of the 
Father. For the hundred and ninth Psalm 
says plainly, The Loed said unto ftiy Lord, Sit 
Thou on My right hand, until L make Thine 
enemies 2'hy footstool^. And the Saviour, con- 
firming this saying in the Gospels, says that 
David spake not these things of himself, but 
from the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, saying, 
LLozv then doth David in the Spirit call LLini 
Lord, saying, The Lord said tinto my Lord, Sit 
Thou on My right hand "^1 and the rest. And 
in the Acts of the Apostles, Peter on the day 
of Pentecost standing with the Eleven^, and 
discoursing to the Israelites, has in very words 
cited this testimony from the hundred and 
ninth Psalm. 

29. But 1 must remind you also of a few 
other testimonies in like manner concerning 
the Son's sitting at the right hand of the Fa 
ther. For in the Gospel according to Matthew 
it is written. Nevertheless, L say unto you, Llence- 
forth ye shall see the So7i of M aft sitting on the 
right hand of poiverT, and the rest : in accord- 
ance with which the Apostle Peter also writes. 
By the Resunedion of Jesus Christ, who is on 
the right ha?id of God, having gone into heaven ^. 

autem fidei .... sedisse ad dexteram Patris : " adversus Praxenn, 
c. a: ''sedere ad dexieram Patris." 

8 fK n-poKOTT^s. Cf. Cat. X. 5, note 8. 

9 a(/)' ouTrep eariv, (ecTTi Si aei yivfr)d(ii). In both clauses ((ttlv 
is emphatic. 

' Is. vi. I. 2 Joh. i. 18. 3 Ps. xciii. 2. 

4 Ps. ex. I. 5 Matt. xxii. 43. * Acts ii. 34. 

7 Matt. xxvi. 64. s I Pet. iii. 22. 

And the Apostle Paul, writing to the Romans, 
says, // is Christ that died, yea rather, that 
is risen agaifi, who is even at the right hand of 
God'i. And charging the Ephesians, he thus 
speaks, According to the ivorking of LLis mighty 
p07c<er, which LLe wroright in Christ ivhen He 
raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His 
own right hand'^ ; and the rest. And the 
Colossians he taught thus, Lf ye then be risc7i 
with Christ, seek the things above, where Christ 
is seated at the right hand of God'^. And in the 
Epistle to the Hebrews he says. When He 
had made purification of our sins, He sat down 
on the right hand of the Majesty on high 3. 
And again. But unto zvhich of the Angels hath 
He said at any time. Sit thou at My right ha?id, 
tmtil L make thine enemies thy footstool'' 1 And 
again. But He, when He had offered one sacrifice 
for all men, for ever sat doivn on the right hand 
of God ; frofn henceforth expecting till His efie- 
mies be made His footstool^. And again. Looking 
unto Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith ; 
Who for the joy that zvas set before Him endured 
the Cross, despising shame, and is set dozen on 
the right hand of the thro7ie of God^. 

30. And though there are many other texts 
concerning the session of the Onl)-begotten 
on the right hand of God, yet these may suffice 
us at present ; with a repetiticn of my remark, 
that it was not after His coming in the flesh 7 
that He obtained the dignity of this seat ; no, 
for even before all ages, the Only-begotten 
Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, ever 
possesses the throne on the right hand of the 
Father. Now may He Himself, the God of 
all, who is Father of the Christ, and our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who came down, and ascended, 
and sitteth together with the P\ather, watch 
over your souls ; keep unshaken and unchanged 
your hope in Him who rose again ; raise you 
together with Him from your dead sins unto His 
heavenly gift; count you worthy to be caught 
up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air^, 
in His fitting time ; and, until that time arrive 
of His glorious second advent, write all your 
names in the Book of the living, and having 
written them, never blot them out (for the 
names of many, who fall away, are blotted out); 
and may He grant to all of you to believe 
on Him who rose again, and to look for Him 
who is gone up, and is to come again, (to 
come, but not from the earth ; for be on your 
guard, O man, because of the deceivers who 
are to come;) Who sitteth on high, and is 
here present together with us, beholding the 

9 Rom. viii. 34. » Eph. i. 19, 20. 2 Col. iii. i. 

3 Hcb. i. 3. 4 lb. V. 13. 5 lb. x. 12. 

6 lb. xii. 2. On Cyril's omission cf Mark xvi. 19. see West- 
cott and Hort. 

7 t\\v €i>crapKOv Trapouo-iar. Ci. § 27. ^ i Thess. iv. 17. 



order of each ^ cud the steadfastness of his faith 9. 
For think not that because He is now absent 
in tlie flesh, He is therefore absent also in the 
Spirit. He is here present in the midst of us, 
listening to what is said of Him, and beholding 
thine inward thoughts, and trying the reins and 

• Col. ii. 5. 

hearts ' / — who also is now ready to present 
those who are coming to baptism, and all of 
you, in the Holy Ghost to the Father, and to 
say. Behold^ I and the children whotn God hath 



-To whom be glory for ever. 

Ps. vii. 9. 

» Isa. viii. i3; Heb. ii. 13. 


On the clause, And shall come in glory to judge the quick and the dead; of 

whose kingdom there shall be no end. 

Daniel vii. 9 — 14. 

I beheld till thrones were placed^ and one that was ancient of days did sit, and then, I saw in a vision 

of the night, and behold one like unto the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, &-'c. 

X. We preach not one advent only of Christ, 
but a second also, far more glorious than the 
former. For the former gave a view of His 
patience ; but the latter brings with it the 
crown of a divine kingdom. For all things, 
for the most part, are twofold in our Lord 
Jesus Christ : a twofold generation ; one, of 
God, before the ages ; and one, of a Virgin, 
at the close of the ages : His descents two- 
fold ; one, the unobserved, like rain on a 
fleece^ ; and a second His open coming, which 
is to be. In His former advent. He was 
wrapped in swaddling clothes in the man- 
ger ; in His second, He covereth Himself 
ivith light as with a garment^. In His first 
coming, He endured the Cross, despising shame^ ; 
in His second. He comes attended by a host 
of Angels, receiving glory*. We rest not then 
upon His first advent only, but look also for 
His second. And as at His first coming we 
said. Blessed is He that cometh in the Natne of 
the Lord^, so will we repeat the same at His 
second coming ; that when with Angels we 
meet our Master, we may worship Him and 
say. Blessed is He that cometh in the JVa?ne of 
the Lord. The Saviour comes, not to be 
judged again, but to judge them who judged 
Him ; He who before held His peace when 
judged ^, shall remind the transgressors who did 
those daring deeds at the Cross, and shall say, 
These things hast thou done, and I kept silence 7. 
Tlien, He came because of a divine dispensa- 
tion, teaching men with persuasion ; but this 
time they will of necessity have Him for their 
King, even though they wish it not. 

2. And concerning these two comings, 
Malachi the Prophet says, And the Lord whom 
ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple ^ / be- 
hold one coming. And again of the second 

' Ps. Ixxii. 6. See xii. 9 ; and S to, below. 
2 Ps. civ. 2. 3 Heb. xii. 2. 

4 Cyril's contra'it of the two Advents seems to be partly borrowed 
from Justin M. {Afol. i. 52: Try/>k. no). See also TertuUian 
(Adv. Jiidacos, c. 14) ; Hippolytub {De Antichristo, 44). 

5 Malt. xxi. 9 ; xxiii. 39. 

6 lb. xxvi. 63. 7 Ps. 1. 21, 8 Mai. iii. 1—3. 

coming he says. And the Alessenger of the 
covenant whom ye delight in. Behold, He cometh, 
saith 9 the Lord Almighty. But who shall abide 
the day of His coming? or who shall stand tvhen 
He appeareth ? Because He cometh in like a re- 
finer's fire, and like fullers' herb ; and He shall 
sit as a refiner and purifier. And immediately 
after the Saviour Himself says. And L will 
draw near to you in judgment ; and L will be a 
swift witness against the so?'cerers, and against 
the adulteresses, and agaiftst those who swear 
falsely in My Name ', and the rest. For this 
cause Paul warning us beforehand says, Lf any 
man buildeth on the foundation gold, and silver, 
and precious stones, wood, hay, stubble ; every 
man's zvork shall be made jnanifest ; for the day 
shall deuare it, because it shall be revealed in fire'^. 
Paul also knew these two comings, when writing 
to Titus and saying. The grace of God hath 
appeared which hringeth salvation unto all men, 


us that, denying ungodlitiess and 

ivorldly lusts, 7ve should live soberly, and godly, 
and righteously in tJiis present world ; looking for 
the blessed hope, and appearing of the glory of the 
great God atid our Saviour Jesus Christ 3. Thou 
seest how he spoke of a first, for which he 
gives thanks ; and of a second, to which we 
look forward. Therefore the words also of the 
Faith which we are announcing were just now 
delivered thus 4; that we believe in Him, who 
also ascended into the heavens, and sat 

9 The Benedictine Editor by omitting Ae'Yet, obtains the sense, 
He coimth, even the Lord Almighty. But Ac'yci is sup[K>rted by 
the MSB. of Cyril, as well as by the Septuagint and Hebrew. 

I Mai. iii. 5- = i Cor. iii. 12. 

3 Thus ii. 11. The Benedictine Editor adopts roi) Swir^po? 
instead of 17 (rwnjptos, against the authority of the best MSS. 
of Cyril. 

4 vvv napeSoBi). Cyril means that at the beginning of this 
present Lecture he had delivered to the Catechumens those ar- 
ticles of the Creed which he was going to e.vplain Compare Cat. 
xviii. 21, where we see that Cyril first announces (tVayytAAw) 
the words which the learners repeat after him {a.Trayye\\u>). 

The clause, Whose Ki.ncijom shall have no end, was not 
contained in the original furni of the Creed of Nica;a, A.u. 325, but 
its substance is found in many earlier writings. Compare Justin M. 
l^Tryph. § 46 : ical avTov kariv i) aiuii'io; PaaiKeia.) ; Const. A post, 
vii. 41 ; the Eusebian Confessions ist and 4th of Antioch, and the 
Macrostich, A.I). 341, 342, 344. Bp. Bull asseits that the Creed of 
Jerusalem, containing this clalise, was no other than the ancient 
liastern Creed, fust directed against the Gnostics of the Sub- 
Apostolic age {Judicium Eccl. Citthol. vi. 16). 





3. Our Lord Jesus Christ, then, conies from 
heaven; and He comes with glory at the end 
of this world, in the last day. For of this 
world there is to be an end, and this created 
world is to be re-made anews. For since cor- 
. ruption, and theft, and adultery, and every 
sort of sins have been poured forth over the 
earth, and blood has been mingled with blood ^ 
in the world, therefore, that this wondrous 
dwelling-place may not remain filled with 
iniquity, this world passeth away, that the 
fairer world may be made manifest. And 
wouldest thou receive the proof of this out of 
the words of Scripture ? Listen to Esaias, 
saying, A?td the heaven shall be rolled to- 
gether as a scroll ; and all the stars shall fall, 
as leaves from a vine, and as leaves fall from a 
fig-tree t . The Gospel also says, The sun shall 
be darkened, and the moon shall not give her 
light, and the stars shall fall from heaven ^. Let 
us not sorrow, as if we alone died ; the stars 
also shall die ; but perhaps rise again. And 
the Lord roUeth up the heavens, not that He 
may destroy them, but that He may raise them 
up again more beautiful. Hear David the 
Prophet saying. Thou, Lord, iti the beginning 
didst lay the foundations of the earth, and the 
heavens are the work of Thy ha?ids ; they shall 
perish, but Thou remainesf^. But some one will 
say, Behold, he says plainly that they shall 
perish. Hear in what sense he says, they shall 
perish ; it is plain from what follows ; Atid 
they all shall wax old as doth a garment; afid 
as a vesture shall Thou fold them up, and they 
shall be changed. For as a man is said to 
" perish," according to that which is written. 
Behold, how the righteous perisheth, and no man 
layeth it to heart ', and this, though the resur- 
rection is looked for; so we look for a resur- 
rection, as it were, of the heavens also. The 
sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon 
into blood ^. Here let converts from the Mani- 
chees gain instruction, and no longer make 
those lights their gods ; nor impiously think, 
that this sun which shall be darkened is 
Christ 3. And again hear the Lord saying, 
Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My 

5 The Benedictine Editor suggests that Cyril "is lefuting 
those who said thai the Universe was to perish utterly, an opinion 
which seems to be somehow imputed to Origen by Methodius, 
or Pioclus, in Epiphanius {_Hares. Ixiv. 31, 32)." On Origen s 
much controverted opinions concerning the beginning and end 
of the world, see Huet. Origeniaiia, II. 4 — 5: and Bp. We^tcoit, 
Dictionary of Christian Biography, "Origen," pp. 137, 138. 

6 Hos. iv. 2. 

7 Is. xxxiv. ^. 8 ^latt. xxiv. 29. 

9 Ps. cii. 25, 26; Heb. i. 10 — 12. ' Is. Ivii. i. 

* Joel ii. 31. 3 Cat. vi. 13 ; xi. 21. 

words shall not pass away*; for the creatures 
are not as precious as the Master's words. 

4. The things then which are seen shall 
pass away, and there shall come the things 
which are looked for, things fairer than the 
present ; but as to the time let no one be 
curious. For // is not for you. He says, to 
know times or seasons, which the Father hath 
put in His ow?i power^. And venture not thou 
to declare when these things sliall be, nor on 
the other hand supinely slumber. For he 
saith, Watch, for in such ati hour as ye expect 
not the Son of Alan cometh ^. But since it was 
needful for us to know the signs of the end, 
and since we are looking for Christ, there- 
fore, that we may not die deceived and 
be led astray by that false Antichrist, the 
Apostles, moved by the divine will, address 
themselves by a providential arrangement to 
the True Teacher, and say, Tell us, when shall 
these things be, and what shall be the sign of Thy 
coming, and of the end of the world "^1 We look 
for Thee to come again, but Satan trans- 
forms himself into an Ajigel of light ; put us 

therefore on our guard, that we may not wor- 
ship another instead of Thee. And He, 
opening His divine and blessed mouth, says, 
Take heed that no man mislead you. Do you 
also, my hearers, as seeing Him now with 
the eyes of your mind, hear Him saying the 
same things to you ; Take heed that no man 
mislead you. And this word exhorts you 
all to give heed to what is spoken ; for it is 
not a history of things gone by, bat a pro- 
phecy of things future, and which will surely 
come. Not that we prophesy, for we are un- 
worthy ; but that the things which are written 
will be set before you, and the signs declared. 
Observe thou, which of them have already 
come to pass, and which yet remain ; and 
make thyself safe. 

5. Take heed that no mafi fnislead you : for 
many shall cofne in My name, saying, I am 
Christ, and shall mislead many. This has 
happened in part : for already Simon Magus 
has said this, and Menander^, and some others 
of the godless leaders of heresy; and others 
will say it in our days, or after us. 

6. A second sign. And ye shall hear of 
wars and rutnours of tvars 9. Is there then at 
this time war between Persians and Romans 
for Mesopotamia, or no? Does nation rise up 
against nation and kingdom against kingdom, 
or no ? And there shall be fa/nines and pesti- 

4 Matt. xxiv. 35. S Acts i. 7. 6 Matt. xxiv. 42, 44 ; 

lb. V. 3. 7 lb. Z'Z/ 3 and 4. 8 Cat. vi._ 14, 16. 

9 Jlatt. xxiv. 6. The war with Sapor II., King of Persia, 
which broke out immediately on the death of Cun^tantine, and 
continued throughout the reign of Constantius. was raging fiercely 
at the date of these Lectures, the great battle of Singara bein^ 
fought in the year 348 A.D. 



lences attd earthquakes in divers places. These 
things have already come to pass ; and again, 
And fearftd sights from heaven, and inighty 
storms'^. Watch therefore. He says ; for ye ktiotv 
not at what hour your Lord doth come ^. 

7. But we seek our own sign of His coming ; 
we Churchmen seek a sign proper to the 
Church 3. And the Saviour says, And then shall 
many be offended, and shall betray one another, 
and shall hate one another ♦. If thou hear that 
bishops advance against bishops, and clergy 
against clergy, and laity against laity even unto 
blood, be not troubled s; for it has been written 
before. Heed not the things now happening, 
but the things which are written ; and even 
though I who teach thee perish, thou shalt 
not also perish with me ; nay, even a hearer 
may become better than his teacher, and 
he who came last may be first, since even 
those about the eleventh hour the Master re- 
ceives. If among Apostles there was found 
treason, dost thou wonder that hatred of 
brethren is found among bishops ? But the 
sign concerns not only rulers, but the people 
also ; for He says. And because iniquity shall 
abound, the love of the ma?ty shall wax cold^. 

' Luke xxi. II. Jerome in the Chronicon mentions a great 
earthquake in 346 A.D., by which Dyrrachium was destroyed, and 
Rome and other cities of Italy greatly injured (Ben. Ed). 

Cyril substitutes x^i/iawccs for o-Tj/Aeia, the better reading in 
Luke xxi. 11. ^ Matt. xxiv. 42. 

3 tK/cATjcriao-TtKos, when applied to persons, means either, as 
here, an orthodox member of the Church in contrast to a heretic, 
pagan, or Jew (Origen. in Job xx. 6), or more particularly a Cleric 
as opposed to a layman (Cat. xvii. 10). 4 Matt. xxiv. 10. 

5 " S. Cyril here describes the state of the Church, when ortho- 
doxy was for a while trodden under foot, its maintainers per- 
secuted, and the varieties of Arianism, which took its place, were 
quanelling for the ascendancy. Gibbon quotes two passages, one 
from a pagan historian of the day, another from a Father of the 
Church, which fully bear out S. Cyril's words. What made the 
state of things still more deplorable, was the defection of some 
of the orthodox party, as Marcellus, into opposite errors ; while 
the subsequent secessions of ApoUinaris and Lucifer show what 
lurking di>orders there were within it at the time when S. Cyril 
wrote. (Vid. in/r. 9.) The passages referred to are as follows: 
' The Christian Religion,' says Ammianus, ' in itself plain and 
simple, he (Constantius) confounded by the dotage of superstition. 
Instead of reconciling tlie panics by the weight of his authority, 
he cherished and propagated, by vain disputes, the differences 
which his vain curiosity had excited. The highways were covered 
with troops of Bishops, galloping from every side to the assem- 
blies which they called synods ; and while they laboured to 
reduce the whole sect to their own particular opinions, the public 
establishment of the posts was almost ruined by their hasty and 
repeated journeys.' //ist. xxi. 16. S. Hilary of Poictlers thus 
speaks of Asia Minor, the chief seat of the Arian troubles : 
' It is a thing equally deplorable and dangerous, that there 
are as many creeds as opinions amung men, as many doc- 
trines as inclinations, and as many sources of blasphemy as 
there are faults among us ; because we make creeds arbitrarily, 
and explain them as arbitrarily. The Homoousion is rejected 
and received and ex]il.uned away by successive synods. The 
partial or total resemblance of the Father and of the Son is 
a subject of dispute for tliese unhappy divines. Every year, nay, 
every moon, we make new creeds to describe invisible mysteries. 
We repent of what we have done, we defend those who repent, we 
anathematize those whom we defended. We condemn either the 
doctrine of others in ourselves, or our own in that of others ; 
and reciprocally tearing one another to pieces, we have been the 
cause of each other's ruin,' ad" Co«j/a?j/. ii 4,5. Gibbon's trans- 
lations are used, which, though diffuse, are faithful in their 
matter. What a contrast do these descriptions present to Athana- 
sius' uniform declaration, that the whole question was really 
settled at Nic^a, and no other synod or debate was necessarv !" 
— (R.W.C.). Compare, for example, the account of the seditions 

■ in Antioch and in Constantinople, in Socrates, Eccies. Hist. i. 24 ; 
i., 12 — 14, and .'Vthanas. Hist. Aria nortim, passim. 

6 Matt. xxiv. 12. 

^Vill any then among those present boast 
that he entertains friendship unfeigned to- 
wards his neighbour? Do not the lips often 
kiss, and the countenance smile, and the eyes 
brighten forsooth, while the heart is planning 
guile, and the man is plotting mischief with 
words of peace ? 

8. Thou hast this sign also : And this Gospel 
of the kingdom shall be preached iti all the ivorld 

for a witness tcnto all nations, and then shall the 
end comeT. And as we see, nearly the whole 
world is now filled with the doctrine of Christ. 

9. And what comes to pass after this ? 
He says next. When therefore ye see the abom- 
ination of desolation, which was spoken of by 
Daniel the Prophet, standing in the Holy 
Place, let him that readeth taiderstahd^. And 
again. Then if any man shall say unto you, 
Lo, here is the Christ, or, Lo, there ; believe 
it not 9. Hatred of the brethren makes room 
next for Antichrist ; for the devil prepares 
beforehand the divisions among the people, 
that he who is to come may be acceptable to 
them. But God forbid that any of Christ's 
servants here, or elsewhere, should run over to 
the enemy ! Writing concerning this matter, the 
Apostle Paul gave a manifest sign, saying, For 
that day shall not come, except there come first the 

falliiig away, and the 7nan of si?i be revealed, the 
son of perditio7i, who opposeth and exalteth him- 
self against all that is called God, or that is ivor- 
shipped ; so that he sitteth in the temple of God, 
she2ving himself that he is God. Remember ye 
not that wheti I was yet with you, I told you these 
things ? And now ye know that which restraineth, 
to the end that he maybe revealed in his own season. 
For the mystery of iniquity doth already ivork, 
only there is one that restraineth now, tmtil he be 
taken out of the way. And then shall the lawless 
one be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay 
ivith the breath of LLis mouth, and shall destroy 
with the brightness of LLis comifig. Even him, 
zvhose coming is after the zvorking of Satan, 
with all power and signs and lying wonders, 
and tvith all deceit of ittirighteousness for them 
that are perishing '. Thus wrote Paul, and 
now is the fallittg azvay. For men have 
fallen away from the right faith ^ ; and some 
preach the identity of the Son with the 
Father 3, and others dare to say that Christ 


8 lb. V. 1$. 

9 lb. V. 23. 

7 Matt. xxiv. 14. 
» 2 Thess. ii. 3 — 10. 

2 The prediction was supposed by earlier Fathers to refer to 
a personal Antichrist, whom they expected to come speedilv. See 
Justin M. (Tryfili. § no: 6 Tij? aJrocTTatrta? aj'OpwTros ; ib. S 32: 
" He who is to speak blasphemous and daring things against the 
Most High is already at the doors." Iren. Hier. V. 25. Cyril in 
this passage reg.ards the heresies of his time as the apostasy in 
general, but looks also for a personal Antichrist : (§§ 11, 12). 

3 vioTraropia. On this contemptuous name for Sabellianism, 
see Cat. iv. 8 ; xi. 16. The Third (Eusebian) Confession, or Third 
ol Antioch, a.d. 341, anathematizes any who hold the doctrines of 
Marcellus of Ancyra or Sabellius, or Paul of Samosata (Athan. 
de Synodis, § 24, note 10, p. 462, in this Series, and Mr. Roberi* 



was brought into being out of nothing*. And 
formerly the heretics were manifest ; but now 
the Church is filled with heretics in disguise s. 
For men have fallen away from the truth, and 
have itching ears^. Is it a plausible discourse? 
all hsten to it gladly. Is it a word of cort-ection ? 
all turn away from it. Most have departed from 
right words, and rather choose the evil, than 
desire the good t. This therefore is ihefaHitig 
away, and the enemy is soon to be looked for : 
and meanwhile he has in part begun to send 
forth his own forerunners^, that he may then 
come prepared upon the prey. Look therefore 
to thyself, O man, and make safe thy soul. The 
Church now charges thee before the Living 
God ; she declares to thee the things concern- 
ing Antichrist before they arrive. Whether 
they will happen in thy time we know not, or 
whether they will happen after thee we know 
not ; but it is well that, knowing these things, 
thou shouldest make thyself secure beforehand. 
10. The true Christ, the Only-begotten Son 
of God, comes no more from the earth. If any 
come making false shows9 in the wilderness, go 
not forth; if they say, Lo, here is the Christ, Lo, 
there, believe it not^. Look no longer down- 
wards and to the earth ; for the Lord descends 
from heaven ; not alone as before, but with 
niany, escorted by tens of thousands of Angels ; 
nor secretly as the dew on the fleece ^ ; but 
shining forth openly as the lightning. For He 
hath said Himself, As the lightning cometh out 
of the east, and shineth even nnto the tvest, so 
shall also the coming of the Son of Man be 3 / 
and again. And they shall see the Son of JWati 
coming upon the clouds with power and great 

son's Prolegomena, p. xliv.). In the Ecthesis, or Statement of 
Faith, § 2, Athanasius writes : " Neither do we hold a Son-Father, 
as do the Sabellians, calling Him of one but (a sole and I) not the 
same essence, and thus destroying the existence of the Son." As 
to Marcellus, see Athanahins, Hist. Arian. § 6 (p. 271), and the 
letter ot Julius in the Apologia c. Arian. § 32 (p. ii6) : al.-^o notes 
3, 4 on § 27 below. 

4 See Athanasius, De. Synod. § 15 : " Arius and those with him 
thought and professed thus : 'God made the Son out of nothing, 
and called Hun His Son : " ' and Expos. Fidti, § 2 : " We do nut 
regard as a creature, or thing made, or as made out of nothing, 
God the Creator of all, the Son of God. the true Being from the 
true Being, the Alone from the Alone, inasmuch as the like glory 
and power was eternally and conjointly begotten of the Father." 
The 4th (Eusebian) Confession, or 4th of Antioch, a.d. 342, ends 
thus : " Those who say that the Son was from nothing, .... the 
Catholic Church regards as aliens." 

5 Athan. Advcrsus Arianos, Or. i. i: "One heresy and that 
the last which has now risen as forerunner of Antichrist, the 
Arian as it is called, considering that other heresies, her elder 
sisters, have been openly proscribed, in her craft and cunning 
affects to array herself in Scripture language, like her father the 
devil, and is forcing her way back into the Church's paradiie, &c." 
The supposed date of this Oration is 8 or 10 years later than that 
of Cyril's Lectures. 6 2 Tim. iv. 3. 

7 A reading supported by the best MSS. and approved by the 
Benedictine Fditor gives a different sense, "and rather choose 
to seem than resolve to be," inverting the proverb " esse quam 

8 In the passage quoted above in note 5 the Arian heresy is 
called a '" forerunner " (TrpoSpo/iiO?) of Antichrist. 

9 t^avTadioKOTTiav, a rare word, rendered " Irantic " in Ecclus. 
iv. 30: its more precise meaning seems to be "making a false 
show," which is here applied to a false Christ, and again in § 14 

Icthe father of lies who makes a vain show of false miracles. 
' Matt. xxiv. 23. 2 Ps. Ixxii. 6. Cf. § i, note i. 

3 Matt. xxiv. 27. 

glory, and He shall send forth His Angels with a 
great trumpet "^ ; and the rest. 

11. But as, when formerly He was to take 
man's nature, .and God was expected to be 
born of a Virgin, the devil created prejudice 
against this, by craftily preparing among idol- 
worshippers 5 fables of false gods, begetting 
and begotten of women, that, the falsehood 
having come first, tlie truth, as he supposed, 
might be disbelieved ; so now, since the true 
Christ is to come a second time, the adver- 
sary, taking occasion by ^ the expectation 
of the simple, and especially of them- of the 
circumcision, brings in a certain man who 
is a magician t, and most expert in sorceries 
and enchantments of beguiling craftiness ; who 
shall seize for himself the power of the Roman 
empire, and shall falsely style himself Christ ; 
by this name of Christ deceiving the Jews, who 
are looking for the Anointed ^, and seducing 
those of the Gentiles by his magical illusions, 

12. But this aforesaid Antichrist is to come 
when the times of the Roman empire shall have 
been fulfilled, and the end of the world is now 
drawing near 9. There shall rise up together 
ten kings of the Romans, reigning in different 
parts perhaps, but all about the same time ; 
and after these an eleventh, the Antichrist, 
who by his magical craft sliall seize u})on 
the Roman power; and of the kings who 
reigned before him, three he shall humble ', 
and the remaining seven he shall keep in sub- 
jection to himself At first indeed he will put 
on a show of mildness (as though he were 
a learned and discreet person), and of sober- 
ness and benevolence ^ : and by the lying 

4 Matt. xxiv. V. ^o. 

5 kv eiSca/VoAarpeia may mean either "in idol-worship," or 
" among idolaters," the abstract being used for the concrete, as in 
Rom. iii. 30 : SiKatioeret jrepiro^uji'. 

6 kf\)6hi.ov, "provision for a journey," is here equivalent in 
meaning to a(^op^iT, " a starting point," or favourable occasion." 

7 Antichrist is described by ^\-p-^o\yi\i%(_De Christo et Anti- 
christo, § 57. as " a son of the devil, and a vessel of Satan," who 
will rule and govern "after the manner of the law of Augustus, by 
whom the Roman empire was established, sanctioning everything 
thereby." Cf. Iren. H<cr. V. 30, § 3 ; Dictionary of Christian VAo- 
graphy, Antic/trist : " Th; sharp precision with which St. Paul had 
pointed to 'the man of sin,' ' tke lawless one,' ' t/te adversary,' 
' t/ie son of perdition,' led men to dwell on that thought rather 
than on the many yj/evSoxpi-a'Toi. of whom Christ Himself had 

8 Tof 'HAetfiueVoi', Aquila's rendering of n^tyXD, adopted by 
the Jews in preference to rbi' Xptcrroi/, from hatred of the name 
Christ or Christian. Hippolytus, uii supra, § 6 : " The Saviour 
came into the world in the Circumcision, and he (Antichrist) will 
come in the same manner:" ib. § 14: "As Christ springs from 
the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist is to spring from the tribe of 
Dan." This expectation was grounded by Hippolytus on Gen. 

xlix. 17. -^ . , , .. , 

9 The fourth kingdom in the prophecy of Daniel (vu. 7, 23) was 
generally understood by early Christian writers to be the Roman 
"Empire ; and its dissolution was to be speedily followed by the 
end of the world. See § 13 below ; Irenasus, V. 26 ; and Hip- 
polytus, iM supra, §g ig, 28. , . ,t> ir \ 

1 Dan. vii. 24 : and hi zh all put dotun three kings (K.V.). 

2 The Jerusalem Editor quotes as irom Hippolytus a similar 
description of Antichrist (§ 23): "In his first --teps he will be 
gentle, loveable, quiet, pious, pacific, hating injrstice; detesting 
gifts, not allowing idolatry, &c.' But the treatise is a forgery 
of unknown date, apparently much later than Cyril. 



signs and wonders of his magical deceit 3 hav- 
ing beguiled the Jews, as though he were the 
expected Christ, he shall afterwards be charac- 
terized by all kinds of crimes, of inhumanity 
and lawlessness, so as to outdo all unrighteous 
and ungodly men who have gone before him ; 
displaying against all men, but especially against 
us Christians, a spirit murderous and most cruel, 
merciless and crafty '^. And after perpetrating 
such things for three years and six months only, 
he shall be destroyed by the glorious second 
advent from heaven of the only-begotten Son 
of God, our Lord and Saviour Jesus, the true 
Christ, who shall slay Antichrist with the breath 
of His mouth s, and shall deliver him over to 
the fire of hell. 

13. Now these things we teach, notof our own 
invention, but having learned them out of the 
divine Scriptures used in the Church^, and chiefly 
from the prophecy of Daniel just now read ; as 
Gabriel also the Archangel interpreted it, speak- 
ing thus : The fourth beast shall be a fourth 
kingdom upon earth, which shall surpass all kijig- 
doms 7. And that this kingdom is that of the 
Romans, has been the tradition of the Church's 
interpreters. For as the first kingdom which 
became renowned was that of the Assyrians, 
and the second, that of the Medes and Persians 
together, and after these, that of the Macedon- 
ians was the third, so the fourth kingdom now 
is that of the Romans ^ Then Gabriel goes on 
to interpret, saying, His ten horns are ten kings 
that shall arise ; a7id another king shall rise up 
after them, who shall surpass in wicked?iess all 
who were before him^ ; (he says, not only the 
ten, but also all who have been before him ;) 
and he shall subdue three kings ; manifestly out 
of the ten former kings: but it is plain that 
by subduing three of these ten, he will be- 
come the eighth king; a?id he shall speak words 
against the Alost High '°. A blasphemer the 

3 Iren. V. 28, § 2 : "Since the demons and apostate spirits are 
at his service, he tnrough their means performs wonders, by which 
he leads the inhabitants of the earth astray." 

-1 Iren. v. 25, § 4 : " He shall remove his kingdom into that city 
(Jerusalem), and shall sit in the Temple of God, leading astray 
those who worship him as if he were Christ." 

According to the genuine treatise of Hippolytus Antichrist was 
to restore Llie kingdom of the Jews (De Antichristo, § 25), to 
collect the Jews out of every country of the Dispersion, making 
them his own, as though they were his own children, and pro- 
mising to restore their country, and establish again their kingdom 
and nation, in order that he may be worshipped by them as God 
(§ 54)> and he will lead them on to persecute the saints, i.e. the 
Christians (§ 56). Compare the elaborate description of Anti- 
christ and his cruelty in Lactantius, Div. Inst. vii. 17 ; Efit. § 71. 

5 2 Thess. ii. 8. Cf. Ircn. V. 25, § 3 : Hippol. § 64. 

6 cKKK-qa-i.a^oiJ.ei'ujv. Cf. Cat. iv. 35, 36, where Cyril distin- 
guishes the Scriptures as xal iv 'EkkAtjctio /lera TrappTjo-iat acayi- 
vu}(rKO^l€v from oa"a ev 'KKKATjcrtats ju.^ avayivwffKeTai. 

7 Dan. vii. 23 : {\i.\ .) shall be diverse Jrom nil the kingdoms. 

8 Irena;us (V. 26) identifies the fourth kingdom with " the 
empire which now rules." Hippolytus, de AntichristP, %i^: "A 

/ourtli beast dreadjiil and terrible : it had iron teeth and claws 
0/ brass. And who are these but the Romans?" 

9 Dan. vii. 24. 

'° Dan. v. 25. Dean Church compares Rev. xvii. u : And the 
beast that ivas, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is 0/ the 
seven, andgoeth into perdition. See also Iren. V. 26, 8 1. 

man is and lawless, not having received the 
kingdom from his fathers, but having usurped 
the power by means of sorcery. 

14. And who is this, and from what sort of 
working ? Interpret to us, O Paul. Whose 
coming, lie says, is after the working of Satan, 
zvith all power and signs and lying wonders '/ im- 
plying, that Satan has used him as an instrument, 
working in his own person through him ; for 
knowing that his judgment shall now no longer 
have respite, he wages war no more by his min- 
isters, as is his wont, but henceforth by himself 
more openly ^. And 7uith all signs andlyini^ woJi- 
ders ; for the father of falsehood will make a 
show 3 of the works of falsehood, that the multi- 
tudes may think that they see a dead man raised, 
who is not raised, and lame men walking, and 
blind men seeing, when the cure has not been 

15. And again he says, Who opposeth and 
exalieth himself against all that is called God, or 
that is worshipped ; {against every God ; Anti- 
christ forsooth will ablior the idols,) so that he 
seateth himself in the te}nple of God"-. What 
temple then ? He means, the Temple of the 
Jews which has been destroyed. For God for- 
bid that it should be the one in which we are ! 
Why say we this ? That we may not be supposed 
to favour ourselves. For if he comes to the 
Jews as Christ, and desires to be worshipped 
by the Jews, he will make great account of the 
Temple, that he may more completely beguile 
them ; making it supposed that he is the man 
of the race of David, who shall build up the 
Temple which was erected by Solomon s. And 
Antichrist will come at the time when there 
shall not be left one stone upon another in the 
Temple of the Jews, according to the doom 
pronounced by our Saviour ^ \ for when, either 

» 2 Thess. ii. 9. Lactantius (a.d. 300 circ), Div. Inst. vii. 17 : 
" That king .... will also be a prophet of lies ; and he will con- 
stitute and call himself God, and wiil order himself to be wor- 
shipped as the Son of God ; and power will be given liim to do 
signs and wonders, by the sight ol which he may entice men to 
adore him." Cf. E/ilome, Ixxi. 

2 "Vid. Iren. Har. V. 26, 2," (R.W.C.). The passage is 
quoted by Eusebius {Eccl. Hist. iv. 18), from a lost work of 
Justin M. Against Murcion: "Justin well said that before the 
coming of the Lord Satan never dared to blaspheme Goil, as not 
yet knowing his own condemnation, because it was staled by the 
prophets in parables and allegories. But alter our Lords advent 
having learnt plainly from His words and those of the -Vpostlcs 
that everlasting fire is prepared for him, .... he by means of such 
men as these blasphemes the Lord who brings the judgment upon 
him, as being already condemned." 

S. Cyril seems to e-xpecl that Antichrist will be an incarnation 
of Satan, as did Hippolytus (de Antichr. § 6): ''The Saviour 
appeared in the form of man, and he too will come in the form of 
a man." 

3 (/javTao-ioKOTrei. See above, § 10, note 9, and the equivalent 
phrase in § 17 : OTj/neiio;' (cai Tepartoc ^o.vT>.<sia.% iSeCKWOv. 

4 2 Thess. ii, 4. 

5 See § 12, notes 3, 4, and Hippolytus, tibi supra: "The 
Saviour raised up and shewed His holy flesh like a temple ; and 
he will raise a temple of stone in Jerusalem." " Cyril wrote this 
before Julian's attempt to rebuild the Jewish Temple" (R.W.C.). 

<> Watt. xxiv. 2. Cyril refers the whole prophecy to the time* 
of Christ's second coming at the end of the world, not regarding 
the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple by Titus as ful- 
filling any part of the prediction. 



decay of time, or demolition ensuing on pretence by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for 

of new buildings, or from any other causes, shall 
have overthrown all the stones, I mean not 
merelyof the outer circuit, but of the inner shrine 
also, where the Cherubim were, then shall he 
come tvith all sig?is atid lying wofiders, exalting 
himself against all idols ; at first indeed making 
a pretence of benevolence, but afterwards dis- 
playing his relentless temper, and that chiefly 
against the Saints of God. For he says, / 
beheld, and the same horn made tvar with the 
saints 7 / and again elsewhere, there shall be a 
time of trouble, such as never zvas sittce there was 
a nation iipon earth, even to that same time^. 
Dreadful is that beast, a mighty dragon, un- 
conquerable by man, ready to devour ; con- 
cerning whom though we have more things to 
speak out of the divine Scriptures, yet we will 
content ourselves at present with thus much, in 
order to keep within compass. 

16. For this cause the Lord knowingtne great- 
ness of the adversary grants indulgence to the 
godly, saying. Then let them which be i?i Judcea 
flee to the moicntains'^. But if any man is con- 
scious that he is very stout-hearted, to en- 
counter Satan, let him stand (for I do not 
despair of the Church's nerves), and let him 
say. Who shall separate us from the love of 
Christ and the rest ' 1 But, let those of us 
who are fearful provide for our own safety ; 

a time, and times, and half a time^. And some 
peradventure have referred what follows also to 
this; namely, a thousand ttvo hutidred and ninety 
days ^ ; and this, Blessed is he that endureth 
and Cometh to the thousand three hundred and 
five and thirty days'!. For this cause we must 
hide ourselves and flee ; for perhaps we shall 
not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son 
of Man be come ^. 

17. Who then is the blessed man, that shall 
at that time devoutly witness for Christ? For 
I say that the Martyrs of that time excel all 
martyrs. For the Martyrs hitherto have 
wrestled with men only ; but in the time of 
Antichrist they shall do battle with Satan in 
his own person 9. And former persecuting kings 
only put to death ; they did not pretend to 
raise the dead, nor did they make false shows '° 
of signs and wonders. But in his time there 
shall be the evil inducement both of fear and 
of deceit, so that if it be possible the very 
elect shall he deceived'^. Let it never enter 
into the heart of any then alive to ask, " What 
did Christ more ? For by what power does 
this man work these things ? Were it not 
God's will. He would not have allowed 
them." The Apostle warns thee, and says 
beforehand. And for this cause God shall 
send them a working of error ; (send, that is. 

and those who are of a good courage, stand shall alloiv to happen ;) not that they might 
fast : for then shall be great tribulation, such as make excuse, but that they> f?iight be condemned -. 
hath not been from the begifining of the world Wherefore? They, he says, who believed not 
u?ttil flow, no, nor ever shall be''. But thanks be Ihe truth, that is, the true Christ, but had 

to God who hath confined the greatness of 
that tribulation to a few days; for He says, 
But for the elecfs sake those days shall be 
shortened ^ ; and Antichrist shall reign for three 
years and a half only. We speak not from 
apocryphal books, but from Daniel ; for he 
says. And they shall be given into his hand until 
a time and times and half a time^. A time 
is the one year in which his coming shall for 
a while have increase ; and the times are the 
remaining two years of iniquity, making up 
the sum of the three years ; and the half a 
time is the six months. And again in another 
place Daniel says the same thing. And he sware 

7 Dan. vii. 21. Here again Cyril follows Hippolytus, § 25 : 
"And under this (liorn) was signified none other than Antichrist. 

8 lb. xii. I. 9 Matt. xxiv. 16. ^ Rom. viii. 35. 
* Matt. xxiv. 21. 3 lb. -v. 22. 

4 Dan. vii. 25. By "apocryphal" books Cyril probably means 
all such as were not allowed to be read in the public services 
of the Church: see Cat. iv. 33. note 3 ; and Bp. Westcott's note 
on the various meanings of the word a.TroKpvi^o'i, Hist. 0/ the 
Canon, P. III. c. i. That the Apocalypse of St. John is included 
under this term by Cyril, appears probable from the following 
reasons suggested by the lienedictine Editor, (i) It is not men- 
tioned in the list of the Canonical Scriptures in iv. 36. (2) The 
earlier writers whom Cyril follows in this Lecture, Irenseus, Hcer. 
v., 26, §1, and Hippolytus, De Antich>-isto, § 34, combine the 
testimony of the Apocalypse with that of Daniel. The omission 
in Cyril therefore cannot have been accidental. 

pleasu7'e in unrighteousness, that is, in Antichrist. 
But as in the persecutions which happen from 
time to time, so also then God will permit 
these things, not because He wants power to 
hinder them, but because according to His 
wont He will through patience crown His 
own champions like as He did His Prophets 
and Apostles ; to the end that having toiled 
for a little while they may inherit the eternal 
kingdom of heaven, according to that which 
Daniel says. And at that time thy people shall 
be delivered, every one that shall be found ivritten 
in the book (manifestly, the book of life) ; and 
many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to 
shame and everlasting contempt ; and they that 
be wise shall shine as the brightness of the fir ma- 
i7ient ; and of the many righteous^, as the stars 
for ever and ever. 

6 lb. V. II. 

7 lb. V. 12. 

S Dan. xii. 7. 

8 Matt. X. 23. 

9 avTOTTpotriuTrux;. See above, § 14, note 2. Some MSS. read 
ai'Ttirpoa"w7r(05, ** face to face,"' as in xii. 32, ai/rtTrpocrajTroff. 

10 See above, § 14, note 3. ' Matt. xxiv. 24. 

2 2 ii. 11, 12 : (R.V.) That they all might be judged. 
Cyril has KaTaKpt^wo-t 

3 Dan. xii. i, 2 : (R.V.)Mo' that turn many to righteousness. 
Cyril follows the rendering of the Septuagint, atto titv SiKaiui, 
riav noKKiiv, which gives no proper construction. 



i8. Guard thyself then, O man ; thou hast 
the signs of Antichrist ; and remember them 
not only thyself, but impart them also freely 
to all. If thou hast a child according to the 
ilesh, admonish him of this now ; if thou hast 
begotten one through catechizing *, put him 
also on his guard, lest he receive the false one 
as the True. For the mystery of iniquity doth 
already work^. I fear these wars of the nations^; 
I fear the schisms of the Churches; I fear the 
mutual hatred of the brethren. But enough on 
this subject ; only God forbid that it should be 
fulfilled in our days ; nevertheless, let us be 
on our guard. And thus much concerning 

19. But let us wait and look for the Lord's 
coming upon the clouds from heaven. Then 
shall Angelic trumpets sound ; the dead in 
Christ shall rise first T , — the godly persons who 
are alive shall be caught up in the clouds, re- 
ceiving as the reward of their labours more than 
human honour, inasmuch as theirs was a more 
than human strife ; according as the Apostle 
Paul writes, saying, For the Lord Himself shall 
descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice 
of the Archangel, and with the trump of God : 
and the dead in Christ slmll rise first. Theft 
we zvhich are alive and remain shall be caught up 
together zvith them in the clouds, to meet the Lord 
in the air ; and so shall we ever be with the 
Lord ^. 

20. This coming of the Lord, and the end 
of the world, were known to the Preacher; 
who says, Rejoice, O young man, iti thy youth, 
and the rest 9; Therefore remove anger'^ from 
thy heart, and put away evil from thy flesh ; 
. . . and remember thy Creator . . . or ever the 
evil days come'', . ... or ever the sun, and the 
light, and the moon, and the stars be darkened^, 
.... and they that look out of the windoius be 
darketied^; (signifying the faculty of sight;) 
or ever the silver cord be loosed ; (meaning the 
assemblage of the stars, for their appearance 
:is like silver ;) aiid theflotver of gold be broke?i s y 
(thus veiling the mention of the golden sun ; 
for the camomile is a well-known plant, having 
many ray-like leaves shooting out round it ;) 

4 Compare i Cor. iv. 15 : 1 begat you through the gospel. Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iii. c. 15 ; tw 6ia ttjs aAjjSou! Ka.Ti\\^ati>i% •^ivvi]<J0.vT\. 
Kcirai Tis fiiffSos. 5 2 Thess. ii. 7. 

* See above, §S 6, 7. 7 i Thess. iv. 16. 8 Jb. vv. 16, 17. 

9 Eccles. xi. 9. The Preacher's description of old age and 
death is interpreted by Cyril of the end ol the world, as it had 
been a century before by Gregory Thaumaturgus, in his para- 
phrase of the book. 

' lb. V. 10; (R.V.) torrow. Marg. Or, vexation. Or, provo- 
cation, a lb. xii. 1. 3 lb. v. 2. 

4 \h.v, 3. 

5 lb. V. 6. According to the usual interpretation death is here 
represented by the breaking of a chain and the \.\m\i wliich hangs 
from it. Cf. Delitzsch, and Speaker's Commentary, in loc. for 
other interpretations. 

TO ai'Se/itoK ToO xpvinov (Sept.), by which Cyril understood 
camomile' (affofii?), more probably meant a pattern of flowers 
e.Tibossed on the vessel of guld : viii. Xenoph. Anai'. V. 4, § 32 
eoTiyufVous avSif^ia, " damasked v/ilhjiowert." 

and they shall rise up at the voice of the spar- 
row, yea, they shall look away from the height, and 
terrors shall be in the way ^. W\\2.X. shall they 
see ? Then shall they see the Son of man comifig 
on the clouds of heavefi ; and they shall mourn 
tribe by tribe t. And what shall come to pass 
when the Lord is come ? The almond tree shall 
blossom, and the grasshopper shall grow heavy, 
and the caper-berry shall be scattered abroad^. 
And as the interpreters say, the blossoming 
almond signifies the departure of winter ; and 
our bodies shall then after the winter blossom 
with a heavenly flower 9. And the grasshopper 
shall grozv in substance (that means the winged 
soul clothing itself with the body ^,) and the 
caper-berry shall be scattered abroad (that is, 
the transgressors who are like thorns shall 
be scattered ='). 

21. Thou seest how they all foretell the 
coming, of the Lord. Thou seest how they 
know the voice of the sparrow. Let us know what 
sort of voice this is. For the Lord LLimself 
shall descend from heavefi ivith a shout, tvith the 
voice of the Archangel, and with the trui/ip of 
God'i. The Archangel shall make proclamation 
and say to all, Arise to meet the Lord^. And fear- 
ful will be that descent of our jNIaster. David 
says, God shall manifestly come, even our God, 
and shall not keep silence ; afire shall burn before 
LLim, and a fierce tempest round about Liim, and 
the rest s. The Son of Man shall come to the 
Father, according to the Scripture which was 
just now read, on the clouds of heaven, drawn 
by a streatn of fire ^, which is to make trial of 
men. Then if'any man's works are of gold, 
he shall be made brighter ; if any man's course 
of life be like stubble, and unsubstantial, it 
shall be burnt up by the fire ?. And the Father 
shali sit, having His garment white as sfioiv, 
and the hair of His head like pure wool^. But 
this is spoken after the manner of men; where- 
fore ? Because He is the King of those who 

6 Eccles. xii. 5. Cyril means rightly that the aged shrink from 
a giddy height, and from imaginary dangers of the road. For tlu 
voice of the sparrow, see below, § 21, note 4. 

7 M.Ttt. xxiv. ^o: Zech. xii. 12. 8 Eccles. xii. 5. 

9 "Dr. Thomson {Th<j Lund and the Book, p. 319,) says 
of the almond tree, " It is the type of old age, whose hair is 
white " (Speaker's Commentary). 

1 The step, once as active as a grasshopper, or locust, shall 
grow heavy and slow. For other interpretations see Delitzsch. 

2 Thecaper-herry (KaTTTrapi;) shall /ail, i.e. no longer stimulate 
appetite. But 6ia<rxe5iicrf*))creTai (Sept. Cyril) means that the old 
man siiall be like a caper-berry which when fully ripe bursts 
its husks and scatters its seeds: so R.V. (Margin); The caper- 
berry shall burst. Greg. Thaumat. Mctaphr. Eccles. '' The 
transgressors are cast out of the way, like a black and despicable 
caper-|)lant." 3 i Thess ii. 16. 

4 Compare the spurious Apocalypse of John: "And at the 
voice of the bird every plant shall arise; that is. At the voice 
of the Archangel all the human race shall arise" (English Trs. 
Ante-Nic. Libr. p. 496;. According to the Talmud the meaning 
is, " Even a bird awakes him " (Delitzsch). 

5 Ps. 1. 3. * Dan. vii. 13, 10. 

7 I Cor. iii. 12, 13. On (ivvv6<na.Tov, see Index. On 5oKi/iio(r- 
TiKOf, compare 'I he Teacliing of the .4postles, S 16 : '' Then all 
created mankind shall come to the fire of testing (6o/ci/iao-ias), and 
many shall be offended and perish." * Dan. vii. 9. 


T I I 

have not been defiled with sins ; for, He says, 
/ will make your sins white as snow, and as 
'iVool9, which is an emblem of forgiveness of 
sins, or of sinlessness itself. But the Lord 
who shall come from heaven on the clouds, is 
He who ascended on the clouds ; for He 
Himself hath said, And they shall see the Son of 
Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power 
and great glory ^ 

22. But what is the sign of His coming? 
lest a hostile power dare to counterfeit it. 
And then shall appear. He says, the sign of the 
Son of Man in heaven ^. Now Christ's own true 
sign is the Cross ; a sign of a luminous Cross 
shall go before the King 3, plainly declaring 
Him who was formerly crucified: that the Jews 
who before pierced Ifi?n and plotted against 
Him, when they see it, may mourn tribe by 
tribe^, saying, "This is He who was bufieted, 
this is He whose face they spat on, this is 
He whom they bound with chains, this is He 
whom of old they crucified, and set at nought s. 
Whither, they will say, shall we flee from the 
face of Thy wrath?" But the Angel hosts 
shall encompass them, so that they shall not 
be able to flee anywhere. The sign of the 
Cross shall be a terror to His foes ; but joy to 
His friends who have believed in Him, or 
preached Him, or suffered for His sake. Who 
then is the happy man, who shall then be 
found a friend of Christ? That King, so great 
and glorious, attended by the Angel-guaids, 
the partner of the Father's throne, will not 
despise His own servants. For that His Elect 
may not be confused with His foes. He shall send 
forth His Angels with a great trumpet, and they 
shall gather together His elect from the f our win ds^. 
He despised not Lot, who was but one; how 
then shall He despise many righteous ? Come, 
ye blessed of My FatherT , will He say to them 
who shall then ride on chariots of clouds, and 
be assembled by Angels. 

23. But some one present will say, " I am 
a poor man," or again, " I shall perhaps be 
foui:d at that time sick in bed;" or, "'I 
am but a woman, and I shall be taken at 
the mill ; shall we then be despised ? " Be of 

9 Is. i. t8. ' Matt. xxiv. 30. 2 lb. 

3 Cat. xiii. 41. In the letter to Constantius, three or four years 
later than this Lecture, Cyril treats the appearance at that time of 
a luminous Cross in the sky as a fulfilment of Matt. x.\iv. 30 : but 
he there adds (£/. aa Constantiuin, % 6) that our Lord's pre- 
diction "was hoth fulfilled at that present time, and shall again 
he fulfilled more largely." On the opinion that "the sign of 
the Son of Man in heaven" should be the Cross, see Suicer, 
Thcsaurjis, Sraupos. It is not improbable that the earliest trace 
of this interpretation is found in T/te Teaching of the Afoatles, 
§ 16: "Then shall appear the signs of the Truth: the first the 
sign of a (cross) spreading out (cKjreTacrews) in heaven." 

^ Zech. xii. 12. 

5 Cf. Barnab. Epist. c. vii. : " For they shall see Him in that 
day wearing the long scarlet robe about His flesh, and shall say. 
Is not this He, whom once we crucified, and set at nought, and 
spat upon (a/, and pierced, and mocked)?" 

6 Matt. xxiv. 31. 7 lb. xxv. 34. 

good courage, O man ; the Judge is no re- 
specter of persons ; He ivill not Judge according 
to a man^s appearance, nor reprove accot-ding to 
his speech ^. He honours not the learned before 
the simple, nor the rich before the needy. 
Though thou be in the field, the Angels shall 
take thee ; think not that He will take the 
landowners, and leave thee the husbandman. 
Though thou be a slave, though thou be poor, 
be not any whit distressed ; He who took the 
form of a servant '^ despises not servants. 
Though thou be lying sick in bed, yet it 
is written. Then shall tzvo be in one bed ; the 
one shall be taken, atid the other left ^ Though 
thou be of compulsion put to grind, whether 
thou be man or woman ^; though thou be in 
fetters 3, and sit beside the mill, yet He who 
by His fnight bringeth out them that are bounds, 
will not overlook thee. He who brought forth 
Joseph out of slavery and prison to a kingdom, 
shall redeem thee also from thy afflictions into 
the kingdom of heaven. Only be of good cheer, 
only work, only strive earnestly ; for nothing 
shall be lost. Every prayer of thine, every Psalm 
thou singest is recorded ; every alms-deed, 
every fast is recorded; every marriage duly 
observed is recorded; continences kept for 
God's sake is recorded ; but the first crowns 
in the records are those of virginity and purity; 
and thou shalt shine as an Angel. But as 
thou hast gladly listened to the good things, so 
listen again without shrinkmg to the contrary. 
Every covetous deed of thine is recorded ; 
thine every act of fornication is recorded, 
thine every false oath is recorded, every blas- 
phemy, and sorcery, and theft, and murder. 
All these things are henceforth to be recorded, 
if thou do the same now after having been 
baptized ; for thy former deeds are blotted out. 
24. When the Son of Man, He says, shall 
come in His glory, arid all the Angels with 
Hifn ^. Behold, O man, before what multitudes 
thou shalt come to judgment. Every race of 
mankind will then be present. Reckon, there- 
fore, how many are the Roman nation; reckon 
how many the barbarian tribes now living, 
and how many have died within the last 
hundred years ; reckon how many nations 
have been buried during the last thousand 
years ; reckon all from Adam to this day. 
Great indeed is the multitude; but yet it is 

8 Is. xi. 3: (R.V.) He shall not Judge after the sight of his 
eyes, nor reprove after the hearing of his ears. 

9 Phil. ii. 7. I Luke xvii. 34. 2 lb. v. 35. 

3 The Jerusalem MS. (A) alone has the true reading neSaf, 
which is confirmed by 7re7re6i)fie'i'OU? in the quotation following, 
instead of nalSas, which is quite inappropriate, and evidently 
an itacism. ■♦ Ex. xi. 5. 

5 'Ey/cpdreta. "Id est viduitas" (Ben. Ed.). This special 
reference of the word to widowhood is to some extent confirmed by 
I Cor. vii. 9 : el Si ovk iyKparevovTai., and is rendered highly 
probable by Cyril's separate mention of marriage and virginity. 

6 Matt. xxv. 31. 



little, for the Angels are many more. They are 
the 7imeiy a?td ni?ie sheep, but mankind is the 
single one 7. For according to the extent of uni- 
versal space, must we reckon the number of its 
inhabitants. The whole earch is but as a point 
in the midst of the one heaven, and yet contains 
so great a multitude; what a multitude must 
the heaven which encircles it contain ? And 
must not the heaven of heavens contain un- 
imaginable numbers ^ ? And it is written, Thou- 
sand thousands i?iinistered ufito Him. and ten 
thousand times ten thousand stood before Hi7n 9; 
not that the multitude is only so great, but be- 
cause the Prophet could not express more than 
these. So tliere will be present at the judg- 
ment in that day, God, the Father of all, Jesus 
Christ being seated with Him, and the Holy 
Ghost present with Them ; and an angel's 
trumpet shall summon us all to bring our deeds 
with us. Ought we not then from this time 
forth to be sore troubled ? Think it not a 
slight doom, O man, even apart from punish- 
ment, to be condemned in the presence of so 
many. Shall we not choose rather to die 
many deaths, than be condemned by friends? 

25. Let us dread then, brethren, lest God 
condemn us \ who needs not examination or 
proofs, to condemn. Say not, In the night I 
committed fornication, or wrought sorcery, or 
did any other thing, and there was no man b}'. 
Out of thine own conscience shalt thou be 
judged, thy thoughts the meanwhile accusing or 
else excusing, in the day ivhefi God shall judge the 
secrets of men \ The terrible countenance of 
the Judge will force thee to speak the truth ; 
or rather, even though thou speak not, it will 
convict thee. For thou shalt rise clothed with 
thine own sins, or else with thy righteous deeds. 
And this has the Judge Himself declared, 
— for it is Christ who judges— ^r neither doth 
the Father Judge any man, but he hath s^ive7t 
all judgment unto the Son =*, not divesting Him- 
self of His power, but judging through the Son; 
the Son therefore judgeth by the will 3 of the 
Father ; for the wills of the Father and of the 
Son are not different, but one and the same. 
What then says the Judge, as to whether thou 
shalt bear thy works, or no ? And before Him 
shall they gather all 7iations* : (for in the presence 
of Christ every knee 77iust bow, of things i7i heaven, 
andthi/igs in earth, a7id things imder the earth s .•) 

7 Matt, xviii. 12 ; Luke xv. 4. Ambrose, Expos, in Luc. VII. 
210: "Rich is that sliepherd of whose flock we are but tlie 
one hundredth part. Of An.eels and Arch.Tugels, of Dominions, 
Powers, Tluones, and others He hath coumless flocks, wliom He 
hath left upon the mountains." Cf. Gregor. Hyf^s. Contra Eunom. 
Or. xii. 

8 There is much variation in the reading and punctuation 
of this passage. I have followed the text adopted by the Jeru- 
salem Editor with Codd. A. Roe. Casaub. and Grodecti, in pre- 
ference to the Benedictine text, with which the Editor himself 
IS dissatisfied. 9 Dan. vii. 10. 

' Rom. ii. 15, 16. 2 John v. 22. 

3 j-eu^art. Cat. xi. aa. 4 Matt. xxv. 32. 5 Phil. ii. 10. 

a7id He shall sepai'ate thei7i one fro77i another, as 
the shepherd divideih his sheep from the goats. 
How does the shepherd make the separation ? 
Does he examine out of a book which is a 
sheep and which a goat ? or does he distinguish 
by their evident marks? Does not the wool show 
the sheep, and the hairy and rough skin the 
goat ? In like manner, if thou hast been just 
now cleansed from thy sins, thy deeds shall be 
henceforth as pure wool ; and thy robe shall 
remain unstained, and thou shalt ever say, / 
have put off t7iy coat, how shall 1 put it on ^ ? By 
thy vesture shalt thou be known for a sheep. 
But if thou be found hairy, like Esau, who was 
rough with hair, and wicked in mind, who for 
food lost his birthright and sold his privilege, 
thou shalt be one of those on the left hand. 
But God forbid that any here present should 
be cast out from grace, or for evil deeds be 
found among the ranks of the sinners on the 
left hand ! 

26. Terrible in good truth is the judgment, 
and terrible the things announced. The king- 
dom of heaven is set before us, and everlasting 
fire is prepared. How then, some one will say, 
are we to escape the fire ? And how to enter 
into the kingdom ? Iwas a7i hu7tgred, He says, 
a7id ye gave Me meat. Learn hence the way ; 
there is here no need of allegory, but to fiilfil 
what is said, Itvas a7i hungred, a7id ye gave Me 
7neat ; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me d/-ink ; I 
was a st7-anger, a7id ye took Me i/i ; 7iaked, and 
ye clothed Me ; I was sick, and ye visited Me ; I 
7iias in p7-ison, and ye ca7ne unto Me 7. These 
things if thou do, thou shalt reign together 
with Him ; but if tliou do them not, thou shalt 
be condemned. At once then begin to do 
these works, and abide in the faith ; lest, like 
the foolish virgins, tarrying to buy oil, thou be 
shut out. Be not confident because thou merely 
possessest the lamp, but constantly keep it 
burning. Let the Hght of thy good works 
shine before men ^, and let not Christ be blas- 
phemed on thy account. Wear thou a gar- 
ment of incorruption 9, resplendent in good 
works ; and whatever matter thou receivest 
from God to administer as a steward, administer 
profitably. Hast thou been put in trust with 
riches ? Dispense them well. Hast thou been 
entrusted with the word of teacliing? Be a 
good Stewart! thereof Canst thou attach the 
souls of the hearers " ? Do this diligently. 

6 Cant. V. 3. Compare Cat. iii. 7 ; xx. (Mystag. ii.) a. 

7 Matt. xxv. 35. 8 Matt. v. 16. 

9 The prayer lor the Catechumens in the Apostolic Consti- 
tutions, viii. 6, contains a petition that God would " vouchsafe 
to them the laver of iei;eneralion,and the garment of incorruption, 
which is the true life." 

' ■trpoctOtlva.i, Cf. Acts ii. 41 '. vpo<TeTe6ri(Tav. According to 
some MSS. the sentence would run thus: "Hast thou been 
entrusted with the word of teaching? Be a good steward of thy 
hearers' souls. Hast thou power to rule (n-poo'Trji'ai) ? Do this 



There are many doors of good stewardship. 
Only let none of us be condemned and cast 
out ; that we may with boldness meet Christ 
the Everlasting King, who reigns for ever. 
For He doth reign for ever, who shall be 
judge of quick and dead, because for quick and 
dead He died. And as Paul says, For to this 
end Christ both died a?id lived again, that He 
might be Lord both of the dead and living '^. 

27. And shouldest thou ever hear any say 
that the kingdom of Christ shall have an end, 
abhor the heresy ; it is another head of the 
dragon, lately sprung up in Galatia. A certain 
one has dared to affirm, that after the end of 
the world Christ shall reign no longer^ ; he has 
also dared to say, that the Word having come 
forth from the Father shall be again absorbed 
into the Father, and shall be no more * ; utter- 
ing such blasphemies to his own perdition. 
For he has not listened to the Lord, saying, 
The Son abidethfor ever s. He has not listened 
to Gabriel, saying. And He shall reign over 
the house of Jacob for ever, and of His kingdom 
there shall be fio end^. Consider this text. 
Heretics of this day teach in disparagement of 
Christ, while Gabriel the Archangel taught the 
eternal abiding of the Saviour ; whom then 
wilt thou rather believe ? wilt thou not rather 
give credence to Gabriel ? Listen to the testi- 
mony of Daniel in the text ^ ; I saiv in a vision 
of the night, and behold, one like the Son of Man 
came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the 

Ancient of days And to Him was giveti 

the honour, and the dominion, atid the king- 

* Rom. xiv. 9. 

3 Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra, and his pupil Photinus, are 
anathematized in the deed called Ma(cpo(TTixo! as holding that 
Christ first became " Son of God when He took our flesh from the 
Virgin. . . . For they will have it that then Christ Ijegan His 
Kingdom, and that it will have an end after the consummation 
of all and the judgment. Such are the disciples of Marcelhis and 
Scotinus of Galatian Ancyra, itc." See Newman on Athanasius, 
de Synodis, § 26, (5), notes a and b. Compare the description 
of Marcellus in the Letter of the Oriental Bishops who had with- 
drawn from the Coinicil of Sardica to Pliilippopolis (v.ij. 344). 
"There has aiisen in our days a certain Marcellus of Galatia, 
the most execrable pest of all heretics, ivho with sacrilegious mind, 
and impious mouth, and wicked argument seeks to set boiuids to 
the perpetual, eternal, and timeless kingdom of our Lord Christ, 
saying that He began to reign four hundred years since, and 
shall end at the dissoliiti(m of the present world" (Hilar. Pictav. 
Ex Opcre Hist. Fr.agm. iii. ). 

4 "The person meant by Cyril, though he withholds the name, 
is Marcellus of Ancyra ; who having written a book against the 
Arian Sophist Asterius to explain the Apostle's statement concern- 
ing the subjecticn of the Son to the Father, was thought to be 
renewing tl.e heresy of Paul of Samosata. On this account he was 
reprovcu by the Bishops at the Councd of Jerusalem, a.d. 335, for 
holding false opinions, and being ordered to recant his opinions 
promised to burn his book. Afterwards he applied to Constantine, 
by whom he was remitted to the Council of Constantinople, a.d. 
336, and deposed by the Bishops. As however he was acquitted by 
the Councils of Rome, a.d 342, and of Sardica, a.d. 347, it became 
a matter of di pule whether he was really heretical. . . . From the 
fragments of his books transcribed by Eusebius, you may po^sibly 
acquit him of the S.abellian heresy and the confusion of the 
Father and the Son, but certainly not of the heresy concerning 
the end of Christ's kingdom, and the abandonment by the Word 
of the human nature which He assumed for our sake ; so express 
are his words recorded by Eusebius in the beginning of the 2nd 
Book Contra Marcellum, pp. 50, 51." (Ben. Ed.) Cf. Diet. 
Clir. Biogr. " F.usebius of Caesarea," p. 341 ; and note 3 on § 9 
above. 5 John viii. 25. 

6 Luke i. 33. 7 TJji' TTapovirav. 


dom : and all peoples, tribes, and languages shall 
serve Him ; His dominion is an everlasting 
dominion, which shall not pass aivay, atid His 
kingdom shall not be destroyed^. These things 
rather hold fast, these things believe, and cast 
away from thee the words of heresy ; for thou 
hast heard most plainly of the endless king- 
dom of Christ. 

28. The like doctrine thou has also in the 
interpretation of the Stone, which tea cut out of 
a mountain without hands, which is Christ 
according to the flesh ^ ; And His kingdom shall 
not be left -to another people. David also says in 
one place. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and 
ever'' ; and in another place, Thou, Lord, in 
the beginning hast laid the foundations of the 
earth, d^c, they shall perish, but Thou re- 
mainest, ^c. ; but Thou art the same, atid 
Thy years shall not fail ^ : words which Paul 
has interpreted of the Son 3. 

29. And wouldest thou know how they who 
teach the contrary ran into such madness ? 
They read wrongly that good word of the 
Apostle, For He must reign, till He hath put all 
enemies tinder His feet ^; and they say, when 
His enemies shall have been put under His 
feet, He shall cease to reign, wrongly and 
foolishly alleging this. For He who is king 
before He has subdued His enemies, how shall 
He not the rather be king, after He has gotten 
the mastery over them. 

30. They have also dared to say that the 
Scripture, When all things shall be subjected 
unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be 
subjected unto Him that subjected all things unto 
Him 5, — that this Scripture shews that the Son 
also shall be absorbed into the Father. Shall 
ye then, O most impious of all men, ye the 
creatures of Christ, continue,? and shall Christ 
perish, by whom both you and all things were 
made ? Such a word is blasphemous. But 
further, how shall all things be made subject 
unto Him? By perishing, or by abiding? 
Shall then the other things, when subject to 
the Son. abide, and shall the Son, when sub- 
ject to the Father, not abide ? For He shall 
be subjected, not because He shall then begin 
to do the Father's will (for from eternity He 
doth always those things that please Him ^), but 
because, then as before. He obeys the Father, 
yielding, not a forced obedience, but a self- 
chosen accordance ; for He is not a servant, 
that He should be subjected by force, but a 
Son, that He should comply of His free choice 
and natural love. 

8 Dan. vii. 13, 14. 9 lb. ii. 45 ; Rom. ix. 5. ' Ps xlv. 6. 

2 lb. cii. 25 — 27. 3 Heb. i. 10—12. 4 1 Cor. xv. 25. 

5 I Cor. XV. 11. 28. Theodoret. Comment, in Epist. i. ad Cor. 
XV. 2S: " This passage the followers of Anus and Eunomius carry 
continually on their tongue, thinking in this way to disparage the 
dignity of the Only-begotten." & John viii. 29. 



31. But let us examine them ; what is the 
meaning of " until " or " as long as? " For with 
the very phrase will I close with them, and 
try to overthrow their error. Since they have 
dared to say that the words, //// He hath put 
His eftemies under His feet, shew that He Him- 
self shall have an end, and have presumed to 
set bounds to the eternal kingdom of Christ, 
and to bring to an end, as far as words go, 
His never-ending sovereignty, come then, let 
us read the like expressions in the Apostle : 
Nevertheless, death reigfied from Adam till 
Moses 7, Did men then die up to that time, 
and did none die any more after Moses, or 
after the Law has there been no more death 
among men? Well then, thou seest that the 
word " unto " is not to limit time ; but that 
Paul rather signified this, — " And yet, though 
Moses was a righteous and wonderful man, 
nevertheless the doom of death, which was ut- 
tered against Adam, reached even unto him, and 
them that came after him ; and this, though 
they had not committed the like sins as Adam, 
by his disobedience in eating of the tree." 

32. Take again another similar text. For tin- 
til this day . . . zvhen Moses is read, a vail lieth 
upon their heart ^. Does until this day mean 
only "until Paul?" Is it not utitil this day 
present, and even to the end ? And if Paul 
say to the Corinthians, For we came even 
as far as U7ito you in preaching the Gospel of 
Christ, having hope ivhen your faith increases 
to preach the Gospel in the regions beyond you 9, 
thou seest manifestly that as far as implies not 
the end, but has something following it. In 

7 Rom. V. 14. " a.)(^pi, from dicpo?, as jne'xP' tVorn fiTJKo?, 
/iaxpo?" (L. and Sc). It is not always possible to mark this 
distinction in translation : cf. Lobeck, Phrynichiis, p. 14 ; Viger, 
De Idiot. Gr. p. 419. 

8 2 Cor. iii. 14, 15. 9 lb. x. 14, 15, 16. 

what sense then shouldest thou remember that 
Scripture, //// He hath put all enemies under 
His feet ^ ? According as Paul says in another 
place. And exhort each other daily, while it is 
called to-day ^ ; meaning, " continually. " For as 
we may not speak of the " beginning of the 
days " of Christ, so neither suffer thou that 
any should ever speak of the end of His 
kingdom. For it is written, His kingdom is an 
everlasting kingdom 3. 

33. And though I have many more testimonies 
out of the divine Scriptures, concerning the king- 
dom of Christ which has no end for ever, I will be 
content at present with those above mentioned, 
because the day is far spent. But thou,0 hearer, 
worship only Him as thy King, and flee all 
heretical error. And if the grace of God per- 
mit us, the remaining Articles also of the Faith 
shall be in good time declared to you. And 
may the God of the whole world keep you all in 
safety, bearing in mind the signs of the end, 
and remaining unsubdued by Antichrist. Thou 
hast received the tokens of the Deceiver who 
is to come ; thou hast received the proofs of 
the true Christ, who shall openly come down 
from heaven. Flee therefore the one, the False 
one ; and look for the other, the True. Thou 
hast learnt the way, how in the judgment thou 
mayest be found among those on the right 
hand ; guard that which is committed to thee'' 
concerning Christ, and be conspicuous in good 
works, that thou mayest stand with a good 
confidence before the Judge, and inherit the 
kingdom of heaven: — -Through whom, and 
with whom, be glory to God with the Holy 
Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen. 

« I Cor. XV. 25. 

» Heb. iii. 13. 
4 I i'lm. vi. 20. 

3 Dan. vii. 14, 27. 


On the Article, And in one Holy Ghost, the Comforter, which spake 

IN THE Prophets. 

I Corinthians xii. i, 4. 

Now concerning spiritual gifts ^ brethren, I would not have you ignorant. 
are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit, c^v. 

Now there 

1. Spiritual in truth is the grace we need, in 
order to discourse concerning the Holy Spirit ; 
not that we may speak what is worthy of Him, 
for this is impossible, but that by speaking the 
words of the divine Scriptures, we may run our 
course without danger. For a truly fearful thing 
is written in the Gospels, where Christ has plainly 
said, Whosoever shall speak a word against the 
Ho'y Ghost, it shall ?iot be forgiven him, neither 
in tills ivorld, nor ifi that which is to co>ne^. 
And there is often fear, lest a man should 
receive this condemnation, through speaking 
what he ought not concerning Him, either from 
ignorance, or from supposed reverence. The 
Judge of quick and dead, Jesus Christ, de- 
clared that he hath no forgiveness ; if therefore 
any man offend, what hope has he? 

2. It must therefore belong to Jesus Christ's 
grace itself to grant both to us to speak 
without deficiency, and to you to hear with 
discretion ; for discretion is needful not to 
them only who speak, but also to them that 
hear, lest they hear one thing, and misconceive 
another in their mind. Let us then speak 
concerning the Holy Ghost nothing but what 
is written ; and whatsoever is not written, let 
us not busy ourselves about it. The Holy 
Ghost Himself spake the Scriptures ; He has 
also spoken concerning Himself as much as 
He pleased, or as much as we could receive. 
Let us therefore speak those things which He 
has said ; for whatsoever He has not said, we 
dare not say. 

3. There is One Only Holy Ghost, the 
Comforter; and as there is One God the 
Father, and no second Father ; — and as there 
is One Only-begotten Son and Word of God, 
who hath no brother ; — so is there One Only 

< Matt. xii. 33. 

Holy Ghost, and no second spirit equal in 
honour to Him. Now the Holy Ghost is a 
Power most mighty, a Being divine and 
unsearchable ; for He is living and in- 
telligent, a sanctifying principle of all things 
made by God through Christ. He it is 
who illuminates the souls of the just; He was 
in the Prophets, He was also in the Apostles 
in the New Testament. Abhorred be they 
who dare to separate the operation of the 
Holy Ghost ! There is One (iod, the Fa- 
ther, Lord of the Old and of the New Tes- 
tament : and One Lord, Jesus Christ, who 
was prophesied of in the Old Testament, 
and came in the New ; and One Holy Ghost, 
who througli the Prophets preached of Christ, 
and when Christ was come, descended, and 
manifested Him ^ 

* At the end of this section there follows in the Coislin MS. 
a long interpolation consisting of two parts. The former is an 
extract taken word for word from Gregory of Nyssa, Oratio 
Catechetica, ii. c, which may be read in ttiis series : 'AAA' ois @io\i 
Ao-^oi' a.KOv<To.vTt<; .... avviipofJ^ov e^^outrai' tj} ^ouArjtret rriv 
Svifafi.iv. Of the second passage the Benedictine Editor says: 
" I have not been able to discover who is the author. No one 
can assign it to our Cyril, although the doctrine it contains is 
in full agreement with his : but he explains all the same points 
more at large in his two Lectures (xvi. xvii.). The passage is very 
ancient and undoubtedly older than the eleventh century, which is 
the date of the Cod. Coislin. Therefore in the controversy of the 
Latins against the Greeks concerning the Procession of the Holy 
Ghost it is important to notice what is taught in this passage, and 
also brought forward as a testimony by S. Thomas (Aquinas), 
that "The Holy Ghost is of the Godhead of the P'atherand the 
Son (ex Patris et Filii divinitate existere)." To me indeed these 
words seem to savour altogether not ot the later but of the more 
ancient theology of the Greeks, and to be earlier than the con- 
troversies of the Greeks against the Latins." 

This second passage is as follows : — 

" For the Spirit of God is good. And Thy good Spirit, says 
David, shall lead me in the land of righteousness. This then is 
the Spirit of God in which we believe : the bles-^ed Spirit, the 
eternal, immutable, unchangeable, ineffable: which rules and 
reigns over all productive being, both visible and invisible natures : 
which is Lord both of Angels and Archangels, Powers, Prin- 
cipalities, Dominions, Thrones: the Creator of all being, en- 
throned with the glory of the Father and the Son, reigning without 
beginning and without end with the Father and the Son, before 
the created substances : Who sanctities the ministering spiriis 
sent forth for the sake of those mho are to inherit salvation : 
Who came down upon the holy and blessed Virgin Mary, of whon 

I 2 



4. Let no one therefore separate the Old from 
the New Testament 3 ; let no one say that the 
Spirit in the former is one, and in the latter 
another ; since thus he offends against the 
Holy Ghost Himself, who with the Father 
and the Son together is honoured, and at the 
time of Holy Baptism is included with them 
in the Holy Trinity. For the Only-begotten 
Son of God said plainly to the Apostles, Go ye, 
and viake disciples of all the nations, baptizing 
them into the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost''. Our hope is in 
Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost. We 
preach not three Gods s ; let the Marcionites 
be silenced ; but with the Holy Ghost through 
One Son, we preach One God. The Faith is 
indivisible ; the worship inseparable. We 
neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some ; 
nor do we as SabeUius work confusion ^. 
But we know according to godliness One 
Father, who sent His Son to be our Saviour ; 
we know One Son, who promised that He 
would send the Comforter from the Father; 
we know the Holy Ghost, who spake in the 
Prophets, and who on the day of Pentecost 
descended on the Apostles in the form of fiery 
tongues, here, in Jerusalem, in the Upper 
Church of the Apostles i ; for in all things the 
choicest privileges are with us. Here Christ 
came down from heaven ; here the Holy ( jhost 
came down from heaven. And in truth it 
were most fitting, that as we discourse con- 
cerning Christ and Golgotha here in Golgotha, 
so also we should speak concerning the Holy 
Ghost in the Upper Church ; yet since He 
who descended there jointly partakes of the 
glory of Him who was crucified* here, we here 

was born Christ according to the flesh ; came down also upon the 
Lord Himself ill bodily form of a dove in the river Jordan : Who 
came upon the Apostles on the day of Pentecost in form of fiery 
tongues ; Who gives and supplies ail spiriuial gifts in the Church, 
Who iKOCEEDETH FROM THE FATHER : Who is of the Clodliead 
of the Father and the Son ; Who is of one substance with the 
Father and the Son, inseparable and indivi>ible." 

3 Cf- Cat. iv. 33; vii. 6. lrena;us, Uteres. III. xxi. 4; IV. 
ix. I. In Eusebius, E.Il. V. 13. Rhodun says that Apelles attri- 
buted the prophecies to an adverse spirit, and rejected them as 
false and self-contradictory. Similar blasphemies against the holy 
Prophets are imputed to Manes by Epiphanius {lla-res. Ixvi. 30). 

■♦ Matt, xxviji. 19. The same text is used with much force by 
S. Basil {De Spir. i>. cap. xxiv.). 

5 Cat. xi. 4, note 3. See Newman's notes on Athanasius, 
Contra Arian. Or. 1. viii. i ; lb. Or. III. xxv. 9 ; lb. xxvii. 3. 
Marcion's doctrine of three first principles (rpiwi' ap.ycij/ Aoyos) 
is discussed by ICpiphanius {Hc^res. xlii. 6, 7). See also TertuU. 
Contra Marcion. I. 15 ; Euseb. Hist. Eccles. V. 13. 

6 <jvvaXii\>i,v, iv. 8 ; xi. i6 ; xv. g. 

7 Cat. xvii. 13. Epiphanius {De Mensuris ct Ponder, c. 14): 
"And he (Hadrian) fouiui the city all levelled to the ground, except 
a fevv houses, and tlie Church of God which was small: where the 
Disciples, on their return after the Saviour was taken up fiom the 
Mount of Olives, went up into the upper chamber : for there it 
had been built, that is on Sion." Cf. Stanley, Simti and Pales- 
tine, c. xiv. 3: "Within the precincts of that Mosque (of the 
Tomb of David) is a vaulted Gothic chamber, which contains 
within its four walls a greater confluence of traditions than any 
other I'lace of like dimensions in Palestine. It is startling to hear 
that this is the scene of the Last Supper, of the meeting after the 
Resurrection, o' the iniiacle of I'entecost, of the residence and 
death 01 the Vh„in, of the burial of Stephen." 

speak concerning Him also who descended 
there : for their worship is indivisible. 

5. We would now say somewhat concerning 
the Holy Ghost ; not to declare His substance 
with exactness, for this were impossible ; but 
to speak of the diverse mistakes of some con- 
cerning him, lest from ignorance we should 
fall into them ; and to block up the paths of 
error, that we may journey on the King's one 
highway. And if we now for caution's sake 
repeat any statement of the heretics, let it 
recoil on their heads, and may we be guilt- 
less, both we who speak, and ye who hear. 

6. For the heretics, who are most profane 
in all things, have sharpened their tongue^ against 
the Holy Ghost also, and have dared to utter 
impious things ; as Irensus the interpreter has 
written in his injunctions against heresies?. For 
some of them have dared to say that they 
were themselves the Holy Ghost ; — of whom 
the first was Simon ', the sorcerer spoken of in 
the Acts of the .\postles ; for when he was 
cast out, he presumed to teach such doctrines : 
and they who are called Gnostics, impious 
men, have spoken other things against the 
Spirit -, and the wicked Valentinians 3 again 
something else ; and the profane Manes dared 
to call himself the Paraclete sent by Christ ■♦. 
Others again have taught that the S[)irit is 
different in the Prophets and in the New 
Testaments Yea, and great is their error, or 
rather their blasphemy. Such therefore abhor, 
and flee from them who blaspheme the Holy 
Ghost", and have no forgiveness. For what 
fellowship hast thou with the desperate, thou, 
who art now to be baptized, into the Holy 
Ghost also ^ ? If he who attaches himself to a 
thief, and consenteth with him, is subject to 
punishment, what hope shall he have, who 
ofiends against the Holy Ghost? 

7. Let the Marcionists also be abhorred, 
who tear away from the New Testament the 
sayings of the Old 7. For Marcion first, that 
most impious of men, who first asserteci three 
Gods^, knowing that in the New Testament are 

8 Ps. cxl. 3. 

9 Irei)a;us is called "the interpreter" in the same general 
sense as other ecclesiastical authors (Cat. xiii. 21 ; xv. 20), 
on account of his irequent comments upon the Scriptures. The 
full title of his work was .-J Refutation and Subversion of 
k'nmviedge falsely so called (Euseb. Hist. Eccles. V. c. 7). 
Cyril's expression (ec tois Trpoa-Toiy^ao-i) is sufficiently .Tppropriate 
to tiie hortatory purpose profes>ed by Irena;us in his preface. 
But the Br.ncdictine ICditor thinks that the word TrpoaTay/oiacri 
may be an interpolation arising I'rom the following worcis Trpos 
rd? .... The meaning would then be " in his writ ngs Against 
Heresies," the usual short title of the work. 

' Cat. vi. 14, note 10. - Irenxiis (1. xxix. § 4 ; xxx. § i). 

3 lb. I. ii. §§ 5, 6. 4 Cat. vi. 25. 

5 Cat. iv. 33. See § 3, note 3, above. 

* i.e. as well as into the Father and the Son. 

7 .See Pit. Christ. Biograjdiy, Marcion, p. 283; and Ter- 
tullian (.-/(j'?'. Marcion. IV. 6): " His whole aim centres in this 
that he may establish a diversity between the Old and New 
Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the 
Creator, as belonging to the rival ;;od. and ;ts alien from the La* 
and the Prophets. b Cf. § 4, note Sj above. 



contained testimonies of the Prophets concern- 
ing Christ, cut out the testimonies taken from 
the Old Testament, that the King might be left 
without witness. Abhor those above-mentioned 
Gnostics, men of knowledge by name, but 
fraught with ignorance ; who have dared to 
say such things of the Holy Ghost as I dare 
not repeat. 

8. Let the Cataphrygians 9 also be thy abhor- 
rence, and Montanus, their ringleader in evil, 
and his two so-called prophetesses, Maximilla 
and Priscilla. For this Montanus, who was 
out of his mind and really mad (for he would 
not have said such things, had he not been 
mad), dared to say that he was himself the 
Holy Ghost, — he, miserable man, and filled 
with all uncleanness and lasciviousness ; for 
it suffices but to hint at this, out of respect for 
the women who are present. And having taken 
])ossession of Pepuza, a very small hamlet of 
Phrygia, he falsely named it Jerusalem ; and cut- 
ting the throats of wretched little children, and 
c:hopping them up into unholy food, for the 
purpose of their so-called mysteries % — (where- 
fore till but lately in the time of persecution, 
we were suspected of doing this, because these 
Montanists were called, falsely indeed, by the 
common name of Christians ;) — yet he dared 
to call himself the Holy Ghost, filled as he 
was with all impiety and inhuman cruelty, and 
condemned by an irrevocable sentence. 

9. And he was seconded, as was said before, 
by that most impious Manes also, who com- 
bined what was bad in every heresy^; who 
being the very lowest pit of destruction, col- 
lected the doctrines of all the heretics, and 
wrought out and taught a yet more novel 
error, and dared to say that he himself was 
the Comforter, whom Christ promised to send. 
But the Saviour when He promised Him, said 
to the Apostles, But tarry ye in the city of 
Jei-usalan, until ye be endued with power from on 
high 3. What then ? did the Apostles who had 
been dead two hundred years, wait for Manes, 
until they should be endued 7uith the power ; and 
will any dare to say, that they were not forth- 
with full of the Holy Ghost? Moreover it is 
written, Then they laid their hands on them, 
and they received the Holy Ghost ^ ; was not this 
before Manes, yea, many years before, when 
the Holy Ghost descended on the day of 

9 Phrygians, or Cataphrygians (oi Kara <I>pvyas) was the name 
given to the followers of the Phrygian Montanus. See the ac- 
count of Moiitanism in Eusebius, Hist. EccL V. xvi.,and the note 
then-- in this Series. 

J The charges of hist and cniehy brought against the Mont- 
anists by Cyril and Epiphanius(//c<'r. 48 seem to rest on no tnist- 
\>-orthy evidence, ana are not mentioned by Eusebius, a bitter foe 
t» the sect 

"^ On Manes, see Cat. vi. 20 ff. 

? Luke x.\iv. 49. 4 Acts viii. 17. 

10. Wherefore was Simon the sorcerer con- 
demned ? Was it not that he came to the 
Apostles, and said. Give me also this power, 
that on whotfisoever I lay hands, he may receive 
the Holy Ghost? For he said not, "Give me 
also the fellowship of the Holy Ghost," but 
" Give me the power ; " that he might sell to 
others that which could not be sold, and 
which he did not himself possess. He offered 
money also to them who had no possessions s ; 
and this, though he saw men bringing the prices 
of the things sold, and laying them at the 
Apostles' feet. And he considered not that 
they who trod under foot the wealth which 
was brought for the maintenance of the poor, 
were not likely to give the power of the Holy 
Ghost for .a bribe. But what say they to 
Simon ? Thy money perish with thee, because 
thou hast thought to purchase the gift of God 
with money ^ ; for thou art a second Judas, for 
expecting to buy the grace of the Spirit with 
money. If then Simon, for wishing to get 
this power for a price, is to perish, how great 
is the impiety of Manes, who said that he was 
the Holy Ghost ? Let us hate them who are 
worthy of hatred ; let us turn away from them 
from whom God turns away ; let us also our- 
selves say unto God with all boldness concern- 
ing all heretics. Do not I hate them, O Lord, 
that hate Thee, and am not I grieved with 
Thine encfnies ^ ? For there is also an enmity 
which is right, according as it is written, 
/ ivill put enmity beticeen thee and her seed^ ; 
for friendship with the serpent works enmity 
with God, and death. 

II. Let then thus much suffice concerning 
those outcasts ; and now let us return to the 
divine Scriptures, and let us drink waters out 
of our 0W71 cisterns [that is, the holy Fathers 9], 
and out of our own springing wells ^. Drink 
we of living tvater, springing ip into ever- 
lasting life^ ; but this spake the Saviour of the 
Spirit, which they that belitve on Him should 
receive^. For observe what He says, He that 
believeth ott Ale (not simply this, but), as the 
Scripture hath said (thus He hath sent thee 
back to the Old Testament), out of his belly 
shall flow rivers of living ivater, not rivers 
perceived by sense, and merely watering the 
earth with its thorns and trees, but bringing 
souls to the light. And in another place He 
says, But the tvater that I shall give him, shall 
be in him a well of living water springing up 

5 Acts viii. 19. a/CT7)/:ioo't. Cf. § 19 : aKxrj/xoi'oi/o't. and § 22 ; 
a.Kri\ii.oa\!V(]v. * lb. V. 20. 7 Ps. cx.vxix. 21. 8 Gen. iii. 15. 

9 The words ayimv rrarcpiov are not found in the MSS. Mon. i. 
Mon. 2. Vind. Roe Casaub. nor in Grodecq. Whether meant to 
refer, as the Benedictine Editor thinks, to the writer-^ of the Old 
Testament, or to Christian authors, they are an evident gloss. 

1 Prov. V. 15. 

2 John iv. 14, quoted more fully at the end of the section. 

3 lb. vii. 38, 39. 



into everlasting life, — a new kind of water, 
living and springing up, springing up unto them 
who are worthy. 

12. And why did He call the grace of the 
Spirit water ? Because by water all things 
subsist ; because water brings forth grass and 
living things; because the water of the showers 
comes down from heaven ; because it comes 
down one in form, but works in many 
forms. For one fountain watereth the whole 
of Paradise, and one and the same rain comes 
down upon all the world, yet it becomes white 
in the lily, and red in the rose, and purple in 
violets and hyacinths, and different and varied 
in each several kind : so it is one in the palm- 
tree, and another in the vine, and all in all 
things ; and yet is one in nature, not diverse 
from itself ; for the rain does not change itself, 
and come down first as one thing, then as an- 
other, but adapting itself to the constitution of 
each thing which receives it, it becomes to each 
what is suitable 4, Thus also the Holy Ghost, 
being one, and of one nature, and indivisible, 
divides to each His grace, according as He 
will^ : and as the dry tree, after partaking of 
water, puts forth shoots, so also the soul in 
sin, when it has been through repentance 
made worthy of the Holy Ghost, brings forth 
clusters of righteousness. And though He is 
One in nature, yet many are the virtues which 
by the will of God and in the Name of Christ 
He works. For He employs the tongue of one 
man for wisdom ; the soul of another He en- 
lightens by Prophecy ; to another He gives 
power to drive away devils ; to another He 
gives to interpret the divine Scriptures. He 
strengthens one man's self-command ; He 
teaches another the way to give alms; another 
He teaches to fast and discipline himself; 
another He teaches to despise the things of 
the body ; another He trains for martyrdom : 
diverse in different men, yet not diverse from 
Himself, as it is written, But the manifestation 
of the Spirit is given to every vian to profit 
withal. For to one is given through the Spirit 
the word of wisdom; and to another the word 
of knowledge according to the same Spirit ; to 
another faith, in the same Spirit ; and to an- 
other gifts of healing, in the same Spirit ; and to 
atiother workings of miracles ; and to another 
prophecy ; and to another discernings of spirits ; 
and to another divers kinds of tongues ; and to 
another the ititerpretatio?i of tongues : but ail 
these worketh that one and the same Spirit, 
dividing to every man severally as He 7vill^. 

13. But since concerning spirit in general 
many diverse things are written in the divine 
Scriptures, and there is fear lest some out 

4 Compare a similar passage on rain in Cat. ix. 9, 10. 
5 I Cor. xii. n. "^ lb. vv. 7 — 11. 

of ignorance fall into confusion, not know- 
ing to what sort of spirit the writing refers ; 
it will be well novv to certify you, of what kind 
the Scripture declares the Holy Spirit to be. 
For as Aaron is called Christ, and David and 
Saul and others are called Christs 7, but there is 
only one true Christ, so likewise since the 
name of spirit is given to different things, it is 
right to see what is that which is distinctively 
called the Holy Spirit. For many things are 
called spirits. Thus an Angel is called 
spirit, our soul is called spirit, and this 
wind which is blowing is called spirit ; great 
virtue also is spoken of as spirit ; and im- 
pure practice is called spirit ; and a devil our 
adversary is called spirit. Beware therefore 
when thou hearest these things, lest from their 
having a common name thou mistake one for 
another. For concerning our soul the Scrip- 
ture says. His spirit shall go forth, and he shall 
return to his earth ^.- and of the same soul it 
says again. Which formeth the spirit of man 
within him^. And of the Angels it is said in 
the Psalms, JVho maketh His Angels spirits, 
and His ministers aflame offire'^. And of the 
wind it saith, lliou shall break the ships of 
Tarshish 7ciith a violent spirit ^ / and. As the 
tree in the wood is shaken by the spirit^ ; and, 
Fii-e, hail, snow, ice, spirit of stoi-fn ^. And of 
good doctrine the Lord Himself .says, The 
words that I have spoken unto you, they are 
spirit 5, and they are life; instead of, "are 
spiritual." But the Holy Spirit is not pro- 
nounced by the tongue; but He is a Living 
Spirit, who gives wisdom of speech, Hmiself 
speaking and discoursing. 

14. And woLildest thou know that He dis- 
courses and speaks? Philip by revelation of 
an Angel went down to the way which leads 
to Gaza, when the Eunuch was coming ; and 
the Spirit said to Philip, Go near, and join 
thyself to this chariot ^. Seest thou the Spirit 
talking to one who hears Him? Fzekiel 
also speaks thus. The Spirit of the Lord came 
upon me, and said unto me. Thus saith the 
LordT. And again, The Holy Ghost said^, 
unto the Apostles who were in Antioch, Sepa- 
rate me noiv Barnabas and Saul for the work 
7vhereunto I have called them. Beholdest thou 
the Spirit living, separating, calling, and with 
authority sending forth ? Paul also said, Save 
that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, 
saying that bonds and ajjlictions await me^. 
For this good Sanctifier of the Church, and 
her Helper, and Teacher, the Holy Ghost, the 
Comforter, of whom the Saviour said, He shall 

7 See Cat. x. ii ; xi. i. 8 Ps. cxlvi. 4. 9 Zech. xii. i. 

» Ps. civ. 4. 2 Ps. xlviii. 7. 3 Is. vii. 2. 

4 Ps. cxlviii. 8. 5 John VI. 63. * Acts % iii. 29. 

7 Ezek. xi. 5. « Acts xiii. 2. 9 lb. xx. 23. 



teach you all thins^s (and He said not only, He 
shall teach, but also, He shall bring to your re- 
membrance whatever I have said unto you ' / 
for the teachings of Christ and of the Holy 
Ghost are not different, but the same) — He, 1 
say, testified before to Paul what things should 
befall him, that he might be the more stout- 
hearted, from knowing them beforehand. 
Now I have spoken these things unto you 
because of the text, The words which I 
have spoken unto you, they are spirit ; that 
thou mayest understand this, not of the utter- 
ance of the lips ^, but of the good doctrine in 
this passage. 

15. But sin also is called spirit, as I have 
already said; only in another and opposite 
sense, as when it is said, The spirit of whore- 
dom caused them to err^. The name "spirit" 
is given also to the unclean spirit, the devil ; 
but with the addition of, "the unclean;" 
for to each is joined its distinguishing name, 
to mark its proper nature. If the Scrip- 
ture speak of the soul of man, it says the 
spirit with the addition, of the man; if it 
mean the wind, it says, spirit of storm ; 
if sin, it says, spirit of whoredom ; if the 
devil, it says, an unclean spirit: that we 
may know which particular thing is spoken 
of, and thou mayest not suppose that it means 
the Holy Ghost ; God forbid ! For this name 
of spirit is common to many things ; and 
every thing which has not a solid body is 
in a general way called spirit"*. Since, there- 
fore, the devils have not such bodies, they 
are called spirits : but there is a great dif- 
ference ; for the unclean devil, when he comes 
upon a man's soul (may the Lord deliver from 
him every soul of those who hear me, and 
of those who are not present), he comes 
like a wolf upon a sheep, ravening for blood, 
and ready to devour. His commg is most 
fierce ; the sense of it most oppressive ; the 
mind becomes darkened ; his attack is an in- 
justice also, and so is his usurpation of an- 
other's possession. For he makes forcible use 
of another's body, and another's instruments, as 
if they were his own ; he throws down him who 
stands upright (for he is akin to him who 
fell from heaven 5) ; he twists the tongue and 
distorts the lips ; foam comes instead of 
words ; the man is filled with darkness ; his 
eye is open, yet the soul sees not through it ; 
and the miserable man gasps convulsively 
at the point of death. The devils are verily 

1 John xiv. 26. 

2 lb. vi. 63. The Holy Spirit is more than words pronounced 
by the tongue, even than our Lord's own words, which he called 
spirit. 3 llosea iv. 12. 

4 Origen, de Principiis, i. § 2 : "It is the custom of Holy 
Scripture, when it would designate anything contrary to this 
more dense and solid body, to call it spirit." 5 Luke x. 18. 

foes of men, using them foully and merci- 

16. Such is not the Holy Ghost; God for- 
bid ! For His doings tend the contrary way, 
towards what is good and salutary. First, His 
coming is gentle ; the perception of Him is 
fragrant; His burden most light; beams of 
light and knowledge gleam forth before His 
coming ^ He comes with the bowels of a true 
guardian ; for He comes to save, and to heal, 
to teach, to admonish, to strengthen, to exhort, 
to enlighten the mint], first of him who receives 
Him, and afterwards of others also, through 
him. And as a man, who being previously in 
darkness then suddenly beholds the sun, is 
enlightened in his bodily sight, and sees plainly 
things which he saw not, so likewise he to whom 
the Holy Ghost is vouchsafed, is enhghtened 
in his soul, and sees things beyond man's sight, 
which he knew not ; his body is on earth, yet 
his soul mirrors forth the heavens. He sees, 
like Esaias, the Lord sitting upon a throne high 
and lifted upT ; he sees, like Ezekiel, Hitn who 
is above the Cherubim ^ ; he sees like Daniel, ten 
thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of 
thousands') ; and the man, who is so little, be- 
holds the beginning of the world, and knows 
the end of the world, and the times intervening, 
and the successions of king>;, — things which he 
never learned : for the True Enlightener is 
present with him. The man is within the walls 
of a house ; yet the power of his knowledge 
reaches far and wide, and he sees even what 
other men are doing. 

17. Peter was not with Ananias and Sapphira 
when they sold their possessions, but he was 
present by the Spirit; Why, he says, hath 
Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ^ 1 
There was no accuser ; there was no witness ; 
whence knew he what had happened? Whiles 
it remained was it not thine own 1 and after it 
7vas sold, was it not in thine own power 1 why 
hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart ^ ? 
The unlettered^ Peter, through the grace of the 
Spirit, learnt whai not even the wise men of 
the Greeks had known. Thou hast the like 
in the case also of Elisseus. For when he 
had freely healed the leprosy of Naaman, 
Gehazi received the reward, the reward of 
another's achievement ; and he took the money 
from Naaman, and bestowed it in a dark place. 
But the darkness is not hidden from the Saints '>. 
And when he came, Elisseus asked him ; and 
like Peter, when he said, Tell tne whether ye 

6 In this contrast between the evil spirit and the Spirit of God 
Cyril's language rises to true eloquence, lar surpassing a somewhat 
similar description, which may have been known to him, in 
Euseb. Z>£W. iiVaw^. v. 132. 

7 Is. vi. I. ^ Ezek. x. x. 9 Dan. vu. lo. 
I Acts V. 3. 2lb. z/. 4. 3 lb. iv. 13. 
4 Ps. cxxxix. 12. 



sold the land for so tmich^? he also enquires, 
Whence comest thou, Gehazi^? Not in ignorance, 
but in sorrow ask I whence contest thou ? From 
darkness art thou come, and to darkness shalt 
thou go ; thou hast sold the cure of the leper, 
and the leprosy is thy heritage. I, he says, 
have fulfilled the bidding of Him who said 
to me, Freely ye have received, freely give 7 ; 
but thou hast sold this grace ; receive now 
the condition of the sale. But what says 
Elisseus to him ? Went not mine hea7-t with 
thee ? I was here shut in by the body, but the 
spirit which has been given me of God saw 
even the things afar off, and shewed me plainly 
what was doing elsewhere. Seest thou how 
the Holy Ghost not only rids of ignorance, 
but invests with knowledge ? Seest thou how 
He enlightens men's souls ? 

1 8. Esaias lived nearly a thousand years 
ago ; and he beheld Zion as a booth. The 
city was still standing, and beautified with 
public places, and robed in majesty ; yet he 
says, Zion shall be ploughed as afield^, foretelling 
what is now fulfilled in our days 9. And ob- 
serve the exactness of the prophecy ; for 
he said. And the daughter of Zion shall be left 
as a booth in a vineyard, as a lodge in a gardeti 
of encumbers '. And now the place is filled with 
gardens of cucumbers. Seest thou how the 
Holy Spirit enlightens the saints? Be not 
therefore carried away to other things, by the 
force of a common term, but keep fast the 
exact meaning. 

19. And if ever, while thou hast been sitting 
her^", a thought concerning chastity or vir- 
ginity has come into thy mind, it has been His 
teaching. Has not often a maiden, already at 
the bridal threshold ^, tied away, He teaching 
her the doctrine of virginity? Has not often 
a man distinguished at court s, scorned wealth 
and rank, under the teaching of the Holy Ghost? 
Has not often a young man, at the sight of 
beauty, closed his eyes, and fled from the sight, 

S Acts V. 8. * 2 Kings v. 25. 

7 Matt. x. 8. 8 Micahiii. 12 ; ascribed by Cyril to Isaiah. 

9 Cf. Euseb. Dent. Ei'ait^. vi. 13 : •' In our own time we have 
seen with our eyes the Sion of old renown being ploughed by 
Romans with yokes ot oxen, and Jerusalem in a state of utter 
desolation, as the oracle itself says, like a lodge in a garden of 
cucumbers. As Cyril at that time saw tlie Prophet's prediction 
fullilled, so we also to the present day see most plainly the fullil- 
inent of the divine oracle, and Sion ploughed before our eyes : for 
except the Church of the Apostles, with the houses lying around 
it, and the hmis; of Caiaphas f.nd the cemeteries, all the remaining 
sp.ace of this hill, lying without the city, is under plough." 
(, Jerusalem Editor). 

' Isa. i. 8. anaipoipvKaKiov is the hut of the watchman who 
guarded the crop when ripening for harvest. SiKuijAaToi' is 
explained by Basil in his comment on the passage of Isaiah as 
"A place that produces quick-growing and perishable fruits." 
This agrees with the etymological sense of the woril an ''a forcing- 
bed for cucumbers" (Hippocrates apud Fritzsche, ^' Der Brief cies 
Jereinia" v. 70). On the form o-i/cuijparw, see the notes on the 
Epistle of Jeremy in the Speaker's Commentary. 

2 7rao-ro6a?. On the meanirg of vrao-Tas see the notes on 
Herodotus, II. 148, 169 in IJahr, and Rawlinson. Here it appeirs 
tu m.-an the cloister cr colonnade which gave access to the bridal 
chamber, SaAa/ios. 3 kv TroAariois 

and escaped the defilement ? Askest thou 
whence this has come to pass ? The Holy Ghost 
taught the soul of the young man. Many ways 
of covetousness are there in the world ; yet 
Christians refuse possessions : wherefore ? be- 
cause of the teaching of the Holy Ghost. Worthy 
of honour is in truth that Si)int, holy and good ; 
and fittingly are we baptized into Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. A man, still clothed with a 
body, wrestles with many fiercest demons; and 
often the demon, whom many men could not 
master with iron bands, has been mastered by 
the man himself with words of prayer, through 
the power which is in him of the Holy Ghost ; 
and the mere breathing of the Exorcist * be- 
comes as fire to that unseen foe. A mighty ally 
and protector, therefore, have we from God ; a 
great Teacher of the Church, a mighty Cham- 
pion on our behalf Let us not be afraid of 
the demons, nor of the devil ; for mightier is He 
who fighteth for us. Only let us open to Him 
our doors ; forHe goeth about seeking such as are 
worthy s, and searching on whom He may con- 
fer His gilts. 

20. And He is called the Comforter, because 
He comforts and encourages us, and hclpeth 
our infirmities ; for we know not what ive should 
pray for as Jce ought ; but the Spirit Himself 
maketh intercession for xis, tvith groanings which 
cannot be uttered^, that is, makes intercession 
to God. Oftentimes a man for Christ's sake 
has been outraged and dishonoured un- 
justly ; martyrdom is at hand ; tortures on 
every side, and fire, and sword, and savage 
beasts, and the pit. But the Holy Ghost 
softly whispers to him, " Wait thou on the 
LordT, O man ; what is now befalling thee is a 
small matter, the reward will be great. Suffer 
a little while, and thou shalt be with Angels 
for ever. The sufferings of this present time are 
not wo/-thy to be conipa7-ed 7vith the glory which 
shall be revealed in us^." He portrays to the 
man the kingdom of heaven ; He gives him 
a glimpse of the paradise of delight ; and the 
martyrs, whose bodily countenances are of 
necessity turned to their judges, but who in 
spirit are already in Paradise, despise those 
hardships which are seen. 

21. And wouldest thou be sure that by 
the power of the Holy Ghost the Martyrs 
bear their witness? The Saviour says to 
His disciples, And when they bring you unto 

4 Compare Procat. § 9 ; Cat. xx. 3. 

5 Wisuom vi. 16. Conipire the saying in Clem. Alex. Quis 
dives salvetur ? g 31 : aiiroi/ ^jjTtir tous «u rreitroftn'ou? afi'ous re 
oi'Tas To\> 2u>Ti^pos jiiadijTa!. 'Ihe Jerusalem Editor quotes trom 
Origen {Prolog, in Cantic.) a passage which may have been 
known to Cyril: '"This Conifurtir therefore goeth about seeking 
if He may discover any worthy and receptive souls, to whom He 
may reveal the greatness of the love whicn is in God." 

6 viii. 26. 7 Ps. xxvii. 14 ; xxxvii. 34. 
S Rom. viii. 18. 



the synagogues, and the magistrates, and author- 
ities, be not anxious how ye shall ansiver, or 
what ye shall say ; for the Holy Ghost shall 
teach you iti that very hour, what ye ought to 
say 9. For it is impossible to testify as a martyr 
for Christ's sake, except a man testify by the 
Holy Ghost ; for if no man can say that Jesus 
Christ is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost '^, how 
shall any man give his own life for Jesus' sake, 
but by the Holy Ghost ? 

22. Great indeed, and all-powerful in gifts, 
and wonderful, is the Holy Ghost. Consider, 
how many of you are now sitting here, how 
many souls of us are present. He is working 
suitably for each, and being present in the 
midst, beholds the temper of each, beholds 
also his reasoning and his conscience, and 
what we say, and think, and believed Great 
indeed is what I have now said, and yet is it 
small. For consider, I pray, with mind en- 
lightened by Him, how many Christians there 
are in all this diocese, and how many in the 
whole province 3 of Palestine, and carry forward 
thy mind from this province, to the whole 
Roman Empire ; and after this, consider the 
whole world; races of Persians, and nations 
of Indians, Goths and Sarmatians, Gauls and 
Spaniards, and Moors, Libyans and Ethiopians, 
and the rest for whom we have no names ; for 
of many of the nations not even the names 
have reached us. Consider, I pray, of each na- 
tion. Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, Solitaries, 
Virgins, and laity besides ; and then behold their 
great Protector, nnd the Dispenser of their gifts ; 
— how throughout the world He gives to one 
chastity, to another perpetual virginity, to 
another almsgiving, to another voluntary 
poverty, to another power of repelling hostile 
spirits. And as the light, with one touch of 
its radiance sheds brightness on all things, so 
also the Holy Ghost enlightens those who have 
eyes ; for if any from blindness is not vouch- 
safed His grace, let him not blame the Spirit, 
but his own unbelief. 

23. Thou hast seen His power, which is 
in all the world ; tarry now no longer 
upon earth, but ascend on high. Ascend, I 
say, in imagination even unto the first heaven, 
and behold there so many countless myriads 
of Angels. Mount up in thy thoughts, if thou 
canst, yet higher ; consider, I pray thee, the 
Archangels, consider also the Spirits; consider 
the Virtues, consider the Principalities, consider 
the Powers, consider the Thrones, consider 

9 Luke xii. ii, 12. 

' I Cur. xii. 3. Ma.pTvpr\crai, " to bear witness by death." 
* Codd. Monac. Vind. Roe. Casaub. add koX tC nicmvoixeu, 
3 The terms irapoixia., the See of a Bishop, and ena.p\ia, the 
Province of a Metropolitan, were both adopted trom the cor- 
re--ponding divisions of the Roman Empire. See Bingham, ^-!«//. 
Book IX. i. S§ 2—6. 

the Dominions ■♦ ; — of all these the Comforter is 
the Ruler from God, and the Teacher, and the 
Sanctifier. Of Him Elias has need, and Elis- 
seus, and Esaias, among men ; of Him Michael 
and Gabriel have need among Angels. Nought 
of things created is equal in honour to Him : 
for the families of the Angels, and all their 
hosts assembled together, have no equality 
with the Holy Ghost. All these the all-excel- 
lent power of the Comforter overshadows. 
And they indeed are sent forth to minister^, 
but He searches even the deep things of God, 
according as the Apostle says. For the Spirit 
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 
For what man knoweth the things of a man, 
save the spirit of the man ichich is in him ? even 
so the things of God kno^ueth no man, but the 
Spirit of God ^. 

24. He preached concerning Christ in the 
Prophets ; He wrought in the Apostles ; He 
to this day seals the souls in Baptism. And 
the Father indeed gives to the Son ; and the 
Son shares with the Holy Ghost. For it is 
Jesus Himself, not I, who says. All things are 
delivered unto Me of My Father t ; and of the 
Holy Ghost He says, When He, the Spirit of 
Truth, shall come, and the rest .... He shall 

glorify Ale ; for He shall receive of Aline, and 
shall shew it unto you^. The Father through 
the Son, with the Holy Ghost, is the giver of 
all grace ; the gifts of the Father are none 
other than those of the Son, and those of the 
Holy Ghost; for there is one Salvation, one 
Power, one Faith; One God, the Father; One 
Lord, His only-begotten Son ; One Holy Ghost, 
the Comforter. And it is enough for us to 
know these things ; but inquire not curiously 
into His nature or substance 9 : for had it been 
written, we would have spoken of it ; what is 
not written, let us not venture on ; it is 
sufficient for our salvation to know, that there 
is Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost. 

25. This Spirit descended upon the seventy 
Elders in the days of Moses. (Now let not the 
length of the discourse, beloved, produce weari- 
ness in you : but may He the very subject of 
our discourse grant strength to every one, both 
to us who speak, and to you who listen !) 
This Spirit, as I was saying, came down upon 
the seventy Elders in the tmie ot Moses ; and 
this I say to thee, that I may now prove, that 
He knoweth all things, and worketh as Hewill^. 

4 S. Basil {De Spiritu S. c. xvi. § 38), after quoting the same 
passage. Col. i. 16, proceeds — eire KupiorrjTes, /cat ei rii'es eicrti' 
cVepai AoyiKat (^u(rei5 o.K.o.Tov6[i.a.(j-roi. The last word shews that 
Basil had in mind this passage of Cyril, who after the names of 
nations in § 22, adds xai tous AoiVovs aKaxoyoAidorous r/^ii/. 

5 Heb. i. 14. * I Cor. ii. 10, 11. 7 Matt. xi. 27. 

8 John xvi. 13, 14. 

9 In regard to the caution with which St. Cyril here speaks, we 
must remember that the heresy of Macedonins had not yet given 
occasion to the formal discussion and determination of the "nature 
and substance" of the Holy Ghost. ' i Cor. xii. 11. 



The seventy Elders were chosen ; Ar2d the 
Lord came down in a cloud, and took of ilie 
Spirit that icas upon Moses, and put it upon the 
seventy Elders'^ ; not that the Spirit was divided, 
but that Mis grace was distributed in propor- 
tion to the vessels, and the capacity of the re- 
cipients. Now there were present sixty and 
eight, and they prophesied ; but Eldad and 
Modad were not present ; therefore that it might 
be shewn that it was not Moses who bestowed 
the gift, but the Spirit who wrought, Eldad and 
Modad, who though called, had not as yet pre- 
sented themselves, did also prophesy 3. 

26. Jesus the Son of Nun, the successor of 
Moses, was amazed ; and came to him and said, 
" Hast thou heard that Eldad and Modad are 
|)rophesying ? They were called, and they came 
not ; my lord Moses, forbid them '♦." " I cannot 
Ibrbid them," he says, "for this grace is frouj 
Heaven ; nay, so far am I from forbidding 
them, that I myself am thankful for it. I think 
not, however, that thou hast said this in envy; 
art \\\on jealous for my sake, because that they 
])rophesy, and thou prophesiest not yet ? Wait 
for the proper season ; and oh that all the Lords 
people may be prophets, whenever the Lord shall 
give His Spirit upon them s / " saying this also 
prophetically, whenever the Lord shall give ; 
" For as yet then He has not given it ; so thou 
hast it not yet." — Had not then Abraham 
this, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Joseph? And 
they of old, had they it not ? Nay, but the 
words, " whenever the Lord shall give " evidently 
mean " give it upon all ; as yet indeed the grace 
is partial, then it shall be given lavishly." And he 
secretly alluded to what was to happen among 
us on the day of Pentecost; for He Himself came 
down among us. He had however also come 
down upon many before. For it is written, And 
Jesus the son of Nun was filled ivith a spirit of 
wisdom; for Moses had laid his hajids upon him^. 
Thou seest the figure everywhere the same 
in the Old and New Testament ; — in the days 
of Moses, the Spirit was given by laying on 
of hands; and by laying on of hands Peter? 
also gives the Spirit. And on thee also, 
who art about to be baptized, shall His grace' 
come ; yet in what manner I say not, for 1 will 
not anticipate the proper season. 

27. He also came down upon all righteous 
men and Prophets ; Enos, I mean, and Enoch, 
and Noah, and the rest; upon Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob ; for as regards Joseph, even Pharaoh 

2 Num. xi. 24, 25. "Modad" is the form of t'ne name in the 

3 The apocryphal book of Eldad and Modad is mentioned by 
\ie.xm^^. Shepherd, Vis. ii. § 3. S. Basil, Liber de Sj>ir. S. cap. 
61, referring to Num. xi.26, says that the Spirit rested permanently 
only upon and Modad. 4 Num. xi. 28. 

5 Num. xi. 29. 6 Dent, xx.xiv. 9. 

7 Acts viii. 18. On this passage of Cyril, see the section on 
" Chrism " in the Introduction. 

perceived that he had the Spirit of God within 
him ^. As to Moses, and the wonderful works 
wrought by the Spirit in his days, thou hast 
heard often. This Spirit Job also had, that 
most enduring man, and all the saints, though 
we repeat not all their names. He also was 
sent forth when the Tabernacle was in making, 
and filled with wisdom the wise-hearted men 
who were with Bezaleel 9. 

28. In the might of this Spirit, as we have it 
in the Book of Judges, Othniel judged'; 
Gideon ^ waxed strong; Jephtha conquered 3; 
Deborah, a woman, waged war ; and Samson, 
so long as he did righteously, and grieved 
Him not, wrought deeds above man's power. 
And as for Samuel and David, we have it 
plainly in the Books of the Kingdoms, 
how by the Holy Ghost they prophesied 
themselves, and were rulers of the pro- 
phets ; — and Samuel was called the Seer^ ; 
and David says distinctly, The Spirit of the I^ord 
spake by me 5, and in the Psalms, And take 7iot 
thy LLoly Spirit from me^, and again. Thy good 
Spirit shall lead me in the land of right- 
eousnessT. And as we have it in Chronicles, 
Azariah ^, in the time of King Asa, and Jahaziel? 
in the time of King Jehoshaphat, partook of the 
Holy Ghost; and again, another Azariah, he 
who was stoned '. And Ezra says. Thou gavest 
also Thy good Spirit to instruct them ^. But as 
touching Elias who was taken up, and Elisseu-s, 
those inspired 3 and wonder-working men, it 
is manifest, without our saying so, that they 
were full of the Holy Ghost. 

29. And if further a man peruse all the 
books of the Prophets, both of the Twelve, 
and of the others, he will find many tes- 
timonies concerning the Holy Ghost ; as 
when Micah says in the person of God, 
surely L will peifcct power by the Spirit of 
the Lord^ ; and Joel cries. And it shall come 
to pass afterzvards, saith God, that L 7vill 
pour out My Spirit upon allfiesh^, and the rest ; 
and Haggai, Because L am ivith you, saith the 
Lord of Hosts ^ ; and Afy Spirit ixmaineth in the 
midst of you 7/ and in like manner Zechariah, 
But receive Afy words and My statutes which / 
cofnmand by My Spirit, to My servants the Pro- 
phets^ ; and other passages. 

30. Esaias too, with his majestic voice, 
says, And the Spirit of God shall rest upon Him, 

9 Ex. xxxi. 
» lb. vi. 34. 
S 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. 
8 2 Chron. xv. i. 

1—6 ; xxxvi. I. 
3 lb. xi. 29. 
6 Ps. li. II. 
9 lb. XX. 14. 

8 Gen. xli. 38. 
» J\idges iii. 10. 
4 I Sam. ix. 9. 
7 Ps. cxliii. 10. 
' II). -xxiv. 20, 21. 

2 Nfh. ix. 20. Ezra and Nehemiah form one book " Ezra" in 
t*>e Hebrew Canon. 

3 TTi/Eu/naTo^opux/, used only twice in the Sept. (Hosea ix. 7 ; 
Zcph. iii. 4), and in an unf ivourable sense. With Cyril's use of it 
compare Theophikis, Ad Autoiyc. ii. 9: @eov uvOpiuirovs nvev 
fj.aTO<tiopovs llvevixaro^ ayiov. 

4 Mic. iii. 8. 5 Joel ii. 28. ' Haggai ii. 4. 
7 lb. V 5. 8 Zech. i. 6. 



the Spirit of wisdom and understafiding, the spirit 
of cojinsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and 
godliness ; and the Spirit of the fear of God shall 
fill Him "i ; signifying that the Spirit is one and 
undivided, but His operations various. So 

again, Jacob My servant, I have 

put My Spirit itpon Him '. And again, 1 7vill 
pour My Spirit upon thy seed'^ ; and again, And 
no7v the Lord Almighty and His Spirit hath sent 
Me'i ; and again. This is My covenant with them, 
saith the Lord, My Spirit which is upofi thee ^ ; 
and again. The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, 
because He hath anointed Me^, and the rest; and 
again in his charge against the Jews, But they 
rebelled and vexed His Holy Spirit ^, and. Where 
is He that put His Holy Spirit 7vithin them 7 .? 
Also thou hast in Ezekiel (if thou be not now 
wearyof hstening), what has already been quoted, 
And the Spirit fell upon me, and said unto me. 
Speak ; Thus saith the Lord^. But the words, 
fell upon file we must understand in a good sense, 
that is "lovingly ;" and as Jacob, when he had 
found Joseph, fell upon his neck ; as also in the 
Gospels, the loving father, on seeing his son 
who had returned from his wandering, had com- 
passion, and ran and fell on his 7ieck, and kissed 
him 9. And again in Ezekiel, And he brought 
me in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldcea, 
to them of the captivity ^ And other texts thou 
heardest before, in what was said about Bap- 
tism ; Then will I sprinkle clean ivater upon 
you ^, and the rest ; a neiv heart also will L give 
you, and a new spirit will I put within you 3 ; 
and then immediately, And I will put Afy Spirit 
within you ^. And again, The hand of the Lord 
was upon me, and carried me out in the Spirit 
of the Lord 5. 

31. He endued with wisdom the soul of 
Daniel, that young as he was he should become 
a judge of Elders. The chaste Susanna was 

9 Is. xi. 2. • lb. xliv. I ; xlii. i. 

3 lb. xlviii. 16. 4 Is. lix. 21. 

6 lb. Ixiii. 10. 7 V. ii. 

9 Gen. xlvi. 29 ; Luke xv. 20. 

2 lb. xxxvi. 25 ; Cat. iii. 16. 

4 \h. V. 27. 

S Ezek. xxxvii. x. 

2 lb. xliv. 3. 
5 Is. Ixi. I. 
8 Ezek. xi. 5. 
' Ezek. xi. 24. 
3 lb. i^. 26. 

condemned as a wanton ; there was none to 
plead her cause ; for who was to deliver her 
from the rulers ? She was led away to death, 
she was now in the hands of the executioners. 
But her Helper was at hand, the Comforter, 
the Spirit who sanctifies every rational nature. 
Come hither to me. He says to Daniel ; young 
though thou be, convict old men infected 
with the sins of youth ; for it is written, God 
raised up the Holy Spirit upon a young stripling ^; 
and nevertheless, (to pass on quickly,) by the 
sentence of Daniel that chaste lady was saved. 
We bring this forward as a testimony ; for this 
is not the season for expounding. Nebuchad- 
nezzar also knew that the Holy Spirit was in 
Daniel ; for he says to him, O Belteshazzar, 
master of the niagicians, of whom L know, that the 
Holy Spirit of God is in thee^. One thing he 
said truly, and one falsely ; for that he had the 
Holy Spirit was true, but he was not the master 
of the magicians, for he was no magician, but 
was wise through the Holy Ghost. And before 
this also, he interpreted to him the vision of the 
Image, which he who had seen it himself knew 
not; for he says. Tell me the vision, which I 
who saw it know not ^. Thou seest the power 
of the Holy Ghost ; that which they who saw 
it, know not, they who saw it not, know and in- 

32. And indeed it were easy to collect very 
many texts out of the Old Testament, and to 
discourse more largely concerning the Holy 
Ghost. But the time is short ; and we must be 
careful of the proper length of the lecture. 
Wherefore, being for the present content awhile 
with passages from the Old Testament, we will, if 
it be God's pleasure, proceed in the next Lec- 
ture to the remaining texts out of the New 
Testament. And may the God ot peace, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ, and through 
the love of the Spirit, count all of you worthy 
of His spiritual and heavenly gifts : — To whom 
be glory and power for ever and ever. Amen. 

^ Susanna, v. 45. 

7 Dan. iv. g 

8 lb. ii. 26, 31. 


Continuation of the Discourse on the Holy Ghost. 

I Corinthians xii. 8. 
For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom, &•<:. 

1. In the preceding Lecture, according to 
our ability we set before you, our beloved 
hearers ', some small portion of the testimonies 
concerning the Holy Ghost ; and on the 
present occasion, we will, if it be God's plea- 
sure, proceed to treat, as far as may be, of 
those which remain out of the New Testament: 
and as then to keep within due limit of your 
attention we restrained our eagerness (for 
there is no satiety in discoursing concerning 
the Holy Ghost), so now again we must say 
but a small part of what remains. For now, 
as well as then, we candidly own that our weak- 
ness is overwhelmed by the multitude of things 
written. Neither to-day will we use the subtle- 
ties of men, for that is unprofitable ; but merely 
call to mind what comes from the divine Scrip- 
tures ; for this is the safest course, according 
to the blessed Apostle Paul, who says. Which 
things also 7ve speak, not in words which nian^s 
wisdom teacheth, but 7C'hich the Holy Ghost 
teacheth, comparing spiritual things with spiri- 
tual^. Thus we act like travellers or voyagers, 
who having one goal to a very long journey, 
though hastening on with eagerness, yet by 
reason of human weakness are wont to touch 
in their way at divers cities or harbours. 

2. Therefore though our discourses con- 
cerning the Holy Ghost are divided, yet He 
Himself is undivided, being one and the same. 
For as in speaking concerning the Father, at 
one time we taught how He is the one 
only Cause 3 ; and at another, how He is 
called Father ■*, or Almighty ^j and at an- 
other, how He is the Creator '' of the uni\ erse ; 
and yet the division of the Lectures made no 
division of the Faith, in that He, the Object 
of devotion, both was and is One ;— and 

' Tais Trjs v(U.eTe'pa9 a-yainjs aKoais. Compare § 30, below : 
<rvyyi>fk-(\v airoi napa. riji inerepas ayaTrr;?. Igiiat. Philadclph. 
c. IV. (Long recension): Bappuiv ypd<j>in Tfj aJioSe'w ayaTrfl v/xotv. 
" Caritas " is constantly used in the same manner. 

2 1 Cor. ii. 13. 3 Cat. vi. 4 lb. vii. 5 lb. viii. 

6 lb. ix. 

again, as in discoursing concerning the Only- 
begotten Son of God we taught at one time 
concerning His Godhead 7, and at another con- 
cerning His Manhood^, dividing into many dis- 
courses the doctrines concerning our Lord 
Jesus Christ, yet preaching undivided faith 
towards Him; — so now also though the Lec- 
tures concerning the Holy Spirit are divided, 
yet we preach faith undivided towards Him. 
For it is one and the Self-same Spirit who 
divides His gifts to ez'eiy man severally as He 
will9, Himself the while remaining undivided. 
For the Comforter is not different from the 
Holy Ghost, but one and the self-same, called 
by various names ; who lives and subsists, and 
speaks, and works ; and of all rational natures 
made by God through Christ, both of Angels 
and of men, He is the Sanctitier '. 

3. But lest any from lack of learning, should 
suppose from the different titles of the Holy 
Ghost that these are divers spirits, and not one 
and the self-same, which alone there is, there- 
fore the Catholic Church guarding thee before- 
hand hath delivered to thee in the profession of 
the faith, that thou "believe in one Holy 
Ghost the Comforter, who spake by the 
Prophets;" that thou mightest know, that 
though His names be many, the Holy Spirit is 
but one ; — of which names, we will now re- 
hearse to you a few out of many. 

4. He is called the Spirit, according to the 
Scripture just now read, For to one is given by 
the Spirit the ivord of 7visdom ^. He is called 
the Spirit of Truth, as the Saviour says, When 
He, the Spirit of Truth, is come 3. He is called 
also the Comforter, as He said, For if I go not 
azvay, the Comforter tvill tiot come unto you 4. 

7 Cat. X. xi. 8 lb. xii. xv. 9 i Cor. xii. ii. 

' Compare Basil, de Sj>. Sancto, c. 38 : " By the F.aher's will 
the ministering spirits subsist, and by the operation of the Son 
they are brought into existence, and by the presence of the Holy 
Ghost arc perfected : and the perfection of Angels is sanctification 
and continuance therein." 

2 I Cor. xii. 8. 3 John xvi. 13. ■* lb tk 7. 


12 = 

But that He is one and the same, though called 
by different titles, is shewn plainly from the 
following. For that the Holy Spirit and the 
Comforter are the same, is declared in those 
words. But the Comforter, 7v/iich is the Holy 
Ghost ^ ; and that the Comforter is the same as 
the Spirit of Truth, is declared, when it is said, 
And 1 7V ill give you another Comforter, that He 
may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of 
Truth ^ ; and again, But xvhen the Comforter is 
come whom I will send unto you from the leather, 
even the Spirit of Truth t. And He is called 
the Spirit of God, according as it is written, 
And I saw the Spirit of God descending ^ ; and 
again, For as many as are led by the Spirit of 
God, they are the soJis of God 9. He is called 
also the Spirit of the Father, as the Saviour 
says, Tor it is not ye ^hat speak, but the Spirit 
of your Father which speaketh in you ^ ; and 
again Paul saith, For this cause I bow my knees 
unto the Father, and the rest ; . . . that He 
would grant you to be strengthened by His 
Spirif^. He is also called the Spirit of the Lord, 
according to that which Peter spake. Why is 
it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit 
of the Lord ^1 He is called also the Spirit of 
God and Christ, as Paul writes, But ye are not 
in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be thai the 
Spirit of God dwell in you. But if any man 
have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His ♦. 
He is called also the Spirit of the Son of God, 
as it is said, And because ye are sons, God hath 
sent forth the Spirit of His Son 5. He is called 
also the Spirit of Christ, as it is written. 
Searching ivliat or what manner of time the 
Spirit of Christ which ivas in them did signify^ ; 
and again. Through your prayer, and the supply 
of the Spirit of Jesus Christ t . 

5. Thou wilt find many other titles of the 
Holy Ghost besides. Thus He is called the 
Spirit of Holiness, as it is written, Accoj-ding 
to the Spirit of Holiness ^. He is also called the 
Spirit of adoption, as Paul saith, For ye received 
not the spirit of bondage again unto fear, but ye 
received the Spirit of adoption, tvhereby ive cry, 
Abba, Father^. He is also called the Spirit of 
revelation, as it is A\Titten, May give you the 
Spirit of wisdom and revelation ifi the knoiv- 
ledge of Him '. He is also called the Spirit of 
promise, as the same Paul says. In xvhom ye 
also after that ye believed, wej'e sealed with the 
Holy Spirit of promise -. He is also called the 
Spirit of grace, as when he says again. And 
hath done despite to the Spirit of grace 3. And 
by many other such-like titles is He named. 

S John xiv. 26. 

8 John i. 32. 

* Eph. iii. 14 — 16. 

5 Cal. iv. 6. 

8 Rom. i. 4. 

^ lb. T'. 13. 

* lb. w. i6, 17. 
9 Rom. viii. 14. 
3 Acts V. 9. 
6 I Pet. i. II. 
9 lb. viii. 15. 
3 Heb.x. 29. 

7 lb. XV. 26. 

» Matt. X. 20. 

4 Rom. viii. 9. 

7 Phil. i. 19. 

' Eph. i. 17. 

j And thou heardest plainly in the foregoing 

I Lecture, that in the Psalms He is called at one 
time \.\\Qgood Spi7it^, and at another the princely 

j Spirit^ ; and in Esaias He was styled the Spirit 
of wisdom and tinderstanding, of counsel, and 
might, of kfiowledge, and of godliness, and of the 

fear of God^. By all which Scriptures both 
those before and those now alleged, it is estab- 
lished, that though the titles of the Holy Ghost 
be different. He is one and the same ; living 
and subsisting, and always present togedier 
with the Father and the Son 7 ; not uttered or 
breathed from the mouth and lips of the Father 
or the Son, nor dispersed into the air, but 
having a real substance ^, Himself speaking, and 
working, and dispensing, and sanctifying; even 
as the Economy of salvation which is to usward 
from the Father and the Son and the Holy 
Ghost, is inseparable and harmonious and one, 
as we have also said before. For I wish you 
to keep in mind those things wliich were lately 
spoken, and to know clearly that there is not 
one Spirit in the Law and the Prophets, and 
another in the Gospels and Apostles ; but that 
it is One and the Self-same Holy Spirit, which 
both in the Old and in the New Testament, 
spake the divine Scriptures 9. 

6. This is the Holy Ghost, who came upon 
the Holy Virgin Mary ; for since He who was 
conceived was Christ the Only-begotten, the 
poiver of the Highest overshado^ved her, and 
the Holy Ghost came upon her'^, and sanctified 
her, that she might be able to receive Him, by 
whom all things were made'^. But I have no 
need of many words to teach thee that that 
generation was without defilement or taint, for 
thou hast learned it. It is Gabriel who says 
to her, I am tlie herald of what shall be done, 
but have no part in the work. Though an Arch- 
angel, I know my place ; and though I joyfully 
bid thee All hail, yet how thou shalt bring forth, 
is not of any grace of mine. The Holy Ghost 
shall come upon thee, and the power of the 
Highest shall overshadoiv thee ; therefore also 
that Holy Thing zvhich shall be born of thee shall 
be called the Son of God 3. 

7. This Holy Spirit wrought in Elisabeth ; 
for He recognises not virgins only, but matrons 
also, so that their marriage be lawful. And 

4 Cat- xvi. 28 ; Ps. cxHii. lo. 

5 r^yeftovLKw, Sept. Ps. li. 12: R.V. Uphold me with- a free 
spirit. " ^ Is. xi. 2. 

7 Orig;en, in the Catena on St. John iii. 8 : "This also shews 
that the Spirit is a Being (pvaicLv) : for He is not, as some suppose 
an energy of God, having according to them no individuality 
of subsistence. And the Apostle aUo, after enumerating the gifts 
of the Spirit, immediately added, Bjtt all these ivorkeih the one 
and the siime S/^i/it, dividing- to each one severally as He ivill. 
Now if He willeth and worketh and divideth. He is surely an 
energizing Being, but not an energy" (Suicer, TJiesaur:rs, 

8 kvvTT6<TTaTov. Cf. Cat. xi. 10; xvi. 13, note 5. 

9 Cat. iv. 16 ; xvi. 4. ' Luke i. 35. ^ John i. 3. 
3 Luke i. 35. 



Elisabeth 7vas filled 7V it h the Holy Ghost ^, and 
prophesied ; and that noble hand-maiden says 
of her own Lord, And whence is this to me, that 
the Mother of my Lord should come to me s ? For 
Elisabeth counted herself blessed. Filled with 
this Holy Spirit, Zacharias also, the father of 
John, prophesied^, telling how manygood things 
the Only-begotten should procure, and that 
John should be His harbinger? through baptism. 
By this Holy Ghost also it was revealed to just 
Symeon, that he shojili not see death, till he had 
seen the Lord's Christ^ ; and he received Him 
in his arms, and bore clear testimony in the 
Temple concerning Him. 

8. And John also, who had been filled with 
the Holy Ghost from his mother's womb 9, was 
for this cause sanctified, that he might baptize 
the Lord ; not giving the Spirit himself, but 
preaching glad tidings of Him who gives the 
Spirit. For he says, L indeed baptize you ivith 
water unto repentance, but LLe that cometh after 
me, and the rest ; LLe shall baptize you nith the 
LLoly Ghost and with fire'^ . But wherefore with 
fire? Because the descent of the Holy Ghost 
was in fiery tongues ; concerning which the 
Lord says joyfully, L am come to send fire on the 
earth ; and what will L, if it be already kindled'^ 1 

9. This Holy Ghost came down when the 
Lord was baptized, that the dignity of Him 
who was baptized might not be hidden ; as 
John says, But LLe which sent me to baptize with 
7t'ater, the same said unto me, Upon zvhomsoever 
thou slialt see the Spirit descending and remain- 
ing tipofi LLim, the same is LLe which baptizeth 
with the LLoly Ghosts. But see what saith the 
Gospel ; the heavens 7vere opened ; they were 
opened because of the dignity of Him who 
descended ; for, lo, he says, the heavens were 
opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending 
as a dove, and lighting upon Liim 4 .• that 
is, with voluntary motion in His descent. 
For it was fit, as some have interpreted, 
that the primacy and first-fruits s of the 
Holy Spirit promised to the baptized should 
be conferred upon the manliood of the 
Saviour, who is the giver of such grace. But 
perhaps He came down in tlie form of a dove, 
as some say, to exhibit a figure of that dove 
who is pure and innocent and undefiled, and 
also helps the prayers for the children she has 
begotten, and for forgiveness of sins ^ ; even as 

4 Liilce i. 41. S lb. V. i3. * lb. v. 67. 7 lb. p. 76. 
8 Luke ii. 26 — 35. 9 Cat. iii. 6. ' Matt. iii. 11. 

» Luke xii. 49. 3 John i. 37. 4 Matt. iii. 16. 

5 Ta? (irrapxoi! KaX ra n-pcoTeia. The order is inverted in the 
translation. Cf. Hernias, Sim, viii. 7 ix.ovT(% ^r\k6v Tiva iv 
aWrjKrii.^ Trept irpwTtttur. 

6 The Ijeiie lictine Editor adds the two ast words tvttov irapo- 
5r\\ovv from MSS. Roe.Casaub. as neci-ssary to the construct inn, 
and adds the following note. " The text thus emended is capab'e 
of two senses. The first, that the Holy Spirit came down in tie 
form of a dove, a pure and harmless bird, to shew that He is 
Himself as it were a mystic dove in His simplicity and love of 
children, for whose new birth and remission of sins at Baptism He 

it was emblematically foretold that Christ 
should be thus manifested in the appearance 
of His eyes ; for in the Canticles she cries 
concerning the Bridegroom, and says. Thine 
eyes are as dores by the rivers of water t. 

10. Of this dove, the dove of Noe, according 
to some, was in part a figure^. For as in his 
time by means of wood and of water there 
came salvation to themselves, and the begin- 
ning of a new generation, and the dove returned 
to him towards evening with an olive branch ; 
thus, say they, the Holy Ghost also descended 
upon the true Noe, the Author of the second 
birth, who draws together into one the wills of 
all nations, of whom the various dispositions 
of the animals in the ark were a figure : — Him 
at whose coming the spiritual wolves feed with 
the lambs, in whose Church the calf, and the 
lion, and the ox, feed in the same pasture, as 
we behold to this day the rulers of the world 
guided and taught by Churchmen. The spiri- 
tual dove therefore, as some interpret, came 
down at the season of His baptism, that 
He might shew that it is He who by the 
wood of the Cross saves them who believe. 
He who at eventide should grant salvation 
through His death. 

IT. And these things perhaps should be 
otherwise explained ; but now again we must 
hear the words of the Saviour Himself con- 
cerning the Holy Ghost. For He says, Except 
a man be borti of water and of the Spirit, he 
cannot enter into the kingdom of God'^. And that 
this grace is from the Father, He thus states, 
Hotv much more shall your heavenly Father give 
the LLoly Spirit to them that ask him '. And 
that we ought to worship God in the Spirit, 
He shews thus. But the hojtr cometh and now 
is, when the true ivorshifpers shall 7vorship the 
Father in Spirit and in truth ; for the Father 
also seeketh such to worship LLim. God is a Soirit ; 
and they that worship LLim^nust worship LLim in 
spirit and ifi truth ^. And again, But if I by the 

unites His prayers with Christ's, as Cyril teaches in Cat. xvi. 20 : 
and that Christ was for the like cause mystically foreshown in 
Canticles as having eyes like a dove's. The other sense is, that 
the Spirit descended in the form of a dove on Christ's Humanity 
in order to shew this to be as it were a dove in innocence, holiness, 
love of children, and concurrence with the Holy Spirit in their 
regeneration. . . . Either sense is admissible, and maintained by 
m.-iny of the Fathers : but I prefer the former." This inter- 
pret.Ttion is confirmed by Tert\dlian (^de Daptismo, c. viii.), who 
says that the Holy Spirit glided down on the Lord " in the shape 
of a dove" in order that the nature of the Holy Spirit might 
be declared by means of a creature of simplicity and innocence." 

7 Cant. v. 12. eTri 7rA)jpu>paT<i vhatiav (Sept.). The usual 
meaning of o(j>9a\ij.o(t>avuji is " manifestly to the eyes," Esther 
viii. I-?. 

8 Tertullian, j'/'i'd "Just as after the waters of the deluge, 
by which the old iniquity was purged— after the baptism, so to 
say. of the world — a dove was the herald which announced to the 
earth the assuagement of celestial wrath, .... so to our tte<h, 
.TS it emerges from the font after its old sins, flies the dove ol the 
Holy Spirit, bringing us the peacs of God, sent out fr im heaven 
where the Chiuch is, the tvpified ark." Compare also Hippolytus. 
T/ie Holy Thcophany, %% 8, 9, a treatise with which Cyril has 
much in common. 

9 John iii. 5. » Luke xi. 13. » John iv. 23. 



Spirit of God cast out devils 3 ; and immediately 
afterwards, Therefore I say unto you. All man- 
ner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto 
men ; bnt the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost 
shall not be forgiven. And whosoever shall 
speak a word against the Son of man, it shall 
be forgiven him ; but tvhosoever shall speak a 
word against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be for- 
given him, neither in this ivorld, neither in the 
world to come^. And again He says, And I 
IV ill pray the Father, and He shall give you 
another Comforter, that He may be 7vith you 
for ever, the Spirit of Truth ; who7n the world 
cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither 
knoweth Him ; but ye know Him, for He 
abideth ivith you, and shall be in you s. And 
ag-ain He says. These things have I spoken wito 
yo7i being yet present with you. But the Com- 
forter, which is the Holy Ghost, 7vliom the 
Father tvill send in My name, He shall teach 
you all things, and. bring to your remembrance 
all things that I said unto you ^. And again He 
says, But when the Comfoi-ter is come, whom I 
7vill send unto you from the Father, eveti the 
Spirit of Truth, 70 Inch proceedeth from the 
Father, He shall testify of Me 7. And again the 
Saviour says, For if I go not aivay, the Com- 
forter 7vill not come unto you ^ And 7vhen 

He is come. He will C07vvi nee the 7uorld of sin, of 
righteousness, and of Judgment^ ; and afterwards 
again, I have yet many things to say unto you, 
but ye caji7iot bear them 7707C'. Hoivbeit, 7vhen 
He the Spirit of Truth is co'ne. He 7i> ill declare 
tint you all the truth; for Pie shall 7iot speak f 7-0 m 
Hi/nself ; but whatsoever He shall hear that 
shall He speak, and He shall a/inoiince unto you 
the things to coi7ie. He shall glorify Ale, for He 
shall take of Mi/ie, and shall a7inou7ice it u7ito 
you. All things that the Father hath are 7nine ; 
thcrcfo7-e said I, That He shall take of Mi7ie, and 
shall a/i7iou7ice it unto you'', I have read to thee 
now the utterances of the Only-begotten Him- 
self, that thou mayest not give heed to men's 

12. The fellowship of this Holy Spirit He 
bestowed on the Apostles ; for it is written, 
A/id when He had said this. He b7-eathed on 
the/n, a7id saith tmto the7n, Receive ye the Holy 
Ghost : tvhose soever sins ye re//iit, they are re- 
77iitted 7cnto the/n ; a7id 7ohose soever si/is ye 
7-etain, they are 7-etai7ied^. '['his was the second 
time He breathed on man (His first breaths 
having been stifled through wilful sins) ; that 
the Scripture might be fulfilled, He 7ve7it -up 
breathing 7ipo7i thy face, and deliveri77g thee fro7n 

3 Matt. xii. 28. 4 lb. v. 31. S John xiv. 16. 

* lb. V. 25. 7 lb. XV. 26. 8 lb. xvi. 7. 

9 lb. V. 8. ' lb. V, 12 — 15. 2 John .xx'. 22. 

3 Gen. ii. 7 : and breathed into liis nostrils the breatti of life. 
Compare Cat. xiv. 10. 

affliction'^. But whence went He up? From 
Hades ; for thus the Gospel relates, that then 
after His resurrection He breathed on them.. 
But though He bestowed His grace then. He 
was to lavish it yet more bountifully ; and He 
says to them, " I am ready to give it even now, 
but the vessel cannot yet hold it ; for a while 
therefore receive ye as much grace as ye can 
bear ; and look forward for yet more ; but tarrv 
ye in the city of Jerusale/n, U7itil ye be clothed 
7vith poiver from on high^. Receive it in part 
now ; then, ye shall wear it in its fulness. For 
he who receives, often possesses the gift but in 
part ; but he who is clothed, is completely 
enfolded by his robe. "Fear not," He says, 
"the weapons and darts of the devil; for ye 
shall bear with you the power of the Holy 
Ghost." But remember what was lately said, 
that the Holy Ghost is not divided, but only 
the grace which is given by Him. 

13. Jesus therefore went up into heaven, and 
fulfilled the promise. For He ■said to them, 
/ 7C'ill pray the Father, and He shall give you 
a7iother Confo/'ter^. So they were sitting, look- 
ing for the coming of the Holy Ghost ; a7id7vhen 
the day of Pentecost 7C'as fi/ly come, here, in this 
city of Jerusalem, — (for this honour also belongs 
to us 7 ; and we speak not of the good things 
which have happened among others, but of 
those which have been vouchsafed among our- 
selves,) — on the day of Pentecost, I say, they 
were sitting, and the Comforter came down from 
heaven, the Guardian and Sanctifier of the 
Church, the Ruler of souls, the Pilot of the 
tempest-tossed, who leads the wanderers to the 
light, and presides over the combatants, and 
crowns the victors. 

14. But He came down to clothe the Apos- 
tles with power, and to baptize them ; for the 
Lord says, ye shall be baptized with the Holy 
Ghost not ma7iy days hence ^. This grace was not 
in part, but His power was in full perfection ; for 
as he who plunges into the waters and is bap- 
tized is encompassed on all sides by the waters, 
so were they also baptized completely by the 
Holy Ghost. The water however flows round the 
outside only, but the Spirit baptizes also the soul 
within, and that com[)letely. And wherefore 
wonderest thou ? 'fake an example from mat- 
ter ; poor indeed and common, yet useful for 
the simpler sort. If the fire passing in through 
the mass of the iron makes the whole of it 

4 Nahiim ii. i. The Septuajrint, followed by Cyril, difTers 
widely from the Hebrew: (R.V.) He that daslieth in pieces is 
come up before tliy face. 

5 Luke'xxiv. 39. ^ lohn xiv. 16. 

7 Cat. iii. 7 ; xvi. 5. Bp. Pearson {Lectiones in Acta Apost. I. 
%iZ): "Rightly said Cyril, l?ishop of Jerusalem, 'All prero- 
gatives are with us.' And the Emperor Justin called her ' Mother 
of the Christian name.' Jerome also (E/>. 17, 3), said: 'The 
whole mystery of our Faith is native of that province and city.' " 

8 Ac:si. s. 



fire, so that what was cold becomes burning 
and what was black is made bright, — if fire 
which is a body thus penetrates and works 
without hindrance in iron which is also a body, 
why wonder that the Holy Ghost enters into 
the very inmost recesses of the soul ? 

15. And lest men should be ignorant of the 
greatness of the mighty gift coming down to them, 
there sounded as it were a heavenly trumpet, 
For suddenly there came from Jieai'eii a sound as of 
the rushingofa mighty wind^, signifying the pre- 
sence of Him who was to grant power unto men 
to seize with violence the kingdom of God ; that 
both their eyes might see the fiery tongues, 
and their ears hear the sound. And it filled all 
the house ivhere they were siitijig ; for the house 
became the vessel of the spiritual water ; as 
the disciples sat within, the whole house was 
filled. Thus they were entirely baptized ac- 
cording to the promise, and invested soul and 
body with a divine garment of salvation. Afid 
there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of 

fire, and it sat upon each of them ; and they 
7i>cre all filled ivith the Holy Ghost. They 
partook of fire, not of burning but of saving 
fire ; of fire which consumes the thorns of sins, 
but gives lustre to the soul. This is now 
coming upon you also, and that to strip away 
and consume your sins which are like thorns, 
and to brighten yet more that precious posses- 
sion of your souls, and to give you grace ; for 
He gave it then to the Apostles. And He sat 
upon them in the form of fiery tongues, that 
they might crown themselves with new and 
spiritual diadems by fiery tongues upon their 
heads. A fiery sword barred of old the gates of 
Paradise ; a fiery tongue which brought salva- 
tion restored the gift, 

1 6. And fhey began to speak with other tongues 
as the Spirit gave them utterance '. The Gali- 
lean Peter or Andrew spoke Persian or Median. 
John and the rest of the Apostles spake every 
tongue to those of Gentile extraction ; for not 
in our time have multitudes of straiigers first 
begun to assemble here from all quarters, but 
they have done so since that time. \\'hat 
teacher can be found so great as to teach men 
all at once things which they have not learned ? 
So many years are they in learning by gram- 
mar and other arts to speak only Greek wx'U ; 
nor yet do all speak this equally well ; the 
Rhetorician perhaps succeeds in speaking well, 
and the Grammarian sometimes not well, and 
the skilful Grammarian is ignorant of the sub- 
jects of philosophy. But the Holy Spirit 
taught them many languages at once, lan- 
guages which in all their life they never 
knew. This is in truth vast wisdom, this is 

9 Acts ii. 2. 

» lb. V. 4. 

power divine. What a contrast of their long 
ignorance in time past to their sudden, com- 
plete and varied and unaccustomed exercise of 
these languages ! 

17. The multitude of the hearers was con- 
founded ; — it was a second confusion, in the 
room of that first evil one at Babylon. For in 
that confusion of tongue-; there was division 
of purpose, because their thought was at 
enmity with God ; but here minds were re- 
stored and united, because the object of interest 
was godly. The means of falling were the 
means of recovery. Wherefore they marvelled, 
saying ^, Hoiv hear 7ue them speaki/ig? No mar- 
vel if ye be ignorant ; for even Nicodemus 
was ignorant of the coming of the Spirit, and 
to him it was said. The Spirit breathcth where it 
listeth, and thou hearest the 7>oice thereof but 
canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it 
goeth'i; but if, even tliough I hear His voice, I 
know not whence he cometh, how can I 
exj^lain, what He is Himself in substance ? 

18. But others mocking said. They are full 
of neiv ivine*, and they spoke truly though 
in mockery. For in truth the wine was new, ' 
even the grace of the New Testament ; but 
this new wine was from a spiritual Vine, 
whicli had oftentimes ere this borne fruit in 
Prophets, and had budded in the New Testa- 
ment. For as in things sensible, the vine 
ever remains the same, but bears new' fruits 
in its seasons, so also the self-same Spirit 
continuing what He is, as Fie had often wrought 
in Prophets, now manifested a new and mar- 
vellous work. For though His grace had come 
before to the Fathers also, yet here it came 
exuberantly ; for formerly men only [)artook of 
the Holy Ghost, but now^ they were baptized 

19. But Peter who had the Holy Ghost, 
and who knew what he possessed, says, '^ Men 
of Israel, ye who preach Joel, but know not 
the things which are written, these men are 7iot 
drunken as ye suppose s. Drunken they are, not 
however as ye suppose, but according to that 
which is written, They shall be drunken with 
the fatness of thy house ; and thou shall make 
them drink of the torrents of thy pleasure^. 
They are drup.ken, with a sober (Irunkenness, 
deadly to sin and life-giving to the heart, 
a drunkenness contrary to that of the body ; 
for this last causes forgetfulness even of what 
was known, but that bestows the knowledge 
even of what was not known. They are 
drunken, for they have drunk the wine of the 
spiritual vine, which says, I am the vine and ye 

2 Acts ii. 8. 

3 John iii. 8: (R.y.) The wind bloweth: (Marg.) Or, The 
S/iint brcatiieth. It is impossible to preserve the douljle meaning 
ill English. 4 Acts ii. 13. 

5 lu. V- 15. * Ps. xx.\vi. 8. 



are f he branches''. But if ye are not persuaded 
by me, understand what I tell you from the 
very time of the day ; for // is the tJiird hour 
of the day^. For He who, as Mark relates, 
was crucified at the third hour, now at the 
third hour sent down His grace. For His 
grace is not other than the Spirit's grace, 
but He who was then crucified, who also 
gave the promise, made good that which 
He promised. And if ye would receive a 
testimony also. Listen, he says : " But this 
is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel ; 
And it shall come to pass after this, saith God, 
I will pour forth of My Spirit "i" — (and this 
word, / will pour forth, implied a rich gift ; 
for God giveth not the Spirit by measure, for 
the Father loveth the Son, and hath given all 
things into His hand'^ ; and He has given Him 
the power also of bestowing the grace of the 
All-holy Spirit on whomsoever He will) ; — 
/ 7iiill pour forth of Aly Spirit upon all flesh, 
a7id your sons and your daughters shall pro- 
phesy ; and afterwards. Yea, and on My ser- 
vants and on My handmaidens I will pour out 
in those days of My Spirit, and they shall 
prophesy'^." The Holy Ghost is no respecter 
of persons ; for He seeks not dignities, but 
piety of soul. Let neither the rich be puffed 
up, nor the poor dejected, but only let each 
prepare himself for reception of the Heavenly 

20. We have said much to-day, and per- 
chance you are weary of listening; yet more 
still remains. And in truth for the doctrine 
of the Holy Ghost there were need of a third 
lecture ; and of many besides. But we must 
have your indulgence on both points. For as 
the Holy Festival of Easter is now at hand, 
we have this clay lengthened our discourse ; 
and yet we had not room to bring before you 
all the testimonies from the New Testament 
which we ought. For many passages are still 
to come from the Acts of the Apostles in 
which the grace of the Holy Ghost wrought 
mightily in Peter and in all the Apostles to- 
gether ; many also from the Catholic Epistles, 
and the fourteen Epistles of Paul ; out of all 
which we will now endeavour to gather a few, 
like flowers from a large meadow, merely by 
way of remembrance. 

21. For in the power of the Holy Ghost, 
by the will of Father and Son, Peter stood 
with the Eleven, and lifiing up his voice, 
(according to the text. Lift up thy voice laith 
strength, thou that bringest good tidings to Jeru- 
salem'i), captured in the spiritual net of his 
words, about three thousand souls. So great 

7 John XV. 5. 

' John iii. 34, 35. 


8 Acts ii. 25, and 15. 
2 Joel ii. 29. 

9 Joel ii. 28. 
3 Is. xl. 9. 

was the grace which wrought in all the 
Apostles together, that, out of the Jews, those 
crucifiers of Christ, this great number believed, 
and were baptized in the Name of Christ, and 
continued steadfastly in the Apostles' doctrine and 
in the prayers^. And again in the same power 
of the Holy Ghost, Feter and John went up 
into the Temple at the hour of prayer, which 
was the ninth hour^, and in the Name of Jesus 
healed the man at the Beautiful gate, who had 
been lame from his mother's womb for forty 
years ; that it might be fulfilled which was 
spoken. Then shall the lame man leap as an 
hart^. And thus, as they captured in the 
spiritual net of their doctrine five thousand 
believers at once, so they confuted the mis- 
guided rulers of the people and chief priests, 
and that, not through their own wisdom, for 
they 7vere unlearned and ignorant men 7, but 
through the mighty power of the Holy Ghost ; 
for it is written, 2 hen Feter filled with the Holy 
Ghost said to them ^. So great also was the 
grace of the Holy Ghost, which wrought by 
means of the Twelve Apostles in them who 
believed, that they were of one heart and of one 
soul"), and their enjoyment of their goods was 
common, the possessors piously offering the 
prices of their possessions, and no one among 
them wanting aught ; while Ananias and 
Sapphira, who attempted to lie to the Holy 
Ghost, underwent their befitting punishment. 

2 2. And by the hands of the Apostles were 
many signs and 7V0nders wrought among the 
people '. And so great was the spiritual grace 
shed around the Apostles, that gentle as they 
were, they were the objects of dread ; for of 
the rest durst no man Join himself to them ; but 
the people magnified them ; and multitudes were 
added of those who believed on the Lord, both of 
men and women; and the streets were filled 
with the sick on their beds and couches, that 
as Feter passed by, at least his shadow might 
overshadow some of them. And the 7mcltitude 
also of the cities round about came unto this 
holy Jerusalem, bringing sick folk, and them 
that were vexed with unclean spirits, and they 
were healed every one in this power of the Holy 
Ghost ^ 

23. Again, after the Twelve Apostles had 
been cast into prison by the chief priests for 
preaching Christ, and had been marvellously 
delivered from it at night by an Angel, and 
were brought before them in the judgment 
hall from the Temple, they fearlessly rebuked 
them in their discourse to them concerning 
Christ, and added this, that God hath also given 
Llis LLoly Spirit to them that obey Lfim 3. And 

* Acts ii. 42. 
7 Acts iv. 13. 
' Acts V. 12. 

5 lb. iii. I. 
8 lb. 7/. 8. 
* lb. vv. 13 — 16. 

* Is. XXXV. 6. 

9 lb. v. 32. 
3 lb. V. 32. 



when they had been scourged, they went their 
way rejoicing, and ceased not to teach aiid 
preach Jesus as the Christ •*. 

24. And it was not in the Twelve Apostles 
only that the grace of the Holy Spirit wrought, 
but also in the first-born children of this once 
barren Church, I mean the seven Deacons ; 
for these also were chosen, as it is written, 
being ///// of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom 5. 
Of will m Stephen, rightly so named ^, the first 
fruits of the Martyrs, a man///// of faith and of 
the Holy Ghost, wrought great wonders and 
miracles among the people, and vanquished 
those who disputed with him ; for they were 
not able to resist the wisdom and the Spirit by 
which he spake t. But when he was maliciously 
accused and brought to the judgment hall, he 
was radiant with angelic brightness ; for all 
they who sat in the council, looking steadfastly 
on him, saw his face, as it had been the face of 
an Angel^. And having by his wise defence 
confuted the Jews, those stiffnecked men, uncir- 
cumsised in heart and ears, ever resist i tig the 
Holy Ghost 'i, he beheld the heavens opened, diWd 
saw the Son of Man standing on the right hand 
of God. He saw Him, not by his own power, 
but, as the Divine Scripture says, being full of 
the Holy Ghost, he looked up steadfastly into 
heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus 
staiiding on the right hand of God\ 

25. In this power of the Holy Ghost, 
Philip also in the Name of Christ at one 
time in the city of Samaria drove away the 
unclean spirits, crying out ivith a loud voice; 
and healed the palsied and the lame, and 
brought to Christ great multitudes of them 
that believe. To whom Peter and John came 
down, and with prayer, and the la}ing on of 
hands, imparted the fellowship of the Holy 
Ghost, from which Simon Magus alone was 
declared an alien, and that justly. And at 
another time Philip was called by the Angel 
of the Lord in the way, for the sake of that 
most godly Ethiopian, the Eunuch, and heard 
distinctly the Spirit Himself saying. Go near, 
and join thyself to this chariof^. He instructed 
the Eunuch, and bajnized him, and so having 
sent into Ethiopia a herald of Christ, according 
as it is written, Ethiopia shall soon stretch out 
her hand unto God'i, he was caught away by 
the Angel, and preached the Gospel in the 
cities in succession. 

26. With this Holy Spirit Paul also had been 
filled after his calling by our Lord Jesus Ciirist. 
Let godly Ananias come as a witness to what 
We say, he who in Damascus said to him. The 
Lord, even Jesus xvho appeared to thee in the way 

4 Acts V. 42. 5 lb. vi. 3. 

"a crown.'' 7 lb. v. lo. 8 lb. 

' lb. V, 55. 2 lb. viii. 5. 

* \h. V. 8. 2Tf'(/>ai'os, 
V. 15. 9 lb. vii. 51. 

3 Ps. l.wiii. 31. 

which thou earnest, hath sent tne, that thou mayest 
receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy 
Ghosts. And straightway the Spirit's mighty 
working changed the blindness of Paul's eyes 
into newness of sight ; and having vouchsafed 
His seal unto his soul, made \\ima chosen vesselto 
bear the Name of the Lord who had appeared to 
him, befote kirgs and the children of Israel, and 
rendered the former persecutor an ambassador 
and good servant,— one, who from Jerusalem, 
and eve?i unto Illyricum, fully preached the 
Gospel^, and instructed even imperial Rome, 
and carried the earnestness of his preaching as 
far as Spain, undergoing conflicts innumerable, 
and performing sians and wonders. Of him 
for the present enough. 

27, In the power of the same Holy Spirit 
Peter also, the chief of the Apostles and the 
bearer of the keys ^ of the kingdom of heaven, 
healed /Eneas the paralytic in the Name of 
Christ at Lydda, which is now Diospolis, and at 
Joppa raised from the dead 'I'abitha rich in good 
works. And being on the housetop in a trance, 
he saw heaven opened, and by means of the 
vessel let down as it were a sheet full of beasts 
of every shape and sort, he learnt plainly to 
call no man common or unclean, though he 
should be of the Greeks 7. And when he was 
sent for by Cornelius, he heard clearly the 
Holy Ghost Himself saying. Behold, men seek 
thee ; but arise and get thee down, and go ivilh 
them, fiothing doubting ; for I have sent them ^. 
And that it might be plainly shewn that those 
of the Gentiles also who believe are made par- 
takers of the grace of the Holy Ghost, when 
Peter was come to Cesarea, and was teaching 
the things concerning Christ, the Scripture says 
concerning Cornelius and them who were with 
him ; While Peter yet s/ake these words, the 
Holy Ghost fell on all them ivhich heard the 
word ; so that they of the circunicision also ivhich 
came with Peter were astonished, and when they 
understood it said that on the Gentiles also was 
poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost 9. 

28. And in Antioch also, a most renowned 
city of Syria, when the preaching of Christ 
took effect, Barnabas was sent hence as far as 
Antioch to help on the good work, being a good 
ma7i, and full of the Holy Ghost, and of faith ' ; 
who seeing a great harvest of believers in Christ, 
brought Paul from Tarsus to Antioch, as his 
fellow-combatant. And when crowds had been 
instructed by them and assembled in the 
Church, // came to pass that the disciples were 
called Christians frst in Antioch"^; the Holy 
Ghost, methinks, bestowing on the believers 
that new Name, which had been promised be- 

4 Acts ix. 17. 5 Rom. xv. 19. 6 (cAeiSoCxos. Cf. Matt, 

xvi. 19; Cat. ii. 19 ; xi. 3. 7 Acts x. 11 — 16. 8 lb. v. 19 

9 lb. -J. 44. » lb. XI. 24. 2 lb. z'. 26. Cf. I.s. Ixv. 15. 



fore by the Lord. And the grace of the Spirit 
being shed forth by God more abundantly in 
Antioch, there were there prophets and teachers 
of whom Agabus was one 3. And as they minis- 
tered to the Lord and fasted, the Holv Ghost said, 
Separate Me Barfiabas and Saul Jor the work 
whereunto I have called them. And after hands 
had been laid on them, they were sent forth by 
the Holy Ghost 'i. Now it is manifest, that the 
. Spirit which speaks and sends, is a Kving Spirit, 
subsisting, and operating, as we have said. 

29. This Holy Spirit, who in unison with 
Father and Son has established the New Cov- 
enant in the Church Catholic, has set us free 
from the burdens of the lawgrievous to be borne, 
— those I mean, concerning things common 
and unclean, and meats, and sabbaths, and 
new moons, and circumcision, and sprinklings, 
and sacrifices ; which were given for a season, 
and had a shadow of the good thiti^s to come 5, 
but which, when the truth had come, were 
rightly withdrawn. For when Paul and Bar- 
nabas were sent to the Apostles, because of 
the question moved at Antioch by them who 
said that it was necessary to be circumcised 
and to keep the customs of Moses, the Apos- 
tles who were here at Jerusalem by a written 
injunction set free the whole world from all the 
legal and typical observances ; yet they attri- 
buted not to themselves the full authority in 
so great a matter, but send an injunction in 
writing, and acknowledge this : For it hath 
seemed good nnto the Holy Ghost and to us, to 
lay upon you no gi-eater burden than these neces- 
sary things ; that ye abstain from things sacri- 
ficed to idols, and from blood, and from thi?tgs 
stratigled, and from fornicatio7t° ; shewing evi- 
dently by what they wrote, that though the 
writing was by the hands of human Apostles, 
yet the decree is universal from the Holy 
Ghost : which decree Paul and Barnabas took 
and confirmed unto all the world. 

30. x\nd now, having proceeded thus far in 
my discourse, I ask indulgence from your love 7, 
or rather from the Spirit who dwelt in Paul, if 
I should not be able to rehearse everything, by 
reason of my own weakness, and your weariness 
who listen. For when shall I in terms worthy of 
Himself declare the marvellous deeds wrought 
by the operation of the Holy Ghost in the 
Name of Christ? Those wrought in Cyprus 
upon Elymas the sorcerer, and in Lystra at the 
healing of the cripj^le, and in Cilicia and 
Phrygia and Galatia and Mysia and Macedonia? 
or those at Philippi (the preaching, I mean, 
and the driving out of the spirit of divination 
in the Name of Christ ; and the salvation by 

3 Acts xi. 28. 4 lb. xiii. 2 — 4. 5 Heb. x. i. 

* Acts XV. 28, 29. cirio-ToA)) means a tnessnt;:e or injunction 
whether verbal or written. 7 See note i on § i, above. 

baptism of the jailer with his whole house at 
night after the earthquake) ; or the events at 
Thessalonica ; and the address at Areopagus 
in the midst of the Athenians ; or the instruc- 
tions at Corinth, and in all Achaia ? How shall 
I worthily recount the mighty deeds which were 
wrought at Ephe.sus through Paul, by the Holy 
Ghost 2 ? Whom they of that City knew not be- 
fore, but came to know Him by the doctrine ot 
Paul ; and when Paul had laid his hands on 
them, and the Holy Ghost had come upon 
them, they spake with tongues, and fj'ophe- 
sied. And so great spiritual grace was upon 
him, that not only his touch wrought cures, 
but even iht handkerchiefs and napki?is'^, hxonght 
from his body, healed diseases, and scared away 
the evil spirits ; and at last they also zvho prdc- 
tised curious arts brought their books together, 
and bjirned them before all ttien \ 

31. I pass by the work wrought at Troas on 
Eutychus, who being boj-ne down by his sleep fell 
down from the third loft, and ivas taken up dead ; 
yet was saved alive by Paul ^. I also pass by 
the prophecies addressed to the Elders of 
Ephesus whom he called to him in Miletus, 
to whom he openly said. That the Holy Ghost 
ivitfiesseth in every city, sayiiig'i, — and the rest ; 
for by saying, in every city, Paul made manifest 
that the marvellous works done by him in each 
city, were from the operative power of the Holy 
Ghost, by the will of God, and in the Name of 
Christ who spake in him. By the power of this 
Holy Ghost, the same Paul was hastening to 
this holy city Jerusalem, and this, though 
Agabus by the Spirit foretold what should 
befall him \ and yet he spoke to the people 
with confidence, declaring the things concern- 
ing Christ. And when brought to Cesarea, 
and set amid tribunals of justice, at one time 
before Felix, and at another before Festus the 
governor and King Agrippa, Paul obtained of 
the Holy Ghost grace so great, and triumphant 
in wisdom, that at last Agrippa himself the king 
of the Jews said, Almost thou persuadest me to be 
a Christian 1 This Holy Spirit granted to Paul, 
when he was in the island of Melita also, 
to receive no harm when bitten by the viper, 
and to eft'ect divers cures on the diseased. 
This Holy Spirit guided him, the persecutor 
of old, as a herald of Christ, even as far as 
imperial Rome, and there he persuaded many 
of the Jews to believe in Christ, and to them 
who gainsaid he said plainly, Well spake the 
Holy Ghost by Esaias the Prophet, saying unto 
your fathers, and the rests. 

9 lb. V. 12. 

' lb. V. 19. 
3 lb. 7/. 83. 

8 Acts -xix. I — 6. 
2 lb. XX. 9 — 12. 

4 lb. xxvi. 28. Cyril evidently understood iv okiyta to nK'sn 
" nlmosi" {A\ .): but the more correct rendering is, " In brief 
thou woulde^t persuade me to become a Christian.' 

5 lb. xxviii. 25. 

K 2 



32. And that Paul was full of the Holy 
Ghost, and all his fellow Apostles, and they 
who after them believed in Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, hear from himself as he writes 
plainly in his Epistles ; Arid my speech, he says, 
and my preaching was not iti persuasive words 
of man's ivisdom, but in demonstration of the 
Spirit and of power ^. And again, But He who 
sealed us for this very ptcrpose is God, 7vho gave 
us the earnest of the Spirit ?. And again. He that 
raised up Jesus from the dead shall also quicken 
your mortal bodies by His Spirit 7vhiih dwelleth 
ifi you ^. And again, writing to Timothy, That 
good thing which 7vas committed to thee guard 
through the Holy Ghost ivhich was give?i to us 9. 

2,Z- And that the Holy Ghost subsists, and 
lives, and speaks, and foretells, I have often said 
in what goes before, and Paul writes it plainly to 
Timothy : Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, 
that in later times some shall depart from the 
faith ', — which we see in the divisions not only 
of former times but also of our own ; so motley 
and diversified are the errors of the heretics. 
And again the same Paul says, IVhich in other 
generations was not made known titito the sons 
of men, as it hath no7V been 7-evealed unto His 
Holy Apostles and Prophets i?t the Spirit^. And 
again, Wlierefore, as saith the Holy Ghost '^ ; and 
again, Tlie Holy Ghost also luitnesseth to tts^. 
And again he calls unto the soldiers of right- 
eousness, saying, And take the helmet of salva- 
iion, and the sword of the Spirit, 7c>hich is the 
Word of God, with all prayer and supplication s. 
And again. Be not drunk with icine, 7vherein is 
excess ; but be filed with the Spirit, speaking to 
yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual 
songs ^ And again. The grace of the Lord Jesus,